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LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XI 

ARATUS, ARTAXERXES 
GALBA, OTHO 




Translated by 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 



Printed in Great Britain 



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PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XI 



PLUTARCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
XI 

ARATUS.. ARTAXERXES, GALBA AND OTHO 

INDEX TO ALL THE LIVES BY 
J. W. COHOON 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLSII 



First printed 1926 
Reprinted 1943, 1954, 1962 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . vi 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES ... vii 

ARATUS 1 

ARTAXERXES 127 

GALBA 205 

OTHO 275 

INDEX , 321 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



VOLUME I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillus. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 

Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

imus. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 

nus. 

Comparison. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

Comparison. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 
Comparison. 



VOLUME VI. 
(22) Dion and Brutus. 
Comparison. 
Timoleon and Aemilius 

Paul us. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME VII. 
Demosthenes and Cicero. 
Comparison. 
Alexander and Julius 

Caesar. 



(7) 

(20) 
(17) 



VOLUME VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 
Comparison. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the 

Younger. 



VOLUME IX. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. 

VOLUME X. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 

Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus. 
Comparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 

ininus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME XI. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



VI 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themiatocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius aud Caius 

Gracchus. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



Vll 



ARATUS 



APATO2 

I. Ylapoiaiav riva 7ra\atdv, &> IloXv/c pares, Paris 

r ~ v * ' JL >~ < ^ ' ' * E 

/u,ot OOKGL TO ova 977 /JLOV avrrjs, o (pih.oaocpos a. 



ov e^ei rpoTrov, a\V cu? auro? 102*7 



wero /3e\riov elvai, 



rt? Trarep* alvrjaei, el prj euSatytto^e? utot ; 

5e o Toi,iviQ<; e\i<i)v avrbv 



TTJV a\r}divrjv OUTCO? e 
t? vrare/j' alv^crei, el fjirj K a KO& alcoves viol ; 

2 /cat ^o-t TOU? a0' CLUTWV ovftevbs a^iou<; 6Wa?, 
v7ro$vo/jL6vov$ Be Trpo^ovwv Tiv&v a 1 



eV rot? eicelvtov CTraivois VTTO 



t. dXX* w 76 (fivaei TO 
yevvaiov eimrpeTTei e'/c Trarepcov, Kara Tliv&apov, 2 
Mcrirep crol Trpo? TO Ka\\icrTov dtyo/jLOtovvri 
OL/coOev Trapabeiy/JLCLTCov TOV ftiov, evSaifjLov av 
TO /jLe/jLvijcrBai rwv CLTTO yevovs dpiarcov, dtcovovra^ 
3 7re/)l avTwv del TL KOI Xeyovras. ov yap I&L 



Sint. and Ziegler with SB ; Bekker has a 
with inferior MSS. 

8 . viii. 44f. ((f>ua . . . e/c iraTepuv iraiffl 



ARATUS 



I. There is an ancient proverb, Polycrates, 1 which 
the philosopher Chrysippus puts not as it really is, 
but as he thought better : 

"Who will praise a father, except happy 
sons? " 

But Dionysodorus of Troezen corrects him, and 
restores the true form thus : 

" Who will praise a father, except unhappy 

?> 

And he says that the proverb stops the mouths 
of those who, being worthless in themselves, take 
refuge in the virtues of certain ancestors and are 
forever praising them. But surely for a man in 
whom, to use Pindar's words, "the noble spirit 
naturally displayes itself as inherited from sires," 
and who, like thee, patterns his life after the 
fairest examples in his family line, for such men it 
will be good fortune to be reminded of their noblest 
progenitors, ever and anon hearing the story of them, 
or telling it themselves. For it is not that they lack 

1 A friend of Plutarch, not otherwise known, to whom he 
thus dedicates this Life. See the note on the Theseus, i. 1. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

drfopia Ka\(ov e^aprwcriv d\\orpiayv erraivwv rr 
B6av, aXXa roi? eteewow rd olfceia cruvdrcrovres, 
&)? Kal rov yevovs Kal rov ftiov KaOr)jea6va<f 
eLx^rj^Lovcri. BLO /cdyco rov ' Apdrov TOV crov 7ro\i- 
TOV Kal TrpoTrdropos ftiov, ov oi/re rf) $O!;T) TTJ 



croi crwyypafjLevos, ov% a)? ov\ Trvrwv 
Tard <JOL /A6yLt6X?;/co? e'^ /o%^9 eTricrraadai 
4 ra? ereeivov 7rpdj;eis, aXX' OTTO)? ol TralSes aov 
Ylo\vtcpdTijs ical n.v0oK\rj<f olfCLOi<s TT a palely /Jia- 
aiv evrpifywvrai, ra pev CLKQVQVTZS, rd & dva- 
yivcoffKOVTes, direp avrovs fjLipelaQai TrpocnjKei. 
(f)L\.avTOV <ydp dvBpos, ov (j)i\oKa\ov, Tra^ro? del 



II. 'H ^<lKV(i>vi(i)V TToXf?, fcVei TO TTpWTOV K 

aKpdrov Kal &wpiKr)<s dpicrTOKparias wcnrep 

everreae 



Brj/jLayayycov, OVK erraixraro voaovaa Kal 
raparro/JLevrj Kal rvpai>vov K rvpdvvov fMera/3d\- 
\ovaa, /jiexpi ov KXetofo? dvaipeOevros ei\ovro 
TtfjLOK\eiBav dp^ovra Kal KXeiviav, dvBpas ev- 
Botfovs rd fjid\t(rra Kal ev Svvdfjiei rwv TTO\ITWV 

2 oWa?. TJBrj Be riva T>}? TroXireia^ Kardcrraaiv 
e^eiv BoKoixTij 1 ? TiuoK\iBa<t fj.ev drredavev,' Aftav - 1028 
rt'Sa? Be 6 llaaeov rvpavviBa rrpdrrwv eavrw 

rov }L\eiviai> drreKreive Kal r>v (friXwv Kal oiKeiwv 
rot/? fjiev ee/3a\e, TOI)? Be dvelXev. efyjrei, Be 
Kal rov vlov avrov, "Aparov, dve\elv, errraerrj 

3 Kara\\ei/j./j,vov. ev Be rfj rrepl rrjv olfciav ra- 

1 In 264 B.C. 



ARATUS i. 3-n. 3 

noble qualities of their own and make their reputa- 
tion dependent on their praises of others, nay rather, 
they associate their own careers with the careers of 
their great ancestors, whom they hail both as founders 
of their line and as directors of their lives. And 
therefore, now that I have written the life of Aratus, 
who was thy countryman and forefather, and to 
whom thou thyself art no discredit in either reputa- 
tion or influence, I send it to thee, not as though 
thou hadst not been at pains from the beginning to 
have the most precise knowledge of thy great an- 
cestor's career, but in order that thy sons Polycrates 
and Pythocles may be reared, now by hearing and 
now by reading, after examples found in their own 
family line examples which it well becomes them 
to imitate. For it is the lover of himself, and not 
the lover of goodness, who thinks himself always 
superior to others. 

II. The city of Sicyon, as soon as it had fallen 
away from its pure Doric form of aristocracy (which 
was now like a harmony dissolved) and had become 
a prey to factions and the ambitious schemes of 
demagogues, was without cease distempered and 
agitated, and kept changing one tyrant for another, 
until, after the murder of Cleon, Timocleides and 
Cleinias were chosen chief magistrates, men of the 
highest repute and influence among the citizens. 
But no sooner did the government appear to be 
somewhat settled than Timocleides died, and Aban- 
tidas the son of Paseas, attempting to make himself 
tyrant, slew Cleinias, 1 and, of the friends and kinsmen 
of Cleinias, banished some and killed others. He 
tried to kill also the son of Cleinias, Aratus, left 
fatherless at the age of seven. But in the confusion 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fj crvveKTrecrwv Tot? favyovaiv 6 Trat?, KOI 
rr\ava)/jLvo<? ev rfj TroXet Trepi^o/So^ KOI d(3or)9ri- 
TO?, Kara Tv^yv eXadev et? oliciav Trape\0u>v 
yvvaiKos, aSeX^)?}? ftev *A/3avTiBov, UpotydvTO) Be 
T<W KXeiviov dBe\<f)o> jeyafiTj/jievr^, ovofjia SwcroO?. 
aim; Be KOI TO r]6os OVGCL yevvaia teal GVV dew 
TIVI TO Trai&iov olopevr) KaTO,7r(f)v<yevai, TT/?O? 
avrrjv a.7TKpvfyev ev^ov, elra VVKTOS et? "Apyos 



III. OVTCO 8' 

yovri, TOV KIV'&VVOV evOvs [JLZV eveveTO /ca 
avvrjv^ero TO crfyobpov KCLI SiaTrvpov fjueros eVi 
TGI/? Tvpdvvov^. Tpetyopevos Be jrapa TO?? eV 



teal TO crw/xa ftXaardvov opwv els eve^iav KOI 
/Jieye0os, eTreSwfcev eavrov dcr/tr/crei rfj Trepl 7ra\at- 
(Trpav, axrre KOI r 7revTaO\ov dywvicracrOai tcai 
2 cne(f)dvci)v TV)(elv. 7TL(f)aLverai, S' d/jLe\ei /cal 
Tat? eiiCQGiv ad\^TiKr] Tt? t'Sea, /cat TO arvverbv 

TOV TrpOCTCOTTOV Kal (3aCTL\lKOV OV TTCLVrdTTCifTlV 

dpvelrai TTJV dSyj^ayiav KOI TO crKa^elov. o6ev 
evSeearepov t<7&)? 17 7ro\inKU) 7rpocrr}Kov r)V dvBpl 
Trepl rov \,6joi> ea-TTOi/Baae' KCIITOI, yeyovei'dL 
KOjJL^roTepov eiirelv rj So/cet THJIV e/c TWV v7rofAV7j/j,d- 
TCOV Kpivovcriv, a Trapepjo)? /cal VTTO %et/oa Bid TWV 



Be vcrTepov 'AjSavriBdv [lev 01 Trepl Aet- 
viav Kal 'A/otcrTOTX?7 TOZ^ Bia\KTi/c6v, elwOoTa 
Tot? \oyois avTwv /IT' dyopdv a^o\a^6vTa)v efcd- 



1 A contest involving the five arts of running, leaping, 
hurling the spear, boxing, and wrestling. 

6 



ARATUS n. 3-111. 3 

which prevailed about the house the boy made his 
escape with the fugitives, and wandering about in 
the city,, full of fear and helpless, by chance got un- 
noticed into the house of a woman who was a sister 
of Abantidas, but had married Prophantus the brother 
of Cleinias. Her name was Soso. This woman, who 
was of a noble nature, and thought it a divine dis- 
pensation that the boy had taken refuge with her, 
hid him in the house, and at night sent him secretly 
off to Argos. 

III. Thus was Aratus stolen away from the peril 
that threatened him, and at once that vehement and 
glowing hatred of tyrants for which he was noted 
became a part of his nature and grew with his growth. 
He was reared in liberal fashion among the guests 
and friends of his father's house at Argos, and since 
he saw that his bodily growth promised high health 
and stature, he devoted himself to the exercises of 
the palaestra, going so far as to win wreaths of victory 
in contesting the pentathlum. 1 And indeed even his 
statues have plainly an athletic look, and the sagacity 
and majesty of his countenance do not altogether 
disown the athlete's full diet and wielding of the 
mattock. Wherefore his cultivation of oratory was 
perhaps less intense than became a man in public 
life ; and yet he is said to have been a more ornate 
speaker than some think who judge from the Com- 
mentaries which he left ; these were a bye- work, 
and were composed in haste, off-hand, and in the 
words that first occurred to him in the heat of 
contest. 

Some time after the escape of Aratus, Abantidas 
was slain by Deinias and Aristotle the logician. The 
tyrant was wont to attend all their public disputations 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



crrore rrapelvat, /cal o~v^L\oveiKelv, fji/3a\ovr<; 
et? roiavrijv Biarpiftrjv /cal /caracrKevdcravres 
7ri/3ov\rjv dvei\ov, Tlacreav Be rov 'AftavriBov 
Trarepa rrjv dp^v V7ro\a/36vra Ni^o/eXr;? Bo\o- 
4 (fiovTJcras eavrbv dveBet^e rvpavvov. rovrov /JL- 
\eyov(7i TTJV o^friv TlepidvSpw TG> 



TOV Tlepayv 'OpovTijv/'EjKTopi Be rov 
AafceBai/jioviov vectTiGKOv, ov io-ropei 
UTTO 7r\ijQov<; ra)v 0ewJiV(*)V , co? TOVTO 



KaraTrarrjdrjvai. 

IV. Tou Be NiKOK\eov<; recrcrapas pfjvas rvpav- 
VOVVTOS, v ol? TroXXa KCLKCL Trjv TToXt^ epjacrd- 
e/civBvvevo'ev VTTO AtrcoXco^ eTriftovXevofAevrjv 
d7ro/3a\eli>, rfBr] fjieipdreiov o "A/?aro? wv 
\afjiTrpov el%e Bi evyeveiav teal (fipovrj/jia, 
o &ie(f)aivev ov [jiLKpov ovBe dpyov, fj,/3pi0e<i Be /cal 
Trap' r]\iKiav dcr<j>a\e(nepq yvcofjLy /ce/cpa/uevov. 

2 oOev OL re tfiwydBes /^dXiara rov vovv /ce[v<a Trpotr- 
efyov, o re NIKOK\T)<; OVK ?}/z,eXet rwv rrparro- 
fjbevayv, aXX' dBrj\a)<; drreOeaypei /cal 7rape<f)v\arrev 
avrov rrjv op^rjv, rok^^a /JLCV ovBev rrjXifcovrov 
BeBiais ovBe epyov ovBev ovrto Trapa/ce/civBuvev- 
fjievov, vTTOTrrevwv Be roi? (BaGi\.evaiv avrov Bia- 

3 \eyea0ai ^>tX,ot? overt /cal evoi<; Trarpwois. /cal 
jap d\i)6ws o "Aparos eTre^eiptjo'e rrjv 6Bov e/cei- 
vrjv fiaBi^eiv. 009 Be 'Avriyovos fjuev vrfia"%vov- 

/cal Trapfjye 1 rov %povov, al Be arc* 



1 trapriye Coraes and Ziegler, with Ss : Trapse (let the time 
pass). 

1 251 B.C. 
8 



ARATUS in. 3~iv. 3 

in the market-place and to take part in them ; 
they encouraged him in this practice, laid a plot, and 
took his life. Paseas also, the father of Abantidas, 
after assuming the supreme power, was treacherously 
slain by Nicocles, who then proclaimed himself tyrant. 
This man is said to have borne a very close resemblance 
to Periander the son of Cypselus, just as Orontes the 
Persian did to Alcmaeon the son of Amphiaraiis, and 
as the Spartan youth mentioned by Myrtilus did to 
Hector. Myrtilus tells us that when the throng of 
spectators became aware of this resemblance, the 
youth was trampled underfoot. 

IV. Nicocles was tyrant of the city for four months, 
during which he wrought the city much harm, and 
narrowly escaped losing it to the Aetolians when 
they plotted to seize it. By this time 1 Aratus, now a 
young man, was held in marked esteem on account of 
his high birth, and of his spirit. This was showing 
itself to be not insignificant nor yet unenterprising, 
but earnest, and tempered with a judgement safe 
beyond his years. Wherefore the exiles from Sicyon 
had their minds fixed most of all upon him, and 
Nicocles was not neglectful of what was going on, but 
kept secret watch and ward over his undertakings, 
not because he feared any deed of so great daring 
and hazard as that in which Aratus finally engaged, 
but because he suspected that Aratus was in com- 
munication with the kings who had been on terms 
of friendship and hospitality with his father. And 
in truth Aratus had attempted to travel along that 
path. But since Antigonus 2 neglected his promises 
and prolonged the time, and since the hopes derived 

* Antigonus Gouatas, king of Macedonia 283-239 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AlyvTTTov KCU Trapa TlroXefjiaiov fj,afcpdv rj 
t'X7uSe9, eyi'O) &i avTOV KCLTa\veiv TOV Tvpavvov. 

V, UpCOTOl? Be KOLVOVTai T7JV yVCt)fJLr)V 'AptO~TO- 



KCU 'E/cS?/Xft>. TOVTCOV 6 /jLV K 

6 Se "EA:Sr;Xo9 'A/o/ca? etc 
avrip (fiiXo&cxfios fcal Trpa/cTiKos, 
(Ti\dov TOV 'AKaSrjfjLiafcov 76701^0)? ev acrrei avv- 
2 t]0r)s. ^e^afjievwv 8e rovrcov irpo0vfj,co 
.rot? aXXoi? (frvydcriv, wv o\i<yoi fjiev al 

lv rrjv e\7ri8a /jLerel^op rwv irpar- 1029 
, ol Se TroXXol KOI rov "ApaTov eireipwvTO 
KaTaKco\i>iv &)? aireipiq TrpayfjidTwv Opacrvvo- 



3 Bov\evo/ji<lvov S' avTOV ^wpiov TL 
KOLTakafBelv, o0ev (ap/jLtjfjLevos 
TOI^ Tvpavv'ov, fjfcev eh "Apyos dvrjp HiKvavios eic 
eiprcTr/s dTroSeSpaxa)?' 7)V Se TWV <f)vyd$a)v 
He^o/cXeof? aSeX^o?' real TW 'A/oarw Trpocr- 
t? VTTO TOV Hei^o/cXeof? e\eye TOV TCi^ov^ 
* ov VTrepfids LTO? (T(t>6r) TOTTOV, eVro? /Jikv 
b\lyov $elv eTTLTreBov elvai, TrpocrTre^vKOTa ^wpLois 

'^ vr i-\^ V 5- V "j- Q '' r f v 

TreTpoooeai Kai uy-^Xot?, TO oe e^wuev i/yo? VTTO 
K\Lp,dK(>v ov Tcdvv avkfyiKTOV. &)? Be TavTa ijfcov- 
o~ev 6 "A/3aTo?, eKTrefJLTcei, //.era roO Hei/o/cXeo^ 
loiovs Svo, ^evBav re /cal Te^i^co^a, KCLTO,- 
[jievov^ TO T6t%09, eyvcoKcos, el SvvaiTO, 
KOI ?rpo9 eW KIV^VVOV o^eco9 TO ?ra^ dvap- 
/&a\\ov 77 pa/cpa) TroXeyLto) /cai (pavepois 
dywcriv iStooTrjs avTiKaQiGTacrQai 7T/309 Tvpavvov. 
5 W9 S' 7ravtj\0ov ol irepl TOV Hei>o/eXea TOU /ze^ 

teal TOV TOTTOV TTJV 



10 



ARATUS iv. 3 -v. 5 

from Egypt and Ptolemy 1 were a long way off, he 
resolved to overthrow the tyrant by his own efforts. 

V. The first to whom he imparted his design were 
Aristomachus and Ecdelus. Of these, the one was 
an exile from Sicyon, and Ecdelus was an Arcadian 
of Megalopolis, a student of philosophy and a man of 
action, who had been an intimate friend of Arcesilaiis 
the Academic at Athens. These men eagerly adopted 
his proposals, and he then began conversations with 
the other exiles. A few of these took part in the 
enterprise because they were ashamed to disappoint 
the hope placed in them, but the majority actually 
tried to stop Aratus, on the ground that his in- 
experience made him over-bold. 

While he was planning to seize some post in the 
territory of Sicyon from which he might sally forth 
and make war upon the tyrant, there came to Argos 
a man of Sicyon who had run away from prison. He 
was a brother of Xenocles, one of the exiles ; and 
when he had been brought to Aratus by Xenocles, 
he told him that the part of the city's wall over 
which he had climbed to safety was almost level 
with the ground on the inside, where it had been 
attached to steep and rocky places, and that on the 
outside it was not at all too high for scaling-ladders. 
When Aratus had heard this, he sent with Xenocles 
two servants of his own, Seuthas and Technon, to 
make an examination of the wall ; for he was resolved, 
if he could, to hazard the whole enterprise on one 
secret and swift attempt, rather than in a long war 
and in open contests to match his private resources 
against those of a tyrant. So when Xenocles and 
his party came back with measurements of the wall 

1 Ptolemy Philadelphia, king of Egypt 283-247 B.C. 

II 



, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(Z7ray<ye\\ovT ( $ OVK aTropov ovBe %d\7rijv, TO Be 
\aOelv 7rpocr\06vTa<; epywBes elvai 

VTTO KrjTTOVpOV TIVOS KVVaplWV, fJiLKpWV [lev, 

Be ^.a^ifjiwv real dirapriyoprjrwv, ev0v<$ eviarraro 
rrjv Trpd^LV- 

VI. 'H /J.6V OVV TWV 07T\(i)V TTapCKT KVT) <TWrj0r)S 

rjv, Travrwv, <w? eVo? ciTrelv, rore K\co7reiai<> XP W ~ 

l<; eV a\X7;Xou9' ra? Be K\i- 
6 yu-T/^az/OTrofo? dva(f)avBov eVry- 



avru> TO 



2 /cat auTO? ^ TCO^ (frvydBwv. avBpas Be avry rwv 
fjiev ev "Apyei fyi\wv e/cacrro? e^ o\i<ywv Be/ca Trap- 
ea"^ei', avros Be rwv IBiwv oitcerun' TpiaKovra 
Kad(ti7r\i(TV. e^iiaOcoaaro Be Kal Bid Trpcorov 



0V 



ra?, ot? BieBo&v \6yos &>? eVt TO.? ITTTTOVS ra? 
{3acri\iKd<; et? r^v ^iKVwvlav e^oBos ecroiro. A'al 
7rpO7Tjji<f)(}t]crav 01 7ro\\ol (nropdBes evrt roy IIo- 
\vyva)Tov Trvpyov, e/cel Ke\evcrdevT6s Trepi/meivai. 
3 7rpo7re/jL(f)0^ Be real Ka^tcrta? UTT' avrov yttera 
recrcrdpwv a\\wv evZwvos, ovs e'Bei, TT/OO? TOI^ 

6Boi- 



elvat, /cat KaravXiffap-evov^ avTov re 



(TvyK\el<rai Kal TOU? Kvva?' ou <ydp r^v a\Xy Trap- 
ra? 5e /cXt^a/ca? SfaXura? ovcras e/Jb/3a- 



et? aa^a? /cat 



4 'Ei> TOVTM Be KaraaKOTTWv TLVWV ev ' Apyei rov 
fyavevTwv Kal Trepiievai \eyofievwv 
KCU 7rapa(j)V\dTTGiv TOV "Aparov, a^ 



ARATUS v. 5-vi. 4 

which they had taken, and with a report that the 
place was by nature not impassable nor even difficult 
(although they declared that it was hard to get to 
it undetected owing to a certain gardener's dogs, 
which were little beasts, but extraordinarily fierce 
and savage), Aratus at once undertook the business. 

VI. Now the laying in of arms was nothing un- 
usual, since almost everybody at that time indulged 
in robberies and predatory forays ; and as for scaling- 
ladders, Euphranor the engineer made them openly, 
since his trade screened him from suspicion ; and he 
too was one of the exiles. As for men, each of the 
friends of Aratus in Argos furnished him with ten 
out of the few they had, and he himself equipped 
thirty of his own servants with arms. Through 
Xenophilus, the foremost of the robber captains, he 
also hired a few soldiers, to whom it was given out 
that a foray was to be made into the territory of 
Sicyon to seize the horses of Antigonus. And most 
of them were sent on ahead in small bands to the 
tower of Polygnotus, with orders to wait there. 
Aratus also sent on in advance Caphisias, lightly 
armed, with four companions ; their orders were to 
come to the gardener's when it was dark, pretending 
to be travellers, and after taking up quarters there 
for the night, to shut up him and his dogs ; for there 
was no other way to get past them. The scaling- 
ladders, which could be taken apart, were packed in 
boxes, and thus concealed were sent on ahead in 
waggons. 

In the meantime some spies of Nicocles appeared 
in Argos and were reported to be secretly going 
about and watching the movements of Aratus. As 
soon as it was day, therefore, Aratus left his house 

13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

epa 7rpoe\0a)v Kal fyavepos (ov ev dyopa Bierpifie 
fierd rwv (pi\(t)v elr dXeityduevos ev ru> 



elwOorwv rriveiv Kal pa0vueLv f^er* avrov veavi- 
(TKWV aTrr/yev oiKaBe' Kal yu-era [JiLKpov ewpaTO 
OLKerwv avrov St' dyopds 6 fjiev aT<pdvov<; 
6 Se A,a/A7ra8a? wvovjjievo^, 6 Be rot? eWi 
Trapd TTOTOV tydX\.iv Kal av\elv yvvaiois 
5 jievos. ravra 8e 01 KardcrKOTroi irdvra 



Ka TT/JO? 
<yov " OvBev ijv dpa Tvpdvvov Sei~\.6rpov, L Kal 



6ppa)Sel fJieipaKiov et? ?;Som? Kal TTOTOVS 
/jie0r)juLpivovs ra 



VII. Ol fjitv ovv OVTCI) 7rapa\oyicr0evT<; a7rrj\- 
6 $6 "A^aro? ev9v<$ fjier apiarov e^e\- 
0a>v Kal crvvdtyas irpos rbv YloXvyvwrov Trvpyov 
rot? ar par Karats et? Ne/ueav rrporjyev, orrov rrjv 
rrpd^iv effetyrjve roi? TroXXot? Tore rrpwrov, vrro- 
cr^ecr6i? re Kal rrapaK\ij<Tei<$ erro/ijaaro' Kal CTVV- 1030 
di]/j.a rrapa&ovs 'ATroXXw^a vrrepbe^iov rrpofjyev 
eVt rrjv TTO\.IV, crvfjL/jierpa)? rfj rrepL<popd rrjs cre- 
\riyris emra'xyvwv Kal rraXiv dviels rrjv rropeiav, 
we're TO) uev (^corl %pria0ai KaO^ 686v, ri&rj 8e 
rrepl rov KTJTTOV elvai rrXfrjcriov rov rei- 
evrav0a Ka^icrta? dm']i>rr)(jev avrq>, 
Kvvapiwv ov Kpartfaas (e^Ori yap 
aavrd), rov Be Kr)rrovpov yKK\iKa>s. 
Be rovs TrXetcrTOf? yevouevovs Kal Ke\evovra$ 
drra\\drrecr6ai rrapeOdppvvev 6 "Aparo?, &>? drr- 
4 d^wv, av ol Kvves dyav eVo^Xw<ri^ auroi?. dua 

14 



ARATUS vi. 4-vn. 4 

and showed himself openly in the market-place, 
conversing with his friends; then he anointed himself 
in the gymnasium, took with him from the palaestra 
some of the young men who were wont to drink and 
make holiday with him, and went back home ; and 
after a little one of his servants was seen carrying 
garlands through the market-place, another buying 
lights, and another talking with the women that regu- 
larly furnished music of harp and flute at banquets. 
When the spies saw all this, they were completely 
deceived, and with loud laughter said to one another: 
" Nothing, you see, is more timorous than a tyrant, 
since even Nicocles, though master of so great a city 
and so large a force, is in fear of a stripling who 
squanders on pleasures and mid-day banquets his 
means of subsistence in exile." 

VII. The spies, then, thus misled, left the city; 
but Aratus, immediately after the morning meal, 
sallied forth, joined his soldiers at the tower of Poly- 
gnotus, and led them on to Nemea. Here he dis- 
closed his design, to most of them then for the first 
time, and made them exhortations and promises. 
Then, after giving out as watchword "Apollo Vic- 
torious," he led them forward against Sicyon, 
quickening or retarding his progress according to 
the revolution of the moon, so as to enjoy her light 
while on the march, and as soon as she was setting 
to be at the garden near the wall. There Caphisias 
came to meet him ; he had not secured the dogs (for 
they had bounded off before he could do this), but 
had locked up the gardener. Most of his men were 
disheartened at this and urged Aratus to retire ; but 
he tried to encourage them, promising to lead them 
back if the dogs should prove too troublesome for 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



"^877X09 rjyelro Kal Mi^acrt^eo?, at"TO? 
\ovdei <r^oXaia>9, 77877 TOM> Kvvapiwv evrovto? v\a- 
KTOVVTWV fcal crufjLTraparpe^ovrcDv rot? TT^CH 
y. ou u-7i> aX\a TToaeLdv re 



KOL TTpocrrfpeicrav ra? /cXtyua/ca? acr^>aXa>?. ai/a- 
5 (SaivovTwv Be TMV TrpcoTwv, 6 rrjv kwQivi^v (fivXa/crjv 
TrapaSiSovs (f>ct)Sev KwScovi, real </>ra TroXXa fcal 
Oopvftos rjv T0)i> eTWTop6vo/j,va)v. ol Be, axnrep 
elyov, avrov TTT^a^re? eVl rwv fcXi/AdfCcov rov- 
TOU? fj,ev ov ^aX67TW9 e\a6ov, aXX?;? Se (j>v\aK7j<; 
eVa^rta? TavTy Trpocrep^o/^ei^^ et? TO^ eo"%aTOi> 
KivSvvov ij\Bov. a)? &e KaK^Lvrfv bietywyov Trap- 
e\dovaav, evOus avkftaivov ol Trp&roi ^Avacrideos 
KOI "#877X09, al T9 e/carepwOev 6801)9 roO 
ret^ou9 8iaXa/36^T69 aTreo-reXXo^ Te^vcova 7T/3O9 

"ApaTOl 7rLJ(T0at K\VOVT$. 

VIII. *Hl> 8e Ot 7TO\V oV/<7T7^ua aTTO TOU KiJTTOV 
7T/309 TO T6t^O9 ^at TOI^ TTVpyOV, V (ft KVQJV 



rrjv effroBov, el-re (frvcrei vw9r]S wv, eire 
/cara/co7T09 <y<yoi>ct)s. row 8e rov /crjTrovpov /cvva- 
pitov KCLTwOev e/CKaXov/jievGov avrov vTretyOeyyero 
rv(fi\ov teal acni/jiov TO Trpcorov, elra p,a\\ov eV- 
2 ereive irapepy^ofjievuiv. Kal Karel^ev 77877 770X1/9 
v\ay/J.os TO 'xwpiov, ware TOV irepav <>v\a,ica 
Kpavyfj f4eyd\rj TTV QavecrQai rov Kvvrjyov, 717309 
rpa^eco^ OUTC09 o KVWV vXatcrei, Kal yn] ri 



1 The sentries who had formed the night-watch came up at 
the sound of the bell, to be inspected, and then relieved by 
the morning-watch. 

16 



ARATUS vu. 4-vin. 2 

them. At the same time he sent forward the men 
who carried the scaling-ladders, under the command 
of Ecdelus and Mnasitheus, while he himself followed 
after them slowly, the dogs already barking vigorously 
and running along by the side of Ecdelus and his 
party. However, they reached the wall and planted 
their ladders against it without mishap. But as 
the first men were mounting the ladders, the officer 
who was to set the morning-watch began making his 
rounds with a bell, and there were many lights and 
the noise of the sentries coming up. 1 The invaders, 
however, crouched down just where they were on 
the ladders, and so escaped the notice of this party 
without any trouble ; but since another watch was 
coming up to meet the first, they incurred the 
greatest danger. However, they escaped the notice 
of this guard also as it passed by, and then the 
leaders, Mnasitheus and Ecdelus, at once mounted 
to the top, and after occupying the approaches to 
the wall on either side, sent Technon to Aratus, 
urging him to hasten up. 

VIII. Now it was no great distance from the 
garden to the wall, and to the tower, in which a huge 
dog was on the watch, a hunter. The dog himself 
did not notice their approach, either because he was 
naturally sluggish, or because during the day he had 
become tired out. But when the gardener's whelps 
challenged him from below, he began to growl in re- 
sponse, faintly and indistinctly at first, then bayed out 
more loudly as they passed by. Presently the whole 
place resounded with barking, so that the watch- 
man opposite called with a loud cry to the hunts- 
man asking why his dog was baying so savagely and 
whether some mischief was not afoot, The hunts- 

17 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ylverai fcaivorepov. 6 8' airo TOV Trvpyov avrw 1 
dvTeffxiivrjcre /uLvjSev eivai Seivov, aXXo, TOV /cvva 

7T/OO? TO <^CO? TWV TL^O(f)V \dfCWV KOL TOV ty6$>OV 

3 TOV KW&WVOS Trapw^vvdcLi. TOVTO /jLaXiara rot/? 
aTpaTiu>Ta<$ eireppwaev, olo/JLevov^ TOV 
eTriKpvTTTeLv KOIVWVOVVTCL Tfi Trpd^ei, elvai 
$ TroXXou? /cal aXXou? ev ry rro\ei, TOU? <rvv- 
ov fj,rjv d~\Xa TW Tei^et, 7rpo(T/3a\6v- 
rjv 6 tcivSwos /cal ynf;/co? e\.d/j,/3ave, 



e fty /ca&' eva KCU 



dvaftaivoiev r) Se wpa KaTrJTreijev, ijBrj 
d\eKTpvorwv, KOI OGOV OVTTW T&V 
dypov TI (frepeiv elw9oT(ov TT/JO? dyopdv eVe/j^o- 
4 fj,vci)v. BLO /cal anev^wv o "A/oaro? dveftaive, 



TMV rcvTtov i'aeijfcoTCtiv Trpo 
avTov' /cal Trocr&edjLevos TL TMV /caTcodev 6\i- 



eVt Tr]v ol/ciav TOV Tvpdvvov /cal TO &Tpa- 



dvr)\6ev evTavOa yap ol [Aicr0o(f)6poi 
rrapevvKTepevov. afiva) Se eTrnreacov aurot? /cal 
<rv\\afta)v aTravTas, ovSeva 8e d-rroKTeivas, evflvs 






5 e/caaTov air ol/cias. /cal avvSpa/AovTwv irav- 
Ta%6dev, rjfiepa fjiev vTreKa/Jirrev ijSr) /cal TO OeaTpov 
rjv o'^Xof fjLffTov, CTI Trpo? Tr)v dSvjXQV alwpov- 
fjiV(tiv <pr]/jLr)v /cal o~a0e? ovSev elBoTWV vjrep TMV 
irpaTTOfjievcav, Trp'iv ye Brj Trpoe\6tov 6 /ctfpvt; elirev 
co? "A^oaro? o KXeiviov TrapaKa\el rou? vroXtra? 
eVl Trjv eXevOepiav. 

IX. Tore $e TricrTevaavTes ^icetv a Ttd\ai 
TrpoaeSo/ccov, &pp.r)crav dOpoot TT^O? ra? Ovpas TOV 



18 



ARATUS VHI. 2-ix. i 

man answered him from the tower that there was 
nothing to fear, but that his dog had been excited 
by the lights of the sentries and the din of the bell. 
This more than anything else gave heart to the 
soldiers of Aratus. They thought that the huntsman 
was privy to their design and was trying to conceal 
it, and that there were many others also in the city 
who would assist them. However, when the rest of 
the company essayed the wall, their peril was grievous 
and protracted, since the ladders shook unless they 
mounted one by one and slowly ; moreover, time was 
pressing, since cocks were already crowing, and 
directly the people who brought produce from the 
country to the market-place would be coming up. 
Therefore Aratus also mounted the wall in haste, 
after forty in all had mounted before him ; and when 
he had been joined by a few more of those below, he 
went up against the tyrant's house and the praetorium, 
where the mercenary soldiers passed the night. And 
after falling upon these suddenly and capturing them 
all, but killing none, he straightway sent messages 
to his friends summoning them all from their homes, 
and they ran together from all quarters. Day was 
now breaking, and the theatre was thronged with 
people who still were in suspense because of the un- 
certain rumour that prevailed and in utter ignorance 
of what was afoot, until the herald came forward and 
made proclamation that Aratus the son of Cleinias 
invited the citizens to secure their freedom. 

IX. Then, convinced that what they had long ex- 
pected was come, they rushed in a body to the 



. . avriS bracketed by Sint. 2 ; Ziegler reads ir 
avr6v, with Stephanus. 



19 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rvpdvvov rrvp 



KopivOov 7779 oma? ava- 
, ware dav/jidcravra^ rovs ev Kopiv0<p 
Trapd /jiiKpov op/Afjaai 777309 rrjv ftoijOeiav. 6 pev 1031 
ovv ^liKOK\rj$ e\a6e Sid TLV 

2 Kol aTToSpas etc TT}? 7ro\e&>9, ol Be 
KaraTravcravTes i^erd r&v ^LKVWVIWV TO Trvp 
$ii)p7Ta%ov rrjv ol/cuav. KOI ovre raura e/ccoXvcrev 
6 "A/oaro?, rd re XotTra ^p^/xara rwv Tvpdvvwv 
et? fj,ecrov edrjfce rot? TroXtrat?. dirf-Oave Be ovBels 
ovBe erpctid)] TO irapaTrav TWV eire\6bvTu>v ovBe 
TWI> 7ro\/jLia)v, d\\a icaOapav /cal d 

efMf>v\.iou rrjv Trpd^ip 77 TV%) 

3 Kartjyaye Be tyvydBas TOU? /Jiev VTTO NLKO- 

e/CTreTTTWKoTas oyBorj/covra, rou? Be eiri 

rvpdvvayv OVK eXaTrou? 
ot? jj,arcpd p,ev r) TrXdvi] Kal ofjLov n 

eyeyovei. KaTe\66vre^ Be ol ir\elcrTOi 



wv /cvpiOL Trporepov rjcrav 



ica aovTes eir r ^wpa Ka ra9 ofcas 
d-nopiav TO) 'A/oarw Trapel^ov, e7 
fj,i> e%u)6ev Kal <j>Qovovfjtvr)v UTT' 'Avnyovov rrjv 
iro\iv opwvrt Bid rrjv e\ev9epiav, TaparTOfAevrjv 
Be u<' avri}s Kal o-raaid^ovcrav. 
4 f 'O6ev CK TWV irapovrwv dptcrra Kpivas Trpocre- 



oi/T9 vrreBvaav KOvcri(t)s oi-ofjia Kal 

aiwv ovre d^ici)fjLa \aju.7rpov ovre 
v e^ovrwv rare. fiiKpoiroXlrai ydp ?]crav ol 



ovre 



20 



ARATUS ix. 1-4 

residence of the tyrant, carrying firebrands. A great 
flame arose as the house caught fire,, and it was visible 
as far as Corinth, so that the people of Corinth were 
astonished and were on the point of sallying forth to 
help. Nicocles, then, slipped out unnoticed by way 
of certain underground passages, and ran away from 
the city, and the soldiers, after extinguishing the fire 
with the aid of the Sicyonians, plundered his house. 
Nor did Aratus prevent this, but put the rest of the 
wealth of the tyrants at the disposition of the citizens. 
And not a man was killed or even wounded at all, 
either among the assailants or their enemies, but 
fortune preserved the enterprise free from the taint 
of civil bloodshed. 

Aratus restored eighty exiles who had been banished 
by Nicocles, and those also who had fled the city 
during the reign of former tyrants, to the number of 
five hundred. These had long been wanderers, yes, 
for close to fifty years. And now that they had 
come back, most of them in poverty, they laid claim 
to the property which they had formerly held, and 
by going to their farms and houses threw Aratus 
into great perplexity. For he saw that the city 
was plotted against by outsiders and eyed with 
jealousy by Antigonus because it had regained its 
freedom, while it was full of internal disturbances 
and faction. 

Wherefore, as things stood, he thought it best to 
attach the city promptly to the Achaean League; 
and so, though the people of Sicyon were Dorians, 
they voluntarily assumed the name and civil polity 
of the Achaeans, who at that time had neither 
brilliant repute nor great strength. For most of 
them lived in small cities, owned land that was 

21 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



l Oakdrrrj TrpoawKovv d\ifJLev(D, ra 
TToXXo, Kara pa^/a? K^>epo^evr] TT/OO? rrjv iJTreipov. 
5 aXXa /jLa\icrra Brj 8ie$ii;av ovroi rrjv e & 
d\Krjv CLTT poo- /j,a%ov ovcrav, o<ra/a? 



/cal crvvrded)^ oJLOovovur^ Kal vovv 



, 01 r?}? [lev 7rd\ai TWV e &\\yjvcov U 
ovSev, ft)9 el'jrelv, /^epo? oi/re?, ev Be TW rore 
dio\6yov 7roXea)9 av/jLTravres O/JLOV &vva/LLiv OVK 
6 e^oi^re?, ev{3ov\ia Kal O/JLOVOLO,, Kal on TW 
/car' dperrjv e&vvavro /JLTJ fyOovelv, d\\a 
l aKoKovOelv, ov y^ovov avroiis eV ^ecrco 



Kal 

Kal 



vwv co? 7rXeto"rof? eKevOcpovvres Kal 

$16T\OVV. 

X. 'Hi> 8e "Aparo? T& 

\b$>p(jL)V } aKpi/Bearepos et? rd KOIVCL fjia\\ov 
ISiwv, TTi/cpco? lALGorvpavvos, e)(9pas opu) 

2 <tXta? aet rw KOIVU> av^epovn ^pwfjLevos. o9ev 
ov)( euro)? SoKel yeyovevat, (fri\os aKpiftrjs, co? 

evyvo) JJLWV Kal Trpao?, UTTO TT}? TroXtreta? 
Tepa TW Kaipw yLtera/8aXXoyu,e^o?, ofjiovoias 
Kal KOivwvias TroXewv Kal crvve^piov Kal 
Oedrpov fMiav (frwvijv a^ieVro? &>? ouSe^o? aXXou 
TWJ/ Ka\(ov epacrTrjS, TroXe/^w /cat dywvi %pr)cra- 
adai ^a^epco? d6apcrr)<; Kal 8v<T6\7ris, K\e-(jrai Be 
irpdyfjiara Kal Gva-KevdcracrOai Kpixfia TroXeis 

3 /tat Tvpdvvovs 7rr)/3o\(OTaro<i. Sib Kal TroXXa 
TW^ dv\7ricrTQ)v KaropOwcTas ev ot? ero 

OVK e\drTova 



22 



ARATUS ix. 4-x. 3 

v 

neither fertile nor extensive, and were neighbours to 
a sea that had no harbours and for the most part 
washed a precipitous and rocky shore. But this 
people more than any other showed the world that 
Greek prowess was invincible, whenever it enjoyed 
good order, harmonious discipline, and a sensible 
leader. For though they had taken almost no part in 
the ancient glories of Greece, and at this time, though 
counted all together, had not the power of a single 
considerable city, still, owing to their good counsels 
and their concord, and because they were able, in 
place of envying, to obey and follow the one who was 
pre-eminent among them for virtue, they not only 
preserved their own freedom in the midst of so great 
cities and powers and tyrannies, but also were con- 
tinually saving and setting free very many of the 
other Greeks. 

X. Aratus was by natural bent a statesman, high- 
minded, more exact in his public than in his private 
relations, a bitter hater of tyrants, and ever making 
a regard for the public weal determine his enmity 
or his friendship. Wherefore he seems to have 
proved not so much a strict friend, as a considerate 
and mild enemy, changing his ground in either 
direction according to the exigencies of the state, 
loving concord between nations, community of cities, 
and unanimity of council and assembly, beyond all 
other blessings. It was manifest that he resorted 
to open warfare and strife without courage and with 
little confidence, but that in stealing advantages and 
secretly managing cities and tyrants he was most 
proficient. Therefore, though he won many unex- 
pected successes where he showed courage, he seems 
to have lost no fewer favourable opportunities through 

23 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oY evXdfteiav. ov yap povov, co? eottce, Qrjptcov 
Tivwv o-^ret? evepyol $ia CTKOTOVS ovcrai /JLC& ^e- 
pav d7roTV<f)\ovvTai ^^pdrijri, Kal \7rTOTr)Ti T?}? 
Trepl TOV o(j)Oa\fjLov vyporijTos fjtrj (frepovcrrjs T^V 
TT/OO? TO ^w? ffvyfcpacriv, a\\a Kal BeivoTrjs rt? 
eaTiv av6pu>TTov KOI avvecris ev rot? viralQ pois 
$ia/ceK / rjpv r y/jLevoi<; evrdpaKros fyva-et, TT^OO? 6e 
epiKpv<f)OVS Kal \a6palov$ avaOapcrovcra 
T*nv & Toiavrrjv ava)fjLa\Lav evbeia \6you 
(f)ov Trepl ra? eu^uia? aTrepyd^erai, rrjv dpeTi']V, 
w&irep KapTrov avrofyin] Kal dyecapy^rov, K<f)pov- 
<ra<^Si')(a TT}? CTTI cmj //,?;?. raOra fj-ev ovv e^era- 
%ea@a) rot? TrapaSeiyfjiacriv. 

XL 'O 5e "Aparo?, eVel Kare/jii^e rot? 'A^a^ot? 
eavTov Kal ir]v TTO\IV, ev rot? lirnrevaL crrparev- 
6/Jievos rjyaTrdro Si' V7rel@eiav VTTO TWV 
OTL, Kaiirep cruyu,/SoXa9 rw KOLVM /zeyaXa? 
T^ eavrov $6%av Kal T^V TT}? TrarpiSos 
cb? ez^l 



rv e crrparriyovvTa 1 TWV 'Axaioiv, eir 
yLtaTo?, etre T^iTateu?, etre /jUKporepas Tti^o 
2 ru^oi TToXew?. 77/^6 &6 aura) /fat ^jprj^aT&v Soaped 
Trapd TOV (3acri\ew<$ Trevre Kal et/coffi rd\avra. 
ravra eKafte ^ev 6 "Aparo9, \afta)v Be TO?? eavrov 
7reSa)Kv 



l \vrpax7 iv 

XII. 'ETret 8e ot (J>vyd8e<$ rjcrav 
TO?? e^ovcn Trt? KTijcreis eVo^XoOi'Te?, ?; T6 TroXt? 
eKiv&vvevev dvdcrraTOs yeveaOai, fj.iav op&v e\7TiSa 
rrjv TlroXe/jLaiov <$>i\avdpwrrLav wpprjcrev K7r\ev- 
del ff-rpa.-r^yovvra Ziegler, with Sint. 1 and the MSS. : 



24 



ARATUS x. 3-xn. i 

over-caution. For not only in the case of certain 
wild beasts, as it would seem, is the vision strong by 
night but wholly blinded in the day-time (since the 
humour in their eyes is too dry and delicate to bear 
contact with the light), but there is also in some 
men a cleverness and sagacity which is prone to be 
confounded in transactions that are carried out under 
the open sky and proclaimed abroad by public criers, 
but when confronting hidden and secret enterprises 
recovers its courage. Such unevenness a lack of 
philosophy may cause in men of good natural parts ; 
they produce virtue without scientific knowledge, 
and it is like spontaneous and uncultivated fruit. 
This can be proved by examples. 

XI. Aratus, now, after uniting himself and his 
city with the Achaeans, served in the cavalry, and 
was beloved by his commanders on account of his 
ready obedience. For although he had made great 
contributions to the commonwealth in his own repu- 
tation and the power of his native city, he gave his 
services like those of any ordinary person to the one 
who from time to time was general of the Achaeans, 
whether he was a man of Dvme or of Tritaea, or of 
a meaner city. And there came to him also a gift of 
money from the king of Egypt, five-and- twenty 
talents. These Aratus accepted, but gave them at 
once to his fellow-citizens, who were in want of 
money, especially for the ransoming of such as had 
been taken prisoners. 

XII. But the exiles were not to be dissuaded from 
molesting those who were in possession of their 
property, and the city was in danger of an upheaval. 
Aratus saw that his only hope was in the generosity 
of Ptolemy, and therefore determined to sail to 

VOL. xi. B 25 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crai fcal BerjOrjvai rov /3a(rtA,e&>? OTTO)? avrm 
2 xprj/jLara av/jL^dXrjTai rrpos ras BiaXvaeis. av- 
ifyOr) jxev ovv drro Mo0a)vy]s vrrep MaXea?, &>? rw 
Bid rropov Bpo/jiO) ^prja-QfJLevo^. TT/JO? Se fjueya 
TTvev/jia Kal Tro\\r)v OaXacraav etc TreXa^of? KCLTI- 
ovcrav ev&ovros TOV KV/Sepvijrou, irapa^epofjievo^ 
/u-oXi? rjifraTO T>/9 'ASpta? TroXe/^ta? ovarji. eicpa- 
relro yap VTTO 'Avriyovov Kal $>v\aKr)v el-^ev r/v 
(f)6d(ra<; direfB^, Kal rrjv vavv KaraXiTrcov diT- 
e^Mptjae paKpav drrb da\d(Ta")j<; e^wv cva 
3 



e!'? Tiva TOTTOV 



evvKTepevov. oXiyw Be vcrrepov 6 <fipovpap%os 

eTT\0a>v Kal fyrwv rov "Aparov VTTO TMV Oepa- 

TTOVTCOV ^r)7rartjd)j TWV eiCGivov, 

\eyeiv ft>9 eu^u? aTroSpas et? Evftoiav e^e 

ra fjievroi Kofjutofjieva Kal TTJV vavv Kal rou? Oepd- 

TTOvras djre^rjve TroXe/zta Kal fcarecr^e. 

4 Mera Se 7; J ae J oa? ov TroXXa? ev dnopOLs OVTI T&) 
'Apdrft) yiverai ns evrv^ia, 'Pay^iaiKrj^ rea)? 
7rapa/3a\ov<rr]<; Kara rov rorrov ev c5 ra fj.ev errl 
(TKOTrrjv dviwv, ra $e Kpv7rrofj.evo^ Strjyev. eVXet 
/j,ev ovv r) i/au? et? ^vpiav, eVe/3/; Be Tretcra? rov 
vavK\tjpov ay^pi Kapta? iaKO{Jii<70iir 

/jLicrOr} KivBvvois av&i<; OVK eXdrrocn 

5 Kara 0d\arrav. IK Be Ka/3ta? %p6v(d rro\\a) 

ls et? AtyvTrrov avroOev re rw /3aai\ei 
evq) 7T/3O? avrov OLKia)<f everv^e, Kal reOepa- 
26 



ARATUS xn. 1-5 

Egypt arid beg the king to furnish him with money 
for the settlement of these disputes. So he put to 
sea from Mothone above Malea, intending to make 
the shortest passage. But the steersman could not 
make head against a strong wind and high waves 
that came in from the open sea, and being carried 
out of his course sot with difficultv to Adria, 1 which 

cj / 

was a hostile place. For it was in the power of 
Antigonus, and held a garrison of his. Aratus an- 
ticipated arrest by landing, and forsaking the ship 
withdrew a long way from the sea, having with him 
one of his friends, Timanthes. They threw them- 
selves into a place that was thickly covered with 
woods, and had a grievous night of it. A little later 
the commander of the garrison came to the ship in 
search of Aratus, and was deceived bv his servants, 
who had been instructed to say that he had run away 
at once and had sailed off to Euboea. The ship, 
however, with its cargo and the servants of Aratus, 
was declared a prize of war and detained. 

After a few days, while still in this helpless plight, 
Aratus met with a rare piece of good fortune, for a 
Roman ship put in at the place where he was staying, 
sometimes on a lookout-place, and sometimes hiding 
himself. The ship was bound for Syria, but after going 
on board Aratus persuaded the master of the vessel to 
convey him as far as Caria. Thither he was conveyed, 
encountering fresh perils by sea and perils as great 
as before. From Caria, after a long time, he made 
his way across to Egypt, and found the king both 
naturally well disposed towards him, and much grati- 

1 The text is probably corrupt. Bergk suggested Hydrea, 
an island off the N.E. coast of Peloponnesus. Others think 
of Andros, an island 8.K. of Euboea. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

evu) ypacfrals teal rriva^tv drro TT}? f E 
ev o9 Kpicnv %o)V OVK dfiovcTOV o ApaTos aei 
TI TWV T6~)(yiKMv fcai TrepiTT&v, paXiGTa Be 
(f)i\ov Kal Me\dv0oi), 



XIII. "HvOet jap eri S6a rfjs ^iKvawias /J.QV- 
xpyorroypcKfrias, a>? yuo^r/? aCidrfrtfopov 

TO KO\OV, O)(TT KOI \\.TT\\1)V KIVOV 

6{Ai'oi> afyiKecrOai real 
dv^pdcriv eVf 



a\Xa? eiKovas rwv rvpdvvwv civelhev ev0i>s o 

"Ayoaro?, ore Trjv 7ro\iv rjXevOepuxre, 7repl be T^? 

'Apiarpdrou Kara QiXiTnrov aK^daavro^ e(3ov- 

2 \evcraro TTO\VV %povov. eypd^rj pev 'yap VTTO rrdv- 

TCOV TWV 7Tpl TOV W\.\avOoV cip/J.a 

ob? 6 'ApucrTpaTOS, 'AvreXXoO 
7/3a(/>^?, 0)9 HoXe/zft)^ 6 
. TJV Be TO epyov d^ioOearov, ro 



TOV " ACLTOV V7TO T 



re /jLicret rw 77730? TOU? rvpdvvovs e%ayop.evov 
3 KeXeveiv KaOaipelv. TOV ovv ^wypdfyov NedX/cv) 
cf)i\ov OVTCL TOV 'ApaTOV 7rapaiTe1(70ai <^aai Kal 
Sa/cpveiv, to? &' ou eireiQev, elrrelv OTL TOIS Tvpdv- 
vois 7To\fjir)Teov, ov rot? TCOJ^ Tvpdvvwv. }Ldaw- 
/xev ovv TO ap/jLa Kal TTJV NiKrjv, avTov Be croi 103iJ 
TOV \\piffTpaTov e<ya) Trapa\wpovvTa TOV 

ovv TOV \\paTov Bi- 



1 PliilipIL, 382-336 B.C. 
28 



ARATUS xii. 5-xni. 3 
fied because Aratus had sent him drawings and 

c 1 

paintings from Greece. In these matters Aratus 
had a refined judgement, and was continually col- 
lecting and acquiring works of artistic skill and ex- 
cellence,especially those of Pamphilusand Melanthus. 
These he would send to Ptolemy. 

XIII. For the fame of Sicyon's refined and beautiful 
paintings was still in full bloom, and they alone 
were thought to have a beauty that was indestruct- 
ible. Therefore even the great Apelles, when he 
was already admired, came to Sicyon and gave a 
talent that he might be admitted into the society of 
its artists, desiring to share their fame rather than 
their art. Hence it was that Aratus, although he 
at once destroyed the other portraits of the tyrants 
when he had given the city its freedom, de- 
liberated a long time about that of Aristratus (who 
flourished in the time of Philip of Macedon 1 ). For 
it was the work of Melanthus and all his pupils, and 
Aristratus was painted standing by a chariot in which 
was a Victory ; Apelles also had a hand in the 
painting, as we are told by Polemon the Topographer. 
And the work was a marvellous one, so that Aratus 
was moved by the artistic skill therein ; but after- 
wards, such was his hatred of the tyrants, that he 
ordered it to be removed and destroyed. Accord- 
ingly, the painter Nealces, who was a friend of 
Aratus, interceded with him for the picture, as 
we are told, and with tears, and when he could 
not persuade him, said that war should be waged 
against the tyrants, but not against the treasures 
of the tyrants. " Let us therefore leave the chariot 
and the Victory, but Aristratus himself I will 
undertake to remove from the picture." Aratus 

29 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 NeaX/o/? TOV ^A.pia-rparov, et? Be rrjv 
iviKa fjLovov et'eypatyev, aXXo Be ovBev 
r6\firjcre TrapaftaXelv. rovs Be TroSa? e'Xet- 
rov 'ApiaTpdrov Bia\a0eiv vrro TO ap/aa 



4 "E/c re 8^ TOVTWV o "A/oaro? ^jairdro, real 
Trelpav eri p,a\\ov ri^raro rov /SacrtXe'co 
Scvpeav e'Xa/3e TT? 7ro\t TrevT/jKOvra KOI etcarov 
Tokavra. Kal TOVToyv reaaapuKOvra ^JLCV evQvs 
fjied^ eavrov KO/JL'L^WV i? Tle\o7r6vv)]a-ov /carrjpe, 
ra Be \onra oie\a)v et? 8o<jet? 6 /SacrtXeu? vcrrepov 



Kara 



XIV. *Hi' /xe;' ou^ /jie<ya Kal TO xpij/Aara ro- 
aavra Tropiaai TO49 TroXtTai?, ocrcov jjbiicpov /jie 
aXXoi o-rparr]jol KCLI Brjfjia r /w/ol 
Trapa /3acrL\ea)v ffiiKovv Kal KaTe$ov\ovvro KOI 
TrpoeTTivov avrols TO,? irarpiSas, /zet&oi' 8e /} 3ia 
%pr)/j,dr(i)V TOVTWV Karao-fcevacrOeiaa TOA? /i^ 

7T/3O9 TOU? 7T\OVCrioV<f Bld\V(TlS Kal OyUO- 

, TW 8e S^/zft) Tra^Tt cratrrjpLa Kal acr^aXeia, 
av [jLaarr] Be 7} ToD avBpos ev Bwd/Aei Tocravrr) 
2 /jLerpiorr]^. a7Toer^$et? 70/3 avTOKpdrcop Bia\- 
/)? /cat Kvpios oXa>? eVt Ta? (frvyaBiKas OLKOVO- 
v% VTre/jieii'ev, aXXa 
rpOGKare^^ev eavra>, 

TToXXcG /cat fj,6jd\ais 7rpaj/j,areiai,^ KareipydcraTo 
l <rvvr)piJ>ocre <pi\.iav Kal elpijvrjv Tot? 



P.OVOV Kotvr) crv/j.7rai>Te$ 01 
aTreBoa-av ai/TO) TrpeTrovaas, aXXa /cat Kar* 



3 



ARATUS xiii. 3-xiv. 2 

therefore yielded, and Nealces erased the figure of 
Aristratus, and in its place painted a palm-tree 
merely, not daring to introduce anything else. We 
are told, however, that the feet of the erased figure 
of Aristratus were left by an oversight beneath the 
chariot. 

In consequence of this love of art Aratus was 
already beloved by the king, and in personal inter- 
course grew yet more upon him, and received for his 
city a gift of a hundred and fifty talents. Forty of 
these Aratus took with him at once and sailed to 
Peloponnesus ; the rest the king divided into instal- 
ments, and sent them to him afterwards one by one. 

XIV. Now it was a great achievement to procure 
so large a sum of money for his fellow-citizens ; other 
generals and leaders of the people had taken but 
a fraction of this sum from kings in payment for 
wronging, enslaving, and betraying to them their 
native cities. But it was a far greater achievement 
by means of this money to have effected a harmonious 
adjustment of the disputes between rich and poor, and 
safety and security for the entire people. Moreover, 
we must admire the moderation of the man in the 
exercise of so great power. For when he was ap- 
pointed independent arbiter, with absolute powers for 
settling the money affairs of the exiles, he would not 
accept the office alone, but associated with himself 
fifteen of his fellow-citizens, by whose aid, after 
much toil and great trouble, he established peace 
and friendship among his fellow-citizens. 1 For these 
services not only did the entire body of citizens 
bestow fitting public honours upon him, but the 
exiles also on their own account erected a bronze 
1 Cf. Cicero, De Off. ii. 23, 8 Iff. 

3' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



IBiav 01 (pvydBes eiKova ^a\Kijv 
GTreypatyav ToBe TO eXeyelov 

3 /3ouXa! [lev /cal de9\a /cal d Trepl r XXa8o? dX/ca 
ToOS' dvBpos crTaXat? TcKdQzTai f j 

>/ c>' 1 I ' \f A V ' 

b CL/COV , ApaT, Teav VOCTTOLO 



awf 



Oeols, OTI TrarpiBi ra era 
6eiav T' WTracra? evvofjiiav. 



XV. TaOra SiaTrpa^dfJLevos 6 "A/3aro? row 
Tro\tTiKOv <$>9ovov /uiei^fDv eyeyovei Sid ra? 



acrie viu>fjievos eV avrat icdi 



^ T) fierdyeiv oXw? TT} (f>i\ia irpos avrov 
i] Si,a,8d\\eLV TTyoo? TOI> ITToXeyLtatoi/, aXXa? re 
<pi\ai>dptt>7TLa<$ evG&e'iKvvro /j,rj jrdvv 
/cal Ovwv 6eol<$ ev }LopLv9(o /xe/otSa? et? 
2 rw 'Aparw SteTreyUTre. /tat Trapd TO BCLTTVOV, ecrrt- 
a>/jLeva)V7ro\\a)V, els /JLCCTOV (frOey^djuevos, " "fli/jLijv" 
efai, " TOV *$<IKVU>VIOV TOVTOV veavlcrKov e\evdepioi> 
elvat, rfj (fiver ei IJLOVOV KOL (f)i\o7TO\irt]v 6 Be /cai 
KCU irpay^draiv fiacrt\iKa)V ircavbs 



elvai KpiTifc. Trporepov yap rj/jids vTrepewpa raw 



\7ri(Ti.v eco yiSXeTra)^ /cal TOV AlyvTTTiov e 
TT\OVTOV, e\e(j)avTa$ /cal <TToXov? teal 
d/coiKDV, vvvl Be VTTO o~KT]vr]V ewpaKO)? Tfdvra ra 
KL irpdy/^aTa TpaywBiav ovTa KOI o~Krjvoypa$>iav 
3 0X09 rjfuv rrpoo-Ke^coprjicev. atTO? re ovv djro- 
TO fieipdtfiov eyvwicats el? airavTa 



Sint. 2 and Ziegler, after Zeitz : 5al/j.ov' \aav. 
32 



ARATUS xiv. 2-xv. 3 

statue of him, and inscribed thereon the following 
elegiac verses : 

"The counsels, valorous deeds, and prowess 
in behalf of Hellas, which this man has dis- 
played, are known as far as the Pillars of 
Heracles ; but we who achieved our return 
through thee, Aratus, for thy virtue and justice, 
have erected to the Saviour Gods this statue of 
our saviour, because to thy native city thou hast 
brought a sacred and heavenly reign of law." 

XV. These successful achievements placed Aratus 
beyond the jealousy of his fellow-citizens, owing to 
the gratitude which he inspired ; but Antigonus, the 
king, was annoyed by the policy of Aratus, and 
wished either to bring him over into complete friend- 
ship with himself or to alienate him from Ptolemy. 
He therefore showed him many kindnesses which 
were not at all welcome, and especially this, that as 
he was sacrificing to the gods at Corinth, he sent 
portions of the victims to Aratus at Sicyon. And at 
the banquet which followed, where many guests were 
present, he said, so that all could hear : " I thought 
this Sicyonian youth was merely free-spirited and a 
lover of his fellow-citizens ; but he would seem to be 
a capable judge also of the lives and actions of kings. 
For formerly he was inclined to overlook us, fixing 
his hopes elsewhere, and he admired the wealth of 
Egypt, hearing tales of its elephants, and fleets, and 
palaces ; but now that he has been behind the scenes 
and seen that everything in Egypt is play-acting and 
painted scenery, he has come over entirely to us. 
Therefore I both welcome the young man myself, 
having determined to make every possible use of 

33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iy KOI ty-ia? aia> $>l\ov vouL^eiv." rovrovs TOU? 
Xoyou? vTTodeGiv Xa/So^Te? ol $>9ovepol Kal /cafco- 
?)#? $iT)[j,i\.\(*)VTO TCU? eVfcrroXat? aXX?/Xot9, 
TroXXa Kal Bvcr^epr) Kara rov 'Apurov ry 
/o) ypcifpovres, tocrre Karcelvov eyKaX-ovvra 
rai9 /tei' ot'j' Tre/^/ia^r/TOi? 

epwcri </u\uu? /Sacr^Xea)^ /val rvpdv- 
vwv TOCTOVTOV TrpoarjV (f)66i'ov KOL KaKorjOeia^. 

