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Full text of "Plutarch's Lives"

PLUTAECH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
II 



THEMISTOCLES AND CAMILLUS 

ARISTIDES AND CATO MAJOR 

CIMON AND LUCULLUS 




LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MOMLIX 



First Printed, March 1914 
Reprinted, 1928, 1948, 1959 




rsi 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PADS 

PREFATORY NOTE vii 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . ix 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES .... X 

THEMISTOCLES 1 

CAMILLUS ... 93 

ARISTIDES 209 

MARCUS CATO 301 

COMPARISON OF ARISTIDES AND CATO 384 

CIMON 403 

LUCULLUS 469 

COMPARISON OF CIMON AND LUCULLUS 610 

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 623 



PREFATORY NOTE 

As in the first volume of this series, agreement 
between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) and 
Bekker (Tauclmitz, 1855-1857) texts of the Parallel 
Lives has been taken as the basis for the text. 
Any preference of one to the other where they 
differ, and any departure from both, have been in- 
dicated. The more important ameliorations of the 
text which have been secured by collations of Codex 
Parisinus 1676 (F*) and Codex Seitenstettensis (S), 
have been introduced. The relative importance of 
these MSS. is explained in the Introduction to the 
first volume. No attempt has been made, naturally, 
to furnish either a diplomatic text or a full critical 
apparatus. The reading which follows the colon in 
the critical notes is that of the Teubner Sintenis, 
and also, unless otherwise stated in the note, of 
the Tauchnitz Bekker. 

Among editions of special Lives included in this 
volume should be noted that of Fuhr, Themistokles 
und Perikks, Berlin, 1880, in the Haupt-Sauppe 

vii 



PREFATORY NOTE 

series of annotated texts ; that of Blass, Themistokles 
und Perikles, Leipzig, 1883, in the Teubner series of 
annotated texts ; and the same editor's Aristides und 
Cato, Leipzig, 1898, in the same series. All these 
editions bring F* and S into rightful prominence as 
a basis for the text. This has been done also by 
Holden, in his edition of the Tkemistocles (Macmillan, 
1892). 

The translations of the Tkemistocles , Aristides, and 
Cimon have already appeared in my " Plutarch's 
Themistocles and Aristides" (New York, 1901), and 
'^Plutarch's Cimon and Pericles " (New York, 1910), 
and are reproduced here (with only slight changes) 
by the generous consent of the publishers, the 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The translations 
of the Camillus, Cato, and Lucullus appear here for 
the first time. All the standard translations of the 
Lives have been carefully compared aud utilised, 
including that of the Lucullus by Professor Long. 



B. PERRIN. 



New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
February, 1914. 



vm 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



Volume I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

Volume II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillus. 



I 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 
Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and LucuUus. 
Comparison. 

Volume III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

im us. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

Volume IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 

nus. 
Comparison. 
(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

Volume V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 
Comparison. 
(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 
Comparison. 



Volume VI. 
(22) Dion and Brutus. 
Comparison. 
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 
Paulus. 
Comparison. 

Volume VII. 
(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 
Comparison. 

(17) Alexander and Julius 

Caesar. 

Volume VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 
Comparison. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the 

Younger. 



Volume IX. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. 



Flam- 



Volume X. 
(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 
Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus. 
Comparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and 
ininus. 
Comparison. 

Volume XL 

(24) Aratus. 
(23) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



IX 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 

(13) Cimon and LucuUus. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
(Jo) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(23) Artaxerxes. 

(24) Aratus. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



THEMISTOCLES 



eEMI2T0KAH2 

I. Se/JLiaTOK\€L Be rh, jjiev ck y€vov<; afxavporepa 
TTpo^ Bo^av virrjp'^e' irarpo^ yap r)v N€0/€Xeov<; ov 
T(bv dyav i7n(j)avcov *A67]V7J(ti,, ^peappiov rSyv 
Bijficov CK T?}? AeovTiBo^i (j)v\rj<;, v66o^ Be 7r/909 
fi7}Tp6<;, ft)? XeyovaLV 

^A^poTovov ^pijicra-a yvvrj yevo<;' aXXa reKea-Oai 
Tov fieyav "^Xkrjaiv (prj/jLi ©efMiaroKkea, 

2 ^avia^i fievToc rrjv jxr^jepa tov Se/jLt(TTOK\eov(; ov 
%paTTav, aXKa Kaplvrjv, ovB* ^A^porovov ovo/na, Parfa 
aXX ^vrepirriv avaypd<f>€i, 'Nedv6r]<i Be /cal a. i62^4,'^p. 
irokiv avrfj t^9 K.apla<i 'AXtKapvao-aov irpoa-- 112 
TiOrjai,. 

Ato Kol Tojv voOcov et9 K.vv6o-apye<; awreXovv- 
Tcov (tovto S' ia-rlv e^co irvXcav yvfjuvdaiov 'H^a- 
KXeov^y eirel fcaKelvo^ ovk rjv yvrjcno^ ev 6eoU, dXX* 
iveixero voOeia Bia rrjv /uLrjrepa Ovrjrrjv ovaav) 
eireide TLva<; 6 Sefjbi,(TTOKXrj<; tmv ev yeyovoTcov 
veavlaKcov /cara^aLvovra^ et? to Kwoo-apye^; 
dXelcpea-dat fjier avrov. Kal tovtov yevofiepov 



THEMISTOCLES 



I. In the case of Themistocles/ his family was too 
obscure to further his reputation. His father was 
Neocles, — no very conspicuous man at Athens, — a 
Phrearrhian by deme, of the tribe Leontis ; and 
on his mother's side he was an alien, as her epitaph 
testifies : — 

" Abrotonon was I, and a woman of Thrace, yet 1 
brought forth 
That great light of the Greeks, — know ! 'twas 
Themistocles." ^ 

Phanias, however, writes that the mother of 
Themistocles was not a Thracian, but a Carian 
woman, and that her name was not Abrotonon, but 
Euterpe. And Neanthes actually adds the name of 
her city in Caria, — Halicarnassus. 

It was for the reason given, and because the aliens 
were wont to frequent Cynosarges, — this is a place 
outside the gates, a gymnasium of Heracles ; for he 
too was not a legitimate god, but had something 
alien about him, from the fact that his mother was a 
mortal, — that Themistocles sought to induce certain 
well-born youths to go out to Cynosarges and exercise 
with him ; and by his success in this bit of cunning 

^ It is probable that one or more introductory paragraphs 
of this biography have been lost. ^ Athenaeus, xiii. p. 576. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

BoKct iravovp^(o<i tov tcov poOcov kclI yvrjaioDV 
ScopicTfjLov aveXelv. 
3 "Ori fJLevTOi tov Avko/jllBcop yivov<; fierel')(€ 
Br}\6^ icTTL' TO yap ^\vrj(Ti TeXeaTijpiov, oirep 
Tjv AvKOfJbthcov Kocvov, ifiirprjaOev vtto tS)V pap- 
^dpcov avTO<i iirea-Kevaare kclI ypa<j)al<i iKoa/njcrev, 
ft)9 ^i,/j,(oviBr)<; larop'qKev. 

II. "Ert he 7ra'l<; ayv ofJLoXoyelTat (jiopd^; fieaTcx; 
elvai, KoX rfj /lev (pvaet (TvveTo^;, Trj Be irpoatpecei 
/jLeyaXoTTpdy/jLcov koI ttoXltlko^. ev yap rat? 
aveaea-i Kal crxoXat'; diro rwv fiadrjjjLaTcov yivb- 
fi€VO<; ovK eiraL^ev ov8^ ippaOvfiet, KaOdirep oi 
XoiTTOt TratSe?, oX>C evpuo-zceTO Xoyov; tlvcl^ fie\e- 
TMV Kal avvTaTTOfievo^ irpo^ kavrov. rfq-av S' ol 
Xoyoi KaTTiyopia tlvo^ rj cruvrjyopia t&v TralScov. 

2 odev eldyOei Xeyeiv tt/jo? avrov 6 ScBdafcaXof; to? 
** OvSev ea-rj, iral, av fiiKpov, dXXa jxeya 7rdvT(o<i 
ayadov rj KaKovT eirel Kal tmv TratBeva-ecov Ta<; 
fxev rjdoiTOiov^; rj 7r/)o? yBovijv Tiva Kal X^^P^^ 
eXevOepLov o-7rovSa^o/ieva<; oKvripo)^ Kal dirpo- 
6vfjL(i)<; e^e/jbdv9ave, t&v 8e eh Gvveaiv rj irpd^iv 
Xeyofiivcov Sr)Xo9 yv VTrepopcov ^ nrap' rfkLKiav, w? 

TTj <^VaeL TTKTTeVWV. 

3 "Odev vdTepov ev Tal<; eXevOeploL<; Kal d(TT€iai<; 
Xeyopievat^ BiaTptfiai<; vtto t&v TreTratBevadai 
BoKovvTcov ')(Xeva^6fievo^ rjvayKd^ero (\>opTLK(o- 
T€pov ajJbvveaOaiy Xeyatv, otl Xvpav fiev dpfioa-a- 

1 vvepopwv Sintenis- with the best MSS.; Sintenis^ and 
Bekker have ovx vvepopwVf showed attentiveness. 

4 



THEMISTOCLES, i. 2-11. 3 

he is thought to have removed the distinction 
between ahens and legitimates. 

However, it is clear that he was connected with 
the family of the Lycomidae, for he caused the 
chapel shrine at Phlya, which belonged to the 
Lycomidae, and had been burned by the Barba- 
rians, to be restored at his own costs and adorned 
with frescoes, as Simonides has stated. 

II. However lowly his birth, it is agreed on all 
hands that while yet a boy he was impetuous, by 
nature sagacious, and by election enterprising and 
prone to public life. In times of relaxation and 
leisure, when absolved from his lessons, he would 
not play nor indulge his ease, as the rest of the boys 
did, but would be found composing and rehearsing 
to himself mock speeches. These speeches would be 
in accusation or defence of some boy or other. 
Wherefore his teacher was wont to say to him : "My 
boy, thou wilt be nothing insignificant, but some- 
thing great, of a surety, either for good or evil." 
Moreover, when he was set to study, those branches 
which aimed at the formation of character, or 
ministered to any gratification or grace of a liberal 
sort, he would learn reluctantly and sluggishly; and 
to all that was said for the cultivation of sagacity or 
practical efficiency, he clearly showed an indifference 
far beyond his years, as though he put his confidence 
in his natural gifts alone. 

Thus it came about that, in after life, at entertain- 
ments of a so-called liberal and polite nature, when 
he was taunted by men of reputed culture, he was 
forced to defend himself rather rudely, saying that 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<r6ai KOI ixeTa^etpicraaOai yjraXrrjpiov ovk irrri- 
ararai, iroXiv he fJiiKpav koX dSo^ov irapaXaffcbv 
evSo^ov Kol jjLeyd\r)v airepydaaaOat. Kalrov 
Xr7jai/jL^poTO<i ^Ava^ayopov re SiaKovcrac rov 
%€fjLiaTOK\.ea cprjal koI irepl ^eXtaaop (Tirovhaaai 
rov (pvaiKov, ovk ev rwv ^(^povcDV aTrrojuLevo^;' 
UepL/cXel yap, o? ttoXu ve(OTepo<; tjv Sefitaro- 
KKeov<^, MeXto"cro9 fiev avTearparriyei irdXiopKovvTi 
XaiJLiov<;, ^Ava^ayopa^ Be (TwhieTpL^e. 

4 yiaWov ovv dv Tt9 Trpoaexot toI<; Mvr]ai,(f>i\ov 
rov %efii(TTOK\ea rov ^peappiov ^rjXojrrjv yeve- 
aOai Xeyovcriv, ovre p7]ropo<; ovro^ ovre rSiV 
(^vcriKOdv KXijOevrayv ^ikoao^cov, aXXa rrjv rore ^ 
KaXovfjiivrjv (T0(f>iaVy ovaav Be Betvorrjra ttoXl- 
rcKTjv Kol Bpaarrjptov avveaiVy eTririjBev/jia ire- 
TTOirjfievov kol BLaorco^ovro^ wcnrep aipeacv €k 
BiaBo')(^r]^ aTTo 'Z6X(ovo<;- rjv ol fierd ravra 
BiKavi/caL<; fjbi^avre^ rexvai^; koI fjuerayayovre^ 
CLTTO ro)v TTpd^ecov rrjv daKrja-LV eirl rov^ \6yov<;, 
cro(t)iaral 7rpo(rr}yopev0r]aav. rovra fiev ovv rjBr] 
irdXirevofjbevo^ eTrXijaLa^ev. 

5 'Ei^ Be ral^ rrp(i>rai<; rr}<; veorijro^; opfxah dvco- 
fjLaXo^ rjv KOI dardOfjiriro^, are rfj ^uaei KaO^ 
aurrjv ')(p(t)/jLevo<i dvev \6yov Kal TracBeia^ eir 
d/jL^orepa fxeydXa^ rroiov^evr) jjuera^oXa^ rcov 
eiTLrTjBevfxdrcov kol jroWdKi^ e^icrrafievr} irpog ro 
y^elpov, o)? varepov avro^; wfioXoyet,, Kal rov<; 
rpaxvrdrov<; ttcoXou? dpLa-rov^ tTTTroL'? yuveadai 
(j)d(TK(ov, orav ^9 irpoaijKei. rvywai iraiBela^ Kal 

6 Karaprvaeco^. a Be rovrfov i^aprcoatv evioi 
BLrjyrjjjiara rrXdrrovre^;, diroKripv^iv fxev viro rov 

^ r)]v T6Ti Fuhr and Blass with S : tV. 
6 



THEMISTOCLES, ii. 3-6 

tuning the Ijrre and handling the harp were no accom- 
plishments of his, but rather taking in hand a city that 
was small and inglorious and making it glorious and 
great. And yet Stesimbrotus says that Themistocles 
was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and a disciple of Melissus 
the physicist ; but he is careless in his chronology. 
It was Pericles, a much younger man than 
Themistocles, whom Melissus opposed at the siege 
of Samos,^ and with whom Anaxagoras was intimate. 

Rather, then, might one side with those who say 
tliat Themistocles was a disciple of Mnesiphilus the 
Phrearrhian, a man who was neither a rhetorician 
nor one of the so-called physical philosophers, but a 
cultivator of what was then called "sophia " or tvisdom, 
although it was really nothing more than cleverness 
in politics and practical sagacity. Mnesiphilus 
received this '' sophia," and handed it down, as though 
it were the doctrine of a sect, in unbroken tradition 
from Solon. His successors blended it with forensic 
arts, and shifted its application from public affairs to 
language, and were dubbed " sophists." It was this 
man, then, to whom Themistocles resorted at the 
very beginning of his public life. 

But in the first essays of his youth he was uneven 
and unstable, since he gave his natural impulses free 
course, which, without due address and training, rush 
to violent extremes in the objects of their pursuit, 
and often degenerate ; as he himself in later life con- 
fessed, when he said that even the wildest colts 
made very good horses, if only they got the proper 
breaking and training. What some story-makers 
add to this, however, to the effect that his 
father disinherited him, and his mother took her 

^ 440 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irarpo^i avrov, Odvarov Se Trj<; fjurjrpo^ eKOvaiov 
iirl rf] Tov TratSo^; arL/JLLa irepikvirov yevofievr)^;, 
Bo/c€t Kare-ylrevaOar Kav rovvavriov elalv oi 
\€yoPTe<;, ort tov ra^ Koiva irpdrreiv dirorpeTroDV 
avTov 6 Trarrjp iireheiKwe irpo^; rfj OaXdrrrj ra? 
7ra\aia<i rpirjpet^ ippi/jifievaf; Koi Trapopwpiipag, 
<W9 Srj Koi 7rpo<; tov9 Brjpiaycoyovf;, orav d'^prjaroi, 
(fyaivcovraL, tmv ttoXXwv o/jLolco<s e')(^6vT(ov, 

III. Ta'xp iJievTOL koX v€aviK(o<; eoiKev dyjraadat 
TOV @6fjitaTOK\6ov^ TO, TToXiTLKa TTpdyfiaTa KoX 
a<l)6Bpa 7) irpo^ Bo^av opfir) Kparrjaai. Bl* r)v 
€vOv<; ef dpxv^ tov irpcoreveiv e^iefxevo^ lrap,a)^ 113 
v^io-raro ra<; 7rpo<; tov<; Bvva/xevov^ iv rfj iroXei 
KoX irpcorevovTa^; d7re')(^9ela<;, /adXiara Be 'Api- 
(TTelBrjv TOV Avatfjid)(^ov, ttjv evavTiav del rropevo- 
pevov^ avTfp. KaiTOt, BoKel irayTdiracnv rj 7rpb<! 
TOVTOV e^Opa p,€cpaKLd)B7} Xa^ecv dp^ijv rjpdcrdrj- 
aav yap dp.(f>6Tepoi tov koXov ^Tr^aiXew, Kevov 
TO yevo<; ovto<;, tw? ^ApiaTccv 6 ^LK6ao(^of; laTO- 
prjKBV. €K Be TOVTOV BceTeXovv Kal irepX to. 
Br)p6(Tia (TTacnd^ovTe^, ov p,r}v dXX* rj tcov ^lcov 
Kal TMV Tpoirwv dvopotOTTj^i eoiKev av^rja-ai ttjv 
Btacfiopdv. 7rpao<; yap wv (f)vaei Kal KuXoKaya- 
OiKo^i TOV TpoTTOV 6 ^ KpL(7TeiBri<^, Kal TToXiTevo- 
p,evo<; ov Trpo? X^P^^ ovSe tt/oo? Bo^av, aXV avro 
TOV ^eXTiCTTOv pbeTa da<^aXeiaf; Kal BiKaioavvrjf;, 
TjvayKd^eTo tw Qep^iaTOKXel tov BrfpLOV eirl iroXXa 
KLvovvTi Kal p,eydXa^ eiri^epovTi KaivoTopia^ 
evavTiovaOat TroXXdKifjf €ViaTdp,evo<i avTov 7rpo<; 
TrjV av^r](7LV. 

1 rod TO. Fuhr and Blass with F^S : rek. 

^ iropiv6ixivoi' with Bekker and the MSS. : voptvSjxtvos, 

8 



THEMISTOCLES, ii. 6-111. 2 

own life for very grief at her son's ill-fame, this 
I think is false. And, in just the opposite vein, 
there are some who say that his father fondly tried 
to divert him from public life, pointing out to him 
old triremes on the sea-shore, all wrecked and 
neglected, and intimating that the people treated 
their leaders in like fashion when these were past 
service. 

III. Speedily, however, as it seems, and while he 
was still in all the ardour of youth, public affairs 
laid their grasp upon Themistocles, and his 
impulse to win reputation got strong mastery 
over him. Wherefore, from the very beginning, in 
his desire to be first, he boldly encountered the 
enmity of men who had power and were already first 
in the city, especially that of Aristides the son of 
Lysimachus, who was always his opponent. And 
yet it is thought that his enmity with this man 
had an altogether puerile beginning They were 
both lovers of the beautiful Stesilaiis, a native 
of Ceos, as Ariston the philosopher has recorded, and 
thenceforward they continued to be rivals in public 
life also. However, the dissimilarity in their lives 
and characters is likely to have increased their 
variance. Aristides was gentle by nature, and a 
conservative in character. He engaged in public 
life, not to win favour or reputation, but to secure 
the best results consistent with safety and righteous- 
ness, and so he was compelled, since Themistocles 
stirred the people up to many novel enterprises and 
introduced great innovations, to oppose him often, 
and to take a firm stand against his increasing 
influence. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Aiyerai yap ovrw 7rapd<f)opo<; 7rpo<; So^av 
elvai KoX TTpd^ecov fieydXcov vtto (f)iXoyLfjL[a<; ipa- 
o-T?;?, Mare vio^ wz/ en Trj<; iv Mapadwvt, p>d'^rj<; 
7rpo9 Tov<; ^apPdpov<; yevo/juevrjf; /cal r?}? MiXTid- 
Bov aTparrjyLa^; Sia^orfOeia-rff; auvvov^ opdaOao 
Tct TToWa TT/oo? iavTM fcal ra<; vvKTa<; dypvirveiv 

4 /cal Toif^ TTOTOU? TrapaiTetaOac tov<; crvvr]d€i<;, KaX 
Xiyetv 7r/0O9 tov<; ipoDTMvra^ Kal Oavfid^ovraf; rrjv 
irepl Tov ^Lov /LberafioXTjv, C09 KaOevSetv avrov ovk 
ecprj TO TOV MiXr^aSoi; Tpoiraiov. ol fjuev yap 
aXXoi 7r€pa<i wovto tov iroXifiov ir]v iv ^apadcovc 
T(bv papjSdpcdV rjTiav elvat, SefjLLa-TOKXrji; Be 
dpxv^ /jLCL^ovcop dycovwv, e^' 01/9 kavTov Inrep t^9 
0X779 'EXA,a8o9 rfXei^e Kal ttjv ttoXlv i]a/C€i irop- 
peodev €Ti^ irpodhoKOdv to fiiXXov. 

IV. Kal TTpcoTov fiev Trjv AavpecoTiKrjv Trpoaohov 
diro TMV dpyvpeiwv fieTdXXcov 6do<; e')(^6vTwv 
*AOr)vaLa>v Stavi/jLeaOai, ix6vo<; elireiv eToXfjur^ae 
irapeXOcbv eh tov Brjfiov, 0)9 XPV '^V^ Stavofirjv 
edcravTa'^ e/c Toiiv 'X^prjfjbdTcov tovtcov KaTacrKevd- 
aaaOai Tpirjpetf; eirl tov irpo^ AlyivijTa<; iroXe/mov. 
•^Kfia^e yap 0VT0<i iv tj} *FiXXdBi fjidXiaTa Kal 
KaTel')(pv ol vqaiWTai ^ rrXrjOei vewv Tr)v OdXacr- 
2 aav. rj Kal paov @efjLio-TOK\r]<; avveTretaev, ov 
Aapelov ovBe Tlep(7a<; (/xaKpav yap rjaav ovtol 

1 in Fuhr and Blass with F^S : ^5??. 

' vnaioarai Fuhr and Blass with F^S : Pdyiv^rai, 

10 



THEMISTOCLES, iii. 3-iv. 2 

It is said, indeed, that Themistocles was so carried 
away by his desire for reputation, and such an 
ambitious lover of great deeds, that though he was 
still a young man when the battle with the Barbar- 
ians at Marathon ^ was fought and the generalship of 
Miltiades was in everybody's mouth, he was seen 
thereafter to be wrapped in his own thoughts for 
the most part, and was sleepless o' nights, and 
refused invitations to his customary drinking parties, 
and said to those who put wondering questions to 
him concerning his change of life that the trophy of 
Miltiades would not suffer him to sleep. Now the 
rest of his countrymen thought that the defeat of 
the Barbarians at Marathon was the end of the 
war; but Themistocles thought it to be only the 
beginning of greater contests, and for these he 
anointed himself, as it were, to be the champion of 
all Hellas, and put his city into training, because, 
while it was yet afar off, he expected the evil that 
was to come. 

IV. And so, in the first place, whereas the Athe- 
nians were wont to divide up among themselves the 
revenue coming from the silver mines at Laureium, 
he, and he alone, dared to come before the people 
with a motion that this division be given up, and 
that with these moneys triremes be constructed for 
the war against Aegina.^ This was the fiercest war 
then troubling Hellas, and the islanders controlled 
the sea, owing to the number of their ships. 
Wherefore all the more easily did Themistocles 
carry his point, not by trying to terrify the citizens 
with dreadful pictures of Darius or the Persians — 

» 490 B.a « 484-483 B.a 

II 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX Beo<; ov irdvv ffejSaiov o)9 dcfu^ofievoi irapel- 
X^v) iirKTeicov, dXXa rrj tt/oo? AlytV7]Ta(; opyfj xal 
^iXoveiKia r&v iroXircov d'jroxp'n^d[JLevo<; evKaipo)^ 
eiri Tr)v 7rapa<7K€V7]v. eKarov yap diro t(ov xPV' 
fidrcov i/ceivcov i7rot,rjOr}(Tav Tpti]p€t<i, ah^ xal 
irpo^ 'B^ep^rjv ipav/jbd'^VO'CLV' 

'E/ff 8e rovTov Kara fii/cpop virdycov koI Kara- 
fiijSd^cov Trjv iTokLv TTpo^ Tr)v OdXaacrav, co? rd 
ire^d fiep ovBe to?9 ofiopoi^i d^iofidxov<; 6vra<;, 
TJj 8' diro TUiV vecov dXfcfj kol tov<; ^apffdpov<i 
dfivvaaOai koI t?}? 'EXXaSo? dpx^iv BvvapAvov^, 
dvrl fJLOvlfKov OTrXiToyv, w? (fyrjo-tv 6 HXdrcov, vav- 
^dra^ /cat 6a\aTTLov<; e'jroir)<T€, kclI Bca^oXrjv 
Ka6* avTov Trapea^Gv, ax; dpa Se/jLiaTo/cXrjt; to 
Bopv Kol T^i/ dcnriha twv ttoXctcov irapeXofievo'i 
eh virripeaLov KaX koottijv avvearetXe top 'AOrj- 
paicdp BrjfjLOP. eirpa^e Be ravra MiXridBov 
Kparrjo-a^ dpTCXiyopTo<;, co? laropel ^ttjo-l/jl- 

^pOTO^. 

Et jiep Brj Trjp dxpl^eiap koI to KaOapop tov 
7roXLT€vfJLaTO<i e^Xayfrep rj fir) TavTa Trpafa?, €<ttco 
^LXo<70(j>(t)T€pop eiTKTKOirelp' OTi Be T) t6t€ acoTr)- 
pia Toh "EXXrjaip eK tt)? OaXdaarjf; vwrjp^e koI 
Tr)P ^ KOrjpaKOP ttoXlp avOi,<; dpiarTrjaap at TpL't]p€i<; 
eKecpaty ra t' dXXa kol Se/of?;? avTo^i ifiapTvpTja-e. 
T7J<; yap 7r€^tK7J<; Bvpd/JL€Ot)<i dOpavcTTOV Biafiepov- 
a7)<i €(f)vy€ fjueTa ttjp twp pecop rjTTap, oy^i ovk wi 
d^iofjba'xp'i, Kol MapBoPLOP ifMiroBcop elpau To'k 

* aXs Fuhr and Blasa with S : ol. 
12 



THEMISTOCLES, iv. 2-4 

these were too far away and inspired no verjf 
serious fear of their coming, but by making 
opportune use of the bitter jealousy which they 
cherished toward Aegina in order to secure the 
armament he desired. The result was that with 
those moneys they built a hundred triremes, with 
which they actually fought at Salamis^ against 
Xerxes. 

And after this, by luring the city on gradually and 
turning its progress toward the sea, urging that 
with their infantry they were no match even for 
their nearest neighbours, but that with the power 
they would get from their ships they could not only 
repel the Barbarians but also take the lead in Hellas, 
he made them, instead of "steadfast hoplites " — to 
quote Plato's words,^ sea- tossed mariners, and brought 
down upon himself this accusation : " Themistocles 
robbed his fellow-citizens of spear and shield, and 
degraded the people of Athens to the rowing- 
pad and the oar," And this he accomplished in 
triumph over the public opposition of Miltiades, as 
Stesimbrotus relates. 

Now, whether by accomplishing this he did injury 
to the integrity and purity of public life or not, let 
the philosopher rather investigate. But that the 
salvation which the Hellenes achieved at that time 
came from the sea, and that it was those very tri- 
remes which restored again the fallen city of Athens, 
Xerxes himself bore witness, not to speak of other 
proofs. For though his infantry remained intact, he 
took to flight after the defeat of his ships, because 
he thought he was not a match for the Hellenes, 
and he left Mardonius behind, as it seems to me, 

1 480 B.C. « LaioSf iv. p. 706. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^ISWrjai TTj^ Sia)^6co<; fxaWov rj BovXcoao/xevov 
avTov^, ft)9 e'/AOi hoKel, KariXcTrev. 

V. SvvTovov Be avTOV yeyovevat 'XprjfjLartaTrji^ 114 
ol fJL€V TLvi^ (^acTL hC iXevdepiorrjra' koX yap 
<f>i,\o6vTr]v ovra koI Xafiirpov iv Tal<; irepl tov<; 
^evov<i BairdvaL^ a(f>66vov SelaOai ')(ppriyla<;' ol he 
TovvavTLOv y\La)(^p6T7]Ta iroXXrjv koX jxiKpoXoyiav 
Karrjyopovo-LV, o)'; koI ra irepbiropbeva tojv iScoSi- 

2 fjL(ov TToiXovvTO^. iwel Be ^tXtSi;? 6 i7r7rorp6(j)of; 
alT7]0€l<; VTT avTov ircoXov ovk eBcofcev, r^ireiXTjae 
rr)V OLKiav avrov ra')(v Troojcreiv Sovpeiov lttttov, 
alvt^dfievof; eyKXrjfiaTa avyyevLKa koL Bi/ca^; tco 
dvOpcoTTCp 7ry909 oIk€i,ov<; TLva<i rapd^etp. 

Ty Be (pLXoTtfiia irdyra^; virepefSaXev, w(tt ere 
fiev veo<; wv koX d(f)avr)<; *Et7ri/cXia tov ef * Ep/jbi6vr]<i 
Kidapiarr^v aTTOvBa^ofMevov vtto tcov *A6r]vaiQ)v 
eKXiTrapTjaaL /leXerdv irap" avrS), <f)cXoTi/JLOvjjL€vo<; 
TToXXov^} rrjv oiKiav ^r^relv koX ^oltclv 7rpo9 avrov, 

3 et? 8' ^OXvfiiTiav eXOoav koX BiajxiXXodixevo^ tS> 
Ki/jLcovi Trepl Belirva koI crfcrjva<; koX Tr)v dXXrjv 
Xafi7rp6T7]Ta Kal nrapaaKevrjV, ovk ijpeo-Ke roc<; 
''l£iXXrj(TLv. eKeivco /Mev yap ovti vecp Kal dir 

oiKia^ IJLeydXr)<; wovro Belv rd roiavra avyx^copelv 
6 Be fxrjTTa} yv(opL/jLO<i yeyov(o<;, dXXd Bokcov e^ 
ov'X^ vnrap^ovTwv Kal Trap* d^iav eTralpeadac 

4 7rpo(T(0(f)XLa-Kavev dXa^oveiav. iviKrjae Be Kal 
')(ppr]y(ov rpaycpBoU, fieydXrjv ijBrj rare aTrovBrjv 
Kal (jicXoTifjulav rod dycovo<i e;^oyT09, Kal irlvaKa 

14 



THEMISTOCLES, iv. 4-v. 4 

rather to obstruct their pursuit than to subdue 
them. 

V. Some say that Themistocles was an eager 
money-maker because of his liberality ; for since he 
was fond of entertaining, and lavished money 
splendidly on his guests, he required a generous 
budget. Others, on the contrary, denounce his 
great stinginess and parsimony, claiming that he 
used to sell the very food sent in to him as a gift. 
When Philides the horse-breeder was asked by him 
for a colt and would not give it, Themistocles threat- 
ened speedily to make his house a wooden horse ; 
thereby darkly intimating that he would stir up 
accusations against him in his own family, and 
lawsuits between the man and those of his own 
household. 

In his ambition he surpassed all men. For instance, 
while he was still young and obscure, he prevailed 
upon Epicles of Hermione, a harpist who was eagerly 
sought after by the Athenians, to practise at his 
house, because he was ambitious that many should 
seek out his dwelling and come often to see him. 
Again, on going to Olvmpia, he tried to rival Cimon 
in his banquets and booths and other brilliant 
appointments, so that he displeased the Hellenes. 
For Cimon was young and of a great house, and 
they thought they must allow him in such extrava- 
gances ; but Themistocles had not yet become 
famous, and was thought to be seeking to elevate 
himself unduly without adequate means, and so 
was charged with ostentation. And still again, as 
choregus, or theatrical manager, he won a victory 
with tragedies, although even at that early time this 
contest was conducted with great eagerness and 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T^9 vCk7j<; dveOrjK€ rotavTTfv iiriypa^rjv €')(pvra* 
" S€fiL(rTOKXr}<i ^pedppio^ ixoptjyei, ^pvvL'Xp^ 
ehiZa(7K€Vy ^ASeLfjLavTO<; ^p'^^evJ* 

Ov fJLTjv dWd Tol<; ttoWo?? iv^pfiorre, tovto 
fjL6V kicdcrrov tcop ttoXctcov rovvofia Xeycov diro 
aTOfiaTO^;, tovto Be KpiTrjv d(T(f>d\,7] rrrepl to, 
avfiffoXata Trapixcov iavTov, wcrre ttov koI 7rp6<s 
Xi/jlcovlBtjv tov K.elov etTreiv, alTOVfjuevov ti t&v 
ov fieTpLcov Trap" avTov o'TpaTr}yovvTO<i, 0)9 ovt 
€KeZvo^ av yevocTO iroirjTrjf; dyaOo^ aBcov irapd 
/A6\o9 OVT avT0<; d(jT6L0<; dpx^v irapk vopuov 
5 ')(apL^6p£vo<i. TToXtv Be ttotc tov '^LficoviBrjv iiri- 
<rK(t)7rTa)v eXeye vovv ovk, ex^tv, J^opivOlovq fiev 
XoiBopovvTa p^eydXrjv oiKovvTa^ ttoXiv, avTov Be 
TToiovfievov elicova^ ovTcaf; 6vT0<i ala")(pov ttjv 
Q-^iv, av^ojjbevo^ Be koI toc<; ttoXXol^; apeaKCDV 
TeXo9 KaTeaTacriacre koI fieTecrrjaev e^oa-Tpa- 
KiaOevTa tov ^ KpKTTelBrjv, 

VL ^WBt] Be TOV yiriBov KaTaffaivovTO<; eVt ttjv 
'KXXdBa real tmv ^AOrjvaicov ^ovXevop^evcov irepl 
<jTpaT7)yov, T0U9 p^ev dXXou<; e/covTa^ eKo-Trjvat 
Tr}9 (TTpaTr]yia^ Xeyovaiv iKireTrXrjyp^evov^ top 
KLvBvvov, ^EiTLKvSrjv Be TOV 'Ev<l>r)p.lBov, Brj- 
p,aycoyov ovTa Betvov pev elirelvy puXaKov Be 
TTjv '^V)(^r}V Kol '^(^prjp.dTcov ^TTOva, Trj<; dp')(rj<; 
icfyteo-dac teal KpaTrja-eiv eTrlBo^ov elvau Tjj j^et,- 
poTOvla. TOV ovv ©epcaTOKXea BeiaavTa, p.r) Td 
irpdypbaTa Biac^Oapeir] iravTdiraaL rrf^ r)y€p,ovla<% 
eh i/celvov epirecrovar)^, ')(^p^pu(TC ttjv (fxXoTip^Laif 
i^cov^o'aaOai, irapd tov *E7riAcuSou9. 



16 



THEMISTOCLES, v. 4-vi. 1 

ambition, and set up a tablet commemorating his 
victory with the following inscription : " Themis- 
tocles the Phrearrhian was Choregus; Phrynichus 
was Poet ; Adeimantus was Archon." ^ 

However, he was on good terms with the common 
folk, partly because he could call off-hand the name 
of every citizen, and partly because he rendered the 
service of a safe and impartial arbitrator in cases of 
private obligation and settlement out of court ; and 
so he once said to Simonides of Ceos, who had made 
an improper request from him when he was magis- 
trate : " You would not be a good poet if you should 
sing contrary to the measure ; nor I a clever magis- 
trate if I should show favour contrary to the law." 
And once again he banteringly said to Simonides 
that it was nonsense for him to abuse the Corinthians, 
who dwelt in a great and fair city, while he had 
portrait figures made of himself, who was of such an 
ugly countenance. And so he grew in power, and 
pleased the common folk, and finally headed a success- 
ful faction and got Aristides removed by ostracism.^ 

VI. At last, when the Mede was descending 
upon Hellas and the Athenians were deliberating 
who should be their general, all the rest, they say, 
voluntarily renounced their claims to the generalship, 
so panic-stricken were they at the danger; but 
Epicydes, the son of Euphemides, a popular leader 
who was powerful in speech but effeminate in spirit 
and open to bribes, set out to get the office, 
and was likely to prevail in the election ; so Themis- 
tocles, fearing lest matters should go to utter ruin in 
case the leadership fell to such a man, bribed and 
bought off the ambition of Epicydes. 

i 476 B.a « 483-482 B.a 

17 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 ^EtTraivetraL 5* avrov koI to irepl rov BljXcottov 
€pyov iv Tot9 TrejucpOeiaiv viro ^aaLke(o<; iirl yrjf; 
Kol vBaTO<; airrjaiv. epfjirjvia jap ovra avWa- 
^cov Sta '\jrr)(piafjLaTO<; aireKreivev on (fxovrjp 
'FiWrjviBa /3apj3dpoi<i irpoardyixadLV iroXfjurfo-e 

3 ')(prj(TaL. €TL Be koI to irepl *'Ap9fiiov top 
Ze\et,T7]V' ®e[JiiaTOKkeov<; jap eiirovTO^ Kal tov- 
Tov 6t9 Toij^ aTLfiov^ Kal TratSa? avTov Kal yevo<i 
iviypa^jrai/f otl top etc ^tjBodv 'X^pvaov el<i TOV<i 
"KWr)va<i eKOfXicre. fiejiaTOv Be ttclvtcov to /cara- 
Xvaai T0v<i ^EXXtjvcKov'; TroXeyxou? Kal BiaWd^ai 
Ta9 TToXet? aXX7]Xai,<;, ireiaavTa ra<^ e')(9pa<; Btci 
Tov TToXefjLOu dva^aXeadar irpoff o Kal ^eiXeayv 
TOP 'ApKaBa /jbaXiara avi^aycovlcraaOai XiyovcTL. 

VII. HapaXajScbv Be ttjv cLp')(r)v ev6v<i fxev 
iirex^ipei tov<; vroXtra? epbpL^d^eiv eh Ta<i TpLrj- 115 
peL<;, Kal Tr]v itoXlv eireiOev eKXiirovTa^ tw? irpo- 
crwraro) t^9 'EWaSo? diravTav to) ^ap^dpco 
KaTCL OdXaTTav. ipiaTapIvcov Be ttoXXcop i^rj- 
yaye ttoXXtjp (TTpaTcap eh tcl TepLTrrj pbeTa AaKe- 

BaL/jiOPLCOP, 0)9 aVToOl TTpOKLpBvPeVO-OPTCOP T7J9 

2 @eTTaXia<; ovirco totc p^rjBi^eip BoKOvar}^' eirel 
3' dpe')((jop7]aap eKeWep drrpaKTOi Kal SeTTaXcop 
jSaaiXel irpoayepo/Jbiprnp ifjL-^Bt,^€ t^ t^XP'' ^oio)- 
Tta9, fjLoXXop tjBt) tw SefiLffTOKXel TrpoaeX^op ol 
^AdrjpaloL irepl Ti)9 OaXdaar)^, Kal irefiireTac pueTct 
pea>p eir ^ApTepLLcnop to, aTepa (pvXd^cov. 

"FipOa By Tcop fiep '^XXijpcop ^vpv^cdBrjp xal 
18 



THEMISTOCLES, vi. 2-vii. 2 

Praise is given to his treatment of the linguist in 
tlie company of those who were sent by the King to 
demand earth and water as tokens of submission : 
this interpreter he caused to be arrested, and had 
him put to death by special decree, because he 
dared to prostitute the speech of Hellas to Barbarian 
stipulations. Also to his treatment of Arthmius of 
Zeleia: on motion of Themistocles this man was 
entered on the list of the disfranchised, with his 
children and his family, because he brought the gold 
of the Medes and offered it to the Hellenes. But 
the greatest of all his achievements was his putting 
a stop to Hellenic wars, and reconciling Hellenic 
cities with one another, persuading them to postpone 
their mutual hatreds because of the foreign war. 
To which end, they say, Cheileos the Arcadian most 
seconded his efforts. 

VH. On assuming the command, he straightway 
went to work to embark the citizens on their tri- 
remes, and tried to persuade them to leave their city 
behind them and go as far as possible away from 
Hellas to meet the Barbarians by sea. But many 
opposed this plan, and so he led forth a large army to 
the vale of Tempe, along with the Lacedaemonians, 
in order to make a stand there in defence of Thessaly, 
which was not yet at that time supposed to be medis- 
ing. But soon the army came back from this position 
without accomplishing anything, the Thessalians 
went over to the side of the King, and everything 
was medising as far as Boeotia, so that at last the 
Athenians were more kindly disposed to the naval 
policy of Themistocles, and he was sent with a fleet 
to Artemisium, to watch the narrows. 

It was at this place that the Hellenes urged 

^9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AaK€BaLfioviov<s rjyeloOai fceXevovrav, t(ou S* 
*AdrjvaL(ov, on irXTjOei rcov vefav (TvixiravTa^ o/jlov 
Tfc Tovf; aX\ov<; virepi/SaXkov, ov/c a^tovvTcav 

3 erepoLf; eirecrOai, avvthchv rov klvBvvov 6 Se/ni- 
aTOK\rj<; avro^ re rrjv apxw '^^ ^vpvfiidBri 
7rapr]K€ fcal Kareirpdvve tov^ ^Kdrjvaiov^, vTrca^- 
vovjxevo^iy av dvBp6<; dyadol yevcovrao 7rpo<; rov 
TToXe/uLOv, cKoi'Ta^; avToc<; irapi^etv eh rd Xoiird 
'jreido/jLevov; tou? "EXXrjva^. htoirep Bokcl t% 
<T(OTt^pia<; alTicoTaTo<; yevecrOai ry 'EWdSt kov 
fidXiara tov? *A6rjvaLov<; Trpoayayetv eh Bo^av, 
tt)9 dvBpela fiev tmv 7ro\efiia)Vy evyvayfioavvrj Be 
TWi^ (Tvpbjjidx'^v TTepLyevofievov^. 

4 'ETret Be rah ^Acperah rov ^apffapiKOV crroXov 
irpoa/JLL^avTo^ eKirXayeh 6 Ftvpvl3cdBrj(; rcov /card 
crrofia vecov to ttX^^o?, dWa<; Be TrvvOavofievo^ 
BiaKoaia^ VTrep I^KidOov TrepcirXeiv, e^ovXero rrjv 
ra^La-rriv eto-co t?}? 'EXXaSo? KOfxiaOeh dyjrao-Oai, 
HeXoTTOVvijcrov koI tov ire^bv arparov rah vaval 
TrpoaTrepLjSaXia-dai, Travrdiraaiv dirpoapiaypv 
r}yovp.evo<; rrjv Kard ddXarrav dXKrjv /SacriXeox;, 
BeiaavTe<^ ol EuySoet?, firi (T<j)d<; oi "¥iXXr]ve<; irpb- 
(ovrai, Kpvcba rch %ep.ia-T0KXel BteXeyovro, IleXa- 

5 yovra fiera 'X^pi^pbdrcov ttoXXojv '7refjL'\jravT€<;. a 
Xa^cbv eKelvo^, oo? 'H/3o8oto9 laropTjKe, roh Trepl 
TOV Evpv^idBr^v eBcoKev. 

^FivavTiovfievov 8* avra> jidXiaTa tmv ttoXitcov 
'Ap%fcTe\oi;9, 09 ^v fi€v eVl T7J9 l€pd<i veco<i rpi- 
Tjpapxo^, ovK e^ftiv Be XPVH-^'^^ '^^h vavrai^ 
Xoprjyelv eairevBev d-n-OTrXevaai, irapw^vvev en 
fiaXXov 6 %ep.L<TT0KXr}<i TOV<i Tpirjpira^ eir avrov, 



20 



THEMISTOCLES, vii. 2-5 

Eurybiades and the Lacedaemonians to take the lead, 
but the Athenians, since in the number of their ships 
they surpassed all the rest put together, disdained 
to follow others, — a peril which Themistocles at once 
comprehended. He surrendered his own command 
to Eurybiades, and tried to mollify the Athenians 
with the promise that if they would show themselves 
brave men in the war, he would induce the Hellenes 
to yield a willing obedience to them thereafter. 
Wherefore he is thought to have been the man most 
instrumental in achieving the salvation of Hellas, 
and foremost in leading the Athenians up to the 
high repute of surpassing their foes in valour and 
their allies in magnanimity. 

Now Eurybiades, on the arrival of the Barbarian 
armament at Aphetae, was terrified at the number of 
ships that faced him, and, learning that two hundred 
ships more were sailing around above Sciathus to cut 
off his retreat, desired to proceed by the shortest 
route down into Hellas, to get into touch with Pelo- 
ponnesus and encompass his fleet with his infantry 
forces there, because he thought the power of the 
King altogether invincible by sea. Therefore the 
Euboeans, fearing lest the Hellenes abandon them 
to their fate, held secret conference with Themisto- 
cles, and sent Pelagon to him with large sums of 
money. This money he took, as Herodotus relates,^ 
and gave to Eurybiades. 

Meeting with most opposition among his fellow- 
citizens from Architeles, who was captain on the 
saered state galley, and who, because he had no 
money to pay the wages of his sailors, was eager to 
sail off home, Themistocles incited his crew all the 

^ viii. 5. 

21 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 ft)<TTe TO SetTTVov apiTOLG-aL avvBpa/jL6vTa<;» rov S* 
^Ap)(^iT6\ou<; aOvjjbovvTO^ iirl rovro) Koi ^apeco<i 
(^epovTO^, elaeTTefX'y^rev o ©ejXiCTTOickrj^ irpo^i avTov 
iv Ki(TT7} helirvov ciprcov koI Kpecov, viroOeX^i Karon 
TaKavTov apyvpiov koX Kekevaa<i avrov re Bei- 
iTvelv iv T& irapovTL KaX fieO^ rjfiepav €7ri,fji€\r]6rjvat 
rwv TpirjpiroiV' el Se fxrj, Karaporjaetv avrov 
'iTpo<i rov^ rrapovra^; ^ <h<; e^ovro^ apyvpiov irapa 
ro)v TrdXejjLLcov. ravra [xev ovv ^avia^ 6 Aicrffio^ 
eLp7]Kev. 

VIIL At he r^evojxevai rore 'irpo<; ra<^ r&v 
^ap^dpcov vav<; irepl ra areva fid-^ai Kpicnv fiev 
619 ra oka fjieyaXrjv ov/c i7ro[r](Tav, rfj Be iretpa 
fieytara tou<; "FjWr)va<i wvrjaav, viro rwv epywv 
irapa rov<; klvBvvov^ BLha')(6evra'^, a)9 ovre TrXrjOrj 
vecjv ovre koct/jlol kch \afji7rp6rr)re<; eTrccnj/jLcov 
ovre Kpavyal KOfirrcoBei^ rj fidp^apoc iraLcive^ 
€)(^ov(Ti ri Beivov dvBpdaiv eTnara/aivot^ eh ')(^elpa<; 
levav real iidyecrOai roXacoaiv, dXka Bel r5)v 
roiovrcov Kara(ppoiovpra<; eir avra ra acafxara 
<f>epeadai Kal 7rpo<; i/cetva Biaycovl^eaOai, avfi- 

2 rrXafC€vra<;. o Brj Kal IltVSa/JO? ov KaKWf; 
eoLKe avviBcbv cttI t^9 ev * Aprefuauo fiaxv^ 
elirelv 

"OOl iralBe'^ ^KOavaiwv e/3dXovro (paevvav 
KprjirlS* e\evOepia<;' 

^PXV J^P oVtco9 rov VLKciv ro dappeZv. 

"EcTTt Be rrj^ Evffoia<; to ^Aprepuiaiov virep 
rrjv 'Ecrruaiav alyta\o<; eh ^opeav avaireirra- 
fjbivo^, avrtreivei 3* avrS> fidXcara t% vtto 

^ Trap6vTas Fuhr and Blass with F^S : voXiras. 
22 



THEMISTOCLES, vii. 6-viii. a 

more against him, so that they made a rush upon 
him and snatched away his dinner. Then, while 
Architeles was feeling dejected and indignant over 
this, Themistocles sent him a dinner of bread and 
meat in a box at the bottom of which he had put a 
talent of silver, and bade him dine without delay, 
and on the morrow satisfy his crew ; otherwise he 
said he would denounce him publicly as the receiver 
of money from the enemy. At any rate, such is the 
story of Phanias the Lesbian. 

VIII. The battles which were fought at that time 
with the ships of the Barbarians in the narrows were 
not decisive of the main issue, it is true, but they 
were of the greatest service to the Hellenes in giving 
them experience, since they were thus taught by 
actual achievements in the face of danger that nei- 
ther multitudes of ships nor brilliantly decorated 
figure-heads nor boastful shouts or barbarous battle- 
hymns have any terror for men who know how to 
come to close quarters and dare to fight there ; but 
that they must despise all such things, rush upon 
the very persons of their foes, grapple with them, 
and fight it out to the bitter end. Of this Pindar 
seems to have been well aware when he said of the 
battle of Artemisium : — 

"Where Athenians' valiant sons set in radiance 
eternal 
Liberty's corner-stone." ^ 

For verily the foundation of victory is courage. 

Artemisium is a part of Euboea above Hestiaea, 
— a sea-beach stretching away to the north, — and 
just about opposite to it lies Olizon, in the territory 

» Bergk, Frag. 77. 
VOL. II. T> 23 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^iXoktiJttj yevo/JbivTjt; '^a)pa<; ^OXi^wv. e%64 S^ 
vaov ov fieyav ^AprefiiSo^ eiriicXrjatv Tipoarjcoa^y 1 1 
Koi SevBpa irepX avT(p ire^VKe koI arrjXai Kv/c\q> 
XiOov XevKov TreTTTJyaariv 6 Be XlOo'i rrj %6i/ol 
Tpiffofjuevo^ Kol XP^^^ '^^'' oo-/z.^z/ KpOKL^ovaav 
3 avaUBwa-iv. eV fjLia Be r&v o-ttjXwp iXeyetov ^v 
ToBe yeypa/jL/jievov' 

JlavToBaTTcbv avBpcav yeveh^ 'Acta? aivo %ft>/)a9 
TTolBe^ ^AOijvaicov T&Be iror iv ireXdyei 

vavfiaxir) Bafidaavref;, iirel <TTpaTo<; cjXero 
M.7]Bo)v, 
(T^fiara ravr eOeaav irapOevfp ^ AprefiiBi, 

BeiKwrai Be tt}? dfcrrjf; Toiro'; ev ttoXX^ rfj irepi^ 
Bivl Koviv re^pcoBrj koI fxeXaivav itc jSaOov; 
dvaBLBov<;, oddirep irvpiKavaTov, ev oS ra vavdyia 
KOI veKpov^ Kavcrat Bokov(tl. 

IX. Tcjv fxevTot, irepl %epfjboiTvXa^ eh to 
^Apre/ua-Lov dirayyeXXovToav ^ irvdopbevov Aeco- 
vLBav re KelaQai kcli Kparelv B^ep^v rwv Kara 
yrjv irapoBcov, etaa) t?}? 'EWaSo? dve/co/ii^ovTO, 
T&v ^AOrjvaicov eirl iracn Terayfiivrnv Bl dperrjv 
Koi [xeya toI<; ireirpayixevoi^; <^povovvT(ov. irapa- 
irXeoav Be rrjv X^P^^ ^ SejuncrroKXrj^f yirep 
fcardpa-ei^ drayKaia<; koX KaTa(j)vya<; ecopa T0t9 
iroXefiioLfi, evexdparre Kara rojv XiOwv eTTKpavi] 
2 ypd/jifjuara, rov<; fiev evpi<TK(av drro rvx'H'^i rov<i S' 
^ o7ra77eAA(J»'T&jj' Fuhr and Blass with F*S : kvaYyeXOevrtav, 
24 



THEMISTOCLES, viii. 2-ix. 2 

once subject to Philoctetes. It has a small temple 
of Artemis sumamed Proseoen, which is surrounded 
by trees and enclosed by upright slabs of white 
marble. This stone, when you rub it with your 
hand, gives off the colour and the odour of saffron. 
On one of these slabs the following elegy was 
inscribed : — 

" Nations of all sorts of men from Asia's boundaries 
coming, 
Sons of the Athenians once, here on this arm of 
the sea. 
Whelmed in a battle of ships, and the host of the 
Medes was destroyed ; 
These are the tokens thereof, built for the Maid 
Artemis." ^ 

And a place is pointed out on the shore, with sea 
sand all about it, which supplies from its depths a 
dark ashen powder, apparently the product of fire, 
and here they are thought to have burned their 
wrecks and dead bodies. 

IX. However, when they learned by messengers 
from Thermopylae to Artemisium that Leonidas was 
slain and that Xerxes was master of the pass, they 
withdrew further down into Hellas, the Athenians 
bringing up the extreme rear because of their 
valour, and greatly elated by their achievements. 
As Theirtistocles sailed along the coasts, wherever 
he sav/ places at which the enemy must necessarily 
put in for shelter and supplies, he inscribed con- 
spicuous writings on stones, some of which he found 
to his hand there by chance, and some he himself 
caused to be set near the inviting anchorages and 

» Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraecit iii.* p. 480. 

as 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

auT09 l(TT^<; irepl ra vav\o')(a kol t^<; vSpeta^;, 
i'ma-Krj'jrTcov "Ioxtl Sth rayp ypafi/jLaTcov, el jxev 
olov T€, fierard^acrOai, 7rpo<; avrov^ irarepa<; 
6vTa<; fcal TrpoKLvBvvevovra^ virep t?)? ifcelvoov 
ikevdepiaf;, el 8k fitj, xaKovv to ^ap^apixov iv 
Tat9 fJidxaL<; KoX a-vvTapdrreiv. ravra S' ^X- 
TTi^ev rj /jLeraa-Tija-eiv tou? "lcova<; rj rapd^eiv 
v7ro7rTOT6pov<; roi? ^ap^dpoL^ ^yevofievov^. 

3 Hep^ov he Sea t?)9 Acopi8o<i dvcoOev ifJu/Sa- 
\6vTo^ €t9 Tr)v ^(OKiBa fcal ra rcov ^coKecov da-Trj 
TTVpTToXovvTO^ ov 7rpo(Tr)fJbVvav ol ^'EXKr]V€<;, 
Kaiirep t5)v ^AOrjvaiayv Seo/nevcov el<; rrjv ^occoTiav 
diravTrjaat irpb t?}? ^ArTCKr]<;y cocnrep avrol Kara 
ddXarrav iir ^ApTejxicnov ifiorjOrjcrav, /jLr)Sevo<; 
8* viraKovovTO^; avroL^, dWa rrj^ HeXoTrovvrjcrov 
7repLe')(piMev(ov koI iraaav ivro^ ^ladfiov rrjv 
hvvaixLV (hpfjLTj/iivcov avvdyeiv, kol Biareiy^L^ovTcov 

4 Tov ^lo-Ofiov eh OdXarrav i/c OaXdTTrj<i, dfia fjuev 
opyr} T779 irpoBoaia^ eZ%e T01/9 ^AOrjvalov^, afw, 
Be Bvadvp^ia koI KaT7]^eta /JL€/jLOVcofievov<;. fjbd- 
')(^eaOai> fiev yap ov BuevoovvTO fivpidai, (TTparov 
ToaavTair ^ rjv fiovov dvayKalov iv ray irapov- 
Ti, TTjv TToXtv d(f)6VTa<i ifK^vvai Tat9 vavalv, ol 
TToXXol p^aXeTTw? 7]kovov, ft)9 fiyre vlk7]<; Beofievoi 
jUi7]Te (TcorrjpLav eiriardfjievoL Oecov re lepd koI 
irarepMV rjpia TrpolepAvoDV. 

X. "Ev^a Br] SejuLKTroKXTji; diropcov roi<; dvOpco- 
7rlvoi<i Xoyio-/jLo2<i Trpoadyea-BaL ro 7rXrjOo<;, coairep 
26 



THEMISTOCLES, ix. 2-x. i 

watering places. In these writings he solemnly 
enjoined upon the lonians, if it were possible, to 
come over to the side of the Athenians, who were 
their ancestors, and who were risking all in behalf 
of their freedom ; but if they could not do this, 
to damage the Barbarian cause in battle, and 
bring confusion among them. By this means he 
hoped either to fetch the lonians over to his side, 
or to confound them by bringing the Barbarians into 
suspicion of them. 

Although Xerxes had made a raid up through 
Doris into Phocis, and was burning the cities of the 
Phocians, the Hellenes gave them no succour. The 
Athenians, it is true, begged them to go up into 
Boeotia against the enemy, and make a stand there 
in defence of Attica, as they themselves had gone 
up by sea to Artemisium in defence of others. But 
no one listened to their appeals. All clung fast to 
the Peloponnesus, and were eager to collect all the 
forces inside the Isthmus, and were building a 
rampart across the Isthmus from sea to sea. Then 
the Athenians were seized alike with rage at this 
betrayal, and with sullen dejection at their utter 
isolation. Of figliting alone with an army of so 
many myriads they could not seriously think ; and as 
for the only thing left them to do in their emergency, 
namely, to give up their city and stick to their ships, 
most of them were distressed at the thought, saying 
that they neither wanted victory nor understood what 
safety could mean if they abandoned to the enemy 
the shrines of their gods and the sepulchres of their 
fathers. 

X. Then indeed it was that Themistocles, despair- 
ing of bringing the multitude over to his views by 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iv Tpayq)Bia fjurj^avrjv dpa<i, arifxela Sai/JLovia fcal 
'X^prjafjLOVf; iTrrjyev avrol^' <rrjfielov fiev Xafi^dvayv 
TO Tov hpoLKOVTO^y 09 o^avrj^ ifC6Lvai<; rah 
^fiepai^ ifc TOV arjKOV BokcI yeviadar fcal ra^ 
Kad' rjixepav avTa> 7rpoTi6€fiiva<; a7rapxa<i evpC- 
(TKovre^ a-ylravarovf; ol iepet^y i^rjyyeXkov €t9 
Tou? 7roX\ou9, TOV @€fiiaTOK'K6ov<;\6yov BiSovTO<i, 
ft)9 aTToXekoiire Tr)v iroXiv r] Oeo^ vcftrjyovfiivrj 

2 TT/oo? T^i^ OaXaTTav avToh. t& he Xprjafi^ 
TToXiv eBrjfuiycayei, Xeycov fir)Bev dWo SrjXovadat 
^vXivov T6t%09 ^ Ta9 vav<i' Bib teal ttjv ^aXa/uva 
deiav, ov')(l Beifrjv ovBe a')(eTXiav /caXelv tov deov, 
(09 €VTV)(^^/JLaTo<i fieydXov tol<; ^'KXXrjaiv iirco- 
vvfiov iaofJLevrjv. KpaT^o-a^i Be Trj yvco/jurj yfr^- 
(j)cafia ypd^ei, Trjv fjuev iroXiv TrapaKaTuOeaOat 
TTJ ^AOijva Ty *A6r}vdcov fieBeovarj, Tov<i B^ ev 
TjXiKLa nravTa^ ifi^alveiv eh Ta9 Tpirjpei,^, TralBa^ 
Be Koi yvvacfcaf; kol dyBpairoBa aco^eiv e/caaTOv 

3 0)9 BvvaTov. KVpcoOivTO^ Be tov '\jrr)(p[crfULT0^ 

ol irXetdTOi TMV ^AOrjvalayv vire^edevTO yeved<i ^ 

Koi yvvoLKa^ eh Tpoc^ijva, (^iXoTifKOf; irdvv t(op 

TpoL^TjvLcov vTroBe^o/jLevoyv' koI yap Tpe(l)ecv eyfrrj- jjy 

(plaavTO BrjfjLOo-La, Bvo oySoXou9 eKdaTq) BiB6pTe<;, 

/cat T7J<s oirdipafi Xajx^dveiv tov^ iralBaf; e^elvai 

^ yivtas Madvig's correction, adopted by Blass : yovias 
parents, 

28 



THEMISTOCLES, x. 1-3 

any human reasonings, set up machinery, as it were, 
to introduce the gods to them, as a theatrical 
manager would for a tragedy, and brought to bear 
upon them signs from heaven and oracles. As a 
sign from heaven he took the behaviour of the 
serpent, which is held to have disappeared about 
that time from the sacred enclosure on the Acropolis. 
When the priests found that the daily offerings 
made to it were left whole and untouched, they 
proclaimed to the multitude, — Themistocles putting 
the story into their mouths, — that the goddess 
had abandoned her city and was showing them their 
way to the sea. Moreover, with the well-known 
oracle ^ he tried again to win the people over to 
his views, saying that its "wooden wall" meant 
nothing else than their fleet; and that the god in 
this oracle called Salamis " divine," not " dreadful " 
nor " cruel," for the very reason that the island 
would sometime give its name to a great piece of 
good fortune for the Hellenes. At last his opinion 
prevailed, and so he introduced a bill providing 
that the city be entrusted for safe keeping " to 
Athena the patroness of Athens," but that all 
the men of military age embark on the triremes, 
after finding for their children, wives, and servants, 
such safety as each best could. Upon the passage 
of this bill, most of the Athenians bestowed their 
children and wives in Troezen, where the Troe- 
zenians very eagerly welcomed them. They actually 
voted to support them at the public cost, allowing 
two obols daily to each family, and to permit the 
boys to pluck of the vintage fruit everywhere, and 

» Herod., vii. 141. 

«9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irawayoOeVi ert 8' virep avrcov ScSaa/cakoL^; reXeiv 
jjnaOov^, TO he 'yjrTJcpLa/jLa '^iKayopa^ ejpayjrev. 

4 Ov/c ovTGOV Be Brj/Moalcov '^prj/iaTcov tol^ ^A.9rj- 
vaioL^, ^Apt(TTOTe\r}<; fiev (j)r)aL rrjv ef 'Ayoetof 
rrrdyov fiovXrjv iropicraaav oktoo Bpax/^o.<; eKaaro) 
tS)v (TTpaTevofievcov alricoTarTjv yeviaOat rov 
irXrjpcoOi^vai ra<; Tpir)p6L^y KXeLBr]fio<; Be Kol 
TOVTO Tou SejjLi(TT0/c\60V<; TTOLeiTac arparijyijfia. 
fcarafiaLvovTcov yap et? Heipatd roiv 'AOrjvaleov, 
<f)7}alv airo\e(jQai to Vopyoveiov airo t^9 6eov 
Tov ayaXfiaTOf;' tov ovv @efit(7T0K\ea irpoar- 
TTOiovfievov ^7)T6Lv fcol Biepevvcofievov UTravra 
')(^prjfidTO)v dvevpiaKeiv TrXrjOof; iv rat? aTTO- 
(TKeval<i dTTOKeKpvfjujjbevov, wv eh fiea-ov KOfita- 
OevTwv evTTopija-ai to 1)9 eii^alvovTa^ eh Ta<; vavf; 
e<f)oBia)V. 

5 'E^TrXeoucri;? Be ttj^; TroXeoj? Toh fxev oIktov 
TO Oeafjuay rot? Be Oavp^a t^9 toX/i^? irapel'xe, 
yevea^ p^ev dWy it poire p.Tr6vTOiv, avTCov B^ d/cdp.- 
TTTcov 7r/)09 olp>coyd<; /cal Bd/cpva yovecov Kal 
irepi^oXcif; BtaTrepcovTcov eh ttjv vrjaov, KairoL 
iroXkol p,€V Bca yrjpa^ vTroXeLTrojiievoi, tmv iroXiTcav 
eXeov el^ov rjv Be rt? ical diro tS3V rjpApcov /cal 
(TVVTp6(pQ)V ^(i>(ov eTTLKXCiaa yXvfcvOvpLia, p,eT 
fjDpvyr]<; kcu ttoOov avp^TrapaOeovTcov ip,/3aivovac 

6 Toh eavTa>v Tpo(f)evai,v. iv oh laTopeoTat /cvcov 
'B^avGiTTTTOV TOV Ilepi/cXeov<; Trarpo? ovk dva- 
(ryopjevo^i Tr)v air avTOv pLovaxTLV ivaXeaOai ttj 
daXdTTTj KoX Ty Tpitjpei irapavrj^opsvo^ ixireaeiv 

30 



THEMISTOCLES, x. 3-6 

besides to hire teachers for them. The bill was 
introduced by a man whose name was Nicagoras. 

Since the Athenians had no public moneys in hand, 
it was the Senate of Areiopagus, according to Aristotle, 
which provided each of the men who embarked with 
eight drachmas, and so was most instrumental in man- 
ning the triremes; but Cleidemus represents this too as 
the result of an artifice of Themistocles. He says 
that when the Athenians were going down to the 
Piraeus and abandoning their city, the Gorgon's head 
was lost from the image of the goddess ; and then 
Themistocles, pretending to search for it, and 
ransacking everything, thereby discovered an 
abundance of money hidden away in the baggage, 
which had only to be confiscated, and the crews 
of the ships were well provided with rations and 
wages. 

When the entire city was thus putting out to sea, 
the sight provoked pity in some, and in others 
astonishment at the hardihood of the step ; for they 
were sending off their families in one direction, 
while they themselves, unmoved by the lamentations 
and tears and embraces of their loved ones, were 
crossing over to the island where the enemy was to 
be fought. Besides, many who were left behind 
on account of their great age invited pity also, 
and much affecting fondness was shown by the 
tame domestic animals, which ran along with 
yearning cries of distress by the side of their 
masters as they embarked. A story is told of one 
of these, the dog of Xanthippus the father of 
Pericles, how he could not endure to be abandoned 
by his master, and so sprang into the sea, swam 
across the strait by the side of his master's trireme, 

31 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

et9 TTfv ^aXa/Mva koX XtiroOvfirjaa'^ arroOavelv 
6vOv<i' ov Kol TO SeiKPVfievov dxpi' vvv koX koXov- 
fjuevov Kvvo<i arjjma Td(j)Ov elvai \eyovai. 

XL TavTo. T€ Brj fjLeyaXa rod Se/jLLaTOKXeov^, 
Kot T0U9 TToXira^ aladofievo^i iroOovura^ 'A/?t- 
(TT6iBr}V Kol BeBioTa^i, fir) 5t* opyrjv rw fiap^dpo) 
irpocrOeh kavrov dvarpi-ylrrj ra irpdyixara t^9 
'EXXaSo? {i^wdTpaKLaTO yap irpo rov TroXifiov 
KaraaTacnaadel^i viro ^efiiaroKkeov^), ypdf^ei. 
yjnjcpKTfjba, rol^ iirX 'X^povcp fiedearcjaiv i^elvai 
KarekdoixTL TrpdrreLV kol \eyeiv to. ^ekTiara Trj 
^RXkdBi, /jLerd tcov a\Xoi)v iroXtrSyv. 

2 ^vpv^tdBov he rrjv fiev r)yefjLOVLav tcov vecov 
e%oi/T09 Sia TO T^9 X7rdpTr)<i d^lcofia, fJuaXaKOv 
Be. irepl tov kivBvvov 6vto<;, alpetv Be PovXofievov 
KOi ifKelv iirl rov ^laOfiov, qttov /col to ire^ov 
rjdpoLOTTO T&v UeXoTTOVvrjaicov, 6 SefjLia-TOKXrjff 
avriXeyev ore kol ra fjbvrjfiovevo/jueva Xey67Jval 
(f>aac. TOV yap Rvpu^tdBov 7rpo9 avrov el- 
irovro^' "'XI ©efiiaTOKXei^y ev toI<; dywac tol'9 
TTpoe^avia-Tafievov^ pairi^ovaiy^ " Nat," elirev 6 
%6fiLaT0KXrj<;y " aSXa tol'9 diroXetf^OevTa'i ov 

3 arecfyavovacv,** eirapafievov Be rrjv jSafCTrjpiav &)9 
Trard^ovTo^i, 6 Se/jLiaTOfcXrj^; 6(f>7}' " ndra^ov fiev, 
a/covaov BeJ* Oav/jLdo-avTO<i Be Trjv Trpaorrfra 
TOV Etvpv^tdBov fcal Xeyecv KeXevaavTO<it 6 fiev 
Se/jLKTTOKXrjfi dvrjyev avrov errl rov Xoyov, el- 
TTOvro^ Be Tivo<;, 0)9 dvrjp drroXi^ ovk 6p6S)<i 
BiBdaKei T0U9 exovra<i eyKaraXiTTelv xal irpoeaOat 



3,2 



THEMISTOCLES, x. 6-xi. 3 

and staggered out on Salamls^ only to faint and die 
straightway. They say that the spot which is 
pointed out to this day as " Dog's Mound " is his 
tomb. 

XI. These were surely great achievements of 
Themistocles, but there was a greater still to come. 
When he saw that the citizens yearned for Aristides, 
and feared lest out of wrath he might join himself to 
the Barbarian and so subvert the cause of Hellas, — he 
had been ostracized before the war in consequence of 
political defeat at the hands of Themistocles,^ — he 
introduced a bill providing that those who had been 
removed for a time be permitted to return home and 
devote their best powers to the service of Hellas 
along with the other citizens. 

When Eurybiades, who had the command of the 
fleet on account of the superior claims of Spai-ta, but 
who was faint-hearted in time of danger, wished to 
hoist sail and make for the Isthmus, where the 
infantry also of the Peloponnesians had been assem- 
bled, it was Themistocles who spoke against it, and 
it was then, they say, that these memorable sayings 
of his were uttered. When Eurybiades said to him, 
" Themistocles, at the games those who start too 
soon get a caning," "Yes," said Themistocles, " but 
those who lag behind get no crown." And when 
Eurybiades lifted up his staff as though to smite him, " 
Themistocles said : '' Smite, but hear me." Then 
Eurybiades was struck with admiration at his calm- 
ness, and bade him speak, and Themistocles tried to 
bring him back to his own position. But on a 
certain one saying that a man without a city had no 
business to advise men who still had cities of their own 

* Cf. chap. \.fin. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T^9 irarpiha^t 6 Se/JLicrroKXr]^ iTno-rpi-^jra^; rov 
4 \6yov' " 'H/Aei9 roi," elirev, " w jjboxOrjpi, ra? fiev 
olfcia^; Kol TO. rel'^rj KaraXeXoiirafiev, ovk a^i- 
ovvT€<; dyjrv^cov eveKa BovXevetv, ttoXi^ B* 'r)fuv 
€(rTi /jL€yL(TTrj T03V ^^IXXrjvihoiVi al SLaKoaiac 
TptTjpeifj, at vvv fiep vfuv irapea-rdat I3oy]0ol 
(Too^eaOaL 5t' avTMV ^oyXofxevoLf;, el 8' dircre 
hevrepov r)fid<i Tr/^oSoz^re?, avri/ca Treucrerat rt? 'E\- 
Xrjvcov ^AOrjvaiov; koI ttoXiv iXevdipav kol %a>/)ai/ 
6 ov 'X^lpova K€KTr)ijLivov<; 979 diriffaXov.*^ ravTa 
Tov S6fjLi(TrofcXeov<; elir6vT0<; evvoia kol Seo9 ea^e 
Tov ¥iVpvl3LdBr)p TMv ^KOrjvaiwVy /xrj (T(f)d<; diro- 
XeiirovTe^ oX'^ovrai. rov 3' *EpeTpL6(o<; Treipco- 118 
fjbivov Ti Xeyeiv irpo^ avroVy **'H ydp,^^ e^V* " ^^'' 
vfilv irrepl iroXepuov Tt9 eVri Xoyo^;, ot fcaOdirep al 
revOiSef; pd^aipap fiev e^ere, KapSlav Be ovk 

XII. AiyeTai S' vtto tcvqjv rov p^ev %ep,i(TTo- 
KXea Trepl tovtcov diro rov KaTaaTpcopaTO<^ 
dvooOev Tr]<^ V6cb<; BiaXiyeaOai, yXavKa 8' 6(l)9t]vaL 
BtaTreropivrjv diro he^id^ rcov vecov Kal rol^ 
Kap^r]crLoc<i iTTiKaOi^ovaav Bio Brj Kal paXccrra 
irpoaiOevTo rrj yvcop^rj /cal Trapeafcevd^ovTo vav- 
2 p,axn^ovTef;. dXX' eTrel to)v TroXefiicov 6 re 
crTo\o9 ry ^Attlkt} Kara rb ^aXrjpiKov TTpoo-' 
(f)6p6p,evo<; Toi'9 rrrept^ direKpy^ev alytaXov'^, 
avr6<! re I3aat7<£v^ p,erd tov ire^ov arparov 
Kara^d^i iirl ttjv OdXarrav dOpov<; axfyOrj, rS)v 
Be Bwdp^ewv ojjlov yevopAvcoVt e^eppvrjo-av ol rov 
SefjbLcrroKX€ov<; Xoyoi rcov 'FtXXrjvcov /cat rrdXtv 
errdinaLvov ol YleXoirovvriaLOi, 7rpb<; rov ^Ia-6fi6v, 

34 



THEMISTOCLES, xi. 3-xii. 2 

to abandon and betray them, Themistocles addressed 
his speech with emphasis to him, saying : " It is true, 
thou wretch, that we have left behind us our houses 
and our city walls, not deeming it meet for the sake 
of such lifeless things to be in subjection ; but 
we still have a city, the greatest in Hellas, our two 
hundred triremes, which now are ready to aid you if 
you choose to be saved by them ; but if you go 06F 
and betray us for the second time, straightway many 
a Hellene will learn that the Athenians have won for 
themselves a city that is free and a territory that is 
far better than the one they cast aside." When 
Themistocles said this, Eurybiades began to reflect, 
and was seized with fear lest the Athenians go away 
and abandon him. And again, when the Eretrian tried 
to argue somewhat against him, " Indeed ! " said he, 
" what argument can ye make about war, who, like 
the cuttle-fish, have a long pouch in the place where 
your heart ought to be ? " 

XII. Some tell the story that while Themistocles 
was thus speaking from off the deck of his ship, an 
owl was seen to fly through the fleet from the right 
and alight in his rigging; wherefore his hearers 
espoused his opinion most eagerly and prepared to 
do battle with their ships. But soon the enemy's 
armament beset the coast of Attica down to the 
haven of Phalerum, so as to hide from view the 
neighbouring shores ; then the King in person with 
his infantry came down to the sea, so that he could 
be seen with all his hosts ; and presently, in view of 
this junction of hostile forces, the words of Themis- 
tocles ebbed out of the minds of the Hellenes, and 
the Peloponnesians again turned their eyes wistfully 
towards the Isthmus and were vexed if any one spake 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€t Tf9 dWo Ti \eyot ')(^a\€7ratvovTe<;, iSoxei S^ t?}9 
vvkt6<; a'iTO')(a>pelv koX iraprjyyiWero ttXoi)? toU 

3 Kv^epvtjTaiff, evda Brj jSapewf; <j)6p(ov 6 ©eyLtt- 
<TT0K\7J<;y el rr)v airo tov tottov koX twv arevoov 
7rp06fjL6P0t> ^orjOeiav ol "^\Xrjve<; BcaXvOija-ovrat 
Kara TroXet?, iffovXevero xal (TvverLdei rrjv irepl 
TOV Xlkivvov Trpayfiareiav, 

*Hi/ 8e Tw fjL€v yevci Uepa-Tjt; 6 %LKt,vvo<;f alxfJM- 
\&)T09, €vvov<i Be rw SefiLcrroKXel koI t5)V reKVcav 

4 avTOv iravBayoayo^. ov eKTrep^iret 7rpo9 rov 
B.ep^rjv Kpv(j>a, KeXevaa^ Xeyeiv, on ^ejjLKTTOKXri^ 
6 Twv ^Adrjvaioyv o-rparrjyo^i alpovfievo^; rh ^a- 
cnXeco<; e^ayyeXXeo tt^wto? avrcp tou? "EW^/ra? 
airoBiBpaaKovra^, koI SiaKeXeverat /jltj Trapeivat 
(f>vyeLV avToh, aXV iv (o rapdrrovTac t(ov ire^&v 
X'^P^^ ovTe<; €7ri0ea-0ai kol Bia^Oelpai rrjv vavTi- 

5 K7JV Suva/JLiv. ravra S' o Hep^r)*; eo? aTT* evvoia'; 
XeXeyfJbeva Be^afxevo^ rjaOrj, koI TeXo<; evdv^ 
e^e<^epe 7rpo<; tou? r)yefi6va<; tmv vecov, ra? fiev 
aXXa<; TrXrjpovv Ka0* rja-vxiciv, BiaKocriai<; B* 
avaxpevra^ rjBrj TreptffaXeaOai top iropov ev 
KVfcXo) TrdvTa kol Bia^wa-ai, ra? vrjaov^, otto)? 
eK(f)vyoi /jLr]Bel<; tcjv TroXe/jLiayv. 

6 TovTcov Be TTpaTTOfievcov ^ApiaT€[B7j<; 6 Aval' 
fid^ov 'TTpcoTO^ alffdofievo^ rJKev eirl ttjv (Tktjvtjv 
TOV S€/iMi(TTOKXeov<i, ovK o)u <j)bXo<;f dXXa kol Bi 
e/ceivov i^coGTpaKtcTfievo^, wairep eipijTar irpoeX- 
OovTi Be T& %e/jbi,(7T0KXel <f)pd^€c ttjv KVKXaxnv. 
6 Be Trfv T€ aXXr)v KaXoKayaOiav tov dvBpo^ 

36 



THEMISTOCLES, xu. 2-6 

of any other course ; nay, they actually decided to 
withdraw from their position in the night, and orders 
for the voyage were issued to the pilots. Such was 
the crisis when Themistocles, distressed to think that 
the Hellenes should abandon the advantages to be 
had from the narrowness of the straits wliere they 
lay united, and break up into detachments by cities, 
planned and concocted the famous affair of Sicinnus. 

This Sicinnus was of Persian stock, a prisoner of 
war, but devoted to Themistocles, and the paeda- 
gogue of his children. This man was sent to Xerxes 
secretly with orders to say : " Themistocles the Athe- 
nian general elects the King's cause, and is the first 
one to announce to him that the Hellenes are trying 
to slip away, and urgently bids him not to suffer 
them to escape, but, while they are in confusion and 
separated from their infantry, to set upon them and 
destroy their naval power." Xerxes received this as 
the message of one who wished him well, and was 
delighted, and at once issued positive orders to the 
captains of his ships to man the main body of the 
fleet at their leisure, but with two hundred ships to 
put out to sea at once, and encompass the strait 
round about on every side, including the islands in 
their line of blockade, that not one of the enemy 
might escape. 

While this was going on, Aristides the son of 
Lysimachus, who was the first to perceive it, came to 
the tent of Themistocles, who was no friend of his, 
nay, through whom he had even been ostracized, as 
I have said ; and when Themistocles came forth from 
the tent, Aristides told him how the enemy sur- 
rounded them. Themistocles, knowing the tried 
nobility of the man, and filled with admiration for 

3^: 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

etSft>9 KoX tt}? Tore Trapovaia^i aydfievo^ \eyei 
TO, irepX Tov ^LKivvov avro) kolI irapeKoKeL rS)V 
^^Wrjvwv (TweTTtXafi^dveadaL koI avfiirpoOvjJLel- 
adai TTLo-Ttv eXoPTa fidWov, ottco^; ev rot? (JTevol^ 
vavfiax/iawaLV. 6 fiev ovv 'ApicrretST;? iTraiviaa*; 
rov Sep^iaroKXea roif^ dXkovf; iiryet a-rpa- 
T7770V9 Kal rpC7}pdpxov<; iwl ttjv p^dx^jv irapo- 
^vvcov. €TL 8' oyLtG)? dinaTOvvTwv i(j)dvr} Trivia 
Tpi7]p7j<; avTop^oXo^y rj<i evavdpxei TIavaLTio<;, 
dirayyeXkovcra ttjv kvk\w(jlv, wo-re koI Ovp,^ 
T0U9 "FiW7]va9 opfjLTJaac fiera t^9 dvd<y/cr]<; tt/jo? 
TOV KivBvvov. 

XIII. "Kp.a 5' r}pLepa Hep^rj^ pAv dvco /caOrjaro 
TOV (TTokov iiroTTTevcov Kal TTJV TrapdTa^iv, o)? 
p>ev ^avo^rjpLo^; (pTjaiv, virep to ^HpdKXetov, fj 
^paxel TTOpfp Bi6Lpy€Tai ttj^ ^A-ttlkyj^; rj vr](To^, 
ft)9 3' *AKeaT6Bcopo<:, ev puedoplw t^9 yieyapiho<i 
virep Tojv KoXovpevayv K.6pdTcov, XP^^^^^ Sc^pov 
Oepuevo^ KCLi ypapupaTel^ ttoWov^ TrapaaTTj- 
(rdp.evo'^i wv epyov rjv diroypd^eadai tcl kuto, ttjv 
puaxw 'TrpaTTop.eva. 

%epiGTOKkel he irapd ttjv vavapxi'Ba Tpitjpr) 
cr<f)ayLa^op.ev(p Tpel^f irpoo-yxOrja-av alxP'dXcoToi,, 
KaWiaTOL p,6V ISicrOai ttjv oyjriv, ecrOrjo-i he Koi 
Xpy(^^ K€Koap.7]p.evoi BtaTTpeircjf;. iXiyovTO Se 
XavBavK7j<; 7raiB€<i elvat ttj^ jSaaiXicof; dBeX(f)ij<; 
Kal ^ApTavKTOV. tovtov<; ISmv ^v<^pavTiBrj<; 6 
/jLdvTt<;, ft)9 dp,a pLev dviXap^-^ev eK tcov lepoiv 
pLeya Kal irepLcjiavh irvp, dpba he wTapp^o^ ^''^ 119 

38 



THEMISTOCLES, xii. 6-xiii. s 

his coming at that time, told him all about the 
Sicinnus matter, and besought him to join in this 
desperate attempt to keep the Hellenes where they 
were, — admitting that he had the greater credit 
with them, — in order that they might make their 
sea-fight in the narrows. Aristides, accordingly, 
after bestowing praise upon Tliemistocles for his 
stratagem, went round to the other generals and 
trierarchs inciting them on to battle. And while 
they were still incredulous in spite of all, a Tenian 
trireme appeared, a deserter from the enemy, in 
command of Panaetius, and told how the enemy 
surrounded them, so that with a courage born of 
necessity the Hellenes set out to confront the danger. 

Xni. At break of day, Xerxes was seated on a 
high place and overlooking the disposition of his 
armament. This place was, according to Phanode- 
mus, above the Heracleium, where only a narrow 
passage separates the island from Attica ; but accord- 
ing to Acestodorus, it was in the border-land of 
Megara, above the so-called "Horns." Here a 
gilded throne had been set for him at his command, 
and many secretaries stationed near at hand, whose 
task it was to make due record of all that was done 
in the battle. 

But Themistocles was sacrificing alongside the 
admiral's trireme. There three prisoners of war 
were brought to him, of visage most beautiful to 
behold, conspicuously adorned with raiment and with 
gold. They were said to be the sons of Sandauce, 
the King's sister, and Artayctus. When Euphran- 
tides the seer caught sight of them, since at one and 
that same moment a great and glaring flame shot up 
from the sacrificial victims and a sneeze gave forth 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se^icov i<rriiJb7]vey rov ®€fii,<TTOK\ea Be^icocrdfievo^ 
eKeXevae tcov veavtcKcov Kardp^aaOat koI KaOie- 
pevaav irdvra^i oyfirja-rfj Atovvao) •npoa-ev^dfievov 
ovT(o yap djxa (rcoTqplav re koX vi/crjv eaeaOai 
Toh "EXXr}(Ttv, ifcirXayevTO^ he rov Se/uaro- 
k\€ov<; q)9 /jieya to /jbdvTevfia koX Betvov, olov 
emdev iv /ji6yd\,0L<; dyaxn koI irpdyfxacrt %aX€- 
TTot?, jxaXkov CK TCOV irapakoycov rj rcov evkoywv 
TTjv acoTrjplav iXiri^ovTe'^ ol iroKkol tov Oeov d/jua 

KOLVfj KaTCKaXoVVTO (jiCOVTJ Kol TOU? al)(/JLa\oi)TOV<; 

Tft) ^(Ofio) 7rpoaayay6vTe<; r)vdyKaaav, ew? o fiavri^ 
ifceXevae, ttjv Ovaiav avvreXeadrjvai, ravra 
fiev ovv dvrjp (j)iX6ao<l)o<; koI ypafi/judToyv ovk 
direipo^ laTopiKCdv ^avia<; 6 Kea^io^ etprj/ce. 

XIV. Uepl Be TOV ttXiJOov^ tmv ^ap^apiKwv 
vecdv Kl<T')(yXo<; 6 irotr}Tr)<; ft)9 av €lBco<; koX Bia^e- 
ffaLOv/jL€VO<; iv TpaycoBia Ilepa'ai<; Xiyet TavTa' 

"Bep^rj Be, Kal yap olBa, p^tXta? /juev rjv 
0)V rjye ^ TrXrjdot;' at 8' vTripKOfiTTov Td')(€i, 
eKarov Bl<i ^aav kirTa 6*' (wS* €%€i Xoyo%. 

TMV B^ *AttckS>v eKarov oyBorjKovra to irXrido^ 
ovacov eKaa-TT] tov<; drro tov KaTa(rTp(o/iiaro<; 
/jLa'x,o/JLevov<; oKTcoKalBsKa el'y^evy cov TO^OTai Tea- 
(Tape<; rjaav, ol Xotirol B' oirXlTai. 

AoKel B* OVK rJTTov ev tov Kaipov 6 SefML- 
(7T0KXrj<i rj TOV TOTTov (TVviBwv Kol <^vXd^a<; 
/jLTf TTpoTepov dvTi7rpa)pov<; KaTacTTrjaai rat? 
^apl3apiKal<i Ta<; Tpiijpei,^, rj ttjv elwdvlav 

^ UP Jiye Fuhr and Blass with Aeschylus : veoip rh. 

49. 



THEMISTOCLES, xiii. 2-xiv. 2 

its good omen on the right, he clasped Themistocles 
by the hand and bade him consecrate the youths, 
and sacrifice them all to Dionysus Carnivorous, with 
prayers of supplication ; for on this wise would the 
Hellenes have a saving victory. Themistocles was 
terrified, feeling that the word of the seer was mon- 
strous and shocking ; but the multitude, who, as is 
wont to be the case in great struggles and severe 
crises, looked for safety rather from unreasonable 
than from reasonable measures, invoked the god 
with one voice, dragged the prisoners to the altar, 
and compelled the fulfilment of the sacrifice, as the 
seer commanded. At any rate, this is what Phanias 
the Lesbian says, and he was a philosopher, and well 
acquainted with historical literature. 

XIV. As regards the number of the Barbarian 
ships, Aeschylus the poet, in his tragedy of " The 
Persians," as though from personal and positive 
knowledge, says this : — 

" But Xerxes, and I surely know, had a thousand 
ships 
In number under him ; those of surpassing speed 
Were twice five score beside and seven ; so stands 
the count." ^ 

The Attic ships were one hundred and jeighty in 
number, and each had eighteen men to fight upon 
the decks, of whom four were archers and the rest 
men-at-arms. 

Themistocles is thought to have divined the best 
time for fighting with no less success than the best 
place, inasmuch as he took care not to send his tri- 
remes bow on against the Barbarian vessels until the 

» Verses 341-343 (Dindorf). 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Mpav irapafyeveadai, to irvevfjua Xafiirpov ck 
ireXdyovi ael koI KVfia Blo, tmv crrevSiv Kara- 
yovcrav h Ta<; fiev ^FXXrjviKa^ ovk e^Xarrre vav^ 
aXtreveU ovaa^ koI raireLvorepa^, ra? Be ffapfia- 
piKa<i TOL^ T6 irpvpLvai^ avearwaa^ Koi toI<; Kara- 
arpcofiaa-tv v'^op6<^ovf; koI fiapeuaf; iiri^epofieva^ 
€(T(f)aW6 'rrpoairliTTov teal nrapehiBov 7r\ay[a^ 
ToU ''^Xkrja-iv 6^6(0^ 'jTpo(T<f)epo[ievov^ Koi tw 
%ep.LaTOic\el Trpoa-exova-iv, o)? opcovTV pLaXtara 
3 TO avpb(p€pov, KOI OTL KttT* iKelvov Hip^ov 
vavap'xp^ 'Api,apbev7]<; vavv eycov fieyaXijv coairep 
diro T€t^oi;9 iro^eve /cat rj/covn^ev, dvrjp djaOof; 
MV KCLi tS)v fiacn\ico<i dSeXipcov ttoXv KpanaTo^; 
re KoX BiKatoraro^i, rovrov pLcv ovv 'Ap.€tVLa<; 6 
AeKeXev<i koX ^cokXtj^ 6 Yiaiaviev^ ^ opbov irXeovre^, 
C09 at vTje^ dvTL7rpG)pot irpoairecrovaai koX avve- 
peiaaaat rol^ yoKKonp^ao-iv evea'xedr](TaVi iin- 
fiaivovTa rrj^ avrcop rpLijpovf; v7roaTdvTe<; koi 
Tot? BopacTi rv7rT0VT€<i eh rrjv OdXdacrav e^e- 
jSaXov Kal TO aSypLa pbeT dXXcov Biacfiepopievov 
vavayiwv *ApT€fii(TLa ryvcopiaaaa tt/oo? B,ep^7]p 
dvijvey/cev. 

XV. 'Ei^ Be TOVTO) Tov dr/a)VO(; ovto^ <^co9 pev 
eKXdp^^Jrac pueya Xeyovaiv ^^XevcnvoOev, rj-^ov Be 
Kal cjycourjv to Spidaiov Kare^eiv TreBiov d')(pL 
6aXdTTr)<;, ft)9 dv6 poDircdv opLOV iroXXoiv tov pLvari- 
Kov e^ayovTcov "Ia/t%oz;. e/c Be tov tcXtjOov^^ 
TMV (j)0 eyy opievcov Kara puKpov diro yrj<; dva(j)e- 
popievov ve(f)o<; eBo^ev avOi^ virovoaretv Kal Kara- 
(TKYjiTTeLv eh Td<; Tpirjpei^;. ^Tepot Be (pdcrpuaTa 

^ Uaiaviehs correction of Blass : lleSifhs. 
49 



THEMISTOCLES, xiv. 2-xv. i 

hour of the day had come which always brought the 
breeze fresh from the sea and a swell rolling 
through the strait. This breeze wrought no harm 
to the Hellenic ships, since they lay low in the 
water and were rather small ; but for the Barbarian 
ships, with their towering sterns and lofty decks and 
sluggish movements in getting under way, it was 
fatal, since it smote them and slewed them round 
broadside to the Hellenes, who set upon them 
sharply, keeping their eyes on Themistocles, because 
they thought he saw best what was to be done, and 
because confronting him was the admiral of Xerxes, 
Arianienes, who being on a great ship, kept shooting 
arrows and javelins as though from a city wall, — 
brave man that he was, by far the strongest and 
most just of the King's brothers. It was upon him 
that Ameinias the Deceleian and Socles the Paeanian 
bore down, — they being together on one ship, — and 
as the two ships struck each other bow on, crashed 
together, and hung fast by their bronze beaks, he 
tried to board their trireme ; but they faced him, 
smote him with their spears, and hurled him into 
the sea. His body, as it drifted about with other 
wreckage, was recognised by Artemisia, who had it 
carried to Xerxes. 

XV. At this stage of the struggle they say that a 
great light flamed out from Eleusis, and an echoing 
cry filled the Thriasian plain down to the sea, as of 
multitudes of men together conducting the mystic 
lacchus in procession. Then out of the shouting 
throng a cloud seemed to lift itself slowly from the 
earth, pass out seawards, and settle down upon the 
triremes. Others fancied they saw apparitions and 



43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol €iBo)Xa Kadopav eSo^av ivoirXayv dvBpoov dir* 
AlyLV7)<i ra^ X^^P^'* dvexovTcov irpb Tcav 'EtWrjvtKcjv 
TpiTjpcjv ov<; eXica^ov AlaKLBa<; elvai irapaKeKKr)- 
fievovf; eu^at? irpo rrjf; fidxv^ ^'^i' '^hv ^orjdeiav. 

2 IlyowTO? p^ev ovv Xap^dvet vavv AvKopT]Srj<i, 
dvrjp ^AOrjvaio^ rpcrjpapxcov, rj<; r^ irapdarjpu 
irepvKO'^a^ dvidrjKep ^AttoWcovi ha<f)Vif)(f)6p(p ^Xv- 
rj<nv. ol B' dXXoi. Tot9 ^ap^dpoi^ i^caovp^voi 
TO 7r\r]do<; iv arevw Kara pepo^i irpocrc^epop.evov'i 
Kol irepnriirTOvra'i d\K'q\oi,<i irpi'^avTo, p>ixP'' 
BelXr^^i dvTiax6vTa<:, &)? etprjKe %ip.(oviB7jf;, tt)p 
KaXrjv €K6ivrjv Koi Trepi^orjTov dpapuevot viicqv, 
rj(; 01)6* "EiW7}(TLv 0VT6 ^apPdpoL<; ivdXtov epyov 
etpyacTTaL \ap.7rp6T€pov, dvBpeia pev kol irpoOvpia 
Koivy t5)v vavpuxv^^^T^^* yvQ)p>y Bk fcal Beivo- 
TrjTL ry^ Sep,iaTO/c\eov<i, 

XVI. Mera B^ Tr)v vavpiax^CLv Hep^rj^ pJev en 120 
dvpopux^ov Trpofi Trjv dirorev^tv iirex^Lpei Bid 
'X^copudrajv iirdyeiv to iretpv Toh '^EXkrjaiv €l<: 
%a.\aplva, €p.(f>pd^a^ top Bid pbiaov iropov Sepia- 
T0/c\rj<i S* d'7ro7reipa>p,evo^ ^ApiaTeiBov Xoytp 
yvoop^rjv eiroielTO Xveiv to ^evypua Toi^ vavalv 
eirnrKevaavTa'^ eh ^RWijcnrovTOv, ''"Oirca^^^ 
60?/, " Tr]v ^Aaiav iv tt} FiVpcoTrrf Xdffcop^v.^' 

i Bvax^pci^POPTOf; Be tov ^ApiGTelBov /cat XeyovTO<; 
OTi, " Nw pev Tpv(f>o}vTi TM ^apfidpo) ireiroXep,!^ 
fcapuep, dp Be KaTaKXeicrcopLep eU ttjv *EXXdBa 
Kul icaTaaTrj(T(op,ep eh dvdyKrjv vtto Beov<i dpBpa 
TrfXiKovTOiP Bvpdpeayp Kvpiop, ovkcti KaOijpepo^ 

^ SeivSr-nri rp Fuhr and Blass with S : SctvJri^ri. 
44 



THEM ISTOCLES, xv. i -xvi. 2 

shapes of armed men coming from Aegina with their 
hands stretched out to protect the Hellenic triremes. 
These, they conjectured, were the Aeacidae, who 
had been prayerfully invoked before the battle to 
come to their aid.^ 

Now the first man to capture an enemy's ship was 
Lycomedes, an Athenian captain, who cut off its 
figure-head and dedicated it to Apollo the Laurel- 
bearer at Phlya. Then the rest, put on an equality 
in numbers with their foes, because the Barbarians 
had to attack them by detachments in the narrow 
strait and so ran foul of one another, routed them, 
though they resisted till the evening drew on, and 
thus " bore away," as Simonides says,^ "that fair and 
notorious victory, than which no more brilliant ex- 
ploit was ever performed upon the sea, either by 
Hellenes or Barbarians, through the manly valour 
and common ardour of all who fought their ships, 
but through the clever judgment of Themistocles." 

XVI. After the sea-fight, Xerxes, still furious at 
his failure, undertook to cany moles out into the sea 
on which he could lead his infantry across to Salamis 
against the Hellenes, damming up the intervening 
strait. But Themistocles, merely by way of sound- 
ing Aristides, proposed, as though he were in 
earnest, to sail with the fleet to the Hellespont and 
break the span of boats there, "in order," said he, 
" that we may capture Asia in Europe." Aristides, 
Jiowever, was displeased with the scheme and said : 
" Now indeed the Barbarian with whom we have 
fought consults his ease and pleasure, but should we 
shut up in Hellas and bring under fearful compul- 
sion a man who is lord of such vast forces, he will 

1 Ilerod. viii. 64. ^ Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graeci, iii.* p. 423. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VTTO (TKidBt XP^^V ^edcrerai rrjv fid^V^ i<p' 
rjavxia^i dWa iravra toX/jlmv koL Trdaiv avT6<; 
irapoDV Sid tov klvBvvov iTravopOcocrerai rd Trapet- 
fieva Kol ^ovkevaerai fiiXriov virep t(ov oXcov 

3 ov TTjv ovaav ovi/," e<f r;, " Set ^ecjivpav, w Se/jui- 
cTTOAcXet?, Vf^^ dvaipelv, aXV erepav, eXirep olov 
T€, 7rpo(rKaTa(TK€vd(TavTa<; eK^aXetv Sid rdxpv'i 

TOV dvOpCOTTOV e/C T7J9 FtVpCOTTT)^.*^ " OvKOVv" 

elirev 6 SefjLKrTOfcXrjf;, *' el Soxet ravra (rvficpepetv, 
copa aKOirelv koI fiTj^dvacrOai Trdvra^i rj^<i, 
oTTco^; dTTaWary^aeTai tt)v Ta^ff^Trfv i/e t^9 
'EXXaSo9." 

4 'ETret Se ravTa eSo^e, irefiirei Tivd t&v ^acriki- 
Kwv evvovx^v iv rot? al'XJJ'CiXcoroi<i dveupcov, 
^Apvdfcrjv ovofia, (ppd^eiv ^aaikel KeXevaa^, on 
TOi? fxev "FiWtjo-i SeSo/crai Tcp vavTcxS KeKparr]- 
K6ra<; dvaTrXeiu 6^9 tov 'EXXt^o-ttoi^toi/ iirl to 
^evyfia koI Xveiv rrjv <ye(j>vpav, S€/jLLaTo/€\rj<; Se 
KrjSofievof; ^acrikeay^ irapaivel (TirevSeiV iirl rrjv 
eavTov OdXarrav kol TrepaiovaSai, fjuexpt'^ avro^ 
i/jLTToiei TLva^ Siarpi^d^; T0t9 a-vfifid^oi^; xal 

5 fjLeWT]cr€i<; 7rpo<! Trjv Slco^iv. ravB* 6 ^dp^apo<i 
dK0V(7a<; koX fyev6[jLevo<i irepl^o^o<; Sid rdxpy^ 
iiroLeLTO rrjv ai^a^copT^crii/. kol irelpav t) %eyi,i- 
GTOKkkov^ KoX ^KpLareLSov ^povrjcrifi iv MapSovio) 
irapecrxev, elye iroXKoarr^^picp rrj^ 'Bip^ov Svvd- 
fX€(o<i Siaycovcadfxevoi UXaratdaiv eh tov irepX 
Tcov oXcov KivSvvov KariaTTjaav. 

XVIL UoXecov fievovvTrjv AlycvrjTcov dpcaTev- 
cral (f)r](Tiv 'H/00S0T09, SefitaTOKXei Se, Kaiirep 



46 



THEMISTOCLES, xvi. 2-xvii. i 

no longer sit under a golden parasol to view the 
spectacle of the battle at his ease^ but he will dare 
all things, and, superintending everything in person, 
because of his peril, will rectify his previous remiss- 
ness and take better counsel for the highest issues 
thus at stake. We must not, then," said he, " tear 
down the bridge that is already there, Themistocles, 
nay rather, we must build another alongside it, if 
that be possible, and cast the fellow out of Europe 
in a huiTy." " Well, then," said Themistocles, " if 
that is what is thought for the best, it is high time 
for us all to be studying and inventing a way to get 
him out of Hellas by the speediest route." 

As soon as this policy had been adopted, he sent a 
certain royal eunuch whom he discovered among the 
prisoners of war, by name Amaces, with orders to 
tell the King that the Hellenes had decided, since 
their fleet now controlled the sea, to sail up into the 
Hellespont, where the strait was spanned, and 
destroy the bridge; but that Themistocles, out of 
regard for the King, urged him to hasten into home 
waters and fetch his forces across; he himself, he 
said, would cause the allies all sorts of delays and 
postponements in their pursuit. No sooner did the 
Barbarian hear this than he was seized with ex- 
ceeding fear and speedily began his retreat. This 
thoughtful prudence on the part of Themistocles and 
Aristides was afterwards justified by the campaign 
with Mardonius, since, although they fought at 
Plataea with the merest fraction of the armies of 
Xerxes, they yet staked their all upon the issue. 

XYII. Among the cities, now, Herodotus^ says 
that Aegina bore away the prize of valour; but 

1 Tiii. 03. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aK0VT6<i VTTO (jiOovov, TO irpcoretov aireBoa-av 
a7ravT€<;, iirel yap dva'^cop^aravT€<; 6t9 rbv 
^laO/jLov airb tov ^co/xov ttjv '^rj<j)ov ecpepov ol 
(TTpaTrjyoi, irpSiTov [xev eKaaro^ eavrov aire- 
(j>aLvev aperfj, Sevrepov Se fxeO' eavrov Sefjuaro- 
fcXia. AaKeBatfiovLOL 8* et? tt]v XirdpTrjv avrov 
Kara^ya'yovre^ ^vpvffidSr) fiev dvhpeLa<iy CKeCv^ 
Be cro(f>La<; dpiaretov eBoaav OaXkov <ne<^avov, 
Kot tS)v Kara rrjv ttoXiv dp/juaTCov to irpoDTevov 
iBooprjaavTO xal TpLaKoaiov^i tcjv vecov irofiirov^ 
2 dxpi' TOiV opcov o-vve^eTrefjLyjrav. Xiyerai B* 
'OXvfMTTLcov T<av e(l>e^rj<i dyofjuevcov koX irapeX- 
66vT0<; 6t9 TO aTaBvov tov ®6fiL(TT0KX60v<;, dfieXr)- 
(TavTa<; tcov dycovtaToov tov<; irapovra^; 6Xt]v ttjv 
rjixepav i/celvov OedaOai kol TOL<i ^evoi^ eTTiBet- 
Kvveiv dfjba 6avp.d^ovTa<; koI KporovvTU^, ware 
/cat avTov rjaOevTa 7rpo<i Tov<i ^tXcf? oixoXoyrjaai 
TOV fcapTTov aTrex^iv tcov virep tt)^ 'EXXaSo? 
avT(o TTovrjOevTcov. 

XVIII. Kal yap rjv ttj (pvaei (fnXoTtfioTaTO*:, 
el Bel TeKfiaipeaOai Btd tcov diro/JLvrj/jLovevofMevcov. 
alpeOeU yap vavapyjo^i viro ttJ? iroXeco^; ovBev 
ovre tcov lBlcov ovt€ tcov kolvoov Kara p,ipo<i ixP^~ 
fiaTt^eVy a>OC iirave/SaXXeTO ^ to irpoa-TrlTTTOV 
eh TTJV rjfjbipav eKeivrjv, Kad^ fjv exirXelv efieXXev, 
IV ofJLOv TToXXa TTpaTTcov irpdyfiaTa fcal nravTO- 
Ba7roL<; dvOpcoirot^ ofitXcov ixeya<; elvai BoKfj Kal 
nrXelaTOv Bvvaadat. 

1 aA\' iirave^dw^To Fuhr and Blass with F^S: iAAA vir 
avefidWero every duty. 

48 



THEMISTOCLES, xvii. i-xviii. i 

among individuals, all virtually awarded the first 
place to Themistocles, though their envy made them 
unwilling to do this directly. For when the generals 
withdrew to the Isthmus and solemnly voted on this 
question, taking their ballots from the very altar of 
the god there, each one declared for himself as first 
in valour, but for Themistocles as second after him- 
self. Then the Lacedaemonians brought him down 
to Sparta, and while they gave Eurybiades the prize 
for valour, to him they gave one for wisdom, — a 
crown of olive in each case, — and they presented 
him with the best chariot there was in the city, and 
sent three hundred picked youth along with him to 
serve as his escort to the boundary. And it is said 
that when the next Olympic festival was celebrated, 
and Themistocles entered the stadium, the audience 
neglected the contestants all day long to gaze on 
him, and pointed him out with admiring applause to 
visiting strangers, so that he too was delighted, and 
confessed to his friends that he was now reaping 
in full measure the harvest of his toils in behalf of 
Hellas. 

XVIII. And indeed he was by nature very fond 
of honour, if we may judge from his memorable 
sayings and doings. When, for example, the city 
had chosen him to be admiral, he would not perform 
any public or private business at its proper time, 
but would postpone the immediate duty to the day 
on wliich he was to set sail, in order that then, 
because he did many things all at once and had 
meetings with all sorts of men, he might be thought 
to be some great personage and very powerful. 



49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 Tmv Sk ve/cpcov tou9 e/c7r6cr6vTa<; iina-KoirSiv 
irapa rrjv OdXarrav, cw? elBe 7r€piK6ifievov<: 
yjreXLa ')(pvaa koX <7T/3€7rT0U9, avTOf; fiev 
iraprjXOe, to) 8' eTTOfjiiva) (piXw BeL^a<; elirev 121 
" 'Az/eXou aavT^' av yap ovk el ©ejJLLO-TOKXrjf;/* 
7rpo<i Si Tiva tmv koXwv jeyovoTayVt *AvTi<f>dTr}v, 
V7repr]^dvw<; avrSt K6')(prj/jLevop Trporepov, varepov 

he OepairevovTa Sch rrjv So^av, ""^Xl fiecpaKiov,^ 
elirev, "6-^6 ^ev, dfjL(f)6T6poc S' djxa vovv icr^^- 

3 Kafiev.** eXeye Be tov<; ^AOrjvaiov; ov rifidv avrov 
ovBe OavfjLci^eiv, aXV waTrep ifKarofVcp x^i/jba^o- 
fievovq fiev virorpe'xeiv KcvSvvevovTa<;, euSta? 8k 
irepl avTOV^ yevofievr]^ rlWeiv fcal KoXovetv. rov 
Se 2,epL<f)iov 7rpb<i avrov elirovro^, to? ov Bl* avrov 
eaxv^^ Bo^av, dX\^ Bih rrjv rrroXtv, *'^K\r)6y] 
Xeyei^t^ elirev, " aXX' ovt av 670) Xep[(j)io(; cov 
eyevofirjv ez^Sof 09, ovt€ aif ^Adrjvalof;.** 

4 'Krepov Be tivo<; tcov (rrpar^^ycov, €09 eBo^e ri ^M 
•^pTjcTCfjiov Bia'7reirpa')(dai ry iroXei, Opaavvofievov 
irpo^ rov Se/jLiaroKXea Kal Ta<; eavrov ral^ 
e/celvov nrpd^eaiv dvTiTrapa^dXXovTO^, c^t] rfj 
eoprrj ttjv varepaiav epiaat Xeyovaav, a)9 e/ceivi] 

fjLev da'^oXicov re jiieaTr) Kal /€07rd>Br)<; earlv, iv 
avTTJ Be irdvre^ diroXavovcTL rwv wapeaKeva- 
(TfJLevcov (r%oXafoi^T69* rrjv 8' eopTrjv irpo^ ravT 
elirelv " ^AXrjOi} Xeyei,<;' dXX^ ifwd fir) yevofxevr)^ 
(TV OVK av Yjaua' Kufiov roivvv, ecfyrf, " rore 

5 fir) yevofievov, irov av ^re vvv vfiel^;*^ rov Bk viov 

50 



THEMISTOCLES, xvai. 2-5 

Surveying once the dead bodies of the Barbarians 
which had been cast up along the sea, he saw that 
they were decked with golden bracelets and collars, 
and yet passed on by them himself, while to a friend 
who followed he pointed them out and said : " Help 
thyself, thou art not Themistocles." Again, to one 
who had once been a beauty, Antiphates, and who 
had at that time treated him disdainfully, but after- 
wards courted him because of the reputation he had 
got, "Young man," said he, "'tis late, 'tis true, but 
both of us have come to our senses." Also he used 
to say of the Athenians that they did not really 
honour and admire him for himself, but treated him 
for all the world like a plane-tree, running under 
his branches for shelter when it stormed, but when 
they had fair weather all about them, plucking and 
docking him. And when he was told by the 
Seriphian that it was not due to himself that he had 
got reputation, but to his city, "True," said he, 
" but neither should I, had I been a Seriphian, have 
achieved reputation, nor wouldst thou, hadst thou 
been an Athenian." 

Again, when one of his fellow-generals who thought 
he had done some vast service to the city, grew bold 
with Themistocles, and began to compare his own 
services with his, " With the Festival-day," said he, 
" the Day After once began a contention, saying : 
'Thou art full of occupations and wearisome, but 
when I come, all enjoy at their leisure what has 
been richly provided beforehand ' ; to which the 
Festival-day replied : ' True, but had I not come 
first, thou hadst not come at all.' So now," said he, 
" had I not come at that day of Salamis, where would 
thou and thy colleagues be now ? " Of his son, who 

SI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ivTpv(f)0)vra ttj fjLrjTpl /cat 8i ifceivrjp avrtp (tkoi>- 
iTTcov eXeye ifkeicnov t(ov ^^XXijvcov BvvaaOar 
ToX<; fiev yhp "KKXtjctlv iirirdrTeiv ^ KOrjvaiov; , 
^Adr}vaL0i,<; S' avrov, avrm Be ttjv eKeivov firjrepa, 
TTJ firjTpl B' eKeivov, Xhio<; he tl<; iv Traai fiovKo- 
fi€vo<; elvai ')((opiov fjLev TriTTpdaKcov i/ciXeve KrjpvT- 
reiv, OTi Koi yeiTova ')(p7)(rT6v e%€f r&v Be 
fivcofievcov avTov rrjv Ovyarepa tov eTrieiKrj tov 
irXovaiov irpoKplvafi e<f>r) ^rjrelv dvBpa ')(p7]fidT(ov 
Beofievov fidWov rj '^(^pijfiaTa dvBpo^, iv fiev ovv 
Tot9 diro^deyfiacn, toiovt6<; rt? rjv» 

XIX. Tev6fjL€vo<; B* diro rcov irpd^eoav eKeuvcov 
ev$v<; eirex^ipet ttjv ttoXiv dvoiKoBofieiv Kal ret- 
'X^i^eiVf CO? fjb€V IcTTopel 0eo7ro/i7ro9, 'X^prjiMacn 
ireLaa^ purj ivavTKoOrjvai tov? i(f>6pov<iy <»9 8* ol 
TrXelaToi, irapaKpovadpevo^, rjKe fiev yap et? 
X7rdpT7)v ovofia irpea^ela'; iiTLypa-y^dp^evof;' iyKa- 
XovvTcov Bk T(ov ^irapriaTSiv, on retxi'^ovav to 
darv, Kol JJoXvap'^^ov KarrjyopovvTOfi eTrirrjBe'^ 
2 ef AlyiV7]<; d7ro(TTaXevTo<;, rjpveiro Kal TrejjbTreiv 
eKeXevev eh *A6i]va<; tov9 Karoylro/JLevov;, djua jjuev 
e/i^dXXwv tS) reix^o-fi^ 'X^povov i/c Trj<; Biarpi/Brj^;, 
dp,a Be ^ovX6/JLevo<; dvr avrov tov<; irefiirop^evovf; 
VTrdpx^iv T0L9 ^Adrjvauoi,^. o Kal avve^rj' yvovre^; 
yap ol AaKeBaLfjbovioi to dXrjOe^; ovk rjBUrjaav 
avTOVy dX)C dBr)X(o^ ')(aXe'TraivovTe^ direirep^-^av. 

'E/c Be TOVTOV TOV HcLpaid KarecrKeva^e, rrjv 
T&v Xifievcdv ev<j)viav Karavorjaa^ Kal ttjv iroXtv 

5? 



THEMISTOCLES, xviii 5-xix. 2 

lorded it over his mother, and through her over 
himself, he said, jestingly, that the boy was the most 
powerful of all the Hellenes ; for the Hellenes were 
commanded by the Athenians, the Athenians by 
himself, himself by the boy's mother, and the mother 
by her boy. Again, with the desire to be somewhat 
peculiar in all that he did, when he offered a 
certain estate for sale, he bade proclamation to be 
made that it had an excellent neighbour into the 
bargain. Of two suitors for his daughter's hand, he 
chose the likely man in preference to the rich man, 
saying that he wanted a man without money rather 
than money without a man. Such were his striking 
sayings. 

XIX. After the great achievements now described, 
he straightway undertook to rebuild and fortify the 
city, — as Theopompus relates, by bribing the 
Spartan Ephors not to oppose the project ; but as 
the majority say, by hoodwinking them. He came 
with this object to Sparta, ostensibly on an embassy, 
and when the Spartans brought up the charge that 
the Athenians were fortifying their city, and Poly- 
archus was sent expressly from Aegina with the 
same accusation, he denied that it was so, and bade 
them send men to Athens to see for themselves, not 
only because this delay would secure time for the 
building of the wall, but also because he wished the 
Athenians to hold these envoys as hostages for his 
own person. And this was what actually happened. 
When the Lacedaemonians found out the truth they 
did him no harm, but concealed their displeasure and 
sent him away. 

After this he equipped the Piraeus, because he 
had noticed the favourable shape of its harbours, and 

S3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oXrjv apfJiOTTOfievo^ Trpo^ ttjv OdXaTrav, /cat 
rpOTTOV TLvh Tol<i 7raXacoL(; ^aaiXevat, rcov ^Adrj- 

3 vaicov avTiirokiTevofievo^. eKecvoi fiev <ydpy w? 
Xeyerai, 7rpayfiaT€v6fievoi rov<; iroXLra^ diro- 
airdarai t^9 BakaTTT)^ xal o-vveOcaai t,rjv fir) 
irKeovTa^, aXkh rrjv %ft)/3av ^vrevovTa^, rbv irepl 
Trj<i *A6r]vdf; htehoaav Xoyov, ft)? ipiaavra Trepl 
T^9 %ft>iO<3t9 TOP UocreiBco Bei^aaa Tr)v ixopiav roi^ 
hiKacTTal^ ivL/crjae, ^€fiL(TTOK\ri<; B* ov^, ft)9 
^Api(TTO(j}dvr)<; 6 K(OfiiKo<; Xiyec, rfj irokei rov 
TLecpaid irpoaifia^ev, dWd t7jv moXiv i^rj\jr€ 

4 Tou JIeipaicb<; fcal Tr)V yrjv Trj<; OaXdTTr)^;' o9ev 
fcal rbv Brjfiov rjv^rjcre Kara rcov dpLarcov /cal 
dpdaov^ iv67rXr}a-€V, eh vavTa^ Kal KcXeva-rct^ 
/cal KvPepvrjTa<i t?}? Bvvdfieoix; dcjuKOfjbevTj^;. Bi,o 
Kal TO prffia to iv TIvvkI TreTroLTj/juevov uxtt 
diTO^eireiV irpo^ Trjv 6d\aGaav vaTcpov oi 
TpidKovTa irpo^ Tr)v 'X^copav direcTTpe^^av, olS/nevoi, 
TTjv fiev Kara OdXarrav dp')(rjv ykveciv eivoA, 
Brj^iOKpaTia^i, oXtyapx^cL 8' tjttov Bvaxepalveiv ^ 
T0U9 y€copyovvTa<i. " 

XX. Se/jLLCTTOKXrjf; Be Kal fiet^ov ti irepl Trjq 
vavTiKTJ^ BievorjOr] Bvvdfiecof;. iirel yap 6 tmv 122 
'RXXtjvcov cttoXo^; dTTrjXXayiievov Btip^ov Karrjpev 
et9 n.aya(Td<; Kal Btex^ifia^e, BrjfjLijyopcav iv Toh 
^AdrjvaLoi'; ecprj TLva irpd^iv e^eiv w^eXi/jLOv fxev 
avToh Kal (TcoTrjpiov, airopprjTOV Be 7rp09 tov<; 
2 7roXXov<;. T(ov B' 'A6i]vaLcov ^ ApiareiBr) cj)pdaai 
jjLOvw KeXev6vT(Dv, kolv €Keivo<i BoKifidarj irepai- 



54 



THEMISTOCLES, xix. 2-xx 2 

wished to attach the whole city to the sea ; thus in 
a certain manner counteracting the policies of the 
ancient Athenian kings. For they, as it is said, in 
their efforts to draw the citizens away from the sea 
and accustom them to live not by navigation but by 
agriculture, disseminated the stoiy about Athena, 
how when Poseidon was contending with her for 
possession of the country, she displayed the sacred 
olive-tree of the Acropolis to the judges, and so won 
the day. But Themistocles did not, as Aristophanes ^ 
the comic poet says, " knead the Piraeus on to the 
city," nay, he fastened the city to the Piraeus, 
and the land to the sea. And so it was that he 
increased the privileges of the common people as 
against the nobles, and filled them with boldness, 
since the controlling power came now into the hands 
of skippers and boatswains and pilots. Therefore it 
was, too, that the bema in Pnyx, which had stood so 
as to look off toward the sea, was afterwards turned 
by the thirty tyrants so as to look inland, because 
they thought that maritime empire was the mother of 
democracy, and that oligarchy was less distasteful to 
tillers of the soil. 

XX. But Themistocles cherished yet greater de- 
signs even for securing the naval supremacy. When 
the fleet of the Hellenes, after the departure of 
Xerxes, had put in at Pagasae and was Mdntering 
there, he made a harangue before the Athenians, in 
which he said that he had a certain scheme in mind 
which would be useful and salutary for them, but 
which could not be broached in public. So the 
Athenians bade him impart it to Aristides alone, and 
if he should approve of it, to put it into execution. 

» Knighta^ 816. 

VOL. TL C 55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vetv, 6 fiev @6fit(TT0fc\rj<; e^paae rw ^Apia-TeiSy, 
TO vecoptov i/jLTrpijaai, ZtavoeladaL rSyv ^^Wrjvwv 
6 B' 'ApLarecSijf; eh tov Stj/mov irapeXOcov e(f>rj Trj<; 
iTpd^eco^y rjv Biavoetrat irpaTTCiV 6 Se/niaroKXrjf;, 
fjbTjSefjLiav elvai ^rjT6 XvacTeXearepav iJLrjT clBlko)- 
T€pav. oi fi€v ovv ^AOrjvaioi 8ia ravra iravaa- 
adai T& (^efiiaTO/cXel irpoo-era^av. 

3 'Ei' he Toh ^ AfixfiiKTVovLKoh avveSpLoif; t&v 
AaKeBacfiovleov elarjyovfievcov, 07rco<i aireipr^oyvTai 
rrj? *A/jL(f>LKTVOVLa^ at fir} avfijia'xrjaacrat Kara 
TOV yirjhov TToXet?, ^o^rjOelf;, fir) @€TraXov<; koI 
*Apy€Lov^y €TL Be @r}ffaL0v^ eK^aX6vTe<^ tov 
crvveBpiov iravreXSi'^ eTriKparijcTcoac tmv yjrTj^cov 
Koi yevrjTai to Bokovv e^etVot?, (Twelire Ta2<; 
TToXecTL Kol fieTedrjKe ra? fyvco/xaf; tcou TrvXayopcov, 

4 BiBd^a^y C09 TpcdfcovTa fcal fila jjuovai TroXet? 
elalv at pLeTacT')(pv(TaL tov TroXe/juov, koX tovtcdv 
al 7rXeiov<^ TravTairaa-L jMLKpai' Becvov o^v, el 
TTJ^ dXXr}<; 'EXXaSo? eKcnrovBov yevoixevr]^ i'/rl 
rat? ixeyi<TTai<i Bvalv rj Tptal TroXeaiv ecTTau to 
avveBpiov. e/c tovtov fiev ovv fidXiaTa toI^ 
AaKeBat/jboviOi<; irpoaeKpovae' Bio koX tov Kip^cova 
irporjyov rat? Ti/,taZ?, avTiiraXov ev Ty iroXiTeia 
Tc3 ^epLicTTOicXel KaOL(rTdvT€<;. 

XXI. 'Hv Be fcal toa9 cruyu,yLta;)^0A9 eVa^^i;? 
TrepiirXecov t€ Ta<i v^crov; kol %p'>7yu.aTffo/x6vo9 
dir avTMV ola kol irpb^; ^AvBpiov^ dpyvpiov 
alTOvvTa (prjaiv avTOV ^YipoBoTO^ elirelv re koI 
aKovaai. Bvo yap y/ceiv e(f>rj 6eov<i ko/jLl^cov, 
UecOo) Kai ^iav oi B^ e^aaav elvat kuI irap 

S6 



I 



THEMISTOCLES, xx. 2-xxi. i 

Themistocles accordingly told Aristides that he 
purposed to bum the fleet of the Hellenes where it 
lay ; but Aristides addressed the people, and said of 
the scheme which Themistocles purposed to carry 
out, that none could be either more advantageous or 
more iniquitous. The Athenians therefore ordered 
Themistocles to give it up. 

At the Amphictyonic or Holy Alliance conven- 
tions, the Lacedaemonians introduced motions that 
all cities be excluded from the Alliance which had 
not taken part in fighting against the Mede. So 
Themistocles, fearing lest, if they should succeed in 
excluding the Thessalians and the Argives and the 
Thebans too from the convention, they would control 
the votes completely and carry through their own 
wishes, spoke in behalf of the protesting cities, and 
changed the sentiments of the delegates by showing 
that only thirty-one cities had taken part in the war, 
and that the most of these were altogether small ; 
it would be intolerable, then, if the rest of Hellas 
should be excluded and the convention be at the 
mercy of the two or three largest cities. It was for 
this reason particularly that he became obnoxious to 
the Lacedaemonians, and they therefore tried to 
advance Cimon in public favour, making him the 
political rival of Themistocles. 

XXL He made himself hateful to the allies also, 
by sailing round to the islands and trying to exact 
money from them. When, for instance, he demanded 
money of the Andrians, Herodotus ^ says he made a 
speech to them and got reply as follows : he said he 
came escorting two gods. Persuasion and Compulsion ; 
and they replied that they already had two great 
» Tiii. 111. 

St 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avToh Oeovf; jbieyaXovf; Svo, Ueviav /cat ^Kwopiav, 

2 u^' ci)V KcoKvecOai hovvat ')(^p7]jjLara eKeivw. 

TLfjLOKpicov S* 6 'P6Si09 fi€\o7TOio<i iv aafULTi 
KaOdineTai iriKporepov rod ©e/xto-ro/cXeou?, (09 
dWov<; jikv eirX ')(fi'qfiaaL (j^vydSa^ BiaTrpa^a/nivov 
KaTekOelv, avrov Bk ^evov ovra koI (f>iXov irpoe- 
fiivov Be dpyvptov. Xiyei> S* ovto)?* 

'AXV el ryye Havaavlav fj koI rvye advOiir- 

TTOv alveU 
Tj Tvye AevTvx^Bav, iyoi> S* ^ KpiareiBav iiraiveco 
dvBp* lepav dir ^Kdavav 
e\6eiv €va \&<nov eireX SeficaTOKXrf ri')(jdape 

Karoo, 

3 ^Irevarav, dBiKOV, irpoBorav, 09 TtfioKpiovra 

^elvov eovT 
dpyvpioi^ aKvpcOuKToicTL Treiadeh ov Kardyev 
et9 irdrpav ^laXvaov, 
Xa^oDV Be rpi dpyvptov rdXavT e/3a irXicov eh 

oKeOpov, 
TOt'9 p^ev KaTaywv dBtKco^;, toi'9 B^ eKBtd>Kcov, 

T0U9 Be Kaivcov, 
dpyvptcov vTroirXewfiy ^laOp^ol S* eiravBoKeve 

yeXotco^ ^jrv^pd Kpea Trape^cov 
oi 8' riadtov ktiv^ovto fir) copav Sep^taroKXev'i 

yeveadai. 

4 iroXif S' daeXyearepa koX dvaireinap^evr} p,dXXov 
€49 Tov ©e/ua-TOKXia l3Xaa(j>r]pia Kexp^rat fierd 



s* 



I 



THEMISTOCLES, xxi. 1-4 

gods^ Penury and Powerlessness, who hindered them 
from giving him money. 

Timoereon, the lyric poet of Rhodes, assailed 
Themistocles very bitterly in a song, to the effect 
that for bribes he had secured the restoration of 
other exiles, but had abandoned him, though a host 
and a friend, and all for money. The song runs 
thusi:— 

''Come, if thou praisest Pausanias, or if Xan- 
thippus. 
Or if Leotychidas, then I shall praise Aristides, 
The one best man of all 

Who came from sacred Athens ; since Leto 
loathes Themistocles, 

" The liar, cheat, and traitor, who, though Timoereon 
was his host. 
By knavish moneys was induced not to bring 
him back 
Into his native lalysus. 

But took three talents of silver and went cruising 
off, — to perdition, 

" Restoring some exiles unjustly, chasing some away, 
and slaying some. 
Gorged with moneys ; yet at the Isthmus he 
played ridiculous host with the stale meats 
set before his guests ; 
Who ate thereof and prayed Heaven *no happy 
return of the day for Themistocles ! * " 

Much more wanton and extravagant was the raillery 
which Timoereon indulged in against Themistocles 

^ No attempt is msMle in the translations of Timoereon to 
imitate the metre of the original. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTjv (f>vr^r]v avTov Kol rr)v fcaraSUrjv 6 TifioKpicov 
ao-fia TTOirjaa^it ov iartv apxH' 

Movo-a Tovhe tov /jl€\€o<; 

&)9 ioLKO'^ Kol 8l/caiov. 

XiyeTai S* 6 TifioKpicov iirl fi7}Bicrfia> (f)vyelv 
5 (rvyKaTayjr7)(f)i<TafjL€Vov rod %6/jLicrTOK\€ov<;, w? 
ovv 6 %eiJLLaTOK\ri^ cuTLav ecrxs fJur^hi^eLV, ravr 
iiroLTjarev eh avrov 

OvK dpa TtfWKpioDV fiovvo<; "S/lySoiaiv opxia- 'j^^ 

aW* ivrl koXKoi Bt) wovripol' ovk iyob fwva 

KoXovpi^' 
evrl Koi aXkai aXa)7reAC€9. 

XXIL "HSt; he koX twv ttoXltoov Bi^ to <^6o- 123 
velv rjSeco^; Ta<i Bia^oXa^; Trpoate/jbiveov rjvajKd^eTo 
Xvirrjpo^ elvai t(op avrov Trpd^ecov iroXXdKL<; ev 
Tft) Brip,at fivrj/jLovevayv' kol tt/oo? tov^ hv(j')(^epaL' 
vovTa^ " Tt K07ridT€j** elirevy " virb r&v avrmv 
TToXXdfCLfi ev 'Trda')(pvTe^; " '^vlaae Be roif^ ttoX- 
Xov^ Kol TO T^9 ^ApTefiiBo^ lepov ela-dpuevo^^, yjv 
*ApiaTO^ovX7}v fiev irpoa'q'yopevaev, ctx? dpiara 
2 Tfi TToXei Kal to?? "EWt^cta ^ovXevadp^evo^i, ttXtj- 
(Tiov Be T779 olKLa<! KaTca-Kevacrev ev MeXtTrj to 
lepoVi ov vvv Ta aco/juaTa tcov OavaTovpAvcov oi 
Brjfiioc Trpo^dXXova-i Kal Ta l/idTta Kal tou9 
ffp6xov<; tS)v dirayypp.evtjiiv Kal KaOaipeOevTOiv 
eK<f>epovcnv. eKeiTO Be Kal tov %efiLGTOKXeov^ 
60 



THEMISTOCLES, xxi. 4-xxii. 2 

after the latter's own exile and condemnation. Then 
he composed the song beginning : — 

" O Muse, grant that this song 

Be famed throughout all Hellas, 
As it is meet and just." 

It is said that Timocreon was sent into exile on a 
charge of Medising, and that Themistocles concurred 
in the vote of condemnation. Accordingly, when 
Themistocles also was accused of Medising, Timo- 
creon composed these lines upon him : — 

"Not Timocreon alone, then, made compacts with 

the Medes, 
But there are other wretches too ; not I alone am 

brushless. 
There are other foxes too." 

XXII. And at last, when even his fellow-citizens 
were led by their jealousy of his greatness to welcome 
such slanders against him, he was forced to allude 
to his own achievements when he addressed the 
Assembly, till he became tiresome thereby, and he 
once said to the malcontents : " Why are ye vexed 
that the same men should often benefit you ? " 
He offended the multitude also by building the 
temple of Artemis, whom he surnamed Aristoboule, 
or Best Counsellor, intimating thus that it was he 
who had given the best counsel to the city and to 
the Hellenes. This temple he established near his 
house in Melit6, where now the public officers cast 
out the bodies of those who have been put to death, 
and carry forth the garments and the nooses of 
those who have dispatched themselves by hanging. 
A portrait-statue of Themistocles stood in this 

61 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eiKoviov ev rat vaw r?)? ^Apiaro^ovXrj^; en xaO* 
rifia<;' KoX (\)aiv€Tai rt? ov rrjv "^vxv^ jnovov, 
aWa fcal rrjv oyfnv rjpwlKo^; yev6fjL€vo<;, 

3 Tov fiev ovv i^oarpaKLCTfjLov eiroirjo-avTO kot 
avrov Ko\ovovTe<; to a^lwfia koI ttjv virepoxv^) 
axTirep elcoOeaav iirl Trdvrcov, ov<; wovro rrj 
Svvdfiei ^ap€L^ koX tt/OO? lo-orrjra Brj/noKparLKrjv 
dav jJiiieT pov<; elvai. K6\a(n<i yap ovk rjv 6 efo- 
aTpaKi(T/jL6<;, dXka irapafivdia (pdovov koI kov- 
<f>tafjLo<; rjEofjuivov rw raireivovv rov^ VTrepe^ovra^ 
/cat Tr)v 8v<Tfiiv6Lav eh ravTTjv rrjv dn-ifilav 
dnroirveovrof;, 

XXIII. 'E/c7r€(roi/T09 hk t?)? TroXew? avrov koI 
StarpC^ovro<; ev "Kpyei rh rrepl Uavcraviav avfi- 
ireaovra Kar eKeivov rrapk(T')(e to?9 e')(6pol<; 
d<j)opfid<;. 6 Se ypay^rdfjbevo^ avrov irpoSoaLa^ 
A€co^(or7i<; rjv 6 ^ A\icp.aia>vo^ ^AypavXrjOev, dfjLa 
<Tvv€7rai,rLa>fjieva)V ro)v ^TrapTiarcjv. 6 yap Uav- 
cravia<^ irpdrrcov cKelva Br) rd irepl rrjv irpoBoaiav 
rrporepov /xev dire/cpvirrero rov SefiLaroKXea, 

2 Kaiirep ovra (j^cXov co? S' elSev eKTreirrcoKora rrj<i 
rroXireia^ Kal cjiepovra %a\67rco9 iddparja-ev eTrl 
rrjv Kotvcoviav rcov Trparro/Jiivcov TrapaKaXeiv, 
ypdfifJLara ^ rod ^aatkeco^; i7TcBeiKvvfi€vo<; avrq> 
Kal irapo^vvcDv iirl rov<; "EW7]va<; (09 irovrjpov^ 
Kal d')(apiarovf;. Be rrjv jxev Berjacv direrpiy^aTO 
rov Yiavcraviov Kal rr}v KOivwviav oXft)9 drreiiTaTO, 
7rpo<; ovBeva Be tov9 X070U9 e^rjveyKev ovBe Kare- 
fjbrjvva-e rrjv nrpa^LV, etre Travaeadat nrpoG-BoKtav 

* ypdfifiara Fuhr and Blass with F^S : rk ypd/xfiara. 
68 



THEMISTOCLES, xxii. a-xxiii. 2 

temple of AristohouU down to my time, from which 
he appears to have been a man not only of heroic 
spirit, but also of heroic presence. 

Well then, they visited him with ostracism,^ 
curtailing his dignity and pre-eminence, as they 
were wont to do in the case of all whom they 
thought to have oppressive power, and to be incom- 
mensurate with true democratic equality. For 
ostracism was not a penalty, but a way of pacifying 
and alleviating that jealousy which delights to 
liumble the eminent, breathing out its malice into 
this disfranchisement. 

XXIII. After he had been thus banished from 
the city, and while he was sojourning at Argos, 
circumstances connected with the death of Pausanias 
gave his enemies at Athens ground for proceeding 
against him. The one who actually brought in the 
indictment against him for treason was Leobotes the 
son of Alcmeon, of the deme Agraul^, but the 
Spartans supported him in the accusation. Pau- 
sanias, while engaged in his grand scheme of 
treachery, at first kept it concealed from Them- 
istocles ; but when he saw him thus banished from 
his state and in great bitterness of spirit, he made 
bold to invite him into partnership in his own under- 
takings, showing him a letter he had received from 
the King, and inciting him against the Hellenes as 
a base and thankless people. Themistocles rejected 
the solicitation of Pausanias, and utterly refused the 
proffered partnership; and yet he disclosed the 
propositions to no one, nor did he even give informa- 
tion of the treacherous scheme, because he expected 
either that Pausanias would give it up of his own 

> About 472 B.a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avToVy elr aXk(o^ Kara^avrj f^evrjcrearOaL crvv 
ovBevl \oyi(Tfi& Trpajfidrcov aroircov kol irapa- 
fioKwv opejofMevov. 

3 OvT(0 hrj Tov Tlavarariov OavarcoOevro^ eiTL- 
aroXai nve^ avevpedelaat kol ypdfjL/jLara irepl 
TovTcov et9 vTroyjriav ive^aXov tov SefMCcrTOKXia' 
Kol Karefiocov fiev avTOv AaKehatfxovLot, Karrjyo- 
povv S' oi (fidovovvre'; rcov ttoXltcov, ov irapovro^, 
dWa 8ih ypafMfjLdrayv aTroXoyovfjbevov fidXcara 

4 Tal<; irpoTepatf; /caryyopiai^i' Si,afiaW6fi€vo<; yap 
inro Twv eydpwv irpo^ rovf; irdXira^ eypacpev, (09 
ap'xeiv fiev del ^rjTcov, ap'X^eaOai he pur) ire^vKonf; 
p,7jS6 ^ov\6p,€vo<;, ovK dv TTore ^ap^dpoi^ avrov 
ovBe TToXepbiOL^ ^ dirohoaOaL pberd ri)^ 'E\Xa8o9. 
ov p^rjv dWd (Tvp>ir€i(TOe\fi viro tmv Karrjyopovvrcov 
6 5?5//-09 eirep^yfrev dvSpa<;, oh etprjro avWapu^dveiv 
KOi dvdyeiv^ avrov Kpidrjaop^evov iv roh'^EWrjaiv. 

XXIV. Tlpoaia66pLevo<; 8"* iKelvo<; et? K.ipKvpav 

BiCTrepaaev, ovor7)(; avr^ tt/oo? t^z; itoXlv evepyeala^;. 

TevopevQt; yap avr&v Kpirr)^ irpb^; KoptvOLOv<; 

i')(pvTa)V Bia<l>opdv, eXvcre rrjv e^^pav ecKoai 

rdXavra Kplva^ tov<; Kopi,v6Lov<; KarajBaXelv koI 

AevxdSa Koivfj vepeiv dpb<f)0Tepwv diroLKov. i/celdev 

B* eh "Hireipov €<f>vye' Kal hionKopbevo^ vtto toov 

AOrjvalwv Kal rcov AaKeSatpLovicov eppL-yjrev avrov 

eh eA-TTiSa? p^aXeTra? Kal diropov^ Karacpvyoov Trpo? 

2 "AhpuTjrov, o? ^aorikev^ pev rjv yioXorroyv, BerjOeh 

Be rt rcov ^ A0r)vaL(Ov Kal TTpoirrjXaKto-Oeh viro rov 

^ avrhv ou5c TroKe/xiois Fuhr and Blass with F^S : Kal jroAe- 
fdois avrhv. ^ aviyuv Fuhr and Blass with S ; i.-yuv. 



THEMISTOCLES, xxiii. 2-xxiv. a 

accord, or that in some other way he would be found 
out, since he was so irrationally grasping after such 
strange and desperate objects. 

And so it was that, when Pausanias had been put 
to death, certain letters and documents regarding 
these matters were discovered which cast suspicion 
on Themistocles. The Lacedaemonians cried him 
down, and his envious fellow-citizens denounced 
him, though he was not present to plead his cause, 
but defended himself in writing, making particular 
use of earlier accusations brought against him. Since 
he was once slanderously accused by his enemies 
before his fellow-citizens — so he wrote, as one who 
ever sought to rule, but had no natural bent nor 
even the desire to be ruled, he could never have 
sold himself with Hellas to Barbarians, much less to 
foemen. The people, however, were overpersuaded 
by his accusers, and sent men with orders to arrest 
him and bring him up in custody to stand trial 
before a Congress of Hellenes. 

XXIV. But he heard of this in advance, and 
crossed over to Corcyra, where he had been recog- 
nized as a public benefactor of the city. For he had 
served as arbiter in a dispute between them and the 
Corinthians, and settled the quarrel by deciding 
that the Corinthians should pay an indemnity of 
twenty talents, and administer Leucas as a common 
colony of both cities. Thence he fled to Epirus, and 
being pursued by the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, 
he threw himself upon grievous and desperate 
chances of escape by taking refuge with Admetus, 
who was king of the Molossians, and who, since he 
had once asked some favour of the Athenians and 



65 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

%efu>(TTOK\eov^y or TjK/ia^ev iv rrj TroXircLa, 8t 
opyij^ €t%€z/ avTov ael koI BrjXo^ rjVy el Xd^oi, 124 
TL/jLa)prjo-6/JL€vo^. iv Be ry Tore tvxo fJidWov 6 
@€fiLaTOK\rj<; ^o^r]0el<; crvyyevrj koI irpoa-^aTov 
(pdovov 0/97^9 TTokaidf; fcal /3aG-L\i,Krj<;, ravTrj 
<l>ep(ov viredrjKev eavrov, iKerr}^ rov ^ASfiijTov 
KaTa<TTa^ vBtov riva koX TraprjWay/nevov Tpoirov. 
i'Xpyv yap avTOV rov viov ovra TralBa Trpo? ttjv 
eariav irpoae'jrea'e, ravrrjv /jLeyiaTrjv /cat p,6v7]v 
G-x^Bov avavTipprjTOV rjyovfievcov iKecriav rcov M 
M^o\o(T<T(ov, evLot, fj^ev ovv ^dlav t^i/ yvvalKa rov 
fiaariXeco^: \eyovcnv VTToOiaOav Ta> SefiLaroKXel to 
iKeTevfia tovto koI top viov eirl rrjv eariav 
Kadlaai fier avrov' rivh 8* avrbv tov "ASytwyTor, 
6)9 a<f>oarL(t)(Tano rrpof; rov^ Bi,a)K0VTa<; rrjv 
avdyxrjv, Bo* fjv ovk efcBlBcoa-i, rov dvBpa, BiaOetvai 
Kol o-vvTpaywBrja-ai rrjv iKealav, 

'E/^et B* avT^ rrjv yvvai/ca koX tov<; TraiBa^ 
€KK\e'^a'i ifc Tcav ^Adrjvwv *EiTnKpdTrj<; 6 ^A^cipvevf; 
aTreo-Teikev' ov 67rl tovto) K.lfioi)v vcrrepov Kpiva<i 
idavdracrev, cw? laropel %Tr}GipbPpoTo<;. elr ovk 
olB^ OTTCO'i iiriXaOofievof; tovtcov rj tov SefiiaroKXia 
iroicav eTTiXaOojiievov irXeva-ai (prja-cv et? ^iKeXiav 
Kai Trap *lepcovo<; alrelv tov rvpdvvov ttjv Ovya- 
Tepa 7r/jo9 ydfiov, vTTco-'xyovfievov avT& tov^ 
'^ISiXXrjva^ virrjKoov; woLTjcreiv' diroTpiyjra/jLevov^ Be 
tov 'l€pct)i/09, ovTox; eh ttjv ^Aaiav dirapai, 
^ kiforrpv^a^hov Fuhr and Blass with S : airoarp€\l/afi4vov, 

66 



THEMISTOCLES, xxiv. 2-4 

had been insultingly refused it by Themistocles, then 
at the height of his political influence, was angry 
with him ever after, and made it plain that he would 
take vengeance on him if he caught him. But in 
the desperate fortune of that time Themistocles was 
more afraid of kindred and recent jealousy than of 
an anger that was of long standing and royal, and 
promptly cast himself upon the king's mercy, mak- 
ing himself the suppliant of Admetus in a way quite 
peculiar and extraordinary. That is to say, he took 
the young son of the king in his arms and threw him- 
self down at the hearth ; a form of supplication 
which the Molossians regarded as most sacred, and 
as almost the only one that might not be refused. 
Some, it is true, say that it was Phthia, the wife of 
the king, who suggested this form of supplication to 
Themistocles, and that she seated her son on the 
hearth with him ; and certain others that Admetus 
himself, in order that he might give a religious sanc- 
tion to the necessity that was upon him of not 
surrendering the man, arranged beforehand and 
solemnly rehearsed with him the supplication scene. 
Thither his wife and children were privily removed 
from Athens and sent to him by Epicrates of the 
deme Acharnae, who, for this deed, was afterwards 
convicted by Cimon and put to death, as Stesimbro- 
tus relates. Then, somehow or other, Stesimbrotus 
forgets this, or makes Themistocles forget it, and 
says he sailed to Sicily and demanded from Hiero 
the tyrant the hand of his daughter in marriage, 
promising as an incentive that he would make the 
Hellenes subject to his sway ; but that Hiero re- 
pulsed him, and so he set sail for Asia. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXV. Tavra S* ovk elKo^ iariv ovtco yevia-Oai. 
%e6(j>paaT0<i yap iv roi<: Hepl fiaaiXeia^ laropei 
Tov Se/jLLaroKXia TrifiyfravTOfi et? ^OXvfiiTiav 
*\ep(t)vo<i LTTTTOVf! orfcovLaTa*; koI a/crjvrjv rtva 
KaTe(TK€vaa/jLiv7]v 7ro\vT€\&<: arrjaavro^, elTrelv 
iv T0t9 ^'^Wi^at \6yov, ot)<; ^(^pr] Tr)v afcrjvrjv 
hiapTrdaaL rod rvpdwov koI fccoXvo-ai tov^: Xirirov^ 

2 dycovtaacrOaL. ^ovKvSuSrjf; Se (f^rjai koI irXeva-ai 
avTOv 67rl Tr)v irepav Kara^avra OaXaaaav diro 
T[vhvr)^y ovhevo^ eZSoro? oaTi^ etr) rSiv irXeovrcov, 
P'iXP^ ou TrvevfJLari rr}? 6\KdBo<i eh Nafoz^ 
KaTa<f>epofjLevr}^ vtto *A6r}valcov irokiopKovfievrjV 
TOTS (l>off7}6eU dvaBel^eiev eavrov t& re vavKkr|pt^ 
KoX T^ Kv^eppyrrj, Kal ra /lev Seofievofjy to, 
aireiXSiv Koi Xiyayv, on KaTrjyopjjaoi Kal xart 
ylrevaoiTO tt/do? tou9 *Adr)vaiov<i, o)? ov/c dyvoovi 
Te9, dWci. xPVf^'^^f' ir€iadevT€<i ef apXV^f dvaXdj. 
016V avTov, 01/70)9 cLvayKdaeie irapairXevaai 

3 \affeaOai T779 *AaLa<;. rSiv hk "Xprj/jidTcov avT( 
TToWa fiev vireKKkairevTa hth, tcov (ftiXcov 6« 
"^Kaiav eirXeC t&v Se (pavepoov yevo/iivcov 
frvvavOevTcov eU to hrjp,6(TL0v SeoTrofiiro^ 
eKarov rdXavra, %e6^paaT0<; Be oyBorjKovrd <p'rj(T^ 
yeveaOai to ttXtjOo^, ovBe Tpiojv d^ca ToXavTcov 
Ke/CTTjfJievov tov %ep,LaTOKXeov^ irplv dirTcaOac 
T^9 iroXiTeia^. 

XXVI. 'EttcI he KaTeirXevaev eh KvfiTfv Kal 
iroXXoiff; rjadeTO t&v eirl OaXaTTy 7rapa<l>vXdT- 
TOVTa<i avTOV Xa/Selv, /JudXcaTa Be tou9 Trepl 
^EpyoTeXr) Kal TLvOoBcopov (171/ yap 17 Oijpa 
XvaiTeXTf<: T0i9 to KepBaivei^v diro iravTo^ dr^airCyai, 

68 



THEMISTOCLES, xxv. i-xxvi. i 

XXV. But it is not likely that this was so. For 
Theophrastus, in his work " On Royalty," tells how, 
when Hiero sent horses to compete at Olympia, and 
set up a sort of booth there with very costly decora- 
tions, Themistocles made a speech among the 
assembled Hellenes, urging them to tear down the 
booth of the tyrant and prevent his horses from 
competing. And Thucydides ^ says that he made 
his way across the country to the sea, and set sail 
from Pydna, no one of the passengers knowing who 
he was until, when the vessel had been carried by 
a storm to Naxos, to which the Athenians at that 
time were laying siege,^ he was terrified, and dis- 
closed himself to the master and the captain of the 
ship, and partly by entreaties, partly by threats, 
actually declaring that he would denounce and vilify 
them to the Athenians as having taken him on 
board at the start in no ignorance but under bribes, 
— in this way compelled them to sail by and make 
the coast of Asia. Of his property, much was secretly 
abstracted for him by his friends and sent across the 
sea to Asia ; but the sum total of that which was 
brought to light and confiscated amounted to one 
hundred talents, according to Theopompus, — Theo- 
phrastus says eighty, — and yet Themistocles did 
not possess the worth of three talents before he 
entered political life. 

XXVI. After landing at CyTn6, and learning that 
many people on the coast were watching to seize 
him, and especially Ergo teles and Pythodorus, — for 
the chase was a lucrative one to such as were fond 
of getting gain from any and every source, since 

» i 137. « About 469 B.C 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

BiaKocTL&v i7ri,K6Kr)pvyfiiv(ov avT(p rakdvrcov vtto 
Tov l3aaL\e(o<;), ecfyvyev eh Alyd<;, AloXlkov 
TToXia-fidriov, vtto irdvrcov dyvoov/JL6VO<; irXrjv tov 
^evov ^LKoyivov^i 09 AloXicov ifkeiarrjv ovaiav 
ifC6KTr]T0 Kal rot? dveo BvvaroU yv(iipi^o^ V7rr)p')(e. 

2 irapd rovTca KpVTrro^evo^ 'r)fjL6pa<; oXiya^ BLirpiyjrev 
elra fierd to helirvov €K Ovaiav tlvo^ "OXySfo? 
o TMV TeKV(ov TOV ^LKoyevov<i TracSaycoyofi eKcppoyv 
yevopbevo^ koX deo^opifjTO^ dvecfxiovrjaev iv fieTpo) ^ 

TaVTL' 

NvKtI (fxDPTJV, VVKtI fiovX'qV, VVKTL Tr)V vUfJV 

BlBov. 

Kal fieTo, TavTa KOifxr^Oeh 6 S€fitaT0K\7J<; ovap 
eBo^ev ISeiv BpdxovTa kuto. t^9 yaaTpo^; avTov 
irepieXiTTOfievov koX irpoa-avepTrovTa tco Tpaxv^o)* 

3 y€v6fJL€Vov 8' deTov, cw? '^-yfraTO tov Trpoa-ooTrov, 
irepL^akovTa ra? 7rTepvya<; e^dpav koI KOfil^ecv 
iroWrjv oBop, ecTa '^pvaov tlvo^ KrjpvKelov 
<f>avevT0^y irrl tovtov aTrjaai ^e/Salay^; avTov 
dfir}')(^dvov BeifiaToq Kal Tapaxv'* diraXkayevTa. 

YiefxireTai B* o^v vtto tov ^iKoyivov^ f^VX^^~ 1^5 
aa/jL€Vov Ti TOLovBe.^ tov ^ap^apiKOv yevov^; to 
iroXif Kol fjidXtaTa to UepcriKov eh ^rfKoTviriav 
TTjv irepX TCL^ yvvaiKa^ dypiov ^vaei koI ')(aXe'ir6v 

4 iaTiv. ov yap p,6vov Td<; yafieTd<;, dWd Kal Td<; 
dpyvpcovTjTOV^; Kal iraWaKevop>eva^ l(T')(yp(a<^ 
irapacpvXdTTOvaiv, co? vtto fir}B6V0<i opaaOai tcov 
iKT6<i, dX)C OLKOt fJLev BiaLTaadai KaTaKeKXetcr- 
fiiva<i, iv Be Tah oBonropiac^ vtto aKrjvdfi kvkXo) 

* iivt^dtiniffw iv n4Tpq> Fuhr and Blass with S : av€<pci>vriat 
fjiirptf, ' roi6vif Fuhr and Blaas with F^ : roiovrov. 

70 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvi. 1-4 

two hundred talents had been publicly set upon his 
head by the King, — he fled to Aegae, a little Aeolic 
citadel. Here no one knew him except his host 
Nicogenes, the wealthiest man in Aeolia, and well 
acquainted with the magnates of the interior. With 
him he remained in hiding lor a few days. During 
this time, after the dinner which followed a certain 
sacrifice, Olbius, the paedagogue of the children of 
Nicogenes, becoming rapt and inspired, lifted up his 
voice and uttered the following verse : — 

" Night shall speak, and night instruct thee, night 
shall give thee victory." 

And in the night that followed, Themistocles, as 
he lay in bed, thought he saw in a dream that 
a serpent wound itself along over his body and 
crept up to his neck, then became an eagle as 
soon as it touched his face, enveloped him with 
its wings and lifted him on high and bore him a 
long distance, when there appeared as it were a 
golden herald's wand, on which it set him securely 
doAvn, freed from helpless terror and distress. 

However that may be, he was sent on his way by 
Nicogenes, who devised the following scheme for his 
safety. Most barbarous nations, and the Persians in 
particular, are savage and harsh in their jealous 
watchfulness over their women. Not only their 
wedded wives, but also their boughten slaves and 
concubines are strictly guarded, so that they are 
seen by no outsiders, but live at home in complete 
seclusion, and even on their journeys are carried in 
tents closely hung round about with curtains and set 



71 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'7repnre(f)payfi6va<i eVt tmv dp/jba/na^cov o^eio-Oai. 
roiavrrj^i t& @€fii>(7T0K\€l Karacr/cevaaOeLO-r]'; 
a7rrjvr}<; KaTaBif<; i/cofii^ero, rwv irepX avrbv del 
TOL<; ivTV'y')(avov(Ti koI 7rvv6avofievot<; XeyovTcov, 
OTL yvvaiov *FiWi]viKov dyovcTLV air ^l(0VLa<i rrrpo'; 
Tiva TMV iirl 6vpaL<i ^acrikeco^, 

XXYIL SovKvBlBTjq puev ovv koX \dp(ov 6 
Aa/jLy]raKT]vo<; laropovai reOvrj/coTO^; Biep^ov 7rpo<; 
Tov vlov avTOV TM ^6fiLaT0K\6i yeveadai rrjv 
evrev^tV "Fi(f)opo<; Be koI Aclvcov koI K\eLTap^o<; 
/cat 'HpaKXeiBrjf;, ert, 3' dWot irXeiove<^, 7rpb<; 
avTov d<f)LKe(TdaL tov ^ep^rjv. toZ? ^e ')(^povLKol^ 
BoKel fjbdWov 6 @0VKvBlBr)(; avfi^epeadaiy Kaiirep 

2 ouS* avTol^ drpefia G-vvrarrofievoif;. 6 S* ovv 
SefiKTTO/cXrji; yev6pLevo<; irap avTo to Beivov 
evTvyx^dvet wpcorov ^Apra^dvco r^ 'X^iXidpx(p 
Xeycov, ''^Wr)v fxev elvac, jSovXeaOac S* evrvxelv 
^aa-iXel irepX fieyCcrTayv irpayfidroov koI 7r/)09 a 
Tvy^dvec fMaXicrra aTrovBd^cov eKeivo<;. 6 Be 
(ftrjo-cv "'n ^eve, vofioi Bia^epovaiv dvOpcoTrcov 
dXXa S* dXXoL<; KoXd' koXov Be Trdcn rd oLKeia 

3 K0(TfieLV Kot (Tco^etv, v/uLd<; fiev ovv eXevOeplav 
IxdXiCTTa OavfJid^eLV Kal la-oTrjTa X0709* ^filv Be 
iroXXcbv v6fJL(ov KoX /caXcov ovtcov KaXXiaro^ ovro^ 
ea-TC, TVfidv ^aa-iXea, koX irpoaKVvelv co? elKova 
6eov TOV Ta nrdvTa (tco^ovto^. el fxev ovv eiraivwv 
Ta rjp^eTepa irpoaKW^aeLf;, eaTi aoi Kal OedaaaOai 
jSaacXea koI Trpoaei^irelv el S' dXXo tl <^pove2<iy 



72 



I 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvi 4-xxvii. 3 

upon four-wheeled waggons. Such a vehicle was 
made ready for Themistocles, and safely ensconced in 
this he made his journey, while his attendants replied 
in every case to those who met them with enquiries, 
that they were conducting a Hellenic woman, fair 
but frail, to one of the King's courtiers. 

XXVIl. NowThucydides^ and Charon of Lampsacus 
relate that Xerxes was dead, and that it was his son 
Artaxerxes with whom Themistocles had his inter- 
view ; but Ephorus and Dinon and Clitarchus and 
Heracleides and yet more besides have it that it was 
Xerxes to whom he came. With the chronological 
data Thucydides seems to me more in accord, 
although these are by no means securely established. 
Be that as it may, Themistocles, thus at the 
threshold of the dreadful ordeal, had audience first 
with Artabanus the Chiliarch, or Grand Vizier, and 
said that he was a Hellene, and that he desired to 
have an audience with the King on matters which 
were of the highest importance and for which the 
monarch entertained the most lively concern. 
Whereupon the Chiliarch replied : " O Stranger, 
men's customs diifer ; different people honour differ- 
ent practices ; but all honour the exaltation and 
maintenance of their own peculiar ways. Now you 
Hellenes are said to admire liberty and equality 
above all things ; but in our eyBs, among many fair 
customs, this is the fairest of all, to honour the King, 
and to pay obeisance to him as the image of that 
god who is the preserver of all things. If, then, 
thou approvest our practice and wilt pay obeisance, 
it is in thy power to behold and address the King ; 
but if thou art otherwise minded, it will be needful 

1 L 137. 

73 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dyyeXoL^ ^repoi^ XPl^V '^po^ avrov. ^acrCKel 
yap ov irdrpLov avhpb^ aKpoaaOat /jlt) irpoaKvvi]- 

4 (TavTO<;r ravra 6 @efii,(7T0K\'f](; aKov(ra<; Xiyei 
7r/5o? avTov* "'AXV 'iywye rrjv ^aaCkew^y w 
^KpTOLpave, <^riixr}v kol hvvafiiv av^r)(T(ov dcplyjbLai, 
Kol auT09 re TreCcTO/JLai Tot9 vp^erepotf; vofiOL^, 
iirel dew rcG jieyaXvvovTV Hepaaf; ovreo Boxec, koI 
Bl ifie 7r\€Love<; tojv vvv ^acrtXia irpocrKVP^aovaiv, 
Scrre tovto puTjhev ifiTToBcov earco to?9 Xoyoi^, ou? 

5 ^ovXofjLai 7rpo9 i/cetvov elirelv^* "Tlva 5'," elirev 
6 ^ApTafiavo^, " ^EtWTjvcDV d^Lx^cti ere <j)co/jiev; ov 
yhp lSi,a>T7} rrjv yvcofjLrjv eoiica^.^^ kol 6 Sefii- 
(TTOKXr}^' "Tovr ovKer az//' ecj^rj, " ttvOocto Tt9, 
^Aprd/Save, irporepo^ fiaa-tXeod^^ 

Ot/Tft) fiev 6 ^avLa<; (J)7)(tlv, 6 S* *FtpaTOaOev7j(; 
iv Tol<i Hepl ttXovtov irpodLaroprjae, Bid yvvaiKO^; 
^EperpiKT]^, fjv 6 X'^^ciPXO'i €Z%e, tw SefiLcrroKXel 
rrjv 7r/oo9 avrov evrev^iv yeveaOai koi avaraa-Lv. 

XXVIII. 'ETret S' ot>v elarixOr] 7rpo<; ^aatXea 
xal Trpoafcvvijaaf; earrj o-lcotttj, irpoard^avro^ 
r(p epjirjveZ rod j3aaL\eco(s epcoTrjcrai, Tt9 eVrt, 
KoX rov eppbrfvew^ ipcorijcravro^, elirev "'^'H^© 
(Toiy fiaa-Ckev, @ep,icrroK\7]<; 6 *A6r)vato<; iyo) 
<f)vyd<; vcf)* 'EX\i]va)v Bi(oxOei<i, w TroXXd [lev 
ocpeiXovcrL JJepaai Ka/cd, irXeica he dyaOd kcoXv- 
aavTi rrjv Blco^lv, ore ri)^ 'E\XaSo9 ev dacpaXel 
yevofiiv7]<; irapeaxe rd oXkoi (T(o^6fieva x^^p^o'O.o'Oal 
2 ri Kal v/jlIv, ifiol fJLev odv irdvra irpeirovra rah 
74 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvii. 3-xxviii. 2 

for thee to employ messengers to him in thy stead, 
for it is not a custom of this country that the King 
give ear to a man who has not paid him obeisance." 
When Themistocles heard this, he said to him: 
" Nay, but I am come, Artabanus, to augment the 
King's fame and power, and I will not only myself 
observe your customs, since such is the pleasure of 
the god who exalts the Persians, but I will induce 
more men than do so now to pay obeisance to the 
King. Therefore let this matter by no means stand 
in the way of the words I wish to speak to him." 
"And what Hellene," said Artabanus, " shall I say 
thou art who hast thus come ? Verily, thou dost not 
seem to be a man of ordinary understanding." And 
Themistocles said : " This, Artabanus, no one may 
learn before the King." 

So indeed Phanias says, and Eratosthenes, in his 
book " On Wealth," adds the statement that it was 
through a woman of Eretria, whom the Chiliarch 
had to wife, that Themistocles obtained interview 
and conference with him. 

XXVIII. That may or may not be so. But when 
he was led into the presence of the King and had 
made him obeisance, and was standing in silence, 
the King ordered the interpreter to ask him who he 
was, and, on the interpreter's asking, he said : " I 
who thus come to thee, O King, am Themistocles 
the Athenian, an exile, pursued by the Hellenes; 
and to me the Persians are indebted for many ills, 
but for more blessings, since I hindered the pursuit 
of the Hellenes, at a time when Hellas was brought 
into safety, and the salvation of my own home gave 
me an opportunity for showing some favour also to 
you. Now, therefore, I may look for any sequel to 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapova-ai^i a-vfixpopat^ ia-ri, koI irapeaKevaa ^evo^ 
a(f)ty/jLai he^aaOal re %a/)iv evfievS)^ ^LaWarro- 
fievov KoX Trapatretadai, fivrjacKaKovvTO^; opyrjv 
<rv he Tov<; efiov<i e^Opoiff; fidprvpa^ 6e^evo<i (av 
evepyeTqaa Yiepaa^, vvv aTroyjpr](Tai rat? e/zat? 
Tu^at9 irpo^ eiTihei^iv aperrj^; fwXKov rj 7r/?09 
airoTrXrjpwaiV opyrjv. (TCt)<reL<; fiev yap l/ceTrjv GoVy 

3 airo\e1<^ 8' 'EXXt^z/ojz/ irokefiiov yevojievov^^ ravr 
eiTTODv 6 SefjLLaroKXrj^ inTeOeiacre t& \6y(o irpoa- 
hie\6(hv T7]v oylnVf rjv elhev iv 'NLKoyevov<;, /cat rb 
/idvrevfjLa rod AcoSoovaCov Ato9, a)9 KeXevadeU 
7r/oo9 Tov 6/jLcovvfjLov Tov Oeov jSaU^eiv avfi- 
(ftpovijaete 7r/0O9 eKelvov avairejJbireaOai' fieyakov<i 
yap ajj,(f>OTepov<i elvai re koI \eyea6av 0a(TL\ea<;. 

^AKOvcrafi 3* o llep(r7j(;, eKeivw fxev ovBev aire- 
tcplvaro, Kaiirep Oav/jAaa^ to ^povqfxa Ka\ rrjv 

4 roXjJLav avrov' fiaKapLaa<; Bk 7rpo9 tou9 (jitkovi 
eavTov, ft)9 eTT evTV')^La fieyia-Tj}, Kal KaTev^dfievo^ 
ael T0t9 TToXe/jbioc^; TotavTa<; <j>peva<^ BiBovai tov 
^KpLfJbdviov, 07rft)9 eKavvwdi tov^ dpiaTov; ef eav- 
T(iiv, Ovaai re T0t9 Oeo2<; Xeyerai Kal 7rpo<; irocrtv 
€vOif<; TpaiTeaOaL Kal vvKTwp viro %a/oa9 Bid jxkdwv 
T&v VTTVcov fforja-at TpU' ""E;)^© %efiL(JTOK\ea tov 
^ k.Or]valovr 

XXIX. *' KpM 3' rjfJbepa avyKaXeaa^ roij^ (ptXav^ 

elarjyev avTOV ovBev^ iXiri^ovTa '^pijarov i^ Sv 

ecopa TOv<; iirl Ovpai^;, d)^; eTrvOovro rovvofxa ira- 

povTO^ avrov, ;j^aX67ra)9 BtaKeifievov<; Kal KaK(b<: 

* oifSfy Fuhr and Blass with F^S : fivSev, 

76 



THEMISTOCLES, xxviii. 2-xxix. i 

my present calamities, and I come prepared to re- 
ceive the favour of one vi^ho benevolently offers 
reconciliation, or to deprecate the anger of one who 
cherishes the remembrance of injuries. But do 
thou take my foes to witness for the good I wrought 
the Persians, and now use my misfortunes for the 
display of thy virtue rather than for the satisfaction 
of thine anger. For it is a suppliant of thine whom 
thou wilt save, but an enemy of the Hellenes whom 
thou wilt destroy." After these words Themistocles 
spoke of divine portents in his favour, enlargmg 
upon the vision which he saw at the house of 
Nicogenes, and the oracle of Dodonaean Zeus, how 
when he was bidden by it to proceed to the name- 
sake of the god, he had concluded that he was 
thereby sent to him, since both were actually " Great 
Kings," and were so addressed. 

On hearing this the Persian made no direct reply 
to him, although struck with admiration at the bold- 
ness of his spirit ; but in converse with his friends 
it is said that he congratulated himself over what he 
called the greatest good fortune, and prayed Arima- 
nius ever to give his enemies such minds as to drive 
their best men away from them ; and then sacrificed 
to the gods, and straightway betook himself to his 
cups ; and in the night, in the midst of his slumbers, 
for very joy called out thrice : " I have Themistocles 
the Athenian." 

XXIX. At daybreak he called his friends together 
and bade Themistocles to be introduced, who 
expected no favourable outcome, because he saw that 
the guards at the gates, when they learned the name 
of him who was going in, were bitterly disposed and 



77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X€yovTa<;, en S^ *Va)^dvr)fi 6 %fcXta/o%09, ft>9 Kar 
avTov rjv 6 @efJLLaTOfc\rj<i Trpoaicov, KaOr^jxevov 
fiaa-iXiax; koX tcov aXkcov o-kottcovtcov, drpifia 
(TTevd^a<; elirev ""O^i? "¥iWriv o 7roiK{Xo<;, 6 

2 fiaatXew^ ae BaifJLcov Bevpo 7]yay€vJ* ov fjirjv 
dX)C eh o-y^LV ekSovro^ avrov koX irdXiv irpoa- 
KVvrjaavTO<iy da-iraa-dfievo^ Koi TrpoaecTroov (piXo- 
<f)p6v(o<; 6 paaCkev^y ijSr} fxev ecprjaev avrw BiaKoaia 
ToXavra o^eiXetv KOfiLaavra <ydp avrov dirokr)- 
'^eaOai Si/caLco<; to iirLKtipv^^Oev rq) dyayovrr 
iroWo) Be irXeico tovtcov vTrca^velro /cal irapeddp- 
pvve /cal Xeyeiv eBLBov irepl tcov *EiWrjvtKG>v, a 
^ovXoLTO, 7rappr)aia^6fi€vov. 

3 *0 Be S€fii(TTOK\rj<; direKpivaTOt tov \6yov eoLKe- 
vai tov dvdpcoTTQV T0i9 iroiKikoi^; a-Tpcofiacriv ft>9 
yap cKelva Kal tovtov eKTeivofievov fiev eTriBel/cvv- 
aOai TO, eXBr], o-vaTcWofievov Be fcpvirrevv kol Bia- 
(^OelpeLV 66ev avT(p XP^^^^ Belv. eirel Be, r)a'6evT0<; 
TOV fiao-LXeco^ Ty elfcaa-la Kal Xafi^dvetv KeXev- 
cravTo^, eviavTov alT7j(rdfjLevo<; Kal rrjv UepaiBa 
yXcoTTav d7roXP(*iVT€i)<; eKfiaOobv evervyxave /3a- 

4 aiXel Be avTOVy tol<; fiev eVro? Bo^av Trapeo-^e 
Trepl TCOV 'EX\.7)vcKcov Trpayfidrcov BieiXexOai, 
TToWcav Be KaivoTO/JLOV/LLevcov irepl ttjv avXrjv Kal 
Tov<; <f)tXov<; viro rod ^acnXeco^; ev eKelvcp tco 
Kaipcp, (f)66vov eo-%e irapd toi<; Bvvaroh, co<; Kal 
KaT eKeivcov jrapprjaCa XPV^^^^^^ 7rp6<^ avrov 
d7ror€roX/x7]Kco<i. ovBev yap rjaav at rifial rah 
TCOV dXXcov ioiKvlai ^evcov, dXXd Kal KVvr)yea-Lcov 
paaiXel fierea'xe Kal rcov oXkoi BiarpiBcoVy Mare 

7» 



I 



THEMISTOCLES, xxix. 1-4 

spoke insultingly to him. And besides, Roxanes 
the Chiliarch, when Themistocles came along opposite 
him, — the King being seated and the rest hushed in 
silence, — said in an angry undertone : " Thou subtle 
serpent of Hellas, the King's good genius hath 
brought thee hither." However, when he had come 
into the King's presence, and had once more paid 
him obeisance, the King welcomed him and spake 
him kindly, and said he already owed him two hundred 
talents, for since he had delivered himself up it was 
only just that he himself should receive the reward 
proclaimed for his captor. And he promised him 
much more besides, and bade him take heart, and gave 
him leave to say whatever he wished concerning the 
affairs of Hellas, with all frankness of speech. 

