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Full text of "The Plough, the loom, and the anvil"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/ploughloomanvil82phil 




^ 



PUBLISHED AT ROOM 19, NASSAU BANK^BUILDING, BEEKMA?^ STREET. 

1856. 



JOHN A. GKAY, 

PRINTEU. 

16 & 18 Jacob .^tioet. 



SO s 






ITsTDEX TO VOLUME VIII. 



From July, 1855, to June, 1856. 



The Im to items under 'English Patents will be found in a separate Alphabet, fol- 
lowing this. 



I 






Agriculture is King, 468. 

" of Indiana Co., Penn., 209. 

" of Maine, 554. 

" Irish, 695. 

Agricultural College, Md., 636. 
" Bureau, 674. 

" Crops, Profits of, 670. 

" Implements, 591. 

" Journals, 325. 

*' Products and Prices, 449. 

" Society of New-Hampshire, .917 

" " " U. States, 301, 348, 889, 

895, 531. 
Agricultural Statistics of the United Kingdom, 4.55. 
Aluminum, 875. 
American Association for the Advancement of 

Science, 169. 
American Institute, I'air of, etc., 168, 227, 8.")4. 
" Institute, Discussions of, 60S. 
" Manufacturers, 641. 
" Pomological Society, 609. 
" Patents, List of, (see " Lists, etc.") 
Americans, Premiums to, in Paris Exhibition, 413. 
Ames's Universal Square, 2.3S. > 

Analysis of Soils, Method of, l9. i 

Ancient Saw-mill, 308. I 

Anecdote of a Sheep, 876. j 

Angora Goat, the, 715 
Animals, Fattening, '272. 

Annual Address, Extract from an, 64'.». ! 

Apple, the Baldwin, 88. / 

Art of Painting, The, 286. 
Artificial Stone, 172. 
Atlantic, Rain on the, 686. 
Auricula, the, 337. 

Australia and America as Wool-growing coun- 
tries, 330. 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, G.jI. 

" in Watches and Jewelry, Trade of, 570. 
Batso Farm and Agricultural Co., 648. 
Baldwin Apple, The, 88. 
Barley, 222. 
Beet Grafting, 225. 

" Sugar, -275, 536. 
Bees and Quails, 637. 
Blackberry, New Rochelle, 155. 
Blind Hinge and Fastening, Patent, 304. 

" Man, An accomplished, 374. i 

Blanketing Cows, 378. 
Boardman& Gray's Pianos, 48. 
Boiler Punches, 309. 

" Explosions, Cause of, 687. 
Bonellis's Locomotive Electric Telegmph, 252. 
Books, New, 61, 125, 189, 253, 317, 878, 442, 509, 

571, 638, 699. 
Boston, Industry of, 508. 

" Routes to, 316. 
Brackett's Vineyard, Mr., 658. 
Brake, Improved Car, 312. 
Breading, Observations on in-and-in, 1G5. 
Bridge, A large Suspension-, G95. 
British Oil and Oil of Spike, 172. 
Brittania Ware, Manufacture of, 286. 
Broad-cast and Tooth Grain-Drills, 550. 
Bronze Castings, Grand, ."i57. 
Broom Corn, 063. 

Buckwheat, Memoir on the Production of, 97, 159. 
Burring machine, Parkhurst's, 693. 
Butter Making, 409, 676. 
; Cahoon's Seeding Rhubarb, 276. 



IT) 






California Wheat Crop, 18. 
Calves, Mode of Raising, 31. 
Camels, The, 753. 
Camel Expedition, The, 875. 
Canada West, Industry of, 646. 
Cane, Northern Substitute for Sugar, 93. 
Cannel Coal and its Products, 654. 
Cans, Arthur's self-sealing, 243. 
Car Break Blocks, 678. 
" Sash Fastener, 305. 
Care of China and Glass, 423. 
Carpets on floors. To fix, 097. 
Carriage Shaft Building, 428. 
Carrots for Feeding Poultry, 334. 
Casting, Grand Bronze, 557. 
Cattle, the best, 526. 

" , Short-horn vs. Long-horn, etc., 274. 
Carrying Ship, The largest, 037. 
Census of Clinton, Mass., 76. 

" returns of Massachusetts, 316. 
Century Plant, Large, 378. 
Cheat in Fertilizers, 94. 
Cheese making, Method of, 696. 
Chinese Potato, 545, 608. 
City of St. Paul,Min., r,21. 
Civilization, Progress of, 37. 
Cloud Engine, Storm's, 421. 
Coal burning Boilers, 551. 
" Region, The Lackawanna, 262. 
« of the Ohio Valley, -378. 
" in Pennsylvania, 091. 
Coke on the Hudson River Railroad, Trial of, 7:j1 . 
College, Ohio Agricultural, 283. 
Color Painting, Hints on, 283. 
Colors, Printing in, 184. 
Colts at weaning, Physic to, 377. 
Commerce is King, 321,465. 

" of the United States, 9. 
" with Africa, 753. 
Company of Inventors, 107, 430. 
Compressible Life-boat, 690. 
Condition of Labor, 193. 
Corn Crop in Tenne.ssee,471. 
" and its Fodder, 536. 
" its Culture, Varieties, and Properties, 23. 
" the great staple, 95. 
" Cheap compost for, 34. 
" Wheat, etc.. Cost of raising, 36, 217. 
" Extraordinary yield of, 793. 
" Experiments in Growing Indian, 729. 
Cottage, An Ornamented, 7-34. 
Cotton, The cost of raising, •SS9. 
" in Algeria, Cultivation of, 20. 
" Varieties of, 145. 
" Gins, 470. 

" growing. The Policy of, 270. 
" Manufacture in the South, 189. 
" Press, Improved, 370. 
Country Houses, 200. 
Country-Seat on the Hudson, 16. 
Coupling Gear for Railway Carriages, 289. 
Cow relieved by Surgery, 670. 
I " How much should she eat, 687. 
' Crop, The Wheat, 89. 

" What constitutes a profitable, 385. 
Crops, Comparative Value of, 410. 
" Profits of, 670. 
" Southern, 459. 
. " Good Southern, 059. 



5906M 



IV. 



Index. 



Cultivation of Cotton in Algeria, 20. 

" of Wheat, 39,326. 
Culture of the Strawberry, 3S, 225. 

" Thorough, 19. 

■" of Fruit, CJa. 

" " Native Grapes, 65S. 

" " Corn, 23, 36. 

« " Figs, 157. 

" " Lemons, 157, 3T4. 

" " Fruit, 39, 77. 

•" " Oranges, 156. 

" " Osage Orange, 802. 

" " Potatoes, 730. 

" " Sirawberries, 3S, 225. 

" " AVheat, 36, 326. 
Currants, 155. 

Cyperm Esculentu"', a new esculent ia this coun- 
try, 416. 
Dead Spindle, Harvey's, 234. 
Description of the Persia, 553. 
Dentistry, Dr. Castle's, 509. 
Different kinds of Fowls, 525. 
Difficulty of judging between first-rate Animals, 

407. 
Dioscorea Batatas, 8, 545, 607. 
Docking of Horses, 340. 
Doul)le Giant Mill, 311. 
Draining heavy Soils, 93. 
Drills, broad-cast and tooth Grain, 550. 
Dry Broth, 406. 

Dubuque and Pacific Railroad, 6S7. 
Dwarf Peirs, 223. 
Economy in Farming, 134. 
Education, 518. 

" of Farmers, 14S. 

Effect of the Atmosphere on Marble, 68S. 
Electricity, Weaving by, 375. 
Emory & Brothers, Pianofortes, 629. 
Enamels, 750. 

Engine, Storm's Cloud, 421. 
English Patents, Recent, (see index of do.) 
E.itomologv, (see '• lasects, etc.,") 72, 136, 202. 
England, Mineral Wealth of, 570. 
English and French Agriculture, Statistics of, 655. 
Eruptions, Volcanic, 50t. 
Erie Railroad, 102, 249, 372. 
Everett's Speech, Mr., 389. 

E.Khibitioti at Parii, Premiums to Americans, 413. 
Exports of Flour, 329. 
Extensive Lumber Business, 208. 
Experiments with Potatoes, 507. 
Extraordinary yield of corn, 693. 
Factory, Large knitting, 59. 
Failure of Nesmyih's monster gun, 376. 
Fair of Americia Institute, 296. 
Fairs, State, 319. 
Fall and Spring ploughing, 216. 
Farina, 85. 
Farm Cottage, Plan of a, 71. 

" Fir-it Premium, 469. 
Farmers, How to improve poor, 540. 
" need. What, 264. 
" liy Adoption, 89. 
Farming, Magnificent, 63. 
Fattening Animal«, 272. 

" Swine, Profit of, 87. 

Feeding, Mode of, 637. 
Felly sawing, 244. 
Female jocliies, 316. 
Fertilizers, Cheat in, 94. 
First Water-power in Silk Manufacture, 235. 
Fire-regulators, for steam-boilers, 714. 
Fish, Propagation of, 527, 733. 
Fisheries, Gloucester and Marblehead, Mass., 

691. 
Fisheries, The lake, 636. 

" The whale, 69S. 

Flock renovator, 242. 
Flour, Exports of, 329. 
Forest Tree< of Nichols. Tioga Co., N.Y., and their 

Use.s. 83, 206, 402, 713. 
Foretelling the weather, 692. 
Formation and Anatomy of Horses, 292. 
Founder, etc., in Horses, 475. 



Fountain Pen, Prince's Protean, 117, 180. 

Fowler's Manufacturing Co.'s Power-presses, 309. 

France, Railroads in, 250. 

Frazer's portable Saw-mill, 306. 

Fruits of Ohio, List of, 405. 

Fund, the Skinner monument and, 568. 

Furnace, A smokeless, 261. 

Garden, Liquid Manure for the, 339. 

Gate, A good farm, 737. 

Gathering and Preservation of Fruits, 77. 

Georgia Wine, Native, 408. 

" and her railroads, 696. 
Glass, Care of China and, 423. 
Gloucester, Mass., ludustry of, 229. 
Good field of Hops, etc., 218. 
Gold in A'ermont, 875. 

" from Quartz, New mode of separating, CO. 
Grafting Beets, 225. 
Grain crop of Illinois, 637. 

" and Grass Seed Header and Harvester, 32. 
Grand Bronze Casting, 5.57. 
Great National Exhibition of Stock, 167. 

" Telegraph Enterprize, 85. 
Grittiness of Pears, 85. 
Growing Wheat, 537. 
Grubs and Cutworms, Trapping of, 85. 
Grass crop, Value of the, 374. 
Guano, Mexican, 27. 

" The propiir use of, 888. 
" for cotton, 636. 
" " grassland, 696. 
" Salt and, 697. 
" sprinklers, 243. 
Gutta percha, Remarkable properties of, 870. 
Gwynne's centrifugal pump, 119. 
Halliday's Wiud Engine, 237. 
Harvey'.-" Dead tpindle, 234. 
Hayfork Improved, 53. 
Handwriting, MacLaurin, 693. 
Havre de Grace, its wild ducks, 692. 
Hay and cotton press, Manny's portable, 87-0. 
Hedges, Osage Orange, 302. 
Hemp, 33fi. 

Hints on Color-painting, 233. 
Hollyhock Paper, 113. 
Hops, a good field of, 218. 

" ia Lamoille Co , Vt., 605. 
Horses, Formation and Anatomy of, 292. 
" Influenza in, 666, 739. 
" Remarks on Founder in their Feet, and 
Shoeing, 475. 
Horticultural, 152, 302, 339. 

" Society, Mass., Reports of, 617. 

Human Physiology, 157. 
Illinois, Grain crop of, 637. 
Immense railroad bar, 369. 
Import of dry goods at New-York, 637. 
Imports into New-York, 692. 
Important railroad project, 697. 
Improved loom, Talbot's, 131. 

" water-wheel, Foirmaii'?, 244. 

" pisinoforte action, Morton's, 311. 

" brake, Paige's, 312. 
" railroad axles, 683. 

" plane iron, 695. 

" washljoard, 728. 

" steering apparatus, 112. 

" road measure, 118. 

" harness, saddles and trees, 175. 
" flock cutter, 2M. 

" balance water-gate, 4.31. 
Improvement in carriages, 690, 

" ' scrrw propellers, 115. 

" " latching locks, 555. 

Indiana Co., Pa., its agriculture, etc., 209. 
Industrial exhibition at Boston, 357. 

statistic3,230, 233, 417.523. 
Insects injurious to vegetation, 202, 266, 383, 408, 

480, 531, 7' 7. 
Int-^rnal heat of the earth, 690. 
Invention for preserving meats, 440. 
Inventions at Oryst-il Palace, Eng. Court of, 345. 

" Promotion of, 44. 

Inve ntors. Company of, 107. 



Index. 



Irish and sweet patoto, 478. 
Iron boats for Panama Bay, 3T8. 

" in Liberia, 690. 

" rigging for sliips, 6S9. 

" yards for ships, 50S. 
Japan or Chinese Potato, 545, 607, 603. 
Joy at a friend's fall, 6S7. 
Keeping Turnips, etc., in Winter, -tlG. 
Knitting factory, A large, 59. 
Lackawanna Coil Region, 262. 
Lake of Pitch, A, 265. 
Lamoille Co., Vt., Fair in, 354. 

" " Hopsio, 005. 

Langdon, Address of Hon. C. C, 649. 
Larch for Timber, The, 207. 
Largest carrying ship, The, 6'!7. 
Latcbing Loclis, Improvement in, 555. 
Lemons, Culture of, 374. 
Letter-indicating Telegraph, 360. 
Light, by decomposition of water, A new, 60. 
Light-house, Revolving, 695. 
Lime, Shelby Co., 401. 
Liquid Manure for the Garden, 839. 
Lists of new American Patents, 63,126, 195, 255, 

319, 3S2, 446, 510, 574, 639. 
List of Fruits oi Ohio, 405. 

" " Verbenas. 
Living picture of conservatism, 721. 
Locomotive expenses and statistics, 124. 
Locust, Natural History of the, 37. 

" The Seventeen-Year, 205. 
"London," locomotive, above Niagara, The, 121., 
Lonicera fragrantissima, 154. 
Louisiana, The Sugar Growth in, 335. 
Lowndes's Patent Pen and Pencil-case, 2-35. 
Machinery and Metals in the Paris Exhibition, 

437. 
Machine for mixing mortar, 
Magnificent Farming, 68. 
Maine, Agriculture in, 5r>4. 
Mammota Sunflower, 224. 
Manipulation of steel and iron, 683. 
Manna sugar, 569. 
Manufacture of watches, 373, 506. 
Manufactures of Marblehead, Mass., 637. 
Manufactures of South Carolina, 11. 
Mauures, their appropriate Uses, 149,412, 467. 

" for the Garden, Liquid, .339. 
Materials used in the Arts, 481. 
Marble, Effect of the atmosphere on, 6SS. 

" and marble sawing, 749. 
Blaryland Agricultural College, 636. 
Massachusetts census returns, 316. 
Mechanical Industry, Progress of,_291. 
Slemoir on Buckwheat, 97, 159. 
Meteorology for Farmers, 197. 
" Statistics, 581,712. 

Mexican Guano, 27. 
Microscopic Photographs, 251. 
Mineral and Artificial Manures, 412. 

" wealth of England, 570. 
Minni6 and Sharp's rifles, 183, 635. 
Mining of Gold. 1. 

Miscellany, 59, 188, 249, 316, 372, 506, 56S, 635, 686. 
Model Mill, 429. 
Monster gun, the, 687. 
Musical Instruments for Churches, 753. 
Native Georgia Wine, 408. 
National book establishment in Austria, 373. 
Naumkeag Mill, Salem, Mass., 228. 
Nerium Splendens,Dwai'f blooming plants of, 302. 
New Building Materials, 177. 

" " Bricks, 493. 

" books, (see Books.) 

" esculent in this country, 416. 

" Hampshire Agricultural Society, 517. 

" music, 126, 190, 254, 319, 331, 445, 510, 573. 

" seed-sower, 548. 

" York and Erie Railroad, 102, 249, 872. 

" " Central " 249. 

" Jersey, Zinc ore in, 696. 

" light. A, 60. 

" silver, 189. 

" enterprise in Salem, Mass., (iron ship,) 251. 



New expansive valve motion, 568. 
" rifle. The, 638, 692. 
" method of propelling steamboats, 6S9. 
" surveying instrument, 689. 
" material for paper-making, 690. 

North Carolina, its capacities, etc., 396. 

Northern and Southern Industry, 129. 

Notes from the Far West, (Wis.,) 211. 

Nutmeg Tree in California, 303. 

Ohio Agricultural College, 283. 
" , List of Fruits in, 405. 

Okra, 698. 

Opera in New-York, 817. 

Osage Orange, 26, 302. 

Paint for Houses, 30. 

Painting, The Art of, 286. 

Panoramic Views and Paintings, 105. 

Patent Blind Hinge and Fastening, 304. 
" revolving-hammer Pistol, 800. 
" Thread, Johnson's, 310. 

Patents, English, (see Index on a subsequent 
page.) 

Patents granted, number of, 185,695. 

Paper manufacture, American, 121. 
" bag manufactory, 569. 
" plant in Wisconsin, The, 571. 

Passumpsic railroad, 639. 

Patterns, To transfer, 60. 

Peach-tree borer. Defence against, 691. 

Pennsylvania, Coal in, 691. 

Peat Coal as a Smelting Fuel, 110. 

Pella, Iowa, its Industry, etc., 398. 

Persia, Description of the, 558. 

Piano-forte, Emory k Brothers, 629. 
" Improved, (Driggs',) 745. 

Photographs, microscopic, 251. 

" Neipce's process, 252. 

Photography, Progress of, 689. 

Plan of a Farm Cottage, 71. 

Plantation labor. Economy of, 722. 

Plantations in the South, 462. 

Plating metals. New process for, 689. 

Pneumatic battery, 694. 

Poague's Water Pipes, 459. 

Policy of the South, The true, 450. 

Ponies, horses, etc., 342. 

Poor Farms, How to improve, .540. 
" Farmers cannot afford. What, 263. 
" Farming Expensive, 86. 

Portmonnaies, (Zurn & Rantfle,) 56S. 

Portrait of Charles I., (Velasquez,) 508. 

Porter's Stone-dressing Machine. 430. 

Potato, the Sweet and the Irish, 12,473. 

Potatoes, Experiment with, 507, 730. 

Preservation of Milk, 108. 

Press, Manny's portable hay and cotton, 370. 
" A powerful, 311. 

Prince's Protean Pen, 117, 180, 754. 

Printing in colors, 184. 

Problems and Tables, 199. 

Process for rendering porous substances water- 
proof, 377. 

Productions, Southern, 45S. 

Products of the Dairy in New-York, 533. 

Profit of raising sweet potatoes, 217, 399, 410, 
472. 

Profits of farming, 597, 661. 
" " fattening swine, 87. 

Propagation of Fish, 527, 

Pruning Trees, 88. 

Questions proposed by the Royal Society in Den- 
mark, 727. 

Railroad, The Erie, 249, 372. 

" New-York Central, 249. 

Railroads in New-Jersey, 652. 
" " New-York, 714. 

Railway, A great, 693. 
" signals, 624. 

Rain on the Atlantic, 686. 

Raspberry, The, 543. 

" Antwerp, 152. 
" Catawssia, 153. 

Remarkable watch, 691. 

Remarks on founder, etc., 475. 



VI. 



Index. 



R evolTing fire-arms, (Colt's,) 621. 

" hammer pistol, 300. 

Ringbone in horses, 50. 
Road measure. Improved. US. 
Rock blasting, 109. 
Rose, New Isabella Gray, 803. 
Route from New- York to Pittsburgh, 685. 
Rubber cleanine, 426. 
Saddle Trees, 241. 
Safifron, 28. 

Saleratus unwholesome, 183. 
Salt and Guano, 6)7. 

" Manufacture nf, 1S5.5, 569. 
Save your Seeds, 49. 
Saw-mill, Ancient, 308. 

" Portable, 3(i6. 
Saxe-Gothea Conspicua, 483. 
Screw-propellers, Improvement in, 115. 
Scythe-making, 488. 
Season, Crop:*, Prices, etc., 29. 
Seed-sower, New, 548. 
Self-acting Car-coupling, 56. 
Self-sealing cans, Arthur's, 243. 
Seventeen-year Locusts, 205. 
Shelby County Lime, 401. 
Shoeing Horses, 475. 
Short-horns vs. Long-horns, 274. 
Ship-building in United States, 188. 

" in New- York, 507. 

Silver, a new kind of, 189. 

" Substitute for, 251. 
Slide valves. Improved, (Fisher's,) 751. 
Smith's tour of Europe, 105. 
Society of Arts, Exnibition in Paris of, 178. 
Soils, When and How prepared for Crops, 534. 
South, The True Policy of the, 385, 456. 

" Carolina, Manufactures of, 11. 
Southern Picture, 4")9. 

" Fruit, 156. 

" and Northern Industry, 257. 
Sowing turnips, 687. 
Speech, Mr. Everett's, .389. 

" Mr. McMichael's, 583. 
Spinnfr, Continuous woolen, 182. 
Springfield, Mass., Valuation of, 252. 
Stars and stripes, 711. 
State Fairs in 1855, 53, 219, 278. 
Statistics, Industrial, 230, 283. 

" of Steamboats, 179. 

" of Kentucky and Tennessee, 135. 

" of the United Kingdom, .Agricultural, 
455. 
Statistics of London, 715. 

" of English and French agriculture, 635. 
Steam boilers. Fire regulators for, 714. 
" fire engine, 747. 
" carriage Projects, 47, 424. 
" tonnage of the United States, 188. 
Steel, Composition and formation of, 748. 
Stem Dressing Machine, 430. 
Storm's Cloud Engine, 421. 
Strawberries, The Culture of, 225. 
Steamer Sebastopol, 6<5. 
Suspension bridge, A large, 695. 



I Sugar-beet, The, 536. 

" cane, Northern substitute for the, 93. 
Summer, keeping Purs in, 53. 
Swine, Profit in fattening, 87. 
Tables turned, The, 694. 
Terra aqueous machine, 694. 
Telegraph Enterprise, Great, 65. 
" Letter-indicating, 860. 
Temperature of the Sea, 226. 
Tennessee, Wheat-trade from, 215. 
Testing of Cannon, 58. 
Things to be done, 164. 
Theatrical, 317. 
Toads, 269. 

Tobacco statistics, 709. 
Tour of Europe (Smith's,) 817. 
Trains, Useful invention for replacing, 812. 
Travel, Facilities for Western, 636. 
Tree, still growing, A girdled, 27. 
Trees, Pruning, 38. 
True Prosperity, 193. 
Turbine Wheel, Vandewater's, 55. 
Turnips, etc., in Winter, To keep, 416. 
Type punches, 692. 
Universal lathe chuck, 
United States Agricultural Society, 301, 895, 51S, 

724. 
Useful invention for replacing trains, 312. 

" " to prevent trains fi-om running 

oflf the track,. 313. 
Varieties of Cotton, 145. 
Various uses of Manures, 412. 
Valuation of Springfield, Mass.,2.')2. 

" " Worcester, Mass., 251. 

Valve motion. New expansive, 568. 
Verbena, The, 732. 
Verd Antique in Vermont, 312, 425. 
Volcanic Eruptions, 501. 
Water a Fertilizer, 716. 
Water-melon, The juice of the, 696. 

" wheel, percussion and reaction, 243. 

" gate, Improved balance, 431. 

" pipes, Poague's, 459. 
Washington monument. Colossal, 506. 
Watches, machine-made, 120. 
Wax Bleaching, 746. 
Weights and Measures, 199. 
Wealth of the Atlantic cities, 697. 
Weaving by electricity, 375. 
What a poor farmer cannot afford, 263. 
" constitutes a profitable Crop, 385. 
" Farmers need, 264. 
Wheat Crop, The, 89. 

" Cost of raising, 36, 217. 

" Cultivation of, 826, 537. 

" trade from Tennessee, 215. 
Whale fishery, The, 698. 
Wind-engine, Halliday's, 237. 
Wine making in California, 155. 
Wisconsin, The paper plant in, 571. 
Woodland, 162. 
Wool and Woolens, 705. 
Wool growing countries, 880. 
Zinc ore in New-Jersey, 696. 



Index. 



vii. 



INDEX TO ENGLISH PATENTS 



Alloy, New metallic, 680. 

Beet sugar. Manufacture of, 124. 

Carriage shafts, 59. 

Engine, Water-power, 59. 

Fish for manufacture of soap. Use of parts of, 

803. 
Flax and plantain fibre for paper making, 246. 
Hydrostatic engine, 185. 

" railway brake, 122, 185. 

Impressions of flowers on glass, permanent, 815. 
Improved cement, as a plaster and for moulding, 

244. 
Improved pavement, roofing, footway, etc., 247. 
" composition for ships' bottoms, 264. 
" mode of obtaining alcohol, 866. 
" metre for water, etc.,86S. 
" process for coating metals, 433, 688. 
" apparatus for distiUavion of coal, etc., 
438. 
Improved soap, called Saponitoline, 435. 
" process in photograpliy, 435. 
" material for construction of machin- 
ery, 439. 
Improved method of preventing the alteration of 

bank-bills, 441. 
Improved construction of spurs, 497. 

" manufactui-e of bearings for axles or 
shafts, 493. 
Improved implement for digging turnips, etc., 

567. 
Improved composition for fixing lithographs and 

engravings on paper, 682. 
Improved gun-lock, 679. 
Impiovement in machinery for cutting metals, 

864. 
Improvement in producing raised figures on me- 
tallic surfaces, pottery, glass, etc., 365. 
Improvement in the composition of colors for 

printing and dyeing, 365. 
Improvement in the manufacture of ornamental 

fabrics for decorating walls, etc., 866. 
Improvement in weaving elastic fabrics, 86S. 

" " the manufacture of varnish, 432. 

" " " " " soap, 4.32. 

" applicable to machinery for print- 

ing fabrics, 434. 
Improvement in preparing loaf sugar, 434. 

" " preserving animal and vegetable 

matter, 486. 
Improvement in combing wool, etc., 488. 

" " the manufacture of iron and 

Steel, 438. 
Improvement in the manufacture of plain and 
ornamental woven fabrics, 496. 



Improvement in the manufacture of ornamental 

paper and paper bands, 499. 
Improvement in metallic pistons, 500. 
" " files, 562. 

" " railway signals, by electricity, 

563. 
Improvement in electric telegraph instruments, 

565. 
Improvement in the arrangement of electric 

telegraphs, 566. 
Improvement in photography, 631. 

" " masts and spars, 633. 

" " constructing propellers, 688. 

« " " railway wheels,63B. 

" " the preservation of vegetable 

substances, 684. 
Improvement in marine steam engines, 679. 
" " dyeing cloth, 680. 

" " in preparing pulp, etc., 681. 

'• " in apparatus for copying letters, 

6S2. 
Improvement in the manufacture of tyres, 682. 
" " the construction of harrows, 682. 

" " the manufacture of ordnance 

shells, etc., 683. 
Impi-ovement in gun-barrels and pipes, 683. 
" " coati£ig wrought iron, 688. 

" " Improvement in dyeing hides, 

684. 
Iron ship-building, 814. 
Lightning, protection of the Westminster palace 

Irom, 122. 
Match cigars, 59. 

Maynard's combined threshing and dressing ma- 
chine, 247. 
New liquid for preventing sea-sickness, 369. 
" mode of separating certain vegetable fibres 
from mixed fabrics, 495. 
New mode of transmitting telegraphic messages 

across water, 566. 
Ornamenting wood, 59. 
Kail bar rolling, Modern, 248. 
Railway braHe, Miles's hydreatatic, 122. 
Ranced oil. Purifying, 124. 
Shafts, Carriage, 59. 
Smokeless furnace, 58. 
Soap, Use of certain parts of fish in manufacture 

of, 368. 
Steel tubes wi thout welding, New mode of cast- 
ing, 314. 
Steering gear, Robinson's screw and side lever, 

246. 
Three-wheel Brougham, Scott's elastic action, 123. 
Water-power engine, 59. 
Wench for ship-building, Logan's portable, 124. 



Clje plaufll), t!je f oont, anli i\)t ^mll 



Vol. VIII. JANUARY, 1856. No. 7. 



"WHAT CONSTITUTES A PROFITABLE CROP ? SOUTHERN POLICY. 

This is a question which lies at the foundation of all judicious manage 
ment. It seems also to be a very simple one. We wish our farmers and 
planters in every section of country would keep proper farm accounts. The 
labor of it is but small, and the value of it would be great. Let the time 
spent upon each lot of ground, the manures used upon it, the crops gathered, 
with the market value of those the prices of which are well known, and the 
estimated value of those others used as feed, such as corn-stalks, etc., all have 
their place in the f;irm record-book ; and this would of itself suggest many 
important changes in the management of many a farm. But let us recur to 
our inquiry, What constitutes a profitable crop ? 

There seems to be a very indefinite idea on this subject, particularly 
among some Southern writers and orators. Were it not for this it might 
seem superfluous to say that profit, applied to crops, can always be ascer- 
iained by the Profit and Loss account of the producer. No matter how 
many others may be profited by it — no matter how many ships are loaded 
with it, nor how many companies get rich in the various uses they make of 
it — their profit and loss account is a different affair, and tests the value of a 
very different process. One might enrich and work over a dry sand-bank 
till he could make a good crop of corn upon it, and selling that one crop to 
his neighbor B. for one-tenth its actual cost, he, neighbor B., might make a 
very handsome profit on a second sale. This would not make that crop of 
corn a profitable one. This is plain, even to a child. 

Now we ask whether, independently of all collateral matters, such as in- 
creased value of lands, advantages of a home market, etc., etc., which would 
result from a diversity of pursuits, the cotton crop of this country is a paying 
crop, in comparison with many other agricultural products, raised both at the 
North and South ? 

In our last issue we set forth the facts of the case as far as we had the 
means at hand. We there found that the prevailing price of cotton for many 
years, at the seaboard, is eight cents a pound ; and from all the statements 
there set forth, from cotton growers and statistical tables, we found that it 
actually costs nearly, if not quite, that amount. But take another view. 

The whole quantity of land cultivated with this crop is estimated at 
5,000,000 acres, and if the gross value of the crop is $100,000,000, the gross 
product of an acre is $20. Can that be called successful husdandry which 
obtains by a year's toil only this pittance ? 

It is practically true that every dollar expended in judicious cultiration 

VOL. VIIL 25 



386 WHAT CONSTITUTES A PEOFITABLE CROP. 

and improvement of lands, yields a still greater per cent, in retm-n. The 
poorest Land, and land to which Mttle attention is given, yields the smallest 
per centage in return. Now laying aside all other considerations, and regard- 
ing only the one fact, that almost the entire laboring population of the cotton 
regions is devoted exclusively to the culture of this crop, might we not infer 
that such lands were in the best condition, and that they repay the care be- 
stowed upon them with rich and abundant products ? The supposition is no 
sooner made than " twenty dollars an acre" stares you in the face. 

Lands are sadly neglected at the North. Much land is used for conve- 
nience or otherwise in raising small and unremunerating crops. But who 
there, would be satisfied with a gross income of twenty dollars to each culti- 
vated acre ? On many capital farms, of a hundred acres or more, the quan- 
tity of cultivated land is often less than an eighth or a tenth of the total area. 
To cultivate properly any land, and to almost any crop, requires an outlay 
of ten or fifteen dollars. At the highest of these, the profit would be but 
five dollars an acre, and this pittance must pay all the family expenses and 
the interest of the capital. 

That same land, if in good condition, might bring a hundred dollars per 
acre, under the hammer, and if five dollars is the extent of the profit, the 
owner therein receives interest on his capital, at five per cent., with nothing 
for tools, stock, waste, repairs, losses, etc., and the land is annually becoming 
less and less able to produce. Is that skillful agriculture ? 

At the North and West the profit actually earned out of the land is earned 
by only a portion of the working population. In the New-England and 
Middle States, only about two-thirds the adult males are engaged in agricul- 
tural labor. In the Southern States nine-tenths are thus employed, and many 
females. A large corps of laborers at the North and West are engaged in 
more lucrative trades than the farmer, while they create a market for what the 
farmer can sell. Let all those give themselves to agricultural pursuits at 
home, the quantity of products would be very greatly increased, though the 
market value might be at a lower rate than it is now.' Had the South such a 
reserve force, with abundance of stock, what a difi"erence there would be in her 
financial statistics ! 

There are lands at the North devoted to the culture of various crops, not 
remunerative, as wheat for example, in which the returns are only some ten 
or twelve bushels per acre. And yet on those lands the value of the annual 
harvest will no doubt exceed the sum of twenty dollars per acre. This 
may be near the average of some agricultural products at the North, as laid 
down by staticians who are not familiar with the facts belonging to the sub- 
ject, but are far from being accurate records. Lauds devoted to given crops, 
as corn, grains, grass, etc., change so constantly at the North, that a discreet 
man might well be in doubt how to make out his record, even in his own 
neighborhood. No man can make correct estimates even for a county, with- 
out long and laborious investigation. Such difficulties do not present them- 
selves in the cotton-growing States, with few and limited exceptions. The 
same lands are used, year afcer year, and almost the whole land is devoted 
(in more than one sense of the word) to the culture of " king" cotton. Hence 
statistical estimates in that matter are probably very near the truth. 

Profits increase in a much greater ratio than crops. The difference be- 
tween the profits of a crop of wheat, twelve bushels to the acre, pnd a crop 
twenty-four or forty-eight bushc-ls, is much more than one hundred or four 
hundred per cent. Between the two crops of twelve and forty-eight bushels, 
the profits of the latter will, perhaps, be ten times the greater. Suppose 



WHAT CONSTITUTES A PROFITABLE CROP. 887 

wheat is worth $1 a bushel ; with the first crop the cost is, say $10 ; the 
profit will be $2. In the other case the cost may amount to $20. The 
value of crop is $48 ; profit, $28, or fourteen fold. 

There is another view in which the importance to the South of a variety 
in agricultural crops assumes, in our own view, even gigantic proportions. 

A short supply of cotton raises the price of the article. Suppose, instead 
of the usual supply of two and a half millions of bales, only one and a half 
millions were grown. Very nearly the same value must be received for this 
diminished quantity that is now received for the whole. It might be that 
more would be received. Besides, these two-fifths of the land, before devoted 
to cotton, will now be cultivated with other crops, and thus the entire pro- 
ceeds of some 2,000,000 acres of land, producing, at the rate only of the 
cotton lands, a gross sum of some $40,000,000 annually, without a day's 
additional labor, or any material increase of expense. This would be annual 
net gain, while the lands would be improved by the change. 

There is another record in the census tables which, if there is any mean- 
ing in its title, confirm our views as heretofore expressed, and authorizes 
even more unfavorable conclusions as to the profits of this crop. Table ISS 
shows that in all "the slaveholding States" there is raised 101.03 lbs. of 
cotton " to each person." That is to say, the great crop which overshadows 
every other crop grown, at 8 cents the average price for a series of years, 
pays a gross annual sum of $8.0924 to each person. Should it cost only 
6 cents, the ^'rq;?^ of this chief crop could be only $2.0924 to "each per- 
son. But it uses up, in a double sense, 1,000,000 acres. If this is within 
gun-shot of the truth, the South surely ought not to support the spindles of 
the north and of England at rates so ruinous to themselves. That same land, 
properly managed, ought to earn a net profit of $20 to $40 per acre, and 
would do so if the system we advocate were properly carried out. 

Some months ago we gave it as our belief that some other crop might be 
profitably grown instead of wheat in many sections of country where that 
is a favorite growth. Let us look at this. 

The census returns are our only data in these matters, in respect to nearly 
the whole country. A few States have made up their own census, and it is 
probable that these are more reliable than those under the direction of the 
general government. 

A reference to this source of information gives us the following general 
result, with certain crops, for all the States : 

Products. Acres. Value. 

Indian Corn, - - bushels 592,071,104, 31,000,000 $296,035,552 

Wheat, ..." 100,485,944 11,000,000 100,485,944 

Oats, - - " 146,584,179 7,500,000 43,975,253 

Irish Potatoes, - - " 65,797,896 1,000,000 26,319,158 

Sweet " - - " 38,268,148 750,000 19,134,074 

Hay, - - - tons 13,838,642 13,000,000 96,870,494 

This gives us, also, the following : 

Per Acre. Value, 

Indian Corn, bushels 19.03, $0 50 per bush. 

Wheat, " 9.13, 1 00 « 

Oats, " 19.53, 30 » 

Irish Potatoes, '* 65.08, 40 " 

Sweet Potatoes, " 51.00, 50 " 

Hay, tons 1 7 00 per ton. 



888 WHAT CONSTITUTES A PROFITABLE CROP. 

These returns, no doubt, are only approximations to the truth, and in some 
crops scarcely so much as that, notwithstanding the laborious study of our 
friend Mr. De Bow, with all his well-known talent and indefatigable industry, 
in searching for the truth out of a mass of inconsistent and irreconcilable 
figures. But, unfortunately, this is, in most States, our only source of gen- 
eral information. 

These figures do not give us a very flattering account of the profits of 
agriculturists. But in many instances, sections of this territory do not ap- 
pear to reach even these results. Thus Alabama raises but five bushels of 
wheat to the acre, and fifteen bushels of Indian corn. We do not be- 
lieve that the wheat or the corn, at this rate, pays the cost of cultivation. 
Georgia raises 5 bushels of wheat and 7 of rye. These cannot pay their 
actual cost. Kentucky raises 8 bushels of wheat to the acre, N. Carolina 7, 
S. Carolifla 8, Tennessee V, and Virginia 1 ; none of which can pay the cost 
of growing it. 

South Carolina raises but 11 bushels of Indian corn to the acre, and but 
12 bushels of oats. 

Florida raises but 250 pounds of cotton to the acre, or only half the 
average crop ; Tennessee but 300 pounds, and S. Carolina but 350 pounds. 
We have just seen that a crop of 500 pounds is scarcely remunerative. 

Now compare these results with some of the more favorable products in 
other States. 

Florida, Texas, and Pennsylvania are returned in the census as producing 
15 bushels of wheat per acre, and Massachusetts 16 bushels. But we all 
know of numerous instances in which 30 and 40 bushels per acre are grown. 
Illinois and Indiana grow 30 bushels of corn, Missouri 34, Ohio 36, and 
Connecticut 40 bushels, as reported in the census. But cases are not un- 
frequent in which from 80 to 100 bushels are raised per acre, and sometimes 
110 are obtained. 

How can our land owners be content which such paltry returns for such 
immense outlays, when the way is so plain to increase their gains five and 
ten-fold. If wheat can be produced in a given territory at these lowest rates 
only, let something else be cultivated. Lands will produce something that 
will pay ; and if there should be found some poor, forsaken territory that 
cannot give the careful tiller a better return for his investments than some 
that we have here pointed out, let them be abandoned, and more favorable 
locations be selected. Let them lie fallow a few years, as if they did not 
exist ; and most probably, in a large majority of cases, the natural growth 
that will spring up will prove beyond dispute that these lands were not as 
utterly sterile as they were supposed to be, and that the grand mistake was 
in the treatment of it. 



To Preserve Sweet Corn. — Gather the corn just as it begins to harden 
boil as for the table ; cut the kernels carefully from the cob ; spread them to 
dry on a sheet or clean floor, and keep them thus till well dried ; then pre- 
serve them in a dry, cold and even temperature till needed for use. Soak 
the corn a few hours, and boil till properly softened, and serve them to your 
tJttte. 



MR. Everett's speech. 389 



MR. EVERETT'S SPEECH, 

AT THE BANQUET OF THE U, S. AGEICtJLTUUAI. SOCIETY AT BOSTON. 

Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen : — My most excellent 
friend, who has just taken his seat, was good enough to remark that he was 
waiting with impatience for me to speak. Far different was my feeling while 
he was speaking. 

I listened not only with patience, but with satisfaction and delight, as I 
am sure you all did. If he spoke of the embarrassment under which he rose 
to address such an assembly — an embarrassment which all, however accus- 
tomed to public speaking, cannot but feel — how much greater must be my 
embarrassment. He had to contend only with the difficulties natural to the 
occasion, and with having to follow the most eloquent gentleman from Phila- 
delphia. I have to contend with all that difficulty, and with that of following 
not only that gentleman, who delighted us all so much, but my most eloquent 
friend who has ju«t taken his seat. 

And where two such gentlemen have passed over the ground, the one with 
his wide-sweeping reaper, and the other with his keen trenchant scythe, what 
is there left for a poor gleaner like myself, that comes after them ? 

"With respect to the kind manner, sir, in which you have been so good as 
to introduce my name to this company, it is plain that I have nothing to 
respond, but to imitate the example of the worthy clergyman upon the 
Connecticut river, who, when some inquisitive friend, from a distant part of 
the country, asked him somewhat indiscreetly whether there was much true 
piety among his flock, he said, "Nothing to boast of." 

If this were a geological instead of an agricultural society, and if it were 
your province not to dig the surface but to bore into the depths of the earth, 
it would not be surprising if in some of your excavations, you should strike 
upon such a fossil as myself. But when I look around upon your exhibition — 
the straining course — the crowded bustling ring — the motion, the life, the 
fire — the immense crowds of ardent youth and emulous manhood, assembled 
from almost every part of the country, actors or spectators of the scene — I 
feel that it is hardly the place for quiet old-fashioned folks, accustomed to 
quiet old-fashioned ways. I feel somewhat like the Doge of Genoa, whom 
the imperious mandate of Louis XIV. had compelled to come to Versailles, 
and who, afi.er surveying and admiring its marvels, exclaimed that he won- 
dered at everything he saw, and most of all at finding himself there. 

Since, however, sir, with that delicate consideration toward your " elder 
brethren," which I so lately had occasion to acknowledge at Dorchester, you 
are willing to trust yourself by the side of such a specimen of paleontology 
as myself, I have much pleasure in assuring you that I have witnessed, with 
the highest satisfaction, the proof afforded by this grand exhibition, that the 
agriculture of our country, with all the interests cftnnected with it, is in a 
state of active improvement. In all things, sir, though I approve a judicious 
conservatism, it is not merely for itself, but as the basis of a safe progress. 
I own, sir, there are some old things, both in nature, and art, and society, 
that I like for themselves. I all but worship the grand old hills, the old 
rivers that roll between them, the fine old trees bending with the weight of 
centuries. I reverence an old homestead, an old burying-ground, the good 
men of olden times. I lov^e old friends, good old books, and I don't absQ- 



S90 MR. Everett's speech. 

lutely dislike a drop of good old wine for tne stomach's sake, provided it is 
taken from an original package. But these tastes are all consistent with, 
nay, in my judgment, they are favorable to a genial growth, progression, and 
improvement, such as is rapidly taking place in the agriculture of the country. 
In a word I have always been, and am now, for both stability and progress ; 
learning from a rather antiquated, but not yet wholly discredited authority, 
" to prove all things, and hold fast to that which is good." I know, sir, that 
the modern rule is " try all things, and hold fast to nothing." I believe I 
shall adhere to the old reading a little longer. 

But, sir, to come to more practical, and you will probably think, more 
appropriate topics, I will endeavor to show you that I em no enemy to new 
discoveries in agriculture, or anything else. So far from it, I am going to 
communicate to you a new discovery of my own, which, if I do not greatly 
overrate its importance, is as novel as brilliant, and as auspicious of great 
results as the celebrated discovery of Dr. Franklin ; not the identity of the 
electric fluid and lightning, I don't refer to that, but his other famous dis- 
covery ; that, in the latitude of Paris, the sun rises several hours before 
noon ; that he begins to shine as soon as he rises ; and that the solar ray is 
a cheaper light for the inhabitants of large cities than the candles and oil 
which they are in the habit of preferring to it. T say, sir, my discovery is 
somewhat of the same kind ; and I really think full as important. I have 
been upon the track of it for several years ; ever since the glitter of a few 
metalic particles in the gravel washed out of Capt. Sutter's mill-race first led 
to the discovery of the gold diggings of California ; which for some time 
past have been pouring into the country fifty or sixty millions of dollars 
annually. 

My discovery, sir, is nothing short of this, that we have no need to go or 
send to California for gold, inasmuch as we have gold diggings on this side 
of the continent, much more productive, and consequently much more valu- 
able than theirs. I do not, of course, refer to the mines of North Carolina 
or Georgia, which have been worked with some success for several years, 
but which compared with California are of no great moment. I refer to a 
much broader vein of auriferous earth, which runs wholly through the States 
on this side of the Eocky Mountains, which we have been working uncon- 
sciously for many years, without recognizing its transcendent importance, 
and which is actually estimated will yield the present year ten or fifteen times 
as much as the California diggings ; taking their produce at sixty millions of 
dollars. 

Then, sir, this gold of ours not only exceeds the California in the annual 
yield of the diggings, but in several other respects. It certainly requires 
labor, but not nearly as much labor to get it out. Our diggings may be 
depended on with far greater confidence for the average yield on a given 
superficies. A certain quantity of moisture is no doubt necessary with us, 
as with them, but you are not required, as you are in the placers of California, 
to stand up to your middle in water all day, rocking a cradle filled with gravel 
and gold dust. The cradles we rock are filled with something better. 
Another signal advantage of our gold over the California gold is, that after 
being pulverized and moistened, and subjected to the action of moderate 
heat, it becomes a grateful and nutritious article of food ; whereas no man — 
not the long-eared King of Phrygia himself — could masticate a thimblefull 
of the California dust, cold or hot, to save him from starvation. Then, sir, 
we get our Atlantij gold on good deal more favorable terms than we get the 
'California. It is probable, nay it is certain, that for every million of dollars' 



MR. Everett's speech. 391 

wortli of dust that we receive from San Francisco, we send out a full million's 
worth in produce, in manufactures, in notions generally, and in freight ; but 
the gold which is raised from the diggings this side, yields, with good man- 
agement, a vast increase on the outlay — some thirty fold, some sixty, some a 
hundred. But besides all this, there are two discriminating circumstances of 
a most peculiar character, in which our gold differs from that of California, 
greatly to the advantage of ours. The first is this : 

On the Sacramento and Feather rivers, throughout the placers, in all the 
wet diggings and the dry diggings, and in all the deposits of auriferous 
quartz, you can get but one solitary exhaustive crop from one locality ; and 
in getting that you spoil it for any further use. The soil is dug over, worked 
over, washed over, ground over, sifted over — in short turned into an abomi- 
nation of desolation, which all the guano of the Chincha Islands would not 
restore to fertility. You can never get from it a second yield of gold, nor 
anything else, unless probably a crop of muUen or stramonium. The Atlan- 
tic diggings, on the contrary, with good management, v/ill yield a fresh crop 
of the gold every four years, and remain in the interval in condition for a 
succession of several other good things of nearly equal value. 

The other discrimating circumstance is of a still more astonishing nature. 
The grains of the California gold are dead, inorganic masses. How they 
got into the gravel ; between what mountain mill- stones, whirled by elemen- 
tal storm winds on the bosom of oceanic torrents, the auriferous ledges were 
ground to powder ; by what Titanic hands the coveted grains were sown 
broadcast in ihQ placers, human science can but faintly conjecture. We only 
know that those grains have within them no principle of growth or repro- 
duction, and that when that crop was to be put in, Chaos must have broken 
up the soil. How different the grains of our Atlantic gold, sown by the 
prudent hand of man, in the kindly alternation of seed-time and harvest ; 
each curiously, mysteriously organized ; hard, horny, seeming lifeless on the 
outside, but wrapping up in the interior a seminal germ, a living principle. 
Drop a grain of California gold into the ground, and there it will lie un- 
changed to the end of time, the clods on which it falls not more cold and 
lifeless. Drop a grain of our gold, of our blessed gold, into the ground, and 
lo! a mystery. In a few days it softens, it swells, it shoots upwards, it is a 
living thing. It is yellow itself, but it sends up a delicate spire, which comes 
peeping, emerald green, through the soil ; it expands to a vigorous stalk, 
revels in the air and sunshine, it arrays itself more glorious than Solomon 
in its broad, fluttering, leafy robes, whose sound, as the west wind whispers 
through them, falls as pleasantly on the husbandman's ear as the rustle of 
his sweetheart's garment ; still towers aloft, spins its verdant skeins of vege- 
table floss, displays its dancing tassels, surcharged with fertilizing dust, and 
at last ripens into two or three magnificent batons like this, [an ear of Indian 
corn,] each of which is studded with hundreds of grains of gold, every one 
possessing the same wonderful properties as the parent grain, every one in- 
stinct with the same marvellous reproductive powers. There are seven hun- 
dred and twenty grains on the ear which I hold in my hand. And now I 
say, sir, of this transcendant gold of ours, the yield this year will be at least 
ten or fifteen times that of California. 

But it will be argued perhaps, sir, in behalf of the California gold by some 
miserly old fogy, who thinks there is no music in the world equal to the 
chink of his guineas, that though one crop only of gold can be gathered 
from the same spot, yet once gathered it lasts to the end of time ; while (he 
will maintain) our vegetable gold is produced only to be consumed, and 



392 MR. Everett's speech. 

when consumed is gone forever. 33 ut this, Mr. President, would be a most 
eregious error both ways. It is true the California gold will last forever un- 
changed, if its owner chooses ; but while it so lasts, it is of no use ; no, not 
as much as its value in pig-iron which makes the best of ballast ; whereas 
gold, while it is gold, is good for little or nothing. You can neither eat it, 
nor drink it, nor smoke it. You can neither wear it, nor burn it as fuel, nor 
build a house with it ; it is really useless till you exchange it for cocsumable 
perishable goods ; and the more plentiful it is, the less its exchangeable 
value. Far different the case with our Atlantic gold ; it does not perish 
when consumed, but by a nobler alchymy than that of Paracelsus is trans- 
muted in consumption to a higher life. " Perish in consumption" did the 
old miser say ? Thou fool, that that which thou sowest is not quickened 
except it die. The burning pen of inspiration, ranging heaven and earth for 
a similitude to convey to our poor minds some not inadequate idea of the 
mighty doctrine of the Resurrection, can find no symbol so expressive as 
" bare grain, it may chance of wheat or some other grain," To-day a 
senseless plant, to-morrow it is human bone and muscle, vein and artery, 
sinew and nerve ; beating pulse, heaving lungs, toiling ah, sometimes over- 
toiling brain. Last June it sucked from the cold breast of the earth the 
watery nourishment of its distending sap-vessels ; and now it clothes the 
manly form with warm cordial flesh, quivers and thrills with the five-fold 
mystery of sense, purveys and ministers to the higher mysteries of thought. 
Heaped up in your granaries this week, the next it will strike in the stalwart 
arm, and glow in the blushing cheek, and flash in the beaming eye ; till we 
learn at last to realize that the slender stalk which we have seen bending in 
the corn-field under the yellow burden of harvest, is indeed the "staff' of 
life" which, since the world began, has supported the toiling and struggling 
myriads of humanity on the mighty pilgrimage of being. 

Yes, sir, to drop the allegory and speak without a figure, it is this noble 
agriculture for the promotion of which this great company is assembled from 
so many parts of the Union, which feeds the human race and all the humbler 
orders of animated nature dependent on man. With the exception of what is 
yielded by the fisheries and the chase (a limited though certainly not an in- 
significant source of supply) agriculture is the steward which spreads the 
daily table of mankind. Twenty seven millions of human beings, by accu- 
rate computation, awoke this very morning in the United States, all requir- 
ing their " daily bread," whether they had the grace to pray for it or not, 
and under Providence all looking to the agriculture of the country for that 
daily bread, and the food of the domestic animals depending on them; a 
demand perhaps as great as their own. Mr. President, it is the daily duty 
of you farmers to satisfy this gigantic appetite ; to fill the mouths of these 
hungry millions — of these starving millions I might say, for if by any catas- 
trophe the supply were cut off for a few days, the life of the country— human 
and brute — would be extinct. 

How nobly this great duty is performed by the agriculture of the country, 
I need not say at this board. The wheat crop of the United States, the 
present year, is variously estimated at from one hundred and fifty to one 
hundred and seventy-five millions of bushels ; the oat crop at four hundred 
millions of bushels ; the Indian corn, our precious vegetable gold, at one 
thousand millions of bushels ! Of the other cereal and of the legumious crops 
I have seen no estimate. Even the humble article of bay,-— this poor 
timothy, herds' grass and red top, which, not rising to the dignity^ of the 
food of man, serves only for the subsistence of the mute partners of his toil — 



VIRGINIA AND THE WEST. 89S 

the hay crop of the United States is probably but little, if any, inferior to 
the whole crop of cotton, which the glowing imagination of the South some- 
times regards as the great bond which binds the civilized nations of the 
earth together. • 

I meant to have said a few words, sir, on the nature of this institution, and 
its relations to our common country, as a bond of Union. (Cries of " go 
on, go on.") 

I have lost my voice and strength, and my good friend who has treated 
that topic never yet left anything to be said by those who come after him 
I will only, in sitting down, take occasion to express the great interest I feel 
in the operations of this institution. I see that it is doing, and I have no 
doubt that it will yet do infinite good. 

I beg, in taking my seat, sir, to tender you my most fervent wishes and 
hopes for its increased and permanent prosperity and usefulness. 



VIRGINIA AND THE WEST— ITS INDUSTRY, ETC. 

The message of Gov. Johnson, of Virginia, furnishes much statistical 
information, and from it we make the following abstract : 

"The Central Railroad, which is but the prolongation eastward of the 
Covington and Ohio road, is in a state of forwardness, and will doubtless be 
completed within the period prescribed for finishing the Covington road. 
The same may be said in reference to the Richmond and York River Road ; 
the last connecting link between the Great West and the capes of Virginia. 

" The Virginia and Tennessee Railroad is rapidly approaching completion 
at the Tennessee line, where it will connect with a net work of improve- 
ments, terminating respectively at Knoxville, Nashville, Memphis, and Little 
Rock in Arkansas. Add to these improvements, the Great Water Line of 
the James River and Kanawha Company, now extending continuously 200 
miles. 

" The Richmond and Danville Railroad is rapidly approaching completion 
to the town of Danville, its southern terminus, and before the end of the 
year will probably be in use throughout its whole extent." 

We take the following passages, entire, from the Governor's Message. 

" If the interest of our people required this improvement, (the Covington 
and Ohio Railroad) in 1800, when the combined population of Norfolk, 
Richmond, and Petersburg, the three largest cities in the State, was less than 
1*7,000, and the revenue of the State less than half a million, how must the 
demand have augmented now, when the population of those cities has 
increased to 70,000, and the revenue to two and a half millions. If called 
for when Mississippi, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, had scarcely emerged from their primeval state, 
what must be the comparative demand now, when the above-named States 
have become the most productive in the Union. In six of these States, 
including the western portion of Virginia and Pennsylvania, there was 
raised in 1849 within a fraction of three hundred and fifty millions of 
bushels of corn. And according to the ratio of increase during the last ten 
years, we may safely estimate the crop of 1860, within the above region, at 



364 VIRGINIA AND THE WEST. 

five hundred and fifty millions of bushels, which is about two-thirds of the 
entire quantity raised in the United States. Of this enormous crop, it is fair 
to suppose that one hundred and fifty millions can be spared for exportation, 
an'3 will seek a transit through the several thoroughfares terminating on the 
seaboard, provided the foreign demand shall justify such exportation. And 
in order to determine how far we should rely upon such demand, let us 
examine for a moment what can be gathered from an estimate of trade in 
that article for some years past. By reference to statistics, believed to be 
rehable, it will be found that the exports of corn and corn meal from this 
country at different periods, have been as follows : 

In 1837, 951,276 bushels. 

1846, 3,326,068 " 

1849, 15,283,054 " 

1850, 7,892,302 " 

1851, 4,444,921 " 

1854, 20,000,000 " 

"The above statement shows conclusively that the foreign demand is 
rapidly iocreasing, and that notwithstanding the fi\lling off immediately after 
the famine in a portion of Europe, the exports for the year 1854 amounted 
to 20,000,000 bushels, establishing the fact, that it is the cheapest and best 
bread within their reach, and that its use, at no distant day, will extend 
throughout all western Europe. In that country it is not grown except to a 
limited extent. Consequently, the supply must be from the United States, 
and is destined to form a staple article, equal if not exceeding that of cotton 
in amount. 

" I have said nothing of the extensive production of wheat, oats, hemp, and 
tobacco, all of which admit of transportation, and yield a fair profit to the 
producer. The census of 1850 shows that the region of country above 
named produced upwards of fifty millions of bushels of wheat in 1849, and 
that Kentucky alone exported fifty-five millions of pounds of tobacco. This 
immense and almost incalculable amount of trade must find its way to a 
foreign market through some of the great leading thoroughfares now in 
operation or in progress of construction. The next inquiry is, can Virginia 
compete successfully for this trade and travel ? The ready answer is, yes. 
Her Atlantic ports are nearer the center of these western and south-western 
granaries than any other on the coast ; her roads of easier grades ; her 
climate more genial, and the scenery more picturesque and inviting, while 
her ports and harbors are more spacious and safe, and the egress to the ocean 
more convenient and direct than from any other that could compete with 
her. 

'' It is a self-evident proposition that the production of a country intended 
for market will be conveyed by the cheapest and most direct line ; and as 
the communication with the European markets will be shorter through the 
ports of Virginia than any other, it is but reasonable to infer that the trade 
of the South and West will necessarily pass through this channel when these 
improvements shall have been completed. And yet, for want of them, the 
census of 1850 shows that there was received, during that year, in the city 
of New-York, from Western States, 984,434 barrels of flour, 3,344,647 
bushels of wheat, 2,608,967 bushels of corn, 146,836 barrels of provisions, 
besides a corresponding quantity of ashes, stores, wool, butter, cheese, lard, 
etc., a large portion of which is forced upon a route more than one hundred 
miles longer than that terminating on the Capes of the Chesapeake, and 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 395 

much of which must of necessity return by way of the Capes in its regular 
transit to a foreigu market, being a palpable innovation upon the established 
rules of traffic, tiie end and object of which is gain to the operator. 

The foregoing statistics have reference to the section of country bordering on 
and northwest of the Ohio river ; but it should be remembered that at the 
mouth of the Big Sandy River Virginia shakes hands with her daughter 
Kentucky, who has long been importuning her tardy mother for permission 
to pass her rich treasures through the ancestral domain to the Chesapeake, 
and from thence, by a direct transit, to the different_ rnartsof the world. 
Kentucky proposes also to make common cause with Virginia in the comple- 
tion of improvements now in progress, by which a direct communication will 
be formed between Norfolk, Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg, and 
Alexandria, in Virginia, and Maysville, Lexington, and Louisville, in_ her 
own State, and extending from thence, by way of Memphis, on the Missis- 
sippi river, to the distant southwest. 

The system in progress is equally magnificent in plan and importance ; 
and when completed, in connection with a direct communication with foreign 
cities and depots, will impart renewed vigor and activity to all branches of 
business, greatly enhance the value of our lands, build up our cities, and 
make Virginia conspicuous among the most flourishing in the category of 
States. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Let all who can, give their attendance at the meeting announced below. 
It cannot fail to be highly interesting and important. 

The Fourth Annual Meeting of the United States Agricultural Society 
will be held at Washington, D. C, on Wednesday, January 9, 1856. 

Business of importance will come before the meeting. Reports from its 
officers will be submitted, and a new election be made, in which it is desir- 
able that every State and Territory should be represented. 

Lectures and interesting discussions are expected on subjects pertaining to 
the objects of the Association, by distinguished scientific and practical agri- 
culturists. The transactions of 1855, containing a full account of the late 
exhibition at Boston, will be distributed to such members as are present. 

The various agricultural societies of the country are respectfully requested 
to send delegates to this meeting ; and all gentlemen who are interested in 
the welfare of American Agriculture, who would promote a more cordial 
spirit of intercourse between the different sections of our land, and who 
would elevate this most important pursuit to a position of greater usefulness 
and honor, are also invited to be present on this occasion. 

W. S. King, Secretary. Marshall P. Wilder, President. 

December, 1855. 



396 CAPACITIES AND COMMERCE OF NORTH-CAROLINA. 



NORTH CAEOLINA, ITS CAPACITIES AND ITS CONDITION. 

We have read with much pleasure the following statements of the condi- 
tion of the lands and of general industry in North Carolina, in the address 
of Hon. Thos. Ruffin before the State Agricultural Society. We wish there 
were many more such energetic and efficient advocates of this cause in every 
part of the country. We take the following from the address of Mr. Ruffin 
as published in the Carolina Cultivator : 

" The profits and the comforts of agriculture depend mainly on climate, 
soil, labor, and the facilities for disposing of surplus production. The two 
first, climate and soil, should be congenial to products requisite for the sus- 
tenance of the husbandman himself, and in demand for others who cannot 
produce for themselves. In both points North Carolina is highly blessed. 
In her position on the globe she occupies that temperate and happy mean, 
which is conducive to health and the vigorous exertion of the faculties and 
energies of body and mind, in employments tending more than all others to 
the hospitalities and charities of life and the other virtues of the heart, and 
which constitutes a climate, that, in unison with her fertile soil, yields abun- 
dantly to the diligent tiller nearly all the necessaries and many of the luxuries 
required by man. We do not work barely to maintain life ; but, beyond 
that, to realize gains that may be employed in the addition of other things 
productive of the elevation and refinement of civilized man. Our winters, 
by their duration and rigor, do not confine us long within doors, nor cause 
us to consume the productions of our labor during the other parts of the 
year ; but we are able to prosecute our field operations and comfortably 
pursue our productive employments throughout the four seasons. Though 
not of such extent of latitude as thereby to create much variety of chmate, 
and consequently of production, yet the dimensions of North Carolina, east 
and west, supply that deficiency in a remarkable degree. The proximity to 
the ocean of her eastern coast, and the difl:erence in elevation between that 
and the mountains of the west, with the gradations in the intermediate re- 
gions, produce a diversity of genial climate which gives to North Carohna, 
in herself, the advantages of many countries conjointly. By nature, too, her 
soil was as diversified and as excellent as her climate. The rich alluvial of 
the east, the extended and extremely fertile valleys of the many long streams — 
the Roanoke, the Tar, the Neuse, the Cape Fear, the Yadkin and Pedee, the 
Cntawba, and other rivers, which appear upon our map, besides those of 
smaller streams, almost numberless, all, at a moderate expense of care and 
labor, return large yields of nearly every grain and other production fit for 
food. Rice, maize, wheat, rye, barley, oats, the pea, the potato of each kind, 
besides an endless variety of other sorts, vegetables, and fruits, are fourd 
abundantly therein ; while higher up the country, in addition, the grasses 
grow so readily and luxuriantly as to afford not little plots on the moist bot- 
tom sof brooks, but extensive pastures and magnificent meadows to the moun- 
tain tops. Then, there are the great articles of cotton and tobacco, so ex- 
tensively used and in such great and increasing demand — to one or the other 
of which the greater part of the State is eminently suited. Of fruits, melons 
of every kind and of the best qualities, apples, peaches, pears, cherries, nec- 
tarines and apricots flourish almost everywhere, as do also the smaller, but 
m:)&t valuable kin Is, as the strawberry, the raspberry, the gooseberry, cur- 



CAPACITIES AND COMMERCE OF NORTH-CAROLINA. 397 

rants, and, above all, our native grapes, the sweet and proli6c Scuppernong 
and the rich Catawba, which mature well, besides some of foreign origin. 
When to these are added the fish, with which our eastern waters abound 
through the year, but are alive in the spring — our naval stores and lumber, 
our marls, our minerals, gold, silver, copper, and especially the extensive and 
rich deposits of iron ore, and the coals, one may confidently ask, is there any 
other country which contains or produces more or a greater diversity of things 
to sustain life or to bring money ? And then let me inquire of you, North Caro- 
linians, what better country do you want than your own ? I hold it is good 
enough — too good, I am tempted to say, for sinful man. It requires only to 
be dressed and tilled to give nearly all we want on earth, and much for our 
fellow-man less happily situated. There may at some time be a stint below 
our usual abundance ; but we need never fear a famine here while we work. 
Indeed, that calamity can hardly befall a country where maize — which we 
call Indian corn — grows to perfection. There is no record of a dearth, ap- 
proaching famine, where the principal crop was maize, as it is here. Our 
chmate and soil are so congenial to the other cereals, that a failure of that 
crop from an unpropitious season is necessarily perceived in time to provide 
the others, or some of them, as a substitute. 

" If not to the lowest, certainly to a very low condition, much of the land 
in the State had been brought ; and the time came, when, if improvement 
was ever to be made, it would be commenced. I use the expression, ' the 
time came,' instead of ' has come,' because it is a joyful fact, that some per- 
sons in various parts of the State, many in some parts, have improved, and 
continue to improve their lands and increase their crops — profiting much 
therefrom in their fortunes and setting the rest of us examples by which 
we ought also to profit. We have all heard for some years past, that the 
era of improvement had begun in the great and wealthy county of Edge- 
combe ; and I learn from unquestionable sources, that the intelligent and 
enterprising planters of that county have been reward-^d by signal success. 
I do not propose to enter into a detail of their system further than to say, 
that it consists chiefly in draining by ditches and embankments, making and 
applying composts, the use of guano and plaster of Paris, and the field-pea 
as an ameliorating crop, as well as food for stock. I advise every one, how- 
ever, who has the opportunity, by minute inquiries to obtain from those who 
have put this system into use, detailed information respecting it ; and I feel 
no hesitation in preferring a request to the planters of Edgecombe, as public- 
spirited gentlemen, to communicate through our agricultural periodicals the 
history of their improvements, and their experiments — as well those in 
which they failed as those in which they succeeded, with all other matters 
which may be useful to their brethren in other sections. 



To Preserve Sweet Potatoes. — Dig them carefully, before they are 
injured by the frost ; place them in barrels without bruising their skins, and 
let the barrels stand upon their ends to prevent their rolling. Keep them as 
cool as is safe, (guarding them from thefrost,) and at an equal temperament. 
A little dirt will be no injury, and may serve as a slight protection both from 
injury and from frost. 



398 PELLA, IOWA — ITS INDUSTRY ETC. 



PELLA, IOWA— ITS INDUSTRY, ETC. 

A LATE number of the Gazette^ published at this thriving place, (and a 
very good paper it is,) contains an article from which we gather the following 
facts : 

Green hides can be purchased there at three cents a pound, and dry hides 
at six cents, while in this city they are worth from 15 to 25 cents. 
Bark costs 75 cents to a dollar a cord. 

Leather is as high as at the East. That used in Iowa is^imported from 
St. Louis, Burlington, Keokuk, Cincinnati, etc. * 

In Keokuk prices range as follows : 

Red sole leather, 25 to 26 cents. 

Oak, Cincinnati, - - - - • 25 " 31 " 

Harness, 30 *' 

Upper, 26 " 36 " 

Hence the manufacture of leather in these places must pay a great profit, 
all the requisites for tanneries are easy of access. 

Lard is worth 7 to 10 cents, Steariae candles 30 cents, lard oil a dollar 
per gallon. Tallow averages 10 cents, and mould candles 20 cents. Soap 
grease say 2 cents, and soap from 12 to 15 cents, finer much higher. 

There are stone quarries, brick kilns, and steam saw-mills, but building 
materials are scarce. Lime and sand are abundant. 

"All that is required is pressure of one part lime with from ten to twelve 
parts sand, and they dry and harden in the sun. Cost of machine, with 
transportation, two hundred and fifty dollars. Cost of patent right for 
county, say two hundred dollars. Two men and a horse required to work it, 
and machine averages, say fifteen hundred brick a day, each brick from three 
to four times as large as a common brick, and ready to put together with a 
cement composed of lime and water. They will make a handsomer, more 
durable, and cheaper house than any now built. 

" Steam Grist Mills. — There are a large number of our citizens who are 
already aroused respecting this enterprise, who know its importance, utitity, 
and profit, and who would gladly engage in it, if they had the means. We 
learn that Messrs. Grafe & Henckler intend to erect a mill of this description 
in this place ; but we candidly think the field is large enough for two. Wo 
live in a well settled farming region, and if such mills are built, they will 
encourage the growth of grain, and the demand for both home consumption 
and exportation is sufficient to support and give constant employment to at 
least two large-sized grist-mills. And it will be certainly to the advantage 
of the farmer, as ' competition is the life of trade.' 

" Iron Foundry. — It is well known that there are large beds of iron ore, 
of superior quality, in this vicinity, with abundance of coal, wood and water 
in the same vicinity, so that such an enterprise can be successfully put into 
operation here. Of course such an enterprise would begin with minor cast- 
ings of such things as are in universal demand. But we think it would not 
require a great stretch of imagination to conceive that such an enterprise 
would gradually enlarge until railroad iron, steam engines, and locomotives 
would form an important part, and disting^uishing feature. Then it would 
give constant and profitable occupation to numerous workmen, and add 
materially to our present wealth and prosperity. We long to see some 
enterprising individual take hold of this work. 



PELLA, IOWA — ITS INDUSTRY, ETC. 399 

" Glass Factory. — The risk of breakage is so great on transportation of 
glass that it forms an important item ia its cost to the consumer. All this 
would be obviated if we had a glass factory here. Abundance of fine sand 
exists in this vicinity, and potash can be readily procured from the surround- 
ing country. 

" Potash Factory. — Potash is now worth here about 20 cents a pound. 
It could be made with profit at 12 cents, and the market would be excellent 
if we could get soap and glass factories. 

*' Chair Factory. — This useful article of furniture is now about entirely 
imported from the river and Cincinnati! The cost of transportation would 
alone form a handsome profit to the manufacturer. The same remark will 
apply to sash and door factories. 

" Carding Machines. — Iowa is one of the best States in which to raise 
sheep in the Union. Wool is worth here from 40 to 50 cents a pound, and 
yarn from one dollar to one dollar and a quarter a pound. From 50 to 75 
cents a pound is pretty good profit." 

We give the above statements and commend them to the attention of our 
mechanics, etc., who are in the market, that they may carefully view this 
field. It ofiers strong inducements for young men of enterprise, and we 
hope to see this section rapidly occupied with every form of industry. God 
speed our friends in the far West. 



THE COST OF RAISING COTTON. 

[We avail ourselves of the following very satisfactory testimony in cor- 
roboration of our own estimates of the value to the planter of the latter 
crop, by one who evidently knows how to estimate the expenses of agricul- 
tural products. We hope our Southern friends — whom we count by many 
hundreds — will give them the attention they deserve.] — Ed. P. L. & A. 

Messrs. Editors : — Knowing, from the regular perusal of your paper, 
that you do not desire to circulate erroneous information, I take the liberty 
of correcting a very incorrect statement which appeared in your tri-weekly 
issue of the 28th ultimo, in a communication headed "The Gulf States of 
our Union and the Valley of the Mississippi." The misstatement, doubtless 
an unintentional one, occurs in the following paragraph : 

" The cost of raising cotton is four cents a pound ; one bale of five hun- 
dred pounds to the acre is considered a fair crop. A twenty-acre field yield- 
ing twenty bales, or ten thousand pounds, at eight cents a pound, only yields 
a profit of four hundred dollars." [See our leading article.] 

The true state of the case can best be reached by taking the case of an 
improved plantation of the most available size and with a proper number of 
slaves upon it, and making the estimates from that basis. This is a most 
favorable way of making the estimate to exhibit the largest profit ; for it is 
well known to every experienced planter — and how dearly some have pur- 
chased their experience ! — that the expenses incident to the opening and im- 
proving of a plantation for several years after the undertaking is begun, eat 
up all the profits and often leave a load of debt behind, sometimes forcing a 
sale of the whole property, which thus leaves the lands of the original pro- 



400 THE COST OF RAISING COTTON. 

prietor to fall into those of some wiser man who has eschewed the toil and 
hazard of opening a new place. 

A plantation of sixteen hundred acres, one thousand of which is cleared 
land, and has the necessary cabins and other buildings necessary for carrying 
on a place of that size, is worth from forty to sixty dollars per acre, accord- 
ing to locality. Estimating its value at the lowest rate, say $40 per acre, 
and it makes $64,000. To work this place to advantage — that is, to culii- 
vate seven hundred and fifty acres in cotton and two hundred and fifty in 
corn, peas, potatoes, etc., — will require a force of V5 effective hands, which, 
with the young and old, who do nof go to the field to work, who would or- 
dinarily be united to the 75 hands, would constitute about 130 or 140 slaves 
on the place, who, at an average $G00 a piece, would be worth about 
$75,000 ; 50 mules worth $130 each, would make $6,400 more; 100 head 
of cattle may be estimated at $1,200 ; 300 bogs may be estimated at $700 ; 
12 yoke of oxen at $600; wagons, farming utensils, furniture, blacksmith 
and carpenter's tools, and all the other necessaries, including gin-stands, mill, 
etc., may be estimated (and it is an under estimate) at $2,000 ; so that any 
one, by simply adding these different amounts, will see that the entire value 
of such a place as I have supposed will be about $150,000 ; and this upon 
the supposition that the place is worked without a steam-engine to gin the 
cotton with. 

Such a place, with favorable seasons, will make ten bales to the hand, or 
about one bale to the acre, and sometimes when everything is prosperous, an 
early spring and a late dry fall, as many as twelve bales to the hand, and in 
some very extraordinary instances even as high as fifteen bales have been 
gathered. But on an average of ten seasons every experienced planter will 
agree that eight bales to the hand is an outside estimate, making a crop of 
about six huudred bales ; and taking 8 cents as the average price per pound, 
which for swamp cotton is again a full estimate, and the gross income for a 
single bale of 400 pounds, which is the well known uniform weight, will be 
$32, and the whole crop $19,000, exclusive of the cost of shipping, and 
soiling the crop, which amounts to at least $2 50 per bale in every case, and 
where the place is distant from market nearer twice that ; leaving say a net 
income of about $18,000. From this must now be deducted the cost of 
cultivating the place, overseer's wages, feeding, clothing, and doctoring the 
negroes, supplying wear and tear of tools, and losses of mules and stock, 
altogether, on a place of the size I have named, not falling short of $6,000, 
many planters estimating their expense at $100 to the hand, which would 
make $7,500. Taking it at the former sum and we have the net profits of 
such a place as I have described amount to $12,000, being just about an 
interest of 8 per cent, on the value of the capital invested. 

This, Messrs. Editors, I believe a fair statement of the profits of the cotton 
planter; and you can now see how it comports with the fancy sketch of 
your correspodent. If I have exaggerated at all it has been in giving too 
favorable an aspect to the side of A Planter. 

VicKSBURGH, July, 1855. [National Intelligencer. 



COMMEECE OF THE COUNTRY. 401 



SHELBY COUNTY (Ala,,) LIME. 

[We are always glad to announce sucli statements as the following, which 
we find in the Alabama Planter. — Ed. P. L. & A.] 

" We received yesterday a specimen of the lime manufactured by the 
Shelby County Lime-Kiln Company, (situated some sixty miles above 
Salem) under the management of Mr. Robert Hall. Those interested in 
the article can see it by calling at this office. 

" The company, we learn, has a large capital, and is getting ready to 
furnish one thousand bushels of lime per day. It is manufactured from blue 
limestone, which, we believe, is considered the best stone for the purpose. 
The supply of material is inexhaustible. 

" Several barrels of the article have been brought to this city for trial, 
and some of our most experienced builders pronounce it superior to the 
Thomaston lime. Others are about to put it to test, and their opinions we 
shall, doubtless, have presently. 

" The specimen at this office is extremely fine, and worthy of the attention 
of dealers and builders. 

" There is only now one drawback to the enlarged operations of the com- 
pany, and that is the uncertainty of communication with this city. The 
confident belief is that if the supplies can be got here it will drive all other 
limes from the market. And this, after all, is the chief obstacle to the de- 
velopment of the immense wealth of the interior ; and is another reason 
why our citizens should give their attention more generally to the subject of 
internal improvements. With a certain communication, either by river or 
railroad, with the seat of our mineral wealth, within a few years we should 
have numerous companies of wealthy men diverting their capital from cotton 
to these mines of wealth which, in many cases, are now almost worthless. 
The result would be good both for town and country. It would draw us 
more closely together, and save to our people hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars which now go to enrich places which have no interest or sympathy in 
common with us. 

" If the rivers do not cheat us this season, however, the company will 
find means enough to send hither large quantities of this lime. We wish it 
all the success which it seems to merit." 



Commerce op the Country. — The Washington papers contain official 
documents giving in detail the exports of domestic merchandise from the 
United States to foreign ports for the year ending on the 30th June last. 

The total exports of breadstuffs amounted to ^21,557,854; of provisions, 
$15,138,277. Making a total of breadstuffs and provisions of $36,696,131, 
against $65,901,240 of the same in 1854 ; showing a decrease in 1855 of 
$29,205,109. 

TOBACCO EXPORT, JANUARY SO, 1S55. 

Treas. Year. Hogsheads. Value. 

1855 150.213 $14,712,468 

1854 126,107 10,016,046 

Increase 24,106 $4,666,422 

26 



402 FOEEST TKEES OF NICHOLS. 

France is the largest importer of our tobacco, taking 40,866 hogsheads 
Great Britain takes 24,303, Bremen, 38,053, Holland, 17,124; the balance 
is distributed among the different Continental States. 

The following is a comparative export of the great staples : 

1855 1854 

Value. Value. 

Cotton, $88,143,844 $93,596,220 

Bread and provisions, 36,696,131 65,901,240 

Tobacco, 14,712,468 10,016,046 

Rice, 1,717,953 2,634,127 

Total 1141,270,396 $172,147,635 

Of the 1,203,540 bbls. of flour exported in 1855, New-Orleans exported 
345,743 bbls. Of the 294,440 bbls. pork, New-Orleans sent oflf 168,311 
bbls. She sent off 43,312 hogsheads of bacon, of 38,186,989 lbs., the 
entire amount exported from the country ; 791,635 kegs of lard, of 39,025,492 
lbs. "We exported 1,270,264 bales of cotton, and 64,100 hhds of tobacco. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, TIOGA CO., N. Y., AND THEIR USES. 

OAETANKA VJKSCA AMERICANA, OE CHESTNUT. 

The chestnut is found in this vicinity growing on the river and creek flats, 
also on the highest hills, in nearly all situations. Trees on the flats are gen- 
erally bushy, like the apple-tree, and seldom over 40 feet high, and two 
feet in diameter. They have generally grown since the land was first 
cleared, while on the tops of the highest hills they are from 70 to 90 feet 
high, and from 2 to 5| feet in diameter. A number of old trees on a high 
ridge near here will average 3 feet and occasionally one near 6 feet. 

Leaves oblong lanceolated, accuminate, mucronately serrate, smooth on 
both sides, ribs to leaves fifteen on each side, stems to leaf about three- 
fourths of an inch long, leaves from 8 to 12 inches long, and 2 to 3 inches 
wide. Sterile aments about 6 inches long ; the numerous flowers, white or 
cream color, and show to a great advantage a mile or more, emitting a sick- 
ish sweet odor that can be smelt a long way. The chestnut was in full bloom 
this year thQ 18th of July, and is frequently in bloom the lOth of July. 
We generally think it the best time to sow buckwheat when the chestnut is 
in full bloom. 

Fertile involucres or burs solitary or several in a cluster, like apples, scaly 
when grown large, frequently two inches in diameter, nearly round, and cov- 
ered with slender compound rigid prickles, which are one-fourth of an inch 
long, hard and stiff" when ripe, making it difficult to handle. These burs 
are a beautiful green, till within a few weeks of being ripe, when they turn 
a brownish drab. Each bur generally incloses three nuts ; one or two are 
often abortive. Nuts varying in form according to the number in an invol- 
ucre or bur. When there are two, each will be compressed on the inside ; 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 403 

and when three are perfected, the middle one wiU be flattened on each side. 

The chestnut flowers here from the 8th to the 18th. Fruit ripe in the 
latter part of October, generally not till after a hard frost. 

The chestnut is the most valuable tree we have in this vicinity. It splits 
very readily into posts or rails ; and when green chops very easily. A man 
that understands the business will often split from three to five hundred 
rails in a day. The timber is light and stiff when seasoned. The rails last 
from thirty to forty years, and posts in the ground from twelve to sixteen 
years, and perhaps much longer. The chestnut after being cut down sprouts 
very much. The sprouts frequently grow five feet in a year, and by letting 
them stand, there will be a large growth of timber in a few years. If the 
land is to be kept clear, the sprouts are easily knocked off. Sprouting for 
successive years generally kills the stump, when it rots out in fifteen or 
twenty years, unless very large. But the chestnut stump comes out early in 
comparison with the durability of the timber. Stump machines are getting 
so common here, that stumps of all kinds of timber are readily pulled when 
green. 

As yet, chestnut timber has been used only for fencing in this vicinity, 
with the exception of sills, plates, etc., for frames. 

The nuts that grow on chestnut trees in some years are quite abundant, 
and are worth from $2 50 to $3 per bush. Robert Howell. 

Nichols, Dec. 13. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 
HEMiPTERA. (Continued.) 

We proceed with the description of insects of this order, and next describe 
the 

CocciD^ or Bark Lice. — They have thread-like or tapering antenna, 
longer than the head ; females wingless, but furnished with beaks ; males 
with wings, which lie horizontally on the top of the back, and are not fur- 
nished with beaks, (suckers.) Feet with only one joint, terminated with a 
hingle claw ; skin firm and hard ; two slender threads at the extremity of 
the body in both sexes. The females are without piercers. They are about 
one-tenth of an inch long, and of an oval shape. 

These insects live chiefly in the barks of the stems of plants, though 
sometimes found on the leaves and roots. In their early stage the head is 
concealed beneath the shell of the body, and the beak seems to issue from 
the breast. The legs, six in number, are very short, and invisible from 
above. The females scarcely undergo any change except an increase in size, 
though the males pass through a complete transformation ere they arrive at 
their perfect state. They are found early in the spring, in a torpid state, 
adhering close to the surface of the bark, with the head upwards, and an 
attempt to remove these insects generally crushes them, when a dark-colored 
fluid issues from the body. At a later season, if lifted from the bark by a 
knife-blade, numerous eggs will be discovered, and the insect appears to be 
dead and dried up. On the approach of warm weather, the young escape 



404 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

through the lower end of this shield, and move about with considerable 
activity. 

These insects form the Genus Coccus. They present various aspects in 
regard to their covering. The Coccus cacti, or cocheneille of commerce, is 
covered with a mealy powder. So also is the Coccus Adonidum, or mealy 
hug of our green-houses. Some are hairy or woolly, and many others are 
naked and dark-colored. The young are generally white, or nearly so. They 
draw their sustenance from the bark, and plants often suflfer severely from the 
loss of sap exuding through the punctures thus made. In process of time 
they fasten themselves by threads to the bark, and undergo a transformation. 
If these shields are raised, the rudiments of wings, antennae, etc., appear. This 
is their pupa or chrysalis state. The larger insects are the females, who remain 
immovable. After pairing, the females increase in size. The eggs, which 
are numerous, pass under the body of the insect, which gradually dries up 
as already stated. The bark-louse of the apple-tree produces two or more 
broods in a season. The females survive the winter and lay their eggs in 
the spring. The males die in autumn. 

Young apple-trees suffer from the attacks of these lice. 

The eggs of these insects are very numerous, 30 or 40 being often found 
under a single shield. They are white and oblong, like snake's eggs. 
They begin to hatch, in the Northern States, about the 2.5th of May. 

Chickadees and Wrens, and some other birds, are the natural enemies of 
these lice, and devour great numbers of them. Ichneumon flies of very 
small size also destroy them. 

Soap-suds mixed with lime is a useful application. The lime should be 
added in such quantities as to make a thick whitewash. This should be 
applied with a brush, so as to fill all the crevices, cracks, etc., existing in the 
bark. It should be applied in June. 

There are other kinds of lice found on these trees, of a different species, 
one o£ which is nearly the shape of an oyster-shell, which are dormant in 
winter. The female is minute, wrinkled at the sides, flattened above, of a 
reddish color. She undergoes no change. The male completes its trans- 
formation about the middle of July. The perfect male is scarcely more 
than a point, but under a microscope appears furnished with whitish wings, 
long antennae, six legs with their joints, and two bristles, terminating the 

tail. 

The young lice are pale yellowish-brown, oval, and appear like scales. They 
move about for a while, and then become stationary, and after pairing lay 
their eggs. 

The Cotton louse sucks the sap from the leaf and tender shoots of the 
plant, by which the vigor of the plant is wasted, and the leaves curl up, turn 
yellow, wither and die. It is of a green color, about a tenth of an inch in 
length. Two slender tubes, growing from the abdomen, secrete the " honey- 
dew," which attracts multitudes of ants. The young insects appear during the 
summer, and the depredations of the insects continue till November. 

It is impossible to describe all the numerous species of the louse, and 
a microscopic examination would scarcely enable one not having great ex- 
perience to distinguish them. Nor is this ability requisite for the agricul- 
turist, as the same means are efficient alike for the entire order. The minute 
classifications are important only to the student of natural history. 



LIST OF FRUITS FOR OHIO. 405 



LIST OF FRUITS FOR OHIO. 

Taken from the published report of the Ohio Pomological Society and 
the State Agricultural Convention at Columbus. 

The object of the meeting was stated by Dr. Warder to agree upon a list 
of apples to be recommended for general cultivation throughout the State of 
Ohio. 

On motion, it was agreed to take up the several kinds of apples in the 
order of their season, as summer, fall and winter varieties. 

Early Harvest was reported as good in all parts of the State — not a pro- 
fuse bearer, but fair in most localities ; does best in rich or well manured 
soil. Highly approved wherever known. Recommended unanimously. 

Early Strawberry. — Highly approved in south and center of the State, 
also in north-west and north-east. Not much known in some of the northern 
counties, but does well wherever known. Recommended unanimously. 

Large Yellow Bough or Sweet Bough. — Gen Worthington has grown 
this extensively for many years in Ross County, and approves it very highly. 
Was reported good in all parts of the State. Not a great bearer. Dr. 
Warder proposed to recommend it only for limited cultivation. Recom- 
mended with one dissent. 

American Summer Pearmain. — Proposed by Dr. Jones, and highly re- 
commended by all who know it, but passed as not sufficiently known. 

Golden Sweet. — Generally known in different parts of the State, and highly 
recommended, especially for baking, for apple butter, and for stock. Recom- 
mended with one dissent. 

Maiden's Blush. — Commended by numerous gentlemen, especially for its 
fine looks and for market. Some like it for cooking and for the table ; does 
well in all parts of the State — is larger and of less flavor south than north. 
Recommended with several dissents. 

Fall Pippin or Golden Pippin. — Well known and highly approved in all 
parts of the State. Keeps best and has best flavor at the north, but is 
largest at the south. Recommended with one dissent. 

Cooper. — Dr. Hempsted said he believed the history of this apple had not 
yet been fully stated. The grafts were brought from Boston to Marietta by 
Mr. Adams, of Zanesville, who called it a French Apple, the original trees 
having been imported, as he believed, from France. All present who knew 
the apple called it first-rate ; but some gentlemen thought it not sufficiently 
known to warrant its recommendation for general cultivation, especially in 
the northern part of the State. Recommended with one dissent. 

Rambo. — Was pronounced first-rate, especially in central parts of the State. 
Dr. Warder said it was good at the south, but ripens early, becomes dry, and 
does not keep as well as at the north. Recommended unanimously. 

American Golden Busset. — Gens. Worthington and Green said it was 
first-rate when in perfection, but with them it soon perishes, and is not gen- 
erally of fair and healthy growth. Mr. Steele finds it first-rate, good size 
and trees healthy, considers it the best of winter apples for the table. Other 
gentlemen said it was not of attractive appearance, and not good for market ; 
though persons who knew it would buy it. Dr. Cone said trees were not 
healthy with him. Dr. Warder considers it first-rate — tree of slender growth. 
Recommended unanimously. * 

Yellow Belljtoiver. — Much approved in most parts of th« State ; not so 



406 DRY BEOTH. 



large and handsome at the north as in central Ohio. Recommended with 
several dissents. 

White Bellfiower or Ortley. — Mr. Ernst and others from southern Ohio 
approve it highly ; and all agree that it \i a good apple, and adapted to most 
parts of the State. Recommended with several dissents. 

Newtown Spitzenherg. — Very highly approved at Cincinnati, and also in 
other parts of the State wherever known, for table and for market. Recom- 
mended. 

Winesap. — Well known and everywhere approved. Recommended unani- 
mously. 

Taltnan Sweeting. — Recommended and several others as very excellent for 
baking, and as a great bearer, profitable for stock. Passed, as not suffi- 
ciently known. 

Roxhury Russet. — Condemned by many as uncertain, and liable to speck 
and rot. Passed as not worthy of general commendation. 

Newtown Pippin. — Highly commended generally, but Gen. Worthington 
and several others found it to speck with them. On sandy soils not gener- 
ally good, also on beech clay soils at the north. Professor Mather thought 
it was good only on limestone soils. Gen. Worthington thought this and ' 
some other old kinds are losing their health and vitality. Recommended 
with several dissents. 

Rawles' Janette or Geneting. — Dr. Warder said this was the winter apple 
of southern Ohio, Kentucky, etc., but he was afraid it was not generally 
known through the State, especially in the north. Several gentlemen from 
different parts of the State said they knew it, and approved it highly. Re- 
commended unanimously. 

Winter Sweet Paradise. — Specimens presented by Mr. Brush, who com- 
mended it very highly, especially for baking ; read Downing's description. 
Has been grown by Wm. Merion, near Columbus, for ten or twelve years. 
Said to have come from Pennsylvania. Mr. Bateham thought it was iden- 
tical with the Wells Sweeting, of Rochester, N. Y. All agreed that it was 
a first-rate sweet apple. Recommended for general trial. 

Broadwell Sweet was highly commended by Mr. Ernst and others from 
Cincinnati, near which city it originated. EUott's description was read, and 
his commendation seconded. Recommended for general trial. 

Belmont or Gate. — Mr. Bumrickhouse said this apple was considered in- 
dispensable in his region ; thinks the tree rather tender. Gentlemen from 
central and northern Ohio spoke of it as very excellent, and deserving gen- 
eral cultivation. Recommended for general cultivation in northern half of 
the State. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANYIL. 

DRY BEOTH. 



Dry broth is a very useful and nutritious article. It is very common in 
Russia, and in other countries amid huge forests where game is scarce and fuel 
of great price. In traveling in that country, I came to a place where this broth 
was manufactured", and remained there three days for the purpose of learn- 
ing the process. It is as follows : 



JUDGING FIRST-RATE ANIMALS. 407 

Take half of an ox, half of a sheep, entire, ten fowls, ten partridges, and 
cut all these into small pieces. Place it in a copper boiler well tinned, and 
pour six quarts of water to one pound of flesh. Cook this in the open air 
or in a basement over a moderate fire, skim it carefully, and after the soup is 
well cooked add some vegetables, &c., that is to say, celery, pork, parsley 
cut fine, and cook the whole ten hours or more, or until the soluble portions 
of the flesh are dissolved. Then strain the liquor through a colander. Place 
the residue under a press and pour what flows from it into the soup. The 
residue of the flesh is comparatively tasteless, and may be given to dogs, 
swine, &c. 

The soup which has been strained, is again poured into the boiler, and 
made to boil moderately. It should be taken from the fire at such time as, 
when poured off and allowed to cool, it will become a compact mass, resem- 
bling chocolate. This moment must be determined by repeated trials. The 
soup should then be poured into vessels of tin or potter's ware, and suffered to 
remain several days. The mass is then placed in the sun or in a dry room, 
until it shall become dry soup. 

Dry soup is prepared of different sizes, of one, three, six or twelve pounds, 
and is sold by weight. 

It should be observed that in its composition there is no salt, nor spice. 
Salt has a tendency to soften and moisten it, and any spice does not suit all 
persons alike. Besides, the broth, being administered as soup and dissolved, 
would not be suitable for the sick. 

This dry broth forms a very convenient kind of food for those traveling 
on foot or through uninhabited districts. 

The Russians who make the voyage from Moscow to Kiachta, over the 
steppes of Siberia, scarcely use any other kind of food. A vessel holding six 
or eight ounces of boiling water, into which is thrown a half pound or more, 
according t« the number of guests, seasoned with salt and pork, and with 
garlic if to their taste, poured upon biscuits, furnishes a nutritious, whole- 
some and pleasant repast. For sailors it is useful as a preventive of the 
scurvy. (When wrecked, should each man secure a few pounds of it they 
might thereby save themselves from starvation and death.) In long jour- 
neys over prairies and desert countries, it is of very great value. 

This broth might be prepared with the beef and mutton, without the ad- 
dition of other things. But it would not be so pleasant to the taste, nor 
command so high a price. Sanewski Felix. 

[Translated from the French manuscript b^ the Editor.} 



THE DIFFICULTY OF JUDGING BETWEEN FIRST-RATE ANIMALS. 

The following, from the Mark Lane Express^ may be read with profit by 
those aciing as judges at our public fairs. The recommendation in the last 
paragraph may be useful to State Societies : 

" Sir: — Allow me to offer a few remarks on this subject, as applicable to 
the approaching meetings of our leading agricultural societies, now close at 
hand. 

" The difficulties which are often experienced by the most competent 



408 NATIVE GEORGIA WINE. 

judges, in deciding between two really first-rate animals of a first-rate sort, 
are greater than the majority of people who have never acted in the capacity 
of judges have any idea of. I am happy to say that at the meetings of the 
Royal Society such cases frequently do occur, and, I hope, always will, and 
with the wish that what I here assert may tend to assist judges on their 
laborious duties, I am induced to trouble you with these remarks. 

" I will take an instance of two first-rate short-horned bulls, neither of them 
having a faulty point. Judge A. says, ' What a superb back No. 1 has !' 
B. says, ' But look at that depth of carcase in No. 2 !' * But the length of 
quarter in No. 1 !' continues A. ; and in return B. draws attention to the 
silky texture of the skin of No. 2. The question is here put to Judge C. 
who should decide the case ; but he has to balance, in his mind, whether a 
superior back is more to be considered than extraordinary depth of carcase ; 
and again, is a first-rate quality of hide equivalent to an unusual length of 
quarter ? And thus points, without having some definite value attached to 
them, might be compared one against the another ad infinitum^ without 
ever coming to a satisfactory conclusion. 

" Now, what I wish to see is, a definite value affixed to every point in the 
perfect animal, and when such cases of nicety as I allude to do occur, let the 
judges take point by point, and compare value in numbers, and then the 
animal commanding the highest amount would be the one selected. If the 
perfect animal were 50, the component parts might be something as follows : 





Bull. 


Sheep. 


Boar. 


General Appearance, 


8 


12 


20 


Back, (length and width,) 


- 8 


10 


8 


Chest, 


6 


4 


5 


"With of hips and loin, 


- 5 


4 


5 


Depth, (rotundity of carcase,) - 


5 


5 


4 


Quarters, 


- 5 


3 • 


3 


Head, 


4 


4 


9 


Hide, (or wool,) - - - - 


- 4 


5 


2 


Bone, 


3 


3 


2 


Shortness of legs, - . . 


- 2 


1 


2 



50 50 50 

" This table is merely on a rougb scale ; but I think if the committee of 
the Royal Society would devote one of their meetings to the consideration 
of the subject, their time would not be wasted ; and a scale made under 
their direction, similar to the above, would be received by the agricultural 
public as an authentic data to refer to. 

" Hoping that these remarks may draw the attention of our great stock- 
breeders to the subject, I remain yours, etc., X. X." 



NATIVE GEORGIA WINE. 

The cultivation of the grape has received of late some attention from our 
Southern friends. We are exceedingly glad to be able to add this to the 
variety of products for which extensive tracts of land are well adapted. A 
late number of the Augusta Chronicle contains a statement on this subject 



BUTTER MAKING. 409 



which we copy, that some at least of our many Southern readers may try the 
experiment for themselves. We also wish to avail ourselves of so favorable 
an opportunity to commend the enterprise which of late is so manifest in 
many of the Southern States. There is no reason why every useful mechanical 
and manufactured product of the North and West should not be also pro- 
duced at the South. But for our extract : 

"Oq Monday, the 12th inst., quite a large party of gentlemen of this 
city and its vicinity assembled at the store of Messrs. Dawson & Skinner for 
the purpose of sampling some native wines made by Mr. Charles Axt, at his 
vineyards in Wilkes county, Georgia. The wine offered was the pure juice 
of the Catawba grape, only about eight weeks from the press, and of the 
quality known as " still Catawba." It was very impartially tested, side by 
side with several other brands, from some of the most noted Ohio vintners, 
and the best judges present unanimously pronounced it superior in aroma 
and purity of flavor to any native samples yet presented to their notice, and 
predicted for it the highest degree of excellence, when it shall have attained 
the proper age. 

" The business of grape-growing and wine-making may now be considered 
most auspiciously started in Georgia and the South ; and it only remains fo* 
those who prefer the pure and wholesome juice of the grape to the vilely 
adulterated mixtures of commerce, and who wish to aid in the successful 
development of a most important and promising enterprise, to give the 
matter their countenance and support at the outset ; and thus secure to the 
South, in a few years, an entirely new source of large income and profit." 



BUTTER MAKING.— SWEET CREAM. 

A WRITER in the Ohio Farmer, discussing the propriety of allowing cream 
to turn sour before it is churned, says : 

" K milk be churned as soon as drawn from the cow, and butter be 
separated, the buttermilk will be found to contain acid, though it may not 
taste very sour. Whether this lactic acid is a cause or an effect of the 
separation of the butter, has not been satisfactorily settled ; but that it is 
always present after butter has been churned is a well ascertained fact, and 
this fact all scientific books in the dairy assert. Johnson, Ballantyne, Ayton 
and Traill, all teach that " butter made from sweet cream is less in quantity 
and requires more labor to produce it, and is therefore unprofitable." 

We do not quite agree with this. We cannot imagine why the presence 
of a minute portion of lactic acid should be presumed without evidence to 
promote the gathering of the butter. That should be proved ere it is^ put 
forth. We know that nice tests often discover the presence of lactic acid in 
new milk, and we have good reason for believing that the process of churn- 
ing, by which the temperature of portions of the milk must be somewhat 
affected, should tend to increase the amount of acid. We are not satisfied 
that the presence of lactic acid is either the cause or the effect of the sepa- 
ration of the butter. Nor does the fact that sweet cream requires longer 
churning than sour cream, if it be a fact, show that it is less economical. The 
quickest process is not always the best. Besides, our scientific men are not 



410 VALUE OF CROPS. 



the best authority on such questions. We should much prefer the opinions 
of judicious dairymaids. We have facts, from such sources, which we would 
offset against a host of mere chemists, though ever so '' scientific." Ask the 
dairymen and women of Orange county, so widely distinguished for its good 
butter, and the information they would give would not strengthen the doubts 
which this writer suggests. 

We do not believe that the presence or the absence of lactic acid can have 
any effect on the " quantity" of butter. The butter is there confined in 
sacks, and lactic acid cannot increase it, nor can butter produce lactic acid. 
Science cannot begin to give a reason why it should be supposed to do so. 
Facts show that the best butter, the butter that with a given amount of wash- 
ing will retain its sweetness the longest, is from sweet cream. 

But we doubt whether sweet cream requires more labor to "produce" but- 
ter than sour cream. Each little sack must be broken, and its contents gath- 
ered. We can see how the presence of very sour milk might hasten the 
process of gathering or collecting the butter, after it has " come ;" but this 
is not what the chemists mean to say ; and whatever they mean, their opinion 
is of no more value than that of any mere professor of science, who may be 
fond of his own theory. Such questions are for actual practical churners 
to determine, who use various kinds of churns and various qualities of milk 
and of cream, and so far as our experience, which is not small, 
and our inquiries, which have been extensive, can elucidate this question, the 
conviction is full and complete, in our minds, that it is desirable to have sweet 
cream for butter that is to be kept a long time. Sour milk does not of 
necessity make sour butter, but the presence of sour particles in the butter 
made from sour cream cannot be certainly avoided by almost any amount of 
washing, and there may be enough present, after very frequent washings, to 
convert the whole, ere long, into a rancid mass. Hence we go for sweet 
cream. • 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS. 

Mr. Editor : — We have kept an account the past season of the cost of 
cultivating different crops, thinking it may be interesting to some of your 
readers. We make the statement as brief as possible. 

Rye -\ bushel sowed Sept. 16, 1854, on corn stubble. Quantity of 
land, half acre : 

Seed and Cultivation, $3 38 

Seven bush. Rye, - - - - ^ ^875 

Leaving as profit to land, $5 3*7 

Wheat sowed April 24th, 1855, where corn had grown the previous year. 
Seed, 1 bush.; land, one acre; injured by weevil and worms. 

Seed and cultivation, interest, taxes, etc., - - $12 50 
12 bush, of wheat at $2 25, 27 00 

Profit to land, ^9 50 



VALUE OF CEOPS. 411 



Corn No. 1, ploughed Nov., 1854, 8 inches deep, a sod, manured 25 loads 
of compost and manure on the furrow, and in the spring, and harrowed well, 
had been in grass from 6 to 15 years; land, 183 rods. 

Whole expense of oultivation, interest on land, taxes, 

etc., |35 09 

60 bush, shelled corn at $1 25, - - - - Vo 00 
Top stalks and butts, and 12 bush, small corn on the 

ear, 23 00 

Profit to land, $62 91 

No. 2, about | in clover the previous year, had been mowed twice, and 
winter killed, i under the plough for 3 years, with a rotation of crops with- 
out manure. 

16 loads of corn-manure spread broad- cast and ploughed 8 inches deep in 
May, 1854 ; land, 126 rods. 

Whole expense of cultivating, interest, etc., - - 12*7 65 

55 bush, of shelled corn 68 75 

Top stalks, etc., and ten baskets of small corn, - - 20 00 

Left to land, $61 20 

Remarks. — Corn planted from May 16th to 23d, 3 feet by 2|-, 3 stalks in 
a hill. A cultivator was passed between the rows 4 time.s ; 4 bush, of 
plaster were applied soon after it come up to both pieces, and hoed twice. 

Stalks topped from Sept. 4th to 13th, and well secured ; harvested from 
Sept. 25th to Oct. 16 th. 

Potatoes No. 1, in pasture, perhaps for 20 years; ploughed in Nov. 1854, 
6 inches dee^ land, 128 rods; harrowed well in the spring; seed, 4 bush., 
one piece in a hill ; hills, 2 by 3 feet, cultivated and hoed once, and once 
manured. Two bushels of plaster applied before hoeing. 

Whole expense, interest, etc., - - - - $18 40 
100 bush, potatoes at 40 ct.s, - - - - 40 00 



Left to land, $21 60 

No. 2, a piece of moist, cold land ; in all applied 6 loads of coarse manure 
broad-cast, and ploughed 4 inches deep ; then applied 5 loads of earth from 
a spot where an old house had stood, and harrowed well, and planted 1^ 
bushels of the Oregon potatoes, May 28th, applied 1 peck of plaster in the 
hill, hills 2 by 3 feet, 1 piece in a hill. Cultivated and hoed twice ; quan- 
tity of land, 34 rods. 

Whole expense, etc., $9 50 

40 bush, potatoes, 16 00 

To land, $6 60 

This crop was injured by frost; potatoes no more than three-fourths grown, 
but a variety we believe free from, under all situations a late potato, requiring 
a long season and high manuring. I have cultivated them three years. 

Remarks. — You will readily see at a glance the crop that pays best, and 
that will furnish the largest amount of fodder, for manure for succeeding crops. 
Our estimate of the value of small corn and fodder is lower than it ought to be 
in comparison to the price of hay, worth from $18 to $20 per ton in town. 



412 ARTIFICIAL AND MINERAL MANURES. 

We charge nothing for manure in the yard, only the labor of drawing it, 
being what the land is entitled to. No. 1 and 2 of corn is increased in 
value for the four succeeding crops perhaps 20 per cent., and probably No. 
2 of potatoes. No. 1 of potatoes is not increased in value, but probably 
will bear a fair crop of corn next season, and then will be stocked with 
clover and to pasture again. We have charged the dififerent crops one dollar 
per day board, included labor performed mostly by myself. 

Epping, N. H., December 12, 1855. D. L. Harvey. 



VARIOUS USES OF ARTIFICIAL AND MINERAL MANURES. 

At the suggestion of a subscriber, in our last number, we described the 
various modes of applying guano to the soil. We propose to extend these 
suggestions to other mineral and artificial manures. 

1. POUDRETTE AND NIGHT SOIL. 

Night soil should always be mixed with powdered charcoal, or pulverized 
peat, or with lime or gypsum, to overcome the odor and retain the gases. 
It may then be mingled freely in composts, and applied to the soil, scattered 
broadcast, or in hills, like any other manure. But the concentrated poudrette 
should not be in contact with the seed in large quantities. 

If poudrette is applied in the hills, only a tablespoonful should be placed 
on a hill, and this not in a pile but scattered, either before or after the seed 
is dropt. Potatoes will bear a more liberal allowance ihm corn. For 
melons, cucumbers, squashes, etc., a large hole should be dug two or three 
feet in diameter, and poudrette be scattered freely, and thoroughly mingled 
with the soil, which should be made mellow for a foot or more in depth. 
The seed may then be placed in a circle around the hole. For cabbages, a 
handful may be applied to each root. For carrots, beets, etc., the poudrette 
may be mixed with the seed before it is sown, and both dropt in the earth 
together. For a crop of oats, rye, etc., twenty or thirty bushels may be 
spread over an acre, and harrowed in before the grain is sown ; or it may be 
ploughed in, or it may be broadcast afterwards as on grass lands. On grass land 
it may be scattered broadcast, at the rate of thirty bushels per acre, more or 
less, and this should be done just before a shower. It may applied to grape 
vines, trees, etc., by scattering a half peck or more over the roots, and cover- 
ing and mixing it by the spade, etc. 

It is better to use poudrette in connection with farm-yard manure or guano, 
rather than alone. It " stimulates" for a time very highly, but is not so 
durable in its effects. Hence it is better for the land, to use it in connection 
with other manures. It may also produce an abundance of leaf and stem, 
and afterwards fail to secure fruit and grain. 

Night soil requires the same management as poudrette ; though exposure 
to a bad odor may sometimes require more caution in the application of it. 

GYPSUM OR PLASTER OF PARIS. 

This is more generally applied in the hill, for hilled crops. A table- 
spoonful or so may be placed in a hill. Prof. Johnston says that if it be 
mingled with common salt, when applied to clover, beans, peas, etc., it will 



EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 413 

be much more efficient ; but we have not seen it so applied. The salt m ay- 
be one half the weight of the plaster. Gypsum may be dissolved in water ; 
50 gallons of water will dissolve a pound, and applied in this form to any 
crop. Gypsum is however more generally efficient on clover and other 
grasses, peas, beans, etc., than it is with grains, turnips, or other green crops. 
It is also more useful on light and dry soils than on clay. It is well, als o, 
to alternate the use of this with animal manures. When sown with grain, 
or a bulk equal to that of the grain, 200 or 300 pounds to the acre may be 
thus applied. For corn, potatoes, peas and beans, etc., in the hills and to 
grass lands, five or six bushels per acre may be properly used. 

Gypsum is very useful also if mixed with barn-yard manure, whether it 
be daily or frequently sprinkled over it, or mixed with it when it is turned 
over, preparatory to using it. It is also useful when sprinkled over the floors 
of stables, in fixing gasses, as well as by its own action as a fertilizer. This 
is perhaps as important as any other form of applying it. 

Fish, Flesh, and other matters like these, consisting of very concentrated 
manures, should be mixed with six or eight times their weight of earth or 
other compost. A liberal proportion of powdered charcoal is advantageous. 
Cover a dead animal with powdered peat, muck, leaf mould, and the like, 
and the result is a very efficient manure. Dry gypsum will also be very use- 
ful in confining the gases and preventing a bad odor. Charcoal is of equal 
value. A little quicklime is also useful. Fish should never be spread over 
the ground and left uncovered. They produce evils of various kinds, and 
their fertilizing properties are wasted. They should be placed in layers, and 
covered with dry mould or muck, with charcoal or peat, if at hand, and thus 
alternating, be suffered to remain till thoroughly decomposed. It may then 
be used broadcast or in hills. 

In clay soils, fish may be ploughed under. The clay has power to retain 
the gaseous elements. From six to ten thousand of the smaller fish, like 
Menhaden, may be ploughed into an acre. Sometimes, on such soils, entire 
fish are applied in the hill. One fish, with a little wood ashes, or yard ma- 
nure, or two or three fishes applied alone, may be buried in a hill of corn. 

The effects of fish when used alone are but temporary. Their influence 
is more permanent when used in connection with charcoal, ashes, guano, 
gypsum, etc. 



EXHIBITION AT PARIS— PREMIUMS AWARDED TO AMERICAN'S. 

This great exhibition has been closed. The public ceremonies were had 
on the 15th of November. The Emperor made a speech, which appears 
from the reports of it to have been chiefly political. 

After the entry of the Emperor and his chief officers, ministers of State, 
the imperial household, the imperial commission, etc., an enormous orchestra 
seated in the gallery over the throne, composed of 1,300 persons, under the 
direction of Berloiz, then executed Vlmperiale, a cantata composed for the 
circumstance by Berloiz. After its conclusion, the Prince Napoleon stepped 
in front of the throne, and read a long address to their Majesties, which was 
heard by no one but those in the immediate neighborhood. Upon its con- 



414 EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 



elusion, the Emperor arose, and in a loud and clear voice made an address 
wliich was heard in the remotest part of the immense building. 

After the speech, those persons who had drawn the Grand Medal of 
Honor passed before the Emperor at the foot of the throne and received 
from his hands their medal. A majority of them also received the decora- 
tion of the Legion of Honor. 

After the conclusion of this part of the ceremony, their Majesties and 
suits came down from the jilatform and passed around the large aisle in the 
building, where the objects which had gained the grand medal had been 
placed. 

The United States has drawn a fair proportion of medals. 

Three Americans were decorated with the Legion of Honor at the Prince 
Napoleon's, viz. : Mr. Valentine, Chairman of the American Commission ; 
Mr. Marshall Woods, of Rhode Island, Juryman on Fine Arts Department, 
and Mr. Vattemare, (for services in American Department.) 

COMPLETE LIST OF RECOMPEN>SES AWARDED TO AMERICANS AT THE GREAT 

EXHIBITION. 

Decorations. 
W. J. Valentine, Chairman of the American Commission. 
Marshall Woods, Juryman on Fine Arts. 
Alexander Vattemare, for services in American department. 

Grand Medal of Honor, (gold.) 
Charles Goodyear, vulcanized India rubber. 

C. H. McCormick, reaper. 

Medal of Honor, (gold.) 
Bache & Kline. 
Lieut. Maury. 
J. A. Pitts, Buffalo, threshing-machine. 

Medals of the First Class, (silver.) 
AUston. 
Mauny. 

Tousley & Read. 
Manchester Print Worts. 
Thomas Blachard, timber-bending process. 
Samuel Colt, revolvers. 

Merriam, Brewer & Co., cotton goods, Boston. 
W. Seabrook, cotton goods. 
A. W. Ladd & Co., Boston, square piano. 
A. Mirmont, New- York, musical instruments. 
Singer & Co., New- York, sewing machines. 

D. King, Albany, model of river steamer. 

United States Navy Department, for collection of ship models, etc. 
M. Richmond, Boston, iron-cutting machine. 

M. Stewart, New-York, . 

Hamilton, cotton and wool fabrics. 

Medal of Second Class, {bronze.) 
J. Bart. 
Webb. 
Wright. 
Ir^i Jewell, foreman of Mr. Wright. 



EXHIBITION AT PARIS. 415 

Wethered & Brothers. 

Grover, Baker & Co. 

Garside. 

Gurney. 

Eawdon, Wright & Co. 

F. Toppan & Carpenter. 
Boisselerie Americaine. 

R. C. Elliott, South Carolina, Sea Island cotton. 
H. S. King, South Carolina, Sea Island cotton. 
M. Mickell, South Carolinf^, Sea Island cotton. 

G. Gemunder, New-York, violins. 

T. Seymour, New- York, sewing-machine. 

Wheeler & Wilson, New- York, sewing-machine. 

Fowler & Preterree, Paris, dentistry. 

Ringuet-Leprince, Marcoite & Co., New- York, sculptured walnut dressing- 
oase. 

Hiram Tucker, Boston, artificial marble. 

Z. Thompson, Vermont. 

J. Harraday, New- York, clothes-cutting machine. 

Sanborn & Carter. 

WoUe Brothers, Bethlehem, Pa., machine for manufacturing paper sacs. 
Honorable Mention. 

Valentine & Wheelock. 

Vergennes Scales Manufacturing Company 

Kline. 

Engel. 

HolliDgsworth. 

G. T. King. 

Lindworth. 

Del pit, Madame. 

Richard & Co. 

McLees. 

Meade Brothers. 

Hotchkiss. 

Jannecy. 

N. W. Kingsley, New- York, artificial teeth. 

Nicoll. 

J. Ross, New- York, artificial teeth. 

Russell. 

Schortose. 

Jones, White & McCurdy, artificial teetb. 

N. Day. 

T. Maskell, La., sliding keel for ships. 

Nathan Thompson, Jr., New- York, life-preserving seat and safety boat. 

L. Lacharme, California, specimens of California gold. 

Pioche, Bayerque & Co., California gold specimens. 

Backus & Peaslee, New- York, rag-washing machines. 

B. Moore. 

Th. Hodgkin. 

Schmitz & Jarosson, New-York, machine for printing cloth. 

Nelson Barlow, New-York, planing machine. 

Storms Brothers, New-York, preparation and conservation of alimentary 
substances. 



416 A NEW ESCULENT IN THIS COUNTRY. 
FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT PAINTING. 

Medal of the Second Class. 
G. P. A. Healy, Boston, portrait. 

Medal of the Third Class, 
T. P. Rossiter, New- York, pictures. 
Mr. May, New- York, pictures. 



KEEPING TURNIPS. ETC, IN WINTER. 

The way I keep my turnips, parsnips, and vegetable oysters in the winter, 
so as to have them available for use at any time, and to preserve their good 
qualities from frost or exposure to the atmosphere, may be new to most of 
the readers of your excellent paper — hence this communication. 