-\r \TT r f^\ C^V>/4 '/5^ vv 

AVI. (Joe Aparos mpet/et? arpar^/o^ TO TT/JCO- 
TOI/ UTTO rail' 'A^atwi/ r^v yu,ez> ai/Tt7re/?a? 
l Ka\v8a>VLav eTropflrjcre, Boiwrot? 5e yuera 

arpaTicoTwv ftorjtfwv vcTTepyo-e 
t'Tro Alra)\(t)v Trepl Xaipaveiav fjTTij0r)(rav, 1034 
AfioiwKpt'rov re rov ftoiwrdp'xpv Kal %i,\ic0v <rvv 
2 avra) TT<r6vTa)v. eviawrfp Be vcrrepov avOis crrpa- 
rrjywv evicrraro rrjv Trepl rov * AtcpoKopivOov rrpa- 
ov %iKVO)vi<DV ovo* 'A^aiwi/ /c^So/zez/o?, a\Xa 
Tiva T^? 'EXXaSo? oX?;? rvpfivviSa, rr)v 
(ppovpdv, e/ceWev e'^eXacrat Siavoov- 
Xap?/? yuej^ 7a/o 6 ' ' Adr/valo^ ev TIVI 
Tot*? /3acriXea)? arrparij'yovs 
e rfo S^/JLW rwv ' ' A6r)vaia>v a>? vtviKrifcot r/)? 
Ma/oa^&m yua^^? dSeXtyijv ravrrjv Be rrjv 
OVK av d/j,dprot Ti? dSe\<j)i)V rrpoGtirrwv 
XoTTtSoL' TGI) 0r/y9atou /cat pao-v/3ou\ov 
rov 'AOrjiaiov TvpavvoKiovias, TrXrjv ori ru> ^irj 
TTyoo? r/ EXX?;i/a?, aXXa eVa/crof dp%ijv yeyovevai 
4 /cat d\\6cf)V\uv avrr) Snjvey/cev. 6 yuez/ 

34 



ARATUS xv. 3-xvi. 4 
him. and I ask you to consider him a friend." These 

f 

words were seized upon by the envious and male- 
volent, who vied with one another in writing to 
Ptolemy many grievous charges against Aratus, so 
that the king sent an envoy and upbraided him. 
So great malice and envy attend upon the friend- 
ships of kings and tyrants, for which men strive and 
at which they aim with ardent passion. 

XVI. Aratus now, having been chosen general of 
the Achaean League for the first time, ravaged the 
opposite territories of Locris and Calydonia, and 
went to the assistance of the Boeotians with an army 
of ten thousand men. He came too late, however, 
for the battle at Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotians 
were defeated by the Aetolians, with the loss of 
Aboeocritus, their Boeotarch, and a thousand men. 
A year later, 1 being general again, he set on foot the 
enterprise for the recovery of Acrocorinthus, 2 not in 
the interests of Sicyonians or Achaeans merely, but 
purposing to drive from that stronghold what held 
all Hellas in a common subjection, the Macedonian 
garrison. Chares the Athenian, having been suc- 
cessful in a battle with the king's generals, wrote to 
the people of Athens that he had won a battle which 
was "sister to that at Marathon"; and this enter- 
prise of Aratus may be rightly called a sister of 
those of Pelopidas the Theban and Thrasybulus the 
Athenian, in which they slew tyrants, except that it 
surpassed them in being undertaken, not against 
Greeks, but against a foreign and alien power. For 

1 In 243 B.C., two years later. The office of general in the 
League could not be held by the same person in successive 
years. Cf. chap. xxiv. 4. 

8 The citadel of Corinth. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
oi* *}juf>pa&&<ant ra? OaX-dcrdas, et9 ravro crvvdyet 

Tft) 707TO) 1 Kal {TWCLTTTei Tf)V IJTTeipOV r)/jLO)V, 6 B 

'A.KpOKopiv0os, v^rrfkov o'yoo?, K /u,e<T-7? ava- 
7T(/>f/ca;9 TT)? 'EXXaSo?, 6Vai> \dftrj (frpovpdv, t>i- 
araraL Kal uTTOKOTTTet rr]V eVro? 'Icr^/ioO Tracrav 
eTrijjLi^iwv re Kal Trapo&wv Kal crrpareLuiv epy acrias 
5 re Kara <yi]V Kal Kara 0d\arTav, Kal eva Kvpiov 
TOV ap^ovra Kal Kare^ovra (frpovpa TO 
, ware fjuij irai^ovra SoKelv TOV v 



XaSo? TIJV KopivOiwv TToKiv Trpo&ayopevetv. 

XVII. riacrt fjiev ovv Trepi/^d^TO^ i]v o TOTTO? 
del Kal ftaaiXevcri, Kal SwdaTais, 77 Be 'Avnyovov 
i] Trepl avrbv ovBev a7TeXi7T irddei rwv e/t- 
epu>Twv, dXX' 0X09 dvrjprijTO rai? 
fypovricriv OTTO)? d^aiprjcreraL B6\w rou? e%ovra<;, 
2 eTTft (fravepMs a^eXTrtcrro? ^z^ 7; eTTL^eLprj 
dv&pov yap, vfi bv TO %wpiov rjv, a 
(a>5 \eyeraL^ <pap^dKoi(f UTT' avrov, 



TCOI> 



Ka <)VarTOva-'rs rov 



V0V<? VTTOTTefMTTWV &r)/jL1)TplOV TOV VIOV 

y\VKfia<; e'XmSa? evBiBovs yduwv /BaaiXiKMV Kal 
avfj,j3i(t)a'eco<; TT^OO? ou/c a^S^ evTV\eiv yvvaiKl 
3 Trpecr/SvTepa /AetpaKiov, avTTjV uev ypqKei, TW TraiBl 
%pr)<rdfj,evos wcrirep aX\(p Ttvl TWV &e\eacr fjidTwv 
avTy, TOV Be TOTTOV ov Trpole^evr]^, aXA,' eyKpa- 
\aTTOixn]s, d^e\elv TTpocnroiov/jievos eOve 
avTwv ev KopivOw, Kal Oeas eVeTeXet 

1 TO T^iTO) Capps : T 



ARATUS xvi. 4-xvn. 3 

the Isthmus of Corinth, forming a barrier between 
the seas, brings together the two regions, and thus 
unites our continent ; and when Acrocorinthus, 
whicli is a lofty hill springing up at this centre of 
Greece, is held by a garrison, it hinders and cuts off 
all the country south of the Isthmus from inter- 

/ 

course, transits, and the carrying on of military 
expeditions by land and sea, and makes him who 
controls the place with a garrison sole lord of Greece. 
Therefore it is thought that the younger Philip of 
Macedon 1 uttered no jest, but the truth, whenever 
he called the city of Corinth " the fetters of Greece.'' 
XVII. Accordingly, the place was always an object 
of great contention among kings and dynasts, but the 
eagerness of Antigonus to secure it fell nothing short 
of the most frenzied passion, and he was wholly 
absorbed in schemes to take it by stratagem from 
its possessors, since an open attempt upon it was 
hopeless. For when Alexander, 2 in whose hands 
the place was, had died of poison given him (it is 
said) in obedience to Antigonus, and his wife Nicaea 
had succeeded to his power and was guarding the 
citadel, Antigonus at once sent his son Demetrius to 
her in furtherance of his schemes, and by inspiring 
her with pleasant hopes of a royal marriage and of 
wedded life with a young man who would be no 
disagreeable company for an elderly woman, he 
captured her, using his son for all the world like a 
bait for her. The citadel, however, she did not give 
up, but kept it under strong guard. Pretending, 
therefore, indifference to this, Antigonus celebrated 
the nuptials of the pair in Corinth, exhibiting 

1 Philip V., 237-179 B.C. 

2 The tyrant of Corinth. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



' rj/jiepav, &><? av T*<? fjLa\icrra 
teal a~)(o\d^eLv rtjv Bidvoiav v(j)' ijBovris 

4 KOI <f>i\o<t>pocrvvrj<; dfieifcws. eVel Be Kaipos f)V, 
aBovros 'A/io/3eo><? ev rw Oedrpw, 7rape7re/.t7re rrjv 

auro? eVl rrp ^eai/ eV ^opetco KeKoa-fJU)- 
crtXt/ta)?, dya\\ofj,vijv re rfj TI/JLI} KOL 
Troppwrdroy TOV /AeXXoyro? ovaav. yevo/Aevos Be 
T/}? o^ou Kara rrjv efcrpOTrrjv rrjv avu> (pepovaar, 
erceivrjv fj.ev etceXevcre Trpodyeiv et? TO tfearpov, 
auro? 5e ^alpeiv /jiev 'A/xoi^ea, ^alpeiv Be TOU? 
eacra? dvrjei Trpo? TOI> ^ \KpOfcopivOov a/zi\- 
Trap' t}\LKiav teal KeK\eicr fjLevrjv rrjv rrv- 
evpwv, eKorrre rfj /3aK~r)pia K,e\evwv dvouyeiv. 

5 ot' S' ev&ov dveu>%av Kararr\a r yevre<s. ovrw Be rov 
roTrov fcparrfcras, ov Karea^ev avrov, d\\ enive 
Trai^tov VTTO %apas ev rot? arevwrrols, real &i 
dyopas avXrjrpiBas e^wv real crre(f)dvovs TrepiKeu- 

yeproi' real r">f\.iKavrais Trpayudrcov 



Trpoaayopevwv TOI>? rravrtovras. ovrws pa rea 
l <>6/3ov /J,a\\ov e%iGrr)(Ti teal crd\ov 
rfj tyvxfj TO %aipeii> dvev \oyi<raov 
rrapayivo^ievov. 

XVIII. 'AXXa ydp 'AyTiyovos pe.v, w<T7rep e'lprj- 
rai, Kr^ad^evo^ rov 'AKpoteopivdov e^uXarre, 
aerd rwv a\\a)v ot? eTrivreve /^d\icrra Kal Hep- 1035 
aaiov eVtcrr^o-a? apyovra rov <pi\6ao<j)ov. o Be 
"Aparo? ert fiev Kal 'A\ej;dvBpou %a)vro<$ erre^ei- 
ptjcre rjj rrpd^ei, yevo/jievrjs Be crt'/A/ta^ta? rot? 
* rov 'A\ej;avBpov eiravaaro. rore 



ARATUS xvii. 3-xvm. 2 

spectacles and giving banquets every day, as one 
whom pleasure and kindliness led to think chiefly 
of mirth and ease. Hut when the crucial moment 
came, and as Amoeheus was about to sing in the 
theatre, he escorted Nicaea in person to the spectacle. 
She was borne in a litter which had royal trappings, 
plumed herself on her new honour, and had not the 
remotest suspicion of what was to happen. Then, 
arrived at the diverging street that led up to the 
citadel, Antigomis gave orders that Nicaea should 
be borne on into the theatre, while he himself, 
bidding adieu to Amoebeus, and adieu to the 
nuptials, went up to Acrocorinthus with a speed 
that belied his years; and, finding the gate locked, 
he beat upon it with his staff and ordered it to 
be opened. And the guards within, stupefied, 
opened it. Thus master of the place, he could not 
contain himself for joy, but drank and disported 
himself in the streets, and with music-girls in his 
train and garlands on ID'S head, old man that he 
was and acquainted with so great vicissitudes 
of fortune, revelled through the market-place, 
greeting and clasping hands with all who met him. 
Thus we see that neither grief nor fear transports 
and agitates the soul as much as joy that comes 
unexpectedly. 

XVIII. Antigomis, then, having got Acrocorinthus 
into his power, as I have said, kept it under guard, 
putting men there whom he most trusted, and 
making Persaeus the philosopher their commander. 
Now Aratus, even while Alexander was still living, 
had set his hand to the enterprise, but an alliance 
was made between the Achneans and Alexander, and 
he therefore desisted. At the time of which I speak, 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be avOis e' vTrapxrjs erepav e'Xa/Se 



'Hcrai' eV Kopivdw Tecrcrapes dBe\(j)ol ^vpoi TO 
yevos, wv el? oi'o/j-a A/o/cX)}? ev TW (frpovpiw yuaQo- 
(fropa)i> SierpijSev. oi Be Tyoet9 /cXe^arre? /Sacri- 
\IKOV xpv&iov r]\6ov e/? ^IKVWVCL TT/JO? Atyiav 
Tiva TpaTre^iTrjv, w $ia TIJV epyao-iav 6 "A/oaro? 
-)(pfJTO. teal ycie/?o? /j.v vdv<; Sie&evro rov ftpvcriov, 
TO Se XOLTTOV el? CLVTWV 'Ep^a'O? 7ri(f)OiTa)i> ycrvxfj 

3 KaT7J\\CLTTV. K $6 TOVTOV yl'd/AVOS T<M \lyia 

i]&)i$, teal Trpoa\6e\s ei? \6yov VTT avTov Trepl 
(frpovpas, e0?; vrpo? TOV a$e\<$)Qv araSaii'wv 
TO fcptj/jLvtoSes VT6fjLijv KO0ea)paKvat TrXa- 
ryiav, ayovcrav T; ^Oa/jidXwTaTOv TT(OKoS6/j.ijTai 
TO) <$>povpi(p TO ret^o?. 77/5ocr7rat^ai'To? Se avTw 
TOV Alyiou KOI eiTrovTos' " Etra, w 

OVTCO xpvaiov avaaTcaTe ra? 



p.av wpav 

; 77 7a/3 ou^t /cat TOf / Ya> / ou^o/? ATGU 

aTroOai'elv virdp^eL ; ' 



4 y\d<ra<; o 'Epyt^'o? rore /xei^ a)fj,o\oyrjo'i' a 
paaQai TOV AtOArXeou? (TO!? ya/o a'XXot? a 
/it?; Trdvv TI TricrTeveti 1 ^, o\iyai$ 8e vaTepov r)/j.pai<; 
7rai>6\6cov a-vi'TiOerai TOV "ApaTOv a^eiv ?rpo? TO 



, oof TO i;\o? oi fj.e^ov tjv 
, Kal TaXXa (rv/jL7rpdeiv /J.TO, TOV 
XIX. 'O e "ApaTo? eVetVoi? /^et' e^i'-j 
Ta\avTa Scoo-eir KaTopOuxras a)/^o\6ytjcrev, rjv Be 
aTroTvxU) crtoOf) Be /ZCT' e'vetVwz', ouciav eKaTtpw 
real TaXavTov. eVtt 5e eSei Trapa TOO Alyia TO, 
Ta\ai>Ta KelaOaL ToZ? 



40 



ARATUS xvin. 2-xix. i 

however, a new and fresh basis for the enterprise 
was found by him in the following circumstances. 

There were in Corinth four brothers, Syrians by 
race, one of whom, Diocles by name, was serving as 
a mercenary soldier in the citadel. The other three, 
after stealing some gold plate of the king's, came to 
Aegias, a banker in Sicyon with whom Aratus did 
business. A portion of the gold they disposed of to 
him at once, but the remainder was being quietly 
exchanged by one of them, Erginus, in frequent 
visits. Erginus thus became well acquainted with 
Aegias, and having been led by him into conversa- 
tion about the garrison in the citadel, said that as he 
was going up to see his brother he had noticed in 
the face of the cliff a slanting fissure leading to 
where the wall of the citadel was at its lowest. 
Thereupon Aegias fell to jesting with him, and said : 
" Do you, then, best of men, thus for the sake of a 
little gold plate rifle the king's treasures, when it is 
in your power to sell a single hour's work for large 
sums of money? Don't you know that burglars as 
well as traitors, if they are caught, have only one death 
to die?" Erginus burst out laughing, and as a first 
step agreed to make trial of Diocles (saying that he 
had no confidence at all in his other brothers), and a 
few davs afterwards came back and bargained to 

/ ^-^ 

conduct Aratus to the wall at a spot where it was 
not more than fifteen feet in height, and to aid in 
the rest of the enterprise together with Diocles. 

XIX. Aratus on his part agreed to give the men 
sixty talents if he was successful, and in case he 
failed, and he as well as they got off safely, to give 
each of them a house and a talent. Then, since the 
sixty talents had to be deposited with Aegias for 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



aro? OVT avrbs ^X ev OVT e/3ov\ro 



aicr9r](Tii> erepfp TJ}? Irpdjgews Trapa- 
a"%elv, \a(3ot)V TMV efCTrcofJiaTcov TCI rro\\a KOI ra 
Xpvaia rr}? yvvaiKos vrrf.0)]K6 rm Alyifi Trpos TO 
2 ap'yvpiov. OVTM jap eTrr/pro rfj tyw)(f) KaL 
TOV epwra rwv KO\.MI> irpd^eo>v ei^ev, wcrre 



KOI rv 



/ceil K pcLTiGTOv^ yyoi'evai 



Girl TO!) Bto)(raor6aL bwpeas /LteyaXa? KCU 
/r) Trpoe&Oai ^ptjfJLaTwv TO KO\OV, auTo? 6t? Taura 
SctTravacrOai Kpixpa KOI 7rpoeicr<^epeiv, ev ols fxtv- 
btiveve JJLOVOS vircp Travrwv ouBe el&ort&v ra Trpar- 
3 rojiiei'a, ppetTO. rtv yap OVK av Oavfidaeie KCLL 

en vvv rf) /j.ya\otyv)(ia rov av- 



\ ' : A 

v, KCLI Ta ri/iKorara oKovvra TWV 



uTToriOevros, OTTW? Trapeiaa^Gel^ VVKTOS 
TroXe/zto^? Bia r y(ovicrr)TUi rrepl TT}? tyv~%fjs, 
i>i(vpov \aQu)V Ti]V \7riSa rov KO\OV Trap* av-wv, 
aX\o Se ovSev ; 

XX. Qy&av KciO' avrrjv -rri(jfya\T) TTJV irpa- 
t,}> 7rii<])a\(TTepar e-oi^aev u nap-la TIS evQvs 
ev ap^fj (TVfj./3d(Ta Ct ayvoiav. o yap oiKerr)? TOU 
\\pdrov Te'^/vz' eirifitftOg yu.e?' ft>9 /zcra rov A^o- 

TO TCtvos 1 , OVITM 8' TJV r(o 

, a\\a 



avrov fcal TO 



f>jv o 'Ep^/a'O? errecTrj^vev ovXoKOfirjv KOA, fie\dy- 
2 xpovv KaL dyeveioi'. e\0wv ovv l orrov crvvere- 



. t\0wv ovv Coraes and Zieler. with the MSS. 
ivfiov, f\ 

42 



ARATUS xix. i-xx. 2 

Erginus, and Aratus neither liad them himself nor 
was willing by borrowing them to give anyone 
else a suspicion of his undertaking, he took most 
of his plate and his wife's golden ornaments and 
deposited them with Aegias as security for the 
money. For he was so exalted in spirit and had 
so great a passion for noble deeds that, knowing as 
he did that Phocion and Epaminondas were reputed 
to have been the justest and best of Greeks because 
they spurned great gifts and would not betray their 
honour for money, he elected to expend his own 
substance secretly, as an advance, on an enterprise in 
which he alone was risking his life for the whole 
body of citizens, who did not even know what was 
going on. For who will not admire the magnanimity 
of the man, and yearn even now to lend a helping 
hand, who purchased at so high a price so great a 
danger, and pledged what he thought the most 
precious of his possessions in order that he might 
be introduced by night among his enemies and 
contend for his life, receiving as his security from 
his countrymen the hope of a noble action, and 
nothing else ? 

XX. Now the enterprise was dangerous in itself, 
but was made more dangerous still by a mistake 
which occurred at the very beginning through 
ignorance. For Technon. the servant of Aratus, 
had been sent to inspect the wall with Diocles, 
and had not yet met Diocles face to face, but 
thought he would know how he looked because 
Erginus had described him as curly-haired, of a 
swarthy complexion, and without a beard. Having 
come, therefore, to the place appointed, he was 

43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



raK.ro, TOV *&p r yli>ov 009 d^i^Q/ievov fjierd rov 
AtotfXeof? dve/Jieve rrpo rr/s 7roAeo>? irpo rov tca\ov- 
fj,evov "Opvitfos. ev Be rovrw rrpwros dBe\<f>o<; 
'Epyivov KOI A^o/eXeou? ovo^a AIOVVGIOS ov avv- 
eiBfbs rrjv rrpd^iv ovSe KOLVWVWV, O/JLOIOS Be TW 
Ato/cXet, Trpoatjei Kara rv%rjv. 6 Be Te^i/ow TT/OO? 
ra ffrfnela TT)? fjiopcfrrjs rfj o/jioiorrjri, KiVTiOels 1036 
r)pa)r^ae rov avtfpwrrov el n av/jL/36\aiov avrw 

3 7T/?o9 'E^'yti^o^ et?;. <f)ijcravro$ Be dBe\<f>ov elvai. 
rravrdrraertv o TiyfiHov erreiaO^ rw AtotfXet Bia\e- 

ai' feat ^jre rovvo/jia TrvOo/jLevos ftr;r' a\Xo 
/' rrpo<jp,eivas retcfju'ipiov /ji/3(i\\i re rrjv 
i' avrw KCLI rrepl rwv tfVyteeifva>v TT/OO? rov 

ov e\d\ei Kaxelvov dveKptvev. 6 Be 

avrov rijv d/j.apriav rravovpyws 
re rrdvra ical rrpo^; rr/v Tr6\iv dvaarpe-fy-as v 

4 ai/UTTOTTTco? BiaXeyo/nevos. ijBrj Be TrX^ja-Lov 5Wo? 
avrov KOI ^e\\ovro^ oaov ovrrw rov ^Te 
Bia\a/j./3dieiv, drro rv^tj^ av rrci\iv 6 'E 
auTcu? dmjvrrj(76v. alcrfto/jievos Be rrjv drrdnjv /cal 
rov fcivBvvov Bid vevp.aro$ eS/yXcocre TW Te^vcovi, 
<f>evyeii>' KOI dTrorrrjBija-avres d/jL&orepoi Bp6fj,fi) 

o? rov " Aparov diTeaioO^aav. ov firjv drretca/jLe 
eXrticriv eKelvos, aXX' eTre/u-vJrei/ evOvs rov 
^pvaiov re ru> Atoz^fcrtw KO/^i^ovra KOI 

5 Be^cro/jLevov avrov aiayrrdi'. 6 Be xalrovro erroirjcre 
KCLL rov l^iovvcnov dywv fj.e6^ eavrov rrpos rov 
"Aparov r)\0v. e\0ovra Be avrov ov/cert Biff/cav, 
aXXa Sijaavres e<ftv\arrov ev olfficrKco Karatce- 

v avrol Be Trapea/cevd^ovro rrpos rr\v 



~V" "V T ' I? v ? ^ * f/ ' ^ v "-\ ~\ 

A A I. r.Trei of yjv erotyua rravra, rrjv fj,ev a\\,rjv 
44 



ARATUS xx. 2-xxi. j 

waiting lor Erginus to come there with Diocles, 
just outside the city, near what was called the 
Ornis. As he was waiting, however, the oldest 
brother of Erginus and Diocles, named Dionysius, 
who was not privy to the enterprise and took no 
part in it, but resembled Diocles, chanced to come 
up. So Technon, moved by the similarity in the 
marks of his outward appearance, asked him if he 
was connected at all with Erginus ; and on his saying 
that he was a brother, Technon was altogether 
convinced that he was talking with Diocles,, and 
without inquiring his name, or waiting for any other 
proof whatever, gave him his hand and began 
chatting with him and asking him questions about 
what had been agreed upon with Erginus. 
Dionysius took cunning advantage of his mistake, 
assented to all that he said, and turning his back 
towards the city led him along in unsuspicious 
conversation. But just as he was near the city, 
and was at the very point of seizing Technon, by 
a second chance Erginus met them. Erginus 
comprehended the trick and the danger, motioned 
Technon to fly, and both of them ran off and got 
safely to Aratus. Aratus, however, would not give 
up hope, but at once sent Erginus to bribe Diony- 
sius and beg him to hold his tongue. Erginus not 
only did this, but actually brought Dionysius with 
him to Aratus. And now that Dionysius was there 
they would not let him go, but bound him and kept 
him indoors under lock and key, while they 
themselves prepared for their attack. 

XXI. When all things were ready, Aratus ordered 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Bvva/jiiv Ke\ev(TV eVl T&V oir\wv vv/crepeveiv, 
dva\afiwv Be \oydBas rerpaKocriovs ovB' avrovs 
ra Trparro^va, TT\V]V o\Lya)v, rjye TT/OO? 
7ri>Xa? irapa TO 'Hpaiov. rjv Be TOV erof? 1} 
Trepl 6epo<? aK/jid^ov wpa, TOV Be /JLTJI/O? Travcre- 
\r)vos, 77 Be vv% a^e^eXo? KOI Kara^av^, OXTTE 
Ka\ <j>6(Bov TO, 6VXa Trape^eiv avriKafjiTfovTa TT/OO? 

2 TTJV aeKrjvi^v, /A/; TOVS fyv\CLKa<s ov \d6wcrLV. ijBij 
Be T0)v TrpMTtoV 6771)9 OVTWV a7ro Ba\d(Tcrr]s dv- 
eBpa/jie vecfrvj teal KaTecr^e Ttjv re TTO\LV avTr/i> real 
TOV ea> TOTTOV eTTicnciov ryevofjievov. evravOa Be 
ol fj,ev aXXot crwyKadia-avTes VTreXvovTo ra? icpr)- 

ovre yap fy-otyov iroiovai TTO\VV OVT 
a^^dvov<ri yvfjLvo'is Tols Trocriv OLVTI- 
\afji (Savopevoi TWV /cXt/xa/ccoi/' o Be 'E/ayti/o? fTrra 
\afttov veavia KOV<$ ecrToXfievov ? oBonropLKWs e\aOe 

3 Trj Trv\r} Trpocrfjii^as. KCL\ TOV 7rv\a)pov il'irotc'riv- 
yvovcri KCLL TOVS /JLCT' avTov fyvXatcas. a^a Be ai 
T6 K\i/LiaK<; Trpo<T6Ti6evTO real fcaTa cnrovBrjv 6 
"A/caro? vTrepfiiftdaas e/caTov avBpas, TOV? B* 
aAAou? CTrecrOat /ceXeutra? oo? av BvvwvTat 

ra? K\ip.aKa<^ dva^irdaa^ t^oo^et Bia r^? 
//era TWV exaTov eVl Ttjv dtfpav, rfB/j 
Bid TO \av6dveiv &>? KdTopflwv. 

4 Kat TTft)? GTL TTpO(T(i)9eV dVTOlS dinjVTa (TVV <f)0)Ti 

<frv\aKr) T<T(rdp(t)V dvBpcov ov KaOopco^evois' Ti 
yap rjcrav ev TW &Kl&%OfjLVtp rT/? (Te\ijvr]$' efceivov^ 
Be TrpocrtovTas e evavTias tcadop&cn. fJiLKpov ovi> 
L'TTOGrretXa? rei^ioi? Tial teal OLKOTreBow, i>eBpai> 
eirl roy? avBpas KdOL^et. KCU Tpeis fj,ev O.VTWV 
ef-nrecrovTes dTroOvrjaKova-iv, 6 Be Tera/?TO? TT\T)- 
761? ^ifpei TTjV Kt$>a\r]v e<$>vye, ftocav evBov elvai 
46 



ARATUS xxi. 1-4 

the rest of his forces to pass the night under arms, 
and taking with him four hundred picked men, few 
of whom knew what was on foot themselves, led 
them towards the gate of Corinth near by the 
temple of Hera. It was midsummer, the moon was 
at its full, and the night was cloudless and clear, so 
that they feared lest the gleam of their arms in the 
moonlight should disclose them to the sentinels. 
But just as the foremost of them were near the 
wall, clouds ran up from the sea and enveloped 
the city itself and the region outside, which thus 
became dark. Then the rest of them sat down and 
took off their shoes, since men make little noise and 
do not slip if they are barefooted when they climb 
ladders ; but Erginus, taking with him seven young- 
men equipped as travellers, got unnoticed to the gate. 
Here they slew the gate-keeper and the sentries 
who were with him. At the same time the ladders 
were clapped to the wall, and after getting a 
hundred men over in all haste, Aratus ordered the 
rest to follow as fast as they could ; then he pulled 
his ladders up after him and marched through the 
city with his hundred men against the citadel, being 
already full of joy at his escape from detection and 
confident of success. 

A little farther on they encountered a watch of 
four men with a light ; they were not seen by them, 
being still in the shade of the moon, but saw them 
coming up in the opposite direction. So they drew 
back a little for shelter beneath some walls and 
buildings, and set an ambush for the men. Three 
of them they killed in their attack, but the fourth, 
with a sword-wound in his head, took to flight, crying 

47 



"PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 TOU? TroXe/xiou?. Kal i^erd /jLiKpbv atre o~d\myye<i 
7rea"r)/JLaivov, r/ re 7roA.f? e^avicrraro rrpbs ra 
yivo/jieva, rr\r)peL<s re rjcrav o'i arevwrrol oiaOeov- 
rd)v, real <f>wra rro\\d, ra /JLCV KarwBev rfbij, ra 
Be dvwdev drrb Tr)? a/cpas 7re/)ieXayu,7re, /cal Kpavyy 
(Tvvepprj'yvvro Travra^oOev acr?;/uo9. 

XXII. 'Ei/ rovrw &e 6 pev "Aparo? e/jL<f)vs rfj 
TTOpeia rrapa TO Kpii/jivco&es i}/j,iX\aro, /9 
/cal raXaiTTMpcos ro rrp&rov, ov Kara/eparwv, a 
dTTOTT^avM/JLevos rov rpiftov rravrdrracnv e 
ATOTO? /cal rreoKTKia^ofJLevov rat? rpa^vrrjai /cal 
Sia 7ro\\(t)V \iy/jia)v Kal rrapaf3o\tov rrepaivovros 
TT/OO? TO Tet^ov. elra Qav^daiov olov rj cre\i']vr) 
\eyerai Siaare\\ova-a ra ve(f)i] Kal t'TroXa/XTroOcra, 1 
T?}? oSoy TO %a\rra)rarov a afyrjvL^eiv ', 6<w? fj^aro 
rov Tet^of? /ca(9' bv &ei rorrov eVet Se rrdXiv 
(TvvecrKiacre /cal drre/cpvtye v(f>wv avveKOovrwv. 

2 Ol Be rrepl rd^ rrvXas ^a> rrepl ro 'Hpalov 
drroXetfyOevres rov 'Apdrov crrpanwrai, rpia- 
voaioL TO rr\r)8o$ ovres, w? TTOTC rrapeicrerreaov 

et? rr)V rco\iv Oopvftov re rravrobarrov Kal (f>a)r(*)i> 1037 
ye/jiovo-av, ov $vvi]6evr6s e^avevpelv rov avrov 
rpiftov ov$ et? T^^o? e/Afifjvat, TT}? CKeivaw rropelas, 
ercrr/^av d6pooi rrpos rivi rra\Lvo~Kiw \ayovi rov 
/cpij/jivov crvare'iXavres eavrovs, /cal Bte/caprepovv 
GvravOa rrepirraOovvres ical $vo~avaa"xerovvre<s. 

3 /3a\\o/j.6V(i)v yap drro rijs a/cpa$ ijBrj rwv rrepl rov 
' Aparov Kal nayo/uevayi 1 , d\a\ay/.tb? euayoovios 
%(*)pei Kara), Kal Kpavyij Trepitfyci, Bid rrjv drro 
r&v op&v dvaK\a(7Lv avyKe^Vfjievrj Kal 



1 viro\a/j.irov(ra Coraes and Bekkei', adopting an anonymous 
conjecture : vwo\a&ovffa. 

48 



ARATUS xxi. 4-xxn. 3 

out that the enemy were in the city. And pres- 
ently the trumpets were sounding, the city was in 
an uproar over what was happening, the streets were 
full of people running up and down, many lights 
were flashing, some in the city below and some in 
the citadel above, and a confused shouting broke 
forth on all hands. 

XXII. Meanwhile Aratus was struggling up the 
steep with all his might, slowly and laboriously at 
first, unable to keep to the path and wandering from 
it, since it was everywhere sunk in the shadows of 

v 

the jutting cliffs and had many twists and turns 
before it came out at the wall of the citadel. Then, 
marvellous to relate, the moon is said to have parted 
the clouds and shone out, making the most difficult 
part of the road plain, until he got to the wall at the 
spot desired ; there the clouds came together again 
and everything was hidden in darkness. 

But the soldiers of Aratus whom he had left at 
the gate outside near the temple of Hera, three 
hundred in number, when once they had burst into 
the city and found it full of lights and manifold 
tumult, were unable to discover the path which 
their comrades had taken or follow in their steps. 
So they crouched down and huddled themselves 
together in a shaded flank of the cliff, and there 
remained in great distress and impatience. For 
Aratus and his party were now assailed with missiles 
from the citadel and were fighting, the shouts of 
the combatants came down the slopes, and cries 
echoed round about which the reverberations from 

49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

odev L\.r)^)e rrjv dp^i]v. BiaTropovvTwv Be CLVTCOV 
e'(/>' o TL ^pi] TpairecrOat, yuepo?, 'A/o^eXao? o TWV 



fiera Kpavyij^ dveftaive xal araXTTiyywv, 7Ti<f)ep6fjLe- 
vo? rot? Trepl TO/' "Aparov, KOL TraprjXXarre TO 1)9 
4 rpiarcocriovs. oi Se wcrTrep e% eve&pas avaa-Tcivres 
}jL(3d\\ovcrLv avra) KOI Bia(f)0ipovcriv ol? 7re6evro 
, TGI;? 5e aX,Xou? Aral TCW 'Ap%e\aov <po- 
jno real KaTeSia)};av a%pi TOV 
irepl rrjv iroXtv BiaXvOevras. apn 



TOVTWV VeVlKlKOTWV 0il^O? CLTTO TWV O,V(t) 



TOV "Aparov d^vvo^evoL<^ evpwo-Tws, KCLI 
dywva irepl avro TO T6t%o? elvai, KCLI Ta^oi/? 
5 Seiv TJ}? fiorjOeias. ol Be evtfvs Ke\evov rjyelcrOaL' 
l TrpocrfiaLvovres a^a (frtovrj SLearj/naivov eavrovs, 






07r\a TT\elova ()aii'oei>a Tot? 



Bia TO /j,r)KO$ TT}? Trope/a?, /cal TO T>}? VVKTO? 



OV drro 



6 ToaovTcov eTTotei Sofceiv ^epeaOat,. Te'Xo? Be crvv- 
epeLcravres e^wOovGt TOU? TroXe/^tou? /tat Ka0- 
VTrepTepoi T/}? atcpas rjaav teal TO (f)povpiov el)(ov, 
?} / aepa? ijBi] Btavyovar^, o TG /;X^09 evOvs eVe 
TW epyy, Kal Trapfjv etc ^IKVWVOS rj \oiirr) Bv 
TU> \\ptiTff), Be^o/Jievwv Kara TruXa? TWV ^. 
7r/?o^t' y aw9 fcal Tot/9 (3acri\LKOvs av\\atJL[3ai'OVT(ov. 
XXIII. 'E?rel Be acr^>aXw9 eBoKei TcdvTa e^euv, 
/cctTeftaivev ei9 TO OeaTpov CLTTO T?}9 a/ 

50 



ARATUS xxn. 3-xxm. i 

the hills rendered confused and of uncertain origin. 
Then, as they were at a loss which way to turn, 
Archelaiis, the commander of the king's forces, having 
many soldiers with him, made up the ascent amid 
shouts and the blare of trumpets to attack Aratus 
and his party, and thus passed by the three hundred. 
These, rising up from ambush as it were, fell upon 
him, slew the first whom they attacked, put the rest, 
together with Archelaiis, to panic flight, and pursued 
them until they were scattered and dispersed about 
the city. And just as this victory had been won, 
Erginus came from the party fighting on the heights, 
with tidings that Aratus was engaged with the 
enemy, that these were defending themselves vigor- 
ously, that a great struggle was going on at the very 
wall, and there was need of speedy help. The three 
hundred at once ordered him to lead the way ; and 
as they took to the ascent their cries signalled their 
coming and encouraged their friends ; the light of 
the full moon also made their arms appear more 
numerous to the enemy than they really were, owing 
to the length of their line of march, and the echoes 
of the night gave the impression that the shouts 
proceeded from many times the number of men 
there really were. At last, with a united onset, 
they repulsed the enemy, mastered the citadel, 
and held its garrison in their power. Day was 
now breaking, the sun at once shone out upon 
their success, and the rest of the forces of Aratus 
came up from Sicyon, the Corinthians readily re- 
ceiving them by the gates and helping them to 
seize the king's soldiers. 

XXIII. When everything appeared to be safe 
Aratus came down from the citadel into the theatre 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

drreipov (Tvppeovros eiriffvpia rr/s re o^redxf avrov 
Kal TMV \6ya)v ot9 efjb\\e %pr)o~8ai 717309 rot'? Ko- 
2 ptvOiovs. eTrtarrfcras Be rat? TrapoBois eKare 



Toi>9 ^atou?, auro? drro rr}? o~Krjvrj<; et? 



, TeO(opaKi<T/jL6vos KOI T& TrpCKTcoTry Sia 
rov fcoTrov /cal rrjv (vypvirv'iav rf\\oiw^evo^, axrre 
T//9 ^1'%^}? TO yavpovj^evov Kal %aipov VTTO TT}? 
3 Trepl TO aay/jia fiapvTrjros KaraKparelo-Oai. rwv 
be avOpto'rrwv a/jia T&> TrpoaeXfleiv avrov eK% 
rat? <f>i\o(f)poavvais, fjiera\a(3oL>v 4? 
av TO Sopv, Kal TO <yovv Kal TO <ra)/ia T^ p 

TTO- 



\PQVOV criwrri e^o/xc/'O? avrwv TOU? 

rrjv dper/jv, 



eiravaavro 



crvvayaycov eavrov &iej*ri\6e \6yov 
virep rwv 'A^aiwz^ T^ rrpd^ei rrperrovra, Kal <rvv- 
rovs KopiV@iovs 'A^atou? yeveaOai, Kal 
TTV\WV T9 Xet9 a7re'S&):e TOTC rrpwrov drro 
<&i\i7r7TiK(ov Kaipwv vri CKeivot,*; yevo/uLevas. 
Se 'Avriyovov arparrjywv 'A.p%e\aov fiev 
ev v7ro)(Lpiov yevo^evov , Qeofypaarov Be dv- 
6 ei\ev ov j3ov\o/.ievov drra\\drreaOar Hepcraios 8e 
T//9 a/c/39 d\icrKO/j,vr)S e/9 Ke7^pea9 ^Le^errecrev. 
v&repov le \eyerat a^oXd^wv rrpos rov elrrovra 
ftovQV avrrb SoKelv arparrjyov elvai rov 0o(J)6v, 
" 'AXXa vi] Oeovs" fydvai, " rovro fjidXiara /ca/xot 
rrore r&v 7^]vwvo^ ijpeo'Ke &oy/j,dr(ov vvv Be aera- 
(Bd\\ofjLai vovflerijOels VTTO rov ^LKVWVIOV veaviov." 
ravra p,ev rrepl Tlepcraiov irhjeloves laropovaiv. 



ARATUS xxiii. 1-5 

whither an immense multitude streamed with an 
eager desire to see him and hear what he would sav 

c? ,1 

to the Corinthians. After stationing his Achaeans 
at both the side-entrances, he himself advanced from 
the back-scene into the orchestra, with his breastplate 
still on and his countenance altered by toil and loss 
of sleep, so that the exultation and joy of his spirit 
were overpowered by the weariness of his body. 
Since the multitude, when he came forward to 
address them, were profuse in their friendly ex- 
pressions, taking his spear in his right hand and 
slightly inclining his knee and his body, he sup- 
ported himself upon it and stood thus for a 
long time silently receiving their applause and ac- 
clamations, their praises of his valour and their 
congratulations on his success. But when they had 
ceased and quiet had ensued, he summoned his 
strength and in behalf of the Achaeans made a 
speech which befitted their exploit, and persuaded 
the Corinthians to join the Achaean League. He 
also gave them back the keys to their gates, of 
which they then became possessed for the first time 
since the time of Philip of Macedon. Of the officers 
of Antigonus, he dismissed Archelaiis, who had been 
taken prisoner, but Theophrastus, who would not quit 
his post, he slew ; as for Persaeus, on the capture of 
the citadel he made his escape to Cenchreae. And at 
a later time, as we are told, when he was leading a life 
of leisure, and someone remarked that in his opinion 
the wise man only could be a good general, " Indeed," 
he replied, "there was a time when I too particularly 
liked this doctrine of Zeno's ; but now, since the lesson 
I got from the young man of Sicyon, I am of another 
mind." This story of Persaeus is told by many writers. 

53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



XXIV. f O Be "Aparo? v@v$ TO re *H.palov vfi 

fp KOI TO Ae^aiov eVou/craTO* fcal vewv fjiev 1038 
eirco(Ti,7revT /3acn\iKa)v efcvpiev&ev, 'LTTTTOVS Be 



KOI 2<vpov<; TerpaKoa-ovs 



TOV Te 'A/CpOKOpH'OoV <f)V\aTTOV OL ' 

TTpctfCOcrioi<i 07rXiTcri9 fcal TrevrrjKOVTa icvcrl teal 
Kvvrjyols tcrot? ev T&> (fipovpiw Tpe^o^evoi^. 
2 Ol jjiV ovv 'Pay/jiaioi TOV O<\o7rot/xe^a 8av- 



fjieyaXov yu-er' exewov ev rot? f/ 
y r eyofji4vov' eyco &e TWV 'Et 

.<TyjaTr)v real vewTciTrjv ^air\v av 

TOVTO /J.V TO\/Jir), TOVTO 

va/M\\ov, to? eSrj\(i)crv evOits TO, yiv6/J>va. 
3 Me^a/^et? re yap aTrocrTavTes ^AvTiyovov TW 'Apd- 
T) TrpoaedevTo, KOI Tpoifyjvioi yLtera 'EmSavpicov 
t-jo-av et? TOI? 'A^atou?, e^oSov TG Trpa)- 
Genevas et? TIJV 'ATTIKTJV eVe/3aXe, KOI Trjv 



\\v/jLe.v>j Ty Bwdfiei TOIV ^A^aiciov e^>' o TL (3ov- 

\OITO %pW/JiVO<S. 'AQlJVaiOlS $ TOl>? \,V@6pOV$ 

a(f)f)K6v aveu \vTpcov, dp-^af; CUTCOGT acre a>9 evoiSovs 
4 avTcis. \\TO\efJialov oe o-v^fjLay^ov eVotTycre rwv 
'A^aiwv, rjyefjioviav e%ovra TroXe'/xou A-ar KCITO, 
ytjv KOI 6d\aTTav. OUTCO Be LO")(vcre!> ev rot? 
'A/^aiot9, WCTT', et /t^ /car' eviavTov efjv> Trap 1 
eviavTov aipeierOai (TTpaTrjyov CLVTOV, epyw oe KCU 
yvw/LJir) Bid TTCLVTOS dp^eiv. ewpwv yap auTov ov 
7r\ovTov, ov Bo^av, ov (f)i\iav (3a<ji\LKi]v, ov TO 
avTov 7rar/3t5o9 ffv^cpov, OVK aXXo TL rr}9 
TWV ^A^aicov eTTLTrpocrOev TTOIOV/JLCVOV. 



54 



ARATUS xxiv. 1-4 

XXIV. As for Aratus. he at once made himself 
master of the temple of Hera and the harbour of 
Lechaeum ; he also seized five-arid-twenty of the 
king's ships, and sold five hundred horses and four 
hundred Syrians ; Acrocorinthus, too, was garrisoned 
by the Achaeans with four hundred men-at-arms, 
and fifty dogs with as many keepers were maintained 
in the citadel. 

Now the Romans, in their admiration of Philopoe- 
men, call him "the last of the Greeks," implying 
that no great man arose among the Greeks after 
him ; but I should say that this capture of Arro- 
corinthus was the very last and latest achievement 
of the Greeks, and that it rivalled their best, not 
only in daring, but also in happy results, as events 
at once showed. For Megara seceded from Antigonus 
and attached herself to Aratus ; Troezen and Epi- 
daurus were enrolled in the Achaean League ; and 
Aratus, making a distant expedition for the rtrst time, 
invaded Attica, and crossing the strait plundered 
Salamis, his Achaean forces, as though released from 
prison, obeying his every wish. But the freemen 
among his prisoners he sent back to the Athenians 
without ransom, thus laying a foundation for their 
revolt from Antigonus. He also made Ptolemy an 
ally of the Achaeans, with the leadership in war on 
land and sea. And he was so influential among the 
Achaeans that, since it was not permissible every year, 
thev chose him general every other year, though, 
in fact, his wisdom made him their leader all the 
time. For they saw that he put first and foremost, 
not wealth, not fame, not friendship with kings, not 
his own native city's advantage, but only the growth 
in power of the Achaean League. For he considered 

55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 rjyelro yap daOevels ISia ra? 7roXei9 v 
5t' d\\rf\wv wo~rrep eV3e8 
y crv/j,(f)epovri,, Kal KaOdrrep ra /Aepij rov 

%WVTa KOI (TVfJLTTVeOVra Bia r?]V 7T/3O? 

d\\r)\a crv/j,<f)Viav, orav aTroaTraffOfj KOL yev^rai 
^a)pt?, arpofyel KOI (Tr'jTrerai, TrapaTrX^crta)? ra? 
7roXei9 aTToXXvaOat, [lev VTTO rwv SiacnrcovTcov 
TO KOLVOV, av^eaOai Be UTT' a\\?]\cov, 6rai> o\ov 
OS /jLeyd\ov /ji 



XXV. 'Opwv 8e TOU? apiGTOVs rwv TT/OOCTOI- 
KCOV avrovo^ov/jievovs, 'Aipyeiots Be $ov\6vovaii> 
a^do/jievo^j 7T/3ov\V6v dv\iv rov rvpavvov 
CLVTWV \\pia TO f^.a^ov, a/jia rfj re vroXet 
TTJV e\ev6epiav aTroSovvai (friXoTifio 

2 rot? 'A^aiot? 7rpQ(TKOjjii(Tai. TTJV TTO\IV. ol fj,ev ovv 
ToXyu-coi^re? evpWr^crav, a>v A/<r^;uXo? TrpoeicrTrjKei 
KOI Xayoi/ie'^T;? 6 fjiavris' i<j)rj Be ovrc el^ov, aXX' 
cLTreiprjTo KKTrj&0ai Kal ty^iai fjiejd\,at rot? KeKT7]- 
likvois 7rri<jav vrro rov rvpavvov. /caracr/ceuacra? 
ovv 6 "Aparos avrois (v KopivOco (JLiKpa 

eveppa^rev et9 tray par a' Kal ravra 
^vyiOLS <TKvr) nva Trapr}/jL6\r)/neva Ko 

3 et? "A/3yo? rtTTfcrretXe. Xapi/Aevous &e rov fjid 
7rpoo-\a/36vros errl rrjv rrpa^iv civffpwrrov, ol rrepl 
rov PCia"%v\ov rjyavaKTrjcrav Kal St' eavrwv ercpar- 
rov, rov Hapiimevovs Karayvovres. aio~6ofjievos 
Be eKtlvos opyr) Kar/jii]vvo~e rou9 avSpas ?';S>7 

errl rov rvpavvov' MV ol rr\eicrroi 
e' dyopas drre<pvyov Kal 
9 Kopivftov. 



1 Cf. chap. iii. 1. 
56 



ARATUS xxiv. 5~xxv. 3 

that the Greek states which were weak would be 
preserved by mutual support when once they had 
been bound as it were by the common interest, and 
that just as the members of the body have a common 
life and breath because they cleave together in a 
common growth, but when they are drawn apart 
and become separate they wither away and decay, 
in like manner the several states are ruined by those 
who dissever their common bonds, but are augmented 
by mutual support, when they become parts of a 
great whole and enjoy a common foresight. 

XXV. And so, since he saw that the best of the 
neighbouring peoples were autonomous, and was 
distressed at the servitude of the Argives, he plotted 
to kill Aristomachus the tyrant of Argos, being 
ambitious to restore its freedom to the city as a re- 
ward for the rearing it had given him, 1 as well as to 
attach it to the Achaean League. Accordingly, men 
were found to dare the deed, of whom Aeschylus 
and Charimenes the seer were the chief. They had 
no swords, however, the tyrant having prohibited the 
possession of them under heavy penalties. Aratus, 
therefore, ordered small daggers to be made for them 
in Corinth and sewed them up in pack-saddles ; these 
he put upon beasts of burden carrying ordinary wares 
and sent them into Argos. But Charimenes the seer 
took on a partner in the enterprise, at which Aeschy- 
lus and his friends were incensed and proceeded to 
act on their own account, ignoring Charimenes. 
When Charimenes was aware of this, he was angry 
and informed against the men just as they were 
setting out to attack the tyrant ; most of them, 
however, succeeded in escaping from the market- 
place and fled to Corinth. 

VOL. xi. r 57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Ou fjirjv a\\a %pbvov /3pa%eos Bie\06vTos d-rro- 

VTTO BoV\(DV ' AplO'TO^a^OS, L'TTO- 

\afjif3dvei, Be Trfv dp%f) 

? eiceivov Tvpavvos. ocroi, Brj 
ev r)\iKia Trapovres erv^ov, 
dva\a/3wv 6 "Aparo? /3oij6ei TT/DO? Tr] 
o^ea)?, olonevos eupijcreiv ra rcov 'Apyelatv irpo- 
5 






avTov, av6%(jL>pr)crv eyic\y]fAa 

a>5 ev ip)]vy 7ro\.e/jLOv e^evrjvo^oa't. 

7rl TOVTO) Trapd MavTivevcriv, TJV 1039 

' ' A ' ?A ' 

7rapovTO<> J\pLO"TLTnro^ eu\.e CICOKCOV 
(j Kal fxvwv Ti/jL)'j0tj TpiaKovTa. TOV Be "ApaToi* 
avTov a/j,a Kal /jaawv Kal BeBoiKcos 7re/3ov\vev 
dve\elv avvepyouvTOs AvTiyovov TOV 
il iravTa^ov <T%eBov rjcrav 01 TOVTO 

Kal KaipOV 7TLTr)pOVVT^. 

1 AXX' ov$i> oiov d\r)6ivi) Kal y9ey5aio? evvoca 
(f)V\aKTrjpiov dvBpbs dp^ovTos. OTav ydp eOiaOa)- 

(TiV Oi T 7TO\\OL K.CLI OL BwaTol fAT) TOV T)yoV/JL6l'OV, 

aXX' vTrep TOV T)yov/j,evov BeBievai, 7ro\\ois 
o/jifA,ao~iv opa, Bid TroXXwy Be a)TO)v aKovei, 
TrpoaiaOdveTai TCL yivb^eva. Bib Kal /3ov\o/j,ai 
TOV \oyov fc'TricrTJJcra? evTavOd TTOV Bie^e\0elv 

TTCpl T?}? 'AplCTTLTTTrOV BldLTrjS, TjV 1] ^rj\OTVTTOV- 

/jievij Tvpavvls avTw Kal 6 r?;? /xa/ta/oia? Kal 
7Tpi{3oy)TOu /jLovap^ias oyKos 

XXVI. 'Eifcelvos ydp \\vTiyovov 

58 



ARATUS xxv. 4-xxvi. i 

Nevertheless, after a little while Aristomachus was 
killed by slaves, and Aristippus, a more pernicious 
tyrant than he, soon succeeded in seizing the power. 
Aratus at once took all the Achaeans of military age 
who were at hand and went swiftly to the aid of the 

w 

city, supposing that he would be welcomed by the 
Argives. But since most of them were by this time 
habituated to slavery and willing to endure it, so 
that not a man came over to his side, he retired, 
after involving the Achaeans in the charge of having 
gone to \var in time of peace. They were prosecuted 
on this charge before the Mantineans, and in the 
absence of Aratus, Aristippus as plaintiff won his 
case and was awarded damages to the amount of 
thirty minas. 1 Aratus himself the tyrant both hated 
and feared, and so laid plots to kill him with the 
assistance of Antigonus the king ; and almost every- 
where there were men who undertook this deed for 
them and watched for an opportunity. 

But there is no safeguard for a ruler like a sincere 
and steadfast goodwill on the part of the ruled. For 
when both the common people and the leading men 
are afraid, not of their leader, but for their leader, 
he sees with many eyes, hears with many ears, and 
so perceives betimes what is going on. Therefore I 
wish to stop my story at this point, in order to 
describe the life that Aristippus led. This was laid 
upon him by his office of tyrant, so envied of men, 
and by the pride and pomp of monarchy, which men 
celebrate and call blessed. 

XXVI. For though he had Antigonus as ally, and 

1 Half a talent, equivalent to about 1 18, or 600, a merely 
nominal fine. Mantineia acted as arbitrator, perhaps by 
special agreement. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



, Tpe<p<jL)v ce TTO\\OV^ eveica TT}? TOV 
cra>/z,aTO9 acr(/>aXeta?, ovBeva Be ev TTJ Tro\et 

TWV e^OpSiV VTTO\\Ol7r(t)S, TOU? fJ.V Bo- 



KOI <u,atfa? ea> TT-aeae/v etce- 



2 \euev ev TW 7rpt,crrv\.w, TOU? ce oiKeras, OTTOT 
&i7rvtjcrai, TCU^KTTCL Trdvras ej~e\avvctiv KOL Trjv 

fjiTaV\OV (JLTTOKXeLCOV /JL6TCL TT}? p(i)/JLl]<$ aUTO? 

oiKrj/j.a Kareovero fjuicpov virepwov, 6vpa 

Tj K\LO/jLl>OV' T}? VTTepaVO) J^V K\iV1]V 

l^ eicdOev^ev, &)? etVo? KaBev&eiv TOV OUTW? 

3 %ovTa, Tapa%a)Bws KOI 7re/3f^>oy9&>?. TO Se K\I- 
fjidfCLOv rf T?}? epwfj,evr)s p.r)rrjp v^aipovaa /care- 
K\eiev et? GTepov oitcrj/jLa, ical tiaKiv a/u,' rj/^epa 
TrpoaeriOei KOI Kare/cdXei TOV OCLV^CKJTOV Tvpav- 

VOVy WCTTTep epTTCTOV K (f)(D\6OV 

6 be ot% OTrXoi? KCLTCL /3iav, v6/j.a> > LTT' d 
uKaTaTravaTov dp%rji> Tr6pi7r7roir]/j.evos, ev 

KOI %\ajjLvBl(i) TW TV^OVTL, TWV TTfOTTOTe TVpUVVWV 

Kotvbs dTToSe&eiyfAevos e-^Opo^, ci^pt rr}? rrj/^epov 
7//upa? yevos evBoKi/j,u>TaTOv diroXeXoiTTev ev rot? 

4 "EtXXrjcriv. e/ceivcov be TCOV ra? arcpas KCLTCL- 
\a/jL/3av6vTO)v Kal TOU? Bopvcfropov? 

KOL ra 6VXa /cat ra<? vr^Xa? /cat TOL/? 
7rpo/3a\\ojiiva)v vrrep T% roO cjoo/zaro? dcrcfra- 
Xeta? oXt^yot TOI^ e/t ?rX^7>}? Odvarov, wcnrep ol 



ot/co? 



ptvqfj,r)v ovSevbs XeXeiTrrat- 
XXVII. TI/3O? 8' ovv rot' 'ApiaTiTTTTov o " A pa- 
TO? Acai tcpixpa 7ro\\dKis Kal (fravepws rrpoa-- 
errTaicrev 7ri^ipt]aa^ rcaTa\a/j,/3dveiv TO "Apyo?. 
Be /cXt/^a/ca? rrpocrOels /xer' b\i<yu>v ejrl TO 
dveftij 7rapa/36\o)<>, Kal rou? ^o 

60 



ARATUS xxvi. i -xxvii. i 

kept many guards to protect his person, and had left 
no single enemy alive in the city.? yet he would order 
his spearmen and guards to bivouac outside in the 
colonnade ; and as for his servants, as soon as supper 
was over he would drive them all out. Then he 
would lock the doors of the inner house, and betake 
himself with his mistress to a little upper room, 
which was closed by a trap-door ; on this door he 
would place his couch and sleep, as one in his state 
of mind would naturally sleep, by fits and starts and 
in great fear. The ladder the mother of his mistress 
would take away and lock up in another room, and 
in the morning would put it in place again and call 
the wonderful tyrant, who would come down like a 
creeping thing out of its hole. Aratus, on the other 
hand, not by force of arms, but legally and in con- 
sequence of his virtues, had invested himself with an 
enduring power, and yet went about in ordinary tunic 
and cloak ; he declared himself a public foe of any 
and every tyrant ; and he left behind him a posterity 
of the highest repute among the Greeks down to 
this day. 1 But of the men who seize citadels, main- 
tain spearmen, and depend upon arms and gates and 
trap-doors for the safety of their persons, only a 
few, like timorous hares, have escaped a violent 
death ; while not one of them has left a house, or a 
family, or a tomb to keep his memory in honour. 

XXVII. Against Aristippus, then, and in trying 
to seize Argos, Aratus made many open and secret 
attempts in vain. Once he set up scaling-ladders, 
at great hazard got upon the wall Avith a few 
followers, and killed the sentries that defended the 

1 Cf. chap. liv. ad Jin. 

61 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 evTavOa TWV fyvkoucwv drreKTeivev- elra 

eTTL$>aveia"r)<s real TOV Tvpdvvov TravTa^oOev avT<a 
7rpO(r{3aX\,ovTo<;, ol JJLGV 'Apyeioi, KaOdjrep ov% 
vrrep Trjs efceivcor e\ev9epias rr}9 /-ta^s ovcr^s, aXX' 
&><? TOV ajMva TWV Ne/xt&)^ /3pa/3evovT<>, L<TOI fcal 
dearal KaOfjVTO TWV ^fivo^vwv, TTO\\T)V 
ayovres, 6 Se "A/oaro? e.vpoxyrao'i CL/JLVVO- 



TOV 
Kpnjcr e TWV TOTTWV ev ot? TJV, KOI OVK 

V7TO 



3 el 8e Ka\ rrjv VVKTCI ry TTOVW 7rpO(reTa\at7r(0pr)crev, 
OVK ai> Bti]/j,apTv' 6 jap -rvpavvos 7/87; Trcpi 8pa- 
ov et^e KOL 7ro\\a rwv ISicov eVl dciKacrrrav 
7Tfj,'^re' vvv Se rovro /j.v ov$vos %ay- 
76/Xai/TO? 7rpo9 rov "'Aparov, uSaro? Be eVtXt- 
7TWTO9, eavrq) Be "pr)Ga<jQai Bia TO rpav/xa /j,rj 
ouvd/jLvos t aTnjjaye TOI)? <TT par HOT as. 

XXVIII. 'ETrel Be ravrrjv (nreyvci) rrjv 6B6v, 



eTropOei' Kal irepl TOV Xa/jr^ra 

/za^?;? yevopevrjs TT/JO? ' 
aiTiav ea^ev &>? yffaTa\i7ra)v TOV dywva 
7rpofj.vo<? TO vitcrjfjia. rr}? yap aXX?;? 8vvdfj,w<; 104 
6fJLO\oyovfj.evo)s eiTiKpaTOvcrrjs Kal TO) 
TTO\U Trpo\6 avails et? TovfjiTrpouOev, 

e/c/3/acr^6t? VTTO TWV xaff 1 avTov, &)? dm- 



2 TeTapayfjitvos t? TO crTpaTOTreBov. errel Be arrb 

)? eTrave\0ovTe<; ol \onrol 
OTL Tpe^rd/Jiei'OL TOW? TroXe/ztof? 
u TrXaoi-a? eKeivcov KaTa/3a\cvTes rj ( 
aTroXeVa^Te? Trapa\e\oiTraa'i Tot? rj 
62 



ARATUS xxvn. i -xxvm. 2 

place. Then day came and the tyrant attacked him 
from all sides, while the Argives, as though it were 
not a battle to secure their liberties, but a contest in 
the Nemean games of which they were the judges, 
sat as just and impartial spectators of what was going 
on, without lifting a finger. Aratus, fighting sturdily, 
had his thigh transfixed by a spear-thrust, yet held his 
ground, and could not be dislodged at close quarters 
until night, though harassed by his enemies. And 
if through the night also he had maintained the 
struggle, he would not have failed in his attempt ; 
for the tyrant was already bent on flight and had 
sent on many of his goods to the sea. As it was, 
however, no one told Aratus of this, and since water 
was failing him and he could not use his strength by 
reason of his wound, he led his soldiers away. 

XXVIII. Then, since he despaired of success in 
this way, he openly invaded the territory of Argos 
with his army and ravaged it ; and in a fierce battle 
with Aristippus at the river Chares, he was accused 
of abandoning the struggle and throwing away the 
victory. For although the rest of his forces ad- 
mittedly had the upper hand and had gone far on 
ahead in pursuit, he himself, not so much because he 
was ousted from his position by his opponents, as 
out of mistrust of success and in utter fear, withdrew 
in disorder to his camp. But when the rest of his 
army came back from the pursuit and were indignant 
because, though they had routed the enemy and 
slain far more of them than they had lost of their 
own number, they had suffered the vanquished to 

63 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

GTr/crai KaT avTwv Tpoiraiov, 
Trd\iv eyvco Bia/jid^ecrOaL Trepl TOV Tporraiov, /cal 
fjiiav r)/j,pav BiaXirrwv avOw e^eraaae Trjv cnpa- 

3 Tidv. ft)? Be yaOero TrXetora? yeyovoras /cal 
0appa\ecoTpov avOicrTa/jievov^ TOU? Trepl TOV TV- 
pavvov, OVK T6\/JL7)crv, a\X' aTrrj\de TOU? 
VTTOGTrovSovs av6\6fJievo<s. ov fJLT]v a\\a rfj 

rrjv ofj.i\iav real TroXireiav e/LLTreipia /cal 
rrjv Bta/jiapriav ravrrjv ava/jLa%6/jiVo<; Trpoa-tyyd- 
jero ra? KXew^a? rot? 'A^euots, xal TOV dywva 
TWV Ne/ietct)^ ijyayev ev K.\ea)vai<;, a>9 TraTpiov 

4 ovTa /cal /.ia\\ov Trpocnj/covTa TOVTOIS. rjyajov 
Be /cal 'Apyeioi, /cal trvve%v0r) rore Trp&Tov r) 

rot? dywvKTTais dcrv\ia /cal 
&v 'A^a<wz>, ocrou? e\a/3ov -t 

ev "Apyei, Bid T% ^copa? Tropevo/juevovs a)? TTO\- 
o/jievGov. OUTGO <T(f)oSpo<; r)v /cal aTrap- 
ev TO) /jLiaeiv TOU? Tvpdvvovs. 
XXIX. 'OXi/yeo Be vorTCpov d/covcra? TOV 'Api- 
em/SovXevetv JJL^V rat? KXea>mi9, (froftei- 
Be eicelvov ev K.oplv8w KaOe^ofievov, rjdpoicrev 
e/c TrapayyeX./jLaTos o~TpaTeiai>. real aiTta /ce- 



KaTrj\6ev, KKa\ovfjievos Bi aTrar^? T&V ' ' 
TTOV a)? avTOV jj,r} TrapovTOS emOecrOai 
KXewvaiois' o /cal ffvveftrj. jraprjv <ydp ev0v$ ei; 
2 "Apyovs e%(ov TTJV Bvva/j,iv. 6 Be "Aparo9 
I\6pivdov rf 



1 After the events narrated in xxxiv. ff, 
64 



ARATUS xxvui. 2-xxix. 2 

erect a trophy over the victors, Aratus was ashamed 
and determined again to fight out the question of 
the trophy, and on the next day but one put his 
army once more in battle array. However, on per- 
ceiving that the forces of the tyrant were more 
numerous than before and more courageous in their 
resistance, he would not venture a decisive battle, 
but withdrew after being allowed to take up his dead 
under a truce. Nevertheless, by his skill in dealing 
with men and public affairs, and by the favour in 
which he stood, he retrieved this failure, brought 
Cleonae into the Achaean League, and celebrated 
the Nemean games in that city, on the ground that 
it had an ancient and more fitting claim upon them. 
But the games were also celebrated at Argos, and 
then for the first time the privilege of asylum and 
safe-conduct which had been granted to contestants 
in the games was violated, since the Achaeans treated 
as enemies and sold into slavery all contestants in 
the games at Argos whom they caught travelling 
through their territory. So fierce and implacable 
was Aratus in his hatred of tyrants. 