But Themistocles made answer that the speech ot 
man was like embroidered tapestries, since like them 
this too had to be extended in order to display its 
patterns, but when it was rolled up it concealed and 
distorted them. Wherefore he had need of time. 
The King at once showed his pleasure at this com- 
parison by bidding him take time, and so Themistocles 
asked for a year, and in that time he learned the 
Persian language sufficiently to have interviews with 
the King by himself without interpreters. Outsiders 
thought these conferences concerned Hellenic matters 
merely ; but since about that time many innovations 
were introduced by the King at court and among his 
favourites, the magnates became jealous of Tiie- 
mistocles, on the ground that he had made bold to 
use his freedom of speech with the King to their 
harm. For the honours he enjoyed were far beyond 
those paid to other foreigners ; nay, he actually took 
part in the King's hunts and in his household diver- 

79 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcai firjTpl Tj) /3a(Ti\eco<; et9 oyfriv ekOelv fcal yevi- 
adat, Gwrfirj^iy BiaKOVdai Se koI tmv fMa^LKCdV 

5 Xoycov Tov ^acnXico^; KeXevaavro^;, eTrel 8^ A77- 
fidpaTO<; 6 ^irapTtdTri<; alTrjaaaOai Bcopeav KeX- 
evadeh rjrriaaTO rrjv Kiraptv, axrirep ol /SacrtXet?, 
€7rapd/j,€V0<; elaekdaai Bia XapSecov, IS/liOpoTrava- 
T779 fiev dv6'\lnb<; (ov ^aaCKecd^ elire tov Arj/jiapd- 
rov T^9 TLdpa<! dyjrd/jLevo^' " Avtt) fxev rj KLrapcq 
ovK e%€fc i<yKe(j>akoVy ov iirLKaXv-^er (tv 5* ovk 

6 ear) Zei;? civ \dpr}<; Kepavvov " dirwaafievov he 
TOV Arj/judpaTOV opyrj Sia to aiT7)pba tov iSacn- 
\€ft)9 KoX 8oKovvTo<; dTrapatTrjT(o^ e'^ecv 7rpo9 
avTOVt 6 SefitcrTOKXrjf; BerjOel^ eirecae fcal 
Si'^XXa^e, 

AeyeTai 8k /cal TOU9 va-TCpov jSacrtXeh, icfy' mv 
jjbaXXov at Uepcri/cal 7rpd^€t<! Ta?9 *EXXrjvi,/cat'; 
dveKpdOrjcrav, oadKL^i heTjdetev dv8po<i "EXXt^vo?, 
iirayyeXXeadai kclI fypd(j>ei,v €Ka<TT0V, ax; fiCL^cov 

7 €(TOLTo Trap avTO) (&€fitcrTOKXeov<;. avTov 8e tov 
Se/jLiaTOKXia (paalv '^Brj puiyav ovTa koI Oepairevo- 
fievov VTTO TToXXojv Xafi7rpd<i ttotc Tpairel^r]^ avTm 
irapaTeOeicT'qi; ^ irpo^ Toi'9 7ral8a^ eiireZv "^fl 
7ratS69, dircoXofMeOa av, el fiy dircoXofJiGOar Tr6XeL<i 127 
5' avT(p Tp€t<; fjuev ol irXelaTOi 8odi]vaL Xeyovatv 

eh dpTov /cat olvov koI o-^ov, Mayvrjaiav /cal 
Kdpi.-\\raKOv Koi M.vovvTa' 8vo 3' dXXa^ irpoaTi- 
OrjcTtv 6 Kv^if€r)vo<; NedvOrjf; fcal ^avia^, Hep- 
KCOT7JV Kol UaXataKTj'^lnv eh crTpwfivr)V koX 
dyinreypvr^v. 

XXX. ^aTajBaivovTL S* avrw irpo^ Ta9 'EX- 
\T)ViKa^ TTpd^et^ CTrl OdXaTTav tlipa-yf; dvrjp 
^ ainf irapaTiOeiaTis Bekker, Fuhr with F*S : irapaTf9d<rr}s, 

So 



I 



THEMISTOCLES, xxix, 4-xxx. i 

sions, so far that he even had access to the queen- 
mother and became intimate with her, and at the 
King's bidding heard expositions also of the Magian 
lore. And when Demaratus the Spartan, being 
bidden to ask a gift, asked that he might ride in 
state through Sardis, wearing his tiara upright after 
the manner of the Persian kings, Mithropaustes the 
King's cousin said, touching the tiara of Demaratus : 
" This tiara of thine hath no brains to cover ; indeed 
thou wilt not be Zeus merely because thou graspest 
the thunderbolt." The King also repulsed Demaratus 
in anger at his request, and was minded to be in- 
exorable towards him, and yet Themistocles begged 
and obtained a reconciliation with him. 

And it is said that later kings also, in whose reigns 
Persia and Hellas came into closer relations, as often 
as they asked for a Hellene to advise them, promised 
him in writing, every one, that he should be more 
influential at court than Themistocles. And The- 
mistocles himself, they say, now become great and 
courted by many, said to his children, when a 
splendid table was once set for him : " My children, 
we should now have been undone, had we not been 
undone before." ^ Three cities, as most writers say, 
were given him for bread, wine, and meat, namely : 
Magnesia, Lampsacus, and Myus ; and two others 
are added by Neanthes of Cyzicus and by Phanias, 
namely : Percote and Palaescepsis ; these for his 
bedding and raiment. 

XXX. Now as he was going down to the sea on 
his commission to deal with Hellenic affairs, a 
1 Thuc. i. 138. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'Ett^^ U779 ovojxa, aarpa'Trevcov t^9 avco ^pvylas, 
iire/BovXevae, irapeo-KevaKci)^ e/cTraXai, TliaiSa<; 
Tiva<i airoKrevovvraf;, orav ev ttj KaXovfievr} K(o/j,r} ^ 
A6ovTo/C6<f>aXa) y€v6jjL6vo<; KaravXiaOrj. rw Se 
Xiyerai KaOevhovri fieo-rj/jL^piaf; rrjv fii^repa rcou 
Oecov ovap (f)av6Laav elirelv* "'fl SefiiaroKXei^, 
varepet Ke(f>a\7]<; Xiovrcov, Lva fir) Xeovri TrepLirecrr]^. 
iyo) Be avrl tovtov ae alrco Oepdiraivav M1/7;- 

2 aiTTToXifJiav,^' Biarapa'^^Oeh ovv 6 Sefica-TOKXr}^ 
7rpo(r€v^dfjb€VO<; rfj OeSt rrjv fiev Xea)(p6pov d(j>rJKeVy 
ir^pa Be irepieXOcbv kclL 7rapaXXd^a<i rov roirov 
CKelvov i]Bi] vvKTO^ ovcrr]^ KarrjvXLO-aro. 

TcovBe Tr)V aKrjvrjv KopuL^ovTcov VTro^uylcov €V0<; eh 
Tov TTOTafjiov ifiireaovTO^y ol rod Se/nicTTO/cXeov^ 
ol/cerai ra? avXaia^ Biappoxovi yevofieva^ eKire- 
rdaravre^ dve^jrv^ov, ol Be IltcriSat ra ^[(prj Xa- 
/Soz^T6? ev Tovrq) TrpocrecpepovTo, koI ra yjrv')(^6fieva 
7r/)09 TTjv aeXrjvqv ovk dfcpi^m IBovre^ (prjOrjaav 
elvav T^v (TK7]vr}v rrjv Sefii,crTOKXeov<; KaKelvov 

3 evBov evprjaeiv dvairavofievov, 0)9 8* €77^9 yevo- 
fjuevot TTjv avXaiav dveareXXov, eirLiriirTovdiv 
avTol^ ol TrapacpvXda-aovref; koI avXXafi^dvova-i. 
Bia(pvy(bv Be tov klvBvvov ovtco koX Oavpbda-a^ ttjv 
€7rt(j)dveiav rrj<; Oeov vaov Karea/cevaaev ev M.ay- 
vrjaia ALvBvfi7]vr}<; koI ttjv Ovyarepa Mvrj<TL7rro- 
Xifiav lepetav direBei^ev. 

XXXI. 'II9 3' ^XOev €i9 XdpB€i<; koI a-^oXrjv 

1 Kdfin Fuhr and Blass with F^S : ir6kii city, 
82 



THEMISTOCLES, xxx. i-xxxi. i 

Persian, Epixyes by name, satrap of Upper Phrygia, 
plotted against his life, having for a long time kept 
certain Pisidians in readiness to slay him whenever 
he should reach the village called Lion's Head, and 
take up his night's quarters there. But while Themi- 
stocles was asleep at midday before, it is said that the 
Mother of the Gods ^ appeared to him in a dream and 
said : '' O Themistocles, shun a head of lions, that 
thou mayest not encounter a lion. And for this 
service to thee, I demand of thee Mnesiptolema to 
be my handmaid." Much disturbed, of course, 
Themistocles, with a prayer of acknowledgment to 
the goddess, forsook the highway, made a circuit by 
another route, and passing by that place, at last, as 
night came on, took up his quarters. 

Now, since one of the beasts of burden which 
carried the equipage of his tent had fallen into the 
river, the servants of Themistocles hung up the 
curtains which had got wet, and were drying them 
out. The Pisidians, at this juncture, sword in hand, 
made their approach, and since they could not see 
distinctly by the light of the moon what it was that 
was being dried, they thought it was the tent of 
Themistocles, and that they would find him reposing 
inside. But when they drew near and lifted up the 
hanging, they were fallen upon by the guards and 
apprehended. Thus Themistocles escaped the peril, 
and because he was amazed at the epiphany of the 
goddess, he built a temple in Magnesia in honour of 
Dindymene, and made his daughter Mnesiptolema 
her priestess. 

XXXI. When he had come to Sardis and was 

* Rhea, or Cybele, Magna Mater, called also Dindymen^, 
from Mount Dindyinon, in Phrygia. 

83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arf(ov iOearo r&v lepcav rrjv Karao-Kevr^v fcal rcov 
avadrj/jbdrav to 7r\7J6o<i, elSe Se iv /jLr)Tpb<; lepw 
TTjv KaXovfjbivrjv vBpo(j)6pov Koprjv %a\^^i^, fJui^eOo^ 
Bi7rY)')(vVy Tjv avTO<; ore t&p ^Adrjvqaiv vSdrcov 
iiriaTaTi]*; rfv, eka>v Tov<i v^ipovpuevovi to vScop 
Kol 7ra/3o%6Tei;oi/T<x9, dviOrjKev ex t^<? J^/Ata? 
irotrjadfievo^, ecre Brj iraOcov tl tt^o? ttjp alxM'(i'f^ 
\(o<7Lav Tov dvaOrjfjLaTO'i etre pov\6p,evo^ evhei^d- 
adat. T0*9 *A6r]vaL0i^f oarjv e')(eL ti/jltjv kuI hvvafjULV 
iv TOL<; /Sa<7tXea)9 irpdyfjuaai, Xoyov rw Avhla^ 
aarpdirrj TrpoaijveyKev aiTovp^evo^ dirocneTkaL rrjv 

2 Koprjv eh ra? *AOrjva<;. ')(aXeiTaLvovTO<i Be tov 
fiap^dpov Kol ^aarCKeZ ypdyjreiv ^7]aavT0<; eiri- 
aToXrjVy (fto^rjdeU 6 Se/jLt(TTOK\rj<i e/? ttjv yvvaLKw- 
VLTiv KUTecpvye Kal Ta9 iraXkaKiBa^; avTov 
Bepairevaas yprjp.aaLv eKetvov re KaTeirpdvve t^9 
opyrj*; koX Trpo^i tcl dXXa 'Trapel')(ev eavTOv evKa- 
^etTTepov, riBr) koI tov <^66vov t&v ^apfidpcov 
BeBoiKco^;. ov yap TrXavcafjuevo^ irepl t^j/ ^Aalav, 
0)9 <l>rjai O€07ro/i,7ro9, dXX evMayvrjcTLa fiev oIk&v, 
Kap7rovfjLevo<i Be Bcopea<; fieydXa^ Kal Tifico/nevof; 
6/jLoia Tlepar(ov tol<; dplaTOi^, cttI TroXifv 'xpovov 
dBe(b<; Bcrjyev, ov irdvv ti> T0t9 '^XXrjViKol^ irpdy- 
fiaai paaiXeay^ irpoaexovTO^ vir daxpXLiov irepl 
Ta9 dvQ) TT/Jaf 6^9. 

3 *il9 5* AtyvTTTOfi T€ d<j)LaTa/jLev7} fforjdovvTOJV 
^Adrjvaioav Kal TpLrjpetfs ^FjXXijvikoI p^e^pi' l^virpov 
Kal K.i,XcKLa^ dva-TrXeovaai koI Klp^cov daXaTTO- 
KpaTcov eirio-Tpe'^ev avTov avTeinyeipelv Tol<i 
"EXX^ct Kal KcoXveiv av^avojievov^ eir avTOV, tJBtj 



84 




THEMISTOCLES, xxxi. 1-3 

viewing at his leisure the temples built there and the 
multitude of their dedicatory offerings, and saw in 
the temple of the Mother the so-called Water- 
carrier, — a maid in bronze, two cubits high, which he 
himself, when he was water commissioner at Athens, 
had caused to be made and dedicated from the fines 
he exacted of those whom he convicted of stealing 
and tapping the public water, — whether it was 
because he felt some chagrin at the capture 
of the offering, or because he wished to show 
the Athenians what honour and power he had in the 
King's service, he addressed a proposition to the 
Lydian satrap and asked him to restore the maid to 
Athens. But the Barbarian was incensed and threat- 
ened to write a letter to the King about it ; whereat 
Themistocles was afraid, and so had recourse to the 
women's chambers, and, by winning the favour of the 
satrap's concubines with money, succeeded in assuag- 
ing his anger. Thereafter he behaved more circum- 
spectly, fearing now even the jealousy of the Bar- 
barians. For he did not wander about over Asia, as 
Theopompus says, but had a house in Magnesia, and 
gathered in large gifts, and was honoured like the 
noblest Persians, and so lived on for a long time with- 
out concern, because the King paid no heed at 
all to Hellenic affairs, owing to his occupation with 
the state of the interior. 

But when Egypt revolted with Athenian aid,^ 
and Hellenic triremes sailed up as far as Cyprus 
and Cilicia, and Cimon's mastery of the sea forced 
the King to resist the efforts of the Hellenes 
and to hinder their hostile growth ; and when at 
last forces began to be moved, and generals were 

^ 459 B.a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sk KoX Svvd/ui€i<i eKivovvTO KoX a-rparriryol SiCTrefi- 
irovTO Kol Karefiatvov ^ ayyeXiai. irpo'i @e/jLL(7T0- 
K\ea, tS)v *Fi\\r)viK(ov e^diTTeo-dav Kekevovro^ 

4 fiaaiXeQ)<; kol fie^aiovv ra? vTroa-'X^earei^, ovre Si 
opyrjv Tiva 7rapo^vv6el<; Kara rwv ttoXitcjv ovre 
iirapdeU Tipbfj roa-avrrj kuI Bwdfiec TT/ao? top 
TToXefJLOv, dX)C Lcrco'; fiev ovB^ icfuKTOv ^ rjyovp.evo^ 
TO epyov, aXXou9 re fieydXov^ t^9 'EWaSo? ^%ov- 
ar](; <7TpaTr)yov<; t6t€ kol Yiificovo^ virep^VM^; 128 
ev'rjfjb6povvTO<; iv T0t9 7roX€fii,KOt<;, to Bk irXelaTOV 
alBot Trj<; T6 Sof?;? r&v irpd^ecov Ttov eavrov teal 
T(ov TpoTralcov eKeCvcov, dpiara ^ovXevadfievo^ 

5 eindelvav T(p ^Lco rrjv reXevrrjv irpeirova-aVi eOvae 
Tol<i deoU, Kot T0U9 (plXou^ (Tvvayayayv kov Se^ico- 
<Td/JL€vo<;, ft)9 fiev 6 ttoXv^ \0709, alpxi ravpetov 
TTtdov, 609 5' evioL, (pdpfiaKOV i^ij/nepov irpoaevey- 
Kdp£vo^y iv MayvTja-La tcaTearpeylre irevre irpof: 
T0?9 e^rjKOVTa jSejSLCOKcbt; errj fcal ra TrXetara rov- 
Twv iv 7roXLT€LaL<; /cal rjyefJUOviaL^. rrjv S* alriav 
Tov davdrov kov tov rpoirov nrvdofievov ffaatXia 
XeyovcTiv en fxaXXov Oavjidaai tov dvSpa koI 
T0Z9 ^LXoL<i avTOv Kal oIk€lol<; 'X^pcofievov StaTeXetv 
^tXavOpooirco';. 

XXXII. 'ATreXiTre Be Se/JiiaTOKXrjf; 7raL8a<; i/c 
fiev ^ A.p')(i'iT'Tr'q<i tt)^ AvadvSpov tov ^AXcorrrefcrjOev 
*Ap')(^67rToXcv Kal UoXvevfCTOV Kal KXeocpavTov, 
ov Kal TiXdTcov 6 <j>iX6ao<j)o<f w^ t7r7r€ft)9 dpio-Tov, 
ToXXa 8* ovB6vo<: d^lov yevofiivov fivqjJioveveL. 

* Kari^aivov Fuhr and Blass with F^S : Kare&aivov tls 
Mayv7i<riav. 

* ovS' iitmerhv Fuhr and Blass with Y*S : ovk e<lnKrhr. 

86 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxi. 3-xxxii. i 

despatched hither and thither, and messages came 
down to Themistocles saying that the King com- 
manded him to make good his promises by applying 
himself to the Hellenic problem, then, neither 
embittered by anything like anger against his former 
fellow-citizens, nor lifted up by the great honour and 
power he was to have in the war, but possibly think- 
ing his task not even approachable, both because 
Hellas had other great generals at the time, and 
especially because Cimon was so marvellously success- 
ful in his campaigns ; yet most of all out of regard 
for the reputation of his own achievements and the 
trophies of those early days ; having decided that his 
best course was to put a fitting end to his life, 
he made a sacrifice to the gods, then called his 
friends together, gave them a farewell clasp of his 
hand, and, as the cun-ent story goes, drank bull's 
blood, or as some say, took a quick poison, and so 
died in Magnesia, in the sixty-fifth year of his life,^ 
most of which had been spent in political leader- 
ship. They say that the King, on learning the cause 
and the manner of his death, admired the man yet 
more, and continued to treat his friends and kindred 
with kindness. 

XXXn. Themistocles left three sons by Archippe, 
the daughter of Lysander, of the deme Alopec6, 
namely : Archeptolis, Polyeuctus and Cleophantus, 
the last of whom Plato the philosopher mentions 
as a capital horseman, but good for nothing else.^ 

* Thuc. i. 138. 8 Menoy p. 93. 

VOL. 11. D ^7 



p PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rSiv Sk Trpea-^vrdroDV Neo/cX^? jxev en irat^ cov 
v<j>^ Ilttttov ^T^^^el? diridave, AioxXia 8e Kvaav- 

2 S/309 irdiTiro^ viov iiroLrjauTO. 6vyaTepa<; Be 
7rXetov9 eV^ei^, oiv MvrjcriTrToXefiav fiev ix r?;? 
i7ri,yaiJbrjO€Lcrr}<; yevo/aivrjv ^ Kp^eirToXi^i 6 dBeXcpb^; 
ovK a)P 6/iiofjur]Tpio<i eyrjfiep, ^Irakiav Be UavOolBrj^; 
6 Xt09, 'Zvpapiv Bl 'NiKo/ju7]B7]<; 6 *K6r)vaio^' 
^c/cofid')(7]v Be ^pacriK\rj<; 6 dBe\(j)tBov<; %epi(no- 
Kkeovf;, -^Brj TeTe\€VT7jK6T0<; eKeivov, irkevaa'; eh 
M.ayv7]aLav eXafie irapa t(ov dBeXcpoJv, vecoTdTrjv 
Be TrdvTcav tcjv Te/evcov ^Aaiav edpe^fre. 

3 Kal rd<l)ov fx^v avTov \afiirpov ev rrj dyopa 
Mdyv7)Te<; exovar irepl Be rwv Xetyjrdvcov ovt 
^AvBoklBt} irpoo-e^eiv d^iov ev Ta> 11/909 tov<: 
eTaipov<i Xeyovrt, (j>a)pdaavTa<; rd Xei-^ava Biap- 
plyjrai. tou9 ^ A.dr}vaiov<; (^^evBerai yap iirl tov 
BrjfjLov irapo^vvcov tov<; 6Xi,yap')(^LKov<i), 6 re <J>u- 
Xap')(p^i coawep ev rpaywBia ry laropLa p^ovovov 
H'VX^^V^ a/3a9 koI irpoayaycov Neo/cXea rivd Kal 
Arj/jLOTToXcv, viov<i S€/jii(TTO/cXeov<if dycdva fiov- 
Xerai Kivelv Kal irdOo^, o ovB' av 6 Tvj(a)v dyvorj- 

4 (Teiev on ireTrXaaraL, Ai6Ba)po<; B' 6 TrepcrjyrjTrjs 
ev Tot9 Uepl fivrj/jbdrcov etprjKev C09 vttovomv p.dX- 
Xov Tj yiv(Ji>(TK(ov, oTi irepl tov fieyav Xip>eva tov 
Ti€ipaLS}<; diro tov KUTa tov "AXKip^ov aKpcoTrj- 
plov irpoKeiTai ti<; olov dyKcov, Kal Kdp.y\ravTi 
TovTOV eVT09, y to virevBiov Trj<; daXdTTr)^, Kp7}7rL<; 
ecTLV €V/j,€ye6r]<; Kal to irepl avTrjv ficofMoeiBe^: 
88 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxii. 1-4 

One of his two oldest sons, Neocles, died in boy- 
hood from the bite of a horse, and Diodes was 
adopted by his grandfather Lysander. He had 
several daughters, of whom Mnesiptolema, bom of his 
second wife, became the wife of Archeptolis her 
half-brother, Italia of Panthoides the Chian, and 
Sybaris of Nicomedes the Athenian. Nicomache was 
given in marriage by her brothers to Phrasicles, the 
nephew of Themistocles, who sailed to Magnesia 
after his micle's death, and who also took charge of 
Asia, the youngest of all the children. 

The Magnesians have a splendid tomb of Themisto- 
cles in their market place ; and with regard to his 
remains, Andocides is worthy of no attention when 
he says, in his Address to his Associates, that the 
Athenians stole away those remains and scattered 
them abroad, for he is trying by his lies to incite 
the oligarchs against the people ; and Phylarchus, 
too, when, as if in a tragedy, he all but erects a 
theatrical machine for this story, and brings into the 
action a certain Neocles, forsooth, and Demopolis, 
sons of Themistocles, wishes merely to stir up 
tumultuous emotion ; his tale even an ordinary person 
must know is fabricated. Diodorus the Topographer, 
in his work " On Tombs," says, by conjecture rather 
than from actual knowledge, that near the large 
harbour of the Piraeus a sort of elbow juts out from 
the promontory opposite Alcimus, and that as you 
round this and come inside where the water of the 
sea is still, there is a basement of goodly size, 
and that the altar-like structure upon this is the 

89 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Ta^09 Tov S€fit(7KOK\eov<;. oterat §€ koI JVkd- 
Tcova TOV KfOfiLKov avTw fiapTvpetv iv Tovroi<i' 

'O 0-09 Bk TVfi^o<i iv Ka\(p /cex(0(T/jL6vo<; 
roll:; ifiTTOpott; Trpoa-prjai^; earac 'jravTa')(ov, 
rov<: T^ i/CTrXeovra^ elaiiKeovrdf; t oyfrerai, 
'X&TTorav afiiWa^ roov vecov Oedaerai. 

Tot? 8* diro yevov^ tov ©efito-roKXiov^ /cal 
rifiav TLve^i iv Mayvrjcria (jyvXaTTojuevai, /Ji6)(pi, 
T&v r/fieTcpcov %/0oi/6)i; ycrav, a? i/capTrovro @6fML- 
o-toacXt)? *A0rjpa2o^, rnxeTepo^ avvrjOr}^ koI <^t\o9 
Trap AfifJLcovirp to3 ^CKoao^w yevofievo^, 

^ rovs t' corrected by Bekker to ots. 

* &fiiX\a Bekker has afxtW ^ after Porson. 



n 



90 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxii. 5 

tomb of Themistocles. And he thinks that the 
comic poet Plato is a witness in favour of his view 
when he says : — 

" Thy tomb is mounded in a fair and sightly place ; 
The merchantmen shall ever hail it with glad cry ; 
It shall behold those outward, and those inward 

bound. 
And all the emulous rivalry of racing ships.** 

For the lineal descendants of Themistocles there 
were also certain dignities maintained in Magnesia 
down to my time, and the revenues of these were 
enjoyed by a Themistocles of Athens, who was my 
intimate and friend in the school of Ammonius the 
philosopher. 



9» 



n 



CAMILLUS 



1 



KAMIAA02 



I. Uepl Be ^ovplov KafiiWov 7roXka>v koX 129 
fieydXwv Xejofievcov lBiov elvat BoKel fiaXiara 
Kal TrapdBo^ov, ort, irXeldTa jxev iv r)<yepboviai<; 
Kol ixeyiaTa KaropOcoaaf;, ScKraTcop Be TrevruKc^ 
alpeOeif;, Opiajufievcra^; Be T€Tpd/CL<;, /ctI(TT7j<; Be 
Trj<i 'Pa)/x?79 dva<ypa<^e\'i Bevrepo^, ovBe aira^ 

2 virdrevae, tovtov 3' atriov rj rrj^ Tore iroki- 
Te[a<i KardaTaaL'iy i/c Bca(l>opd<; rod Brjfjbov tt/jo? 
T'r)V avy/cXrjTOv vTrdrovi fiev eplaavTO<i fit] diro- 
BeiKvvGQaiy yjXidp^ov^ Be yeipOTOvovvTo^ iirl 
Tr)v iQje/jLoviav, (av, Kalirep dir i^ov(7la<s Kal 
Bvvdjjiea)^ v7rarifC'f]<; diravra Trparrovrcov, rJTTOP 
rjv eira'xOrj^i rj dp^rj Blo, to ifkrjOo^. to yap ef 
dvBpa^, dXkd p.rj Bvo, rot? TTpdyfjuaaiv iipcardvai, 
irapejJLvOelro rov^ jSapvvo/JLevovi rrjv oXtyap^iav. 

3 Kara rovTO Brj /caipou fidXcdra rfj Bo^r) Kal rot? 
TTpdyfiaatv dKpLdaa<^ 6 Kd/jLiWo<; viraro^ /xev ovk 
r/^Lcoaev ukovtc tw Byfio) yeveaOat, Kalirep ev t& 
Bed p.eaov Be^ap,evr]<i viraTtKa^ dp')(aLpeaia<; rrj'i 
TToXtreta? iroWdKi^, ev Be rah dWat'i rfye/jLovlai^i 

94 



CAMILLUS 



I. Turning now to Furius Camillus, among the 
many notable things that are told of him, this seems 
the most singular and strange, namely, that although 
in other offices of command he won many and great 
successes, and although he was five times chosen 
dictator, four times celebrated a triumph, and was 
styled a Second Founder of Rome, not even once was 
he consul. The reason for this lay in the political 
conditions of his time. The common people, being 
at variance with the Senate, strove against the 
appointment of consuls, and elected military tribunes 
to the command instead. These, although they 
always acted with consular authority and power, 
were less obnoxious in their sway because of their 
number. For the fact that six men instead of two 
stood at the head of affairs, was some comfort to 
those who were bitterly set against the rule of the 
few. 

Now it was at this period that Camillus came to 
the height of his achievements and fame, and he 
would not consent to become consul over a reluctant 
people, although during his career the city tolerated 
consular elections many times. But in the many 
other and varied offices which he held, he so con- 
ducted himself that even when the authority rightly 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToWaU fcal TravToBairaL^ yevofievat^; toiovtov 
avTov 'iTapea-)(€Vy uxttc Tr)V fiev i^ovaiav Kal 
jMovap'XpvvTO'; elvai Kotvijv, rrjv Be Bo^av IBiav 
Kal [Jbeff iripcov o-rparrjjovvTO^' Oiv rod jxev 17 
lieTpLOTr)^; aiTiov aveTTK^Oovco^ ap)(pvTO^, rod S* r) 
(j)p6vr)ai<;, Bt* rjv 6fJLo\oyov/jL6V(a<; iirpcoreuev. 

II. OuTTco Be Tore irepl top tmv ^ovpiayv ol/cov 
ov(jr)<; /jLe'yaXr]<; eVt^aj/eta? avTo<; a(p^ eavrov irpco- 
T09 eh Bo^av iTporfkOev ev Ty /xeyaXy fid^rj Trpo^ 
A.licavov^ Kal Ovo\ov(7kov<; vtto BiKTaropi Iloa*- 
TovjuLLO) Tou/9e/?TCt) (TTpaTev6iJbevo<^. irpOiTrirevcov 
yap Tov (jTpaTOV Kal irXrjyi} irepiireaobv et? top 
firjpov ovK avrJKeVf aX)C iyKeifMevov tw Tpavfiari 
TrapeKKWv to aKOVTiafia Kal aviMirXeKOfievo^ rot? 

2 apl(TTOi^ TOdV TroXejXiwv TpG7rr]v eTroLrja-ev. ck Be 
TOVTOV Tcov T oXkwv yepcov erv^e Kal Tt/j,r}Tr)<; 
direBeiyOrj, jmeya t?}? cupyrj^ d^i(0[xa TavT7}<; iTrl 
rSiv TOTe ')(^p6vcov exovar]^;. jjLvrjiJLoveveTaL Be 
avTOV TLfir^TevovTOf; KaXov fiev epyov to TOv<i 
dydpiov^ XoyoL^ re ireidovra Kal f/;/Atat9 direi- 
XovvTa (TvyKaTa^ev^ai ral^; YTjpevoixrac^ yvvai^l 
(iroXkal 8' r}(jav avrat, Bid rov^ '7ro\epiou<}), dvay- 
Kalov Be TO Kal tov<; 6p<pavov<; vTroreXel^; Trotrjaat 

3 iTpoTepov dveL(T(fi6pov^ ovTa^;. alTiai S* rjorav at 
crvvex^h (TTparelai /xeydXayv dvaXwjxdrwv Beo- 
fievac, Kal fjudXtcFTa Karrjireiyev 97 Ow] tcov iroXiop- 
Kia. T0VT0v<i evLOL Ovr)'ievTavov<; KaXovaiv. 

^Hv Be TTpoaxni^^ '^V'^ Tvppr)VLa<; y 7roXt9, ottXcov 
fiev dpiO/jLO) Kal irXTjOet tcov aTpaTevofieveov ovk 
diroBeovaa t?}? *Va)p,7]<;, ttXcvto) Be Kal /3lcov d^po- 
T7JTI Kot Tpvcpal^i Kol woXvTeXetaKi dyaXXofiivr) 

96 



CAMILLUS, I. 3 II. 3 

belonged to him alone^ it was exercised in common 
with others ; while the glory that followed such 
exercise was his alone, even when he shared the 
command. In the first case, it was his moderation 
that kept his rule from exciting envy ; in the second, 
it was his abihty that gave him the first place with 
none to dispute it. 

II. At a time when the house of the Furii was not 
yet very conspicuous, he, by his own efforts, was the 
first of his clan to achieve fame. This he did in the 
great battle with the Aequians and Volscians, serving 
under Postumius Tubertus the dictator. Dashing out 
on his horse in front of the army, he did not abate his 
speed when he got a wound in the thigh, but drag- 
ging the missile along with him in its wound, he en- 
gaged the bravest of the enemy and put them to flight. 
For this exploit, among other honours bestowed upon 
him, he was appointed censor, in those days an 
office of great dignity. There is on record a noble 
achievement of his censorship, that of bringing the 
unmarried men, partly by persuasion and partly by 
threatening them with fines, to join in wedlock with 
the women who were living in widowhood, and these 
were many because of the wars ; likewise a necessary 
achievement, that of making the orphans, who before 
this had contributed nothing to the support of the 
state, subject to taxation. The continuous campaigns, 
demanding great outlays of money, really required 
this. Especially burdensome was the siege of Veii 
(some call the people Veientani). 

This city was the barrier and bulwark of Tus- 
cany, in quantity of arms and multitude of soldiery 
no whit inferior to Rome. Indeed, pluming her- 
self on her wealth, and on the refinement, luxury, 

97 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXXou? KoX Ka\ov<; dycbva<; rj^ycovicraTo Trepi So^rj^ 

4 Kal BvvaaT€La<} irdkefjiovaa ^Vwfiaioi^i. iv he roS 
Tore ')(p6vq) t?)? fiev (^iKoTi[xia<i a(j)6i(rr'r]K€L avv- 
rpifielcra fjbeyaXaL^ yU-a%ai9* eirapafievot he relxH 
fieydXa /cat /caprepa Kal rrjv ttoXcv oifkcov /cat 
^eXcjv Kal (TLTov Kal TrapaaKevrj^^ airda-ri^ i/juirX^- 
aavref^i dheSy^; vire/xevov rrjv iroXiopKiav, [xaKpav 
fiev ovaav, ov)(^ rJTTOv Be tol^ iroXiopKOvcriv ip- 

5 fycoBr) Kal y^aXeiryv fyevojjLevrjv, eWiapLevot yap ov 130 
TToXvv ')(^p6vov dfia wpa 6epov<; e^co o-rpareveiv, 
OLKot Be Bca)(^eLfjLd^€LV, Tore irpoorov r)vayKd(T6rjaav 
VTTO Tcov ')(^LXidp^(Dv (ppovpca KaraaKeva-d/jLevoi 
Kal TO arpaToueBov Tei')(iaavTe^ iv ttj iroXefiia 
')(eni5yva Kal 6epo<; awdTrreiv, i]Br] aX'^Bov erou? 
e^Bojxov T^ TToXefjLO) reXevrcovTOf;. Scrre Kal 
T0U9 dpxovTa^ iv alria yevecrOai Kal fjLaXaK(b<; 
iroXiopKelv BoKOvvTa^ dcpaipeOrjvai ttjv dp')(^v, 
irepcov alpedevroyv iirl rov iroXe/xov' a)v rjv Kal 

6 KdjjLiXXo^ Tore 'x^cXiapx^JV to Bevrepov. eirpa^e 
Be irepl t7]v TroXiopKiav ovBev iv eKelvw tc3 y^pov(o, 
Xa'x^cbv ^aXepioL^i Kal KairTji^drat^; TroXepLeiv, at 
Bi* da'^oXvav Tore TroXXd ryv '^copav KaOvfipi- 
aavre<; Kal irapd rravra rov TvpprjvLKov iroXepbov 
€VO')(Xo](TavTe(; eTrteaOrjcrav vtto rod KapLiXXov Kal 
a-vveardXrjaav eh rd rel'^rf 7roXXov<; diro^a- 
Xo^'xe?. 

III. 'E/c rovTov TO irepl rrjv 'AX^avuBa Xifxvqv 
irddo^ dKfjbd^ovTL rw rroXefiw avveve'^Oev ovBevo<i 
'rjTTOv TCOV dirLa-rayv rrvOeaOai Oavfidrcov alrla^ 
Koivrff; dirooia Kal Xoyov (jjvaiKrjv exovro^i dp^rjv 
i<t)6^i]crev, rjv fiev yap &pa p^roTraypivrj, Kal to 

98 



CAMILLUS, 11. 3 -III. I 

and sumptuonsness in which her citizens lived 
she had waged many noble contests for glory and 
power in her wars with the Romans. At this 
time, however, she had been crushed in great 
battles, and had given up her former ambitious pre- 
tensions. But her people built their walls high and 
strong, filled the city full of armour, missiles, grain, 
and every possible provision, and confidently endured 
their siege, which, though long, was no less laborious 
and difficult for the besiegers. These had been 
accustomed to short campaigns abroad as the summer 
season opened, and to winters at home ; but then 
for the first time they had been compelled by their 
tribunes to build forts and fortify their camp and 
spend both summer and winter in the enemy's 
country, the seventh year of the war being now 
nearly at an end. For this their rulers were held to 
blame, and finally deprived of their rule, because 
they were thought to conduct the siege without 
energy. Others were chosen to carry on the war, 
and one of these was Camillus, now tribune for the 
second time. But for the present he had nothing to 
do with the siege, since it fell to his lot to wage war 
with the Falerians and the Capenates, who, while the 
Romans had their hands full, had often harried their 
territory, and during all the Tuscan war had given 
them annoyance and trouble. These were over- 
whelmed by Camillus in battle and shut up in their 
fastnesses with great loss of life. 

III. And now, when the war was at its climax, 
the calamity of the Alban lake added its terrors. It 
seemed a most incredible prodigy, without familiar 
cause or natural explanation. For the season was 
autumn, and the summer just ended had, to all 

99 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oipo<; eXrjyev ovr eirofifipov ovre irvevfiacrt votloi^ 

2 ')(a\e'jrov iTn^tjXcofi yevofievov' 7roWa<; Se Xifiva^; 
Kol TTOTafiov^ Koi vdfjLara iravroBaTra T779 'Ira- 
\ia<; ij(pva7}<^ ra fxev i^eXiire KOfiLSfjy ra S* avr- 
ea^e fyKiay^pcd^ /cat /Jb6XL<;, ol Se irora/jiol irdvre^ 
wcTTrep del koIXol koI Tairetvol Sia depov<; ippvi]- 
aav, TO Be t?}? 'AXySaz/tSo? XLp.vr)<i dp')(r]v eyov 
ev eavTO) Kal reXevrrjv, opeaiv ev^eioL^ irepiexo- 
fievovt diT ovBevo<; alrioVy 7rXr)v el ti Oetov, av^o- 
fjbevov einBrjXaif; BccoyKOvro /cal irpocriaTaro raU 
vircdpeiai^ kol tmv dvcordrco Xocpcov 6fiaX(b<; errre- 
yjravev, di^ev adXov kol kXvBcovo^ i^ap-Lardfievov. 

3 Kol TTpMTOV fieV ^V TTOL/jLeVCOV OaVfJLa KOL ^OTrjpCOV 

iirel Be, rod Bieipyovro^ diro rrjf; Karco %ft)/?a9 
olov laOfjbov TTjv XifJbVTjv vireKpayevro^ viro rov 
irXrjOov^ KOL ^dpov<;, pbiya pevjua /caTe/Saive Bed 
TMV dpovfievcov kol ^VTevofjuevcov eVl rrjv OdXaT- 
TaVy ov pbovov avTol<; Trapelx^ ^J^cofiaioi^ eKirXrj^LV, 
dXXd Kal irdaLV eBoKeu rot? T7]v 'iTaXiav KaTot- 
Kovat fiT^Bevo^ fJUKpov cn^p^elov elvai. irXelcTTO^; 
B^ avTov X0709 ^v ev t& arpaTOireBw tw iroXiop- 

KOVVTL TOV^ 0vr)t0V<;, WCTTe KdKeiVOL<; e/CTTVO-TOV 

yeveadai to irepl ttjv Xijivrjv 7rddo<;. 

IV. Ola 3' ev TroXiopKva Bid "X^povov jjurjKo^ 
€7ri/JLL^La<i T€ TToXXa? ixovcrrj Kal KOLVoXoyia^ 
TTpb^ T0V9 TToXe/JLLOvfi, eyeyovet tivI 'Pco/jbaiw 
(TVV7]0eta Kal Trapprjata 7r/309 eva tmv ttoXltmv, 
dvdpwTTOv efiireipov re Xoyicov iraXaicov Kai ti 
Kal TrXeov elBevat tmv dXXwv drro piavTLKrjQ 
BoKOVVTa. TOVTOV ouv 6 ^VMfJLalo<;, €09 rjKOvae 
Tr)v iTTiBoaiv Trj<i Xipbvrj^;, opcov vTrepyjBop^evov 
T€ Kal KaTayeXoiVTa t>}9 iroXiopKia^j ov TavT 
100 



CAMILLUS, III. i-iv. r 

observation, been neither rainy nor vexed by south 
winds. Of the lakes, rivers, and streams of all sizes 
with which Italy abounds, some had failed utterly, 
others barely managed to hold out, and all the rivers 
ran low, between high banks, as was always the case 
in summer. But the Alban lake, which had its 
source and outlet within itself, and was girt about 
with fertile mountains, for no reason, except it be 
that heaven willed it, was observed to increase and 
swell until it reached the skirts of the mountains 
and gradually touched their highest ridges. All 
this rise was without surge or billow. At first it was 
a prodigy for neighbouring shepherds and herdsmen. 
But when the volume and weight of water broke 
away the barrier which, like an isthmus, had kept 
the lake from the country lying below it, and a huge 
torrent poured down through the fields and vine- 
yards and made its way to the sea, then not only 
were the Romans themselves dismayed, but all the 
inhabitants of Italy thought it a sign of no small 
evil to come. There was much talk about it in the 
army that was besieging Veii, so that even the 
besieged themselves heard of the calamity. 

IV. As was to be expected in a long siege requir- 
ing many meetings for conference with the enemy, 
it fell out that a certain Roman became intimate and 
confidential with one of the citizens of Veii, a man 
versed in ancient oracles, and reputed wiser than the 
rest from his being a diviner. The Roman saw that 
this man, on hearing the story of the lake, was over- 
joyed and made mock of the siege. He therefore told 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e^r) jjbovov iv7)vo')(^ivai, Oavfiaara rov irapovra 
')(^p6vov, aW* erepa tovtcov aroircorepa o-rjfieia 
'PcofialoLf; ryeyovevat, irepl mv eOekeiv eKeivco 
Koivwadjjievo^i el ri BvvacTo, OecrOai tmv ISicov 

2 afjueivov ev TOi<; kolvoI<; voaovffiv. vTrafCOvaavro^ 
he Tov avOpcoTTOV TrpoOvfjuax; fcal BcBovto^ eavrov 
eh KOivoXoyiav, co? airoppr}Ta)v tlvmv aKpoarrjv 
iao/Jbevov, Kara fiiKpov ovrco hiaXeyojievo^ koX 
VTrdycov avrov, 009 Troppcorepo) rcov ttvXmv eyeyo- 
veco-av, atpei re fierecopov evpcoa-Torepo^; wv icai 
Tivoiv diro arparoTrihov irpoo-hpapLovrcov 'xeipw- fl 
(Td/jL€vo<; Kol KpaTri(Ta<; TrapiScoKe rot 9 (rrparrjyoh^ ™ 

3 ev TOVTcp S* dvdyK'qf; yeyovcD^ 6 dvOpcoiro^ koI 
fiadoDV dpa to ireirpayfjuevov 0)9 d(f)VKrov etrj, \6yta 
7rpov(j)aiv€V aTropprjra irepl rrj^ eavrov iraTpiho^;, 
ft)9 ovK ovar)<; dXwcri/jiOV irporepov rj rrjv ^AX^a- 
viBa XifivTjv eK')(v6e'la-av koI ^epofievr^v 68ov<; 
erepa^ coaavre^ oiriaw koX irepiaTrdcTavre^; ol 
TToXe/jLioi KcoXvcrovai jiiyvvadai rrj OaXdrry, 

4 TavTa rfi avyKXrjTfo Trvdofievy kol hiairopovar) 131 
KaX(o<; e')(^eLV eSofe Trefjbyjravra'; eh AeX<^0L'9 
epeaOai tov Oeov. 01 he ireixc^Oevre^ dvhpe<i 
evSo^oi Kol fieydXoL, Kocro'09 Alklvvlo<; koX OvaX- 
XepLO<; TloTLTo<; fcal ^d^io^; "A/x/3o 1^(7x09, ttXo) 

re ')(^p'r)(TdiJL6V0L koi tmv irapd tov 6eov TV)(6vTe<i 
r^Kov dXXa<; re fiavTeia<; /cofil^ovre^, at iraTpicov 
Tiv(av irepl Td<; KaXov/jLeva<; AaTiva^ eoprd^; 

5 oXiyeoplav ecfypa^ov avroh, kol to T779 'AX^avlSo'^ 
vhcop e/ceXevov eLpyovTa<^ &)9 dvvcTTOv icrTc t^9 
6aXd<7arj^ dvcoOeiv eh tov dp')(alov iropov, rj 
TOVTO fiT) Bvvafievov; opvyfxaai koX Td^poi<i 
irapdyeiv eh to irehiov /cat KaTavaXla-Keiv, 
102 



CAMILLUS, IV. 1-5 

him this was not the only wonder which the passing 
days had brought, but that other and stranger signs 
than this had been given to the Romans, of which 
he was minded to tell him, in order that, if possible, 
he might better his own private case in the midst of 
the public distresses. The man gave eager hearing 
to all this, and consented to a conference, supposing 
that he was going to hear some deep secrets. But 
the Roman led him along little by little, conversing 
as he M^ent, until they were some way beyond the 
city gate, when he seized him bodily, being a sturdier 
man than he, and with the help of comrades who 
came running up from the camp, mastered him com- 
pletely and handed him over to the generals. Thus 
constrained, and perceiving that fate's decrees were 
not to be evaded, the man revealed secret oracles 
regarding his native city, to the effect that it could 
not be captured until the Alban lake, after leaving 
its bed and making new channels for itself, should 
be driven back by tlie enemy, deflected from its 
course, and prevented from mingling with the sea. 

The Senate, on hearing this, was at great loss 
what to do, and thought it Avell to send an embassy 
to Delphi to consult the god. The envoys were 
men of great repute and influence, Cossus Licinius, 
Valerius Potitus, and Fabius Ambustus, who made 
their voyage and came back with the responses of 
the god. One of these told them that certain 
ancestral rites connected with the so-called Latin 
festivals had been unduly neglected ; another bade 
them by all means to keep the water of the Alban 
lake away from the sea and force it back into its 
ancient bed, or, if they could not effect this, by 
means of canals and trenches to divert it into the 

IP3^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

airafyf^eXOevTcov h^ tovtohv ol fiev lepeh ra irepi 
ra<; Ov(Tia<^ eirparTOv, 6 Se Bi]/JL0<; i^copei tt/jo? 
ra epya koI to vScop e^eTpeirev. 

V. 'H Se (rvyK\r}TO<; et? to BcKarov 6to<; tov 
TToXifiov KaraXvaaaa ra? aX\a<; ap')(a<; SiKrd- 
ropa K.d/jbiXkov direBei^ev irmrap^ov 8' ifceivo^; 
avTO) 7rpO(T€\6iJi€Vo<; K.opv^\iov ^KTrjiricova, irpco- 
Tov ixev evxct^ eiroirjaaro rot? 6eol<; eirl rw 
iroXifMO) T€\o9 eifxXeh Xapovn ra? fieydXa^: 6ea<s 
d^eiv KoX vecbv Oea^j rjv fir^repa M-aromav 
Kokovai *V(oiJbaloLi KaOiepcoo'etv. 

2 TavTTjv dv Ti<; aTro tmv Bpcofjuevcov lepwv 
jidXiara AevKoOeav vofjLiaeiev elvai. koX yap 
Oepdiraivav eh tov (ttjkov eladyovaai paTri^ovcnv, 
eW i^eXavvova-i kol t^ tmv d86X(f>(ov reKva irpo 
Twv iSlcov evayKaXi^ovTai kol hpMat irepl ttjv 
Ovaiav a tol^ Aiovvo-ov Tpo(f>OL(; koI toZ? Blo, rr^i' 
TraXXaKTjv irdOeaL rrj? 'Iz/oO? irpocreoiKe. 

Mera Be Ta<; €L'%a9 o Kd/jLLXXo<; el<; ttjv 
^aXi(TK(ov eve^aXe, koX {Jluxv fieydXt) tovtov^ 
T€ KoX K.airrjvdTUf; 7rpoa0o7]Oi]cravra<; avrol^ 

3 ivLK7]aev. eireiTa 7rpo<; Tr]v TroXiopKiav Tpairo- 
/jL€vo<^ TCJV Ovrjto)v Koi TOV €K 7rpoa^oXrj<; dyayva 
^(aXeTrov kol Bvaepyov opcov virovoixov^ eTefive, 
Ta)v irepX ttjv ttoXlv xcopiwv evBtSovTcov tol<; 
opvy/xaac koi KaTaSexo/^f^evcov et? I3d0o<; dyetv 
dBrjXov TOt? TToXejiioL^ to, epya. Bio Kal irpo'iovo-rjf; 
oBm TTj^ eXirlBo^; avro^ jjuev e^coOev irpoaej3aX\ev, 
€KfcaXovjMvos iirl to, Teiy(r) tov<; TroXejjLLovf;, 



104 



CAMILLUS, IV. 5~v. 3 

plain and dissipate it. On receipt of these responses 
the priests performed the neglected sacrifices, and 
the people sallied out into the fields and diverted the 
course of the water. 

V. In the tenth year of the war,^ the Senate 
abolished the other magistracies and appointed 
Camillus dictator. After choosing Cornelius Scipio 
as his master of horse, in the first place he made 
solemn vows to the gods that, in case the war had a 
glorious ending, he would celebrate the great games 
in their honour, and dedicate a temple to a goddess 
whom the Romans call Mater Matuta. 

From the sacred rites used in the worship of this 
goddess, she might be held to be almost identical 
with Leucothea. The women bring a serving-maid 
into the sanctuary and beat her with rods, then 
drive her forth again ; they embrace their nephews 
and nieces in preference to their own children ; and 
their conduct at the sacrifice resembles that of the 
nurses of Dionysus, or that of Ino under the afflir- 
tions put upon her by her husband's concubine. 

After his vows, Camillus invaded the country 
of the Faliscans and conquered them in a great 
battle, together Avith the Capenates who came 
up to their aid. Then he turned to the siege of 
Veii, and seeing that direct assault upon the city 
was a grievous and difficult matter, he went to 
digging mines, since the region round the city 
favoured such works, and allowed their being 
carried to a great depth without the enemy's knowing 
about it. So then, when his hopes were well on 
their way to fulfilment, he himself assaulted the 
city from the outside, and thus called the enemy 

1 396 B.O. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dXKot 8' ^Sj^Xft)? viroiropevofievoi Sia tmv vttovo- 
fKov eXadov ivTo<; yevo/jievoi, rfjq aKpa^ Kara ro 
T779 ''Hpa? ^ lepov, o }ik^i(Trov rp iv rfj iroXei Kal 
fjudXicTTa rLfjLoofievov. 

4 ^Evravda Xiyerai tv%€IV Kar ifcecvo Kaipov 
rov '^yefiova rcov Tvpprjvcov i<j> iepol^' rov Be 
fidvTiv eh TO, airXdyyya Kanhovra /cal fiiya 
(jydey^dfievov eiirelVi oti> vlk7)v 6 Oeb^ BlBcckti, tcS 
KaraKoXovOrjo^avrL to?? lepoh iKeivoi^* TavTr)<; 
Be T7]<; (jxovrj^i rov^ iv roU VTrovojioi^ *VcofJLalov^ 
eiraKovaavTa^ ra^v Biaairdaai to eBacpo^;, Kal 
fxera j3oi)<; Kal y^o^ov rcov oirXdov avaBvvTa<;, 
eKifXayevTcov tmv TroXe^icov Kal (pvyovrcov, dpird- 
aavra^i tcu airXdy^a Kopbiaai irpo^ rov Kd/mX- 

5 Xov. dXXb. ravra /jlcv Laco<; ioLKevat Bo^ei 
/jLvOevfJLaaiv. 

'AXouo-*;? Be T?}? TToXect)? Kara Kpdro^^ Kal tmv 
^VayjJbaifov wyovrwv Kal (pepovrcov aireipov riva 
ttXoutov, i(f>opo)v 6 K.dfjitXXo<; diro Tr}<; aKpa^ ra 
TTparrofieva, irpcorov fjuev earco^ eBdKpvaev, elra 
pbaKapiaOel^ viro tmv irapovrcov dvka-'ye Ta<? 

6 yelpa^ T0fc9 ^€o?9 icaX iTpo(jev')(op,evo<^ elire' " ZeO 
fieyiare /cal Oeol yprjarcov iiriaKoiroi Kal irovrj- 
peov epycov, avrot ttov avvLare ^Vcofiaiov^i co? 
ov irapa Blktjv, dXXa Kar* dvdyKr}v dfivvofievoL 
fieTep)(^6fjieOa Bvcrpbevcov dvBpa>v Kal irapavopbcov 
iroXiv. el 8' dpa rt^T ^(pV» " '^«^ Vf^^^ dvri- 
(TTpo^o^ ocj^eiXerai tt}? irapov<J7j<; vepLeai^; evirpa- 
fta?, ev')(ofjLat ravrrjv vwep re TroXew? Kal 
(TTparov 'Fw/jbaLcov et? i/iavrov iXa^i(TT(p KaK<^ 

1 T^s "Upas with C and S : "Upas. 
106 



^.CAMILLUS, V. 3-6 

away to man their walls; while others secretly 
made their way along the mines and reached un- 
noticed the interior of the citadel^ where the 
temple of Juno stood, the largest temple in the 
city, and the one most held in honour. 

There, it is said, at this very juncture, the 
commander of the Tuscans chanced to be sacrificing, 
and his seer, when he beheld the entrails of the 
victim, cried out with a loud voice and said that 
the god awarded victory to him who should fulfill 
that sacrifice. The Romans in the mines below, 
hearing this utterance, quickly tore away the 
pavement of the temple and issued forth with 
battle cries and clash of arms, whereat the enemy 
were terrified and fled away. Tlie sacrificial entrails 
were then seized and carried to Camillus. But 
possibly this will seem like fable. 

At any rate the city was taken by storm, and 
the Romans were pillaging and plundering its 
boundless wealth, when Camillus, seeing from 
the citadel what was going on, at first burst into 
tears as he stood, and then, on being congratulated 
by the bystanders, lifted up his hands to the 
gods and prayed, saying: '^O greatest Jupiter, 
and ye gods who see and judge men's good and 
evil deeds, ye surely know that it is not unjustly, 
but of necessity and in self-defence that we Romans 
have visited its iniquity upon this city of hostile 
and lawless men. But if, as counterpoise to this 
our present success, some retribution is due to 
come upon us, spare, I beseech you, the city and 
the army of the Romans, and let it fall upon my 
own head, though with as little harm as may be." 



*07 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 TeXevT^crat.** ravr cIttcov, KaOdirep icrrl 'Pfo- 
fjuaioL^i eOof; iirev^afievoL^; Kal irpocrKwrjoraatv cttI 
Se^LO, i^6\LTT€LV, i(T<j>aXr) 7reptaTp€(f)6fMevo^. Bia- 
Tapa')(6evT(ov he tcov irapovTWV irdXip dvaXa^cov 
kavTov ex tov TTTco/iaro? eiTrev, ©9 yiyovev avTca 
KaT evxhv (n^aKfjui fiiKpov iir evTV')(la fieyLarr]. 

VL ^iaTropOrjaa^i Se Tr}v iroXtv eyvco to dyaX- 13- 
fia TTJ^ ''Hpa9 fieracpipecv et? ^Vcapirjv, ioairep 
ev^aTo, Kal avvekOovTwv eirl tovtg) t&v rexvi- 
TMv, 6 fiev e6v€ fcal irpo(Tev')(eTo ttj Oew Se^eo-^at 
Tr)V irpoOv/jLLav avrcov koI €v/jl6V7j yeveaOat avvoi- 
Kov Tot9 XaxovaL rrjv ^Fco/jltjv Oeo2<;y ro B* dyaXfia 
(pacriv v7ro(j)0€<y^dfjL€VOV elirelvy on koI fiovXerai 

2 Kol avyKaraivel. Atovio'; Be <f)r](Tip eu^eo-^at 
fiev TOV K.d/jbiWov dirTOfjuevov Trj<; deov koL irapa- 
Koketv, diroKplvaaOai 8e Tcva<; t&v irapovrcov, ort 
Kal ^ovXcTai Kal avjKaTacvet Kal avvaKoXovOel 

TTpoOv/JLCOii, 

01 S* la")(ypL^6p.€V0L Kal tco irapaBo^fo fiorjdovp- 
Te9 fieyi(TT7]v p^ev exovac avv^yopov ttjv tv^V^ 
T^9 TToXece)?, rjv diro p,iKpd<; Kal KaTa<f>popovp€V7jf; 
dpxv*^ €7rl ToaovTOP S6^rj<; Kal 8vvdpe(o<^ irpoeX- 
Oelv 3t%a deov iroXXal^ kol peydXaL<i em^aveiaLfi 

3 eKdaTOTe avpirapoPTO^i dpr)'yavov' ov p^rjp dXXd koI 
avvdyovaip opoetSrj Tipa, tovto pev ISpcoTaf; dyaX- 
p,dTcop 7roXXdKi<; eKXvOePTaf;, tovto 8e aTepaypov^i 
dKovaOepTa<; dirocTT po<f>d<i T€ heiKPVPTe^ Kal KaTa- 
p,v(7€t<; ^odpcop, a<; laTOprjKaaiv ovk oXLyov t&v 
irpoTCpop. TToXXd 8^ Kal tojp KaO* 7)pM<; dK7]K06- 
Te9 dvdpooiroDp Xeyeip e^ppep d^ia Oavp,aTo<it oiv 

loS 



CAMILLUS, V. 7-vi. 3 

With these words, as the Romans' custom is after 
prayer and adoration, he wheeled himself about 
to the right, but stumbled and fell as he turned. 
The bystanders were confounded, but he picked 
himself up again from his fall and said: "My 
prayer is granted I a slight fall is my atonement for 
the greatest good fortune." 

VI. After he had utterly sacked the city, he 
determined to transfer the image of Juno to Rome, 
in accordance with his vows. The workmen were 
assembled for the purpose, and Camillus was sacrificing 
and praying the goddess to accept of their zeal 
and to be a kindly co-dweller with the gods of 
Rome, when the image, they say, spoke in low 
tones and said she was ready and willing. But 
Livy^ says that Camillus did indeed lay his hand 
upon the goddess and pray and beseech her, but 
that it was certain of the bystanders who gave 
answer that she was ready and willing and eager 
to go along with him. 

Those who insist upon and defend the marvel 
have a most powerful advocate for their contention 
in the fortune of the city, which, from its small 
and despised beginning, could never have come 
to such a pinnacle of glory and power had God not 
dwelt with her and made many great manifestations 
of himself from time to time. Moreover, they 
adduce other occurrences of a kindred sort, such 
as statues often dripping with sweat, images uttering 
audible groans, turning away their faces, and 
closing their eyes, as not a few historians in the 
past have written. And we ourselves might make 
mention of many astonishing things which we 
1 V. 22. ^-"^ 

t6§ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4: ovfc av Tt,<; elicy KaTa^povrjaeiev, aXkh rol^ 
roLOVTOi<^ KoX TO TTLdTeveLv acpoSpa kol to \iav 
airicrTeZv i7ria(f>a\e<; iaTi Bta Tr]v avdpwTTLvrjv 
acrOiveiav opov ov/c e^ovaav ovBe KpUTOvaav 
avTrjf;^ aX}C €/€(})€ pofiivrjv ottov fiev eh Beta-iBaL- 

fJLOvlaV KOL TV(l)OV, OTTOV S* €69 oXiyoopuaV T(OV 6eS)v 

Kol 7repi(j>p6vr)(Tiv' rj K evXd/Seca /cat to jjbrjBev 
ayav apiaTov. 

VII. 'O he KdfjLiWo^; elVe /JLeyiOei tov epyov, ^M 
iroXtv avTiiraKov rr}? 'Pft>yLtr^9 eTei SeKUTO) Tfj<; ^^ 
7ro\iopKLa<i KaOr)pr}Kco<;, elVe vtto tmv evSaifiovi^ov- 
Tcov avTOV et9 ojkov e^apdel<; koI (f)p6vr}/jLa vo/jll- 
fiov Kol TToXtTLKTJf; dpx^]^ i'7ra')(6e(TTepov, to, t€ 
dWa aoj3apSi<; e0ptdjj,/3evae koI TeOpLTTirov vtto- 
^ev^dfievo^; XevKoirwXov eTre^rj kuI Sie^rjXaae r^? 
'Pctfyu,?;?, ovBevo<i tovto iroi^^aavTo^i r)yefji6vo^ irpo- 
Tepov ovK vaTepov. lepov yap -qyovvTai to toiov- 
Tov 6)(;r)/jLa TO) /SaaoXec Koi iraTpl tcov Oecov iiTLTre- 

2 ^rj/jLLo-fiivov. €K Te 8r) tovtov Sie^XijOrj tt/jo? T0V<i 
TToXiTa^ ovK eWia/jLevov<; €VTpv(j)da6ai, kol BevTe- 
pav eXafiev alTiav ivLcrTdfjLevo^ vofiw Scoikl^ovtc 
Tr]v TToXcv. elarjyovvTO yap ol BrjiJLap')^OL tov T€ 
Brj/iiov Kol Tr]v avyKXrjTov taa fJbeprj Buo vepbrjOrjvai, 
Kal TOv<; fjuev avToOc KaToiKelv, Tov<i Be KXrjpcp 
Xa')(6vTa^ eh ttjv al-^fxdXwTOv fieTaaTrjvac ttoXlv, 
CO? evTTopcoTepcov ecrofievoav Kal Bvcrl /xeydXoi^; Kal 
KaXoh daTeac Trfv Te '^((opav ofiov Kal ttjv dXXi]v 

3 €vBaifiovt,av ^vXa^ovTcov. 6 jxev ovv Brjfio^ ^Bt) 
TToXiff; yeyopo)^ xal d'^ijfiaTo^ dafMevo^ eBe^UTo, 
no 



CAMILLUS, VI. 4-vii. 3 

have heard from men of our own time, — things 
not lightly to be despised. But in such matters 
eager credulity and excessive incredulity are alike 
dangerous, because of the weakness of our human 
nature, which sets no limits and has no mastery 
over itself, but is carried away now into vain 
superstition, and now into contemptuous neglect 
of the gods. Caution is best, and to go to no 
extremes. 

VII. Whether it was due to the magnitude of his 
exploit in taking a city which could vie with Rome 
and endure a siege of ten years, or to the congratula- 
tions showered upon him, Camillus was lifted up to 
vanity, cherished thoughts far from becoming to a 
civil magistrate subject to the law, and celebrated 
a triumph with great pomp : he actually had four 
white horses harnessed to a chariot on which he 
mounted and drove through Rome, a thing which 
no commander had ever done before or afterwards did. 
For they thought such a car sacred and devoted to 
the king and father of the gods. In this way he 
incurred the enmity of the citizens, who were not 
accustomed to wanton extravagance. They had also 
a second grievance against him in that he opposed 
himself to a law dividing the city. The tribunes 
introduced a measure dividing the people and the 
Senate into two parts, one to remain and dwell 
there, and the one on which the lot fell to remove 
into the city they had captured, on the ground that 
they would thus be more commodiously bestowed, 
and with tw^o large and fair cities could better 
protect their territory as well as their prosperity 
in general. Accordingly the people, which was now 
become numerous and poor, welcomed the measure 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX avv6)(r}^ rjv Toh irepi to ^rnjua dopv^oi,^ aWSiV 
TTjv '>^rj^ov' Y] Se l3ov\rj /cat tmv dWoov ol Kpd- 
Tiarot TToXtTCOv ov Siaipecrtv, aX)C avaipeaiv 
'q'yovfJievoL rrj^; 'Fcofirjf; iroXtTeveaOai tov<; Bij/Jidp- 
%0L'9 /cal Bvaava<T^eT0vuT6<; iirl rov K.dfii\Xov 

4 Karecpvyov. Kafcelvo^; oppcoBcov rbv dycjva irpo- 
<pda6i(; ivi^aWe t« Bijfiqy koI da^o\La<i, Bl d)v 
del rbv vofiov i^expovep. yv fxev ovv Bca ravra 
Xv7rrjp6<i, 

'H Be (pavepcordrrj koI fieyLcm] tcov dire- 
')(^dei(av avra> Trpo? rov BfjfjLOV iic rrj<; BeKdrrj^ 
T(ov Xa^vpcov virrip^ev, ouk akoyov, el koX firj 
irdvv BiKaiav dpxw '^^^ ttoWmv \a^6vT(ov, 

5 ev^aro fxev yap iirl tov<; Ovrjtov^, oo? eoifce, jSaBl- 
^(ovy el TTfv TTokiv eXoi, tw dea> tovtcov rrjv 
BeKdrrfV KaOiepdiaeLV, dXovarj^ Be Trj<; TroA-eo)? 
Kol BLapTradOeia-r]^;, etr oKvijo-a^i ivoxXijaac rot? 
TToXLTaci;, etVe X'^dr] rt? avrov hiro rcov Trapovrcop 
TTpajfidrcop eXa^e Trj<; €V)(^r]<;, irepielBep aycpeXTjOep- 
ra?. varepop Be Xp6v(p t^9 dpxv'^ eKelpy]^ rjBrj 
Treiravfjiepo'; dv^peyice nrepl tovtcop et? ^ ryp avy- 
kXtjtop, ol re fidprei^i ijyyeXXop einrl rot? lepol<i 133 
7rpocj)a[pe(T6aL Oecop firjptp IXaa/jbov koI ^apLarTj- 

pCcOP Be0JUL€V7]V. 

VIII. ^frj^taaixevri^ Be rrj<; ^ovXrj(; rrjp [xep 
oii(f>eXeiap {'xaXeirov yap rjp) dvdhaarov fjur] yepe- 
adac, TOL'9 Be Xa/Sopra^i avrov<i avp opKO) rrjp 
Beicdrrjp irapacpepeip eh fieaov, eyivero iroXXd 

^ €js Bekker and Sintenii ^, with most MSS. : itphs, 
112 



CAMILLUS, vn. 3-vin. i 

with delight, and was for ever thronging tumultii- 
ously about the rostra with demands that it be put 
to vote. But the Senate and the most influential of 
the other citizens considered that the measure pro- 
posed by the tribunes meant not division but 
destruction for Rome, and in their aversion to it 
went to Camillus for aid and succour. He, dreading 
the struggle, always contrived to keep the people 
busy with other matters, and so staved off the 
passage of the bill. For this reason, then, they 
were vexed with him. 

But the strongest and most apparent reason 
why the multitude hated him was based on the 
matter of the tenth of the spoil of Veii, and herein 
they had a plausible, though not a very just ground 
of complaint. He had vowed, as it seems, on 
setting out against Veii, that if he should take 
the city, he would consecrate the tenth of its 
booty to the Delphian god. But after the city had 
been taken and sacked, he allowed his soldiers full 
enjojmaent of their plunder, either because he shrank 
from annoying them, or because, in the multitude of 
his activities, he as good as forgot his vow. At a 
later time, when he had laid down his command, he 
referred the matter to the Senate, and the seers 
announced tokens in their sacrifices that the gods 
were angry, and must be propitiated with due 
offerings. 

Vni. The Senate voted, not that the booty should 
be redistributed, for that would have been a difficult 
matter, but that those who had got it should, in 
person and under oath, bring the tenth thereof to 
the public treasury. This subjected the soldiers to 



"3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XvTTTjpa Kol piaca irepX tov<; (rrpaTia>Ta<;, av6p(o- 
irov<i 7r6vy]Ta<; koX iroXKa TreTrovrjKoraf;, avayKu^o- 

fl€VOV<; 03V iK€KTrfVTO KoX KaT6K6)(^p7]VTO yLt€p09 

2 €la(j)6p€iv roaovTOv. Oopv^ovfievco 8' vir avrSyv 
Tft) Ka/ztXXft) KoX 7rpo(j>d(T€co<; airopovvri ^eXTL0V0<; 
€t9 Tov aTOTrcoTarov tS)v Xoycov avviffatve Kara- 
(pevyetVy ofioXoyovvri iTriXaOeaOat t?}? ev')(fj<;. ol 
3' i'X^aXeiraLvov, el rb, roctv iroXefJuLcov Be/carevaetv 
€v^d/jL€vo<; Tore vvv ScKarevei ra twz/ ttoXctcov. ov 
fjbrjv dWa TrdvTCOV ocrov eSei fJiApo^ elaeveyKOVToav 
eBo^e KpaTTjpa ')(pvaovv Karao-K6vdaavTa<; et? 

3 AeXc/)©^? aTToa-TelXaL. ^jOfcrtou 8' rjv airdvL^ iv 
rfj TToXer koI tcov dp^ovrcov odev av iropicrOeLrj 
o-KOirovvTcov, at yvvalKe^ avral Ka6* avrd<; fiov- 
Xevardfievat top ovra ')(pvaovv eKdaTTj irepl rb 
aojfia KoafJLOv eTriBco/cav eh to apdOyfia, araOfiM 
Xpyo-i>ov yevofxevov oktoo raXdvTwv. koI TavTai<i 
jxev r) crvyKXrjTO^i dTroBiBovaa rcfjLrjv irpeirovcrav 
iyln](j)l(TaTO fierd Odvarov wairep i'jrl to?9 dvSpdcrt 
Kol rat? yvvai^l XiyeaOai tov d^iov eTraivov ov 
yap rjv eWca/juevov irpoTCpov iy/ccofiLd^ecrOat yv- 

4 vacKa Brj/jLoaia TeXevTrjaaaav eXofievoi Be Tpel<^ 
dvBpa^ etc TOiv dpL(TTcov decopov^ koI vavv /JLUKpav 
evavBpovvTi TrXrjpcofMaTL koI KOG-fKo iravrjyvpLK^ 
icaTao-/cevdoravT€<; i^eTrefiyjrav. 

^}iv 8' dpa /cat ')(eLpL(bv Kal yaXijvT] OaXdaarff; 
dpyaXiov, eo? €K€ivoL<; avveTV')(^e TOTe Trap ovBev 
€X66vTa<; diroXio-Oai BLa(j)vyeiv avOif; aTrpoa- 
BoKrjTw^ TOV fclvBvvov. iTTeTrXevaav yap avTol^ 
AiiTapecov Tpi'i]pei<i irepl tcl^ AloXov vrjcov^ tov 
114 



CAMILLUS, vin. 1-4 

many vexations and constraints. They were poor 
men, who had toiled hard, and yet were now forced 
to contribute a large share of what they had gained, 
yes, and spent already. Beset by their tumultuous 
complaints, and at loss for a better excuse, Camillus 
had recourse to the absurdest of all explanations, and 
admitted that he had forgotten his vow. The soldiers 
were filled with indignation at the thought that it 
was the goods of the enemy of which he had once 
vowed a tithe, but the goods of his fellow citizens 
from which he was now paying the tithe. However, 
all of them brought in the necessary portion, and it 
was decided to make a bowl of massive gold and send 
it to Delphi. Now there was a scarcity of gold in 
the city, and the magistrates knew not whence it 
could be had. So the women, of their own accord, 
deteraiined to give the gold ornaments which they 
wore upon their persons for the offering, and these 
amounted to eight talents weight. The women were 
fittingly rewarded by the Senate, which voted that 
thereafter, when women died, a suitable eulogy 
should be spoken over them, as over men. For it 
was not customary before that time, when a woman 
died, that a public encomium should be pronounced. 
Then they chose three of the noblest citizens as 
envoys, manned with its full complement of their 
best sailors a ship of war decked out in festal array, 
and sent them on their way. 

Calm at sea has its perils as well as storm, it would 
seem, at least so it proved in this case. Envoys and 
crew came within an ace of destruction, and found 
escape from their peril when they least expected it. 
Off the Aeolian isles, as the wind died down, some 
I/iparian galleys put out against them, taking them 

115 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 TTvevfiaro^ eKKnrovro^ ax; \r]crTai<;. Beojj^vcov Se 
Kal TTpoia'Xp^Jiivayv X^^P^^ ifil3oXrj<i jiev ecr^ovTO, 
rr]v Se vavv avaylrd/jLevot Kal KaTayay6vT6<; 
cLTreKripVTTOV, cifjua koX ra xpVf^^"^^ '^^^ '^^ 
aeofiara, ireipaTLKa Kpivavre^; elvat. /toXt? 8' 
€1/09 avBpo<; aperfj koX Bwdfiet Ti/irjaiOiov rov 
(rrparrjyou TreicrOevTe^ fiedrjxav, 6 Be /cal irpoa- 
KadekKvaa'i iBia rrXola irapeireijuy^e Kal avyKad- 
cepmcre ro dudOrjfUL* Bt* o Kal Tifid^ ^V^ep, a? 
(zIkck; TjVi iv 'Fcofirj. 

IX. Twz^ Be Brj/iapx^v av0i^ eTreyeipovTcov rov 
irepl Tov BiotKicTfiov vo/jlov, 6 7r/)09 ^a\i(TKov<; 
TToXe/jLOf; iv Kaipo) 7rapa(j)av€l<i eBcoKe toI<; TrpcoToi^^ 
dvBpdatv apxctLpeaidaat Kara yvcofiT^v Kal Ka- 
fiCkXov diroBel^ai fieO* erepcov irevre p^tXta/);^oj/, 
«9 TMV Trpajfjbdrcov 'q<yefi6vo<; Beofievcov d^lco/jLa 

2 Kal Bo^av fier eiMireipia^ exovro^. yjnjcpLaafMepou 
Be TOV BrjfjLOV Xa^cov Bvva/JLtv 6 K.d/jLLXXo<; eh rrjv 
^aXicTKwv evepaXe* koX ttoXlv epvfxvTjv Kare- 
a-KevacTiievYiv irdatv eh iroXefiov KaXw^ ^aXe- 
ptov<; liroXiopKeiy to fiev eXelv ov fiCKpov epyov 
ovBe %/3oz/ov TOV TV^ovTOf; rjyoviievo^, dXX(o^ Be 
Tpi^etv T0U9 'jroXiTa<^ Kal Trepiairav ^ovXofxevo^, 
0)9 P'^] (TXoXd^otev oIkol KaOrjp.evoL Brj/jLaycoyelaOai 
Kal (TTaatd^eiv. i7rieiK(o<: yap del (papp^dKO) 
TovTO) ^/)(WyLtej/oi BieTeXovv, Mcrirep laTpol, Ta 
TapaKTiKCb wddrj t?}9 iroXiTeia^ efco TpeirovTe^;, 

X. Oi/TO)9 Be T^9 iroXiopKiafi KaTe<f>p6vovv ol 
ii6 



CAMILLUS, VIII. 5-x. i 

for pirates. The enemy had sufficient regard to 
their prayers and supplications not to run their 
vessel down, but they took it in tow, brought it to 
land, and proclaimed their goods and persons for 
sale, adjudging them piratical. At last, and with 
much ado, through the brave intercession of a single 
man, Timesitheus, their general, the Liparians were 
persuaded to let the captives go. This man then 
launched boats of his own, convoyed the suppliants 
on their way, and assisted them in the dedication 
of their offering. For this he received suitable 
honours at Rome. 

IX. Once more the tribunes of the people urged 
the passage of the law for the division of the city, 
but the war with the Faliscans came on opportunely 
and gave the leading men occasion to hold such 
elective assemblies as they wished, and to appoint 
Camillus military tribune, with five others. The 
emergency was thought to demand a leader with the 
dignity and reputation which experience alone could 
give. After the people had ratified the election, 
Camillus, at the head of his army, invaded the 
territory of the Faliscans and laid siege to Falerii, a 
strong city, and well equipped with all the munitions 
of war. It was not that he thought its capture would 
demand slight effort or short time, but he wished to 
turn the thoughts of the citizens to other matters 
and keep them busy therein, that they might not be 
able to stay at home and become the prey of seditious 
leaders. This was a fitting and sovereign remedy 
which the Romans used, like good physicians, thereby 
expelling from the body politic its troublesome 
distempers. 

X. The Falerians, relying on the great strength of 

117 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^aXepLoi T(p 7ravTa')(^69€V i^(i)')(ypMcr6aL irKTrev- 
ovr€<;, a>(TT€ irXrjv rcov ra relxv (^vXarrovrcov rov<^ 
aWovf; iv IfiarLot^; Kara rr]V ttoXlv avaarpe- 
(ficaOai, Tou? Se 7ratSa<i avrcov eh re ra BiSa- 
(TKoXela (poLTav koX irapa ra Teb^V 'Jrepiira- 
Tijaovraf; kol fyvjJLvacrofievovf; vtto tov hihaa-KoKov 
Kara^i^d^eaOao. Koivat yap i^pMyro t« hiha- 
(jKaX(p, axTTrep ''EXX971/69, ol ^PaXepwi, ^ovXo- 134 
fji€voi (TVVTpe^eaOai /cal avvayeXd^ecrOai fier 

2 dWrfkoiv €v6v<; ef d,px*l^ tou? TTolha';. ovro^ 
ovv 6 hihdaKoko^; iiri/SovXevcov roL<; ^aXeploL<; 
Sia TMV iralScov i^ijyev avrov^ r}/Ae/?a9 kicdaT7]<; 
VTTO TO relxo^ iyyvf; to irpfarov, elr dirriyev 
avdi<; etVo) yvfivaaafievov^;, eK he rovrov /carh 
fjbiicpov virdycov eWicre Oappelv (»9 7roXXrj<; ovar]<; 
dheia^, /cat reXo^^ ^X^^ d7ravra<; el? tol'9 irpo^v- 
XaKa^ Tcov 'Fco/naicov eve^aXe fcal TrapeBcoKev, 

3 dyeiv KeXev(Ta<; 7rpo<; rov KdfiiXXov, d-)(OeU Be 
/cal Karadrd^ eh fieaov eXeye iraLBevrrj'i fiev elvat, 
Kal BiBdaKaXo<;, rrjv Bk 7rpo<; eKelvov %apfcz/ dvrX 
TOVTwv eXofjuevo^ rcov BiicaUov, rjKeiv avrw rrjv 
TToXiv iv TOL<; Tratal KOfii^wv. Beivov ovv d/cov- 
aavTL TO epyov icftdvr) K.afiiXXa)' xal 7rpb<; tov<; 
7rap6vTa<; elircov, C09 %aXe7roy piev co'tl 7r6Xepbo<; 
KOI Bid iroXXrjf; dBi/cia^ /cal ^lalcov 'iTepaiv6pevo<; 

4 epycov, elal Be Kal iroXepcov 6p.co<^ Ttve<; vop^oc rol^ 
dyaOol^ dvBpddL, Kal to vlkolv ovx ovtco Bico- 
KTeov, a><7Te fir) (f)€vyeLV Ta9 eK KaKMV Kal dae/Scov 
epycov %a/)fTa9 (dperj} yap oiKeia tov p,eyav 
CTTparrjyov, ovk dXXoTpla Oappovvra KaKia 
XprjvaL crTpareveiv), irpoaera^e toI^ virrjpeTaL^ 
TOV fiev dvdpcoTTOV KaTapprjyvvvcu rd IfidTia Kal 
ii8 



CAMILLUS, X. 1-4 

their city at all points, made so light of the siege 
that, with the exception of the defenders of the 
walls, the rest went up and down the city in their 
garb of peace. The boys went to school as usual, 
and were brought by their teacher along the walls 
outside to walk about and get their exercise. For 
the Falerians, like the Greeks, employed one teacher 
in common, wishing their boys, from the very start, 
to herd with one another and grow up together. 
This teacher, then, wishing to betray Falerii by 
means of its boys, led them out every day beyond the 
city walls, at first only a little way, and then brought 
them back inside when they had taken their exercise. 
Presently he led them, little by little, farther and 
farther out, accustomed them to feel confident that 
there was no danger at all, and finally pushed in 
among the Roman outposts with his whole company, 
handed them over to the enemy, and demanded to 
be led to Camillus. So led, and in that presence, he 
said he was a boys' school-teacher, but chose rather 
to win the general's favour than to fulfil the duties 
of his office, and so had come bringing to him the 
city in the persons of its boys. It seemed to Camillus, 
on hearing him, that the man had done a monstrous 
deed, and turning to the bystanders he said : " War 
is indeed a grievous thing, and is waged with much 
injustice and violence ; but even war has certain laws 
which good and brave men will respect, and we must 
not so hotly pursue victory as not to flee the favours 
of base and impious doers. The great general will 
wage war relying on his own native valour, not on 
the baseness of other men." Then he ordered his 
attendants to tear the man's clothing from him, tie 

VOL. II. E ^^9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T^9 Xetpaf; gttlo-co Treptdyeiv, roh Be iracal 
BiaSovvat pa^hov^ fcal fidcrrtya';, otto)? KoXd- 
^ovre^: rov TrpoBorrjv ekavvwaiv et? rrjv ttoXlv. 

5 "Apr* Se roiiV ^aXepicov yaOrj/nevcov rrjv rov 
BiBacTKoXov irpohoaiav fcal rrjv fiev iroXiv, olov 
€Ik6<;, iirl avfjxpopa rrfXiKavTy Oprjvov Kare- 
^oz/T09, dvBpcov 8' 6/jbov Kal yvvai/ccov iirl ra 
T6t;j^i7 Kot Ta9 irvXa'; avv ovBevl XofyLapLO} (pepo- 
fiivcoVf irpoarjyov ol 7raiB€<i rov BiSdcrKaXov 
ryvfivov KCbi BeBepiivov irpoirrfXaKi^ovre'^, rov Be 
¥idpLiXXov acorrjpa /cal rrarepa koX 6eov dvaKa- 

6 XowT€9, were fir) puovov T0t9 yoveva-i rwv TraiBoov, 
dXXa Kal Tot9 dXXoL<; rroXirat^ ravO^ opcoai 
Oavpbd re koX ttoOov i/jbTreaelv rrj<i rov K.apLlXXov 
BtKaLoavv7j<;. Kal avvBpafiovre^; eh eKkXTjaiav 
iTpeaj^ei^ e'irepi'>^av eKeiv(p rd KaO^ eavrov^ im- 
rpeirovre^iy ov<i 6 KayLtfcXXo9 drreareiXev el^ 

7 *P(o/jb7)v. iv Be rfj jSovXfj Karaardvr€<; elirov, on 
^Vcofiaioi rrj<; vLKr}<; rrjv BiKaLoavvrjv rrporLpbrj- 
<ravre<; eBiBa^av avrov<; rrjv rjrrav dyarrrjaaL 
rrpo rrj^ ekevOepia^;, ov rocrovrov rfj Bwdpuet, 
XeiirecrOai BoKovvra^y oaov rjrrdadai, Tt}9 dperrj<; 
6/JLoXoyovvra<i. drroBovcrrf^; Be t'59 fiovXr]<; irdXiv 
eKeivtp ro Kplvai Kal Biatrrjaai ravra, xPVP'^tO' 
Xa^cbv rrapd roiv ^aXepicov Kal (ftiXiav 7r/509 
drravraf; ^aXLaKov<; OefjL€vo<; dvex^^PV^^v. 

XI. Ol Be arparicarai BiapirdcreLv irpoaBoK'q- 
cravre^ rov<; ^aXepiov^, C09 iiravriXOov eh *F(OfjLr)v 
Kevah xepai, Karrjyopovv rov K.a/jLLXXov 7ry0O9 
TOL'9 dX\ov<; 7roXira<; €09 pi^idoBrjiMov Kal ^Oovyj- 
aavrof; dxpeXrjOrjvuL roL<; irivrjcnv. irrel Be rov 
irepl Tov BiocKiafjLov vofiov ol Bi^pLapxoc irpoOevre^ 
120 



CAMILLUS, X. 4-xi. i 

his arms behind his back, and put rods and scourges 
in the hands of the boys, that they might chastise 
the traitor and drive him back into the city. 

The Falerians had just become aware of the 
teacher's treachery, and the whole city, as was 
natural, was filled with lamentation over a calamity 
so great. Men and women alike rushed distractedly 
to the walls and gates, when lo ! there came the 
boys, bringing their teacher back stripped, bound, 
and maltreated, while they called Camillus their 
saviour, their father, and their god. On this wise 
not only the parents of the boys, but the rest of the 
citizens as well, when they beheld the spectacle, 
were seized with admiration and longing for the 
righteousness of Camillus. In haste they held an 
assembly and sent envoys to him, entrusting him 
with their lives and fortunes. These envoys Camillus 
sent to Rome. Standing in the Senate, they declared 
that the Romans, by esteeming righteousness above 
victory, had taught them to love defeat above 
freedom ; not so much because they thought them- 
selves inferior in strength, as because they confessed 
themselves vanquished in virtue. On the Senate's 
remanding to Camillus the decision and disposition 
of the matter, he took a sum of money from the 
Falerians, established friendship with all the Faliscans, 
and withdrew. 

XI. But the soldiers thought to have had the 
sacking of Falerii, and when they came back to 
Rome empty-handed, they denounced Camillus to 
the rest of the citizens as a hater of the common 
people, and as begrudging to the poor the enjoyment 
of their rightful booty. And when the tribunes once 
more put forward the law for the division of the city 

121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

av6i<; eiri rrjv '\lrrj(j)ov eKoXovv tov Btj/jlov, 6 Sk 
Ka/xiXXo9 ov8€fj,i-d<; aire'xOeia^ ovBe irapprjcrLa^ 
(f>6iad/ii€V0(; i(f)dvrj [idXiaTa nrdvTcov i/c^La^o- 
fxevo^ Tou? 7roWov<;, tov fiev vo/jlov d/covT6<; 
2 direy^'q^laavTO, tov Se ILdfJuiKXov Bi 6pyr](; el')(^ov, 
wcTTe fcal SvcrTvy^TjaavTOf; avTov irepl to. olKela 
(tcov yap vlS)V dire^aXe tov eTcpov voarjaavTo) 
fjbrjSev oiKTO) TTJ^ 6pyrj<; v(f>ea6aL. kultol to 
Tfddo'i ov fjL€Tpico<i 7]veyKev dvrjp r}ixepo<^ (f^vaec koI 
%p»;o-T09, dWa t^9 BUrj^ Trpoyeypafijuevrj^; avTcp 
Sid irevOo^ oltcovpeu KaOetpyixevo'^ jxeTa tmv 
yvvaiKMV' 

XIT. 'O fM6v ovv KaTTiyopof; r)v AevKco^ ^Kirov- 
\r)'io<^, eyicXriiia he xXotttj^ irepl Ta TvpprjVLKCb 
XPV/J^ciTa. Kol BrJTa kol Ovpai TtV6<; iXiyovTO 
'X^dXKal Trap* avTW (jyavrjvai, tmv al')(^fxakd>Twv. 6 
he hrjiJLo<; e^rjpeOtcTTo kol hrjXo^i r)V ex 7rd<rr)<^ 
7rpo(f)aa€(o<; kot avTOv ttj '\lr^(p(p ')(^pr)a6/jb€vo<i, 

2 ovTw<; o^v (Tvvayayayv tov? re (J)lXov<; /cat tov? 
crvaTpaT€V(7afi6vov<; ov/c o\iyov<; to 7rXrj6o<^ oWa?, 
iBecTO fir) TrepiiBeiv avTov dhLKco<^ eir aiTLai^ 135 
TTOvrjpaLf; 6(f)k6vTa koI KaTayekaaTov viro tcov 
i^Opcov yevofjbevov. eirel h* ol (piXoL ^ovXevad- 
fievoL Koi ScaXe^Oevrefi eavTOt^ direKpivavTo, 7rpo<; 
fiev TTjv Kptaiv avT(p fJLijSev oteaOai, ^oT^drjaeLV, Tr)v 

he ^rjfdav 6(j)\6vTt> (TweKTiGeiv, ovk dvacryoyievo'i 
eyvw fjLeraa-Trjvai koI <^vyelv i/c tt)? 7r6\eco(; tt/jo? 

3 opyrju. dcnraadpievo^ ovv Tr}v yvvaiKa koX tov 
vlov eirl Trj(; olKua^ irporjei, aricoTrrj fiexpi t^9 
ttvXt]^' CKel he eTrea-Trj, kuI fjueTacTTpa^eU oirio-co 

122 



CAMILLUS, XI. I -XII. 3 

and summoned the people to vote upon it, then 
Camillus, shunning no hatred nor any boldness of 
utterancej was manifestly the chief one in forcing the 
multitude away from its desires. Therefore, they 
did indeed reject the law, much against their will, 
but they were wroth with Camillus, so that even 
when he met with domestic affliction and lost one 
of his two sons by sickness, their wrath was in no 
wise softened by pity. And yet he set no bounds 
to his sorrow, being by nature a gentle and kindly 
man, but even after the indictment against him had 
been published, he suffered his grief to keep him at 
home, in close seclusion with the women of his 
household. 

XII. Well, then, his accuser was Lucius Apuleius, 
and the charge was theft of Tuscan goods. It was 
said, forsooth, that certain bronze doors belonging 
to the booty had been seen at his house. But the 
people were exasperated, and would plainly lay 
hold of any pretext whatever for condemning him. 
So then he assembled his friends and comrades in 
arms, who were many in number, and begged them 
not to suffer him to be convicted on base charges 
and to be made a laughing-stock by his foes. When 
his friends had laid their heads together and dis- 
cussed the case, they answered that, as regarded his 
trial, they thought they could be of no help to him ; 
but if he were punished with a fine, they would help 
him pay it. This he could not endure, and in his 
wrath determined to depart the city and go into exile. 
Accordingly, after he had kissed his wife and son 
good-bye, he went from his house in silence as far 
as the gate of the city. There he stopped, turned 
himself about, and stretching his hands out towards 

"3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal rct<; 'X^etpa^i avaT€Lva<; tt/oo? to J^aTrtrcoXiov 
iirev^aTO rol<i 6eol<i, el firj SiKaicof;, aXX' v^pei 
Stj/hov kol (fiOovo) 7rp07rr)\aKL^6fjL6vo<; i/cTTLTrrec, 
rwx^u 'VcofjLaiov^ /jLeravorjaai Kal iraaiv avdpa>7roi,<; 
<j)avepov<; yeviaOai Seo/jLevov; avrov kol 7rodovvTa<i 

J^dfJLLWoV. 

XIII. ^EiK6Lvo<; fiev ovv, Mcnrep 6 'A^tXXei;?, 
apa9 defievo^ eirl tou? TroXtra? KaX fierao-Ta^ 

0)(j)\e TTjV BlKTJV ipTJ/LLTJV, TifjUrj/Jia flVpLCOV Kol 

wevTaKto-'X^iXLcov aa-aapicov exovaav, 

'^O <yLV6Tai TT/oo? apyvplov \6yov %t\«at Bpayfjiol 
Kal TrevraKocnai' aaadpcov yap rjp to dpyvpiov, 
Kal TO SeKaxa^KOv ovtco<; eKaXelro hrjvdpiov. 
2 Ovhel<; S' earl *Fo)/xaicov, 09 ov vofii^ei t<z9 
ev^j^^ Tov K^afiiWov rax^ 'T'r)v Alktjv vTroXa^elv, 
Kal yeveaOat TipLcopiav avT(p Trj<; dhiKia^ ovk 
r/Betav, aXX* dviapdv, ovojjuaaTrjv he Kal irepi- 
^orjTOV ToaavTT) TrepirfkOe ttjv ^Vcofirjv vejjbea-t^, 
Kal ToaovTOV dycov <^66pov Kal klvSvvov d/na fiCT 
alaxvvVi ^(pdvr] Kaipo^ eirl ttjv ttoXcv, ecTe ttj^; 
Tvxi^ ovTco (TVveXdovari<^y etre Kal Oe&v tlvo^ 
epyov €<7tI fXT) rrapajJueXuv dpeTrj^ dxapi'O'TOV- 
fievr)<;, 

XIV. TIpMTOV puev ovv eSo^e o-rj/neXov yey ovkvai 
KaKOv fieydXov irpoaLovro^ ?7 'lovXiov tov TLfirjTov 
reXevrrj" fjudXiara yap Br) 'Payjiiaioi cre^ovTat Kal 
vofil^ovaiv lepav rrjv tcov rtfiTjrcop dpxv^' Bev- 
Tepov he irpo r'f]<; Ka/uXXov <pvyr}<^ dvrjp ovk 
€7rt(f)avr}<; fiev ovBe eK T'»}9 /SovXrjf;, e7n€iKr}<; Se Kal 
p^p77crT09 elvac Bokcov, MdpKO<; KatSiKiof;, dvr]veyKe 
irpo^ TOL'9 %tXtap;^oi;9 irpdyiia <j)povTLSo<; a^tov. 



124 



CAMILLUS, XII. 3-xiv. i 

the Capitol, prayed the gods that, if with no justice, 
but through the wantonness of the people and the 
abuse of the envious he was now being driven from 
his country, the Romans might speedily repent, and 
show to all men that they needed and longed for 
Camillus. 

XIII. After he had thus, like Achilles,^ invoked 
curses upon his fellow citizens, he removed from out 
the city. His case went by default, and he was fined 
fifteen thousand asses. 

This sum, reduced to our money, is fifteen hundred 
drachmas. For the as was the current copper coin, 
and the silver coin worth ten of these pieces was for 
that reason called the denarius, which is equivalent 
to the drachma. 

Now there is no Roman who does not believe that 
justice followed hard upon the Imprecations of 
Camillus, and that he received a requital for his 
wrongs which was not pleasing to him, but painful : 
certainly it was notable and famous. For a great 
retribution encompassed Rome, and a season of dire 
destruction and peril not unmixed with disgrace 
assailed the city, whether fortune so brought things 
to pass, or whether it is the mission of some god not 
to neglect virtue that goes unrequited. 

XIV. In the first place, then, it seemed to be a 
sign of great evil impending when Julius the censor 
died. For the Romans specially revere and hold 
sacred the office of censor. In the second place, 
before Camillus went into exile, a man who was not 
conspicuous, to be sure, but who was esteemed 
honest and kindly, Marcus Caedicius, informed the 
military tribunes of a matter well worth their atten- 

» niad i. 407-412. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 e(^^ ^ap iv ry '7rapa))(r]/jLevr} vv/crl Ka& ohov 
^aSi^cov, fjv }^atvr]v ovofid^ovcTi, KXrjOeh viro rLVo<; 
(jiOey'^ajjiivov /jbeTao-rpacfyrjvai,, koX OedaaaOai fiev 
ovSeva, (f)(0V7](; Be iLLeL^ovo<; rj Kar dv6 pcoir Ivrjv 
aKovaai rdBe Xeyovo-r]';' '*"Ay6, Mayo/ce K.aLBLKi€, 
Xeye 7rpo<; tov<; dp'^^oina'^ eodOev iXdoDV oXiyov 
y^povov VaXdra^ irpocrBe^^eaOat.^* ravr d/cov- 
(Tavre^ ol %iXta/c>;^ot yiXwra kol TracBtdv iiroiovv- 
TO. KoX fier 6\iyov (rvve^Sr) rd irepl Kd/itWov. 

XY. Oi Be Vakdrai rod J^eXriKov yevov^ ovre^; 
VTTO TrX'^dov^ Xeyovrac rrjv avrcov d7ro\L7r6vT6<;, 
ovfc ovaav avrdpKTf Tpe(j)€iv diravTa^, eirl 7779 
^rjTTjcnv krepa^ opfirjaac fivpidBe<; Be riroWal 
yevojJbevoL vecov dvBpwv Koi /jLa')(^ifi(ov, en Be 
TrXetou? iraiBwv kol yvvaiKCOV dyovTe<;, ol fiev eirl 
Tov ^opeiov ^^Keavov virepPaXovje^ rd ^Viirala 
oprj pvrjvai koi rd eayaTa rrj^; EtVpco7rrj<; fcara- 

2 a'x^elVi ol Be fiera^if Ilvpp/)vr]<; opov^ kov tmv 
"AXirecov IBpuOevreg cVyi;?* Xevcovcov fcal KeXro- 
picov KaroiKelv xpovov ttoXvv o^jre 8' otvov yevord- 
fxevot TOT€ TTpcoTOv c'f 'IraXiW BiaKO/jbiadevTO^ 
ovT(0(; dpa SavfidaaL to Tropua koI 7r/?09 ttjv 
KaLVorrjTa r7]<; r)Bovr]<; eK^pove<; yeveaOai iravre^y 
ft)t7T€ dpdpbevoi rd oirXa /cat yeved<; dvaXa/36vre^ 
eirl ra? "AXTret? ^^epeadai /cal ^rjrelv eK6Lvr]v rrjv 
yrjv, rj roiovrov Kapirov dvaBiBcoa-i, rr)v 8' dXXr)v 
d/capTTOv '^yelcrOat xal dvijp^epov. 

3 'O K elaayayoov tov dlvov 77/309 avTov<; koi 
7rapo^vva<; iwl ttjv ^iTaXiav pudXiaTa koI tt/jwto? 
"Appayv XeyeTac yeveadac Tvppr]v6<;, dvrjp eVtc^az/^? 
Kal <j)V(T€L pLev ov Trovrjpo^y avpb(j)opa Be TOiavTrj 
j(pricrdpLevo<i, rjv eTTLTpoTros iraiBb^ opcjyavov 
126 



CAMILLUS, XIV. 2-xv. 3 

tion. He said that during the night just passed, as 
he was going along the so-called New Street, he 
was hailed by someone in clear tones, and turned, 
and saw no man, but heard a voice louder than 
man's saying : " Hark thou ! Marcus Caedicius, early 
in the morning go and tell the magistrates that 
within a little time they must expect the Gauls." 
At this story the tribunes mocked and jested. And 
a little while after, Camillus suffered his disgrace. 

XV. The Gauls were of the Celtic stock, and their 
numbers were such, as it is said, that they abandoned 
their own country, which was not able to sustain 
them all, and set out in quest of another. They 
were many myriads of young warriors, and they took 
along with them a still greater number of women 
and children. Some of them crossed the Rhipaean 
mountains, streamed off towards the northern ocean, 
and occupied the remotest parts of Europe ; others 
settled between the Pyrenees and the Alps, near 
the Senones and the Celtorians, and dwelt there a 
long time. But at last they got a taste of wine, 
which was then for the first time brought to them 
from Italy. They admired the drink so much, and 
were all so beside themselves with the novel pleasure 
which it gave, that they seized their arms, took 
along their families, and made off to the Alps, in 
quest of the land which produced such fruit, con- 
sidering the rest of the world barren and wild. 

The man who introduced wine to them, and was 
first and foremost in sharpening their appetite for 
Italy, is said to have been Arron, a Tuscan. He was 
a man of prominence, and by nature not prone to 
evil, but had met with the following misfortune. 
He was guardian of an orphan boy who was heir to 

127 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irKovTCp re irpooTov rcov ito\lt5)v kclI davfia^o- 
fievov Kar elSo^, ovofia AovKov/ncovof;. ovro^ €k 
veov irapa roS "Kppcovt, Siairav elx^t a^«^ fxeipoLKiov 
MV ovK direkiire ttjv olfclav, d\\a irpoaeiroteiTO 
4 ')(^cLipeiv (jvvoiv eKeivcp. koI ttoXvp ')(^p6vov e\dv6ave 
hie^dapKOi)'^ avTov rrjv yvvac/ca koI hi€(j)Oapfji€vo<; 
VTT €/€€lvr]<;' ijBrj Be iroppo) rod TrdOov^ djucporepfw 
yeyovorayv kol fMrfT d(f)eivai, ttjv iTTidv/xiav ixrjre 
KpvTTTeiv erv Bwa/juevcov, 6 fjuev veaviafcof; e'JTe')(eipet. 
^avepctx; diroaiTda-af; e)(eiv rrjv dvOpcoTTOV, 6 S* 
ciprjp iirl Bufcrjv eXOcov Koi KpaTov/jievo<; irkrjOei 
(jylXayv kol 'X^pr^fidrcdv Bairdvac^ viro rov Aovkov- 
ficovot; i^eXiire tt^v eavrov- koX 7rv66/jievo<; ra rcov 
TaXarcov rjxev el<; avTOv<; /cal KaOr^yrjaaTO t^9 et9 
T'qv *lra\iav aTpareia^. 

XVI. Ol K e/Jb^a\6vTe<; evOix; i/cpdrovv t^9 
')((opa<; oarjv to irakaiov ol Tvpprjvol Kareix^''^* 
diTo TMV "AXirecov eir dix(f)OTepa<; KaOrjKovGav Td<; 
Oa\d(Tcra<^, o)? Kal rovvo/jua fiapTvpel ra> Xoyw. 
Tr)v [xev yap ^opeiov OdXarrav ^ABpuav KaXx)v<nv 
diro Tvppr]VLK7]<; TroXect)? 'AS/o/a?, rrjv Be tt/jo? 
voTOV KeKXifievrjV avrLKpy; TvpprjvcKov ireXayo^, 

2 irdaa 5' earl BevBpocpvro^ avrrj kol Ope/jL/Jiaa-iv 
€i;/3oT09 kclI fcardppvTO^ irorafiol^;, Kal iroXei^ 
el')(ev OKTcoKalBeKa KaXd^; Kal fieydXa^; Kal Kare- 
CTKevaajxeva^ irpos re ')(^pr)fiaTt<TfjLbv epyaTCK(x)<i Kal 
7rpo9 Biairav 7ravrjyvpiK(o<;, a9 ol TaXdrac tov<; 
TvppT]vov<; eK^aX6vT€<; avrol Karea)(^ov. dXX^ 
Tavra p.ev iirpd-^^drj av^vo) rivi XP^^V irporepov. 

XVII. Ol Be FaXdrat rore 7rp6<; iroXiv Tvppr)- 
vLBa KXavaLOV arparevcravre^ eiroXiopKovv. ol 
Be K.Xov(jlvoi KaTa(pvy6pTe<; iirl 701/9 'Fco/jLaiov<i 
u8 



CAMILLUS, XV. -xvii. i 

the greatest wealth in the city, and of amazing 
beauty, Lucumo by name. This Lucumo from his 
youth up, had lived with Arron, and when he came 
to man's estate, did not leave his house, but pre- 
tended to take delight in his society. He had, 
however, corrupted Arron's wife, and been corrupted 
by her, and for a long time kept the thing a secret. 
But at last the passions of both culprits increased 
upon them so that they could neither put away their 
desires nor longer hide them, wherefore the young 
man made open attempt to remove the woman and 
have her to wife. Her husband brought the case 
to trial, but was defeated by Lucumo, owing to the 
multitude of his friends and his lavish outlays of 
money, and forsook the city. Learning about the 
Gauls, he betook himself to them, and led them on 
their expedition into Italy. 

XVL The Gauls burst in and straightway 
mastered all the country which the Tuscans occupied 
of old, namely, that stretching from the Alps down 
to both seas, the names of which bear witness to the 
story. For the northern sea is called Adria, from the 
Tuscan city of Adria; the southern is called out- 
right the Tuscan Sea. This whole country is studded 
with trees, has excellent pasturage for flocks and 
herds, and an abundance of rivers. It had also 
eighteen cities, large and fair, well equipped for 
profitable commerce and for sumptuous living. These 
the Gauls took away from the Tuscans and occupied 
themselves. But this happened long before the 
time of which I speak. 

XVII. At this time the Gauls had marched against 
the Tuscan city of Clusium and were laying siege 
to it. The Clusians applied for assistance to the 

129 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjTrjcravTO Trpia/Setf; Trap* avrcjv fcal jpafifiara 
7r/309 T0U9 ^apl3dpou<;. i'TrefJL(j>6r)(jav Se rov 
^afficov yevov^ Tyoet? dvhp6<^ evhoKLfioi koI rifxaf; 

2 fjieydXa^ e;^oi/T€9 iv rfj iroXei. tovtov^ iSe^avro 
fi€V 01 TaXdrai if)i\av6p(jd7r(o<i Bia to rrjq 'Pw/at;? 
ovofia, fcal iravadfievoi ri)^ 7rpo<; rd rel'^^T) fidxH^ 
el<; X6yov<; avprjXOov. 7ruv0avo/j,evcov 8' avrcjv, 
6 Ti iraOovTe^ vtto KXovalvwv tjkoccv eifl rrjv 
ttoXlv, yeXdaa^ 6 ^aaiXev<^ rcov VaXarSiv l^pevvo^i, 
"^KhiKOva-LV ^/jLd<;,^^ €^Vy " K.Xovcrlvoi yrjv xal 
'^(opav oXiyrjv jxev yecopyeiv Bwdfievoc, nroXXrjv Se 
KaTe)(eiv d^tovvT€<; Koi p^rj pL€TaSt86vT€'s rjpfiv 

3 ^evoi^ oval xal iroXXoU fcal irevqai, ravra S' 
dpa KoX vp,d<^ r)hlKOvv, w 'Pco/jLoIol, irporepov piev 
^AX/3avol Kot ^LBrjvdrai kol ^ApSedrat,, vvv Be 
OvrjloL Kal KaTrrjvdrat koI iroXkol ^aXiaKoyv koI 
OuoXovaKcov 6(f) oi'9 vpL6l<; (rTpaT€vovT6<;, idv firj 
p^eraSiScbo-Lv vpblv tcop dyadwv, dvhpairoBi^eade 
fcal XerjXareLTe koI KaraaKdirTere rd<i TroXei? 
avTcov, ovSev ovBe vpbel<; ye Beivov ovBe dBiKov 

4 TTOiovvre^ii dXXd to5 Trpea-^VTaTO) rciyv vopuoiv 
dKoXovdovvTe<i, 09 tw KpeiTTOVL rd rcov tjttovodv 
BiBoaaiv dp')(^6pL€V0^ diro rod Oeov Kal reXevrcov 
€t9 rd Orjpla. /cal yap tovtoi<; ck (pvaeoD^; evean 
TO ^rjTelv TrXeov e^^iv Ta KpeiTTOva to)v viroBe- 
e<TTepcov. KXovacvov<i Be iravaaaOe iroXiopKov- 
p,evov<; ol/CT€ipovT6'^, 0)9 P'Tj /cal TaXdTa<; BtBd^r)T€ 
XP'n^TOV^ Kal (jiiXoLKTippbova^ yevkadai Tot9 vtto 
'Fa)p.ai(ov dBcKovp,6Voc<i. * 

5 'E/c TOVTcov Tcov Xoycov eyvcoaav ol 'Vcopialoi 
Tov l^pevvov davpL^aTQ)^ exovTa, Kal irapeX- 

130 



CAMILLUS, xvn. 1-5 

Romans, and begged them to send ambassadors in 
their behalf with a letter to the Barbarians. So 
there were sent three men of the Fabian gens who 
were of great repute and honour in the city. The 
Gauls received them courteously, because of the 
name of Rome, ceased their attacks upon the city 
walls, and Iield conference with them. When they 
were asked what wrong they had suffered at the 
hands of the Clusians that they had come up against 
their city, Brennus, the king of the Gauls, burst into 
a laugh and said : " The Clusians wrong us in that, 
being able to till only a small parcel of earth, they 
yet are bent on holding a large one, and will not 
share it with us, who are strangers, many in numbei 
and poor. This is the wrong which ye too suffered, 
O Romans, formerly at the hands of the Albans, 
Fidenates, and Ardeates, and now lately at the 
hands of the Veientines, Capenates, and many of 
the Faliscans and Volscians. Ye march against these 
peoples, and if they will not share their goods with 
you, ye enslave them, despoil them, and raze their 
cities to the ground ; not that in so doing ye are in 
any wise cruel or unjust, nay, ye are but obeying 
that most ancient of all laws which gives to the 
stronger the goods of his weaker neighbours, the 
world over, beginning with God himself and ending 
with the beasts that perish. For these too are so 
endowed by nature that the stronger seeks to have 
more than the weaker. Cease ye, therefore, to pity 
the Clusians when we besiege them, that ye may 
not teach the Gauls to be kind and full of pity 
towards those who are wronged by the Romans." 
From this speech the Roman envoys saw that there 
was no coming to terms with Brennus, and so they 

131 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oovra et9 TO KXovcTLOv iOdppvvov koX Trapoop- 
fjLCOp TOL'9 dvBpa<; iire^ekOelv rol'^ ^ap^dpoi^ 
fi€T aifToov, €iT€ TTjv €fC€LV(op oXktjv Kara- 
fiaOelv ecre ttjv eavrcov iirtBeL^aaOat Oekovre^. 
iK8pOfi7J<i Be Tcov Y.Xovalvcov koX fid-^'r]'; irapa rci 
reiXV y€V0/j,6vr](; eh T(op ^a/Sicov, Kolvro^ ''A/n- 
fiovcrTO<i, LTTTTov e^cov eXijKaaev dvTLo<; dvBpl 
fieydXo) Kal Ka\a> FaXdrr) ttoXv irpolirirevovrL 
TCOV dWcov, dyvorjOeh iv dp^fj Bid to tt;!^ avvoBov 
o^elav yeveadat, Kal tu oirXa TreptXdfiTrovTa ttjv 
6 oyjriv diroKpviTTeiv. w? 3' eirircpaTrjaa^; Ty lJ^d')(ri 
Kol KUTa^aXoov ia/cvXeve tov dvOponTTOv, yvwplaa^ 
6 ^pevvo^ avTov iirefiapTVpaTo deov^y ft)9 irapd 137 
TO. KOLvd Kal vevofjuafxeva iraaLV dvOpcoirot^ 6a la 
KoX BiKaia irpeaffevTov jjuev rjKOvTO'^, iroXifiia Be 
elpyaa/iiivov. KaTairavaa^ Be ti^v p^d^^v avTLKa 
KXov(rivov<; jxev eca 'XpLipeLV, eirX Be ttjv 'V(op,7)v 
TOV (TTpaTOV rjryev, ov PovX6p,evo^ Be Bo^at Tr)v 
dBiKtav avToh cja-irep da/j,6V0L<; yeyovevac koX 
Beop^ivoL^ 7rpo<j)do-eci)<;, eTrep.yjrev e^aiTMV eVt Ti- 
p^wpla TOV dvBpa /cal Trporjyev dp,a cr^oXaiw^. 

XVIII. ^Kv Be *l^d)p,7j Tr]<; l3ovX'fj<; avva^O eicrrj^i 
aXXoL T€ TToXXol TOV ^a^Lov KaTTjyopovv, Kal 
TOiv lepeayv oi KaXovp.evoL ^rjTiaXeh evrjyov 
iTTcOeid^ovTe^ Kal KeXevovTa to t5)v ireirpay- 
pievwv dyo<; tt^v <TvyKXr]Tov eh eva tov aiTiov 
Tpe-^aaav virep tcov dXXoDv d4>o(Tid)o-aa-0ai, 

TovTov^ T0U9 ^r)TiaXe2<; Hop^iriXLO^ No/ia?, 
jSaariXecov '^p.epcoTaTO^ yevofj-evo^ Kal BcKacoTaTO^, 
KaTeaTrjae ^vXaKa<^ p,ev elprjvrj<;, e'7riyvd)jjLova<i Be 
Kal ^e^aiCDTa^ acTCMv, at avv BIkij iroXefiov 
arvvdiTTOVai. 
132 



CAMILLUS, XVII. 5-XV111. I 

slipped into Clusium, and emboldened and incited 
its citizens to sally out against the Barbarians with 
them, either because they wished to discover the 
prowess of those warriors or to display their own 
The Clusians made a sally, and in the fight which 
raged along the walls one of the Fabii, Quintus 
Ambustus, drove his horse straight at a stately and 
handsome Gaul who was riding far out in front of the 
rest. At first he was not recognized, because the 
conflict came swiftly to pass and his dazzling armour 
hid his face. But when he had conquered and un- 
horsed his foe and was stripping his arms from him, 
then Brennus recognized him, and called upon the 
gods to witness how, contrary to the general practice 
of all mankind, which was deemed just and holy, 
he had come as an ambassador, but had wrought as 
an enemy. Then, putting a stop to the battle, he 
straightway let the Clusians alone, and led his host 
against Rome. But not wishing to have it thought 
that his people were rejoiced at the outrage, and 
only wanted some pretext for war, he sent and 
demanded the offender for punishment, and in the 
meantime advanced but slowly. 

XVIII. When the Senate convened in Rome, 
many denounced the Fabii, and especially the priests 
called Fetiales were instant in calling upon the 
Senate in the name of all the gods to turn the curse 
of what had been done upon the one guilty man, 
and so to make expiation for the rest. 

These Fetiales were instituted by Numa Pompilius, 
gentlest and justest of kings, to be the guardians of 
peace, as well as judges and determiners of the 
grounds on which war could justly be made. 

133 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 T?59 S^ ^ovXrjfi eVfc top Bij/xou dveveyKafjbevrjf; 
TO TTpdyfia Kol tmv lepewv Ofioia rov ^a/Slov 
KarrjyopovvToyv, ovrco irepLv^piaav ol ttoWoI rd 
Oeia KOL KareyeXaaav, coare kol x^Xiapyov 
drfroBel^ai rov ^d^tov fierd rcov dSe\<f>cbv. ol Be 
KeXrol irvdo/jLevoL ravra kol ^aXeTrw? ^epovTe<^ 
ovSev i/jLTToSobv eiTOiovvro Trj<; o-ttouSt}?, dX)C 

3 i')(^copovv iravrX rd^er kol 7rpo<; to 7r\rjOo<i avTMV 
Kol Tr)v Xa/jLTrpoTTjTa Tr]<i Trapaa/cevrj^i koI fiiav 
KOL dvjjLov eK7r67r\7}y/jLevci)v tS)v Bed fiiaov, koX 
Trjv T€ '^copav dTroXcoXivai irdaav tjBt] koI Ta9 
7roA,et9 €v6v<; aTroXeLadai, Bokouptcop, irap' iX- 
irlBa^ ovBev yBi/covv ou8' iXd/ju/Savov ix T(hv 
drypSyv, dXXd /cat irapd ra? TroXetv iyyv<i Trapef- 
i6vT€<; i/Socov iirl ttjv ^Pcofirjv TropeveaOai /cat 
fx6voi<i TToXe/jLetv ^VcdfialoL^, tou^ B' dXXov<i (fit- 
Xoi'9 iiTLaTaaOaL. 

4 ToLavTT) Be ^pwpievcov opfjuy tcov /3apl3dpcop 
i^rjyov ol yjXiap^oi rou? 'Pw/iatof? eVt tov 
dyCova, irXi^OeL p.ev ovk ivBeel^ {eyevovTo yap 
oirXcTai TeTpaKta-fjivpioiv ovk eXdacrov<}), dva- 
a/€r]Tov<; Be tov<; vroXXov^ koI tots irpSyTov 
diTTop^evov^ 07rX(ov. eVi S* i^7)/jLeX7jT0 Ta t&v 
deodv avT0L<i ovTe KuXXcep'^aaa-tv ovt6 fidvT€i<i 
a TTpb KivBvvov Kol fidxv'i eiVo? rjv ipopuevoi^, 

5 ovBevcx; Be tjttov iireTdpaTTev r) iroXvap^ia 
Ta TrpaTTop^epa. KaiToc irpoTepop ye kol irpb^ 
eXaTTOPa^ dyoypa^ elXovTo iroXXd/CK; /xopdp^ovf}, 
ou? ^LKTaTopa^ KaXovatv, ovk dypoovPT€<;, oaop 
eaTip eh eiria-^aXr} Kaipbv o^eXo^ pad ')(^p(opLevov<i 
ypcopt) 7r/909 apvirevOvvop dp')(r]v ev %6/)(7t Trjv 

6 BLktjp exovaav evTaKTelv. ovx riKiaTa Bk fcal 

^34 



CAMILLUS, xviii. 2-6 

The Senate referred the matter to the people^ and 
although the priests with one accord denounced 
Fabius, the multitude so scorned and mocked at 
religion as to appoint him military tribune, along 
with his brothers. The Gauls, on learning this, were 
wroth, and suffered nothing to impede their haste, 
but advanced with all speed. What with their 
numbers, the splendour of their equipment, and 
their furious violence, they struck terror wherever 
they came. Men thought the lands about their 
cities lost already, and their cities sure to follow at 
once. But contrary to all expectation the enemy 
did them no harm, nor took aught from their fields, 
but even as they passed close by their cities shouted 
out that they were marching on Rome and warred 
only on the Romans, but held the rest as friends. 

Against this onset of the Barbarians the military 
tribunes led the Romans forth to battle. They were 
not inferior in numbers, being no fewer than forty 
thousand men-at-arms, but most of them were un- 
trained, and had never handled weapons before. 
Besides, they had neglected all religious rites, having 
neither sacrificed with good omens, nor consulted the 
prophets as was meet before the perils of battle. 
But what most of all confounded their undertakings 
was the number of their commanders. And yet before 
this, and on the brink of lesser struggles, they had 
often chosen a single commander, with the title of 
Dictator, not unaware how great an advantage it is, 
when confronting a dangerous crisis, to be of one 
mind in paying obedience to an authority which is 
absolute, and holds the scales of justice in its own 
hands. Moreover, their unfair treatment of Camillus 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ka/i«XXo9 ayveofiovrjdel^ e^Xa^jre ra irpayixaray 
Tov fir) irpo^ xdpiv ^7)he icokaKevovTa<^ dp^ecv 
(fio^epov yefOfiivov, 

Tlp06\66vT€<; OVV OLTTO T^9 TToXcft)? (TTahlOV^ 

ivevTTjKovTa irapd tov ^AXiav irojafjiov tjvXI- 
arOrjaav, ov iroppco rod aTparoTriSou tw Sv/i^pLBc 
av/jL(p6p6/jL€vov, evravOa Be tcov ^ap^dpcov 
i7n(f)avevT(ov al(T^pc!)<; dycovLadfievoi, Bi dra^iav 

7 irpdiTovTO. koI to fiev dpiaTepov Kepa^i €v6v^ 
ifJLJBaXovTefi eh tov iroTapbov ol KeXrot Bie- 
(^Oeipav TO Be Be^iov vireKKfuvav ttjv eTrKpopdv ^^ 
€K TOV TreBiov 7r/)09 tov^ X6<pov^ tjttov e^eKoirr)- H 
KOI hie^e'ireaov uTrb tovtcov eh Tr)v ttoXlv ol - 
woWoL. Tot9 8' dX\oL<i, oaoc TCOV TroXefjLLcov 
aTretTTovTWV tt/oo? tov ^ovov eacodrjaav, et? 
Ovrjtov<; at ^vyal Bed vvKTo<i rjo-av^ co? t^9 ^ 
'Vwpur)^ ol')(pixevr](; fcal tcov €Kei iravrcov diro- fl 
XcoXoTcov. " 

XIX. ^^<yeveT0 B^ rj fid'^ //.era Tpoirdq Oepivd^ 
irepl TTjv Trava-eXrjvov, rj koI irpoTepov rj/^epci, fieya 
Trdda crvve/Sr] to irepl tou? ^a^iov^' TpiaKocnoL 
yap e/c tov yevov^ dvBp€<; viro Tvppr]vcbv dvypeOrj- 
aav. eKpdT7]ae Be ttjv yfiepav diro tt}? BevTepa^ 
7]TT7]<; ^AXidBa fjA^pi' v^v KcCXelaOai Bid tov 
iroTapLov. 

liepl B* r]pbepcov d7ro(f)pdBcov, eoTe XPV TideaOal 138 
TLva^, elTe 6pOco<i 'HpdKXeLTO<i eireirXi^^ev'YiaLoBat 
ra? ^ev dyaOd^ TroLOVjJbevcp^ Td<; Be <j)avXa<i, a)9 
dyvoovvTi cj)vo-Lv ?7yLte/oa9 dirdcrr)'; fxiav ovaav, 

2 6T€pcodc BirjTToprjTai,. ttj B' viroKeLfievr) ypa(j)y to 
fjLV7)fjLovevcrac TrapaBeiyjjbaTCOv dXiycov icrco<; dv 

136 



CAMILLUS, XVIII. 6-xix. 2 

was in no slight degree fatal to discipline, since it 
was now dangerous to hold command without paying 
regard to the pleasure and caprice of the people. 

They advanced from the city about eleven miles, 
and encamped along the river Allia, not far from its 
confluence with the Tiber. There the Barbarians 
came suddenly upon them, and after a disorderly and 
shameful struggle, they were routed. Their left 
wing was at once driven into the river by the Gauls 
and destroyed; their right wing was less cut up, 
because it withdrew before the enemy's onset from 
the plain to the hills, from which most of them made 
their way back to the city. The rest, as many as 
escaped the enemy's hands, which were weary with 
slaughter, fled by night to Veii. They thought that 
Rome was lost and all her people slain. 

XIX. The battle^ took place just after the summer 
solstice when the moon was near the full, on the very 
day of a former great disaster, when three hundred 
men of the Fabian gens had been cut to pieces by 
the Tuscans. But the second defeat was so much 
the worse that the day on which it fell is called 
down to the present time "dies AUiensis," from the 
river. 

Now concerning " dies nefasti/' or unlucky days, 
whether we must regard some as such, or whether 
Heracleitus was right in rebuking Hesiod for calling 
some days good and some bad, in his ignorance that 
the nature of every day is one and the same, — this 
question has been fully discussed elsewhere. Still, 
even in what I am now writing, the mention of a few 



1 390 B.a 



137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

apfiocreie. rovro fiev rolvvv Boift)Tot9 *l7nrohpo- 
jjbiov iJU7]v6^, o)<; 3' ^KdrjvaloL KoKovaiv ^EKaro/jL- 
^acMVOf;, lara/Jbivov Tre/jLirry Bvo Xa^elv avve^rj 
viKa<i eTrKpaveardra^i, ah TOi'9 "EWt]va<; i]\ev6e- 
pwaavy Tijv T6 Trepl AevKrpa koX ti^v iirX Keprja-ao) 
Tavrr}<; irporepov erecn irXeioaiv rj BtaKocTLOif;, ore 

3 Aarrafjivav fcal @e(T(j-aXov<i ivLKr)(Tav, tovto B' 
av ttoXlv Tiep(T(ii jmtjvo^ HorjBpof^ccovof; eicrri /lev 
iv M.apada)Vi, Tpirr} S' iv Yi\aTaial<^ a/jua Koi 
Trepl MvkoXtjv r)TTrjdr}aav viro r&v 'EWtjvcov, 
irefjuTTTr) Be (1>0ivovto^ iv ^Ap^ij\oL<;. ol S* 'AOrj- 
valoi KoX T7]v irepl Nd^ov eviKcov vau/jLa')(^Lav, ij? 
yLa^pia^ eo-Tparrjjet, rod ^or^Bpopaoivo^; irepX rr/v 
wavaeXijvov, iv Be ^aXapJlvi irepl Ta<; €l/cdBa<;, 

4 ft)? yp.LV iv T(p TlepX rjpbepcov diroBeBencraL. ivrj- 
vo'xe Be KOI 6 SapyrjXiojv p,rjv roX^ l3ap^dpoi<i 
eViS^Xco? ViTf^/a?* Kol yap *A\e^avBpo<; iirl 
VpavLKw Tov<; PaaiXew^ arparrjyovf; Sapyr)Xia)vo<i 
ivLK7](Te, Kal YiapXTjBovLoi irepl ^iKeXlav vtto 
Tip,oXeovTO<; rjTTcovTo rfj e^Bopby ^Olvovto^, irepl 
rjv Bo/cel /cal to ^IXlov dXcovai, SapyrjXioovof},^ 0)9 
"E(j)opo<; Kal ¥iaXXccrOevrj<; koI AapbdaT7]<i Kal 

5 ^vXap')(p(; iorToprjfcaaiv. dvdiraXiv S* 6 Merayeir- 
VLcoVy ov Botft)Tol TldvepLOV KaXovaiVy rot? '^EX,- 
Xrjcrcv ovk evp>evr)<i yeyove. tovtov yap rod p,r)vb^ 
e^BopLT) Kal Tr)V iv l^paveovi pud^yv rjrrrjOevTe'i vir* 
^AvT LIT drpov reXeod^ dircoXovro, Kal irporepov iv 
XaLpcovela pLa^opievoc irpo<; ^iXiirirov r]TV')(r)aav. 
rrfq 8' avTTJ^i rjpbepa^ ravT7}<^ iv ra MeTayeirvtoovL 
Kara tov avrov eviavrov ol pier ^ Ap^iBdpbov Bia- 
^dvTe<i eh ^IraXuav vtto tmv ifcel j3ap^dpa)v 

^ &apyr]\iwvos deleted by Bekker, after Reiske. 
138 



CAMILLUS, XIX. 2-5 

examples may not be amiss. To begin with, then, it 
was on the fifth day of the month of Hippodromius 
(which the Athenians call Hecatombaeon) that the 
Boeotians won two illustrious victories which set the 
Greeks free : that at Leuctra, and that at Ceressus 
more than two hundred years earlier, when they 
conquered Lattamyas and the Thessalians. Again, 
on the sixth day of the month of Boedromion the 
Greeks defeated the Persians at Marathon, on the 
third day at Plataea and Mycale together, and on the 
twenty-sixth day at Arbela. Moreover, it was about 
full moon of the same month that the Athenians won 
their sea-fight off Naxos, under the command of 
Chabrias, and about the twentieth, that at Salamis, 
as has been set forth in my treatise " On days." 
Further, the month of Thargelion has clearly been a 
disastrous one for the Barbarians, for in that month 
the generals of the King were conquered by Alex- 
ander at the Granicus, and on the twenty -fourth of the 
month the Carthaginians were worsted by Timoleon 
off Sicily. On this day, too, of Thargelion, it appears 
that Ilium was taken, as Ephorus, Callisthenes, 
Damastes, and Phylarchus have stated. Contrary- 
wise, the month of Metageitnion (which the Boeotians 
call Panemus) has not been favourable to the Greeks. 
On the seventh of this month they were worsted by 
Antipater in the battle of Crannon, and utterly un- 
done ; before this they had fought Philip unsuccess- 
fully at Chaeroneia on that day of the month ; and in 
the same year, and on the same day of Metageitnion, 
Archidamus and his army, who had crossed into 
Italy, were cut to pieces by the Barbarians there. 



139 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



6 Stecpddprjcrav. Kap'XrjBovioi Bk ttjv ivdrTjv ^6i- 
vovTO<; ft)? ra ifKela-ra koX fxe^ta-ra rwv aTU^^T/z^a 
Twv avTOL<; del (fyepovaav nrapa^vkdrTOVG-iv, 

OvK dyvoS) S' on irepl tov tmv fiva-rrjpicov Kaipov 
av6i<; ©Tj^aL re KareaKd^'qcrav vtto ^AXe^dvBpou, 
Kol fierd ravra ^povpdv ^Adrjvacot MaKeSovcov 
iBe^avro irepX avrrjv rrjv evKdBa rov ^07jBpOfii&- 

7 V09, y rov fivariKov "laK'yov i^dyovaiv. 6/iiolco'> 
Be 'VwjjLatoi rrjf; avrrj<; r^fjuepa^ irporepov fiev vrrb 
Ki/i^pcov rb fjbera VLaiiricovo^s dire^aXov arparo- 
ireBoVy varepov Be Aov/covWov ar parity ovvro<; 
*Apfji€VLov<; KoX Tiypdv7]v ivLKTja-av. "ArraXo^ S* 
6 0a(TiXev^ zeal Ilofi7r7]lo<; M.dyvo<; iv rol<s eavrcdv 
yeve6\ioi<i drreOavov. kol oX(o<; iarX ttoWov^; iir 
djjb(l>6r€pa Tat9 avral^ ')(pr)(Tafievov<; drroBel^ai 
ireoLoBoif;. 

8 AWa ^FcofiaiOL'^ avrrj fiia tmv fidXicrra diro- 
<j>pdBcov ia-Ti, Kol BC avrrjv eKdarov fir)vo^ irepai 
Bvo, rrj<i rrpo<i ro (rv/jb,6dv evXajSeta^ /cat BeicrcBai,- 
fiovia<; irrl rrXetov, oicnrep e'lcoOe, pveL(Tr}<;. ravra 
fjL€v ovv ev ra> Hepl alrioov ^Vcdfialfciav emfjueXe- 
arepov Bi-pprjrai. 

XX. Merd Be rrjv fJbdxHv eKelvrjv el /mev evdv<; 
iirnjKoXovOrjaav oi TaXdrai roL<; (f)evjovaLV, ovBev 
dv ifccokvae rrjv 'Yco/jbrjv dpBrjv dvaipeOrjvai Kal 
irdvra^; diroXeaOat rov<; ev avrfj Kara\eL<f)6evra^' 
roaovrov oi ^evyovre<; evecpyd^ovro Beljia roi? 
v7roBexofievoL<;, Kal rocravT7)fi rrdXiv eveTrifiTrXavro 
2 rapa^f)^ Kal 7rapa(j)poavv7](;. vvvl 5* dmaria rov 
fieyeOov^ ol jBdp^apoi t^9 viKrj<i Kal irpb^ evrrddei- 



140 



n 



CAMILLUS, XIX. 6-xx. 2 

The Carthaginians also regard with fear the twenty- 
second of this month, because it has ever brought upon 
them the worst and greatest of their misfortunes. 

I am not unaware that, at about the time when 
the mysteries are celebrated, Thebes was razed to 
the ground for the second time by Alexander, and 
that afterwards the Athenians were forced to receive 
a Macedonian garrison on the twentieth of Boe- 
dromion, the very day on which they escort the 
mystic lacchus forth in procession. And hkewise 
the Romans, on the self-same day, saw their army 
under Caepio destroyed by the Cimbri, and later, 
when Lucullus was their general, conquered Tigranes 
and the Armenians. Both King Attalus and Pompey 
the Great died on their own birth-days. In short, 
one can adduce many cases where the same times 
and seasons have brought opposite fortunes upon the 
same men. 

But this day of the Allia is regarded by the 
Romans as one of the unluckiest, and its influence 
extends over two other days of each month through- 
out the year, since in the presence of calamity, 
timidity and superstition often overflow all bounds. 
However, this subject has been more carefully treated 
in my '' Roman Questions." ^ 

XX. Now had the Gauls, after this battle, followed 
hard upon the fugitives, naught would have hindered 
Rome from being utterly destroyed and all those who 
remained in her from perishing, such was the terror 
which the fugitives infused into the occupants of the 
city, and with such confusion and delirium were they 
themselves once more filled. But as it was, the 
Barbarians could not realize the magnitude of their 
» Morals, pp. 269 I 

141 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

av CK rov irepL'^apotx; afxa kcu veiMrjaei^ twv 
eaXcoKOTcov iv tS> arpaTOTreBo) ^(^prjfMdTcov rpairo- 
fxevoVy Ta> fiev iKirLiTTovTL tt]^; TroXeax; o%Xo) 
paaTa>vr)v (^vy7)<^ Trapia^ov, iXTricrai B* en koI 
TrapacTKevdaacrOaL tol<; vTro/juipovai. rrjv yap 
dXXrjv irokiv 7rpoip,6VOL to KaTnrayXcov 6<j)pd^avT0 

3 /SiXeac kol Biarei'^^^ia paaiv. iv 7rp(OT0i,<; Be rStv 
lepcov a p.ev eh to KairiTcoXiov dveaKevdaavTO, 
TO Be TTvp T7J<; 'Eo-rm? al jrapOevot, p^eTa tcov 
iepa>v e(f)€vyov dp7raadp,evaL. 

K.aiToi TLve<^ ovBev elvat to (f)povpovpevov vir* 139 
avTcov €T€pov Tj TTvp d(h9iTov IcTTopovai, ^Ofld 
Tov fiacriXeo)<; KaTaaTrj(TavTO<; co? dp'Xr)V dirdpTfov 

4 aiffeo-Oai. /avrjriKooraTov yap iv ttj (f>v(Tei, tovto' 
KLvrj(Ti<; Be rt? rj avv tlvl Kivjjaret, Trdvrco^; rj yeve- 
o-t9* TCb 5' dXXa Trj<; vXi]^; p^opta OeppiOTrjTO^ 
eV^XfTTovo"^? dpyd Keip,eva Ka\ V€Kpot<; ioiKOTa 
TTodel Tr)v TOV TTvpo^ Bvvap^LVy a)<; 'ifrv^tjv, Kai 
7rpocreXdov(Tr}(; dp,co<; ye tto)? iirl to Bpdv Ti Kal 
7rdcr^€LV TpeireTai. tovt ovv are Br) irepLTTov 
avBpa TOV Nopdv /cal Xoyov e^ovTa raU Mou(Tai<; 
(Tvvelvat, Bid ao(j>iav i^oaccoaac koI ^povpelv 
d/coipbrjTov iv eiKovt rrj<; rd irdvTa Koa p^ovarj^ 

5 dlBlov Bvvdp,eco(;. ol Be to p,ev irvp, (aairep •nap 
' EXXrjcrt, TTpo lepoiv aWeaOat KaOdpaiov, dXXa 
Be Td ez^T09 dOeara KpyirTecrOai irdai, ivXrjv Tav- 
Tai<; Tal<i irapOevoo^;, a? 'EaTidBa<; iirovop^di^ovai, 
142 



CAMILLUS, XX. 2-5 

victory, and in the excess of their joy, turned to 
revehy and the distribution of the good things 
captured in their enemy's camp. For this reason the 
throngs wlio were for abandoning the city had ample 
time for flight, and those who were for remaining 
plucked up hope and prepared to defend themselves. 
Abandoning the rest of the city, they fenced the 
Capitol with ramparts and stocked it with missiles. 
But their first care was for their sacred things, most 
of which they carried away to the Capitol ; the fire 
of Vesta, however, was snatched up and carried off 
by the vestal virgins in their flight, along with the 
other sacred things entrusted to their care. 

However, some writers state that these virgins 
have watch and ward over nothing more than the 
ever-living fire, which Numa the King appointed to 
be worshipped as the first cause of all things. For 
fire produces more motion than anything else in 
nature, and all birth is a mode of motion, or is 
accompanied by motion. All other portions of 
matter, in the absence of heat, lie inert and dead, 
yearning for the force of fire to inform them, like a 
spirit, and on its accession in any manner soever, 
they become capable of acting and being acted upon. 
This principle of fire, then, Numa, who was an extra- 
ordinary man, and whose wisdom gave him the 
repute of holding converse with the Muses, is said to 
have hallowed and ordered to be kept sleepless, that 
it might image forth the ever-living force which 
orders the universe aright. Others say that this fire 
is kept burning before the sacred things by way of 
purification, as among the Greeks, and that other 
objects within the temple are kept hidden from the 
gaze of all except these virgins, whom they call 

'43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KCii ifketcTTO^ /Jb€V X0709 KaT€l')(^€ TO TpCOtKOV 

cfcelvo UaXXdSiov aTTOKelaOav hC Klveiov koili- 
aOev et9 ^Irakiav. elal h^ ol ra ^a/iMoOpaKia 
/LLvOo\oyovvT€<; AdpSavov fiev el^ Tpoiav e^evey- 
KOLfievov opyidaai koX KaOiepSyaav Krlaavra ttjv 
TToXcv, Kiveiav he irepX rrjv aXaxriv iKKKe'^^avra 
6 Siaaaycrai //-e^/Ot t^9 €v ^IraXia Karoifc^aeco^. ol 
Se Trpoo-TTowv/jbevot irXeov eiriaraaOai ri irepl 
TovTcov 8vo (fyaalv ov fieydXov^ aTroKelaOai ttl- 
6ov<;, a)v Tov fiev dvefoyora koI KevoVy tov t>l 
irXrjpT] KoX KaTaaecrr^pLaa-pAvoVy dp(j)OTepov<: Be 
rat? iravaykai pu6vaL<i irapOivoi'; oparovf; elvai, 
dXXoL Be TovTov<; Bieyjrevo-dat vopi^ovaL t& ra 
irXelarra rSiV lepfav tots Ta<; Kopa^; ip^aXov<Ta<; 
6t9 ttlOov^ Bvo fcpv^jrac Kara 7779 vtto tov veoDV tov 

KvpiVOV, KOl tov TOTTOV €KeiV0V €Tt KOl VVV TMV 

TltOlcr/ccov ^epecrOai ttjv eir(ovvp,iav. 

XXL Ta Be KVpicoTUTa xal peyiaTa T(av lepSyv 
avTat Xa^ouaai <j)vyfj irapk tov iroTapov iiroi- 
ovvTO TTjv d7rox(opr)(7i,v, ivTavOa Aev/ao<; ^AX^l- 
vio^^ dvrjp Br]poTLKo<; ev Tot<; (f)evyovcnv eTV')(e 
TeKva vqiTia koX yvvoLKa //-era ^prjpdTcov dvay- 
Kai(ov e(j> dpd^r)<^ vireKKopl^mv. ft)9 5' elBe Ta9 
irapOevov^i ev toI<; koXttol'; ^epov(Ta<i Tct tmv 
Oecov lepd Oepaireia^ €pijp,ov<; 7rapa7ropevopeva<; 
Koi KaKOTra6ov(Ta<;, Ta^v ttjv yvvacKa peTa twv 
iralBrov koI tcov y^pr^pdTcov KaOeXoov aTTO tt}? 
dpd^7)<^ eKetvai^ TrapiBcoKev eTn^rjvai koX Bia- 

* 'A\$iytos S and Livy, v. 40 : 'AAyStrofc 
144 



CAMILLUS, XX. 5-xxi. i 

Vestals. And a very prevalent story had it that the 
famous Palladium of Troy was hidden away there, 
having been brought to Ital; hj Aeneas. There are 
some who say that it is the Samothracian images 
which are hidden there, and they tell the tale of 
Dardanus bringing these to Troy, after he had 
founded that city, and consecrating them there with 
celebration of their rites ; and of Aeneas, at the 
capture of Troy, stealing them away and preserving 
them until he settled in Italy. Others still, pretend- 
ing to have larger knowledge in these matters, say 
that two small jars are stored away there, of which 
one is open and empty, and the other full and sealed 
up, and that both are visible only to the holy virgins. 
But others think that these knowing ones have been 
led astray by the fact that the virgins, at the time of 
which I am now speaking, cast the most of theii' 
sacred treasures into two jars, and hid them under- 
ground in the temple of Quirinus, whence that place, 
down to the present time, has the name of " Doliola," 
or "Jars." 

XXI. However that may be, these virgins took 
the choicest and most important of the sacred objects 
and fled away along the river. There it chanced 
that Lucius Albinius, a man of the common people, 
was among the fugitives, carrying off his wife and 
little children, with the most necessary household 
goods, upon a waggon. When he saw the virgins 
with the sacred symbols of the gods in their bosoms, 
making their way along unattended and in great 
distress, he speedily took his wife, with the children 
and the household goods, down from the waggon, 
and suffered the virgins to mount upon it and make 



145 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 ^vyelv 6t9 Tiva rcjv 'EWtjvlScov iroketov. rr)v 
fi€V ovv ^ AX^tvlov 7rpo<; to Oeiov evXd^eiav kuI 
rifiTjv iv TO?'; 67na(f)a\6orTdToi<; Katpol<; €/c(f>avfj 
yevo/jievrjv ovk d^tov r)v dfivrjfjLovevTov irapekOeZv. 

01 he Twv dXXcov decov lepet^; oX re yripaioX tmv 
vTraTiKMv Kol Opcafi/SiKfov dvhpcov ttjv jmIv iroXiv 
eKXiirelv ou% vTrefieivav, lepd<; Se kol Xa/juTrpd^ ^ 
dvaKa^6vTe<; iaOrjTa^, i^rjyov/jLevov ^a^iov tov fl 
dpX(^ep6co<;, eTrev^dfievoL toU ^eot?, co? kavTOv<; 
virep TTjq iraTpiBo^; tw Baifiovt, /caOi€povvT€<;, iwl 
Twv iXecftavTLVcov hL(j)p(ov iv dyopa eKdOrjvTo ^ fl 
K€Koa/jL7)fji€voi, TTjv iinoixTav Tvyjqv viTOfxevovTe*;. V 

XXII. TpLTTj 5' aTTO T^9 /^d'X^rjf; rj/juepa iraprjv 
6 Bpevvo^ dycov iirl ttjv ttoXcv to (TTpdTeufMa- /cal 
Ta9 T€ irvKaf; evpwv dvecoyfieva^ /cal rd tclxv 
cj)vXdK(ov €p7]/jLa, irpSiTOV fiev eBeiorev ivehpav 
fcal BoXoVy diTKTToiiv ovtco TravTdTracTtv direipTj- 
Kevat T0v<; ^Fci)fialov<;. eVel S' eyvco to dXr}d€<;, 
elaeXdaa^ Sid Trj<; K.oXXlv7)<; ttuXt;? elXe ttjv 
'P(o/j,rjv e^TjfcovTa Kal TpLaKoalcov eToyv irXeiova 
ffpayij ')(p6vov diro Trj(; KTia-eco<; exovcrav, el t&) « 
iTidTov diroaco^eaOaL Tiva tmv )(^p6vcov dxpL^eiav, U 
0^9 fcal irepl vewTepwv dXX(ov dfi(f>icr^7jTrj(Tiv r) 

2 <Tvy')(vcn(; eKelvr) Trapea^^. tov jxevTOi irdOov^; 
avTov Kol Tr}<; dX(iicrew<; eoi/cev dfivSpd ti^ €v6v<; 
€L<; TTjv 'EXXaSa (p^fiij SieXdetp. 'Hpa/cXeiBrjfi ydp 140 
6 IlovTiKO<; ov TToXv T(av y^povoav eKeivwv aTroXei- 
irofievo^; iv tw Tiepl '\/ru^'^9 avyypdfifiaTi (f)7]aiv 
diro T779 eo-TTcpa^ Xoyov KaTao-^^elvt ox; crTpaTo<; 
ef ^TTrep^opecov iXOcov e^coOev rjprjKOi ttoXlv 
'RXXrjvlBa 'IPco/iirjv, iKel ttov KaToy/cijfjLevijv irepl 

^ kKaO-nvTo with all MSS. and editors : KaOriuro. 
146 



CAMILLUS, XXI. 2-xxii. 2 

their escape to a Greek city. This pious act of 
Albinius^and the conspicuous honourwhich he showed 
tlie gods in a season of the greatest danger, could 
not well be passed over in silence. 

But the priests of the other gods, and the aged 
men who had been consuls and celebrated triumphs, 
could not endure to leave the city. So they put on 
their robes of state and ceremony, following the lead 
of Fabius, the pontifex maximus,and vowed the gods 
that they would devote themselves to death in their 
country's behalf. Then they sat themselves down, 
thus arrayed, on their ivory chairs in the forum, and 
awaited their fate. 

XXll. On the third day after the battle, Brennus 
came up to the city with his army. Finding its gates 
open and its walls without defenders, at first he feared 
a treacherous ambush, being unable to believe that 
the Romans were in such utter despair. But when 
he realised the truth, he marched in by the Colline 
gate, and took Rome. This was a little more than 
three hundred and sixty years from her foundation, 
if one can believe that any accurate chronology has 
been preserved in this matter, when that of even 
later events is disputed, owing to the confusion 
caused by this very disaster. However, it would 
seem that some vague tidings of the calamity and 
capture of the city made their way at once to Greece. 
For Heracleides Ponticus, who lived not long after 
that time, in his treatise " On the soul," says that out of 
the West a story prevailed, how an army of Hyper- 
boreans had come from afar and captured a Greek 
city called Rome, situated somewhere on the shores 

147 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 TTjv fieydXijv OaKaaaav, ovk av ovv Oavfid- 
(Tat/Jbt fjLvOcoBrj KOI ifkaa fiaTiav ovra top 'iipa- 
Kkeihrjv aXrjOel \6<y(p rSt irepX t^? a\a)(7ea)9 
iiriKo/jbTrdaat tou9 *T7rep^opeov<; koX ttjv /leyakijv 
OakaTTav. * KpiaroreX'T]^ Be 6 (ptXoaocpo^ ro fiev 
aXwvai TTjv itoXlv vtto K^eXrcov dfcpi^(a<i hrjKo^ 
iaTLV dK7]Kooi}<;, top Be acoaavTa AeuKtov euvai 
(pTjo-iv rjv Be MdpKO<;, ov Aevfcco^, 6 Ka/itXXo?. 
dWa ravra pukv elKaap^w XeXeKjat. 

4 Karaaxoyv Be rrjv 'Poofjirjv 6 Bp6Vvo<: T(p fiev 
KaTnTcoXiO) (f)povpdv irepieaTrjaev, auTo? Be Kara- 
I3aiva)v Bi dyopd<; iOavfia^e tov? 7rpOKadr]/j.evov<; 
dvBpa<^ iv Koapjip koli (Tccjirfj 6€ot)fi€vo<i, a)9 ovO^ 
vTre^aviaryaav iircovTcov iroKefiLcov ovr o-yjnv rj 
XP^^^ erpe^lrav, dX\.d paOvfiax; seal a8ew? eyxe- 
icXipevoi T0t9 arKLTTcoaiv, 01)9 e(f)6povv,^ koI Trpoa- 

5 /SXevroi/Te? dXX7]Xoi<i r)orvxci^ov. ^v ovv 6avp.a 
Tol<; TaXdrai^ irpo^ rrjv aToirtav, kol iroXvv 
Xpovov OKvovvre^ dyfraadai Kul irpoaeXOelv ox; 
/cpeLTToai BirjTTopovv. errrel Bk roXpbrjcra^i Ti9 ef 
avTCdV €771)9 irapea-TT] Jlaireipifp ^IdpKfp Koi 
irpoaayayoov rrjv %€?yoa 7rpa(o<; y-yfraro rov yevelov 
KOI Karrjye rrjv iJ7njvr)v ^aOelav ovcrav, 6 p^ev 
Yiaireipio^ rfj jSa/crrjpia Tr)V /cecj^aXrjv avTov 
irard^a^ a-vveTpi^ev, 6 Be ^dp^apo^ a7racrdp.evo^ 

6 T^v pLaxaipav direKretvev eKelvov. ck Bk rovrov 
Kol TOL'9 Xoi,7rov<; dvrjpovv irpoGirecrovTe^t /cat rcou 
dXXcov o(roi<; eTriTVXotev Bie^poyvTO, koi ra^ ol/cia^; 
eiropOovv e^ T/pLepa^ TroXXa^ dyovTe<; koi <f>6- 
povre^t elra Kareirip^Trpaa'av Kal KareaKaiTTOV 
opyt^opevoi rot^ €X0V(tl to IvaircTcoXcov, oti 

1 4^6povv with S t icpipow. 
J48 



CAMILLUS, XXII. 3-6 

of the Great Sea. Now I camiot wonder that so 
fabulous and fictitious a writer as Heraeleides should 
deck out the true story of the capture of Rome with 
his "Hyperboreans" and his "Great Sea." But 
Aristotle the philosopher clearly had accurate tidings 
of the capture of the city by the Gauls, and yet he 
says that its saviour was Lucius^ although the fore- 
name of Camillus was not Lucius, but Marcus. How- 
ever, these details were matters of conjecture. 

When he had occupied Rome, Brennus surrounded 
the Capitol with a guard. He himself went down 
through the forum, and was amazed to see the men 
sitting there in public state and perfect silence. 
They neither rose up to meet their enemies when 
they approached, nor did they change countenance 
or colour, but sat there quietly, at ease and without 
fear, leaning on their staves and gazing into one 
another's faces. The Gauls were amazed and per- 
plexed at the unwonted sight, and for a long time 
hesitated to approach and touch them, regarding 
them as superior beings. But at last one of them, 
plucking up his courage, drew near Papirius Marcus, 
and stretching out his hand, gently grasped his chin 
and stroked his long beard, whereupon Papirius, 
with his staff, smote him a crushing blow on the 
head. Then the Barbarian drew his sword and 
killed him. After that, they fell upon the rest and 
slew them, made away with every one else they met, 
sacked and plundered the houses of the city for many 
days together, and finally burned them down and 
levelled them with the ground, in their wrath at the 
defenders of the Capitol. For these would not 



»49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kokovvrcov avTMV ov')(^ virrjKOvov, aWk Koi irpoa- 
^dX\ov(TL 7r\r]ya<; ehocrav airo rov Siarecxi'O-fMa- 
T09 afjbvvo/jLevoi,. Bta ravra jxev ovv iXvfjLrjvavro 
rriv ttoXlv koI 7rpoaSie(pdetpav roix^ aXiaKOfxevov^, 
6/jL0La)<; fjL6V avhpa^ koX yvpaiKa'i, ofioiw^ Ze irpea- 

XXIII. T?}? he TToXLOpKia^ p,r}KO<; Xa/jb^avova-rji: 
eTnariTLap.ov rot? VdXdraL^; eher kol SieXovre^ 
€avrov<i ol puev tm /Saa-tkel Trapajnevovrefi icfipov- 
povv TO J^airiTcoXiov, ol he rrjv %&Spaz^ Trepuovre^ 
iXerjXdrovv /cal rd<; Kco/ijba<; eiropOovv irpocnri- 
TTToz^re?, ov')(^ 6/jlov Traz/re?, dXXoL 3' dXXy KaO^ 
r)<yep.oi>ia^ kcli avvrdyixara, T(p p.e'ya <f)poveli> 
VTTO TMV evTV')(7^iidT(jov KOL BeBiepat fjLrjhev diro- 

2 (TKihydfJuevoi. to 8e irXetaTOV avTcov /cal fidXiaTa 
avvTeTajfievov e')((i)p€i Trpo^ r^i^ *ApBeaT(ov ttoXlv, 
iv y SieTpc^e Kdp.iXXo<; dpycou Tal<; Trpd^eaL 
fjueTa Tr)v (j)vy7]v fcal ISicoTevcov, iX7riBa<; Be 
Xa/Jbfidvayv Koi BiaXoyta/jLoij<i ov')(i to XaOelv kul 
Bcacfyvyetv tov<; iroXepiov^ dyairoiVTO^ dvBp6<i, 
dXX OTTO)?, el TrapayevoLTo Kaip6<;, dfivvelTai 

3 cTfcoTTOVVTO^. Bio KoX T0\j<; ^KpBeaTa^ opcov irXi^Oei 
fjuev LKavov<i ovTa^y evBeel^ Be toX/jltj^; Bt* dTreipiav 
Koi paXaKiav t&v aTpaTTjywv, evejBaXe \6yov 
eh T0U9 z/eof 9 irpcorov, co? ov XPV '^V^ 'VcofiaCcov 
dTV')(iav dvBpeiav KeXrwz^ vo/jbl^eiv, ovB* a KaKw<i 
(ppovTjaaa-L avve^rj iraOelv eKelvovi epya tcop 
ovBev eh TO viKfjaat 7rapa(T')(pVT(t)v, dXXd tv^V^ 

4 eiriBei^Lv rjyetadac. fcaXov jxev ovv elvai xal 
Bid KLvBvvoov dircoaaaOaL TroXe/xov dXX6(f)vXop 
Kul /Sap/SapiKOVy w rov Kparelv irepa^, waTrep tw 
irvpit BiacfiOapTJvai to VLKOifievov ov firjv dXXd 

150 



CAMILLUS, XXII. 6-xxiii. 4 

surrender at their summons, but when they were 
attacked, actually repulsed their foes from the 
ramparts with loss. Therefore the Gauls inflicted 
every outrage upon the city, and put to the sword 
all whom they captured, men and women, old and 
young alike. 

XXI 11. The siege lasted a long time, and the Gauls 
began to lack provisions. They therefore divided 
their forces. Some remained with their king and 
watched the Capitol, others ravaged the country 
round about, falling upon the villages and sacking 
them, not all together in one body, but scattered 
about by commands and companies, some here, some 
there, moved by their successes to great confidence 
and the fear of nothing. The largest and best 
disciplined body of them marched upon the city of 
Ardea, where Camillus was staying since his exile. 
He lived in complete retirement and privacy, it is 
true, but cherished the hopes and plans not of a man 
who eagerly desired to escape the notice and hands 
of the enemy, but of one who sought to avenge him- 
self upon them if occasion offered. Wherefore, see- 
ing that the Ardeans were of sufficient numbers, but 
lacked courage, through the inexperience and effemi- 
nacy of their generals, he began to reason with the 
young men first, to the effect that the mishap of the 
Romans ought not to be laid to the valour of the 
Gauls, nor the sufferings of that infatuated people 
to the prowess of men who did not deserve their 
victory, but rather to the dictates of fortune. It was 
a fine thing, he said, even at dangerous risks, to repel 
the attack of an alien and barbarous folk, whose only 
end in getting the mastery was, as in the work of 
fire, the utter destruction of what it conquered. But 

VOL, II. F ^5^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol Oappovai fcal irpoOvfjuovfievoi^ avTol<i clkiv- ^fK^ 
hvvov iv KaipSi rrjv vlktjv Tvapi^etv. 

TouTOf ? Tov<^ X6jov<; Twv vecov Ze^ajievwv eVt rov^ 
ap'xpvra'; yet koX tov<; Trpo^ovkov^; rcov ^ApBearcov 
6 KayLtfcXXo?. ft)9 Be KCLKeivov^ avviireiaev, ^ifkLcre \^\ 
rov<^ iv rfkLKia 7rdvTa<; kol crvvel')(e tov tcl'^ov^ 
evTo^y a'yvoelcrOai povko^evo^ viro t&v iroXefiitov 

5 6771)9 ovTcov, iirel Be rrjv ')(a)pav LTTTraadfjLevoi 
Kol fiap€c<i 6vTe<; V7T0 irXrjOovf; tcov dyo/jiivcov Koi 
(j)€poiJbevci)V diJLek(ti<; kclI oXiycDpci)^ iv tm rrreBuo) 
/carecrTparoTreSevo-av, iK Se tovtov vv^ iirrjXOe 
fxeOvovcTiv avTol<^ kol o-iodtttj /caTecrx^ rb arparo- 
irehoVy irvOofxevo^ ravra irapa rcov KaraaKOTreov 
6 Kd/j,tXXo<; i^riye TOv<i ^ApBedra^i' Kal BieXOobv 
KaO^ r^avx'^av tov jxera^v roirov Trepl fie<Ta<; 
vvfcra^ Trpocre/jLL^e rw '^dpaKi Kpavjfj re %pc6/i<ei/09 
iroXXfj Kal rat? adXircy^i, iravra'^^odev ifcrapdr- 
T(ov dv6pco7rov<i KaKCj<; viro fieOrj^ /cat /jl6Xi<; ix 
rcov vTTVcov dva^epovra^i 7rpo<^ tov Oopv^ov* 

6 oXlyoi juL€v ovv dvav'i]yjravT€<; iv tm ^6fi(p kol 
BiacrKevaadjievoi rov<; Trepl tov J^dfJLtXXov vire- 
arrjaav, war d/jLvvofievoL ireaelv tov^ Be ttXci- 
(ttov<; eTL KpaTov/juevov; virvrp Kal oXvcp KaTaXajx- 
pdvovTe<; dvoirXovf; eKreivov, ocrot Be vvKTOf; 
direBpacrav iK tov y^dpaKo^ oh iroXXoiy tovtov; 
p.eO^ r}/j,€pav (TTropdBa^ iv ttj %ce)/?a Bia^epopLevov^i 
iireXavvovTe<; lnTiTel<i Biecj^Oetpov. 

XXIV. 'H Be <^r)fX7] rax^ BiayjeXXovo-a ttjv 
irpa^LV iirl Ta9 7roXef9 e^eKaXetro iroXXov^; tcov 
iv rjXiKLa crvvtorTafjievovq, fidXicTTa Be 'Vcofiaicdv 
OCT 01 Biac^vyovTe^ iK t^9 eV ^KXici fidyrff; iv 
Ovr)tot<; rjaav Kal oyBvpovro Kara crcjba? avTov^, 

152 



CAMILLUS, XXIII. 4-xxiv. i 

in the present case, if they were bold and zealous, he 
would find occasion to give them a victory without 
any danger. 

After gaining the support of the young men, 
Camillus went to the rulers and councillors of 
Ardea, and when he had won them over also, he 
armed all who were of age for service and kept 
them together within the walls, that they might not 
be perceived by the enemy, who were near. These 
had scoured the country round about, and encamped 
in the plain, without care or concern, and heavily 
encumbered with their abundant booty. When night 
had fallen upon them, putting an end to their 
carousals, and silence reigned throughout their 
camp, Camillus, acquainted with this by his scouts, 
led forth the Ardeans. Passing quietly over the 
intervening space, they reached the camp about 
midnight, and with shouts and trumpet blasts on 
every hand confounded the men, who were scarcely 
brought to their senses by the din, heavy as they 
were with drunkenness and sleep. A few of them 
were sobered by fear, armed themselves, and made 
resistance to Camillus and his men, so that they fell 
fighting ; but most were still mastered by sleep and 
wine when they were fallen upon and slain without 
their arms. A few only ran from the camp, under 
cover of darkness, and when day came, were 
seen straggling about the fields, but horsemen 
pursued them and cut them to pieces. 

XXIV. Rumour quickly carried news of this ex- 
ploit to the neighbouring cities, and called to arms 
many of those who were of age for service, particu- 
larly the Romans who had made their escape from 
the battle on the Allia, and were in Veii. These 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

" Olov Tf^efiova rrj^ ^'Pco/iirj<; 6 Saifimv a(f>€X6fi€V0<i 
*ApB€dra<; eKodfjurjae rots' KafiiXXov KaropOco- 
fiaaiv, 7) Be yeiva/iivr} KaX dpeyjraaa tolovtov 

2 dvSpa ttoXa? ot%€Tat kol airoXoaXev, T^/xet? S' 
airopia (tt parity ojv aXXorpia ret'x^rj Trepi^aXo- 
fievoi KaO^fxeda Trpoe/xevoL ttjv ^IraXvav. (pipe, 
TrefjLyjravre^ *ApSeaTa9 d7raiT&p,€v top eavrcov 
(TTpaTTi'yoVt Tj Xa^6vT€<; avrol ra oirXa 7rpo<; 
CKeLvov fiaBL^(o/jL€V' ovK€Ti ydp icTTL (l)vya<; ou5' 
iJ/xeZ? iroXlrai TrarpLBo^ ovk ovarj<;, dXXa Kparov- 
/jL€vr)<; VTTO rSiv iroXefxiwv,^ ravr eBo^e koI 
7refjLylravT€<i iBeovro rov Kap^lXXov Be)(^ea6ai> rrjv 

3 dp^TjV, 6 Be OVK €(j)7] irporepov tj rovq iv Ta> 
K.a7riT(oXL(p iroXira^; eTrii^rjcpLaacrOaL Kara rov 
vofiov, eKeivovi yap 7]yeiaOai rrrarpiBa aco^o- 
/jLevov<i, Kol KeXevovai fiev viraKOveiv irpoOvfico^, 
oLKovTcov Be fiTjBev 7roXv7rpay/jLovr](T€Lv, rr}? /nev 
ovv evXajSeia^ kol KaXoKayaOia^; rov J^dfiiXXov 
iOavfiaaap. rjv 8* airopia rov ravra Biayye- 
XovvTO<i eh TO "K-aTTLTayXtov' fjbdXXov S' oXw? 
dBvvarov iBo/cei rcov iroXeiilwv i')(pvT(ov ttjv iroXiv 
dyyeXov eh rrjv aKpoiroXiv irapeXOelv. 

XXY. 'Hi' Be Tt? iv roU veoi^ n6vTL0<; Ko- 
pivLO^, TO)v fJbe(T(ov Kara yevo<; ttoXctcov, B6^r)<; Be 
KaX Tifii]<; epa(Trrj<i' ovto<; vireaTT] rov dOXov 
eKovcno<i. Kal ypapifiara jxev ovk eXaffe tt/oo? 
rov<; iv tS) KaTrtrtoXto), pur} Xr](j)OevTo<; avrov 
^(Opd(TQ)aiv ol TToXep^iOL BC avrcov tov Kap,[XXov 
rrjv Bidvocav, io-drjra Be (j>avXr]v e^cov Kal 
(f)€XXov<; vir avrfj Kopi^cov rrjv fiev dXXrjv oBov 
r)pbepa<; dBeo)<; BirjXOev, iyyv<; Be Trj<; 7roX,e<w9 

154 



CAMILLUS, XXIV. i-xxv. i 

lamented among themselves, saying : " Of what a 
leader has heaven robbed Rome in Camillus, only 
to adorn Ardea with his victories ! The city which 
bore and reared such a hero is dead and gone, and 
we, for lack of generals, sit pent up within alien 
walls, and see Italy ruined before our very eyes. 
Come ! let us send to Ardea and demand our own 
general, or take our arms and go ourselves to him ! 
For he is no longer an exile, nor are we citizens, now 
that our country is no more, but is mastered by the 
enemy." So said, so done, and they sent and asked 
Camillus to take the command. But he refused 
to do so before the citizens on the Capitol had 
legally elected him. They were preserving the 
country, as he thought, and if they had commands 
for him, he would gladly obey, but against their 
wishes he would meddle with nothing whatsoever. 
This noble restraint on the part of Camillus was 
much admired, but it was hard to see how the 
matter could be referred to the Capitol. Nay 
rather, it seemed utterly impossible, while the enemy 
held the city, for a messenger to elude them and 
reach the acropolis. 

XXV. But there was a certain young man, Pontius 
Cominius by name, who was, in spite of his ordinary 
birth, a lover of glory and honour. He volunteered 
to attempt the task. He took no letter with him 
to the defenders of the Capitol, lest this, in the 
event of his capture, should help the enemy to 
discover the purpose of Camillus; but under the 
coarse garments which he wore, he carried some 
pieces of cork. The greater part of his journey 
was made by daylight and without fear ; but as 
night came on he found himself near the city. 

J55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

y6v6fjL€vo<; 7]Brj aKoralo^;, irrel Kara ry€(j)vpav ovtc 
r]v Tov TrorafjLOV irepaaai, rcov ^ap^dpcov irapa- 

2 <f>vXaTr6vT(ov, t^i/ fjuev eaOrjra rfj Kccpdkrj irepi- 
a-TTeipda-a^ ov ttoWtjv ovBe ^apelav, roh Be 
^eXXot? i(j)€l<; to arw/jLa kol o-vveTrLfcovcfiL^cov rcu ^ 
7r€ pa tov (7 6 at Trpo? rr]v ttoKlv e^efirj. /cal irapaX- 
Xdrrcov del tou? iyprjjopoTa^i, rot? (jyeyyeat koX 
tS> 6opv^(o T€K/JLaip6/jL€vo<;, ijSdBc^e tt/jo? ttjv 
K.app.evTLBa irvXrjv, rj ir\eicrTif}V elx^v ^o"f%taj/, 
Kol fidXtara KaT avrrjv opOio^ 6 tov l^airiTwXiov 
X6<j)09 dveaTr]K6 koX ireTpa kvkXw ttoXXtj koI 
Tpax^^ct nrepLTrecpVKe' Bt* rj<; dvefii] XaOwv koI 
TTpocrefii^e Tol<i (pvXdTTovai, to BtaTei'X^KTp.a 
^aXeTTw? fcal /jl6Xi,<; /caTci to XayapcoTarov. 

3 dairdaa/jLevo'} Be tol'? dvBpa<; kol ^pd(ra<; eavTov 
ef QVOjiaTO^y dvaXr]<f)0€l<i exd>p€i> 7r/)09 toi'9 ev TeXei 
Tcov ^Vwfxaiwv, Ta%u Be avyKXrjTov yevofiev^jf; 142 
nrapeXOcbv ttjv re vlktjv aTrojyyeiXe tov Ka/MiXXov 

TTpOTepOV ov TTvdofieVOl^, /cal TCL BoKOVVTa T0i9 

aTpaTLQ)Tai<; BtTjyelTO' Kal irapeKoXei tu) Ka- 
filXX^ pepaioicrai ttjv dpx^v, co? /jiovfp nretao- 

4 fievcov ifceivw Ttav e^o) ttoXltcov. 01 B* ukov- 
aavTe^ Kal ^ovXevadfievoi tov tg K.dfit,XXov diro- 
BetKvvovcn BiKTUTopa, fcal tov TLovtcov avOi<i 
diroTrepbirovdL ttjv avTrjv oBov 6/jlolq)^ dyaOfj tvxv 
XP'^crdfjuevov. eXaOe yap tov<; 7roXefJLLOv<; Kal to. 
nraph. Ttj^; /SovXijf; dirriyyeiXe T0t9 e^co 'Pco/iaLoof;. 

XXVI. ^EKetvcov Be Be^afievcov '7rpo6v/jL(o<; dcpt,- 
KOfievo^ 6 KayLtiXXo9 yBrj pev ev ottXol^ Btap.vpLOV<; 
KaTeXa^e, irXeLova'i Be crvvrjyev diro tmv avp,- 
* T# Bekker supplies eV with Bryan. 

156 



CAMILLUS, XXV. i-xxvi. r 

He could not cross the river by the bridge, since 
the Barbarians were guarding it, so he wrapped 
his light and scanty garments about his head, 
fastened the corks to his body, and thus supported, 
swam across, came out on the other side, and 
went on towards the city. Always giving a wide 
berth to those of the enemy who were watchful 
and wakeful, as he judged by their fires and 
noise, he made his way to the Carmental gate, 
where there was the most quiet, at which the 
Capitoline hill was most sheer and steep, and 
which was girt about by a huge and jagged cliff. 
Up this he mounted unperceived, and finally 
reached, with great pains and difficulty, the sentries 
posted where the wall was lowest. Hailing them, 
and telling them who he was, he was pulled up 
over the wall, and taken to the Roman magistrates. 
The Senate quickly convening, he appeared before 
it, announced the victory of Camillus, about which 
they had not heard, and explained to them the 
will and pleasure of his fellow-soldiers. He exhorted 
them to confirm Camillus in his command, since 
he was the only man whom the citizens outside 
would obey. When the Senate had heard his 
message and deliberated upon it, they appointed 
Camillus dictator, and sent Pontius back again 
by the way he had come, wherein he repeated 
his former good fortune. For he eluded the enemy's 
notice and brought the Senate's message to the 
Romans outside the city. 

XXVI. These gave eager welcome to the tidings, 
so that when Camillus came, he found twenty 
thousand men already under arms. He collected 



157 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



fid')(a)v KoX irapeaKevd^ero irpo^ rrjv iTrWecr 
ovTO) fiev ypedrf BiKTarcop 6 KdfiiWo<; to 8ev 
repov Koi iropevOei'i et9 Ov'qtov<; iveTV^js Tol'i 
(TTpaTLcoTaL^ KoX (Tvvrjye TrXetoi;? diro TSiv avfi- 
fid^cov ft)? eTTcOrjo'ofievof; toI<; iroXeixioL^} 

'Ez/ 3e T§ 'VcofiTj tS)V ^appdpcov rivh iiceivr) 
Kara rv)(r]v Trapeftoi^re?, y Sid vvkto<; 6 TL6vtio<; 
irpoa-e^rj tco KaTriTcoXia), Karap^aOovre^ 7roXKa')(rj 
fiev 1X^7} TToBcov Kol 'xeipMVy ft)9 dvTeXafjL^dveTo Kal 
TrepteBpdTTCTo, TroWaxv Be tmv iiTLirei^VKOTcov 
TOL^ Kp7)fjLvot<; d'7roTpi^d<; /cal irepLokia-Orja-eif; T(ov 
yecoBcav, (jypd^ovai tw ^acrCkel. KaKelvo^ iireX- 
6cbv Kol 0ea(7dp,evo<^ Tore puev r)(rvxa^€Vy ecnrepa^; 
Be Tovf; e\a<j>pordrov^ rol^ ao) fiacre Kal ire(^VK6Ta<^ 
opeLJSareXv fidXiara r&v KeXrwi^ avvayaycov, 
" Trjv p>ev oBovT elirev^ " VJ^^^ ^'<^' eavrov^ dyvoov- 
fi€V7)v ol iToXepLLOL BeiKVvovoriv CW9 OUT drropevro^ 
ovre d^aro^ dvOpcoiroc^; icrrcv, alaxvvrj Be iroW^] 
rr)v dpxrjv exovra^; eKkeiireLV rrpo^ ro reko^ Kal 
TTpoeadat rov roirov co? dvdXwrov, avrwv rcov 
TToXefxidyv y \r}rrr6^ iari BiBaaKovrcov. y yhp 
evl Trpoa/Sijvai pdBcov, ovBk 7roXXo?9 KaO^ eva 
BvaKoXov, dXXd Kal pcofirj Kal ^oyOeia ttoXXtj 
fier dXXrjXcov emx^ipovai. Bcopeal Be Kal 
rip^al TTpeTTOvaaL t?}9 dvBpayaOia^ eKdaro) Bodrj- 
aovrair 

XXVII. Toiavra rov PaaLXeoo<; BtaXexOevro^; 
vrrearyaav ol VaXdrai irpoOvp.w^, Kal rrepl 
fieaa<; vvKra^ eiTt^dvre^ dpu iroXXol tt}? 7rerpa<i 

^ OuTw . , . vo\i/xiois deleted by Bekker, after Reiske. 

158 



fill- ^H 



CAMILLUS, xxvr. i— xxvii. i 

still more from the allies, and made preparations 
for his attack. Thus Camillus was chosen dictator 
for the second time, and proceeding to Veii, he 
put himself at the head of the soldiers there, 
and collected more from the allies, with the 
purpose of attacking the enemy. 

But in Rome, some of the Barbarians chanced 
to pass by the spot where Pontius had made his way 
by night up to the Capitol, and noticed in many 
places the marks made by his hands and feet in clam- 
bering up, and many places also where the plants 
that grew upon the rocks had been torn away, and 
the earth displaced. They advised their king of 
this, and he too came and made inspection. At 
the time he said nothing, but when evening came, 
he assembled the nimblest men and the best 
mountain-climbers of the Gauls and said to them: 
"The enemy have shown us that there is a way 
up to them of which we knew not, and one which 
men can traverse and tread. It would be a great 
shame for us, after such a beginning as we have 
made, to fail at the end, and to give the place 
up as impregnable, when the enemy themselves 
show us where it can be taken. For where it 
is easy for one man to approach it, there it will 
be no difficult matter for many to go one by 
one, nay, they will support and aid one another 
greatly in the undertaking. Gifts and honours 
befitting his valour shall be given to every 
man." 