As late in the fall as is prudent to wait, I take my old barrel, and put a 
good layer of dry leaves on the bottom, then put a layer of turnips or parsnips, 
then another course of leaves, and so alternating, being careful to put in a 
good supply of leaves between the roots and the barrel, and also between 
each course of vegetables. 

Turnips properly put up in this way will not be corJcy, will keep good all 
winter, and can be got at any time. Parsnips put up in this manner will be 
better in the winter and in the spring than if left in the ground as is the 
common practice ; besides, you are not obliged to wait till the frost is out of 
the ground before you can have a mess. Your barrel of turnips should be 
kept in as cool a place as possible and still avoid freezing, as they grow unless 
kept dry and cool. The wind will blow the leaves into heaps soon, when 
they should be gathered ready for use. Will some one put up sweet potatoes 
this way and report the result? — Moored Rural New-Yorher, 



A NEW ESCULENT IN THIS COUNTRY. 

In May last I received from the Agricultural Division of the Patent Office, 
the " Chufas or Earth Almonds," known to botanists under the name of 
" Cyperus Esculentus," with the following notices of the same : 

It grows spontaneously in the light, humid soils of Spain, and iscuUivated 
in Germany and the south of France. If planted in May or June they are 
ready to be harvested in October. They resemble in taste a delicious chest- 
nut or cocoanut, and like them may be eaten raw or cooked. They are 
chiefly employed for making an orgeat, (orchata de chufus) a delightful, 
refreshing drink, much used in Spain, Cuba, and other hot climates where 
it is known. When mashed to a flour, which is white, sweet, and very 
agreeable to the taste, it imparts to water the richness and color of milk. 
At Almacero and Albargo considerable attention is paid to the cultivation 
of this plant, eight acres of land yielding a profit of $3,500 in five months. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 417 

I planted the tubers or bulbs according to directions accompanying them. 
They are now growing vigorously, and very easily cultivated, requiring no 
special care, and I have no doubt will be as productive as any vegetable 
grown in this climate. I hope to have seed enough to plant some two acres 
of ground next season. It is worthy of cultivation as an ornamental plant. — 
J. V. McCuLLouGH, Horticulturist. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

BiRMiKGiiAM, Cr. — Birmingham Irou Foundry. S. Bassett, President. 
Employ 50 hands on average ; make castings, turbine wheels, trip-hammers, 
etc. Henry Whipple and Moses Hawkins, foremen. 

Tack Factory of SheltonCo. 'E. N. Shelton, President. Use 42 machines ; 
make tacks of all kinds and sizes. N. H. Sherman, foreman. Also make 
bolts and nuts, employing 13 hands in this department. 

Plane Factory of L. De Forest. Turn out $20,000 worth goods annually ; 
make bench and moulding planes. 

Turning Factory of Geo. W. Shelton. Employ 30 hands on average ; 
turn out 130,000 worth yearly; do plain and fancy wood turning. Messrs. 
Shelton & Osborn, Agents for " Cast Cast-steel Company." 

Ansonia, Ct. — Farrel Foundry Co., F. Farrell, Agent. Employ 50 hands 
on average; turn out $80,000 worth yearly; do work for rolling and rub- 
ber and paper mills ; foundry connected. M. P. Wilson and E. Butterworth 
forem.en. Make S. <fe S. M. Colburn's Double Giant Mill. 

Wire Factory of Wallace & Sons. Make brass and copper wire, rolled, 
sheet and plated brass, tubing, kettles, nuts, jack chains, hooks and eyes, 
etc., etc. ; turn out $150,000 yearly. J. S. Riggs, refiner. 

Ansonia Brass and Battery Co. J. H. Bartholomew, Agent ; J. R. Light, 
C. D. Allen, Wm. Smith, R. Matthews, and others, foremen ; T. E. Miller, 
refiner. Employ 70 men on an average ; do brass and copper work, tubing, 
stamping, clock movements, etc., etc. 

Ansonia Copper Mill. Peter Phelps, Agent ; Thomas Whitney, super. ; 
David Coles, foreman ; Conrad Struckraan, refiner. Have 9 sets rollers ; 
employ 45 hands ; make sheet and bolt copper. 

Novelty Company. L. Fenn, Agent. Make Fenn's superior axes ; turn 
out 170 daily; business increasing; also do fancy and plain turning in 
wood. 

Cotton Mill of Sewoss & Sehenck. Has 18 cards of 36 inches; 26 
looms ; make seamless bags. 

Factory of Frary & Co. Employ 30 hands; make Wakefield's patent 
corn-planters. 

Factory of C. W. Fisk & Co. Employ 8 men, and machinery ; make 
melodeons of superior quality. Sold by John March, Philadelphia, Penn 

Seymour, Ct. — Humphrey ville Manufacturing Co. Reymond French, 
Agent ; Isaac P. Bottsford, Peter Worth, and others, foremen. Employ 250 
hands on average : make augers, plane irons, wroughtiron car work, etc., 
etc. ; machine shop attached has 5 lathes, and other tools in proportion. 

21 



418 INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

New-Haven Copper Co. Geo. De Forest, President ; Thoinas James, Jr., 
super. Works have 10 pair rolls ; make bolts, sheets, pipes, flues, and white 
metal. 

Rubber Factory of A. G. Day & Co. Work under Goodyear's patent ; 
employ 50 hands ; make pencil-cases, letter-folders, etc. Thomas Sault, 
superintendent of machinery. 

Auger Shop of the Upson Manufacturing Co. Hiram Upson, President ; 
H. A. Radford, Agent. Employ 20 hands on average ; have 2 trip ham- 
mers, 4 fires, etc. ; make augers, bitts, etc. 

Beacok Dam, Ct. — Beacon Dam Co. Geo. Goodyear, Agent ; Elijah 
Pierce, foreman. Make rubber flasks, casters, tape measures, cork-screws, 
syringes, pumps, etc. 

Novelty Rubber Co. George Langdon, Agent. Employ 40 hands on 
average ; make canes, buttons, etc., of rubber. 

Naugatuck, Ct. — Union Rubber Co. J. T. Trotter, Agent. Employ 
7o hands ; make rubber clothing. 

Glove Co. Geo. C. King, Agent. Employ 12 hands; make gloves,, 
mitts, finger cots, shields, etc. 

West-Winsted, Ct. — Winsted Foundry and Machine Co. Shop has 
8 lathes, and other tools in proportion; foundry has A. A. Perkins, foreman ;, 
do job work. 

Scythe Factory of Wheelock & Wilder, successors to W. Thayer & Co. 
Have 3 hammers, 2 stones. Turn out 2000 dozen annually. 

Empire Knife Co. Charles Thompson, Manager. Employ 45 banijs ;. 
make pocket cutlery. 

American Hoe Co. Louis R. Boyd, Agent. Make cast-steel hots fo? 
planters and cotton and sugar growers ; turn out 10,000 doz. aniuially. 

Forge Shop of Timothy Hulbert has 2 fires and 1 scrap furnace ; & 
trip hammers ; work scraps ; do largest kind of wsrk. 

Winsted Auger Co. Charles Spencer, Secretary. Employ CO h;u:ids ; 
use machinery ; make augers and bitts. 

Eeardsiey Scythe Co. Francis Brown, Manager. Turn out 5000 doz. 
annually ; make scythes, hay, straw and corn knives. 

East Winsted, Ct. — Factory of A. G. Gormans &; Co. Emploj? 20 
hands ; use machinery ; make jewelry. 

Winsted Manufacturing Co, John Camp, Agent. Make scythes ; turn 
out GOOO doz. annually. 

Clock Shop of Wm. L. Gilbert & Co. Make clock cases and movements : 
turn out 20,000 annually. 

Cook Axel Co. C. Cook, Secretary. Employ 20 hands. 

Wolcottville, Ct.— Stockinett Mill. A. G. Brady, Agent. Have 2 sets- 
machinery ; make shirts, drawers; employ 100 hands in all, including ?ew- 
ers. Thomas Hollingsworth, foreman. 

Union Manufacturing Co. F. N. Holley, Agent ; W. R. Slade, Superin- 
tendent. 1 mill woolen ; have 4 sets machinery; make black ca^simerts and 
doeskirs. 

Wolcottville Brass Co. Willis Curtis, foreman. Have G sots rollers; 
c<!8tirg shop and stamping; make brass kettles, rolled and sheet brass, 
plates and tubes. 

Pi vmouth Hollow, Ct. — American Knife Co. G. B. Pierpon^, P. esidcBL 



INPUSTEIAL STATISTICS. 419 

Employ 80 hands on average ; make superior pocket cutlery of all kinds and 
prices. 

Terry's Mill, woolen. H. Terry, owner ; John Cady and Ferris A. Castle, 
foremen. Has 4 sets machinery ; make black doeskins. 

Thomas' Cotton Mill. Seth Thomas, Agent. Nathan A. Daniels and 
others, foremen. Have 20 cards of 24 inches; 61 looms ; cloth 36 inches : 
52 by 52 : yarn 18. 

Bkoadbrook, Ct. — Broadbrook Co. 1 mill, woolen ; Nelson Palmer, 
A^ent; Wm. Hancock, Superintendent; N. P. Adams, Salmon North, H. 
W. Phillips, Sylvester Williams, John Wolf, and others, foremen. Mill has 
12 sets machinery ; 72 looms — 10 more to be added ; make fancy cassimeres. 

Warehouse Point, Conn. — Warehouse Point Manufacturing Co. 1 mill, 
woolen ; N. K. Benton, President ; B. Sexton, Treasurer ; A. Dennison, Su- 
perintendent ; F. W. Carpenter, John B. Orcutt, F. C. Whittaker and others, 
foremen. Mill has 7 sets cards, 4320 spindles, 52 looms ; make fancy Ciis- 
simeres. 

Windsor Locks, Conn. — Thread Mill of A. Wilmarth. Has 320 
spindles ; make thread of all colors and Nos. ; make superior thread for 
whips and to use in sewing-machines. 

Wire Factory of Royal Prouty. Turn out wire from to 36 Nos., for 
•cards, reeds, stone, brooms, etc. ; make satin, silk and cotton wire, all colors, 
for bonnets. 

Ci^nnecLicut River Mill, cotton, L. M. Pinkham, Agent. Mill has 16 
cards, 3000 spindles ; cloth is 28 inches wide, 68 by 72, of yarn Nos. 32 and 
36. 

Stockinett Mill. Alex. Downie, Superintendent. Has 2 sets cards, 12 
knitting machines ; make hose and stocking yarn. 

PiTTSFiELD, Mass. — Pomroy's Sons' Mills, 2 woolen. L. Pomroy's Sons, 
agents and owneis. Broadcloth mill has J. Daly, James Daly and others, 
foremen. Mill has 4 sets cards, 22 broad looms ; make cotton warp broad- 
■cloths. Satinet mill has 5 sets, 36 looms ; make cassimeres, cotton warps 
for printing. C. Hemenway, superintendent ; Joseph Daly, Jr., Wm. Daly 
and others, foremen. 

Pittsfield Woolen Co. R. Pomroy, Treasurer ; W. F. Bacon, Secretary ; 
S. M. Caldwell, Charles Harden and others, foremen. Mill has 3 sets ma- 
chinery, 36 broad looms; make cotten warp broad-cloths; warps purchased. 

Woolen Mill of S. M, & C. Russell. Mill has 1 set machinery, 10 looms ; 
make satinets; warps ])urchased ; Tillotson Clarkson, foreman. Wadding 
mill attached has 7 cards ; Cornelius Warner, superintendent. 

Pontoosac Woolen Co. Geo. Campbell, Agent; Ttiaddeus Clapp, Jr., 
manager; Thad. Clapp 3d, superintendent; Amos Arraitage, Timothy 
Cotton, James H. Wylie and others, foremen. Mill has 6 sets machinery, 
40 broad looms ; make coiton warp broad-cloths ; warps purchased. 

Cotton Mill of E. & J. L. Peck; has 30 cards; make satinet warps from 
1800 to 2000 ends of No. 18 yarn. 

Great Barrington, Mass. — Berkshire Woolen Co. A. C. RiiK^ell, 
Agent ; Geo, W. Fuller and others, foremen. Mill has 8 sets cards, 82 
looms ; make plain union cassimeres ; cotton warps, which are purchased, 

HocsATONic, Mass, — Monument Mills. J. M. Seely, Agent. Mill haS 
16 cards, 1056 spindles, 2 dressers; make satinet warps, No. 18 yarn, from 
1500 to 1800 ends. Wm. Black and others, foremen. 



4S0 INDUSTEIAL STATISTICS. 

Glendale, Mass. — Woolen Mill of J. Z. & C. Goodrich-, John T. Fenn, 
superintendent ; John A. Lynd, and others, foremen. Mill has 6 sets ma- 
chinery, 1820 spindles, 60 looms; make union cotton warp cassi meres for 
printing. Machinery in part is operated night as well as day. Gas used for 
lighting ; made on the premises. 

Lee, Mass. — Center St. Machine Shop. J. A. Morey, owner. Has 5 
lathes, and other tools in proportion ; make paper-mill machinery, and do 
job work. 

Saxony Mills. Platner & Smith, owners ; Jonas Holmes, superintendent; 
cassimere mill has John McKenna, Ephraim French, James Mitchell and 
others, foremen ; Y sets machinery ; make fancy cassimeres. Satinet mill has 
Aurora, Moree and Castle, foremen ; 3 sets machinery, 36 looms; make sat- 
inets; warps purchased. 

Cotton Mill of Beach & Royce, has George H. Holmes, foreman ; 12 
cards, 24 inches ; 18 looms ; make seamless bags. 

Machine Shop of Tanner & Perkins; has 13 lathes, and other tools in 
proportion ; make paper-mill machinery, and do job work ; foundry attached 
has 5 hands on average. 

South Adams, Mass. — Pollock's Mill, cotton. Wm. Pollock, owner ; A. 
R. Lovell, superintendent. Mill has 32 cards, 3886 spindles ; make satinet 
warps. 

Woolen Mill of B. F. Phillips & Co., owners and superintendents ; Wm. 
Brown, John M. Morin and others, foremen. Mill has 3 sets machinery ; 
make satinets for printing ; warps purchased. 

Brown Mill, cotton. Plunkett & Brown, owners. Mill has 87 looms; 
cloth 28, 60 by 56 ; of yarn No. 28. 

Maple Grove Mill, cotton. R. Leonard & Co., Agents ; Curtis Rider, 
superintendent; Charles Tower and D. M. Randall, foremen. Mill has 8 
cards, 30 inches; 1600 spindles, 48 looms; make prints, 28 inches wide, 
48 by 52 ; yarn 28. 

Adams' Mill, cotton. Adams, Brothers & Co, Agents ; Myron Trow, fore- 
man. Mill has 9 cards of 36 inches, 1380 spindles, 40 looms; cloth is 37 
inches, 44 by 44; of yarn 16. 

Arnold Mill, cotton. S. L. Arnold & Co., owners. Mill has S. W. How- 
land, superintendent ; S. A. Hunt, foreman. 8 cards of 36, 1860 spindles, 
56 looms; cloth 28, 56 by 60 ; yarn 29. 

Greylock Paper Mill. L. L. Brown & Co. Has 6 engines ; make nice 
plat papers. 

Plunkett Mill, cotton. Plunkett & Wheeler, Agents ; Alonzo Wright and 
others, foremen. Mill has 16 cards of 18 inches ; 1808 spindles, 60 looms 
cloth 28, yarn 27. 

Chatham Fouii Corners, N.Y. — Repair Shop of Harlem and Troy Rail- 
road. John J. Ferris, master mechanic. For the above road repairs are 
made in iron and wood shops ; works are enlarging. 

CLOCK STATISTICS. 

West Meriden, Ct. — Factory of Bradly & Hubbard, owners ; turn out 
100 superior clocks daily. Movements purchased. Nathan L. Bradly, 
Agent. 

Meriden, Ct. — Factory of F. Rodolph; turn out 100 clocks daily. Move- 
ments purchased — sold to Coe & Co., Boston and New- York. 



storm's cloud engine. 421 



STORM'S CLOUD ENGINE. 

In our last number, we mentioned this as among the valuable inventions 
exhibited in the Fair of the American Institute. We believe the invention 
worthy of more extended notic#, and that machinists will find something in 
it to lead them to a careful study of its theory. 

Probably we do not make sufficient account, as yet, in the investigation 
of steam, as a motive power, of the agency of electricity. It may be excited 
where we have not yet discovered it, and, on the other hand, we may not 
always avail ourselves to the greatest extent of its tremendous power. This 
fluid may be within our reach when we little suspect it. A trifling change 
in the arrangements of an engine might bring it into play, with almost re- 
sistless force, where its influence is scarcely known. 

The doctrine of latent heat is so exceedingly mystical, the nature of it, or 
rather its state, when latent, is so utterly beyond our conception, that it 
would not be strange if future experiments should develop some connection, 
that we have not yet dreamed of. between the action of electricity and the 
development of latent caloric. Mr. Storm, however, is perhaps too expficit, 
with our present knowledge of the subject, when he says, " ' Latent heat' of 
steam or of any other artificial vapor generated by heat, in a close vessel, is not 
such strictly, but would be more properly expressed as combined electricity, 
heat and electricity being, under certain conditions, convertible and different 
phenomena of the same cause." But we prefer that he should give his own 
explanations in relation to the power of steam and of his engine. He says: 

" Steam is an artificial and nearly invisible vapor, never existing outside of 
the closed space iu which it is generated. 

" An atom of steam is nearly a solid spheroid (if the term solid may be ap- 
plied to a liquid atom,) while the particles of all natural vapors or clouds are 
' vesicular' or hollow. Steam, in escaping from a boiler into the atmosphere, 
instantly assumes this latter form, and thereby becomes visible — steam itself 
being always transparent like air. The atoms of steam being thus rendered 
hollow, vesicular, or inflated, necessarily occupy more space and possess a 
higher elasticity. And while in ordinary steam all the ' latenf portion of 
its heat, amounting to about three-fourths of all expended, has to be invested 
in the water before it has 071^/ elastic power at all — and where — as this 
' latent heat' passes through and away from the engine with the escape steam, 
without undergoing any change of condition whatever, or being in any manner 
brought into action — it is consequently wasted. And, as it is well known 
th^t ^ vesicular^ vapors, have only a trifling amount of 'latent heat' for a 
given amount of elasticity and volume as compared with other vapors, and 
lliat all other vapors whatever, have a total power just in the proportion to 
the amount of their ' latent' heat ; it is therefore evident, that by converting 
such artificial vapor or steam from any liquid into the vesicular form, or na- 
tural steam, such as constitutes the clouds of the atmosphere, and which is 
readily efiectedby allowing them to combine, by the natural afiinity which 
exists, with air or other permanent gas^eous body, thus imitating nature, an 
immensely less quantity of caloric must be consumed. 

" CLOUD AS A MOTIVE AGENT. 

"The following elucidation of the cause of the great expansion resulting 
from the admixture, in any closed space of air and steam, may be more 



422 stoem's cloud engine. 

satisfactory to exclusively practical minds, because involving no abstruse 
scienliflo reasoning. 

" That the heat or temperature of the steam has little to do with the expan- 
sion resulting from the mixture of steam and air, will at once be evident 
from the well-established fact, that it requires about 540 degrees Fahrenheit 
lo double the volume of a given quantity of air at the ordinary atmospheric 
temperature (say 60 degrees,) as a starting ^oint. — See 'Eifects of heat on 
the elasticity of the gases,' article, Pneumatic — Brande''s Encyclo])edia^i^&gQ 
947. This temperature, which in steam would give the uncontrollable pres- 
sure of about 1000 lbs. per single square inch, or about 65 atmospheres, 
merely doubles the tension of a confined measure of air, about twice this 
juantity of caloric being necessary to supply its expansion to a double volume. 

" But the same air, if allowed to form vesicular vapor by contact with heat- 
ed water (or steam,) will be double in volume, starting from the same point, 
(60 degrees,) by the time it has reached 192 degree?, or 20 degrees less 
than the boiling point of water in an open kettle — or less than the formation 
of steam of a single atmosphere of pressure, and incapable of any force till 
the atmosphere is removed. And to form even this weak steam five and a 
iialf fold more time and live and a half more fuel must be consumed than 
that required to expand the air to double the volume by the vesicular pro- 
<-,03s just mentioned ; no " latent heat having been invested in that case. The 
corresponding increase of tension at the same time, instead of being merely 
<iouble, is over 30 fold ! 

" These facts are matters of standard record, and were brought to light by 
c-ftbrts to ascertain why a very trifling leakage of air into the condenser of 
tiie steam-engine created so much back tension as to almost annul the vacu- 
um. — See Dalton's experiments, Philosop)hical Transactions, and Tredgold 
OH the Steam-engine [marine,) page 78. 

" The steam world is challenged to take its choice between the soundness 
and value of the cloud principle (vesicular vapor versus spheroidal vapor, or 
steam.) or the repudiation of its own highest authorities. 

" That the agent of power here brought into action is electricity, is no new 
'iiscos'ery ; for it is known to all men versed in the physical sciences, that 
oteam, produced by heat, from whatever source, when coming in contact with 
the air, organizes at once in the form of vesicular vapor or cloud — this hal- 
io«' or vesicular form, by a law of optics, rendering it then at once visible, 
it, is equally known, that all such vesicles are electrized and mutually re- 
pellant. — See Saussure, Thompson on Heat, etc. My discovery is, that the 
.s&wce of this electricity, and of that of all clouds, is the so-called ' latent heal' 
of the primarily formed vapor or steam, the conversion of sensible heat, from 
■whatever source, sun or fire, into this 'latent' form, being, in fact, its cou- 
vtrsion into ' latent' or combined electricity, which is afterwards set free 
when the change to the vesicular state takes place. That immense torrents 
of electricity may be developed from steam (whatever be the accepted rea- 
son why,) it is only necessary to refer as proof to experiments wherein, from 
:i boilder of only a few horses power, flashes of lightning nearly two feet Jong 
and too fast to count, are evolved from steam escaping into the atmosphere 
under a moderate pres.sure of about 60 lbs. to the inch. — See A'oad''s Elec- 
tricity, page 7. 

" Now, if the tension and volume of the air becomes so great by taking up 
in vesicular suspension the moderate amount of water it can take up under 
the moderate pressures and temperatures mention in Tredgold's table here- 
inbefore cited, what must that result be when the water is heated to a point 



CARE OF CHINA AND GLASS. 



corresponding to 70 lbs. guage pressure, ia which case it (the air) would 
take up over 30 times as much, every 27 degrees, doubling its capacity in 
this respect ? — See Brockleshy^s Elements of Meteorology^ page 32, where 
tables are given, or any similar work. 

" And again, what if this water, previously to being so taken up and com- 
bined with the air, had been converted into steam at that same temperature- 
and pressure (70 lbs.,) and which* would then be invested with ih-rit fountain of 
all expansion, the so-called ' latent heat,' which, as the air and steam com~ 
bined by their own rapid affinity into the vesicular or cloud form, would be 
set free (not as heat, as the thermometer proves,) but as free electricity of 
low tension, and su more easily retained by the vesicles, but in great quan- 
tity^ and productive of a correspondingly great volume and elastic power.- 
in a single acre oF fog or vesicular vapor there is, although unfelt, sufficient 
electricity to kill, if concentrated, every animal that might be gathered with- 
in that acre. — See Faraday'' s Experimental Researches in Electricity. 

" This, simply, be its properties what they may, is artificial cloud, and the 
agent by which the ' Cloud-engine' is actuated and from which it derives its 
name — and to the scientific mind, with these universally established data 
arranged before it — it will be clear that the phenomenon developed by the 
Cloud-engine involves neither wonder nor mystery, but, on the contrary, has 
thus far only made a modest ap^roacA towards just and soundly founded 
expectations." 

In accordance with this theory, Mr. Storm introduces a portion of air, by 
means of a forcing-pump, into his cylinder, which combines with the steam 
and produces the remarkable effects described in the experiments of Mr.. 
Allen and other engineers. 



OARE OF CHINA AND GLASS. 

The most important thing to do is to " season" either glass or China to- 
sudden change of temperature, so that it will remain sound after exposure 
to sudden heat and cold. Now, this is best done by placing the articles in 
cold water, which must gradually be brought to the boiling point, and then 
allowed to cool very slowly, taking a whole day or more to do it. The com- 
moner the materials the more care in this respect is required. The very best 
glass and China is always well seasoned, "annealed," as the manufjicturers 
say, before it is sold. If the wares are properly seasoned in this way, they 
may be " washed up" in boiling water without fear of fracture, except to 
frosty weather, when, even with best annealed wares, care must be taken not 
to place them suddenly in too hot water. All China that has any gildicg 
upon it must on no account be rubbed with a cloth of any kind, but merely 
rinsed, first in hot, and afterwards in cold water, and then left to drain till 
dry. If the gilding is very dull, and requires polishing, it may now and 
then be rubbed with a soft wash-leather and a little dry whiting ; but^ 
remember, this operation must not be repeated more than once a year, 
otherwise the gold will most certainly be rubbed off, and the Chiua spoilt. 
When the plates, etc., are put away in the China closet, a piece of pMper 
should be placed between each to prevent scratches. Whenever tliey "clHtter," 
the glaze or painting is sustaining some injury, as the bottom of all ware has. 



424 STAGE STEAM COMPANY. 

its particles of sand adhering to it, picked up from the oven where it was 
glazed. The China closet should be in a dry situation, as a damp closet will 
soon tarnish the gilding of the best crockery. 

In a common dinner service it is a great evil to make the plates "too hot," 
as it invariably cracks the glaze on the surface, if not the plate itself. We 
all know the result — it comes apart ; " nobody broke it," " it was cracked 
before," or " cracked a long time ago." Tbfe fact is, that when the glaze is 
injured, every time the "things" are washed the water goes to the interior, 
swells the porous clay, and makes the whole fabric rotten. In this condition 
they will absorb grease ; and being made too hot again, the grease makes 
the dishes brown and discolored. If an old, ill-used dish be made very hot 
indeed, a teaspoonful of fat will be seen to exude from the minute fissures 
upon its surface. The latter remarks apply more particularly to common 
wares. 

In a general way, warm water and a soft cloth is all that is required to 
keep glass in a good condition ; but water bottles and the decanters, m order 
to keep them bright, must be rinsed out with a little muriatic acid, which is 
the only substance which will remove the fur which collects in them ; and 
this acid is far better than ashes, sand, or shot ; for the ashes and sand scratch 
the glass, and if any shot is left in by accident, the lead is poisonous. 

Richly cut glass must be cleaned and polished with a brush like plate, 
occasionally rubbed with chalk; by this means the luster and brilliancy are 
preserved. — London paper. 



STEAM STAGE COMPANY. 



Mr. Wm. Webster, of Morissania, inventor and patentee of the ingenu- 
ous tube-bending machine exhibited at the Crystal Palace, has acquired a 
prospective interest in Mr. J. K. Fisher's improved steam carriage; and has 
issued a prospectus for a company, to be called the New-York and West- 
chester Steam Stage Co., to run from Fordham to the City Hall. If the 
carriacres work as is expected, thirty or more will be run. 

We have carefully examined this subject, and are satisfied that it will 
prove quite practical. On this particular route, however, it will have a rail- 
way to contend with, and therefore may not realize the profit which would 
attend it if opposed only by horse power, for the whole distance ; still, as a 
third of the railway work is done by horses, we have hope of its being able to 
compete with some advantage. 

If railcars could always have full loads, the immense advantage of the 
track would place them above the competition of common roads, worked by 
the same power. But on an average, as shown by the report of the State 
engineer, they carry a dead weight of more than 3000 lbs. per passenger. 
Steam stao-es, with the average loads that may be expected, will not have 
more than 400 lbs. dead weight, or 550 lbs. total weight per passenger ; — 
a diflference which, of itself, will half balance the advantage of rails. Add 
that the wheels will be more than twice the diameter of car wheels, and 
therefor© have less than half the resistance, (for the same road,) we think 
they have a fair chance on this route. 



VERMONT VERD ANTIQUE. 425 



The New-York business men who live on that line have, as vpe understand 
the case, a strong collateral motive to sustain this enterprise, even though it 
should not pay a large per centage. The railway does not give them satis- 
faction, but aims to make them pay for the losses sustained on the long line 
of this road, and for the bad management of it. They have been, and are 
every season liable to be, required to pay more and more for commutation, 
and have less and less accommodation, unless they can start an efficient op- 
position — an opposition that can rival the railway in speed. When machinery 
of this tind was in its infancy, it was deemed "absolutely a mechanical 
impossibility to suspend a steam carriage on easy springs." This difficulty 
is entirely overcome by the improvements of Mr. Fisher. 

We have taken no little pains to inform ourselves on this subject, and 
we do not hesitate to assert our conviction that it is feasible to operate steam 
carriages successfully, on many routes, and that this or any other company 
who shall undertake and carry on such an enterprise in an efficient manner, 
with only a moderate capital, will be successful. 



VEKJIONT VERD ANTIQUE. 

We are happy to give space to the subscriber of the following letter to 
reply to our comments on this new building stone. It should have appeared 
in the December number, but was accidentally omitted. 

We have no hesitation in attaching to the statements of our friend all the 
importance that the name of one of thorough business talent and unques- 
tioned and unquestionable integrity can properly claim. We may be proved 
to be in error. Stranger things have happened. The future will settle the 
question. — Ed. P. L. & A. 

BosTox, Oct. 13, 1855. 

Gentlemen : — With this I hand you a pamphlet issued by our Verd 
Antique Marble Co., to the perusal of which I ask your attention. And when 
you are in this city, I beg you would step into our office, No. 32 City Ex- 
change, and see what you have written about on page 213 of your October 
No. of The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil. 

All that is known of this beautiful material is set forth in the pamphlet 
alluded to ; and the reasons for saying what has been said are drawn from 
the certificates of the eminently scientific men therein copied. 

The quantity of Lime in the material, you will notice is very small, its 
component parts being Silica and Magnesia, which do not fuse under an 
acid. 

The pure white lines running through it in every conceivable direction is 
not Lime, but a mineral somewhat new to geologists and chemists, the name 
of which is not definitely fixed. Dr. Hayes, one of our State assayers, is now 
thoroughly testing this white material for the purpose of more fully satisfy- 
ing himself what it really is. 

With reference to its being impervious to acids, I would say, that the piece 
or spot is yet to be found which will show the slightest blemish under the 
application of the strongest acids. Dr. Jackson's fire test is also corroborated 



426 ECTBBER CLEANING. 



as the quarrying deepens in the ledge. Those who do not believe it can 
test it for themselves. 

Our orders from the Capitol at Washington are nearly completed. The 
intention of Capt. Meiggs is to ornament inside and not outside of the build- 
ing, which, I scarcely think, you would risk your reputation in denouncing 
as in bad taste at the present day. 

A block 20 feet long, and of dimensions otherwise equal to 1200 cubic 
feet, has just been removed from its bed, and is now being cut up into col- 
umns for the Capitol. 

If from time to time you wish for further items touching this newly dis- 
covered interest, I shall be most happy to communicate them. Meanwhile 
remaining your friend and ob'd't servant, Wm. S. Sampson, 

Corner of Broad and State Sts. 



RUBBER CLEANING. 

Much of the rubber coming to our market is exceeding filthy. Such is 
■specially the case with the article which reaches us from the countries of 
southern Asia, where the gum is produced in largest quantities, and when 
the production is in the localities of the inhabitants. Heretofore, the purest 
and most valued article has come to us from Peru, whither it is brought 
from the interior of the country by persons who seek that interior for the sole 
purpose of gathering the gum. Wherever found, much of it is impure, and is 
mixed with particles of sand and with bark. It exudes as a milky substance 
from the trees, and hardens after exuding, so that a large per cent is some- 
limes found to be a putrid and acrid mass of half-decayed gum, utterly un- 
dt for manufacturing into useful articles. Only Peru rubber of pure quality 
could be used in making nice articles. This state of things has continued 
for many year.", while efforts were made to discover modes and machinery 
for cleansing the imperfect mass. Mr. G. Day, late of New-Haven, Ct, now 
uf Seymour, has invented and patented machinery to cleanse rubber; having 
hy many and costly experiments discovered the best manner of doing the 
work. We have been made acquainted with the rationale of the process of 
cleansing, and we have minutely examined the newly constructed, and pa- 
tented, and expensive machinery used in carrying out the process. It is 
not our purpose to describe the steps of the proce!^s nor the apparatus, but 
only to say, that the labors and researches of Mr. Daj^ have been followed by 
satisfactory success. The machinery for cleansing is in operation at a fac- 
tory in Seymour, Ct. ; and there the work of cleansing is going rapidly for- 
ward. From May 1st to November 1st, 350,000 pounds were cleansed. 
During the process, the crude conglomerate of gum, sap, sand, bark and 
acids, costing about eighteen dollars per hundred pounds, was made worth 
thirty dollars; each pound being almost doubled in value by being made fit 
for use in the construcLion of delicate and highly finished goods. Such is 
the complete success following the experiments and discoveries of Mr. Day 
in cleansing rubber. As one consequence of his success, tlie value of crude 
rubber has greatly increased. AhOlher consequence is, tLat more articles 



OSGOOD SCALE. 42'Z' 



will be made of rubber and they can be made at less cost. Another re?vjlfe 
which the discovery will bring about is, that an almost worthless production 
is made to contribute largely to human happiness and comfort. 

Caoutchouc is a purely tropical production. It is sought after on the Ama- 
zon far away from the sea-shore and the abodes of men ; and it is found and 
brought to market at great cost of life and money. In this part of the 
tropical world, the gum seems to be nearly exhausted. In Asiatic regions 
the gum is found near in districts that are inhabited. But this gum is sent 
away crude and of greatly inferior quality. A mode of cleansing having 
been discovered, this easily found and gathered Asiatic gum is made to take 
the place of that from the Amazon, and an inexhaustible supply for all 
nations in all times to come is found. The community will be great gainers by 
the results of Mr. Da}'s ponderous machinery, and his stringent chemicals^ 
and his monstrous laboratory ; and we hope that himself may get cash as 
well as fame for his fifteen years' patient and expensive experiments. 



Patent Wash-Tub. — Mr. G. W. Edgecomb, of Lima, III, has a patent 
dated Aptil, 1855, for a wash-tub of peculiar excellence. It is of common 
size and stands upon its own stool or chair. From the centre of the bottom 
a spindle is made to rise some 18 or 20 inches perpendicularly. Around 
the base of the spindle, nailed to the bottom of the tub, are semi-spherical 
cones, the smaller ends pointing to the base of the spindle, and the larger 
extending outward. These, made of wood and nailed down, corrugate the 
bottom of the tub. Above this bottom is a disk, the under side of which is 
corrugated like the bottom of the tub, makinof the two corrugated siufaces- 
face each other. In the centre of the disk is a hole, .suited to the spindle- 
shooting up from the centre of the bottom. The disk is also furnished with 
handles applied to its upper surface. The washing is done by putting clothes 
and water m the tub — putting the disk down upon them, the spindle of the 
tub entering the hole in the centre of the disk, and then, by means of th© 
handles on the disk, giving it a rotary motion backwards and forwards. The 
corrugated surface of ihe disk and bottom do the hand-work of the washing. 
The cost of the whole aparatus is about Jive dollars. Mr. Ezra Pollard , of 
Albany, is agent for New-England. It is said that with this machine one 
person will do as much washing in a given time, as three persons can in the- 
common way. 



The Osgood Scale. — The Parker Scale Co., of West Meriden, Ct., of' 
which Mr. H. B. Osgood is the agent, is making scales which have all the 
essential features of the Fairbank scales with an addition upon which a pa- 
tent was secured in January, 1852. The patent was taken out in the name 
of Mr. Osgood, and is used with perfect satisfaction by the company of 
which he is the acting agent. The patent has reference to an improved 
mode of making the lever^ besides which the scales are like those constructed 
by the Fail banks. 

The Paiker Scale Company is making scales of all sizes, from that re- 
quired to weigh a loaded caual boat or railroad car, down to a letter or »- 
grain of gold. 



428 



CARRIAGE SHAFT COUPLING. 



CARRIAGE SHAFT COUPLING. 



BBNKDICTS PATENT. 




The Ibregoing cut gives various views of a carriage shaft coupling, com- 
ing rapidly into use in this country. It is made by Messrs. W. J. Clark & 
Co., of Southington Ct, who own the patent, secured in the name of Bene- 
dict. The cuts are clear pictures of the invention. Fig. 1 is a view of the 
coupling attached to a section of the axle, which section is denoted by a. 
Fig. 2 is a coupling with clip as it appears ready to apply to the axle. Fig. 
3 is the shaft-iron with eye, which is to be welded at c to the strap of iron 
which lines the under side of the end of each shaft. In Fig. 2 d is the bar- 
rel in which the tumbler e revolves, as marked by the circular line between 
d and e. The square slot in the tumbler e, in Fig. 2, stands as it usually 
does when the carriage is in use ; and to insert the shaft, it is necessary to 
turn the tumbler round, so as that the opening corresponds with the opening 
in the barrel, then raising the shafcs to a perpendicular position, raise the 
eyes of the shafc-irons up into the slots, and bring the top of the shafts for- 
ward and down to their proper position, and the coupling is accomplished per- 
fectly. 

To remove the shafts is but the work of a raomeut. It is done by eleva- 
ting them perpendicularly to the point where they were when inserted. In 
applying the coupling care should be taken to bend the shaft-iron to a proper 
curve in the vicinity of b, fig. 3, so that the shafts cannot be removed until 
they are elevated to the highest point without striking the body of the car- 
riage. 

The excellencies of this coupling are numerous. It is obviously very safe, 
as no nut or bolt is used about the coupling to be loosening, as nuts and 
bolts are apt to do sometimes under dangerous circumstances. It is conve- 



MODEL MILL 429 



nient beyond a parallel, for disconnecting the sliafts when desired frona the 
axle. It makes little rattle when worn ; and also it is very cheap. Addition- 
al information may be obtained by inquiring of the manufacturers. D. 



MODEL MILL. 



During the last few years some fine mills have been built for the manu- 
facture of woolen goods in New-England, and other fine ones have been in 
successful operation from ten to twenty years. Among those lately built 
may be named the Glendale Mill, in Pascoag, R. I., which was erected a 
year or too since under the personal inspection, and by the special direction 
of Mr. Lyman Copeland of that place, who has been actively engaged in 
manufacturing for nearly thirty years ; and is well acquainted with the early 
modes of working, as well as with all the improvements of the present day. 
This mill is constructed of stone, and it is of suflBcient size to accommodate 
easily and very conveniently, eight sets of machinery. It is high enough in 
stories to give ample room for shafting, pullies, and belting; and it is sup- 
plied with windows to give ample light among the machines in common 
weather. The machinery, from picker to finisher, is made according to the 
latest and most approved patterns ; it having been built and purchased more 
with reference to perfectness than cheapness. No improvement developed in 
the past history of woolen manufacturing, is wanting in the mill to make a 
perfect fabric with the most economy. The foremen, too, in the various de- 
partments of sorting, dyeing, carding, spinning, weaving and finishing, are 
all men in the prime of manhood, having each learned his profession under 
circumstances and with machinery adapted to giv^e him great skill in labor. 
Under the superintendence of Mr. Albert B. Copeland, who has been prac- 
tically engaged in each single department of the whole process of manufac- 
turing from his youth up to manhood, the mill presents a pleasing aspect, 
and may well be called a model mill. A visitor passing from one room to 
another, whilst he admires the cleanliness of everything, and the harmony and 
the symmetry of the whole, cannot f;iil to feel that he is inspecting an estab- 
lishment almost without a superior. Other mills may have more ornament, 
and others still may be larger, and yet others may turn out more strikingly 
figured goods, yet but few, if any, can be found which combine so many 
acknowledged modern improvements. The parts by themselves are perfect, 
and as a whole make a perfect system. 

The sample-book is a curiosity in its way. It is so large as to remind the 
examiner of the Chinese legend, and its pages are adorned with a "thousand 
and one " samples of cloth made. All ground colors and all fancies of 
figures, grave and gay, for the lighted-hearted and the sedate, multiform and 
brilliant as the llowers of spring, are found on those amply clothed pages. 
Ingenuity and taste will add to this variety still more in the future, for every 
■day some new pattern is invented, and some new sample is fixed on those 
pages. If any person wishes to see the latest patented or most highly ap- 
proved machinery, his time and curiosity will not be lost in visiting Glendale 
Mill, whose agent and superintendent will give him a kind and courteous re- 
ception. 



430 porter's stone dressing- machine. 



COMPANY OF INVEKTORS. 

We Lave received several letters in relation to the plan that we presented 
some two or three months ago for a sort of joint company, to aid inventors 
without pecuniary means to present before the public their valuable inyen- 
tions. ^ We invite others, who are disposed to look into this subject, and to 
assist in devising the details of the plan, to write to us their views at an early 
day.^ We will communicate to such the details proposed, or suggested rather^ 
and invite their cooperation in perfecting the system. They may thus do 
themselves and others a good service. We have reason to believe that the 
American Institute, if desired, would be both able and willing to grant 
facilities to such a company of great service to the members. Now^is^a 
favorable time for action. 



PORTER'S STONE DRESSING MACHINE. 

This is a valuable invention. We are always pleased to see the work whicb 
is accomplished by machines performed in the same manner as when done 
by hand. It is this peculiarity which commends to our judgment the sew- 
ing machine by Eobinson. It does not sew so rapidly as some others, only 
doing the work of six or eight people ; but it takes the same stitches which 
are made by the living seamstress, and just that stitch which the nature 
of the work requires. This close imitation of hand labor is witnessed in the 
operation of Porter's machine. The following is a description of its parts : 

A l.irge iron frame, swinging on a central bolt, contains a cross piece 
which holds all the chisels and other working apparatus. The position of 
this frame determines the direction of the chisels, that is, the angle at which 
they stand in relation to the stone. This central bolt may also ^easily be 
raised or lowered, according to the thickness of the stone to be wrought. 
Above the chisels, and in the same line of direction, are several very large 
hammers, having a motion of about one inch and a qaarter. Behind the 
hammers are stout spiral springs assisting in confining them in their place. 
Motion is given to these hammers by cams placed on a cross shaft, just be- 
hind the hammers, so arranged as to cause the hammers to strike, not simul- 
taneously, but in succession. The hammers being raised by the cams, 
strike with great force upon the chisels, each of which has a motion of one 
tenth of an inch, chipping off the stone to such a depth as may be required. 

The chisels are of various patterns, each suited to the nature of the work 
required. Three hundred revolutions per minute may be given. 

The stone rests upon a travelling platform, and admits a stone three feet 
and four inches wide and twelve or sixteen feet long. Or two such plat- 
forms may be fastened together. The whole is simple in its construction. 
The chisels are changed with great facility, and the workmanship is excellent, 
the stone being lefc with a good finish from one end to the other. It usually 
requires to be passed through a machine three times. When one side is 
finished, the stone is turned over, and other sides are dressed in such stjleas 
may be desired. The machine is estimated to do the work of fifty men, or 
dress one thousand superficial feet of brown store, or nearly five hundred 



Allen's stone saw frame. 



431 



feet of marble once over in ten hours, allowing the machine to be idle one 
third of the lime. 

This machine is now in operation in Fourteenth street, in this city, be 
tween the Ninth and Tenth avenues. We commend it to the notice of those 
of our readers who are interested in such kind of work. 



IMPROYED BALANCE WATER-GATE. 



~~"''''^-^^^«iii^ 




W^' 



This figure is a view of an improved Balance Water-Gate, invented by 
F. S. Coburn, of Ipswich, Ms., and for which he has taken measures to secure 
a patent. Figure 1 is an inside view. A in figure 2 is a circular gate with 
two openings B B, when the gate is turned, so that the openings B B are 
opposite the openings C C the water passes through. When the gate is 
closed, as the pressure of the water is alike on all the surface of the gate, it 
IS equally balanced on the screw D which can be so adjusted that there shall 
be just friction enough to keep the gate water-tight and no more. This gate 
is so sensitive that the governor will readily regulate the flow of water. The 
inventor will assign his interest in this invention for any State in the Union, 
Alassachusetts excepted, on terms that cannot fail to be satisfactory. 



Allen's Stone Saw Frame. — A gentleman of Dorset, Vt., offered not 
long since a piize of 110,000 for the best invention to saw stone into pyra- 
midal shapes. Among those competing for the prize is Mr. Allen, ot South 
Adams, Mass, who has invented and constructed a machine for sawing, in- 
genious and peculiar. His mode of doing the work is to have two saw 
frames ; one suspended over and intermatched with the other, each frame 
holding its saw, so that one saw will saw one side of a pyramid, and the other 
the same shape the other side, making the pyramid of any degree of obtu^eness 
or acuteness. Each frame is guided by its own separate guidss, placed on 
its outer side ; and each is suspended from its f jur corners by chains attached 



432 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



to the corners and wound round a windlass above. By this apparatus, a large 
flat stone, marble or granite, can be placed upon the ways of the mill, and by 
having a succession of saws in both the upper and under frames, operating 
upon the stone at the same time, the whole slab can be reduced to pyramid- 
al posts at once. Mr. Allen proposes to apply for patents on various parts 
of his machine, and will be prepared to supply the community, though he- 
may not handle the prize oflered in Dorset, feeling that his mode of hang- 
ing the saws is one of practical utility, and which will prove in the long 
run of great value in the stone business. 



English Patents. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Varnish. — This invention is- 
intended to produce a superior quality of copal varnish. It is based upon 
the discovery that copal gum consists of two constitutive parts or ingredients, 
one of which is entirely soluble in oil and in essence of turpentine, and the 
other of which is quite insoluble in the substances employed in making var- 
nish. It is this latter portion of ingredient which deteriorates the pellucid- 
ity and whiteness of the varnish, especially by taking a brown tinge, by boiling 
in a copper or other vessel, on an open fire, as the manufacture of varnish is 
usually carried on. Hence, the object of the present invention is to purify 
the gum copal, by extracting from it the insoluble part, either by means of 
ordinary distillation, or by means of a hot-water bath, or else by means of 
over-heated steam, by applying either of which, the insoluble part is volatil- 
ized and condensed in a suitable receiving vessel. The quantity of insoluble 
matter, viz., — from fifteen to thirty per cent, of the gum copal acted upon, 
having thus been expelled, the remaining portion is left to cool or solidify,, 
and is then ready for use, being perfectly soluble in both warm and cold oil, 
turpentine, and similar matters, with which it will produce a quality of var- 
nish superior to that which is manufactured in the present way. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Soap. — This invention consists 
in peroxidizing any oxide of iron that maybe present in fatty materials, acid 
or not acid, undergoipg the process of saponification by the injection of air 
or oxygen, — removing the peroxidized iron by means of any vegetable or 
other acid or principle (such as tannic or gallic acid) capable of combining 
with it, so as to form an ink or inky solution, and afterwards making soap 
with the fatty materials thus purified or bleached. 

The manner of carrying out this invention is as follows : By means of a 
force pump or other suitable agent, air or oxygen, in a heated or cold state, 
is injected into the mass through a perforated coil of pipe in the body of the 
vessel, which should be made of wood, or lined with sheet-lead ; and this 
injection of air or oxygen is continued so long as may be considered neces- 
sary ; the time varies according to the degree of oxidation already existing, 
and can only be ascertained by taking samples and by practice. An infusion 
or solution of sumach, gall-nuts, or other material capable of combining with 
the peroxidized iron existing in the materials under operation, is then added 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 433 



to the mass, and the whole is well stirred together ; after which the inky 
solution is drawn off from the vessel, and the materials are boiled, for about 
two hours, with a like quantity of pure water, which is afterwards drawn off, 
and with it any of the inky solution that may have remained in the mate- 
rials. The soap-making is then proceeded with, and the process completed 
in the ordinary manner. 

The purified soap produced by this invention will be found suitable for 
dyers, scourers, and others who require a soap quite free from iron, — the 
presence of which is, in many cases, highly injurious to many descriptions of 
colors. 

An Improved Process for Plating or Coating Lead, Iron, or 
OTHER Metals with Tin, Nickel, or Alumina. — The first part of this 
invention consists in a mode of preparing a solution of the metal with which 
the articles are to be coated or plated ; for which purpose they proceed as 
follows : 

For tin, metallic tin is dissolved by nitro-muriatic acid, and then precipi- 
tated by an alkali or alkaline salt, preferably by the ferro-cyanide of potas- 
sium ; sulphuric acid or muriatic acid is then mixed with the precipitated 
oxide of tin, and water is added thereto. The mixture is boiled in an iron 
vessel, with a small portion of ferro-cyanide of potassium, and the liquor 
being filtered, the solution is completed. 

Another mode of forming a solution of tin is as follows : The precipitated 
oxide of tin having been obtained as above described, ferro-cyanide of potas- 
sium is added to the oxide and boiled ; the solution is then set aside to cool, 
and filtered ; and a stream of sulphuric acid gas is subsequently passed 
through the solution. 

For nickel, this metal is dissolved by nitro-muriatic acid, and the oxide is 
precipitated by ferro-cyanide of potassium ; the oxide is then washed, and 
cyanide of potassium dissolved in distilled water, is added thereto. The mix- 
ture is then boiled, and when cool, it is filtered, which completes the solution 
of nickel. 

For alumina, alum is dissolved in water, and ammonia is added until it 
ceases to precipitate any more ; the alumina is then washed and filtered, and 
distilled water is then added, and the mixture is boiled with cyanide of 
potassium. When cold, it is filtered, and the solution of alumina is ready. 

Having thus obtained either of the foregoing solutions, the patentees sus- 
pend the articles to be covered or plated, by copper or brass rods, in a bath 
of the requiied solution, and attach them to the zinc pole of a battery, to 
the positive pole of which is attached, in the case of a tin bath, a piece of 
platinum or a pole of tin ; in the case of a nickel bath, a bag containing 
oxide of nickel or a pole of nickel ; and in the case of a bath of alumina, a 
bag of alumina, or a pole of aluminum, or a piece of platinum. 

Improved Apparatus for the Distillation of Coal and other 
Bituminous Sudstances. — This invention relates more particularly to the 
retorts or vessels in which the distilling process is carried on for the purpose 
of obtaining gas for illumination ; but it is also applicable to retorts for dis- 
tilling bituminous or resinous substances for other purposes. 

The principal object of this invention is to obviate the objections to which 
earthen retorts are open. This is eflfected by coating the retorts internally 
with an enamel or glaze, which will prevent the gas from escaping through 



434 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



the pores of the material of which the retort is composed ; and will also, by- 
presenting a smooth surface, prevent the carbon from adhering thereto and 
forming a crust thereon. 

Any of the processes which are well known and in use, or that may here- 
after be invented, for glazing or enameling surfaces, may be employed for 
the purpose of the invention. 

In order to prevent carbon from depositing and crusting on the internal sur- 
face of iron retorts, the patentees also propose to enamel these surfaces of iron 
retorts by any of the processes for enameling hollow iron vessels ; and, if 
required, thu external as well as the internal surface of earthen or iron retorts 
may be also glazed or enameled. 

Improvements Applicable to Machinery for Printing Fabrics. — 
The object of these improvements is, first, to obtain greater regularity and 
uniformity in the supply of color, than can be obtained by the ordinary 
machinery ; and, second, to obviate the necessity of employing the number 
of children at present required to assist in the operation of printing fabrics. 
The machine forming the subject of this invention being separate from the 
printing-press, it will be seen that the improvements are applicable to any 
machiuerv for block-printing fabrics. 

The color block or table is covered with a cloth of some air-tight and 
waterproof material, and the required elasticity is imparted toil by means of 
a collapsible vessel made of India-rubber or other suitable material, provided 
with a counterbalance weight. This vessel is filled with water or other liquid, 
and it wdl, therefore, by means of its counterbalance weight, keep the print- 
ing cloth at the required tension. The color is placed in a trough or reser- 
voir, at one end of the cloth ; and this latter is sup2:)lied with color by means 
of a horizontal brush or other suitable contrivance, which extends across the 
table, and is worked backwards and forwards from the color trough over the 
color cloth by means of a lever ; so that at each stroke of the lever fresh 
color will be supplied from the trough or reservoir at the end, — the apparatus 
being so arranged, that the cloth and the color which is contained in the 
reservoir or basin at the end shall be kept together, and when the printing 
operation is finished and the color is required to be changed, the color cloth 
can be scraped, and the cover of the color trough or reservoir moved forward 
by a single stroke of the lever, so as to close the color reservoir, and thus 
prevent the color fiom drying by evaporation or exposure to the air, as is 
the case in the ordinary method of working, in which the color is found to 
dry in the brushes on the printing frame, or sieve, and in the vessels. 

Improvements in Preparing Loaf-Sugar for use, and Certain 
Apparatus for the Same. — This invention consists in dividing loaf-sugar 
into systematic, regular, and equal morsels, by means of saws and stamps. 
To this end the inventor provides a series of straight saws, operating in the 
ordinary manner, parallel to each other, side by side, at f-inch or any other 
required intervals ; and he subjects loaf-sugar to these for the purpose of 
cutting it first into slices or slabs ; secondly, cross-wise into square sticks ; 
and, tliirdly, crosswise into cubical morsels, — there being thus insured (except 
in outside pieces) a systematic, equal, and regular division to any size which 
may be desired. The sugar may be subjected three times to one series of 
saws ; or several series may be employed working in the several directions ; 
or a series may be fixed in a frame and used by hand. Circular saws may 
be employed, if accurately fixed, and a good deal set, and provided the in- 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 435 



creased amount of sawdust be not regarded ; a series of small circular 
saws, about six or eight inches in diameter, may be used — the blades being 
mounted on one spindle, and fixed at the intervals above mentioned. 

In some cases the patentee proposes to cast or saw the sugar into slabs 
one morsel thick, and subject these to pressure between reticulated edged 
metal stamps or gratings, which cut and crack the slab on both sides to cor- 
respond. One grating is made sharper edged than the other, to carry the 
morsels back with it, to be pushed ofi' in receding, by means of pins fixed 
behind it ; or the slabs are divided by such means, first into sticks, and these 
again into morsels ; or the cast or sawn sticks are divided cy such means at 
once ; or they may be divided by the ordinary fixed chopping-knife, with a 
stop fixed beyond to regulate the size cut ofi". 

The patentee also proposes to cast the loaves of a rectangular form for 
the above purpose (although this is not essential,) and to cast the sugar in 
slabs, or in sticks, or in morsels at once. 

An Improved Soap called " Saponitoline." — The invention consists in 
manufacturing a gelatinous soap in the following manner : 

" Supposing (says the patentee) that I wish to manufacture one thousand 
five hundred pounds of the said soap, I proceed as follows : I first pour in a 
copper boiler about eighty- eight gallons of soft water, and mix with it about 
one hundred and twelve pounds of crystal soda, or about seventy-nine pounds 
of salts of soda. Two or three hours after the soda has been in contact with 
the water, I agitate the mixture, and add to it about one hundred and 
twelve pounds of common hard or soft soap. The fire being placed under 
the furnace, T leave the mixture to be heated until the temperature attains 
forty or forty-five decrees centigrade, when I add to the liquid about seven- 
teen pounds of Russian or American pearlash ; — I well mix the whole, and 
when the soap is nearly dissolved, I suspend in the middle of the copper a 
■white linen bag, containing about seventeen pounds of pounded quick-lime. 
This linen bag, strongly tied at its upper extremity to avoid any of the mat- 
ters escaping, must be immersed in the liquid to a depth of about eight 
inches. 

" When ebullition has commenced in the copper, I slowly agitate the 
liquid mass, and pour. therein about five gallons of mucilage of linseed, 
roarshraallow, or pysUium seed — after which, I add seven ai\d a half pounds 
of borax,- or about two and a half pounds of calcined alum. When the 
whole is well mixed in the copper, and the liquid presents the appearance 
of being perfectly homogeneous, I leave it to boil on a slow fire during 
three quarters of an hour. The fire should then be extinguished, and the 
copper covered over. When the temperature falls to fifty-five or sixty 
degrees, I pour the liquid into barrels, where it becomes solidifipd in about 
twenty-four hours (suppo>ing that hard soap has been used ;) if otherwise, 
it will remain in a gelatinous state." 

An Impkoved Process for Producing Photographic Pictures. — 
This invention consists, first, in employing a textile or woven fabric 
instead of paper as the surface on which the picture is to be produced. 
This tissue or woven fabric must be prepared to receive the ordinary 
chemical agents used in photographic operations, — and it will be found that 
it possesses many advantages over paper. For instance — a more even surface 
may be obtaiued than when papt-r is employed ; and the liabiliry to tear 



436 ENGLISH PATENTS. 

or become injured while being subjected to the Hquid chemical agents, is 
much diminished. 

In operating upon fine linen cloth, or any other kind of fabric which is 
capable of being rendered transparent, the inventor first cuts the fabric into 
pieces of suitable size, and coats them with a paste made of rice-flour, 
which must be allowed to dry perfectly before submitting the fabric to the 
subsequent operation. He then takes about six parts of virgin wax, two 
parts of Venice turpentine, and two parts of the best linseed oil, and 
having melted the wax in a vessel coated inside with silver, adds thereto 
the turpentine and oil — taking care to incorporate these substances well 
together. The fabric is then immersed in this mixture, which is maintained 
at a moderate temperature ; a gelatine, rendered insoluble in fixative baths, 
may be used for this purpose. The required positive photographic pictures 
are obtained in the ordinary manner, and fixed in baths of ammoniacal 
hyposulphites, according to the eflect desired to be obtained. 

In order to remove any alkaline salts which may remain afcer the ordinary 
washings, and would, if left, be injurious to the durability of the picture, the 
patentee immerses it for about ten minutes in a vessel containing pure 
alcohol, which possesses the property of depriving it of any injurious mat- 
ters — and, after being washed in hot water, the picture is ready for the 
reception of color, as hereafter described. 

Excellent results are said to be obtained by treating ordinary photographic 
pictures in the following manner : Having obtained a positive upon a sheet 
of paper rendered sensitive by nitrate of silver, and perfectly fixed it by 
means of baths of ammoniacal hyposulphites, it is treated with boiling water, 
alcohol, and a solution of potass, for the purpose of neutralizing or removing 
any chemical or other impurities which may have been introduced in the 
sizing of the paper, and which would afiect the durability of the picture. 
The paper is then treated with starch of greater or less consistency, according 
to the degree of transparency desired, and passed through a vessel coated 
with silver, and containing melted white virgin wax or purified mutton fat. 
The excess of wax or fat is next removed by placing the picture between 
sheets of blotting paper, and passing a hot iron over it. The pictures 
having been thus prepared and rendered transparent, suitable colors are 
applied thereto by hand, in the usual way of coloring portraits or pictures — 
with thi^ difference, that they are laid on the back of the transparent fabric. 
Tbe colors applied should be oil colors of superior quality. When the 
colors are dry, the picture is attached by glue to a flat and even surftice. 
If it be desired to give greater brightness and eflect to the picture, mastic 
varnish or suitable purifled gelatine is applied to its surface. 

By the above-described process a very superior picture will be produced, 
combining the truthfulness of photography with the artistic eflect of a 
painting. 

Improvements in Preserving Animal and Vegetable Matters. — 
This invention relates to means for discharging the atmospheric air from 
vessels constructed to receive animal or vegetable matters, for the purpose of 
preserving them. 

To this end, the patentee employs the vapors of alcohol, or other liquids 
which vaporize at a lower temperature than boiling water, in the manner 
following : He employs, by preference, as the holding or retaining means 
for the animal or vegetable matters to be preserved, cases or vessels of tin 
or tin-plate, such as have heretofore been employed when preserving animal 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 437 



or vegetable matters ; except that, according to one method of carrying out 
his improvements, be applies to the lid or cover of each case a short piece 
of tin or other soft metal pipe, for the purpose hereafter explained. The 
vessels or cases being thus prepared, the animal or vegetable matters to be 
preserved are introduced thereto in a raw state, and, by preference, sus- 
pended in a case or vessel by thread or otherwise. The closing lid or 
cover is next applied or soldered, so as to make the case air-tight, except 
through the small pipe. A small quantity of alcohol or other liquid, 
capable of vaporizing at a temperature below that at which water alone 
vaporizes, is forced into the case through this small metal pipe, — and the 
case is then placed in a bath of hot water, or otherwise subjected to heat 
sufficient to vaporize the alcohol or other liquid employed. The vapor, thus 
generated, will have the effect of driving out the atmospheric air contained 
therein through the pipe by which the alcohol was introduced thereto. By 
the application of a light to the outer end of this pipe, when the whole of 
the atmospheric air has been expelled, a steady blue flame will be obtained 
from the ignition of the vapor, which will then alone escape. When this is 
the case, and it may be thus judged that the whole of the vapor is spent, 
the pipe is closed by compression, and soldered to keep it air-tight. 

Another method is to form each vessel with two of such small pipes, and 
in place of applying the alcohol or other liquid to be vaporized in the case 
with the matters to be preserved, it is placed in a separate vessel or boiler, 
to which suitable heat is applied, to generate the vapor and raise the pres- 
sure to a few pounds (say about fifteen pounds) to the square inch. From 
this boiler a pipe conducts the vapor generated to the vessels or cases to be 
treated. This pipe is provided with a tap for closing the same when desired, 
and a piece of prepared, or what is commonly called vulcanized. India- 
rubber tubing, so as readily to connect this pipe of communication with one 
of the small pipes in a vessel or case containing animal or vegetable matters 
to be preserved ; but other connecting means may be employed. "When a 
connection is obtained between the boiler in which the vapor is being gen- 
erated, and the case containing the matters to be preserved, the vapor will 
drive off the atmospheric air from the case by the second small pipe. By 
the application to this second pipe of a light, the absence of atmospheric 
air in the case will be ascertained, as when employing the former method, 
by a steady bluish flame being obtained. The supply of vapor to the case 
is then to be stopped, and both pipes closed by pinching and soldering. 

In carrying out this second method, the patentee sometimes forms the 
second or escape pipe from the vessel or case containing the matters to be 
preserved, sufficiently long to be bent over and dipped into another vessel ; 
and when the vapor has expelled the atmospheric air, as explained, the end 
of this second pipe is dipped into a vessel containing liquid gravy, or gelatine 
or other matter, which, from being somewhat heated, is for the time in a 
fluid state. At the time of applying the second pipe to the gravy, gelatine, 
or other fluid, the supply of vapor to the case is cut off, — when, by the con- 
densation of that vapor, a vacuum or partial vacuum will be created in the 
case, and the liquid gravy, gelatine, or other matter will flow in by the 
second pipe to aid (by covering the matters to be preserved) in excluding 
the atmospheric air. This method will be found very beneficial when treat- 
ing cooked meats — as boiled beef, for instance — as well as in the preservation 
of soups and other liquids. 

The patentee claims the employment of alcohol, or other liquids which 
vaporize at a low temperature — that is, below that of boiling water — as a 



438 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



means for discharging the atmospheric air from vessels or cases containing 
animal or vegetable matters to be preserved. 

An Improvement in Combing Wool and othe(i Fibres. — This in- 
vention is applicable to the carrying comb of a machine, in which a circular 
or endless comb is employed, as is now very commonly the case. The im- 
provement consists in applying a curved or bent plate (of a corresponding 
radius with the circular or endless comb) to push the wool or fibre on the car- 
rying coinb in a curved form towards the circular or endless comb, so that 
the wool or other fibre may be deposited equally in the circular or endless 
comb. 

The patentee remarks that as the nature of wool-combing machines to 
which his invention is applicable, — viz., those called Liester and Donis- 
thrope's patent machines — is well known, it will only be necessary to ex- 
plain the manner of applying a bent plate to the carrying comb of such 
machines. The carrying comb, he says, is, as heretofore, moved to take 
a tuft of wool from the nippers, and is then moved to the circular comb, 
and caused to deliver such tuft of wool into the teeth of the circular comb ; 
and the only change made in the working of these parts is, that by means 
of the curved plate appUed to the side of the carrying comb next the cir- 
cular comb, the tuft of wool, immediately after it has been taken by the 
carrying comb, is, by the bent plate, moved into a curved line across the 
carrying comb, — such curved line corresponding with the curvature of the 
circular comb. The curved plate is carried by a stem, which enters the rod 
on which the comb is mounted, which for this purpose is made hollow ; and 
the curved plate is, by a spiral spring acting on its stem, constantly drawn 
inwards. The curved plate is to be movedi outwards by any suitable me- 
chanism, immediately after the tuft of wool has been taken by the carrying 
comb from the nippers ; and the curved plate is immediately afterwards to 
be released and withdrawn by the spring, so that the curved plate may be 
out of the way when the tuft of wool is delivered from the carrying comb 
into the circular comb. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel. — This in- 
vention is applicable to the reduction or smelting of the ores of iron, to the 
smeltiug and puddling of pig or plate-iron, and to the manufacture of bar, 
plate, rod, and sheet-iron, and iron intended to be afterwards converted into 
steel. 

For the purposes of this invention the patentee employs a close furnace, 
instead of the open furnaces hitherto employed in such manufacture ; and 
to the furnace valves are adapted, for regulating the heat required for smelt- 
ing the ores therein ; and the smoke and gases from the furnace are em- 
ployed for drying purposes (such as the drying of the fuel,) by conducting 
off the same through a pipe inserted into the side of the furnace near the 
top thereof. In connection with the closed furnace the patentee employs 
air chambers, in combination with either hot or cold blast, for the purpose 
of creating the necessary draught in the furnace, instead of employing a 
machaiiical blast only when such furnaces are used for " roasting" or " tor- 
refying" the ores of iron ; and when the furnace is not required to be used 
for this purpose, but only for the smelting of the ores of iron, the air cham- 
bers may be closed by dampers, suitably placed and connected therewith. 
The fuel employed for the reduction or smelting of the ores of iron, and the 
manufacture of bar, plate, rod, and sheet iron, and steel, is peat or vegetable 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 



4^# 



carbon ; either peat in its natural state, or compressed peat, or prepared 
peat, formed by mixing together about equal proportions of peat and small 
anthracite coal, and compressing the same together iuto a solid mass by means 
of mechanical pressure ; or a compound of the refuse turf or peat fuel, here- 
tofore considered as waste, dissolved in a pit into a pulp, and then moulded 
into " peats" or blocks. 

The Application of a new or Improved Material or Substance 
TO the Construction of certain parts of Machinery". — This invention 
relates, firstly, to the employment of an efficient substitute for the wood and 
metal ordinarily used in certain moving parts of machinery ; which substi- 
tute, besides possessing persistent qualities equal to those substances when 
similarly applied, will, from its lightness and strength (without being subject 
to crack like wood,) and capability of being moulded into any required 
shape, otfer to the mechanical engineer advantages superior to metal or 
wood. 

It is well known, that in constructing the spindles of roving and spinning 
machinery, and other parts connected therewith, it is desirable to ranke them 
as light as is consistent with strength and durability, in order to obtain great 
speed with the least possible wear and tear expenditure of motive power. 
For this purpose the inventor proposes to apply to such use a composition of 
recent introduction into the arts, and consisting of a preparation of India- 
rubber and sulphur, with or without shellac, or of gutta-percha and sulphur, 
subjected to a high degree of heat, and thereby converted into a hard and 
persistent substance. 

In constructing spindles according to this invention, it may be found 
desirable to cast or mould the Avarve or pulley with the spindle; and to 
reduce the elasticity, or rather to give any required amount of rigidity to the 
spindle, a core of iron or steel wire may be introduced into the mould, and 
caused to unite with the plastic material. In manufacturing the feeding, 
drawing, and other rollers of preparing and spinning machinery, the rollers 
are cast in suitable moulds (with tluted or plain peripheries, — a metal rod, 
which is to form the axle of the roller, being introduced as a core into the 
mould. 

The employment of this hard compound in the manufacture of shuttles 
(for looms) will be found to offer many advantages, from the facility with 
which the ends may be tipped with metal, and the cop or bobbin holder may 
be attached. These pieces are to be introduced with the compound, in a 
plastic state, into the shuttle-mould, and a union of the compound with the 
metal will be readily efi'ected by pressure. 

Where great lightness with durability, without the liability of cracking, 
is desirable, as in the manufacture of bobbins or other such articles, this may 
be obtained by introducing into the above-mentioned ingredients of the com- 
pound, while yet in course of manufacture, cork-dust or chips, sawdust, 
cotton waste, or other vegetable fibre, in the proportion, say, of about one 
part, by weight, more or less, to two parts, by weight, of the other combined 
ingredients. 

The articles, when moulded to the required shape, are submitted to about 
300° Fahr, for about six hours, after having been packed under pressure in 
moulds or iron boxes, in a bed of fine jjlaster or soapstoiie, ground to an 
impalpable powder. In making the plastic material 1<m- the aforesaid pur- 
poses, the following ingredients, in the proportions specified, may be em- 
ployed indifferently to produce the like result, viz: — One part, by weight, ox 



440 ENGLISH PATENTS, 



sulphur, to two parts, by weight, of India-rubber or gutta-percha, or one 
part, by weight, of India-rubber and of gum-shellac toone part, by weight, 
of sulphur. 

Secondly, this invention relates to the employment of the hard persistent 
material produced, as above mentioned, as a substitute for the brasses or 
metal filling of bearings of machinery ; and, in order to adapt it the better 
to this purpose, from seventy-five to one hundred per cent, more or less (by 
■weight) of plumbago or black-lead is added, during the manufacture, to the 
component parts of the material ; and thus a substance incapable of abra- 
sion by friction, but susceptible by that means of a higher polish, is obtained 
The bearings are moulded in the manner above described, and when moulded 
are in like manner subjected to heat, under pressure, for the purpose of 
effecting the conversion of the plastic compound into a bard substance, and 
that without injury to the form of the moulded article. 

An Invention for Preserving Meats. — This invention relates to the 
preservation of .animal and vegetable food and spices by the desiccating pro- 
cess, and consists in first desiccating the meat in small portions, either ia a 
vaccuum or by the aid of heated air. The desiccated portions are then 
pouuded and reduced to a powder, which is again desiccated — thereby effec- 
tually removing every particle of moisture therefrom, and consequently ren- 
dering it less liable to become decomposed after long keeping. 

The preservation of meat by drying it, is a process that has long been 
known, but it has not been brought into general use, as, in consequence of 
the meat being dried in pieces, whether the drying be effected in vacuo or 
by means of hot air, all the conditions necessary to effect a good and long 
preservation are not obtained, by reason of the drying being imperfect and 
incomplete. The meat consequently retains a certain amount of moisture 
internally, which will eventually cause decomposition to take place. 

By grating or otherwise reducing the meat, previously dried in small 
pieces, a powder is obtained, which, by being submitted to a second drying 
process, is completely deprived of moisture. This mode of preparation, 
without interfering with the nutritive qualities and original flavor of the 
meat, has the advantage of considerably reducing its bulk, by the subsequent 
compression to which it is subjected, whereby it is rendered much more easy 
of transport. Seasoning of all kinds is also submitted to the same treatment^ 
namely, first drying and then reducing to powder, wbich powder is again 
thoroughly dried. The inventors also propose to combine meat powder with 
vegetable tablets, by means of compression, so as to obtain a single product, 
which may be termed compound meat and vegetable tablets. 

In place of simply preparing the preserved vegetables in combination with 
the lean portions of meat, it is proposed to combine them with fat in the 
following manner : — The vegetable tablets having been prepared in the ordi- 
nary manner, they are submitted to successive immersions in soup, and 
allowed to dry after each immersion, either by artificial or natural currents of 
air. There is thus formed over the tablets a layer of concentrated soup, 
which layer, of course, varies in thickness, according to the number of immer- 
sions to which the tablets have been subjected. This covering, when pro- 
perly dried, forms an even coat over the entire tablets, and other coverings 
of lead or paper may be dispensed with. When the tablets are to be used, 
the covering can be easily dissolved in warm water, which is thus formed 
into soup. These improvements are of great importance in the preservation 
of vegetable tablets, as the tablets thus prepared contain in themselves all 



ENGLISH PATENTS, 441 



that is necessary for a meal, and all further cooking is dispensed with. 
These tablets may be made of any nutritive preserved substance, and of any 
convenient size. 

An Improved Method of Preventing the Alteration of Bank-bills. — 
One of the most common methods of counterfeiting bank-notes or bills con- 
sists in erasing the figures which indicate the denomination of the note, by 
rubbing with the hand or otherwise, and reprinting or pasting upon the 
surface so prepared, other figures indicating a higher denomination. Thus, 
the word or figure " five" may be erased, and upon the surface which it 
occupied *' fifty"'' or " one hundred" may be printed. Alterations of this 
description easily deceive the public, as, when well executed, they can be 
detected only by the initiated, and upon very close examination. To render 
this species of alteration impossible, by aflfording to the uninitiated a ready 
means of instantly detecting it if practiced, is the object of the present inven- 
tion, which consists, in so imprinting into the body of the paper, the char- 
acter or words which indicate the denomination of the note or bill, that it 
can only be erased by the total destruction of the paper, and cannot be 
replaced or itoitated even if it were found possible to erase it. This is 
accomplished, either by a process analogous to that which is known in the 
manufacture of paper as " water-hning," or by printing the paper as it is 
manufactured, with the required characters or figures, by a peculiar process, 
which causes the color to penetrate entirely through the body of the bill or 
note, so that it cannot be removed without destroying the texture of the 
paper itself. 

During the process of manufacturing the paper, and while yet in a soft 
pulpy state, it is imprinted with characters or letters indicating the denomi- 
nation of the bill, " five" for a five pound note, " ten" for a len pound note, 
and so on, for notes of other denominations. This may be accomplished in 
various ways, as follows : — First, by water-lining in the ordinary way, with 
wire secured to the vellum, so arranged as to impress the required characters 
upon the paper ; or the same effect may be produced by means of types, 
slightly raised upon the surface of a cylinder, which is caused to bear upon 
the web of paper while it is still soft and impressible, and thus indent the 
required characters into the body of the paper, — the velocity of the surface 
of the cylinder being exactly equal to that of the web of paper as it passes 
through the machine. To render the characters thus produced more apparent 
and striking they may be imprinted upon the soft pulpy paper in colors, and 
in such a manner as will insure the color sinking deep into and entirely pen- 
etrating the body of the paper. This is readily accomplished by means of 
a cylinder, similar to that above described, having upon its surface points set 
close to each other in lines forming the desired figures, and sufficiently ele- 
vated to penetrate the paper whilst it is yet in a soft pulpy state. These 
points are charged with ink of the required color, which is transferred (as 
the cylinder revolves) to the paper, into the body of which it penetrates. 
The holes made by the points are instantly closed, by the pressure rollers, to 
which the paper is afterwards subjected, and the coloring is thus caused to 
penetrate entirely through the note, and consequently cannot be removed 
for the fraudulent purpose before mentioned. 



442 NEW BOOKS. 



NEW BOOKS. 

State Society's Transactions. 

We ought ere this to have rendered our thanks to Mr. B. P. Johnson, of Albany, 
for the voUime of The Transactions of the State Agricultural Society, received in 
Xovcmber. It is a very valuable book. Our friend, Wm. Bacon, Esq., has also sent 
us the Second Annual Report of the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of 
Agriculture. 

Robert Merry's Museum and Parley's Magazine. 

We have a vivid recollection of the enthusiasm produced among juvenUes of all 
ages, by the first appearance of the story-books of Peter Parley, and the periodicals 
which soon after followed them, from the same popular writer. These publications 
have not yet ceased to make their regular appearance before the public, and though 
they have ceased to attract by their novelty, Gilbert Go- Ahead and Uncle Hiram, etc., 
still present themselves as long ago. We do not see that they have at all deteriorated. 
In these well-illustrated pages, we still see the peculiar characteristic^ which then so 
widely distinguished them from anything before published. May they long continue 
to please and instruct the youth of this country ! 

A Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer or Geographical Dictionary of the World. 
Edited by J. Thomas, M.D., and T. Baldwin, assisted by several other gentlemen. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1855, 2177 pages. 

We have given this great work a careful examination, and see nothing in it tlir.t 
does not commend itself to general approval. 

It is a pronouncing Dictionary, and the pronunciation of the names of places in the 
several countries is determined by eminent scholars, natives of each, or practically 
familiar with them, and is therefore quite reliable. The introduction, extending over 22 
pages, is a concise, but yet full statement of the sounds of the letters of diiferent 
modern European languages, and proves them to have come from hands quite competent 
1 the task. This adds very much to the value of the work, and may be applied to the 
determination of sounds of words not found in this volume. 

Under the dififerent States, we have not only the natural and political features of the 
country, and other matters usually treated in such works, but objects of interest to 
tourists — forest trees, animals, history, etc. 

In its statistics, the most recent information is given. Peale's Museum has disap- 
jjcared from Philadelphia, and other stereotyped descriptions of divers places long 
since out of date, are omitted. We have looked in vain for a bingle error in those 
sections of country with which we are familiar. We are satisfied that no Dictionary 
so extensive as this, has been published in any country more worthy of general con- 
lidence; and we hope the enterprising publishers will receive as liberal a reward in 
ilieir sphere, as we are sure has been earned by the learned and accomplished editors 
find assistants. 

The Constitutional Text-Book; a Practical and Fauuliar Expo.-itiouof the Cor.stitu- 
tion of the United States, and of portions of the Public and Administrative Law of 
the Federal Government. Designed cluefly for the use of Schools, Academics and 
Colleges. By Furman Sheppard. J'hiladelphia : Child & Peterson. 1855, 32-1 
pages. 

This volume contains a short history of the discovery and sentiment of the colonies, 
the articles of confederation, the constitution, etc., as described in the title. Its ob- 
ject is to instruct the youth of the country in this important branch of education. No 
one can doubt the great dearth of such books, and the consequent ignorance of the 



NEW BOOKS. 443 



masses on all these topics. To meet this want, this volume has been carefully pre. 
pared, and it is offered to the public in a form which strongly recommends it to a 
favorable reception. 

Stray Leaves from the Book of Nature. By M. Schele de Verb, of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. New- York : G. P. Putnam & Co., 1855 ; 291 pages. 

An entertaining, tasteful, sprightly, truthful, instructive volume, from the pen of a 
scholar. It opens with " Only a Pebble," and traces the pebble through various trans- 
formations into vegetable and animal life and beauty, in chapters, distinct and yet 
continuous. Its place is in every school library, Sunday-school and family, and in eac 
it will be read. 

Dickens' Little Folks. 6 vols. New-York: Redfield. 

These little volumes are selected from the larger books of this popular writer, and 
are got up especially for the young. The series consists of The Child- wife from David 
Copperfield, Little Nell from the Old Curiosity Shop, Little Paul and Florence Dom- 
bey from Donibey & Son, Oliver and the Jew Fagin from Oliver Twist, and Smike 
from Nicholas Nickleby. They form a capital series. 

Sabbath Evening Readings of the New Testament ; St. John. By Rev. John 
Cdmming, D.D., etc., etc. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co. ; New-York: Sheldon, 
Lamport & Co. 1856. 464 pages. 

Our opinion of Mr. Cumming is well known to our readers. The more we read of 
him, the more highly we regard his sound judgment and discrimination. His style is 
a model for works of this description. 

A Visit to Judea, China and Japan, in the Year 1853. By Bayard Taylor. 
New-York : G. P. Putnam & Co. 1855. 539 pages. 

Thi) writer is too well known and too highly appreciated to need any editorial 
notices. Those who can get these books of Mr. Taylor will of course have them. 
The present volume is not behind i^s predecessors in its style and topics, nor in its 
execution. 

The Stable Book. Being a Treatise on the Management of Horses, in relation to 
StabUng, Grooming, Feeding, Watering, and Working ; Construction of Stables, 
Ventilation, Stable Appendages, Management of the Feet, Management of Diseased 
and Defective Horses. By John Stewart, Veterinary Surgeon, Professor of Ve- 
terinary Medicine in the Andersonian University, Glasgow. With Notes and Addi- 
tions, applying it to American Food and Climate. By A. B. Allen, Editor of the 
American Agriculturist. With Illustrations. C. M. Saxton, New-York. 1856 
369 pages. 

The author of this book was formerly a Professor of the Andersonian University of 
Glasgow. This institution and that of King's College, in London, are the oiilv col- 
leges in Great Britain, giving general instruction in science and literature, that sup- 
port a professorship of veterinary science. Such instruction is given elsewhere onlv 
in special institutions. Some years since, Professor Stewart emigrated to Australia 
and devotes himself extensively to the rearing and caring for horses, cattle, and sheep' 
He has the reputation of a well-qualified and practical veterinarian, and his book has 
taken a high rank in his native country,as a plain, practical, and judicious treatise. 

We regret that we have not in this country an institution for the thorough trainino- 
of veterinary practitioners. Our Boston friends are making an effort of this kind under 
Dr. Dadd, who received his veterinary education abroad. We know of none educated 

in this country. The mode in which Mr. Allen was taught is given us by himself: 

4' The horse, both theoretically and practically, has been a favorite study with me from 
childhood, and for the past ten years I have been more or less engaged in breeding 
and rearing them on my farm, and in breaking and fitting them for market. I had 



444 NEW BOOKS. 



also, in early life, during a residence of nearly two years in the north of Europe, the 
advantage of studying the stable economy of large military establishments." But the 
making of surgical instruments does not qualify one to use them, nor the compound- 
ing of medicines enable one to administer the proper remedies to the sick. The best 
groom and the best rider may know nothing of veterinary science. Anatomy, phys- 
iology, pathology, skill in surgei-y, etc., do not come by instinct, nor even by mere 
study. Dissections, practical surgery, etc., are essential. Hence we receive with 
caution aU inexperience, as we do the absence of professional instruction, and espe- 
cially when accompanied with personal assurance. 

As to the book before us, we confess we do not quite like the tone of the few short 
comments of the American editor. In certain departments, none stand higher in our 
estimation than Mr. Allen. But in this department we doubt. The character of many 
of these short notes increases our doubt. The first specimen of editing that arrested 
our attention (page 24) did not strike us favorably. Mr. Stewart says that plank floors 
are objectionable in stables, because they are decomposed by the urine, and thus pro- 
duce injurious gases, and also are made slippery, and because they are liable to get 
misplaced. Mr. Allen says that these objections do not exist to such floors here, be- 
cause the chmate is drier! Mr. Stewart recommends for horses having flat feet and 
kept in a straw-yard much exposed to wet, that they should be shod with leather soles, 
etc. Mr. Allen, assuming to know better than Mr. Stewart, says, page 131 : " All this 
is of more than doubtful utility; and experience shows it to be at least useless in all 
cases and dangerous in many." Many of the American notes are of this description. 
Still, as nearly half the entire matter added in this American edition, consists of some 
four and a quarter pages of description of the stables of Mr. Gibbons and Mr. Pell, 
quite worthy of attention, and which add to the value of the work, we ought not to be 
too difScult. The work is a valuable one, and its reprint here is a service to humanity. 

Heathen Religion, in its Popular and Symbolical Development. By Rev. Joseph B. 

Gross. Boston, John P. Jewett & Co. ; New-York, Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman. 

1856. 3T2pp. 

Mr. Gross has expended a vast deal of research in preparing this volume, and has 
collected together an amount of information in respect to mythology and idol worship, 
which exceeds that of any similar work within our knowledge. This renders the book 
very valuable. Another portion of the volume consists of the author's philosophy of 
religion, and this we do not consider of so great value. It furnishes abundant food for 
thought, but v,'e do not always agree with his conclusions. He exalts idol worship too 
much, in our judgment, and attaches quite too little importance to any departure from 
the religion of the Bible. The author may not intend this — probably he does not — 
and yet we cannot but think there is such an influence over the mind of a confiding 
reader. StiU we regard this as a very valuable work. 

The Onyx Ring. By John Sterling. With a Biographical Preface, by Charles 

Hale. 
St. Gildas ANn the Three Paths. By Julia Kavanagh, Author of " Xathalie," etc. 
The Blue Ribbons. By Annie Harriet Drury. 

These three small volumes are published by Whittemore, Niles & Hall, of Boston. 
They are all capital books for our young friends — books they would read with great 
interest, and not without an indirect but strong influence in favor of honesty, truth, 
and integrity. We heartily commend them. 

Wager of Battle. A Tale of Saxon Slavery in Sherwood Forest. By Henry W. 
Herbert, Author of " Henry Vlll. and his Six Wives," etc., etc. New-York : Ma- 
son Brothers. 1855. 
This volume is descriptive of the manners, custom?, and inslitutions cf our anccs- 



NEW MUSIC. 445 



tors, the Saxons and the Normans. It is, of course, a tale of chivalry, and stories of 
this class no man can write better than Herbert. It is beautiful in style, and is one of 
the most entertaining volumes ever published. 

The Wonderful Phials, and other Stories. Translated from the French. By Annie. 

New-York : M. W. Dodd. 1855. 323 pp. 

This is a capital story-book. Twenty-one short stories are given, and they are very 
entertaining. It deserves a place in every good juvenile library, and will be highly 
prized by our young friends. 

Plain Talk and Fuiendly Advice to Domestic?, vv-ith Counsel on Home Matters. 

Boston: Phillips & Sampson. 1855. 214 pp. 

This little work is somewhat akin to the preceding, turning its attention to persons 
rather than things, and illustrates the proper manner of preventing or curing many 
evils, and how, by good manners, fidelity, etc., to rise in the esteem of others, and to 
secure a more desirable station in society. 
The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Martin & Johnson, Nev/-York. 

Two more double numbers of this beautiful edition of Shakespeare have been laid 
on our table. They are illustrated with four admirable engravings. This is the most 
splendid edition of this work which has appeared in this country, while it costs less 
than several other editions. Price, 25 cents a number ; 50 cents a double number. It 
is to be complete in 40 numbers. 

Crotchets and Quavers ; or Revelations of an Opera Manager in America. By Max 

Maretzek. New-York : S. French. 1855. 346 pp. 

Mr. Maretzek has a high reputation as a conductor of au orchestra, and this book 
entitles him to a reputation as a letter-writer that many an experienced author might 
look up to with a fond but hopeless gaze. The letters are admirably done. The ex- 
posures of the secrets of the opera house, as curious if not as dreadful as those of the 
prison house, are just the thing for after-dinner, or any hour when one needs some- 
thing to keep him awake. It is one of the most entertaining of books. It paints men 
— living men — not the imaginary beings of the novehst, but the men we meet 
every day, hei'C in New-York, on Broadway ; and there is about it an air of good 
humor, even when ill blood might easily be pardoned, which is really refreshing. We 
shall henceforth be incHned to take off our hat to Mr. Maretzek, every time we meet 
him. 
Mrs. Pollen's Firelight Stories. 

Whittemore, Niles & Hall have laid on our table a beautiful set of these popular 
books for youth. They are put up in a beautiful form, containing six volumes, square 
16mo. Price $1 50, or 25 certs each. 

Mrs. Crowen's American Lady's System of Cookery ; Comprising every variety of 
Information for Ordinary and Holiday Occasions. By Mrs. T. J. Crowen, Author 
of " Every Lady's Book," of which over two hundred thousand copies have been 
sold. New-York : Thos. J. Crowen. 1855. 450 pp. 

This is a subject that comes home to every household, and to all ages and sexes. 
He who improves the culinary processes of any family, promotes health and improves 
the temper, and therefore materially affects the amount of domestic happiness. Mrs. 
Crowen knows well how to do this, and in this volume she tells others how to do so 
fully and in very appropriate terms. We commend the book to the attention of all 
our readers. 



NEW MUSIC. 
We have from E. H. Wade, of Boston, the following vocal pieces, all good of this 
cla'^s, and several much above the average degree of merit : " Poor Old Jake ;" "The 



446 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Happy Muleteer;" " There's Nought in Life ;" " Shylie A'Vourneen ;" " The Sea 
Nymph's Invitation ;" and " Elsie, the Maid of the Mill." 

Wm. Hall & Son have among their recent publications the Opera of Wilham Tell, 
capitally arranged, but requiring some skill in the pianist. They have also a very sim- 
ple arrangement of many of the airs. 

BoARDiiAN & Gray's Pianos. — ^We have an instrument made by this enterprising 
house, capital in tone and beautiful in finish. " The Attachment " produces a very 
smooth and sweet subdued tone, with very protracted vibration. 



List of Patents Issued 



FEOM TERMINATION OF PREVIOUS LIST TO DEC. 11, 



G.W. Bishop, Brooklyn, improvement in marble 
sawing machines. 

Ansel W. Porter, Little Falls, N. T., improvement 
in hanging carriage bodies. 

Hiram Aljbott, Wakeman, 0., improved method 
of upsetting tire, &c. 

Chas. Rice, Boston, and S. H. Wiiorf, Roxbury, 
Mass., improvement in lasting and applying soles 
to shoes. 

Sylvanus Sawyer, Fitchburgh, Mass., com])ound 
projectile. 

Job Brown, Lawn Ridge, 111., improvement in 
■weigiiing attachment for faucets. 

J. C. Day, Hackettstown, N. J., improved ring 
and gudgeons for bottle fastenings. 

John Fouser, Philadelphia, improvement in sup- 
porting jacks. 

L. B. Fisher, Branch Co., Mich., improvement in 
marble sawing. 

Thaddeus Fowler, Waterbury, Ct., new method 
of separating pins. 

John B. Hathaway, MiUbury, Mass., improved 
rotary engines. 

Ell Horton, Windsor Locks, Ct., improved lathe 
chuck. 

W. B. Kimball, Peterborough, N. H., improved 
marble sawing machine. 

Jean Picrrie MoUierre, Lyons, France, improved 
method of cutting boot and shoe uppers. Pa- 
tented in France, Aug. 10. 

V. P. Corbett, New-York, excluding dust from 
railroad cars. 

Ransom Cook, Sliolburne Falls, IiLass., new 
method of boring implements. 

Samuel Krauser and Christian Ritter, Reading, 
Pa., improved water meter. 

Wm. C. Chipman, Sandwich, Mass., improve- 
ment in marble sawing. 

Miciiuel Bomberger, Huramelstown, Pa., new 
method of hanging window shades. 

R. L. Nelson, Ocala, Florida, self-feathering ad- 
justing tide wheel. 

T. B. Markillio, Winchester, 111., improvement in 
corn planters. 

Joseph Morse, Woonsocket, R. I., improvement 
in throstle machines. 



E. D. Curtis, Mt. Morris, N. Y., improvement in 
seeding machines. 

Cornelius R. Wortendyke, New- York, raising ice 
from rivers, etc. 

Nath. S. Saxton, Riverhead, N. Y., improved 
machines for adding numbers. 

Barclay A. Satterthwait, Lima, 0., new method 
of preparing artificial teeth. 

Thos. Chope, Detroit, Mich., improvement in 
attaching shafts to axles. 

D. W. C. Sanford, Cincinnati, 0., improvement in 
refrigerators. 

Loren J. Wicks, Paterson, N. J., improvement 
in straw cutters. 

H. N. Sherman, Birmingham, Conn., new method 
of forming heads on bedstead screws. 

Alfred E. Smith, BronxviUe, N. Y., improvement 
in securing shafts to axles. 

Geo. W. Hubbard, Middleton, Ct., improvement 
in marble sawing machines. 

Chas. H. Johnson, Boston, improvement in Ar- 
gand-gas burners. 

Rudolphus Kinsley, Lynchburgh, Va., improved 
tobacco presses. 

James A. Woodbury, Winchester, Mass., im- 
provement in planing machines. 

Chas. F. Warren, Maiden, Mass., improvoinont 
in marble sawing machines. 

Samuel Wetherill, Bethlehem. Pa., improved pro- 
cesses for making zinc white. 

G. W. Bigelow, New-Haven, Conn., improvement 
in cutting teeth of gear wheels. 

J. 11. A. Blackmann, Ronsdorf, Prussia, im- 
provement in locks. 

L. S. Chichester, New-Y'ork, improvement in 
cotton gins. 

D. W. Clark, Bridgeport, improvement in double 
acting pumps. 

F;dward Pierre Fraissinett and Henri Emile 
Roboul, of Route d'Orleans, Montrouge, Paris, 
France, for ticket holders. Patented in France 
Feb. 2, IS-W. 

T. Henderson, Lowell, machine for printing 
yarns and cloths. 

T. P. Howell and N. F. Blanchard, Newark, im- 
provement in treating leather for enameling. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



447 



D. W. Hughes, New-London, Mo., improved 
method of attaching tops to seats of carriages. 

A. A. Marcellus, New-York, improvement in 
potato diggers. 

Jos. McCord, Philadelphia, policemen's rattles. 

C. A. McEvoy, Richmond, Va., improvement in 
railroad station indicators. 

John Phin, Rochester, improvement in gun 
locks. 

Wm. P. &, Chas. J. Provost, Selma, Ala., im- 
provement in cotton presses. 

C. Rice, Boston, and S. H. Whorp, Roxbury 
Mass., improved machine for preparing leather 
for the manufacture of boots and shoes. 

J. Reilly, Hart Prairie, Wis., improvement in 
harvesting machines. 

P. Noette and A. Schmidt, Brooklyn, improved 
marble sawing machines. 

M. W. St. John and I Brown, LeonardsviUc, 
N. Y., improved street-sweeping machines. 

Gerard Sickles, Brooklyn, improvement in coul 
.-lifters. 

6. H. Thomas, Kingston, Mass, improved method 
of inserting tubes in evaporating pans, etc. 

L. Young, New- York, improvement in revolving 
measuring wheels. 

H. Carsley, Lynn, assignor to himself and E. 
Urown, of same place, improvement in nutmeg 
graters. 

P. Drew, South Boston, assignor to himself an"^ 
8. S. Gray, of same place, improvement in liftiuS 
jacks. 

L. Fingor, Boston, assignor to himself and I,- 
Schell, of same place, filtering faucet. 

C. W. \&n Vilet, Fishkill Landing, assignor to 
C. Parker, Meriden, Conn., improvement in mill 
grinding coiTee, etc. 

E. Harmon, Washington, D. C, improved en- 
velopes. 

W. 0. Hickok, Harrisburgh, improvement in 
mills for grinding apples. 

Reuben W. Oliver, East Aurora, N. Y., improve- 
ment in road scraper. 

John AUender, of New-London, Ct., for balance 
for detecting spurious coin. 

Dennis S. Blue, of Fort Seneca, Ohio, for im- 
provement in blacksmith's striker. 

Pliny E. Chase, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
ment in steam heating apparatus. 

Thomas H. Corbett, of Brooklyn, N. Y'., for im- 
jirovement in belt coupling. 

H. H. Dennis, of Steam Mill, Pa., for improve- 
ment in fences. 

Joel P. Heacock, of Marlborough, Ohio, for im- 
Iirovent in drilling and screw cutting machines. 

Joel P. Heacoek, of Marlborough, Ohio, for im- 
provement in cooper's tools. 

Peter H. Jackson, of New- York, for improvement 
in cat head anchor stoppers. 

L. B. Jiilson and George Sparhawk, of Lewiston 
.>ro., for improvement in bag looms. 

John A. Krake, of Alden, N. Y., for improvement 
in the method of hanging the screens of winnowing 
machines. 

Joseph Kleeman, of the city of Meissen, Ger- 
many, for improvement in the preparation of um- 
brella sticks, &c., of rattan. 

Alfred Krupp, of Esssn, Prussia, for improve- 
ment in cannon. Patented in France, December 
! (5,1847. 

John S. Lewis, of Athol, Mass., for improvement 
in the mode of cutting the uppers of boots. 

Leonard S. Maring of Fall River, Mass., for im- 
provement in attaching casters to trunks. 



Jean Pierre Molliere, of Lyons, France, for im- 
provement in machines for rasping and dressing 
the heels and soles of boots and shoes. Patented 
in France, January 5, 1855. 

Jean Louis Rolland, of Paris, France, for im- 
provement in ovens for baking bread and other 
ailments. Patented in France, June 80, 1S51. 

George W. Stedham, of Vienna, N. J., for im- 
provement in sewing machines. 

Cyrus A. Swett, of Boston, Mass., for improved 
printing press. 

Samuel E. Tomkins, of New-York, for improve- 
ment in metalic saddle trees for harness. 

Nathaniel Waterman, of Boston, Mass., for im- 
provement in feet-warmers. 

Wm. Bennett, of Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to the 
Union Indian Rubber Lamp Company, of New- 
York, for improvement in fluid lamps. 

Design. — James 0. Morse, of New-York, and J. 
W. Adams, of Lexington, Kentucky, for design for 
steam tube and hot air covers. 

Thomas Batty, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in suspending ship yards. 

Erastus B. Bigelow, of Boston, Mass., for im- 
provement in cutting pile fabrics. 

E. W. BuUord, of Hardwick, Mass., for improved 
mode of hanging window sashes. 

Daniel Campbell, of Washington, D. C, for im- 
provement in military saddles. 

Thomas A. Chandler, of Rockford, 111., for im- 
provement in making plow mould boards. 

John A. Cole, of Washington, D. C, for improve- 
ment in machines for sawing out tapering blocks 
of marble. 

Alonzo R. Dinsmoor, and Levi J. Bartlett, of 
Salisbury, N. H., for improved instrument fur 
chamfering the edges of shoe soles, &c. 

Thomas A. Elden, of Westbrook, Jle., and Wm. 
Thorn, of HoUisten, Mass., for improvement in the 
arrangement of flues and dampers of cooking ap- 
paratus. 

Joseph T. England of Baltimore, Md., for im- 
provement in railroad car coupling. 

Peter Fairbain, of Leeds, and Ji:'in Hargrave, 
of Kirkstall, in the county of York, for improve- 
ment in wool-combing machine*. Patented in 
England, Nov. 6, 1852. 

Henry Forncrook, of Elbridge, N. Y., for im- 
provement in feet warmers. 

Joseph Francis, of New- York, for impravemcnt 
in military wagons. 

Samuel H. Gilman, of New-Orleans, La., for im- 
provement in bagasse furnaces. 

Samuel Hamilton jr., of Tolland, Mrss., for im- 
proved burglar's alarm. 

Jesse W. Hatch, of Rochester, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in the machine for cutting out boot and shof 
soles. 

Horace L. Hervey, of Quincy, 111., for improved 
burglar's alarm. 

George A. Howe, of Worcester, Ma.;."., for im- 
provment in hand cotton pickers. 

Matthias Keller, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in cutting the fronts and back of vio- 
lins. 

Edward N. Kent, of New-York, for improvement 
in amalgamators. 

Edward Kershaw, of Boston, Mass., far improve- 
ment in locks. 

Hosea Lindsay, of AshviUe, N. C, for improve- 
ment in pumps. 

Timothy Bailey, Ballston Spa, improvement in 
knitting machines. 

Alexander Earns, Ashtabula, improvement in 
mop heads. 



448 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Thos. R. MarkiUic, of Winchester, 111., for im- 
provement in spoke machines. 

G. M. Moore and J. Newton, of Watertown, Ct., 
for improvement in machines for scouring knives. 

J. H. Pomery, of Bloomington, 111., for improve- 
ment in locks. 

Isaac Rehn, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improved 
photographic bath. 

James H. Sampson, of Grafton, Mas.s., for im- 
provement in boot trees. 

Charles Schinz, of Camden, N. J., for self-regu- 
jating hot blast for furnaces. 

Nathan Simons, of Providence, R. I., for im- 
provement in cloth stretching rollers. 

John Tremper, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
proved means of connection between regulator 
valve and governor's stem. 

Daniel E. True, of Lake Village, N. II., for im- 
proved blind fastener. 

Levi Van Hoeson, of New-Haven, Ct., for im- 
provement in machines for paring and slicing ap- 
ples. 

Richard Vose, of New- York, for improvement 
in quartz crushing machines. 

Moses D. Wells, of Morgantowu, Va., for im- 
provement in hand seed sowers. 

R. C. Wrenn, of Covington, Ky., for improve- 
ment in machines for preparing cot/ton seed for 
planting. 

John H. Gatiss, of FranklinviUe, Pa., assignor 
to Abraham Edwards, of Towanda, Pa., for im- 
provement in water wheels. 

John Taggart, of Roxbury, Mass., assignor to 
himself, and Vernon Brown, of Boston, Mass., for 
jmproved macliines for channeling stone. 

Charles C. Tolman, of Shelburne Falls, Mass., 
assignor to James Sargent and Dan P. Tucker, 
of same place., for gimblet. 

Major B. Clarke, of Newman, Ga., for improve- 
ment in machinery for opening and feeding cotton 
to the gin. 

Israel Amiss, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improved 
application of embossed veneers. 

James Baxendale, of Providence, R. I., for im- 
provement in machinery for folding and measur- 
ing cloth. 

Henry E. Chapman, of Albany, N. Y., for im- 
provement in boot and shoe peg cutters. 

Charles T. Close, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
proved fountain ink-stand. 

Josephus Echols, of Columbus, Ga., for improve- 
ment in water gauges for steam boilers. 

John S. Gallaher, Jr., and John W. Smith, of 
Washington, D. C, for improvement in gas ap- 
paratus. 

P. G. Gardiner, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in railroad car springs. 

Gottlieb Graessle, of Hamilton, 0., for improve- 
ment in tile roofing. 

Sheldon S. Hartshorn, of Allensville, Ind., for 
improvement in buckles. 

Jno. K. Harris, of Orange, Conn., for improve- 
ment in macliines for raking and loading hay. 

Benj. Ilinkley, of Troy, N. Y., for improvement 
in bedsteads. 

F. A. Jewett, of Abington, Mass., for improve- 
ment in the mode of attaching extinguishers to 
lamps. 

Henry C. Jones, of Newark, N. J., for improve- 
ment in locks for freight cars. 

James J. Johnson, of Alleghany City, Pa., for 
improvement in corn-shellers. 

Gilbert D. Jones, of Jersey City, N. J., for im- 
provement in sand-paper making machines. 



Jean Pierre MoUiere, of Lyons, France, for im- 
provement in machines for cutting out, punching 
and stamping the soles and heels of boots and 
shoes. Patented in France, July 22, 1853. 

Robert Prince, of Lowell, Mass., and Ambrose 
Lovis, of Boston, Mass., for improvement in pro- 
cesses for calico printings. 

Geo. T. Pearsall, of Apalachin, N. Y., for im- 
provement in sawing marble, etc., in taper form. 

Joel W. Pettis, of Hillsdale, Mich., for improve- 
ment in packing pistons for steam-engines. 

Atchison Queal, of Plymouth, N. Y., for impact 
water wheel. 

Shepherd W. Reed, of Berkshire, N. Y., for im- 
provement in carriage hubs. 

Charles Rice, of Boston, Mass., and Sylvanus 
H. Whorf, of Roxbury, Mass., for improvement in 
machines for cutting articles from leather. 

Isaac M. Singer, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
proved machine for carving wood, etc. 

Jeremiah P. Smith, of Hummelstowu, Pa., for 
improvement in corn-shellers. 

E. D. Leavitir, Jr., of Lowell, Mass., for improve- 
ment in slide valve for steam engines. 

Francis Taylor, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
proved piano-forte action. 

Guilliame Henri Talbot, of Boston, Mass., for 
improvement in auger handles. Patented in Eng- 
land, Aug. 25, 1855. 

Amasa S. Thompson, of Albion, Pa., for im- 
provement in cutting cloaks. 

Daniel Treadwell, of London, England, for im- 
proved manufacture of cannon. 

Wm. M. Welling, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for im- 
provement in devices for bleaching ivory. 

Edward Weissenborn, of New-York, N. Y., for 
improvement in chain-making machines. 

C. D. Wright, of Port Atkinson, Wis., for im- 
provement in rotary pumps. 

John S. Martin, of Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in mosquito curtains. 

Amos D. Highfield, of Philadelphia, assignor to 
himself and Wm. H. Harrison, of the same place, 
for method of adjusting circular saws obliquely to 
their shafts. 

Jno. W. Haggard and Geo. Bull, of Bloomington' 
111., assignors to Bull, Haggard and Newsteter, of 
same place, for improvement in harvester rakes. 

Wm. W. Wade, of Springfield, Mass., assignor 
to Wade and Burnham, of same place, for im- 
provement in variable cut-off gear for steam en- 
gines. 

Daniel Moore, assignor to Geo. S. Cameron, o 
Charleston, S. C, James H. McWilliams, of New- 
York, N. Y., and Daniel Moore, aforesaid, for im- 
proved machine for rubbing types. 

lie-issues. — Jos. Guild, of Cincinnati, Ohio, fo'' 
improvement in mortising machines ; Patented 
Nov. SO, 1852. 

Samuel Rockafellow, of Coatsville, Pa., for im- 
provement in reaping and mowing machines. 
Patented July 3, 1850. 

Desiffit^. — Conrad Harris and Paul W. Zoiner, 
of Cincinnati, 0., for design for parlor stoves to 
burn wood. 

Conrad Harris and Paul W. Zoiner, of Cincin- 
nati, 0., for design for parlor stoves to burn coal. 

Conrad Harris and Paul W. Zoiner, of Cincin- 
nati, 0., for designs for six-plate box stoves. 

Conrad Han-is and Paul W. Zoiner, of Cincin- 
nati, O., for designs for cooking stoves. 

Jonathan C. Brown, of Bristol, Conn., for de- 
sign for clock frames. 

Enoch Woolman, of DamaskTille, 0., for design 
for strap hinges. 



f Ije |l0tt(jl), i\)t |00m, anil il)t Jlnnil. 



Vol. VIII. FEBRUARY, 1856. No. 8. 



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PRICES. 

The cause of the present high, prices has been a subject of discussion in 
many quarters and by various interests. As many different conclusions have 
been drawn as the various prejudices or sympathies or whims of the writer 
would suggest. We do not purpose to assume the position of a disputant 
with any of these, except so far as the elucidation of the truth on this sub- 
ject may place us in that position. We shall chiefly confiue ourself to facts 
that cannot be well controverted. If the statements are not reliable, and 
can be shown to be incorrect, we shall be happy to furnish facilities for mak- 
ing kaown the mistake as extensively as possible. 

We rely chiefly on the returns of the census. Our opinion of the cor- 
rectness of these, so far as they are made up of thousands of details, often 
" contradictory and irreconcilable," our readers well know. So far as large 
and comparatively permanent operations are involved, we should not hesitate 
to abide by their authority. The returns with which we are here interested 
are partly of each of these classes. 

Certain statements in relation to the production of grain crops in some of 
the States we cannot doubt are erroneous. For example : By the census of 
1840, Kentucky produced more than 4,800,000 bushels of wheat, while by 
that of 1850 she grew only 2,142,000. Could there have been so much dif- 
ference in the growth of wheat in these years ? By the census of 1840 Ohio 
raised 16^ millions, and by that of 1850 only 14^ millions of bushels. 
Maine, by the former, grew 848,666 bushels, and by that of 1850 only 
296,259 bushels of wheat. In some other States we find differences that 
cannot be regarded as probable. They may, however, be essentially correct, 
and the presumption no doubt is that, on the whole, the errors nearly bal- 
ance each other, so as to give a sum total that is comparatively reliable. 

We only add a single suggestion, before we exhibit our tables of the pro- 
duction of the chief articles of food. The community that does not pro- 
duce more than it consumes is not prosperous. It must deteriorate. We 
have recently presented statements of the products of several States, per 
acre, and the inference is inevitable, from the facts elicited, that some sections 
of the country are actually and essentially impoverished by such cultivation. 
We now purpose to give a more extensive view in regard to the edible pro- 
ducts of this country. Such statements will furnish a basis for important 
conclusions in reference to very grave discussions which are often presented 
to the public in periodicals and in speeches. 

VOL. VIII. 29 



450 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PRICES. 



It is often said that present high prices are the result of an actual defi- 
ciency in the production of food. "The crops are not grown," and of course 
cannot be furui.-hed. We shall see how much propriety there is in this sup- 
position. With this intent, we first present a comparative view ot the num- 
ber of bushels of the chief crops of the kind described raised in the Uuited 
States, as given in the returns of the census of 1840 and of 1850, and also 
of the amount of some others of the principal crops of the country : 

1840. 1850. 

Corn, 37'7,531,875 592,0*71,104 

Wheat, 84,823,272 100,485,944 

Rye, 18,643,567 14,188,813 

Buckwheat, 7,291,743 8,956,912 

Barley, 4,161,504 5,167,015 

Oats, 123,071,341 146,584,179 



Total, bushels, 615,525,302 867,453,967 

Potatoes, 108,298,060 104,066,044 

Hay, tons, 10,248,108 13,838,642 

Total No. of neat Cattle, . 14,971,586 18,378,907 

" " Sheep,. 19,311,374 21,723,220 

Bales of Cotton, 1,976,198 2,445,793 

In estimating tbe relative sufficiency of these crops, as returned in 1840 
and 1850, it must be borne in mind that during this period the population 
increased in the ratio of 35.87 per cent. 

A comparison of these columns shows t at there is an immense increase 
in the amount of Indian corn, being an excess of about 57 per cent., and a 
decrease in the quantity of rye and of potatoes. Of the general accuracy 
of these returns we have no doubt. But now we must descend to a few par- 
ticulars, and learn other results that may have an important bearmg in all 
these discussions. 

We add also a statement of the production of the same crop in the dif- 
ferent territorial divisions of the United States : 

Indian Corn or Maize. Increase of population 

1840. 1850. from 1840 to 1850. 



New-England, . . 


. . 6,992,909 


10,175,856 


22.07 


Middle States, . . 


.. 39,946,213 


60,413,948 


29.44 


Southern " . . 


. . 94,998,255 


117,572,608 


18.58 


S. Western" , 


.. 89,893,973 


122,637,135 


47.89 


Western, " . . 


..145,700,525 
377,531,875 


280,864,368 


54.43 




591,603,915 





The tables which follow show the different quantities of grains raised in 
the six States most productive of the several kinds, by the census of 1840 
and of 1850, the amount of the crop of 1840 to each person, and the in- 
crease of population in each State durmg that time. These tables will show 
how the production compares with tbe increased numbers to be fed. 

The amount allowed by Tucker and otbers for the support of our popu- 
lation, including that required for seed and for domestic animals, is as fol- 
lows: 85 bushels of corn, 28 bushels of wheat, and 25 bushels of other 
grains, to a family of five persons. These furnish the means for judging of 
the deficiency or surplus in any given State-: 



AGKICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PRICES. 



451 



CORK. 

Amount of crop of 1840 Increase of pop- 
1840. 1850. to each person. ulation. 

Illinois, 22,634,211 57,646,984 47i 78.81 

Kentucky,.. 39,047,120 58,672,591 50 25.98 

Missouri,... 17,332,524 36,214,537 4^ 77.75 

Indiana, 28,155,887 52,964,363 41 44.11 

Tennessee,.. 44,986,188 52,276,223 54 20.92 

Ohio,-- .. 33,668,144 59,078,695 22 30.33 

185,824,074 316,853,393 

, WHEAT. 

Ohio, 16,571,661 14,487,351 11 30.33 

Pennsylvania,. 13,213,077 15,367,691 7-J 34.09 

Indiana, 4,049,375 6,214,458 6 44.11 

New- York, 12,286,418 13,121,498 5 27.52 

niinois, 3,335,393 9,414,595 7 78.81 

Virginia, 10,109,716 11,212,616 8 14.67 

59,565,640 69,818,189 

OATS. 

1840. 1850. Increase of population. 

New-Yorb 20,675,847 26,552,814 27.52 

Pennsylvania, 20,641,819 21,538,156 34.09 

Ohio, 14,393,103 13,472,742 30.33 

Virginia, 13,451,062 10,179,144 14.67 

niinois, 4,988,008 10,087,241 78.81 

Kentucky, 7,155,974 8,201,311 25.98 

81,-305,813 90,031,408 

IRISH AND SWEET POTATOES. 

New-York, 30,123,614 15,403,997 27.52 

Georgia, 1,291,366 7,217,807 31.07 

Pennsylvania, 9,535,663 6,032,904 34.09 

Alabama, 1,708,356 5,721,205 30.62 

N. Carolina, 2,609,239 .5,716,027 15.35 

Ohio, 5,805,021 5,245,760 30.33 

Mississippi, 1,630,100 5,003,277 61.46 

52,703,359 50,336,977 

HAY (tons.) 

Vermont, 836,739 866,153 7.59 

New-York, 3,127,647 3,728,797 27.52 

Pennsylvania, 1,311,643 1,842,970 34.09 

Maine, 691,358 765,889 16.22 

Ohio, 1,022,037 1,443' 142 30.33 

Massachusetts, 569,395 661,847 34.81 

7,558,219 9,288,598 

Taliing the usual estimate, already stated, for the supply of the entire 
population of the country, we fiad an excess of 196,109,229 bushels of com 
and 16,700,674 bushels of other grains, and a deficiency of 12,393,356 
bushels of potafoes. Hence it is obvious that much more than sufficient is 
grown for the food of the country. For this allowance appropriates not 
only the necessary amount of seed and a due proportion for domestic animals, 
but also one-sixteenth of the crop for exportation. Now what amount has 



452 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PRICES. 



been exported, and what has been destroyed in the still ? We are under no 
special obligation to inquire into these matter.-*, sofar as the question of short 
supply is concerned ; for this is a matter of choice and not of necessity 
and were half the country dying of famine, distillers would buy and convert 
into these noxious beverages as much as they could with a decent profit, 
without regard to any other consideraiion. Some distillers and some export- 
ers might be restrained by humane considerations, but we think this number 
in either class would be a very small proportion of the whole. 

We have already shown that food enough is raised to supply all the peo- 
ple. The crops of the present year are much larger than in 1850. 

Since the preceding was written we have seen the following estimate of 
the crops of 1855, by Mr. D. Jay Browne, the experienced and accomplished 
Superintendent of the Agricultural Bureau at Washington. No one has 
better facilities than he, and no one will be likely to be more accurate. He 
regards these estimates rather within than over the truth, both as to quantity 
and value : 

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF 1855. 

Valuation. Total value. 