XXIX. A little while after this, 1 Aratus heard 
that Aristippus was plotting against Cleonae, but 
feared to attack it while his enemy was posted at 
Corinth ; he therefore assembled an army by public 
proclamation. And after ordering his troops to 
carry provisions for several days, he inarched down 
to Cenchreae, by this stratagem inviting Aristippus 
to attack Cleonae in the belief that his enemy was 
not at hand; and this was actually what happened. 
For the tyrant set out at once from Argos with his 
forces. But Aratus, returning from Cenchreae to 
Corinth as soon as it was dark, and posting guards 

65 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

real T9 6801)9 (f)V\aKais BiaXaftwv, fjye TOVS 
eTTo/JLevovs OVTW fxev evTaKTws, OVTW Be 
Kal TrpoOvuws ware /Jirj fjiovov oSevovras, 
a Kal Tfape\OovTa<; et? ra? K\ewvds ert VVK- 



TO9 ovarj^ Kal (jwra^afJievov^ eVl ^^rjv yvoe- 
3 tr^ai Aral \av6dveiv TOV ' ApL&TiTrTrov. cifjLa Be 
Tj/jLepa TWV TTfXco^ dvoi%9eicra)v Kal Trjs crdXTTLy- 
yo? e'y/ i eeXei;cra / uei>?79, Spoj^fo Kal d\a\ay/jiw Trpocr- 
rot? Tro'X.e/jLLois v6v<? erpe-^aro, Kal 
SLWKCOV fj /jidXiaTa (fievyciv virevoei rov 



4 TWV. yevo/Jievri^ Be T/}? 

o /lev Tvpavvos VTVO K/)?;TO? TWOS, 009 
icrropei, Tovvoyia TpayiaKov, (earctXrj^Oel^ CUTTO- 
(T<j)d'Trrai, TWV Bit a\\a)v eTreaov virep 

o Be "ApaT09 OI/TQ) 
Kal [iijBeva TWV avTOv 

d7ro/3a\a)V, O/-KW? oi)/c e'Xa/3e TO "Apyos ovBe 
, TWV Trep\ * Ay lav Kal TOV vewTepov 
/xera Bvvd/^eoos /3aai\iKrfi rrap- 
Kal Karaa^ovTwv ra 7rpdy/j.ara. 

5 To /xez^ ouz^ TroXu T?}9 Bia/3o\.fjs Kal \6yovs Kal 
(TKcoa/uaTa Kal ySco/uoXo^ta9 Trapei\TO TWV KoXa- 

K6VOVTWV TOU9 TVpdvVQVS Kal BlC^iOVTWV, KiVOLS 

et)9 ToO aTpaTiiyov TWV 
uev rj Kot\.ua rrapd T 
Be TrpoGTriTCTOi Kal i\iyyos d^a TW rrapa- 
<JTr\vai TOV o-a\.7riyKTijv, e/crci^a9 Be TYJV 
Kal TO orvvOijua Trapeyyvijcras, Kal 
TWV v7TO(7TpaTr)ywv Kal \o^aywv, ui 

s ({3e/3\r)(T&ai yap rou9 d&Tpa- 
, aTrep^oiTO KapaSoKt'/awv rroppwOev TO 

66 



ARATUS xxix. 2-5 

along all the roads, led his Achaeans towards 
Cleonae, and they followed him in such good order 
and with such swiftness and alacrity that not only 
while they were on the march, but also when they 
had got into Cleonae, before the night was over, and 
had arrayed themselves for battle, Aristippus knew 
nothing at all of it. Then, at daybreak, the gates 
were thrown open, the trumpet gave its loud signal, 
and dashing at a run and with shouts upon the 
enemy Aratus routed them at once, and kept on 
pursuing where he most suspected that Aristippus 
was in flight, the country having many diverging 
routes. The pursuit continued as far as Mycenae, 
where the tyrant was overtaken and slain by a 
certain Cretan named Tragiscus, as Deinias relates ; 
and besides him there fell over fifteen hundred. 
But although Aratus had won so brilliant a success, 
and had lost not a single one of his own soldiers, he 
nevertheless did not take Argos nor set it free, since 
Agias and the younger Aristomachus burst into the 
city with troops of the king and took control of affairs. 
This success, then, refuted much of the calumny 
heaped upon Aratus, as well as the scoffing and 
abusive stories of the flatterers of the tvrants, who 



would recount, to please their masters, how the 
general of the Achaeans always had cramps in the 
bowels when a battle was imminent, and how torpor 
and dizziness would seize him as soon as the 
trumpeter stood by to give the signal, and how, 
after he had drawn up his forces and passed the 
watchword along, he would ask his 1 eutenants and 
captains whether there was any further need of his 
presence (since the die was already cast), and then 
go off to await the issue anxiously at a distance. For 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 crv/JLJ3r)<T6/j.6POP. raura yap OVTOJS ia^vaev were 
real TOW? <pi\o(TO(f)Ov<; tv Tat9 cr^oXat? ^roOfra? 
el TO ird\\ecr6ai TTJP KapBlap KOI TO ^pay/jLa Tpe- 
Treadat KOI rrjv Koi\iav etvypaivecrOai, irapd ra 
(fraipo/jiepa Beipa SetXia? ecrrlv r) Sv&Kpacrias TLVOS 
Trepl TO aw/ia KCU -^rvxporrjTo^, ovopd^eLv ael rbv 
"Aparov w? ajaOov /itV 6VTa (Trpar^yov, ael Be 
ravra TrdcryovTa irapa TOI)? dywvas. 

XXX. 'I!? 8' OVV TOP 'ApiO-TlTTTTOV dl>el\.l', 1041 

evOvs eTreftovXevo'e Av&idbr] rw ^l<ya\O7ro\irr) 
rvpavvovvTi TT)? eavrov vraTyotSo?. o Be OVK wv 
dyevvrjs ovBe d<pi\6rifjiO^ rrjv <$)V<TLV, ovBe 
ol 7TO\\ol TWV fJiovdp-)(wv dfcpaaia tcdi 7r 
Tavrrjv pi/et? T^;^ dBixiav, oAA,' e 
80^7;? eVt veos /cai Xoyou? tyevSeis /cal 
\eyo/jivov<> Trepl Tvpavvi&os, co? p,aKaplov 
Aral Oav/LLaarov Trpdy/jiaros, et? /jieya (^povrf^a 
7rapaBe%dfjiVos dvoijrws, feal Karaa-r^cra^ eavrov 
Tvpavvov ra^v yuecrTO? 771^ TT}? etc (jLovap^las /3apv- 
2 T77TO?. a/jLa Be ty)\&v evTj/jLepovvra fcal BeBoitcax; 

7Tl/3oV\6VOVTa TOP "ApaTOV WpfJL^(7 Ka\\L(TTr)V 

op/^rjv /xeTa/3a\oyLtei/09, Trpcorov pep eavrov e\ev- 
Oepwcrai /ztcrof? Kal ^>o/3ou Kal fypovpas real 
Bopv(j)6pa)v, elra T>}? TrarptSo? euepyenis 'yeveaOai 
Kal nTa7re/jL'frd}jiVos TOP "ApaTOV d<f>r}Ke TTJV 
ap\r')v y Kal TTJV 7ro\iv et? TOU? 'A^atoi/? /JLCT- 
</>' ol? fJL r ya\vvovTes avTov ol ^ Amatol 



3 <f>t,\OTi/jiovfjivo<; Be eiiflvs i)7rep(Sa\elv B6j;r) TOP 
"ApaTOp aXXa? TG 7roA,A,a? 7rpd{;is OVK dpayxaia? 
elvai Boxovcras Kal aTpaTeiap eVt AaKeBaiLLOPiov? 
7rapijyy\^p. eviGTdiievos Be 6 "ApaTo? avr<p 

68 



ARATUS xxix. 5-xxx. 3 

these stories were so prevalent that even in the 
schools of philosophy, when the query arises whether 
palpitation of the heart and change of colour and 
looseness of the bowels, in the presence of seeming 
peril, are the mark of cowardice, or of some faulty 
temperament and chilliness in the body, Aratus is 
always mentioned by name as one who was a good 
general, but always had these symptons when a 
contest was impending. 

XXX. Having thus made away with Aristippus, 
Aratus at once began to plot against Lydiades, who 
was tyrant in his native city of Megalopolis. This 
Lydiades was neither of mean birth nor naturally 
lacking in high ambition, nor, like most sole rulers, 
had he been driven by licence and rapacity into this 
iniquity, but he had been fired with a love of glory 
while still young, and had thoughtlessly associated 
with his high spirit the false and empty doctrines 
current concerning tyranny, to the effect that it was 
a wonderful and blessed thing. And now that he 
had made himself tyrant, he was quickly sated with 
the burdens which devolve upon the sole ruler. 
Therefore, at once envying the successes of Aratus 
and fearing his plots, he adopted a new and most 
admirable plan, first, to free himself from hatred and 
fear and guards and spearmen, and second, to become 
a benefactor of his native city. So he sent for 
Aratus, resigned his power, and made his city a 
member of the Achaean League. Wherefore the 
Achaeans exalted him and chose him general. 

Lydiades was at once ambitious to surpass Aratus 
in reputation, and not only did many other things 
which were thought unnecessary, but also proclaimed 
an expedition against the Lacedaemonians. Aratus 

69 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<f)0oi>eiv e&oKei* KOI TO ye Bevrepov 6 
crrparr/yos rjpeffr), dvrLrrpdrrovros avriKpvs Apd- 
TOV KOI arrovBd^ovro^ erepay TrapaBoOijvaL rrjv 
ap^r\v. auro? fjiev "/dp, co? eipqrai, Trap' eviavrov 

4 r)pye. ^XP L f 1 ^ vv T/H'TT?? crrparrjyias 6 Av- 
^fam;? ev (pepofjuevos &iT\i KOI Trap" eviavrov 
r)pX v va\\a rro 'Aparw crrpaTrjywv' fyavepav 
Be e%ev<yKa[jLevos e^Opav /cal TroXXaAa? avrov 

ev rot? 'A^cuofr aTreppifyr] /cat 
], TreTrAacr/xt'l'ft) Sotcwv ijOei TT/JO? aX^- 

5 6ivr)i> Kal aicepaiov aperrjv ap,i\.\a.ar9ai. /cal 
KaOdirep T<p Kotcicvyi (f>ij<riv ATcrwTro?, epayrwvrt 
TOU? XeTTToi)? opvi6as o ri tfrevyoiev avrov, el^relv 
e/ceivovs a;? ear at, Trore iepa%, ovrcos eoitce ih 
Avtd$j) TrapaKo\ovdeiv etc rtfi Tupavvi&os VTTO- 
^ria ftXaTTTovoa Ttiv (frvcriv avrov r^ /A6Ta/3oXr)?. 

r ^ r -\r r ( f\ ^\ M \ >C^/ \ \ 

XXXI. CJ O6 Aparo? evboKi^ae teat rrepi 
ra? \lra)\LKa<f irpd^eis, ore crf/i/3aXetv jjie 



rrpo 

teal rov ySao-iXeo)? rcov AaKeSatfJiOVLwv " 



rrjv ^d'^riv rovs 'A^a^ouv, vavTK00el<; 
ev oveiBrj, Tro\\d 8' ei? \jLO\aKiav 
dro\uiav Kal cr/ccoyU/iara /cal j^fvaa 
va<t ov TrpoiJKaro rov rov av/A<j)epovro<> \oyicr uoi> 
Sia TO ^aivo^evov alcr^pov, d\\a Trape^otypyjcre 
TO!? Tro\euLoi<; VTrepftaXovai rrjv Yepdveiav d/j,a- 
2 ^ei rrape\0 civet? He\o7r6vvr)crov. co? aevrot rrap- 
e\66vres ej;ai<j)vr)<> Ti~\,\rjv?]v Kare\a{3ov, ovKer r/v 
6 auro?, oud' eue\\e Siarpifiaiv Kal 



1 Chap. xxiv. 4. * About 241 is.c. Ci the Agis, xiv. f. 
70 



ARATUS xxx. 3-xxxi. 2 

opposed him, but was thought to do so out of 
jealousy ; and Lydiades was chosen general for the 
second time,, though Aratus openly worked against 
him and was eager to have the office given to some- 
one else. For Aratus himself, as I have said, 1 held 
the office every other year. Accordingly, until he 
was general for the third time, Lydiades continued 
to be held in favour, and held the office every other 
year in alternation with Aratus ; but after displaying 
an open enmity to him and frequently denouncing 
him before the Achaeans, he was cast aside and 
ignored, since it was apparent that he was contend- 
ing, with a fictitious character, against a genuine and 
unadulterated virtue. And just as the cuckoo, in 
the fable of Aesop, when he asks the little birds 
why they fly away from him, is told by them that he 
will one day be a hawk, so it would seem that since 
Lydiades had once been a tyrant he was never free 
from a suspicion, which did injustice to his real 
nature, that he would change again. 

XXXI. In the Aetolian war also Aratus won a 
good repute. For when the Achaeans were bent 
on an engagement with the Aetolians in front of 
Megara, 2 and Agis the king of the Lacedaemonians 
was come up with an army and joined in urging the 
Achaeans on to battle, Aratus opposed this counsel, 
and in spite of much vilification and much scoffing 
abuse for weakness and cowardice would not abandon, 
because of any seeming disgrace, which he judged to 
be for the general advantage, but allowed the enemy 
to cross the Geraneian range without a battle and 
pass on into Peloponnesus. When, however, after 
thus passing on, they suddenly seized Pellene, he 
was no longer the same man, nor would he wait at 

71 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aQ poiaQ^vcLi teal crvve\9elv et? ravrb 
rrjv Bvva/jiiv, dXX,' euOus cbp^rja-e pera rwv Trapov- 
rwv errl rovs TroXeytu'of? eV TO) KpcLTelv daOeve- 
3 arrdrovs &L dra^iav KOI vftpiv 6Wa?. afj.a yap 
TO) irapeXdeiv et? rrjv TTO\IV ol /JLCV 



eV rai? 



d\\ij\ov<j KOI Sia[4ax6/j,i>oi Trepl rcov 

Be teal \o%ayol ra? yvvatfcas KOI ra? 

rwv T[\\r)i>0)V TreptlovTes 
real TO. Kpavr) ra avrwv dffraipovvres 
TTSpieTlOecrav rov fj,i]$eva \.a{3eLv a\\ov, 
tcpdvei &r)\ov eirai rov Becnrorrjif eKaarrj^. ourw 
Be 8iaKi/j.evois aurois /cal Tavra Trpdrrovaiv 
6 "Aparo? 7ri7recra)v TrpocrrjyyeXOti. /cal 
6/C7rX.7/^ea)9, o'iav etVo? ev dra^ia TOI- 
avrrj, irplv rj Trdvras irvQe.aQai TOV xivSwov ol 



TOL Trepl ra? TrvXa? roZ? 'A^ato?? /cal rd irpodcneia 



crv/jL7recr6vT$ e<pevyov rjSrj vevLKi]^evoL, /cal /care- 104 



TOL>? a-vi'iarafAevovs /cal 



XXXII. 'Ey rovrco Be ra> rapd^w p.la 
ai^/iaXa)Ta)i/, 'ETrty^of? dvBpos evBo^ov OvyaTtjp, 
avrrj Be /cdXXei /cal /jLeyedei crcoyuaro? 
Tv%e [lev eV TW tepa) KaOe^opevr) TT}? ' 
01; /carea-TTjcrev av-rijv 6 eViXe/cTa^T;? eXa>^ eavra) 
fcal TrepiOels ri]v Tpi\o<$>iav, d<pva) Be e/cBpa/j.ov(ra 
2 7T/3O? rov 6opvftov, a)? earrj Trpo rwv Ovpwv rov 
lepov /cal /car/3\\lsev et? TOU? /^a^o/jievov^ avu>6ev 
e^ovcra rr)v rpi\o(j)iav, avrots re rot? 7ro\irat<; 
72 



ARATUS xxxi. 2-xxxn. 2 

all in order that his forces might assemble and come 
together from all quarters, but at once set out with 
those he had against the enemy, whom the disorder 
and wantonness attendant upon their success had 
wholly weakened. For as soon as they had entered 
the city, the common soldiers had scattered them- 
selves among the houses, jostling and fighting with 
one another over the booty, while the leaders and 
captains were going about and seizing the wives and 
daughters of the Pellenians, on whose heads they 
put their own helmets, that no one else might seize 
them, but that the helmet might show to whom each 
woman belonged. But while they were in this 
situation and thus engaged, word was suddenly 
brought them that Aratus had attacked. Dismay 
fell upon them, as was natural amid such disorder, 
and before all had learned of the danger the fore- 
most of them, engaging with the Achaeans at the 
gates and in the suburbs, were already conquered 
and in full flight, and being driven in headlong rout,, 
they filled with dismay those who were collecting 
together and coming to their aid. 

XXX11. In the midst of this confusion, one of the 
captive women, daughter of Epigethes, a man of 
distinction, and herself conspicuous for beauty and 
stateliness of person, chanced to be sitting in the 
sanctuary of Artemis, where she had been placed by 
the captain of a picked corps, who had seized her for 
his prize and set his three crested helmet upon her 
head. But suddenly she ran forth to view the 
tumult, and as she stood in front of the gate of the 
sanctuary and looked down upon the combatants 
from on high, with the three-crested helmet on her 
head, she seemed to the citizens themselves a vision 

73 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



?; Arar' dvOpwTrov <f)dvrj, Kal 

rot? 7roXe/uo? (^acr/za delov opdv SOKOVCTL (frptKTjv 
ei>/3a\ teal #ayu/3o?, wcrre fj,r)$eva TpeTreaOai, Trpb? 
dXtcrjv, 

AVTOL Ofc- ITeAAT/z'eK \eyova-t TO /3/ 
^eoO TOJ^ yuez/ d\\ov (iTroKelcrOai. %povov a 
orav &e tavrjOev VTTO TT}? iepeias eK^epTji 
7rpocrj3\e7riv evavriov, aX\' diroTpeTTecrOaL Trdv- 
Ta?' OL 7a/o dvOpanroLs fiovov opa^ia (frpiKTov 
eivai Kai ^aXeirov, d\\a KOI bev&pa iroielv d(f)opa 
Kal fcapTrovs dTra/.L/3\ia-/civ, St' MV av KO/jLir)rai. 
3 TOUTO &r) rare rrjv tepetav t^eveyKa/Aevijv Kal rpe- 
Trovcrav del Kara rou? A.iTa>\ovy dvTLTrpoa-wrrov 
e/ctypovas Karao-rrjcrai Kal irape\effdai rbv \oyi- 
cr/j,6i>. 6 5e "Aparo? ov&ev ev rot? v 
eiprj/ce TOIOVTOV, d\\d fy^Gi rpetyd/jLevo 
AtrcoXoi/? Kal favyovcu avveicnreautv et? Tr)V 



Kara 
vai. TO $e epyov v rot? 

6 ^u>ypd(j)o^ eirolrfcrev epfyavTiKtos rrj 



XXXIII. Ou jjirjv d\\d TToXkcov eOv&v Kal 
SwacTToyv errl TOVS 'A^auou? 
o "A/3aTO9 errpaTTe (j>t\Lav TT/DO? TOV? 



(rvvepyw xp)iad/j,vo<; ov p,ovov elptjvijv, d\\d Kal 
rot? 'A^ouoi? TT^O? TOL/? 



2 Tot/? Be 'AOrjvaiovs cnrovbd^wv e\v0epa)(rai 
Si/3\ijQii Kal KaKoy? IJKOvcrev vrrb TWV 'A^a^wz/, 
OTI arrovSds TreTroirj/Aevcov avT&v TT/JO? TOL/? Ma/ce- 
Sovas Kal dvo^a^ dyovrwv eVe^etp^cre TOP Heipatd 

74 



ARATUS xxxi i. 2-xxxm. 2 

of more than human majesty, while the enemy 
thought they saw an apparition from heaven and 
were struck with amazement and terror, so that not 
a man of them thought of defending himself. 

But the Pellenians themselves tell us that the 
image of the goddess usually stands untouched, and 
that when it is removed by the priestess and carried 
forth from the temple, no man looks upon it, but all 
turn their gaze awav ; for not only to mankind is it 

fj > > 

a grievous and terrible sight, but trees also, past 
which it may be carried, become barren and cast 
their fruit. This image, then, they say, the priestess 
carried forth from the temple at this time, and by 
ever turning it in the faces of the Aetolians robbed 
them of their senses and took away their reason. 
Aratus, however, in his Commentaries, makes no 
mention of such a thing, but says that after routing 
the Aetolians and bursting into the city with them 
as they fled, he drove them out by main force, and 
slew seven hundred of them. The action was ex- 
tolled as among the greatest exploits, and Timanthes 
the painter made a picture of the battle which in its 
composition vividly pourtrayed the event. 

XXXIII. Notwithstanding, since many peoples and 
dynasts were combining against the Achaeans, Aratus 
at once sought to make friends of the Aetolians, and 
with the assistance of Pantaleon, their most in- 
fluential man, not only made peace, but also an 
alliance between them and the Achaeans. 

But in his eagerness to set Athens free he incurred 
the bitter reproaches of the Achaeans, because, 
though they had made a truce and suspended hos- 
tilities with the Macedonians, he attempted to seize 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avros Be apvovfievos ev TO?? VTTO- 
ol? d7ro\e\oi,7rev '\Lpylvov alriarai, fjL6& 

3 OV TCL TTCpl TOV ' A/CpOKOpl v6ov tTTpa^eV. KIVOV 

yap IBia TO> Tletpaiel Trpocrftakovra Kal TJ}? K\L- 
/JLCLKOS a-vvrpifteicrr)*; ^LWKo^evov ovofjui^etv Kal 
Ka\elv (Tvve)W<; "Aparov )G7rep Trapovra, Kal bia- 
e^aTraT/jcravTa TO 1/9 7roXe/iioi/9. ov 
Soxel TTiOavo)? aTroXoyelcrdai- rov yap \Lpyl- 
vov, (ivd pwrrov ISiajTrjv Kal ^vpov, CLTT' ov&evos r)V 

64/COT09 7TL VOVV $Ci\kaQai TT)V TrjXlKaVTTJV TTpdfjlV., 

el yur/ TOV " Aparov el^ev rjye/jLova Kal Trap' exeiivov 
T-qv Svvafjiiv KOI TOV Kaipbv i\rjcf)i TT/PO? TTJV TTL- 
4 QGGLV. eSfauxre Be Kal auTo? 6 v A/jaTO? ov Bis 
ouBe Tpis, d\\a TroXXa/a?, axnrep ol 
7rL^ipyj(Ta^ TW TLetpaiCi Kal TT/OO? Ta? 
OVK aTTOKafJitoVy d\\a TU> Trapa /j.iKpbv del Kal 
(Tvi'eyyvs d7ro(T(j)d\\ea-0ai TWV e\7riBa)v Trpo? TO 
Oappelv dvaKa\ov/j,vos. aTraj; Be Kal TO cr/teXo? 
t'cTTracre Bid TOU piaaiov (frevywv Kal TO/ia? 
TroXXa? OepaTrevofj-evos, Kal TTO\VV \povov 
(fropeiw KOjAi^oiJLevos ejroieiTo TO,? o~TpaTeias. 
XXXIV. *AvTiyovov Be asrroQavQVTOS Kal AT?- 
TTJV {3ao~i\eiav 7rapa\aj36vTo< 
Tat? 'AOtjvais Kal oXw? KaTecppovei 
Bto Kal KaTOevTO^ avTOv 



VTTO tuo? TOV i^r)Tpiov o~Tpa- 
TJjyov, Kal \6yov yevofievov TTO\\OV fiev, a>9 
ed\(i3K t TTO\\OV Be &)? TeOvrjKev, 6 fjiev TOV TLei- 1043 
2 paid (frpovpwv &ioyevrj<; eTre^tyev eTrio-TO\r]V 



1 Antigonus Gonatas died in 239 B.C , and was succeeded 
by his son Demetrius II., who reigned ten years. 

7 6 



ARATUS xxxm. 2-xxxiv. 2 

the Peiraeus. He himself, however, in the Com- 
mentaries which he left, lays the blame for this 
attempt upon Erginus, with whose aid he had 
effected the capture of Acrocorinthus. He says that 
Erginus attacked the Peiraeus on his own private 
account, and that when his scaling-ladder broke and 
the enemy were pursuing him, he kept calling upon 
Aratus by name, as if Aratus were there, and thus 
deceived and made his escape from them. But this 
defence does not seem to be convincing. For Erginus 
was a private man and a Syrian, and there is no 
likelihood that he would have conceived of so great an 
undertaking if he had not been under the guidance 
of Aratus and obtained from him the force and the 
fitting time for the attack. And Aratus himself also 
made this plain, since he assaulted the Peiraeus, not 
twice or thrice, but many times, like a desperate 
lover, and would not desist in spite of his failures, 
but was roused to fresh courage by the very narrow- 
ness of the slight margin by which he was dis- 
appointed of his hopes. And once he actually put 
his leg out of joint as he fled through the Thriasian 
plain ; and while he was under treatment for this, 
the knife was often used upon him, and for a long 
time he was carried in a litter upon his campaigns. 

XXXIV. When Antigonus died and Demetrius 
succeeded to the throne, 1 Aratus was all the more 
bent upon getting Athens, and wholly despised the 
Macedonians. And so, after he had been overcome 
in a battle at Phylacia by Bithys the general of 
Demetrius, and reports were rife, one that he had 
been captured, and another that he was dead, Dio- 
genes, the guardian of the Peimeus, sent a letter to 

77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KopivOov ej;icrracr0ai TT}? TroXeaK rceXevwv TOV? 
u?, erretBjj "A/saro? drreOavev erv%e e TCOZ; 

rrap&v at>ro? eV K.opivO&, 
real Biarpi/3r)V oi rov Aioyevovs teal ye\wra rro\vv 

e 6 



e/c Ma^ec5owa5 i^auz^ eTrefvfyev, efi 77? 
3 7T/?o? avTOv 6 "Ayoaro? SeSe/jLeros. iracrav Be 



fcov<p6rr)-a KO\aKetas T?}? TT/^O? Ma/teSo- 
v7rep/3d\\ovT<; earet^avq^opricrav ore Trpwrov 
T0vr)Kcos. Sib /cal TT^OO? 6pyr)v evffvs IK- 



Trpor)\6ev elra Treta-Qels ovbev ffBi 

Ot Se ' XO^valoi av^povrjcravTe^ avrov rrjv ape- 
rrfv, eVet &TI /j.r)T piov reXevrrjcravTOS Mp/jirfcrav eVl 

4 TT)^ eXevOepiav, e/celvov ercaKovv. 6 e', Kaiirep ere- 
pov fjiev apy^ovros rore rwv 'A^atcoz/, atro? 
dppcoaria pa/cpa K\ivijpijs vrrdp^wv, o'/zw? eV 
<f)Opei(p KOfja^ofJievo^ vrr^vrrjcre rfj rro\ei TT/OO? T^I/ 
Xpeiavy KCL\ rov errl r^? (frpovpds Aioyevrj (rvverreL- 
<TV aTToSovvai rov re Tleipaid KCLI rrjv Movvvyiay 
Kal rrjv ^d\a/jLLva real TO JLovviov T0i9 'Aflrjvaiois 
errl rrevrijrcovra real ercarov ra\dvroi<$, wv avrbs o 

5 "Aparos eircoo-i rf) rro\et, <TVveftd\ero. rrpoo-e^a)- 

S' euOvs Alyiv^rai real 'Ep/i.iovsis rot? 
, r) re 7r\eiarrj T^? 'ApfcaSias auro?? crvv- 
ere\ei. real ^'lareeo'ovajv /i,ev da"^6\ayv ovrayv Bid 

TlVa<$ TTpOGOiKOVS KOi OfJ-OpOVS TToXe/XOf?, AiTW- 

Be 



73 



ARATUS xxxiv. 2-5 

Corinth ordering the Achaeans to quit the city, since 
Aratus had been killed ; but when the letter arrived 
at Corinth, Aratus chanced to be there in person, 
and so the messengers of Diogenes, after furnishing 
much diversion and laughter, went away. Moreover, 
the king himself sent a ship from Macedonia, on 
which Aratus was to be brought to him in chains. 
And the Athenians, carrying their flattery of the 
Macedonians to the highest pitch of levity, crowned 
themselves with garlands as soon as they heard that 
Aratus was dead. Therefore he was wroth, and at 
once made an expedition against them, and advanced 
as far as the Academy ; then he listened to their 
entreaties and did them no harm. 

So the Athenians came to recognize the excellence 
of his character, and when, upon the death of 
Demetrius, 1 they set out to regain their freedom, 
they called upon him. Then Aratus, although 
another was at that time general of the Achaeans, 
and he himself was confined to his bed by a long 
sickness, nevertheless was carried in a litter to help 
the city in its time of need, and joined in persuading 
Diogenes, the commander of the garrison, to give up 
the Peiraeus, Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium to the 
Athenians for a hundred and fifty talents, twenty of 
which Aratus contributed himself. Moreover, Aegina 
and Hermione at once came over to the Achaeans, 
and the greater part of Arcadia joined their league. 
And since the Macedonians were busy with certain 
neighbouring and adjacent wars, and the Aetolians 
were in alliance with the Achaeans, the power of 
the Achaean League was greatly increased. 

1 In 229 B.C. He was succeeded by Antigonus Doson, who 
reigned nine years, 

79 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXV. 'O Be "Aparos ei;pya%6/j,vo<i rrjv rfa- 
\aidv vTToOecnv, teal Bvcravacr^erfov rrjv ev "Apyei 
rvpavviBa yeirvtwcrav avrols, 7rei6e Tre/ATrwv rov 
'Apiar6fj,a%ov et9 fjLtcrov Oeivai fcal rrpoaayayelv 
Tot9 'A^afofc rrjv TToXiv, KOI rj\o)(T avi a AvSidSiiv 
eOvovs rrj\LKOvrov y^er' ev$rif.ua<$ /cal TI/JLT/S arpa- 
Trjyov elvai /JLO\\OV rj [nias TroXeo)? teivSwevovra 
2 icai fJLicrovfJLevov rvpavvov. vTraKovaavTos be rov 
'ApKTTOfjidxov KCU K\ev(rainos 
ToKavTa Trejjityai TOV "Aparov, OTTO)? a 
KOL Bta\vcrr)Tai, rou? Trap* avry 



real rwv prj/Adrayv Troi^oiJievwv, o AvBid8^ en 



/cal <^L\OTifjiov^vo^ iSiov avrov TTO\I- 
TOVTO 7T/909 rot/? 'A^aioi/9 yevecrOai, rov 
'Apdrov /car^yopei jrpos 'Apicrro/jLaxov a>9 
ffal aSfaX,XaT6)9 del Trpbs rovs rvpdv- 
e-%ovro<s, avrw 5e Treiaas rrjv -npafyv CTTL- 
ai Trpocrijyaye rot9 'A%aiot9 rov avOpwrcov. 

3 ev6a Brj fj,d\L(rra fyavepav TToir)(Tav ol avveBpot 
TWV 'Axaiwv rr]v Trpos rov "Aparov evvoiav /cal 
TTiariv. dvreiTrovros fiev yap avrov Bi' opyrjv 
amf)Ka<jav TOU9 Trepl rbv Apiar6/jLa%ov eVel &t 
<TV/j.TTi(T0el^ rcd\iv ai)ro9 ijp^aro Trepl avrwv $c,a- 
\eyea0ai Trapwv, irdvra ra^ea)9 /cal rrpoOv/jLUis 

, fcal TrpoaeBe^avro /j,ev rovs 'Apyeuovs 
et9 rrjv rro\ireiav, ei'iavrto Be 
v&repov fcal rbv ^Apifrro/jLa^ov ei\ovro (Trparrjyov. 

4 O Be evijfiepwv Trapd rot9 'A^atot9 /cal /3ov\o- 
/zez/09 6i9 T'V AaKwvLKrjv e/jftaXelv etcd\ei rbv 

Aparov e% 'Afljjv&v. 6 Be eypacfre /j,ev avra> rrjv 
ffrpareiav arrayopevwv /cal 1 T&> IvXeo/ueVet Opdcros 

1 no., bracketed by Sint, 3 
80 



ARATUS xxxv. 1-4 

XXXV. And now Aratus, seeking to effect his 
long-standing purpose, and impatient of the tyranny 
so near the Achaeans in Argos, sent messengers and 
tried to persuade Aristomachus to give his city free- 
dom and attach it to the Achaean League, urging 
him to imitate Lydiades and be general of so great 
a nation with praise and honour, rather than tyrant 
of a single city with peril and hatred. Aristomachus 
consented, and told Aratus to send him fifty talents, 
in order that he might disband and send away the 
soldiers under him, and the money was being pro- 
vided. Upon this, Lyd iades, who was still general 
and had an ambition that the Achaeans should regard 
this transaction as his own work, denounced Aratus 
to Aristomachus as a man who had always been an 
implacable enemy of tyrants, and after persuading 
Aristomachus to entrust the matter to himself, 
brought him before the Achaean council. Then 
the members of the council put into clearest light 
their goodwill towards Aratus and their confidence 
in him. For when he angrily opposed the project, 
they drove Aristomachus away ; but when he had 
been won over again, and came before them in 
person, and began to argue for the project, they 
speedily and readily adopted all his proposals, 
admitted Argos and Phlius into the league, and a 
year later l actually choose Aristomachus general. 

Aristomachus, then, being in high favour with the 
Achaeans, and wishing to invade Laconia, summoned 
Aratus from Athens. Aratus wrote him a letter in 
which he tried to dissuade him from the expedition, 
and expressed unwillingness to involve the Achaeans 
in hostilities with Cleomenes, who was daring and 

1 In 227 B.C. 

Si 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal 7rapa/36\a)S avl;avo/jLvrt) 

TOi/9 'Amatol/? fJirj j3ov\6tJLVos, wpfJLrjfjievov e irdv- 
5 TW? VTrr/Kovae Kal irapow crvvecrTpaTevev. ore Brj 
Kal K0)\vcras Trepl TO Ha\\dvriov TOV KXeo- 

aurot? pd^rjv avvd^lrai TOV 



Trepl TT}? arparrjyia<; et? d<ywva KOI dj'TiTrapay- 
yeXiav avrw /caTa<rrd<f efcpdrTjcre rfj 
/cai TO SciiSefcarov rje 



XXXVI. 'Er ravrrj rfj crrparijyia Trepl TO 
Av/caiov rjTTrjQels VTTO TOV KXeo/ze^ou? efyvye- /cal 1044 
Tr\avr)0el<> VVKTOS eBo^e /mev TeOvdvai Kal TCCL\IV 
ovro? o Xoyo? /car' avTov TroXu? e 
rou? ''EXX^^^a?* dva(Ta>0el<; Se al TOI)? 



ra.9 (Tvva r yaywv OVK 

aptcrra TW Kcupw ^p^crdfjievo^ ovSevbs Trpoa'- 



TO 
TrTT(Te WavTivevcri crvj,jLd'ois overt TOV 



^P TTO\.IV e\w 

rot)? peTOiKOvs 7roXtra9 eVot^cre^ CLVTWV, KOI 
a viK&VTes OVK av paSitos <ryo v ^ 

rot? 'A^cuot?. 

3 Av0is Be TCOV KaKe^aL/JiovLwv eVl 
TTO\IV <7TpaTvadvTcov /3o)i0/]<ras wicve 

TO) KXeo/jievei \a/3>/v Trapaa^elv 



rot? eyaOTroi,Tais ia O/LIVOI$ vTe^cv, oi>T 
aXXw? TT/OO? ra? KCLTO, crro/^a ^r/^a? ez> ire<^VKu>^ 
Kal Tore \6tTr6fjLev6s T iT\r/0(, Kal Trpo? civopa 
TO\/j,rjrr)V Kal vkov ijBij Trapafc/jid^ovn TM Ovfifa 
l KKO\ao~fAvr) TT) <f)i\OTi /Aid crvvecrTriKws, KOL 



1 See the Cleo>ttcne*, iv. 3-4. 

2 226 B.C. Cf. the Clcomenes, v, 8 Cf. the Clcomencs, vi. 

82 



ARATUS xxxv. 4-xxxvi. 3 

growing marvellously in power ; but, since Aristo- 
machus was altogether insistent, Aratus obeyed 
orders and accompanied the expedition in person. 
It was at this time that he prevented Aristomachus 
from joining battle when Cleomenes came upon them 
at Pallantium, 1 and was denounced therefore by 
Lydiades, with whom he came into contest and 
competition for the office of general, winning the 
vote and being chosen general for the twelfth time. 

XXXVI. In the campaign of this year 2 he was 
defeated by Cleomenes near Mount Lycaeum, and 
took to flight ; and, since he lost his way in the 
night, he was thought to be dead, and once more 
a story to this effect had wide currency among the 
Greeks. But he escaped alive and rallied his soldiers, 
and then was not content to come off safely, but 
making the best use of his opportunity, when no 
one expected or had any idea of what was to happen, 
he suddenly made an assault upon Mantineia, which 
was in alliance with Cleomenes ; and having taken 
the city, he set a garrison there, and made its alien 
residents full citizens, thus acquiring single-handed 
for the conquered Achaeans what they could not 
easily have obtained as conquerors. 

And again, when the Lacedaemonians made an 
expedition against Megalopolis, 3 he went to the aid 
of the city, but was loth to give Cleomenes a chance 
for the hand-to-hand righting which he desired, and 
resisted the importunities of the Megalopolitans. 
For he was never at any time well fitted by nature 
for set battles, and at this time in particular he was 
inferior in numbers, and was matched against a man 
who was young and daring, while his own courage 
was past its prime, and his ambition chastened. He 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



fjv Sid TOV ToXpav eKeivos e ov% vTrap- 

6KTO.TO Bot^CtV dVTfp KKTrjfjiVW (f)V\aKTOl' 

elvai Sid TT}? euXa/rfeia?. 

XXXVII. Ov fJLrjv d\\d TCOV fyi\wv efcSpa/Jiov- 
Twv KOL c&a-a/jievwv rou? ^Trapridra^ a^pi TOV 
o-rpcnoTrebov KCU Trepl 7a? (TK^va^ Stao-Trapevrayv, 
o fjL6V "Ayoaro? ouS' &)? eTnjyayev, a\V eV /Aecra) 
Xa/3a>z> %apdSpav eTrecrr^cre ^al KareKcoXucre Bta- 
rovs OTrXtra?* o Se AuStaSi;? TrepnraOwv 
ra yiyvofjieva KOL TOV "Aparov xa/cifav 

TOU? tTTTrei? co? avrov, d^twv e 
vai rot? SiwKovo'i /cal fj,rj TrpoecrOai TO 
^tjSe eyKara\L7relv avrov vTrep T?}? TrarpiSot dyw- 

2 VL^O/jLGVOV. TTOXXWI/ & (TVCTT pa<pei>T(i)V Kdi d 

Owv eTrippaxrOels evejSa\e TOO Se^iy rcov 
l rpeifrd/jievos eBico/cev, viro OV/AOU KOL 

dra/jbievTcos eirLO'TracrOel^ et? ^copia <rKo\id 
l fjieard SevSpwv Trecfrvrev/jievMv KOL 
7r\areta)v t ev ol? 7ri0p,evov TOV KXeoytte^ 
\a/jL7rpa)s dycovicrdfjLei'OS TOV /cd\\icrTov TCOV dyw- 
3 vwv errl Ovpats T^? TraTptSo?. ol S' aXXot 0eu- 
et? T^V (f)d\ayya Kal crvvrapd^avTes TOL>? 
TO arpdrev/jLa T/}? ^TT^? everc\t]a-av. 
aiTiav Se /j,yd\r)v 6 ''ApaTO? eXa/Se So^a? rrpoe- 
TOV AvSidSijv Kal ftia&Qels VTTO TWV ^ 

TT/OO? opyrjv rfKoXovOrjaev avrols 
Aiyiov. Ki Se crvi>e\06vT<$ e-^rrj^La-avTo /U.T) - 
Soz^at %p/]/jLaTa avTto ^Se /J,ia6o(j)6pov<; Tpe<petv, 
aXX' a^Tfo iropi&ip, el SCCITO iTQ\jj,iv. 
84 



ARATUS xxxvi. 3~xxxvii. 3 

also thought that the glory which his adversary was 
trying to acquire by his daring and did not possess, 
had already been acquired by himself and must be 
preserved by his caution. 

XXXVII. Nevertheless, his light infantry once 
made a sally, drove the Spartans as far as to their 
camp, and were scattered about among the tents. 
Aratus, however, would not even then lead up his 
men, but putting a ravine between himself and the 
enemy, halted there, and would not suffer his meii- 
at-arms to cross it. Then Lydiades, distressed at 
what was going on, and loading Aratus with re- 
proaches, called his horsemen to him and exhorted 
them to go to the help of the pursuers, and not to 
let the victory slip out of their hands nor leave in the 
lurch a commander who was fighting in behalf of his 
native city. Many brave men gathering at his call, 
he was emboldened to charge upon the right wing 
of the enemy, which he routed and pursued. But 
his ardour and ambition robbed him of discretion, 
and he was drawn on into places that were intricate 
and full of planted trees and broad trenches. Here 
Cleomenes attacked him and he fell, after a brilliant 
and most honourable combat at the gates of his 
native city. The rest of his men fled to their main 
line, threw the men-at-arms into confusion, and thus 
infected the whole army with their defeat. Aratus 
was severely blamed for this, being thought to have 
betrayed Lydiades ; and when the Achaeans left the 
field in anger, they forced him to accompany them 
to Aegium. Here they held an assembly, and voted 
not to give him money and not to maintain mer- 
cenaries for him ; if he wanted to wage war, he must 
provide the means himself. 

85 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXVIII. OUTGO Be 7rp07rrj\aKicr6el<f eftov\ev- 
craro /lev evOvs drro9ecr6aL rr)V acfrpayiba Kal TIJV 
d(j)6lrai, \oyia~/jtq) Be %pr)(rd/jievo<> rore 
v7refjLive, KOI rrpos 'Op^o/jievov e^ayaywv roi>9 
eOero TT/JO? Meyicrrovovv rov 



Trarproov, ev f) Kparrjcras 

fJLei> TTKTLV, ^WVTCt TOV ^lejlCTTOVOVV JVV- 



2 i\aftev. eico^a)9 Se arparijyeLi' irap eviavrov, 
(09 77 ra^t? avTW 7repir)\0e } Ka\ov/j.evo<> e^w/Jio- 
craro, teal Ttyao^et'o? ypedrj arr parity 6s. eSo/cei Be 
r] nev ?rpo? TOi/9 0^X01/5 opyt) 7rpo(pacri^ eivai 
\eyo/jievr) TT}? e'^w/zocrta? cnrLOavos, atria 3' 

6?^9 ra TrepieGTwra TOVS 'A^a^ou?, ov/ceP a>? 
repov arpe/^a teal a"%e8r)v rov KXeo/JLevovs e 
VOVTOS ovS* [j,7r\KOfj.evov rat? 7ro\iTifcais d 

3 aXA,' eVet TOU? e<^6pou? cnroKTeivas teal rrjv 
ava^aa'dp.evo^ teal TroXXou? rw^ /Aeroitcwv fj,/3a- 
\a)v et? rr/t' 7ro\iT6Lav 

ei)6vs emtceifievov rot? 

eavrov afyovvTQS. Bib Kal ae/j-^ovrai rov "Apa- 
rov ev craXa) /jieyaXto Kal %eiiJiwvi rwv rrpay/jLurayv 
(pepofievcov Marrep Kvfiepvijrijv d(f>ei>ra teal Trpoe- 1045 
aevov erepw rovs ota/ca?, ore /aiXco? el^e Kal O.KQV- 

4 rwv emaravra cr(t)%iv TO icoivbi 1 ' el o' 
ra rrpdyfj.ara Kal rrjv Bvvafuv rwv ' 
TO) K/-.oa^et, al yttr/ rrd\iv 

ex/Bap ftapMaai (frpovpals MaKeBovcov, fir)Be 7T\rjpo)- 
aai rov 'AKpoKopivQov ^lX\vpiKcov O7r\a)i> Kal 
TaXariKwv, /j,r]Be 01)9 ai)ro9 ev rat9 rrpd^effi Kara- 



1 Cf. the Cleomenes, xv. 1. 

2 For the year 224 B c. 

8 Cf. the Cleomcnes, viii., xi. 

86 



ARATUS xxxvin. 1-4 

XXXVIII. Smarting under this insult, he resolved 
to give up his seal at once, and resign the office of 
general, but upon reflection he held on for the 
present, and after leading the Achaeans forth to 
Orchomenus, fought a battle there with Megistonoiis, 
the stepfather of Cleomenes, in which he got the 
upper hand, killing three hundred of the enemy and 
taking Megistonoiis prisoner. But when, accustomed 
as he was to be general every other year, his turn 
came round again and he was invited to take the 
office, he formally declined, 1 and Timoxenus was 
chosen general. 2 Now the grounds usually given 
for this refusal of Aratus, namely, his anger at the 
people, were not thought to be convincing, and 
the real reason for it was the situation of the 
Achaeans. For the invasions of Cleomenes were no 
longer quiet and restrained, as formerly, nor was he 
fettered by the civil authorities, but after he had 
killed the ephors, divided up the land, advanced 
many resident aliens to the citizenship, and thus got 
an irresponsible power, 3 he immediately pressed the 
Achaeans hard, and demanded the supreme leader- 
ship for himself. And therefore men blame Aratus, 
because, when the ship of state was driving in a 
great surge and storm, he forsook the pilot's helm 
and left it to another, although it had been well, 
even if the people were unwilling, to remain at their 
head and save them ; and if he despaired of the 
government and power of the Achaeans, he ought 
to have yielded to Cleomenes, and not to have made 
Peloponnesus quite barbarous again under Mace- 
donian garrisons, nor to have filled Acrocorinthus 
with Illyrian and Gallic arms., nor, in the case of 

8? 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcai Kara7ro\iTv6fj.ei>o^, ev oe rot? 
\oiSopwv BiereXei, TOUTOU? eTrdye^Oai 
ecr7roTa? rat? TToXecr/ av^payovs vrroKOpi^o^evov. 
5 el >e KXeo/^eV??? ty, \eyea-0w yap OUTCO?, irapdvo- 
/AO? /cat rvpavviKos, XX' 'H/oa/cXetSat Trarepe? 
aurw /eat 5/7ra/3Tr? 7rar/9L9, //? roy afyavecnaTov 
a^tov avr\ TOV Trpa>TOV MatceSovwv i}y/ji6va Trotel- 

( 



evyeveiav. KCLLTOI K^eopevr)? rei TTJV 

Trapa TMV 'A%aicov co? iro\\a Troirjdwv ay ad a ra? 

TroXei? aim TT}? Tt/^r}? /cat TT}? TTpoffTjyopias 

6 'A^Tt7Oz/o? Se /cat Kara 7771; /cal /cara O 
avroKpdrwp ijye/jicov dvayopevOels ov% v 
irpiv TOV aia-Obp av-rw TT)? rjye/AOvias oa 

vai TOV 'A/cpOfcopLvdov, are^w? TOV AtVwTrou 
fj,T]crd/j.evos rcvvrjyov. ov yap TTpOTepov 7re{3r) 
'A^aiot? SeofteVot? /eal vTroftaXXoveiv avrovs Bia 
rwv Trpecr@ei,Mv /cat raw -^ni^Lff^aTwv r; r^ (frpovpfi 
/cat rot? ofjLrjpois wcrrrep %aXt^ouyLteVou? ai/ao-%6- 

7 <7^at. KaiTOL TTcicrav o "Aparos d^irjcri (frwvrjv drro- 
\oyi%6uvos rrjv dvdyfcrjv. 6 Tio\v/3io<; Be avrov 
e/c TroXXoO (pija-L /cal rrpo T?)? dvdy/CTjs v$opa)fj,e- 
vov TO Opdcros TO TOV KXeoyuevou? tcpvfya T& 
'AvTiyovw &ia\eyea-8ai, /cat TOU? M67aXo7roXtTa? 

Seopevovs *A^atco^ eVt/caXeto-^at 

OVTOL yap eVte^ovro TO> 
ve%w? ayovTOS avTovs /cat 

8 roO KXeo^evou?. o^ota)? e /cat 4>uXa/o^o? t 



1 Histories, ii. 47, 4ff. 
88 



ARATUS xxxvin. 4-8 

men whom he was always defeating in the fields of 
war and statesmanship and abusing in the pages 
of his Commentaries, to have made these men lords 
over the cities under the endearing name of allies. 
And if Cleomenes was, as must be granted, lawless 
and arbitrary, still, Heracleidae were his ancestors, 
and Sparta was his native land, the meanest citizen 
of which was more worthy than the foremost Mace- 
donian to be made their leader by those who had 
any regard for Greek nobility of birth. And yet 
Cleomenes asked the Achaeans for the office, with 
the promise that he would confer many benefits 
upon their cities in return for that honour and its 
title, whereas Antigonus, although he was proclaimed 
leader with full powers by land and sea, would not 
accept the office until Acrocorinthus had been 
promised him as the pay for his leadership. In this 
he acted just like Aesop's hunter. For he would not 
mount the Achaeans, although they prayed him to 
do so and presented their backs to him by way of 
embassies and decrees, until they consented to wear 
the bit and bridle of the garrison they received and 
the hostages they gave. And yet Aratus says every- 
thing that he can say in explaining the necessity 
that was upon him. Polybius, however, says l that 
for a long time, and before the necessity arose, 
Aratus mistrusted the daring temper of Cleomenes 
and made secret overtures to Antigonus, besides 
putting the Megalopolitans forward to beg the 
Achaeans to call in Antigonus. For the Megalo- 
politans were most oppressed by the war, since 
Cleomenes was continually plundering their territory. 
A similar account of these matters is given by 
Phylarchus also, in whom, but for the testimony of 

VOL. xi. D 89 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7Tpl TOVTWV, W fJLr] TOV YIo\V/3iOV 

TO? ov Trdvv TL TricrTeveiv d^iov r)v. evQov&ia yap 
orav a-v/rr/rat TOV KAeo/zeVou?, L/TT' evvoias, teal 
KaOd-rrep ev BLK?) TTJ icrTopia TW JJLCV d 



XXXIX. 'A7re/9aXoz/ 3' ovv ol 'A 
Mavriveiav, ird\iv eXoz^rc? avrrjv TOV KXeo/^e- 
vovs, real paxy p>yd\p Trepl TO '^Karo^aiov 
OVTM KaT67r\dyr)o-av w&Te irepsrfeiv 



TOV 



. 6 &e "Aparo? a>? ycreTO a^ovTa Ka 
l Aepvav mna /^era T% ^vvdjJLew^, (pofiijOels 
aTrecrreXXe Trped/Beis rou? a^iovvras a>? Trapd 
real (TVfjL^jid'^ov^ avTov tf/ceiv /tera Tpi- 
, el Be aTTfcrret, \aftelv 6/jujpov<$. raOra 
elvai Kal ^Xeuacr//oz^ avTov (frrfa-as 6 

rot? 



TO 



3 /cal ^/a/9oXa? e^ovcrav. eypafye Be K<iKelvo<s eiri- 
crroXa? KaTa TOV KXeoyueVou? 1 Aral 
\oiSopiai Kal /3Xacr(77/uat ^XP 1 
yvvaiKwv r/XX^Xou? /ca/tw? \ey6vTcov. 

'E: TOVTOV Kijpv/ea jre^ras 6 
TToXe/xoi' TrpoepovvTa Tot? 'A^atot?, fjLiKpov 
e\a6e TIJV ^iKVcovLtav TTO\LV dpTrdaas Bid 
crias, eyyvOev 1 Se aTTOTpaTrels Tle\\qvrj 7Tpoo~/3a- 
Xe :al roO crTpaTrjyov TWV 'A^atwi^ 
ecr^e r^ Tr6\iv. o\L<yw be vo~Tepov 

4 eXa/9e Aral ITe^TeXe^o^. elr' evOvs 'Apyeioi, Trpoa- 
sywpriGav avTu> Kal OXmcr^ot fypovpdv e&ei 

Kal 6'Xft)? ov&ev CTI TWV eTTLKT^TWV fieftaiov 

1 fyyv6ev Bekker reads tKtWev, with the AMine. 
90 



ARATUS xxxvin. 8-xxxix. 4 

Polybius, one should not put entire credence. For 
goodwill makes his every mention of Cleomenes 
ecstatic., and as if he were pleading in a court of 
law, he is for ever accusing Aratus in his history, 
and defending Cleomenes. 

XXXIX. So, then, the Achaeans lost Mantineia, 
which was taken again by Cleomenes, and after 
being defeated in a great battle at Hecatombaeum 
they were so dismayed that they sent at once and 
invited Cleomenes to come to Argos and assume the 
leadership. But Aratus, when he learned that 
Cleomenes was on the way and at Lerna with his 
forces, feared the issue, and sent an embassy to 
demand that he should come with three hundred 
men only, as to friends and allies, and that if he was 
distrustful, he should accept hostages. Cleomenes 
declared that he was insulted and mocked by this 
demand, and retired with his army, after writing a 
letter to the Achaeans which was full of bitter accu- 
sations against Aratus. Aratus also wrote letters 
against Cleomenes; and their mutual abuse and 
defamation reached the point of maligning one 
another's marriages and wives. 

As a result of this, Cleomenes sent a herald to 
declare war against the Achaeans, and almost 
succeeded in seizing the city of Sicyon with the 
help of traitors; he turned aside, however, when 
close at hand, and assaulted and took the city of 
Pellene, from which the Achaean commander fled. 
And not long afterwards he took Pheneus also and 
Penteleium. Then Argos went over to his side, and 
Phlius received a garrison which he sent. In a word, 
not one of their acquisitions longer held firm to the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



, dXXa dopvftos 770X1)9 dcfrvay TTC/H- 
TOV "ApcLTov, opwvTa Trjv HeXoTTovvrjcrov 
KpaBaivofjLevrjv KOI ra? TroXet? e^avicrTafieva^ VTTO 
TWV vea)TpL^6vTO)v TT avT a^66 ev . 

V T'TT ' ^ v 5 V j' > v ^ 

AL. tiTpe/jLei yap ovbev ovoe eorrepyev CTTL rot? 
7rapov(Tiv, a\\a teal ^IKVWVIWV avT&v /ecu }Lopiv- 1046 
OLwv eyevovro 7ro\\ol /raTa^a^et? Siei\y/4evoi 
TO) KXeo/xei'et Kal iraXai TT/OO? TO KOIVOV ISicov 

2 7Tl0VfJLia $VV(l<T'Tl(i)V V7TOV\Ci)<; ^OVT<f. CTTi TOV- 

e^ovaiav avvTrevOvvov 6 "Aparo? \a[Ba)V 
ev ^IKVWVI &i(f)0apfjivov<; aTretcreive, 
ev Kopti/^ft) 7re(/3cu/z6^o9 ava^rj'rtlv /cal 
e^rfypiaLve TO 7T\T)0os TJSij voaovv Kal 
rrjv VTTO rot? \\^aiol<f 7ro\LTLav. 
ovv t? TO TOU 'ATroXXwi'o? iepov 

TOV "ApCLTOV, aV\lV Tj ffV\\a/3eiV 

3 Trpo T>)? aTTOCTTacreco? eyvwrcoTes. o Be fj/ce /JLCV 



TOV LTTTTOV <w? OVK 
ov&e VTroTTTevcov, dvaTnfiriadvTWV Be TroXXai^ teal 
\oiBopov/nV(i)v avTtp /cal tcaTijyopovvTatv ev TTCO? 
fcaOecrTaiTi T) Trpo&coTrw Kal TU> \6yw 
K\eve KaOicrai KCU fjurj (Boav CITUKTW^ ec 
aXXa Kal TOU? Trepl Ovpas 6Wa<? et'crco Trapievar 
Kal TavO* afjia \eyayv vTrefyjei fidBrjv co? irapa- 

4 BoMTCOV Tivl TOV 'iTCTCOV. QVTWS Be VTTGfcSvS Kal 

Tot? vTravTOMTi Twv K.opiv6ia}v dOopvfiws Bia\e- 
Kal KeXevcov TT/OO? TO 'A7ro\\(aviov 



errl TOV 'LTTTTOV Kal KAeo7raT/3&> T 
T?}? (frpovpCts BiaKeXevo-d/jievos e 



With this chapter cf. the Cleomenes, xvii. XLX. 1. 
s See chap. xli. 1. 



ARATUS xxxix. 4-xL. 4 

Achaeans, but a vast confusion suddenly encompassed 
Aratus. He saw Peloponnesus shaking, and its cities 
everywhere stirred to revolt by restless agitators. 1 

XL. For there was no quiet anywhere, and no 
contentment with present conditions, but even 
among the Sicyonians and Corinthians themselves 
there w r ere many who were known to have been in 
conference with Cleomenes, men whom a desire for 
private domination had long ago led into secret 
hostility towards the common interests. For the 
punishment of these men Aratus was clothed with 
absolute power, 2 and seizing those in Sicyon who 
were thus corrupted he put them to death ; but 
when he tried to seek out and chastise those in 
Corinth, he roused the resentment of the populace 
there, which was already disaffected and ill at ease 
under the Achaean administration. So they as- 
sembled hastily in the temple of Apollo and sent 
for Aratus, determined to kill him or seize him, and 
then to revolt. He came, accordingly, leading his 
horse after him, as though he had no distrust or 
suspicion, and when many sprang up and abused and 
denounced him, with a composed countenance and 
gentle words he bade them sit down and not stand 
there shouting in disorderly fashion, but to admit 
also those who were outside at the door ; and as he 
spoke, he withdrew slowly, as if he would hand his 
horse over to somebody. Having thus slipped out 
of the crowd, he conversed calmly with the 
Corinthians who met him, bidding them go to the 
temple of Apollo, and so, before his enemies were 
aware of it, came nigh the citadel. Then he leaped 
upon his horse, and after giving orders to Cleopater 
the commander of the garrison in the citadel to guard 

93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



(f)V\aTT6iv d<f)i7T7rV(7v et? ^iKVwva, Tpnitcovia 
fjiev avra) crTpariwT&v eTrofjiei'wv, TCOV be d\\wv 
e^KaTdXiirovTwv /cal Biappvevratv. 
5 Alcr06avoi 8' ol K.opiv0loi yuer' oXiyov rrjv 
aTToBpaatv avrov /cal Biw^avres, co? ov /care\a- 

/3oi>, /bL6T7T/jL^lraVTO TOV K\O/Al>r) KOI TTapeSo- 

aav Trjv TTO\IV ov&ev olop.evw \a^aviv Trap 
ain&v Tocrovrov ocrov Si///j,aprv afyivrwv "Aparov- 
OVTO? fjiev ovv, TrpOGyevo/uLevoov avrq) TWV rrji> 
\<yofjLviii> 'A/CTrjv KCLTOIKOVVTCOI' Kal ra? 7ro\e/? 
e<y)(eipi,crdvTu>v, aTrecrTavpov /cal TTepieTel'%1%6 roi> 
'Afcpo/copivOov. 

XLI. Tw 8e 'Apary crvvi)\6ov et? %t/cvct>va TWV 
ov 7ro\\oi' l /cal 



crrpaTrjyos avro/cprajp. /ca 

fypovpav etc TCO/' eavrov 7ro\ircov, rpid/covra /j,ev 
/cal Tpla 7re7roXtref//,eVo? ev TO?? 'A^atot?, 
Be Kal $vvd/j,ei /cal Bo^rj TWV C E\- 
\rivwv, rare B epvjfjLos Kal apropos crvvT6Tpt/jLp.evos, 
Mcnrep eVt vavayiov TT)? TrarpiSos ev TOGOVTU) 
2 craXw Kal KIV&VVO) Sia<pp6/J.evo<;. Kal yap At- 
TO)Xot Seopevov fSorjOeiv direiTravro, Kal 
1 A0i)vaic0v TTO\IV %dpiTi TOV 'Ayoarou 
ovaav ol irepl \^vpVK\iSr)v Kal ^ 
\vaav. ovrwv Be rut 'Apdrq) Kal ^pyj/ndrcov ev 
Kopivdtp Kal oiVta?, o KXeo/jLevijs -rj-fraro aei' 
oi)8t^o? ovSe a\\ov eiacre, fj,Ta7re/jitydfj,i>o<? Be 
TOU? (frtKovs avrov Kal TOVS BioiKrjrds eKeXeve 



1 ow iroAAoi Ziegler, with S and most good MSS. : ol 
iro\\ot. 



94 



ARATUS XL. 4-xLi. 2 

it with a strong hand, he rode off to Sicyon, followed 
by only thirty of his soldiers ; the rest deserted him 
and dispersed. 

After a little while the Corinthians learned of his 
flight and pursued him, but did not overtake him. 
Then they sent for Cleomenes and delivered their 
city into his hands, 1 although he thought that he had 
gained by what they gave him far less than he had 
lost by their letting Aratus get away. Cleomenes, 
accordingly, after the accession to him of the 
inhabitants of Acte, as the district is called, who 
placed their cities in his hands, proceeded to run a 
wall and palisade about Acrocorinthus. 