XXVII. So spake their king, and the Gauls 
eagerly undertook to do his will. About midnight 
a large band of them scaled the cliff and made 



f59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6')((jt)povv dvco fiCTO, <Tico7rrj<;, ifKpvo/jievoi T0fc9 

')(WpiOl<i CLTTOTOflOL^ OV<TL /Col '^aXeiTOL^, OV flTJV 

dWa fjLoXXov rj irpoae^OK'qOr) TreLpco/jievcov avrcop 

2 7rpOG-L€/jL6VOL^ Kttl TTapeiKOvaLV, uxrre tou? Trpco- 
Tou? d'^a/Jiivov'i tcov a/cpcop koI Eca<TK€vaaa- 
fiivov^i oaov ovk 7]Bi] rod 'irpoTeL')(i(T[xaTO<i air- 
reaOai kol tol<; <j)v\a^LV eiTL'xeLpelv Kot,fjuQ)fjLevoi<;' 
yaOero 'yap ovt apOpcoirog ovre kvcov. dXXa ■ 
Xl'^^'^ ?7craz/ lepol irepl rov vecov t^9 ''H/9a9 Tpe<^6~ ^ 
fievoi rov aXXov ')(p6vov dcjiOovco^;, rore Be rcov 
acricov ijBr} r^Xi(T')(^p(o^ koX /ioA-i? avroh Biap- ^ 

3 Kovvrwv dfieXovfievoL KaKO)<; eirparrov. ecrri /lev 
ovv /cat (pvaeL Trpoq aXadrjaiv o^v kol ^/ro^oSee? 
TO ^wov eKecvoi Be kol Bid Xc/jlov dypvTrvrjrifcol 
Koi 6opv^(oBec<} jeyov6re<i ra'yp ttjv e(f)oBov rj- 
crOovro rwv TaXarcoVf koX puerd Bpo/juov kuI 
KXayyr]<i (j)€p6p,evot, 7r/?09 avrov^ eirrjyeipav 
diravra'i, ijBr] koI rS)V ^apfidpcov Btd ro p^rj 
XavOdveiv d(^eiBovvrcov Oopvfiov KaX fiiaiorepov 

4 eiTiriOepievcov. dpirdcravre^ ovv vtto airovBrjf; 
c5 Ti9 eKa(TT0<i oirXtp irpoaervy)(avev, ex rov 
7rap6vro<; e^orjOovv, Trdvrcov Be irpwro^ MaXXto9, 
dvr]p virariKo^, ro re acop^a pcop^aXeo^; koi (hpo- 
vrjpiarL '\jrv')(^r]<^ eTri^av)]^, diravrrjaa^i Bvalv opov 
rcov iToXepbioov rov puev e^Oacre Birjppuevov KOirlBa 
r(p ^L^ei rrjv Be^idv diroKo'^^a^, rov Be rw Ovpe^ 
7rard^a<} et9 to Trpocrcoirov ecaaev ottLctco Kara rrj<; 

5 irer pa<;. eiriard'^ Be ra> reiYet puerd rodv avvBpa- 
pLovrcov Kal yevopuevwv irepi avrov direaTpeyjre 
TOL'9 dXXov<;, ovre ttoXXov^ dvco yevopuevov^; ovre 
rrpd^avrd^ re rrj^ r6Xpr)<; d^iov. ovrw Be rov 143 
KLvBvvov eK<f>vy6vre<i dpi rjpepa rov pLev dp^^ovra 
i6o 



CAMILLUS, XXVII. 1-5 

their way upward in silence. They climbed on 
all fours over places which were precipitous and 
roughj but which yielded to their efforts better 
than they had expected, until the foremost of 
them reached the heights, put themselves in array, 
and had all but seized the outwork and fallen 
upon the sleeping watch. Neither man nor dog 
was aware of their approach. But there were 
some sacred geese near the temple of Juno, which 
were usually fed without stint, but at that time, 
since provisions barely sufficed for the garrison 
alone, they were neglected and in evil plight. 
The creature is naturally sharp of hearing and 
afraid of every noise, and these, being specially wake- 
ful and restless by reason of their hunger, perceived 
the approach of the Gauls, dashed at them with loud 
cries, and so waked all the garrison. At once 
the Barbarians, now that they were detected, spared 
no noise, and came on more impetuously to the 
attack. The defenders, snatching up in haste 
whatever wea})on came to hand, made the best 
shift they could. Manlius first of all, a man of 
consular dignity, mighty in body and exceeding 
stout of heart, confronting two of the enemy at 
once, cut off the right hand of one of them with 
his sword as he was lifting his battle-axe, and 
dashing his shield into the face of the other, 
tumbled him backwards down the cliff. Then 
taking his stand on the wall with those who ran 
to his aid and formed about him, he repulsed the 
rest of the enemy, who had reached the top in 
no great numbers, and showed no prowess to 
match their daring. So the Romans escaped out 
of their peril. At break of day, they cast the 

161 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TMV ^vXaKcov epptyfrav el<; tou? TroXe/iiovf; Kara 
Tj}9 TTeV/oa?, TO) Se MaWio) Trj<; vikt}^ apiarela 
TTpog TLfjiyv fieyaXrjv ^ /xaXkov rj -^peiav ^JrTj^io-d- 
fjbevoL avvTjve'yKav octov '^fiepa'i eicaaTO'i ikdp.- 
pavev eU rpo^ijv, (rlrov jxev 'qpLiXiTpov i'in')(co piov 
(pvT(o yap KoXovaLv avro), otvov he KorvXrjt; 
'EWrjvLKTiq TerapTOV, 

XXVIII. 'Ea: tovtov to, tcov KcXtcov tjv 
ddvpLorepa. koI yap iTnTrjSetoov icnrdvi^ov elpyo- 
fjuevoi irpovop.rjf; (j)6ff(p tov KafiiXkov, kuI v6ao<i 
vTroiKovprjaev avTov<; iv ve/cpMv 7r\r]0eo %u3?7i^ 
Kara^e^XTj/juevcov (TKrjvovvra^ iv epeiirioi^;, to re 
^d6o<i rr}? ricppa^ dipa ^rjpoTTjri real BpLp.vrr)Ti 
(pavXov vTTo TTvevp^drcov Ka\ Kavp^drcov dvadv- 
pid}(T7j<; iXvp.aLV6T0 rd ad)p,aTa Btd Tr](; dva7rvorj<;. 

2 p^dXiara 5' ^ p^erapoXr) rrj^i avvTp6(j)ov 8caiT7j<; 
i/c TOTTWV (TKiepcjv Koi dipov^; Karacpvydfi aXvirovf; 
i')(^6vT(ov ip,^aX6vTa<; e/9 'X^copav TaTreivrjv Kal 
KeKpap^evrjv d(f)va)<; 7rpo<; to p^eroircopov eKivrja-ev 
avTOv^t Tj T6 7rpo<; r& KairircoXLO) KaOiBpa Kal 
(TXoXr) yevopbivrj 'x^povLO^. e^Bopbov yap eKelvov 
OLKOvpovv pbTjva iToXtopKOvvTe<i. Mare (f>6opdv 
elvai TroXXrjV iv roJ arpaTOTriBcp Kal prjBe Odirre- 
aOai Bid 7rXr]0o<s ert tov<; dirodv^aKovra';. 

3 Ov prjv Trapd^ tovto rd Trpdypbara ^eXriO) toI<^ 
IT oXiopKov pivots r)V, iireTeive ydp 6 XLp,6<;, y re 
TCOV 7T6pl Kdp,LXXov dyvoca Trapel^e BvaOvpLiav 
ovBelf; ydp icpOLTa irap avTOiv Bid to ^povpeladai 

1 ixfyd\r]v deleted by Coraes and Bekker. 

2 irapa MSS. and edd. , including Sintenis^ : vepl. 

162 



CAMILLUS, Axvii. 5-XXV111. 3 

captain of the watch down the cliff among the 
enemy, but voted to Manlius a meed of victory 
which did him more honour than service. They 
collected for him the rations which each man 
of them received for one day, namely, half a pound 
of native spelt, Roman weight, and an eighth of a 
pint of wine, Greek measure. 

XXVIII. After this, the case of the Gauls was 
less hopeful. They lacked provisions, being shut 
off from foraging through fear of Camillus, and 
disease lurked among them. They were encamped 
amid ruins, where a multitude of corpses had 
been cast at random, and besides, an air made 
dry and acrid by vast quantities of ashes which 
wind and heat sent flying abroad, made breathing 
hurtful. But what most of all affected them was 
the complete change in their mode of life. They 
had come all at once from regions of shade, 
where easy refuge could be had from the heats 
of summer, into a land v*^hich was low lying and 
had an unnatural climate towards autumn. Then 
there was their long and idle sitting down before 
the Capitol, — they were now whiling away the 
seventh month in its siege. For all these reasons 
the mortality was great in their camp ; so many 
were the dead that they could no longer be 
buried. 

All this, however, brought no relief to the 
besieged, for famine increased upon them, and 
their ignorance of what Camillus was doing made 
them dejected. No messenger could come from 
him because the city was now closely watched 



■63 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rrjv TToXiv aKpi^S)^ vtto t&v jSap^dpcov. oOev 
ovTCO TTpdrrovo-iv d[i^orepoi<; iyivovro avfji^arcKol 
Xojoi Bta Tcov TrpocjivXaKcov to Trpcorov dXXrjXoL'; 

4 ivTvy^avovTcov elra, a>9 eSo^e tol<; KparicTTOif;, 
(TVveXOovTO^ eh Xojov; 3pevv(p XovXttcklov tov 
')(^bXLdp')(OV T&v *V(o/jbaiQ)v, wfjLoXoyrjdrj tou9 fiev 
'X^tXlaf; XiTpa<^ '^(^pvaLou KaTa^aXelv, TOV<i 8k 
Xa^ovra^ i/c t^9 TroXeo)? avriKa koX ttj^; x^P^'^ 
az;a%«/oety. iirl rovrot^ yevofjuivcov opKwv koX 
TOV xp^o-^ou KOfJUKrOevTo^i, Twv he KcXtcov irepX tov 
aTaOjJLOv dyvo)fjbOVOvvTcov Kpv(f)a to TrpMTov, eZra 
Kal (f)avepco<; dipeXKovTcov koI BLaaTp€cj)6vTCov t^]v 

5 poirrjv, r)<yavdKT0vv ol *Vo)/JLatot tt/jo? avTov<;. 6 Se 
Bpivvo^ olov i^v^pi^wv Kal KarayeXcov clttoSv- 
o-d/jLevo<i ^ T7]v fidxctt'pCLV d/xa kol tov ^waTrjpa 
iTpoa-eOrifce T0L<i <TTaOfioL<;. irvvOavofxevov he tov 
'EovX.TriKLOV, " Tt TOVTO / " " Tb yap dX\o,** elirev, 
" rj Tol^ veviKrjfjievoi<; oBvvr) ; " tovto /nev ovv rjSr) 
TrapoLfiLcoSrjf; X0709 yeyove. tmv Se 'Fcofiabcov ol 
fiev rjyavdfCTOVv Kal to ^P^^^^^ (povTo Selv 
Xafi6vTa<; avdi^ dinevai kol Trjv iroXtopKiav vtto- 
fiivetv ol Be avyx^^petv eiceXevov dBtKou/jLevov<; 
fxeTpLa, Kal /iir) tm irXeov BiBovai irpoaXoyii^eaOat 
TO alaxpovy avTo ye to Bovvac Bid tov Kaipov ov 
KaXa)<; dXX' dvayKai(0<; vTro/aevovTa^;. 

XXIX. Ovcrrjf; Be irepl tovt(ov irpo'; re Toi'9 
K€Xtou9 Kal 7rpo<; avTOv<;^ Bia(j)opa<i dycov tov 
(TTpaTov o K.djjbtXXo<i ev Tac<; TrvXat^ rjv Kal 
TTvOoixevo'^ Ta yivofieva tov<; dXXov<; eKeXevcrev ev 
Td^ev Kal axeBrjv €7raKoXov9eiv, avTO'^ Be fiCTa 

^ hito^vaaixevos with S : aTro\v(rdix(vos unfafttening. 

^ avTovs Siiitenis" with C : avrovs Bekker and Sintenis*. 

164 



I 



CAMILLUS, XXVIII. 3-xxix. i 

by the Barbarians. Wherefore, both parties being 
in such a pliglit, a compromise was proposed, 
at first by the outposts as they encountered one 
another. Then, since those in authority thought 
it best, Sulpicius, the military tribune of the 
Romans, held a conference with Brennus, and it 
was agreed that on the delivery of a thousand 
pounds of gold by the Romans, the Gauls should 
straightway depart out of the city and the country. 
Oaths were sworn to these terms, and the gold 
was brought to be weighed. But the Gauls tampered 
with the scales, secretly at first, then they openly 
pulled the balance back out of its poise. The 
Romans were incensed at this, but Brennus, with 
a mocking laugh, stripped off his sword, and 
added it, belt and all, to the weights. When 
Sulpicius asked, " What means this ? " " What else," 
said Brennus, " but woe to the vanquished .>" ^ and 
the phrase passed at once into a proverb. Some 
of the Romans were incensed, and thought they 
ought to go back again with their gold, and 
endure the siege. Others urged acquiescence in 
the mild injustice. Their shame lay, they argued, 
not in giving more, but in giving at all. This 
they consented to do because of the emergency ; 
it was not honourable, but it was necessary. 

XXIX. Wliile they were thus at odds in the 
matter, both with the Gauls and with themselves, 
Camillus led his army up to the gates of the city. 
On learning what was going on, he ordered the rest 
of his army to follow in battle array and deliberately, 

* Vac victia I 

i6s 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TMv aplcTTcov i'TT€i'y6iJL€vo<i €vOv<i €7rOpeV6TO 7r/)09 

2 Toif<; 'Po)jjbaLov<i. Biaa-rdvTcov Be irdvrayv koI 
he^afjiivcov avrov o)? avroKpdropa Koa-jjum koX 
aicoTrr}, to fiev ')(^pvaiov dpa<; aTro rod ^vjov roL<; 
v7rr)peTat<; eSco/ce, tov he ^vyov fcal rd (TraO/jbd 
roix; KeXrou? \a^6vTa<; d'Tro')((opeiv eKekevaev 
cIttcov, «9 (TcB'^pq) irdrpiov iari ^VcofxaioL^;, ov 
')(^pvaS> rrjv irarplha o-oo^eiv. dyavaKrovvTo<; Sk 
TOV Bpivvov Kol ^ddKOVTOf; dBiKecadat \vo/JL6vr}(; 
T^9 opjoXoyicL^i dvTetTre fir) vofiC/JLco^ yejovevai 

3 /nrjSe Kvpla^ elvat Ta^ avvdrjKa^' ijBr} yap avrov 
8c/CTdTopo<; yp7]fi6Vov Kal firjBevcxi dp^ovTO^i erepov 
v6fi(p 7r/509 ovK e'XpvTa^ i^ovcriav ofidXoyrjdrivai. ^^ 
vvvl Se '^pTjvai Xeyeiv et tl ^ovXovTar vo/jlw yap ^|| 
TjKeiv Kvpio^ y€yovci)<i (TvyyvoojjLTjv re Beofievoif; 
tovvai Kal Slktjv, el firj ficTavoovatv, eirLOelvai 

4 Tot9 amof9. 7r/}09 TavTa Oopv^r^Qel^ 6 ^p€vvo<i 144 
^yjraTO jnev a'«|rtyLia%ta9, fcal irporjkdov d')(pi ft- 
^ov\KLa<i e/cdrepoL Kal Sto)0L<Tp,6t)v dvafX6p.Lyp.evoi 
irpo^ dXKr)\ov<;y OKrirep elKo^, iv olKiai<; Kal 
aTevco7roi<; dvaaTpe^opuevoL Kal ^a)piot9 Be^aaOat 
irapdra^Lv ov Bvvap.evot<;. Ta^v Be o-vfi(f)pov7]o-a<; 
6 ^pevvo<; aTrrjyaye tol'9 KeXToix; eh to arpaTO- 
TreBov ov ttoWcov wecrovTayv, Kal vvkto'^ dvacrTi]- 
aa^ d'jravTa'i e^ekiire Ttfv iroXiv, Kal irpoeXOcbv 
e^rjKOVTa aTaBiovfi KaTecTTpaTOireBevae irapd ttjv 

5 Ta(3iviav oBov. dfia 8' V/^^P^ iraprjv 6 Ka/xtXXo? 
67r' avrov (hirXiapevo'; \ap,7rpa)<; Kal TeOapprjKora^ 
€')((ov Tore T0U9 ^Vcopbaiov^' Kal yevofjuevrj^; la^vpd^ 
fid^V^ ^'^'^ 'TToXvv y^povov avrov'i re rpeirerai 
TToXX^ (f)6v<p Kal Xap0dvei to arpaToireBov. rSiV 
1 66 



I 



CAMILLUS, XXIX. 1-5 

while he himself, with the flower of his men, pressed 
on, and presently came to the Romans. These all 
made way for him, in decorous silence acknowledg- 
ing him as their dictator. Thereupon he lifted the 
gold from the scales and gave it to his attendants, 
and then ordered the Gauls to take their scales and 
weights and be off, saying that it was the custom 
with the Romans to deliver their city with iron and 
not with gold. When Brennus in wrath declared 
that he was wronged by this breaking of the agree- 
ment, Camillus answered that the compact was not 
legally made nor binding, since he himself had 
already been chosen dictator and there was no other 
legal ruler ; the agreement of the Gauls had there- 
fore been made with men who had no power in the 
case. Now, however, they must say what they 
wanted, for he was come with legal authority to 
grant pardon to those who asked it, and to inflict 
punishment on the guilty, unless they showed 
repentance. At this, Brennus raised a clamour and 
began a skirmish, in which both sides got no further 
than drawing their swords and pushing one another 
confusedly about, since the action took place in the 
heart of the ruined city, where no battle array was 
possible. But Brennus soon came to his senses, and 
led his Gauls off to their camp, with the loss of 
a few only. During the ensuing night he broke 
camp and abandoned the city with his whole force, 
and after a march of about eight miles, encamped 
along the Gabinian way. At break of day Camillus 
was upon him, in glittering array, his Romans now 
full of confidence, and after a long and fierce battle, 
routed the enemy with great slaughter and took 
their camp. Of the fugitives, some were at once 

167 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sk (f)€vy6vT(ov ol fiev evdix; avrjpeOrjo-av fcaraBico- 
')(6evr6<;, Tov<i Bk TrXetcrroi;? BiacnTap6VTa<i iire/c- 
Oiovre'; eic twv irepi^ kwjjlwv koI iroXecov e/creivov, 
XXX. OvTco [lev T) 'Fco/jurj TrapaXoyco^ ^Xw koI 
irapdXoycorepov iacoOr], fjLrjva<; kirra tou? iravra^ 
viro Tol'i ^ap^dpoi<i yevofxevrj* 7rape\66vTe<^ yap 
eU avTTjv oXiyaL^ r^fiepaL^; vcrrepov t(ov Kvlvti- 
Xicov elScov irepl ra<; (^e/Spovapta^ elSov^ i^eirecrov, 
6 he KdfiiXXo<; edpid/n^evo-e fiev, w? etVo9 ^]Vt rov 
diroX(joXvia<i aoyrrjpa irarpiBo^ yevofievov koI 

2 Kardyovra rrjp ttoXiv avrrjv eh eavrrjv oX re 
yap e^codev dfia iraitrX fcal yvvai^iv elaeXav- 
vovTO^ avTOv (TvyKar^eaav, ol t€ iroXtopicrjOevTe^ 
ev T(p l^aiTLTCoXiw, fMi/cpov Se'^aavref; diroXeaOai 
Bta XifJbov, dirrjVTcov irepLJSdXXovref; dXXtjXovf; 
Kol BaKpvovre^ vtto ^ rr]<; irapova-Tj^; ^Bovrj<;, iepei<; 
T€ Kol ^dKOpot Oecav, oaa ^evyovre^ avroOi to)v 
dpePrjXwv eKpvyjrav rj crvv avToU e^eKXe-^av, 
dvaaco^ofxeva^ KOfii^oVTef; iTreBeUvvvro iroOov- 
fieva<; o-yjrei^ rot? TroXtrat? BexofievoL^ fiera %a/3a9, 
axTTrep avrcov tmv Oecov avdi^ eU rrjv 'Vco/jltjv 

3 (TvyKarep'XojjLevcov' 6vaa<^ he roh Oeoh fcal KaOd- 
pa<; Tr)V iroXiv e^rjyovfjievcov rcov irepl ravra 
BeivMV, rh fJLev ovra toov lepcov KaTea-rrjaev, avro^ 
Be IBpvaaro vewv ^rjfMTjf; Kal KXtjBovo^;, dvevpcov 
eKelvov rov roirov, ev w vvKTCJp rf KarayyeXXovaa 
rr]v rcov jSap^dpcov arpartdv eK dead Ta> Kat- 
BifciG) Mdpfccp (jxovrj TTpoaeTrea-e, 



1 virh with S : airiirrlafor distrust of. 

* g.va(ra}(6iJ.cva Koi KtKOfffirifieva S, arid adorned. 



i68 



CAMILLUS, XXIX. 5-xxx. 3 

pursued and cut down, but most of them scattered 
abroad, only to be fallen upon and slain by the people 
of the surrounding villages and cities. 

XXX. So strangely was Rome taken, and more 
strangely still delivered, after the Barbarians had 
held it seven months in all. They entered it a few 
days after the Ides of July, and were driven out 
about the Ides of February. Camillus celebrated a 
triumph, as it was meet that a man should do who 
had saved a country that was lost, and who now 
brought the city back again to itself. For the 
citizens outside, with their wives and children, 
accompanied his triumphal chariot as it entered the 
city, and those who had been besieged on the 
Capitol, and had narrowly escaped death by starva- 
tion, came forth to meet them, all embracing one 
another, and weeping for the joy that was theirs. 
The priests and ministrants of the gods, bringing 
whatever sacred objects they had either buried on 
the spot or carried off with them when they took to 
flight, displayed them, thus preserved in safety, to 
the citizens, who caught the welcome sights with 
delight, believing in their hearts that the gods 
themselves were now coming back to Rome with 
them. After Camillus had made sacrifices to the 
gods and purified the city, in the manner prescribed 
by those who were versed in such rites, he restored 
the existing temples, and erected a new one to 
Rumour and Voice,^ having sought out carefully 
the spot where by night the voice from Heaven, 
announcing the coming of the Barbarian host, had 
fallen upon the ears of Marcus Caedicius. 

•• Ara Ail Locutii. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXI. XaXeTTw? /xev ovv koI fio\,i<i at rcov 
lepSyv aveKaXviTTovTO %ft)/?a* (jytKorifiia rod Ka- 
fiiWov /cat TTovo) ttoWo) tcov lepo^avrcov ©9 Be 
KaX T7]v iroXtv avoLKoBofielv eBei TravraTracn Sie- 
(ftdapfievrjv, aOvfJLia irpof; to epyov eveirnne toI<; 
7roWot9 real fieWrjcrif; tjv i(TT€pr}jji€Voi<; diravTcov 
Kal TCVo<; iv t5> irapovn pa<TT(ovrj<; koX avairav- 
(Te(o<; eK KaKwv Beojiievot^; /jbdWov rj /cd/juvecv 
Kol d'KOTpv)(€iv kavTovf; ouT€ ')(pi]fiaaiv ovTe 

2 acofiaaiv eppwiievov^i, ovrco Be rjavxv tJ'/'o? tou? 
Ovr]tov<i av6i<!; dTroarpe^ofievoi, itoXlv diraai 
KaTea/cevaa/jbivTjv Kal Biafievovaav, dp'^df; Brjfia- 
ycojLcov eveBoaav to?9 irpo^ X^P^^ eWto-fievoL^ 
ojJbiXeiv, Kol Xoycov rjKpocovTO arao-iacrrtKcov 7rpo<; 
Tov Kd/jbiXXov, Q)9 eKeivov ^iXortixia^; evefca Kal 
B6^7}<; lBia<; diroarepovvTO^ avTOv<; iroXeco^; eTOifir)<i 
Kal ^ta^ofjiivov (tktjvovv epeiina Kal iTvpKalav 
rocrnvTrjv eyeipeiv, oircof; firj jiovov rjye/jLobv *l?d)fjLrj<; 
Kal (TTpaTTjyo^, dWd Kal ktIctttj^; XeyTjrai, Trapco- 
(Ta<; ^VcofivXov, 

3 'Ea: tovtov ^o^rjOelaa rov Oopv^ov ri jSovXr) 
TOV fiev KdfjLLXXov ovk etaae ^ovXofievov diro- 
OeaOai tvv dpxv^ ivTo^ iviavTov Kaiirep ef 
fiTJvaf; ovBevo<i virepPaX6vT0<; CTepov BiKTa- 
To/509, avTr) Bh itapejJLvdeiTO Kal KaTeirpdvve 
TrelOova-a Kal Be^iovfiivr} tov Brjfiov, eiriBeLKW- 
fievrj fiev r/pia Kal Td(j)ov<; iraTepcov, VTrofiifivr)' 
(TKOvaa Be x^P^(^^ lepcov Kal tottcov dyicov, 0^9 
*Pft}/xu\09 rj ^ofjid^ rj Tt9 dXXo<; avTocq t&v 
170 



CAMILLUS, XXXI. 1-3 

XXXI. Owing to the zeal of Camillus and the 
abundant labours of the priesthood, the sites of the 
temples were at last uncovered, but it proved a 
grievous undertaking. And since the city had also 
to be built up again from a state of utter destruc- 
tion, the multitude were overwhelmed with despair 
of the task, and shrank from it. They were bereft 
of all things, and for the present needed some rest 
and repose after their sufferings, instead of toiling 
and wearing themselves out on a task for which they 
had neither means nor strength. And so it was that 
insensibly their thoughts turned again to Veii, a city 
which remained intact and was equipped with all 
things needful. This gave opportunity for mischievous 
agitations to such as were wont to consult only the 
people's will and pleasure, and ready ear was given 
to seditious speeches against Camillus. He had an 
eye, it was said, only to his own ambition and fame, 
when he would deprive them of a city that stood 
ready to receive them, and force them to pitch their 
tents among a mass of ruins, while they rebuilt what 
had become a monstrous funeral pyre. He wished 
not merely to be a leader and general of Rome, 
but to thrust Romulus to one side and be styled its 
founder. 

The Senate, therefore, fearful of this clamour, 
would not suffer Camillus, much as he wished it, to 
lay down his office within a year, although no other 
dictator had served more than six months. Mean- 
while the Senators, by dint of kindly greetings and 
persuasive words, tried to soften and convert the 
people, pointing out the sepulchres and tombs of 
their fathers, and calling to their remembrance the 
shrines and holy places which Romulus, or Numa, 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 paaiXiwv i7riO€idaa<; irapehwKev. iv '7rpcoroi,<; Sk 
Twv Seioav ti]V re veoa-^ayrj Ke(f)aXr]v irpov^epov 145 
iv TTJ OefiekKoaet tov KaTrLrcoXtov (jtavelcravy o)? 

T^ Toir^ ireirpwixevov eKeivm jrj^ 'IraX/a? KecjjaXfj 
yeveaSai, koX to t^9 'Ecrrta? irvp, o fMera tov 
iroXe/jLOV vtto rcov irapdevav avairrofxevov av0t,<i 
a<f>ai'i^€tv KoX (T^evvvvav tov^} irpoXiTrovra^ rrjv 
iroXiv, ovecBo^ avTol<; iao/ievoVf dv re vir dXXcov 
ol/covfiivTjv opwa-LV iTrrjXvScov kol ^eveop dv t 
€pr)/iov oZaav koX firfXojSorov, 

5 Toiavra Kal 7rpo9 CKaarov IhLa fcal Kocvfj 
TroXXaKtf; iv tw S^/jlg) crp^erXtafoi^re? iireKXcoPTO 
irdXiv VTTO Ttav ttoXXcov ttjv irapovaav oXo^vpo- 
fiev(ov dfi'r)')(aviaVt fcal heofievcov firj a^d<; &air€p 
iK vavayiov yvfivov^; Kal dir6pov<; crco6evTa<i 
irpocr/Sid^eaOai, rd Xeiyjrava t^? hLe(i>6apfiev7]<i 
av jXTT'qyvvvaL iroXew^, erepa^ eTOifir]<; Trapovcrrjfi, 

XXXIL "ESo^ei/ ovv ^ovXrjv irpoOelvat rat 
ILajxiXX^' Kal iroXXd jxev avro^ hie^rjXOe irapa- 
KaXcov virep Tfj<; iraTpLho^y nroXXd Se Kal rcov 
dXXcov 6 l3ovX6fM€vof:* reXo? Be tov irpCiTov 
eiwOoTa Xiyetv yvcofirjv AevKiov AovKprjTiov dva- 
CTT/Jcra? €KeXev(Tev diT0<f)rjvaa6aL rrpwTOv, ecTa 
2 T0U9 dXXov^; e<^6f^9. y€V0fM6V7}<; Be aiW7rrj<i Kal 
TOV AovKp7}Tiov fieXXovTQf; ivdp)(€aOai, KaTa 
TV)(rjv e^codev CKaTOVTap^rj^; dycov Tay/jia (f)vXaKr}<i 
rj/jb€pLV7](; irapeiTopeveTO, Kal tov <^epovTa nrpcoTov 
TO (TTjiielov /jueydXr) ^covfj irpoo-ayopevaaf; eVe- 
Xevaev avTOV jiivetv Kal to arnxelov TvOeaOaL* 

172 



CAMILLUS, XXXI. 4-xxxii. 2 

or some other king, had consecrated and left to 
their care. Among other signs from Heaven, they 
laid chief stress on the newly severed head that was 
found when the foundations of the Capitol were dug, 
showing, as it did, that the place where it was found 
was fated to be the head of Italy ; also on the sacred 
fire of Vesta, which had been kindled anew by her 
virgins after the war. If they should quench and 
extinguish this again by their abandonment of the 
city, it would be a disgrace to them, whether they 
saw that city occupied by immigrants and aliens, or 
abandoned to flocks and herds. 

Thus did the Senators remonstrate with the people, 
both individually in private, and often in the public 
assemblies. They, in their turn, were moved to com- 
passion by the wailing complaints of the multitude, 
who lamented the helplessness to which they were 
come, and begged, now that they had been saved 
alive as it were from a shipwreck, in nakedness and 
destitution, that they be not forced to piece together 
the fragments of their ruined city, when another 
stood all ready to receive them. 

XXXII. Accordingly, Camillus decided that the 
question should be debated and settled in council. 
He himself spoke at great length, in exhortation to 
preserve their common country, and every one else 
who wished did likewise. Finally, he called upon 
Lucius Lucretius, to whom custom gave the first 
vote, and bade him declare his opinion first, and 
then the other senators in the order due. Silence 
fell, and Lucretius was on the point of beginning, 
when it chanced that a centurion with a squad of 
the day watch passed by outside, and calling with a 
loud voice on the man who ltd with the standard, 

173 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaXkiara yap evravda KaOehelaOai koI fieveiv, 
a/jLa Be Ta> Kaipa> koI r^ irepl tov fjueXkovTOf; 
ivvoia Kol dBrjXoTTjTi Trj<; (ftcovrjf; yevofxevr]^, 6 re 
A.ovKprjTLO<^ e^Tf Trpo(TKVvrj<Ta^ T<p dew TrpoarU 
Bead at rrjv eavrov yv(op,r)v koX tmv aXKoav 

3 ^Kaaro^ eirrjKo\ov9r}ae. Bavfiaarrj Be koI to 
TrXrjdo^; ecr%e fieTa^okrj rrj<i 6pfjb7]<;, aWtjXovf; 
irapaKoXovvTcov kol TrporpeTro/jLevcov^ 7rpo<^ to 
epyovy ovK eic Biavofirj<; tlvo^ rj Td^ecof;^ dW* co? 
€Ka(TTo<; eToifjLOTTjTOf; rj ^ov\t]aeco<i el^e t&v 
')((t)pia)v KaTdXa/jL^avo/jLepav. Bio fcal TeTapay- 
fievr]v T0Z9 o-TevcoTTOL^ koX avfnrefjivppLevrjp Tat<! 
oiK'^aeaiv dviqyayov Tr]V ttqKiv vtto airovBi]^ fcal 
ravoi;?. ivTO^ yap ivtavTOv Xeyerai kuI toI^ 
TeL')(e(Jt KaiVT) kuI Tai<; lBi(OTiKat^ oiKoBofialf; dva- 
(TTTjvai irdXiv, 

4 Ofc Be TOv<i lepov<i tottov^ dva\aj3etv /cat opiaat 
T«%^ez^Te9 VTTO TOV Ka/JLtWov, avyKexvfMevayp 
dirdvTwv, 0)9 rjKov iirl ttjv KaXidBa tov ''A/oe&)9 
TrepioBevovTe^ to HaXaTiov, avTrjv fiiv, c»9 ra 
dWa, Bi€<pOapfjLevTjv Kal KaTaK€Kavfxevr]v evpov 
VTTO Twv ^ap^dpcov, axevcopovfjievoi Be xal KaOai- 
povTe<; TO ^(copiov evTvyx^dvovac t5> juavTiKM ^vXo) 
TOV 'VwfivXov KUTa T6^/oa9 TToXkr]^ Kal 0a6€La^ 

6 KaTaBeBvKOTi. tovto S' eaTi fiev eTriKafnre^ ex 
daTepov 7repaT0<;, xaXecTat Be XItvov ')(^pa)VTai B^ 
avT(p irpo<i Ta9 tmv irXivOlcov v7roypa<f>d(i oTav eir 
6pvi(Ti BtafjbavTevo/jLevoi KaOe^covTaty (09 Kdicelvo^ 
e)(pfJTo /JLavTtKcoTaTOf; mv. eTreiBrj 5* i^ dvdpcoTrcov 
r/^avla-Br], TrapaXa^ovTC^ 01 lepeh to ^vXov 
Sairep dXXo tl tcov lepcov dyjravo-Tov icpuXuTTOv. 

* irpoTpciro/teVftJi' with S : rpiirofiivuv. 



I 



CAMILLUS, XXXII. 2-5 

bade him halt and plant his standard there, for that 
was the best place to settle down and stay in. The 
utterance fell at the crisis of their anxious thought 
for the uncertain future, and Lucretius said, with a 
devout obeisance, that he cast his vote with the god. 
The rest, one by one, followed his example. Then 
the inclinations of the multitude were marvellously 
changed. They exhorted and incited one another 
to the work, and pitched upon their several sites, 
not by any orderly assignment, but as each man 
found it convenient and desirable. Therefore the 
city was rebuilt with confused and narrow streets 
and a maze of houses, owing to their haste and 
speed. Within a year's time, it is said, a new city 
had arisen, with walls to guard it and homes in 
which to dwell. 

Those who had been deputed by Camillus to 
recover and mark out anew the sacred places, found 
them all in utter confusion. When they came to 
the shrine of Mars, in their circuit of the Palatium, 
they found that it had been demolished and burnt 
by the Barbarians, like the rest, but as they were 
clearing away and renovating the place, they came 
upon the augural staff of Romulus, buried deep in a 
great heap of ashes. The augural staff is curved at 
one end, and is called litum. It is used to mark off 
the different quarters of the heavens, in the cere- 
monies of divination by the flight of birds, and so 
Romulus had used this one, for he was a great 
diviner. But when he vanished from among men, 
the priests took this staff and kept it inviolate, like 



175 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOVTO Bt} T0T6 TMV oXXcOV dTTOkwXoTCOV aVCtf' 

p6vre<i Bia'jr€<j)€vy6<; rrjv ^Oopav 7]hLov<; e^evovTO 
Ta69 iXnTiaiv virep t% *P(o/irj<;, C09 alBcov avrfj 
TTjv awTTiplav Tov a-rjfieLOV /^e/^atoOi^ro?. 

XXXI II. OvTTco Be rrj<; irepX ravra TreiraV' 
lxevoL<^ d(r'x^oXia<; avrol^ iTnirLTrret iroXe/Juot;, 
Al/cavwv fiev dfxa Koi OvoXov(r/ccov koI Karlvcov 
€19 Tr]V "x^copav ip^^aXXovrcoVy Tvppr}vcop Be ttoXi- 
opKovvTcov XovTpiv, avpjpa')(LBa 'Pty/xatcoj/ ttoXiv. 
iTreiBr) B^ oi rrjv rjyepoviav exovre^; ')(^LXiap')(pL 
(TTpaTOTreBevardp.evoL irepl to M.dpKi,ov opo<; virb 
TO)v Aaruvcov iiroXiopKOvvTO koX KLvBvvevovTe<i 
diro^aXelv to crTpaToireBov eU *P(op,rjv eTrep^yjrav 

2 dTToBeLKPVTai to TpiTOV Ka/ztWo9 BiKTaTcop. Trepl 
TovTov TOV TToXipLOV BlttoX Xoyoi XiyovTao' Bietp^i 
Be TOV puvOoiBrj irpoTepov. 

^aaX Tov<; Aartz/of 9, etVe 7rpo^d<rei 'Xfi(Ofievov<i 
etre ^ovXop€Pov<; ax; dXr)6(o<; dvap,L^aa0ai tu 
yevTj irdXiv ef virapxv^, Trepuy\ravTa<; alTelv irapd 146 
TMV 'Vcopumv 7rap6evov<; i\ev$epa<i yvvacKa<:, 
diropovvTcop Be tcop ^PcopaucoVy rl ^pr) iroielv (/cat 
yap TOP iroXepLOv oyppcoBovp ovttco Ka6eaTC0Te<; ovB^ 
dpeiX7)(l)6Te<i avTOv^, koX ttjp aLTtjaLP tcop yvpai- 
KMP vTrcoTTTevop e^opLr)p6V(Ttp elvai, tov S* evirpe- 
irov'i %a/3iz/ eTTLyap^iav KaXelcrOat), OepairaLplBa 

3 TOvvopLa TovTOvXaPf 009 S' epioi XiyovcTif ^iXcoTiBa 
T0i9 dp^ovai irapaipecrai 7rip,7reLV avv avTJj t(OV 
Bp,Q)tBo)p Ta9 ip odpa pdXtcrTa /cal Tai<; oyfreaiv 
iXev6epiov<;, KoaprjGaPTa^ ax: vvp(j)a<; evyepel<i, 
TO, Xoiird S' avTrj peXrjo-eiP, ireicrdepTa^ Be Tovq 
dpxoPTa<; iirtXe^aadat tmv OepairaLpiBwp 6(Ta<; 
ifcelvr] 77/009 ttjp '^pelap iBo/CLfiaae, /cal Koap,ijaaP' 
176 



CAMILLUS, XXXII. 5-xxxiii. 3 

any other sacred object. Their finding this at that 
time unscathed, when all the rest had perished, gave 
them more pleasing hopes for Rome. They thought 
it a token that assured her of everlasting safety. 

XXXIII. They were not yet done with these 
pressing tasks when a fresh war broke upon them. 
The Aequians, Volscians, and Latins burst into their 
territory all at once, and the Tuscans laid siege to 
Sutrium, & city allied with Rome. The military 
tribunes in command of the army, having encamped 
near Mount Marcius, were besieged by the Latins, 
and were in danger of losing their camp. Where- 
fore they sent to Rome for aid, and Camillus was 
appointed dictator for the third time. Two stories 
are told about this war, and I will give the fabulous 
one first. 

They say that the Latins, either as a pretext for 
war, or because they really wished to revive the 
ancient affinity between the two peoples, sent and 
demanded from the Romans free-born virgins in 
marriage. The Romans were in doubt what to do, 
for they dreaded war in their unsettled and un- 
restored condition, and yet they suspected that this 
demand for wives was really a call for hostages 
disguised under the specious name of intermarriage. 
In their perplexity, a serving-maid named Tutula, 
or, as some call her, Philotis, advised the magistrates 
to send her to the enemy with some maid-servants 
of the comeliest sort and most genteel appearance, 
all arrayed like free-born brides ; she would attend to 
the rest. The magistrates yielded to her persuasions, 
chose out as many maid-servants as she thought meet 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ta9 iadrJTL Kol ')(^pv(Tm TrapaBovvat tol^ AaTLVOi<; 
ov irdvv iroppo) t^9 TroXece)? aTparoTreSevovac, 

4 vvKTCop Be ra? fiev aX\a(; v(^e\ea6at ra iy^eipiSta 
Tcov 7ro\€fua)v, rrjv S* etre TovrovXav etVe <J>tX&)- 
TiSa iTpoa^aaav ipiveco fieyaXo) koI irapaTeiva- 
aav oiTLcra) to IfidrLOv apat irvpaov eh Trfv'FcofMrjVy 
wairep ^v (TvyKel/Mevov avry Trpo? tov<; dp'XpVTa^, 
ovBevo^ aXkov tmv troXtrcov €lS6T0<i, Bi o kol 
Oopv^coBr) yeveaOat, rrjv tcov aTpaTi(OT(ov e^oBov, 
0)9 KaTrjirevyov oi dp^^ovTe^, dW7]\ov<; dvaKoXovp- 
Tcov Koi fjt,6\L<; eh ttjv tu^iv KadidTafjuevcov. iireX- 
66vTa<i Be T(p ydpaKi tojp iroXe/JiLwv ov irpoaBexo- 
fjLevcov /cat KaoevBovTwv ekelv to (TTpaTOTreBov /cal 

5 Bi,a(f)deLpai, tov9 TrXeio-TOVf;. tovto Be yeveadai Tah 
vvv ^lovXiai^;, totc Be K.vivTiXiac<; voDvai<i, kcu Tr)V 
dyo[xevr]v eopTrjp vTTojjLvrjfia t?79 7rpd^eco<; i/ceLV7}<; 
elvai. irpodTOV puev yap €^i6pTe<; dOpooi Bih t^9 
Trv\'r]<; iroXka tcov eTrL^copLcov koI Koivcav ovofid- 
T(OV ^ofj i^deyyovTait Tdiov, ^dp/cov, Aovkiov 

/cal TOL T0VT0i<; OpLOia, fllflOV/JLeVOt TTJV T0T6 

yevojJLevqv yLtera a7rovBrj<{ dWi]\cov avd/cXriarLv 

6 eireiTa /ceKocTfirjfievat. Xafjurpco^ al OepairaivlBe^i 
TTepitaai iral^ovcrai Bid aKcofjifJidTcov eh tov<; 
diravTcovTa^. yiveTUi Be kol fid^V Ti9 avTah 7rpo<; 
dXX7]Xa<;, ft)9 Kal TOTe tov 7r/)09 Toix; AaTivov; 
dycovo<; (7VveiTLXapbPavo[JLevat<;. eaTLco/ievat Bk 
KaOe^ovTai KXaBoi^; avKrj<; aKia^ofxevar koX rrjv 
rjfiepav vcova<; KairpaTLva^i KaXovaiv, 009 otovTai 
Bed TOV ipiveov, d(f> ov ttjv TratBio-Krjv tov irvpaov 
dpar TOV yap ipiveov Kairpi^iKov ovo/Jid^ovcTiv. 

7 "^Tepoi Be TovTcov ra irXeiaTa BpdaOai /cal 
XeyeaOaL (f>aaiv eVl t^ tov 'FcojjlvXov irdOec 

1.78 



CAMILLUS, XXXIII. 3-7 

for her purpose, arrayed them in fine raiment and 
gold, and handed them over to the Latins, who were 
encamped near the city. In the night, the rest of 
the maidens stole away the enemy's swords, while 
Tutula, or Philotis, climbed a wild fig-tree of great 
height, and after spreading out her cloak behind her, 
held out a lighted torch towards Rome, this being 
the signal agreed upon between her and the magis- 
trates, though no other citizen knew of it. Hence 
it was that the soldiers sallied out of the city 
tumultuously, as the magistrates urged them on, 
calling out one another's names, and with much ado 
getting into rank and file. They stormed the en- 
trenchments of the enemy, who were fast asleep 
and expecting nothing of the sort, captured their 
camp, and slew most of them. This happened on 
the Nones of what was then called Quintilis, now 
July, and the festival since held on that day is in 
remembrance of the exploit. For, to begin with, 
they run out of the city gate in throngs, calling out 
loudly many local and common names, such as Gains, 
Marcus, Lucius, and the like, in imitation of the way 
the soldiers once called aloud upon each other in 
their haste. Next, the maid-servants, in gay attire, 
fun about jesting and joking with the men they 
meet. They have a mock battle, too, with one 
another, implying that they once took a hand in the 
struggle with the Latins. And as they feast, they 
sit in the shade of a fig-tree's branches. The day 
is called the "Capratine Nones," from the wild fig- 
tree, as they suppose, from which the maid held 
forth her torch ; this goes by the name of caprificus. 

But others say that most of what is said and done 
at this festival has reference to the fate of Romulus. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaTCL ravrrjv ykp dcfyaviadrfvaL rrjv '^/juepav avrov 
efft) 7njXr}<;, ^6(j>ov koI 0V6X\t]<; d^vo) irepia^oixrr]^, 
0)9 8' evioL vo/jiL^ovaiv, e/cA-etT|reQ)9 rfKiov j€vofjL6vrj<;, 
Kol Tr]v ^fjbipav airo rov roirov v(ova<; KaTrparlva^; 
KXr]6r}vai, ttjv yap alya Kairpav ovofid^ovcnv 6 
Se 'VcofivKo^ rji^aviadr] Srj/irjyopMV irepl ro Trj<; 
alyo<; eX,09 Trpoo-ayopeuofievov, co? iv TOL<i Trepl 
eKeivov yey pairrai, 

XXXIV. Tov 8* erepov Xoyov ol TrXetaroi rcov ,^ 
avyypa^ewv BoKi,fid^ovT6<; ovtq) Xeyovaiv. diro- B 
^ei)(6e\^ hiKTarcop ro rpLrov 6 Ka/xtXXo9 fcai 
7rv66/j,€VO<; TO fierd rcov '^iXidp'^cov arpdreufia 
TToXiop/covfievov xjiro tmv Autlvcov koX rcov OvoXov- 
aKcov, rjvayKdaOr) koX tov<: ovk iv wpa tS)v TroXi- 

2 TMVy dXX* 7]Sr} 7raprj^r]K6Ta<; KadoirXicrai, irepieX- fl 
6odv he fiaKpdv TrepioSov Trepl ro M.dpKiov opo^ ^ 
Kal Xadccv tov<; nroXefiiov^ iBpvcre rrjv Grparidv 
KaroTTiv avTcbv, kol irvpd iroXXd Kavaa<; Sieo"^- 
firjve rr}v eavrov Trapovaiav. ol fiev ovv vroXcop- 
Kovfievoi 6apprj<TavTe<; iinevat, Sievoovvro koI 

3 fidxnv a-vvdirreiv ol Be AarivoL Kal OvoXova-Koi 
<7V(TTeiXavTe<i eXa-co rov ')(^dpaKO<; eavrov^i aTrearav- fM 
povv ^vXoi<; iroXXoi^ Kal Bi€(f>pdyvvvro iravrayo- 

6ev TO (TTpaToireBov, djiKpijSoXoi yey ovore^; viro rcov 
iroXepicov Kal TrepifieveLv eyvcoKore^; erepav oiKoOev 
BvvafjLiv, dfia Be Kal Tvpprjvcov TTpoa-Be^^ofievot, 
^orjOeiav, rovro B* alaOoixevo^ 6 K.dfjLLXXo<; Kal 
BeBoiKa><; rraOelv oirep eiroLrjaev avTO<; rov<; iroXe- 147 
/xL0v<i KVKX(o(Td/jL€vo(; ecTTTevBe TrpoXapelv rov 

4 Kaipov. ovToq Be rov irepL^pdypLaro^i ^vXivov Kal 
TrvevfjLaTO'i jxeyaXov Kariovro^ diro r(bv opcov dfjua 



i8o 



CAMILLUS, xxxiii. 7-xxxiv. 4 

For on this same day he vanished from sight, outside 
the city gates, in sudden darkness and tempest, and, 
as some think, during an eclipse of the sun. The 
day, they say, is called the " Capratine Nones " from 
the spot where he thus vanished. For the she-goat 
goes by the name of capra, and Romulus vanished 
from sight while haranguing an assembly of the 
people at the Goat's Marsh, as has been stated in 
his Life,'^ 

XXXIV. But most writers adopt the other account 
of this war, which runs thus. Camillus, having been 
appointed dictator for the third time, and learning that 
the army under the military tribunes was besieged 
by the Latins and Volscians, was forced to put under 
arms even those of the citizens who were exempt 
from military duty by reason of advancing years. 
Fetching a long circuit around Mount Marcius and 
thus eluding the enemy's notice, he planted his army 
securely in their rear, and then by lighting many 
fires made known his presence there. "The besieged 
Romans at once took heart and purposed to sally out 
and join battle. But the Latins and Volscians re- 
tired within their trenches, fenced themselves in 
with a great wooden palisade, and barricaded their 
camp on all sides, for they now had a hostile force in 
front and rear, and were determined to await re- 
inforcements from home. At the same time they 
expected aid from the Tuscans also. Camillus, per- 
ceiving their design, and fearful of being himself 
surrounded by the enemy as he had surrounded 
them, made haste to improve his opportunity. The 
enemy's barricades were of wood, and a strong wind 
* Chap, xxvii. 

181 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^dei, TTVpof^oXa ^ 7rapaaK€vaad/jb€vo<; xal wep\ 
rov opOpov i^ayayobv ttjv hvvafjbiv rov<; fiev dX\ov<; 
eKekevcre y^prjaOai ffiXeai koI Kpavyrj KaO' erepov 
fiepo<;, avTo<; Be tov<; to irvp dcjitjaetv pueWovra^ 
e^ayv oOev elcoOei p^aXio-ra rrpoairi'iTTeLv 6 dvefiof; 
rw 'X^dpaKi TMV TroXe/iiiwv dvepieve rrjv Mpav. iirei 
he avv€o-T(0(Tr]<; t^? I^d^fj^ o re rfXio^ avrjei koX to 
irvevjjLa Xapnrpov e^eirnne, (T7}fir]va<i eTTLBpofirjv 
Kareaireipe rov ^a/ja/to? dcfyOova rcov Trvpo/SoXayv. 

5 raxv he Trj<; (j)Xoy6<i ev vXrj rrvKvij Kol (TTavpco- 
fiaai ^vXlvoL^ dvarpacfieLcrrjf; koI kvkXw Trepive/juo- 
/JLevr]<;, ovBev aKo^ ovBe affea-rrjpiov exovre^; oi 
Aarlvot irapeaKevaa p.evov, co? 7rXfjpe<i rjv r^hri to 
o-TparoireBov Truyoo?, ctt* oXlyov arvareXXofievot 
TOTTOV e^eirLTTTov VTT dvdyKT)^ TTpo^ a)7rXL(T/jLevov<; 
Kal 7rapaT€TayfjLevov<i irpo rov x^pa/co^ rov^ 
7roX€/iiiov<;. Kal rovrcov fxev oXiyoi Bie<f)vyov, rov<! 
Be KaTaXeL<f>Oevra<; ev t& (TTparo7reB(p Trdvra^ 
Bie^Seipe to ttO/?, p^^XP'' ^^ Karacr^eaavTef; oi 
*F(i)p,atoL rd xp^/^^'^ct Bujpiracrav. 

XXX V. TeyovoTcov Be rovrcov diroXvirQiv eirX tov 
arparoTreBov rov vlov AevKLOv (jyvXaKa tmv tjXcoko- 
Tcov dvOpoynrcav koX xPV/^^"^^^ auTO? eh rrjv r&v 
TroXep,L(ov eve^aXe, Kal rrjv Alxavcbv iroXiv i^eXoDv 
Kal Trpoaayayofievo^i tov<: OvoXovctkov^; €vOv<; r)ye 
Trjv (TTpaTidv irpo^ to Xovrpiov, ovirto rd avfju^e- 
firjKora TOt? 'ZovrpivoL<; Treirvapiei'o^, dXX* ax? en 
KLvBvvevovari kol iroXiopKovpevoLf; viro roiiv Tvp- 

2 prjvcov ^oTjOrjaat crirevBwv. ol B^ ervxov ijBi] rrjv 
fiev rrroXiv roi<i rroXepioc^; TrapaBeBcoKore^i, avrol 

vvpo^6\a conjecture of Sintenis^; wpa voWii MSS., 
Sintenis \ and edd. 

182 



CAMILLUS, XXXIV. 4-xxxv. 2 

blew down from the mountains at sun-rise. Accord- 
ingly, he equipped himself with fiery darts, and 
leading his forces out towards day-break, ordered 
part of them to attack with missiles and loud cries 
at an opposite point, while he himself, with those 
appointed to hurl fire, took his post where the wind 
was wont to smite the enemy's trenches with the 
greatest force, and awaited the propitious moment. 
When battle had been joined and the sun rose and 
the wind burst forth with fury, he gave orders for an 
onset, and scattered no end of fiery darts along the 
trenches. The flames speedily found food in the 
crowded timbers of the wooden palisades and spread 
in all directions. The Latins had nothing at hand 
with which to ward off or quench them, and when at 
length their camp was full of fire, they were huddled 
together into a small space, and at last forced to 
dash out against an enemy who were drawn up in 
full battle array in front of the trenches. Few of 
them made their escape, and those who were left 
behind in the camp were all a prey to the fire until 
the Romans put it out and fell upon their booty. 

XXXV. This business dispatched, he left his son 
Lucius in command of the camp to guard the captives 
and the booty, while he himself invaded the enemy's 
country. He captured the city of the Aequians, 
brought the Volscians to terms, and straightway led 
his army towards Sutrium. He was not yet apprised 
of the fate of the Sutrians, but thought they were 
still in peril of siege by the Tuscans, and so hastened 
to relieve them. But they had already surrendered 
their city to the enemy, and been sent off in utter 



VOL. II. Q 183 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se TTCLVTwv ivBeet^; iv IfiariOLq fiovov a^eifievof 
KoX KaO' 68ov ovTL T(p Ka/jiiW(p jxera TralBcov koX 
r^vvaiKwv airrjVTWv oSvpo^voi ra<^ eavrayp Ti;%a9. 
Se Kd/xtXXo^ avTQf; re 7rpo<; rrjv o^^iv eTTifcXa- 
aOel^i fcal tov^ 'l?cofiaLov<; opcjv ifi<f>vofiiv(i)v avTol<; 
Tcov XovTpLVcov BaKpvovTa<; /cal Svo-avaa^eTovvTa^; 
iirl rot? <y€y6vr]fju€V0t,<;, eyvco firj TTOLelaOav t^? 

3 TLULa}pLa<i avapoKrjv, aX)C ev6v<^ ayeiv eTrl to 
^ovrpiov eKelv7]<i rrj^^ i^fjuipa^, Xoyi,^6/JLevo<; dvdpco- 
7roi'9 evBaifiova koX irXovcriav ttoXlv dprc KareiXri- 
<^0Ta9 KoX /jurjBepa twv TroXe/jLLoyv viroXeXoiTrora^ 
iv avTy fir)B€ TrpocrBexofJievovf; e^coOev, i/cXeXvfie- 
vov<; iravrdiraaL koI d<^vXdKTov^ evptjaeLV opOm 
XoyLcrdfjuevo^. ov yap fiovov ttjv '^copav eXade 
BieXOdiv, dXXa Kal 7r/)09 rat? 7rvXai<; yevofievof; /cat 
rd rel'xrj KaraXa^cov e(j)vXaTT6 yap ovB6l<;, dXX^ 
iv OLVO) Kal (TvvovaiaLfs rjaav iGKeBaafxivoi Kara 

4 Ta9 oiKLa<;. iirel Be jjaOovro tou9 7roX€fiiov<; 
Kparouvraf; 7]Brj, ovtco Bi€K6Cvto fio^OripSy^:; vtto 
TrXrja/jLOvfjf; Kal /jL€Or]<;, 0)9 firjBe 7rpo<; (f^vyrjv 
op/Jirjaai, iroXXov^;, dXX* iv raL<^ olKiai^i ata')(^i(Tra 
TrdvTcov virofxevovra^ aTroOvyaKeiv r) irapaBiBovai 
(r(f)d^ avT0v<; tol<; 7roX6yLttot9. rrjv jjuev ovv ^ovrpL- 
V(ov TToXiv V/iipa fjuia Bl<i dXovaav ovtco avvifir) 
Kal TO '-'9 €'X^ovTa<; diro^aXeLV, Kal tov<; d(f)rjpr)fie- 
vov<i arroXa^elv Bid K-djuLiXXov. 

XXXYI. 'O S* diro TOVTcov OpLafiPo<; avrw 
XdpLv ovK iXdrrova Kal Koafiov 'jveyKe tmv 
TrpcoToyv Bvelv. Kal yap tov<; irdvv ^aaKaivovra<^ 
Tcov iroXcTcov Kal irdvTa ^ovXojJLevov<i evTvyla 
184 



CAMILLUS, XXXV. 2-xxxvi. i 

destitution, with nothing but the clothes on their 
backs. As Camillus came marching along they met 
him, with tlieir wives and children, all lamenting 
their misfortunes. Camillus himself was filled with 
compassion at the sight, and noticed that his Romans 
too, with the Sutrians hanging upon their necks in 
supplication, were moved to tears and anger at their 
lot. He therefore determined to make no postpone- 
ment of his vengeance, but to march straight upon 
Sutrium that very day. He reasoned that men who 
had just taken a prosperous and opulent city, leaving 
none of their enemies in it, and expecting none from 
without, would be found wholly relaxed in discipline 
and off their guard ; and he reasoned correctly. He 
not only passed unnoticed through the city's territory, 
but was actually at its gates and in command of its 
walls before the enemy knew it. For not a man of 
them was on guard, but they were all scattered among 
the houses of the city drinking and feasting. And 
even when they perceived that their enemies already 
had the mastery, they were so sluggishly disposed 
by reason of satiety and drunkenness that many did 
not so much as try to flee, but awaited there in the 
houses the most shameful of all deaths, or gave 
themselves up to their enemies. The city of Sutrium 
was thus twice captured in a single day, and it came 
to pass that those who had won it, lost it, and those 
who had first lost it, won it back, and all by reason 
of Camillus. 

XXXVI. The triumph decreed him for these 
victories brought him no less favour and renown than 
his first two had done, and those citizens who had 
been most envious of him and preferred to ascribe 
all his successes to an unbounded good fortune rather 

i8s 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tivl fiaWov Tj hi dperrjv KaT(opOco(T0ai, tot m 
rjvdjKa^ov at nrpd^et'^ ttj heivorriTL koI tS Spa- " 

2 cTTTjpLo) Tov dvSpQf} diToEtBovaL T7)V Bo^uv. Tfv he 
TMv Bca/JLaxofJi^vcov avTM koI irpoac^dovovvtcov 
i7n<j)aveaTaT0'i MdpKO<i MaWio?, o Trpwro? 
oyadfMevo^ tov<; KeXTOi'9 o-tto t?;? aKpa^ ore tw 
KaTriTcoXiO) vvkto^^ eiredevro koI hih tovto 
Ka7rt,TCi)XLvo<; i7rLK\r)9€L<;. outo? yap d^iMv irpoo- 
T09 elvac Toiiz^ ttoXltcov Ka\ /irj hwdfjuevo^ tov 
Kd/iiWov aTTo TOV ^ekTiarov Tpoirov Ty Bo^y 

3 TrapeXOecv, V7r60e<riv TvpavviBo<i iTTOiyaaTO Koivyv 148 
Kal avvrjOrj, BrjfjLaycoycov tou? ttoWov?, /jLaXcara 

Be TOiV 6(j)et\6vT(ov %/3ea toI<; fiev dp^vvcov Kal 
(tvvBlko)v errX tov<; BaveicTTa^, tou? 3* d(j)aLpov- 
fievo<; pia Kal kcoXvcov dyeaOai wpb^ tov v6/jLov, 
ccxTTe TToXXoi;? tcov d'rropcov Ta'^^v irepl avTOV 
yeveadai Kal iroXvv <^6^ov 'Trapa(T')(elv toI<; 
Pe\Ti(TTOL<; TMV itoXltcov dpaorvvofievov^ Kal 

4 TapdrTovra^i t^v dyopdv. eTrel Be KaracTTadel^; 
eirl Tavra BcKTdTcop Kovlvto'; YiaimcQ\lvo<i eh 
TTjv elpKTTjv eve^aXe tov MdWtov, 6 Be Bij/juo^ 
yevofievov tovtov jjLeTe/SaXe ttjv eadrJTa, irpdyfia 
yivdpievov errl avfi(f)opaL<; fi€yd\aL<; Kal By/jLocrLai,^, 
Beiaaa-a tov Oopv^ov 77 avyKXrjTO^ eKeXevaev 
d(f)edrjvaL tov ^dXXtov. o 3* ovBev rjv d(f)eOel^ 
dfieivcov, dXXa ao^apcoTepov iBy/nayMyec Kal 
Bteo-Taata^e ttjv ttoXlv. atpovvTac By irdXiv 
^(^iXiapxov TOV J^d/MiXXov. 

5 Ela-ayo/jievcov Be tmv KaTCi tov MaXXtov 
BiKcov fxeydXa tov<; KaTyyopov^ e^XaiTTev y 
oyfrcf;, 6 yap totto?, e^' ov l3e^yKQ)<i 6 MaXXf09 

* vvKThs with S : Sta WKxhs. 
186 



CAMILLUS, XXXVI. 1-5 

than to a native valour, were forced by these new 
exploits to set the man's glory to the credit of his 
ability and energy. Now of all those who fought 
him with hatred and envy, the most conspicuous was 
Marcus Manlius, the man who first thrust the Gauls 
down the cliff when they made their night attack 
upon the Capitol, and for this reason had been sur- 
named Capitolinus. This man aspired to be chief in 
the city, and since he could not in the fairest way 
outstrip Camillus in the race for glory, he had 
recourse to the wonted and usual arts of those that 
would found a tyranny. He courted, that is, the 
favour of the multitude, especially of the debtor 
class, defending some and pleading their causes 
against their creditors ; snatching others from arrest 
and preventing their trial by process of law. In 
this way great numbers of indigent folk soon formed 
a party about him, and their bold and riotous conduct 
in the forum gave the best citizens much to fear. 
To quell their disorder, Quintus Capitolinus was 
made dictator, and he cast Manlius into prison. 
Thereupon the people put on the garb of mourners, 
a thing done only in times of great public calamity, 
and the Senate, cowed by the tumult, ordered that 
Manlius be released. He, however, when released, 
did not mend his ways, but grew more defiantly 
seditious, and filled the whole city with faction. 
Accordingly, Camillus was again made military 
tribune. 

When Manlius was brought to trial, the view from 
the place was a great obstacle in the way of his 
accusers. For the spot where Manlius had stood ! 



187 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ivvKTOjjia'yrjae nrpo^ tou9 KeXrou?, v7r€p€(j>aLV€To 
Trj<; ajopd<; airo tov YLainTwXiov teal Trap€l')(6v 
oIktov T0fc9 opMCTCV avTo^i re Ta<i ')(elpa<; 
opeyajv eKelae /cal BaKpvcov virejxip.vrjdKe t&v 
a^oi)V(ov, &(TT6 Toif^ Kpivovja^ airopelv xal ttoX- 
\dKt<; ava^dWeaOat ttjv Blktjv, fiyr d<f>€ivai 
^ovKopuevovs 6Tr\ T€KfjLrjpioi<; ^avepol^; to dBiKrjpa 
pLrjTe 'Xpijaaadai, ra> vo/jlm Bwapuevov^ iv 6<f)9aK- 

6 yLtot9 T179 'Trpd^€Ci)<; ov<T'r]<; Bia tov tottov. o Bt) 
avp,^povrj(Ta<; 6 K-dfiiWoq p^errj^yayev efo) 7rv\.rj<i 
TO BiKaaTTipLov eh to UeTTjXIvov aXcro<;' oOev ovk 
6W09 TOV K.a7riT(oXiov KUTa^avov^ 6 t€ Bocokcov 
€XPV<^CLTO TTJ KaTTjyopLa Kol T0Z9 Kplvovai Trape- 
')(^ct)pr)aev rj p'Vrjp.r) tmv yeyovoTCov d^lav dvaXa- 

7 0€lv^ opyrjv iirl T0t9 irapovaiv d8iKi]p,acnv. 6 
fjL€i^ ovv MaXXt09 dXov^ eh to KaTrcTooXtov 
d'JTrj')(97), Kol KaTCL T^9 7reTpa<; O)a0el<; tov avTOV 
TOTTOV eV^e KoX TMV evTV')(eaTdTwv epycov kol tojv 
p.eyi(TTa)v dTv^nfJ^dTcov fivqp^elov. ol he 'Fcopaloc 
Tr)v oIkIuv avTOV KaTaaKd'y^avTe^ lepov IBpvaavTO 
6ea<;y rjv yiovrjTav KaXov(Ti, koX to Xolttov i'^^r)- 
(l>iaavT0 purjSeva tcov TraTpcKLCov eirl t?79 dKpa<; 
KaTOiKelv. 

XXXVII. 'O he Kdp,(XXo<; eTrl ')(^iXi,ap')((.av 
€KTT]v KaXovp^vo<; TraprjTeLTO, yey ovco<; p,€v rfXiKia^ 
r}hr) TTpoaw Kai irov Tiva koI <^66vov hehioi^ teal 
vep^ecnv evrl ho^rj ToaavTrj kol KaTOpd(op,a(Tiv' 
rj he (pavepcoTdTtj twv alTccov tjv cippwaTLa acop^a- 
T09* eTvyx^DLve yap voacov irepX Td<; rjpepa^ eKeiva^. 
2 ov p,r)v Traprjfcev avT^ ttjv dp^rjv 6 hrjfw^, dXXa 
* kya\a$e7v with S : \a$e7v, 
188 



CAMILLUS, XXXVI. 5-xxxvii. 2 

when he fought his night battle with the Gauls^ 
overlooked the forum from the Capitol, and moved 
the hearts of the spectators to pity. Manlius himself, 
too, stretched out his hands toward the spot, and 
wept as he called to men's remembrance his famous 
struggle there, so that the judges knew not what to 
do, and once and again postponed the case. They 
were unwilling to acquit the prisoner of his crime 
when the proofs of it were so plain ; and they were 
unable to execute the law upon him when, owing to 
the place of trial, his saving exploit was, so to speak, 
in every eye. So Camillus, sensible of all this, trans- 
ferred the court outside the city to the Peteline 
Grove, whence there is no view of the Capitol. 
There the prosecutor made his indictment, and the 
judges were able to forget the man's past services in 
their righteous anger at his present crimes. So then 
Manlius was convicted, carried to the Capitol, and 
thrust down the rock, thus making one and the same 
spot a monument of his most fortunate actions and 
of his greatest misfortunes. The Romans, besides, 
razed his house to the ground, and built there a 
temple to the goddess they call Moneta. They 
decreed also that in future no patrician should ever 
have a house on the Capitoline hill. 

XXXVI 1. Camillus, called now to be militaiy tri- 
bune for the sixth time, declined the honour, being 
already well on in years, and fearful perhaps of the 
envy of men and the resentment of the gods which 
often follows upon such glorious successes as his. 
But the most manifest reason was his bodily weak- 
ness, for it chanced that in those days he was sick. 
The people, however, would not relieve him of the 



189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^OMV /jbt]T€ liTTrevovTO*; avTov fi'^re OTrXofxa/x^ouvTO^; 
iv Tol'^ aySiat BecaOai, fiovXevofievov he fjuovov koI 
TTpocrrdTTOVTOf;, ^vdy/caaev viroaTrjvai ttjv (TTpa- 
rrjyLav Koi fjueO^ evo^ r(av avvap^ovrwv AevKLOV 
^ovpiov Tov (TTpaTov dyeiv €vOv<; iirl tou? 
7ro\€/jiLOV<;. ovTOi ^ r](Tav Tlpacveartvot /cal 
OvoXovdKOi fiera ttoXX^? Svvd/jb€a)<i rrjv avfjifia- 

3 %t5a rS)V *V(op,ai(iiv 'jrop9ovvTe<;. i^eXOcov B€ 
Kol Trapaa-TparoTreBeva-af^ rot? Trokejuocf; avTo<i 
p,ev rj^iov rpi^eiv tov irokepLov p^poj/w, kolv el 
fidxv^ Berjaeie pcoaa^; ro aco/na Eiaycovlaaadai, 
x\evKiOV Be TOV avvdp^ovTO^ eirtOvfJiia Bo^rjf; 
(pepofievov tt/jo? tov klvBvvov dKaTa(T^eT(o<; /cal 
avv6^oppMVTO<; dpa raffap^ou? Kal \o^ayov<;, 
^offrjdeU p,r) (pOovw By tivl Boktj /caTopOco/jLa Kal 
(f)iXoTt,/jLlav d^aipelaOai vecov dvBpoiv avve)(^clopr)aev 
ctKcov eKelvM irapaTd^ai ttjv Bvvap.Lv, avTo^i Be 
Bia T^z/ ddOeveiav VTreXelcpdrj pueT oXiycov iv Tq> 

4 (TTpaTOTriBq). tov Be AevKLOV irpoireToy^ 'x^prjo-a- 
puevov Ty pd-^T} Kal a<^aXevT0<^y ala06p,evo<^ ttjv 
TpoTTTjv TMV ^Pcop^aiojv ov KaTea^ev avrov, a\X' 
dvaOopcov €K T7J9 (TTi/SdBo^ dirriVTa pueTa TOiv 
oTraBwv eVl ra? 7rvXa<; tov ydpaKO^, Bed tcjv ^ev- 149 
yovTwv d)6ovpLevo<; eh tou9 oicoKOVTa^, twcrre tov^ 
pbev evdv<; dvacTpec^eiv Kal avvaKoXovOelv, tov^ 

Be 7rpo(7(j}epopLevov<i €^(o0ev icrTaadai irpb avrov 
Kal avvacnri^eiVy irapeyyvoiVTa^ dXXrjXoL^ p^rf 
6 dTToXeiiTeaOav tov aTpaTrjyov. Tore puev ovv 
ovTCi)<; d'TrerpaTTOVTO t^9 Bico^eco^; ol TroXepLtor ttj 
3' vaTepaia Trpoayaycov ttjv BvvapLtv 6 KdpuiXXo^ 
190 



CAMILLUS, XXXVII. 2-5 

office. He had no need, they cried, to fight in the 
ranks of the cavalry or the men-at-arms, but only to 
counsel and ordain ; and so they forced him to 
undei*take the command, and with one of his 
colleagues, Lucius Furius, to lead the army at once 
against the enemy. These were the Praenestines 
and Volscians, who, with a large force, were laying 
waste the lands of the Roman allies. Marching 
forth, therefore, and encamping near the enemy, he 
himself thought it best to protract the war, that so, 
in case a battle should at last be necessary, he might 
be strong of body for the decisive struggle. But 
Lucius, his colleague, carried away by his desire for 
glory, would not be checked in his ardour for battle, 
and incited the same feelings in the inferior officers 
of the army. So Camillus, fearing lest it be thought 
that out of petty jealousy he was trying to rob 
younger men of the successes to which they eagerly 
aspired, consented, with reluctance, that Lucius 
should lead the forces out to battle, while he himself, 
on account of his sickness, was left behind in the 
camp with a few followers. Lucius conducted the 
battle rashly and was discomfited, whereupon 
Camillus, perceiving the rout of the Romans, could 
not restrain himself, but sprang up from his couch 
and ran with his attendants to the gate of the camp. 
Through the fugitives he pushed his way to their 
pursuers. Those of his men who had passed him 
into the camp, wheeled about at once and followed 
him, and those who came bearing down on him from 
outside, halted and formed their lines about him, 
exhorting one another not to abandon their general. 
In this way, for that day, the enemy were turned 
back from their pursuit. On the next day, Camillus 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX (Tvvdy^a^ /^«%^^ avroix; tg vlko. Karh KpdTO<; 
Kol TOP 'X^obpaKa Xa/jb/Sdvei avveiairea-obv Tot9 
(pevyovaL kol Bia^Oetpw^ tov<; TrXetcrrou?. ifc 8e 
TOVTOV 7rvd6p,€vo<; ttoXlv SarpLav viro Tvpprjvwv 
kaXwKevai Koi Tov<i olKi]Topa<; direa(f)d')(^dai, 
'Tco/j,aLov<; diravTa^ ovra^, rrjv fiev TroWyv Kal 
fiapelav rr)? Bwd/jbeco^ €t9 'IPco/jLrjv direareiXeVt 
avTo<; 8e rou? dtcpbd^ovra^ fidXicrra koI irpoOvfio- 
TaT0f9 dvaXaffcov iirefSaXe roU rrjv iroKiv exovaL 
Tvpp7)voU fcal KpaTYjaa^ tou? fjuev i^ijXaaev 
avTMV, rov<; Se direKTeivev. 

XXXVIII. ^^waveXdobv 8e fiera woWwv Xa^v- 
p(t)V eh 'Fcofir)v eirehei^e (ppovip^cordrovf; aTrdvrcDV 
T0U9 fiT) <f)oP7]0evTa^ ddOeveiav kol <y7]pa<; rjye- 
fjLovo*; ifiTrecpiav /cal roXjiav exovro^;, aXX' eXo- 
/jLevov<; cKetvov dfcovra /cal voorovvra jxaXXov rj tmv 
iv r)XiKia tov<; Beofievovi; Kal (Tirovha^ovra^ 
apx^tv. OLO Kal TovcrKXavcov d^ea-rdvai Xeyo- 
fievcDv meXevov e^ievau rov KdfiiXXov iir avTov^ 

2 eva TMP irevre (TvaTpaT'^yayv irpoaeXoiievov. 6 Si, 
Kaiirep dirdvicov jSovXofiivcov Kal Beo/juepcov, idara^ 
TOL'9 dXXov^y irpoaeiXeTO AevKiov ^ovpiov ovB€vo<i 
av irpocrBoKr)(TavTO<;, e/c€tvo<; yap rjv 6 irapd 
yvQ)/jLi]v Tov Ka/jLiXXov BcaycovLaaaOat irpoOv- 
fir)6el(; evayvp^ Kal Svarvxv^cL^ irepl rrjv fid^V^' 
dXXa fiovXofjL€VO<;, o)? eoiKev, diroKpv'^aL rrjv 
(Tv/jL(f>opav Kal TTjv alcrxvvrjv diraXXd^ai tov 

3 dvSpb^ dvrl irdpTcov tovtov irporjyev. ol Be Tov- 
(TKXavol rrjv dfiaprlav eiravopOovfievot iravovp- 
70)9, 7]Br] /BaBl^ovTO^ eir avrov^ rov KafiiXXov ro 
fiev TreBiov dvOpcoiToyv co9 iv elprjvrj yetjupyovvTWV 
Kal vefiovToav eveTrXtjaav, t^9 Be 7rvXa<5 el^ov 
192 



CAMILLUS, xxxvn. 5-xxxvnT. 3 

led his forces out, joined battle with the enemy, 
defeated them utterly, and took their camp, actually 
bursting into it along with those who fled to it, and 
slaying most of them. After this, learning that the 
city of Satricum had been taken by the Tuscans, and 
its inhabitants, all Romans, put to the sword, he sent 
back to Rome the main body of his army, comprising 
the men-at-arms, while he himself, with the youngest 
and most ardent of his men, fell suddenly upon the 
Tuscans who held the city and mastered them, ex- 
pelling some and slaying the rest. 

XXXVIII. He returned with much spoil to Rome, 
having proved that those citizens were the most 
sensible of all who did not fear the bodily age and 
weakness of a leader possessed of experience and 
courage, but chose him out, though he was ill and did 
not wish it, rather than younger men who craved 
and solicited the command. They showed the same 
good sense, when the Tusculans were reported to 
be on the brink of a revolt, in ordering Camillus to 
select one of his five colleagues as an aid, and march 
out against them. Although all the five wished and 
begged to be taken, Camillus passed the rest by and 
selected Lucius Furius, to everyone's surprise. For 
he was the man who had just now been eager to 
hazard a struggle with the enemy against the judg- 
ment of Camillus, and had been worsted in the battle. 
But Camillus wished, as it would seem, to hide away 
the misfortune and wipe away the disgrace of the 
man, and so preferred him above all the rest. But 
the Tusculans, when once Camillus was on the march 
against them, set to rectifying their transgression as 
craftily as they could. Their fields were found full 
of men tilling the soil and pasturing flocks, as in 

193 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ave(pyfi€va<; /cat tov<; 7ralBa(; ev rol^ Bi,8a(TKa\eiOi<; 
fiavOdvovra*;, tov Be Bi]/jlov to jxev ^dvavcrov iirl 
Twv ipyao-TTjpLcov ecopctTO irepX ra? T6%ra9, to S* 
dcTTelov iirl ttj^; dyopd^ ev IfiariOL^' ol 8' dpxovr€<; 
Trepirjecrav (tttovBtj KaraXvaeL^ TOfc? 'Vcoiiaioif; 
€7rayy6WovTe<i, eo9 ovBev KaKov irpocrBoKoiiVTe^ 

4 ovBe (TvveiBore^. Tovrayv Be Trparrofievcov din- 
arelv fxev ovk eiTTjei t& KafjulXXcp rr)v irpoBoaiav, 
olfCT€ipa<; Be rrjv eVl ry irpoBocria fieTavoiav 
avTcov eKeXevae irpo^ rrjv avyKXrjTov eX06vra<; 
TTapaLTetadai rtjv opyrjv koX 7rapaLTovjjLevoL<; 
(Tvveirpa^ev avTO<; d(f>edrjvai re rrjv iroXiv alria^ 
d7rda7]<; koI jxeTaXa^elv laoTroXiTeia^;, avrai fiev 
ovv eyevovTO t^? €KTr]<; ')(^LXiap')(ia^ eirt^aveaTarai 
7rpd^ei<;. 

XXXIX. Mera Be ravra Ai/awiov Xt6Xcovo<; 
iv rfi TToXei rrjv fieydXrjv ardaiv iyeipovro^, yv 6 
Brjfio^ iaraaia^e irpo^ rrjv avyKXrjrov /Sia^ofjLevof^ 
Bve2v virdrcov KaOvarafjievcov tov CTepov TrdvTcof; ck 
BrjfioTcav elvai Kal firj cvvaficpOTepovf; iraTpiKiovf;, 
Brj^ap')(pt fiev ypeOrjaaVf Td<i B* V7raTLKd<; dp- 
')(^aipe(7ia<; eTriTeXeadrjvaL BieKooXvaav ol ttoXXol. 

2 Kol T&v TrpayfidTcov Bi* dvap')(ia^ (pepofievcov e? 
pbel^ova^ Tapaxd<i diroBeiKVVTai BiKTdTcop 6 Kd- 
fjLLXXo<; VTTO Tri<; fiovXrj<; ukovti t& BijfjLW to TCTap- 
TOVi ovB^ avTo^ Mv TTpoOvjJLO'; ovBe l3ovX6p,evo<; 
evavTiovcrOai irpo^ dvOpMirov^ TTapprjalav e^ovra^; 
diro TToXXcjv Kal fjueydXcov dycovcov 7r/)09 avTov, €09 
TrXeiova fjueT avTMv^ BiaireTrpayfievof; iv aTpari]- 
yiai^ rj fieTa t(ov iraTpLKioDv iv iroXiT€iac^, Kal 

* ju6t' avrwv diaTTevpayfifvos edd., including Sintenis^, and S; 
ip CTTparriyiais fier* avrwv with C, 

.^94 



CAMILLUS, XXXVIII. 3-xxxix. 2 

times of peace ; their gates lay wide open ; their boys 
were at school conning their lessons ; and of the 
people, the artizans were to be seen in their work- 
shops plying their trades, the men of leisure sauntered 
over the forum clad in their usual garb, while the 
magistrates bustled about assigning quarters for the 
Romans, as though they expected and were conscious 
of no evil. Their performances did not bring Camillus 
into any doubt of their intended treachery, but out 
of pity for the repentance that followed so close upon 
their treachery, he ordered them to go to the Senate 
and beg for a remission of its wrath. He himself 
also helped to make their prayers effectual, so that 
their city was absolved from all charges and received 
the rights of Roman citizenship. Such were the most 
conspicuous achievements of liis sixth tribuneship. 

XXXIX. After this, Licinius Stolo stirred up the 
great dissension in the city which brought the people 
into collision with the Senate. The people insisted 
that, when two consuls were appointed, one of them 
must certainly be a plebeian, and not both patricians. 
Tribunes of the people were chosen, but the multi- 
tude prevented the consular elections from being 
duly held. Owing to this lack of magistrates, matters 
were getting more and more confused, and so Camillus 
was for the fourth time appointed dictator by the 
Senate, though much against the wishes of the 
people. He was not eager for the office himself, 
nor did he wish to oppose men whose many and 
great struggles gave them the right to say boldly to 
him : " Your achievements have been in the field 
with us, rather than in politics with the patricians ; 



195 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vvv Bia (pdovov eKeivcDV yprjjjiivo^ vir avroiv, OTTWfi 
Tj KaraXvaeie tov hrj^v lG')(yGa^ y KaraXvOeir) 
fir] KpaTqca^, ov fjbrjv dWa ireipcajjuevo^ dfivveiv 
Tol<i Trapovai, ttju r]p,epav yvov<;, iv rj vofioOeTelv 150 
ol hrjfiapxoi BievoovvTO, Trpoeypa'y^e. aTpaTid<i Ka~ 
TaXoyov koX pueTeKciXet tov Brjfxov 6K t^9 dyopd<i 
6i9 TO ireBiov p.eyd\a<i ^ij/jllu^ direCkSyv Kara tov 
fjLT) vTraKOuaavTo^, r&v Be Br)/idp)^a)v ixeWep av 
irdXiv dvravtCTTafJiivcov ral^ direLkalf; koI Bcofivv- 
fxevoav irevre fivpidaiv dpyvptov ^^^ixicaGeiv, el firj 
TravaaiTO rod Btj/jlov tov vopov d(f)acpov/MepoL<; Kal 
Tr)v 'y^Tj^oVy etre BeLaa^i <f)vyr]v erepav koX Kara- m 
BlKrjv, 0)9 dvBpl TTpear^vrrj koX KaT6ipya<Tp.ev(p f 
p^eyaka p^r) irpeirovaav, etre rov Brjpov rrjv /Slav 
dp,axov ovcrav koX BvavLKrjrov virep^dXiadaL p,r) 
Bwdpevo^i p.r)B€ fiov\6p,evo<;, Tore p^ev virexj^pv^^v 
oLKaBe' ral^ B" e^rj<i 'r)p.epaL<i aKrj'^dpevo^ dp- 
pwarelv e^copocraro rrjv dpx^v, 

'H Be (TvyK\rjro<; erepov BiKraropa Karearr^ae' 
KaKelvo^i diroBei^a^; Xmrapxov avrov rov riyepuova 
rrj^ (Trdae(o<i %r6X(Dva irapfJKCV eirLKvpayaai rov 
vopLOv rov pudXiara Xvirovvra tou9 7rarpiKLov<i. 
eKeXevae 3' ouro<; p,T)Beva rrXeOpwv irevraKoaicov 
irXelova x^pf^v KeKrrjaOai. rore pev ovv Xap,7rpo<; 
6 XroXojv eyeyovet rfj "y^rj^fxp Kparr)cra<;' oXiyw S' 
varepov avro<; edXcj KeKT'r]p,evo<i oarjv e^eiv eKco- 
Xvev erepovi, Kal /card rov avrov vopov BLktjv 
eBwKev. 

XL. *T'7roXei7rop,ev7}<; Be rr]({ rrepX rcjv virartKcov 
dpxat,peaiO)v (ptXoveiKLa^, o Br) ^dXerrcorarov t^9 
ardaecoq rjv kuI irpdrov rjp^e Kal rrXelara 
196 



CAMILLUS, XXXIX. 2-xl. i 

it is through hate and envy that they have now made 
you dictator ; they hope that you will crush the 
people if you prevail, or be crushed yourself if you 
fail." However, be tried to ward off the threatening 
evils. Having learned the day on which the tribunes 
intended to propose their law, he issued proclamation 
making it a day of general muster, and summoned 
the people from the forum into the Campus Martius, 
with threats of heavy fines upon tlie disobedient. 
The tribunes, on the contrary, for their part, opposed 
his threats with solemn oaths that they would fine 
him fifty thousand silver drachmas if he did not cease 
trying to rob the people of its vote and its law. 
Then, either because he feared a second condemna- 
tion to exile, a penalty unbecoming to a man of his 
years and achievements, or because he was not able, 
if he wished, to overcome the might of the people 
which was now become resistless and invincible, he 
withdrew to his house, and after alleging sickness for 
several days, resigned his office. 

But the Senate appointed another dictator, and 
he, after making Stolo himself, the very leader of the 
sedition, his master of horse, suffered the law to be 
enacted. It was a most vexatious law for the 
patrician, for it prohibited anyone from owning more 
than five hundred acres of land. At that time, 
then, Stolo was a resplendent figure, owing to his 
victory at the polls ; but a little while after, he him- 
self was found to be possessed of what he forbade 
others to own, and so paid the penalty fixed by his 
own law. 

XL. There remained, however, the strife over 
the consular elections, which was the main problem in 
the dissensions, as it was its first cause^ and gave 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irpdyfJLara ry ^ov\fj irapecry^e hia^epofievrj TTpot; 
TOP Srj/jbov, dyyeXiai. Trpoaeireaov aa(f)el<i, Ke\- 
TOV<; av6i<; airo Trj<; *ABpLaTCKrj^ apavTa<; da- 
Xd(7(Tr](i fivptdcri 7roXkaL<} iirl rrjv ^PcofjLrjv iXav- 

2 v€iv. dpLa Se T(p Xoytp teal to, epya rov irdXepbov 
Traprjv TropOov/jiivr)^; t^9 X'^P^^ '^^^ "^^^ dvOpcO' 
TTCOv, 6(7ot<; /XT} paBiov Tjv €t9 Tr]v *Fco/ir]v Kara- 
(pvyelv, dva ra opij aKeSavvvfievcov, ovro^ 6 
(^60o<^ KaTeiravae rrjv ardacv, koX (TVve\d6vTe<^ 
eU ravTo Tol<i ttoXXo?? ol KpaTicrroc Kal tjj ffovXij 
TO BrjpoTtKov eXXovTO '7rdvT€<; i/c jjLid<i yvcofjbi]<; Bl- 

3 KTUTOpa TO irefiirTov Kd/jLiXXov. 6 B* r)V fiev 
a^oBpa yep(M>v koX fxiKpov aTTeXeLirev oyBorjfcovTa 
er't] yeyovevar avvopfav Be ttjv dvdyfcrjv koX top 
KivBvvov, 0VT6 vTTOTLfirjaiv elircov, co? irpoTepoVy 
0VT6 irpocpdo'ei ^/OT^tra/Aez^o?, aXX' avTodev vtto- 
aTCL^ TTJV aTpaTrjyiav KUTeXeye Toif^: fiaxv^o- 
fi€vov<;. 

EtSa)9 Be T^9 Tcov ^ap^dpcov oXkt]^ tvjv jSLato- 
Tarrjv iv tol^ /naxalpai^ ovcrav, a9 ^ap^apLKOd^ 
Kal crvv ouBefMLo. Te^yy Kara^epovTe^ Mfiov<; 

4 pLoXiaTa Kal Ke^aXd^: Bce/coiTTOv, exaX/ceva-aTo 
fjLev Kpdvr] Tot9 7rXeiaT0L<i oXoaiBi^pa Kal Xela Tal<=; 
7repL(j)€p€iaL<!, 009 diroXiadaiveLV rj Kardyvvadai 
Ta9 p^a'xciipa'^, to?9 Be 6vpeol<; kvkXm irepirjpfjboae 
XeiriBa ^^Xktjv, tov ^vXov Ka6' auTO Ta9 7rXrjyd<i 
fir) (TTeyovTO^* avTOv<i Be tou9 (TTpaTicora^; iBt- 
Ba^e T0i9 v(Ta-OL<; jjuaKpol^ Bia %6t^09 %/>5(7^at Kal 
T0t9 ^L(f>e(TL TMV TToXe/jLicov vTro^dXXovTa^i ckBc- 
XecrOat Ta9 KaTa<j)opd<;, 

XLI. ^Errel Be irX'qcriov rjaav ol KeXrot, irepl 
TOV ^AvLcova TTOTajjLov (TTpaTOireBov fiapv Kal 
198 



CAMILLUS, XL. i-xLi. 1 

the Senate most concern in its contention with 
the people. But suddenly clear tidings came that 
the Gauls had once more set out from the Adriatic 
Sea, many myriads strong, and were marching on 
Rome. With the word, the actual deeds of war kept 
pace. The country was ravaged, and its population, 
all who could not more easily fly to Rome for refuge, 
scattered among the mountains. This terror put an 
end to the dissension in the city, and brought to- 
gether into conference both the rich and the poor, 
the Senate and the people. All with one mind chose 
Camillus dictator for the fifth time. He was now 
quite old, lacking little of eighty years ; but recog- 
nizing the peril and the necessity which it laid upon 
him, he neither made excuse, as before, nor resorted 
to pretext, but instantly took upon him the com- 
mand and went to levying his soldiers. 

Knowing that the prowess of the Barbarians lay 
chiefly in their swords, which they plied in true 
barbaric fashion, and with no skill at all, in mere 
slashing blows at head and shoulders, he had helmets 
forged for most of his men which were all iron and 
smooth of surface, that the enemy's swords might 
slip off from them or be shattered by them. He 
also had the long shields of his men rimmed round 
with bronze, since their wood could not of itself 
ward off the enemy's blows. The soldiers them- 
selves he trained to use their long javelins like 
spears, — to thrust them under the enemy's swords 
and catch the downward strokes upon them. 

XLI. When the Gauls were near at hand, being 
encamped on the Anio and encumbered with untold 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fi€(TTov a(f)66vov Xeta? e^^oi^re?, i^ayaycov rrjv 
Bvva/JLLV iBpvo-6 Kara vdirrj^ fia\a/C7]<; Kal avy- 
KX,iaeL<; iroWa'^ ixovcr7j<;, warre to fiev ifkelcnov 
airoKpijineddaLt to S' opoofievov Sok6lv vtto Seou? 

2 6t9 '^copia irpoadvTr] KaTeCkelaOai, TavTrjv Se 
TYjv ho^av avTcov 6 Ka/xtXXo? av^eiv ^ovKopevo^ 
ov TTpoarjixwe tS>v vtto TroSa? iropOovp^evoiv, dWa 
Tov 'x^dpaKa (l)pa^dp€vo<; -^pejuec, l^^XP'' ^^ tou? 
/lev iv Trpopofial^; eaKehaaiievov<i KarelBe, tou9 B^ 
iu TO) aTpaTOireSo) iraaav wpav eixTnirXapLevov^ 

3 a^etSw? Kal fie6vovTa<;. t6t6 Be vvkto^ 6tc tol'9 
'^iXov<; 7rpoeK7rep,'\]raf; ifnroBcbv elvai rot? ^ap- 
^dpot<; eh Td^iv KadtaTap^ivoif; Kal BiaTapdrTeiv 
ev6u<; iire^iovTa^, KaTeffl/Sa^ev opOpov tow? ott- 
Xira^ Kal irapeTaTTSV iv Toh eTrcTriBoc^, 'jroWou<; 151 
Kal irpodvpLovi, ovx ^cirep ol fidp^apot irpoae- 
BoKcov, oXt70u9 Kal aToXjiov^ (pavevTa^. Trpcorov 
p.ev ovv TOVTo Tcbv KeXTwz^ dveTpe'xjre to, ^povrj- j 
yLtara irap d^iav iTrix^ipelaOai, Bokovvt'-ov. f 
eireiTa irpoaTTiirTOVTef; ol yjriXol Kal irplv rj tov 
(TVvrjOri Xa/Secv k6(t/jlov Kal BiaKpidrjvac Kara 
Xoxovf; KLvovvTe<; avrov^ Kal fiia^op^evot, 7r/?o9 to 

4 (TVVTVxov dTdKT0v<; r]vdyKaaav pdx'^crOau Teko^ 
Be TOV Ka/itXXou Tol'9 07rXtTa9 iirdyovTO^, ol fiev 
dvaTeivdfjievoi tol^ /laxct'lpa'i avvBpafielv ea- 
TrevBov, ol Be Tol<i vaaoh d7ravT(0VTe<i Kal to, 
creaiBrjpcopeva fieprj Tat<: nrXrjyah y7ro(f>epovTe'; 
dvearpecfyov tov eKeivcov crlBrjpov fiaXaKov ovTa 
Kal Xe7rTW9 iXrjXap,evov, coare Kd/jLTrTecrOai Taxv 
Kal BiTrXovaOac Ta9 jJiaxalpa^t tov<; Be Ovpeov^ 
200 



I 



CAMILLUS, XLi. 1-4 

plunder, Camillus led his forces out and posted them 
in a gently sloping glade with many hollows, so that 
the largest part of them were concealed, and the 
part that could be seen had the look of shutting 
themselves up in hilly places out of fear. This 
opinion of them Camillus wished to strengthen, and 
therefore made no defence of those who were 
plundered even at his very feet, but fenced in his 
trenches and lay quiet, until he saw that some of the 
enemy were scattered abroad in foraging parties, 
while those in the camp did nothing but gorge 
themselves with meat and drink Then, while it 
was yet night, he sent his light-armed troops for- 
ward to hinder the Barbarians from falling into 
battle-array and throw them into confusion as they 
issued from their camp. Just before dawn, he led 
his men-at-arms down into the plain and drew them 
up in battle-array, many in number and full of spirit, 
as the Barbarians now saw, not few and timid, 
as they had expected. To begin with, it was this 
which shattered the confidence of the Gauls, who 
thought it beneath them to be attacked first. Then 
again, the light-armed folk fell upon them, forced 
them into action before they had taken their usual 
order and been arrayed in companies, and so com- 
pelled them to fight at random and in utter disorder. 
Finally, when Camillus led his men-at-arms to the 
attack, the enemy raised their swords on high and 
rushed for close quarters. But the Romans thrust 
their javelins into their faces, received their strokes 
on the parts that were shielded by iron, and so turned 
the edge of their metal, which was soft and weakly 
tempered, so much so that their swords quickly bent 
up double, while their shields were pierced and 

20I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<TV/JL7r67rdpOai koI PapvveaOai tg>v vctctmv ecpeX 

K0/jL6PC0V, Sib Koi /jL€0C(7rd/jL€UOL TOiV ISiOiV OTrXofj 

iireLpcovTO TOL<i eKeLvcov av(TTpe<p€a9aL koI to 
vcraov(; irapat^epeiv eTTcXafM^avo/jLevoL Tal<; 'X^epatu, 
ol Be 'Vco/jLaloL fyv/jLVovfievov<;^ 6p(ovT€<i "^Br] rol 
^i^eaiv i')(^p(0VT0, koX (povo^ fjuev rjv TroXvf; tcov 
TTporaKTcov, (t)vyrj Be tmv dWcov 7ravTa')(^6a6 tov 
ireBiov. TOV? 'yap \6^ov^ fcal ra vyjrTjXa irpo/car- 
eiXr)(j)€L K-d/jLcXXo^it to Be arparoTreBov Bia to 
Oapaelv d(j)paKTOv e%oz/Te? yBecrav ov %aA-e7rco9 
aXwcroixevov. 

TavTTjv Tr)v fid^vv erecnv vcTTepov TpiaKaiBeKa 
fyeveadat Xejovai tt)? ^V(Ofi7]<^ d\d>aeco<i, kcli ^^ 
fiaiov ef avTTJi: (ppovrjfia KaTcu tcov KgXtwi^ iyy 
vecrdai 'F(o/jLaLoc<; cr^oBpa BeBoifcoai tov<; fiap 
^dpov(;, ft)? TO TTpcoTov Bta v6(rov<; koX Tv^a 
irapaXoyov^, ov KaTO, KpdTO^, vir avTcbv vevLKij 
fievovi;. ovTco 8' ovu 6 ^6^o<; yv Icr^vpo^, axTTe 
OeaOaL vojjlov d<peia6at tov<; lepet? (JTpaTela^ 
%ft)/3k ctv firj TaXaTiKo<i y iroXefio^. 

XLIL Tcov fjiev ovv crTpaTLcoTCfCMV dya>vcov 
ovTOfi rjycdviadr] to) Ka/jLiXX(p TeXevTalo<;. ttjv 
yap OveXiT pavcbv ttoXlv elXev iv irapepyw TavT7j<; 
T>79 (TTpaTeia<i diJLa')(el irpoayodpriGaaav avT<h. 
t5)V Be TToXiTiKcov 6 fJieyL(JT0<^ vireXeLTreTO koi 
^aX67rft)T6/309 ^ 7rpo9 tov BrifjLOv la'^vpov iiravrj- 

KOVTa TTJ ViKT} Kol ^ia^6/jL€V0V €K BtJ/JLOTCOV UTTUTOV 

diroBel^ai irapd tov KaOea-TCOTa vofiov, avTCTUTTO- 
[xev7]<i TTJf} ^ovX'r]<; Kal tov K-djuLiXXov ovk ico(Tr]<; 

* yvfivovju-evovs with S : yvfivovs. 

^ Kol xaAeir£6T6/)os Sintenis*, now supported by S: xaAeTrci- 

TCpOS. 



■ 




CAMILLUS, xLi. 4-XL11. I 

weighed down by the javehns which stuck in them. 
Therefore they actually abandoned their own weapons 
and tried to possess themselves of those of their 
enemies, and to turn aside the javelins by grasping 
them in their hands. But the Romans, seeing them 
thus disarmed, at once took to using their swords, 
and there was a great slaughter of their foremost 
ranks, while the rest fled every whither over the 
plain ; the hill tops and high places had been occu- 
pied beforehand by Camillus, and they knew that 
their camp could easily be taken, since, in their 
overweening confidence, they had neglected to 
fortify it. 

This battle, they say, was fought thirteen years 
after the capture of Rome, and produced in the 
Romans a firm feeling of confidence regarding the 
Gauls. They had mightily feared these Barbarians, 
who had been conquered by them in the first instance, 
as they felt, in consequence of sickness and extra- 
ordinary misfortunes, rather than of any prowess in 
their conquerors. At any rate, so great had their 
terror been that they made a law exempting priests 
from military service, except in case of a Gallic war. 

XLI I. This was the last military exploit performed 
by Camillus, for the capture of Velitrae was a direct 
sequel of this campaign, and it yielded to him with- 
out a struggle. But the greatest of his civil contests 
yet remained and it was harder to wage it now against 
a people which had come back flushed with victory, 
and bent on electing a plebeian consul, contrary to 
the established law. But the Senate opposed their 
demands, and would not suffer Camillus to lay aside 



?03 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aiToOeaOai rrjv ap^^v, ft)9 fJ^T lG')(vpa<i koX 
fi6ydX7j<; i^ov(TLa^ t^9 eKeivov fiaxn^ofievrnv av 

2 ^eXriov virep Trj<; apLa-TOKparla'^. eTrel Be 
TTpoKadrjfievov rov Ka/jLiXkov koX %/?7;yLtaTtfoz/T09 
iirl rrjq ayopa^ VTrrjpeTrjf; wefJi^deh irapa tcov 
Sr]fidp')(^ci)V eKeXevaev CLKokovdelv kcu ttjv %eipa 
Tw (Tco/jiaTi TTpoaijyev co? aTrd^cov, Kpavyrj Be koL 
06pv^o<;, olo<; oi/ttg), KaTeax^ rrjv dyopdv, tmv 
fiev irepX rov J^d/JLiXkov ayOovvrcov diro rov 
PrjfiaTO^ rov Brjfioo-iov, tmv Be iroWcbv KdrwOev 
e\.K€Lv eTTiKeXevofjuepcov, diropovfji^vo^ rot? ira- 
povai rr)V fiev dp')(r]v ov 'TrpoiJKaro, rou? Be ySof- 
Xevra^ dvaXa^cov e^dBi^ev eirl rrjv avyKXrjrov. 

3 Kal irplv elcreXdelv fJLeracTTpacjyelf; eh to Kawt- 
tmXiov ev^aro Tot<; 6eoi<; KarevOvvai ra irapovra 
77/909 TO fcaXXicTTov TeXo9, VTToa'x^oixevo^ vaov 
'Ofiovoia^ IBpva-aadai rrj^s ra/oap^^? fcaTa(TTd(Trj<;. 

MeydXov S' dyMvc; ev ttj avyfcXtjra) yevo- 
fievov 7ry909 Ta9 ivavTia^ yvco/xa^, o/Li(o<; ivUrjaev 
7) fxaXaKWTepa koX vTreuKovaa t& Btjfio) koX 
BiBovaa Tcov vTrdTcov top eTepov diro tov ttXt;- 

4 Oov; dp')(aipe(Jid(TaL. TavTa 8* ft>9 ttj fiovXfj 
BoKovvTa tov BcKTdropo<; dvetirovTO'^ ev tw By/jurp, 
TrapaxpVM'^ y^^^> o^op eiKo^, '^Bojuevoi ry ^ovXfj 
BirfkXdTTOVTO Kal rov KdfitXXov oiKaBe KpoTq) 
fcal jSof) irpoeireiJLiTOv, ry S' vcrrepala avveX- 
66vTe<; i-yjrijclilaavTO t^9 fiev *OfiovoLa<; lepov, 
WGirep ev^aTO KdfiLXXo<^, eh rrjv dyopav koI ttjv 
eKKXrjaiav diroTTTOV em To2<i yeyevr^jjAvoi^ IBpv- 

5 aaaOaiy Tat9 Be KaXovfievat^; AaTivai<i ixiav 
yfiepav irpoadevTa<; eopTa^eiv TeTTapa<:, irapav- 152 | 
204 



CAMILLUS, xLii. 1-5 

his office, thinking that, with the aid of his great 
power and authority, they could make a better fight 
in defence of their aristocracy. But once when 
Camillus was seated in state and des})atching public 
business in the forum, an officer, sent by the tribunes 
of the people, ordered him to follow, actually lay- 
ing hands upon him as though to hale him away. 
All at once such cries and tumult as had never 
been heard before filled the forum, the friends of 
Camillus thrusting the plebeian officer down from the 
tribunal, and the multitude below ordering him to 
drag the dictator away. Camillus, perplexed at the 
issue, did not renounce his office, but taking the 
senators with him, marched off to their place of 
meeting. Before he entered this, turning to the 
Capitol, he prayed the gods to bring the present 
tumults to their happiest end, solemnly vowing to 
build a temple to Concord when the confusion was 
over. 

In the Senate there was a great conflict of opposing 
views, but nevertheless, the milder course prevailed, 
concession was made to the people, and permission 
given them to elect one of the consuls from their 
own body. When the dictator announced this to 
the people as the will and pleasure of the Senate, at 
once, as was to be expected, they were delighted to 
be reconciled with the Senate, and escorted Camillus 
to his home with loud applause. On the following 
day they held an assembly and voted to build a 
temple of Concord, as Camillus had vowed, and to 
have it face the forum and place of assembly, 
to commemorate what had now happened. They 
voted also to add a day to the so-called Latin festival, 
and thereafter to celebrate four days, and that all 

205 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TiKd he Oveiv kov (TTe(f)avr)(j)opeLv *Pco/iabov<; 
a7ravTa<;. tmv h' ap^ai-pealcov ^pa/SevOevrav 
viro Ka/jLiWov KaTeorrdOrjo'av vTraroi, MapAro? 
fiev AlfiL\LO<; sk irarpLKiwv, AevKio^; Be Xe^rto<; 
€K SrjfioTcov 7rp(0T0<;. koI tovto 'Trepan at Ka- 
/jLikXov 7rpd^et<; ea")(pv. 

XLIII. 'Ez/ he T&) KaroTTLv eviavrw \oifi(ohr]f; 
v6ao<^ efiTrea-ovaa rfj *P(ofir) rov [xev aXkov 6')(kov 
ov TrepiXTjiTTOv dptO fiw hie^Oeipe, twv h^ apyovTWV 
Tov^ irkeiaTov^;. 'EreXei^T^yo-e he teal Ka/iiXXo9, 
rjXiKia^ fxev ovveKa koI ^lov reXeioTrjrof;, tw? ei 
Ti^ a\Xo9 dvdpcoirav oipalo^i, dvidaa^ he 'Fay- 
fiaiov^ ft)9 ovhe o-vfjb7ravTe<; ol tjj voaco kut 
eKelvov Tov ')(^p6vov diroOavovres, 



1 



206 



CAMILLUS, xLii. 5-XL111. I 

Romans at once perform sacrifices with garlands on 
their heads. At the elections held by Camillus, 
Marcus Aemilius was chosen consul from the 
patricians, and Lucius Sextus first consul from the 
plebeians. This was the last public act of Camillus. 
XLIII. In the year following, a pestilential sick- 
ness visited Rome, carrying off an incalculable number 
of the common people, and most of the magistrates. 
Camillus also died at this time, and he was full ripe 
for death, if any man ever was, considering his years 
and the completeness of his life ; yet his loss grieved 
the Romans more than that of all those who perished 
of the plague at this time. 



207 



ARISTIDES 



Pit 



API2TEIAH2 

I. *Api(TT€Lhr)<; 6 Av(Tifid')(pv <f)v\rj<; /uiev ^v 
^Avtlo^lBo<;, tmv he hrjjjLwv ^AXwirefcrjOev. rrepl 
8* ovarian avTOV Xoyot, htd^opoi 'ye'yovacnv, oi jxev 
<»? €v Trevia avvTovfo KaTa^La>(TavTO<; koX fiera 
Tf^v TeXevrrjv diroXiTrovTO^ 6vyaTepa<^ hvo iroXvv 

2 'x^povov dveKBoTovf; Be diropiav yevofiiva^;' 7r/?09 
Be TOVTOV rov \6yov viro rroXkSiv elprjiievov dvn- 
ra(rcr6fjL€vo<; 6 ^a\7]pev(; Arj/jL^Tpio^i iv rw Xcok- 
pdrei ywplov ^dktjpoL <f)7)(rt. yivdocTKeiv ^ApiareiBov 
yevojjbevov, ev w reOaTTTai, fcal Te/c/jLijpia rrj<; irepX 
rov oIkov ev7ropia<i ev fiev rjyelrai Tr)v eirdtvvfjLov 
^PX^^' ^^ VPX^^ 6^ rat Kvdfirp Xax^ov gk twv 
yevMV T(ov ra jxeytdra TLfirjfJLara KeKTTjfievcdv, ov<; 
7r€VTaKoo-iofjL€Bifivov<; TTpoa-Tjyopevov, erepov Be rov 

3 i^oo-rpaKia/jLov ovBevl yap tmv irevrjTcov, dXka 
Tot9 ef oXkojv t€ fieydXcov kol Bih yevovf; oyKov 
e'm(f)66vwv oarpaKOv eiricjiepecrBar rpurov Be koX 
TeXevracov, on viKrjf; dvad^/iara 'XPpriyiKovf; 
TpLiToBa^ ev Acovvcrov KaraXeXotTrev, ot fcal fcaO^ 
rjfid^ eBeiKVVvTO TOLavrrjv iiriypa^'qv Btacray^ovref;' 

' ^pX^v 6 Blass, adopting Sintenis' conjecture : ^p{«. 
2IO 



ARISTIDES 



I. Aristides, tlie son of Lysimachus, belonged 
to the tribe Antiochis, and to the deme Alopec^. 
As regards his substance, stories differ, some having 
it that he passed all the days of his life in severe 
poverty, and that at his death he left behind 
him two daughters who for a long time were 
not sought in marriage because of their indigence. 
But in contradiction of this story which so many 
writers give, Demetrius of Phalerum, in his 
"Socrates," says he knows of an estate in Phalerum 
which belonged to Aristides — the one in which he 
lies buried, and regards as proofs of his opulent 
circumstances, first, his office of Archon Eponymotis, 
which only he could hold who obtained it by lot from 
among the families carrying the highest property- 
assessments (these were called Pentacosiomedimni, or 
Five-hundred-bushellers) ; second, his banishment in 
ostracism, for no poor men, but only men from 
great houses which incurred envy because of 
their family prestige, were liable to ostracism; 
third, and last, the fact that he left in the 
precinct of Dionysus as offerings for victory some 
choregic tripods, which, even in our day, were pointed 
out as still bearing the inscription : " The tribe 



211 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

" *ArTfco%i9 ivLKa, * ApLa-relSrj^ ixop)]y€i, ^Kpye- 
arparo'^ iBiBacTKe.''^ 
i Tovrl fjiev ovv, Kaiirep elvai Bokovu p,e'yt(noVj 
aaOevecrarov iarc. koI yap ^ ETrafMeivcovSa^, ov 
irdvT€^ dvdpcoTTOc yivcoa/covaiv ev irevia koX rpa- 
(f>6VTa TToWfj Kol jSKoa-avra, /cat TlXdrcov 6 (f)i\6- 
ao(f)0<i ovK d<pi\oTi/Jiov(; dveSe^avro 'x^opr}<yia^, 6 
fiev av\r)Tac<; dvSpdaiVi 6 Be iraial kvkXloi^; 
%o/)7;7»;o-a9, tovto) jxev Almvo'^ 'tov XvpaKOvaiov 
rr)v BaTrdvTjv 'Trape')(pvTO^, ^RTrafietvoovBa Be reov 

5 irepl HeXoTTiBav. ov yap eari TOt? dya6ol<i 
aKijpvKTO^; Kal dcnrovBo<; tt/oo? tol^; irapa rcbv 
(j)iX(ov Bo)p€a<i TToXe/xo?, dWa Td<; et? dirodeaiv 
Kal irXeove^iav dyevvel^ riyovfxevoi Kal raireivd^i, 319 
oaat (f)t\orLp-La<i nvo^ dK€pBov<; e^ovTai Kal Xap,- 

TTpOTTJTO^ OVK dlTwdoVVTai. 

TlavaLTio<; pLevroi wepl tov rpiTToBo^ dirocpaii^ei 

6 TOV At]/jLT]rpiov ofjLCDVVpLLa BiG-^eva jxevov diro yap 
TO)v ^rjBiKOdV eh T^z/ reXevTTjv tov IleXoTrovvrj- 
(TiaKov iroXifjLOV Bvo pl6vov<; ^ KpLdTeiBa^ ')(op'qyov<^ 
dvaypd(^ea9at viKMVTa^;, wv ouBeTepov elvai tw 
A.vaLpLd')(pv TOV avTov, dXXa tov puev aevo<piXov 
7raTp6<;, tov Be 'X^povat iroXXw veooTepov, co? eXey^ 
%6i Ta ypd/jLfiaTa ttJ? fieT }lvKXeiB7]v ovTa ypapL- 
p.aTiKrj<i Kal iTpo(Tyeypa}jif.ievo<^ o Ap^eaTpaTO^ff 
ov ev TOfc? M?;St/cot9 ovBel^;, ev Be toI<; UeXoTrov- 
vr}(TtaKoi<; av)(^vol ')(pp(i}v BiBdaKaXov dvaypd- 
(povcn. 

7 To fiev ovv tov YlavaLTLOv fieXTiov eTria-KeTTTeov 



212 



I 



ARISTIDES, I. 3-7 

Antiochis was victorious; Aristides was Choregus; 
Archestratus was Poet." 

Now this last argument, though it seems very- 
strong, is really very weak. For both Epaminondas, 
who, as all men know, was reared and always lived 
in great poverty, and Plato the philosopher, took 
it upon themselves to furnish munificent public 
performances, the first, of men trained to play 
the flute, the second, of boys trained to sing and 
dance ; but Plato received the money that he spent 
thereon from Dion of Syracuse, and Epaminondas 
from Pelopidas. Good men wage no savage and 
relentless war against the gifts of friends, but 
while they look upon gifts taken to be stored 
away and increase the receiver's wealth as ignoble 
and mean, they refuse none which promote an 
unselfish and splendid munificence. 

However, as regards the tripods, Panaetius tries 
to show that Demetrius was deceived by identity 
of name. From the Persian wars, he says, down 
to the end of the Peloponnesian war, only two 
Aristides are recorded as victorious choregi, and 
neither of them is identical with the son of 
Lysimachus. One was the son of Xenophilus, and 
the other lived long afterwards, as is proved by 
the inscription itself, which is written in the 
character used after Eucleides,^ as well as by the 
last name, Archestratus, of whom there is no 
record during the Persian wars, while during the 
time of the Peloponnesian war his name often 
appears as that of a choral poet. 

This argument of Panaetius should be more closely 

* In 403-402 B.C., when Eucleides was Archon Eponymous, 
the Ionian alphabet was officially adopted at Athens. 

213 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r) ryevo^i rj \6yov SvvajjLiv virep tov<; ttoXXol'? 
vo/jLi^6fjLevo<; vireTnTTTev oirov kuI Aci/mov 6 JJepi- 
KXeovf; 8vBdaKa\o<;, otl to ippovelv iBoKCL Ti<f 

8 elvat 7r€/)tTT09, i^oDarpaKLaOr). koX fjurjv ap^ai 
ye TOP ^ApKTTelBrjv 6 'IBofjueveix; ov Kvafievrov, aX>C 
eXofievcov *AOr)vaia)v <j)r)aiv. el Be kol fiera rrjv 
iv nXaratat? fid^V^^ VP^^^> ^? avrb^; 6 ArjfjLTj- 
Tpio^ yeypacjie, koX irdvv inOavov ia-riv eVt Bo^y 
ToaavTT} Kol Karopdcofiacn Tr]\i,KOVTOi<i d^icoOrjvai 
Bt* dperrjv ^9 Bta ttXovtov eTvy^avov ol \ay^d- 

9 vovTe<i. dWa yap 6 fiev ArjjjUjrpto'i ov jjlovov 
^KpKTTelBr^v, dX\.h koI "^(OKpdrrjv S^Xo? icm rrjf; 
7r€Via<! e^ekeadau ^L\oTt,fbov/J,€Vo<; (09 fieydXov 
KaKOV' Koi yap eKeivoi <f>rja]v ov fiovov rrjv olKiav 
vTrdp')(^eLVy dXka koI pbva^ i^Bop^TjKovra tokl^o- 

fJL€Va<i VTTO J^pLTCJVO^. 

IL ^ApLaT€iBr]<; Be K.\€i(rdevov(; jxev rov Kara- 
arrjaafievov rrjv iroXiTelav /nerd tou? Tvpdvvov<} 
eralpo^ yevo/juevo^;, ^rjXcoaaf; Be Kal Oavfidaa^ 
fjbdXtara tS)V iroXiTiKCdV dvBpcov AvKOVpyov top 
AaKeBaifjLoviov, ^yjraTO fiev dpidTOKpaTLKYj^; iroXi- 
Teta9, 6cr%6 S' avTcraacro/jLevov virep rov Btj/jlov 
(&efjLiaTOK\ea rov Neo/cXeot'9. evcoi jiev ovv (paaiv 
iralBa<i ovra^ avTOV<i Kal o-vvTpe(po/jL€vov<$ dir 
dpxv^ ev iravrl Kal airovBrj^ exo/nevfo Kal 7ratBtd<; 
TTpdyfjLarL Kal Xoyw Biaif^epeodai irpo^ aXX>/Xoi/9, 
2 Kal Ta9 (^vo"€i9 ev6v<i viro Tr;9 (piXoveiKia^ ixeLpi]^ 



ARISTIDES, I. 7-II. 2 

examined as to its validity ; but to banishment in 
ostracism every one was liable mHo was superior 
to the common run of men in reputation, or lineage, 
or eloquence. And so it was that Damon, the 
teacher of Pericles, was ostracized because he 
was thought to be rather extraordinary in his 
wisdom.^ Furthermore, Idomeneus says that Aristides 
obtained the office of archon, not by lot, but by 
the election of the Athenians.^ And if he was 
made archon after the battle of Plataea, as Demetrius 
himself has written, it is cei*tainly very credible 
that in view of such a reputation and such successes 
as he there won, he should be deemed worthy, 
for his valour, of an office which men who drew lots 
for it obtained for their wealth. In fact, Demetrius 
is clearly ambitious to rescue not only Aristides, 
but also Socrates from what he deems the great 
evil of poverty, for he says that Socrates owned 
not only his house, but also seventy minas out at 
interest with Crito. 

II. Aristides was an intimate friend of that 
Cleisthenes who set the state in order after the 
expulsion of the tyrants. He also admired and 
emulated, above all other statesmen, Lycurgus 
the Lacedaemonian. He therefore favoured an 
aristocratic form of government, and ever had 
opposed to him, as champion of the people, Themis- 
tocles the son of Neocles. Some say that even 
as boys and fellow-pupils, from the outset, in every 
word and deed, whether serious or trivial, they 
were at variance with one another, and that by 

* Pericles, iv. 2. 

» From 508 B.C. to 487 B.C. the archons were elected by 
the Assembly ; after 487, they were once more chosen by lot. 

VOL. n. H 2^5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avaKaXvTTTeaOat, rrjv fiev ev^^pV '^'^^ irapdfBoXov 
KoX Travovpyov ovaav koI fxer ofurr^ro? eirl 
irdvra pahiw^ (j)€pofjbev7]v, rrjv 3* ISpvfjuevrjv iv ^dec 
fie^aia) koX irpo^ to Blkulov drevi],^ ylrevBo^; Be kol 
P(oixoko')(lav KoX dirdrrjv ouS' iv iraiBia^ rcvi 

rpOTTO) 7rpO(7l€/l€V7]V, 

^Ap[(TTCov 8' Keto9 ef epcoriKrj^ dpxv^ yevi- 
aOai (prjal koX irpoeXOelv iirl roaovrov rrjv 

3 ex^pdv avTMV, XTTjaiXeco ydp, 09 ^v yevei 
Keio?, IBea re koI fiopcfyfj acofiaTO^ ttoXv tcov iv 
wpa Xa/jLirporarofif dfitfyoTepov; ipaaOevTW^ ov 
jxerpico^ iveyKelv to irdOo^ ovh^ a/xa \r]yovTi rw 
KoXXei Tov 7rat8o9 dirodeaOaL rr}v ^ikoveiKLav, 
aXV Mdirep iyyv/uLvaaajJievovfi iKeivrj irpo^ rrjv 
iroXnelav €vdv<i opfirja-aL BLairvpov^s ovTa<; koI 
8ia(f)6p(Ofi e%oz^Ta9. 

4 *0 fiev ovv S€/iii,(TTOK\rj<; eh eraipeiav ifx^aXoov 
eavrov el%€ TrpoffXrjfjba kol Bvva/JiLV ovk evKara- 
(^povTjTov, coare kclI irpo^ tov elirovTa KaX(b<; 
avTOV dp^eiv 'Adrjvaiwv, avirep X(T0<; 97 kol koivo^; 
aTraai " M.r]B67roTeJ* elirelv, *' eh tovtov iyo) 
KaOio-at/jLi tov Opovov, iv o5 TrXeov ovBev e^ovatv 

5 ol (piXoi Trap* ifiol twv aXXoTpicov^^ ^ApiaTelBij^; Be 
KaO^ eavTov wairep oBov IBiav i^dBi^e Bid ttjs ttoXi- 
T6ta9, irpcoTOV fiev ov ^ovXofievo^ GwaBiKelv Toh 
eTalpoi^ 7) Xv7rr]po<; elvat fir) '^apt^o/jievo';, eirevTa 
TYfV diro Tcbv (piXcov Bvvafxiv ovk oXiyov^ IBodv 
iiraipovcrav dBiKelv ic^vXdTTSTOy /jlovw tm )(^prjaTd 

^ areVr) MSS. and editors, including Sintenis ^ : areve? after 
Classen. 

216 



I 



I 



ARISTIDES, II. 2-5 

this very rivalry their natures were straightway 
made manifest, the one as dexterous, reckless, and 
unscrupulous, easily carried with impetuosity into 
any and every undertaking ; the other as established 
on a firm character, intent on justice, and admitting 
no falsity or vulgarity or deceit, not even in any 
sport whatsoever. 

But Ariston of Ceos says that this enmity of 
theirs, which came to be so intense, had its origin 
in a love affair. They were both enamoured of 
Stesilaiis, who was of Ceian birth, and in beauty 
of person the most brilliant of youths ; and they 
cherished their passion so immoderately, that not 
even after the boy's beauty had faded did they 
lay aside their rivalry, but, as though they had 
merely taken preliminary practice and exercise in 
that, they presently engaged in matters of state 
also with passionate heat and opposing desires. 

Themistocles joined a society of political friends, 
and so secured no inconsiderable support and power. 
Hence when some one told him that he would be a 
good ruler over the Athenians if he would only be 
fair and impartial to all, he replied ; " Never may I 
sit on a tribunal where my friends are to get no 
more advantage from me than strangers." But 
Aristides walked the way of statesmanship by him- 
self, on a private path of his own, as it were, because, 
in the first place, he was unwilling to join with any 
comrades in wrong-doing, or to vex them by with- 
holding favours; and, in the second place, he saw 
that power derived from friends incited many to do 
wrong, and so was on his guard against it, deeming 



217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Koi hUaia iTpdrreLv koI Xiyeiv a^icov Oappdv tov 
dyaOov ttoXlttjv, 

IIL Ou fJLTjv dWd, TToW^ Kivou/jiivov rod 
Sejxi(TTOKXeov<; TrapajSoXo)^ koI tt/jo? iraaav 
avT^ TToXiretav evLara/jbivov koI ZiaK6irTovTO<;, 320 
T^vajKa^ero irov koI avro^ ra fiev dfjivvofievo'^, t^ 
Be KoXovcov T7JV eKelvov Bvva/Miv ')(apnt, tmv 
iroWcov av^ojxevrjv vTrevavTiovaOat oU eTrparrev ™ 
o (de/JLia-roKXrj^, ^ekriov r)yovfievo<; irapekOetv ^ 
evia Tcou <rvfji(f)€p6vTcov tov Brjfiov rj tc3 KpaTetv 

2 eKelvov ev Traaiv lax^pov f^eveaOai, reXo? Be _ 

TTOre TOV @ejJLL(TTOK\eOV9 irpCLTTOVTO^ TL T(OV 9 

BeovTcov dvTi/cpovaa<; koX Treptyevofievo^ ov kutc- 
c^ev, dXk* elirev diTo t^9 eKKXrjaLa^s dinoov, eo? 
ovK ecTTt (TcoTrjpia toI<; *A6r]vaL0)V Trpdyfiaaiv, el 
fjLTj Kol %ejXL(TTOKKea kov avTov eh to jSdpaOpov 
ifi^dXotev, irdXtv Be ypdy}ra<; Tiva yvoofirjv eh 
TOV Bt]fJb0Vs dvTiXoyia^ ovar}<; irpo^ avTrjv koX 
^iXoveiKia^j €KpdTer jjLeXXovTo<: Be tov irpoeBpov 
TOV Brj/jbov eirepooTav alaOofievo^ eic tcjv Xoyeov 
avT(ov TO davfKpopov direcTTr] tov yjrrj<f>i(T/jLaTo<;. 

3 TToXXd/ct^; Be kol Bi eTepcov el(je<f)epe Td<i yvdi>ixa<i, 
©9 iJLT) <f)tXoveiKia Tt} 7rpo<; avTov 6 S€fii,aT0KX7]<; 
€/JL7r6Bto<; eirj tw avfKpepovri. 

%avfiaaTr) Be Tt? icpatveTO avTov irapa ra? ev 
Tjj iroXiTeia fieTa^oXa<; 17 evaTdOeia, fxrjTe ra?? 
Tifiah eiraipoixevov Trpo^ re ra? Bvarjjjuepiafs 
dOopvpco^ Koi irpatd^ €Xovto<;, kuI 6/JL0i(a<; r)yov- 
218 



ARISTIDES, II. 5-III. 3 

it right that the good citizen should base his con- 
fidence only on serviceable and just conduct. 

III. However, since Themistocles was a reckless 
agitator, and opposed and thwarted him in every 
measure of state, Aristides himself also was almost 
compelled — partly in self-defence, and partly to 
curtail his adversary's power, which was increasing 
through the favour of the many — to set himself in 
opposition to what Themistocles was trying to do, 
thinking it better that some advantages should es- 
cape the people than that his adversary, by pre- 
vailing everywhere, should become too strong. 
Finally there came a time when he opposed and 
defeated Themistocles in an attempt to carry some 
really necessary measure. Then he could no longer 
hold his peace, but declared, as he left the Assembly, 
that there was no safety for the Athenian state 
unless they threw both Themistocles and himself 
into the death-pit. On another occasion he him- 
self introduced a certain measure to the people, and 
was carrying it through successfully, in spite of the 
attacks of the opposition upon it, but just as the 
presiding officer was to put it to the final vote, per- 
ceiving, from the very speeches that had been made 
in opposition to it, the inexpediency of his measure, 
he withdrew it without a vote. And oftentimes 
he would introduce his measures through other men, 
that Themistocles might not be driven by the spirit 
of rivalry with him to oppose what was expedient for 
the state. 

Altogether admirable was his steadfast constancy 
amid the revulsions of political feeling. He was not 
unduly lifted up by his honours, and faced adversity 
with a calm gentleness, while in all cases alike he 

219 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fxevov 'X,prjvai rfj irarpihi irape'xetv kavrov ov 
'X^p'qfjLCLTCOV fiovov, aXXa fcal B6^rj<i irpoiKa koX 
4 afiiaOX woXcTevofjievov. odev, 0)9 eoiKe, rwv el<i 
^AfKpLapaov vrrr A.lar')(v\ov Treiroirj/jLevcov la/iiffelcop 
iv T(p Oedrpo) Xejofiivmv 

Ov yap hoKelv hiKaio^, aW' elvat OiXet, 
jSaOelav dXoKa Bca (f)p6vo<; Kapirovfievo^y 
d(f>* 97? TO, KeBva ^XaardveL ffovXev/juaTa, 

7rdvT6<; aTre^Xeyjrav el^ ^ApiarelByPy (w? eKeivfo 
fidXiara r?}? dpeTrj<; ravrrjf; irpoarjKovar]';, 

IV. Ot' fjLovov Be 7r/)09 evvoiav koI ^(^dpLv, dXXd 
Koi 7r/)09 6pjr)v koI 7r/D09 e'xOpav la^vp6raT0<i rjv 
virep TO)v BiKaiwv dvTiaTTJvai. Xeyerai yovv 
TTore BtcoKtov i^^pov iv Bc/caaTrjpia), fierd rrjv 
KaTTjyopiav ov PovXofievcov aKOveiv tov KivBvvev- 
01/T09 TOiV BiKa(TTO)V, dXXa ttjv yjrrjcpov €vdv<i 
alrovvTCDV eir avrov, dva7rrjB^aa<i Ta> Kpcvo/nevo) 
crvvcK6T€V€cv, OTTCOf; aKovadeiT} koI TV'^OI tcov 
2 vofii/jLcov irdXiv Be Kpivwv IBtcoTaL^ Bval, tov 
erepov XiyovTO^, ft)9 TroXXa rvy^dvei tov ^Kpi- 
aTeiBrjv 6 dvTiBi/co<; XeXvirrj/ccof; "Key, oi ^yade^ 
(pdvat, " fidXXov, et ti ae kukov 7re7roL7jK€' <toI 

ydp, OVK e'yLtaUTft), BlKd^CoJ^ TMV Be B7]p.0aL(OV 

irpoo-oBcov alpeOeU e7rt/ieX??T^9 ov fjbovov tol'9 
Ka6^ avTov, dXXd koi tov^; irpo avTov yevofi€Vov<; 



I 



220 



ARISTIDES, III. 3 IV. 2 

considered it his duty to give his services to his 
country freely and without any reward, either in 
money, or, what meant far more, in reputation. 
And so it befell, as the story goes, that when the 
verses composed by Aeschylus upon Amphiaraiis were 
recited in the theatre : — 

"He wishes not to seem, but rather just to be. 
And reap a harvest from deep furrows in a mind 
From which there spring up honourable counsel- 
Ijngs," 1 

all the spectators tunied their eyes on Aristides, 
feeling that he, above all men, was possessed of such 
excellence. 

IV. It was not only against the inclinations of his 
good-will and personal favour that he was a most 
strenuous champion of justice, but also against those 
of his anger and hatred. At any rate a story is 
told, how he was once prosecuting an enemy in 
court, and after he had made his accusation the 
judges were loath to hear the defendant at all, and 
demanded that their vote be taken against him 
straightway ; but Aristides sprang to his feet and 
seconded the culprit's plea for a hearing and the 
usual legal procedure. And again, when he was 
serving as private arbitrator between two men, on 
one of them saying that his opponent had done 
Aristides much injury, "Tell me rather," he said, 
"whether he has done thee any wrong; it is for 
thee, not for myself, that T am seeking justice." 
When he was elected overseer of the public revenues, 
he proved clearly that large sums had been em- 
bezzled, not only by his fellow-officials, but also by 

* Seven against Thebes, 592 ff. (Dindorf). 

i2I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dpxovTa<! aireheLKwe ttoWo, vevoa(j)icrfievov^, xal 
jxaXLara tov SefiiaTOKXia- 

^o^o<; yap av^p, t^9 Se p^etyoo? ov fcparojv, 

3 Aio Kol avvayay^v iroXkov^i iirl tov *A/)t- 
areihrjv iv ral^ €v6vvat<; Bioofcwv fcXoirrj^ KarahiKr) 
TTepie^aXeVy w? <f>7](nv *lSo/jiev€v<;. ayavaKTOvvT(ov 
Be tS)v TTpcoTcov iv TTJ TToXet Kal ^€\TLaTO)v, ov 
fiovov dcpeCdij T^9 t^qfila^, aWa koI iraXiv dp')(^cov 
iirl rrjv avrr^v BLOLKrjaLV aireBel'xPrj, irpoairoL- 
ovjjb€VO<^ Be Tcov irporepwv fierafieXeLV avrat Kal 
fiaXaKcoTepov €vBLBov<i eavrov, rjpeaKe toZ^ ra 
Kotva KkeiTTovaLV ovk i^eXeyx^cov ovB^ aKpi^oXo- 

4 yovfievo^, toare Karainfiirkap.evov^ tmv Br]/j,o(TLCov 
VTrepewacveiv tov ^ KpiaTeiBrjv Kal Be^LovaOai tov 
Brj/jLOV vTrep avTOV, GirovBd^ovraf; dp)(^ovTa ttoXlv 
alpeOrjvaL. /leWovTcov Be %6t/)0T0j/efcz^ eTrerlfirjcTe 
T0i9 ^A6r}vaL0i<i* ""Ore fiev ydp/^ e<j>r], *' TTio-TW? 
Kal Ka\(b^ vfuv yp^a, 'TrpovTrrjXaKiarOrjv iirel Be 
TToWa TMV KoivSiV KaTaTTpoetfiai rot? KXeirTOvai 

5 $avfiaaTb<; elvai Bokcj ttoX/t/;?. avTO^ fxev ovv 
al(T'X}>vofiaL Trj vvv tl/jlt} fiaXkov rj ttj irpoarjv 
KaTaBiKTjy (TvvdxOofiat 8' v/xtv, irap' ol<; ivBo^o- 
Tepov i(TTi TOV <7a>^eiv tcl Bvjfxoaia to ^(^apL^eaOai 
T0?9 7rov7}pot<;.^^ TavTa B* elircav Kal ra? KXo7rd<; 321 
efeXeYfa? tov<; fiev totc ^oo)VTa^ virep avTov Kal 
fiapTvpovvTa^i eTrecTTOfitcre, tov S' dXrjOivov Kal 
BiKavov diro t&v /SeXTiaTcov eiraivov elx^v, 

222 



ARISTIDES, IV. 2-5 

those of former years, and particularly by The- 
mistocles : — 

"The man was clever, but of his hand had no control." 

For this cause, Themistocles banded many to- 
gether against Aristides, prosecuted him for theft at 
the auditing of his accounts, and actually got a 
verdict against him, according to Idomeneus. But 
the first and best men of the city were incensed at 
this, and he was not only exempted from his fine, 
but even appointed to administer the same charge 
again. Then he pretended to repent him of his 
former course, and made himself more pliable, thus 
giving pleasure to those who were stealing the 
common funds by not examining them or holding 
them to strict account, so that they gorged them- 
selves with the public moneys, and then lauded 
Aristides to the skies, and pleaded with the people 
in his behalf, eagerly desirous that he be once more 
elected to his office. But just as they were about to 
vote, Aristides rebuked the Athenians. '^Verily," 
said he, "when I served you in office with fidelity 
and honour, I was reviled and persecuted ; but now 
that I am flinging away much of the common fund 
to thieves, I am thought to be an admirable citizen. 
For my part, I am more ashamed of my present 
honour than I was of my former condemnation, and 
I am sore distressed for you, because it is more 
honourable in your eyes to please base men than to 
guard the public moneys." By these words, as well 
as by exposing their thefts, he did indeed stop 
the mouths of the men who were then testifying 
loudly in his favour, but he won genuine and just 
praise from the best citizens. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

V. *E7rel Se AdTi<; viro Aapeiov ireji^Oeif; Xoyw 
fiev iinOetvaL Blktjv *A67]vaiOL'i, otl ^dpheL<; 
iv67rp7](raVy epyo) Se KaracTTpe^lraaOaL tou9 "E\- 
Xr}va<;, eh MapaOcova ttuvtI tw arokcp Karkaye 
Kol rr}v ')((iipav iiropOet, tcov Se/ca KaOearcoTCJV 
Toh 'AOijvaloLf; iirl rov TToXepuov o-rparrjyMV 
pLeyicTTOv fiev el%ej^ a^iw/ia MtXriaS?;?, Bo^j] 8e 

2 Koi hvvdfjLei hevrepo^ r)V ^KpiaTeihr]^. kol Tore 
irepl Trj<; yLta%^9 yvdypLy rfj McXridBov irpoaOejjLevofi 
ov fiLKpav iiroirjae poirrfv /cal irap rjpepav eKaarov 
(TTpaTrjyov to Kpdro'i e%oz^T09, <W9 TreptrjXOev 6i9 
avTov rj d.p')(riy TrapeBcoKS M-cXrcdBr), BiBdaKcov 
TOL'9 (Tvvdp')(^ovTa<;i otl to TreiOeadaL Koi d/coXov- 
Oelv Tol<; 6v cj)povov<Tiv ovk ala')(^p6v, dXXa aepLVov 

icTTL KOi G(£)Tr]piOV. OVTQ) Be TTpaVVa^i Tr}V (f)lXO' 

veiKiav fcal irpoTpeyjrd/jLevo<; avrov^ dyairav fna 
yvcojuLrj T7J KpaTL(TT7) '^pcofievovt;, eppcoae rov MtX- 
TidBrjv T(p dTrepLaTrdarq) Trj<; e^ovaia<; la')(ypov 
yevopLevov. x^^P^''^ 7^P ^^^ €Ka(TTO<; rjBr] ro Trap' 
rjfjLepav apyeiv eKeivcp irpoaelxev. 

3 'Ez/ Be rfj P'dxv fidXcara rcov 'Adrjvaicov 
rov /Jbecrov TTovrjaavrof; koI irXelarov evravOa 
Xpovov Twv /Sap/Sdpcov dvrepeiadvTcov Kara rrjv 
AeovTiBa /cat rrjv ' Avnoxi^Ba ^vXrjv, rjycovLaavro 
XapbTTpoiq reraypevoc irap dXXrjXov^ 6 re Sep,i- 
aTOKXijfi KOL 6 'Apfo-retS?;?* o p>ev yap AeovriBof; 

4 rjv, 6 8' ' AvTLOxi'Bo<i' eTrel Be rpey^rdpevoi tov<; 
^apl3dpov<i ev6/3a\ov eh ra? vav<; kol irXeovraf; 
OVK enl vrjacov ecopcov, aXX' vtto rov TTvevfiaTOf; 
Kol T^9 daXd(7a7]<i eiao) 7r/oo9 ti]v 'Attiktjv 
224 



I 
I 



ARISTIDES, V. 1-4 

V. Now when Datis, on being sent by Darius 
ostensibly to punish the Athenians for burning 
Sardis, but really to subdue all the Hellenes, put 
in at Marathon with all his armament and went to 
ravaging the countiy, then, of the ten generals 
appointed by the Athenians for the conduct of the 
war, it was Miltiades who enjoyed the greatest con- 
sideration, but in reputation and influence Aristides 
was second. By adopting at that time the opinion 
of Miltiades about the battle to be fought, he did 
much to turn the scale in its favour. And since 
each general held the chief authority for a single 
day in turn, when the command came round to him, 
he handed it over to Miltiades, thereby teaching his 
fellow-officers that to obey and follow men of 
wisdom is not disgraceful, but dignified and salutary. 
By thus appeasing the jealousy of his colleagues and 
inducing them to be cheerfully contented in the 
adoption of a single opinion (and that the best), 
he confirmed Miltiades in the strength which comes 
from an unrestricted power. For each of the other 
generals at once relinquished his own right to com- 
mand for a day in turn, and put himself under the 
orders of Miltiades. 

In the battle, the Athenian centre was the hardest 
pressed, and it was there that the Barbarians held 
their ground the longest, over against the tribes 
Leontis and Antiochis. There, then, Themistocles 
and Aristides fought brilliantly, ranged side by side ; 
for one was a Leontid, the other an Antiochid. 
When the Athenians had routed the Barbarians 
and driven them aboard their ships, and saw that 
they were sailing away, not toward the islands, but 
into the gulf toward Attica under compulsion of 

225 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

airoffta^Ofjiivov^, (l)offr)0ivT6^ firj ttjv iroXiv eprj/jLov 
Xd^cocTi, tS)v afivvojiiei^coVy raif; fiev evvea <j)v\aL<; 
'^TreCyovTO tt/do? to aarv koX Karijvvaav avOrjfiepov 

5 iv Be MapaOcovi fjiera t^? iavrov <j)vX7]^ *Api<r- 
TeiSrjc; airoXei^Oeh (pvXa^ tojv al)(/jLa\ooT(ov koL 
Ta)V \a(j)vpcov ovk i'^evaaro rrjv ho^avy aXka 
X^^V^ /^^^ apyvpov koI xP'^^^v irapovTO^;, iadrJTO'; 
Be iravTohairri'^ Kal ;^/??7yu.aTft)i/ aXXcov afiv67]TQ)p iv 
Tal<; (TKrjvaif; Kal T0t9 rjXcoKoat o-Kd(j)€cnv virap- 
ypvTwVy ovr at'ro? iTreOv/xrjae Oiyeiv ovr aXkov 
elaaCy 7r\r]v el tlv6<; eKelvov \ad6vT€<; a)(l)6\7]6rj(Tap' 
oiv Tjv KOI Ka\XLa<i 6 BaSov^ofi. 

6 TovTO) yap Tfc9, co? eoLKe, rcov ffapffdpcov irpoa- 
iireaev olrjOel^; ^acnXea Sea rrjv KOfxrjv Kal to 
aTp6(j)L0v elvar irpocjKVvrjaa^ he Kal Xa/36fjL€i^o<; 
T^9 Se^td<; eSei^e ttoXv ^yOL'o-toi/ iv Xukkco tlvI 
Karopcopvy/jLevov. 6 Be KaXXta? wfioraTo^; dvOpco- 
TTCov Kal TTapavoficaTaTo^i yev6/jLevo<; tov fiev yp^' 
GOV dvdXeTOy tov 8' dvOpcoirov, a)<; [mtj KaTenroi 
Trpo'i eTepov<;, aTreKTeivev. iK tovtov ^aal Kal 
XaKK07rXovTov<; vwo tcov KwjxiKCdv Tov<; diro t?}? 
obKid^ XeycaOat, o-kcotttovtcov eh tov tottov, iv o5 
TO xP^^^o^ ^ KaXXta? evpev. 

7 ^ kpiaTeiBr]^ Be ttjv i'KQivvp.ov evOi)^ dpxv^ rjp^e. 
KaiToi (pTjalv 6 ^aXrjpev'i At^fiilTpiofi dp^ai tov 
dvBpa fjLiKpov e/JLTTpoadev tov OavdTov fieTa tt)v 
iv TLXaTaiah /Mdxv^- iv Be Tah dvaypa<j>al(s 
jjueTO, jxev Hai OcTririBrjVf i(j>* ov MapB6vio<; r^TTTjOrj 
HXaTaLCLGiVy ovB^ ojjlcovv/jlov ^ApL(jTeiBr)v iv irdvv 



226 




I 



ARISTIDES, V. 4-7 

wind and wave, then they were afraid lest the 
enemy find Athens empty of defenders, and so they 
hastened homeward with nine tribes, and reached 
the city that very day. But Aristides was left 
behind at Marathon with his own tribe, to guard 
the captives and the booty. Nor did he belie his 
reputation, but though silver and gold lay about in 
heaps, and though there were all sorts of raiment 
and untold wealth besides in the tents and captured 
utensils, he neither desired to meddle with it him- 
self, nor would he suffer any one else to do so, 
although certain ones helped themselves without his 
knowledge. Among these was Callias the Torch- 
bearer.i 

Some Barbarian, it seems, rushed up to this man, 
supposing him to be a king from his long hair and the 
headband that he wore, made obeisance to him, and 
taking him by the hand in suppliant fashion, showed 
him a great mass of gold buried up in a sort of pit. 
Callias, most savage and lawless of men, took up the 
gold ; but the man, to prevent his betraying the 
matter to others, he slew. From this circumstance, 
they say, his descendants are called by the comic 
poets " Laccopluti," or " Pit-wealthies," in sly 
allusion to the place where Callias found his gold. 

Aristides at once received the office of Archon 
Eponymous. And yet Demetrius of Phalerum says 
that it was a little while before his death, and after 
the battle of Plataea, that the man held this office.^ 
But in the official records, after Xanthippides, in 
whose year of office Mardonius was defeated at 
Plataea, you cannot find, long as the list is, so much 

^ One of the highest officers at the celebration of the 
Eleusinian mysteries, * 479-478 B.C. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iroWoh Xa/Selv eart, fiera hi ^aiviinTov,^ i(f) o\ 
Tr)v iv yiapaOodVL fidx^v ivvKcoPy evdv^ *ApLaT€iSrj 
ap')(wv ava'yejpaiTTaL, 

YI. Uacrcov Be rcov irepl avrov apercov 
BiKaLoavvr} /JLoXiara TOL<;7roWoL<; aLcrdrjaiVTrapetx* 
Bia TO TTjv XP^^^^ ivBeXexecrrdrrjv avjrj^ Ka 
KOivoTOLTriv vTrapx^LV. oOev dvrjp Trevrj^; koI Brjfio 
TiKo^ eKTYjaajo rrjv /Saa-tXiKcoTdrrjv koI Oeiordrrjv 

2 Trpoarjyopbav rbv /HiiKaLov o tmv fiao-iXecov Kal 
TVpdvvcov ovBeU e^rfKcoaev, dXKa TloXLopKTjral Kal 322 
l^epavvol /cat Nt/carope?, evcoL S* 'Aerot Kal 
^JepaK€<i exai'pov wpocrayopevofievot, ryv aTro rrj<i 
Pia^ Kol T?}9 Bvvdp^cD^y ft)? eoiKe, /ndWov rj rrjv 
diro T7]<; dpeT7J<; Bo^av dyairSiVTe'^. Kairoi to 
Oelov, S yXixpVTai <tvvolk6iovv Kal o-vva^ofioiovv 
avTov^, TpiaX BoKet Bia^epeiVi d^dapaia Kal 
BvvdjJLei Kal dpeT^, o)V Kal ^ aefivoTaTov rj dpcTr] 

3 Kal OeiOTaTov eaTiv. d(ji9dpTU> [xev yap elvau Kal 
Tw Kev(p Kal TOt? aTOLX^LOL^ avfjb/Bi/SrjKe, Bvva/JLiv 
Be Kal aeLa/JLol Kal KSpavvol Kal TrvevfjidTwv opfial 
Kal pevfjidrcov eTricpopal jjueydXrjv exovat, BiKrjf; Be 
Kal OejJbiBof; ovBev 6ti> fii] tw (ppovetv Kal Xoyl^e- 
(jOai^ /jLeTaXayx^^veL. 

Aio Kal TpLOiv ovTcov, a ireTrovOaatv ol iroWol 
7r/909 TO delov, ^rfkov Kal (f>6Pov Kal TLfirj^;, ^rfkovv 
fiev avTOv<; Kal fxaKapi^eiv ioiKacTL KaTo, to d- 
(j>9apT0V Kal dthiov, eKTrkrjTTeaOai Be Kal BeBievai 
KaTa TO Kvpiov Kol BvvaTov, dyairdv Be Kal Tijidv 

1 ^aiunnrov Bekker, Hercher, and Blass with F^S : *a- 
vi-irirov. ^ 03V koL Hercher and Blass with S : uv. 

3 KoyiC^aBai Blass : Xoyi^eaQai r)} Oeiov reasoning about the 
deity. 

228 



I 



ARISTIDES, V. 7-vi. 3 

as the name Aristides; whereas immediately after 
Phaenippus, in whose year of office the victory at 
Marathon was won, an Aristides is recorded as 
archon.^ 

VI. Of all his virtues, it was his justice that most 
impressed the multitude, because of its most con- 
tinual and most general exercise. Wherefore, though 
poor and a man of the people, he acquired that most 
kingly and godlike surname of "The Just." This 
no kings or tyrants ever coveted, nay, they rejoiced 
to be surnamed " Besiegers," or " Thunderbolts," or 
'^ Conquerors," and some " Eagles," or " Hawks," ^ 
cultivating the reputation which is based on violence 
and power, as it seems, rather than on virtue. And 
yet divinity, to which such men are eager to adapt 
and conform themselves, is believed to have three 
elements of superiority, — incorruption, power, and 
virtue ; and the most reverend, the divinest of these, 
is virtue. For vacuum and the ultimate elements 
partake of incorruption; and great power is ex- 
hibited by earthquakes and thunderbolts, and rushing 
tornadoes, and invading floods ; but in fundamental 
justice nothing participates except through the 
exercise of intelligent reasoning powers. 

Therefore, considering the three feeHngs which 
are generally entei-tained towards divinity, — envy, 
fear, and honourable regard, men seem to envy and 
felicitate the deities for their incorruption and per- 
petuity ; to dread and fear them for their sovereignty 
and power ; but to love and honour and revere them 



» 490-489 B.C. 

2 penietrius Poliorcetes ; Ptolemy Ceraunoa ; Seleucus 
Nicatqr; Pyrrhus Aetos ; Antiochus Jlierax. 

229 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Kot ae^ecrOai Kark Tr}v hiKaiocrvvrjv, aXkdy 
Kalirep ovtco hiaKel^voi, tt]^ fiev aOavaaia^, rjv 17 
(^v(n<; TJiJbMv ov Sex^Tai, /cat t^9 BvvdfjLeQ)^;, 97? iv 
rfj Tvxv^ KeiTai to irXelaTov, iTridufjuovari, rrjv 
8' dperijVf o fiovov ia-rl rSyv 6ei(ov dyaOtav e<^' 
•qixivy iv va-Teptp ridevraiy Ka/cco^ (jypovovvre^;, ct)9 
Tov iv hwdfiei koX tvxj} fieydXij koI dpxfl fi^ov rj 
fiev hiKaioavvr] iroiel 0ecov, rj S' dhiKia drjptcoBrj. 

VII. Tft) S* ovv ^Apio-relBrj a-vve^rj to TrpcaTov, 
dyaTTcofievo) Bik ttjv iircovvfiiav vdTepov <^6oveX\ 
adai, fidXicTTa /jlcv tov %e[iicrTOK\eov<i \6yov d 
T0U9 TToXXou? Bca8iB6vTO<^t^ ft)9 *ApL(rT€iS7j^ dvrjpirf' 

KOd^ TO, Bt,Ka(TT7]pia TO) KpLVGlV CLTTaVTa KoX BtKW 

^eiv, XiXrjde fiovapx^av dBopv^oprjrov eavT^ 
KaT€aK6vd(T/ji6V0<;' ■tjBrj Be irov /cat 6 Brjfio<; eVl t^ 
VLKj) fiiya <j)pov(ov kuI rcov /xeyiCTTCov d^icov avTov 
TjxOeTO T0i9 ovofia koI Bo^av virep tov<; 7roXXov9 
2 exovai. koI (TVveX06vT€<i eU daTV iravTaxoOev 
i^oaTpaKi^ovarc tov ^Api^aTeiBrjv, ovo/ia Ta> (j>66vw 
T^9 B6^7}^ (f)6^ov TVpavviBo<; di/nevoi, 

Mo%^77/Ota9 yap ovk tjv K6Xa<n<; 6 i^oaTpuKia- 
p,6<^, aXX* iKaXetro fiev Bi evirpeTreiav oyKov koX 
Bvvdfji€co<i ^apvTepa<; Taireivwaif; fcal koXovcti^, ^v 
Be ^Oovov TrapafjuvOia <f>LXdvdpo)7ro<;, eh dvrjKecTTOv 
ovBiv, dXX* eh pbeTdaTaacv iTwv BeKa ttjv Trpcx; 




I 



* Tp T^xv Reiske, Hercher, and Blass with F^S : ryxi?. 
' BtaSihovTos Hercher and Blass with F*S : 4K0a\6vTo's. 



230 



ARISTIDES, VI. 4-vii. 2 

for their justice. And yet, although men are thus 
disposed, it is immortality, of which our nature is 
not capable, and power, the chief disposal of which 
is in the hands of fortune, that they eagerly desire ; 
while as for virtue, the only divine excellence within 
our reach, they put it at the bottom of the list, 
unwisely too, since a life passed in power and great 
fortune and authority needs justice to make it 
divine ; by injustice it is made bestial. 

VII. Now, to resume, it befell Aristides to be 
loved at first because of this surname, but afterwards 
to be jealously hated, especially when Themistocles 
set the story going among the multitude that 
Aristides had done away with the public courts 
of justice by his determining and judging everything 
in private, and that, without any one perceiving it, 
he had established for himself a monarchy, saving 
only the armed body-guard. And besides, the 
people too must by this time have become greatly 
elated over their victory ; they thought nothing too 
good for themselves, and were therefore vexed with 
those who towered above the multitude in name and 
reputation. So they assembled in the city from all 
the country round, and ostracized Aristides, giving 
to their envious dislike of his reputation the name of 
fear of tyranny. 

Now the sentence of ostracism was not a chastise- 
ment of base practices, nay, it was speciously called 
a humbling and docking of oppressive prestige and 
power ; but it was really a merciful exorcism of the 
spirit of jealous hate, which thus vented its malig- 
nant desire to injure, not in some irreparable evil. 



231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 TO XvTTOvv aTrepeiSofievov Suo-fievecav. iirel S' 
Tjp^avTo Ttve<; avOpwrrov^ ayevvel^ koI 7rov7jpov<i 
I'TTo^aXkeLv TO) Trpdy/jLari, reXevracov airavrwv 
'^TirepfioXov e^oarpaKiaavTe^ iiravaavTO. XijeraL 
Be TOP 'TireplBoXov i^oarpaKtcrOfjvaL Bia roiavrrjv 
alrlav. *A\Ki0idBr]^ xal ^iKia<; /jtAyiarov iv rrj 
TToXet Bwafxevov Biearaaia^ov. <h<^ ovv 6 5?5/xo9 
eyUfCXXe ^epeiu to oarpaKOv koI BrjXo<i rjv top 
erepov ypdyjrayv, BiaXe')(6evTe^ aXXr;Xo£9 tcai tcl^ 
aTda6i<; e/carepa^ et? ravrb avvayayovret; tov 

4 ^TirepPoXov i^ocTTpaKtaOrjvai irapeaKevaaav. ifc 
Be TovTOv Bva)(€pdva<s 6 Brjfio^ co? KaOv^pca/jbipov 
TO irpayixa kol it poireTrTfkaKta fievuv d^rjKe irav- 
TeXo}<; Koi KaTeXvaev. 

'Hi/ Be TOiovTOV, 609 TUTTft) (f)pdaac, to jLVOfievov, 
oaTpaKOv Xa^wv CKaaTO^ koi ypdyjra<; ov i/Sov- 
XeTo fieTaaTTJaaL ro)v ttoXltmv, e^epev el<; eva to- 
irov T?)? dyopd^ irepiirecjipayixevov iv KV/cXtp 

5 Bpv^dKT0i<i, at B^ dp')(^ovTe<^ irpcorov fiev Bir)p[0- 
fjLOvv TO avfjuirav ev TavTco tcov ocTTpdKcov ttXtjOo^;' 
el yap e^aKLcr^iXiwv iXdTTOV€<; ol <p€povT€<; ^ elev, 
aTeX^9 rjv 6 €^oaTpaKi,(Tp,6<;' eireiTa tcov ovofid- 
Tcov eicacFTOv IBici 6evTe<; tov vtto tmv TrXetaTcov 
yeypafjLfji€vov .i^EKijpvTTOv eh eTrj BeKa, Kapirav- 
jievov TCL avTov. 

Tpa(f>op.ev(ov ovv TOTe tmv oaTpd/coiv XeyeTaL 323 
TLva TCOV dypajjbpbdTwv koL iravTeXw^ dypoLKcov 
dvaBovTa tm ^ApLaTelBrj to oaTpa/cov ci)9 evl tmv 
TV)(^6vT0)V irapaicaXelv, olrco^i ^ApLaTeiBrjv eyypd- 

6 "^eie. TOV Be 6avpdaavT0<; Kal TrvOofxlvov, p,rj ti 

^ <f>epoi>r€S Blass with F^S ; ypdrltayTes, 
232 



ARISTIDES, VII. 3-6 

but in a mere change of residence for ten years. 
And when ignoble men of the baser sort came to be 
subjected to this penalty, it ceased to be inflicted at 
all, and Hyperbolas was the last to be thus ostracized.^ 
It is said that Hyperbolus was ostracized for the 
following reason. Alcibiades and Nicias had the 
greatest power in the state, and were at odds. 
Accordingly, when the people were about to exercise 
the ostracism, and were clearly going to vote against 
one or the other of these two men, they came to 
terms with one another, united their opposing 
factions, and effected the ostracism of Hyperbolus. 
The people were incensed at this for they felt that 
the institution had been insulted and abused, and so 
they abandoned it utterly and put an end to it. 

The method of procedure — to give a general out- 
line — was as follows. Each voter took an ostrakon, 
or potsherd, wrote on it the name of that citizen 
whom he wished to remove from the city, and 
brought it to a place in the agora which was all 
fenced about with railings. The archons first counted 
the total number of ostraka cast. For if the voters 
were less than six thousand, the ostracism was void. 
Then they separated the names, and the man who 
had received the most votes they proclaimed banished 
for ten years, with the right to enjoy the income 
from his property. 

Now at the time of which I was speaking, as the 
voters were inscribing their ostraka, it is said that an 
unlettered and utterly boorish fellow handed his 
ostrakon to Aristides, whom he took to be one of the 
ordinary crowd, and asked him to write Aristides on 
it. He, astonished, asked the man what possible 

* About 417 B.C. Cf. Nicias, xi., Alcibiades, xiii. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KUKov avrov *ApL(TT€iB7j<} ireiroiTjKGV, "Ovhev^ 
eiTrev, " ovBe ytyvcoa-Kco rov avOpojirov, aXV ivo- 
')(kovfiat 'jravTa')(pv rov Ai/caiov aKovwv.*' ravra 
cLKovaavra rov ^Apio-TeiBijv airoKpivaaOai /juev 
ovBiv, iyypdylrai Be rovvofia t5> oarpaKta koX 
cLTToBovvat, Tr}<; Be 7r6\e(o<; airaWaTTo/mevo^; ijBrjy 
Ta9 %et/}a? avareiva^ irpo<; rov ovpavov ev^aro 
TTjv ivavrlavy co? eoi/cev, evj(7]V rco ^A^iWely 
firjBeva Kaipov ^KOrjvaiov^ KaraXa^elv, 09 dvay- 
KCLO-et, Tov Brjfiov ^ApLareiBov fivrja-drjvai, 

YIIL TpLTO) S' eret Hepfou Blo. ©erraXta? 
fcal 3oLcoTLa<; e\avvovTO<; eirl Tr)v ^ArriK^Vy \v- 
<javTe<i TOV vofiov €y]rr)(j)LcravTO toU jxeOeaTcoai 
KciOoBov, jxaXiara (fyo^ov/jLevoL rov ^ApiaTeiBrjv, 
firj irpoaOefievo^ tol<} iroXejuLioi'f BiaipOeiprj koX 
fieTaar^crr) 7roWov<; tmu irokirMV irpo<^ tov 
ffdpjSapov, ovK 6pd(o<; a-TOX^^^o/JLevoi tov dvBpo^, 
09 ye Kot irpo tov B6yfiaT0<; tovtov BieTeXec 
TrpoTpeircov koI irapo^vvcov tov<; '' EWrji>a<; iirl 
TTJV eXevOepiaVy koX peTcu to Boyfia tovto, 
®€fii,(TTOK\eov<; G-TpaTr)yovvTO<i avTOKpdropo^, 
TrdvTa o-vveirpaTTe kol (Tvve^ovXevev, evBo^o- 
TaTOV iirl acoTi^pia Koivfj iroiwv tov ex^caTOv. 

*Il9 yap diroXiirelv ttjv ^dXa/iiLva ^ovXevo- 
pevcov Tcov irepX Kupv^idBrjv at jSappapi/cal 
TpLrjpei^ vvKTCDp dvax^eLcrat koI TrepLpakovorat 
TOV re TTopov ev Kvick(p koX Td<; vrjaov^; KaretxoVy 
ovBevof; TrpoeiBoTo^; ttjv kvk\(0(tlv r^Kev 6 ^Apt- 
aTelBr]^ air' Alyivr]^ irapafioXcofi Blol tcov 



234 



I 



ARISTIDES, vii. 6-viii. 2 

wrong Aristides had done him. " None whatever," 
was the answer, " I don't even know the fellow, but 
I am tired of hearing him everywhere called ' The 
Just.' " On hearing this, Aristides made no answer, 
but wrote his name on the ostrakon and handed it 
back. Finally, as he was departing the city, he 
lifted up his hands to heaven and prayed — a prayer 
the opposite, as it seems, of that which Achilles 
made ^ — that no crisis might overtake the Athenians 
which should compel the people to remember 
Aristides. 

VIII. But in the third year thereafter,^ when 
Xerxes was marcliing through Thessaly and Boeotia 
against Attica, they repealed their law 'of ostracism, 
and voted that those who had been sent away under 
it might return. The chief reason for this was their 
fear of Aristides, lest he attach himself to the 
enemy's cause, and corrupt and pervert many of his 
fellow-citizens to the side of the Barbarian. But 
they much misjudged the man. Even before this 
decree of theirs, he was ever inciting and urging 
the Hellenes to win their freedom ; and after it was 
passed, when Themistocles was general with sole 
powers, he assisted him in every undertaking and 
counsel, although he thereby, for the sake of the 
general safety, made his chiefest foe the most 
famous of men. 

Thus when Eurybiades wished to abandon Salamis, 
but the Barbarian triremes, putting out by night, had 
encompassed the strait where he lay round about, 
and had beset the islands therein, and no Hellene 
knew of this encompassment, Aristides came over to 
them from Aegina, venturously sailing through the 

» Iliad i. 407-412. » 480 B.C. 

23s 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXe/JLicov veojv BieKirXevaaf;' koI vvkto<; iXdcop 
inl rr)v aKrjvrjv rov ©e/xto-roAcXeoi'? xal KaXeaa^ 

3 avTov efft) /jlovov " 'HyLtet?/' elwev, " w Se/Mi- 
aroKXet^if el aoxppovov/jLev, 'y]Srj rrjv Ksvrjv koX 
fieLpaKt(t)Br) (rrda-tv a<f}evT€<; ap^wfieOa acorrjplov 
Kol KaXri<; (piXovecKia^; 7rp6<; dXXtjXov; d/jLLXXco- 
fievoL (TMcrat rrjv ^KXXdSa, av fiev dp^oav Kol 
(TTparrjyojv, iyot) 8' vTrovpywv koX <TV/jL0ovXevci)v, 
67ret Kal vvv ere Trvvddvofiat /jlovov dTrreadat tmv 
dpicTTwv Xoyia/jLwv, KeXevovra Biavav/xa)(^€LV iv 

4 T0i9 arevolf; rrjv Ta%t<TT77i/. Kal aoi tcov (Tvpu- 
fxayfov avTiirpaTTovrayv ol iroXefiioi avvepyelv 
ioLKaar to yap iv kvkXco Kal KaroTTiv ijBr] 
7r6Xayo<i ipjTreTrXrjdrai vecov iroXefiicov, cjcrre Kal 
Tou? fir} OiXovraf; dvdyKrj KarelXTj^ev dyaOov<; 
dvBpa^ elvai Kal fJbd')(ea6aL' (^vyrj<; yap 0S09 ov 

5 XeXeiTrrai.^* tt/jo? ravra 6 Se/JLLaroKXr}^ elirev 
** OvK av iffovXo/jurjv, ay ^ApLa-TeiBrj, ae Kara 
TOVTo fiov KpeiTTOva yevearOaiy ireipdaoixai Be 
7rpo<; KaXrjv dp^rjv d/itXXoofjievo^ vTrep/SdXXea-Oai 
Tot? epyoL<;.^* afia B^ avro) ^pd(ra<^ rrjv u(j)' 
eavTOV KaraoTKevaaOelaav dTrdrrjv 7r/309 tov 
^dp^apov, irapeKaXei ireiOeiv rov l^upv^cdBrjv 
Kal BcBdaKeiv, &)? dfjLrj')(av6v icrrt crwOrjvat /xrj 
vavp,a^i]cravra<;' el)(e yap avrou jxaXXov iria-rLV. 

6 oOev iv TO) (TvXXoyM rcdv arparyycov elirovro^; 
KXeoKpiTOv rod KopLvOiov tt/oo? rov (^efxia-roKXia, 
fjLTjB^ ^KpiarelBrf rr)v yvcofirjv dpiaKeiv avrov, 
rrapovra yap aiwirdv, dvrelrrev 6 ^Apcar6LB7]<;, to? 
OVK av icricoTra /jltj Xiyovro<; rd dpiara rov 
%ept(TroKXeov<^* vvv 5* rjcrv^^Lav dyeiv ov Bi* 
evvoLav rov dvBp6<i, dXXd rrjv yvcofirjv iiraivSiV. 
236 



I 
1 



ARISTIDES, VIII. 2-6 

enemy's ships. He went at once by night to the 
tent of Themistocles, and called him forth alone. 
" O Themistocles," said he, " if we are wise, we shall 
at last lay aside our vain and puerile contention, and 
begin a salutary and honourable rivalry with one 
another in emulous struggles to save Hellas, thou as 
commanding general, I as assistant counsellor, since 
at the very outset I learn that thou art the only one 
who has adopted the best policy, urging as thou 
dost to fight a decisive sea-fight here in the narrows 
as soon as may be. And though thine allies oppose 
thee, thy foes would seem to assist thee ; for the sea 
round about and behind us is already filled with 
hostile ships, so that even our unwilling ones must 
now of necessity be brave men and fight. Indeed, 
no way of escape is left." To this Themistocles 
replied : " I should not have wished, O Aristides, to 
find thee superior to me here ; but I shall try to 
emulate thy fair beginning, and to surpass thee in 
my actions." At the same time he told Aristides of 
the trick that he had contrived against the Barbarian, 
and entreated him to show Eury blades convincingly, 
inasmuch as he had the greater credit with that 
commander, that there was no safety except in a 
sea-fight. So it happened in the council of generals 
that Cleocritus the Corinthian declared to The- 
mistocles that Aristides also was opposed to his plan, 
since he, though present, held his peace. Aristides 
at once replied that he would not have held his 
peace had not Themistocles counselled for the best ; 
but as it was, he kept quiet, not out of any good- 
will to the man, but because he approved of his 
plan. 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IX. Ot fiev ovv vavap)(oi t(ov *K\,\7Jv(t)v ravr 
eirpaTTov. 'ApiaTeiSrj^ B opcov rrjv "^vrTakeiav, 
rj TTpo T?}? Xa\a/MVO<; iv tw iropw Kelrai vrjao^ 
ov /jLeyaXr], TroXejJLiwv avBpcjv fiea-rrjv ovaav, 
efi^L^daa^ eh virrjpeTCKa Tov<i irpoOvfioraTov^ 

KOi /X,a%£//.ft)TttT0U9 t5)V TTOXlTCOV 7rpO<T€flt^€ TJ} 

'^VTTaXeiay koX fxaxv^ tt/oo? Tov<i ^apl3dpov<; 
(Tvvd'^a^ direKTeive iravra^, irXrjv 6<tol tcov eVt- 
<f>av(ov fcui^Tfi? rjXajaav. iv Be tovtoi<! rjcav 
dheXcj)?]^ ^aatXew<i ovofia %avBavKr]<; rpet? 7rai8e<?, I 
01)9 evdi)^ direaTeiXe irpo^; top Se/jLiaroKXia' * 

2 xal Xeyovrav Kara rt Xoytov, rod fiavTecoii 324 
^v^pavrlBov KeXevaavro^;, cofjurja-r^ Aiovvao) KaO- 1 
lepeuOrjvai. ttjv Be vrjalBa TOi? oirXoc^; iravra' 1j 
')(p6ev o ^ApcarTeiBrj^i 7r€ptaTeyjra<; e^riBpeve toI<; 
eK^epofjiivoif; tt/jo? avTijv, q)<; /irjre tcov (J>lXcop 
TLvd Bca<pOap7]vai firjTe tmv TroXefilcov Bia^vyelv* 

6 yap irXelcTTo^ oi}0c(7fio<i tcjv veSyv koX Trj<; 
/i,tt^»79 TO KaprepcoTaTOv eoiKe irepX rov tottov 
eKelvov yeveadar Blo koi Tpoiraiov eaTrjKev iv 
rfj "^urraXela. 

3 Mera Be Trjv /jLdyrjv 6 @efiL(TTOKXrj<; dTT07reipa>' 
/jL€VO^ tov ^ApLareiBov KaXov fxev elvat xal to 
TreTrpayfievov avTolf; epyov eXeye, KpeiTTOv Be 
XeLireadai to Xaffecv iu tTj FiVpcoirrj t^jv *Aalav, 
dvairXevaavTaf; eh ^KXXTjaTTOvTov ttjv Ta')(^iaTr)v 
Koi TO, ^evyfjiUTa^ BiaKo-^avTa^;. iirel 5' 'Apt- 
aT€iBr](; dva/cpayoDV tovtov fiev CKeXeve tov Xoyov 
KaTa^aXelVt a/coireiv Be koL ^rjTelv, 07rft)9 ttjv 
Ta')(liaTriv eK^dXcocrt, tov M.i'iBov i/c Trjf; 'EXXaSo9, 

4 firj KaTaKXeicrdeU diropia (f)vyrj^ yu-era ToaavTrj(! 

* rh (evyfiuTa Horcher and Blass with F'^S : rh CevyfM. 
238 



I 



ARISTIDES, IX. 1-4 

IX. While the captains of the Hellenes were 
acting on this plan, Aristides noticed that Psyttaleia, 
a small island lying in the straits in front of Salamis, 
was full of the enemy. He therefore embarked 
in small boats the most ardent and the most 
warlike of the citizens, made a landing on Psyttaleia, 
joined battle with the Barbarians, and slew them 
all, save the few conspicuous men who were taken 
alive. Among these were three sons of the King's 
sister Sandauce,^ whom he straightway sent to 
Themistocles, and it is said that, in obedience 
to some oracle or other, and at the bidding of 
Euphrantides the seer, they were sacrificed to 
Dionysus Carnivorous. Then Aristides lined the 
islet all round with his hoplites, and lay in wait 
for any who should be cast up there, that no 
friend might perish, and no foe escape. For the 
greatest crowding of the ships, and the most 
strenuous part of the battle, seems to have been 
in this region. And for this reason a trophy was 
erected on Psyttaleia. 