Indian com, 600,000,000 bushels, at 60 cts, $360,300,000 

Wheat r. . . 165,000,000 bushels, at $1.50, 247,500,000 

Rye 14,000,000 bushels, at $1.00, 14,000,000 

Barley 6,600,000 bushels, at 90 cts., 5,940,000 

Oats 170,000,000 bushels, at 40 cts, 68,000,000 

Buckwheat 10,000,000 bushels, at 50 cts, 5,000,000 

Potatoes (all sorts) 110,000,000 bushels, at 37 cts., 41,250,000 

Flaxseed 58,000 bushels, at $1.25, 72,500 

Beans aud peas 9,500,000 bushels, at $2.00, 10,000,000 

Clover and grass seed 1,000,000 bushels, at $3.00, 3,000,000 

Rice 250,000,000 pounds, at 4 cts., 19,000,000 

Sugar (cane) 505,000,000 pounds, at 7 cts., 35,350,000 

Sugar (maple) 34,000,000 pounds, at 8 cts., 2,720,000 

Molasses 14,000,000 gallons, at 30 cts., 4,200,000 

Wine 2,500,000 gallons, at $1.00, 2,500,000 

Hops 3,500,000 pounds, at 15 cts., 525,000 

Orchard products 25,000,000 

Garden products 50,000,000 

Tobacco 190,000,000 pounds, at 10 cts., 19,000,000 

Cotton 1,700,000,000 pounds, at 8 cts., 136,000,000 

Hemp 34,500 tons, at $100, 3,450,000 

Flax 800,000 pounds, at 10 cts., 80,000 

Hay and fodder 16,000,000 tons, at $10, 160,000,000 

Pasturage 143,000,000 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS. 

Valuation. Total value. 

Homed cattle 21,000,000, at $20 each, $420,000,000 

Horses, asses and mules 5,100,000, at $60 each, 306,600,000 

Sheep 23,500,000, at $2 each, 47,000,000 

Swine 32,000,000, at $5 each, 160,000,000 

Poultry 20,000,000 

Slaughtered animals 200,000,000 

Butter and cheese 500,000,000 pounds, at 15 cts., 75,000,000 

Milk (exclusive of that 

used for butter and 

cheese 1,000,000,000 gallons, at 10 cts., 100,000,000 

Wool 60,0(10,000 pounds, at 35 cts., 21,000,000 

Beeswax and honey 16,000,000 pounds, at 15 cts., 2,400,000 

Silk cocoons 5,000 pounds, at $1, 5,000 



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND PRICES. 453 

A deficiency of supply is not, then, the cause of extravagant prices. We 
must look a little farther for this cause. With this view let us make the 
following inquiry : 

When will a raercbant export our domestic productions ? The answer, as 
already intimated, is, When he can buy at prices which, with the cost of 
freight, insurance, commissions, exchanges, &c., &e., will give him a hand- 
some net profit. In other words, the price abroad, compared with the price 
at home, determines this. 

But piices " at home" are not uniform. When corn is worth a dollar in 
New-York it is worth only half a dollar, perhaps, in Tennessee or North 
Carolina, and so on. Under such circumstances the cost of transportation 
is a controlling item, both as to price and as to its direction. The quantity 
exported will be afi'ected by the amount of these various items of cost, and 
not merely by the amount in the country. It is nonsense to pretend that there 
is not an excess of all kinds of provision except potatoes ; and this deficiency 
is the result of disease, and not the consequence of any peculiar condition of 
the markets of the world. Besides, the people have become accustomed to 
substitutes for this crop, so that the want of this is not sensibly felt. This 
view shows the importance of our railroads and other internal cooamunica- 
tions which tend to equalize prices even in distant parts of the country. 

Nor is it true that foreign crops are less than the average, but the reverse. 
The crop of (Jreat Britain will be found on another page. The grain crop 
of France is snflRcient not only for their own population, but for nn additional 
population of 600,000. An estimate we have lately seen is 8| bushels of 
wheat to each inhabitant. In Germany and other countries there is no un- 
usual scarcity. 

Hence we might infer that there is not an excessive amount of exporta- 
tion now going on, except so far as prices are afi'ected by the Eastern War, 
The year 1854 was somewhat remarkable for the amount of wheat exported. 
Official returns give us the following amount of exports of this grain : 



1851 


- - - 13,948,499 bushels. 


1852 


- - - 18,680,686 " 


1853 


- - - 18,958,993 " 


1854 


- - - 27,000,000 " 



This excessive exportation no doubt affected in some degree the price of 
flour and wheat through the past year. But with the supposed product of 
1855, even that amount of wheat may be exported, v/ithout leaving a shoit 
supply at home. 

But there is another part to this story. We ai-e so much accustomed to 
the use of various kinds of grain that if wheat or any other crop is exces- 
sively high, substitutes can be easily found quite satisfactory to the most fas- 
tidious. How various are the modes of preparing the Hour of maize ; and 
he who cannot relish these kinds of food, when properly prepared, must have 
a very singular taste. This substitution diminishes the demand and afiects 
the price. 

But we again repeat, in this connection, that there has not been a lack of 
wheat during the year 1855, and that so large quantities have been in the 
control of speculators that they have had very hard work to satisfy the peo- 
ple that the country was in a starving condition, so as to secure such exorbi- 
tant prices. 

In this connection we may refer to the record for evidence that our m,r- 



454 AGRICULTUEAL PliODUCTS AND PRICES, 

ckant princes are somewhat reckless in the extent of their speculations, ven- 
turing very great risks in the hope of a fortunate turn of the wheel ; and 
the presumption is that ere long the tide must turn against them, or — the 
only aiternaiive — importations must cease for a time. Since the warehouse 
system went into operation, the amount of goods in the several warehouses 
has been constantly increasing — a conclusive proof that importations are ex- 
cessive. More goods are imported than the market requires. The importer 
is not obliged to pay the duties, which amount to many millions, till they 
are removed from the warehouse, but he does lose the interest of his money. 
Thus the following are the amounts in warehouses in certain years : 



1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 


- - - - $47,970,658 

- - - - 57,052,157 

- - - - 67,516,888 

- - - - 70,901,028 


1853 
1854 


- - - - 96,916080 
- - - - 105,762,014 



Our exports of domestic goods and manufactures have also increased, but 
not to ihe extent of the increase of imports here indicated. 

Our conclusion from this extensive view is that prices are high from the 
wild spirit of speculation. Under ordinary circumstances this might not be 
possible. But the *' famine" not quite forgotten, the Crimean war, the 
•' drought," " half a crop," &c., &c., a terrible array of horrid things have 
been made to play upon the intelligence of the people, who knew that all 
these things did really exist somewhere, and to some extent, and they were 
led to believe the whole story. 

But even under all this pressure it has been in the power of any commu- 
nity to buy at very reduced rates, simply by excusing one or two middle men 
from playing their part in this great game on the credulity of the people. 
Have not unions furnished their members with flour at greatly reduced 
prices ? Have not pioducers every day of the year sold at rates quite as low 
as in the average of the last ten years ? We know that this is true. To 
undertake, therefore, to refer the efi'ects of all this reckless trade to European 
wars, or droughts, or any other natural cause, is only to play into the hands 
of monopolists and gamblers. The game is a great one, involving millions. 
It is for the people to say when it shall terminate. 



To Present Trees from Splitting. — For preventing forked trees from 
splitting under weight of fruit, Isaac Lewis, of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, has 
given us his plan. " My plan," he writes, " which I have followed for thirty 
years, is this : When I find a forked tree that is likely to split, I look for a 
small limb on each fork, and clean them of leaves and lateral branches for 
most of their length. I then carefully bring them together, and wind them 
round each other. In twelve months they will have united, and in two 
years the ends can be cut off. The brace will grow as fast as any other part 
of the tree, and is a perfect security from splitting. I have them now of all 
sizes, and I scarcely^^ever knew one to fail to grow." 



AG. STATISTICS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



455 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

The following table, which we compile from the Belfast (Ireland) Mer- 
cantile Journal and Statistical Register, is an estimate of the extent of land 
in the United Kingdom under the principal dd^cription of crops in 18o0-'54. 
It exhibits the acres in crop, total produce, produce under deduction of seed, 
and total value of crops : 

ENGLAND. 



Crop. Acres 
in crop. 

Wheat 3,000,000 

Barley 1,000,000 

Oats and Rye 2,000,000 

Beans and Peas 500,000 

Potatoes, turnips, rape, 2,500,000 

Clover 1,300,000 

Fallow 800,000 

Hops 50,000 

Gardens 250,000 



Total 
produce. 
Qaarters. 
11,250,000 
5,400,000 
9,000,000 
1,875,000 



Produce 
under deduction 
of seed. 
Quarters. 
9,642,857 
4,628,572 
7,714,286 
1,607,143 



Total value. 

£20,695,428 

6,248,572 

7,714,286 

2,250,000 

26,000,000 



780,000 
3,750,000 



Total 11,400,000 27,525,000 

SCOTLAND. 

850,000 1,187,500 

450,000 1,800,000 

1,200,000 6,000,000 

50,000 150,000 



23,592,858 £67,439,826 18 



Wheat 

Barley 

Oats 

Beans and peas 

Fallow 

Potatoes 

Turnips 

Clover 

Flax 

Gardens 



947,917 

1,500,000 

5,000,000 

125,000 



100,000 
200,000 
450,000 
450,000 
5,000 
35,000 



.£2,038,021 11 

1,950,000 

5,000,000 

175,000 



7,700,000 



75,000 
525,000 



Total. 



3,290,000 9,087,500 

IRELAND. 



7,572,917 £17,463,021 IJ 



Wheat. . 
Barley. . 

Oats 

Potatoes 
Fallow . . 
Flax. . . . 
Gardens. 



400,000 

320,000 

2,200,000 

1,400,000 

300,000 

140,000 

25,000 



1,200,000 1,000,000 £2,000,000 {» 



1,120,000 
11,000,000 



933,334 
9,165,667 



1,119,999 12 

9,166,667 It 

11,200,000 9 

2,100,000 
300,000 



Total. 



4,785,000 13,320,000 11,100,001 £25,886,666 12 



Grand total 19,475,000 49,932,500 42,265,776 £110,788,974 16 

1. Consumed by Man. — Wheat, 15,500,000 quarters; oats, rye, and 
maslin, (a mi.xtiire of rye and wheat), 10,050,000 quarters ; barley for malt- 
ing, fjod, etc., 6,000,000 quarters ; beans and peas as meal, 700,000 quarters; 
total quarters, 32,850,000. 

2. Consumed by the Lower Animals. — Corn, princip.ally oats, u-'ed in 
the feeding of horses and other animals, in distillation, manufactories, etc., 
16, -320, 000 quarters; total consumed by man and the lower animal?, etc., 
49,200,000 quarters. 

It is seen from the former estimate that the corn produced in the United 



456 TRUE POLICY OF THE SOUTH. 

Kingdom, applicable to consumption, amounts to only 42,205,770 quarters. 
But to this has to be added foreign corn annually entered for consumption 
at an average of the seven years ending with 1852, viz. : wheat and wheat 
flour, 4,231,185 quarters; barley, 870,780 quarters; oats and oat-meal, 
1,102,540 quarters; rye, 99,510 quarters ; peas and beans, 505,759 quarters; 
total quaners, 6,929,780 ; total consumption, 49,196,556 quarters. — Mer- 
chants' Magazine. 



THE TRUE POLICY OF THE SOUTH. 

[The sentiments we expressed in our last issue, as in former numbers, are 
powerfully sustained by the following extract from the Austin (Texas) Slate 
Gazette^ and which is copied into De Bow'' s Review. We cannot see how the 
South can be ignorant of their possibilities, or knowing them, neglect them 
much longer. — Ed. P. L. & A.] 

"In our issues of the past two weeks we endeavored to show that the 
population and wealth of the Northern States have resulted from their 
manufactures and internal improvements, and that the comparative weak- 
ness of the South has resulted from the want of them. We believe that 
our readers who have read those articles have come to our conclusions upon 
the subject. Who believes that the State of Massachusetts would have, on 
the small extent of 7,500 square miles, one million of population ; that her 
real estate would, in 1850, have been valued at $349,129,932, but for her 
manufactures, which, at that time, gave employment to 162,928 of her peo- 
ple, and her railroads penetrating into every part and portion of the State? 
In consequence of the demand for the necessaries of life, created by this ag- 
gregation of people, engaged in manufacturing, internal improvements, and 
the various pursuits incidental to and d«-perident upon them, the Massachu- 
setts farmer will spend three hundred dollars in removing the rock and 
stones from a single acre of land in order to cultivate it, and finds it a pro- 
fitable investment. 

Reasoning, from cause to effect, of the future by the past, it will be easy 
to demonstrate the consequences of an extensive system of manufactures and 
internal improvements in the South, not only upun our own section of the 
Union, but upon the North and also upon Europe. 

As in the Northern States, manufacturing towns and villages would 
spring up on all our streams capable of running a mill; employment would 
be given to millions of operatives, cities would grow up at the termini of 
our railroads, and every depot would become a considerable town or village ; 
hundreds of other occupations and pursuits would result, giving profitable 
employment. These things would auain act upou the agricultural interests 
of the country, by aft'urding a demand for the necessaries of life, and a home 
market for our great staples, and the facilities for cheap and rapid trans- 
portation ; the products of the farmer and the value of real estate would be 
immensely increased. 

Our commerce would undergo a perfect revolution. We now export the 
raw material, which is manufactured in New-England and Europe, and 
enters into the clothing of a large proportion of the world. We would 



TRUE POLICY OF THE SOUTH. 457 

then export the manufactured fabric, having in our own hands a complete 
monopoly. We uowfurnisb two-thirds of the exports of the United States, 
and have permitted northern capitahsts, factors, and brokers, to suViject us to 
tribute, in forcing those exports through their hands, instead of allowing 
them to pursue a direct and natural course. Our exports form the basis of 
two-thirds of the imports of the Union, which are landed in northern cities, 
and enriching them at our expense. We would, then, by exporting the 
manufactured article, and manufacturing a large amount of what we now 
import, redeem ourselves from our present vassalage and thraldom. 

The millions now paid by the importing merchant by way of tariff, and 
which is repaid to him with a per cent, by the Southern consumer, would 
be cut off, and cease to be an everlasting drain upon the currency of the 
South. 

The tide of European emigration would be diverted from the North to 
the South, and the millions of money and thousands of operatives now an- 
nually arriving there would be invested and employed here. 

Let the South but adopt a system of manufactures and internal improve- 
ments to the extent which her interests require, her danger demands, and 
her ability is able to accomplish, and in a few years Northern fanaticism and 
abolitionism may rave, gnash thtir teeth, and howl in vain. 

The effects upon the North would be equally striking. The South can 
manufacture cheaper than the North, as we design to show hereafter. We 
would then produce those articles of home consumption which she now 
sends us. Southern manufactures would be able to enter the markets of the 
world, and undersell those of New-England and Great Britain ; and that 
fact once demonstrated, the increase of our production would be commensu- 
rate with the wants of the world. The millions which the Nortti annually 
receives from the South would be cut off. She would no longer be able to 
levy tribute upon us. 

The whole revenues of our government now paid by the Southern con- 
sumer, but collected and disbursed at the North, would be levied more justly 
and distributed more equally. 

Let northern folly, bigotry, and intolerance drive the foreign emigrant, the 
naturalized citizen, and the Roman Catholic from amongst them, it is the 
true policy of the South to receive them, granting them all the privileges 
extended to them by the Constituiion and laws of our country. They will 
swell our population and increase our ability to defend ourselves against abo- 
litionism and free soihsm, which are but the correlatives of Northern Know- 
Nothingism. 

The effects upon Europe, and particularly upon Great Britain, would be 
equally striking. Our Northern manufacturers are now able to enter into 
the markets of the world, and undersell those of Great Britain. The South- 
ern manufacturer could do it with more ease. In time, instead of shipping 
three millions of bales of cotton to Europe to supply her manufactures, as 
would ship that amount of fabrics. Our facilities for manufacturing cheaper 
would enable us to undersell and monopolize the market; this would draw 
the European operatives here, who could not be as profitably employed 
there. The consequences to European, and particularly to British manufac- 
turers, can easily be perceived ; they would be crippled, if not prostrated." 



458 SOUTHERN" PRODUCTIONS. 



FOR THK PLOUGH, TUB LOUM, AND THE ANVIt. 

SOUTHERN PRODUCTIONS. 

Cotton Patch, Dec. 21, 1855. 

Dear Sir : — With many thanl>s for your kind notice of me on page 259 in 
your leader for November, which I have only this night cut the leaves and 
hastily glanced over, I beg to say a little. 

I do not like comparisons. I less love that tpirit that leads to bring one 
portion of our country antagonistic to the other. Some one said long ago, 
" Comparisons are odious." Certainly thpy lead to unkind feelings. What 
matters it if the little State of Rhode Island does make more than South 
Carolina? I veiy much query wbeiher anybody in that dear old State 
sleeps les3 or eats le?s if knowinsf or not knowino- this to be true. 

My own opmion is, that no country does wisely when it relies upon any 
one article, or even is bound to trade at any one point. I therefore advocate 
some diversity, and urge manufactures as a part of our business. Had 
I to choose agriculture for my brethren of this State, or manufactures, or 
trading, I should unquestionably, without a moment's hesitation, caoose 
agriculture. I speak, nor write, nor act as will please the mass; I give my 
opinions not intending offense, but I know many will shrug the shoulder. 
I hope that agriculture will ever be the leading business in the South. I hope 
before otber pursuits become paramount that my day will have been long 
past. If the South would diversify labor to a greater extent, we would cer- 
tainly be more independent. As to the matter of dollars and cents, it comes 
not into my calculation, farther than as secondary, in providing necessaries, 
comforts, luxuries in a small way and improvement in its best phase. 

But, sir, I advocate fostering our own mechanics and artizans, schoolmasters 
and preachers, make a part of our clothing, and shoes, and hats, and so on 
to the end of the chapter, even if it includes making " rolling-pins" and 
"axe-handles," raising mules, etc. Should we only do this to an extent of 
33i, we will thus be able to withstand pressures and not bo driven to the 
wail. If I make -I or f of the poik I need, I can pick ray time to buy the 
balance, and thus with all else. I contend every country should do this to 
a greater or less extent. My friends — many of them — have held it unwise 
to thus enter into competition with those who buy our cotton. They say, if 
we make everything we want, no one will buy our cotton. Very true, 
perhaps, but we cannot make all we want ; we must have a great deal after 
we have done all we can. 

But, another matter as regards these comparisons. Admit that ray land 
does not p oduce a per acre yield as it did in 1835, does it prove anj thing 
in favor of increased cost of production ? Suppose sorae calculator makes 
cost of production to be 8 cenis a j)ouud, does even that prove we are getting 
beautifully smaller day by day ? Cotton costs me 8 cents and I sell at 8 
cents, and pay cost of seJiing, a part at 7 cents and so on, — figures lie not, — 
yet property is being rapidly accumulated all around me by cotton planting 
alone. 

Let us loi k at the figures and facts. In 1830 to 1835, a crop of 15 bales 
per hand never entered into th« heart of man to hope fur. I kr ow the 
rich lands of the cotton region. Eight and ten bales was a matter of doubt, 
many living within 20 or 30 miles of the " Swamp" did not believe it. IMow 



SOUTHERN PICTURE. 



we can turn out our 10, 12, 15 and 18 bale planters. Suppose my lands 
make only now an average of 1000, whereas in 1830 they made 1500, what 
does it prove ? In 1830, I planted 6 and seldom 8 acres, worked as hard, 
aye, harder, than now with my 10 to 12. A full crop then was 6 or 7 
bales, now I do not regard 8 bales a full crop, and more corn made too. 
Again, my friend. Dr. M. or Dr. B. or Col. D., etc., who make 1000 to 2000 
bales, they make at 8 cents and sell at 7, losing 4 to 8 or 10,000 per year, 
yet with proceeds of crop invest 10 or 20 or 30 or 40,000 per year. I have 
cyphered up the cost of raising a hog or a colt, and lo ! the hog or colt 
would eat its head off every year. I have cyphered up the cost of raising a 
negro from babydom up to 21 years, and find doctor's bills — thf-y are longer 
and sharper than musquitoes — and clothing, and nursing, and feeding will 
eat up a dozen babies ; but when I see my woman seamstress — who has 
been with me since my boyhood, and count up hpr children, worth in cash 
say $3000, with her service for some thirty years,* I come to the conclusion 
that I am a badly broke man, even with enough around me. It matters not 
to me what Rhode Island, or Illinois, orConntcticut, or anywhere else makes. 
I only ask of one and of all to let us be. I hope for them as muoh hap- 
piness as I know I enjoy. I am a Southerner by birth and attachment. " I 
would not live elsewhere," yet I have n^ de?ire to injure, or see injured, 
an}' part of our country. If we are not fo rich, we are as content. 

Yours, as an American, P. 

Errata 27th page, 4th line from bottom, — on an old settled plantation. Last line 
in paragraph before last — long shaves. Commission merchants charge 10 per cent. 
interest — 7tV for accepting, and 2^ for advancing ; they pay 6 or 7 perhaps — this is 
long, rough and tough shaving, but all ©or own fault. 

Note. — The object we have in view in setting before one section o^ country 
what is done in another, in the way of valuable products, is for the purpose of 
showing that there is a better way. If asecionof a hundred square miles makes 
more money than another of a thousand, the best way th^t we know of to 
bring up tbe Iritti^r to proper effort is to show them how much batter others 
do than they, while they can do as well as anybody. We have yet to learn 
why this is not a legitimate and effective kind of argument. — Ed. P. L. & A. 



SOUTHERN PICTURE— CROPS— POAGUE'S WATER PIPES. 

Neau Brownsburg, Rockbridge Co., Va., | 
25th December, 1855. ) 

To THE Editor of the Plough, the Loom and the Anvil : 

Dear Sir : — The numbers of your valuable agricultural journal for October 
and November did not come to hand, and I supposed it to be discontinued.* 
The December number reached me a few days since, and I now suppose it 
to be maladministration in the post-office, as our Post-Master General has 
been often, no doubt, imposed on, and many good post-masters have been 
turned out for daring to think for theraselvts and vote like freemen, and 

* A few of my first years, when she was 1*7 to 25, she was a field-hand, and made 
her 6 bales. 



460 SOUTHERN PICTURE. 



their places filled by men incompetent to discharge the duties of the office. 
The consequence is confusion, and great irregularity in our mail receipts. I 
could state a strong case of this kind, where eight or ten individuals suc- 
ceeded in turning out a most reputable, gentlemanly man, for no other rea- 
son than that he voted with the American party, when nineteen-twentieths 
of the community petitioned that he should be continued in office, after it 
was known a secret clique were plotting his removal. But enough of this. 
We are reaping the fruits of maladministration in the distracted proceedings 
of the members elect to our present Congress. 

Permit me to present to you the compliments of the sea«^on, and to wish 
you a merry Christmas and a happy New- Year ! If the weather is with you 
as it is with us, it is gloomy enough. We have had no snow up to this 
day, wnth but little cold weather. The 23d of December was almost as 
balmy as May, the mercury standing 53" at daylight. Yesterday was cloudy 
and rainy, and to-day no better. It is now noon, and raining fast, with 
some fog. There has been but little feeding of stock cattle. Sheep require 
no attention, further than soiling. The season for killing pork and beef for 
our next year's home consumption has nearly gone round, and with our 
corned-meat houses well stored, and with a general good supply of money, 
if not all the comforts of life, we may at the close of another year render up 
to the Father of our spirits, and the Giver of every good gifr, ih'i homage of 
grateful and thankful heart?, for the many blessings which God in his good- 
ness has vouchsafed unto us as a nation and a people. True, a small portion 
of our State has been sorely afflicted, but has it not shown and brought forth 
the sympathies and alms of a great and good people throughout the length 
and breadth of our land ? May God be praised for his goodness unto us 
for the past year, for his blessings have been many ! 

This is a high day with our servants. They are as joyous and happy in 
preparing their Christmas dinner as if they had corn to sell. Could your 
fanatical zealots see their shining happy faces and white teeth, as they pass 
around the merry joke and Christmas song, they would be more sparing in 
their calumnies against the South ; and I will venture my reputation on it, 
a better fed, better clothed, and, as a general thing, a more contented work- 
ing population than our servants are, does not exist in the United States, or 
anywhere else, than is to be found in the valley of Virginia. 

The corn crop of the season has been very good, and almost every farmer 
has a surplus. There will be many fine beeves fed in our valley this winter. 
The crop of wheat was short, and is pretty well ground out. The quality 
was good, but in many places did not reach half a crop. The oats and rye 
crops were not abundant, but will be quite ample for home consumption. 
Pork was not plenty, but was well fatted, and will be of fine quality. All 
culinary vegetables plenty. Apples a fair crop, but fell ofi" early, and inchne 
to rot. 

I made a fine crop of corn this year from a piece of up-land of medium 
quality. It was a clover bog of three years standing, the clover pastured ofi"; 
the soil a sandy loam ; the land was ploughed in the winter ; the ground was 
harrowed in April, laid out four feet wide, and planted two to three grains 
in the hill, two feet apart. (It would have Leen better to have had one stalk 
at a place, nine inches apart.) The stand was pretty good, but in some 
places was too thick. As soon as the corn was well up, a coulter was run 
next the plants, to the depth often inches. The cultivators followed the coulter, 
giving the field two dressings ; and a part of field was gone over the third 
time with cultivators. The wet season now set in, and two-thirds of the 



SOUTHERN PICTURE. 461 



field received no further work than going over twice with the cultivators. 
The field (about twenty acres) averaged about fifty bushels per acre. 
This was a fine crop for the labor bestowed on it, the corn being ten to 
twelve feet high. 

I will now give you some account of a cheap, and, as I conceive, most 
excellent water-pipe, introduced in our County a few years since by I. B. & 
W. F. Poague, of Rockbridge Co., Va. 

I had the water conveyed to my house last spring, a distance of four hun- 
dred yards. The ditch was cleaned out by my hands in April, at a depth of 
two feet, where rock did not interfere. I procured one hundred bushels of 
cement, which was furnished by Messrs. Poague at the kilns for twenty cents 
per bushel ; transportation by my team worth about twelve cents per bushel. 
Messrs. Poague's hands commenced work on Monday, and in four days the 
pipe was laid, four hands laying one hundred feet each day. The pipe was 
moulded in the ditch, and is composed of one-half hydraulic cement and 
one-half pure sand. About half bushel of each is mixed together by two 
men, and as soon as properly worked, is laid down in the mould with 
trowels. If the weather is warm, and the water used from a branch, it 
will set in ten to twenty minutes. The rod, seven feet long, is turned in the 
cement before it sets, to keep it from sticking, and as soon as the mortar 
becomes hard is drawn out, the moulds uncased, and removed for another 
joint. 

My spring-house adjoins my house, and we have not to go out of doors to 
get water in bad weather, but go from the kitchen, under a covered way five 
feet, into the spting-house. Here the water falls about two feet into hydrau- 
lic cement troughs, built across one end and one side of my spring-house, 
the depth of water being six inches where it enters, and ten inches where it 
discharges through the wall into a beautiful basin or pool, holding six or 
seven hundred gallons ; thence passing across my yard in a ditch into my 
orchard. Messrs. Poague's bill for troughs and four hundred feet pipes, 1|- 
inch calibre, was ^100. Cost of spring-house $125 ; and I have what I 
would not be deprived of for $1000. 

Messrs. Poague having sent me one of their handbills, T enclose it to you, 
and entirely concur in what is therein stated. 

Your obedient servant, &c., Henry B. Jones. 



Sanitary Effects of Charcoal. — As an illustration of the sanitary 
powers of charcoal, and the extraordinary energy with which it acts upon 
the gases, thus furnishing a new power for removing the agents of disease, 
etc.. Dr. Stenhouse has exhibited in London a machine showing extraordinary 
deodorizing and disinfective powers. An atmosphere rendered highly offen- 
sive by putrefactive decomposition going on within the chamber in which it 
is confined, is drawn through charcoal filters, by means of a rotating fan 
machine, and is passed into an apartment adjoining. Although this air is 
disgustingly foetid, it flows out into the room perfectly free from smell. This 
experiment, though it exhibits no new property of the charcoal, places the 
i'-dct in a strong light, and may lead to most important usefulness. — Horti^ 
culttirist. 



* Our friend's name will be one of the last we shall voluntarily " discontinue," and 
if any number is not received, he, and others also, are requested to make it known to 
us. We can generally supply them forthwith. — Ed. P. L. A. 



462 PLANTATIONS AT THE SOUTH. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, TIIK LOOM, AND THK ANVIL. 

PLANTATIONS IN THE SOUTH. 

[The writer begins by some suggestions in reference to the " M. D." of 
the tourist author of " Inside View of Slavery," and considers it very properly 
of little value in such a connection, and then proceeds to speak of the actual 
condition of the industry of the Sjuih, as follows.] 

, Miss., Dec. 24, 1855. 

As to " inferior tools," " rotation," or the culture pursued, we ask tlie 
thoughtful readers of the Northern States, if we could not point to farms 
even in the great and improving States of New-York or Massachusetts where 
there is the very worst sort of economy pursued. There are men who 
realize more money to capital than in most portions of our land who have 
poor implements and know nothing of rotation. They laugh at " modern 
improvements." Is this not so everywhere ? We in the South do not man- 
age as economically, as wisely, on the whole, as do our Northern brethren, 
we acknowledge. We would have the South as liberal in good implements, 
as generous in feeding her soil, as she is kind and hospitable to her visitors. 
We dare not put in any plea of abatement when our dear native land is in 
fault. All thinking people will know that the time must come when we 
must attend to our planting matters more systematically, artisticady and 
scientifically. It is necessity forces men to labor, to improve. We are, by 
the fiat of the Most High, to earn our bread by the sweat (f our brow ; 
yet when land will produce such by but little sweat, depend on it man will 
not sweat much. 

When Iravehng west, some twenty years ago, we saw so many of the 
population in bed in the coolest part of the hou-es, that we thought it 
"dreadful sickly," and spoke of it. Our journey was in June and July, and 
we were told that the people were only taking a comfortable nap in the hot 
weather. There is felt the same necessity of economy, toil and manage- 
ment in many portions of the South that is said to be in former days among 
the island planters of the Gulf. The day of action, of progress, is even 
now — not at hand, nor near at hand. Many are forced to attend to drains, 
horizontalizing, ditching, manuring, rotation, etc. And when the spirit is 
up as in New-York and Massachusetts, you will see deeds as worthy of the 
South as at Chepultepec, Cerro Gordo, Buena Vi^ta, in the Halls cf Con- 
gress, or elsewhere. 

We do not compare our talent, or riches, or worth, or anything with 
any other people. We complain of none. There are some of us here whose 
great grand-sires, (or, perhaps, as in ore case, g. g. g. grand-sire,) came 
from Wales, or England, or Ireland, or France, and settled iti the South, but 
there are many here from the North and East and West and abroad, as well 
as the South, and we soon fall into the same way. All that we clinim, being 
of similar origin, is, — give us the same objc'Cts, and we can evince talent and 
energy and zeal. The time has been when savans held that tlie South would 
depreciate wool, color of skin, intellect and so on ; but that day is past 
The South has sent out proof to the contrary. 

Send a practical man to a well-ordered cotton or sugar or rice plantation, 
give him time to examine the internal economy, and let him examine the best. 
Go West and examine the best hemp farms and stock farms. Then visit 



AGRICULTURE IS KING. 4$^ 

the best at the East or North, and you will see not much difference after all. 

To-day we can show you white sinjjle hyacinths, tea-roses, ppirea, etc., in 
bloom, cotton leaves green, and our mules not yet housed for the winter. An 
M.D., who would be traveling through in the cars, or otherwise, would pro- 
nounce it b^d economy, because horses in Dutchess Co., N.Y., must be paired 
on the 24lh of December. 

Our houses have no preparation for winters, they are for summer. If the 
South could be entreated to arouse herself we would entreat ; if she could 
be abused to it, we would abuse, though we had to aflBx two rattles to our 

P. 

[We are disposed to add a word to the preceding expressions of opinion 
by our valued correspondent. We are quite certain he is right when he says, 
" it is necessity that forces men to labor to improve." But we doubt not our 
friend also would have added, had his object led his thoughts in that di- 
rection, that when present necessity does not urge us to etl'ort, the offer 
of valuable profits will be efficient in exciting us to labor diligently and 
wisely. Give the North or the South a convenient and ready market for her 
agricultural products, and those products will be raised. The best and only 
way of introducing wholesome improvements is to satisfy the landowner 
that those products will pay for the exertion and the expense. Hence the 
necessity of variety of employment, that all kinds of producers may find, 
near at hand, consumers who will buy. It; is in vain to preach modern im- 
provements to those who cannot produce without great effort and at the same 
time know cot what they could do with their products, or what they would 
sell for, when ready for the market. — Ed. P. L. & A.] 



FOR TBS PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND TUS ANVIL. 

AGRICULTURE IS KING. 

TO THE EDlTOn: 

In your periodical for December last is an article, the first in that number, 
with the title ''Commerce is King," — a title to which, with all due deference 
to other opinions, it must be allowed by many it has no claim. This 
idea, like many others, is a sort of modern adage, which the history of 
the past and present proves to be false. 

That commerce has its advantages we are willing to admit, but that it 
ever has been, or can be the basis, the pristine cause of national pros- 
perity, is a fallacious im.pression. It may with greater propriety be termed 
the handmaid, the attendant upon agriculture, for tbe disposal or removal 
of a surplus produce. Wise legislators have given it their protection. It is 
the only means by which a nation can repair the waste and ruin of war. 
Yea, far better that a whole fleet should rot in the harbors than our 
acres of land should lay unbroken and unsown. 

In reviewing the history of ancient nations, it is evident, their most 
prosperous periods were when agriculture was carried to its highest pitch 
of improvement. We wonder at the vastness of the area of space enclosed 
within the walls of Ninevah and Babylon ; but; it should be understood, the 
ground thus not occupied by buildings was tilled, whereby the annual pro- 



464 



AGRICULTUEE IS KING. 



duce could sustain the inhabitants when besieged by an outward foe; its 
rulers being well aware that the strength of ramparts and walls was useless if 
the means of sustenance could not be obtained. The fruitful valley of the 
Nile was the source of the greatness and the wealth of Egypt; nor is it 
strange that this people, with no divine relation, should regard this river the 
chief among their divinities. 

During the long civil wars of Rome, agriculture was neglected. For a 
time, the victories of the arms of the republic brought the fruits of their con- 
quests into Italy, which for a time prevented the evils of neglected husbandry 
being felt. But when Augustus was peaceably settled upon the imperial 
throne, and Virgil was known at court, the poet was requested by Macaanas 
to write a work upon agriculture, that his melodious numbers might rouse- 
the spirit and enkindle a taste for rural occupation. The result was the 
production of the Georgics, in four books, entitled, " The Cultivation of 
Lands, Raising Vines and Trees, Rearing Cattle, and the Manfigement of 
Trees." It is said, that soon after the publication of this work, the improve- 
ment of the lands in Italy was such as fully to repay the labors of the 
poet, and met the highest expectation of the government. 

Again, when God promised a country to the desceudents of Abraham, it 
was not to be a land of ships, commerce, merchandise and metals, but a 
land Howing with milk and honey ; and the happiness of the people is 
portrayed by the phrase, " Every man under his vine and under his fig-tree." 
When that kingdom was in its zenith under Salomon, the royal table for one 
day's supply only was thirty measures of fine flour, sixty measures of meal,, 
ten fat oxen, and twenty ethers taken from the pastures, one hundred sheep» 
besides harts and roebucks, fallow deer and fatted fowl. This abundance 
demonstrating the richness of the soil, as the source whence their prosperity 
flowed. 

The panic sometimes felt in European States plainly shows what branch of 
industry sits as king. Let a battle be lost, a city consumed by fire, pestilence 
desolate a section of the country, — the money-market becomes stringent. 
These are but short evils in comparison with the failure of an harvest ; for 
the common but good adage will ever hold good — "Stop the plough and 
you starve the world." 

The stability and security of governments often depend more upon the^ 
yield of the soil than upon all the laws and edicts of rulers. The bloody 
acts of the French Revolution were hastened by the dearness and scarcity of 
bread. France had at that period her shops and her commerce, and her 
manufactures then as now^ were unrivaled ; but all failed to arrest the storm 
of crime and murder, as long as the agricultural products fell short of a 
8ufl3cient supply. 

We used to hear a great deal of the corn-laws of England, the object 
of which was to give the farmer a remunerating price for the crops he raised ;. 
and although the policy might be a mistaken one, it arose from the conviction 
that if the farmer could not live no other branch of the community could 
prosper ; thus awarding to agriculture the legal appellation of king, not as 
a name of empty pageantry, but one by divine right. 

But while thus elevating agriculture, we are every way willing to allow to 
commerce every means of usefulness to which it is entitled. Tyre, Sidon 
and Venice are names immortalized by it. Their once-active and widely-ex- 
tended commerce, and latterly the discoveries and trading pursuits of Spain 
and Portugal in the l7th century, for a while gave a sort of spasmodic ele- 
vation to these countries, but inasmuch as the tillage and improvement of the- 



COMMERCE IS KING. 465 



soil was not the basis of their prosperity, their high station among the na- 
tions was brief and transient. 

The great and useful idea advocated by your periodical, viz., that where 
the article is produced it should be manufactured, is an obvious truth ; arid yet 
how unwilliog communities are practically to act upon it. The South has 
often been reproached for her slow progress, compared with that of the 
Northern States ; yet would the grower of cotton pursue the same plan a 
neighboring farmer did near me, that reproach would soon cease. This wise 
tiller of the soil finding the price of wool low took his fleece to the manufac- 
turer near by and had it made into cloth, and thus realized a much belter 
market than if he had sold the raw material. 

la the words commerce, ships, princely merchants, there is a bewitching, 
false idea that captivates the mind. Napoleon said he must have ships, 
colonies and commerce, but failed in them all. Had he turned bis active 
and mighty genius to the internal prosperity of France, and permitted agri- 
culture rather than war to be king, he might perhaps even to this day have 
swayed the scepter of the French nation. 

It is these false ideas by which such numbers of our youth are influenced 
to speculate in trade and commerce rather than follow the less esteemed, more 
slow, but safer and more useful method of gaining a competency with pur- 
suits of agriculture. There is a false scale of respectability often appHed by 
the merchant, who is doing business upon a large scale, with borrowed capital. 
His appearance and standing in society, his capacious rooms for business, 
his large and imposing stock, all elevate him in the eyes of the community. 
Yet the indivitual who earns his bread by the sweat of his biow, who buys 
of this merchant a single article and pays for the same, is often in reality the 
owner of more dollars. 

It is not a rare thing for young men to commence business as merchants 
with no capital of their own, do a great business for a time, and then fail, — 
oflfering to their creditors a few cents upon the dollar. Such persons lose 
nothing because they never had anything ; but others, deceived by a false 
appeai-Hnce, trusted ihem, and became the sufiereis. 

Communities, like individuals, should endeavor to do their work at home. 
An extensive exportation never enriches a nation unless an equally valuable 
return is brought home, especially when ihe same article has to be sent back 
with all the expense of freight, manufacture, etc. But by bringing the hands 
to us, the farmer is benetiited by the increase in the number of the con- 
sumers of their produce. The manufacturer is also placed in a position to 
add to this wealth, and both parties mutually depending upon each other, 
the whole community is bound together. R. S. 

Fulton, Wis. 



FOB THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIU 

"COMMERCE IS KING." 

Who makes it king? The Farmer. Who feeds and clothes the world? 
The Farmer. Who are the subjects of the commercial king ? The Farmers. 
In whose power does it lie to dethrone this king ? The Farmer's. 
We constitute ourselves one of the "jury of doctors" called for in the 
30 



^^^ COMMERCE IS KING. 



December number, not to give the pathology and diagnosis of the " ruinous 
evil," but we will prognosticate a cure, and propose a remedy, so that the 
sufferers may be relieved. 

The remedy consists in a revolution, and a new declaration of independ- 
ence, to be signed by every farmer in the Union. 

Let there be formed, without delay, an Agricultural Society in every 
County in each State, and State societies, composed of delegates from the 
County Societies. When these are formed, let there be a general assembly, 
composed of a delegate from each State society. Let the general assembly 
enact laws to govern each and all, and fix a standard permanent value on 
each staple production ; the value to be reasonable, and at the same time 
remunerative. For instance, wheat 11.25 per bushel; corn 60 cts. ; wool 
from 30 to 60 cts., as to quality ; cotton 10 to 15, etc. 

Let the general assembly also cause reports to be made by each State 
Society, these reports to contain accurate statistics of the amount of each 
staple raised in every State. 

This scheme may at first sight appear visionary, but we thinfe we can 
meet every objection, except such as may be brought by the courtiers of the 
commercial king. For example, they will say that it will prevent their 
pockeiing all the profits made on farmers' produce; but we do not care a 
straw if it does. 

It is high time that the farmers were waking from their Rip Van Winkle 
sleep; it is high time their eyes were opened and their energies taxed, to 
overthrow the monster who has fattened to such huge proportions on the 
profits of their toil. 

Is it not absurd and cowardly for the farmers to allow merchants, who 
depend on them for their food and living, to set the price on their produce, 
and at the same time fix the value of their own merchandise ? Why not 
trade fairly ; at least allow the farmer to price his own commodities ? Or, 
if they will not allow them to do it, we say, Farmers, charge a just price, 
and starve them into subjection. Yes, it is in the farmers' power, if they 
will unite in one harmonious whole, to control those merchants and manu- 
facturers who are doing all in their power to crush them to the earth. See 
the effort being made by the manufacturers to annihilate the tariff on wools. 

The " wool grower" asks, " What is to be done ?" We say, Let a new 
party of American patriots be formed, to be composed of the honest farmers 
and mechanics, and let their motto be. Union and our own rights. Let 
them crush the factions and isms of the dsy ; let them elect such men to 
Congress as will bind themselves to protect American industry, whether me- 
chanical or agricultural. 

Our country will never be superlatively prosperous until a high tariff is 
imposed on all foreign articles. We are independent of England and the 
rest of the world ; therefore let us make our own iron and cloths, and pro- 
tect them, so that the foreign cannot compete with the domesiic ; and we 
will guarantee that the farmers will thrive, the mechanics will thrive, and 
we will permit the merchants and manufacturers to thrive too, although they 
want to rob us of everything we raise. Ic is to our interest, to let them 
thrive, for the more we have to feed and clothe, the more profitable our 
manly calling. What would the farmer do with Lis surplus wheat and corn, 
if all were farmers? We want as many mechanics as we can get; the 
more the better. What if we do have to p^y more for manufactured articles ! 
Whv, we can afford to, if we have a pocket full of " rocks !" 

Farmers 1 wake up, and keep awake. Do not let this plan fail for the 



MANURES. 



467 



want of energy. Do not read, and then forget, but go to work. Now is 
the time. Form societies as fast as you can ; make your resolutions, and 
let it DO longer be said that you are blind and asleep, and slaves of the rest 
of mankind. 

This is a charitable plan, as well as a plan to secure your own rights ; for 
it will prevent that monopoly which starves the poor. If merchants wish to 
speculate on our grnin, let them do so in foreign lands, but cot in this. 

We request other agricultural journals to copy this for the bentfit of their 
patrons, and that the ball may be kept in motion. 

Respectfully, etc, G. W. Varnom 

Wayne, Lafayette Co., Wis., Dec. 22, 1855, 

Note. — The object of the writer of the above is most praiseworthy, and his plan 
worth careful attention. The formation of unions, in counties or other convenient 
districts, who shall advance a given sura on all marketable products not perishable, and 
who should sell them only at limited prices, would be a very efficient antagonism to the 
system of private speculation now so efficiently and extensively carried on by middle 
men, all of whose profits ought to go into the liands of the producer. 

Merchants and manufacturers are very much, we suppose, like " other men, secur- 
ing all the profits they can honestly get, whether the producer is paid or not. They 
have regard too often for half only "of the maxim "live and let live." We cannot 
doubt that some plan may be devised which shall secure a much larger share ot the 
profits now actually made by traders, for the benefit of the producers. — Ed. P. L. & A. 



MANURES— THEIR APPRROPRIATE USES, ETC. 

Manure is indispensable to the farmer, to ameliorate the soil and increase 
its profits. But he should understand the nature of the manure wbi h he 
uses, and have due regard to the quality of the land to which it is applied. 

Manures vary in character, as bone-cliarcoal, lime, clay, ashes, poudrette, &c. 

Manures are divisible into two classes; coolmg and feitilizing, and heating 
and fertilizing. The first includes the excrements of neat cattle and shet-p ; the 
second those of the horse, the goat, the hog and domestic birds. Arranging 
manures according to their heat, beginning with those ol the highest temper 
ature and descending, we have the dung of pigeons, hens, turkeys, ducks, 
geese; then that of ihe hog, goat, horse, mule, ass, and neat cattle. These 
ought to be used on light soils, and for pulses and the like, as cabbages, &c. 
Argillaceous soils require mixed matjurt-s, as those wiih that of the horse, 
but they should be well made. Sandy soils need the dung of cattle mixed 
with that of the horse. That of the mule or the ass is not suiied for 
such, nor that of birds. It is not well to mix the dung of hogs with that of 
other animals, as it tends to propagate nettles ; but this should be reserved 
for marshy lands. It tends to dry them and renders them productive. 

1. Manures may be pi'epared by the farmer in the following manner: — 
The dung of cattle and the horse may be carried during the winter into a field 
and laid in a heap ; and if near large villages he may also bring horses unfit 
for use, and dead horses, and if still living they may be killed upon the heap 
by cutting their throats, their blood being soaked in the heap. After they 
are skinned, they should be cut in pieces, and being placed on the pile, be 
covered ^^ith it, or with straw, &c. The heap may remain thus till it is 



•i68 MANURES. 



■wanted. Thus prepared, not more than a third part will be required, of 
what would be necessary when used in the common way. This is not an ex- 
pensive process ; any sort of dead animals, cattle &c., might be used in a 
similar manner. This manure is suited for sandy and gravelly soils, and ren- 
ders tbera productive of rye and oats. 

2. Bone- Charcoal. It is well-known that when the bones of animals are 
burned in a heap, the result is bone-charcoal, but thus produced it could not 
be employed to enrich the earth. It is necessary that it should first pass 
through the hands of the refiner of sugar, v/ho requires it, and it then be- 
comes very valuable to the farmer. But he must be careful not to place it 
in grounds designed fur potatoes the same season, since, according to my 
experience, by its remarkable absorbent properties, and its resistance of de- 
composition, it retards the growth of the tubers and tends to produce the 
disease called the potato cholera. lu France, where great use is made of it, 
and it has an extensive commerce, as in Brittany, I have seen several vessels 
from Riga every year arriving, loaded only with this bone-charcoal. 

3. Marl is a kind of soil, composed essentially of lime mingled with clay 
or santj. It is used for sandy, or low or marshy grounds ; but for the first 
(sandy) it is necessary to choose marl which is composed of lime or clay. 
For there are two kinds of marl, one composed of lime mixed with sand, and 
the other with clay. 

4. Ashes, This is used to enrich prairie ground and all moist or wet soils, 
which it tends to make dry and suited for vegetation. 

5. Human Excrements. These are more rich in nutiicious properties than 
other kinds, but it is not convenient to use them in their ordinary slate. The 
vegetation produced by them, used in that manner, is apt to retain their odor, 
and they have a bad taste. Hence in France it is the custom to reduce tham 
to the form of Poudrette. The manipulation of this is laborious and disa- 
greeable. I have assisted, near Paris, beyond the faubourg of St. Denis in 
this labor, and am able to give an accurate description of it. 

At a distance of 500 yards from the road leadmg from Paris to Brussells, 
is a spot devoted to this work. Carts which convey the excrements from 
privies drop them into a pit dug in the earth ; water is then poured upon 
them and they are thoroughly stirred. Those who perform this service are 
clothed from head to foot in India rubber, without any openings except for 
respiration, and for seeiUi^ and hearing. Thus muffled, they walk into this 
putrid matter and mix it with their hands and feet. This service is very 
laborious, and the man who is employed in it is allowed occasionally a glass 
of brandy. "When the mass is properly worked, it is suffered to remain at 
rest, and the water is drawn off". From this wet mass, small quantities are 
separated, and are dried in the sun or by the fire, and is afterwards converted 
into powder, is done up in papers and is called poudrette. A Kilogramme 
costs four francs ; and, according to the nature of the soil, serves for one, two, 
three, or four acres. 

It is necessary to add that it is not proper to mix with these matters any 
other liquid except urine, since other impurities are injurious in their effects ; 
and contractors for this work, in such case, demand pay for their service, 
while, if the contents are free from other impurities, they do the work gratis. 

Among other means used to enrich the soil, in Poland the following is 
practised. Upon good land, suitable for wheat and far from their dwellings, 
to diminish the expense of transporting manures, the ground is ploughed and 
sowed with buckwheat, and when this is in flower, the plough is passed 



" FIEST premium" FARM, 469 

through it and buries it. lu the autumn the ground is cultivated in the 
usual manner. Saniewski Felix. 

[Translated from the French manuscript, by the editor of the P. L. & A.] 



THE "FIRST PREMIUM" FARM. 

The Committee on Farm Management awarded $50 in plate to Wm. P. 
Ottley, of Phelps, Ontario Co., for ihe best managed farm. But two appli- 
cations were made for this premium, though we think there are many farms 
which would have stood an equal chance with those which were presented. 

The soil of Mr. Ottley's farm is a gravelly loam, and muck with a tincture 
of clay, the subsoil about the same, lighter colored and porous. Limestone 
scarce, the rocks found are granite and quartz. The farm contains 100 acres, 
85 in cultivation. Mr. 0. considers ploughing in clover the best means of en- 
riching his ground. A three years' lay turned under in June for wheat, or 
the 1st of May with barnyard manure, for the corn crop succeeds well. 

He ploughs from seven to ten inches deep. Deep ploughing in his case 
has a good effect in giving great room for the roots of plants, in its action as 
an underdrain, in preventing the ttFects of drouth, in making the land easier 
to work after it, with other advantages too numerous to mention. Some ex- 
periments showing this, and also the difference between shallow and deep 
ploughing, were made by Mr. O., and we may refer to them hereafter. In 
regard to subsoil ploughing, he says the effects were entirely satisfactory 
after the first year, when the crop was lighter than usual, from the poverty 
of subsoil before due exposure to atmospheric influence. 

Manure receives considerable attention on the farm, of Mr. Ottley. His 
straw, corn-stalks, and hay is all fed out in the stables and yards, where his 
cattle are kept through the foddering season. The straw serves for litter, 
and having an abundance, also about Co head of horses, cattle and sheep, he 
makes about 200 loads of manure annually. This he draws out in a green 
state to his corn field, (usually planting 12 acres,) putting from 30 to 40 
loads per acre, according to its value. It is dropped in similar heaps about 
one rod apart, and generally as fast as it can be ploughed in. He has a 
manure cellar, but keeps a part under cover, and finds it a decided benefit. 
For barley he thinks rotted manure an essential application ; it is of such 
quick growth that it receives little benefit from long manure. 

Mr. Ottley has from seventy to seventy-five acres annually under tillage. 
His fields contain about twelve acres each, and the different crops follow in 
rotation and culture as follows : For corn he takes a three-year lay of clover, 
covers it with manure, and breaks up immediately before planting with a 
double plough, eight inches deep, harrows with a light harrow to avoid 
breaking the turf, then drills three and a half feet in rows, dropping one 
kernel at eight inches in a row together with ashes and plaster ; and then 
rolls the whole field. 

As soon as the corn is up, he passes through with the one horse cultivator, 
continues to cultivate until the middle of June, — product usually 50 bushels 
per acre. Usually plants one acre of potatoes in the same lot. One potato 



470 COTTON GINS. 



in each hill, spht; plant as early as possible, — product light, owiog to pre- 
valent disease. 

Barley follows corn. He drills in two and a half bushels per acre, in 
April if possible, ploughing in the spring — product from 25 to 50 bushels 
per acre. Oats are also sown after corn, three bushels seed, product 75 
bushels per acre. 

Wheat is sown after barley, two bushels per acre, drilled in the first Sep- 
tember. Plows the stubble eight to ten inches deep, with double plough, ia 
two rod lands ; harrows fiae immediately before sowing, product fro(Q 25 to 
35 bushels per acre. Seeds down to clover and timothy in September, soon 
after sowing, and uses for meadow or pasture till its turn in the rotation, 
usually three years, when it is taken up "as above described. 

Mr. O. has been particular in growing and saving seeds for growing. He 
has improved white Soules wheat, starting it from a handful, and saving tbe 
first ripened for seed, so as to shorten the time of maturing from six to eight 
days, he has made like experiments, with like resulis, in barley, oats and 
corn. His grains and roots were all trained up in this way, and he thuiks 
it essential that seeds of all kinds should be saved from the first ripening and 
largest ears. His profits for 1854 are $1oi, or $8 87^ per acre for the im- 
proved land. His total receipts amount to nearly $2000. His principal at- 
lentioa is given to grain growing, which he makes a profitable business, as 
these figures show. 

A regular account is kept, together with a memorandum of farm matter. 
Mr. 0. says he can state the annua! expense of improving his farm, and the 
income of it, and at the end of the year can strike a balance of debt and 
credit. We join with him in thinking the practice very much conducive to 
close observation and careful farming ; one which in the end would very 
much improve our system, as well as better our fortunes. It is little more 
than gue^s work to farm without some guide — without some means of 
knowing what crops pay at the end of the year, and what prove a losing 
speculation. — Rural New-Yorker. 



COTTON GINS 



Messrs. Editors : — In a recent number of the Scientific American, P^ ge 
49, in tbe article" Saw Cotton Gin," your correspondent has fallen into some 
errors, I think. I have been engaged for the last twenty-five years in manu- 
facturing the saw gin, and in all that lime have watched closely the opera- 
tion of my own machines, and others, on the fiber of cotton, with the view 
of improvement wherever it could be done. I make this f-tatement fur those 
who may ditfer with me in regard to the operation of the gin. It is hardly 
possible to overrate the importance of this machine. The saw ijin, as it 
came from the hand of Whitney, admitted of but few improvements, and 
though many have been attempted, they have mainly aimed at (and accom- 
plished) the making a fairer article of cotton, but always at the expense of 
the fiber. In proof of this there is in Georgia a gin which was made in 
Whitney's time, and under bis patent, — it has iron saws, and very coarse 
teeth, but the cotton ginned by it brings from one to two cents per lb. more 
than from the best improved gins. 



CORISr CROP IN TENNESSEE. 471 



Your correspondent, Mr. Du Bois, is right in saying that no two saws 
catch the same fiber, but I cannot think he has investigated closely when he 
decides that the saws never break the cotton. Let Mr. Du Bois examine 
samples under a magnifyirg glass, from diflferent gins, and he will change his 
views ; let him examine carefully the fiber or the seed, and he will find but 
a very little difference in the length, and none quite short. But the best 
proof that the saw cuts cotton, is Fultz's improved feeder, which he says sep- 
arates the long from the short cotton, thus making two qualiiie*, the long 
being delivered at the end where it enters, and ihe short at the other, show- 
ing conclusively that the cotton which is first taken from the seed is but 
little cut, while that which runs the gauntlet of fifty saws, comes out a low 
quality. I have no hesitation in saying that there is no machine which ap- 
proaches to a saw that can clean the upland cotton without injury to the 
fiber, to say nothing of the Sea-Island cotton, which has a much finer and 
more tender fiber ; indeed, the only perfect operation in giniung cotton is 
the roller principle ; therefore, whoever will invent a roller gin that can com- 
pete in speed with the saw gin, will increase the value of the upland crop 
ten per cent, or ten millions of dollars annually, to say nothing of the advan- 
tage to the inventor. — H. Clark, in Scientific American. 
^New-Port, Fla., Dec. 4ih, 1855. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM AND THE ANVIL. 

CORN CROP IN TENNESSEE— EFFECT OF DROUGHT. 

A BENiFiCENT Provideuce has awarded to Eastern Tennessee one of the 
most abundant crops of Indian corn, just now gathered, probably ever known 
to have been made in the district. Your readers will remember the com- 
plaints made in your journal of the drought in 1854 and '5. The anoma- 
lous droughty so-called, and indeed the continuous dry weather did seem 
out of rule. It was truly disastrous to grasses. Root crops and vegetation 
generally seemed to suffer; but the fail of 1854 being one so dry and so 
favorable for field work, our farmers ploughed up their fallows early in the 
fall for spring planting, which by the freezes of winter were mellowed into a 
light mould. The corn was early planned, the weather favorable, and it grew 
rapidly off, stood well, and the drought had, it seemed, the balancing pro- 
perty to restrain the too rapid growth of the vegetable part, but kept it in 
equilibrio, so that the cereal should be bountifully supplied with growing 
matter. Farmers had observed that too much stalk and blade is not best 
for a good ear, and this drought may have had a good rather than a bad 
effect in the growing of the corn crop of 1855. One thing I am quite certain 
of — that the drought has mellowed and pulverized our soils, and consequently 
enriched them. For example, allow me to state for the eye of my farming 
friends elsewhere, that I had an old meadow piece of land which I thought 
had become so poor it would not bring grass, having in 1841 tiled in corn, 
without raising scarcely enough to till a bushel sack to the acre. In Sep- 
tember, 1854, I ploughed it up, and again in April, 1855, and planted in 
corn the distance four feet each way, with two stalks in the hill, and which 
was ploughed over only three times and laid by. The yield from six acres 



472 COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS. 



of this old, poor, worn-out field was net less than sixty bushels to the acre, 
besides about thirty-four horse loads of the best of pumpkins, planted inter- 
mixed with the corn ; and I believe, from the appearance of the soil now, it 
will bring me as good a crop at any such year hereafter, the whole resuscita- 
tion of luy old field being attributable to the drought, and the faciJiiies for 
out-door work it aftbrded. This old meadow field is imbedded on a stiff 
clay subsoil, no doubt at all former times full of water. The evaporation 
from thu surface by the rays of the sun created a vacuum of water in the 
soil, which drew its proper moisture from the probable strata of water in the sub- 
soil. This circulation of water in the earth is the reverse of that which takea 
place in wet weather. It cannot, however, be the water only which is thus drawn 
to the soil by the sun, which gives life and vigor to the crop, but also all those 
enriching substances contained in solution. These qualities are often salts of 
lime, magnesia of potash, soda, &c., and, indeed, whatever the particular 
subsoil or under-strata of earth may contain. Professor Higgins, State Ag- 
ricultural Chemist of Maryland, on this subject says : 

" The water in leaving the surface of the soil is evaporated, and leaves be- 
hind the mineral salts, which I will here enumerate, viz.; lime, as air-slacked 
lime, or bone-eartl], sulphate of lime or plaster of Paris ; carbonate of potash 
and soda, with silicate of potash and soda ; and also chloride of sodium, or 
common salt — all indispensable to the growth and production of plants which 
are used for food." Which proves conclusively the beneficial results of 
drought, and indeed our own observation must teach us that the general 
abundant crop of 1855 could not of right be attributable to frequent showers. 
Thus the mystery may be somewhat solved. Farmers are sometimes known 
to complain of the weather, but a Divine benignity always overlooks and 
orders all things for their good as a final restilt. A. L. B. 

Mill Bend, Tenn., Jan. 4, 185G. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS. 

[In our January number, page 410, we published the statements of Mr. 
Harvey as to the cost of sundry crops. In the second crop described, therb 
was a discrepancy in the figures, which on discovery he corrected in the fol- 
lowing letter, which was not received till after that sheet was printed. This 
correction was made as follows. — Ed. P. L, & A.] 

Epping, Dec. IT, 1855. 
Dear Sir: — Yours of the 16th is duly received. I made a mistake in 
the first draft in relation to the statement of that wheat, and did not include 
the interest on land, or taxes. It should read thus : 

Whole expense of cash, interest, etc., - - $12 50 
12 bush, wheat at 13s. 6d. 27 00 



Profit to land $14 50 

Potatoes, No. 2. Three years ago I received a few from Andover, Mass., 
with the assurance that they would not rot. I had but little faith iu the 
statement, but for these three years they have been entirely sound when 



SWEET AND IRISH POTATO. 473 

others have rotted. They are a late potato, and remain hard for a year. 
They are not of the first quality for the table, as yet. We put them on this 
piece of land on purpose to try them, to see if they would rot with high 
manuring and a moist, dark-colored soil. Yours, etc., 

M. P. Parish, Esq. D. L. Harvey. 



THE SWEET AND THE IRISH POTATO. 

Sweet Potato — Batatus Edulis. — The esteem in which the sweet po 
tato is held may be estimated by the extent to which it is produced, 4,742,000 
bushels, worth more than two millions and a quarter of dollars, being the 
crop of Mississippi of 1840. 

In the production of this esculent, Mississippi ranks fourth among the 
States of the Union ; Georgia, North Carolma, and Alabama only excelling 
her. 

Five varieties are cultivated with us, which will be mentioned in the order 
of their excellence, as generally estimated. First in quality, as in extent of 
cultivation, stands the Yam, which, if surpassed by some in average size, is 
approached by but one in delicacy of flavor. Its shape is oval or roundish, 
with a smooth exterior and yellowish tint. It is as prohfic as any other, and 
keeps remarkably well. 

The next in place is the Spanish, or white potato ; it is long and crooked, 
with large veins or nerves running lengthwise on the exterior, by which it is 
universally characterized. Another characteristic which distinguishes it from 
all others, is an aptitude of the flesh, or meat, if I may so desigaate it, when 
cooked, to divide or separate in layers or flakes lengthwise, the fiber at the 
same time being destitute of any stringy property. 

Early in the season it is rather too milky to suit the taste of many, but 
when thoroughly cured, it becomes very sweet and rich, difiering somewhat 
in flavor from the yam. It grows to a large size, and singularly enough, 
notwithstanding its excellence, it seems to be greatly neglected of late, and 
is not now often met with. 

The Bermuda potato has a deep crimson or purple skin ; but the interior 
is very white. In form it is more cylindrical than the yam, somewhat elong- 
ated, and is regarded by some as the largest and most prolific variety. Its 
flavor, however, is coarse and flat. 

The Pi.ed is the earliest variety introduced here. It was forraorly very gen- 
erally cultivated ; it is inferior to the foregoing in size, and not now very 
much in use. 

It is rather dry and mealy, and is best early in the season, when newly dug, 
and it is perhaps the earliest to mature. 

The Poplar Root, which somewhat resembles the yam in outward appear- 
ance, but not generally so round, with a smooth skin, and the color rather a 
deeper yellow, was introduced ten or fifteen years since with high commenda- 
tions. It proved a watery, insipid kind, however, and is now generally ban- 
ished. 

Up to the period of 1810 or 1815, the yam potato was rarely seen ; the 
old red and white Spanish being altogether cultivated — the former much the 
more extensively. 

The Bermuda is the most recent introduction. 



474 SWEET AND IRISH POTATO. 

All the varieties of the sweet potato succeed best in a loose sandy s^oil, 
although the yam is said to flourish in the prairies of the eastern counties. 
I have seen one of that variety raised near Macon, which weighed ten 
pounds. 

The proper time for planting is about the 1st of April, and the most 
approved mode of raising the yam is to spread the small roots or potato 
plantings on a rich bed about the first of March, covering them with three 
or four inches of loose rich soil. When the sprouts make their appearance 
above the surface, they are drawn aad set out in newly-made ridges after or 
during a rain. 

These beds continue to throw out a succession of sprouts, which may be 
planted every favorable season as late as the first of August, and if well 
worked, and the weather be not too dry, will make good potatoes. It is said 
the red potato does not succeed .=o well when planted in this way. 

At some seasons the sweet potato is sufficiently matured for early use by 
the first of September ; but it is attended with great waste to cojmmence on 
them so soon, as it is tboucrht the tubers grow more in October after the vine 
begins to decline than before. 

The best time for digiring potatoes is the first good dry mild weather suc- 
ceeding the first frost that kills the vines. They are then better ripened, 
freer from water or sap, and consequently keep belter. They should not be 
suffered to remain undug until the ground freezes, as they will become frost- 
bitten and rot. 

The most approved mode of preserving the sweet potato is to place them 
in piles or he^ips of about twenty-five bushels each, on raised ground, with 
a flooring of corn stalks and straw, the sides being lined with the same ma- 
terial, the whole covered with three or four inches of earth or sod, a small 
aperture being left, near the apex of the cone for the escape of the moisture 
which passes off from the potato when undergoing the sweat, which always 
takes place soon after they are placed in bulk. 

Put up properly in this way they will keep perfectly sound and sweet until 
June or even later. 

The potato patch affords a good gleaning to the fattening hogs, which are 
usually turned upon it, and find in the small tubers, cut and waste potatoes, 
a favorite food on which they thrive rapidly, and is a good preparation for 
after feeding on corn in the close pen. 

Some planters put in a large crop of sweet potatoes for this purpose, and 
when corn is scarce give no other food. The meat is said, however, to be 
less firm, and the lard more oily than that of the corn-fattened hog. 

The Irish Potato. — Solanum Tuberosum. — The Irish potato is not ex- 
tensively cuUivated, and seldom beyond the limits of the garden. 

Two varieties — the Meshanic and the Purple Eye — are those which seem 
to be the most approved, the red being rarely planted, under the common 
belief that the white varieties succeed the best. For what we do plant we 
are defjeudeot every year almost entirely on those brought down the Missis- 
sippi from the Western States. 

A course embracing the planting, cultivation, and after treatment, which 
has been tested many years, may be confidently recommended as one at ended 
with much success. 

Id suitable weather soon af er the first of January, on the even, clean, but 
unbroken surface of the ground appropiiated for the purpose, place the cut- 
tings with the tye upwards, three inches apart, in rows two feet distant from 
eacti other. Cover well with light rich vegetable compost. AVell-rotted coin- 



REMARKS ON FOUNDER, ETC. 475 

blades, s^trav?, or leaves from the woods, are well suited for this purpose. Draw 
over this a moderate ridge of earth. As sooa as the tops show themselves 
generally above the surface an inch or two high, ridge up with eaitb, again 
covering the top entirely, and repeat this in ten days or so, when tkie tops 
appear the second time. This will give a ridge of suflBcient size, and com- 
pletes the cultivation. 

About the middle of April the potatoes are fit for use, and are to be dug 
daily as required. 

About the first of June, especially if the season be dry, the tops begin to 
fail and gradually die ; the grass and weeds which spring up between the 
rows must not afterwards by any means be removed ; otherwise, when de- 
prived of the shade afforded by the top, the potato will become partially 
scorched or baked in the ground by the intense summer heat, which makes 
them watery and causes them to rot. Protected by the grass and weeds, 
they remain fresh and sound, and will keep in excellent condition until 
frost. 

It is generally cocceded that the Irish potato cannot in our climate be kept 
through the summer out of the ground. For this reason, and poss-essiog no 
value for stock, together with the preference which most Southerners give to 
the sweet potato, it is not more cultivated. 

The crop of 1849 was about 260,000 bushels. 

There is a considerable consumption of the Irish potato in our cities and 
towns convenient to the river, which are obtained from the Western States 
at a price much below what they can be produced for here. — Wuilen^ Ag- 
ricultural Report of Mississippi. 



REMARKS ON FOUNDER, AND THE FOOT OF HORSES AND SHOEING. 

miEFACED BY SOJIE OBSERTATIONS ON THE KEPRIMT OF STEWART's TREATISE ON STABLE 

ECONOMY. 

DT CAPTAIN EALSTOS, GI!AD. KOV!.. VET. COLLEGE, AND MEMIi. EOYL. COL. VKT. SURGEOSS, ETC. 

It is gratifying to note the reissue of this treatise of Professor Siewart, 
for it is a very useful veterinary text-book, either for horse owners or ama- 
teur.e, grooms or stable helpers. It little boots to be hypercritical on hyper- 
criticism, and the writer is not disposed either to much carp or cavil at the 
matter or manner of its American editor's adaptations, or those additions 
he has made to this adoption from British veterinary literature. The addi- 
tions, h jwever, are but meagre, and add little that is new ; and, as to im- 
proved adaptations, the book must speak for itself. One or two of the com- 
ments, or notes, are calculated to perplex, as for instance where " Founder" 
is spoken of. The note appended, here, denies the author's professional 
view, establishes nothing in its room, and is expressed in somewhat oracular 
phrase. On the subject of " Founder" the writer proposes to submit a few 
remarks, the result of no inconsiderable experience ; but, first, he wishes to 
premise a i^vt general reflections, farther, upon this reprint of " Stable 
Economy." 

With all respect for the intelligent zeal of the gentleman who has edited 



476 REMARKS ON FOUNDER, ETC. 

this American reprint, the writer ventures to think that the book was one 
which could very well have stood alone, on its original merits ; and tbis so 
much the more, inasmuch as additions to and emendations of a professional 
treatise would ordinarily require to come from professional hands. It is true 
the subject is "Stable Economy"; but the teaching of this had been 
based on and derived from trained and experienced attainments in veterinary 
science. Again, the animadversions of the preface, upon Professor Stewart's 
lack of chemical knowledge, could have been spared. This question in no way 
was involved; and, moreover, any inferences of chemistry, throughout the 
volume, have been made in a popular or practical vein. The editor is per- 
haps a profound chemist, and, still, it may be no lees true that chemical 
research sometimes refines in its conclusions too far. As this gentle- 
man has predicated, " sugar" is abundant of " carbon," and deficient of " ni- 
trogen," and nitrogenous aliment seems to be denoted for forming muscle. 
But this elementary question was hardly germane to the experiment with 
sugar referred to by Prof. Stewart; ?nd m ire, it would be difficult to gainsay 
the fact th-^t the negroes on Southern plantations are found to thrive most, 
and to prove most vigorous, during the period of their hardest labor, at 
the harvesting and boiling of the sugar crop. In raising and feeding stock, 
likewise, the value of sugar, as an article of food, has become well and 
economically known to agriculturists. Still, it is not intended, nor can this 
rebut the more accurate chemistry of the editor; only, sometimef^, one is 
inclined to exclaim of animadversions, " Here is too litile bread to all 
this sack !" However, the wish to be acknowledged to know besets us all ; 
and let us only tell what we really know, and no more than we do know, 
and we shall instruct and benefit each other. Violations of this rule have 
been the fertile parents of no end of errors, equally in science and fact. 

Those opportunities of practical information relating to horses and stable 
economy, by which the editor appears to have so well availed, merit every 
respectful consideration ; yet it is all a long way oft' from attaining to be the 
veterinarian. Neither natural talent, however aided by general education, 
nor the best and shrewdest observation of fact and incident, or of daily in- 
tercourse with horses, can confer veterinary knowledge, though assuredly 
yielding valuable adjunctives. If the theory of any science must be of un- 
certain value, until tested by application or practice, equally and more so are 
practices halt and blind — unreliable — until cognate of and grafted on due 
and proper theory. Only combined principles and practices, each in 
harmony with the other, can fix laws and establish confidence, in a manner 
to found a claim to be installed in the temple of science. Any one may take 
up and foster crude opinions, or follow up certain practices, and plausibly term 
these medical or surgical ; but wheth<^r this be in relation to man or horses, 
it is far more than likely that both opinions and practices may come under 
a similar category, and the one be erroneous, while the other is hurtful. To 
become a veterinarian, and entitled to decide on veterinary facts and exigen- 
cies, demands a studious and systematised acquaintance with those laws and 
influences that regulate animal life and structure, and well discriminated 
investigation of healthy and morbid conditions. A French axiom may not 
be inapt, and is certainly expressive : " Qui ditDocteur, ne dit pas xm homme 
Docte, raais un homme qui devroit etre Docte," or, " to say doctor, is not 
always to say a learned man, but who ought always to be a learned man." 
On an occasion where a young veterinarian was giving evidence in a law 
case, arising out of lameness of a horse, the opposite evidence wr.s that of 
an old farrier, erudite in veterinary medicine because he had long shod 



REMARKS ON FOUNDER, ETC. 477 

horses. The judge having summed up on the side of the veterinarian, the 
jury found accordingly, and greatly to the amazement of old Vulcan. He 
vowed the verdict was unfair, was a mistake ; — what could that young fellow, 
bred in a college, know ? But he — himself — he knew all about horses ; had 
been about them all his life ; was born a horse doctor, for his father had been 
a horse doctor, and his grandfather a horse doctor before him ! Neither 
judge nor jury, however, had any faith in this heritage of veterinary 
wisdom. 

The editor, in his preface, expresses a strong impression of the diflference 
of management required for horses, in consequence of the difference of 
climate and food of the two countries. The writer from what he has seen of 
both countries, is unable to recognize any marked difference. The m()re 
perfected care and stable disciplme, and the improved shoeing of horses in 
Britain, would be attended with high advantages if introduced here. As to 
food, except that the British animal never partakes of Indian corn or f *dder, 
there are small differences otherwise. The greater dryness of the climate is 
much in favor of the horses of this country. In fact, America is qualified to 
produce the finest horses of the world ; for while her varieties of soil fit ber 
ibr either raising the heavy draft horse or the fleet courser, from the dryness 
of atmosphere she is peculiarly adapted for raising the latter. In this respect 
she possesses those advantages which have mainly conferred on the desert 
Arab his fine form, compacted tissues, speed, and unrivaled hardihood. 
What this country now esigently wants is a sufficient supply of the right 
kind of blood sire horses. The mongrels now supplying in every district the 
place of pure lineaged, or thorough -bred stud horses,are fast deteriorating those 
other mixed or general breeds, so invaluable to every nation ; and this will soon 
utterly root out the fine foundations laid by the early introduction of English 
turf horses. That due attention to obtaining the blood horse, of fine form 
and undoubted purity of race, is so utterly neglected, is a deplorable 
reflection. Recurring to importations firstly, and gradually, thereafter, 
raising a supply of this class of horse, for his especial stud purposes, 
can alone provide a sure remedy; and farmers' clubs and agricul- 
tural associations would act wisely by uniting to import a well selected stud 
horse, or horses, for their own respective districts. It would be an invest- 
ment which would pay twenty-fold over the employment of an equal fund 
in any other direction, and would prove an individual, state, and national 
boon. The writer would have much satisfaction in aiding any such move- 
ment, by his experience, or advising, or cooperating. 

In regard to the effects of dryness of climate, there is an attendant draw- 
back to shod or stabled horses, which inattention renders serious. In a 
horse's so artificial state, the horny covering of the foot — the hoof — is apt 
to become altogether too dry, hard, and inelastic. This evil is augmented 
by extreme dryness of atmosphere ; and the confinement of that needful, 
but baneful defense, the shoe, greatly aggravates the mischief. Here it is that 
plank floors, as being bad conductors of heat, are objt^ctionable. But for 
this, plank flooring (at least for the stalls,) when judiciously arranged for 
carrying off the urine, etc., is excellent. And if the hoofs are skillfully 
prepared for the shoe, and the latter is good in form and properly adjusted, 
and if, at the same time, proper stable care is resorted to, for the purpose of 
keeping the horn of the fore-feet cool and supple, — then, neither plank floors, 
stabled life, nor shoeing, need impair the feet, or produce chronic foot lame- 
ness. There are, however, more horses suffering from foot lameness in New- 
York, than in any other part of the globe among three-fold the same aggre- 



478 REMARKS ON FOUNDER, ETC. 

gate number of horses. It is chronic foot lameness, and the miserable form, 
and fitting of the shoes, that occasion the terrible falls and injuries to horses, 
daily seen on Broadway. The Russ pavement is very smooth, but still, 
souud horses, in proper shoes, will never fall on it in the manner now daily 
done by hundreds. These allusiuns to the hoofs and shoes lead to a reference 
to the editor's objection to hoof-ointments. The judicious use of an eligible 
kind of an oiotment for the hoofs, the writer contends, is serviceable. The 
best is perhaps equal parts of tar and tallow, melted together, and kept for 
use in ajar. A thin brushinaj of this over the soles, bars, frogs, and walls, 
once a week, and for strong feet twice a week, is recommended. On the 
other days, the fore-feet should be stopped with pads of tow, kept moist, and 
a spongeful of water should be frequently squeezed over the hoofs. When 
a horse is to be taken to be re shod, the tar dressing should be invariably 
applied over night, and the shoeing smith can then use his drawing-knife in 
a proper manner, and prepare the hoofs for the shoes as this ought to be 
done ; that is if this operative, who has so much to do with the best value 
and utility of every horse at work, be in possession of the right knowledge 
and skill, but which is indeed a rare event. 

I now speak of Foun^ler. It is necessary first to ascertain what may- 
be meant by a term, which is a truly absurd one, derived from the horse- 
doctoring school. Some speak of chest founder, and some of two kinds of 
foot founder. The former idea is the product of ignorance, which assumes 
an etiect for a cause. The .shrunken state of the pectoral muscles, the wired- 
iu shoulders, and contracted cavity of the front of the thorax or chest, which 
are supposed to constitute the disease, are all, and in every case, effects 
from long protracted pain in the fore-feet — chronic foot lameness. A 
horse suffering from this so universal curse of stabling and shoeing, to 
wit,y contraction, coffin-joint lameness, navicular-joint disease, etc., ceases 
to go free in his action, and bend his knees ; does not exert his muscular 
forces, or give them their full and rounded play; and goes near, or toeing the 
ground, and short in gait in every way. He may not drop at all in-his 
step, unless the feeling is only in one foot, which is not usually the case ; 
and, hence, does not seem lame to the unpractised eye. The consequence 
of this is, in not a few cases, that the unexerted muscles, outside and 
inside the shoulders, fall away ; the circulation through the lungs being 
decreased, the expansion of these organs becomes proportionally diminished, 
and the chest, at the brisket, falls in ; and, in time, the fore-quarters altogether 
acquire that wasted look to which the sapient term " che^t founder" has been 
applied. In this country it is also called " sweeny," an Irish piece of 
euphony. 

By some, again, the contracted hoof, and attendant chronic foot lameness, 
have been termed founder. But what is more ordinarily so termed is the 
permanent result of a very acute disease, viz., " fever in the feet," or more 
properly " laminitis." It was to the altered condition of the feet, which 
frequently follows an attack of laminitis, that the term founder appears to 
have been originally used ; and when the veterinarian adopts the phrase, it 
is in this peculiar sense. In the cases indicated, the animal tresds with the 
toe of the hoof turned up ; the horn of the sole is flat or purai.?eJ, and re- 
sembling in appearance the outside of an oyster shell; and in front of the 
hoof seems as if caved in. It was to laminitis and its sequelae, founder, 
that Professor Stewart was adverting, where the editor so curtly differs in 
opinion. Reference was made to only one phase of laminitis, and its conse- 
quences, founder, viz., whore the occasion of the fever might have been indiges- 



REMARKS ON FOUNDER, ETC. 479 



tion of food, and a gorged stomach. This is not a frequent cause ; but if in- 
flammatory action is going on in the coats of ihe stomach, and there is 
hkewise Jocal congestion from the orgau being gorged with food, a revulsion 
of inflammation to the highly vascular laminated structure of the hoofs is, 
medically speaking, a probable enough result. 

Any one acquainted with the anatomy of the foot and the specific dis- 
ease which occasions its lapse to the peculiar condition designated founder, 
would readily comprehend the professor's limited remark, as applicable to 
his then subject; but which was otherwise hurried and loose. It may not 
be amiss to seize the present opportunity, and present a brief description of 
the laminated structure of the foot, together with this acute fever to which 
the same is liable, and its so frequent consequence, founder. 

The external surface of the horse's foot, or, as more usually termed, the 
coffin-bone, is covered with a half muscular half membranous structure, de- 
nominated the sensitive or elastic laminae. This presents a serits of leaf- 
like edges, something like the plaits on the surface of some paper lamp- 
shades, but far more minute and numerous. This structure is very vascular, 
and it circulates an extraordinary amount of arterial blood. On the inner 
surface of the horny coveimg of the foot — the hoof — there is a reverse 
series of plaits, of a half horny half ligamentous texture, resembling the 
inner side of a mushroom. These plaits, on the outer or convex surface 
of the coffin-bone, are interlaced or locked with those lining the inner or 
concave surface of the hoof; and on this union, or combination, every 
horstt's weight and action is wholly suspended and hinged. There are 
about five hundred of these elastic plaits or laminae to each foot, and they 
may be likened to minute coach-springs. From the numerous blood 
vessels and nervous sensibility of this structure, and the extraordinary ten- 
sion it is subjected to in long continued exertion, it is very apt to undergo in- 
flammatory attacks. The sraallness of hoof of so large an animal renders any 
greater influx of blood or inflammatory tendency very dangerous in so confined 
a cavity, and this is much increased by hard and unyielding states of the horn, 
and the binding of its iron defense, or shoe. Laminitis, or fever of the feet, is a 
violent inflammatory attack of the laminae; usually of the fore-feet, but 
sometimes all round. This usually runs an acute course of from twenty to 
forty hours, terminating either by resolution (cure), suppuration, or death. 
Suppuration is a very common result. When this ensues, the union between 
the sensitive laminae and those of the inner surface of the hoof is dissolved, 
or relaxes, and the coffin-bone being no longer fully suspended, sinks down 
on the horny sole. If the violence of the fever now abates, and the animal 
should survive, lymph is efi"used between the laminated plaits, and they are 
retained together ; but no lunger elastic. The coffin-bone remains resting 
on the horny sole, and the hoof presents all the appearances described 
above. This is what has been termed Founder. 

The causes of laminitis are most usually long- con tinned exertion, followed 
by muscular exhaustion, and attended by excessive excitement of the 
heart and arterial system. As already observed, in reference to affections 
of the stomach, it is not unfrequently the result of revulsion or translation 
of iijflammatory action from other organs; or what, in medical language, 
is technically called " metastasis." The writer has seen it supervene from 
infl-immations of the bowels or lungs, and on occasions from influenzal fever, 
when this has run high, and threatened to center in the lungs. It is a 
disease which requires instant and the most active treatment. 

John C. Ralston. 



480 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

We now come to this, the fourth natural order of insects. It comprises 
caterpillars, butterflies, moths, etc., and forms a very numerous and destruc- 
tive agency. No insects do so much injury as catterpillars. They multiply 
with great rapidity, and are exceedingly voracious. Each female li^ys from 
two hundred to five hundred eggs. There are several hundred varieties, and 
all subsist on vegetable food. 

Caterpillars difler greatly in form, but certain characteristics are 
common to most of them. The name Lepidoptera means scaly wiugs, 
and under a magnifier the floury appearance of these membranes appear 
to be scales like those of fishes. They are more or less cylindrical, with 
twelve rings, and from ten to sixteen legs. They have a shelly head. The 
first three pairs of legs are shelly, jointed, and armed with a claw. The 
other legs are without joints, but furnished at their extremities with minute 
hooks. They have six small eyes on each side of the head, two short anten- 
na3, and strong jaws or nippers. The insect spins its web through a littlo 
conical tube in the middle of the lower lip. The substance of the web is 
contained in fluid form in two bags within their bodies. 

Some caterpillars are solitary in their habits, and others herd together in 
great numbers. Some live sheltered on the stems of plants, others on the 
leaves, concealed by webs or by rolling up the leaf; others live in the ground, 
issuing from it only for food. 

Caterpillars change their skins three or four times while they are growing. 
Previous to their first transformation they cease eating, and spin a cocoon 
about themselves, or envelop themselves with bits of leaves, grains of earth 
or of wood. Some suspend themselves by their web, remaining uacuvcred. 
Others go through their transformations under ground. 

Escaping from this covering they become a pupa or chrysalis, and are 
apparently without heads or limbs. But traces of a head, antennae, wings, 
legs, etc., may be discovered pressed closely to the body. In this state they 
take no food, and remain perfectly at rest. After a while the chrysalis begins 
to contract, and is rent, jand a head, antennas and body of a butterfly or 
moth issue; and ere long the insect acquires strength and power of flight, 
etc. Their butterfly life is very short. Flitting from flower to flower, they 
pair, lay their eggs, and become a prey to other insects or die a natural 
death. 

Lepidoptera arc arranged in three classes, called butterflies, hawk-moths, 
and moths. These terms correspond to the genera Papilio, Sjnnx and 
Fhnlcena of Linnaeus. The following characteristics distinguish these genera. 

The butterfly has threadlike antennte, knotted at the end ; the fore- wings 
of a part, and all the wings of others are elevated perpendicularly and turned 
back to back, when at rest. Their legs are sixteen in number, and on the 
hind-legs are two little spurs. They fly only by day. The wings of the true 
butterfly are upright when at rest ; the skippers carry their fore-wings up- 
right, the hind-wings being nearly horizontal when at re?t. Skippers fly but 
a short distance at a time, with a jerking motion. They frequent grassy 
places, low bushes and thickets. 

Hawk-moths (Sphinges) have their antenna; thickened in the middle, 
tapering at each end, and often booked. The wings are narrow in propor- 



MATEEIAIjS USED IN THE ARTS. 481 

tion to their length, having a bunch of hairs on the shoulder of each hind- 
wing. All the wings are inclined like a roof, when at rest, the upper ones 
covering the lower. On the hind-legs are two pair of spurs. Some fly 
by day, most of them in the morning and evening twilight. 

The hawk-moth is so called from their habit of hovering in the air while 
taking their food. They are sometimes called sphinges, or sphinxes, from a 
fancied resemblance to the Egyptian sphinx. They support themselves by 
their four or six hmd-legs, elevate the forepart of the body, and remain in 
that position for hours. When they reach the winged state, they are some- 
times called humming-bird moths, from the noise which they make in flying. 

In the moth (phala3n;e) the antennae are neither knobbed at the end nor 
thickened in the middle, but taper from the base to the extremity, sometimes 
naked and sometimes feathered on each side. The wings are confined to- 
gether by bristles and hooks, the first pair covering the hind-wings, and 
sloping when at rest. Two pairs of spurs are attached to the hind legs. 
They fly mostly by night. They are sometimes called millers, and include 
those pests of the house called moths. They vary very much in size, form, 
color, and structure. The owl-moth expands eleven inches ; others are very 
minute, especially those with gilded wings. 

It is impossible even to enumerate the entire list of species of these insects 
which are found in this country. We must therefore attempt only a concise 
description of certain insects of peculiar interest, and some of those which 
infest particular plants ; and even this can be done only in a very imperfect 
manner. 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL 

OF THE MATERIALS USED IN THE ARTS. 
I. FROM THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

There are various kinds of wood used in the arts, consisting of the woody 
portion of the trunks of trees, which are formed by layers of a hard sub- 
stance, strengthened by tubular cells between, for the purpose of conveying 
the sap, which is the life of the tree, through its branches. The outer layers 
are more open, and consequently they are more perishable than the inner 
layers, which are harder, and are called the heart-wood. 

The bark of the tree is used for tanning leather, for coloring, etc. 

Oak is the most valuable for timber, and consists in something like twenty 
species in the United States and Canada. The Uve oak of the South {Quer- 
cus Virens) is prized in ship-building beyond any other timber, for dura- 
bility and strength. The white oak, (Quercus alba,) is used for ship-build- 
ing also, and for mill work, house frames and machinery where strength is 
required ; for wagons, parts of carriages, ploughs, and various other imple- 
ments of agriculture. The yellow oak, {Quercus tinctoria,) is considered 
n-ext to the white for durability and strength. The bark of this furnishes 
the quercitron used for coloring. The other kinds of oak — red oak, black 
oak, gray oak, swamp oak, post oak, and chestnut oak, and various other 
species, are considered valuable for the arts. 

Hickory. — There are several kinds. The pignut, {Juglans porcina) is 
31 



482 MATERIALS USED IN THE AETS. 

considered the best for axe and hammer handles, and all other handles re- 
quiring fetreogth, for cogs or teeth for wheels, for wagon and cart-axles, as 
the gruin is close and smooth. The red heart, {Juglans laeiniata,) the shell 
bark, {Juglans squamosa,) are more open grained ; consequently are not so 
ofood ia the arts, as it decays in the weather very soon. 

Ash. — White ash, (^Fraxinus Americana^ and some other species, are 
very useful in the arts, the wood being strong and elastic, tough and light, 
durable and permanent in its dimensions ; is commonly used for carriages, 
wagons, and various kinds of machinery, and of great use for oars, hand- 
spikes, blocks, etc., for vessels. 

'Ehyi, [Ulmus Americana,) is of great value for cart and wagon hubs 
(naves,) as it is tough and not apt to crack or split. 

Wild Cherry, [Prunus Virginia,) is of a deep color ; is very useful in 
cabinet work. Being stained with a strong alkali renders it almost as dark 
as mahogany. 

Chestnut, [Castanea vesca B,) is a large tree of rapid growth, coarse 
grained and porous, very liable to warp, easy to split. It is used for light 
timber, for house-frames, such as stud, rafters, and sometimes for sills of 
buildings. It is very durable in the weather, is valuable for fences and for 
posts. It should be set top downwards for posts, as it then lasts much 
longer. It is also charred for charcoal. 

Beech, {Fagus ferruginea,) is one of our best kinds of wood. It is very 
hard and smooth, is used for planes and moulding tools, chisel handles, and 
various uses where hardness and smoothness is required. It is not very 
durable in the weather. 

Basswood, [Tilia Americana^ is a very fine grained wood, soft and light,^ 
and flexible. It is used by cabinet makers and carriage makers for pannels, 
etc., for which its flexibility makes it well suited. 

Tulip Tree, (Liriodendron tulipifera.) This wood generally goes by 
the name of lohite wood, and sometimes by the name of poplar. It is fine 
grained and smooth, but not durable in the weather. It is very apt to warp. 
It is mostly used for furniture and wagon bodies, and frequently for joiner 
work inside of a house. It paints very handsomely. 

Maple. — Rock maple, {^Acer Saccharinum^ also several other species, are 
hard, smooth, and compact. It is used for gun-stocks, bedsteads, and vari- 
ous kinds of machinery. The curled maple and birdseye make beautiful 
furniture by staining it with diluted svilphuric acid and a coating of varnish. 
It makes excellent fuel when dry. The sap of rock maple boiled down 
makes sugar. 

Birch. — The white birch, (Betula papyracea,) is similar to maple, only 
harder. The Indians make their canoes out of the bark of this tree. The 
lesser white birch, {B. p)opulifolia,) is a tree of but little value, except to 
make charcoal. The bark of the black birch, {B. lenta,) is very aromatic ; 
the wood is very firm and compact, of a dark color, of much value for furni- 
ture, for screws, and sometimes for joiners' planes. It is very strong. The 
yellow birch, [B. lutea) is very similar to the black except in color. 

Black Walnut, {Juglans nigra,) is valuable for many uses. Its heart is 
very dark, resembling the color of the violet, and is frequently used for fur- 
niture and for finishing the inside of churches. It is very durable when ex- 
posed to the weather. It is very tenacious, and when perfectly seasoned is 
not liable to crack and warp. 

Hornbeam. — There are several species of trees in the United States, under 
the names of peperage, sweet gum, and horn-beam.. Their wood is very smooth 



SAXE-GOTH^A CONSPICUA. 483 

grained, and very remarkable for the interweaving of the fibers, v?hich renders 
it almost impossible to split the logs. It is sometimes used for the naves of 
wheels, hatters' blocks, and implements requiring lateral tenacity. 

ESTABAN. 



SAXE-GOTH^A COXSPICUA. 

This remarkable plant, to which his Royal Highness Prince Albert has 
been pleased to permit one of his titles to be given, and which will probably 
rank among the most highly valued of our hardy evergreen trees, is a native 
of the mountains of Patagonia, where it was found by Mr. William Lobb, 
forming a beautiful tree 30 feet high. In the nursery of Messrs. Veitch, of 
Exeter, it has lived in the open air four years without shelter, and has all 
the appearance of bein^' well adapted to the climate of England. The 
country in which it grows is, indeed, more stormy and cold than any part of 
Great Britain, as is stiown by the following account of it, given by Mr. Lobb 
JQ one of his letters to Messrs. Veitch : 

"During my absence I visited a great part of Chiloe, most of the islands 
m the Archipelago, and the coast of Patagonia for about 140 miles. I went 
up the Corcobado, Caylin, Alman, Comau, Reloncavi, and other places on 
the coast, frequently making excursions from the level of the sea to the line 
of perpetual snow. These bays generally run to the base of the central ridge 
of the Andes, and the rivers take their rise much further back in the interior. 
The whole country, from the Andes to the sea, is formed of a succession of 
ridges of mountains gradually rising from the sea to the central ridge. The 
whole is thickly wooded from the base to the snow line. Ascending the 
Andes of Comau, I observed from the water to a considerable elevation the 
forest is composed of a variety of trees, and a sort of cane so thickly matted 
together that it formed almost an impenetrable jungle. Farther up, among 
the melting snows, vegetation becomes so much stunted in growth, that the 
trees, seen below 100 feet high and 8 feet in diameter, only attain the height 
of 6 inches. 

" On reaching the summit no vegetation exists — nothing but scattered bar- 

O JTi O 

ren rocks which appear to rise among the snow, which is 30 feet in depth, 
and frozen so hard that on walking over it the foot makes but a slight im- 
pression. 

" To the east, as far as the eye can command, it appears perfectly level. 
To the south, one sees the central ridge of the Andes stretching along for an 
immense distance, and covered with perpetual snow. To the west, the whole 
of the islands, from the Guaytecas to the extent of the Archipelago, is evenly 
and distinctly to be seen. 

" A little below this elevation the scenery is also singular and grand. 
Rocky precipices stand like perpendicular walls from 200 to 300 feet in 
height, over which roll the waters from the melting snows, which appear to the 
eye like lines of silver. Sometimes these waters rush down with such force 
that rocks of many tons in weight are precipitated from their lofty stations 
to the depth of 2000 feet. In the forest below everything appears calm and 
tranquil ; scarcely the sound of an animal is heard ; sometimes a few butter- 



484 



SAXE-GOTH.EA COKSPICUA. 




Fig. A. BRANCil OF SAXE-GOTH^A CONSFICUA. 

flies and beetles meet the eye, but not a house or a human being is seen. 
On the sandy tracts near the river, the lion or puma is frequently to be met 
with ; but this animal is perfectly harmless if not attacked." $^i 

It is from this -wild and uninhabited country that many of the fine plants 
raised by Messrs. Veitch were obtained, and among them the Saxe-Gothcca, 



S AXE-GOTH^ A CONSPICUA. 



•±8i 



Podocarpus nuhigena, Fitz Roya Patagonica, and Libocedrus ietragona. 
Of these lie writes thus : 

" The two last {Fitz-Roya and Libocedrus) I never saw below the snow 
line. The former inhabits the rocky precipices, and the latter the swampy 
places between the mountains. The first grows to an enormous size, par- 
ticularly about the winter snow line, where I have seen trees upwards of 100 
feet high, and more than eight feet in diameter. It may be traced from this 
elevation to the perpetual snows, where it is not more than 4 inches in 
height. With these grow the Yews [Saxe-Gothoea and Podocarpus nubi- 
gena,) which are beautiful evergreen trees, and, as well as the others, afford 
excellent timber." 




Fig. B. FRUCTIFICATION OF SAXE-GOTH^A. 

Saxe-Gothtca may be descril ed as a genus with the male flowers of a 
Podocarp, the females of a Dammar, the fruit of a Juniper, the seed of a 



486 SAXE-GOTHiEA CONSPICUA. 

Dacrydium, and tlie habit of a Yew. Its fleshy fruit, composed of consoli- 
dated scales, enclosing nut-like seed, and forming what is technically called 
a Galbulus, places it near Juniperus, from which it more especially differs in 
not being peltate, nor its fruit composed of a single whorl of perfect scales, 
and its ovule having two integuments intead of one. In the last respect it 
approaches Podocarpus, and especially Dacrydium ; but the exterior integu- 
ment of the seed is a ragged abortive membrane, enveloping the base only 
of the seed, instead of a well-defined cup. In a memorandum in my pos- 
session, by Sir William Hooker, I find the distinguished botanist comparing 
SaxeGothaja to a Podocarp with the flowers in a cone — a view which he 
was probably led to take by the condition of the ovule, and which may be 
regarded as the most philosophical mode of understanding the nature of this 
singular genus ; to which Nageia may be said to be a slight approach, and 
which is not distinguishable by habit from a Podocarp. 

In its systematic relations Saxe-Gotheea possesses great interest, forming 
as it does a direct transition from the one-flowered Taxads to the true im- 
bricated Conifers, without, however, breaking down the boundary between 
those orders, as I understand them, but rathef confirming the propriety of 
limiting the Coniferous orders to those genera which really bear cones in- 
stead of single naked seeds. In the language of some naturalists, Saxe- 
Gotb?ea would be called an osculant genus between Taxads and Conifers. 

The leaves of this plant have altogether the size and general appearance 
of the English Yew (yaaras baccata) ; but they are glaucous underneath, 
except the midrib and two narrow stripes within the edges, which are a pale- 
green. The male flowers consist of spikes appearing at the ends of the 
branches, in a raceme more or less elongated. These spikes (tig. B, 1) grow 
from within a few concave acute scales, which form a kind of involucre at 
the base. Each male is a solitary membraneous anther, with a lanceolate, 
acuminate, reflexed appendage, and a pair of parallel cells opening longitu- 
dinally. The female flowers form a small, roundish, pedunculated, terminal, 
scaly imbricated cone (fig. B, 3.) The scales are fleshy, firm, lanceolate, and 
contracted at their base, where they unite into a solid center. All appear to 
be fertile, and to bear in a niche in the middle, where the contraction is a 
single inverted ovule (fig. B, 4.) The ovule is globular, with two integu- 
ments beyond the nucleus ; the outer integument is loose and thin, and 
wraps round the ovule in such a way that its two edges cannot meet on the 
underside of the ovule ;* the second integument is firm and fleshy ; the 
nucleus is flask-shaped, and protrudes a fungous circular expansion through 
the foramen. The fruit (fig. B, 5) is formed by the consolidation of the free 
scales of the cone into a solid fleshy mass of a depressed form and very ir- 
regular surface, owing to many of the scales being abortive, and crushed by 
those whose seeds are able to swell ; while the ends of the whole retain 
their original form somewhat, are free, rather spiny, and constitute so many 
tough, sharp tubercles. The seed (fig. B, G) is a p>ile-brown, shining, ovate, 
brittle nut, with two very s'ight eievated lines, and a large irregular hilium; 
— " s ' ~~~~~~" ■ 

* Since this was written, Sir W. Hooker has placed in my hands a sketch of th© 
anatomy of the female flowers of Saxe-Goth.nea, by Mr. B. Clark, who describes the 
ovule thus: "Its ovule has the same structure as that of Gnetum, as described by 
Mr. Griffith, viz. : it has three integuments ; the internal protrudes, and forms a soit 
of stigma, not so obvious as in Gnetum ; the external has constantly a fissure on its 
posterior, or rather inferior surface, which, however, does not close as in Gnetum 
when the ovule advances in growth, nor yet becomes succulent. Mr. Griffith describes 
the fissure in the external integument of Gnetum as constantly posterior; and if the 
ovules of the strobilus were erect, they would agree with Gnetum in this particular." 



MACHINERY AND METALS AT PARIS EXHIBITION. 487 

at the base it is invested with a short, thin, ragged membrane, which is the 
outer integument to its final condition. The nucleus lies half free in the in- 
terior, the fungous apex having shriveled up and disappeared. 

Explanation of the Cuts. — A, a branch with male and female flower- 
natural size ; B, various details of the fructifications, more or less magnified ; 
1, a spike of male flowers; 2, a male or anther part; 3, a twig and youno- 
cone; 4, a scale seen from the inside with the inverted ovule, showincr the 
fungous foramen protruding beyond the primine (outer integument) ; 5, a 
ripe fruit ; 6, a seed showing the two slight elevations upon the surface, 
and the remains of the ragged primine at the base. — Journal London Hor- 
ticultural Society. 



Machinery and Metals at the Paris Exhibition. — An American iron- 
master in Paris informs us that the French made a great display of steam- 
engines, iron planing machines, large tools, marine propellers, etc., and that 
they were mostly defective — curious, but not like American machinery, 
which is simple. Some of them were monstrosities. For instance, their fine- 
finished steam engines were badly proportioned, with a small and large C} Un- 
der to do what one would accomplish better than two. Strange to say, 
their propeller eogines are geared, even those used in the 100 gun war- 
steamers. The same is true of British engines for the same class of vessels. 
They say that direct action engines have such large journals that the wear 
of the boxes is too great, and they find it better to gear them. At the same 
time they admit that there is often a total smash of their cog-wheels. 

The show of metals in the Exposition was very extensive. They were 
wonders in the way of the sizes of masses, bars and sheets of iron. The 
English seemed to excel here the other Euruprtans. Yet some French sam- 
ples were very interesting and nearly equal to the Eaglish. I saw bars of 
railroad iron from 80 to 90 feet long, sheets 30 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 
half an inch thick. Some of the Prussian works in cast steel were wonder- 
ful. One mass weighed 11,000 pounds. 

In coals there was no show worthy of an American's attention. The 
samples were poor ;;nd thin. There is no coal in Europe that will compare 
with ours. Ttiere were few ores like our magnetic varieties on exhibition. 
Ah ! if we Americans only appreciated the elements of a national superioiity, 
over all the people of the world, which God has niauted in our soil our 
cHmate, deep in our earth, and in our running waters, if we only used them 
with a wise national economy, how wealthy and how powerful we would be. 
By-the-by, have I said that neither the English nor tiie French can, hs far 
as I have observed, teach us anything in the great business of making iron ? 
— Albany Eve. Jour. 



An Enormous Room. — The largest reading lOom in the world is now 
nearlj completed, in the British Museum. It s circular, 140 feet in diam- 
eter, and 140 feet in height. The tables will ai c mmodate nearly four hun- 
dred readers. The wrought iron book-cases will contain 102,000 volumes. 
The cost of the room will be about $300,000. 



488 SCYTHE MAKING. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

SCYTHE MAKING. 

BY DANIEL JAY SPRAGUE, 

However luucli the advancement of mechanical arts may be indebted to 
the increase of knowledge which characterizes our age, and to ita newly de- 
veloped skill, invention, and application, it is not much less indebted to the 
comparatively modern institution of Division of Labor. 

Every department of business whicii calls forth human industry, whether 
mechanical or professional, is subject to this improvement. We do not ex- 
pect lo see the same person officiating both in the capacity of clergyman and 
lawypr, or astronomer and geologist, philosopher and mechanic, no more ia 
the mechanical than in the mental world, should a single individual be ex- 
pected to fulfill the duties of all departments. One studies the laws of me- 
chanics, another the application ; one forms the surgeon's knife, another puts 
the same in use. 

This is so common and so much in accordance with ones own sense of 
propriety and economy, that we do not observe in these arrangements of 
professions, studies, and employments, a division of labor. Yet its existence 
is none the less true. 

The field of knowledge is so rich and boundless that we should esteem a 
man beside himself did he think to make any profession especially bis own 
and yet to become an adept in every other. Life is too short and art too 
long for man to make himself master of all the avenues of knowledge. Did 
he consider this a necessary preparation for the duties of life, he would find 
his three score years and ten to have passed away long before he was fitted 
for the arena of action. 

I knew of a gentleman who had graduated at two American colleges, 
and had for several years studied botany in this and foreign countries ; yet, 
notwithstanding he was one of the first scholars of the age, said he did not 
consider himself competent to take the entire professorship of a single species 
of bulbous plants. 

By division of labor the time which is lost in learning an entire department 
of manufacture is lessened, and the amount of productive labor which a man 
in his life may effect much increased. 

Division of labor advances the quality of that which is produced, since 
continued attention to one department gives greater perfection in that de- 
partment. It also, by confining ones attention to a single portion of manu- 
facture, leads to new inventions to shorten the process, and save time, labor, 
and expense. 

As in philosophical investigations, if one individual gives his whole mind 
and attention for years to a single department he attains a greater degree of 
knowledge, delves to a deeper, profounder depth, and brings from the more 
obscure veins richer thoughts than he who but skims the surface, or turns 
his mind now to this and now to that study ; so in mechanics let a pei^son 
give his attention to one operation, and he will not only perform that more 
perfectly, but will also suggest some method to shorten the time, or some 
invention by which machines shall perform the labor of the hands, and thus, 
perhaps, will open a new field of employment to other individuals. The 
adoption of the principles of division of labor has been for years past con- 



SCYTHE MAKING. 489 



tinually on the increase. The pin, the needle, the lock, and the loom, though 
formerly each was produced by the labor of a single individual, must now 
pass through its score or more hands before they are finished and prepared 
for use. 

Thus, by an instrumentality which at first thought may appear compara- 
tively trivial, great results in the mechanical arts are with ease acccomplished, 
and each new invention or operation becomes a fresh testimonial that ours is 
an age of progress. 

I have been led to these remarks on division of labor by recently noticing 
a practical application of the principles to the manufacture of scythes, by 
A. V. Blanchard, of Palmer, Mass. A partial description of the manufac- 
tory I will attempt to give : 

The first process in scythe makinof is called the welding process ; it con- 
sists of two pieces of steel, each of which is about three-fourths of an inch 
wide and three inches long, the one of cast-steel, for the back, to stiffen and 
give strength ; the other of German steel for the edge. These are placed 
side by side, and folded in a piece of iron six inches in length and two in 
width ; thus making the metal which constitutes one scythe to be a mass 
about three inches in length, two in width, and one and a half thick, weigh- 
ing less than a pound. 

Since a mass of these dimensions would be inconvenient and almost im- 
possible to shape under the triphammer, which is the only kind used in 
forging the scythe, it is not cut from the bar of iron in which the steel is 
folded till it has first been drawn to about two feet in length, and is then in 
such a shape as can be conveniently handled. 

This little rod of iron and steel is then passed in an exceedingly rough 
state to a second class of hands called the jointers. It is their duty to 
smooth it in a degree from the indentations of the first process under a 
lighter hammer and draw to about three feet in length, leaving the whole 
thickness equal to the back of the instrument when finished. 

By the folding of the steel in the iron a twofold advantage is gained, viz., 
the steel and iron are more readily incorporated in one mass, and the steel is 
brought into the center of the scythe where it is needed, having the iron oe 
both sides to give it shape and strength. Thus along the edge of the whole 
rod may be distinctly seen, by the difference of the metal, the steel inclosed 
by the iron. The upper corner of the rod is then cut off, making it slightly 
pointed, when it is ready for the third process called plaiting. This consists 
in drawing to a proper thinness the web, as it is called, which includes all 
except the back, and in shaping the back giving to it the form and curvature 
of the instrument, first suggestive of what is being constructed. 

There must here be exercised no little skill to properly reduce the thickness 
of the metal and yet preserve the just relations throughout, since it might 
easily be distorted so that the steel would be almost entirely exposed, or 
separated from the iron, and consequently one part of the instrument might 
cut well and another part possess little of the cutting qualities. 

When a proper thinness is attained the fitters curve the blade, which is 
the fourth process of manufacture, and it is ready for the next class of hands. 

After plaiting and fitting, the back is set up. This is done by a singularly- 
contrived double hammer. It is so formed that the weightier part of the 
hammer, having its configurations reciprocal to those of the anvil, as it falls 
gives the particular inclination desired to the middle portion between the 
edge and the back, while another part, by the elevation of the fir.st and by 
the motion of the beam to which the hammer is attached is drawn up, as it 



490 SCYTHE MAKING. 



were, against the anvil, and tlius turns up the baclc nearly at a right angle. 
By this means, from a flat bar of steel, that which seems to be the most dif- 
ficult pait in the construction of the scytlie is accomplished by a single blow. 
This process in tlie manufacture is called, from the large share v/hich it per- 
forms, the finishing process, since it nearly finishes the shape of the part be- 
tween the heel and point. These yet remain straight. 

The sixth process consists in finishing the point, twisting it up or down, as 
needs be, so that it shall be straight with the edge, and also in turning the 
heel and claw, by which it is fastened to the snath. The name of the man- 
ufacturer and the kind of scjthe is then stamped on by the action of a sin- 
gle die. The scythe is now forged, and the shape complete. 

Several attempts have been made to diminish the amount of labor and 
shorten the time required for the construction, but as yet none have proved 
successful. A gentleman is now studying to invent a machine by which 
these results shall be accomplished. His success or failure remains yet to be 
demonstrated. 

The next process is hardening and tempering. In common usage these 
words have the same signification, whereas in reality their meaning is quite 
different. The hardening is efiected by heating the scythe to a red heat, and 
then suddenly cooHng by dropping into water. This makes the metal ex- 
tremely hard and brittle. It is like glass, which, though much harder than 
our cutlery, has notwithstanding little of the cutting qualities. Therefore 
were they prepared for use in this condition, they would be of little value. 
They must, be tempered, or, as the word itself denotes, toughened, so that the 
edge will not so easily break out. 

After hardening, and before tempering, I noticed that the workman pound- 
ed the edge and broke from each scythe a small piece near the heel and 
point. The object of this, he said, was to see the steel and examine its 
quality, I learned also that the fineness of all steel depends not alone on the 
ore of which it was made, but upon the hammering and proper working of 
the metal. A good workman may obtain from poor ore as good and perhaps 
better metal than a poor workman can from the very best. 

In mantifacturiijg well-wrought steel, it is first "heated to v,bat is called 
white heat, and then hammered till cold. It is then heated a little more 
than red, and hammered till cold. Afterward it is heated again to a still 
lower degree, a cherry red or pink heat, and then hanamered as before till 
cold ; the number of different heats and hammerings giving to the metal its 
finer or coarser qualit)\ Thus, thouarht I, not unfrequently is it with man- 
kind — the best metal is that which has been the most pounded. 

The process of hardening may be performed at any time, and requires 
comparatively but little skill ; but tempering requires not only a good degree 
of knowledge of the art, for such it may be styled, but also much skill and 
experience, and is best accomplished in the night-time or in a dark room. 
Scythes are tempered by drawing them back and forth over a hot fiie till 
ihe steel assumes a certain reddish tinge, readily discerned by the workman, 
: hough it cannot bp easily described. They are then permitted gradually to 
cool, which fixes the temper a little lower than when first taken from the 
tire. The hardening process leaves the temper too high ; the second heating- 
draws down or lowers it. 

Color is not the only test of temper, but it may be ascertained in many 
other way's. Sometimes they are heated to such a degree that when spit 
upon it will roll oft' like oil, without noise ; or, when a drop of water is let 
tall upon it, there will be given a peculiar snapping sound. Another method 



SCYTHE MAKING. 



491 



is to heat to such a degree that oil, when poured on them, will just blaze. 
There are several other different modes, each perhaps peculiar to each me- 
chanic. 

The Damascus sword-blades, which have a world-wide celebrity for their 
temper or toughness, were tempered by heating them to a cherry red heat, 
and then were taken into the open air and swung around till cold. The 
quaUty of the s'.eel, however, was also superior to that of the present day. 
It is related that the method in which this peculiar temper was first learned 
was, like very many other discoveries, entirely by accident. 

An old commander, who had lost his sword in battle, went to the manu- 
facturer, and in great haste ordered another to be immediately made. It 
was no sooner forged than he seized it, while yet hot, and mounting his 
steed, continually flourished the sword over his head till cold. It was after- 
wards found to possess a temper superior to any before made, and conse- 
quently suggested this mode of tempering, which subsequently became of 
very general use throughout that country. 

There are many different kinds of temper, each tool requiring one of its 
own. To razors and surgical instruments is given the highest, to the axe and 
chisel a lower, and to springs the lowest. Scythes require a temper nearly 
as high as that of a razor, but the quality of the steel is inferior ; conse- 
quently to obtain an even temper through the entire length of so long a 
cutting instrument is a labor demanding much care, and workmen of supe- 
rior skill. Scythes also need a different edge from that of a razor. To the 
latter is given as smooth an edge as possible, while to the former^ is given a 
rough edge somewhat like that of a sickle. A fine smooth edge is not suit- 
able for a scythe, since it soon becomes so gummed by the juices from the 
grass that it cannot cut. It is, however, requisite for all the finer cutlery, 
and for this reason, together with the fact that they contain but little metal, 
and are liable to become distorted if thrown into water, some are both hard- 
ened and tempered in oil. 

A proper temper effects the ease and smoothness with which an instrument 
cuts. There are two cutting utensils, says the farmer, of which I wish the 
best quality, namely, a scythe and a razor, for to use a poor one of either 
kind well-nigh takes a man's life. The one draws the sweat, and the other 
draws the tears. 

After the shaping and tempering of the scythe is linished, the next opera- 
tion is to grind ihem. Each scythe is ground three times. They are first 
rough ground, as the workman terms it, which consists in bringing them to 
an edge; next they are ground across the edge, the object of which is to 
straighten it; lastly they are smooth ground, which exposes the ste^d about 
a quarter ©f an inch in width, the entire length of the instrument, and leaves- 
them nearly to an edge, but not sharp enough to cut with careful handling. 
How many times, when a boy, have we sweated over the little rickety grind- 
stone, and wished scythes might be bought at the stores sharp as razors. 
Often, too, have we looked at this exposed portion of the steel and remarked 
how large a proportion of the scythe was nothing but iron, then we moral- 
ized for a time on the deceitfulness of mankind, and finally summed up our 
little-satisfactory discourse with the not altogether pleasing inference that 
there were cheats in all trades but ours. 

After grinding, ftie scythes are rinsed in lime-water to prevent rusting be- 
fore they are fioished. The stones used in grinding are of numenfe size, 
weighing from fony to fifty thousand pounds, and require six or eight men 
to hang them. When new, the stones just coming from the quarry are ex- 



492 SCYTHE MAKIN-G. 



ceedingly rough, and therefore are turned off till smooth, after which the 
edge is filled with grooves about an eighth of an inch deep, crossing each 
other in every direction, the object of which is to make them wear away the 
steel more rapidly. When in use, these stones make nearly one hundred and 
eighty revolutions a minute. They are put in motion and brought to rest 
very gradually, since from the weight to be moved and the sreat momentum 
they acquire, there is danger of bursting. The strength of new stones is 
tested before they are used by putting them in rapid motion and leaving 
them for several hours. 

With the greatest care and best regulations, stone will sometimes burst and 
fatal results follow, though the occurrence is by no means as frequent as 
formerly. This doubtless results in some degree from the exercise of greater 
care, also from the use of green instead of dry timber in fastening them to the 
axis, and improvements in the mode of fastening. 