XLI. But a few of the Achaeans came together 
with Aratus at Sicyon ; and in an assembly there 
held he was chosen general with full powers. And 
now he surrounded himself with a guard from among 
his own citizens. For three-and-thirty years he had 
directed public affairs among the Achaeans, and 
had enjoyed more power and reputation than any 
other Greek ; but now, abandoned by his allies and 
helplessly crushed, he was like one drifting about in 
great surge and peril on the wreck of his native city. 
For the Aetolians refused him their aid when he 
asked for it, and the Athenians, whom gratitude 
made eager to help him, were prevented by Eury- 
cleides and Micion. 2 As for the house and property 
belonging to Aratus in Corinth, Cleomenes would 
not touch them at all, nor permit anyone else to do 
so, but sent for the friends and stewards of Aratus 
and ordered them to administer and watch over 

1 Early in 223 B.C. The story is told very differently in 
the Cleoinenes. xix. 1 f. 

* Two leading orators of the time. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



irdvra BIOLKCLV 1 KOA, ^v\daaeiv o>? 'A/jarw \6yov 

3 v<t>e%ovTas' IBia Be TTJOO? avrov eVeyUA/re TpnrvKov 
Kal irdXiv MeytcrTouovv TOV jrarpwov vTricr^vov- 
/jievos a\\a re TroXXa KCU Ba^Se/ca rdXavra 
crvvrafyv eviavcriov, V7rep/3a\\6fj.evos ru> rj/nlaei 
\\TO\eiJ,cuov eVeti^o? <yap et; rdXavra rw 'Aparw 
/car' eviCLVTOv aTreVreXXey. r)%lov Be rwv 'A%aia)v 
ijyefjitov dvayopevdtjvai KOI Koivfj yn-er' avrwv 

4 <pv\d(T(Tiv TOV ' ' KicpoKopLvOov. TOV Be 'Apdrou 

avro^ &)? ou/c e^ot ra Trpdy^ara, fj,a\\ov Be 
avrayi' e^oiro, Kal KaTeipwvevcraaOai B6- 

e'yLtySaXa)^ ev6vs rrjv ^iKvwviav 
l KaT(f>0ei,p Kal TrpoaeKddrjro rfj vroXet 

, ejKaprepovvros TOV 'Aparov Kal Bia- 



el Be^eTat TOV 'AvTiyovov eVt 
irapaBovvai, TOV \\KpoKopivdov aXXw? yap OVK 



XL! I. Oi /lev ovv 'A^aiot (rvve\ri\v6oTes els 

AiyiOl' KL TOV "ApaTOV Ka\OVV. T)V Be Kll 

TOV KXeo/ieVof? TT/JO? TTJ vroXet crTpaTOTr 

Kal KaTel^ov ol Tro\LTai, Beo/aevoi Kal 1047 

TO crwyua T&V 7ro\/j.LCi)v eyyvs OVTOJV 
ov fydcrKovTes' e^ijpTrjvTo Be avTov Kal yvi>diKe<$ 
ijBi) Kal TraiBes a>o"rrep Trar/ao? KOIVOV Kal ora>Tr/pos 
1 Trepie^o/jLevoi Kal BaKpvoi'Tes. ov fjuvv aXXa 6ap- 
pvvas Kal Trapa/jLvOijcrduevos avTovs e^iTnrevcrei' 
7rl Trjv Bd\aTTav, e^wv BeKa <^tXou? Kal TOV 



1 5ioi;ceiV suggested by Sintenis, with comparison of 
Clemnenes, xix. 3 : ' 

96 



ARATUS XLI. 2-XLII. 2 

everything as though they are to render an account 
to Aratus. Moreover, he privately sent Tripylus to 
Aratus, and afterwards Megistonoiis, his stepfather, 
promising to give him, besides many other things, 
a yearly pension of twelve talents, thus doubling 
the amount which Aratus received annually from 
Ptolemy ; for he sent six talents each year to 
Aratus. 1 Cleomenes demanded, however, that he 
should be proclaimed leader of the Achaeans, and 
together with them should have the keeping of 
Acrocorinthus. Aratus made answer that he did not 
control affairs, but rather was controlled by them ; 
whereupon Cleomenes, thinking himself mocked, at 
once invaded the territory of Sicyon, ravaged and 
laid it waste, and encamped before the city three 
months. All this while Aratus held out patiently, 
and debated with himself whether he should accept 
Antigonus as an ally on condition of handing over 
to him Acrocorinthus ! for on any other terms 
Antigonus was unwilling to give him help. 2 

XLI I. Accordingly, the Achaeans came together 
at Aegium and invited Aratus thither. But there 
was danger in his trying to get there, since Cleomenes 
was encamped before Sicyon. Besides, the citizens 
tried to detain him, beseeching him not to go and 
refusing to let him expose himself while the enemy 
were near; and presently the women and children 
were clinging to him and tearfully embracing him 
as a common father and preserver. Nevertheless, 
after encouraging and comforting them, he rode out 
to the sea, accompanied by ten friends and by his 

1 Ptolemy III., surnamed Euergetes, king of Egypt 247 
222 B c. 

* Cf. the Cleomenes, xix. 3 L 

97 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 






vov YITI veaviav ovTa' tea TrapopfJLOvvToiv eice 
TT\oia)V, eTri/Bavres et? Aiyiov TrapeKO/ALaOrjcrav 

v, ev fj Ka\elv rbv 'Avriyovov 
rapa$iS6i>ai TOV 'A.KpoKopu>0ov. 
3 6Tre[JL-fye ^e /cal rov vlov "Aparo? vrpo? avrbv /j.era 

TWV a\\WV OfJLrjpWV. ([> Oi? OL K.npLl'dlOl ^aXeTTW? 

(^e/jo^re? ra re ^pi')fiara SujpTracrav avrou real 
rrjv oLKiav TO> KXeo/ze^et baypeav eSw/cav. 

XLIII. Toi) 8' 'Avriyoi'ov Trpoaiovros ijSi] fjiera 
Try? Svvd/j,e(t)$ (^7^ ^e ire^ovs Sicr/jivpiovs Ma/ce- 
Sovas, tTTTret? Se %i\iov<i teal rpiaKoaiov<i) aTT^vra 
fjiera TWV Srj[jiiovp<y(t)V o "A/jaTO? avrw Kara 
6d\arrav et? Tlijyds, \a6tDv rovs TroXe/ztou?, ov 
irdvv TI dappwv TOV 'Avriyovov ovBe TTICTTCVWV 
rot? Ma/ceSocriK ry'Set 7a/) tjv^i/jievov eavrbv 






virbOeaiv T/}? TroXtreta? T^ TT/JO? 

2 'AitTtyoyoy TOV TraXaibv e~)(0pav. a\\a bpwv a?ra- 
patr/;TOi' e7riK6i/j.evijv dvdjKrjv teal TOV /caipov, &> 
SovXeuovaiv ot BOKOVVTCS dp^eiv, e%d)pi ?rpo? TO 
Setvov. 6 Be 'AvTiyovos, w? r^? avTM TrpocnbvTa 
TOV "ApaTOi* ecfrpaae, TOL/? /zey aXXou? 

/cat /co/z/a>?, eicelvov & Kal rrepl 
aTTavTrfCTLV e'Se^aro r^ Tt//,?} 7re/JiTT<w?, 
l raXXa TreipaifJievos dvSpbs dyadov Kal vovv 
ey^ovTOs evBorepco r^? ^/oeta? Trpoa-rjydyero. 

3 Kal 7ap ^i/ o "Aparo? 01) fjibvov ev irpdy/jLacri 
98 



ARATUS XLII. 2-xLin. 3 

son, who was now a young man. Vessels were lying 
at anchor off the shore, and upon these the party 
were conveyed to Aegium, where the assembly was 
sitting. Here it was voted to call in Antigonus and 
hand over to him Acrocorinthus. 1 Aratus even sent 
his son to Antigonus with the other hostages. At 
this the Corinthians were indignant ; they plundered 
his property and made a present of his house to 
Cleomenes. 

XLII1. And now, as Antigonus was approaching 
with his forces (he was followed by twenty thousand 
Macedonian footmen and thirteen hundred horse), 
Aratus, in company with his High Councillors, 2 went 
by sea to meet him at Pegae, eluding the enemy. 
Fie had no very great confidence in Antigonus, and 
put no trust in the Macedonians. For he knew that 
his own rise to power had been a consequence of the 
harm he had done to them, and that he had found 
the first and the chief basis for his conduct of affairs 
in his hatred towards the former Antigonus. 3 But 
seeing how inexorable was the necessity laid upon 
him in the demands of the hour, to which those we 
call rulers are slaves, he went on towards the dread 
ordeal. But Antigonus, when he was told that 
Aratus was coming to him, gave the rest of the party 
an ordinary and moderate welcome ; Aratus, however, 
he received at this first meeting with superlative 
honour, and afterwards, finding him to be a man of 
worth and wisdom, drew him in closer intimacy to 
himself. 

For Aratus was not only helpful in large under- 

1 In the spring of 223 B.C. Cf. the Cleomenes, xix. 4. 

2 A body of ten men, chosen as admirers of the general. 

3 Antigonus Gonatas. See the note on xxxiv. 1. 

99 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



/ca 
crvyyeveaOai Trap 1 QVTIVOVV 7ri^api<i. <Ho, Kaiirep 

MV Z>O9 O *AvTiyOVO<S, CO? KaTl>6r](T TT)V VGiV 

TOV dv&pbs fjLijSev dpybv et? <j)i\iav j3a<Ti\itcr)V 
ovaav, ov povov 'A^atw^, d\\a KCU 
rwv crvv avru) irdvrwv /jid\i<TTa 1 

4 efcelvq) $iT\ei' Kal TO crr)p,elov cnrkftaivev 009 6 
$eo? eVl TWV iep&v e&ie. \eyerai yap ov irpo 
7roX\.ou QVQVTI TO) 'ApaTW Suo 

/tua in^eXf) Trep^e^o/iefa?* /cat, 
eiTrelv co? Ta%v Trpo? ra e^Oiara 
TroXe/xtcorara GVVZIGIV et? a/cpav (j>i\iav. rare 
[lev ovv 7rapt]VyK TO pr/Oev, oit&e aXX&>? TTO\V 
ve/jL(av TTtaTetu? iepols KOI /jiavTev/jLaaiv, aXXa TO> 

5 \oyi(r/.iq> XpcofjLevos. eVet Se vcfiepov i> 
TL TO) TToXe/iw avvayaycov 6 'Avriyovos k 

eV }Lopiv6q> Kal TroXXou? V7ro8e^o/j,vo^ TOV "Apa- 
TOV eTrdva) Ka,TeK\ivev eavTov, Kal yuera 

7rpi/3o\aioi> r)p(DTt]<rev el 8ofCi 
elvai, TOV Be Kal Trdvv piyovv 

Trpocr^wpeli' eyyvTepw Kal SaTTtBos KOJU- 
/i^oTepou? o/zou 7repie{3a\ov ol TratSe?, 
Tore 3r) roi' "Aparoz^ dvafJivrfcrOevTa TUIV iep)v 
etceivtov ye\w$ eXafie, Kal SirjyeiTO TO> (3aai\el 
TO crrj^elov Kal Trjv Trpoayopevaiv. aXXa rat/ra 



XL1V. 'Ey & rat? TIr)yais SOVTCS Kal 
opKov? evOus ej3d8iov eVt TOU? TroXe/iitof?. /cal 
7re/3t TTJV irb\iv dywves rjaav, ev 7re<j>pay/jLevov 



1 TTO.VTUV .uaAiff-ra Coratis and Ziegler, after Reiske : 



IOO 



ARATUS XLIII. 3-xLiv. i 

takings, but also more acceptable than anyone else 
as a companion in the king's leisure hours. There- 
fore, although Antigonus was young, as soon as he 
perceived that Aratus was naturally well fitted to be a 
king's friend, he continually treated him with greater 
intimacy than anyone else, whether of the Achaeans, 
or of the Macedonians in his following ; and thus the 
omen proved true which the god had given to Aratus 
in his sacrificial victims. For it is related that as he 
was sacrificing a little while before this, a liver was 
found which had two gall-bladders enclosed in a 
single coil of fat; whereupon the seer had declared 
that Aratus would soon enter into close friendship 
with what he most hated and fought against. At the 
time, then, Aratus paid no heed to the utterance, 
since in general he put little faith in victims and 
divinations, and trusted rather to his reasoning 
powers. Later, however, when the war was going 
on well, Antigonus gave a feast in Corinth, at which 
he had many guests, and made Aratus recline just 
above himself. After a little while the king called 
for a coverlet, and asked Aratus if he too did not 
think it cold ; and when Aratus replied that he was 
very chilly, the king ordered him to come nearer ; so 
that the rug which the servants brought was thrown 
over both of them together. Then, indeed, Aratus 
called to mind his sacrificial victims and burst out 
laughing, and told the king about the omen and the 
seer's prediction. But this took place at a later 
time. 

XLIV. At Pegae Antigonus and Aratus exchanged 
oaths of fidelity, and straightway marched against 
the enemy at Corinth. And there were conflicts 
about the city, Cleomenes being well fortified, and 

101 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov KXeoyitei'Of? KOI rwv KopivOiwv d 
TrpoQvfLWS- ev rovrw & ' Api(TTOT\r}s 6 ' 
<tXo? wv 'Aparof SiaTreprrerai Kpvfya Trpo? 
avrov, o>9 drro<rrr}Ga)V rrjv 7r6\iv, el 

2 Kivo<; eywv e\0oi. rov Be 'ApaTou 

~ > L f \ \ ^ / \ 

TCO AvTiyovw KCLI fjira ^iXiayv tcai 

et? 'ETrtSaupov e^ 'Ia^/zoO 7r\o/ot? 
Kara ra^o?, ot /if 'Apyetot Trpo 
eTredevTO rot? TOU KXeo/t,Z>oi>5 /cat 

6t? T?)l> CLKpOTToXlV, 6 &6 K\0 /JLVr)S 7TV06/jLVO<; 1048 

ravra, KOI Cetera? /it?) fcaraa'^ovTe^ ol TTO\/JLLOL 
TO "Ap7o? aT7OKo"fyw(TLV avTov rr)? OLtca&e 

pt'tt?, eK\tTTCt)V TOP ' AfCpOKOplV00V Tl 

3 ^et. /cat 7rape\0a)v p,ev et? "Apy 

rpoTrtfv Tiva TCOV TroXeyuaw eVotT/cre^, o\i < y(p Se 
varepov 'Apdrov Trpocrtyepo/j-evov KCLI TOV fBaei,- 
Xe&>? <-7ri(j)atvo/jLvov /nerd TT)? bvvdfjiews O.TT- 
%(t)pr)crv et? Maz'TiVetaz^. e/c TOUTOU rot? /Ltei/ 
'A^atot? 7rd\iv a I TroXet? aTraaat 7rpoa-^(t>pr)- 
vav, ^Azm'yoz/o? 5e TOI/ ' AfcpofcbpLvOov 7rapeXa/3etv 
"Aparo? 5e arparrj'yo^ alpeOels VTT' 'Apyelcov 
eiretcrev avrov<> ' Avrvyovw rd T TWV Tvpdvvwv 
KOI rd rwv rrpo^orwv ^p?;yu,ara Soopedv Sovvai. 

4 TOI/ Se 'Apiarojjiaxov eV Key^peat? crrpe/SXwcra^Te? 
Karerrovnaav, e'(/>' w /tat yLtaXtcrra KaK&s riicovcrev 
o "Aparo?, a>? dvOpwrcov ov rrovrjpov, aXXa /cat 

etceiva) teal rreTT(,<TiJbvov dfyelvai rqv 
icai rrpocrayayeiv rot? 'A^afot? Tr)i> rro\w r 



XLV. "H8r; 5e :at ra>i> d\\wv exeiVfo ra? 
atria? eTrefapov, olov on rrjv fjiev KopivOLwv rro\iv 



103 



ARATUS XLIV. I-XLV. i 

the Corinthians defending themselves with ardour. 
Meanwhile, however, Aristotle the Argive, who was 
a friend of Aratus, sent secretly to him and promised 
to bring his city to revolt from Cleomenes if Aratus 
would come thither with soldiers. So Aratus, after 
informing Antigonus, took fifteen hundred men and 
sailed from the Isthmus to Epidaurus with all speed. 1 
But the Argives, revolting prematurely, attacked the 
garrison of Cleomenes and shut them up in the 
citadel, and Cleomenes, learning of this, and fearing 
that if his enemies got possession of Argos they 
would cut him off from a safe return home, abandoned 
Acrocorinthus while it was still night and went to 
their aid. He succeeded in getting into Argos first, 
routing some of the enemy on the way; but shortly 
afterwards Aratus came up, and Antigonus showed 
himself with his forces, and Cleomenes therefore 
retreated to Mantineia. Upon this the cities all 
came over to the Achaeans again. Acrocorinthus was 
handed over to Antigonus, and Aratus, having been 
chosen general by the Argives, persuaded them to 
make a present to Antigonus of the property of the 
tyrants and of the traitors. As for Aristomachus, 
he was tortured at Cenchreae and then thrown into 
the sea ; for which deed, more than any other, Aratus 
was reproached, on the ground that he had allowed 
a man to be lawlessly put to death who was not 
wicked, but had cooperated with him, and at his 
persuasion had renounced his power and attached 
his city to the Achaean League. 2 

XLV. Presently, too, men began to blame Aratus 
for whatever else was done, as, for instance, that the 



1 Cf. the Cleomenes, xx. 3 f. 
* Cf. chap. xxxv. 



103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'Avriyovw Bajpedv eBcoreav, cbarrep KWfjirjv rrjv rv- 
, rov 'OpOfj,evov Be 



Be d\\fo arj ypdfieiv (3ao~i\el arjBe 
TT/OO? a\\ov CLKOVTOS 'Avriyovov, 
2 rpefaiv re teal {JUcr0oSoTiv r^vayKa^ovro TOU? 
, Overlap Se /cal Tro/ATra? KCU aywva^ 
ovy crvvc'reXovv, ap^a/Aevcov iwv ' Apdrov TTO- 
\irwv teal Se^a/jievcov ry TroXet rov ' Avriyovov vrr 
1 'Apdrov ^ti'i^ofjievov, yriuvro rrdvrwv e/ceivov, 



dyvoovvres on ra? rjvias e/ceiva) 

real rfj pv/jirj TT}? j3acri\t,Kris <pe\K6/jLvos e 
ov&i>b<> ?]V YI fj,6vrj<? (fccovris ert rcvpios, 

3 rrjv Trappijcriav e^ova-^j^. 7rel (fravepws ye 7ro\\d 
r&v rrparrofMevwv eXuTret TOI^ "Aparov, wcnrep TO 
Trepl rwv eiKovwv o yap ' Avriyovov ra? fjikv rwv 
ev v A.pyet rvpdvvwv tcarafteffXriuevas dvecrrrjcre, 
ra? 8e rwv eXovrwv rov ' ArcpofcopivQov ee 
dvirpe^re rr\r)V aids T?}? e/eeivov fcal rro\\d 

4 rovrwv SerjOels 6 "A/oaro? OVK erretaev. eSorcei Be 
Kal rd rrcpl Mavriveiav ov-% 'EXX^i/i/cw? BimKrj- 
crOai rot? 'A^atot?. ffpanjcravre? yap avrwv &i 

1 Avnyovov TOU? fiev evSo^ordrov? Koi rrpwrovs 
drretcreivav, r&v 8' d\\wv TOU? yctev djriSovro, 
TOU? 8' 64? Ma^e^o^ta^ drreareCkav ev 
8e8e/LteVof?, TratSa? 5e al yvvaitcas 
cravro, rov Be crvva^0evro<? dpyvpiov TO rplrov 
avrol Biei\ovro, Ta? 8e Bvo poipas eveLuav Tot? 

1 lv Tft^ats Sint. 2 , followed by Ziegler : treats. 
104 



ARATUS XLV. 1-4 

Achaeans made a present to Antigonus of the city 
of Corinth, as if it had been an ordinary village ; 
that they allowed the king to plunder Orchomenus 
and put a Macedonian garrison in it ; that they 
decreed not to write or send an embassy to any other 
king against the wishes of Antigonus; that they 
were forced to furnish supplies and pay for the 
Macedonian troops ; and that they celebrated sacri- 
fices, processions, and games in honour of Antigonus. 
the fellow-citizens of Aratus leading the way and 
receiving Antigonus into their city, where he was the 
guest of Aratus. For all these things men blamed 
Aratus, not knowing that, since he had entrusted the 
reins to the king and was dragged along in the wake 
of the king's power, he was no longer master of 
anything except his tongue, which it was dangerous 
for him to use with freedom. At any rate Aratus 
was plainly annoyed at many acts of the king, and 
especially at his treatment of the statues in Argos ; 
for those of the tyrants, which had been cast down, 
Antigonus set up again, while those of the captors 
of Acrocorinthus, which were standing, he threw 
down, that of Aratus only excepted ; and though 
Aratus made many appeals to him in the matter, he 
could not persuade him. It was thought also that the 
treatment of Mantineia by the Achaeans was not 
in accord with the Greek spirit. For after mastering 
that city with the aid of Antigonus, they put to 
death the leading and most noted citizens, and of 
the rest, some they sold into slavery, while others 
they sent oft* into Macedonia in chains, and made 
slaves of their wives and children, dividing a third 
of the money thus raised among themselves, and 
giving the remaining two-thirds to the Macedonians. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Ma/ceSocrt. Kal ravra uev eo^e rov r?}? d/j,vvr)<; 
VO/JLOV KOI jap el Seivbv aVSpa? 6[io(f)u\ou$ Kal 
ffvyyevels ovrw /JLera^eipia-aaOai- &S 6p<yrji>, aXX.' 
ev dvdyKais yXufcu yiverat, Kal a K\TJ pov , l Kara 

, wcnrep d\yovvTi rw Ov^iu) xal (j)\ey- 
Oepaireiav KOI avaTr\r]pw<jiv Trpoafye- 
ra Be /xera ravra Trpa^cvra Trepl rrjv 
TTO\IV our et? /cdXrjv ovr et? dvaytcaiav <rrl 

6 OecrOai rw 'Aparw rrpofyaaiv. rwv yap *A%aiwv 
ri]v Tr6\iv Trap 1 ' Avnyovov Saypeav \aj3ovrwv KOI 
KaroiKi^eiv eyvcoKorwv auro? olrcicrrrjs aipeOels 
teal arrpaniyos wv etyrjfyia-aro /jLijKen Ka\ii> 
^lavriveiar, d\\' 'Avriyoveiav, o real ^\pi vvv 
Ka\elrai. teal So/eel SL eiceivov rj ^ev epareivij 
l^lavriveia rravrdrracriv ea\rj\i<j)6ai, BiafMevei >e 
i] TroXt? 7T(*)vv[jLO<> rwv d7ro\crdvr(i)V /cal dve\ov- 
rwv rot'? TToXtra?. 

XLVI. 'E/c rovrov K\O{JLvrjs 
rrepl *,e\\acriav 
drrerr\evcrev et? A'tyvTrrov, ' 

yovos be rrdvra ra SiKaia Kal <$>i\dv0pu>rra rw 
\\pdrw TreTroirjKws dve^ev^ev els MaKeSoviav, 1049 
KUKCL VO<TWI> jjBrj rov BidBo^ov T/}? /9acrfXeta<? 

QUITO) TTUl'U /JiClpaKlOV OVra, 

T\e\orr6vvri(TOV 'Apdry /ndXicrra 

K\V(T Kal $L* KLVOU Ttti? 7r6\CT 

2 Kal yvwpiaOi'ivai, T<H? A%aiois. Kal /jievroi Kal 
(T-<\ripov with Bergk (Poet. Lyr. Gr. iii. 4 p. 530): 



OV 



1 The repeated treacheries of the Mantineians towards the 
Achaearls are related at length in Polybius, ii. 57 f. 
8 Homer, Iliad, ii. 607. 

1 06 



ARATUS XLV. 4-XLvi. 2 

It is true that this came under the law of reprisal ; l 
for though it is a terrible thing to treat men of the 
same race and blood in this way, out of anger, still 
" in dire stress even cruelty is sweet/' as Simonides 
says, when men, as it were, give satisfaction and heal- 
ing care to a mind that is in anguish and inflamed. 
But the subsequent treatment of the city by Aratus 
was neither necessary nor honourable, and cannot 
be excused. For after the Achaeans had received 
the city from Antigonus as a present and had decided 
to colonize it, Aratus himself was chosen to be the 
founder of the new settlement, and being then 
general, got a decree passed that the city should no 
longer be called Mantineia, but Antigoneia, and this 
is its name down to the present time. And so it was 
due to Aratus that the name of " lovely Mantineia " z 
was altogether extinguished, and the city continues 
to bear the name of him who destroyed and slew its 
former citizens. 3 

XLVI. After this, Cleomenes, having been de- 
feated in a great battle at Sellasia, 4 forsook Sparta 
and sailed off to Egypt, and Antigonus, after having 
accorded to Aratus fair and kindly treatment in every 
way, led his army back to Macedonia. There, being 
now a sick man, he sent Philip, his successor in the 
kingdom, who was still a stripling, into the Pelopon- 
nesus, and urged him to attach himself to Aratus 
above all others, and through him to deal with the 
cities and make the acquaintance of the Achaeans. 

3 The old name of the city was restored by the Emperor 
FTulrian. Pausanias, viii. 8. 12. 

4 In 221 B.c. , cf. the Cleomenes, xxviii. ff. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rapa\aj3i0v avrov 6 v A/?aro? ovrcas SteOytccv ware 
TroXX?}? fjiev evvoias rrpos avrov, TroXX?;? 8e rrpos 
ra? 'l&XXrjvifcds rrpdj;ei<$ c^Xcm/ua? /cat opfirjs 
/jiecrrov et? Ma/ceS(maz> aTrocrreiXou. 

XLVII. TeXeuTfJcrai'TO? Se 'Avnyovov tcara- 
<$>povr)cravTe<; PdrcoXol rwv 'A^cuwy Sia rrjv pqdv- 
fiiav (eOicrdevres yap aXXorptat? 
KOL rot? MafceSovcov oVXot? aurou? u 
eV dpjia TroXXr} /tal dra^ia Sirjyov} eTre 
rot? /cara IleXoTroi/^croi' Trpdy/uiacri' fcal rryr 
TldTpewv teal l^vfjiaiwv \ei]\a<Jiav 6Sov Trdpepyov 
eiroi^aavro, rrjv $e Mea-cDJvrjv e'/t/:?aXoz'Te9 eVo/o- 
2 ^oyi^. e'(/)' ot9 o "A^oaro? dyavatcTwv KOI rov 
crrparrjjovvra Tore TOOI^ 'A^atcoi^ 'Yifio^evov opwv 
oKvovvra teal Biarpiftovra rov ftpovov, IJ&TJ rfjs 
(TTparrj'yias avrw TeXeuTo6<7^9, avrbs yprj/jievos 
ap%6iv per etcelvov rrpoe\a[3ev ?;^e/3ai? rrevre rijv 
cvetca rov /3or6fo'ai M6c7<r?^tot9. >cal 



TOU? ^atoi;? rot? re cray/uiacriv yv- 
oWa? teal rat? 8iavot,ais eK\e\v/jLvovs 
3 TT/DO? TO^ TroXe/ioi/ rjrrarai rrepl Ka<^ua?' 



rcd\iv d7nifjL/3\vv0r) teal rrpo)]Karo ra rrpdy/xara 
teal ra? e'XTTt^a?, co(TTe TroX^a/ff? \aftr]v TOU<? 



TTapaa"%ovras ve^caai tea rrepiopav 
ovras ev rf) neXo7ror;;cr&) /icra 
4 ?roXX9 do\eia^ teal Oaovrrros. av6is ovv 



ra? 



tcarryov CTTI ra? ?7^:a9 Trpeis rov 

r]Ki(rra Bia rrjv TT/DO? roy "Aparov 



1 In 221 B.C. See the Cleomenes, xxx. 
J In 220 B.C. See the Cleomenes, xxxiv. 1. 
108 



ARATUS XLVI. 2-xLvn. 4 

And indeed Aratus did take the prince in hand, and 
managed matters so us to send him back to Mace- 
donia full of great goodwill towards his patron and 
of ardour and ambition for the conduct of Hellenic 
affairs. 

XLVII. But upon the death of Antigonus * the 
Aetolians, despising the Achaeans on account of their 
slothful ways (for now that they were accustomed 
to save themselves by other men's prowess and had 
taken shelter behind the Macedonian arms, they 
were living in great inactivity and lack of discipline), 
proceeded to interfere in the affairs of Pelopon- 
nesus ; z and after plundering the territories of 
Patrae and Dyme on their way, they invaded 
Messenia and ravaged it. At this Aratus was 
incensed, and seeing that Timoxenus, who at that 
time was general of the Achaeans, was hesitant and 
dilatory, since his term of office was just about to 
expire, he himself, having been chosen to succeed 
Timoxenus, anticipated his term of office by five 
days for the sake of giving aid to the Messenians. 
And having assembled the Achaeans, who were 
physically and mentally unfit for war, he met with 
defeat at Caphyae. Then, being thought to have 
conducted the campaign with too much ardour, his 
purposes were once more blunted and he gave up 
the cause and his hopes for lost, so that oftentimes, 
when the Aetolians gave him an advantage, he 
neglected it, and suffered them to revel, as it were, 
in Peloponnesus, with great boldness and wanton- 
ness. Once more, therefore, the Achaeans stretched 
out their hands imploringly to Macedonia, and 
brought Philip down to take part in Hellenic affairs, 
above all things because his goodwill towards Aratus 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



evvoiav avTOv teal TtiGTiv e\7riovT$ evKo\w 7Tpl 
Trdvra ^prjcreaOai Kal %ipor/0i. 

XLVIII. Kal Tore irpwTov 'A-yreXXoi) KOI Meya- 
\eov Kai TLVWV av\tKwv a\\6)v &La(3a\\6vTU>v 
TOV "Aparov avail etc 6 els 6 (3acri\evs, KOL crvv- 



rot? CLTTO T/? Gii 
TOV? 'A^awous \e<T0ai (TTparrjybv 



2 'E,7rrfparov. co? 8' eKeivov /j,ev 

VTTO TWV 'A^atwr^, TOV Be 'Apdrou Trap- 
TO? eyivero TWV ^pr,(rLfjiwv ov8ei>, eyva) 
&iajj.aprdv(t)v TOV Tra^ro? 6 O/XiTTTro?. KOI ava- 
/cpovcrdfjievos avOis eVt rbv "Aparov 0X0? r)v etceivov, 
KCLI TWP Trpay/j-arajv avTa> TTyoo? re Svva/JLtv KOI 
7rpo-> ev^o^Lav Tri$i&ovTwv e^jpTrjro TOV dv&pos, 

3 a>? 6t' tKeli'OV euSoKipwv Kal 
TC TcacTiv 6 "Aparo? ov JJLOVOV 

/ecu ySacrtXeta? dyatfbs elvai Trai&aywyos' 1} yap 
irpoaLpecris avTov Kal TO 97^09 &>9 ^/owyita rat? 
Trpd^ecn TOV ySacrtXea)? e7re<f>aiveTO. Kal yap i) 

7T/3O? AaK$aifjLOVLOVS dfJiapTOVTaS fJLeTpiOTTJS TOV 

Kal rj TT/JO? K/3?}Ta? ofjLiXia, St* ^9 0X771; 
Trjv vr)Gov ?)[j,6pai$ o\Lyais, r\ re 

7T/3O9 AtTO>Xoi'9 (TTpaTCia yVO}JLVr) OaVfJLCLGTWS 

evepybs evr.eiOelas {JL&V TO> 4>tXt7T7rft) Bo^av, evftov- 

4 Xta9 Se T&) 'Aparw TrpocreTiOei. Kal Sid TavTa 
fj,d\\ov 01 (3aai\iKO\ <j)0 

Kpixfia Bta/3d\\ovT^, dva<j)avSbv e 
7TpO(T.Kpovov avTtf) Tfapd TOVS 7TOTOU9 /zera 

1 (Jf. Polybius, v. 30. 
no 



ARATUS XLVII. 4-xLvni. 4 

and his confidence in him led them to hope that 
they would find him easy-tempered in all things and 
manageable. 

XL VII I. And now for the first time Apelles, 
Megaleas, and sundry other courtiers made false 
charges against Aratus to which the king listened, 
and joining in the canvass made by those of the 
opposite faction, he favoured the election of Epera- 
tus as general of the Achaeans. But Eperatus 
was altogether despised by the Achaeans, 1 and 
as long as Aratus gave little heed to public matters 
nothing went well. Philip therefore perceived that 
he had been entirely wrong. So he reversed his 
course, went back to Aratus, and was wholly his ; 
and since the progress of events now brought 
him increased power and reputation, he depended 
altogether upon Aratus, convinced that his repute 
and strength were due to him. And all the world 
thought that Aratus was a good guardian and tutor 
for a kingdom no less than for a democracy ; for 
his principles and character were manifest, like 
colour in a fabric, in the actions of the king. For 
instance, the moderation of the voung prince in 
dealing with the offending Lacedaemonians, his 
engaging behaviour towards the Cretans, by means 
of which he won the whole island to obedience in 
a few days, and the astonishingly vigorous conduct 
of his campaign against the Aetolians, all added 
to the reputation of Philip for taking good advice, 
and to that of Aratus for giving it. For this 
reason, too, the royal courtiers were all the more 

s J v 

envious of him, and since they could accomplish 
nothing by their secret calumnies, they took to 
abusing and insulting him openly at their banquets, 

in 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TroXX?}? acreXyeia? KOL ^w/i.oXo^ta?' a7ra Be teal 
\ldois /3d\\oi>T<? aTTiovra els TIJV a-fcrjvrjv 

TO BeiTTVOV KaTeBiay^aV. </>' ol? 6 



raXaj/TOi?, v(TTpov Be \vp.aivGa0aL TO, 
l Tapdrreiv SOKOVVTCIS aTretcreivev. 
XLIX. 'ETret Be rT;? TU^;? evpoovcrrjs eircupo- 
rot? 7rpd<y/jLa<Ti TroXXas* psv dve<>V Kal 

/tta?, r; 8' eya^uro? tea/cia, TOV rrapd 105C 
(pvcrtv cr%r)fAaTHTfjLOV K/3ia%o/j,evT} Kal dvaBvovcra, 
Kara fjaKpov d7re<yi>fjLvov Kal &ii$>aLvev avrov TO 
TrpwTov [lev ISia TOV vewTepov "ApaTov 
irepl -rr]v yvvaiKa Kal TTO\VV ^povov e\dv- 
6avev e^)(7Tf09 wv Kal 
tTreiTa 7T/30? ra? 'EXX 
reta? /cat (fravepo? rjv ijSrj TOV "ApaTov cnro- 

2 o~i6fj,evo<i. dp%i)v Be VTro^ria^ TCL 

crTacnaa-dvTwv yap avrwv 6 
/3oy]0a)v, 6 Be ^/XfTTTro? rj/jiepa fjiia Trpo- 

\OtOV Ci? TT)V TTO\IV 

/tar' aXXryX&>i> tW/3aXe roi? dvOpwTrois, IBLa 

p(i)TO)V TOV? CTTpaTTjyOVS TO)V M.e<TO~t]VLa>V el VOUOV? 

KaTa TWV TTO\\WV OVK e^ovcriv, IBia Be 7rd\tv 

TOL? TWV 7TO\\Ct)V 7T/3Oe(7TCUTa? L ^6t/3a? KaTO, 

3 rwr TvpavvovvTWv OVK eyovcriv. K Be TOVTOU 

oi /j,ev ap^ovTe? 7r\afjij3dvovTo 
, eKeivoi Be juerd TO)V TroX\.a)V e 



112 



ARATUS XLVIII. 4~xLix. 3 

with great wantonness and scurrility; and once 
they actually pursued and threw stones at him as he 
was going to his tent after supper. At this Philip 
was enraged, and for the nonce fined them twenty 
talents ; afterwards, however, regarding them as a 
noxious and confusing element in his affairs, he put 
them to death. 1 

XLIX. But soon, as the king's fortune flowed 
smoothly on, he was lifted up by his success, and 
developed many inordinate desires ; his inherent 
badness, too, forcing aside the unnatural restraints 
of his assumed deportment and making its way to 
the light, little by little laid bare and revealed his 
true character. In the first place he inflicted a 
private wrong upon the younger Aratus by corrupt- 
ing his wife, and was for a long time undetected, 
since he was a housemate and a guest of the family ; 
in the second place, he began to show hostility 
towards the civil polities of the Greeks, and it was 
presently clear that he was trying to shake off 
Aratus. First grounds of suspicion were afforded by 
his conduct at Messene. For there was factional 
strife in the city, and Aratus was tardy in coming to 
its aid, and Philip, who got to the city a day before 
Aratus, at once goaded on the two parties against 
one another. In private he asked the generals of 
the Messenians if they had not laws to enforce 
against the common people, and again in private he 
asked the leaders of the common people if they had 
not hands to lift against the tyrants. Upon this 
the officials plucked up courage and tried to lay 
hands upon the leaders of the people, and they, 
coming to the attack at the head of their followers, 

Cf. Polybius, v. 15 f. 

1*3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oovres rovs re aoyovras drreKreLvav /cal r&v 
d\\oyv 6\iyov urro\eiTTOvras BiaKocrihyv. 

L. Ovro) Be Beivov epyov e^eipyacr/jievov rov 
QiXimrov, teal crvyKpovovros ert, /zaXXoi> eavrols 
rovs MecrcrT^iof?, 7re\Qot)V 6 "Ayoaro? auro? re 
877X09 rjv (frepcov /3ape&>? KCL\ rov viov 7riTi/j,wvTa 

TTlKp&S TW ^XtTTTTft) Kdi \OL^OpOVp,VOV OVK K(t)- 

- >r\/ r\\f / > ^ ,T^ -v / 

\vaev. eboKei be o veavia/co^ epav rov <>L\nnrov 
Kal rore Aeya>i> eiTre TT/OO? avrov &>? ot-Se /ca\o? 
ert <f>aivoiro ryv otyiv avrw roiavra Spdcras, 

2 a\\a vrdvrcov aia^iaro^. 6 e QlXtrnros eiceivto 
fj&v ovSev avrelrre, Kaiirep eVt^o^o? wi^, VTT 6pyr)s 
teal TroXXa/ci? ^v\aKrrjaa<; Xeyoyro? avrov, rov 
Be rrped^vrepov, a>? ev^vo^a)^ Trpaw? ra \e^0evra 
Kai Tt? wf /16T/3/0? /^al rroKiriKQS rrjv (frvaiv, av- 
ecrr^aev e/c TOT) Oedrpov rrjv SeEidv e/ji/3a\a)v, /cal 
Trpoo-rjyev ei9 TOI* 'ItfcOyUaraz; TO) re Aft dvcrwv Kal 

3 0ea>pfo(i)v rov rorrov. ecrri yap ov% rjrrov evep/cr)? 
rov J A.Kpo/copiv0ov, /cal \a{3a>v typovpav yiverai 

Kal BvcrK/3iacrTO<> rot? rcapoiKOvaiv. 
Se Kal diHras, &>? rrpoa"r)veyKev avra) ra 
rov /3oo? o /jiavris, d/j.<f)orepais rat? 
V7ro\a/3a>v eBeLKvve ra) re 'Apdrw Kal TO) 
^j/jL^rpift), rrapd /ue/jo? diroK\ivwv els e/ca- 
repov Kal rrvvOavo^evo^ rL KaOopwcriv ev rot? 
tepot?, Kparovvra rijs a/cpa? avrov rj rot? 

4 vlois d7To$i&6vra. yeXaaa? ovv 6 &r)/j.ijrpio<;, 



rov 



roirov el Be ySacrtXect)?, d/jL^orepwv r&v Kepdrwv 
rov ftovv Ka0eis" alvirro^evo^ rijv IIeXo7roi>- 



1 A precinct of Zeus, on the summit of Mt. Ithome. Cf. 
Pausanias, iv. 3. 9. 



ARATUS XLIX. 3 ~L. 4 

slew the officials and nearly two hundred citizens 
besides. 

JL. After this outrageous deed of Philip's, and 
while he was striving more than ever to set the 
Messenians by the ears, Aratus reached the city. 
He showed clearly that he was indignant himself, and 
would not check his son when he bitterly reproached 
and reviled Philip. Now, it would seem that the 
young man was a lover of Philip; and so at this 
time he told Philip, among other things, that he 
no longer thought him fair to look upon, after so 
foul a deed, but the most repulsive of men. Philip 
made no answer to him, although it was expected 
that he would, since in his anger he had many times 
cried out savagely while the young man was speaking, 
but as though he meekly submitted to what had 
been said and was a person of moderation and not 
above the ordinary citizen, he gave the elder Aratus 
his hand, led him forth from the theatre, and brought 
him to the Ithomatas, 1 in order to sacrifice to Zeus 
and take a view of the place. For it is quite as well 
walled in as Acrocorinthus, and with a garrison in it 
is difficult of access and a hard place for its neigh- 
bours to take by force. Thither Philip went up, and 
offered sacrifice, and when the seer brought him the 
entrails of the ox, he took them in both hands and 
showed them to Aratus and Demetrius of Pharos, 
leaning towards each one in turn and asking them 
what indications they saw in the omens ; was he 
to be master of the citadel, or to give it back to the 
Messenians ? Demetrius, with a laugh, replied : " If 
thou hast the spirit of a seer, thou wilt give up the 
place ; but if that of a king, thou wilt hold the ox by 
both its horns," speaking darkly of Peloponnesus, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vrjaov, &)?, el 7rpO(r\dj3oiTbv 'Wco/jLarav TW 'Atcpo- 
tcopivQto, TravTaTraffiv eaop,evriv viro^eipiov /cal 

5 raireivrjv. 6 Be "Aparo? eirl TTO\V fJLev r)crv%a%, 
Beopevov Be TOV QiXiTTTTov TO <j>aivop,evov \eyeiv, 
" IloXXa pelt? eLTrev, " M <&i\i7r7T, KprjTwv opr) 
teal fjLyd\a, 7ro\\al Se ^OLWTMV axpai teal 
<>a)Kea)v eK7T(f)VKa(n, T?}? 7^?' el<jl 8e TTOV 7ro\\ol 
Kal T?}? 'Afcapvdvcov rovro fjLev ^paaloi, rovro 
8' eVaXot roTroi Bav/jLacrra^ o^i/poT^ra? e%oj/Te9' 
aXX' ovBeva TOVTWV /eaTtX>7<a?, KOI Trdvres 

6 efcovaicos croi TTOIOVGI TO 7rpoaTacrcr6/j.i>ov. \rjaral 
yap /jL(f)vovTai 

SaaiXei Be 

ov&ev ov&e 6%vpoi)Tpov. raOra crot TO 

dvoiyei TreXa/yo?, TayTa T^I/ rieXoTrovi/^croi'. d?ro 

TOVTWV OplJLW/jieVOS (TV TOVOVTOS rf\LKiaV TWV fJLtV 

t)V, T&V Be /cvpios ijSrj Ka0<nrjfca<;" eri 
avrov ra JJLCV cnr\d<y")(i>a rS> fj,dvrei 
TrapeSwfcev 6 ^tXtTTTro?, etceivov Be TT)? ^eipo^ 
eTriffTrao'dfjLevos, " AeOpo rblvvv" e -/>?;, " Tr/f avTtjv 
6Bov iO)/j.ev" axTTrep K/3ej3ia(r/j,vos VTT avrov /cal 

TT}V 7TO\tV d(f)yp1J/jlVO<>. 

LI. O 8e "ApaTo? diroppswv j'jBrj T?}? atX>}>? /eal 
fjLtfcpov eavrov dvaKO/jLi^o/Jievos eK TT}? Trpo? 
QiXnnrov crvvriOeias, Biaftaivovros els^HTret- 1Q51 
avTov /cal BeofMevov avarpaTeveiv, d 
l fcare/Aeive, BeBtcos dva7r\tjcrdr)vai SO^T; 
2 pa? a0' coi' eicelvos err parr ev. eVet 8e Ta? T6 
UTTO 'Payfj-aicov aTroXecra? aia"%ta'Ta /cal oXa>? a?ro- 
Tf^wf Tat? Trpd^ecrtv eTravr)\9ev et? 
croj', /tat TOI)? M 6(7 a-rjviovs auOis 
(fcevaKi^eiv /cal fj.rj \a0a>v rjBifcei (fravep&s Kal 
116 



ARATUS L. 4-Li. 2 

which, if Philip added the Ithomatas to Acrocorin- 
thus, would be altogether subject and submissive to 
him. Aratus held his peace for a long time, but 
upon Philip's asking him to express his opinion, said : 
" There are many lofty hills in Crete, O Philip, and 
many towering citadels in Boeotia and Phocis ; in 
Acarnania, too, I suppose, as well inland as on its 
shores, there are many places which show an amazing 
strength ; but not one of these dost thou occupy, and 
yet all these peoples gladly do thy bidding. For it is 
robbers that cling to cliffs and crags, but for a king 
there is no stronger or more secure defence than 
trust and gratitude. These open up for thee the 
Cretan sea, these the Peloponnesus. Relying upon 
these, young as thou art, thou hast already made 
thyself leader here, and master there." While he 
was yet speaking, Philip handed the entrails to the 
seer, and drawing Aratus to him by the hand, said : 
"Come hither, then, and let us take the same road," 
implying that he had been constrained by him and 
made to give up the city. 

LI. But Aratus presently began to withdraw from 
the court and little by little to retire from his 
intimacy with Philip. When the king was about 
to cross into Epeirus 1 and asked him to join the ex- 
pedition, he refused and remained at home, fearing 
that he would be covered with ignominy by the 
king's proceedings. Philip lost his fleet most shame- 
fully at the hands of the Romans, and after utter 
failure in his undertakings, came back into Pelopon- 
nesus. Here he tried once more to hoodwink the 
Messenians, and after being detected in this, wronged 

1 In 215 B c. Philip bad made an alliance with the 
Carthaginians against the Romans. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yuipav avrwv errbpOei, rravrdrracnv 6 ' A paras 
drrecrrpdfyr) KOI Bieft\ij0?i Trpo? avrov, 77877 KOI 
rwv Trepl rrjV yvvaiKwvlriv dSiKr)/j.dr(t)v alcrOb- 
pevos teal (pepcov dviapws avros, dTTOKpvTrro^evo^ 
3 Be TOV vlov elBevai jap vjBpia-fJievov rrepirjVy aXXo 
Be ovBev, dfivvaaOai /zr) &vva{ieva>. 
jap 6 ^>tXt7r7ro? So/eel Kal f 7Tapa\,oya)Tdrtjv 
{3a\(T@ai /xTa/3oX?7 / f, e^ rj/jiepov ftacri,\eci*<; KOI 
/jLiparciov (rux^povo^ dvrjp dcre^yrjs Kai rvpavvos 
jev6fjLvof. TO Se OVK TJV dpa /z-era/^oX?) 
dX)C eTr/Set^i? ev deia /ca/cias TTO\VV 
Sid <f)6fiov dyvorjQeicrr)*;. 
LII. "Or i yap rjv fjiefjay^evov aio"%vvr) real (f)6(3w 
TO 7rpo9 rbv "Aparov avrov rcdOo? drr ap^?}? 
(Tvvre6pafji^Lvov, eB?j\(oa'v ol? eVpa^e Trepl avrov. 
emdviJLWv yap dve\elv rbv dvBpa real VO^JLI^WV ov& 
dv eXevOepos exelvov ^COZ^TO? elvai, fxij ri ye rvpav- 
vos r) fiacri\v$, fBiq [lev ovBev eTre^eiprjae, Tau- 
plwva Be ra)v arparrjywv nva fcal <bi\(0v efceKevcrev 
dBrj\fp rpbrrw rovro rrpd^ai, fjid\i(jra Bid (f)apfj,d- 

2 KWV, avrov /m?} rrapbvros. o Be ironja-dpevos rbv 
"Aparov trvvrjOr) (frdp/jLarcov avrq> BLBuxriv, OVK 
o^v Kai <T(f)0^p6v, d\\d ra)v Qep/jLas re /iaXa/ca? 
TO rrpwrov ev ru> arM/jiari Kai ftfJXja Kivovvrwv 
dfJL/3\Lav, elra ovrws Kara jiiKpbv .a9 <$9opdv 
Trepaivbvrwv. ov /J,TJV e\ade ye rbv "Aparov 

a)? ovBev rjv 6'(^)cXo? \ey%ovri, rrpaws Ka 
TO Tra^o?, u><? Btj nva vbaov xoivrjv Kai 

3 vocrwv, Bitji'rXei. 7rXr)y 6^09 76 ra)v crvvi'jOwv ev 

118 



ARATUS LI. 2-Lii. 3 

them openly and ravaged their territory. Then 
Aratus was altogether estranged and filled with dis- 
trust of the king, being now aware also of the crime 
committed against his domestic life. At this he was 
sorely vexed himself, but kept it hidden from his son, 
who could only know that he had been shamefully 
abused, seeing that he was not able to avenge him- 
self. For Philip would seem to have undergone a very 
great and inexplicable change, 1 in that from a gentle 
prince and chaste youth he became a lascivious man 
and a pernicious tyrant. In fact, however, this was 
not a change of nature, but a showing forth, in time 
of security, of a baseness which his fears had long 
led him to conceal. 

LII. For that the feelings which he had cherished 
from the beginning towards Aratus had an admix- 
ture of shame and fear, was made plain by what he 
did to him at the last. For he desired to kill Aratus, 
and thought he could not be a free man while Aratus 
lived, much less a tyrant or a king. In a violent 
way, however, he made no attempt upon him, but 
ordered Taurion, one of his officers and friends, to do 
this in a secret way, preferably by poison, when the 
king was absent. So Taurion made an intimate 
companion of Aratus, and gave him poison, not of a 
sharp and violent sort, but one of those which first 
induce gentle heats in the body, and a dull cough, 
and then little by little bring on consumption. The 
thing was not hidden from Aratus, but since it was 
no use for him to convict the criminal, he calmly and 
silently drank his cup of suffering to the dregs, as if 
his sickness had been of a common and familiar 
type. However, when one of his intimate com- 

1 Cf. Polybius, vii. 13. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO) BwfjLaTLM irapovTos dvaTTTVcras $iaifj,6v, ISo 
eiceivov KOI QavfJidaavTos, " TaOra,' elirev, ' co 



LIU. OUTGO Be avTOV TeXevTijcravTos ev 
TO eTrrarcaiSeKaTOV crTparrjyovvTOS, teal 
'A^ataif <f)i\OTi/jLOVfjiev(i)V e/cel yevecrOai 
KOI fJLvr)fjLara TrpeTrovra ry /3ia) TOV dv&pos, 
vioi av^opav TTOIOVI>TO fj,)j Trap' avrols reOfjvai 
2 TO crw/j,a. real TOU? /j,ev 

dp^aiou 

re rw VO/AW SeKTiBaifjiovlas Trpocr- 
et9 AeX^ou? virep TOVTWV epi]cro- 
Tlv&iav. rj Be aurot? dvaipel TOV 



alev 



>' offlrj da\ir) re KaTOi%o/j,evoio CL 
a>9 TO ^apwo/Jievov TW& dvepi teal TO ftapvvov 
' dae/3r)/J.a ical ovpavov 



Be T/)? fiavTeias o'i re 'A^atot 

, KCLI Bia(>epovT(i>5 oi ^ 
et? (opTrjv TO TTevOos evOus eK TOV 
ALJLOV TOV ve/cpov eaTefyavw^kvoi /cat \V%ifj,o- 
VTTO Tcaiavwv KOI ^opwv et? Trjv 7r6\iv 



dvrjyov, fcai TOTTOV e^ekofjievoi, TrepioTTTov axnrep 



4 oLKiaTjjv /cal awTrjpa Tr}? TroXew? eKifievcrav. KOI 

vvv \\paTeiov, teal OUOVGLV 



1 In 213 B.C. 

120 



ARATUS LII. 3-Lin. 4 

panions who was with him in his chamber saw him 
spit blood, and expressed surprise, ''Such, my dear 
Cephalo," said Aratus, " are the wages of royal 
friendship." 

LIU. And so he died/ at Aegium, while general 
for the seventeenth time, and the Achaeans were 
very desirous that he should have burial there and 
memorials befitting his life. But the Sicyonians re- 
garded it as a calamity that he should not be buried 
in their city, and persuaded the Achaeans to sur- 
render his body to them. They had, however, an 
ancient law that no one should be buried inside the 
city walls, and the law was supported by strong feel- 
ings of superstition. So they sent to Delphi to get 
advice in the matter from the Pythian priestess, and 
she gave them the following oracular answer : 

" Would'st thou, O Sicyon, pay Aratus lasting 

honour for the lives he saved, 
And join in pious funeral rites for thy departed 

lord ? 
Know that the place which vexes or is vexed bv 

him 
Is sacrilegious, be it in earth or sky or sea." 

When the oracle was brought to them the Achaeans 
were all delighted, and the Sicyonians, in particular, 
changing their mourning into festival, at once put on 
garlands and white raiment and brought the body of 
Aratus from Aegium into their city, amid hymns of 
praise and choral dances ; and choosing out a com- 
manding place, they buried him there, calling him 
founder and saviour of the city. And the place is 
called to this day Arateium, and yearlv sacrifices are 
made to Aratus there, one on the day when lie 

VOL XI. T? 121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Overlay, rrjv f^ev, // rr}v rro\iv dm']\\a%<- TT}? rv- 
pavviBoj riiLtpa rre/^Lrrrrj Aaicriov /z>/fo?, bv 'Adrj- 
vaioi Ka\ovcriv \\v9ecrrripiwva, KOI rt}v dvaiav 
Sa>T?;pa rrpoaayopevovai, TIJV Be rov 

OS ev ?) vevecrOai rov di>Spa SiafAvrj/AOvevovcri. 

v * ' ' ~A N x* . , 

fj,ev ovv Trporepas o rov uo? rov Zcorrjpos 

6vrjTro\os, Tt}? Be Sevrepas o rov 
f, arpo<f)iov ov% o\6\evKOV> a\\a /JL(TO- 

5 TTop^vpov e)(a>v, /ae\yj Be f/Sero TT^OO? Kiddpav vrro 
rwv rrepl rov Aiovvaov re^virwv, KOI 
7revv 6 <yv/j,vacriapxos i'i<yov/jivos rwv re 
/cal rwv ecfiijftwv, eira efyeirrero /; fBov\i] 
V7](f>opov(ra fcal rwv a\\a)v TroXtrcov 6 fSov\6p,evo<s. 
MV ert Seiy/Adra yuKpa rat? r/yuepa*? eiceLvaiS 
e^o&iov/Jievoi, &ia$>v\dTrovcnv' ai Be Tr\elarai 
rcov ri/j.wv vrro ^povov tcai rrpay/jidra)v a\\(t>v 
/c\e\OL7racriv. 

LIV. 'AX\a yap 6 /j,v rrpeaftvrepos "Aparo? 
ovro) f3iwo~at, /cal roiouros yeveo-Qai rrjv (ftvo'iv 
iaropelrai' rov Be vlov aurov fAiapbs wv <j)V(Ti 
teal /ter' wyuoT7;T09 v/3pi(?r7]S 6 Qi\irrrro<; ov dava- 
d\\a iLavucois e^ecrnjcre rov \oyifffjiov 
/cal reaper pe^rev er? Beivas ical d\\o- 
/corovs 7Ti<j)opd<?, rrpdgewv droiTtov /cal GVV al- 
a^vvrj rratfwv oXeOpicov opeyo/jievov, (bcrre rov 
Odvarov avrq*, xaiTrep 6vn vew /cal dvdovvn, 
0vfji(f)opdv, aXX' drro\.vo~iv K,CLK,MV /cal 

2 yve&0ai. Bi/cas ye yJr]V o <&i\t,rcrro<$ ov 

Ait j~VLM /cal <$>i\.i(p T^? dvocriovpyias ravrv]? 
rivcov BtereXecre. /cara7ro\/j,r]dels fjiev yap vrro 
'Pa)yuaia>i' enerpe^ev eiceivow ra Katf avrov, e/c- 



122 



ARATUS LIII. 4-uv. 2 

freed the city from its tyranny the fifth day of the 
month Daesius (which the Athenians call Anthes- 
terion), which sacrifice has the name Soteria, arid 
one on the day of the month when, according to the 
records, he was born. The first of these sacrifices 
was performed by the priest of Zeus the Saviour ; 
the second by the priest of Aratus, who wore a 
headband, not pure white but purple and white, and 
hymns with accompaniment of lyre were sung by the 
artists of Dionysus, and the gymnasiarch took part 
in the procession, at the head of the boys and young 
men of military age ; then followed the councillors 
wearing garlands, and all other citizens who desired. 
Of these ceremonial rites the Sicyonians still 
preserve slight traces, celebrated on the same days 
of the year, but most of them, owing to the passage 
of time and the pressure of other matters, have 
lapsed. 

LIV. Such was the life and such the nature of 
the elder Aratus, as history tells us ; and as for his 
son, he was deprived of his reason by Philip, who 
had an abominable nature and added savage cruelty 
to his wanton exercise of power. He gave the 
young man poisons which did not kill, but crazed, 
and thus made him a prey to strange and dreadful 
impulses, under which he grasped at absurd activities, 
and experiences not only shameful but destructive, 
so that death came to him, although he was young 
and in the flower of his life, not as a calamity, but 
as release from evils, arid salvation. For this unholy 
deed, however, Philip paid ample penalties to Zeus, 
the guardian of hospitality and friendship, as long 
as he lived. For after being subdued by the Romans 
and putting his fortunes in their hands, he was 

123 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7To~ot)V oe T/}? aX\r;? dp-^rj^ /ecu ra? vavs 
Trdcras Trpoe/zei'o? /cat 

Ta\avTa KOI TOV vlov o/jitjpevcrovra 
Si OLKTOV erv% Ma/ce^owa? /ecu 

aTTOKTelvwv Be del TOU? 
KOL crvyyeveo-TaTovs <J>piKr)<; eVeVX^cre teal 
o\r)v rrjv /SacrtXetap TT^O? aurov. ev $e /JLOVOV ev 
TOGOVTOIS KCLKOIS evTV%r)[ia KTrjadfjievos, vlov 
dperf) 8ia(f)epovTa, TOVTOV (f)06va> KOI ^\oTvrria 
r/}? Trapd 'Pco/jiaiois n/jii]^ dvel\e, Hepcrel Be 
rrjv dp^rjv TrapeSw/cev, bv ov *fvr]<Jiov, 
' VTroftXijTOv etvai (f>acriv, e/c YvaOaivlov TLVOS 
a/cecrr/ota? yevo/jievov. TOVTOV Al/muXios edpidfi- 
/3eucre' KOI KaTe&Tpetyev evTavOa T^? ' At> TiyoviKijs 
r; oia$o%ij. TO oe \\paTOv 7^09 ev TTJ 
/cat 



124 



ARATUS LIV. 2-3 

stripped of most of his dominions, surrendered all 
his ships but five, agreed to pay a thousand talents 
besides, gave up his son to serve as hostage, and 
'only out of pity obtained Macedonia and its tribu- 
taries. But he was for ever putting to death the 
noblest of his subjects and his nearest kin, and 
thus filled his whole kingdom with horror and 
hatred of him. One piece of good fortune only was 
his, amid so many ills, and that was a son of sur- 
passing excellence; but this son he killed, out of 
envy and jealousy of the honour paid him by the 
Romans, and left his kingdom to his other son, 
Perseus, who was not legitimate, as we are told, but 
supposititious, the child of asempstress^nathaenion. 1 
This king graced the triumph of Aemilius, and with 
him ended theroval line of the Antisonids ; whereas 

> 

the descendants of Aratus were living at Sicyon and 
Pellene in my time. 

1 See the Aemiliu- Paulus, viii. 6 f . ; xxxiv., xxxvi. 



25 



ARTAXERXES 



APTOSEP2H2 

I. '() fj,ev TrpwTo? 'ApTo^e/9^779, TWV ev 
j3aai\ean> TrpqoTrjri teal fjLeya\otyv% 
7retca\iTO rrjv Sej;idv 



Tt/3a<? e^wv, Kep^ov $e r/v vios" o 8e 
ov 



Qwyarpos r\v etceivov. Aapeiov yap fcal [\apvcrd- 1012 
TratSe? eyevovro reacrape?, Trpea-ftvrdros fiev 
?, /A6T 1 exetvov Se KO/jo?, vewrepoi Se 



2 TOVTWva-Tvtjs Kal 'O^a'^p?;?. o pev ovv 

avro Kw/ooi; roi) 7ra\aiov Tovvopa ecr^ev, etceiva) 8e 
(ITTO rov rj\iov yevecrdai <^aai' Kvpov jap 
TOV TJ\IOV. 6 be 'ApTO%epr]<; ' 



OTI 



d\\a TOV fcrrjaiav, el Kal raXXa 
cnriBdvwv Kal Trapafyopwv e/A/Se/B^rjfcev et? rd 
/3i/3\ia TravTO&aTTrjv TrvXaiav, OUK el/co? ecmv 
dyvoeiv Tovvo^a rou /9acriXea)? irap co 

avrbv KOI yvvai/ea Kal /x^repa 



II. 'O /Av ovv KOyoo? evrovov TI Kal cr(f)o^poi> 
evQvs K 7T/9COT7;? 7/Xi/ao,? iX V > aT6 Ps & Trpao- 
re/309 eSoKei 7Tpl irdvTa Kal rals 6pfj,ai$ <j>v(Ti 
/zaXarcoT6/3o? elvai. yvvaiKa & KaXrjv Kal dya- 
6r>v e 



1 Artaxerxesl. 405-425 B.C. The parallel form Artaxerxes 
has become fixed in English. 

128 



ARTAXERXES 

I. THE first Artaxerxes, 1 preeminent among the 
kings of Persia for gentleness and magnanimity, was 
surnamed Lohgimanus, because his right hand was 
longer than his left, and was the son of Xerxes ; 
the second Artaxerxes, 2 the subject of this Life, was 
surnamed Memor, or Mindful, and was the grandson 
of the first by his daughter Parysatis. For Dareius 3 
and Parysatis had four sons an eldest, Artaxerxes, 
and next to him Cyrus, and after these Ostanes and 
Oxathres. Cyrus took his name from Cyrus of old, 4 
who, as they say, was named from the sun ; for 
" Cyrus " is the Persian word for sun. Artaxerxes 
was at first called Arsicas ; although Deinon gives 
the name as Oarses. But it is unlikely that Ctesias, 
even if he has put into his work a perfect farrago 
of extravagant and incredible tales, should be 
ignorant of the name of the king at whose court 
he lived as physician to the king's wife and mother 
and children. 

II. Now Cyrus, from his very earliest years, was 
high-strung and impetuous, but Artaxerxes seemed 
gentler in everything and naturally milder in his 
impulses. His wife, a beautiful and excellent woman, 
lie married in compliance with his parents' bidding, 

- Artaxerxes II. 404-362 B c. 

Dareius II. 424-404 L; c. 

4 ('yrus the Elder, 509-529 R.c, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be Kd)\v6vT(i)V TOV yap dBe\<>ov avTi) 1 ? a 

2 6 (3acri\ev<; eftovXevero fcaxeLvrjv dve\elv, o Be 
'Apcrifcas TT}? /jLrjrpos IKCTTJ^ yero/jievos real TroXXa 
Kara/cXavcras yu,oXt? eVetcre fjLijre aTroKTeivai 
auTOV BtaaTija-ai TTJV avOpwTrov. 77 & 
V7ri)p)6 TOV Kvpov /jLaX\ov(j)i\ov(Ta KOI 

ftaa i\veiv eicelvov. Sib KCU TOV Trar/jo? vocrovv- 
TO? ijBrj yLteTaTre/iTTTo? a?ro 0a\d(icrrj<; 
dvefiaivev V6\7ri 
SidSo%ov avTov d 

3 />%?}?. teal yap el^ev V7rpe.7rrj \6yov 7} Tlapv- 

u> KOI He/?^? 6 7raXa<o? e^ptjcraro, 
iSd^avros, &>? ' Apaifcav /j,V IBiwrrj, 
Be /SatfiXevovTi Aape/w TKiv. 1 ov 

' o TrpecrftvTepo? aiffSei-j^d^ ftaa-iXevs, 'Apro- 

aOtis, KO/30? Be A 
i TWV 7rl 6a\d(Tcrr)<; arrparrjyo^. 
III. 'OXt^ft) 8' varepov rj reXeuTJJcrat 

crV et? TlacrapydBas o (3aai\evs, OTTO)? reXe- 
rrjv ftacri\tKr]v Te\errjv VTTO TWV ev Tlepcrais 
iepzwv. ecrri Be ^a? TroXeyUt/cr)? iepov, r)v 

2 av Tf? ei/cda-eiev. et? TOVTO Bel TOV 
TTape\6ovTa Trjv fj,ev iBiav dTroOeaOai (TTO\rjv, dva- 
Kafteiv Be fjv KO/oo? 6 TraXafo? efyopei jrplv rj /3a- 

yeveaOai, Kal avtcwv Tra\d6r)<$ e/j.<pay6vTa 
/caTaTpayeiv Kal TTOTi'jpiov eKTTielv ov- 
yd\a/CTO<;. el Be 7r/3o? rourof? eVep' arra Bpwcriv, 

3 dBrj\oi> ecrTi rot? aXXot9. ravra Bpdv 'ApToepi;ov 

1 T6KfIV Bekker has re/cot, after Coraes. 
130 



ARTAXERXES u. i-m. 3 

and kept her in defiance of them ; for after the king 
had put her brother to death, he wished to kill her 
also. But Arsicas, throwing himself at his mother's 
feet and supplicating her with many tears, at last 
obtained her promise that his wife should neither 
be killed nor separated from him. But the mother 
had more love for Cyrus, and wished that he should 
succeed to the throne. Therefore, when his father 
was now lying sick, Cyrus was summoned home from 
tiie sea-coast, and went up in full hope that by 
his mother's efforts he had been designated as suc- 
cessor to the kingdom. For Parysatis had a specious 
argument (the same that Xerxes the Elder employed 
on the advice of Demaratus x ), to the effect that she 
had borne Arsicas to Dareius when he was in private 
station, but Cyrus when he was a king. However, 
she could not prevail, but the elder son was declared 
king, under the new name of Artaxerxes, while 
Cyrus remained satrap of Lydia and commander of 
the forces in the maritime provinces.' 2 

III. A little while after the death of Dareius, the 
new king made an expedition to Pasargadae, that 
he might receive the royal initiation at the hands 
of the Persian priests. Here there is a sanctuary of 
a warlike goddess whom one might conjecture to be 
Athena. Into this sanctuary the candidate for initia- 
tion must pass, and after laying aside his own proper 
robe, must put on that which Cj r rus the Elder used 
to wear before he became king ; then he must eat 
of a cake of figs, chew some turpentine-wood, and 
drink a cup of sour milk. Whatever else is done 
besides this is unknown to outsiders. As Artaxerxes 

1 See Herodotus, vii. 3. 

? Of. Xenophon, Anab. i. 1, 1 ft'. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



[j,e\\ovTO$ dtpiKCTO Tt cr a (> epvr) 9 TT^o? dVTOv aywv 
eva TWV lepewv, 09 eV 7rai.crl Kvpovrfjs voat^o^evrj^ 
dycoyrjs 7r/(7TttT?79 yevo/jiet'os real 5taa<? payevetv 
avTov ov&ei'os IJTTOV e&oKei \\epTwv aviaaQai 
dTToSeixQcvTos eKeivov /SacrtXea)?- 8to /cat 
4 e'crj^e Karrjyopwv Kvpou. fcaTiyyopei Se a)? 
TO? evebpevew ev TO) ip>, fcal 67Tt$av efc& 



/a<7feu?, eTriTiecrai KOI 
avrov. ol /JLCV K ravTij^ TT}? 