After the battle, Themistocles, by way of sounding 
Aristides, said that the deed they had now 
performed was a noble one, but a greater still 
remained, and that was to capture Asia in Europe, 
by sailing up to the Hellespont as fast as they could 
and cutting in twain the bridges there. But 
Aristides cried out with a loud voice and bade 
him abandon the proposal, and seek rather with 
all diligence how they might most speedily expel 
the Mede from Hellas, lest, being shut in and 
unable to make his escape, from sheer necessity 

* Cf. ThemisiocleSf xiii. 2. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hwdjieco^i rpaTTTJ tt/oo? ajxvvav vir* avdyKr)<;, ovrco 
Trefirret ttoXlv ApvciKTjv €vvov)(^ov 6 @€/jLLaTOKXr]<; 
€K Tcov al')(^jJLa\(OTCov Kpv<f)a, ^pdaai tS* fiaa-iXel 
/ce\€V(Ta^, OTi TrXelv iirl ra<i yecpvpa^; aDpjxrjfievov; 
rov<i "KW7)va<; auro? diroarpeylreie aco^ecrOac 
^aaiXea ^ov\6/jL€vo<i. 

X. 'E/c rovTOV aep^Tj^ fiev 7r€pt(^o^o? 761^0- 
/i€VO<i ev6v<i eirl rov 'EW'^arirovrov rjirelyeTo, 
MapS6vio<; Be rov aTparov to BoKLfKorarov ^ e')((ov 
Trepl rpiaKovTa /jLvpidBaq vTrekeLircTO, koI ^0- 
^€po<; rjv diT la^^P^'^ ^^9 irepX to ttc^ov eXTrtSo? 
direiXSyv toX^ "EXXrjai koI ypdcfxov TOtavTa' 
" NevLKi]KaT6 6a\a(Taioi<i ^v\oL<i ;)^6/)<ratou<? dv- 
dptaiTov^i ovK i7n(TTafX6vov<; kcotttjv iXavveiv dXXd 
vvv irXaTela fjuev rj ScttuXcov yrj, KaXov he to 
^oia>TLov irehiov dya6ol<i lirirevcTi /cal 07rXtTat9 
ivaycovLcraaOac.^^ 7rpo<; Be ^ Adr)vavov<i eTrejx-^ev 
IBia ypdfjLfMaTa koX X6yov<; irapd ^aaiXew^, Trjv 
Te TToXiv avToU dvaaTrjaeiv iirayyeXXoixevov koI 
'^p^/jLUTa TToXXa Scoaeiv kuI tmv 'KXX'^vcop 
Kvpiov<; KaTacTTTjcreLv iKiroBcbu tou TroXifiov yevo- 
fxevov^i. 

01 Be AaKeSaifiovioc TrvOofievoL TavTa koX 
Bei(TavT€<^ eire/jLyjrav ^AO>]va^e 7rpea^€i<i, Beo/juepoi 
Tcbv ^AQy-jvaidiv, oiray^ iralBa^ fxev koI yvvalKa^ 
6t9 '^TTdpTr]v dirocFTeiXwaLy tol^ Be irpea^VTepot^i 
Tpo^a<i Trap' avrwv Xap^/Sdvcoa-iv l(T')(ypd yap 
Tjv diropia Trepl tov Brjfiov aTroXcoXeKOTa teal 
Trjv^ ')(^(i)pav Kol Tr}v ttoXlv, ou p,r)V dXXd tmv 
Trpea^ewv aKovaavTe^, ^ApLareiBov yjrrjcpKTfjia 



I 



I 



^ SoKifj-wTaTov Blass with F^^S : iLiaxtu<aTarov, 
^ Koi Ti]u Hercher and Blass wilh F*S : rifv. 



240 



ARISTIDES, IX. 4-x. 4 

he throw this vast force of his upon the defensive. 
So Themistocles sent once more the eunuch Arnaces,^ 
a prisoner of war^ bidding him tell the King that 
the Hellenes had actually set out on a voyage 
to attack the bridges, but that he, Themistocles, 
had succeeded in turning them back, wishing to 
save the King. 

X. At this Xerxes grew exceeding fearful, and 
hurried straight to the Hellespont; but Mardonius, 
with the flower of the army, to the number of 
three hundred thousand men, was left behind. 
He was a formidable adversaiy, and because his 
confidence in his infantry was strong, he wrote 
threateningly to the Hellenes, saying : " Ye have 
conquered with your maritime timbers landsmen 
who know not how to ply the oar ; but now, broad 
is the land of Thessaly and fair the plain of Boeotia 
for brave horsemen and men-at-arms to contend 
in." But to the Athenians he sent separate letters 
and proposals from the King, who promised to 
rebuild their city, give them much money, and 
make them lords of the Hellenes, if only they 
would cease fighting against him. 

When the Lacedaemonians learned this, they 
took fright, and sent an embassy to Athens, begging 
the Athenians to despatch their wives and children 
to Sparta, and to accept from her a support for 
their aged and infirm ; for great was the distress 
among the people, since it had so recently lost 
both land and city. However, after listening to 
the embassy, on motion of Aristides, they answered 

* Cf. Themistocles, xvi. 2 f. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'Ypd'^avTO<;j aireKpivavTO OavjuLaa-rrjv dirofcpiaiv, 
T0i9 P'ev 7To\eixLoL<; avyyvoiyixriv €)(6iv ^datcovre^, el 
irdvra ttXovtov koI '^(^prjfidTcov (ovia vo/iii^oLev, 
cov KpeuTTOV ovoev XaaariVt opyl^ea-Oac Be AuKeSai- 
fjLovLoi^t OTL Tr)v TTevlav Kot TTjv diToplav Tr)V vvv 
Trapovcrav ^ KOr^vaioL^ jxovov 6pa>cri, t^9 3' dpeTrj^ 
Kol T^? (pLXoTLfiLWi d/jLvrjfjLOvovcnv cttI aiTioi^ 
virep ri}? 'EWaSo? dywvi^eadai irapatcaXovvre'^, 

5 Tavra ypdylra<i ^ApKTTeiBrjf; koI tou^ Trpeo-^ei^ 
el<; TTJV eKKXrjcTLav irapayayoov, AaKeSaifiovioif; 
ixev eKekevae (ppd^eiVy w? ovk eari 'X^pvaov 
ToaovTov TrXrjdof; ovB* vrrep yrjv ov9^ viro yrjv, 
oaov ^K6r}valni Be^atvro av irpb Trj<; twv 'EX- 
XrjvoDV i\evdepia<;. roh he irapa MapSovlov tov 
rfktov Bei^a<i, "*'A;^/9i av ovto<;** €0>;, *' ravrijv 
TTopevTjrai, rrjv iropeiav, ^AOrjvacoi, irokepLrjaovat 
UepaaL'i virep t^9 BeBrjci}p,evr]<; ')(^copa<; Kal rcov 

6 rjae^rjfjLevcov /cal Kara/ceKavfjievcov lepwv." €Ti> Be 
dpa<; Oeadai tov<; iepel^ eypayjrev, ec Tt9 eiTiKr)- 
pvKevcraLro Mi]Bol<; tj ttjv cry/t/ia^tar dTroXiiroi 
Tcov 'RXXrjvcov, 

^E/jLl3a\6vro<i Be M.apBovLOv to Bevrepov el<i ttjv 
^ATTLKTjVi av6L<i eU XaXafjLcva Bieirepaaav. *Api- 
aT€iBrj<; Be 7re/jL^9el<; eh AaKeBaipuova Tr]<; fiev 
^paBvTTJTo^i avTOL<; evexdXei /cal t?}? oXiycopla^, 
Trpoefievoif} av0L<; toJ ^apjSdpco ra? 'A^jji/a?, 
ri^iov Be irpo^ tcl ctc Gco^ofxeva t^9 'EWaSo? 

7 ^ot]6elv. Tavra aKovaavre^ ol *'E<j>opoi fied* 325 

242 



I 
I 



ARISTIDES, X. 4-7 

with an admirable answer, declaring that thej 
could be tolerant with their foes for supposing 
that everthing was to be bouglit for wealth and 
money, since their foes could conceive of nothing 
higher than these things ; but they were indignant 
at the Lacedaemonians for having an eye only 
to the penury and indigence that now reigned 
at Athens, and for being so unmindful of the valour 
and ambition of the Athenians as to exhort them 
to contend for Hellas merely to win their rations. 
When Aristides had made this motion and had 
introduced the waiting embassies into the Assembly, 
he bade the Lacedaemonians tell their people that 
there was not bulk of gold above or below ground 
so large that the Athenians would take it in 
payment for the freedom of the Hellenes ; and to 
the messengers of Mardonius he said, pointing to 
the sun: "As long as yonder sun journeys his 
appointed journey, so long will the Athenians wage 
war against the Persians in behalf of the land 
which has been ravaged by them and of the 
temples which they have defiled and consumed 
with fire." Still further, he made a motion that 
the priests should solemnly curse all who came to 
a parley with the Medes or forsook the alliance of 
the Hellenes. 

When Mardonius for the second time invaded 
Attica, again the people crossed over to Salamis. 
Then Aristides, who had been sent as envoy to 
Lacedaemon, inveighed against their sluggishness 
and indifference, in that they had once more 
abandoned Athens to the Barbarian, and demanded 
that they go to the aid of what was still left of 
Hellas. On hearing this, the Ephors, as long as 

243 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjixipav fiev eBoKOVV Trai^eiv koX paOu/netv eoprd- 
foz^Te?* ^v yap avTol<; *TaKivOLa' vvkto<; Be 
irevTaKLaxi^Xiov'^ %7rapTiaT(bv eV^Xefaz^re?, a)v 
€fca(TTO<; kina irepl aurov elXayra^ ^^X^^> e^eire/jL- 
yfrav ovk elBoroyv tcov ^Adrjvaicov. eVel Be irdXiv 
eyKoXSiv 6 ^ApiaT€LBr]<; irpocrrjXOev, ol Se avv 
yiXcoTL \7]p€LV avTov €(j)aaKOV koI jcadevSeiv, ijBrj 
ryap iv 'Opecrretoi) rov arparbv eivai Tropevofievov 
iirl TOv<i ^ivov^ {^evov<i yap eKoXovv Tov<i Hepa-a^), 

8 ov Kara Katpov ecjirj irai^eiv avTOV^; 6 ^ApLcrrelBijf;^ 
avTL Tcou 7ro\€fjiL(ov Tov^ (jyCkov^i i^airarcovTa 
ravd^ ol irepl rov ^iBo/xevea Xeyovaiv. ev Be 
Tft) y^rji^iajxaTL rov ^ApLarelBov nrpeafievTr]^ ovk 
avr6<^, aSXa Klfjiwv Kal HapOnriro'; kuI M.vp(o- 
ViBr)<; (j)€povTaL. 

XL i^eLpoTOvrjOeU Be (TTpaT7]yo<; avroKparcop 
iirl Tr]v fid'X^rjV, Kal rSiV^ AOrjvaicdv OKraKia^iXlovf; 
oirXiTa^ dvaXaffcoVy rjKev eh HXarata?. CKel Be 
Kal Jlavaavla<; 6 rov G-vfiTravTo^; 'qyovjjbevo^ 
*FiXkrjvcKov (Tvvefii^ev e'x^cov tou? %7rapTLdTa<;, 
Kal rdov aXkcov 'EWijvcov eireppei rb ttXtjOo^. 

2 Twz^ Be ^apfidpcov to /jl€V 6\ov rr;? o-rparoTreBeia^ 
irapd TOP 'AacoTTOV TTOTa/jibv 7rap6KT€TajjLevi]<; 
ovBel^i rjv bpo^ Bid to fjbeyeOo^, irepl Be Ta? aTTo- 
a-Kevd<; Kal rd KVpicorara relxo^ irepiecfypd^avTO 
reTpdycovoVt ov rwv ifKevpo)v e/cdarr] jjL7]K0<i rjv 
BeKa araBlcov. 

Tiavaavia piev ovv Kal tol<; "FiXkrjai kolvtj 
Ttaa/xevb^; 6 'H\6609 e/JLavrevo-aro, Kal irpoelire 
vLkt^v d/jLVvofjbevoi^ Kal fir) 'jrpoeTrv')(eLpovai,v 



244 




ARISTIDES, X. 7-xi. 2 

it was day, publicly disported themselves in easy- 
going festival fashion ; for it was their festival of the 
tlyacinthia. But in the night they selected five 
thousand Spartans, each of whom had seven Helots 
to attend upon him, and sent them forth without 
the knowledge of the Athenians. So when Aristides 
came before them with renewed invectives, they 
laughed and said he was but a sleepy babbler, 
for that their army was already in Arcadia on 
its march against the ''strangers" (they called the 
Persians strangers). But Aristides declared they 
were jesting out of all season, forasmuch as they 
were deceiving their friends instead of their enemies. 
This is the way Idomeneus tell the story. But in 
the decree which Aristides caused to be passed, he 
himse)f is not named as envoy, but Cimon, Xanthippus, 
and Myronides. 

XI. Having been elected general with sole powers 
in view of the expected battle, he came to Plataea ^ 
at the head of eight thousand Athenian hoplites. 
There Pausanias also, the commander in chief of 
the whole Hellenic army, joined him with his 
Spartans, and the forces of the rest of the Hellenes 
kept streaming up. Now, generally speaking, 
there was no limit to the encampment of the 
Barbarians as it lay stretched out along the river 
Asopus, so vast was it; but round their baggage 
trains and chief headquarters they built a quad- 
rangular wall, whereof each side was ten stadia 
in length. 

To Pausanias and all the Hellenes under him 
Tisamenus the Eleian made prophecy, and foretold 
victory for them if they acted on the defensive and 

* Spring of 479 b.o. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 ^ApiarelSov S^ Treji^avro^ eh AeXc^ou? avelXev 
6 0€o<; *A0rjvaiOu<; Kadvireprepov^^ eaeaOat tmv 
ivavTLCJv eif^ofievov^ tm Ad Kal Trj "H/3a rfj 
KiOaipcavia Kal Havl Kal vvfJL(f)ai^ 'XtppayiTicn, 
Kal Ovovra^ rjpwdLv ^AvSpoKpuTec, AevKwvt, 
lJi€i<ruvSp(pf AafjLOKpdrei, ^TyjrLODVi, *AKTai(ovi, 
Ilo\utB(p, Kal Tov KLvBvvov iv 7a Ihia 'Troiovfievov; 
ev ra> ireBio) ras: Aajxarpo^ ra^ 'EXeucrij^ta? Kai 

4 Ta^ Kopa?. 0^X09 o 'xprjo-fio^ avevexOeU airoplav 
TO) ^ApiarelBrj Trapetxev, ol fi€v yap rjpwe^, oh 
cKcXeve Oveiv, apxvj^'^^^ UXaraiecov ^aav, Kal 
TO Tcov ^^payLTiScov vvfi^MV avTpov iv fiia 
KOpv^fj TOV KLdatpMv6<; ia-riv, eh 8va/jLa<; rfkiov 
Oepiva^ Terpajufievov, iv w Kal fiavTetov ^v 
TTpoTepoVy 0)9 (j)aai, Kal ttoWoI KaTei^ovTo tmv 
i'jnx^p'^^'^y o^? vv/ji<l)o\r)7rTov(; Trpoa-rjyopevov. 

5 TO Be Tr)9 ^EXevo-ivia^ Ai]fir]Tpo<; jreBioVy Kal to 
TTjv fjLd)(rjv iv IBia X^P^ TToiovixevoi^ to2^ ^AOrj- 
vaioi.<i VLK7]V BiBoaOai, Trakiv eh ttjv ^Attikijv 
dveKaXelTO Kal p^eOiaTrj tov irokejjbov. 

"FjvOa TCdv II\aTai6Q)V 6 (tt partly o<;^ ApiiJivr)aTo<^ 
eBo^e Kara tov<; virvoufi vtto tov Alo^ tov ^coTrjpo^ 
iirepcoTco/jLevov avrov, 6 tl By TrpdrTeiv BiBoKTai 
Toh ''EWrja-LV, elirelv, "Avpiov eh ^EXevaiva ttjv 
aTpariav dird^oixeVy <w BiairoTa, Kal BtafiaxovjieOa 
Toh Pap!3dpoL<; iKel Kara to ttvOo^PV^^'^ov.^' 

6 TOV ovv 6eov ^dvat, Bia^apTaveiv avTov^ tov 
iravTO^' avToOt yap elvai irepl Trjv TI\aTalKr)v 
TO, TTvOoxpV^'^f^ f^^^ ^7}TovvTa<; dvevprjcreiv. 
TovTcov ivapycj^ t^ ^Apifiv^aTtp (fiavevToav i^eypo- 

246 



ARISTIDES, XI. 3-6 

did not advance to the attack. But Aristides sent 
to Delphi and received from the god response that 
the Athenians would be superior to their foes if they 
made vows to Zeus, Cithaeronian Hera, Pan, and 
the Sphragitic nymphs ; paid sacrifices to the heroes 
Androcrates, Leucon, Pisandrus, Damocrates, Hyp- 
sion, Actaeon, and Polyidus; and if they sustained 
the peril of battle on their own soil, in the plain of 
Eleusinian Demeter and Cora. When this oracle 
was reported to Aristides, it perplexed him greatly. 
The heroes to whom he was to sacrifice were, it was 
true, ancient dignitaries of the Plataeans ; and the 
cave of the Sphragitic nymphs was on one of the 
peaks of Cithaeron, facing the summer sunsets, and 
in it there was also an oracle in former days, as they 
say, and many of the natives were possessed of the 
oracular power, and these were called nympholepii, 
or " nymph -possessed." But the plain of Eleusinian 
Demeter, and the promise of victory to the Athenians 
if they fought the battle in their own territory, 
called them back, as it were, to Attica, and changed 
the seat of war. 

At this time the general of the Plataeans, Arim- 
nestus, had a dream in which he thought he was 
accosted by Zeus the Saviour and asked what the 
Hellenes had decided to do, and replied : " On the 
morrow, my Lord, we are going to lead our army 
back to Eleusis, and fight out our issue with the 
Barbarians there, in accordance with the Pythian 
oracle." Then the god said they were entirely in 
error, for the Pythian oracle's places were there in 
the neighbourhood of Plataea, and if they sought 
them they would surely find them. All this was 
made so vivid to Arimnestus that as soon as he awoke 

VOL. 11. I 247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fievo^ rd')(^iGTa /xereTri/jLyfraro tov<; i/jLTreipordrov^ 
KoX irpeafivrdrov^; tmv iroXircov, fieO^ ojv Sia- 
X€y6/JL€V0<; KoX crvvBcaTropojv evpev, on rcov 'TaLCov 
TrXrjaiov viro rov }Li6aipwva va6<; iariv dp^alo^ 
irdvv ^ A7]/jLr]Tpo<; ^^Xevaivia^ koI l^opr)^ irpoaa- 

7 fyop€v6fjL6vo<;. ev6v<; ovv irapakajBcov tov 'Apt- 
arelSrjv ^yev eVl rov roirov, 6V(f>v€crraTOV ovra 
irapard^ai <j)d\ayya ire^iKr^v iTnTOKpaTOV/iivoi,^, 
Sid rd^ viroopeta^ rov Ki6aip(ovo<; dcpcTTTra iroi- 
ovaa<i rd KaTcCKriyovTa Kal avyKvpovvra rov 
irehiov 7rpo<^ to lepov. avrov 3* ^v Kal to tov 
^AvBpoKpdrov; rjpwov iyyv<;, dXcrei ttvkvcov Kal 

8 (TuaKLcov SevBpcov irepiexop'^vov. ottco? he /jirjBev 
iWiTrh exv 'rrpo^ ttjv iXTTiSa tt}? vlktj^; 6 ^Plf^l^o^* 
eSo^e TOL^ nXaTaievaiv, ^ApL/xvija-Tov yvcofjirjv 
eLTTovTO^, dveXelv Ta Trpo^ ttjv 'Attiktjv opta tt)? 326 
UXaTauSof; Kal Trjv %ft)paz^ eirthovvaL rot? ^Adrj- 
vaioif; virep Ti]<; 'EXXaSo? ev olKela KaTa tov 
XP'^o-p'OV ivaycavia-aaOai. 

9 'IavTr]v fiev ovv ttjv (f>LXoTLfiiav tcov HXaTatecov 
ovTco (TVi'i^rj TrepL^orjTOv yeveaOac, axTTe Kal 
^AXi^avBpov rjSr) ^aaiXevovTa t^9 'Ao-ta? vcTepov 
TToXXoLf; €T€(Ti, Tei^i^ovTa Td<i YiXaTaid^ dveiirelv 
^OXvfiTTLdorLV viro KTjpvKO^, OTL TavTTjv 6 ^aaiXev^ 
diroSiScoo-L UXaTatevat tt)^ dvhpayaOia^; Kal Ti]<; 
/jbeyaXo^jrvxi^a^ X^P^^» eVe^S^ Tol<i ^'EXXrja-Lv iv 
T(p MrjSLKM iroXifKp ttjv %co/3az/ eTriScoKav Kal 
Trapecrxov avTov<; irpo6vpiOTdTov<;. 

XII. ^A6r)vaioi<i he TeyeuTat, irepl Td^ew<i 
iptcravTe^ rj^tovv, axrirep del, AaKehatfJioviwv to 
he^Lov ixovTcov Kepa^, avTol to evcovvfiov ex^iv, 

1 irduv omitted by Bekker, now found in S. 
248 



ARISTIDES, XI. 6-xii. i 

he summoned the oldest and most experienced of his 
fellow-citizens. By conference and investigation 
with these he discoverd that near Hysiae, at the 
foot of mount Cithaeron, there was a very ancient 
temple bearing the names of Eleusinian Demeter and 
Cora. Straightway then he took Aristides and led 
him to the spot. They found that it was naturally 
very well suited to the array of infantry against a 
force that was superior in cavalry, since the spurs of 
Cithaeron made the edges of the plain adjoining the 
temple unfit for horsemen. There, too, was the 
shrine of the hero Androcrates hard by, enveloped 
in a grove of dense and shady trees. And besides, 
that the oracle might leave no rift in the hope 
of victory, the Plataeans voted, on motion of Arim- 
nestus, to remove the boundaries of Plataea on 
the side toward Attica, and to give this territory 
to the Athenians, that so they might contend in 
defence of Hellas on their own soil, in accordance 
with the oracle. 

This munificence of the Plataeans became so 
celebrated that Alexander, many years afterwards, 
when he was now King of Asia,^ built the walls of 
Plataea, and had proclamation made by herald at the 
Olympic games that the King bestowed this grace 
upon the Plataeans in return for their bravery and 
magnanimity in freely bestowing their territory upon 
the Hellenes in the Median war, and so showing 
themselves most zealous of all. 

XII. Now with the Athenians the men of Tegea 
came to strife regarding their position in the line. 
They claimed that, as had always been the case, 
since the Lacedaemonians held tlie right wing, they 

1 331-330 B.a 

249 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToWh T0U9 avTcav irpoyovovf; i>yKO)fjLtd^ovTe<;. 
ayava/CTOvvrcov Sk rSiV ^AOijvaiwv irapekOoDV 
6 ^ApcaT€LSr}(; etTre* "Teyearai? fjLev avTeiirelv 
Trepl €vy€veLa<; koX ayhpayaOiw^ 6 irapoov 
Kaipo<i ov hiScoat, 7r/)09 S' vpt,a<;, w '^TrapridraL, 
Kol Tou? dWov<s"EWr]va<; Xeyofiev, ore rrjv aperrjv 
ou/c a(j>aLp€LTai totto^ ovBe ElSojctlv' rjv 3' av vfiel^i 
r)/jLtv rd^iv diroScoTe ireipaaofieOa KO<TfiovvTe<i 
Kal (pvXaTTOVTef; purf KaTaL(T)(^uvetv tov<; Trporjycovi- 

2 (TpL€vov<i dy(ova<;. rjicopLev yap ov rot? crv/jL/xd')^oi^ 
(rra(Tid(TovT€^y dWa puaxovp^evoc roh TroXe/xtoi?, 
ouS' iTratvearofievoi tou? 7raTepa<;, aXV auToix; 
dvSpa<i dyaOov<; ry '^WdSi irape^ovre^i' co? outo<; 
6 dyoiv hei^ei koX iroXtv kol dp^ovTa Kal iStcoTijv 
OTToaov Tolt;"EW7jaLV d^t6<; 6(ttl.^* ravr aKOV- 
aavT6<; ol crvveSpot Kal '^yepLoveg dire^e^avTO rov<; 
*Adr}vaiov<; Kal Odrepov avroh K6pa<; dire^oaav, 

XIII. Ovar]<; Be puereoopov t^9 'EXXaSo? Kal 
pudXiara toI<; ^ KOrjvaioL^ rcov Trpaypbdrcov eVi- 
(r<paXa)<; eyovrwVy dvZpe^ ef oXkcov eTrc^avcov Kal 
'^prjpidTcov pieydXcov irevr^re^ viro rov iroXepuov 
yey ovore^ Kal iraaav dpca rut irXovrco rrjv iv rrj 
TToXei hvvapLiv avrcov Kal So^av ol^opiivrjv opcov- 
T69, erepcop TLpbCDpievcDV Kal dpxovrcov, avvrjXOov 
€t9 oIkluv Tivd rcov iv UXaTaLat^ Kpixpa koI 
avvco/j^oaavTo KaraXvaeiv rov S^pLOV el Sk purf 
'7rpo)(Q)poir}y XvpbavelaOav rd irpdypbara Kal 70*9 
ffap^dpoL'; 7rpoB(ocr€LV. 

2 YlpaTTopievcov Sk tovtcov iv rw a-rparoTriSo) Kal 
avx^vmv tJBtj Si€(f>OapjLLeva)V, alaOopievo^ 6 *Api- 
a-T€iB7]fi Kal (l)o^7]6eh tov KaipoVy eyvco pLijT idv 
250 



ARISTIDES, XII. i-xiii. 2 

themselves should hold the left, and in support of 
their claim they sounded loudly the praises of their 
ancestors. The Athenians were incensed, and 
Aristides came forward and made this speech : " To 
argue with the men of Tegea about noble birth and 
bravery, there is surely no time now ; but we declare 
to you, O Spartans, and to the rest of the Hellenes, 
that valour is not taken away from a man, nor is 
it given him, by his position in the line. Whatsoever 
post ye shall assign to us, we will endeavour to main- 
tain and adorn it, and so bring no disgrace upon the 
contests we have made before. We are come, not 
to quarrel witli our allies, but to do battle with our 
foes ; not to heap praises on our fathers, but to show 
ourselves brave men in the service of Hellas. It is 
this contest which will show how much any city or 
captain or private soldier is worth to Hellas." On 
hearing this, the councillors and leaders declared for 
the Athenians, and assigned to them the other wing. 

XIII. While Hellas was thus in suspense and 
Athens especially in danger, certain men of that 
city who were of prominent families and large 
wealth, but had been impoverished by the war, saw 
that with their riches all their influence in the city 
and their reputation had departed, while other men 
now had the honours and offices. They therefore 
met together secretly at a certain house in Plataea, 
and conspired to overthrow the democracy ; or, it 
their plans did not succeed, to injure the general 
cause and betray it to the Barbarians. 

Such was the agitation in the camp, and many 

had already been corrupted, when Aristides got 

wind of the matter, and, fearful of the crisis that 

Tl favoured the plot, determined not to leave the 

251 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a/jL€\ovfi€vov TO TTpdy/iia jxrjd^ airav eKKaXvirreiv, 
a<yvoovfjbevov eh oaov etc^rjcreTai, irXrjdo^; 6 ekeyx^^ 

TOP TOV SifCaiOV ^rjTCJV OpOV CLVtI TOV aVfl^€pOVTO<f, 

3 oxTcb Bf] Tivat; i/c ttoWcov avviXa^e* koI tovtohv 
hvo fiiv, ol? TTpwTOi^ r) Kpi(TL<; 7rp06ypd(j)r}, at koI 
ifKeicTTr^v aiTiav el^oVi Aiax^^V^ A.apLirTpev<^ koX 
*A.yri<TLa<; ^A'X^apvev^, mxovTO cf)€vyovT€<; €K tov 
(TTpaTOTTeBov, Tou? S' dWov<; d<l)rJK6y OapcrrjaaL 
BtSov<; Kol fieTayvcjvat Toh 6Tt Xavddvetv olo- 
jJiivoL^t vireiTTODv q)<; fiiya BiKaaTi]piov €')(0V(TL tov 
TToXefJbov diroXvcradOai Td<; atrta? opBcos: Koi 
SiKaL(o<!; TTJ TraTpiSc ^ovXevojuevoi. 

XIV. Mera TavTa MapB6vto<;, w irXelaTov 
iSoKCt, Stacf^epetv, TOiV *^WrjV(ov dTreTreipaTO, Tr)V 
LTTTTOv dOpoav avT0L<; e^6fc9 Kade^ofiivoi^^ vnro tov 
TrpoTToSa TOV Yit6aip(ji)vo<; iv 'xwpioi^; o^vpot^ koX 
ireTpoiihecn ttXjjv Meyapicov. ovtoi Se Tpiax^'Xiot, 
TO ttXtJ^o? 6Vt€9 iv T0?9 eTriTriBoif; fidWov 
ia-TpaTOTreSevovTO. 8io koX KaKo!)<; eiraaxov viro fl 
TTjf; cTTTTov pv€car]<; eir avTov^ Koi irpoafioXdf; ^ 

2 e%ou£r?;9 iravTayJidev, eizeymov ovv dyyekov 
KaTCL Ta%09 Trpo? Uavaavlav ^orjOetv KekevovTe^, 
tt)9 ov SvvdfievoL KaB^ avT0V<; vTroaTrjvat to t&v 
PapPdpodv TT\rj6o<i, TavTa Tiavaavia^ aKovoiv, 
rjBrj Be Koi, xaOopcov dTroKeKpufifievov aKovTiafjid- 
Tcov Kal To^evfjbdTcov 7r\i]6ei to aTpaTOTreBov tcov 
yieyapeoov Kal avvea-TdkiMevov^ avTov<; eh oTuyov, 
auT09 fiev dixrixavo^ r^v irpo^i iTTTTOTa^ dfivveiv 327 
252 



ARISTIDES, XII!. 2-xiv. 2 

matter in neglect, nor yet to bring it wholly to the 
light, since it could not be known how many would 
be implicated by a test which was based on justice 
rather than expediency. Accordingly, he arrested 
some eight or so of the many conspirators. Two of 
these, against whom the charge was first formally 
brought, and who were really the most guilty ones, 
Aeschines of Lamptrae and Agesias of Acharnae, 
fled the camp. The rest he released, affording thus 
an opportunity for encouragement and repentance to 
those who still thought they had escaped detection, 
and suggested to them that the war was a great 
tribunal for their acquittal from the charges made 
against them, provided they took sincere and 
righteous counsel in behalf of their country. 

XIV. After this, Mardonius made trial of the 
Hellenes with that arm of his service in which he 
thought himself most superior. He despatched all 
his cavalry against them as they lay encamped at the 
foot of Cithaeron, in positions that were rugged and 
rocky — all except the Megarians. These, to the 
number of three thousand, were encamped the 
rather in open plain. For this reason they suffered 
severely at the hands of the cavalry, which poured 
in tides against them, and found access to them 
on every side. Accordingly, they sent a messenger 
in haste to Pausanias, bidding him come to their aid, 
since they were unable of themselves to withstand 
the host of the Barbarians. Pausanias, on hearing 
this, and seeing at once that the camp of the 
Megarians was as good as hidden from view by the 
multitude of the enemy's javelins and arrows, and 
that its defenders were huddled together in narrow 
quarters, on his own part had no way of rendering 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oirXiTLKfj <f>d\ayyt Koi papeia rfi '^TrapTiarcov, 

3 T0t9 8' aWoi9 (TTparijyoU koX Xoxayol^; tojv *E\- 
Xiqvwv irepl axjTOv overt irpovOero ^rfKov ap€Trj<; 
Kot (l>tXoTCfiia<;, el 8i] r^z/e? eKovre^ avahe^aivTo 
irpoayoivlaaaOat koi fforjdtjaai TOi<; Meyapevo-i. 
Tcov 8' aXXcov oKVOvvTOiv *ApLcrTeiBr]f; avahe^dfievo^ 
virep T(ov ^A6rivai(0v to epyov diroaTeXket rov 
Trpodv/JLOTarov rcou Xo%a7wi/ ^OXvfiTrioScopov, 
e^ovTa Tov^ vir* avT(p Terayjiivov^; Xoyd8a<; 
rpiaKoaiovf; Kol ro^ora^ dvafiefxiyp^evov^i avv 
avToX^. 

4 Tovrayv Be ^ of eo)? BLacrKevaaa/Jbivcov koX irpoa- 
^epofjiii'cov Bpofio), Mao-ta-T£09 6 tcov fiap^dpcov 
'iTCTrapxo^y dvr]p aXxy re OavjiaaTo^ fxeyeOet re 
Kol KaXXei crco/iiaTO(; nrepiTTo^, «? KaTelBev, 
ivavTiov einaTpe^a^ tov Xttitov el<; avTOi)<; rjXavve. 
T(bv S' dvaa')(^ofjL6vcDV koI avfi^aXovTcov tjv dyayv 
KapTep6<;, <o<; irelpav iv tovtw tov iravTOf; Xafju- 

5 ^avovTCOv. CTrel Be T0^ev6el<; 6 itttto? tov Ma- 
oiaTLOv dweppiyfre koI ireaoov viro ^dpov<; tcov 
ottXcov auTo? re BvaKLV7jTo<; rjv dva(j)epet>v real tol<; 
*A6r)va[oL<i eTTiKeifievot^ Koi iraiovai Bvcr/jLeTax^tpc- 
0"T09, ov fiovov (TTepva kuI Ke^aXrjv, dXXa koX to, 
yvia ')(^pv(7cp kolI yaXKco kol aiBjjpw KaTaire^pay- 
fjL€vo<;, TovTOv fiev y to Kpdvo^ viricpatve tov 

6<j)6aX/JL0V CLKOVTLOV CTTVpaKL TTULCOV TL^ dvelXcV, ol 

S* dXXoL Uepaat, Trpoifievot, tov veKpov €(j)evyov. 

6 eyvcoadrj Be tov KaTopOcofiaTO^ to fJieyeOos: tok 
"KXXrjaiv ovK UTro tcov veKpcov tov irXrjOov^y 
oXiyoc yap ol ireaovTe'i rjaav, dXXa Ta> Trevdec tcov 

* rovTuv Sc Hercher and Blass with F*S : roiruv. 
254 



ARISTIDES, XIV. 2-6 

them aid against horsemen, since his phalanx of 
Spartans was full-armoured and slow of movement ; 
but to the rest of the generals and captains of the 
Hellenes who were about him he proposed, in order to 
stir up their valour and ambition, that some of them 
should volunteer to make contention for the succour 
of the Megarians. The rest all hesitated, but 
Aristides, in behalf of the Athenians, undertook 
the task, and despatched his most zealous captain, 
Olympiodorus, with the three hundred picked men 
of his command, and archers mingled with them. 
* These quickly arrayed themselves and advanced 
to the attack on the run. Masistius, the commander 
of the Barbarian cavalry, a man of wonderful prowess 
and of surpassing stature and beauty of person, saw 
them coming, and at once wheeled his horse to 
face them and charged down upon them. Then 
there was a mighty struggle between those who 
withstood and those who made the charge, since 
both regarded this as a test of the whole issue 
between them. Presently the horse of Masistius 
was hit with an arrow, and threw his rider, who 
lay where he fell, unable to raise himself, so heavy 
was his armour; and yet he was no easy prey to 
the Athenians, though they pressed upon him 
and smote him. For not only his chest and 
head, but also his limbs were encased in gold and 
bronze and iron. But at last, with the spike of 
a javelin, through the eye-hole of his helmet, he was 
smitten to the death, and the rest of the Persians 
abandoned his body and fled. The magnitude of 
their success was known to the Hellenes, not 
from the multitude of those they slew, for few 



255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

jSap^dpcov. fcal yap eavTOV<; e/cetpav cttI tw 
Mao-icrrtft) /cal Ilttttov^ fcal rjfiiovovf;, olfx(oyri<; re 
Kol KkavOfJbOv TO irehiov iveiripbifkaa-av, co? dv8pa 
iroXv irpcoTOV dperfj kol hvvdfiei fierd ye Ma/)- 
hovLov avTov diro^aXovre^;. 

XV. Merd Be ttjv iTTTrofiax^ccv dfi^orepot, fidxv^ 
ea-xovTO xpopov ttoXvv dfiwo/jiivoL^ yap ol /idv- 
ret? vLKTjv 7rpou(paivov eic tmv lepcov oyototo)? Kal 
Tot<; HepcraL^ Kal roW^Xkyjcnv, el 8' iinx^tpolev, 
rJTTap. eireira MapBovio^, co? avru) fxev rjfMepcov 
oXlycov rd iTriT^BeLa irepirjv, ol S' '^EWrjvef; deu 
Tivcov eTTippeovTCOv ifkelove'^ iytvovro, SvaavaaxG- 
TMV eyvco fjLrjKeTC fxeveiVy dWd Scal3a<; dfia ^dei 
rov*Aaco7TOV iTriOicrOat, To2<;''RWr]a-cv dirpooSoKT]- 
Tft)9* Kal TTUpdyyeXfMa tol<; rjyepLocnv eairepa^ 
eScoKC. 

2 Mecrovo-T)^ Be fidXiaTa ttj^ vvkto<; dvr)p Xirirov 
e;^ft)^' drpejuLa TrpocrejuLyvve rw arpaTOirehco rayv 
^KXXtjvcop' evTVX^v Be ral^ ^uXaKal^ eKeXevev 
avT(p irpoaeXOelv ^ApiareiB-qv rbv ^Adr^valov. 
viraKOvaavTO^ Bl Ta;^ea)9 e(f)r}aep' " Elpl puev 
*AXi^avBpo<^ 6 ^laKeBcov, ^kco Be KtvBvvcov rov fie- 
yiarov evvoia ry irpo^ vp,d<s alpopievo^, &)? fir] to 
al(j)viBiov eKTrXrj^eiev vp,a<; ^etpoz/ dywvlaaadai. 

3 /ia%etTai yap vpuv MapB6vio(; avpiov, ov^ vtt 
eX7rlBo<; XPV^'^V'^ ^^^^ Odpaov^, dXX" diropla^ rcov 
irapovTCoVy eirel Kal p,dvTeL<i eKelvov diraKrioLf; 
lepoh Kal XoyioL^ XPV^/^^^ eipyovai, fidxv^, fcal 
rov (TTparov ex^t' BvaOvpula iroXXr) Kal KardirXi]- 
f i9. dXX' dvdyKT) roXficbvTa ireipda-OaL ri]^ tvxv^ 
256 



I 



ARISTIDES, XIV. 6-xv. 3 

had fallen, but from the grief of the Barbarians. 
For they shore their OAvn hair in tribute to Masistius, 
and that of their horses and mules, and filled the 
plain with their wailing cries. They felt that they 
had lost a man who, after Mardonius himself, was by 
far the first in valour and authority. 

XV. After this cavalry battle, both sides refrained 
from further fighting for a long time, since only 
as they acted on the defensive would victory be 
theirs — so the soothsayers interpreted the sacrifices 
alike for Persians and Hellenes, — but if they attacked, 
defeat. At last Mardonius, since he had supplies 
remaining for only a few days, and since the 
Hellenes were ever increasing in number as fresh 
bodies joined them, impatiently determined to 
wait no longer, but to cross the Asopus at day- 
break and attack the Athenians unexpectedly. 
During the evening he gave the watchword to 
his commanders. 

But about midnight a solitary horseman quietly 
approached the camp of the Hellenes, and falling 
in with the outposts, ordered that Aristides the 
Athenian come to him. He was speedily obeyed, 
and then said : " I am Alexander the Macedonian, 
and I am come at the greatest peril to myself, 
out of my good- will toward you, that no suddenness 
of attack may frighten you into inferior fighting. 
Mardonius will surely give battle on the morrow, 
not because he has substantial hope or even courage, 
but because he is destitute of provisions. His sooth- 
sayers, indeed, are trying to keep him from battle by 
unpropitious sacrifices and oracular utterances, while 
his army is full of dejection and consternation* 
but he must needs boldly try his fortune, or sit 

257 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rj Trjv i(r')(aT7]v vrrofieveiv airopiav KaOe^ofievov, 

4 Tavra (ppdaa^; 6 ^A\e^ap8po<; iSelro rbv ^Apiaret' 
Brjv avTOv elhevat kol /jLvrjjjLOveveiv, eripo) Be firj 
KareiTreiP. 6 S' ov Ka\co<; e^eiv ecfyr] Tavra Tlav- 
cravlav airoKpyy^aaOai, i/celvq) yap dvaKeladat 
rrjv rjyefJLOViav, Trpb^ Be rov^ aXkov; dpprjra irpo 
T?}? P'd')(7)<i eBo^ev ^ eaeaOai, vcKwarjf; Be Trjf; 
'EXXa8o9 ovBeva rrjv ^AXe^dvBpov irpodvixiav koI 

5 dperrjv dyvorjaeiv. \e')(6 evrwv Be rovrcov o re 
^aaCkev'^ rcov MaKeBovcov dirrfkavvev OTrlaco 
iraXiv, 6 re ^ApiareLBr]<; d(j>Lic6fJievo^ iwl ttjv 328 
CKr)vrjv Tov UavaavLov BnjyetTO tov<; \6yov<;' fcal 
fieTeTre/JLTTOVTO rov^ dXKov<; rjye/ijL6va<; KaX irap'qy- 
yeWov iv Kocrfiw tov (TTparov e^eiv, co? P'd^r]<; 
eao/jLevr]<;. 

XYI. 'Ev TOVTO) B\ ft)? '}ip6BoTO<i laropel, 
IlavaavLa<i ^ApicrTeiBr) Trpoaecpepe \6yov, d^iayv 
Tou? ^ A6rjvaiov<; eVl to Be^Lov fieTard^at KaX ^ 
Kara tov^; Uepaa^ dvnra'xdrivaL, jSeXTLOv yap ^_ 
aycdvielaOat Trj<; re /^a^?;? epbireipov^ yeyovora^ fl 
Kal T(p TrpovepcKrjKevai Oappovvra^;, avrSt Be irapa- 
Bovvav TO evcovvfjLOV, oirov tmv 'EWtjvcov ol 
firjBL^ovTe<; eirvfidWeiv efieWov. 
2 01 fiev ovv dXKoi (TTpaTrjyol tmv ^ A6r)vai(ov 
dyvcofjiova /cal (popriKov rjyovvTO tov Uavaaviav, 
el Tr)v ak\r]v ecov Ta^iv iv %ft>/)a fjL6vov<; dvco Kal 
Kdrco fjLera^epei <y<^d<; taairep etXcora?, Karh. to 

^ ilo\^v bracketed by Bekker, omitted by Blass. 
2 fieTard^ai Kal MSS., Sinteiiis', Coraes, Bekker: /ifraya- 
y6vra. 

258 



ARISTIDES, XV. 3-xvi. 2 

still and endure extremest destitution." When he 
had told him this, Alexander begged Aristides to 
keep the knowledge to himself and bear it well 
in mind, but to tell it to none other. Aristides 
replied that it was not honourable to conceal this 
knowledge from Pausanias, since it was on him 
that the supreme command devolved, but that 
it should not be told the other leaders before the 
battle ; though in case Hellas were victorious, no 
man should remain ignorant of Alexander's zeal 
and valour. After this conversation, the king 
of the Macedonians rode off back again, and 
Aristides went to the tent of Pausanias and told 
him all that had been said. Then they summoned 
the other leaders and gave them orders to keep 
the army in array, since there was to be a 
battle. 

XVI. At this juncture, as Herodotus relates,^ 
Pausanias sent word to Aristides, demanding that 
the Athenians change their position and array 
themselves on the right wing, over against the 
Persians, where they would contend better, he 
said, since they were versed already in the Persian 
style of fighting, and emboldened by a previous 
victory over them ; the left wing, where the Medising 
Hellenes were going to attack, should be intrusted 
to himself and his Spartans. 

The rest of the Athenian generals thought it 
inconsiderate and annoying in Pausanias to leave 
the rest of his line in the position assigned, while 
he moved them, and tliem only, back and forth 
like Helots, and put them forward where the 

» ix. 46.^^^'^^^^ 

259 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiaxtfJ-f^'rarov irpo^aXKofievo^' 6 K ^ApiaTelBr)^ 
BiajiapTdveip avTov<; ecpaa/ce rov Trai^ro?, el 
Trpcorjv fJLev virep rov ro evcopv/iov Kepa^ e%eii/ 
hLe(j>i\oTVfiovvTO T€y€dTai<; kol irpOKpiOevre^ iae- 

3 fivvvovTO, vvp Si, Aa/ceBaifiovLcov eKovcrlo)^ avroh 
i^icrra/jLivcop tov Bc^lov kol rpoirov tlvcl rr}v 
rjryefjLovLav TrapaBtSovTcop, ovre rrjv Bo^av arfairS)- 
(TLV OVT€ K€pBo<; T/yOVVTai, TO firj TTpo? 6fio(j>vXov(; 
KOL arvyy€vel<;y dWa ^ap^dpov<; koX (pvcret TroXe- 
fiiov<; djcopLcao-Oat,. iic tovtov irdw irpodvfioix; 
ol ^Adrjvatot BLrjfjLeLJSovTO rot? XTrapTcdTUL^ ttjv 

4 rd^iv Kol \6yo<i e'xdipeu Bl avrSyv iroXv^ a\- 
XriXoL^ irapeyyvayvTotv, o)^ ovre oirXa ySeXrtft) 
Xa06vT€<i 0VT6 "yjrvxa^; dfieivov^ ol iroXifiLoi t(ov 
iv MapaOcovc Trpoalaaiv, dXXd ravra jul€v eKeivoL^ 
To^a, ravrd S* ia6rJT0<; TTOiKLXfiara Kal ■^(pvaofi 
iirl acofjLaai, fiaXaK0i<i kol i/rup^ai9 dvdvBpoL<;' r)ijuv 
5' o/jLoia fiev oirXa koI acofiaTa, fiel^ov Be ral<i 
VLKai'i TO 6dp(T0<;, 6 B^ dyobv ov^ virep yoapa^ kcCI 
TToXeo)? pLovoVy (»9 eKelvoc^, dXX* virep tcov iv 
^apadcdVL Kal ^aXafJuvi Tpoiraicav, co? p.7]K cKeiva 
M.cXTidBov BoKrj Kal tvxV^* dXXd ^AOyvaLCOv. 

6 OvTOC p.€v ovv cr7revBovT€<; ev dp,ei'\jreL t(ov 
Td^ecov rjcrav' alcrOopLevoi B^ %7j^aloi Trap* avTo- 
fjLoXcov M.apBovL(p <f)pd^ovai,. KaKelvo^ €vdv<i, eiTe 
BeBccbf; Tov^ ^AOyvalov^i, ecTe Toh AaKeBacpLOvLoL^i 
260 



ARISTIDES, XVI. 2-5 

fighting was to be hottest. But Aristides declared 
that they were utterly wrong ; they had contended 
emulously with the Tegeans, but a little while 
back, for the occupation of the left wing, and 
plumed themselves on being preferred before those 
rivals; but now, when the Lacedaemonians of 
their own accord vacated the right wing for them, 
and after a fashion proffered them the leadership 
among the Hellenes, they neither welcomed the 
reputation thus to be won, nor counted it gain 
that their contention would thus be, not with men 
of the same tribes and kindreds, but rather with 
Barbarians and natural enemies. Upon this the 
Athenians very willingly exchanged posts with 
the Spartans, and the word passed from lip to 
lip far through their ranks that their enemies 
would attack them with no better arms and with 
no braver spirits than at Marathon, nay, with 
the same kind of archery as then, and with the 
same variegated vesture and gold adornments to 
cover soft bodies and unmanly spirits ; " while 
we have not only like arms and bodies with our 
brethren of that day, but that greater courage 
which is born of our victories ; and our contest is 
not alone for land and city, as theirs was, but 
also for the trophies which they set up at Marathon 
and Salamis, in order that the world may think 
that not even those were due to Miltiades only, 
or to fortune, but to the Athenians." 

The Spartans and Athenians, then, were busily 
engaged in exchanging posts ; but the Thebans 
heard of it from deserters and told Mardonius. He, 
at once, whether through fear of llie Athenians or 
out of ambition to engage with the Lacedaemonians, 

26J 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avfiTreaeiv (j>i\oTi/iiovfi6vo<!, dvTCTrape^rjye tov(; 
Ilipcra<; eirl to Se^cov, tov^; Be "FiXkr}va<i cKeXeve 
TOV'i avv avT(p Kara rov<i ^AOrjvaiovf} la-raaOat,. 
6 yevofiivrjfi Se ttJ? /neraKOcr/iijcrecof; KaTa^avov<; 6 
re Havaavia^ aTrorpaireU avOi^ iirl rov Se^tov 
Karia-TT}, koI MapSoi^fo?, coairep el^^v e'f dpxv^» 
dveXa^e to evcovvfiov KaTO, tov<; AaKeSatfiovCov; 
y€v6fi6vo<;, ^ T6 -^fxipa BLC^nXOev dpyi]. koI tol<; 
'^KWrjaL ffovXevofi€Voi<; eBo^e 7roppo)T€pco fiera- 
aTpaToireBevaai Koi KaToXa^elv evvBpov ')(^copLov, 
CTrel TO, ttXtjo-lov vdp^aTa KaOv^pLaTO Kal Bci- 
<l)6apT0 t6)v PapPdpayv iTTTroKpaTovvcov. 

XVII. 'K7r€\6ova-'r]<; Be vvkto<; Kal tmv aTpaTrj- 
ySiV dy6vT(ov iirl ttjv dwoBeBeiy/jLevrjv aTpaTO- 
ireBeiav ov irdvv Trpodvfiov rjv eireaOat koX 
av/jL/jL6V€CV TO ifKrjdo<;, dW &)? dveaTrjcrav e/c tcov 

TTpCOTCOV ipVfldTCOV icfiepOVTO 7r/?09 ttjv TToXlV tS)v 

YlXaraLeayv ol ttoXXol, koi 66pv^o<i r^v eKel Bta- 
(TKiBvajj,evo)v /cat /caTaaKrjvovvTcov ara/KTO)?. AaK6- 
Bai/jb0VL0L(; Be avveffaivev ^ axovac fi6voL<i diroXei- 

2 ireaOai TOiv dXXcov ^A/jLO/jL(f)dpeTo<; ydp, dvrjp 
0viJLoeiBr)<; koX (j)i,XoKLvBvvo^y eKiraXat irpo^ ttjv 
jJidyy^v (TTTapySyv fcal ^apvvofievo^ ra? TroWa? 
dva^oXd^ KoX /neXXyjaeig, TOTe Bij irayTdiracn ttjv 
IxeTavdaTaatv (jyvyrjv dTroKuXcov Kal diroBpao-iv, 
ovK €(j>rj XelyjreLV Tr}v Td^iv, dXX avToOt /aivcov 
jieTCL Tcov iavTov Xoxtrcbv viroaTrja-eaOat MapBo- 

3 viov. 0)9 Be Uavcravlaf; eireXOcov eXeye TavTa 
TTpdTTeiv e-^Tj^KTixeva koI BeBoy/xeva tok '^KKXtj- 
cnVi dpd/jLevo<; tolv X'^P^'^^ ireTpov fieyav 6 

1 ffvve&aivev Blass, adopting the conjecture of Sintenis^ : 

262 



ARISTIDES, XVI. 5-xvii. 3 

counterchanged his Persians to the right wing, and 
ordered the Hellenes with him to set themselves 
against the Athenians. When this change in his 
enemy's order of battle was manifest, Pausanias 
returned and occupied the right wing again, where- 
upon Mardonius also resumed his own left wing, just 
as he stood at the beginning, facing the Lacedae- 
monians. And thus the day came to an end without 
action. The Hellenes, on deliberation, decided to 
change their camp to a position farther on, and to 
secure a spot where there was plenty of good watei^, 
since the neighbouring springs were defiled and 
ruined by the Barbarians' superior force of cavalry. 

XV^II. Night came on, and the generals set out to 
lead their forces to the appointed encampment. The 
soldiers, however, showed no great eagerness to 
follow in close order, but when they had once 
abandoned their first defences, most of them hurried 
on toward the city of Plataea, and there tumult 
reigned as they scattered about and encamped in no 
order whatsover. But it chanced that the Lacedae- 
monians were left alone behind the others, and that 
too against their will. For Amompharetus, a man of 
a fierce and venturesome spirit, who had long been 
mad for battle and distressed by the many post- 
ponements and delays, now at last lost all control 
of himself, denounced the change of position as a 
runaway flight, and declared that he would not 
abandon his post, but stay there with his company 
and await the onset of Mardonius. And when 
Pausanias came up and told him that their action 
had been formally voted by the Hellenes in council. 



263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^A/jLOfi(j)dp€TO(; Kol KarajSakoov irpo rcov ttoBwv rod 
HavaavLov ravrrjv 6(j>r) yjryjcpov avTO<; Trepl tt}? 329 
fJLCLXn^ TiOeaOaiy ra Be rojv aXXcov BeiXa jBovXev- 
fjLara Kal Soyfiara x^ipeiv idv. a7ropov/jL6VO<; Be 
TlavaavLa<; ru) jrapovri tt/oo? /xev tov<; ^AOrjvaiovi 
€7r€/iiyjrev airiovra^ rjBr}, Trept/jieXvai Beofievof; koI 
Koivrj paBi^eiv, avro^ Be rrjv dWrjv Bvvafitv yye 
TTyoo? ra? HXaraia^ to? dvaar^(Ta)V rov ^Kjxojjl- 
(pdperov. fl 

4 'Ev TovT(p Be KareXdpbpavev '^fjuepa, Kal Map- ™ 
B6vL0<; (ov yap eXaOov rrjv crTparoireBelav eVXeXot- 
TTore? 01 ''EWrjve^i) eyjuiv avvTerayiJievr^v rrjv 
Bvvafxiv €7re(f)epeT0 Tot9 AaKeBai/jLovLoa ^oij TroWij 

Kal irardyw rcov fiap^dpcov, ox; ov fid^7}<; iao- 
fxevT}^, dWa ^evyovTa<; dvapiraaofievcov rov^ 
"EWr]va<^. o /jLLKpd<; /O07r>79 eBerjae yeveaOai, 

5 KartBcbv yap ro yivofievov 6 Tiavcravlaf; ea')(^ero 
jiev T7]<i TTopeia^ Kal ttjv eirl /Aa%?7 rd^iv eKeXeuae 
Xa/ji/Sdvecv eKaarov, eXaOe S* avrov, eW^ viro 
rrj<; TTpo^i rov ^Afio/jL(f>dp6TOV 6pyrj(; etre rw rd-^SL 
6opvl3r)6evTa tcov TroXe/jLicov, avvOr}fia firj Bovvau fl 
T0fc9 "EXXrjaiv. 66ev our ev6v<; ovr d6p6oif " 
Kar oXiyov^; Be Kal o-TropdBrjv, rjBrj rr)<; fid'^rj^ 

ev ')(epalv ovarj<^, rrrpoae/SorjOovv. 

6 'n? Be 6v6/jL€vo<; ovk eKaXXtepei, Trpoorera^e 
Tol<i AaKeBaijjLoviOL<; ra? dairiBa^; nrpo tmv iroBoiv 
OeiJievov^ drpefia KaOe^eadai Kal Trpoaexciv avrw, 
fMTjBeva T(ov 'TToXe/jLLcov dfivvofievovf;, avT6<; Be 
irdXiv ea(f)aytd^eTO. Kal irpoaeTTtirTOV ol i7nr€L<;' 
ijBr) Be Kal y9e\09 i^iKvelro Kai Ti9 iTreTrXrjKTO 

7 Twv ^irapriarcov. ev tovtw Be Kal KaXXiKpdT7]<;f 
264 



ARISTIDES, XVII. 3-7 

Amompharetiis picked up a great stone and threw it 
down at the feet of Pausanias, saying that was his 
personal ballot for battle^ and he cared not a whit 
for the cowardly counsels and votes of the rest. 
Pausanias, perplexed at the case, sent to the Athe- 
nians, who were already moving off, begging them 
to wait and make the march in company with him, 
and then began to lead the rest of his troops 
toward Plataea, with the idea that he would thus 
force Amompharetus from his position. 

At this point day overtook them, and Mardonius, 
who did not fail to notice that the Hellenes had 
abandoned their encampment, with his force in full 
array, bore down upon the Lacedaemonians, with great 
shouting and clamour on the part of the Barbarians, 
who felt that there would be no real battle, but that 
the Hellenes had only to be snatched off as they 
fled. And this lacked but little of coming to pass. 
For Pausanias, on seeing the situation, though he 
did check his march and order every man to take 
post for battle, forgot, either in his rage at Amom- 
pharetus or his confusion at tlie speed of the enemy, 
to give the signal for battle to the confederate 
Hellenes. For this reason they did not come to his 
aid at once, nor in a body, but in small detachments 
and straggling, after the battle was already joined. 

When Pausanias got no favourable omens from his 
sacrifices, he ordered his Lacedaemonians to sit quiet 
with their shields planted in front of them, and to 
await his orders, making no attempt to repulse their 
enemies, while he himself went to sacrificing again. 
By this time the horsemen were charging upon 
them ; presently their missiles actually reached them, 
and many a Spartan was smitten. And then it was 

265 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoXkiarov *^Xk'i^v(iiv koI aco/uiaTt 
'fiijLo-Tov ev eKeivcp rw cTTparw yeveaOau Xeyouaiy 
TO^evOeX^ Kol dvrjaKWv ovk ecf^r] top Odvarov 
oBvpeadai, Koi yap ikOelv olko06v virep t^? 
*KXXdBo(; diroOavov/ievo^, a)OC otl 6vr]aKei ry 
^etpt firj '^p7]o-djj,6vo<;. rjv ovv to fiev irddot; 
heivov, rj 8* iyKpareia Oav/xacTTrj tmv dvBpcov. 
ov yap rjiJLvvovTO Toy? TToXe/jLLOuf; iTTL^aivovra^, 
dWa Tov irapa tov deov koI tov aTparyyov 
Kaipov dvafi6vovT€<; rjvel'X^ovTo jSaWofievoi Kal 
mTTTOi/re? eV ral^ rd^eaiv. 

"FjVlol Be (paai rcS TLavG-avia fxiicpov e^co t^? 
7rapaTd^€co<; Ovovn Kal Karevxof^ivM tcov AvBmv 
Tiva<; d(j>vco irpoaTrecrovTa^ dpird^eiv Kal Bcappv- 
TTTeiv rd irepl rrjv Ovaiav, tov Be Havaavtav Kal 
Tou? Trepl avTOv ovk e^j^oi^ra? orrXa pd/3Boi,<i Kal 
fidaTi^t iraleLV Btb Kal vvv eVetV?;? t^9 iTnBpojurjf; 
jjLifxrjixaTa tcl^ Trepl tov ^cofjLov ev '^^irdpTrj TrXr^yd^ 
Twz/ i(f>7]0cov Kal Trjv jieTa TavTa tcov AvBcov 
TTO/jLiryv avvTeXelaOai. 

XVI IL Av(T(f)opa)v ovv 6 UavaavLa^ tol<; irapov- 
(Tiv, dWa TOV fidvTecof; eir dWoL<; lepeta KaTa- 
^dWovTo^, TpeireTai irpo^ to 'Hpatov Ty O'xjrec 
BeBaKpvfJLevo^y Kal Td<; ')(^elpa^ dvaa-^cbv ev^aTO 
K.i0atpcovLa "apa Kal OeoL<; dXXoi,^, 6l UXaTattBa 
yrjv e'X^ovacv, el fxrj TreTrpwTai Tol<i ^'EXXrjcn vlkolv, 
dXXd Bpd(TavTd<i ye tl iraOelv Kal BeL^avTa<i epycp 
T0L<; 7roXefiLOL<i, &)? gtt* dvBpa<^ dyaOov^ kol fJidx^- 
crOai, fiejJLaOrjKOTa's laTpdTevaav. TavTa tov 
TIavaaviou 6 eoicXvTOvvTO<^ djua TaL<; eiy^at? ecpavrj 
Ta lepd Kal vlktjv 6 fJidvTL^ €(j>pa^e, Kal BoOevTO^ 
266 



ARISTIDES, XVII. 7-xviii. 2 

that CallicrateSj said to be the fairest of the Hellenes 
to look upon, and the tallest man in their whole 
army, was shot, and, dying, said he did not grieve at 
death, since he had left his home to die for Hellajs, 
but at dying without striking a single blow. Their 
experience was indeed a terrible one, but the restraint 
of the men was wonderful. They did not try to 
repel the enemy who were attacking them, but 
awaited from their god and their general the favour- 
able instant, while they endured wounds and death 
at their posts. 

Some say that as Pausanias was sacrificing and 
praying, a little to one side of his line of battle, 
some Lydians suddenly fell upon him and rudely 
hurled away the sacrificial offerings ; and that 
Pausanias and his attendants, being without weapons, 
smote the intruders with the sacrificial staves and 
goads; wherefore, to this day, in imitation of this 
onslaught, the ceremonies of beating the young 
warriors round the altar at Sparta, and of the pro- 
cession of the Lydians which follows this, are duly 
celebrated as rites. 

XVI II. Then, in distress at this state of affairs, 
while the seer slew victim after victim, Pausanias 
turned his face, all tears, toward the Heraeum, and 
with hands uplifted prayed Cithaeronian Hera and 
the other gods of the Plataean land that, if it was 
not the lot of the Hellenes to be victorious, they 
might at least do great deeds before tliey fell, and 
show to a certainty that their enemies had marched 
out against men who were brave and who knew how 
to fight. While Pausanias was thus calling on the 
gods, right in the midst of his prayers, the sacrifices 
showed themselves propitious and the seer announced 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a'7ravTa<; rod irapayyekfiaro^; KaOia-raaOai 
7rpb<i roL'9 iroXe/jLiovf;, rj re cf)d\ay^ oyjnv €(T')(€v 
al^VLhi(D<; evo<; ^wov OvfioetSov'^ tt/jo? dX/crjv 
rpeirofievov /cat (f)pi^avTO^, TOi<^ re fiappdpoi^ 
rore TrapiarTj \oyi(r/i6<;, 009 tt/oo? dvBpa^ 6 dycbv 

3 eaoLTO fiaxov/jbivov^i aypi Oavdrov. Bib kul 
TrpoOifJuevoL iroWa rS)v yeppcov ero^evov eh Tov<i ^ 
Aa/ceSaLp^oviov^;. ol he rrjpovvTe^; dfia rov avva- 
o-TTia/jLov eTre^atvoVt koX irpoaireaovre^ e^ecoOovv 
rd yeppa, koI toI^ Bopaai, TVTnovre^ irpoaajTra 
KOI arepva tmv Tiepa-Mv ttoXXou? Kare^aWov, 
ovK diTpdKTco^ ovBe d0vp,(i)(; TriiTTOvra^. koI yap 
dvTiXafJL^avo/jievot rcov Bopdrcov rah X^P^^^ yvpu- 
vah avvedpavov rd TrXeta-ra, Kal tt/oo? ra? 330 
^c(f)ov\Kia<; e%ft)yoo fi^ ov/c dpyco<;, dWd rah re 
KOTTicry Kai roh d/ccvdKac^ p^pa)//,ez^oi /cal ra? 
acTTTtSa? TrapacnTOovTe'; Kal avp,7r\eK6p€V0i xP^^^^ 
TToXvv dvrelxov. 

4 01 S' ^AOrjvaiOL reo)? p^ev rjrpepovv dvapevovre^ 
Tov? AaKeBaipoviov<^ , iirel Be Kpavyrj re irpoae- 
TTiTrre 'TroWy p,axopevcov Kal Trapijv, W9 (j^aatv, m 
dyye\o<; irapd Yiavaaviov rd yivopeva (ppd^cov, 9 
Mppr)(Tav Kard rdxo^ ^oijOecv. Kal 'Trpox^^pov- 

atv avToh Bid rov TreBlov irpo^; rrjv fforjv eVe^e- 

5 povro rcbv 'KXXijvcov ol pLr)BL^ovre^, ^ ApLarelB7]<; 
Be TTpwrov pev, C09 elBe, iroXv irpoeXOcov efioa, 
pbaprvpopevo^ *F/\Xr]VLOv<; Oeo-u^, d7rex'£(^0at, pdxv^ 
Kal pr) (Kplaiv epiroBoov elvai prjBe KcoXveiv 
eirapvvovra^; roh irpoKivBvvevovcnv virep r7]<; 
'EXXa8o9, eirel 3' ecopa p,r) rrpoaexovra^ avr5> 
Kal avvreraypevov^ eirl rrjv pdx'^v, ovrco rij^i 

* €15 T0V5 Hercher and Blass with S : robs. 
268 



ARISTIDES, XVIII. 2-5 

victory. Word was at once passed all along the 
line to set themselves in motion against the enemy, 
and the phalanx suddenly had the look of a fierce 
beast bristling up to defend itself. The Barbarians 
then got assurance that their contest vi^as to be with 
men who would fight to the death. Therefore they 
made a rampart of their wicker targets and shot 
their arrows into the ranks of the Lacedaemonians. 
These, however, kept their shields closely locked 
together as they advanced, fell upon their foemen, 
tore away their wicker targets, and then, smiting the 
Persians in face and breast with their long spears, 
they slew many, who nevertheless did great deeds of 
courage before they fell. For they grasped the long 
spears with their naked hands, fractured them for 
the most part, and then took to short-range fighting 
with a will, plying their daggers and scimetars, tear- 
ing away their enemies' shields, and locking them in 
close embrace ; and so they held out a long time. 

The Athenians, meanwhile, were quietly awaiting 
the Lacedaemonians. But when the shouts of those 
engaged in battle fell loud upon their ears, and there 
came, as they say, a messenger from Pausanias telling 
them what was happening, they set out with speed 
to aid him. However, as they were advancing 
through the plain to his aid, the medising Hellenes 
bore down upon them. Then Aristides, to begin 
with, when he saw them, went far forward and 
shouted to them, invoking the gods of Hellas, that 
they refrain from battle, and oppose not nor hinder 
those who were bearing aid to men standing in the 
van of danger for the sake of Hellas. But as soon 
as he saw that they paid no heed to him, and were 



269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cKet l3o7)d€La<; a7rorpa7r6/jL€PO^ crvve^dXe rovTOL<; 
6 Trepl irevraKicr fjLvpiov<^ ovcriv. aWa ro fiev 
ifkelcTTOV evdi)^ iveSco/ce /cal direxcopT^aev, are 
Bt] Koi Tcov fBapPdpcdv aTTTjWay/jievcov, rj 8e 
fjidxv '^iyerat fjudXiara Kara ©rj^aiov^ yeveaOai, 
irpodv/jLOTara tS)V irpcoTwv /cal Bwarcordrcov rore 
irap avToh /JLrjBi^ovrcov /cal to wXyOo^; ov Kara 
yvcofirjv, aXX* oXiyapxov/Jievov dyovjwv. 

XIX. Ol/to) Se ToO dywvo^ Blxcl (Tuv€aTcoTo<i 
TTpcoTOi /JL€V idxTavTO Tou? He/JcTa? ol AuKcSat- 
fiovLor KOi Tov MapBoviov dvrjp ^TTapTtdrr]^ 
ovofjua *ApLfivr}(TTO^ diroicTivvvcrL, \i6(p rrjv k€- 
(f>a\r]v TTO-Tafa?, cocnrep avrcp irpoearrjixave to 
iv ^A/JLcfudpeo) fiavretov, eirefiylre yap avBpa 
AvBov ivravda, Kapa Be erepov eh Tpo<f>covLov 
6 ^ iS/lapBovco^* Koi TOVTOV fiev 6 irpocp tJttj^; KapLfcrj 

2 yXcoaarj irpoaeliTev, 6 Be AvBo<; iv ru> aTjKO) rod 
^Afujiidpeco Karevvacrdel^; eho^ev vTrrjperrjv rivd 
TOV Oeov irapaaTrjvai koI KeXeveiv avTov aTrtevat, 
fir) ^ovXofjuevov Be XiOov el<i Trjv /c€(f)a\r)v ip^BaXelv 
fieyav, axxTe Bo^at wkr]yevTa TeOvdvat tov dv6p(o- 
TTOV KOi TavTa pL6V ovTco yeveaOai XiyeTac, tov<; 
Be (jievyovraf; eh tcl ^vXiva Teix^H tcaOelp^av. 

'0X^70) S' vcTTepov ^AOrjvaloL TOv<i ^rj^aiov^ 
TpeTTOVTai, TpiaKoaiovf; tov<; e'irL(f)ave(TTdTOV^ Kal 

3 irpcoTOv^ Bia(j)OeLpavTe^ ev avTy tt} pbaxV- 7^~ 
y€vr}/jLev7]<; Be Trj<; t/jottt}? rj/cev avToh dyyeXo^ 
TToXiopKelcrOai to jSap^apLKov eh to, TeCxV i^ctTa^ 

^ 6 bracketed in Sintenis^ ; Blass reads ets rh TIt^ov 6 with 
S, after Hercher, thus agreeing with Herodotus viii, 135. 

270 



ARISTIDES, xviii. 5-xix. 3 

arrayed for battle, then he turned aside from rendering 
aid where he had proposed, and engaged with these, 
though they were about fifty thousand in number. 
But the greater part of them at once gave way and 
withdrew, especially as the Barbarians had also 
retired, and the battle is said to have been fought 
chiefly with the Thebans, whose foremost and most 
influential men were at that time very eagerly 
medising, and carried with them the multitude, not 
of choice, but at the bidding of the few. 

XIX. The contest thus begun in two places, the 
Lacedaemonians were first to repulse the Persians. 
Mardonius was slain by a man of Sparta named 
Arimnestus, who crushed his head with a stone, even 
as was fore bold him by the oracle in the shrine of 
Amphiaraus. Thither he had sent a Lydian man, 
and a Carian besides to the oracle of Trophonius.^ 
This latter the prophet actually addressed in the 
Carian tongue ; but the Lydian, on lying down in the 
precinct of Amphiaraiis, dreamed that an attendant 
of the god stood by his side and bade him be gone, 
and on his refusal, hurled a great stone upon his 
head, insomuch that he died from the blow (so ran 
the man's dream). These things are so reported. 
Furthermore, the Lacedaemonians shut the flying 
Persians up in their wooden stockade. 

Shortly after this it was that the Athenians routed 
the Thebans, after slaying three hundred, their most 
eminent leaders, in the actual battle. After the rout 
was effected, and more might have been slain, there 
came a messenger to the Athenians, telling them 
that the Barbarian force was shut up and besieged 

1 According to Herodotus, viii. 135, Mys the Carian visited 
the shrine of the Ptoan Apollo, overlooking Lake Copais. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KeicKeiaiikvov. ovrco Sr) aoo^eaOai tov<; "EX\7)va<; 
idaavTe<; i^orjOovv irpo^ ra T€i)(rj' >^«^ '^oU 
AaKeSai/jLOVLOi^ iravTairao-LV apyco<i 7r/)09 t€£%o- 
fxa^iav koI aTrelpax; €')(pvaLv e'jTL<f)avevT€^ aipovai 
rb arparoTreBov (f)6vq) ttoXXm tcov iroXefJbiwv. 

4 XiyovTai yap airo tcov TpiaKovTa fivpidScov 
rerpaKicrfivpLOL ^vyelv crvv ^Apra^d^o), t&v S* 
virep rrj<; 'E\Xa8o9 dycovKrafiivcov eireaov oi 
7rdvT6<i eVl %tXtofc? k^rjKOvra koX rpiaKocnoi. 
TOVTCov ^AOfjvaioi /xev rjaav Bvo /cal irevrrJKovTa, 
7rdvT€<; eK t?}? AlavTiBo<i ^uXt}?, w? <f>r](n KXet- 

5 ByjfJbo^t dycovi,(Tap,€vrj<; apiara' Bib koI raU 
X<ppayLTi,(TL vv[JL(j)aL^ eOvov AlavriBaL rrjv irvdo- 
'X,pV^TOV Ovaiav virep t^9 vlk7j<;, ck Brj/xoaiov to 
dvd\Q)/ia \a/ifidvovT6<;' AaKeBai/jiovtoi S* em 
7rXefcov9 TCOV ivevrjKovTa, TeyeaTai 3' etcKaiBeKa. 

SavfiacrTbv ovv Tb 'HpoBoTOv, 7rcb<; fi6vov% 
TOVTov^ ^rjalv eh %€t/3a9 ekdelv Toh TroXefjLloif;^ 
TCOV 8' dWcov ^EW'qvcov p,r]Beva. koX yap to 
irXrjdo^ TCOV irecrovTcov p,apTVpel koI to. jbivijfiaTa 

6 KOtvbv yeveadai to KaTopOcopw Kal Tbv ficofibv 
ovK av eTreypayjrav ovtco<;, el fjLovat Tpet<i 7r6Xei<; 
rjycovlaavTO, tcov dXkcov aTpifia KaBe^ofievcov 

TovBe iroff* "EXK/qve^; vLKa^ /cpdTei, epyco "Aprjo<;,^ 

ne/?(7a9 i^e\dcravTe<; eXevOepci ^EjXkdBi kolvov 

iBpvaavTO Aio^ ^cofxbv ekevOepiov. 

^ Coraes and Bekker insert after this verse the pentameter : 
iVT6\fitp iltvxas A^^oTt ir€id6nevoi, following the hold impulse of 
their spirit, found in the Palatine Anthology, vi. 50. 

272 



ARISTIDES, XIX. 3-6 

in their stockade. So they suffered the Hellenes in 
front of them to make good their escape, while they 
themselves marched to the stockade. They brought 
welcome aid to the Lacedaemonians, who were 
altogether inexperienced and helpless in storming 
walled places, and captured the camp with great 
slaughter of the enemy. Out of three hundred 
thousand, only forty thousand, it is said, made their 
escape with Artabazus. Of those who contended 
in behalf of Hellas, there fell in all one thousand 
three hundred and sixty. Of these, fifty-two were 
Athenians, all of the Aeantid tribe, according to 
Cleidemus, which made the bravest contest (for which 
reason the Aeantids used to sacrifice regularly to the 
Sphragitic nymphs the sacrifice ordained by the 
Pythian oracle for the victory, receiving the expenses 
therefor from the public funds) ; ninety-one were 
Lacedaemonians, and sixteen were men of Tegea. 

Astonishing, therefore, is the statement of Herod- 
otus,^ where he says that these one hundred and fifty- 
nine represented the only Hellenes who engaged the 
enemy, and that not one of the rest did so. Surely the 
total number of those who fell, as well as the monu- 
ments erected over them, testifies that the success was 
a common one. Besides, had the men of three cities 
only made the contest, while the rest sat idly by, 
the altar would not have been inscribed as it was : — 

"Here did the Hellenes, flushed with a victory 
granted by Ares 
Over the routed Persians, together, for Hellas 
delivered. 
Build them an altar of Zeus, Zeus as De- 
liverer known." 

1 ix. 85. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 TavTTjv Tr]v /JLa-^v^ i/uLaxicravTO ry rerpdSi rov 
'BorjBpo/JLtcopo'; larafMevov Kar ^AOrjvaiov^, Karct 
he Boi,wTov<; TerpaSt rod liave/jbov (J)0lvovto^, ?7 331 
Koi vvv en to ^EWtjvikov ev Ti\aTaLal<; aOpoL- 
^erai avveBpLov kol Ovovcn tS> iXevOepta) Ad 
mXaraietf; virep rrj<; vlk7]<;, ttjv Be rSyv rjfjiepcov 
avcofiaXLav ov OavfJuacTTeovy ottov koX vvv Birj/cpt,- 
^(Ofjuevcov Tcov ev aaTpoXoyia jxaWov dWrjv dXkoL 
lx7]vo<i oLpxv^ fcal TeXevTrjv dyovacv, 

XX. 'E« TovTOv T(ov *AOr)vaici)v TO apiareiov 
ov TrapaBiBovTcov tol^ ^TrapTcdraL^ ovBe rpo- 
iraiov lardvat, o-vy^fopovvrcov eKeivoi<i, irap 
ovBev ctv rjXOev ev6v<; dTroXeaOac rd irpdyfiara 
T(ov 'EWtjvcov ev roU OTrXoi? BiaardvTcov, 
el firj TToXXa 7raprjyop6)V /cal BiBdcrKwv tou? 
av(7TpaT7]yov<; 6 ^ ApiaTelBrj^^, fidXicrra Be Aeco- 
KpaTT] Kol MvpcovlBrjVf ecT'X^e Kal avveTreta-e rr}v 

2 KpLaiv i(f)eLvaL tol^ '^EWrjaiv. evravOa ^ovXevO' 
fievwv T(ov 'EXkrjvwv Seoyeiroov p,ev 6 Meyap€v<; 
elirevy &)? erepa^ TroXet Boreov eir] ro dptaretov, 
el firj /BovXavrac avvrapd^at, TroXefiov ifKpvXiov 
iirl TovTO) S' dvaard^ KXeo/cptTo? o K.opiv0LO9, 
Bo^av /juev Trapeax^v &)? l^opLvdioL^ alrrjacov to 
apiCTTe'lov' rjv yap ev d^LcojuaTi fieyLarq) fierd ttjv 
%7rdpT7]v Kal Ta9 ^A6i]va<; r] T^6pivdo<^' elire Be 
Trdaiv dpeaavra koI Oavfiacrrbv Xoyov vrrrep 
HXaraiecov, Kal o-vve/SovXevcre rrjv (piXoveLKiav 
dveXelv eKeivoL<^ to dpco-Telov diroBovTaf;, ol? 

3 ovBerepovf; rificofjievot,^ d'x^deaOai. prjOevrcov Be 
TOVTCov irp(aTO<i fiev ^AptaTelB7]<i <7vve)(^(oprj(r€v 

^ krepa Bekker has obZeTepq, neither city^ adopting a conjec- 
ture of Muretus. 

274 



ARISTIDES, XIX. 7-xx 3 

This battle was fought on the fourth of the month 
Boedromion, as the Athenians reckon time; but 
according to the Boeotian calendar, on the twenty- 
seventh of the month Panemus,i the day when, 
down to the present time, the Hellenic council 
assembles in Plataea, and the Plataeans sacrifice to 
Zeus the Deliverer for the victory. We must not 
wonder at the apparent discrepancy between these 
dates, since, even now that astronomy is a more 
exact science, different peoples have different be- 
ginnings and endings for their months. 

XX. After this, the Athenians would not grant 
the Spartans the highest meed of valour, nor allow 
them to erect a general trophy, and the cause of the 
Hellenes had certainly gone at once to destruction 
from their armed contention, had not Aristides, by 
abundant exhoi'tation and admonition, checked his 
fellow-generals, especially Leocrates and Myronides, 
and persuaded them to submit the case to the 
Hellenes for decision. Thereupon, in the council of 
the Hellenes, Theogeiton the Megarian said that the 
meed of valour must be given to some third city, 
unless they desired the confusion of a civil war. At 
this point Cleocritus the Corinthian rose to speak. 
Every one thought he would demand the meed of 
valour for the Corinthians, since Corinth was held in 
greatest estimation after Sparta and Athens. But to 
the astonishment and delight of all, he made a 
proposition in behalf of the Plataeans, and counselled 
to take away contention by giving them the meed of 
valour, since at their honour neither claimant could 
take offence. To this proposal Aristides was first to 

^ About August 1, 479 B.a. i<i baiuoYJsi briB 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

virep Tcov ^KOrjvaiwv, eireira Yiavaavia^ virep 
Tcov AaKeBaifiovLcov. ovro) Be StaWayevTe<; 
e^eiXov oyBoiJKovra rakavra tol<; UXaraievcTtv, 
a0' MV TO T^9 ^A6rjva<; dvwKoBo/jLTjaav ^ lepov /cat 
TO eBo<; eaTfjaav Kal f^pa^al<; tov veobv BieKo- 
afjL7]crav, at P'^XP'' ^^^ aKp,d^ovaat Biap>evovcrcv, 
eaT7](rav Be Tpoiraiov IBla p^ev AaKeBacpovcoc, 
X^Pf''^ ^' ^ A67]valot. 

4 liepl Be 6vaLa<; epopuevoL^ avToh dvelXev 6 
IlvOio<; Aio<i eXevOeplov ffcopLov IBpvaaadai, Ovaac 
Be p,rj TTpoTepov rj to fcaTa Tr)v ')((Dpav irvp diro- 
a^e(TavTa<; &)? vtto T(hv /Bap^dpcov pbepiaapbevov 
evavaaadai KaOapov i/c AeXcpcov o-tto t^)? Koivrj^ 
€<TTLa<s. ol puev ovv dpxovT€<i TO)v '^XXrjvwv irepi- 
i6vTe<; ev6v<; i^vdyKa^ov diroa ^evvvvai tcl irvpa 
TrdvTa TOv<i p^pw/zez^oi/?, i/c Be liXaTaiecov Eu- 
X^Ba^ v7rocrxopL€vo<; ax; ivBex^Tai Tdx'^o'Ta /copuieiv 

5 TO irapa tov 6eov irvp rjKev et? AeX(f)ov<;. dy- 
vlaa^ Be to acopba zeal irepippavdpbevo^ eaTecpavco- 
aaTo Bd(j)vr]' Kal Xa/Scov diro tov jScopiov to irvp 
Bpopw irdXiv eh ra? TTXarata? ix^pei /cal irpo 
rjXiov BvapLMv eTravrjXOe, t^9 avTr}<; rjpepa^ 
Xi'Xiov<i cTTaBiov^ Karavva-a^. dairaadpbevo^^ Be 
Tov<i TToXiTa^ Kal TO irvp irapaBov^ ev0u<i 
eireae Kal p,eTa piKpov e^eirvevaev. dydjxevoi 
^ avTov 01 nXarate?? eda->]rav ev tw lepSt t?}? 
EvA:A,eta9 ^ApTepuiBo^i, eTnypdyjravTe^ ToBe to 
TeTpapueTpov 

Ev^/Sa? HvOmBc dpe^a<; rfxOe TaB' avOrjpepov. 

1 av(fKoZ6fi.riaav Hercher and Blass, following Stephanus, 
and favoured by F^S : ^Ko56/xriffav huUt. 

276 



ARISTIDES, XX. 3-5 

agree on behalf of the Athenians, then Pausanias on 
behalf of the Lacedaemonians. Thus reconciled, they 
chose out eighty talents of the booty for the Plataeans, 
with which they rebuilt the sanctuary of Athena, and 
set up the shrine, and adorned the temple with frescoes, 
which continue in perfect condition to the present 
day; then the Lacedaemonians set up a trophy on their 
own account, and the Athenians also for themselves. 

When they consulted the oracle regarding the 
sacrifice to be made, the Pythian god made answer 
that they were to erect an altar of Zeus the 
Deliverer, but were not to sacrifice upon it until 
they had extinguished the fire throughout the land, 
which he said had been polluted by the Barbarians, 
and kindled it fresh and pure from the public hearth 
at Delphi. Accordingly the commanders of the 
Hellenes went about straightway and compelled all 
who were using fire to extinguish it, while Euchidas, 
who promised to bring the sacred fire with all 
conceivable speed, went from Plataea to Delphi. 
There he purified his person by sprinkling himself 
with the holy water, and crowned himself with 
laurel. Then he took from the altar the sacred fire 
and started to run back to Plataea. He reached the 
place before the sun had set, accomplishing thus a 
thousand furlongs in one and the same day. He 
greeted his countrymen, handed them the sacred 
fire, and straightway fell down, and after a little 
expired. In admiration of him the Plataeans gave 
him burial in the sanctuary of Artemis Eucleia, and 
inscribed upon his tomb this tetrameter verse : — 

" Euchidas, to Pytho running, came back here 
the selfsame day." 



277 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 T7)v S* JLv/cXetav ol jxev ttoWoI kol KoXovai 
KoX vofjLL^ovaLV "ApTCfjiiv, €VLOL Si ^a<TLV 'Hpa- 
k\6ov<s jxev Ov^arepa kol Mvprov^; f^eveaOai, t?}? 
^evoLTiov [lev Ovyarpo^, UarpoKXov 8' a3eX<^?}9> 
T6\evTi]aaaav 8k irapOevov €')(eLV irapa re Botw- 
Tot9 Kal KoKpol^ Ti/JLd<;, ySci)yLfco9 yap avry koI 
aya\fjui Kara iracrav ayopav iSpvTaL, koX tt/oo- 
Ovovaiv UL re yapLOvpLevai Kal ol ya/jLovvre^. 

XXL 'Ea; tovtov yevofiivrjt; eKK\i]aia<; KOLvrj(; 
tS)V '¥Xkr}V(ov eypayjrev *AptaTeLBrj<; 'ylrT](j)L(T/jLa 
avvievai /juev eZ? IlXarata? kuO^ eKaarov iviavrov 
airo T^9 'EX\a3o9 irpo^ovKov'^ Kal Oecopov^, 
ayeadai Be TrevraerrjpLKOv ayojva to)V 'EXey- 
depiwv, elvai Be arvvra^tv '^jXKtjvlktjv puvpia^; fiev 
ao-TTtSa?, ')(^ikiov^ Be tTTTrou?, vav<; S' eKarov eVl 
TOP 77/309 ^apjSdpovfi TToXefiov, UXaraielf; S' 
d(Tv\ov<; Kal iepov<; d<f>eL(T6ai rw deep 6vovTa<; 
virep Trj<; 'EXXaSo?. 

2 KvpcodevTcov Be tovtcov ol IIXaTatet9 vireBe- 332 
^avTO T0t9 ireaovcri Kal KeipuevoL^; avroOu rcov 
'EWi]V(ov evayi^eiv KaO' eKaa-rov iviavrov. koI 

rOVTO P'^Xpl' V^P BpCOCTL TOvSe^ TOV rpOTTOV' TOV 

M.aip.aKTrjpia)VO<; p,r]v6<i, 09 iom irapct BolcotoI^ 
^ AXa\Kop.evLO<i, rfj eKry eVt BeKa irep^irovdL irop.- 
irrjVi ^9 irporjyelrai fiev a/x* V/jiipa aaXiruyKTr]'^ 
iyKe\ev6p,6Vo<i rb iroXep^iKov, eirovrai S' dpxi^ai 
/jLvppiijr]<i p^earal Kal (TTe(j)avcop,dr(t)v Kal fieXa<; 
Tavpo<; Kal %oa9 olvov Kal ydXaKT0<; iv dp.<f)opei)a-iv 
eXaiov re Kal p^vpov Kpcocrcrovf; veavio-Koi Kop,o- 
^ovr€<; eXevOepor BovXa yap ovBevo^; e^eari rcov 

' ToVSe Hercher and Blass with F*S : tovtov, 
278 



ARISTIDES, XX. 6-xxi. 3 

Now Eucleia is regarded by most as Artemis, and 
is so addressed ; but some say she was a daughter 
of Heracles and of that Myrto who was daughter of 
Menoetius and sister of Patroclus^ and that, dying in 
virginity, she received divine honours among the 
Boeotians and Locrians. For she has an altar and 
an image built in every market place, and receives 
preliminary sacrifices from would-be brides and 
bridegrooms. 

XXI. After this, there was a general assembly of 
the Hellenes, at which Aristides proposed a decree 
to the effect that deputies and delegates from all 
Hellas convene at Plataea every year, and that every 
fourth year festival games of deliverance be cele- 
brated — the Eleutheria ; also that a confederate 
Hellenic force be levied, consisting of ten thousand 
shield, one thousand horse, and one hundred ships, 
to prosecute the war against the Barbarian ; also that 
the Plataeans be set apart as inviolable and con- 
secrate, that they might sacrifice to Zeus the 
Deliverer in behalf of Hellas. 

These propositions were ratified, and the Plataeans 
undertook to make funeral offerings annually for the 
Hellenes who had fallen in battle and lay buried 
there. And this they do yet unto this day, after the 
following manner. On the sixteenth of the month 
Maimacterion (which is the Boeotian Alalcomenius), 
they celebrate a procession. This is led forth at 
break of day by a trumpeter sounding the signal for 
battle ; waggons follow filled with myrtle-wreaths, 
then comes a black bull, then free-bom youths 
carrying libations of wine and milk in jars, and 
pitchers of oil and mjrrrh (no slave may put hand to 



▼OL. II. K *79 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'rrepi T7)v htaKOvlav ifccLvrjv irpoad'^^aa-Oat Zih to 

4 T0U9 avhpa'i diroOavelv virep ekevOepia^ iirl irdai 
Be Tityv TlXaratecov 6 dp)(^cov, tp rbv dWov 'X^povov 
ovre cnhrjpov Qu^elv e^ecrrcv ov6^ irepav iadfjra 
7rXr)v XevKrjf; dvakaffetv, rore ')(^LTCova cf)oivifcovv 
eySeSu^o)? dpd/ji€v6f; re vBpiav o-tto tov ypafjup^aro- 
(jivXaKLOv ^i^r)prj<; eVl tov9 Td<pov<; Trpodyet Sid 

5 fiio-Tjf; T^9 TToXeo)?. elra Xa^wv vBcop diro t^9 
fcpi]V7j<i avrofi diroXovet re ra? (TTrjka^ koI fivp^ 
%/ot€t, fcal TOV Tavpov eh ttjv irvpdv (T(j)d^a<; kol 
KaT€v^d/jL€vo<; Ad koI '^pp^fj ')^dovi(p TrapaKokel 
T0W9 dyadov^; dvSpa<; tov<; virep t»}9 'FtWdBo^ 
dirodavovTa^ iirl to helirvov kol ttjv alpLOKOvpiav. 
eirecTa KpaTifpa Kepdaa^ dtvov kol ')(€dfievo<; iiri- 
Xiyer ** TLpoTrivo) toI<; dvhpdai TOt<; virep tt)^ 
eXevOepia^ tcov 'EXXtjvayv uTToOavovat.'' TavTa 
p^ev ovv €Tt icaX vvv Bta^vXaTTOvcFiv ol TiXaTael^. 

XXII. 'ETre^ K dva')(wpr)(TavTa<; eU to ucttv 
T0U9 *A6r]vaLov<; 6 ^ApLaT6LBr]<; ecopa ^r}T0vvTa<; 
TTjv SrjfjiOKpaTiav diroXajSelv, dp^a puev d^iov r)yov- 
p,evo^ hid TTJV dvSpayaOiav eTTLpbeXeia^ tov hrjp,0Vt 
dp^a B^ ovK eTL pdScov la^vovTa toI*; 67rXot<; teal 
pukya (f>povovvTa Tat9 VL/caL<i eK^taarOrjvai, ypdcfyet 
'\lr7]^i<Tp,a Koivrjv elvai ttjv iroXiTeiav /cal tov<; 
dpxovTa^ ef ^Adrjvaicov irdvTODV aipelaOaL. , 

2 %ep^L(TTOKXeov<^ Be irpo^; tov Brjp,ov elirovro^^i 009 
€;^€fc TV jBovXevpua koX yvcop^rjv aTTOpprjTOV, ox^e- 
Xipbov Be TTJ TToXec koX (TcoTrjpLov, eKeXevaav 
^ ApKTTeLBrjv p,6vov aKOvaai koI avvBoKLjidaac. 
280 



ARISTIDES, XXI. 3-xxii. 2 

any part of that ministration, because the men 
thus honoured died for freedom) ; and following all, 
the chief magistrate of Plataea, who may not at 
other times touch iron or put on any other raiment 
than white, at this time is robed in a purple tunic, 
carries on high a water-jar from the city's archive 
chamber, and proceeds, sword in hand, through the 
midst of the city to the graves ; there he takes water 
from the sacred spring, washes off with his own hands 
the gravestones, and anoints them with myrrh ; then 
he slaughters the bull at the funeral pyre, and, with 
prayers to Zeus and Hermes Terrestrial, summons 
the brave men who died for Hellas to come to the 
banquet and its copious draughts of blood ; next he 
mixes a mixer of wine, drinks, and then pours a 
libation from it, saying these words : " I drink to the 
men who died for the freedom of the Hellenes." 
These rites, I say, are observed by the Plataeans 
down to this very day. 

XXn. After the Athenians had returned to their 
own city, Aristides saw that they desired to receive 
the more popular form of government. He thought 
the people worthy of consideration because of its 
sturdy valour, and he saw also that it was no longer 
easy to be forced out of its desires, since it was 
powerful in arms, and greatly elated by its victories. 
So he introduced a decree that the administration ot 
the city be the privilege of all classes, and that the 
archons be chosen from all the Athenians. 

Themistocles once declared to the people that he 
had devised a certain measure which could not be 
revealed to them, though it would be helpful and 
salutary for the city, and they ordered that Aristides 
alone should hear what it was and pass judgment on 

381 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(j>pdaavTO<; Be t& ^ KpLcrreihrj rov @6/JLt(TTOfc\€ov<?, 
o)? Siavoetrai, rov vavaraO [lov i^Trprjaai r&v 'EX- 
Xrjvcov, ovTOD yap ecreaOai fieyiarov^ koI KVpiov^ 
arravTcov Tov^i ^AOrjvaiov;, irapekOcbv eh rov 
Srjfwv 6 *Api,crTeiBr]f; ecprj tt}? TTyoafeo)?, rjv ^ejnt- 
(TTOKXfj<; TTpdrreiv Siavoecrac, /nrjre XuavTeXecr- 
repav dWrjv /jl^t dSifccorepav elvai. ravT 
dK0V(TavT6<; ol ^Adrjvaioi iravaaaOai rov ©Cfjui- 
(TTOKkea irpoaera^av, ovtco fiev 6 Si]/jLO^ r)v 
(piXoBiKaiof;, ovTco Be rS Sijfiq) inaro^i 6 dvrjp 
KoX ^efiaiof;, 

XXIII. *E7r€l Be <rTpaTr)<yo<; eKirefj^del'^ fiera 
Kificovo^; iirl rov iroKejJbov ecapa rov re Havcra- 
vlav icaX Tov<i dXkov^ dpxovTa<^ rcov '^Trapriarcov 
iirax^^h Kcu %aX67roL'9 Tol<i avpbfid'X^oi^ ovTa^;, 
a.uT09 T€ irpaco^ koI <l)LXav6p(07rco<; ofiiXwv koX 
TOP J^i/jLoyva Trapexdnv eydp/aocrrop avTol<i koI 
KOLvov iv Tal<^ o-Tpareiaif; ekade rwv AaxeBai- 
/jLovlayv ovx oirXoi'^ ovBe vavcrlv ovB^ tTTTroi?, 
evyvwfiocrvvrj Be koX irdKiTeia rrjv rjyefioviav 

2 irapeXo/Jievo^. 'TrpO(T<f)L\el<; yap 6vTa<; tou9 'Adrj- 
vaiov<; rol^ "^XkTjcn, Bid rr^v ^ApLareiBov BiKaio- 
Gvvqv /cat rrjv K[/jlcovo<; iTrieLKeiav ert /jbdWov rf 
rov Havcraviov rfkeove^ia koI fiapvrr]<; iroOeLvov^ 
eiroiei, rol^ re yap dpxpvcTL rwv (TVjJUfjidxwv del 
fier opyrj<; evervyyave Kal rpaxeo)<;, rov<; re 
iroWov'; cKoXa^e 7rk7]yal<^ rj criBrjpdv dyxvpav 
emnOel^ r)vdyKa^ev ecrrdvai BC 6\r)<; tt}? rjjiepa^. 

3 (TrijSdBa 5' ovk ^v Xa^elv ovBe x^prov ovBe 
Kprjvr) TrpoaeXOeiv vBpevofievov ovBeva irpo r&v 
ATTaprtarSiv, dXkd jxdcrrLya^ e^ovre^ vTrrjpirai 



3Sa 



ARISTIDES, XXII. 2-xxiii. 3 

it. So Themistocles told Aristides that his purpose 
was to burn the naval station of the confederate 
Hellenes, for that in this way the Athenians would 
be greatest, and lords of all. Then Aristides came 
before the people and said of the deed which 
Themistocles purposed to do, that none other could 
be more advantageous, and none more unjust. On 
hearing this, the Athenians ordained that Themis- 
tocles cease from his purpose.^ So fond of justice 
was the people, and so loyal and true to the people 
was Aristides. 

XXIII. When he was sent out as general along 
with Cimon to prosecute the war,^ and saw that 
Pausanias and the other Spartan commanders were 
offensive and severe to the allies, he made his 
own intercourse with them gentle and humane, 
and induced Cimon to be on easy terms with 
them and to take an actual part in their campaigns, 
so that, before the Lacedaemonians were aware, 
not by means of hoplites or ships or horsemen, 
but by tact and diplomacy he had stripped them 
of the leadership. For, well disposed as the Hellenes 
were toward the Athenians on account of the 
justice of Aristides and the reasonableness of 
Cimon, they were made to long for their supremacy 
still more by the rapacity of Pausanias and his 
severity. The commanders of the allies ever met 
with angry harshness at the hands of Pausanias, 
and the common men he punished with stripes, 
or by compelling them to stand all day long with 
an iron anchor on their shoulders. No one could 
get bedding or fodder or go down to a spring 
for water before the Spartans, nay, their servants 

» Of. ThemiatocUa, ix. 1-2. • 478 B.a 

•«3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov^ TTpoaLOVTa^ airrfKavvov. virep (ov tov 
^ApiarelBov irore Pov\T}9eirro<; iyKaXia-ac koX 
SiSd^at,^ avvayayoDV to irpocrcdirov 6 Tlav<ravla<; 
ovK 6(^)7} <T')(pXd^eLV ov8* TjKovaev. 

4 'E/c TOVTOv TTpocriovTC^ ol vavapyoi koX a-rpa- 333 
Trjyol TCdV 'EXX7;z/ft)z/, fiaXco-ra Se Xtot Kal Xd/JLcot, 
Kot Aia^ioi, TOV ^ KpKTTeihrjv eireiOov dvaBe^a- 
aOac Tr)v rjyepLOviav koI TrpocrayayiaOai tou? 
avfifiaxovf; irdXat Seofievovt; aTraWayrjvai r&v 
XirapTiaTCiyv koX puerard^aaOai 7rpo<; roix; ^K6r)- 
vaiov<;, diroKpivapAvov 5' eKeivov rol^ /jlcp Xoyoc<i 
avTMv TO T€ dvayKolov ivopdv Kal to Slkuiov, 
epyov Se BelaOat rrjv ttIo-tiv, o irpax^ev ovk edaet 

5 irdXiv iMTa^aXeaOaL TOv<i ttoXKov^;, outo)? ol 
irepX TOV Sd/Jbiov OvXtdSrjv Kal tov X.lov ^KvTa- 
yopav (Tvvofioa-dfievoi irepl ^v^dvnov ifif^dX- 
Xovoriv ei<; ttjv Tpirjprj tov Uavcraviov, irpoeKirXi- 
ovaav iv fiiao) Xa^ovre^. ax; Be KaTtBcov eKeZvo<; 
i^aveaTT) Kal /jlct opyrj^ rjireiXrjaev oXiyco XP^^V 
TOV<; dvhpa<; eTnSel^eiv ovk el<; ttjv avrov vavv 
i/jb^e^XTjKOTa^, dXX* eh Ta? t^^a? iraTpiBa<;, 
eKeXevov avTov dinevaL Kal dyairdv ttjv avvayco- 
viaa/iievrjv tv^W iv IIXaTaLai<;' iKelvrjv yap €ti 
T0v<; "EXX^yz/a? alcrxyvofjuevovi fjurj Xafx^dveLV 
d^lav Blktjv Trap avTov' TeXo? 5' diroaTdvTe^ 
w%ovTO irpo^ Tov^ ^A$r)vaLov<f. 

6 ^'Eivda St) Kal to (^povrjjjLa t*)? '^TrdpTr)<; Bie^dvrf 

^ TTore . . . 5t5a(ai Hercher and Blass with F*S : irar' i'^Ka- 
\4aai Ka2 Siid^eu 0ov\ofi€yov, .,_ ,^»qo>»tw»j^'i 

284 



ARISTIDES, xxin. 3-6 

anued with goads would drive away such as 
approached. On these grounds Aristides once 
had it in mind to chide and admonish him, but 
Pausanias scowled, said he was busy, and would 
not listen. 

Subsequently the captains and generals of the 
Hellenes, and especially the Chians, Samians, and 
Lesbians, came to Aristides and tried to persuade 
him to assume the leadership and bring over to 
his support the allies, who had long wanted to 
be rid of the Spartans and to range themselves 
anew on the side of the Athenians. He replied 
that he saw the urgency and the justice of what 
they proposed, but that to establish Athenian 
confidence in them some overt act was needed, 
the doing of which would make it impossible for 
the multitude to change their allegiance back again. 
So Uliades the Samian and Antagoras the Chian 
conspired together, and ran down the trireme of 
Pausanias off Byzantium, closing in on both sides 
of it as it was putting out before the line. When 
Pausanias saw what they had done, he sprang 
up and wiathfully threatened to show the world 
in a little while that these men had run down 
not so much his ship as their own native cities ; 
but they bade him be gone, and be grateful to 
that fortune which fought in his favour at Plataea ; 
it was because the Hellenes still stood in awe of 
this, they said, that they did not punish him as he 
deserved. And finally they went off and joined 
the Athenians. 

Then indeed was the lofty wisdom of the 



»is 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

davfjLaa-Tov. o)? yap yadovro t& fieyiOei t^? 
i^ovaia^; hia^deipofievovf; avrSyv rovs ap^ovra^;, 
atprJKav eKovaio)^ rrjv rjyefiovLav /cat ire/JLTrovre^ 
6776 Tov 7r6\€/jLOV iiravaavTO arpaTrjyov^;, fiaXkov 
alpovfievoL (7co(j)povovvTa<; e')(eiv Kal rot? eOeaiv 
ijjLfievovra^ tov<; TroXtra? fj tt}? 'R\\dSo<; dpx^i'V 
a7rac77;9. 

XXIV. Ot 5' "^Wr)ve<; irikovv fxev Tiva Kal 
AafceSaifiovioov r^yov fievcov airo^opav el<i tov 
7r6\6fwv, Ta')(6rivaL he fiovXo/jLevoi, Kara ttoXlv 
€KdaroL<; to jJierpiov rJTTJaavTo irapa tojv ^KOtj- 
vaicov *Api(TrebSr]v, kclI Trpoaira^av avrw ^(^capav 
T€ Kal irpoaoSov'f eiriG-Key^rdfJievov opiaai to Kar 
d^lav eKd(JT(p Kal Svva/iLV. 6 he Tr]\LKavT7](; 
i^ovaia<; Kvpio^ yevofievo^ Kal rpoirov tlvcl t^? 
'EXA,aSo9 Itt avT(p jjlovw tcl irpdyfiaTa Trdvra 
6€/jL6i'rj<;f 7rev7)<i fiev e^fjXOev, iiravrfkOe he ireve- 
cTTepo^, ov jjLovov Kadapa)<; Kal SiKai(o<;, dXXd Kal 
7rpo(T<f>LK(a^ iraaL Kal dpfiohi(D<; rrjv i7rcypa(j>7)v 
Tcov 'X^prjfidrcov iroirfadfievo^. a>9 yap ol iraXaiol 
TOV eirl Kpovov fiLov, oi/to)? ol avfjufjiaxoi' tcov 
^K6i)vai(ov TOV iir ^Apta-TeiBov (j)6pov evTroTfiiav 
TLvd TTJi; 'EXXdho^ ovofid^ovTe^ vpuvovv, Kal 
IxdXiaTa fjueT ov nroXyv 'X^povov 8nrXaai,aa6evTo<i, 
eW avdt^ TpiTrXaaiadOevTO^. ov jxev yap 'Api- 
crTet3?79 eTa^ev, r)v eh e^rjKOVTa Kal TeTpaKoaicov 
TaXdvTcav \6yov' tovtw he TiepiicXri^ fiev eVe- 
BrjKev oXiyov helv to TpLTOV fjLepo<;' e^aKocrca yap 
ToXavTa SouKvhLhr}<i (prjalv dp^of^evov tov iroXe- 
fjLOV TTpoaievac tol<; *A0r]vaiOL(; diro tS)v (tv/jl- 
fidxoDV IlepiKXeov^i 3* dirodavovTO^ iiriTeLVOvTefi 



286 



ARISTIDES, XXIII. 6-xxiv. 3 

Spartans made manifest in a wonderful way. When 
they saw that their commanders were corrupted 
by the great powers entrusted to them, they volun- 
tarily abandoned the leadership and ceased sending 
out generals for the war, choosing rather to have 
their citizens discreet and true to their ancestral 
customs than to have the sway over all Hellas. 

XXIV. The Hellenes used to pay a sort of con- 
tribution for the war even while the Lacedaemonians 
had the leadership, but now they wished to be 
assessed equably city by city. So they asked the 
Athenians for Aristides, and commissioned him 
to inspect their several territories and revenues,^ 
and then to fix the assessments according to each 
member's worth and ability to pay. And yet, 
though he became master of such power, and 
though after a fashion Hellas put all her property 
in his sole hands, poor as he was when he went 
forth on this mission, he came back from it poorer 
still, and he made his assessments of money not 
only with purity and justice, but also to the 
grateful satisfaction and convenience of all concerned. 
Indeed, as men of old hymned the praises of the 
age of Cronus — the golden age, so did the allies 
of the Athenians praise the tariff of Aristides, 
calling it a kind of blessed happening for Hellas, 
especially as, after a short time, it was doubled 
and then again trebled. For the tax which Aristides 
laid amounted to four hundred and sixty talents 
only ; but Pericles must have added almost a 
third to this, since Thucydides ^ says that when 
the war began the Athenians had a revenue of 
six hundred talents from their allies. And after 

» 478-477 B.C. » ii. 13. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ol Sijfutycoyol Kar^ fiCKpbv eZ? %fcXtft)z^ fcal rpia- 
Koaiwv raXdvrmv Ke(j)d\atov dvr'j'ya'yov, 0^% ovTa> 
Tov TToXifiov Bia fJbr]Ko<; /cal Tu%a9 BaTravrjpov 
yevo/juevov koX 7ro\vTe\ov<;, to? tov Btj/jlov et? Sia- 
vo/Jb^f; fcal decopiKa koX fcarao-fceva^; dyaX/jLarcov 
Kol iep6t)v 7rpoayay6vT6<;. 

4 Meya B' ovv ovo/jua rod ^ KpiaTelBov koI Oav- 
fMaarov e'Xpvro'^ iirl rfj Biard^eL rcov ^opoav 6 
@6jjLL(TT0K\rj<i Xiyerat fcarayeXdv, a>9 ovk dvBp6<; 
ovra TOV erratvov, dWa OvXdKov ^pvao<j>v\aKO<i' 
dvofwioi^ dfivvofievofi ttjv ^ApiaTeiSov Trapprjalav' 
eKelvq) ydp^ etTroi/ro? Trore tov Sefiio-TOKXeov^ 
dpeTrjV 'qyela-dai /jueyicrTrjv (TTpaTrjyov to yLVU)- 
(TKeiv icai TTpoaiaOdvecrdai to, ^ovXevjJbaTa tcov 
TToXefiioov, " TovTO fi6V,'^ eiiTelv, " dvayKolbv eVrty, 
w %ep.i<JTOK\ei^, KoKov Be /cat a-TparijyiKov dXr)- 
0(o<; 7] Trepl ra? ')(6lpa^ iyKpdTeca^ 

XXV. *0 8' 'A/3to"TetS>79 MpKiae /nev toix; 
"EXXr^z^a? fcal co/jLoaev virep twv ^AOrjvaicov, /xv- 33i 
Bpov^i efxPaXcDV iirl Tal<; dpal<; els ttjv OdXarrav, 
v(TT€pov Be Ttav irpaypbdTcov dp'X,eiv eyxpaTe- 
o-Tepov, W9 eoLKev, eK^La^opuevtov i/ceXeve tov9 
^AOr}vaiov<^ ttjv eiriopKiav Tpe'^avTas eh eavTOV^ 

2 ^ <TVfi<f)epeL ')(^prjadai Tot9 Trpd/ypbao-i. KaO^ oXov 
8' Se6(f>pa(TT6s ^rjcrt tov dvBpa tovtov irepl r^ 
oiKela KoX Tovs iroXlTaf; dKp(0<; ovTa BUacov iv 



* iKeivtp ykp Hercher and Blass with F*S : iKcluos y6.^, 
■ kavrlv Hercher and Blass with F^S : ahrhv. 



288 



ARISTIDES, XXIV. 3-xxv. 2 

the death of Pericles the demagogues enlarged 
it little by little^ and at last brought the sum 
total up to thirteen hundred talents, not so much 
because the war, by reason of its length and 
vicissitudes, became extravagantly expensive, as 
because they themselves led the people off into 
the distribution of public moneys for spectacular 
entertainments, and for the erection of images 
and sanctuaries. 

So then Aristides had a great and admirable 
name for his adjustment of the revenues. But 
Themistocles is said to have ridiculed him, claiming 
that the praise he got therefor was not fit for 
a man, but rather for a mere money-wallet. He came 
off second best, however, in this retort upon the 
plain speech of Aristides, who had remarked, when 
Themistocles once declared to him the opinion 
that the greatest excellence in a general was the 
anticipation of the plans of his enemies: "That 
is indeed needful, Themistocles, but the lionourable 
thing, and that which makes the real general, is 
his mastery over his fingers." 

XXV. Aristides did, indeed, bind the Hellenes 
by an oath, and took oath himself for the Athenians, 
to mark his imprecations casting iron ingots into 
the sea ; but afterwards, when circumstances, 
forsooth, compelled a more strenuous sway, he 
bade the Athenians lay the perjury to his own 
charge, and turn events to their own advantage. 
And in general, as Theophrastus tells us, while 
the man was strictly just in his private relations 
to his fellow-citizens, in public matters he often 



HBg 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0t9 KOiVOL<; TToWh rrpa^ai irpo^; rrjv vir6de<Ttv 
Trj<; iraTpiho^y d><; avx^V^ '^^^ aSifcla^; BeofjiivTjv} 
/cal yap ra ')(^p7]fiaTd (prjaiv ck AyXov ^ovkevojie- 
v(ov ^KOriva^e KOfxicraL irapa Ta<; avvOrJKa^^y koI^ 
^afiioav elarjyov/jLevcov, elirelv eKelvov, o)? ov 

3 SiKacov fiev, av/jL^epov Se tovt iarL koI reXo<; 
el's TO dp')(eLv dvOpcoircov to(tovtcov KaraaTrjcra^ 
rrjv TTokw avro^ ive/jueive t§ irevia koX rrjv diro 
TOv 7revr]<f elvat, Bo^av ovSev tjttov dyairSiv r?}? 
diro rcov Tpoiraicov SieTeXeae. SrjXov 8' i/ceWev. 
KaXXta? o SaSovxo'i V^ avrco yivec 7rpoaiJKO)V' 
TOVTOV ol i')(Ppo\ Oavdrov Sc(okovt€<;, evrel irepl 
cov iypdyfravTO /jL€Tplco<; Karrjyoprjaav, elirov riva 
\6yov e^codev tolovtop tt/oo? tov<; hiKaard^' 

4 " *ApL<rT€LBr]Vy'" 6(f)r](Tav, " lare rov AvaifJbdxov 
Oavfia^ofievov ev rol<i ^ EiWrjar toutco ttw? oteade 
TO, Kar OLKOV ex^i'V opojVTe^ avTov ev Tpi/Scovi, 
TOiovTO) irpoep')(ppLevov et? ro hy/jboaiov; dp* ovk 
elfco^ ean rov pvyovvra (pavepco^i Kal ireivav oXkoi 
KciX rcov dW(ov eTrirrjSeicov aiTavi^eiv; tovtov 
fiivToi KaXXta9, dve'^jrcbv ovra, TrXovaicoraTOf; mv 
^A.6rjvai(ov irepiopa fierd re/cv(ov Kal yvvaiKo^i 
evBeo/JLevov, iroXXd Ke'^prj/ievo'i rw dvhpl /cal 
TToXXdKif; avTOV T779 Trap* vfilv Bvvdfieayfi diroXe- 

5 XavK(ti<;,^* 6 Se KaXXta? opcov iirl tovt a) /idXcara 

* Kol aSiKias Seoficvrfv Blass, favoured by F*S : aBiKias 
ifofiev-qs. * Koi bracketed by Sintenis*. 

«9? 



ARISTIDES, XXV. 2-5 

acted in accordance with the policy which his 
country had adopted, feeling that this required 
much actual injustice. For instance, he says that 
when the question of removing the moneys of the 
confederacy from Delos to Athens,^ contrary to 
the compacts, was being debated, and even the 
Samians proposed it, Aristides declared that it 
was unjust, but advantageous. And yet, although 
he at last established his city in its sway over so 
many men, he himself abode by his poverty, and 
continued to be no less content with the reputation 
he got from being a poor man, than with that 
based on his trophies of victory. This is clear 
from the following story. 

Callias the Torch-bearer was a kinsman of his. 
This man was prosecuted by his enemies on a 
capital charge, and after they had brought only 
moderate accusations against him within the scope 
of their indictment, they went outside of it and 
appealed to the judges as follows : " You know 
Aristides the son of Lysimachus," they said, " how 
he is admired in Hellas ; what do you suppose 
his domestic circumstances are when you see him 
entering the public assembly in such a scanty 
cloak as that? Is it not likely that a man who 
shivers in public goes hungry at home, and is 
straitened for the other necessaries of life ? Callias, 
however, who is the richest man of Athens (and 
his cousin at that), allows him to suffer want with 
his wife and children, though he has often had 
service of the man, and many times reaped advantage 
from his influence with you." But Callias, seeing 

* 454 B.C. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oopvpovvra^ tov<; 8iKa<Tra<; koX ^j^aXeTrw? irpo^ 
avrop e^ovra^ eKoXec top 'ApicrTeLSrjv, a^iow 
fiaprvpr}(Tai irpo^ tou? SiKaard<;, on, nroXKaKt^ 
avrov TToWa /cat BlB6vto<; kol Beofiivov XajSeiv 
ovfc r/diXrjaev a7roKptv6/JL6vo<i, co? fiaXkov avrw 
Sict ireviav [Jbiya <j)poveiv rj KaWta Bca ttXovtov 
irpoarrjKeL' ttXovto) fiev yap ecrri ttoXXol'? ISelv 
ev re koX kukco^; ')(pcofievov<;, ireviav he (^epovrt 
yevvaico^ ov paSiov evTV')(^elv* ala'X^vveaOai Be 

6 ireviav rovf; aKovai(o<; irevofievov^;. ravra Be rod 
*AptaTeiBov tu> KaWia iTpo(TiiapTvprj(TavTO<; ov- 
Set9 Tjv TMV CLKOVovToyv, 09 ovfc airrjeL wevrj^; 
fiaXkov ft)9 * Api(7TeiBr]<; elvai jSoyXofievo^ rj ttXov- 
relv 0)9 KaXXta9. ravra fxev ovv ^ Kl<T^iv7}<^ 6 
XcoKpariKOf; ava'yeypa<f>e. YlXdrcav Be rcov /leyd- 
Xcov BoKovvrcov fcal ovofiaarMv *A6t]V7}(7i fiovov 
d^Lov Xoyov rovrov diTO(^aivei rov dvBpa' Se/jui- 
aroKXea /jlcv yap Kal Kificova Kal HepiKXea 
(TroMv zeal ')(^p7jfidr(ov Kal ^Xvapia<; '7roXX'f](; ifi- 
rrXijaai rrjv ttoXiv, ^ApoareiBr]v Be TToXirevaaadai 
7r/0O9 dperrjv. 

7 ^eydXa S' avrov KaX rd iTpo<i Se/jLiaroKXea 
r7]<; eiTLeLKeia^ arifjuela. ')(^pr]crdfievo<; yap avrw 
irapd rraaav ofjuov ryv iroXireiav ex^pcp fcal Bi 
CKelvov e^oarpaKLcrOei^y eirel rrjv avryv Xaffrjv 
Trapea'X^ev 6 dvrjp ev atria yevofievof; 7rpo<; rrjv 
rroXiVt ovK e/xvrjaiKdKrjaev, dXX* ^AX/€/jLaicovo<; koI 
K.i/jL(i)Vo<; Kal ttoXXmv dXXwv eXavvovrcov kol 
Karriyopovvroav /jlovc; ^ApLareiB7}<i ovr eirpa^ev 
ovr elire n (f>avXov, ovB^ direXavaev e')(jdpov 

^ tikv olv Hercher and Blass with F^S : ixkv. 
292 



ARISTIDES, XXV. 5-7 

that his judges were very turbulent at this charge, 
and bitterly disposed toward him, summoned Aristides 
and demanded his testimony before the judges that 
though often proffered aid from him and importuned 
to accept it, he had refused it, with the answer 
that it more became him to be proud of his 
poverty than Callias of his wealth; for many were 
to be seen who use wealth well or ill, but it 
was not easy to find a man who endured poverty 
with a noble spirit ; and those only should be 
ashamed of poverty who could not be otherwise 
than poor. When Aristides had borne this witness 
for Callias, there was no one of his hearers who 
did not go home preferring to be poor with Aristides 
rather than to be rich with Callias. This, at any 
rate, is the story told by Aeschines the Socratic. 
And Plato ^ maintains that of all those who had great 
names and reputations at Athens, this man alone 
was worthy of regard. Themistocles, he says, and 
Cimon, and Pericles, filled the city with porches 
and moneys and no end of nonsense ; but Aristides 
squared his politics with virtue. 

There are also strong proofs of his reasonableness 
to be seen in his treatment of Themistocles. This 
man he had found to be his foe during almost all his 
public service, and it was through this man that he 
was ostracized; but when Themistocles was in the 
same plight, and was under accusation before the 
city, Aristides remembered no evil ; nay, though 
Alcmeon and Cimon and many others denounced 
and persecuted the man, Aristides alone did and 
said no meanness, nor did he take any advantage of 

1 Oorgias, pp. 518 f., 626. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8v(j-TVXovvro<;i ooaTrep ovB' €W]fjL€povvTc irporepov 
icfiOovrja-e, 

XXYL TeXevTTJcraL Se ^AptaretBrjv ol [xlv ev 
YiovTcp (fiacrlv eKirXevo-avTa Trpd^ecov evetca SrjfjLo- 
G-Lcov, ol K^K6rjV7]<jL 'yrjpq.y TL/ncofievov Koi Oavpua^o- 

pueVOV VTTO TMV TTOXtTCOV. KpaTGyOO? 8* M.aK6Bot)V 

TOiavrd rtva irepl rr)? reXevTrj^ rod dvSpo^ etprjKe. 
pLera yap rrjv SepLLaro/cXeov^i cfivyyv (f)7]cnv coairep 
€^v^pL(Tavra rov hrjpov dva^vaai nrkrido^ <tvko- 
<f>avT(ov, o'i Tov<; dpicrTov^ /cal BwarayrdTov; 
dv8pa<; Bi(OK0VT6<; virelBaXkov tm (f)66v(p tmv ttoX- 335 

2 \(ov iiraipopevoav vir €VTV^La<; /cal hvvdpew<;. ev 
TOVTOL^ Kal * ApicTTeiBrjv dXcovat 8copoBoKLa<i, Ato- 
(f>dvTOV Tov ^ApbcpiTpOTrrjOev /€aTr}yopovvTO<;, o)?, 
0T6 T0V9 (l>6pov<; erarre, irapd rcov ^Icovcov XPV- 
para XajSovro^' eKrlo-ai S' ovk €')(0VTa rrjv Kara- 
Bifcrjv Trevrrjfcovra pvwv oucrav iKirXevcrai koX irepl 
rrjv ^Iwvlav diroOavelv. rovrcov Be ovBev ey- 
ypa^ov 6 KpaT6,oo? TCKpuripiov Trapia^rfKev, ovt€ 
BiKtjv 0VT6 '\^r)<^Lapa, Kaiirep elwOco^; eTneiKM^ 
ypd(j)€ip rd roiavra Kal TTapariOeaOai rov"; Ictto- 
povvra^, 

3 01 K dXXot 7rdvT€<;, (w? eVo? elirelv, ocrot rd 
m'Xr}ppieXY}devTa rco Br)p(p irepl tov<; a-rpariiyov^ 
Bie^iacL, Tr)v pbev SepbcaroKXiov^i (jivyrjv Kal rd 
^liXridBov Beo-pd Kal rrjv UepcKXiov^; ^rjp^lav Kal 
TOV Tld')(7)T0<; €V Tw BiKaarrjplw Odvarov, dveXov- 
T09 avTOV errl rov ff7]pLaT0<i &)? rjXicTKeTo, Kal 
TToXXd TOiavra crvvdyovcTi Kal OpvXovcnv, Wpt- 
(TTelBov Be rov pev e^oarpaKcapov TTapaTiOevrat,, 
KaraBiKr^fi Be TOLavTq<; ouBapLov pbvrjpovevovffi* 

294 



ARISTIDES, XXV. 7-xxvi. 3 

his enemy's misfortune, just as formerly he did not 
grudge him his prosperity. 

XXVI. As touching the death of Aristides, some 
say he died in Pontus, on an expedition in the 
public service ; others at Athens, of old age, honoured 
and admired by his countrymen. But Craterus the 
Macedonian tells something like this about the death 
of the man. After the exile of Themistocles, he 
says, the people waxed wanton, as it were, and 
produced a great crop of sycophants, who hounded 
down the noblest and most influential men, and 
subjected them to the malice of tlie multitude, now 
exalted with its prosperity and power. Among 
these he says that Aristides also was convicted of 
bribery, on prosecution of Diophantus of the deme 
Amphitrope, for having taken money from the 
lonians when he was regulating the tributes ; and, 
further, that being unable to pay the judgment, 
which was fifty minas, he sailed away and died 
somewhere in Ionia. But Craterus furnishes no 
documentary proof of this, — no judgment of the 
court, no degree of indictment, — although he is 
wont to record such things with all due fulness, and 
to adduce his authorities. 

All the rest, as I may venture to say, — all who 
rehearse the shortcomings of the people in dealing 
with their leaders, — compile and descant upon the 
exile of Themistocles, the imprisonment of Miltiades, 
the fine of Pericles, the death of Paches in the court 
room, — he slew himself on the rostrum when he 
saw that he was convicted, — and many such a case, 
and they put into the list the ostracism of Aristides, 
but of such a condemnation as this for bribery they 
make no mention whatsoever, 

»95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXVII. Kal /L16VT01 Kol Ta</)09 itrrlv avrov 
^aXypol BecKVVfiei^of;, ov ^aai KaraaKevdaat rrjv 
TToXtv avra> /htjS' ivrdcfua KaTaXirrovrf,. /cat ras 
fiev 6vyaTipa<; laropovcnv etc rod Trpvravetov rot? 
vvfji(f)LOi<; eK^odrjvat Brjfioala, t^9 TroXeo)? rov 
ydfiov iyjvaxTTjq kol irpol/ca rpL(r')^i,\La<; Spax/J^a^ 
eKaripa '^7}(l)Laa/jL6vr]^, AvaLixd'x^cp Be tc3 vl& fivd<; 
/JL€V eKarov dpyvptov Kal 79J9 roaavra irXeOpa 7re- 
^vrev/jLevT}^ eBcoxev 6 Brj/jLO<;, dXXaf; Be Bpa'^^fid^ 

2 T€(7crapa<; eh rj/juepav eKdarrjv direTa^ev, aXkl- 
/SidBov TO yjr7](j)i(Tfia ypd^^avro'^. en Be Av(tl- 
fidxov dvyarepa UoXvKpLrrjv dTroXiirovros, ft)9 
ILaXkio-Qevqi; ^r)(Ti, kol ravrrj atrrjaiv oarjv Kal 
Tot<; '0\vfi7noviKai><; 6 Brj/jio<i iyjrrjcpicraTO. Arjfi'^- 
Tpio<; S' ^aXrjpeix; Kal ^lepcovvjuo^; 6 *P6Blo<; koI 
Kpiaro^evo^ 6 fjuovaiKOf; Kal 'ApLaT0TiXr]<; (el Br) 

TO ye^ tlepl evyeveia^; ^l^Xlov ev rot^ yvr)a-LOL<; 
^ApLcrToreXov<; Oereov) laropovat M.vpTa) Ovya- 
TpiBrjv ^ApiaTelBov ^oyKpdrei tm ao<p(p auvoLKijaat, 
yvvacKa fiev erepav exovri, ravrrfv S' dvaXapovri; 
X^pevovaav Bed ireviav Kal rcov dvayKaicov ivBeor,^ 

3 fjbev7]v. 7r/)09 fiev ovv tovtov^ iKavo)^ 6 YiavaLTLo%^ 
ev T0fc9 irepl %(OKpdTov<^ dvTeiprjKev 6 Be ^aXrjpeif^ 
ev ra> XcoKpdrei <p7]al fivrj/xovevetv ^ApiarelBov 
OvyarpiBovv ev jJbdXa Trevrjra Avdi pLa^ov, 09 
kavTov fiev^ eKTTtvaKiov rivo^ oveipoKpiTiKOv irapd 
TO ^laKx^tov Xeyo/Jievov Ka66^6fMevo<; e^oorKC. Ty 
Be /JLrjTpl Kal ttj TavT7}<; dBeX(j)fj 'y^rj^tapa ypdyjraf; 
eireLo-e tov Brjp^ov Tpo(f>r}v BtBovai, Tptco^oXov 
€Kd(TT7]^ 'qpbepa^. avTo<i p^evroi (j>7]orlv 6 Ar]/jL7JTpio<; 



^ t6 ye Hercher and Blass with F^S : rh. 

' kavrhu fiiv Heroher and Blass with F»S : eavrhv. 



296 



i 



ARISTIDES, xxTii. x-3 

XXVII. Moreover, his tomb is pointed out at 
Phalerum, and they say the city constructed it for 
him, since he did not leave even enough to pay for 
his funeral. And they tell how his daughters were 
married from the prytaneium at the public cost, the 
city bestowing the dowry for the marriage and voting 
outright three thousand drachmas to each daughter, 
while to Lysimachus his son, the people gave one 
hundred minas in silver, as many acres of vineyard 
land, and besides this a pension of four drachmas 
per diem, — all in a bill which was brought in 
by Alcibiades. And further, Lysimachus left a 
daughter, Polycrite, according to Callisthenes, and 
the people voted for her a public maintenance, in 
the style of their Olympic victors. Again, Demetrius 
the Phalerean, Hieronymus the Rhodian, Aristoxenus 
the Musician, and Aristotle (provided the book 
" On Nobility of Birth " is to be ranked among the 
genuine works of Aristotle) relate that Myrto, the 
granddaughter of Aristides, lived in wedlock with 
Socrates the Sage. He had another woman to wife, 
but took this one up because her poverty kept her 
a widow, and she lacked the necessaries of life. To 
these, however, Panaetius, in his work on Socrates, 
has made sufficient reply. 

And the Phalerean says, in his '^ Socrates," that 
he remembers a grandson of Aristides, Lysimachus, 
a very poor man, who made his own living by means 
of a sort of dream-interpreting tablet, his seat being 
near the so-called laccheium. To this man's mother 
and to her sister, Demetrius persuaded the people to 
give, by formal decree, a pension of three obols per 



«w 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vofio9erS)v avrl TpLCdpokov Spaxf^V^ exarepa rd^ai 
TMV <ywai,Ka>v, 

Kal ovSev ia-ri OavfiaaTOv ovtm (^povTicraL tmv 
eu da-rei rov Srj/jLov, ottov dvyarpLBrjv * Kpiaroyei- 
Tovo^ ev Ay/JLVM 7rv66fjL€VOi> Taireiva Trpdrretv 
dvSpo<; diropova-av Sta irevlav Karriyar^ov ^AOtjva^ey 
Kol (TvvoLKiaavTe^ dvSpl twv €v yeyovorcov to 
TLoTa/jLol x^p^ov eh (p€pvr)v iiriBcoKav. 'ij? (j>iXav- 
6pco7rta<; koX ')(,PV^'^oTr]TO<; en ttoWo, Kal Ka6* 
r^p^a^ r) 7roXt9 €K(f)epov(Ta Belyp^ara Oav/jbd^erai 
Kal ^rfKovrai ZiKaico^. 



298 



ARISTIDES, XXVII. 3-4 

diem; though afterwards, in his capacity of sole 
legislator, he himself, as he says, assigned a drachma 
instead of three obols to each of the women. 

It is not to be wondered at that the people took 
such thought for families in the city, since on 
learning that the granddaughter of Aristogeiton was 
livijig humbly in Lemnos, unmarried because of her 
poverty, they brought her back to Athens, consorted 
her with a well-born man, and gave her the estate 
in Potamus for her dowry. For such humanity and 
benevolence, of which the city still gives illustrious 
examples even in my own day, she is justly admired 
and lauded. 



999 



MARCUS CATO 



MAPK02 KATQN 

I. y[dpK(p Ze K^drcovl (f>a(riv diro Tov<rK\ov to 
y6vo<i elvuL, hiairav Se KaX ^iov e-^^ecv irpb rcov 336 
arpareccov koI t}]<; TroXtreta? iv ')(a)pioi<^ 'jraTpa>oi'i 
irepl ^a^ivov^, rSiv Be irpoyovayv iravrdTraacv 
dyvcoarrcov yeyovevac Bokovvtcov avTo<; 6 K.aTcov 
Kol TOP iraTepa MdpKov co? dyaObv dvhpa koI 
arparicoTLKOV eizaivel, koI J^drcova rov Trpoirair- 
irov dptarelcov 7roWdKi<i tv)(€lv (j)r]aL Koi irevre 
7ro\6p,Lard<i Xirirov^i iv p^d^at^i diro^aXovTa rrjv 
TLp>r)v aTToXa^elv e/c rov Srjp^oaiov Bi dvBp- 

2 ayaOlav. elcoOorcov Be tcoi^ 'Paypaicov tov<; aTrb 
<y€vov(i p,ev Bo^av ov/c exovra^, dp^op^evov^; Be 
ryvcopi^ecrOat Be avrcjv Kaivov<^ Trpoaayopeveiv 
dvOpdiTTOV^, wairep KaX rov K^drcova irpoarr]- 
yopevov, avTo<; eXeye KatPO<; elvat. irpo<i dp')(rjv 
Kol Bo^av, epyoL^ Be irpoybvoav koX dpeTaL<i 
7rap7rd\aio<;. eKoKelro Be Ta> rptTO) rcov bvo- 
pdrcov irpoTepov ov J^drtov, dWd IJptaKOf;, 
varepov Be rbv K.drci)va Trj<; Bwdp^eco^^ e7rd)vvp>ov 
eo-')(e' 'Foop^acoi yap rbv epireipov Kdrov bvopd- 
^ovcriv. 

3 'Hp Be TO plv elBo^ virbiTvppo^ KaX yXavKo^, 

302 



I 



MARCUS CATO 

I. The family of Marcus Cato, it is said, was of 
Tusculan origin, though he lived, previous to his 
career as soldier and statesman, on an inherited 
estate in the country of the Sabines. His ancestors 
commonly passed for men of no note whatever, but 
Cato himself extols his father, Marcus, as a brave 
man and good soldier. He also says that his grand- 
father, Cato, often won prizes for soldierly valour, 
and received from the state treasury, because of his 
bravery, the price of five horses which had been 
killed under him in battle. The Romans used to 
call men who had no family distinction, but were 
coming into public notice through their own achieve- 
ments, "new men," and such they called Cato. 
But he himself used to say that as far as office and 
distinction went, he was indeed new, but having 
regard to ancestral deeds of valour, he was oldest of 
the old. His third name was not Cato at first, but 
Priscus. Afterwards he got the surname of Cato 
for his great abilities. The Romans call a man who 
is wise and prudent, caius. 

As for his outward appearance, he had reddish 
hair, and keen grey eyes, as the author of the well- 

303 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

C09 6 7roi7j(Ta<i TO eirvypa^fiaTLov ovk Gvfievoi)<; 
7rap€/ji(j)aLP€i' 

Uvppov, iravBafcirijv, yXavKofifjLaTOV, oi/Be 
Oavovra 
TLopKiov 669 acBrjv ^epaecftovr) he^erai* 

Trjv 8e Tov (ra)fiaTO<; e^iv avrovpyia koL BtaiTrf 
acocppovi, /cal aTpaTeiaL<^ air apx*]'i <TVvrp6(f>ov 
yeyovoTOt} irdvv ^(^pirjaTLKrjv eZ^e, koX irpo^ la-'xpv 

4 KoX TTpb^ vyCeiav opbaXco^ avvearwa-av, tov Be 
Xoyovy &(Tir€p Bevrepov aciifxa kol tcov KaXwv, 
ov p^ovov T<av avayfcaitov ^ opyavov avBpX p>r) 
Tairetvcof; ^taxropAvcp p,r]B^ aTTpaKTCD^;, i^rjprveTO 
Kol irapeaKeva^ev iv Tal<; TrepLoi/cicrc K(op,aL<; koX 
T0i9 iroTuxvlot'; eKaarore o-vvBlkwv roh BeopievoL<; 
/cal TTpMTOv p>€V dycopLaT7]<; elvac Bokcov 7rp60up^<;, 
elra kol pijTcop Uavo^;. ck Be tovtov p^aXKov 
T019 %/)ft)//'€i'0i9 KarecpaLvero ^dpo<; n koX <^po- 
VTjpa irepX avrov 7]6ov<; Trpayp^drcov pbeydXmv /cat 

5 7roXtT€ta9 Be6p,evov r]y6pbOVtKri^. ov yap fiovov, 
CO? eoiK€, pbiaOapvia^^ KaOapov eavrov iirl rd<; 
BLKa<; /cat Toif<; dycovas irapei^ev, dX)C ovBe rrjv 
Bo^av ft)9 p>eyi<TT^v dyairoiv iipaivero ryv diro tmv 
rotovTcov dycovfov, ttoXv Be puaXXov ev Tat<; pd')(ai'^ 
raU TTpo^ Toi'9 iroXep.Lov; teal Tat<; arparelaifi 
l3ov\6p,evo<; evBo/ctp,elv ere p,ecpdKLov mv rpavp.d- 

6 Tcov TO a(bp,a p^ecrrov ivavrlcov ^1%^' ^V^*' 7^P 
avTOf; eTrrafcalBcKa yeyovw^ err) rrjv Trpcorrjv 
(TTparevaaaOaL trrpaTeCav TrepX ov ^Avvi/Sa^; 
Xpovov evTV)(^&v €7re(l)\ey€ rrjv ^IraXlav, 

^ rSiv iLvayitaiuv Hercher and Blass, with Bekker : kvay- 



304 



MARCUS CATO, i. 3-6 

known epigram ill-naturedly gives us to under- 
stand: — 

Red-haired, snapper and biter, his grey eyes 
flashing defiance, 
PoT'cius, come to the shades, back will be 
thrust by their Queen. 
His bodily habit, since he was addicted from the 
very first to labour with his own hands, a temperate 
mode of life, and military duties, was very service- 
able, and disposed alike to vigour and health. His 
discourse, — a second body, as it were, and, for the 
use of a man who would live neither obscurely nor 
idly, an instrument with which to perform not only 
necessary, but also high and noble services, — this 
he developed and perfected in the villages and towns 
about Rome, where he served as advocate for all who 
needed him, and got the reputation of being, first a 
zealous pleader, and then a capable orator. Thence- 
forth the weight and dignity of his character 
revealed themselves more and more to those who 
had dealings with him ; they saw that he was bound 
to be a man of great affairs, and have a leading 
place in the state. For he not only gave his services 
in legal contests without fee of any sort, as it would 
seem, but did not appear to cherish even the repute 
won in such contests as his chief ambition. Nay, he 
was far more desirous of high repute in battles and 
campaigns against the enemy, and while he was yet 
a mere stripling, had his breast covered with honour- 
able wounds. He says himself that he made his 
first campaign when he was seventeen years old, at 
the time when Hannibal was consuming Italy with 
the flames of his successes.^ 

» 217 B.a 

305 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tlapet'X^e 5' avrov iv ral<; ixd')(ai<; rfj filv X^Lpt 
irXrjKTrjv, t& Bk ttoSI fiovi/iov koI ffi/SuLov, yavpoif 
Se Tq> TrpoacoTTO)' \6yov 8' aTreiXfj koI TpaxvT7]Ti, 
(jxovrjf; 'irpo<; tou? 7ro\€fiiov<; i^p^'^o, opOo)^; koI 
BcavoovfjL€VO<; koX BiBdarKcov, on TroXkaKif; ret 
Toiavra rod ft^oi/9 fJuaWov KaraTrX'^Trerat, rov^ 

7 €vavTLOV<;. iv Be rat? TTopeiat^i avTO^ i^dBt^e 
(pepcop TCL oirka, koI depdirwv eh eXireTo ra Trpo? 
Biairav avrw KOfiL^cov, o5 Xeyerac firfBeTrore 
Bva/coXavai /jLrjBe fiefj/^^aaOai irapaOevrc dptarov 
Tj Belirvov, dXXA koL avWa/nfidvetv avro^; ra 
irXelaTa koI avfJuirapacTKevd^eiv diro rcov arpa- 
TicoTiK(ov yev6fievo<i epycov. vBcop S' eirivev eirl 
aTpareia^, ttXtjv etiroTe Bcylrrja-a^ 7r€pL<j>Xeyco<i 
6^o<; aiTTjaetev^ rj r?}? IcT^yo^ evBiBovarj^; iirLXd^ot 337 
fjLLKpov oivdpiov. 

II. 'Hi^ Be TrXrjaLov avrov rcov dypdov r) yevo- 
fievr} M.avLov Kovpiov rod rph 6piaii^evaavro<^ 
eiravXi^;. eirX ravrrjv <7f z^ep^co? ^aBi^oav KaX dedn- 
fievof; rod re x^piov rrjv /jLLKporrjra koX rrj^ 
olK7](7e(o<; ro Xcrov, evvoiav eXdfjb^ave rod dvBp6<i, 
ore ^VoDfiaiodv fieyiaro^; yev6p,evo<i /cal ra /xa^i/AO)- 
rara ra>v eOvoiv virayayofjbevo'i /cal Uvppov 
e^eXdaa^ rrj^ *IraX[,a<; rovro rb %ct)/)t8£oz/ avr6<i 
ecr/cairre xal ravrrjv rrjv erravXtv w/cei fiera rpel<i 

2 6pid/jb^ov<;. evravOa irpo^ eaxdpa KaOy/jbevov 
avrov eyjrovra yoyyvXlBa<i evpovre^ ol Xavvircjv 
TTpea^ec^ iBLBoaav rroXv ^/^vo-toz/* o S' direirefi' 
yjraro (l)i]aa<; ovBev ^P^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ Belirvov dpKel 
roLOvroVy avr& fievroi rov xp^o-lov e%€iv koXXlov 
elvai ro vc/cdv tov? e^ovra^;, ravB* 6 K-drwv 

* cuT-lifffitr Blasa, with Bekker : jjttjo-cv. 
306 



MARCUS CATO, i. 6-11. 2 

In battle, he showed himself effective of hand, 
sure and steadfast of foot, and of a fierce counten- 
ance. With threatening speech and harsh cries he 
would advance upon the foe, for he rightly thought, 
and tried to show others, that often-times such action 
terrifies the enemy more than the sword. On the 
march, he carried his own armour on foot, while a 
single attendant followed in charge of his camp 
utensils. With this man, it is said, he was never 
wroth, and never scolded him when he served up a 
meal, nay, he actually took hold himself and assisted 
in most of such preparations, provided he was free 
from his military duties. Water was what he drank 
on his campaigns, except that once in a while, in a 
raging thirst, he would call for vinegar, or, when his 
strength was failing, would add a little wine. 

II. Near his fields was the cottage which had once 
belonged to Manius Curius, a hero of three triumphs. 
To this he would often go, and the sight of the 
small farm and the mean dwelling led him to think 
of their former owner, who, though he had become 
the greatest of the Romans, had subdued the most 
warlike nations, and driven Pyrrhus out of Italy, 
nevertheless tilled this little patch of ground with 
his own hands and occupied this cottage, after three 
triumphs. Here it was that the ambassadors of 
the Samnites once found him seated at his hearth 
cooking turnips, and offered him much gold ; but he 
dismissed them, saying that a man whom such a 
meal satisfied had no need of gold, and for his part 
he thought that a more honourable thing than the 
possession of gold was the conquest of its possessors. 
Cato would go away with his mind full of these 



307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ivOvfiovfievo^ airrjei, koI rov avrov irakiv oIkov 
i^opcou Kol ')(copLa fcal OepdirovTa^ koI hiairav 
eirereive rrjv avTovpytav Kol irepieKOiTTe rrjv 
TToXvrekeiav. 

3 ^a^LOV Se Ma^lfjLov ttjv TapavrCvcov ttoXlv 
IXoi/TO? erv^e fiev 6 Kdrcov arparevofievo^ vtt 
avT& fcofjbtSy fieipd/ciov cov, 'N6dp)(^a) Be tlvl twv 
HvOayoptKMv ^evw %/)97o-a/i6z/o? eairov^aae twv 
Xoycov fieToXapelv. aKOvaa^; Se ravra SoaXejo- 
fiivov Tov dvSpo'i, oh Ke'X^prjrai koX TiXdrcoVy rrjv 
jjblv r)hovr)v diroKaX&p p>iyi(TTOV kukov SeXeap, 
avfJL^opdv he rfj ^vxfj to (rcj/Jba TrpcoTrjv, Xvacv Se 
Kal KaOapfMov oh jJudXtara ')(^a)pi,^€L /cal d(j)i<TTr)(TiV 
avTTjv rcjv irepl to acofia TraOTjjudrcov XoyicT/jLoh, 
en fidXXov rjydirrjo-e to Xltov Kal rrjv ey/cpdretav. 

4 dXXa)<; Se 7rai8eLa<; 'EiXXr}VLKrj<; 6(pLjjLaOrj<; yeveadai 
Xeyerat, kol TToppco Travrdiracnv i)XiKia^ eXrfXaKw^;^ 
'EiXXrjviKO, ffi/SXla XajBchv eh %eiyoa9 ^payea pkv 
diTO ^ovKvSiSov, TrXeiova S' diro Arj/JLoadevovf; eh 
TO prjTopLKov ODcfieX'rjOrjvai. to, fievTot avyypdfi- 
fiaTa Kal Soyfiaaiv 'EXXrjviKoi*; Kal laTopLat,<; 
i'jrteiK(o<; ScaTreTroLKiXTai' Kal fMeOrjp/arjvevjjLeva 
TToXXd KaTa Xe^cv ev Toh diro^OeyiJLao-i Kal Tah 
yvwfxoXoyiai^ TeTaKTUi. 

III. ^Hz^ Se Tt9 dvrjp evTraTpLSr)^ fjuev ev Toh p^dXc- 
aTa ^Pcofiaicov Kal SvvaT6<},dpeT7]v Se <pvo/iem]v jxev 
ala-ddveaOai Setvo^, ev/ii€vr}<; Se kol Ope^jrac Kal 
Trpoayayelv eh So^av, OvaXXepLo^; ^XdKKO^i. 
0VT09 el'xev ofiopovvTa ')((opia Toh Karwi/o?, 
TTvOofxevo^i Se Tr)v avTovpyiav Kal SiaiTav avTOv 
Trapa t(ov oiKeToyv Kal Oavfjudaa^; i^rjyovfievayv, oti 

^ i)\iKlas i\r)\aKi^s Hercher and Blass with S : tiXikIus. 
308 



MARCUS CATO, ii. 2-111. i 

things, and on viewing again his own house and 
lands and servants and mode of life, would increase 
the labours of his hands and lop off his extrava- 
gancies. 

When Fabius Maximus took the city of Tarentum,^ 
it chanced that Cato, who was then a mere stripling, 
served under him, and being lodged with a certain 
Nearchus, of the sect of the Pythagoreans, he was 
eager to know of his doctrines. When he heard 
this man holding forth as follows, in language which 
Plato also uses, condemning pleasure as " the greatest 
incentive to evil," and the body as "the chief 
detriment to the soul, from which she can release 
and purify herself only by such reasonings as most 
do wean and divorce her from bodily sensations," he 
fell still more in love with simplicity and restraint. 
Further than this, it is said, he did not learn Greek till 
late in life, and was quite well on in years when he 
took to reading Greek books ; then he profited in 
oratory somewhat from Thucydides, but more from 
Demosthenes. However, his writings are moderately 
embellished with Greek sentiments and stories, and 
many literal translations from the Greek have found 
a place among his maxims and proverbs. 

III. There was at Rome a certain man of the 
highest birth and greatest influence, who had the 
power to discern excellence in the bud, and the 
grace to cultivate it and bring it into general esteem. 
This man was Valerius Flaccus. He had a farm 
next to that of Cato, and learned from Cato's servants 
of their master's laborious and frugal way of living. 
He was amazed to hear them tell how Cato, early in 
1 209 B.a 

309 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irpoyt fiev eh ayopav ^ahi^et, Koi TrapiCTraraL roh 

2 Seofjiivoi^f iiraveXdayv 5* eh to ')(copLov, civ fiev y 
'X^etfKOVf i^oofiiSa \affa)v, depovf; Sk yvfivof; ipyaad- 
fjL€VO<; fjuera tmv oIketmv iaOlei rov avrov aprov 
op^ov KaOrjpevo^ Kal irivei rov avrov olvov, aWrjv 
Te TToWrjv iirieiKeiav avrov Kal perpcorrjra Kal 
nva^ Kal Xoyov^ d7ro(f)9eypariKov<; Siapvrjpovevov- 

3 rcov, eKeXevae KXrjOijvat tt/jo? to SeiTrvov. €k Be 
Tovrov ')(^p(op,evo<; Kal Karavocov rjpepov Kal 
darelov r)do^, wairep (pvrov da-Kn^aeo)^ Kal x^P^^ 
i'TTi^avov'i heopevov, TTpoerpey^aro Kal avveireLaev 
d-y^aaOai rij^ iv 'Vwp,r] TroXtreta?. KarekOwv 
ovv €v6v<; Tov<; pev avro<; eKrdro 6avpaara<^ 
Kal (f)iXov<; Bid rcoy avvrjyopLMV, TroWrjv Be 
rov OvaXkepiov riprjv Kal Bvvapiv avrcp irpoa- 
riOivro^; ')(^iXiap')(^ia^ €rv)(^e Trpojrov, elra erapiev- 

4 crev. eK rovrov Be Xapirpo'; mv i]Brj Kal irepiclyavj)'; 
avr(p rw OvaWepiw irepl ra? peyiara<; avve^e- 
Bpapev dpxd<;, viraro^ re p>eT eKeivov Kal irdXtv 
ripr)rt}<; yevopevo^. 

Twz^ Be TTpea^vrepcov iroXtrMV Ma^ipw ^a^LO) 
TTpoaevetpLev eavrov, ivBo^ordrco pev ovri Kal 
p^eyio-rrjv e^ovn Bvvapiv, pdXkov Be rov rpoizov 
avrov Kal rov /Slov &)? KaWicra irapaBeiypara 

5 nrpoOepevo'^. Blo Kal XK-rjirloyvi r(p peydXw, verp 338 
pev ovn rore, tt/do? Be rrjv ^a^Lov Bvrapcv dvrai- 
povrt Kal (f>Ooi'€LadaL Bofcovvri, Trap' ovBev erroir)- 
craro yevecrdai Bid^opo^;, dWd Kal rapla^ avr(p 
irpo^ rov iv Aifivrj iroXepov avveK7r€pL(f)0eh, co? 



310 



J 



MARCUS CATO, iii. 1-5 

the morning, went on foot to the market-place and 
pleaded the cases of all who wished his aid ; then 
came back to his farm, where, clad in a working 
blouse if it was winter, and stripped to the waist if 
it was summer, he wrought with his servants, then 
sat down with them to eat of the same bread and 
drink of the same wine. They told Valerius many 
other instances of Cato's fairness and moderation, 
quoting also sundry pithy sayings of his, until at last 
Valerius gave command that Cato be invited to dine 
with him. After this, discovering by converse with 
him that his nature was gentle and polite, and 
needed, like a growing tree, only cultivation and 
room to expand, Valerius urged and at last persuaded 
him to engage in public life at Rome. Accordingly, 
taking up his abode in the city, his own efforts as an 
advocate at once won him admiring friends, and the 
favour of Valerius brought him great honour and 
influence, so that he was made military tribune first, 
and then quaestor. After this, being now launched 
on an eminent and brilUant career, he shared the 
highest honours with Valerius, becoming consul with 
him, and afterwards censor. 

Of the elder statesmen, he attached himself 
most closely to Fabius Maximus, who was of the 
highest reputation and had the greatest influence, 
but this was more by way of setting befoi'e himself 
the character and life of the man as the fairest 
examples he could follow. In the same spirit he did 
not hesitate to oppose the great Scipio, a youthful 
rival of Fabius, and thought to be envious of him. 
When he was sent out with Scipio as quaestor for 
the war in Africa,^ he saw that the man indulged in 

*204b.o. ^ 

VOL. II. L 3'^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€(opa ry avvijOeo iroKvreXeia y^p^jievov rbv dvBpa 
Koi KaraxoprjyovvTa roh arparevfiaa-Lv at^eihrn 

6 tS)V 'XprjfjLaTOJV, eTrapprjatd^ero tt/Oo? avTov, ov to 
T^9 Sa7rdvrj<; fieyiarov elvai (jidfiepo^, aXX' oti 
hLa<^deipei ttjv irdrpvov evriXeiav reov arpaTicorcov 
€^' iqBova^ KoX Tpv(f)a<; t& irepiovri t?)? yneia'; 
Tpeirofievcov. ehrrovTo^i he rod ^KrjTrifavo^, et)? ov- 
Bev BioiTo ra/jLLOv \iav aKpi^ov^ 7rXrjaL(TTW<i iirl 
TOP iroKepbov (f)ep6pievo<;t irpd^ecov rydp, ov xPV/^d- 

7 Tcov, rfj iroXet, Xoyov 6(l>€LXeiv, diryjXOev 6 Kdrcop 
ix ^LKeXia^i, koX pLerd tov ^ajSuov KarajBooiV iv t& 
cvveBpio) <^6opdv re %/0?;/i,aT6)v dpbvOijrcov viro rov 
2/c^7ria)z/09 fcal Biarpcfidf; avTov pLeipaKiooBei<: iv 
iraXaiaTpai^ koX Oedrpoi^, axrirep ov aTpaTrfyovv- 
T09, dXXd iravrjryvpi^ovTO';, i^eipyda-aTO ire/iKpOi]- 
vat, BripLdp')(pvf; eV avrov d^ovra*; eh 'Pcofirjv, 

8 dvirep dXrjdei^ at KaTrjyopiat (pavcoaiv. 6 pi^v ovv 
^Kr^TTLOiv iv ry irapaaKevfj rov iroXepLOV ttjv 
VLKrjv iTTiBei^d/jievof;, koX a^avei^; r)Bv<; pbcv iTrl 
cr%oX-779 avvelvai <l)iXoi^, ovBapLOV Be rw (ptXav- 
Opdyrrcp T779 Bi,aLT7j<; elg rd (TirovBala koI fieydXa 
pd6vpL0<i, i^eirXevcrev iirl rov iroXepuov, 

IV. T« Be Kdrcovt ttoXXt) puev drro rov Xoyov 
BvvafjLi<; rjv^rjrOf /cat ^Vcapbalov avrov ol ttoXXol 
AripLO(T0ev7)v irpoarjyopevov, 6 Be j3lo<; puaXXov 
6vo/jLaaro<; r)v avrov kuI 7repL^6r)ro<^, r} p^ev yap 
iv r(p Xeyeiv Betv6rrj<i TrpovKecro rol<; veoi<i dyoo- 
VKTpua KOLVov r}Brf koI irepta-TrovBaarov, 6 B^ rrjv 
irdrpLov avrovpylav vTropuevcov Ka\ Belirvov d<f>eXe^ 
Ka\ dpLarov drrvpov Kal Xirr}v iaOrjra Kal BrjpLO- 
TiKTjv daira^ofievo^ otKrjaiv xal to fir) BelaOai r&v 

31a , 



MARCUS CATO, iii. 5-iv. i 

his wonted extravagance, and lavished money with- 
out stiat upon his soldiery. He therefore made bold 
to tell him that the matter of expense was not the 
greatest evil to be complained of, but the fact that 
he was corrupting the native simplicity of his soldiers, 
who resorted to wanton pleasures when their pay 
exceeded their actual needs. Scipio replied that he 
had no use for a parsimonious quaestor when the 
winds were bearing him under full sail to the war ; 
he owed the city an account of his achievements, 
not of its moneys. Cato therefore left Sicily, and 
joined Fabius in denouncing before the Senate Scipio's 
waste of enormous moneys, and his boyish addiction 
to palaestras and theatres, as though he were not 
commander of an army, but master of a festival. 
As a result of these attacks, tribunes were sent to 
bring Scipio back to Rome, if the charges against 
him should turn out to be true. Well then, Scipio 
convinced the tribunes that victory in war depended 
on the preparations made for it; showed that he 
could be agreeable in his intercourse with his friends 
when he had leisure for it, but was never led by his 
sociability to neglect matters of large and serious 
import ; and sailed off for his war in Africa. 

IV. The influence which Cato's oratory won for 
him waxed great, and men called him a Roman 
Demosthenes ; but his manner of life was even 
more talked about and noised abroad. For his 
oratorical ability only set before young men a goal 
which many already were striving eagerly to attain ; 
but a man who wrought with his own hands, 
as his fathers did, and was contented with a cold 
breakfast, a frugal dinner, simple raiment, and a 
humble dwelling, — one who thought more of not 

313 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrepiTT&v fiaXKov ^ to KCKrija-Oai Oav/jid^cov 

2 airdvLO'i rjVy 7]Brj rore tt}? iroXiTeia^ ro KaOapov 
VTTO fjueyedovi ov (j)v\aTT0va7j<;, dWa rat Kpareiv 
Trpayfidrcov ttoWcjv koI dvOpcoTrcov 7r/309 ttoWol 
fjLLyvv/j.€vr]<i eOr) koL filcov TrapaSeiyfJLara iravToSa- 
TToiiV vTrohe^ojJbevT)^. et/coTO)? ovv iOavfia^ov top 
K^dreova, toi»9 /iiev dWov^ vtto tcov ttovcov Opavo- 
fi€Vov<; Kol ^aXaaaofievov; viro ^ rSyv rjSovcov 

3 6pa)VT6<;, €Kelvov he vir dfKJyocv drfTT-qTov, ov fiovov 
€0)9 €TL veo^ KOi (l>iX6rtfjL0<; rjv, dXkh. kol yepovra 
Kol ttoXlop ^Btj fjbe6* viraTeiav Kal Opiafi^ov, (acrirep 
d6\'r]T7)v vi,K7)(j)6pov, iyKaprepovvra ry rd^eu t^9 
d<TKri<T6(o^ Kol BiofJLaXi^ovTa fie'X^pi' rrj^ T€\6VTrj<{, 

'Ec^T^ra /juev yap ovBeiroTe <f)7](TL (^opeaai irokv- 
TeXearipav eKarbv Spax/^(i^v, irielv Be koI arpa- 
Trjycop Kal viraTevcov rov avrov olvov rots ipyd- 
rais, oyjrov Be Trapaa-Keud^eadai 7rpb<; to Belnrvov 
ef dyopd<; daaapifov TpidKOvra, Kal tovto Bid 
Tr)V TToXiVf 07ra)<; lcr')(voi to aSifia irpof; Ta9 

4 <TTpaTeia<i. eiri^rjfia Be tS)v ttolkiXwv Bal3v- 
X(ovLov eK KXr]povofjiia<; KTrjadfievo'; ev6v<i diro- 
B^a-Oac, T(ov Be eiravXecov avrov firiBepiiav elvai 
K€K0vca/jLev7jv, ovBeva Be TTciiirore irpiacrQai BovXov 
virep Ta9 %A^ta9 Bpa^/Jbd^; Kal TrevraKoalaSy 609 
hv ov rpv^epoiv ovB^ wpalwv, dXX! epyariKOiv Kal 
arepewVi olov tTrTroKo/j^cov Kal ^orjXarojp, Beo- 
fi€vo<;' Kal rovrovs Be rrpea^vrepov^i yevo/jievov<i 
wero Belv diroBLBoa-OaL Kal fir) /SocrKeiv d')(^pr)arov<i. 
oXq)9 Be fiTjBev evcovov elvau rwv Trepirruiv, d\X' 
ov TL^ OV Belrai, kclv daaapiov mirpdaKrjrat,, 

^ Ivh Hercher and Blass with S : /coi uvb. 
3«4 



MARCUS CATO, iv. 1-4 

wanting the superfluities of life than of possessing 
themj — such a man was rare. The commonwealth 
had now grown too large to keep its primitive 
integrity ; the sway over many realms and peoples 
had brought a large admixture of customs, and the 
adoption of examples set in modes of life of every 
sort. It was natural, therefore, that men should 
admire Cato, when they saw that, whereas other 
men were broken down by toils and enervated by 
pleasures, he was victor over both, and this too, not 
only while he was still young and ambitious, but 
even in his hoary age, after consulship and triumph. 
Then, like some victorious athlete, he persisted in 
the regimen of his training, and kept his mind 
unaltered to the last. 

He tells us that he never wore clothing worth 
more than a hundred drachmas ; that he drank, 
even when he was praetor or consul, the same wine 
as his slaves ; that as for fish and meats, he would 
buy thirty asses' worth ^ for his dinner from the public 
stalls, and even this for the city's sake, tliat he 
might not live on bread alone, but strengthen his 
body for military service ; that he once fell heir to 
an embroidered Babylonian robe, but sold it at once ; 
that not a single one of his cottages had plastered 
walls ; that he never paid more than fifteen hundred 
drachmas for a slave, since he did not want them to 
be delicately beautiful, but sturdy workers, such as 
grooms and herdsmen, and these he thought it his 
duty to sell when they got oldish, instead of feeding 
them when they were useless ; and that in general, 
he thought nothing clieap that one could do without, 
but that what one did not need, even if it cost but a 
^ The as corresponded nearly to the English penny. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXkov vofiL^eiv Krdo-Oai Be ret (TTreipofieva koI 
ve/jLOfieva fidWov rj rh paivojJbeva kol (ratpo/xeva. 

V. Tavra S' ol jiiev eh /JbiKpoXoyiav iriOevTO rod 
avhpo^, oi S* 0)9 eVl BtopdaxreL koI acoclipovLcr/jLqt 
rSiv aW(ov evSoTepco a-variWovro^; eavrov aTre- 
Bi^ovTO. 7r\r)v rb to?9 olKerac^ ct)9 VTro^vyioi^ 
diro'X^p'qo-dfievov cttI y^pco^ iXavveiv Kal ircTrpd- 
(Tfceiv dr6vov<; djav riOov^ &y(oye rWe/Jiai, kol 339 
firjBev dvOpcoTTO) 7rpo<! dvOpcoirov olofxevov kolvq)- 

2 vrjfia TTjt; %p€ta9 ifKeov vTrdp^etv. Kairoi rrjv 
'X^prjaroTTjra Trj<: BiKaio<Tvvr)<; irXarvrepov to- 
TTOV 6p5)fiev eTTiXafi^dvovaav vo/jlo) fiev yap 
fcal T& Bi/caiq) 7ryoo9 dvOpmrov^ fiovov %/9r}o-^a« 
TrecftvKafieVy 7r/oo9 €U€py€<rl,a<; Be Kal ')(^dpiTa<! 
eo-TLV ore /cal /^expt tcov dXoycav ^wmv wcrwep €k 
7rr]y7J<; irXova-ia^; diroppet T7J<; 'qfieporrjro^, Kal 
yap LTTTTcov direipnriKorcov viro %/ooi/ov rpocfyal Kal 
KvvSyv ov cTKvXaKelai fiovov, dWd Kal yijpoKOfiiai 
Tc3 'XpVO"^^ irpoa-ijKovacv. 

3 'O Be T(ov *A6r)vaLCDv Bi]fio<; oIkoBo/jumv rov 
^EtKarofiTreBov, ocra^ Karevorjorev rj/ii6vov<; fidXiara 
Tot9 7r6voc<; eyKapiepovcra^iy direkvcrev eXevOepa^ 
vifieaOat koI d^irov^, mv pulav <f)aal Kara^ai- 
vovaav dxj)^ eavrrj^ 7rpo9 rd epya rol<; dvdyovai 
Ta9 dfid^a<; viro^vyioi^; eh dKpoTroXiv avfiTrapa- 
Tpex^t'V Kal irporiyelaOai Kaddirep eyKeXevofievijv 
Kal (Tvve^op/jiO)(Tav, rjv Kal Tpe(j>ea6ai Brj/jLoaia 

4 fjue'xpi reXevrrj^; iylrrjcpLaavTO. rcov Be Kifi(ovo<; 
XiriraiV, ah ^OXvfiina rph evUr^a-e, Kal Ta<fial 
316 



MARCUS CATO, iv. 4-v. 4 

penny, was dear ; also that he bought lands where 
crops were raised and cattle herded, not those where 
lawns were sprinkled and paths swept. 

V. These things were ascribed by some to the 
man's parsimony ; but others condoned them in the 
belief that he lived in this contracted way only to 
correct and moderate the extravagance of others. 
However, for my part, I regard his treatment of his 
slaves like beasts of burden, using them to the 
uttermost, and then, when they were old, driving 
them off and selling them, as the mark of a very 
mean nature, which recognizes no tie between man 
and man but that of necessity. And yet we know 
that kindness has a wider scope than justice. Law 
and justice we naturally apply to men alone ; but 
when it comes to beneficence and charity, these 
often flow in streams from the gentle heart, like 
water from a copious spring, even down to dumb 
beasts. A kindly man will take good care of his 
horses even when they are worn out with age, and 
of his dogs, too, not only in their puppyhood, but 
when their old age needs nursing. j 

While the Athenians were building the Parthenon, 
they turned loose for free and unrestricted pasturage 
such mules as were seen to be most persistently 
laborious. One of these, they say, came back to the 
works of its own accord, trotted along by the side of 
its fellows under the yoke, which were dragging the 
waggons up to the Acropolis, and even led the way 
for them, as though exhorting and inciting them on. 
The Athenians passed a decree that the animal be 
maintained at the public cost as long as it lived. 
Then there were the mares of Cimon, with which he 
won three victories at Olympia ; their graves are 

317 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7r\7]aiov elcn tmv eKeivov /jLvrj/idrcov. Kvva^ ht 
<TVVTp6(j)ovf; yevo/jL6vov<; koX (Tvvr]6ei<i dWot re 

TToWol fCal 'B^dvOlTT'TTO^ 6 TToXaLO^ TOV €19 

XaXafMLva rfj rpii^pet Trapavrj^d/jbevov, ore rrjv 
TToXiv 6 hrjfio^ i^ekeinev, eirl rrj^ aKpa^ ifc^Seuaev, 
fjv K.vvo^ o-rjfMa fiexpt vvv koXovctvv. 

5 Ov yap ft)9 v7roSi]/iiaaiv ri a-Keveai rol<; '^frv^VV 
e')(pvcn ')(pr](TT€OV, Koirevra /cat Kararpc^evTa ral<; 
vir'qpeGriaL^ dTToppLiTTOvvTa^;, dX\! el 8ia fiijBev 
dWoy /jLeXerr)^ eveKa rod (l>ikav6 pdyirov irpoeOi- 
ariov eavTov iv tovtol^ irpaov elvai kclI jxeiKi'^ov. 
iyo) fiev ovv ovSe ^ovv dv ipydTrjv Btd yrjpa<; 
aTToBoi/Jbriv, fjurj ri ye irpea^vrepov dvOpcoTrov, 
Ik ')((iipa^ (Tvvrpo^ov kol BiaLrrjf; crvprjOov<; coawep 
eK irarpiho^ fxeOiardixevov dvrl K6pfidro)v /jLLKp&v, 
d')(^pr}GT6v ye rol^ d}vovfji6voL<; wGirep tol^ inirpd' 

6 (TKovdi yeTn^cTOfJievov. 6 Be Kdrcov coairep veavi- 
€v6/jLevo<; eirl tovtol<; koX top lttttov, <p irapd 
rd<; cTTpareia^ virarevwv ixpvro, (prjalv iv 
*10r]pia KaTaXiirelv, Xva fir) rfj iroXei to vavXov 
avTOv XoylorrjTai. ravra /nev ovv eire fieydko- 
'\jrvx^ci<; €tT6 fxiKpokoyia^ Oereov, e^ean rw irei- 
OovTL ^/o?7cr^ai \oyiafjLa>. 

VI. Ti)? S' dWr}<; eyKparela^ v7rep(f)vco^ Oav/xa- 
(7X09 o dvrip' olov on arparrjycov iXdfi^avev 
eavT(p fcal T0i9 irepl avrov ov ifkeov eh top 
firjva TTvpcbv r/ rpeh ^Attikov^ fjueSi/jivov^, eh 
Be Tr}v rjfiepav KpiOchv roh v7ro^vyioi<i ekarrov 
2 TpiS)V r]iJLLixeBifWCDV. eirapx^av Be Xa^cov XapBova, 
Tcov irpo avTOV GTpaTrjywv elo^OoTcov ^PV^^^^ 



318 



MARCUS CATO, v. 4-vi. 2 

near the tombs of his family. Dogs also that have been 
close and constant companions of men, have often been 
buried with honour. Xanthippus, of olden time, gave 
the dog which swam along by the side of his trireme 
to Salamis, when the people were abandoning their 
city, honourable burial on the promontory which is 
called to this day Cynossema, or Dog's Mound. ^ 

We should not treat living creatures like shoes or 
pots and pans, casting them aside when they are 
bruised and worn out with service, but, if for no 
other reason, for the sake of practice in kindness to 
our fellow men, we should accustom ourselves to 
mildness and gentleness in our dealings with other 
creatures. I certainly would not sell even an ox 
that had worked for me, just because he was old, 
much less an elderly man, removing him from his 
habitual place and customary life, as it were from 
his native land, for a paltry price, useless as he 
is to those who sell him and as he will be to those 
who buy him. But Cato, exulting as it were in such 
things, says that he left in Spain even the horse 
which had carried him through his consular campaign, 
that he might not tax the city with the cost of its 
transportation. Whether, now, these things should 
be set down to greatness of spirit or littleness of 
mind, is an open question. 

VI. But in other matters, his self-restraint was 
beyond measure admirable. For instance, when he 
was in command of an army, he took for himself and 
his retinue not more than three Attic bushels of wheat 
a month, and for his beasts of burden, less than a 
bushel and a half of barley a day. He received Sar- 
dinia as his province,^ and whereas his predecessors 

1 Cf. Themistocles x. 6. M98 b.o. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal (TKrjvodfiaa-i Br)/jLoaLOi<; koI K\ivat<; /cat ifjua- 
tIol<;, iroWy 8e depaireia Kal (ptkcov irXriOei koX 
irepl SetTTva Sa7rdvat<; koI irapacTKeval^; ^apvvov- 
Ttor, eKelvo^ aTTiarov iiroitiae rrjv Sta(f)Opav 
Trj<; evreXebaf;. SaTrdvrj^ puev yap et9 ovBev ovSe- 
fita<i TTpoaeSeijOrj Srjfioa-lafi, iire^oLra Se ral^ 
iroXeaLv avTO^ fiev avev ^evyov^ 7ropev6p,€vo<;, 
6*9 Be r]Ko\o{)9ei Br}pb6(Tio<i eadrjra koX airovBelov 

3 auToS irpof; lepovpyiav ko/jll^cov. iv Bk tovtoi<; 
ovrco^ evKoko^ koX d(f>e\r)(; toI<; vtto %efc/3a ^aivo- 
lievo^y avdi^ dvraTreBLBov rrjv a-ejuLVorrjra Kal 
TO l3dpo<; aTrapaLTijTOf; mv iv r& BiKaim koI 
TOL<i virep T779 r)yefxovia<; Trpoa-rdyfiaatv 6p0io<; 
Kal avOeKo^TO^y axTre pbrjBeiroTe ryv 'Vcofiaicov 
dpxv^ iiceivoi<; fujre (pofiepcoTepav fitjre Trpoa-cfyi- 
Xearrepav yeveaOai,. 