The grinding is the most unhealthy part of the manufactory of scythes. 
It is unhealthy because minute particles, worn from the stones and the steel, 
are thrown off into the air, which in the vicinity of the operator becomes 
saturated, as it were, with it, and in breathing they are inhaled and deposited 
upon the lungs. These particles are deposited so rapidly that it is estimated 
a man who constantly follows the business would not live more than from 
four to seven years. Indeed in some sections there is a disease which is 
called the grind-stone consumption. On the lungs of persons who have 
died of this disease have been found pieces of grit from the stones as large 
as a walnut. Many means have beeo tried, by applying bandages to the 
mouth and nostrils, and otherwise, to prevent the ingress of these particles, 
but with little advantage. 

In giinding a man is required to have his wliole weight upon the scythe, 
and it is thus liable to become twisted ; therefore they are next examined 
and straightened, after which they are ready for the subsequent process of 
polishing. 

This is done with the common emery-wheel, which is a wooden wheel 
prepared for the purpose by spreading upon it a coating of glue which is 
thickened with emery — a dark colored sand — and made to revolve at the rate 
of two thousand revolutions a minute. 

Emery is one of the varieties of corundum, obtained for the most par 
from Europe, though an inferior quality has been obtained from our own 
country. It is found in Saxony, in a mountain called Ocbsenkopf, near 
Schneeberg, and also in the islands of the Greek Archipelago. 

After polishing, the scythes are painted or oiled, to prevent rusting, put up 
in dozen bundles, wrapped first in paper and then in straw and are prepared 
for market. 

In this manufactory are annually produced about two thousand dozen of 
scythes, making use of about thirty tons of iron and one of steel. This iron 
is all obtained from Norway or Russia, it being thought superior to the 
American article. 

For a time the Salisbury, Conn., iron was used, and considered equal to 
the imported, but in later years it has become inferior by the mixture of 
other ore. It is much to be regretted that, while the mines of the United 
States contain an abundance of superior ore our citizens should be com2:)elled 
to patronize that of foreign countries, simply because of fhe frauds and de- 
ceits of money-catching producers at home. 

In this establishment is annually consumed in carrying on its operations 
nearly ten thousand bushels of charcoal and fifty tons of anthracite coal 



NEW BUILDING BRICKS. 



493 



The wind for the five or six forges is supplied through a pipe little more than 
two inches in diameter, by a simple blow-wheel of only twenty inches driven 
by water so as to make sixteen hundred revolutions in a minute. Empioy- 
ment is here furnished to fifteen or twenty men, each of whom is paid by 
the dozen for the amount of labor performed. The welders, platers, and 
temperers each receive twenty-five cents a dozen, and can finish ten dozen a 
day, making their daily wages two dollars and a half. The grinders receive 
the same wages per dozen, but usually cannot finish so large a number as 
those in other departments. 

Upon the whole the receipts of these workmen are even better than those 
of not a few professional men, and the inducements presented to the mechanic 
iu our country are in a sense superior to those of the scholar. I have drawn 
at some length, this sketch, illustrative of the principles of division of labor 
and their application, believing that the time thus spent in the study of the 
practical to be of infinitely more value than that of mere abstract theories. 

It is one thing to know that an article is produced and fitly prepared for 
use, but quite another to know how it was produced and rendered thus perfect. 
Of the latter kind of knowledge our Avorld has far more need than the 
former. 



NEW BUILDING BRICKS. 

A PATENT has been secured by Mr. Edgar Conkling, of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
for a new form of brick. Several plans have been devised of late for securing 
strength to brick structures. Bricks of the ordinary form have, of necessity, a 
considerable space between them, filled by mortar, and yet exposed to the 
weather, and severely acted upon by rains and frosts. These bricks are so 
constructed, with apertures in the interior of the wall, though upon the sur- 
face of the brick, that the mortar is thoroughly defended from the force of 
storms, while it also gives an increased strength to the wall in resisting lateral 




494 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



pressure. The wall thus built is perfectly solid, while the bricks are laid 
close to each other, and yet are firmly bound together by a sufficient quantity 
of mortar. Models of these bricks may be seen at this office. 

In the annexed engravings, fig. 1 shows the form of the improved bricks 
separately; fig. 2 exhibits their appearance when laid in a wall; fig. 3 is a 
section of wall. 

The inner edges of these bricks, B, are made a little concave. The sur- 
faces are formed with cavities, c, the back parts of whicla are the deepest as 
at d. With these exceptions the surfaces are made flat in the usual manner, 
and come in contact like ordinary bricks. In laying a wall the top surface 
of each coui-se is to be washed over, by means of a whitewash brush, with 
a thin coat of grouting or cement, or covered with a thin stratum of slush 
mortar. Grouting is then poured into the interstices, which in consequence 
of the openings formed by the cavities in the brick, has abundant opportu- 
nity to circulate among them, and forms the strongest kind of binding. In 
putting up huuse fronts, no pointing is required to be done, and no discolor- 
ation of the surface is occasioned. No more lime is required in laying these 
bricks than the ordinary form, as Mr. Conklmg informs us, while there may 
be a saving in the mortar. These bricks make a strong wall. It is conceded 
by some masons that a 12 inch grouted wall is equal to one of 16 inches 
mortar laid. 

We are told also that there is no difiiculty either in the molding, pressing: 
or burning of these improved bricks, and no increase of expense. If the 
usual care is taken in sorting out from the kilns, the proper proportion of 
biicks that are sufficiently true and even for fronts will generally be found. 

We commend this invention to the attention of builders, and shall be 
happy to aid them in making experiments with them to their satisfaction. 
We shall probably have more to say of these bricks hereafter. 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 



An Improved Mode of Preventing the Alteration of Bank Bills 
FROM one Denomination to Another. — One of the most common methods 
of counterfeiting bank notes or bills consists in erasing the figures which in- 
dicate the denomination of the note, by rubbing with the hand or otherwise, 
and reprinting or pasting upon the surface so prepared, other figures indicating 
a higher denomination. Thus, the word or figure " five" may be erased, and 
upon the surface which it occupied "fifty" or " one hundred" may be printed. 
Alterations of this description easily deceive the public, as, when well executed, 
they can be detected only by the initiated, and upon very close examination. 
To render this species of alteration impossible, by afibrd'ng to the initiated a 
ready means of easily detecting it if practised, is the object of the present 
invention, which consists, in so imprinting into the body of the paper, the 
character or words which indicate the denomination of the note or bill, that 
it can only be erased by the total destruction of the paper, and cannot be 
replaced or imitated even if it were found possible to erase it. This is ac- 
complished, either by a process analogous to that which is known in the 
maniifacuire of paper as " water-lining," or by printing the paper as it is 
manufactured, with the required character? or figures, by a peculiar process, 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 495 

which causes the color to penetrate entirely through the body of the bill or 
note, so that it cannot be removed without destroying the texture of the 
paper itself. 

During the process of manufacturing the paper, and while yet in a soft 
pulpy state, it is imprinted with characters or letters indicating the denomi- 
nation of the bill, " five" for a five pound note, '"ten" for a ten pound note, 
and so on, for notes of other denominations. This may be accomplished in 
various ways, as follows : First, by water-lining in the ordinary way, with 
wire secured to the vellum, so arranged as to impress the required characters 
upon the paper ; or the same effect may be produced by means of types, 
slightly raised upon the surface of a cylinder, which is caused to bear upon 
the web of paper while it is still soft and impressible, and thus indent the 
required characters into the body of the paper, — the velocity of the surface 
of the cylinder being exactly equal to that of the web of paper as it passes 
through the machine. To render the characters thus produced ipore ap- 
parent and striking, they may be imprinted upon the sofc pulpy paper in 
colore, and in such a manner as will insure the color sinking deep into and 
entirely penetrating the body of the paper. This is readily accomplished by 
means of a cyfinder, similar to that above described, having upon its surface 
points set close to each other in lines forming the desired figures, and suffi- 
ciently elevated to penetrate the paper whilst it is yet in a soft pulpy state. 
These points are charged with ink of the required color, which is transferred 
(as the cyUnder revolves) to the paper, into the body of which it penetrates. 
The holes made by the points are instantly closed by the pressure rollers, to 
which the paper is afterwards subjected, and the coloring is thus caused to 
penetrate entirely through the note, and consequently cannot be removed for 
the fraudulent purpose before mentioned. 

New mode of separating certain vegetable fibres from mixed 
FABRICS FOR VARIOUS USEFUL PURPOSES. — This invention, which has refer- 
ence to the treatment of fabrics composed partly of animal and partly of 
vegetable fibres, as, for example, any fabrics containing woolen or silken 
filaments in connection with flax or cotton, has for its object to utilize the 
refuse of such fabrics, by separating the vegetable fibre therefrom in such 
manner that either the vegetable fibre or the animal fibre may be obtained 
in an integral or solid state, or a state of solution ; or the nitrogen of the 
animal fibre may be evolved for any manufacturing purposes for which the 
fibres or nitrogen respectively have hitherto been or may be found service- 
able. To this end the patentee avails himself of the properties of caustic 
alkalis and alkaline earths, on the one hand, for decomposing the animal 
matter in the fabrics without aft'ecting the vegetable fibre, and of the property 
of acids, on the other hand, with which, by the assistance of heat, a dis- 
organization of the vegetable, without injury to the animal fibre, is affected. 

To separate the vegetable fibre, in an integral condition, from the mixed 
fabrics, by dissolving the animal matter, the fabric is simply boiled for a 
sufficient time in a solution of caustic alkali or alkaline earth ; soda or lime 
is preferred for this purpose ; but any other alkali or alkaline earth may be 
substituted with efficacy. 

To separate the nitrogen of the animal fibre in the fabrics in a form avail- 
able for manufacturing purposes, the material to be operated upon is placed 
in a close vessel of the kind ordinarily used in the manufacture of ammonia, 
together with such a quantity of alkali or alkaline earth as may be found 
sufficient to eff"ect the decomposition of the animal matter. Heat is then 



496 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



applied to the mixture ia any convenient manner, but preferably by passing 
steam, at a bigh pressure, through the whole mass of fabrics ; and the 
ammoniacal vapor which is evolved by this process is condensed by passing 
it into an acid, and thus forming a sort of ammonia ; or by passing it into 
water, and thus forming an ammoniacal liquor, from which the nitrogen may 
be readily separated. 

In order to separate the animal matter from the fabrics in the form of a 
solid, the materials to be operated upon are placed, together with the alkaH 
or alkaline earth, in an open vessel, and heated to about 180<^ Fahr. The 
resulting liquor is drawn ott" and treated with a stream of carbonic acid, or 
with a sufficient quantity of any other acid, to neutralize the alkali or alkaline 
earth. By the above process, the animal matter contained in the fabrics 
will be precipitated in the form of a fine pov?der, which may be collected in 
a filter and dried for use. The quantities of alkalis or alkaline earth neces- 
sary to eflect the decomposition or solution of wool, will vary with the sam- 
ple of rags to be operated on, because some rags contain more animal matter 
than others : but when the ordinary stufi"-goods are employed, it may be 
said, in a general way, that from three to four cwts. of soda, or from six to 
seven cwts. of lime, will be required for the treatment of every ton of goods. 
When alkalis, in preference to alkaline earths, are employed for the treatment 
of the mixed fabrics, the said alkalis may be recovered for the purpose of 
obviating waste, by the i:)roces3 of evaporating the refuse liquor to dryness, 
and heating the sediment to a red heat, or by boiling the liquors with fat, so 
as to form the well-known compound soap. When the animal matters in 
the fabrics are required to be preserved intact, the separation is effected by 
■wetting the material with a solution of an acid — being either a vegetable 
acid (which the patentee prefers using,) as tartaric or oxalic acid — or a min- 
eral acid, as sulphuric, muriatic, or nitric acid, and heating the wetted mix- 
ture in a suitable chamber, by means of a jet of steam, or in any other suit- 
able method, to the temperature of 300'' Fahr. ; by which process the 
vegetable fibre will, in a very short time, become disorganized and rotten, so 
that the animal fibre may readily be separated by any suitable mechanical 
contrivance ; as, for instance, when the said animal fibre is woolen, the wool 
may be combed out by means of a carding machine, which will refuse the 
vegetable matter as dust. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Plain and Ornamental woven 
Fabrics. — This invention consists in constructing plain and ornamental 
woven fabrics with a warp or weft, or both warp and weft, composed of yarns 
or threads twisted in contrary directions, that is, — some of such yarns or 
threads being twisted in one direction, and the others of such yarns or threads 
in the contrary direction ; and in giving to all or some of such yarns or 
threads more than the usual amount of twist ; so that when moisture is ap- 
plied to the fabrics, the action of such moisture on the yarns, twisted in 
manner aforesaid, may cause the same to curl, snarl, or shrink, and thereby 
produce fabrics similar to crape. Except in twisting the yarns or threads in 
manner aforesaid, thf-y are spun and prepared in the usual way. 

In carrying out their invention the patentees prefer to make use of a loom 
with a drop-box of the ordinary construction. When the weft of the cloth 
only is intended to consist of threads twisted in contrary directions, a warp 
made of yarn spun as usual is put into the loom, and two shuttles are re- 
quired, each containing weft with sufficient twist — so that when moistened 
the twist shall cause the weft to shrink, snarl, or curl. The weft in one of 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 



497 



the shuttles is twisted to the right hand, and that in the other to the left 
hand. In weaving such a cloth, it is preferred that two shoots of weft, 
twisted to the right hand, should be put into the cloth, and then two shoots 
of the wefc twisted to the left hand, and so on alternately until the piece of 
fabric is completed. When the fabric is taken out of the loom it is in ap- 
pearance like muslin, or any other plain fabric ; but on the application of 
moisture, the curling or snarling of the weft causes the fabric to shrink or 
contract in width, and to assume an uneven surface, somewhat similar to that 
of crape. Modifications in the weaving of such cloth may be adopted ac- 
cording to the quality and the object for which the fabric may be required ; 
thus, the proportions of the yarns or threads twisted in opposite directions 
may be varied, and three shuttles may be used ; one containing ordinary 
weft yarns or threads, and the other two containing weft yarns or threads 
twisted in contrary directions, and with more than the usual amount of twist, 
as above described. 

In weaving with three shuttles, the three shuttles may be thrown across 
the shed in any required succession, for the purpose of producing the desired 
effect. For instance, two picks may be given with the ordinary weft, then 
two with the right hand twisted weft, and then two with the left hand twisted 
weft. The warp of a cloth may also be composed of yarns or threads twisted 
in contrary directions in any desired proportion — the whole or some of them 
having more than the usual amount of twist. The weft of such a cloth may 
be composed of ordinary yarns or threads, and woven in the usual manner ; 
or the weft may be composed of any of the combinations of yarns or threads 
hereinbefore described. 

When fabrics have been woven according to this invention, they may be 
bleached, dyed, or printed in the ordinary manner, and the uneven surface 
craping or crimping is then produced by the action of the moisture which is 
necessarily imparted during either of the said processes ; but if the yarns or 
threads of which the improved fabrics are woven have been previously 
bleached, dyed, or printed, it is evident that the uneven surface craping or 
crimping must then be produced by the direct application of moisture. 

It may be desirable to stretch or distend the fabric, in order to obtain a plain 
surface for printing upon, and to keep the fabric stretched or distended until 
the colors printed upon it are dry. The uneven surface may then be produced 
by the application of moisture ; by which means an ornamental fabric of a 
chene description is obtained. All or some of the warp or weft threads, or 
of both the warp and weft threads., may be colored or parti-colored before 
they are woven. The process of printing may also be performed on the un- 
even surface of the fabric. Fabrics may be woven, having a loose or floating 
back, or with black-lashed threads, and a crape face produced in the manner 
before described. The invention may be used in producing fabrics of cotton, 
silk, wool, worsted, or other fibrous material, or any combination of any two 
or more of such materials. 

The patentees claim constructing the warp or weft, or both warp and 
weft, of woven textile fabrics, whether plain or ornamented, of yarns or 
threads twisted in contrary directions — the whole or part of such yarns 
or threads having more than the usual amount of twist for the purpose 
of producing fabrics having craped or crimped surfaces, in the manner 
described. 

An Improved Constkuction of Spurs. — The object of this invention 
is so to construct spurs as to permit of their being fitted on to boot heels of 
32 



498 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



various diameters. For this purpose the clasp of the spur is constructed of 
two arras, which are jointed to a central-threaded stem that carries the 
rowel of the spur. Bj the pressure on the inner ends of the arms of a nut 
or button which works upon the thread on this stem, the span of the arms 
is contracted, and the firm attachment of the spur to the heel of the boot is 
effected. 

Improvements in the Treatment of Rags and other Goods formed 
PARTLY OF Wool and partly of Vegetable Fibres, in order to 
separate the Vegetable Fibres from them, and obtain the Wool 
IN its pure state. — This invention applies to tissues or other fabrics 
(whether rags or pieces of new goods) composed partly of wool and partly 
of vegetable fibres, and consists in a mode of removing the vegetable from 
the woolen fibres, and thereby obtaining this latter in a suitable state for 
manufacturing purposes ; the same, consequently, offers an easy mode for 
removing the threads from rags with which the seams, button-holes, or other 
parts have been sewn. The rags or other goods, after the same have been 
cleaned to a certain extent, by any of the known means, are put into an acid 
bath (whether cold or suitably heated,) containing one hundred parts (by 
measure) of water ; from four to five parts of common sulphuric acid of 
commerce ; and about one part of alcohol ; and in this bath they are left as 
long as required for disintegrating sufficiently the vegetable fibres. The 
goods are then removed from the acid bath ; after which, the greatest part 
of the liquid is pressed out, and the goods are dried by any suitable means 
— care being taken to spread them out as evenly as possible. When dried, 
they are submitted to a beating engine, or other contrivance, for removing 
the woolen fibres from the partly-decomposed vegetable fibres that might 
still adhere to them ; after which the wool is to be thoroughly washed in 
water, or in a weak alkaline or soap bath, in order to deprive it of acid ; it 
is then again dried, and in this state will be ready to be prepared for spinning 
or other manufacturing purposes. 

The patentee claims the mode of submitting tissues or other fabrics com- 
posed partly of woolen and partly of vegetable fibres, to a bath of diluted 
sulphuric acid, to which a small portion of alcohol is added ; by the action 
of which bath, and cf the processes above described, the vegetable fibres are 
readily removed from the wool, and leave this latter in a state fit for being 
again employed for spinning or other manufacturing purposes. 

An Improved Manufacture of bearings for Carriage Axles and 
Shafts of Machinery in General. — This invention relates to the manu- 
facture of bearings from leather, to be used in place of brasses and other 
metallic bearing surfaces : the object being to render the bearing surfaces 
of blummer blocks and axle-boxes more durable and less costly than hereto- 
fore. In carrying out this invention, ox or cow hides are preferred, either 
tanned, tawed, or otherwise prepared ; and for one class of bearing, the hides 
are cut up into pieces of suitable size for lapping half, or nearly half, round 
the journals to which they are to be applied. These pieces are compressed 
in half round moulds to bring them severally to shape ; and the required 
thickness of bearing is obtained by cementing two, three, or more thicknesses 
of leather together, piling them in layers one above the other, and then 
submitting the combined thicknesses of leather to pressure in a suitably- 
shaped mould for the purpose of solidifying the same. These bearing sur- 
faces may be backed or cased with metal. 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 499 



Improvements in the Construction of Anchors. — This invention 
consists in forming the shank of the improved anchor of two plates of iron 
or other metal, kept apart throughout the whole or a portion only of their 
length, by means of a filling-piece of wood or other suitable material, or by 
means of suitable enlarged portions of the plates themselves. The shank is 
united to the arms either by a forelocked pin or pins, or by clinched-bolts or 
by screw-bolts, according as the arms are intended to be moveable about a 
center or otherwise. When the filling-piece is used, a metal collar is made 
to embrace the two plates and the fiUing-piece, which forms the shank, for 
the purpose of combining thera more effectually at their junction with the 
arms, which may be made flat and of an uniform thickness, or of any other 
desired form. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Ornamental Paper and 
Paper Bands. — This invention relates, first, to the manufacture of paper, 
showing the pattern of a reticulated or woven fabric upon it. This orna- 
mental appearance is obtained either by the introduction of lace, or other 
open woven fabric, into the body of the paper, during the process of manu- 
facture, or by subjecting colored paper, either pulp-dyed or surface-colored, 
or enamelled, to great pressure between metallic-plates or rollers, while a 
piece of lace, or other fabric, of the pattern desired to be imparted to the 
paper, lies in contact therewith ; whereby an indentation of the threads is 
produced on the surface of the paper. 

The paper ornamented by the introduction of the open textile fabric during 
its manufacture, is also greatly strengthened thereby, and rendered particu- 
larly applicable to the manufacture of bands for wrapping up lace or other 
articles ; its application to which manufacture forms the second part of the 
invention. 

The web of bobbin-net or other open textile fabric, is introduced into the 
substance of paper, at the time of its manufacture from the pulp, in the fol- 
lowing manner : A web of net, of any suitable width, and of any required 
or convenient length, having been obtained, it is wound upon a reel or cylin- 
der, mounted near the paper-making machine, as hereafter described. The 
description of paper-making machine employed, is that known as the cylinder 
or air-paper machine, which was the subject of Letters Patent formerly 
granted to John Dickinson. 

The second part of the invention relates to the production of various pat- 
terns, in imitation of lace and other textile fabrics, upon colored papers, 
whether pulp-dyed, surface-colored, or enamelled. For this purpose, the 
lace or other fabric, the pattern of which is required to be reproduced upon 
paper, is cut into pieces of a size rather larger than the sheets of colored 
paper to be operated upon, and stretched upon open frames, and satur ted 
with size or animal glue, which will enable them better to withstand the 
pressure to which they are to be subjected ; when dry, they are cut to the 
size of the colored paper and applied to the surface of the same, and sub- 
jected to great pressure between flat or cylindrical metallic surfaces, as is 
commonly practiced in glazing or milling papers ; and, in consequence, those 
parts of the paper which are in contact with the filaments of the lace or 
other ornamental textile fabric, are exposed to a greater pressure than those 
parts where no such filaments intervene between the pressing surfaces, and 
the coloring matter upon them becomes more condensed, and is consequently 
rendered darker ; so that the pattern of the lace or other ornamental textile 
fabric is produced in a darker shade of the color with which the paper is 



500 THE RAIL-BIRD. 



tinted ; and if the paper be held up to the light, these darker portions, which 
constitute the pattern, will (owing to their being more condensed) appear less 
opaque than the ground color. In thus ornamenting enamelled or surface- 
colored papers, it is preferred to apply the lace or ornamental textile fabric 
to the side of the paper which has no't been colored. 

Improvements in Metallic Pistons. — These improvements consist in a 
method by which the piston-rings of metallic pistons can be tightened up 
whenever required, without the labor of taking off the cylinder cover and 
junk-ring of the piston ; at the same time insuring equal pressure upon each 
spring or other power required to force out the piston-rings during the pro- 
cess of tightening; to this end a plug is fitted into a round hole in the center 
of the piston, and grooved with the same number of grooves as there are 
springs in the piston. These grooves are not cut parallel with the outside of 
the plug, but deep at one end and run out to nothing at the other — forming 
an inclined plane or wedge ; the bolts, v/hich are connected to the springs, 
rest in these grooves. When the piston is first inserted, they are placed in 
the deepest part of the groove or bottom of the incline. Through .the plug 
a screv? is inserted, having a conical collar, which is fitted and ground into 
the inside of the junk-ring of the piston ; a square head to the screw going 
through and extending about one-and-a-half inches outside of the junk-ring. 
In the center of the cylinder cover a hole is made for the insertion of a box 
spanner, which fits the head of the screw that extends out of the junk-ring. 
When the piston requires tightening up, the plug in the center of the piston 
is caused, by the spanner, to retire inwards, and the bolts attached to the 
springs are forced to a greater distance from the center of the piston, by the 
inclined grooves in the plug; thus tightening up the springs. 

In vertical engines, or other machines where the piston is accessible only 
from the top, a center-screw and plug cannot be placed, but four or more 
scre-\vs, (according to the number of springs in the piston,) working in wedges, 
are inserted for tightening the rings, upon the same principle. 



THE RAIL-BIRD.— ITS MIGRATIONS. 

Much discussion has been elicited of late through the medium of the 
newspaper press in Virginia and elsewhere, in regard to the appearance and 
disappearance of the Sora, Ortlan, or Rail-bird, to and from the marshes and 
flats that line the rivers which empty their waters into the Atlantic. Those 
birds are quite numerous in the months of August and September. As far 
back as 1822, myself and several other youths conceived it rare sport to 
push one another about in small skifts, waist-deep in water, among the 
reeds on the flats of the Delaware, at high water, to shoot rail, as we called 
them there. They were an easy prey, even to juvenile marksmen. On 
dark, cloudy days we found them much fleeter on the wing, requiring 
more skill in shooting them than on a clear day with bright sunshine. 

As late as the year 1840 I found sufiicient inducement for many days to 
follow rail shooting until the 5th of October, at which time they nearly dis- 
appeared from our flats, save a few that doubtless had been wounded by the 
legion of sportsmen constantly seeking their destruction. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 501 



A few days after the above period I started on a guuning and fishing ex- 
carsion, near a hundred miles down the peninsula or eastern shore of Mary- 
land, on the marshes and flats of the streams that empty their waters into 
the Chesapeake, south of the gunning locality of the Delaware. I was there 
somewhat surprised to find the rail quite plenty, but for a few days only. 
After remaining there for a week they were as scarce and hard to find as they 
were when I left the Delaware. 

They take to flight in the night, as they cannot see by daylight. I have 
heard their cheerful voice in flocks over my head in the night, winging their 
way southward, no doubt alightiog as they approach a suitable place, or as 
day light appears, obstructing tbeir vision. Ttiey keep down where it is some- 
what dark, among the grass and reeds, hunting food, and their continuance in 
a place is governed by the quantity and quality of food, and the non-appear- 
ance of frost, which they appear to dislike and flee from. 

Now there is no doubt that if I had continued my journey into the Caro- 
linas, after their disapj^iearance from the Chesapeake, I should have found 
them there, — migrating still further south as the frost approaches them, till 
they get beyond the reach of it, where they breed, and where their young 
are grown. 

They commence their annual migrations northward in the night, passing 
from marsh to marsh along the rivers, and from river to river and bay to bay, 
reaching the middle States about the 1st of August. 

Thomas Champion. 



VOLCANIC ERUPTION 

OF MAUXA LOA, IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

[The account of this eruption is too intensely interesting to be passed in 
silence. We extract liberal portions of a letter from Hilo, published in 
the American Journal of the Arts and Sciences, from an eye witness, Rev. 
Mr. Coan. He says :j 

" For sixty-five days the great summit furnace on Mauna Loa has been in 
awful blast. Floods of burning desolation have swept wildly and widely 
over the top and down the sides of the mountain. The threatening stream 
has overcome every obstacle, winding its fiery way from its high source to 
the bases of ' the everlasting hills,' spreading in a molten sea over the plains 
— penetrating ancient forests — driving the bellowing herds, the wild goats 
and the aflrighted birds before its lurid glare — consuming all vegetable life 
with its sulphurous breath, and leaving nothing but blackness and ruin in 
its track. 

On the 12th of July I wrote you on the state of old Kilauea, and on the 
2'7th of Sept., I announced to our mutual friend, Mr. Lyman, the fact and 
the state of our present eruption. Having made my quarterly pastoral tour, 
I started on the second instant for the scene and the source of the eruption 
which is the theme of this letter. Our party consisted of Lawrence M'Cully, 
■Esq., a graduate of Yale and our present acting magistrate, four natives and 
myself. Taking the channel of the Wailuku (the stream which enters Hilo 
bay) as our track, we advanced with much toil through the thicket along its 



502 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



banks, about twelve miles, the first day. Here we rested at the roots of a 
large tree during the night. The next day we proceeded about twelve miles 
farther, for the most part along the bed of the stream, the water being low. 
During both of these days volcanic smoke had filled the forest and given 
the rays of the sun a yellow and baleful hue. 

At night, when the shades gathered over those deep solitudes, unbroken 
except by the bellowing of the untamed bull, the barking of the wild dog, 
the grunt of the forest boar, the wing and the note of the restless bird, the 
chirping of the insect, the falling of a time-worn tree, the gurgling of the 
rill and the wild roar of the cataract, we made our little bed of ferns under 
the trunk of a prostrate tree, and here, for the first time, we found that the 
molten stream had passed us by, many miles, on its way toward Hilo. But 
as its track was several miles to the left of us, and as the jungle here was 
nearly impenetrable, we proceeded the next day up the stream, and at half- 
past one p. M., found ourselves fairly out of the forest, having been a little 
more than two and a half days in accomplishing this part of the tour. 

I cannot stop to describe the beautiful and romantic scenery along our 
winding valley gorge, the cascades, basins, caves, and natural bridges of this 
wild and solitary stream. Nor can I speak of the velvet mosses, luxuriant 
creepers hanging in festoons, the ancient forest trees and other tropical glories 
which were mirrored in its limpid waters. We needed an artist and a natur- 
alist to fix the glowing panorama, and to describe its flora and fauna. Wild 
cattle, dogs and hogs of the mountains have penetrated these forests and 
have appeared, of late, on the very confines of improvement within five 
miles of our bay. 

But to proceed. When we emerged from the upper skirts of the woods 
on the third day, a dense fog obstructed our view of all distant objects. We 
encamped early in a cave, but during the night the stars came out and we 
could see the play of the volcanic fires from the summit to the base of the 
mountain and far down in the forest toward Hilo. The next morning, Fri- 
day, we left our cavern early, and at half-past seven, a.m. came to the smoul- 
dering lava-stream. From this time to ten a.m., we walked on the right 
border of the stream, when we crossed over to the opposite side. This occu- 
pied us an hour and a quarter, and we judged the stream to be three miles 
wide at this point, which, however, was one of its '■'■narrows.'''' In some 
places it spread out into wide lakes and seas, apparently from five to eight 
miles broad, inclosing, as is usually the case, Uttle islands not flooded by the 
fusion. Passing up the southern verge of the stream we found many trees 
felled by the igneous current, and lying crisped and half charred upon the 
stifi"ened and smoking lava. All this day we passed up the stream, sometimes 
on it and sometimes along its margin, as the one or the other track was the 
easier or the more direct. At night we slept upon the lava, above the 
line of vegetation, with the heavens for our canopy and the stars for our 
lamps. From this high watch-tower we could see the brilliant fire-works far 
above and far below us, as the dazzling fusion rushed down its burning duct, 
revealed here and there by an opening through its rocky roof, serving as a 
vent for the 2fases. 

Early on Saturday, the 6 th, we were ascending our rugged pathway 
amidst steam and smoke and heat which almost blinded and scathed us. 
At ten, we came to open orifices down which we looked into the fiery river 
which rushed furiously benenth our feet. Up to this we had come to no 
open lake or stream of active fusion. We had seen, in the night, many 
lights like street lamps glowing along the slope of the mountain at consid- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



erable distances from each other, while the stream made its way in a subter- 
ranean channel, traced onl}^ by these vents. From 10 a.m. and onward, 
these fiery vents were frequent, some of them measuring ten, twenty, fifty or 
one hundred feet in diameter. In one place only we saw the river uncovered 
for thirty rods and rushing down a dechvity of from 10° to 25°. The scene 
was awful, the momentum incredible, the fusion perfect, (a white heat), and 
the velocity forty miles an hour. The banks on each side of this stream 
were red-hot, jagged and overhanging, adorned with burning stalactites and 
festooned with immense quantities of filamentose, or capiltary glass, called 
" Pele's hair." From this point to the summit crater all was inexpressibly 
interesting. 

Valve after valve opened as we went up, out of which issued " fire and 
smoke and brimstone," and down which we looked as into the caverns of 
Pluto. The gases were so pungent that we had to use the greatest caution, 
approaching a stream oi an orifice on the windward side and watching every 
change or gyration of the breeze. Sometimes whirlwinds would sweep 
along, loaded with deadly gases, and threatening the unwary traveler. After 
a hot and weary struggle over smoking masses of jagged scoria and slag, 
thrown in wild confusion into hills, cones and ridges, and spread out over vast 
fields, we came at 1 p.m. to the terminal or summit cratei*. 

This we found to be a low, elongated cone, or rather a series of cones, 
standing over a great fissure in the mountain. Mounting to the crest of the 
highest cone, we expected to look down into a great sea of raging lava«, but 
instead of this the throat of the crater at the depth one hundred feet was 
clogged with scoria, cinders and ashe?, through which the smoke and gases 
rushed up furiously from seams and holes. One orifice within this cone was 
about twenty feet in diameter, and was constantly sending up a dense column 
of blue and white smoke which rolled off" in masses and spread over all 
that part of the mountain, darkening the sun and obscuring every object a 
few rods distant. So toppling was the crest of this cone, so great the heat, 
and so deadly the gases, that we could find no position where we could look 
down the throat or orifice ; and could we have done so, it is not probable 
that we should have seen the deep fountain below us, as the lavas were 
forced up its horrid chimney from the burning bowels of the earth. I have 
no doubt that the point at which the igneous river flowed off in its lateral 
duct was at least five hundred, perhaps a thousand feet below us. 

The summit cone which we ascended was about, one hundred feet high, 
say five hundred feet long and three hundred broad at base. 

Several other cones below us were of the same form and general character, 
presenting the appearance of smoking tumuli along the upper slope of the 
mountain. As you descend the mountain these cones become lower and less 
frequent, but here they are the rims or j^igged jaws of those orifices through 
which we look into that subterranean tube of angry fusion which hurries 
with such feaiful speed down the side of the mountain. 

The molten stream first appears some ten miles below the fountain crater,and 
as we viewed it rushing out from beneath the black rocks, and, in the twink- 
ling of an eye, diving again into its fiery den, it produced indescribable feel- 
ings of awe and dread. 

This summit crater I estimate at twelve thousand feet elevation ; the prin- 
cipal stream (there are many lesser and lateral ones) including all its wind- 
ings, sixty miles long; average breadth, three miles; depth, from three to 
three hundred feet, according to the surface over which it flowed. 

Late on Saturday afternoon we came a short distance down the mountain, 
when we encamped on the naked rocks until Monday. 



504 MISCELLANEOUS, 



Unwittingly we passed the last watering place in our ascent on Friday 
morning, at seven o'clock, and having only one quart in our canteen, this was 
our whole supply until 9 a.m. on Monday. There being six of us, we were 
soon reduced to a single spoonfull each, and this only at our meals. Our 
food being dry and hard, we suffered not a little for want of nature's bever- 
age. The dew which fell upon our garments, our food-buckets and the rocks 
around us congealed and became frost or thin scales of ice, and from our oil- 
cloth, spread for the purpose, we collected a few spoonsfull of the latter, 
while our parched lips readily kissed the rocks to obtain a httle moisture 
from the frost. There was snow on another part of the mountain, far 
below us, but it was not in our track. The fires had melted all in this 
region. 

The present eruption is between those of 1843 and 1852, and from our 
high tower we could see them both and trace their windings. 

Early on Monday we decamped and set our faces for Kilauea, distant some 
thirty-five miles, hoping by a forced march to reach it at night. 

At eight A.M., we passed the seat of the grand eruption of 1852, and 
traveled for miles in its cinders. A little steam only issues from that cone 
whose awful throat, in 1852, sent up a column of glowing fusion to the 
height of a thousand feet. 

At the base of this cone, on the opposite side, the ground was thickly 
powdered with a hoar frost, and so intense was our thirst that our whole 
party lay down together and eagerly licked it from the rocks and sand. 

At nine we found water, for which we gave heartfelt thanks to our great 
Shepherd. At one p.m., a dense fog obscured our track, our guide lost his 
way, and we were obliged to encamp. 

Early on Tuesday morning we were astir, wandering through jungle and 
over rough fields of scorie, when fortunately at half-past nine we found the 
only track which could lead us out of this cruel labyrinth. 

At half-past one p.m., we reached old Kilauea, where we regaled ourselves 
on Ohelo berries, water, and such stores as were lefc in our larder. 

The next day we explored KiJauea, made some measurements, collected 
specimens, etc., and on Thursday, the 11th inst., we reached Hilo, having 
been absent ten days. KUauea is still very active, though not as intensely 
so as in months past. 

On the mountain and in Kilauea I took the angles of several lava streams, 
one of 49*^, another of 60°, and two of 80° each. Several streams on the 
mountain flowed down banks of scoria twenty-five and thirty feet high. 

The fusion was complete — the streams cooled in a perfect state. 

I also saw thin strata, say one inch thick or less, which had flowed down 
the face of perpendicular rocks, adhering to the rocks like paste, and thus 
cooHng. Will you say that I spoil my demonstration by j)^oving too much, 
when I assert that I saw more than on place where the fasion flowed on an 
angle of 95° — like the Indian's tree which grew so bolt upright that it 
" leaned the other way," — thus flowing down a rock or bank until it came 
to where said rock retreated, it would follow the inward curve in a thin 
layer like molasses, adhering to the rock and thus cooling. It is therefore a 
fact capable of entire demoDstration that our Hawaiian lavas flow freely down 
every slope, from an angle of 30' to a perpendicular — in the latter case in a 
very thin layer of course. At one point we saw the great igneous river 
flowing like oil down an angle of 35°, and in another place it leaped a preci- 
pice, forming a brilliant cascade. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 505 



But I lack time and space to tell you half which we saw, and heard, and 
felt. 

Hilo is now in a state of solemn and thoughtful suspense. The great 
summit fountain is still playing with fearful energy, and the devouring stream 
rushes madly down towards us. It is now about ten miles distant — nearly 
through the woods, following the right bank of the Wailuku, and heading 
directly for our bay. 

Some are planning, some packing, many running to and fro, and all talking 
and conjecturing. Never was Hilo in such a state before. And all is hushed 
and solemn. 

Oct. 22. — I have retained this letter until the present time, to watch the 
progress of the lava stream and to report more definitely ; and I am happy 
I happy to say that as yet our fears have not been realized. The great sum- 
mit crater still pours out its burning floods with unabated energy, and the 
atmosphere of the island is still loaded with smoke ; everything looks dingy, 
often baleful. The stream of fusion still glows and groans in the forest be- 
tween us and Mauna Loa ; but its intensity seems a little abated and its pro- 
gress retarded. Probably it is partially obstructed or diverted in its subter- 
ranean passage, while the basins, ravines, gorges, etc., it fills in the woods, 
together with the great forest which it must consume, render its progress 
very slow. Consequently the apprehensions of our people are much abated. 
There has been nothing like panic from the beginning, either among foreigners 
or natives ; but there was an anxious look, an inquiring tone, a serious con- 
cern among ail classes. These have greatly subsided ; not that the fire is 
extinct, or that it is not nearer than it was two weeks ago ; but simply that 
its progress for the last week has been almost imperceptible. Still it may 
come when least expected. Should it succeed in pushing through the woods 
it will then flow down on an angle of from 1° to 2^ with little to obstruct 
it ; or, should it dive into subterranean chambers, it may burst out unexpect- 
edly near our shores. 

It is now seventy-two days since the eruption commenced, and, as re- 
marked before, the fountain is in full force. The matter disgorged is of the 
same general character as in former eruptions. We saw nothing new. 
Among the salts, sulphur and sulphate of lime, are the most abundant. 
They are scattered freely at several points along the line of flow. 

There are now about a dozen open lakes of raging lavas in Kilauea, ex- 
tending in two semi-circular-lines from the great fountain lake — Halemau- 
mau — along the eastern and western sides of the crater, and evidently 
forming vents tc igneous subterranean canals which are carrying the incan- 
descent floods from this great active vent to the northern parts of the crater, 
sometimes overflowing this region and sometimes heaving up the ponderous 
superincumbent strata, like the surface of an agitated ocean. The great 
dome over Halemaumau is swept away, and a raised and jagged rim from 
20 to 60 feet high, now encircles it. The fusion may be 100 feet below. 
The movement of the streams northward is distinctly seen through the valves 
or vents mentioned above. The great central plateau of 200 feet elevation 
as mentioned in my last letter, is now nearly covered with fresh lava from the 
overflowing of its flery zone — or of that half which surrounds it, and to 
which the recent action has been confined. This belt or lava zone has been 
raised from 100 to 200 feet since April ; 1st, by uplifting forces; 2d, by suc- 
cessive overflowings. 

The commencement of this eruption is mentioned in an earlier letter from 



506 iriSCELLANEOUS. 



Mr. Coan, addressed to Rev. C. S. Lyman, of this place. It is dated Hilo, 
Sept. 27, 1855. He sajs : 

" On the evening of the 11th of August, a small point, glowing like Sirius, 
was seen at the height of 12,000 feet on the northwestern slope of Mauna 
Loa. This radiant point rapidly expanded, throwing off corruscations of 
Hght until it looked like a full orbed sun." The sequel is described in the 
letter above. 



The Colossal Washington Monument for America. — The London 
Builder gives the following account of an important step in the progress of 
this work : 

The casting of the horse for this monument at Munich, is one of the 
great feats of modern foundry, as fifteen tons of bronze had to be melted 
and kept in a state of fluidity. For several days and nights previously a 
large fire was at these huge masses, which required to be stirred at times. 
When the bronze was liquified, an ultimate assay was made in a small trial 
cast ; and to heighten the color .=ome more copper was added. Successively 
all the chambers through which the metal had to flow in the form were 
cleared of the coal with which they had been kept warm, and the master 
examined all the air spiricles and the issues of the metal ; the props of the 
tubes were then placed and every man had his duty and place assigned to 
him. Finally, the master, amid the intense expectation of the many art 
amateurs present, pronounced the words, " In the name of God," and then 
three mighty strokes opened the fiery gulf, out of which the glowing metal 
flowed in a circuit to the large form. The sight was magnificent, and in the 
little sea of fire stood the master, and gave his commands about the succes- 
sive opening of the props. Hot vapor poured from the air spiracles ; in the 
conduits, the metal boiled in waves ; still no decision yet, as the influx of the 
bronze in the very veins of the figure could be but slow. At once flaming 
showers jumped out of the air conduits, and the master proclaimed the caj-t 
to have succeeded. A loud cheer followed, when the master approached 
Mr. Crawford, the artist of the Washington Monument, to congratulate him 
on this success. Another cheer was given to M. de Miller, the chief of the 
royal foundry of Munich, who has personally conducted the work. 

Manufacture of Watches. — A watch is no longer, as it was formerly, 
an object of luxury, destined exclusively for the rich ; it has become an 
article of the first necessity for every class in society, and as, together with 
the increased perfection of this article, its value has in the same time con- 
siderably diminished, it is evident that a common watch, which will exactly 
indicate the time of the day, is actually, by its low price, within the reach 
of almost every individual, who will likewise feel anxious to possess one. 

For this reason, and in proportion as commercial and maritime relations 
are extended and emancipated from the trammels in which the great central 
marts of commerce have involved them, so will distant nations become civil- 
ized; and it may be fairly anticipated that the art of watch-making will 
form part of the great current of improvement. 

The number of watches manufactured annually in Neufchatel may be cal- 
culated from 100,000 to 120,000, of which about 35,000 are in gold, and 
the rest in silver. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 507 



Now supposing the first on an average to be worth $30, and the others 
$4, it would represent a capital of $1,390,000, without taking into consider- 
ation the sale of clocks and instruments for watch-making, the amount of 
which is very large. 

The United States of America consume the largest quantity of those 
watches. With the exception of gold and silver for the manufacture of the 
watch-cases, the other materials for the construction of the works of mechan- 
ism of the Neufchatel watches are of little value, consisting merely of a 
little brass or steel. The steel is imported from England, and is reckoned 
the best that can be procured ; the brass is furnished by France. 

With respect to gold and silver the inhabitants of Neufchatel have had 
for a long time no other resource but to melt current money, until they re- 
ceived gold from England, which the Enghsh merchants receive from Cali- 
fornia, 

The number of workmen who are employed in watch making is estimated 
at from 18,000 to 20,000, but it is difficult to arrive at the exact number, 
as the population employed carry on the business in their own houses. 

The spirit of adventure is very strong among the inhabitants of the Jura 
Mountains. A great many of them have traveled into very remote coun- 
tries, whence some have returned with considerable fortunes. — Merchant''s 
Magazine. 

Ship Building in New-York. — The New- York Courier S inquirer 
submits its annual statement of the business done in ship building at that 
port, which shows that the past has been a year of depression in the ship 
yards unexampled within a generation. Amongst the causes assigned for 
this are the European war, the falling ofi" in the California and Australian 
trade, and the overbuilding in the last few years. Many master ship-builders 
had become bankrupt, owing not so much to the increased wages demanded 
by their workmen, as by the forfeitures to which they were subject in not 
getting their work completed in time, from the men not continuing steadily 
at their work. The following is a comparative return of the new ships 
launched in the present and past years : 







No. 


Total Ton. 


No. 


Total Ton. 


Steamships, 




19 


24,600 


4 


11,100 


Other steam ve 


5sels, 


23 


5,967 


4 


2,200 


Ships, 




30 


39,380 


G 


9,130 


Barques, 




V 


3,600 


7 


3,376 


Brigs, 




8 


2.551 


3 


1,275 


Schooners, etc., 




21 


5,292 


13 


3,786 



Total, 108 81,390 37 29,867 

There are also now on the stocks 1 7 vessels of all sorts, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 21,720 tons. 

Experiments avith Potatoes. — The question being often asked, which 
variety of potatoes is most profitable for field cultivation, on the 16th of last 
May I planted a field with eight kinds, in eight successive plats, the rows 
running through each successive plat — soil rather thin, manured alike lightly 
in the hill — crop moderate. On October 10th, dug twelve bills of each 
kind, counted and weighed. The following is the result : 



508 MISCELLANEOUS. 



Peachblow — 180 tubers, weight 25 pounds — seed small, 2 tubers to each 
hill. 

California — 10-i tubers, weight 24 pounds — seed large, cut in 6 to 8 pieces, 
2 to each hill. 

Torries — 138 tubers, weight 23| pounds — ^seed large, cut in 8 pieces, 2 to 
each hill. 

Black Mercers — 220 tubers, weight 20 pounds — seed small, 2 to each hill. 

English Whites — 15G tubers, weight 18i pounds — seed small, 2 to each 
hill. 

Merinos— 100 tubers, weight 17 pounds — seeds large and cut. 

Pinkeyes — 116 tubers, weight 16^ pounds — seed small, 2 to each hill. 

Lilacs — 125 tubers, weight 16 pounds — seed small, 2 to each hill. 

This is the result of one trial ; other trials may produce different results, 
that is, lead to further experiments. — A. Yeomans, in Country Gentleman. 

laoN Yards for Ships. — Some novelties are observable in the fitting 
out of the Australian Black Ball ship Schomberg. Her 'tween decks are 
fitted up with iron berths throughout, which have a pretty and light appear- 
ance. Her iron tanks are fit to carry either water or provisions, and while 
they are able to bear any weight placed upon them, they act as permanent 
ballasts for the ship. The foreyard of the vessel is a hollow iron tube, made 
of quarter inch plates. It is 96 feet in length, 23 inches at the slings ! 
greatest circumference, 6 ^ feet. It weighs 4 tons — a wooden spar same size 
would weigh 8^ tons — an important advantage in favor of the iron yard, 
especially when its durability is also taken into consideration. The first cost 
is a little more than wood. — Liverpool Mail. 

Portrait of Charles I, by Velasques. — We have seldom been more 
favorably disappointed than we were on visiting this picture. It is undoubt- 
edly an original. No copyist could make such a representation on canvass. 
It bears all the tests' of a close or distinct view, of inversion and of the magni- 
fier. The last, the magnifier, brings out its excellencies in a most wonderful 
manner. The eyes are eyes, the hair is hair, and the fiesh is flesh. We 
have seen many of the works of the old masters, but we have never seen a 
portrait which bore more unequivocal and unquestionable evidence of the 
hand of a great master than does this. The proprietor is a gentleman not 
only of courteous manners but thoroughly versed in the history and condition 
of this department of art. 

Products of the Industry of Boston. — The returns to the Secretary 
of State of the products of the Industry of Boston, for the year ending 
June 1, 1855, as compiled for the Boston Almanac, shows that iron, exclu- 
sive of that for nails, was manufactured to the value of $1,525,000; steam 
engines and boilert=, $1,835,000 ; iron railing, iron fences, safes, etc., $562,500 ; 
glass-ware, $1,190,000; piano-fortes and other musical instruments, 
$1,984,700; watches, gold and silver ware, and jewelry, $617,000 ; saddles, 
trunks, harnesses, etc., $757,200; brushes, $225,000; upholstery, $1,550,800 ; 
sails, of American fabric, $431,172 ; sugar refined, $2,000,000; chair and 
cabinet ware, $1,068,800 ; tin ware, $416,500; linseed oil $500,000; cam- 
phene and burning fluid, $500,000 ; flour, $S70,000 ; boots and shoes, 
$193,000; building stone, $323,000; marble prepared, $311,000 ; horses, 
(4,800), $761,625 ; cows, (132), $5,405 ; casks, $i58,600; distilled liquors, 
$2,495,000; beer, $238,000 ; tricti..n matches, $50,000; bakerie?, $935,000 ; 
clothing, eight million Jive hundred thousand dollars/ 



NEW BOOKS. 509 



Dentistry, — We have had occasion to notice several specimens of work- 
manship of this description, by Dr. A C. Castle, of 296 Fourth street, opposite 
Washington Square. He has great experience and practical skil 1, and there 
is no dentist for whose fidelity we should be more ready to indorse than his. 
Services of this kind are so difficult, and often expensive, and for a life-time, 
that it is of the greatest importance that they should be done well. 



NEW BOOKS 



Our Cousin Veronica, or Scenes and Adventures over the Blue Ridge. By Mary 
Elizabeth Wormley. New-York : Buace & Brother. 12mo. $1 25. 

The author of " Amabel" has already the very highest of recommendations. This 
book is a fit companion for its predecessor. It is less highly wrought, but by no means 
dull or tame. The scene is principally in Virginia, partly in England. The descrip- 
tions are graphic and natural, and the story is capital. Miss Wormley must be set 
down, unquestionably, among the most gifted writers of fiction. 

A Tear Book of Agriculture ; or, the Annual Agricultural Progress and Discovery 
for 1855 and 1856. By David H. Wells. 1856. Philadelphia : Childs & Peterson. 
400 pages, 8vo. 

This book is just what we anticipated on its announcement — a concise, clear state- 
ment and pescriptiou of the various improvements in agriculture and its kindred sci- 
ences during the year, fully and well illustrated. It should be on every farmer's table, 
and carefully studied, for it is a work of great practical value. 

Woodworth's Youth's Cabinet and Uncle Frank's Dollar Magazine. Edited by 
Francis C. Woodworth, assisted by " Francis Forrester" and "Aunt Sue." 

The external appearance of this popular magazine is much in its favor. It is well 
printed on good paper, well stitched, etc. This encourages us to look inside, for we 
do like to see books well printed, especially those for children and youth. It aids in 
forming a good taste and neat habits. Mr. Woodworth is just the man to publish a 
journal of this sort. He has just the right bumps for it ; and as he gives much time 
and careful attention to it, always interests his readers. He is well sustained also by 
assistants, and those who wish for a youth's magazine cannot do better than to order 
this forthwith. 

$1 a year; 4 copies, $3 50; 5 copies, $4; 8 copies, $6. 118 Nassau st. 

Sense and Sensibility. A Novel. By Miss Austen, author of Pride and Prejudice, 
etc. New- York : Bunce & Brother. 1856. 309 pages. 

A novel of no Uttle interest, of the fashion published in our youthful days, by a j^leas- 
ant writer. 

Camp Fires of the Red Men ; or, a Hundred Years Ago. By R. Orton. Illustrated 
by Walcutt. New-York: J. C. Derby. 1855. 

In this volume Mr. Orton takes some of the exciting scenes of Indian life in the last 
century to form the web of a curious romance. Those who are fond of this style of 
excitement will be entertained by it. It is well written and well executed. 

Lanmere. By Mrs. Julia C. Dorr, author of " Farmingdale." New- York : Mason 
Brothers. 1856. 447 pages. 

Those familiar with " Farmingdale" are notj^disappointed in this work. They ex- 



510 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



pected a good book, and they have one of the very best stories we have ever seen. 
Little Bessie is brim full of interest, nothing exaggerated or disproportioned, but nat- 
ural to the life. Mrs. AUison vexes us, while she is perfectly consistent throughout, 
and unhappily represents too many of great pretension. Debbyis worth her weight in 
gold, while several other characters are drawn with great ability. The plot is intricate 
and ingenious, yet almost developes itself, and the work cannot fail to be read very 
extensivelj\ 

Jackson and New-Orleans ; an Authentic Narrative of Memorable Achievements of the 
American Army under Gen. Jackson before New-Orleans in the winter of 1814: 
and 15. By Alexander Walker. New-York; J. C. Derby. 1856. 411 pages. 

The campaigns of Gen. Jackson are brilliant specimens of generalship ; and the Battle 
of New-Orleans is prominent over all others. This effort to extend the knowledge of 
this chapter of our history cannot fail to interest a multitude of readers, and will assist. 
in disseminating a true understanding of the events of this period through the commu- 
nity. The volume is well executed. 



NEW 



USIC, 



Wm. Hall & Son have the following choice pieces among their extensive recent pub- 
lications, viz. : 

"The Dreams of Youth." Ballad by W. J. Robson. Composed by J. W. Cherry. 
Simple and very pretty. 

"Florence Vane" — ballad. Composed by W. Vincent Wallace. Good of course, 
and not difficult. 

Quadrilles for the piano-forte. Composed by Alphonse Leduc. These include 
"Fall of Sevastopol," "Battle of Inkerman," " Expedition to the Sea of AzofF," "Bat- 
tle of Schernaya," and " Capture of the MalakoflF." Good, and characteristic, but re- 
quiring a strong hand to do them justice. 



List of Patents Issued 



FROM TERMINATION OF PREVIOUS LIST TO JAN, 



Erastus Bigelow, Boston, improvement in looms 
for weaving pile fabrics. 

Jonatlian L. Bootii, Cuyahoga Falls, O., im- 
provement in grain-cleaning machines. 

T. C. Bush, New-London, Conn., improved saw 
set. 

Wm. E. Cooper, Dunkirk, improved nozzle for 
exhaust pipes of locomotives. 

Frederic W. Capen, Newton, Mass., for improve- 
ment in paddle wheels. 

Joseph C. Day, Hackettstown, N. J., improve- 
ment in tire-arms. 

Spencer B. Driggs, Detroit, improvement in 
piano-fortes; dated December 11, 1855; patented 
in England, November 1, 1855. 



John Gourlay, Ogdensbui-g, for adjustable crank- 
brace for augers. 

Henry C. Green, Clarence, Wisconsin, improved 
automatic feed motion for saw-miUs. 

A. M George, New- York, for improvement in 
spike machines. 

H. B. Horton, Akron, 0., machine for register- 
ing music. 

Wm. W. Johnson, Clifford, Pa., machine for 
planing felloes. 

Eber Jones, Troy, improvement in mould foi" 
casting bells. 

S. B. McCorkle, Greenville, Tenn., for improva- 
ment in machines for stuffing horse collars. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



511 



Thomas Daaforth, Roxbury, for improvement in 
■window shades. 

Isaac Davis, Mechanicsbuvg, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in machinery for whipping hair. 

Sorauus Dunham, North Bridgewater, Mass., 
for improved method of hanging saws. 

Henry F. and Louis A. Gossin.Thibodeaux, La., 
for improvement in steam boiler furnaces. 

John Griffen, Safe Harbor, Pa., for improved 
manufacture of wrouglit iron cannon. 

Bishop J. Harris, Auburn, Pa., for improved 
mode of dressing mill-stones for scouring and 
hulling bnckwheat. 

Reuben Hurd, Spring Hill, 111., for improvement 
in seeding machines. 

Jno. P. Hale, Kanawha Court House, Va., for 
improvement in apparatus for making salt. 

Benj. Hill, Rochester, for Improvement in pad- 
dle-wheels. 

Westel W. Hurlbut, Boonville, for improved 
method of hanging circular saws. 
Alexander Lightheiser, Reading, for improvement 
in machines for mincing meat. 

Wm. H. Merrill, of Taunton, for improvement 
in hoisting blocks. 

Charles Miller, Carroll Township, Pa., for im- 
provement in hulling machines. 

Henry M. Parkhurst, Perth Amboy, for improve- 
ment in proportional dividers. 

Adolphe Pecoul, Marseilles, France, for com- 
bined log and sounding line. 

Newell A. Prince, Brooldyn, for improvement in 
fountain pens. 

Ezra Ripley, Troy, for improvement in mills for 
grinding grain, &c. 

James Roljb, Lewiston, Pa., for improvement in 
corn-shellers. 

John P. Rollins, Boston, for improved extension 
bit. 

E. K. Root,Hartford, Conn., for improvement in 
revolving fire-arms. 

Geo. W. Smith, Mauch CImnk, for improvement 
in looms for weaving wire. 

Gilbert Smith, Buttermilk Falls, for improve- 
ment in breach-loading fii-e-arms. 

Thos. B. Stout, Keyport, N. J., for improvement 
in corn and cob mills. 

Ancil Stickney, Concord, N. H., for improve- 
ment in hand seed planters. 

Isaac D. Wheelock, Maysville, Wis., for improve- 
ment in sad iron heaters. 

Wm. Wilber, New-Orleans, for improvement in 
hydraulic oil presses. 

Charles H. Butterfleld, Nashua, assignor to 
Amory Houghton, Boston, for improvement in 
guards for lanterns. 

Charles Evans, Charleston, Mass., assignor to 
himself and George K. Goodwin, Roxbury, Mass., 
for imi^rovement in revolving grates. 

Issued from the United States Patent (M5ce, for 
the week ending Jan. 1, 1856 each bearing that 
date. 

Philo Brown, Waterbury, Coon., for improve- 
ment in furnace for soldering. 

Nathan Chapman, Mystic River, Conn., for im- 
proved chain for power press. 

James Cochrane, New-York, for improved me- 
thod of operating and lubricating slide valves. 

Richard M. Cole, Reading, Pa., for improvement 
in brick presses. 

Geo. W. Cooper, Ogeechee, Ga., for improvement 
in ploughs. 



Jean Pierre Molliere, Lyons, France, for im- 
provement in machines for polishing and burnish- 
ing the edges of soles and heels of boots and 
shoes ; dated Dec. 11, 1855 ; patented in France, 
Jan. 5, 1855. 

Jean Pierre Molliere, Lyons, France, for im- 
provement in machines for mounting the "up- 
pers " of boots and shoes on lasts ; dated Dec. 18, 
1855 ; patented in France, August 19, 1S54. 

Oldin Nichols, LoweU, and Amni M. George, 
Nashua, for improvement in stone-dressing ma- 
chines. 

Daniel Parish, New-York, for improvement in 
instruments for modifying focal length of the eye 

Isaac N. Parker, Lewiston, Me., for improve- 
ment in mill spindle steps. 

Samuel Pelton, New- Windsor, Md., for improve- 
ment in horse powers. 

George B. Pullinger, Philadelphia, for improve- 
ment in automatic gate for raili-oad crossings. 

John P. Robinson, Mattawan, for plane for fin- 
ishing grooves in patterns, &c. 

Joel Tiffany and Milo Harris, Painesville, Ohio, 
for shingle machine. 

Thomas F. Thornton, Buffalo, for improvement 
in organ melodeons. 

Hubert Schonacker, Detroit, for improved piano- 
fortes. 

Julius E. Schwabe, New- York, for improvement 
in treating Galena or lead ore. 

Eliphalet S. Scripture, Green Point, N. Y., for 
improvement in attaching hubs to axles. 

Isaac Searles, Newark, for improvement in felt- 
ing hat bodies. 

Isaac Spaulding, Saratoga Springs, for improved 

saw set. 

Samuel Shattuc, Henrietta, O., impi-oved horse 
collar. 

Isaac N. Singer, N. Y., improvement in sewing 
machines. 

Jos. Weis, Bordentown, for improvement In suck, 
ers for ptmips. 

Thomas Bowles, New-York, assignor to Robert 
M. Patrick, of same place, for improvement in 
locks. 

Jeremiah Burnite, Puseyville, Pa., assignor to 
himself and James Clark, of same place, for im- 
proved arrangements and combinations of ma- 
chinery for regulating velocity of wind wheels. 

John Healy, Bolton-le-Moors, England, assignor 
to James Bishop, New-Brunswick, N. J., for im- 
provement in woven fabrics ; dated Dec. 18, 1855 ; 
patented in England, Nov. 17, 1846. 

Joseph B. Lancaster, administrator of John R. 
Lancaster, deceased, of Tampa, Florida, for im- 
provement in cooking stoves. 

Elijah Richmond, Abington, Mass., assignor to 
Ira Noyes, of same place, for improvement in 
lamp extinguishers. 

Lewis C. Ashley, Troy, for improvement in can- 
dy mould apparatus. 

Joseph Buhler, M.D., of New-York, for improve- 
ment in the pipes of a vapor bath. 

Joseph Buhler, M.D., New-York, for improve- 
ment in the combination of injecting syringes, 

Benijah J. Burnett, New-York, iraiirovement in 
cranes. 

George Byingtou, Rochester, for improvement 
in time indicators. 

Robert L. Currey, Philadelphia, improvement in 
double-acting steam brake. 

Thomas Crane, Fort Atkinson, for improvement 
in rotary pumps. 



512 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Lebbeus Barnes, Islip Township, N. Y., for im- 
pTovement in liarvesters. 

Clias. E. Brown, New-Yorls, N. Y., for improved 
mode of liangiug double doors. 

Samuel W. Brown, Lowell, Mass., for improve- 
ment in constx'ucting the bottoms of ships and 
other vessels. 

Reuben Brady, New- York, N. Y., for improved 
machine for sheet metal bending. 

Irah Chase, Jr., Boston, Mass., for improvement 
in coal scuttle covers. 

Geo. St. Clarice, East Washington, N. H., for 
improvement in bee-hives. 

Edgar ConUling, Cincinnati, O., for improve- 
ment in the form of building bricks. 

Dominique Emile Coutaret, Boston, Mass., for 
improvement in disinfecting fecal matter, 

Thos. Davidson, Jr., Kensington, Pa., for im- 
provement in street paving machines. 

Jacob Erdle, West Broomfleld, N. Y., for im- 
provement in filing saws. 

Morris Falkeman, New-York, N. Y., Morris Pol- 
lak and Solomon Weiner, Hoboken, N. J., for im- 
proved watch key. 

L. H. Gibbs, Troy, New- York, for improvement 
in breech-loading fire-arms. 

Chas. Hammond, Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
ment in attaching liammer heads to shafts. 

James Harrison, Jr., Milwaukie, Wis., for im- 
provement in padlocks. 

Samuel R. Jones, Baltimore, Md., for improve- 
ment in peg-cutters for boots and shoes. 

Geo. L. Jenks, Providence, R. I., for improve- 
ment in machinery for making weavers' harness. 

Jos. Johnson, New-Orleans, La., for improve- 
ment in manufacture of hats. 

John F. Manahan, Lowell, Mass., for improved 
mode of burning wet fuel. 

Hiram B. Musgrave, Cincinnati, Ohio, for im- 
provement in gas cooking stoves. 

Wm. C. Pancost, Geneva Township, Ohio, for 
improvement in cheese presses. 

Chas. Phillips, Detroit, Mich., for improved ma- 
chine for loading dirt cars. 

Randal Pratt, Marple Township, Pa., for im- 
provement in horse hay-rakes. 

J. J. Savage, New-York, N. Y., for improvement 
jn excavating machines. 

Christopher D. Scropyan, New-Haven, Conn., 
for method of preventing bank notes, Ac, from 
being counterfeited. 

Gustavus Stone, Beloit, Wis., for improvement in 
blades of mowing machines. 

Wm. Stoddard, Lowell, Mass., for morti.sing ma- 
chine. 

Abraham Straub, Milton, Pa., for improvement 
in machines for sawing marble obelisks. 

John G. Snyder, Wheatfield, Pa., for improve- 
ment in seeding machines. 

Abner Whitely, Springfield, Ohio, for improve- 
ment in candlesticks. 

Wm. E. Wyche, Brookville, N. C, for improve- 
ment in cultivating ploughs. 

Geo. W. N. Yost, Port Gibson, Miss., for im- 
provement in corn harvesters. 

James H. Merrill, Baltimore, Md., for improve- 
ment in fire-arms. 

Henry Pease, Brockport, N. Y., assignor to him- 
self and James Roby, of same place, for improve- 
ment in mowing machines. 

John Reily, Hart Prairie, Wis., assignor to Tal- 
bot C. Doneman, Ottowa, Wis., John Heath, Sulli- 
van, Wis., and John Reily, aforesaid, forimprove- 
, ment in harvesters. 



John J. Crocker, Utica, for improvement in 
safety guard for railroad cars. 

Benjamin Fenn, of Hartford, Ohio, for wind- 
mill. 

Geo. P. Gordon, New-York, for improved print- 
ing press. 

Benj. Groomes, Cumberland township. Pa., for 
improvement in repeating fire-arms. 

Elgah Holmes, Lynn, Mass., for spoke shave. 

Walter Hunt, New-York, for improvement in 
shirt collars. 

Waterman B. Johnson, Sandwich, N. H., for 
improvement in machines for pegging boots and 
shoes. 

Moses W. S. Kendall, Cincinnati, for improve- 
ment in smoke houses. 

Phineas L. Slayton, Madison, Ind., for improve- 
ment in sewing machines. 

Daniel Leibee, Middletown, Ohio, for improved 
gold amalgamator. 

Charles N. Lewis, Seneca Falls, for improved 
pumps. 

Orson E. Mallory, Castile, N. Y., for improved 
machine for making eave troughs. 

John H. Manny, Brockford, Illinois, for im- 
provement in liarvesters. 

Thomas K. Markillie, Winchester, 111., for im- 
proved bed for lath sawing machines. 

Joseph Marsh, Rochester, for improved sash" 
lock. 

James Neal and Charles W. Emery, Boston, fo*" 
pumps. 

I. J. Oldis, Wheeler, N. Y., for improved pad' 
lock. 

Jos. Peevy, Passadumbeag, Me., for improvement 
in hay and cotton presses. 

Charles Robinson and Charles T. Chester, New- 
York, for improvement in automatic electrical cir- 
cuit breakers. 

Thomas Stub))lefield, Columbus, Ga., for improve- 
ment in steam boiler alarms. 

John C. Smith, Camden, N. J., for improvement 
in repeating magazine fire-arms. 

Ira F. Thompson, New- York, for improvement 
in velocimeters for vessels. 

Geo. W. N. Yost, of Port Gibson, for improve- 
ment in grain binders for harvesters. 

Andrew H. Ward, Jr., Boston, for improvement 
in compositions for treating wool. 

Hiram C. Wight, Worcester, for improved ar- 
rangement of feed rollers for planing machines. 

Geo. Williamson, Brooklyn, for hydro-pneuma- 
tic pump for diving bells. 

Joshua Turner, Jr., Charlestown, Mass., assig- 
nor to Warren Covell, Dedham, Mass., for im- 
provement in the manufacture of leather shoe 
bindings. 

Cullen Whipple, Providence, assignor to the 
New-England screw company, of same place, for 
improvement in screw machines. 

Philo Marsh, South Adams, Mass., assignor to 
himself, and Shuljael W. Howland, South Acton, 
Mass., fn- improvement in treating oils. 

George A. Clarke, Philadelphia, assignor to Wm- 
Clarke of same place, for improvement in har- 
vester raking apparatus. 

RE-ISStTES. 

Samuel Hurlbert, Ogdensburg, N. Y., for im- 
provement in plows. Patented Sept. 20, 1853. 
Patented in Canada, Sept. 20, 1852. 

Benj. F. Avery, Louisville, Ky., for improve" 
ment in plows. 

N. Aubin, Albany, N. Y., for improvement in 
making illuminating gas. 



i)t Jlnoil. 



Vol. VIII. MARCH, 1856. No. 9. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
FOURTH ANNUAL MBETINO. 

The Society met at Wa'^Iiington in the Smithsonian Building at 10 oVock 
on Wednesday morning, January 9th. 

Hon. Marshal P. Wildt-r, of Massachusetts, the President, called the Society 
to order. Delegates presented their credentials from the Agricultural Soci- 
eties of eighteen Sttites and Territories. Between sixty and seventy delegates 
were presen^. 

President Wilder then rose and delivered his annual address. He closed 
with an announcement ot' his inteniion to retire from the post of President. 

B. B. French, Esq., Treasurer of the Society, made the following report: 

Immediately on bis election he had an interview with Wra. Selden, Esq., 
the former Treasurer, who handed over to him the books and papers of his 
office, and informed him that the only money in his hands was on deposit in 
the Bank of Selden, Withers & Co., then in the hands of Trustees, and con- 
sequently the funds were unavailable. 

The sum on deposit is $2,149 42. 

To secure to the Society the ultimate payment of the sum on deposit, Mr. 
Selden has placed in my hands, under the direction of the Society, three 
one-thousand dollar bonds of the "Allisonia Manufacturing Company," in 
Tennessee, as collateral securitf, for which I gave him a receipt, approved by 
the Executive Comraii.tee of the Society. 

Tne Trustees of Selden, Withers & Co., have as yet made no dividend, 
although it is under.4ood that they now have a considerable sum of money 
on hand subject to dividend, which but for a claim set up by the United 
States to be preferred over all other creditors, would be divided. 

The only money that has come into my hands, except that received in 
Boston, amounts to $37 90. 

During the five days of the Boston Exhibition I received as Treasurer 
$31,808 58. The amount paid out in premiums was $10,205 98. The 
otherexpensas amounted to $8,773 76 ; which, wiih the premiums, amounted 
to $19,069 74. Necessity compelling me to return to Washington, I passed 
over to the Poesident all (he money in ray hands, who paid tbe remaining 
bills, amounting to $16,280 78, for which he has returned me vouchers. 

[n addition to the moneys paid over to tbe President by me, he received 
on account of sales, etc., $5,363 94, which, added to the sura received by 
me, makes an aggregate of $37,172 54 ; and, after deducting all the money 

VOL. VIII. 33 



614 U. S. AGEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

paid out, leaves a balance of $1,822 12, which the President has paid over 
to me. 

The entire available means now in my hands are $1,868 02. 

I submit herewith my accounts current and all the vouchers. 

I am informed by the President that there is still against the Society some 
bills fur printing, and perhaps a few others, and there are premiums to the 
amount of $^00 still unpaid, which, by the terms of the printed conditions, 
are forfeited, and probably will never be demanded. 

The principal portion of the money in the Treasurer's hands is now on 
deposit in the "New-England Bank," Boston. 

On motion, B. Perley Poore, of Massachusetts, D. Jay Browne, of the 
Patent-OfSce, and C, H. McCormick, of Illinois, were appointed Auditing 
Committee of the Treasurer's accounts. 

On motion of Anthony Kimball, Esq., the President appointed a Nomi- 
nating Committee, consisting of one from each State and Territory repre- 
sented. 

The President read a letter from Mayor Cenrad, of Philadelphia, inclosing- 
resolutions of the City Council, and requesting that the next annual exhibi- 
tion of the Society be held in that city. 

The proposition was accepted, and referred to the Executive Committee 
for the proper arrangement. 

Dii-cussion then ensued upon the expediency of holding exhibitions in those 
cities which would contribute the most to the treasury of the Society. 

The Presidect read a series of resolutions from the Illinois Legislature, 
asking appropriations from Congress for agricultural purposes. 

After discu--sion these resolutions were referred to a select committee, con- 
sisting of Professor Henry, J. B. D. DeBow, Esq., and A. H. Bjington, with 
authority to lay the subject before Congress. 

D. Jay Browne, Esq., of the Patent-OflSce, then read the following 
paper : 

ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE HORSE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The Atlas Staiique de la Production des Chevaux gives some interesting 
details respecting the method of the "Admini.stration" for obtaining the 
most correct information with regard to the number and quality of the vari- 
ous races of horses to be found in France. The Society or Administration 
for breeding this animal has divided that country into twenty-seven districts, 
which comprise two breeding establishments, twenty-four depots for stallions, 
and one for army horses. In order to arrive at an exact estimate of the 
equine population, persons especially chosen for the purpose were employed 
in 1850 to visit every stable, village, and canton in each arrondisemeut and 
department. The result of this census of horses demonstrates with sufficient 
clearness the progress and utility of these establishments. The advantages 
thev afford in improving the breeds generally, as well as in giving increased 
value to the animals in a commercial point of view, are already appreciated 
by the French, and naturally lead to the suggestion of adopting a similar 
systeru in the United States for the improvement of the horses in our army, 
as well as for other purposes. If a depot for stallions of approved breeds 
were established by Government in each State and Territory in the Union 
for public use, free of charge, incalculable benefit would doubtless accrue to 
the country, and in less than ten years the improvement and increased value 
of the horse would be immense. 

The question arises, how shall this change be brought about f Where 



U. S. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETr. 515 

are the horses to be obtained ? At whose expense ? And by whom 
shall it be accomplished ? It has been suggested that it would very 
properly come under the direction of the War Department, with the 
view of providing for the future wants of the army, and that an 
adequate appropriation should be made by Congress for that purpose. 
With equal propriety it has been asserted that it could be done by the States 
themselves through their Agricultural Societies, Boards of Agriculture, etc. 
The breeding horses of one or both sexes could be imported in sufficient 
numbers and varieties from various parts of Europe, Northern Africa, and 
South America. In the selection of breeds, as to their adaptation to the 
economy, uses, and climate of the different sections of our country, it would 
require much inveitigation, practical knowledge, science, and discrimination. 
Whether such an enterprise can ever be brought about remains only for the 
public to dfcide. 

The work referred to in the commencement was laid on the Secretary's 
table for inspection. 

On motion the paper just read was ordered to be printed in the Secretary's 
transactions. 

Capt. Van Vleit, United States Army, read a paper upon the Rocky 
Mountain Sheep. 

Prof. Baird, of the Smithson Institution, exhibited specimens of the horns, 
hoofs, head, and hair of the Rocky Mountain sheep, and urged several rea- 
sons why the animal should be domesticated, stating that an appropriation 
of from llOO to $200 would indues some hunters about Fort Laramie to 
persevere in their efforts until several pairs of these animals could be ob- 
tained, which would be sufficient to warrant an attempt at their domesti- 
cation. 

Mr. D. Jay Browne spoke of the attempt to domesticate the buffalo and 
cross the breed with that of the tame cattle, and went into some details 
showing the doubtful success of the attempt. He moved to refer the whole 
subjecr. to the Executive Committee. 

Mr, B. P. Poore gave a description of an attempt his father made to do- 
mesticate imported sheep of a fiue breed among the hills of Georgia. The 
result of the experiment was that most of the sheep died, and the shepherds 
"whD had been brought over to take care of them insisted that the reason of 
their death was that the country was too wild for them. Mr. Poore thought 
that if this country was too wild for the European sheep, it must be the very 
place in which the experiment of domesticating the mountain sheep would 
meet with the greatest success. 

The paper of Capt. Van Vleit was ordered to be published, and Prof. 
Baird was requested to furnish a copy of his remarks on the subject for 
publication. 

The project of the domestication of the Rocky Mountain sheep was re- 
ferred to the Executive Committee. 

D. Jay Browne, Esq., gave an account of a plan submitted to the Com- 
missioner of Patents by a gentleman from Ohio to import for distribution 
large quantities of a superior kind Mediterranean wheat. This proposition 
could not be entertained, as the appropriation of Congress for that purpose 
had been exhausted. Mr. Browne therefore laid it before the Society, with 
the hope that some plan might be devised by which wheat might be imported 
by the Society and distributed all over the country in small quantities as an 
experimsnt, a report of the results to be forwarded to the Society. 

A. Kimmel, Esq., thought that no subject was more important at this time 



616 U. S. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

than improvement in the quality of seed wheat and the selection of that 
kind that would yield the largest supply. The following resolutions were 
offered : 

Wliereas it has been represented that the wheat seed, procured from the 
shores of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, when cultivated in various 
sections of the United States, matures several days earlier than the ordinary 
varitties in use, and that said wheat not only proves to be more prolific in 
its yield, for the first few years at least, but possesses other valuable proper- 
ties : Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be empowered to import such 
quantities and varieties of said wheat as they may deem expedient, to be 
placed in proper hands for experiment, at least one bushel in a place, in 
every State and Territory, making it obligatory on the part of each experi- 
mentor to duly report to this Society tbe'i-esult. 

Resolved, That said Committee be empowered, if thought expedient, to 
issue proposals for the importation of a cargo of wheat se't-d for the use of 
agricultural societies or individuals, on such terras or conditions as they may 
see fit to prescribe. 

Mr. Kimmel enumerated the different kinds of foreign wheat of fine quality, 
and the porls at which tbey could be obtainf d with the greatest care and of 
the best quality. For a fiictor to travel to all these places would involve too 
much expense; and yet the different kinds of wheat could not be obtained 
at any other place. He thertfure suggested that efforts be made to obtain 
these different kinds through the American Consuls residing in the countries 
in which the several kinds grow. In th^ course of his remarks he described 
an attempt he had made to domesticate a kind from a part of Europe ten 
degrees further north than the place in America where it was planted. The 
result was that in the course of a few years it had the same appearance as 
native wheat. Mr. Browne thought wheat should be brought from a warmer 
climate than that of the place where it was planted. 

After some further discussion on this point by Mr. Kimmel, the whole 
su>ject was referred to the Executive Committee, and Mr. Browne was re- 
quested to reduce to writing the plan he had suGra:ested for the use of the 
committee. The same request was made of Mr. Kimmel. 

Prof. Jo3. Henry laid upon the Secretary's table a very large crystal of 
rock salt, which had been sent to hitn ffom Salt Lnke City. Its chief value 
was the power of transmitting all kinds of light like a prism. The speci- 
men was received, and the Professor requested to reduce his remarks on the 
subject to writing, and hand them to the Secretary for publication. 

The President then read a letter from Salt Lake City upon the capabilities 
of the surrounding soil, which letter was also ordered to be printed. 



KEArER Cass. — Tn the great reaper trial of McCormick against Manny, 
in the U. S. Circuit Court at V\'ashington, Judge McLean has delivered the 
opinion of the Court in favor of Miiniy, and refused the injunction sought 
by McCormick for infringement of his patent. 



N. H. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 517 



NEW-HAMPSHIRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY— A GOOD MOVEMENT. 

The State Society of New-Harapstire has commenced a capital plan of 
asking important questions of a selected correspondent in every town. In 
ibis, though thoy but follow tbe usage of the Patent-Office, they modify the 
inquiry to suit the latitude. The follf^wing is a list of the interrogatorits : 

1. Are farmers in your town improving their farms, and their own social 
condition ? 

2. If so, in what respects, and by what agencies ? 

3. If not, what prevents? 

n. 

1. What amount of woodland is there in the town ? 

2. In what ratio is it diminishing ? 

III. 

1. How much swamp land, in town, has been reclaimed within five 
years ? 

2. At what cost per acre ? 

IV. 

1. What is the condition of pasture land ? 

2. What measures are adopted for the improvement of such land ? 

V. 

1. What price, per month, is paid for farm labor through the year?] 

2. Wliat during the summer and autumn — say for six months? 

3. What per day, in haying and harvesting ? 

4. What per week, for domestic help ? 

5. Is it easy to obtain such help ? 

6. If not, why ? 

7. Is Ameri'jan or foreign help employed? 

8. What proportion of each ? 

VT. 

1 . Is much attention given to the breeding of stock ? 

2. Who are some of the best stock-breeders in town ? 

3. Give f^uch hints as may occur, in relation to the breeding of stock of 
all kinds ? 

VII. 

1. What breeds of neat cattle are most common? 

2. What are best for labor ? 

3. What for beef? 

4. What for milk? 

5. What breed combines the most desirable qualities, and is most profit- 
able? 

6. What crosses are most preferred ? 

VIII. 

1. What breeds of sheep are kept? 

2. What is their value per head ? 

3. Dow much wool do they yield annually? 

4. What breed is most valuable ? 

IX. 

1. What breeds of swine are most common? 

2. Which is preferred, and why ? 

3. Can pork be raised with profit ? 



518 EDUCATION. 



FOR THK PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

EDUCATION. 

~ "Foreign commerce requires capital, and wealth gives power. Theorize 
as we will about the matter ; it is so, and will be so. When wealth is con- 
ti'olled by a few, the few control the many. Wealth secures, or may se- 
cure, education ; and knowledge is power. Nor is this all ; "/or being edu- 
cated they are naturally the associates of the members of the learned pro- 
fessions, and there is a common sympathy between them growing out of this 
state of things. Here is reason enough for the influence exerted in many 
communities by th^se classes." — P., L. <$) A. p. 322. 
■ " The mission" of an agricultural paper is essentially to aid in educating 
the masses ; not education as is too commonly comprehended in that term, 
for the mass deem being taught the elemeutaries, to be education. Could 
the writer believe " the mission" of an agricultural paper to be the mere in- 
crease of a crop, how to fatten a hog or a beef, to increase quantity or quality 
of wool — to make money ; or comparisons between members of a family who 
should have a common hope, a common good at heart, he would at once 
cease the labors of a quarter of a century, break his pen, demolish his ink- 
stand, aud turn over this missionary work to Wall street and the Shylocks 
whose whole study in life is cent per cent. 

The merchant who owns a large capital, educated in head, and heart, and 
hands, who had a pious and devoted mother to pour into his infant heart 
" love to God and love to man" is bound to wield an influence little short of 
a king, and thus would show forth that " commerce is king." But unfor- 
tunately for the cause of true human progress, acquisition of property is re- 
garded as the beaux ideal ; the economy, the close tiading, aud the shaving 
of the millionaire is the picture set before young men ; the education, if 
any, the comprehensive mmd, far-seeing eye of these men are taken into 
count ; the thousands who fell by the wayside whilst struggling to mount 
up to the height of Croesus are not seen, but those only who have amassed 
are pointed to, and the young disciple of Mammon is bid God-speed. , 
r If mothers were thoroughly educated, if pai'ents and guardians would 
point to youth the bright examples who have secured the prize, we would 
soon have better days. Mothers having the care of the infant heart when 
it can be molded to high and holy aspirations should be eminently fitted to 
their task ; by a thorough drilling, even as thorough as if they were to fill 
the sphere that God has alloted to man, because they prepare the material 
for the work. Parents and guardians who manage youth would do their 
duty better to put an example before their young charges — our future men — 

whom by following they could not err. For instance, Mr. ■ , who at 

his home is a kind father, husband, friend, neighbor, one who spends his 
evenings with his family or in study ; one who is ready to aid the needy, 
has a heart open to the wants of our race, one who is faithful in the discharge 
of all duties whether to God, his country, or himself. Such an example may 
not all suit of his accumulating vast property, but it will be more certain. 

If every business man would resolve, on setting out in life, to do his whole 
duty, we would have ninety-nine out of every hundred zvcll doing in the 
world, instead of one to accumulate a Girard estate, and ninety-nine to fall 
by the wayside. The great point is, lay a foundation broad, strong and 



THE SPIRIT OF SPECULATION. 519/ 

deep, by educating woman. Leave all the mere show and glitter to such of 
our race, whether those who have beards or not, who prefer such to the de- 
velopment of our race. With such a foundation, America may build a 
reputation that will be a lever to move the world. Labor as you will to 
educate man, and make of woman a mere machine to stitch silk and lace 
upon, a mere automaton to be wound up at the pleasure of a man, and to 
rattle away on wood, metal and ivory some times, and you can never place 
man in his proper position. The female sex educated for companions, 
associates, would so soften the harshness of man's nature that you would 
soon see more influence from education than for these hundred years past 
altogether. With respect, your fellow-citizen from the 

Southward. 



THE SPIRIT OF SPECULATION— HOW TO CHECK IT. 

The more we look into the subject, the more enormous appears to us the 
wild and reckless spirit of speculation. It seems to pervade every depart- 
ment of trade. A recent exchange from the South asserts that speculators 
are controlling the prices of sugar in their fiist market. They buy up large 
quantities and withdraw most of it from the market, and then raise a hue and 
cry of scarcity, accomplishing their object throughout, as other gamblers do, 
by falsehood and fraud. 

Another mode in which those men operate is set forth in the following 
paragraph, which occurs in a memorial of the sugar dealers of New-Orleans , 
under the date of Nov., 1855 : 

" Our market," say they, "is at all times liable to be influenced by com- 
binaiions, got up in other cities as well as in New-Orleans. Mr. Champpnier 
has informed us, in his circular of the 16th inst., that in New-York, on the 
3d inst., Refiners * were scarcely in the market at all ; some of them having 
lately sold refined sugars at the cost price of raw, and in same instances less.' 

" Refiners do not make such sales without an object. Being made at that 
particular juncture, it is not unfair to suppose they were made for the pur- 
pose of influencing the market, to depress the price of raw sugar, of which 
they now have to purchase so largely. Had the crop been a large one they 
would no doubt have succeeded. But no system of misrepresentation can 
blind people to the diminution of the present crop. Speculators were prompt 
in taking all the sugars ofiered by those refiners, and prices went up again." 

We are perfectly aware of the great difficulty of defending the public 
against such depredators. The enactment of special statutes to meet such 
necessities, is both hazardous and unpopular. But we are not quite sure 
that common law does not give us means of defense well worth attention. 
Difierent modes of operation have received appropriate names, while the 
end and aim may be the same. Thus : 

Under the common law, Forestalling the market is an indictable offense. 
It consists " in bujing or in contracting for any merchandise or victual coming 
in the way to market ; or dissuading persons from bringing their goods or 
provisions there ; or persuading them to enhance the price, when there ; aii^ 
of which practices make the market dearer to the fair trader." 

Another form of a similar offence is Regrating, which is defined to be " the 



620 THE SPIRIT OF SPECULATION. 

buying of corn or other dead victual, in any market, and selling again in the 
same market, or within four railea of the place." The gist of this offense 
consists in an intent to speculate on the price of food. Nor does it require 
any actual corrupt motive beyond this increase of price, by the mere pur- 
chase for making money and re-selling in the same market ; indeed the rea- 
son assigned by Blackstooe, why such purchase and re-sa'e is unlawful is be- 
cau'^e " every successive seller must have a successive profit." 

But a third form of carrying on trade unlawfully describes more exactly 
that very form which is so extensively practised in this country at the pre- 
sent time. It is called Eogrossing. This is described to be " the getting 
into one's possession or buying up large quantities of corn, or other dead vic- 
tual with intent to sell them again." " This," says Blackstone, " must of 
course be injurious to the public^ by putting it in the power of one or two 
rich men to raise the price of provisions at their own discretion." 

This offense differs from monopHes, a fourth form of offense, inasmuch as 
monopolies extend to all branches of trade. 

The penalty for violating the laws in these several modes, was by discre- 
tionary fine and imprisonment as a misdemeanor. 

Nor is it marvellous that our ancestors should enact such laws. There is 
work enough for all without being obliged to filch from the pockets of the 
poor, as does every such speculator. Such middle men as enter into this 
business in the mannerdescribed, ousiht to be regarded as dishonest, fradulent, 
disreputable, like any other gamblers. They are gamblers. They do no- 
thing to increase the value of the merchandise. They merely get possess- 
ion, and oblige others, who might buy as well as they, and without their 
help, to pay them an exorbitant commission for doing what benefits no one. 
Why can not our butchets buy of the drovers without the interference of 
middle men? Why cannot our grocers buy flour without supporting ex- 
pensive e>tablishments for the benefit of those who buy only to make a 
greit profit by selling to the grocer? Why is a class of men tolerated who 
make a great hue and cry through the country of "high prices and short 
supplies," merely to bring in a surplus and buy it up at a low rate, because 
there is a more liberal supply, and then keep out of the maiket those same 
supplies, except as they can sell them at the same excessive prices, while the 
poor go hungry ? 

We know not the suffering that results from this single operation, and 
the community are fleeced out of thousands and tens of thousands of dollars 
to feed luxuriou>ly these lazy middle men, who will not earn an honest liv- 
ing. JSHne-tenlhs of all the middle men of this city might be dispensed 
with, and the community suffer nothiug, but save rnuch. 



PoMEROY, Onio. — Within the past year, over 10,000,000 bushels of coal, 
1,000,000 bushels of salt, and manu''aciured iron to the value of $150,000, 
Lave been shi[)ped from Pomeroy and towns adj-icent, to points below. The 
value (if these mineral products is over 81,000,000, to say nothing of the 
agricultural productions. — Mtigs Co. Telegraph. 



CITY OF ST. PAUL. 521 



THE CITY OF ST. PAUL. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Chicago Democrat furnishes that paper an inter- 
esting account of this thriving city. 

Tlie city of St. Paul (not St. Paul's) is built on a series of tables or 
benches wiiich run parallel with the river, the one rising above the other to 
a height of from forty to sixty feet, and extending probably two miles along 
the river, running back about the same distance. In early limes the place 
went under the name of '• Pig's Eye ;" but a missionary came here and 
built a small church dedicated to St. Paul, and from that the city has been 
named. This "church," a little Itg house, is still standing, and was pointed 
out to me yesterday by Judge Tullis of this city. There it stands, a rude, 
rough log house, wliere first the red man of these regions heard preached 
the tidings of salvation. This is called the " nucleus" uf St. Paul, and I ob- 
served that not a few chunks had been cut out of the logs by relic hunters 
who have visited this rewion. 

The town plan of St. Paul was laid out in 1847, up to which time it could 
only claim to be a wilderness. In 1850 the population amounted to 1035, 
since which time it has rapidly increased, till now it numbers upwards of 
7000. The business, however, transacted at St. Paul, is far greater in pro- 
portion than its population would justify. Situated as at present it virtually 
is, at the head of navigation, St. Paul is not only the Territorial capital, but 
the commercial center of Minnesota Territory. Everything for the back or 
upper country must of necessity pass through it, and that of itself gives it 
an advantage over any other city or town site in the Territory. True, there 
may and doubtless will be other large cities in Minnesota, but St. Paul has 
the lead at present, and there is no reason why it should not keep it. 

There are several fair looking buildings in St. Paid, consideiing its age. 
The capitol is an imposing structure, built of brick manufactured here. 
There is also a well built hotel — the Winlow Housa — which has a com- 
manding appearance. The majority of the houses, however, are built of 
wood. 

There are three grist mills in operation, capable of turning out 1,500 
bushels a day. There are also six or seven saw mills, all of which at present 
are running night and day. 

The Forwarding and Commission business is very extensive, and likely to 
continue increasing. At present there are about a dozen houses devoted 
almost exclusively to it, who jointly do a yearly business amounting proba- 
bly to half a million of dollars. 

St. Paul has seven churches — First and Second Presbyterian, Methodist, 
Episcopal, Catholic, German, Methodist and Scandinavian — all of whom 
have stated pastors, with good congregations. The erections are not by any 
means extravagant or graceful in thtir appearance, but for a young city they 
are tolerably fair. The Catholics intend t) commence a splendid Cathedral 
next year, one of their clergymen being at the present time in Europe col- 
lecting money for that purpose. 

In educational matters, St. Paul is pretty fairly advanced. They have a 
charter for a college, to be called "The University of St. Paul," the prepara- 
tory department of which will commence soon. Besides this, there is the 
Baldwin school, founded by a gentleman of that name in Philadelphia. It 
was incorporated and commenced operations early in June, 1853. The 



'522 RAILROADS AND THE WEST. 

Female Department alone has 100 pupils. There are also three district 
schools, all of which I believe are well patronized. 

Real estate is not so high proportionately as it is farther up the river. 
Property in the best business street may be had at from $90 to $125 per 
foot, and good residence lots may be had at from $500 to $1000, and before 
the boundary of the city limits is approached, they may be got at $150 or 
thereabouts. Within the last month more than $200,000 worth of property 
has changed hands. There are some nice little bargains made here occa- 
sionally by real estate operators. 

St. Paul, as your readers are probably aware, is virtually at the head of 
navigation on the Mississippi. When the river is properly cleared of rocks 
above St. Paul, vessels will be able in high water to reach St. Anthony ; but 
at all times navigation will be such a matter of uncertainty, that the latter 
place must, in my opinion, content itself to be the second or third city in the 
Territory. Whenever railroads get started here, then some other place may 
possibly rise up and complete with St. Paul; but even that is not likely. 

The people of St. Paul are a reading people, if we were to judge from 
the number of newspapers published here. There are in this city four daily 
and five weekly papers; one having just been started in the German lan- 
guage. 



What Railroads are doing for the West. — The official returns of 
the new census of Illinois have just been received. The entire population is 
over 1,300,000, which is a gain of about 50 per cent, upon the census of 
1850. By comparing the increase through the several decades and semi- 
decades since the census has been taken, it will be seen that the gain has 
been much larger during the last five years than any former period : 

From 1810 to 1820 the increase was - - - 42,923 

" 1820 to 1830 " " . - . 102.234 

" 1830 to 1835 " « . . - 114,982 

" 1835 to 1840 " " ... 204,756 

" 1840 to 1845 " «... 185,942 

" 1845 to 1850 " " ... 189,345 

" 1850 to 1855 " "... 448,781 

The railroad system has been developed in Illinois within the last five 
years, and one of the fruits, we see, has been to double the population. 
Add to this the improved society, the multiplied educational and moral in- 
fluences, such as the newspapers, cheaD books, etc., which follow population, 
and take advantage of all cheap methods of communication, and then one 
may begin to appreciate the advantages of the modern railway system as an 
engine of civihzation. — Exchange. 

Use of Railroads. — The Beloit Journal says that during the past week, 
red and white winter wheat sold in that village for $1 87 and $1 88. It 
adds : *' We have conversed with men who say in r>«loit in years gone by , 
ajmshel of wheat exchanged for a pound of saleratus ! Where now are th e 
croakers who say that ' railroads do not benefit the farmer V " 



INDUSTEIAL STATISTICS. 523 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

Essex County, Massachusetts. — ^This is the most densely populated 
county in the State, except Suffolk, and this results from the variety of their 
pursuits. Ttie Newburyport Herald publishes the following statements in 
reference to certain forms of industry. 

The Boot and Shoe Business — The following table shows the state of 
this interest in the several towns of this county : 



Towns. 


No. of males 


No. of females 


No. of pairs manu- 


Value of mana- 




employed. 


employed. 


factured. 


factures. 


Araesbury, 


54 


40 


52,820 


29,136 


Andover, 


76 


34 


80,736 


55,787 


Beverly, 


511 


300 


288,600 


171,000 


Boxford, 


50 


47 


61,550 


52,550 


Bradford, 


12 


11 


20,075 


1,000 


Danvers, 


1300 


1500 


1,330,000 


1,000,000 


Essex, 


15 


7 


4,850 


7,470 


Georgetown, 


356 


239 


339,540 


336,320 


Gloucester, 


89 


110 


24,100 


21,376 


Groveland, 


261 


193 


161,414 


152,039 


Hamilton, 


93 


56 


23,000 


8,200 


Haverhill, 


4087 


2257 


4,332,015 


2,782,930 


Ipswich, 


78 


60 


42,000' 


69,000 


Lawrence, 


31 


30 


24,183 


24,925 


Lynn, 


4545 


11,021 


9,275,593 


4,165,529 


Lynnfield, 


41 


39 


33,000 


31,200 


Manchester, 


1 


2 


2,500 


1,200 


Marblehead, 


1080 


1485 


2,835,724 


1,020,373 


Methueu, 


280 


210 


304,500 


300,500 


Middleton, 


165 


140 


180,000 


117,000 


Nahant, 










Newbury, 










Newburyport, 


361 


268 


428,400 


398,600 


N. Andover, 


60 


25 


50,000 


36,000 


Rockport, 


17 




14,900 


8,000 


Rowley, 


209 


114 


164,800 


195,600 


Salem, 


128 


148 


139,250 


96,000 


Salisbury, 


33 


48 


18,164 


15,019 


Saugus, 


152 


120 


134,000 


96,000 


S. Danvers, 


562 


481 


747,600 


597,259- 


Swampscott, 


76 


141 


20,600 


49,300 


Topsiield, 


105 


121 


98,350 


90,260 


Wenham, 


46 


20 


29,200 


20,000 


W. Newbury, 


231 


138 


275,200 
21,540,664 


231,138 




15,105 


19,895 


$12,180,810 



It will be seen from the above that the census returns more than 35,000 
workers upon boots and shoes, manufacturing over 21,000,000 pairs, at a 
value exceeding $12,000 annually ; and as large as that seems, it is not up 
to the facts. The census was taken in summer, when many of the shoe- 
makers were fishing or farming who were enumerated^ as fishermen and 
farmers. The city of Newburyport would have given a hundred more in 
January than June; and Marblebead would have made a greater ditference, 
and so would Beverly, of the fishing towns, to say nothing of the agricul- 
tural. 

Two of the towns, it will be seen, have not been enumerated; one of 
them is Newbury, where probably there are two hundred males and females 



524 DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOWLS. 



because they did not manufacture for themselves in the town. Tbe valuation, 
too, we believe is much below the mirk ; everybody knows that valuation 
has to do with taxation, and they never state above but often below the 
actual worth. 

Carriage Ma.nufacturing in West Amesbury. — There are twenty 
establishments in West Araesbury for the manufacturing of caniages, that 
have an invested capital of a quarter of a million dollars and give constant 
employment to 280 hands. That business has within a few years built up 
one of the most thrifty villages there to be found in the country ; and the 
turning out of $300,000 value in chaises, carriages, etc., places it first in 
that manufacture. 

Nearly all the tanning and currying is done in Salem and Danvers, the 
comb-making in West Newbury, ihe sbipbuilding in Newburyport, the con- 
struction of small vessels at Essex, the cod fishery in Beverly and Marble- 
head, the Afiican trade in Salem, the freighting sliips in Newburyjort, and 
mackerel catching from Gloucester. Peojile of the same butinesi^, modes of 
life and habits of thought, congregate together. 

Shipbuilding. — Newburyport employs a large number of men in thia 
form of trade. The statistics given are as follows : 

Men employed, 270 ; daily wa^es average 81 50 ; about 35 men are em- 
ployed in the joiner woik, who receive $1 To per day ; 33 caulkeis get $1 50 
per day ; 33 smiths average $1 50 ; ship's painters, about 20 hands, get $1 33 
per day. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOWLS. 

The following statemen's are frr m extensive raisers of poultry, and are 
worthy of the consideration of all intertsted in the subject: 

The Dorkivg fowl, which some still attempt to bring forward as the best, 
has been found to be tender, and unfit for a general barn-yard fowl. The 
Polands, and Black SjJomsh are the same— good layers, but unfit for the 
table, when compared with some other breeds, and their young so tender as 
to be very troublesome to rait-e them. The Cuoles or BoUon Greys are ex- 
cellent layers; but owing to their small size can never be anything but a 
jancy fowl. ''•Cochin China''' fowls are a humbug. There is no such breed, 
and those that were said to have been imported from Cochin China came 
from the city of Shanghai in China, Thty are a S!ianohai fowl, with 
smooth legs. There are but few Shanghai fowls now existing in this country 
in a pure state ; but those that have short legs, plump bodies, short tails, 
and weigh, hens, 8 lbs., and cocks 10 lbs., are a valuable fowl. Cinnamon 
colored hens, and red cocks are marks of genuine stock. There are some 
beautiful black Shanghais that are quite as valuable as those of a ciiiuamon 
color. The white Shanghais are a good fowl, but not as hardy as those of 
other colors. Tbe Chttagong fowl is a gr«at, unsightly bird ; cocks of a 
mixed hue of black and white, hens grey, mottled, brown, etc. Indeed, it 
is difficult to find iwo fowls of the same color of this breed, and they have 
been crossed so extensively with the 13rahma ard other fowls, that the ori- 
ginal stcck is mostly merged in some other breed. This is the reason why 
60 many ill shaped, long-legged "^ro/m* a" fowls are in the market, which in 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOWLS. 525 

fact are gererally one-half, or three fourths Chittagongs. The pure Brahma 
fowl, we believe, has no superior in the world, in all that constitutes a hardy 
fowl, one of great size, yet not too largo, with short legs, compact bodies, and 
great prolificoess in eggs. This is our experience with them, after a trial of 
four years." — Rural American. 

A correspondent of the Hartford (Conn.) Courant says : 

"Fur several years past I have kept a few hens, and. have, during the 
time, tried several varieties. I now have two varieties which are certainly 
superior to any other kind of which I have any personal knowledge ; one is 
the Brahma Pootra — a large, handsome fowl — most excellent layers and 
easy lo raise ; and the other is a white China fowl, or white Shani^liai, as 
some call them. This variety I value very highly, and do not believe, all 
things considered, that they can be surpassed, in everything that goes to 
make a handsome and profitable hen, by any other variety in America. I 
have had this kind in my possession for fourteen months, and they have 
laid every month during the time except when setting; and after hatching 
they would commence laying by the lime the chickens were two or three 
weeks old. The flesh of these fowls is excellent, being much superior to 
ihe common Shanghais ; their bodies are full and plump as a partridge. 

'• I have kept during the year ending Oct. 15th, 1855, from twelve to six- 
teen hens, of different varieties, from which I have had over 1700 egg*. 

" I paid out during the year for food, $45. The eggs come to 843. leaving 
me for profit between 80 and 90 chickens, valued at from 25 to 15 cents 
each, which shows that there is some profit to be derived from the business, 
although kept shut up as mine have been. 

" Feed. — Their food should be corn, or corn and oats, kept where they 
can have access to it all limes ; also fresh water daily. When cooped up 
they should have pulverized oyster shells and gravel, where ihey can obtain 
ihein when they require, and occasionally fresh meat ; with the meat, bones 
and other scrapings from the table ; and two or three «,imes a week they 
should have raw veget^ibles, chopped fine, such as cabbage, onions, turnips, 
carro's, etc. ; and in simiraer a daily supply of grass. It will be found ben- 
eficial to feed once a day with meal, wet up with warm water, especially in 
the winter season. It is useless to expect a large supply of eggs unless you 
feed well. 

"Vbrmin. — The greatest nuisance to contend with, and which is the 
cause of more failures in the management of poultry than all other causes 
combined, are the vermin or hen lice that infest their loosts in warm weather. 
It is useless to expect profit or pleasure while these pests are allowed to 
increase. I have succeeded in keeping the roosts comparatively clear of 
them by once or twice a week smearing the roosts with a mixture of poor 
oil and spirits of turpentine. The nests should be cleared out quite often 
and kept clean, and a box of ashes or dry sand kept where the hens can roll 
in it. Use these means, and we can warrant comparative immunity from 
the vermin. 

The Roup is often very fatal to poultry, more particularly where they 
are kept in large numbers, often 25 per cent, of the flock dying of this dis- 
ease. It is very similar to malignant erysipelas, with congestion of the 
lungs in the human subject, the wind-pi po closing up, causing suffocation. 
The only effectual remedy we know of is, on the first appearance of ihe dis- 
ease, to close all the doors and windows of the poultry house at night, when 
the fowls are on the roost, then burn within the building a few corn cobs, the 
sjnoke from which will fill the building, causing a constant snulliug or sneez- 



526 THE BEST CATTLE. 



ing, which affords relief. Smoke from corn cobs is recommended for chronic 
laryngitis in the humnn subject, and cases are given of persons being cured 
by being in the smoke watching its effects upon their poultry." 



THE BEST CATTLE. 

The following extracts are from the correspondents of the Report of the 
Patent- Oflace fur 1854. 

Mr. Lane, of Connecticut : — "I have considerable experience in raising 
both the imported and common breeds ; and 1 think a given amount of 
food will produce more meat in the Durham than in the common animal, or 
•any other." 

Mr. Mondy, of Vermillion, Illinois : — " We have the Durhams in consid- 
erable numbers, and pure bl:od. In my opinion, a cross of three-quarters 
Durham and one-quarter ordinary blood makes the best stock. Our com- 
mon stock is best for the Dairy." 

Mr. Boone, of Lebanon, Iowa : — " Crosses of the Durham with the com- 
mon cattle have proved advantageous for beef, milk and labor. 

S. D. Martir., Pine Grove, Kentucky : — "The Short-horned cattle are the 
best for milk and beef of any I have ever had. I have owned several cows, 
each of which would give over thirty quarts of milk a day, having an aver- 
age of ten per cent of cream. I always employ oxen on my farm, and have 
worked those of every breed we have among us. The Herefords are excel- 
lent workers and pull evenly. But they are harder to break in, and are apt 
to be more vicious than the IShort-horned. I prefer the Stiort-horns for 
oxen for the following reasons : — they are genile and docile, easily broken 
in and managed, strong and true in pulhng, are not vicious among other 
stock, and when they have been worked five or six years are easily fitted for 
the butcher, who will pay a good price for them." 

Mr. Fuller, of Winthrop, Maine : — " We have imported Durham, Here- 
ford and Ayreshire, but grade Durhams have been the most used among us, 
and have given the best satisfaction for milk, flesh and labor." 

Mr. Weston, of Bloomfield, Maine: — "The Herefords, Durhams and 
Ayreshire have been introduced, and their crosses upon our common stock 
have succeeded well. Hereford cows are the best milkers of the imported 
breeds ; but our ordinary cows are as good milkers as any. 

Mr. Potter, of Manchester, New-Hampshire: — "In the valley of the 
Merrimack pure Devons are more generally bred than any other blooded 
stock ; but I am inclined to the opinion that they are becoming of less re- 
pute than formerly. In our hilly, mountainous region, their size forbids their 
making suitable oxen for work, and for being profitable for the shambles. 
So that aside from their capacity as milkers, which is a mooted point, their 
usefulness fur labor, and their value for beef, the Devons must fall behind 
several other breeds." 

Mr. Rouse, Paris Hill, New- York : — " Crosses between the Durham and 
our common stock are thought by many to make the best milkers; while 
others think a cross with the Devons fully equal, if not preferable. Cases 
are by no means rare in which cows of what is usually termed the ' native 



PROPAGATION OF FISH. 527 

breed ' are fou ad equally as good milkers as any among the various kinds 
of imported stock. This remark may not be equally true, however, in regard 
to their aptness to take on fat," 

Mr. Collins, of Sodus, New-York : — We prefer the Devons to any other 
breed; they are hardy and easily kept. The oxen are quick, active and 
docile, and the cows are excellent milkers, averaging two pounds of butter 
a day, each, with good feed." 

Mr. Franklin, of Cuba, Ohio: — "The first crosses of the- Durhams 
with our common stock are considered best for beef." 

Mr. Smoot, Boone Court-House, Va. : — " I am of opinion that the Durhams 
crossed with the 'scrub cattle ' are far better for this mountainous region 
than the full-blooded." 

Mr. Wharton, Egypt, Texas : — " A. few Durhams bulla were brought into 
this vicinity from the Western States. Bat, from the abundance of food, 
they soon became so large and strong as to be dangerous to our breeds, and 
were consequently shot." 



PROPAGATION OF FISH; 

WITn A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURIOUS OCEAN FISH-POND OF LOGAN, 
ON THE WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

BT CAPTAIN KALSTOtf. 

Mr. Editor : — It is noticeable of fish that, although very polific of them- 
selves, they would seem to be very unprolific of subject-matter, generally, 
whether as regards your own columns, or those of any others, your com- 
peers. And yet, in relation to rural economics, the cultivation, so to speak, 
of some kinds of piscatory products can be rendered of no unworthy or 
unprofitable consideration. The artificial raising offish, in ponds and streams, 
has come to attract much attention in Europe, and it may be in some m- 
stances, also, in this country, though unknown to the writer. The highly 
utilitarian objects which the subject embraces, have received new and sug- 
gestive features of interest, from the discovery of ready and sure means for 
the propagation and improvement of the finny tribes, and their multiplication 
at, well nigh, any one's will and pleasure. This is by collecting, at the proper 
time and season, the spawn of any desired kind of fish — say of salmon, trout, 
etc., — and then netting some males of the same species, from whom the fluid 
of the milt, or the seminal emission, is to be gently squeezed upon the col- 
lected spawn, which is thereupon to be deposited in a protected place, — tank, 
pond, or stream, — under circumstances favorable to the development of the 
ova, and until the fry shall have become fitted to be turned into the still 
or running waters, intended to be stocked, as the case may be. 

In France extensive and successful experiments have been made; and to 
some extent likewise in England. It was in Scotland, however, some twenty 
years ago, or so, that the germ of this idea had a practical origin, arising out 
of the circumstance that the salmon were fast diminishing and disappearing 
-from many of those rivers where once they had so valuably abounded. It 
had long been an uncertain and disputed question how and where this noble 



628 PROPAGATION OF FISH, 

fish was bred, and what was its appearance and character previous to its being 
known and distinguished as the Salmon, on its first return up the streams 
from the sea, under its piscatorial cognomen of (Scotticc) "grilse," (Hiber- 
nice) "gillaroo," and (Anglice) "a first year run fish." There was a small 
fish which swarmed in the salmon rivers of North Britain — the "Tweed," the 
•' Tay," etc., — called the " Par." It weighed from two or three, to six or 
seven ounce?, and was a beautiful little species, resembling a trout, but hav- 
ing a single row of golden-red spots, evenly studded along each silvery side. 
As it was lively in the stream, and a delicious morsel on the table, it was 
angled for by man and boy at all points, and taken in vast numbers. The 
writer, when an urchin, placed at the grammar-school of an ancient town, 
situated on the banks of the beautiful Tweed, has caught in that river from 
ten to twelve dozen of Par with the fly-rod, day after day ; and his twen- 
ty-nine school confreres were no less active in plying the murderous war- 
fare. Nor he, nor they, nor any one divined that this little fish was assuredly 
the young salmon, and that every one which should have escaped to the 
Sea would, in all likelihood, have returned again up stream, in a few months, 
a noble " grilse," of from four to nine lbs. of weigtit. It is remarkable how 
undeviatingly these fish return to those streams in which they have been 
spawned, and the manner in which they will stem currents and ascend falls of 
water to do so is extraordinary. 

The forest or chase, lake or mere law.^, of the olden times of England and 
Europe, were terribly and utjustly strained enactments against the rights of 
the many for the erjoyment of the few. Even the British game-laws of the 
present time retain objectional features. But the absence of all restrictive 
laws — no protection of those ferae naturae which are termed " game" — is a 
flagrant oversight and error, causing hurtful deprivation and loss to any and 
every community. In how many districts and regions, already, of this country, 
has not that magnificent quarry — the deer — disappeared from hill and forest, 
as has the winged and other smaller game from field and woodland, while 
trout of any worthy size aie scant, or none, in so many streams ? 

As regards the Par, the poaching havoc, once wont with it, has been 
largely stayed. Random guesses and surmises of its being the fry of the 
salmon had long been rife enough, but unattended by assured conviction or 
knowledge of the fact, until the Duke of Athol caused fome experiments to 
be made in the Tay, which resuked in conclusive evidence. After being- 
taken with the net, numbers of Par were marked, and then again freed in 
the river; and in a fQw months afterwards many of the marked fish were 
caught, on their return up stream from the sea, grown to be " grilles," or 
young salmon. This experiment was tried on such a scale, and this fur several 
seasons, as to present proofs beyond doubt or cavil by even the most skeptical. 
Following upon this was, first, the protection of the young fry from former 
unlimited destruction ; and, next, the discovery and resort to artificial incuba- 
tion, as a means to pre-erve the spawn itself from its numerous sources of 
waste and accident. Out of all this has gradually been developed tl;e now 
eminently practical and successful artificial cultivation of fish, so to call it. 

The description of one expeiiment, made in the Tay, at Perth, ia 
Scotland, will best elucidate what has and can be accomplished in this way. 
Three hundred boxes were laid down, in twenty-five parallel rows, each box 
paitly (i led with clean gravel and pebbles. On the 23d Dec, 1853, 300,000 
ova were deposited in these boxes. In June, 1854, the fry were admitted 
into the prepared pond, their average size being about, one and a quarter 
inch in length. From their admission they were fed, daily, with boiled liver^ 



PROPAGATION OF FISH, 529 

rubbed small by the hand. By the spring of 1855 they had increased in 
size to three or four inches. In May they had begun to put on the migra- 
tory dress, or appearance, and on the 19Lh of that month the sluice com- 
municating with the river was opened, and every facility given the piscatory 
brood to dt'part. None, however, manifested any disposition to iirsue forth 
initil the 24ch, when the larger or more mature of the smelts, after holding 
themselves detached from the others for several days, wentoif in a body, A 
series of similar emigrations took place, until full half the fry had left the 
pond and descended the sluice into the Tay, It had long been a subject of 
controversy whether the fry of the salmon assumed the migratory dress in 
the second or third year of iheir existence, and this favorable opportunity to 
decide the question was not overlooked. 

In order to test the matter in the most eflFeclive manner, it was determined 
to mark a portion of the smelts in such a way as that they might easily be 
dislioguisbed when returning as grilse. A temporary tank was constructed 
at th« junction of the sluice with the Tay, and as the shoals fuccessively left 
the pond, about one in every hundred was marked by the abscission of the 
second dorsal fin, A greater number were marked on the 29lh of May than 
on any other day, in all about 1200 or 1300, The result proved equally 
satisfactory and curious. Within two months of their liberation twenty-twa 
of the young fish so marked were recaptured, on their returning migration up 
the river, and proved the fact of their becoming grilse in the second year, as 
well as their rapid growth during their short sojourn in salt water. Those first 
taken weighed five, to five and a half pounds, increasing progressively to seven 
or eight pounds; whilst one taken on the 31st of July weighed nine and a 
half poiiuds. The wound caused by the process of marking was found to 
be covered by the skin, and in some there was a coating of scales over the 
part, Tiiis experiment demonstrates the practicability of thus rearing sal- 
mon, of marketable value, within twenty months from the deposition of the 
ova or spawn. 

An incidental description of another mode of rearing fi?h — sea fi>h — may 
nof, perhaps, be an unacceptable anecdote. An old brother officer of 
the writer, Colonel McDouall, late in command of the second regiment of 
Life Guards, is possessed of an estate called " Logan," situated in the Rhinns 
of Galloway, Wigtonshire, Scotland. It is about half way between Port- 
patrick and the mull of Galloway, and extends about a mile and a half 
down to that point of the Atlantic sea-board. Here Colonel McDouall has 
formed a fish pond, which is perhaps unique as an adjunct to a gentleman's 
residence, and some ac:ount of it may interest piscatorial readers, and lovers 
of natural history generally. 