, ol Be 



Oelv TOV Kvpov et? TO lepov real TrapaSoB r\vai 
5 KpVTTTOfjievov UTTO rov tepeo)^. jj,\\ovra oe avTOV 
r)$ij aTToOv^aKeiv r) fiqrrjp vre/Kcr^oOcra, rat? ay red- 
Xat? Kal rot? ftofTTpvxois Trepie\i%acra Kal av\- 
\afBova-a TOV eiceivov Tpd^r]\ov TT/JO? TOV aur?}?, 
o&vpOfAevy TroXXa Kal TroTVicofievr) rrapyTrjcraTo 
Kal KaTCTre/jL^ev av0is eVl 6(i\aTTav, OVK dya- 
Trjv dp-^rjv eKeivyv, ouSe /jLe/mv^fjiei'ov T/}? 
, dXXa T?)? crfXX?^e&)?, Aral 8t' opyrjv 
/na\\ov rj TrpoTepov eVl Trjv /3acrt\tiav. 
IV. "Ei/toi 5e <$>a<Jiv OVK dpKOVfJ.evov 
ftavev et9 TO Ka$' fifiepav SelTrvov 
/5ao"tXeo)9, evi]6i^ \eyovTes. el yap a\\o 
d\\a rj fjitjTrjp VTrrip^e, ^prja-Oat Kal \afjij3dveiv 
oaa j3ov\OLTO Tan' avTrfi 7rape%ovcra Kal Si&ovcra. 
l Be TO> TrXouTM Kal TO ^ia-Oo<popiKov 

Bid TMI> </uXft>y Kal %ei>u>v avrcjy irapa- 101 



yap ov (TWiyayer, ert 



1 A nab. \. 1, 6-11. 






ARTAXERXES in. 3 -iv. i 

was about to perform these rites, Tissaphernes 
brought to him a certain priest who had conducted 
Cyrus through the customary discipline for boys, had 
taught him the wisdom of the Magi, and was thought 
to be more distressed than anyone in Persia because 
his pupil had not been declared king. For this 
reason, too, his accusation against Cyrus won cre- 
dence. And he accused him of planning to lie in 
wait for the king in the sanctuary until he should 
put off his garment, and then to fall upon him and 
kill him. Some say that Cyrus was arrested in con- 
sequence of this false charge, others that he actually 
made his way into the sanctuary and hid himself 
there, and was delivered into custody by the priest. 
But now, as he was about to be put to death, his 
mother clasped him in her arms, twined her tresses 
about him, pressed his neck against her own, and 
by much lamentation and entreaty prevailed upon 
the king to spare him, and sent him back to the 
sea-coast. Here he was not satisfied with the office 
assigned to him, nor mindful of his release, but onlv 
of his arrest ; and his anger made him more eager 
than before to secure the kingdom. 

IV. Some say that he revolted from the king 
because his allowance did not suffice for his daily 
meals, which is absurd. For had no other resource 
been his, still, his mother was resource enough, who 
gave freely from her own wealth all that he wished 
to take and use. And that he had wealth is proved 
by the mercenary troops that were maintained for 
him in many places by his friends and connections, 
as Xenophon tells us. 1 For he did not bring these 
together into one body, since he was still trying to 
conceal his preparations, but in one place and another, 

133 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



, d\\ay^oOi Be aXXot"? etrl TroXXat? 7rpO(f) da-eat, 

2 %evo\oyovvra<s et%e. /3a0-tXea>? Be rj re ^jrijp 
irapovcra ra? vrro^rta^ dcfrfjpei, real Ki)/3o? auro? aet 
OeparrevriKws eypafye, rd fjilv alrovpevos 
avrov, ra Be Tiuafyepvovs dvTLKaTtiyop&v, &>? 
7T/90? eKelvov avra) tyXov KOI dy&vos 6Wo?. 

3 *Hv Be Tt9 teal /LteXX^crt^ eV T^ (frvarei rov ftacri- 

, TTieiKia (fjaivofAevr) rot? TroXXot?. eV ^i/0%7; 
^\ovv eBo^e rrjv 'A-pro^epgov rov 
Trpaorrjra, 77810) re eavrov 

i,, teal rrepl TO rifiav KOI 
TO Kar d^iav virepftd\\wv, /coXa/rta)9 Be 

u TO e<pv{3pioi> teal rjBo/jLevov, ev Be rco 

iTa<; ov% rjrrov Tot? BiBov<riv 77 
\ajJilBdvovcrLV ev ru> BiBovat, fyaivofji 

4 Kdi <f)i\,dvdp(inros. ovBev yap r]v ovrws fjntcpov ri 
rwv BiBofjiV(i)v o pr) TrpotreBe^aro rrpoOv/jiti)^, aXXa 



teal poai> [Jiiav v'r 
^filcrov rivos aura*, u NT) TOI^ WiOpav" elirev, 
" ovro$ 6 dvrjp teal TTO\LV civ ete /jLitepas 
woirjcreie fj,eyd\tiv TriarevOefa." 

V. 'Evret Be a\\(i)v a'XXa rrpovtyepovrwv 
oBov avrovpyos avOpwrro^ ovBev eirl feaipov 
evpeiv ry rrorafjiS) TrpocreBpafie teal ralv 
V7ro\a/3a)v rov vBaros Trpoffijvcyteev, i]a6els o 
p^rjff (f>id\ijv errefji'fyev avrw xpvarjv teal 
Bapeiteovs. }Zvre\eiBa Be rip Adtecavi, TTO\- 
Xa Trapprjaia^o/Aevq) TT^O? avrov avOaBo)?, e/ee- 
\ev<rev elrrelv rov / ^i\lap^oi> on 

1 34 



ARTAXERXES iv. i-v. i 

and on many pretexts, he kept recruiting-agents. 
And as for the king's suspicions, his mother, who 
was at court, tried to remove them, and Cyrus him- 
self would always write in a submissive vein, some- 
times asking favours from him, and sometimes making- 
countercharges against Tissaphemes, as if his eager 
contention were against him. 

There was, too, a certain dilatoriness in the nature 
of the king, which most people took for clemency. 
Moreover, in the beginning he appeared to be 
altogether emulous of the gentleness of the Arta- 
xerxes whose name he bore, showing himself very 
agreeable in intercourse, and bestowing greater 
honours and favours than were really deserved, while 
from all his punishments he took away the element 
of insult or vindictive pleasure, and in his acceptance 
and bestowal of favours appeared no less gracious 
and kindly to the givers than to the recipients. 
For there was no gift so small that he did not 
accept it with alacrity ; indeed, when a certain 
Omisus brought him a single pomegranate of sur- 
passing size, he said : " By Mithra, this man would 
speedily make a city great instead of small were he 
entrusted witli it." 

V. Once when he was on a journey and various 
people were presenting him with various things, a 
labouring man, who could find nothing else at the 
moment, ran to the river, and, taking some of the 
water in his hands, offered it to him ; at which 
Artaxerxes was so pleased that he sent him a goblet 
of gold and a thousand darics. To Eucleidas the 
Lacedaemonian, who would often say bold and im- 
pudent things to him, he sent this word by his 
officer of the guard : " It is in thy power to say 

135 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elirelv a ftovXet, e/j.ol Be KOI \eyeiv /cal 

2 ev Be 6t'ipa nvl 'Fijptftd&v Beigavros aura) TOV 
/cavBvv ecr'^KTfJLevov, )}p(i)Ti]<Ti> 6 Ti Bel Ttoie.lv. 
eiceivov Be etVoi/ro?, ""AX\oi> avrbs evBvcrai, TOV- 
TOV Be e/jiol ^09," OI/TW? Troii]crev, eiTrwv, " l^i^w^i 
/lev, a) Tr)pi(3ae, croi rovrov, fyopelv Be uTrayo- 
/DfUft)." TOV Be Tiipiftd^ou fjLTj typovricrav'TOs (r)i> 
yap ov Trovrjpos, VTTOKOV^O^ Be /cal Trapdcfropos), 
aXXa TOV re tcdvBvv evQvs e/ectvov ev&vvros KCU 
Bepaia ypf era teal yvvairceia TWV j3aai\ifcwv rrepi- 
Oefjievov, Trdvres ^ev rjyavdfCTOVV (ov yap e^ijv\ 6 
fievTQi /SacrtXeu? KareyeXacre teal etTre' 

aoi /cal TO, ^pvaia fyopelv a><? yvvaifci KOI 

3 aTO\rji> to? p.aivofjievw" Tpa7rerj<; Be T 

77 /j,rjTpbs ftacri\eM$ rj 



ya/jLTi<; yvvaifcos, Kaeo/jLevwv TT? /u,e^ LTT avrov, 
TTJ? 8e ^r/909 ^Trep avTov, 'ApTo^ep^rjs /cal TOI;? 
dBe\<f)ov$ eVt r^y avTTjv /cd\ei Tpdire^av, Oo~Ta- 

eV 3e rot? 



/j.d\iaTa /ce^apia/jLev^p 6-^riv irapel^e rot? 
<rai? 77 TT^? yvvaixbs Sraretyoa? ap/ui/zaa 
TWV TrapaTreracr/uaTa)^ aet irpo^epofjievr] /cal BiBov- 
aa raZ? BII/JLOTLCTIV aairdcraaOaL avTr]i> /cal irpocr- 
e\0iv, 06 ev rfyaTrdro rot? TroXXot? /; /3a<rt,\eia, 
VI. Toz^ jjLevToi Kvpov ol vecDTeptcrTal /cal TTO\V- 
a)? \afJLTrpov dvBpa TTJ ^rv^fj KO\ 



/cal (>i\Taioi> WOVTO ra 



7ro6eiv, /cal TO /u.eye0o$ TT)? ^ 
Beladai (frpovijfjia /cal <$>i\OTip,iav e 

2 TO?. 01>X, VfTTOV OVV TOt? dl>W 7ri(TTVfi)V KO/50? 

r) rot? Trepi avTQv eTre^eipet TO> TroXe/xco' 
136 



ARTAXERXES v. i-vi. 2 

what thou pleasest, but it is in mine both to say 
and to do." Again, when he was hunting once 
and Teribazus pointed out that the king's coat 
was rent, he asked him what was to be done. And 
when Teribazus replied, " Put on another for thyself, 
but give this one to me/' the king did so, saying, 
" I give this to thee, Teribazus, but I forbid thee to 
wear it." Teribazus gave no heed to this command 
(being not a bad man, but rather light-headed and 
witless), and at once put on the king's coat, and 
decked himself with golden necklaces and women's 
ornaments of royal splendour. Everybody was in- 
dignant at this (for Jt was a forbidden thing) ; 
but the king merely laughed, and said : " I permit 
thee to wear the trinkets as a woman, and the 
robe as a madman." Again, no one shared the 
table of a Persian king except his mother or his 
wedded wife, the wife sitting below him, the mother 
above him ; but Artaxerxes invited to the same table 
with him his brothers Ostanes and Oxathres, although 
they were his juniors. But what gratified the Persians 
most of all was the sight of his wife Stateira's carriage, 
which always appeared with its curtains up. and thus 
permitted the women of the people to approach and 
greet the queen. This made her beloved of the 
common folk. 

VI. Nevertheless, restless and factious men thought 
that affairs demanded Cyrus, a man who had a 
brilliant spirit, surpassing skill in war, and great love 
for his friends ; and that the magnitude of the empire 
required a king of lofty purpose and ambition. Ac- 
cordingly, Cyrus relied quite as much upon the 
people of the interior as upon those of his own 
province and command, when he began the war. 

137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ejpafye TrapaKaXwv /SorjQeiv /cal 

<rVV6K7rf.l7TlV aP'BpUS, olf (77 B(i)CTtV, dv fJ,V 

7rebl Trapwaiv, 'ITTTTOVS, dv Be 'nnrels, a-uvcopiBas" 
lav 8' dypovs e%a)(Ti, K(t)/jLas' lav Be Arco/u-a?, TroXets* 
fiiffOov Be TO?? crTpaTevofj-evois OVK apiO^iov, a\\a 

3 /jierpov e<T(T0ai. neya^rjyopwv Be Trepl avrov 
iroX\a Kal KapBiav e<f)i) TOV dBe\<f>ov (fropeiv ftapv- 1014 
repavtcal fyL\ocro<$>eiv /j,a\\ov /cal jj-ayeveiv /SeXrtot', 
olvov Be 7r\eioi>a Triveiv Kal (pepeiv e/celvov Be 

VTTO BeiXias /cal /zaXa/aa? ev fj,ev rot? Kvv)yyecrioi<; 
fj,rjoe ecf) ITTTTOV, ev Be rot? /civBvvois fjirjBe eVl TOV 
Opovov KaOff(T0ai. Aa/ceBaifiovioi /JLCV ovv a/cvrd- 
\rjv Trpo? KXeapftov d.7recrTi\av vTr^peretv Kvpp 

4 Trdvra /ceXevovres. o Be KU/DO? dveftaivev eVl 

ap/3api/cr)i> re 7ro\\rjv e%a)v Bvva/jiiv 
opovs "EXX^i^a? 0X170) T pLcr^iXLwv Kal 
aTToBeovras, aXXa? eV aXXat? iroiov/jievos 
TT}? arpareia^. ov prjv e\aOe ye et'<? 
TTO\VV %povov, aXX' f)/ce ySacrtXet Ti(ra<f)epvii<i 
' /cal TroXu? Oopvfios el^e ra /3a<rtXeta, 
re Hapva-driBos TTJV 7r\ei(7Trjv airlav TOV 
vrjS, /cal TWV (f>i\a)i> avTrjs ev 

5 uTTo-v/aat? OVTWV Kal Btafto\ai<;. /taXtcrra Be rjvla 
TTJV HapvcraTiv r] ^TUTetpa TU> TroXe^ft) TreptTra- 
Oovaa Kal ySowcra, " Hov vvv ai TriVref? e/ceivai ; 
Tfov Be at Berfcreis, at? e^eXo^ievrj TOV 

cravTa TW dBe\<fxa TroXe/uou Kal KUKWV e/ 

?7/xa5 ; " e/c Br) TOVTO)V fjaaovaa TTJV 

TlapvcraTis, /cal (frvaei ftapvdvfjios ovcra Kal ftdp- 



*- Cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 1, 9 ; 2, 21 ; 4, 3. 
138 



ARTAXERXES vi. 2-5 

He also wrote to the Lacedaemonians, inviting them 
to aid him and send him men, and promising that 
he would give to those who came, if they were foot- 
men, horses ; if they were horsemen, chariots and 
pairs ; if they had farms, he would give them villages ; 
if they had villages, cities ; and the pay of the 
soldiers should not be counted, but measured out. 
Moreover, along with much high-sounding talk about 
himself, he said he carried a sturdier heart than his 
brother, was more of a philosopher, better versed in 
the wisdom of the Magi, and could drink and carry 
more wine than he. His brother, he said, was too 
effeminate and cowardly either to sit his horse in a 
hunt, or his throne in a time of peril. The Lacedae- 
monians, accordingly, sent a dispatch-roll to Clearchus 
ordering him to give Cyrus every assistance. 1 So 
Cyrus marched up against the king with a large 
force of Barbarians and nearly thirteen thousand 
Greek mercenaries, 2 alleging one pretext after 
another for his expedition. But the real object of 
it was not long concealed, for Tissaphernes went in 
person to the king and informed him of it. Then 
there was a great commotion at the court, Parysatis 
being most blamed for the war, and her friends 
undergoing suspicion and accusation. And above 
all was she vexed by Stateira, who was greatly dis- 
tressed at the war, and kept crying : " Where now 
are those pledges of thine ? And where are the 
entreaties by which thou didst rescue the man who 
had plotted against the life of his brother, only to 
involve us in war and calamity?" Therefore Pary- 
satis hated Stateira, and being naturally of a harsh 

2 Cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 7, 10, where the force of Bar- 
barians is said to have numbered one hundred thousand. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ev op7at9 real /u.i'r/crtA:a/aa9, erreftovXevev 
6 avrrfv dve\elv. errel &e kelvwv {lev ev ru> TroXe/Ltw 
avvre\ea9^vai rrjv eTTiftovXrjv eiprjxe, Y^rrfcria^ oe 
varepov, ov ovre dyvoelv rov ^povov etVo? ecni 
Trapovra rat? Trpd^eaiv, ovre eKwv alriav el^ev K 
rov xpovov fj.Ta(TTr)crai TO epyov, a>? 7r/3a^^; 
Bir)<yoi>iievo<;, ola Tracr^et 7roXAa/a9 o ^070? avrov 
7T/3O? TO /Af^wSe? /cat SpafjiaTitcbv et 

rovro 



VII. Kupw 8e irpoaiovTi (pfj/jLai teal \6yot, Trpoa- 
, to? o) fJid^ecrO 'at ySacrtXea)? evOvs e 



OL8e avv&aelv ct? ela^ avrut 



Ile 



^crat? virofjLeveiv f^pi av at 
Trama-^odev avveXduxji. fcal yap 
evpos opyviwv Setca fcal /3a#o? IVa)^ eVt 
5ta TOU TTe&iov TeTpaKoaious eVe/5aXe ! /cat 
re irepielSe rov Kvpov evros rrape\6ovra /cal Ba- 

2 /3uXwi>09 aurrfs ov (JLatcpav yevo^evov. Trjpiftd^ov 
Be, w? <f>a<n, Trpatrov ToXft^cra^TO? elirelv a>? ou 

iv ovSe Al?/^ta9 e/ccrrdvra teal Ba- 
a/xa J y^at ]oi;cri/ evBveadai rfj 
no\\arf\aaLav /j,v e^ovra ^vva^iv rtov 
/jLVpiovs Se aarpaTras teal arparrjyovs Kvpov teal 
typovelv teal /ua^fo-flai /3eXTtojva9, cbp/J,r)ae 
vlaaaOai rrjv ra^iarrji'. 

3 Kat TO ^te^ rrpwrov e^alfyvrj? /caTa0az^et9 e 
Kovra fjLvpidai arparov BiaKKO(TfAri/.iei>ais 



Bekker and Ziegler, after Corais : a\Aa. 



140 



ARTAXERXES vi. 5 -vn. 3 

temper and savage in her wrath and resentment, she 
plotted to kill her. Deinon says that her plot was 
carried out during the war. Ctesias, however, says 
that it was accomplished afterwards, and neither is 
it likely that he was ignorant of the time since he 
was at the scene of action, nor had he any occasion, 
in his narrative of the deed, to change the time of 
it on purpose, however often his story turns aside 
from the truth into fable and romance. I shall 
therefore give the event the place which he has 
assigned to it. 1 

VII. As Cyrus proceeded on his march, rumours 
and reports kept coming to his ears that the king 
had decided not to give battle at once, and was not 
desirous of coming to close quarters with him, but 
rather of waiting in Persia until his forces should 
assemble there from all parts. For he had run a 
trench, ten fathoms in width and as many in depth, 
four hundred furlongs through the plain ; and yet 
he allowed Cyrus to cross this and to come within 
a short distance of Babylon itself. 2 And it was 
Teribazus, as we are told, who first plucked up 
courage to tell the king that he ought not to shun 
a battle, nor to retire from Media and Babylon, as 
well as Susa, and hide himself in Persia, when he 
had a force many times as numerous as that of the 
enemy, and countless satraps and generals who sur- 
passed Cyrus in wisdom and military skill. The king 
therefore determined to fight the issue out as soon 
as possible. 

So, to begin with, by his sudden appearance with 
an annv of nine hundred thousand men in brilliant 

r 

1 See chap. xix. 

' Cf. Xeuophon, A nub. i. 7, 14-17, 

141 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



, T0l" 

Bid rb Oappelv teal Karafypovelv oBonropovvras 
Kal crvverdpa&v, wcrre avv Oopvftw Kal 
fj,6\i<> et? rdiv KaOicrracrdat rov 
Kvpov eireira (Tiyf} Kal (T%eSr)v 7rdya)V OavfjLa 
AA,77<j rr}? eura^t'a? Trapel")(e, fcpavyas drd- 
Kal (TKtpTrjfjLara Kal TTO\VV rdpa^ov avrwv 
$ia<T7ra<7/j,ov ev vrX^et TO<TOUT&) TT/JOfrSe^o/xe- 
. cv 8e Kal Kara Tovs f 'R\\iji>a<; dvrera^e TWV 
irav^^opwv ra pwfMaXecoraTa Trpo TT}? eavrov 
(f)d\a<yyo<;, &>? irplv ev %e/3crl <yevea'6ai SiaKo-^r 
ra? ra^et? (Slq TT}? etcreXao-ea)?. 

VIII. Trjv Be /jLd%r)v eKelvrjv TTO\\WV /J,ev a 

, Eej>o</>wi>To? Be JJLOVOVOV^I 
Kal rot? Trpdy^acriv, &>? ou 

d\\d yivo/jievois, e<j)L(rrdvro<i del rov aKpoarr/v 
efjLjradtj Kal crvyKivBvi'evovra Bia Trjv evdpyeiav, 
OVK <TTI vovv e^oi/TO? eTre^jyeicr^ai, 7r\rjv ocra 
2 TCOV d%ia)v \6yov Traprf^Oev eiTreiv eKeivov. o [lev 
ovv TOTTO?, ev w Traperd^avro, Kovva^a KaXelrai 1015 
Kal Ba/Ji^Xaii/o? dire^eL crraStof? Trevraxocriov^. 
Be TTpb TT}? fjid^ri^ KXeap^ou irapaKa- 



elvai 



KtvBvveveiv avrov elirelv cfracri, " TL \eyei$, 
K\eap%6 ; av Ke\evis fj-e rov /3acriXei'a? opeyo- 
3 fievov dvd^Lov elvai f3a<Ti\eias ; " d^aprovTO^ Be 
Kvpov /jieya TW Bvvat, TTyooTrerco? et? fiecra ra 
Beivd Kal fjirj <$>v\d%acr6ai rov KivBvvov, ov% rjrrov 
, el /nrj Kal jj,d\\ov, 



1 A nab. \. 8. 
143 



ARTAXRRXES vn. 3 -vni. 3 

array, he so terrified and confounded the enemy, who 
were marching along in loose order and without arms 
because of their boldness and contempt for the king, 
that Cyrus could with difficulty bring them into 
battle array amid much tumult and shouting ; and 
again, by leading his forces up slowly and in silence, 
he filled the Greeks with amazement at his good 
discipline, since they had expected in so vast a host 
random shouting, and leaping, with great confusion 
and dissipation of their lines. Besides this, he did 
well to draw up in front of his own line, and over 
against the Greeks, the mightiest of his scythe- 
bearing chariots, in order that by the force of their 
charge they might cut to pieces the ranks of the 
Greeks before they had come to close quarters. 

VIII. Now, since many writers have reported to 
us this battle, and since Xenophon 1 brings it all but 
before our eyes, and by the vigour of his description 
makes his reader always a participant in the emotions 
and perils of the struggle, as though it belonged, not 
to the past, but to the present, it would be folly to 
describe it again, except so far as he has passed over 
things worthy of mention. The place, then, where 
the armies were drawn up, is called Cunaxa, and it 
is five hundred furlongs distant from Babvlon. And 

o j 

we are told that Cyrus, before the battle, when 
Clearchus besought him to remain behind the com- 
batants and not risk his life, replied : "What sayest 
thou, Clearchus ? Dost thou bid me, who am reaching 
out for a kingdom, to be unworthv of a kingdom?" 

^j * ^j 

It was a great mistake for Cyrus to plunge headlong 
into the midst of the fray, instead of trying to avoid 
its dangers ; but it was no less a mistake, nay, even 
a greater one, for Clearchus to refuse to array his 

M3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kara TOV {Baai\ea pr) 0eXr)<ra<s TOVS " 
a\\a Trpoa-fii^a^ ru) TTOTaaw TO &%iov, to? 
KVKXwdeLrf. rrjv yap dcrffcdXeiav ei; ajrarros &KO- 
Kovra Kal TrXelcrTOV \6yov %ovTa TOV /jujSev 
4 Tcadelv OIKOL neveiv r^v KpaTunov. o Be fj,vpiovs 
aTTO ^aXacrcr?;? ev oVXoi? avafte/SrjKtoS 
vayK(iovTos, d\\' OTTW? }Lvpov 6t? TOV 
Opovov KaOicrr} TOV f3aa-i\iov, etra TrepiaKOTrwi' 
^wpav fcal Ta^Lv, OVK a</>' ?y? crcocrefe TOP r]yefjiova 
teal jjucrOoSoTrfv, aXX' ev Tin 6e/jievos eavTov 

0/40409 



<\ ' ^ i > /-> /^\-, ' \ 

oeou? rwt' TtapovTwv etcpepXyKOTi rot 1 ? 7re/?t 



o\wv \oyicr/jiovs Kal Trpole^evw TTJV rT;? crr/oare/a? 
5 viroOeaiv. OTL yap ovoels av VTre/jieive TMV 
Trepl f3acri\ea TOVS f/ 



(oa0evT(i)i> 8' KLVOJV Kal /^ao-iXea) 1 ? <j)vyoi>TO<$ fj 
7T6<j6vTO<f 



TWV 

fjba\\ov eu\d(3eiav r) TO TOV Kvpov 
aiTiaTtov 009 ra Trpdy^aTa Kal Kvpov 

6 aTroXeffacrav. el yap auro? ecrKoirei (SacrtXevs 
OTTOV Ttt^a? TOU? " EXXr^a? a^SXa/SecrTaTot? 
creTai TToXe/Atoi?, OLVC ai/ eTepav e^evpev ?*/ 
aTTwrara) %o)pav eavTov Kal TWV Trepl eavTov, d<j) 
>7? oirre viKr/Oels auro? rjaQeTO Kal KO/oo? e^Btj 
KaTaKOTrels rj ^p^cra/zei^o? rt TT} KXeap^ou i/t/c?;. 

7 KaiToi Ku/30? TO crv/jicfrspov OVK rjyvoijffev, aXX* 
eVet KXeap^of edeXque TaTTecrOai KCLTCL [Mecroi>. 
o & avTM fjieXetf elirwy QTTO)? e^i %d\XicrTa t TO 



144 



ARTAXERXES vm. 3-7 

Greeks over against the king, and to keep his right 
wing close to the river, that lie might not be sur- 
rounded. For if he sought safety above everything 
else and made it his chief object to avoid losses, it 
had been best for him to stav at home. But he had 

/ 

marched ten thousand furlongs up from the sea-coast 
under arms, with no compulsion upon him, but in 
order that he might place Cyrus upon the royal 
throne ; and then, in looking about for a place and 
position which would enable him, not to save his 
leader and employer, but to fight safely and as he 
pleased, he was like one who, through fear of instant 
peril, had cast aside the plans made for general 
success and abandoned the object of the expedition. 
For had the Greeks charged upon the forces arrayed 
about the king, not a man of them would have stood 
his ground ; and had these been routed and the king 
either slain or put to flight, Cyrus would have won 
by his victory, not only safety, but a kingdom. This 
is clear from the course of the action. Therefore the 
caution of Clearchus rather than the temerity of 
Cyrus must be held responsible for the ruin of Cyrus 
and his cause. For if the king himself had sought 
out a place to array the Greeks in which their attack 
would be least injurious to him, he could have found 
no other than that which was most remote from 
himself and his immediate following, since he himself 
did not know that his forces had been defeated there, 
and Cyrus could take no advantage at all of the 

J 

victory of Clearchus, because he was cut down too 
soon. And yet Cyrus well knew what was for the 
best, and ordered Clearchus to take his position 
accordingly in the centre. But Clearchus, after 
telling Cyrus he would see to it that the best was 
done, ruined everything. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



IX. Oi fJLGv ydp r/ EA,X?7ye? ocrov {3ov\ovro roi>9 
ISapftdpovs evitcwv KOI Biwteovres errl rrXelcrrov 
rrporfkBov Kypw Be yevvalov '(rrrrov, dcrrofiov Be 
teal v/3pio~rr/v eXavvovri, Tlaaarcav Ka\ovp,evov, &)? 
KT77<7ia9 <f)r}(rtv, avre^i]\aa'ev o KaSoucrta)^ ap%tt>v 

2 'ApTa<ypcrr)<; /^eya (Boon 1 , f ''O TO KaXXicrrov v 
Hepcrai,? ovofxa K.vpou KaraLa-^yvwv, d 

v KOI d^povecrrare, Ara/tou? /JLCV r/ 
V KaK *l v o&bv dywv eVl ra Ilepcrco 

Be creauToO #al dBe\(f)Oi> e\7ria)i> avai- 
pijcretv, 09 <rot) /jLvpid/cis [ivpiovs Bov\ov<; e^et 
Kpeio-crovas. avru/ca Be Treipd&y Trporepov yap 
aTroXet? evravOa rrjv creawrov Ked>a\rjv rj 6ed- 

3 cracrdai TO /SacriXeco? Trpoffwrrov" ravra 
%j*<qKQVTiCF&t eV avTOV. o Be 0wpa 
ai/T6<7^e, al owe erpa)0rj fiev o KOpo?, e 
Be Trjs 77X7777)9 lcr)vpa<; 7rpoo-7r(rovcrr)s. 
(TTpe\lravTo<; Be rov 'LTTTTOV rov 'Aprayepcrov 

6 KO/309 TV%, KOI $irj\a(T TTClpd TYjV K\?,Ba Bid 

rov T/aa%r;Xof TTJV al^/jiijv. 

4 Toi^ ^ei' ovv 'ApTayepa-rjv d-noOavelv VTTO rov 
Kvpov a%e&bv a7ra/'Te9 6{io\oyov<ri' rrepl Be T?}9 
avrov Kvpov reXevrij^ eVet z~,i>o(j)wv a7rXw9 ^at 
avvro/jiws, are Br) yu-r; rrapwv auTO9, elrrev, ovBer 
Tcr&)9 K(i)\vei rd Aeivwvos IBia Kal rrd\i.v rd 



X. <l>77O'li/ oui^ o /uey Aetvtov on rov 'Apra- 
yepaov rreaovros elcreXdcras /3fat<9 6 \\vpos eis 
TOU9 TTporeray/xevovs rov /3ao-tXero? Karerpaxrev 
avrov rov irrrrov, o Be aTreppvrj' 'Yijpifid^ov Be 



146 



ARTAXERXK3 ix. i-x. i 

IX. For the Greeks were victorious to their hearts' 
content over the Barbarians, and went forward a 
very great distance in pursuit of them ; but Cyrus, 
riding a horse that was high-bred, but fierce and hard 
to guide (his name was Pasacas, as Ctesias tells us), 
was met in full course by Artagerses, commander of 
the Cadusians, who cried with a loud voice: "O 
thou who disgracest the name of Cyrus, that noblest 
name among the Persians, thou most unjust and 
senseless of men, thou art come with evil Greeks on 
an evil journey after the good things of the Persians, 
and thou hopest to slay thine own brother and thy 
master, who hath a million servants that are better 
men than thou. And thou shalt at once have proof 
of this ; for thou shalt lose thine own head here 
before thou hast seen the face of the king." With 
these words he hurled his spear at Cyrus. But the 
breastplate of Cyrus stoutly resisted, and its wearer 
was not wounded, though he reeled under the shock 
of the mighty blow. Then, as Artagerses turned his 
horse away, Cyrus hurled his spear and hit him, and 
drove its head through his neck past the collar-bone. 

Thus Artagerses died at the hands of Cyrus, as 
nearly all writers are agreed in saying ; but as 
regards the death of Cyrus himself, since Xenophon 
makes simple and brief mention of it, 1 because he 
was not present himself when it happened, there is 
no objection perhaps to my recounting, first what 
Deinon says about it, and then what Ctesias says. 

X. Accordingly, Deinon says that after Artagerses 
had fallen, Cyrus charged furiously into those drawn 
up in front of the king, and wounded the king's 
horse, and that the king fell to the ground ; but 

1 Ana.b. i. viii. 26 f. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dva(3d\6vTO<> avrov eV a\\ov ITTTTOV Ta%v tcai 

, " T fl /3acri\v, /jie^i'T/cro T^? rjf_iepa<s 1Q16 
ov 'yap dia X?;'$?79 eoTi," Tfd\iv o KO/JO9 
rw 'iTnrro Karef3a\e TOV ' A.pTO^ep^r)v. 
2 7T}0? 8e TTV T'nrv eiT.\acnv &uo-avaa"Ti<Tas o 



, Ka etTroov TT/OO? TO?;? Trapovras 
eVrt yLtr; ^y, dvTe%i]\avve TW K 
Kal drreiaKeinw^ els tvavria 



3 \ovffi Se ol Trepl avrov. TTLTrret Be o Kvpos, a.^ 
/jiev ei'ioi \<yovcn, TrXtjyel^ VTTO TOV /3a<7t\e(t)S, 
a>9 8e erepoi Tives, Ka/oo? dvOpwirov 
w <yepa<$ eBcoKe T% Tr/^a^eo)? ravrTj^ 6 
d\KTpvova xpvcrovv eVt 8oparo9 aet Trpo 
ra^cw? ey rat? ffTpareiai^ Ko/ni^eiv' Kal yap 
aurou? rot/? Ka/3a9 dXeKrpvovas ol Tlep&ai Bid 
roi>9 Xo<^ou9, ol9 Koa^ovat TO, Kpdvi], Trpoa- 
ijyopevov. 

XI. 'H 6e Kr^crtou Birjyrjcris, 009 7TLT/ji6vTi 
7ro\\d cru^TO/i&)9 aTrayyeiXaL, TOiavrrj Tt9 ecrri. 
K0po9 drroKrelvas 'ApTayeparjv ^\avvev 6/9 avTov 
TOV ITTTTOV, Kal avTos et9 eKeivov, a/z<o- 
<p0dvi Be fta\a>v ^Apiaios 6 K.vpov 
(^1X09 ftaaiXia, KOI OVK eTpuxjG' ftaaiXevs oe 
a^>6(9 TO 
Be, TTKTTOV dvBpa Ky/3ft) /cat yevvalov, e/SaXe 

2 inreKTeive. KO/OO9 8' eV avTov ej~aKovTiaa<$ Sia 
TOV tfwpaKos eTpwae TO o~Tr/0os, ocrov ev&vvai Bvo 

BaKTV\OV<$ TO aKOVTCOV, 7T(TIV B aVTOV V7TO 

djro TOV ITTTTOV. <pvy?js Be Kal 



Twit Trep avTov yevo^ev^, o [JLCV dvaaTas 



148 



ARTAXERXES x. i-xi. 2 

Teribazus quickly mounted him upon another horse, 
saying, " O king, remember this day, for it deserves 
not to be forgotten " ; whereupon Cyrus again plunged 
in and dismounted Artaxerxes. But at his third 
assault, the king, being enraged, and saying to those 
who were with him that death was better, rode out 
against Cyrus, who was rashly and impetuously 
rushing upon the missiles of his opponents. The 
king himself hit him with a spear, and he was hit by 
the attendants of the king. Thus Cyrus fell, as some 
say, by a wound at the hands of the king, but as 
sundry others have it, from the blow of a Carian, who 
was rewarded by the king for this exploit with the 
privilege of always carrying a golden cock upon his 
spear in front of the line during an expedition ; for 
the Persians call the Carians themselves cocks, 
because of the crests with which they adorn their 
helmets. 

XI. But the narrative of Ctesias, to give it in a 
much-abbreviated form, is something as follows 
After he had slain Artagerses, Cyrus rode against 
the king himself, and the king against him, both 
without a word. But Ariaeus, the friend of Cyrus, 
was beforehand in hurling his spear at the king, 
though he did not wound him. And the king, 
casting his spear at Cyrus, did not hit him, but 
struck and killed Satiphernes, a trusted friend of 
Cyrus and a man of noble birth. But Cyrus threw 
his spear at the king and wounded him in the 
breast through the cuirass, so that the weapon 
sank in two fingers deep, and the king fell from 
his horse with the blow. Amid the ensuing 
confusion and flight of his immediate followers, the 
king rose to his feet, and with a few companions 

149 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ev ot9 teal Krrja-ias rjv, \ofyov rtva 7r\rj- 
Kara\a/3wv rjcrv^a^e' }Lvpov Be roi<$ TTO\- 
evei\ovfjievov o ITTTTOS e^ecfrepev vrro Ovfjuov 
dv, fjBr) o~Korov? ovros ayvoovp^evov VTTO ra>i> 

3 7TO\/jLLOOV KOL fyjTOV jJLeVOV UTTO TWV (f)i\COl>. 7TCLl- 
p6/jLVOS Se TTf VlKTj KOl yLte<TT09 O)V Op/jifjS Kdl 

dcrovs Siet;)j\,avve fiowv, " 'E^tcrracr^e, irevL- 
TOVTO & TLepaicrTl TTo\\aKi<i avrov 

01 fll> %L(TTaVTO TTpOtTKVVOVVreS, tlTTO- 

Be TT)<? /ce<J)a\fjs r; rtdpa rov Ku/3ou. real 
Trapar peewit veavias TLepa-rjs ovofjia MiOpiSdrr)*; 
ax.ovTi(f {3d\\ei TOV Kporafyov avrov Trapd TOV 

4 o<j)@d\,/jiov, dyvowv oarts ecr). TTO\V Be alp,a rov 
rpav/jiaro^ eK(3a\ovros IXiyyidaas teal /capcoflels 
o KO/oo? errecre. tcai o [Jiev tTTTro? v7T6K<pv<y(DV eVXa- 
^ero, TOI^ 8' efyiTTrceiov rrl\ov drroppvevra \aju./3di>i 
rov rov Kvpov /3aXo^ro? dKO\ov9os aifxaros rrepi- 
7r\a>. rov Be K.vpov GK rrjs TT\r)ytjs dvatfiepovra 

real /ioXi? evvov^oi rives 6\iyoi rrapovres 
eir a\\ov LTTTTOV dvaOecrOai Kal 

5 dBvvdrcos B' e%ovra Kal Bi avrov rrp 

ftaBi^etv vrro\a(3ovres fjyov, ru> p,ev o-(ap,ari Kaprj- 
{Bapovvra Kal o~<fia\\ofji6vov ) olo/Jievov Be VLKCIV 
aKovovra rwv fyewyovrwv dvaica\ovfJLev<i)v Kvpov 
/SacrtAea Kal (freiBeaflai, Beo/j,va)v. ev Be rovrto 
Y^avviol rives dvOpwrroi KaKoftioi Kal arropoi Kal 
rarreiv&v VTrovpy^/jidr(Dv eveKa rfj rov /3aai\,e(os 
arparia rrapaKO\ov6ovvr<$ erv%ov a 

6 re? &><? (j)i\,ois rots 1 Trepl rov Kvpov- a)? Be 

150 



ARTAXERXES xi. 2-6 

among whom also was Ctesias, took possession of 
a certain hill near by and remained there quietly ; 
but Cyrus, enveloped by his enemies, was borne on 
a long distance by his spirited horse, and since it 
was now dark, his enemies did not recognize him 
and his friends could not find him. But lifted up 
by his victory, and full of impetuosity and confi- 
dence, he rode on through his foes, crying out, 
" Clear the way, ye beggars ! ' Thus he cried out 
many times, in Persian, and they cleared the way, 
and made him their obeisance. But the turban of 
Cyrus fell from his head, and a young Persian, 
Mithridates by name, running to his side, smote him 
with his spear in the temple, near the eye, not 
knowing who he was. Much blood gushed from 
the wound, and Cyrus, stunned and giddy, fell .to 
the ground. His horse escaped and wandered 
about the field, but the horse's saddle-cloth, which 
had slipped off, was captured by the attendant of 
the man who had struck Cyrus, and it was soaked 
with blood. Then, as Cyrus was slowly and with 
difficulty recovering from the blow, a few eunuchs 
who were at hand tried to put him upon another 
horse and bring him to a place of safety. But since 
he was unable to ride and desired to go on his own 
feet, they supported him and led him along. His 
head was heavy and he reeled to and fro, but he 
thought he was victorious because he heard the 
fugitives saluting Cyrus as king and begging him 
to spare them. Meanwhile some Caunians low 
and poverty-stricken men who followed the king's 
army to do menial service chanced to join the 
party about Cyrus, supposing them to be friends. 
But when at last they perceived that the tunics 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



r 

ra)v j3acn,\iKwv drrdvrwv, eyvuxrav rro\e- 
6Vra?. el? ovv efceivwv er6\/j,r)aev djvocov 
e^bm&dev fiaXeiv rbv ivpov dteovriw. TT}<? Se 
Trepl rrjv iyvvav </)Xe/3o? avappayeio")^ TTCCTC/DV o 
KO/30? a/na Traiet TT/JO? TIVI \idu) rbv 

teal (iTrodi'/icrKei. roioOro? /j.ev 6 
^0709, to Kaddjrep d/jt/BXei %i<f)iBi(ii 
dvaipwv rbv avOpwrrov dvyprj/cev. 

XII. "HS^ ^e aurov r60^TjKOTO<i 'Apracrvpas 6 






ovv TOI)? 



TOV Triffrorarop avT&v, " TLva rov- 1017 
TOV, a) TlapiffKa, rc\aieis TrapaKaOi'ujLevos ; " 6 3e 
eiTrev " Qv% bpas t w 'Apracrvpa, KOpoi' r 
tcora ; * & av pda a<$ ovv 6 'Apracrvpas TW 
evvov^a) Oappelv irapeicekevaaro teal (f)v\aTTtv 

2 rbv veicpbv, avros Be a vvr civets TT/JO? rbv 'A.pro- 
%eprjv, direyvto/cora p,ev i]^i] ra rrpdynara, tca/cw^ 
oe teal TO crco/ta StaKi/Avov vrrb re Styr]*; teal 
rov rpavfiaros, ^aipcov <ppdei, a>? auro? iBot, 

Kvpov. 6 Be rrp&rov fjiev evOus a>p- 
avro? levai, /cal rbv 'Apracrvpav ayeiv 
K^evcrev ejrl rbv rorrov' errel Be TroXu? rjv \6yos 
ra)v 'EXX?;Va)^ teal $o/3o? a>? 8ia)Kovra)v teal rrdvra 
vifcwvrcov teal Kparovvrwv, eBo^e rr\eiovas rre/n^at 
TOL? Karo^o^evov^' teal rpidtcovra \a/j,7rdBas 

3 exovres errepfydriaav. avry Be futepov drro\el- 
TTOvri rov reOvdvai Sta TO Bi\lrffv ^. 

152 



ARTAXERXES xi. 6-xn. 3 

over their breastplates were of a purple colour, 
whereas all the king's people wore white ones, they 
knew that they were enemies. Accordingly, one 
of them, not knowing who Cyrus was, ventured to 
smite him from behind with his spear. The vein 
in the ham of Cyrus was ruptured and he fell, and 
at the same time struck his wounded temple against 
a stone, and so died. Such is the story of Ctesias, 
in which, as with a blunt sword, he is long in killing 
Cyrus, but kills him at last. 

XII. When Cyrus was now dead, Artasyras, the 
king's Eye, 1 chanced to pass by on horseback, and 
recognizing the eunuchs as they lamented, he asked 
the trustiest of them, " Who is this man, Pariscas. 
by whom thou sittest mourning?" And Pariscas 
answered : " O Artasyras, dost thou not see Cyrus 
dead?" Astonished at this, then, Artasyras bade 
the eunuch be of good courage and guard the dead 
body, but he himself went in hot haste to Artaxerxes 
(who had already given up his cause for lost, and 
besides was physically in a wretched plight from 
thirst and from his wound), and joyfully told him 
that with his own eyes he had seen Cyrus dead. 
At first the king promptly set out to go in person 
to the place, and ordered Artasyras to conduct him 
thither; but since there was much talk about the 
Greeks, and it was feared that they were pursuing 
and conquering and making themselves masters 
everywhere, he decided to send a larger company 
to see where Cyrus lay. So thirty men were sent, 
with torches. Meanwhile, since the king was 
almost dead with thirst, Satibarzanes the eunuch 

1 A confidential officer of high rank, a Superintendent of 
the Realm. 

VOL. XT. F *53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



o evvovs TfepiOewv efyjTei TTOTOV' ov yap el 



TO j(wpiov vSayp, ovBe r)v eyyvs TO 

ovv TriTvy%dv6i TWV Kavvicov e/ceaxov TWV 



V 



vBcop KCLL TTOvripov e^o^TO?, oaov OKTW KOTU\a<;' 
teal \aj3a)v TOVTO KOI tco/j.i(Tas ry /3a<n,\el Si 



e u iravv 



4 paivei TO TTOTOV. 6 Be wfjiocre TOU? Oeoix; 



olvov rjc'ews OUTGO? TTCOTTOTC TreTrcorcevat, /LLJJTC 

TO KOVffroTCLTOV KOI 
' TOT SoVTO, GOl TOVTO CLV0 ptoTCOV, O.V 

SwrjOco ^ijTrjcra? df.ieL^raa'dai, rov? Oeovs ev 
TTOirjcrai fjiafcdpiov KOL f rr\ovcrLOv" 

XIII. 'Ei/ &e TOVTCO TrpotjrfXavvov ol rpidtcovTa 
\afjLTrpol KOI Trepi^apel?, dvayyeX\ovT<; CLVTW Tr)i> 
i>TV)(iav. r;8?7 Se KOI 

TCa\LV TTyOO? O.VTOV KOl 

vwv 0dppet, KOL KdTe/Baivev diro TOV 
2 TroXXft) 7Tpi\a/ji7r6/Ji6vo<?. co? Be e7reo~Trj TW verepw, 
KOI tcaTa Sij Tiva VO/JLOV Tlepawv rj Se^ia %elp 
drreKoTrrj teal i; /ee<aXr/ TOV era) yuaro?, e/ceXeucre 
Trjv KetyaXrjv avTW KOU^idQr]vai' Kal rr/? 
&pad/j,vos ovcrrjs ftaOeias Kal Xauta? cTre 
rot? d/ji(f)iBoovo-iv eTL Kal (>vyovo-iv. 01 Be 
Kal TrpoaeKvrovv, waTe 



3 et? TO crTpaTOTreBov. e%eKr)\dicei 8e, co? o 

(fiiiali', eVl TTJV fjLa)(r)v Tea-crapdKOVTa fjivpidcriv 
ol Be rrepl AetVwi'a Kal tzevofywvTa TTO\V 
yev(T@ai \eyovai Ta? ^e^a^rjiJieva^. dpiOjmov 
o 



ARTAXKRXRS xn. 3 -xm. 3 

ran about in quest of a drink for him ; for the place 
had no water, and the camp was far away. At last, 
then, he came upon one of those low Caunians, who 
had vile and polluted water in a wretched skin, 
about two quarts in all : this he took, brought it to 
the king, and gave it to him. After the king had 
drunk it all off, the eunuch asked him if he was not 
altogether disgusted with the drink. But the king 
swore by the gods that he had never drunk wine, 
or the lightest and purest water, with so much 
pleasure. "Therefore," said the king, "if I should 
be unable to find and reward the man who gave 
thee this drink, I pray the gods to make him rich 
and happy." 

XIII. And now the thirty messengers came riding 
up with joy and exultation in their faces, announcing 
to the king his unexpected good fortune. Presently, 
too, he was encouraged by the number of men who 
flocked back to him and formed in battle array, and 
so he came down from the hill under the light of 
many torches. And after he had halted at the dead 
body of Cyrus, and its right hand and head had been 
cut off (in accordance with a law of the Persians), 
he ordered the head to be brought to him ; and 
grasping it by the hair, which was long and bushy, 
lie showed it to those who were still wavering and 
disposed to fly. These were amazed, and made 
obeisance to the king, so that very soon seventy 
thousand men were about him and marched back 
with him to their camp. He had marched out to 
the battle, as Ctesias says, with four hundred 
thousand men. But Deinon and Xenophon say that 
the army which fought under him was much larger. 
As to the number of his dead, Ctesias says that it 

J 55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



L 7T/9O9 TOV ' ApTO^ep^rfv, avTO) Be &KT (j,v piwv 
OVK e'XaTTOi>9 avr)vai rou9 Kei/Jievovs. ravra pev 
ovv e^et Biaf.KJua-ffriT'rjcriv' etcelvo Be TOV Krrja-iov 
\afMTrpov ijBi) tyevcr/jia, TO rre/ji^OjjvaL $avai rrpos 
rovs' f tLXXrjvas avrov yLtera <&a\ivov TOV TmtivvQlov 
4 (cai TIVWV a\\wv> o yap Hero(/>&)^ ^mcrraro 
crvt'Siarpi/3ovTa j3acri\el K.Trj<riaV fJLejJtviji'ai yap 



aVTOV KOI TOt? ^i(B\lOL<; TOVTOIS 



1 ' OVK civ ovv e\66vTa ical \bywv 
TOCTOVTWV epfirjvea yevo/nevov 7raprjKv dvci)vv/jLOv, 
<\>a\lvov 8e TOV Tiaicvvdiov wi'oiac;'. aA,Xa Bai- 



o Kr?;crta,?, &>? eoifce, (^tXor^o? wv teal 



OV X } rr v (>ioaK(t)V fcal (f)/,\OK\eap^o<; aei 

as eavTw BLSaxriv, ev 

KOL 



XIV. Merd & rijv /jid^v owpa Ka\\iaTa 
Trefji-^fe fcal nzyiara TW ' Aprayepaou iraioi TOV 
rreaovTos inro Kvpov, AraXw? oe KOI Kr?;<ria2' 
real T0i9 aXXof? e'rt/^o-e. TOV Be Kavviov eKetvov 
%avevpu)V, 09 CTreBw/ce TO daKiov, e iiSo^ov KCL\ 
VTif.Lov /cal TT\OV(TLOV erroiija-ev. TJV Be TJ9 
KOL Trepl TO9 TWV e^a/napTovTcov BIKCU- 
. *Ap/3aKr)v fjiv ydp Tiva M7}Soi/eV Ty fJ-d^rj 
bs Kvpov (pvyovTa KCU rrd\iv efceivov nreaovTos 
IJieTaaTavTa, Bei\iai> Kal fjLaXa/ciav KdTayvovs, ov 
TrpoBocriav ovBe KaKovoiav, e/ceXevcre yv/j,vrjv dva- 
Topvrjv 7repi{3dBr)v errl TOV Tpa%)j\ov 8i' 
oX7;9 ev dyopa rrepufrepeiv- cTepov Be 77/509 



1 Aiutb. ii. 1. 7-23. 



ARTAXEHXES xin. 3 -xiv. 2 

was reported to Artaxerxes as nine thousand, but 
tiiat he himself thought the slain no fewer than 
twenty thousand. This matter, then, is in dispute. 
But it is certainly a glaring falsehood on the part of 
Ctesias to say that he was sent to the Greeks along 
with Phalinus the Zacynthian and certain others. 
For Xenophoii knew that Ctesias was in attendance 
upon the king, since he makes mention of him and 
had evidently read his works ; if, then, Ctesias had 
come to the Greeks and served as an interpeter in 
so momentous a colloquy, Xenophon would not 
have left him nameless and named only Phalinus 
the Zacynthian. 1 The truth is that Ctesias, being 
prodigiously ambitious, as it would seem, and none 
the less partial to Sparta and to Clearchus, always 
allows considerable space in his narrative for himself, 
and there he will say many fine things about 
Clearchus and Sparta. 

XI V. After the battle, the king sent the largest 
and most beautiful gifts to the son of that Artagerses 
who fell at the hands of Cyrus ; he also gave gener- 
ous rewards to Ctesias and others, and when he iiad 
found out the Caunian who had given him the skin 
of water, he raised him from obscurity and poverty 
to honour and wealth. There was much watchful 
care also in his punishment of those who had 
gone wrong. For example, in the case of Arbaces, a 
Mede, who had run away to Cyrus during the battle, 
and, when Cyrus fell, had changed back again, the 
king pronounced him guilty, not of treachery, nor 
even of malice, but of cowardice and weakness, and 
ordered him to take a naked harlot astride his neck 
and carry her about in the market-place for a whole 
day. And in the case of another man, who, besides 

157 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



T&> /jLeracrrrjvaL 'tyevo-a/Aevov /cara/3a\lv Bvo rwv 
7ro\[AL(i)V, Trpocrera^e Btajrelpat rpicri fte\ovai<; 

3 rrjv yXwrrav. olopevos Be KOL (3ov\6fjLevo<; Bo/celv 
real \eyeiv Trdvras dvOpcoTrovs o>9 avros cnreKTovoL 
Kvpov, Mi^/3tSar77 re TW (3a\ovn 7rpa)TO) Kvpov 

Sco/oa /col Xe<yeiv efceXevae TOU? 
Tourot? ere rt/ta 6 /SacrtXei;? ori TOI' 

Kupou irl\ov evpwv dvijve'yKas'" rov 
Kapo?, {></>' ou r^ lyvvav 7r\rjyels 6 Kvpos e 
/cat avrov Swpeav al-rovvro^, K\evcrev elirelv roi/9 
3f5o^Ta9 OTi " 2ot raura Si&aycriv {BacriXevs evay- 
ye\ia)V Bevrcpela' ?r/)WT09 yap 
exelvov Be av rrjv Kvpov T6\6urrjv 

4 6 /zey ovv M.i0pi8drr)<} aTrrjXBe criwirf) 
rov 8e aO\iov Kapa KOLVQV TL irdOo^ ej; d 
Karea^e. Bia^dapel^ yap VTTO ra)v TrapovTW, a>9 
eoitcev, dyatfwv, KCLI dvaTreLdOel^ evOvs avmroiel- 
<T0ai TWV vTrep avrov, ovtc rj^iov rd Sotfevra 

ov vayye\ic0v e^eiv, aXX' rfyavd/crei /naprvpo- 
fcal /3o)v on Kvpov ovSels ere/009, aX\' 
aTrefcrovoi, KCU rrfv So^av a8t/ca)9 drroare- 
potro. ravra Be aKovcras 6 (BaviXevs <T(f>68pa 
irapay^vvdr} Kal rrjv Ke<J3a\i)V K\V<JV aTrore^elv 

5 rov dv0pci)7rov. rcapovara S' 7; /jLrjrrjp, " Mr) av 
ye" elirev, " ovrw rov Kapa rovrov, w (3acri.\ev, 
rbv 6\e8pov tt7raXXa^9, d\\d Trap 1 efjiov rov 
diov drro'\.r)^rerai fjacrOov a)v ro\/j,a \eyetv." 
7Tirp-ilravros Be rov /3ao-fXe&>9 eVeXei/cre rov? 
eVl rwv rifjiwpi&v r} Hapvcraris Xa/3ovra9 rov 
158 



ARTAXERXES xiv. 2-5 

going over to the enemy, had lyingly boasted that 
he had slain two of them, the king ordered that his 
tongue should be pierced with three needles. 
Moreover, believing, and wishing all men to think, 
and say, that he had killed Cyrus with his own hand, 
he sent gifts to Mithridates, the one who first hit 
Cyrus, and ordered the bearers of the gifts to say : 
"This is thy reward from the king because thou 
didst find and bring to him the trappings of the 
horse of Cyrus." Again, when the Carian, from 
whom Cyrus received the blow in the ham which 
brought him down, asked that he also should receive 
a gift, the king ordered its bearers to say : " The 
king gives thee these things as a second prize for 
good tidings ; for Artasyras came first, and after him 
thou didst come, with tidings of the death of Cyrus." 
Now, Mithridates went away without a word, 
although he was vexed ; but the wretched Carian, in 
his folly, gave way to a common feeling. That is, 
he was corrupted, it would seem, by the good things 
which he had, and led by them to aspire at once to 
things beyond his reach, so that he would not deign 
to take the gifts as a rew r ard for good tidings, but 
was indignant, calling men to witness and crying in 
loud tones that it was he himself, and no one else, 
who had killed Cyrus, and that he was unjustlv 
robbed of his glory. When the king heard of this, 
he was vehemently angry and gave orders that the 
man should be beheaded. Whereupon the king's 
mother, who was present, said to him : " O King, do 
not let this accursed Carian off so easily, but leave 
him to me, and he shall receive the fitting reward 
for his daring words." So the king consigned the 
man to Parysatis, who ordered the executioners to 

159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

av0po)7rov (/>' rj/nepas BeKa crrpelSXovv, elra TOi/9 
o(f)9a\iJLOVs e!;opi>j;avTas 669 ra WTO. OepfJiov e 
Kav %a\Kov eW airoQavri. 

XV. Ka/eco9 e a7ra)\ero KOI M.idpi8drr 
o\iyov ^povov e/c TT}? avrfjs d/3e\Tpias. K\rj0el<; 
yap eVt Seiirvov evda Kal fiacri\a)<; /cat TT}? 



l? e\aj3e irapa 

i? TO TTiveiv a(f)LKovTO, \eyei TT/^O? avrov 6 yueyt- 
CTTOJ/ Svvd/jievos TWV [lapvcrdriSos evvov^wv "'Qs 
/caXr/i/ yae^ (T0rJTa croi TavTrjv, a> Mt^yOiSara, o 
)? BeBcotce, Ka\a Be aTpe-jna Kal tjreKia' 
o dvivaKr)*?. ?) aKapLOV a~6 Kal 



< T 1 ' ^ v ^ ' ' )> ? tt ? 

o iupioanj^, It oe raura eanv, enrev, (a 
; p,ei^ovu>v yap eyco Kal Ka\\tovwi> 
TTJV rj^epai' eice'iv^v CI^LOV e^avrov Trap- 
3 6(7^07^." Kal o 'S.Trapa/jLifys drrt/nei&idcras, 
, to M.L0piSuTa" etTrev " eVel 
olvov Kal d\i]9cLai> elvai, ri \a/j,7rpov, a> 
TCLV, f) /jLeya, TTL\OV evpelv 'LTTTTOV TrepLppvevra Kal 
TOVTOV dveveyxelv ; ' ravra Se OVK dyvowv TO 






7019 Trapv-as VTreKivei TIJV KovoTrjra rov v- 
\d\ov Kal aKparovs yeyovoros Sia TOV 



4 olvov. eljrev ovv fj,rj KaTaa%a)V "'T/zei9 /J.ev, o TI 

Be 



\eyw BiappijBrjv VTTO 
K.vpov TT}? ^tpo9. ov ydp 009 ^ 

Kvov Kal /jidraiov, aXXa ToD fj.ev 6 



1 60 



ARTAXERXES xiv. 5 -xv. 4 

take him and rack him on the wheel for ten days, 
then to gouge out his eyes, and finally to drop molten 
brass into his ears until he died. 

XV. Mithridates also came to a miserable end a 
little while after, owing to the same folly. For 
being invited to a banquet at which eunuchs of the 
king and of the queen-mother were present, he 
came decked out with raiment and gold which he 
had received from the king. And when the company 
were at their cups, the chief eunuch of Parysatis 
said to him : " Mithridates, how beautiful this 
raiment is which the king gave thee, and how 
beautiful the collars and bracelets ! Costly, too, is 
thy scimitar. Verily the king has made thee happy 
in the admiring eyes of all men." Then Mithridates, 
now flushed with wine, replied : "Sparamizes, what 
do these things amount to ? Surely my services to 
the king on that day were worthy of greater and 
more beautiful gifts." Here Sparamizes smiled at 
him and said : " There's no grudging them to thee, 
Mithridates ; but since, according to the Greek 
maxim, there is truth in wine, what great or brilliant 
exploit was it, my good fellow, to find a horse's 
trappings that had slipped off, and bring them to the 
king ? " In saying this, Sparamizes was not ignor- 
ant of the truth, but he wished to unveil Mithridates 
to the company, and therefore slyly stirred up his 
vanity when wine had made him talkative and 
robbed him of self-control. Accordingly, Mithridates 
threw away constraint and said : " Ye may talk as 
ye please about horse-trappings and such nonsense ; 
but 1 declare to you explicitly that Cyrus was slain 
by this hand of mine ; for I did not, like Artagerses, 
make a futile and an idle cast of spear, but I 

161 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

uiKpbv rjfAaprov, rov &e Kpord<f>ov rv^cov KCU 8ie\d- 

<r9 KarejSdKov rov avSpa' Kal redvrjKev VTT* ercfi- 

5 vov rov rpav/jiaros" ol fjiev ovv a\\ot, TO TeXo? 

tj&r) rov MiOpiSdrov teal rr)v Kaico^ai^oviav 6pa)i>- 

' \ )/ I t &1 t r* J / <{"T^ 

re? et? Tr]v yijv GKwyav o o ea-riwv aurou?, II 
rat'," e<^)7;, " Midpi^dra, mivcbfjtev ev TW Trapovri 
/cal eadico/jiev rov ySacriXew? oai/jiova Trpocrtcvvovv- 
T69, \6<yov 9 5e fjLeifrvs 

XVI. 'E/e TOUTOU TT; 
rov \6yov 6 evvov^os, erceivr) Se /3acri\6i' 
8e r)yavdtcrr)a-ev axrTrep e^eXe7%6/^^09 teal rb 
tcdXXiarov /cal 'tjStarov cnro\\VMv 
e(3ov\ero yap ftapfidpovs airavras TreireicrOai, 
a>9 ev 



^e e/ceiyov. Ke\eu<rv ovv rov ' 
aTToOavelv aKafavOevra. 
2 To Se aKa^evdrjvac roiovrov ecrri" (TKacftas Bvo 



^I* erepav KaraK\ivovcrt rov Ko\a^op>evov vrrnov 
elra rrjv erepav ejrdyovres Kal crvvap/jLo&vres, 
ware rr/v K(f>a\rjv Kal ra9 %elpas e^co Kal TOU9 
7ToSq$ a7ro\a/uLf3dve(rdai, rb Be aXXo craiyaa rrav 
dTTOK6Kpv(f)Oai, ciSoacriv ecrOieiv rw dvdpcoTrw, KCLV 
/j,rj OeXrj, 7rpoa/3id%ovrai Ktvrovvres ra o/n/jLara" 
Be melv fj,e\i Kal yd\a (TvyKKpa/jLevov 



ey%ov(Tiv e9 TO crro/ia Kal Kara rov Trpocr&Trov 



3 Kara-^eov&iv. elra frpbs rov r)\tov del 
&iv 
162 



evavra ra 6/jL/j.ara, Kal /JLVIWV 



ARTAXRRXES xv. 4 -xvi. 3 

narrowly missed his eye, struck him in the temple, 
pierced it, and brought the man down ; and it was 
of that wound that he died." The rest of the com- 
pany, then, who already saw the end of Mithridates 
and his hapless fate, bowed their faces towards the 
ground; and their host said: " My good Mithridates, 
let us eat and drink now, revering the good genius 
of the king, and let us waive discourse that is too 
weighty for us." 