YII. Toi,avr7]v Be riva <f)a[veTaL koI 6 X0709 
Tov dvBpo<; IBeav e')(eLV' eifx^api^; yap afjua Kal 
Beivo<; rjv, '^Bv<; Kal KaraTrXrjKTiKO^, (ptXoaKcofjb/icov 
Kal av(TT7]p6<;, diro<f>6ey[JbaTLKO^ Kal dy(ovLo-TiK6<;, 
SxTirep 6 JWdrwv tov XcoKpdTrjv (f>7j(Tlv e^eoOev 
iBicoT7)v Kal aaTvpiKov Kal vfiptaTrjv Toh evTvy- 
Xdvovai (fyatvofjuevov evBoOev aTrovBr)^ Kal irpay- 
IxaToav fxecTTov elvat, BdKpva klvovvtwv toa? 340 

2 aKpomfJievoi^ Kal ttjv KapBiav aTpe^ovTcov. 66ev 
ovK olB' OTi nreTTOvOaa-Lv 01 t^ Avaiov Xoyo) 
fidXiaTa (j)d/j,evoi, irpoaeoiKevat, tov J^droyvot;, 
ov firjv dXXa TavTa puev 0*9 fioKXov lBea<; \6ycov 
^VcofiaiKcov^ alo-OdveaOai Trpocrrjicei BtaKpivova-cv, 
ri/jL€l<; Be tmv d7rofjLvr]p^ov€vopievo)V ^pa^ea ypd- 
ylro/juev, at tw Xoyqy 'ttoXv p,dXXov rj tw irpoaoiirm, 

^ *P<o/juiXkwv Blass with S : ^tiroptKciv, 
320 



MAKCUS CATO, vi. 2-vii. 2 

were wont to charge the public treasury with their 
pavilions, couches, and apparel, while they oppressed 
the province with the cost of their large retinues of 
servants and friends, and of their lavish and elaborate 
banquets, his simple economy stood out in an in- 
credible contrast. He made no demands whatever 
upon the public treasury, and made his circuit of the 
cities on foot, followed by a single public officer, who 
carried his robe and chalice for sacrifices. And yet, 
though in such matters he showed himself mild and 
sparing to those under his authority, in other ways 
he displayed a dignity and severity which fully corre- 
sponded, for in the administration of justice he was 
inexorable, and in carrying out the edicts of the 
government was direct and masterful, so that the 
Roman power never inspired its subjects with greater 
fear or affection. 

VII. Much the same traits are revealed in the 
man's oratory. It was at once graceful and powerful, 
pleasant and compelling, facetious and severe, sen- 
tentious and belligerent. So Plato says of Socrates ^ 
that from the outside he impressed his associates as 
rude, uncouth, and wanton ; but within he was full 
of earnestness, and of matters that moved his hearers 
to tears and wrung their hearts. Wherefore I know 
not what they can mean who say that Cato's oratory 
most resembled that of Lysias. However, such 
questions must be decided by those who are more 
capable than I am of discerning the traits of Roman 
oratory, and I shall now record a few of his famous 
sa3dngs, believing that men's characters are revealed 
* Symposium^ p. 215. 

321 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaOdirep evioi vofii^ovcrc, tmv av6 pccurcov ^afJbev 

VIIL yieXkcov TTore Tov'V(Ofiai(ov Brj/iov (hpfirj- 
fievov aKaipco^ em atTOfierpia^; koI Bi,avofia<; 
cLTTorpeTreiv, rjp^aTo r&v Xoycov ovtco<;' " ^aXeirov 
fjiiv ianvy w TroXlrat, tt/jo? yaarepa Xiyeiv wra 
ovfc e'Xpva-av^^ KaTrjyopayv Be t>}9 TroXvreXelaf; 
6(^7) ')(aX€'irov elvat awOrjvaL iroXtv, ev y ircoXelTai 

2 irXeiovo^ Z%^u9 tj ^ov<;. ioiKsvat Be 7r/?o/3aTOt9 
€(f)7j Toifg ^Vcoiiaiovfs' ft)9 *yap CKelva KaO^ eKaarov 
fiev ov ireiOerai, avfiiravra S' eirerai fxer aXXr)- 
Xcov T0t9 dyovatv, " Outo) koI vjiel^r etirevy " ol<; 
ovK dv d^L(0(TaLT€ (rvfil3ovXoi<i %/37;cracr^at Kar 
IBiaVy VTTO TOVTODV €t9 ^v (rvveX06vT€<; dyecrOe.^^ 
irepl Be rrj^ yvvaiKOKparLa^; BicCkeyopbevo^i " TLdv- 
T€9," elirev, " dvdpwiroi twi/ yvvaiKwv dp)(^ov(Tiv, 
r]p,el<; Be TrdvTcov dvOpcoTTcov, rjpcov Be at yvvauKe^,^^ 

3 Tovro pbev ovv iarLV e/c tmv Sep,taTOKXeov<; 
p,eTev7]veypLevov dTTGCpOeyp^drcov. eKecvo^; yap iirc- 
raTTOVTO^ avToS iroXXd rod vlov Bid rrj<; fir)Tp6<; 
***I1 yvvair elirevy " 'Adrjvaloi, fiev dpxovdi 
TMV 'FiXX'tjvcov, iyoi Be ^ KOrjvaiooVy epuov Be aVy 
GOV Be vlo^y ware (petBiaOco tt}^ i^ovo-la^;, 
Bl* rjv dvoTjro'; oiv irXelcTTOv 'KXXijvoov Bvvarat.^' 

4 Tbv Be Brjpov 6 Kdrcov ecf>r} tmv ^Vcop^aicov ov 
p^ovov rals 7rop<f}vpai<;, dXXd Kal rol^ eTnrrjBev- 
paac rd^ Tip,d<; e'TTiypd(f>ei,v. "*ll9 ydp ol (3a<\)el^r 
6(j)r)y " ravrrjv pbaXiara PdirrovaiVy rj ')(aipovTa^ 
opMaiVy ovTCD^ ol veoL ravra pavOdvovcn fcal 
^rfkovaiv, ol^ dv 6 Trap' vp.6)V e7raivo<; eTrrjraty 

5 irapeKoXei S* avrov^, elp,ev apery >ral (rQ)(f)po- 



322 



MARCUS CATO, vii. 2-viii. 5 

much more by their speech than, as some think, by 
their looks. 

VIII. He once wished to dissuade the Roman 
people from insisting unseasonably upon a distribu- 
tion of com, and began his speech witli these words : 
" It is a hard matter, my fellow citizens, to argue 
with the belly, since it has no ears." Again, in- 
veighing against the prevalent extravagance, he 
said: " It is a hard matter to save a city in which a 
fish sells for more than an ox." Again, he said 
the Romans were like sheep ; for as these are not to 
be persuaded one by one, but all in a body blindly 
follow their leaders, "so ye," he said, "though as 
individuals ye would not deign to follow the counsels 
of certain men, when ye are got together ye suffer 
yourselves to be led by them." Discoursing on the 
power of women, he said : " All other men rule their 
wives ; we rule all other men, and our wives rule 
us." This, however, is a translation from the sajings 
of Themistocles.^ He, finding himself much under his 
son's orders through the lad's mother, said : " Wife, 
the Athenians rule the Hellenes, I rule the Athenians, 
thou rulest me, and thy son thee. Therefore let him 
make sparing use of that authority which makes 
him, child though he is, the most powerful of the 
Hellenes." 

The Roman people, Cato said, fixed the market 
value not only of dyes, but also of behaviour. 
" For," said he, " as dyers most affect that dye 
which they see pleases you, so your young men 
learn and practice that which wins your praise." 
And he exhorted them, in case it was through 
virtue and temperance that they had become great, to 

1 Themistodea, xriii. 4. 

323 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avvri rfeyovaat, fieyaXoi, fiTjSev^ fiera^aXXeaOat 
7r/509 TO %6t/50i/, cl S' CLKpao-la KoX KaKicLy fjuera- 
jSdWeadai, 7r/jo9 to /SeXTCov Ifcavco'^ yap 7]Br) 
fi€yaXov<; air eKeuvcov yeyovivai. tou? 8e TroXKd- 
Kt^ dpx^i'V (TTTOvhd^ovTa^ €<^>7 KaOcLTrep dyvoovvTa^ 
TTjv oBov del fi€Ta pa^Bovxcov ^r)T6tv Tropeveadai, 

6 fjLT) Tr\av7]6&(riv. eTrerifia Be Tot9 7roXlTaL<; tov^ 
avTov<i alpovfievoL<; iroXkaKi^ dp'XpvTa^. " Ao^eTe 
ydp," €<j>7jt " fiT)^ TToWov TO dp^eiv d^iov rj fir) 
TToWov^ Tov ap')(€Lv d^Lov<; 7]yel(jdair irepl Be 
TOJv ix^pmv Tivo^ atV^/Oft)? koX aSofo)? 0covv 
BoKOVVTO^ "'H TovTov jULr/Trfp,'* e(f>7], " Kardpav, 
ovK evyriv, r^yelTai to tovtov virep 7^9 dwo- 

7 XiTreiv, * tov Be ireirpaKOTa Toif<; 7raTpa>ov<$ 
dypov<; irapaXiov^ 6Wa9 iirLBeLKvyfievo'; nrpoae- 
TTOieLTO Oavfid^etv C09 IffXvpoTepov t?)9 Oa\dTTrj<;' 
"'^A yctp eKelvri fjuoXif} e/cXv^ev, ovto<;P e(prj, 
"paBioD^i KaTaireircoKev.** 

*E7rel Bh IStvfjLevou^ tov ffaa-iXeco^ €7riBr)fi7]aavT0<i 
€t9 'PcofJLrjv ri re a-vyKXr]T0<; virep^vS)^ direBe^aTO 
KaX Ttav irpcoTcov dfitXXa /cal (TirovBr) irepl avTov 
iyiv€TOf BrjXo*; tjv 6 K-dTcov v(f>opQ)fjLevo<i xal 

8 (l)vXaTT6fjL€vo<i avTov, eiirovTo^ Be tlvo^ "^AXkd 
firjv ;^9;o-T09 ia-Ti ical (l>tXopp(ojiiaio<;" ""Eo-rct)/* 
elirev, ' dXXa <^vcrei, tovto to ^&ov 6 fiacrLXev'; 
aapKO^dyov eariv.^^ ovBeva Be Ttav evBat/bLOvt^o- 
puevwv ecjiT] BaaiXecov^ d^cov elvai irapa^aXXeiv 
7rpo<; 'E7rafieivd)vBav 7) TlepiKXea rj Se/jLiaTOKXea rj 
Mdpiov Kovptov rj ^AfilXKav tov eirLKXrjOevTa 

^ fi-qZlv Hercher and Blass with F^S : /*)). 

2 fx}) Blass with F^S : ^ fii]. 

5 icpri fia<rtX4ttv Hercher and Blasa with F»S s fia<ri\iMf, 



I 



MARCUS CATO, viii. 5-8 

make no change for the worse ; but if it was througlt 
intemperance and vice, to change for the better ; 
these had already made them great enough. Of those 
who were eager to hold high office frequently, he said 
that like men who did not know the road, they sought 
to be ever attended on their way by lictors, lest 
they go astray. He censured his fellow citizens 
for choosing the same men over and over again to high 
office. ** You will be thought/' said he, " not to 
deem your offices worth much, or else not to 
deem many men worthy of your offices." Of one 
of his enemies who had the name of leading a 
disgraceful and disreputable life, he said : " This 
man's mother holds the wish that he may survive 
her to be no pious prayer, but a malignant curse." 
Pointing to a man who had sold his ancestral 
fields lying near the sea, he pretended to admire 
him, as stronger than the sea. " This man," said 
he, " has drunk down with ease what the sea found 
it hard to wash away." 

When King Eumenes paid a visit to Rome, the 
Senate received him with extravagant honours, 
and the chief men of the city strove who should 
be most about him. But Cato clearly looked upon 
him with suspicion and alarm. "Surely," some 
one said to him, " he is an excellent man, and 
a friend of Rome." "Granted," said Cato, "but 
the animal known as king is by nature carnivorous." 
He said further that not one of the kings whom 
men so lauded was worthy of comparison with 
Epaminondas, or Pericles, or Themistocles, or Manius 
Curius^ or with Hamilcar^ surnamed Barcas. His 



325 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

9 'BdpKav. avTa> 5* e\67€ tou9 exOpov^ c^Oovelv, oti 
Ka6' rj/Jiipav ck vvkto^^ dvLcrrarai, kol rchv lBlcov 
dfjb€\a>v Toh Brj/jLO(rioi,<; (TXoXd^ei. ^ovXeaOai 5* 
eXeye fidWov €v irpd^a^ diroaTeprjOrfvaL %a/?ii^ r) 
fcaKa)<i fir) TV)(6lv Ko\da6co<;, koX avyyvco/jirjv 6<p7j 
hihovav irdai roU djjLapTdvovai irXrjv avrov, 

IX. TftJi' he "Vcofjiaicov 6i? ^idvvLav Tpel^ kXo- 
fM6V(ov irpealBeL';, wv 6 jjuev 7roBaypiKO<; rjv, 6 Be ryv 
Ke(f)aXr)V ef dvaTprjaeco^i kol 7repLK0irr)<^ KoiXr)v 
elx^Vt 6 Be TpiTO<i eBoKei ficopbf; elvai, KarayeXoiv 
6 K^drcov eiTre irpea^eiav viro *Pco/iiaLO)v diroareX- 
Xecrdai firjTe iroBa^ firjTe KecpaXrjv fxi^Te KapBiav 

2 exovo'av, virep Be tcov ef *A%aia9 <j)vydBcov iv- 
rev^OeU Bed UloXv^lov viro ^K7)7rL(ovo<i, co? 7roXv<; 
iv TTJ avyKXrjTtii X0709 iyCvero, tojv fiev BiBovreov 
KddoBov avTOL<;, tmv B* ipicTTa/JLevcov, dvaaTd<; 6 
Kdroov ""fla-Trep ovk e^oi/re?,*' elirev, "o irpdr- 
Toofiev KaOrifieda rrjv rj/juepav oXrjv irepl yepovricov 
Tpai/ccbv ^rjTOvvre^, irorepov viro tcov irap i^filv rj 

3 TCOV iv 'A%ata veKpo<f)6pa)v eKKOfjLLaOcoai.'* yjrrjcf)!,' 
(TdeLar)<; Be t^9 fcaOoBov tol<; dvBpdcnv, r)fjLepa<; 
6Xlya<; oi irepl tov UoXvffiov BcaXi,7r6vTe<; av6i<^ 
€7re%efc/oouv et9 Tr)v avyKXrjTov elaeXOelv, 07ra)9 ^9 
irpoTepov el^pv ev ^Kxata Tifid<; ol (f)vydBe<i dva- 
Xd^ocev, Koi tov KaTa>z/09 direireipo)VTO t^9 yvd>- 
fjLT}<;. 6 Be /jLeLBtd(Ta<; ecprj tov TloXv^tov, wairep tov 
^OBvoraeat ffovXeadai irdXiv eh to tov }^v/cXa)7ro<; 
(TiTrjXaiov elaeXOelv, to ttlXLov eKel /cal ttjv ^d>vr)v 
eTnXeXrjafjLevov. 

i Tov9 Be (f)povipLOV<; eXeye fidXXov viro t5)v 
dcppovcov rj T0v<; d^pova^ viro tojv ^povifMcov 

^ iK yvKrhs Hercher and Blass with F^SD : vuKrhs. 
326 



MARCUS CATO, viii. 9-ix. 4 

enemies hated him, he used to say, because he 
rose every day before it was hght and, neglecting 
his own private matters, devoted his time to the 
public interests. He also used to say that he 
preferred to do right and get no thanks, rather 
than to do ill and get no punishment ; and that he 
had pardon for everybody's mistakes except his 
own. 

IX. The Romans once chose three ambassadors 
to Bithynia, of whom one was gouty, another had 
had his head trepanned, and the third was deemed 
a fool. Cato made merry over this, and said that 
the Romans were sending out an embassy which 
had neither feet, nor head, nor heart. His aid 
was once solicited by Scipio, at the instance of 
Polybius, in behalf of the exiles from Achaia, and 
after a long debate upon the question in the Senate, 
where some favoured and some opposed their return 
home, Cato rose and said : " Here we sit all day, 
as if we had naught else to do, debating whether 
some poor old Greeks shall be buried here or 
in Achaia." The Senate voted that the men be 
allowed to return, and a few days afterwards 
Polybius tried to get admission to that body 
again, with a proposal that the exiles be restored 
to their former honours in Achaia, and asked 
Cato's opinion on the matter. Cato smiled and 
said that Polybius, as if he were another Odysseus, 
wanted to go back into the cave of the Cyclops 
for a cap and belt which he had left there. 

Wise men, he said, profited more from fools 
than fools from wise men; for the wise shun the 



327 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

w^eKelaOav tovtov^ /jl6v <yap cj^uXdrTcaOat ra? 
eKeLV(ov dfiapTLa<;, eKeivov^ Se ra? tovtwv /jltj fxifiel- 
aOai KaTOpO(oa6i<;. rcov 8e vecov ecftrj ')(alpeLV T0i9 
ipvOpLcoaL jjbdWov rj rot? a)%piwa-^, (nparicorov he 
firj helaOai rd^ fiev %e?yoa9 iv t& ^aBu^ecv, tov<; Se 
7roSa.9 iv t« pLax^a'dai. klvovvto<^, /jlcl^ov he pey^ov- 

5 T09 ^ d\a\d^ovTO<:, tov he virep7ra')(vv kukl^cov 
"IIoO S' az^," €(j)rj, " (Tcofia tolovtov Ty iroXei 
yevoLTO 'X^p'qaifioVi ov to fiera^v Xatfiov fcal ^ov- 
^(ovcov irdv VTTO t^9 yaarpo^; /caTe)(^eTat, ; " rciyv 
he ^ikrjhovoDV rivd fiovXofievop avTO) avvelvai 
irapaiTovfievo^j e<j)7} purj hvvaaOai ^rjv fier* dv6pa>- 
TTOv tt}? Kaphia^ ttjv virepmav evai-adriTOTepav 
eyovTO^. TOV 5' ipcovTO^ eXeye Trjv 'sjrvyyv iv 

6 aXXoTpi(p (ToofiaTt, t^rjv. fieTafi€Xr)Or}vai h avTO^ 
iv iravTi t& pim Tpel<i fjLeTafieXeoa^' fitav fjuev 
iirl T^ yvvai/cl TrtcrTevcrac Xoyov diropp'qTOv, 
eTepav he irXe-u(Ta<; ottov hvvaTov tjv Tre^evaai, Tr}v 
he TpLTTjv, oTi fiiav rjjjiApav dhcdOeTO<; efiecve. 7rpo9 
he irpeaffvTrjv Trovrjpevofievov ^'"AvOpcoire** elire, 
" TToXXd e')(pvTi T(p yrjpa Ta aLa")(pd firj TrpoaTiOec 

7 Tr]V aTTO T% KaKLa^i ala^vvqvy 7r/0O9 hi hyfiap^ov 
iv hia^oXjj juiev <f)apiJbaKeia<^ yevopLevov, (f>avXov he 
v6p>ov ela^epovTa koI ^la^ofievov *"fl fiecpaKiov/ 
elirev, *' ovk olha, iroTepov %6?yow iaTLV o Kipvr}(; 
inelv Tj ypd(j)ei,<; Kvpooaai" pXacn^'qpLovpevo^ 
8' vir dvOpcoTTOv ^e^LcoKOTO^ daeXyco^ kol KaK&<; 
"''Avicro9," elireVy "97 7rpo9 ce puoL pbd^V iaTi' koI 
yap dK0V6L^ Ta KCUKa /5a8tft)9 icaX Xkyei<^ 6u%€/>(W9, 
ipboX he KCLi Xeyeiv dr}he<; koX dKoveiv dride<i'^ to 
fjuev ovv Tcov diro/JLvrj/jLovevfLdTcov yevo<i tolovtov 
icTTtv, 

328 



MARCUS CATO, ix. 4-7 

mistakes of fools, but fools do not imitate the 
successes of the wise. He said he liked to see 
blushes on a young man's face rather than pallor, 
and that he had no use for a soldier who plied 
his hands on the march, and his feet in battle, 
and whose snore was louder than his war-cry. 
Railing at the fat knight, he said, " Where can 
such a body be of service to the state, when 
everything between its gullet and its groins is 
devoted to belly } " A certain epicure wished to 
enjoy his society, but he excused himself, saying 
that he could not live with a man whose palate 
was more sensitive than his heart. As for the 
lover, he said his soul dwelt in the body of another. 
And as for repentance, he said he had indulged 
in it himself but thrice in his whole life : once 
when he entrusted a secret to his wife ; once 
when he paid ship's fare to a place instead of 
walking thither ; and once when he remained 
intestate a whole day. To an old man who was 
steeped in iniquity he said : " Man, old age has 
disgraces enough of its own ; do not add to them 
the shame of vice." To a tribune of the people who 
had been accused of using poison, and who was 
trying to force the passage of a useless bill, he said : 
" Young man, I know not which is worse, to drink 
your mixtures, or to enact your bills." And when 
he was reviled by a man who led a life of shameless 
debauchery, he said : " I fight an unequal battle 
with you : you listen to abuse calmly, and utter 
it glibly ; while for me it is unpleasant to utter 
it, and unusual to hear it." 

Such, then, is the nature of his famous sayings. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X. "Tiraro^ he fiera ^Xclkkov OvaWepiov 
Tov (plXov fcal avvr]6ov<; airoheL'xPel'i e\aj(C 
Tcov iTrap^^^Lcav rjv 'Evro? 'laTraviav 'Fcofiaiot 
KoXovaiv. ivravda S' avrcp ra fjuev Karaarpe- 
(fiojjbevcp tS)v eOvSiv, ra 8' oiKeiovfiepqy Sia Xoycov 
ttoWt} CTTpaTLa TOiV ^ap/3dpa)v eireirecre, Kal 
KivSvvo<i rjv al(r')(p(i)<i iK^Laadrjvai. Sco tcjv i<y- 

2 71/9 ^LeKTiPrjpcov eVe/caXetTO avfjLfMa')(^Lav. oItovv- 
Tcov 8* i/ceivcov rrjf; ^orjOeua^i Sca/coata ToXavra 
fiiaOov, ol /Jbev aXXoi 7rdvT6<; ovk dvaa'^eTov 
iiTOiovvTO 'Fco/JLaLov<; Pap^dpoL^; eiTLKovpia<i ojjlo- 
Xoy7]o-aL fiiaOov, 6 he K.dT(op ovSev ecpr) Becvov 
elvat, VLKa)VTa<; fiev yap dTrohcoaecv irapa ^ rcov 
irokepbicoVi ov irap avrcovy rjTTcofJbevcov he pLTfre 
Tov<i o7rai,TOVfievov<; eaeaOai fitjre tov? diraiTOvv- 
Ta9. ravTTjv he rrjv fidx^v Kara xparo^ evcKrjcre, 

3 Kol raWa Trpovx^P^i' XayLtTT/ow?. UdXv/Sco^; fiiv 
ye ^rjori tmv ivTo<; Bamo? TTora/Jbov iroXecov r}p^epa 
fjLid ra reixn /ceXevaavro^ avrov irepiaLpedrjvau' 
Tra/jLTToWai S* ^aav avrac Kal yepiovaat iJUi')(lpL(ov 
dvhpodv. avTOf; he (f>r](Tiv 6 Kdrcov 7r\eLova<i 
eiXrj(j)evai, TroXet? wv hirjyayev r)fiepS)v ev ^l^rjpia' 
Kal TOVTO Kopnro^ ovk eorrcv, elirep 0)9 dXrjdco^ 
rerpaKoaiaL rb nrXrjOo^; rjaav. 

4 Tot9 fiev ovv aTpartdoraci 'jroXXa irapa rrjv 
arparelav axfyeXTjOelaiv en Kal Xirpav dpyvplov 
Kar avhpa irpoahLeveifJieVy elwobv 0)9 Kpelrrov ecrj 
iroXXov<i ^Vcjdfjbaicdv dpyvpiov 7) ')(pvaiov oXCyov^i 
e^ovTa^i eiraveXOelv. eh 3' avrov ck roiv dXcaKO- 
fjievoyv ovhev eXSelv X^yec ttXtjv 6<ja ireircoKev fj 
pe^pcdKe. " Kal ovk alrmpLai,^^ (prjai, " tow? 

1 TTopck Hercher and Blass with F^S : oirb. 



MARCUS CATO, x. 1-4 

X. Having been elected consul ^ with Valerius 
Flaccus, his intimate friend, the province which the 
Romans call Hither Spain was allotted to his charge. 
Flere, while he was subduing some of the tribes, and 
winning over others by diplomacy, a great host of 
Barbarians fell upon him, and threatened to drive 
him disgracefully out of the province. He therefore 
begged the neighbouring Celtiberians to become his 
allies. On their demanding two hundred talents 
pay for such assistance, all his officers thought it 
intolerable that Romans should agree to pay Bar- 
barians for assistance. But Cato said there was 
nothing terrible in it; should they be victorious, 
they could pay the price with the spoils taken from 
the enemy, and not out of their own purse, whereas, 
should they be vanquished, there would be nobody 
left either to pay or to ask the price. In this battle 
he was completely victorious, and the rest of his 
campaign was a brilliant success. Polybius indeed 
says that in a single day the walls of all the cities on 
this side the river Baetis — and they were very many, 
and full of warlike men — were torn down at his 
command. And Cato himself says that he took 
more cities than he spent days in Spain, nor is this a 
mere boast, since, in fact, there were four hundreds 
of them. 

His soldiers got large booty in this campaign, and 
he gave each one of them a pound of silver besides, 
saying that it was better to have many Romans go 
home with silver in their pockets than a few with 
gold. But in his own case, he says that no part of 
the booty fell to him, except what he ate and drank. 
" Not that I find fault," he says, " with those who 

1 195 B.a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oi^eKeiaOai ^r}TOvvTa<i ix tovtcov, aWa ^ovKofiat 
fwXkov irepl aperrj^ rot? api(TTOL^ rj irepl 'xprj/jbd- 
rcov T0?9 TrXovatardroL^ djiiXXaaOai koI toi<; 

5 (jyiXapyvpcordroi^i irepl <j)i\apyvpia<;" ov fiovov 
S' avToVy aXXa Kal tou? irepl avrov i^vXarre 
KaOapov<; iravro^ \i]/Jb/j,aTo<;. rjaav he irevre 
Bepdirovre^ iirl o-rpar€i,a<; avv aviw. tovtcov eh 
ovofjua IldKKi,o<; i^yopaae tcov alxp^cLXcoTcov Tpia 
iraiSdpia* tov Be KaTcovo^ alaOofievov, irplv eh 
o-^jriv ekOeiv, dirrjy^aTO, rov^ Be iralBa^ 6 KaTcov 
diroB6fi€vo<; eh to Brj/jLoatov dvrjveyKe Trjv Tijjbrjv, 

XI. "Ert S* avTOV BiaTpl^ovTO^ ev 'I^rjp[a 
%KriiTio)v 6 fieya^y e^Opo^ cjv Kal fiov\6fjievo<; 
evaTTjvai KaTopOovvTi Kal ra? ^IjSrjpiKa^ irpdPei<s 
viroXafiecv, Bieirpd^aTO t^9 €irapxi^a<i eKeuvrj^ 
diroBeix'^V^^^ BidBoxo^:* airevo-a<; S' o)? evrjv 
Td'^t'O'Ta KaTeiravae ttjv dp^V^ tov K.dTcovo';. 6 
Be \apa)v aireipa<^ oitXctcov irevTe Kal irevTaKO- 
(TLOV<; lirireh irpoirofiirov^ KaTeaTpe^aTO puev to 
AaKeTavMV eOvo^;, e^aKOcriov^; Be tcov rjvTOfXoXrjKO- 

2 TCOV Kop^ia-dfievo^ direKTeivev. e<^' oh a)(€TXtd^ovTa 
TOV XKrjirlcDva KaTeipo)vev6fievo<; ovtq)<; e<f>'q Tr}v 
'Vcop,rjv ea-ea-Oai fieyiaTrjv, tcjv fiev evBo^cov Kal 
fjLeydXayv t^ t?}? dpeT7]<; irpwTela /jlt) fieOievTcov 
T0t9 darifjbOTepoi<it tcov S* coairep avTO^; eaTi 
Br^fjuoTiKMV djiiiXXcofievcov dpeTy irpo^i tou? tw yevei 
Kal TTj Bo^y irp07]K0VTa<;, ov fjirjv dXXd tt)? 
(TvyKXriTOV '^ifq^iaapjkvTf]^ firfBev dXXdTTeiv /JbrjBe 
KiveZv TCOV BiWKTjfievcov viro J^dTCOvog, rj fjuev dp^V 
T& ^Krjiriayvi Tr]<; avTOV fiaXXov rj tt}? KdTCOVO^ 
dcfieXovaa 86 f 7/9 ev dirpa^ia Kal o-xoXfj pATtjv 

332 



J 



MARCUS CATO, x. 4-xi. 3 

seek to profit by such a case, but I prefer to strive in 
bravery with the bravest, rather than in wealth 
with the richest, and in greed for money with the 
greediest/' And he strove to keep not only himself, 
but also his associates, free from all taint of gain. 
He had five attendants with him in the field. One 
of these, whose name was Paccus, bought three boys 
for his own account from among the public prisoners, 
but finding that Cato was aware of the transaction, 
or ever he had come into his presence, went and 
hanged himself Cato sold the boys, and restored 
the money to the public treasury. 

XI. While Cato still tarried in Spain, Scipio the 
Great, who was his enemy, and wished to obstruct 
the current of his successes and take away from him 
the administration of affairs in Spain, got himself 
appointed his successor in command of that province. 
Then he set out with all the speed possible, and 
brought Cato's command to an end. But Cato took 
five cohorts of men-at-arms and five hundred horse- 
men as escort on his way home, and on the march 
subdued the tribe of the Lacetanians, and put to 
death six hundred deserters whom they delivered up 
to him. Scipio was enraged at this proceeding, but 
Cato, treating him with mock humility, said that 
only then would Rome be at her greatest, when her 
men of high birth refused to yield the palm of 
virtue to men of lower rank, and when plebeians 
like himself contended in virtue with their superiors 
in birth and reputation. However, in spite of Scipio' s 
displeasure, the Senate voted that no change whatever 
be made in what Cato had ordered and arranged, 
and so the administration of Scipio was marked by 
inactivity and idleness, and detracted from his own, 

333 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 hirjXOev, 6 he K.dTa)v 9piafi^evaa<^ ^^X' wo-7re/0 ol 
irkelcTTOi TOdV fir) TT^o? apeT)]v, aXXa Trpo? ho^av 
afjbtWcofievcov, orav eh ra<; aKpa<; rifia^; i^iKcovrai 
KOL 'TV')(W(TLV viraTeia^ koX dpidfi^cov, tjSt] to 
\oiiTOV et9 rjBovrjv koX a')(^okr]v (TVcrKevaadfjuevoL 
rov ^lov eK tmv Koumv diriaaLV, ovtco koI avr6<; 
e^avrjKe Kal KareXvae rrjv dperrjVy dX)C o/noia 
TOfc<? TTpcoTOV aTTTOfievoifi 7ro\tT6ta9 fcal Siyjrcbai, 
Ti/ji7]<; KOL B6^rj<; d(j)* €Tepa<; dp')(^P]<; o-vvreivas eav- 
Tov ev fjieao) vrayoet^j^e kol ^tXoi? 'X^prjaOai /cal 
7ro\i,Tac<;, ovre ra? avvr]yopi,a<; ovre ra<; (TTpareia^ 
direLirdixevo^i. 

XII. Ti/SepLM /lev ovu Se/mTrpwviq) ra irepl 
^paKijv Kal ^'larpov virarevovTi irpea^evwv avy- 
Karetpyaaaro, ^avLco 8' ^AkcXlo) ')(i\iap')(^Mv iir 
*Aptlo')(ov tov fxeyav avve^rfkOev eh rrjv 'EWdSa, 
cf>n/37]o-avTa ^Vw/iaiov^ ci)9 ovBeva erepov fier 
^kvvipav. rrjv yap 'Aatav, oarjv 6 Ni/cdrwp 
^e\evKO<; el')(ev, okiyov helv diraarav ef v'Trapyn)<^ 
dveiXr]^d)^, eOvr] re irdfjuiroXka Kal fid^ifia ^ap- 
ffdpcov v7r7]Koa TreTroirj/jbevo^, eTrrjpro avfiTreaecv 
'V(OfiaioL<} 0)9 fi6voi<} €TC TTpo^ avTov d^LoiJbd^oLf; 

2 oixTiv. evTrpeirrj Be rod iroXefjiOV TrocTjadfievof; 
alrlav rov^"¥iW7}va<i ekevOepovv, ovBev heofjuevov^, 
dWd Kal ekevOepovv Kal avrovofiovf; ')(^dpLTi rfj 343 
^Po)/jbaicov diro ^lXlttttov Kal MaKeSovcov vewarl 
yeyovorav, Siefir] jxera Svvdp,eco<;. Kal o-dXov€vOv<; 

7] 'EXXa9 elx^ k^clI /lereo) po^; r)v ekTriat 8ia(f)0ei,po- 

3 /jLevrj ^aaiXiKah viro rcov STj/naycoycov. eirefiirev 
ovv 7rpea;6et<; 6 MdvL0<; eirl Ta9 7roXet9. Kal ra 
/lev TrXelcna tmv vecorepi^ovrcov Tlro<; ^Xa/iLvlvo<; 



334 



J 



MARCUS CATO, xi. 3-xii. 3 

rather than from Cato's reputation. Cato, on the 
other hand, celebrated a triumph.^ Most men who 
strive more for reputation than for virtue, wlien once 
they have attained the highest honours of consulship 
and triumphs, straightway adjust tlieir future lives to 
the enjoyment of a pleasurable ease, and give up 
their public careers. But Cato did not thus remit 
and dismiss his virtue, nay, rather, like men first 
taking up the public service and all athirst for 
lionour and reputation, he girt his loins anew, and 
held himself ever ready to serve his friends and 
fellow-citizens, either in the forum or in the field. 

XII. And so it was that he assisted Tiberius 
Sempronius the consul in subduing the regions in 
Thrace and on the Danube, acting as his ambassador ; 
and as legionary tribune under Manius Acilius, he 
marched into Greece against Antiochus the Great, 
who gave the Romans more to fear than any man 
after Hannibal. For he won back almost all of 
Seleucus Nicator's former dominions in Asia, reduced 
to subjection many warlike nations of Barbarians, 
and was eager to engage the Romans, whom he 
deemed the only worthy foemen left for him. So he 
crossed into Greece with an army, making the 
freeing of the Greeks a specious ground for war. 
This they did not need at all, since they had recently 
been made free and independent of Philip and the 
Macedonians by grace of the Romans. Greece was 
at once a stormy sea of hopes and fears, being 
corrupted by her demagogues with expectations of 
royal bounty. Accordingly, Manius sent envoys to 
the several cities. Most of those which were un- 
settled in their allegiance Titus Flamininus restrained 

1 194 B.a 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eo")(€v dvev Ta/5<x%^9 xal Karewpavvev, «9 iv roh 
Trepl i/ceivov yeypairrai,, K.dTcov Be l^opivOlov^ koI 
riar/oet?, ert S* Atytet? Trapea-T'^o-aTO. 

4 IlXeLCTTov Be xpovov iv ^A67Jvat<; SLeTpLyfre. koI 
Xeyerac fiiv t^9 avrov ^epeaOau \6yo<^, ov 'EX- 
\7}vt(TTl Trpo? Tov BrjfjLOv elirev, ax; ^yXcov re ttjv 
aperrjv t&v TraXaicjv ^AOrjvaLcov r?}? re TroXect)? Bia 
TO /eaXXo? kol to jxeyeOo^ '^Bia)<; yeyovco^; Oearij^i' 
TO 5' ovK dXr)Oe<; eariv, dXKci Bt epfi7]V€(o<; everv')(e 
TOt? ^ABr^vaioL^y Bvvr)Oeh av avTO<; elirelv, ifjLfxevcov 
Be T069 '7rarpioi<; ical /carayeXoiv tmv ra 'EX- 

5 XrjviKct reOavfiaKOTcov, UoaTovfitov yovv 'AX- 
pivov [(JTOpiav 'EXX97z/t(7Tl ypd^jravra koi avy- 
yvoDfirjv alrovjjbevov iiriaKcoyjrev eiiroov, Boreov elva' 
T^l/ avyyvodfJbrjv, el Ttov *Afi(f)iKTv6vQ}V ylrrj^ia-a- 
fiiveov dvayKacrOel^ vTrefiecve to epyov. Oavfidaac 
Be <^r)(TL TOv<; ^AOn^vaiovf! to Ta%09 avTOV kol ttjv 
o^vTTjTa T?}9 (fypdaecdfi' a yap avTo<; e^ecjyepe 
j3pax^(^^» TOV epfirjvea fxaKpca^ koi Bid iroWtav 
dirayyeXkeiv to S' 6\ov oXea-Qai Ta prjixaTa Tot9 
fjbev ''EtWrjo-iv diro x^tXecop, tol<; Be ^FcojubaLoc^ diro 
KapBta<; (^epeaOai. 

XIII. 'EttcI S' ^Avtlo')(o<; ificppd^a^i tu irepl 
^epfioirvXa^ <TT€vd tm crTpaTOTreBo), koX toI<; 
avTocpvecTC tmv tottcov epvfiacrc TrpoapaXoov yapa- 
Kcofiara /cal BLaT€tx^(r/JLaTa, KadrjaTo tov rroXefiov 
eKKeKXeifcevai vo/jll^cov, to fiev /caTa aTOfia 0id- 
^eaOai iravTdiTaaiv direyivccxTKOV ol 'Ycojmaioi,, t^v 
Be Ilepa-c/crjv eKelvrjv ireptrjXva-iv koi KvicKwaiv 6 



33<5 



MARCUS CATO, xii. 3 xiii. i 

without ado, and quieted down, as I have written in 
his Life,^ but Corinth, Patrae, and Aegium were 
brought over to Rome by Cato. 

He also spent much time at Athens. And we are 
told that a certain speech of his is extant, which he 
addressed to the Athenian people in Greek, declaring 
that he admired the virtues of the ancient Athenians, 
and was glad to behold a city so beautiful and grand 
as theirs. But this is not true. On the contrary, he 
dealt with the Athenians through an interpreter. 
He could have spoken to them directly, but he 
always clung to his native ways, and mocked at those 
who were lost in admiration of anything that was 
Greek. For instance, he poked fun at Posturaius 
Albinus, who wrote a history in Greek, and asked 
the indulgence of his readers. Cato said they might 
have shown him indulgence had he undertaken his 
task in consequence of a compulsory vote of the 
Amphictyonic Assembly. Moreover, he says the 
Athenians were astonished at the speed and pun- 
gency of his discourse. For what he himself set forth 
with brevity, the interpreter would repeat to them 
at great length and with many words ; and on the 
whole he thought the words of the Greeks were 
born on their lips, but those of the Romans in their 
hearts. 

Xni. Now Antiochus had blocked up the narrow 
pass of Thermopylae with his army ,2 adding trenches 
and walls to the natural defences of the place, and 
sat there, thinking that he had locked the war out 
of Greece. And the Romans did indeed despair 
utterly of forcing a direct passage. But Cato, calling 
to mind the famous compass and circuit of the pass 

^ Chapters xv-xvii. ^ 191 b.o. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Karoz' €49 vovv ffaX6fievo<; e^coSevae vvKTcop, 

2 avdXuffobv fjbepo^; n Trj<; arpaTLa^. iirel 8' avw 
TTpoeXdovTcov 6 KaOoSrjyMV al')(fjiaXcoTo<; i^eireae 
T^9 ohov KoX 7r\ai'cofjbevo<; ev tottok; airopoi^ kov 
fCpTj/jLVcoBeo-t Beivrjv aOvfiiav kol (po^ov iveipydo-aro 
T0i9 (7TpaTi(t)Tat<;, opcov 6 Kdrcov rov kivBvvov 
€Kekevae tov<; aXXov^ d7ravTa<} drpe/neiv /cat irepi- 

3 fieveiVy avTo<i Be Aevxtov Tiva ^aXXcov, dvBpa 
Beivov opecjSarelv, TrapdXajSobv i)(^a}p€o nroXviTovcii'^ 
KoX irapajBokw^ ev daekrjvcp vvktI /cal fiadela, 
KOTivoi^^ Kol irdyot^; dvaTerajJi6V0L<; Bcao-Trda/jLara 
iroWa r^9 o'\jreco<; Kal dcrdcpeLav i')(^ov(rr)<;, ea)9 
ifjbfiaXovre^ ek drpairov, 0)9 Sovro, Kdrco irepaL- 
vovcrav iirl to aTparoireBov r&v TroXefMicov edevro 
(T7)/j,6La TTpo^ TLva<; evo-KOTTOVf; Kepala^ virep to 

4 ILaXXiBpofJbov dve^ovaaf;. ovtco Be. irdXiv eirav- 
eX66vTe<; OTrio-co ttjv aTpaTidv dveXa^oVt kol 
7r/909 TO, arj/iieta irpodyovTe^; '^■yjravTO fiev i/cetvrjf; 
T779 aTpaiTov Kal fcaTeaTijaavTO ttjv iropeiav, 
fjLLKpov Be irpoeXdovdLV avTOL<i eireXiTre (jidpayyo^ 
v7roXafjL^avovar)<;. kol ttoXiv rjv aTropia Kal Beo<i 
ovK eirio-Tapbevcov ovBe avvopcovTcov on, irXrjaiov 
eTvyyavov to)v TroXefiLcov yeyov6Te<;. i]Brj Be Bi,e- 
XafJbTrev r^jiepa, Kal ^^077779 tl^ eBo^ev eiraKovaaiy 
Td'X^a Be KCii KaOopav ^^jXXtjvikov ydpaKa Kal 

5 TTpOCpvXaKtJV VTTO TO Kp7)flV(oBe<;. 0VTC0<; ovv eiTL- 

GT'qaa^ evTavOa ttjv crTpaTcav 6 J^dTcov eKeXevaev 
avrrp irpoaeXOelv dvev tmv dXXcov tou9 ^tpfia- 
vov^, ol<; del 7rLaroi<; e')(^prjT0 kclL TrpoOvfxoif;. 
(TvvBpapbovTCOv Be kol TrepicrTdvrcov avTov dOpocov 

^ Korivois MSS.; KoKwvols {hills) Bekker, adopting the 
ccarection of Coraes- ; :|a 

338 



MARCUS CATO, xiii. 1-5 

which the Persians had once made, took a con- 
siderable force and set out under cover of darkness. 
They climbed the heights, but their guide, who was 
a prisoner of war, lost the way, and wandered about 
in impracticable and precipitous places until he had 
filled the soldiers with dreadful dejection and fear. 
Cato, seeing their peril, bade the rest remain quietly 
where they were, while he himself, with a certain 
Lucius Manlius, an expert mountain-cHmber, made 
his way along, with great toil and hazard, in the 
dense darkness of a moonless night, his vision much 
impeded and obscured by wild olive trees and rocky 
peaks, until at last they came upon a path. This, 
they thought, led down to the enemy's camp. So 
they put marks and signs on some conspicuous cliffs 
which towered over Mount Callidromus, and then 
made their way back again to the main body. This 
too they conducted to the marks and signs, struck 
into the path indicated by these, and started forward. 
But when they had gone on a little way, the path 
failed them, and a ravine yawned to receive them. 
Once more dejection and fear were rife. They did not 
know and could not see that they were right upon the 
enemy whom they sought. But presently gleams of 
daylight came, here and there a man thought he 
heard voices, and soon they actually saw a Greek 
outpost entrenched at the foot of the cliffs. So then 
Cato halted his forces there, and summoned the men 
of Firmum to a private conference. These soldiers 
he had always found trusty and zealous in his service. 
When they had run up and stood grouped about him, 



339 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elirev '"'AvBpa YPV^^ XajSelv tcov irdXefiioiv ^tama 
Koi TTvOeadaCy rw/e? ol irpo^vXaTrovTef; ovtol, tto- 
aov ifkrjdo'i avTwv, rt? o tmv dWcov StaKoo-fio^ ^ 
TCL^i^ Kal irapaaKevrj, fied^ rj<; vTrofievovaav '^fia^;, i 

6 TO S' epyov apTrayjua Set rd^^^ovi; yeviaOai koI t6\- 1 
firjf;, fj Kcu Xeovre^ dvoirXoi 6appovvTe<^ iirl rd 
SeiXd TCOV OrjpLcov fiaSi^ovair Tavra eiVoi^TO? tov 
KaTft)z/09 avToOev 6povaavTe<i, coairep elxov, ol 
^LpfjLavol KaTCL tS)v opSiv eOeov iirl Ta9 7rpo(pvXa- 
Kas' /cat 7rpo(T7r€(T6vT€^ dTrpoaSoKrjToi irdvTa<i fiev 
SteTapa^av koI hiecTKehaaav, eva 8* avTol^i oirXoi^ 344 

7 dp7rdaavTe<; ivex^ipio-av tc3 KdTcovi. irapd tov- 
Tov fiaOcov, ft)9 rj fjuev dXXrj Bvpafic<i iv Toh aTevol^ 
KdOrjTai fiBT avTov^ tov ^aaiXea)^, ol he (f)pov- 
povi'Te<i ovTOL Td<; VTrep^oXd<i AItcoXmv elaiv 
i^afcoaioi XoydBe<i, KaTa<f)povrj<Ta<; t?}? 6XLy6Tr)TO<; 
dfjia Kal Tr}<; 6XLya)pla<i €vdv<s eirrjyev dfia adX- 
TTiy^L fcal dXaXayfi<p, 7rpa)T0<i airaadp.evo^ ttjv 
fidxatpav. ol 3' a)9 elSov utto tS)v KprjfMvojv eVt- 
<l>€po/jLevov<;, (f>evyovT€<; eh to fieya aTpuToireBov 
KaT€7rLfjL7rXao-av Tapaxv^ diravTa^.^ 

XIV. 'Ei^ TouTft) Be Kol TOV MavLov KdTcoOev 

irpo^ Td BiaTCLx^o-fiaTa ^ua^opAvov kol toI<; 

(TT€V0L<; TTpoa^dXXovTOfi dOpoav ttjv BvvapuLv, 6 

p,ev ^KvtLoxP^ eh to aTop^a Xi6(p irXi^yeh ixTtva- 

yOevTOdv avTOV t5)v oBovtcov aTTecrTpe^lre tov ltt- 

TTOv OTTLo-a), iTepLaXyi)^ yevop>evo^, tov be (iTpaTov 

2 fiepo<i ovBev virepieLve Toixi ^Vayp^Lovi;, dXXd kol- 

irep diropovf; koX dfjurj^dvov^ t^9 01/7^9 6Bov<; Kal 

irXdva<; exovo-r]<i, eX&v ^aOeoav Kal TreTpSiv diro- 

^ fiiT avTov Blass with S : fterL ^ anavTas Sintenia' 

with C ; Bekker reads &vayra, with Sintenis^ and Coraes. 

340 



MARCUS CATO, xiii. 5-xiv. 2 

he said : " I must take one of the enemy's men alive, 
and learn from him who they are that form this 
advance guard, what their number is, and with what 
disposition and array their main body awaits us. But 
the task demands the swift and bold leap of lions 
fearlessly rushing all unarmed upon the timorous 
beasts on which they prey." So spake Cato, and the 
Firmians instantly started, just as they were, rushed 
down the mountain-side, and ran upon the enemy's 
sentinels. Falling upon them unexpectedly, they 
threw them all into confusion and scattered them in 
flight ; one of them they seized, arms and all, and 
delivered him over to Cato. From the captive Cato 
learned that the main force of the enemy was en- 
camped in the pass with the king himself, and that 
the detachment guarding the pass over the mountains 
was composed of six hundred picked Aetolians. 
Despising their small numbers and their carelessness, 
he led his troops against them at once, with bray of 
trumpet and battle-cry, being himself first to draw 
his sword. But when the enemy saw his men pouring 
down upon them from the cliffs, they fled to the 
main army, and filled them all with confusion. 

XIV. Meanwhile Manius also, down below, threw 
his whole force forward into the pass and stormed 
the enemy's fortifications. Antiochus, being hit in 
the mouth with a stone which knocked his teeth 
out, wheeled his horse about for very anguish. 
Then his army gave way everywhere before the 
Roman onset. Although flight for them meant 
impracticable roads and helpless wanderings, while 
deep marshes and steep cliffs threatened those who 



ZA^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOfiwv ra TTTcofiara koI t<^9 6Xta67]cr€L<; uTToSe^o- 
fievcov, €t9 ravra Bia tcop arrevcjv v7rep)(^e6/JLepoi 
Kol avvcoOovvrefi aWtjXov; cfyo^o) 7r\'rjy7](; Koi 
(Tioijpou TToXefiLcov avTOiJf; Sie^Oeipov. 

'O Se KciTcov del fiev ti<; rjv, co? eoiKe, twv 
ISlcov iyKoy/jLLCOv d(j)6cSr)<; kol rrjv avriKpVf; fieya- 
\av')(^Lav ct)9 eiraKo\ovQic]p,a Tr]<; /jLejaXovpyla^ ovk 
eifyevye, irkelaTOv he Tai9 irpd^eo-i Tavrat^; 6<yKov 

3 TrepLTeOeiKe, Kai (j)r)at, toI^ IBovcnv avrov Tore 
SiooKOVTa Kal nraiovra rov^ 7ro\6fjiLov<i irapa- 
(TTTjvai firjBev 6(j)eiX€i,v Kdrcova ra> Stjfia) to- 
crovTov, oaov KdrcovL rov Stj/hov, avrov re 
Mdviov rov virarov Oepfibv diro rrj^i vIxtj^; en 
OepfJLW irepLTrXafcevra ttoXvv xpovov daird^eaOai 
Kal fiodv VTTo %ayoa9, ct)9 ovr av avro^ ovO' 6 
av/J.7ra<f 8r}/jL0<; i^cacoaeLe Ta9 d/uiOL/Sdf; rah Ka- 

4 rcDVO^i evepyealatf;. fierd Be rr]v /jLd^rjp evOv^ eU 
Vcopjrjv eirifjiTrero rcov rjycovio-fievcov avrdyyeXo^' 
Kal BteTrXevo-e fiev et9 ^pevrecnov €vtv)(^(o<;, ficd S* 
rjfiepa BieXdcra<; eKeWev eU Tdpavra Kal ria- 
aapa<^ aXXa^ 6Bevaa<; rrepbrrralo'; £t9 ^Ffjo/Mrjp 
diro 6aXd(rar)<i d^iKero Kal irpwro^ dirriyyeCXe 
rr}v VLKTjv. Kal rrjv fiev ttoXlv evirrXrjo-ev evcppo- 
avpr)<} Kal Ovaicov, (ppov^/jbaro^ Be rov Brjfiov ot)<; 
7rda-7)<; yrj<; Kal OaXdacrr](i Kparelv Bvvdfjuevov. 

XY. T(av fiev ovv rroXefUKoyv irpd^ecov rov 
Kdrcovo<i avrac o-^eBov elaiv iXXoyc/jLcararai' 
T»}9 Be TroXt,reia^ (f>aiveraL ro irepl rd^ Karrj- 
yopia<i Kal tov<; eXey)(^ov<; tmv irovr^pSyv fiopLov 
ov /jLiKpdf; d^iov arrovBrj^i rjyr]adfiepo<i. avro^i re 
yap iBico^e 7roXXov<; Kal BuoDKOvaiv erepoi<i avv- 
r^yoDviaaro koX irapecTKevaaev oXco^ Bia)K0VTa<;, 

34a 



MARCUS CATO, xiv. 2-xv. i 

slipped and fell, still, they poured along through 
the pass into these, crowding one another on in 
their fear of the enemy's deadly weapons, and so 
destroyed themselves. 

Cato, who was ever rather generous, it would 
seem, in his own praises, and did not hesitate 
to follow up his great achievements with boastings 
equally great, is very pompous in his account of 
this exploit. He says that those who saw him 
at that time pursuing the enemy and hewing them 
down, felt convinced that Cato owed less to Rome 
than Rome to Cato ; also that the consul Manius 
himself, flushed with victory, threw his arms about 
him, still flushed with his own victory, and embraced 
him a long time, crying out for joy that neither he 
himself nor the whole Roman people could fittingly 
requite Cato for his benefactions. Immediately after 
the battle he was sent to Rome as the messenger 
of his own triumphs. He had a fair passage to 
Brundisium, crossed the peninsula from there to 
Tarentum in a single day, travelled thence four 
days more, and on the fifth day after landing reached 
Rome, where he was the first to announce the 
victory. He filled the city full of joy and sacrifices, 
and the people with the proud feeling that it was 
able to master every land and sea. 

XV. These are perhaps the most remarkable 
features of Cato's military career. In political life, 
he seems to have regarded tiie impeachment and 
conviction of malefactors as a department worthy 
of his most zealous efforts. For he brought many 
prosecutions himself, assisted others in bringing theirs, 
and even instigated some to begin prosecutions, as 

VOL, n. M ^"^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 tt)9 €7rl ^Krj7rl>(ova tov<; irepl TieTiWiov. tovtov 
fiev ovv air oXkov t€ fieyaXov koI (^povrjixaro^ 
aXrjOivov Troirjad/jievov viro 7r6Ba<i ra? Sta^oXa^ 
firj airoKTelvai Bvvr)9el^ dcfirJKe' AevKiov Be rov 
dBek^ov avTOV jiera tcov Karrjyopcov avard^ 
KaTaBUr) Trepie^aXe XPV/^^^'^^^ tfoXXmv 7rpo<; to 
Brjfioa-iov, fjv ovK €')((ov €K€lvo<; diToXvaaaOai kolI 
KLvBvvevcov BeOrjvai ixoXif; iiriKXria-ei, rcov Bt}- 
/jbdpxf^v d<p6Ldr]. 

3 Aeyerai Be /cat veavicr/co) rtvl TeOvr^Koro^ 
7raTpo<; €')(j9pov TjrcficofcoTL koI iropevofievw Bl 
dyopd^ fierd ttjv Blktjv diravrrjcra^ 6 Kdrwv 
Be^ccoaao-OaL koX elirelv, on ravra ')(pr] to?9 
yovevcTLV ivayt^etVy ovk dpva<; ovS* ipL(f>ov<i, dXX* 
e")(dpS)V Bdicpva kol KaraBiKa^;. ov jjbrjv ovB' avT0<; 
ev rfj iroXtreia irepLrjv dOwo^, dXX^ oirov rivd 
Xa^rjv Trapdaxoi roh i')(Opohy Kpivofievo^; koX 

4 KtvBvvevcov BieTiXei,. Xeyerai yap oXiyov diroXt- 
irovaa^ tmv irevrrjicovTa (pvyecv BiKa^;, fiiav Be 
Tr]V TeXevrauav ^ ef err] Kal oyBorjKOVTa yeyovco^' 
ev fj KOI TO fjLVTj/jbOvevofievov elirev, co? x^Xeirov 
ecTTLv ev dXXoi<i ^e/StcoKOTa dvOpd)7roi<; ev dXXoc; 345 
diroXoyeXaOai, Kal tovto Trepan ovk eiroirjaaTO 
TMV dycovcov, Tecradpcov 8' dXXcov eviavrwv BteX- 
66vT(ov XepovLov VdX^a KaT7]y6pir]o-ev evevrjKOVTa 

5 yeyovax; eV^. KLvBvvevei yap a)9 o ISecTTcop et? 

1 T^v Te\evTatav Hercher and Blass with FaS : rtXevralav. 
344 



MARCUS CATO, xv 2-5 

for instance Petillius against Scipio. That great man, 
liowever, trampled the accusations against him under 
foot, as the splendour of his house and his own 
inherent loftiness of spirit prompted him to do, 
and Cato, unable to secure his capital conviction, 
dropped the case. But he so co-operated with the 
accusers of Lucius, Scipio' s brother, as to have 
him condemned to pay a large fine to the state. 
This debt Lucius was unable to meet, and was 
therefore liable to imprisonment. Indeed, it was 
only at the intercession of the tribunes that he was 
at last set free. 

We are also told that a certain young man, who 
had got a verdict of civil outlawry against an enemy 
of his dead father, was passing through the forum 
on the conclusion of the case, and met Cato, who 
greeted him and said : " These are the sacrifices 
we must bring to the spirits of our parents ; not 
lambs and kids, but the condemnations and tears 
of their enemies." However, he himself did not 
go unscathed, but wherever in his political career 
he gave his enemies the slightest handle, he was 
all the while suffering prosecutions and running 
risk of condemnation. It is said that he was 
defendant in nearly fifty cases, and in the last 
one when he was eighty-six years of age. It was in 
the course of this that he uttered the memorable 
saying ; ^*^ It is hard for one who has lived among men 
of one generation, to make his defence before those 
of another." And even with this case he did not 
put an end to his forensic contests, but four years 
later, at the age of ninety, he impeached Servius 
Galba. Indeed, he may be said, like Nestor, 



345 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rptyoviav t& jSlo) xal raU irpd^eai KareXOeiv. 
%icri7ri(OVV yap, w<; XeXeKTai, T(p p,e<yaX(p iroWa 
BL€pt(Td^6vo<; iv rfj TroXcreia Scireivev eh ^/cr)- 
TTicova Tov veov, 09 tjv eKeivov Kara iroir^aiv 
vicov6<;, vio<; 8e UavXov rov Tlepaia /cal Ma^re- 
S6va<; KaTairoXefirjaavTO^, 

XVI. T979 5* v7raT€ia<^ KaroTTtv erea-i SeKa 
TifjLr)T6Lav 6 Kdrcov iraprjyyeiXe. KOpV(f)r) Se 
Tt9 ear I Ttfiij^; aTrdo-r)^ rj dpxv f^^^ rpoirov riva 
Trj<; iToXiTeia^; iirtTeXe'KxxTt.^;, dXXrjv re ttoXXtjv 
i^ovaiav e')(pV(Ta Koi rrjv irepX rd rjOrj koI tov^ 
Piov<; i^iraaiv. ovre yap ydfiov ovre Traihoirouav 
Tivo<; 0VT6 Siacrav ovre o-v/niTocnov ojovto Selv 
d/cpiTov /cat dve^eracTTOv, 0)9 eKaaro^ i'jn6vixia<; 

2 e^ofc KoX irpoaipeaeco'^, d(f)6l(T6aL. iroXv Se fidXXov 
iv TOVTOL<; vop,i,^ovT6<; 77 Tat9 viraiOpoi^ koL ttoXc- 
TLKal<; irpd^eav rpoTTov dvSpo^ ivopacrOai, (j>vXaKa 
Koi (TCOcfypovKTTrjv /cal KoXaarr^v rov /irjEiva Kad' 
r)8ovd'; iKTpeTrecrOai fcal Trape/c^aiveiv rov iin- 
j^copLov Kal awTjOrj ^iov rjpovvro tcov /caXovfievcov 
irarpCKLCOV eva Kal rcov SrifioriKWV eva. rtp^rjrd'; 
Ee TOVTOV<; Trpoavyopevov, i^ovaiav €)(pVTa^ dcpe- 
XeaOai fxev Xttttov, eK/SaXe'^.v Be crvyKXi^rov rov 

3 cLKoXdaTay^ ^lovvra Kal drdKray^;. ovtol Be Kal 
rd rcfjb'^fiara rcov ovctlwv XapL^dvovre^ eireaKo- 
irovv, Kal Tal<; aTroypacpal^i rd yevrj Kal Ta9 tto- 
Xt,T6ia<i BieKpiVov dX\a<; re fxeydXa^ 6%6£ 
Bwdfiei^ r) dp-^T]. 

Alb Kal Tft) K.dTCi)vi irpo^i ttjv irapayyeXiav 



34^ 



MARCUS CATO, xv. 5-xvi 3 

to have been vigorous and active among three 
generations. For after many political struggles with 
Scipio the Great, as told above, he lived to be 
contemporary with Scipio the Younger, who was 
the Elder's grandson by adoption, and the son 
of that Paulus Aemilius who subdued Perseus and 
the Macedonians.^ 

XVI. Ten years after his consulship,^ Cato stood 
for the censorship. This office towered, as it were, 
above every other civic honour, and was, in a way, 
the culmination of a political career. The variety 
of its powers was great, including that of examining 
into the lives and manners of the citizens. Its 
creators thought that no one should be left to his own 
devices and desires, without inspection and review, 
either in his marrying, or in the begetting of his 
children, or in the ordering of his daily life, or 
in the entertainment of his friends. Nay, rather, 
thinking that these things revealed a man's real 
character more than did his public and political 
career, they set men in office to watch, admonish, 
and chastise, that no one should turn aside to 
wantonness and forsake his native and customary 
mode of life. They chose to this office one of the 
so-called patricians, and one of the plebeians. These 
officers were called censors, and they had authority 
to degrade a knight, or to expel a senator who led 
an unbridled and disorderly life. They also revised 
the assessments of property, and arranged the 
citizens in lists according to their social and political 
classes. There were other great powers also con- 
nected with the office. 

Therefore, when Cato stood for it, nearly all 

» In the battle of Pydna, 168 B.C. « 184 B.a 

347 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aTTijvTTjaav iviardfievot a')(€Bov ol ryvcopt/iKoraToc 

Kal TTpCOTOl TOiV GV'^kX7]TlK5iV. TOV^ /X6I/ f^CLp 

evTrarplBa^ 6 (f)66vo<; ikvTrei, iravrdiraaiv oiojxev- 
of? irpoirrfKaici^eaOai rr]V evyeveiav dvOpooircov 
dir dpxv^ dB6^(ov €l<; ttjv aKpav rifirju koI Bvva- 

4 fiiv dvapi^a^ofxevcov, ol te fiox^VP^ <rvv6c86T€<; 
avTOL<; iTTLTrjBevfjiaTa koX tmv TrarpLcov eKBiaLTrjacv 
eOCov icpoffovi^TO rrjv avarrjpiav tov dvBp6<;, 
dirapaiTTjTOV iv e^ovaia koI %aX€7r^i/ iaofjbimjv. 
Bib (rvfjL(f)pov7jaavT€<; Kal irapaafcevdaavre^i eTrra 
fcarijyov iirl rrjv irapayyeKiav dvTLTrdXov^ ro) 
Kdroyvi, Oepairevovra'; iXiricn ')(p7j(rTal<i to irXrj- 
Oo<i, ft)? Bt) fxakaKm Kal tt/jo? rjBovrjv dp'xeo^Oat 

5 Beofievov. rovvavriov S' 6 K^drcov ovBefxiav ivBi- 
Bov^ iTTceiKeiav, aW' dvrcKpv^ direiXSyv re to'1<^ 
Trovrjpolf; avro rov ^7]/jLaTo<; Kal KeKpayco^ fzeyaXov 
Kadapfjiov ')(^prj^€LV rrjv irokiv, rj^iov roifi ttoXXoi;?, 
el (70i)(f)povovai, jxi] tov 7]BiaT0v, dWd tov <r(f)o- 
BpoTaTOV alpeladai tcov laTpcav tovtov Be avTov 
elvat Kal tmv TraTpLKLcov eva ^Xukkov OvaX- 
XepLov jJueT eKetvov yap oiecrdai /jlovov ttjv Tpv^rjv 
Kal TTjv fxaXaKiav coairep vBpav Te/j,VQ)v Kal diro- 
Kalxov TTpovpyov tl irofqaetv, tcov S' dXXcov opdv 
eKacTTov ap^ai KaKm fiia^ofjuevov, otl tov? KaXm 

6 dp^ovTa^ BeBoiKev. ovtco S* dpa pLeya<; rjv w? dXrj6(o<; 
Kal fjLeydXcov d^io<} Brj/jiaycoycov 6 'FcofULLCov Brffio^, 
&aT€ fiT) (jio^Tjdijvat TTjv dvdTacriv Kal tov oyKov 
TOV dvBpo^, dXXd TOV? yBel^i €Kelvov<: Kal tt/oo? 

348 



MARCUS CATO, xvi. 36 

the best known and most influential men of the 
senatorial party united to oppose liim. The men 
of noble parentage among them were moved by 
jealousy, thinking that nobility of birth would be 
trampled in the mire if men of ignoble origin forced 
their way up to the summits of honour and power ; 
while those who were conscious of base practices 
and of a departure from ancestral customs, feared 
the severity of the man, which was sure to be 
harsh and inexorable in the exercise of power. 
Therefore, after due consultation and preparation, 
they put up in opposition to Cato seven candidates 
for the office, who sought the favour of the multitude 
with promises of mild conduct in office, supposing, 
forsooth, that it wanted to be ruled with a lax 
and indulgent hand. Cato, on the contrary, showed 
no complaisance whatever, but plainly threatened 
wrong-doers in his speeches, and loudly cried that 
the city had need of a great purification. He 
adjured the people, if they were wise, not to choose 
the most agreeable physician, but the one who 
was most in earnest. He himself, he said, was 
such a physician, and so was Valerius Flaccus, of 
the patricians. With him as colleague, and him 
alone, he thought he could cut and sear to some 
purpose the hydra-like luxury and effeminacy of 
the time. As for the rest of the candidates, he 
saw that they were all trying to force their way 
into the office in order to administer it badly, 
since they feared those who would administer it 
well. And so truly great was the Roman people, 
and so worthy of great leaders, that they did not 
fear Cato's rigour and haughty independence, but 
rejected rather those agreeable candidates who, 

349 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X^pt'V airavTa iroirjo-eLV hoKovvra^ dTToppiyjraf; 
ekeadav fiera tov J^drayvos rov ^Xd/CKOV, wairep 
ovK alrovvTo<; dpxv^f dW* dp^ovTo^ '^Brj koI 
irpocrrdTTovTO'; dKpomfievo^;. 

XYII. Upoeypa-yfre fjuev ovv 6 Kdrcov Trj<; avy- 
kXtJtov tov (Twdp^ovra Kal (piXov AevKiov 
OvaWepLov ^XdKKov, efe/9aXe Se t^9 j3ouXrj<; 
dXXov^; re av')(yov<i koX Acvklov K-otvriov, virarov 
fiev eirrd irporepov evcavTot<i jeyevrjfjbivov, o S' ^v 
avTcp TTpo^ So^av uTrareia? fiel^ov, dSeXcpbv TItov 
*^Xa/jLivivov TOV KaTairoXefi'^a-avTo^ ^iXtirirov. 

2 auTLav Be r/}? iK0oXrj<; eV^e TOiavTrjv. fieipd/ctop 346 
ifc T7]^ 7rai8LKrj<; wpa^ irai-povv dveiXr](j)a)f; 6 Aev- 
Kio<^ del TTepl avTov €L')(e /cal auveTrrjyeTo aTpaTrj- 
ywv eiri Tipfr\^ Kal Bwdfjueco^; ToaavTrj^y oarjp ovBeh 
e2%e T(ov TTpcoTcov Trap' avT& <J)lX(ov koI OLKeicov. 
^Tvyxave p^ev ovv -qyovpevo^ v7raTiKrj<; iirap')(ia^' 
iv Be orvpTrocrLO) tlvI to p.ei,pdKLov, axrirep elcoOei, 
avyKaTa/cetpsvov dXXijv re KoXaKeiav itcivei, 7rp6<; 
dv6p(07rov^ iv otvo) paBico^ dyopevop, Kal (f>tXeLV 
axjTov ovTOi><; eT^yev " cocrr'," e(p7j, '* Oea<i ovcrrj<; 
oIkol pbovopud^cov ov TeOeapevo^ Trporepov e^cop- 
prjaa irpo^ ere, Kaiirep iinOvpcov IBelv dvOpcoirov 

3 acjiaTTopevovy 6 Be AevKco^ dvTL^LXo(j)povov' 
pevo<i ** ^AXkd TOVTOV ye ydpivr elTre, " prj poi 
KaTdKetcTO Xvirovp^evo^;, iyo) yap Idaopauy Kal 
KeXeva-a<; eva twv eVl OavaTw KaTaKpoTcov et? to 
avpuiToaLOV d')(drivaL Kal tov vTrrjpeTrjp e')(^ovTa 

^ irphs &.v6j)<aTroy BlasB with F^SO : irphs rhy 6.v6p(i>iroy, 

350 



MARCUS CATO, xvi. 6-xvii. 3 

it was believed, would do every thing to please 
them, and elected Flaccus to the office along with 
Cato.^ To Cato they gave ear, not as to one soliciting 
office, but as to one already in office and issuing his 
decrees. 

XVII. As censor, then, Cato made Lucius Valerius 
Flaccus, his colleague and friend, chief senator. 
He also expelled many members of the Senate, 
including Lucius Quintius. This man had been 
consul seven years before, and, a thing which gave 
him more reputation than the consulship even, was 
brother of the Titus Flamininus who conquered 
King Philip.'^ The reason for his expulsion was 
the following. There was a youth who, ever since 
his boyhood, had been the favourite of Lucius. 
This youth Lucius kept ever about him, and took 
with him on his campaigns in greater honour and 
power than any one of his nearest friends and 
kinsmen had. He was once administering the 
affairs of his consular province, and at a certain 
banquet this youth, as was his wont, reclined at 
his side, and began to pay his flatteries to a man 
who, in his cups, was too easily led about. " I love 
you so much," he said, " that once, when there 
was a gladiatorial show at home, a thing which I 
had never seen, I rushed away from it to join you, 
although my heart was set on seeing a man 
slaughtered." " Well, for that matter," said Lucius, 
"don't lie there with any grudge against me, for 
1 will cure it." Thereupon he commanded that 
one of the men who were lying under sentence 
of death be brought to the banquet, and that 
a lictor with an axe stand by his side. Then he 

^ 184 B.a * At Cynoscephalae, 198 B.a 

351 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irekeKw Trapao-rrjvai, iraXtv rjpcorrja'e rbv iprnfie- 
voVy el ^ovXerai rvirTOfjuevov dedaaaOat. <f)r)(7av- 
TO? he ^ovXeadaLy Trpoaera^ev dTroKoyjrai tov 
dv6p(07rov TOV Tpdxn^ov. 

4 Ot [xev ovv irKelaroi ravra la-ropovcri, koX 6 ye 
KiKepcov avrov tov KaTcova Bnjyovfievov iv tw 
irepl yrjpco<i BiaXoytp nreTroLij/cev 6 5e Aifiio<i 
avTOfioXov elvai ^rjai TaXaTrjv tov avacpeOevTa, 
TOV Se Aev/ciov ov Bt virrjpeTOV KTeZvai tov avdpco- 
TTOV, o-XV avTOV IBla %et/)t, kolI TavTa iv Xoyco^ 
yeypd(f)Oai, Karwi^o?. 

5 EK0\7]devTO<; ovv tov AevKtov r?}? ySouA-?}? virb 
TOV KaTcovo^, 6 dSe\(l)o<; avrov (Bapeo)^ (j)ep(ov iirl 
TOV 8rj/jbov KaTe(f)vye koI ttjv aWiav CKeXevev 
elirelv tov KaTOiva tt)? €K^oX7]<i. elirovTOf; Be koI 
8ir]yrja-a/jbevov to avfiTToacov eVe^etyoe* fiev 6 
Aev/ao<; dpvetaOai,, Trpo/caXovfievov Se tov Karw- 

6 1^09 6t9 6pL(T/jLov dveSveTO. koI Tore jiev a^ta 
iraOelv KaTeyvcocrOr]' 6ea<; S' ov(7r)(; iv OeaTpa ttjv 
viraTLKTjv '^(opav irapeXOcov koI iroppcordTO) irov 
KaOeaOeU oIktov ea^e irapa tco Brjfio), koI ^ocov- 
T€9 '^vdyKuaav avrov fiereXOelv, a)9 r)V Bvvarov 
iTTavopOovfjuevoc Kal Oepairevovre'i to yeyevrj- 
/xevov. 

7 "AXXov Be ffoitXrji; i^e^aXev vTrarevaeiv irriBo^ov 
ovra, MaviXXcov, on rrjv avrov yvval/ca fieO' rjfie- 
pav opcoarjf; T'fj<; Ovyarpo^ fcarecpLXrjo-ev. avrw S' 
€(j)rj TTJV yvvaLKa jjLrjBeTrore 7rXr]v f^povrrjf; iuLeydXr]<} 
yevo/jievr)(; irepLirXaKrjvaL, Kal fiera TraiBtdf; elirelv 
avrov C09 iiaKdpio^; iarri tov Ato9 ^povTcbvro^* 

^ iv \6yq) Hercher and Blass with F*SC : iv r^ \6y<p. 

352 



MARCUS CATO, xvii. 3-7 

asked his beloved if he wished to see the man 
smitten. The youth said he did, and Lucius ordered 
the man's head to be cut off. 

This is the version which most writers give of 
the affair, and so Cicero has represented Cato himself 
as telling the story in his dialogue " On Old Age." ^ 
But Livy 2 says the victim was a Gallic deserter, 
and that Lucius did not have the man slain by 
a lictor, but smote him with his own hand, and 
that this is the version of the story in a speech 
of Cato's. 

On the expulsion of Lucius from the Senate 
by Cato, his brother was greatly indignant, and 
appealed to the people, urging that Cato state his 
reasons for the expulsion. Cato did so, narrating 
the incident of the banquet. Lucius attempted 
to make denial, but when Cato challenged him 
to a formal trial of the case with a wager of money 
upon it, he declined. Then the justice of his 
punishment was recognized. But once when a 
spectacle was given in the theatre, he passed along 
by the senatorial seats, and took his place as far 
away from them as he could. Then the people 
took pity upon him and shouted till they had forced 
him to change his seat, thus rectifying, as far as was 
possible, and alleviating the situation. 

Cato expelled another senator who was thought 
to have good prospects for the consulship, namely, 
Manilius, because he embraced his wife in open 
day before the eyes of his daughter. For his own 
part, he said, he never embraced his wife unless it 
thundered loudly ; and it was a pleasantry of his to 
remark that he was a happy man when it thundered. 

1 Cato Maior, 12, 42. « xxxix, 42. 

353 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XVIII. "HveyKc Be nva rip K-drcovi. koI 
AevKLO<; 6 XxTjiricovoq aSeX.^09 i'jri(j>Oovov air lav, 
0piafi/3iKo<; avr)p d(j)ai,peOel<; vtt avrov top I'ttttov' 
eho^e 'yap olov icjiv^pi^cov ^A(f)pLKava) ^/CTjirlcovt 
redpTjKOTi TOVTO TToirjaat,. roi/? Be irXeiarovi 
rjviaore fxdkiaTa rfj TrepiKOTrfj t^9 7ro\vT€\6La<i, 
7]v avTLKpv^ fiev d^e\ea6av, vevoo-rj/corcov 7]Br} 
Kal Bte<pOap/jiepcov vtt avTrj<^ rcov iroWoiv, dBv- 

2 varov rjv, kv/cXo) Se irepilcbv yvdy/ca^ev iaOijTO^, 
6xvf^CLT0<i, fcoa/jLOu yvvaiKeiov, GKevoiv to)V irepl 
hiaiTav, (av ifcdaTOV to rifirj^a Bpax/^d^; ■)(^iXLa(; 
Kal 7revra/co(TLaf} vwepe^aWev, diroTijjLdcrOat rrjv 
d^iav elf; ro BeKairXdcnov, ^ovKofievof; dirb fiet- 
^6v(ov Tt/JLTjfjbdrcov avToh fiei^ova^ Kal ra? elacpo- 
pa9 elvat. Kal Trpoa-erifjLrjo-e rpel^ ')(akKOv<; Trpo? 
Tot9 xiXlol<;, 07ra)9 ^apvvofievoc Tat9 eTTi^oXac'i 
Kal rov<; evaraXelfi Kal A-tTOt'9 opcavre^ diro T(av 
vcroav eXdrrova reXovvraf; eh ro Brjfxoaiov dira- 

3 yopev(ti(Tiv, rjaav ovv avra> 'X^aXerrol /jLev ol ra<; 
ela^opd^ Bid rrjv rpv(f>r]v vTrofxevovre^i, ^aXcTTot 
S' av irdXiv ol rr)V rpvcprjp dTToriOi/jLevoi, Bid 
Ta9 el<7^opd<;. rrXovrov ydp d^aipeaiv ol iroXXol 
vofJLi^ova-L rr}v KaoiXvo-cv avrov t?}9 e7nBel^€(o<i, 
eiriBeiKvvadaL Be roh 7repLrrol<;, ov rol<; dva<y- 
Kaloi^. o Brj Kal /jidXtard (f)aai rov <f)iX6ao<f>op 
^ Kpi(TTwva Oavfid^eiv, ore tol'9 rd irepirrd Ke- 
Krrjfievov^ fjbdXXov rj'yovvrai fiaKapiovf; 7) rov<; 

4 rcov dvajKaicov Kal '^(^prja-L/jLcov ev7ropovvra<;. ^ko- 
7ra9 Be 6 SerraX6<i alrovfievov rvvo? rcov <t>LXcov 

354 



MARCUS CATO, xviii. 1-4 

XVIII. Cato was rather bitterly censured for his 
treatment of Lucius, the brother of Scipio, whom, 
though he had achieved the honour of a triumph, 
he expelled from the equestrian order. He was 
thought to have done this as an insult to the memory 
of Scipio Africanus. But he was most obnoxious 
to the majority of his enemies because he lopped 
off extravagance in living. This could not be done 
away with outright, since most of the people were 
already infected and corrupted by it, and so he 
took a roundabout way. He had all apparel, 
equipages, jewellery, furniture and plate, the value 
of which in any case exceeded fifteen hundred 
drachmas, assessed at ten times its worth, wisliing 
by means of larger assessments to make the owners' 
taxes also larger. Then he laid a tax of three 
on every thousand asses thus assessed, in order 
that such property holders, burdened by their 
charges, and seeing that people of equal wealth 
who led modest and simple lives paid less into the 
public treasury, might desist from their extravagance. 
As a result, both classes were incensed against him, 
both those who endured the taxes for the sake 
of their luxury, and those no less who put away 
their luxury because of the taxes. For most men 
think themselves robbed of their wealth if they 
are prevented from displaying it, and that display of 
it is made in the superfluities, not in the necessaries 
of life. This, we are told, is what most astonished 
Ariston the philosopher, namely, that those possessed 
of the superfluities of life should be counted happy, 
rather than those well provided with life's necessary 
and useful things. Scopas the Thessalian, when 
one of his friends asked for something of his which 

S5S 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trap avTov ti toiovtoVj o /jlt) a<^6hpa tjv xPV^f'M^v 347 
eKeiv(p, /cat X6yovTO<i, ft)9 ovBev alreX tcov avay- 
Kaiwv Koi 'x^prjcTLfKov "Kal p.r)v iyo) TovTOt<;,^^ 
elireVf " evhaifxwv /cal irXovaLo^ elfii, T0Z9 axprj- 
<TTOi<; Kot TrepLTToU.^^ ovTco<i 6 Tov ttXovtov 
^77X09 ovBevl irdOei, ^vacKO) crvvr)/jL/j,€VO<; €k t^9 
o^\665ou9 Kal Ovpaiov h6^r)<^ i7r€C(T68i6<; icmv. 

XIX. Ov firjv aWa twv iyKokovvTcov iXax^J'Ta 
<f)povTL^oi)V 6 Kdrcov en fidWov eTrereivev, diro- 
KOTTTOiv fiev o%eTOi;9, 0*9 TO irapappeov Srj/xoaiov 
vBcop V7ro\afJL$dvovT€<; dirrjyov eh OiKia^ ISlaf; 
Kal Kri7rov<i, dvaTpeircov Se Kal Kara^dWcov 
oaa TTpov^aivev eh to Brj/jLoatov oiKoSofi^fiara, 
av(TreXk(ov Se Tot9 ^iia-Qoh rm epyoXa^ia^, ra 
Be rekr) rah irpdcrea-Lv eirl ra^ eaxdra^ e\avv(ov 
Tt/Jid^. dcf) MV avT(p TToXv auvrJx^V /^^o-o9. ol 
Be irepl rov Tltov avardvre^ eV avrov ev re 
TTj povXrj Ta9 yey evrjfJLeva^ eichocreLf; Kal fjULadcocreL^ 
TCOV lepcov Kal Bij/xoaicov epywv eXvaav &)9 76- 
yevr}fieva<; aXvaiTeXm, Kal tcov BrjfjudpXf^v tou9 
dpaavTarov^ irapco^vvav ev Brjpbw irpoaKoXe- 
aaaOau tov J^drcova Kal ^r^pawaai Bval raXdv- 
Tot9. TToXXa Be Kal 7rpo<; ttjv Trjf; ^aaiXtKrj^ 
KaTaaKevrjv rjvavTicoOriaav, rjv eKeLV0<; eK XPV/^^~ 
TCOV KOLVcov VTTo TO ^ovXevTYjpiov Tjj dryopo, 
7rape/3aXe Kal HopKia jBaatXiKr} irpoo-riyopevOr}.^ 

^aiverai Be OavpLaaTco^ diroBe^dixevo^ avrov 
rr]v rifJLTjreiav 6 B7jfJL0<;. dvBpidvra yovv dvaOeh 
iv T^ vaw T979 ^Tyieia^ eireypayjrev ov Ta9 

^ UopKla ^aa-iXiK^ 7rpo(Triyopev0v Sintenis with the better 
MSS., and now S. Cf. Livy 39, 44. UopKlav ^aaiXiK^iv 
rpoffiiyipevatv Bekker {and called). 



MARCUS CATO, xviii. 4-xTx. 3 

was of no great service to him, with the remark 
that he asked for nothing that was necessary and 
useful, replied : " And yet my wealth and happiness 
are based on just such useless and superfluous 
things." Thus the desire for wealth is no natural 
adjunct of the soul, but is imposed upon it by the 
false opinions of the outside world. 

XIX. However, Cato paid not the slightest heed 
to his accusers, but grew still more strict. He 
cut off the pipes by which people conveyed part 
of the public water supply into their private houses 
and gardens ; he upset and demolished all buildings 
that enroached on public land ; he reduced the 
cost of public works to the lowest, and forced 
the rent of public lands to the highest possible 
figure. All these thing brought much odium upon 
him. Titus Flamininus headed a party against him 
which induced the Senate to annul as useless the 
outlays and payments which he had authorised for 
temples and public works, and incited the boldest 
of the tribunes to call him to account before the 
people and fine him two talents. The Senate also 
strongly opposed the erection of the basilica which 
he built at the public cost below the council-house 
in the Forum, and which was called the Basilica 
Porcia. 

Still, it appears that the people approved of 
his censorship to an amazing extent. At any rate, 
after erecting a statue to his honour in the temple 
of Health, they commemorated in the inscription 



357 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

o-rparrjyia^ ovSe rov dpiafi^ov rod KaTft)z/09, 
aW\ ft)9 dv T«9 fJb€Ta<f>pda6ie ti]v eTnypacjyTjv, 
"' On T7]v *TcofiaL(x>v TroXireiav eyKeKXt/jLevrjv 
Kai peirovaav eirl to ^(elpov rtfjbrjrrjf; y6v6fjL€VO<; 
XPV^^'^cilf; aycoyaU koX (Tco(f)pocnv idco-fMol^ koX 
oioacTKaXiaL^ et? opOov avOi^ (iTroKarearTrjo'e.^^ 

4 KaiTOi TTporepov avrb"; fcareyeXa tmv ayaTrcovrcov 
ra TOiavra, koX \av9dveiv avTov<i eXeyev eVt 
'X^aXKecov Kal ^(oypdcpwv €pyoL<; fieya (ppovovpraf;, 
avTov Se KaXXi(7Ta<; el/cova^; iv rat? "x^u^at*? 
ir€pc<p6p€iv Tov<; TToXtra?* tt/jo? Se rov<; Oavfid- 
^ovra^y OTL ttoXXmv dSo^cov dv8pidi>Ta<; e^ovrcov 
€K6Cvo<; ovK eyei ''MaXXov yap,'' e(f)7), '' ^ovXojiiac 
^TjTetaOat, Bta tl /xov avSpcd^; ov Kelrai y Sid 

5 n Kelrai,'' to 8 oXov ovS* eiraivovfjievov rj^iov 
Tov dyaOov ttoXlttjv virofxeveLV, el firj tovto XPV- 

<7tyL6ft)9 yivOLTO TU> KOIVW. 

KaiTOL ^ irXelaTa irdvrwv eavTov eyKeKcopLLaKev, 
09 76 Kal T0U9 dfjbapTavovTd^ tl irepl tov ^lov, 
cIt eXeyxop'evov<i Xeyeuv (fii^alv, ci)9 ovk d^iov 
eyKaXelv avT0L<;' ov yap KaTft)z/69 elcrr Kal Tot'9 
evta /jLL/jiela'OaL tmv vii avrov TrpaTTo/ubevcov ovk 
e/n/iieXa)^ einx^ipovvTa^; eirapiaTepov^ KaXetaOat 

6 KaTcova^;' dxpopdv Se Trjv ^ovXrjv 7r/309 avTOV ev 
Tol<; eTTiac^aXecTTdToi,^ Kaipol<^ wairep ev ttXo) 
7r/0O9 KvBepvr]T7}v, Kal 7roXXdKL<; jurj irapovTO^ 
VTrepTiOeaOai ra TrXeiaTrji; d^ia a7rovhrj<^. a Brj 
nrapa tcov dXXcov avTco /jLaprvpetTai' fieya yap 
ea^^v ev tj} TroXei Kal Std tov filov Kal Bid tov 
Xoyov Kal Bid to yrjpa<; d^Loy/xa. 

XX. Feyove Be Kal irarrjp dyaOo<i Kal irepl 
^ Kalroi conjecture of Blass : koI, 

358 



MARCUS CATO, xix. 3-xx. i 

upon it, not the military commands nor the triumph 
of Cato, but, as the inscription may be translated, 
the fact " that when the Roman state was tottering 
to its fall, he was made censor, and by helpful 
guidance, wise restraints, and sound teachings, 
restored it again." And yet, before this time 
he used to laugh at those who delighted in such 
honours, saying that, although they knew it not, 
their pride was based simply on the work of statuaries 
and painters, whereas his own images, of the most 
exquisite workmanship, were borne about in the 
hearts of his fellow citizens. And to those who 
expressed their amazement that many men of no 
fame had statues, while he had none, he used to 
say ; " I would much rather have men ask why 
I have no statue, than why I have one." In short, 
he thought a good citizen should not even allow 
himself to be praised, unless such praise was beneficial 
to the commonwealth. 

And yet of all men he has heaped most praises 
upon himself. He tells us that men of self-indulgent 
lives, when rebuked for it, used to say : " We ought 
not to be blamed; we are no Catos." Also that 
those who imitated some of his practices and did 
it clumsily, were called ^^left-handed Catos." Also 
that the Senate looked to him in the most dangerous 
crises as seafarers to their helmsman, and often, if 
he was not present, postponed its most serious 
business. These boasts of his are confirmed, it 
is true, by other witnesses, for he had great authority 
in the city, alike for his life, his eloquence, and 
his age. 

XX, He was also a good father, a considerate 



359 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'yvvaiKa y^prjaro'^ avrjp koI %/?i7/AaTt(7T^9 ovk 
€VKaTa(pp6vrjT0<; ou3* w? ri fjbiKpov rj (fyavXov iv 
Trapepyo) p,eTa')(6ipL(Tdfievofs Tr]v rotavTTjv iiri- 
fieXetav. oOev OLOfiai, Belv /cal irepl rovrcov oaa 
KaXm e%efc BieXOelv yvvaX/ca puev evyeveajepav 
rj 7r\ovcncoT6pav eyrjfiev, '^yovfievo^ opuoiw^; fiev 
a/jL^orepa^ eyeiv ^dpo<; koI ^povrj/jia, ra? Sk 
'yevvaia^ alBovjjLeva<; ra alaxpa, fidWov virrjKoov^ 

2 elvav irpo'i ra Koka rot? ^yeyapjir^Koai. rov Be 
TVTTTOVTa yafi€Tr)V rj iralBa rot? dyLcordroi^ eXeyev 
UpoU '7rpo(T(f)6p€iv Td<; ')(^eipa<i. iv iwaivw he 
fieL^ovt TiOecrdai to yafierrjv dyaOov rj to fxeyav 
elvav (TvyKXrjTiKov iirel koI ^coKpdrov; ovhev 
aXXo Oavfid^eiv rov nraXaiov irXrjv on yvvaiKi 
^a\67r§ KoX iraLaXv dTTOirXrjKTOi^ '^(pco/jLevo^; iin- 
€LKM^ Kol irpdcD^ 8t€TiXecr€. yevo/jbivov Se rov 
TratSo? ovBev rjv epyov ovt(o<; dvayKacov, el /jltj tv 
Brj/jLoatov, ft)9 fir) irapelvai rfj yvvaiKl Xovovay to 3 

3 ^p6^o<i Kol crrapyavovcrrf. avrrj yap erpe^ev 
ISiO) ydXaKTi' iroXXdKi,^ Be fcal ra tcov BovXoiv 
iraiBdpia t& /jLaaTO) Trpoo-te/jievr) Karea/ceva^ev 
evvoiav iic Tr}<^ auvTpo^ia<; 7rpo<i rov vlov. iirel 
Be rjp^aTO avvLevat, irapaXa^cov avTO^ eBLBaaKe 
ypdfifjLara, Kalroc yapievTa BovXov eZ%6 ypafipa- 
TKT'trjv ovofia ^LXava, ttoXXov^ BiBdcrKovra 

4 7raiBa<;. ovk rj^lov Be rov vlov, w? (j)r]cn,v avro^, 
VTTO BovXov KaKM^i uKOveiv rj Tov a)T09 dvarei' 
veaOai p^avOdvovra PpdBiov, ovBe ye pLaOij/jLaro^ 
TrjXiKOvrov tw BovXw X^P^^ 6(f)eiXei.v, dXX 
auTo? fJLev rjv ypafjufiaTtaTrj^;, avro^ Be vo^oBc- 

360 



i 



MARCUS CATO, xx. 1-4 

husband, and a household manager of no mean talent, 
nor did he give only a fitful attention to this, as 
a matter of little or no importance. Therefore I 
think I ought to give suitable instances of his 
conduct in these relations. He married a wife who 
was of gentler birth than she was rich, thinking 
that, although the rich and the high-born may be 
alike given to pride, still, women of high birth have 
such a horror of what is disgraceful that they are 
more obedient to their husbands in all that is 
honourable. He used to say that the man who 
struck his wife or child, laid violent hands on 
the holiest of holy things. Also that he thought 
it more praiseworthy to be a good husband than 
a great senator, nay, there was nothing else to 
admire in Socrates of old except that he was always 
kind and gentle in his intercourse with a shrewish 
wife and stupid sons. After the birth of his son, 
no business could be so urgent, unless it had a 
public character, as to prevent him from being 
present when his wife bathed and swaddled the babe. 
For the mother nursed it herself, and often gave 
suck also to the infants of her slaves, that so they 
might come to cherish a brotherly affection for 
her son. As soon as the boy showed signs of 
understanding, his father took him under his own 
charge and taught him to read, although he had 
an accomplished slave, Chilo by name, who was 
a school-teacher, and taught many boys. Still, Cato 
thought it not right, as he tells us himself, that 
his son should be scolded by a slave, or have his 
ears tweaked when he was slow to learn, still less 
that he should be indebted to his slave for such 
a priceless thing as education. He was therefore 

361 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

SdfCT7}<;, avTO^ Be yvfivaar^<;, ov fxovov aKOVTi^eiv 

OvB^ 6TfkOlia')(€LV OuS* llTlTeveLV BiBdcTKCOV TOV viov, 

aXXa Kol TTj %6t/5l TTV^ iraieLV koI Kavjua koI 
■xJrO^^o? dvkyeaQai koI to, BivcoSr) koX rpa^yvovra 

5 'tov irora/iiov Btavr])(^oiJbevov d7ro/3id^eaOai. koX Ta<; 
laropia^ Bk avyy pd-yjrac (j)7j(7lv avrb^i IB la %et/)i 
KaX ixeydXoL^; ypd/jb/naa-iv, 07rco<; olkoOcv virdp'^oi 
T(p wacBl Trpo? ifjuTreipiav tmv irakaiMV koI Trarpl- 
(ov CD(f>6\€Ladar ret 8' alar')(pa rcjv prjfidroav ov^ 
TjTTov 6v\a^€LcrOai TOV 7rafcSo9 irapovTO^s rj rwv 
lepoiv rrrapdevcov, a? *Eo-TfcaSa9 fcakovo-r avWov- 
aacrOai Be firjBeTroTe. koI tovto kolvov eot/ce 
'Fcofjbaicov e6o<; elvar /cat yap irevOepol yafJL^pol';^ 
€<pv\dTTOVTO (rvWoveadai, Buacoirov/nevoL rrjv 

G aTTOKdXvyjrtv Kal yvfivcoacv. elra fjuevroi irap 
'^Wrjvwv TO yvfjbvovaOai fia06vT€<^, avTol irdXiv 
TOV Kal fjueTa yvvaiKCdv tovto irpdaa-eiv dvaTreiiKy]- 
KacTL Tov<;"K\X7]va<;. 

OvTco Be fcaXov epyov el<; dpeTTjv t& Karcoi^t 
TrXdTTOVTi Kal BrjfiiovpyovvTi tov vlov, eireX to, 
TTj^ irpoOvixia^ rjv d/jbefiTTTa Kal Bi ev^vtav 
VTTrjKovev rj '^L'%/7, to Be acj/ia juaXaKooTepov 
€(j)alveT0 TOV irovelv, vTravrJKev avT(a to avvTovov 

7 dyav Kal KeKoXaafievov Tfj<; BiaiTrj^;. 6 Be, Kaiirep 
ovTco<; e)(^cov, dvrjp dyaOo<; rjv ev Tal<^ aTpaTeiai^, 
Kal Tr)v TT/oo? ilepcrea /jLd')(^r]v 7]ya>vi(TaTo XaixrrpS)^ 
YiavKov aTpaTTjyovvTO^;. elTa /.levTot tov ^l(J>ov^ 
eKKpovaOevTO<^ vtto TrXijyrjf; rj St* vypoTijTa Ti}? 

^ "TrevOepol yafi^pots Hercher and Blass, adopting the con- 
jecture of Sintenis : ■nevd^pols yafx^pol. 



MARCUS CATO, xx. 4-7 

himself not only the boy's reading-teacher, but 
his tutor in law, and his athletic trainer, and he 
taught his son not merely to hurl the javelin and 
fight in armour and ride the horse, but also to 
box, to endure heat and cold, and to swim lustily 
through the eddies and billows of the Tiber. His 
History of Rome, as he tells us himself, he wrote 
out with his own hand and in large characters, 
that his son might have in his own home an aid 
to acquaintance with his country's an(uent traditions. 
He declares that his son's presence put him on 
his guard against indecencies of speech as much 
as that of the so-called Vestal Virgins, and that 
he never bathed with him. This, indeed, would 
seem to have been a general custom with the 
Romans, for even fathers-in-law avoided bathing with 
their sons-in-law, because they were ashamed to 
uncover their nakedness. Afterwards, however, when 
they had learned from the Greeks their freedom in 
going naked, they in their turn infected the Greeks 
with the practice even when women were present. 

So Cato wrought at the fair task of moulding 
and fashioning his son to virtue, finding his zeal 
blameless, and his spirit answering to his good 
natural parts. But since his body was rather too 
delicate to endure much hardship, he relaxed some- 
what in his favour the excessive rigidity and 
austerity of his own mode of life. But his son, 
although thus delicate, made a sturdy soldier, and 
fought brilliantly under Paulus Aemilius in the 
battle against Perseus.i On that occasion his sword 
either was smitten from his hand or slipped from his 

1 Pydna, 168 B.O. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^ef/)09 €^o\ia$6vro<i ayddeaOeX^ Tpeirerai irpo^ 
Tiva<; TMV avvrj6a)v, KaX TrapaXaffoov iK€ivov<; 
av6i^ eh tov<; TroXe/^tou? eve^aXe. iroXktp B* 
ayojvi, KoX fila fieyaXy Siacfxorio-a^; rov tottov 
avevpe /jLoyc^: ev TroXXot? crd'yixaaLV oirktov /cal 
aoofiaai, veKpcov ojjlov (plXcov re koX TroXe/jLicop 

8 Karaaeawpevfievwv, e<f> o5 koX IlaOXo? o arpa- 
T7]yo<; rjydcrOrj to /JLeipd/ciov, Kol Karcoz^o? avrov 
(jieperai Tt9 einaToXi^ 7rpo<; rov vlov V7r€p(f>va><i 
e7raivovpTO<i rrjv ire pi to ^L(f>o<i (piXoTifiCav avTOV 
Kal airovBrjv. vaTepov he /cat JIavXou dvyarepa 
TepTLav eyrjfiev 6 veavia<;, dSeXcprjv 'ZKr^irLcova, 
o^X ^'^'^ov rJ3?7 hC avTOv r) top irarepa KaTapayvv- 
/jL€VO(; eh 761/09 ttjXlkovtov. rj fiev ovv irepl top 
vlop iirifieXeLa tov KdTcopo<; d^iop ea^ev T6X09. 

XXI. OlKeTaf; Se 7roWov<; iKTaro, tojp at%- 
fiaXcoTcop oopovfiepo'i fidXiaTa tov<; puLKpov^ Kal 
Svpafiepov<i en Tpo(f>r)p koX TraiBevaiv 0)9 (tkv- 
XaKa^ r) TTCoXovi epeyKelp. tovtwp ovSeh elarjX- 
Oep eh olKLap erepap, el firf 7repu'\jrapTo<; avTOV 
KdTcopof; Tj T?59 yvpai/c6<;. 6 B^ epcorrjOeh* ri 
irpdTTOL Kara)!/, ovBep direKplpeTO irXrjv dyvoelp. 

2 eBei Be rj irpaTTetP tv tcop dpay/caioop oc/coi top 
BovXop rj KaOevBetP' Kal acpoBpa to?9 KOLfKOfiipoii; 
6 KdTCOP exciipe, irpaoTepov'; re tcop eyprjyopOTcop 
vofiL^cop Kal 7r/509 OTLOVP ^eXTiopa<s xpV^^^'' "t^^ 
Beofxepwp virpov tov<; diroXeXavKOTa'^. ol6fJLepo<i 
Be TCL ybkyiGTa paBiovpyelp dffypoBiaiwp epeKa tou9 
BovXovf; eTa^ep (hptcrfiepov pop,icr/jLaTO<i opuCXelp 349 
Tah depaTTaLPLGLPy eTepa Be yvpaiKi firjBepa ttXtj- 
(Tid^eip, 
^64 






MARCUS CATO, xx. 7-xxi. 2 

moist grasp. Distressed at this mishap, he turned 
to some of his companions for aid, and supported by 
them rushed again into the thick of the enemy. 
After a long and furious struggle, he succeeded in 
clearing the place, and found the sword at last 
among the many heaps of arms and dead bodies 
where friends and foes alike lay piled upon one 
another. Paulus, his commander, admired the 
young man's exploit, and there is still extant a letter 
written by Cato himself to his son, in which he heaps 
extravagant praise upon him for this honourable zeal 
in recovering his sword. The young man afterwards 
married Tertia, a daughter of Paulus and a sister of 
the younger Scipio, and his admission into such 
a family was due no less to himself than to his 
father. Thus Cato's careful attention to the 
education of his son bore worthy fruit. 

XXI. He owned many domestics, and usually 
bought those prisoners of war who were young 
and still capable of being reared and trained 
like whelps or colts. Not one of his slaves ever 
entered another man's house unless sent thither by 
Cato or his wife, and when such an one was asked 
what Cato was doing, he always answered that he 
did not know. A slave of his was expected either 
to be busy about the house, or to be asleep, and he 
was veiy partial to the sleepy ones. He thought 
these gentler than the wakeful ones, and that those 
who had enjoyed the gift of sleep were better 
for any kind of service than those who lacked it. In 
the belief that his slaves were led into most mischief 
by their sexual passions, he stipulated that the males 
should consort with the females at a fixed price, but 
should never approach any other woman. 



PLUTARCH'S IJVES 

3 *EtV apxu f^^v ovv ert irevrjf; oiv koL arrparevo- 
fievo^ TT/jo? ovhev iSvaKoXacve rcov irepl hiaiTav, 
dX)C ala'X^iaTOV airec^atve Sia yaarepa irpo^ 
OLKerrjv ^vyofMa^elv, varepov he rcov Trpay/Jbdrcov 
eircBLBovTcov iroiovfievo^ €aTida6L<i (piXayv koI 
a-vvap')(^6vT(ov eKoXa^ev 6v6v<; pLerd to helnrvov 
IpudvTL Tov<i dpekearepov virovpyi^aaviafi on ovv rj 

4 crKevdaavTa<i, del Si nva ardaiv eyetv tou? Bov- 
Xov<; ip.rj'^^avdTO koI Biacpopdv 7r/909 d\X7]\ov<;, 

VTTOVOCOV TTjV OpLOVOLUV UVTCOV KoX SeSoiK(0<i. TOV<ii 

5' d^Lov elpydaOai tl davdrov Bo^avre^; iBcKalov 
Kpi6evTa<^ ev rol^ oiKerat^i irdaiv diroOvrjaKetv, 
el KarayvwarOelev. 

5 ^KiTTopievo^ he o-vprovcorepov iropLapLOV rrjv 
p^ev yewpyiav pLoXkov rjyetro Biaycoyrjv r/ irpoa- 
ohov, eh S' da<j)dkr) Trpdypara koI ^6$ata 
KaraTi6epevo<i ra? d^oppi,d^ eKraro Xipva^, vBara 
Oeppd, TOTTOf? Kva(f)€V(Tiv dvetpevov^i, epya 
iriacrca, ')(^c£>pav^ e-)(^ovaav avTO(pveL<; vopud^ Kal 
vXa^, d(p^ u)v avTW ')(^prjp,ara Trpoayec iroWd pajS* 
VTTO rod Ai6<;, W9 (f)r)at,v avro^, (SXa^rjvai Bvva- 

6 pivcov. i')(^p7]aaT0 Be fcal rw Bia^effXrjpLevo) 
pdXtara rcov Baveicrpwv eirl vavrcfC0L<; tov rpoirov 
rovTOv. CKeXeve tou? Bavei^opevov^ iirl KOLvcovia 
TToXXov^ TTapaKaXelv, yevopbevcov Be TrevrijKOVTa 
Kal ttXolcov ToaovTcov avro^ e2%6 puav pepiBa Bid 
iiouLVTicovo<; direXevOepov tol<; BaveL^opevot<i avpu- 
TTpayparevopuevov Kal avpLirXeovTOf;. rjv S' ovv 
ovK et'? dirav 6 KtvBvvo<;, dXX^ eh pepo<; ptKpov 

7 eirl KepBeav p^eydXoc^;. eBuBov Be fcal tmv OLKercjv 

^ Hpya rrlcra-iu, xalpay Blass with S : ipyuTujaiav x^P°-^i pro- 
ductive land. 

366 



MARCUS CATO, xxi. 3-7 

At the outset, when he was still poor and in 
military service, he found no fault at all with what 
was served up to him, declaring that it was shameful 
for a man to quarrel with a domestic over food and 
drink. But afterwards, when his circumstances were 
improved and he used to entertain his friends 
and colleagues at table, no sooner was the dinner 
over than he would flog those slaves who had been 
remiss at all in preparing or serving it. He was 
always contriving that his slaves should have feuds 
and dissensions among themselves ; harmony among 
them made him suspicious and fearful of them. He 
had those who were suspected of some capital offence 
brought to trial before all their fellow servants, and, 
if convicted, put to death. 

However, as he applied himself more strenuously 
to money-getting, he came to regard agriculture as 
more entertaining than profitable, and invested his 
capital in business that was safe and sure. He 
bought ponds, hot springs, districts given over 
to fullers, pitch factories, land with natural pasture 
and forest, all of which brought him in large profits, 
and ^'^ could not," to use his own phrase, " be ruined 
by Jupiter." He used to loan money also in 
the most disreputable of all ways, namely, on ships, 
and his method was as follows. He required his 
borrowers to form a large company, and when there 
were fifty partners and as many ships for his security, 
he took one share in the company himself, and was 
represented by Quintio, a freedman of his, who 
accompanied his clients in all their ventures. In 
this way his entire security was not imperilled, but 
only a small part of it, and his profits were large. 



s** 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot9 ^ovXofjLevoi><; dpyvpiov ol 8' icovovvro 
TralSa^, elra tovtov^; aaKrjcravTe^ kol BiSd^avT6<; 
dvaXco/xacrt rod KarftJi^o? /jlet iviavrov direSl- 
BovTO. TToXXou? Be Kol KaT6L')(ev 6 Kdrcov, oarjv 
6 irXeicTTriv BiBov<; icovelro tljutjv viroKoyi^ofjuevo^i. 
8 7rporp67ra)v Be rov vlov eirX ravrd (prjaiv ovk 
dvBp6<;, dXXd %^pa9 yvvai/co<; elvai to fieiaxrai ti 
TMV VTrapxovTcov, eKslvo B* ijBrj a^oBpoTepov 
Tov K-drcovo^iy OTC OaufiacTTOv dvBpa koX Oelov 
elirelv eroXfirja-e 7r/?09 Bo^av, 09 diroXeLirei irXeov 
iv To2<; X6yoi,<; irpoaeOrjKev ov irapeXapev. 

XXIL "HSt; Be avrov yepovTO<; yeyovoTO^ 
Trpea^eis ^A.6rjvr)6ev rjXdov eh 'Pco/jltjv ol ire pi 
K.apv6dBr]v rov ^ KKaBr] fialfcov kol Aioyevrj rov 
^tco'Ckov ^iX6(T0<f)0v, KaraBiKrjv Tvvd TrapacTTjao- 
fievoL TOV BrjiJbov tmv ^AOrjvaLayv, rjv eprjfirjv 

fy)(f)X0V ^fipCOTTiCOV fiev BlCO^dvTCOV, ^CKVCOViCOV Be 

KaraylrrjcfyLaapLevcov, TbfirjfjLa TaXdvTcov irevTa- 

2 Koaicov exovcrav, evOv^; ovv ol (jyiXoXoycoTaTOL 
Tcjv veaviG-Kwv eVl tol'9 dvBpa<; levro, fcal avvrj- 
aav dxpoco/juepoL kol 6av/jLd^ovT€<; avTOv^. fid- 
XtaTa S' 7) KapvedBov %a/)t9, ^9 Bvvaixh re 
irXeiarTr) koX Bo^a rrj^; Bvvd/jL60)<; ovk d7roBeov(ra, 
fieydXcov eTrcXa^Ofisvr) koX (pcXavOpcoTrcov dxpoa- 
Trjptcdv ct)9 TTvevfia Trjv ttoXlv r/x/j^ ive7rXrj<Te. 

3 Kol Xoyo9 KareZx^v, co? dvrjp "EXXrjv eh eKirXrj^iv 
V7r€p(pvr}(i irdvTa fcrjXwv koX XJ^Lpovpievofi epcjTa 



MARCUS CATO, xxi. 7-xxii. 3 

He used to lend money also to those of his slaves 
who wished it, and they would buy boys with it, and 
after training and teaching them for a year, at Cato's 
expense, would sell them again. Many of these 
boys Cato would retain for himself, reckoning to the 
credit of the slave the highest price bid for his boy. 
He tried to incite his son also to such economies, by 
saying that it was not the part of a man, but of 
a widow woman, to lessen his substance. But that 
surely was too vehement a speech of Cato's, when he 
went so far as to say that a man was to be admired 
and glorified like a god if the final inventory of his 
property showed that he had added to it more than 
he had inherited. 

XXn. When he was now well on in years, 
there came as ambassadors from Athens to Rome,i 
Carneades the Academic, and Diogenes the Stoic 
philosopher, to beg the reversal of a certain decision 
against the Athenian people, which imposed upon 
them a fine of five hundred talents. The people of 
Oropus had brought the suit, the Athenians had let 
the case go by default, and the Sicyonians had 
pronounced judgment against them. Upon the 
arrival of these philosophers, the most studious of the 
city's youth hastened to wait upon them, and became 
their devoted and admiring listeners. The charm of 
Carneades especially, which had boundless power, 
and a fame not inferior to its power, won large 
and sympathetic audiences, and filled the city, like a 
rushing mighty wind, with the noise of his praises. 
Report spread far and wide that a Greek of 
amazing talent, who disarmed all opposition by 
the magic of his eloquence, had infused a tremen- 

* 155 B.o. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Beivov ififfe/BXTj/ce toc<; vioi<;, v(f> ov rcov aWwv 
rjBovcov Kal BLarpi^cov eKireaovre^ evdovaccba-c 
irepl (f>i\oao(j)Lav. ravra toI<; [xev dWoc<; rjpecrKe 
*Fco/jLaLOi,<; yipofieva, Kal ra fieipaKca iTat^eia<; 
'K\Xt]vik7j<; fjL€TaXajjij3dvovra koI (Tvvovra Oavfjba- 

4 ^ojJievoL^ avSpdacv ySiax; icopcov 6 Be K.dTO)p 
ef cipxn^ T^ T^^ ^V^ov Tcjv Xoycov 7rapapp60PTO<i 

eh Tr]V TToXiV ri)(66TO (j)0/30Ufl6V0<i, jJbrj TO (f)lX6- 

TLfJLOV evravOa T/0€^ai^T69 ol vioc rrjv iirl r^ 
Xiyeiv Bo^av dyuTT'^acocn fiaWov T7]f} airb rcov 
epycov Kol rcov crrpaTeicov, iireX Be irpov^aivev 
rj Bo^a rcov (pcXoao^cop ev t§ irokei koI Tov<i 
TTpcoTOV^; \6yov<; avrcbv 7rpo9 ryv crvyKXrjTov dvrjp 
e7n(f>avr]^ airovBdaa^ auTO<; Kal BerjOeU VP/^V~ 
vevae, TdLO<; ^Akl\io<;, eyvco pier ev7rp67Teia<; 
cLTroBiOTropiTrrja-aaOaL rov<; (j)iXoa6(f>ov^ diravraf; 

5 CK Trj<; TToA-eo)?. Kal TrapeXdcov eh T7]v crvyKXrj- 35( 
Tov e/ze/x-x/raro roi? dp^ovacv, on irpeo-jSeia 
KdOrjrai nrdXvv y^pbvov diTpaKTo<^ dvBpcjv, o'c irepl 
iravTO'; ov ^ovXolvto paBlw^; irelOeLv BvvavTar 
Betv ovv TTjV ra'^iaTTjv yvcovaC tl Kal yjrTjipLaaadac 
irepl T?}? irpea^eLa^i, 67rco<; ovrot puev iirl ra^ 
a^oXa^ TpaiTopLevoL BiaXeycovrat, iraialv *EX- 
\rjvoiVy ol Be *Vcop,aLQ)v veoL tSjv vo/jlcov Kal toov 
dpxovTcov ft)? TTporepov aKOVcocn. 

XXIII. Tavra S* ov^, q)<; eviot vopLL^ovai, 
Y.apvedBrj Bva^^epdva^ eirpa^ev, aXV oXo)? cpcXo- 
ao<f>La 7rpoaKeKpovKco<i Kal iraaav 'RXXtjvlktjv 
p^ovaav Kal TraiBelav vtto ^LXoripiia^ TrpoirrfkaKi- 
^cov, 09 ye Kal XcoKpdTrj (prjal XdXov Kal ^laiov 
yevofievov eTn')(€ipelv, a> rpoTTw Bwaro^i rjv, rvpav- 
velv Tr]<i TTaTplBo^i, KaraXvovTa tA edrj Kal tt/oo? 

370 



MARCUS CATO, xxii. 3-xxiii. i 

dous passion into the youth of the city, in conse- 
quence of which they forsook their other pleasures 
and pursuits and were "possessed" about philosophy. 
The other Romans were pleased at this, and glad to 
see their young men lay hold of Greek culture 
and consort with such admirable men. But Cato, at 
the very outset, when this zeal for discussion came 
pouring into the city, was distressed, fearing lest the 
young men, by giving this direction to their 
ambition, should come to love a reputation based on 
mere words more than one achieved by martial 
deeds. And when the fame of the visiting philoso- 
phers rose yet higher in the city, and their 
first speeches before the Senate were interpreted, at 
his own instance and request, by so conspicuous a 
man as Gains Acilius, Cato determined, on some 
decent pretext or other, to rid and purge the city of 
them all. So he rose in the Senate and censured 
the magistrates for keeping in such long suspense an 
embassy composed of men who could easily secure 
anything they wished, so persuasive were they. 
" We ought," he said, " to make up our minds one 
way or another, and vote on what the embassy 
proposes, in order that these men may return 
to their schools and lecture to the sons of Greece, 
while the youth of Rome give ear to their laws and 
magistrates, as heretofore." 

XXIII. This he did, not, as some think, out 
of personal hostility to Carneades, but because he 
was wholly averse to philosophy, and made mock 
of all Greek culture and training, out of patriotic 
zeal. He says, for instance, that Socrates was a 
mighty prattler, who attempted, as best he could, 
to be his country's tyrant, by abolishing its customs. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ivavTia^ tol^ v6fjboi<i Sofa? eXKovra /cat jieOicrTavTa 

2 Tou? 7ro\fcTa9. rr]v S' ^l(TOKpdrov<i Biarpt^rjv 

ilTKTKOD'TnCOV yTJpCLV <^Y}(TL ITap aVTW T0U9 fiadrjTO,^ 

ct)9 iv "A.Lhov nrapa Mti/w ')(^pr](rofJLevov<; raL<; 
T6')(vat<; Kol 8iKa<; ipovvra^. tov Be iralBa Sta- 
^aXKtov TT/OO? ra 'EWrjpiKa ^covfj K€')(prjrat 
OpaavTepa tov y7]pQ)<;, olov aTroOeairi^wv koX 
TTpofiavrevcov, a><; uTroXovai 'Fayfxalot ra Trpdyfjuara 

3 ypa/JLfidrcov ' E\\r]VLK(ov dvairXiia-Oevre^. dWa 
ravrrjv jnev avrov rrjv 8va(j)r)/jLLav 6 ')(^p6po<; 
diroBeLKWcn KevrjV, iv m rot? re irpdyfjuatTLV 
T) TToXi? '^p6r) /jLeyLcrrr] koI 7rp6<; 'EiWrjviKO, fMaOrj- 
fiara Kal iraLBelav diraaav e<r%€z/ oiKeio)^. 

'O K ov fjLovov dirrj^Odvero roL<; ^iXoao(fiOV<TLV 
^EXkrjvayVj dXkd Kal rov^; larpevovra^ iv 'Poo/jlj) 
Bl vTToyjria^ eZ%e. fcal tov 'liTTTOKpdrov^y (09 
eoiKcv, aKrjicod}^ \6yov, ov elire tov /jLcydXov 
l3a(TiX€(0<; KaXovvTO<i avrov eVt 7roXXofc9 ria-i 
ra\dvroL<;, ovk dv rrore /3apfidpoL<; ^EWijvcov 
7ro\€fiLOt<; kavrov rrapacyx^elv, ekeye kolvov opKOV 

4 elvai rovrov larpMV drrdvrcDV, Kal irapcKeXevero 
(f>v\drrea6aL ra) TraiBl Trdvra^' avra> Be yeypap,- 
jjbivov vTTopvrjfia elvai, Kal 7rpo<; rovro Qeparreveiv 
Kal Biairdv rov<; voaovvTa<; oIkoi, vrjariv fiev 
ovBeirore Biarrjpcav ovBeva, rpe^cov Be Xa^dvoi^ rj 
o-apKiBloi^ vr}aarj<i rj ^da-crr)^; tj Xayco' xal yap 
rovro Kovcpov elvai Kal 'irp6cr<^opov dadevovo'tj 
ttXtjv otl rroWd av/jL^aivet T0Z9 (payovaiv ivvirvid- 
^ecrdar roLavry Be Oepairela Kal BiaLrj) XP^~ 
fjievof; vyiaiveiv fxev avro^i, vyiaivovra^ Be tov9 
kavrov Bia^vXdrreLV. 

372 



I 



MARCUS CATO, xxiii. 1-4 

and by enticing his fellow citizens into opinions 
contrary to the laws. He made fun of the school 
of Isocrates, declaring that his pupils kept on 
studying with him till they were old men, as if 
they were to practise their arts and plead their 
cases before Minos in Hades. And seeking to 
prejudice his son against Greek culture, he indulges 
in an utterance all too rash for his years, declaring, 
in the tone of a prophet or a seer, that Rome 
would lose her empire when she had become infected 
with Greek letters. But time has certainly shown 
the emptiness of this ill-boding speech of his, for 
while the city was at the zenith of its empire, 
she made every form of Greek learning and culture 
her own. 

It was not only Greek philosophers that he hated, 
but he was also suspicious of Greeks who practised 
medicine at Rome. He had heard, it would seem, 
of Hippocrates' reply when the Great King of 
Persia consulted him, with the promise of a fee 
of many talents, namely, that he would never put 
his skill at the service of Barbarians who were 
enemies of Greece. He said all Greek physicians 
had taken a similar oath, and urged his son to 
beware of them all. He himself, he said, had 
written a book of recipes, which he followed in 
the treatment and regimen of any who were sick 
in his family. He never required his patients to 
fast, but fed them on greens, or bits of duck, pigeon, 
or hare. Such a diet, he said, was light and good 
for sick people, except that it often causes dreams. 
By following such treatment and regimen he said 
he had good health himself, and kept his family in 
good health. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXIV. Ko-t Trepi ye tovto ^alveTai yeyovox; ovk 
avefiearjTO^' koI yap rr)v yvvatxa koI tov vlov 
uTrefiaXev, avrb^ 8e tw (Tco/naTL 7rpo<; eve^lav Koi 
pco/irjv da(f)a\(x)<; TreTrrjyax^ irrl TrXelarov avrely^ev, 
ware koX yvvaiKl irpea^vTy}^ (ov a^oZpa ifkyjaid- 
^eiv Kal yrj/jLai yd/jLov ov icaG" ifKiKiav e/c TOi,avTrj<; 
7rpo<pdcr€(o<;. diropaXcbv tt]v yvvaiKa rrp fxev vIm 
TlavXov Ovyarepa, ^Krj7rL(ovo<; Be d8e\(pr)v rjydyeTO 
TTpof; ydfxov^ avrb^ Se %?7/)evft)z/ expV'^o iraiUaKri 
Kpixfya (jioiTcoaT} tt/jo? avTov. rjv ovv ev OLKia 
(jbiKpa vvfKfiriv e%ou(777 rov rrpdyparo^ ata6rj(TL<;' 
Kai TTore tov yvvalov Opaavrepov irapacro^yaat, 
irapa to Soj/jbdriov ho^avro^ 6 veavla^ elire jmev 
ovhevy €/uL^\eylra<; Be tto)? iriKporepov koI BiarpaTreU 
OVK eXaOe tov Trpea-^vrrjv. ci)9 ovv eyvco to Trpdy/ia 
Bva^epaivojjievov vtt avrcov, ovBev iyKd\,ea-a<; ovBe 
fMep,ylrd/jievo<;t dWd /caTa/Salvcov, wcirep elcoOet, 
jjberd (j)i\(cv el<; dyopav XaXcovLov Ttva roov vtto- 
yey pa fifxaTevKOTCov avTw irapovra Kal o-v/iiTrpo- 
TrepLTTovra jJueydXrj (f>covfj TTpoaayopevaa^; i^pcoTTjaev, 
el TO Ovydrpiov avvrjpjjiOKe vuficfyUp. tov B^ 
dvOpdyjTov (f>i]o-avTO^, co? ovBe p^eWet, pur) irpoTSpov 
eKeivM KOivcoadpevof; " Kal pirjv ey(o aot,'^ (^rjalv, 
'* evprjKa KrjBeaTrjv eiTLTrjBeiov , el pbrj vrj Ala to, 
Trj<; rfkLKia'^ BvG-')(epalvotTO' roKXa yap ov p^ep- 
TTTo? eVri, a(j)6Bpa Be irpecr^vTr]^.^^ 0)9 ovv 6 
^aXcoviO'^ eKeXeve TavTa (ppovTL^eiv Kal BiBovai 
TTjv KopTjv <p TrpoacpecTaCy TreXdriv ovaav avrov 
Kal Beopbevr]v t^9 eKelvov Kr)BepLovia<i, ovBepiav 6 

374 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 1-3 

XXIV. Such presumption on his part seems not 
to have gone unpunished, for he lost his wife and 
his son. He himself was well confirmed in bodily 
health and vigour, and long withstood the assaults 
of age. Even when an old man he was prone to 
indulge his sexual appetite, and at last married a 
wife when he was long past the marrying age. This 
was the way it came about. After the death of 
his wife, he married his son to the daughter of 
Aemilius Paulus, the sister of Scipio, but he himself, 
in his widowhood, took solace with a slave girl 
who secretly visited his bed. Of course, in a small 
house with a young married woman in it, the 
matter was discovered, and once, when the girl 
seemed to flaunt her Wcay rather too boldly to his 
chamber, the old man could not help noticing that 
his son, although he said nothing, looked very sour, 
and turned away. Perceiving that the thing displeased 
his children, Cato did not upbraid or blame them at 
all, but as he was going down in his usual way 
to the forum with his clients, called out with a 
loud voice to a certain Salonius, who had been 
one of his under-secretaries, and was now in his 
train, asking him if he had found a good husband 
for his young daughter. The man said he had 
not, and would not do so without first consulting 
his patron. " Well then," said Cato, " I have found 
a suitable son-in-law for you, unless indeed his age 
should be displeasing ; in other ways no fault can 
be found with him, but he is a very old man." 
Salonius at once bade him take the matter in 
charge and give the maid to the man of his choice, 
since she was a dependant of his and in need 
of his kind services. Then Cato, without any more 

VOL. IL N 375 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Karftjv dva^oXrjv irotrjadfievofi avro^ e^rj rrjv 

4 irapOevov alrelv kavTcp. Kal to fiev irpoiTov, &>? 
elic6<iy 6 \6yo<; i^eirXr^^e tov avOpmirov, iroppco fiev 
ydfwv rov K.dTcova, iroppco S* avrov oiKLa<i 
v7rariKr]<; koX Opiafi^iKoyv KrjSevfiaTcov nOeixevov' 
airovSr} Be '^(^pcofievov opcov dajxevo^ iBe^aro, Kal 
KarafidvT€<; ev6v<; eh cuyopav eiroLovvro ttjv 

Uparrofievov Be tov ydfiov irapaXa^cov roix; 
eTTLTrjBelov^ 6 vlo<; tov Karcoz^o? ypcorrjae tov 
TTUTepa, {JbTj Ti fjbe/jL(f)6fjLevo<; ^ XeXvTrrjfievo^ vir 

5 avTOV fjbijTpviav iirdyeTaL. 6 Be KdTcov dva- 
porjaa^ ** 'EvcfiTJ/jbrjaov,^* elirev, " o) iral' irdvTa 
yap dyacTTd fiOL tcl irapa aov Kal fiejiTrTov ovBev 
einOvfio} Be irXeiova'; ifjuavTO) re 7ralBa<; koX 
TToXtra? TTj iraTpiBi tolovtov<; diroXiirelv.^^ TavTrjv 
Be Tr]v yv(ji)fjbr)v irpoTepov elTretv (jyao-c TLeKTi- 
(TTpaTOv TOV ^A67}vaia)v Tvpavvov CTrcy^/iavTa 
T0t9 evrfXiKOL^ iraial ttjv *ApyoXiBa Ti/jLcovaaa-av, 
ef 179 ^lo(j)(t)VTa Kal SeacraXov avT& Xeyovai 

6 yeveaOai. yri\juavTi Be to3 KdTcovi, ylveTai iraU, 
c5 TTapcovvjJLtov aTTO T^9 firjTpo^ eOeTO XaXcoviov. 
6 Be 7rpecr^vTepo<; vlb^ eTeXevTrjae aTpaTrjycov. 
Kal fiefJLvrjTaL fiev avTOv iroXXaKL^ ev T0t9 ^l- 
^Xioi^ o K.dTcov 0)9 dvBpo<; dyadov yeyovoTO<;y 
TTpaa)^ Be Kal (j)iXoa6<j)(t)<; XeyeTai, ttjv av/Ji^opdv 
eveyKelv Kal firjBev dfi^XvT€po<; Bl avTr)v eh 

7 Ta iroXiTiKCL yeveaOai* ov ydp, 0)9 AevKio^ 
AovKovXXo^ va-Tepov Kal MereWo9 Tiio^, 
e^eKa/Jbev viro yr)p(0<; nrpof; to, Brjfioata, XeiTovp- 
yiav Tfjv iroXiTeiav rjyovfjbevo^, ovB' g)9 irpoTepov 
'%Kr)'iTi(ov ^ A(f>piKavo<i Blcl tov dvTiKpovaavTa 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 3-7 

ado, said that he asked the damsel to wife for 
himself. At first, as was natural, the proposal amazed 
the man, who counted Cato far past marriage, and 
himself far beneath alliance with a house of consular 
dignity and triumphal honours; but when he saw 
that Cato was in earnest, he gladly accepted his 
proposal, and as soon as they reached the forum 
the banns were published. 

While the marriage was in hand, Cato's son, 
accompanied by his friends, asked his father if it 
was because he had any complaint to make against 
him that he was now foisting a step-mother upon 
him. " Heaven forbid ! my son," cried Cato, " all 
your conduct towards me has been admirable, and 
I have no fault to find with you ; but I desire 
to bless myself and my country with more such 
sons." However, they say that this sentiment was 
uttered long before by Peisistratus, the tyrant of 
Athens, who gave his grown up sons a step-mother 
in the person of Timonassa of Argolis, by whom 
he is said to have had lophon and Thessalus. Of 
this second marriage a son was bom to Cato, who 
was named Salonius, after his mother's father. But 
his elder son died in the praetorship. Cato often 
speaks of him in his books as a brave and worthy 
man, and is said to have borne his loss with all 
the equanimity of a philosopher, remitting not 
a whit because of it his ardour in the public service. 
For he was not, like Lucius Lucullus and Metellus 
Pius in after times, too enfeebled by old age to 
serve the people, regarding the service of the state 
as a burdensome duty ; nor did he, like Scipio 
Africanus before him, because of envious attacks 

377 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rpo9 rrjv ho^av avrov ^Oovov a7roaTpa^6\<i rov 
Brjfiov eic fjLeTa^oXrjf; iirotrjcraTo rov Xoittov ^lov 
8 reXo? aTrpay/juoavvrjv, aXX\ uiairep tliovvcnov 
Tt? €7r€ia€ KoXkiarov ivrd^iov rjyelo-Oai ttjv 
TVpavviBa, KoXkLaTov avTO<; iyyijpafia rrjv tto- 
\iTeiav 7rot,7)(TdfjLevo<; dvarravcreaLv €^p7]T0 koI 
7raLSLaL<i, onrore a'X^o'Xd^oi, tw (rvvTaTTeaOat, 
^L/3Xia /cal TW jecopyelv. 

XXY. 'ZweTaTreTO fjuev ovv \6yov<; re iravTO- 
hairov^ Koi laropia^' yeaypyia he 7rpoael')(e veo<i 
fxev cjv ere kol Bca rrjv ')(p€Lav ((j)rjal yap Bval 
KexPV^^^^ P'OVOL^ 7Topt(TfjLOL<; yewpyia /cal ^eiSoi), 
t6t€ Se Siaycoyrjv /cat Oecopiav avrut ra yiyvop^eva 
icaT dypov irapelye, kol a-vvreraKTaL ye ^iffXiov 
yecopyiKoVy iv o5 Kal irepl irXaKovvToyv CTKevaaLa^ 
Kol r7}p'^a-€co<; oTToypa^ yeypa(f)evy iv iravrl (f>i- 

2 XoTifjLovjJb6vo<; TrepiTTo? elvai kol tSto?. ^v Be 
Kol TO BeiTTVov iv aypS) Ba^^tXea-Tepov ixdXec 
yap kfcdarore rcbv dypoyeirovcov Kal 7r€pi')(^copcov 
TOV<; avvrj9€i<i Kal avvStrjyev iXapcj<;, ov T0i9 
KaO^ rjXcKiav fJb6voi<^ rjBv'^ (av GvyyevkaBai Kal 
TroOeivo^;, dXXa Kal rot? veocf;, are Brj iroXX&v 
fjL6v efxireLpo^ Trpayfjidrcov yeyovm, 7roXXo2<; Be 
ypd/jLjuLaac Kal Xoyot^ d^uoi^ aKorj^i ivTervxrjKox;. 

3 Tr)v Be rpdire^av iv roi? pdXcara <^lXottoiov 
riyelTO' Kal ttoXXt) puev evcprj/jLia tcov KaXtov 
Kal dyaQoiv iroXirSyv iTreicrijyeTo, ttoXXt) B* rjv 
d/jLvr]aTLa tS)V d')(^pria-T(ov Kal irovTjpcov, fi'^re 
y^roycp firjT iiraivcp irdpoBov virep avrcav rov 

}^dTCOVO<^ €t9 TO <JV[JUTr6(TlOV BiB6vT0<^. 

XXVL "Eo-p^aTOj/ Be t(ov iroXcrevfidrav avrov 
378 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 7-xxvi. i 

upon his reputation^ turn his back upon the people 
and make leisure his end and aim for the rest 
of his life ; but rather, as someone persuaded 
Dionysius to regard his sovereignty as his fairest 
winding-sheet, so he held public service to be the 
fairest privilege of old age. For recreation and 
amusement, when he had leisure therefor, he resorted 
to the writing of books and to farming. 

XXV. He composed speeches, then, on all sorts 
of subjects, and histories, and as for farming, he 
followed it in earnest when he was young and 
poor, — indeed, he says he then had only two ways 
of getting money, farming and frugality, — but in 
later life he was only a theoretical and fancy farmer. 
He also composed a book on farming,^ in which 
he actually gave recipes for making cakes and 
preserving fruit, so ambitious was he to be superior 
and peculiar in everything. The dinners, too, which 
he gave in the country, were quite plentiful. He 
always asked in congenial country neighbours, and 
made merry with them, and not only did those 
of his own age find in him an agreeable and much 
desired companion, but also the young. For he was 
a man of large experience, who had read and heard 
much that was well worth repeating. He held 
the table to be the very best promoter of friendship, 
and at his own, the conversation turned much 
to the praise of honourable and worthy citizens, 
greatly to the neglect of those who were worthless 
and base. About such Cato suffered no table-talk, 
either by way of praise or blame. 

XXVI. The last of his public services is supposed 

1 De re rustica. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TT)V Ka/3%>7 801/09 avdarraaLV otovrai yeyovevac, ro) 
fiev epycp reXo? iinOevTO^; rod veov '^ktjttlcovo^, 352 
^ovXfj Be Kol ryvco/jLT) fioXicTTa TTj K.dTcovo^ dpa- 
/jbiveov Tov iroXefiov i^ airias rotdaBe. Kdrcov 
i'iTeiJb(j>d7] 7r/309 Kayo%77Soi/toi'9 koX ^aaaavdacrriv 
TOV ^ojjbdha TTokefJbOvvra^ dXkrfKoifiy eTrtaKe-^o- 
IJb€vo<; Td<; t7]<; Bt,a(f)opd<; irpocpda-et^;. 6 jjuev yap rjv 
TOV Brjfiov ^tXo9 dii dp')(ri^y ol 8' iyeyoveiaav ev- 
CTTovBoL fieTa Tr)v viro ^ktjttLwvo'; rJTTaVf d(f)ac- 
peaet re t^9 dp^V'i kol ffapel Baa-fio) 'X^prifidToyv 

2 Ko\ov9evTe<;, evpcov Be tt^v itoKlv ou^, (09 (^ovto 
^VcDiialoL, KeKaKa)/jLev7}v koI TUTrecva irpdTTova-av, 
dXkd TToWfj fiev evavBpovaav rjXiKia, /jueydXayv 
Be ttXovtcov yifiovaav, ottXcov Be iravToBairSiv 
/cat TrapacTKevrj^i TroXefiLo-TTjpiov /juecTTrjv koI fiLKpov 
ovBev eirl TovTOif; ^povovaav, ov to, No/jbdBcov 
ft)6T0 Kal yiaaaavdaaov irpdyfjuaTa 'Peofiacovf; 
copav e')(eLV TiOeoSat Kol BiaiTav, a\X' el fjurj 
KaToXy-^ovTai, ttoXlv avcoOev e^Opav koX ^apv- 
Ovfiov rjv^r) fjbevqv aTrlaTco^, irdXiv ev toc<; Laoif: 

3 KivBvvoL<; eaeadai, Ta%e&)9 ovv v7ro(TTpeyjra<; eBl- 
BaaKe ttjv fiovXrjVy ft)9 al TrpoTepov ^TTai Kal 
(TVfjb^opal K.ap')(^r]BovLO)v ov roaovTov Trj<^ Bwdfieay^ 
oaov T7]<; dvoia<; dirapvcraaai, KLvBvvevovaLV 
avTov<; ovK daOeveaTepovf;, eiXTreiporepov^ Be 
TToXefjLeiv direpydcraGQaiy rfit] B\ koX irpoava- 
icivelaOai tol<; No/xa8i/cot9 tou9 7r/909 ^Fcofialovi 
dy(bva<i, elpijprjv Be kol airovBa'^ ovofia tov 



3«0 



MARCUS CATO, xxvi. 1-3 

to have been the destruction of Carthage. It was 
Scipio the Younger who actually brought the task to 
completion/ but it was largely in consequence of 
the advice and counsel of Cato that the Romans 
undertook the war. It was on this wise. Cato was 
sent 2 on an embassy to the Carthaginians and 
Masinissa the Numidian, who were at war with one 
another, to inquire into the grounds of their quarrel. 
Masinissa had been a friend of the Roman people 
from the first, and the Carthaginians had entered into 
treaty relations with Rome after the defeat which 
the elder Scipio had given them. The treat}^ de- 
prived them of their empire, and imposed a grievous 
money tribute upon them. Cato, however, found the 
city by no means in a poor and lowly state, as the 
Romans supposed, but rather teeming with vigorous 
fighting men, overflowing with enormous wealth, filled 
with arms of every sort and with military supplies, 
and not a little puffed up by all this. He therefore 
thought it no time for the Romans to be ordering 
and arranging the affairs of Masinissa and the 
Numidians, but that unless they should repress a city 
which had always been their malignant foe, now that 
its power was so incredibly grown, they would be in- 
volved again in dangers as great as before. Accord- 
ingly, he returned with speed to Rome, and advised 
the Senate that the former calamitous defeats of the 
Carthaginians had diminished not so much their 
power as their foolhardiness, and were likely to 
render them in the end not weaker, but more 
expert in war; their present contest with Numidia 
was but a prelude to a contest with Rome, while 
peace and treaty were mere names wherewith to 
A 146 B.O. 8 150 B.a 

381 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irokefiov T7J /jL€\\r]<T€L KelaOai Kaipov irepifik- 
vovTO<;. 

XXVIL II/?09 TOVToi><; (paal rbv K-drayva koX 
(TVKa TMV At/3vKcov iTTLTTjBe^; eKpakelv iv rfj 
l3ov\fj, rr}v Trjpevvov ava^aXofJLevov elra Oav/xa- 
aavTWv TO ixeye6o<; koI to KaX\o<; elirelv, &)? 
7) TavTa (fyipovaa %ft)/?a Tpccov rjiJbepSiv irkovv 
airkx^i TT]^ 'Po)//-?/?. iKelvo 8' TjBrj kol fftaiorepoVy 
TO irepl iravTo^i ov B^TroTe TrpdyfiaTOf; <yv(t)fjir)v 
d7ro(f)atv6/ji€vov TrpocreTrKfxoveLv ovtco^' " AoKel Se 
fioL Kol K.apX7]S6va fir) elvai^ TOVvavTiov Be 
IIoTrXio? ^K'qiTLdov N<xo"iA:a9 iirLKaXovixevo'^ 
dei BieTeket Xeycov Kal dirocfyaLvofievo^;' " AoKel 

2 jbLOL l^ap')(7)B6va elvat^^ iroXKa yap, 009 eoiK€v, 
vjBpei TOP Btj/jLov opcov i^Brj TrXTjfjbfjieXovvTa koI 
Bl evTV^iav Kal ^povrjfia ttj ^ovXfj BvaKadeKTOV 
ovTa Kal TTjv TToKi'V oKtjv vtto Bvi'd/Jb6(0<; otttj 
pe'^ete Tat*; opfjiol^ pia avve^ekKoixevov, i^ovXcTO 
TOVTOV yovv TOP (f)6/3ov wairep 'XjolKlvov iTTiKelaOai 

(TQ)(f) pOVt(TTrjpa Tjj 6pa(TVT7)TL TO)V TToWcOV, eXUTTOV 

fiev r)yov/x€vo^ la')(yeLv Kap^T^Soytof? tov irepiye- 
veaOaL 'Pco/jLaicov, fiel^ov Be tov KaTa^povelaOai. 

3 Tc5 Be ILdTMVi TOVT avTO Becvbv e(j>aiv€To, 
^aK')(evovTi Tc5 BrjjJLW Kal acpaWojjLevo) r^ iroWd 
Bl i^ovalav ttoXlv del fieydXrjv, vvv Be Kal 
vr)(f)ovo-av vtto av/jucfiopcbv Kal KeKoXaa/iievijv 
eTTLKpefiaaOai Kal firj irayTdiraai tov<; e^coOev 
dveXelv rr)? rjyefjbovia*; c^oySou?, dva^opd^i avTOL<i 
7r/309 Ta9 OLKodev dfiapTia<^ diroXiTTovTa^. 

4 Oi/TO) fiev e^epydaaadai XeyeTat, tov TpiTov 
Kal TeXevTalov 6 K.dTcov cttI Kapx7]BovLov<i iroXe- 



382 



MARCUS CATO, xxvi. 3-xxvii, 4 

cover their postponement of war till a fit occasion 
offered. 

XXVII. In addition to this, it is said that Cato 
contrived to drop a Libyan fig in the Senate, as he 
shook out the folds of his toga, and then, as the 
senators admired its size and beauty, said that the 
country vv^here it grew was only three days' sail 
from Rome. And in one thing he was even more 
savage, namely, in adding to his vote on any question 
whatsoever these words : " In my opinion, Carthage 
must be destroyed." Publius Scipio Nasica, on the 
contrary, when called upon for his vote, always 
ended his speech with this declaration : " In my 
opinion, Carthage must be spared." He saw, pro- 
bably, that the Roman people, in its wantonness, was 
already guilty of many excesses, and in the pride of 
its prosperity, spurned the control of the Senate, 
and forcibly dragged the whole state with it, 
whithersoever its mad desires inclined it. He 
wished, therefore, that the fear of Carthage should 
abide, to curb the boldness of the multitude like 
a bridle, believing her not strong enough to conquer 
Rome, nor yet weak enough to be despised. But 
this was precisely what Cato dreaded, when the 
Roman people was inebriated and staggering with 
its power, to have a city which had always been 
great, and was now but sobered and chastened by 
its calamities, for ever threatening them. Such 
external threats to their sovereignty ought to be done 
away with altogether, he thought, that they might 
be free to devise a cure for their domestic failings. 

In this way Cato is said to have brought to pass 
the third and last war against Carthage,^ but it had 

1 151-146 B.a 

383 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjboVi ap^afievcov Be iroXe/JLelv ireXevrrjaev, airo- 
Oeairiaa^i irepl rov jxeXkovTO^i eindrjaeLv Ta> 
TTokefiw reXof; avSp6<;, 09 ^v rore fiev veavia^y 
'^iXlapxo^ Be arparevofiepo^; aireBeiKwro /col 
yp(Ofir](; epya /cal ToX/jLr)^; tt/oo? tov<; aycova<;, 
dirayyeXXo/xivcov Be tovtcov eZ? 'Va)fi7]v irvvdavo- 
fievov TOP K-drcovd ^aaiv euTrelv' 

olo^ ireirvvraLy toI Be atciaX dtaaovcTi. 

5 TavTTjv fJLev ovv Tr)v diro^acTLV Ta'xp Bt epyeov 
i^e^aLcoaev 6 %KriirLa)V' Be J^drcov direKiire 
yeveav eva /juev vlov e/c t^9 iTnja/jurjdeLcrrjf;, (o 
Trapcovvfiiov e^ajjuev yeveaOau XaXcovLOv, eva Be 
vlayvov €k tov reXevTrjcravTO'; vlov. koI 'taXcovio^; 
fxev ereXevTTjcre arparrjycov, 6 8' ef avrov yevo- 
fievo^ M.dpKo<; VTrdrevaev. r)v Be TrdirTrof; ovto<; 
rov (f>iXoa6<l)ov Kdrcovo^;, dvBpo<; dperfj Kal Bo^rj 
T(bv /car avrbv iTrLcpaveardTOV yevop,evov. 




[APISTEIAOY KAI KATONOS 2YrKPi:Sl2] 

L Teypa/jLp^evcov Be Kal ire pi tovtcov t&v d^lcov 353* 
fjLVi]p^r)<;, 0X09 o tovtov jSlo^ oXm tw OaTepov 
wapaTedeU ovk evOecoprjrov e^eo rrjv Bcacjiopdv 
eva<^avi^op>evr}v iroXXalf; Kal p^eydXai^ o/jLOIottjo-lv. 
el Be Bel Kata p,epo<; Tjj o-vyKpiaei BtaXa/Setu 
wdirep eiro^ r] ypaiprjv eKdrepov, to pev e^ ov^ 
virap'X^ovarj'i d^opp^rjf; eh iroXiTelav Kal Bo^av 

384 



MARCUS CATO, xxvii. 4-5 

no sooner begun than he died,^ having first prophesied 
of the man who was destined to end it. This man 
was then young, but as tribune in the army, he was 
giving proofs of judgment and daring in his engage- 
ments with the enemy. Tidings of this came to 
Rome, and Cato is said to have cried on hearing 
them : — 

*' Only he has wits, but the rest are fluttering 
shadows." 2 

This utterance of Cato's, Scipio speedily confirmed 
by his deeds. Cato left one son by his second wife, 
whose surname, as we have already remarked, was 
Salonius ; and one grandson by the son who died 
before him. Salonius died in the praetorship, but the 
son whom he left, Marcus, came to be consul. This 
Marcus was the grandfather of Cato the philosopher, 
who was the best and most illustrious man of his 
time. 



I 



COMPARISON OF ARISTIDES WITH 
MARCUS CATO 

Now that I have recorded the most noteworthy 
things in the careers of these men also, if one compare 
the entire life of the one with that of the other, it 
will not be easy to mark the difference between them, 
obscured as it is by many great resemblances. And 
even if, in our comparison, we analyse each life, as 
we would a poem or a picture, we shall find that 
the rise to political power and repute in consequence 
1 149 B.a =* Odyssey y x. 495. 

38s 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aperrj kol hvvdfiei irpoekOelv a/jbcporepoi^ kolvov 

2 etTTt. (palverai S* 6 /xev ^ ApL(TT€i8r]<; ovttco rore 
fieyaXcov ovacbv tmv ^AOtjvmp koX ral<^ ovaLac<; 
ert (TV filler pOL^ kol 6fA,a\o'l<; eTrc^aXoDv Brj^jbayoy- 
yoL<; Kol a-rpaTTjyoi^; €7n(f>av7}<; yeveaOar to yap 
liiyiarov rjv TL/Jb7jfia t6t€ irevraKoa lcov /neStfivcov, 
TO Be BevTepov TpiaKoa-Lcov, ea-yaTov Be kol TpiTov 

3 BiaKoaicov 6 Be Y^oltcov ek ttoXlx^V^ '^^ pLiKpd<; koX 
BiaiT7)<; aypOLKov BoKOvar)<; (pepwv a(f>r]K6v eavTov 
axTTrep elf; irekayo^ a')(^ave<; ttjv ev ^Fcofjur] TToKiTelav, 
ovKeTi KovpLcov Kal ^a/Spt/cioyv Koi ^AtiXlcov 
epyov ovaav rjyeixovwv, ovS* oltt apoTpov koX 
aKa^eiov 7revrjTa<; Kal avTOvpyov^ ava^aivovTa^; 
eirl TO firj/jba TTpocnefMevrjv ap')(pvTa^ kol Brj/jbayco- 
70 V9, dXXa 7rpo<; yevrj pueyaXa koI ir\ovTov<; Koi 
vofia<i fcal aTrovBap')(ia^ diro^XeTretv elOia-fjLevrjv, 
Kal Bl^ oyKov rjBrj Kal Bvyafjuv ivTpVipcbaav tol^ 

4 dp')(etv d^iovartv. ovk r]v 8' OfjLOiov dvTLTraXq) 
'^prjarOaL SefJbia-TOKXel pL^jT diro yevov^ Xap^irpw 
Kal KeKTTjp^evay pueTpca {irevTe yap rj Tpicov TaXdv- 
T(ov ovaiav avTM yeveaOai Xeyovaiv ore irpMTov 
rfTTTeTO Tri<^ iroXLTeia^) Kal irpo^ '^^KrjTrLcovaf; 
*A(f>pcKavov<; Kal ^epoviov<s TdX^a<; Kal KoivTLov<; 
^Xapitvivov^ dpLLXXaaOaL irepl irpwTeiwv, ixrjBev 
oppLTjTijpLov e')(pVTa itXtjv <I>(0V7jp irapprjaia^ofjLevqv 
virep T03V BiKaicov. 

II. *'ETt B' ^Api(TTeiB7j<; fiev ev MapaO&vi Kal 
wdXcv ev JlXaTaiaL<; BeKaT0<; rjv (TTpaTY}y6<;, 
K.dTO)V Be BevTepo<; p,ev viraTO^; ypiOr) iroXXoiv 
dvTtp^eTiovTCOv, BevT€po<; Be Tt/jurjTrj^; eirTo, tov<; 
i7n(j)aveorTdTov<; Kal 7rp(OT0v<; dpiXXfop,6vov<; 
VTrep^aXopbevo^i, Kal firjv ^ ApiGTelhr^^ fiev ev 
386 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, i. i-ti. i 

of innate excellence and strength, rather than of 
inherited advantages, is common to both. But in 
the case of Aristides, Athens was not yet great when 
he rose to eminence, and the leaders and generals 
with whom he dealt were men of moderate and 
uniform fortunes. The highest assessment of pro- 
perty in those days was five hundred bushels of grain, 
the second three hundred, the third and last two 
hundred. Whereas Cato, coming from a little town 
and from ways of life deemed rustic, plunged headlong 
into the boundless sea of Roman politics when they 
were no longer conducted by such men as Curius, 
Fabricius, and Atilius, nor welcomed as magis- 
trates and leaders poor men who had mounted the 
rostrum after working with their own hands at the 
plough and the mattock, but were wont to have 
regard rather for great families and their wealth, 
largesses, and solicitations, while those who sought 
office, such was now the power and arrogance of the 
people, were wantonly handled. It was not the 
same thing to have Themistocles for a rival, who was 
of no illustrious family and had only moderate 
possessions (he is said to have been worth three, or, 
at most, five talents when he entered public life), as 
it was to compete for pre-eminence with such men 
as Scipio Africanus, Servius Galba, and Quintius 
Flamininus, having no other advantage than a tongue 
which spoke boldly for the right. 

II. Besides, at Marathon, and again at Plataea, 
Aristides was only one of ten generals, while Cato 
was elected one of two consuls out of many com- 
petitors, and one of two censors over the heads of 
seven of the foremost and most illustrious Romans, 
who stood for the office with him. Furthermore, 

387 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovBevl TMV Karopdw^droDv je'yove tt/dwto?, aXKct, 
lSJ[iXTidhr)<i €%et Tov Mapa6(ovo<; to Trpcorelov, 
©eyLttcTTO/cX^? Be rrj^ ^a\afuvo<;, iv Be UXaratatf; 
<f)r)(Ttv 'Hpo8oT09 dvekeaOai KaWCo-Trjv vlktjv 

2 Uavaavlav, 'ApiareiBrj Se koI to)V hevTepeicav 
d/j,(l)i(70rjTOV(Tt. Xoxpdvai Kol ^AfietvLat koX KaWi- 
p.aypi Kol H^vvatyetpoi hiairpeiTM^; dpLcrT6va-avT6<; 
€v iK€iVOt<: Tot9 dywac K-drcnv S* ov fiovov avTo<; 
vTrarevcov iirponTeva-e koX %et/?fc icaX ryvcofjurj Kara 
TOV ^l/SrjpiKov TToXefiov, dWd koX ')(CKiap')(Oiv 
irepX SepfioirvXat; viraTevovTo^ eTepov ttjv So^av 
e(r%e t?)? vbKr]<;, /jL€ydXa<i iir ^ KvTLO'Xpv 'PcDfj,aioi<i 
dvair^TaGa^ KXei(TLdBa<; koI irpoGcd fiovov opMVTC 
T& ^aaCkel irepiaTTjaa^ KaTo, vootov tov jroXefMOv. 

3 eKCivrj yap rj viKfj 7repi(j>av(o<i epyov ovaa KdTcovo^ 
i^rjXaa-e t^9 'EXXaSo? tt^v ^Kaiav koX 'irapea')(ev 
iiri^aT'qv avOtf; ^Krjiriwvi. 

HoXejjiovvTe^ piev ovv dr]TTrjToi yeyovaatv 
dpL(j)6T€poL, irepl Be ttjv iroXLTeiav 'ApiaTelBrjff puev 
eiTTaco-ev i^oaTpaKKTOeif; koI KaTaa-TaaiaoOel^} 
VTTO @6p,iaTOK\iov<;, KaTG)j/ S*, oXirep rjaav iv 
*Vd>pi>rj BvvaTODTaTOL Koi /neyiaToi, irdaiv, o)? eVo? 
elirelv, dvTnrdXoif; 'X^pwpLevo^ koI fieypf' yvp(o<i 
UKTTrep d6\rjTr}<; dyoyvi^ofievo^ dirT(OTa BieTrip-qaev 

4 eavTOV, ifKeicTTa^ Be /cal ^vychv Brfp^oaua^; BiKa^ 
KoX Bido^a^; TToXXa? p^ev elXe, Trao-a? 3* direcpvye, 
7rp6^\r}pa tov fiiov kol BpaaTrjpiov opyavov 
6%ft)i^ TOV \6yoVy (p BiKawTepov dv Tt9 rj TV'yr) 
KoX BaipovL TOV dvBpo<i to p,7)Bev iraOelv irap 
d^iav dvaTvOeiT], p^eya yap Kal *AptaT0Te\et Tot 35i 

388 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, ii. 1-4 

Aristides was not the foremost man in any one of 
his victories, but Miltiades has the chief honour of 
Marathon, Themistocles of Salamis, and at Plataea, 
Herodotus^ says it was Pausanias who won that 
fairest of all victories, while even for second honours 
Aristides has such rivals as Sophanes, Ameinias, 
Callimachus, and Cynaegeirus, who displayed the 
greatest valour in those actions. Cato, on the other 
hand, was not only chief in the plans and actions of 
tlie Spanish war during his own consulate, but also 
at Thermopylae, when he was but a tribune in the 
army and another was consul, he got the glory of 
tlie victory, opening up great mountain passes for the 
Romans to rush through upon Antiochus, and 
swinging the war round into the king's rear, when 
he had eyes only for what was in front of him. 
That victory was manifestly the work of Cato, and 
it not only drove Asia out of Hellas, but made it 
afterwards accessible to Scipio. 

It is true that both were always victorious in war, 
but in politics Aristides got a fall, being driven into 
a minority and ostracised by Themistocles. Cato, on 
the contrary, though he had for his antagonists 
almost all the greatest and ablest men in Rome, and 
though he kept on wrestling with them up to his 
old age, never lost his footing. He was involved in 
countless civil processes, both as plaintiff and 
defendant; as plaintiff, he often won his case, as 
defendant, he never lost it, thanks to that bulwark 
and efficacious weapon of his life, his eloquence. To 
this, more justly than to fortune and the guardian 
genius of the man, we may ascribe the fact that he 
was never visited with disgrace. That was a great 
1 ix. 64. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f>iXo(T6(j)q) TOVTO 7rpoa-€/JLapTvp7]a-6v *Ai^Tt7raT/909 
ypdcfxov irepX avrou yu-era ttjv rekevTqVy ort irp6<; 
TOL<; dWoLf; 6 avi]p koI rb indavov eZ%ey. 

III. "Otl fJL€V Br) T^9 7ro\tTiK7](; av6 p(oiro<i ap€T7J(; 
ov KTarac reXetorepaVy opLokoyovjievov icrrr rav- 
TTjff Bi irov fiopLOv oi TrXetcnoi rrjv oLKOvo/jLCKrjv ov 
fjLiKpbv TiOevrar kov yap rj iroXi^ olkcov tl 
(Tva-TTjfia Kol K€<paXaiov oiiaa pcovvvrai Trpb^ ra 
8rjp,6(Tca rot? lBioi<; ^ioL^ twv ttoXltcov evOevovv- 
Tcov, OTTOV KOI AvKOvpjo^ e^oiiciaa<; fiev dpyvpov, 

2 i^0LKL(Ta<; Be XP^^^^ '^V'^ XirdpTr]^, vo/iia/jia Be 
Bie^OapjJLevov irvpl avBrjpov defi€vo<; avTol<i oiicovo- 
fiia<; ov/c aTrrjXXa^e tou? iroXira^, dXXd rh rpv- 
ipoovra koI virovXa KaX (fiXeyfiaivovra tov itXovtov 
irepieXwv, OTrcof; evTroprjaoaai t5)V dvayKaiayv koX 
%jor/o-6yLta)i/ diravTe^, a)9 dXko^ ovBeU vofjLodeTr)<; 
irpovvorjore, tov diropov KaX dvearLov KaX Trevrfra 
(TvvoiKov eirX Kotvcovia iroXLTeia^ fiaXXov rov nrXov- 

3 aiov KaX virepoyKov <f)0^r}dei<;. (pULverat roivvv 6 
fiev Kdrcov ovBiv tl (pavXorepof; olkov irpocndrt)^ 
rj TToXeo)? y€v6/jLevo<i' KaX yap avrb^ rjv^7)(7€ rbv 
avTOv Plov KaX KaTearrj BiBdcTKaXo^ olKovojjbia^ 
KaX yecopyia^ €Tepoi<;, iroXXa KaX XPI^^H^^ TrepX 
TOVTCov a-vvra^dfjievo^' * ApiaTelBrjf; Be rfj nrevia 
KaX TTjv BiKaLoavvrfv crvvBie^aXev a>9 olKo^Oopov 
KaX irrcoxpTTOLbv KaX waai fidXXov rj toi<; KeKrrj- 

4 /nevoid d)<f>eXi/j,ov. kclLtol itoXKcl fiev 'HctoSo? 



390 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, ii. 4-ni. 4 

tribute which was paid Aristotle the philosopher by 
Antipater, when he wrote concerning him, after his 
death, that in addition to all his other gifts, the man 
had also the gift of persuasion. 

III. Man has no higher capacity than that for 
conducting cities and states, as is generally ad- 
mitted. But the ability to conduct a household 
enters in no small degree into this higher political 
capacity, as most believe. For the city is but an or- 
ganised sum total of households, and has public 
vigour only as its citizens prosper in their private 
lives. When Lycurgus banished both silver and 
gold from Sparta, and introduced there a coinage of 
iron that had been ruined by fire, he did not set his 
fellow citizens free from the duty of domestic 
economy. He merely removed the swollen and 
feverish wantonness of wealth, and so provided that 
all alike might have an abundance of the necessary 
and useful things of life. He did this because, 
better than any other ancient legislator, he fore- 
saw that the helpless, homeless, and poverty-stricken 
citizen was a greater menace to the commonwealth 
than one who was rich and ostentatious. Cato, 
then, was no whit less efficient in the conduct of 
his household than in that of the city. He not only 
increased his own substance, but became a recog- 
nized teacher of domestic economy and agriculture 
for others, and compiled many useful precepts 
on these subjects. Aristides, on the other hand, was 
so poor as to bring even his righteousness into 
disrepute, as ruining a household, reducing a man to 
beggary, and profiting everybody rather than its 
possessor. And yet Hesiod ^ has much to say by 

» Wwlca and Days, 309. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7r/oo9 SiKato(Tvvrjv a/na koX oiKOVofjuiav irapaKokSyv 
ri/jbd^ ecprjKe koX rrjv dpyiav co? dBcKLa^i dp')(r)V 
Xe\ocB6prjK€V, ev Be koI ^OfjLTJpw ireTroLrjTar 

epyov Be fiot ov (jjiXov r)ev 
ovS* olKaxpeXtT), r} re Tp6(j)6L dyXaa reKva, 
dWd fJbOL alel vrj€<; iTnjpeTfjbOL (pLXat rjcrav 
KoX TToXejuLoi Kol ciKG"'^*^^ iv^e(TTOi Kol olaToL' 

Q)<i TOV<; avTOV<; dfi€\ovvTa<; olKia^ fcal Tropi^ofiev- 

5 01/9 ef dBiKiafi. ov yap, &)9 rovXaiov ol larpoi 
(paaL Tov (TcofiaTO^ elvai T0t9 fiev iKTO<i dy^eXifKo- 
rarov, ro2<; S* ivTO<; fiXa/Sepdorarov, ovrax; 6 
BiKaLOf; krepoL^ fiiv iari. ')(^prjaifio<;, avrov Be koI 
T(ov IBicDV cLKTjB'q'^j aXX* eoLKC ravrr) TreTrrjpojcrOaL 
To3 ^ApiareiBr) to iroXtTLKOVy elirep, a)9 ol irXelo-roL 
Xiyovaiv, ovBe irpolKa rol^ Ovyarpioi'^ ovBe 

6 ra^yv avTw KaTaXLirecrOai irpovvor^aev. 66ev 6 
fxev KaTCt)z^09 0Z/C09 a%/ot yevov<; rerdprov arpaTr]- 
yoiff; KoX VTrdrov^ rfj 'Poofiy irapelx'^' i^oX y^p 
vloivol Kol TOVTCOV €Ti 7ratSe9 Tjp^av dp^a<i Ta9 
/jLeyiara^;' T979 S' ^KpiarTeiBov tou irpcoTevaavTO^ 
^KXXtjvcov yeveoL^ t) ttoXXt) koI airopo^ irevia rov^ 
fjuev eh dyvpTCKoif<; Kare/BaXe irivaKa^, rov<; Be Bt)- 
jjLoaicp Ta9 %6i/3a9 epdvcp Be epBeiav vTre'X^etv rjvdy- 
Kaaev, ouBevl Be Xajj/irpov ovBev ovB^ d^iov eKeivov 
TOV dvBpo<; (ppovrjo-ai 7rapea')(ev. 

IV. ''H TOVTO irpSiTOv dfjixfuXoyiav e')(ei; irevia 
yap alaxpov ovBafwv fiev Bl avTrjV, dX>C oirov 
Belypa padvfjLia<; icTTLV, aKpacrla^, iroXvTeXeia^, 



392 



f 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, iii. 4-JV. i 

way of exhorting us to righteousness allied with 
domestic economy, and abuses idleness as a source of 
injustice ; Homer also says well : — 

" Labour I never liked. 
Nor household thrift, which breeds good children. 
But ships equipped with oars were ever my delight, 
Battles and polished javelins and arrows," ^ 

implying that the men who neglect their households 
are the very ones to live by injustice. Oil, as 
physicians tell us, is very beneficial when externally 
applied, though very injurious when used internally. 
But the righteous is not so. He is not helpful 
to others, while heedless of himself and his family. 
Indeed, the poverty of Aristides would seem to have 
been a blemish on his political career, if, as most 
writers state, he had not foresight enough to leave 
his poor daughters a marriage portion,^ or even the 
cost of his own burial. And so it fell out that 
the family of Cato furnished Rome with praetors and 
consuls down to the fourth generation, for his grand- 
sons, and their sons after them, filled the highest 
offices of state. Whereas, though Aristides was 
foremost of the Greeks, the abject poverty of his 
descendants forced some to ply a fortune-teller's 
trade,^ and others, for very want, to solicit the public 
bounty, while it robbed them all of every ambition 
to excel, or even to be worthy of their great 
ancestor. 

IV. Possibly this point invites discussion. Poverty 
is never dishonourable in itself, but only when it 
is a mark of sloth, intemperance, extravagance, or 



* Odyssey, xiv. 222 ff., Palmer's translation. 

* AriatideSy xxvii. 1. ' Aristides, xxvii. 3. 



393 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aXoyiaTia^, avSpl Ee a-(o(f>povi kol (JuXottovo) Kal 
BcKaiO) Kol avhpeiw kol Brj/jLoa-ievovTL rat? apeTol^i 
aTrdcrai^ (Twovaa fie'yaXoy^rvyia's icrrl koI fieydXo- 

2 (fypocrvvrjf; arjfieiov. ov yap eari TrpdrTeiv fieyaka 
(jipovTL^ovra puLKpoiv, ovBe vroXXot? Seoyu-ez/ot? 
^orjOelv ttoWmv avrov Seofievov. /niya 5* ek 
irokireiav €<j)6Btov ov^l ttXoOto?, aXX' avrapKeia, 
TW firjSevbf; ISla tcov mepLTTwv BelaOat, 7rpo<{ ov- 
Sefiiav cLGyoKiav dyovaa tS)v Btj^moo-icov. dirpoa- 
Berjf; fiev yap a-TrXw? o 6e6<;, dvd pcoirivrj^i B* dp6Trj<;, 
S avvdyerac 7rpo9 to iXdxi'(^TOP rj xpeta, tovto 

3 TekeiOTarov Kal decorarov. <W9 yap (Tcojua to 355 
Kakco<i 7rpo<; eve^iav KeKpa/juivov ovt iaOiJTOf; ovt€ 
Tpo(j>rj^ Belrai irepLTTrj^, ovtco koI fiio^ koX olKO^i 
vyialvwv diro tmv rv^ovroyv BiOLKelTat. Bel B^ 

rfj xpela av/jL/xerpov ex^iv ttjv KTrjcnv w? o ye 
TToWa avvdycov, 6\iyoL<; Be XP^I^^^^^ ^^'^ eariv 
avTdp/CT)^, aXX* etre fir) Belrai, r/}? 7rapaaK€vrj<; oav 
ovK opeyerai fidTato^;, etr' opeyeTat, fiLtcpoXoyla 
KoXovcov rrjv dirokavcriv dOXio^, 

Avrov ye rot Karcoz/o? r)Beco<; av 7rv0oi/iir)v' 

4 el fiev diroXavcrrov 6 irXovro^; eari, ri aefivvvr) r(p 
iroWa KeKrr}fjLevo<i dpKelaOai ixerpioi^; el Be 
Xafiirpov eariv, &crirep earlv, dprcp re XPW^^'' 
T^ irpoa-TVXovTL Kal iriveiv olov ipydrao rri- 
vovcn Kal Oepdirovre^ olvov Kal rropcjivpa^ fir) 
Ber)6rjvai, fir)Be olKia^ K€K0VLafjL6vr)(;, ovBev ovt 
^AptareiBr)^ ovt ^FiTrafieivcovBa^ ovre Mdvio<i 
Kouyoto? ovre Fato? ^a^pLKio<i iveXcTTOv rov Trpocr- 

394 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, iv. 1-4 

thoughtlessness. When, on the other hand, it is the 
handmaid of a sober, industrious, righteous, and 
brave man, who devotes all his powers to the service 
of the people, it is the sign of a lofty spirit that 
harbours no mean thoughts. It is impossible for a 
man to do great things when his thoughts are busy 
with little things ; nor can he aid the many who are 
in need when he himself is in need of many things. 
A great equipment for public service consists, not 
in wealth, but in contented independence, which 
requires no private superfluities, and so puts no 
hindrance in the way of serving the commonwealth. 
God alone is absolutely free from wants ; but that is 
the most perfect and god -like quality in human 
excellence which reduces man's wants to their 
lowest terms. For as a body which is well tempered 
and vigorous needs no superfluous food or raiment, 
so a healthy individual or family life can be con- 
ducted with the simplest outlays. A man should 
make his gains tally with his needs. He who heaps 
up much substance and uses little of it, is not con- 
tented and independent. If he does not need it, he 
is a fool for providing what he does not crave ; and 
if he craves it, he makes himself wretched by parsi- 
moniously curtailing his enjoyment of it. 

Indeed, I would fain ask Cato himself this 
question : " If wealth is a thing to be enjoyed, why 
do you plume yourself on being satisfied with little 
when possessed of much } " But if it be a fine 
thing, as indeed it is, to eat ordinary bread, and to 
drink such wine as labourers and servants drink, and 
not to want purple robes nor even plastered houses, 
then Aristides and Epaminondas and Manius Curius 
and Gaius Fabricius were perfectly right in turning 

395 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjKovTo^y ')(aip€vv edaavre^ rrjv kttjo-lv mv ttjv 

5 y^prjaiv direhoKijia^ov. ov yap rjv dvayKolov dv- 
6p(07rq) yoyyv\lBa<; '^Bkttov o'\jrop TreTrotTj/iieva) koX 
hi avTov Tavra<; e^ovri, /jiaTTOvarjf; d/xa t?}? 
yvvaiKo<; aXcpira, Toaavra irepX dcraapiov OpvXelv 
KoX ypd<j)6tv dcj) 179 dv Ti? epyaala<i rd^iara 
irXovaiof; yevotro, fiiya yap to eureXe? Kal 
avTapKe^i on Trj<; i7n6vjJLta<; dfjLa Kal r^? (f>pov- 

6 TiSo^ dTraWdrrec ro)v irepirrajv. Bio Kal rovro 
<f)aaiv iv Trj K-aXkuov Slkj] tov ^ ApLaTslhv^v elTrelv, 
<»9 ala'xyvecTOaL ireviav irpoarjKev rot? dKov<Ti(o<; 
irevoixevoi^iy Toh B\ uxrirep avro^;, €kov(tlco<;, iyKaX- 
XwiTi^eaOai. yeXolov yap oteaOat paOvfjiiaf; elvai 
rr)v 'ApLO-reiSou Trevlav, m TraprjV aia^pov elpya- 
(Tp,ev(p firjBev, aXX' eva aKvkevcravTi ^dp/Sapou rj 
fitav aKr^vTjv KaraXa^ovTi TrXovalo) yevkaBai. 
ravra fiev ovv irepl tovtcdv. 