This pond was originally a small, rocky basin of the coast, with which 
the tea communicated by means of a natural tunnel; but as the bottom 
was very little below the medium sea level, it was nearly dry at low 
water. It occurred to Colonel McDouall that, by increasing the size 
and depth of this basin, he might, at all times and seasons of the year, have 
a constant supply of sea-fi^h ; and he blasted and quarried the rocks, both 
at the bottom aad sides, until he had formed a circular excavation of about 
fitly feet in diameter, and of depth to give about eight feet of water at low tides, 
to that Hsb in the pond should always have an ample allowance of their na- 
tive element. At flood, the water risei six feet in the pond, or to about four- 
teen teet in depth, in all, affording a fresh supply with every tide. There is a 
high wall, built on the upper edge of the rock, around the pond, to prevent 
poaching in this unusual "game preserve;" and a grating is fixed at the 
34 



630 PROPAGATION OF FISH. 

entrance from the tunnel, so as to bar the escape of the fish. Beneath high 
water mark the sea-weed clings to the rocks, sjiving them an aspect as pic- 
turesque as natural. A cottage, in which the female keeper and her son 
resiHe, adjoins the pond. 

When the writer first visited this ocean-pond, the keeper unlocked a 
door, and he was advancing forward, when the appearance of a large eagle — 
the Osprey, or sea eagle — startled him, for its glaring eyes and ouistretched 
pinions seemed actually to menace the visitant. But the startled arrest of step 
is only an involuntary tribute to the skill of the artist who has stuffed this air- 
cleaving fisher of the deep. The door opens on a small landing-place, at the 
top of a flight of steps, which lead to the water's edge, where there is a plat- 
form of rock, about two inches above the level of the water ; and, below the 
ledge of which there is another ledge, some twelve inches or so under water. 
No sooner is any one's advance descried on the top of the stairs, than a general 
commotion ensues among the fish, and they rush towards the platform's 
edge, pushing and jostling io their eagerness to get to the place where 
they are usually fed, just as barn-door fowls do at the sight of the person 
who feeds them. A quantity of muscles, scalded for the purpose of getting 
them more easily from the shell, had been provided to feed the fish. On 
this kind of food the Cod, and other varieties kept in the pond, thrive amaz- 
ingly ; and after being a few weeks thus " stall-fed," so to term it, they greatly 
excel in flavor and juiciness their untamed brethren of the open sea. A 
muscle being held between the fingers, about two inches below the surface of 
the water, a cod of about ten pounds weight took it, having won the race by 
about a head from three or four more of its mates of similar dimensions, all 
of which rushed for the prize at the same time. It required some nerve to 
prevent oneself from jerking back the hand at the moment the cod, with 
widely-extended jaws, took the bait. Several attempts to get hold of one of 
the larger fish failed; but a capture of one of four or five pounds was made, 
■which, after being raised out of the water, and leisurely inspected, was re- 
turned to his native element, at which he seemed not a little pl-ased. It 
was, again and again, unsuccessfully tried to get hold of one large fellow 
of twelve or thirteen pounds ; but from his size and strength, he always 
got off; and though unable to throw dust in one's eyes, he revenged himself 
with such a whisk of his tail as sent the salt water flying. Alter taking 
a short run, he always returned to the ledge, nothing daunted by the several 
attempts to seize him. The keeper took one of the largest, about ten pounds 
weight, in her lap, and stroked and petted it, saying, " poor fellow, poor fel- 
low," just as if it had been a child ; and she opened its mouth and put in a 
muscle, which it swallowed with apparent gusto — at least a wriggle of the 
tail might be so interpreted — and she then put her prisoner back again. Sev- 
eral gradations of tameness was observable among the fish ; some were 
quite tame, and came close up to the ledge; while another class kept pacad- 
ing from right to left, ki^eping about two or three yards oft', but readily 
partaking of some food thrown to them : and a third class kept aloof alto- 
gether. Others kept secluded from sight, in the nooks and corners at the 
bottom of the pond, and these were perhaps the "Johnny Newcombes" of 
the place. 

It is a curious physiological fact — fishiological, if it better please — that 
fish which remain long in this pond always become blind; and this was 
ascribed to insuflicient shelter from the heat and glare of the sun, ov\ing to 
the shallowness of the water, when compared to the depths of their ocean 
haunts. In this state they are fed by hand, being unable to compete for 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION, 531 

food with those -whose sight is unimpaired. One large blind fellow called 
"Jack" was a great pet, and upon the keeper calling his name, he appeared 
to both hear and understand, for he came forward slowl)', and when she 
held a muscle to his mouth, swallowed it. 

At the time spoken of there were only three kinds of fish in the pond, viz , 
cod, flounder, and another small species; but salmon and other kinds are 
frequently preserved. The manner in which the stock is kept up is this : 
The son of the keeper goes out to sea in a boat having a tub, or well, and 
when he catches any fish that he thinks will do, he preserves them in the 
well, from whence he trani?fers them to the pond ; where in due time — from 
a month to six weeks — they become tame. A curious scene occurred on one 
occasion when a mackerel was put in ; there was a general chase after the 
unfortunate stranger, which only saved itself from being devoured by the 
larger and more ferocious of the denizens of the pond by running itself on 
a> ledge of the rock. John C. I-Ialston. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

Lepidoptera. — We proceed to describe several individual species of the 
Papilio, (Butterfly,) of which the characteristics were given in our last num- 
ber. 

Papilio asterias, (of Cramer.) These insects are sometimes called Parsley 
Worms because they are fond of that plant, being ofien found on it, and also 
on the carrot, parsnip, celery, etc., in our gardens, and on those of the hem- 
lock tribe of a wild growth. They appear in the Eastern States in the month 
of June. When first hatched they are only one-tenth of an inch in length, 
and are black, except a white band across their middle and a second on the 
tail. Tbeir backs are covered with small projecting points. But at every 
successive moulting they change their appearance. The points, bands, and 
spots, (from which the points spring.) disappear, the skin becomes smooth, 
green, pale on the sides, and whitish beneath. They also have a pair of 
horns, (scent organs,) soft, orange colored, and divided from near its origin, 
like the letter Y. About the 20th of July they come to their full size — one 
and a half inches long, and are covered with alternate bands of black and 
yellow spots. 

When they are full grown, they spin a little web, which they attach to 
the surface on which they rest, and entangle the hooks of their hindmost 
feet in it ; and then, fastening themselves still further by a loop, into which 
they pass their heads, within twenty-four houis the caterpillar becomes & 
chrysalis, of a pale green or ash-gray color, with two short ear-like projec- 
tions above the head, and slight prominence on its back. Remaining in this 
state fvoiix nine to fifteen days — (cold and wet weather prolonging the term,) 
the skin of the chrysalis bursts open, and a butterfly issues from it, of a 
black color, with a double row of yellow dots on the back. A band of yel- 
low spots extends across the wings, and yellow spots also occur on its hind 
margin. The hind- wings are tailed. Seven blue spots occur behind the 
band across their wings, and near the hinder angle an eye-like spot of a 
yellow color. The female has fewer yellow spots than the male. The wings 



532 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



of these buttei flies expand from tliree to four inches. In the month nf July 
they are seen in great numbers in flower garden^ especially on the PJilox, 
(sweet scented.) and lay their eggs in July and August on this and other 
plants, placing them singly on the leaves and stems. They are soon ha'ched, 
and the caterpillars come to full s-ize in September or early in October, 
suspend themselves, as before described — remiiiiing so during the winter, 
and are transformed in May or June of the following year. 

The most etftctual mode of destroying ihese caterpillars is by gathering 
and <;rushing them. 

Vanessa antiopa, (Linnajus ) This butterfly has wings of a purplish 
brown above, with a broad bufi'-yellow margin, and a row of pale blue spots 
near their inner edge. It is torpid during the winter, and comes out very 
early in the spring, confining itself to warnl and sheltered spots. The cater- 
pillars of this species are found on the poplar, willow, elm, and other eaily- 
budding trees. They are black and rough, with small white dots and a row 
of red dots on the top of the back. On each segment except the fiist, a'O six 
or seven black, stift' and branching spines. Ttiey are about one and ihiee- 
quarter inches long. They have been trroneously suj postd to be venomous. 
They are very numerous. 

The chrvsalis is of a dark brown c->lor, with large, tawny Rpols on the 
back. The c^irysalis becomes a butterfly after ten or eleven days. In Au- 
gust a second brood is produced. 

Vanessa interroyadonis, (Fabricius,) Semicolon Butterfly. This first ap- 
pears in May at the North, with second and third broods in August and 
September. The name is suggested by a fancied resemblance of a spot of 
pale gold color, on the middld of the undernide of the hind- wings, to the 
mark which designates a question, but it more nearly resembles a semicolon. 
The upper side of the wings is a tawny orange, with bi'own spots on ihe 
hinder part, and black spots in the middle. The biod-wings of the male, 
except their base, are generally black above, and i u>ty red, or brown, beneaih ; 
the edges and the tails are glossed wiih reddi^h white. 

The caterpillar is brown, variegated with pale yellow, or vi:e versa, wiiji a 
yellowish line on each side of the body. Head, a rust red, with two black, 
branched spines. The spines of the body are pale yellow or brown, and 
tipped with black. It expands two and a half inches or more. 

The chrysalis is ashen brown, head deeply no ched, with two conical ears, 
a nose-like prominence on the thorax, and eight silvery spots on the back. 
The chrysalis period lasts from eleven to fourteen dajs. 

These chrysalis have an enemy wiihin them in the form of little mag- 
gots, which become four-winged flies, which make their escape by pierc ng 
holes through the sides of the chrysalis. They lay their eggs in ihe body of 
the caterpillar. Great numbers of them are destroyed in this manner. 

Vanessa comma. Comma Buttei fly. This ini-ect is so named by Dr. 
Harris, who believed that the American buttei fly differs materially from the 
Europem, with which it has been confounded. Tne hinder wings of this 
butterfly are not so deeply indented as those of the European afier whom it 
has been named. The caterpillar lives upon the hop, and resembles the 
preceding. The chrysalis is a brownish gray, variegated with pale brown and 
furnished with golden spots. 

The butterfly fiist appears in May, with successive broods in the summer 
and fall. It expands from two to two and a half inches. 



PRODUCTS OF THE DAIRY. 533 



PRODUCTS OF THE DAIRY IN NEW-YORK. \ 

OtJR attention has been called to the omissions of the last census, in respect 
to ihe products of the dairy in this Scate, and to erroneous inferences that 
min;ht be drawn from actual iact^. It appears that in the State census of 
1845 about a million cows were returned, and that the product of one-third 
was converted into cheese, the whole amount of which was 37,000 000 lbs., 
or about, 110 lbs. to each cow. The other two-ihirds were used for the pro- 
duction of butter, the amount of which was 80,000,000 lbs., or about 116 
lbs. to each cow. 

The number of cows returned in the census of 1850 was less than the 
number given in the State census by 60,000. 

Assuming these returns as correct, the inference would be that the dairy 
products of this State were fallinor off, and the interest becoming less im- 
portant. But look again, and discover that the product of each cow is much 
greater by the latter than bv the former census, that of 1850 increases the 
amount of butter 264,361 lbs., wnd of cheese 12,991,437 lbs. Ilence the 
legitimate inference f.om these figures would be that the quality of the cows 
was improving, and the interest made more valuable, with less cost of keep- 
ing. The value of this increase of products, with a diminished number of 
cows, was, at the market prices, $1,202,580 27. 

But the figures of the census are not correct. It is true that dairymen 
have greatly increased the value of their cows. In Herkimer county the 
average of cheese per cow is said to have been 226 lbs., and of butter 350 
lbs. per cow ; and one dairy had given an average for three years of 680 lbs. 
per cow. 

We have repeatedly s-tated that the most abundant milkers would not 
make the most butter, nor the best butter cows necessarily produce the 
greatfst amount of cheese. These are points too much overlooked, but yet 
beginning to receive more general attention. From the Report of the State 
Society, from which these facts are gathered, we learn that in Oneida county, 
some years since, a bull «f the Holderness breed was introduced, whose 
calves generally proved to be extraordinary milkers. One of these, giving 
from 25 to 32 quarts a day, was kept with a small cow of the Mohawk 
breed, giving only 12 to 14 quarts. The milk of both was mixed together, 
and churned wiih very unsaii.-factory results. The milk of the two was 
then kept separate. The nnlk of the Mohawk produced the best quality of 
butter, nearly equal in quantity to that of the mixed milk of both cjws, while 
it was impossible to make good butter from the Qolderness. This cow was 
then placed among those u^ed for the cheese dairy, and proved vaUuhle. 
Such results wou'd be brought out, beyond controversy, if experiments like 
that here described were made by our farmers. No two cows, perhaps, pro- 
duce milk exactly alike, though among many cf ihem the ditference may be 
unimportant. "Who will give us farther tests of this description ? 



Artistic Colokino. — With what colors would you paint a ttorm at sea ? 
The wind blew and the waves rose. How should a stcret be painted ? Iq 
violet. How would you pairit an absent-minded liierary fiiend ? In a brown 
study. Of what shade of white are snow-flakes ? Flake-white. How 
would you paint the melancholy natives of Beilin ? In Prussian blue. 



5^4 



SOILS. 



SOILS— WHAT, AND HOW PREPARED FOR CROPS. 

High authorities teach us that soils consist of the disintegrated particles 
of rocks. There is little practical importance in discussing the accuracy of 
this opinion, but it may be well enough, in passing, to inquire whether it is 
quite certain, afcer all, that this is not one of those stereotyped errors that 
truly scientific men have handed down from generation to generation. It 
may be true ; but we are pretty sure that no one has ever proved it so. On 
the other hand, strong presumptive evidence to the contrary is obvious on 
all hands. 

The earth being designed for the growth of plants, why should it have 
been necessary that every particle of it should first exist as pnrt of solid 
rocks ? Besides, what changes of any known rock will produce several varie- 
ties, such as some of the clays ? We can conceive, indeed, of the changes 
neces-sary to produce such results, but we can scarcely believe that our soils 
have all gone through such steps ere they assumed their present condition. 
Take, for instance, pure pipe clay. Pure silicious rock must first have been, 
disintegrated and dissolved, contemporaneously with precisely the same pro- 
cess with some aluminous rock, from which everything but alumina has been 
separated by elective affinity or otherwise, and, being quite free, the two are 
brought at the right moment into contact with each other, and been at least 
semi-crystalized. No otner process occurs to us so simple as this. No rock 
consisting of clay, so far as we know, has ever been met with. So of othec 
soils. The theory may be true, but it does not command our ready belief, 
nor has it claim for unqualified respect. Why may not the elements have, 
been di-turbed during ilie process of crystalization, and the cohesion, being 
thus broken, the cooling or hardening process have resulted in a loose granu- 
lar substance, essentially as found at the present day ? Has every particle of 
earth been through a grinding and fining process, so vigorous, so protracted as 
to reduce it to the exceeding minuteness which characterizes several kinds of 
soil ? Besides, the immense amount of animal matter which has from cen- 
tury to century become a part of the superficial soil, by its numberless com- 
binations with the mineral matters with which it has come in contact, must 
have very materially aifected a large portion of the world's surfcice. Hence, 
if the position is true, with this exception, which is usually expressed, the 
exception is almost extensive enough to form the rule. 

The soils of a given region are not of necessity of the same character with 
the rocks which belong to it. Tn all alluvial regions, for example, the soil 
may have been brought from very distant places, and hence the rocks of that 
region are no criterion of the elements of the soil. Even in mountainous 
diivtricts the soil may have been formed, to some extent, by such processes, 
ere the surface was heaved up into those lofty eminences. We know not 
how else to explain the fact that such diflferences exist between the rocks 
and the soil, even in its natural state. 

The rule, however, is otherwise. Generally soils and rocks each indicate 
something of the nature of the other. 

Soils are fertile or barren, as they contain the elements existing in 
plants in a soluble state, or are destitute of one or more of them. Those 
elements may abound in it, but if they are in an insoluble state the soil is 
still oarren. 

Soils of the same chemical constituents vary in respect to fertility ac- 



SOILS. 



5S5 



cording to the fineness of their particles. This not only aflFects its solubil- 
ity, but its capillary action. Next in importance to fineness of particle is a 
due degree of lightness or density. Repeated ploughing causes the particles 
to lie lightly and to favor evaporation. Hence, if too wet, the effect of such 
culture is favorable, if naturally dry, it may be either good or bad, accord- 
ing as the character of the sub-soil is porous or impervious to water. If 
the latter, both should be thoroughly opened or neither. We are not con- 
vinced that repeated ploughing has a very powerful influence in fining a 
soil. " Rocks" are not so easily acted upon. We incline rather to_ attribute 
the benffieial efl'ects of frequent ploughing and the like to chemical agen- 
cies, facilities for increased energy being given by the mere change of its 
physical condition. We all know that some manures act in both these 
ways. 

The mere absence of moisture may render fertile soils unproductive. 
Wiihout moisture, solution, and of course germination, is impossible. 

The carbonic acid of the atmosphere serves as a solvent to sundry ele- 
ments that are not acted upon by water, and reduces them to a condition 
in which they may be dissolved by water. This is the explanation of some 
of the effects produced by certain mineral manures, and also by suffering 
lands to lie idle or fallow. The chemical agencies so inherent in the liquid 
and gaseous substances which abound in the earth and air, are so efficient 
that, whenever allowed to work wiihout interruption, their effects are quite 
obvious. 

Color, too, has an influence upon the fertility of soils — the darker shades 
absorbing a much greater amount of heat than the lighter. This has a 
double iufluence, the temperature having an intimate connection with the 
germination of seeds and the growth of plants, and also modifying the 
amount of moisture (another important agent) held in the soil. On the 
ether hand, light colored soils retain the heat of the sun longer than the 
daik soils, as a bright tin coflee-pot retains the heat longer thiin when it is 
blackened by a coat of japan. 

This fact is turned to a practical account by gardeners, in giving to the 
walls and fences at the foot of which they cultivate or on which they train 
tender plants, one or the other color, according to the specific effect they wish 
to produce. If they desire to concentrate the power of the sun to the great- 
est extent while it is above the horizon upon any such spot, they would paint 
everything white. If they would retain the heat of the sun to temper 
the chill of the night, these walls should be black. 

These few suggestions may furnish a key to the general system of agri- 
culture. To furnish elements that are wanting, and to render other elements, 
as yet usefess, efiicient, manures are applied. The elements that are wanting 
must be in the manure, or the manure must produce them by a chemical 
action on the soil. To regulate the amount of moisture, and to secure some 
other physical advantages, a good system of ploughing must be adopted. 
Nearly all the culture subsequent to sowing and plantmg is but the perfec- 
tion or continuance of the same plan, accommodated to the change in the 
condition of the crops. The nature of the manures which should be applied, 
and the extent of culture that may be expedient, will vary with the crop 
and the conditions of the soil from which it is to be obtained. 

A large share of the instruction contained in the books, is but the car- 
rying out of these suggestions in detail, and with a variety of crops. Un- 
der such instruction no one would apply plaster to wet clay, for plaster doea 
not contain the elements of which clay is deficient, nor is there anything in 



536 



THE SUGAR BEET. 



clay from wLich this substance can form them. But it is otherwise witfi 
sandy soils. The elfect of plaster is favorable, because it furnishes useful 
elements, and also by its power of absorbirg moistute and hoklinirit widiiii 
reach of the plant. Barn yard manures contain the elements of plants more 
generally than any other fertilizer, and are thereRre more universally effi- 
cient. 



FOR TlIK PtOUOII, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

CORN— AND ITS FODDER. 

Messrs Editors : — In pursuance of a promise made to the late John S. 
Skinner, Esq., I made the following experiment on corn and its fodder with 
ray best attention in the summer and autumn of 1852. Having mislaid the 
memorandum of the results, I have been hindered from presenting them at 
an earlier day. 

Stalks and their fodder below the ear per acre, 1502 pounds ; stalks and 
their fodder above the ear, 814 pounds; husks, 407 pounds; cobs, G58 
pounds; corn, 47 bushels. 

The varifty of corn planted was of the medium size, generally produced 
in the Middle and Southern S ates. The wcglit was ascertained in the dry 
state. Results, however, would be as variant as the varieties planted, and 
the growth of the corn under the influence of diflerent seasons. If the 
wishes of my old iriend shall subserve any u-eful purpose, I shall feel myself 
amply compensated for the trouble of making tlie experiment. 

Respectfully your.-, D. W. Naill. 

Sams Creek, Md., Jan. IS, 1856. 



FOB TOE PLODGn, THE LOOM, AND TUD ANVIL. 

THE SUGAR BEET. 

Mr. Editor: — Some years since the sugar beet was highly rpcommendeo 
for its saccharine properties and its great productiveness, and*its extensive 
cultivation in France for sugar. It occurred to me that it m'ght be excellent 
to raise for stock. I was at no small pains and cost to get some seed direct 
from France, known to be raised there from the genuine sugar beet. I sowed 
a pound on a well prepared field, which grew most luxuriantly, but was 
greatly disappointed on pulling them to find moat of the tops had fallen oft*, 
and that full two-thirds of the solid part was ahove (/round — some were knee- 
high! This part of course was tough, woody, and had little juice. Had I 
then known enough to have pulled them while growing, leaves and roots 
together, it would have furnished first rate feed for my cows. As it was, the 
crop paid well, though minus the leaves. I have since produced a very dif- 
ferent aniole, by selectinir, at disx<ii"2f time, those havinjj the longest root 
below and the least above ground, and now I get a heavy crop, nearly all 



GROWING OF WHEAT. 537 

tender aod juicy. This induced rae to attempt improvement in other crops. 
My next experiment was made with English turnips. I found imported seed, 
especially fur tbe garden, early turnips and radishes, far preferable to our 
own. The growth was more vigorous, plants tender, sweet, and free from 
worms. My object was to transform those large tops, standing in a basin, to 
a different proportion. For this I selected and. set out for seed those turnips 
having the smallest tops aod roots, growing on convex instead of concave 
extremes. The third year I found, in pulling, one that in shape resembled 
two tea-saucers put together — having a top covering a space less than a 
cent, and a single root the siz^ of a pipe-stem more than a foot long, which 
I preserved with extreme camion, and raised from it nearly an ounce of seed, 
which I sowed in my potato-field, then sadly affected by the rot. The tops 
mostly died, and the ground being in good order, the turnips grew admirably, 
and I pulled seventy-fiv^e bushels 1 — quite uniform in size, few of them less 
than the admirable specimen, and, to my inexpressible gratification, with 
only the one small root and top, — in shape and flavor all I could wish. 

You may be assure 1 I set out a good share for seed, besides giving some 
to my neighbors to eat and to set out. It is to be regretted that so few are 
convinced of the importance of taking pains to raise or to procure the seed 
of improved plants. I have since changed the early June beet from the flat 
turnip shape to that of the Svveed turnip, yielding now one-third more weight 
of root, and being improved in its keeping properties. And lately I have 
much improved the Orange and white lielgian carrots, by selecting for seed 
only the longest, and such as have long roots of uniform size, (instead of 
short and tapering roots ) I now get handsome and heavy crops. 

Lancaster, Ms,, Jan. 20, 1856. Yours truly, 

Benjamin Willard. 



rOK TBS PLOUOH, THE I.03M, AND TUE ANVIL. 

ON THE GROWING OF WHEAT. 

The present high prices of flour give to the subject of wheat-growing 
peculiar importance. New-England farmers are beginning to inquire 
whether it is possible for them to produce their own wheat. 

When the land was new, very little grain of any kind was imported. The 
consumption was comparatively small. But little was used fur manufactur- 
ing purposes. The non-producing class was small, consequently the supply 
was fully equal to the demand. 

But the condition of things is greatly changed. Manufacturing villages 
have sprung up as if by magic. The old cities have doubled, seven quad- 
rupled, their population within a quarter of a century, and a host of new 
cities are following hard after them. The town has made rapid advances in 
wealth and population, while the country has remained almost stationary. 
While the producers remain about the s^ame, the consumers have been 
rapidly multiplying. Consequently the demand now greatly exceeds the 
supply, and the disparity is every year becoming greater. 

The manufacturing and commercial interests of New England are fast get- 
ting ahead of her agriculture. No portion of the States has done more for 
improvement in agriculture than New-Eagland ; and no State in New-Eng- 



538 GROWING OF WHEAT. 



land more than Massachusetts. Yet Massachusetts does but little towards 
supplying the wants of her own citizens. The same is true of Connecticut 
and Rbode Island. The three nortLern States produce perhaps enough for 
their own consumption, or what is equivalent to it. Yet there are few fam- 
ilies who do not depend upon the West or Canada for flour, and all the 
cities and large towns are indebted to Obio or Maryland for corn. 

Not only flaur, but corn, rye, beef, pork and mutton, and butter and cheese, 
are now brought in great quantities from the West, Even in the Connecticut 
Valley, formerly regarded as the Egvptof New-England, where the sons of 
Jacob from the hill countries might always find grain, corn is now imported 
for consumption by the farmers themselves. New-Hampshire is emphati- 
cally a grazing State. Her granite hills furnish but few arable acres. For- 
merly she did much towards supplying Bjston market with meats and but- 
ter and cheese. Now most of her stores are supplied, not only with west- 
ern flour, but with Ohio pork and New- York butler and cheese. 

There is certainly no cause of alarm in the fact that New-England is turn- 
ing her attention to manufactures, nor that she procures the necessaries of 
life from her neighbors ; provided she is able to pay for them. And if the 
farmers find it for their interest to buy their grain and devote their grounds 
to other crops, who is harmed thereby ? 

As a general rule, however, it is bstter that the farmer should produce 
what he needs for home consumption. I doubt not it would be better for 
the cotton planter to grow bread and meat enough for his own use, rather 
than devote all his grounds to cotton, and procure these necessaries from 
abroad. And for the New-England farmer it would be far better to produce 
as far as pos",ible, the necessaries of life. He may obtain more money from 
tobacco, hops, or broom-corn, than from bread stuffs, but taking all things 
into the account, will he be better oS"? 

For what he procures from abroad, he must pay not only the cost of pro- 
ducing, but a profit to the producer, and the expense of transportation, and 
contribute to the support of a whole troop of commission merchants. Nor 
is this all. The land is drained by this exchange process. 

Tobacco and hops yield nothing to repay the soil; broom-<corn but little. 
It should be a rule with the cultivator to supply the soil each year with a 
as much nutritive matter, or pabulum, as he in the form of crop, takes' from 
it; or, if not every year, every circle of rotation in crop. 

But to the question, can wheat be grown advantageously in New-England ? 
I aBswer, yes. That there are obstacles cannot be denied. So of all crops. 
In virtue of the curse pronounced upon the earth, briars and thistles and 
weeds spring up in the path of the cultivator. By the sweat of his brow 
he is to procure his bread. There are diflSculties in procuring the necessa- 
ries of life in all their forms and in all climates. Ttie name of the enemies 
with which we have to contend is legion. In addition to those named to 
the first tiller of the soil, is the fickleness of the climate, want of adapted- 
ness in the soil, and the myriads of insect tribes, which seem to constitute 
supernumerary curse, not known or dreamed of by those the cultivators of 
olden times. 

In the best wheat-growing countries, difficulties are met with and over- 
come. So they may be here. 

I know a farmer, living on the banks of the Connecticut, who has raised 
wheat successfully for more than twenty years in succession, with an average 
yield of twenty bushels per acre. He thinks there is no insurmountable 



GROWING OF WHEAT. 



539 



difficulty in raising wheat; that with proper precautions it is as sure as any 
crop he raises, and pays as well. 

What one man has done, others can do. I believe that every farmer in 
New-England who has sufficient tillage land, may produce his own wheat, 
and that it would be for his interest to do so. 

la my experiments in wheat growing, I have succeded best, seeding after 
clover. Let the second crop, or after-math, be turned under, ploughing deep 
and laying the furrow flat, early in August. The first or second week in 
September, harrow thoroughly, reducing the surface to a fine tilth, and sow 
from one and a half to two bushels to the acre. Great care should be used 
in the selection of seed, to get the best variety and that which is entirely 
clean. The seed should be soaked in strong brine from twelve to twenty- 
four hours, and then it is well to roll it in gypsum. After sowing, the land 
should be harrowed again most thoroughly with a heavy drag, that the seed 
may be buried deep. Some insist that it should be sown in drills and covered 
with a plough. It may be well, but I have found no difficulty in covering 
with a harrow. Lime is indispensable to a healthy development of this 
plant. Therefore, if not found in the soil, it must be supplied. I think it 
well to apply a dressing of lime and ashes in about equal quantities, say ten 
bushels of the mixture to the acre. After another light harrowing, let the 
roller pass over it, and then leave it till spring. 

As soon as the ground is sufficiently dry in spring, let it be again 
thoroughly harrowed. This spring harrowing I consider very beneficial to 
all winter grains. The surface of the ground becomes hardened by the 
rains and snows of autumn and winter to such a degree that the tender 
fibres of the roots with difficulty make their way in pursuit of nutriment. 

No cultivator thinks of leaving his Indian corn without assistance. The 
ground is disturbed and made light about the plants a number of times 
during the season. The wheat plant is no less tender, and needs no less the 
fostering care of the cultivator. 

There is no danger of injury by this process. Like the boy who had re- 
ceived a severe flagellation, the young plants seem to be "refreshed." 
Furthermore, many of the roots are divided, and thus the number ]s multi- 
plied and more equally distributed. 

Wheat may also be sown advantageously after corn, being careful to get 
it in early in October. 

In the noithern portion of New-England, farmers are now mostly in the 
practice of sowing wheat in the spring. The reason assigned is, that fall 
sown wheat is liable to winterkill. 

In November last I was in Wolfboro, N. H., which by the way is a beau- 
tiful village on the eastern shore of Lake Winnepisseogee, one of the most 
charmingly lovely sheets of water the eye of man ever rested upon, where I 
learned among other things, the following facts, which may interest your 
wheat-growing readers. 

A. S. Avery, Esq., of Wolfboro, sowed a piece of ground with wheat on 
the 16th of June last. On the 16th of October he harvested it. Amount 
of seed per acre, one and a half bushels. Variety, Fife, (Russian.) Yield 
per acre, twenty-six bushel clean wheat, and about six bushels impure. The 
ground had been recently broken up from grass. Mr. Avery thinks this 
variety the best ; has sown it four years ; not afiected by rust, mildew, smut 
blight, weavil, or any such thing. R. B. H. 



540 POOR FARMERS. 



POOR FARMERS.— HOW TO IMPROVE. 

There are certain points in reference to wbicli a fHrraer who is obliged to 
mourn over his poverty and his unnll crops ought to inquire, and inquire 
earnestly, for liimself and for his family. 

The lirst is, is it an ohjtct to ra'se good crops ? This is the very first thing 
to be settled. Nor is it one which can be properly overlooked, even for a 
single season. The question is not, in fact, settled by one quarter of the 
farmers of this country. They know that good crops are good things ; that 
large crops make heavy purser, after they have been gathered and sold ; but 
they are equally conscious that it costs more money to cultivate land than to 
let it yield spontaneous crops. They know that much hard labor is required 
on many farm*; and these and similar thoughts, like idle fancies, run through 
the brain, and lead to most indefinite and unproductive conclusions. These 
men are very far from beinjr convinced that it is desirable/or them to raise 
valuable crops. They would not hesitate, if the question submitted had 
reference to the harvesting of crops already grown. There is something so 
satisfactory, so perfectly delightful in standing on the borders of a field bur- 
dened with a rich harvest, waiting to be gathered in ; there is so much plea- 
sure in the consciousness of entire success in conducting the various pro- 
cesses that must be sought fur with toil and patience for months, that even 
the seven sleepers would rouse themselves long enough to take possession of 
such a prize. But this is not the inquiry we have propounded, 

AVe would ask such a farmer, addressing him individually, is the convic- 
tion clear in your own mind that it is important far you to raise large crops? 
There is more involved in this than appears on the surface. 

Let us present the inquiry, not, asjust intimated, while the"' golden 
crops are spread out at our feet, waiting only to be gathered by the hus- 
bandman, bat as he sits arotmd his family hearthstone, and the cold winds 
are heard without — or when, in the early spring, the coming seed-time re- 
minds us of the conditions that must be fulfilled ere barns and granaries 
shall be filled with food for man and beast — in such circumstances do you 
wish, earnestly, for such harve-ts? His anything more than vague dreams 
run through your brain in regard to this subject, without especial considera- 
tion, or earnest thought, or careful calculation ? Have not the labor and the 
cost overshadowed the rich products ? What is, in your case, the actual cause 
of your want of success? Give us, or rather give yourself, we would say to 
such persons, an honest confession, the decision of your own candid judg- 
ment. Are you persuaded even that you are now in a condition from which 
it is desirable that you should escape ? That it now is, actually and truly, 
an ol ject of great importance that you should become, in all respects, a suc- 
cessful farmer ? 

If we are not mistaken, there is no such clear.' definite, fixed conviction in 
the minds of a large portiim of our farming population as is required. They 
pass on in the current, at limes discontended, sometimes anxious and per- 
haps somewhat envious, but seldom in a state of earnest and rational in- 
quiry as to modes and means for essentially improving their own condition. 

It is indi^^pensable, in all such cases, to produce a deep and permanent 
conviction of the importance of the end to be gained. And how can this 
be done? Can these dry b.-nes live? 

The power to move these minds must come from within. No external 



POOR FARMERS. 541 



sgpncy is sufficient for this. Bun there is a process, not now sugg;ested for 
the first time, but one which we have never drawn out at length, in which 
we have great confidence as a means of essentially improving the condition 
of the agricultural interest through the country. Let us illustrate by a 
story : 

• We were once a teacher in a select school, "wilh some forty boys before us. 
Our predecessor, a most excellent man and most successful teacher, we looked 
up to him as we stood in his sliadow, carefully described to us the weak- 
n-!sses and faults of those whom he supposed would give us the most trouble. 
One of these we will call John. He had been an idle boy. He was lazy, 
indoors and out. He was thought stupid, and he certainly was a pooi' 
scholar, and "had worn out several pair of shops," as the boys had it, in go- 
ing to his teacher's study to learn the lessons he had previously neglected. 
We, of course, anticipated similar trials with him. But we took especial 
pains to "get the right side" of John. We treated him very kindly, and 
showed a disposition to help him whenever he met with any difficulty. He 
took hold at once and in earnest. He was in good classes, but the first day 
of our connection he came up with " perfect" in his lessons and liis record of 
deportment. We were delighted. So was John. He went home happy. 
He had conquered his indolence. The victory was easier on the day follow- 
ing. The third and the fourth and fifth day did not find him careless. On 
Saturday he had secured the head of his class for the following ■^^ee'i. He 
had triumphed indeed. The Saturday following was the same, and for weeks 
he did not miss in a lesson, nor get any marks for bad deportment. He had 
tasted the pleasure of success, and it was not to be thrown away for the 
vapid ness and vexation of indolence. 

In order to call forth the energies of a man, he must by some means be 
led to experience the diff"erence between failure and success. Multitudes 
know the bitterness of the former, but they seem practically to assume that 
success, at least in this case, is impossible, or that it would not pay. They 
over-estimate the magnitude of obstacles and very much under-rate the ben- 
efits of success. To a considerable extent the obstacles that are conjured 
up are mere fictions, while the process and the result to which he cornea, 
seera to him, at least, plausible. 

A boy is shown a large snck of corn, and is directed to take that corn to a 
given place. He tug* at it a moment, and cannot move it, and therefore sits 
down and cries about it. He fails to do his task and gets punished. It never 
occurred to that boy that he might divide the quantity, carrying only a small 
part at a time, and by thus dividing the burden, accoraplish the task. So 
our farmers, supposing that it would cost more by a hundred dollars a year 
to cultivate their small farm properly than they expend, and know that they 
cannot raise a quarter part of this, they suff"er the whole thing to pass by. 
The hundred dollars cost seems indefinitely large, while the view of the ben- 
efits to be gained is very confused, and their value is considered so uncertain 
and indefinite that no real permanent desire is excited to obtain them. 

Were we an agricultural missionary, going round among ihe unsuccess- 
ful of the craft, we would induce such to begin by trying improved processes 
in a sing'e lot, and we would sel-ct one that bore but Hale, and was yet 
capable, without excessive labor or cost, of bearing much. Let the farmer 
see his plan successful; let him see that a diS^rent system of cultivaiinn has 
actually paid its way ; and, we believe, in nine cases out of ten, like our 
John, he would go on, and extend his improved plans till they covered his 
entire farm. Ttiere is nothing like actually tasting of the fruits of success, 



542 POOK FARMERS. 



in any pursuit. Even the pain of broken bones or wounded limbs is stilled by 
the shout of victory, as the conqueror returns in triumph after a furious 
battle. So toil, constant, and severe, and protracted, is all forgotten while 
the rich harvests smile from stored garners, and the signs of coming winter 
call up no fears of want or suffering. We say therefore to such. Try this 
small lot. Make an experiment that will not cost too much, and learn how 
well it pays. 

" But how shall we try? Our pockets are empty ; our heaps of manure, 
they are not to be found ; and we are already burdened with debt." Well, 
this is a hard case ; but the snow is just going off, and though it is quite too 
late for the best preparation for the coming season, we can do something. 
Let us see. 

There are certain fertilizers which are at the command of all, and which 
pay well for the labor they ordinarily demand. Among these are clay, 
sand, ashes, broken straw, tops of vegetables, perhaps sea-weed, black swamp 
mud, shells of some kind, bone", marl, charcoal dust, sawdust, soot from the 
chimney, rags, decayed vegetables, and, above all, the contents of your privy. 
For another season this list can be much extended, including dead animals, 
hair, bits of leather, hides, horns, t-xn, decayed wood, leaves, weeds, etc. 
Besides these, you can probably afford to purchase a small quantity of lime, 
plaster, guano or poudrette, as circumstances may determine. Suppose you 
thus expend only five dollars, being first assured that you purchase that which 
is best suited to the condition of your land and to the crop. The materials 
are at hand, and now let us proceed to apply them. 

With the opening of the ground, cover your sandy soil with a coating of 
clay, or your clayey land with sand. A well-made compost of these mate- 
rials would be much better, but this is all we can do for this season. Your 
ashes and lime you can use with the clay on your sandy soil, or use it by it- 
self, if more desirable. This will depend on the quantity at your disposal. 
With your lime, or elsewhere, you can plough in your broken straw, or your 
sawdust, rags, marl and shells. Your vegetable matter, swamp mud and 
charcoal dust, (and sawdust if you please,) and soot, you can plough under, 
all mingled together. Or better still, if you will take your swamp mud, 
charcoal, sawdust, ashes, and lime, and mix them with a much larger quan- 
tity of sods, and the contents" of your privy, and leave them to act upon 
each other for a few weeks, and then cover them with a shallow farrow, at a 
second ploughing you will reap the benefit of your labor. Or your marl, 
and shells, aad lime — the whole being reduced to a powder as much as pos- 
sible — may be applied by themselves, while the other matters are used else- 
where. Charcoal dust is good everywhere and with almost everything. 
Soot is best as a top-dressing. Shell marls are good on all soils ; clayey 
marl is best on sandy or gravelly soil. The green marls of New-Jersey are 
suited to sandy soils, being rich in potash, and are efficient either in large or 
small quantities, from 20 loads to 20 bushels per acre. 

For another season, these vegetable matters with weeds, etc., should be 
mixed with many times their quantity of sods, and with your manure from 
barn-yard and hog-pen and privy, in a compost, under cover, if possible, and 
allowed to remain all winter. 

It will be more satisfactory to apply the fertilizers you have purchased by 
themselves, so that their effects can be well understood, and you will probably 
find that you can manufacture as good a preparation as Mexico or Peru can 
furnish, and at a much cheaper rate. 

But you must be thorough in your treatment of the small parcel of land 



THE BASPBERRY. 5-43 



that you would improve. Leave nothing half done. Manure abundantly, 
plough and hoe wisely, and take good care of the crop. If need be, leave a 
part of your land entirely untouched. Next year it may pay for the res t 
which you give it. 

Try this. Try it on a single lot — nay on a few rods only ; and if you 
ever regret it, be good enough to describe the condition of your land, and 
the labor and applications, on the result of which you have been disappointed, 
and forward to us for publication. 

We are thoroughly persuaded that our agricultural societies might do v^y 
much fur the agriculture of the country by loaning money for such uses. It 
might be amply secured by a lien on the crops, or otherwise, and many 
farmer?, who are now a reproach to the craft, would become earnest and suc- 
cessful examples and advocates of reform. 



THE RASPBERRY. 

The following remarks by a writer in the Horticulturist for the past 
month, will be useful to our readers : 

From a given amount of money, the raspberry will, I think, return a 
larger amount of enjoyment and profit than any other fruit — the grape not 
even excepted — raspberries may be grown in almost evt-ry variety of fertile 
soil wiih nearly equal productiveness, but with greatly varied luxuriance, 
two constant requisites being maintained — depth and richness of soil. 

In manuring for the raspberry, a deep alluvial soil, rich in vegetable 
mould, will require a light dressing of well-rotted stable manure, with a 
top dressing of ashes immediately after planting, employing: from ten to 
thirty bushels to the acre. For a light sand or loam, a liberal dressing of 
compost will be necessary ; to four loads of vegetable muck, add one load of 
rich barnyard manure, and from four to eight bushels of unleached ashes; 
and if lime is cheap, it may be advantageously used to twice the amount of 
the ashes, together with salt lye, which is the best addition to the compost 
that can be used for this fruit. Mulch the roots well, to keep the ground 
free from weeds ; but the grand point to be insisted on is depth of culture, 
which leaves a constant supply of moisture, obviates the danger of too much 
wet, .^nd gives scope for the ever-active roots to hold their revels, which they 
manifest in a profusion of fruit. 

For the growing of good fruit it is not necessary ihB.i the canes should be 
supported, though it is advantageous, and also convenient in picking. The 
mo:^t obvious method is to support the canes of each hill with a stake; but 
a more efiective and convenient way would be to stretch a wire along the 
rows, supported by a firmly braced post at each end, and at intervals of about 
thirty feet drive stakes into the ground to support the wire at an elevation of 
about three feet, or four feet for the most vigorous growers ; spun yarn will 
answer. 

The rows should be four feet apart. North of the latitude of Philadel- 
phia (and there also) lay down and cover the canes in winter. When the 
bearing season is at an end, the old canes should be cut out, and the shoots 
that have sprung up for next year's bearing should be thinned to the proper 



544 THE RASPBERRY. 



number, varying according to the strength from three to five; remembering 
that the crop is made or marred the year previous to its production. In 
choosing phints, the root, and ripeness and solidity of wood, not Jenyth of 
canes, should govern the choice ; large cane?, with small roots, are undesi- 
rable. 

My first choice as a market fruit is the Hudson River (True Red) Ant- 
werp, for its size, exceeding productiveness, and its fiimnesp, which enables 
it to bear transportation. The current year one thousand dollars net were 
realized here from one acre of this variety. For field culture it deserves its 
celebrity, but for the garden it is much excelled by the seedlings of Dr. 
Brinkle. Fastolf is nearly equal in productiveness, but a much mure vigor- 
ous grower, and somewhat more hardy. Its rich berries almost burst with 
their fine juice, and do not bear carriage wt;ll. 

Franconia is a vigorous grower, and rather more hardy than either of the 
above, with larg<?, dark-colored fruit, bearing carriage nearly as well as the 
Antwerp ; it is a late bearer, of high flavor, and especially excellent for 
cooking. 

Kuevett's Giant is truly gigantic, excellent for the dessert, and for preserv- 
ing. Rivera' new large-fruited Monthly had been a disappointment till I 
determined to thin out offsets, and let no more grow than were required for 
fruiting, and that had the desired effect ; and it has proved the most pro- 
ductive that I have cultivated, more than twofold of the Red Antwerp. 

The Yellow Antwerp is a very good variety, but its berries are so much 
.softer than Hudson River, that it is not grown for market. As Elliot re- 
marks in his Fruit Growers Guide, "it will soon give place to Brinckle's 
Orange and Colonel W)Ider, which are far better varieties." 

Ohio Ever-bearing, by those who like the black-cap variety, will be greatly 
prized, bearing as it does profuse clutters. Catawissa has much the habit of 
ihe last, but the fruit hitherto has not been comparable to it in flavor. 

Col. Wilder is a white berry, of biisk, rich flavor — productive, excellent 
and hardy. Brinckle's Orange is among raspberries what Newtown Pipj.in 
is among apples. In conversation lately with Mr. Charles Downing, who is 
eminently conservative, he remarked : " This is by far the best raspberry in 
cultivation." It should have been called Opal instead of Orange, its trans- 
lucence suggesting the brilliant play of light of that gem, and its beauty is 
equalled by its excellence ; it is very vigorous, hardy, and productive ; con- 
tinues long in bearing ; most excellent m every respect for field and garden. 



The SuGAn Crop. — At a convention of those interested in the sugar 
trade, held in New-Orleans in Jauuary last, tbe Hon J. Moore, President of 
the meeting, stated the sugar crop of 1854-55 as follows: 34G,G34 hogs- 
heads (if sugar, worth $40 per hogshead, and 577,840 barrels of molasses, 
worth $7 20 per barrel. The value of the sugar was estimated at $14,000,000, 
and of the molasses $8,000,000, The convention adopted resolutions in 
favor of some other place in Louisiana than New-Orleans as a sugar 
fuarket. 



CHINESE POTATO. 



545 



CHINESE OR JAPAN POTATO. 




DIOSCOREA BATATAS. 

This new esculent is attracting considerable attention, from our jour- 
nalists at least, and the present condition of the potato gives especial im- 
portance to any substitute that is offered. The following: description of it 
is taken from a pamphlet published by Messrs. Wm. R. Prince <fe Co., 
Flushing, who have the tubers for sale. 

This most important esculent was first introduced to Europe in 1850, it 
35 



546 



CHINESE POTATO. 



having been sent to France by M. de Montigny, French Consul at Shang- 
hai, in Northern China, who transmitted a few roots tosonoe learned men. It 
did not however attract their special attention to its great value and immense 
importance, until the year 1853, when some highly intelligent botanists 
recognized the great advantages to be derived from its extensive culture, and 
devoted themselves to its increase, and to the development of its merits. 
'■ ^Finding this root to be superior in its farinaceous properties to either of 
the cultivated species of potato, and that it was in no case subject to decay, 
whether in the ground or out of it, and was also of so hardy a character, as 
to withstand the severest winters uninjured, they have now come to the con- 
clusion, in common with English botanists who have made similar experi- 
ments, that the Discorea Batatas is destined to supersede the precarious and 
UDcertain culture of the ordinary Potato, so liable to rot and other diseases ; 
and that the grand desideratum, a substitute in itself more valuable than the 
ordinary Potato, has at length been found. So strongly confirmed is this 
opinion in Europe, that we find it supported by all their leading Agricultural 
and Horticultural publications, and even by the ^'Mark Lane ExpreiS,'^ the 
principal representative and expositor of the agriculiuiists of Great Britain. 

Roots of this plant have been produced in Middle and Northern France,, 
weighing two to two and a half pounds, from tubers planted in April and 
dug in October. 

One great point of superiority possessed by it, is that the roots may re- 
main in the ground two or three years, always enlarging in size, and equally 
nutricious and excellent in flavor. Experiments have proved that when the 
roots are left for eighteen months in the ground, the yield is more than treble 
that of roots left but for one summer, and it is also considered that they are 
improved in quality. ...... 

One very peculiar character of this plant is, that its roots run perpendicu- 
larly into the earth, thereby greatly enlarging its capacity to produce the 
greatest possible crops from a given space of ground. It has been calculated 
in the French publications from the experiments there made, that an acre 
will, in six months, produce 36,000 pounds, and in eighteen months, 120,000 
pounds. 

It possesses another great advantage : — the roots when placed in a cellar 
remain firm and perfect, as well as free from sprouts, and ihey can be kept 
out of the ground a year, without injury or deterioration of their alimentary 
qualities, and this property renders them invaluable for use in long sea 
voyages, and especially as a preventive of scurvy. 

The following will serve as a brief description : 

Leaves opposite, triangular-cordate, deep green ; Flowers, dioecious, com- 
posed of six petals, pale yellow, in clusters springing from the axils of the 
leaves. The male plant only has been introduced to Europe and America. 
Root fifteen to twenty-five inches long, and two inches in diameter, tapering 
to the head ; the outward appearance similar to the white variety of the 
sweet potato ; skin thin, readily pealing ofl" when cooked ; flesh snow white, 
delicately farinacious, with a slight Almond flavor, exceedingly grateful when 
used in the same manner as the ordinary potato, and deemed both richer in 
nutrition and superior in quality. It can be cooked by water or steam, or 
roasted, and in appearance and taste is like the finest meally varieties of 
the common potato. It requires but ten minutes boiling, whereas the com- 
mon potato requires twenty minutes. 

This root possesses another great advantage : it produces a fine, pure white 
flower, which will compare advantageously with the wheat flour of any 
country, and is equal if not superior in nutriment. 



CHINESE POTATO. 64:7 



PERIOD OF PLANTING AND PROPAGATION. 

As the Dioscorea is perfectly hardy, the tubers, as hereafter described, or 
small sections or eyes of the root (the same as potato sets) may be planted 
at the fii-st opening of spring at a depth of about three inches ; but dur- 
ing the present scarcity of this root, the course has been adopted of plant- 
ing the sets closely in an ordinary hot-bed frame to start their growth, and 
afterward planting them in rows in the garden or field. The same culture 
as pursued everywhere with the common potato will serve successfully for 
the Chinese one. 

The propagation of tubers for the extension of stock is also very simple. 
Like the sweet potato, the Dioscorea is a trailing vine. In six weeks from 
the time of planting the pieces of root, they will have formed shoots five to 
six feet in length. These shoots may be buried for two-thirds their length 
in slight furrows, one inch deep, allowing the leaves alone to be out of the 
earth, and the extremity of the shoots entirely so. Another mode is to take 
off two-thirds of each shoot and cut it into sections, each having a leaf with 
a small portion of the stem, {D. plate) and planting these in a bed, cover- 
ing all but the leaf. In either case they will make roots after the first 
rain, or if watered, and in twenty or thirty days each will form a bulb or 
tuber at the joint near the leaf or at its axil. These must be carefully pre- 
served when taken up in the fall, and will serve for spring planting the ensu- 
ing season ; the tubers being as valuable and productive as sections of the 
roots. Tubers the size of a large pea, planted in the spring, form beautiful 
regular roots fifteen to twenty inches long by autumn, as has been fully proven 
here the past season, in confirmation of the European statement. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

A. — General representation of the root formed from a tuber in one sea- 
son, one-fourth the natural size linearly, or one-sixteenth the size super- 
ficially. 

B. — Section of root. 

C. — Seed tuber formed by covering the vine. 

D. — Seed tuber formed from a section of the shoot. 

The foregoing is sufficient to show the claims which are made for it. 
Whether its flavor and its ability of production, etc., will bring it into gen- 
eral use remains to be tested. We have never tasted, nor even seen a speci- 
men of it. If one is sent to us we will pass our judgment on it. If it 
produces as freely and keeps so long as it is here described to do, large 
quantities might be imported from China or Japan, at an immense profit, ere 
it is common through the country. A dollar a root for a potato ought to 
command a very fine article. 



Distemper in Dogs. — We are a great friend to dogs, if they have suflB- 
cient moral character to let the sheep alone ; but when they meddle with 
mutton, our advice is a pill of cold lead or a salutary portion of strychnine. 
With distemper in young dogs we have had some unlucky experience. The 
disease is apt to come on when the animal is laying off his puppyhood, 
and he will droop and pine away, and lose the use of his hind legs, and 
finally go off into convulsions. We lost a beautiful pet spaniel in that way 



648 



SEED SOWER. 



a few years ago, that we brought all ihe way from MassilloD, wrapped in a 
pocket handkt^rchief-— a present from our friend Cahill. We believe the 
best medicine for this distenaper is the homoeopathic arsenic pills, or if these 
are not at hand, take arsenic from the druggistp, say six grain?, to be divided 
in three doses ; give one grain first in the morning, then two grains the 
next raoroincr, and last three grains the third day. Give it on a small piece 
of meat. — Ohio Cultivator. 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THE IX)OM AND THB ANVIL. 

NEW AND VALUABLE SEED-SOWER. 




M. P. Paeish, Esq.: 



BosTOK, Feb. 8, 185G. 



Dear Sir : — Knowing that a good share of your journal is usually de- 
voted to the interests of agriculture, and knowing also that you make it a 
point to pick up all information which will be of general interest to the 
farmer, I would undertake to describe to you a simple invention of an 
ingenious mechanic of this city, which invention, when brought into general 
use, will woik labor-saving wonders in the line for which it was invented. 
The machinery referred to is a seed-sower, worked broadcast or in drills, and 
being without valve or geer requires no skill whatever to operate it. It con- 
sists of a hopper of any size you choose, at the lower extremity of which is 
a longitudinal opening, outside of which lies, in the same direction, a pair of 
elastic surfrtceJ rolls or regulators. These regulatojs have their surfaces so 
near to each other as to prevent the escape of seeds between ihcm. On one 
of the ends of the lower roll is fastened a cone^ around which runs a belt, 



SEED SOWER, 649 



passing round a similar cone on the inside end of the hub of one of the 
■wheels. This cone is so made as to allow of sundry changes of speed ia 
order to seed light, medium, or heavy. The seed as it lies in the hopper 
presents itself directly to the opening between the rolls, and giving 
the rolls the slightest motion outward, you draw a mouthful between 
them the entire length of the rolls, no one kernel of seed riding 
another. Turn again slightly in the same direction and the first mouthful 
is discharged into a distritiutor, and other seeds fill the entire opening 
as before, and so on until the hopper is exhausted. The distributor into 
which the seed falls as it comes from the regulators is no more nor less than 
a seed board with a series of radiating tubes, down which the seed courses 
until it reaches a point some two inches from the lower edge, where the tubes 
cease, and the seed is allowed to again mingle and fall over the edge of the 
distributor in one continuous sheet in immediate vicinity of the ground, if 
the farmer is sowing in windy weather. If not windy, the distributor, being 
hinged, can be raised to any givt-n height found practicable. 

The all-important principle involved in this simple machine is this: The 
discovery of the successfid method of taking all kinds of seeds from a hop- 
per with flexible rollers without injuring the seed, and doing it without the 
aid of valves, geers, or any other objectionable motion or appliance formerly 
used. The principle of these flexible rollers can be carried to any extent, so 
as to sow two rods wide if necessary, and so certain is the movement of 
them that the farmer can lay his seed upon the ground with mathematical 
accuracy and in quantity to the acre his soil may require. As a machine for 
sowing broadcast or in drill?, I think it has no rival, for I find upon examina- 
tion that a man with a hand machine can sow 15 acres daily, and do it in a 
manner impossible to accomplish by hand. With the use of a horse — a boy 
diivinof — thirty to forty acres is a day's work, and with two horses, sowing 
with a machine distributing twenty five to thirty feet wide, sixty to a hundred 
acres can be covered every ten hours ! A farmer can make his own calcula- 
tions upon this matter, if the idea of putting down seventy-five acres per 
day seems fabulous. He wiil find that his horses walking at the rate of 
three miles per hour, sowing twenty-five feet wide, will cover but a fraction 
short of ninety acres in ten liours ! Every farmer of however limited means 
can afford to have a machine either for hand or horse power, for by the use 
of it he can ordinarily save the price of it in labor in one year. There is no 
kind of grain whatever but what it will sow with accurate rapidity, from 
corn or cotton seed down to clover and herds grass, also all kinds of dry 
fertilizers to wit: Guano, lime, plaster, bone-dust and ashes, dusting the 
ground merely, or laying it on wiih a perfect coating if desired. The same 
machine is so constructed as to sow any width you choose, from one foot to 
the full capacity ot the machine, enabling the farmer to finish out a narrow 
strip of land in case necessity requires. 

For drill solving the drills are so constructed as to admit of changing the 
lines of drilling from widn to narrow as the operator chooses, depositirig the 
seed at any desired depth and covering at the same time. Tbe same width 
of land c^n be diilled at one and the same time, that can be sown broadcast, 
there being only the necessity of a change of seed-board. Any quantity of 
grain can be carried in the machine, and when the boy discovers that his 
hopper is nearly exhausted, all he has to do is to cut the string of one of the 
bags carried under his feet and turn the grain into the hopper as the machine 
moves on. 

I believe that this simple piece of agricultural machinery is destined to 



550 GRAIN DRILLS. 



take an importaat position in our grain-growing West, and save a vast 
amount of labor now for the want of it uselessly expended. I have entirely, 
unsolicited by the inventor, imperfectly described the same, and have to hope 
that ere long farmers may have the comfort and convenience of seeing this 
as well as all other labor-saving machinery in their line, relieving the drudgery 
necessary to their occupation. Respectfully, 

W. S. S. 
The cost of these machines is as follows : Those sowing from 3 to 5 feet 
wide, $7 a foot ; from 8 to 10 feet wide, $6 50 per foot; from 15 to 20 feet 
wide, $5 per foot. 



POR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM AND THE AHVIL. 

BROAD-CAST AND TOOTH GRAIN DRILLS. 

Mr. Editor : — From private letters received from Mr. Wm. S. Sampson, 
of Boston, we are led to make some remarks upon Grain Drills. We believe 
them to be useful implements, but have always expressed ourself in favor of 
the " Tooth Drill," prefering it to the " Broad-cast," for the plain reason 
that we are not acquainted with the latter instrument. Mr. Sampson asks 
us to explain why a " Tooth Drill" will produce more grain to the acre than 
the " Broadcast" implement. We give this reason in answer to his inquiry : 
It has been found impossible, it would seem from the experience of others 
upon the subject, to make a " Broad-cast Drill" so that it can be made to 
cover grain at a desired depth. In other words, some of the grain is not 
put into the ground deep enough, while on the other hand some of it, it 
would seem, is put in too deep. An experiment, tried by a Mr. Bowman of 
this country, showed that when wheat or other grain was deposited at the 
depth of four inches beneath the surface of the soil it would not grow, but 
would decay. The same grain, if it had been put two inches below the sur- 
face, would, as proven by his experiments, have taken root and grown. 
Sometimes we have noticed that grain even on the top of the ground has 
grown, but the straw was of weak organization. Mr. Bowman's experiments 
proved that grain should be put into the ground generally about one inch 
and a half'in depth. In sowing or putting in grain a man must usually be 
governed by the condition of the soil. If dry, sow or drill in deeper than 
if the soil were wet. 

Now the question is, " Can a ' Broad-cast Drill' be made so that it will 
sow grain an equal depth ?" Mr. Sampson says there is a " Broad-cast Drill" 
manufactured in Boston, which is very simple in its mechanical construction, 
that will sow at from thirty-five to one hundred acres per day. We send his 
letter herewith for your perusal, and for publication in connection with this 
article. 

We cannot say whether a tooth drill would produce more grain per acre 
than one made like the Boston broad-cast instrument. We always have 
used the tooth drill, and have been successful in its use. Numerous reasons 
can be assigned for using the tooth drill, and we do not know but that equally 
as many reasons could be given in favor of the Boston broad-cast drill. The 
advantages of a tooth grain drill are these : — First, It drills in the grain any 



COAL-BURNING BOILERS. 551 

desired deptt ; Second, It puts it into rows, and between those rows the 
sun's rays are admitted ; Third, It serves as a harrow, and consequently is a 
substitute for it; Fourth, It causes grain to grow a uniform height, and con- 
sequently the grain heads are generally about the same size. The yield of 
grain, after taking into consideration all these things, must, of course, be 
much greater than if the same ground had been sown broad-cast by hand. 
At least we are of opinion that such is the fact. Though we are of opinion 
that the drill of -which Mr. Sampson speaks is a very valuable implement, 
and we wish he would favor the readers of your journal with an idea of the 
same. We believe in spreading agricultural information. If a broad-cast 
drill is better than a tooth drill let us hear of its merits through the press. 
Baldwisville, N.Y. Very respectfully, W. Tappan. 

[The following is the letter referred to by Mr. Tappan. — Ed.] 

Boston, Feb. 7, 1856. 
W. Tappan, Esq. : 

Dear Sir : — Your favor of the 31st ult. is safe at hand. I am obliged 
to you for the opinion therein expressed. I still, however, cannot see why 
drill sowing should be preferable to broad-cast, provided the latter is evenly 
done, for the reason that I supposed the ground being entirely covered would 
yield much better than when only partially covered. I am going upon the 
supposition of yield only, in the one case and in the other. Will you ex- 
plain ? 

It has always been presumed by me to be a desideratum with the farmer 
to have his soil well covered, and, when once done, the crop " did" the best, 
and the yield was the greatest. 

This " seed-sower" of which I spoke in my last is well calculated to scatter 
the seed uniformly, and cover the ground with a mathematical quantity as 
the farmer may in the outset choose, and do it so rapidly, that nothing appears 
to be left for the machine but complete success. I am so little acquainted 
with the modus operandi of practical farming that I am quite in the dark as 
to the farmer's necessities in the way of labor-saving machinery, but if al- 
lowed to surmise, should judge that the mechanic was fast coming to his 
relief. The inventor has already entered the field with the reaper, the mower 
and the raker, and now if I mistake not the sower is to be added to the 
list, not a mere hand machine, but a machine doing its work with wonderful 
accuracy, at a nominal cost, and seeding from thirty-five to one hundred acres 
daily ! These astonishing results are brought about by a piece of machinery, 
so simple in its construction, and so certain in its operation, that the wonder 
is that the method was not thought of before. Always awaiting your ad- 
vices with pleasure, I remain Your friend, Wm. S. Sampson. 

No. 2 Broad, corner State street. 



COAL-BURNING BOILERS. 

A BRIEF description of the various forms of coal burning boilers now in 
experimental and practical use, will be interesting. 

Boardman^s Boiler. — The fire-box is of the ordinary kind. The waist of 
the boiler is nearly of the same shape, in section, as a flat-bottomed smoker 
box — such as on the Taunton, Eogers or Norris engines. A shaped flue 



552 COAL-BURNING BOILERS. 



extends from the upper part of the firebox throughout the length of the 
boiler. In the flat boitorn sheet of this, tubes are set, extending down to 
the flit bottom of the boiler. Under this is a pan or bottom, serving as a 
flue for the smoke. This flue or pan continues for the whole length of the 
bottom and enters an ordinary smoke-box at the front end. It is seen that 
the fire goes through the tubes, while the water is around them, as in the 
ordinary boiler. 

Phleger's Boiler. — We are not quite sure but that Mr. Phleger's later 
improvements may have dispensed with some features contained in his 
boiler, as seen by us last winter. But presuming there has been no change, 
the following will answer : 

The water space around the fire-box extends also under the bottom. The 
grate is made of tubes filled with water, and opening into the water space 
of the fire-box. About two feet back of the tube sheet is a diaphragm or 
water bridge, rising from the water bottom, say three feet high. From the 
crown of the fire-box, and within perhaps 18 inches of the tube sheet, ano- 
ther diaphragm or water bridge also comes down about one foot — this bridge 
or water space being inclined toward the tube sheet so as to deflect the flame 
and sparks downward. Both water bridges, of course, go entirely across 
the width of the fire-box. They protect the tube sheet from the direct blaze 
from the coal, and prevent panicles of coal from being drawn through the 
tubes. It is proper to say that in front of the main water bridge, or between 
that and the tube sheet, there is no water bottom, but only a door through, 
wliich ashes and cinders can be removed. The fire-box is inclosed, however, 
practically air-tight, and the draught supplied by a fan, worked by the ex- 
haust steam. The barrel and tubes of the boiler are the same as in any 
ordinary locomotive. 

DimpfeCs Boiler. — The fire-box is of the common kind, except so far as 
relates to the fixing of the tubes. From the front side of the fire-box, in 
the usual position of the tube sheet, a lai-ge flue opens, and extends nearly- 
through the whole length of the boiler, leaving only an ordinary water 
space of three or four inches around it, and against its forward end. From 
near the forward end of this flue, a chimney opens up through the water and 
steam room above it, and is continued, in the usual form, above the waist of 
the boiler. 

The tubes, which we are now to describe, carry water, and are surrounded 
by fire. These tubes are set in the crown of the fire-box, below which they 
are bent with a j-ound bend, and thence run horizontally through the main 
flue or combustion chamber, opening again into the water space at the front 
end of this flue. These tubes are of iron, 1;^ inches in diameter outside. 

Winan^s Boiler. — This is in the most general use of any for burning both 
hard and soft coal. The principal peculiarity is in the fire-box. The grate 
is very long, say seven feet. The grate bars are cast very heavy, two to- 
gether in one casting, and a shank comes out from each, through the back 
of the fire-box, and in this shank is a round hole through which a rod or 
handle is inserted to stir the grate and loosen the coal. All along the width 
of the furnace, and down to the grate, a wide grated door is fixed. The 
lower edge of this door swings just even with the top of the grates. The 
grating or openings through this door are upright slots, say 5 by 1^ inches, 
quite near together, and for the double purpose of admitting fresh air con- 
slandy to the back side of the fire, and for inserting a poker to stir the coal. 
Above this grating is ihe common door for firing. The top of the furnace 
slopes in the length of the boiler, the fire-box being shallow at the back 



COAL-BUENING BOILERS. 553 



sheet and deepest at the tube sheet. About midway on this slope, an open- 
ing is made through the crown of the fire-box, this opening being covered or 
exposed by a sliding cast-iron door. Around this opening, a hopper or curb 
is raised up — large enough to hold coal, perhaps, enough for once firing. A 
loose, swinging cover is placed on top of this curb. When running, the 
back doors of the fire-box are seldom opened, but this hopper is filled, and 
its contents then dumped (by withdrawing the sliding door) over the grate. 

It will be remembered that the firemen's footboards are on the tender, and 
that there are two decks or landings, one 07er the other — from one of which 
the lower doors may be fed, and from the other of which the coal-hopper 
may be filled. 

The ash pan has a tight bottom, so as to hold three or four inches of wa- 
ter, into which the slag and loose coals drop and are exticguished. In the 
smoke-box there is a variable exhaust. The chimney is straight, has no de- 
flvjcling cone, and only a grating over its top. For all the other coal boilers 
named, the chimney is mostly of this kind. 

Millholland's Boiler. — The fire-box, variable exhaust and chimney are es- 
tially like Winan's. There is, however, no coal- feeding hopper on the back of 
the fire-box, as the fire-boxes on these boilers are square, five feet each way. 
The peculiar feature of these boilers is the combustion chamber. This is a sort 
of smoke-box, placed within the boiler, surrounded by water, and about five 
feet from the fire-box tube sheet. One set of the tubes lead from the fire- 
box into this chamber, and another set lead from this to the smoke-box, there 
being thus two sets of tubes and four tube sheets. A square leg comts 
down from tbis combustion chamber, through the bottom of the boiler, theie 
being a water space around this and a door on the bottom. Through this 
leg a man may get into the combustion chamber to set and caulk the flues. 
A few of the stay bolts in this leg are hollow, to admit air to complete the 
combustion of whatever gases have not been already burned over the gratf . 

0. W. Bayley's Boiler. — The novel feature is contained in the fire-box. 
This is divided into three chambers or compartments, a water space, four cr 
five inches thick, passes from near the top of the back side of the fire-box, 
sloping downwards to below the tubes on the front side, thus dividing the 
fire-box into an upper and lower chamber. The lower part is again divided 
in its width by a fore-and-aft vertical water bridge, connecting at top with 
the water space above described. A square opening is made through the 
vertical water space, so as to open the two lower chambers into each other. 
Two openings are also made and covered by sliding doors, in the sloping 
water space above. The fire doors open, one each into the lower chambers. 

The mode of working is this. Fire is first made on the grates on both 
sides, or in both of the lower chambers, and both of the sliding doors above 
are opened. After the coal gets well to burning and when fresh coal is ap- 
plied, the fire-box is managed as follows : The left hand sliding door only, 
upon the sloping water space, is left opened. The right hand fire door, or 
feeding door is also opened, and coal applied to the right hand grate. The 
flame of this coal pass through into the left hand lower chamber, over the 
burning coal on that side, thence up through into the upper chamber and off 
to the tubes. The firing is then reversed by shutting the left hand sliding 
door and opening the right hand one. Coal is then put upon the left hand 
grate. The gas passes through into the right hand lower chamber, over the 
hot fire, up into the upper chamber and again off" through the tubes. By 
this means, the coal becomes partly coked before it is finally burned, and 
the gases are probably quite entirely consumed. 



554 AGRICUITURE OF MAINE. 

Latta's Boiler. — A recent application of this boiler by the Boston Loco- 
motive Works has attracted some attention. The furnace is a square cham- 
ber, seven or eight feet high and with a water space all around it. The 
water is contained in coils of tubeing. A length of iron pipe, say of two 
inches diameter, is laid across the furnace above the grate. This pipe has a 
return coupling on one end, and another length of pipe is brought back, 
and so on for a few courses in height. Then the return couplings divide or 
throw out each two return nozzles, thus doubling the area of tubiog through 
which the steam and water circulate. After a few courses of these double 
tubes, the return couplings again divide and send back four lengths of tube, 
side by side, and all connected with the original tube. And after a few 
courses of these quadruple tubes, the couplings again divide and send back 
eight lengths of the tube with which number the pile is completed. As 
many separate and complete piles, or courses, of this kind, are laid up, as will 
occupy the whole width of the fire-box. These piles are connected at top 
and bottom with the water space of the furnace around them, and the heat 
of the fire circulates freely through them. The chimney surmounts the 
whole. 

M. W. Baldwin cfc Co's. Boiler. — Perhaps no other form of boiler in suc- 
cessful use has been made to burn coal with so little change of form and 
structure from that of the common kind. The fire-box is five or six feet 
long, the back of the fire-box and fire door the same as for an ordinary 
wood-burner ; the grate is stationary and of the common pattern, only 
heavier. The boiler has a variable exhaust and open chimney. About the 
only peculiar feature is a horizontal row of two-inch iron tubes running 
across the width of the furnace, just under the crown. These give an in- 
crease of heating surface and quicken the circulation of the water. 

There are many other varieties of boilers now in experimental use, but we 
are not able to furnish as full particulars of them as we would wish. From 
those we have mentioned, leading ideas may be had of the forms of boilers 
already most prominently before the public. — R. B. Record. 



AGRICULTURE OF MAINE. 

The " Preliminary Report" of the Secretary of the State Agricultural 
Society, Dr. Ezekiel Holmes, gives a statistical account of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Societies in Maine. The Bangor Courier makes the fol- 
lowing abstract : > . . 

It appears that the number of farms in Maine is 77,016 — comprising 
2,039,596 acres of improved land, and 2,515,797 acres of unimproved. 
The number of farms in New-Hampshire is but 47,408 ; in Vermont, 
43,312; in Massachusetts, 55,082; Connecticut, 31,756; Rhode Island, 
8,398. 

In 1850 there were bred in Maine 41,721 horses, 133,556 milch cows, 
83,933 working oxen, 125,890 other cattle, 451,577 sheep, and 54,588 
gwine — the aggregate value of which stock is about ten millions of dollars. 

Of crops in that year, there were raised 296,259 bushels of wheat, (a 
little more than a quarter of what had been raised when not troubled with 
he weevil,) 101,916 bushels of rye, 1,750,056 bushels of corn, 218,107 



IMPROVEMENT IN LOCKS. 



bushels of oats, 1,364,034 pounds of wool, 205,521 bushels of peas and 
beans, 3,436,000 bushels of potatoes, 151,731 bushels of barley, 104,632 
bushels of buckwheat. 

The orchards produced a value of $342,865, as shown by the deficient 
returns of the census — the market gardens $122,387. 

There were 9,243,811 pounds of butter made, and 2,434,454 pounds of 
cheese. 

Of hay 755,889 tons were cut, and 18,000 bushels of diflferent grass seeds 
raised. 

There was also raised 40,000 pounds of hops, 18,000 pounds of flax, 580 
bushels of flax seed, and 252 pounds of silk cocoons. 

94,000 pounds of maple sugar, 3000 gallons of molasses, and 19,000 
pounds of honey and beeswax manufactured. 

The home manufactures were worth $500,000 — and the value of slaugh- 
tered animals was more than $1,500,000. 

The Bangor Courier says that the census returns give but an approxima- 
tion of the total amount and value of their agricultural productions. 

Of dairy product?, the 133,556 milch cows produce an average of 69 
pounds of butter to the cow. There are seven States which exceed this, 
viz. : Michigan, 70 pounds to a cow ; New-Hamj^shire, 73 ; Connecticut, 75 ; 
Pennsylvania, 75 ; New-Jersey, 79 ; Vermont, 83 ; New- York, 85. 

The amount of cheese made is 18 pounds to a cow — seven States do 
better — Connecticut taking the lead, at 62 pounds to a cow. 

In the number of working oxen only four States in the Union go beyond 
Maine. These are : New- York, Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri. " In the 
quality of cattle we challenge the Union." 



IMPROVEMENT IN LATCHING LOCKS. 




556 



IMPKOVEMENT IN LOCKS. 



The accompany ing engravings are illustrative of the improved Latching 
Lock patented in this country by Mr. Edmund Field, of Greenwich, Ct., 
July 3, 1855, and in Europe April, 1855. 

In common door locks, the latch and locking bolt act independently, the 
latch serving for convenience by day, and the bolt and key for security by 
night. 

The principal feature of novelty in the present invention consists in an in- 
genious method of combining the latch and lock, so that by the act of 
turning the tey, the latch is made to unite its strength with the bolt, and 
thus increase the security of the lock ; when the key is turned in the reverse 
direction, the latch assumes its ordinary uses. These, and other important 
advantages hereafter described, are obtained without any increase over the 
price of ordinary locks, and without complication of parts. They may be 
manufactured even at less cost than ordinary locks. 

Fig. 1 shows a mortise lock, in- 
tended for use on the sliding doors 
of freight cars, ship door.*, churches, 
banks, arsenals, windows, and 
■wherever a strong, safe, and conve- 
nient fastening is wanted. A is 
the shell of the lock, which is made 
in the usual manner; A' is portion 
of the shell removed so as to ex- 
hibit the interior parts ; B face 
plate by which the lock is fastened 
into the mortise ; B' catch plate 
to be fastened to the jamb ; C 
locking bolt which slides in and 
out in the usual manner ; C tum- 
bler behind the locking bolt ; D, 
latch pivoted at F, and furnished 
at its inner end with a friction 
wheel, ~E. When the bolt, C, is 
locked, as shown in fig. 1, the 
latch, D, is fastened down, and 
holds firmly in catch-piece, B.' 
Turn key H in direction of the 
arrow, and bolt C withdraws, and 
frees the latch. The latch is 
operated by the key, which presses 
upon friction wheel, E, and lifts 
the latch, as shown by the dotted 
lines, F; the bolt, C, also lifts with 
the catcih, the stop pin, J, serving for its pivot. There is but one spring, G, 
in this lock ; it serves the double purpose of pressing down the bolt, latch, 
and the tumber. I is a cup attached to the exterior of the lock, and in- 
tended as a shield for the key. After the lock has been placed in its mor- 
tise, a hole is bored for the cup, which is let in so as to be flush with the 
side of the door. The key, H, it will be observed is quite small, and does 
not project beyond the edge of the cup, so that the door, wiih the key re- 
maining in the lock, may be shoved clear up into its recesses. One of the 
features of the improvement consists in operating the latch by means of the 
key, thus dispensing with a knob ; for this purpose the lock is so arranged 




BRONZE CASTING. 



557 



that the key cannot drop or be taken out except when the locking bolt is 
thrust forward, and the latch fastened down ; in other words the lock must 
be locked before the key can be removed. 

Large heavy doors should always be made either to slide or roll, for they 
last longer, remain in good order, and aft'ord better security than hinged 
doors ; the latter will sag, sooner or later, and become inconvenient. For 
sliding and rolling doors of every kind, the lock we have described seems 
admirable adapted. The outer end of the latch is made with double 
shoulders, which affords additional strength. 

Fig. 2 shows another form of lock, in which the same general principles 
are involved as those contained in the preceding device. The chief differ- 
ence is that the bolt. A, and latch, B, are operated iudependently, although 
both combine, in the act of locking, to increase the security. The latch 
turns on the pivot, C, and is operated by the knob, D', the shaft of which 
D, and lifting piece, E, are arranged in the common manner. When the 
bolt is thrown back the latch becomes freed, and may be lilted by turning 
the knob, its posidon when thus raised being indicated by the dotted lines ; 
it will be seen that the lock bolt also lifts with the catch, the pin, F, serving 
as its pivot. Two springs are used in this lock, one of which presses on the 
tumbler behind the bolt, the other acting on the bolt, and the bolt pressing 
down the forward end of the latch. Locks of this description are intended 
for parlor doors. 

We have described the above locks as being specially adapted to the 
securing of sliding doors, but they may ba aho applied with equal facility 
to hinged doors of every description. The invention appears to be one of 
real utility, and calculated to supply a very general want. For further ia- 
formatiou address the inventor, Portchester PostOffice, N. Y. 



GRAND BRONZE CASTING. 

The Springfield Republican notices the colossal statue of Washington 
modelled by H. K. Brown, in process of casting at the great foundry of the 
" Ames Company" in Cbicopee. 

The successful termination of their work is now announced. It has been cast 
in fragments, and that one just finished is the largest and most difiicult of 
the whole, namely, the entire body of the horse. As the preparation of the 
mould has required considerable time, and great care, and as many hazards 
attend the execution of such a work, the hour appointed for the trial was 
one of no small interest to the contractors and those employed upon it. 
About one hundred persons had gathered from the neighboring shops to 
witness the scene, wholly unprepared, however, for what followed. Soon 
after the hot metal began to flow into the mould, and in all directions. 

The workmen who ttood upon and around it were enveloped in a shower 
of liquid fire, which burned their hands and faces, and s-et fire to their gar- 
ments, while the spectators fled in terror from the building. Mr. Ames, 
"who was near by, ran in at this moment, and was so appalled at the sight 
that he wished to have the work abandoned. But the foreman of the shop, 
Mr. Langdon, anticipating some trouble, had agreed with his workmen not 



658 DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSIA. 

to give up the object of their long endeavors if a desperate effort could save 
it. With courage that deserves great praise, they persevered and filled the 
mould, escaping with only slight injuries. 

The contractors may well congratulate themselves over their work, for it 
is the first and only achievement of the kind made in this country, and 
perhaps nowhere else but in Munich, Bavaria, could so large a piece of bronze 
statuary be cast. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSIA. 



The following description of the new Cunard steamship Persia, whose ar- 
rival we announce elsewhere, is from the Liverpool Courier, and will be read 
with interest : 

The dimensions of the ship are as follows : 

Length between perpendiculars, - - 360 feet. 
Length over all, - - - - - 390 feet. 

Breadth of hull, 45 feet. 

Breadth over paddle-boxes, - - - 71 feet. 

Depth, 32 feet. 

Gross tonnage, 3000 tons. 

Space for engines, ... - 1221 tons. 

The Persia is rigged as a bark, (not ship rig, as stated in most of the 
papers,) and she will have suflacient spread of canvas to enable her to cross 
the Atlantic -with her sails alone, should necessity require it, which may be 
judged of from the fact that her main yard is 76 feet long. The vessel sits 
very slightly on the water, and her symmetry is to be seen in the fact that 
she looks smaller than she really is when alone, her great proportions only 
appearing when taken in detail, or when compared with other standards. 
The Persia has an elliptical stern, neatly gilt, and a half length female figure- 
head representing a Persian maiden, with musical instruments and other 
articles of female occupation. The paddle-boxes are slightly gilt, and in the 
center of each is a bold carving, representing a lion springing from between 
two palm trees. 

The Persia is the first iron steamship built for the British and North 
American Royal Mail Steam packet company, her Majesty's government 
having hitherto required wooden vessels in case they should be wanted for 
war purposes. 

The keel of the Persia is 13 inches deep and A\ inches thick, scarfed in 
lengths of 35 feet, and a rabbit in the keel for the garboard streak to fay 
into. The sternpost is 13 inches broad and 5 inches thick. The rudder 
stock is 8 inches in diameter. The framing of the ship is of angle iron, 
placed nominally to the stem, at intervals of 18 inches from center to center 
midships, and 20 inches from center to center about five feet before and abaft 
the engine-room bulkhead. Amidships these ribs are 10 inches deep, with 
double angle iron riveted to each edge, so as to present in section the appear- 
ance of a letter H placed sideways, thus, ^ . The Persia is divided into 
seven water-tight compartments; and a novelty has been introduced mto 
her framing forward which, in the bow compartment, is laid diagonally, with 



DESCRIPTITN OF THE PERSIA. i559 

a view of bearing a collision, should it ever occur, in the strongest arrange- 
ment of the structure. The vessel is plated in and out alternately, in ac- 
cordance with the present custom of building iron ships. Tfie keel-plates 
are l^'g- of an inch in thickness; at the bottom of the ship the plates are || 
of an inch in thickness ; from this section to the load water-line they are | 
of an inch ; and above this they are {^ of an inch in thickness. The plates 
round the gunwale are | of an inch in thickness. 

Everything that care and skill could devise to make the Persia a safe ship 
has been done by Mr. Napier. Iq the water-tight compartment, for example, 
provision h.as been made, much the same in principle as that adopted by Mr. 
J. Scott Russell's ship the Great Eastern, namely, the formation of a substan- 
tial double ship. The goods carried by the Persia are to be stowed in water- 
tight compartments, each about 12 feet long, 16 feet wide, and 20 feet deep, 
wbich form a species of tanks, sufficient in themselves to float a considerable 
weight. 

The next point to consider is the motive power of the ship, which consists 
of two side-lever engines, which were constructed by Mr. Napier. We have 
no standard of computing engine power to which all will agree, hence there 
is a diiference in expresi>ing the power of a steamboat, which Mr. Napier 
thus applies to the Persia : "According to the strict Government rule of ad- 
measurement her power is equal to that of 900 horses ; according to the 
plan laid down in the Earl of Hard wick's bill, her power is equal to that of 
1200 horses; and according to James Watt's old-established rule of 33,000 
ft. lbs. to the horse, she is expected to work up to the pith of between 
4000 and 5000 horses." As a standard, we adopt the Earl of Hardwick's 
bill. Let us look, however, at some of the dimensions of the Persia's en- 
gines, and other particulars, which are as follows : 

Diameter of cyhnders, - - - - 100 inches. 

Length of stroke, 10 feet. 

Diameter of paddle-wheels, - - - - 40 feet. 

Length of floats, - 10 feet. 

Depths of floats, - - - - . - 3 feet. 

Number of boilers, ----- 8 

Number of furnaces, - - - - - 40 

Pressure on boilers, ----- 20 pounds. 

Length of engine-room, - - - . 115 feet. 

Breadth of engine-room, - - - - 45 feet. 

Capacity of coal- bunkers, ... 1400 tons. 

Estimate consumption of coal, - - - 4^ tons per hour. 

The boilers, which are tubular, are placed in two groups, fore and aft, and 
they are fired amidships. It may also be stated that the ship has been so 
planned that the weight borne will repose on lines parallel to the keel. The 
coal-bunkers are placed beyond the boilers, at each extremity of the engine- 
room. Each boiler has five furnaces, and they are so independent that any 
one of them can be shut ofi", should it not be required. In one particular 
the Persia differs from the Arabia, the steamer which came last on the line, 
namely, having smaller boilers, but a greater number of them, so as to enable 
the engineer to follow up the stroke of the engine with a longer pressure of 
steam. There are, besides, two donkey boilers and engines, for pumping the 
feed water into the boilers ; and in connection with them are eight refrigera- 
tors for abstracting the waste heat from the brine as it is blown from the 
boilers, to heat the feed water. 



560 DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSIA, 

Nothing can be conceived more striking than the working of the engines. 
The Scotch papers, in speaking of them, use the terms " wonder," " venera- 
tion," " awe" and, indeed, the sight is marvelous. There was a little noise 
from the engines on the trial trip, as it is usual on these occasions to work 
them loosely, but when they are screwed up, which they will be for sea, there 
will be no noise whatever beyond the low singing of the exhausted cylinders. 
Such ponderous machinery does not elsewhere exist, and to stand in the 
engine-room and look up at the mighty shafts, cranks, and rods, moving 
with silent, steady, and solemn, but powerful ease, is a sight which must 
attract even the most IhoughtleES observer, and produce respect for the 
intellect and practical skill of the men who produced them. 

From the engine room to the cabin is a short transition. Here are ac- 
commodations for 260 passengers, who will sleep in berths on one deck. 
There is a passage all round the ship below the main deck, so that no pas- 
senger will need to come on deck to get to or from his berth. On the same 
deck is an elegant cabin for gentlemen who desire to sit in the center o^ the 
ship, and adjoining it is the ladies' cabin, which is a gorgeous room, uphol- 
stered in a style fit for a queen, and adorned with choice paintings from the 
pencil of Mr. D. M'Calman, of Glasgow, whose groups of flowers also deco- 
rate the main saloon. This cabin is paneled with bird's eye maple, and it is 
heated by steam, as are also all other parts of the ship. The heij^ht between 
decks in this part of the ship is eight feet six inches, and the berths are amply 
lighted and ventilated. The berths are supplied with the usual conveniences ; 
and it may be mentioned that there are no less than twenty water-closets in 
various parts of the lower deck. On the upper deck are the main and fore 
saloons, the officers beiths, and other accommodations. At the extreme 
after-end of the ship is a large smoking-room, with cabins for the captain 
and chief officer, from which they can see the entire working of the ship. 
Next to these is the main saloon, which is 60 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 8 
feet high. This saloon will dine about 170 persons. It is paneled in bird's- 
eye maple, with twisted pilasters, and neatly gilt frieze and ceiling. The up- 
holstery is red velvet, with red satin window curtains, embroidered in gold. 
The panels are filled with floral paintings similar to the ladies cabin. Elegantly 
framed mirrors are placed at the fore end of the saloon, as in the other vessels 
of the line ; but at the afcer-end a diSerence has been made by the intro- 
duction of two beautiful book-cases, and massive folding-doors which open 
into the smoking-room. The skylight is filled with stained glass, the promi- 
nent features being a Persian and a Persian woman, in their native costume. 
Forward of the saloon are the kitchen and pantry, each of which has an 
area of 300 feet; the floors of which are beautifully laid with tiles. The 
fore saloon, and the various store-rooms and officers' apartments, are also 
placed on the main deck ; while the crew are accommodated in the topgallant 
forecastle. 

We might enumerate the conveniences of the Persia to any extent, and 
speak of her baker's and her butcher's shops, her joiner's and carpenter's 
workshops, her surgery, ice-houses, lamp houses, bath-room, and similar 
arrangements. But it is not necessary to dwell upon these points, as the 
Persia carries within herself appliances of comfort excelling the first hotels 
in the country, and she possesses saloons whicb have not unfitly been com- 
pared to the apartments of a baronial residence. But perhaps an allusion 
to one part of her outfit will be more striking than mere description. The 
Persia, fitted out on the same scale as the other vessels of the line, will re- 
quire 400 counterpanes, 1200 blankets, 1600 sheets, 800 pillow-slips, 4600 * 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PERSIA. 561 

towels, and 400 tablecloths; all of which, or nearly so, would come into 
requisition on a current voyage. 

The summit of the saloons and officera messrooms forms a hurricane deck^ 
■well railed, on which there is an uninterrupted promenade 370 feet in length, 
and of proportionate width. This deck will form the passengers' promenade, 
and it will be very seldom that it cannot be used as a dry and comfortable 
place for walking. 

The Persia has two sets of double-steering wheels, so that she can be 
steered either aft or araidt^hips, as circumstances may require. 

The crew of the ship will be made up as follows: 

Engineers Department — Engineer?, 8 ; (iremen, 54. 

Stewards Department — Cooks, 8, stewards, 36. 

Sailing Department — Officers, 6 ; able-bodied seamen, 54 ; doctor, 1 \ 
purser, 1 ; carpenter 1 ; joiner, 1. Total, 170. 

The Persia will accommodate 260 passengers, and carry 1200 tons of 
measurement goods, and 1400 tons of coal, at a draft of 22 feet, the weight 
of heiself, cargo, and stores being then 5400 tons. 

SPEED OF THE PERSIA ON HER TRIAL TRIP. 

The distances run by the ship on her trial trip from Greenock to Liver- 
pool were as follows : 

Knots. 
From Cloch Lighthouse to Ailsa Craig, ----- 43 
to Corseill Point, . - - . 15 

to Mull of Galloway, . - - - 27 
to Point of Ayre, ... - 22 

to Bell Buoy, 68 

Total, 175 

which is eq'ial to 203 statute miles, so that the vessel steamed 16 knots, 
or 19 statute miles per hour, which was the actual speed through the water. 
It might be supposed that this high rate of speed would have been danger- 
ous, but engineers will understand how distant that fear was when we state 
that ihe preparation of tallow and white lead usually put on the bright 
work of ihe engines of sea-going steamets was as hard at the end of the 
voyage as at the beginning. The slightest heating of the engines would 
have instantly melted it away wherever it was near a bearing. 

The Cunard Line, ns it is popularly designated, commenced operations in 
1840, with the view of connecting the Eastern and Western hemispheres by 
the periodical sailings of steamers. The first vessel dispatched was the 
Unicorn, Cftpt. Douglas, which sailed from Liverpool on the 16th May, 1840, 
as a pioneer, for Halifax and Boston, with 25 passengers. The Unicorn was 
a cotnpnra'i\'ely small steamer, and when she got out she was placed on the 
line frum Picton to Quebec, as an auxiliary steamer. 

The Britannia was the first steamer built for the ocean line, and she was 
dispatched on the 4ih July, 1840, for the same ports, to which she carried 
63 passengers. 

Substantially, this Company has enlarged the size and power of its steamers 
six titnts since the Unicorn went out, as follows : 

First, the Biitannia, Acadia, Caledonia, Columbia. 

Second, the Hiberuia, Cambria. 

Third, the America, Europa, Niagara, Canada. 

Fourth, the Asia, Africa. 
36 



562 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



Fifth, La Plata, Arabia. 

Sixth, the Persia. 

These vessels may be classified thus : 

The four first of 1200 tons and 440 horse power each. 

The Hibernia and Cambria, of 1500 tons and GOO horse power each. 

The America, and the vessels named with her, 1840 tons and 100 horso 
power each. 

The Asia and Africa, 2250 tons, and 800 horse power each. 

La Plata and Arabia, 2,203 tons and 1000 horse power each. 

The Persia, 3600 tons and 1200 horse power. 

But perhaps the clearest way of putting the size of this vessel is to com- 
pare her side by side with other vessels of the Hne in length, power and 
tonnage, and to include in the same comparison some other well known 
steamers. 



Britannia, - - . . 

Cambria, 

America, . - . . 
Asia, - - - _ . 

Arabia, - - . - . 

Persia, - - - . . 

Atlantic, (Collins line,) - 
Great Britain, - - - - 

Himalaya, - . - - 

Of the above ships, the Britannia, the Acadia, the Caledonia, and Hibernia 
were sold a few years ago — some of them going into the hands of the Spanish 
Government, where they still remain. The Columbia was lost in July, 1843. 
The La Plata was sold to replace the ill-fated Amazon, which was burned 
three or four years ago on the Spanish coast. 



Length. 


Register. 


Nom'l power. 


Feet. 


Tons. 


Horses. 


200 


1200 


400 


217 


1600 


600 


250 


1840 


700 


300 


2250 


800 


320 


2393 


1000 


390 


3600 


1200 


287 


2280 


800 


330 


3500 


500 


350 


3500 


700 



English Patents. 

Improvement in Files. By Hiram Powers, sculptor, Florence. — This 
invention consists in forming perforations or throats to the fin-feather or other 
cutting surfaces of rasps or files, for the purpose of enabling them to clear 
themselves of the material cut away by them, and to prevent their filling 
or choking, or allowing the particles to pass through the perforations or 
throats. 

The improved rasp or file resembles somewhat the ordinary grater in 
appearance, though entirely diflferent in its operation and efiect. 

The perforations in the plate of which the instrument is formed, may be 
round oblong, oval, or angular; and the cutting-edges which partially sur- 
round each perforation or throat, may be either curved, straight, or pointed, 
plain or serrated, as the different purposes to which it is to be applied may 
require. The cutting-edges do not entirely surround the perforations, but 
are raised on one side of them only, and are inclined at such an angle as to 
cut to the best advantage, and at the same time to throw the pai'ticles 
removed by them into and through the perforations or throats. 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 56^ 



The files or rasps may have cutting-edges raised on one or both edges, 
as may be found best, and they may be made of any desired form — whether 
flat, curved, angular, or hollow ; or they may be made in rods or bands, and 
applied to cylinders or wheels, and in these various forms may be employed 
for reducing fruit and roots to pulp or dust; and also for reducing the 
surfaces of wood, stone, ivory, bone, metals, and other substances, and 
generally for all purposes where the comminution of substances is required. 

As the form of cutting-edges, and their position relative to the perforations 
or throats, which allow the particles to escape and pass through or by tbe 
body of the instrument, render filling and clogging almost impossible; this 
file can be used upon lead, zinc, copper, and tin, or other adhesive substances, 
as well as upon the harder metals, the perforations serving the same purpose 
that the throat of a common hand-plane serves in cleaning the file from the 
shavings removed by it. 

Improvements in giving Signals on Eailwats by Electricity, and 
IN Instruments and Apparatus Connected Therewith. By Edward 
Tyer, Dalston. — The first part of this invention relates to improvements in 
apparatus which are to be so fixed at any required point upon a railway that 
the wheels of an engine or train, or other moving body, passing over such 
apparatus, shall impart motion to certain instruments called " connectors," 
whereby electric currents or circuits are closed, broken, reversed, or coupled 
up, which electric currents actuating or operating upon other eltctro-magnetic 
instruments (included in the same circuit) shall serve to point out, register, 
or otherwise record the position of any engine or train that may be passing 
or has passed over such apparatus. 

In order to transmit signals from one part of the line to any other part, it 
will be necessary to place suitable instruments (in conjunction with the spring 
lever) in such a position, that whenever a downward motion is given to it by 
the wheels of a moving engine or train, such motion shall be imparted to the 
instrument in connection therewith, and the electric current will thereby be 
set in motion. 

The current from the voltaic battery can at once pass along the wires, 
which being in connection with one or more electro-magnetic indicating 
instruments, fixed at one or more distant stations upon the railway, signals 
can be transmitted from the place where this apparatus is fixed, to the dis- 
tant instruments in connection, and thereby indicate the passage of a train 
over the place where this connector and spring lever is fixed. 

In order to prevent any stones, dirt, or mud from interfering with the cor- 
rect action of this form of connector, the whole may be inclosed in a suitable 
case provided with a stuflBng box for the axle of the lever to pass through. 

Another method of closing, breaking, or coupling up electric circuits or 
currents, which can be sometimes used with considerable advantage, is to 
place a small elastic bag, partially filled with mercury, under the spring lever 
before described ; a tube, closed at one end, and having one or more wires 
passing into this closed end, is caused to dip into the mercury contained in 
the elastic bag ; the whole is then rendered air tight with cement or by any 
other suitable means ; and the wires, so entering the tube, form part of the 
electric circuit. The use and action of this instrument is as follows : So long 
as the lever fixed in close proximity to the rail remains in a quiescent posi- 
tion, the mercury in the lower part of the elastic bag does not come into 
metallic contact with the wires in the upper part of the tube ; but whenever 
the spring lever is depressed, the air in the bag forces the mercury up the 



564 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



tub?, which, coming into contact with the wires at the upper end, immedi- 
ately completes the circuit, and the required signal is given to tlie distant 
station. By combining one or more of these tubes in the same bng, or by 
using any number of bags and tubes, any arrangement of connector can be 
constructed, as the nature of the case may require, in order to dose, break, 
reserve, or couple up electric circuits or currents. Instead of having the 
tube closed at one end it is pre'erred to have a bulb or cylinder at the upper 
end, so as to receive any supeifluous amount of tlie compre^^sed air. 

The second part of the invention relates to the adjustment of connectors 
with one or more of the rails of a railway iu any required part thereof, in 
Kuch a manner that the weight of a passing engine or tram, in cau-ing a 
small d. flection of the rail from its natural position, shall bring the connector 
into aclion. 

The third part of this invention consists in the application of magneto- 
electric machines in c unbination with the before-described spring leveis, in 
such a manner that whenever the wheels of an engine or train pass over any 
of these contrivances, the downward motion imparled thereto shall be ren- 
dered available to set in motion the cjils of a magneto-electric machine; 
and, as is well known, during the brief period such coils are iu motion, cur- 
rents of electricity are induced in those coil'^, which electricity, by suitable 
insulated conducting wires, may be transmitted to any required point or 
place, and if there are any electro magnetic instalments included in the same 
circuit that this induced eltctricty is traversing, such instruments will be 
operated upon or set in motion, and any required si'rnal can be given. 

The fourth part of the invention relates to certain improvements in the 
electro-raajjnelic instruments termed " indicators," which are for the pur- 
pose of indicating the position of an engine or train upon any part of the 
line. 

The pointer is caused to assume one of two distinct positions, for the pur- 
pose of indicating two distinct s'gnals; and the pointer having assumed one 
of such two positions, remains fixed there until operated upon a second time 
by another electric current. The improvement consists in thus obtaining 
two distinct and permanent beats or deflt-ctions of the pointer, and diti'ers 
from the plans usually employed for giving or receiving signals, inasmuch as 
that in the latter case the magnetic pointer is generally made to assume a 
vertical position, and the deflections, either to tlie right or to the lefr, are 
caused by the influence of electric currents passing in close proximity to such 
magnetic needle of the telegraphic instruments; but so soon as the electric 
current ceases to flow, then the needle or magnet again returns to its vertical 
position, and points to zero. Now this kind of instrument is not applicable 
to the plans adopted, and which have been previously described, fur closing, 
breaking, or coupling up the electric current, because it will at once be mani- 
fest that during the rapid passage of the wheels of a train over the conne;:tor 
and spiiug lever, the vibrations of a magnetic pointer, if placed in a vertical 
position, would be too rapid and uncertain, and, not being permanent, they 
might, during the instant they were taking place, escape the attention of the 
signal man in charge. In order to obviate those difficulties, the patentee 
constructs the magnetic needles or pointers of bis instruments so that their 
centers of suspension are below iheir centers of gravity ; consequently, if 
suitable stops are placed for the needles to rest against, the needles will 
always remain against either of these stops, and never point to the vertical, 
and a permanent deflection will be obtained. 

The fifth part of the invention consists of improvements in the arrange- 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 565 



ments of electro-magnetic apparatus, for the purpose of calling into action 
local batteries ; the ol>j-ct beiii^r to enable any great resistance to be over- 
come, and also to perform any electro-magnetic effect that requires consider- 
able force. Jt is well known that a current of electricity in passing along a 
wire of any great length, has to overcome the resistance offered by such 
wire, and the tlecno motive force actually available is very much weakened 
thereby, and in some cases is not sufficient to accomplish the desired amount 
of work. Now, in order to obviate these difficulties, it has been the practice to 
use various arrangements of apparatus to call into action local batteries, and 
thereby to obtain any amount of electro-magnelic force that may be desired. 
It sometimes happens that in giving signals on railways by the instruments 
and connec ors before described, a local battery is found very advantageous. 

The sixth part of the invention relates to improvements in those instru- 
ments used fur the |)urpose of reversing or changing the direction of electrical 
current;!, and termed " pole-changers" or " commutators." They are used 
for giving signals on railways, in order to transmit a signal to an approach- 
ing eng ne or train from any part of the railway ; so that whenever the train 
arrives at; certa n points upon the line where an apparatus, hereinafter 
to be described, is fixed, the electrical current being turned on (or reversed 
in direction, as the case may require), such engine or train shall receive the 
signal from these pole changers or reversers. 

The seventh part of the invention relates to improvements in giving sig- 
nals from any point or place upon a railway to an engine or train in motion, 
and vice versa, from an engineer train in motion to any other point or place 
upon the railway. This is accomplished by fixing upon the line, at any 
required distances, metal bars, having inclined planes at each end, so adjusted 
that if two springs or other levers be placed in an inverted position upon an 
engine or carnage, the levers will, on the engine or carriage coming up to 
the points where these metal bars are fixed, strike the lower end of the 
inclined planes of the metal bars, and, gliding up them, form metallic con- 
tact with t-uch bars; and these being in coiumuuication with a voltaic bat- 
tery, the electric current will have a tendency to pass from the bars to the 
metal spring levers fixed upon the engine or carriage ; and if an insulaced 
wire were carried from the spring levers to any electro-magnetic instrument, 
likewise fixed upon the engine or carriage, such instrument would be operated 
upon by ihe electricity flowing from the bars in communication with the 
voltaic battery, and every time the engineer cariiage glided over these metal 
bars, a signal could be given to and received from an engine or carriage and 
a station, or the vice versa. 

The eighth part of the invention relates to improvements in electro-mag- 
netic insuuraents, to be fixed upon a locomotive ergine, either to sound a 
whistle or to turn the " regulator" of such locomotive, and bring the train to 
a standstill. 

Improvements in Electric Telegraph Instruments. By John Sandys, 
St. LukeV. — This inveniion consists in a peculiar combination of parts into 
an instiument .••uitable for communicating by electiicity. For this purpose a 
curved or bent magnetic needle is used, which moves on a suitable axis. 
This needle is hung on its axis in such manner as to bring its poles on either 
side of the cod or one pole of the sofc metal interior of an electro-magnet ; 
hence, when a current of electricity is passed in one or other direction, the 
poles of the magnetic needle will be attracted or repelled accordingly, and 
the pointer fixed to the axis will be moved in one or other direction. The 



566 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



magnetic needle has a projection, which, by stops, prevents the magnetic 
needles being moved too far in either direction. It is preferred, in constructing 
the electro-magnet, that the soft metal interior should be composed of a bundle 
or cluster of soft wires in place of a solid piece of soft metal. 

A Mode of Transmitting Telegraphic Messages across bodies op 
Water. By James Bowman Lindsay, Dundee. — This invention consists 
in a mode of transmitting telegraphic messages or communications, by means 
of electricity or magnetism, through and across water, without submarine 
cables, water being made available as the connecting and conducting medium 
for the electric fluid. 

On the shore from whicb a message is to be sent, a battery and telegraph 
are set up, to which are attached two or more wires terminating in metal 
balls, tubes, or plates placed in the water, or in moist ground adjacent to the 
water, at a certain distance apart, according to the width of the water across 
which the message is to be transmitted, (the distance between the two balls, 
plates, or tubes connected with one battery, to be greater than across the 
water, or to the balls, plates, or tubes of the opposite battery when practicable). 
At the opposite side of the water, or that to which the message is to be con- 
veyed, two other similar metal balls, plates, or tubes are placed, the same 
being either immersed in the water or in the earth, as above stated. These 
balls, tubes, or plates have wires also attached to them, which lead to and 
are in connection with another similar battery, with which the needle or 
other suitable indicator or telegraphic instrument is put into connection, and 
messages are then transmitted in the usual way. 

As regards the power or primary agent employed for transmitting tele- 
graphic messages, the patentee remarks that it may be either voltaic, galvanic, 
or magnetic electricity, and the battery for evolving the same such as is used 
for telegraphic purposes. And with respect to the telegraph or instrument 
for transmitting messages, he proposes to employ any of the instruments in 
known use which are most eflBcient for that purpose, observing that the needle 
or indicator may be arranged or disposed in the instrument, either in a ver- 
tical or in a horizontal position, and the coil of wire necessary to the move- 
ment of the needle may also be increased or diminished, according to cir- 
cumstances. 

In any suitable part of the course of the wire or wires, a coil of wire is 
arranged in connection with the needle or indicator of the telegraph, as a 
medium of communication between the needle or indicator and the battery, 
in the manner usually practised. 

The patentee remarks that he does not confine himself 'to the use of plates 
or balls of metal immersed in the water, as the same result may be obtained 
by inserting metal, charcoal, or other suitable terminal poles in the earth, 
communicating with the water by the moisture which the earth contains. 
It is important also, to the proper performance of the above mode of trans- 
mitting messages, that the distance between the terminal poles on one side of 
the water be greater than the distance between the plates or other terminators 
situated respectively on opposite sides of the water, otherwise the circuit will 
not be complete, and the current will therefore fail to operate upon the 
needle of the receiving telegraph. 

Improvements in the Arrangement of Electric Telegraphs. By 
John Henry Johnson, Lincoln's-inn-fields. — This invention relates to the 
construction of portable electric telegraph apparatus, which may be placed 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 567' 



in connection, when desired, with any part of the line wires of a railway- 
telegraph, or employed in mines, manufactories, private houses, public or 
government offices, and colleges. The improvements consist in so arrang- 
ing the whole of the apparatus necessary for receiving and transmitting intel- 
ligence, that it may be contained in a box or case, which may be carried 
about with facility. 

Without confining himself to details, the following is the arrangement pre- 
ferred by the inventor : A battery of eighteen or more elements is contained 
in the bottom of a shallow mahogany or other box, fitted with suitable han- 
dles, for the facihty of transport. On the top of this box is fixed a small 
wooden case, opening by a hinge-joint, containing an alarum, manipulator, 
and receiver. The hinged portion of this case, which opens back, contains 
a nautical compass, two coils of wire, and a lightning conductor. The 
battery, which is of sulphate of copper, is (for the purpose of transport) 
necessarily of a diSerent construction to the ordinary batteries. 

In place of using water in a liquid state, sand, moistened with water for 
the zinc, and with sulphate of copper for the porous cells, is employed. 
When the apparatus is required for use, the hinged cover is turned back, 
and the operator attaches the end of the wire from one of the two coils to a 
rod or chain, which is then suspended from, or otherwise connected to, the 
line wires of a railway or other telegraph. The circuit is then established 
by connecting the wire of the second coil or bobbin to a conductor (either 
wire or earth). The operator then works the handle of the manipulator, 
bringing it over a contact point, and observes, from the deviation of the 
magnetic needle in the compass, whether the current is passing ; whereupon 
he may transmit and receive messages to or from any desired station on the 
line with as great certainty and facility as by the fixed apparatus at present 
in use. 

Improved Implement for Digging Turnips, etc. By Wm. Lister, 
near Kichmond. — This invention relates to a novel construction of imple- 
ment which will facilitate the operation of removing turnips and other bul- 
bous roots from the ground in which they are growing. For this purpose 
the patentee mounts in a suitable frame (which runs on wheels and is dravm 
by animal power) adjustable blades, which will enter the ground and make 
a horizontal cut therein, somewhat below the bulb of the turnips, thereby 
removing the tails of the turnips, and loosening their hold in the ground. 

In operating with this implement, the blades are caused to enter the ground 
at a depth that will just clear the bulb of the turnip ; and this level is re. 
tained as nearly as possible during the operation of tailing. The action o 
the implement will be not only to cut ofi" the tails, but also to raise the bulb 
slightly out of the ground, and render it unnecessary for the laborer to use 
any great muscular exertion in gathering up the turnips. It will be under- 
stood that this implement may be applied to facilitate the gathering up of 
mangold-wurzel and other roots, if thought desirable. 

The patentee claims the construction of implement as above described, 
which, although possessing some of the characteristics of the horse hoe, is 
capable of performing work essentially difierent from that for which it is 
designed. 



668 MISCELLANEOUS. 



Miscellaneous. 



TO THE FRIENDS OF COL. J, S. SKINNER. 

The Skinner Monument. — Our readers will remember one or two occa- 
sions in which the plan of a monument to Mr. Skinner and a fund for his 
widow, has been laid before them, and appeals made on behalf of the object. 
Circulars were also sent to a large number of individuals, requesting donations. 
This was done at a season when the finances of the country were in a most 
embarrassed condition, and perhaps this is the reason why the call was sa 
coldly received. We should be exceedingly sorry to believe that there were 
not thousands of his personal friends and others who were familiar with his 
valuable services in behalf of the industry of this country, who would freely 
give their five dodars each in behalf of such a cause. But the efforts hitherto 
made reveal a sad deficiency, the whole amount received scarcely exceeding 
the expenses incident to the effort; and those, with a half score of exceptions, 
are only donations of two dollars, which payment was off<et by a three 
dollar publication. We are intending to make a renewed effort the present 
season, and hope the readers of this journal and others who will be addressed 
in another form will respond without delay, and the effort prove in a good 
degree successful. There will be very little expended hereafter in any pre- 
paratory operations, so that the donations made will tell in the nelt results, 
almost to the entire amount of the sums received. Pieaso send in your do- 
nations to this office. 

PoRTMONNAiEs, Reticules, ETC., ETC. — We bave recently visited the estab- 
lishment of our friends, Mtssrs. Zurn <fe Rantfle, and have been exceedingly 
pleased with the excellent style of their manufactures. They have a sales- 
room at No. GO Nassau street, where a good assortment of the finest style 
of goods in this line — pocket-books, portmonnaies, dressing-cases, etc., etc., 
are constantly on hand, and at reasonable prices. Their manufactory is in an 
upper story, and is extensive and convenient. We do not hesitate to commend 
these gentlemen to our friends as quite worthy of their confidence, and assure 
them they will have no occasion to be disappointed by ordering anytbing 
which they manufacture. We shall be happy to act for them in these mat- 
ters if they will send to us. They took the premium at the World's Fair. 

A New Expansive Valve Motion. — The London Railway Gazelle 
speaks of a new Expansive Valve Motion for Sieam Engines, described at 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, by G. M. Miller, of Dublin. In 
this motion a single eccentric only is used on the driving axle; this works 
the rod of one of the valves direct, and the rod of the second valve is 
worked by the eccentric through the intervention of a loose ring on the 
driving axle, having two arms projecting at right angles to each other, to 
one of which the second valve-rod is attached, the other arm being connected 
with the eccentric. By this means a similar motion is given to both valves, 
but corresponding to the relative positions of the two cranks at right angles 
to each other. The eccentric is molded upon a transverse slide, which is 
capable of being moved backwards and forwards across the axle by means 
of a handle, answering to the ordinary reversing handle or lever, and acting 



MISCELLANEOUS. 569 



through the medium of a pair of racks and pinions. By moving the trans- 
verse slides the throw of the eccentric is altered or reversed, thereby enabling 
the engine to be worked expansively or reversed. A model of the new 
motion was exhibited, showing it as applied to a locomotive engine ; and the 
particulars were given of the successful working of the new motion in two 
engines upon the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland. 

Manna Sugar. — The following interesting letter was handed over to the 
Commissioner of Patents bv Dr. Bernhisel. It is from Mr. Aaron Daniels, 
who resides in Provo City, Utah Territory, and is dated August 11, 1855 : 

" According to agreement, I send you a small cake of the sugar made 
from the syrup or hoaey found on cotton-wood trees, and, as you requested, 
will give you a few particulars concerning the manner in which I discovered 
it. As I passed along to and from my corn-field, (which is situated about 
one mile from town,) I discovered a white substance on the cotton-wood 
trees, which, upon examination, I found to be a sweet substance, somewhat 
resembling the honey-dew in the States, but in far greater abundance, and 
possessing other properties, some of the cakes being as thick as a knife-blade 
or window-glass. I thought, from the quantity there was on the trees, that 
sugar might be made of it, and signified the same to a number of my 
neighbors, who all ridiculed the idea ; so I thought I would try and see what 
I could do with it. I took home two bushels, and washed the twigs, and 
then strained and boiled down the water, which made one and a quarter 
pound of sugar. Since that time most of the town have been at work. 
Some families have made as high as one hundred pounds of sugar. It 
makes excellent molasses, and as good vinegar as I ever saw. I averaged 
about eighteen pounds per day with two three-gallon kettles." 

Although the quantity of sugar made from this syrup is small, yet we 
are assured that it is still profitable, from the fact that sugar in that region 
of country is worth /c»riy cents a pound. — Union. 

Paper Bag Manufactory. — la Beach street, above Hanover, (Eighteenth 
Ward,) Messrs. Lewars & Corbon have successfully commenced the manu- 
facture of paper bags, for druggists, grocers, bakers, confectioners, and other 
dealers, with machinery driven by steam. There are six machines cow in 
operation, which produce an average of 60,000 bags per day, of sizes to 
contain quantities varying from one to twenty-five pounds. There is an ap- 
paratus also for spooling and cutting the paper the required width, and a 
press for cutting the bags after they are manufactured. After this process 
of spooling, the paper is taken to the machine, which cuts the paper in the 
shape desired, folds it, applies the paste, and turns the edges required to be 
pasted, and then passes off the bags, on tapes and rollers, into a drying 
room, in which steam pipes are introduced. Through this the bags are con- 
ducted by continuous tapes and rollers over a surface of about fifty feet, and 
when thrown ot on pile?, the bags are dry and ready for packing. The 
firm now employs eighteen hands, and use nearly one and a half tons of 
paper per week. Tlie manufactory is a great curiosity to persons who liave 
never seen the operation of making bags by steam. — Phila. Ledger. 

Salt Manufacture of 1855. — The Superintendent of the Onondaga 
Salt Springs, V. W. Smith, Esq., has communicated his annual report to the 
Legislature, 

From the report we learn that the total amount of revenue the past year 



'670 MISCELLANEOUS. 



is $61,065 59, and the total expenses same year, $50,198 13 ; showing the 
net revenue for 1855 to be, $10,867 46. The whole amount of salt in- 
spected during the year is 6,082,885 bushels. 

The quantity of salt inspected in 1855, exceeds the inspection of 1854, 
by 279,538 bushels. This, says the report, is less than may hare been an- 
ticipated, but the deficiency will be found in the item of coarse salt. The 
increase in fine salt for the year 1855 is 515,888 bushels over 1854. Had 
the coarse salt works yielded an ordinary return, the increase in the manu- 
facture for 1855 would have exceeded 500,000 bushels. 

The production for 1856 is estimated at 6,800,000 bushels; and within a 
period of five years it is believed the manufacture will be extended to 
10,000,000 bushels. — Syracuse Journal. 