XVI. Afterwards the eunuch told the matter 
to Parysatis, and she to the king ; and the king 
was incensed, as being openly convicted of false- 
hood, and likely to forfeit the fairest and most 
pleasing feature of his victory. For he wished that 
all Barbarians and all Greeks should be fully 
persuaded that when he and his brother had charged 
and grappled with each other, he had given and 
received a blow, being only wounded himself, but 
killing his brother. He therefore gave orders that 
Mithridates should be put to death by the torture 
of the boats. 

Now, this torture of the boats is as follows. Two 
boats are taken, which are so made as to fit over one 
another closely ; in one of these the victim is laid, 
flat upon his back ; then the other is laid over the 
first and carefully adjusted, so that the victim's head, 
hands, and feet are left projecting, while the rest of 
his body is completely covered up. Then they give 
him food to eat, and if he refuse it, they force him to 
take it by pricking his eyes. After he has eaten, 
they give him a mixture of milk and honey to drink, 
pouring it into his mouth, and also deluge his face 
with it. Then they keep his eyes always turned 
towards the sun, and a swarm of flies settles down 

163 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vwv 7rX?}$o? TTCLV aTTOKpinrrcrat TO 

eWo<? Se TrotoiWo? ocra Troielv avajfcalov ecrnv 

ecrOiovras di>6p(i)7rovs Kal TrivovTas, ev\al Kal 

(TKCt)\1JKS VTTO (f)0Opd<? Kal O^TTeSofO? K TOV 

TreptTTco/iaro? ava^eovcriv, vfi aw dva\[crtcTai TO 
4 aa>yua $ia$vojjLi>a)V et? ra efro?. orav yap 

y re0v>iK(t)<f 6 avOpwTTOS, a^ai 
Truv(O crKa(j)7j<; opaxri TT]V pep crdpfca 
ecr/jiei]v, Trepl Be ra (TTT\dy%va TOIOVTWV 0rjpio}i> 

kdfJiOVS e(T0LOVT(t)l> Ka\ TTpOGirefyvKOTWV. OUTO)? 

o MtdpiBdrr)? e-TTTaKaibeKa 7;/xepa? <f>deip6/jLVo$ 



XVII. AoiTro? 6' TJV rf) TlapvcrdTi&i GKOTTOS o 



evvov^os. co? ovv avrbs 
* eavrov \aj3rjv Trape&i&ov, rotovrov 

2 eV^ouXr/? rpOTTOv rj YlapvGaTts arvveO^Kev. 
ra re aXXa Bv^oao^>o<^ yvvrj Kal Setvrj 

810 Kal /3a<ri\i Trpb TOV 7ro\e/j,ov TroXXa/a? crvv- 
Kv$ev' /zero. & TOV 7ro\e/jiov Sia\v0eicra 
avrbv OVK <J)vy ra? t^Ckofypocrvvas, aXXa 
(TuveTraL^e Kal T&V epwriKwv eKOLVwvet 
Tovaa Kal Trapovcra, Kal oX&>? uiKpoTaTOv avTov 
TTJ ^TaTeLpa ^ereS/Sou ^prjaOaL Kal o-uvelvai, 
fjLicrovcrd re /zaXtcrra iravTwv CKeivTjv Kal /jL<yt,(TTOv 

3 avTJ) /3ov\o/jLvr] &vvacr6at. \aftovcra Sij TTOTC TOV 

A.pToepr]v wpfArj^evov d\vetv tr^oXr}? ovcrrjs 
7rpovKa\eiTO irepl *%i\Lu>v BapeiKcov KvjSeitirdi' Kal 



vutr\Gai Ka TO %pvar(Sv air- 

Se 



164 



ARTAXERXES xvi. 3 -xvn. 3 

upon his face and hides it completely. And since 
inside the boats he does what must needs be done 
when men eat and drink, worms and maggots seethe 
up from the corruption and rottenness of the excre- 
ment, devouring his body, and eating their way into 
his vitals. For when at last the man is clearly dead 

w 

and the upper boat has been removed, his flesh is 
seen to have been consumed away, while about his 

< ' 

entrails swarms of such animals as I have mentioned 
are clinging fast and eating. In this way Mithridates 
was slowly consumed for seventeen days, and at last 
died. 

XVII. And now there was one mark left for the 
vengeance of Parysatis the man who had cut off the 
head and right hand of Cyrus, Masabates, an eunuch 
of the king. Against this man, then, since he him- 
self gave her no chance to get at him, Parysatis 
concocted a plot of the following sort. She was in 
general an ingenious woman, and greatly addicted 
to playing at dice. For this reason she frequently 
played at dice with the king before the war, and 
after the war was over and she had been reconciled 
with him, she dH not trv to avoid his friendly over- 

* * > 

lures, but actually joined in his diversions, and took 
part in his amours by her cooperation and presence, 
and, in a word, left very little of the king for 
Stateira's use and society. For she hated Stateira 
above all others, and wished to have the chief 
influence herself. So, one day, finding Artaxerxes 
trying to amuse himself in a vacant hour, she 
challenged him to play at dice for a thousand darics, 
allowed him to win the game, and paid the money 
down. Then, pretending to be chagrined at her loss 
and to seek revenge, she challenged the king to play 

165 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



KCLV Ke\V(Tl> (IV1S % a PX^^ TTp 

4 StaKvftevffai' KaKelvos VTnjKovcre. Troirjadfjievoi 

TTCVTC fiev efcdrepov vfre^ekefrOai TOi'9 
, CK Se TWV \OITTWV ov av 6 VIKWV 
i, Sovvai TOV rjrrwfjbkvov, eVl TOVTOIS exv- 
ftevov. a<j)6Spa Brj yevojjievr) 77/909 TW Trpdyfiari 
l cTTrovbdcracra Trepl rrjv TraiBidv, V Se T 
Kal TWV tcvfBwv Treaoi'Tayi', viKrfcraaa 



vei TOV M.acra/3dTr)V' ov 'yap TJV ev rot? v 

5 fJievoL?. Kal irplv ev v r rro^ria yevecrQai ftacri\a 

TOV Trpdy/jLaTos cy^eipicracra rot? 67rl TWV ri/jLco- 

piwv 7rpo<TTa%v (-KSeipai ^wvra, teal TO p^v <ra)/Jia 

~ / f \ n t . > - N 5> v ?' 

7T\.ayiov ota ipiwv crTavpwv avaTrrjgai, TO oe be 



TOVTCOV 



^a\7ra>9 (frepovros Kal 
avrrfv, elpayvevo/JLevTj pera 

" el Kal /jiaKaios, el 



" 



6 KvjSev&elcra SapeiKovs aiwrrw Kal o-Tepyw." fia&i- 



ovv 



y<jy'j(ldv r/yev, y; 5e ^rdreipa Kal irpos TaXXa 
cfravepws rjvavTiovro Kal TOVTOIS eBva-^epaivev, 009 
dvBpas evvoi/xovs Kal TTIO-TOVS {BacriXel Bid Kvpov 
W/XW9 Kal 7rapav6/j,(0s dTroXkvovcnis avrf/f;. 

XVIII. *E7rel Se K\ap%ov Kal rous d\\ov<$ 1Q20 
or paryy ov<$ Tia-acfiepvrjs e^rjirdrrjcre Kal irap- 
opKcov <yevofJ<vci)V Kal crvXXaftcov dv~ 
ev TreSais SeSeyLteVof?, BerjOrjvai, 
avrov TOV K.\ap%ov 6 KT?;crta9 OTTO)? 
V7ropijcrei. TV%6vTa Se Kal Trj/jie\rj(TavTa TTJV 
K(f>a\rjv ycrdrjvai TC Trj 'ftp'etd Kal TOV SaKTvXiov 

166 



ARTAXERXES xvn. 3-xvm. i 

a second game, with an eunuch for the stake, and 
the king consented. They agreed that both might 
reserve five of their most trusty eunuchs, but that 
from the rest the loser must give whichever one the 
winner might select, and on these conditions played 
their game. Parysatis took the matter much to 
heart and was in great earnest with her playing, and 
since the dice also fell in her favour, she won the 
game, and selected Masabates ; for he was not among 
those who had been excepted. And before the king 
suspected her design, she put the eunuch in the 
hands of the executioners, who were ordered to 
Hay him alive, to set up his body slantwise on 
three stakes, and to nail up his skin to a fourth. 
This was done, and when the king was bitterly 
incensed at her, she said to him, with a mocking 
laugh : "What a blessed simpleton thou art, to be 
incensed on account of a wretched old eunuch, when 
I, who have diced away a thousand darics, accept my 
loss without a word." So the king, although sorry 
that he had been deceived, kept quiet in the matter, 
but Stateira openly opposed Parysatis in other things, 
and above all was angry with her because, for the 
sake of Cyrus, she was cruelly and lawlessly putting 
to death eunuchs and others who were faithful to 
the king. 

XVIII. Now, when Clearchus and his fellow- 
generals had been completely deceived by Tissa- 
phernes, 1 and, contrary to solemn oaths, had been 
seized and sent up to the king in chains, Ctesias 
tells us that he was asked by Clearchus to provide 
him with a comb. Clearchus got the comb and 
dressed his hair, and being pleased at the service 

1 Cf. Xenophon, Anab. ii. 5. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avrw Sovvai <rvfJL(3o\ov <f)i\ia<? Trpo? TOU? ev 
AaKeBaiuovi avyyeveis KOI olfceiow elvai & 
y\v<f)t]V ev rfj &(j>pt$jt8i KapvdrtBas 6px&u/j,eva<s. 

2 ra Be rrefjirr6p.eva ffiria rw KXea/o^ro TOI>? avv- 
&e&e[A6vovs (rrpaTKoras d(f)atpia'0ai teal Kar- 
ava\iaKiv,b\Lya rut KXeapxroSiSovras OLTT aurcoi/. 
lucracrOai 8e teal TOVTO (frrjaiv 6 Kr^cr/a?, 7r\eiova 
TO) KXeap^ft) TrefjLireorOaL Stair pa'gd/Aevos, IBia ^t 
erepa roi? orrpaTitoTats Si&oaQaf teal ravra fj,ev 
VTrovpyrjcrai Kal Trapacr^iv ^dpin teal jvwfjLrj rfjs 

rr ' ^ ' t 1 v /)' ' ' " 

3 I lapvcraricos. 7T/j,7ro/JLevr>v ce Kdu rji^epav rw 
KXedp^w Kw\yjvo<i tVl rot? cririoi^, TrapaKa^elv 
avrov teal diSd<TKiv &>? ^pij [Uteppy et? TO tcpeas 






jj,rj 7Tpii&LV ev rfj /3acrtXca>? ay/jLOTrjri TO TeXo? 
avrov */evo[jivov auro? Be fyofiovfjievos fjirj e6e\r)- 
ftaaikea Se rfj fjiev /j,rjrpl rrapairovnevy 
Krelvai rov K\e'ap^oz> op.oXo'y^a-ai Kal o/j,6crai' 
rrei(T0ei>ra Be avOis vrro rrjs ^raretpas drroKreivai 

4 Tra/'Ta? Tr\r)i> Me^a)^o?. etc Be rovrov rrjv Tlapv- 
aanv mf3ov\evGai rfj ^Lrareipa Kal ffvaKevd- 
fraaOai rrjv ^apjJLaKelav Kar HUT/}?, OVK LKora 
\rf(tiV, d\\a rco\\rjv d\oyiav e~)(pvra TT}? atVta?, 
el Beivov epyov ovrws eBpaee Kal rrapeKivBvvevcrev 
r) Ylapvcrans Bid K\eap%ov, dve.\elv ToX^t?;cracra 
rr]V ryvrjcriav /3acri\ea>? yuvaiKa Kal reKvwv 

-3 vov errl /3acrt\eia rpe(j)O[4va)v. d\\d ravra 
OVK dBij\ov co? emrpaymBeLrai rfj 
fjivtip.y. Kal yap dvatpe.6evrwv tbijcrl rwr <rrpa- 
rrjywr TOU<? fiev a/XXof? vrro KVV&V 



168 



ARTAXERXES xvm. 1-5 

rendered, gave Ctesias his ring as a token of friend- 
ship which he might show to his kindred and friends 
in Sparta ; and the device in the seal was a group of 
dancing Caryatides. Moreover, as Ctesias says, the 
provisions sent to Clearchus were seized by the 
soldiers in captivity with him, who consumed them 
freely and gave only a small part of them to Cle- 
archus. This hardship also Ctesias says he remedied, 
by getting more provisions sent to Clearchus, and a 
separate supply given to the soldiers ; and these 
services he says lie rendered and performed to please 
Parysatis, and at her suggestion. He says further 
that a flitch of bacon was sent to Clearchus every 
day to supplement his rations, and that Clearchus 
earnestly advised him that he ought to bury a small 
knife in the meat and send it to him thus hidden 
away, and not allow his fate to be determined by the 
cruelty of the king ; but he was afraid, and would 
not consent to do this. The king, Ctesias says, at 
the solicitation of his mother, agreed and swore not 
to kill Clearchus ; but he was won back again by 
Stateira, and put all the generals to death except 
Menon. It was because of this, Ctesias says, that 
Parysatis plotted against the life of Stateira and 
prepared the poison for her. But it is an unlikely 
story, and one that gives an absurd motive for her 
course, to say that Parysatis thus risked and wrought 
a dreadful deed because of Clearchus, and dared to 
kill the king's lawful wife, who was the mother by 
him of children reared for the throne. Nay, it is 
quite evident that he add- this sensational detail out 
of reir^rd for the memory of Clearchus. For he says 

O / / 

that after the generals had been put to death, the 
rest of them were torn by dogs and birds, but that 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

l opveu>v, TO) Be KXedp^ov vefcpM Oue\\av dve- 
fiov 777? diva 7ro\\i)v (pepovcrav eV/^wcrat real 

7TiKpvtyai TO (TtofJLCL- <f)OlVLK(i)V & TIVWV SiaffTTa- 

pevrwv 6\iyu) ^povw Oav/jLacrrov aXcro? avafyvvai 
Kal KaracrKtdcrai rov TOTTOV, ware teal /SacriXet 

,TaiJ.e\iv, a>? avbpa ^eoi? <f>i\ov 

rov KXeapxov. 

XIX. 'H 8' ovv TLapvcrcms, fueovs re rrpos 
^Tareipav % dpxfo vTrofcei/jievov teal fy 
opaicra rrjv fiev avTrjs Byva/Aiv aiSovfiiei'ou 
ffal Ttfjiwvros ovaav, rr]v 8' exelvijs epwn /cal TT/<TTC<. 
fte/Baiov teal Icr'^ypdv, eTreftovXevaev vrrep TU>V 
2 /jiyi<TT(ov, a>9 (aero, Trapa/3a\\o/j,evr). Oepd-Traivav 
el^e Tnarr/v teal SvvafJLevfjv Trap* av-rfj fjieyicrrov 
OVO/JLCI TLJIV, r)v o IJLCV keivwv vTrovpyrj&at. TTJ 

fricri, avyyvwvai 8e IJLOVOV uucovcrav 6 
ta?. TOV Se Sovra TO (frappa/cov OUTO? /ACV 

e\ndpav, 6 8e AetVwi^ 
Be TT;? irpoaOev vjTO^-ia^ Kal &i,a<f)opas d 
ird\iv ei? TO atTO fyouTav Kal (Tvv&enrvelv a 
Xa*?, o/ia>9 TO) BeBievai, Kal (j>v\dTTadai 



Ka 7ro TWV ainwv 



3 yiverai Be fJiLKpov ev Ue/xrat? opvLOiov, w 
Tai/xaTO? ov&ev ea-riv, dX,V 0X0^ BiaTrXewv T 
T<X evros' Kal vo/j,i^ov<Tiv dvefJiw Kal Spocrct) 
crQai TO q)ov ovo/nd^erai $e pvvrdKrjs. TOVTO 
o KT?/crta? ^LLKpa /j,a%aipi$i Ke^pia fJievr) TOJ 
aKra Kara ddrepa rrjv Ylapvaariv Siaipovcrav 
rw zrett) jieei TO djiaKOV Kal TO 



a^pavrov Kal KaOapov et<? TO crro/jta /3a\ov(rav 
170 



ARTAXERXES xvm. 5-xix. 3 

in the case of Clearchus, a blast of wind carried a 
great mass of earth and neaped it in a mound which 
covered his body ; upon this some dates fell here 
and there, and in a short time a wonderful grove of 
trees sprang up and overshadowed the place, so that 
even the king was sorely repentant, believing that in 
Clearchus he had killed a man whom the gods loved. 
XIX. Parysatis, accordingly, who from the outset 
had a lurking hatred and jealousy of Stateira, saw 
that her own influence with the king was based on 
feelings of respect and honour, while that of Stateira 
was grounded fast and strong in love and confidence ; 
she therefore plotted against her life and played for 
what she thought the highest stake. She had a 
trusted maidservant named Gigis, who had most 
influence with her and assisted her in preparing 
the poison, according to Deinon, although Ctesias 
says she was merely privy to the deed, and that 
against her will. The poison was actually given by 
a man named Belitaras, according to Ctesias ; Deinon 
gives his name as Melantas. After a period of dis- 
sension and suspicion, the two women 1 had begun 
again to meet and eat with one another, although 
their mutual fear and caution led them to partake of 
the same dishes served by the same hands. Now, 
there is a little Persian bird which has no excrement, 
but is all full of fat inside ; and the creature is 
thought to live upon air and dew ; the name of it is 
"rhyntaces." It was a bird of this species, according 
to Ctesias, that Parvsatis cut in two with a little 

/ 

knife smeared with poison on one side, thus wiping 
the poison off upon one part only of the bird ; the 
undefined and wholesome part she then put into her 

1 i.e., Pary satis and Stateira. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avrrjv ecrOieiv, Sovvai Be rfj ^rareipa TO T 

4 IJLZVOV o Be AetVtoi/ ov rrjv Hapvaariv, aXXa TOV 
MeXaz>Taz> Te/jiVovTa r&> pa^ai plo) TO, 

aofjieva TWV Kpewv riOevai Kara TTJV 
cnroOvrjcrKovcra 8' ovv ?} yvvr) /JLCTO, TTOVWV /jLeydXwv 1021 
fcal (nrapayfACOv avrrj re (rvvr)cr0dveTO TOV KCIKOV 
KOI ftacri\.L Trapea"%ev viro^jriav KCLTCL T^? /x?;T/9o?, 

5 etSoTi TO 0ijpiw&6s avTr/s real &vo~/jLei\ifCTOV. o6et> 



KOI TaTceOKOLOVs TTJS /jLrjTpos arvvi\af3e tcai 

Trjv &e Tijii' fj TIapvcraTis TTO\VV 



%aiTovi>TO<? OVK eBayfcev, aXV vo~Tepov 

e/? TOV ol/cov a^ed'fjvai VVKTOS, alaOo- 
\6%ov v<f>cls avvy]fiTrave Kal KdTeyvco 
tiTcoQvr](TKOV(Ji '6e oi </>a/3yU,a/cet? ev 
KCITO, vopov OVTWV \i0os ecrrl 



ov 



iraiovai Kal TTLe^ovcnv, ci^pi ov crvvOXdcrwcri TO 
rrpocrwTrov KCLI TTJV K(f)a\ijv. rj fjiev ovv 
OL/T&)? drreOave, TTJV B Ylapvo-aTiv 6 
aXXo fz^ ov&ev oure eljre KaKov OVT. e 






eo)? e/ceivr) < n;epi.G<rriv ai>To<; OVK o^recrOaL Baftv- 
\wva. Ta tt.tv Kara Tr)V oiKiav OVTQJS el^ev. 

XX. 'Eiret Be rou9 Ku/)&) <rvvavaSdv-as f/ E\- 
\i]vas <T7rofStt(7a9 \aftelv 6 /3aai\v<; ovBev TJTTOV 
rj Kvpov TrepiyevecrOai KOI TTJV (3acrL\eiav 
o")(elv OVK eX&fiei*, d\\a Kvpov TOV rjye/jiova 
rot'9 



172 



ARTAXERXES xix. 3 -xx. i 

own mouth and ate, but gave to Stateira the poisoned 
part. Deinon, however, says it was not Parysatis, 
but Melantas who cut the bird with the knife and 
placed the flesh that was poisoned before Stateira. 
Be that as it may, the woman died, in convulsions 
and great suffering, and she comprehended the evil 
that had befallen her, and brought the king to suspect 
his mother, whose fierce and implacable nature he 
knew. The king, therefore, at once set out upon the 
inquest, arrested the servants and table-attendants 
of his mother, and put them on the rack. Gigis, 
however, Parysatis kept for a long time at home with 
her, and would not give her up at the king's demand. 
But after a while Gigis herself begged to be dismissed 
to her own home by night. The king learned of 
this, set an ambush for her, seized her, and condemned 
her to death. Now, the legal mode of death for 
poisoners in Persia is as follows. There is a broad 
stone, and on this the head of the culprit is placed ; 
and then with another stone they smite and pound 
until they crush the face and head to pulp. It was 
in this manner, then, that Gigis died; but Parysatis 
was not further rebuked or harmed by Artaxerxes, 
except that he sent her off to Babylon, in accordance 
with her wish, saying tiiat as long as she lived he 
himself would not see Babylon. Such was the state 

ml 

of the king's domestic affairs. 

XX. Now, the king was no less eager to capture 
the Greeks who had come up with Cyrus than he 
had been to conquer Cyrus and preserve his throne. 
Nevertheless, he could not capture them, but though 
they had lost Cyrus their leader and their own com- 
manders, they rescued themselves from his very 
palace, as one might say, thus proving clearly to the 

173 



PLUTAHCH'S LIVES 

l a7TO(j)t]vavT<; ra Yiepcrcov teal /3acrtXea>? irpdy- 
fiara j^pvcrov ovra rro\vv teal rpvcfrrjv /cal yv- 

2 valicas, TCI Be aXXa rvtfrov teal d\aoveiai>, rcacra 
uev r) 'EXXa? e^e^dpprjae Kal Kare^povrjae raif 
fiapftdptov, Aa/ce&aifjioviois Be KOI Seivbv (f>aivro 
/AT) vvv je 8of\eta? H^eXeaOai rou? TTJV 'Acriav 
Karoifcovvras f/ Ei\\rjv a? ^Se Travcrai, TrpO7ni\atci- 
ofievov<$ vir' aura)v. Trporepov Be Bia ^i^l3pwvo<;, 
elra $ia Aepfcv\\iBov TroXeyctou^re?, ovBev Be 
TTpaTTovres uio\o>yov, ' Ay^a-^day TO) {3acrL\ei 

3 rbv iroKefJiov eirerpe-^rav. o Be TrGpaico&eis vavarlv 
et? 'Acr tar 6v0i>s TJV evepybs /cal Bo^av el^e /ieya- 
\rjv Kal Ticraffrepvijv Trapara^d^evo^ eviicrjcre /cat 
ra? TroXfi? d(j>icrTT]. TOVTWV Be yevop,eva)V cvfji- 
(frpovijcras 6 'ApTO%epj~T]<; bi> rpoTrov avrois ean 
7ro\/JU]Teov, eTTCfji^e Tt/jLO/cpdTrjv TQV 'PoBiov t? 
TTJV 'EXXa^a xpvaiov iro\v KOfJii^ovra, BiBovai 

l Bia(f)0Lpeiv TOI)? 7T\6Lcrrov ev rat? 



4 Kivelv eirl rrjv Aa/ceBai/iova. TOV Be 
ravra TrpdrrovTos Kal ra)v /AeytcrTcov 
crvviaTap.evwv Kal rtjs Tle\OTTovvijcrov Biarapar- 
rofjLevi^t /jLereTre/jLTTOVTo rbv 'Ayr]cri\aov e/c rr)? 
'Atrta? ol ap%ovTS. ore Br) /cal fyaaiv avrbv 
dmovra TT/JO? roi/? <$t,\ovs elrrelv a>? 
ro^oraf? e^e\avi'Oiro rr}s ^Acrta? L'TTO 
TO yap TLepcri/cbv vo/jLicr/jLa ro^orrjv 



XXI. 'E^e/SaXe Be Kal T/}? ^aXarr?/? AaK- 
vs K.OVWVI TO) 'Adrji'aia) /zera Qapva- 
crrpart]y(j> xpijcrdfjLei'os. 6 yap Kovcov 



174 



ARTAXERXES xx. i-xxi. i 

world that the empire of the Persians and their king 
abounded in gold and luxury and women, but in all 
else was an empty vaunt. Therefore all Greece took 
heart and despised the Barbarians, and the Lacedae- 
monians in particular thought it strange if now at 
least they could not rescue the Greeks that dwelt in 
Asia from servitude, and put a stop to their outrage- 
ous treatment at the hands of the Persians. The 
war they waged was at first conducted by Thimbron, 
and then by Dercyllidas, but since they accomplished 
nothing worthy of note, they at last put the conduct 
of the war in the hands of their king, Agesilaiis. 
He crossed over to Asia with a fleet, went to work 
at once, won great fame, defeated Tissaphernes in a 
pitched battle, and set the Greek cities in revolt. 
This being the case, Artaxerxes considered how he 
must carry on the war with Agesilaiis, and sent 
Timocreon the Rhodian into Greece with a great 
sum of money, bidding him use it for the corruption 
of the most influential men in the cities there, and 
for stirring up the Greeks to make war upon Sparta. 
Timocrates did as he was bidden, the most important 
cities conspired together against Sparta, Peloponnesus 
was in a turmoil, and the Spartan magistrates sum- 
moned Agesilaiis home from Asia. It was at this 
time, as we are told, and as he was going home, that 
Agesilaiis said to his friends ; " The king has driven 
me out of Asia with thirty thousand archers " ; for 
the Persian coin has the figure of an archer stamped 
upon it. 1 

XXI. The king also expelled the Lacedaemonians 
from the sea, employing Conon the Athenian as his 
commander along with Pharnabazus. For Conon 

1 Cf. the Agesilaiis, xv. 6. 

175 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oiTpi/3e fiev ev Ku7rp&> /zero. rrjv ev Atyo? Trora- 

/tot? vav^a^LaVt ov TIJV da<t)d\iav ajairwr, aXXa 

TTJV TWV Trpayfj-drcov /j,Td/3o\tjv, wffTrep ev Tre- 

2 \djei Tpomjv, Trept^vwv. op&v Be teal 



KCU 



dvSpbs t'yLt^poyo? Seofievrji', e 
r]V fiacriXel irepl &v Sievoeiro. KOI ravrrjv 

K6\VO' TOV KOJUL^OVTO. fjidXiCTTa /JLV aTToEoVVai 

Bia Ziijvayvo? TOV K/3^TO? rj \\6\vtcpiTov rov Mei>- 
Baiov TOVTWV 8' r]v o /j,ev Tt^vwv op^arr;?, o 
Be Ho\vfCpiTO<; tarpo?' &i> Be OVTOI fj,rj Trapwai, 

3 Bid l^TTjcriov TOV laTpov. Xe^erat Be 6 Kr?;<jta9 
rrjv eTTi(TTo\^i' Xa/Bwv Trapeyypd^rai rot? VTTO 
TOV Koz^wz'o? eVea'TaX/ieVoi? 6Va>9 KOI \^Ti](fiav 

d7TO<TTi\.r) 77/309 dVTOV, ft)? tofyeklfJiOV OVTO, TCU9 

. 6 Be Krr/<rta9 CLVTOV d$' 
i TrpocrOeivat, Ti]V \eiTOvp- 
yiav avTU) TavT>]V. 

4 'A\X' eVe! /tpar/ycra? TT} vrepl Kt^'So^ vavf-ia^ia 1022 
^m Qapvaftd^ov KOI Kofwi^o? a^etXero r?);> 

ra 6d\a,TTav apyi]v ActKeBai/AOvi 

Tcacrav 6/j,ov TTJV 'E\\dBa Trpo? aurov, to<jre 

r^ TrepiftorjTOv elp/jv^v jSpafievcraL rot? " 

5 T^/J; eV *Ai>Ta\KiBov Trpocra'yopevop l evr)v. o Be 

r)v, Aeo^ro? i>/o?, /ca< 
ra? eV 'Acrta 
vtjcrous, ocrai. 

'Acrta, Trapelvai A.aKe&aifJ<oi>iovs 
KKTt)a6ai (fropwv i/TroreXet?, elptjvfys yevo- 
rot? f/ EXX>;<Tt^, et Set T^/V T?}? 'EXXa^o? 
v/3piv Kal TrpoBoaiav etpijvrjv Kd\Glv, ^? TroXe/xo? 
ovSel? dfc\crTepoi> j'jiseyKe reXo? rot? 

176 



ARTAXERXES xxi. 1-5 

passed the time at Cyprus, after the sea-fight at 
Aegospotami, 1 not satisfied with mere safety, but 
awaiting a reversal in the course of affairs, as he would 
a change of wind at sea. And seeing that his own 
plans needed a military force, and the king's force 
needed a sagacious leader, he wrote a letter to the 
king explaining his purposes. This letter he ordered 
the bearer, if possible, to give the king by the hand 
of Zeno the Cretan or Polycritus the Mendaean 
(Zeno was a teacher of dancing, and Polycritus was 
a physician) ; but if these were not at court, by the 
hand of Ctesias the physician, And it is said that 
Ctesias, on receiving the letter, added to the sug- 
gestions which Conon made to the king a request 
to send Ctesias also to him, as likely to be of service 
in matters on the sea-coast. Ctesias, however, says 
that the king of his own accord conferred upon him 
this new duty. 

But after Artaxerxes, by the sea-fight which 
Pharnabazus and Conon won for him off Cnidus, had 
stripped the Lacedaemonians of their power on the 
sea, he brought the whole of Greece into dependence 
upon him, so that he dictated to the Greeks the 
celebrated peace called the Peace of Antalcidas. 2 
Now Antalcidas was a Spartan, son of Leon, and 
acting in the interests of the king he induced the 
Lacedaemonians to surrender to the king all the 
Greek cities of Asia, and all the islands adjacent to 
Asia, to possess them on payment of tribute ; and 
peace was thus established among the Greeks, if the 
mockery and betrayal of Greece can be called peace, 
a peace than which no war ever brought a more in- 
glorious consummation to the defeated. 

1 40oB.c. Cf. the Alcibiades xxxvii. 2. 
* In 387 B.C. Cf. the Ayejilails, xxiii. 1 ff. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
XXII. Ato teal TOI)? aXXot/9 ^TraTidras del 



o roe?, /ca vojiiwvy a>? 



elvai, ruv 'ArTa\Ki,Sav vTreprfydirrjcrev el? Ylepcra? 
dvaftdvTa. nal TTOTC \aj3o)v eva TWV avQivwv 
G-T$av<>v real ftdifras et? fjivpov TO TroXfreXecrTa- 
TOV, OLTTO &iTTvov eTre/A'v^e TW ' AifraXfciBa* KCLL 
2 Tra^re? eOav/jiacrav rrjv (f)i\o<f)poa'vvi')v. rjv $e, ft)? 
eoi/cev, e7rtT/;8eo? ouro? VTpv<f>r)0yjvai KOI TOLOV- 
TOV \a/3elv arefyavov, ^op^rjcrdfjLVO<; ev Hepcrai? 
roi/ Aecui'tSa^ /cat roy Ka\\iKpariSav. o /JLCV yap 



co? eoixe, TT/OO? TOI> eTrovra, 
T/}? 'EXXaSo?, OTTOL' j^fj^t^ovar^y f][uv ol 

ot 

ro e p/zaro? ? KOfjiroTrj^ rrjv rou Trpdj /taro? 
OVK afyeiKev, aXXa T^ 
ev A.evKTpois dya)vicrd/jLvot, 



3 Ai j.ev ovv 



67TOl6iTO KOi <$>'i\OV GOVO/jLCt^eV eaVTOV TOV *A.VTa\Kl- 

evrel Se r)Trrjdr)(rai> ev Aev/crpois, raireiva 

es eSeovro fJ^ev ^prujidroiv Koi TOV 
cri\aov et? AiyuTTTOv e^eTre/JL'fyav, o Be ' 
Sa>? dveftr] TT/PO? Toy ' ApTO%ept;r)i 
4 eirapKeaai rot? Aa/ceoai/noviots. 6 8' OUTW? 
/ieX7;cre /cal TrapelSe real dTreppt-frev CLVTQV, wcrre 
/caTaftdvTa teal %Xeu 'a^o/jievov VTTO T)V 
(f>o/3ov/j,6i>ov Be KO\ rov? efyb 



o 



178 



ARTAXERXKS xxn. 1-4 

XXII. For tliis reason Artaxerxes, although he 
always held other Spartans in abomination, and con- 
sidered them, as Deinon tells us, the most shameless 
of all mankind, showed great affection for Antalcidas 
when he came up to Persia. On one occasion he 
actually took a wreath of flowers, dipped it in the 
most costly ointment, and sent it to Antalcidas after 
supper; and all men wondered at the kindness. 1 
But Antalcidas was a fit person, as it would seem, to 
be exquisitely treated and to receive such a wreath, 
now that he had danced away among the Persians 
the fair fame of Leonidas and Callicratidas. For 
Agesilaiis, as it would appear, when someone said 
to him: "Alas for Greece, now that the Spartans 
are medizing," replied, "Are not the Medes the 
rather spartanizing ? " However, the wittiness of 
the speech could not remove the shame of the deed, 
and the Spartans lost their supremacy in the disastrous 
battle of Leuctra, 2 though the glory of Sparta had 
been lost before that by this treaty. 

So long, then, as Sparta kept the first place in 
Greece, Artaxerxes treated Antalcidas as his guest 
and called him his friend ; but after the Spartans 
had been defeated at Leuctra, they fell so low as to 
beg for money, and sent Agesilaiis to Egypt, while 
Antalcidas went up to Artaxerxes to ask him to 
supply the wants of the Lacedaemonians. The king, 
how r ever, so neglected and slighted and rejected him 
that, when he came back home, being railed at by 
his enemies, and being in fear of the ephors, he 
starved himself to death. 

Ismenias the Theban also, and Pelopidas, who hail 

1 Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 4. 

1 In 371 B.C. Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxviii. 5. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



teal HeXoTTiSa? ?/; rrjv ev 
iKrjKdbs. a\\* QVTOS fjLev ovBev aia%pbv 
*Io~/jLT)vias Be TT poa 'Kvvrja at K\ev6p,evos 
ej;e/3a\f: Trpb avrov ^a^a^e rov BaKrvXiov, elra 
Kvilras avL\TO KCLI 7rapea"%e B6av TrpoaKvvovv- 
5 TO?. Ti/j,ayopa Be rq> 'A^^^atco Bia Br^XouptSo? 
rov ypa/jL/jLareays elaTre/ji'^a^ri ypafjLfJsariBiov aTrop- 
pyjrov rjcrOels pvpiovs re Bapei/covs e'Bco/ce, KOI 
yd\a.KTo<; ftoeiou Beo/j.ev(i) BS a&deveiav oyBoq- 
KOVTCL /8oi)? djAeXyeadai 7rapr)KO\ou0ovv en Be 
KCU crrpco/jLara /cat rou? Grpiovuvytras eVe/u,- 
>9 ov fjLe{j,a@i]KOTO)v r Ei\\?jva)v vrroarputv- 
vvvai, KOI <f>opel<s rou? teofAi^ovras avrbv /Lte^pt 
$aXacr<7?79 yu,aXa/cw? e^ovra. irapovri Be Belirvov 
eTTe/jLTrero XCLUTT porarov, axrre teal rbv dBeXfibv 
rov /3acri\eci)<;, 'OcrrdvrjV, "*fi Ti/jLayopa," <f)dvai, 
1 (lefjLvrfO'O ravrrjs TT}? rpaire^W ov ydp eVt /u- 
s ovrco croi KeKoa-fMtjfj,ei>rj TrapaKeirai" rovro 
bs e/9 TrpoBoaiav /jLci\\ov r) %dpiro^ 
T.ifidyop.ov fj.ev ovv Bid rrjv BcopoBo- 
Kiav kOrjvaloi Odvarov Kareyvwaav. 

XXIII. 'O Be ' Apro^ep^t]^ ev dvrl rrdvrwv &v 
e\v7rei TOU? "EX\7;ra? eu^patve, Tio-cKfiepi'rjv rbv 
aurois teal Bvcr/jLevecrraroi' drroKreivas. 
Be Tat? S<a/3oXat? avrov TT}? Tlapvcrd- 
crvveTride/jLevrjs. ov ydp eve/j,eii' rfj opyy 
6 /5arrtXeu?, aXXa Bi^\\dy^j rf) 
Kal fjiereirefji^aro, vovv fj,ev 6pa)v e^ovaav 1023 



1 Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 1-3. 
Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 6 f. 
s Cf. the Agesilaus t x. 3 f. 



180 



ARTAXERXES xxn. 4 -xxin. i 

just been victorious in the battle of Leuctra, went 
up to the king. 1 Pelopidas did nothing to disgrace 
himself; but Isinenias, when ordered to make the 
obeisance to the king, threw his ring down on the 
ground in front of him, and then stooped and picked 
it up, thus giving men to think that he was making 
the obeisance. With Timagoras the Athenian, how- 
ever, who sent to him by his secretary, Beluris. a 
secret message in writing, the king was so pi eased 
that he gave him ten thousand darics, and eighty 
milch cows to folloAV in his train because he was sick 
and required cow's milk ; and besides, he sent him a 
couch, with bedding for it, and servants to make the 
bed (on the ground that the Greeks had not learned 
the art of making beds), and bearers to carry him 
down to the sea-coast, enfeebled as he was. More- 
over, during his presence at court, he used to send 
him a most splendid supper, so that Ostanes, the 
brother of the king, said : " Timagoras, remember 
this table ; it is no slight return which thou must 
make for such an array." Now this was a reproach 
for his treachery rather than a reminder of the king's 
favour. At any rate, for his venality, Timagoras was 
condemned to death by the Athenians. 2 

XXII I. But there was one thing by which 
Artaxerxes gladdened the hearts of the Greeks, in 
return for all the evils which he wrought them, and 
that was his putting Tissaphernes to death, their 
most hated and malicious enemy. 8 And he put him 
to death in consequence of accusations against him 
which were seconded by Parysatis. For the king 
did not long persist in his wrath against his mother, 
but was reconciled with her and summoned her to 
court, since he saw that she had intellect and a lofty 

181 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal (^povrjfjia /3acrtXei'a9 aj;iov, atrt'a? Be 






2 aXX??Xo9 rj \VTrr)GOvaiv. UK Be TOVTOV rrdvTa 
7rpo9 %dpiv vTrovpyovcra /3ao~i\i, fcal T&> Trpos 
/jLTjSev wv eKeivos cTrparre &vcrKo\.aiviv eyovcra 
TO Svva<r0ai Trap* avrw KOI Tvy^dveLV aTrdvrcov, 
rjaOero TT}? ere/ja? rwv OvyaTepwv, A.rocr(Trj^, 
epwvros epwra Seivov, eTTiKpvTTTOpevov 8e $i IKCL- 
vrjv ov% iJKiara KOI KO\d^ovTo<s TO TrdOos, w? 
fyaaLv evioi, KCLITOI yeyevij/Jievt]*; ij&ij TT/QO? rrjv 

3 Trapdevov o/.itXia? ainCo \a9paias. &)? ovv VTTO)- 
Trrevaev fj TLapvffaris, r^v TraiSa, /Ma\\ov f) irpo- 
Tepov TjaTrd^ero, Kal TT/OO? TOV \\pro%pj;r)v eTrrjvei 
TO T /caXXo? avrfjs Kal TO ^09, w? ftacri\ifcris Kal 

reXo? ovv yrf/jiai, Trjv Kopijv 
Kal yvijoriav dTroBei^ai yvi'aLKa, yalpziv 
So^a? 'EXX^z/coz/ Kal vofjiovs, Hepaais Se 
avTov vrrb TOV 6eov Kal BiKaiWTrjv atV^/Jwi/ 
Ka\wv d7rooe$iy/jLVov. evioi ^kvTOi \jov- 
a)v eVrl Kal 'H-paKXei&rjs 6 Kuyuato?, ov [ii'av 
TWV 0wyaTepa)v, aXXa Kal SevTepav, A/iiy- 
'yrifj.ai TOV ' ApTo^ep^ijv, rrepl ^9 o\iyov 
vcrTepov dTrayyekovfjiev. T^V S' "ATocraav ovrws 
o rraTrjp avvoiKovo'av cocrre d\<>ov KaTa- 
S av~r/<> TO cr&i^ta &vo"%epdvai fj-ev errl 

5 TOVTW fjLr}& QTIOVV, V^6 fJLZVOS & 7Tpl a\JTr}S TTf 

a TtpoaK,vvr]Gai fjLOvrjv Oewv efceivrjv, rai9 X e P a ^ 
77)9 d-fydfjievos, &a)pd re T?J 0(t> TocravTa 
TOU9 craTpdrra? Kal (f)i\ovs avTov K\ev- 
crai/TO9 wcrTe ra /xera^u TOV lepov Kal TWV /3acr/- 

crTaSia xpvcrov Kal dpyvpov Kal 



182 



ARTAXERXES xxm. 1-5 

spirit worthy of a queen, and since there was no 
longer any ground for their suspecting and injuring 
one another if they were together. After this she 
consulted the king's pleasure in all things, and by 
approving of everything that he did, acquired 
influence with him and achieved all her ends. She 
perceived that the king was desperately in love with 
one of his two daughters, Atossa, and that, chiefly on 
his mother's account, he was trying to conceal and 
restrain his passion, although some say that he had 
already had secret intercourse with the girl. When, 
accordingly, Parysatis became suspicious of the 
matter, she showed the girl more affection than 
before, and would speak to Artaxerxes in praise of 
her beauty and her disposition, saying that she was 
truly royal and magnificent. At last, then, she per- 
suaded the king to marry the girl and proclaim her 
his lawful wife, ignoring the opinions and laws of the 
Greeks, and regarding himself as appointed by 
Heaven to be a law unto the Persians and an 
arbitrator of good and evil. Some, however, say, 
and among them is Heracleides of Cyme, that 
Artaxerxes married, not one of his daughters only, 
but also a second, Amestris, of whom we shall speak 
a little later. 1 Atossa, however, was so beloved by 
her father as his consort, that when her body was 
covered with leprosy he was not offended at this in 
the least, but offered prayers to Hera in her behalf, 
making his obeisance and clutching the earth before 
this goddess as he did before no other ; while his 
satraps and friends, at his command, sent the goddess 
so many gifts that the sixteen furlongs between her 
sanctuary and the royal palace were filled with gold 
and silver and purple and horses. 

1 Chap, xxvii. 4. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXIV. Yl6\e/jiov Be 777)09 fjiev AiyvTTTiovs Bid 
^apvaftd^ov KOI 'Ityixpdrovs e^eveyKcov ajreTv^e, 
aTa<TiacrdvTU>v Kivwv' eVl Be KaBovcriovs avros 






(7Tprevcr Tpifcovra [Jivpt&i Tcewv Ka 

Be 



Ka /jLi%a)r) Ka TCOV airo <nropov 
Kapirwv ayovov, CLTTLOL^ Be Kal /ULIJ\OI<; Kal roiov- 
rot? d\\oi$ ciKpoSpvois rpeffcovcrav dvOpooirovs 

TTOXe/jLLKOVS Kal 0U/J.Ql&l$, \a&6 fJLyd\CUS CLTTO- 

2 piai<; Kal Kii'&vvois Trepnrecrwv. ovSev jdp eBcaBt,- 
H.QV TJV \a/jL/3dviv ov&e ea)0v eTreicrdyco-dai, rd 
Se VTTo^vyta JAOVOV KareKOTrrov, were ovov KCffra- 
Xrjv yu-oXt? Bpaxfiwv e^tJKovra WVLOV elvai. TO Be 
&a(TL\iKov BelTrvov el;\et<j)&)]- Kal TWV 'LTTTTWV 
L Trept-rjcrav eri, TOU? Be a\\ov<? i 



Tr}piBa%o$, dvrjp 7roXXa#9 fj,ev ev 
f j>Tr) Bt dvBpayadiav Ta^ei yevofiievos, TroXXaArt? 
Be drroppKfrels Bid KOV(f)OTijTa Kal Tore Tarreivd 
TrparTtov KCII 7repiopa)/*ievo$, eaaxje /3a(Tt\ea Kal 

3 TOV aTpaTov. OVTWV yap Bvelv ev rot9 KaBov- 

BevovTos, evTvyoov TW 'Aprofep^?? Kal 

/V t ^ / 5 * . , 

Trept (t)v 6tevoeiTO TrpuTTeiv, e/3dBiei> auro? TTOO? 
TOV eTepov TWV KaBovdLtov, Kal Trpo? TOV erepov 
Kpv(f>a TOV vlov eTrefJLTTev. e^Trara Be eKaTepov 
e/carepo?, \eya)V eo? arepo? eTrirrpecrfieueTai Trpo? 
TOJ^ ApToepr)v (fciXiav /j,6v(> TrpaTTtav eavTw Kfil 
crvfjL[4,a%iav OVKOVV, el crwifipoveL, ^pr\vai TrpoTepov 
evTvy^civetv etceivq), auTov Be wfjiTrpd^eLV diravTa. 

4 Tourot? GTreta'Qrjfrav d/^<f)6rpoi, Kal <pOdi>eiv <iXX^- 



184 



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 1-4 

XXIV. In the war which Pharnabazus and 
Iphicrates conducted for him against Egypt lie was 
unsuccessful, owing to the dissensions of these 
commanders ; against the Cadusians, therefore, he 
made an expedition in person, with three hundred 
thousand footmen and ten thousand horse. But the 
country which he penetrated was rough and hard to 
traverse, abounded in mists, and produced no grains, 
although its pears and apples and other such tree- 
fruits supported a warlike and courageous population. 
Unawares, therefore, he became involved in great 
distress and peril. For no food was to be got in the 
country or imported from outside, and they could 
only butcher their beasts of burden, so that an ass's 
head was scarcely to be bought for sixty drachmas. 
Moreover, the royal banquets were abandoned ; and 
of their horses only a few were left, the rest having 
been consumed for food. 

Here it was that Teribazus, a man whose bravery 
often set him in a leading place, but whose levity as 
often cast him down, so that at this time he was in 
disgrace and overlooked, saved the king and his 
army. For the Cadusians had two kings, and each 
of them encamped separately. So Teribazus, after 
an interview with Artaxerxes in which he told him 
what he purposed to do, went himself to one of the 
Cadusian kings, and sent his son secretly to the 
other. Each envoy, then, deceived his man, telling 
him that the other king was sending an embassy to 
Artaxerxes to secure friendship and alliance for him- 
self alone : he should, therefore, if he were wise, 
have an interview with Artaxerxes before the other 
did, and he himself would help him all he could. 
Both kings were persuaded by this argument, and 

VOL. XL G l8 5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Xoi9 vofjil^ovres 6 i^ev T> 

TrpealSeis, 6 Be T> TraiSl TOV Trjpi/Bd^ov. Biarpt- 
/}9 Be yevo/jLevrjs vTro^iai /cal Bia/3o\al Kara TOV 



Be BvaOvfjiws ?X 6 Ka ^ /AGTevoei Trta rev eras 
Trjpifid^q), teal rot9 <j)0ovovo-iv ey/caXelv Trapel 

5 eVel Be rjicev o Tijplfta^os, rfKe Be teal 6 uto? aurov 1024 
TOU? K.aBovcriov<s a^o^re?, eyevovro Be aTrovBal 
TT/JO? a/A^)OT6/)Of9 :al elpijvrj, /^eya? wv 6 T^pi- 
/3ao9 Ifi)} Kal Xayu-7r/3O9 are^ewY^ue /-tera roi) 
ySacr^Xea)9, eiTL^eLKW^evov Tracrav rrjv BeL\iav /cat 

T^ fJLa\aKiav ov Tpv<j)ij<i /cal ?roXL'TXeta9, wcrirep 
ol TroXXot vofjLi^ovGiv, eK<yovov ovaaVf aXXa 
/ja9 0ucrea>9 /cat ayevvovs teal Bogais 

6 7ro/ue'j'??9. oi^re 7ap %pvao<$ ovre KavBvs ovre o 
TWV jjLVplwv teal Bi(r%i\ict)v raXdvTwv 

ael T&) /3acriXeo)9 crco/^aTi /cocr/.to9 ercelvov 

Xue Trovelv /cat Ta\ai7rwpelv t oxnrep ol 

aXXa TT/I* re (fiaperpav evrj/jL/jievo^ teal rrjv 7re\rj]i> 



atro9 efidBL^e 7r/3coro9 6Sov9 opeivas teal 

TOV i'Tnrov, WCTTC 



aXXoi/9 7TTepov(T0ai teal 
eteeivov TrpoOvpiav teal pci)/jLrjv op&VTas' teal yap 
Btateoaicov teal TrXeiovwv aTacicov teaTr^vvev r}/j.epas 
e/tacrTA/9 TTopeiav. 

XXV. 'E-Tret 5e e/9 (JTaQ^ov teaT/3 
TrapaBeicrovs e^ovTa davfjiaffTov^ teal 
vov<$ BiaTrpeTrws V rcu Trepii; dBevBpq) teal 
^wptco, tepvovs OVTOS, TTTpetye Tot9 (TTpaTKaTais e/e 
TOV TrapaBeivov ^vXi^eaOat rd BevBpa KOTi'TovTas, 

6te- 



186 



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 4 -xxv. 2 

each thinking that he was anticipating the other, one 
sent his envoys along with Teribazus, and the other 
with the son of Teribazus. But matters were 
delayed, and suspicions and calumnies against 
Teribazus came to the ears of Artaxerxes ; he himself 
also was ill at ease, and repented him of having put 
confidence in Teribazus, and gave occasion to his 
rivals to malign him. But at last Teribazus came, 
and his son came too, both bringing their Cadusian 
envoys, and a peace was ratified with both kings ; 
whereupon Teribazus, now a great and splendid 
personage, set out for home with the king. And 
the king now made it plain that cowardice and 
effeminacy are not always due to luxury and ex- 
travagance, as most people suppose, but to a base 
and ignoble nature under the sway of evil doctrines. 
For neither gold nor robe of state nor the twelve 
thousand talents' worth of adornment which always 
enveloped the person of the king prevented him 
from undergoing toils and hardships like an ordinary 
soldier ; nay, with his quiver girt upon him and his 
shield on his arm he marched in person at the head 
of his troops, over precipitous mountain roads, 
abandoning his horse, so that the rest of the army 
had wings given them and felt their burdens 
lightened when they saw his ardour and vigour; 
for he made daily marches of two hundred furlongs 
and more. 

XXV. At length he came down to a royal halting- 
place which had admirable parks in elaborate cultiva- 
tion, although the region round about was bare and 
treeless ; and since it was cold, he gave permission to 
his soldiers to cut the trees of the park for wood, 
sparing neither pine nor cypress. And when they 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VOVVTWV Be fcai (pL^ofj,evu)v Bid TO, Ka\\ri KOI ra 
ueyeOrj, \a/3tov ireXeKvv auros ojrep TJV ^eyLffTOV 
KOI tca\\i(jTov TWV fyvT&v GKO^rev. K Be TOVTOV 
Kai 7ro\\d irvpd TTOLOVVT^ ev 
. ov y^v a\\a 7ro\\ov<t teal a 
avSpas, tTTTrov? 8e O/JLOV 
3 liravri\6e. KOI 86j;as KarafypovelcrOai Bia 

KOL rr-jv drrorev^iv rrjs crrpareta?, ev 
eZ^e rou? TT/JCOTOU?' /cat TTO\\OV<; /zer 
dvrjpet, Bi* opyrjv, TrXetWa? 3e <f>o/3ov/Aevo<f. 7; jap 
&6i\ia <^ovt,K(ttTarov eariv tv rat? ivpavvlcnv^ 
i\a)V Se KOI irpaov ical avviroirrov i] 6appa\eo- 
Bio Kal ra)v 6i]piu>v TO, drifldcrevTa /ecu 
^o<poBefj KOI BeiXd, ra Be <yevvala 

TTKTTCVOVTa /J.O\\OV BlCL TO 6appelv OV <pVJl TU? 



XXVI. 'O Be 'ApTO^epgrjs ijB^ TT pea jBv-r 'epos a 

roi/9 vious dy&va TTcpl TT}? ySacr^Xetav 
ev rot? <^)tAoi9 Kai rots Bvvarols e^oz^ra?. ol aev 
yap evyva>/AOve$ rjgiovv, &>? ekaftzv auro?, OI/T&)? 
a7ro\i7reiv Trpeafiela Aapetw r^ ap%rjv. o Be 
^ecoraro? *n^;o9 o^v? wv Kai ySta^o? e? 
rwv Trepl TO j3aGi\eiov ov/c 6\iyov<} 
i]\Tri^e Be ^aKicria KaTepydaeaBat, TOV 
2 5m r^5 'ATOO-CTT;?. etceivrjv yap eQepaTrevev a>? 

Kai crvu/3acrt\,6vcrov<Tav avTw /zera 
TOV 7raT/oo9 Te\evTr)V. TJV Be \6yos oil KO.L 
e\dv6avev avTrj 7r\r)o~id(t)v. d\\a TOVTO 
188 



ARTAXERXES xxv. 2 -xxvi. 2 

hesitated and were inclined to spare the trees on 
account of their great size and beauty, he took an 
axe himself and cut down the largest and most 
beautiful tree. After this the men provided them- 
selves with wood, and making many fires, passed the 
night in comfort. Nevertheless, he lost many and 
brave men, and almost all his horses before he 
reached home. And now, thinking that his subjects 
despised him because of the disastrous failure of his 
expedition, he was suspicious of his chief men ; many 
of these he put to death in anger, and more out of 
fear. For it is cowardly fear in a tyrant that leads to 
most bloodshed ; but bold confidence makes him 
gracious and mild and unsuspicious. So also among 
wild beasts, those that are refractory and hardest to 
tame are timorous and fearful, whereas the nobler 
sorts are led by their courage to put more confidence 
in men, and do not reject friendly advances. 

XXVI. But Artaxerxes, being now advanced in 
years, perceived that his sons were forming rival 
parties among his friends and chief men with 
reference to the royal succession. For the con- 
servatives thought it right that, as he himself had 
received the royal power by virtue of seniority, in 
like manner he should leave it to Dareius. But his 
youngest son, Ochus, who was of an impetuous and 
violent disposition, not only had many adherents 
among the courtiers, but hoped for most success in 
winning over his father through the aid of Atossa. 
For he sought to gain Atossa's favour by promising 
that she should be his wife and share the throne with 
him after the death of his father. And there was a 
report that even while his father was alive Ochus 
had secret relations with Atossa. But Artaxerxes 

189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 





;? e\7rt'So9 TOV 'lyov, OTTO)? /XT) TO, 

TT"' / 5^*^"v V 

KvpM TO\/jLi)cravTos avTov TTO\,/JLOI Kai 
KaTa\dj3a)(Ti TTJV {3aai\,eiav, avk- 
TOV kapelov ftaaiXea TTVTIJKO(TTOV eVo? 
yeyovoTa, Kal TTJV Ka\ov /Jievrfv KiTapiv opOi-jV 

3 <f)epeiv $WK. vofjLov $e ovTO<$ ev Ilepcrat? Baypedv 
aiTelv TOV dva$eL~)(6evTa Kal BiSovai TOV dvabel- 
%avra TCO.V TO aiTrjOev, avTrep f/ SvvaTOv, yT7](TV 
'AcTTracriav 6 Aa/3to9 TTJV fjidXicTTa aTrov&acrdei- 
<rav V7TO Kvpov, TOTC 5e TOO /3aai\L 7ra\\aKV- 

4 e\v0pwi> yovecav Kal TeOpa^L^evr] KOCT/JLLW^. eVei 
be Kvpov &6i7rvovvTos ^.l(j'Y]^(B i r] fied^ Tpa)v yvvai- 
KWV, at fjLcv d\\ai TrapaKadefyfJievai Trpocnrai- 
,OVTO$ avTov Kal aTTTO/jievov Kal (TKO)TTTOVTOS OVK 

Trapd Trjv K\ivrjv el&TtJKei o-iwirrj Kal Kvpov 

Ka\OVVTO<$ OU% V7T1JKOV6' /3oV\OfAV(i)V O TTpOO~- 

dyeiv TCOV KaTevvaaT&v, " Ol/jbca^erai (JLCVTOI TOV- 1025 
TWI/," elTrev, " 6? av /jiol TTpoaaydyrj Trt? ^etpa?." 
eSo^ev ovv a^apt? TOi? TrapoLKTiv elvai Kal dypoi- 

5 KO<$. o 8e KO/30? rio~6els ey\aae, Kal CITTC 
TOV dyayovTa Ta? yvvalKas, "*Apa 77877 

OTL pot /JLovrjv TavTijv e\v6epav Kal dSid(j)@opov 



TOVTOV 



9 avTr), KOI fjid\LO~Ta Traacov earTep^e Kal 
rfv Trpocnjyopevcrev. kd\w &e Kvpov rrecrovTO^ 
ev Trj fJ.d^r) Kal Siap7rao/nevov TOV crTpaTOTrcoov. 
XXVII. TavTrjv 6 Aa^oeto? atT?;cra? i]viao-e TOV 

1 Cf. Xenophon, Annb. i. 10. 2 ; Plutarch, Pericles, xxiv. 7. 
190 



ARTAXERXES xxvi. 2-xxvn. i 

was ignorant of this ; and wishing to shatter at once 
the hopes of Ochus, that he might not venture upon 
the same course as Cyrus and so involve the kingdom 
;mew in wars and contests, he proclaimed Dareius, 
then fifty years of age, his successor to the throne, and 
gave him permission to wear the upright " kitanis," as 
the tiara was called. Now, there was a custom among 

* O 

the Persians that the one appointed to the royal 
succession should ask a boon, and that the one who 
appointed him should give whatever was asked, if it 
was within his power. Accordingly, Dareius asked 
for Aspasia, who had been the special favourite of 
Cyrus, and was then a concubine of the king. She 
was a native of Phocaea, in Ionia, born of free 
parents, and fittingly educated. Once when Cyrus 
was at supper she was led in to him along with other 
women. The rest of the women took the seats given 
them, and when Cyrus proceeded to sport and dally 
and jest with them, showed no displeasure at his 
friendly advances. But Aspasia stood by her couch 
in silence, and would not obey when Cyrus called 
her ; and when his chamberlains would have led her 
to him, she said : " Verily, whosoever lays his hands 
upon me shall rue the day." The guests therefore 
thought her a graceless and rude creature. But 
Cyrus was delighted, and laughed, and said to the 
man who had brought the women : " Dost thou not 
see at once that this is the only free and unperverted 
woman thou hast brought me ? " From this time on 
he was devoted to her, and loved her above all 
women, and called her The Wise. She was taken 
prisoner when Cyrus fell in the battle at Cunaxa and 
his camp was plundered. 1 

XX VII. This was the woman for whom Dareius 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Trarepa' Bvo-tyXa yap ra ftapjSapitcd Seivax; Trepi 
TO aKo\a<JTOV, ware fxrj povov TOV 7rpocre\06vra 
teal fliyovTa 7ra\\atcrj^ /3ao"fcXea>9, aXXa KOI TOV 
ev Tropeia 7rpoe^e\06vTa teal Bie'geXd&avTa rav 
dfjidtas $> al? Kopi^ovTaL, 

2 KaiTOL Trjv fjL,ev "Arocrcray el%v e 

<yvi>alrca Trapa TOV vofjiov, e^iJKovTa Be icai Tpta- 
7rapeTpe(f)OVTO KaXXei biafyepovaat, 7ra\- 
. ov /jLTjv aXXa KOI atr^^ei? fceivr)v 
etprj&ev elvai /cal Xafjiftdveiv eVeXe^ae 
/3ov\o/j,vt]v, afcovcrav Be /At] /3ideo-0ai. /zera- 
7re/z<#etcr?7? Be TT}? ^AcrTracrta? teal Trap e 
TOV /Sacr^Xea)? eXo/xe^??? TOV Aapelov, eBcatce 
VTT' dvd\tcr]<; TOV VO/AOV, 801/5 Be o\iyov vcrTepov 

3 d(j)ei\eTO. TT}? yap 'A/rre'/ziSo? T^? ev 
VOLS, rjv 'AvaiTiv tcaXovcriv, iepeiav dve 
avTi]v, OTT&)? dyvrj Sidyrj TOV 7ri\onrov (3iov, 
olofjievos ov %a\e7rtjv, aXXa /cal neTpiav Tivd teal 
TraiBia /JL/jii,y/j,evT]v TUVTTJV X^-^recr^at BLKI^V -rrapa 
TOV TraiSo?. 6 8' rjveytcev ov fJLTpia)$, GLT e 
r;}? 'AfTTracrta? TrepnraOrjs yeyovcos, erre v 

ical K'X\vdo-Gai vo^l^wv VTTO TOV 

4 A.la$0fievos 8' avTov OVT 

CTI fid\\ov e^eTpd^vvev, ev TO?? e/cei'vov criviBcov 
Ta tcaff' avTov. TJV Be TOiavTa. Tfkeiovwv ovcr(i)i> 
{3aai\i Ovyarepwv a)/jLo\6yrjcre Qapraftd^w /j,ev 
1 Aird^av BwereLv yvval/ca, 'PoBoyovvijv Be 'OpovTtj, 
192 



ARTA XERXES xxvn. 1-4 

asked, and he gave offence thereby to his father ; for 
the Barbarian folk are terribly jealous in all that 
pertains to the pleasures of love, so that it is death 
for a man, not only to come up and touch one of the 
royal concubines, but even in journeying to go along 
past the waggons on which they are conveyed. And 
yet there was Atossa, whom the king passionately 
loved and had made his wife contrary to the law, and 
he kept three hundred and sixty concubines also, 
who were of surpassing beauty. However, since he 
had been asked for Aspasia, he said that she was 
a free woman, and bade his son take her if she was 
willing, but not to constrain her against her wishes. 
So Aspasia was summoned, and contrary to the hopes 
of the king, chose Dareius. And the king gave her 
to Dareius under constraint of the custom that 
prevailed, but a little while after he had given her, 
he took her away again. That is, he appointed her 
a priestess of the Artemis of Ecbatana, who bears the 
name of Anaitis, in order that she might remain 
chaste for the rest of her life, thinking that in this 
way he would inflict a punishment upon his son 
which was not grievous, but actually quite within 
bounds and tinctured with pleasantry. The resent- 
ment of Dareius, however, knew no bounds, either 
because he was deeply stirred by his passion for 
Aspasia, or because he thought that he had been 
insulted and mocked bv his father. 

mf 

And now Teribazus, who became aware of the 
prince's feelings, sought to embitter him still more, 
finding in his grievance a counterpart of his own, 
which was as follows. The king had several 
daughters, and promised to give Apama in marriage 
to Pharnabazus, Rhodogune to Orontes, and Amestris 

193 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



d^w Be "A/j,i]crrpii>. Kal Tols ^ikv a'XXot9 
, r Y7)pi/3aov Be e^evaaro 7/7/1019 avTos TIJV 
"A[irj(TTpiv, avr KLi>r)<f Be TCO Tripij3du> rrjv 
5 vemTarrjv "ATOcrcrav tveyvricrev. eVet Be Kal rav- 
rrjv epacrOels eyrjftev, &>? eip^rai, Travrdfracri 
&vcrfj.evw<; 7T/3O? O.VTOV 6 Tijpi/Sa^o^ (r%v, ov&e 
aXXtw? a-rda-i/jios wv TO 7)^09, aXX' aixw^a 
7rapd<f) 0/009. ^o /cat z'Oi' yttez^ evrjfjiepwv 



iji', aXXa 

Tt/ioo / ttei'O9 y ea^9 TTO ^avvor^ro^, Kal 
TO Ko\ov6fj,vov ov TaTreivbv ov$ r)(TV%aiov, aXXa 
rpa\y Kal ayepay^oi' el^e. 