V. Xrparrjyiai Bk at jxev KdT(ovo<; ovBev d><; 
fieydXoif; irpdyfiaai jieya irpoaedr^Kav, iv Be ral^ 
^KpiareiBov rd KaXKicrra Kal XapuirpoTara Kal 
Trpcjra tmp ^FiWrjvcKMP epycov ecrrivi 6 Mapadcov, 
7) %a\a/ii(;, al YiXaraiaL Kal ovk d^cov Btjttov 
irapa^aXelv ra> 'Bep^y tov ^Avtlo'x^ov Kal rd 
irepiatpedevTa tcov ^l^rjpcKcov iroXecov Tel^n '''O'h 
Todavrai^; piv iv yfj, ToaavTai<i B^ iv OaXdaarj 
2 irecTovaai^ pjvpidcriv* iv oX^ ^ ApiGTelBT)^ *^p^^ 
pLev ovBevo^ iXeiireTO, B6^7]<; Be Kal o-Te(f)dv(ov, 
axTTrep dp^eXec ttXovtov Kal ')(^pr}f.idTCov, v<j>rjKaTO 
Tot? pdXXov Beop.evoi<i, otv Kal irdvTcov tovtcov 
Bie^epev, 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, iv. 4-v. 2 

their backs on the gaining of what they scorned to 
use. Surely it was not worth while for a man who, 
like Cato, esteemed turnips a delectable dish and 
cooked them himself, while his wife was kneading 
bread, to babble so much about a paltry copper, and 
write on the occupation in which one might soonest 
get rich. Great is the simple life, and great its 
independence, but only because it frees a man from 
the anxious desire of superfluous things. Hence it 
was that Aristides, as we are told, remarked at the 
trial of Callias ^ that only those who were poor in 
spite of themselves should be ashamed of their 
poverty; those who, like himself, chose poverty, 
should glory in it. And surely it were ridiculous to 
suppose that the poverty of Aristides was due to 
his sloth, when, without doing anything disgraceful, 
but merely by stripping a single Barbarian, or seizing 
a single tent, he might have made himself rich. So 
much on this head. 

V. The military campaigns of Cato made no great 
addition to the Roman empire, which was great 
already ; but those of Aristides include the fairest, 
most brilliant, and most important actions of the 
Greeks, namely, Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea. 
And certainly Antiochus is not worthy to be com- 
pared with Xerxes, nor the demolition of the walls 
of the Spanish cities with the destruction of so many 
myriads of Barbarians both by land and sea. On 
these occasions Aristides was inferior to no one in 
actual service, but he left the glory and the laurels, 
as he did wealth and substance, to those who wanted 
them more, because he was superior to all these 
things also. 

* Aristides f xxv. 6, 

397 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

*Etyob S' ov /ji€/jL(j)o/JLac fiev Karojz/o? to /jueyaXv- 
V€iv del Kal Trpcjrov eavrov diravrcov TiBeadar 
KaLTOi (j)7]a-lv €v TLvi Xoyo) TO iiraivelv aurov 
Mairep to XotBopetv droirov elvar rekeLOTepo^^ 
Be jJbOi SoKel TTpo^ dperrjv tov iroWdKL^ eavrov 
iy/cco/JLid^ovTO^ o p>7)B' erepasv rovro iroiovvrwv 

3 Seopevog. to yap d(f)L\6TLpov ov p,iKpov et? 
TTpaoTTjra iroXiriKyv €(f)6Siov, koX rovvavriov 
7) (piXoTip^ia ')(^ake'Trov Kal (pOovov yovcp^corarov, 
^9 o fiev dirrpCKaKTO iravrdirao-iVy 6 Se teal 
irdvv TToXkrifi p,eT€L)(€v. ^ApcarelSijf} pAv ye 
%ep>L(TTOK\el rd p^iytara o-vpnrpdTTwv Kal rpoirov 
TLvd rrjv arparriyiav avrov Sopv(f)op(op wpOaxre 

4 rd^ ^A6't]va<;, Kdrcov 8' avTcrrpdrrcov XKTjTrlcovc 
puiKpov p>ev dpirpeyjre Kal hieXvp^rivaro rrjv iwl 
Ka/o%^Soz/tOL'9 avrov arpaTrjyLav, ev rj tov drjr- 
T7JT0V ^h.vvij3av KaOelXe, reXo^ Be p^Tj^avcopevo^ 
del Tiva^ v'jTO'\\rLa<^ Kal Btal3o\d<? avrov puev 
e^rjXaae Trj<; TroXect)?, toi' B* dBeXcpov ala^lcrTr} 
kXo7T7]<; KaraBiKT) TrepiejSaXev. 

VI. """H^v roivvv irXeiaroi^ 6 Kdrcov KeKoapur^Ke 
Kal KoXXiaroL^ eTraivoi^ del o-cocppoa-vvijv ^A.pL- 
aretBrj^; puev dOiKrov co? dXr)6(o<; Kal KaOapdv 
irtjpTjcrev, avrov Be rod KaTcoz/o? o Trap^ d^iav 
dp,a Kal Trap* copav ydpbO<; ov piKpdv ovBe (pavXr/v 
eh rovro Bia^oXrjv KareaKeBaae. Trpea^vrrjv 356 
yap TjBr) roaovrov evifk.icw iratBl Kal yvvai/cl 
vvp^r) 7raiB6<; emyrjpai KOprjv virr]perov Kal 
Brjp^oo-ievovro^ iwl p,Lada> irarpo'; ovBapbov KaXov^ 

398 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, v. 2-vi. i 

For my own part, I do not blame Cato for his 
constant boasting, and for rating himself above 
everybody else, although he does say, in one of his 
speeches, that self-praise and self-depreciation are 
alike absurd. But I regard the man who is often 
lauding himself as less complete in excellence than 
one who does not even want others to do so. Freedom 
from ambition is no slight requisite for the gentleness 
which should mark a statesman ; and, on the con- 
trary, ambition is harsh, and the greatest fomenter 
of envy. From this spirit Aristides was wholly free, 
whereas Cato was very full of it. For example, 
Aristides co-operated with Themistocles in his 
greatest achievements, and as one might say, stood 
guard over him while he was in command, and 
thereby saved Athens ; while Cato, by his opposition 
to Scipio, almost vitiated and ruined that wonderful 
campaign of his against the Carthaginians, in which 
he overthrew the invincible Hannibal,^ and finally, 
by perpetually inventing all sorts of suspicions and 
calumnies against him^ drove him out of Rome, and 
brought down on his brother's head a most shameful 
condemnation for embezzlement. 

VI. Once more, tliat temperance which Cato 
always decked out with the fairest praises, Aristides 
maintained and practised in unsullied purity ; 
whereas Cato, by marrjdng unworthily and un- 
seasonably, fell under no slight or insignificant 
censure in this regard. It was surely quite indecent 
that a man of his years should bring home as step- 
mother to his grown-up son and that son's bride, a 
girl whose father was his assistant and served the 
public for hire. Whether he did this merely for 
1 At Zama, 202 B.a 

399 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aW €LT€ 7rpo9 rjhovrjv ravr eirpa^ev elr opyrj 
Sia Tr]v eraLpav a/j>vp6/JLevo9 tov vlov, aicT'X^vvrjv 
2 e%efc Kal to epyov koX rj 7rp6(f)aai,<i. o5 8* avro<i 
i'^pijo-aro \6ya) KaT€ip(ovev6/JL€vo<; to /juetpaKiov, 
ov/c rjv oXr]9r)^. el yap i/SovXcTO '7ral8a<i aya6ov<i 
o/JLOLcof; T€KV(ocrai, ydfjuov ehei Xa^elv yevvalov 
ef apxv^ cTKeylrdfievop, ov')(^ eo)? fxev ekdvdavev 
dveyyvw yvvaiKi Kal koipt} o-vyKot/jLcojjLevo^ dya- 
iroPy eirel S* icf^copdOrj rrotyjaaaOai irepOepov, 
ov pacTTa ireiaeLPi ov)(^ at /caWtcrTa KrjSevaecp 
eiiieXkep, 



400 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, vi. 1-2 

his own pleasure, or in anger, to punish his son for 
objecting to his mistress, both what he did and what 
led him to do it were disgraceful. And the sar- 
castic reason for it which he gave his son was not a 
true one. For had he wished to beget more sons as 
good, he should have planned at the outset to marry 
a woman of family, instead of contenting himself, as 
long as he could do so secretly, with the society of a 
low concubine, and when he was discovered, making 
a man his father-in-law whom he could most easily 
persuade, rather than one whose alliance would 
bring him most honour. 



401 



i 



I 



CIMON 



KIMQN 



I. IleptTroXTa? o fidvTL<i i/c ©eTTaXia^i eh Boto)- 
TLav ^OcpiXrav rov ^aorCKea Koi tov^ vtt avrw 
Xaov<; Karayaycbv 761/09 evBo/cifirjaav 67rt ttoXXou? 
yp6vov<; KarekiTrev, ov to TrXelcrrov iv XaipcoveCa 
KaTWKTjaeVy rjv irpoorrjv ttoXlv ea^ov €^eXaaavTe<i 
TOV<i /3apfidpov<;. ol fiev ovv ifKelaTOL tcjv diro 
Tov yivov<; (jyuaei /jbd')(^i/jLOi koX dvSpcoBeif; yevofievoL 
/caTava\(o6r]aav iv ral^ ^rjhLKai^ iinhpofjbal^; koI 
ToZ? TdXartKoU dycjcriv d<f)eiBriaavTe<; eavrcov 

2 Xeiirerai Se nrah 6p(pavo^ yovewv, ovo/ia AdfifoVf 
irapcovv/jLiov 66 HepiTroXra^;, ttoXv B^ re koI 
crcofiarof; icdXXei kol yjrvx^fjf; (ftpovrjfiaTC rov<; xad^ 
avTov virepalpwv viov^, dXX(o<i 8' diraiBevTo^i koI 
aicXripo^ TO ^Oo<;, 

TovTOV *l?cofjLalo<; rjye/JiODV o-Tre/pa? tivo<; iv 
Xaipcoveia Biax'^tfia^ova-Tj^; ipacrOeU dpri ttjv 
TraLBcKTjv rjXiKiav irapTJXXaxoTO<iy ax; ovk eireiOe 
irecpcjv Kot BcBov?, BijXof; rjv ovk. a</)efoyLt6j/09 /Sta?, 479 
OiTe. Brj KoX T^9 TraTpiBof; '^fieov tote Xvirpd nrpUT- 
TOuo-779 Kol Bed fjLi/cpoTrjra koX Treviav 7rapopa)fjL€V7j<;. 

3 TOVTO Br) BeBioif; 6 Adficov, koI ttjv irelpav avTrjv 
Bl* 6pyrj<; TreTroLrj/jbivo';, iirepovXeve Ta> dvBpl /cal 
avvL(7T7j T(av rjXiKLcoTcbv TLva<; iir avTov, ov 
TToXXoif^ €V6Ka TOV XaOelv, aXV oi avfjL7ravT€<; 
404 



CIMON 



I. Peripoltas the seer, who conducted King 
Opheltas with his subjects from Thessaly into 
Boeotia, left a posterity there which was in higli 
repute for many generations. The greater part of 
them settled in Chaeroneia, which was the first city 
they won from the Barbarians. Now the most of 
this posterity were naturally men of war and courage, 
and so were consumed away in the Persian invasions 
and the contests with the Gauls, because they did 
not spare themselves. There remained, however, an 
orphan boy, Damon by name, Peripoltas by surname, 
who far surpassed his fellows in beauty of body and 
in vigour of spirit, though otherwise he was un- 
trained and of a harsh disposition. 

With this Damon, just passed out of boy's estate, 
the Roman commander of a cohort that was winter- 
ing in Chaeroneia fell enamoured, and since he could 
not win him over by solicitations and presents, he 
was plainly bent on violence, seeing that our native 
city was at that time in sorry plight, and neglected 
because of her smallness and poverty. Violence was 
just what Damon feared, and since the solicitation 
itself had enraged him, he plotted against the man, 
and enlisted against him sundry companions, — a few 
only, that they might escape notice. There were 

405 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^evofxevoi y^^piovrai fiev aWaXw ra 
TrpocrcoTra vvkto^, ifiTrioi^re^ Be d/cparov afju rjfJiipa 
TrpoairLTTTOVcn T(p 'VfOfjuaiw Kar ayopav Ovovn, 
Kol KaTaffa\6vT€<; avrov re Kal reov irepX avrov 

4 ovK oXiyov'i iic t^9 TToXeo)? p^eriaTrjaav. yevo- 
p>evr]<; Be rapa'xflf; rj riav X.atpcovecov jSovXr) 
crvveXdovaa Odvarov avTMv Kareyvot)' fcal tovto 
Tjv virep T^9 7roX6ft)9 a7rd\6yr)pa irpo^ roii*; 'Po)- 
fiaiov^. e<T7repa<; Be rcov dpypvTWv, wcirep e^o? 
eVrt, Koivrj BeiirvovvTWV ol irepl tov Adp^cova 
irapecaTreaovre^ eL<; to dp'^elov direa^a^av avTOV<i 
Kal TrdXiv cp^ovTO (ftevjovre^ e/c T779 7roA,ea)9. 

5 "ETf%e Be Tvepl Ta9 r}p.epa<; eKeiva<i KevKio^ 
Aov/€ovX\o<; eiTL riva wpd^iv /lerd Bwdp^Q)<; 
7rapepxop'evo<;. iiria-rijaaf; Be rrjv iropeiav Kal 
T(bv yeyovoTcov 'iTpo(j(f>dT(Dv ovrcov e^iracnv iToirj- 
adp.evo<; evpe rrjv iroXiv ovBevo<; alruav, dWd 
pbdWov crvvr]Bi,K7]p.evr]V' Kal roif^ arparicoTa^; 

6 dvaXaffcbv aTnjyaye pueO^ eavrov. tov Be Adpuayva 
\r)(rTeiai,<; Kal KaTaBpop^atq iropOovvTa ttjv ')(^d}pav 
Kal Tjj TToXec irpoo-Keip.evov vTrrjydyovTO Trpea^ei- 
ai^i Kal '\lrr}<pi(Tp,a(rt (^CkavO pd}iroi<^ ol iroXlTai, 
KaTeXOovTa Be yvjxvaaiapxov KaTeaTijcrav' eW 
dXei^opievov ev Tcp TrvpiaTrjpLw BU^Oeipav. iwl 
iroXijv Be j(p6vov elBcoXwv tlvcov ev tw tottoi) irpo- 
(fyacvo/jLevcov Kal aTevaypbcov i^aKovopevcDv, c»9 ol 
iraTepe^ rj/jucov Xeyovart, Ta9 Ovpa<; dva)KoB6fir}(Tav 
TOV TTVpiaTrjpLOV' Kal fiey^pt' vvv ol tw tottw 
yeiTViwvTe^ otovTai Tiva<; 6'\jr6c<^ Kal <^(t)vd<; Tapa- 

7 %o6Sei9 (pepeadat. tov<; S* dirb tov yevov<; avTOv 
(Bi,aa-co^ovTai yap evcoL, /jLaXc<TTa t^9 ^oyKiBof; 



406 



CIMON, I. 3-7 

sixteen of them in all, who smeared their faces with 
soot one night, heated themselves with wine, and at 
daybreak fell upon the Roman while he was sacri- 
ficing in the market-place, slew him, together with 
many of his followers, and departed the city. During 
the commotion which followed, the council of 
Chaeroneia met and condemned the murderers to 
death, and this was the defence which the city after- 
wards made to its Roman rulers. But in the evening, 
while the magistrates were dining together, as the 
custom is, Damon and his men burst into the town- 
hall, slew them, and again fled the city. 

Now about that time^ it chanced that Lucius 
LucuUus passed that way, on some errand, with an 
army. Halting on his march and investigating 
matters while they were still fresh in mind, he found 
that the city was in no wise to blame, but rather had 
itself also suffered wrong. So he took its garrison 
of soldiers and led them away with him. Then 
Damon, who was ravaging the country with predatory 
forays and threatening the city, was induced by 
embassies and conciliatory decrees of the citizens to 
return, and was appointed gymnasiarch. But soon, 
as he was anointing himself in the vapour-bath, he 
was slain. And because for a long while thereafter 
certain phantoms appeared in the place, and groans 
were heard there, as our Fathers tell us, the door of 
the vapour-bath was walled up, and to this present 
time the neighbours think it the source of alarming 
sights and sounds. Descendants of Damon's family 
(and some are still living, especially near Stiris in 
1 74 B.C. (?) 

VOL. n. O 407 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trepl Xrelpiv, aloki^ovre^) aa^oXcofievovt; koXovcti 
hia TO TOP Ad/icova 7r/)09 rov <f>6vov aa^oXo) 
'X^piadfjievov i^eXCc^u. 

II. 'Evrel 8' a(TTvyeLT0V6<i 6vt€<; ^Op'XpfievLOi 
KoX Sidcfyopoi Tol<; Katpayveva-tv ifiiaOuyaavTo 
*¥co/jia'iKov (rvKO^avTrfv, 6 h^ wcnrep €vo<; dvOpwirov 
TO T^9 TToXeft)? ovofxa KUTCveyKODV ihicoKe (f)6vov 
T(ov viro Tov Adfi(ovo<; dvyprjfiivwv, r) Se Kpiai^ 
r)v iirl TOV (TTpaTrjyov rr}? MaK€Bovia<; {ovirco yap 
et? Tyv *EWdBa 'Peo/jbatot aTpaTrjyov^i Bi€7re/JL- 

2 TTOVTo), ol \€yovT€<; virep t^? iroXjeto^ iireKoXovvTO 
Tr)v AovKovWov fiapTVplav, ypd-y^ravTO^ he tov 
o-Tparijyov tt/oo? AovkovWov eKelvo<i ifxapTvprjae 

Td\7]6rj, KoX TTJV BiKTjV 0VT(D^ d'jr€(f)Vy€V T) TToXt? 

Kivhvvevov(Ta Trepl tmv fieyidTcov, eKelvou fiev 
ovv ol Tore <tco06vt€<; el/cova tov AovkovWov 
XtOivrjv iv dyopa irapa tov Aiovvaov dv€<7T7j(7av, 
yfietf; S\ el xal vroWat? rf\,LKiai<; XeiTro/Jieda, Tr)v 
fxev %a/>ti^ olo/jieOa BiaTetveiv koL 7rpo<^ r^iia^ to 1/9 

3 vvv ovTa^, eiKova he ttoXv KaXkiova vo/jLc^ovTa 
elvai T^9 TO aMjxa Kol to irpoawiTov dirofiLfjiOV- 
fievT)'^ Tr)v TO r]6o^ kov tov Tpoirov e/jL(l)avL^ovcrav, 
dvaXfjyfro/jLeOa Trj ypa(j>r] tcjv TrapaXXrjXcov ^lcov 
Ta9 TTpd^ei'; tov dv8p6<;, TaXijOr} hi€^i6vTe<;. dpKel 
yap 77 T>79 fivripir}^ X^P^^' dXrj6ov<; Be /jtapTVpla^ 
ovB' av avT0(; €KeLvo<; i^^icoo-e /juiadbv Xa^elv yjrevBTJ 
Kal TreirXaapLevqv vrrrep avTov BttjyTjcriv. 

4 "flaTrep yap Toi'9 Tct KaXa Kal ttoXXtjv e%0VTa 
Xdptv etBrj ^(pypa(^ovvTa<;, av irpoafj ti fiiKpov 
avT0i<; BvcT'xepe'^t d^iov/aev firjTe irapaXiTrelv tovto 
TeXe&)9 fJi')]Te e^aKpi^ovv to fiev yap alaxpdv, to 
S* dvo/iolav irape'XGTaL ttjv o-^lv' oi;tg)9, iirei 
408 



CIMON, I. 7-II. 4 

Phocis, Aeolians in speech) are called ''Asbolomeni/' 
or ''Besooted/' because Damon smeared himself 
with soot before he went forth to do his deed of 
murder. 

II. But the Orchomenians, who were neighbours 
and rivals of the Chaeroneians, hired a Roman in- 
former to cite the city by name, as though it were 
an individual person, and prosecute it for the murder 
of the Roman soldiers who had been slain by 
Damon. The trial was held before the praetor of 
Macedonia (the Romans were not yet sending 
praetors to Greece), and the city's advocates invoked 
the testimony of Lucullus. Lucullus, when the 
praetor wrote to him, testified to the truth of the 
matter, and so the city escaped capital condemna- 
tion. Accordingly, the people who at that time 
were saved by him erected a marble statue of 
Lucullus in the market-place beside that of Dionysus. 
And we, though many generations removed from 
him, think that his favour extends even down to us 
who are now living; and since we believe that a 
portrait which reveals character and disposition is 
far more beautiful than one which merely copies 
form and feature, we shall incorporate this man's 
deeds into our parallel lives, qmd we shall rehearse 
them truly. The mere mention of them is sufficient 
favour to show him ; and as a return for his truthful 
testimony he himself surely would not deign to 
accept a false and garbled narrative of his career. 

We demand of those who would paint fair and 
graceful features that, in case of any slight imper- 
fection therein, they shall neither wholly omit it nor 
yet emphasise it, because the one course makes the 
portrait ugly and the other unlike its original. In 

409 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

')(aK&iTov i(TTt, fiaXkov S* tVa)? afirf^avov, dfiefifprj 
Kol KaOapov avhpo^ i'TriBel^aL filov, iv roU KaXol^ 480 
avaTrXrjpcoriov wairep ofioiorrjTa Trjv aXi]0€iav, 
5 ra? S' i/c 7rd6ov<; tivo<; rj 7ro\iTiKrj<; dvdyKrj^ 
e7riTpe)(ovaa<; rat? irpd^eaiv dfiapTlaf; kol KTjpa^i 
iWeCfi/jLara fxaXkov dperrjf; rivof; rj KaKiafi 
TTOvrjpev/jLara vofii^ovra'; ov Bel irdvv 7rpodvjLi(o<i 
ivaTToarjijLaiveiv rfj laropia koI Trepfrrw?, a\V 
co(T7rep alBovfievov^ vrrrep T7J<i dvOpcoirivr]^ 0uo-ea)9, 
el KoXov ovBev €L\iKpi,v€<; ovBl' dvafjbcpLa-ffyTrjTOV 
€t9 dperrjv rjdo<; yeyovbf; diroBlBcoa-Lv. 

III. 'O 5' o^v KovKovWo^ iSo/cet (tkottovo-iv 
r]iilv Tft> K.i/jL(ovt 7rapal3\r]T60<; elvai. TroXe/xtfCol 
yap dfx^oTepoi koI 7rpo<; tov<; ffapl3dpov<; XafXTrpoLf 
irpaoi Be rd TroXirtfcd koI fidXiara rCyv eji^vXicdV 
ardaecov dvairvorjv rat'; irarpiai 7rapa(T)(^6vTe<;, 
eKaaro^ Be tc<; avrcov (Trrj(7avTe<; Tpoiraia Koi 

2 vUa<; aveXo/JLevoi 7repL0o7]rov<;» ovre yap 'EX- 
Xrjvwv KLfjba>vo<; ovre 'VayfJLaiayv AovkovXXov irpo- 
Tepo<; ovBel<; ovtq) fiaKpav TroXefiojv irpor}Xdev> 
efct) Xoyov ride/jLevcov tojv /cad^ 'Hpa/cXea fcal 
Al6vv(tov, €c t€ rt Uepaewfi 7rpo<; AlOloTra^; rj 
Mt/Sou? fcaX ^ApfievLOv; rj 'lacroi^o? epyov d^ioin- 
ajov ifc tS)v tot€ ')(^p6v(ov fiV7]/JLrj (fiepofxevov eh 

3 tot;? vvv d(j)iKTai. koivov Be ttw? avrcov fcal to 
areXe? yeyove ri)^ cTTpaTrjyiaf;, eKarepov fiev 
(TVVTpLylravTO<;, ovBeTepov Be KaraXvcravro^ top 
dvTaycDVLarojv. fidXio-ra B* rj irepX rd^ VTroBo^df: 
real ra? (j>iXavdpco7rLa<; ravra^ vyporr)^ Kal Ba-^l- 
Xeia Kal to veapov Kal dvei/nevov ev ttj BtaLTij 
TrapaTrXijaiov eir dfj^OTepcov IBelv virapx^i^ 
410 



> 



CIMON, II. 4-III. 3 

like manner, since it is difficult, nay rather perhaps 
impossible, to represent a man's life as stainless and 
pure, in its fair chapters we must round out the 
truth into fullest semblance ; but those transgres- 
sions and follies by which, owing to passion, perhaps, 
or political compulsion, a man's career is sullied, we 
must regard rather as shortcomings in some particu- 
lar excellence than as the vile products of positive 
baseness, and we must not all too zealously delineate 
them in our history, and superfluously too, but treat 
them as though we were tenderly defending human 
nature for producing no character which is absolutely 
good and indisputably set towards virtue. 

III. On looking about for some one to compare 
with Lucullus, we decided that it must be Cimon. 
Both were men of war, and of brilliant exploits 
against the Barbarians, and yet they were mild and 
beneficent statesmen, in that they gave their coun- 
tries unusual respite from civil strifes, though each 
one of them set up martial trophies and won victories 
that were famous. No Hellene before Cimon and 
no Roman before Lucullus carried his wars into 
such remote lands, if we leave out of our account 
the exploits of Heracles and Dionysus, and whatever 
credible deeds of Perseus against the Aethiopians or 
Medes and Armenians, or of Jason, have been brought 
down in the memory of man from those early times 
to our own. Common also in a way to both their 
careers was the incompleteness of their campaigns. 
Each crushed, but neither gave the death blow to 
his antagonist. But more than all else, the lavish 
ease which marked their entertainments and hospi- 
talities, as well as the ardour and laxity of their 
way of living, was conspicuous alike in both. Pos- 

411 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrapakeCTTOfiev B* tcro)? koI aXKa<; rcva^ o/wio- 
Tr}Ta<;, a? ov 'xaXeirov ix t^? Birjy^aeo)^ avTrjf; 
(Tvvayaj€LV. 

IV. Klficov 6 MiXndSov //,^Tpo9 ^v 'Hyrjcrt- 
7rv\7](;, ry£vo<; @paTrr)<;, Ovyarpo'i OXopov rov 
^aaiXico^t co? iv toI<; 'Ap'^eXdov koX Mekavdiov 
7rot7]fjLa(Tiv et9 avrov Klficova yeypa/jLp.ivoi<i laro- 
prjTat. Bio Kol ®ovKvBLBr)<i 6 laTOpLKO^ T0t9 irepl 
K.L/jLcova Kara yevo^ 7rpocr7]Kcov *0\6pov re irarpo^ 
rjVy eh TOP irpoyovov dva^epovTO<i rrjv oficovvfiiav, 

2 Kol ra ')(^pva€La Trepl rrjv Spa/crjv iKe/crrjro. koI 
TeXevrrjaat [xev iv rfj XKairry vkr) (tovto B* eari 
T^9 %pa,Krj(; ')(^ci)piov) Xiyerat <^ovevde\<; ixel, 
/jLvrjfia S' avTov royv Xet^dvcov eh rrjv ^Kttlktjv 
KOfitadivTcov iv TOi? l^LjjbcoveioLf; BfiKvvrat, irapd 
Tov ^EX7rcvLKr)(; rrjf; Kl/jlcovo^ ciBeXcprj^ rdcpov. 
dXXa ^ovfcvBiBrj^ fiev 'AXLfjLovaio<i yeyove rcov 
BrjfjLcov, ol Be Trepl rov MiXridBrjv AaKidBat. 

3 y\.iXTidBri<^ jxev ovv 7revT7]KOvra raXdvrwv ocpXoDV 
BiKrjv KOL 77/309 Tr)v eiCTicnv elp'xdeh ireXevTTjaev iv 
Tft) BeajjLcoTr]pia)y Kl/jlcov Be fieipdKLOv Travrdiraaiv 
diroXet^Oeh p^era t^9 dBeX^rjf; eri Kopr)^ ovarj'i 
Kol dydp^ov TOV TrpcoTov '^Bo^ec ')(p6vov iv rfj 
TToXev KoX KaKW'; TjKovev ft)9 dra/CTO^ /cat ttoXv- 
iroTrjf; koI tco 'irdinrcp Kip^covi, TrpoaeoiKO)^ rrjv 
(hvatv, ov Bl evrjOeidv <paai K.odXep.ov irpocrayo- 

4 pevdrjvai,. ST7](TLp>^poTo<; 8* o 0a<r£O9 Trepl rov 
avTOv op^ov TL ')(^p6vov TO) Kip^covL y€yovco<; ^rjaiv 
avTOV ovre pi0vaiK7]v ovre dXXo rt p^ddrjp^a rcov 
iXevdepiwv kol toU '^EXXrja-cv iTrL)(^ci)pia^6vT(ov 
iKBiBaxOrjvaL, BeivorrjTo^ re koI arcofivTuaf; 



412 



CIMON, III. 3-.iv. 4 

sibly we may omit still other resemblances, but it 
will not be hard to gather them directly from our 
story. 

IV. Cimon was the son of Miltiades by Hegesipyle, 
a woman of Thracian stock, daughter of King Olorus, 
as it is stated in the poems of Archelaiis and Melan- 
thius addressed to Cimon himself. That explains 
how it was that the father of Thucydides the his- 
torian — and Thucydides was connected with the 
family of Cimon — was also an Olorus, who referred 
his name back to that of the common ancestor, and 
also how it was that Thucydides had gold mines 
in Thrace.^ And it is said that Thucydides died 
in Skapte Hyle, a place in Thrace, having been 
murdered there ; but his remains were brought to 
Attica, and his monument is shown among those 
of Cimon *s family, hard by the tomb of Elpinice, 
Cimon's sister. However, Thucydides belonged to 
the deme of Halimus, the family of Miltiades to 
that of Laciadae. 

Now Miltiades, who had been condemned to pay a 
fine of fifty talents and confined till payment should 
be made, died in prison, and Cimon, thus left a mere 
stripling with his sister who was a young girl and 
unmarried, was of no account in the city at first. He 
had the bad name of being dissolute and bibulous, 
and of taking after his grandfather Cimon, who, they 
say, because of his simplicity, was dubbed Coalemus, 
or Booby. And Stesimbrotus the Thasian, who was 
of about Cimon's time, says that he acquired no 
literary education, nor any other liberal and 
distinctively Hellenic accomplishment; that he 
lacked entirely the Attic cleverness and fluency 

Thuc. iv. 105. 

413 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'ArTt/c?}? oXft)? a'Tr7fSXd')(9ai, koX tw rpoircp ttoKv 
TO ^evvaiov kuI aXiy^e? ivvirdp^eiv, Kal /jloXKov 
etvai TiekoTTOVvricnov to a^rj/jLa t?)? ^jrvx^^ tov 
dvBp6<;, 

<f)avXov, dKO/juyjrov, r^ fiiycaT dyaOov, 

Kara top l^vpiTrlSeiov 'HpaKXiw ravra yap ecri 
rot? viro rod ^Trjo-cfjL^poTOV yey pa iipAvoL^ iirei- 
Trelv. 

5 "Ert 8k viofi o)v alriav ecr^e irkr^aidt^eiv rfj 
dS6\(j)f]. Kal yap ovS* aXXcof; rrjv ^EXinviKrjv 
evrafCTOv riva yeyovevai \eyovcnv, dXKa /cal 
7rpo9 UoXvyvcoTOV i^a/iapTelv top ^(pypd(f>ov' 
Kal Sta TOVTO (f>aaLP iv rfj YleLaiavaKTelw Tore 
KaXovfxevr], TioiKiXr) Se vitv aroa, ypd<f>ovra ra? 481 
TjOwaSa? TO t^? AaohlKr)<; TroLrjaac irpoawTrov 

6 ev cIkovc t7]<; ^Kk'irLVLKr)(;. 6 Be Ilo\vyvcoTO<; ovk 
7]V rcov ^avavaoiv ovB* dm epyoKa^ia^ eypacpe 
TTjv GTodv, dWd irpoLKa, <^CkoTLp.ovpLevo<i irpo^i 
Tr)v itoKlv, (h<; oi re (Tvyypa(f)€L<i Icrropovai. Kal 
M.eXdvdLO(i 6 iroLTjTrjf; Xiyei tov Tpoirov tovtov 

Avrov yap BaTrdvaicn deSiv vaov<^ dyopdv re 
K.eKpoiriau K6cr/x')]a^ r^pnOecov dpeTal<;. 

7 €lrl S* 01 rrjv 'EXttivlki^v ov Kpv(j)a rw Ki/jLcovt, 
^avep(jd<; Be y7]p,ap,evrjv (TvvoiKrjaat Xeyovacv, 
a^iov rrjfi evyeveia<; vvfi<j)Lov Bed tjjv ireviav 
diTopovaav' eirel Be KaXTua? tmv eviroptov TL<i 
^A6rjvr](Tiv epaadeU irpocryfXOe ttjv virep tov 
7raTpo<; KaraBiKrjv eKTiveLV eTOipo^ ojv 7rpo<; to 
Brjp^oa-iov, avTTjv t€ irecadrjvac Kal tov Klficova 
Tft) KaXXLa (jwoiKiaai Trjv ^EXTTLVLKrjv, 

414 



( 



CIMON, IV. 4-7 

of speech ; that in his outward bearing there 
was much nobility and truthfulness ; that the fashion 
of the man's spirit was rather Peloponnesian, 

'' Plain, unadorned, in a great crisis brave and true/' 

as Euripides says of Heracles,^ a citation which we 
may add to what Stesimbrotus wrote. 

While he was still a youth he was accused of im- 
proper intercourse with his sister. And indeed in 
other cases too they say that Elpinice was not very 
decorous, but that she had improper relations 
also with Polygnotus the painter, and that it was for 
this reason that, in the Peisianacteum, as it was then 
called, but now the Painted Colonnade, when he was 
painting the Trojan women, he made the features of 
Laodice a portrait of Elpinice. Now Polygnotus 
was not a mere artisan, and did not paint the stoa 
for a contract price, but gratis, out of zeal for 
the welfare of the city, as the historians relate, and 
as Melanthius the poet testifies after this fashion : — 

" He at his own lavish outlay the gods' great fanes, 
and the market 
Named Cecropia, adorned ; demigods' valour his 
theme." 

Still, there are some who say that Elpinice did not 
live with Cimon in secret intercourse, but openly 
rather, as his wedded wife, because, on account of her 
poverty, she could not get a husband worthy of her 
high lineage; but that when Callias, a wealthy 
Athenian, fell in love with her, and offered to pay 
into the state treasury the fine which had been 
imposed upon her father, she consented herself, and 
Cimon freely gave Elpinice to Callias to wife. 
1 Nauck, Trag. Oraec. Frag., 473. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8 Ol* fiTjv aWa koX oXax; (paiverai. rot? irepl 
TO.? fyvvalica^ ipcoTCKOtf; 6 Ki/jLcav €vo-)(^o<; 'yeveadai. 
Kal fyap ^Karepia^ to) jevei 2)aXa/xtyta9 kol 
ttoXlv M.vi](rTpa<; tcv6<; 6 7rotr)Tr)<; MeXdvOiofi 
/jbvrjfioveveL tt/jo? top KifMcova irai^wv hi iXe^yeia^, 

9 W9 (77rovBa^o/Jb€Vcop vtt' avrov. SrjXo^; 3' eVrt 
/cat 7r/309 ^IcroSiKrjv rrjv EupUTTToXeyu-ou fjuev 
Ovyarepa rod Meja/cXiov^;, Kara v6/jLov<; S* avrw 
(TV/JL^cooo-aaav 6 Kl/jl(op i/jLTTadeo-repov SiareOelfi 
Kal Bv(r(f)opj]aa<i a7rodavovar]<;, et ri Bel reK/iiai- 
peadau rat? ^e'ypayi}xkvaL^ liri irapriyopla tov 
irevdov; e'Xeyetai? 7r/309 avrov, cjv Havairio<; 
6 cf)L\6ao(po<; oteraL TroLTjrrjv yeyovivai tov ^vai- 
Kov 'Apx^Xaov, ov/c diro rpoirov Toh ;^/3oz^ot9 
eiKa^wv. 

Y. Ta S' aXXa iravra tov '^Oov<; dyacrrd Kal 
tyevvaca tov K.i/jLcovo(;. ovtc yap t6\/j.7) MiXTLaBov 
\€iir6[JL€vo^ OVT6 (TvvecTeL %efjiLaTOKXeov<;, BcKaio- 
repo<i dfjL<poLv opLoXoyecTat yevicrOat, Kal Tat9 
iroXefxiKal^ ovBe fiLKpov divoBewv dpeTal<i eKeivwv 
dfJLrj-^avov oaov iv TaZ<i iroXiTLKal^; virep^aXiaOai, 

2 1^609 MV en Kal TroXi/Mcov direipo^. ore yap tov 
Brjiiov eTTLOVToyv ^rjBoav Sefico-TOKXrj^^ eirevOe 
TTpoejuLevov ttjv ttoXlv Kal ttjv ')(^copav eKXcirovTa 
TTpo Trj(; ^aXaiMvo^i iv Tal<; vaval to. oirXa OeaOai 
Kal BiaycoviaaaOai Kara OdXarTav, iKireirXriy pA- 

VCOV TCOV TToXXmV to ToX/JLTJ/lia 7rpCOTO<; K.L/M(OV 

M(f)Or) Bod TOV K.€pa/JLei,K0V (j)aiBpo^ dvtoov et9 rrjv 

dKpOTToXcV pL€Td TOiV eTalpCOV LTTTTOV Tivd ')(^aXiVOV 

dvadelvat ttj deS), Bid 'X^etpcov KO/jLi^ayv, ci)9 ovBev 
liTirLKrji; dXKrj<^, dXXd vavp^d'X^cov dvBpcav iv tm 

3 rrrapovTC Ti)9 ttoXco)? Beoiiievr]<i. dvaOel^ Be tov 
416 



CIMON, IV. 8-v. 3 

However, it is perfectly apparent that Cimon was 
given to the love of women. Asteria, of a Sala- 
minian family, and a certain Mnestra are mentioned 
by the poet Melanthius, in a sportive elegy addressed 
to Cimon, as wooed and won by him. And it is 
clear that he was even too passionately attached to 
his lawful wife, Isodice, the daughter of Euryptole- 
mus and grand-daughter of Megacles, and that 
he was too sorely afflicted at her death, if we 
may judge from the elegy addressed to him for 
the mitigation of his grief. This was composed 
by the naturalist Archelaiis, as Panaetius the philoso- 
pher thinks, and his conjecture is chronologically 
possible. 

V. All other traits of Cimon' s character were 
admirable and noble. Neither in daring was he 
inferior to Miltiades, nor in sagacity to Themistocles, 
and it is admitted that he was a juster man 
than either, and that while not one whit behind 
them in the good qualities of a soldier, he was 
inconceivably their superior in those of a statesman, 
even when he was still young and untried in war. 
When the Medes made their invasion, and Themis- 
tocles was trying to persuade the people to give up 
their city, abandon their country, make a stand with 
their fleet off Salamis, and fight the issue at sea, 
most men were terrified at the boldness of the 
scheme ; but lo ! Cimon was first to act, and with 
a gay mien led a procession of his companions 
through the Cerameicus up to the Acropolis, to 
dedicate to the goddess there the horse's bridle 
which he carried in his hands, signifying thus that 
what the city needed then was not knightly prowess 
but sea-fighters. After he had dedicated his bridle, 

417 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XaXivov Kot Xa^obv ck t(ov ire pi tov vaov Kpefxa- 
jievcov aairlhwVy /cat irpoaev^dfjbevo^ rrj Oew, Kare- 
^aivev iirl ddXacraav, ovk oXLyot^i cLp-^r) tov 
Oappelv yev6/jL€vo<i. 

'Hv Be Kol TTjv Ihiav ov yu-e/xTTTo?, 0)9 ^Iwv 6 
7roi7]Ti]<; <j>rj(rcVf aWa /jbiya^;, ovXy koI iroWfj 
TpL')(l KOfJLWV Tr)V Ke^oXrjv. (paveh Se kclv kut 
avTov TOV ayoiva \a/jL7rpo<; koI dvBpci)87]<; Tayy ho- 
^av iv TTJ TToXet fieT evvoLa^; ea^ev, dOpoL^o/jLevcov 
iToWwv 7rpo<; avTov koI irapaKoXovvTcov d^ca tov 

4 MapaOcjvof; ■i]S'rj Biavoeiadat koL irpdaaeiv. opfirj- 
cravTa S* avTov iirl Tr)v iroXiTeiav ci<Tfievo<i 6 
Brjfiof; iBi^aTO, koI /xecrT09 o)V tov ®€fiiaTOKXeov<i 
dvr\ye 7rpo<; ^ Td<; /jLeyiaTa<; iv ttj iroXet Ti/xa? /cat 
apx^^f evdpfJLoaTov ovTa koX TrpoacpcXrj TOt<; ttoX- 
Xot9 Bia TTpaoTrjTa /cat d(f)iXeiav. ov)(^ rjKLaTa Be 
avTov 7)v^r)(Tev ^ ApiaTelBTji; 6 Kvcn^dxov, ttjv 
ev(f>vtav evopoiv T(p rjOei, kol 7roiov/jiepo<; olov clvtL- 
TTokov 7rpo<; ttjv Sefita-TOKXeov'i BeivoTrjTU koX 
ToXfiav. 

VI. 'ETrel Be MijBwv (f>vy6vT(t)v ck ttj^ 'EX- 
XdBo'^ i'7r6/jL(f>0r] aTpaT7]y6<;, /caTa OdXaTTav outtod 
Tr)v dpyy^v ^AOijvaLcov e^ovToyv, ctl Be Ylavaavla 
Te Kol AaKeBaijJiovLOL^; errofxevcovy irpSiTOv jxev iv 
Tai9 aTpaTeiai'^ del irapelye tov<; iroXiTa^ Koarpiw 
Te Qavp.aGTOV'^ koX irpoOvfjiia iroXv irdvrwv Bia- 

2 (pepovra^;' eireiTU llavaavlov Tot9 fjL€v /3a p- 482 
0dpoc<i BiaXeyofxevov irepl TrpoBoaia^ Kal /BaacXtl 
ypd(povTO<; iiTLaToXd^, T0t9 Be (7VfjL/jLdxoi<i Tpaxeo)<i 
Kal av9aBa)<: 7rpo(7(j)epofievov Kal iroXXa Bi 

^ irphs supplied by Stephanus, and confirmed by S ; Bekker 
supplied fis. 

418 



CIMON, V. 3-vi. 2 

he took one of the shields which were hung up about 
the temple, addressed his prayers to the goddess, and 
went down to the sea, whereat many were first made 
to take heart. 

He was also of no mean presence, as Ion the poet 
says, but tall and stately, with an abundant and curly 
head of hair. And since he displayed brilliant and 
lieroic qualities in the actual struggle at Salamis,^ he 
soon acquired reputation and good will in the city. 
Many thronged to him and besought him to purpose 
and perform at once what would be worthy of Mara- 
thon. So when he entered politics the people 
gladly welcomed him, and promoted him, since they 
were full to surfeit of Themistocles, to the highest 
honours and offices in the city, for he was engaging 
and attractive to the common folk by reason of his 
gentleness and artlessness. But it was Aristides, 
son of Lysimachus, who more than any one else 
furthered his career, for he saw the fine features 
of his character, and made him, as it were, a foil to 
the cleverness and daring of Themistocles. 

VI. After the flight of the Medes from Hellas, 
Cimon was sent out as a conimander,^ before the 
Athenians had obtained their empire of the sea, and 
while they were still under the leadership of Pausa- 
nias and the Lacedaemonians. During this campaign, 
the citizen-soldiers he furnished on expeditions were 
always admirably disciplined and far more zealous 
than any others ; and again, while Pausanias was 
holding treasonable conference with the Barbarians, 
writing letters to the King, treating the allies with 
harsh arrogance, and displaying much wantonness of 

» 480B.C. » 478-477 B.a 

419 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^ovaiav kol oyKov avorjrov v^pL^ovTO^;, viroXafi- 
^dvcav TTpaw^ tov<; aBt,Kov/ii6Vov<; koI (f)i\av6pco7r(o^ 
i^ofitXcjv eXaOev ov Bt* orrXmv rrjv r?)? 'EWaSo? 
'^ye/jLovlav, aWa \6y(a kol rjOeu TrapeXofiepo^. 

3 irpoaeTiOevTO yap ol ifkelaroL tcov av/jLfjLcixov 
eKeivtp T€ Kal ^ Kpiareihr] ttjv 'X^aXeTTOTrjra kol 
virepo'^^lav rov Uavaaviov firj (j>epovT€^. ol he 
fcal T0UT0U9 a/jLa Trpoarjyovro Kal T0t9 €(j)6pOL<; 
nrefxirovTefi eippa^ov, co? dSo^ovcrr]^ t^9 '^TrdpTtjf; 
Kal rapaTTO/jbivi]'; t^9 'EWaSo?, dvaKaXeiv rov 
liavaavlav. 

4 Aeyerav he irapOevov rivd Bv^avriav ein^avMV 
yovecovy ovofia KXeoviKrjv, eir alax^vrj rov Uav- 
aaviov fjLeraTrefnro/jLevov, tou? fiev yoveL<; vir dvdy- 
Kr]^ Kal <j)6fiov TTpoea-dai rrjv iralSa, rrjv he rcov 
TTpo rov h(op,aTiov hetjOeccrav dveXecrOai to ^w9, 
hid aKOTOVi; Kal aicoTrrj^ rfj kXlvt) irpoaLOVcrav ijhrj 
rov Uavaaviov Kadevhovro^, ep^ireaelv Kal dva- 

6 rpeyfrac ro \v')(vlov aKovaav rov S* virb rov ^jro^ov 
rapa'xOevra Kal airaadpievov ^ ro rrapaKei/ievov 
ey)(^6ipLhcov, W9 rivo<; eir avrov e')(Ppov fiahi^ovro<;, 
rrard^ai Kal Kara^aXetv rrjv irapOevov, €K he rr]<; 
rfkrjyrj^ drrodavovaav avrrjv ovk idv rov Uavaa- 
viav r)av)(^d^eiv, dWd vvKrcop eihcoXov avra> <^oi- 
rcjaav eh rov vttvov opyy Xeyeiv rohe ro rjpMov 

Xret^e hiKijf; daaov fidXa roi Kaxov dvhpdaiv 

v$pc(i. 

€<^* oS Kal fidXiara %aXe7ra)9 eveyKovre^ ol 

* Koi avaadfievov with S : (nracrdiJ.fvov, 
420 



CIMON, VI. 2-5 

power and silly pretension, Cimon received with 
mildness those who brought their wrongs to him, 
treated them humanely, and so, before men were 
aware of it, secured the leadership of Hellas, not by 
force of arms, but by virtue of his address and 
character. For most of the allies, because they 
could not endure the severity and disdain of Pausa- 
nias, attached themselves to Cimon and Aristides, 
who had no sooner won this following than they sent 
also to the Ephors and told them, since Sparta had 
lost her prestige and Hellas was in confusion, to 
recall Pausanias. 

It is said that a maiden of Byzantium, of excellent 
parentage, Cleonice by name, was summoned by 
Pausanias for a purpose that would disgrace her. 
Her parents, influenced by constraint and fear, 
abandoned their daughter to her fate, and she, 
after requesting the attendants before his chamber 
to remove the light, in darkness and silence at 
length drew near the couch on which Pausanias 
was asleep, but accidentally stumbled against the 
lamp-holder and upset it. Pausanias, startled by 
the noise, drew the dagger which lay at his side, 
with the idea that some enemy was upon him, 
and smote and felled the maiden. After her death 
in consequence of the blow, she gave Pausanias 
no peace, but kept coming into his sleep by 
night in phantom form, wrathfully uttering this 
verse : — 

'' Draw thou nigh to thy doom ; 'tis evil for men to 
be wanton." 

At this outrage the allies were beyond measure 

42it 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a\)\iixayoi fierh rod Kvficovof; e^eiroXiopKrjaav 
6 avTov. 6 8* i/CTrearcDV tov ^v^avrtov /cat ro) 
(j^dcTfiart, raparro/JLevo^, ft)9 Xiyeraiy KaTe(f)vy€ 
7rpo<; TO veKvoiJiavTeiov eh ^HpciKXeiav, kuI rr]v 
"^^XV^ cLva/ca\ovfievo<; T779 'KXeoviKrj^; TrapyTetro 
TTfv opyrjv. T) K 669 o'^jrtv iXOovaa Ta^ect)9 e</>?7 
iravo-ecrOat tmv Kafccov avrov iv ^irdprr) yevo- 
jxevov, alviTTO/Jiivrj, ft)9 €olk6, rrjv fieXXovaav avrw 
TekevTrjv. ravra fiev ovv vtto ttoWmv lo-TopTjrai. 
VII. YiifJbwv Be, rSiv (TV/jL/iid')((ov 7]Br) TrpodKe- 
yjuipriicoTwv avT^, (TrpaTr]yo^ eU SpaKrjv eirXevae, 
7rvvOav6fjL6vo<; Tlepacov dvBpa<; evho^ov^ koI avy- 
yevel<; Paa-iXew^ ^Yilova ttoXlv irapd r© Xrpv/jLovL 
KeL/uLevrjv Trora/JUM Karexovraf; evo')(\elv T0t9 irepl 

2 TOV TOTTov eKelvov "KXXrjcri. irpcoTOV fiev ovv 
avTov<; P'd'XJ] 701)9 Yiepaa^ ivifcrjcre fcal /careKXei- 
aev eh rrjv iroXiv eireira rov^ virep Xrpv/jLova 
SpaKa^, o6ev avroh icj^ouTa alro^, dvaardrov^ 
TTOi-MV Kol TTjv '^copav 'TTapa^vXdrTwv diraaav eh 
Toaavrrjv aTropiav rov^ TroXiopKov/nevov; /carea-rr)- 
aev, Mare l^ovrrjv rov ^acnXew'^ arparrjyov diro- 
yvovTa rd Trpdy/jLara ry iroXei irvp evelvai Kal 
avvBcacpOetpat p^erd tmv (piXcov Kai TO)v')(^pripAT(Dv 

3 eavTOV. ourco Se Xaficov rrjv ttoXiv dXXo p,€v 
ovBev d^ioXoyov wcpeXTjOrj, rcov TrXeiaToyv roh 
^apffdpoi^ avyKaraKaivTcov, rrjv Be %a)/9ai» 
€v(j>V€(TTdTr)v ovaav kol KaXXlarrjv olKrja-ai 
irapeBcoKe Toh *A.6r}vaiOL^. koX tov^ *Eppd<; 



422 



CIMON, VI. 5-vii. 3 

incensed, and joined Cimon in forcing Pausanias 
to give up the city. Driven from Byzantium, and 
still harassed by the phantom, as the story goes, 
he had recourse to the ghost-oracle of Heracleia, 
and summoning up the spirit of Cleonice, besought 
her to forgo her wrath. She came into his presence 
and said that he would soon cease from his troubles 
on coming to Sparta, thus darkly intimating, as 
it seems, his impending death. At any rate, this 
tale is told by many. 

VII. But Cimon, now that the allies had attached 
themselves to him, took command of them and sailed 
to Thrace,^ for he heard that men of rank among the 
Persians and kinsmen of the King held possession of 
Eion, a city on the banks of the Strymon, and were 
harassing the Hellenes in that vicinity. First he 
defeated the Persians themselves in battle and shut 
them up in the city ; then he expelled from their 
homes above the Strymon the Thracians from whom 
the Persians had been getting provisions, put the 
whole country under guard, and brought the besieged 
to such straits that Butes, the King's general, gave 
up the struggle, set fire to the city, and destroyed 
with it his family, his treasures, and himself. And 
so it was that though Cimon took the city, he gained 
no other memorable advantage thereby, since most of 
its treasures had been burned up with the Barbarians ; 
but the surrounding territory was very fertile and 
fair, and this he turned over to the Athenians for 
occupation. Wherefore the people permitted him to 
» 476-475 B.C. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTw Tot'9 \L$ivov<; o Brj/jLO<: avaOelvai <ruv€X^' 
prjffev, o)v eTnyeypaTTTai Tcp fiev Trpcoro)' 

4 'Hi^ dpa KOLKelvoi raXaKaphiOL, oX irore yirj^cov 

iratalv eir ^Yilovi, Xrpv/jLovo^; d/jL(j)l pod<i, 
Xifiov T aW(ova Kpvepov t eTrdyovref; "Apr^a 
TTpoyroi Bvo-fievecov evpov dfi7))(^avirjv, 

r(p Se BevTcptp* 

'Hye/jLovea-ai Be fiiaOov ^AOi]vaiot rdS* eScoKav 

dvT ehepyeGiT]^ koX jxeydXcov dyaOcav. 
fidWov Tt9 rdS* lS(ov koI eTreaoro/jiivayv iOeXijcei 

dfi<f>l irepl ^vvol<; Trpdyfiacri, Bfjpiv e%€^i^. 

5 T& Be TpLTfp- 483 
"Ea: TTore rrjcrBe irokrjo^ dfjH ^ArpelBrjai Meve- 

7)ye'iT0 ^dOeov TpcoiKOv e? ireBiov 
ov '7ro6^"Opj7)po<^ e(j)r} Aavacov Trv/ca dwprjKrdayp 

K0(T/jLr)T7]pa fid'^rj'; e^o^ov ovra fjLoXelv, 
ovTco<; ovBev deiKe^ * A6r]vaLoicri, KaXela-Oai 

KOcrfjLr)Tai<i iroXepuov t d/jL(f>l /cat i^voperj^;, 
424 



CIMON, VII. 3-5 

dedicate the stone Hermae, on the first of which is 
the inscription : — 

" Valorous-hearted as well were they who at Eion 
fighting. 
Facing the sons of the Medes, Strymon's current 
beside. 
Fiery famine arrayed, and gore-flecked Ares, 
against them. 
Thus first finding for foes that grim exit, — 
despair ; " 

and on the second : — 

" Unto their leaders reward by Athenians thus 
hath been given ; 
Benefits won such return, valorous deeds of 
the brave. 
All the more strong at the sight will the men 
of the future be eager. 
Fighting for commonwealth, war's dread strife 
to maintain ; " 

and on the third : — 

'' With the Atridae of old, from this our city, 
Menestheus 
Led his men to the plain Trojan called and 
divine. 
He, once Homer asserted, among well-armoured 
Achaeans, 
Marshaller was of the fight, best of them all 
who had come. 
Thus there is naught unseemly in giving that 
name to Athenians ; 
Marshallers they both of war and of the vigour 
of men." 

425 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VIIL Tavra Kaiirep ovBa/nov to Kt/jL(ovo<; 
ovofia BrjXovvTa rifjLrjf; virep^oXrjv 6')(eiv iBofcei 
T0t9 Tore dvOpco7roi<;. ovre yap S€/xi,(ttok\t]<; 
TOIOVTOV TLVo<; 0VT6 MiXTLdBrj<; erv^ev, dWd 
TOVT(p ye OaWov aT€<pavov alrovvri %(0(j)dvr}<; 6 
AeA^eXeu? i/c fiiaov t^? eKKX/qaLa^ dvaard^ dvr- 
elirev, ovk evypcopLova fiiv, dpeaaaav Se rSt Bijp.(p 
Tore ^(ovrjv dcfyei^S' ^'"Orav ydp^ e<j)rj, " jii6i'o<; 
dy(OVt(Tdfi€vo<;, a) MiXridSr}, vLKi]<Trj<; tou? I3ap- 

2 l3dpov<;. Tore koI TijJLacrOaL fi6vo<; d^iov,^^ hid 
TV Toivvv TO Kl/jl(OVO^ \j'Trepr]yd'jT'r}(Tav epyov ; y) 
OTi T(bv fiev dWwv (JTpaTrjyovvTwv virep tov firj 
iradelv r^pivvovTO tou? 7ro\€fi[ov<;, tovtov Be /cat 
TTOirja-ai KaK(o<i rjBvvrjdrjaav iirl ttjv eKeivoiv avTol 
aTpaTev(TavTe<;, KaX irpoa-eKTTjaavTO '^(^(opa^ avTtjv 
T€ T7]v ^Hiopa KoX TTJV ' Afi(j)U'7ro\iv olKiaavTef; ; 

3 "flcfaaav Be koX XKVpov eXovTO^ KCficovo<; ef 
alTia<; TotavTijf;. AoXoTre? wtcovv t^i^ vrjcrov, 
epydTai KaKol yrj<;' Xrjl^ofievoi, Be ttjv OdXaaaav 
Ik iraXaiov, TeXeuTMvre^ ovBe rchv elair^eovTcov 
Trap avTov<^ kuI 'X^pcofjuevcov dTrelxoi^TO ^evcov, dXXd 
©exTaXou? Tiva<; i/jb7r6pov<; Trepl to KTrjaiov 

4 opfJbLaafJLevovf; avXrjaavTe<; elp^av. errel Be Bia- 
BpdvTe^ eV Twv Beafjuwv ol dvOpwiroi BiKrjv KaTe- 
BiKdaavTO T7j<; 7r6Xe(D<; ^AfjL(f)LfCTVOvi/cr]v, ov ffovXo- 
fievcov Ta y^pTj/xaTa twv iroXXmf (TvveKTiveiv, dXXd 
TOi'9 e^ovTa^ Kal Bt-qpiraKOTa^ diroBovvai Ke\ev- 
ovTcov, B€iaavT€<; eKelvoi Trefiirovai, ypdpfiaTa 
TTpo^ Kifjicova, K€XevovTe<; rfKeiv peTa tcov vedov 
Xrjyjrop^evov ttjv ttoXlv vtt avToov ipBiBop.ev7jv. 
426 



CIMON, VIII. 1-4 

VIII. Although these inscriptions nowhere men- 
tioned Cimon by name, his contemporaries held 
them to be a surpassing honour for him. Neither 
Themistocles nor Miltiades achieved any such, nay, 
wlien the latter asked for a crown of olive merely, 
Sophanes the Deceleian rose up in the midst of the 
assembly and protested. His speech was ungracious, 
but it pleased the people of that day. " When,'' 
said he, " thou hast fought out alone a victory over 
the Barbarians, then demand to be honoured alone." 
Why, then, were the people so excessively pleased 
with the achievement of Cimon? Perhaps it was 
because when the others were their generals they 
were trying to repel their enemies and so avert 
disaster ; but when he led them they were enabled 
to ravage the land of their enemies with incursions of 
their own, and acquired fresh territories for settle- 
ment, not only Eion itself, but also Amphipolis. 

They settled Scyros too, which Cimon seized for 
the following reason. Dolopians were living on 
the island, but they were poor tillers of the soil. 
So they practised piracy on the high sea from 
of old, and finally did not withhold their hands 
even from those who put into their ports and 
had dealings with them, but robbed some Thessaliaii 
merchants who had cast anchor at Ctesium, and 
threw them into prison. When these men had 
escaped from bondage and won their suit against 
the city at the Amphictyonic assembly, the people 
of Scyros were not willing to make restitution, but 
called on those who actually held the plunder to 
give it back. The robbers, in terror, sent a letter 
to Cimon, urging him to come with his fleet to 
seize the city, and they would give it up to him. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 irapaXa^wv B* ovrco rrjv vrjaov 6 K.lfia)V tou9 fiev 
Ao\o7ra9 i^rjXaae Koi tov Alyalov rfKevdepwae, 
irvvOavojJievo'i Se tov iraXaiov Srjcrea tov Aiye(o<; 
(fyvyovTa fiev ef ^KOrjvdv eU Xfcvpov, avrov B* 
aiToOavovTa ho\(p hia ipojSov vtto AvKopLrjhov^ tov 

6 ^aaiXeco^, iaiTovSaae tov Td(j)ov avevpelv. Kal 
yap rjv %)097<7/xo9 *A6i]vaL0i<; to, @7;o-€ft)9 Xeiyjrava 
KcXevcov dvaKOfU^€LV eh dcTTV /cat Tifidv co? rjpooa 
TT/oeTToi^Tft}?, aXV r)yv6ovv ottov KecTai, %KvpL(ov 
ovy 6fio\oyovvT(ov ovB^ icovTcov dva^7}T€cv, tots 
St) TToWfj (pcXoTifiLa TOV (TrjKov fJLoyi'^ i^evpeOevTO^, 
iv9i/jL€V0<; 6 Klficov et? Tr)V avTOV Tpirjpr] tu odTa 
/cat ToXXa Koafirjaa^ fi€ya\07rpe7rS)<; KaTrjyayev 
et? TTjv avTOV Si* iTcov a^eSov TeTpaKocricov. 6^' 
(p Kal p^dXiffTa 7r/309 avTov 17860)9 8rjp,0(; ea'xjev. 

7 "E^OevTO K eh fivi]p,r]v avTOV Kal Tr)v tcov 
TpaycpBcov KpicTLV 6vopLaaTr)v yevofiivtjv. irpcoTrju 
yap BiBaa-KaXLav tov Xo<^OfcKeov<; ert veov 
KadevT0<i, *A'\lr€<pL(ov 6 apx^^v, (f>t\ov€iKLa^ ovari<; 
KOLi TrapaTd^eax: t&v deaTcov, KpiTaf; /lev ovk 
eKkrjpwcre tov dycovo^i, ct)9 Be Kl/xcov pLeTa Ttav 
avcTTpaTrjywv irpoeXOcbv eh to OeaTpov eTroL7]aaTO 
T(p 6e(p Ta9 vevopLtapeva^ a-irovBd^, ovk dcfyfJKev 
avTov^ direXOelv, dX)C 6pK(oa-a<i rjvdyKaae KaOuaat 
Kal Kplvai BeKa 6vTa<;, aTrb <l>v\7]<; pud^ eKaaTov. 

8 jiev ovv dyoav Kal Bid to tmv KpLTCov d^Lcopua 
Tr]v ^CkoTLfiiav virepe^aXe, viKrjcravTO^ Be tov 
428 



CIMON, VIII. 5-8 

In this manner Cimon got possession of the island, 
drove out the Dolopians, and made the Aegean a 
free sea. 

On learning that the ancient Theseus, son of 
Aegeus, had fled in exile from Athens to Scyros, 
but had been treacherously put to death there, 
through fear, by Lycomedes the king, Cimon 
eagerly sought to discover his grave. For the 
Athenians had once received an oracle bidding them 
bring back the bones of Theseus to the city and 
honour him as became a hero, but they knew not 
where he lay buried, since the Scyrians would not 
admit the truth of the story, nor permit any search 
to be made. Now, however, Cimon set to work 
with great ardour, discovered at last the hallowed 
spot, had the bones bestowed in his own trireme, 
and with general pomp and show brought them back 
to the hero's own country after an absence of about 
four hundred years. This was the chief reason why 
the people took kindly to him. 

But they also cherished in kindly remembrance of 
him that decision of his in the tragic contests which 
became so famous. When Sophocles, still a young 
man, entered the lists with his first plays, Apsephion 
the Archon, seeing that the spirit of rivalry and 
•partisanship ran high among the spectators, did not 
appoint the judges of the contest as usual by lot, 
but when Cimon and his fellow-generals advanced 
into the theatre and made the customary libation to 
the god, he would not suffer them to depart, but 
forced them to take the oath and sit as judges, 
being ten in all, one from each tribe. So, then, the 
contest, even because of the unusual dignity of the 
judges, was more animated than ever before. But 

429 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^o(^oK\eov<i Xeyerai rbv K.la')(v\,ov irepiiraOrj 
jevofjievov koL ^ap6co<; ivejKovTa xpovov ov ttoXvv 
^KOrjvqcn Bcayayeiv, elr OL')(^e(Tdai, St opyrjv eh 
^LKeXiav, ottov koX TekevTrjaa^i irepl FiXap 
TeOairrai, 

IX. ^vvBei'Trvrjaai Be to3 Kljikovl (l>7]cnv 6 "loji/ 484 
iravTaTraa-t ixeipaKiov tj/ccdv eh ^KOrjva<; etc Hlou 
irapa AaofJiiBovTi' /cal tmv airovBwv yevo/jLevcov 
7rapaK\r]devT0'i^ aaat, koX aaavro^^ ovk drjB(b<; 
iiraiveZv tov<; 7rap6vTa<; co? Be^Loorepov ©epnarro- 
KXiov;' ifcetvov yap aBeiv jxev ov (jxivat jiaOelv 
ovBe KidapL^ecv, ttoXiv Be iroLrjaaL fieydXrjv /cat 

2 irXovalav eiriaraaOaL' TovprevOev, olov elKO^; ev 
TTOTft), Tov Xoyov pvevTO<; eirl rd^ Trpd^eif; rov 
Kifio)vo<; Kal fJbvrjixovevopLevoav twv fieyiarcov, 
avTov eKelvov ev BieXBelv aTparrjyrjjuLa roiv IBiwv 
0)9 ao(j}(OTarov. eirel yap i/c 'Zrjarov Kal Bu- 
^avTLOV 7roXXov<i rcov fiap^dpcov al'X,P'Ci^(*iTOv<i 
Xa^6vTe<; ol avfifia^oi rw Kl/jlcovl Biavelpuat, 
TTpoaeTa^av, 6 Be %ft)/3t? piev avrov^, X^P^^ ^^ '^^^ 
irepl Toh a-(o/xaat, Koa-fiov avrcov edrjKev, yrLcovTO 

3 TTjv BLavopbrjv q)<; dviaov. 6 Be t(ov pLepiBwv eKe- 
Xevaev avToi)^ eXeaOai rrjv erepav, rjv 3' dv 
eKelvoL KaTaXiircodiVy dyairrjaeiv *Ad7]vaL0V(;, 
'Hpo(f>VTOV Be TOV ^a/jLLov o-v/jL^ovXevaavro^ al- 
pelaOai rd UepaMV /jloXXov rj Uep(Ta<i, rov fiev 
KoapLOV avTol eXajSov, ^ KOr^vaioL^ Be Tov<i at^/iaXw- 
Tov<i dTreXiTTov. Kal rore puev 6 Kt/i&)j/ dirrjei 
y€Xolo<; elvai Bokcov Biavofieix;, tcov piev avpLpLd^wv 

* vapaKX-qd euros, Scravros Bekker corrects, after Schafer, 
to irapaK\r)dfyTa, aaavra. 



CIMON, VIII. 8-ix. 3 

Sophocles came off victorious, and it is said that 
Aeschylus, in great distress and indignation thereat, 
lingered only a little while at Athens, and then 
went off in anger to Sicily. There he died also, 
and is buried near Gela. 

IX. Ion says that, coming from Chios to Athens 
as a mere stripling, he was once a fellow-guest with 
Cimon at a dinner given by Laoraedon, and that 
over the wine the hero was invited to sing, and did 
sing very agreeably, and was praised by the guests 
as a cleverer man than Themistocles. That hero, 
they said, declared that he had not learned to sing, 
nor even to play the lyre, but knew how to make a 
city great and rich.^ Next, Ion says, as was natural 
over the cups, the conversation drifted to the ex- 
ploits of Cimon, and as his greatest deeds were 
being recounted, the hero himself dwelt at length 
on one particular stratagem which he thought his 
shrewdest. Once, he said, when the Athenians and 
their allies had taken many barbarian prisoners at 
Sestos and Byzantium and turned them over to him 
for distribution, he put into one lot the persons of 
the captives, and into another the rich adornments 
of their bodies, and his distribution was blamed as 
unequal. But he bade the allies choose one of the 
lots, and the Athenians would be content with 
whichever one they left. So, on the advice of Hero- 
phytus the Samian to choose Persian m ealth rather 
than Persians, the allies took the rich adornments 
for themselves, and left the prisoners for tlie 
Athenians. At the time Cimon came off with the 
reputation of being a ridiculous distributer, since 
* Cf . ThemistocleSf ii. 3. 



431 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yjriXta '^^pvcrd fcal fiavLouKa^ koX crTp67rToif<; koX 
KdvBva<; koI irop^vpav (j)€po/jLevcov, tmv S' ^AOrj- 
vaLCOv yvfiva crco/jLara kukco^ yaKrjfjbiva 'irp6<; 
4 ipyaatav irapaka^ovTcov. fMiKpov Be varepov 
01 roiv kakwKOTwv cplXoi kol oIk€Ioi KaTa^aivovTe<^ 
CK ^pvyLa<; koI Af8ta9 iXvTpovvro peyaXcov 
'X^pTjfidTwv e/caarov, axrre rq) Kljucovi reacrdpcov 
fiTfVMv Tpo(f)a(; 669 Ta^9 vav<i virdp^au koX irpoaeri 
rfj iroXet ^(^pvaLov ov/c oXiyov 6K tcov XvTpcov 
irepiyeviaOai. 

X. "HBr] S* eviropcdv 6 Kl/icov e<\>6Bia t^9 
GTpaT7]yia<^ a KaXco^ aTTO twv iroXefjLiwv eSo^ep 
w^eXrjadaL KdXXiov dvrjXicTKev eh tov<; TroXira^. 
TMV re yap dypcov tou9 ^payfxov^; d(j>elXev, Xva 
Koi T0t9 ^evoL<; Kal rcav itoXltcov toI<; B€op,evoi<i 
a5ea>9 virdp^jj Xap^^dveiv rrjf; oTrcopa^;, Kal Belirvov 
oXkol trap avrcp Xirov [lev, dpKovv Be iroXXoh, 
eTTotetro KaO* r^p.epav, e<j> o roov Trev^rwv 6 
^ovXop^evo^ elayeu koi Btarpocfirjv elx^v dirpdy- 

2 p,ova, p,6voi<^ T0i9 Br)fioaioL(; axoXd^cov. W9 
3' ^Api(TTOTeXr]<; (firjdiv, ou% aTravTcov ^AOrjvaicov, 
dXXd tS)V Brjp^oTOiv avrov AaKLaBwv irapeaKevd- 
fero Tft) ^oyXofievcp to Belirvov. avra> Be veaviafcoi 
irapeiiTovTO <TVV7]6et<; dpnTeyppLevoi KaXo)<i, a)v 
€KaaTO<;, et ti<; avvrv^ot rep Ktp^tiyvi tcov darcov 
Trpea/Svrepo^ i^pxf>Leo-/jLevo<; evBem, Birjpel^eTO irpbf} 
avTov TO, Ip^drca' Kal to yivop^evov ecfyaCveTO 

3 aep.v6v, oi S' avTol Kal vop^Lapu KOfiL^ovTe<; 
dcpdovov TrapLGTdpevoL Toh Kop^y^roh tmv Trevijrcov 
iv dyopa aicoTrfj tcov Kepp^aTiwv ive/3aXXov el<i 



432 



CIMON, IX. 3-x. 3 

the allies had their gold anklets and armlets and 
collars and jackets and purple robes to display^ 
while the Athenians got only naked bodies ill- 
trained for labour. But a little while after, the 
friends and kinsmen of the captives came down 
from Phrygia and Lydia and ransomed every one 
of them at a great price, so that Cimon had four 
months' pay and rations for his fleet, and besides 
that, much gold from the ransoms was left over for 
the city. 

X. And since he was already wealthy, Cimon 
lavished the revenues from his campaign, which he 
was thought to have won with honour from the 
enemy, to his still greater honour, on his fellow- 
citizens. He took away the fences from his fields, 
that strangers and needy citizens might have it in 
their power to take fearlessly of the fruits of the 
land ; and every day he gave a dinner at his house^ 
— simple, it is true, but sufficient for many, to which 
any poor man who wished came in, and so received 
a maintenance which cost him no effort and left him 
free to devote himself solely to public affairs. But 
Aristotle says ^ that it was not for all Athenians, but 
only for his own demesmen, the Laciadae, that he 
provided a free dinner. He was constantly attended 
by young comrades in fine attire, each one of whom, 
whenever an elderly citizen in needy array came up, 
was ready to exchange raiment with him. The 
practice made a deep impression. These same fol- 
lowers also carried with them a generous sum of 
money, and going up to poor men of finer quality in 
the market-place, they would quietly thrust small 
change into their hands. To such generosity as this 

^ Const, of Athens, xxvii. 3, 

433 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ta9 %€fc/?a9. (ov Br) koI KpaTcvo<i 6 Kcofiifco^ iv 
'App^tX6;^otv eoLKe fie/jLvrjadai, Bia rovrcov 

4 Yiafyco jap r^v^ovv Myrpo^io^ 6 ypafi/jiaTeif^ 
crvv avhpl dei(p kclI (piXo^evayrdrq) 

KoX irdvT dpiaT(p t(ov TlaveWrjvcov irpo tov 
ILlfxoiiVL Xiirapov yrjpa^ evco'x^ovjbievo'i 
alcova TTCLvra avvBLarpi'y^eLV, 6 Bk 
Xiircbv /3e/3r]K€ irporepo'i, 

5 €Tt Toivvv Topjia^ fjuev 6 KeovTlv6<^ cf)r](rc tov 
J^ipoyva TO, 'y^prjp^ara KTaaOai fiep o)? -y^pMTo, 
'XpPjadac 8e &)9 rtfiwro, Kpcrla^ Be r&v rpiaKovra 
yevop^evo^ iv Tac<; iXeyeiai^ ev^^erar 

JTKovtov p^ev ^kottuBcov, pLeyako<^poavvrjv Be 
Kip,a)vo<;, 
vLKa^ B' ^ApKeaiXa tov AaKeBatp^oviov. 

KaLTOi Ai)(^av ye tov ^wapTtdTrjv dir ovBevo^ 
dXKov yLV(i)crKopiev iv tol^ "FtWrjcnv ovop^aaTov 
yevopbevov rj on tou? fei^of? iv Tat<; yvpuvoiraLBiai^ 485 
iBeiirvL^ev r] Be Ktynojz/o? d^Oovla kol ttjv 
TraXacdv tojv ^Adr]va[cov dtiXo^evlav kul <f>iXav- 

6 dpMirlav virepe^aXev. oi p,ev yap, i<]) ol<; r) 
7r6Xt<; pAya (f^povel BtKaio)^, to re (TireppLa 77)9 
Tpo(j>fj(; eh Toi'9 '^EtXXrjva^ i^iBcdKav vBaTcov Te 

Trrjyaicov ^ kuI TTfpo? evavoriv ')(^p^^ovaLv 

dvdpco7roi<; iBtBa^av,^ 6 Be ttjv pLev olfciav tol<; 
TToXiTaL^ irpVTavelov diroBei^a<; Koivov, iv Be 
TTJ X^P^ KapTTCov eTOipLcov dirapxa^ koI 6 era 
oypai KaXa (pepovcri XP^l^^^^ '^^^ Xapb^dveiv 
diravra toU ^evoi^ Trapexftiv, Tpoirov tlvcl ttjv iirl 

^ The lacuna can only be conjecturally filled. 



^ (Sida^ay Bekker corrects, with Schafer, to eSfi^av, 



434 



CIMON, X. 3-6 

Cratinus seems to have referred in his Arckilocki, 
with the words : — 

" Yes, I too hoped, Metrobius, I, the public scribe. 
Along with man divine, the rarest host that lives. 
In every way the best of all Hellenic men. 
With Cimon, feasting out in joy a sleek old age. 
To while away the remnant of my life. But he 
Has gone before and left me." 

And again, Georgias the Leontine says that Cimon 
made money that he might spend it, and spent it 
that he might be honoured for it. And Critias, one 
of the thirty tyrants, prays in his elegies that he may 
have " the wealth of the Scopadae, the great-minded- 
ness of Cimon, and the victories of Arcesilaus of 
Lacedaemon." 

And yet we know that Lichas the Spartan became 
famous among the Hellenes for no other reason than 
that he entertained the strangers at the boys' gym- 
nastic festival ; but the generosity of Cimon sur- 
passed even the hospitality and philanthropy of the 
Athenians of olden time. For they — and their city 
is justly very proud of it — spread abroad among the 
Hellenes the sowing of grain and the lustral uses 
of spring waters, and taught mankind who knew it 
not the art of kindling fire. But he made his home 
in the city a general public residence for his fellow 
citizens, and on his estates in the country allowed 
even the stranger to take and use the choicest of the 
ripened fruits, with all the fair things which the 
seasons bring. Thus, in a certain fashion, he 



435 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

J^povov fjLv6o\oyov/jL6vr)v Kocvcovlav eh rov fiiov 

7 av6i(; Karfjyev. ol he Tama KoKaKeiav ox^ov teal 
Brj/aaycoyLav elvai BiaffaXXovre^ viro Trj<; dX\rj<; 
e^7fKey')(pvT0 rov avBpo^ Trpoaipeaeco^ apicrroKpa- 
TiKr]<; Kal AaKa)viK7]<; ovar)^;, 09 ye koI ^efxicrroKkel 
irepa rov BeovTo<; eTraipovri ttjv BrjpboKparLav 
avre^aive fier ^ApiareiBov, Kal irpo^ ^R(f)id\Tr)v 
varepov ')(apLTt rov Sijfiov KaraXvovra rrjv ef 

8 'Kpeiov nrdyov fiovXrjv ht,r]vexOr], \r][ipidrwv he 
Btj/ioo-lcov tou? dX\.ov<; 7r\r]v ^ ApLCTTeiBov Kal 
'E(f)id\TOV Trdvraf; dvaTri/JLTrXa/nevov^ opcov, avrbv 
dBeKaarov Kal dOinTov eK rfj TroXireia S(opoBoKLa<; 
Kal irdvTa irpolKa Kal Ka6apS)<; TrpdrrovTa Kal 
Xiyovra Std Te\ov<; Trapecr^e. 

Aeyerai ye TOi'VoiadKrjv riva pdp^apov diro- 
(TTdrrjv ^aaikew^ eXOelv fiera '^^prj/xdrcav iroWwv 
^t9 ^ hOrjva^, Kal aTraparTOfievov vtto tmv avKO- 
(pavraw Kara^vyelv 7rpo<; K.ifi(ova, Kal Oelvai 
Trapd rrjv avKeiov avrov (judXa^; Bvo, rijv fxev 
dpyvpeiwv i/ji7r\7]ad/JLevov AapeiKcov, rr]V Be XP^' 
cSyv IBovra Be rov K.ificova Kal fieiBidaavra 

9 irvOeadav rov dvdpdnrov, irorepov alpelrai K-lficova 
/jiia6corov rj (f)i\ov ex^iv rov Be <f)7]aavT0<; <j)i,\ov 
" OvKovvi'^ (f)dvai, " ravr diriOi fierd aeavrov 
KOfii^cov %pr;(70/iat yap avTOt<; orap Bewjiai (fiiXo^ 
yevojxevo^.^^ 

XL 'ETrel S' ol avpuxaxpi tov<; (j)6pov<; /xev 
ereXovv, dvBpa<i Be Kal vav^ tw? eTaxOiiaav ov 
irapelxov, dX)C dirayopevovre^^ r]Br] irpo^ rh<; 
G-Tparela^y Kal iroXepbov /nev ovBev Beofjuevoc, yecop- 
yelv Be Kal ^rjv Ka0* rjavx^civ einOvfJLOVVTe^y 
aiTrjKkaypAvcov t&v pappdpcov Kal firj Blo')(Xovv- 

436 



CIMON, X. 6-xi. I 

restored to human life the fabled commiinisra of the 
age of Cronus, — the golden age. Those who slan- 
derously said that this was flattery of the rabble and 
demagogic art in him, were refuted by the man's 
political policy, which was aristocratic and Laconian. 
He actually opposed Themistocles when he exalted 
the democracy unduly, as Aristides also did. Later 
on he took hostile issue with Ephialtes, who, to 
please the people, tried to dethrone the Council 
of the Areiopagus ; and though he saw all the 
rest except Aristides and Ephialtes filling their 
purses with the gains from their public services, he 
remained unbought and unapproached by bribes, 
devoting all his powers to the state, without recom- 
pense and in all purity, through to the end. 

It is told, indeed, that one Rhoesaces, a Barbarian 
who had deserted from the King, came to Athens 
with large moneys, and being set upon fiercely by 
the public informers, fled for refuge to Cimon, and 
deposited at his door tv/o platters, one filled 
with silver, the other with golden Darics. Cimon, 
when he saw them, smiled, and asked the man 
whether he preferred to have Cimon as his hireling 
or his friend, and on his replying, " As my friend," 
" Well then," said Cimon, take this money with thee 
and go thy way, for I shall have the use of it when I 
want it if I am thy friend." 

XI. The allies continued to pay their assessments, 
but did not furnish men and ships according to allot- 
ment, since they were soon weary of military service, 
and had no need of war, but a great desire to till 
their land and live at their ease. The Barbarians 
were gone and did not harass them, so they neither 

437 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TODV, ovre rci^ vav<; eTvXrjpovv out avhpa^ aire- 
(TTeXkov, ol fxev dWou (TTparrjjol tcov ^AOi^vaicov 
irpoarjvdyKa^ov avTOv<; ravra TToielv koX rov<; 
iWeiirovraf; v7rdyovT€<; hircai^; koI Ko\di^ovre<i 

2 eiraxOrj rrjv cLp')(r]v koX Xvirrjpav eTroLOVv, K,i/jLQ)v 
Be T7}v ivavTiav 68bv iv rfj arpaTTj^La iropevo- 
fievofi Piav jxev ovBevl rcov 'KkXrjvwv Trpocrijye, 
')(^prjfiaTa he Xa/n^dvwv irapa twv ov /SovXofjLevcov 
arparevecrOaL koI vav<; Kevd^, iKeivov; eta SeXea- 
^ofievov<; rfj axoXy irepl to, olKela SiarpL^eti^, 
yeaypyov^ koL %/)7;/iaTtcrTa9 diroXep.ovt; i/c iroXe- 
/jllkcov vtto Tpv(f>rj<i KoX dvoia^ yivo/jL6VOv<;, rSyv 8' 
'Adrjvaicov avd fiepo^ iroXXov^ €p.^cj3d^cov koX 
hiajrovoiv Tal<; crrpaTelaL^ iv oXiyw y^povtp T0i9 
irapd T(tiv av pLixd')(^u)v /jli(tOoI<; kol ')(^pr)p,a(JL Beairo- 

3 Ta<; avrcbv twv BlBovtcov eTroiijae. irXeovraf; yap 
avTov<; crure%ct)9 Kal Bid %et/0O9 exovra^ del rd 
oirXa Kal rpe<f)Ofievovf; Kal dcTKovvra^ ck T779 
avTMv darpareia^'^ ediaOevre^; (j)o^elaOat, Kal 
KoXaKeveiv, eXaOov dvrl av/n/idxoyv vTroreXet"; Kal 
BovXoc yeyovore^;. 

XI T, Kal fjbrjv avTov ye rov fieydXov paaiXew<i 
ovBelf; iraTreivcoo-e Kal avveareiXe to ^povrffia 
(jbdXXov 7) Kt/ji(ov. ov yap dvrJKev €K t^9 'EX- 
XdBo<; dirrfXXayiJbevoVi dXX! wairep €k ttoBo^; 
BicoKcov, irplv BiaiTvevaai Kal o-rrjvat tov<; jSap- 
jBdpov^, rd fiev iiropOei Kal Karearpecpero, rd Be 
dipiarrj Kal 7rpO(Ty]yeTo tol<; "EXXrjcriv, ware rrjv 
o-tt' 'la)VLa9 ^Aaiav dxpi' Ila/jL(f>vXLa<; iravrdiraat 

^ aa-TpaTclas the correction of Reiske, adopted by Sintenis 
and Bekker. The M.SS., including S, have (TTparelas, which 
must be referred to the Athenians. So Coraes. 

438 



CIMON, XI. i-xii. I 

manned their ships nor sent out soldiers. The rest 
of the Athenian generals tried to force them to 
do this, and by prosecuting the delinquents and 
punishing them, rendered their empire burdensome 
and vexatious. But Cimon took just the opposite 
course when he was general, and brought no com- 
pulsion to bear on a single Hellene, but accepted 
money from those who did not wish to go out 
on service, and ships without crews, and so suffered 
the allies, caught with the bait of their own ease, 
to stay at home and become tillers of the soil 
and unwarlike merchants instead of warriors, and all 
through their foolish love of comfort. On the other 
hand, he made great numbers of the Athenians man 
their ships, one crew relieving another, and imposed 
on them the toil of his expeditions, and so in a little 
while, by means of the very wages which they 
got from the allies, made them lords of their 
own paymasters. For those who did no military 
service became used to fearing and flattering those 
who were continually voyaging, and for ever under 
arms and training, and practising, and so, before 
they knew it, they were tributary subjects instead of 
allies. 

XII. And surely there was no one who humbled 
the Great King himself, and reduced his haughty 
spirit, more than Cimon. For he did not let him go 
quietly away from Hellas, but followed right at his 
heels, as it were, and before the Barbarians had come 
to a halt and taken breath, he sacked and overthrew 
here, or subverted and annexed to the Hellenes 
there, until Asia from Ionia to Pampliylia was 



VOL. n. p 439 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 Uepa-iK&v ottXcov iprj/jLcoaai. Trvdofxevo^; Se Toix; 
fiaaLXeco<; <TTpaTr]^ov^ fjLejdXo) arparw xal vavaX 486 
TToXXat? i(f)ehpev€LV irepi Yiafn^vXiav, Koi 0ov\6- 
fjL6vo<i avTol^ dirXovv Kal avififiarov oXco? vtto 
^ojSov TTjv ivTo<; ^eXtBovioyv TroirjaaaOai, OdXar- 
rap, wppLTjaev dpa^ dirb KvcBov koX TpioTrlov 
8iaKoaiai<; rpLtjpecn, Trpo? jj^ev rd^o^ dir dpxv'i 

Kal 7r€pcaycoyr)v viro ^e/JLLaro/cXeov^ dpiara 
KaTea-KevaajJLevai^, eKelvo^; Se tot€ Kal 7rXaTVTepa<i 
iiroi'qaev avrdf; Kal Bcdfiaaiv tol(; Karaarpcofiaaiv 
eBcoKev, ca? dv vtto ttoXXcop ottXltcov fia^ificorepai 

3 irpoa^epoLVTO T0Z9 iroXefiioL^. iTrnrXevdaf; Be tJ 
TToXei TCJV ^acrrjXiTcov, ^EXXtJvcov fiev ovtcov, ov 
BexofJiepcov Be rov gtoXov ovBe ^ovXofievcov d^i- 
trraadac ^aaiXeco^, rrjv re 'X^copav KaKco<i iiroiei 
Kal Trpocre^aXXe Tot9 reLX^atv. ol Be XtoL avfji- 
7rXeovre<; avrw, tt/jo? ^e rov? ^aarjXiTa^ ex 
iraXaiou (f>LXiKa)<; exovre^, dfjca fiev top Kl/jLcopa 
KareTTpdvpop, d/xa Be TO^evopTe<; virep rd reuxV 
jSt^XbBia irpodKeifjiepa T0t9 otVrot? e^riyyeXXov 

4 T0?9 ^aarfKiTaL^. TeX.09 Be Bi7]XXa^ep ^ avrov<f, 
07ra)9 BeKa rdXavra Bopre^ aKoXovOcoai Kal av- 
(TTpaTevcoaLV iirl toi'9 0ap^dpov<;. 

^K<j)opo<; [xep ovv Tcdpavarrjv ^r)crl tcov ffaai- 
XiKcop pewp dpx^t-v Kal rod ire^ov ^epepBdii^Pt 
K.aXXLa6eprf<; S' ^ApiOfidpBrjv top Vw^pvov Kvpcd)- 
rarop opra Trj<; Bvvdp,eco<; irapd top FivpvfieBovra 
Tal<i paval irapopfxelp, ovk opra fidxeaOai Tol<i 
^XXt^ctl irpoOvfJLOP, dXXd irpoaBexofiepop oyBoij- 
Kopra pav<i ^OLpiaaa^ diro Kvirpov irpoairXe- 

* hi-hWa^iv Coraes and Bekker give ^i^Wa^av, as does S, 
referring to the Chians as reconciling the two hostile parties. 

440 



CIMON, XII. 2-4 

entirely cleared of Persian arms. Learning that the 
generals of the King were lurking about Pamphylia 
with a great army and many ships, and wishing to 
make them afraid to enter at all the sea to the west 
of the Chelidonian isles, he set sail from Cnidus 
and Triopium ^ with two hundred triremes. These 
vessels had been from the beginning very well con- 
structed for speed and manoeuvring by Themistocles ; 
but Cimon now made them broader, and put bridges 
between their decks, in order that with their immer- 
ous hoplites they might be more effective in their 
onsets. Putting in at Phaselis, which was a Hellenic 
city, but refused to admit his armament or even to 
abandon the King's cause, he ravaged its territory 
and assaulted its walls. But the Chians, who formed 
part of his fleet and were of old on friendly terms 
with the people of Phaselis, laboured to soften 
Cimon's hostility, and at the same time, by shooting 
arrows over the walls with little documents attached, 
they conveyed messages of their success to the men 
of Phaselis. So finally Cimon made friends with 
them on condition that they should pay ten talents 
and join him in his expedition against the Bar- 
barians. 

Now Ephorus says that Tithraustes was com- 
mander of the royal fleet, and Pherendates of the 
infantry ; but Callisthenes says that it was Ario- 
mandes, the son of Gobryas, who, as commander-in- 
chief of all the forces, lay at anchor with the fleet 
off the mouth of the Eurymedon, and that he was 
not at all eager to fight with the Hellenes, but was 
waiting for eighty Phoenician ships to sail up from 

1 About 467 B.a 

441 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 ovaa^. ravTm ^Or\vai ^ovkofievo^ 6 Klfjucov 
dvijx^Vy /3iafeo-^ai irapeaKevacTfievo^, av i/covre^ 
fjLT] vaviia'X,(oaiv, ol Be irpcarov [lev, 009 fir} 
^LaaBeleVy eh tov Trorafiov ela-cop/JLiaavTO, irpod- 
(j)€pOfjL€vcov Ee Tcov ^AOrjvalcov aVTe^eifkevaav, 
ft)9 IcTTopel ^av6Brj/ijLo<^f €^fcao<TLai<i vavaiv, 0)9 
K "E<popo<f, irevrrJKovra koX TpiaKoaLac<;. epyov 
Be Kara yovv rrjv OaXarrav ovBev vir avr&v 

6 eiTpdxdy} Tri<i Bwd/iecix; d^Lov, aXV evOv^ et9 
TTjv yrjv dirocTT pe<^ovTe<i i^eTTLTrrov ol irpoiTOL 
Kol Kare^evyov el<i to ire^op iyyv<; irapaTeTay/jbi- 
vov, ol Bk KaTaXafjL^avofJLevoL Bte<^6eipovTo jxerd 
T&v vecov. CO KOL BrjXov eariv, on Trd/jiTroWaL 
Tive^ al 7re7r\t]pQ}fievai. to?9 ^ap^dpoi^ vrje^; rjaav, 
ore iroWSiV fiiv, <h<; elfc6<;y €K(f>vyova(bv, iroWayv 
Be <rvvTpL^6La(t)v, ofjb(o<i alxfici\(OT0v<i Biafcoa[a<i 
ekapov ol ^ KOrjvaloL. 

XIII. Twz/ Be 7re^(ov eTTLKarajSdvTcov 77/009 rrjv 
OdXaaaav p,kya fxev epyov i(f>aiveTo to) K-lfKovi 
TO ^id^eaOai Tr]v diro^acnv /cal KeKjjLrjKOTa^ 
aKfirjac kol 7roWa7rXacrLOt,<; iirdyeiv TOv<i"FjWij~ 
va<^, o/jb(o<: Be pcofiT} koX ^povij/naTL tov KpaTelv 
opcov e7rrjpfjbevov<i koX TTpoOvfiov^ ofioae 'x^copelv 
T0i9 pappdpoi^y direpi$a^e Tovq orrXha^ eTt 
6epp.ov<i TM KaTCL TTjv vaviJLa')(iav dywvL fieTa 
2 Kpavyr]<; /cal Bpo/nov 7rpo(T(f)epojj£Vov<;. vTroardv- 
T(i)v Be Tcov TLepacav /cat Be^afjuivoov ovk dyevvco^ 
Kparepd P'dxv o-vveaTT]' kol tmv *A67]paLcov 
dvBpe<i dyadol koI to2<; d^tcofjbaa-i irpcdTOL koX 
BiaTTpeirel^ eTreaop, iroXXo) B* dycapt Tpeyjrd/juevoi 
442 



CIMON, XII. 5-X111. 2 

Cyprus. Wishing to anticipate their arrival, Cimoii 
put out to sea, prepared to force the fighting if his 
enemy should decline an engagement. At first the 
enemy put into tlie river, that they might not be 
forced to fight ; but when the Athenians bore down 
on them there, they sailed out to meet them. They 
had six hundred ships, according to Phanodemus ; 
three hundred and fifty, according to Ephorus. 
Whatever the number, nothing was achieved by 
them on the water which was worthy of such a force, 
but they straightway put about and made for shore, 
where the foremost of them abandoned their ships 
and fled for refuge to the infantry which was drawn 
up near by ; those who were overtaken were de- 
stroyed with their ships. Whereby also it is plain 
that the Barbarian ships which went into action 
were very numerous indeed, since, though many, 
of course, made their escape and many were de- 
stroyed, still two hundred were captured by the 
Athenians. 

XIII. When the enemy's land forces marched 
threateningly down to the sea, Cimon thought it a 
vast undertaking to force a landing and lead his 
weary Hellenes against an unwearied and many 
times more numerous foe. But he saw that his men 
were exalted by the impetus and pride of their 
victory, and eager to come to close quarters with 
the Barbarians, so he landed his hoplites still hot 
with the struggle of the sea-fight, and they advanced 
to the attack with shouts and on the run. The 
Persians stood firm and received the onset nobly, 
and a mighty battle ensued, wherein there fell brave 
men of Athens who were foremost in public office 
and eminent. But after a long struggle the Athenians 

443 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov<; ^apfidpovf; e/creivoVf elra ypow avTov<; 
T€ Kol (TKTiva^ waVToSaTToyv ')(^pr}fjLdT(ov ye/JLOvaa^. 

3 Kl/jlq)v 8' axTTrep (i6\r)Tr}<; B€ivb<; rffMepa fita 
Svo KaOrjp7}K(t)<; dyoyvia/JLara, koX to fiev iv 
"XaXa/xcvt Tre^o/jLax^ciy to S* iv TlXaTaiaif; vav- 
ULa^la TrapeXrjXvdoof; Tpoiracov, eTrrjjayviaaTo TaU 
UL/cai,<i, KOL Ta9 oyBoiJKovTa ^oiviaaa^i TptrjpeL^iy 
at Trj^ f^d^il^ d7re\ei(j>07j(Tav/'T8pM irpocrpe^Xr]- 
Kevai TTvOofievo^ ' Sta Ta%ou9 eirXevaev, ovBev 
elSoTcov IBepaiov ovirw Trepl r?)? fiei^ovo^ Svvd- 
/jb€co9 TMV (TTpaTrjyojv, dXXa ^va7riaTco<i €ti koi 

4 fi6T6copa)<; e'X^ovTcov y /cal fxaXkov €KTr\ay€VT€<: 
dirdoXeaav Ta<^ vav<; d7rd<Ta<;i koX t5)V dvSpolyv 
ol 7r\€i(TT0t (rvp8L€(f)0dp7)(Tav. TOVTO TO epyov 
ovT(o<; eTaireivcoo'e Ttjv yvdyjxrjv tov j3ao-tX€a)<;, 
axTTC (TvvOeGOai ttjv TrepLJSorjTOv elpijvrjv eKeivrjv, 487 
LTTTrov fxev hpojjbov del tt}? 'EtWr)vi,Kr]<; dizkx^iv 
6a\do-(r7]<;, ev^ov he Kvavecov /cal XeXiBoviayv 
fULKpa irr)i Kal ')(a\Ke[Jip6\w fir) Trkeeiv. 

5 K^auToi, K.aWiadev7]<; ov (j>r)(Ti TavTa (Tvv6ea-9ai 
TOV fidpPapov, epycp he iroielv hia <l>6^ov t% 
77TT?79 eKeivTj^, Kal fiaKpav ovtcd<; diroaTrfvai t>}? 
'EX\aSo9, wo-re rrrevT'^/covTa vavorl HepiKkea Kal 
TpidKOVTa jiovai^; ^K^LdXTrjv eireKeiva irXevcrat 
'KeXtBovicov Kal fjurfhev avToh vavTLKov diravTrjaai, 

6 irapa tmv ^ap^dpwv. iv Be toI^ '^r)^i(TiJLa(TLV, 
a awtjyaye KpaTep6<;, dvTiypa<^a (TvvOrjKcov co? 
yevofievcov /carareTa/CTat. ^acrt Se Kal ^coumv 



444 



CIMON, XIII. 2-6 

routed the Barbarians with slaughter, and then 
captured them and their camp, which was full of all 
sorts of treasure. 

But Cimon, though like a powerful athlete he 
had brought down two contests in one day, and 
though he had surpassed the victory of Salamis 
with an infantry battle, and that of Plataea with 
a naval battle, still went on competing with his 
own victories. Hearing that the eighty Phoenician 
triremes which were too late for the battle had 
put in at Hydrus,^ he sailed thither with all speed, 
while their commanders as yet knew nothing definite 
about the major force, but were still in distrustful 
suspense. For this reason they were all the more 
panic-stricken at his attack, and lost all their ships. 
Most of their crews were destroyed with the ships. 
This exploit so humbled the purpose of the King 
that he made the terms of that notorious peace, 
by which he was to keep away from the Hellenic 
sea-coast as far as a horse could travel in a day, and 
was not to sail west of the Cyanean and Chelidonian 
isles with armoured ships of war. 

And yet Callisthenes denies that the Barbarian 
made any such terms, but says he really acted 
as he did through the fear which that victory 
inspired, and kept so far aloof from Hellas that 
Pericles with fifty, and Ephialtes with only thirty, 
ships sailed beyond the Chelidonian isles without 
encountering any navy of the Barbarians. But in 
the decrees collected by Craterus there is a copy 
of the treaty in its due place, as though it had 
actually been made. And they say that the Athenians 

' Hydrus is the name in the MSS. , but no such place is 
known. Syedra is the most probable correction. 

445 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elpTJvtjf; Si^ ravra tov<; ^Adrjvaiovf; ISpvcraadai, 
KoX KaWiav rov TTp&jjBevcTavTa TL/jurjai, 8ia(f>€- 

pOVTW^, 

UpadevTcov Se tcjv alxf^'CL^corcov \a(j)vpa)V eh 
r€ ra aXka ')(^p7]/jLaaLV 6 S?5yLt09 ippcoaOr], koI rfj 
aKpoTToXei TO voriov Tel')(p<; KareaKevaaev air 
eKeivqf; eviroprjaas r?}? a-Tparela^. Xiyerai Se koX 
TMV fxaKpoiV Tetx^^f ^ cTKeXr) KaXoocriy avvreXe- 
(rdrjvai fiev varepov rrjv olKoSo/jLoav, rrjv Be Trpcorrjv 
BefjueKiayaiv et? tottov^; eXa)S€t<i fcal hia^poxov^ 
TMV epycov i/JbTrearovrcov ipeiadrjvai Boa K.l/jlcovo<; 
a(T(j)a\(o<?, %aXt«t iroWy /cat \iOoi<; ffapeai r&v 
eXcov TTieadivTcov, eKeivov ^pT^/Actra iTopi^ovTO<; koI 
BlBovto^. 7rp(OT0<; Be Tal<i Xeyofievatf; ekevOepioi^ 
KoX y\a^vpai<; BcaTpi^alf;, at fxiKpov varepov 
vTrep^vSi^ rjyamrrjdTjarav, eKaWcoTrtcre to aarv, rrjv 
pkv wyopav ifKardvoi^; Kara^vrevcra^y ttjv B^ 
^AKuBrj/jLetav ef avvBpov Kal av'XJ^VP^'^ Kardppvrov 
diroBei^a^i d\ao<; '^cr/crjfievov vir avrov Bpofioi^ 
Ka6apol<; Kal avaKioi^ TrepLTrdrot^. 

XIY. 'EttgI Be TMV nepacjv TLve<; ovk e^ov- 
XovTO Tr]v X.epp6vr](7ov eKXiTretv, dX\a Kal tov<; 
@paKa^ dvcodev eireKaXovvro KaTa(f>povovvTe<; tov 
K.t ficovo^; fier oXuycov iravrdTraaL rptypcov ^AOrf- 
vr)6ev eKireTrXevKOTOf;, opfjurja-a^; eir avTOv<; rea- 
aapai fiev vaval Tpia-KaiBeKa rd<; eKeivcov eXa^ev, 
e^eXdaaf; Be tou? Ile/jcra? Kal Kparrjaaf; rcov @pa- 
Kwv iraaav ^Keccoaaro rf} iroXei Tr)V Xeppoprjcrov. 
CK Be rovTov ©acriovf; fxev dTrocrrdvra^ *A6rjvaLcov 
Karavav/jba'XV^^CL'; rpel^ Kal TpcaKovra vav<; eXafie 
Kal Tr)v TToXiv e^eTroXiopKrjo-e Kal rd xp^^^^^ t^ 



446 



CIMON, XIII. 6-xiv. 2 

also built the altar of Peace to commemorate this 
event, and paid distinguished honours to Callias 
as their ambassador. 

By the sale of the captured spoils the people was 
enabled to meet various financial demands, and 
especially it constructed the southern wall of the 
Acropolis with the generous resources obtained from 
that expedition. And it is said that, tliough the 
building of the long walls, called "legs," was 
completed afterwards, yet their first foundations, 
where the work was obstructed by swamps and 
marshes, were stayed up securely by Cimon, who 
dumped vast quantities of rubble and heavy stones 
into the swamps, meeting the expenses himself. 
He was the first to beautify the city with the so- 
called " liberal " and elegant resorts which were 
so excessively popular a little later, by planting 
the market-place with plane trees, and by converting 
the Academy from a waterless and arid spot into 
a well watered grove, which he provided with clear 
running-tracks and shady walks. 

XIV. Now there were certain Persians who would 
not abandon the Chersonese, but called in Thracians 
from the North to help them, despising Cimon, who 
had sailed out from Athens with only a few triremes 
all told.^ But he sallied out against them with 
his four ships and captured their thirteen, drove 
out the Persians, overwhelmed the Thracians, and 
turned the whole Chersonese over to his city for 
settlement. And after this, when the Thasians were 
in revolt from Athens,^ he defeated them in a sea- 
fight, captured thirty-three of their ships, besieged 
and took their city, acquired their gold mines 
1 466 B.a 2 465 B.O. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irepav ^ KOrjvaioi^ Trpoa-e/crijcraTo koX ^^pav, ^9 
€'irrjp-)(^ov %d(TLOL, Trapeka^ev, 

^FjfcelOev Be paBvax; iirL^rjvai MaKeSoviuf; koI 
TToWrjv airoTefieo-dai irapac^ov, co<; iSoKei, firj 
OeKrjaa^ alrlav ea^e Scopoit; vtto tov ^acri\€(o<^ 
^AXe^dvBpov (TU/jbTreTrelaOai, koI Bu/crjv ecpvye roij^ 

3 €)(Opcov (TVCTTcivTOov eV avTov. diroKoyov fjievo<; Be 
7r/309 roif<; Bifcaaraf; ovk ^Imvoov €(f>r) irpo^eveiv 
ovBe (&€<T(ra\(ov, TrXovalwv ovtcov, Mairep ere/oof 9, 
Xva Oepairevcovrai koI XafijSdvcoaiv, dWa Aa- 
KeBac/JLOvloov, fit/JLOVfievo'; koI dyaTrSyv rrjp trap 
avTol<; evrekeiav koX crcocppoo-vvrjv, -ij? ovBiva irpo- 
TLpav ttXovtov, dWd TrXovn^cov diro rcov iro- 

4 \ep,iwv TT)v TToXiv dydWeaOai. /jLvrjaOeU Be rrj<; 
Kpi(T€(o^ eK€bvr}<; 6 ^TrjaifiPpOTO^ (prjat, rrjv 'E\7rt- 
VLKTjv virep TOV Kipcovo<; Beop^evr^v eXOelv eirl Ta9 
Ovpa<; TOV YiepiKkeov^ (0UT09 yap rjv rcov Karr}- 
yopctiv 6 (T^oBporaTO^^ tov Be p^eiBidaavTa 
"Tpavf; el," (jydvat, " ypav^, a) ^Kkirivlicrjy 0)9 
TTjXLKavTa BiairpdTTeadai irpdypbaTa'^^ irXrjv ev 
ye Tfi BiKrj TTpaoTaTov yeveGOai tS> K.Lp,a)vi Kal 
7r/509 T7)v KaTt^yopiav dira^ dvacrT7]vat fwvov, 
wairep d(f)oawvp^evov. 

XV. ^ii/ceivrjv p.ev ovv dire^vye ttjv BiKrjv ev Be 
TTJ XoLirfi TToXiTela Trapcov p>ev e/cpdTec koI avve- 
(TTeXXe TOV Bfjp^ov ein^aivovTa toU dpicTToif; koi 
TrepiaTTMVTa T771/ iraaav eh eavTov dpx^v Koi Bvva- 
pLiv ft)9 Be irdXcv eVl cTTpaTeiav e^errXeva-e, T€Xeft)9 
dvedevTeff oIttoXXoI Kal Gvy^^avTe^ tov KadeaTW- 488 
Ta T^9 TToXtTeiaf; Koajxov Ta re iroTpLa vopi/jia, 0I9 

448 



CIMON, XIV. 2-xv. I 

on the opposite mainland for Athens, and took 
possession of the territory which the Thasians con- 
trolled there. 

From this base he had a good opportunity, as 
it was thought, to invade Macedonia and cut off 
a great part of it, and because he would not consent 
to do it, he was accused of having been bribed 
to this position by King Alexander, and was actually 
prosecuted, his enemies forming a coalition against 
him.^ In making his defence before his judges he said 
he was no proxenus of rich lonians and Thessalians, 
as others were, to be courted and paid for their 
services, but rather of Lacedaemonians, whose 
temperate simplicity he lovingly imitated, counting 
no wealth above it, but embellishing the city with 
the wealth which he got from the enemy. In 
mentioning this famous trial Stesimbrotus says that 
Elpinice came with a plea for Cimon to the house 
of Pericles, since he was the most ardent accuser, 
and that he smiled and said, "Too old, too old, 
Elpinice, to meddle with such business." But at 
the trial he was very gentle with Cimon, and took 
the floor only once in accusation of him, as though it 
were a mere formality. 

XV. Well then, Cimon was acquitted at this trial. 
And during the remainder of his political career, 
when he was at home, he mastered and constrained 
the people in its onsets upon the nobles, and in its 
efforts to wrest all office and power to itself; but 
when he sailed away again on military service,^ the 
populace got completely beyond control. They con- 
founded the established political order of things and 
the ancestral practices which they had formerly 

^ 463 B.a ' 462 B.C. See chapter, xvii. 

449 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 i^^^pwvTO Trporepov, ^E,(f)Ld\rov irpoearMTO'^ a<^€i- 
\ovTo Trj(; ef ^kpeiov irdyov /BovXrj^ ra? Kpiaei^ 
7r\r)v oXiycov aTratra?, koI rcov SiKa(TT7)pi(ov 
KvpLovi eavToi)^ iroirjcravTe^; et? d/cparov hiffio- 
Kparlav ivi^aXov rrjv iroXtv, tjSt) koX TlepLfc\eov<i 
Bwa/jbivov Kol ra rcov ttoWmv (j)povovvTO<;, Bio 
Kol Tov K-l/jLcovo^i, w? eiravrfKdevy djavaKTOuvTo<s 
eiTi T^ nrpoirrfKaKi^ea-Oai to d^icofia tov avve- 
Spiov, Kal Treipcofievov irakiv dvco tA? hiKa<; 
dvaKoXelaOai kol ttjv iirl KXeia-devov; iyelpetv 
dpca-TOfCpaTLav, KaTe^owv a-vvLa-Tafievot Kal tov 

3 Brjfiov i^rjpeOi^ov, eKelvd re tcl irpo^ Tr]v dSeXcprjv 
dvaveovfievoc kol AaKcoviafiov i7nKa\ovvT€<;. eh 
a KOL TO, Ev7r6XiBo<; SiaTeOpvXrjTat irepl Kt/^tcoi^o?, 

OTl 

KaKOf; fiev ovk rjv, (fxXoiroT'q^; Se /cdfjL€Xr]<;' 
KavioT av dir^KOijxaT av ev AaiceBaiixovi, 
Kctv ^EXttivlkijv TTJvBe KaTaXtTroiv fjbovrjv, 

el S' a/neXoyv Kal fieOvaKofievo^ ToaavTa^ iroXei^ 
elXe Kal ToaavTa<i viKa<; eviKrjcre, BrjXov otl 
vrj(l)0VT0<; avTov Kal 7rpoaexovTO<; ovBeh av ovtc 
T(bv TTpOTepov ovTe TMv v(7T€pov 'EXXt^z^o)!^ TTaprjXOe 
Ta^ TTpd^ei';. 

XVI. ^Hv fjuev ovv dir dp'^rj^ <f>t,XoXdK(ov' xal t(ov 
ye TraiBcov rcov BiBvfxwv tov eTepov AaKeBat/jLov- 
Lov aivofjuaae, tov S' eTepov ^YiXelov, €K yvvaiKo^ 
avTM KXecTopia^ yevofievov<;, co? ^TrjcTifi^poro^ 
IcTTOpel' Bio TToXXdKif; tov TLepiKXea to jJbrjTp&ov 
avToi<; yevo<; oveiBu^eiv. Ai6Bcopo<; B^ 6 Heptrjyr}- 
T^9 Kal TovTov<; (prjal Kal Tov TpUTOV tS)V K.i/JLa}vo<; 

450 



CIMON, XV. i-xvi. I 

observed, and under the lead of Ephialtes they 
robbed the Council of the Areiopagus of all but a 
few of the cases in its jurisdiction. They made them- 
selves masters of the courts of justice, and plunged 
the city into unmitigated democracy, Pericles being 
now a man of power and espousing the cause of the 
populace. And so when Cimon came back home, 
and in his indignation at the insults heaped upon 
the reverend council, tried to recall again its juris- 
diction and to revive the aristocracy of the times of 
Cleisthenes, they banded together to denounce him, 
and tried to inflame the people against him, renew- 
ing the old slanders about his sister and accusing 
him of being a Spartan sympathiser. It was to 
these calumnies that the famous and popular verses 
of Eupolis about Cimon had reference : — 

"He was not base, but fond of wine and full of 
sloth, 
And oft he 'Id sleep in Lacedaemon, far from 

home. 
And leave his Elpinice sleeping all alone." 

But if, though full of sloth and given to tippling, he 
yet took so many cities and won so many victories, 
it is clear that had he been sober and mindful of his 
business, no Hellene either before or after him 
would have surpassed his exploits. 

XVI. It is true indeed that he was from the first 
a philo-Laconian. He actually named one of his 
twin sons Lacedaemonius, and the other Eleius, — 
the sons whom a woman of Cleitor bare him, as 
Stesimbrotus relates, wherefore Pericles often 
reproached them with their maternal lineage. But 
Diodorus the Topographer says that these, as well 

451 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vl&v &ea<Ta\bv ef *I 0-081/^779 yey ovivai rrjf; 

2 ^vpvTTToXefjLov Tov Meytt/cXeou?. Tjv^rjOrj S* viro 
TCdv AaKeBatfJbovLcov i]8r] t& ^eficcTTOKket Trpoairo- 
XefMovvTcov Kol TovTov ovTa veov iv *A6i]vai^ 
fjuaXKov la^veiv xal Kpareiv ffovXofievcov. oi 
S* ^AOrjvaioi TO irpcoTOP r)Be(0<; ecopcov ov puKpa Tr]<; 
•7r/>09 eicelvov €vvola<; rcov 'Zirapriarwv airokavov- 
Te<i' av^avofjbivoifi yap avroh kut dpx^^ ical rk 
av/JL/uLax^fca iroXvirpayfiovovaiv ovk yi'^Oovto ti/jltj 

3 Kal 'x^dpni tov Kl/jl(ovo<;. tcC yap irXelaTa hi 
eKeivov tcov *FtXXr)viK(bv hieirpaTTeTO, Trpdo)^ /lev 
T0i9 (7V/jLfid)(^ot<;, Ke')(apL(TiJLev(o^ Be tol<; AaKcBai- 
/jL0VL0i<i 6fnXovvTO<;. eireiTa BvvaTcoTepoo yevo- 
fjLevoi Kal TOV Kl/jL(ova T0t<; '^irapTidTai^; ovk 
ypifia TTpoa-Keijievov 6pa)VTe<; rj^^OovTo. Kal yap 
auT09 €7rl iravTl fieyaXvvcov ttju AaKeBaLjxova 
7r/oo9 ^Adrjvaioviy Kal fidXiaTa ore tv-^oi psfi^o- 
fjL€VO<; avTOLff rj Trapo^vpcoVy 0)9 (prjai %Tr]o-L/jL^p0T0(ij 
elcoOei Xiyeiv "'AXV ov AaKeBai^iovioL ye 

4 TOLovTOi.** 66 ev (f>66vov €avT& (Tvvrjye Kal 
Bvafjuiveidv Tiva irapd t(ov ttoXltoov. 

*H 3' ovv la-'xyaaa-a fidXiaTa KaT avTov twv 
BiapoXSiV aiTiav e<r%e T0iavT7]v. ^Ap^iBd/jLOV tov 
Zev^iBdfiov TeTapTOV ^ eT09 ev '^irdpTy fiacnXevov- 
T09 viro aeiafjLov p^LaTOV By tmv iivr/p,ovevo/jLeva)v 
TTporepov rj re X^P^ '^^^ AaKeBaip^oviwv x^^l^^' 
aiv evcoXiade iroXXot^; kol tcov TavyeTcov Tivax- 
devTcov K0pv(f>at Ttve<; direppdyrjaav, avTrj 8' 77 
7roX«9 oXr) avveyvdri TrXrjv otKt&v Trevre, Ta9 5* 
dXXa<; rjpeiyjrev o aeurfw^. 

if 

* TtToproy Bekker adopted Niebuhr's Cfurrection to rco-o^^ 
ptffKaiSeKUTov Jburteenth, 



CIMON, xM. 1-4 

as the third of Cimon's sons, Thessalus, were bom 
of Isodice, the daughter of Euryptolemus, the son 
of Megacles. And he was looked upon with favour 
by the Lacedaemonians, who soon were at enmity 
with Themistocles, and therefore preferred that 
Cimon, young as he was, should have the more 
weight and power in Athens. The Athenians were 
glad to see this at first, since they reaped no slight 
advantage from the good will which the Spartans 
showed him. While their empire was first growing, 
and they were busy making alliances, they were not 
displeased that honour and favour should be shown to 
Cimon. He was the foremost Hellenic statesman, 
dealing gently with the allies and acceptably with the 
Lacedaemonians. But afterwards, when they became 
more powerful, and saw that Cimon was strongly 
attached to the Spartans, they were displeased 
thereat. For on every occasion he was prone to 
exalt Lacedaemon to the Athenians, especially when 
he had occasion to chide or incite them. Then, as 
Stesimbrotus tells us, he would say, ^' But the Lace- 
daemonians are not of such a sort." In this way 
he awakened the envy and hatred of his fellow- 
citizens. 

At any rate, the strongest charge against him arose 
as follows. When Archidamus, the son of Zeuxida- 
mus, was in tlie fourth year of his reign at Sparta,^ 
a greater earthquake than any before reported rent 
the land of the Lacedaemonians into many chasms, 
shook Taygetus so that sundry peaks were torn away, 
and demolished the entire city with the exception 
of five houses. The rest were thrown down by the 
earthquake, 

1 464 B.CI 

453 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 'Ez^ 8e fietrr} rfj aroa yv/jiva^ofievcov o/jlov t&v 
i^rjpoiv KoX rcov veavi(TK(ov Xiyerai [iiKpov irpo 
Tov aeicTfjLOv Xaycov Trapacfiavrjvai, koX rov<; fiev 
V€avL(TKOv<i, Siairep rjaav aXr)\L/jL/jbevoi, fiera 
Traihia<; eK^pafxeiv koX BicoKeiv, tol<; 3' icfuj^oi*; 
iJTroXeK^Oela-Lv eTTLireaelv Toyv/jLvdaiov koI irdvTa^ 
OLLOv reXevTTJaaL. tov Be rd^ov avrcop eVt vvv 
2,ei(TfiaTiav Trpoo-ayopevovai. 

6 Ta%i) Br) avviBonv diro tov irapovTO^ tov pAX- 
XovTa KLvBvvov 6 'A/3%t3a/A09, Kal tov^ TroXlra^ 489 

6p(0V i/C TCOV OLKIMV TO, Tt/JLCCOTaTa TTetpo)- 

p^evovf; cco^eiv, eKeXevae t§ adXiriyyi arip^ai- 
veiv, CD<; TToXe/jLicov einovTuyv, otto)? otl Td)(^ta-Ta 
fxeTa TCOV oirXcov ddpol^eovTat 7rpo<i avTov. o Br] 
KoX PjOvov iv T(p t6t€ KaipS) TTjv XirdpTrjv Bl€o-co- 
aev. 01 yap etXwre? ck tcjv dyp&v avviBpafiov 
iravTaxoOev co? dvaprraaofievoL T0v<i o-ecaxr/ievou? 

7 T(ov %7rapTiaT(ov. aurXta- puevov^ Be /cal avvTe- 
Taypbevovt; €vp6vTe<i dvex<^pV^civ ivl to,^ TroXei^ 
Kal (fiavepS)^ eiroXifiovv, tcov re irepiolKcov dva- 
7reLaavTe<; ov/c oXCyovf;, Kal MeacrrjVLcov dpua rot? 
^irapTLdTat^i avv67ndep£V(ov. 

Ue/jiirova-iv ovv ol AaKeBaifiovioi, TLepiKXeCBav 
€19 ^AOi]va<i BeofjuevoL ^oydelv, ov (prjac Kcop^wBojv 
*ApiaT0(j)dvrj<; Kade^op^evov iirl rofc? ^wp.ol'=i o))(^pov 

8 ev (pOLVLKLBi (TTpaTiav eiraiTelv. ^KcpidXTOV Be 
K(oXvovTO<; Kal Biap,apTvpop.evov p^rj ^o^]delv p^rjB' 
dvicTTdvat. TToXiv avTiiraXov iirl tci,^ ^KOr)va<i, dXX* 
edv KctaOat koI TraTrjOrivai to (ftpovrjpLa rr)? 
X'TrdpTTji;, KipuDvd <^7}(tl K^piTLa<; ti]v ttj^; 7raTpiBo<; 
av^rjaiv €V vaTepcp 6ep.evov tov AaKeBaipbovlcov 



454 



CIMON, XVI. 5-8 

It is said that while the young men and youths 
were exercising together in the interior of the colon- 
nade, just a little before the earthquake, a hare made 
its appearance, and the youths, all anointed as they 
were, in sport dashed out and gave chase to it, but 
the young men remained behind, on whom the gym- 
nasium fell, and all perished together. Their tomb, 
even down to the present day, they call Seismatias. 

Archidamus at once comprehended from the 
danger at hand that which was sure to follow, and 
as he saw the citizens trying to save the choicest 
valuables out of their houses, ordered the trumpet 
to give the signal of an enemy's attack, in order that 
they might flock to him at once under arms. This was 
all that saved Sparta at that crisis. For the Helots 
hurriedly gathered from all the country round about 
with intent to despatch the surviving Spartans. But 
finding them arrayed in arms, they withdrew to 
their cities and waged open war, persuading many 
Perioeci also so to do. The Messenians besides 
joined in this attack upon the Spartans. 

Accordingly, the Lacedaemonians sent Pericleidas 
to Athens with request for aid, and Aristophanes 
introduces him into a comedy as " sitting at the altars, 
pale of face, in purple cloak, soliciting an army.''^ 
But Ephialtes opposed the project, and besought the 
Athenians not to succour nor restore a city which 
was their rival, but to let haughty Sparta lie to be 
trodden under foot of men. Whereupon, as Critias 
says, Cimon made his country's increase of less 
account than Sparta's interest, and persuaded the 
* Lysistratat 1137 £L 

455 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crvfi<p€povTO^ avairelaavTa top BrjfMoi^ i^ekOelv 
^orjOovvra fiera iroWwv ottXltcov, 6 S* "Iwi/ 
diro/jLvrjfioveveL /cat tov Xoyop, o5 fjudXicrra tov<; 
^AOr]vaLov<; eKivrjcre, irapaKoXo^v fiyjre rrjv 'EX- 
XdSa ')(^co\r]v /irjre rrjv ttoKlv erepo^uya irepiihelv 
yeyevrjfjbivT]!/. 

XVII. 'ETret Se ^orjOrjaa^ tol<; Aa/c€BacjjLovLOL<; 
dirrieL Bid K.opivdov Tr)P crrparidv dycov, iveKdXei 
Adx^apTO<i avTcp irpiv iprv^etv rol^ TroXtrai? 
elaayayoPTL to arpdrevpLa' kol yap Ovpav k6- 
'\lraPTa<; aXkorpiap ov/c elatepai irporepop rj top 
fcvpcop KeXevaai,. kol 6 Kip^cop " 'AXX' ov^ t'/iet?," 
eiTrep, " w Aa^a^re, ra? l^Xewpaiwp kol ^leyapecop 
TTvXaf; KoylraPTe^;, dXXd KaTaa)(LaaPTe<; elae^ui- 
aaaOe fieTa tcop ottXcop d^ioiPT6<; dpewyevai 
TTupTa TOt? p^el^op BvpapbepoL<i.^^ ovtco puep iOpa- 
(TVPaTO 7rpo<; top KopiP0iop ip BiopTi, kol pLCTa 
T^9 aTpaTid<; Bi,e^f]X6ep, 

Oi Be AaKeBaipLOPLOi tou? W0r)paLOv<; avOi^ 
eKdXovp irrl tov^ ip ^lOdypLr} Meao-Tjpiovf; /cat 
6tA.&)Ta9, eXdovTtiip Be tt^p ToXpap kol ttjp Xap.- 
irpoTTjTa BeiaaPTe^; dTr€7rep.yjraPT0 pi6pov<i toop 
(Tvp.p,d')(^a)p CO? pecoTepiaTd^. ol Be irpo'i opyyp 
direXOoPTe^ ^Brj toI<; XaKcopL^ovaL <f)ap€pcb<; e')(^aXe- 
Traivop, /cal top K.Lp,copa pLLKpd<; eTTiXa^opbepoL 
7rpo(f)daeo)<; e^odorTpdKiaap ei? eTrj BeKw toctovtop 
yap r)p y^povov TeTayp^epop diracTL rot? e^oaTpaKi- 
^opbipoi^;. 

^Ep Be TOVTCp TCOP AaKeBaipLOPLoyp, 009 eiravrip- 
')(ppTo AeX(j)oif^ diro ^coKecop iXevdep(aaapTe<^, ip 



456 



CIMON, XVI. 8-xvii. 3 

people to go forth to her aid with many hoplites. 
And Ion actually mentions the phrase by which, 
more than by anything else, Cimon prevailed upon the 
Athenians, exhorting them " not to suffer Hellas to 
be crippled, nor their city to be robbed of its yoke- 
fellow." 

XVII. After he had given aid to the Lacedaemo- 
nians, he was going back home with his forces through 
the Isthmus of Corinth, when Lachartus upbraided 
him for having introduced his army before he had 
conferred with the citizens. " People who knock at 
doors," said he, " do not go in before the owner bids 
them " ; to which Cimon replied, " And yet you 
Corinthians, O Lachartus, did not so much as knock 
at the gates of Cleonac and Megara, but hewed 
them down and forced your way in under arms, 
demanding that everything be opened up to the 
stronger." Such was his boldness of speech to the 
Corinthian in an emergency, and he passed on 
through with his forces. 

Once more the Lacedaemonians summoned the 
Athenians to come to their aid against the Messe- 
nians and Helots in Ithome, and the Athenians went, 
but their dashing boldness awakened fear, and they 
were singled out from all the allies and sent off as 
dangerous conspirators. They came back home in a 
rage, and at once took open measures of hostility 
against the Laconizers, and above all against Cimon. 
Laying hold of a trifling pretext, they ostracised him 
for ten years.^ That was the period decreed in all 
cases of ostracism. 

It was during this period that the Lacedaemonians, 
after freeing the Delphians from the Phocians, 

1 461 B.a 

457 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tavdypa fcaTaa-rparoTreSevo-dvTCDv ^KOrjvaiot fjiev 
aTrrjvTcov hiafxa^ovixevoL, J^Lficov Be fiera tcov 
ottXcov rJK€v eh tt/v avrov (fyvX^v rrjv OlvrjtBa, 
7rp60vfJio<; cov dfivvecrOaL rou? AaKeBaifjLovLov<; fiera 

4 T(ov ttoXltcov. t} Be ^ovXr) tmv irevTaKoalcov irvdo- 
fjLevr] Kot (po/Brjdela-a, tmv i^dpcov avrov Kara- 
^ocovTcov Q)9 (rvvrapd^ac rrjv <j>d\ayya ^ov\o- 
jjuevov KoX Ty iroXei AaKeBaifiovlov^ eTrayayecv, 
aTTTjyopevo-e rot? a r partly ol^; fjurj Bexecrdai rov 
dvBpa, KaKelvo'^ fiev oix^"^^ Ber]6el<; ^vOlinrov 
rov ^Ava<f)\variov Kal rcov dWcov eraipcov, ocroi 
/jbdXiara rrjv rov XaKdovi^eiv alriav ea^ov, eppoo/jLe- 
vco<; dycoviaaaOai irpo^s roix; 7ro\epLov<; Kal S|' 
epya>v dirdXvaaaOai rrjv airlav 7rpb<; rou? TroTdrai 

5 01 Be \a^6vre^ avrov rrjv iravoTrXiav eh rov 'Xoxoi 
eOevro' Kal fier dXkTJXcov avardvre^; eKdvpLrai 
eKarov 6vre<; erreaoVy iroXvv avrcov iroOov Koi 
jjuerafieXetav e(j>* oh yridOrjaav dBiKCO^i aTroXiTrov- 
T69 T0i9 ^A07]vaLOL<;, 66ev ovBe rSi 7rpo<; J^Cficova 
dvjJicp iToXvv XP^vov evefieivav, rd jnev, to? elKo^}, 
oiiv eiradov ev fiefMvrjfievoL, rd Be rov Kaipov avX- 

6 XafJb^avofJievov. vevcKyfievoi yap ev Tavdypa 490' 
pLaxx) fieydXy Kal irpoaBoKwvre^ eU copav erov^i 
arpartdv TLeXo7rovvrjaL(ov eV avrov<; eKdXovv €K 
tt}? (jivyrjf; rov K.ip,cova' Kal KarrjXde ro '^jr'^cpiar/jia 
ypd'\fravro<; avrS) HepiKXeov^. ovrco rore TroXirc- 
Kal fiev Tjaav al Bca(f)OpaL, puerpiOL 3' ol dvpioV 



458 



CIMON, XVII. 3-6 

encamped at Tanagra on their march back home.^ 
Here the Athenians confronted them, bent on fight- 
ing their issue out, and here Cimon came in arms, to 
join his own Oeneid tribe, eager to share with his 
fellow-citizens in repelling the Lacedaemonians. 
But the Council of the Five Hundred learned of this 
and was filled with fear, since Cimon's foes accused 
him of wishing to throw the ranks into confusion, 
and then lead the Lacedaemonians in an attack upon 
the city ; so they forbade the generals to receive the 
man. As he went away he besought Euthippus of 
Anaphlystus and his other comrades, all who were 
specially charged with laconizing, to fight sturdily 
against the enemy, and by their deeds of valour to 
dissipate the charge which their countrymen laid at 
their door. They took his armour and set it in the 
midst of their company, supported one another 
ardently in the fight, and fell, to the number of one 
hundred, leaving behind them among the Athenians 
a great and yearning sense of their loss, and sorrow 
for the unjust charges made against them. For this 
reason the Athenians did not long abide by their 
displeasure against Cimon, partly because, as was 
natural, they remembered his benefits, and partly 
because the turn of events favoured his cause. For 
they were defeated at Tanagra in a great battle, and 
expected that in the following spring-time an armed 
force of Peloponnesians would come against them, 
and so they recalled Cimon from his exile. The 
decree which provided for his return was formally 
proposed by Pericles. To such a degree in those 
days were dissensions based on political differ- 
ences of opinion, while personal feelings were 

» 457 B.C. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol irpo<; TO KOLVov evavcLKkrjTOL crv/x(f3€pov, t) he 
(ptXori/jiLa TrdvTcov iTTLKparovaa rcov iraOwv rot? 
T?}? 7raTpiBo<; v7r€)((op€L KaLpol<;. 

XYIII. Eu^u? jxev o?fv o Klfioov KarekOwv 
eXvae rov iroXefJLov koI Bi'^Wa^e ra? TroXet?* 
y€V0fJL6vr]<; S* elprjvrjf; opcov tov<; ^AOrjvatov^; 
r](TV')(lav ayeiv /nrj Swa/Jbivov^, aWa Kiveiadai koX 
av^dveaOai TaL<; aTpaTeiai<; ySouXoyLtez^ou?, Xva 
fit) Tot9 "EXXT^crt Sio'xXSxTi firjBe irepX ra^ vriaov<; 
rj UeXoTTOVvrjaov dvaaTpei^ojievov vaval TroXXat? 
alrlaf; efx^vkiwv iroke^&v koX arvfji/JLaxi^f^(*>v iyKXr]- 
fidrav cLp')(a^ iTrio-TrdacovTai Kara t?}? TToXeo)?, 

2 i7r\7]pov hiaKoaia^ Tpit]p6C<; o)? 67r' Atyvirrov kol 
KvTTpov avOi^; iKarparevaofjuevo^y a/xa fiev ifi- 
IxeXerav toa? 7r/)09 rov? ^ap0dpov<; dycoart ffovXo- 
fi€Vo<; TOL'9 *A6r]vaLov<i, dfia S* oxpeXela-dai StKaL(o<; 
ra? aTTO tmv (f>va6t, iroXefiLCOV €V7ropia<; el<: rrjv 
*EiXXdBa Ko/jLi^ovTa<;. 

HS?7 ^e TrapecTKevao'fiei'cov dirdvYcov kol rov 
(Trparov irapa rat'? vavalv ovro? ovap elSev o 

3 K.i/jL(ov. iBo/cei, Kvva OviiovpLevrfv vXa/crelv tt/jo? 
avrov, e/c Be rrj<^ vKXay)^ fiefnyfievov dcftelaav 
dvdpdnTOV ^Ooyyov elTrelv 

ST€i%e* (\iiXo<; yap ear} kul ifiol Kal ifioU 
(T/cvXdKecra-iv. 

ovro) Be Bv<7Kpirov rri<? oi^eo)? ovar)<? ^Aarv(f)LXo<; 
6 UoaecBcovLdrrjf;, /jLavriKO^; dvrjp Kal avvi]6r]<; r^ 
J^ificovi, ^pd^ec Odvarov avra> TrpoarjfMabveiv rrjv 
oyjnv, our ay Bcaipoov kvcov dvOpwircp, 7rpo<; ov 
vXafcret, 7ro\€//,to9* iroXejjLiO) 3' ovk dp tl<; fidXXov 



460 



CIMON, XVII. 6-xviii. 3 

moderate, and easily recalled into conformity with 
the public weal. Even ambition, that master passion, 
paid deference to the country's welfare. 

XVIII. Well then, as soon as Cimon returned 
from exile he stopped the war and reconciled the 
rival cities. After peace was made,^ since he saw 
that the Athenians were unable to keep quiet, but 
wished to be on the move and to wax great by 
means of military expeditions ; also because he wished 
that they should not exasperate the Hellenes gener- 
ally, nor by hovering around the islands and the 
Peloponnesus with a large fleet bring down upon the 
city charges of intestine war, and initial complaints 
from the allies, he manned two hundred triremes. His 
design was to make another expedition with them 
against Egypt and Cyprus. He wished to keep the 
Athenians in constant training by their struggles with 
Barbarians, and to give them the legitimate benefits 
of importing into Hellas the wealth taken from their 
natural foes. 

All things were now ready and the soldieiy on the 
point of embarking, when Cimon had a dream. He 
thought an angry bitch was baying at him, and that 
mingled with its baying it uttered a human voice, 
saying : — 

'' Go thy way, for a friend shalt thou be both to me 
and my puppies." 

The vision being hard of interpretation, Astyphilus ot 
Posidonia, an inspired man and an intimate of 
Cimon's, told him that it signified his death. He 
analysed the vision thus : a dog is a foe of the man 
at whom it bays ; to a foe, one cannot be a friend 
» 450 B.a 

461 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

77 T€\€VT'i]cra<; <j>l\o(; yevoiTO' ro ^e fiijfia r?}? 
<^wvrj<; ^\rjhov dirohrjXol top i'xPpov 6 yap 

4 M.^Ba)v (TTparo^ "EWrja-iv ofiov fcal fiap^dpot^ 
IxefxiKTat. jxera 8e ravTrjv rrjv o-yjnv avrov roG 
Aiovvo-q) dvaavTo^ 6 fiev fidi>Ti<; direTefie to 
lepeiov, rod 3' aipaTo^ to Trrjyvvfievov tJSt; 
/jLvpfjLr)K€<; TToWol \a/jL/3dvoi'T€<i Kara p^i/cpov e<f)€pov 
7r/?09 Tov K.LpLQ)va KOI Tov TToSo? TTcpl Tov jjbiyav 
hdKTvXov irepieirXaTTOVy iirl ttoXvv XP^^^i^ Xav- 
6dvovT€<;. dfxa he irod^ 6 re K.Ljii(i)v rw yivop^evco 
TTpocrkGye koI Traprjv 6 dvTr}<; i'Tn8eiKi>viuLepo<i avrS) 
TOV Xo^bv ovK e^ovra Ke^aXrjv. 

"AXV ov yap r]V dvdhvai^ rrff; arpareiaf; efe- 
TrXevae, Kal tcov vewv e^rJKOvra fxev direaTeLXev 
eh AtyvTTTOV, Tat<; 8* aXXac<; irdXiv . . . enrXei?- 

6 KoX KaTavavpa)(^7]cra<; ^oivktctcjv vecov Kal K^iXia- 
acov jBadiXiKov aroXov dveKTciTo re ra? ev kvkXw 
TToXet? Kal Tot9 Trepl AiyvTrrov e(f)i]Sp€U6v, ovSei' 
jjLiKpov, dXX* 6Xr)<; eirtvoMV tt}? fiaatXe(o<; rjye/jLO- 
vla^ KardXvcnv, Kal pdXio-Ta on tov ®e/jiiaTO- 
kX6ov<; iirvvOdveTO Bo^av elvai Kal Svvafiiv iv 
Tol<; l3ap^dpoc<; /jbeydXrjv, viroSeBeyfievov (BacnXel 
KLVOVVTL TOV ^EiXXrjviKov TToXe/iiov arparr^yrjaeiv, 

6 %efJiiaT0KXr}<; fiev ovv ov^ rjKLara Xiyerai Td<; 
*FiXX7]VLKd<; irpd^ei^ dizoyvov^i, w? ovk dv virep- 
fiaXofJuevo^; Tr]v K/yxaji^09 evTV^^av koi dpeTrjv, 
€Koov TeXevTYjaai, J^Cficov Be fxeydXcov lTraipopuevo<^ 
dpya^ dyo)V(ov Kal Trepl Kvirpov crvvexo)v to 
vavTLKov eirefjb'y^ev eh ^'A/ji/j,covo<; dvBpa<; aTroppr)- 
Tov Tiva piavreiav 7roir}(roiJLevov(; irapd T(p 6e(p' 

^ vdXiv . . . eirAft either -ndXiv is a corruption {•wfpi ITo/i- 
<pvKiav ?), or words have fallen out. 

462 



CIMON, XVIII. 3-6 

any better than by dying ; the mixture of speech 
indicates that the enemy is the Mede, for the army 
of the Medes is a mixture of Hellenes and Bar- 
barians. After this vision^ when Cimon had sacrificed 
to Dionysus and the seer was cutting up the victim, 
swarms of ants took the blood as it congealed, 
brought it little by little to Cimon, and enveloped 
his great toe therewith, he being unconscious of their 
work for some time. Just about at the time when 
he noticed what they were doing, the ministrant 
came and showed him the liver of his victim without 
a head. 

But since he could not get out of the expedition, 
he set sail, and after detailing sixty of his ships to go 
to Egypt, with the rest he made again for Cyprus. 
After defeating at sea the royal armament of Phoeni- 
cian and Cilician ships, he won over the cities round 
about, and then lay threatening the royal enterprise 
in Egypt, and not in any trifling fashion, — nay, he 
had in mind the dissolution of the King's entire 
supremacy, and all the more because he learned that 
the reputation and power of Themistocles were great 
among the Barbarians, who had promised the King 
that when the Hellenic war was set on foot he would 
take command of it. At any rate, it is said that it 
was most of all due to Themistocles' despair of his 
Hellenic undertakings, since he could not eclipse the 
good fortune and valour of Cimon, that he took his 
own life.^ 

But Cimon, while he was projecting vast conflicts 
and holding his naval forces in the vicinity of Cyprus, 
sent men to the shrine of Amnion to get oracular 
answer from the god to some secret question. 

* Cf. Themistocles, xxxi. 4. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 'yivoaaKeL ykp ovSeW vTrep wv i7r€/jL(j)0r)orav, ovSe 
')(^pr](T jjbov avToX<; 6 ^eo? e^rjveyKev, aXX' ajia tm 
irpoaeXOelv CKeXevcrev aTTiivao roix; OeoTrpoTrovf;' 
avTQV yap ^St; tov J^tfjucova Trap* eavrw rvy^dveLv 
ovra. ravra aKovaavre^ ol deoirpoiroi Kare- 
jSacpov eVl OaXaacrav yevofievoi Se iv tw arparo- 
iriBo) Tcov 'EWyvcov, o rore irepl Klyvirrov rjv, 
iirvdovTO TeOvdvai, tov J^Lficova' koX ra? yfjLepa<; 
7r/0O9 TO fjbavrelov dvdyovTe<s eyvooaav yvcyfievrjv 
TTjv reXevrrjv tov dv8p6<;, <W9 ^Brj irapa Oeoi^ 
6uT0<;. 

XIX. ^AfTrWave he iroXiopKcov Kltlov, (09 ol 491 
TrkelcTTOt Xeyovai, voaTjaa^' evioi Si (j>a(Tiv e/c 
Tpav/JLaTO<;, o 7rpo<; tol'9 ^apffdpov^ dy(ovi^6jjL€PO<; 
ecr%e. TeXevTMV Se tov<; irepl avTov eKeXevaev 
€vOv<; diroirXeZv diroKpy^ajjAvovf; tov OdvaTOV 
avTOV' KoX avvefirj /jl7]T€ tcov iroXe/jLLcov firjTe 
TMV (TVfifjid'X^cov alcrOo/jievcov da<f>aXco<; avTov<; 
dva/cojJLio-drjvat crTpaTrjyovfievov^ vtto }^i/jL(ovo<;, 
<W9 (j)r)(Ti, ^avoBrjfjLOf;, TeOvrjKOTO^ e<f> rjfiepa^ 

TpLUKOVTa. 

2 Mera he ttjv eKeivov TcXevTrjv Trpo^ fiev tov<; 
pappdpov<^ ovSev €Tl XajMirpov vtt ovhevo^ iirpd- 
yOy] aTpaT7}yov tcov 'EXXt^j/wz/, aXXa TpairevTe^; 
VTTO SrjfiaycoyMV Koi TroXe/iOTroicov eV aXX7;XoL'9, 
ovS€Vo<; Ta9 %€t'/3a9 iv fiecrco 8Lao")(^6vT0<:, crvveppd- 
yrjcrav eh tov TToXe/iov, dvairvor) fxev toI<; ^aai- 
Xeco<; irpdyixacTi yevofxevoi, ^Oopov S* dfxvdrjTov 

3 T»79 'EXX7)viKrj(; Bwdfieo)^ aTrepyacrdfievot. osjre 
S' 01 Trepl TOV ^AyrfaiXaov eh Tr)v ^Acrlav e^evey- 
fcdfievoc TO, OTrXa fipa^eof; ^^avTO iroXefiov 7rp6^ 

/J 
464 



CIMON, XVIII 6-xix. 3 

No one knows what they were sent to ask, nor did 
the god vouchsafe them any response, but as soon as 
the enquirers drew nigh, he bade them depart, 
saying that Cimon himself was already with him. 
On hearing this, the enquirers went down to the sea- 
coast, and when they reached the camp of the 
Hellenes, which was at that time on the confines of 
Egypt, they learned that Cimon was dead, and 
on counting the days back to the utterance of the 
oracle, they found that it was their commander's 
death which had been darkly intimated, since he was 
already with the gods. 

XIX. He died while besieging Citium, of sickness, 
as most say.^ But some say it was of a wound which 
he got while fighting the Barbarians. As he was 
dying he bade those about him to sail away at once 
and to conceal his death. And so it came to pass 
that neither the enemy nor the allies understood 
what had happened, and the force was brought back 
in safety " under the command of Cimon," as 
Phanodemus says, " who had been dead for thirty 
days." 

After his death no further brilliant exploit against 
the Barbarians was performed by any general of the 
Hellenes, who were swayed by demagogues and 
partisans of civil war, with none to hold a mediating 
hand between them, till they actually clashed to- 
gether in war. This afforded the cause of the King 
a respite, but brought to pass an indescribable 
destruction of Hellenic power. It was not until long 
afterwards 2 that Agesilaiis carried his arms into Asia 
and prosecuted a brief war against the King's 
1 Thuc. i. 112. » 396-394 b.o. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0U9 €7rt OaXdaarj ^a(TiXeco<; (TTparrjyov^;' koI 
Xa/jL7rpbv ovSev ov8e fiiya hpdaavre^t avdi^ he 
Tat9 ¥SKXriViKai<; ardaeai koX Tapa^at<; d<i) 
erepa^ dpxv^ v7reve')(6evT€';j oi'^ovro tov<; Uepacov 
(popoXoyovq iv p.eaat<; raif; (TV/JLjuLd')(^oi<; koI (j>i\ai,^ 
TToXeaiv diToXiirovTe^j o)v ovBe ypap.pLaTO<^6po^ 
Kare^aivev ovS* ltttto^ Trpo^ OaXdcrar) rerpaKoa- 
icov (JTahiwv 6VT0<i M(f)0r) o-TparrjjovvTOf; KtyLtcoi^o?. 
' Ore puev ovv eh rrjv ^Attiktjv aTre/co/iiLcrdT) 
ra XeLsjrava avTov, fiaprvpel TOiV fivrj/xdrcov rd 
fiexpi' vvv K.tfiQ)V€ia irpoaayopevop^va* Tificoac 
Be fcal KtTt€?9 rd(j)ov Ttva Kt/xwz/o?, ©9 Nafo-t- 
Kpdrr)^ prirayp (fyrjaiv, iv Xoip,a) koI yrjf; d(j>opia 
rod Oeov irpoard^avro^; avTOi<; p^rj dpeXelv Kt- 
pLCDVo^y aXV d)9 Kpeirrova ae^eadai koI yepaCpeiv, 
TOtovTO<; pev 6 *FjXX7]vtKo<% rjyepiwv. 



466 



CIMON, XIX. 3-4 

generals along the sea-coast. And even he could 
perfonm no great and brilliant deeds, but was over- 
whelmed in his turn by a flood of Hellenic disorders 
and seditions and swept away from a second empire. 
So he withdrew, leaving in the midst of allied and 
friendly cities the tax-gatherers of the Persians, not 
one of whose scribes, nay, nor so much as a horse, 
had been seen within four hundred furlongs of the 
sea, as long as Cimon was general. 

That his remains were brought home to Attica, 
there is testimony in the funeral monuments to this 
day called Cimonian. But the people of Citium 
also pay honours to a certain tomb of Cimon, as 
Nausicrates the rhetorician says, because in a time 
of pestilence and famine the god enjoined upon 
them not to neglect Cimon, but to revere and honour 
him as a superior being. Such was the Greek 
leader. 



467 



.-i,^.'. 



LUCULLUS 



AOYKOYAAOD 

I. T« 8e AovKOvWo) TraTTTTO? fih yv vTrariKO^, 
Oelo^ 3e 7r/)o? firjrpo^ MereXXo? o ^ofJuthiKO^; 
iiTiKkridei';. tS)V he yoveav 6 jMev Trarrjp eaXco 
Kkoirrj^i, KeKiXia Se 97 fitjrrjp r)h6^r]Gev co? ov 
^e^LO)KVLa (T(o(j)p6va)<;, avTo<; S* Aou/couWo? 
6TA fietpaKtov wv, irplv apxvv rtva pberekdeZv 
KoX TToXireLa^ a^fracrOai,, irpoiTOv epyov eirotrjaaTO 
Tov rod 7raTpo<; Karrjf^opov Kplvai XepovlXiop 

2 avyovpa, \a0o)V ahiKovvra Brjfjuoala, koI to 
TTodyfia XafiTTpov i<f)dvr) *F(OfjLaL0L<;, koI ttjv 
BvKTjv €K€ivrju Mdirep aptcTTeiav Sia aTOfiaro^ 
ecr')(^ov. iBofcec Se koX aXX©? avrol^i avev Trpo^d- 
0-60)9 ovK dyevvh elvai to t?}? KaTr)yopLa<i epyov, 
dWk Kol irdvv Tov<i veov<i iffovXovTO tol<; 
dBiKOva-iv eTn^vofjuevov; opdv wcrirep Otiptoi^ evye- 
vet<; <JKv\aKa<;. ov fxrjv oXKA jxeydXr]^ irepl r^i^ 
Slktjv ifcelvrjv (pLXoveLKca^ yevofievrj^iy cj(tt€ kol 
TpcoOrjval Tiva^ kol irea-elv, dwecpvyev 6 Xepovi- 
Xlo<;. 

3 'O Se AovKovX\o<; tjo-kt^to kol Xeyeiv lKav(o<; 
e/caTepav yXcoTTUV, cocrre kcu SvXXa? Td<; avTOv 
irpd^ei^ dvaypdcfxov eKeivco irpoaec^xjovqaev o)^ avv- 
Ta^ofievo) Kol hiaOrjaovTi Tr)v laTOpiav dpLeivov. 
rjv yap ovk iirl ttjv ^eCav fiovTjv ifLfie\^<i avTov 
470 



LUCULLUS 



I. In the case of LucuUus, his grandfather was 
a man of consular rank, and his uncle on his mothers 
side was Metellus, surnamed Numidicus. But as 
for his parents, his father was convicted of peculation, 
and his mother, Caecilia, had the bad name of a 
dissolute woman. Lucullus himself, while he was 
still a mere youth, before he had entered public 
life or stood for any office, made it his first business 
to impeach his father's accuser, Servilius the Augur, 
whom he found wronging the commonwealth. The 
Romans thought this a brilliant stroke, and the 
case was in everybody's mouth, like a great deed 
of prowess. Indeed, they thought the business of 
impeachment, on general principles and without 
special provocation, no ignoble thing, but were very 
desirous to see their young men fastening themselves 
on malefactors like high-bred whelps on wild beasts. 
However, the case stirred up great animosity, so 
that sundry persons were actually wounded and 
slain, and Se> vilius was acquitted. 

Lucullus was trained to speak fluently both Latin 
and Greek, so that Sulla, in writing his own memoirs, 
dedicated them to him, as a man who would set 
in order and duly arrange the history of the times 
better than himself For the style of Lucullus 
was not only businesslike and ready ; the same 

VOL. II. Q 471 



I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol 'irp6')(€ipo<; o X0709, Kaddirep 6 t&v dWcov t^v 
/j,ev ayopav 

%vvvofs Pokalo^ TriXayo^ w? SiecTTpoffei, 

y€v6fi€vo<; Be t^9 ayopd<; i/CTO<; avo<;, afiovala 

4 TeOvrjKco^, aWa koX rrjv i/J,/jL€\rj ravTijv Kal 492 
Xeyofievrjv ekevOepiov iirl tm kuX^ TrpoaeTroieiTo 
iraiBeiav en koX fieipaKLov wv. yevofievo^; he 
irpeffpvTepo^i yBrj TravraTracnv co<r7rep ex ttoWmv 
aycovcov a(j)r]K€ rrjv hidvoLav ev (j>i\o<JO^ia (T^oXd- 
^eiv KoX dvairavecrOai, to OecoprjriKOv avrrj^ 
eyeipaf;, KaTaXvaa<; S' ev /caipw Kal KoXovaa^; ro 

5 (J>i,X6ti/iiov eK T^9 7rpo9 Ylofiirrjlov Bi,a<l>opd<;, irepl 
lieu ovv tt)? (f)iXoXoyLa<; avrov tt/do? toI^; elp7]/jL€Voi<; 
Kol ravra Xeyerar veov ovra 7rpo<; 'OpTi]cnov rov 
BiKoXoyov Kal ^taeiwdv rov laropiKov ik 7raiBid<; ^ 
Tivof; €t9 (TrrovBrjv irpoeXOovar)':; ofxoXoyrjaai, irpo- fll 
Oefievav iroirjpba Kal Xoyov ^EXXrjviKov re Kal 
'VmixalKoVy eh 6 tl dv Xd^f) tovtcov, tov Map- 
aiKov evrevelv iroXe/xov. Kal ttw? eoiKev eU Xoyov 
'KXXtjvikov 6 a-XtJ/^ov d<f)iKe(j6ar Biaa-M^erat yap 
*EXXt]VIK7] Ti9 [(TTOpta tov MapatKov iroXefiov. 

6 T779 Be 7r/)09 TOV dBeX(pov avTov MdpKov €vvoLa<; 

TTOXXCOV TeK/JLljpLCDV 6vT(OV fldXiaTU 'VwfXaloL TOV 

TrpcoTOV fivrj/xovevovai. nrpeajBvTepO'^ yap wv 
avTOV Xa^elv dp)(^rjv /jl6vo<; ovk i^deXrjo-eVf dXXd 
TOV eKeivov Kaipov dvafieiva^; outq)<s eirr^ydyeTO 
472 



I 



LUCULLUS, I. 3-6 

was true of many another man's in the Forum. 
There, 

" Like smitten tunny, through the billowy sea it 
dashed/' 

although outside of the Forum it was 

** Withered, inelegant, and dead." 

But Lucullus, from his youth up, was devoted to 
the genial and so-called "liberal" culture then in 
vogue, wherein the Beautiful was sought. And 
when he came to be well on in years, he suffered 
his mind to find complete leisure and repose, as 
it were after many struggles, in philosophy, en- 
couraging the contemplative side of his nature, and 
giving timely halt and check, after his difference 
with Pompey, to the play of his ambition. Now, 
as to his love of literature, this also is reported, in 
addition to what has already been said : when he 
was a young man, proceeding from jest to earnest 
in a conversation with Hortensius, the orator, and 
Sisenna, the historian, he agreed, on their suggestion 
of a poem and a history, both in Greek and Latin, 
that he would treat the Marsic war in whichever 
of these forms the lot should prescribe. And it 
would seem that the lot prescribed a Greek history, 
for there is extant a Greek history of the Marsic 
war. 

Of his affection for his brother Marcus there 
are many proofs, but the Romans dwell most upon 
the first. Although, namely, he was older than 
his brother, he was unwilling to hold office alone, 
but waited until his brother was of the proper 
age, and thus gained the favour of the people 

473 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov BrjfjLOV, co(TT€ (Tvv iK€iV(p firj TTapcbv ayopavofio^ 
aipeOrjvai. 

II. Neo9 5' o)v iv T(p MapatKO) iroXefiw iroXka 
fiev T6\fi7]<; Seiyfiara 7ra/)eV^e Kal crvve(Tea)<;, 
fxaXkov ye jjbrjv avrov St* eva-rddecav kol Trpaorrjra 
^vXkaf; TrpoarjydyerOy koI 'x^poojuievo'; air dp^V^ 
iirl Tcb TrXetcTTt;? d^ia cTTrouS^? BieTeXeaev o)v tjv 

2 KoX 7) irepl TO vofiLa/jLa TTpayfiarela, hi i/ceivov 
yctp eKOTTrj to irkelaTOV iv IleKo7rovvria-(p irepl tov 
MtOptBaTtKov iroXe/jLOV, kol AovkovWciov air 
eKeivov irpoarjyopevdrj, koI BieieXea-ev eirl irXet- 
(TTOv, virb Tcov (TTpaTiWTLKWv %/9eta)t' iv ToS iroXefio) 
Xafi^dvov dfJLOL^rjv Ta^^lav, iic tovtov Trjq fiev 
7/}? iiTiKpaTwv 6 SuXXa? iv Tai<; ^Kdrjvaifi, irepi- 
KOTTTopLevo^ Se Ttjv dyopav i/c Tfj<; 0a\dTTr]<; virb 
TMV iroXefjLLcov vavKpaTOVVTCOv, i^€1^€p,^frev iir* 
AlyvTTTOV KOL Ac^u7]<; TOV AovKovXXov d^ovra 

3 vav<; iKeWev. rjv puev ovv aKjur) '^etpLodvot;, e'fe- 
irXevae Be Tpialv 'EXXrjvLKOt'; p^voirdpcocri koI 
BiKpoTOL'^ t(TaL<i 'PoBiaKatf; tt/do? fieya 7reXayo<; koI 
vav^ iroXefjL[a<;, iravTa^^oa-e to) /cpaTetv iroXXd<; 
Bia^epoixeva^ij irapa^aXX6fi€vo<;. ov p,rjv dXXd 
Kal YLpTjTTjv KaTdpa<; (OKecdiia-aTO Kal K.vpr)vaiov<; 
KaTaXapoav iK TvpavviBtav <Tvve')(^Ci)v Kal iroXificov 
TapaTTop,evov<; dveXa^e, Kal KaTearrjcraTO ttjv 
iroXiTelav liXaTWViKrjf; tlvo<; ^o)vr]<^ dvajjuv^aaf; 
TTjv iroXiv, fjv if(etvo<; direOecriria-e irpo<; avTov<;. 

4 Beofjuevcov ydp, th^; eoiKev, oirax; re vopbov^ ^pd-^r) 
Kal TOV Brjfiov avTov el<; tvitov tlvcl KaTadTrjarj 
iroXiTeia'; aco^povof;, e(j)rj ^aXeirbv elvai Kvprjvauoi^ 



474 



LUCULLUS, I. 6-II. 4 

to such an extent that, although in absence from the 
city, he was elected aedile along with his brother. 

II. Though he was but a young man in the Marsic 
war,^ he gave many proofs of courage and under- 
standing. It was, however, more owing to his 
constancy and mildness that Sulla attached him to 
himself and employed him from first to last on 
business of the highest importance. Such, for 
instance, was the management of the mint. Most 
of the money used in Peloponnesus during the 
Mithridatic war was coined by him, and was called 
Lucullean after him. It remained current for a long 
time, since the wants of the soldiery during the war 
gave it rapid circulation. Afterwards, at Athens, 
Sulla found himself master on land, but cut off from 
supplies by sea, owing to the superior naval force of 
the enemy. He therefore despatched Lucullus to 
Egypt and Libya,^ with orders to fetch ships from 
there. Winter was then at its worst, but he sailed 
forth with three Greek brigantines and as many 
small Rhodian galleys, exposing himself not only to 
the high sea, but to numerous hostile ships which 
were cruising about everywhere in full mastery of it. 
However, he put in at Crete and won it over to his 
side. He also made Cyrene, and finding it in con- 
fusion in consequence of successive tyrannies and 
wars, he restored it to order, and fixed its constitution, 
reminding the city of a certain oracular utterance 
which the great Plato had once vouchsafed to them. 
They asked him, it would seem, to write laws for 
them, and to mould their people into some form of 
sound government, whereupon he said that it was 
hard to be a lawgiver for the Cyrenaeans when they 

» 90-89 B.O. « 87-86 b.o. 

475 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oi/Tft)9 evTV')(pvaL vofJLO0€T6iv. ovSev yap avOpco- 
TTov hvaapKTorepov ev irpdacetv Sokovvto^, 
ouS' av iraXtv Se/criKcorepov iiriaTaaia^; avara- 
\6VT0<; VTTO T^9 Tvxv^' ^ ^^^ T0T6 J^vprjvaiov^ 
vofioderovPTL AovkovWo) irpaov^ irapeax^^' 

5 ^EKelOev S* ava'xPei's Itt klyviTTOV tcl ifketaTa 
T&v <7Ka(^(av airepaXe ireipaTOiv eTn^avevTcoi', 
avTos Be ScaacoOel^ Karijyero XapbTrpw^ eh 'A\e- _ 
^dvSpeiav. dTTTjvTrjo-eydp avro) (Tvjjb7ra<; 6 aroXo^;, fl 
Mdirep elcoOet fiaaCkel KaTairXiovrt, KCKoafMrj- 
p,€vo^ eKirpeiroi)^' ical to p^eipaKiov 6 TirdXepxuo^ 
aXkrjv re davpao-rrjv eTTeSeiKvvTO ^Cko<^po(Tvvr)v 
irpo^i avTov, olktjotlv re kol BiaiTav iv roi? ^aai- 
Xetofc9 eBwKev, ov86v6<; Trco ^evov irporepov r)y€fi6vo^ 

6 avTodi KaTaxd^VTO<;. Bairdvrjv Be fcal avvra^iv 
ovx oarjv iBiBov to?9 aXXot9, dWa rerpaTrXrjv 
€Keiv(p irapelx^^i ou Trpoaiep^evo) rSyv dvayKaicov 
ifKeov ovBev ovBe Bwpov Xa^ovTi, KaiTrep oyBorj- 
Kovia TaXdvTwv d^ia irep.'y^ravTO^ aiirw. Xeyerat 493 
Be pbTjT €i9 M-epcpLV dva^TJvac fJbrjr dXXo rwp 
6avpa^ofi€Vcov iv AlyvTrrw kcu Trepiffoyrcov icrro- 
prjaai' axoXd^ovTO^; jap elvai ravra Bearov koX 
Tpv<p(tiVTO<;y ovx> ^? avTo^i, iv viraWpw rbv avro- 
Kpdropa (TKrjvovvra irapd ral^ iirdX^eai toov 
TToXepi(ov diroXeXoi'iroTO';. 

III. *E7r€l S* direKLire tt^v avpLfiax^av 6 IlToXe- 
p,alo<; 7rpo9 rov iroXepuov d7roB6iXtdaa<;, ixelvq) Be 
vav<; dxpt' K.v7rpov irop^TTov^ irapeorx'^i icaX irepl 
Tov eKirXovv avrov d<T7ra^6fi€VO<; /cat Oepairevcov 
iBcopeiTO xpvaivBeTOv a/idpayBov tcov iroXvTeXcov, 

476 



LUCULLUS, II. 4-III. I 

were having such good fortune. ^ In fact^ nothing is 
more ungovernable than a man reputed to be pros- 
perous ; and, on the other hand, nothing is more 
receptive of authority tiian a man who is humbled 
by misfortune. This was what made the Cyrenaeans 
at that time so submissive to Lucullus as their law- 
giver. 

From thence he set sail for Egypt, but was 
attacked by pirates, and lost most of his vessels. 
He himself, however, escaped in safety, and entered 
the port of Alexandria in splendid style. The entire 
Egyptian fleet came to meet him, as it was wont to 
do when a king put into port, in resplendent array, 
and the youthful Ptolemy, besides showing him other 
astonishing marks of kindness, gave him lodging and 
sustenance in the royal palace, whither no foreign 
commander had ever been brought before. The 
allowance which the king made for his expenses was 
not the same as others had received, but four times 
as much, and yet he accepted nothing beyond what 
was actually necessary, and took no gift, although 
he was offered the worth of eighty talents. It is 
also said that he neither went up to Memphis, nor 
sought out any other of the famous wonders of 
Egypt ; this he held to be the privilege of a leisurely 
and luxurious sight-seer, not of one who, like him- 
self, had left his commander-in-chief encamped under 
the open sky alongside the battlements of the 
enemy. 

III. Ptolemy abandoned his alliance with Rome, 
out of fear for the outcome of the war, but furnished 
Lucullus with ships to convoy him as far as Cyprus, 
embraced him graciously at parting, and offered him 
a costly emerald set in gold« At first Lucullus 

477 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO fjuev TTpSiTov AouATOfXXo? irapTjTelro, Sel^ap- 
T09 Be TTjv j\v(l>r)v Tov ^aaCkecof; elKova ovaav 
IBlav e^o^TjOr) SicocraaOai, fir) iravTCLTraaiv e;)^- 
Opo^ airoTrXelv vofitaOel'; iinPovXevO eirj Kara 

2 Odkarrav. iirel Se 7rXrj6o<; ev irapdifka veoov ifc 
Tcov Trapdkicov iroKecov adpoLcra<;, irkrjv oaoi irei- 
pariKMV jxerel^ov aBcKrjfidrcov, et? ttjv K^virpov 
BieirepaaeVy ivravOa 7rvv6av6/jL6vo<; rou? TroXe- 
fiLov<; vavKo'XpvvTa^i eirl Tal<; uKpal^ 7rapa(j)v\dT- 
T6LV avToVy ivea)\K7)ae tcl aKd<j>rj irdvTa, koI rah 
TToXeaiv eypayjre irepl ')(€viJLahi(ov fcal dyopd<;, &)9 

3 avToOt TTjv Mpav dva/Ji€V(ov, elra ttXov (pavivrof; 
e^aiTivrj<; KaTa(77rdcra<; ra? vav^ dvri')(6rj, kol fieO* 
Tjfiepav fjL6v v(f)6i,fiivoi<; irXicov rot? larTLOL<i /cal 
Taireivoh, vvktcoo S' eiraLpopAvoLf; eh *F6Bov 
iaoaOr). 'FoBicov Be vav<; avrw iTpo(T'irapaa')(^ovTcov 
KoDOf? eireio-e /cal KvlBlov<; tmv paa-CkiKCdv diraX- 
Xayevraf; eirl %ajj,L0V(; avarpareveiv. €k Be yiiov 
TOL'9 jSao-iXLKOv^ avTo<; i^TjXaae, K.oXo^(avLOv<; 
S* rfkevOepaxre a-vXXa^oov ^Eiirlyovov top Tvpavvov 
avTWV. 

4 ^KrvyxC'Ve Be /car' e/cetvov tov '^(^povov rjBrj 
M.L6piBdT7](; TO mpyafiov eKXeXonrm koX crvve- 
<TTaX/jLevo<; eh TlLTavrjv. ifcel Be ^i/ji/SpLov /caTe- 
')(0VT0(i avTov eic 7779 Kal iroXiopKovvTo^, eh ttjv 
BdXaTTav dcjiopcou avvrjye /cat iieTeirefiireTO tov^ 
iravTayodev (jtoXov^ 7rpo<; avTov, dvBpl ToXfJbrjTfj 
Kal veviK'qKOTL T(p ^ifiPpia avfiirXeKea-Oac /cal 

5 TToXefielv d7reyv(o/c(o<;. 6 Be TavTa avvoptov, vav- 
TLKW Be XeLirofxevo^ 7rpo<; Aov/covXXov eirefxirevy 
riK€LV TO) aT6X<p Beofievo^ kuI avve^eXelv exOtaTOv 



478 



LUCULLUS, III. 1-5 

declined to accept it, but when the king showed 
him that the engraving on it was a Hkeness of him- 
self, he was afraid to reject it, lest he be thought to 
have sailed aw ay at utter enmity with the king, and 
so have some plot laid against him on the voyage. 
As he sailed along, he collected a multitude of ships 
from the maritime cities, omitting all those engaged 
in piracy, and came at last to Cyprus. Learning 
there that the enemy lay at anchor off the headlands 
and were watching for his coming, he hauled all his 
vessels up on land, and wrote letters to the cities 
requesting winter quarters and provisions, as though 
he would await the fine season there. Then, when 
the wind served, he suddenly launched his ships and 
put out to sea, and by sailing in the day time with 
his sails reefed and low, but in the night time under 
full canvas, he came safely to Rhodes. The Rhodians 
furnished him with more ships, and he induced the 
people of Cos and Cnidus to forsake the royal cause 
and join him in an expedition against Samos. With- 
out any aid he also drove the royal forces out of 
Chios,^ and set the Colophonians free from their 
tyrant, Epigonus, whom he arrested. 

It happened about this time that Mithridates 
abandoned Pergamum and shut himself up in Pitane. 
Since Fimbria held him in close siege there by land, 
he looked to make his escape by sea, and collected 
and summoned his fleets from every quarter for 
this purpose, renouncing all engagements in the 
field with a man so bold and victorious as Fimbria. 
This design Fimbria perceived, and being without 
any fleet of his own, sent to LucuUus, beseecliing 
him to come with his, and assist in capturing the 

» 85 B.C. 

479 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX TrdXe/jLKOTarov ffaaiXicop, 0)9 /^rj to fiiya koI 
Bca TToWayv aycovayv kol ttovcov hicoKOfievov ad\ov 
eic<^vyoi 'Pa)//-afcou9, Mt^/otSar?;? et? Xa^a^; tjkwv 
Koi 'yGyovoD<; ivTO<; apKvcov, ov \7](f)6evTO<i ovBiva 
T779 86^7)<; otaeaOab irXeov rj top i/JLTroBcbv ttj ^vyfj 

6 aravra kol Bta8LBpd(rK0VT0<; eirCka^ofjuevov' v<f) 
eavTov jjuev i^ecoafievov t?)? 7779, vtt i/celvov Be 
rrj<; 6a\dTT7]<^ elpyofievov dfi(f>oT€poc<; aTToBondeiv 
TO KaTopOcofia, Ta^ Be ^vWa irpo^ ^Op)(pfievw 
KoX Trepl ^uLpcoveiav vpvovp.eva^ dpLcTTeia^ ev 
ovBevl Xoyqy OijaeaOai *Fa)/jLaL0v<;. koI ovBev rfv 
diro TpoTTOv TMV \eyo[iev(t)v, dXXa iravrX BrjXov, 
ft)9, el ^ip^ppia Tore 7reLa6el<i 6 AovKOvWo<i ov 
fia/cpav oiv irepirjyayev eKelae Ta9 vav<; xal avve- 
(ppa^e Tov Xcfjueva tw aroXw, wepa^ av el^^v o 
TToXepLO^ /cat fivpicov dirijXXay/Liivoi kukcov diravTe^ 

7 Tjaav. aXX,' etre tcl Trpo<i ^vXkav BiKULa Trpea- 
fievcov TTpo 7ravT0<; IBiov re koI kolvov av/xcpe- 
povTO<;, €LTe tov ^ifjbBpiav fiiapov ovTa kol (povea 
yey6V7]p,evov evay^o^ dvBpo<; (j)lXov Koi aTpaTrjyov 
Bca (^tXap^f^av 7rpo/3aXX6/jLevo<;, elVe KaTa Oeiav 
B?) Tiva TV)(Y}v 7repL(l)6io-dfjLevo<; avT0<; tov ^ yLiOpi- 
BaTOV Kol ^vXd^a<i dvTayayvLaTrjv, ov^ viTrjKovaev, 
dXXd M-LdpiBaTT} jxev eidrXevcrai irapeaye Kal 

8 KaTayeXdaat, t?79 ^L/jU^piov Bvvdpbew^, avT0<^ Be 
TTpMTov fiev eirl Ae/CTov T779 Tpq)dBo<; ^aaiXLKd<i 
vav<; e'iTL<f>aveL(Ta(; KaTevav/jud^crjaev, av0L<; Be 7r/909 
TeveBcp vavXo'X^ovvTa fiei^ovi irapaaKevy kutlBcov 

* avrhs TOV Reiske, Coraes, Bekker : avrov. 
480 



LUCULLUS, III. 5-8 

most hostile and warlike of kings, that the great 
prize which they had sought with so many toils 
and struggles might not escape the Romans, now 
that Mithridates was in their grip and fast in the 
meshes of their net. If he should be captured, 
Fimbria said, no one would get more of the glory 
than the man who stood in the way of his flight 
and seized him as he was running off. " Driven 
from the land by me, and excluded from the sea 
by you, he will crown us both with success, and 
the much heralded exploits of Sulla at Orchomenus 
and Chaeroneia will cease to interest the Romans." 
And there was nothing absurd in the proposition. 
It is clear to everyone that if Lucullus, who was 
close at hand, had then listened to Fimbria, brought 
his ships thither, and closed up the harbour with 
his fleet, the war would have been at an end, and 
the world freed from infinite mischief. But, whether 
he ranked the honourable treatment of Sulla above 
every consideration of private or public advantage, 
or whether he regarded Fimbria as a wretch whose 
ambition for command had recently led him to 
murder a man who was his friend and superior 
officer, or whether it was by some mysterious 
dispensation of fortune that he chose to spare 
Mithridates, and so reserved him for his own 
antagonist, — for whatever reason, he would not listen 
to the proposal, but suffered Mithridates to sail 
off and mock at Fimbria's forces, while he himself, 
to begin with, defeated the king's ships which 
showed themselves off Lectum in the Troad. And 
again, catching sight of Neoptolemus lying in wait 
for him at Tenedos with a still larger armament, 



481 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

NeoTTToXeyLtoz/ iireifkeL irpo rcov dWcov, 'VoSiaKrj^ 
irevrrjpov'; i7ri^€^r}Kco<;, rj<; ivavdp')(€L Aa/jLayopa^;, ^. 
avrjp €VVOV<; t€ *V(ojjiaLOi<; koI OaXaaaioav aycovcov Bl 
9 ifjuireLpoTaTOf;. eirekavvovro^ he poOlcp tov Neo- 
irToXejJbov kol Kekevaavro^ eh ip/SoXrjv ayayelv 494 
TOV KV^epviJTTjv, 86Lo-a<; 6 AajjLay6pa<i to l3dpo<i 

T^9 pa(TL\LKrj<^ KCil TrjV TpaXVTTJTa TOV ')(akK(i)- 

/ijbaT0<i ov/c eToX/J.rjcre avfiTreaelv dvTL7rp<ppo<;, aXV 
of 60)9 6K TrepLaycoyrj^i diroaTpe'^a^; eKekevcev eirl 
TTpvpLvav odaaaOar koI 'jneaOeiar^f; ivTavda t?}? 
ve(o<; iSi^aTO ttjv TrXi^yrjv d^Xa^rj yevofievrjv, are 
8r] TOt? 6aXaTT6vovcrL Trj<; vew^ fiepeai Trpoaire- 
10 crovaav. iv TovT(p Se TCdv <f)iXcov irpocT^epofxevcov, 
iyK6Xevo-dfi€vo<; 6 AovkovXXo^ iinaTpe^eiV koI 
iroXXd Spdaa^ d^ta Xoyov TpeireTai Tov<i iroXefiLOV^ 
fcal KaTahicoK6L tov l^^eoirToXefiov. 