Baltimore — Wholesale "Watches and Jewelers. — Baltimore since 
1833 has been celebrated for this branch of the wholesale trade. It was 
during that year that the Messrs. Canfield, Bro. & Co., No. 229 Baltimore 
street, established their firm. Since that time they have been engaged 
almost exclusively in the Southern and Western trade. They import ex- 
tensively of watches, diamonds, pearls and other precious stones ; jewelry, 
fancy goods, bronzes, clocks — and manufacturers of silver-ware and jewelry. 
We believe their stock of goods are unequalled in the United States. One 
of the partners residing in Europe gives them advantages over most other 
houses engaged in the same business. Their reputation for manufacturing 
elegant silver-ware is well known throughout the country. We understand 
that the sales of watches alone in this establishment exceeds $175,000 per 
annum. — Cotton Plant. 

Sligo Marble Manufacturing Compant. — This is the style of another 
Company that has commenced operations at their quarry, two miles east of 
Knox vi He. The Company, we understand, is organized with a capital of 
$200,000, and it is their purpose to seek the Northern and Eastern markets 
with their marble, and to direct the attention of the people in those sections 
to the marble of East Tennessee, which, for ornamental purposes, without 
doubt surpasses that of any other portion of the Union. The management 
of the Sligo Company is in the hands of Mr. James Sloan, of Nashville, who 
is a practical man, and has much experience in the working of marble. We 
trust other companies of the same kind may be attracted to this region, and 
that they will succeed in giving to East Tennessee marble, what it deserves, 
the chaiacter. of a staple. — Knoxville Register. 

Mineral Wealth op England. — The following is the estimate of the 
London Mining Journal of the mineral wealth of England for the current 
year: 

Coals at pits, £23,000,000 

Iron ore, 3,000,000 

Copper ore, 1,300,000 

Lead ore, 1,500,000 

Tin ore, 700,000 

Silver, 200,000 

Zinc ores, - - - - - - 15,000 

Salt, earth, sulphur, building stones, etc., 8,000,000 

Total, - - • - - £32,715,000 



NEW BOOKS. 571 



The Paper Plant in Wisconsin. — Under this head (says the Boston 
Post) we have before us a description of a plant discovered in this country 
by Mrs. A. L. Beaumont, of Arena. She has furnished us with a fine sam- 
ple of cotton, and also of flax, from the same plant which she describes as 
follows : 

" I discovered, two years ago, a plant that yields both cotton and flax from 
the same root, and believe I am the first person that ever cultivated, spun, 
or knit from it. I am persuaded that any article that will make as good 
cloth as can be made from this plant will make good paper ; hence I call it 
the paper plant. It can be planted in the spring, and cut in the fall or 
winter. It bleaches itself white as it stands, and will yield at least three or 
four tons to the acre. From a single root that I transplanted last spring, 
there grew twenty large stalks, with three hundred and five pods, (containing 
the cotton,) with at least sixty seeds in each. From this root I obtained 
seven ounces of pure cotton and over half a pound of flax. It is a very 
heavy plant, and grows from six to seven feet high." 



NEW BOOKS, 



The Works of Chables Lamb ; with a Sketch of his Life and Final Memorials. 

By Sir Thos. Noon Talfourd, one of his executors. In two volumes. New-York : 

Harper & Brothers. 1855. 12mo, 555 and 611 pages. 

Charles Lamb needs no introduction to the readers of The Plough, the Loojn, and 
the Anvil. His peculiarities and his abilities are equally familiar to them. They know 
him as a man of wonderful genius, and one of the most pleasing of the writers of recent 
times. With the announcement of a new edition of his works it is therefore only 
necessary to say that these volumes contain a biographical sketch, his pubUshed letters 
to Coleridge, Southey, Wordsworth, Field, Manning, Wilson, Barton, Hazlitt, etc., his 
controversy with Southey, and final memorials. 

The second volume contains the Essays of Elia, Kosamund Gray, Recollections of 
Christ Hospital, Essays on Shakspeare, and cotemporaries, and on Fuller, Hogarth, and 
Geo, Wither, sundry letters, poems, sonnets, blank verse, album verses, etc. 

The volumes are well printed, and would form a valuable addition to any library. 

A Journey in the sea-board Slave States; with Remarks on their Economy. 
By Frederick Law Olmsted, author of " Walks and Talks of an American Farmer 
La England." New-York : Dix & Edwards. 1856. 723 pages, 12mo. 

Mr. Olmsted is well able to criticise the agricultural usages of any country. His 
former volumes contain abundant evidence of this. He is also a very pleasant writer. 
He knows how to tell a story, and is excellent in descriptions. In this volume he has 
little compassion for the victims whom he condemns, though he commends many 
farms and plantations as models of their kind. There is, however, no mistaking his 
disapproval of slavery, though he exhibits an unusual amount of candor and coolness 
in his remarks on that subject. He seems to act upon the motto which he cites from 
Macaulay, that " Men are never so likely to settle a question rightly as when they dis- 
cuss it freely." The volume comprises what he saw and heard " during the first three 
of fourteen months' travel in the Slave States." He says many very pleasant things 
of the persona he saw, of incidents in his experience, and scenes which he met with. 



672 NEW BOOKS. 



He says in his preface, " As a democrat he went to study the South, its institutions 
and its people ; more than ever a democrat, ho has returned from this labor and writ- 
ten the pages which follow." He visited Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana. 

Letters from the United States, Cuba and Canada. By the Hon. Amelia M. 
Murray. Two vols, complete in one. New-York : G. P. Putnam & Co., 321 
Broadway. 1856. 12mo, 402 pages. 

Miss Murray has written a very peculiar book. It might be supposed to be her 
private diary, intended to remind herself years to come of incidents, novel or amus- 
ing, but too unimportant to be retained in the memory. All her movements are set 
down with remarkable minuteness. The character of our hotels is too important to a 
traveler to be overlooked, and her favorable judgment, as at Cleveland, Ohio, in the 
Weddell House, where she says " the accommodation is excellent," is, comparatively, 
quite worthy of note. Our railroads are sometimes commended, but at Dover, N.H., 
she " entered a branch railroad" which " was very slow, as it stopped at several sta- 
tions for mercantile purposes." Of the people she says, "My impression of the Ame- 
rican people has been hitherto more favorable than I expected," and yet she says 
further on, " Only the fear of starvation would induce a English man or woman to 
fix themselves for life in America." Miss Murray is a zealous, possibly a good botanist, 
and her reader is made acquainted with the locahties of many plants, most of which 
are vei-y common, although when she speaks of " Hemlock Spruce," as she does 
repeatedly, she certainly departs from the system of such botanists as we are familiar 
with. The book is written quite too carelessly, as may be discovered in passages 
already cited, and also where she says, failing to receive expected letters, " This is 
very disappointing;" and again, in her visit to the Supreme Court, "A counsel 
spoke," etc. Such errors abound. But this book adds one amusing volume to that 
kind of light literature which, though ever so xmintellectual, is much in demand. 

FamiliaPw Science; or, the Scientific Explanation of the principles of Natural and 
Physical Science, and their practical and familiar applications to the employments 
and necessities of common Life. Illustrated with upwards of one hundred and 
sixty engravings. By David A. Wells. Philadelphia : Childs & Peterson. 1856. 

Mr. Wells is a writer of peculiar merit. He is not only a man of science, but what 
is quite as important, he well knows the wants of the people, and prepares his pub- 
lications accordingly. His illustrations and demonstrations are simple and lucid. 
This volume is a fit companion of his previous publications, either of which would do 
much to establish a good reputation in the departments of science which he has ex- 
hibited. The volume before us contains treatises on all the sciences usually denomi- 
nated " physical or natural," with chapters on the Philospby of Manufactures, Agri- 
cultural and Rural Economy, Geology and Mineralogy. It also gives some explanations 
of the arts, as weaving, etc. 

Edith ; or, the Quaker's Daughter. A Tale of Puritan Times. By one of the 
descendants. New-York: Mason & Brothers ; 1856. 12mo, 407 pages. 

This story is finely written, and is full of interest. The sympathies of the reader 
are constantly awake during the progress of the ixarrativc, and the result is pleasing. 
Many touching scenes are scattered through the volume. In respect to its Utcrary 
merits this volume is a specimen of the best and of the highest style of its class. As 
a matter of history we should have many things to say. The Quakers of those times 
too closely resembled the Abby P'olsoms of the present day in their factious opposi- 
tion to all government, to receive the unqualified sympathies of candid minds. 



NEW MUSIC. 573 



Le Bon Ton. — Journal des Modes and Monthly Report of London, Paria, and New- 
York Fashions. S. T. Taylor, 407 Broadway. 

The 8abject of fashions perhaps belongs in the list of topics appropriate to our 
journal, but it is one in which we should not claim to speak ex cathedra. But those 
ladles in whom we have entire confidence pronounce this to be the work in that 
department. The fashion plates are engraved and colored in Paris, the description 
of the fashions, also, is written there, and the numbers throughout are brought out in 
most excellent style, unsurpassed, if equalled elsewhere. Monthly terms, $5 a year. 
We will forward specimen numbers, if to be had, on receiving the price and a postage 
stamp. The editions are sold rapidly, and circulated extensively. 

The Mormons at Home. With some Incidents of Travel from Missouri to Califor- 
nia, 1852-53, in a series of letters. By Mrs. B. G. Ferris, wife of the late U. S. 
Secretary for Utah. New- York : Dix & Brothers. 1856. 12mo, 299 pages. 

Mrs. Ferris accompanied her husband, like a faithful and fond wife, to the territory 
of Utah, and passed the winter there, returning by the way of California. She has 
here given a description of what she saw and learned. Most of it has appeared in 
Putnam's Magazine, but it is well worth this form of issue, for it gives what we doubt 
not deserves entire confidence, and tells a story quite worth general attention. 

Annual of Scientific Discovert ; or. Year Book of Facts on Science and Art 
FOR 185(5, etc. By David A. Wells, A.M. Boston: Gould & Lincoln ; New- York : 
G. P. Putnam. 378 pages, 12mo. 

Mr. Wells has here given to the public another of his annual volumes describing the 
prcgrjss of science and the arts in the year past. The work is well executed, and, 
like another volume of his noticed in these pages, it does him much credit as a scien- 
tific editor. 



NEW MUSIC. 



Wm. Hall & Son. — We have received the following among the choice pieces of 
music neatly published by this extensive house : 

" Souvenir d'Ecosse, fantasie de Salon." Par W. Vincent Wallace. A remarkably 
brilliant and very eiFective composition. 

" Forget me Not, a Romance for the Piano Forte." By W. Vincent Wallace. This 
is very beautiful and not very difficult. 

" The Dreams of Youth." Ballad by W. J. Robson. Composed by J. W. Cherry. 
Simple and very pretty. 

" When the Moon is brightly Shining." Sung by by Mr. Sims Reeves. Composed 
by B. Molique. A very pretty composition. 

"Sleep Mine Eyelids Close." Ballad, words and music by Annie Frickcr. Simple 
and pretty. 

" I heard thy Fate without a Tear." Ballad by Lord Byron. Composed by J. W. 
Hobbs. A very pretty composition. 



674 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



List of Patents Issued 



FEOM TERMINATION OF PaEVIOUS LIST TO FEB. 12. 



John Beattie, of Liverpool, England, for im- 
provement in means for supporting tiie propeller 
shaft, and receiving the rudder of stern propellers. 
Patented in England, Sept. 5, 1850. 

Wm. H. Brown, of Worcester, for variable dia 
fOr dividing engines. 

Jos. S. Brown, of Lowell, for improvement in 
extension railroad car. 

Sam'l J. Chapman, of Charlestown, for machine 
for feeding sheets of paper to printing presses. 

Jos. Cheever, of Boston, for improvement in ap- 
paratus for curing varicocele, sterility, impotency, 
and other diseases of the genital organs. 

H. M. Clarli, of New-Britain, Conn., for improve- 
ment in machines for heading bolts. 

Hezekiah Crout, of Baltimore, for improvement 
in removable flanlc bar for securing the glasses of 
lanters. 

Elisha H. Gollier, of Scituate, for improvement 
in heading spilces. 

John P. Philo and Geo. Cowing, of Seneca Falls, 
N.Y., for improved method of operating fire-en- 
gine. 

C. J. Cowperthwaite, of Philadelphia, for im- 
proved hydrant. f 

Charles A. Gumming and Cortland Douglass, of 
New- London, Conn., for improvement in gas burn- 
ers. 

Demit C. Cummings, of Fulton, N. Y., for im- 
provement in loclc gate valves. 

Edw. A. Curley, of Westport, Conn., for improve- 
ment in extension tables. 

Henry D. P. Cunningham, of Bury Hants, Eng- 
land, for improvement in reefing saUs. Patented 
in England, Nov. 30, 1850. 

Joseph C. Day, of Hackettstown, N. J., for im- 
provement in fire-arms. 

Allen Green, of Providence, for improved mode 
of attaching thills to axles. 

W. W. Harvy, of Saltville.,Va., for improvement 
in implements for pruning trees. 

Caleb S. Hunt, of Bridgewater, Mass, for Im- 
provement in cotton press. 

Frank G. Johnson, of Brooklyn, for Improved 
method of regulating speed of windmills. 

Richard W. Jones, of Green Castle, Ind., for im- 
provement in brick machines. 

A. Kendall, of Cleveland, for shingle machine. 

Wm. F. Ketchum, of Buffalo, for improvement 
In grain and grass harvesters. 

Sam'l M. King, of Lancaster, Pa., for shingle 
macbiae. 

Wm. R. Lavender and Atkins Smith, of Pro- 
vincetown, Mass., for improved steering wheel 
stopper. 

J. A. Merriman, of Hindsdale, Mass., for mort- 
ising machine. 

P. H. Moore, of Boston, for improvement in 
safety coal hole covers. 

James McNabb and Adam Carr, of New- York, 
for improvement in steam stop-valves. 

R. D. Nesmith, of Lake Village, N. H., for im- 
provement in machines for dressing mill-stones. 

Ephraim Parker, of Burlington, Iowa, for ma" 
cbiae for making clothes pins. 



Ira S. Parker, of Sharon, Vt., for imprOTemeot 
in washing boards. 

Reed Peck, of Cortlandville, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in door-fastenings. 

Charles Perley, of New-York, for improvement 
in cargo ports for ships and other vessels. 

Abiel Pevey, of Lowell, Mass., for improvemen t 
in remelting iron scraps. 

Ezra Ripley, of Troy, improvement in casting 
metals. 

Samuel T. Sharp, of Danville, Mo., for improve- 
ment in straw cutter. 

Thomas J. Stratton, of Waterloo, N. Y., for im- 
provement in ditching machines. 

Eber T. Starr, of New-York, for improvement in 
revolving fire-arms. 

Francis M. Strong and Thomas Ross, of Ver- 
gennes, for Improvement in platform scales. 

Abner J. Sutherland, of Lowell, for improvement 
in yarn dressing frames. 

James S. Taylor, of Danbury, for improvement 
in machinery for felting hats. 

Joseph H. Tompkins, of Buffalo, for improved 
box for coating daguerreotype plates. 

Lewis White, of Hartford, for improvement in 
curtain fixtures. 

Hugh Wightman and Wm. Warden, of Alleg- 
hany, for improvement in oscillating engines. 

Charles H. Brown and Chasles Burleigh, of 
Fitchburgh, Mass., assignors to the Putnam Ma- 
chine Company, of same place, for improvement 
in means for regulating and working steam- valves 
as cut-offs. 

John L. Brown, of Indianapolis, assignor to 
himself and Chas. Learned, of same place, for 
lath machine. 

Gelston Sanford, and Thomas and Stephen Hull, 
of Poughkeepsie, for improvement in grain and 
grass harvesters. » 

David Marsh, of Bridgeport, assignor to Thomas 
B. Stout, of New-Jersey, Joseph A. Cody, of Ohio, 
and David Marsh, of Conn., for improvement in 
hanging mUl-stones. 

Ari and Asabel Davis, of Lowell, and Charles 
Cunningham, of Nashua, assignor to Alfred W. 
Adams, of Lowell, Josiah B. Richardson, and Geo. 
W. Pettes, of Boston, and Sherburne T. Sanborn, 
of Winchester, Mass., for improvement in hydro- 
carbon vapor apparatus. 

Benj. F. Avery, of Louisville, Ky,, for machin e 
for bending plow handles, &c. 

J. A. Ayres, of Hartford, Conn., for method of 
opening and closing farm gates. 

Thos. Crane, of Fort Atkinson, Wis., for im- 
provement in flouring mills. 

Wm. W. HubbeU, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in eccentric explosive shells. 

John M. Jones, of Palmyra, N. Y., assignor to 
Newton Foster, of same place, for improvement 
in cotton seed planters. 

David H. Kennedy, of Reading, Pa., for improve- 
ment in the arrangement of tan vats. 

Jos. W. KlUam, of Easi Wilton, N. H., for ma- 
chine for dressing sticks to polygnal forms. 

Emmons Manley, of Marion, N. Y., for improved 
riveting machine. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



S7$ 



Jos. S. Manning, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in mowing machines. 

Wm. H. Medcalfe, of Baltimore, Md., for method 
of ventilating railroad cars. 

Jean Pierre MoUiere, of Lyons, France, for im- 
provement in machines for hammering leather 
for the soles and heels of boots and shoes. Pa- 
tented in France, July 22, 1856. 

John J. Osborn, of New-Orleans, La., for im- 
provement in grate bars. 

Francis Peabody, of Salem, Mass., for improved 
method of regulating velocity of wind wheels. 

Freeman Plummer, of Manchester, Ind., for im- 
provement in seed planters. 

James P. Ross, of Lewisburg, Pa., for improve" 
ment in means for operating the steam valves in 
blower engines. 

Chas. Schmidt, of Union, Mo., for improved 
method of boxing carriage wheels. 

Horace Smith, of Norwich, Conn., and Daniel 
B. Wesson, of New-Haven, Conn., assignors to 
" The Volcanic Repeating Arms Company," of 
New-Haven, Conn., for improved primes for cart- 
ridges of fire-arms. 

John H. Manny, of Rockford, El., for improve- 
ment in grain and grass harvesters. 

John H. Manny, of Rocliford, 111., for improve- 
ment in harvester cutter bars. 

Adolph C. Moestue, of Kane County, 111., for 
Improvement in mastic for covering walls. 

Lucius Page, of Cavendish, Yt., for improve- 
ment in grinding mills. 

Jos. N. Pitts, of Blackstone, Mass., for improve- 
ment in machines for cutting flocks and paper 

Rufus Porter, of Washington, D. 0., for im- 
proved punching machines. 

Geo. M. Ramsay, of New- York, N. Y., for im- 
proved hinge. 

H. G. Robertson, of Greenville, Tenn., for im- 
provement in bee hives. 

Riley Ruot & Samuel G. Holyoke, of Galesburg, 
111., for improvement in machines for clearing 
enow from railroad tracks. 

Henry p. Shaw, of South Boston, Mass., for im- 
provement in screw-jacks. 

Charles F. Thomas, of Taunton, Mass., for im 
proved chimney cowls. 

Philos B. Tyler, of Springfield, Mass., for im- 
proved method of attaching teeth to saw plates. 

Elbridge Webber, of Gardiner, Me., for improved 
device in tree-nail machines. 

Thos. Winans, of Baltimore, Md., for improve- 
ment in buggy wagons. 

Geo. D. Yong, of Plymouth, Mass., for improve- 
ment in belt and band fastenings. 

Daniel Dod, of Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to 
himself and Henry F. Read, of same place, for 
improved soldering iron. 

Horace L. Houghton, of Springfield, Vt., assig- 
nor to Abel H. Grennell, of same place, for im- 
provement in machines for cutting mouldings on 
marble. 

Edward Kershaw, of Boston, Mass., assignor to 
himself and Henry M. Hooper & Co., of same 
place, for improved cell lock. 
. Jos. Weis, of Bordentown, N. J., for improve- 
ment in flouring mills. 

Albert Bisbee, of Chelsea, Mass., for improve- 
ment in means for operating the throttle valve of 
Steam engines. 

Jos. T. Capewell, of Woodbury, Conn., for im- 
provement in shot pouches. 

"Bhomas J. Carleton and Stephen Post, of York, 
u., lor Improved field fences. 



Geo. R. Oomstock, of Manheim, N. Y., for im- 
provment in locomotive furnace grates. 

Henry N. Degraw, of Piermont, N. Y., for im- 
provement in machine replacing railroad cars. 

Louis T. Delassize, of New-Orleans, La., for im- 
provement in brick machines. 

Chas. Foster, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improye- 
ment in scaffolds. 

Moses G. Farmer, of Salem, Mass., for improve- 
ment in telegraphic Regist ers. 

Stephen J. Gold, of New-Haven, Conn., for im- 
provement in apparatus for heating buildings by 
steam, 

John Hinkley, of Huron, O., for improvement 
in universal joints for connecting shafts, &c. 

Hazzard Knowles, of New-York, N. Y., for mor- 
tising tool. 

Noah W. Kumber, of Cincinnati, 0., for im* 
provement in pill-making machines. 

Charles H. Bush, of Fall River, Mass., for im- 
provement in the bell stench trap. 

Solomon Berheisel, of Tyrone Township, Pa.» 
for improvement in corn dryers. 

Wm. Ball, of Chicopee, Mass., for improved ore 
washer. 

A. H. Caryl, of Sandusky, Ohio, for improved 
raking attachments to harvesters. 

Levi Chapman, of New-York, N. Y., for improved 
photograpliic plate vise. 

John Cook, of Westmoreland, N. Y., for im- 
provement in lugs for cast iron shingles. 

Edward N. Dickerson, of New-York, N, T., and 
Elisha K. Root, of Hartford, Ct., for improvement 
in pumps. 

Peter S. Elbert, of Chicago, III., for improve- 
ment in heating-feed-water apparatus for loco- 
motives. 

John G. Ernst, of York, Pa., for improved saw 
set. 

Major H. Fisher, of Sing Sing, N. Y., assignor 
to Jos. A. Hyds, of Bridgewater, Mass., for im- 
provement in cutting files. 

Elisha S. French, of Binghamton, N. Y., for im- 
provement in three-wheeled vehicles. 

Thomas Frith, of Cincinnati, O., for improved 
feed-water apparatus to steam boilers. 

Samuel Gissinger, of Alleghany, Pa., for im- 
proved bench vise. 

Elisha Harris, of Providence, R. I., for improve- 
ment in machines for bending ship hooks. 

Oliver S. Hazard and Isaac Peck, of Coventry, 
R. I., for improvement in machinery for making 
rope. 

Harvy J. Hughes, of Davenport, Iowa, for im- 
provement in brick presses. 

Samuel McFerran,of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in hot-air furnaces. 

Richard Montgomery, of New-York, N. Y., for 
improvement in carriage springs. 

S. S. Mills & M. Bissell, of Charleston, S. C, for 
improvement in weighing scales. 

Stephen C. Mendenhall, of Richmond, Ind., fo^ 
improvement in flour bolts. 

Geo. R. Moore, of Mount Joy, Pa., for improve- 
ment in fire-pokers. 

Francis Morandt, of Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in lanterns. 

Sam'l Peck, of New-Haven, Conn., for improved 
fastenings for the hinges of daguerreotype cases. 

Myer Phineas, of New-York, N. Y., for improved 
metallic pen. 

Juan Pattison, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in oscillating steam engines. 

B. F. Ray, of Baltimore, Md., for improyemejQt 
in harvesters. 



676 



LIST OP PATENTS. 



John S. Snyder, of Lancaster, 0., for improve- 
ment in saw mills. 

Alfred Swingle, of Boston, Mass., assigner to 
Elmer Towsend, of same place, for improvement 
in sewing macliines. 

Harriet V. Terry, of Boston, Mass., adminlsta 
trix, of Wm. D Terry, dec'd, for Improved mode 
of constructing cast iron buildings. 

S. J. Frask, of Guilford Centre, N. Y., for im- 
proved alarm cIocIj. 

Otis Tufts, of Boston, Mass., for improvement 
in making wrought iron shafts. 

John B. Wentworth, of Lynn, Mass., for im- 
provement In machines for softening leather. 

Abner Whitly, of Springfield, 0., for improve- 
ment in grain and grass harvesters. 

Abner Whitly, of Springfield, O., for improve- 
ment in belt fastenings. 

John Standing, of Fall River, Mass., assignor to 
-himself and James Baxendale, of Providence, R. 
I., for improved movement for the doctors of cali- 
co printing machines. 

Chas. C. Terrell, of ShuUsburgh, Wis., assignor 
nor to himself and Samuel Crawford, of Mineral 
Point, Wis., for improvement in many-chambered 
breech loading cannon. 

John M. Wimley, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor 
to himself and Washington 11. Penrose, of same 
place, for improvement in the mode of attaching 
composition soles to boots and shoes. 

Wm. Adamson, of Philadelphia County, Pa., for 
improvement in machinery for cutting sand paper. 
Ante-dated Aug. 12, 1855. 

John AUender, of New-London, Conn., for im- 
provement in scissors. 

B. J. Barber, of Ballston Spa, N. Y., for im- 
proved method of tonguing and grooving taper- 
ing boards. 

Wm. Baxter, of Newark, N. J., for improved 
wrench. 

Erastus B Bigelow, of Boston Mass., for im- 
provement in power looms. 

Felix Brown and Adolph Brown, of New-York, 
N, Y., machine for boring and tenoning wood. 

John Clark, of Washington, D. C, and G. W. 
N. Yost, of Pittsburg, Pa., for improvement in 
ploughs. 

Chas. W. Copeland, of New- York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in valve and exhaust passages of 
■team engines. 

Waldo P. Craig and Wm. R. Rightor, of New- 
port, Ky., for improvement in signals for vessels. 

Clement Dare, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for improved 
method of regulating feed gates for mills, etc. 

C. H. Denison, of Green River, Vt., for rotary 
planer for felloes. 

Levi S. Enos, of Olean, N. Y., for improvement 
In oil cans. 

Wm. E. Everett and M. M. Thompson, of New- 
York, N. Y., for improvement in devices for re- 
moving incrustations of boilers. 

David N. Flanders, of South Royalton, Vt., for 
Improved adjustable carriage seat. 

P. G. Gardiner, of New- York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in railroad car-axle. 

John S. Gallaher, jr., of Washington, D. C, for 
improvement in gas and steam cooking apparatus. 

Thaddeus Fowler, of Waterbury, Conn., for im- 
provement in sticking pins in paper. 

Uobt. ii Wm. L. Gebby, of New-Richland, 0., for 
improvement in seed planters. 

Wm. Gee, of New-York, N. Y., for lubricator. 

Ejij.ih Hall, of Rochester, N. Y., for improrc- 
«ent in power looms. 



Anson Hatch, of ForestviUe, Conn., for im- 
proved hand press for stamping letters, kc. 

Birdsill Holly, of Seneca Falls, N. Y., for im- 
provement in steam engines, which are used for 
pumping. 

J. L. Horn, of Edgecombe County, N. C, for Im- 
provement in cotton seed planters. 

Westel W. Hurlbut, of Utica, N. Y., for improved 
method of hanging and adjusting circular saws. 

Solon S. Jackman, of Lock Haven, Pa., for im- 
proved elevator for puddlers balls. 

Ferdinand Keehnold, of Bridgeport, Conn., for 
improved wrench. 

James T. King, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in steam condensers. 

R. W. Lewis, of Honesdale, Pa., for improve- 
ment in sealing preserve cans. 

Edward Lindner and Conrad Hoffman, of New- 
York, N. Y., for improvement in porte-monnaies. 

John L. McPherson, of New- Vienna, O., and 
Jacob 0. Joyce, of Cincinnati, 0., for improvement 
in diaphragm pumps. 

Christopher Moeller, of Newark, N. J., for im- 
provement in wick holders for Argand lamps. 

Eljsha P. Newton, of Green Island, N. Y., for 
improved wrench. 

Job Phillips, of Harrisburgh, Pa., for improve- 
ment in grain harvesters. 

John Prime, of Washington, D. C, for improve- 
ment in ship compasses. 

Lea Pusy, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improved 
method of extinguishing fires. 

Wm. H. Robertson and George W. Simpson, of 
Hartford Conn., for improvement in breech-load- 
ing fire-arms. 

Chas. H. Sayre, and George Klinch, of Utica, 
N. Y., for improvement in cultivator teeth. 

John Seithen, of Coblenz, Prussia, for improved 
envelopes for bottles. Patented in England, Au- 
gust 29, 1854. 

Edwin F. Schoenberger, of Marietta, P.i-, for im- 
provement in fluxing blast furnaces 

Timothy F. Taft, of FitchDurg, Mass., for im- 
proved bolt machine. 

Benj. Taylor, of Philadelphia, Pa., for instru- 
ment lor grating green corn. 

Thos. Thompson, of Nickersville, N. Y., for Im- 
proved machine for folding paper, &c. 

Wm. D. Titus, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in oil box for axles with conical journals. 

W'm. H. Powers, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
provement in clothes clamps. 

LoisonD. Towne, of Worcester, Mass., for cutter 
heads for planing machines. 

James Whitcom, of Detroit, Mich., for improve- 
ment in railroad switch. 

S. W. Wood, of Washington, D. C, for improve- 
ment in railroad car coupling. 

Geo. W. N. Yost, of Pittsburgh, Pa., for improve- 
ment in grain and grass harvesters. 

C. C. Hoff, of Albany, N. Y., assignor to E. P. 
Russell, of Manlius, N. Y., for improvement in the 
construction of mastic roofing. 

James M. Kern, of Morgantown, Va., assignor 
to Enoch P. Fitcli and Isaac Scott, of same place^ 
for improved method of concaving circular saws^ 

Alfred Swingle, of Boston, Mass., assignor to 
Elmer Townsend, of same place, for improvement 
in pegging boots. 

Chas. Morgan, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to 
Sam'l Emlen, of same place, for improvement in 
potato planters. 

Henry Newsham, of Baltimore, Md., for "n- 
provement in caldrons. 



Cl)c flDugl), tl)e f uoitt, anti tl)e ^nDil. 



Vol. Vm. APRIL, 1856. No. 10. 



INFLUENCE OF VARIETY OF PURSUITS, 

IN PRODUCING INTELLECTUAL AND INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY THROUGH A COMMUNITY. 

Truth is self-sustaining. Separate truths mutually confirm each other. 
Correct theories and sound principles commend themselves by the benefits 
which they confer through their indirect and incidental connections. Thus 
each demonstrates its own excellence. 

The policy which we advocate in reference to variety of pursuits com- 
mends itself, because it bears the test we have just described. It exerts a 
happy influence in promoting a general industry, and in a higher develop- 
ment of the popular intellect. 

We are quite too far into the nineteenth century to bear patiently the im- 
ported idea, not yet quite obsolete, that the masses are not made to think, or 
even to rule. As long as the memory of a Webster, a Clay, a Franklin, a 
Jackson, a Zachary Taylor, and scores of others, whose very names, now 
ihat their bodies are buried in the dust, are more honored and more beloved, 
and exert a higher influence than scores even of living public men, aspiring 
10 be leaders in our republic, so long it will be demonstrated that from the 
people — from the common walks of industry, must come, as they have hitherto, 
■ ihe most beloved and honored, the best, the strongest, the weightiest intellects, 
the most controlling influence of the country. Whatever, therefore, tends 
to favorable results in that direction is not only commendable, but of the 
highest importance. 

The Church has produced as many examples of this sort as the State. 
Henry Martyn was the son of a collier, John Newton was a sailor, Melanc- 
tbon was educated as a mechanic, and Bunyan served as a tinker and a 
common soldier. In our own country almost all our eminent clergymen 
have risen from the ranks of the comparatively poor. Nor is this all. The 
few very rich men have nearly all commenced without any capital. Several 
have first entered the city where they triumphed over the most discouraging 
outward circumstances, with all their possessions in the bundle which was 
hung at their back. 

It is true, in one sense, that agriculture is established by our Creator, as 
man's first and highest work, and that all other forms of industry are to be 
regarded only as its handmaids. But this is true only in a single and lim- 
ited pense. If the art of agriculture is neglected, and the annual harvest 
is not gathered, man must starve. Animal life, in many regions of the 
globe, must become ext'uct. This thought was most eloquently presented by 

VOL. vm. 87 



578 VARIETY OP PURSUITS. 

Mr. Everett in his speech at the banquet in Boston, as reported in a recent 
number of this journal. This work is therefore indispensable. 

"In the morning sow thy seed and in the evening withhold not thy hand," 
is not an arbitrary decree, but the fundamental law of life. If essentially 
violated, famine will consume our very being. This, then, is, in one sense, 
our first duty. 

But it is equally true that if men do not build for themselves habitations 
and contrive other means of defense against the elements, they must perish. 
So these too appear as primary duties, and archltcet.ure and other arts also, 
rise, like agriculture, by parity of reasoning, to the dignity of " divine insti- 
tutions." 

A careful view of the subject will prove that in countries where the whole 
of man's work is merely or chiefly the tilling of the soil, there will be, compar- 
atively, but little physical or mental activity among the masses of the people. 
We have recently been reminded that " comparisons are odious," but we 
scarcely know how to urge any sort of progress or of reform without this 
kind of illustration. We therefore beg our reader's candid judgment, 
while he follows us, for a {ew moments only, in the examination of this mat- 
ter. If he will then give us his ideas of it, either in confirmation or nega- 
tion, we will furnish him as extensive a platform on which to exhibit his 
views as our pages can furnish. 

We shall find that in communities engaged in a variety of industrial pur- 
suits, mere manual labor is performed with more energy ; that more physical 
activity is there put forth, than in those where agriculture is the sole occu- 
pation of the people. If our readers are familiar with the habits of our 
border settlements, as one region after another comes under the dominion of 
the hardy pioneer, they know that as soon as the land is once subdued and 
prepared for cultivation, only a portion of the time is occupied in any kind of 
labor. Three days's work in the week will usually furnish all that is neces- 
sary for domestic uses, and no motive urges them to more constant occupa- 
tion. As we recede from the outer limits of civiliz^ition, toward the older 
settlements, a greater variety of crops is produced, flowers and bhrubbery, 
and fruits, etc., begin to receive more careful and more extensive culture, and 
various additional inducements are presented for new forms of labor. As 
population becomes more dense, and new trades and professions occupy at- 
tention, markets spring up, consumers multiply, and everything conspires to 
induce habits of increased industry. 

Look at the condition of other and older countries, and they too bear us 
out in assertirg that physical energy and activity is displayed in the highest 
d .gree wherever the various trades and manufactures are liberally sustained. 
The examples to which we have referred, be it remembered, are not of 
those who are indolent because they are laboring for the benefit of another, 
without reward, or for half pay, or because the same award is given them 
whether they are industrious or not, but of men working their own soil, for 
their own advantage, and precisely according to the dictates of their own 
free will. 

The ingenuity of men is more eflfectually called into action in communi- 
ties engaged in a variety of pursuits. Under such circumstances it becomes 
important to do everything under the most favorab.V -ircumstances. Ea<;h 
man is anxious to avail himself of every new facility for carrying on his own 
craft. Everv ingenious man may devote himself to the invention of new 
contrivances^ under the assurance that every valuable thought he shall evolve 
will pay liberally for the time he may devote to it. 



VARIETY OF PURSUITS. 579 



Facts easily determined leave no room for doubt on this point. The num- 
ber of patented inventions in these industrial communities, (we use this 
term for its conciseness,) is vastly greater than in those where all are occu- 
pied in agriculture, while the number of those not patented, but which are 
originated, often by more than one, without any knowledge that the same 
thought has been suggested by others, greatly exceeds the number of patents 
actually issued. Probably the number of these non-patented contrivances 
of useful mechanical combinations greatly exceeds the number of those 
patented, and tbe excess of those non-patented in industrial communities 
over the same class of inventions among agriculturists, is still greater than 
that of inventions which are secured by law. Our own country does not 
furnish the only evidence of this sort. What is true here is true over all 
the world. 

A modified form of this statement is equally certain, to wit : There is 
more general intellectual activity in these industrial communities than else- 
where. The mechanical inventions to which we have referred present but a 
partial view of the general action of the popular mind, but it is scarcely 
possible that such vigor and efficiency shoirld be unaccompanied with a gen- 
eral activity of mind, habituated to careful analysis, and poesessing a whole- 
some constitution. 

Nor are these activities concerned only with industrial topics. How often 
do we see such a people manifesting a deep interest in general education, or 
even in liberal sciences ? Sometimes, indeed, they become enthusiastic in the 
pursuit of some theory or abstraction, or of some fancied good. Nor is our 
inference drawn from these facts to be set down as unworthy of consideration, 
because such developments are sometimes foolish and positively harmful. 
No community of vigorotis, but depraved mind, and especially if imper- 
fectly educated, can fail to evolve monstrous errors. As well might a steam 
engine be expected to exert its tremendous power only for useful purposes, 
avoiding collisions and saving the bves aiad limbs of those who ftiU under its 
wheels. As well may a forge or furnace keep itself clear of smut and smoke. 
Our manufacturing machinery, when in action, sometimes proves destructive 
to the lives and limbs of operatives. It is indeed quite harmless when at 
rest. Nevertheless life is better than death, and occasional discords to uni- 
versal deafness or perpetual silence. It is desirable that chemical agencies 
should exert their attractions and repulsions, though they do sometimes re- 
sult in offensive decompositions. Valuable results are usually achieved at a 
great expense. This is equally true in morals and in physics. 

We do not intend to assert that the general average of intellectual endow- 
ment, in any community, is graduated by the amount of physical machinery 
it employs, or that the highest intellects are confined within certain indus- 
trial boundaries. But we do maintain that under the circumstances described, 
tbe mass of mind is not called into action. It lies dormant and bi^comes 
ineflficient and useless to itself and to others. Motives to effort are not pre- 
sented to them, or when presented are either unheeded or retult only in fitful 
efforts. Where the circumstances of a people are opposite to these, where 
the rivalries and strifes of commercial and trading industry are in their 
flood tide, there we always find intellectual energy to meet the demand. In 
every large community an opportunity is constantly afi"orded for the exercise 
of talent and skill in the learned professions, and hence we l]nd a much greater 
uniformity in the endowaients and capacities of men of these classes, in all 
communities, than we do ia the condition of the people whom they serve. 
The tastes and prejudices of a people exert no little influence upon the pecu- 



580 VARIETY OF PURSUITS. 



liar mental characteristics and the amount of acquirements among profes- 
sional men, but there is far less diversity arising from these causes in these 
professions than is displayed in other more private stations. 

"Where the mental powers of the masses are not habitually called into 
action, the few control the many. All public measures are originated and 
carried through, not by the people, nor at their bidding. So all improve- 
ment", as the construction of railroads and the like, are first suggested, 
planned, and executed by the few educated and perhaps professional men, 
who are regarded and who regard themselves, as in some sense, the guardians 
of the people, the patrons and guides of the many. The latter are the pu- 
pils, they are their instructors. 

These thoughts lead to an inquiry on a kindred topic. Among what com- 
munities do we find the greatest number of learned authors and ablewriters 
rising up from all classes and from every kind of pursuit ? Where the most 
numerous readers ? Where the most enterprising tradesmen ? Where the most 
efficient craftsmen ? Evidently, where active competition and diversity of 
occupation call forth the energies of the common mind, leading to 
the exercise of vigorous thought, and diligent study, and resulting in a 
spirit of self-reliance, and an appreciation of beauty and excellence in con- 
ception and ability in execution. 

It does not follow from this reasoning, that agricultural districts are always 
and of necessity inferior in mental vigor to those communities which are 
engaged in the mechanic arts and manufactures and the various trades. 
Often they are not so far separated from the workshops or manufactories as 
not to bo materially affected by them. They are indeed little less than the 
outer covering of the Leyden jar, while those other departments of industry 
form the inner coat. These intelligent yeomen do not confine their thoughts 
nor their sympathies with the boundaries of their own broad seres. Not a 
day passes that they do not look out upon the busy world and listen to the 
tidings which are brought from it as they would listen to a message from 
absent friends. The newspaper is valued by them next to their Bibles. 
They identify their own interests with these distant movements. That they 
may have the most recent intelligence of important changes, the most speedy 
conveyances are brought into requisition. The electric wire connects them 
at once with the busiest scenes and most exciting conflicts of the great 
world. The two sides of the jar are in frequent connection. The passion of, 
one section is mingled constantly with the more quiet thoughtful habits of 
the other. But a mere agricultural community, scattered sparsely over wide 
territories could never impress upon distant places such deep and earnest 
convictions, nor such intense sympathies, by their own peculiar agencies. Such a 
thing has never been known, unless under the most peculiar circumstances. The 
well deserved reputation of many rural districts in our country, the like of which 
is not seen elsewhere, for sound judgment, strong common sense, and ardent 
patriotism, are no doubt, to a great extent, the peculiar products of our own 
revolution, or of the influence of those matchless minds which then |and for 
years after gave a tone to the tastes and the habits of the people. The stirring 
scenes of the present day, with which all these men are as familiar as they are 
with the transactions of their own families, have also a prevailing and controll- 
ing effect in perpetuating or modifying these habits and characteristics, as their 
sympathies are associated with one or another of the prominent doctrines 
and theories of the day. 

But we need not extend this discussion. We do not see how any one can 
doubt that avariety of industrial occupations tends to develop the popular mind 



METEOROLOGICAL. 581 



And jf the power of combination, and of invention, and of skillful analysis, 
of quick conception, nice perception, logical deduction, and kindred processes, 
are of vital importance to a people who essentially control their own desti- 
nies, the conclusion is unavoidable, that mechanical and manufacturing in- 
terests ought to be carefully protected wherever republican principles are tu 
prevail, or democratic institutions permanently established. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THE ANVIL. 

METEOROLOGICAL. 

Near BROWNsenRO, Rockbridge County, Va. ) 
26th February, 1856. ^ 

Gentlemen : — Your February number of the P. L. & A., reached me on 
the 18th inst. The January number did not come to hand. Please send it. 

There are one or two slight typographical errors in my article of the 25th 
December. Second paragraph, 10th line, for corned meat, read meat, and 
for money read many ; and 8th paragraph, Yth line, for feet read yards. 

Since last writing you, we have had quite a Northern winter, such a one 
as is rarely experienced in this latitude. Indeed I may with propriety say, 
Ave have not had such continuous cold weather for 30 years. We have done 
nothing since the holidays but cut wood and feed the stock ; and I learn by 
a letter just received that the James River is yet frozen up at Richmond, on 
the 23d. Since that day, however, the weather has been more mild, and I 
suppose the ice has given way by this time, as the snow has gone pretty 
much from the south sides, so as to give us a rise in the river without a 
flood. The nights freezing slightly. If our snow had gone off with a warm 
rain, immense damage would have been done, and we are not yet entirely 
out of danger, as there is much snow still in the mountains and on the north 
sides of the hills. 

The wheat, where the snow is off, looks well. There was much seed sown 
last fall, and, should the season prove favorable, a large harvest may be ex- 
pected. The sprinj: frosts, and the insect tribe may yet do us much injury. 

There has been less out-door work done this winter than I have ever 
known, and there was very little land ploughed last fall ; as a consequence we 
will be backward this spring. The weather was too cold to make rails or 
fence, and this work will have to be done when we should be ploughing. 
From our fine crops of corn last year, our stock has been well kept, our 
teams will be in good order, and when the spring fairly opens we can push 
ahead. 

For two months we have bad clean nice feeding. T have never had my 
milch cows and stock cattle winter better. But with beef cattle, where not 
housed, they have not fattened as well as if the winter had been warmer. 
There is a good stock of beef cattle on hand, and prices have been rather 
depressed. Feeders not getting more than paid for their corn at 50 cents 
per bushel, at which corn is selling in my neighborhood. 

Pork was scarce last foil, and sold at $7 to $8, and is now worth at Rich- 
mond $9. Beef commands from $6 to $10, as in quality. But little real 
tine beef to be had. 

Annexed I send you the state of the weatber for the last two months, and 
I hope after a while to find leisure to write you more at length. 



582 METEOROLOGICAL- 



Dec 


Date. 
. 26, 1855, 


Mercury. 
16 dej?. 




Weather. 
Wind high and from North. 


tt 


27, 


(( 


15 


11 








(1 


28, 


<( 


28 


" 










29, 
30, 




29 

27 


11 
11 






Cloudy, sleet and rain. 
Wind clouds. 


it 
Jan, 


31, 
. 1, 


1850, 


• 20 
22 


11 
11 






Hazy. 

11 


(1 


2, 
3, 


IC 


27 
35 


11 

11 






Cloudy. 

Kain and sleet. 


u 


4, 


" 


20 


(1 








(1 


5, 
6, 


u 


18 
10 


11 
11 






Snowing, wind North. 


a 


'7, 


1( 


10 


(1 








(1 


s, 


u 


22 


11 






Clear. 


(( 


y, 


(( 





11 


rose to 16" 




11 


10, 


11 


i: 


" 


helow 


Zero. 




(1 


11, 


11 


2 


" 


above 


" 


Wind North. 


(1 


12, 
13, 


11 


24 
30 


11 
(1 






Stormy day, snow. 


(1 


14, 


11 


25 


11 








it 


15, 


11 


25 


11 








(1 


16, 


11 
11 


24 
24 


It 

11 






Bright day. 


(1 

u 


18, 
19, 
20, 
21, 


11 

11 


31 
38 

24 
14 


11 
It 

11 






Snow storm, wind East by North. 


(( 


22, 


11 


14 


It 






Clear. 


u 


23, 


(1 


15 


11 






11 


(( 


24, 


11 


12 


(1 






It 


1( 


25, 


11 


15 


" 






11 


" 


26, 


(1 


10 


" 








(1 


27, 


11 


18 


11 






Snow storm, wind ^.'orth. 


ii 


28, 
29, 


11 
It 


27 
28 


11 
11 






Cloudy. 


a 


SO, 


11 


27 


It 






" 


li 


31, 


" 


22 


" 






" 


¥eh. 

(1 


. 1, 
2, 
3, 


11 
11 


34 
28 
13 


11 






Wind West. 

" high. 
Cold, windy nighi. 


ti 


'^j 


11 


2 


11 


bel. Z.,rosetol4» 


" 


5, 


11 


3 


11 


above 


Zero. 




u 


6, 

7, 


u 


13 
34 


It 
11 






Hazy. 

Snow. 


u 


8, 


11 


37 


11 






Sleet. 


u 


9, 
10, 


11 


30 
24 


It 






Windy. 


a 


11, 


" 


26 


" 






Clear, high wind. 


'• 


12, 


" 


36 


11 






High wind, North-vrest. 


" 


13, 


11 


16 


11 






Snow. 


" 


14, 


11 


3 


11 


below 


Zero. 






15, 
16, 

17, 
18, 
19, 
20, 


11 

11 

(1 
11 

11 


18 
88 
13 
25 
15 
30 


11 
11 

11 
11 
11 


above 




Snow. 

Very Vt'indy. 

Clear. 
Cioudv. 


" 


-1, 


11 


26 


" 






Clear.' 


" 


22, 


" 


25 


" 






" Wind North-west. 


" 


23, 


" 


89 


11 






" " " 


(1 


24, 


11 


32 


11 






11 11 11 


(1 


25, 


1< 


36 


" 






11 11 11 


<( 


26, 


II 


38 


(1 






11 11 11 


(( 


27, 


11 


35 


tt 






Snow ynd rain. 



SPEECH OF MR. m'MICHAEL. 583 

I would remark that for near two months the mercury rarely rose to 40 
degrees, with generally cold North-west or North-east winds, blowing almost 
a hurricane at times. I often thought of the poor weather-beaten mariner, 
who must have suffered intensely, and I fear this branch of trade has been 
sadly disastrous. Your ob'd'nt servant, 

Feb. 26, 1856. " Henry B. Jones. 



SPEECH OF MR. McMICHAEL. 

[We are happy to give even a tardy report of the beautiful speech of Mr. 
McMichael at the recent agricultural banquet in Boston. It does honor t • 
the editorial corps of which he is a member, and to the city which he has 
chosen as the place of his residence. — Ed. P, L. A.] 

Mr. President : — From the land of the Quaker to the land of the Puritan 
— from the city where our National Independence was first proclaimed, to the 
city where its first great labor was performed — we, who have just been honored 
by the toast you have proposed, may come, not as once we might have come, 
in awe of brandings, and stripes, and imprisonment, nor as again we might 
have come, burdened with the weight of a gloomy foreboding, to share in the 
perils of a doubtful conflict. No sir. Happier in this than our forefather?, 
whether of the earlier or later time, we have come, assured of hospitable wel- 
come and bounteous entertainment, to witness the generous rivalries of friend- 
ly contestants, and to mingle in the rejoicings which properly belong to the 
triumphs of peace. 

And sir, we feel that it is good for us to be here — we feel, now that the 
bitterness of intolerance, as between you and us, has forever ceased, now 
that the trials and dangers of revolutionary struggles for you and for us are 
forever over, recaUing, as we may, with a smile, the follies of the fanaticism 
by which we were separated, remembering, as we must, with a sigh, the trials 
of the patriotism by which we were united — that it is good for us, men of 
Pennsylvania to be here with you, men of Massachusetts; to engage with 
you in a common effort to promote an important interest of our common 
country ; to admire with you the rapid development of that interest ; to ex- 
ult with you over the unexampled prosperity of that country. 

Missionaries from our heaped-up granaries, from our prolific mine?, from 
our teeming furnaces, we have entered your industrial establishments — those 
great reservoirs of life, and of motion in its seeming intelligence resembling 
life — and having seen with our own eyes and measured with our own judg- 
ments the men and the means, that by consuming our grain and otir coal 
and our iron, and replacing them with fabrics that supply the staple of a 
busy commerce, have made our interests and yours complete and iden- 
tical, we are ready to cry " Woe, woe, woe," unto him that would 
sever us. Bound together as we are, it was not possible we could meet as 
strangers, but you have received us as favored brethren ; and in behalf 
of my colleagues, and in the name of those we represent, I cordially thank 
you ; I thank you for the courtesy which has been extended to us ; I thank 
you for the privilege we have enjoyed of being partakers at the same time, 
of jour pleasing duties and your grateful cheer ; I thank you for the oppor- 
tunity you have furnished of joiningour hands and our hearts and our voices 



5S4 SPEECH OF MR. M'MICHAEL. 

■with yours, ia the fulfillment of mutial service, in the recognition of mutial 
kindness, in the utterance of sentiment of mutual good-will. 

Mr. President : — As I looked, yesterday on the gratifing exhibition made 
among the triple hills of your beautiful Boston, like his Excellency, the Gov- 
ernor, I too was reminded of those ancient days, when from all the isles of 
Greece, the people gathered to a periodical festival, foremost among whose 
attractions were the achievements of the racecourse and the ring. It is 
true, sir, contrasting the present with the past, that in your curriculum no 
gaudy and glittering chariots, urged by filleted tyrants, have flashed their 
useless splendor in our eyes ; but in their stead you have shown us troops of 
gallent steeds, stronger of sinew, fleeter of foot, and lither of limb than ever 
champed a bit or struck a hoof in Elian circle ; and backed by hard-handed 
men who live in the daily practice of a liberty beyond any of which the 
Greek had ever dreamed. 

It is true, sir, that within your enclosures no naked wrestlers or sturdy ath- 
letes have tortured their supple joints in degrading encounters ; but better 
far than these, you have set before us whole droves of cattle preeminently 
fitted for the dairy, the shambles, or the yoke ; whole flocks of sheep, rich in 
the wool that gives activity to our looms, and the flesh that ministers to the 
healthy, and tempts even the sated appetite ; whole droves of swine, sug- 
gestive of that abundance which, out of our surplus, enables us to feed the 
hungry of the earth ; and all these you have presented so cared for and pro- 
vided, so pampered and fattened, that, while on the one band you have 
avoided whatever might lower the condition of man, on the other, for his use, 
and convenience, and enjoyment, you have elevated the condition of the 
brute. 

And, Mr. President, if in all things else this anniversary celebration of the 
United States Agricultural Society had fallen short of the far-famed games 
of old ; if, sir, instead of surpassing them, as it has, in all the manifestations 
of material superiority connected with the multiplication of human comforts, 
it had failed to match their meanest efforts; if, instead of the unassailable 
demonstration of progress which every incident of the display has contri- 
buted to strengthen, there had been equally unmistakable i)roofs of stagna- 
tion and retrogression ; there is one thing in which it has gone so irameas- 
ureably before them that for that and that alone, it would be a thousand-lbld 
more entitled to our praise. 

Mr. President, the Greek, with all his elegance and refinement, with all 
his philosophy and learning, with all his exquisite appreciation of poetry, 
and music, and painting, and sculpture, and statuary, had no adequate con- 
ception of the true value and just position of woman, and admitted her to 
no participation, unless in exceptional cases, in his higher pursuits and graver 
occupations. As part of his general system, she was prohibited, on pain of 
death, from being present at the ceremonies of the sacred island ; and the 
reservation in favor of the free love priestesses of Ceres only attested more 
significantly the dishonoring character of the exclusion. 

You, sir, have been guided by a wiser and better spirit, and recognizing 
that social equality of the sexes which reason and revelation alike teach us, 
you have thrown your gates wide open to the maids and matrons of the 
community, you have given them due precedence as well in the spectacles 
as at the banquet ; and in the bright, the thoughtful, the eloquent faces which 
turn towards me, I recognize visible tokens of the iUimitable advance which 
our Christian has made over heathen civihzation. 

Mr. President: In the most glorious era of Greecian art under the admia- 



SPEECH OF MR. M 'MICHAEL. 585 

istration of the manificent Pericles, the wealth and power of that accom- 
plished statesman were directed to the construction of such works as, being 
immortal themselves, might confer immortaliLy on their authors and pro- 
jectors. First among these, as you well know, in grandeur, in beauty, in 
costliness, was the colossal statue of Jupiter by Phidias. Towering in its 
pride of place in the temple of Mount Olympus, gorgeous with gold and 
ivory, and all manner of precious stones, that transcendent result of genius 
drew to it all the visitors of the Olympic games, who offered their devotion 
rather to the spiritual presence of a divine art, than to the imaged incarna- 
tion of the potent Thunderer, who sat in cold and stately majesty before 
them. 

Nearly fourteen centuries have rolled by since that statue — the faith it 
typified having long before perished — was buried beneath its own smoulder- 
ing embers at Constantinople, then the brilliant seat of the Imperial Caesars. 
And not alone have the faith and its emblem perished. The classis traveler 
gropes in vain among the obliterated landmarks of Antilla for traces of the 
Hippodrome, or vestige of the Prytaneum. Constantinople, smitten with 
the plague — a spot of corrupt religion, and emaciated by the long exhaustion 
of a feeble dynasty, writhes in the death-grasp of inevitable dissolution. 

The Greek himself, his language and his morality alike enervated, resem- 
bles his fathers only in name. But, Mr. President, in a new land, under a 
new dispensation, and a new polity, professors of a purer creed, the posses- 
sors of a surer heritage, we have to-day commemorated a new Olympiad. 
From all parts of a republic, mightier in its infancy than Athens in its prime, 
there have crowded earnest candidates for the honors, valiant strugglers for 
the prizes you have had to bestow. Nor have the statue and the temple 
been wanting. 

Beneath the dome of your capitol we have marked the placid dignity of 
our Pater Patria, whose deeds and whose virtues shall survive in the affec- 
tions of distant generations, when the old mythology, father — god and all, 
with its vanities and vices, have sunk into utter oblivion. From the foot of 
a neighboring eminence, we have gazed on the simple column which crowns 
the spot consecrated by the blood of the first martyrs of American freedom — 
a column which, simple though it be, is dearer in the associations which 
cluster around it, than any hoary pile, no matter how venerable in its anti- 
quity, nobler than any modern trophies, 

" Built with the riches of a spoiled world." 

And, Mr. President, whatever of pride the cultivated Greek may have felt 
in contemplating the master-piece of Greecian skill — whatever of reverence 
the pious Greek may have felt in contemplating the master-deity of the 
Grecian Pantheon — we who are here, whether from the north or the south, 
or the east or the west, have felt a loftier pride, a holier reverence than ever 
Olympian statue or Olympic temple inspired, as, filled with solemn memories 
of the past and jubilant hopes of the future, we have stood in the presence 
of the marbled form of our own Washington, or the granite monument that 
records the story of Bunker Hill. 

At the close of the eloquent gentleman's remark, six hearty cheers were 
given, and at each allusion to hiui by subsequent speakers, the audience tes- 
tified their aijpreciation of his eloquence and genius by hearty applause. 



586 SURVEY OF KENTUCKY, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY— ITS MINERALS. 

The State Geologist of Kentucky, Mr. D. D. Owen, has published a 
synopsis of his report, from which we take the following valuable informa- 
tion : 

As the Geological Report for 1854 and 1855 cannot appear before the 
adjournment of the legislature, I have been requested to prepare a synopsis 
of some of the principal results of the geological survey up to the present 
time, to set forth the objects to be obtained by its further prosecution, and 
lay before the members of the legislature some of the advantages which 
the Commonwealth of Kentucky must derive from developing its mineral 
resources, and publishing these to the world in the reports of the geological 
survey. 

A reconnoisance has been made of sixty-three counties, embracing those 
of the Jackson purchase, most of the counties lying between Green and 
Tennessee rivers and the southern boundary of the State ; the southeastern 
mountain counties ; together with the counties bordering on the Ohio river 
below its falls ; also the counties of Greenup, Lawrence, Carter, and Lewis. 

The detailed geologico-topographical survey of Union county has devel- 
oped, beyond all anticipation, the mineral resources of that county. In the 
lower 1000 feet of the coal measures of Union county, nine to ten workable 
beds of coal have been discovered, the thickness of which is over thirty 
feet, and capable of yielding under each acre of ground over 1,000,000 
bushels of coal, after throwing off an ample allowance for waste and slack, 
worth more than $80,000 if all worked out ; which, after deducting the ex- 
penses of mining and transportation to market, will yield a clear profit of 
$30,000. 

Besides this, there are valuable beds of iron-stone associated with the coal, 
which, at a low estimate, will produce from every acre when smelted, 1350 
tons, worth, at the lowest price, over $25,000. 

Is it, then, to be wondered at that lands now known to be underlaid by 
these rich beds of coal and iron ore should have doubled their value since 
the commencement of the geological survey. 

Kentucky is the only State that has within its limits two rich coal fields, 
occupying more than one-fourth the area of the State, with a depth of 
•25,000 to 35,000 feet, embracing at least eighteen workable beds; while the 
coal measures of Missouri, as reported by the geological survey of that State, 
are only 050 feet in thickness on the Missouri river, embracing two workable 
beds, as represented in the sections of the coal measures embraced in the 
report on that State just issued. The lower 1000 feet of the coal measures, 
over a very great area, will undoubtedly afford in many sections of the State 
valuable beds of iron-stones, which can be converted into iron at great 
profit. 

Up to the present time the operations of the geological corps have been 
chiefly directed to develop the mineral resources of the State in coal and 
iron ore, as these are considered of the first importance. 

A few facts in regard to the consumption, cost of production, and demand 
for iron, together with the profits that can be derived from its manufacture, 
will serve to exhibit the value of the raw material, and where it is situated 
so as to be mined with facility, and produce iron at a cheap rate. 



SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. 587 

Tons. 

The consumption of iron in the United States for 

1853 was 1,200,000 

Production, 80u,000 

Wastage, 100,000 

Leaving to be imported, - - . . 500,000 

This is mostly railroad iron, -which costs — 

English manufacturers' cost per ton, - - $42 00 

Commission, 2 80 

Government duties, - - - - - 16 00 

Freight, 8 00 

Discount of bond, 400 



$72 80 



This would take out of the country $36,500,000 per annum for an article 
which the United States, and especially the Western States, have the means 
of producing at one-half the cost, and which the manufacturer could aflford 
to sell at $50 per ton at a profit of 30 to 40 per cent. 

It can be demonstrated that in the Western States, where coal can. be 
mined for $3 per 100 bushels, and ore for $1 50 per ton, that pig iron can 
be smelted for $12 per ton, and bar iron produced at $35 to $40 per ton ; 
and after adding to this commission and carriage for a distance of 300 mile?, 
the Western iron manufacturer can deliver his railroad iron at a profit of 15 
to 25 per cent., and still undersell the lowest price at which English iron can 
be deUvered in the Western States. 

According to the statistics of the iron trade of the United States, the 
increased demand in the next four years for iron may be calculated at 500,000 
tons a year ; while the increased production of iron in the United States, at 
the present rate of increase for the last few year?, will not be over 1,260,000 
tons to meet that demand ; leaving 740,000 to be imported, if the rate of 
production in the United States be not increased. 

The reconnoissance of Greenup and Carter counties has disclosed, in 740 
feet of the lower coal measures, fourteen distinct beds of excellent iron ore, 
varying from four inches to four or five feet in thickness, associated with coals 
of superior quality; and there is reason to believe that, in the belt of the 
same formation, stretching thence in a southward course across the entire 
State, abundance of iron ore and coal will be discovered in prosecuting a 
detailed geological survey of the mountain counties, since at various locali- 
ties along its southwestern confines in Pulaski county and elsewhere, impor- 
tant deposits of these minerals present themselves. 

The bases of both the Eastern and Western coal-fields are reservoirs of 
productive brines, wherever they form synclinal folds or troughs or abut on 
impervious vaults of the adjacent limestones ; such as are worked with profit 
on Goose creek, in CJay county, and at Brashear's salt well, on the north 
fork of the Kentucky river. 

The Eastern coal-field, occupying the mountain counties, lies higher above 
the superficial drainage than the Western. It is a prolongation of the Penn- 
sylvania coal measures, which includes the country watered by the Big Sandy; 
the Kentucky river above its forks ; the heads of the Licking, and the Curn- 
berland river above its shoals, embracing some twenty-four of the mountain 
counties. ^ The coals of this coal-field are, for the most part, of excellent 
quality, rich in fixed carbon. The main coals which have been analyzed 



538 SURVEY OF KENTL'CKi'. 

from Big Sandy, the forks of the Kentucky river, and the shoals of the Cum- 
berland river yielding from 58 to 63 per cent of fixed carbon, while they are 
free from earthy impurities. 

In Greenup and Carter counties, from six to eight distinct beds of iron 
ore exist, sometimes in the same hill, with an average united thickness of six 
to eight feet; capable, therefore, of supplying under each acre, when mined 
and smelted, 8000 tons of iron, worth $200,000. The same hills contain, 
at least, good beds of workable coal, which may be safely estimated to have 
a united thickness of six feet of solid coal; which will afford in addition, 
over the same tracts, 10,000 tons per acre, worth, at a low estimate, $20,000, 
after throwing off an ample allowance for waste and slack. 

The upper coal measure of the Eastern coal-field in the counties of Law- 
rence, Johnson, Floyd, Harlan and Knox, embraces very thick beds of coal, 
containing 60 to 63 per cent, of fixed carbon, with a very small ash, lying 
from fifty to two hundred feet above the superficial drainage. In Lawrence, 
Johnson, and Floyd, these crop out in the hills bordering on Big Sandy, and 
therefore easily accessible and convenient for transportation to market. 

Fine workable coals, containing 60 to 62 per cent, of fixed carbon lie 
under the conglomerate in some of the mountain counties, as, for instance, 
in Pulaski county, above the shoals of the Cumberland river, conveniently 
situated for transportation down that river. 

These few illustrations will sufiice to demonstrate the great natural mineral 
wealth of Kentucky, which seeks only active capital to convert this raw ma- 
terial into articles of commerce, which next to the products of agriculture, 
are most essential to civilized man, but which, without that active capital 
must lie comparatively dormant. 

Over a large part of Europe, the soil derived from the coal measures that 
contain their mineral wealth is for the most part an unproductive soil, or at 
least far below the average of soil in ferii'ity. This is not the case with a 
great portion of the coal region lying towards the center of the Mississippi 
valley ; because the soil of that region is derived more from the finely com- 
minuted loams and calcareous mads of the quarternary deposits than from 
the materials of the coal measures themselves over which it has spread, and, 
to a certain extent, intermingled. Union county, for instance, which is based 
in its whole extent on the coal formation, is a very rich agricultural region, 
capable of supporting more than a hundred inhabitants to the square-mile, or 
or a population in the whole county of 50,000 to 60,000. 

As one of the principal ulterior objects of the geological survey of the 
State will be to define the limits of the coal fields, and develop the rich min- 
eral wealth lying adjacent to its confines, and, since the reconnoissance which 
has been made proved that the lower 1,000 feet of coal measures and the 
circumscribing belt of underlying limestone are emphatically the mineral re- 
gions of the State, it is evident that the proper plan to be pursued in the 
prosecution of the detailed geological survey is to carry the work at first 
around the confines of the coalfields, then fill the interior from the circumfer- 
ence on the same plan that has been followed in Union county. 

The most economical and expeditious plan would be to put an equal 
force on the western and eastern divisions of the State, and thus carry for- 
ward the survey simultaneously around the eastern and western margins of 
the two coal-fields. 



FOOD IN EUROPE. 



589 



PRICES OF FOOD IN EUROPE. 

Food Not Scarce in Europe. — A correspondent of the New-York Post 
wilting from Italy thus disposes of the idea that there is a scarcity of food ia 
Europe : 

" Having traversed a considerable part of Western and Southern Europe, 
in the last four months, I have observed every where the abundance, variety 
and moderate prices of good food, and the general uniformity of prices. 

He also gives a table showing the market prices, at retail, of some leading 
articles, which is the best criterion of the state of the food market. It is 
compiled chiefly from telegraphic reports collected in the office of the Minis- 
ter of the Interior, from the principal food markets of Europe, and may be 
relied on as a correct report of the markets about the 15th of November, 
when prices were the highest. The quantity of each article is one pound, 
avoirdupois, and the price in cents and hundredths of a cent American weight 
and monev. 





Wheat Bread. 


Beef. 


Veal. 


Mutton, 


Rome, 


5,58 


7,23 


7,49 


6,84 


London, 


5,70 


11,74 


19,63 


15,58 


Paris, 


4,94 


11,38 


15,04 


13,62 


Glasgow, 


5,36 


13,62 


13,52 


12,58 


Liverpool, 


4,68 


12,90 


15,91 


12,90 


Dublin, 


5,08 


12,58 


15,57 


12,68 


Antwerp, 


5,44 


12,90 


13,62 


15,40 


Brussels, 


4,63 


12,76 


12,76 


12,76 


Ostend, 


5,36 


11,49 


12,34 


14,04 


Armsterdara, 


7,49 


14,33 


27,24 


14,33 


Eos took. 


5,Y0 


9,78 


11,00 


8,34 


Dantzic, 


6,63 


10,04 


13,62 


9,10 


Settin, 


9,36 


10,04 


11,23 


10,03 


Meneil, 


3,42 


10,21 


10,62 


10,21 


Oporto, 


5,44 


8,78 


12,96 


9,70 


Santador, 


4,44 


6,89 


8,00 


8,00 


Nice, 


8,68 


11,05 


11,92 


11,82 


Port Maurice, 


5,08 


8,51 


8,51 


10,21 


Milan, 


5,92 


10,30 


10,30 


7,15 


Constantinople, 


8,76 


8,17 


8,17 


0,00 


Smyrna, 


5,08 


6,55 


0,00 


0,00 



Death of Dr. Harris. — We record with deep regret the recent death 
of Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, Labrarian of Harvard University. Dr. Harris 
was well known as a naturalist, of great eminence, and in the department of 
entomology occupied a position which probably no other m■^n in this coun- 
try is qualified to fill. His valuable work on Insects Injurious to Vegeta- 
tion, and his frequent contributions to the agricultural pres'S in this important 
department of science, have rendered his name familiar throughout the coun- 
try, and his loss will be widely felt. His disease was dropsy on the chest. 



590 INCENTIVES TO INDUSTRY. 



rOR THB PLODGH, THE LOOM, AND THB ANTIL. 

THE PROPER INCENTIVE TO ACTIVE INDUSTRY. 

Miss., Feb. 25, 1856. 

Mr DEAR Sir:— There are many men to -whom an argument — to the 
pocket — will have an effect, and perhaps they are the masses ; therefore you 
was right and I wrong. The remark was made in my presence a few years 
ago, that it was ridiculous for a doctor, who had not made money by plant- 
ing, to oflfer his advice to planters, — that for such men as A, or B, or C, to 
write for an agricultural paper would do, — such advice would be of the 
right sort, — they were sensible men. Aye, and many hold that to accumu- 
late property is an evidence of talent, a weighty consideration. This, to me, 
is a kuock-dowu argument. I acknowledge all the weight, yet I can never 
profit thereby. Wljy, sir, I can name the men who have their laborers up 
and waiting in the field for daylight, — work wet or dry, cold or hot, before 
day, after dark,> — for the almighty dollar. Aye, sir, there are such every- 
where. Grow a fruit-tree! a rose-bush! a dahlia! have a comfortable 
house ! — " all, all is vanity," — no, sir, these cost dollars. Improvement costs 
money and time, the profit is not immediate. Upon this place we use about 
500 lbs. of nais yearly, of course plank, and of course labor. The value of 
property is enhanced, at least in the comforts provided for man and beast. 
Lumber account for plank alone was over llOO in 1855. And so it has 
been. Again, Mr. A. cuts logs, rives four foot boards, puts up his log-cabin, 
and there lives till he is worth $50,000 or $100,000. Dr. B,, having lived 
in a city for say only a year or so, feels as if he must live while he breathes, 
when he buys a piece of land, builds at say only $1,000. He lives accord- 
ingly. Both these persons start in life as a babe, the same year ; marry the 
same year. A, in twenty-five years, owns $150,000, and his house and fur- 
niture worth $500. B has perhaps $20,000, and his house, etc., though 
plain, is worth $3,000 or $4,000 ; his books alone will pay for the house 
and fixings of the other. A is the talented man ; no man owes him a dol- 
lar, and when he moves nobody puts a black cloth on arm or hat. Whereas 
B, the imprudent one, is always called on for a small loan for a few days or 
weeks, and often sees no interest. He has troops of well-wishers. 

As for myself, I prefer to provide well for my household, on principle, but 
not to be its slave. I can enjoy a beautiful span of horses, though not my 
own, but I cannot admire a colossal fortune, made as it is sometimes. I can 
enjoy the society of a reading man, but never the company of a money- 
making man, — such I mean as cannot aid a friend without looking to deeds 
and rents — such as never becomes intimate lest it would create a soit of 
compulsion to hslp. 

As to one country making more than others, this must ever be. Just so 
of individuals. Within my memory at least, one portion was ahead, now 
another, and in thirty more years another will wear the golden crown. Make 
intellect or education the king, not dollars. Any aristocracy but money. I 
prefer, though a plebeian, the aristocracy of family. 

As to ray country, there are more educated men of our wealthiest than in 
any country I ever knew, very many of them being the architects of their 
own fortunes. I dare not name a few of the doctors and lawyers and grad- 
uates, that are five hundred to twenty hundred bale planters, and many of 



AGRICULTUKAL IMPLEMENTS. 591 

whom I know are gentlemen of noble bearing. But still this class of men 
belong not to what are understood by money -making men. They make 
money, not by nigh cuts. 

Stimulate men to inform their minds, to feed their land, take due and 
proper care of everything in their trust, from a sense of duty to God, their 
country, their fellow men, and themselves. Place anytaing before " because 
you will make money." The spirit of making money has become so pre- 
valent, that one can hardly get a man to stand still long enough to direct 
him to your oflSce. — Why, sir, I am afraid mj old wife will catch the com- 
plaint, and the paper I write upon will be toasted. Perhaps others think 
so now. 

"Why, sir, I know the man who teaches his toddling boys " stick in that 
cutting, it will sell next fall for two bits." The consequence is, the young 
man inquires how rich is Miss Seraphine, or Miss Angelina, etc. ; or he re- 
ceives fifty cents at the door of a spunky young Miss of seventeen — the 
cost of examination, in a clerk's office, of her father's will, — he wanted to see 
what she was worth. If " the love of money is the root of all evil," that 
root is spreading ; but I hope never to reach it. P. 



AGKICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— LIVING TABLEAU. 

Those who assert that little improvement has been witnessed iu the art of 
agriculture within the last twenty-five years must be quite unacquainted with 
the great number of new inventions designed to give increased facility to 
agricultural operations. It is true that this period is eminent for progress in 
almost every department of manufactures and of handicraft. But a very 
cursory view of the list of patents will show very concltisively that genius 
has not been unmindful of the tillers of the soil. The attempt to meet their 
wants in these respects has occupied a great deal of time and has demanded 
continuous effort, and it has not been unsuccecsful. A single one of the 
many threshing-machines is a boon of great value. But array the whole 
list of modern implements — improved ploughs, planters, drills, corn-shellers, 
mowers, reapers, threshers, feed-cutters, etc., what an exhbition they would 
make ! 

It would be an occasion of very great interest if our ITEited States Agri- 
cultural Societies could ftel justified in departi n gfrom the exact sphere they 
designed to occupy if they could collect these great machines, to the exclu- 
sion of all other inventions, at their next show in Philadelphia. Though 
opportunity could not be afforded for examining them all at work, they 
might be seen in motion, and a tolerable judgment be formed of their probar 
ble action in the field. The object would not be so much to test the com- 
parative merits of the different inventions as to show how much has been 
done for the agriculturist by the inventive genius of our own age. We 
could portray a vision illustrating this point, which, without a large draft 
upon one's fancy, might afford full scope for the best efforts of the painter. 
We will contribute our humble mite by presenting the following 

Grand Tableau. 
With the first rosy light of morning the world of living ariraals, including 
every variety of age and condition, present themselves befora the goddess of 



592 AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



agriculture. The whole human race, male and female, alike dependent with 
inferior species, stand in the immense throng, waiting upon the husbandmen, 
her servants, while they produce and prepare for these millions their daily- 
sustenance. 

Among the multitudes of men and animals, all alike dependent upon the 
success of this one petition, are the great generals who have been borne in 
triumph at the head of their victorious armies, and none are louder in their 
supplications for immediate relief. Kings come down from their thrones and 
join with the poorest in their realm asking for their daily bread. Men of 
science and men of letters all do homage alike to the lord of the harvest. 
Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, magistrates 
and people, rulers and subjects, all occupy common ground at this hour, and 
on this one point, alone, perhaps, of all the subjects ever presented to the 
consideration of the whole world, there is no dissenting voice. Not one is 
silent, for even the sick and dying supplicate for their friends. All, at this 
hour, confess themselves the dependents of him who plants and nurtures 
and gathers the fruits of the earth. The bondmen labor on in their ardu- 
ous work. The severity of the task compels many of them, one by one, 
overcome bv weariness, to give up their task, and all labor " in the sweat of 
their brow." 

But ere long Genius, who had stood for a while looking upon the busy 
scene before him, with his eye upturned to heaven as if giving thanks that 
hence had descended upon him the inspiration which qualified him for so 
beneficent a service, steps forward attended by a throng of intelligent artists, 
each delighted to perform his own appropriate work. With a smile of 
satisfaction at the scene which is about to be opened, he invites them to pro- 
ceed. Each is at once eager to present an offering, the result of his inven- 
tive skill, the use of which will alleviate the burden of those whose lot it is 
to provide for these immense numbers. The grateful laborers express their 
great obligations for so useful implements, while the waiting throng, in their 
turn, offer their tribute of gratitude for so timely and so valuable a service. 
All alike rejoice in the possession of those means which tend to the mutual 
good of all concerned, and aid even the poor and the friendless to a partici- 
pation in the bounties of their common Father. 

Though our picture is imaginative in form, it is real in its substance. The 
cultivators of the soil owe a debt of gratitude to the inventive spirit of the 
age, the magnitude of which they cannot easily comprehend, and it is well 
that every suitable opportunity should be made an occasion for illustrating 
the connection between these various pursuits, and the benefits bestowed by 
each upon the rest, and for deepening and widening the common sympathy 
which ought to pervade the entire circle of industrial pursuits. 



Prunes. — Prunes have been very successfully cultivated in Pennsylvania. 
Among the economists in Beaver county, they have been grafted on plums. 
Mr. Pfeiffer, of Indiana, raised prune trees in large numbers, and sold them 
at exorbitant prices, some as high as $5 and $10, He had some of the fruit 
at the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Fair, held at Pittsburg, which sold 
readily at 50c. a quart. 



EXPERIMENTS IN FARMING. 593. 



EXPERIMENTS IN FARMING. 

Experience is one of the best teachers and of logicians. Hence we value 
reliable statements of what has been done, with the conditions attending it. 
The following statements from the Hampshire County (Mass.) Reports, will 
be read with interest. 

EXPERIMENTS BY ALBERT MONTAGUE. 

" I present, for consideration, a statement of the effect of subsoil ploughing 
upon three pieces of land of similiar soil, and in about the same state of cul- 
tivation. I ploughed the land seven to eight inches deep and subsoiled six to 
seven inches. 

No. 1 was a piece upon which a crop of corn was taken last year. It con- 
tained one acre. One half of it was subsoiled. The whole piece was equally 
manured and treated alike for a number of years. Upon this piece I sowed 
oats and grass seed, and could see no difference in the piece from the time 
the oats came up until harvested. But, now, the clover upon the subsoiled 
part is a little the largest, enough to be noticed by persons who pass by the 
lot. 

No. 2 was a piece of green sward, containing two acres. One -half to 
three-fourth of an acre, through the center, was subsoiled. Upon the whole 
I spread compost manure and harrowed it in. I spread as evenly as I could 
over the whole piece ; then planted it to broom-corn, using a few ashes in 
the hill. The piece was cultivated ahke through the season, but the broom- 
corn upon the part subsoiled, was longer, of a better color through the season, 
and, I judge, wilp^yield from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds 
of brush to the acre, more than that upon each side of it, and the seed is 
much better. 

No. 3 was a piece subsoiled three years since, and planted to corn. Same 
quantity of manure was used, and it was managed alike through the season, 
and the corn crop was no better upon the subsoiled, than upon the part not 
subsoiled. I sowed grass seed at the last hoeing. I have mowed it for two 
years past, and each crop of grass has been much the best upon the part sub- 
soiled, being I think near a ton more to the acre. 

MANURE EXERIMENTS BY ALBERT MONTAGUE. 

No. 1. I purchased last spring, superphosphate, poudrette and guano, for 
the purpose of testing their comparative value with each other and with barn- 
yard manure. 

Upon one acre of my best land, I spread eight loads of well rotted ma- 
nure and harrowed in ; then, planted to broom-corn, using $1 44 worth of 
poudrette in the hill upon one-half of it, and $2 41 worth of superphosphate 
upon the other half, dropping both poudrettefand superphospate at the time 
of planting, using Woodward's Planter, At the first and second hoeing, the 
corn, where I used the superphospate, was the most promising ; and at har- 
vesting, I should judge, would yield from fifty to one hundred pounds more 
broom-brush. 

No. 2. Upon a piece of green sward, soil rather cold and heavy, I spread 
fifteen loads of compost to the acre ; then, planted to Indian corn, using su- 
perphospate upon one-half, and good wood ashes upon the other half, put- 
ting quantities of equal value upon each. The corn upon the superphosphate 
38 



594 EXPERIMENTS IN FARMING. 

part came up first, grew tht fastest, ripened ten days earlier, and will yield ten 
bushels of corn more than the ashed part. Nearly the same result I found, 
by experimerting with superphosphate and ashes upon a piece of light, sandy 
soil. I think the relative difference was about the same, although the piece 
of corn was much lighter. 

No. 3. was with guano and barn-yard manure. I measured one and a half 
acres of good meadow land, that had been well manured and well cultivated 
for a long time. Upon one-half of it, I spread and ploughed in eight loads 
ot good yard manure, for which I paid eight dollars. On the other half, 
being in the center of the piece, I spread guano at the same cost, as the yard 
manure (i. e. ., at the first cost — the expense of applying the guano was but 
little, compared with that of the yard manure). I harrowed in the guano. 
Then, I planted to broom-corn, using a little superphosphate in the hill upon 
the whole. The piece was managed alike, during the whole season, after 
the different manures were applied. Many persons, who have passed, have 
asked why the middle of this piece looked so much the best. I referred them 
to the guano. The crop is not yet harvested, but good judges have said 
there would be two hundred pounds more of broom-brush and a greater ex- 
cess of seed upon the guanoed half. 

No. 4. Believing broom-corn stalks of some value, if ploughed in green, I 
cut some stalks from a part of a piece, immediately after I had taken off the 
crop, and placed the stalks in furrows nice and smooth — one hand plowing, 
while another took care of the stalks. I sowed the piece to oats the follow- 
ing spring, and upon the part where I ploughed in stalks, the oats were one- 
third heavier, than where none were ploughed in. I obtained eight dollars 
worth of oats on one acre for the labor of getting rid of my broom-corn stalks 
in this way. And as to the removing the stalks, it did not cost me one 
dollar more than to have gathered and burned them in the spring. 

EXPERIMENTS BY J. EDWARDS PORTER, 

The land on which my trial of guano was made, is situated in Hadley, 
on the plain. The soil is a sandy loam, — has been frequently cropped with 
rye — the crop* of 1854 yielding: only five bushels to the acre. Some four 
years ago, wishing to try the effects guano upon this land, I purchased and 
carefully composted the guano with seven parts of earth ; applied it to the 
hill, at the rate of one hundred pounds to the acre, and planted it to corn. 
At the first hoeing, I was surprised at the healthy appearance of the crop. 
It continued to grow vigorously, outstripping for a few weeks the corn upon 
my best land. But a change came, and my corn assumed a sickly appear- 
ance. I found that my homoeopathic dose of guano, in its haste to produce 
stalks, had exhausted all its force and there was no virtue left for ears. My 
crop was a failure. So I concluded that, if I had treated my poor, sandy 
land more liberally with guano, I should have been amply repaid at harvest, 
I have since practised on this conclusion, and have had my reward. I have 
applied four hundred pounds of Peruvian guano to the acre, broadcast, and 
ploughed the whole under, to the depth of six inches. At one harvest, I 
gathered from three acres of this poor, sandy plain, three hundred and six 
bushels of corn in the ear, and realized a net profit of $92. 



In a report of the Massachusetts Society Transactions (which contains the 
preceding) Mr. Francis De Witt makes the following suggestions, in refer- 
ence to 



MODES OF FARMING. 596 



IMPROVED FARMING TOOLS 



Among the many good results growing out of the formation of agricultu- 
ral societies, is the rapid improvement in farming tools. In no department 
of industry are improvements progressing so rapidly, as in agriculture. The 
fact is noted in the Patent-Office Reports, " that the greatest number of pa- 
tents applied for and issued, of any one class, are connected with agriculture, 
and the fewest are those to be used in war ;" it is said the proportion is 
nearly as ten to one. This probably in part arises from the fact that im- 
provements can be made; that agricultural societies stimulate such improve- 
ments ; and partly because labor-saving tools are necessary, owing to the 
scarcity of farm laborers and the high price of labor. It is hoped another 
good may be the result of these exhibitions of skill and industry. Our young 
men, who in years past, have been disposed to forsake the old homstead, and 
the tilling of the ground for positions and occupations in cities and large 
towns, with i^ future prospect of a little more cash, but far less independence, 
may be enabled to see that there is a scope for the mind, in the science as 
well as art of farming ; and, by the use of the improved and labor-saving ma- 
chines, the farm work is not all mere drudgery. At the same time, there is 
more real enjoyment of the gifts of a bountiful Providence than can be obtain- 
ed in the usual employments of the dense population of a city. The farmer 
and mechanic are so closely connected in interest, and so dependent upon each 
other, that it is desirable they should, on an occasion like this, meet on com- 
mon ground, and together enjoy that interchange that is necessary for mutual 
improvement. We hope the fairs of this society will increase in interest in 
this essential department of agriculture. 



MODES OF FARMING. 

We are well aware that no two good farmers agree exactly in all their 
ideas of good farming, and yet there is a principle, the guaranty of success, 
which runs through all their diverse systems. We are always amused and 
sometimes instructed by the discussions of the farmers in the State House in 
Boston. They evidently go upon the principle "semper paratus," which in 
this case, libera'ly translated, 7nay mean " take no pains to prepare." Hence 
all manner of positions are taken on almost all branches of the business, and 
maintained by suggestions that oc-our to them at the moment. 

The following statements are worthy of attention. They are taken from 
a report of a recent meeting, in the Ploughman : 

CULTIVATION OF CORN — MODE OF FEEDING. 

Hon. R. S. Fay, of Lynn, said he had satisfied himself that corn was a 
hungry feeder. He makes his land rich. He turns the grass over in autumn, 
then ploughs once or twice in the spring, puts on twelve cords of manure to 
the acre and ploughs or harrows it in. 

^ He made no hills, kept the land flat after planting in rows three feet and 
six inches apart. Not much use was made of the hoe. Not more than ten 
or fifteen days were allowed to intervene without passing a light cultivator 
between. This saved labor and left the land cleaner. 



596 MODES OP FARMING. 



Barn-yard ruaoure was ploughed in green in the fall. It was composted 
in the spring. This supplies the wants of the crop to a full degree. Has 
no doubt that a hundred pounds of plaster with some leached or unleashed 
ashes, applied at planting, or after it came up, was beneficial. 

He cuts the corn to the ground as soon as the kernel is glazed. It is 
placed in small shooks and stands till sufficiently dry. The sap is thus 
stopped and dried in the stalk. Thinks more saccharine matter is thus se- 
cured. 

The fodder is salted. It is all cut fine before feeding out. A little meal 
is added. A jet of steam is let on for twenty-four or forty-eight hours. It 
was the main food of his cattle for two months. He sees no cattle that are 
kept better. They leave none. The entire crop is utilized. Not a piece 
was lost. 

In China there was a kind of corn valuable for sugar. The inquiry was 
whether it could be made useful here for corn-fodder ? 

DE BUKG'S phosphate. 

Hon. Amasa Walker, of Brookfield, said the corn crop was not suffi- 
ciently valued. The use of it for green fodder was incressing. It came just 
at the time our pastures were short, and it was just the thing wanted. The 
culture of it was becoming common. 

He used last year De Burg's " Phosphate of Lime" with great success on 
various crops. There was a great difference where it was used through the 
season. Its effect was not so striking on potatoes. He used it also on grass 
lands with a clay substratum. It was natural mowing land, that he did not 
plough up. 

When the grain was cut the crop was twenty-five to thirty-three per cent, 
more where this phosphate was used. On the second crop the increase was 
still greater. It was a thing about which there might be much deception. 
It might often be adulterated. But it would be for the interest of the man- 
tifacturer to keep up the quality. 

A handful in the bill was safe and simple. In planting with guano all 
his corn was killed, although five times the bulk of dirt was mixed with it, 
and the men were directed to cover it with dirt before putting the corn in. 

PROFITS OF CORN. 

Mr. CooLEY, of Conway, finds corn his most profitable crop. He plants 
same land two years in succession. He manures both seasons. The second 
year he ploughs in twenty-five loads to the acre, and puts eight loads of com- 
post in the hill and raises seventy bushels to the acre. A strict account was 
kept, and the cost of his corn was forty-eight cents per bushel. Half the 
m-dnure only was charged to the corn. The labor was reckoned at one dollar 
per day. His corn weighs sixty-four pounds to the bushel in January when 
thoroughly dry. 

CORN MAKES THE BEST BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

Mr. Osgood, of South Reading, said it had been his business to travel in 
Massachusetts and New-Hampshire buying butter and cheese. He found 
the best butter and the best cheese was produced by those farmers who re- 
sorted to the use of corn fodder. Their cattle also looked better. He used 
the Southern white, large flat corn, and planted from the 6th to 13th of 
June, in a light sandy soil, on which white beans had been raised. 

In the drills he placed manure made with night-soil and coal a=hes from 



COTTON GINS. 



597 



hard coal. His friend Mr. Sanger, of Danvers, had first used hard coal ashes 
in this mixture with great success. 

His cows increased their amount of milk when he commenced feeding with 
green corn fodder. They increased for the first four days constantly. There 
was no trouble with their decreasing afterwards while they had plenty of 
corn. His cows came nearly up to the best week in July. 



PROFITS OF FARMING. 

We present below the crops produced by farmers in different parts of 
Massachusetts, as reported in the transactions of the Agricultural Society of 
the last year, and intend to follow up this exhibition, not of possible but of 
actual products, by good farmers, on all kinds of soil, that others may see 
how far short they come of the profits within their own ability. We have 
presented such statements from time to time, and we hope to find that the 
number of those who are just to themselves and to their chosen pursuit will 
be multipled year by year. Interest on the value of the land is included in 
the estimate of expenses. 

Harvey Dodge, Worcester Co., Mass., farm 93i acres, of which 10 acres 
were waste, 10 of woodland and 22 of pasture. Cost of cultivation, $1299. 
Products, $2102 50. Profit, $803 50. 

J. C. Merriam, Worcester Co. Farm 60 acres 38 rods, of which 9 acres 
are woodland, 4 are swamps and 21 pasture. Annual expenses, $446 06. 
Products, $1147 84. Profit, $698 78. 

Austin Smith & Sons, Franklin Co. Farm 64 acres. Annual expense, 
$1955 60. Products, $3944 90. Profit, $1989 30. 

R. Wales Smith, Hampshire Co. Farm 85 acres, of which 39 are pasture 
and 16 woodland. Annual cost, $759 75. Products, $1324 11. Profits, 
$564 36. 

Dr. Morten, Norfolk Co., reports a profit of $97 52 on a half acre of 
potatoes, of $14 57 on a half acre of fodder corn, and of $62 02 on a half 
acre of carrots. 



fOR THK PLOUGH, THE LOOM AND THE ANVIL. 

COTTON GINS. 

Miss., Feb. 23, 1856. 
To Mr. H. Clarke, Newport, Fla. : 

Dear Sir: — On 470-471 pp. of this work, (current volume) will be found 
an article of yours from the Scientijic Farmer, upon the subject of "Cotton 
Gins." 

I am no mechanic, but being the son of one, I am perhaps drawn to the 
subject of mechanism. Your article upon this matter is like the sound of 
the horn or the bark of a pack of hounds to an old courser, and should I 



598 SHEEP IN VIRGINIA. 



show the old fogy, I beg you will not think it is done in unkindness. As 
a planter, I am deeply interested, but really more so as an improving man, 
as a citizen. Mr. Fultz, to whom you allude, was kind enough to draw ray 
attention to his improvement, before he received a patent, sent me specimens 
and asked my opinion. I have " stood up to" many gin stands, make it a 
point to try all I can, I mean io feed the stand myself, and strange as it may 
seem, I delight in it. I have turned out a ba'e per day, more than any 
ginner ever averages. I beg to differ with you as to gin stands, saw-gins, 
being as yet perfect. I have used five different gin-stands, the first made by 
a Carolina workman, a young man who served his time with McCreight of 
Winnsboro, S. C, and made me the best cotton, large teeth. All I have 
seen will nap or twist if cotton be wet. This is caused by the teeth getting 
full of lint and pressed in so as not to be separated by the brush ; some will 
nap owing perhaps to teeth being so pointed as to be forced into cotton, or 
the brush wants velocity, or bristles not enough. 

My idea is, to gin 3 to 5 bales, without giving velocity would be to make 
longer saws and have teeth small and square, give the brush velocity suffi- 
cient to cle r each tooth so that no cotton pass through the grates the 
second time. My reasons — Some 15 years ago I took a sample from my 
gin stand ; some of the seed cotton also, ginned this upon a spinning jenny ; 
sent both samples to a merchant, he offered some 2 or 3 cents more for the 
last, and begged the opportunity to buy. Thus the ginning made an increase 
value of at least 2 cents. I have known an improvement by substituting 
the best Russia bristles with a httle more speed to brush. I have also im- 
proved, by making the driver or saw cylinder near two inches larger, so as to 
increase speed of brush. I am satisfied that shorter teeth will be less liable 
to nap, and less motion of saw will break fevper fibres. I do not suppose 
that 1 have offered a new idea, yet these statements may suggest one to you 
or others. Yours with respect, P. 



SHEEP IN THE VALLEY OF VIRGINIA. 

[We have received from a valued correspondent, Mr. S. F. Christian, of 
Augusta, Va., a copy of his premium essay on the subject of wool-growing. 
He is not only familiar with the subject but, what is far more rare, he appreci- 
ates the difficulties which are imposed by lack of judgment in the owners of 
sheep, and points out the remedy which should be applied. We give this 
essay entire, and commend it to all interested in this subject. — Ed. P. L. & A.| 

Having given my personal consideration and attention, during the last ten 
years, to wool-growing as an incident of agriculture, I submit a short, prac- 
tical essay, treating of my experience and practice in sheep husbandry ia the 
Valley of Virginia. 

The Valley possesses important natural advantages for the production of 
fine wool and mutton. The soil is based principally upon limestone and blue. 
slate, with sufficient admixture of sand to produce in perfection all the 
cereals and the various grasses best suited to the sustenance and development 
of stock. The climate is favorable, obtaining a happy medium of tempera- 
ture throughout the year, and the purest water gushes in copious streams 
from a thousand hills. The face of the country being well diversified with 



SHEEP IN VIRGINIA. 699 



rolling hills and winding vales, with craggy cliflFs and mountain sides, with 
frequent intervals of forest and field and meadow, presents just that condi- 
tion most congenial to the habits and nature of the sheep. 

In establishing a flock for this locality — wool being the primary object, 
guided by some experience with Bakeweli, Cotswold, Saxon, and Spanish 
merinos, I preferred the last as best adapted in character and constitution for 
improvement and profit, under the circumstances of this country. Accord- 
ingly, I selected in three different States at the North thirty head of Paular 
and Guadaloupe merino ; choosing them from three distinct fanuilies, and 
since carefully numbering and registering them and their descendants, after 
the suggestion in Morrell's American Shepherd, page 279. 

Selecting one hundred and fifty of the finest ewes from the common creeds 
of the country, I put with them a fine Cotswold ram, and with the ewes 
from this cross I put a merino ram ; and with all the subsequent female pro- 
geny continued to put full blood merinos. 

The Cotswold ram, in the first generation, was used to give form and size ; 
though now, for that purpose the Oxford Down (a new breed) would be pre- 
ferable as having a form still more symmetrical, and a fleece approximating 
nearer in quality to the merino. All the buck lambs from these several 
crosses were, as wethers, at the age of two years, fatted and sold for the 
shambles. 

About the last week in October my rams are put with the ewes in- the 
proportion of three rams to one hundred ewes, and remain together until 
about the middle of December following. They are then separated, therams 
and wethers forming one flock, the breeding ewes another, and a third is 
composed of the young ewes which were taken from their dams during the 
preceding August. On the approach of wiater the several flocks are put in 
fields, inclosing each a portion of woodland. The forest trees furnish for our 
climate a sufficient and also the most acct^ptable shelter to the sheep; to test 
this I have had good sheds prepared in the fields, but the sheep leaving the 
sheds mvariably sought shelter among the trees from every approaching 
storm of sleet or snow. 

The box rack is the most convenient and economical for feeding. Hay, 
corn-fodder, and oat-straw, furnish their winter food, and the foddering season 
usually lasts for four months. Green food occasionally through the winter 
is of very great advantage. Indeed, could a sufficient supply in any way be 
obtained for the whole yeat\ it would be far better than any other. In this 
climate some grain might be sowed with this object. In North Mississippi 
for several years I kept a flock of Saxon merinos grazing almost the entire 
winter upon fields of rye, sown in the standing corn and cotton at the last 
working of the crops. The sheep throve remarkably well, and were wintered 
with far less trouble and expense than if kept on dry food, and the wool was 
manifestly finer in fiber and softer to the touch. Of this latter particular I 
■was fully assured by having preserved samples of wool for successive years 
from several sheep when wintered on green food to compare with samples 
from the same and similar sheep when fed exclusively on dry food. M, R. 
Cockrill, Esq., of Tennessee, from whose celebrated flock my sheep had been 
obtained, also experimented in this matter with similar results. 

In the Valley of Virginia, where showers are frequent, and dews and frosts 
heavy, sheep may do without other water, though they always thrive best 
and build up better constitutions when having free access to fresh running 
water. The lambs are dropped through the month of April. About the 
first week in May is the time in whick they should be penned, docked and 



600 SHEEP IN VIRGINIA. 



castrated. This is best done in the mode recommended in Morrell's Ameri- 
can Shepherd, p. 1*74. 

The wool I have washed upon the sheep's back about the 20th of May, or 
as soon thereafter as the weather and water become suflSciently warm. The 
most convenient plan with me is to drive the flock to a neighboricg mill- 
pond, to be washed in the " trunk" which conveys the water to the mill. 
From a pen built against the trunk, the sheep are taken by a person stand- 
ing beside the trunk, and plunged in the water till washed ; then being 
passed up stream to another hand, the wool is rinsed and the sheep given 
over to the herdsman, who takes them to a clean grass sod, where their 
fleeces will not be soiled. Three good hands may thus wash about four hun- 
dred sheep in one day. After four days of dry weather, the shearing may 
be commenced. The fleeces should be rolled up separately, inside out, and 
packed for marketing in sacks holding each about twenty-five fleeces. 

At this time I examine the sheep very closely in order to mark and turn 
out for fattening, all the runts, and those in any way inferior for breeders. 
Thus the flock is soon and permanently improved. The common course, 
however, with many farmers in this region, is to keep all their sheep together 
throughout the year, and when mutton is wanted for the table in the spring, 
to select the fattest and best formed, which is usually the youngest and best 
of the ewes ; thus leaving the ill-formed and lean kind for the propagation 
of their flock. Nor is it wonderful, physiologically considered, that in a few 
years they discover that their flock is " running out," and find it necessary 
to buy up a new stock for a fresh start. Hence, too, the common fallacy 
that sheep will not do well if kept long on the same farm. 

In grazing through the summer, I very frequently change the sheep from 
field to field ; otherwise, the grass becomes tainted and they will not relish 
or improve upon it. They should be salted twice a week upon the i^round ; 
a litlle wood ash mixed with the salt is very beneficial. Sheep thrive best 
upon a variety of herbage, and eat much vegetation that large cattle refuse. 
Their manure is very valuable as a fertilizer. 

It is a common complaint that sheep injure pasture land by grazing too 
close. Sheep are constituted by nature to graze closer than cattle, and if 
kept too long upon the same pasture field will of course injure it ; they have 
only to be removed before the grass is cropped too close. The custom with 
too many farmers is to graze a field with cattle and horses until these can no 
longer crop enough to support life ; then to turn in the sheep, who are thus 
forced for a living to nip it to the roots, to the serious injury of the proprie- 
tor's pasture, and their own disparagement. If sheep were fairly treated and 
judiciously managed, they will actually improve land more and injure it less 
than other stock ; a fair experiment will so demonstrate. 

For several years by grazing both cattle and sheep, I have had opportu- 
nity to compare the relative profits. On a fair account kept with each for 
my own satisfaction, it appeared that the sheep yield about 25 per cent, more 
profit upon the capital invested than did the cattle — and this without includ- 
ing a large proportional sum from the sale of select rams for breeders. 

The average price obtained for my wool during the three last preceding 
seasons, is forty-nine cents per pound for that sold in Virginia. The average 
weight of fleece in the entire flock of thorough-bred merinos is something 
over five pounds per head, washed upon the sheep. The expense of keeping 
the Spanish merino is astonishingly little. 

Sheep are the only domestic animals that yield both food and clothing. 
Their flesh is very easy of digestion, wholesome and nutricious, and is uni- 



INSECTS INJUEIOUS TO VEGETATION. 601 

versally esteemed by epicures. Their wool is an article of prime necessity, 
used by all classes both by day and by night. The demand for home con- 
sumption far exceeds the supply, and many millions of pounds are brought 
from abroad, while no other country possesses greater facilities for sheep hus- 
bandry than our own Valley of Virgmia. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

LEPIDOPTERA CONTINtJED. 

Hesperiad^, Skippers. — The English name was given to these insects 
from their habit of flying short distances only. "When they alight they 
keep the wings expanded, the fore-wings being partially raised. Other 
butterflies close their wings when they are not in use. This is a more 
obvious distinction than any difi"erences in their ojganization. Their 
caterpillars are somewhat spindle shaped, tapering towards each extremity, 
without spines, naktd, or downy only, with a large head and smail neck. 
Their habits are solitary, concealing themselves often when about to undergo 
transformation within folded leaves or fragments of stubble. Their chry- 
salids are conical, or tapering at one end, and rounded or pointed at the 
other, not angular nor ornamented with spots, but ofien covered with a blue 
white powder. 

HA.WKMOTHS, Sphinges. — These form the .second of the three genera into 
which the Lepidoptera were arranged by Linnaeus. The name was sug- 
gested by a fancied resemblance to the Epytian sphinx. They support them- 
selves by their four or six hind- legs, elevating the fore part of their body, 
and retain this position for hours together. 

The true sphinges make a sound ni flying resembling that of a humming- 
bird, and hence are sometimes called humming-bird moths. They are also 
called hawk-moths, from their habit of hovering in the air while taking 
their food. They may be seen, morning and evening, flying very swiftly 
from flower to flower. Their wings are long, narrow, and pointed, their 
bodies thick and robust. They have long tongues with which they extract 
the honey from blossoms while on the wing. Some sphinges fly only in the 
daytime, and when the sun shines brightly. Such are the 

Sesice, which are partial to the phlox. These insects appear in July and 
August. Their form, size, color, and fan-like tails, and their manner of tak- 
ing their food, cause them to be mistaken, sometimes, for humming-birds. 

Aegeridce, Acgerians. — These insects resemble wasps or bees in form and 
color. They fly by day, but usually alight while taking their food. Nor 
are they so swift of flight as the preceding. Their wings are narrow and 
mostly transparent ; they have a brush or tufts at the end of the body, 
which they can spread out in the form of a fan. They fly only during the 
day. They derive their nourishment, while in the caterpillar state, from the 
wood and pith of plants, keeping themselves concealed within their stems 
and roots. Hence they are called borers. These caterpillars are whitish, 
soft, and slightly downy, have sixteen feet, are destitute of any thorn ,^or 
prominence on the last segment of their body. Their cocoons are oblong- 
oval, composed of fragments of wood and bark, cemented together. The 



602 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



chrysalids are of a shining bay color, and their different segments are armed 
with transverse rows of short teeth. Some of this genus are fond of the 
ash ; others, as the Aegeria Cucurbitce, prefer the cucumber, squash, etc, 
which in August are often destroyed by this insect. It begins its operations 
near the ground, and perforates the stem, devouring it as they proceed. Its 
chrysalis is formed in the earth, and appears in the next summer a winged 
insect, with a body of orange color, spotted with black, its hind-legs fringed, 
with long orange-colored and black hairs. The hind-wings are transparent, 
the fore-wings expand an inch or an inch and a half. It lays its eggs in the 
vines near the roots. This insect may be seen flying about during the last 
half of July and to the middle of August. 

The Aegeria exitiosa is the insect which has proved so destructive to the 
peach tree. The eggs are deposited in the summer upon the trunk of the 
tree, near the roots. The borers, when hatched, penetrate into the bark and 
devour the inner bark and sap wood. Tbeir presence is marked by the cast- 
ings and gum which issue from their holes in the tree. "When a year old, 
they make their cocoons under the bark, or about the roots, and come forth 
as wingtd insects, and lay their eggs as before. Their last transformation is 
from July to October. The winged insect is slender, steel-blue color, four- 
winged, slightly resembling a wasp or ichneumon fly. The two sexes difier 
in appearance. The male is smaller than the female. Head, with band at 
base, both above and below a pale yellow ; eyes, black brown ; antennae 
ciliated on the inner side, black, with a tinge of blue. All his wings are 
transparent and are bordered and veined with steel blue. The feelers, 
shoulder covers, edges of the collar and of the abdominal rings, are pale 
yellow. It expands about an inch. The body of the female is dark steel 
blue, with a tinge of purple, antennae destitute of fringe. The fore-wings are 
blue, opaque ; hind-wings transparent, bordered and veined like those of the 
male ; and the middle of the abdomen is encircled by a broad, orange-colored 
belt. It expands an inch and a half or more. Dr. Harris recommends the fol- 
lowing mode of defence against this insect, which has proved successful 
heretofore : 

" Remove the earth around the base of the tree, crush and destroy the 
cocoons and borers which may be found in it and under the bark, cover the 
wounded parts with the common clay composition, and surround the trunk 
with a strip of sheathing paper eight or nine inches wide, which should 
extend two inches below the surface of the soil, and be secured with strings 
of matting above. Fresh mortar should then be placed around the root, 
so as to confine the paper and prevent access beneath it, and the remain- 
ing cavity may be filled with new and unexhausted loam. This should be 
done in June. In the winter the strings may be removed, and in the spring 
search for more borers, and renew the same protecting applications as 
before." 

One means of preventing the ravages of this insect, as described by Say, 
is as follows : — Examine the trees early in July ; take a bricklayer's trowel, 
and opening the ground around the trunk, the lodgement of the insect will 
be at once discovered by the appearance of gum, and it can readily be 
destroyed. One person can thus examine a hundred trees in a half day, 
and very few insects, if any, will escape. But more effectually to destroy 
them, early in August take some swingling tow, or a similar thing, six inches 
or more in width, tie close around the body of the tree, the under edge to 
be a little covered with earth, so as to prevent any passage beneath. About 
the middle of September remove the bandage, and give the whole tree a 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 603 



covering of soft-soap or lime-wash or tobacco. Or if the bandage described 
is dispensed with, use a bandage of tobacco leaves or steins from the first of 
August to November. 

Great advantage has also been derived from the use of anthracite cinders. 
Open a basin around the trunk of the tree and fill it with the cinders. 

See also Mr. Skinner's American Farmer, vol. 6, pp. 14, 37, 334, 401. 

The egg of the peach borer is oblong-oval, dull yellow, and so small as 
to be scarcely visible by the naked eye. The larva is of a white color, 
the head being reddish brown. In the pupa state each segment has a 
brush or tuft of spines, except the three terminal ones, which have a single 
row of spines only. The pupa state continues from about the 10th of July 
till the end of the month or the beginning of August. 

The Aegeria tupeliformis infests the leaves of the currant bush. The 
habits of this genus resemble those of the peach borer. The moth is a 
blue black color; wings transparent, veined, with a copper-colored band 
across the tips of the anterior pair ; the under side of the feelers, the 
collar, the edges of the shoulder covers, and three narrow rings of the ab- 
domen are golden yellow. 

The Aegeria Pyri, of Dr. Harris, attacks the pear tree. Its wings expand 
more than half an inch, are transparent, veined, bordered and fringed with 
purple black, and across the tips of the fore-wings is a broad, dark band, 
glossed with coppery tints. The prevailing color of the upper side of the 
body is purple black, and of the under side golden yellow ; so, also, the 
edges of the collar, of the shoulder covers, of the fan-shaped brush at the 
tail are yellow, and a broad yellow band crosses the middle of the abdomen, 
preceded by two narrow bands of the same color. 

The Smerinthi are sluggish in their movements, fly during the night 
only, take no food, apparently, while in the winged state, and have short 
tongues. Their fore-wings are generally scalloped on the outer edge. Their 
caterpillars are rough, or granulated, with a stout thorn on the tail ; a tri- 
angular head, the apex of the triangle corresponding to the crown. This 
insect is not very common. 

The Olaucopidians mostly fly by day, and alight while feeding. This 
genus is distinguished from other spinges by their antennae, which, in the 
males at least, and sometimes in both sexes, are pectinated as it is termed, 
that is, are furnished on each side with slender, parallel branches, like the 
teeth of a comb or the plume of a feather. They devour the leaves of plants. 
Their cocoons are formed of coarse silk. The caterpillars are green, with 
black bands, and slightly hairy. They are gregarious, but disperse when 
about to undergo their transformations. These insects answer to the Procris 
Vitis or P. Ampelophaga of Europe, which have proved very destructive to 
the grape vine. 

Quinque Maculatus. — This is called the Five-spotted sphinx, from five 
round, orange-colored spots found on each side of the body. It is about five 
inches across the wings, of gray color, variegated with blackish bands or 
lines. Its tongue can be extended five or six inches, and when not in use 
is coiled up like a watch-spring, and is almost concealed between two 
feelers. It closely resembles the Carolina sphinx. 

The larva of this butterfly is the large green caterpillar, known as the potato 
worm. It has a thorn upon its tail, and whitish, oblique stripes on its sides. 
Tnis insect devours the leaves of the potato. After it has attained its full 
size of about three inches or more, when it has the thickness of a man's 
finger, which is in August, it descends to the earth and buries itself beneath 



604 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

the surface. After a few days it becomes a chrysalis, of a bright brown color, 
its long and slender tongue-case bending over so as to touch the breast only 
at one end, resembling the handle of a pitcher. It remains in the ground 
below the reach of frost during the winter. The season following it bursts 
its chrysalis covering, and the moth escapes above ground. It rests upon 
some plant till evening, and then flies in search of food. 

Another species of sphinx infests the elm. It is separated as a distinct 
group by Dr. Harris, called Eratomia quadricornis, from its having four 
horns on the fore part of the back. They are three and a half inches iu 
length, of a pale green color, with seven oblique white lines on each side 
of the body, aud a row of little notches like saw teeth on the back. Their 
four horns are also notched. There is a long, stiff spine on their hinder 
extremity. 

Near the end of August they descend from the trees, and soon enter 
the earth to become chrysalids. Passing the winter within the ground, 
they come forth in the following June, and may be seen in considerable 
numbers on the trunks of trees and on fences. Their wings then open nearly 
five inches, are of a light brown color, variegated with dark brown and 
white. On the hinder part of the body are five longitudinal lines of a 
dark brown color. 

Another caterpillar, which is very destructive to the leaves of the grape 
vine, is called by Dr. Harris Philampelus. " When young they have a long 
and slender tail, recurved over the back like that of the dog ; but this, after 
one or two changes of the skin, disappears, and nothing remains of it but a 
smooth, eye like raised spot on the top of the last segment of the body. 
Some of these caterpillars are green, others brown, and the sides of their 
body are ornamented by six cream-colored spots, of a broad oval shape in 
the species which produces the Satellitia of Linnteus, but narrow, oval and 
scalloped on that which is transformed into the species called Achemon by 
Drury. They have the power of withdrawing the head and first three seg- 
ments of the body within the fourth segment, which gives them a short and 
blunt appearance." They attain the length of three inches or more, are 
thick in proportion, and are voracious. The come to their growth in August, 
descend into the earth to undergo transformation, ascend, in the winged or 
moth state, in June and July. 

"The Satellitia hawkmoth expands from four to five inches, is of light 
olive color, variegated with patches of dark olive. The Achemon expands 
from three to four inches, is a reddish ash color, with two triangular 
patches of deep brown on the thorax, and two square ones on each ibre- 
wing. The hind-wings are pink, a deeper red spot near the middle, and a 
broad, ash-colored border behind." 

Another sphinx, very destructive to the grape vine, is smaller than the pre- 
ceding, which not only devour the leaves, but nip off" the young fruit. They 
are naked and fleshy like the Achemon and Satellitia, a pale green color, 
but sometimes brown, a row of orange-colored spots on the back, six or seven 
oblique lines on each side, and a short spine or horn on the hinder extremity ; 
head very small. The fourth and fifth segments are large and swollen, while 
the anterior segments taper abruptly towards the head. The fore part of 
the body presents a resemblance to the head and snout of a hog, and hence 
it has been named the Chaerocampa or hog-caterpillar. It is found on vines 
and creepers in July and August. It undergoes its transformations on the 
surface of the ground, concealed under leaves and rubbish, which it draws 
around it, and appears a winged insect the following summer in July. 



PROSPECT FOR FRUIT. 605 



The caterpillars of the spinges have sixteen legs, joined in pairs, beneath 
the first, second, third, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth and last segments of the 
body. The last segment is furnished with a horn or tubercle. When at 
rest they keep the fore part of their body elevated. 



FOa THE PLOUGH, THB LOOM, AHD THS ANVIL. 

HOPS IN LAMOILLE COUNTY. 

Mr. Editor : — The year has again rolled round. It rather becomes ray 
duty to remark somewhat on the hops reared in Lamoille county last 
season. 

The weather was about as much too wet last season as it was too dry in 
1844 ; the frequent rains caused the hop to rust. At the time the strobiles 
were nearly grown, and quite tender, we had frequent winds, that agitated 
the vines and bruised the tender buds or cones, which assumed a reddish- 
brown color, which was injurious to the sale of the hops ; in consequence of 
which many went second sort. 

The hops will hardly average $5 00 per hundred. There being many new 
yards, there have been a few more raised in the county than last year. In 
Hydepark, in 1855, 75 tons, the amount realized $40,000, and $100,000 in 
the county ; this year the growers in Hydepark will receive about $7,500, 
and the county about $20,000 ; not enough to cover the expense of picking 
and bailing. 

Many have contracted debts on the expectation of realizing an abundant 
crop and fair prices for their hops. The fall of hops has caused a great 
dearth of money, and much financial distress. Ariel Hunton. 

Hydepark, Vt., March 12, 1856. 



FOK tas. PLOUGH, THE LOOM, i.ND THE ANVIL. 

PROSPECT FOR FRUIT, ETC. 

Baldwinsville, N. Y., March 22, 1856. 
Mr. Editor : — In consequence of the circulation of reports that the fruit- 
buds (which I presume is true) are generally killed in the West, people East 
are apprehensive that they may possibly be dead with us. This, however, 
is not true, for I find that peach-buds in almost every instance are alive. 
Some few are black, but generally they are green, and look fine. The con- 
clusion is, therefore, that we shall hare a fine crop of this kind of fruit in 
Jersey and New-York. It has been about eighteen or twenty degrees colder 
in the West this season than here, — cause not Jcnown. In years gone by 
this, I believe, has not generally been the case. I never experienced more 
searching or more intensely cold weather than I found in the State of In- 
diana this winter. The air was amazingly cold — so cold that it was not safe 
for an inliv'd'ia! tn fnc^^ the wind any great length of time. This was on 



606 PROSPECT FOR FRUIT. 

the 10th of February. After arriving home I found a material change in 
the state of the weather as well as in the atmosphere. I have always no- 
ticed that the air, during the winter season in the West, was more severe 
and searching than with us. I cannot account for this, unless, indeed, it be 
in consequence of the immense bodies of water which the western people 
are blessed with. The prairies may have something to do with the severity 
of the winds. It is very true that it is not safe for an adventurer to make 
his way across those large prairies during the prevalence of very cold weather ; 
for instances are quite common in which travelers and others have ^-ozen to 
death in making their tours over them. 