XXVIII. II O/o oui^ eVt 7ri)p eyeveTo TW veavfatetp 
7rpocrKi/j,Vos 6 Tr7/cu/3ab9 ael /cat \eytov <w? oubev 
ovlvrjaiv fj KiTapis earwaa irepl TTJ Ke$a\f) roi/9 
avTMV fj,rj ^riTovvras opOovadai ro?9 irpdy- 
, KaKelvov d/3e\.T6pa fypovelv, el, rov fjiev 
u$e\(f)ov Bid T>79 yvvaiKwvLTiBos evBvo/Jievov rois 
Trpdy/jiacri, rov Be Trarpo? ovrcos e/ji7r\r]KTOv 77^09 
/cal dfteftaiov e%ovTOS, o'terai fSeftaiov avrw rrjv 
2 BiaBo%}jv VTrdp^eiv. o yap 
yvvaiov TOP a^lreva-rov ev Oe/ocrai? 

VO/JLOV OV 87; TTOf 7Ti(TT09 CTTi Ta? 7Te/)l 

GTWV ofjLo\oylas efMTreBco&eiv. ov ravrb 8' el 
TO /JLTJ TV%eiv "n^w KaKeivw TO o*T/oecr$at 
/3acrtX6ta9* 'H^o^ /zei^ 7a/3 ovBeva 
lBid)Ti]v ftiovv /jiaKapici)?, exeivw 8' aTr 

/3a(Ti\eveiv dvdyKr]v rj /Lt7;8e ^T/i/ elvai. 



1 Chap, xxiii. 2ff. 2 Cf. chap. xxvi. 2. 



ARTAXERXES xxvn. 4 -xxvin. 2 

to Teribazus. He kept his promise to the other two, 
but broke his word to Teribazus and married Amestris 
himself, betrothing in her stead to Teribazus his 
youngest daughter, Atossa. But soon he fell 
enamoured of Atossa also and married her, as has 
been said, 1 and then Teribazus became a downright 
foe to him. Teribazus was at no time of a stable 
disposition, but uneven and precipitate. And so, 
when he would be at one time in highest favour, 
and at another would find himself in disgrace and 
spurned aside, he could not bear either change of 
fortune with equanimity, but if he was held in 
honour his vanity made him offensive, and when he 
fell from favour he was not humble or quiet, but 
harsh and ferocious. 

XXVIII. Accordingly, it was adding fire to fire 
when Teribazus attached himself to the young prince 
and was forever telling him that the tiara standing 
upright on the head 2 was of no use to those who did 
not seek by their own efforts to stand upright in 
affairs of state, and that he was very foolish if, when 
his brother was insinuating himself into affairs of state 
by way of the harem, and his father was of a nature 
so fickle and insecure, he could suppose that the 
succession to the throne was securely his. Surely he 
whom regard for a Greek courtesan had led to violate 
the inviolable custom of the Persians, could not be 
trusted to abide by his agreements in the most 
important matters. Moreover, he said it was not the 
same thing for Ochus not to get the kingdom and 
for Dareius to be deprived of it ; for no one would 
hinder Ochus from living happily in private station, 
but Dareius had been declared king, and must needs 
be king or not live at all. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Ka0o\ov pev ovi> ''o-ws', TO 

ra%eta rreiOft) TMV teatewv oBoirropel- 

\eia yap Tt9 17 iropeia teal Karavr^ errl TO ftov\6- 
fievov. /3ov\ovTai Be ol -rrXelvTot, ra favXa Si' 



Ka\a>v KOI ayvoiav ov 

TO ^76(909 TO Tt}? apX^ ai T0 'KP* 

rov bapeiov 8eo? vnoOeaLv TW Ttipiftdty trap- 
- KvTrpoyeveia 8' ov Trdpirav ammo?, rj 






XXIX. 'ETreSw/ce^ QUV eauToi^ TW 
teal TTO\\WV ij&l vvvicna^evcov, evvov X s 
TW /3aai\el rr)i> 7TLJ3ov\rjv KOI TOV rponov, etdco? 
OTL VVKTOS /vw>Ka(Tiv ev TO) 9a\dp,(f> 
vov avaipelv avrov eVeKreX#(We9. drcov- 
Be TO> 'ApTo&ptfo ical TO itap&fr iciv&vvov 

deivov 



TO 



Seivorepov. OVTWS ovv eirolei' TOV 

eK6\evcre Trapeivai^tcdl -rrap- 
, Se TOU 6a\dp.ov TOV 

rf;9 K\ivri<; Tol^ov etcKo^as real Ovpwvas 
CKa\v^ev av\aia T9 dvpa*. &ff*a?w Be rfjs 
w/?a9 teal <S>pdaavTos TOV evvovftpy TOV Kaipov, 
errl T^ K\LV^ vTre^etve teal OVK e^aveffT^ rrpo- 
Tepov rj T&V err' avrbv epxppivwv TCL rrpoawrra 
3 tcaTioclv teal ^vwpiaai aa^wj e/eaaTov. &>9 
elBev (T7racrfjivov<; TO, e^eip^ia teal 
IV av\aiav V 



1 Fiom an unknown play, Nauck, Trac/, Grace. 
p. 315. 



ARTAXERXES xxvni. 3-xxix. 5 

Now, perhaps it is generally true, as Sophocles 
says, 1 that 

"Swiftly doth persuasion unto evil conduct make 
its way ' ' ; 

tor smooth and downward sloping is the passage to 
what a man desires, and most men desire the bad 
through inexperience and ignorance of the good. 
However, it was the greatness of the empire and 
the fear which Dareius felt towards Ochus that 
paved the way for Teribazus although, since Aspasia 
had been taken away, the Cyprus-born goddess 
of love was not altogether without influence in the 

O 

case. 

XXIX. Accordingly, Dareius put himself in the 
hands of Teribazus ; and presently, when many were 
in the conspiracy, an eunuch made known to the 
king the plot and the manner of it, having accurate 
knowledge that the conspirators had resolved to 
enter the king's chamber by night and kill him in 
his bed. When Artaxerxes heard the eunuch's 
story, he thought it a grave matter to neglect the 
information and ignore so great a peril, and a graver 
still to believe it without any proof. He there- 
fore acted on this wise. He charged the eunuch 
to attend closely upon the conspirators ; meanwhile 
he himself cut away the wall of his chamber behind 
the bed, put a doorway there, and covered the door 
with a hanging. Then, when the appointed hour 
was at hand and the eunuch told him the exact time, 
he kept his bed and did not rise from it until he saw 
the faces of his assailants and recognised each man 
clearly. But when he saw them advancing upon him 
with drawn swords, he quickly drew aside the 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

et? TO eVro? ocKij/jLa tcai ra? 6vpa<? em')ppa%e 
Kpd^wv. 6<p0evre<; ovv ol atfcayels UTT' avrov, 
TT pd^avres Be fJirjOev, aTre^oopovv <j>vyfj Bia dvpwv, 
teal TOI>? Trepl rov Tr)piftaov etce\evov aTro^wpelv 
&)? fyavepovs yeyovoras. ol fjiev ovv a\\oi &ia\v- 
6 ewes (>vyov 6 &e T?7/?i'/3ab? <TuXXa/zy9a^o^e^o? 
TroXXoi;? cnreKTeive TWV /3aatXe&)? &opv(f>6pa)v teal 
dtcovrio) 7rX?7<ya? irbppwOev eVetre. TW Se 
ft) yuera TWI^ Tetcvcov ava%0evTi KaQicras rou? 
/3a(Tt\LOV<f SttcaffTds, ov 7rapa)v avros, aXX' 
Tepa)v KaTTjyopT](TdvT(i)v, e/ceXevaev virrfperas rrjv 
etcda-rov <ypa\lra/j,i>ovs dirofyaatv a>? avrov eirave- 

5 veytcelv. d7ro<J)r)va/J,ev(ov Be Trdvrwv o/toift 
KarayvovTayv rov Aapetou Odvarov, ol fiev v 

rai auXXaySo^re? avrbv et? OiK7)/j,a 7r\ijaiov OTT- 
ijyayov, 6 Be Brf/jiios K\r)0el<{ 77 Are yaei' %vpbv e%(i)v, 
co ra<? /cec^aXa? aTrore^vovai rwv /co\a%o/j,ev(0v, 
iBo)v Be rov Aapeiov e^eTrXa^T/ /tat dve%<t)pt 
ra? Bvpas 

6 ToXyU7/cra)i' 

Be TWV BiKacrT&v cnreiXovvTtdv teal BiaKe\evo/jLeva)v 

as Kal TTJ erepa X i P tl Bpad/jievo$ 
avrov Kal /carayaywv aTrere^e rut 
rov rpd%r)\ov. 

"EiVioi Be <pacri rrjv tcpiaiv yevearOai 
avrov rrapovros, rov &e Aapelov, &>? Kare\a/jL- 
ftdvero rot? eXey^oi^, evrl crroyua rrecrovra Bei<T0ai 
iKereveiv rov Be VTT opyfjs dvaardvra 






cfiracr^evov rov tavaKrjv rvjrreiv ecu? rreKreivev 
198 



ARTAXERXES xxix. 3-7 

hanging, retired into the inner chamber, closed the 
door with a slam, and raised a cry. The murderers 
accordingly, having been seen by the king, and 
having accomplished nothing, fled back through the 
door by which they had come, and told Teribazus 
and his friends to be off since their plot was known. 
The rest, then, were dispersed and fled ; but Teri- 
bazus slew many of the king's guards as they sought 
to arrest him, and at last was smitten by a spear at 
long range, and fell. Dareius, together with his 
children, was brought to the king, who consigned 
him to the royal judges for trial. The king was not 
present in person at the trial, but others brought in 
the indictment. However, the king ordered clerks 
to take down in writing the opinion of each judge 
and bring them all to him. All the judges were of 
one opinion and condemned Dareius to death, where- 
upon the servants of the king seized him and led him 
away into a chamber near by, whither the executioner 
was summoned. The executioner came, with a sharp 
knife in his hand, wherewith the heads of condemned 
persons are cut off; but when he saw Dareius, he 
was confounded, and retired towards the door with 
averted gaze, declaring that he could not and would 
not take the life of a king. But since the judges 
outside the door plied him with threats and com- 
mands, he turned back, and with one hand clutching 
Dareius by the hair, dragged him to the ground, and 
cut off his head with the knife. 

Some say, however, that the trial was held in the 
presence of the king, and that Dareius, when he was 
overwhelmed by the proofs, fell upon his face and 
begged and sued for mercy ; but Artaxerxes rose up 
in anger, drew his scimitar, and smote him till he 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



elra 6t? Tr/v av\.rjv Trpoe\9oi>Ta TOV "\i\tov Trpoar- 
Kvvfjcrai teal eiTrelv' " EvcfrpaLvecrQe aTTiovres, &> 
Hepa-ai, teal \ejere rot? aXXcu? ort rot? a 
teal Trapdvo/jia Biavoij0ei(Tiv o jueyas ' 



XXX. 'H fJLev ovv tri/3ou\r) TOLOVTOV e 
6 8e 'n^o? tfSij [lev TJV rat? eXvrtcrt 

rr}? 'ATOO"(77;9 eTraipofj.ev 
/3etro TWI^ fjLevyvrjalcov TOV vTrb\onTov J 
Be voOwv ^A.oad/jL'rjv. 6 [J.ev yap 

TO TT peer ft VT epos elvai TOV 
$e KOL aTrXou? /tat <f)i\d^0pw7ros, i^iovro fta&i- 
\evtiv VTTO rwv Ilepcrwf 6 3e 'Ayocrayit?;? /cat 
e)(iv eSofcei real (JLaKicrra ru> Trarpl 
2 wj^ OVK e\av6ave TOV *O^o^. emfBovXevwv ovv 

l &o\pb<? a)v 6/jLoi) teal 



'Apcrd/j,r)v, Trj Se tca/covpyia teal SeivorijTi TT/DO? 
TOV 'Apido-Trrjv. VTreTrefjL'^re ydp TT/OO? avTov ev- 
vov%ous teal 0t\ou? /9acrtXea)5 aTre^Xa? Tivas del 
teal Xoyou? ^>o/3e/3ou? aTrayyeXXoi'Ta?, co? 
Trarpo? eyvdy/coTos drro/CTivvveiv avTov co^w 

3 <f>v(3pi,crTa)$. ol Be raura /ca^' rjfjiepav 
BOKOVVTCS <o? djropprjTa, Kal ra /iei^ /jLe\\eiv, 

TrpdcraeLv /3acri\ea \e 
TOV avdpwirov Kal TocravTrjv eve&aXov 
TTToiav avTU) KOI Tapa^rjv Kal Bva0vuiav et? rot;? 
Xoyfcr/ioy?, wcrre (f)dpjj,aKov aKevdcravTa TWV Oava- 

4 aifjiwv Kal TriovTa TOV ^rjv d7ra\\ayrji>ai. TivOo- 
pevos Be 6 ySacrtXeu? roy Tpoirov T 

Kelvov uev aTreKXavcre, TTJV S' alriav v 
e\y%eiv Be Kal r]Teiv e^a&vvaTwv Bid yrjpas G 
200 



AUTAXERXES xxix. 7 -xxx. 4 

had killed him ; then, going forth into court, he 
made obeisance to the sun and said : " Depart in joy 
and peace, ye Persians, and say to all whom ye meet 
that those who contrived impious and unlawful 
things have been punished by great Oromasdes." 

XXX. Such, then, was the end of the conspiracy. 
And now Ochus was sanguine in the hopes with 
which Atossa inspired him, but he was still afraid of 
Ariaspes, the only legitimate son of the king remain- 
ing, and also of Arsames among the illegitimate sons. 
For Ariaspes, not because he was older than Ochus, 
but because he was mild and straightforward and 
humane, was deemed by the Persians worthy to be 
their king ; Arsames, however, was thought to have 
wisdom, and the fact that he was especially dear to 
his father was not unknown to Ochus. Accordingly, 
he plotted against the lives of both, and being at 
once wily and bloody-minded, he brought the cruelty 
of his nature into play against Arsames, but his 
villainy and craft against Ariaspes. For he secretly 
sent to Ariaspes eunuchs and friends of the king, 
who constantly brought him word of sundry threaten- 
ing and terrifying utterances implying that his father 
had determined to put him to a cruel and shameful 
death. Since they pretended that these daily re- 
ports of theirs were secrets of state, and declared, 
now that the king was delaying in the matter, and 
now that he wa<; on the point of acting, they so 
terrified the prince, and filled his mind with so great 
trepidation, confusion, and despair, that he drank a 
deadly poison which he had prepared, and thus rid 
himself of life. When the king was informed of the 
manner of his death, he bewailed his son. He also 
suspected what had caused his death, but being 

201 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
fjia\\ov r]cnrd^ero rov 'AptrdjjLYjv, teal Brj\os r)v 



KLV(t) KOI 



oOev ol Trepl rov ^^l^ov OVK aveftd\ovTO rrjv 
, aX-X' 'ApTrdrrjv vlov Tr)pij3<i%ov Trapa- 
dTreK-reivav St' /cLvov TOV avOpwirov. 



5 rjv p,ev ovv eVl poirr^ jju/cpas 6 'Apro^epgijs &ia TO 



rov 



Tore' Trpoa-TreaovTOs Se avrw rov Trepi 



VTTO \V7rrs fcal 



fj,ev evevr/covra KOI reacrapa ertj, acrt- 
Be &vo KOI e^KOvra, So^a? 8e Trpaos elvai 
l (j>i~\,v7TiJKOo<f ov% -fJKicrra Bid rov vibi> T O^ot' 
Kal fjuaufrovia rrdvras VTrpfta\6jjLvop. 



202 



ARTAXERXES xxx. 4-5 

unable by reason of his age to search out and 
convict the guilty one, he was still more well- 
affectioned towards Arsames, and clearly made him 
his chief support and confidant. Wherefore Ochus 
would not postpone his design, but set Arpates, a 
son of Teribazus, to the task and by his hand slew 
the prince. Now Artaxerxes, by reason of his age, 
was already hovering between life and death ; and 
when the sad fate of Arsames came to his ears, he 
could not hold out even a little while, but straight- 
way expired of grief and despair. He had lived 
ninety-four years, and had been king sixty-two, and 
had the reputation of being gentle and fond of his 
subjects ; though this was chiefly due to his son 
Ochus, who surpassed all men in cruelty and blood- 
guiltiness. 



403 



GALBA 



TAABA2 



I. 'O /AW ' AOrjvalos 'ItyiKpaTrjs TOV fjLiaOo(f)6- 1053 
pov rj^iov (TTpaTitoT'rjv teal <$>i\oTr\oVTOv elvai 
, OTTO)? rat? eVt^u/uat? ^oprjyiav 7r 

7rapa(3o\(i)Tepov, ol &e 
eppMjJL&vov awfia, TO crrpartajTiKov d^iov- 
aiv i&la fnjBeTTore ^po^^evov op/jifj crvyKiveLffflai 

2 TTI rov crrparriyov. &ib teal l\av\ov AifiiKtov 
\eyovcri TT)I> eV Ma/teSoi/ta &vva/j,iv TrapaXaflovTa 

/cal Trepiepyuas, olov Biacnparrjyovcrav, 
Trapeyyvfja-ai, rrjv %t/oa TTOICIV eroL- 
/cal TTJV [idxaipav o^etav e/cacrrov, avrw Se 

3 TWV aXX-cov [Jie\,vjcreiv. 6 Be H\dra)v ovbev epyov 
opwv ap^ovros djaOov Kal aTparrjyov arpancts 

fj,r)8e ofJiOTTaOovd^y d\\a rrjv 
dperrjv oyu,ota)? rfj /3 



TO 



re TrdBr) TroXXa Kal TO, 'Pw/zatot? 



TOV jitev elvai (oeWTeov rrai- 



1 With Plutarch's Galba may be compared Suetonius, 
Gatba; Dion Cassius, Ixiv, 1-9 ; Tacitus, Hist. i. 1-45. 



206 



GALBA 1 

I. IPHICRATES the Athenian used to think that the 
mercenary soldier might well be fond of wealth and 
fond of pleasure, in order that his quest for the 
means to gratify his desires might lead him to fight 
with greater recklessness ; but most people think that 
a body of soldiers, just like a natural body in full 
vigour, ought to have no initiative of its own, but 
should follow that of its commander. Wherefore 
Paulus Aemilius,as we are told, finding that the army 
which he had taken over in Macedonia was infected 
with loquacity and meddlesomeness, as though they 
were all generals, gave out word that each man 
was to have his hand ready and his sword sharp, 
but that he himself would look out for the rest, 2 
Moreover, Plato 3 sees that a good commander or 
general can do nothing unless his army is amenable 
and loyal ; and he thinks that the quality of 
obedience, like the quality characteristic of a king, 
requires a noble nature and a philosophic training, 
which, above all things, blends harmoniously the 
qualities of gentleness and humanity with those of 
high courage and aggressiveness. Many dire events, 
and particularly those which befell the Romans after 
the death of Nero, bear witness to this, and show 
plainly that an empire has nothing more fearful to 

2 See the Aemiliits, xiii. 4. 

3 Of, e.g. Republic 376 C. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^pa)fievrj<; KCLI d\6yoi<; op^ats ev 



yap 






pO)l> KlVlffeiS CLTCLKTOVS Ktt 

TI-JV Be r Pa>/jiaia>v rjye/jioviav o/xota 
rot? Aeyo/iei>ot? TITCLVIKOLS TraOecri KOI 

TTO\\CL &ia<T7ra)p,evTjv a/za 



OUT&)? ITTO <$>i\ap-)(i.a<$ TWV dvayopzvofJievwv avro- 
KpaTO^wv, a>? (^tXoTrAofTta? Kal a/eoXacri'a? TOV 
(TTparidJTiKOu Si d\\r)\o)v wcnrep T/Xof? TOL"? 
6 7/76/Ltoi^a? eKxpovovros. KCILTOI kiovvaios Qepalov 
ap^arra TTa\wi' Se/ca /Ltr}^a?, etra evOvs dv- 
aipeOevra, rov rpayifcbv dvercdXei -rvpavvov, C 
crKci)7TTa)v TO ra^o? rr}? /Ltera/^oXr)?. 77 ^e 
Kai(T(ipfi>v earia, TO IlaXaTiov, eV zXdaraovi 
v((> TeVcra/oa? avrofcpdropas VTreBe^aro, TOV /JLIV 
oxrTrep Bid aK^vr^, TOV 5' e$;ay6vTa)V. 
' ?5i' 76 TrapafjivOia Tot? ^avw? rrdcr^ovcri fji'a 



TO /tr) &>i&rii>ai Bircrjs eTepas eirl TOU? amoi/9, 



l SiKaiorara TrdvTwv TOV BeXedaavra ffal 81- 
Bd^avra TOCTOVTOV tetri%etv eVt fiera^o\fj Katcra- 
po? ocroi^ ai^TO? VTrecr^eTO, KO\\L(TTOV epyov Bia- 



TW /jLicro), Tr]V drfo 



rrpoBocriai' 

II. Nvjj,<j)i$iti<; ydo 2a/3a ( 09 wr eTrap^os, wcnrep 
i, f^erd T'tyeX.'^ii'ov T>}? at>X>}?, eVel TO. 



1 An allusion to the provorb fjAy 6 ijxos 
208 



GALBA i. 3-11. i 

show than a military force given over to untrained 
and unreasoning impulses. Demades, indeed, after 
Alexander had died, likened the Macedonian army 
to the blinded Cyclops, observing the many random 
and disorderly movements that it made; but the 
Roman Empire was a prey to convulsions and dis- 
asters like those caused by the Titans of mythology, 
being torn into many fragments, and again in many 
places collapsing upon itself, not so much through 
the ambition of those who were proclaimed emperors, 
as through the greed and licence of the soldiery, 
which drove out one commander with another as nail 
drives out nail. 1 And yet the Pheraean 2 who ruled 
Thessaly for ten months and was then promptly killed, 
was called the tragedy-tyrant by Dionysius, with 
scornful reference to the quickness of the change. 
But the house of the Caesars, the Palatium, in a 
shorter time than this received four emperors, the 
soldiery ushering one in and another out, as in play. 
But the suffering people had one consolation at least in 
the fact that they needed no other punishment of the 
authors of their sufferings, but saw them slain by one 
another's hands, and first and most righteously of all, 
the man who ensnared the soldiery and taught them 
to expect from the deposition of a Caesar all the good 
things which he promised them, thus defiling a mo. c ;t 
noble deed by the pay he offered for it, and turning 
the revolt from Nero into treachery. 

II. It was Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of the court 
guard along with Tigellinus, as 1 have already stated, 3 
who, when Nero's case was altogether desperate, and 

8 Alexander, tyrant of Pherae. See the Pelopidas, xxiv.- 
xxxv. 
" Probably in the lost Life of Nero. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



beeves e/9 AiyvTrrov, eTreicre TO arpanw- 

TIKOV, O)? /jLtJKert, TTClpOVTOS, ttXX* ^BlJ TretyeVJOTOS, 

2 avrofcpdropa rd\/3av dvayopevcrai, KOI Bcopedv 

rear* dvBpa rot? av\iKois teal arparTj- 
7rpocrayopeuo/.tvoi,$ S pampas eTrr 

rot? 8e eVro? arparevo/Jievoi^ 
KOVTO, teal SiaKocrias eVl ^tXtat?, ocroi^ 
r)v crvvayayeiv /j,rj TrXeto^a fjLvpidicts /ca/ca Trapa- 

3 cr^oi'Ta Trdaiv dvdpcoTrois wv Nepwv Trapecr^e. rov- 1054 
TO 7<z/o eu^u? /if aTTcoXecre Ne/?a>i'a, /Lter' o\iyov Be 
Td\ftav rov [JLZV yap co? \rj^ro[J,evoi irporfKavro, 

rov Se /Jirj \anj3dvovres drreKretvav. elra rov 
ro&ovrov Bcocrovra tyirovvres e(j)07j(rav eV rat? 
aTTOcrracrecrt /cat TrpoBoa-iais dvaXwcravres ai/rou? 
17 Tf^oi'Te? cot' r)\m<rav. rd /uev ovv KaO* eKacrra 
ra)v yevofJievwv d,Trayy6X\,eiv a^/ot/3w? rr)? Trpay- 
H.ariKj]<; i&ropias ea-rlv, oaa 8e aia \6you rol$ 
rwv Kaicrdpwv epyois KOI TrdOecn <rv/n7r7rra)K6V t 
ovBe 6fj,ol Trpocnjfcei 7rape\0elv. 

III. FaX/3a? SouXTU/ao? on f.iev lSi(i)rij<; TrXof- 
<Tto)TaTO9 drravTcov et? TOI^ Kcu&dpwv TraprjXOev 
OLKOV, 6/j,o\oyelrai' fieya 8e e^toi; evyeveias d^iw- 
yu-a TW ^epovtcov olrcov, auro? <f)povei /Jiet^ov eiri 
rfj KarXof crvyyeveia, Trpwrevcravros dvBpos 
apery KOI $>o%r] rwv /cad' eavrov, el KOI TO Suva- 
2 <r^at /j,a\Xov KO>V erepois Trap^Kev. r]v Be ri teal 
ta ry Kaicra/jo? yvvaircl Kara yzvos 
o I\X/3a9, Kal Bid rovro A//9ta? 



1 Plutarch uses the Greek word drachma for the corre- 
sponding Roman denarius, a silver coin about equivalent to 

210 



GALBA ii. i-in. 2 

it was clear that he was going to run away to Egypt, 
persuaded the soldiery, as though Nero were no 
longer there but had already fled, to proclaim Galba 
emperor, and promised as largess seventy-five hundred 
drachmas apiece for the court, or praetorian, guards, 
as they were called, and twelve hundred and fifty 
drachmas l for those in service outside of Rome, a 
sum which it was impossible to raise without in- 
flicting ten thousand times more evils upon the 
world than those inflicted by Nero. This promise 
was at once the death of Nero, and soon afterwards 
of Galba : the one the soldiers abandoned to his fate 
in order to get their reward, the other they killed 
because they did not get it. Then, in trying to find 
someone who would give them as high a price, they 
destroyed themselves in a succession of revolts and 
treacheries before their expectations were satisfied. 
Now, the accurate and circumstantial narration of 
these events belongs to formal history ; but it is my 
duty also not to omit such incidents as are worthy 
of mention in the deeds and fates of the Caesars. 

III. That Sulpicius Galba was the richest private 
person who ever came to the imperial throne, is 
generally admitted ; moreover, his connection with 
the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige, 
although he prided himself more on his relationship 
to Catulus, who was the foremost man in his time in 
virtue and reputation, even if he gladly left to others 
the exercise of greater power. Galba was also some- 
how related to Li via, the wife of Augustus Caesar, 
and therefore, at the instance of Li via, he was made 

the franc. But a Roman writer would reckon by sestertii, 
the sestertius being worth about a quarter of the denarius. 



211 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e/e Ha\ariou TTporj\6e. \eyerai, Be 
real (TTparevfjiaTOS ev Pep/jLai'ia KO\,W$ aptai Kal 
\i/3vti$ dvOujraro^ y6i>6/J,evos avv o\iyoi<s eTraive- 
Ofjvai. TO Be evKO\ov avrou r^5 Siairrj^ KOI <>i- 
Ba)\bv ev ScnrdvaLS KOI aTrepiTTOV alriav ea")(ev 
avrotepdropos yevo/Aevov ^LiKpoXoyia^, rjv eco\6v 

evTa^ias etyepe real 
Be VTTO Nepwt'O? ^\{3r}pias ap%cov, 
BeBiBay/jievov fyolBelcrBai, TOVS ev d%id)/.iacn 

XOL*? 1 TWV TToXtTCO^. eKGlVti) ^ KOI <plJ(Tl, &OKOVV- 

TL Trpaw yeyovevai TrpoaeriOei iridTiv v\a/3eia^ 
TO yrjpas. 

IV. 'E-Trel 2 Be, TWV d\iTr)pia)v eTTirpoTrcov co/zco? 
/cal dypiws T? eVayO^ta? exeivcp Biafopovvrcov, 
d\\o /JLV el\ev ovBev jSo^Oelvy avry Be 
elvai crvva\ r y(i)v real (rvva^iKov^evo^ a/zco? ye 

Tiva Kal 7rapa/jiv0iav rot? 
Kal 7Tfi\ovfJLevoL^ Trapea-^e' Kal 
ei? Nepwva yivofjLevwv Kal 7ro\\a-)(ov 
vcov Kal aBofj,evci)V, OVK Kco\vev ovBe crvvriyavaKTei 
rot? CTT IT POTTO 1$' efi ol? en /JLO,\\OV rjyaTrdTo VTTO 
2 Twvdv6po)7ru)V. Kal yap r\v 77877 crvvr)0r)S,eTo<;oyBoov 
eKelvo rrjv dp^rjv e^&)^ ev w 'Ioiwo9 QvivBij; eirave- 
crTrj Ne/3a)i'i, FaXaftia? wv arparrjyo^. \eyerai 
/j,ev ovv Kal jrpo TT}? e/z^xxvoO? aTrocrTacreft)? 
/jiara vryoo? avrbv dtyiKea&ai Trapd rov 
ot? y^Te TTicrTevcrai utjre fjLrjvvaai Kal 



1 fjLfyd\ovs Coraes and Bekker have ^6-yaA.ojj, after Reiske. 

2 ^Tret Sint. 2 corrects to ^et (there). 



213 



GALBA HI. 2-iv. 2 

consul 1 by the emperor. We are told also that he 
commanded an army in Germany with distinction, 
and that when he was pro-consul of Africa, 2 he won 
such praise as few have done. But his simple and 
contented way of living, the sparing hand with 
which he dealt out money, always avoiding excess, 
were counted unto him, when he became emperor, 
as parsimony, so that the reputation which he bore 
for moderation and self-restraint was an insipid 
sort of thing. By Nero he was sent out as governor 
of Spain, 3 before Nero had yet learned to be afraid 
of citi/eris who were held in high esteem. Galba, 
however, was thought to be of a gentle nature, 
and his great age gave an added confidence that he 
would always act with caution. 

IV. But when, as the nefarious agents of Nero 
savagely and cruelly harried the provinces, Galba 
could help the people in no other way than by 
making it plain that he shared in their distress and 
sense of wrong, this somehow brought relief and 
comfort to those who were being condemned in 
court and sold into slavery. And when verses were 
made about Nero, and men circulated and sang them 
freely, he did not put a stop to it nor share in the 
displeasure of Nero's agents ; wherefore he was still 
more beloved by the inhabitants. For he was by 
this time well known to them, since it was in the 
eighth year of his governorship that Junius Vindex, 
a general in Gaul, revolted against Nero. It is said, 
indeed, that even before the open rebellion Galba 
received letters from Vindex, and that he neither 
put any trust in them nor gave accusing information 

1 In 30 A.U. * In 45 A.D. 8 In 61 A.D. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



<w? Tpoi TWV 

'ypafaicras eiref-i^av Trpos Ne'/owm KOI 

oaov eV aurot? rrjv Trpci^iv, 77? vcrrepov 

cr^o^re? a)^,o\6yr)crav aurcov ovBev YJTTOV r) e/cei- 

3 vov irpo^orai yeyovevai. aXX' eTreibrj Xa/iTr/xw? 

roi' TTQ\efiov eK^TJva^ 6 OuivBi^ ey pa-^rerS) Td\/3a 

7rapaKa\a)v dva^e^aadai rrjv rjye/jLOviav Kal 

7rapacr)iv eavrov Icr^ypw arti/j.ari fyrovvri /ce- 

<$>a\i]v, Tat? FaXartai? 8e/ca //-uptaSa? dv&pcov 

a>7r\i(T/jLeva)V e%ovaai$ aXXa? re TrXeiWa? o 



rot? <ois. wv o 



7repifj,veiv Kapa&OKOvvra Tiva Kivrjcnv 7; 
4 'Pai/jiij Kal fyopav eei TTOO? TOV vewrepia/jiov Ttro? 
Se Ovivios 6 TOV (TTparrpyi/cov ray/xaTO? i}y/jL<t)v 
avrols 1 eliTev " T ft FaX/3a, nW Tpoirov ftov- 
\evea9e ; TO yap %r)Ttv Nepwvi el TrtcrTol 

fAV, OVK 77877 fjLeVOVTtoV eCTTLV. ft)? OVV V 

e%0pov Nepeoj^o? ov Srj 7rpOTOv Tr)v TOV 

ATO? (f>i\iav, 7; Kal KaTrjyoprjTeov evdvs avTov Kal 



OTl CT6 



fjuaXXov r; Nepftwa Tvpavvov" 
V. 'Er TOUTOI/ Trpoypd/jL/jiaTi jj,ev e87;Xa)cre^ o 
FaX/3a? f)fjiepav ev fj ra? /car^ /zepo? e\evdepa>~ 1055 
act? dirocxDaei rot? ^eo/zei^ot?, \a\ia 8e ^al </>77/i>; 
TrpoeKTreaovcra 7rX?}^o? dvO ptoirtov ijflpoKre irpo- 
Ovpwv 7rl TOV vewTepLo-fjiov. OVK e<f>0>j yovv 
(jiavepos 7rl TOV /3^/za,T0? yev6/Avo$, Kal irdvTes 
2 auTov Oyuo0ft)^ft)? avTOKpaTopa TrpocrelTrov. 6 $e 
v9vs ov 'jrpoaeSe^aTO Ti]V Trpoa- 
iav, KaTrjyoprjaas Be TOV Nepcoi/o?, 
dvopwv VTT avTov TOL>? eVi 

1 oiTo?s suggested by Sint. 1 for the aur<Jy of the MSS. 

314 



GALBA iv. 2-v. 2 

about them, although other provincial governors sent 
to Nero the letters written to them, and thus did 
all they could to ruin the enterprise of Vindex ; and 
yet they afterwards took part in it, and thus confessed 
that they had been false to themselves no less than 
to Vindex. But after Vindex had openly declared 
war, he wrote to Galba inviting him to assume the 
imperial power, and thus to serve what was a vigorous 
body in need of a head, meaning the Gallic provinces, 
which already had a hundred thousand men under 
arms, and could arm other thousands besides. Then 
Galba took counsel with his friends. Some of these 
thought it best for him to wait and see what move- 
ment Rome would set on foot in response to the 
revolution ; but Titus Vinius, the captain of the 
praetorian guard, said to them : " O Galba, what 
counsels are these ? For to ask whether we shall 
remain faithful to Nero means that we are already 
unfaithful. Assuming, then, that Nero is an enemy, 
we surely must not reject the friendship of Vindex ; 
or else we must at once denounce him and make 
war upon him because he wishes the Romans to 
have thee as their ruler rather than Nero as their 
tyrant." 

V. After this, Galba issued an edict appointing a 
day on which he would grant individual manu- 
missions to all who desired them, and gossip and 
rumour flying all abroad brought together a multi- 
tude of men who were eager for the revolution. 
At any rate, no sooner was Galba seen upon the 
tribunal than all with one voice hailed him as 
emperor. However, he did not at once accept this 
appellation, but after denouncing Nero, and bewailing 
the most illustrious of the men who had been put to 

215 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TOU9 o\o$>vpd[jLevo'5, 0)^0X07*7 crez* eTriB&HTGLV TTJ 
rrarpiBt, rrjv eavrov Trpovoiav, oirre Kalaap OVT 
avTOKparwp, (TTpaTrjybs 8e crvy/c\r)Tov Kal SIJ/ULOV 



"On & opOws 6 Oviv$L% /cal XeXc>7cr/iei>ftK 

rOV Yd\(3dV em rr)V 

/j-dprupi TO> Ne/oowt. 

yap eKeivov Karafypovelv xat, trap 1 ovdev f)' 
TO, TaXarwv, d/xa TO* TrvOecrdai TO, irepl TdXftav 
(eTv% 8e XeXof/zei^o? /cal dpLffrcov] dverpe^e TTJV 
4 rpdjre^av. ov yttr/y aXXa a-vy/c\^rov tyr)<j)icra/jL6vr)<; 
7ro\/jLLov TOf Yd\fBav avros re irai^eiv /cal 6pa- 

TT/OO? TOU? (^tA-OU? /3oV\6/jLVOS, OV (f>av~ 

Trpopprjaiv e/j,7r67rT(t)/c6vai \oyicruov Seo- 
rifJidTWv avry- /cal ra p,ev Ta\ara>v, orav 
yevwvrai, \a<f)Vpay(i)yij<Ta0ai, 1} Be 
TdXfta rrdpeanv ovcria ^prjaOat /cal 7ra)\iv rjBtj 

e/ceXeve, /cal FaX/Sav d/coiKTas, ova Ne- 

evpicr/ce 



VI. 'Atyicrrafj.evcov Be 7roXXa)z> rov Ne/jwt'o? Kal 
eTTieiKws ra> FaX/3a rrpoarri6ep,( 
Mtt/fy3O5 eV Aiftvy Kal Quepyivios c ] 
ei/ FaXar/a rov Pep/naviKov arparevfjiaros rjyov- 
/Ltez^o? avrot KaO^ kavrovs err parr ov, ov rr^v avrrjv 
2 ai'pecriv e^ovres. aXX' o pev KXco^io?, eV d t 



/cal Tr\OVJ;iav } 877X05 TJV cv TW /JLIJTC 

fjiijTe d<fiievai rrjv dp^rjv ^vvacrBai 

Ovepyivios Se ray/jbdrcov eTrKTrara 

7roX\a/? avrov dvayopevovrcov avro/cpdropa /cat 

216 



GALBA v. 2-vi. 2 

death by him, promised to devote his best powers to 
the service of his country, taking as his title, not 
Caesar, nor Emperor, but General of the Roman 
Senate and People. 

Now, that Vindex acted wisely and well in calling 
upon Galba to be emperor, was convincingly proved 
by Nero. For though he pretended to despise 
Vindex and to regard matters in Gaul as of no 
moment, as soon as he learned what Galba had done 
Nero had just taken his bath and was at breakfast 
he overturned his table. However, after the Senate 
had voted Galba an enemy, Nero, with a desire to jest 
and put on a bold countenance with his friends, 
said that an excellent idea had occurred to him in 
his need of money : the property of the Gauls would 
not fall to him as spoil of war until after they should 
be subdued ; but Galba's estate was ready to be used 
and sold at once, now that Galba had been declared 
a public enemy. So he ordered the property of 
Galba to be sold, and Galba, when he heard of it, 
put up at public sale all that Nero owned in Spain, 
and found many readier buj ers. 

VI. Many were now falling away from Nero, and 
almost all of them attached themselves to Galba; 
only Clodius Macer in Africa, and Verginius Rufus in 
Gaul (where he commanded the German forces), 
acted on their own account, though each took a 
different course. Clodius, whose cruelty and greed 
had led him into robberies and murders, was clearly 
in a strait where he could neither retain nor give up 
his command ; while Verginius, who commanded the 
strongest legions and was often saluted by them as 
emperor and strongly urged to take the title, declared 

VOL. xi H 217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ovre ai)ro9 e</>*7 ^ijtyeaOai rrjv 

viav OVTC. aXXa> Trepto^eadai biBo/jLevifv, ov av firj ?} 
3 crvyK\r}TOS e'XijTai. ravra TOV Yd\ftav ov /J,T- 
/?ia>9 etfopvftei TO TrpwTov eVel Se ra Ovepywiov 
KOI OvivBiKos arpaTev/jLara rpoirov TLVCL ftia TOI)? 



, et? /JLU^V e^eveyKovra /jijd\rjv avv- 
eppa^av, fcal QVLV$I,KO<; kavrov ave\ovTO<$ em 
bicrfjivpiois Ya\aTWV Trecrovcn, Siri\6e \6yos a>? 
/SovXo/jievcov Trdvrwv eVl z/tA;?; roaavrrj TOV Ovep- 
yiviov dva&e^aaOai TIJV rjje/jLoviav 77 7Tti\iv 
4 ^eTaftaXov/jLevcov TT/OO? Ne'/oawa, Tore 5^ iravrd- 
Traari 7TpL<f)O/3o<> yevo/Jievos o FaX/?a9 eypatye TO> 
Ovepyiviw, 7rapaKaX,a)v Koivoirpayelv KOI Sia- 
<$>v\d(T(reiv apa rrjv rjye/AOViav KOI rrjv e 

' avdi<$ Se /xera TOJZ-' <$>i\wv et? 
rjv 7ro\iv, dva^wptjcra^ ev TM 
Trepl TWV ryeyovorcov real Tro&etv rrjv awr/fli] /cal 
crvvrpotyov ci7rpajfjioa'vvi]v yuaXXoz/ rj Trpdrreiv TL 
TWV dvayfcaiwv &teTpif3ei>. 

VII. ^Hv be 6epos tf&r}, ical {3pa%v Trpo 
avro 



Be TOV YdXftav dvaTravecrQai 
eavrbv e/3aSt^6 avvrovcos evrl TO Sco/naTiov avrov, 
teal (3lq TWV 0d\a/Jir]7r6\u>i> dvoi^as KCL\ Trape\0o)v 
2 aTn^yyetA.ei' ori KCU ^w^T09 eri TOV Nepw^o?, ou: 
Se (fravepov, TO crTpaTev/j^a irpWTov, etra 6 
al 77 <rvryK\r)TOS avTOtcpaTopa TOV 
dvayopei>(TiV, 6\i<yov Se v<JTepov 

e/ceivos' ov firjif auro9 ye 



T069 

vercpw KOI Kei/Jievov (teacrd/j.evos, OVTWS %\0elv. 
218 



GALBA vi. 2-vn. 2 

that he would neither assume the imperial power 
himself, nor allow it to be given to anyone else whom 
the senate did not elect. These things greatly dis- 
turbed Galba at first ; but presently the armies of 
Verginius and Vindex in a manner forced their 
leaders, like charioteers who had lost control of the 
reins., into the crash of a great battle, and Vindex, 
after the loss of twenty thousand Gauls, died by his 
own hand, and a report was current that all the 
soldiers desired Verginius, in view of the great 
victory he had won, to assume the imperial power, 
or they would go back again to Nero. Then indeed 
Galba was all alarm, and wrote to Verginius inviting 
him to join in efforts for the preservation alike of 
the empire and the freedom of the Romans. But 
after this he retired with his friends to Clunia, a city 
in Spain, and spent his time in repenting of what he 
had done and in longing for his habitual and wonted 
freedom from care, rather than in taking any of the 
steps now made necessary. 

VII. It was now summer, 1 and shortly before sun- 
set there came from Rome a freedman named Icelus, 
who had made the journey in seven days. Having 
learned that Galba was reposing by himself, he went 
in hot haste to his chamber, opened the door in spite 
of the chamberlains, entered, and announced that 
while Nero was still alive, but in hiding, that the army 
first, and then the senate and people, had proclaimed 
Galba emperor, and that a little while afterwards it 
was reported that Nero was dead; Icelus himself, 
however, as he said, had not believed the report, but 
had gone and seen the dead body where it lay, and 
then had set out on his journey. This announcement 

1 Of 68 A.D. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



3 TO.UTO- dirayyeXho/jLeva \a^Trpov fjpe TOV Td\(3av, 

KOI 0-vveBpa/u.e 7r\r)0o<$ dvBp&v eVl Ovpas eKTedap- 1056 



avrov e/ata)9. /cairoi TO 



CLTTMTTOV. O\\CL KOi 

Qvivios Ttro? 2 CLTTO (TTparoTreSov /j,& erepcov 
ra So^avra rfj avyK\iJT<p Ka9^ e/caarov 
ouro? fiev ovv et? rd^iv evrifjiov 
TO) 3' direX^evOepci) Sa/crvXiovs re 
e$a>K teal Mapteiavos 6 "l/ce/Vo? ij 
rrjv Trpwr^v ev TO?? 



VIII. 'Ez/ Be 'Pco/jiTj Nf/u,^)/SfO9 ^aftivos, OVK 
real /card fjiLKpov, d\\d a~u\\i']/3$r]V 6/xoO, 
7rpdyfj.ara <pepcov Trepnjvey/cev et? eavrov, 
Td\ftai> /lev ovra irpea-fBv'T^v KOI /^oXf? et? 
Ta (fcopdStjv Ko^i(jQr\vai Sid 
' ijv jdp erwv rpiwv Kal /3So/j,i]KovTa' rd 
Be avTo6i arparevf^ara, Kal TrdXai TT/JO? avTQV 
vv6ws e^ovra Kal vvv evos e^rjptijfjLeva [JLOVOV, Bid 
TO T?}? Bwpeds /jLeyeOos evepyerrjv Kivov f)yeia0ai, 
Be %pe(i)(j)i\eTr)v. evOij<; ovv TiyeXXiva* 
TW (rvvdpxovTi TrpocreTa^ev diroOea-Oai TO 
Be 



Kal TOU? ejioviKovs, Ti TO 



is ovofjia Tat? K^jcrecrtv, ev Te TW crTpaTO- 

rapecrKevaae \eyeiv &>? 
777309 Td\/3av aLTOVfiAvovs 

dvev o~vvdp"%ovTO<;. 
Be t'j (TvyK\tjTo^ et9 TifJirjV eirpaTTev avTOV 



supplied by Coracs, after Amyot. 

2.'iO 



GALBA vii. 2-vni. 3 

highly elated Galba, and there came running to his 
door a multitude of men who had gained complete 
confidence as the result of Icelus' report. And yet 
the messenger's speed was incredible. But two days 
afterwards Titus Vinius with others came from the 
camp and reported in detail the decrees of the senate. 
Vinius, accordingly, was advanced to a position of 
honour, and as for the freedman, he was allowed to 
wear the gold ring, received the name of Marcianus 
instead of Icelus, and had the chief influence among 
the freedmen. 

VIII. But at Rome Nymphidius Sabinus was 
forcing; the entire control of affairs into his own 

o 

hands, not slowly and little by little, but all at once. 
He thought that Galba was an old man and would 

O 

hardly have the strength to be carried to Rome on a 
litter, by reason of his age, for he was in his seventy- 
third year ; moreover, he knew that the soldiery in 
the city had long been well disposed towards him 
and were now devoted to him alone, regarding him 
as their benefactor because of the large gifts which 
lie promised, but Galba as their debtor. Straight- 
way, therefore, he ordered his colleague Tigellinus 
to lay down his sword, gave receptions at which he 
banqueted men who had been consuls or in high 
command (although he still affixed the name of 
Galba to his invitations), and instigated many of the 
soldiers to declare that a deputation ought to be sent 
to Galba demanding that Nymphidius be made pre- 
fect for life without a colleague. 

Moreover, the senate did much to enhance his 

* TITOS after this name the words TTO\\O. ruv, deleted by 
Coraes and Bekker, are retained by Sint.* with indication 
of a lacuna (iroXXct . . . rS>v} 

221 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

, dvaKa\ovcra evepyerqv K.CLI crvvrpe- 
vovcra fca@' rj/jiepav eVl dvpas KCU rravros e^dp^eiv 
B6y/j,aro<; d^iovaa Kal ftefiaiovv, en Trepairepco 
rokfjiris avrpyev avrov, wcrre 6\iyov ^povov 
0epa7Tvovcri /j,rj JJLOVOV Tri<$>6ovov, a\\a KOI </> 
4 pov elvai. TWV 8' VTTCLTWV ot/cera? 



ra Sozara /coxtoyTa? TM avro- 



Kpdropi, /cal TO, Ka\ov/Aeva 

SOVTWV, a ryvwpl^ovTes ol Kara iroKiv 
eV rat? TWV o^rjfJLarcov d/jLOi/3ais eVtra- 
ra? 7r/oo7royU7ra? TWV <ypa/j,uaTT](f)6pu)i>, ov 
rjyavaKTTjcrev ore yu,?; Trap avrou Kal 
Kal crTpaTidiTas Xa^o^re? averreiJi^rav, 
a\\a \eyerai Kal (3ov\evcraa6ai irepl rwv inrdrwv, 
eira rrjv opyrjv 



5 dv?)Ke. TO) Be BIJ/JLCO ^apt^oyLte^o? OVK eKa)\ve rbv 
a rcov Ne/jcoi/o? dTrorv/ATravL^eiv. 
pev ovv rov ^ovo^d'^pv dv^pidcri Nep&n'o? 
vrrof3a\,ovTe<; ev dyopa &i(f)@eipai>, 
Be riva ra)i> Kar^yopiKtov dvarpe'\lravT<; 
i6o$>bpovs eTrrjyayov, aXkovs Be Bie<r7ra- 
<rav TroXXoi/?, eWou? /jwjBev dBiKovvras, wcrre Kal 
WavpiKOV, civBpa TWV dpi&Twv Kal ovra Kal Bo- 
Kovvra, TT/oo? rr;^ crvjK^roi 1 elirelv OTI <^o/3eiTat 
; ra^v Nepwj^a r)Tqa'G>aiv J . 

IX. Oi/ra) Be 7rpO(rdya)v 6 N v/j,d>iBio<; eyyvrepa) 
e\7riaiv OVK efyevye Yatov Katcra/oo? u/o? 
\eyea0ai rov fjierd Tiftepiov ap^avros. eyvwKei 
yap 6 Fato?, &)? eoiKe, rrjv re/fovaav avrbv eri 

1 Caligula. 
222 



GALBA vin. 3~ix. i 

honour and power, giving him the title of benefactor, 
assembling daily at his door, and allowing him the 
privilege of initiating and confirming all their 
decrees. This raised him to a still higher pitch 
of boldness, so that within a short time those who 
paid court to him were filled, not only with jealousy, 
but also with fear. When the consuls provided 
public servants to carry the decrees of the senate to 
the emperor, and gave to these the diplomas, as they 
were called, sealed with their official seal (in order 
that the magistrates of the various cities, recognising 
this, might expedite the supply of fresh vehicles for 
the journey of the couriers), hew r as vexed beyond all 
bounds because the decrees had not been sent under 
his seal and in charge of his soldiers, nay, it is said 
that he actually thought of proceeding against the 
consuls, but put away his wrath when they excused 
themselves and begged for forgiveness. Again, in 
his desire to gratify the people, he would not 
prevent them from beating to death any follower of 
Nero who fell into their hands. Accordingly, they 
cast Spiculus the gladiator under statues of Nero 
that were being dragged about in the forum, and 
killed him ; Aponius, one of Nero's informers, they 
threw to the ground and dragged waggons laden 
with stone over him ; and many others, some of 

* * 

whom had done no wrong, they tore in pieces, so 
that Mauricus, who was justly deemed one of the 
best men in Rome, told the senate that he was afraid 
they would soon be searching for a Nero. 

IX. Thus coming in his hopes nearer and nearer to 
his goal, Nymphidius was not averse to having it said 
that he was the son of the Caius Caesar 1 who succeeded 
Tiberius. For Caius, as it would appear, while still 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



&v OVK detBrj rrjv o^riv ovaav, etc S' 
ias eirLfjucrOiov KaXXtcrT&>, Katcra/jo? CITT- 
2 e\evOepw, yeyevrj/j.ei'tjv. aXX' rjv r; TT/)O? Tdlov 



0)? OLK, V(i)Tpa T?}? 

iTiav 8e eo"%ev CK MapTiavov rov JJLO- 



So^av aviov, /ecu p,a\\ov e86/cei rcaO* ofjLOiorrjra 
3 rr}? t8ea? etceivq) Trpoarj/ceiv. aXX' 6fj,o\oywv 76 
Nvfj,<j)iSia<; elvai yu^rpo? epyov fiev avrov JJLOVOV 
TTJV Nepwz^o? eVotetTO Kard\V(riv, a6\a &e avrf)S 
ov vofJil^wv iKava KapTTov&6ai ra? rfytta? Aral ra 
Xptf/jLara /cal TO STTO^O) roi) Ne/3o)i/o? a-vjKaOevSeiv, 
ov evOvs airo 77)9 TTfpa? eVi tcaio^kvov rov ve/cpov 

/j.i>os Ke1vo<? ev yayLterr}? et^e ra^et :at 1057 
irpocrri'yopevev, eVt TT)^ BiaSo^rfV Trap- 
uero T/}? ^yefjiovia^. KOL ra fjiev CLVTO? ev 'Poo/Ay 

KOL yvi>ai/cwi> TLVWV 



KCU 



, eva Be 
-fye 
X. 



jrdvra. Ovepyivios Be r Pou0o? a 
e'r^ <ppovriBa frapel^e, /^rj r&) bwd/JLews TroXX?}? 
/cat fJL,a^LfJLwrdrri^ cip^eiv 7rpocreL\r](f)a)<f TO veviKi]Ke- 
vai QvivBi/ca teal Ke^eLpwaOai p^eya yu-e/ao? T?}? 
v r/yejuovias, ev craXw <yevop,evr)v aTroara- 
W TaXariav aTracrav, vrraKovcrai. rot? Trapa- 
2 Ka\ovffiv avrov err\ rrjv dpx/jv. ovBevos yap r)v 
ovojjia fjiei^ov, ovBe el^e B6t;av ovBels oarr]v o Oiep- 
224 



GALBA ix. i-x. 2 

a young man, had been intimate with the mother of 
Nymphidius, a woman of comely appearance and a 
daughter of Callistus, Caesar's freedman, by a hired 
sempstress. But this intimacy, as it would seem, 
was later than the birth of Nymphidius, and it was 
believed that he was a son of Martianus, the gladiator 
(with whom Nymphidia fell in love on account of his 
fame), and his resemblance to Martianus was thought 
to favour this connection. But although he certainly 
admitted that Nymphidia was his mother, he took to 
himself sole credit for the overthrow of Nero, and 
thinking himself insufficiently rewarded for this by 
the honours and wealth which he enjoyed, and by 
the company of Sporus, Nero's favourite (whom he 
had sent for at once, while Nero's body was yet 
burning on its pyre, and treated as his consort, and 
addressed by the name of Poppaea), he aspired to 
the succession in the empire. Some secret steps to 
this end he himself took at Rome through the agency 
of his friends, and certain women and men of sena- 
torial rank secretly assisted him, and one of his 
friends, Gellianus, he sent to Spain to keep an eye 
upon matters there. 

X. But everything went well with Galba after the 
death of Nero. Verginius Rufus, it is true, who was 
still hesitating, gave him anxiety. For besides com- 
manding a large and most efficient army, Verginius 
had the added prestige of his victory over Vindex 
and his subjugation of all Gaul, which was a large 
part of the Roman Empire and had been in the 
throes of revolt. Galba therefore feared that Ver- 
ginius might listen to those who invited him to take 
the supreme power. For no man's name was greater 
than that of Verginius, and no man had a reputation 

225 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yivtos, o>5 fjieyicmj poiTi] rot? 'PwfjLaiw 

KOI Ya\ariKwv rro\e- 



dira\\ayfi yevofievos. dXX' GKGLVOS Tore rot? 

<j)V\aTT6 Trj (TVy- 

K\r)T(d rrjv alpeaiv rov avTOKpdropos. KairoL $>a- 
ye rT;? Ne/jwro? TeXevrfy? yevo/jLevrjs TO re 
eveiceiTO TW Ovepyiviw Trd\iv, KOI TMV 
? TWV eV rfj cr/crivy cnraaafjievo^ TO 
rov Qvepyiviov 3e 
3 j/tat' 77 TOI^ ffi&riov. eVel 8e 



evos rdynaros wpKwae TT/JWTO? et? 
ypdfifJLcna fjtcev drrb 'Pwyu,?^? vre/ol wz^ ?; 



8' ou^ Tot'? (TTyoarfcoTa? avrotcpdropa rov 
dveirreiv' Koi rrefjL^avros avrov SidSo^ov 

eBe^aro. KOI TrapaSou? eiceivu) rrjv 
avTO<? dTnjvrtjcre rw TdXfta TTpocra) ^w- 
povvn, KOI crvvavearpefav, ovre opyfjs ovre ripr}? 
4 CTuBi'jXov rvy-^dvwv. atVfO? 8e ToO /Liey auro? o 
FaX^a? alBov/jievos rov di'Bpa, rov Se 01 <f)i\oi KOI 
fj,d\iara Qvlvios TITO?, L/TTO (f)0ovov rov OvepyC- 
VLOV olo/JLevo^ /Jiev KO\ouctv, i]yvoet 3e apa TW 
Ovepyiviov ^pr/crra* BCIL/J.OVL avvepycov, jjSt) roi> 

a 7TO\/J-(i)V KOi KdK(JOV, OCTU TOL>? d'\XoL'9 7/76- 

/carecr^ev, e/cros e/? /9tor atcvfipva KCU 



ypas eprfvri^ KOI i]<jv\ias fiecrrov 



XI. Yd\(3av 8e Trepl Nap/3a>^a, TTQ\LV Ya\ari- 
rfV, ol Trapd rfjs avyK\,rjrov Trpea/Beis e 
r)(T7rdovTO, real TrapefcdXovv em^avrjvat, ru> 
TToOovvri TaY^co?. o ^ Ta? T6 aXXa? rrapei^ev 
KCU crvvovcrias avrols (f)i\av0pu>7rovs KCU 



226 



GALBA x. 2-xi. i 

equal to his, since he had exercised the greatest in- 
fluence in ridding the Roman state alike of a grievous 
tyrant and of Gallic wars. But in the present crisis 
he was true to his original resolves and maintained 
the senate's right to choose the emperor. And yet 
when Nero's death was known for certain, the mass 
of his soldiery were insistent again with Verginius, 
and one of the military tribunes in his tent drew his 
sword and ordered Verginius to choose between 
imperial power and the steel. But after Fabius 
Valens, commander of a legion, had led off in taking 
the oatli of allegiance to Galba, and letters had come 
from Rome telling of the senate's decrees, he suc- 
ceeded at last, though with the greatest difficulty, 
in persuading his soldiers to declare Galba emperor ; 
and when Galba sent Flaccus Hordeonius to succeed 
him, Verginius received that officer, handed over his 
army to him, and went himself to meet Galba as he 
advanced, and turned back in his company without re- 
ceiving any clear mark either of his anger or esteem. 
This was due, in the one case, to Galba himself, who 
had a wholesome respect for Verginius, and in the 
other to Galba's friends, especially Titus Vinius. 
Vinius was jealous of Verginius, and thought to block 
his career ; but without knowing it he was aiding the 
man's good genius, which was now removing him 
from all the wars and miseries which encompassed 
the other leaders, and bringing him into a calm 
haven of life, and an old age full of peace and quiet. 
XI. At Narbo, a city of Gaul, Galba was met by 
the deputies from the senate, who greeted him and 
begged him to gratify speedily the eager desire of 
the people to see him. In his general interviews 
and meetings with them he was kind and unassuming, 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ds, Trpo? re Ta? e<JTitt<ret9 TToXX/y? Kara- 
KOI Oeparreias /3aai\iKi)s rrapova-rj^, T)V K 
rwv Nepcoi/o? 6 Nf/z(/>t&o? avru) rrpoaerre^^rev, 
ovBevl xpaifievos KLva)V, aXXa rot? eavrov rraa-iv, 
evBoKi/jLet, fieya\6<ppa)v dvrjp KOI KpeiTTtov aTrei- 
2 poKaKias (fraivo/jLevos. Ta%v ^VTOL ra yevvata 
ravra KOI arvfya Kal iro\LTLKa 



KOI 



avrrjv, 7rei(Te '^pt^aa'i re %pricrOai rot? Nepa>i>o.<j 
teal Trepl ra? L7roSo^a? /xrj (fieiSecrdai T^? /3acri\.i- 
tcr)$ 7ro\VT6\ia<$. Kal oXco? aicr0v}(TLV aurov Kara 
VTTO TO) OVLVLW ^vi}G o^kvov TTapel^ev 6 



XII. *H^ Be Qvivios apyvpiov /j.ev eV^ar&x? 
Trap* OVTLVOVV IITTWV, eVo^o? Se Kal rot? Trepi 
<yvvaiKas afjLapTijfjLaaiv. en jap &v Wo? Kal 
(TTparevo/jLevos VTTO KaX/5tcrt&) ^afBlvw rrjv 7rpd)Trjv 
crTpareiav aKoXacnov ovaav rrjv yvraiKa rov 
rjye/jiovos TrapeKTtjyaye vvKrwp els TO crrparoTreBov 
ev laBrfTi crTpaTiwTiKfj Kal Bi(p@ipev ev rot? 

2 ap%eioi<;, a TrpiyKLTTia Ka\ovcn 'Pw/^aloi. 7rl 
TOVTM Be Tdios Katcrap eBrjaev av-rov CKCLVOV Be 

avovros evrv^La xprjcrdjj,evo<; aireKvOr). Bei- 1058 
Be irapaK\avBi(D Katcrapt TTOTrjpiovdpyvpovv 

v(f)ei\TO' TTvdofJLevos Be 6 KaZ<rap rfj varepaia 

Trd\iv avTov 7rl BCITTVOV eKaXecrev, e\66vrL Be 

eKeXevarev eKeivw i^rjBev apyvpovv, a\\a 

Trdvra Trpoafyepeiv Kal TrapanOevai rovs v 

3 TOUTO [lev ovv Bia rrjv KatVapo? //-eryOto 
Kcorepav yevo/jLev^v -yeA,&>TO?, OVK opyfjs a%iov eBo- 

a Be rov Yd\/3av e^wv vfi avry, Kal 



22% 



GALBA xi. i-xn. 3 

and when he entertained them, though there was an 
abundance of royal furniture and service at his com- 
mand, which Nyrnphidius had sent him from Nero's 
palace, he used none of it, but only what was his 
own, thus winning a good repute, and showing him- 
self a man of large mind who was superior to 
vulgarity. Vinius, however, by declaring to him 
that this dignified, simple, and unassuming course 
was merely a flattery of the people and a refinement 
of delicacy which thought itself unworthy of great 
things, soon persuaded him to make use of Nero's 
riches, and in his receptions not to shrink from a 
regal wealth of outlay. And in general the aged 
man let it be seen little by little that he was going 
to be under the direction of Vinius. 

XII. Now Vinius was to the last degree and 
beyond all compare a slave of money, and was also 
addicted to loose conduct with women. For when 
he was still a young man and was serving his first 
campaign, under Calvisius Sabinus, he brought his 
commander's wife, an unchaste woman, by night 
into the camp in the garb of a soldier, and had 
commerce with her in the general's quarters (the 
Romans call them "principia "). For this offence 
Caius Caesar put him in prison ; but on the death of 
the emperor he had the good fortune to be released. 
While he was at supper with Claudius Caesar, he 
purloined a silver drinking-cup, and Caesar, learning 
of it, invited him to supper again the next day, and 
when he came, ordered the attendants to set before 
him no silver plate at all, but only earthenware. This 
misdeed, it is true, owing to the comic turn which 
Caesar's moderation took, was thought worthy of 
laughter, not of anger ; but what he did when he had 

229 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

erfl^prjfJiacrLV, errparre, rpayitewv rraO&v 
KOL arv/ji(f)opc0v /jieyd\wv rot? fjiev air lav, rot? Be 
rcpo^acnv Trapecr^ev. 