IV. ^RfcelOev 8e XvXXa irepl yiepp6vr)(T0v rfhij 
fieXXovTi hiaPaiveiv avii^aXoiv tov re iropov 
da^aXrj irapel'^e /cat ttjv aTpaTtdv avv8i€l3ij3a^€V, 
€7rel 8e avvOrjKOiV yevop^evcov M.LdpiBdTrj<; fxev 
diriiTXevaev eh tov ^v^eivov ttovtov, SvXXa<i Be 
Tr]v ^Aauav BLo-fiupL0L<i TaXdvToa e^rj/nioyae, Trpoa- 
Ta^Oev avT(p ra re ')(^pr]pbaTa TavTa irpa^ai koI 
voyncrpcL Koyfrac, irapap^vOiov tl BoKel t^9 ^vXXa 
^aXe7roT7;T09 yeveaOat Tah TroXeaiv, ov p,6vov 
KaOapov KOL Sifcacov, dXXa /cal irpaov eh ovtco ^apv 
KoX afCvOpcoTTov VTrrjpeTTjp.a iTapa(T')(oi)V eavTov. 
2 MtTL'X^z/atou9 S' dvTLKpv^ d^ecTTMTa^ e^ovXeTO 
fiev evyvo) /jLovrja-aL kol Blkt]^ Tv^eiv peTpia^ ecf)* oh 
irepl MdpLOV ^ e^rjp^apTOV, ft)9 3' ecxipa KaKoBai/juO' 

* Mdpiov with Sintenis * and Coraes : Mdvioy. 
482 



LUCULLUS, III. 8 -IV. 2 

he sailed out against him in advance of the rest, 
on board of a Rliodian galley which was commanded 
by Damagoras, a man well disposed to the Romans, 
and of the largest experience as a sea-fighter. 
Neoptolemus dashed out to meet him, and ordered 
his steersman to ram the enemy. Damagoras, how- 
ever, fearing the weight of the royal ship and her 
rugged bronze armour, did not venture to engage 
head on, but put swiftly about and ordered his 
men to back water, thus receiving his enemy astern, 
where his vessel was depressed. The blow was 
harmless, since it fell upon the submerged parts of 
the ship. At this point, his friends coming up, 
Lucullus gave orders to turn the ship about, 
and, after performing many praiseworthy feats, put 
the enemy to flight and gave close chase to 
Neoptolemus. 

IV. From thence he joined Sulla at the Cher- 
sonesus, where he was about to cross the strait 
into Asia ; ^ he rendered his passage safe, and 
assisted in transporting his troops. After peace had 
been made, Mithridates sailed away into the Euxine, 
and Sulla laid a contribution of twenty thousand 
talents upon Asia. Lucullus was commissioned to 
collect this money and re-coin it, and the cities 
of Asia felt it to be no slight assuagement of Sulla's 
severity when Lucullus showed himself not only 
honest and just, but even mild in the performance 
of a task so oppressive and disagreeable. The 
Mitylenaeans too, who had revolted outright, he 
wished to be reasonable, and to submit to a moderate 
penalty for having espoused the cause of Marius. 
But when he saw that they were possessed by an 

* 84 B.o. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vovvra^f eiTL'jr\evaa<; eKparrjae fid')(ri koI Kare- 
Kketaev eU ra re/^T/, koI TroXiopKiav o-varrjadfievo^ 
i^eifkevae fjuev rjfiepa^ Kal (f)avep(a^ et? 'EXataz/, 
VTrecTTpe'sjre Be XeXrjOoTCOf; kclI irepX rr)v iroXtv 

3 v(fie\fi iveBpav r)av')(^a^€V. €7re\ 8' cLTaKrco^ Kal 
fjLera Opd(Tov<; ob? eprj/jLOV dpiraa-oixevoL to (Trparo- 
TTcBov 01 M.i,Tv\r]va2oi 7rporj\6ov, iireia'Trecrwv 
avTOL<; eXaySe re 7ra/x7r6XXou9 ^o)VTa<; fcal t5)v 
d/jLVvo/JLevcov irevraKOcrLov; direKreivev, dvBpaTroBcov 
Be xc^idBaf; ef koI ttjp dWrjv dvapiOfirjrov 
rfkdcraro Xelav. 

4 Tcov Be irepl rrjv ^IrdXiav KaKOiVy h rore 
SvXXa? Kal Mo/O£09 d<f)6ova Kal iravToBaira toU 
dv6 podiroi^ irapelypVy ov irdw /uL6Tea")(^e 6eia run. 
Tv-xxi irepl ra? iv ^Aaia irpd^et'^ ffpaBvva^. ov 
pr]v eXarrov n irapa ^vWa rwu dWwv <f)ik(ov 
e<7%ei/, dXka rrjV re ypacpijv, co? eXpr)Tai, rtov 
v'jro/jLvrip.dTcov eKeivco Bl evvoiav dveOrjKe, Kal 
reXevTcbv eiruTpOTTOv rov TratSo? eypayjrev virep^a^ 
Tlop^irrjiov, Kal BoKeZ tovto irpoiTOV avroU 
virdp^ai Bta^opaf; aXriov Kal ^rfKorvnla*; veoi<; 
ov(Ti Kal Bia'irvpoi<; irpo^ Bo^av. 

V. *0\iyq) B^ varepov rj ^vWav diroOavelv 
vTrdrevae fierd MdpKov K^orra irepl rrjv eKvrjv 
Kal €^Bop.7]KO(TTr}v 7r/309 Tat9 eKarov okvpundBa. 
iroXXcbv ovv avOi^ dvaKivovvTwv rov MiOpcBarLKoi' 
iroXefiov, €(f)r] MdpK0<; avrov ov ireiravaOai, dXX 
dvaireiravaOaL. Bio Kal Xa^cov rcov eirap')(^iMV 6 
AovKOvXXo's TTjv eVT09 ''AXireoyv VaXartav r)')(6eT0, 
irpd^eoov viroOeaeL^ fieydXcov ovk exovaav. 



484 



I 



I 



LUCULLUS, IV. 2-v. I 

evil spirit, he sailed against them, conquered them 
in battle, and shut them up within their walls. 
After instituting a siege of their city, he sailed away 
in open day to Elaea, but returned by stealth, and 
lay quietly in ambush near the city. When the 
Mitylenaeans sallied forth in disorder and with 
the confident expectation of plundering his deserted 
camp, he fell upon them, took a great number of 
them alive, and slew five hundi-ed of those who 
offered resistance. He also carried off six thousand 
slaves, besides countless other booty. 

But in the boundless and manifold evils which 
Sulla and Marius were bringing upon the people of 
Italy at that time, he had no share whatever, for, as 
some kindly fortune would have it, he was detained 
at his business in Asia.^ However, Sulla accorded no 
less favour to Lucullus than to his other friends. 
His memoirs, as 1 have said, Sulla dedicated to 
Lucullus in token of affection, and in his will 
appointed him guardian of his son, thereby passing 
Pompey by. And this seems to have been the first 
ground for estrangement and jealousy between these 
two men ; both were young, and burning for 
distinction. 

V. Shortly after the death of Sulla, Lucullus was 
made consul along with Marcus Cotta, about the 
hundred and seventy-sixth Olympiad.^ Many were 
now trying to stir up anew the Mithridatic war, 
which Marcus said had not come to an end, but 
merely to a pause. Therefore when the province of 
Cisalpine Gaul was allotted to Lucullus, he was 
displeased, since it offered no opportunity for great 
exploits. But what most of all embittered him was 

1 84-80 B.a a 74 B.O. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 fiaXia-ra 5' avrov evBoKificov Uofiir'^iof; iv ^J^rjpla 
7rapa)^vv€i>, co? dWo<; ou^et? €7rL8o^o<; mv, el 
(TV/jL^aiT} iraiKTacrOai top ^IprjpiKov TroXe/xov, 
€vOv<i alpeOrjaeaOav arrpaTr)y6<; iirl Mt6pihdrr)v. 
Sio Kol ')(priiJLaTa alTOvvTo<; avrov koX ypd(j)0VT0';, 
0)9, el p,r) TrifjuTTOiev, d(f)eU ^I^rjplav koI XeproopLov 
el<: ^IraXiav dird^oi rd^ Svvdpet^;, avveTvpa^ev 6 
AovKovX\o<; TTpodvp^orara irep.^Orjvai rd ')(^p't]p.aTa 
KOL p,r)B^ dcf)* 'qajLVoaovv Trpo^da-ecof; eKelvov 

3 eTraveXOetv virarevovTOfi avrov' irdvTa <ydp dv 
eir eKeiV(p yevrjcreaOaL rd tt)? TroXeo)? irapovri 
fierd Too-avTr}<; aTpaTid<;. koX yap 6 Kparcov Tore 
T^9 TTokiTeia^ T& TTpo^i %a/5f j^ diravra koX Xeyeiv 
Kal TTpdrrecv KeOr)yo<; e'xPpav rivd irpo^ Aov- 
KovWov el^ej ^BeXvjTopevov avrov rov fiiov 495 
ala^pMV ipcorayv /cat vl3p€co<; koI rrXrjp^peXeia^ 

4 puearbv ovra. rovrov fiev ovv dvriKpv; iiroXeper 
AevKLov he Kolvrov, dXXov Brj/xaycoyov, errava- 
(Trdvra rol<; SuXXa rroXcrevp^aarL Kal rapdrreiv 
rd TTpdypara rrecpcop^vov eic rov KaOeaT(oro<;, 
IBla re TroXXd Trapap^vdovpevo^ Kal hr]p,oaia 
vovderMV drrecrrrja-e rrj<i rreipa^ Ka\ Karearopeae 
rr]V (^iXonpiav, 0)9 evrjv pudXiara rroXiriKOi^ Kal 
acorrjpLco^ dpxv^ voarjparo^ peydXov pbera')(ei,pL- 
adpevo<;. 

VI. 'Ez/ rovrw S* 6 rrjv KiXiKuav ex^ov 
^OKraovio<^ r/yyiXdrj redvr}K(o<;. (TTrapycovrcov Be 
7roXX(ov 7r/oo9 rrjv eirapxiav Kal KeOrjyov 0)9 
Svvarcorarov ovra ScaTrpd^aaOat OepairevovrdoVy 
avrrj^ pev 6 AovkovXXo^ KtXtKca<; ov iroXvv et^e 
Xoyov, olopevo^ B\ el Xd^ot ravrr^v, e77L'9 ovarj^; 
KairTrahoKia^i, dXXov ovheva rrepLffidriceadai, iroXe- 
486 



1 



1 



LUCULLUS, V. i-vi. I 

the reputation which Pompey was winning in Spain. 
If the war in Spain should happen to come to an end, 
Pompey was more likely than anyone else to be at 
once chosen general against Mithridates. Therefore 
when Pompey wrote home requesting money, and 
declaring that if they did not send it, he would 
abandon Spain and Sertorius and bring his forces 
back to Italy, Lucullus moved heaven and earth to 
have the money sent, and to prevent Pompey from 
coming back, on any pretext whatsoever, while he 
was consul. He knew that all Rome would be in 
Pompey' s hands if he were there with so large 
an army. For the man who at that time controlled 
the course of political affairs by virtue of doing and 
sajdng everything to court the favour of the people, 
Cethegus, hated Lucullus, who loathed his manner 
of life, full as it was of disgraceful amours and 
wanton trespasses. Against this man Lucullus 
waged open war. But Lucius Quintus, another 
popular leader, who opposed the institutions of Sulla 
and sought to confound the established order of 
things, he turned from his purpose by much private 
remonstrance and public admonition, and allayed his 
ambition, thus treating in as wise and wholesome a 
manner as was possible the beginnings of a great 
distemper. 

VI. At this time there came tidings of the death 
of Octavius, the governor of Cilicia. There were 
many eager applicants for the province, and they 
paid court to Cethegus as the man best able to 
further their designs. Of Cilicia itself Lucullus 
made little account, but in the belief that, if he 
should get this province, which was near Cappadocia, 
no one else would be sent to conduct the war against 

487 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fXTjo-ovra MiOptSdrr), iraa-av eaTpe<f>e fiij'^avrjv 

2 vrrep rod fir) irpoeadai rrjv eTrapxlav erepcp. Koi 
TeXevTwv epyov ov aefivov ouS' iiraLverov, aXXta? 
K avvcrcfjLOV tt/oo? to reXof; e'/c rr}? avd^KT}^ 
xjirefJueLve irapa ttjv eavrov (^vaiv. 

Upacfcia ri<; rjv ovofia tmv €0' a>pa fcal XajjLvpia 
hia^orjTcov iv ry iroXei, to. fiev aXXa KpeiTTwv 
ovSev dviSrjv eTaipov(rr]<; yvvacKO';, ck Sk rov 
')(^prj(Tdai T0?9 evTvy^dvova-Lv avry koX Biakeyo- 

fjL6V0i<; TTyOO? TO.? UTTCp TCOV (^iKcdV aTTOvScL^ Kol 

iroXiTelat; irpoaXafiovaa rrj Xonrfi ')(^dpiTL to 
hoKelv (^LXeTaip6<^ tc9 elvai koi SpacrTrjpio<; 

3 Xa'X^uae iikyidTov. to? he kcu KiOrjyop dvOovvra 
ry ho^rj t6t€ koX (pipovra rrjv ttoXiv VTrrjydyero 
Kal (TVVTjV epcovTLy iravrdiraaLV eU eKeivrjv 
irepirfxOev r} ri)? TroXeo)? Svvafit^' ovSk yap 
iirpdrrero ri hr^fjuoa-ia ILeOrjyov /jLtj airovha^ovTO'^ 
ovhe UpaiKiaf; fir) KeX€vovari<^ irapd KeO^yco. 
ravrrjv ovv vireXOcbv Scopocf; 6 AovKovXXo<i Kal 
KoXaK6iaL<; (jjv he irov Kal tm AovkovXXm 
avfJii^iXoTLiJLOVfJbevrjv opaaOai fieya<; yvvaiKi cro- 
j3apd Kal TravriyvpLKfi fiiaOo^i), ev6v<; el')(e rov 
Kedrjyov eTraiveryv Kal Trpo/xvayfievov avrw 

4 YLiXiKLav. eTTel 8' dira^ ^'^^X^ TavTrj<;, ovSev en 
YlpaiKiav ovSe K.eOr)yov eSet irapaKaXelv, dXXd 
7rai^T69 o/xa\w9 eKeiv(p (pepovre^; eve')(eLpi(Tav rov 
^i6piSariKov iroXefJiov co? l'c/)' erepov fjLr}B€Vo<; 
d/xetvov BtaTToXe/jLijdTjvat Bvvd/jLevov,Ho/jb7r7]tov fiev 
ere XepTcopiO) wpoo-iroXe/xovvrofi, MereXXou S' 
d7rei.prjK6TO<i ijBr] Bid yrjpa^;, ov<; fiovovi dv Tt9 
488 



LUCULLUS, VI. 1-4 

Mithridates, he strained every nerve to keep the 
province from being assigned to another. And 
finally, contrary to his natural bent, he was driven by 
the necessities of the case to adopt a course which 
was neither dignified nor praiseworthy, it is true, but 
conducive to his end. 

There was a certain woman then in Rome, Praecia 
by name, whose fame for beauty and wit filled 
the city. In other respects she was no whit better 
than an ordinary courtesan, but she used her 
associates and companions to further the political 
ambitions of her friends, and so added to her other 
charms the reputation of being a true comrade, and 
one who could bring things to pass. She thus 
acquired the greatest influence. And when Cethe- 
gus also, then at the zenith of his fame and in 
control of the city, joined her train and became her 
lover, political power passed entirely into her hands. 
No public measure passed unless Cethegus favoured 
it, and Cethegus did nothing except with Praecia's 
appnwal. This woman, then, Lucullus won over by 
gifts and flatteries, and it was doubtless a great boon 
for a woman so forward and ostentatious to be seen 
sharing the ambitions of Lucullus. Straightway he 
had Cethegus singing his praises and suing for 
Cilicia in his belialf. But as soon as he had obtained 
this province, there was no further need of his 
soliciting the aid of Praecia, or of Cethegus, for that 
matter, but all were unanimous and prompt in 
putting into his hands the Mithridatic war, assured 
that no one else could better bring it to a trium- 
phant close. Pompey was still engaged in his war 
with Sertorius, Metellus had now retired from active 
service by reason of his age, and these were the only 

489 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iva/jiiX\ov<; iirotrjcraTO AovKovWtp irepl t^9 
a-TpaTr}yla<; afX(j)t,aPrjTOvvTa<;. ov firjv aWa 
K6TTa<; 6 avvdp')(Ctyv avTOV iroWa XiTraprjaa^; rrjv 
avyKKrjTov aTrearaXr) fiera vewv rrjv UpowovrlBa 
^v\d^a)V Kol irpOTroXefirjawv Bt^frta?. 

VIT. AovKovSXo^ Be rcuyixa jxev avroOev e^coy 
o-vvrerayfjuivov vtt avrov Bte^atvev eh rrjv 
^Kdlav eKel Be ttjv aXkrjv irapeXa^e Bvva/JLCv, 
7rdvT(ov fjiev irdXav Tpv<f)al<; Biecpdoporcov koI 
7r\eove^iaL<;, tmv Be ^i,/jL0pLav(ov 'Keyofievcov kol 
Bca avvrjOeiav dvap')(iaf; Bva/jLeTa^eLpiaT(ov yeyo- 
voTcov. ovTOi yap rjorav ol ^XdKKOv re fiera 
^i/jL^piov Tov VTrarov Kcti orTparrjybv dvrjpijKore^ 
avTov re tov ^ifi^piav SvXXa irpoBeScoKOTe';, 
avOdBei'i fjuev dvOpcoTTot Kol Trapdvofioi, fjid^ifiov 
Be KoX T\rjiJiove<; fieT ifiTreipLaf; TToXejuov. ov 
fir}v dXXa ^pa^^^ XP^^^ ^'^^ rovrcov to Opdao^ 
6 AovKovXXo<; e^eKoyjre /cal tot;? dXXov<; lire- 
arpe-^e, TOTe Trpwrov, co? eoiKe, ireipcofievovf; 
dp')(^ovTO<i dXTjOivov KoX rjyeiJLOVO^' dXXco<; B* eBrj- m 
(jbaywyovvTO irpo^i tjBovtjv edt^ofievoi aTpareveaOai, ^ 

Ta Be TMV iroXepiav ovtq)<; el^^e, Mt6pcBdTr)<;, 496 
axTTrep ol ttoXXoI tcov ao(f)taT(Ji)v, Kop.7rc£)B'rj<i iv 
dpxjj fcal cro/3apo<; eVt 'Pcofjuaiovf; dvacTrd^ Bia- 
Kev(p Bvvdfxei, Xafiirpa Be kol Travrjyvpi/cfj ttjv 
o^frt,v, eW eKirea-oiv icarayeXdaT(o^ Koi vovOeTT)- 
6eh, ore to Bevrepov TToXep.elv efieXXev, eh 
dXr]Oivr)v KOi 7rpayp,ariKr)v avvecrreXXe rd^ Bvvd- 
jiieL<; Trapaa/cev^v. dcjyeXayv yap rd iravroBaird 
irXTjOr) Kol rd<; 7roXvyXcoaaov<i d7retXd<i rcov 
^ap^dpcov, ottXcov re^ Bi^wx^pvaoyv kol BiaXlOcov 

1 T« with S : 5t. 
490 



I 



LUCULLUS, VI. 4-vii. 4 

men who could be regarded as rivals of LucuUus in 
any dispute about this command. Cotta, however, 
his colleague in the consulship, after fervent en- 
treaties to the Senate, was sent with some ships to 
guard the Propontis, and to protect Bithynia. 

VII. With a legion which he had raised himself in 
Italy, Lucullus crossed into Asia,^ and there assumed 
command of the rest of the Roman forces. All these 
had long been spoiled by habits of luxury and greed, 
and the Fimbrians, as they were called, had become 
unmanageable, through long lack of discipline. 
These were the men who, in collusion with Fimbrius, 
had slain Flaccus, their consul and general, and had 
delivered Fimbrius himself over to Sulla. They 
were self-willed and lawless, but good fighters, hardy, 
and experienced in war. However, in a short time 
Lucullus pruned off their insolent boldness, and 
reformed the rest. Then for the first time, as it 
would seem, they made the acquaintance of a 
genuine commander and leader, whereas before this 
they had always been cajoled into doing their duty, 
like crowds at the hustings. 

On the enemy's side, matters stood as follows. 
Mithridates, boastful and pompous at the outset, like 
most of the Sophists, had first opposed the Romans 
with forces which were really unsubstantial, though 
brilliant and ostentatious to look upon. With these 
he had made a ridiculous fiasco and learned a 
salutary lesson. W^hen therefore, he thought to go 
to war the second time, he organized his forces into 
a genuinely effective armament. He did away with 
Barbarous hordes from every clime, and all their 
discordant and threatening cries ; he provided no 

* 74 B.C. Cf. Ctmow, i. 5. 

491 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaTacrK6vd<;, C09 Xd<pvpa r&v Kparovvrtov, ovk 
oXk^v Tipa rSiv KeKTrjfievayv ovra, ^C^tj fiev 
rfkavvero ^FcofjualKa koI Ovpeov<; ifi^pideX^; iirrj- 
yvvTo KOI y6<yv/jLvacrfjL6vov<i fiaXKov rj /ceKoa/iir)- 
fiivov<i i]Opoi^€v Xttitov^, ire^oiv Se fivptdha^ BooBeKa 

KaT€(TK€Va<TfJL€V(OV €69 (fxiXajja ^¥(0fJLalK7]V, tTTTret? 

Be 7r/)09 fJLVpioLf; €^aKia'X,c\lov<; dvev T<av Bpeiravq- 

5 (f>6p(ov reOpiTTTreov' ravra S* rjv eKarov en Be 
vav^ ov ^pvaop6(^OL<i aK-qviaiv ovBe Xovrpoh 
TraWaKuBcov koI yvvai/ccovLTKTt Tpvt^oDaav^ rja-Kr]- 
fieva^, aX}C oirXwv koI ^eXcov fcal '^prj/jbdrcov 
yefjLovaa<i irapapTvadfievo^ ivefiaXev eh ^idvviav, 
Tcov TToXecov avdc<; do-^ev(o<i viroBe'x^o/jiivcov ov 
fiovov TOVTcov, dXka koI ttjv ^Aaiav oXrjv viro- 
rpoTTTj Tcav efJLirpoaOev voar^jxaTcov el')(ev, d^oprjra 
Trdo-^ovaav vrro 'Vcofjualiccav Bavecarwv kol tcXo)- 

6 vcjv' OU9 vcTTepov fiev wairep *Ap7rvLa(; rrjv Tpo(f)r]v 
dpird^ovra<i avTMv 6 AovkovXXo<; i^ijXaore, rore 
Be /jLerptcorepov^ iTretpdro povdercov iroielv, xal 
Ta9 dTrodrdaet^ Kareirave tcop Bijficov, ovBepo^, 
0)9 €7709 elireiPy r)av^d^opTO<;, 

VIIL ^Op Be irepl Tavra AovkovXXo^ V^X^~ 
XetTO '^popop avTov Kaipop elvat po/jll^cop 6 
KoTTa9 irapeaKevd^ero fidxeadac 7rpb<; ^lOpv- 
BdTTjp. KOL TToXXcop aTTayyeXXopTcop rjBr] Aov- 
KOvXXop ep ^pvyia arparoTreBeveiP iirwpra, 
fiopop OVK ev Tal<i 'xepalp e^eip top Opla/jL^op 
ol6fjL€PO<i, 0)9 firf /jberaXd^rj AovKovXXo<i avrov, 
2 av/jL^aXecp eairevcre. irXyyeU 3' dfia xal Kara 

49a 



I 

I 



LUCULLUS, VII. 4-viii. a 

more armour inlaid with gold and set with precious 
stones, for he saw that these made rich booty for the 
victors, but gave no strength whatever to their 
wearers ; instead, he had swords forged in the Roman 
fashion, and heavy shields welded ; he collected 
horses that were well trained rather than richly 
caparisoned, and a hundred and twenty thousand 
footmen drilled in the Roman phalanx formation, 
and sixteen thousand horsemen, not counting the 
scythe-bearing, four-horse chariots, which were a 
hundred in number : and further, he put in readiness 
ships which were not tricked out with gilded 
canopies, or baths for concubines, and luxurious 
apartments for women, but which were rather loaded 
down with armour and missiles and munitions of war. 
Then he burst into Bithynia, and not only did the 
cities there receive him again with gladness, but all 
Asia suffered a relapse into its former distempered 
condition, afflicted, as it was, past bearing by Roman 
money-lenders and tax-gatherers. These were after- 
wards driven off by LucuUus, — harpies that they 
were, snatching the people's food ; but then he 
merely tried, by admonishing them, to make them 
more moderate in their demands, and laboured to stop 
the uprisings of the towns, hardly one of which was 
in a quiet state. 

VIII. While Lucullus was thus occupied, Cotta, 
thinking that his own golden opportunity had come, 
was getting ready to give battle to Mithridates. 
And when tidings came from many sources that 
Lucullus was coming up, and was already encamped 
in Phrygia, thinking that a triumph was all but 
in his grasp, and desiring that Lucullus have no 
share in it, he hastened to engage the king. But 

493 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



1 



yrjv Kol Kara OaXarrav i^tJKOvra fxev airwkeaev 
avravhpa aKcicjyr), Trefoi;? Be rerpa/cLCTXikLov^, 
auT09 Be KaraKXecaOeh eh ^aXKrjBova kol 
7To\i,opKOVfjLevo<; eh Ta<: AovkovWov ^eiyoa? dire- 

3 '^Haav jxlv ovv oi rov AovkovWov a^eXrjaavra 
K-OTTa irpoaoi) 'xcopelv irapopfiiavTef; o)? eprjfiov 
alprja-ovra ttjv MlOplB/itov ^aatXeiav, koI fxa- 
Xiara tcov <TTpaTV(OT(t)v ovTO<i rjv 6 X0709, djava- 
KTOVVTcov, el firj fiovov avrov diroXel koI tov<; 
<rvv avT(p ^ovXevadfjL€Vo<: kuk^ Korra?, dXXa 
KOL (T<^laiv efiTToBoov earai vlkclv dixax'^i' Bvva- 

4 fievoL<;. Aov/covXXo^ Be tt/oo? /xei/ tovtov<; Br^fjur). 
yopeov elireVf co? eva ^ovXolt av ifc TroXcfucov 
craxrai '^cofiacov rj iravra Xapelv rd tcov TroXefiioDV 
^Ap')(€Xdov Be Tov irepl IBoKariav MiOpLBaTrj 
aTparrjyTja-avTO^, elr dwoaravTO'^ Kal 'PcofiaLOL<; 
avarparevovTO^i, BLajSe/SaLov/jbevov 6(pOevTa Aov- 
KovXXov ev YiovTcp irdvrcov ofiov Kparijo-eiv, ovk 
e(f)r] BeLX6Tepo<i elvac tcov Kvvrjycov, waTe ra Orjpua 
irapeXOcbv iirl Kevov(; avTcov tov? 0ft)Xeou9 ^aBl- 

5 ^6LV. Kal TavT elircbv iirl MidpcBaTrjv Trporjye 
ire^ov'^ fiev e')(cov TpicTfivpLov<;, linreh Be BLcr')(^LXiov<; 
TrevTaKoalov^. KaTa(TTd<; B* eh eiro^jrcv twv iroXe- 
fjLLcov Kal 6avfidaa<; to 7rX7]0o<i e^ovXeTO /jl€v 
dirkyecrdai jJidxrj^ Kal Tpifieiv tov xpovoVy Mapiov 
B\ ov ^epTcoptof; ef 'l/3r)pLa<; direaTaXKeu MtOpi- 
BaTT) fieTa Bwd/xecof; cTTpaTTjyov, diravT^cravTO^ 
avTcp Kal TTpOKaXovfjievov KaTeaTr) fiev eh Ta^iv 
009 Bia/jLayovfierof}, '^Brj Be oaov ovttco avfi^epo- 

6 fievcov, dir ovBefiLd<; i7rc<j)avov<i fieTa^oXrj';, dXX 

494 



LUCULLUS, VIII. 2-6 

he was defeated by sea and land, lost sixty vessels, 
crews and all, and four thousand foot- soldiers, 
while he himself was shut up in Chaleedon and 
besieged there, looking for relief at the hands of 
LucuUus. 

Now there were some who urged LucuUus to 
ignore Cotta and march on into the kingdom of 
Mithridates, assured of capturing it in its defenceless 
condition. This was the reasoning of the soldiers 
especially, who were indignant that Cotta, by his 
evil counsels, should not only be the undoing of 
himself and his army, but also block their own way 
to a victory which they could have won without 
a battle. But LucuUus, in a harangue which he 
made them, said that he would rather save one 
Roman from the enemy than take all that enemy's 
possessions. And when Archelaiis, who had held 
command for Mithridates in Boeotia, and then had 
abandoned his cause, and was now in the Roman 
army, stoutly maintained that if LucuUus were once 
seen in Pontus, he would master everything at once, 
LucuUus declared that he was at least as courageous 
as the hunter; he would not give the wild beasts 
the slip and stalk their empty lairs. With these 
words, he led his army against Mithridates, having 
thirty thousand foot-soldiers, and twenty-five hundred 
horsemen. But when he had come within sight ot 
the enemy and seen with amazement their multitude, 
he desired to refrain from battle and draw out 
the time. But Marius, whom Sertorius had sent 
to Mithridates from Spain with an army, came out 
to meet him, and challenged him to combat, and so 
he put his forces in array to fight the issue out. 
But presently, as they were on the point of joining 

495 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^aL<l)vr]<; rod a6po<; vTroppayivro^i ^ w^drj fiiya 
arcojjia (j^XoyeiBef; et9 fieaop ra>v a-TparoTreSayv 
KaTa(^ep6fievoVy to fiev ax^P'CL irlOa /jLaXcaTa, 
rrji/ Be %/5oai^ apyvpo) Biairvpw rrpoaeoLKo^;, ware 
SeLaavTa^; a/jL(j)OT€pov<i to <f)d(Ti.La BiaKpiOrivai. 497 

7 TOVTO fjbev ovv (j)aai,v ev ^pvyia irepl ra? Xeyo- 
fjL6va<; 'Or/jua? crvp,^r]vai> to 7ra^09. 

'O Be AovKovWo<; ovB€fiid<; elvai vojull^cov 
dvOpcoTTLvrj^i 7rapa(TKevrj<i ovBe ttXovtov Opes^ai 
IMVpidBa<; iirl ttoXvp 'X^povov dvTiKaOrj/jLevcov TroXe- 
/jLLwv TOcravTa^i, 6cra<; el%€ MidpiBaTrji;, i/ceXevcrev 
d'X^Orjvai Tcov aL')(/J^a\(OTcov evw Koi irpSiTOv dve- 
Kpive, peTCL iroarwv BiaiTojro ava/crjvoiv, eireiTa 

8 iroaov ev Ty aKrjvfj KaTakeXonre otItov. diro- 
Kpivap,ivov Be TupOpcoTrov top fxep exeXevae jxeTa- 
(TTrjvai, BevTcpov Be koi TpiTop 6fioLCi)<; dpeKpivev, 
euTa avpOel^ to t?}? irapeaKevaa pApr^f; Tpo^rj<; 
irXrj6o<i 7rpo<; to tcop Tpecpop^epcop, eypco Tptcop 
rj Teaadpwp r)pepo)V enrLXeiy^oPTa ctltop tov<; 
TToXeplov^. KoX TToXv p^dXXop etx^TO tov xpopov, 
Kol crvprjyep eh top ')(dpaKa irapirXr^Orj aiTOP, to? 
ip d(f)06pot<; Bidycop avTo^i ecjyeBpeuot Ta.i9 eKeticop 
d'jropiai'^. 

IX. 'Ei/ TovT(p Be MiOpiBdTrjf; eTrefiovXeve 
K.v^i,KrjpoL<; ireTrXrjyocriv ev ttj irepl XaXKrjBopa 
pd'X^y tplo-^lXlcop yap dpBpcop koi BeKa pecov 
icTTeprjpTO. ^ovX6p,epo<; ovp XaOelv tov Kov- 
KovXXov, €v6v<; diro Benrvov pvKTa BvcrcjiapP] icaX 
poTepap e^f^v eKiver kuI ^Odveo ttj^ 7r6Xea)<i 
dvTtKpv<; dp.' V/^epa irepl to Tfj<; 'ABpaa-Teca^ opos 

^ vvoppayevTos with S : air op pay ivr OS* 
496 



LUCULLUS, viii. 6-ix. i 

battle, with no apparent change of weather, but 
all on a sudden, the sky burst asunder, and a huge, 
flame-like body was seen to fall between the two 
armies. In shape, it was most like a wine-jar, 
and in colour, like molten silver. Both sides were 
astonished at the sight, and separated. This marvel, 
as they say, occurred in Phrygia, at a place called 
Otryae. 

But Lucullus, feeling sure that no human provision 
or wealth could maintain, for any length of time, 
and in the face of an enemy, so many thousands 
of men as Mithridates had, ordered one of the 
captives to be brought to him, and asked him first, how 
many men shared his mess, and then, how much food 
he had left in his tent. When the man had answered 
these questions, he ordered him to be removed, 
and questioned a second and a third in like manner. 
Then, comparing the amount of food provided with 
the number of men to be fed, he concluded that 
within three or four days the enemy's provisions 
would fail them. All the more, therefore, did he 
trust to time, and collected into his camp a great 
abundance of provisions, that so, himself in the 
midst of plenty, he might watch for his enemy's 
distress. 

IX. But in the meantime, Mithridates planned a 
blow at Cyzicus, wh ch had suffered terribly in the 
battle near Chalcedon, having lost three thousand 
men and ten ships. Accordingly, wishing to evade the 
notice of Lucullus, he set out immediately after the 
evening meal, taking advantage of a dark and rainy 
night, and succeeded in planting his forces over 
against the city, on the slopes of the mountain range 



497 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 lBpvcra<; rrjv Bvva/jLiv. 'O Se AovkovWo<; alado- 
/jL€vo<; fcal Bico^a<; rjydirrjae fxev ouk ifJuirecrcDV aavv- 
TaKTo<; eh tov<; irokefdov^, xaOi^et Be tov arparov 
irepl Tr]v SpaKiav Xeyofievrjv Kcofi-qv iv roirco Kara 
TWi^ oB(hv apiara Tre^vKort koX tmv ')((opia)Vy o^' 
(f}v KOi Bl a)v dvay/catov r)v roh MidpLBaTiKoh rd 
eTTtrrjoeia (pocrdv. Bio koI TrepLXa^cov rfi Biavoia 
TO peWov ovK direKpv-^aTO rov<; (TTpaTi(OTa<;, aW 
dpu T(p OeaOav to a-rparoTreBop koI dirb rwv 
epycov yeveadac avvayayoov avrov^ efieyaXi]- 
yopijaev, co? oXlycov rj/jiepcjv dvatp^coTL to viKrjfia 
TrapaBcoacov avToh. 

3 Kv^LKTjvov^ Be MiOpiBdTrjf} BeKU puev €k yrj^ <7Tpa- 
T07reBoc<; TreptXa^cov, rai? Be vavalv ex daXda-arjff 
TOV dirb T7j<i i^irelpov BieipyovTa Tr)v ttoXlv evptirov 
e)U,(/)/)afa9, e/caTepcodeu erroXLopfcei,, tu fiev dXXa 
BiaKeLpbevov^i Trpo^ tov kLvBvvov evOapacof; koI irdv 
eveKa 'Vaypbaiwv iyvcoKOTa^ eKBe')(ea9aL Bva')(epe<i, 
dyvoovvTa<; Be oirrj AovkovXXo<; etrj koX T(p pr)Bev 

4 irepl avToO ireirvcrdat TapaTTOfievovf;. KaiTOi 
KaTa(j)avr]^ tjv t] (TTpaTOireBeia koI aTroTTTO^i, dXX^ 
VTTo Tcov M-iOpiBaTLKCov c^rjiraTcovTO. BecKvvvTe<; 
yap avToh tov^ 'FcopLalovf; dvco TrapepL^efSXriKOTaf; 
*' OpaTe TovTov<;;** e^aaav, "Wppevlcov o-ryoaro? 
iaTc KoX yi.rjB(ov, Tiypdvov MidptBaTij KaTairepu- 
'xjravTO'; eTTiKOVpiav.'* ol S* e^eTrXtjaaovTO toctov- 
Tov iroXe/jiov 'irepiKe')(ypLevov pr)B\ el irapayevoiTo 
AovKovXXo^, X^P^v ^Vt XeX€L(f>OaL ^orjOeia^ ekirl- 
^ovTe^. 

5 Ov fMr)v dXXd tt/jwto? auroi? ela7rep,(f)0elfi vrr* 
*ApxeXdov Arjp.Q)va^ ecppaae ttjv tov AovkovXXov 
498 



LUCULLUS, IX. 1-5 

of Adrasteia, by day-break. Lucullus got wind of 
his departure and pursued him, but was well satisfied 
not to fall upon the enemy while his own troops were 
in disorder from their march, and stationed his army 
near the village called Thracia, in a spot best suited 
to command the roads and regions from whicb, and 
over which, the army of Mithridates must get its 
necessary supplies. Seeing clearly, therefore, what 
the issue must be, he did not conceal it from his 
soldiers, but as soon as they had completed the 
labour of fortifying their camp, called them together, 
and boastfully told them that within a few days he 
would give them their victory, and that without any 
bloodshed. 

Mithridates was besieging Cyzicus both by land 
and sea, having encompassed it with ten camps on 
the land side, and having blockaded with his ships 
by sea the narrow strait which parts the city from 
the mainland. Although the citizens viewed their 
peril with a high courage, and were resolved to 
sustain every hardship for the sake of the Romans, 
still, they knew not where Lucullus was, and were 
disturbed because they heard nothing of him. And 
yet his camp was in plain sight, only they were 
deceived by their enemies. These pointed the 
Romans out to them, lying encamped on the heights, 
and said : " Do you see those forces .'' It is an army 
of Armenians and Medes which Tigranes has sent to 
assist Mithridates." They were therefore terrified 
to see such hosts encompassing them, and had no 
hopes that any way of succour remained, even if 
Lucullus should come. 

However, in the first place, Demonax was sent 
in to them by Archelaiis, and told them that Lucullus 

499 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapovaiav, Tovtcov B* aTnarovvTcov /cat vofii^ov' 
rcov avTov twv TrapovrcDV iirl iraprj^opia ireirXa- 
(rfxeva Xeyetv, ^k€ Trai^dpiov alxM'dXcoTov Ik twv 
TroXefJiiwv aTroSeSpaKo^. irvvdavojiivaw ^' avroov, 
TTov Xiyoi Tov AovfcovWov elvai, KareyeXa Trai^eiv 
avTov<; olofievov, &>? 8* icopa (T7rovSd^ovra<}f 
iarjpir]ve rfj %6f/3l tov x^paKa rcov 'VwfiaioDV, oi S* 

6 dveOdpa-qaav. tt)? he /laaKvXLTiho<; XvfjLvrji; ttXco- 
/jbevr]<; dKarLOL<; eirL€LKW<i evpueykOeaiy to p^eyiaTOv 
avTwv 6 AovKovXXo<; dveXKvaa^ kol tiayaywv 
dfid^r) irpo^ T7]v ddXaTTav 6aov<^ e^dopei (TTpaTLO)- 
Ta9 eveffi^ao-ev. eXaOov he vvkto^ htairepdaavTe^ 
Kol irapeiariXOov eh ttjv iroXiv. 

X. 'EofcAre oe Ka\ to delov eiriOappvvat tov^ 
Kv^tKr]vov<;, dyaadev avTMv ttjv dvBpayaOlav, 
aXXot.<; re o-rjfieioc; evapyia-i, koX Trj<; tS)v ^epe^aT- 
TL(ov €0pTrj<; evecrTco(77)<; at jxev 'r]nropovv ^oo<i fie- 
XaLV7j<; 7r/0O9 Tr)v Ovaiav koX aTaiTivqv irXdaavTe^ 498 
T(p ^wfJLw irapecTTYjo-aVy rj S' lepa kol Tpe<^0fiev7) ttj 
6ew vofii]v p.ev el^eVy coairep ToXXa ^OTa twv 
Kv^ifCTjvMV, ev TTJ TTepaia, kclt €/ceLvr]v he ttjv 
r)piepav diroKpLOelaa TP]<i dyeX7]<; fiovrj hcevrj^aTO 
Trpo? T^i^ iroXiv KOL KaTeaTTjaev eirl Trjv Ovaiav 

2 avTTjv, ovap h r) 6eo<i *Api(TTay6pa tw tov hrjpuov 
ypa/jLfiaTt(TTy irapacTTda-a, " K.al fjLrjv €70)76," 
elirevy '' rfKco tov AtjSvxbv avXijTrjv erfrl tov 
HovTLKOv (TaXiriyiCTrjv eirdyovaa. <f>pd(Tov ovv 
Oappelv T0L<^ TToXtrai?." Oavpa^oVTCov he Tr)v 
(^covr]V Tcov Kv^LKTjvcov dp.* V/^kp^ adXov el^^v rj 
OdXaaaa KaTiovTo^ aKpiTov irvevpiaTO^y ai tb 
p.rj'xaval TOV /3aaLXeo)(; 7rapeaTco(Tai, tol^ Teix^auVy 
epya OavpjadTa NiKcovlhov tov %eaaaXoVy pol^(p 
500 



LUCULLUS, IX. 5-x. 2 

was arrived. They disbelieved him, and thought 
he had invented his story merely to mitigate theii 
anxieties, but then a boy came to them, who had 
escaped from his captivity with the enemy. On 
their asking him where he thought Lucullus was, he 
laughed at them, supposing them to be jesting. But 
when he saw that they were in earnest, he pointed 
out the Roman camp to them, and their courage was 
revived. Again, Lucullus drew out on shore the 
largest of the sizable craft which plied the lake 
Dascylitis, carried it across to the sea on a waggon, 
and embarked upon it as many soldiers as it would 
hold, who crossed by night unobserved, and got safely 
into the city. 

X. It would seem also that Heaven, in admiration 
of their bravery, emboldened the men of Cyzicus by 
many manifest signs, and especially by the following. 
The festival of Persephone was at hand, and the 
people, in lack of a black heifer for the sacrifice, 
fashioned one of dough, and brought it to the altar. 
Now the sacred heifer reared for the goddess was 
pasturing, like the other herds of the Cyzicenes, on 
the opposite side of the strait, but on that day she 
left her herd, swam over alone to the city, and 
presented herself for the sacrifice. And again, 
the goddess appeared in a dream to Aristagoras, the 
town-clerk, saying : " Lo, here am I, and I bring the 
Libyan fifer against the Pontic trumpeter. Bid the 
citizens therefore be of good cheer." While the 
Cyzicenes were lost in wonder at the saying, at day- 
break the sea began to toss under a boisterous wind, 
and the siege-engines of the king along the walls, 
the wonderful works of Niconides the Thessalian, by 

SOI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Kol irard^M TTpwTov airehrfKovv to /juiWov elra 
v6to<; CKpayelf; ain(no<; to /xeye^o? to, t aWa 
avv6Tptyfr€ firj^av^fiaTa wpa<; ^pa^^l fiopio), Kal 
TOP ^vXlvov irvpyov exaTov Trrj'x^cav vyfro^ ovTa 
Biaa-€L(Ta^ KaTe^aXev, taTopelTai Se tS)v iv 'iXtw 
TToWot? Kad* VTTVOV ocfyOijvai, ttjv ^AOrjvav IBpcoTi, 
TToXXft) peo/jLevr}v Kal vnTO^aivovcrdv ti tov nreirXov 
Trapeppcoyo^, Xiyovaav, ft)9 dpTLW^ tjkoi porjOrjcraaa 
^v^Vfcr)vol<;. koX <ttt^\7]v tlvcl BoyfjuaTa Kal ypd/ju- 
fjuaTa irepl tovtcov exovaav iBeiKvvov 'iXtet?. 

XL MtOpiBaTrjv Be, d^pi' fJ'Cv viro t&p eavTOv 
aTpaTTjywv ^evaKL^ofxevo^ rjyvoei tov iv tc5 <TTpa~ 
TOireBw Xi/jLov, rjvicov K.v^tKr)vol Biat^evyovTe^ ttjv 
TToXiopKiav. Ta^v B' i^eppvrj to (fyiXoTifJiov avTov 
Kal <j)iX6veiKov iv alcrO^aei, yevofievov tcov diro- 
piMv, ah ol (TTpaTLcoTat (Tvvei^ovTO, Kal tcov 
dvOpcoTTO^ayiMv, aTe Brj fzr) 0€aTpi,K(S<; firjB* iiriBei- 
KTiK(o<; AovKOvXXov 7roX€/jLovvTO<;, dXXd, tovto Brj 
TO XeyofjLevov, eh Tr}v yaaTepa ivaXXofiivov Kal 
07r<tf9 v(f>aipi](TeL tyjv Tpo(f)r)v diravTa irpayixaTevo- 

2 fievov. Bto Kal <j>povpi6v tl 7roXtopKovvTO<; avTOv 
T& Kaipa> %/)?7cra(r^at airevBcov 6 MiOpiBdTT)^; 
i^iTrefi^jrev etV Bidwiav tov<; fiev linTeh (T')(eBov 
diravTa^ fieTO, tcov VTro^vyicov, tcov Be Tre^wv tou? 
dyjp7](TT0V<i, TTvQoybevo^ S' o AovkovXXo<; ert vvk- 
T09 rJKev €t9 TO arpaTOireBov, irptol Be ')(^etfiouvo<; 
6Vto9 dvaXafioDV o-7reipa<; Bifca Kal ttjv lttttov 
iBiwKe VL(f>6/jL€vo<; Kal KaKOTradaiv, waTe ttoXXov<; 
VTTO Kpvovi; ivBcB6vTa<; dTToXeiTreaOai tmv (TTpa- 

502 



LUCULLUS, X. 3 -XI. 2 

their creaking and cracking sliowed clearly what was 
about to happen ; then a south wind burst fortli with 
incredible fury, shattered the other engines in a 
short space of time, and threw down with a great 
shock the wooden tower a hundred cubits high. It 
is related, too, that the goddess Athena appeared to 
many of the inhabitants of I Hum in their sleep, 
dripping with sweat, showing part of her peplus 
torn away, and saying that she was just come from 
assisting the Cyzicenes. And the people of Ilium 
used to show a stele which had on it certain decrees 
and inscriptions relating to this matter. 

XI. Mithridates, as long as liis generals deceived 
him into ignorance of the famine in his army, was 
vexed that the Cyzicenes should successfully with- 
stand his siege. But his eager ambition quickly 
ebbed away when he perceived the straits in which 
his soldiers were involved, and their actual canni- 
balism. For Lucullus was not carrying on the war 
in any theatrical way, nor for mere display, but, as 
the saying is, was " kicking in the belly," and de- 
vising every means for cutting off food. Accordingly, 
while Lucullus was laying siege to some outpost or 
other, Mithridates eagerly took advantage of the 
opportunity, and sent away into Bithynia almost all 
his horsemen, together with the beasts of burden, 
and those of his foot-soldiers who were disabled. 
On learning of this, Lucullus returned to his camp 
while it was still night, and early in the morning, in 
spite of a storm, took ten cohorts of infantry and 
his calvary, and started in pursuit, although snow 
was falling and his hardships were extreme. Many 
of his soldiers were overcome with the cold and had 
to be left behind, but with the rest he overtook the 

VOL. II. R 503 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rioorodv, rot? S* oXXol^ irepl rov *VvvhaKov Trorafiov 

3 KuraXa/Scov roiff; 7ro\6/jbLov<; roaavrrjv rpoir'qv 
iiroirjaev, ware ra^ yvvaLKa<; iic Trj<; ^ AiroWcoviaf; 
TTpoep')(pfieva'^ dcpapTrd^eiv ra <popTLa kul crKV- 
Xevetv Tou? (^ovevop£vov<;, nroXkoov B\ ox; €lk6<;, 
cLTroOavovToav eaXcoaav lttttol jxev k^aKL(T')(^ikiOi 
Kul ttXtjOo^ avapL0 fjbrjTov viro^vyicoVy avBp€<; 8e 
jjLvpioL irevTaKKjyp^ioi' koI rovTov<; dycov irdvra^ 
Trape^rjei irapd to (rrpaTOTreSov rciiv iroXefxicov. 

4 ^dkova-TLov he Oavfjid^a) rore Trpwrov a)(l)6ai 
'Fcop,aiOL(; KafjLjjXov^ Xeyovro^y el /xyre irporepov 
TOv<i fiera ^/ctjitlcovo'; viKijaavra^ 'Ai/Tto%oi^ wero 
/X7?T6 T0U9 evay'xp'^ irpo^ ^Op^o/jieva) fcal irepl 
Xatpcoveiav 'A/o^eXaw fi€fjLaxvM^ov<; iyvcoKevai, 
KapufKov, 

5 ^AXka T& ye MiOpiSdrrj (f)€vyeiv fiev eyvayaro 
Tr)v Ta%fco-T?;i^, dvdo\/cd<; Be AovKOvWcp koI Bia- 
rpi^afs oirlaa) fjbr}')(av(t)/jLevo<; eareWe rov vavap^ov 
^ ApiaroviKOv eVl rrjv ^EWrjvLKr}v OdXaaa'av' Koi 
oaov ovTTQ} fieWovTo^; eKirXelv i/c iTpohoala<i o 
AovfcovXXo^ etcvplevae fiera 'x^pvacov /nvpLcoVy ov<; 
eKofJLL^e BLa<pOep('ov tl tov roajiaiKov arparev- 
jiaro^, Ik tovtov M.LdpiBdTr)(; puev ecpvyev eirl 
OdXaaaav, ol Be (TTparrjyol Trefol top crTpaTov 

6 diTrjyayov. eimreacjov Be AovKOvXXof; avTol<; 
irepl TOV VpavLKov iroTapLov elXe re Tra/bLiroXXov^ 
Koi BL(T/jLvpLOv^ diTeKTeive. XeyovTac 8* €k tov 
iravTO^i aKoXovdcov re koX pLaylixttiv o")(Xov fivpi- 
ttSe? ov TToXv Brj t(ov TpidKOVTa Xeiirovaat ^99 
Bia<f)6aprjvai. 

XII. AovKOvXXo^ Be irposTov eU Kv^lkov 
TrapeXOcbv direXavaev r)Bop'^<i teal tpLXocppoavvi]^ 

504 



LUCULLUS, XI. 2-xii. I 

enemy at the river Rhyndacus and inflicted such a 
defeat upon them that the very women came forth 
from Apollonia and carried off their baggage and 
stripped their slain. Many fell in the battle^ as it 
is natural to suppose. Six thousand horses and 
fifteen thousand men were captured, besides an un- 
told number of beasts of burden. All these followed 
in the train of Lucullus as he marched back past 
the camp of the enemy. Sallust says, to my amaze- 
ment, that camels were then seen by the Romans 
for the first time. He must have thought that the 
soldiers of Scipio who conquered Antiochus before 
this, and those who had lately fought Archelaiis at 
Orchomenus and Chaeroneia, were unacquainted 
with the camel. 

Mithridates was now resolved upon the speediest 
possible flight, but with a view to drawing Lucullus 
away, and holding him back from pursuit, he dis- 
patched his admiral, Aristonicus, to the Grecian sea. 
Aristonicus was just on the point of sailing when he 
was betrayed into the hands of Lucullus, together 
with ten thousand pieces of gold which he was 
carrying for the corruption of some portion of the 
Roman army. Upon this, Mithridates fled to tlie 
sea, and his generals of infantry began to lead the 
army away. But Lucullus fell upon them at the 
river Granicus, captured a vast number of them, 
and slew twenty thousand. It is said that out of 
the whole horde of camp-followers and fighting men, 
not much less than three hundred thousand perished 
in the campaign. 

XIL Lucullus, in the first place, entered Cyzicus 
in triumph, and enjoyed the pleasant welcome which 

505 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTpeirouarif;' eireira vavriKov i^qprvero top *EX- 
XrjaTrovTOV eiriTropevofxevo^i. eh 3e TpaxiSa Kara- 
%^€t9 iaKrjvdnae fiev ev rSt lepw tt}? ^A<j)poBLT7j<i, 
KaraKoi/jLTjOeU Be vv/crcop iSo/cei rrjv deav opav 
i(j)eaT(Ji)aav avrco Koi \eyovcrav' 

Tl Kvcoaaea, psydOvfie \eov; ve^pol Se 
TOL eyytKi. 

2 €^ava(TTa<i Be koi tou? (piXov^; KoKeaa^ BirjyeLTO 
TTjp oyjriv eVi vvKTO<i ov(Tr]<;, koX iraprjaav ef 
^WLov Tivh airayyeWovTe^ a)(j)9at irepX rov 
'A^atwi^ Xifiiva rpiaKalBeKa irevTrjpei^ tmv jSaac- 
XiKMV iirl AripbVQV ifkeovaa^, evOv^ ovv avaydei's 
TOVTov; fiev elXe koI top arparrjyov avT(ov 
^latBaypov aireKTeiveVt eirl Be tou? aX\ov<; eirXei 

3 irpaypea^}. ol Be erv^ov oppLovvre^, koX ret, irXola 
irdvra irpo^ rrjv yrjv avveXKOvre^ airo tojp 
fcaTaarpcop^drcov Biepd'^ovTo koI 7rXr]ya<; eBLBoaav 
TOL<i irepl rbv AovkovXXov, ovre irepiTrXevcrai 
Tov ')(wpiov BiBovTo^ ovre ^tdaaaOai vaval 
pLeTecopoL<i Ta9 rcov iroXepiicov 7rpoa-epr)peLapeva<i 

4 rfi yfi fcal ^e/3r]KVLa<i da-(j)aX(a<i, ov pur^v dXXa 
pL6Xt<; 'p TrpoapoXrjV rtva rj vfj(TO<; et^ep diro^i- 
^d^et Tcop aTparccoTMp tou? dpi,<TTOv<i, ot KaroiriP 
eTTCTrea-opTe^ Tol<i iroXepLoi^; tov<; pbep Bieipdecpop 
avTcop, TOv<; B* rjpdyica^op diroKO'TnopTa'^ to, 
TTpvpLPTjaLa TCOP pecop Kol ^evyoPTa^ €k t^9 7^9 
dXX'^Xoi^ T€ (Tvy/cpoveip ra TrXola kol ral^ efijSo- 
Xat? Tal<i we pi top AovkovXXop viroirLirTeip. 

6 TToXXol fiev ovp Bie^Odpr^aap, ep Be toI<; dXovaip 
dpf')X^V f^^^^ Mdpio<i 6 irapa ^epTcoplov aTpaTi]y6<;' 
506 



LUCULLUS, XII. 1-5 

was his due ; then he proceeded to the Hellespont, 
and began to equip a fleet. On visiting the Troad, 
he pitched his tent in the sacred precinct of Aphro- 
dite, and in the night, after he had fallen asleep, he 
thought he saw the goddess standing over him and 
saying : — 

" Why dost thou sleep, great lion ? the fawns 
are near for thy taking." 

Rising up from sleep and calling his friends, he 
narrated to them his vision, while it was } et night. 
And lo, there came certain men from liium, with 
tidings that thirteen of the king's galleys had been 
seen off the harbour of the Achaeans, making for 
Lemnos Accordingly, Lucullus put to sea at once, 
captured these, slew their commander, Isodorus, and 
then sailed in pursuit of the other captains, whom 
these were seeking to join. They chanced to be 
lying at anchor close to shore, and drawing their 
vessels all up on land, they fought from their decks, 
and sorely galled the crews of Lucullus. These had 
no chance to sail round their enemies, nor to make 
onset upon them, since their own ships were afloat, 
while those of their enemies were planted upon 
the land and securely fixed. However, Lucullus at 
last succeeded in disembarking the best of his 
soldiers where the island afforded some sort of 
access. These fell upon the enemy from the rear, 
slew some of them, and forced the rest to cut 
their stern cables and fly from the shore, their 
vessels thus falling foul of one another, and receiving 
the impact of the ships of Lucullus. Many of the 
enemy perished, of course, and among the captives 
there was brought in Marius, the general sent from 

507 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjv ykp €T€p6(b9a\fio<;, KaX iraprjyyeXro TOi? 
arpanooTai,'; €vOv<; iinifKeovcnv viro AovkovKXov 
firfSiva KTeiveiv er€p6(j>0a\fiov, oirco^i i^ovetSiaOeU 
fcal Ka6vPpLa9e\<; airoOdvoL. 

XIII. Tev6/JL€vo<; S' airo tovtcov rjirelyeTO irpo^ 
Tfjv avTOv ^idptBdrov Sico^iv, yjXin^e yap en 
irepl l^iOvviav evpi^aeiv avrov viro I^okcovlov 
(fipovpovfjuevov, ov avro^i eva-Trja-ofjLevov ry (j>vyS 

2 fiera veayv direaraXKei Trpb^ IS^iKo/i^Seiav. dWa 
l^oKcoviO'^ fi€v ev ^afioOpaKT) /jLvovfji€vo<; koX 
7ravr]yvpL^a)v KaOvareprjae' M.L9pthdTr]v Be dva- 
'XOevra fjLerd rov aroXov, airevBovra irplv ein- 
(jTpe<^eiv AovKovWov eh top Uovtov elcTTrXevaai, 
KaraXafJbpdveL 'xetfioov woXv^;, vcj)* ov ra jjLev 
dcfiTjpTrdyrj, rd 5' e^vOtaOrj rayv aKa^wv, iraaa 
8' rj irapaXia rS)V vavayLmv €K(j>€po/iievcov viro 
Tov kXvB(ovo<; eirl 7roXXd<; r)ixepa<; rjv TrepLirXeo)^, 

3 avTO^ Be, t^9 oX/caSo9, €0' 97? eirXeiy fjur^re tt/OO? 
TTfV yrjv evTrapaKOfiiarov Bud fieyeOo^; ev adXw 
fieydXq) koX KVfJbaTL rvcpXtp 7rapi,crTa/Juevr](; tol<; 
KV^epviJTai^, 7rp6<; re rrjv OdXaaa-av i]Brj ^apeia<; 
Koi virepdvrXov yevofievq^;, fieT€fil3d<; el<; Xycrrpi- 
Kov fivowdpcDva kclI to crw/xa 7retpaTai<; ey')(^eipi- 
<ja<i dveXTTLaTGi^ kcu irapapoXoK; eh rrjv UovriKrjp 

4 'HpdKXeiav e^eacoOrj. AovkovXXg) S* dvefjuearjTO^ 
7] TTpo^ T7]v (TvyKXriTOV diTe^r) (jytXoTLfJLva. yjn]- 
(^i^0fjLev7](; yap avTr]<; 7r/oo9 rov TroXe/xov aTrb 
rpLaxi'^^(i>v raXdvTcov e^aprveaOai vavriKov, 
i/ccoXvo-e Trifi-^jrafi ypd/ju/iara Kal fJLeyaXrjyop^aa<;, 

508 



♦ LUCULLUS, XII. 5-xiii. 4 

Sertorius. He had but one eye, and the soldiers 
had received strict orders from LucuUus, as soon 
as they set sail, to kill no one-eyed man. I/UCuUus 
wished Marius to die under the most shameful 
insults. 

XIII. These things done, Lucullus hastened in 
pursuit of Mithridates himself. For he expected 
to find him still in Bithynia under the watch and 
ward of Voconius, whom he had dispatched with a 
fleet to Nicomedeia that he might intercept the 
king's flight. But Voconius was behindhand, owing 
to his initiation into, and celebration of, the 
mysteries in Samothrace, and Mithridates put to 
sea with his armament, eager to reach Pontus before 
Lucullus turned and set upon him. He was over- 
taken, however, by a great storm, which destroyed 
some of his vessels and disabled others. The whole 
coast for many days was covered witli the wrecks 
dashed upon it by the billows. As for the king 
himself, the merchantman on which he was sailing 
was too large to be readily beached when the sea 
ran so high and the waves were so baffling, nor 
would it answer to its helm, and it was now too 
heavy and full of water to gain an offing ; accord- 
ingly, he abandoned it for a light brigantine belonging 
to some pirates, and, entrusting his person to their 
hands, contrary to expectation and after great 
hazard, got safely to Heracleia in Pontus. And 
so it happened that the boastful speech of Lucullus to 
the Senate brought no divine retribution down upon 
him. When, namely, that body was ready to vote 
three thousand talents to provide a fleet for this 
war, Lucullus blocked the measure by writing a 
letter, in which he made the haughty boast that 

5<^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<»<? avev SaTrdvrjf; koX roaavrrj^; 7rapa(TK€vrj^ 
TaL<; rcov avfMfid')(^(i)v vavcrl MidpLSdTijv eK^akeX 
tt}? OaXdTTTjq. Kol TOVTO vTTrjp^6v avTcp rod 
Oeov o-vvaywvLdafJbevov, Xiyerac yap 'ApTe/JLcBo<; 
XoXo) Tlpia7rivr]<; 6 '^^ei/jLODV ifiireaelv tol<; Uovti- 
KOL(; avXrjaacnv avT7j<: to lepov koX to ^oavov 
dvaairdaaai. 

XIV. TloWoiv he AovKovW(p TrapaivovvTwv 
dva^dWecrOai rov TroXefiov, ov (^/jorr/cra? eve- 
^aXe Bt,a Bt^i^/aa? fcal TaXarla^ eh rrjv /Sacn- 
XcK^Vy iv dpxfj P'^v €v8er)<; rcov dvayKalcov, Mare 
TaXdra<i eireaOai Tpi(rp,vplov<; exaarov eVl tmv 
MfjLcov KopL^ovra (tltov fieScfivoVy irpoloiv he koX 
Kparwv aTrdvTcov eh Tocravrrjv rjXOev eviropiav, 500 
fwo-re Tov pkv povv ev ctt paroirehw SpaxfjLrj<;, to 
Be dvhpdiTohov reTTdpcov coviov elvac, rr)v S* 
aXXrjv Xeiav ev ovSevl Xoyo) tov<; fxev diroXeLiTeLVy 
Tov<; Be dvaXidKeiv, Bid6e(n<; yap r)v ovBtvo<i 
7r/?o9 ovBeva Trdvroov evTropovvrcov. 

2 'AXX' oaov (bOeipac xal KaKwaac rvv ycapav 
iinraaap.evoL kul KaTabpap^ovre^i axpt vyefiiaKv- 
pa<i Kal Tojv repl Sepp^coSovra TreBicov, yTicovro 
TOV AovKovXXov, on 7rdaa<; irpoadyerai Ta<; 
TToXet?, Kara Kpdro^ Be ovBep^iav fjpr^icev ovBe 
TTape<TX/}Kev avToh oD(f)eX7]07]vai. BiapirdaaaLV, 

3 ** KXXd Kal vvv,^^ ecjyaaav, " ^Ap^icrov, ttoXcv evBai- 
p,ova Kal irXovoriav, ov p,eya ov epyov, e'i rt? 91 
evreivai ttjv iroXiopKiav, KaTaayelvy dTroXiiroVTa^ *' 
^/xa? dyet jrepl ttjv Tiffap7]va)v Kal KaXBatoyv 



5J.0 



LUCULLUS, xiiL 4-xiv. 3 

without any such costly array, but only with the 
ships of the allies, he would drive Mithridates from 
the sea. And this success he gained with the 
assistance of Heaven. For it is said that it was 
owing to the wrath of Artemis of Priapus that 
the tempest fell upon the men of Pontus, who 
had plundered her shrine and pulled down her 
image, 

XIV. Though many now advised Lucullus to 
suspend the war, he paid no heed to them, but 
threw his army into the king's country by way 
of Bithynia and Galatia.^ At first he lacked the 
necessary supplies, so that thirty thousand Galatians 
followed in his train, each carrying a bushel of grain 
upon his shoulders ; but as he advanced and mastered 
everything, he found himself in the midst of such 
plenty that an ox sold in his camp for a drachma, 
and a man-slave for four, while other booty had no 
value at all. Some abandoned it, and some destroyed 
it. There was no sale for anything to anybody when 
all had such abundance. 

But when Lucullus merely wasted and ravaged 
the country with cavalry incursions, which penetrated 
to Themiscyra and the plains of the river Thermodon, 
his soldiers found fault with him because he brought 
all the cities over to him by peaceable measures ; 
he had not taken a single one by storm, they said, 
nor given them a chance to enrich themselves by 
plunder. " Nay," they said, " at this very moment 
we are leaving Amisus, a rich and prosperous city, 
which it would be no great matter to take, if 
its siege were pressed, and are following our general 
into the desert of the Tibareni and the Chaldaeans 

1 73 B.a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iprj/jLiav M.i,6pL8dTr) 7ro\efi^(rovTa<i.** aXka 
ravra fiev ovk av 6 AoukovX\,o<; ekirlaa^ eh 
Tocrovrov airovoiaf; tov<; arparvcora^ irapaja- 
yeiv, oaov varepov e^e(f>r]vav, virepeoopa koX ovk 

4 i(f>p6pri^€V, iK€ivoL<; 8* airekoyelTO fjuaXKov, oi 
ffpaBvTTJTa Karijyopovv avrov htaTpL^ovTO^ ev- 
ravOa irepl Kcofjba<; koI ttoXci^ ov ttoWov tlvo^ 
a^la^ TToXvv y^povoVy e(0VT0<i S' av^eadav yiiOpihd- 
rrjv, ** Avro ydp,^* €(f>r), *' tovto koI povKofxai 
KOI KaOvj^at, Texvd^o)V, fieyav av0c<; yeviaOaL tov 
dvBpa Kol avvayayelv avrov d^i6fjLa)(^ou Bvpa/jLiv, 

5 Lva fieivy kol fit) (f>vyr} irpoaLovra^ r)/uid<;. rj ovy 
opdre TToWrjv fiev avTcp Kal dreK/jLaprov iprjfjLiav 
oiruact) irapovaav; iyyv<; Be 6 KavKaaof; Kal oprj 
TToWd Kal fiaOea Kal /iivpLov<; ^acnXeh (jyvyofia- 
')(pvvra^ dpKovvra KaraKpv-yjraL Kal Trepioryelv 
oXiycov 5' rj/iiepojv 6Bo<; eh ^Kpiieviav e/c l^a^elpcov, 
Kal virep ^Kpfievia^ Kddrjrai Ttypdvrjf;, ^a(TiXev<; 
pa(TL\e(ov, ex^ov BvvafJLCv, rj UdpOovf; re irepi- 
KOTTTei T?59 ^Acriaf; Kal TroXet? 'K\\r}VLBa<; eh 
MrjBlav dvaKOfiL^ei Kal %vpLa<; Kparel Kal TiaXai- 
a-TLvr]<; Kal tov<; diro XeXevKov fiaaiXec^; diroKTtv- 
vveiy dvyarepaff 3' ai/rcov dyeu Kal yvvaiKa'^ 

6 dvaanrddTOV^, ovto<; olKelo^ icrri MoOpiBdrov 
Kal ya/jL/3p6<;, ov Treptoyjrerai Be avrov iKerrfv 
vrroBe^dfjievo^, dXXd iroXefJurjcrei 7rpb<; r)fjLd<;' Kal 
arrevBovre^ iKjSdXXetv McdpiBdrrjv KtvBvvevdOfiev 
imcnrdaaadai Tcypdvrjv, irdXai fiev alriaf; Beo- 
fievov ecf)' rjfjid^, evirpeTvearepav Be ovk dv Xa^ovra 
rrj<; virep dvBpo^ oiKeiov Kal ^aaiXeoyfi dvayKa- 
aOevra vrrovpyetv avra>, rl o^v Bel rovO^ ^fid^ 

^12 



I 



LUCULLUS, XIV. 3-6 

to fight with Mithridates." But these grievances, 
not dreaming that they would bring the soldiers 
to such acts of madness as they afterwards performed, 
Lucullus overlooked and ignored. He was, however, 
more ready to defend himself against those who 
denounced his slowness in lingering there a long 
while, subduing worthless little villages and cities, 
and allowing Mithridates to recruit himself 
" That," he said, " is the very thing I want, and I 
am sitting here to get it. I want the man to 
become powerful again, and to get together a force 
with which it is worth our while to fight, in order 
that he may stand his ground, and not fly when we 
approach. Do you not see that he has a vast 
and trackless desert behind him ? The Caucasus, 
too, is near, with its many hills and dells, which 
are sufficient to hide away in safety ten thousand 
kings who decline to fight. And it is only a few 
days' journey from Cabira into Armenia and over 
Armenia there sits enthroned Tigranes, King of 
Kings, with forces which enable him to cut the 
Parthians off from Asia, transplant Greek cities into 
Media, sway Syria and Palestine, put to death the 
successors of Seleucus, and carry off their wives and 
daughters into captivity. This king is a kinsman of 
Mithridates, his son-in-law. He will not be content 
to receive him as a suppliant, but will make war 
against us. If we strive, tlierefore, to eject Mithri- 
dates from his kingdom, we shall run the risk 
of drawing Tigranes down upon us. He has 
long wanted an excuse for coming against us, and 
could not get a better one than that of being 
compelled to aid a man who is his kinsman and 
a king. Why, then, should we bring this to pass, 

513 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^epydaaaOai koI BiBd^at IS/lidpiBdrrjv dyvoomnaf 
fieO^ a)V idTiv avT(p irpo'; rjiid^i iroXe/m^Tiov, koX 
fjbrj povXojJievoVy aX)C dho^ovvra avvekavveiv el^ 
Ta<i TLjpdvov %6t/ja9, aXV ov^l B6vTa<; avrw 
)(^p6vov €K Toov ol/celcov 7rapa(TK€vdaaaOai koI 
dvaOappvvat, KoX%ot9 koI Ti^aprjvol^ Kal Kair- 
irdBo^iv, (av iroXkaKL^ K€/€paT7]Ka/JL€V, fid'^ea-dai 
fiaXkov rj M.'i]Boi'^ koX *Apfi€VLoi<i; '* 

XV. 'EttI TOiovTcov \oyi(r/jL(bv y€v6fi€V0<; 6 fl 
AovKovWo<; irepi re ttjv *A/jll(tov BiArpL-^ey fiaXa- ™ 
«ft)9 ry TTokiopKia ')(^pa)fjL€vo<i, Kal /jLcra 'X.^ip.Mva 
M.ovp7]vav aTToXiTTODv eVl r^? TroTuopKia'^ i^dBu^ev 
iirl MidpiBdrrjv KaO^fievov iv KaffeipoL^; /cal 
Biavoovfjuevov v^lo-rao-Oat rovf; *Pco/jLaLOv<;, rjOpoL- 
ajxevqf; avr^ Bvvdjxeay^ eh r€TpaKi,<7/jLvpLov<; ire- M 
5bu9, liriTel^; Be reTpaKLd'x^bXiov^i 0I9 eOdppei il 

2 fiakLo-ra. Kal BLaffa<s top Av/cov iroTafiov eh to 
ireBiov TrpovKaXelro T0U9 ^Vcofiaiov^, yevofjuevr)^ 
8' liTTrofxa'XiO'^ €(j)vryov oi 'Fco/jualor Tiofxirdivio^ 
S* dvrjp ovK dBo^o<; edXco T€TpcofjLevo<i Kal irpo^ 
rov ^LdpLBdrrjv dvrj')(d7] KaKCi)<; viro rpavfidrcov 
BiaKeijievo';. irvdojuevov Be rod paaiXew^iy el 
aco9el<; vtt avrov yevrjaerai (J)lXo^, ""Aj/ ye 8?;," 
€(j)rj, '**V(oixalotfi BiaXXayfjf;' el Be fii], TroXefiio^.** 
rovrov fiev 6av[JLdaa<; 6 M.tOpiBdr7}<; ovk T^BiKrjo-e. 

3 Toy Be AovKovXXov ra fxev TreBia roiv iroXefiiwv 501 
linroKparovvraiv BeBioro^;, rrjv 8' opeivrjv oKvovvro^ 
irpolivai, puaKpav Kal vXooBr) Kal Bvafiarov ovarav, 
aXiaKovrai rive^ Kara rv)(r]V "KXXr]ve<; eh rt 



514 



LUCULLUS, XIV. 6-xv. 3 

and teach Mithridates, when he does not know it^ 
with what aUies he must carry on war against us ? 
Why help to drive him, against his wish and as a last 
resource, into the arms of Tigranes, instead of giving 
him time to equip himself from his own resources and 
get fresh courage ? Then we shall fight with 
Colchians and Tibareni and Cappadocians, whom we 
have often overcome, **ather than with Medes and 
Armenians." 

XV. Influenced by such considerations as these, 
Lucullus lingered about Amisus, without pushing the 
siege vigorously. When winter was over, he left 
Murena in charge of the siege, and marched against 
Mithridates,^ who had taken his stand at Cabira, and 
intended to await the Roman onset there. A force 
of forty thousand footmen had been collected by him, 
and four thousand horsemen ; on the latter he placed 
his chief reliance. Crossing the river Lycus and 
advancing into the plain, he offered the Romans 
battle. A cavalry fight ensued, and the Romans 
took to flight. Pomponius, a man of some note, 
having been wounded, was taken prisoner and led 
into the presence of Mithridates, suffering greatly 
from his wounds. When the king asked him if he 
would become his friend provided he spared his life, 
Pomponius answered : " Yes, indeed, if you come to 
terms with the Romans ; otherwise I must remain 
your enemy." Mithridates was struck with admir- 
ation for him, and did him no harm. 

Lucullus was now afraid of the plains, since the 
enemy was superior in cavalry, and yet hesitated to 
go forward into the hill country, which was remote, 
woody, and impassable. But it chanced that certain 

» 72 B.a 

515 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a-TnfjXaiov KaTa<pvy6vT6^, a>v 6 Trpea/Svrepo^ *A/)- 
re/jLiScopofi v7re(T')(6T0 rbv Aov/covWov a^eiv koX 
Karaa-Tcia-eiv eVl roTTft) d(T<f>d\€L Ta> arpaTOTreSa) 
Koi (ppovpcov exovTL T0t9 Yia(3elpOL^ eimcpefidixevov. 

4 7na-T€V(Ta<; 8* o AovkovX\o<; dfia rfj vvktl irvpd 
Kavaa^ ifcLvei' KaX rd arevd TrapekOoiv dcrcpaXco'i 
TO ')((opiov el^e, Koi fxeO' rj/iiepav virepe^aiveTo 
Toiyv TToXe/jLiayp ISpvcov top crTpaTov iv toitol^, 
ot fidx€crOai ^ovXofiivcp Trpoaaycoyrjp iBlBoaap 
Kol to /jlt) fitaaOrjpat irapel^op '^av^d^oPTi,, 

6 Tpay/jLrjv fiev ovv ovSeTepo^ 6l')(6v ep ye tg3 
irapovTi SiaKtpBvveveiP' eXacfiop he XeyeTau tmp 
^aaoXifCMP StcoKOPTcop VTroTefiPO/jbipov^; diraPTTjaaL 
Tou? '^(ofxalov^y eK he tovtov (rv/jL7r€<T6pTa<; dyco- 
VL^eaOat TrXeiopcop eKaTepoL^ del irpoayipofiepcop. 
TeXo<; 8' ipLKcop oi ^aaiXiKoi' koI ttjp (pvyrjp eK 
Tov xdpaKO<i ol *V(Ofjualoi KaOopcoPTef; rja^aXXop 
Kol avpeT pe')(^op 7rpo9 top AovkouXXop, dyeip a(j)d<; 
heofiepoi koi <rvp6ri/jLa tt^o? ttjv fJ^dxH^ avTovPTe^. 

6 6 Se ^ovX6fjL€PO<; avTov<; fiaOelp, tjXLkov eaTip ep 
wyoiPL TToXifJLov KOL KLpSvpo) TTapovaLa Kol O'^Lf; 
r)yefM6po<; eficppopo^;, e/ceLPov<i fiep r)av')(lap dyetp 
ifceXeva-ep, avTo<i Be KUTe^aipep et? to irehiop kol 
Tol^ irpcoTOL'^ dirapT'^aa^ tcov cjievyoPTcop XaTaadat 

7 irpocreTa^e kol dpaaTpecj^ecp fieT avTOv, TreiaOep- 
Tcop Be TOVTCop /cal ol XolttoI /jLera/SaXofjLepoi, KaX 
avaTdpTe<; oXiycp ir6p(p TpeiroPTai rou? 7roXe/Mov<i 
/cal fcaTaBc(OKOvaip el<! to aTpaToireBop. eirap- 
eXdcbp Be AovKovXXo<; dTijJuiap Tipd toi<; <f>evyovcrt 
pepop.L(jfieu7]p irpoae/SaXe, KeXevaa<i iv ;^tTa>(7iJ^ 

5'6 



LUCULLUS, XV. 3-7 

Greeks, who had taken refuge in a sort of cave, were 
captured, and the elder of them, ArtemidoruS; 
promised to serve Luculhis as a guide, and set him 
in a place which was safe for his camp, and which 
had a fortress overlooking Cabira. Lucullus put 
confidence in this promise, and as soon as it was 
night, lit his camp fires and set out. He passed 
safely through the narrow defiles and took possession 
of the desired place, and at daybreak was seen above 
the enemy, stationing his men in positions which 
gave him access to the enemy if he wished to fight, 
and safety from their assaults if he wished to keep 
quiet. 

Now neither commander had any intention of 
hazarding an engagement at once. But we are told 
that while some of the king's men were chasing a 
stag, the Romans cut them off and confronted them, 
whereupon a skirmish followed, with fresh accessions 
continually to either side. At last, the king's men 
were victorious. Then the Romans in their camp, 
beholding the flight of their comrades, were in 
distress, and ran in throngs to Lucullus, begging 
him to lead them, and demanding the signal for 
battle. But he, wishing them to leam how im- 
portant, in a dangerous struggle with the enemy, the 
visible presence of a prudent general is, bade them 
keep quiet. Then he went down into the plain by 
himself, and confronting the foremost of the fugitives, 
bade them stop, and turn back with him. They 
obeyed, and the rest also wheeled about and formed 
in battle array, and in a short time routed the enemy 
and drove them to their camp. When he came back, 
however, Lucullus inflicted the customary disgrace 
upon the fugitives. He bade them dig a twelve- 

5*7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

d^a>(TTOL<; opv^ai BcoScKa ttoScov Td(f>poVy icpeaTco- 
Tcov KoX Oeco/iivcov tcov dWfov a-TpancoToov, 

XVI. ^Hv Be Tt9 iv T(p MiOpiBaTOV aTparoireBa) 
AavBapicop Svvdarrjf; 'OX^a«o9 (yivo^ 3' elcrlv ol 
AavSdpLOi I3ap/3dpa)v tmv nrepl rrjv M.aL(OTLV 
oiKovprayv), dvrjp oaa ')(€Lpo<i epya fcal toX^t;? eV 
woXeixw Bia7rpe7rr)<; diravTa, koX yvcofi7]v iKavo^ 
ip Tot^; /jL6yL(TToc(;, erv 5' iixfiekr)^ ofxCkrjcraL kol 
depairevTLKo^;. ovto<; e%a)i/ del rrp6<; nva tcop 
6piO(f>v\(ov hvvacTTCdv dfjLLWav virep irpcoreLwv 
Kal ^rjXoTVTTLav vTria^ero r^ M.tOptSdT'p /Jiiya 

2 epyov, diro/cTevelp AovkovWov, eiratveaavTO'i he 
Tov ^atTi\e(o<; Kal TLva<; avT& Trpoa-^aXovrof; 
eTT^rrySe? dTipLia<; eh irpOGirol'qaLV 6pyr]<; d^Lirird- 
aaro tt/oo? AovkovWov 6 S* dafievo<; eBe^aro' 
\0709 yap yv avTov ttoXu? ev t& (TTpaTOTreBqy 
Kal Ta'^v ireipco/ievo'i rja-Trd^eTO TrjV re dy^ivoiav 
avTov Kal TO Xiirape^y wcrre rpaire^r^ft Kal avve- 
SpLov irore TToielaOaL kolvcovov. 

3 'Evrel 8* iBoKei Kaipov e^eiv 6 AavBdpLo^, top 
jxep LTTirop efo) rov 'X^dpaKO^ eKekevae irpoayayelp 
Tov<i iralBa'iy avrcx; Be /jL6(T7)pl3pLa<; oiJcr?;? Kal 
TCOV (TTparLcoTcbv ivBia^oPTcov Kal dpaTravop^evcop 
e^dBi^ep inl Trjv (TTpaTrjyiKrjv aKrjvijp, tw? ovBePOi; 
K(o\vaovTO<i elaeXOetv avBpa awTjOrj Kal \6yov<i 
Tivd<; d^iov<; (T7rovB'fj(; t& aTpaTr]y& KOfiL^etv 

4 <f)d(TK0PTa. KCLP elo-rfkdep aSew?, el fir) 6 iroWov^i 
dvr}p7]K0)^ arparriyov^ v7rvo<i AovkovWov ecrcocrep. 
€TU7%az/e yap KaOevBcjP' Kal MepeBrj/jLOff, 6?? rcov 
Karevvaa-Tcop, irapa rah dvpai^ iarox; ovk e^rj 
Kara Kaipbv rjKeiv rov ^OXOaKov, dprt AovkovWov 
7r/)09 avdiravaiv ex fiaKpd<i dypvirvla^ Kal ttovoov 
5«8 



LUCULLUS, XV. 7-xvi. 4 

foot ditch, working in ungirt blouses, while the rest 
of the soldiers stood by and watched them. 

XVI. In the camp of Mithridates there was a 
Dandarian prince named Olthacus (the Dandarians 
are a tribe of barbarians dwelling about Lake 
Maeotis), a man conspicuous as a soldier for qualities 
of strength and boldness, of a most excellent judg- 
ment, and withal affable in address and of insinuating 
manners. This man was always in emulous rivalry 
for the precedence with a fellow prince of his tribe, 
and so was led to undertake a great exploit for 
Mithridates, namely, the murder of Lucullus. The 
king approved of his design, and purposely inflicted 
upon him sundry marks of disgrace, whereupon, 
pretending to be enraged, he galloped off to Lucullus, 
who gladly welcomed him, since there was much 
talk of him in the camp. After a short probation, 
Lucullus was so pleased with his shrewdness and 
zeal, that he made him a table companion, and at 
last a member of his council. 

Now when the Dandarian thought his opportunity 
had come, he ordered his slaves to lead his horse 
outside the camp, while he himself, at mid-day, when 
the soldiers were lying around enjoying their rest, 
went to the general's tent. He thought no one 
would deny entrance to a man who was an intimate 
of the general, and said he brought him certain 
messages of great importance. And he would have 
entered without let or hindrance, had not sleep, the 
destroyer of many generals, saved Lucullus. For it 
chanced that he was asleep, and Menedemus, one of 
his chamberlains, who stood at the tent-door, told 
Olthacus that he had come at an inopportune time, 
since Lucullus had just betaken himself to rest after 

519 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 ToaovTcov SeSa)/coTO? kavrov. iirel S' ovk airrjei. 
Ke\evovTO<^, a)OC €<j)rj /cal /cwXvovro^ elaeKev- 
aeaOai nrepl irpdyixaTo^ avajicaiov Kal fieyaXov 
hioXexOrivaL 0ov\6/ji€uo<i, rjSrj tt/do? opyrju 6 
}A6veBr]fio<i elTTcbv fjLrjBev avayKaiorepov rod (T(o- 
^eadai \ovkovX\ov dTrecoaaro top dvOpcoTrov 502 

6 djiicj)0T6paL<i rah %€/?o-tV. o he Vetera? vTre^rjXOe 
Tov x^paKOf;, Kol Xa^cov top lttttov dir^jXaaev 
€69 TO McdptBdrov CTTparoTrehov d7rpaKT0<;. ovrw^ 
dpa Kal TOt? TTpdy/xaatv 6 Kaipo^i wairep tols 
<j)apiJidKOL^ Kal rrji> aoo^ovaav Kal rrjp dvaipovaav 
poirrjv irpoa-TidrjaLV. 

XVII. 'E/c rovTov ^(DpvdTiO<i fiev iirl alrov 
KO/jLiSr]u eirep^cfyOrj p^erd SeKa aireLpcov Kal Kara- 
Si(oxO€l<; VTTO MevdvSpov, rcov MtOpcBdrov crrpa- 
rY]ywv 6v6<;, avrearr} Kal avp^fiaXcop ^opop iiroirjae 
TToXvp Kal rpoTrrjp rcop iroXep.lcop. avdi<> Be irepcf)- 
OevTO<; ^ABpiapov p^erd Bvpapuew^, ottw? eK irepiov- 
cia^ ep^ftjcrtz^ ol crrpariMTai alrop, ov TrepLeiBe Mt- 
6pt.BdTrj<;, dXX' direa-retXe M€Pep,a)(^op Kal Mvpcopa 
ttoXXmp pbep LTTTrecop, iroXXSyp Be ire^wp '^yovp.epov^;, 

2 ovTOi, 7rttz^T69, 009 Xeyerai, irXrjp Bvecp KareKoiTT)- 
aap viro tcop 'Vcopaidyp. Kal M.LOpLBdTr)(; p,ev 
eKpvirre ttjp arvp,cj)opdp 009 ov Toaavrrjp ovaap, 
dXXd pbLKpdPt 7rpo(TKeKpovKOT(op direipia rcop 
aTpaT7)ya)P, ^ABpiapb<; Be Xap,7rpb<; Trapyp^eifiero 
TO (TTpaTOTreBop 7roXXd<; Kardycop dp,d^a^ airov 
Kal Xaipvpcop yepbovaa^, cocrre BvaOvp^iap puev 
avrcp, Tapa')(r)P Be Kal ^o^ov dp,/j^apop epLTrecrelv 

3 T0t9 o-rpaTL(t)Tat<;. eBeBoKTO piep ovp p^rjKeri 
pbipeiP' eirel Be Trpoe^errepirop ol ^aaiXiKol rd 
a(f)eTepa 'x^p^p.ara KaO^ 'r}cru')(iav, tol'9 3' dXXovi 
520 



! 



LUCULLUS, XVI. 5-xvii. 3 

his long watching and many hardships. Olthacus 
did not retire at the bidding of Menedemus, but 
declared that even in spite of him he would go in, 
since he wished to confer with the general on urgent 
business of great importance. Then Menedemus 
got angry, declared that nothing was more urgent 
than the preservation of Lucullus, and pushed the 
man away with both hands. Then Olthacus, in fear, 
left the camp, took horse, and rode off to the camp 
of Mithridates, without effecting his purpose. So 
true is it that in active life, as well as in sickness, it 
is the critical moment which gives the scales their 
saving or their fatal inclination. 

XVII. After thiS;, Sornatius was sent with ten 
cohorts to get supplies of grain. Being pursued by 
Menander, one of the generals of Mithridates, he 
faced about, joined battle, and routed the enemy 
witli great slaughter. And again, when Adrian was 
sent out with a force to procure an abundance of 
grain for the soldiers, Mithridates did not look on 
idly, but dispatched Menemachus and Myron, at the 
head of a large body of cavalry and footmen. All 
these, it is said, except two, were cut to pieces by 
the Romans. Mithridates tried to conceal the ex- 
tent of the disaster, pretending that it was a slight 
matter, and due to the inexperience of his generals. 
But when Adrian marched pompously past his camp, 
convoying many waggons laden with grain and booty, 
a great despair fell upon the king, and confusion and 
helpless fear upon his soldiers. They decided, there- 
fore, to remain where they were no longer. But 
when the king's servants tried to send away their 
own baggage first, and to hinder the rest from going, 
the soldiers at once got angry, pushed and forced 

521 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i/ccoXvov, ijBr) koI 7rpo<i 6pyr)v eVt t^9 6foSou9 
wdovfjuevoi Kol ^ca^ofievot ra jxev '^^prjfiara ripira- 
^ov, avTOv<; 8e aTriacparTov. oirov kol ^opvXao^ 
6 (TTpaTr)yo<; ovBev erepov e^oyv rj rrjv iTopj>vpav 
nrepl aurov aTTcoXero Sia ravTijv, 'Ep/jiaLO<i Be 6 
dvTr]<; KaTe7raT7]6r] irepl Ta<; 7rvXa<;, 

4 AvTO<; 8' o MidpiBaTTjf;, ovre oiraBov rivof; 
0VT6 iTTTTOKOfiov 7rapafi€LvavT0<; avTw, (Tvve^i- 
ireaev airo rod arparoTriBov tol'; TroXXol^i ava- 
fjL€fJLiy/iJLivo<;, ovB* lttttov tS)v fiaaiXifCcov eviropy- 
aas, aXX* o'^i ttov KariBwv avTov iv rm pevfiaTi 
T^9 TpoTTi)^ iK€LV7)<; Bia^epofMevov TlroXefjiaLO^ 
6 evvov^o<; Xttttov eywv a\jTo<=; aTreirrjBr^a-e /cat 

5 irapeax^v. ijBr) yap avrov ol *Fcofiacot /carelxov 
eTTLKeifxevoL' /cal rd'^ec fiev ovk aireXiirovTO tov 
Xa^elv avTov, dXX* rjXOov eyyiara tovtov, (fiiXo- 
TrXovTia Be real jxiKpoXoyia o-TpaTicoTtKr) rb 
7roXXoL<; ayfhai koI fjLeydXoi<s kcvBvvoi<; BicoKO/Jievov 
€K fia/cpov Orjpafxa ^Vaj/Jbalovi d(^eiXeTo Koi 
AovKovXXov aTreareprjae VL/ccovra rodv eirddXayv. 

6 ^v /JL6V yap iv 6(f)iKTa> rrj'i Bico^ecofi 6 vireK^epwy 
TOV dvBpa L7rriT0<i, rjfiiovov Be tmv to ')(pvaLOV 
KOfJLL^ovTcov fieTa^v TOV ffaacXeay^ eLT diro tuvto- 
fiaTov irapeiaTreaovTO^, eiTe tov ^aatXeo)^ eiri- 
TTjBef; €/jL0aX6vTO<; avTov ei<; tov<; Bi(OK0VTa^, 
dpird^ovTe^ Kal a-vXX€yovTe<} to %/oi/<rtoi/ Kal 

7 BiajjLaxofJLevoL 7rpo<; dXXyXov; KadvaTeprjaav. xal 
ov TOVTO fiovov avTCov divkXavcre Trj<; irXeove^iafi 
i\ovKovXXo^i dXXd Kal tov eirl toov dTropprjrayv 
TOV PaaiXe(D<; ovTa YiaXXicTTpaTOV 6 fiev ayeiv 
ifceXevcrev, ol 3' dyovT€<; alaOo/jLevoL TrevTaKoaiov^i 

522 



LUCULLUS, XVII. 3-7 

their way to the exits of the camp, and there 
plundered the baggage and slew the men in charge 
of it. There it was that Dorylaiis, the general^ with 
nothing else about him but his purple robe^ lost his 
life for that, and Hermaeus, the priest, was trampled 
to death at the gates. 

Mithridates himself, with no attendant or groom 
to assist him, fled away from the camp in the midst 
of the throng, not even provided with one of 
the royal horses ; but at last the eunuch Ptolemaeus, 
who was mounted, spied him as he was borne along 
in the torrent of the rout, leaped down from his 
horse, and gave it to the king. Presently the 
Romans, who were forcing the pursuit, were hard 
upon him, and it was for no lack of speed that they 
did not take him. Indeed, they were very near 
doing so, but greed, and petty soldier's avarice, 
snatched from them the quarry which they had so 
long pursued in many struggles and great dangers, 
and robbed Lucullus of the victor's prize. For 
the horse which carried the king was just within 
reach of his pursuers, when one of the mules which 
carried the royal gold came between him and them, 
either of his own accord, or because the king 
purposely sent him into the path of pursuit. The 
soldiers fell to plundering and collecting the gold, 
fought with one another over it, and so were left 
behind in the chase. Nor was this the only fruit of 
their greed which Lucullus reaped. He had given 
orders that Callistratus, who was in charge of the 
king's private papers, should be brought alive to 
him, but his conductors, finding that he had five 
hundred pieces of gold in his girdle, slew him. 

523 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

')(pv(Tov<; vire^cjoo-jievov aireKreivav. ov jjltjv aWh 
TOVTOi^ fiev eTrirpeyfre rov 'X^dpaKa Tropdrjaao, 

XVIII. Ta Se Kd^€ipa XajSoov /cal rwv dWcov 
(j>povpiQ)v ret TrXelara Or]cravpov<; re fxe'yaXov^ evpe 
Kol SeoTficoTijpLa, ttoWmv fMev ^EWrjvcov, 'ttoWcov 
Se (7V^<yev(hv rov ^acnXeco^ Kadetpjfievwv, ol<; 
TToXaL reOvdvai hoKovcnv ov (Korripiav, cOOC 
dvajBicocTLV koI Sevripav riva yivvrjo-iv 77 AovkovX- 

2 Xov %ap£9 irapea'XGV. kaXw Be koI dSeXcj)^] rov 
M.idpiBdrov Nucrcra awrrjpLov dXwaLv at S' drra)- 
rdrco rov kivBuvov koI KaO^ r)av')(^iav diroKelaOat 
SoKovaac irepX ^apvdKeiav dSeXcfyal koI yvvoLKe^ 
ol/crpcj<i dircoXovro, MiOptBdrov 7riiuLyjravro<; err 503 
avra<; ifc t^9 <^v'yr}<^ ^aK^^Byv evvov')(ov. rjaav 

Se fjbera iroXXwv dSeXcjiai re Svo rov /5a<TtXea)9, 
^Tco^dvTj Kol Xrdretpa, rrepl reaaapdKovra errj 
TrapdevevofievaCy kol yapberaX Suo, yevo^ 'Iwi^tSe?, 
^epeviKT] pL€V ifc Xlov, Movip,r) Be IsJliXrjaia. 

3 ravrr)<; 6 7rXelaro<; r]v Xoyo^ iv roWEXXrjaiv, on 
rov ^a(TLXeco<; 7r€cpa)vro<; avrrjv xal pLVpiov<; nrev- 
raKL(j')(^iXiov<; ')(pvo-ov<; nrpoarrepj-^^ravro'^ dvrecr')(e, 
fieypi ov ydpiwv eyevovro avvOijKai koL SidSrjfia 
Tre/Ai/ra? avrfj ^aaiXLcraav dvrjyopevaev. avrrj fcal 
rrapd rov dXXov ')(^p6vov dvLapocx; ei'^e koI drre- 
OpT^vet rr}v rov acopbaro^ evpuop^lav, C09 Beairorrjv 
pbev dvr dvBpo<; avrfj, ^povpdv Be papjBdpwv dvrX 
ydpov /cal ot/cov rrpo^evrjaaaav, rroppcd Be irov 
T779 EXXaSo9 dircpKLapievr] rol^ eXmaOelaLV dya- 
OoL'i ovap avveGriy r(ov B' dXrjdtvwv i/celpcov 
drrecrrepriraL, 

524 



LUCULLUS, XVII. 7-xviii. 3 

However, Lucullus allowed such soldiers as these to 
plunder the enemy's camp. 

XVIII. In capturing Cabira and most of the other 
strongholds, he found great treasures, and many 
prisons, in which many Greeks and many kinsfolk of 
the king were confined. As they had long been 
given up for dead, it was not so much a rescue as 
it was a resurrection and a sort of second birth, 
for which they were indebted to the favour of 
Lucullus. Nyssa, a sister of Mithridates, was also 
captured ; and her capture was her salvation. But 
the sistei*s and wives of the king who were thought 
to be at farthest remove from danger and quietly 
hidden away in Pharnacia, perished pitifully, since 
Mithridates paused long enough in his flight to 
send Bacchides, a eunuch, to compass their death. 
Among many other women, there were two sisters 
of the king, Roxana and Statira, about forty years 
old and unmarried ; and two of his wives, of Ionian 
families, Berenice from Chios, and Monim6, a 
Milesian. The latter was most talked of among the 
Greeks, to the effect that though the king tempted 
her virtue and sent her fifteen thousand pieces of 
gold, she resisted his advances, until he entered 
into a marriage contract with her, sent her a diadem, 
and greeted her with the title of Queen. But her 
marriage had been an unhappy one, and she bewailed 
that beauty which had procured her a master instead 
of a husband, and a guard of Barbarians instead of 
home and family, dwelling as she did far, far away 
from Greece, where the blessings for which she 
had hoped existed only in her dreams, while she 
was bereft of the real blessings to which she had 
been wonted. 

525 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Kal Srj Tov Ba«:%tSof Trapayevo/Jiivov Kai 
irpocrd^avTO^ avrah airoOvrjaiceiv, &)? eKacrrr) 
BoKOLTj paarov elvai Koi aXvTroraTOV, irepiaTrd- 
aaca t?}? Ke^aXrj^ ro BidS^j/iia r© rpaxv^fp 
Trepiyj^lre /cal dv/]pTr]a€v eavrrjv. ra^v ^' dirop- 
payevTO<; "*0 Karrjpafievov,'^ €(f)r), " pdKo<;, ovBe 
TT/oo? TOVTO /JLOi ')(^pT]ai/jiOV ear) ; " KciKelvo jiev 
direppLyjre Trpoo-TTTva-aaa, rw ^e 'BaKXi'^JJ ttjv 

5 crSayrjv 7ra/3e<7%€r. 17 Se ^epevi/cr] KvXiKa (jyappbd- 
Kov Xa^ovaa, t»)9 fjir)Tpo<; avrfj Trapovarj^; /cal 
heofievr]<^, fieriSco/ce. koI avve^eTTLov fiev dpi,(f)6' 
repai, yjpKeae Be rj tov (jjapfidicov BvvapLi,^ eh to 
dc-OevecTTepov acofia, rrjv Be Bep€VLKr)v ou% oaov 
eBet TTLOvaav ovK uTrTJWa^ev, dWd Bvadavarovcra 

6 TOV IBaK'^tBov cnrevBovTO'i direTTviyrj, XeyeTat Be 
KoX Tcbv dydficov dBeXcpcov eKeivwv ttjv fiev iira- 
pco/juevrjv TToWa kol XoiBopovaav efcirieiv to 
(f>dp/jLafcov, Tr}V Be %TdTeipav ovts Bva(f>r)/i6v ti 
i^dey^afjLevrjv ovt dyevve^, aXV eiraivovaav tov 
dBeXcpov, oTi irepl tov acofiaTO'^ KLvBvvevwv ovk 
r)piek7}aev avTCJv, dWd irpovvoTjaev ekevdepa^; Koi 
dw/SpiaTovf; drrodavelv. TavTa jxev ovv ^vcreL 
)(p7](TT0V ovTa fcal ^iXdvO puiiTov r]via tov Kov- 
/covWov. 

XIX. 'EXacra? 8' d')(pi TaXavpcov, evdev rjfJbepa 
TeTdpTTj TTpoTepov i(f)6dKei MiOptBaTij^; eh ^Ap- 
fievLav irpo<^ Tiypdvrjv irecjievycof;, diroTpeTreTaL. 
KaTao-Tp6ylrdfjbevo<; Be XaX^atou? fcal Ttfiapr)vov<; 
Kal TTJV fiLKpdv *Apfieviav irapaXa^oov koi cppov- 
pia teal TToXet,'^ TrapaaTrjad/jievo';, "Attttiov fiev 
eirepL-Klre 7rpo<; Tiy pdvrjv e^aiTcov MtOptBdTrjv, avTO<; 
2 S* '^/ce 7rpo<; *Afii(rov eTi TToXiop/covfievnv. aiTio^ 
526 



LUCULLUS, XVIII. 4-xix. 2 

And now Bacchides came and ordered them all 
to die, in whatever manner each might deem easiest 
and most painless. Monime snatched the diadem 
from her head, fastened it round her neck, and hanged 
herself. But her halter quickly broke in two. " O 
cursed bauble," she cried, "couldst thou not serve 
me even in this office .'* " Then she spat upon it, 
hurled it from her, and offered her throat to 
Bacchides. But Berenice, taking a cup of poison, 
shared it with her mother, who stood at her side and 
begged for some. Together they drank it off, and 
the force of the poison sufficed for the weaker body, 
but it did not carry off Berenice, who had not drunk 
enough. As she was long in dying, and Bacchides 
was in a hurry, she was strangled. It is said also 
that of the unmarried sisters, one drank off her 
poison with many abusive imprecations on her 
brother ; but that Statira did so without uttering a 
single reproachful or ungenerous word. She rather 
commended her brother because, when his own life 
was at hazard, he had not neglected them, but had 
taken measures to have them die in freedom and 
under no insults. Of course these things gave pain 
to Lucullus, who was naturally of a gentle and 
humane disposition. 

XIX. Lucullus pushed on in pursuit as far as 
Talaura, whence, four days before, Mithridates had 
succeeded in escaping to Tigranes, in Armenia ; 
then he turned aside. After subduing the Chaldaeans 
and the Tibareni, he occupied Lesser Armenia, 
reducing its fortresses and cities, and then sent 
Appius to Tigranes with a demand for Mithridates. 
He himself, however, came to Amisus, which was 
still holding out against the siege. Its success in 

527 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5' rjv KaWifiaxo^ 6 arparijybf; ejnTreipia /uirj'^avi,' 
KTjg 7rapaaK€vrj<; Kol Beivorrjri, Travovpyia^, 6<t7)v 
irokiopKia he'xeraiy TrXecara Xvirrjaa^; 'VayjJbaiov^* 
wv varepov eBco/ce Slktjv. t6t€ S' vtto AovkovWov 
KaraarpaTTjyTjdei^, ixf)^ rjv eOof; el'xev o)pav r?)? 
r]^epa<i airdyeiv kol avairaveiv tou? aTparionTa^t 
€v 6K€Lvr} 7rpocrffaX6vTO<; al^viBlco^; kol KaTaaypv- 
TO? ov iToKv p^kpo^ Tov T6LXov<;, avTo^i eKXiircov 
rrjv iroXiv v^rj'\^evy eXre (j>6ovo)v axpeXrjOrjvai 
^VcofjLaLOLf;, €LT€ paaTcovTjv ^vyrjf; eavru) /Jirj')(avd)- 

3 /jL€VO<;. ouSet? yap i(J3p6pTi^€ tmv iKirXeovTcovt 
aXXa ft)9 7) (ftXo^ avaSpa/JLOvaa ttoXXt) ra rei'^^rj 
7repie(T')(eVi ol fiev arpaTiMTai irapeaKevd^ovTO 
7rp6<; dpirayi^p, 6 Be AovkovXXo<; oiKTeipcov diroX- 
Xvfiivrjv TTjv iroXiv e^coOev i/So^Oet 7rpo<; to irvp 
KOL a^evvvvai irapeKaXei, firjBevof; avrw irpoae- 
XOVTO^, dXX^ i^aiTOVfievcov ra 'xprjp^ara Kal fierd 
l3o7J^ OTrXa KpovovTcov, 60)9 iKjSiaadeU eiriTpe-^ev, 
&)9 avTTjv ye rrjv ttoXlv i^aiprjcr6fjL€P0<; rod irvpof;. 

4 ol Be TOvvavTiov eirpa^av. irdvra yap e^epev- 
u(0VT€<; VTTO XafiirdBcov koi iravTa')(pv ^009 eV*- 
(j)epoPT€<; avTol rd irXelara tcop olfCTj/xdrcov KaOel' 
XoVy Mare tov AovkovXXov elaeXOovTa fjueO* rifiA- 
pav Kal BaKpvaavTa 7rpo<; tov<; <j>lXov<; ecTrelv, ox; 504 
TToXXdKL^ t^Bt) ^vXXav fiaKaplaaf; fidXiara ttj 
crrjfiepov rjfjuepa rrjv rdvBpo^; evTvyiav Oaufxaaeievt 

5 OTC (TMcraL ^ovXrjdel^; iSvmjOr) Ta9 ^AOrjvaS' ** ^^ph 

528 



LUCULLUS, XIX. 2-5 

this was due to Callimachus, its commander, who, 
by his acquaintance with mechanical contrivances 
and his power to employ every resource which the 
siege of a city demands, had given the Romans the 
greatest annoyance. For this he afterwards paid 
the penalty. But at this time, he was simply out- 
generalled by Lucullus, who made a sudden attack 
at just that time of day when Callimachus was 
accustomed to draw his soldiers off from the ramparts 
and give them a rest. \Vlien the Romans had got 
possession of a small part of the wall, Callimachus 
abandoned the city, first setting fire to it with his 
own hands, either because he begrudged the visitors 
their booty, or because his own escape was thus 
facilitated. For no one paid any attention to those 
who were sailing away, but when the flames increased 
mightily and enveloped the walls, the soldiers made 
ready to plunder the houses. Lucullus, out of pity 
for the perishing city, tried to bring aid from out- 
side against the fire, and gave orders to extinguish 
the flames, but no one paid any heed to his 
commands. The soldiers all clamoured for the booty, 
and shouted, and clashed their shields and spears 
together, until he was forced to let them have their 
way, hoping that he could at least save the city itself 
from the flames. But the soldiers did just the opposite. 
Ransacking everything by torch-light and canying 
lights about everywhere, they destroyed most of 
the houses themselves. When Lucullus entered the 
city at daybreak, he burst into tears, and said to his 
friends that he had often already deemed Sulla 
happy, and on that day more than ever he admired 
the man's good fortune, in that when he wished to 
save Athens, he had the power to do so. " But upon 

529 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8'/* €(^77, " TOVTOV ^r}\a)T7)V y€v6fl€V0V 6*9 TTJV 

M.OfJb/Jiiov So^av 6 SaLfia)v TrepiecTTrjorep" 

Ov /j,r)v a)OC eK twv wapovrcov avaXa/i^dveiv 
eireipoLTO rrjv iroXiv. /cat to fiev irvp ofi^poi. Kare- 
a^eaav €k tivo<; Oeia^ ti^X^? irepX rrjv aXooacv 
avTTjv a-Vfi7r€(T6vT€<;, ra Se ifKeifrra tmv airoXw- 
XoTODV avT09 ert irapoav avwKoSofiTjcre, fcal tov<; 
(pevyovTa'i ^A/jutcrrjvoiyv iSi^uTo, Koi rcov dXXcov 
'EXXrjvcov KarwKiae rov^ I3ovXo/jl6vov<;, eLKOCTL koI 

6 cKarbv araBlcov ')((opav irpoaopia-a^. rjv 5' rj itoXl^ 
^AdrjvaLcov diroLfcof;, iv eKeivoL<i dpa to2<; Kaipot^, 
ev 0^9 7]K/jLa^€V rj Bvva/ii,^; avrcop /cat Karec^e rr}v 
ddXaaaavj olKiaOelaa. koI Sia rovro iroXXol tcop 
Tr)v ^ ApLaTiddvo^ Tvpawiha ^ovXofievcop (pevyetp 
elcnrXevcravTe^i avrov KarcpKovv Koi ^eTelxov Trj<; 
TToXireia<;, 0I9 (Twe^rj ra OLKela Ka/ca (f)6vyouatv 
airoXavaaL todv aXXorpLcov. aXXa rov<; ye awOev- 
Ta9 avTOJV 6 AovKovXXo^ d/jL(f>t€cra<; KaX6i)<; koX 
htaKOO'la^ eKao-ra) Spaxfid<; €7ri8ov<; direareiXe. 

7 T0T6 KoX Tvpavvicov 6 ypafiixariKo^ edXco' Mou- 
p7]va<; B' avrov i^rirrjcraro koI Xaffobv aTTTjXevdi- 
p(o<T€V, dveXevOepox; rfj Bcopea y^prjo-ajxevo^;. ov 
yap rj^iov AovKOvXXo<; dvBpa 8 id nraiheiav ecTrov- 
Saafievov BovXov yeviadac irporepov, elr direXev- 
Oepov. d<paLp6ai<; yap r)V rrj<; v7rapxov(T7j<; r) rrj<; 
BoKov(Tr)<^ iXev6epia<; Socrt9. dXXd Movpi]va<; /jl€v 
ov/c evravOa fiovov co(j}Or) ttoXv t^9 tov arparr]- 
yov KaXoKaya6ia<i diroBecdv. 



530 



LUCULLUS, XIX. 5-7 

me/' he said, " who have been so eager to imitate 
his example. Heaven has devolved the reputation of 
Mummius." 

However, as far as circumstances allowed, he en- 
deavoured to restore the city. The fire, indeed, had 
been quenched by showers which fell providentially 
just as the city was captured, and most of what the 
soldiers had destroyed he rebuilt himself before his 
departure. He also received into the city those of 
the Amisenes who had fled, and settled there any 
other Greeks who so desired, and added to the city's 
domain a tract of a hundred and twenty stadia. The 
city was a colony of Athens, founded in that period 
when her power was at its height and she controlled 
the sea. And this was the reason why many who 
wished to escape the tyranny of Aristion ^ at Athens 
sailed to Amisus, settled there, and became citizens. 
In flying from evils at home, they got the benefit 
of greater evils abroad. But those of them who 
survived were well clothed by Lucullus, and sent 
back home, with a present of two hundred drachmas 
apiece. Tyrannio the grammarian was also taken 
prisoner at this time. Murena asked to have him as 
his own prize, and on getting him, formally gave him 
his liberty, therein making an illiberal use of the 
gift which he had received. For Lucullus did not 
think it meet that a man so esteemed for his learning 
should first become a slave, and then be set at 
liberty. To give him a nominal liberty was to rob 
him of the liberty to which he was born. But this 
was not the only case in which Murena was found to be 
far inferior to his commander in nobility of conduct. 

^ Tyrant of Athens when the city was besieged by Sulla, 
87 B.O. 

S3; 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XX. AovKouWo'; Se Tpeirerat 7rpo<i Ta<! iv 
*Acria TToXe^?, 07rco9, tcjv TroXe/ni/ccov epycov (j)(o\d- 
^ovTO<i auTOVt KOL 8LKr)<; TIV09 //.eracrp^T; kuI 
feafjbcjp, wv eVl ttoXvv ')(^p6vov ivSef] rrjv eirapxidv 
ovaav dpprjTOi koI airiaroi BuaTV^taL /carelxov, 

VTTO TCOP TeXcOVMV KOL TOOV haveLCTTOiV TTOpOoVfieVTJV 

KoX avSpaTToBi^ofieprjv, TrtirpdaKecv IBla fjuev viou<; 
eviT peirel^ dvyarepa^; re irapOevov^;, Brj/ioaLa 8' 
dvaOrjixaTa, ypa<f>d^, lepov^ dvBptdvra'^ dvay/ca- 

2 ^ofievcov. avrol<; Be reXo^ fiev rjv TTpoadeToi^; 
yevojjievoi<i BovXeveiVf ra Be irpo tovtou %<xX6- 
TTcorepa, <T')(pLViaiJLol koX /ccyfcXiBe^ koI Xttttol koL 
ardaei^ viraidpoi, Kav^iaio^ jxev iv rjXiw, '\jnj^ou<; 
B' 6t9 TTYiXov ifi^iffa^o/JLevcov rj irdyov, (oare rrjv 
BovXeiav creca-dxOeiav BoKecv elvai koI elpijvr)v. 

3 TOiavra fiev Kaica Aov/covXXo<; evpoiv ev Tat<? 
iroXeaiv oXlyo) ^(^povw irdvrwv dirrjXXa^e tov<; 
dBiKovfievov^i. 

JJpcoTov fiev yap e/caroo-rrjv eKeXevcre koI firj 
irXeov eh tov<; t6kov<; Xoyi^ecrOar Bevrepov Be 
TOV<; fjLaKpOTepov<; tov dp)(^aiov t6kov(; dTre/coyjre' 
TO Be rplrov koI fieyiaroVy era^e rcov tov %/3€a)- 
(j>eiXeTov TTpoaoBodV ttjv TeTapTrjv fieplBa Kap- 
irovaOai, tov Baveio-Trjv 6 Be tokov KecpaXalrp 

4 avvd-\lra<i ia-TeprjTO tov nravTo^i' uar ev eXdTTOvi 
'Xpovcp T€TpaeTLa<; BtaXvOrjvat to, xP^^ irdvTa koX 
Ta<; KTtjaeif; eXevdepa^ dTroBoOrjvai to?? Bea7r6raL<;. 
^v Be TOVTO Koivov Bdveiov ix tcjv Btajjivpioov 
TaXdvTcov, oh T7]v ^ Ad lav e^rifitoxrev 6 XvXXa<;' 
Kal BittXovv direBoOr] Toh Bavelaaaiv, vir e/celvcov 



532 



LUCULLUS, XX. 1-4 

XX. LucuUus now turned his attention to the 
cities in Asia,^ in order that, wliile he was at leisure 
from military enterprises, he might do something 
for the furtherance of justice and law. Through 
long lack of these, unspeakable and incredible misfor- 
tunes were rife in the province. Its people were plun- 
dered and reduced to slavery by the tax-gatherers 
and money-lenders. Families were forced to sell 
their comely sons and virgin daughters, and cities 
their votive offerings, pictures, and sacred statues. 
At last men had to surrender to their creditors and 
serve them as slaves, but what preceded this was far 
worse, — tortures of rope, barrier, and horse ; standing 
under the open sky in the blazing sun of summer, 
and in winter, being thrust into mud or ice. Slavery 
seemed, by comparison, to be disburdenment and 
peace. Such were the evils which LucuUus found in 
the cities, and in a short time he freed the oppressed 
from all of them. 

In the first place, he ordered that the monthly 
rate of interest should be reckoned at one per cent., 
and no more; in the second place, he cut off all 
interest that exceeded the principal ; third, and 
most important of all, he ordained that the lender 
should receive not more than the fourth part of his 
debtor's income, and any lender who added interest 
to principal was deprived of the whole. Thus, in 
less than four years' time, the debts were all paid, 
and the properties restored to their owners unen- 
cumbered. This public debt had its origin in the 
twenty thousand talents which Sulla had laid upon 
Asia as a contribution, and twice this amount had 
been paid back to the money-lenders. Yet now, by 

1 71-70 B.C. 

533 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dmjy/jLevov rjBrj rol^ tokoi^ eU ScoSeKa fivpLaSa^ 
5 ToKavTow. i/c€Lvot fiev ovv co? heiva ireirovOoTe'; 
iv 'PoofJ^rj Tou AovKovWov Kare^ocov, /cat XPV' 
fiacnv avLaraaav iir avrov ivlov^ to)v Br/fjuajwycov, 
fiiya Bvvdfievoi, koX iroKko\j<i vTro'^^peo)'; ireirotr]- 
fievoi TMV TToXLTevofiivcov. 6 Be AovfcovXX,o<; ov 

flOVOV VTTO TCOV €V TTeTTOpOoTtOV 'qyaiTaTO BrjfKOV, 

aXKa Ka\ rat? aXkai^ eirapxiai^ iroOeivo^ rjv, 
€vBaLfJLOVl^OV(TaL^ T0U9 r)y€/ji6po<i toiovtov tv- 
Xovra^. 

XXL "ATTTTto? Be KXco^to?, o 7re/x(^^6t9 7r/)09 
TiypdvTjv (rjv Be 6 KXcoBio^; a8e\<^09 t?}? rore 505 
AovfcovWo) avvotKov(7r]<;) irpcoTov jxev vtto t(ov 
jSao-ikLK&v oBrjyoiv kvkXov tlvcl koX 7repi,^o\r)v 
€')(ovaav ovK dvayKaiav kol nroXvrjfiepov oBov Bia 
TTj^i dvco %ft>/3a9 dyofievo^, firjvixravro^ avrw rrjv 
evOelav oBov dnreXevdepov Xvpov to yevo<;, €k- 
Tpeirerai r^? jiiaKpd<i i/ceivr)^ koI aocj^icmKrjf;, 
ippwaOai (f>pdaa^ iroXKa tol<; ^ap^dpoa dywyol^t 
Kol Bl y/jbepcjv oXCycov rov FjV(j)pdTr)p 7Tepdaa<! 

2 €t9 ^AvTio^eiav rJKe rtjv €7rt Ad^vr)^. eTrecra 
Tcypdvijv avTOv xeXevaOeU irepi/ievecv {aTrrjp yap 
evia^ €Ti Tciiv iv ^OLVL/cy woXecov Karaarpecfio- 
fievo<i), TToXXoiff; fiev M/ceicoaaTO rcov v7rovX(o<; 
aKpoco/jbivcov rov ^Ap/nevlov Bwaarcav, Siv el<i rjv 
KoX Zapfft,r]vo<; 6 Trj<i TopBvrjvfjf; ^acnXevf;, 
TToXXal^ Be Kpv^a tcov BeBovXayfievcov iroXecov 
Bta7re/x7rofjievai<i 7r/)09 avrov vireayero rrjv Aov- 
/covXXov ^orjdeiav, iv Ta> irapovTi KeXevaaf; 
'^av^d^eiv. 

3 *Hi/ yap OVK dvaa'xeTO'i ij tmv ^Apfievlcov dpxv 



534 



LUCULLUS, XX. 4-xxi. 3 

reckoning usurious interest, they had brought the 
total debt up to a hundred and twenty thousand 
talents. These men, accordingly, considered them- 
selves outraged, and raised a clamour against LucuUus 
at Rome. They also bribed some of the tribunes to 
proceed against him, being men of great influence, 
who had got many of the active politicians into their 
debt. LucuUus, however, was not only beloved by 
the peoples whom he had benefited, nay, other pro- 
vinces also longed to have him set over them, and 
felicitated those whose good fortune it was to have 
such a governor. 

XXI. Appius Clodius, who had been sent to Ti- 
granes (Clodius was a brother of her who was then 
the wife of LucuUus), was at first conducted by the 
royal guides through the upper country by a route 
needlessly circuitous and long. But when a freedman 
of his, who was a Syrian, told him of the direct 
route, he left the long one which was being trickily 
imposed upon him, bade his Barbarian guides a long 
farewell, and within a few days crossed the Euphrates 
and came to Antioch by Daphne.^ Then, being 
ordered to await Tigranes there (the king was still 
engaged in subduing some cities of Phoenicia), he 
gained over many of the princes who paid but a 
hollow obedience to the Armenian. One of these 
was Zarbienus, king of Gordyene. He also promised 
many of the enslaved cities, when they sent to 
confer with him secretly, the assistance of LucuUus, 
although for the present he bade them keep 
quiet. 

Now the sway of the Armenians was intolerably 

* The great Antioch on the river Orontes. Daphne was 
the name of a grove near the city consecrated to Apollo. 

VOL. II. S 535 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot9 ''FiWrjcTLv, aWa '^(^aXeirrj' koI fiaXiara rov 
^aaCkew^ avrou to ^povrj/na rpayiKov koX virep- 
oyKov iv rat? jxeyaXai^ evTV)(^iaL^ iyeyovei, 
irdvTWVy ocra ^rfkovaiv ol ttoWoI /cal daiff-cd^ovaiv, 
ov fxovov ovTwv irepl avrov, dWa kol 8i^ avrov 

4 jeyovevac hoKOvvfwv. dp^dfM€VO<; yap diro /jiiKpa<; 
KoX KaTa(j)povovijL6V7)(; eXTTt^o? eOvr} ttoWo, Kare- 
arpeyp^aro, /cat ttjv TldpOcov, q)9 aXXo^ ovBei<i, 
hvvafiiv iraireivwaeVi '^Wrjvafv Se tyjv lAecro- 
Trorafiiav iv67r\r](Te, ttoXXol/? fJi'CV eK K.i\iKLa<;, 
TToWoix; S* i/c KaTTTraSoh'ta^ dvaairdarov^ Karot- 
KL^wv. €KLV7}cre S' ef i^Ocov KoX "A/)a/9a9 tou? 
'^fcrjvLTaf; fieTayaycbv Kal irXi^aiov l8pvo-a<;, ottw? 

5 ')(^pwTO Si i/ceivcav rat? e/jb7ropiaL<;. /9a<7tX6t9 Se 
iroXXol fjuev rjaav ol OepaTrevovre^ avrov, T€<Taap€<; 
he, 01/9 del irepl avrov el')(ev McrTrep oirahov^; 
Tj Sopv(f>6pov<;, iTTirorr} fiev ekavvovri Tre^ovf; 
7rapaOeovra<; ev ')(iT(oviO'Kot<i, Kadijfievo) Be Kal 
'^prj/jiari^ovri ire p bear cor a<i eirrfWayixevai'^ Bi 
dWrjXwv rat<; 'xepaiv, orrep iSo/cei /iidXiorra rwv 
ax^fidrwv e^o/JLoXoyijcn^i elvai BovXelaq, olov diro- 
Bofievwv rrjv eXevOepiav Kal ro (Tcofia rS) Kvpiw 
Trapexovrcov iraOelv eroifiorepov 7) irocrjo-aL. 

6 Tavr7]v jxevroi rr}V rpaywBiav ov^ virorpecra^ 
ovB^ €K7rXayel<i 6 "Airinofs, ft)9 erv^e Xoyov jrpco- 
Tov, dvrLKpv<; rjKeiv ecftrj ^ItOptodrrjv dird^wv 
6(f)etX6fjievov rot<; AovkovXXov OpLdfjL^oi<; rj Karay- 
yeXa)V Ttypdvr} TroXe/iov, coare rov Tcypdvrjv, 
Kaiirep ev Bcax^o-^i' toO Trpoacoirov Kal fjueiBid/iiari 
rreirXaar fjievtp rreLpoi^ievov aKoveiv rMv Xoycov, /jlt] 
XaOecv rov<; irapovra^ '^XXotco/ievov rfj irapprja-La 
rov veavto'Kov, (jxovrjf; a'^eBbv eXevOepa^ aKOvovra 



I 



LUCULLUS, XXI. 3-6 

grievous to the Greeks. Above all else, the spirit of 
the king himself had become pompous and haughty 
in the midst of his great prosperity. All the things 
which most men covet and admire, he not only had 
in his possession, but actually thought that they 
existed for his sake. For though he had started on 
his career with small and insignificant expectations, 
he had subdued many nations, humbled the Parthian 
power as no man before him had done, and filled 
Mesopotamia with Greeks whom he removed in 
great numbers from Cilicia and from Cappadocia, and 
settled anew. He also removed from their wonted 
haunts the nomadic Arabians, and brought them to 
an adjacent settlement, that he might employ them 
in trade and commerce. Many were the kings who 
waited upon him, and four, whom he always had 
about him like attendants or body-guards, would run 
on foot by their master's side when he rode out, clad 
in short blouses, and when lie sat transacting busi- 
ness, would stand by with their arms crossed. This 
altitude was thought to be tlie plainest confession of 
servitude, as if they had sold their freedom and 
offered their persons to their master disposed for 
suffering rather than for service. 

Appius, however, was not frightened or astonished 
at all this pomp and show, but as soon as he obtained 
an audience, told the king plainly that he was come 
to take back Mithridates, as an ornament due to the 
triumph of Lucullus, or else to declare war against 
Tigranes. Although Tigranes made every effort to 
listen to this speech with a cheerful countenance 
and a forced smile, he could not hide from the 
bystanders his discomfiture at the bold words of the 
young man. It must have been five and twenty 

537 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bia irevre koX eiKoaiv ercoir Toaavra yhp iffaa-l' 
7 \€V(76, fiaXXov Be vffptaev. aireKplvaro fjiev ovv 
T(p 'ATTTTtft) fir) TTporjcrea-Oai yiiOpiBaTrjv, Kal 
*P(D/jLaLOvq iroXefxov dp^ovra^; a/xweWai. Aov- 
KovWo) S* 6pyc^6fi6vo<;, otl fiaaCkea fiovov avrov, 
ov ffao-tkicov iv rfj iiricTToXr} Trpoarrjyopevcrev, 
ovB* avT09 avTiypd(f)a)v avroxparopa irpoael'irev. 
€7r€fjLyJr€ Be Bcjpa t& * ATTTTtoi) Xafiirpd, koI fzrj XajSov- 
TO<i dXXa irXetM irpocreOrjKev. ex tovtcov 6 "ATTTrto? 
ovK iOeXiov BoKelv ex^pa rivX BLcoOelaOav (jyidXrfv 
Be^dfjuevo^ fiiav direireiMy^e ra XocTrd, Kal Bi^ 
ra')(^ea>v dirrfXavve tt/oo? rov avroKpdropa. 

XXII. Tiypdvrj^; Be MtOpLBdrrjv irporepov fiev 
ovBe IBelv rj^iaxTev ovBh irpoaeLirelv olicelov dvBpa 
^aaCXela^ i/cTreTTTcoKora TifXi/cavrrj^;, dXX^ drifKOf; 
Kal v7repr](j)dveo<; dTreoTaTco rrepcelBev avrov rpo- 
irov TLva <f>povpovfJLevov iv ')(^copiOL^ eXwBeai Kal 
vocrepol'^' Tore Be avv rtfifj Kal (f>iXo(j)po(TvvT} 

2 jjL€T€7refM'\jraT0 avrov eh ra jSacrLXeta. Kal Brj 
XoycDv yevo/jLevayv diropprjTOiV Td<; tt/jo? dXX^Xov; 5( 
idepdirevov vTro^jria^; eirl KaKcp rcov ^iXcoVt eh 
eKelvov<i ra? alria^; rpe'irovTe<^» ajv rjv Kal 
MrjTpoBcopOf; 6 '^Kijylno^, dvrjp elirelv ovk d7jBr)<i 
Kal 7roXv/jLa07J<;, aKjJLfi Be (j>i\ia^ rocravrrj XPV^^' 
fievo<;t OKTTe irarrjp Trpoaayopeveadai rov ^aa-t- 

3 Xeo)?. TOVTOV, ft)9 eoLKeVy 6 Ttypdvrj<; ireficpOevra 
7rp€(T^evT7]V VTTO Tov MiOpiBdrov 7r/309 avrov 
538 



LUCULLUS, XXI. 6-xxii. 3 

years since he had listened to a free speech. That 
was the length of his reign, or rather, of his wanton 
tyranny. However, he replied to Appius that he 
would not surrender Mithridates, and that if the 
Romans began war, he would defend himself. He 
was vexed with Lucullus for addressing him in his 
letter with the title of King only, and not King of 
Kings, and accordingly, in his reply, would not 
address Lucullus as Imperator. But he sent 
splendid gifts to Appius, and when he would not 
take them, added more besides. Appius finally 
accepted a single bowl from among them, not 
wishing his rejection of the king's offers to seem 
prompted by any personal enmity, but sent back the 
rest, and marched off with all speed to join the 
Imperator. 

XXn. Up to this time Tigranes had not deigned 
to see Mithridates, nor speak to him, though the 
man was allied to him by marriage, and had been 
expelled from such a great kingdom. Instead, he 
had kept him at the farthest remove possible, in 
disgrace and contumely, and had suffered him to be 
held a sort of prisoner in marshy and sickly regions. 
Now, however, he summoned him to his palace with 
marks of esteem and friendship. There, in secret 
conference, they strove to allay their mutual 
suspicions at the expense of their friends, by laying 
the blame upon them. One of these was Metrodorus 
of Scepsis, a man of agreeable speech and wide 
learning, who enjoyed the friendship of Mithridates 
in such a high degree that he was called the king's 
father. This man, as it seems, had once been sent 
as an ambassador from Mithridates to Tigranes, with 
a request for aid against the Romans. On this 

539 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Seo/Jbivov jSorjOecv iirl 'Vcofialov^ rjpero' " Su 5* 
avr6<;, co M-rjTpoBcope, rl fioi irep\ tovtcov irapai- 
vel^; " KaKelvo^ elre irpof; to Toy pdvov o-Vfi^ipov 
elre Ml6 pihaTTjv aclal^eadai fit) povXojievo^, o>9 jiev 
7rp6cr/3euT7)9 e<^r] Kekeveiv, ox; Be avfi^ovko^ aira- 
yopeveiv, ravr* i^ijvey/cev 6 Tcypdvrj<i t& Mt- 
dpiBcLTr) fcal KaTelirev co? ovBev epyaaofiivq) top 

4 yir]rp6B(opov dvi]iceaTOV. 6 S' eu^u? dpyprjro' kuI 
fjierdvoia rbv Tiypdvrjv el^ev, ov iravreXw^; ovra 
TO) MrjTpoBcopo) T^9 avfjL<j)opd<; atriov, dWct poTrrjv 
TLva TO) 7r/309 avTov e'xOeu rod MidpiBdrou irpoa- 
Oevra. irdXai yap v7rovX(o<i elp^e 7r/)o? rbv dvBpa, 
Kol TOUT i^copdOr] to)v diroppi^TOiv avrov ypap,- 
/jbdrcov dXovTCOv, iv oh rjv xal MrjTpoScopov 
diToXeaOai BiareTay/jbevov. edayjrev ovv 6 Tl- 
ypdvTj^ XajJbirpoi^i to awp-a, /Jbr]B€fiLd<; TroXvreXeCaf; 
(f)€i,ad/jb6vof; et? veKpov ov ^covra irpovBcoKev. 

5 ^^TeXevTTjae Be iraph t& Tiypdvr) koi ^Kficpi- 
KpdTr)<i 6 prjTOip, el Bel Kal tovtov fxvrj/jirjv rivd 
yeveadai Bia ra? *A6i]va<;. Xeyerat yap cpvyelv 
jxev avTov eh ^eXevKetav rrjv eVl TlypiBi, Beo/xe- 
v(DV B^ avTodi ao^iareveiv virepiBelv KaraXa^o- 
vevcrdfievov, &>? ovBe XeKdvrj BeXcfilva ^(^odpoir], 
fieTaardvra Be 7r/?09 KXeoTrdrpav rrjv McOpcBdrov 
dvyarepa, Tiypdpj) Be avvocKOvaav iv Bta^oXfj 
yeveaOai Tayy, Kal tt}? 7rpo<; tov<; "EXXrjva'i 
eTTLpbi^ia^ elpyofjuevov diToicapTeprjaav Ta<l>rjvai 
Be Kal TOVTOV evTipLO)^ viro Trj<i KXeoTrdrpaf; Kal 
540 



LUCULLUS, XXII. 3-5 

occasion Tigranes asked him : " But what is your 
own advice to me. Metrodorus, in this matter ? " 
Whereupon Metrodorus, either with an eye to the 
interests of Tigranes, or because he did not wish 
Mithridates to be saved, said that as an ambassador 
he urged consent, but as an adviser lie forbade it. 
Tigranes disclosed this to Mithridates, not supposing, 
when he told him, that he would punish Metrodorus 
past all healing. But Metrodorus was at once put 
out of the way. Then Tigranes repented of what 
he had done, although he was not entirely to blame 
for the death of Metrodorus. He merely gave an 
impulse, as it were, to the hatred which Mithridates 
already had for the man. For he had long been 
secretly hostile to him, as was seen from his private 
papers when they were captured, in which there 
were directions that Metrodorus, as well as others, 
be put to death. Accordingly, Tigranes gave the 
body of Metrodorus a splendid burial, sparing no ex- 
pense upon the man when dead, although he had 
betrayed him when alive. 

Amphicrates, the rhetorician, also lost his life at 
the court of Tigranes, if, for the sake of Athens, we 
may make some mention of him too. It is said that 
when he was exiled from his native city, he went to 
Seleucia on the Tigris, and that when the citizens 
asked him to give lectures there, he treated their 
invitation with contempt, arrogantly remarking that 
a stewpan could not hold a dolphin. Removing 
thence, he attached himself to Cleopatra, the 
daughter of Mithridates and wife of Tigranes, but 
speedily fell into disfavour, and, being excluded from 
intercourse with Greeks, starved himself to death. 
He also received honourable burial at the hands of 

541 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KelaOai irepX %a(f>dv, ifceZ rv x^P^ov ovtod koKov- 
fievov. 

XXIII. AouKovWo<; Be ttjv ^AaCav ttoXX^ fiev 
€vvofiia<;, iroWrjf; S' elprjV7j<i ifi7re7r\7]Ka)<; ovE^ rcov 
7r/009 rjBovrjv koX X^P''^ r/fjLeXrjaev, aWa TrofiTralg 
Kol 7ravr)yvp€<TLV i'7rivc/cloi<; kol ayoi)(Tiv clOXtjtmv 
icaX fJLovofjbdx'^v ev *^^ecr(p Kadi]/i€vo<i iBrjfiayayyec 
Ta? 7roX6i9, at 3* dfiei^ofievai AovKOvWeid re 
^yov iirl TOfirj rod dvBpo^, koI t?}? ri/JLrjf; rjBiova 

2 rrjv d\T]6ivr)v evvoiav avro) irapelxov. iireX 3' 

"ATTTTtO? T6 r)K€ KOl TToXefJbrjTeOV 7r/509 Tiypdv7)p 

i(j)a[v€TO, iraprjXOev avOi<; et? Uovtov, koI tou? 
aTparicoraf; dvaXa^oiv iirokiopKU ^lvcotttjv, jjudX- 
\ov Be Toif^i KaTexovTa<; avTrjv ^aaCkiKov^ K.tX,L- 
Ka<;, oc '7roWov<; fiev dve\6vTe<i t&v '^ivcoTrecov, rrjp 

3 Be rroXiv eiMirprjcravTe^ Bia vvKrb<; e(f>vyov. alaOo- 
fjbevo<i 8' o AovKovWof; kol irapeXOcov eh ttjv ttoXiv 
6KTa/ci,(Txi'XL0v<; avTcov tov^ eyKaTaXei(^6evra(i 
aTreKTeive, to?? 5' dXXoL<; direBcoKe ra olicela koI 
rrj'i 7roXea)9 eirefJieXrjdr] fidXiara Bia rrjv roiavrrjv 
oylrLV. eBoKec riva Kara tov<; vttvov<; elirelv nrapa- 
(TTdvTa' *' TipoeXOe, Aov/covXXe, fiLKpov rjKev yap 

4 Avt6Xvko<; evTVX^Iv ctol l3ouX6fjLevo<i.** e^avaaTa<i 
Be TTJV fiev oyjriv ovk elye avjjb^aXelv eh on ^epoL, 
TTJV Be ttoXlv elXe Kar eKeivqv ttjv rjixepav, koX 
TOv<; eKirXeopra^ twv K.i,Xlkcov Bicokcov opa irapa 
Tov alyiaXov dvBpidvra KeifievoVt ov €KKOfiL^ovTe<; 
01 Kt\</C69 OVK e<j>0r]aav efxpaXeaOai' to S' epyov 
^v ^OevcBo^ Tcov KaXoiv. (ppd^ec ovv Ti9, tt)9 Av- 
roXvKov TOV KTLaaPTO^ ttjv %cpQ)7r7jv 6 dpBpLa<i 
€Lrj. 

54? 



I 



LUCULLUS, XXII. 5-xxiii. 4 

Cleopatra, and his body lies at Sapha, as a place in 
those parts is called. 

XXIII. Lucullus, after filling Asia full of law and 
order, and full of peace, did not neglect the things 
which minister to pleasure and win favour, but during 
his stay at Ephesus gratified the cities with pro- 
cessions and triumphal festivals and contests of 
athletes and gladiators. And the cities, in response, 
celebrated festivals which they called LucuUea, to 
do honour to the man, and bestowed upon him what 
is sweeter than honour, their genuine good-will. 
But when Appius came, and it was plain that war 
must be waged against Tigranes, he went back into 
Pontus, put himself at the head of his soldiers, and 
laid siege to Sinope, or rather, to the Cilicians who 
were occupying that city for the king. These slew 
many of the Sinopians, fired the city, and set out to 
fly by night. But Lucullus saw what was going on, 
made his way into the city, and slew eight thousand 
of the Cilicians who were still there. Then he 
restored to the citizens their private property, and 
ministered to the needs of the city, more especially 
on account of the following vision. He thought in 
his sleep that a form stood by his side and said : 
"Go forward a little, Lucullus; for Autolycus is 
come, and wishes to meet you." On rising from 
sleep, he was unable to conjecture what the vision 
meant ; but he took the city on that day, and as he 
pursued the Cilicians who were sailing away, he saw 
a statue lying on the beach, which the Cilicians had 
not succeeded in getting on board with them. It 
was the work of Sthenis, and one of his master- 
pieces. Well then, some one told Lucullus that it 
was the statue of Autolycus, the founder of Sinope. 

543 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Aiyerao 5' o AutoXu/co? jeveaOai tmv iirl ra? 
^Afia^ovaf; ck ©erraXta? ^HpaKXel (Tvo-Tparev- 
advrcjv, ^7]lfid')(pv 7rac<;' eKeldev 8' diroirXewv dfjua 
Arj/jLoXeovTi kol ^Xoyifo rrjv fiev vavv diroXkaai 
7r€pL7r€(T0V(Tav TTj^i ^eppovTjaov Kara to koXov- 
fjuevov Yi'qhaXioVy avTO<i Be (rcoOel^ /jbera rwif oirkcdv 507 
Ka\ Tcov eraipcov 7rpo<; rrjv ^ivooTryjv d^ekeadat 

6 Tou? ^vpov<i Tr]v TToXiv 'Itvpoi yap avrrjv Karel^ov 
diro 'Zvpov yeyovore^ rov 'AttoXXwi/o?, cw? Xiyerait 
Kol Xivco7r7}<; t% 'AcrcoTrtSo?. 

TavT oLKOVcov 6 AovfcovWo<; dvep^ifivrjCTKeTO Trj<; 
XvWa irapaiveaeo}^' iraprjveL he Scd tcov virofivr)- 
jjuaTcov iK6tvo<; firjhep ovtco^ d^ioiT lcttov 'qyelaOai 
teal ^e^aiov, w? 6 tl av diroarjixavBrj Bed twv 

ivVTTVLCOV. 

7 Tivv6av6/jL6VO<; 8e ^liOpiBdTr^v T€ koI Tcypdvrjv 
eh AvKaoviav koX KiXiKuav ocrov ovttco Bca^ifid- 
^€LV BvvafiLV CO? 7rpoT6pov(; ip^a\ovvTa<; eh ttjv 
^Aalav, eOzvp^a^e rov 'ApfMeviov, el yvcop^Tjv e)(Q)p 
eiriOeaOai ^Vco/iaioi^i, dK/xd^ovTi pev ovk exPV'^o 
MtdpiBdTj) TTpo? TOP irokepov, ovS* epp(t)p,evoL<i 
Toh i/celvov ra irap' avTov avvrjiTTev, diro- 
Xeadai K ed(Ta<^ /cat avvTpiprjvai vvv iirl -ylrvxpah 
eKiridiv dp)(^eraL iroXepov tol<; dvacTTTjvai firj 
BvvapevoL<^ avyKUTa^dWcov eavTov. 

XXIV. "'E^ireiBrj Be fcal Ma^dpr]^ 6 MiOpcBdTOV 
irah e%&)i' Tov ^ocTTTOpov eTrep-^jrev avTcp (TTe(j>avov 
diTO xpvacov '^iXicov, Be6pevo<; 'Fcop^alcov dva- 
ypa<^i)vai ^tXo? koX avppayp<^y y^Bij ol6p.evo<; ra 
TOV TTpoTepov 7ro\ep,ov Trepan exetv ^copvdTiov 

544 



LUCULLUS, xxiii. 5-xxiv. i 

Now Autolycus is said to have been one of those 
who made an expedition with Heracles from Thessaly 
against the Amazons, a son of Deimachus. On his 
voyage of return, in company with Demoleon and 
Phlogius, he lost his ship, which was wrecked at the 
place called Pedalium, in the Chersonesus ; but he 
himself escaped, with his arms and his companions, 
and coming to Sinope, took the city away from the 
Syrians. These Syrians who were in possession of 
the city were descended, as it is said, from Syrus, 
the son of Apollo, and Sinope, the daughter of 
Asopis. 

On hearing this, Lucullus called to mind the 
advice of Sulla, in his Memoirs, which was to think 
nothing so trustworthy and sure as that which is 
signified by dreams. 

Being informed now that Mithridates and Tigranes 
were on the point of entering Lycaonia and Cilicia, 
with the purpose of invading Asia before war was 
actually declared, he was amazed that the Armenian, 
if he cherished the design of attacking the Romans, 
had not made use of Mithridates for this war when 
he was at the zenith of his power, nor joined forces 
with him when he was strong, but had allowed him 
to be crushed and ruined, and now began a war 
which offered only faint hopes of success, prostrating 
himself to the level of those who were unable to 
stand erect. 

XXIV. But when Machares also, the son of 
Mithridates, who held the Bosporus, sent Lucullus 
a crown valued at a thousand pieces of gold, beg- 
ging to be included in the list of Rome's friends 
and allies, Lucullus decided at once that the first 
war was finished. He therefore left Sornatius there 

545 



1 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjbev avTOv <j)vXaKa t&v Uovtckcov aireXLire fierh 

2 cTparicoTcov e^aKia')(^L\i(t>v , avro^; Be fjuvptov^; fxev 
d<y(ov KOI 8t,(TYi\,Lov<; Trefou?, tTTTret? Be Tpc(T')(^t\i(ov 
ikoLTTOVfiy ein tov Bevrepov e-x^copei iroXepiov, op/xfj 
TLVL BoKMV 7rapaff6\a> koX (TCOTripiov ovk i'xpvar) 
XoyLo-fjLov €/jL0a\elv avrov eU eOvrj fid')(^tfia /cat 
fivpLdBa<; iTTTrecov TroXXa? xal d'^avrj '^copav, 
jSaOeac fiev Trorafjuot^, del Be Karavi^o/j-evoc<i opeat, 

3 Trepie'XpfJbevrjv, ware roix; fxev arpaTicora^; ovB^ 
aXXo)? 6vTa<i evraKTOv; aKovra^ eireaOai /cal 
^vyo/JLa'X,ovvTa<;t iv Bk *Vcofi7j Kara^oav KaX Bta- 
fiapTVpeaOai tov^ Brj/xaycoyov^;, Co? iroXe/jLOv €k 
TToXifiov BicoKec AovkovX\,o<; ovBev Tr]<; TroXew? 
Beojj,ev7]<i, aX\' VTrep rov a-Tparrjycjv purjBeTroTe 
KaraOiaOat to, oirXa fiTjBe 'iravaaaOac 'XprjpLari^o- 

4 fievo^i aTTo T<ov KoivSiV kcvBuvcov, ovtoc fjiev ovv 
i^eipydoravro ')(^p6v(p rrfv avrojv vTroOecnv' Aou- 
KOvXko^ B^ (tvpt6vci}<; 6Bev(Ta<; eirl rov ^v<^pdTr)v, 

\ical KaTLOvra ttoXvv koI doXepov vtto ')(eifi(ovof! 
evpodv, 7]a')(^aXXev, &)9 Bi,aTpiff7J<i avra> kuI irpay- 
liareia^ icrop.evr)<; avvdyovTi iropOfJiela kol irrj- 
yvv/JLevo) o-p^eSta?. dp^dp,evov 6' a0* eairepa^; 
VTro-x^fjOpelv to pevjia koX jjuecovfjievov Bia t^9 vvkto^ 
apu vpepa koTXov irapkayev 6^67]i>aL rov 7roTap,6v. 

5 ol S* i7rtX(*>pi^0L vTjalBa^ iv rw Tropcp pLixpa^ Bia(j>a- 
V6iaa<; Oeacrdpevoi koI revayi^ovra rov povv eV* 
avTaL<;, irpoaeicvvovv rov AovkovXXov, tw9 oXtydxi^; 
TOVTOV avpLpepTjKOTO^ Trporepov, e/celvo) S' ixov- 
auayf; 'X^eiporjOr] KaX irpaov avrov evBiB6vro<; rov 
irorapLov Kal irapexovro^ dirpdypLova koX ra^^lav 
r7)v Bidfiaaiv, 

546 



LUCULLUS, XXIV. 1-5 

as guardian of Pontus, with six thousand soldiers, 
while he himself, with twelve thousand footmen and 
less than three thousand horse, set out for the second 
war.^ He seemed to be making a reckless attack, 
and one which admitted of no saving calculation, 
upon warlike nations, countless thousands of horse- 
men, and a boundless region surrounded by deep rivers 
and mountains covered with perpetual snow. His 
soldiers, therefore, who were none too well disciplined 
in any case, followed him reluctantly and rebelliously, 
while the popular tribunes at Rome raised an outcry 
against him, and accused him of seeking one war 
after another, although the city had no need of 
them, that he might be in perpetual command and 
never lay down his arms or cease enriching himself 
from the public dangers. And, in time, these men 
accomplished their purpose. But Lucullus advanced 
by forced marches to the Euphrates, liere he found 
the stream swollen and turbid from the winter storms, 
and was vexed to think of the delay and trouble 
which it would cost him to collect boats and build 
rafts. But at evening the stream began to subside, 
went on diminishing through the night, and at day- 
break the river was running between lofty banks. 
The natives, observing that sundry small islands in 
the channel had become visible, and that the current 
near them was quiet, made obeisance to Lucullus, 
saying that this had seldom happened before, and 
that the river had voluntarily made itself tame and 
gentle for Lucullus, and offered him an easy and 
speedy passage. 
^»?! A 69 B.O. 

547 



I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 X.p7)<Tdfi€vo<; ovv t& Katpo) Sce^u/Ba^e rr)v 
arpaTidv koX yiverai crrj/jLelov avrat 'X^prjarov dfxa 
rfi BLa/3da€C. ySoe? lepal vefiovrai Ylepaiaf; ^Apri- 
/x,tSo9, fjv fxdkKTTa OsMV 01 Trepav ^vcppdrov ^dp- 
PapoL rificoar %/3wz^Tat Se tol^ fioval tt/jo? 
Svaiav fiovov, aXXw? Se irXd^ovrai Kara rrjv 
X^P^J^ dcperoi, %a/)a7/iaTa (pipovarai rr}? 6eov 
XafMirdBa, koX Xa^elv ej avTcov, orav BerfOcjaiv, 
ov Trdvv paStov iaTiv ovSe fiiKpa<; TrpaypLarela^, 

7 TOVTWV p,ia, Tov arparov Bia^avrof; rov ^v(f)pd- 
rrjv, eXOovcra 7rp6<; nva ireTpav lepav rrf^ Oeov 
vofJLL^ofjiivrjv iiT avrrj'; ea-rrj, kol Kaja^aXovora rrjv 
Ke^aXi^v, Mairep at Sea-pbO) KaTareivop^evai, Ovaai 
TO) AovKovXXw Trapecrx^v aiirrjv. edvae he koI 

8 Tw FjV(f)pdTrf ravpov hLafBarrjpat,. KaKelvrjv /jlcv 
avTOv Tr}v rj/juepav TjvXlaaro, rrj B' vaTepaia xal 508 
Tat? icj^e^rjf; Trporjye Bia t^9 S(i)<j)7]vfj<^, ovBev 
aBcKMV T0V9 dvOpcoTTOvf; 7rpoaxoypovvra<; avrrh teal 
Bexop^evov^ ttjv (rrpartav dap.€vov<;, dXXa koX 
tS)V arpaTKOTMV (ppovpcov n Bokovv exetv %/?7;/xaTa 
TToXXd ^ovXop^evcov Xaffecv "'EKelvo,'' 6<j>7j, '' pdX- 
Xov TO (ppovpLOv rj/jLiV ifCKOTTTeov eVrt," Bei^a<i tov 
Ravpov diTwOev ovTa, " TavTa B^ diroiceiTai Tol<i 
viK03(TL* avvTelva^ Be ttjv Tropeiav fcal tov Tlyptv 
Bca^a^ eve^aXev eh Tr)v ^App^evlav. 

XXV. Tt,ypdpr} B\ ft)? TTpwTO? dyyeiXa^ 
YjKOVTa AovKovXXov ovK exc('('py]o-ev, aX,X' aTrere- 
TfJbrjTO Tr}v Ke(f)aXr)v, ovBe\<i dXXo<; ecppa^ev, dX\* 
dyvocov KaOqaTO irepiKaiop.evo^ r?3i; t^ iroXetiU^ 

548 



LUCULLUS, XXIV. 6-xxv. i 

Accordingly, he took advantage of his opportunity 
and put his troops across, and a favourable sign 
accompanied his crossing. Heifers pasture there 
which are sacred to Persia Artemis, a goddess whom 
the Barbarians on the further side of the Euphrates 
hold in the highest honour. These heifers are used 
only for sacrifice, and at other times are left to 
roam about the country at large, with brands upon 
them in the shape of the torch of the goddess. Nor 
is it a slight or easy matter to catch any of them 
when they are w^anted. One of these heifers, after 
the army had crossed the Euphrates, came to a 
certain rock which is deemed sacred to the goddess, 
and stood upon it, and lowering its head without 
any compulsion from the usual rope, offered itself 
to Lucullus for sacrifice. He also sacrificed a bull 
to the Euphrates, in acknowledgment of his safe 
passage. Then, after encamping there during that 
day, on the next and the succeeding days he advanced 
through Sophene. He wrought no harm to the 
inhabitants, who came to meet him and received 
his army gladly. Nay, when his soldiers wanted 
to take a certain fortress which was thought to 
contain much wealth, ''Yonder lies the fortress 
which we must rather bring low," said he, pointing 
to the Taurus in the distance ; " these nearer things 
are reserved for the victors." Then he went on 
by forced marches, crossed the Tigris, and entered 
Armenia, 

XXV. Since the first messenger who told Tigranes 
that Lucullus was coming had his head cut off for 
his pains, no one else would tell him anything, and so 
he sat in ignorance while the fires of war were 
already blazing around him, giving ear only to those 

549 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTVpl, Xoyov^ cLKovayv Trpo? X^P''^' ^^ fiejav ovra 
AovKOvWov arpaTTjyov, el tt/jo? 'E<^e<rft) Tcypdvrjv 
viroaraLr) koI fjurj (f)€vyo)v €v6v<; i^ 'Acrta? otxotro 

2 Ta9 ToaavTWi /JLvpLd8a<; IBcov. ovTa)<{ ovre acop^a- 
T09 TravTOf; iarc ttoXvv aKparov eveyKelv ovre 
BiavoLa<; t^9 rv^ovarj'; iv €t'Ti'%»7/iao"A p,eyaXoi<; 
fiTj eKo-TrjvaL tmv \oytap,(ov. Trpwro? S' avro) rcov 
<f)L\(OP i'ToXp.'rja-e lS/li6poffap^dvr]<; tppdaai to 
aXrjde^, ovK ovto<; Be ^/ot^cttov rjveyKaTO yepa<; 
Tr]<; irapprjala^. €7rep,(f)d7) yap €vdv<; eirl top 
AovKovWov avv I'mreva-i TyO£o-;^tX6ot9, ire^oh Be 
irap^TToWot^, K€\ev(T6el<; rov p.ev arpaTrjyov dyeiv 
^(opra, Toi'9 S' dWov^ Karairarrjaav, 

3 KovKoiiXkcp Be t^9 (TTpaTid<; rj p^ep t^Btj Kare- 
^evypvep, rj Be en, irpocryei. tmv Be aKoirodP avrfo 
<f>paadpT(OP eireXavpOPTa top ^dpjSapop, eBeiae /nr) 
XG>p\^ 6pTa<; Koi ovk ep rafet TrpoaTreacop rapd^rj. 
Kol auTO? pep KaOLaTaro rrjv crrpaTOTreBeiap, 
Xe^TLXtop Be IT pea pevTTjp eirep.'^lrep iTTTreh e-^opra 
p^tXtoi'9 e^aKoalov^, oTrXira^ Be xal yjrLXovf; ov 

4 ttoXXm TrXelopa^;, KeXevcra<; iyyv<; irpoaeXOopra 
Toh nToXepbioL^i pLepeiP, €0)9 cip irvOTjrat TOv<f per 
avTov KareaTpaTOTreBevKOTa^;. i^ovXero pep 
oup 6 '^e^TiXio^ ravra Troceip, ejSidaOr) S' viro rov 
MtOpofiap^dvov Opacreo)^ eireXavpopTo^s eU %6t/?a9 
iXdetp. Kol yepop.€pr]<; pid^n^ puep MiOpo/Sap- 
^dvr]<} eireaep dywpi^opepo^, ol B^ dXXot, (fyevyopre^ 
dircoXopTO TrXrjv oXlycop dirapre^;. 

6 *Ea: tovtov Ttypdv7)<; p,ep eKXtircop Tiypapo- 
Kepra, p^eydXrjp ttoXip eKTiapLeprjp vtt* avrov, 

550 



I 



LUCULLUS, xxT. 1-5 

who flattered him and said that Lucullus would 
be a great general if he ventured to withstand 
Tigranes at Ephesus, and did not fly incontinently 
from Asia at the mere sight of so many myriads 
of men. Which only proves that it is not every man 
who can bear much unmixed wine, nor is it any 
ordinary understanding that does not lose its 
reckoning in the midst of great prosperity. The 
first of his friends who ventured to tell him the 
truth was Mithrobarzanes, and he, too, got no very 
excellent reward for his boldness of speech. He 
was sent at once against Lucullus with three 
thousand horsemen and a large force of infantry, 
under orders to bring the general alive, but to 
trample his men under foot. 

Now, part of the army of Lucullus was already 
preparing to go into camp, and the rest was still 
coming up, when his scouts told him that the 
Barbarian was advancing to the attack. Fearing 
lest the enemy attack his men when they were 
separated and in disorder, and so throw them into 
confusion, he himself fell to arranging the encamp- 
ment, and Sextilius, the legate, was sent at the head 
of sixteen hundred horsemen and about as many 
light and heavy infantry, with orders to get near 
the enemy and wait there until he learned that the 
main body was safely encamped. Well then, this 
was what Sextilius wished to do, but he was forced 
into an engagement by Mithrobarzanes, who boldly 
charged upon him. A battle ensued, in which 
Mithrobarzanes fell fighting, and the rest of his forces 
took to flight and were cut to pieces, all except a few. 

Upon this, Tigranes abandoned Tigranocerta, that 
great city which he had built, withdrew to the 

55^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irpof; Tov Tavpov ave'^oap'qae koI ra? Swdfieif; 
iravra')(p6€v evravOa avvrjye, AovkovWo^; Be rrj 
irapacicevfj y^povov ov BlBov^ Movprjvav fiev 
e^eirefi'^ev ivoy\r}(TOVTa koI irepiKo'^ovTa tou? 
adpoi^ofxevou^ 7rpo<; tov Tijpdvrjv, ^e^TiXiov Be 
iraXiV *Apd^(ov X^^P^ /JLcydXrjv dveip^ovra /SacnXel 
6 irpocTLOvaaV' ofiov Be Xe^TL\io<; fiev iiriireaonv 
(TTpaToTreBov iroiovfievot^ roU "Apayjri tou? irXel- 
GTOv^ Bie<f>6eipe, Movpijva^; S* eirofMevof; Tiy pdvj) 
Tpa^xyv avkoiva koI arevoiropov Grparw fiaKpo) 
Bi6K^dXXovTL KULpov TTapaaxovTOf; eirLTlderaL. 
Kol <^ev<yei fiev avr6<; Tc<ypdvr]<; 7rpoefjL€vo<; rr)v 
airocTKevrjv diraaav, d,7roOvT]cr/€ovai Be ttoWoI koI 
wXelovef; aXicTKOvrai tmv ^ Apfievtcov. 

XXVI. Ovrco Be tovtcov TTpo^wpovvrfov dpa<; 6 
AovKovWo<; eiropevero irpo<; ^uypavoKepra, kol 
irepLa-TparoireBevaa^ eiroXiopKei ttjv ttoXlv. rjaav 
B^ ev avrfj ttoXXoI fiev ""EiXXrjve^i tmv dvaardroyv 
€K Y^iXiKLa^, TToXXol Be Pdp^apoi rot? "^XXrjaiv 
o/jLOLa ireirovOore^y ^ ABia^^^vol koX ^AcravpioL kol 
TopBurjvol Kol K.a7r7rdBoKe<;, (ov KaraaKd^Ira^; ra? 
iraTpiBa^, avTOv<; Be Ko/niaa^; eKel KarooKetv 

2 7)vd>yKa(Tev. rjv Be kol ;j^p7;/xaT«z/ rj 7r6Xi<; /jbeo-Tt) 
KoX dva6r]fjLdT(0Vy Travro^ IBicorov koX Bvvdarov 
T(fi ^aaiXel (TV/jxj)tXoTtfiov/ji6vov tt^o? av^rjaiv Koi 
Karaafcevrjv tt}? TroXeco^. Bco koX avvrovax; eiro- 
XiopKev 6 AovKOvXXo<; avrrjv, ovk dve^eadat rov 
Tiypdv7)v olofievo^, dXXd kol irapd yvco/j^rjv vir 
6pyfj<i KaTa^TjaecrOai Bia/naxovfievov, 6p6o)<; olo- 

3 fievo<i. TToXXd Be M.t6piBdTr}<; dirrjyopevaev dyye- 
\of 9 7re/x7rft)z/ Kal ypd/jufiara fir) (TwdiTTeiv /jbd^V^* 
dXXd Tol<{ linrevaL TrepiKOTrreiv ryv dyopdv 

552 



k 



LUCULLUS, XXV. 5-xxvi. 3 

Taurus, and there began collecting his forces from 
every quarter. LucuUus, however, gave him no time 
for preparation, but sent out Murena to harass and 
cut off the forces gathering to join Tigranes, and 
Sextilius again to hold in check a large body of 
Arabs which was drawing near the king. At one 
and the same time Sextilius fell upon the Arabs as 
they were going into camp, and slew most of them ; 
and Murena, following hard upon Tierranes, seized 
his opportunity and attacked the king as he was 
passing through a rough and narrow defile with his 
army in long column. Tigranes himself fled, 
abandoning all his baggage, many of the Armenians 
were slain, and more were captured. 

XXVI. Thus successful in his campaign, Lucullus 
struck camp and proceeded to Tigranocerta, which 
city he invested and began to besiege. There were 
in the city many Greeks who had been transplanted, 
like others, from Cilicia, and many Barbarians who 
had suffered the same fate as the Greeks, — Adiabeni, 
Assyrians, Gordyeni, and Cappadocians, whose native 
cities Tigranes had demolished, and brought their 
inhabitants to dwell there under compulsion. The 
city was also full of wealth and votive offerings, since 
every private person and every prince vied with the 
king in contributing to its increase and adornment. 
Therefore Lucullus pressed the siege of the city with 
vigour, in the belief that Tigranes would not endure 
it, but contrary to his better judgment and in anger 
would descend into the plains to offer battle ; and 
his belief was justified. Mithridates, indeed, both 
by messengers and letters, strongly urged the king 
uot to join battle, but to cut off the enemy's supplies 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXXA Sk TaftX?7? 7]K(ov irap avrov Kot ava-rpa- 
reveov iSetro tov ffacnXiayt; ^vkdrTecrOai icai 
<f>evy€iv C09 dfiaxov Trpdy/Jba ret 'Fcofiaucov oirXa. 

4 Kal Ttt 76 irpfara 7rpaco<; iJKOve tovtcov. iirel Be 
7rav(TTpaTia jxev avrSt avvrjXOov *Ap/jb€vioi, /cat 
TopBvrjvol, irava-Tparia Be M^JSou? icaX ^ABtaffr}- 
vov^ dyovTe<; 01 ^aaiXel^ iraprfffav, ^kov Be ttoWoI 
fxev airo t^9 ev Ba^vXMVc OaXdacrrjf; "Apa/^e?, 
TToXXol Be diro Trj<; KaaTriaf; ^AX^avol koI "l/Srjpe^; 
*AXl3avol<; irpoaoLKOvvTe^, ovk oXljol Bk rcov irepl 
TOV ^Apd^Tjv vefjuofjiivcov d^aaiXevroi, ')(^dpLri koX 
B(opoi^ 'ireia6evTe<; dirrjVTqaav, eXirlBfov Be koI 
Opdaovf; Kal ^ap^apiK(ov dwetXMV fiea-rd fiev rjv 
rd av/jLTToa-ta rod fiaa-iXeeo^, jxeaTa Be rd avfju- 
fiovXta, irapeKivBvvevae fxev 6 Ta^LXrj^ dirodavelv 
vTrevavTCOvfievo^ rfj yvcofirj t»)? /^d')(7)<;, eBo/cei. Be 
Kal iS/liOpiBaTrjt; (f)dov(ov aTrorpeireiv /neydXov 

5 KaropdcofULTO^;. 69ev ovB* dvefieLvev avrov 6 
Tiypdvrjf;, firj fierda'XpL rrjf; Bo^tj^;, dXX^ e'^wpet 
Travrl to3 arpar^ (T(j)6Bpa Bvacftopciyv, &)? Xiyerai, 
7r/)09 Tov<i (f)LXov<;y on tt/jo? AovkovXXov avta> /jlo- 
vov, ov TT/oo? d'iravTa<; 6 dydiv eaono tov<; 'Po)- 
fxaioyv (7TpaT7]yov<; ev ravrS) yevofievov^;, 

K.al ov iravrdiracrvv tjv to 6pdao<;avTOV pLavio)Be<; 
ovB' dXoyov, edvT) ToaavTa Kal fiaaiXel^ eiro/jLevov^ 
Kal (f>dXayya<; ottXitcov Kal /jLVpcdBa<; lirirewv diro- 

6 PXeTTovTOfi. TO^OTa*^ fiev yap Kal (T^evBovrjTa<; Bia- 
/bivpiovf; rjyev, lirirel'; Be irevTaKKTiMvpiov^ Kal ttcv- 
TaKcarxiXlov^, o)v eTTTaKia-xfjXioL Kal /xvpLot Kard- 
^paKTOL rjdav, &>? AovkovXXo<; eypayjre 7r/?09 Tr}V 
(rvyKXrjTOV, ottXct&v Be, rcov fiev eh cnreipa^, T<av 

554 



LUCULLUS, XXVI. 3-6 

with his cavalry; Taxiles also, who came from 
Mithridates and joined the forces of Tigranes, 
earnestly begged the king to remain on the defensive 
and avoid the invincible arms of the Romans. And 
at first Tigranes gave considerate hearing to this 
advice. But when the Armenians and Gordyeni 
joined him with all their hosts, and the kings of the 
Medes and Adiabeni came up with all their hosts, and 
many Arabs arrived from the sea of Babylonia, and 
many Albanians from the Caspian sea, together with 
Iberians who were neighbours to the Albanians ; 
and when not a few of the peoples about the river 
Araxes, who are not subject to kings, had been 
induced by favours and gifts to come and join him ; 
and when the banquets of the king, and his councils 
as well, were full of hopes and boldness and barbaric 
threats, — then Taxiles ran the risk of being put to 
death when he opposed the plan of fighting, and 
Mithridates was thought to be diverting the king 
from a great success out of mere envy. Wherefore 
Tigranes would not even wait for him, lest he share 
in the glory, but advanced with all his army, 
bitterly lamenting to his friends, as it is said, that he 
was going to contend with Lucullus alone, and not 
with all the Roman generals put together. 

And his boldness was not altogether that of a 
mad man, nor without good reason, when he saw 
so many nations and kings in his following, with 
phalanxes of heavy infantry and myriads of horsemen. 
For he was in command of twenty thousand bowmen 
and slingers, and fifty-five thousand horsemen, of 
whom seventeen thousand were clad in mail, as 
Lucullus said in his letter to the Senate ; also of 
one hundred and fifty thousand heavy infantry. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8' eh <j>aXayya<; arvvrerayfjiivciyv, irevreKaiheKa 
/ivpidSa^i, oSoTTOiov^; Se Kal yecj^vpcoraf; koX Ka- 
Oapra^ irora/jLcbv koI uXoTO/iou? /cat t5)V aXkcov 
')(pet(ov virrjpera^ Tpiarp^vpiov^ /cat 7r€VTaKi<T)(i\Lov^, 
OL To2<i pxi')(opLevoL^ iTTLTerayp.ivoL Karoiriv oyjrLv 
ajxa Kol pcofirjp Trapelxov. 

XXVII. 'n? 3' virep^aXcbv top Tavpov ddpov<i 
Karecpdvr] koX KarelBe Trpo'i toa9 Ti,ypavoKepTOt(i 
eTTLKaOrjpLevov to arpdrevfia rcov 'Vcop.aiwv, 6 
fiev ev TJj iroXet /3dpfiapo<; ofxCKo^ oXoXvyfj 
Kal Kp6T(p rrjv O'^iv iSi^aro, Kal roU 'Pwfiaioifi 
dirb Tcbv T€C)((ov direCkovvTe^ iheiKvvcrav rov<i 

2 *App.€VLOv<i' AovKovWw Be aKOTTOvvTL irepl r?)? 
/jLd')(r)<S ol p^ev dyeiv eirl Tcypdvrjv edaavra rrjv 
iroXiopKiav avve/SovXevov, ol Se p^r) xaraXiTrelv 
OTTtcro) nroXepLiov^ roaoiirov^ prjS* dvelvat rrjv 
TToXiopKiav, 6 S* eliroov eKarepov^i pbev ovk 6pOco<;, 
dpL^orepov^ he KaXoi'^ irapaivelv ScelXe ri-jv arpa- 
Tidv. Kal Movpi]vav pev €^aKLo-^tXL0v<; exovra 
TrefoL'? eVl tt)? iroXiopKia^i direXiirev, avTO<^ Ke 
ikaa^apa'^ Kal eiKOdi aireipa^; dvaXa^oov, ev 
al? ov irXeiove<^ rjaav pLVpUov ottXctcov, Kal tov^; 
iirirel^ diravra^ Kal a(l>evBovrJTa<i Kal ro^oTa^; 
irepl 'X^iXiovfi, e)(^cop€c. 