I am very confident of another fact with reference to the West, and that 
is, the country is not so sure for fruit as it is in this eastern world. This, 
unquestionably, is the effect of the changeableness of the climate, sudden 
thaws and sudden frosts out of the season, and sudden atmospheric changes 
through the year. These things cause the western country to be a poor 
locality for raising fruit successfully during a series of successive years. 
Yet, Mr. Editor, I have seen as fine apples in the West as I ever saw in any 
country, both large and fair. Now, I do not believe that the western people 
will be blessed with many apples or a great quantity of other fruit this com- 
ing season. In many parts of the West, say from Cleveland to St. Paul, 
and in fact we can say this of many other localities in the West, the 
thermometer has indicated a temperature at from 25° to 31° below zero! 
This is singular, but nevertheless it is true. While it has been thus cold in 
the West, the thermometer has been down only about 10° or 12° below zero 
in the State of New-York and other places in the East. Why is this, Mr. 
Editor? Will you explain ? On the banks of the Mississippi snow has not 
at all been unusual this winter far below Cairo and within the confines of 
Tennessee. In many of the Western States the snow has been fifteen inches 
deep, and I am not certain but its depth may be set down at twenty inches. 
For many long years the people have not been so abundantly supplied with 
snow as they have been during the winter of 1856. For instance, to speak 
about our own country, snow has been measured to the depth of three ftet and 
a half in Oswego Co., N.Y., this season ! This depth was found in the woods 
where the snow was protected from the influence of the wind. Railroads 
have been blocked up, business has been delayed, men have been greatly in- 
commoded by the quantity of snow ; mails have been impeded, and people 
have been forced to keep within doors, all in consequence of immense deposits 
of snow, not only on railroads but on other traveled thoroughfares. 

From these considerations, Mr. Editor, I conclude we shall have a late 
spring, though it is to be hoped a fruitful season. It will take some time to 
produce a change on the ground so that it will really be fit for cultivation. 

And there is another thing, farmers, by reason of the general fall in the 
price of provisions, will not plant nor sow nor raise as much gram and 
vegetables as they did in the year 1855. The ''one-acre-more'' system, as 
carried out last season, has seemingly filled the whole country with a sur- 
plus of most kinds of food. Hay is at reasonable prices, or at least has 
been, and so we may say of many other kinds of provender. But the 
farmer, notwithstandisg this state of things, ought not to relax his efforts, 
but should raise all the products he can, tor there are now as many people 
to eat and feed as there were a year ago. " Wars and rumors of war" do 
not increase nor diminish the amount of food consumed by the people. This 
is very evident. Very respectfully, W. Tappak. 



DIOSCOREA BATATAS. 607 



FOR THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM, AND THB ANVIL. . 

DIOSCOREA BATATAS. 

I HAVE noticed sundry remarks made by persons at the Farmers' Club, 
and several fquibs in newspapers, regarding the Chinese potato, with the 
object of underrating its merits. Not one of these remarks has emanated 
from a man well informed on the subject, or who could give any authority 
for his effete arguments. Jealousy and spleen have had much to do with 
these misstatements. 

It will be borne in mind that Professor Decaisne stated in the Revue 
Horticole for 1854, that the Dioscorea Batatas, which was received from 
China only in 1850, is an entirely distinct species from the Dioxcorea Japa- 
nica, (Japan potato,) which had been obtained many years previous ; and it 
is the former which he has found to be highly commended in- the Chi- 
nese agricultural works, and of which they have in that country more than 
fifty varieties, more or less valuable. In the Revue Horticole hr 1855 he 
has most fully confirmed his previous position, and has given us engrav- 
ings showing the very distinct characters cf the two plants, although to a 
casual observer of these two trailing plants the distinction might not be 
apparent. 

These statements of Professor Decaisne are of the highest importance, as 
we already find that the two species are being disseminated confusedly, a 
circumstance calculated to lead to many future disappointments, as the one 
is so very superior in lis qualities to the other, which has hitherto been 
cultivated only as an object of curiosity. It would be worthy any one's at- 
tention to examine pages 69 to 74 of the Revue Horticole for the ample 
delineations of the two plants, with his caution against the apparent con- 
fusion that exists in France — a confusion which has now been extended to 
our own country by the importation of both these species. It appears that 
Monsieur de Montigny, French consul at Shanghai, in accordance with in- 
structions from the French government to seek out the most appropriate 
substitute for the common potato, which had become so subject to the rot 
and other maladies, instituted a thorough investigation of the qualities of 
the numerous varieties of the Dioscorea Batatas ; and after the fullest re- 
search he transmitted to the Museum of Agriculture at Paris the Imperial 
Rice-white variety, as far surpassing all others in general excellence, re- 
markable for the snow-white color of its flesh, and for yielding a beautiful, 
pure white flour. Being determined to start on the surest ground in my 
experiments, I took such measures through ray Paris correspondents as 
would insure to me the obtaining of the highly approved variety I have 
referred to. The result has been most successful. The roots when dug 
were remarkable for their beauty, and for their pure white flesh, of a 
delicately farinacious flavor. In view of these facts it is scarcely necessary 
to add that our importers should exercise the greatest ^caution and scrutiny 
in making their selections, and that purchasers of imported roots should de- 
mand an inspection of the invoice, as a proof of their being the genuine 
Dioscorea Batatas {of Decaisne^) and not the spurious species. 

W. R. PrIxVce. 



608 AM. INSTITUTE. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE. 
farmers' club meeting of march 4, 1856. 

The Secretary, Henry Meigs, Esq., read extracts translated by him from 
the Journal de la Societe Tmjjeriale et Centrale d' Horticulture. Napoleon 
III., Protecteur. Paris, December, 1855. 

Mons. Capp, Chief Gardener of the Useful Plants in the Museum of 
Natural History, in the name of Professor Decaisne, presented magnificent 
tubers of the Dioscorea Batatas, (Chinese yam.) 

The small pieces of this Dioscorea were planted in April, 1854, and are 
now of considerable size, and weigh 500 to 1000 grammes, (l^i to 35 
ounces,) and ramify much. 

Messrs. Chevel, of Montigny, said that they had tasted this Dioscorea 
last week, and that the flavor rendered them excellent. 

Mons. J. Dumas, un the contrary, said that he had tasted some that were 
fade, (insipid,) and looked like mucilage. Some members said that perhaps 
they were not sufficiently matured. 

Mons. Bourgeois said that he had the last year received some of the 
tubers, which were different in figure from the rest, and that instead of 
being round they were flattened. 

Mods. Remont, of Versailles, presented several specimens of his first crop 
of the Dioscorea or Ignome. They were raised from the bulbilles, (little 
bulbs) ; some were grown on new land in the environs of Dax, department 
of Landes. Others, near Versailles, in rich and well manured soil, produced 
an inferior crop to the former. Mons. Ptemont stated that he bad tried 
panification (bread-making) by adding 20 per cent, of this Dioscorea to 
wheat flour, and that the bread was excellent. He hopes that 35 per cent, 
of this root may be added to flour with advantage. Planted in April, a 
hectare (two and a half acres) may yield 65,000 killogrammes of the tubers — 
about thirty-five tons to an acre. (This would be 780 bushels per acre.) 

Mons. Payen said, that if we can obtain 40,000 killogrammes per hectare, 
it would be an immense advantage gained for agriculture. He desires of 
Mons. Remont to dry some of the Iguames and a'^certain their proportion 
of starch. He observed that it was a remarkable circumstance in this 
elongated root, that the starch was far more abundant near its upper ex- 
tremity than at its base ; that those cultivated in Algeria were more full of 
starch than any grown in France, and that like difterences are found in the 
starch of the common potatoes, which vary from 14 to 27 per cent, of 
starch. 

Professor Decaisne said, that during the last year some of the tubers pro- 
duced 17 to 18 per cent, of starch. 

Mons. Guerin-Menneville said that Mons. de Montigny Las sent from 
China bulbilles of several varieties of the Dioscorea. 

Messrs. Decaisne and Remont pointed out a singularity in the cultivation 
of this plant, quite remarkable, which is that they hate dung ! The Chinese 
never use it in cultivating the Dioscorea ! 

As to the difficulty of getting out the crop, their depth in the ground 
being so cousiderable, Muns. Bourgeois said, a plough cau be made as well 
buited to plough them out as the plough used for carrots. 



AM. POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 609 

Mons. Remont says, he intends to try the cultivation of this new root in 
six of the departments of France. 

Messrs. Bossin and Louesse presented Dioscorea tubers grown from the 
bulbilles (little bulbs,) and others from the cuttings of the root. 

Professor Decaisne presented small tubers of the Dioscorea Batatas, and 
also of the Dioscorea Aroides, received direct from China. The first are 
long roots with truncated ends ; the latter are probably the Colorasse, (spe- 
cies of Arum.) 



THE AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

SIXTH SESSION. 

In conformity with a resolution passed at the last meeting of this Na- 
tional Association, the Sixth Sessio7i will be held in Corinthian Hall, in the 
city of Rochester, New- York, commencing on "Wednesday, the twenty- 
fourth day of September next, at 10 o'clock A.M., and will continue for 
several days. 

Among the objects of this meeting are the following : To bring together 
the most distinguished Pomologists of our land, and, by a free interchange 
of experience, to collect and difl'use such researches and discoveries as have 
been recently made in the science of Pomology — to hear the Reports of the 
various State Committees and other district associations — to revise and 
enlarge the Society's catalogue of Fruits — to assist in determining the 
synonymes by which the same fruit is known in America or Europe — to 
ascertain the relative value of varieties in different parts of our country — 
what are suitable for peculiar localities — what new sorts give promise of 
being worthy of dissemination — and, especially, what are adapted to general 
cultivation. 

The remarkable and gratifying progress which has been attained, of late 
years, in this branch of rural industry, is, in no small degree, attributable to 
the establishment and salutary influences of Horticultural and Pomological 
Societies. It is, therefore, desirable that every state and territory of the 
Union should be represented in this convention, so that the advantages re- 
sulting from the meeting may be generally and widely diffused. Held, as it 
will be, at a convenient point between the Eastern States and the Western, 
easily accessible from the South, and also from the Canadas, it is anticipated 
that the attendance will be larger than on any former occasion, and the 
beneficial results to the American farmer and gardener proportionally in- 
creased. 

All Pomological, Horticultural, Agricultural, and other kindred associa- 
tions of the United States, and of the British Provinces, are requested to 
send such number of delegates as they may deem expedient ; and nursery- 
men, and all other persons interested in the cultivation of fruit, are invited 
to be present, and to participate in the deliberations of the convention. 

In order to increase as much as possible the utility of the occasion, and to 
facilitate business, members and delegates are requested to forward speci- 
mens of fruits grown in their respective districts, and esteemed worthy of 
notice ; also, papers descriptive of their mode of cultivation — of diseases 
39 



610 ^ WOOL-GKOWING. 



and insects injurious to veg*-talion — of remedies for the same, and also to 
communicate whatever may aid in promoting the objects of the raeeiing. 
Eacb contributor is requt-sied to make out a complete list of his specimens, 
and present the same with his fruit, that a report of all the vaiieties entered 
may be submitted to the meeting as soon as practicable after its organiz-ition. 

Packages of fruits and communications may be addressed as follows: 
"For the American Pomoloyical Societv, care of W. A. Reynold:", Esq., 
Chairman Com. of Arrangnmen's. Rochester, N. Y." 

Delegations will please forward ceniticates of their appoiatment, either to 
the abovp, or to the undersigned at Bo>ton, 

-■'^ Gentlemen desirous of becoming members of the Society, and of receiving 
its Transact'ons, may do so by rf-miiting to ihe Treasurer, Thomas P. Jamt-s, 
Esq., Philadelphia, Penn., the admission fee of two dollars, for biennial, or 
twenty dollars for life membership. Makshal P. Wilder, Fres. 



H. W. S. Cleveland, Sec. 
Boston, Mass., March 15, 1856. 



ON WOOL. GROWING. 



To THE President, Vice-President, and Members of the Wool-Geowers* Asso- 
ciation OF Western New-York. 

Gentlemen : — I have received a copy of your circular, announcing the 
intention to hold your second annual Fair at "Penn Yan, Yates County," 
on the 27Lh, 2Sth and 29lh days of May next. 

Nothing could afford mo more pleasure than to attend that meeting, but 
fearing that I shall be prevented by want of health, I wJI comply with your 
request to aid in promoting the objects of the Association. I can send for 
your inspection 

1st. A general collection of Foreign Fleece, in which you will find choice 
specimens from almost every country in the world which has any pretensions 
to sheep breeding. 

2d. Particular specimens of all the best wools of Saxony, presented to m& 
by the King of that fine wool-growing country. 

3d. Specimens of the fine wool of Piussia and Prussian Silesia, sent to 
noe by the King of Prussia. 

4tb. Specimens of some of the most valuable fabrics manufactured from 
either wool alone or wool mixed with hair, silk, cotton, or other materials. 

The only condition I wish to m;ike is, that you will bear the expenses of 
the conveyance to Penn Yan and back, and see that they receive no injury 
■while there. To these specimens, if you conclude to have them, I beg leave 
to call your particular attention, for many reasons. 

In the first place, to point out to you an error into which your committee 
of arrangement have, inadvertently, fallen, in retaining the unscientific names 
of "long and middle- wooled shfcp," which were adopted in England before 
the specific difiierences between "sheep's /iGtV" and "sheep's wooV^ were 
pointed out by me ; and which, since that time, have been disused by the 
learned in that country. 

I shall present you with a copy of my Trichologia Mammalium, in the 
front of which you will see drawings of the three species of Men, with spe- 
cimens of their pile, by which you will perceive that the heads of the two 
first are covered with hair, and that of the third with wool. 



WOOL-GEOWING. 611 



I also bespeak your attention to page 153, where you will find diawinsr, 
of two species of sheep, with specimens of the hair and wool of each 
respectively. 

I shall next claim your notice to page 8, where I have endeavored to point 
out the differences between hair and wool, and to page 184, where the most 
important property of sheep's wool, viz., that oi felting and Jailing^ «nd the 
most important property of sheep's hair, viz., that of not shrinking, are point- 
ed out. These distinctions being well understood, you will be able to ap- 
preciate the importance of the specimens of fleece contained in ibe above 
collections, and be better prepared for judging what breeds of sheep should 
be introduced and propagated in your State. 

It is with no small degree of pleasure that I find, from numerous letters 
received from Europe, (where my work has been circulated,) that the po^ition 
I have been so long and so ardently laboring to maintain, viz., tbat " it is 

INDISPENSABLY NECESSARY TO SUCCESSFUL SHEEP-BREEDING NOT ONLY TO 
COMMENCE WITH A PURE BREED, BUT SCRUPULOUSLY TO AVOID THE CROSSING 

OF TWO SPECIES," is uuivcrsally admitted to be correct ; but it is any thing 
but flattering to notice that the respectable committee of arrangements of your 
highly respectable Association have passed it by unnoticed. In their pro- 
gramme not only is there no allusion whatever made to the all-important 
subject of purity of breed ; but premiums have been ofi"ered for hybrids. 
The earliest authentic account we have of the breeding of the Merino comes 
from Spain. In the language of that country the word, as applied to sbeep, 
means '' moving from pasture to pasture," from the practice there prevailing 
of driving the flocks, semi-annually, (V.-m one part of the kingdom to another, 
in search of their natural food. From Spain this invaluable stock was intro- 
duced into many parts of Germany and France.* In Saxony, Prussia, 
Prussian Silesia, &c., they were bred separately from the native sbeep of 
those countries, which is the reason why their fleece is so highly valued ; but 
in France they were mixed with the common sheep of tbat country, and con- 
sequently what are termed " French Merinos,^'' and which of late have ob- 
tained a pseudo renown in the United States, are hybrids — nothing but hy- 
brids. 

That, upon a subject so important to the wool-growers of the United 
States, there may be left no room for cavil, I ask permission to introduce, here, 
a few passages from a French author. 

Monsieur Roche Lubin, in a work entitled " Manuel de L'eleveur de BStes 
a Laine," published in Paris in 1854, thus expresses himself in regard to the 
French races of sheep. 

" The Merino Race, — Body cylindrical, thick and short ; head large and 
square; forehead almost straight ; eye bright ; horns almost always spiral; 
neck short, large and often furnished with a dew-lap ; the breast ample, 
shoulders round ; back horizontal and flat ; extremities short and strong ; 
testicles large, pendent, and separated by a furrow; fleece weighing, gener- 
ally, about four kilogrammes ; the strands of wool zigzag, tenacious, elastic, 
strong and soft. At this time a great portion of this wool is fit for carding. 
Lastly, the merino and the hybrid merinos furnish 56 in the hundred of net 
meat. This race has formed in Franca four principal sub-races, viz : (1.) The 
Rambouillet Race. — They are very vigorous, and produce a fleece, in the 
yolk, of eight or nine kilogrammes. The fleeca is longer, thicker, and less 
[jarreuse] than that of the pure race ; and the flesh weighs more ; they are 

* In 1786. 



612 WOOL-GROWING. 



much esteemed by the cultivators of the North. (2d.) The race of Naz. 
— They are smaller than the preceding race, their fleece is generally superfine, 
and it extends over the whole body ; they have large horns, but they are 
■without the dew-lap ; for butcher's meat they are inferior to the Rambouillet 
race. (3d.) The race of Perpignan, the origin of which was formed by 
Gilbert,) is comprised by M. de Gasparin in " the inferior race;" in fact it is 
distinguished from the other classes by the denomination of the " short and 
thick race ;" the length of the extremities are almost destitute of wool, and 
the absence of horns and dew-laps. 

(4th.) The Race of Mauchamp. — This race, for which we are indebted 
to an honorablft cultivator of the department of Aisne, M. Graux, is rather a 
new type of Merino thau a sub-race. The fleece is straight, smooth, silky, 
resembling in form the long English fleece, but infinitely softer and finer ; it 
sells at 8 francs the kilogramme. These sheep, although well fed, furnish but 
little meat. Generally the raising of Merinos is difficult, as well from the care 
necessary to be taken of them as from the food they require ; they are more 
diposed to diseases than the native races ; they are less prolific ; the ewes pro- 
ducing fewer lambs than those of the country, ^nd they are not such good 
milkers. Thus the pure Merino race, which cannot maintain itself in all its 
qualities, except by appropriate treatment and by well-understood attentions, 
is fit only for crossing and perfecting our races. It has been proved that hy- 
brids are less troublesome and that they produce as much wool and meat as 
the pure blood ; also, this species, in the actual state of our agriculture, is the 
most productive of wool-producing animals. Berry, Beauce, Perche, Picardie, 
Normandie, Bresse, and moreover the province de I'Ain, furnish numerous 
examples ; but it must be observed that the perfecting of the races of these 
countries has been favored by improvements introduced into French agricul- 
ture. It is also necessary to remark that, in order to hope for the improve- 
ment of the races of Brittany, of Poiton, of Sain, of Lemoirsin, of Quercy, 
of Auvergne, of Haute-Loire, of Loire, of Dauphiny, etc., (races which 
amount to the enormous number of thirteen or fourteen millions individuals, 
furnishing little meat and wool of medium quality,) it is indispensable that 
the cultivators of these provinces perfectionate, previously, their forage cul- 
ture ; thus to be able better to maintain the sheepfold. 

The Race of Laezac. — This race, which multiplies itself in a remarka- 
ble manner, is of a very ancient Spanish origin ; it originated on the Larzca, 
a vast calcareous district situated between the confines of the provinces of 
Aveyron and Herault. 

Notwithstanding the modifications which it has sufiered, the race has al- 
ways recommended itself by the shape of the bead, by its size, by its long 
structure, by the regular form of its body, by the size of its teats, by its oily 
and zigzag fleece, and by its great fitness for the production of milk, which is 
generally used for the making of the Roquefort cheese, which is produced at 
the present time to the amount of 1,200,000 kilogrammes. The form of the 
udder is well developed ; I have applied the monkey system to this race, of 
which hereafter I will publish results. Since the extension of artificial mead- 
ows every lamb of this precious race produces annually to its owner the mod- 
erate profit net of 20 francs; now by the assistance of a better regimen and 
perfect drainage ought we not to try to improve our woolen goods by the in- 
troduction of the long-wooled sheep without the fear of injuring the essential 
quality of an excellent milkage. Already from notes taken by two distin- 
guished agriculturists. Mm. Rodat d'Olemps and Randon-du-Landre, I feel 
myself auihorized to foretell that with the crossings of the rams of New-Kent 



WOOL-GROWING, 613 

our own sheep, without becoming worse milkers, have furnished a fleece more 
abundant and of double value." 

After reading the foregoing extract we presume that no person will deny 
that the so-called ^'■French Merinos'^ are nothing but hybrids. 

In regard to the laws of hybridism the following quotation will be all that 
is necessary : 

" The law of hybridity, as a test of species, is now better understood than 
it was in the days when Linnasus and BufFon wrote. The latter supposed 
that all animals that would produce offspring among each other, were of one 
species ; thus he reduced all the mammalia to about thirty-eight families. 
Rudolpiii, Hamilton Smith, Dr. Morton, and others, believed that many op- 
posite species would produce a prolific offspring, which would propagate in- 
ter se, and hence they supposed that the varieties of our domesticated ani- 
mals, and even some among wild species, were the products of two distinct 
species. That different species of tamed animals placed with each other in 
confinement will produce offspring is a fact known for centuries, hut that they 
ever have jJi'oduced or can perpetuate a race, we deny, and call for the proofs. 
All that have hitherto been given are quite unsatisfactory and cannot be 
sustained. We but recently ascertained that Dr. Morton had collected nearly 
all his cases of hybridity, published in Silliman's Journal, from Rudolphi. 
We are indebted to the kindness of some unknown friend in Germany for 
the book. We find, however, that in addition to its being full of errors 
that have since been exploded, Rudolphi collected his information from va- 
rious scraps that had from time to time appeared in print, and some from 
doubtful sources, without having made a single personal observation on the 
subject. But if even every fact he stated should be authenticated, it would 
merely amount to this — that some hybrids, wUen mated to a full blood of 
one or other of the original species, will produce ; but that hybrids will 
NOT BREED WITH HYBRIDS — hcDce 710 ncto racc is propagated. Our theory 
is, that in a wild state these associations seldom or never occur. When they 
do occur among animals placed under constraint, the offspring is either sterile. 
like the mule, or it must resort, not to a hybrid, but to one or the other 
of the original species. Dr. Morton was only able to produce two examples 
among wild breeds to show that hybrids had propagated races. When we 
proved to him that they were not hybrids but true sptcies, the one described 
by Yarrell, and the other by Gould, of England, he admitted the mistake, 
and in this Journal publicly corrected the error. In domesticated animals 
hybridity occurs, but kg family of hybrids can inter-se propagate a 
RACE — thus proving that God alone is the creator of species." — Dr. Back- 
man in the Southern Medical Journal. 

I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

Philadelphia. P. A. Browne. 



Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. — We have prepared an article in refer- 
ence to the peculiar attractions possessed by this road for all lovers of fine 
scenery, as well as for those who are disposed to patronize especial liberality 
and tfiiciency in the management of railroads. But our printer notifies us 
that our pages are full, and we are obliged to defer a more extended notice 
till another month. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, we had also designed to notice, in a similar 
manner. But this too must also be postponed till our May number. 



614: FEEDING CATTLE. 



FEEDING CATTLE. 

It is one of the standing questions of the day, in many communities, 
Will it pay to fatten cattle ? aod what does it cost to raise or fatten pork, 
etc? 

Prices vary so much in the same State, that one man's experience can be 
no test of another's ability, except in relation to quantities consumed. The 
value of the feed consumed must be calculated by each man for himself. 
All experience is useful in the matter of the feed used, and hence we give 
below the experience of a Western (Ohio) drover, Mr. Sears, of Litchfield, 
Ohio. He writes like a man of good judgment (in the Ohio Farmer.) and 
we copy from that paper his statement of his own debit and credit for the 
years 1853 and 1854. He modestly says of himself: — "I do not consider* 
myself an extensive operator because I fed sixty head of cattle. My object 
was to turn my hay and grain to the best advantage." In many sections of 
the country, if no profit is received from cattle-raising except to get a fair 
price for hay, it may still be a grand operation to carry on this business ex- 
tensively. But for the figures : 

DEBIT. 

1853 — Dec. 1st — To 60 head of cattle — average weight, 

1,050 lbs. ; whole weight 63,000 lbs., at 3 cts. per lb. - $1,890 

To one-half bush, corn per head, for 136 days, making 4,080 

bush., at 20 cts. 816 

To 15 lbs. of hay per head, for 136 days, making 61 1-5 tons, 

at %5 per ton, 306 

To pasturing 60 head for eight weeks, at 18 3-4 cts. per week, 90 

Cost of cattle, S3,102 

CREDIT. 

By 60 head of cattle — average weight 1,300 lbs. ; making 

78,000 lbs., at 4 cts., $3,120 

To balance in pocket, for extra labor, and no stabling, - - $18 

DEBIT. 

1854 Dec. 1st — To 60 head of cattle, average weight 1,025 

lbs., making 01,500 lbs., at 3 cts, 
To ^ qts.of corn meal per head, for 130 days, making 8921 

bush., at 50 cents per bush., making - 
To 20 lbs. hay per head, for 136 days, making 81| tons, at 

$5 per ton, 

To pasturing 8 weeks, at 18f cents, 

Total, 

CREDIT. 

15y GO head ^of cattle, weighing 1,400 lbs. each, making 
84,000 lbs., at 4t^- cents per lb,, . . - - 

To lalancG in 'pocket for ex.ra labor, ground ficd, and 

stabling, - ^990 75 



- |1,845 


00 


446 


25 


408 


00 


90 


00 


- S2,789 


25 


$3,780 00 



OSIER WILLOW. 615 



FOR THE PLODGn, THE LOOM AND THE ANVIL. 

THE OSIER CULTURE ;— PROFITS, AND MACHINE FOR PEELING. 

Mr. Editor: — In the spring of 1849 we procured a few plants of the 
Osier willow, with many other varieties of foreign trees, with a design of 
testing their adaptation to our soil and climate. Many of the less hardy 
kinds died the following winter. The Osier proved perfectly healthy the 
following spring. Being convinced that it would flourish in this climate, 
in the spring of 1851 we procuied a few hundred cuttings, and 
stuck them in rows three feet apart, and about seven inches apart in the 
row. The soil had been cultivated to corn the season previous ; but it was 
rather moist, being a deep loam which never suffered fiom drouth. We set 
500 cuttings in five rows. Tlie rows were sixty feet in length, were well 
hoed the first summer, and they grew from two lo four feet in height. Cut 
them to within three inches ot the ground the next springr, and cultivate 
them in May. The second season they will average from four to seven feet 
in height. We cut them fgain, and the toird time, and they grew eight 
feet, and on the fourth nine feet. Last summer a few grew ttm fee', and the 
whole would average from seven to nine feet. In the fall of 1854 I cut and 
weighed one row, sixty inches by three, and it weighed when green 180 lbs., 
which was at the rate of twenty-one tons lo the acre. We peeled a portion 
of them to ascertain what per cent, they would shrink by peeling and dry- 
ing, and we judged they sbraok two-thirds, (or 67 per cent.,) which would 
leave seven tons of peeled willow to the acre. This, at five cents a pound, 
would be $700 for the product of one acre. W^e have not applied any 
manure to the land, neither have we hoed them since May of the second 
year. 

The ground is perfectly shaded, and grass or weeds cannot grow. I judge 
the presenr. crop greater than the one of 1854, but have not cut them yet. 

This willow is very slim, free from limbs or knots, and very tough. I can 
tie a knot in it as well as in twine, without breaking it. 

I have never seen any willow plantation which flourished better than ours, 
and judging from reports from various parts of the world, we may compete 
with any part of it in growing it for manufacturing purposes. 

Our variety is known as Salix viminalis, and I think it the best variety 
for baskets. I have never seen any other variety as tough, and so per- 
fectly free fcom branches, and as small in proportion to its length. 

My attention was called to the sut j?ct of growing willows for baskets in 
1852, by reading an article in the Patent-office report on the cultivation 
of Oilers, in which the writer says that, "from the best information he can 
obtain, there are from four to five million dollars worth of willows annually 
imported into this country from France and Germany." He also informs us 
that the average price paid for it was from llOO to $140 per ton ; that it 
cost about $30 per ton to peel it; and that the demand was greater than 
the supply. 

A curjespondent of the Massachusetts Ploughman, in June 1853, spoke 
very highly of Americans engaging in the willow growing, and all the 
objection he presented was the cost of peeling. 

In a conversation with S. W. Jewett, Esq., of Weybridge, Vt., after he 
had examined the resources of Europe, he assured im that there was no 



616 COPPER SMELTING. 



danger of over supplying the market ; that it had not been done in Europe, 
and there was no danger of its being over supplied here. 

Peeling formerly was done by hand, which greatly increased the expense, 
but recently Mr. Geo. J. Colby, of Janesville, Vt., has invented a machine 
for peeling, which greatly reduces the expense, a representation of which I 
send you ; also his description of the machine, which you can lay before 
the readers of your valuable journal if you think it for their benefit. 

We can supply persons wishing to purchase cuttings this spring, and Mr. 
Geo. J. Colby, of Janesville, will furnish them for the extreme low rates of 
$2 00 per thousand when 50,000 are ordered at one time, and in smaller 
quantities at a moderate advance from the' wholesale prices. 

Braintree, Vt., March 12, 1856. Lewis H. Spear. 



COPPER SMELTING. 

The Commercial Gazette of Cleveland, 0., (an excellent paper,) contains 
the following : 

Some months since we published some statistics in reference to Copper 
smelting, which have been copied by a number of commercial and scientific 
journals, making some valuable additions to the statement. 

We now republish the substance of our previous remarks, with such val- 
uable improvements and additions as the article has gathered in going the 
rounds. 

" There are copper smelting works in the United States, situated at Cleve- 
land, 0., Pittsburg, Pa., Baltimore, Md,, Detroit, Mich., Boston, Mass., and 
one in Georgia (the name of the latter place we have not obtained.) At 
these works the quantity produced last year about 13,000 tons ; or the fifth- 
eenth part of that smelted in the valley of Swansea. The Lake Superior 
ores are smelted at Detroit, Pittsburg, and Cleveland, and are said to yield a 
great quantity of silver, which makes the smelting of them profitable. This 
business has been steadily and rapidly increasing during the past ten years, 
and it must increaseuntil the United States becomes the great copper smelt- 
ing country. Two things only are required for this, an abundance of good 
ores, or native metal, and plenty of cheap coal. The native metal and ores 
are found ininexhaustless quantities, and our coal fields are the largest on the 
wlobe. As there is no coal in the Lake Superior region, ore will have to bo 
exported thence to the nearest navigable point where coal can be obtained 
cheapest. An improvement in smelting copper ores is said to have lately 
been introduced into the "Eureka Mining Co.," Georgia, by which from a 
small furnace, using about five cords wood per day, two tons of pig copper 
iiontaining 60 per cent of pure metal, are obtained from ores containing only 
14 per cent of metal. 

East Tennesee is a great copper region ; no less than 14,191 tons of rough 
ore being mined there last year. About two-thirds of the copper used in our 
country is the product of our mines; the remaining third is imported chiefiy 
in pigs from Cbili. 



HARDWARE DEALERS. 617 



CIRCULAR OF N. Y. HARDWARE DEALERS. 

The jobbers of New- York engaged in the hardware business have issued 
a circular, the importance of which, in its ultimate consequences, we fear they 
have not sufficiently considered. It is very severely criticised in the Hard- 
waremarH s Newspaper, with what justice may be judged only by a careful 
view of the entire subject of home manufacture in its various relations. We 
have not time, in this number, to go extensively into this matter, as we 
should like to do, but we are persuaded that it is hasty, (however long the 
time since it was first contemplated,) ill-judged, and calculated seriously to 
injure the manufacture of such wares in our country. 

The circular is below, to which we annex some of the comments of the 
journal already named, with some additional suggestions of our own. 

"circular. 

"At a meeting of the Hardware Dealers' Board of Trade, of the city of 
New- York, it was unanimously Resolved. ' That in ordering goods from the 
Manufacturers of American Hardware, we will, as far as practicable, have 
the name and residence of the manufacturers left oflF, both from the articles 
and labels, or if it be desirable to have the maker's name thereon, that we 
will in all cases request that the maker's residence be left off, both from the 
article and label.' 

* '■'■Resolved, That we will give our patronage in preference to such persons 
or manufacturers as favor our views, and who decline or discontinue to inter- 
fere with the regular course of trade.' " 

This circular is thus treated by the editor of the Hardwareman^s NewS' 
paper. 

" The design of these resolutions is of course transparent, and needs 
neither argument nor illustration. It is simply this : This body aims at the 
entire control of the hardware manufactures of the country, and therefore 
insists that American hardware goods shall be made anonymously, and sold 
exclusively through them, and they endeavor to enforce this object by the 
threat contained in their second resolution, that they will withhold their 
'patronage' from manufacturers who decline acquiescence in their views. 

" The first part of the plan, then, by which these forty-seven dealers design 
to secure to themselves the monopoly of the sale of American manufactured 
hardware, is to have the makers name left off the articles he manufactures. 
Let us see what would be the practical operation of this, in its effect upon 
the quality of American goods. 

" The identification of the manufacturer with the article produced has two 
effects. It is a stimulus to the maker, to secure a reputation for, and a con- 
fidence in, the goods which he manufactures ; and it is, at the same time, a 
guaranty to the merchant, of the quality of the articles he purchases. The 
ambition for distinction in the superiority and excellence of his productions, 
is perhaps the strongest, as it is most honorable, incentive to a manufacturer 
to improve the quality of his wares. He knows that the estabhshment ofi 
character for himself, is the surest and the shortest method of making his 
business at once permanent and profitable ; and in its earlier stages, if he be 
a discreet and far-seeing man, he is more desirous to earn a reputation than 
to make money — knowing that if he does so, his goods will continually se - 
cure a larger demand and better prices than those of doubtful or unknown 
not to say inferior, character. "Why have we county and State organizations 



618 HARDWARE DEAIERS. 



for the exhibition of industrial skill, if it be not to excite an bonoiable emu- 
lation amongst manufacturers ? Why was it that four times within five years 
past the artizans of the world entered into a contest of friendly rivalry, in 
the various exhibitions of the industry of all nations, which have been held, 
if the ambition to excel was not a powerful incitement to improvement in 
the breast of the manufacturer? But if the hardware nianufacturers of the 
United States would have the '■patronage' o{ the forty-seven jobbers of New- 
York, they must ignore their own individuality, send out their goods avony- 
mously, and furnish an article which, however excellent, can bring them no 
credit, and establish for them no reputation. Suppose (which is impossible) 
they meanly and foolishly submitted to this impi-rious dictation, what would 
be the effect upon the quality of the goods produced ? Can any orie doubt 
that it would be to depreciate and lower it? The effort would tlien 
naturally be to make goods at as low a price as possible, to meet the views 
of the jobbers in whose hands they should place themselves; and, as they 
had no reputation to sustain, they would not hesitate doing so by sacrificing 
the quality. Thus would the geoeral character of American goods be low- 
ered in the market, and, in the same decree, would the reputation of im- 
ported goods be raised — until by a gradual but certain process, American 
manufactures would be run into the ground, American industry choked out, 
and American energy cramped and paralyzed. And this result is the very 
object aimed at by this measure. Nune know better than the forty-seven 
signers of this document, that the progress of American manufrictures is 
destructive to their business, and that their only hope of perpetuating the 
Jobbing Trade is by fettering and hindering domestic, and encouraging and 
promoting foreign manufactures. The first part of their plan, then, is to 
have American hardware sent into the market without the maker's name, by 
which tbey hope to accomplish these two results: First, to keep other mer- 
chants ignorant of the names and localities of manufacturers ; and, secondly, 
to secure the depreciation of home maniifnclured goods, by having them sent 
into the market anonymously, and thertfore without ttie guaranty of the 
personal responsibility of the producer. 

" But the second part of their plan is, to cr erce makers into obedience to 
their wi hes, by the threat to withhold their 'patronage' in c^se of their 
non-compliance. We don't like to use the language which suggests itself to 
us at this insolent proposition to the independent manufacturers of the East- 
ern and Atlantic St^ites ; but we confess we are pleased that the matter is 
now pl'.ced upon a plain and stra'ght footng. We hope the forty se/en 
jobbers will adhere to their resolution, and we have no doubt that many men 
who have too much and too long succumhfd to them, will, under this insult- 
ing provocation, give them a manly defiance, and follow the example of 
their more successful brethren, who have already sought a legitimate and 
permanent business with the true merchants of the country, and are now en- 
tirely independent of these Eistern Middlemen." 

We fully agree with the editor in some of the important points he has 
raised, but there are other considerations also that may have had an influ- 
ence in securing the passage of these resolutions. 

In certain parts of the community there is a foolish, vain hankering after 
imported goods. If two new bonnets, or hats for men or women, or two 
pairs of hoots, or two pieces of broadcloth, were laid side by side, each hav- 
ing exactly the same merits in all respects, one being labelled Paris and the 
other as American, most probably the Paris stamp would be selected by the 
first purchaser. Such a proof of merit miglic indeed effect the sale of an 
inferior article at the price of the better of American origin. 



HARDWAEE DEALERS. 619 



Hardware goods are no doubt affected by this same silly, childish, v<iin> 
foppish coticeit — a conceit that often taxes our patience not a little. The 
ironwares manufactured by our own skillful artists would perhaps sell better 
olttitnes if an unprincipled sale-'man could only call them English, just im- 
poited, or even wipe out all evidpnce to the contrary. 

But it is true, no doubt, that -New-York jobbers are in fact interested in 
keeping down American manufactures. Ttie reason is obvious. Country 
retailers can trade directly with the manufacturer, and thus the services of 
these Middlemen be dispensed with, while the importer is a necessary link 
between the foreign maker and the retailer. How far this motive enters into 
this movement can only be judged by those who know the men and their 
principles. 

Nor would the name be so useful as a means of connecting the retailer 
and manufacturer, if the residence were not stamped. The inference is cer- 
tainly very obvious, if it is not just, that this consideration was not over- 
looked, when they indicate in their circular that the omission of the maker's 
residence is of still more const-quence than that of his name. The latter is 
essential. Why is this point made by the^e gentlemen? 

But there is something more involved here than the amount of income of 
some fifty firms. This resolution bears directly upon the great subject of 
American manufactures, and its irifluence, undeuiably, we think, is unfavora- 
ble to their success, and indeed so far as it has any influence, ruinous. Its 
tendency is to ignore even the existence of this branch of American industry. 
It is a virtual announcement that manufacturers, if they do live and breathe 
and act, must do so under cover, or at least in a shadow. Tbey may work, 
indeed, but the best and most directed evidence that they do is to be blotted 
out of existence. This is singular ground for a true son of America to oc- 
cupy. Jonathan has been accustomed to hoist his flag at mast head, and to 
proclaim to alt the world that he himself stands on the deck and is ready to 
receive company and answer all civil questions. Hh does so in the presence 
of all nations, the strongest as well as the weakest. But this circular threatens 
— we know not what, if any of these men raise their blue buniin in sight 
of other people. 

If it is replied to this that it is not the stamp of American which is ob- 
jected to, but ihe name and exact location of the maker, then we say this is 
as bad, and far more mean, for it would then be obvious that the whole 
object was to secure the trade to themselves, forbidding all direct communi- 
cation between the maker and the country retailer, it would thus become 
a security against purchases by the retailer from the manufacturer, which 
should exclude the agency of ih^-se middlemen. These gentlemen will be 
very slow to admit any such despicable motive as this. But we cannot con- 
ceive of any other tban one of those we have here suggested. 

That the omission of the maker's name would tend to a deterioration of 
the quality of the wares, is also peifectly obvious. Hence it is b^^yond ques- 
tion a movement productive of absolute evil, and it becomes its deftjuders t-o 
state what good they hope to effect in offset. 

But this suggests another thought. The second resolution says that they 
will not give their patronage to those "who decline to comply to their de- 
maud or will discontinue to interfere with the regular course of trade." 
This, of course, refers to the demand made in the first resolution, and it is 
strange to us that these sagacious and clear-sighted men did not perceeive 
that it was themselves who are " interfering with the regular course 
of trade." Is it not always the case that the makers of good wares 



620 STATISTICS OF COD FISHERY. 

append their names to their packages ? Does not this custom prevail 
from the manufacturer of pills to the makers of steam engines ? How 
absurd, how ridiculous it would seem for the owners of steamboats to say 
" we will patronize no machinist who stamps his name on his engines ? Why 
our boot-makers, hat-makers, and the whole array of producers, one 
would think, would rise up in throngs like ghosts in a churchyard, and 
cry out at such an assumption, and would feel in their hearts that some very 
singular and unworthy motive must have suggested such folly. But we can- 
not enlarge. We think this circular was hastily, thoughtlessly adopted, and 
will be most disastrous in its results, if carried out in practice. We may re- 
fer again to this subject. 



STATISTICS OF THE COD FISHERY AT PROVINCETOWN, MASS. 

Total number of vessels employed 84, with an aggregate tonnage of 
7605 tons, manned by nearly 800 seaman, and possessing an aggregate value 
including outfits of $275,000. Compared with the previous year, this return 
exhibits a diminution of three vessels, with the same amount of tonnage 
employed ; over the year of 1853 it shows an addition of two vessels and 
527 tons, and over the year 1852, an increase of nineteen vessels and 2375 
tons in the aggregate. The average value of the vessels employed has also 
constantly increased, by annually substituting larger and more costly vessels 
for those of an inferior size. The largest vessel engaged in fishing the past 
season was a schooner of 131 tons. 

The importations of 1855 consist as follows : Of codfish, 76,914 quintals, 
and of cod oil, 806 barrels, which fall short of 1854 about one-eight, and 
of those of 1853 about one-third, while they exceed those of 1852 nearly 
one-sixth. The heaviest importations were in 1854, when nearly every 
vessel returned with a full fare. But owing to the constantly increasing 
scarcity of fish, our importations do not keep pace with our increasing ton- 
nage. This fact will be perceived by comparing the yearly imports with 
the yearly tonnage employed. Thus in 1855 were caught to each ton of 
shipping engaged, nine quintals and thirty-six pounds of codfish, against 
ten quintals and fifty-eight pounds in 1854; ten quintals and forty-two 
pounds in 1853, and eleven quintals and fifty-seven pounds in 1852. The 
obvious tendency of such a decline is to limit the annual impcrt of each 
vessel in a like proportion. Vessels, therefore, which formerly brought in 
1000 quintals of fish in a voyage of four months, are now able to obtain only 
seven-eights as many during the entire season. 

The price of fish for the tew past years has steadily augmented, the aver- 
age price in 1855 being $3 52 per quintal, against $3 24 in 1854, and 
$3 22 in 1853. The price of cod oil has likewise increased of late, the 
average price during the past year being 68 cents per gallon. From the 
scarcity of fish, before alluded to, and an increased demand in the market, 
the present price must be upheld. The value of importations are as follows : 

Codfish, $249,617 28 

" Oil, 1'7,276 08 

Total value of import, ... - $266,893 36 



EEVOLVING FIRE-ARMS. 621 

The amount of " bounty" obtained by the fishermen collectively the past 
year was $27,363,90, against an equal amount in 1854, $25,946 in 1858, 
and $20,434 in 1852. 

During the past year 84,000 bushels of salt were expended, against 
98,000 in 1854. 

The average length of the fishing voyages the past season was 4 months 
and 15 days. 

The population of Provincetown in 1850 was 3,157. 



REVOLVING FIRE-ARMS— COLT'S PATENT. 

Our readers must not suppose, from the caption just penned, that we are 
under the influence of a high war fever ; we are as peaceable as any lamb, 
and regard discretion as much the better part of valor. We have as good a 
defense against suspicion of any murderous intent as had the Friend who 
took part in the discussion of the merits of Colt's pistols before the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers in England. After several military gentlemen and 
others had highly commended the merits of this patent as a most efiicient 
weapon both of attack and defense, and one which had proved itself worthy 
of confidence in not a few instances in actual war, a Friend remarked that 
he thought " all weapons might be dispensed with, except for protection 
against wild beasts." So we may suggest that without regard to their use 
in war, or in circumstances of peculiar personal exposure, it is of very great 
importance to have fire-arms which shall be easily managed, safe in handling, 
and sure and exacE in discharge. Sd far an we can discover, all these re- 
quisites are especially descriptive of Colt's revolvers. 

The idea of a revolving breech is not a modern one. A match-lock gun 
in the Tower of London is probably the invention of the 15th century. 
It has four chambers, mounted on an arbor parallel with the barrel and 
welded to it. Another specimen, in the same collection, is furnished with a 
Pyrites wheel lock, and one priming pan is common to the six chambers of 
the revolving breech. 

In the " Musee d'Artillerie," at Paris, are two specimens of match-lock 
guns, with revolving breeches, each having eight chambers, rotated by the 
hand, the cover of the priming magazines requiring to be pushed back by 
the finger before firing. 

Another ancient form of this weapon, brought to England from India, 
closely resembles that first mentioned. The breech has five chambers, each 
having a priming pan with a swing cover. 

Tbere is also, in Paris, another gun with eight chambers, difiering in the 
arrangement of the touch-holes from the preceding, having one main priming 
tube extending from the pan to the rear of the revolving chambers, with 
eight correspondiug tubes extending from the rear to within a short distance 
of the front end, where an orifice is pierced into each chamber for the pur- 
pose of ignitingthe charge immediately behind the bullet, obliging the charge 
to burn backwards towards the breech. This belongs to the seventeenth 
century. 

Other inventions much more recent are well known, which possess more 



622 REVOLVING FIRE-ARMS. 

or less merit, but compared with the contrivances of our own times are, of 
course, exceedingly defective. 

Among the first American inventions of revolving fire-arms was a rotating 
breach with a flint lock, patented by Eiisha H. Collier, in 1818, and one 
contrived by a Mr. Wheeler, of Boston, and patented by Cornelius Cooledge 
in 1819. The first invention of Mr. Colt was in 1830. Various improve- 
ments have since been made in their construction, and they are now admitted 
to be the most efiective, for actual service, of all the ingenious inventions of 
the day. 

These arras were used in the Florida war with great success. The Indians' 
as is well known, are very expert in the use of firearms, and could meet and 
resist the attack of white men with great vigor. But when they saw that 
their enemies could discbarge their weapons six times without re-loading, 
they were persuaded that the white men had some valuable secret, some 
"medicine" far beyond their attainment, and they were induced to surrender. 
Col. Chas. May says "ten men with Cull's pistols in their belts, and who 
uoderstand their use, can go anywhere and keep ofi" almost any force. I 
should not hesitate, with ten men, armed with these pistols, to go anywhere 
across the plains." 

Mfijor Thompson, inspector of fire-arms for the U. S. army says: "After 
much tiring and examination, the Board of Ordinance adopted Col. Colt's 
pistol for the service as ihe best weapon presented for their consideration." 

The reputation of this invention is as great abroad as in this country. It 
is adopted by a portion, at least, of the British army, and is in very extensive 
use all over the world. There are other pistols which possess particular 
merits to as great an extent as these. For mere pastime and for personal 
protection under ordinary circumstances they may be equally serviceable, 
We described one in a late number of our journal. But for quickness of 
loading, in an actual engagement, and facility of managing, and for accuracy 
in firing, probably no invention approaches this. At least, we have seen 
none. 

Mr. Colt has an establishment at Hartford, Conn., for the manufacture of 
these arms. Four-fifths of the woik is done by machinery. So extensive and 
so complete are these works, that two hundred and fifty pistols have been 
finished per day, or fifteen hundred arms per week, by less than five hundred 
work-people. Col. Colt has also a similar establishment at Thames Bank, 
near Vauxhall Bridge, London, in a builoirg which was occupied in making 
the mouldings, etc., for the new palace at Westminister. 

Newton's London Journal says : 

The Great Exhibition of 1851 made Europe first acquainted with the re- 
peating arm, known in the United States as " Colt's Revolver." At that time, 
the impoitation, for sale, of fire-arras, of foreign make, was strictly prohib- 
ited ; and although the revolver obtained some favor from military men, yet 
it was not allowed to be purchased, even by officers ordered on foreign ser- 
vice, without a special permit from the Treasury. At a later period in the 
year 1851, the Cafi'res having proved exceedmgly trohlesome to the Govern- 
ment, some three hundred of these weapons were sent to the Cape of Good 
Hope, to test tbeir efficiency on the savage tribes in the interior. Ttiis pur- 
chase was, at the best, but small encouragement; yet it determined Colonel 
Colt to establish an armory in this country, by the outlay of many thousand 
pounds, for the manufacture, not of fire-arms generally, but exclusively of a 
weapon which had its reputation to win in Europe, — and that against no 



U. S. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 623" 

mean competition. What a contrast this daring course — ia respect of a 
weapon, for which, as yet, there was no demand — presents to that pursued by 
the trade in London and JBirraingham, we shall see in the sequel, when we 
revert to the Re[iort of the Select Committee, appointed in 1854, "to con- 
sider the cheapest, most expeditious, and most tffioient mode of providing 
sninll arms for Her Majesty's service." 

'• The factory at Thames Bank is, as we understand, but small, in compari- 
son with the Colonel's works at Hartford, Connecticut, U. S. ; but, accord- 
ing to our notions, it presents very respe<;tabl« dimecsions ; and as an illus- 
tration of automat'c manufacture, notwithstand'ng the newness of the sys- 
tem, it is scarcely to be surpassed by any brant h of trade with which we 
are acquainted. The machinery may be divided under four c'asses, viz., — 
that of forging, turning, boring, and milling. The latter three are comprised 
for the most part on the ground and first flocirs of the factory, which is a 
substantial brick budding measuring some 350 feet in lengih, and containing 
three floors besides the basement. The basement of this building is occu- 
pied with planing machines and other heavy mechanism employed in con- 
structing new tools, effecting repairs, &c. ; and in the top floor or loft, the 
assemblino- of the work is etfected, and the final touches are given by skilled 
workmen to the diff"erent parts of the arm. An extensive range of sheds in 
the factory yard is devoted to the use of the carpenters and smiths. The 
number of hands employed in the woiks, reckoning men, women, and boys, 
somewhat exceeds two hundred. They are divided into groups, and were 
at first supervised by Americnn workmen fro:m Hartford, who, being paid 
by contract (each item of the pistol having a determined value,) were thus 
personally interested in the speed of production : but these po-.ts are now 
chiefly occupied bv the most diligent and steady of the English workmen 
who first made acquaintance with machinery at the factory'.' 



The U. S. Agricultural Society, — The Executive Committee of the 
U. S. Agricultural Socie'y had a meeting in Philadelphia last we-k. The 
Philadelphia Ledger says of it : 

" Colonel Wdder, the efficient and distinguished chief of the Association, 
presided. The object of the meeting was to arrange certain preliminaries 
for the next annual exhibition, which has been fixed to take place in this city 
on the 7th of October, and which it is proposed t) conduct on a sc de of un- 
exampled liberality and splendor. It was decided to embrace, as ohj^^cts of 
the exhibition, horses and horned cattle, swine and sheep, agricultural im- 
plements, cereal and vegetable products, poultry, and native fruits and wines. 

"A grand banquet, in which laiiies wdl participate, was also settled as 
part of the programme; and it. was agreed to appropriate $12,000 or 
$15,000 in premiums." 

The people of that city are arranojiog for an exhibition which will eclipse 
that held in Boston last fall. Tney have subscribed $15,000 as a guaranty 
fund, and appointed a committee of arrangements of forty persons, embrac- 
ing some of the leading men of the different professions. We do not see 
how they can exceed io the exc-llency of arrangements the show in Boston, 
except they will secure fair weather for each day. This would be a feature 
of immense value. 



624 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 



FIG,I, SAFETYSIGNAL 




i\:,K'».'i;jN'<i:^ 



The importance of additional security on our railroads cannot be over- 
rated. Whoever will devise a thorough system of signals, which will be 
easily managed, and instantly perceived and understood, at suitable distances 
at all times, will confer an immense benefit on the public. Numerous plans 
have been devised, with many of which we are familiar, but some of them no 
doubt have failed to attract our notice. 

A small pamphlet has recently been sent to us containing an entirely 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. . 625 



novel form of signals for such U;e, which certainly has strong claims to favor. 
We publish below as full a statement of it as our limits will permit. We 
only detain the reader long enough to commend the skill and energy dis- 
played in the management of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad, where these signals are now in operation, under the supervision of 
S. W. Felton, Esq. He is not only an accomplished engineer but tho- 
roughly understands the details of railroad operations, as well in their bear- 
ings upon the interests of the company, and also in promoting the conve- 
nience of the public. But we let the pamphlet speak for itself. It is pre- 
pared by Mr. Franklin E. Felton. 

The writer first alludes to the defects of certain systems of signals now in 
use. He says : 

" In the first place, the compensation given to signal-men is so slight that 
none but men of limited capacity will accept the situation. In the second 
place, it not unfrequenlly happens that in times of danger, men lose their 
presence of mind, and are incapable of acting with discretion. The in- 
stances are by no means rare of a signal-man, startled by the unexpected ap- 
proach of a train, becoming so confused as to exhibit a signal of safety, when 
the occasion demand the signal of danger, and thus a train has been thrown 
from the track or precipitated into a river. Some two years since an acci- 
dent of this nature occurred on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad. A draw tender while waiting for a night train, feeling somewhat 
fatigued with the labors of the day, determined on taking a quiet nap. He 
had previously opened the draw in order that vessels might pass through 
without molesting him. Being suddenly awakened from his slumber by the 
noise of the approaching train, in the confusion of the moment he sprang to 
his feet, and seizing his lantern, which unfortunately was a white one, waved 
it across the track. The engine-driver seeing the signal of safety proceeded 
on his way, and the whole train was precipitated into the river, causing the 
loss of several lives, and the destruction of a considerable amount of property. 

" To obviate the danger inseparably connected with the use of signals de- 
pendent in their operation on human power, numerous devices have been 
proposed, designed to furnish a system of signals free from the objectionable 
features which characterize those in general use at the present time. 

" Within the short space of a month from the occurrence of the melan- 
choly catastrophe at Norwalk on the New-Haven Railroad, no less than 
twenty improvements in railway signals were presented at the Patent-Office, 
none of which, however, upon examination were deemed worthy of a patent. 

"A recent investigation into the merits of four of the best foreign and 
domestic devices of railway signals, demonstrates their unfitness to accomplish 
the purpose for which they were intended." 

After discussing these points he proceeds thus: 

" The Railway Protective Signal, invented by the late S, L. Spafford, Esq., 
an Engineer of eminent ability, is free from all the objectionable features 
characteristic of the various systems as yet devised. From the simplicity of 
its construction and the substantial character of the materials forming its 
component parts, there is no liability of its becoming deranged, while its ap- 
plicaiion is not restricted to draw-bridges or switches, like other devices for a 
similar purpose, but on the contrary it can without difficulty be adapted to 
any revolving or sliding structure. 

" The signals exhibited by this invention are visible at a great distance, and 
are equally conspicuous by day and night. Both the signals of safety and 
of danger it di>plays are positive, and can be made to assume any size of 
40 



626 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 



shape desirable, and can be elevated to any height the nature of the locality 
may require. The engine-driver, accordingly, is informed of the true condi- 
tion of the track at a safe distance from the bridge or switch, and that too 



nG.2. DANGER SIGNAL 




notwitbstand the intervention of a curve or other obstacle between the train 
and the place of danger. 

" In point of economy the Railway Protective Signal takes precedence of 
all other?, since it can be erected at a slight expense, and requiies no altera- 
tion iu the structure to which it is ajplied, while the cost of keeping it in re- 
pair ir« alrogether trivial. 

" The crowning merit, however, of the invention consists in its absolute in- 
dependence of human control and the impossibility of showing an incorrect 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 627 



signal by means of it. If the draw be unlocked or open, or the switch in an 
unsafe position for the passage of a train, th« signal naan has no power to ex- 
hibit a wrong s-ignal, whereby the safety of the train might be endangered. 

"The practical utility of Mr. Spafford's invention has been demoiistrated by 
experience. During the past eighteen months it has been in constant use 
on nine drawbridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Rail- 
road, and all wbo are acquainted with its practical operation, from the Pres- 
ident of the Company to the engine-drivers, roncur in expressing their un- 
qualified approbation of its merits and unhesitating confidence iu the infalli- 
bility of the signals it displays. 

" The record of railroad casualties, for the brief period of seven years, pre- 
sents a lamentable exhibition of the disastrous consequences attendent on the 
use of signals operated by the agency of human power. 

" From this cause alone, within thai time, no less than four hundred lives 
have been destroyed, and an equal number of persons injured by accidents at 
draw-bridges, switches, and railroad crossings. The amount of damages paid 
by the various companies, on whose lines these disasters occurred, as com- 
pensation to the victims and their legal representatives, exceeds the sum of 
three millions of dollars, the Norwalk catastrophe alone haviuj/ cost the New- 
Haven Company nearly four hundred thousand dollars. '1 he decrease in 
business, occasioned by the loss of public confidence arising from a sense of 
insecurity and danger, as evidenced by such frightful calamities, must have 
diminished the earnings of these respective companies to an amount equal 
to the pecuniary damages sustained by them. 

" It is gratifying to observe that the duty (if Railroad Companies to adopt 
every practicable measure for attaining safety at draw-bridges is about to 
be enforced by legislative enactments. The matter has already attracted the 
attention of the Legislatures of Massachusetts and New-Jersey, and it may 
confidently be expected that the discussion of the subject, and the adoption 
of stringent laws, will not only lessen the danger of railroad of traveling, but 
will also tend to restore confidence in railroad property by preventing the 
occurrence of those deplorable catastrophies which cause such unspeakable 
misery to the unfortunate victims and their friends, and the liability to which 
renders railroad securities of such precarious value. 

" In no way can this desirable object be so readily effected as by compell- 
ing Railroad Companies to establish a reliable system of signals, certain in 
their operation, and "wholly independent of human control. 

" The diagrams show the application and working of the Signal in detail, 
when attached to a pivot draw. It can, however, with equal facility, be used 
in connection with any other form of draw, the only change necessary being 
in the arrangement of the Stop Lock. 

"The same letteis in different diagrams refe'r to the same parts of the 
Signal. 

" The principal parts are the Signal Boards, A. A. ; the Signal Frame, 
B. B. ; the Sliding Frame, C. C. ; the Lantern CHrriage, and Lanteis, D. ; 
the jointed Levers, E. E. ; the Guides, F. F. ; the Connecting Rod, G, ; 
the Signal Board and Stop Lock Lever, H.; the Stop Lock, I.; and the 
Latch Lever, K. 

"The Signal Boards, A. A., are painted red on one face and white on tha 
reverse, and the Lanterns are so placed that when the white face <'f the Board 
is exposed, the white Lantern is seen above the Board, and when the red face of 
the Board is exposed, the red Lantern is seen below. The Boards are hinged to 
the Signal Frame, B. B., at a distance equal to their width from the top of the 



628 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 



frame, and coriiiected with the Slidins: Frame, C. C, which moves vertically 
in the grooved corners of the Signal Frame, by the jointed Levers, E. E., one 
Lever to each Board. The Sliding Frame, CO., is attached to the Signal 
Board and Stop Lock Lever, H., by the Connecting Rod, G., while from the 




B Fig. 3 shows a top view of 
the Signal and Lanterns. 



TOPVIEW 




Fig, 4. An elevation of tbe 
Sliding Frame. 



FIG.4. 

SLIDING.FRAM^ 



Fig. 5. The relative position 
of the Lanterns. 



r:^ 



.=J 



< 



FIG.5. 
LANTERNS 

under side of the Levers, the Stop Lock, I, passes into the Pier su'-h a dis- 
tance that, when raised, it leaves a space between its point and the Pier suf- 
ficient to admit the thickness of the curved arm of the Latch Lever, K. 
Against this Stop Lock, when down, rests the extremity of the curved arm of 
the Latch Lever, connected with the Latches at the point marked L, thereby 
preventing any movement of them until the Stop Lock is raised, which is 
shown at once by the Boards and Lanterns above. 



EMERY AND BROTHERS. 



629 



" Fig. 2 shows tbe same Draw, turned at right angles to its first position. 
To effect ih's, the Latches must first be drawn back, as follows : The long 
arm of the Signal Board and Stop Lock Lever is raised until the point of the 
Stop Lock comes above the Pier sufficiemly to admit the curved arm of the 
Latch Line. In raising this arm of the Signal Board and Stop Lock Lever the 
opposite arm is depressed, which, by means of the Connecting Rod pulls 
down the Sliding Frame, and this, acting upon the jointed Levers, causes the 
lower side of the Signal Boards to describe a semi-circle, thus exposing the 
red side of the Boards and the red Lantern. Then by throwing back the 
Latch Lever, its curved arm passes under the foot of the Stop Lock, the 
Draw is unlocked and can bo turned off. 

" It will be seen that after the Draw is once moved, the Stop Lock cannot 
be lowered, even if the Latches be thrown out, on account of its point coming 
against the top of the Pier, and that after the Draw is returned to place, it 
must first be latched before the Stop Lock can be lowered and the signal of 
safety shown." 




Emery & Brothers. — Among the many inventors who have done noble 
service to the cause of agriculture by improvements in machinery, are the 
ingenious and efiicient firm whose name stands at our caption. Their man- 
ufactory is at Albany, and is very extensive. It is equally distinguished for 
the admirable facilities which they have contrived in conducting their opera- 
tions, as for the conveniences and the labor-saving which they have devised 
for the farmer. We are not a little surprised at the show which they make 
on paper in the advertisement of their machines, which is found at the end 
of this number. They commenced operations in 1848, and tkey already in- 
clude on their schedule of implements which they manufacture, most of the 
irnportant machinery now employed in agricultural operations. Nor is the 
display a mere show on paper. We are satisfied that some of their machines 
are the very t)e.4 of their kind. With some we are not familiar. But they 
deserve the encouragement of the community for their industry and effi- 



630 



PEELING WILLOWS. 



ciency as well as for their valuable inventions. Nor is this a desert merely, 
for they are receiving what they have worthily earned, the confidence and 
the patronage of a large number of the agricultural community. To them 
and others who are devoted to similar pursuit?, the world is more indebted 
than to scores of scientific men, who have designed contrivances good for 
nothing but for pampering the appetites, or the waste and destruction of 
human life, or to scores of great generals who have inspired a whole people 
with the spirit of war and then otfered them up, in hecatombs, on the altar 
which themselves had constructed. We commend the implements of Emery 
& Brothera to the notice of our patrons. 



COLBY'S MACHINE FOR PEELING WILLOWS. 




fast as the first ones. 



This machine consists of a frame about 
eight feet long and two and a half high, 
upon one end of which are hung two 
rollers, each seven inches in diameter, and 
of any required length from one, two or 
four feet, as upon the length of the rollers 
( depends the amount of work that ihe 
" machine is able to perform. 

One of these rollers is made of India 
rubber and the other of wood or iron. 
They are so hung that ihey roll together 
one over the other so as to draw the wil- 
low through between them, and at the 
same time have an endwise or vibrating 
motion of an inch on each one in con- 
trary direction so as to rub the bark loose 
from the willows as they are passing 
through. 

This vibrating motion is very quick, 
given by a lever attached to one end of 
each roller with a fulcrum in the center 
between them, and operated by a crank 
under the machine as 5-hown by the 
figure. One of the rollers being of India 
rubber will allow different sized willows 
to pass through at the same time, and no 
willow however large or small can pass 
through without being rubbed, and the 
pressure of the rubber is not sutBcient to 
break or irjure the willow while it will 
rub the bark loose if the willow is in 
proper condition to peel. On the other 
end of the frame are hung two rollers 
like the first, only they have no vibrating 
motion and are both made of India rub- 
ber, and are geared as to run about eight 
About six inches forward of thtse are hung 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 631 



two other rollers each three inches in diameter, one or both made of India 
rubber and running together with the same speed and in the same way (ex- 
cept the vibrating raoiion) as the first ones. Tbe-e three sets of rollers and 
the machinery necessary to set them in motion constitute the whole ma- 
chine. 

Ttie willow, after passing through the first rollers, as described, are carried 
to the second or small rollers, by a belt running over the table between them, 
and the thick end, which is already clean, passing through them is seized by 
the larger rollers runoing very fast and stripped througli the small ones and 
thrown out clean, while the small rollers hold the loose bark which then rolls 
through and drops in a pile by itself. Such is the simple working ©f this 
labor-saving raachioo; it does its work perfectly and rapidly, to the entire 
satisfaction of every one who has seen it work. The amount of work which 
it IS capable of performing depends only upon the length of the rollers and 
the speed at which it is driven. 



English Patents. 

Improvements in Photography. By Alexander Rollason, of Birmingham. 
— This invention consists of improvements in transferring to paper, linen, 
cardboard, bone, ivory, wood, metal, or stone, the film of collodion or albu- 
men used in collodiotype or albumenized plates, by which a photograph 
may be removed from the glass or plate on which it may have been pro- 
duced ; or the plain film may be transferred on to certain of the substances 
above named, and a new base or medium produced for the photographic 
pictures. 

The patentee first proceeds in the manner in which ordinary collodiotype 
photographs are produced ; thus : — Having thoroughly cleansed the glass 
plate either with spirits of wine, naphtha, water, or tripoli, and finnlly buffed 
it with a charcoal butf leather, which will have a slightly greasy surface 
(and is therefore the better for the purpose,) he covers the glass with iodized 
collodion, or any other similar and suitable tilmy material, on which a pho- 
tograph can be taken ; and after submitting it to any of the well-known pro- 
cesses for rendering the film sensitive, such as immersion in a bath of nitrate 
of silver, he places it in the camera, and takes a picture, which has then to 
be developed in the ordinary m^inner, viz., by washing with a solution of 
iron m nitric or glacial acetic acid, and afterwards fixed with a solution of 
cyanide of potassium or hyposulphate of soda: having been well washed, it 
is allowed to dry (if necessary, applying a gentle artificial heat) Should 
the collodion be of a very adhesive quality, it is sometimes essential, before 
drying the picture, to immerse it for two or three seconds in a bath of very 
dilute nitric acid. 

The picture thus taken is subject to the improved process for removing or 
transferring the film from the glass. Having first ascertained that it is per- 
fectly dry, ihe inventor proceeds to color it (if intended to be colored) at the 
back or on the film itself, in the following manner, employing oil, or varnish, 
or well-sized water colors : — The picture is tinted according to taste ; and, 
when dry, the whole is covered wnh any colored varnish, according to the 
general tint wished to be produced. If it is not desired to color the picture 



682 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 



whilst on the glass, it is covered at once with varnish, the components of 
which are asphaltum or Brunswick black dissolved in miaeral naphtha to 
about the consistency of cream. Its tone may be varied by the introduction 
of warmer or cooler color, according to taste, when the varnish is sufficiently 
dry, which may be proved by the linger detecting no stickiness. It is not 
desirable to let it dry beyond this point, lest it should crack ; but, in case 
further operations should be suspended for a time, to avoid cracking, the 
varnish must be coated with a thin solution of shellac, which will prevent 
further hardening of the varnish. The next proceeding is to remove the 
film from the glass, and having prepared a mucilage — composed, by prefer- 
ence, of gum-arabic and honey, in the proportion of two-thirds of the for- 
mer to one-third of the latter — the patentee covers the varnish with this 
mucilage ; (in case it be paper employed for the transfer, it may be neces- 
sary to damp it first, and then coat it with the same mucilage) after which 
he attaches the paper or other flexible material to the back of the picture. 
An even adhesion of the surfaces is effected by clamping the edge between 
two pieces of wood jointed together, and rolling out the air bubbles with a 
simple apparatus, consisting of a piece of thick India rubber tubing slipped 
tightly over an ordinary ruler. When the transfer is to be taken upon wood, 
stone, or other non-flexible substance, care must be taken that the surface be 
perfectly smooth ; and the air bubbles may be excluded by applying one 
end of the picture first and gradually sliding it on. When the mucilage is 
dry enough — which may be ascertained by raising or bending back one cor- 
ner of the picture, upon which, if sufiiciently dry, the film should begin to 
separate itself from the glass — the time has arrived for completing its re- 
moval. By means of a feather, a few drops of water or spirits of wine are 
now introduced between the edge of the picture and the glass, and, at 
the same time, the separation is gradually effected. 

The transfer is now complete ; and when it is desired to color it or get 
rid of the irridescence that will be perceptible upon it, a little magilp, or 
varnish, or oil, or any other softening matter that will not injure the dtlicate 
surface, is rubbed over it with a pellet of cotton wool so as to leave a slight 
stickiness, to which the dry colors known as "mansions," and many other 
dry colors, will adhere ; and, in some instances, omitting this last operation, 
water, oil, or varnish colors may be employed. The picture is now complete. 

By the same means the transfer from a plate or glass of a plain film of 
collodion or albumen on to any suitable base, such as a sheet of paper, or 
linen, wood, or ivory, may be effected. 

Improved Composition for fixing Lithographs and engravings oir 
Canvas, after being transposed or reproduced by a printing press. By 
Louis Adolphe Ferninand Besnard, of Paris. — This invention consists in 
transferring and fixing, by means of a composition on canvas or cloth duly 
prepared, all kinds of lithographic representations and engravings, without 
removing any particles of the paper on which they were made. 

In a vessel specially adapted for this purpose and capable of bearing heat, 
about a quart of soft water with a spoonful of linseed is placed : this is 
heated to ebullition for a few minutes, and is then withdrawn and strained, 
and the product is passed into another vessel. In half a glass of the water 
prepared as above, 400 grams (troy) of white moist sugar, are dissolved and 
strained through fine linen, — and to this is added the quart of water pre- 
pared as above described. 

Into a quart of water, maintained in a state of ebullition in a sand bath, 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 633 



800 grains troy, of wliite gelatine are thrown while stirring with a wooden 
spatula. In about three minutes the liquid is withdrawn from the fire and 
passed through a strainer. The solution, thus prepared, is mixed with the 
linseed water and saccharine solution, and the whole is placed again on the 
fire. When ebullition commences, the inventor stirs with a camel-hair 
brush, which he withdraws saturated with the liquid, and passes quickly and 
lightly over the lithograph or engraving (which has been previously trans- 
ferred to the canvas to be painted by means of transfer paper, with is en- 
tirely removed) up and down, across, and to and fro ; thus leaving the draw- 
ing completely freed from the smallest particle of paper. This application 
of the above solution by the camel-hair brush fixes instantly the drawing to 
the canvas. The drying of the canvas occupies more or less time acording 
to temperature. It is next coated with varnish by means of a fish-tail brush, 
and the canvas is ready for painting by the ordinary methods. 

The patentee claims the preparation of a composition and process of trans- 
ferring and fixing lithographic images and engravings on cloth or canvas. 

Improvements in the Masts and Spars of Ships and Vessels. By 
John Robb, and Laurence Hill, both of Greenock. — In carrying out their 
invention the patentees build the lower part of the mast of iron, from the 
" step " to the upper deck, or to a short distance above the upper deck ; and 
the upper part of the mast, from or near the deck, they construct in any of 
the ways usually adopted in the construction of a wooden mast, and fix it 
in the upper end of the lower or iron portion. Masts so constructed can be 
cut away with the usual facility, and, if cut or carried away, they can be 
more easily replaced than common masts, or than masts constructed wholly 
of iron, or having iron plates running throughout the entire length. The 
form of the iron part of the mast is that of a hollow iron tube, which form 
facilitates the fixing of the wooden part into it. It may either be built into 
and form part of the vessel, which plan is preferred, or it may be constructed 
as a separate piece, and fixed in the usual way of fixing masts in vessels. 

The spars of ships the patentees also make, in part, of hollow iron tubing, 
say five or six feet in length, for a spar of about forty feet long, but longer 
or shorter for otber lengths of spars ; and the remaining portions or ends of 
the spar, they form by inserting into each end of the hollow iron tube a 
piece of wood of the same construction as the corresponding portion of a 
wooden spar made in the usual manner. 

Improvements for constructing Propellers, &c. By George Peacock, 
of Gracechurch street. — This invention consists in making each blade of a 
propeller of an open frame of wrought-iron, and covering such frame with 
sheet-iron, by which means great strength may be obtained wiih compara- 
tive lightness of structure. The form of the propeller-blades may be varied, 
but it is preferred that the outline of the open frame should correspond with 
that of a bee's wing ; and, in applying the sheet-iron to such frames, the 
same is formed hollow in front, and convex on the back surface, and para- 
bolic in its curvature. 

Improvements on the Construction of Railway Wheels. By Alfred 
Krupp, of Essen, Prussia. — This invention consists in forming railway wheels 
by a combination of a solid cast iron disc, whether corrugated or otherwise, or 
plain, with or without ribs, with a wrought-iron or wrought or rolled steel 
tyre affixed thereto, by shrinking pressure, or bolts and nuts, or by any other 
suitable method. 



634 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



The wheel is constructed of two distinct parts ; namely, first, the interior 
of the wheel, including tbe nave; and second, the tyre. These parts are 
united by bolts and nuts, or by the ordinary process of shrinking. The in- 
terior part of the wlieel and nave are formed of solid cast-iron : the portion 
surrounding the nave is provided with radial corrugations (or of an undula- 
tory form.) which diminish in depth towards the nra. The rim is furnished 
on each side with a flange; the inner one being of a greater depth than the 
outer, in order to receive the bolts necessary to secure it to the tyre; or the 
central portion of the wheel may be cast with a numl)er of radial ribs, of a 
greater width at the nave and diminishiog towards the outer edge. In all 
cases the central portion should be cast of sutBcient dimensions to allow of 
being turned in tbe lathe, to form smooth and even surfaces at the periphery 
and at the nave, for securely fixing the tyre and axle. Fur locomotive wheels, 
the radial corrugations or ribs should be increased proportionably in number 
and depth to ihe size of the wheel. The tyres for these wheels may be of 
wrought iron, or of wrought or rolled steel, and attached to the rims or 
flanges of tbe central and solid portion of the wheel, either in a hot state 
by fchrinking, or in a cold state by means of a hydraulic press, or by bolts 
and nuts, or by any other approved method. 

Tbe patentee claims constructing railway wheels by a combination of a 
solid cast-iron disc with a wrougbt-iron or wrought or rolled steel tyre, affixed 
thereto by shrinking, by bolts and nuts, or by any other known suitable 
means. 

Improvements in the Preservation of Vegetable Substances. By 
Francois Joseph Anger, of Stamford street, Blackl'riars. — This invention con- 
sists in preserving poiatoes and other vegetable substances, by means of a 
process which effects a change in the nature of the farinaceous matter con- 
tained in the vegetables operated on, and prevents decay or decompos-ition 
taking place. The agent employed for the purpose of this invention is an 
extract from fermented grain called diastasis, which is mixed with warm 
water. This solution is heated to a degree sufficient for decomposing the 
farinaceous matter of the potato or other vegetable, which is then placed 
therein and allowed to remain until perfectly imbued with the solution and 
the farinaceous parts are decomposed. The vegetables are then removed 
from the solution, and placed in drying-rooms until thoroughly dried. 
When thus prepared, tbe potato or other vegetable is not susceptible to the 
decompobiog iijfluence of the atmosphere. Tbe patentee remarks, that cer- 
tain neutraliz-rd acids or cbemical salts can be used instead of diastasis, and 
the employment of them would effect the purpose, but not so well as the 
diastasis. 



Silver Meual to the Amoskeag Gompanv. — The Amoskeag Mills, 
David Gillis, Esq., agent, have received an elegant silver medal of tbe first 
cla^s for their superior display of sheetings, ticking*, flannels, and denims, at 
the World's Exhibition at Paris last year. This company received the prize 
at the World's fair at London for the same class of goods. These two prizes 
indicate beyond question that the American products cannot be equalled, in 
Bome instances, by the rich manufactories of the old world. — Manchester 
Mirror. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 635 



Miscellaneous. 

Shabpe's Rifle. — This recently -invented weapon, if it possesses one-bal 
of tbe power and capacity claimed for it by its proprietor, is destined soon to 
supersede every other weapon for warlike purposes now in existence. It is the 
most efficacious and terrible fire-arm in existence. The small carbine now 
used by the United States mounted men, throws a ball with a deadly accu- 
racy one-quarter of a mile, and can be fired ten times per minute. It is not 
complicated in structure, is easily cleaned, and suffers no injury from wet 
weather. 

Mr. Sharpe is now preparing models for four new species of his weapon, 
namely : A small pocket pistol, calculated to throw a minnie ball one hun- 
dred yards; a rifle suitable for f.joimen, with a range of one mile; and a 
large gun to throw a two-ounce ball or a small shell, one mile and a half, or 
as far as a man aud horse can be seen to advantage. With this latter wea- 
pon, Mr. Sharpe declares he can set on fire a house or a ship at a distance 
of nearly two miles, and prevent the use of field artillery by killing the 
horses before ihe guns are brought within a good range. 

This rifle, in the hands of a good marksmen, is equal to ten muskets, 
bayonets and all ; for, place a man six rods distant with a musket and bay- 
onet, and before he can bring the bayonet into use, the rifle can be loaded 
and discharged ten times. They carry balls with great precision and force. 
Mr. Sharpe intends these rifles to become a national weapon, and should 
Congress, hy using a little liberality, purchase the patent, the country would 
be possessed of a means of warfare unequaled in the world. — Alton Courier. 

SrATisTics OF English and French Agriculture. — Some interesting 
statistics relative to the Agriculture of France and England were given in a 
lecture delivered a few dii\s since in Cornwall, by M. R. de la Trehonnais. 
In England, out of 50,000,000 acres cultivated, 10,000,000 are sown to 
wheat or other cereal crops, while in France 50,000,000 were cultivated for 
that purpose. The average growth of wheat per acre in England is 4 quar- 
ters, aud in France only 1| quarters ; whil^ the produce of English land is 
about £-3 4s. per acre, and that of French £l 12s. per acre. The number of 
sheep grown in each country is about 35,000,000, and the wool produced about 
60,000 tons; but, owing to the difference in the average, there is something 
less than Ij sheep per acre in England, and only about one-third of a sheep 
per acre in France. In France there are annually slaughtered 4,000,000 of 
cattle, the average weight of each being two cwt. ; while in England there 
is not half the number slaughtered, but the average weight is five cwt. — 
London Times. 

The Steamer Sedastopol. — A new steamer, intended to run in the Up- 
per Lake trade, has just been completed in the ship-yard of L. Moses, in 
Cleveland. She bears the appropriate name of Sebastopol. For strength 
and capacity, says the Plaindealer, she is not surpassed by any craft in that 
trade on the lakes. Her engine was manufactured at the Cuyahoga Works, 
has 32-inch cvlinder, 11 feet stroke of piston, and is rated at 800 horse 
power. The wheals are thirty feet in diameter. She is about 830 tons ca- 
pacity, and, with all her machinery, draws but four and a half feet of water, 



636 MISCELLANEOUS. 



and with full cargo will not exceed eight and a half feet draught. No light- 
ing over shoal water, or the St. Clair FJats can be apprehended. She cost 
about $60,000. 

The Lake Fisheries. — The number of barrels caught annually is stated 
as follows : 

Lake Superior, 3000 bbls. ; Lake Michigan, 15,000 ; Lake Huron, 
15,000 ; Lake Erie, 3000 ; making in all 35,000. To which is added De- 
troit River, white fish, VOOO ; making a total of 42,000 bbls. 

These are sold at an average price of $11 per barrel — the aggregate 
amount of sales being $462,000, or nearly half a million dollars. Probably 
one-sixth of all the fish caught in Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, are 
trout — the remainder being white fish. la some of the rivers that flow into 
the Lakes, enormous quantities of pickerel are caught, reaching a total, with 
bass, mullet, etc., of about 10,000 barrels, selling for $85,000. It appears 
that there are thirty-three varieties of fish in and about the Lakes, many of 
which might be artificially and successfully propagated. 

Maryland Agricultural College. — Mr. Sothoron has reported a bill 
in the Senate to establis^h and erdow an Agricultural College in the State of 
Maryland. It provides that when the stockholders shall have secured sub- 
scriptions for two thousand shares of twenty-five dollars each to the stock of 
said college they shall be entitled to draw from the States Treasury the 
annual sum of $6,000, which is to be appropriated as a perpetual endow- 
ment for the payment of the salaries of protVssors, &c. James T. Earle, John 
O. Wharton, Nicholas B. Worthington, Charles B. Calvert, George W. 
Hughes, Walter W. W. Bowie, Ramsey McHenry and J. Carroll Walsh, 
Esqrs., are named as the commissioners to obtain subscriptions. The Gov- 
ernor of the State is to be president ex-officio, and the President of the Senate, 
and the Speaker of the House of Delegates, and the Comptroller of the treas- 
ury, for the time being permanent trustees. 

Increased Facilities for Western Travel. — Three years ago I came 
from Cleveland, by the road, with my family and conveyances, and we were 
nearly three weeks on the way. Now, we can make the trip by railroad in 
eighteen hours. We are 145 miles from St. Louis, and a year ago it required 
several days of hard travel for man and beast to reach that city. Now, two 
trains of wide, comfortable cars, pass daily over a very good six foot railroad, 
in which the man of business or pleasure can read the morning paper, or 
look out upon the broad and beautiful prairie, or take a nap in his easy seat 
without fear of the horse tiring, or it becoming necessary to pry out of the 
mud. 

A daily line of first-class steamers now ply between Cairo and New-Or- 
leans. Passengers from the South, for the East, take the Illinois Central 
road at Cairo, to the crossing of the O. & M. R. R. ; thence here to Indian- 
apolis, Cleveland, New- York, Boston, Philadelphia, &c., &e. From Cairo to 
New-Orleans navigation is never obstructed by freezing, while the Mississippi 
and Ohio, above Cairo, are frequently frozen entirely over. Such is the case 
at this time, and but for the railroads travel between the North and South 
would be suspended. — Cor. 0. Far. 

Guano for Cotton. — We have seen a letter of a late date from Dr. 
Cloud, of the Cotton Planter, in which he says, " My guano has astonished 



MISCELLANEOUS. 637 



the natives. On sixty acres of land, with six dollars' worth of guano to the 
acre, I have made 100,000 pounds seed cotton and fifteen bales yet to 
pick." The Doctor's plantation is in Macon county, and consists mostly of 
level pine-land, with a clay subsoil. We want no better proof of the benefi- 
cial results of guano. In this case, less than 200 pounds to the acre, com- 
bined wiih land plaster, have produced, upon what is considered poor land, 
more than the average yield of the best prairie and river-botton lands. A 
great deal of similar land is to be found in Mobile and Baldwia counties, 
which, by the employment of a hberal dressing of guano alone, or guano 
and land plaster combined, would produce fine crops of corn, oats, rye, wheat, 
cotton and garden vegetables. — Ala. Planter. 

Bees and Quails. — The Rev. A. H. Milburn in a lecture on the West 
says : 

" Two remarkable facts are to be noted in respect to the advancement of the 
whites. The first is that the quail, unknown to the Indian, makes its first ap- 
pearance — from whence no man knows — when the white man plows and 
plants his fields, affording an abundance of delicious food to the pioneer. The 
second fact is that the honey-bee is not found in the country while in the 
possession of the Indians. It keeps just in the advance of the advancing 
wave of civilization. When the Indians see the swarms of these new visitors, 
their wise men sadly acknowledge that it is time for them to abandon their 
pleasant hunting-grounds and the graves of their fathers, and seek new 
homes." 

Mode of Feeding. — An English farmer says, " Good sheds, rfry beds, 
small yards or boxes, regularity in feeding small quantities at a time, are the 
great essentials in feeding all animals, and strict attention to these principles 
would save an immense quantity of valuable food." 

• 

Largest Carrying Ship. — The keel of a ship was recently laid at the ship- 
yard of Wm. H. Webb, in New-York, intended to be the largest carrying 
ship ever built. She is to be of 2500 tons, 240 feet long, 4G feet beam, and 
30 feet hold, and is estimated to carry over 7000 bales of cotton. 

Import of Dry-Goods at New- York. — For the first ten months of 1852 
the estimated value on imported dry- goods at this port was $53,000,000; 
for the corresponding period of 1853, $82,000,000; of 1854, $76,000,000; 
and of 1855, $57,000,000. The falling off during the past year was doubt- 
less consequent on the excess of importations for previous years. 

Joy at a Friend's Fall. — A wag having been told that the price of bread 
had fallen — exclaimed : " This is the first time that I ever rejoiced at the fall 
of my best friend." 

Manufactures in Marbleiiead, Mass. — Marblehead annually manufac- 
tures some 300,000 pairs of boots and shoes, that are valued at over a mil- 
lion of dollars. They have 2,565 persons — 1,080 males and 1,485 females, 
employed in the business. They have found it for their advantage to have 
fewer fishing vessels and more shoe fehops. 

Grain Crop of Illinois. — The Chicago Press estimates the grain crop 
of Illinois for 1855 as follows: 180,000,000 bushels of Indian corn; 
20,000,000 bushels of wheat, and 50,000,000 of oats, barley and rye. 



638 NEW BOOKS. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Edith Hale. A Village Story, By Thrace Salmon. Phillips & Sampson, Boston. 

1856. 

This is a pleasing and simple story of a young girl. Some of the scenes are very 
amusing, and others are very sorrowful. It is a very good book. 

WoLFSDEN ; An Authentic Account of Things then and thereunto pertaining, as they 

are and have been. By J. B. Phillips & Sampson, Boston. 

This is a New-England story, describing the fortunes of several of the " Wolfsden- 
ers," but principally of Alek, who, sadly disappointed at finding that his lady love 
prefers another, leaves his home to seek his fortune. 

The Quarto Shakspeare. Illustrated. Martin k Johnson, 2*7 Beekman street, New- 
York. 

Thirty-eight numbers of this splendid edition have now been issued. We can 
hardly commend the publishers too highly for the almost absolute perfection of style 
in which they have executed this great work. The engravings are of the highest 
style of art. Thirty-eight of equal merit can scarcely be found in any American pub- 
lication, and they, and the paper and letter-press are all in good keeping. The last will 
soon be published. Price 25 cents a single number. Most of the later numbers are 
double. 

The Kings of Rome. The Republic of Rome. By F. W. Ricord. With illustra- 
tions. New-York : A. S. Barnes & Co. 1856. 
These two small volumes give us a concise history of the periods to which they 

belong. The first is, of course, to a great degree fabulous, but it is all we have. Both 

are well arranged and well written, and should be in every juvenile library. Both are 

illustrated with good wood engravings. 

The Catholic. Letters addressed by a Jurist to a Young Kinsman proposing to join 
the Church of Rome. By E. H. Derby. Boston : John P. Jcwett & Co. 12mo, 
293 pages. 

These letters are written with very great ability. The argument of the writer is 
sustained by the early fathers, Scripture, history, and books of travels. It is admira- 
bly written, and the whole is executed with remarkable taste. 

Life of Schamyl, and Narrative of the Circassian War of Independence against 
Russia. By J. Milton Mackie, author of " Cosas de Espaiia." Boston : John P. 
Jewett k Co. New-York: Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman. 12mo, 300 pages. 
Schamyl, the hero of this narrative, and a hero in the Circassian war, was born in 
1797 and after the death of Hamsad Bey, became his successor as Imam, and is inti- 
mately connected, of course, wiih the intensely interesting events of that remarkable 
war. The work has the interest of a novel, is well written, and no doubt reliable. 

Ernest LiNwooD. A Novel. By Caroline Lee Hentz. Boston : John P. Jewett & 

Co. 1856. 

Mrs. Hentz was a very beautiful and a very powerful writer. We say was, for we 
regret to say that she died the very day this book was published. She excelled in the 
humorous style, and she equally excelled in the pathetic and in the passionate. The 
volume before us furnishes abundant proof of this. No female writer in this country 
deserves a higher place in the esteem of the public than she, as no other was more 
ardently beloved or more highly honored by those who personally knew her. For it 
is not merely as an author that she was preeminent. As a woman, by her elegance 
of manner, her rare powers in conversation, her well-proportioned intellect, and her 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



689 



character throughout as a woman, a wife, and a mother, Mrs. Hentz, the individual, 
was as distinguished as Mrs. Hentz the author. 

This volume is remarkable for variety in the character of its scenes, all alike wel 
conceived and admirably managed. And through the wkole there is a tone of deep reli 
gious feeling, not ostentatiously paraded nor exhibited for effect, but pervading the 
whole book, and flowing out of the writer's inmost soul. Would that we had a mul- 
titude of just such noble women. 

The volume is for sale in New-York by Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman. 



List of Patents Issued 



FROM TERMINATION OF PREVIOUS LIST TO MAECU 4. 



Edward F. Berry, of Hudson, N. H., for im- 
provement in machines for sowing seed broad- 
cast. 

Sherburne C. Blodgett, of Philadelphia, Pa., for 
improvemeiit in forks. 

Henry A. Brown and James Wiley, of Brooklyn, 
N. y., for improved fountain pen. 

Wallis and George Bull, of Tonawanda, Pa., for 
Improvement in machines for sawing marble. 

Abner Burnham, of Albany, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in cooking stoves. 

Georere H. Corliss and Elisha Harris, of Provi- 
dence, U. I., for improvement in rolling metal. 

George H. Corliss and Elisha Harris, of Provi- 
dence, K. I., for improvement in forging thimble,-i. 

John B. Cornell, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in vault covers. 

Mircus M. Cass and Lawson R. Bigelow, of Wat- 
kins, N. Y.,for improved grapple for raising stone. 

Seth P. Chapin, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in suwing guides. 

Stephen Gorsuch, of Altoona, Pa., for improve- 
ment in seeding machines. 

John Johnson, of Troy, N. Y.,for improvement 
in power looms. 

Francis Jos. Klein, of New- York, N. Y., for 
flexible pen-holder. 

Abraham, Ezra, and Chas. Marquiss, of Monti- 
cello, III., and Chas. Emerson, of Decatur, III., for 
improvement in the mode of draining ploughs. 

James B. Mell, of Riceboro, Ga., for improve- 
ment in ploughs. 

John II. Palmer, of Elmira, N. Y., for machine 
for tenoning window blinds. 

Micheal Phelan, of New- York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in billiard and table cushions. 

Charles S. Pitman, of Swampscott, Mass., for 
improved mode of applying shafts to axles. 

Rensselaer Reynolds, of Stockport, N. Y., for 
improvement in temples for looms. 

P. Roesler, of New- York, N. Y., for improvement 
In the construction of pessaries. 

Jos. Smith, of Sunbury, 0., for improvement in 
hubs for carriages. 

James P. Siarret, of New-York, N. Y., for ma- 
chine for printing from engraved plates. 

Philip Scrag and W. J. Von Lammerhueber, of 
Washington, D. C, for Improvement in machines 
for eawing marble in obelisk form. 



Masa B. Southwick, of the Parish of St. Hilaire, 
Canada, for improvemenS in machines for prepar- 
ing vegetables for preservation. Patented in Eng- 
land September 15, 1853. 

Russel Wildman, of Charlestown, Mass., for 
improvement in furnaces for heating slugs for 
the use of hatters, tailors, and others. 

George W. Livermore, of Cambridgeport, Mass., 
assignor to the Livermore Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Boston, Mass., for improved stave ma- 
chine. 

Hamilton L. Smith, of Gambler, Ohio, assignor 
to William Neff and Peter Neff, Jr., of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, for photographic pictures on japanned sur- 
faces. 

Ite-Issues. — Wm. Apperly, of New-York, N. Y., 
for ticket registers for railroad cars, etc. Patented 
May 1, 1S55. 

John H. Manny, of Rockford, 111., assignor to 
Peter H. Watson, of Washington, D. C, for im- 
provement in harvesting machines. Patented 
October 17, 1854. Antedated June 15, 1854. 

Wm. Bell, Boston, improved machine for de- 
positing coal in cellars. 

Andrew Blaikie and Walter Clark, St. Clair, 
Michigan, improved pitman. 

Henry J. Brunner, Nazareth, improved machine 
for edging wall paper. 

Becj. P. Bundy, Walton, N. Y., improvement in 
wagons. 

Nathan T. Coffin, Knightstown, Ind., improved 
mill saw. 

Richard Cross, Attleboro', combined knife and 
pencil case. 

Ari and Asahel Davis, Lowell, dove-tailing ma 
chine. 

Othniel W. Edson, Troy, improvement in ma- 
chinery for making shirt collars. 

John U. Fiester, Winchester, Ohio, improvement 
in churns. 

Alfred C. Garrett, Rosbury, improved box for 
carriage hubs. 

Stacy A. Garrison and Daniel C. Morey, Chelsea, 
Mass., improved coupling for the joints of fel- 
loes. 

Stephen J. Gold, New-Haven, improved air-cock 
for steam-heating apparatus. 

Peter C. Guion, Cincinnati, improvement in 
girders for bridges. 

Horace L. Hervey, Quincy, improvement in the 
arched trussed bridge. 



640 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



Chas. T. James, Providence, improvement in 
projectiles. 

Edward N. Kent, New-Yoric, improved machine 
for separating gold and otlier precious metals 
from foreign substances. 

Wm. M. Kimball, Rochester, improvement in 
lamps. 

James T. King, New-York, improvement in do- 
mestic steam generators. 

Jolin H. B. Latrobe, Howard county, Md., im- 
provement in percussion locks for fire-arms. 

Wm. Lincoln, Oalcland, Mass., process of paint- 
ing or varnishing woven wire. 

Nathan Martz, Briar Creek Township, Pa., im- 
provement in horse-rakes. 

James S. McCurdy, New- York, improvement in 
binding guides. 

A. R. Moen, New- York, improved mode of con- 
■itrueting walls and floors of cellars. 

T. J. W. Robertson, New-York, improvement in 
sewing machines. 

Wm. F. Shaw, Boston, improved apparatus far 
heating by gas. 

David G. Smith, Carbondale, improved door 
spring. 

James Temple, Birmingham, Pa., boring ma- 
chine. 

Ira F. Thompson, Westerly, improvement in 
velocimeters for vessels. 

Hemaa Whipple, South Shaftsbury, Vt., im- 
provement in instruments for measuring the 
lengths of braces in carpentry. 

Russell Wildman, Charlestown, improvement in 
machines for hardening hats. 

Jos. Wood, Jersey City, improved method for 
excluding dust from railroad cars. 

John Wriglit, Harmar, 0., improvement in 
bending sheet metal. 

Wm. E. Wyche, Brookville, N. C, improvement 
In cultivating plows. 

Jacob M. Webb, SomerviUe, Tenn., improve- 
ment in coffee pots. 

John S. Barden, New-Haven, assignor to him- 
self and Aaron W. Rockwood, hydraulic meter. 

John Goodyear, Jr., and Thos. J. Berry, Phila- 
delphia, assignees to themselves and Wm. M. 
Foster, Carlisle, Pa., improved roach trap. 

Chauncey H. Guard, Brownsville, N. Y., assig- 
nor to John A. Scroggs and C. H. Guard, same 
place, improved wheelwright machine. 

John Sheitltin, Washington, D. C, assignor to 
himself and Oliver A. Dailey, same place, improv- 
ed arrangement of means for operating the valves 
of steam engines. 

Wm. P. Wood, Washington, D. C, assignor to 
himself and John S. Gallagher, Jr., same place, 
improved sawing machine. 

W. W. Albro, of Binghampton, N. J., for im- 
proved apparatus for cooking with quick lime. 

Timothy Alden, of New-York, N. Y., for ma- 
chine for sweeping streets. 

Christian Amazeon, of New-Castle, N. H., for 
improvement in machines for sawing marble in 
taper form. 

James W. Beebee, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for im- 
provement in manufacturing hats. 

Wm. M. Bonivill, of Camden, Del., for improve- 
ment in corn harvesters. 

J. M. Burke, of Danville, N. Y., for improved 
skein for axle-arms. 

James J. Cadenhead, of Macon county, Ala., 
for improvement in ploughs. 

Ransom Clifford, of Lowell, Mas3., for Improved 
sbiDgle machine. 



Robert Cornelius, of Philadelphia, Pa., for Im - 
proved arrangement of steam tubing for regulaf 
ing the heating of buildings. 

Isaac Davis, of Groton, N. Y., for improved 
hinge for shutters. 

Owen Dorsey, of Howard county, Md., for im- 
provement in harvester rakes. 

Eton Dunbar, of Philadelphia, Pa., for self-act- 
ing farm gates. 

Wm. E. Everett, of New -York, N.Y., for improv- 
ed lubricator. 

Geo. Fetter, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
provement in boot crimps. 

Luther B. Fisher, of Coldwater, Mich., for im- 
provement in sheep shears. 

Daniel Fitzgeral, of New-York, N. Y., for Im- 
provement in portable houses. 

B. F. Peering, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improve- 
ment in supplementary grating for stoves, fur- 
naces, etc. 

F. R. Ford, of Ophir, Cal., for improvement in 
rifle boxes. 

James Greenhalgh, Sr., of Waterford, Mass., 
for improvement in power looms. 

George C. Jenks, of Boston, Mass., for Improv- 
ed guard for coal holes. 

Charles H. Johnson, of Boston, Mass., for im- 
provement in the apparatus for heating build- 
ings by the combination of, and burning gas, air ■ 
and steam. 

James Kelly, of Sag Harbor, N. Y., for improve- 
ment in stoves and furnaces for railroad cars and 
other purposes. 

Ebenezer Maters, of Morgantown, Va., for im- 
proved bench planes. 

George T. McLauthlin, of Boston, Mass., for 
improvement in railroad car seats. 

John T. Ogden, of Boston, Mass., for improve- 
ment in handle for vise. 

Eugene J. Post, of Vienna, N. J., for improve- 
ment in scythe rifles. 

Alphonse Quantin, of Philadelphia, Pa., for im- 
proved method of bottling fluids under gaseous 
pressure. 

Prentice Sargent, of Newburyport, Mass., for 
improvement in lamps for burning rosin oil. 

George Schuh & Phineas L. Slay ton, of Madison, 
Ind., for improvement in machines for pegging 
boots and shoes. 

Horace B. Simonds, of West Hartford, Vt., for 
improved mode of attaching hubs to axles. 

Hiram Smith, of Norwalk, 0., for improvement 
in air escapes for pumps. 

Aaron & Thomas S. Smith, of Troy, 111., for im- 
provement in gang plows. 

Jeremiah P. Smith, of Hummelstown, Pa., for 
improvement in corn shellers. 

Abrahafu Steers, of Medina, 0., for improve- 
ment in tanning apparatus. 

Vinzenzo Squarza, of New- York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in candle dipping machines. 

Daniel and George Tallcot, of Oswego, N. Y., for 
improvement in ships' capstans. 

Wm. B. Tilton, of New-York, N. Y., for im- 
provement in guitars. 

Andrew L. Whiteley, of St. Louis, Mo., for im" 
proved method of adjusting circular saws. 

Sylvanus H. Whorf, of Roxbury, Mass., and 
Charles Rice, of Boston, Mass., for improvement 
in the application of soles to boots and shoes by 
means of pressure and gutta percha or other 
cement. 

George Woodward, of Brunswick, Me., for im- 
provement in heading bolts. 



f Ije |l0aiil), tlje 1*00111, aiili i\)t ^m\l 



Vol. VIII. MAY, 1856. No. 11. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 

We took occasion ia our last number to present our views in relation to the 
movement of the New-York jobbers of iron-ware. We are persuaded that our 
position is the only one tenable by any man who pretends to advocate the encour- 
agement of home industry. If our ODly object is to heap up money in our own 
coffers by importations from abroad, or if it is proposed to do so by swind- 
ling in any of the fashionable modes of amassing wealth, now so common, 
which have no regard for the common welfare, or for the progress of the 
nation in power and wealth, then this movement might be satisfactory. But 
to say to the intelligent and skillful mechanics of ihis great country " you shall 
not affix your name, and above all, your location, on any of the products of 
your hands" — is the coolest piece of brazen impudence we ever saw in print 
over respectable signatures. And even now we can scarcely believe it the 
work of those whose names are signed as approving the movement. 

But our object is not now to repeat what we then wrote. The longer we 
reflect upon this movement, the more induced we are to use stronger terms 
of dis-ipprobation in reference to it. It is, however, a much more pleasing 
duty to turn to our own skillful artists and manufacturers, and to show forth 
the very honorable position they have secured among their fellow-producers 
the world over. 

"Who reads an American book?" is a taunt, the malignity of which is 
forgotten in the utter contempt which universally attaches itself to one who 
indulges in such foolish language. As a matter of fact it is probably the 
few Americans, of the type of those who contrived this vain attempt to gov- 
ern our intelligent manufacturers, and who led more worthy men to adopt it, 
without considering what it involved, it is probably these men who never 
" read an American book," nor any other ; but who live only to fatten on 
the spoils of all whom they can fleece. W^e are sorry that so many highly 
respe;jtable men have been drawn into such a net by such men. 

The same taunt used to be thrown off, very flippantly, in reference to 
American manufactures, and the generation of those who prize a thing chiefly 
because it is foreign, is not yet extinct. We wish some foreign operator 
would take these persons under their care for a while and mend not only their 
manners, which often are sadly in fault, but their intellects and their tastes, 
teaching them the true mode of determining merit, and the way in which 
even themselves can become useful and honored members of community. But 
if we allow ourself to dwell on this matter we may be tempted to write what 
we should regret. We are sure it is safe ground on which we enter. 

There are but few departments in mechanic art, in which we do not occupy 
an eminent position. 

VOL. VIII. 41 



642 AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



In some of the more expensive and merely ornamental, we are content to 
follow. It is well, perhaps, here Gvly to inritate. French milliners are pro- 
bably gifted by nature, with the faculty of painting butterflies and scenting 
roses and orange flowers more "charmingly," than our own more matter of- 
fact, utilitarian wives and daughters. We doubt whether any body, but these 
and their few kindred that, by accident, were born under some other firmament, 
would ever attempt the highest flights in those curious realms. Let them 
have full scope. 

But the'moment you enter upon real life, upon the catalogue of those pur- 
suits that dignify and improre, you find our own country among the fore- 
most. 

From Collins through the whole fleet of structures of all names and sizes, 
that float on the water, down to the smallest bark canoe, we at least, when 
we regard actual achievements, have no cause to be ashamed of ourselves. 
If we turn to what we ought to have done, and might have done, with pro- 
per encouragement and protection, we may find occasion for self reproach 
and censure. If we look to our Lowells and Lawrence?, and Manchesters, 
another immense vista opens, which in any community would inspiie pride 
and satisfaction. Go through Pennsylvania, and note her mighty products, 
that provide so abimdantly for the comforts of our entire people for the 
larger half of year, and visit her furnaces and forges, and kindred forms of 
industry, and if you are not amazed at what hasj)een done, it will only be 
because you wonder more at the folly Avhich has 'refused to them that kind 
of patronage which would have placed the products of ihat great State far 
above and beyond those of any like region in the globe. 

But life is made up chiefly of little things, and the arts that do so much to 
make men happy and efiicient are mainly much less imposing in their forms. 
We are not certain that a learned and very discreet friend ot ours, was not 
right, when, some twenty years ago, ho remarked to us that the invention of 
friction matches had done more for domestic comfort than any other invention 
of the age. It is true, undoubtedly, that some of the most unpretending and 
unattractive contrivances which daily come into use in every family, are emi- 
nently among the essentials of an intelligent, progressive community. 

Hence it is that the man who contrives an improved cooking utensil, an 
improved range or stove, a new and useful and safe light, better pots and kettles, 
improved wares, whether of clay, or iron, or wood, tasteful or useful furni- 
ture, &c., &c., tells directly upon the comforts of millions, and adds essen- 
tially to the happiness of a whole people. "W hat a change has been wrought 
out in the habits of nations by the invention of a metallic pen ! So humble 
a matter as an envelope, how it has changed old wajs, and brought about 
new forms and fashions. 

But we intended only write an introduction to something else, while it will 
prove far more pretentious, in volume, than that to which it was designed to 
lead. We hope it may not, however, be destitute of interest, and may deepen 
the conviction of the reader as to the importance of the policy we contend for, 
towards various industrial pursuits. 

Leaving the path into which we have been beguiled, by the inspiration of 
the moment, we desire to turn the attention of our readers to the progress 
that we have made in certain departments of useful industry. 

rOCXiET AND TABLE CUTLERY — NEW YORK KNIFE COMPANY. 

Those who have not examined these useful implements are by no means 
aware of the perfection to which this art has been advanced in this country. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. B-iS^ 

With all implements, in the manufacture of which each piece demands a 
largre amount of individual labor, that machinery cannot do, the cheap labor 
of Europe has heretofore affected very materially the success of American 
artists. So in cutlery, it has not been found possible to afford the jobber so 
great a profit on these goods as he is able to obtain upon imported articles. 
Hence their influence has not been in favor of domestic manufacture, but 
they all favor the sale of foreign cutlery. 

But go into almost any respectable store where these articles are for sal6> 
and among the handsomest and finest of the entire stock, are American knives. 
Tljey are made in various places, and of various qualities. We are not able 
to give the location of many of these. We remember some years ago to have 
seen some fine pieces of table-cutlery from an establishment in or near Green- 
field, Mass. But our memory docs not enable us to speak definitely in rela" 
tion to them. We are, however, enabled to state with entire assurance, in 
relation to the wares of 

THE KEW YORK KNIFE COMPANY, MATTEAWAN, 

in this State. Some specimens of their manufactures were lately shown usf 
which would compare favorably with the very best English knives, and in 
answer to our inquiries, we learn the following facts : 

The construction of this company is peculiar, and affords a satisfactory as- 
surance that they must be successful. Every member of the company, or 
stockholder, is a skillful artizan, and nearly or quite every artizan is a stock- 
holder. They are all Englishmen who have wrought in the best shops in 
Sheffield. They are men wiih families, having a permanent home in their 
adopted country, and are surrounded with every inducement to do all that 
industry and art can do, to insure success. That success they appear already 
to have achieved. 

The company was formed by those enterprising men, on a very liberal 
foundation, but without cash. Scarcely five hundred dollars could be raised 
from the whole number. But by saving one-half their earnings, for two or 
three years, they have created a large capital, and are free from embarrass- 
ment 

Companies or individuals who will achieve such triumphs, are sure of suc- 
cess. It is indeed, as we have stated, already achieved. It is a prosperous 
company, a company deserving the patronage of our entire American people, 
as well for what they are themselves, as for the character of their work. They 
do honor to their adopted country. May no shadow ever darken their pros- 
pects. We are informed that every blade which they manufacture is stamped 
•'New- York Knife Co., Matteawan." May all our retailers and purchasers 
learn the exact position (in Duchess county) of that locality. They employ 
forty seven hands, mostly men, and have a capital of about $20,000. They 
use an engine of 12 horse power. They produce about $3000 worth of cut- 
lery per month. Ttiey have been organized about four years. 

The posiiion of importers, as already explained, towards these artists, de- 
prives the company of the benefit of their influence, and hence they are ob- 
liged to find a market for themselves. This they do without difficulty. Theif 
agencies cost no more than the jobber would demand for his commission 
and wherever they exhibit their goods they make ready sales. 

We have also seen and examined the goods of another of these nuraefou* 
centers of wealth and industry, which our importers and jobbers would like to 
exterminate, and which are scattered all over our country. We refer to ih^ 



644 AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



BRUSH FACTORY, LAKSIXGBUUG, N. Y. 

This is carried on by Messrs. Cross & Hoyt, whose warehouse is in Pear! 
St., in this city. The commencement and progress of this establishment, like 
that just described, is so illustrative of enterprise and perseverance, that we 
present it to our readers with some detail : 

They commenced business in the year 183.5 in a very small way, being all 
apprentices in the same shop, and subsequently journeymen, for some three 
years ; and afterwards formed a co partnership consistina: of James Cross, 
John Moss, and Joseph Hoyt, under the style of Cross, Moss & Co. Th^y 
hired a small shop and commenced in a small way, (doing ihe most of their 
work themselves,) in which they continued for a year or two. Mr. Cross 
then purchased a house and lot aod built a small shop on the rear part of 
the lot, the village being laid out in streets and alleys; the said shop was in 
dimensions 25 by 13 feet, two stories high, in which they did their work 
for some tmie. Some of the old establishments at that time having been in 
business for several years, and being jealous of thtra, prophecied an existence 
of just six months. But the evil prophecied did not occur. Now they have 
an establinhraent only second in the country. Their factory building is 100 
feet by 24, with two wings attached 50 by 18 feet — all three stories high, 
with cellar, wash-house, and bleach-house. They have a ste^m-engine of 
about fifteen-horse power, which moves machinery with which they d > much 
of their work, such as sawing, boring, etc., etc. They use all kinds of wood 
in the business, as Rose, Satin, Mahogany, Maple, Birch, and Oak, The 
fancy woods come from South America and Brazil. 

Of Bristles, they use more than 30 different kinds, varying in price from 
35 cents per lb. to $3 50, according to quality. Those come mostly from 
Russia, and are the best in the world ; some from Prussia, Poland, Germany, 
and France. There is also a large quantity packed at the West ; at Cincin- 
nati, Louisville, and other places. 

They now keep about 30 men employed in the shop, and 25 boys, and 
some 80 women and girls. The men do the sawing, boring, p'aneing, etc. 
The boys do what is called drawing, that is, putting the bristles in the hole=. 
This is fcfi'ected by doubling wire and drawing it into the hole. They do the 
coarse work ; the women draw the fine work, such as hair and hat brushes, 
etc., — taking the work to their houses, while the boys and men work in the 
shop. The coarse work is all drawn in, one knot at a time, and is cut otF, 
every row, as it is drawn, by large shears made for the purpose, which are 
screwed down on the bench, with blades 10 to 12 inches long and 3 mches 
wide. They cut it ofi" generally with one cut, having a guage secured on one 
blade by which the whole brush is cut at the same length. They can turn 
out $150,000 or $200,000 a year, but the business will not yet admit of do- 
inc so much. Their sales however are increasing constantly. 

Their varieties of work consist of the following kinds, viz. : Hair, Clothes, 
Tooth, Nail, Shaving, Shoe, Scrubbing, and Horse Brushes ; also. White- 
wash, Pain, Sash, Varnish, flat and oval Graining Brushes ; a's \ Mark- 
ing and Dust Brushes of every style and price. They make more than 250 
kinds of styles of hair brushes alone. 

Enterprise such as we have here described, deserves success. All these 
artizans are now reaping the fruits of persevering toil and industry under 
darker skies. We trust a constant sunshine will henceforth lightou their way 
to a happy and prosperous old age. 



SENECA FALLS. 645 



SENECA FALLS, N. Y. 
[condensed from hardwareman's newspaper.] 

This village affords a remarkable illustration of the beneficial influence of 
manufrictures upon the public interests, as well as of the wealth and comfort 
and independence which are attainable through the same channel, to indivi- 
duals, by the exercise of perseverance, entrgy and industry. It is most con- 
spicuous for its success in the manufacture of iron. 

1. Boat Building. — Although, from temporary causes, this business is 
not now in active progress, yet it has been a most important and profitable 
one to the village — having given a great deal of employment, and produced 
a great deal of wealth. I have heard that. the boats built at Seneca Falls are 
accounted the best on the canal ; and, with the characteristic energy of the 
inhabitants, I presume they will not abandon so valuable a branch of manu- 
factures, but will engage heartily and vigorously in the improved style of 
boats which are now in requisition. But whatever may be the future of this 
branch of industry, it is certain that in the past it has largely contributed 
to the substantial advancement of the village. 

2. Woolen Mills. — One very extensive, the other smaller. 

3. Sash and Blind Factories, of which there are two — one being the 
largest, and perhaps the best appointed in the United States. 

4. Grist Mills. — The tremendous water power existing here is largely 
used for the manufacture of flour. There are eight mill^, having sixty run of 
stones ! The vast consumption of wheat by these concerns is chitfly supplied 
by the west over the canal. 

5. Hay and Manure Forks, of Ilines' Patent Wire, are largely manu- 
factured by Messrs. Gould, Heuion & Co. This enterprising firm have lately 
considerably increased their capacity of production, and are now in a posi - 
tion to execute very large orders. 

6. But the leading manufacture of the place is of Iron, and chiefly con- 
sists of the article of Pumps, although some other goods are manufactured to 
a great extent. There are here three extensive Pump Factories, beside two 
Foundries and Machine Shops. There are employed in these factories four 
and five hundred hands, and the value of the goods they produce is not lesg 
than half a million of dollars annually. They melt from 16 to 20 tons of 
iron per day — which, it is to be remembered, it mt stly run into light and fine 
castings — and show every symptom of increasing their production. 

In 1849, Messrs, Cowing & Co., produced about 60 pumps a week. In 
1855 they produced about 600 pumps a week ; and now they can make at 
about the of rate 175 per day, or 1,045 pumps per week ! 

Nor is their trade confined to Cistern Pumps, Their Deep Well and 
Force Pumps are amongst the very best and most perfect in the world. 
They are also manufacturing a very cheap and efficient Fire Engine, of which 
last year they made and sold 30 ; and they have recently gone very exten- 
sively into the manufacture of Thimble Skeins and Pipe Buxes, the demand 
for which is now becoming so wide spread and extensive. They employ 
constantly over one hundred men, keejj in constant use about 30 lathes, melt 
every week nearly 30 tons of iron, and one ton of brass and copper, besides 
the large quantity of wrought, which they use in the mounting of their 
pumps. 

Such i.s tlie result of fifttfm y^>ars' manufacturing to this village, as yet 8f>. 



(546 INDUSTRY OP CANADA WEST. 



little known or spoken of. What would it be if it were left entirely depend- 
ent on "agricultural resources?" its population driven for employment to 
other places — its merchants bankrupt — its mighty water power unemployed! 
It would add another to the many proofs which New-York even now fur- 
nishes, that agriculture alone is not sufficient to employ the power, elevate 
the condition, and produce the wealth of a nation. 



THE INDUSTRY OF CANADA WEST. 



The following lucid statements were sent to this office months since by 
our valued friend and correspondent, Mr. Robert Howell. But as it required 
copying before it could be placed in the hands of a compositor, it was given 
out for that purpose, and by accident was not returned till very recently. We 
now publish it, with the exception of statements regarding the tariff in Can- 
ada, which we believe have been changed since this was written. 

Ed. p. L. & A. 

FOR THE PLOUOn, THK LOOM, AND THB ANVIL. 

TftE traveler on the public road from Hamilton, C. W., to Brantford, will 
notice the large amount of pine timber in almost every direction. This pine 
ia generally of large size, and of good quality. The steam mill is seen here 
and there sending up its cloud of smoke, especially on the government road 
from Paris to Hamilton. Water-power is scarce in these sections, streams 
beinof few and small. The price at Gault for common pine lumber is 813 
per thousand feet, although I was assured by a large lumberman that his 
would average from 30 to 35 thousand or a hundred thousand of common. 
Such lumber would command $20 at Port Deposite. A great amount of 
i umber has been wasted here. Large extent of dry woods is seen in every 
direction. 

The revenues and expenditure of the upper and lower provinces of Canada, 
from the parlimentary documents were as follows : The gross revenues in 
1841, was :G343,829 12s. lid.; the expenditure for the same year was 
£■291,393 lis. 7f d.; la 1845, gross revenue, £703,447 3s. 8f . ; expenditure, 
£1,013,170 16s. 9J. ; revenue 1851, £842,184 5s. 2d., and expenditure for 
the same year only, £634,666 6-s. 8d. ; the imports from Great Britain in 
iSoO, were £2,407,989 4s.; in 185l,£3,012,033 2s. 6d. ; from Br. N. Ame- 
rican colonies, 1850, £96,404 19s. Od. ; and in 1851 £109,242 16s. Id. 
The Imports ^rom British W. Indies, 1850, £1.112 19s. 3d. ; in 1851, £3,400 
7*.4d.; from the United States in 1850, £1,648,715 2s. 5d. ; in 1851, 
£2,091,441 6s. 3d.; from other foreign countries in 1850, £91,303 ISs. 4d. 
aud in 1851, £142,574 Os. 5d. Total Imports 1850, £4,245,517 3s. 6d. ; 
in 1851, £5,358,695 12s. 7d. The Exports of Canada in 1850, to Great 
Ikitain, £1,521,279 15s. 3(1.; in 1851, £1,921,900 Os. 4d. ; to Br. N. A. 
Colonies in 1850, £202.194 9s. 3d. ; in 1851, £259,379 12s. 7d. ; to Br. 
W. Indies in 1850, £2,094 0^ Od. ; in 1851, £978 Os. Od.; to the United 
States in 1850, £1,237,789 l7s. lid. ; in 1851, £1,017,880 3s. 3.1. ; to 
other foreign countries in 1850, £27.070 Os. 4d.; in 1851, £41,036 is. 7d. 
Total Exvorts in 1850, £2,990,128 Os. 9d. ; in 1851, £3,241,180 3s. 9d. 



JOINT STOCK COMPANIES IN MASS. $47 



According to oflBcial report, Canada West contains 31,745,535 acres. By 
the census of 1852 it numbered 952,004 inhabitants. The province produces 
an annual amount as follows : 



Wheat, 


12,692,852 bush. 


Potatoes, 


4,987,175 bush 


Barley, 


02,575 " 


Other Roots, 


229,121 " 


Oats, 


11,193,844 « 


Butter, 


15,978,315 lbs. 


Buckwheat, 


631,384 " 


Cheese, 


2,226,770 « 


Maize, 


1,606,513 « 


Hay, 


081,082 tons. 


Peas, 


2,891,503 " 


Number of Horses 


i, 203,300 


Rye, 


479,651 " 


Neat Cattle, 


745,894 


Turnips, 


3,041,942 " 


Sheep, 


908,022 






. Swine, 


484,241 



Canada West raises three times t'be quantity of wheat raised by all the 
rest of British America ; of barley, her produce falls short of that of C^inada 
East by a few thousand bushels of oats. Canada West produces as much as 
all the rast of British America, of maize, peas and rye Canada W. produces 
more of each than all the rest of the provinces, of buckwheat, Canada W. 
produces a few thousand bushels more than Canada K, and a few thousand 
less than New-Brunswick. Canada East produces more hay than Canada 
West, but the Eastern province produces more potatoes and twice as many 
turnips than all the rest of British America, while of butter it (C. W.) pro- 
duces more than all the other provinces by several millions of pounds, and of 
cheese, she produces more than three times as much as the rest of the British 
provinces. She raises many more neat cattle, sheep and swine, than all of the 
other provinces, but fewer horses than Canada East. 



JOINT STOCK COMPANIES IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

The Secretary of State reports that there are filed at his office the returns 
of ninety-three joint stock companies organized under the General Corpora- 
tion law of Massachusetts. The total capital stock of these companies i- 
$5,698,700, and the amount paid in is $3,340,307 70. The company hav- 
ing the la-gest capital is the Lawrence Machine Shop, $750,000, which, at 
the time the return was made, had but $320,000 triken up, the shares being 
$50 each. The North American Patent Boot and Shoe Company (of whose 
location no report is given) has a capital of 1300,000, but none of it has been 
paid in. There are seven companies with a capital of $200,000 each, but in 
the case of the TremontOd Company, Boston, none of the capital is reported 
as paid in. The Cheshire Glass Company, Cheshire, has $60,000 out of 
$200,000 paid in, and the Union Iron Works, North Adams, $81,000. The 
others are the Merrimac Lumber Company, Lowel! ; Boston Oil Company. 
Boston ; North American Verd Antique Company, (since dissolved) ; and S. 
P. Ruggles Power Press Company; whose capital is all paid up. 

The list of corporations includes a great variety of business, such as the 
American Book and Paper Folding Company, ]3oston, ($36,000 paid in) ; 
American Grist Mill Company, Boston, ($25,000 paid in) ; Leather Sphtting 
Company, ($4,500 out of $50,000 paid in) ; Machine Stamp Company, 
($7,500 out of $25,000 paid in) ; Rattan Company, Fitchburg, ($31,200 



648 BATSO AGRICULTURAL COMPANY. 



paid in.) Then Lhere is a Soda Fountain Company, at Haverhill ; Stereotype 
Company, at Boston; Whip Company, ao West6eld ; Iron Companies, Acid, 
Manufacturing Companies, Carpet, Earthenware, Flax, Papier Mache, Sugar 
Refining, Shoe, Coal (at'Bristol), Glass, Piano Forte, Rubber (at Edgeworth), 
Tanning, Foundry and Machine, Straw, Gas Light, Tool, Chair, Comb, Wire 
Fence, Shovel, Marble, Jewelry, Steam Drill, Persian Sherbet (in Boston with 
$12,000 paid in out of |32,000), Woolen, Patent Leather, Leather Splitting 
Cutlery, Tacks, Glass Engraving. Brick and Ice do. 

The capital stock of thirteen Companies is under $10,000 each, the lowest 
being $5,000. The Comb Company at Holliston, has a capital of $50,000, 
or 500 shares at $100 each, all paid in. The Boston Flax Mills, at Braintree, 
has a capital of $50,000, all paid in. The Boston and Salem Ice Company, 
located at Lynnfiekl, has $34,946 20 paid in out of $50,000 capital. Of the 
very large capital engaged in the manufacture of Piano Fortes ia this State, 
but $40,000 is invested under this law, viz, by Brown & Allen's Piano Forte 
Company, Boston. 



BATSTO FARM AND AGRICULTURAL COMPANY. 

A HOME FOP. ALL. 

The Company announces the following plan. It certainly commends 
itself to the notice of those of small means living in or near Philadelphia. 
This Company has purchased a large tract of land, wilhin one hour's ride of 
Philadelphia and adjoining the Weymouth Farm and Agricultural Com- 
pany's land, comprising about thirty thousand acres, known as the " Batsto 
Tract," and situated in Atlantic county. New Jersey, between MuUica river 
(which is navigable five or six miles along its northern boundary for vessels 
of seven feet draft,) and the Camden and Atlantic Railroad ; the former 
aflfording an outlet to New-York, the latter to Philadelphia, two markets 
that would absorb all the produce which this fine tract could raise. 

" The tract is divided into twenty acres each ; each farm fronting on a 
main road thirty feet wide, at an average value of ten dollars per acre, which 
is payable in weekly instalments of one dollar. 

" One share will entitle the holder to a farm of twenty acres, besides a 
gratuitv of four town lots, twenty feet front by one hundred feet deep, two 
m the Camden and Atlantic Railroad and two at the junction of the Air 
Line Railroad and MuUica river. 

" Half shares will entitle the holder to a farm of ten acres, besides a gra- 
tuity of two town lots as aforesaid. 

" The timber and wood will be moved from the tract, (except what the 
stockholders may desire to purchase,) the roads and streets opened, and the 
deeds made out and delivered, without any expense to the stockholders, which 
wdl enable them, immediately after the distribution to commence working 
their farms, and at the same time atlbrd them ingress and egress to and from 
them over good roads. 

" Hence it will be seen that what would be equivalent to a merely nominal 
rent of f fly-two dollars a year for twenty acres of land, for four years, would 
pay the purchase money, and entitle the holder to a deed in fee ; whereas, if 



EXTRACT OF ANNUAL ADDRESS. 



he should lease the land for four years, at the end of that time, he would 
have pnid four times the amount in rent, and have no more right to the land 
than when he commenced. 

"The 'Air Line Railroad' from New-York to Cape May, which is now 
located and under contract, and wbich forms a junction with the Camden 
and Atlant c Railroad on this property, being the shortest route from Phila- 
delphia to Cape May by twenty miles, will give this tract a railroad front of 
twenty miles, increasing immeasurably the mducements to embark in this 
enterprise." 



EXTRACT OF THE ANNUAL ADDRESS 

BEFORE THE ALABAMA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 
DELIVERED BT HON. C. C. LANGDON, OF MOBILE. 

I beg, however, to tell the representatives of the people, that something 
must be done. I proclaim it here, in their presence, at the very door of the 
capitol, and in the presence of this vast and enlightened auditory, some- 
thing must be done for the advancement of our Siate. She is lagging be- 
hind, far, far behind, all her sisters in the march of improvement, and every 
moment of inaction is placing her farther and still farther backward. Geor- 
gia, noble, enterprising Georgia, justly styled the " Empire State of the South," 
is tapping our eastern borders at points with her railroads — yea, even pene- 
trating our center — and drawing from us products and trade that should 
and would, were the right policy to prevail, find their way to the commercial 
emporium of our own iState. Savannah and Charleston are reaping the rich 
fruits of the wise and liberal policy of Georgia and South Carolina, in a 
largely increased and rapidly increas-ing population, and the rapid accumula 
tion of wealth, while our own cities are neglected and suffered to decay, and 
our great works of internal improvement are permitted to struggle with ad- 
versity, to languish, to die. And yet, those in authority, with the strangest 
and most unaccountable indifference, sit quietly by and view the scene of 
ruin before them, without thinking of a change of policy, without one efibrt 
to save the State from the ruin that impends. And why is it so? 

Ah, say you, all this sounds very well, but the State is in debt, and, until 
that burden is removed, it would be bad policy for the State to appropriate 
money, loan its credit, or extend aid in any form, to any enterprise, however 
meritorious it may be. The State debt is the barrier to all improvement. 
The State debt/ Why, gentlemen legislators, do you expect to pay that 
debt by driving trade and commerce ouc of the State ? by closing up all the 
avenues of prosperity, and permitting the State to go to decay and ruin ? by 
depriving your people of the means of employment, and forcing men out of 
the State? What cousiitutes a State ? Is it not men? 'Tis man, laboring 
man, with his stalwart arm and stout heart, and a soul inspired with that 
energy and strength which a consciousness of his position as a freeman can 
alone impart — man, proud, free, intelligent, laboring man — this, it is, that 
constitutes a Slate, gives it its strenjith, its power, its wealth, its renown. 
Adopt that policy, then, which shall till your State with men. Thousands 
of acres of land now lie within your borders in a state of nature, uncuhvat- 



650 EAILROAD , MANAGEMENT. 

ed, simply for the want of facilities for the transportation of its products to 
market. Build your railroads, and these lands will be brought into cultiva- 
tion, and be covered with men. There are thousands of acres, again uncultiva- 
ted, though convenient to market, simply because not adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of cotton, under the mistaken impression, that no other agricultural product 
can be cultivated to advantage. Dispel this illusion, convert these wilder- 
nesses into gardens, and orchards, and fields of waving grain, and they will 
become a nursery for men. Mines of wealth lie imbedded in the earth, and 
all that is wanted to draw it forth from its hiding place, is men, with the 
will and the energ'y to do. You have facilities for manufacturiog equal to 
any State in the Union — water power, the raw material, whether of cotton, 
wood or iron, and the men to labor. Would you then pay your State debt ? 
Adopt that policy that will bring your waste lands into cultivation, and de- 
velop your vast resources. Build your own ships, your steamboats, your lo- 
comotives, your railroad cars, and your engines. Your forests will furnish 
you with the best of timber, and the earth on which you tread, with the iron 
and the coal. Push forward your railroads. Connect North and South 
Alabama — the waters of the Tennessee with those of the Gulf — and bind the 
two sections together with iron bands. The capital of your State must be 
united with your commercial emporium by railroad ; and that magnificent 
enterprise, which is to connect the great West with your own beautiful city 
on the Gulf, must be urged onward to a speedy completion. These great 
works completed, and Alabama will enter upon a new career of exibtence. 

[This is excellent, in matter and manner. A few living energetic men like 
Mr. Langdon, have the power, if they would tut exercise it, to regenerate a 
State, even though it were the most inefficient in the Union. 

Ed. p. L. & A. 



FACTS IN RAILROAD MANAGEMENT. 

The following facts regarding eight of the principal railroads of Massa- 
chusetts are developed by the reports to the Legislature, and furnished by a 
nonstockholder : 

1. The cost of passenger transportation is 1.062 cents per passenger per 
mile. 

2. The cost of merchandise transportation is 3.095 cents per ton per 
mile. 

3. In passenger transportation $41 98 per cent of the receipts therefrom 
are absorbed in expenses. 

4. In merchandise transportation $89 52 per cent of the receipts there- 
from are absorbed in expenses. 

5. The expenses of railroads are almost invariably determined by the 
weight carried over the rails. For instance: The Eastern road, u]ion which 
passenger traffic predominates, is operated at an expense of $3,C7U per mile 
of the length of the road ; whilst the Lowell, upon which merchandise traffic 
predominates, is operated at an expense of $12,478. 

6. The cost of renewal of iron upon railroads is an infallible index of the 
magnitude of expenses. For the preceding reas6np, the cost of that item on 
Eastern road is but $390 per mile of the length of the road, while upon the 
Western it is $1,390. 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO KA1LK0A1>. 651 



7. Of the expenses of railroads, thirty per cent, are absorbed in mainte- 
nance of way, or road bed ; twenty per cent, in fuel and oil ; twenty per 
cent, in repair of engines, tenders and cars ; ten per cent, in special freight 
expenses, and the remainder in passenger, incidental and miscellaneous 
expenses. 

8. The weight of the engines, tenders and cars upon passenger trains is 
nine fold greater than the weight of the passengers. 

9. The weight of the engines, tenders and cars upon freight trains, is 
scarcely one-fold greater than the weight of the merchandise. 

10. For cheapness, railroads cannot conapete with canals, in transportation 
of heavy descriptions of merchandise ; the cost of carrying merchandise upon 
the Erie canal ranges from two to sixteen miles per ton per mile ; whikt 
upon several of the principal railways of New- York and Massachusetts tho 
cost of carrying merchandise ranges from thirteen to sixty-five miles per ton 
per mile. — Boston Post. 



BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 



[A CORRESPONDENT of the Cincinnati Commercial g\ves a very%]l descrip- 
tion of scenery, etc., along this route, from which we collate the following as 
worthy the notice of all travelers who can select their own routes. We 
hope, ere long, to testify more entirely from our own personal experience,] 



THE EOAD OVER THE MOUNTAINS. 



This road is of the most substantial construction, is equipped with an in- 
calculable armament of cars and locomotives, of all sizes and descriptions, for 
every purpose, and is managed with consummate energy and tact. The 
scenery along the route is often exceedingly beautiful, occasionally grand, and 
at times approaches sublimity. The Blue Ridge summits are in the dis- 
tance. The chasm where the Potomac rent the mountains, at Harper's Ferry, 
presents to the passer by (or through, rather) on the flying car, a scene of 
startling grandeur. 

Among the mountains the road curves often, and it sometimes seems won- 
derful that the engineers happened to find that particular path along the 
rocky steeps which could be made the high road for the mighty horses of 
iron and stupendous caravans that follow tbem inevitably over the granite 
deserts. At Kingwood tunnel, which is near a mile long, situated two 
hundred and eighty miles from Baltimore, may be seen, I think, the grandest 
display of railroad equipments in the world. The tunnel is being arched, 
and is not serviceable at this time, but will be finished in a few weeks, and 
over the ridge towering five hundred feet above ttie tunnel that pierces its 
heart of rock, the trains are taken with all their loads of passengers and 
freight, with but httle loss of time; and a drowsy passenger would only be 
disturbed into a consciousness of wondering why the train seemed to run 
first one way and then another — to be capering forward and back on heavy 
grades. The facts in the case are hard to explain, but are about these. /Two 
tremendous mastodon locomotives, besides which the engines that rattle 
along the levels seem play-things, are attached to the train, one at each end, 



652 KATIiliOAI'S IN XKU'-TKUSEY, 



an dthe track to be followed is called a " Y," from the peculiar Z'gzacr which 
is made. The train is rushed along the first side of the "Y" down into the 
point of (he angle, and along the tail of the letter until it can be switched oflf 
so as to run backward up to the other prong of the letter, until any further 
progress in that direction is impossible, to be again switched on still another 
line of track. In this zigzag way the summit is passed, and so also is the 
■'e C5nt made. 

Somewhere about the western end of the tunnel, the mail train from Bal- 
timore bound west, and the express train from Wheeling to Baltimore, meet 
in the night, and a half dozen ponderous freight trains are at the same time 
toiling along the steeps, each with two engines, great coal burners, the jets 
of flame from which shed a broad ghastly light over the wild scenery. Ttiere 
are at times a score of these prodigious mountain engines in sight or within 
hearing, and this herd of iron mammoths of the mountains seem like Titans, 
rejoicing over the conquest of a chaos. Their signal- whistles, booming out 
questions and responses, sending their echoes roaring around the dismal pre- 
(Mpices, and piny slopes, hint of the emotions of humanity in their medola- 
rtons — seemed to be toned as human voices, solemn and deep in relentless 
resolution, plaintive in the distress of doubf, or shrill and thrilling with exul- 
tation. Their voice is that of the giants of this iron age, speaking from steep 
f.o steep, while, "every mountain finds a tongue" to call loud lor help, we 
may imagine, against their fiery and grim conquerors, the wheels of victori- 
ous cars roll triumphant over their rude breasts. When passing this place at 
night, which most passengers do, the glare of the locomotive fires revtals 
profound abysses beside and beneath the track. Far down may be seen the 
dim tops of pines and cedars, standing like ghosts in the fnow-whitened and 
tlinty gulfs. And perhaps on the other side of the car, at the same moment, 
are jigged and toppling cliflfs, so lofty that the eye can hardly trace the out- 
line of their black peaks in the skies. 

Yet the extreme peril of these wild places exist only in appearance. The 
road has been hewn in the living rock, graven with iron, where it will endure 
forever. The trussel work and bridges are constructed with the utmost soli- 
dity, and at night, guards, carrying large lanterns, are placed at short inter- 
vals along the track, to give warning of the imminence of danger, or the as- 
surance that "all's well." 

The path subdued by civilization over the mountain is, however, but little 
more than sufficiently broad to make railr. ad facilities good. At the point 
where the passengers get thtir supplies in ihe mountainous regions, they are 
often feasted on venison killed by the roadside. 



RAILROADS IN NEW-JERSEY. 

It is marvellous to note the rapid extension of railroads. Several States 
are chequered with them, running in a'l directions. A recent number of the 
Iron Horse, a small but ably-managed s-heet, published in Paterson. contains 
an account of the roads of the State, from which we condense the following : 

Paterson and Hudson River Railroad. — From Paterson, to Bergen Hill, 
where it unites with the Erie road. Length, 13^ miles, cost, $030,000. 

Paterson and Ramopo Railroad. — From the Junction to the New-York 



RAILROADS IN NEW-JERSEY. 653 



State line, near Sufferns, oa the Eri« road. Length, 16 mile?. Capital paid* 
$248,225. Debt 8100,000. The Erie Co. pay for it $260,500 a year. 

New-Jersey Raitroad. — From Jersey city to New-Brunswick. Length, 
33 miles ; capital paid in, $3,482,850 ; debts $690,000 ; value of property 
onj^hand, $4,30-9,422 ; pay dividends of 10 per cent. ; number of passengers 
last year, 2,164,471, besides commuters; tax paid to State, $33,450. 

Camden and Amboy Railroad. — From Camden to South Aruboy, 63 miles, 
and there connecting with this city by boats. A branch readies from 
New-Brunswick to Trenton, 26 miles, reaching Philadelphia by the Philadel- 
phia and Trenton road. A branch extends from Bordentown, 6 milfS. The 
Camden and Amboy road owns most of the stock of the Philadelphia and 
Trenton, the Belvidere, Delaware and some others, and also the Delaware 
and Raritan Canal, 43 miles long, 50 feet wide, and Y feet de»'p. 

The company pays 10 cents duty on each passenger, and also a duty on 
freight. The amount paid last year was $55,562 ; the canal )iel<led $43,436 ; 
cost of road and equipment, $4,877,981 ; invested in other roads, $2 563,000 ; 
capital paid in, $3,000,000 ; debt, $1 1.150,000 ; more than half due in Eu- 
rope ; joint earnings last year, $2,017,727; working expenses, $1,055, 180 ; 
dividends, $360,000, or 12 per cent. 

Nero Jersey Ctntral Railroad. — FromElizabethporttoPbilipsburg, opposite 
Easton, Pa., finished for both wide and narrow guage. Length, 63 miles 
capital paid in, $2,000,000 ; cost of road, &c., $3,734,149 ; debts, $2,206,176 ; 
cash and property on hand, $532,027. 

Morris and Eshx Railroad — From Newark to Hacketstown, 53 miles; 
and branch also extends to East-Bloonifield, 3 mUes. The main ro•^d is to 
extend to the Delaware river, near Belvidere. Capital, $1,057,805; cost, 
$636,550 and $20,500 sub. to the Bloomfield road; debts, $375,000 ; gross 
earnings, $225,893 ; dividends last year, 6 per cent. 

Freehold and Jamesburg Railroad. — A branch from Jamesburg to Free- 
hold, \\\ miles, owned chiefly by the Camden and Amboy; stock, $157,900; 
debt, $70,000; cost, $218,782. 

Millstone and New-Brunswick Railroad. — From M. to N. B. 6^ miles, 
capital, $100,914 ; cost, $111,000 ; debts $10,086. 

Burlington and Mount Holly Railroad. — Six miles, capital, $70,000 ; 
cost, $99,551 ; debt, $35,000 ; dividends last year, 5 per ceut. 

Belvidere and Delaware Railroad. — From Trenton, along the Delaware 
to Belvidere 64 miles, owned by Camden and Amboy ; capital, $1,000,000 ; 
cost, $2,619,000; debt, $1,619,000; gross receipts last ytar, $161,350. 

Flemington Railroad. — A branch of the preceding from LHmbertville to 
FlemingtoD, 12 miles, and owned by C. and A. road, capital, $150,000; 
cost, $279,220 ; debts. $129,220. 

Warren Railroad. — From the Delaware rivf r, near the "Water Gap, to New- 
Hampton, on the New-Jersey Central, 18 miles — nearly finished; a tunnel 
will be nearly 3000 feet long ; cost about $1,000,000. 

Camden and Atlantic Railroad — From Camden to the ocean at Absecum 
Bay, 60 miles; capital $369,320; cost, $1,729,642; dtbts, $1,532,130 ; 
receipts last year, $122,415. 

Sussex Railroad. — From Waterloo, on the Morris and E-sex railroad to 
Newton, 12 miles ; capital $150,000 ; cost, $352,464 ; debt, $202,464, buijt 
for the iron trade and owned chiefly by Messrs. Cooper and Hewitt of thii 
city. 

Morris Canal. — From Jersey city to Easton, 102 miles. 



654 CANNEL COAL. 



GMNEI. COAL AND ITS PBODUCrS. 

IMPROVEMENT OF COAL RIVER. 

A PROPOSITION is now before the Legislature for an increase of the capital 
stock of the "Coal River Navigation Companj'," in the additional suaa of 
$100,000. One hundred and Twenty-two Thousand dollars have already 
been expended by the Company in the improvment of the river ; and it is 
now asserted, after the most careful estimates, that by a further expenditure 
of one hundred thousand dollars, the entire work can be completed. The 
" Western Mining and Manufacturing Company" own immense, and we might 
say, practically, exhaust! ess fields of Cannel coal bordering this stream, at a dis- 
tance of thirty-six miles from its mouth, and, as a matter of course, are deeply 
interested in the progress of this improvement. To facilitate the completion 
of it, they now propose to purchase of the State her bonds to the amount of 
Sixty Thousand Dollars, (three-fifths of the increase asked for by the Navi- 
gation Company,) thereby investing the State with the funds necessary to 
pay her proportion. They further propose to subscribe the remaining forty 
thousand dollars at once, so there may be no delay in the prosecution of this 
great woik. 

It is estimated that 5,000,000 bushels of coal will be shipped annually over 
this improvement, to the Big Kanawha, thence to the Ohio River. The tolls 
accruing to the company, will be about one cent per bushel, which would be 
$50,000 on the aggregate amount. The tolls on shipments of coopers' stuff, 
sawed lumber, &c., &c., and upon return trips, will not fall short of $15,0U0. 
If these estimates are verified, and from the data before us we doubt not they 
will be fully — the work will be a profitable one to the stockholders, while, at 
the same time, it will develop the rich mineral treasures of the section of 
the country it traverses. The coal fields of Pennsylvania are tax^d in some 
instances as high as four hundred dollars per acre, pouring annually into the 
treasury of the State immense sums of revenue. It is but fair to infer that, 
with equal fa'^ilities of transportation, this Commonwealth would find in the 
coalfields of Kanawha and Boone counties equally as prolific sources of wealth. 
The Covington and Ohio Railroad, which is but a continuation of the great 
Central route, crosses Coal River near its cocfluecce with the Kanawha. At 
an early day after the completion of these improvements, it is not unreason- 
able to assume that the great suoeriority of the Cannel coal over all other, 
as an article of fuel and a producer of light and heat, will bring it into general 
use in the eastern cities. Three-fourths of the Cannel coal, yet discovered in 
United States, lie in Western Virginia, constituting one of the richest mines 
of wealth that has ever been developed in any country, not excepting the 
auriferious streams and hills of California. 

From this coal, is extracted, at a cost not exceeding 16 cents per gallon, a 
valuable lubiicating and burning oil. Probably some of our reafiers may 
have noticed, a few evenings since, upon the clerk's table of the House of 
Delegates, a lamp containing this oil. The clear, bright flame emiiied, actually 
made the candles around it look dull and dim. It burns free from all offen- 
Bive odor and smoke, and this fact, in connection with its cheapness, must 
insure for it an extensive and general use. The yield is forty gallons per ton. 
It also yields thirty gallons of benzole per ton, which is easily convertible into 



VALUE OF FRUIT CROP. 655 

^as, and must eventually supercede the gas at present in use in our cities. 
From twenty to twenty-five pounds of clean, white wax are also produced 
from a ton of Cannel coal, which are made into candles of adamantine firm- 
ness. 

Some fine specimens of this coal, from the mines of the " Western Mining 
and Manufacturino; Company," have been exhibited here during ths session, 
by J. E. Peyton, Esq. A lump has been upon the clerk's table, in the Hall 
of Delegates, tor the past week or two. It has been very justly admired for its 
firm and beautiful texture, and its freedom from dirt. 

We hopo it will be the pleasure of the present Legislature to extend its aid 
to the Coal River Company, and place them in a condition to develop the 
trea-ures of our State. The operations of the mining companies interested in 
the improvement of Coal River, will be greatly retarded if something is not 
done before the adjournment. — Richmond Dispatch. 



VALUE OF THE FKUIT CROP, CULTURE, EfO. 

At a recent Legislative Agricultural Meeting in Boston, the culture of 
fruits was discussed, Mr. Wilder, the Pear Kixg, being in the Chair. He 
remarked that the annual crop of Fruit was estimated to exceed $30,000,000 
in value in this country. It was nearly equal in amount to the Potato crop. 
Fire large fruits were produced in the South-western States and in Califor- 
nia. He thought we should become exporters of Fruit, and it was well to 
inquire what kinds were best adapted to our uses. 

He proposed to confine his remarks mostly to "The Pear." The prere- 
quisites to success were the choice of a congenial soil and the preparation of 
it, in which was included perfect drainage, sub-soiling and trenching. 

A safe method is to raise new varieties from our own seedlings by plant- 
ing ripe seeds from the best specimens. Many pears did well on Quince 
Stocks, although there was an impression prevailing against them. The 
quince was a gross feeder and the soil must be made rich to supply its wants. 

Pears that were to be kept for some time should generally be gathered a few 
days before they arrive at maturity. They should then be kept at a low tem- 
perature, so that the ripcninr/ process could not commence until it was de- 
sired. This process required to be checked during the warm autumnal 
days of lodian summer. He regretted to be obliged to say that after 
building four different *' fruit houses," and trying them all, he was obliged to 
come to the conclusion that the use of ice was the only method that could 
be depended upon to control the temperature required in preserving pears 
beyond the natural period of their ripening. 

As to the profit of Fruit Culture it was equal to the profit of any other 
crop. One instance was cited in which an acre was set with pear trees in 
1848. Quinces were produced between the rows of pear trees. lu the fifth 
year the owner had on this acre 120 bu.'^hels of pears and 60 bushels of 
quinces. Many of the pears were sold at five dollars per bushel, &c. 



656 INSECTS IXJUKIOUS TO VEGETATION. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. 

LEPIDOPTEUA CONCLUDED. 

Phalen^ Moths. — We now enter upon this third division of Lepidop- 
tera, which includes a great variety of insects called millers or moths. They 
vary in size, color, and structure. Some are very minute, while others, like 
the OaI Moth, expand eleven inches. The females are sometimes destitute 
of wings, or are furnished only with very small ones. 

The distinctive character of moths was given in the commencement of this 
eeries, and we need not repeat it. Moths are generally classified in seven 
groups : The first is that of 

Spinners; Bombyces. — These insects are generally thick bodied, with 
feathered antennae, tongue or feelers very short or wanting, thorax woolly and 
the fore-legs often very hairy. Their caterpillars have sixteen legs. The 
first group are called 

LithonadcE, or Liikosians, from the Greek lithos, a stone, as these insects 
live in stony places. They are not very destructive. We will however men- 
tion the Deiopc'ia bella, as one of the most elegant of butterflies. Its fore- 
wings are deep yellow, crossed by some six white bands, on each of which is 
a row of white dots. The hinder wings are scarlet ; the thorax is dotted 
•with black. It expands about 1| inches. 

ArctiodcB or Arctians, or Tiffer Moths. These have shorter and thicker 
feelers than the Lithosians, and a very short tongue ; antennae doubly feather- 
ed, usually, on the under side; wings not crossed on the back, but are roofed 
or sloped downwards on each side, when at rest; thorax thick, abdomen short 
and fle!^hy, and usually dotted ; fore-wings are variegated, hind-wings red, 
orange or yellow, and spotted. They fly only by night. 

Many of their caterpillars are quite destructive. When about to undergo 
transformation, they creep into the chinks of walls and fences, or under stones 
and leaves, and cover themselves with rough cocoons. 

The Arctia Virginica, or Yellow Bear of Dr. Harris, resembles the 
Ermine Moth, of England. It is white, with black points, with a yellow 
stripe between them, while the hips and thighs of the forelegs are yellow. 

The Salt Marsh Caterpillar is frequent on the sea-board. The best 
preventative to their ravages is to cut the grass early in July, while the in- 
sects are small and feeble. The Lophocampa, or crested caterpillar is com- 
mon on the Button-wood or Sycamore, in July and August. 

The L'puric/ce or Liparians form the third group. They are small, slender 
catterpillar-^, bright yellow, with long fine hair, but they are not very numer- 
ous. They are sometimes found on apple trees and on other trees and 
shrubs. 

The Losiocampadm or Lasiocampians are woolly thick bodied moths, and 
form the fuurth group. The caterpillars which swarm in neglected nurseries 
and orchards belong to if. The eggs are placed in rings round the ends of 
branches, and are covered with varnish. The caterpillar comes forth in early 
spring, and forms a web among the forks of the small branches. In crawl- 
ing from twig to twig, they spin a slender thread, which serves as a guide 
on tht-ir retum. Tbey eat at certain hours and then retire to their shelter. 
They are about two inches long, with black beads, a whitish line on their 
back, with fine black waved lines or stripes and spots on the sides. 



MASSACHUSETTS HORT. SOCIETY. 657 



To guard agaiust these insects, different means are employed. To destroy 
the eggs in winter or early spring, is the first. This may be done with the 
thumb-nail and fore-finger. After they are hatched, a brush with a long 
handle may be used effectually, or a mop or sponge may be more convenient. 
These should be used with soap-suds, or white-wash, or with some cheap 
oil. This is indispensable, and should be used as long as any insects are to be 
found. 

The Clisiocampa Silvatica or Tent Caterpillar is often numerous in sonie 
of the States, so as to strip a forest of oaks. They are thus found in Vir- 
ginia. The insect is a light blue color, greenish on its sides, two inches in 
length — spots are scattered upon it. 

The Atticus Acropia, an insect that expands s'x inches or more, forms its 
cocoons of silk. Limited experiments have been made in substituting this 
for the silk worm in the manufacture of silk. 

Other insects might be described under this division of the order, but they 
are not very numerous nor very troublesome, nor is there any peculiar appli- 
cation to be used in guarding against them. Hence we pass on to the next 
division. 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Grapes, Vines. — We have received from Mr. Wight, Corresponding Secre- 
tary, the Annual Report of this efficient Society for 1855, with the Scheduel 
of prizes for 1856. 

From the valuable information it contains we copy the following upon the 
cultivation of grapes. Mr. Simpson is a gentleman of education, of sound 
practical sense, and large experience, and what he says may be relied upon 
with entire confidence. For the sake of reference by the reader hereafter we 
annex a separate title. 

GRAPES — TWO CROPS A YEAR. 

It will be remembered that M. IT. Simpson Esq., gave us a fine display of 
grapes in January, 1855, and also furni'hed an amcle (see report of last year) 
on the feasibility of producing two crops a year. Ju y 7th, 1855, Mr. S. raad^* 
a fine exhibition of his several varieties of grapes, grown on the same vines 
which produced the crop in January preceding. The berries were fully 
grown, and well ripened. Accompanying the sample for the Committee to 
test, was received the following note from Mr. S. : 

To the Chairman of the Fruit Committee : 

Dear Sir, — The grapes I exhibit to day are from vines which gave the 
crop of fruit exhibited in January last. Th^s is the third crop in succession 
on the plan of two crops a year, and thus far the vines exhibit no injury. My 
theory of growing them is, that when the fruit is ripe, the buds and wood 
are also ripp, and ready to give a new crop, if you give a proper time to na- 
ture ; that the vines wll not be injured, as the root throws out new spongi- 
oles, which, with the new leaves, are the reciprocal woikshops that make the 
sap for fruit and buds. The important requisite is, that the spongioles, are 



658 MR. bracket's vineyard. 



well supplied with food. With regard to rest, my theory is, that they rest 
at night ; the leaves do not work in darkness. The experiment I have made 
thus far confirms my theory in every respect. It applies also to all fruits, 
say peaches, pears, &c. If attention is paid to the supply of the root, two 
crops can be grown, and give a double quantity without injury to the vines. 
Yours, truly, W. H. Simpsok. 

Saxonville, July 1. 



CULTIVATION OF NATIVE GRAPES FOR FRUIT AND FOR WINE. 

We have received the Annual Report of the Philadelphia Society for pro- 
moting agriculture, read before them on the of 2d April. We thank the un- 
known friend who sent to us so promptly. 

The Report is well written, and enforces the propriety of encouraging tha 
growth of native grapes, both for the fruit, and for wines. As the latter may 
be thought to come in collision with the temperance question, a special effort 
is made to show that " the failure" of the temperance movement has resulted 
from its false principles, which denounce the use of wine as well as of distilled 
liquors. 

It does not yet appear that the temperance movement has failed, nor is it 
yet proved that the people of this country can reform their habits thoroughly 
and with assurance of a permanent reform, while wines are used as a com- 
mon drink. In some countries, and in certaiu states of habit and opinion, 
etc., this may prove to be sound logic and safe practice. The argument, for 
this community, we think has proved itself on the other side. But much 
depends on circumstances. We do not however hesitate to commend this 
kind of production, for such uses as may be justified. 

The writer, we perceive, falls into an error, on page 5, in saying that the 
" Ashburnham wine" is so named from a county in Massachusetts. Ash- 
burnham is a very respectable township in Worcester county, adjoining the 
town of New-Ipswich, in the State of New-Hampshire. Ic abounds m va- 
rious forms of mechanic arts and manufactures. We have never seen the 
vine grown there. 



MR, BRACKET'S VINEYARD. 

MODE OF TRAINING VINES. 

Wk have been highly interested by reading the report of Dr. E. Wright, 
Chairman of the Committee on Fruit, made to the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, and published in the March number of Hovey's Magazine of 
Horticulture. 

Among the many things and facts there brought forward, we find a com- 
munication of C, A. Bracket, of Winchester, giving an account of his " little 
vineyard," and his mode of managing his vines. We are persuaded we 
cannot do our grape cultivating friends better service than by giving the 
following extract from his letter: 

*' My little vineyard," says he, " is situated on a side hill facing the west, 



GOOD CROPS SOUTH. 659 

protected on the north by a belt of pine woods. I should have preferred a 
jnore norihern or eastern aspect. The soil is by no means what would be 
called a strong one ; it consists of from four to six inches of turf mould, with 
a reddish subsoil about two feet deep, resting upon a bed of blue gravel. In 
preparing for the vines the ground was trenched two feet deep, and the top 
soil put at the bottom. Stakes eight feet long were then set at the distance 
of seven feet apart each way, one vine was planted to each stake, and imme- 
diately cut down to two eyes, (or buds.) And here let me say a word as to 
the time of setting the vines. My experience is greatly in favor of fall plant- 
ing. A vine set in Autumn (and it should be done as soon as the leaf falls,) 
will in three years be as strong and capable of bearing a crop of fruit as one 
of the five years old set in the spring. 

The training of my vines is at once simple and ornamental. The first year 
two shoots are allowed to grow, and as they elongate are carried spirally, 
both in the same direction, about five inches apart around the stake, and this 
is continued until they reach the top. The laterals are allowed to grow at 
random. In the fall they should be pruned back to within eighteen inches 
of the ground, and the laterals to one eye. 

Second year, continue the two canes from the two uppermost eyes, as di- 
rected in the first year. The laterals will require summer pruning. In the 
fall cut back the canes to within eighteen inches of last year's wood. Con- 
tinue this course until the vine is established the whole length of the post, 
whatever surmounts it to be cut back. The fruit is grown upon the side 
shoots, and the pruning is on the short spur system. The form of the vine 
may be shaped to the taste of the cultivator ; that of the pyramid is decided- 
ly best. 

Those who understand the nature of the vine will readily perceive the 
advantage this system offers. The vine is thus kept at home. The light and 
air circulate freely through it. The buds break easily, there is no tendency in 
one part to rob the other of its due proportion of sap, and when once estab- 
lished requires less care than any other mode of training. 

Some t/f my vines, the first year after planting, were watered with sink 
drain water, and being satisfied that it injured them, I have discontinued the 
practice, and have since root pruned them, in order to check too free a growth 
of wood. Many of my neighbors injured their vines by giving them large 
quantities of stimulating manures, such as fresh stable manures, dead horses, 
and other animal manures, thereby exciting them to make an increased 
growth of long jointed wood. I grow my vines for the fruit, and am satis- 
fied if they make a few feet of short jointed wood, and the only manure (if 
manure it may be called) which I now use, is a top dressing of Anthracite 
coal ashes. 

Mr. Bracket speaks highly of the Diana Grape, as being hardy, early, and 
the grape holding on well even if suffered to hang out late. We thmk his 
hints and experiments worth attendicg to. 



GOOD CROPS SOUTH. 



Northern farmers do not roanopolize all the good crops. We find tae 
following in a Georgia exchange. Mr. Dorr raised on a Cambridge planta- 
tion, as follows : 

There were 120 acres of very old land in corn ; 40 acres in cotton, 30 of 



660 GOOD CROPS SOUTH. 



which were good fresh land and 10 of old land, 5 or 6 of which were man- 
ured with stable and lot raanure. The number of hands employed was 12 
iu number and rated as 9 g;ood bands. The total amount of ihe crop and 
exnenses, including provisions, negro clothing and shoes, blacksmith-work 
and iron, overseer's wages, &c, <kc , is as follows : 

Corn, 2,200 bushel at 75 cts. - - $1,050 00 
" at $1 60 - - - 260 00 
" at 50 cts. - - 200 00 

" at Si 00 - - - 37 00 

" at 50 cts. - - - 25 00 
" at $1 00 - - - 50 00 

Fodder, 25,000 lbs. at 60 cts per cwt. - - 125 00 

Pork, 2700 lbs. at 8 cts , - - - - 220 00 

Cotton, 48 hags weighing (averaged) 388 lbs., mak- 
ing 18,024 lbs., sold at 10 cts., - - 1,802 40 



Wheat, 


175 


Oats, 


400 


B.irley, 


27 


Potatoes, 


50 


Pinders, 


60 



Total, 14,42 540 

Deduct Expenses, 1500 40 

82,925 00 
Equal to $325 00 per hand. 
The land was prepared by ploughing as deeply as possible, then ploughing 
deep the fir.-t working, not so deep the second working, and finished with 
surface culture. Eacb ploughing was followed with a good hoeing, both 
f>r corn and cotton. 

The following account is given of a crop raised in another " District* 
known as "Dark Corner," which we cannot locate; quantity of land not 
given. 

Gross proceeds of crop were as follows : 

Cotton, 34,240 pounds sold for - - $3,147 30 
Corn, 2000 bushels which, together with peas, 

shucks fodder, &c., worth - - 2,000 00 
Potatoes, 300 bushels - - - - 100 00 

Wheat, 100 " 150 00 

Oats, 600 " 300 00 

Cotton seed, 2,300 bushels 345 00 

Poik, 700 lbs. net 500 00 



Total products $6,002 36 

Gross per hand $550 19. I worked twelve hands, eight head of horses 
and mules together, and used no guano. 

Deduct from the above amount of - - - $0,602 36 

For feed of eight head of wok stock, $000 00 

For feed and clothes for hands, - 720 00 

For smithing and iron, - - - 36 00 

Dr.'s bill for these hands, - - 00 00 

Interest on land, negroes and mules, 1,250 00 

Total expenses, $2,606 00 

Net amount of crop, ... - $3,996 36 

Net amount per hand, $333 03 



FliOFITS OF FARMING. 



661 



This is in the region of the Dark Corner, where land rates horn three to 
eight dollars per acre. 

I broke up ray cotton and corn land botli with a long scooter or bull-tongua 
plough, as you may please to call it. My cotton-land was laid off from thirty 
to thTrty-six inches according to quality, bedded with a turning plough. I run 
round my cotton with a turning-plough, board side next the cotton, and fol- 
lowed with the hoes chopping it out ; afcer which I replaced the bed to the 
the cotton as quick as possible, and every working after I endeavored to put 
a little more dirt to the plant, and by so doing your cotton will be well forrned 
and mature early. On the other hand if you work your cotton by taking 
the bed away (as is the case with some) and not replacing it, you may pro- 
duce a large weed with but few forms and these very late. 



PROFITS OF FARMING. 



We continue our statements on this subject, gathered from different sorces. 
Wo first give an extract from the Country Gentleman, in reference to 



AGRICULTURE IN VERMONT, 



From 13 acres harvested in Oct. last, 1600 bushels in the ear of sound 
corn, and 24 of soft corn. Though but little of it has yet been shelled, it is 
fair to count it at 800 bushels exclusive of the soft, which cannot be shelled. 
Value of corn, 800 bushels, delivered at railroad station, 3 miles, 

at $1 121 $900 00 

Value of corn, soft, 24 bushels at 25 cts. - - - 3 00 

Value of 28 cart-loads of pumpkins at 75 cts. per load, - 21 00 

Value of stalks for winter feed of stock at $3 per acre, 39 00 

Total $963 00 

Expense, (including delivery of the corn at depot,) - - 305 30 

Profits, $597 70 

Within a fraction of $48 98 per acre for taxes on and use of 

land. 
From fifteen and a half acres of oats were threshed by horse- 
power, in November last, 1006 bushels delivered at railroad 
station, as above at 50 cents per bushel, - - - $503 00 

Fifteen and a half tons straw, worth at barn $6 per ton, - 93 00 

$596 00 
Whole cost of production, with delivery at depot, $14 07 per acre, $218 09 

Profits, $377 91 

or $24 38 per acre. The land on which these crops were grown is valued 
at $100 per acre, which is about the price they command when oflfered for sale. 
A farm of one to three hundred acres, in many localities in Vermont, with 
good buildings and stone fences, surrounded with permanent roads and bridges, 
churches, school-houses, and the like, can be bought at a price that — counting 



662 PROFITS OF FARMING. 



all these improvements and advantages to the farmer — will hardly leave the 
soil at $1 25 cents per acre. 

The next statement is of a lot of land in 

Epping, N. H. — This statement was not made on account of any peculi- 
arity about it, but to show the proper manner of keeping farm accounts. The 
crop was grown in 1855. 

Lot No. 11 in field A. containing about 1^ acres. Soil on this lot is vari- 
able, part being a deep yellow loam, having a large proportion of mineral 
elements in its composition, the balance a dark-colored moist soil. 

Preparation. — In Oct., 1843, 24 loads of yard compost were spread on 
the dry part of the lot, and the sod turned under with a Michigan double 
plough, 9 inches deep. May, 1855, 12 loads of manure were harrowed in. 
Planted with corn, guano compost put in the hill ; produced a good crop. 
Oct., 1854, cross-ploughed the lot. 

April 1856, for ploughing, - - - $3 00 

For sowing, harrowing, and rolling 4^ days, - 3 37 
For seed wheat, 1^ busheli", - - - 3 37 

Harvesting and threshing, - - - - 7 92 
Interest and taxes on land, - - - 4 85 

$21 51 



Contra, by 19 bushels of wheat, $2 25 per bushel, 42 75 
Lot straw, 8 00 



Value of crop $50 75 

Cost of growing, - - - - - 25 61 



Cost per bushel, - - - - - 71 

Leaving a profit of $29 24 

The variety of wheat grown is known as the Gilman. Also a patch of 
peas were grown on this lot, producing an abundance of green and \ bushel 
of dry peas, for which I have not credited the whole crop. 

Lot No. 13, in fi-ld A, contains about ^ of an acre. 

Soil is a fine dark-colored lo^rn, very mellow. 

Preparation. — Plowed and planted similar to No. 11. 

May 3, 1855, for ploughing, - - - $2 00 

Harrowing and sowing, - - - - 1 00 

1 bushel seed wheat, - - - - 2 25 ' 

Harvesting and threshing - - - - 4 50 

Interest and taxes on land, - - - 3 00 



Contra by 11 bushels wheat 

Lot of straw, . . _ - 

Value of crop, - - - - - 
Cost growing, - - - . 

Profit of crop, $16 00 

Cost per bushel, ----- 70 

The above crop was injured by worms, thining it early in the season. 



$12 75 


- $24 75 
4 00 


- $28 75 
12 75 



BROOM CORN. 663 



The wheat grown on this lot is known as the White Flint wheat, yielding 
beautiful white flour. The straw grows large and appe>irs hardy ; heads of 
the same length do not produce as much wheat as those of other varieties; 
the berries do not set thick on the head, but grow at some distance apart, 
giving them a loose or open appearance. 



FOR THE PLOUGH, THB LOOJI AKD THB ANVIL. 

BROOM CORN, SORGUM SACCHARATUM. 

For many years this very useful plant was almost exclusively a "Yankee 
Notion." It is an exotic, brought from the East Indies, yet seems wtll adapted 
to our climate. For near a half a century its culture was confined mainly 
to a few towns in Old Hampsbire County, on Connecticut river. It is now 
cultivated in some parts of New-Jersey, in the Mohawk Valley in New-York, 
and in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. In New-England, where the farmers are 
always ready to engage in the cultivation of what will pay best. Broom 
Corn is still confined to the Connecticut Valley, and mostly to some ten or 
twelve towns in Massachusetts. 

The Corn Broom has now become an indispensible article in most civil- 
ized American families. The unwieldy " splinter broom, which our grand- 
mother were wont to elaborate, by dint of patience and perseverance, from ash, 
maple and hickory, have yielded to the force of the adage, " a new broom 
sweeps clean." 

Soil and Climate. — This plant will grow and mature in any part of the 
temperate region where the soil is adapted to it. But it seems to do best 
between 38 and 43 degrees North. Below, it grows too rank, and the brush 
is coarse. Above, it does not mature and the seed is of no value. 

The soil should be a deej>, rich, sandy loam. It should be ploughed deep, 
manured highly, and reduced to a fine tilth and planted early. The roots, 
unlike those of the Indian corr, cluster together, in form somewhat like 
the distaft", and run directly downward. The plant, in its infancy, is very 
small and feeble ; and seems for the first month, to struggle hard for life. It 
requires a longer season than Indian corn. Hence the importance of having 
land naturally warm, that it may be planted early and ripened before the 
frosts of autumn. 

Cultivation. — It should be planted thicker than Indian corn. Let the rows 
be of sufficient width to allow a horse to pass betv/een them, say three feet, 
and the hills in the row two feet apart, with an average of ten stalks in each 
bill. A better way is to use the planter, and leave a kernel every three 
inches. Planted in this manner, the labor of weeding is much less, and the 
quality of the brush better. In seeding a liberal allowance should be made 
for insects and vermin. They often lay claim to the whole, and are seldom 
satisfied with lessihan one-half. 

It has been supposed necessary to manure in the hill, and that till very 
recently has been the universal practice. A better way has been found out. 
I would not manure the hill for any crop. However light the dressing, let 
it be spread broad-cast over the whole surface. If the proper pabulum of 
plants is in the soil, the roots will find and appropriate it. To thrust ashoveil- 



664 BROOM CORN. 



full of manure underneath a hill of corn, and leave the ground about with- 
out manure, is much like stuffing a starved horse with oats on the morning 
of a hard day's journey, and leaving him to fast the rest of the day. Better 
feed him well for some days previous, and during the working day, let him 
have his ordinary feed. So of manuring, let it not be done solely for the 
crop, but partly for the land. The farmer who pursues the former course 
will always till a sterile soil, and himself be poor. 

During the first six or eight weeks, constant care must be bestowed upon 
this crop. The earth should be frequently stirred, and all weeds carefully 
excluded. Not less than four times hoeing will answer, and much care thould 
be used at the second or third hoeing to reduce the number of stalks within 
the limit mentioned above. 

Harvesting. — This should be deferred until the seed is hard, if the season 
will allow. But if a frost come prematurely, and blight your prospects, the 
brush should be cut immediately. The common mode of gathering the brush 
is by tabling, as it is called. The stalks of two contiguous rows are broken 
down and made to fall diagonally across each other, so as to form a sort of 
table, on which the brush is spread to dry. Cutting and spreading the brush 
is suitable work for children. So long as the weather remains good, the brush 
should be permitted to remain, being occasionally turned. But upon the 
approach of a storm let it be housed. It is damaged by rain no less than 
cured hay. 

The next step in the process is to bind the brush in bundles, averaging 
about fifteen pounds, and placing them on end, with the buts down, under 
cover, where the air can h-vve free access to it. "When thoroughly dried, the 
seed is scraped off and the brush is ready for use. 

Another mode of gathering is to cut the stalks near the ground, and lay 
them longitudinally between the rows, disposing of the product of two rows 
in one furrow, and spreading the brush upon the stalks. When it is intended 
to plough and sow after harvest, this course must be pursued. In this case, 
the stalks may be buried with the plough. In the other, they are usually 
cut and burned upon the ground. 

PiiOFirs. — Seven hundred pounds of brush is about an average yield per 
acre. One thousand pounds is not uncommon. Land that is in a suitable 
condition to produce seventy-five bushels of Indian corn, will, under ordinary 
circumstances, yield a thousand pounds of broom brush. Brush is now selling 
for ten cents per pound. It ranges from four to twelve cents per pound, 
averaging about six. 

The seed is an important item in the product. It is not a certain crop, 
being liable to be spoiled by early frosts. The seed may be killed without 
materially injuring the brush. But when the season is favorable it is not unu- 
sual to get ten bushels of seed to every hundred pounds of brush. Thus the 
seed, in a good season, is fully equal in quantity to the crop of oats which the 
same ground would produce ; and for most purposes of stock- feeding it is 
considered equally valuable. The whole product may be summed up thus: 

■TOO )b?. brush at 6 cts. $42 00 

70 bushels seed at 42 cts, .... 29 40 



7140 

But 1000 lbs. at 10 cts. 100 00 

And 100 bush, seed at 50 cts. .... 50 00 



$150 00 
More than this has, in some instances, been realized. 



FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS. 665 



It is generally believed that, in case the seed ripens, it is a better crop at 5 
(;ts. per lb. for the brush, than Indian corn at 83 cts, per bush., which is about 
the average price in this region. 

It is thought to exhaust the land less than most other crops. I know of 
fields that have been planted with broom-corn more than twenty seasons in 
succession without deterioration in the product. R. B. H. 

Amherst, Mass, March 20, 1856. 



KOB THB PLOUGH, THE LOOM AND THB ANVIL. 

FOREST TREES OF NICHOLS, TIOGA CO., N. Y., AND THEIR USE. 

THE "WHITE PINE CONTINUED. 

The price of pine boards down the Susquehanna river for a few years back 
has ranged from $9 to $14: per thousand — that is, for common cutting lum- 
ber or common boards, as some would term it, — the difi"erent sizes of pannel 
ranging from $18 to $40 per thousand. A considerable amount of square 
timber has been taken from this vicinity. I am not acquainted with this 
business, but the value of timber often varies much. Some years it is very 
high. Last year it was so low as to be a losing business. The timber is 
got out or hewed on four sides, and each stick is from forty to seventy feet 
long, and often over two feet at the butt end. 

The age of the pine is variously estimated. It is quite difRcult to count 
the rings of a large pine. As far as ascertained, the oldest pioes in this 
vicinity range from 250 to 300 years. It is said that a pine waf? cut down 
some years ago in the town of Soutbport, Chemung Co., N.Y., that was over 
700 years old. In the year 1841, I cut down a few pines that were of the 
second growth, or had grown since the land was partly cleared, that were 
from twelve to 6fteen inches in diameter and from twenty-eight to thirty 
years old, and about thirty-five feet high, — being low and full of limbs like 
an apple tree. A pine growing in thick wood, that is twelve inches in dia- 
meter, is often sixty years old and fifty feet high. A large pine has always 
an old appearance, being nearly covered with two or three varieties of moss 
from the ground upwards for several feet, and even on the limbs is found a 
long, shaggy, gray moss. The wind blowing through pine boughs makes a 
sighing or humming noise, not unlke a swarm of bees flying over. 

A large portion of this vicinity is covered with pine stumps; but a great 
propDrtion of ihera have been pulled within twelve years, and many are now 
pulled yearly. With Hall's cylinder machine, I have helped pull one hun- 
dred pine stumps in a day, the stumps being of a small size and on a diluvial 
formation, while on hill land, with a good lot of stumps, we puiled from 
forty-five to fifcy-five per day, and on low creek flats, with large stumps, only 
from fifteen to twenty per day. The piice of this machine is about $400. 
The Hook and Lever stump-machine is getting much in use in this vicinity, 
and is thought by some to be equal to the Hall machine, and to be more 
easily worked. The cost of this machine is from $120 to $200, according 
to the amount of iron used. 

Generally all pine stumps with good roots are used for fence in tbi-> vicinity. 
I have about a mile and a half of stump fence, and it wants but iicile atten- 



666 INFLUENZA OF HORSES. 



tion from one year to another, and will last an age or more. The pine 
stumps are hard to root out. Sixty years do not efFdCt much in this way. 
Nichols, April 14, 1856. Robert Howell. 



INFLUENZA OF HORSES. 

BY CAPTAIN EALSTON. 

The perusal of "Thoughts upon the Prevailing Disease among Horses," in 
the March number of the American Veterinary Journal, together with a 
preceding article, upon "iDfluenza," in the number for January, has induced 
these observations. The writer feels constrained, as a Veterinarian, to com- 
mence by remarking that it may be deemed his herein views had better been 
submitted to the professional journal which has called them forth. But 
with every respect for any journal devoted to the veterinary art, and this in 
no diminishtd degree for one which he favorably estimates, as a pioneei'-ef- 
fort towards highly desiderated objects, in relation to eventual veterinary 
progress in this country, still he has preferred the privilege of the pages 
of the " P. L. and A.," inasmuch that professional readers as yet are 
scant, and it is therefore of advantage to promote and extend discussion, 
through the more generally circulated and read (abd cousin-german) pa- 
ges of an agiicultural serial, in manner whereby it is hoped that veterinary 
subjects may come more and more under the recognition of those whom it is 
most to be desired should be aroused into intelligent consideration of their 
importance. It may not be amiss to furthermore add, — and this is ventured 
under a truly earnest wish that the journal, which has been fii-st on the 
field of American veterinary culture, should strike its roots deep, grow, 
and successfully flourish — that over-much of school science, at the outset, 
may not prove favorable, on so new and uutilled ground ? Siill the higher 
scientific tone is to be respected ; and, if the editors of the American Veter- 
inary Journal always shall draw for information or seek exponants of the im- 
portant art which they represent, through such sources as those of "The Ve- 
terinarian," (British,) and the writings of the late William Percival, and of his 
father, (formerly at the head of ihe veterinary staff of the Royal Artillery and 
Ordnance Corps,) there is no veterinarian but will indorse the tenets and the 
teachings. 

In 1852, the writer sought to attract some notice to the influenza of 
horses, through the medium of the " Spirit of the Times^^ and what is here 
submitted will be a somewhat modified reproduction of the same views. In 
the A. V. Journal, " Influenza," it is said, passes in stable language under the 
familiar terra of horse ail, pink-eye, etc. 

The writer demurs as to pink-eye ; for he opines that thereby is meant a 
peculiar chronic-oplhalmic aff"ection of the conpinctival lifsues (or mem- 
ranous linings of the eye-lids and white of the eye,) the consequence 
of standing in darksome and ill-ventilated stables, and where the disengage- 
ment of amoniacal gasses assail the eyes and act as a specific local poison 
to those organs, resuhing in corneal opacity, cataract, &c. Such conditions 
of badly-arranged and ill-kept stables injuriously affect all the vital organs of 
animals subjected thereto, and pariicuUrly predispose to pneumonic affec- 
tions, and not unseldom beget farcy or glanders. 



INFLUENZA OF HORSES. 667 



But in connection with influenza, itself, he also demurs as to those 
"typhus" and "typhoid" complicities introduced, in manner seen in the 
" Thoughts upon the Prevailing Disease among Horse?" Far be it that any 
new light from science, or investigation, should be excluded from respectful 
attention or inquiry ; but we may define and refine too far, and thus perplex. 
In the old term of " Influenza Maligna" the same idea may be f aid to be pre- 
dicated; and the writer proposes to waive those new aspects, and treat of In- 
fluenza simplex and lofluenza maligna, their causes, symptoms, and also their 
more ready treatment in horse-owners' own hands. 

The first alluded to form of this aflfeciion is variously named cattarrhal 
fever, epidemic cattarrh, influenza, and (in the racing stables) distemper. 
Young horses are generally most liable to and prove least able to contend 
with or surmount its eff"ects. It ordinarily commences with a rigor, or slight 
shivering fit. This premonitory, or incipient indication, is very rarely ob- 
served or attended to. If, however, it should be noticed at the outset, it 
may be of much importance ; since recourse to prompt and judicious treat- 
ment might then arrest the further progress of the attack. We will con- 
sider this commencing or initiatory stage of the disorder. 

In inflammatory affections, whether of the lungs, bowels, tidney^, or other 
organs; or in the early or acute stages of local injuries — as wounds, strains, 
&c. — the resort by uninformed farriers and stable-helpers is almost invaria- 
bly to stimulant applications, internal or external, as the case may be. Now, 
at the proper time and place, stimulant and discutient remedies are valuable 
therapheutical agents ; but to administer them in the acute stages of inflam- 
mation of the lungs, bowels, &c., or to apply blistering unguents, or imitative 
oils, or tinctures, in cases of recent injuries or strains, is treatment as perni- 
cious as it is ignorant. It is like pouring alcohol or gunpowder on flame, to 
extinguish it. After inflammatory action is abated, and when the general 
tone of organs, or local action of part's, has been left in a depressed or unrein- 
vigorate state, then the cordial or the tonic, the blister or the caustic, may 
become most estimable curative adjarants. Otherwise, the so constant and 
irreflec'iive recourse to stimulants, at the wrong time and place, has 
done and does incrlculable mischief, in quasi, veterinary practice. This 
is a gross medical and surgical error, which has killed animals by 
thousands annually, and which converts casual and curable injuries into 
incurable lameness and permanent blemishes. But ignorant assumption 
meets with perilous trust and confidence where human health and life 
are concerned ; and if so in relation to ourselves, can better be expected for 
our domestic animals ! Quacks and nostrum- venders flourish ; for the want 
of sufficient knowledge on the part of those ailing— and in earnest and 
anxious quest of relief, leads to reliance on the sordid vaunts of unscru- 
pulous ignorance. In other things than those of health, individuals will 
properly require to have some avouchment — to understand the grounds and 
have reasonable proof of capacity or trust-worthiness — before rendering be- 
lief or reliance; but in what is of so paramount moment as competent 
medical or surgical treatment when sick, the reverse of this is the too 
frequent rule. It is not "damnant,'^ but " credant, quod non intelligunt ;" for 
just in proportion to his outrageous averments, and the impossible qualities 
imputed to his nostrums, is often the blind-fold dependence placed in the 
empiric. As regards animals — let us say horses — thei/ cannot, in words 
express the causes or seat of their ails, or complain bow maltreatment may 
be injuring or torturing them. Yet, while the verbal expression is denied, 
they have a mute, but most eloquent language of their own, and one alto- 



668 INFLUENZA OP HOESES. 

gether undeceptive, if the right observation, tact and skill be in attendance — 
qualifications each and all essential in the veterinary surgeon. The maladies 
of animal life are not so complicated as those of human life ; but they run 
their course more rapidly and deterrainately. Hence, with the former the 
art of the practitioner — the mendendi scientia — is required to be more 
promptly and shrewdly unerring ; else, irrespective of what ought to be done 
being left not done, the opportunity to do anything eflfectively may alto- 
gether be lost. This, however, all matters but little with your genuine 
" horse doctors ;" for with the the professors of that school of practice the 
Quid dem ? Quid non dem T' is a modest self-ioterrogatory, having no place. 
"With them no adequate standard of general education, on which has beerj 
based one more especially professional, so as to guarantee some scientific at- 
tainments iu anatomy, physiology, pathology, and the art of healing, is in any 
manner or degree needful for recognizing the symptoms, seat, causes, and 
remedial treatment of the diseases of animals ! 

The foregoing has, however, traveled somewhat out of the record concern- 
Dg stimulants. The object, however, was to decry the abuse of these before 
adventuring on a recommendation of their use, in one of the rare exceptional 
cases. ]f an influenzal attack be recognized in its premonitory, or very c^rly 
stage — that is shortly from, or a iew hours after the horse has been cer- 
tainly well, and when the drooping attitude, languid, yet quickened pulse, 
and general appearance of a "cold," but without cough or muscous dis- 
charge ; in fact when presenting those symptoms which betoken a disturbed 
or oppressed constitutional, or febrile crisis, without indications of organic in- 
flammation or let^ion ; then, and just at this time, if two or it may be three 
quarts of blood be drawn from one of the jugulars, to relieve the heart and 
lungs, and thereupon proper stimuli bo administered, a sanitary reiiclion 
mav be superinduced, and the revulsive nervo-vascular disturbance, which 
developes in the mucous membranes, and prostrates the physical energies so 
rapidly, so as greatly to complicate the alter treatment, may be ar/ested, 
or materially controlled. The best and safest of the difi"usible stimuli for 
use, in these cases, is nitrous ether, or sweet spirits of nitre. Say, that 2 oz. of 
nitrous ether be taken, and 2 drachms of infusion of camomile ; add these 
to -^ a pint of milk-warm water, and let this dose be given twice a-day. A 
bottle is often used for giving fluid medicine; but it is inappropriate and 
unsafe An ox-born makes a serviceable instrument. Sever an inch or two 
oS the small end, and plug it; and then cut the wide end slantingly, so as 
to form a sloped open end. Put the diink into the horn, and an assistant 
having quietly opened the horse's mouth, and gently grasped his tongue so 
as thereby to draw it a little out on one side, — at the same time, with the 
other band, elevating his head and muzzle a little let the open end be 
inserted, on the other side, and over the back part of the tongue, and 
the contents be softly poured down, gulp by gulp. Every action and move- 
ment should be made with the greatest gentleness, not only because the 
horse's throat may be sore, and swallowing painful, (besides the natural dis- 
taste for the medicine and the constraint,) but because less resistance or 
struggle will ensue, and there will be no risk of ii juring the mouth or tongue. 
At all times, the more unwilling or violent horses are. the greater the occasion 
for gentleness, otherwise an operator will be more baffled, and the draught be 
got uvt-r with so much irritation as to do more harm than good. In all 
operations and restraints, as in all lessons or instructions with horses, patience 
and gentle handling must ever be a sine qua non to succeeding well ; and th(^ 
shyer or more intractable any animal may be found, the lireat^r the occasion 



INFLUENZA OF HORSES. 669 

for his being soothed, and given time, and gone about gently. High 
couraged and valuable horses — often those the most so — are must of all apt to 
be rendered sulky or stubborn, and every way of inferior value, by hasty treat- 
ment and unfair curbing, constraint, or puoishraent. Animals cannot, by 
language, be made to know or understand what it is sought they should 
obey or do ; and as training, &c., to them are acts of a character at once disa- 
greeable and unaccountable, so favorable or kindly srubmis^^ion can only be 
mduced or expected from quiet and gentle, but firm proceedings, and every- 
thing that is alarming, or has a coercive aspect, ought to be studiously avoid- 
ed or concealed. 

As relates to such cases of influenza as has been referred to, besides the 
nitrous ether draught, f of a pint of sound ale, sweetened with two tea- 
spoonfuls of molasses, and having 2 drachms of the best ground ginger stirred 
in, may be mixed with a pint of milk warm water, and given alternaiely 
witli the other. The patient should be placed in a moderately warm, well- 
ventilated loose box if possible ; in any case well clothed, and where there 
are no currents of cold air. He should be bedded up to his hocks in short 
dry straw ; and leg-bandages of flannel may be usefully emp'oyed. The foid 
should be small potions of sweet bay ; barley or malt ma-hes; a handful 
or two of oats ; and for drink thin water gruel. If in two, or as may almost 
be said, one day, the attack does not seem to be arrested, and if raucous dis- 
charge from the nasal membranes supervene, then the complaint is estab- 
ished, and will run its course. 

In the latter case, the treatment is not very diS'erent; but the progress of 
the disease has now to be carefully watched. The m.ucous, serous, and sero- 
mucous tissues seem to be especially attacked. Their nervous tone seems to 
be altogether deranged, and their secretions correspondingly. In fact, all the 
membranous system seems to sympathizp, accompanied by flying neu- 
ralgic twinges. The worst and most difEcult symptom, however, is the 
extraordinary weakness and prostration of all the energies which rapidly 
attend the mucous discharge. This and the indisposition to food, together 
with the pulse running high and the breathing oppressed, complicates the 
case ; for it is unsafe to abstract blood, and still the case must not be lost 
from congestion of the lungs and heart. If food be entirely rejected, pretty 
thick, smooth oat-meal gruel, sweetened with a spoonful or two of molasses, 
and with 1 drachm of nitre dissolved in the -I gallon should be horned over 4f r 
5 times a day. Enemas of the same kind should be thrown up. Bran may ba 
stirred in the water, and poured off clear, and in this 1 drachm of nitre and 
a table spoonful of honey may be dissolved to the pailful. If the sub- 
maxillary glands are tumefied and painful, some blistering linamc-nt 
should be rubbed in between the jaws and along the course of the throat. 
But the practitioner's or owner's best treatment is limited chiefly to moderate 
warmth, pure air, a well bedded-up loose box, offering small quantities of 
tempting food, (or if need be horning over gruel and exhibiting enemas,) and 
giving weak nitro bran-water. If the patient begins to breathe less op- 
pressed; his pulse fuller and not so quick; the membranes lining the nose 
more natural in color; in a word, if the symptoms altogether indicate 
decreasing febrile action, everything is to be hoped. The leading object is 
thereupon to support the strength — by means of gruel, and small malt 
mashes frequently oflfered. An oxymel may be beneficially used twice a dav 
in :| of a pint of honey, mix a small spoonful of brandy, and the same of vine- 
gar ; stir into it a table-spoonful of linseed-meal and ^ of a pint of sound ale ; 
and incorporate the whole in two pints of boiling water. Horn over one-half 
for each draught, when cold. 

These remarks having run a suflScient length for the present month, the 



670 AGRICULTURAL CROPS. 

•writer defers bis observations on Influenza Maligna until tbe next month. 
It may not be amiss to here observe thst tbe present suggested treatment is 
intended to be of a scope adapted to cases io any horse-owner's own bands, 
and when these are disposed, in a lesser degree, to complications and adverse 
results. In -dny such latter or more serious cases, the aid of professional ad- 
vice is indispensable; and bleeding, counter irritants or blisters, rowels or 
setons and such internal remedies as tatarged antimony, digitatis, hellebore, 
calomel, opium, croton oil, etc., may come to be demanded, according to 
symptoms, and the patients condition. J. C. R. 

Grad. Roy. Vet. Con.,Memb. Roy. Coll. V. S. &o. 

[The above was designed for our last issue, but was received too late. The 
subject will be further discussed ia our next number. — Ed. P. L. & A.] 



COW RELIEVED BY SURGERY. 

The following case of sur^fery is reported in tbe Ploughman. The oper- 
ation was performed by Dr. Tbayer of West Newton, Mass., upon a favorite 
cow of Mr. Geo. E. Allen. The case was stoppage, caused by the genera- 
tion of gas in the stomach from eating too many rotten apples. He says : 

" Finding all my efforts to remove the difiBculty, unavailing, and she grow- 
ing worse rapidly, I called in the doctor above mentioned, who very quickly 
decided that nothing but tapping would save her, and with my consent he 
made an incision directly into the Rumen, or first stomach, just in front of 
the hip upon the left side; and introducing a small tube, such an escape of 
gas took place as would astonish even our modern politicians. But the re- 
sult was all we could desire, the swelling went down at once, and the cow 
was worth forty dollars more than before the operation. Those who wit- 
nessed the ca?e, and some were old farmers, pronounced the operation entirely 
new to them." 



AGRICULTURAL CROPS. 

PROFITS OF FARMING. 

A RECENT number of the journal of the N. Y. State Society mentions 
the following crops raised in different parts of this State. How can it be 
that farmers are content with less than half a possible crop and one-tenth 
the possible profits? 

Mr. R. R. Hart, of Oneida, raised 70 bushels of shelled corn to the acre. 
Mr. Wm. Johnson, near Geneva, raised 38,671 lbs. of ehelkd corn on nine 
acres, equal to 76f |- bushels per acre. 

Twenty-two cows on Mr. J. S. Hilbert's farm, Chemting Co., produced 
4116 lbs. of butter. Included were two three-year old heifers. This butter 
sold at 27 to 37 cts. per lb. The average yield per cow ia 187 lbs. each, or 
counting them as 20 cow.«, it would give 205 lbs. each. 

In Tioga county the yield of rye is about 20 bushels per acre, some fields 
producing 28 bushels. The average yield of barley is 25 bushels per acre? 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 671 

That of Indian corn, 28 bushels per acre, while some fields produced 60 
bushels. Buckwheat produced 15 bushels per acre. Oats average 35 
bushels, some land producing 60 bushels. Hay, average, 1^ tons per acre, 
and some fields produced 2^ tons per acre. Potatoes about 50 bushels per 
acre. 



INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. 

Bridgewater, Mass. — Population in 1850, 2'700 ; in 1855, 3363; in- 
crease in five years, 575. 

Four Rolling and Nail Mills ; 1000 tons iron manufactured and not made 
into nails, valued at $80,000; 52 nail machines, 62,500 casks nails manu- 
factured, valued at $250,000 ; capital, $77,000, 207 men employed. Two 
Forges, 70 tons manufactured, value of bar iron, etc., $10,500 ; capital, 
$7000, 20 employed. One furnace, 600 tons casting, value, $40,000 ; 
capital, $18,000, 30 employed. 

Two paper manufactories ; 270 tons stock used; 210 tons paper manu- 
factuied, valued at $30,000; capital, $18,000, 20 employed. 

Two establishments for manufacture of coaches, wagons, etc., value of 
articles manufactured, $5,800; $2000, 7 employed. 

One soap manufactory, 25,120 gallons manufactured, valued at $2,540; 
$1,500 capital, 4 employed. 

One tin manufactory, value tin ware $500; 2 employed. 

One cotton establishment, value of manufactures, $14,000, $30,000 capi- 
tal, 40 employed. 

600 pairs boots and 166,000 pairs shoes manufactured, valued at $125,700 ; 
55 males and 35 females employed. 

3,000,000 bricks manufactured, valued at $12,000 ; 30 employed. 

63,600 bushels charcoal, valued at $4000 ; 20 employed. 

90.000 ft. lumber prepared for market, valued at $7,600, 30 employed. 

2217 cords firewood, valued at $6,651, 30 employed. 

259 horses, valued at $16,472; 151 oxen over 3 years old, and 18 steers 
under 3, valued $7,557 ; 44 milch cows, and 51 heifers, valued at $14,288. 

25,830 lbs. butter valued at $6,459 ; 6679 lbs. cheese, $834 ; 130 lbs. 
honey, $26. 

283 acres Indian corn, 20 bush, per acre, valued at $8,136. 

1^ acres of wheat, 16 bush, per acre, $48. 

57 acres of rye, 11 bush, per acre, $857. 

3^ acres of barley, 24 bush, per acre, $80. 

129 acres oats, 23 bush, per acre, $1,809. 

1 acre onions, 380 bush. $190. 

4A acres turrfps, 325 bush, per acre, $450. 

1^ acres carrots, 416 bush, per acre, $62. 

I acre beets, $42. 

1540 acres English mowing, 1128 tons, $20,304. 414 tons swale hay, 
$4,140. 

9299 apple trees, $902. 1180 pear trees, $128. 

14 acres cranberries, $520. 

1 shingle and box board manufactory, capital $3000 ; men employed, 12. 

Value of machines manufactured, $4000, men employed, 5. — Ploughman. 



672 RESPONSIBILITY OF WOME!<". 



FOR TUB PLODGn, TUB LOOM, AND IHB ANVIL. 

THE RESPONSIBILITY OF WOMEN FOR THE HEALTH OF THEIR OFFSPRING. 

Mr. Editor : — A medical writer has remarked that " Perfect health in 
civilized society is unknown; it exists only as an ideality." This startling 
truth, which any one of observailon cannot dispute, leads to the inquiry, Who 
is in fault ? A full and impartial answer would require us to examine the 
duties of both sexes. At present, however, we shall only consider the man- 
ner in which woman discharges her high responsibilities as mother of the 
race. 

From reports published by Miss Beecher and others, we learn that our 
towns do not average one heaUhy woman. Nevertheless, he who teaches that 
the sex are in fault for their bodily infirmities, is often rej^arded as blasphem- 
ing ; for has not Providence seen fit to afflict them ! ! Thus by making 
Supreme Power the scspe-goat, tbey piously relieve themselves of all respon- 
sibility for their own sufferings and those which they inflict upon the race. 

When we consider that about every third woman has a diseased spine, 
that at least every fifth one is scrofulous, consumptive, or possessed of some 
other disease transmissable to her offspring; and making no estimate of 
general debility and various weaknesses, that not one in a hundred can boast 
of having no deformed bones, we are led to ask, what kind of a Providence 
is that who thus delights in disfiguring his noblest work ? Providence estab- 
lishes laws — those who violate them suffer the penalty. If we look from effects 
to their causes, we can trace to the habits and customs of women many of 
the evils which have vitiated the human family. It cannot be expected that 
infirm parents, groaning under a load of disease, will give to the world an 
iron race. It should not be expected that women who shut themselves in 
from the inspiring air and sunlight of heaven, confining their labors entirely 
to the house or living in indolent luxury, will "stamp their race with signa- 
tures of majestic grace," or transmit to the world offspring possessed of sound 
mental and physical organizations. As reasonably may we look for pure 
sparkling waters to flow from a malignant morass. 

There are those of the sex that have observed and reflected much, who 
know and acknowledge that women are in fault, criminally so, for scores of 
the complaints from which the race suffer. With such lies the weighty duty 
of commencing a reform, which shall restore to the human constitution some 
of its pristine tone. At the present time few of our girls reach the age of 
twenty in a sound condition. Large numbers marry and become mothers, — 
give to the world a suffering offspring, and themselves drag out lives of pain. 
So it will ever be until education and fashions accord better with the dictates 
of nature, until parents observe the laws of health themselves and require them 
to be observed in the treatment cf their children. 

Take a fair girl of seventeen or eighteen, who has been so fortunate as to 
inherit no disease and to pass through the periods of infancy and school with 
no other misfortune than to come out rather delicate^ teach her by example 
to submit to fashions, however opposed to the dictates of sound sense and 
the demands of sound health they may be, encircle her waist with whalebones 
and steel ; load her hips with skirts, corded, quilted, hooped and starched, 
tied tensely around the person to keep them in position ; have her adopt 
the sedentary habits of thousands of our women, and then in a few years look 
at the wonoan you have recreated from the noble girl. 



KESPOXSIBILITY OF WOMEN. 678 

Her whole body is in an abnormal state. Weakness and disease prey 
upon a forra, which, had a reasonable course been pursued, would have been 
bounding with health. Thus it is that Providence sends afflictions ! ! Were 
they not invited ? 

If women would rejoice in the fulness of life, if they would give to the world 
an ofTspring beautiful and noble, let them make the laws of health the great 
study of life, and the instruction of their children therein one of their great 
duties. 

Let them throw aside whalebones and steel, and make easy but elegant cos- 
tumes. Let them untie the strings which are doing a work as fatal as the 
hangman's cord. Let every garment be suspended from the shoulders. Let 
ever}'- limb have scope for action. Let them spend several hours per diem in 
the invigorating air which God has adapted for their lungs. 

Teachers are grossly in fault for not bringing these things forcibly before 
their pupils, both in practice and in theory. The long processionci formed to 
take exercise in measured pace, for half an hour in the twenty-four, leave no 
vivid impression upon the pupil except a remembrance of the stupidity of 
the performance. Let scholars ^eeZ the pleasure of living at least three hours 
per diem in the open air, and they will readily comprehend when instructed- 
that it is an agreeable duty to do so. 

The health of morals and intellect sympathizes with that of the body. If 
the latter becomes prostrate the former may become enfeebled. It would 
therefore seem appropriate for our eloquent divines to inculcate, occasionally, 
lessons upon the important subject of health and the responsibilities of every 
intelligent being. The effect would doubtless be as beneficial to the human 
fitmily as homilies upon natural depravity or original sin. 

June Isle. 



N'oTE BY THE Editor. — Theabove topic is one of immense importance, which 
ought not to be considered out of place in any journal, moral, scientific, or 
political, for sound minds can only be looked for in sound bodies, and perma- 
nent defects in one lead to the ruin of all our social and political institutions. 
We were not aware that abnormal organizations were so common as they are 
represented by our correspondent, but we are quite certain that reform in this 
matter is imperatively demanded, and that we have yet to endure a large 
part of the penalty for our sin in these matters. From this there is no escape. 
There is no pardoning power. The law is inexorable. We commend this 
matter to the serious attention of cur readers. 

Wo only add that natural law has herein provided against the permanance 
of a1! assumed superiority in the wealthy classes. They are obliged to resort 
to external appendages, to costly dresses and extravagant modes of living and 
peculiar habits of life, in order to distinguish themselves from their neighbors. 
These very habits ruin both mind and body in about two generations, and 
not nnly reduce them to the ordinary level in personal attractiveness, &c., but 
to objects of pity, demanding the sympathies even of the poor. 

A " millionaire" once said to us, *' I would give you every dollar I am worth 
for your legs." So the wheel turns. Let not those who are getting up 
exhibit so much folly as their predecessors. Yet we are sorry to say we think 
they furnish too much evidence that they are becoming the silliest of all fools 
who have preceded them. 

42 



674 AGRICULTURAL BUREAU. 



AN AGRICULTURAL BUREAU. 

WASHiNaxoN, April 4, 1856. 

The following very interesting letter, addressed to the Agricultural Com- 
mittee in the House of Representatives, exhibits the scope, objects and opera- 
tions of a bureau of the Government, yet in its infancy, but which is fast be- 
coming one of the most practically useful and important. 

United States Patent Office, March 31, 1856. 

Agreeably to request, herewith I furnish you with some of the principal 
reasons why Congress should increase the agricultural appropriations here- 
after to be expended by this office with some of the benefits to the country 
which have already resulted from the appropriations made years past. 

One of the prime objects of these appropriations has been the introduction 
of new and useful vegetable products hitherto unknown in the United States, 
and the increase and dissemination of those of superior qualities which had 
already been cultivated or otherwise known. Measures have been taken to 
procure from every quarter of the globe, such seeds, plants, roots and cut- 
tings as would be likely to succeed in any part of the country, and placing 
them in the hands of persons who were the most likely to test their adapta- 
tion to our climate and soil. As a matter of course, many of the experiments 
thus made unavoidably proved abortive ; but in numerous cases, they were 
attended with the most signal success, and a single product, in the opmion of 
competent judges, has added millions to our resources. For instance, a va- 
riety of wheat known as the " Mediterranean," which was brought to this 
country a few years ago, has proved highly productive, hardy and maturing 
several days earlier than other varieties, thereby escaping the ravages of in- 
sects and rust, besides being sooner ready for market. 

"Within the last year no less than seventeen varities of wheat have been 
introduced from distant parts of the globe, and distributed in various sections 
of the Union, most of which promise to ba attended with good success. 

The" Indian mixed" or "Dourah corn," of African origin, has also been 
introduced, and it constitutes a valuable crop in the South. 

The "Japan pea," unsurpassed by all the others in its yield, believed to be 
of Eastern origin has been cultivated in various parts of the country with re- 
markable results. 

The " Chinese yam," originally from China, but more recently from France, 
which promises to serve as an excellent substitute both for the sweet and 
common potato, has been sufficiently tested to prove its value in the Southern 
as well as in the Middle States. 

The " chufa" or " earth a mond," a small tuberous esculent, from the south 
of Spain, which has naturalized itself to our soil and climate, has proved pro- 
lific in its yield when grown in light sandy soils, as well as those which are 
rich, and bids fair to become a valuable forage crop for cattle and swine. 

At least thirty varieties of turnip seed, including the best cultivated in 
England, as well as on the continent in Europe, have been imported and dis- 
seminated in every State and Territory of the Union. The benefits are al- 
ready apparent. Similar experiments are now being instituted with all the 
leading varieties of grasses, cabbages and peas of Europe, the results of which 
will soon be made known. 

Among the forage crops it may be mentioned that the Chinese sugar cane 
(So gho Suche}, anew gramineous plant, of Chinese origin, but more recently 



AGRICULTURAL BUREAU. 675 

from France, has been introduced and has proved itself well adapted to the 
geographical range of Indian corn. The amount of fodder which it will pro- 
duce to the acre is estimated to be twenty-five tons ; the stalks of which are 
filled with a rich saccharine juice, the whole plant being devoured with avidi- 
ty by cattle, horses and swine. It is of easy cultivation, being similar to that 
of maize or broom corn ; and if the seeds are sown early in May in the 
Middle States, two crops of fodder can be raised from the same roots in the 
season — one about the first of August, and the other in October. 

Another valuable forage crop, the " German millet" {Mohn de Hongrie) 
has been introduced from France, which is very productive, of quick growth, 
resists drought, and flourishes well in dry soils. 

Among the cuttings of fruits trees and vines which have been introduced 
may be mentioned the "Prune d'Ageu," the "Prune Sainte Catharine," and 
the " Vigne Corinth." The two former have been grafted on the common 
plum in all the States north of Pennsylvania, and on the mountainous dis- 
tricts of that State, Maryland and Virginia. From the success which has 
attended this experiment, there is every reason to hope that there will soon 
be produced sufiicient dried prunes in those regions to supply the wants of 
the whole Union. Among the seeds of indigenous growth, which have been 
selected and distributed, in reference to their superior qualities, as well as 
to their probable adaptedness to certain par/illels and localities, and which 
have proved highly productive, there may be noted several varieties of 
Indian corn. 

Among these are the " Improved King Philip," or brown corn obtained 
from an island in a lake in New-Hampshire, which was extensively distribu- 
ted in all the States north of New-Jersey, and the mountainous districts of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. The result has been that it matured 
in less than ninety days from the time of planting, (about the middle of June,) 
and yielded, in one instance 134 bushels of shelled corn to the acre. An- 
other superior variety, from New-Mexico, the " New-Mexico White Flint," 
has been distributed, which appears to be adapted to the entire corn region 
south of Massachusetts. For ordinary use, either green or dry, its quality of 
excellence is unsurpassed. 

Among the products which it has been proposed to introduce from abroad, 
with a view of making special experiments, to be conducted by agricultural 
societies or by individuals in the several States and Territories of the Union, 
may be named considerable quantities of all the best varities of wheat and of 
other cereals of the globe. In addition to these there might be imported the 
seeds, roots or cuttings of all the principal economical plants and trees known, 
and experimented upon in a similar manner. 

In connection with the subject I would suggest the expediency of Congress 
making the annual appropriations for the purpose of agriculture sufficiently 
early in the season to order most of the seeds to be grown the approaching 
season, so that they may be received in time for distribution by the first of 
January or before. For it has been found by experience that when large 
orders for seeds have been made after the month of April or May, it was im- 
practicable for the seedsman to furnish an adequate supply without procur- 
ing them from various sources and this too often requiring several months. 
Hence most of the seeds would arrive too late for the southern and middle 
sections of the Union ; or if they were attempted to be kept over till the next 
fall they would be either devoured by vermin or insects or rendered worthless 
by age. 

Another feature connected with these appropriations which appears to need 



676 BUTTER MAKING. 



simplification or reform, is some more feasible and equitable plan of disposing- 
of these seeds than had been adopted heretofore. 

I would therefore, suggest that, instead of distributing of them promiscu- 
ously, through members of Congress, societies or individuals, who may apply 
directly for them at the Patent Office, suitable arrangements be made by said 
members for them to be sent, in bundles not exceeding four pounds weight, 
franked by the Commissioner of Patents, to the State, Territorial and county 
agricultural societies, or to the Secretaries of States or Territories or County 
Clerks, where there are no such societies, to be distributed by mail or other- 
wise, to proper individuals residing in each State, Territory or county, for 
trial or special experiment, with a request that each recipient shall report the 
result for the use of the Patent Office. 

To insure the free and speedy transport of each small packet of cuttings or 
seeds, an appropriate stamp might be placed upon it, bearing the imprint of 
the name of the member of Congress or Territorial delegate in whose district 
or territory any such society may be located, or in which any Secretary of 
State or Territory, or County Clerk may reside. 

The apportionment of the packets sent to the State societies might bear a 
stamp containing the name of the Senators of each of the States respectively. 
This change can only be effected by an amendment in the postal law, and 
necessarily would come before the Committee on Post Offices. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

D, J. Brown. 
Hon. David P. Holloway, Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, 

House Representatives, United States. 



BUTTER MAKING 



Editor Ohio Farmer. — Dear Sir : — In the 43d number of the current 
volume of the Ohio Farmer, I observe an inquiry from Mr. Alden, on the 
subject of making butter from sweet cream. He affirms that " Agricultural 
books and journals tell us that butter cannot be made from sweet cream." 
And then declares that the life-long practice of his mother contradicts the 
teaching of the " books" on this subject. There is, perhaps no branch of do- 
mestic economy the theory of which is so little understood by those who 
practice it as the art of butter making. The first truth to be learned on this 
subject is, that butter is not made by churning ! All the butter that can, by 
any process, be procured from cream or milk, exists in the milk when drawn 
from the cow, and the business of the dairy-man is to ascertain how it can 
be most perfectly separated from the other proximate elements of the milk 
with the least labor, and carry with it the fewest impurities, or substances 
other than butter. In newly-drawn milk the butter exists in the form of ex- 
ceedingly minute globules, each wrapped in a very delicate membrane of 
cheesy matter (casein) and floating promiscuously through the fluid. If the 
milk be suffered to stand at rest for a few hours, butter being lighter than 
milk, the globules find their place at the surface acccording to the laws of 
gravitation. If the new milk be heated to 180^ and suffered to cool, the 
globules, swelled by the heating, their envelopes thickened by accumulating 
cheesy matter from the milk, will rise to the surface more rapidly and form a 
heavier and thicker coat of cream which, on being churned will yield 



STONE FOR PAVING. 677 



more pounds not indeed of butter, but of a compound of butter, casein and. 
sugar of milk, which has a very rich flavor when fresh, but soon become ran- 
cid and unfit for the table. But to the question of Mr. Alden. Churning is 
but the breaking of these globules, that the particles of butter may cohere 
together and form a mass more or less solid. This at first would seem to be 
a mere mechanical action, but connected with it, or least accompanying it, 
are chemical changes, whose invariable presence leads us to infer that they 
constitute an essential part of the process. These are, first, an elevation of 
temperature, frequently amounting to 10", if the "butter comes" rapidly. 
And, second, the formation of lactic acid ; for if milk be churned as soon 
as drawn from the cow, and butter be separated, the butter-milk will be 
found to contain acid, though it may not taste very sour. Whether this lac- 
tic acid is a cause or an effect of the separation of the butter, has not been 
satisfactorily settled, but that it is always present after butter has been churned, 
is a well ascertained fact, and this fact, all scientific books on the dairy assert. 
Johnson, Ballaatyne, Ayton and Traill all teach that " butter made from sweet 
cream is less in quantity, and require more labor to produce it, and is there- 
fore unprofitable." In this they admit that it may be thus made. But that 
sugar of milk is converted into a lactic acid, when butter is churned, is a 
well ascertained fact. — Ohio Farmer. 



A NEW STONE FOR STREET PAVING. 

A GOOD article for pavement is one of the most pressing demands now 
madeujion the government of this and other commercial cities. The safety 
of persons and animals, and economy, in a matter involving so much expense, 
and where so much is at hazard which money cannot buy, cannot fail to 
engage the attention of all conversant with such matters. Various inventions 
have been made and tried, with various success. New projects are constantly 
started, having more or less claim to consideration. Among other claim- 
ants, we invite attention to a new stone, not hitherto used for this purpose, 
found in large quantities, we are informed, in Dutchess County. Our atten- 
tion has been called to it by Messrs. Bell & McEntee, of Kingston, proprietors 
of the ledge, we believe. It is a peculiar style of granite, nearly white from 
the abundance of its quartz, in a mountain, forming one of the ranges of the 
Catskills, and is known there, as the Esopus stone. It is used extensively for 
mill stones, and while it is difficult to reduce it to powder it is still more 
difficult and apparently impossible to reduce it to a polish. Hence it pro- 
raises, to be both durable and safe for horses. 

These stones are taken frequently on high ascents, and the roads leading 
to them are in many places bedded with this stone ; forming inclined plains 
of several rods each, in length. In drawing heavy loads over these beds it 
lias been a subject of remark among the quarryraen that a " horse would 
pull his shoes off" sooner than slip." Heavy loads have been daily drawn 
over these nature-made pavements, and man has had only to observe, to 
determine what should be done in a city so sadly situated in regard to its- 
streets as New- York. 



678 



CAli BiiEAK BLOCKS. 



BARREL MAKING MACHINE. 

We had an opportunity, a few days since, of witnessing the operation of 
an ingenious machine owned by the Livermore Manufacturing Company, for 
making barrels and tight casks. The machine is in operation at Alcott's 
Mills, Broadway, Cambridgeport, Mass., and is worth a visit from those in- 
terested in such matters. The strips of wood which are to be made into 
staves having been first heated, are passed through a machine containing nu- 
merous rollers, under which they receive the requisite hend, both lengthwise 
and traversely. They are then put into another machine, where by an inge- 
nious movement they are cut at both ends, grooved, and planed at the sides, 
so that they are turned out perfect staves of uniform length and width, all 
being precisely of the same shape, in all respects. Sixteen of these make a 
barrel. There is a separate machine for cutting out the round heads of the 
barrels. The machine which bends the staves turns out enough for 600 
barrels in a day. Four of the other machines, in operation at the same 
time keep pace with it in completing them. The work is expeditiously and 
easily done. It is claimed that the barrels thus made are fifteen per cent, 
stronger than those made by hand ; and the staves being precisely uniform, 
the business of putting them together becomes very simple. The stock is sea- 
soned before passing throuj;h the machine, and the barrels are thus made 
perfectly tight and not liable to shrinkage. The apparatus deserves the at- 
tention of dealers in flour and provisions. The number of barrels used in 
this country is immense — it is stated that not less than fifty million in a year 
are required for the ordinary demands of business. 

Under these circumstances, a machine which abridges the labor of manu- 
facture and improves the quality of the article, becomes especially valuable. 
— Exchange. 



PAIGE'S ADJUSTABLE CAR BREAK BLOCKS. 

J=zx 




The frequent pressure of the break upon the periphery of the wheel neces- 
sarily produces a rapid waste of material, whether it be iron, or wood, and 
leather. Each of those substances have been used, and perhaps each has some 
advantage over the others. But the cheapest material, of course, is wood, and 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 679 



if the block can be so arranged as to allow of frequent change at a trifling 
cost, then the great object in view is, so far, already realized. But if any 
plan can be devised by which a partial adjustment of the same material can 
be secured, the material itself being also cheap, then there would seem to 
be no further room for improvement, for, as already stated, wear is inevitable. 
So far as we can percieve, this has been done by the inventor named at our 
caption. A wooden block is brought into contact with the surface of the 
wheel, and is so arranged, in a socket, that it can be adjusted, by the rise of 
screws, or to any desired position. As it is worn away by friction, the block 
is placed in the socket nearer to the wheel, until its material is almost 
entirely destroyed. 

Two stout plates of iron confine a hard plank of suitable width, which may 
be adjusted by bolts, at any desired distance from the wheel. All that is neces- 
sary to effect this change is to loosen the bolts, driving the block forward in 
the socket and then re-tighten it by turning the screws or bolts. 

This block has been in use on the Hudson River Railroad about six months, 
and but three out of the eight blocks have required any change, and these 
three required attention only because the spring which forces the block from 
the wheel was too weak. Other railroads have the same block in use as an 
experiment, and with all it is highly successful. The whole arrangement is 
readily seen by a glance at the annexed engraving. 

The beams now in use may be employed in attaching these blocks with 
very little expense, no change being necessary except the fitting of the ends 
to the socket. The agent for this patent is C. Diosmore, of the " Railroad 
Guide." 



English Patents. 

An improved construction of Gun-lock. By John Coney, of Newhall, 
Hill, Birmingham. — The object of this invention is to simplify the construc- 
tion of gun and pistol locks, and also, at the same time, to provide a simple 
means for preventing the premature discharge of fire-arms. In carrying 
out his invention the patentee connects the seer with the hammer, so that 
they shall move together under the action of the main spring. Ttie seer is 
provided with retaining notches for half-cock and whoie-cock, which notches 
catch against the V-edge of a bearing pin projecting from the inner face 
of the lock-plate, and thereby hold the hammer at the required position. 
The trigger is so arranged with respect to the seer (upon which it acts to 
discharge the piece,) that when the lock is at half-cock, the trigger will be 
out of reach of the seer, and therefore, if accidentally pulled, will not act 
upon the lock. This advantage is obtained by reason of the seer, through 
its direct connection with the hammer, being caused to travel with the 
hammer. 

Improvements in Marine Steam-Engines. By James Biden, of Gos- 
port, Hampshire. — This invention consists in feeding the boilers of marine 
steam-engines with fresh water, obtained by the condensation of steam after 
having been employed in the steam-cyliuders. The manner of carrying 
this object into effect is as follows : — Pipes leading from the cylinders are 



680 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



passed into the water outside of the ship at one side thereof, and carried 
round from the stern to the other side of the ship. They then enter and 
open into a reservoir in the hold or other convenient part of the ship. This 
reservoir is formed with two compartments, one above the other, and the 
pipes communicate with the lower one thereof. The upper compartment is 
kept filled with fresh water, and it communicates with the lower compart- 
ment by means of a ball-cock or fioat-valve ; and the lower compartment 
communicates, by means of a pipe, with the atmosphere, to allow any un- 
condensed steam to blow off. As the steam from the cylinders passes througli 
the before-mentioned pipes it becomes condensed, and the fresh water, pro- 
duced by such condensation, will flow into the lower compartment of the re- 
servoir, whence it may be pumped, as required, into the boilers. A pipe 
also leads from the steam-chest to the condensing-pipes, so that when tho 
engine is not at work, any excess of steam may be condensed and conducte<i 
into the reservoir. "When the w^ater in the lower compartment of the reser- 
voir is reduced below its determined level, the ball-cock or float-valve wi:l 
fall and open the communication with the upper compartment, so as to allow 
water to flow from that into the lower compartment, and thus keep the sup- 
ply therein at its appropriate height. The condensation of tiie steam may 
also be eftected by allowing the sea-water to enter into the ship, and to flow 
through a suitable channel v>'ithin the hull ; through which channel the 
pipes for conducting the steam from the cylinders are made to pass. 

A New Metallic Alloy. By Frangois Joseph Anger, of Stamford 
street. — In conjunction with the metals ordinarily used in the manufacture 
of copper alloys the patentee mixes certain compound substances which are not 
in the metallic state, but which, during the process of the manufacture, become 
elementary, and paitly enter into the composition of the alloy, and impart to 
it properties which it otherwise would not possess — being remarkable in its 
resemblance to gold, not changing color by use, — and being dense, malleable, 
ductile, homogeneous, and sonorous, to a marked degree. 

The following is the process : — In a crucible the patentee fir.4 melts 100 
parts of good copper, and, while in a perfect state of fusion, he adds 17 parts 
of zinc, 6 parts of magnesite, or substance of a like nature, though perhaps 
difltering in name, 3.60 parts of ammonia or salt of ammonia, 1.80 parts of 
quick-lime or other calx, and 9 parts of crude tartar. The crucible is then 
covered, and the whole allowed to come to a complete state of fusion ; when 
it may be poured into moulds of the necessary shape, or into ingots or bars, 
to be afterwards shaped for articles of use. If the metal be required of a 
more tenacious character, tin may be substituted for zinc. According to the 
ductility or shade of color of the metal which may be required, the propor- 
tions of zinc, tin, magnesite, ammonia or salts, quick-lime, and crude tartar, 
are varied. 

An Improvement in Dyeing Cloth. By Thomas Richardson, of Leeds. 
— The main object of this invention is to produce a permanent black dye in 
woolen cloths, and at a less cost than the best black dyes are at };resent ob- 
tained. For this purpose the patentee mordants the cloth with bichromate 
of potash, and then submits them to a bath composed of sulphate of indigo 
and other suitable dyeing materials. 

In order to prepare, say, six ends of cloth, he pours into a vesssel of the 
ordinary kind used by dyers, any requisite quantity of water, and adds there- 
to four pounds of bichromate of potash, three pounds of r^d argol (bitai- 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 681 



trate of potash.) and six pounds of commercial sulphuric acid. The contents 
of the Vessel are heated to the boiling point, and the woolen cloth is placed 
therein and boiled for one hour, it being turned over by means of a winch to 
keep it even. The cloth is removed from the vessel, and hung over a horse- 
tree to drain away the superfluous liquor ; after which the cloth is ready to 
undergo the dyeing operation. 

The dyeing liquor is prepared in a second vessel, similar to that used in 
the first operation. For this purpose the vessel is filled with water ; and one 
hundred pounds of logwood, four pounds of camwood or other red wood, 
two pounds of fustic, four pounds of the sulphate of indigo, and three 
pounds of sulphuric acid are added thereto. This mixture is heated to 
about 200° Fahr. and the cloth is then entered ; the liquor being kept to 
boiling point for about one hour and twenty minutes. During this time 
(which will in general suffice for completing the dyeing operation) the cloth 
is turned over frequently by means of a winch to insure the thorough expo- 
sure of the whole body of the fabric to the dyeing liquor. It is next re- 
moved from the dye vessel, and rinsed in a washing machine along with a 
little fuller's earth. With a smaller proportion of bichromate of potash and 
logwood than is given above, a blue color, resembling indigo dyed blue, may 
be obtained. When a full black is required, it will be found an improvement 
to use a little acetate of lead. 

Improvement in Pbeparing Pulp or Pulpous Material, applicable 
IN' the Manufacture of Paper, and for other useful purposes. Bt 
Francis Burke, of Woodlands, Montserrat, British West Indies. — This in- 
vention consists of a mode of reducing vegetable substances to a state of pulpj. 
applicable to the manufacture of paper and for other useful purposes. 

The object of the inventor is to convert the fibres of vegetables into pulp, 
without having recourse to the process of separating the fibrous matter from 
the other component parts of vegetable substances ; and to effect this object, 
he adopts means for simultaneously or in one process reducing the fibres to 
pulp, and separating the pulp from the gummy and other vegetable matters 
with which they are combined. The vegetable substances to which the pro- 
cess is applicable are the plants known as the plantain, the banana, and the 
aloe, and any other vegetable substances containing fibrous matters from 
which the other matters contained therein can be separated by water, whilit 
undergoing the operation hereinafter described. 

Wheu necessary, the vegetable maiter to be operated upon is first cut, 
crushed, or bruised, for the purpose of reducing it to such a state of division 
as will permitof its introduction into a mill to be ground. If the vegetable be 
plantain, banana, aloe, or any other similar vegetable substance in a green 
state, it is preferred to crush it between rollers, so as to deprive it of its fluid 
matters. 

To reduce the vegetable matters to pieces of a convenient size, a chafl- 
cutter, saw, or other convenient means may be used, according to the nature 
of the material. The material thus prepared, is ground in a mill made of a 
pair of plain stones, similar to those of an ordinary flour mill, with the eye of 
the runner or upper stone somewhat enlarged, so as to facilitate the admis- 
sion of the material. 

Either the upper or the lower stone of the mill may be made the runner ; 
but it is most convenient to have the upper stone the runner, and motion 
may be given to it in the same way as in ordinary flour mills. The material 
to be ground is fed simultaneously with a stream of water into the eye of the 



632 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



mill ; the supply of water being sufficient to convert the vegetable material 
when round into a flaid pulp. 

The water used may be either hot or cold, but cold water is preferred and 
when necessary, any chemical agent may be dissolved in it to facilitate the 
separation of the fibres from the other vegetable matters with which they may 
be mixed. The vegetable fibres, as they are ground to a pulp, are thrown 
out at the periphery of the stones, round which a trough is placed to receive 
it ; from whence it runs into suitable sieves, by which the fibrous pulp is se- 
parated from the water, which passes away carrying with it the soluble mat- 
ters, and also many minutely-divided insoluble or non-fibrous matters which 
may have been separated from the fibrous matters by the action of the mill. 

The pulp of vegetable fibres, thus prepared, may, if desired, be bleached 
and otherwise treated in like manner as pulp prepared or obtained in any other 
manner, and may also be used or applied in the manufacture of paper, mill- 
board, or papier mache, or for any other purpose for which it may be ap- 
plicable The pulp, thus prepared, may be compressed into forms or masses, 
so as to be stored for use, or more conveniently transported to a place of 
manufacture. 

Improvements in Apparatus for Copying Letters and other Docu- 
ments. By Alexander Robert Terry, of Adelphi-Terrace. — The object of 
this invention is to combine apparatus with the cover of a book (composed 
of suitable paper) in such manner that the act of closing the book shall be 
the means of copying a letter or letters or other written documents inserted 
between the leaves of such book. For this purpose, a metal frame is applied 
to each lid of a book, and when the book is closed they are connected to- 
gether by links, which are attached to one frame, and hook on to projections 
on the frame of the other lid. By this means the two frames are drawn 
thightly together, and the papers between the covers is compressed so as to 
yield copies as efi'ectually as when a copying-press is used. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Tyres for Wheels. By 
Herbert Mountford, of Derby — This invention has for its object improve- 
ments in the manufacture of the tyres for wheels, in order to adapt the wheels 
to run at different times on hard land and soft, as circumstances may require. 
For this purpose the tyre for the wheel is rolled, on its exterior surface, 
with a projecting longitudinal rib, which may be square or rounding; so that 
when the wheel is on a hard road, or surface, the tyre will run on its longi- 
tudinal rib ; but when on soft land, the rib will penetrate, and the whole 
breadth of the tyre will rest on the land. 

The various forms of tyre, according to this invention, are made by grooved 
rollers, employing wrought-iron or steel, or wrought-iron and steel combined, 
or an any other metal. 

Improvement in the Construction of Harrows. By Edward Ham- 
mond Bentall, of Heybridge. — This invention relates to the fixiog of the 
tines or teeth of harrows in their sockets in such a manner that they will be 
prevented from working loose. To this end, square or rectangular socket 
holes are punched in the beams to receive the squared or angular part of the 
stem of the harrow-teeth or tines : and through the cross bars round holes 
are punched, through which the threaded end of the tine projects to receive 
a nut, as usual. When the nut is screwed up tight, it is secured in its place 
by riveting or otherwise securing to the bar an abutting piece, which will 



ENGLISH PATENTS. 683 



fit close against one side of the nut, and thereby prevent it from turning on 
the tine ; and the tine itself being prevented from turning on its centre by 
fitting into the square or rectangular socket in the beam. 

Improvements in the Manufactare of Ordnance Shells and other 
Hollow Vessels. By Richard Peters, of Union-street Borough. — This 
invention consists in the employment of a hollow mould, made in two or 
more parts, into which the metal or other material to be moulded, is poured 
through a pipe, which descends about midway into the mould, — and impart- 
ing to the mould, after a sufficient amount of metal or other substance in a 
fluid or a semi-fluid state has been poured therein, two centrifugal motions at 
right angles or nearly so to each other. The centrifugal force acting in all 
directions, distributes the contents of the mould evenly all round the inside 
thereof; while the internal pipe acts as a vent for the escape of air and gases, 
and prevents any considerable quantity of material (if any) being forced there- 
from. On stopping the two motions and opening the mould, the hollow 
article will drop out perfectly formed. When making a shell, a ferrule, 
threaded on \U inside, is set round the internal pipe and being incorporated 
with the shell, it will be ready for receiving a fuse threaded with a correspond- 
ing screw. 

Improvement in the Manufacture of Gun-Barels, Pipes, and Tubes. 
Bv Samuel Pearson, of Woolwich. — This invention refers to the manufac- 
ture of twisted barrels and pipes. According to the method of forming such 
barrels as now practised, a strip of metal is wound spirally round a centre, 
— the edges of the strip forming butt or scarf joints, which are found in prac- 
tice to be faulty. Now this improvement consists in forming barrels and 
pipes of two V-shaped strips of metal, which are wound spirally round a cen- 
tre ; the base of the V in one strip being placed nearest the centre, while the 
apex or narrow part of the upper V-shaped pitce is placed downward, or 
nearest the centre ; whereby the spaces between the first strip will be filled 
up, and after being rolled and welded in the usual manner, or otherwise 
finished, will form a perfectly tight and solid barrel or pipe. 

Improvement in Coating Wrought Iron. By Edmund Morewood, and 
George Rogers, of Enfield. — In the manufacture of japanners' ware, 
painted work, and for a great variety of purposes, very large quantities of 
tin plate, and sheets of iron coated with alloys of tin, or zinc, are used, and 
in coating these and also other forms of wrought-iron. it has been usual to dip 
the iron into the melted coating metal, by which the iron has become coated 
with a larger proportion of tin or of its alloy, or of zinc, than is required for 
japanned ware, painted work, and a great variety of other purposes. Hence, 
the cost is unnecessarily increased, and the iron, by being dipped into the 
melted metal, is more or less injured in its toughness, and is rendered less 
flat and even on its surfaces. In some cases it has been the practice previous 
to dipping sheets, plates, and other forms of wrought iron into melted tin or 
zinc — to deposit upon them a thin coating of tin from a solution of that 
metal ; and such deposited coating of tin on wrought-iron, the patentees have 
found sufficient when protected, as herein described, for japan-ware, painted 
work, and for a variety of other purposes. 

The present invention consists in giving to sheets, plates, or other forms 
of wrought-iron, a coating of tin from a solution (omitting the dipping in 
melted tin or its alloy, or zinc), and in afterwards applying a non metallic 



684 ENGLISH PATENTS. 



coating or coatings of a material or compound which is repellent of moisture, 
and which may be used at so low a temperature as to leave the iron as 
nearly as possible with its original form and toughness. For this coating 
the patentees prefer a resinous or such like matter as will not interfere with 
but rather aid the process of soldering the iron, when it may be desired to 
do so. 

Sheets, plates, or other forms of wrought-iron having been coated by a de- 
position of tin from a solution (which, separately, is not claimed) are to be 
washed with water (for which purpose, a stream of running water, either hot 
or cold, should be used), in order to free them as much as possible from the 
solution of tin or other matter which they may have taken up. 

When well washed, the pieces of wrought-iron are coated with varnish or 
japan. The preparation preferred, is about two-thirds rosin, and one-third 
grease or tallow — keeping the temperature of the mixture at about 240^^ 
Fahr., or at such a point, that on withdrawing the metal from the hot mix- 
ture, the moisture will have been boiled oti' from the surfcices, and a thin 
coating of the mixture will be found to cover the metal. This thin coating 
is reduced by rubbing the metal in hot bran or sawdust, placed in a pan, 
and kept heated with boiling water underneath, or by other suitable arrange- 
ms^nts. Or the inventors dry the soluiion tinned articles in an oven or over 
a coke fire) or otherwise, immediately after washing, and then, instead of 
coating them by dipping into the before-mentioned melted mixture of rosin 
and grease, they dip them int ) a solution of rosin and tallow dissolved in 
coal of naphtha in the proportion of two ounces of tallow and ten ounces of 
rosin to one gallon of coal naphtha, at the ordinary temperature of the at- 
mosphere; and after allowing the aitic'es to stand in order to dry, they im- 
merse them in the solution of shellac and rosin, hereafter mentioned. The 
sheets, plates, or other articles coated with rosin and tallow are dipped into 
a solution of shellac, or shellac and rosin, in the proportion of three-fourths 
shellac to one-fourth rosin, dissolved in wood naphtha or alchohol, say about 
three quarters of a pound of shellac and one quarter of a pound of rosin in 
two gallons of wood spirit or strong alcohol, of fifty to sixty degrees above 
English proof; by which means, a coating which will be moi.^^ture repellent, 
is obtained. By thus coating sheets, plates, and other forms of wrought-iron 
with tin from a solution, and afterwards protecting or preserving the same 
by a moisture-repellent coating or coalings of the above-described character, 
a manufacture is produced highly usesul for a great variety of purposes — the 
sheets and plates, nearly, if not entirely, retaining their flatness and the iron 
its toughness and the sheets or plates admit of being bended or shaped; 
and such coated metal is valuable for a great variety of useful purposes. 

Improvements in Dveing or Coloring the Hides and Skins op Ani- 
mals. By Isaie Lippman, of Rue Gei ftVoy Saint Hiliare, Paris. — This inven- 
tion consists, in the first place, in submitting hides and skins to the process of 
dyeing before they are tanned. According to the plans now in use the skins 
or hides are usually tanned first, and then dyed or colored afterwards ; but 
by reversing these processes, tlic patentee has discovered that considerable 
advantages are obtained. By dyeing the skins before tanning them, processes 
and materials which are cheaper and better than those usually adopted, may 
be employed ; a more permanent color will also be obtained than when the 
skins are subjected to the ordinary process, and will even resist the action of 
acids. There is also considerable economy in the labor incidental to the pro- 



ROUTE TO riTTSBURGH. 6S5 



cess, and the skins or hides, when prepared according to the improved plnn, 
are more supple and softer than when the ordinary process is employed. _ 

The second improvement relates to a mode of dyeing the skins or hidos 
so as to present a variegated or marbled appearance. This is effected by 
simply crumpling the skins up, and tightly securing them in this state while 
they are submitted to the action of the coloring matter in the dyeing vat. 
The result will be, that the coloring matter wdl only penetrate and act on 
certain parts of the skins, leaving certain other parts unaffected, and upon 
unfolding the skin it will present a mottled appearance. This operation may 
be repeated two, three, or more times in different colored dyes, the skins 
being of course unfolded and crumpled up again previous to every opera- 
tion, so that fresh surfaces may be presented. This mode of mottling or orna- 
menting skins may be employed either before or after the skins or hides have 
been tanned. 

The third head of the invention relates to a method of imparling a metal- 
lic lustre to skins or hides. For this purpose, the skins are submitted to the 
action of certain dyeing materials which have the property of communicating 
this appearance thereto. The dye-wood which is found most suitable for this 
purpose is logwood (known in France as bois de camjoeche ;) but other va- 
rieties of dye-woods may be emp