3 Kat Trapd rov TTorapLOV ev irehicp p,eydX(p 
KaracTTpaTOTreBevaaf} iravrdTraat p,iKpo<; e(l)dvi) 
Ttypdvrj, Kal tol'^ KoXaKevovaiv avrov BLarpi^rjv 
irapel'^ev. ol p^ev yap eaKwirrov, ol 8* virep 
TMV Xa<^vp(ov ev irathia 8ie/3dXXovTO KXrjpov 
TMV Be CTTpaTrjywv Kal ^acriXeayv 6KaaT0<i yrelro 
TTpoaiwv avTOV pLovov yevecrOai to epyov, eKelvov 

SS6 



LUCULLUS, XXVI. 6-xxvii. 3 

some of whom were drawn up in cohorts, and some 
in phalanxes ; also of road-makers, bridge-builders, 
clearers of rivers, foresters, and ministers to the other 
needs of an army, to the number of thirty-five 
thousand. These latter, being drawn up in array 
behind the fighting men, increased the apparent 
strength of the army. 

XXVII. When Tigranes had crossed the Taurus, 
deployed with all his forces, and looked down upon 
the Roman army investing Tigranocerta, the throng 
of Barbarians in the city greeted his appearance with 
shouts and din, and standing on the walls, threaten- 
ingly pointed out the Armenians to the Romans. 
When Lucullus held a council of war, some of his 
officers advised him to give up the siege and lead 
his army against Tigranes ; others urged him not to 
leave so many enemies in his rear, and not to remit 
the siege. Whereupon, remarking that each counsel 
by itself was bad, but both together were good, 
he divided his army. Murena, with six thousand 
footmen, he left behind in charge of the siege ; 
while he himself, with twenty-four cohorts, com- 
prising no more than ten thousand heavy infantry, 
and all the horsemen, slingers, and archers, to the 
number of about a thousand, set out against the 
enemy. 

When he had encamped along the river in a great 
plain, he appeared utterly insignificant to Tigranes, 
and supplied the king's flatterers with ground for 
amusement. Some mocked at the Romans, and 
others, in pleasantry, cast lots for their spoil, while 
each of the generals and kings came forward 
and begged that the task of conquering them 
might be entrusted to himself alone, and that the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 8e KoOi^ea-Oac dearrjv, ffov\6fi€vofi Be tl koI 
avro^ 6 TcypdvT)^ ')(apieL<i elvai koI <r/ca)7rriK0<} 
elire to dpvXovfievov "E^ fiev co? irpea-^evTai, 
TToWol irdp€L<TLV' el 8* a>9 crrpariMTaif oXvyoi,^ 
Kal Tore fiev outg)? elpcovevo/Mevot koI irai^ovTef: 
hierekeaav, djxa 8' v/iepa AovkovXXo<; odttXi- 
afievrjv rrjv hvvap.Lv i^rjye, koX irpo^ eo) p,ev 510 
Tjv Tov TTorap^ov TO ffapjSapiKov aTpuTevfia- tov 
8k pevp^aTo^ d7ro(TTpo(j)r]v \ap,fidvovTO<; CTrl Ta<; 
8v(T€i<;, y pAXiaTa irepda-ip.ov rjv, dvTiirape^dycov 
Tr)V 8vvap.iv Kal airevBoyv e8o^ev aTro^copelv 

6 Tft) Tiypdvj}. Kal KoXecra^; tov Ta^iXyv dpa 
yeXcoTi " Tou9 dp.d)(^ov<i,*^ €(j)rj, "^VcopxiLwv OTrXcTa^ 
ovx opa<; ^€vyovTa<;; ** Kal 6 Taf tX^;? " BovXolp.7jv MJ^ 
aVy^ elirevy " w ^acnXev, yeveadai tl t& <j(p ^M 
8aip,ovL Tcav wc^aXoycov, dXX^ ovt icrdTjra Xap.- ^ 
TTpdv ol dv8pe<i XapL^dvovaiv ohoLiropovvTe^ ovt€ 
6vp€ol<; iKK€Kadapp,ivoi,f; ')(^pa)VTaL Kal Kpdveai 
yvp.vol^, axTTrep vvv to, aKVTtva twv ottXcov 
cTKeTrdapxiTa 7repicr7rd(7avTe<i, dXXa p,a')(^ov p.ev(ov 
iaTlv T) XapiirpoTrjf; avTrj Kal ^ahi^ovTcov rjBri ) 

6 irpo^ TOV<; TroXepbiov^;.^* TavTa XeyovTO^ eTi tov i 
Ta^cXov KaTa(j)avr)<; tjv 7rpa)T0<; aero? iinaTpi- 
<j)OVTo<; TOV AovKovXXov Kal Td^iv at airelpat 
KaTO. Xo%oi;9 Xap^/Sdvovaai. irpo^; ttjv Bcdffaaiv j 
Kal p,6XL<f Sairep ck pedrj<; Tcvb<; dva<p€pcov 6 
Tiypdv7)f; 8h rj TpU i^eKpayev "'E^' r)p.d<i ol 
dv8pe<;; *' a)<TTe dopv^cp iroXXw to ttXyjOo'^ el<s 
Ta^Lv KadiaTaaOai, fiaaiXeoDf; p,ev avTOV to p.ecrov 

6^0J/T09, T(OV 86 KCpdTCOV TO p€V dpcaTCpOV T(p 

*K8t,aPriv(pt TO 8k Be^iov to> Mi]8q) 7rapaB6vT0<i, 
SS8 






LUCULLUS, XXVII. 3-6 

king would sit by as a spectator. Then Tigranes, 
not wishing to be left behind entirely in this play 
of wit and scoffing, uttered that famous saying : 
"If they are come as ambassadors, they are too 
many ; if as soldiers, too few." And so for the while 
they continued their sarcasms and jests. But at 
daybreak Lucullus led out his forces under arms. 
Now, the Barbarian army lay to the east of the river. 
But as the stream takes a turn to the west at the 
point where it was easiest to ford, and as Lucullus 
led his troops to the attack in that direction first, 
and with speed, he seemed to Tigranes to be 
retreating. So he called Taxiles and said, with a 
laugh, "Don't you see that the invincible Roman 
hoplites are taking to flight.'*" "O King," said 
Taxiles, " I could wish that some marvellous thing 
might fall to your good fortune; but when these 
men are merely on a march, they do not put on 
shining raiment, nor have they their shields polished 
and their helmets uncovered, as now that they 
have stripped the leathern coverings from their 
armour. Nay, this splendour means that they are 
going to fight, and are now advancing upon their 
enemies." While Taxiles was yet speaking, the 
first eagle came in sight, as Lucullus wheeled towards 
the river, and the cohorts were seen forming in 
maniples with a view to crossing. Then at last, 
as though coming out of a drunken stupor, Tigranes 
cried out two or three times, " Are the men coming 
against us .'^ " And so, with much tumult and con- 
fusion, his multitude formed in battle array, the king 
himself occupying the centre, and assigning the left 
wing to the king of the Adiabeni, the right to 
the king of the Medes. In front of this wing also 

5519 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

icj) ov KoX rcov KaracfypaKTcov iv irpoTdyfiari to 
irXelcnov rjv. 
7 Aov/covWcp Be jjueXkovri Sca^aU'eiv rov irora- 
fiov eviov T(x)V r)<yefi6v(ov irapyvovv (jivXaTTeaOat 
TTjv Tf/jLepap fiiav ovaav rcov aTrocfypaBcov, a? 
fjueXauva^ KaXovaiv iv eKelvrj yap ttj rjfJLepa rj 
/juera KatTrtcoj^o? aircoXero arparia (TVjjL^aXovaa 
KtyLt/9pofc9. o 8* aire/cpLvaro rrjv fivrj/jLoveuofjLevTjv 

(fxDVrjV " '£70) ydpi*^ €(f)7J, " KOi TavrrjV €VTV')(7J 

TTOirja-Q) *VcofjLaLOi<; rrjv '^fiepav" rjv Be irpo /jLid<; 

VCOVOiV ^OKTCO^piCOV. 

XXVIII. Tavra 8* eliroDV koX Oappelv /ceXeuo^a? 
Tov re TTora/jLOv StejSaLve Kal 7rpMTo<; iirl tou9 
7roX6p,Lov<; yyetro, OoopaKa p.ev e^^cov aiSrjpovv 
(poXcBcorbv diToartk^ovTa, fcpoaacorrjv Be ecpe- 
(TTpiBa, TO Be ^i<^o(; avrodev v'jro<t>aiv(ov yvpuvov, w? 
ev6v<i eh %efc/3a9 Xeadai Beov ^ eKij^oXoi^; dvBpdai 
Kal a-vvaLpelv ^ rrjv BiaTO^evcri/iiov %ft>/5ai^ to3 

2 rd^et t^9 eirayoiyfj^;, eirel Be ttjv KaTd(f>paKTOV 
XiTTTov, f;9 TrXetcrro? rjv \0709, KarelBe Karareray- 
fxevqv VTTO X6(^(p TLvl Tr}V dvco 'X^capav eTrlireBov Kal 
irXarelav e'X^ovri, TTpoafiacnv Be rerrdpayv a-raBLwv 
ov iravrdiraat x^XeTrrjv ovS* dTroKeKOfjLjxevrjv, 
®paKa<i /J>€v lir'Trel<i Kal TaXdra<;, 01*9 elx^v, eKe- 
Xevaev e/c irXayLOV irpoacpepo/jbivovi irapaKpove- 

3 aOai ral<s fiaxf^ipai^i tov<; kovtov^;. fila yap dXKr) 
TMV KaTa(ppdKT(ov KOVTOfi' dXXo 8' ovBev ovO^ 
€avTo2<i ovre rot? froXepioL^; ')(^prj(T9aL Bvvavrat Bed 

^ Seov Coraes, Sintenis and Bekker, after Reiske ; Scot 
MSS., including S. 

^ (Tvvaipelv Coraga and Bekker, after Reiske ; awaip-iiaeiv 
(S) and ffvvaip-fiffei MSS. : auyaiprjiruVf a suggestion of 
Reiske's. 

560 



LUCULLUS, XXVII. 6-xxviii. 3 

the greater part of the mail-clad horsemen were 
drawn up. 

As LucuUus was about to cross the river, some of 
his officers advised him to beware of the day, which 
was one of the unlucky days — the Romans call 
them " black days." For on that day Caepio and 
his army perished in a battle with the Cimbri.^ 
But LucuUus answered with the memorable words : 
" Verily, I will make this day, too, a lucky one for 
the Romans." Now the day was the sixth of 
October. 

XXVIII. Saying this, and bidding his men be of 
good courage, he crossed the river, and led the way 
in person against the enemy. He wore a steel 
breastplate of glittering scales, and a tasselled cloak, 
and at once let his sword flash forth from its scabbard, 
indicating that they must forthwith come to close 
quarters with men who fought with long range 
missiles, and eliminate, by the rapidity of their 
onset, the space in which archery would be effective. 
But when he saw that the mail-clad horsemen, on 
whom the greatest reliance was placed, were 
stationed at the foot of a considerable hill which 
was crowned by a broad and level space, and that 
the approach to this was a matter of only four 
stadia, and neither rough nor steep, he ordered his 
Thracian and Gallic horsemen to attack the enemy 
>M in the flank, and to parry their long spears with their 
pi own short swords. (Now the sole resource of the 
I mail-clad horsemen is their long spear, and tliey 

I » B.C. 105. Of. Camillua, xix. 7. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Pdpo<i Kol aKKrjporrjra t»)9 (TKevrj^, a\V iyKaro)- 
KoBofir]fjbevoi<; ioiKaaiv. avTO<i Be Bvo aireipa^; 
avaXafioav rj/jiiWdro 7r/?09 rov \6(j)0V, ippcofiivax; 
e7ro/jL6V(ov twv aTparLcorcov Bia to Kaxeivov ev to?? 
oirkoi^ opav irpcorov KaKoiradovvra Tre^bv koI 
irpoa-^La^ofievov. yevop^evo^ S* avco koI aTa<; ev 
TO) 7repL(l>aveX tov ')((opiov pLeya ^orjaa<i " ^evLKrj' 
Kap^evT €^Vf " vevLKrjKapMVy & crvarpaTtojTac." 

4 Kal TOVTO cIttcov eTTrjye toI<; KaTa<])pdKTOi,<;, 
KeXevaa^ p.'qBev 'in xpv^^^f' "^ot? vaaoh, dXX* eK 
'X^eipo^ eKaarov SidXa^ovra iraieiv rcov iroXefxiwy 
KvrjpLa<; re koX p.r]pov<;, a p,6pa yvpiva rcov Kara- 
(j)pdKTcov earlv. ov p^r)v iBerjcri ri TavT7}<; ttj^; 
fid')(r](;' ov yap iBe^avro tov<; *Va)/JbaLOV<;, dW* 
dXaXd^avT€9 /cat <j)evyovT€<i aXayiaTa irdvToav 
evecocrav eavroix; re koI tov<; Xinrov^i ffap€C<; ovra^ 
eU rd rcov Tre^cov orrXa rrplv dp^aaOai rivo^ 
ifceivov^ p,d')(7)<^y a>are firjre rpavfiaro^i yevofxevov 
p^rjO' aiparo^ 6(j)6evro<; rjrrdaOat ra? ro(ravTa<i 

5 p.vpidBa<;. 6 Be 7ro\v<; <j)6vo<^ rjBr] (jyevyovrcov 
eyivero, pLoXkov Be ^ovXofjbevcov ^evyeiv ov yap 511 
eBvvavro TrvKvorrjri Kal fidOei rcov rd^ecov vcfi* 
avrSyv ip^TroBi^o/uuevoi. Tcypdvr]<; 8* e^€\dcra<; ev 
dpxv P^^'T oXuycov ecpevye' Kal rov vlov opcov 
KOivcDVOvvra rrj<i avrrj<: rvxv^ irepLeairdaaro ro 
BidBrjpLa T^9 Ke^aXrj<; KaKeivcp BaKpvaa^ irapeBcoKe, 
cco^eiv eavroVy otto)? Bvvarat, KaO* erepa^ 6Bov<i 

6 KeXev<Ta<;. 6 Be veavLa<; dvaB^craaOai puev ovk 
er6Xp,7]cre, ra>v Bk iraiBcov rep iriarordrcp <l>vXdr- 
56a 



( 



LUCULLUS, XXVIII. 3-6 

hare none other whatsoever, either in defending 
themselves or attacking their enemies, owing to the 
weight and rigidity of their armour ; in this they are, 
as it were, immured.) Then he himself, with two 
cohorts, hastened eagerly towards the hill, his soldiers 
following with all their might, because they saw him 
ahead of them in armour, enduring all the fatigue of 
a foot-soldier, and pressing his way along. Arrived 
at the top, and standing in the most conspicuous 
spot, he cried with a loud voice, "The day is ours, 
the day is ours, my fellow soldiers ! " With these 
words, he led his men against the mail-clad horse- 
men, ordering them not to hurl their javelins yet, 
but taking each his own man, to smite the enemy's 
legs and thighs, which are the onij parts of these 
mail-clad horsemen left exposed. However, there 
was no need of this mode of fighting, for the enemy 
did not await the Romans, but, with loud cries and 
in most disgraceful flight, they hurled themselves 
and their horses, with all their weight, upon the 
ranks of their own infantry, before it had so much as 
begun to fight, and so all those tens of thousands 
were defeated without the infliction of a wound or 
the sight of blood. But the great slaughter began 
at once when they fled, or rather tried to fly, for 
they were prevented from really doing so by the 
closeness and depth of their own ranks. Tigranes 
rode away at the very outset with a few attendants, 
and took to flight. Seeing his son also in the same 
plight, he took off the diadem from his head and, in 
tears, gave it to him, bidding him save himself as 
best he could by another route. The young man, 
however, did not venture to assume the diadem, but 
gave it to his most trusted slave for safe keeping. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T€tv eB(OK€V. OUT09 a\ov<{ Kara rv^V^ avrj^dr) 
irpb^ AovKOvWov, ware fiera royv dXXcoi/ al')(fid- 
XcoTOV Kol TO hidhrjfia ^eveadai rod Tijpdvov. 
Xeyerai Be tojv fiev irel^MV virep heKa fjuvpidSw; 
Bia^Oaprjvatf rcov S* lirTreoav 6\i<yov^ iravrdiraGL 
Stacpvyelv. 'Fcofiatcov S* eKarov irpcoOrja-av, eireaov 
Be irevre. 

7 TavTT/? T^9 f^^X^'* 'Arrto^o? o (f)i\6(TO(po<; ev rfj 
Tlepl Oecov ypacpfj /JuvrjaOeU ov (prjo-iv aWi-jv 
e(j)€(opaK6vai roLavrrjv rov rjXiov. Xrpd^ayv B\ 
€T€po<; (f>ik6(JO^o(;, ev to2<; laropiKOt^ v7ro/xv7]p,a(TLv 
avTov^ Xeyei tou9 'FcopiaLov<i ala^vveaOaL /cal 
KarayeXdv eavrcav eV dvBpdiroBa roiavra Berj- 
6evTa<^ ottXcov. Aiovlo<; 8' eipr)K€V, co? ovBiirore 
'VwfJLoloi 7roX€/jiioi<i d7roBeovT6<; toctovtw TrXyjOet 
iraperd^avTO' d'y^eBov yap ovS* eiKoarov, aXA,' 
eXarrov iyevovro pLepo<; ol VLKMvre^i tmv rjo-ar]- 

8 /JL6V0i)v. ^Fcofiaicov 3' ol Ben oraroi cnpaT7]yol Kai 
irXelara iroXefJuoL^ (jop.iX'qKore'^ iiryvovv fidXtara 
rov AovKOvXXov to Bvo pacnXel<^ tou9 eiri^avea- 
rdrov^ /cal p.eyi(TTov<; BvaX roL<; ivavTiwrdroL^, 
ra^et Kal ^paBvTrjri, KaraaTparrjyrjaaL. MlO- 
piBdrrfV fiev yap aK/jbd^ovra %/Ooi^w fcal Tpifif) 
KaravdXwae, Tiypdvrjv Be Ta> airevcrai avverpiy^ev, 
ev 6XiyoL<s TOiv irdtiroTe rjyepiovwv rfj fjieXXrjo-ei 
fjLev epyw, rfj roXfirj 8' vTrep da(f)a\6ia<i XPV~ 
ad/JLevo<;. 

XXIX. Afo fcal MiOptBdTr]<; ov o-vuereivev eirl 
T7]v fxdxv^y '^V (^'^vrjOev rov Aov/covXXov evXa^eia 
Kal irapaywyf) TToXe/nTJaeiv olofMevo^, dXXa /cad' 
7]avxiav eiropevero irpo^ rov Tcypdvrjv. /cal 
rrpwrov fiev 6XLyoL<: roiv 'Ap/j.evla)V evrvx^J^ icaO' 

564 



LUCULLUS, XXVIII. 6-xxix. i 

This slave happened to be captured, and was brought 
to Lucullus, and thus even the diadem of Tigranes 
became a part of the booty. It is said that more 
than a hundred thousand of the enemy's infantry 
perished, while of the cavalry only a few, all told, 
made their escape. Of the Romans, on the other 
hand, only a hundred were wounded, and only five 
killed. 

Antiochus the philosopher makes mention of this 
battle in his treatise " Concerning Gods," and says 
that the sun never looked down on such another. 
And Strabo, another philosopher, in his '^ Historical 
Commentaries," says that the Romans themselves 
were ashamed, and laughed one another to scorn for 
requiring arms against such slaves. Livy also has 
remarked that the Romans were never in such in- 
ferior numbers when they faced an enemy ; for the 
victors were hardly even a twentieth part of the 
vanquished, but less than this. The Roman generals 
who were most capable and most experienced in war, 
praised Lucullus especially for this, that he out- 
generalled two kings who were most distinguished 
and powerful by two most opposite tactics, speed and 
slowness. For he used up Mithridates, at the height 
of his power, by long delays ; but crushed Tigranes 
by the speed of his operations, being one of the few 
generals of all time to use delay for greater achieve- 
ment, and boldness for greater safety. 

XXIX. This was the reason why Mithridates made 
no haste to be at the battle. He thought Lucullus 
would carry on the war with his wonted caution and 
indirectness, and so marched slowly to join Tigranes. 
At first he met a few Armenians hurrying back over 
the road in panic fear, and conjectured what had 

565 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oBov €7rToir)fj^voLf; Koi irepi(f>6Poi^ airiovaiv ecKaae 
TO 7ra^09, elr rjSrj irXetovcov yvfivcov xal rerpay- 
fievcov aTravTcovTcov irvOoiMevo^; Tr)v rirrav i^rjrei, 

2 rov Tiypdvrjv. evpcov Bk TrdvTcov eprjfJLOv Ka\ 
rairevvov ov/c dvOv^piaeVt dXka xaraffa^ fcal 
(TVvBaKpv<ra<; ra Koiva TrdOrj depaireiav re rrjv 
€'irof.Levr)v avrS) ^acnXiicrjv eSwKe koI KareOdppvve 
7r/)09 TO fiiWov, ovTOL fiev ovv avdi<; erepa^ 

Bvvd/JL6t<: (TVV7]yOV. 

'Ei/ Be rf) TToXet toU TiypavoK6pTOi<; rcov 
'EiW^vcov 7r/)09 T0U9 ^ap0dpov<; aracnaadvTOdV 
KoX tS> AovKOvWrp Tr)V TToXiv ivBiBovTwv TTpoo-jSa- 

3 Xojv elXe' kol tou9 jJ^ev iv rfj TroXet, Orjaavpov^; 
TrapeXd/Jb/Savey rrjv Be iroXiv Biapirdaai irapeBonKe 
T0fc9 (TTpaTicorai^;, fierh t5)v dXXav '^(^prf/jLdrcov 
oKTaKioT'XiXia rdXavra vofJLiapiaro^ e')(pva-av. 'yco- 
pl<; Be TOVTcov 6f€TaKo<TLa<; Bpa^fia<; xar dvBpa 

4 BieveLfiev diro rcov Xa<pvpcov. irvvOavojievof; Be 
7roXXov<; iv rfj iroXei KareiXrjcpdai twv irepX rov 
^tovvcrov Te)(yiT(ov, ov^ 6 Tiypdvrj'i Travra^oOev 
rjdpoiKei fieXXwv diroBeiKvvvai to KaTeaKevaafxe- 
vov VTT avTov Oearpovy i^p^o'aTo rovrois 7rpo<; 
TOL'9 dycova<; kol Ta9 Oea<; rcov iirtvLKLcov. tol'9 3' 
"FXXr)va<; eh ra^ avrSyv TrarpiSa^ enrepb-ylre irpoa- 
6eU e<^6Bia, kol tojv fiap$dpcov o/jlolco^ toi'9 
'^vayKaa/jLEvov^ KaroLKelv, Mare avvefir) fiidi; 
TToXecDf; BiaXvde[(r7}<; 7roXXa<; dvoiKL^eaOat irdXiv 
fcofjiiio/jL€va<; TOL'9 avrSiV OiKrjropa^;, v<f)^ cjv &)9 
evepyerrj<; 6 AovkovXXo<; fcal KTL(TTr)<i rjyairaTO. 

5 Jlpov'xoapet Be kol raXXa Kar d^iav rdvBpl 512 
T&v diro Bi/caioavvT]'; kol (^CXavO p(0'Trla<; eiraivfov 

566 



LUCULLUS, xx.x. 1-5 

happened ; then presently, when he had learned 
of the defeat from more unarmed and wounded 
fugitives whom he met, he sought to find Tigranes. 
And though he found him destitute of all things 
and humiliated, he did not return his insolent 
behaviour, but got down from his horse and wept 
with him over their common sufferings. Then he 
gave him his own royal equipage, and tried to fill 
him with courage for the future. And so these kings 
began again to assemble fresh forces. 

But in the city of Tigranocerta, the Greeks had 
risen up against the Barbarians and were ready to 
hand the city over to LucuUus ; so he assaulted and 
took it. The royal treasures in the city he took into 
his own charge, but the city itself he turned over 
to his soldiers for plunder, and it contained eight 
thousand talents in money, together with the usual 
valuables. Besides this, he gave to each man eight 
hundred drachmas from the general spoils. On 
learning that many dramatic artists had been captured 
in the city, whom Tigranes had collected there from 
all quarters for the formal dedication of the theatre 
which he had built, Lucullus employed them for 
the contests and spectacles with which he celebrated 
his victories. The Greeks he sent to their native 
cities, giving them also the means wherewith to 
make the journey, and likewise the Barbarians who 
had been compelled to settle there. Thus it ca- le 
to pass that the dissolution of one city was the 
restoration of many others, by reason of their 
recovering their own inhabitants, and they all loved 
I.ucullus as their benefactor and founder. 

And whatever else he did also prospered, in a 
way worthy of the man, who was ambitious of the 

VOL. n. T 5^7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

opeyofiivo) fiaXXov rj rcav iirl TOi<i 'irok€fjbiKol<; 
Karopdcofiaa-cv. eiceivcov fiev yap ovk oXtyov r) 
(TTparia kol ifkelaTov rj rv^V /^ereix^, ravra S* 
rjv rj/jL€pov '^vxv'i '^'^^ ireTraiSev/jbimj^ eV/Setft?, 
049 AovKovXXo<i Tore %w^t9 oirXcov i^eipovro 
TOv<i fiap^dpov^. Kol yap ^Apd^cov ^aa^iXet^ 
TjKov '7rpo<^ avTov iy')(€LpL^ovTe^ ra a-^erepay kol to 

6 Sco^rjvMV eOvof} TTpoae^coper to Be Vophvr^vSiv 
OVTQ) BUdrj/cev, ware PovXeaOai ra^ TroXet? exXt- 
TTOj/ra? cLKoXovOelv i/celvM fiera TralBcov xal 
yvvaiKwu ideXovrd^i e'f alriaf; roidaSe. ZapjSirjvof; 
yap 6 T&v TopBv7]V(ov ^aatXeuf;, wairep etpyTai, 
St 'Ainrlov Kpvcpa AovkovXXw BieiXeKTO irepl 
0"U/i./ia%/a9 rrjv Ttypdvov rvpavvlBa ^apwo/jLCvo^' 
fir)vv66h Bi* direacfidyr), kol TralBe^; avrov Koi yvvrj 
(TvvaTT(i)XovTO TTplv Tj 'Pa)/zafcou9 €t9 ^Apfieviav 

7 ifjL^aXetv. rovroyv ovk rj/j,vr)fi6vrja6v 6 AovkovXXo^, 
dXXd nrapeXOoav eU ttjv VopBvrjvojv Ta^a9 irpovOero 
Tov ZapffirjvoVy Kal irvpdv icrdrjrt koI y^pvaw 
PaaiXiicw Kal roL<; aTrb Tiypdvov Koa-fitjaa^ 
Xa<f)vpoL(; avTO<; irapoov vipijyjre, kol %o<^9 iinqveyKe 
fierd (f>LXa)v koX oIk€lci)v tov dvBp6<i, eTolpov 
eavTov Kal *¥cofjLaLcov av/jL/JLaxov dvaKaXovjiievo<i. 

8 eKeXevae Be Kal fivrj/iietov diro '^prj/xaTcov av')(y6)v 
avTw yeveaOai' Trd/niroXXa yap evpeOrj, kol ')(pvao<; 
Kal dpyvpo^; iv toI<; tov Ttap^irjvov ffaaiXeLoif;, 
aiTOV B" aTreKecvTO [ivpidBe^ TpiaKocriai fJueBifivcdv, 

aXTTC Kal TOL'9 (TTpaTL(i)Ta<^ 0)(l)€XeL<Tdai Kal TOV 

AovKovXXop Bavfjud^eaOaL, otl Bpa')(jir]v fiiav eK 



568 



LUCULLUS, XXIX. 5-8 

praise that is consequent upon righteousness and 
humanity, rather than of that which follows military 
successes. For the latter, the army also was in no 
slight degree, and fortune in the highest degree, 
responsible ; but the former were the manifestations 
of a gentle and disciplined spirit, and in the exercise 
of these qualities LucuUus now, without appeal to 
arms, subdued the Barbarians. The kings of the 
Arabs came to him, with proffers of their possessions, 
and the Sopheni joined his cause. The Gordyeni 
were so affected by his kindness that they were 
ready to abandon their cities and follow him with 
their wives and children, in voluntary service. The 
reason for this was as follows. Zarbienus, the king 
of the Gordyeni, as has been said,^ secretly stipulated 
with LucuUus, through Appius, for an alliance, being 
oppressed by the tjn-anny of Tigranes. He was 
informed against, however, and put to death, and 
his wife and children perished with him, before the 
Romans entered Armenia. LucuUus was not un- 
mindful of all this, but on entering the country of 
the Gordyeni, appointed funeral rites in honour of 
Zarbienus, and after adorning a pyre with royal 
raiment and gold and with the spoils taken from 
Tigranes, set fire to it with his own hand, and joined 
the friends and kindred of the man in pouring 
ilbations upon it, calling him a comrade of his and 
an ally of the Romans. He also ordered that a monu- 
ment be erected to his memory at great cost; for 
many treasures were found in the palace of Zarbienus, 
including gold and silver, and three million bushels 
of grain were stored up there, so that the soldiers 
were plentifully supplied, and LucuUus was admired 
» xxi. 2L 

569 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov hrjixoaiov rafiLeCov fir) XajScbv avTov ef avTov 
Scwfcet TOP TToXeixov, 

XXX. ''KvravOa koI irapa rov HdpOcov ^acri- 
Xeo)? r)K6 iTpeapeia irap avrov el^ i^ikiav irpo- 
KaKovjjbevov koI avfjL/jLa')(^iav. rjv S' da/jLevo) ravra 
TO) Aov/covWq)' Koi irdXiv dvT67r€/j,'\jre irap kav- 
Tov TTpeapeiav irpo^; rov TidpOov, ot KaTetjxiypaaav 
avTOv e7rafji(f>OTepl^ovTa rfj yvcofiy koX fiiaOov 
alrovvra Kpv(j)a rov (7VfJLfia')(f]aat tw Tiypdvy 

2 T^i/ MeaoirorafMLav. &)9 ovv ravO^ 6 AovfcovXko<; 
^aOero, Tiypdvrjv p,ev eyvco /cat MiOpiSdrijv 
irape\6elv uxrirep dvTa<ywvLaTd<i direLprjKoTa^y 
diroTTeipaadaL Be Trj<; Udpdcov Bvvdfie(o<i koi 
CTpareveiv eir avTov<;, KaXbv yyovfievo^ fiid 
pvfirj TToXifjiov Tpeh i<f)6^rj<; cdairep d6\r)Tr)<; 
jSaatXelf; KarairaXalaaL fcal Btd rpocov t(ov vtto 
TOP rjXiov fieyuarcov rjye/jLOVtcov d}]TTr]TO<; kol 
VLKMV Bte^eXOelv, 

3 "ETrefiyjrev ovv eU YiovTov tol<; irepl ^copvdnov 
rfyepLoaiv iinaTeLka^ dyeiv rrjv i/cel arparidv 
7r/)09 avTov, co? etc Trj<; TopBurjvTJf; dvafirjcofjuevo^. 
ol Be /cat rrporepov '^aXeirot^ XP^f^^^'' '^^^ 
Bva-ireideai T0i9 arpartcoTaL^ totg TravreXoof; 
d7T€Kd\vyjrav avrcov rrjv aKoXaalav, ovBevl rpoirco 
ireiOov^ ovB^ avdyKT)^ evpofxevot, irpoaayayeaOai 
fiapTvpo/Jievovf; kol ffocovra^;, to? ovB' avroOt 
fjLevovacv, aW' ol')(ri(TOVTai top TLovtov epr)fJLov 

4 diroXtiTovTe^. ravra irpof; Aov/covXXov drray- 
yeXOevra Kal rov^ eKel TrpoaBtecpOetpe arrpariw- 
ra^, rjBrj fiev vtto irXovrov Kal rpv(j>rj<; ^apeU 
yey ovora^ rrpo^ rrjv <Tr pare lav Kal a-^oXrj^ Beo- 
fiivov^:, <tt9 Bk rrjv eKeLpeov eirvOopTO Trapprjalap, 
570 



LUCULLUS, XXIX. 8-xxx. 4 

for not taking a single drachma from the public 
treasury, but making the war pay for itself. 

XXX. Here he received an embassy from the 
king of the Parthians also, inviting him into friendly 
alliance. This was agreeable to Lucullus, and in 
his turn he sent ambassadors to the Parthian, but 
they discovered that he was playing a double game, 
and secretly asking for Mesopotamia as reward 
for an alliance with Tigranes. Accordingly, when 
Lucullus was apprised of this, he determined to 
ignore Tigranes and Mithridates as exhausted 
antagonists, and to make trial of the Parthian power 
by marching against them, thinking it a glorious 
thing, in a single impetuous onset of war, to 
throw, like an athlete, three kings in succession, 
and to make his way, unvanquished and victorious, 
through three of the greatest empires under the 
sun. 

Accordingly he sent orders to Sornatius and his 
fellow commanders in Pontus to bring the army 
there to him, as he intended to proceed eastward 
from Gordyene. These officers had already found 
their soldiers unmanageable and disobedient, but 
now they discovered that they were utterly beyond 
control, being unable to move them by any manner 
of persuasion or compulsion. Nay, they roundly 
swore that they would not even stay where they 
were, but would go off and leave Pontus undefended. 
When news of this was brought to Lucullus, it 
demoralised his soldiers there also. Their wealth 
and luxurious life had already made them averse to 
military service and desirous of leisure, and when 
they heard of the bold words of their comrades 
in Pontus, they called them brave men, and said 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avBpa<i avTOV<; aireKokovv koI fiLfJbrjriov avroif^ 
€(f)aaav elvar iroWa yap avroc^ ci^ia croyrr^pia'; 
fcal avairavaecof; KareipydaOat. 

XXXI. l^oLOVTcov he koX Trovrjporepfov en Xoycov 
alcrOojievo^ o KovkovXXo^ ttjv eirl IIdpOov<; arpa- 
reiav a<^rjK€V, avdif; S* iirl top TLypdvrjv ifidBi^e 
Oepov^ cLKfid^ovTO^. KoX Tov Tavpov virep^dXodv 
r)6vpbriae ^(XoypMV tS)V Trehiayv iK(f)avevro)v' roaov- 
Tov al oypai hici rrjv -^/rtfT^yooTT^ra tov aepo^ 

2 xxnepi^ovaLV. ov fjurjv aXXa KaTaj3a<i kol Bl<; 513 
^ T/0I9 dvaroXpLYjaavTafi iir avrov roix; ^App^vlov; 
Tpeyfrdfi€vo<; aSew? iiropOei ra^ K(opLa<;, /cal rov 
irapearfcevacrpevov ra> Ttypdvp alrov i^aipoiv fjv 
avT09 icfio^etro rot^ irokepioi^ irepieaTrjaev cltto- 
piav. eVel he TrpOKaXovpuevo^ et? fjid^rjv avTov<; 
ireporacfipevcov tov ')(^dpafca koX TropOcov iv o-^ei 
TTjv 'X^copav ovK €KLvei ireifk'qyoTa^ iroWaKi^;, 
dva<TTa<; i/Sdhc^ev eir 'Aprd^ara to Tiypdvov 
PacTikeiOV, OTTOV koX iralhe^; avrrp vrjinoi koI 
ya/jbeToi yvval/ce^; rjaav, ovk av olopevo^ afia'^eX 
TavTU 7rpor)ae(j6ai- tov Tiypdvrjv. 

3 AeyeTai S' ^AvvLj3av tov Kapxv^ovLOVy *Avtl6)(ov 
KaTairoXe/jbrjOevTO^ vtto 'Vcopaicov, fieTa^dvTa 
7rpo<; ^ApTd^av tov ^App,evLov dWcov t€ ttoXXmv 
elarjyrjTTjv koI hthda/caXov avTw yeveaOai XPV^^- 
ficovt Kol TTj^i x^P^'^ KaTap,a66vTa tottov €v<f)ve- 
(TTaTov /cat TjhKTTOV dpyovvTU KoX irapopoiifievov 
a-^V/^^ 7i6Xea)9 ip avro) irpovTroypd^^aadaiy /cal 



572 



LUCULLUS, XXX. 4-xxxi. 3 

their example must be followed in Gordyen6, for 
their many achievements entitled them to respite 
from toil and freedom from danger. 

XXXI. Such speeches, and even worse than these, 
coming to the ears of Lucullus, he gave up his 
expedition against the Parthians, and marched once 
more against Tigranes,^ it being now the height of 
summer. And yet, after crossing the Taurus, he 
was discouraged to find the plains still covered with 
unripe grain, so much later are the seasons there, 
owing to the coolness of the atmosphere. However, 
he descended from the mountains, routed the Ar- 
menians who twice or thrice ventured to attack him, 
and then plundered their villages without fear, and, 
by taking away the grain which had been stored up 
for Tigranes, reduced his enemy to the straits which 
he had been fearing for himself. Then he challenged 
them to battle by encompassing their camp with 
a moat, and by ravaging their territory before their 
eyes ; but this did not move them, so often had they 
been defeated. He therefore broke camp and 
marched against Artaxata, the royal residence of 
Tigranes, where were his wives and young children, 
thinking that Tigranes would not give these up 
without fighting. 

It is said that Hannibal the Carthaginian, after 
Antiochus had been conquered by the Romans, left 
him and went to Artaxas the Aniienian, to whom he 
gave many excellent suggestions and instructions. 
For instance, observing that a section of the country 
which had the greatest natural advantages and 
attractions was lying idle and neglected, he drew 
up a plan for a city there, and then brought Artaxas 

1 G8 B.O. 

573 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov Aprd^av eTrayayovTa Sel^ac fcal irapop/jLtja-ai 

4 irpof} Tov ol/cio-fiov. r}a6evro<i Se rov PaaCKew^ 
Kol Ser]0evTO<;, otto)? cturo? eTTLaraTrjar] rov epyov, 
fieya tl /cat TrdjKaXov ')(pr]fjLa TroXeco? dvaa-rrjvai, 
KoX yevofievTjv eTrcovvfiov rov paaiXew<; fiTjTpoiroXcv 
diTohei'XJdrivaL rrjf; ^KpiJLevia^. 

'Ett^ ravTTjv rov AovkovWov pahi^ovTO<; ovk 
rjve(T')(eTO Tiypdvr]^;, dWa rrjv Evvafitv dvaka^oov 
rjfiepa Terdprrj irapearpaToiTe^evae rot? *Pa)- 
fiaiOt<;, iv fiio-q) Xa^cov rov ^ Kpdaviav iroTajiov, 
ov ef dvdyKr]<; Bca^areov rjv to?? 'Vwixaloi^ Tr)v eV 

5 ^Apra^drcov Tropevofievot^. 6vaa<; he rot? 6eol<i 
AovfCovXKo<;, &>? iv %e/0(7lr ovarjf; Trj(; vlfcrjf;, Bie^i- 
/9a fe TOV crrparov iv ScoSeKa (TireipaL<; Trporeray- 
lxevaL<^, rat? S' dX\ai<; i7rcT€TayiLLevai<; TTyoo? Ta9 
KV/c\co(7€i<; Tcov TToXe/ucov. TToXXol yap rj<Tav 
l7nrei<; koI Xoydhe^ avrnrapaTeray/jLevoc, irpo 
S' avToJv iTTTTOTO^oraL MapSofc Kal Xoy')(p^6poi, 
"\p7]pe<ij ol<; jjudXiara twv ^ivcov 6 Tiypdv7j<; 

6 iiricTTevev ft)9 //.axt/iwraTOt?. ov fJL7]v iirpd'^^dr} 
Tl XafiTTpov dir avToiiv, fiLKpa Be rot? iTTTrevart 
T(OV ^VodjJiaiwv BtaTrXrjKTtordfjbevoi, tou? 7refoi'9 
iinovTa^ ou% virefieivav, dXX^ eKaTepcoae Trj<i 
<^f7?}? <T')(^b(TdevT€^ i'TreairdaavTo tov^ tTTTret? 
7r/?09 T7]v Bioj^tv. d/jLa Be tS> tovtov^; BiaaTraprjvac 
TCOV irepX TOV Ttypdvrjv i^HT'jraaap.evcov IBoov ttjv 
Xap^TrpoTTfTa kol to irXrjOo^ 6 AovkovXXo<; eBeiore. 

1 KaX Tou? p^ev iTTTret? diro Tr}<i Bcco^eco^; dveKaXecTO, 
7rp(J0TO<; 8* avTO<; dvTecTTr] tol<; ^ At pOTraTr^vol^ KaT 
avTOV oven pcTa tmv dpiGToav, kol irplv eh ^etpa? 
iXOelv (po^7](Ta<! eTpeyfraTO, rpccbv S' 6p,ov irapa- 

574 



LUCULLUS, XXXI 3-7 

to the place and showed him its possibiHties^ and 
urged him to undertake the building. The king 
was delighted, and begged Hannibal to superintend 
the work himself, whereupon a very great and 
beautiful city arose there, which was named after 
the king, and proclaimed the capital of Armenia. 

When Lucullus marched against this city, Tigranes 
could not suffer it quietly, but put himself at the 
head of his forces, and on the fourth day encamped 
over against the Romans, keeping the river Arsania 
between himself and them, which they must of 
necessity cross on their way to Artaxata. There- 
upon Lucullus sacrificed to the gods, in full assurance 
that the victory was already his, and then crossed 
the river with twelve cohorts in the van, and the 
rest disposed so as to prevent the enemy from 
closing in upon his flanks. For large bodies of 
horsemen and picked soldiers confronted him, and 
these were covered by Mardian mounted archers 
and Iberian lancers, on whom Tigranes relied beyond 
any other mercenaries, deeming them the most v/ar- 
like. However, they did not shine in action, but 
after a slight skirmish with the Roman cavalry, gave 
way before the advancing infantry, scattered to right 
and left in flight, and drew after them the cavalry in 
pursuit. On the dispersion of these troops, Tigranes 
rode out at the head of his cavalry, and when 
Lucullus saw their splendour and their numbers he 
was afraid. He therefore recalled his cavalry from 
their pursuit of the flying enemy, and taking the 
lead of his troops in person, set upon the Atropateni, 
who were stationed opposite him with the magnates 
of the king's following, and before coming to close 
quarters, sent them off in panic flight. Of three 

575 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rerayfievcov ^aaiXeoDV aX(jyiaTa So/cel <f>vyelv 6 
IlovTi/co<; iS/ltOptSdrrjiij ouSe rrjv Kpavyrjv tmv 'Poj- 
8 fiaicov dvaa')(6fMevo<;, j€VO/jL€vr]<i Be rr)^ Bi(o^€(0<i 
fjLa/cpd<; Kal Bo* oXr;9 vvkto^, ov jjlovov Kreiuovref; 
avTOV^, aXka /cat l^wypovvre^ Kal ')(^prjixaTa Kal 
\elav dyovT€<; Kal (f)€povT€<; direlTrov ol 'Fcofiacoi,. 
<f)r}(Tl Be 6 Acovio^ ev fiev ry irporepa p^dxv 
irXeiova^, iv Be ravrrj yva)pi/jL'i)T€pov<; ireaelv Kal 

Xrj(j)67]Vai TMV TToXe/JLiCDV. 

XXXII. 'Eac tovtov AovkovWo<; jiev iTnjpjjievo^ 
Kal reOapprjKox; dv(o rrrpodyetv Btevoelro Kal Kara- 
arpe^eadai rrjv ^dp^apov ^pa S* lcn]/JL€pLa^ 
<l)divo7ro)ptvrjf; ovk dv iXTrlcTavri %et/>twi^e9 eVe- 
ireaov 0apel<;, rd fiev TrXela-ra KaravL(j>ovTe^, 
iv Be ral^ aldpiaL^ 7rd')(yr)v eTTicpipovTef; Kal 
irdyov, vcf)* ov "x^aXeirol puev r)<jav ol irora/xol 
T0i9 tTTTTOf? TTLveaOai, Bid 'y^rvxpoTrjTO^ VTrep^dXrjV, 
'^aXeiraX B^ avrcov at Biafida-eL<; iKprjyvv/jiivov 
Tov KpvardWou Kal BiaKoiTTOVTO^ rd vevpa t5)v 

2 LTTTTCOV TTJ TpaXVTTjTl, TTj^ Be ^(^Uipa^ rj TToWrf 
avvripe<^r]^ ovaa Kal (TTev6iropo<i Kal eXcoBrjf; del 
Kadvypavvev avTov<;, %toi/09 dvairLpuTfKap.evov<i ev 
Tal<; 6BoL7ropLai,<; Kal KaK(b<; ev tottov^ voT€pol<i 514 
vvKrepevovra^, ov 7roWd<i ovv r)fiepa<; dKoXov- 
OT^aavref tm AovKovXX(p fierd rrjv pud^V^ i^vav- 
TiovvTO, irpcoTov BeopuevoL Kal rov^ %tX,tap;^0L'9 
TTpocTTrepLTrovTef;, eiretra Oopv^cooearepov avvKTrd- 
fievoi Kal Kard aKTjvd^ vvkto^ dXaXd^ovref;, 
oirep elvai Boxel o-vpb^oXov d'Troa-raTiKM^; i'x^ovo-rj^ 

3 (TTpaTcd<i. Kairoi rroXXd irpoaeXiirdpei AovkovX- 
Xo9 d^L&v avToif^ puKpodvpuiav ipb^aXeaOai Tai<; 



LUCULLUS, XXXI. 7 xxxii 3 

kings who together confronted the Romans, Mithri- 
dates of Pontus seems to have fled most disgrace- 
fully, for he could not endure even their shouting. 
The pursuit was long and lasted through the whole 
night, and the Romans were worn out, not only with 
killing their enemies, but also with taking prisoners 
and getting all sorts of booty. Livy says that in the 
former battle a greater number of the enemy, but 
in this more men of high station were slain and 
taken prisoners. 

XXXII. Elated and emboldened by this victory, 
Lucullus purposed to advance further into the interior 
and subdue the Barbarian realm utterly. But, con- 
trary to what might have been expected at the time 
of the autumnal equinox, severe winter weather was 
encountered, which generally covered the ground 
with snow, and even when the sky was clear pro- 
duced hoar frost and ice, owing to which the horses 
could not well drink of the rivers, so excessive was 
the cold, nor could they easily cross them, since the 
ice broke, and cut the horses' sinews with its jagged 
edges. Most of the country was thickly shaded, 
full of narrow defiles, and marshy, so that it kept 
the soldiers continually wet; they were covered with 
snow while they marched, and spent the nights 
uncomfortably in damp places. Accordingly, they 
had not followed Lucullus for many days after the 
battle when they began to object. At first they sent 
their tribunes to him with entreaties to desist, then 
they held more tumultuous assemblies, and shouted 
in their tents at night, which seems to have been 
characteristic of a mutinous army. And yet I^u- 
cullus plied them with entreaties, calling upon them 
to possess their souls in patience until they had 

577 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yjrvXf^'^^y «%/0t ov rrjv iv ^Ap/jL€VLOi<; Kapxv^ova 
Xa^6vT€<; ai/5/009 exOlcrTOVj tov ^AvvilBav Xeycov, 
epyov dvaTpeyjrcoaiv. d)<; B* ovk eiretdev, dirrjyev 
avToif^ oTTLO-co Kol Kar aXXa? V7rep^o\d<; BceXOobv 
TOP Tavpov et9 ttjv Xeyo/jLevrjv MvySoviKi]v Kare- 
fiaipe, %ft>/3ai^ irdfju^opov fial dXeeivriv koI ttoXlv 
iv avTjj fieydXrjv icaX TroXvdvO pcoirov e^ovaav, 
fjv oi fi€V fidpjSapoc Nicn^iv, ol 8* "EXXr)ve^ 

4 'Ai/Tto%€tai^ M.vyBoviKr]v irpoar^yopevov. ravrrjv 
elx^v d^KOfiari, fiev a8€X(/)09 Tiypdvov Tovpa<;, 
iiMTreipia Bk kclI Becvorrjri firjxavcKrj KaXXi/xaxo<; 
6 KoX Trepl ^A/JLicrbv irXelara Trpdypxna Aov- 
KOvXXcp TrapacTxo^P' ^aXofievof; Be a-rparoireBov 
KoX rrrdaav IBeav TroXiopKLa^ iirayaycbv 6Xiy(p 

5 XP^^^ Kara Kpdro<; Xapb^dvev rrjv ttoXlv. koX 
Tov pa fiev eavrov iyx^i'p^cravrc (fjiXavOpcoTrco^; 
iXPW^'^o* ^aXXifidx^p S' VTno-xvovfiivfp OrjKa^ 
diropprjTOV^ pi^eydXtov xPVJ^^t^^ dvaKaXv-sjretv ov 
irpoaeax^v, dXX ixiXevaev iv ireBai^; Kop^i^eadai 
BiKT^v v^e^ovra tov 7ru/?o9, o5 tt^v * Ap,i(Trjv(ov 
BcaXvp,r]vdp,€vo<; iroXiv a^eiXeTO (f)iXoTipLiav avTov 
Kol XPV<^'roTrjTO<; iiriBei^tv irpo'; Tovf; "EXXr]va<;. 

XXXIII. Mexpi' TovBe (pairj rt? dv AovkovXXoj 
TTjv TVXW €7rop,€vr}v crvo-TpaTTjyelv. evT€v6ev 
B' Mairep 7rvevp,aT0<^ iinXLirovrofi 7rpocr^ia^6p.6vo<; 
irdvTa KOL TravTdrraaiv dvTiKpovtav dpeTrjv p,ev 
iireBeUvvTO koX pa/cpoOvp^lav rjyefxovo^ dyaOov, 
Bo^av Be Kol x^P^^ ovBepbiav at 7r/?afet9 eaxov, 
dXXd Kol TTjv TTpovTrdpxovaav iyyijf; ^X0e Bvd- 
Trpayayv kol Bia(p€p6p,€vo<; p^dTrjv dirol^aXelv. 
2 tS)v S' aLTtcov avTO'^ ovxl Trjv iXaxicrTr)v €i<; 
TovTO Trapeax^v, ovk cjv OepairevTiico'^ 7rXrj6ov<; 

578 



I 



LUCULLUS, xxxii. 3-XXX111. 2 

taken and destroyed the Armenian Carthage, the 
work of their most hated foe, meaning Hannibal. 
But since he could not persuade them, he led them 
back, and crossing the Taurus by another pass, de- 
scended into the country called Mygdonia, which is 
fertile and open to the sun, and contains a large and 
populous city, called Nisibis by the Barbarians, 
Antioch in Mygdonia by the Greeks. The nominal 
defender of this city, by virtue of his rank, was 
Gouras, a brother of Tigranes ; but its actual de- 
fender, by virtue of his experience and skill as an 
engineer, was Callimachus, the man who gave 
Lucullus most trouble at Amisus also. But I.ucullus 
established his camp before it, laid siege to it in 
every way, and in a short time took the city by 
storm. To Gouras, who surrendered himself into 
his hands, he gave kind treatment; but to Calli- 
machus, who promised to reveal secret stores of great 
treasure, he would not hearken. Instead, he ordered 
him to be brought in chains, that he might be 
punished for destroying Amisus by fire, and thereby 
robbing Lucullus of the object of his ambition, 
which was to show kindness to the Greeks. 

XXXIII. Up to this point, one might say that 
fortune had followed Lucullus and fought on his 
side ; but from now on, as though a favouring breeze 
had failed him, he had to force every issue, and met 
with obstacles everywhere. He still displayed the 
bravery and patience of a good leader, but his 
undertakings brought him no new fame or favour; 
indeed, so ill-starred and devious was his course, that 
he came near losing that which he had already won. 
And he himself was not least to blame for this. He 
was not disposed to court the favour of the common 

579 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TTpaTLcoriKOv, fcal ttclv to tt/oo? r)8ovr)v rov 
apxofJ'evov yivofxevov ap%^9 arc/iiav /cal KaraXvcnv 
r)yov/jL6vo<;' ro Be fjueyiarov, ovSe rot's Svvarol^ koI 
i(TOTLjJLOL<; €vdpfjLO(rro<; elvai TreipVKOx;, aWa irdv- 
Tcov Kara^povcjv /cal fjLrjBevof; d^Lov<; tt/oo? avrov 

3 r)yovjii€vo<i. ravra yap virdp^ai AovkovWo) KaKa 
\eyovaiv iv iracn rot? dWoi<; dyaOo2<;' Kal yap 
fieya<; Kal Ka\o<; Kal Secvo^; elirelv Kal (f>p6vL/JL0<i 
6fia\(h<; ev dyopa Kal (TrpaTOTreBa) Eo/cel yeveaOai. 

2aXoucrTi09 fxev ovv (prjcri %aXe7raJ9 BiareOrjvaL 
Tov? (TTpaTid)ra<^ Trpo^; avrov evOv^ iv dp)(^fj rod 
TToXifiov TTpo? Kuft/fft) Kal irdXiv 7rpo<i *A/jll<j^, 
Bvo %6t//.wi^a9 If ^9 iv ')(dpaKL Bcayayetv dvayKa- 

4 oOevraf;. '^vicov S' avrov<i Kal ol Xoiirol x^ificjvefi. 
'q yap iv tt) irdXejiia Stex^i^p^^ov rj irapd roL<i 
(rv/jL/jLdxoi<; viratdpoi aK7]vovvr6<;, eh Be ttoXlv 
^RWrjvuBa Kal ^iKrjv ovS* dira^ elarjXOe puera 
arparoiriBov AovkovWo<;. ovro) Be BiaKeip^evoi^ J 
avrolq Ta9 p^eyiaraf; iveBcoKav aTro t^9 'PoS/a?^9 ol 1 
B7]p.aycoyol 7rpo(j)d(Tei<;, <f>96va> rod AovkovXXov 
Karr)yopovvr€<; 0)9 vtto ^iXapxjicL'i Kal i^iXoirXoV' 
riaf; 6X/covro<; rov rroXep.ov Kal fiovovov Kari- 
^ovTOf; iv ravra> KcXtKLav, ^Aalav, l^iOvviav, 
lla^XayoviaVt TaXariav, UovroVf ^Apfieviav, r^ 
fie^pi' ^daLBo<i, vvvl Be Kal ra Tcypdvov ^acriXeia 
ireiropOriKoro^ii axnrep eKBva-ai rov<; /3acnXei<;, ov 

5 KaraTToXep^rjaaL TTep,(^6evrofi. rovro yap elirelv 
<f>a(nv eva rcov arrpartjy&v AevKcov Koivrov, v(j)* 
ov pbaXtcrra rreiaOevre^; e-yjryj^LO-avro rrep^ireiv 
BiaBo^pvi T(p AovKovXXo) rrj^ iirapxt^a^i. i^jr7}(j)i- 
aavro Be Kal rwv vir* avro) arparevop^evcov rroX- 515 
Xot'9 dcpelaOai. crpareia^* 

580 



LUCULLUS, xxxiii. 2-5 

soldier, and thought that everything that was done 
to please one's command only dishonoured and under- 
mined one's authority. Worst of all, not even with 
men of power and of equal rank with himself could 
he readily co-operate ; he despised them all, and 
thought them of no account as compared with him- 
self. These bad qualities Lucullus is said to have 
had, but no more than these. He was tall and 
handsome, a powerful speaker, and equally able in 
the forum and the field. 

Well, then, Sallust says that his soldiers were ill- 
disposed towards him at the very beginning of the 
war, before Cyzicus, and again before Amisus, because 
they were compelled to spend two successive winters 
in camp. The winters that followed also vexed 
them. They spent them either in the enemy's 
country, or among the allies, encamped under the 
open sky. Not once did Lucullus take his army 
into a city that was Greek and friendly. In their 
disaffection, they received the greatest support from 
the popular leaders at Rome. These envied Lucullus 
and denounced him for protracting the war through 
love of power and love of wealth. They said he all 
but had in his own sole power Cilicia, Asia, Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia, Galatia, Pontus, Armenia, and the 
regions extending to the Phasis, and that now he 
had actually plundered the palaces of Tigranes, as if 
he had been sent, not to subdue the kings, but to strip 
them. These were the words, they say, of Lucius 
Quintus, one of the praetors, to whom most of all the 
people listened when they passed a vote to send men 
who should succeed Lucullus in the command of his 
province. They voted also that many of the soldiers 
under him should be released from military service. 

581 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXIV. TovTOi^ Se Tr}\iKovTOi<i ovac Trpoayi- 
verav to fxaXiara KovkovXKw Sieipyaa/juevov Ta<; 
TTpd^ei^;, IIoTrXto? KXtwSto?, avrjp v^pLa-Tr]<; koX 
fiearbf; 6\tycopLa<; airdcrr]^ koI dpaavTrjro^. rjv he 
TTJf; AovKovWov yvvaiKo<; dSeX^o^, fjv koI Bia- 
(pdetpetv e(T')(ev alriav aKoXaarordrr^v ovaav. 

2 Tore Be tg) AovkovXXq) auarpareucov ov^ oarjf; 
avTov rj^Lov rifirj^; ervy^avev r)^LOV Be tt/jwto? 
elvat, fcal ttoWcov d7ro\€i7r6/jL€vo<; Bta top rpoirov 
viroLKovpeu rr]v ^c/ju^pcavrju aTparidv Kal irapco- 
^vve Kara tov AoukovWov, \6yov<; 'X^pr]aTOv<; €i9 
ovK aKOvra^ ovB^ drj6ei<; tov BrjixaycoyelaOai 
BiaBiBov<;. ovTOL yap rjaav, oi>9 Kal irpoTepov 
dveireiae ^tpLffpLa<; diTOKTeivavTaf; tov viraTOv 

3 ^XdKKOv avTOV eXeaOai cTTpaTr^yov. Blo kol tov 
K.X(i)Btov r)Be(o<i iBe^ovTO kuI (f>iXoaTpaTi,d>Tr)v 
TTpoarjyopevov, dyavaKTelv irpoairoiovpievov virep 
avTcbVt el 7repa<; ovBev eaTai iroXefKov to<tovt(ov 
KOL irbvwvy dXKa iravTi /nev edvet fj,a)(^6/jLevoL, 
irdaav Be yrjv irXavco/jLevot KaTaTpi'^^ovav tov fiiov 
ovBev d^iov e/c TrjXLKavTr}<! ^epofievoi, aTparelaf;, 
dXXa Ta9 AovkovXXov 7rapa7refjL7rovTe<; d/id^a<i 
Kal KajjLrjXovi eKTrco/jidTcov "xpyacav Kal BiaXiOaov 

4 ye/jL0V(ra<i, ol Be Hofnrrjtov aTpaTicoTat Brj/jL0<; 
6vT€<; i]Brj TTOv fierd yvvaiK&v Kal TeKvcov KdOrjvTai 
yrjv evBat/JLova Kal 7r6Xei<; e^ovTef;, ov MiOpcBdTrjv 
Kal Tiypdvrjv €t9 Ta9 doLKi]Tov(i ifipaXovTe^i eprj- 
IJLia<;, ovBe t^9 'Acrta9 tcl ^aaLXeia KaTappLyjravTe<i, 
dXXcL (f>vydaLV dv6 pd>irot,^ iv ^I^ijpla Kal Bpaire- 
582 



LUCULLUS, xxxiv. 1-4 

XXX IV. To these factors in the case, so un- 
favourable in themselves, there was added another, 
which most of all vitiated the undertakings of 
l^ucullus. This was Publius Clodius, a man of wanton 
violence, and full of all arrogance and boldness. He 
was a brother of the wife of Lucullus, a woman of 
the most dissolute ways, whom he was actually 
accused of debauching. At this time he was in 
service with Lucullus, and did not get all the honour 
which he thought his due. He thought a foremost 
place his due, and when many were preferred before 
him because of his evil character, he worked secretly 
upon the soldiers who had been commanded by 
Fimbria, and tried to incite them against Lucullus, 
disseminating among them speeches well adapted to 
men who were neither unwilling nor unaccustomed 
to have their favour courted. These were the men 
whom Fimbria had once persuaded to kill the consul 
Flaccus, and choose himself for their general. They 
therefore gladly listened to Clodius also, and called 
him the soldier's friend. For he pretended to be 
incensed in their behalf, if there was to be no end of 
their countless wars and toils, but they were rather 
to wear out their lives in fighting with every nation 
and wandering over every land, receiving no suitable 
reward for such service, but convoying the waggons 
and camels of Lucullus laden with golden beakers 
set with precious stones, while the soldiers of 
Pompey, citizens now, were snugly ensconced with 
wives and children in the possession of fertile lands 
and prosperous cities, — not for having driven Mithri- 
dates and Tigranes into uninhabitable deserts, nor 
for having demolished the royal palaces of Asia, but 
for having fought with wretched exiles in Spain and 

583 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rai^ iv iToKia TroXefirjaavTeq. " Tt ovv, el Zel 
fi7]Be7rore TravaaaOai CTTparevofievovf;, ov)(l tolov- 
Tft) o-Tparrjry^ koX (rco/Mara ra Xocira koI -^v^a^ 
<pv\dcr (TO /ji€V, to KaXXi(rTO<i elvai SoKel Kocrfio^ 6 
TMV <7TpaT€VO/ievcov 7r\ovTo<; ; " 
5 Totavrai? alriat^ ro AovkovXXov arpdrevfia 
Bia(j)6apev ovt iirl TLypdvrfv '^KoXovOrjaev ovr 
eirl McdpiSdrrjv avOi^ ef ^Apfievia^ ek Hoptov 
ifjL^aXovTa koI ttjv ctpxh^ dvaXafjbjSdvovra, irpo- 
<^a(TLV he Tov ')(ei[xoiva iroLovfjievoi irepl rr^v 
TopBurjvrjv hieTpLj^ov, oaov ovttco JJopLTTTJiov i] 
Tiv dXXov Tciiv rjyeiJLovwv AovKOvXX(p htdho^ov 
d^i^eaOai TrpoorZoKMvrefi. 

XXXY. 'E-TTel he MiepLBdrrjii rjyyeXro ^dficov 
vevLKr]Ka)<; eVt 'Zcopvdriov koI Tpidpcov /SaSi^etv, 
alax^v^ ^v'T^'i eiirovTO t& AovkovXXo). TptdpLo<} 
8* ft)9 erotfJLOv dpirdaai to viKr]fia, irplv eireXOelv 
AovkovXXov iyyv^ ovra, ^tXoTLfiov/jLevo^; rirrdrai 
I^^XV /^^y^Xrj, Xeyovrav yap virep €7rTaKia')(^iXlov<; 
'VwfjLaiodv dirodavelv, iv ot? eKarovrap^oL fiev 
cKarop irevTi^KOVTa, ')(^iXLap')(pi 5* elKocn kol 
reaaape^;' ro Be (nparoirehov elXe M.cOpi,Bdr7}(;. 

2 iireXdcov Be AovkovXXov; oXiyaif; varepov '^fiepac^i 
TptdpLOV p.ev iiTTo rcov arparicoTcop ^r^rovfievov 
irpo^ opyrjv i^eKXeyjre, MtOpcBdrov Be fir) 6eXovTO<; 
fid^eaOaCy dXXd Tiypdvrjv irepifievovTOfi rjBr] 
KarafiaivovTa fierd ttoXXt)? Bvvdfxeay^;^ eyvco irplv 
dp,(j>OTepov^ (TVveXOelv irdXiv diravrrjaai koI Bia- 

3 ywvio-acrOat irpo^ tov Ttypdvrjv. iropevofievco B^ 
avTU) KaO* oBov ol ^ifi^piavoX <TTa(ndaavTe<i 
dTreXiirov Ta9 Ta^ea, co? d(j)ec/jLevoL Boy/nan t^9 

584 



LUCULLUS, XXXIV. 5-xxxv. 3 

runaway slaves in Italy. "Why, then/* he would 
cry, " if our campaigns are never to come to an end, 
do we not reserve what is left of our bodies, and our 
lives, for a general in whose eyes the wealth of his 
soldiers is his fairest honour? " 

For such reasons as these the army of Lucullus 
was demoralised, and refused to follow him either 
against Tigranes, or against Mithridates, who had 
come back into Pontus from Armenia, and was 
trying to restore his power there. They made the 
winter their excuse for lingering in Gordyen^, 
expecting every moment that Pompey, or some 
other commander, would be sent out to succeed 
Lucullus. 

XXXV. But when tidings came that Mithridates 
liad defeated Fabius,^ and was on the march against 
Sornatius and Triarius, they were struck with shame 
and followed Lucullus. But Triarius, who was 
ambitious to snatch the victory, which he thought 
assured, before Lucullus, who was near, should come 
up, was defeated in a great battle. It is said that 
over seven thousand Romans fell, among whom were 
a hundred and fifty centurions, and twenty-four 
tribunes ; and their camp was captured by Mithridates. 
But Lucullus, coming up a few days afterward, hid 
Triarius from the search of his infuriated soldiers. 
Then, since Mithridates was unwilling to give fight, 
but lay waiting for Tigranes, who was coming down 
with a large force, he determined to anticipate the 
junction of their armies, and march back to meet 
Tigranes in battle. But while he was on the way 
thither, the Fimbrian soldiers mutinied and left their 
ranks, declaring that they were discharged from 

1 67 B.a 

585 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arpareia^; koX firjKert t& AovkovWo) TrpoarJKOv 
ap')(^eLV, erepoLf; aTroBe^ecyp^ivcov rwv i7rap)(^i(ov. 
ovBh ovv iarcv o rt tcov Trap* a^iav 6 AovKOvX\,o<i 
ovx vTrep^LveVy avTi^okcav Kad' eva koX Kara 
aKTjva^ 7repu(t)V raireivb'; koI hehaKpvp,evo^y eari 

4 S' a)v KoX ')(€Lpo<i ^ dTTTO/jLevo^i. ol 8* airerpi^ovTO 
Ta<i B6^L(oa€C<; Koi Keva irpoaepplirTovv ^aXdvria, 
KoX iJLovov fidx^crdac rot? iroXep.loi^ i/ciXevov, 
d<j)* oiv /ii6vo<; rjiria-Taro TrXovreXv, ov fxrjv dXKa 
T(ov dWcov (rrparicoTcov Beo/nivcov €K^ca(r6evT€<; 

ol ^ifJbPpiavol a-vveOevTO Trapafiecvat to 6epo<;' 516 
edv Se /i-^Sel? iv r^ XP^^V TOVT(p Karirj tt^o? 
avTov^ dycovcovp>6VO<;, dTrrjWd^daL. ravT ehei 
(TT€py€CV 6^ dvdyKr)<; tov AovkovWov, t] irpoecrOaL 

5 rot? Pappdpoi<i rrjv ^(^copav diroXeK^OevTa. avvel- 
%ez/ ovv avTOv<; ov/ciro 7rpoal3ta^6p.€Vo^ ovBe 
TTpodycov 7r/0O9 fidxv^> aXA,' el irapaixevoiev 
dyaiTOiVj koI irepLopo)v iropdovp^ivrjv viro tov 
Toypdvov Tr}v KaTTTraBoKLav fcal irdXiv v^pi^ovTa 
'M.iOpiBdTTjv, ov avTo<; iirea-TdXKGL ttj avyKXrjTW 
ypd(f)Q)v fcaTaTr€7roX€p,7](r6ac' kuI ol irpea^ei^i 
Traprjaav uvtm irpo^; ttjv BudOeaiv T(t)v iv TIovt^ 

6 TTpayp^dTCDV, o)? Brj /36/3«xa)9 ixofievcov. koX Bt) 
iTap6vTe<; icopcov ovB* avTov /cvpcov, dXXd irapoi- 
vovp^evov Koi TrpoirrjXaKL^op.evov viro tcjv aTpaTico- 
Tcov, oh ye toctovto Treptrjv ti)^ eh tov aTpaT7jyov 
daeXyeca^, wcrre tov depov<; XijyovTO^ evBvvTe^ 

586 



I 



« 



LUCULLUS, XXXV. 3-6 

service by decree of the people, and that Lucullus 
no longer had the right to command them, since the 
provinces had been assigned to others. Accordingly, 
there was no expedient, however much beneath his 
dignity, to which Lucullus did not force himself to 
resort, — entreating the soldiers man by man, going 
about from tent to tent in humility and tears, and 
actually taking some of the men by the hand in sup- 
plication. But they rejected his advances, and threw 
their empty purses down before him, bidding him 
fight the enemy alone, since he alone knew how to 
get rich from thera. However, at the request of the 
other soldiers, the Fimbrians were constrained to 
agree to remain during the summer ; but if, in the 
meantime, no enemy should come down to fight 
them, they were to be dismissed. Lucullus was 
obliged to content himself with these terms, or else 
to be deserted and give up the country to the 
Barbarians. He therefore simply held his soldiers 
together, without forcing them any more, or leading 
them out to battle. Their remaining with him was 
all he could expect, and he looked on helplessly 
while Tigranes ravaged Cappadocia and Mithridates 
resumed his insolent ways, — a monarch whom he had 
reported by letter to the Senate as completely sub- 
dued. Besides, the commissioners were now with 
him, who had been sent out to regulate the affairs of 
Pontus, on the supposition that it was a secure Roman 
possession. And lo, when they came, they saw that 
Lucullus was not even his own master, but was 
mocked and insulted by his soldiers. These went so 
far in their outrageous treatment of their general, 
that, at the close of the summer, they donned their 



S87 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra oirXa kov aTracrdfievoi ra? fia)(ai,pa<; irpoeKa- 
XovvTO T0U9 firjBa/iiov Trapovra^, aXX airrjpKora'^ 
rj^ 7ro\€/jLLov<;. aXaXd^avre^ Se koX GKiaixa')(7]- 
(TavTe<; d7rex(>^pV^^^ ^f^ "^o^ %apaA:o9, eirifiaprv- 
pdfievoL TreTrXrjpcbaOat rov %povov, ov atfioXo'yTjaav 
Tw AovfCovWrp irapajjieveiv. 

7 Tou? S' dWov<i eKoXeo Bia ypaf-i/judrcov Uo/jLiry- 
109' rjh-q yap aTToSiSeiKTO rov Trpo? Mi6pcBdTr)v 
Kol Ttypdvrjv iroXifMov arparyjyo^; -^dptrt rod 
hrjfiov KoX KoXaKeia t&v Srj/naycoycov, iirel rrj ye 
ffovXfj /cat TOfc? dpLaroi<i d8t,Ka Trdo-'^ecv iSo/cec 
AovKovWo^ ov TToXe/jLOV Bi,aS6)(^ov<;, dWd Opidjx- 
pov Xafx^dvcov, ovSe r^? (Trparrjyia'; dvayKa^o- 
/jL€P0<;, dWa tcov irrdOXcov r?}? (TTparrjyla^ i^l- 
(TTaaOai kol Trapaxropelv ere/^ot?. 

XXXVI. "Ert he fxaWov ecpdvr) ro yivofievov 
TOt? eKel irapovcri vefiearjrov. ovre yap riarj^; 6 
AovKovWo^ ovre rificopia'^ rcov iv TroXefxw Kvpio^ 
virripxev, ovK eta tlvcl TiofjbiTrjLo<; /SaSi^eiv Trpo? 
avTov ovBe Trpoaex^cv oh eKelvo<; eypacj^e xal 
Bievefie fJierd rcov heKa irpeaf^ecov, dXhJ e/ccoXvev 
CKTideU BtaypdfjbiMaTa Kal (jyo^epo^; irapoiv dirb 

2 fiei^ovo^ Bwdfiecof;. o/xax; Be eBo^e roU (f)iXoL<; 
(Tvvayayelv avTov^' Kal avvrjXOov iv Kcofjurj nvl 
rrj(; TaXaria^ Kal TTpocrelirov dXXTJXov; cj)iXo(f)p6- 
VC09 Kal GVvrjdOiiaav eirl toc<; Karo)p9cop,evoi<; 
eKarepo), Trpeafivrepo^; fjuev wv 6 AovkovXXo^, 
d^icd/xa B' rjv to HojuTTTjiov fiel^ov diro irXeiovwv 
(TTpa7y]yL(iiV Kal Bveiv dptdfi^cov. pd^Boi S' 

588 



\ 



LUCULLUS, XXXV. 6-xxxvi. 2 

amiour, drew their swords, and challenged to battle 
an enemy who was nowhere near, but had already 
withdrawn. Then they shouted their war cries, 
brandished their weapons in the air, and departed 
from the camp, calling men to witness that the time 
had expired during which they had agreed to remain 
with LucuUus. 

The rest of the soldiers Pompey summoned by 
letter, for he had already been appointed to conduct 
the war against Mithridates and Tigranes,^ because 
he won the favour of the people and flattered their 
leaders. But the Senate and the nobility considered 
Lucullus a wronged man. He had been superseded, 
they said, not in a war, but in a triumph, and had 
been forced to relinquish and turn over to others, 
not his campaign, but the prizes of victory in his 
campaign. 

XXXVI. But to those who were on the spot, what 
happened there seemed still greater matter for wrath 
and indignation. For Lucullus was not allowed to 
bestow rewards or punishments for what had been 
done in the war, nor would Pompey even suffer any 
one to visit him, or to pay any heed to the edicts 
and regulations which he made in concert with the 
ten commissioners, but prevented it by issuing 
counter-edicts, and by the terror which his presence 
with a larger force inspired. Nevertheless, their 
friends decided to bring the two men together, and 
so they met in a certain village of Galatia. They 
greeted one another amicably, and each congratulated 
the other on his victories. Lucullus was the elder 
man, but Pompey's prestige was the greater, because 
he had conducted more campaigns, and celebrated 
» 6G B.C. 

589 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

afKJyoTipayv TrporjyovvTO Ba(f)V7)(f)6poi Bia t^9 vCfca<;, 

3 fcal Tov y€ Uofjuirrjiov fia/cpav oSov Bia roircov 
avvSpcov /cat avxP'VP^^ oheixravTO^; Ta<; Sd<f)va<; 
^rjpa<; TrepiKeifievaf; rat? pd^Botf; iB6vr€<i ol 

TOV AOVKOVWOV paffSoCpOpOl (f>lXO(j)pOVOV/jL€VO0 

TOL<; eKeivov fjueriBcoKav ck tmv ISlcov, irpoa- 
(fxiTovf; Kol 0a\€pa9 e^oi^re?. koI to jivo/jievov 
et9 olcovov irlOevTO ')(^p7]aT0V ol Uo/jLirrjtov (puXor 
Tft) yap ovTi rrjv eKeivov aTpari^yiav at rovrov 

4 7rpd^ei<; eKoafirjaav. eK Be rcav Xoycov tt/^o? ovSev 
eTTLeiKe^; crvve^rjo-av, aXX' en /jloXXov dWorptcO' 
OevT€<; 7r/309 dX\'^\ov<; dirrjkOov' Kal ra? vtto tox 
AovKovWov yevojieva^ Buard^eL^i rjKvpwaev 
TLopnTrjio^, (TTpandiTaq Be tou9 dWov<; dirayayoav 
p,bvov<i avT(p ')(^L\iov<; e^aKoa-iov; direkiire avv- 
dpta/jL^eva-ovra^, ovBe rovrovf; jidXa TrpoOvfico^ 

5 eTrofxevov^, ovtco ti<; rjv d(j)vr)<; rj Bvo'tvxv'^ 6 
AovKovWo<; 7r/309 to irdvrcov ev rjye/jiovLa TrpMTov 
Kal fjLeyicrrov' co9, el tovto p-erd rcov dWcov 
virrjp^ev avrw, rrjXcKovTWV ovrcov Kal toctovtcov, 
p>eT dvBpeia<^, eirifxeXeia^, o-vviaeax;, BiKaio(Tvvr}<;, 
ovK av el'X^ev rj 'Fco/naLcov rjyepovia tov Rv(l)pdT')]v 

6 T779 'Aaw opov, dWd tcl eaxara Kal tyjv "TpKa- 517 
viav OdXaTTav, tmv fiev d\\a>v eOvcov Tiypdvrj 
7rpor}TT7)p.ev(ov, ttj^; Be Ildp6cov Bwd/jueco^; ov^ oarj 
KaTCL K.pdaaov i^ecfidvT) ToaavTr)<; Kal kutcl Aov- 
KOvWov ova-Tjf; ovB^ 6p,oi(o^ avveaTcoar^^y aXX' vir 
€p,cj)vXicov Kal TrpoaoLKcov iroXep^wv ovB^ 'AppevLov; 
ij^pL^0VTa<; €ppo)p.evrj<; dpvvecrOai. 

Nvv Bi P'Oi BoKel AovKovWo^ cov oxpeXrja-e Bi 
avTOV TTjv TTdTpiBa ^Xdyjrac fieu^ova Bl* erepcovm 

590 



LUCULLUS, xxxvi. 2-6 

two triumphs. Fasces wreathed with laurel were 
carried before both commanders in token of their 
victories, and since Pompey had made a long march 
through waterless and arid regions, the laurel which 
wreathed his fasces was withered. When the lictors 
of Lucullus noticed this, they considerately gave 
Pompey's lictors some of their own laurel, which was 
fresh and green. This circumstance was interpreted 
as a good omen by the friends of Pompey ; for, in 
fact, the exploits of Lucullus did adorn the command 
of Pompey. However, their conference resulted in 
no equitable agreement, but they left it still more 
estranged from one another. Pompey also annulled 
the ordinances of Lucullus, and took away all but 
sixteen hundred of his soldiers. These he left to 
share his triumph, but even these did not follow him 
very cheerfully. To such a marvellous degree was 
Lucullus either unqualified or unfortunate as regards 
the first and highest of all requisites in a leader. 
Had this power of gaining the affection of his soldiers 
been added to his other gifts, which were so many 
and so great, — courage, diligence, wisdom, and justice, 
— the Roman empire would not have been bounded 
by the Euphrates, but by the outer confines of Asia, 
and the Hyrcanian sea ; for all the other nations had 
already been subdued by Tigranes, and in the time 
of Lucullus the Parthian power was not so great as 
it proved to be in the time of Crassus, nor was it so 
well united, nay rather, owing to intestine and 
neighbouring wars, it had not even strength enough 
to repel the wanton attacks of the Armenians. 

Now my own opinion is that the harm Lucullus did 
his country through his influence upon others, was 
greater than the good he did her himself. For his 

591 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 rh ^hp iv ^Apfievla rpoiraia TIdpOcov wXrjo'iov 
ecrrcoTa Koi TiypavoKepra koX l>iL(Ti,l3i^ kol ttXov- 
Tos €K TOVTCOV 7ro\if<; et? 'Pcofirjv KOfjuaOei^; xal to 
Tijpdvov BidBrjfjLa irofiirevOev alx/^dXcorov eirrjpe 
Kpdo-<Tov €7rl T^z/ *A(Tiav, co? Xd^vpa Kal 'Keiav 
Toi)^ ^apl3dpov<?, aWo S' ovSev ovra^. ra^v 
fxevTOi T0i9 Udpdcov TO^ev/juaa-tv ivTV^cov aTriSet^e 

TOV AOVKOVWOV OVK d(j)pO(7VV7) Kol flokaKLa TCOV 

7ro\6/ueov, avrov Be roXfirj Kal BetvorrjTi irepiyevo- 
fievov. dWa ravra fxev varepov. 

XXXVIL 'O Be AovKovWo<; dvajSct^ ct? 
'V(i)fjir]v TTpcoTov fiev KareXaffe rov dBeXcpov 
^IdpKov viro Vatov Me/z/^tof Karijyopov/xevov e^' 
ot? eirpa^e rafiievayv %vWa irpocnd^avTo';. 
eKeivov 5' d7ro(j)vy6vTO<; cttI tovtov avrov 6 
Mi/jL/jLto^ fjberapa\6pbevo<; irapw^vve rov Brjfiov, Kal 
ft)9 iroXKa vevo(T(f)Lcr [xevcp Kal jxrjKvvavTL top TroXe- 

2 fiov eTreiaev avro) firj Bovvai ^piafi^ov. eXOovro^ 
8' et9 dywva rov AovkovWov jxeyav ol irpcoroi 
Kal Bwarcorarot, Kara[JLi^avTe<; iavrov^; rah 
(pvXaX^ TroXkfj Berjaei, Kal aTrovBrj fi6\i,<; eireiaav 
TOV BrjfJLov iirLTpi'^at Opia/ii^evaat, o^%, coairep 
evLOiy fiijKei T€ 7ro/jb7rfj<; Kal nrXrjOeL twv ko/jll- 
^ofievcov eKirXrjKTiKbv Kal oxXcaBrj Optafi^ov, 
dXXd tol<; fiev oirXotf; twv iroXefJuicov oven iraji- 
TToXkoL^ Kal TOL<; fiaaiXiKol^ pb'Y]yavr)yia(Ti tov 
^XapLveiov liriroBpoixov BieKoa-pirjcre' Kal Oea ti<; 

3 rjv avTT} Ka0* eavrrjv ovk evKara(f)p6vriT0^* iv Be 



592 



LUCULLUS, XXXVI. 7-xxxvii. 3 

trophies in Armenia, standing on the borders ot 
Parthia, and Tigranocerta, and Nisibis, and the vast 
wealth brought to Rome from these cities, and the 
display in his triumph of the captured diadem of 
Tigranes, incited Crassus to his attack upon Asia ; 
he thought that the Barbarians were spoil and booty, 
and nothing else. It was not long, however, before 
he encountered the Parthian arrows, and proved 
that LucuUus had won his victories, not through 
the folly and cowardice of his enemies, but through 
his own daring and ability. This, however, is later 
history. 

XXXVII. Now when Lucullus had returned to 
Rome, he found, in the first place, that his brother 
Marcus was under prosecution by Gaius Memmius 
for his acts as quaestor under the administration of 
Sulla. Marcus, indeed, was acquitted, but Memmius 
then turned his attack upon Lucullus, and strove 
to excite the people against him. He charged him 
with diverting much property to his own uses, and 
with needlessly protracting the war, and finally 
persuaded the people not to grant him a triumph. 
Lucullus strove mightily against this decision, and 
the foremost and most influential men mingled with 
the tribes, and by much entreaty and exertion at 
last persuaded the people to allow him to celebrate 
a triumph ; ^ not, however, like some, a triumph which 
was startling and tumultuous from the length of the 
procession and the multitude of objects displayed. 
Instead, he decorated the circus of Flaminius with 
the arms of the enemy, which were very numerous, 
and with the royal engines of war ; and this was a 
great spectacle in itself, and far from contemptible. 
1 66 B.O. 

593 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T§ TTOfiTrfj TMV TC KaTa(j)pdKT(ov linreayv oXiyoi 
zeal TMv ^peiravTj^opwv dpfjidrcov BeKa iraprfkOov, 
i^^Kovra Se (piXoc koI (TTparrjyol tcov jSaa-iXiK&v, 
fiaKpal Be ')(a\KeiJL^o\oL vrje^ eKarov koI Bexa dfia 
7rap€K0jj,ladrj(Tav, avrov re M-iOpcBdrou 'x^pvaeo^ 
i^drrrovg KoXoaao^i, Koi Ovpeo^ Tt9 BtdXidofiy koI 
(f>op7]/LLaTa eiKoa-L fiev dpyvpcjv cTKevcov, 'X^pvacov 8* 
€K7rcofidTO)v Kol ottXcov Kol voiiii(T/jLaro<; Bvo koi 
Tptdfcovra. ravra fikv ovv avBpe<; TrapeKo/ii^ov 
rjfiLovoi 8' OKTO) KXiva<i %/3UO"a9 €(^epoVy ef Be kol 
irevr7]K0VTa Kexf^vev/juevov dpyupiov, dXXoL B' 
eKarov eirrd vofii(T/jLaTO<; dpyvpov, fiiKpq> rivt, 
Beov(ra<; e^BojjLTjKovTa koI BtaKoata<; fjLvpidBa<i. 
ev Be BeXroi^ dvaypa^al tcov tjBi] BeBofievcov XPV~ 
fjidrcov VTT avTov llo/jL'irr]ta) 7rpb<; rov TreipariKov 
iroXejjLOv kol tol<; eirl rod Brj/jLoaiov raf^eLov, koX 
^ft)/)t9 OTL (TTpaTi(OTr}<; €KaaTO<; ivaKoaia^ koI 
irevTViKOVTa Bpa'X,/^d<; eXa^ev. eirl tovtol^ rrjv re 
ttoXlv elarlaa-e Xa/jL7rpco<; kol Td<; iiepioiKLBa<i 
Kcofjua'^, a? ovLKOV^ KaXovai. 

XXXVIII. T?}? Be KXft)5ta9 dirrjXXay/jbevof;, 
ovcrr]^ daeXyov^ Kal irovrjpd^;, ^epovtXiav eyrjfiev, 
dBeXcprjv Karcoi^o?, ovBe tovtov evTv^'TJ ydfjuov. 
ev yap ov Trpoarjv avTa> tcjv KXcoBlaf; Ka/cwv 
jiovov, 7] TCOV dBeXcjicov BLa^dXrj' raXXa Be ^BeXv- 
pdv cfMoio)<; oixrav Kal dKoXacrTov i^vayKd^ero 
(pepecv alBov/uievof; K.dTcova, TeXo<i Be direlTrev. 

*EX7rt8a9 Be davfiacTTdf; Ty /SovXfj irapao-yoiVi 
ft)9 eyovGTi Tov avBpa tovtov dvTLTayfia irpo'^ ttjv 
Tov Ilo/jL7rr]tov TvpavvlBa Kal t^9 dpiaTOKpaTia<i 

594 



LUCULLUS, xxxvii. 3-xxxviii. 2 

But in the procession, a few of the mail-clad horse- 
men and ten of the scythe-bearing chariots moved 
along, together with sixty of the king's friends and 
generals. A hundred and ten bronze-beaked ships 
of war were also carried along, a golden statue 
of Mithridates himself, six feet in height, a 
wonderful shield adorned with precious stones, 
twenty litters of silver vessels, and thirty-two litters 
of gold beakers, armour, and money. All this was 
carried by men. Then there were eight mules 
which bore golden couches, fifty-six bearing ingots 
of silver, and a hundred and seven more bearing 
something less than two million seven hundred 
thousand pieces of silver coin. There were also 
tablets with records of the sums of money already 
paid by Lucullus to Pompey for the war against the 
pirates, and to the keepers of the public treasury, as 
well as of the fact that each of his soldiers had 
received nine hundred and fifty drachmas. To crown 
all, Lucullus gave a magnificent feast to the city, and 
to the surrounding villages called Fid. 

XXXVIII. After his divorce from Clodia, who was 
a licentious and base woman, he married Servilia, a 
sister of Cato, but this, too, was an unfortunate 
marriage. For it lacked none of the evils which 
Clodia had brought in her train except one, namely, 
the scandal about her brothers. In all other 
respects Servilia was equally vile and abandoned, 
and yet Lucullus forced himself to tolerate her, out 
of regard for Cato. At last, however, he put her 
away. 

The Senate had conceived wondrous hopes that in 
him it would find an opposer of the tyranny of 
Pompey and a champion of the aristocracy, with all 

595 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTpofia'Xpv airo S6^7]<; kol hvvofiew^ opficofievov 
/iieyaXr}^;, iyKareXcTre kol TrporJKaro ttjv TroXireCav, 
etre BvarKciOeKrov ^Brj koX voaovaav opcov 6W\ w? 
^a<7iv eviOL, fM€aTo<; cjv So^tj^; koX irpo<; to paarov 
avairLTTTCDv rod fiiov koI /xaXa/cooTarov i/c TroWayv 
dycovcov fcal irovcov ovk evTV')(earaTov T6\o<i 

3 Xa^ovTcov. 01 pev yap iiraivovciv avrov rrjv 518 
ToaavTTjv p.€Ta^oX7]Vf rb Maplov TrdOo^ yu,?) 
iraOovro'^, o? eirX ral^ Kcp^piKat^i vL/caL<i xal to?9 
KaXol^ Kol p,€ydXoL^ e/cetVoi? KaropOcopaaLV ovfc 
r)6eXy]arev avrov dvelvai Tcp^rj rocravrrj ^yXcorov, 
dXX^ dirXrjcrTia ^o^rj^ Kal dp)(rj<; veoL^ dvhpdat 
yepwv dvTiTToXLrevopevo^ et? epya Seivd fcal irdOrj 
heivorepa rcov epycov i^coKciXe' fieXrcov 8* av koI 
K.tK€p(ova yrjpaaai, perd KariXivav VTroareiXd- 
pevov Kal ^KrjTrlwva K.ap')(rjS6vi TTpoadivra 

4 NopavTiav, elra iravadpLevov elvai ydp rtva Kal ^ 
7roXtTLKr]<i TrepLoSov KaTdXvaiv rS>v ydp dOXrj- M 
TiKMV dyd)V(ov roix; TroXiTiKovfi ovBev rjTTOv dKprjf} 

Kal a)pa<; iiTtXiTrovo-r)^ iXiyxeaSaL ol he irepl tov 
K^pdaaov Kal Ilop,7rrjiov i)(X€va^ov rov AovkovX- 
\ov €t9 r}hovr)V d(f>€LK6Ta Kal TroXvreXeLav avrov, 
odairep ov rov rpv(f)dv pudXXov roL<; rrfXiKOvroi^ 
Trap' rfXiKiav ovro^ t) rov iroXireveaOai Kal 
crrparr^yelv. 

XXXIX. "Eo-Tt 5' ovv rov AovkovXXov ^lov, 
KaOdirep dp')(aia^ Kcop,wSia<;, dvayvoyvat rd pev 
nrpcora iroXLreia<^ Kal (Trparr)yia<i, rd S' varepa 
TTorov^ Kal SetTTva Kal povovov')(l K(opov<; Kal 
2 Xapirdha'^ Kal iraiSidv dirao-av. et? iraiSidv ydp 
eycoye rlOep^ai xal oiKohopbd^ TroXvreXel^ Kal 

596 



LUCULLUS, XXXVIII. 2-xxxix. 2 

the advantage of great glory and influence ; but 
he quitted and abandoned public affairs, either 
because he saw that they were already beyond 
proper control and diseased, or, as some say, because 
he had his fill of glory, and felt that the unfortunate 
issue of his many struggles and toils entitled him to 
fall back upon a life of ease and luxury. Some 
commend him for making such a change, and 
thereby escaping the unhappy lot of Marius, who, 
after his Cimbrian victories and the large and 
fair successes which were so famous, was unwilling 
to relax his efforts and enjoy the honours won, but 
with an insatiate desire for glory and power, old man 
that he was, fought with young men in the conduct 
of the state, and so drove headlong into terrible 
deeds, and sufferings more terrible still. Cicero, 
say these, would have had a better old age if he had 
taken in sail after the affair of Catiline, and Scipio, 
too, if he had given himself pause after adding 
Numantia to Carthage ; for a political cycle, too, has 
a sort of natural termination, and political no less 
than athletic contests are absurd, after the full vigor 
of life has departed. Crassus and Pompey, on the 
other hand, ridiculed Lucullus for giving himself up 
to pleasure and extravagance, as if a luxurious life 
were not even more unsuitable to men of his years 
than political and military activities. 

XXXIX. And it is true that in the life of 
Lucullus, as in an ancient comedy, one reads in the 
first part of political measures and military commands, 
and in the latter part of drinking bouts, and 
banquets, and what might pass for revel-routs, and 
torch -races, and all manner of frivolity. For I must 
count as frivolity his costly edifices, his ambulatories 

597 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaTacrKeva<; irepiTrdrcov Kol Xovrp&v koi en 
fiaWov 7yoa0a9 KaX avhpidvra^ koi ttjv irepl 
ravra^ ra? ri^va^ airovhrjv, a? eKelvo^s (rvvrjye 
fjL6ydXoi<; dvaXcofjiaacv, et? ravra r^ ttXovtm 
pvSrjv Kara^daiJLevo'i, ov rjOpoLKeL irokvv koI 
Xafiirpov cLTro tcop arparetcdv, oirov koI vvv, eiri- 
Boaiv TOiavTTjv t?}? Tpv(f>r]<} i)(^ov(T7}<;, ol AovkovX- 
Xiavol KTJTTOL T(ov ^aaiXcKoov iv tol<; TroXvreXeaTa- 

3 TOi? dptO/xovvrai. ra S' iv Tot9 7rapaXloi<i kol 
irepX Neaj^ iroXiv epya, X6(f)ov<; dvaKpe/JiavvvvTO^ 
avTOV fjL6ydXoi<; opvy/jLaai kol rpoxov^ OaXdaaTj^ 

KoX SiaSpO/jLOLf; l')(6vOTp6<^OV<i T0t9 olK7]T7]pioL<i 

irepieXiaaovTO^ KaX BLaLTa<s ivaXiov<i ktl^ovto^, 6 
XtcoIko<; TovjSepGov O€aadfi€vo<; aip^rjv avrov ck 

4 rrj^evvov irpoarjyopevaev. rjaav 8' avrw irepX 
TovctkXov iyx^capiOL Siairat, KaX KaraaKoiraX 
TrepioTTToyv KaX KaraaKevaX dvaTreTrrajiiivayv 
dvEpdovcov KaX TrepLirdrcov, iv ah 6 IIo/zTrTjto? 
yevofievo^ ifiefupero rbv AovkovXXov, on, 7r/?o? 
depo^ dpcara SiaOel^; rrjv eiravXtv doiKrjTOv iv 
ycLfiMVL 7r€7roi7]Ke. y6Xd<ra<; ovv iKelvo^ " Etra,*' 
e^77, " (ToX BoK(o iXdrrova rSiV yepdvcov vovv e')(eiv 
KaX Tcov ireXapycov, coare ral^ cjpaL<i fir) avfi/Mera- 

5 ^dXXeiv Ta9 BcaiTa<; ;** aTparrjyov Be wore 
(piXonfiovfjuevov irepX Oea^i KaX xop(d nvv Koafiov 
alrovfievov 7rop(j)vpd<; ')(Xap.i)Ba<^ direKpLvaro 
aK€yjrd/jLevo<;, av exjlt Bcocrecv, elra fied^ r]fiepav 
r)p(OTr)(Tev avrov, ottoo-cov Beoiro. rod Be exarbv 
dpKeaecv ^rjaavrofi iKeXevae Xafielv BXs roaavra^' 
eh o KaX ^XaKKO*; 6 TroLrjrrj^} iTnrre^dovqKev, to? 

598 



LUCULLUS, XXXIX. 2-5 

and baths, and still more his paintings and statues 
(not to speak of his devotion to these arts), which he 
collected at enormous outlays, pouring out into such 
channels the vast and splendid wealth which he 
accumulated from his campaigns. Even now, when 
luxury has increased so much, the gardens of Lu- 
cullus are counted among the most costly of the 
imperial gardens. As for his works on the sea- 
shore and in the vicinity of Neapolis, where he sus- 
pended hills over vast tunnels, girdled his residences 
with zones of sea and with streams for the breeding 
of fish, and built dwellings in the sea, — when Tubero 
the Stoic saw them, he called him Xerxes in a toga. 
He had also country establishments near Tusculum, 
with observatories, and extensive open banqueting 
halls and cloisters. Pompey once visited these, and 
chided Lucullus because he had arranged his country 
seat in the best possible way for summer, but had 
made it uninhabitable in winter. Whereupon Lu- 
cullus burst out laughing and said : " Do you suppose, 
then, that I have less sense than cranes and storks, 
and do not change residences according to the 
seasons?" A praetor was once making ambitious 
plans for a public spectacle, and asked of him some 
purple cloaks for the adornment of a chorus. Lucullus 
replied that he would investigate, and if he had any, 
would give them to him. The next day he asked the 
praetor how many he wanted, and on his replying that 
a hundred would suffice, bade him take twice that 
number. The poet Flaccus ^ alluded to this when 
i JUpUt. i. 6, 45 f. 

VOL. II U ^^^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ov vojjii^ei ttXoutov, ov jiiy ra Trapopwfieva Kal 
XavOdvovra ifkelova rcov (paivo/juevaw ecrrL 

XL. NeoirXovra 8' ^p rov AovkovWov ret 
helirva to, KaQ^ r^p^epav^ ov fjLovov aTpcofjivai<; 
akovpyea-i Kal hidXiOoi'^ eKTrcofMaa-i koI ')(ppol^ fcal 
aKpodfiaatv iireKTohiOi^, dX)C oy^cov re iravTO- 
Baircov KoX Trejjbpbdrwv TrepLTTM^i BiaTreTrovrj/uLevcou 
irapaaKeval^ ^rjXcorbv dvekevdepoi^ itolovvto^; 

2 iavTOV. 6 yovv IlofiTrrjio^; evBoKL/jL7](T6 voawv 
Tou yap larpov fCL-^Xrjv avrov Xa^elv Kekeixravro^, 
TMV 8^ oiK€T(bv ovK &v cvpelv dWa^odi, (pafjievcov 
Oepov^i o)pa KLX^V^ V '^CLpa AovkovWo) cnrevo^ 
fjLevr)v, OVK elaae \a^uv eKeWeVy aXV elircov tt/^o? 
Tov larpov " Ovkovv, el fir) AovkovWo'} eTpv(j>a, 
TLofiTTTjiof; OVK ave^yjaev;'' dWo ri Trapao-Kcvdaai 

3 TMV evTTOpio-Twv eKeXevae. Karo)!^ 8' rjv avrciy 519 
(j)iXofi Kal olKelofii ovrco Be rov jSlov avrov Kal rrjv 
Biairav iBvax^paLvev, coare, veov tlvo<^ iv rfj 
ffovXfj Xoyov eira'xOri Kal fxaKpov dKaipG)<; virep 
evTeXela^ Kal acoi^poavvrj^ BieXOovTO^;, eiravaardsi 

6 K.dTCOV " Ov Travay,^^ €^V> " o-v ttXovtcov fiei^ q)<; 
JLpdaao^;, ^(ap 8* co? AovkovXXo<;, Xeywv Be w? 
KaTft)!^; " eviOL Be tovto prjdijvat fiev ovrco^t viro 
KaTft)ro9 Be OV Xeyovaiv. 

XLI. *0 fievTOL AovKovXXo^i ov^ r]B6fievo<i 
jJbovoVi dXXd Kal aefivvp6fievo<; tw /Sua) rovrco 
Bi]Xo<i Tjv €/c TMV dirofivrjfjbovevofjbevayv. Xeyerao 
yap "EW-T/i/a? dvOpcoirov'^ dvaPdvra<^ eU 'Fcofjbrjv 
ea-Tidv eVl 7ro\Xa<; r}/JLepa<f, tou9 B' 6vt(o<; 'EX- 
XrfVLKov TL iraOovra^t alaxvveaOac Kal BKoOetaOai, 
6oo 



LUCULLUS, xxxix. 5-xLi. 1 

he said that he did not regard a house as wealthy in 
which the treasures that were overlooked and unob- 
served were not more than those which met the eye. 

XL. The daily repasts of Lucullus were such as 
the newly rich affect. Not only with his dyed 
coverlets, and beakers set with precious stones, and 
choruses and dramatic recitations, but also with his 
arrays of all sorts of meats and daintily prepared 
dishes, did he make himself the envy of the vulgar. 
A saying of Pompey's, when he was ill, was certainly 
very popular. His physicians had prescribed a thrush 
for him to eat, and his servants said that a thrush 
could not be found anywhere in the summer season 
except where Lucullus kept them fattening. Pompey, 
however, would not suffer them to get one from there, 
but bade them prepare something else that was easily 
to be had, remarking as he did so to his physician, 
'' What ! must a Pompey have died if a Lucullus were 
not luxurious ? " And Cato, who was a friend of his, 
and a relation by marriage, was nevertheless much 
offended by his life and habits. Once when a 
youthful senator had delivered a tedious and lengthy 
discourse, all out of season, on frugality and tem- 
perance, Cato rose and said ; " Stop there ! you get 
wealth like Crassus, you live like Lucullus, but you 
talk like Cato." Some, however, while they say 
that these words were actually uttered, do not say 
that they were spoken by Cato. 

XLL Moreover, that Lucullus took not only 
pleasure but pride in this way of living, is clear 
from the anecdotes recorded of him. It is said, for 
instance, that he entertained for many successive 
days some Greeks who had come up to Rome, and 
that they, with genuinely Greek scruples, were at 
last ashamed to accept his invitation, on the ground 

U2 ^°' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTjv kXtjctcv, 0)9 Bi avTov<; KaO^ ^/xipav roaovToyv 

2 dva\i(TKOfiivcov top ovv AovkovWov elTrelv fiec- 
BidcravTa tt/jo? avTov<i- ** Tiverai. fxev re rovrcop 
Kal Bi vfid<;, 0) dvBp6<; "EWr]V€<;' ra fievroi 
TrXelara jLverai Bid AovkovWov." iirel Be fiovov 
BeLTTvovvTo^i avTOV fiia Tpdire^a Kal /j^erpiov irape- 
aKevddOr] Belirvov, yyavaKrec KoXeaa^ rov iirl 
TovT(p Terarfiievov oiKerrjv. rov Be (j)ijaavT0<iy co? 
ovK were fjurjBevb^; KeKXrjfievov TroXvreXov^ rtvo^ 
avTov Berjaeadai *' Tt \eyei<i; " elTrev, '* ovk jjB€i<;, 
OTL (Ti^fxepov irapd AovkovWo) BeLTrvel AovkovX- 

3 X09; *' 6Vto9 Be irepl tovtov, <h<; €Ik6<;, ev rfj iroXei 
Xoyov TToXXov, irpoa-rfXdov avrw Kar dyopdv 
(T'xoXrjV dyovTi Kixepcov koX IIo/jL7r7]Lo<;, 6 fiev ev 
T0i9 fJbdXiara (J)lXo<; cjv Kal avvrj6r]<;, llofiTrrjiw B' 
7]V fiev eK T7)9 (TTpaTYjyla^ Bia^opd irpo^; avrov, 
elcoOeicrav Be ^pfjo-Oat Kal BiaXeyeadat ttoXXuki^; 

4 e7riecKa)<; dXX7]XoL<;. dairaadfievo^ ovv 6 KiKepcov 
avrov rjpoorriaev, oiro)^ eyei 7rpb<; evrev^cv rov Be 
<p}]cravro'i, ft)9 dpicrra, Kal rrapaKaXovvro^ evrvy- 
^(^dveiv "'Hfieh," e(p7], *' fiovX6/xe0a Beiirvyiaai 
irapd aol rr)p,epov ovrco^;, 07ra}9 earl aot, irape- 
(TKevaapukvar Opvirrofievov Be rov AovkovXXov 
Kal /jueraXa^etv rj/jLepav d^Lovvro<; ovk €.<^aaav 
eTTirpe'yjreLv, ovB' etwv BcaXiyeaOac rol<; olKerai^, 
Lva fit] n irXeov KeXevarj yeveaOai rcov avr(p 

5 yivop^evcov, irXrjv roaovro fiovov alroviievM avve- 
')((t3pr}(Tav elirelv Trpo'i eva rcov oiKercov evavriov 
€Ketv(ov, on, r^/Jiepov ev ro) AttoXXcovi Becirvrfdor 
rovro yap ri<; elye rcov iroXvreXxbv oixojv ovofia. 

602 



LUCULLUS, xu. 1-5 

that he was incurring so much expense every day on 
their account ; wliereupon Lucullus said to them 
with a smile, "Some of this expense, my Grecian 
friends, is indeed on your account ; most of it, how- 
ever, is on account of Lucullus." And once, when 
he was dining alone, and a modest repast of one 
course had been prepared for him, he was angry, and 
summoned the servant who had the matter in charge. 
The servant said that he did not suppose, since there 
were no guests, that he wanted anything very costly. 
" What sayest thou ? " said the master, " dost thou 
not know that to-day Lucullus dines with Lucullus ? " 
While this matter was much talked of in the city, as 
was natural, Cicero and Pompey came up to him as 
he was idling in the forum. Cicero was one of his 
most intimate friends, and although the matter of 
the command of the araiy had led to some coolness 
between him and Pompey, still they were accustomed 
to frequent and friendly intercourse and conversation 
with one another. Accordingly, Cicero saluted him, 
and asked how he was disposed towards receiving a 
petition. "Most excellently well," said Lucullus, 
and invited them to make their petition. " We 
desire," said Cicero, " to dine with you to-day just as 
you would have dined by yourself." Lucullus de- 
murred to this, and begged the privilege of selecting 
a later day, but they refused to allow it, nor would 
they suffer him to confer with his servants, that 
he might not order any thing more provided than 
what was provided for himself. Thus much, how- 
ever, and no more, they did allow him at his request, 
namely, to tell one of his servants in their presence 
that he would dine that day in the Apollo. Now 
this was the name of one of his costly apartments, 

603 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal rovTo a€ao<j)La iJLevo<^ iXeXrjOec tou9 avhpa<;, 
e/cacTTft) "yap, cw? eoLKe, BenrvrjTTjpLw rerayfievov 
r)v TLfJLTjixa heiTTVOV, Koi ^(oprjyiav ISlav xal rrrapa- 
(TKevrjV eKaarov el%e^', ware tov^ Bov\ov<; cikov- 
aavra^, ottov ffovXerai Benrvelv, elhevat, iroaov 
BaTrdvTjfia koX irolov rt Koo-fim Koi SiaOiaei 
yeviadac Bel to Belirvov elcoOet Be Beiirvelv ev rtp 

6 ^KiroXkcovi irivre fivpidBoov koI Tore roaovTov 
TeXeaOevTo^ i^eTrXrj^e TOv<i irepl rov Uo/jlttijIov ev 
T(p fieyeOei rrj^; Ba7rdvr]<; to Td')(p^ t?)? irapaaKevrj^. 
eU TavTa fiev ovv v^pl(ttlk(o<; expv'^o tw ttXovto) 
KaOdirep 6ptco<; al'^^^fiaXcoTq) koX jSap/Bdpro. 

XLIT. SttouS^ B^ d^ia Koi Xoyov to, irepl ttjv 
T03V PijSXicov KaTacTKEvrjv. Koi yap ttoXXol koI 
yeypafiixeva KaXw^ (Tvvrjyev, rj re j^^prjai'; ^v 
(^iXoTLjJLOTepa T779 KT7]ae(jii^, dvet/jLevcov iraat tcov 
^tffXioOrjKcov, Kal tmv irepl avTa<: TrepiTrdTeov 
Kol (T')(pXacrTr)pl(ov dKcoXvTWf; v7roBe)(^o/jLevcov tov(; 
^'FXXrjva'; oiairep eh ^Iovctmv ti KaTayoayiov 
efcela-e ^OLTOiVTa^ kcu avvBi,r)fiepevovTa<; dXX^Xot,^, 
diro TMV dXXcov ^(peLMV dapevcofi d'iroTpe)(ovTa^, 

2 ']ToXXdKt<i Be fcal avvea)(6Xa^€v avTo^; ip-^dXXaiv 
eh Tov<; TrepiTrdTOVi Toh (f)iXoX6yot<i Kal Toh 
TToXiTiKoh (TweirpaTTev otov BeoLVTo- Kal 6X(o<; 
ecTTi'a Kal irpvTavelov 'FjXXtjvlkov 6 oIko^ tjv avTov 
Toh d(f)LKvovp^vot,<; eh 'Vu>pLr)v. (^tXoa-o^iav Be 
iracrav p,ev r)(j7rd^eT0 Kal irpo^ iraaav evpLevrj^ yv 
Kal olKelo<iy lBlov Be Trj<i WKaBypeia*; e^ ^PXV^ 
604 



I 



LUCULLUS, xLi. 5-xLii. 2 

and he thus outwitted the men without their knowing 
it. For each of his dining-rooms, as it seems, had a 
fixed allowance for the dinner served there, as well 
as its own special apparatus and equipment, so that 
his slaves, on hearing where he wished to dine, 
knew just how much the dinner was to cost, and 
what were to be its decorations and arrangements. 
Now the usual cost of a dinner in the Apollo was 
fifty thousand drachmas, and that was the sum laid 
out on the present occasion. Pompey was amazed 
at the speed with which the banquet was prepared, 
notwithstanding it had cost so much. In these ways, 
then, Lucullus used his wealth wantonly, as though 
it were in very truth a Barbarian prisoner-of-war. 

XLII. But what he did in the establishment of 
a library deserves warm praise. He got together 
many books, and they were well written, and his 
use of them was more honourable to him than his 
acquisition of them. His libraries were thrown open 
to all, and the cloisters surrounding them, and the 
study-rooms, were accessible without restriction to 
the Greeks, who constantly repaired thither as to 
an hostelry of the Muses, and spent the day with 
one another, in glad escape from their other 
occupations. Lucullus himself also often spent his 
leisure hours there with them, walking about in 
the cloisters with their scholars, and he would assist 
their statesmen in whatever they desired. And in 
general his house was a home and prytaneium for 
the Greeks who came to Rome. He was fond of 
all philosophy, and well-disposed and friendly towards 
every school, but from the first he cherished a 
particular and zealous love for the Academy, not 

605 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 epcora koI ^^\ov eax^v, ov rrjq vea^ Xeyofievrj^, 
Kaiirep av6ovar)<; tots rot? KapvedSov \6yot<! 

Bta <l>tXa) z/09, dWa r^? TraXata?, iriOavov dvBpa 520 
Kal Setvop eiirelv Tore TrpocrTdrrjv e')(ov(Tr}<; rov 
^Ao-KoXcovirrjv ^AvtIo')(ov, ov Trdarj airovhy ttoit]- 
(rdfxevog (J)lXov 6 AovkovWo^ koX crv/jiffLayTrjv 
avTerarre to?? ^i\ci)vo<; dKpoaral^, coi/ /cal 

4 l^iKepMV rjv. Koi avyypap.fid ye irdyKoXov iiroLrj- 
aev eh rrjv aXpeaiv, ev o5 rov virep t?}? KaraXrj- 
sjrecof; \6yov AovKovXkw irepLreOeiKev, aurw Se 
TOP evavTLOv. AovkovWo<; B' dvayeypairrat. to 

^Haav B\ axTirep etpr^rat, ^lXol a(j)6Bpa Kal 
KOLVcovot Ti)? ev TToXtreLa irpoatpeo-ecof:' ovBe yap 
aif TrdfiTrav d7rr)Wd)(^ei ti]^; TroXtreta? eavrbv 6 

5 AovKOvWo<i, dWd rrjv virep rou fieyiaro^ elvai 
/cal TrXetarov Bvvao-Oai (f)iXort/jiLav Kal d/iiXXav, 
0)9 ovT€ dKLvBvvov OUT dvvBpiaTOV ovaav, evOv<: 
d(j)riKe Is^pdiTdM Kal Kdrcovr tovtov^; yap ol rrjv 
HofjL7rr]LOv BvvafjLiv vcpopciojiievoc irpoe/SaXXovro 
rrj<i ^ovXrj^, diroXeyopievov rov AoukovXXov rd 
Trpcorela' Kareffaive 8' el<i rrjv dyopdv Bid 
TOv<; <f)LXov<;, ek Be rrjv auyKXrjjov, el Ho/jL7rrjtov 

6 Tivd Beot aTTovBrjv rj (f)iXoTi>/jLLav eTrtjpedaai. Kal 
rd^i T6 Biard^ei^i, a? eKelvo<; eTroLrjaaro rcov /Baai- 
Xicov Kparrjo-a^;, e^eKpovae, Kal vifirjaiv riva roh 
arparicoratf; avrov ypd<f>ovTO<; iKcoXvae BoOrjvai 
aufxirpdrrovTO^ K,dTcovo<i, coare Uofnnjlov eh rrjv 



6o0 



LUCULLUS, xui. 3-6 

tlie New Academy, so-called, although that school 
at the time had a vigorous representative of the 
doctrines of Carneades in Philo, but the Old Academy, 
which at that time was headed by a persuasive man 
and powerful speaker in the person of Antiochus of 
x\scalon. Tliis man Lucullus hastened to make his 
friend and companion, and arrayed him against the 
disciples of Philo, of whom Cicero also was one. 
Indeed, Cicero wrote a noble treatise on the doctrines 
of this sect, in which he has put the argument in sup- 
port of " apprehension " into the mouth of Lucullus, 
and carried the opposing argument himself The 
book is entitled "Lucullus."^ 

Lucullus and Cicero were, as I have said, ardent 
friends, and members of the same political party, 
for Lucullus had not withdrawn himself entirely 
from political life, although he lost no time in 
leaving to Crassus and Cato the ambitious struggle 
for the chief place and the greatest power, since 
he saw that it involved both peril and ignominy. 
For those who looked with suspicion upon the 
power of Pompey, made Crassus and Cato the 
champions of the senatorial party when Lucullus 
declined the leadership. But Lucullus would still 
go to the forum in support of his friends, and also 
to the Senate, whenever there was need of combating 
some ambitious scheme of Pompey's. Thus, tlie 
dispositions which Pompey made after his conquest 
of the kings, Lucullus made null and void, and his 
proposal for a generous distribution of lands to his 
soldiers, Lucullus, with the co-operation of Cato, 
prevented from being granted. Pompey therefore 

^ Academkorum Priorum, Liber Secundus, qui inscribitur 
Lucullus. 

667 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

l^pd(T(Tov Kal K.aLcrapo^ (f^cXlav, fidWov Be (tvvco- 
fioalav, KaTa(j)vyelv kcll TrXrjpaxravTa ti]v itoXiv 
6irX(ov KoX <TTpaTi,o)Ta)v /3ta KvpSxrai ra Boy/jLara, 
Tou? irepl Tov KaTcova kol AovkovXKov eK^aXovra 
Tr]<i ayopa<i. 

1 ^ AyavaKTOvvTcov Be tcov jSeXrlcTTcov eirl tol^ 
yivo/jLevoi<; irporjyov ol UofiTrrjiapol Berriov rtva, 
crvveiXrjfpivai Xeyovre^; einfiovXevovTa n.o/jL7rr]ta). 
KUKelvof; dvaKpiv6/J€vo<; ev fiev Trj avyKXrjTM 
KaTT]y6p7]aev irepoyv nvwv, ev Be rw B/j/jlo) Aov- 
KOvXXov ayvo/jLaaev, co? vtt i/ceivov irapeaKeva- 

8 ar/JLevo<; dTrotcrelvai Uo/jltttjIov. ovBelf; Be tw Xoycp 
TTpoaea^x^ev, dXXd Kal irapavriKa BrjXo<i tjv 6 
av6p(i)7ro(; em avKO(f)avTia koX BtapoXfi Trporjy- 
fjLevo<; VTT avTMV, koX jjlclXXov ei^xopdOrj to irpdyiia 
fjL€T oXlya^; r}fxepa<; ptcpOivrof; ck rrj<; elpKrrj<i 
veKpov, Xeyofievov fjiev avTO/JidTw<; reOvdvai, 
cr7]fM€La 8' dyxovr}<i xal TrXijycov €%oz/to9' eBoxei 
yap viT avTOiv dvrjprjadai Tcav TrapeaKevaKorcov. 

XLIII. Tavra Br) Kal fidXXov dirvfye rrj^; ttoXl- 
reta? tov AovkovXXov. eVet Be K.LK€p(ov e^eirea-t 
Trj<; TToXew? kol Kdrcov et? KvTrpov direcTdXTj, 
TravTdiraatv e^eXvOi). Kal irpo ye Trj<; TeXevTrjf; 
XeyeTai voarjcrai ttjv Bidvoiav avTw KaTct fiLKpov 
aTrofJLapatvo/jLevrjv. NeTTO)? Be K.opvtj'KiO^ ov)(^ vtto 
yripo)^ (pTjalv ovBe voaov irapaXXd^ai tov A.ov- 
KovXXov, d\Xd ^apiJLdK0i<^ vtto Tivo^i tmv direXev- 

2 Oepcov }^aXXtorOevov<; Bia<^6apevTa* to, Be <^dpfxaKa 
BoBrjvai, fiev, &)9 dyaiTcpTo fxdXXov 6 KaXXiaOevTj^; 
VTT* avTOV, TOiavTrjv e%6ti^ Bokovvtu ttjv BvvafJLLv, 
eKcrTTjaai Be koI KaTaKXvaat tov Xoyiajiov, m(tt 

6o8 



LUCULLUS, xLii. 6-xLiii. 2 

took refuge in an alliance, or rather a conspiracy, 
with Crassus and Caesar, and by filling the city with 
his armed soldiery and expelling from the forum 
the ]:)artisans of Cato and Lucullus, got his measures 
ratified. 

As these proceedings were resented by the nobles, 
the partisans of Pompey produced a certain Vettius, 
whom, as they declared, they had caught plotting 
against the life of Pompey. So the man was ex- 
amined in the Senate, where he accused sundry 
other persons, but before the people he named 
Lucullus as the man who had engaged him to kill 
Pompey. However, no one believed his story, nay, 
it was at once clear that the fellow had been put 
forward by the partisans of Pompey to make false 
and malicious charges, and the fraud was made all 
the plainer when, a few days afterwards, his dead 
bodj^ was cast out of the prison. It was said, indeed, 
that he had died a natural death, but he bore 
the marks of throttling and violence, and the opinion 
was that he had been taken off by the very men who 
had engaged his services. 

XLMI. Of course this induced Lucullus to with- 
draw even more from public life. And when Cicero 
was banished from the city, and Cato was sent out to 
Cyprus, he retired altogether. Even before his 
death, it is said that his understanding was affected 
and gi-adually faded away. But Cornelius Nepos 
says that Lucullus lost his mind not from old age, 
nor yet from disease, but that he was disabled by 
drugs administered to him by one of his freedmen, 
Callisthenes ; that the drugs were given him by 
Callisthenes in order to win more of his love, in the 
belief that they had such a power, but they drove 
him from his senses and overwhelmed his reason, 

609 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^Ti ^MVTO<! avTOV rrjv ovalav htoLKelv top dS€\(t>6v, 
ov /uLTjv aX)C ©9 awiOave, Kaddirep dv ^ iv dicfxfj 
T^9 (TT partly la^ koI Ti}<; TroXtreta? avrou reXevrrj- 
aavTO<;, 6 Brjfio^ r)j(6e(76ri koX avveBpafie, koI to 
(TMfia KOfiiGOev eU wyopav viro tmv evyeveaTaTcov 
veavlaKcov i/Sid^ero ddiTTeiv iv rw irehlco tov 
3 "A/oew?, oTTov Kol '^vWav eOayjrev. ovSevo^ Be 
TOVTO 7rpocrBoKi]o-avTO<;, ovBe paBia<; ovarjf; tt)^ 
7rapa(T/c6vr]<;, 6 dBe\(l)o<i avrov S€OfJL€VO<; /cal irapat- 
Tovfi6vo<i eireLdev eTnrpiyfrai, ttjv TrapeaKevaa-fjLevTjv 
iv TO) irepl Tova/cXov dypat rov veKpov KtjBeiav 
yeveaOai. ttoXvv B^ ouS* auro? irpoaefiico ^(^povov, 
d\V oi)9 rfKiKia koX Bo^j) fiiKpov direXeiipOTj, Kat 
Tft) -^povM Trj<i TeXevTT]^;, (l)iXaB€X(l>6TaT0^ yevo- 

fl€VOfi. 




KIMONOS KAT AOYKOYAAOY SYrKPISH 

I. MdXto-ra B' dv Tf9 evBaifiovia-eie rov reXovi; 521 
AovKOvXXov, ore irpo rr]<; pLera^oXrj<;, rjv ijBt] 
/card T^9 TToXirelw; ireKraivero T0t9 ip^cpvXioi^ 
7roX€fioi<i TO TreirpMjJbivov, €(j>d7] TrpoairoOavoDv Kal 
KaraXvaa<; iv voaovarj /liv, en 8' iXevOepa rrj 
irarpiBL rov fiiov. koI rovro ye irdvrcov avr^ 
2 7r/}09 Klficova Kotvorarov iarc. Kal yap iKelvo^ 
ovTTCt) (rvvrerapayp^ivcov rwv ' EXXrjviKcov, dXX* 
aKfirjv i'Xpvroav ireXevrr^aev, iirl arparoireBov 
fjbevroL Kal crrparrjycov, ovk direcpi^KOtXi ovB^ dXvcov, 
ovBe r&v ottXmv Kal rwv arparrjyicov Kal rcov 

* hv supplied by Reiske. 
OIO 



LUCULLUS, xLiii. 2-1. 2 

so that even while he was still alive, his brother 
managed his property. However, when he died,^ 
the people grieved just as much as if his death had 
come at the culmination of his military and political 
services, and flocked together, and tried to compel 
the young nobles who had carried the body into the 
forum to bury it in the Campus Martius, where 
Sulla also had been buried. But no one had ex- 
pected this, and preparations for it were not easy, 
and so his brother, by prayers and supplications, 
succeeded in persuading them to suffer the burial to 
take place on the estate at Tusculum, where prepa- 
tions for it had been made. Nor did he himself long 
survive Lucullus, but, as in age and reputation he 
came a little behind him, so did he also in the 
time of his death, having been a most affectionate 
brother. 



COMPARISON OF LUCULLUS AND CIMON 

I. One might deem Lucullus especially happy in 
his end, from the fact that he died before that 
constitutional change had come, which fate was 
already contriving by means of the civil wars. His 
country was in a distempered state when he laid 
down his life, but still she was free. And in this 
respect, more than any other, he is like Cimon. For 
Cimon also died before Greece was confounded, and 
while she was at the acme of her power. He died, 
however, in the field, and at the head of an army, 
not exhausted or of a wandering mind, nor yet 

* About 57 B.C. 

6ii 
VOL. 11. X 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TpoTralayv eiraOXov 7roiov/jievo<; evco^Laf; Kal ttotov?, 
(oairep UXdrcov eTnaKwirreL tov<; irepl rov ^Opcpia, 
T0t9 ev jSejSLco/cocrL ^d(TK0VTa<i aTroKeladai. yepa^i 

3 iv aSov fjLeOrjv aloovtov, o'X'^^V f^^^ oui^ koI 
r)av')(ia koI hiaTpL^rj jrepl \6yov(; rjBovi^v riva koX 
Oecaplav exovra<i evir peiriaTaTOV dvhpl Trpea-fivrrj 
fcal ireTravfiiva) iroXificov xal 7rokiT€La<; nrapa- 
IXvOlov to S' e(f> r}hovr}V, tw? reXo?, KaTa(TTpe^\ravTa 
Ta? KdXd<; nrpd^ei^i rjBr] Xolttov *A(f>poSLaia roov 
iroXifKOV Kol (TTparrjyicbv ajovra Trai^eiv Kal 
Tpvipdv ovK d^ta rrj^ KaXrjq ^AKaBrjfjLela<;, ovBe 
rov 'BevoKpdrr) ^r]\ovvTo<;, aXX' i<yK€K\iKoro^ 

4 TT/Do? TOP ^^TTiKovpov. o Koi OavfiaaTov eCTTCV 
virevavTLax; rydp rj v66Tr]<; rod fiev iirl'\jroyo<i kol 
aKoXaarof; yeyovevai Bo/cel, rov Be ireiraiBevixevr) 
KoX a(0(j)p(ov. ^eXrlcov ovv (Z 7rpo(; to jSiXTLOv t} 
fieTa^dXrj* p(;/otyoTOT6/9a yap rj (\)V(n<^y iv fj yrjpa 
fiev to x^lpov, iiraK^d^ei Be to afxeivov. 

Kal firjv ofioiQ)^ ye irXovTrjaavTe^ ovx ofioio)^ 

5 BieOevTO top ttXovtov. ov yap d^cov ofiotcoaai tS> 

VOTLQ) TeLX€l' T?}? aKpOTToXeO)^, TOL^ VTTO KLfJL(0V0<i 

KO/JLiaOelacv eTeXeaOrj '^prj/naai, tov<; iv Nea ttoXcl 
6aXd/jL0V<} Kal Td<; irepLKXva-Tov<i dnro-^ei'^, a^ 
AovKovXXo^i aTTO TOJV l3ap/3api,Kcov i^wKoBo/nec 
Xa(l)vpa)V' ovBe ye ttj Ki/jLcovof; Tpaire^rj ttjv Aou- 
KovXXov wapa^aXeip, ttj BrjjjLOKpaTiKrj Kal (ptXav- 

6 dpcoTTO) Tr)v iroXvTeXfj Kal aarpairiKi^v. rj fMev 
yap diro p.iKpd<; Bairdvrj^; iroXXovf; Kad^ rjfiepav 
BieTp€(l>€V, ri B' els oXiyov^ Tpv(j>a)VTa<; dirb iroXX&v 



6X2 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, i. 3-6 

making feastings and revellings the crowning prize 
for arms and campaigns and trophies. Plato ^ ban- 
ters the followers of Orpheus for declaring that for 
those who have lived rightly, there is laid up in 
Hades a treasure of everlasting intoxication. Leisure, 
no doubt, and quiet, and the pursuit of pleasantly 
speculative learning, furnish a most fitting solace for 
a man of years who has retired from wars and 
politics. But to divert fair achievements to pleasure 
as their final end, and then to sport and wanton 
at the head of Aphrodite's train, as a sequel to wars 
and fightings, was not worthy of the noble Academy, 
nor yet of one who would follow Xenocrates, but 
rather of one who leaned towards Epicurus. And 
this is the more astonishing, because, contrariwise, 
Cimon seems to have been of ill repute and un- 
restrained in his youth, while Lucullus was dis- 
ciplined and sober. Better, surely, is the man in 
whom the change is for the better ; for it argues a 
more wholesome nature when its evil withers and 
its good ripens. 

And further, though both alike were wealthy, they 
did not make a like use of their wealth. There 
is no comparing the south wall of the Acropolis, 
which was completed with the moneys brought home 
by Cimon, with the palaces and sea- washed Bel- 
videres at Neapolis, which Lucullus built out of the 
spoils of the Barbarians. Nor can the table of 
Cimon be likened to that of Lucullus ; the one was 
democratic and charitable, the other sumptuous and 
oriental. The one, at slight outlay, gave daily sus- 
tenance to many ; the other, at large cost, was 
prepared for a few luxurious livers. It may be said, 
» Bepublic, ii. p. 363. 

613 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'7rap€a-K€vd^€ro '^^pTj/jbdrcov. el fMrj vrj Aia rcjv 
TTpay/jidrcov iiroiei Bca<popav 6 'X^povo^' dSrjXov 
yap, el Kol KlfjLcov diro roiv Trpd^ecov koI (TTparrj- 
yicov eh d7r6\ep.ov koL diTokiTevTov yrjpa<i a0et9 
avTov en /jloXXov av e')(prjaaTO aopapa kol irpof; 
ySovr)V dvetixevrj Biairy kol yap ^CKoTrorrj^ koX 
iravi^yvpiKo^ Kal id 7rpo<i yvvalKa<^, ci)9 irpoel- 

7 prjrac, Bia^e^\rjfievo<;. al Se irepl ra? 7rpd^€L<i 
Kal TOV<; dycova^; Karopdcocreif; rjBovd^ erepa^ 
e'Xpvo'aL Tcov ')(^ei,p6vcov eTnOvpiwv aGyoKiav ttoi- 
ovGi KCLi \7]6rjv rat? iroXiriKal'; Kai (jaXorifiOL^ 
<f>v(je(nv, el yovv Kal AovKovWof} ireXevrrjaev 
dycovL^ofJLEVo^ Kal a-TparrjyMV, ovS' dv o -y^royepw- 
TflTo? Kal ^LKoiJiep,j>6TaTO<; evpelv jioi Sokcc Bia- 
jSoXrjv €7r avTov. Kal ravra (juev irepl rrj^ 
BiaiTT]^. 

II. 'Ez/ Be T0t9 iroXepbiKoh on puev dp(j)6T€p6> 
Kal Kara yrjv Kal Kara OdXaaaav dyaOol yeyo 
vaaiv dywvKTTai BrjXov coairep Be TOiv dOXrjTCj, 
Tou? rjp^epa fjbid irdXr) Kal irayKpariw arecpavov- 
fi€vov<; eOei nvl 7rapaBo^oviKa<^ KaXovaiv, ovtco 
Kip,a)v ev r)p.epa pad Tre^opayla^ Kal vavpax^a(; 
dfjLa TpoTraio) aTe^avuxTa^ rrjv '^XXdBa BlKaiof; 
eanv e^etv nvd irpoeBpiav ev tol<; arparrjyoL^, 

2 Kal firjv AovKOvXX(p pev rj TrarpU, K.Lp.cov Be rj 
TrarpiBc rr)v r)y€pioviav TrepciOrjKe. Kal o pev 
dpxpvcFV "^^^ <Tvp,pdx(»>v TTpoa-eKTrja-aro ra to^p 
iroXepLcov, 6 B' dXXoL<; eiropAvr]v irapaXa^obv dp,a 
Kal, T03V crvpbpdx^^v dpx^iv Kal tmv TroXeptcov 
Kparelv eiroirjae, Ylepaa^ pev dvayKda-a^ r/Trr)- 52 
6evTa<; eK^yjvai t^? OaXdaarj^, AaKeBaijxoPLOvf; Be 



614 




LUCULLUS AND CIMON, i. 6-11. 2 

indeed, that the difference in state was due to the 
difference in time. For it is at least possible that 
Cimon also, if he had retired after his active cam- 
paigns to an old age which knew neither war nor 
politics, might have led an even more ostentatious 
and pleasure-loving life. He was fond of wine and 
given to display, and his relations with women, as I 
have said before,^ were scandalous. But success in 
strenuous achievement, affording as it does a higher 
pleasure, gives public-spirited and ambitious natures 
no time to indulge the baser appetites, which are 
forgotten. At any rate, if Lucullus also had ended 
his days in active military command, not even the 
most carping and censorious spirit, I think, could 
have brought accusation against him. Thus much 
concerning their manner of life. 

II. In war, it is plain that both were good fighters, 
both on land and sea. But just as those athletes 
who win crowns in wrestling and the pancratium 
on a single day are called, by custom, " Victors- 
extraordinary," so Cimon, who in a single day 
crowned Greece with the trophies of a land and sea 
victory, may justly have a certain pre-eminence 
among generals. And further, it was his country 
which conferred imperial power upon Lucullus, 
whereas Cimon conferred it upon his. The one 
added his foreign conquests to a country which 
already ruled her allies ; the other found his country 
obeying others, and gave her command over her 
allies and victory over her foreign foes, by defeating 
the Persians and driving them from the sea, and 
by persuading the Lacedaemonians voluntarily to 
* See Cimon, iv. 8. 

615 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 7rei(Ta<; eKovra^; eKcrrTjvat. el roivvv fieyiarov 
€pyov 1776/U-01/09 evireiOeiav ipydaaaOat Bl evvoia^;,^ 
AovKovWo^i fxev viro r&v (t t par KOTOiV Kare- 
ff>povri6r)y Kt/xftJi; 8' viro rcov <7VfjLfid')(a)V eOav- 
pbdaOr]' irap ov p^v yap dTrecrr^^a-av, tt/jo? ov Be 
fierea-rrjaav. koX 6 pev o)v dpX'^v e^rjXOev, vtto 
TOVTCov aTToXetc^^el? iTravrjXOev, 6 Be p,e6^ oiv 
€TepOL<; TTOcrjcrcov rb irpoaraTTop^evov e^e7rep,(j)d7j, 
rovroLf} avTO'; SiSou? to irapdyyeXpa KareTrXevae, 
rpla ret TrdvTcov BvaKoXcorara Bia7r€7rpayp.evo<; 
opov rfi iToXei, irpof; piev tov<; iroXepLiov^; elprjvrjv, 
irapd Be rcov (Tvppd')((ov rjyepovlavt 7rp6^ Be 
AaKeBatpLoviov^ opovoiav. 

4 MeyaXa? roivvv iirt'^eip'^cravref; dpcf)6repot 
KaraXveiv rjyepovLa^; koI Karaarpecj)ea6ai rrjv 
^Kaiav iraaav dreXel^ eyevovro rcov irpd^ewv, 6 
pev KaOdira^ Bid rrjv rvxv^' ereXevrr^cre yap 
(Trparr]ya)V Kal evrjpbepwv rov S' ov 7ravreXco<; dv 
Tt? e^eXotro r?}? Trap* avrov atrial, elV* rjyvoTjcrev 
€LT ovK eOepdirevae ra? ev rSt arparicoriKO) 
Bta^opd<: Kal pbep'^et<;, d<f) mv et? r7jXiKavra<; 

5 diTexOeia^ rrporjXOev. 7) rovro ye Kal 7rpb<; 
"KipLwya KOivov earr Kal ydp eKelvov vmfjyayov re 
eh BbKa<? 01 TToXlrai Kal reXevrcovre^; e^cocrrpd- 
Kicrav, Iv avTOV BeKa erwv, w? (prjo-iv 6 llXdrcov, 
tt}? (f)a)V7J<; pr} aKovdfsicnv, al ydp dpicrroKpartKal 
^vcrei'^ oXlya roi<; 7roXXoL<s crvvdBovac Kal tt/jo? 
7)Bovr]v e'X^ovai, rd Be TToXXd Trpoa^ia^opevat rw 
KarevOvveLV Biaarpe^opevov^ dvicocriv, axrirep ol 
r&v larpcov Becrpoi, Kaiirep eU rd Kara ^vaiv 

* tvvoias with S : (ijvoiav. 
616 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, ii. 3-5 

relinquish the command. Granted that it is the 
most important task of a leader to secure prompt 
obedience through good will, Lucullus was despised 
by his own soldiers, while Cimon was admired by 
the allies. His soldiers deserted the one ; the allies 
came over to the other. The one came back home 
abandoned by those whom he commanded when he 
set out ; the other was sent out with allies to do the 
commands of others, but before he sailed home 
he himself gave commands to those allies, having 
successfully secured for his city three of the most 
difficult objects at once, namely, peace with the 
enemy, leadership of the allies, and concord with 
the Lacedaemonians. 

Again, both attempted to subvert great empires 
and to subdue all Asia, and both left their work 
unfinished : Cimon through ill fortune pure and 
simple, for he died at the head of his army and at 
the height of his success ; but Lucullus one cannot 
altogether acquit of blame, whether he was ignorant 
of, or would not attend to the grievances and 
complaints among his soldiery, in consequence of 
which he became so bitterly hated. Or perhaps 
this has its counterpart in the life of Cimon, for he 
was brought to trial by his fellow citizens and finally 
ostracised, in order that for ten years, as Plato says,^ 
they might not hear his voice. For aristocratic 
natures are little in accord with the multitude, and 
seldom please it, but by so often using force to 
rectify its aberrations, they vex and annoy it, just as 
physicians' bandages vex and annoy, although they 
bring the dislocated members into their natural 
* Gorgias, p. 516. 

617 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dyovT€<; ra<; 'rrapapOpi](T€L<;. raur^? /juev ovv tV«? 
dTraWa/criov rrj<; alTia<; e/cdrepov. 

III. rioXu 8* o AovKovWo<; TTporjXOe rw iToKe- 
fjLfp Tov re Tavpov virepffaXcDv arparoTreBqi 
'Pco^aicov TT/^wTO?, zeal top ^iypiv BLa/3d<; kol rd 
PaaiXeia tt}? ^Kaia^ iv oyjrei twv ffaa-cXecov, 
Tcypavofcepra kol Kd^eipa kol ^LVdoirrjv Kal 

2 Niat^LV, iXoiv fcal Kara(j>\e^a^y Kal rd fiev ^opeta 
fJLexpi' ^daiSos, rd S' ewa fiexP^ MrjBia^;, rd Be 
7rp6<; voTov /cat rrjv ipvOpdv OdXaaaav OLKetcocrd- 
fjuevo^ Bid rcov 'ApafiiKcov ^aaCkecov, <TVvrpi'^a<^ 
Be Td<; BvvdfJbeL<^ rSiv ^aaikecov, diTo\eL<^6e\^ Be 
/jbovov TOV rd acofiara Xa^elv, oxrirep Ojjpucov elf; 
eprj/jLia<; fcal v\a<; daTLJBel<s fcal d^drov^ diroBi- 

3 BpacTKOVTWv. Tefc/jLrjpLOV Be fieya' Tiepaai fxev ydp 
ft)9 ovBev fieya ireTrovdoTe^; viro Kificovo<; €v6v<; 
avTerdrTOVTO rol<; "FiXXrjat, Kal rrjv ye TroXXrjv 
BvvafJLLv auTMV ev Klyinrrcp Kparij(Tavre<; BietpOei- 
pav, Ttypdvov Be Kal M.t0pLBdrou fjuerd AovkovX- 
Xov ovBev dXXo epyov eyevero, dXX^ 6 fxev daOevT}<; 
^Brj Kal crvyK€K0fi/jb6V0^ vtto rcov rrpcorcov dyoovwv 
ovB' dira^ eroXfirjae Bet^ai UojiiTrrjta) r^]v Bvva/jLtv 
e^co rov x^paKO^;, dXXd <pvyoDV et? Boairopov 

4 Kare^T] kukcI Karea-rpeyjre, Tiypdpr}(; S* avTb<; eav- 
rov yvfxvov Kal dvoirXov ^epcov vireppi^lre Tlofju- 
irrjicp, Kal to BLdBr)fia tt}? Ke^aXy)^ d(f)eX6/jievo<; 
edrjKe irpo rcov iroBcov, ov rot<; eavrov KoXaKevcov 
UofjUTTTJlov, dXXd T0t9 VTTO AovKOvXXov reOpia/jL- 
fievfzevoi<i. '^yaTrrjae yovv aTToXafiffdvcov rd avfjb- 
fioXa tt)? ^aaiXela^ a)9 d(j>r}p'r)fjLevo^ irporepov. 



6i8 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, ii. 5-111. 4 

position. Perhaps, then, both come off about alike 
on this count. 

III. But Lucullus was much the greater in war. 
He was the first Roman to cross the Taurus with an 
army ; he passed the I'igris and captured and burned 
the royal cities of Asia, — Tigranocerta, Cabira, Sinope, 
and Nisibis, before the eyes of their kings ; he made 
his own the regions to the north as far as the Phasis, 
to the east as far as Media, and to the south as far as 
the Red Sea, through the assistance of the Arabian 
kings ; he annihilated the forces of the hostile 
kings, and failed only in the capture of their 
persons, since like wild beasts they fled away into 
deserts and trackless and impenetrable forests. 
Strong proof of his superiority is seen in this, that 
the Persians, since they had suffered no great harm 
at the hands of Cimon, straightway arrayed them- 
selves against the Greeks, and overwhelmed and 
destroyed that large force of theirs in Egypt ; ^ 
whereas, after Lucullus, Tigranes and Mithridates 
availed nothing : the latter, already weak and 
disabled by his first struggles, did not once dare to 
show Pompey his forces outside their camp, but fled 
away to the Bosporus, and there put an end to his 
life ; as for Tigranes, he hastened to throw himself, 
while unrobed and unarmed, at the feet of Pompey, 
and taking the diadem from off his head, laid it there 
upon the ground, flattering Pompey thus not with 
his own exploits, but with those for which Lucullus 
had celebrated a triumph. At any rate, he was as 
much delighted to get back the insignia of his 
royalty as though he had been robbed of them 
before. Greater therefore is the general, as is the 

1 454 B.C. See Thucydides, i. 109f. 

619 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiel^cov ovv (TTpaT7jy6<it Sxrirep aOXrjT'f]<;, 6 tS> fieO^ 
eavTov aaOevearepov irapahov'^ rov avTiTrakov. 

"Eri Toivvv l^lficov fjuev avvTeTpijjLfievrjv rrjv 
^aat\€a)<; BvvafjbLV kov to UepaMV (fypovrj/xa awe- 
araXfievov '^rrac'; /jLeyaXai,<; koX airavaTou^; 
^vyac^; viro SefjutarofcXeov^; Kal Uava-avvov koI 
AeayTv^iBou KaraXaffcov iTrevefir) koL viroTreTrrco- 
KOTcov Kal TTporjTTTj/jLevwv rat? ^frv')^at<; ra o-co/jLara 
pahi(o<; ivLKTja'e, AovkovWco Se Tiypdvrj<; ai^Trrjro^ 523 
i/c ttoWmv dycovcov kol fieya cfypovcov avveTreae, 
TrXrjOet, 5' ouS' d^iov irapa^akelv rol<i eVl Aov- 
KOvXKov (TvvekOovdL TOv<; vtto Kt/xo)i/09 Kparrjdev- 
Ta9. Mare ttclvt^ iieraXaix^dvovn BvahLairrjrov 
elvai rrjv Kpi(Tiv, eirel kov to Sai/juoviov dfX(j)OT€poif; 
eoiKev evfievef; yevlo-Oat, t& fiev a 'X,ph fcaropOovv, 
ra> S^ a ^vkdrreaOai 'xprj Trpo/JLrjvvov, ware Kal 
rrjv irapd tS)V Oecov '\jr7]<f)ov avrol<i virdp^ecv d)^ 
dyaOoc<; Kal 6eioL<: rrjv (pvariv dfi(f>oT€poL<i, 



620 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, iii. 4-6 

athlete, who hands over his antagonist to his 
successor in a weaker plight. 

Moreover, and still further, Cimon made his onsets 
when the power of the king had been broken, and 
the pride of the Persians humbled by great defeats 
and incessant routs at the hands of Themistocles, 
Pausanias, and Leotycliides, and easily conquered the 
bodies of men whose spirits had been defeated 
beforehand and lay prone. But when Tigranes 
encountered Lucullus, he had known no defeat in 
many battles, and was in exultant mood. In point 
of numbers also, those who were overpowered by 
Cimon are not wortliy of comparison with those who 
united against Lucullus. Therefore, one who takes 
everything into consideration finds it hard to reach a 
decision. Heaven seems to have been kindly 
disposed to both, directing the one as to what he 
must perform, and the other as to what he must 
avoid. Both, therefore, may be said to have received 
the vote of the gods as noble and god-like natures. 



63 T 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



Acestodorus, possibly the Acesto- 
dorus of Megalopolis, of un- 
known date, author of a work 
*' On Cities." 

Achaia, a province in the north 
of Peloponnesus, seat of the 
Achaean League (280-146 B.C.). 
In 167 B.C., the Eomans deported 
1000 Achaeans to Italy, where 
they were held for seventeen 
years. Among them was the 
historian Polybius. The name 
Achaia was afterwards given to 
the whole of southern Greece as 
a Roman province. 

Acharnae, the largest deme, or 
township, of Attica, some eight 
miles to the north of Athens, 

Adiabene, the western province of 
Assyria, lying along the Tigris 
river . 

Aeolian Isles, a group of islands 
lying between Sicily and Italy 
(Lucania). 

Aeschines the Socratic, a disciple 
of Socrates, and author of Socra- 
tic dialogues. 

Agesilaus, king of Sparta 398-361 

B.C. 

Albania, a country lying between 
Armenia, the Caspian Sea, and 
the Caucasus mountains, to tiie 
east of Iberia. 

Allia, an insignificant stream, 
joining the Tiber about eleven 
miles above Rome, from tlie 
east. 

Amisus, a city of Pontus (or Paph- 
lagonia), on the southern shore of 



the Euxine Sea, some one hundred 
miles east of Sinope. 

Ammon, a Libyan divinity, identi- 
fied with Zeus and Jupiter. His 
most famous oracle was in an 
oasis of the Libyan desert. 

Amphiaraiis, a mythical seer and 
prophet, king of Argos, who 
perished in the expedition of the 
Seven against Thebes. 

Anaxagoras, of Clazomenae, in 
Ionian Asia Minor, influential 
at Athens as an advanced thinker 
from about 460 to 432 B.C., when 
the enemies of Pericles secured 
his banishment. 

Andocides, an Athenian orator, 
prominent 415-390 B.C. He 
betrayed the oligarchical party, 
incurring its hatred, and vainly 
tried to win the favour of the 
democratic party. 

Andros, the most northerly island 
of the Cyclades group, S.E. ol 
Euboea. 

Anio, a large river of Latium, 
rising in the Apennines, and 
joining the Tiber about three 
miles above Rome, from the east. 

Antiochus the Great, king of 
Syria 223-187 B.C. 

Antiochus the philosopher, of 
Ascalon, pupil of Philo in the 
school of the Academy, a friend 
of LucuUus, and a teacher of 
Cicero. He died in 68 B.C. 

Antipater, regent of Macedonia 
after the death of Alexander 
(322 B.C.), victor over the con- 
federate Greeks at Crannon, in 
Thessaly. 822 He died in 319. 

623 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Araxes, a large river rising in 
Armenia, and flowing east into 
tlie Caspian Sea. 

Arbela, an Assyrian town near 
which (at the village of Gauga- 
mela) Darius suffered final de- 
feat at the hands of Alexander, 
in 331 B.C. 

Archelaiis, of Miletus, the natural 
phili sopher, said to have been 
a pupil of Anaxagoras, and a 
teacher of Socrates. 

Archidamus, king of Sparta from 
361 to 338 B.O., when he went 
to the aid of the Tarentines in 
Italy, and was killed in battle. 

Archon Eponymous, the first of 
the board of nine archons at 
Athena, so called, after the 
Roman conquest, because the 
year was registered in his name. 

Aristogeiton, slayer, with Har- 
modius, of Hipparchus, the 
brother of the Athenian tyrant 
Hippias, in 514 B.C. The two 
•• tyrannicides " were afterwards 
honoured as patriots and martyrs. 

Ariston of Ceos, head of the Peripa- 
tetic school of philosophy at 
Athens about 225 B.C. (pp. 9, 
217). 

Ariston the philosopher (p. 355), 
of Chios, a Stoic, pupil of Zeno. 
In his later life he taught 
doctrines of the Cynic school. 
He flourished about 260 B.C., 
and is often confounded with 
Ariston of Ceos. 

Aristoxenus the musician, a pupil 
of Aristotle, and a philosopher 
of the Peripatetic school. 

Armenia, a country lying north 
of Mesopotamia and Assyria, 
between the upper Euphrates 
and Media. 

Artaxata, the ancient capital of 
Armenia, on the river Araxes. 
See Tigranocerta. 

Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus, 
vassal of Xerxes, who distin- 
guished herself in the battle of 
Salamis. 

Asopis, a mythical personage, 
mother of Mentor by Heracles. 

624 



Atilius, M. Atilius Regulus, consul 
for the second time in 256 B.C., 
when he was defeated and taken 
prisoner by the Carthaginians. 

Atropatene, a province of Media, 
to the east of Armenia. 

Attains, the name of three kings 
of Pergamum, in Asia Minor. 



Bithynia, a country of N.W. Asia 
Minor, lying east of the Pro- 
pontis, and along the coast of 
the Euxine Sea. 

Boedromion, the third month in 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our September. 

Brundisium, an important city on 
the eastern coast of Italy (Cala- 
bria), with a fine harbour. It 
was the natural point of de- 
parture from Italy to the East, 
and was the chief naval station 
of the Romans in the Adriatic 
Sea. 



Cabelra (or Cabu:a),a city of Pontus, 
in the northern part of Asia 
Minor. 

Caepio, Q. Servilius, consul in 
106 B.C., receiving the province 
of Gallia Narbonensis, where, in 
the following year, on the 6th of 
October, his army was utterly 
annihilated by the Cimbri. 

Callisthenes, of Olynthus, a relative 
and pupil of Aristotle, author of 
a Hellenica, or History of Greece, 
from 387 to 357 B.C. He accom- 
panied Alexander the Great as 
historian of the expedition, the 
end of which he did not live to see. 

Cappadocia, a district in eastern 
Asia Minor, south of Pontus, and 
north of Cilicia. 

Carneades, of Cyren^, head of the 
Academy at Athens in 156 B.C. 
(when he was one of an embassy 
of philosophers to Rome) and until 
his death in 129 B.C. He was 
famous for the persuasive force 
of his eloquence. 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Chaeroneia, a town commanding 
the entrance from Phocis Into 
Boeotia, celebrated for the 
battles fought in its neighbour- 
hood. Here Philip of Macedon 
defeated the allied Greeks in 
338 B.C. 

Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia, at 
the entrance of the Euxine Sea, 
opposite Byzantium. 

Chaldaeans, a general name lor 
the inhabitants of Babylonia. 

Charon of Lampsacus, a " logo- 
grapher," a predecessor of Hero- 
dotus, who wrote a history of 
Persia in annalistic form. 

Chelidonian Isles, a group of 
islands off the coast of Pam- 
phylia, in southern Asia Minor. 

Chersonese {i.e. peninsula), here 
(p. 447) of the Thracian Cher- 
sonese, extending in a S.W. 
direction into the Aegean Sea 
west of the Hellespont. 

Cilicia, a country in southern Asia 
Minor, extending along the 
Mediterranean between Pam- 
phylia and Syria. 

Cimbri, a northern tribe which, 
joining with the Teutones, in- 
vaded southern Europe. They 
were at last annihilated by 
Marius in 101 B.C. 

Citium, a town on the southern 
coast of Cyprus. 

Cleidemus, the oldest annalist of 
Athens, who flourished during 
the closing years of the fifth and 
the first half of the fourth 
century B.C. 

Cleisthenes, the Athenian aristocrat 
who introduced the democratic 
reforms which followed the 
expulsion of the tyrants in 510 B.C. 

Cleitarchus (Clitarchus), a historian 
who accompanied Alexander on 
his expedition to the East, and 
wrote a rhetorical history of it. 
He was the son of Deinon. 

Cleonae, a city nearly midway 
between Argos and Corinth in 
Peloponnesus. The Nemean 
games were celebrated in its 
territory. 



Cnidus, a Dorian city in the S.W. 
of Caria, in south-western Asia 

Minor. 

Colchis, a district at the eastern 
extremity of the Euxine Sea, 
north of Armenia. 

Colophon, one of the cities of 
Ionian Asia Minor. 

Corcyra, an island in the Ionian 
Sea, opposite Epeirus, the 
modern Corfu. 

Cos, an island off the S.W. coast of 
Caria, opposite Cnidus. 

Crannon, a town in central 
Thessaly, the seat of the wealthy 
family of the Scopadae. 

Craterus the Macedonian, a half- 
brother of Antigonus Gonatas, 
the king of Macedonia (ob. 239 
B.C.), who compiled historical 
documents, such as decrees and 
other published inscriptions, 
bearing on the history of 
Athens. 

Critias, one of the " thirty tyrants " 
(404-403 8.0.), like Alcibiades a 
follower of Socrates, author of 
tragedies, and elegiac poems on 
political subjects. 

Cronus, the father of Zeus, identi- 
fied with the Roman Satumus. 

Curius, Manius Curius Dentatus, 
consul in 290 B.C., in which year 
he brought the long war with 
the Samnites to a close and 
reduced the revolted Sabines. 
In 275 B.C., he defeated Pyrrhus 
at Beneventum. He celebrated 
two triumphs in 290, and one in 
275. 

Cyanean Isles, two islands at the 
mouth of the Bosporus^ at the 
entrance into the Euxine Sea, 
the clashing isles of mythology. 

Cym6, an Aeo ian city on the coast 
of Asia Minor, S.E. of Lesbos. 

Gyrene, a Greek city on the 
northern coast of Africa, in 
commercial relations with Carth- 
age, Greece, and Egypt. 

Cyzicus, a city on the southern 
shore of the Propontis, in Mysia, 
strongly situated on the neck of 
a peninsula. 

625 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Damastes, of Sigeium in the Troad, 
a historian contemporary with 
Herodotus, and author, besides 
many other works, of a genealogy 
of the Greelcs who fought at 
Troy. 

Deceleia, a mountain citadel of 
Attica, about fourteen miles from 
Athens towards Boeotia. 

Deinon (Dinon), of Colophon, 
author of a History of Persia, 
father of Cleitarchus the his- 
torian of Alexander's expedition. 

Demetrius of Phalerum, regent at 
Athens for Cassander 317-307 
B.C., a voluminous writer on 
history, politics, poetry, and 
philosophy. 

Diodorus the Topographer (Perie- 
getes), of Athens (probably), a 
contemporary of Alexander the 
Great, wrote on the demes and 
monuments of Attica. 

Dion, of Syracuse, an ardent dis- 
ciple of Plato, master of Syracuse 
after the expulsion of Dionysius 
II, assassinated in 353 B.C. 

Dodona, a town in Epeirus, seat of 
the most ancient oracle of Zeus. 



E 

Elaea, an Aeolic city of Asia Minor, 
the port for Pergamum. 

Epaminondas, Theban general and 
statesman, friend of Pelo])idas, 
fell in the battle of Mantineia, 
362 B.C. 

Ephesus, one of the twelve Ionian 
cities, in Lydia, Asia Minor, at 
the mouth of the river Cayster. 

Ephors, five chief magistrates at 
Sparta elected annually. The 
first Ephor gave his name to the 
year, lilce the Athenian Archon 
Eponymous. 

Ephorus, of Cym6, pupil of Iso- 
crates, author of a highly rhetori- 
cal history of Greece from the 
•' Dorian Invasion " down to 
340 B.C., in which year he died. 

Kpicurus, founder of the philo- 



sophical school named from him, 
born in Samos, 342 B.C., died at 
Athens, 270 B.C. 
Eratosthenes, of Gyrene, librarian 
at Alexandria, most distin- 
guished as geographer and 
chronologist, a writer also on 
philosophy and ethics, 275-194 

B.C. 

Eumenes, king of Pergamum in 
Asia Minor from 197 to 159 B.C., 
and like his father (Attains I), a 
persistent friend of Home. 

Eurymedon, a river flowing through 
Pamphylia, in southern Asia 
Minor, into the Mediterranean. 



Fabricius, C. Fabricius Luscinus, 
like Curius and Atilius a repre- 
sentative of the sterling virtues 
of the more ancient times, am- 
bassador to Pyrrhus at Tarentum 
after the disastrous battle of 
Heracleia, 280 B.C., consul in 
278 B.C., censor in 275, with the 
severity of a Gate. 



Gabinian way. Via Gabina (earlier 
called Via Tiburtina), leading 
eastwards from Rome to Tibur 
(Tivoli). 

Galatia, a district in central Asia 
Minor. 

Gordyen^, a district of southern 
Armenia, lying east of the river 
Tigris. 

Gorgias, of Leontini in Sicily, 
famous for his eloquence, came 
on an embassy to Athens in 
427 B.C., when sixty years of 
age, and spent the rest of his 
life in that and neighbouring 
cities, amassing great wealth as 
a paid teacher of rhetoric. 

Granicus, a river of Troas, flowing 
north into the Propontis. 



Hamilcar, surnamed Barcas, im- 
placable enemy of the Romans, 



626 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



father of Hannibal, and founder 
of the Carthaginian empire in 
Spain, died in 229 B.C. 

Hecatombaeon, the first month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our July. 

Helots, a name given to the 
original inhabitants of Laconia 
who had lost both land and free- 
dom. They were state slaves. 
See Perioeci. 

Heracleia (p. 423), called Pontica, 
to distinguish it from the many 
other cities of the same name, a 
city of Bithynia (or Phrygia 
Minor) on the southern shore of 
the Euxine Sea. 

Heracleides, called Ponticus from 
his birth 'n Heracleia Pontica, 
a pupil of Plato and Aristotle, 
and a learned and voluminous 
writer on almost all possible 
subjects. Cicero thought him 
superstitious and uncritical. 

Hieronymus the Rhodian, a disciple 
of Aristotle, flourishing about 
300 B.C. Little is known about 
him, though he is often quoted 
by Cicero. 

Hippocrates, the second of that 
name, and the most famous 
physician of ancient times, 460- 
357 B.C. 

Hyrcanian Sea, another name for 
the Caspian Sea, from the 
province of Hyrcania to the S.E. 
of it. 

I 

Iberia, a country east of Colchis, 
between the Euxine and Caspian 
Seas. 

Ides, the fifteenth day of the 
Roman month in March, May, 
July, and October; the thir- 
teenth in the other months. 

Idomeneus, of Lampsacus, a pupil 
and friend of Epicurus (342- 
270 B.C.), author of biographical 
works on "The Socratics," and 
" The Demagogues." 

Ino, daugliter of Cadmus, and wife 
of Athamas, the king of Orcho- 
menus in Boeotia. After her 



death she was worshipped as 
Leuocthea, a sea goddess. Ac- 
cording to one of the many 
myths connected with her name, 
she became mad with jealousy 
of a female slave, and slew her 
own son. See Plutarch, Roman 
Questions, 16. 

Ion, of Chios, a popular poet at 
Athens between 452 and 421 
B.C., also author of a prose work 
entitled " Sojourns," in which 
he recounted his experiences with 
famous men of his time. 

1 Socrates, the celebrated Attic 
orator and rhetorician, 436-388 

B.C. 



Jason, the great hero of the 
Argonautic expedition, husband 
of Medeia. 



Lamptrae, name of two demes, or 
townships, in S.E. Attica. 

Lemnos, a large island in the 
northern part of the Aegean 
Sea, 

lieucothea. See Ino. 

Lycaonia, a district in central Asia 
Minor, between Galatia and 
Cilicia. 

Lycurgus, the semi-historical law- 
giver of Sparta, where he was 
honoured as a god. 

Lysias, the Attic orator, 458-378 

B.C. 



Maeotis, Lake, the modern Sea of 
Azov, N.E. of the Euxine Sea. 

Maimacterion, the fifth month of 
the Attic year, corresponding 
nearly to our November. 

Mardians, a tribe on the southern 
shore of the Caspian Sea. 

Marsi, an ancient people of central 
Italy, akin to the Sabines. After 
their defeat in 89 B.C., they were 
admitted to the Roman citizen- 
slup, with the other Italians. 



627 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



ilelanthins, an author of tragedies 
and elegiac poems, contemporary 
with Cimon at Athens. 

Melissus, of Samos, a famous 
natural philosopher, a disciple 
of Parmenides, who led the 
Samians successfully against 
Pericles. 

Mesopotamia, the region between 
the Tigris and Euphrates rivers 
above Babylonia. 

Metageitnion, the second month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our August. 

Metellus Pius, Q. Caecilius, ob- 
tained the surname of Pius for 
persuading the people to recall 
his father, Metellus Numidicus, 
from banishment. He was a 
successful general under Sulla, 
and consul with him in 80 B.C. 
He died about 63 B.C. 

Mithridates, the sixth king of 
Pontus bearing this name, com- 
monly known as Mithridates the 
Great, 120-63 B.C., the most 
formidable enemy of the Romans 
in the East. 

Mitylen6 the largest city of Lesbos, 
off the N.W. coast of Asia Minor. 

Mygdonia, a district in the N.E. of 
Mesopotamia. 

N 

Nausicrates (or Naucrates), the 
rhetorician, a pupil of Isocrates. 
He composed models of funeral 
orations for men of note. 

Neanthes, of Cyzicus, a voluminous 
writer of history, who flourished 
about 240 B.C. He belonged to 
the school of Isocrates. 

Kepos, Cornelius, Roman bio- 
grapher and historian, a con- 
temporary and friend of Cicero. 

Nicomedeia, capital of Bithynia, 
at the N.E. corner of the Pro- 
pontis. 

Nisibis, the chief city of Mygdonia 
(g.v.). 

Nones, the ninth day before the 
Ides of the Roman month, falling 
therefore on the seventh day of 



the month in March, May, July, 
and October, and on the fifth 
day of the other months. 
Numantia, a city in the northern 
part of Spain, taken after a 
memorable siege by Scipio Afri- 
canus, in 134 B.C. 



Oropiis, a town and district on the 
northern and eastern borders 
(respectively) of Attica and 
Boeotia, much in dispute be- 
tween Athenians and Thebans. 

Orpheus, the mythical singer of 
Thrace, and one of the Argonauts. 



Pagasae, a city m S.E. Thessaly, 
at the head of a gulf of the same 
name, famed in story as the port 
from which Jason set sail with 
the Argonauts. 

Palatium, the Palatine hill of 
Rome. 

Pamphylia, a country on the south 
coast of Asia Minor, between 
Lycia and Cilicia. 

Panaetius, of Rhodes, the Stoic 
phlosopher, chief founder of the 
Stoic school at Rome, flourishing 
between 150 and 110 B.C. 

Parthia, in the time of Lucullus, a 
vast realm to the east of Armenia, 
Assyria, and Mesopotamia. 

Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens in 
560 B.c , and during seventeen of 
the thirty-three years thereafter. 

Pelopidas, Theban general and 
statesman, bosom friend of 
Epaminondas, killed in battle 
364 B.C. 

Pergamum (or Pergamus), an 
ancient city of Mysia, in Asia 
Minor, on the river Caicus. 
After 283 B.C., it was the seat of 
the Attalid dynasty. 

Perioeci, the name of those in- 
habitants of Sparta who kept 
their lands and personal liberty, 
unlike the Helots, but who did 
not exercise the rights of citizen- 
ship. 



• 



6«8 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Perseus (pp. 347, 363), the last king 
of Macedonia, son of Philip V. 
He graced the triumph of Aerai- 
lius Paulus iu 167 B.C., and died 
at Rome several years later. 

Perseus (p. 411), the famous Argive 
hero, son of Zeus and Danae, 
slayer of the Gorgon Medusa. 

Phalerum, the ancient harbour of 
Athens, before Themistocles forti- 
fied the Peiraeus. 

Phauias, the Lesbian, of Eresos, 
the most distinguished pupil of 
Aristotle after Theophrastus, a 
prolific writer on philosophy and 
history, — a historical romancer. 

Phanodenius, a writer of Attic 
annals, after the manner of 
Cleidemus (g.v.). 

Pharnacia, a city of Pontus, on the 
southern shore of the Euxine, 
N.E. of Cabeira. 

Phasis, a river of Colchis, flowing 
into the Euxine at its eastern 
end. 

Philip (p. 139), of Macedon, father 
of Alexander the Great, secured 
the leadership of Greece in the 
battle at Chaeroneia, 338 B.C. 

Philip (p.335), Philip V of Macedon, 
father of Perseus, from 216 B.C. 
till his death in 179 a formidable 
enemy of Rome. 

Philo (p. 607), the Academic, of 
Larissa, removed from Athena 
to Home about 88 B.C., where he 
was teacher of Cicero, and where 
he died about 80 B.C. 

Phlya, a deme, or township, some- 
where in the N.E. of Attica. 

Pluy;^ia, a large province in western 
aiui north-western Asia Minor. 

Phylarchus, of Naucratis and 
Athens, a Greek historian who 
flourished about 220 B.C., to 
whom Plutarch is much in- 
debted in his Agis and Cleoinenes. 

Pitane, an ancient Aeolian city ou 
the N.W. coast of Asia Minor. 

Polybius, the Greek historian of the 
Punic Wars, of Megalopolis, in 
Arcadia, born about 204 B.C., one 
of the Achaean exiles (see AcM a) 
m 167. In Rome, he residecf in 



the house of Aemlllus Paulus, and 
became the intimate friend of thd 
younger Scipio, with whom he 
was present at the destruction of 
Carthage in 146 B.C. 

Pontus, a large district in N.E. 
Asia Minor, stretching along the 
southern shore of the Euxine. 

Potamus, the name of a deme, or 
township, in eastern Attica. 

Propontis, the intermediate sea 
between the Aegean and the 
Euxine, connected with the 
former by the Hellespont, with 
the latter by the Thracian 
Bosporus. 

Pydna, a town on the Thermaic 
gulf, S.E. of Macedonia. 

Pyrrhus, king of Epeirus from 295 
till his death in 272 B.C. From 
280 till 274 he was campaigning 
in Italy and Sicily. 



Sabines, a people occupying the 
western slopes of the central 
Apennines, in Italy. They were 
finally subdued by Curius Den- 
tatus in 290 B.C., and m 268 
became Roman citizens. 

Sallust, C. Sallustius Crispus, 86- 
34 B.C. He was a partisan of 
Caesar, who made him governor 
of Numidia, where he amassed 
great wealth. He afterwards 
wrote histories of the conspiracy 
of Catiline and of the Jugurthine 
war, 

Samnites, inhabitants of Samnium, 
the mountainous district of 
central Italy lying between 
Latium and Apulia. In 290 B.O. 
Curius Dentatus won the honour 
of putting an end to the Samnite 
wars after they had lasted flity 
years. 

Samotlu-ace, an island in the 
northern part of the Aegean 
Sea. 

Scepsis, an ancient town east of 
the Troad, which in later timea 
became subject to Pergaraum, 
and a seat of learning. 



629 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Scopas, the Thessalian. See Cran- 
non. 

Seleucus, surnamed Nicator, 
founder of the Syrian monarchy, 
353-280 B.C. 

Seriphus, one of the Cyclades 
islands, S.E. of Attica, proverbial 
for poverty and insignificance. 

Sertorius, one of the greatest 
soldiers bred by the Roman civil 
wars, who successfully opposed 
the best generals of the aristo- 
cratic party in Spain from 82 
B.C. till his assassination in 
72. 

Sicyon, an important city in N.E. 
Peloponnesus, about two miles 
south of the Corinthian gulf. 

Simonides of Ceos, one of the 
greatest lyric poets of Greece, 
556-467 B.C. 

Sinope, an important Greek city 
on the southern shore of the 
Euxine Sea, in N.E. Paphlagonia. 

Sophene, a district of S.W. 
Armenia. 

Sophists, a general name for paid 
teachers of rhetoric and philo- 
sopy, like Gorgias. 

Stesimbrotus, of Thasos, a sophist 
and rhapsodist of note in Athens 
during the times of Cimon and 
Pericles . 

Sthenis, of Olynthus, a famous 
statuary at Athens, who flour- 
ished about 350 B.C. 

Strabo, the geographer (philoso- 
pher, p. 565), lived during the 
times of Augustus. 



Talaiura, a stronghold in Pontus. 

Tanagra, a town and district in 
S.E. Boeotia. 

Tarentum, a Greek city in S.E. 
Italy. It surrendered to the 
Romans in 272 B.C., was be- 
trayed into the hands of Hanni- 
bal in 212, and recovered by 
Fabius in 209. 

Taurus, a general name for the 
lofty range of mountains ex- 
tending from Lycia in Asia 



Minor through Cilicia and south 
of Armenia into Media. 

Tegea, an ancient city in S.E. 
Arcadia, of Peloponnesus. 

Tempe, a famous valley in N.E. 
Thessaly. 

Tenedos, an island about five 
miles west of the Troad, in the 
N.E. Aegean. 

Tenos, one of the Cyclades islands, 
S.E. of Attica. 

Thargelion, the eleventh month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our May. 

Themiscyra, a plain and city in 
Pontus, near the mouth of the 
river Thermodon. 

Theophrastus, the most famous 
pupil of Aristotle, and his suc- 
cessor as head of the Peripatetic 
school at Athens. He was born 
at Eresos in Lesbos, and died at 
Athens in 287 B.C., at the age of 
eighty-five. 

Theopompus, of Chios, a fellow- 
pupil of Isocrates with Ephorus, 
historian of Greece from 411 to 
394 B.C., and of Philip of Macedon 
(360-336 B.C.). 

Tibareni, a tribe on the northern 
coast of Pontus. 

Tigranocerta, the city of Tigranes, 
later capital of Armenia, in Myg- 
donia, west of Nisibis, just south 
of the Taurus. 

Tigris, the great river rising in 
Armenia and flowing between 
Mesopotamia and Assyria. 

Timocreon, of Rhodes, a lyric poet, 
now known chiefly for his hatred 
of Themistocles and Simonides of 
Ceos. 

Timoleon, of Corinth, rescued 
Syracuse from its tyrant (Diony- 
sius II) and the Carthaginians in 
343 B.C., and became virtual 
master of Sicily, though without 
office. He died in Syracuse, 
337 B.C. 

Troezen, a city in S.E. Argolis, of 
Peloponnesus. 

Trophonius, received worship and 
had an oracle in a cave near 
Lebadeia in Boeotia. 



630 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Aelius, a pupil of Panaetius, 
flourished in the century before 
Lucullus, and could not have 
seen him playing Xerxes. The 
jest may have come from Lucius 
Tubero, the relative and intimate 
friend of Cicero, who cultivated 
literatiue and philosophy. 

Tusculum, an ancient city of 
Latium, fifteen miles S.E. of 
Rome, in the Alban mountains. 
It became a favourite resort of 
wealthy Romans. 

Tyrannio the Grammarian, of 
Amisus in Pontus. He was 
taken to Rome by Lucullus, 



where he became a teacher, was 
patronised and praised by Cic6ro, 
and amassed wealth. 



Vesta, an ancient Roman divinity, 
identical with the Greek Hestia 
as goddess of the hearth and fire- 
side. The Vestals were her 
virgin priestesses. 



Xenocrates, of Chalcedou, 396- 
314 B.C., a pupil and disciple of 
Plato, became head of the 
Academy in 339 B.C. 



<S3i 



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