XIII. 'O yap Nv/j<j)iBios evOvs eiraveKOovro^ 
rov TeX\,iavov TT^O? avrov, bv erre^^re rov FaX/9a 
rpoiTOV rivd KardafcoTroi', axovcras T/)? pev atXf;? 
KCU TWV Sopvfyopwv eTrap^ov aTTO^e^el^Oai Ko/o- 
vi]\iov Ad/cwva, TO Be av^irav eivai rov QVIVLOV 
tcpdros, avTW Be fjujBeTroTe rov FaX/9a <nr}vai 
Tr\rj(jiov eyyeyovevai fj,tjBe evrv^elv IBia, Trdvrwv 
avrov v<f)Op(i)/jLevwv KOI Sta<f)V\arr6vr(i)v, eOo- 

2 pv/3>j@r)' KOI crvvayaycov TOU? i]ye/jLova<f rov arpa- 
revjjLaros e(f)t] Yd\(3av /J,ev avrov elvat rrpecrj^vrriv 
7rieiKr) teal /j,erpiov, e\d^iara Be rot? avrov 
Xput^evov \oyia-jj,ois vrro OVIVLOV teal Adtcayvos 
OVK ev BioiKeia-Qai. rrplv ovv \a6elv avrovs 
eo")(e Tiye\\tvos Icr^vv ev rot? irpdyixacn 
/jievovs, Tre/jLirreov elvai rrpos rov rjye/^ova rrpecr/3ei<; 
LLTTO arparorreBov TOU? BiBd^ovras on rwv $L\wv 
Bvo /JLOVOVS TOUTOU? aTro(TKvacrd/jLVo^ rjSicav rrape- 

3 arai Trdcri teal rroOeivorepos. ewel Be ravra \eywv 

' " /) '-v-\' 5 ' ' S" ' ^'-v-v' 

OVK erreiuev, a\\ aroTrov eooieei tcai a\\otcorov 
rrpecrjBvrriv, wcrrrep dpri yevo/jievov e^ov- 



<na? /jLeipaKLOv, ol? xprfcrerai <^tXoi? r) /JLIJ, 



s ' / ' v 

? 6/^, erepav ooov 

;, vvv /jiev ft)? vtTovXa teal 
T?)? 7roX,eo)? e^ouo"?;?, vvv Be 
ev Ai/3vr} ra crirriyd teare^eiv, av0i<$ Be 
TrapaKivetv ra Pep/jiavited rdy/jLara, teal Trepl rwv 
ev ^vpia teal'lovBaia BvvdfjLewv ojaota rrvvddveaOai. 



230 



GALBA xii. 3-xm. 3 

Galba under his control and was most influential with 
him in financial matters, was partly a cause and partly 
a pretext for tragic events and great calamities. 

XIII. For Nymphidius. as soon as Gellianus had 
come back to him, whom he had sent to be a sort of 
spy upon Galba, heard that Cornelius Laco had been 
appointed prefect of the praetorian guard, and that 
Vinitis was all powerful with Galba, while Gellianus 
had never stood near him or seen him in private, but 
had been looked upon with suspicion and distrust by 
everyone. Nymphidius was therefore much disturbed, 
and calling together the officers of the army, told 
them that Galba himself was a well-meaning and 
moderate old man, but did not follow his own 
counsels in the least, and was badly directed by 
Vinius and Laco. Therefore, before these men had 
succeeded in secretly acquiring the power which 
Tigellinus had held, a deputation should be sent to 
the emperor from the camp, to inform him that if 
he would put away from his company of friends 
only these two men, he would be more acceptable 
and welcome to all on his arrival. But this speech 
of Nymphidius did not convince his hearers ; nay, 
they thought it a strange and unnatural thing to 
dictate to an aged emperor, as if he had been a 
youth just tasting power, what friends he was to 
have or not to have. Nymphidius therefore took 
another course, and wrote to Galba messages in- 
tended to alarm him now, that there was much 
hidden distemper and unrest in the city, now, that 
Clodius Macer was holding back the grain supplies in 
Africa ; again, that the legions in Germany were 
mutinous, and that like news came concerning the 
forces in Syria and Judaea. But since Galba gave 

231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 TOV Be rdkfta /^r) Trdvu TOV vovv 
avT(o p-jBe TTMTTevovTos eyvw TrpoeTTi^eipev' KCLLTOI 
KXaiBios KeA,TO? 'A^rto^ei/?, dvrjp e^pwv, evvovs 
Be efceivp teal TTICTTOS, aTrr/yopeve, \e<ywv ovtc av 
o'lecrOai piav ev 'Yco/xrj crvvoiKiav Kaucrapa Trpotr- 
i7relv Nvfj,<pi&iov* d\\a 7ro\\ol /careye^wv, real 
Mi6pi&aTrjs 6 YiovTiKos eTriGKcoTTTtov TTJV <pa\a- 
Kponjra KOI pvao-orrjra TOV TaXySa vvv effrrj TLVCL 
Boxelv eLvai 'Pw/mi'oi?, o^Oevra be (pavelcrdai TWV 
rjftepwv TOVTWV a? Ka\elrai, Kaiaap, oW^So?. 

XIV. "E^o^er ovv irepl /xecra? VVKTCL<; eis TTJV 
Trapfji/3o\r]v rrapayayovTas dvabei/cvveiv avTO- 
icpaTopa TOV Nvfji<j>iSiov. TT^WTO? Be TCOV 
'Az^rwwo? 'QvwpdTos ecrrrepcK; 

<rTpaTitoTas crvi>ayaya)V 
avTov, exdfCL^e Be etceivovs ev o\lyu) 
T/oo7ra? rocraura? Tpeiro/jLevovs KCLT ouBeva \oyi- 
Giwv ovBe aipeaiv dfJLeivovwv, d\\d Bai/j,ovos rtro? 
aurou? CK TrpoBocTias eh TTpoSoaiav e\avvovTO<?. 

2 KOI Ta /lev rrpWTa 7rpo<pdcris e)(iv TO, Ne/iwyo? 
eyK\ijf^ara' vvv Be FaX/3a;/ TrpoBiBovai, TIVCL (frovov 

eyKa\ovvTas rj ffcj)ay)]v yvvaifcos, rj Trolav 
evovs 8v/A\r]v 77 Tpaya)Biav TOV 
'A\X' ovBe ercelvov errl TOVTOIS v 

aAAa Nvfj,<>iBifp rreia'devTe^ OTI 
eyKaT\i7r teal rretyevyev et? 

3 AiyvTTTOv. TTOTepov ovv Nepmvt Td\j3av TTI- 
6vcr(i)/j,0a, teal TOV etc Nu/K/uS/a? e\6/jievoi Kat- 
crapa TOV etc At/Bias dveXw/jiev, a>5 TOV eg 'Aypnr- 
232 



GALBA xiii. 4-xiv. 3 

no heed to him whatever and put no confidence 
in his reports, he determined not to wait before 
making his attempt. And yet Clodius Celsus of 
Antioch, a man of good sense, who was well-dis- 
posed and faithful to him, tried to dissuade him, 
saying that in his opinion not a single precinct in 
Rome would give Nymphidius the title of Caesar. 
But many ridiculed Galba, and especially Mithridates 
of Pontus, who scoffed about his bald head and 
wrinkled face, and said that now the Romans 
thought him a great personage, but when they saw 
him they would regard all the days in which he had 
borne the title of Caesar as a disgrace to them. 

XIV. It was decided, therefore, to bring Nym- 
phidius into the camp about midnight and proclaim 
him emperor. But when it was evening, the lead- 
ing military tribune, Antonius Honoratus, calling 
together the soldiers under his command, reviled 
himself, and reviled them for changing about so 
often in so short a time, not according to any plan 
or choice of better things, but because some evil 
spirit drove them from one treachery to another. 
In the first instance, he said, they had an excuse in 
the crimes of Nero ; but now, if they were to betray 
Galba, what charge of murdering his mother or 
slaying his wife could they bring against him, or 
what feelings of shame that their emperor should 
appear in public as musician or tragic actor ? " Nay, 
not even with these provocations would we consent 
to abandon a Nero, but we had to be persuaded by 
Nymphidius that Nero had first abandoned us and 
fled to Egypt. Shall we, then, sacrifice Galba after 
Nero, and choosing the son of Nymphidia as our 
Caesar, shall we slay the scion of the house of Livia, 

2 33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TT 0*779 dvei\oiiev; ?} TOVTW SiK^v eV^eWe? ML> 1059 
oeSpaKe, TL/jicopol fjiev Ne'pcovos, FaX/Ja Be (f)v 
dyafloi /ecu TTicrrol (pavwfiev;" 

Tavra \eyovTi TW ^iXidp^w TcpocrWevTO Trd 
ol (TTpaTi&rai, teal TOU? aA-Xou? Trpocnovres /JL/JL- 
vetv 7rap6/cd\ovv rfj ?rpo? TOV avTOKpdropa Tn 

4 Kal TOL/? TrXetou? /jLT(TTrj(Tav. dp0L 

el-re ireicrOels 6 Nu/^^tSio?, w? (pa(Tiv evioi, Ka\eiv 
avrov r)8r; TOU? o'TpaTtGora?, etVe 7rpo\a(Belv <77rev- 
TO 6opv/3ovi> GTI, Kal Bicrrd^ov, VTTO ^XWTI 
w irporjei, \6yov TLVCL KOfjii^wv ev {BijSXKp 
VTTO Kiyyayviov Rdppwvos, bv K/UL- 

5 ULekerrjfcei TT/JO? TOU? a-TpaTidiras elirelv. ISwv Se 

TOV (TTpaTOTre&ov ra9 Tru 
ra Tei^i) TroXXoi)? &)7rXfcr fjievovs e 
7rpo(Ti<Mv rjpcoTa TI /3ov\ovTai Kal Ttro? tc\ev- 
aavTos ev oVXoi? yeyovacriv. aTravT(*)(Tr)<$ 6' avTW 
rrapa 7rdvTO)v //.ta? (^tof/}?, l?d\(Bav avTOKpaTOpa 






6 TOU? 7TO/JLVOV<$ Ke\6V. TWV > Tfapd T<Z? 

TcapevTwv avTov elae\0elv /^er' o\,iywv auro? 
dicovri^eTai ^oyxi}' Ka ^ L TUVTrjv fj,ev eBt^aTO Trpb 
avTov dupew SeTrrt/^io?, a\,\a>v Se yvfAi'ois ^Lfyeaiv 
(frwywv Kal &&>^#et? eV oiK>']/j,aTi 
cr<paTTTaL. Kal TOV veKpbv et? yuecroi' 
e\KV(ravTe<s Kal Trepif3a\QVTe<$ KijK\i$a Oea/na rot? 
/SovXofievois fjieO* i}/jiepav Ttapkayjov. 

XV. Oirra) Se TOU Ni/yu^tStou KaTaaTpetyavTos 
o FaX/Sav rrvOo/jievos, Kal TWV crvvwfxoTwv avTov 

2 34 



GALBA xiv. 3-xv. i 

as we have slain the son of Agrippina ? Or, shall 
we inflict punishment on Nymphidius for his evil 
deeds, and thereby show ourselves avengers of Nero, 
but true and faithful guardians of Galba? " 

So spoke the tribune, and all his soldiers took his 
side, and visiting their fellow-soldiers, exhorted them 
to maintain their fidelity to the emperor ; and they 
brought over the greater part of them. But now 
loud shouts arose, and Nymphidius, either because 
he was convinced, as some say, that the soldiers 
were already calling him, or because he was anxious 
to win over betimes the element that was still 
unruly and mutinous, came up in a glare of lights, 
carrying in his hand a speech written out for him by 
Cingonius Varro ; this he had got by heart to deliver 
to the soldiers. But when he saw the gate of the 
camp closed and a great number of men under arms 
along the walls, he was struck with fear ; and drawing 
near, he asked what they meant, and by whose 
command they were under arms. One cry came to 
him from the lips of all, and this was that they 
acknowledged Galba as emperor, whereupon he also, 
as he joined them, shouted in approval, and bade his 
followers do the same. But after the soldiers at the 
gate had permitted him to enter with a few followers, 
a lance was hurled at him. This weapon Avas 
received in the shield which Septimius interposed, 
but others assailed him, with drawn SAvords, where- 
upon he fled, was pursued, and was cut down in a 
soldier's hut. His dead body was dragged forth, 
surrounded with a paling, and exposed to public 
view all dav. 

v 

XV r . Such was the violent end of Nymphidius. and 
when Galba learned of it, he ordered such of his 

235 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cnroOavelv ocroi /zr/ Bi avrwv e 
aTreOavov, ev oZ? r)v Kal Kiyycovios 6 TOV \6yov 
Kal MiOpiBdTrjs 6 Hoim/co?, e'Boge /LIT) 
, el KOL BiKaicoSi/ArjBe BIJ/JLOTLKMS dvypijKevaL 
Trpo Kpiaews dvBpas OVK ao^/^ou?. erepov jap 
fjye/jiovias cr^tj/uia TrpocreSe^oivTO Trdvres, e'^aTrarco- 
2 fjivoi avvr^Ow^ VTTO TWV i> dp^fj \yo/jivcov. ert 
Be /uia\\ov rjvlaaev auTOU? dvrjp viraTiicos teal 

NepCOI^A TTtCTTO? ClTToOavelv K\V(T@iS, TleTptoVlOS 

Tovp7ri\iav6s. ^Idfcpov 1 yap ev Aiftvy 8ta Tpe- 
J3a)vi6v* Kal <&ovn)iov ev TepfiavLa Bid Qvd\ei'TO<? 
dve\a)v 7Tp6(f)a(Ttv el^ev eV oVXoi? KCU (npaTOTre- 
Bois 6Vra? (f)o/3>)0>jvai. TovpTriXiavbv Be, yepovra 
yv/Jivov Kal di'OTrXov, \6yov yueraXa/Sett' ovSev 
eKw>\vev, el TL? >}v 7rayye\\erai /jLerpLor^ra rot? 



2 epyra 

3 TaOra pev ovv ro^ai/Ta? e^ei fjLe/^^rei,^. eVet Be 
7rpo(Tia>v aTrel^e TT}? TroXew? irepl Trevre 
araBiovs, eveTvy^avev dKoa-jjiia Kal OopvfBw 
epe*ro)v T^V oBov Trpofare^ovrayv Kal irepiKe^v/jLe- 
vwv Travra-^oOev. ovroi Be rjaav 01)9 et? ev rdy/ia 

4 o Ne/30)^ auXXo^tVa? djrefyrive (TTparia)Ta<;' Kal 
rore irapovres eK(3eftai<aGaaOai, rrjv cnpaTelav 
OUT' ocf)0TJi>ai TOi? anavTMaiv ov-r dKOvaOrfvaL 
Trapiecrav TOV avTOKpaTOpa, aXV edopv/3ovv ftofj 
(Trjaeta TW TayuaTi Kal ^a)pav atroO^re?. eKeivov 
Be VTrepTiOe/jLevov Kal Trd\iv eijrelv 3 



1 Maxpov (as in xiii. 3), Tpefiwiov, suggested by Sint. 8 for 

va and Tpe@u>viavov of the MSS. 

8 Trpd'y/j.acriv Sint. 2 has ypj.ju/j.ao'iv (in his letters], after 
Emporius. 

3 TtaXiv rlirtiv Bekker has wapfiftfiv (yield), after Corae's. 

236 



GALBA xv. 1-4 

fellow-conspirators as had not at once taken their 
own lives to be put to death. Among these was 
Cingonius, who wrote the speech for Nymphidius, 
and Mithridates of Pontus. But it was held to be 
illegal and despotic, even though just, to put to 
death without a trial men who were not without 
distinction. For everyone expected a different mode 
of government, being thoroughly deceived, as is 
usual, by assurances made in the beginning. And 
people took it still more amiss when Petronius 
Turpilianus, a man of consular dignity who was 
faithful to Nero, was ordered to take his own life. 
For in having Macer taken off in Africa at the hands 
of Trebonius, and Fonteius in Germany at the hands 
of Valens, Galba could excuse himself with the fear 
they inspired as commanders of armed forces. But 
there was no reason why Turpilianus, a helpless old 
man and unarmed, should not have a chance to defend 
himself, if the emperor was really going to observe 
that moderation in his dealings which he promised. 

Such, then, was the censure to which these acts 
exposed Galba. Moreover, when, in his approach to 
the city, he was distant from it about five-and- 
twenty furlongs, he fell in with a disorderly and 
tumultuous crowd of seamen, who beset his way and 
encompassed him on all sides. These were men 
whom Nero had formed into a legion and given the 
title of soldiers. And now they were there to 
enforce their just rights as soldiers, and would not 
suffer the emperor to be seen or heard by those who 
came to meet him, but with tumultuous shouts 
demanded standards for their legion and regular 
quarters. When Galba put off their demand and 
told them to renew it at another time, they declared 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dpvr}aeu>s a^r/aa rijv dva{3o\rjv elvai 
tjyavd/cTOvv ical rrapelirovro urj (freiBo/Aevot, y3or}?. 
eviwv Be Kal ra? fj,a%aipa<i (TTraa'a/Aevwv, Ke\vcre 
TOZ;? tTrrrels eujSaXelv auroi? o FaX/3a9. vTrecrrr) 
Be ovBels 1/eCvfov, aXX' ol IAW evOvs d 



ol Be <>evovT<; &i()Qdt]crav, ov 



aiaiov TTOiovvres ra> Yd\fBa, rov olwvov 

Sia TTO\\OV (frovov KOI veicp&v roaovrcov et? rrjv 

Tro\iv. aXX' el KO.I ris avrov reareifipovei Trpore- 



pov ffevovs teal yepovTOS opw^evov, Tore Tracrt 



Kal ^)0/Se/3o? eyevero. 

XVI. Boi/Xo/uefo? be TJ}? irepl ra? Swpeas d 
r/ota? Kal TToXfTeXeta? rou 

fj,eyd\i]v p,eTafto\riv, ddTO^lv e&oKet, rov irpe- 
irovros. Kai^of yap av\ii<javros avrw rrapd 1060 
Seirrvov (d/cpoa/jia Be rjv o Kaz^o? 6vSoKifj.ov/j,evov} 
Kal aTro^eaue^o? exeXevcrev avrw 



TO 



e'/reBfDKe ru> Kaz^w, ^>r;cra? IK rwv IBicov, OVK 

2 K rwv Sij/jLOdiaiv ^apl^eaOai. ra? Be Bwpeds a? 
Ne/cwj; e'BcoKe rot? rrepl (TKrjvrjv Kal rca\aiarpav, 

crvvrovws /ceXeucra? rr\^v rov BeKarov 
, elra fiLKpa Kal y\ia/%pa Kofju^onevos 
(dvr)\(t)Keo~av yap ol TrXetcrroi raw Xaftovrcov, 
e^fjiepoi Kal aarvpiKol rot? /Stof? avOpwrroC) 
TOU? rcpiajJLzvovs reap* avrwv rj XaySoi^ra? 6riovi> 

3 dve^reu Kal rrap etcGivwv e^irrparre. rov Be 

opov OVK e^oi^ro?, aXXa 
Kal irpo'Lovros errl vroXXoi^?, auro? 
238 



GALBA xv. 4-xvi. 3 

that the postponement was merely a way of refusing 
their demands, and were incensed, and followed 
along with unremitted shouts. Some actually 
drew their swords, and then Galba ordered his 
horsemen to charge upon them. Not a man of 
them stood his ground, but some were done to 
death at once in the rout, and others as they fled, 
nor was it a happy and auspicious omen that Galba 
should enter the city through so much slaughter and 
so many dead bodies. But whereas many had 
before this despised him and looked upon him as a 
weak old man, now all regarded him with shudder- 
ing fear. 

XVI. And now, in his desire, to display a great 
change from Nero's immoderate and extravagant 
manner of giving, he was thought to fall short of 
what was fitting. For example, after Canus had 
played on the flute for him at a banquet (now Canus 
was a performer of high repute), he was loud in his 
praises and ordered his purse to be brought to him ; 
and taking from it a few gold pieces, he gave them 
to Canus, with the remark that the gift was made 
from his own, and not from the public moneys. 
Again, he ordered that the gifts which Nero had 
made to people of the theatre and palaestra should 
be demanded back again with strictness, all but the 
tenth part ; and then, when he got only slight 
and grudging returns (for most of the recipients had 
squandered their largess, being men of a loose and 
improvident way of living), he had a search made for 
such as had bought or received anything whatsoever 
from them, and tried to exact it from these. The 
business had no limits, but was far extended and 
affected many ; it gave the emperor himself a bad 

239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



T)B6$;i, (f)06i>ov Be KCU /tucro? el^ev OVLVIOS, o>? 
rot? /lev a'XXot? ajracriv dve\ev0epov 
TOV rjyefJLova Kal fj.iKpo\6yov, auro? Be 
a<ra>TO)? Kal \afjifBdvwv irdvra 



4 o fj.ev yap 



evov re iriOov Kal \ijyovTO$ KOpecraaOai 

l Beiv, 6 Be Out wo? op&v daOevrf Kal <yepovra 
TOV 



XVII. 'O ^e TrpecrflvTr]? rjBiKeiro ra fj,ev 
Trpcora TOV Qviviou Ara/tco? IOIKOVVTO<S, a Be auro? 



olov rjv TO rrepl ra? K0\daeis TWV 

2 aTreKTeive yap TOL*? Trovripovs, ev ol? ^ 6 f/ 

/cal IIoXu/cXeiTO? /tal Ilert^o? ^at IIaTyoo/3to?. 
6 Se Brj/Jios eKpoTei, Kal Bi dyopas avTwv dyo- 
fjiivwv e/3oa KaXrjv JAW elvai Kal 6eo(f)t\TJ Tro^TTijv, 
drraiTelv Be Kal 06ov$ Kal dv6pci)Trovs TOV BiBdcrKa- 
\ov Kal rraiBaywybv TT}? Tvpavvl&os Tiye\\ivov. 
e(f)0dKei Be 6 yevvalos 7rp06i\r)<f)a)? appa 

3 fj.eyd\ois TOV Oviviov. etra Tovp7rL\iavbs 

OIL /jiT) irpoeBiBov fMfjBe e/jLicret, TOV rjyefjiova 
TOLOVTOV ovTa fJucTovfjievos, aXXo Be ^Be ev p,eya 
crvvaBiKija-as, aTreOavev 6 Be Kal Tron]o~a$ aiov 
OavaTov Nepcova Kal yevo/^evov TOLOVTOV e 
Kal rrpoBovs Trepifjv, fj-eya 



1 Works and Days, 366. 
240 



GALBA xvi. 3-xvn. 3 

name, and brought envy and hatred upon Vinius 
as having made the emperor ungenerous and sordid 
with everybody else, while he himself used money 
lavishly, taking everything that was offered and 
selling freely. For Hesiod l bids men to 

" Drink without stint at the beginning and end of 
the cask," 

and so Vinius, seeing that Galba was old and feeble, 
sated himself with the good fortune which he 
thought was just beginning and at the same time 
was soon to end. 

XVII. But the aged emperor suffered injustice not 
only when Vinius, as at first, administered affairs 
badly, but also when he brought into odium or pre- 
vented wise measures set on foot by Galba him- 

/ 

self ; as, for instance, in the matter of punishing the 
adherents of Nero. For Galba set out to kill the bad 
ones, among whom were Helius and Polycleitus and 
Petinus and Patrobius. And the people applauded 
the act, and shouted, as the culprits were dragged 
through the forum, to their doom, that it was a 
goodly procession indeed, and acceptable to the gods, 
but that gods and men alike demanded justice on 
the tutor and teacher of the tyrant, namely, Tigel- 
linus. That worthy minister, however, had won the 
protection of Vinius betimes, by means of large 
advances. Again, Turpilianus, who was hated merely 
because he would not betray nor show hatred to 
Nero in spite of all that emperor's crimes, but apart 
from this had participated in no one serious offence, 
was put to death ; whereas the man who had made 
Nero worthy of death, and betrayed and forsook him 
when he had come to that pass, was left alive a great 

241 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov fwjoev arcpaKrov eivai rrapa Qvivlw 

4 av\TTLGTOv TOi? SiSovcriv. ovSevb? yap ovrco 
ded/Jiaro^ epaaQel? 6 'Pco/^aiwv 8rj/j,os &)? rov 
Tiye\\.ivov l&eiv aira^o^vov, ovoe 

ev iracri OedrpOL^ Kal crraStot? 

eTreTrXr/^r; Siaypd/jL/^art. rou avrofcpdropos Ti- 

<ye\Xivov /ULCV ov TTO\VV ert (Bi&crea-Oai, 

TO? %pbvov VTTO <f)divd&os vovov 

etceivovs Se TrapairoujjLevov /JLTJ 

5 /AijSe TVpavviKrjV iroielv rrjv 



jjievov B TOV Bijfiou Kara i ye\Mvre^ 6 JJLEV Tije\- 
\ivo$ eOvae awTrjpia Kal Trapea /cei/aae \a^irpav 
earlaaiv, 6 8e Out wo? az^acrra? Trapa TOV avro- 
tcpdropos iJiera SeiTrvov eKoi^aa'ev a>? Kelvov, 
aya)v rrjv dvyarepa ^r)pav ovcrav. Kal 7rpou7riv 
o 'Yiy6\\ivo<? avrfj irivre Kal ZIKOGI /jivpidSas 
dpyvpiou, Kal rwv 7ra\\aKiBa)V TYJV dye\ap- 
Ke\V<T6 rov Trep&epaiov KOCT/JLOV d<p6\o- 
efcetvy Trepid"fyai, Trei-reKauSeKa 



eivai 



XVIII. 'Er Se rovrov Kal ra jj,erpia)s irpar- 
$iafto\r)V el^ev, &>? ra TT^O? rou? FaXara? 
(Tvvapa/jbevous. eBoKOW yap ov (f>i\av- 
Opwrrla rov avroxparopos, aXXa utvov^voi irapa 
Oviviov rvy%dveiv dveaews re 8ac7/ua>^ Kal 
2 TToXireia?. ol /lev ovv rco\\ol &ia ravra 
rrfv i)j/jioi'iai> arc^^Odvovro, rovs 8 
rrjv Swpeav /jurj Ko/j,io/j,evous ev dp-^fj /j,ev 
Trapijyev &)?, el Kal pr) roaovrov, dXX' oaov 
242 



GALBA xvii. 3-xvin. 2 

object-lesson to show that Vinius could do anything 
and fulfil any expectation for those who gave him 
enough. For there was no spectacle on which the 
Roman people had so set their hearts as that of 
Tigellinus dragged away to punishment, and in all 
the theatres and circuses they would not cease 
demanding him, until they were quelled by an edict 
of the emperor in which he declared that Tigellinus 
was wasting away with consumption and had not 
much longer to live, and advised them not to 
exasperate the government or force it to be tyrannical. 
Then, in mockery of the dissatisfied people, Tigel- 
linus offered sacrifices for his preservation and 
prepared a splendid feast ; and Vinius, rising from 
beside the emperor, afterwards went to a drinking- 
bout in Tigellinus' house, leading his daughter, who 
was a widow. Tigellinus pledged her health with 
a gift of twenty-five myriads of money, 1 and ordered 
the governess of his concubines to take the necklace 
from her own neck and put it about hers. The 
necklace was said to be worth fifteen myriads. 

XVIII. After this, even the reasonable measures 
of the emperor fell under censure, as, for instance, 
his treatment of the Gauls who had conspired with 
Vindex. For they were thought to have obtained their 
remission of tribute and their civil rights, not through 
the kindness of the emperor, but by purchase from 
Vinius. Such were the reasons, then, why most of 
the people hated the government ; but the soldiers, 
though they had not received their promised largess, 
were led on at first by the hope that Galba would 
give them, if not the whole of it, at least as much as 

1 See the note on Chap. ii. 2. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Nepoov eScofcev, dTroBwa-ovTOS. eirel Be ue/.i<f)o/j.evow? 

a/covcra? dtyrjxe (frayvrjv fjye/J-ovi aeydXy Trpe- 

TTOvaav, CLTTCOV elwOevai KaraXeyeiv 

OVK dyopd^eiv, irvdoaevois TOVTO Beivov 

real dypiov TT/OO? avTov. eSo/cet, <yp OVK 
d7ro(TTpeiv /ioyo?, d\\a vofJioOeTeiv fcal 



TOU? [tetf avrov avrofcpdropas. 
3 'AXXa TO fjii> 1 ev 'Pco/iy rv<j)~\.bv rjv ert 



Kai Ti? atSw? dfjia TT/OO? Trapovra rov 
teal ie\\ra-iv eveTToiei T 



KOU TO fj,Tj&fj.iav dp^v e/JL(f)avr] fj,era^o\^ opa- 
(T0ai crvvecTT\\ Kal crvvKpv7nev ayLtco? ye TTW? 
rrjv Svcrpeveiav avrwv. ol Se Trporepov VTTO 
QvepyivLu* yevo/jLcvoi, rore 8' ovres VTTO ^PXa/CKO) 
rrepl Yepfjiaviav, /j,eyd\a)v /jiv d^iovvres a I/TO 1)9 
Sid rrjv fj,d%rjv r)V e'/za^ecra^To TT/QO? Oviv&iKa, 
fitlSevos Se Tvy^dvovres, dTrapijyopTjroi Tot? 
4 ap-fcovcriv rjcrav. avrov Be TOV QXaKKOv VTTO 
auvTovov TroBdypas dBvvaTOv ovra rw <ra)[iaTi 
/cal Trpay/jLarayv aireipov ev ovBevi \6y<a TO 
TrapuTrav eiroiovvTO. Kal TTOTG $e'a? 



TO 



eirevxp fjLevwv TW avroKparopi Fa\/5a, 
oi TroXXol TO vrpwrov, elra rats 

dvred)u>vovv " Et 



XIX. ToLavra Be erepa Kal TWV VTTO Tiye\\ivM 
y/jLarcov v(3pitov~rwv 7roXXa/ct?, eTre/iTreTo ypd/j,- 
fj,aTa TO) Td\/3a irapd TCOV eTTLTpoirfov 6 Be 
t? a)? /ir; IJLQVOV Bid TO yfjpas, d\\d Kal 



1 rb juev Coraes and Bekker have TUV p^v, the correction of 
Reiske. 

244 



GALBA xviii. 2-xix. i 

Nero had given. When, however, Galba heard that 
they were complaining, he spoke out as became a 
great emperor, and declared that it was his custom 
to enroll soldiers, not to buy them ; whereupon they 
began to cherish a dire and savage hatred towards 
him. For they thought that he was not only 
defrauding them himself, but laying down the law 
and giving instructions for succeeding emperors. 

But the agitation at Rome was still smouldering, 
and at the same time a certain respect for Galba's 
presence blunted and delayed the spirit of revolu- 
tion, and the absence of any manifest occasion for a 
change repressed and kept under cover, somehow or 
other, the resentment of the soldiers. But the 
army which had formerly served under Verginius, 
and was now serving under Flaccus in Germany, 
thinking themselves deserving of great rewards on 
account of the battle they had fought against 
Vindex, and getting nothing, could not be appeased 
by their officers. Of Flaccus himself, who was 
physically incapacitated by an acute gout, and in- 
experienced in the conduct of affairs, they made 110 
account whatever. And once at a spectacle, when 
the military tribunes and centurions, after the Roman 
custom, invoked health and happiness upon the 
emperor Galba, the mass of the soldiery raised a 
storm of dissent at first, and then, when the officers 
persisted in their invocation, cried out in response, 
" If he deserves it. 3 ' 

XIX. The legions also that were under the 
command of Tigellinus frequently behaved with 
similar insolence, and letters on the subject were 
sent to Galba by his agents. So the emperor, fear- 
ing that it was not only his old age but also his 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Bid T)]V aTraiBiav Kara<f)povov/jii>os, e{3ov\eve~o 
TralBa BeaOai T&V emfyav&v riva veavicfKov Kal 

2 BidBo^ov aTToBei^ai T/}<? dpy^^. rjv Be Mdptcos 
"Q0wv, avrjp yevei, /^ev OVK defrauds, rpv&fj Be Kal 
$>t~\r)BovLai$ v@vs e/c Trai&wv ev 0X^7049 'Pco/jLaicov 
Bie(j)0ap/j,evo$. &>? Be rov *A\et;ai>Bpoi> f 'Q/JLr)pos 

TTOCTIV ^VKO^JLOLO^ /iojBev e^ovra Trpos 
a\\o aejJivvvwv CITTO T/}? yvvaiKos, ovo/jid{ei 
OUTW? lyeycwa)? TT6/3i/Soj;ro? ev f Po>/xr; 
Bid TOV IToTrTrata? rydfiov, rj<; ijpa /JLCV 6 Nepwr 
Kpio-TTiixo crvvov(njs t eri 8' aiBov{J,evos rrjv eavrov 
Awaited KOI Trfv /jLijrepa ^oySou/xe?'o? ixpfjfce TOV 

3 "Q&cova treLpwvTa rr-/v \\oirrraiav. d>i\(o Be TM 
"QOwvi teal (TVi-iftiwTjj Bid Tijv dcrwriav %pf)TO, 

Kal (TKCt)7rTO{JLVOS VTT OLVTOV TToXXaATi? t? /JilKpO- 

\oyiav Kal dve\evdep'iav escape. Xeyerat Be 



7TOT6 [AVpCO TO)T TT ofT 0) V LCra^VOV TOV 

" 



Kal TOV "QOcova KaTa/3peavTo<;, e 
Trd\u> Ty vcrrepaia Be^ofievo^ avTov a^a TroXXa- 
^o6ev apyvpovs Kal ^pvcrovs Trpo/3a\elv afyvu) 
(jaiX-yra?, warrep vBcop TO fjivpov eK^eovTas Kal 

4 KaraK\vovTa$. aXXa TTTJV ye TIoTnraiav rrpo/AOi- 

rcG Nepcovt,, Kal Bia<p@eipas rat? ets" 
\7rLaii', erreicrev aTroaTrjvai TOV dvBpos. 

Be Trap' avTov co? ya/j.eT))<s OVK 
/j.Te)((jL)V, aXX' ?/cr^aXXt neTaBiBovs, ovBe 
d^OofjLei>r)<;, w? (jjacrt, Ttj ^Xorurrta TT}? 

5 Kal yap d7TOK\ierai TOV Nepcova \eyeTai ^ 
TtapovTOs TOV 'Or'wi/o?, etre rr}? rfBovijs d<paipovcra 
TO TT\ij<T/j.tov, el're, w? tyacriv evioi, 



246 



GALBA xix. 1-5 

childlessness that brought him into contempt, 
planned to adopt some young man of illustrious 
family and appoint him his successor. Marcus Otho, 
now, was a man of good lineage, but from his very 
childhood corrupted by luxury and the pursuit of 
pleasure as few Romans were. And as Homer often 
calls Paris " the husband of fair-haired Helen/' 
giving him a dignity borrowed from his wife, since 
lie had no other title to fame, so Otho was celebrated 
at Rome for his marriage with Poppaea. With 
Poppaea Nero was enamoured while she was the 
wife of Crispinus, but since he respected his own 
wife still and feared his mother, he put Otho up 
to soliciting her favours for him. For because of 
Otho's lavish prodigality Nero made an intimate 
friend of him, and was well pleased to be rallied by 
him often for parsimony and meanness. Thus, we 
are told that Nero once anointed himself with a 
costly ointment and sprinkled a little of it upon 
Otho ; whereupon Otho, entertaining the emperor 
in his turn on the following day, suddenly brought 
into play gold and silver pipes on all sides of the 
room, out of which the ointment gushed freely, like 
so much water. But as for Poppaea, Otho corrupted 
her with hopes of Nero's favour and seduced her 
first himself, and persuaded her to leave her husband. 
However, after she had come to live with him as his 
wife, he was not content to have only a share in her 
favours, and was loth to give Nero a share, while 
Poppaea herself, as we are told, was not displeased 
at the rivalry between them. For it is said that she 
would shut out Nero although Otho was not at 
home ; whether it was that she sought to keep his 
pleasure in her from cloying, or whether, as some 

247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TOV KatVa/>o? yd/JLOV, epacrrfj Be /JLIJ 
yprjcrOcu Bid TO <^)L\aKO\acrTOV. eKtvBvvevcrev 
ovv o "Odwv diroQavelv Kai 7rapd\oyov TJV OTI 
TTJV yvvaiKa /cat dBe\<prjv dTro/creivas Bid TOV 



yjj,ov eecraTO TOV 
XX. ^eveicav Se el V vvovv Kcuceivov TOV 



Trei&avTOS real TrapaivecravTos 



o~TpaTr}yo<; eVl TOV 'Qrceavov. real 
7rapO"%ev eavTov OVK a%apiv ouSe 7ra%0rj rot? 
v-jrrjKoois, 6t8&)9 (frvyrjs VTroKoptcr^ua teal 
2 \VfjLfJia Trjv dp%r)V avTW 



, fcal <pepwv ocrov el^ev ev eKTrwf^acn /cat 
apyvpov Kai %pvcrbv eBa)K KaTaKo^ai 
vo/jLicrfJ-a, Kai TWV olfCCTtov cBcopijcraTO 106/ 
TOU? eWicr/jievovs irepl SiaiTav rfye^ovi eya/ieXa)? 
vTrovpyeiv. Kai TO. d\\a TTHTTOS rjv CLVT&, Kai 
SiSovs Trelcav ovBevbs T/TTOV eoo/cet 7rpay/jidTO)v 

e'yU/7Tt/309 eivdi' KOL (3a$ioVTl TTjV 6&OV aTTCKTCLV 

efi rj/jiepas TroXXa? avvo^ovfjievo^ SiereKeo'ev. 

3 cv Se Trj crvvo^ia Kai TTJ trvvrjOela TOV QVLVIOV 

e^eOepd-nevaev 6/j.i\ia Kai Soopot?, /iaXtcrra 8e 

TO)V TTpWTeiwV V(j)LfJLVO<; aVTW TO ye fJLT KtVOl> 

SvvacrOai ^t' e/ceiiov et^e /3e/3at'&>9. TW Be dv- 
7ri(f)&6vti) Trepirji', TrpoLKa crv/jiTrpdrTcov irdvTa rot? 
8eofj,evoL<;, Kai Trape^wv eavToi' evTrpocnjyopov KOL 
<f)L\dv0pa)Trov airacn. TrXetcrra Be rot? 

arvve\d[jL/3ave KOI Trporjye TTO\\OV<> 



ta Coraes and Bekker, after Du Soul : OUT<^S. 



1 Cf. Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 45 f. 
248 






GALBA xix. 5~xx. 3 

say, she recoiled from a marriage with the emperor, 
but was not averse to having him as a lover, out of 
mere wantonness. Otho, accordingly, came into 
peril of his life ; and it was strange that although 
his own wife and sister were put to death by Nero 
on account of his marriage with Poppaea, Otho 
himself was spared. 1 

XX. But Otho had the good will of Seneca, by 
whose advice and persuasion Nero sent him out as 
governor of Lusitania to the shores of the western 
ocean. Here he made himself acceptable and 
pleasing to his subjects, although he knew that his 
office had been given him to disguise and mitigate 
his banishment. When Galba revolted, Otho was 
the first of the provincial governors to go over to 
him, and bringing all the gold and silver that he had 
in the shape of drinking-cups and tables, he gave it 
to him for conversion into coin, presenting him also 
with those of his servants who were qualified to give 
suitable service for the table of an emperor. In 
other ways he was trusted by Galba, and when put to 
the test was thought to be inferior to none as a 
man of affairs ; and during the entire journey of the 
emperor he would travel in the same carriage with 
him for many days together. Moreover, amid the 
intimacies of the common journey he paid court to 
Y 7 inius, both in person and by means of gifts, and, 
above all else, by yielding to him the first place, he 
got his aid in holding securely the place of influence 
next to him. But in avoiding envy he was superior 
to Vinius, for he gave his petitioners every aid with- 
out any reward, and showed himself easy of access 
and kindly to all men. But it w r as the soldiers whom 
he was most ready to help, and he advanced many of 

249 

VOL. XI. I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjyeuovias, ra aev alrov/jievo^ arro TOV avTOKpa- 
4 TO/OO?, ra Be TOV Quiviov KOI TOU? aTreXevdepovs 
TrapaKa\a)v "ItfeAoi> /cal 'AcrLariKov OVTOI yap 
r)aav ev Bwdpei p,d\Lcna TWV Trepl TTJV av\r)v. 
ocrd/cis Be rov Td\/3av elarla, TIJV 7rapa(j)V\dr- 
Tovcrav del cnrelpav eBexa^e yjpvaovv e/cacrro) 
, ol? Ti^av avrov e&ofcei KaraTroXiTevo- 
KOI Srj/jLaycoywv TO crrpaTiwriKov. 
XXI. 'AX\' ovv {3ov\evo[ievov ye TOV FaX/3a 

l Sia$6'%ov TOP "QOwva 7rapi<rrjyev o 
ov$e TOVTO TrpOiKa Trpdcrcrwv, aXV eirl 
BvyaTpos, o/j,o\oyia<; yevo/Jievrjc; ya/nelv avrrjv TOV 
"OOcova TralSa TOV Vd\(3a Kal &id$o%ov a 
)(6evTa r/}9 riyefjiovlas. o Be FaXySa? del /JLCV 

7T/JO TOV IBiOV TO KOIVOV TiOefJLeVO 

vTU) OivOat, TOV r)SicrTOv, d\\d ' 
2 TOV ooeXiLtooraTOf. 8o/cet Be u3' av eirl 



i TOV 

VO/JLOV, ciKoXaaTOv tSa>? Kal TroXureXr; Kal irevTa- 
KUT%i\La>v uupidScov 6(f)\^uao'L 
'69ev ciKovaas TOV QVIVLOV ateoTrfj Kal 

TTJV BidOeaiv. aTroSet^a? S' avTov 
Kal avvdp^ovTa TOV Qviviov eiriSoo$ r)v 
eroi;? dp^fj TOV BidBo^ov dvayopeixreiv Kal TO 
CTTpaTiutTLKOv r}Se'ft)? ^X e r 1 ' V O^a>fa Trap' OVTLVOVV 
a\\ov dvayopeu@f)vai. 

XXII. KaraXa/i,/3a^ei S' avTov CTI /jie\\ovTa 



1 See the note on Chap. ii. 2. 
250 



GALBA xx. 3-xxn. i 

them to places of command, sometimes asking the 
appointment from the emperor, and sometimes 
getting the support of Vinius, and of the freedmen 
Icelus and Asiaticus ; for these were the most 
influential men at court. And as often as he 
entertained Galba, he would compliment the cohort 
on duty for the day by giving each man a gold piece, 
thus showing honour to the emperor, as it was 
thought, while really scheming for the support and 
favour of the soldiery. 

XXI. So, then, while Galba was deliberating upon 
a successor, Vinius suggested Otho. And yet not 
even this was done for nothing, but as a return for 
the marriage of his daughter. For it had been 
agreed that Otho should marry her when he had 
been adopted by Galba and declared his successor. 
But Galba always showed clearly that he placed the 
public good before his private interests, and in the 
present case that he aimed to adopt, not the man 
who was most agreeable to himself, but the one who 
would be most serviceable to the Romans. And it 
does not seem that he would have chosen Otho 
merely as the heir of his own private fortune/ since 
he knew that he was unrestrained and extravagant 
and immersed in debts amounting to five millions. 1 
Wherefore, after listening to Vinius calmly and 
without a word, he postponed his decision. But he 
appointed himself and Vinius consuls for the follow- 
ing year, and it was expected that on their accession 
to office he would declare his successor. And the 
soldiery would have been glad that Otho, rather 
than anyone else, should be so declared. 

XXII. But while the emperor was hesitating 
and deliberating, he was overtaken by the dis- 

251 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KCU {3ov\ev6/jLvov eKpayevTd rd Tep/jLavitcd. tcoivfj 
jap diravres ol arpareuo/jievoi, rbv Yd\ftav epicrovv 
OVK aTToBiBovra rrjv Bwpedv, IBias Be eKelvoL rrpo- 
<cret9 eTroiovvro Gpepyiviov re' 
fjievov dri/jLO)^ teal TaXaTWV TOU? 

2 auTOfc? Swpewv Tvyxdvovras, oaoi 5e fir) Trpocr- 

oXa^o/jLevovs, w fj.ov(D rbv Td\/3av 
KCU TL^LCLV redvrjKora KCU yepaipeiv 
<yi(TiAols, a>5 VTT' e/ceivov 'Pco/jLaiwv 

3 aTroBebeiy/jLevov avro/cpdropa. TOLOVTCDV dvatyav- 

ev 



t vov^via TOV TrpooTov fjirivos, r)v ica- 
\di>Ba<t 'lavovapias KaXovar rov Be ^\uKfcov 
avrovs eVl TOV optcov ov e^o? earlv 
VTrep rov avro/epdropos, ra9 fj,ev elicovas 
rov Td\j3a 7rpoae\Qbvres dverpe^rav KOI tcar- 
ecnraa'av, avrol Be b^ocravre^ virep o-vyK\ijrov KCU 

4 Brjpov 'Pa)/J.ai(ov Bie\vOrjcrav. elra rot? fl 
Kols rrapicrraro BeBoi/cevai rrjv dvapy^iav 
arrba-raaiv. \ejei Be Ti? ev aurot?' " Tt 

/Lte^ a) ffvarrpariwrai, fJirjr d\\ov rjyejjiova TTOIOV- 
fievot, [Aijre rov vvv ovra <f>v\drrovrS, wuirep ov 
Td\{3av, aXX,' 6'A.a)? ap^ovra KCU rb ap%e<rdai 

5 $>evyovre<$ ; Q>\UKKOV fj,ev ovv 'QpBewviov ovBev 
a\\o >; crKiav ovra PdX/Sa KOI LBa)\ov eareov, 
r;/U6/)a? Be yum? 0802^ d^ear^Kev rj/jL&v OuiVeXXfo?, 
o TT}? erepas Yep/jiavias riyovfievos, rrarpbs re 
n/jLTjrov real rpls virdrov yevofjievov /tal K\avBiw 10J 
Kaicrapi rpbrrov nva a-vvdp^avros, avrbs re rijv 

1 See Chap. iv. 3. 
252 



GALBA xxn. 1-5 

orders which broke out among the troops in 
Germany. For the soldiers in all parts of the 
empire had a common hatred of Galba because 
he had not given them their usual largess, but 
those in Germany made special excuses for them- 
selves out of the fact that Verginius Rufus had been 
cast off in dishonour; that the Gauls who had fought 
against them were getting rewards, while all those 
who had not joined Vindex were being punished ; 
and that to Vindex alone Galba showed gratitude 
by honouring him when he was dead and giving him 
the distinction of public obsequies, on the ground that 
\ index had proclaimed him emperor of the Romans. 1 
Such arguments as these were already circulating 
openly in the camp, when the first day of the first 
month came, which the Romans call the Calends of 
January. On this day Flaccus assembled the soldiers 
that they might take the customary oath of allegiance 
to the emperor ; but they overturned and pulled 
down all the statues of Galba which they could find, 
and after swearing allegiance to the senate and 
people of Rome, went to their quarters. Then their 
officers began to fear that their lawless spirit might 
issue in revolt, and one of them made this speech : 
" What is wrong with us, mv fellow soldiers ? We 

o * 

are neither Supporting the present emperor nor 
setting up another. It is as though we were 
averse, not to Galba, but to all rule and obedience. 
Flaccus Hordeonius, indeed, who is nothing but a 
shadow and image of Galba, we must ignore, but 
there is Vitellius, who is only a day's march distant 
from us, and commands the forces in the other 
Germany. His father was censor, thrice consul, and 
in a manner the colleague of Claudius Caesar, and 

2 53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



\oiBopov fAevrjv vii eviwv Treviav 

e^wv xpijcTTorrjTOS KOI /jLeya\o<ppo(rvvrj^. <f>epe, 

TOVTOV e\,OfJLVOt Bei^CO/iJLeV avOpWTTOLS TTCifflV O>9 

'Iftr/pwv KOI Avairavwv wfikiVQV*} efrfiev auro- 
KpciTOpa aipelcrflai" 

6 Taura TMV jJiev rj$r) TrpoaiefAercov, TWV 8' ov 

, el? v 

TO) 

1 avrw. rov Se \6yov &icurerrovTO<$ e/? TO, 

Trpwro? <&d/3tos OvdXrjs, rj 
a^/iaTO?, rfj vcrrepaia /^era irrrrewv 
avrofcpdropa rov OviT\\iov 

7 6 Se ra? p,i> efiTrpocrOev ?7/xe/oa? 



TO 



, rore ^e <f>a(ni> olvov 8/a7rXew^ KOI 
orra fjLcn-)fji(Bpivris irpoeXOeiv KOI vrraKovcrai 
YepfjidviKov ovofjia 0fjLvci)v avrw, TO Be Kai<rapo<; 
8 ov Trpoa-Se^d/jLevov. evdvs Be teal TO perd <&\dK/cov 



crTprevuarov^ /eaou? etce'ivovs 



T(p avTOKpoLTOpi TTOirfaeiv TO 7rpO(TTacrcr/J.evov 

XXIII. OVTCI) fjiev avriyopevOri 
avTOKpcnwp ev Tep/jLavia. TrvfJojuevos Be TOV 
vewrepicrfjiov o Yd\/3a$ ovKen rr^v 
dv/3d\\ero. yivwa/caiv Be rwv (foiXwv eviovs jjie 
AoXo/3e\Xa, Toi/9 Be 7r\eicrrov^ vrrep " 



/j.rjBV Trpoenrwv fJierGTrefi-^ra-ro Heicrayva, 
Kpaaaov real *2.Kpi(3a)via<$ e/vyovov, OU9 Ne'pwv 
2 dvrjpijKei, veaviav ev TTJ rrpos Traaav dper^v 
ev<j)via TO KQa^iiov Kal avcrTrjpov jJL<>avecrTaTa 



254 



GALBA xxii. 5-xxm. 2 

Vitellius himself, in the poverty with which some 
reproach him, affords a splendid proof of probity and 
magnanimity. Come, let us choose him, and so show 
the world that we know how to select an emperor 
better than Iberians and Lusitanians." 

While some of the soldiers were already for adopt- 
ing this proposal and others for rejecting it, one 
standard-bearer stole away and brought tidings of 
the matter by night to Vitellius, as he was entertain- 
ing many guests. The news spread swiftly to the 
troops, and first Fabius Valens, commander of a 
legion, rode up next day with a large body of horse- 
men and saluted Vitellius as emperor. Hitherto 
Vitellius had seemed to decline and avoid the 
office, fearing the magnitude of it ; but on this day, 
as they say, being fortified with wine and a midday 
meal, he came out to the soldiers and accepted the 
title of Germanicus which they conferred upon him, 
though he rejected that of Caesar. And straightway 
the army with Flaccus also, casting aside those fine 
and democratic oaths of theirs to support the senate, 
took oath that they would obey the orders of 
Vitellius the emperor. 

XXIII. Thus was Vitellius proclaimed emperor in 
Germany ; and when Galba learned of the revolution 
there he no longer deferred his act of adoption. 
Knowing that some of his friends favoured the selec- 
tion of Dolabella, and most of them that of Otho, 
neither of whom was approved by himself, he 
suddenly, and without any previous notice of his 
intention, sent for Piso (whose parents, Crassus and 
Scribonia, had been put to death by Nero), a young 
man in whose predisposition to every virtue the traits 
of gravity and decorum were most conspicuous ; then 

255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e%ovra' KOI Karefiaivev ew TO crrparorreBov ef 
vov aTroBei^wv Kaiaapa teal Sid$o%ov. KCUTOI 



Qovv, dpa/jievov Se ra (Jiev \eyeiv ev rS> crrparo- 
7re8ft>, ra Se avaryLvwcriceiv, rocravrdfcis eftpovrrjae 
KOL KarijaTpa-^re, KCU TocroOro? o/x/9/3o? KOI 6(j)os 
e^e^vOrj et? TO crrparoTreSov teal rrjv 7ro\iv, ft)? 
KardBv\ov elvai prj Trpocne^evov /Lt7/8e eTraivovv TO 
Sai/Aoviov yivo/jLevrjv OVK JTT dyaOw rrjv clcrTroir)- 
3 <TIV. ty Se KOL ra ra>v arpanwrMV vrrovka KOI 
aKvOpwrra /z?;Se TOTG Scopeas avrols Bodeicrr]^. 

Tof) Be HeicrcDvos ol rrapovres edavfiacrav ry 
re cfxavy re/cfjiaipofievoi teal rq> Trpoauura) TO rrj\i- 
/cavrrjv X^P LV dve/JL7T\iJKra)s, ov 



warrep av rov 

rro\\a crrjfjLela rfj /j,op(f)f) m/cpa)? KOA, avv opyfj 
eXTT/So? rrjv drrorev^iv fyepovros, fj<; TT^OJTO? 
KOL rov rv)(elv eyjvrdray yevofievos TO 
7roitro crrjfjielov e^^ou? dfia teal Ka/co- 
4 voias rov Td\/3a Trpo? avrov. oOev ou&e d<po/3os 
rrepi rov fjie\\ovros, d\\a real rov TLeifrcova 
teal rov Td\/3av 7rpo/3a\\6fjivo<> real rw 
OVIVLW xd\Traivwv drryei rroXX.MV rraOwv TrX?;/??;?. 
ovBe yap TO e\rri^ov K\nrelv ov&e drrayopevcrai 
Travrarraaiv eiwv OL Trepl avrov ovres del fxavreis 
teal XaXSatoi, et? ra fi,d\icrra 8e IlToXe/iaio? 
la"xvpi6fj,vos TO) rrpoeirrelv TroXXa/ct? ot>? OVK 
arroKrevel Nepcw avrov, d\\d reOvij^erai rrporepos, 
auTo? Se Trepiearat, Kal ap^et'PwfjLaiwv (e/celvo yap 
256 



GALBA xxni. 2-4 

he went down to the camp to declare him Caesar 
and heir to the throne. And vet as soon as he set 

%/ 

out, great signs from heaven accompanied him on his 
way, and after he had begun to pronounce and read 
his address to the soldiers, there were many peals 
of thunder and flashes of lightning, and much dark- 
ness and rain pervaded both the camp and the city, 
so that it was plain that the act of adoption was 
inauspicious and was not favoured or approved by the 
heavenly powers. The soldiers also were secretly 
disloyal and sullen, since not even then was their 
largess given to them. 

As for Piso, those who were present at the scene 
and observed his voice and countenance were amazed 
to see him receive so great a favour without great 
emotion, though not without appreciation ; whereas 
in the outward aspect of Otho there were many 
clear signs of the bitterness and anger with which 
he took the disappointment of his hopes. He had 
been the first to be thought worthy of the prize, and 
had come very near attaining it, and his not attain- 
ing it was regarded by him as a sign of ill-will and 
hatred on Galba's part towards him. Wherefore he 
was not without apprehension for the future, and 
fearing Piso, blaming Galba, and angry with Vinius, 
he went away full of various passions. For the 
soothsayers and Chaldaeans who were always about 
him would not suffer him to abandon his hopes or 
give up altogether, particularly Ptolemaeus, who 
dwelt much upon his frequent prediction that Nero 
would not kill Otho, but would die first himself, and 
that Otho would survive him and be emperor of the 
Romans (for now that he could point to the first 
part of the prediction as true, he thought that Otho 

257 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ravra 

fJKtcrra 6' ol avva^Qo^voi /cpv<f>a /cai o~vv- 
revovres ft>? d%dpio~ra rreTrovdori. 7r\elo~roi 
Be rwv Trepl Tiye\\ivov teal NV/JL^L^LOV ev Ti/mfj 
yeyovorayv aTreppijji/JiCVOi rore KCLI raireiva Trpdr- 
TOVTCS (f)@eipovTO TT/DO? CLVTOV KCU 



KOL 



XXIV. 'Ev Se TOVTOLS Overovpios KOL Ba/ 
o fjLv OTTTLCW, o Be re(Tcrpdpio<>' ovT(o <ydp KCL- 
\ovvrai ol Bt,a<y<y\(ov teal - 



<rro? 6iTi()OiTWv rovs fj,ev pyvpw, TOU? 
$i<f)(}ipev rjSrj craOpovs 6Wa9 fcal SeoyLteVou? Trpo- 
(/>aa"ft)9. ov yap rjv rj/JLepcov recradpayv epyov 
vyiaivovros (rrpaTOTreSov fjL r ra(7Tr)crai Trlcrriv, ocrai 
fjiera^v T?}? tV7rot7;<je&)9 t&yevovro fcal rrj<f cr^ay?)?. 
e/crrj jdp dv^peOrja-av, r)v dyovcrt, 'Pw/jialoi irpb 
Se/caoKTco Ka\av8wv Qeftpovapiwv. 

2 'ILfceLi'T) yap JiwOev evOvs o yuet^ FaX/Sa? e 
ei> YIa\aria) rwv <f)i\a)v Trapovrwv, o Be 
'O/z/^yOtV^o? ayaa TW \a/3eiv eh ra? ^elpa<; rov 
lepeiou rd cnrXdy^a KOI Trpo&iSeiv ov Si alviy- 
fj,wv, aXX* avTLKpvs e</; arjfieia ^eyaX^? rapa^rj^, 
/cat //.era SoXou KLVO'VVOI> ex Are^aX?}? 7rtKei/j,evov 
TU> avrofcpdropt, ^ovovov^l TOV "Q6wva rov deov 

3 X 1 P^ X^TTTOI' TrapaS^o^ro?. 7rap?]V yap OTTio~0ev 
rov TaX/3a, tcai rrpoael^e rot? Xeyo/xeVoi? :al 

VTTO rov 'O/j,/3piKiov. 



1 January loth (A.D. xviii. Cal. Feb.), 68 A.I>. 



258 



GALBA xxni. 4-xxiv. 3 

should not despair of the second part). Above all, 
Otho was encouraged by those who secretly shared 
his resentment and chagrin on the ground that he 
had been thanklessly treated. Moreover, most ot 
the adherents of Tigellinus and Nymphidius, men 
who had once been in high honour, but were now 
cast aside and of no account, treacherously went over 
to Otho, shared his resentment, and spurred him on 
to action. 

XXIV. Among these were Veturius and Barbius, 
the one an "optic," the other a " tesserarius " (these 
are the Roman names for scout and messenger). In 
company with these Onomastus, a freedman of 
Otho's, went round corrupting the soldiers, some 
with money, and others with fair promises. The 
soldiers were already disaffected and wanted only a 
pretext for treachery. For four days would not have 
sufficed to change the allegiance of a loyal army, and 
only so many days intervened between the act of 
adoption and the murder, since on the sixth day 
after the adoption (the Romans call it the eighteenth 
before the Calends of February x ), Galba and Piso 
were slain. 

On that day, shortly after dawn, Galba was 
sacrificing in the Palatium in the presence of his 
friends ; and as soon as Umbricius, the officiating 
priest, had taken the entrails of the victim in his 
hands and inspected them, he declared not am- 
biguously, but in so many words, that there were 
signs of a great commotion, and that peril mixed 
with treachery hung over the emperor's head. 
Thus the god all but delivered Otho over to arrest. 
For Otho was standing behind Galba, and noted 
what was said and pointed out by Umbricius. But 

259 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be avrti) KOL ^poa9 dfteiffovn TravroBaTras vrro 
Seovs rrapacrras 'Oi^o/^acrTO? arrekevOepos 
e(j)rj Kal rrepifJLeveiv avrov oitcoi TOi>9 a 
rjv Be avfiftdKov Kaipov, 777)09 bv eBet 
4 TOV "Q@(ova rot? crrpaTKOTais. eiTrwv ovv, on 
Tra\aiav ecovij/jievos OIKICLV /3ov\erai ra 
Bel^ai T0t9 7ra>X77Ta?9, aTrrjXBe, KCU Sia 77) 
piov KoX-ov^evr]^ oltcias Karaftas efid&i^ev e/9 



ayopdv, ov %pvcrov<; eicnrjKei fcicov, et9 bv at 



Tracrcu 

XXV. ^vravOa roi'9 Trpwrovs e 
avrov Kai TrpocreiTTOvras avro/cpdropd (facial 
TT \6tou9 rpiwv KOI eiKoat jevecrOai. Sio, Kaijrep 
ov Kara rijv TOV crcafjLaTO? fjia\aKiav Kal d)j\vTt]Ta 

r V "^ v XfJ M*T0/Dl)/Lt/Ai'O9j dXXa tTa/109 WI^ 7T/3O9 

2 ra ^etva al aTpemo^, cure&i\iaav. ol Be 
TrapovTes OVK eia)v, a\Xa rot9 

Trepiiovres avrov TO cfaopeiov Ke\evov 
Trapaffrdeyyo/jievov TTo\\dKi<; avroXcoXeVai KOL roi>9 
<f)opeia(f)6povs 7riTa%vvovTO$. e^Kovov yap evioi 
Oavfjid^ovres yLtaXXor 17 raparro/jievoL Bia rrjv 
oXiyorrjra rwv aTroTeroX^yLteVd)^. <f)pOfj,ev(t> Be 
ovra) BS ayopas dTrijvrrjcrav erepoi roaovroi, Kal 
7rd\iv Kara rpeis Kal rerrapas aXXot TrpocreTre- 

3 Xa^oi^. elra avvavecrrpefyov arravres a 

Katcrapa Kal yv^va ra ^iffaij 

Be %t\idp'XQ)V 6 ri}v (f>v\aKr)V %a)v rov 
crrparoTreBov Maprla\i<;, W9 (fracri, j^i) avveiB(t)<;, 
eKTrXayelv Be rw CLTrpocrBoK/frM Kal 
260 



GALBA xxiv. 3~xxv. 3 

as he stood there in confusion and with a countenance 
changing to all sorts of colours through fear, Ono- 
mastus his freedman came up and told him that the 
builders were come and were waiting for him at his 
house. Now, this was a token that the time was at 
hand when Otho was to meet the soldiers. With 
the remark, then, that he had bought an old house 
and wished to show its defects to the vendors, he 
went away, and passing through what was called 
the house of Tiberius, went down into the forum, to 
where a gilded column stood, at which all the roads 
that intersect Italy terminate. 

XXV. Here, as we are told, the soldiers who first 
welcomed him and saluted him as emperor were no 
more than twenty-three. Therefore, although he 
was not sunken in spirit to match the weakness and 
effeminacy of his body, but was bold and adventurous 
in presence of danger, he began to be afraid. The 
soldiers who were there, however, would not suffer 
him to desist, but surrounding his litter with their 
swords drawn, ordered it to be taken up, while Otho 
urged the bearers to hasten, saying to himself many 
times that he was a lost man. For he was overheard 
by some of the bystanders, and they were astonished 
rather than disturbed, owing to the small number of 
those who had ventured upon the deed. But as he 
was thus borne through the forum, he was met by as 
many more soldiers, and others again kept joining 
the party by threes and fours. Then all crowded 
around the litter, saluting Otho as emperor and 
brandishing their drawn swords. At the camp, 
Martialis, the military tribune in charge of the 
watch at the time, who was not privy to the plot, as 
they say, but was confounded by their unexpected 

261 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



(f>fJKv elff\0iv, yevofjievw Be eWo? ovBels 
dvrerreaev. ol yap dyvoovvres rd rrparroueva 
TO?? elBoai Kol <Tuvecrrw(Tiv etc rrapaarfeevrj^ e'/iTre- 
pie%6/jLvoi Kad" eva KOI Bv<> (TTropdBes, vrrb Beovs 
TO rrpwrov, etTa rrei&devres eTr7)reo\ov0r)O'av. 

Ei? Be TO Y[a\aTiov evOvs /^ev a7njyye\r) TW 
irapovTOs en rov Ovrov real ra>v iepwv ev 
OVTWV, ware KOI TOL/? TTCLVV TT/JO? 



TOiavra vaTreiws real 



adai teal 0avp,d^iv TO 06LOV o%\ov Be TravroBa- 
rrov avppeovTOS e^ dyopas, avTw fjiev Qvivio? teal 
Adtcayv teal T&V tnreXevOepwv evtoi yvp,va TO, 
f;i<f)'r) 7rpo'icr^6/jLvot TrapecrTrjaav, 6 Be Qetcr wv 
TTpoekOcw Tot? (f)V\drTOV(TL rrjv ai)\r)V Bopv(f)6poi<} 
6 eveTvy^ave. rov 8' *I\\vpiteov Tay/zaTO? ev TIJ 
Ka\ovfJievr) iracnd^t, ^L^ravia a-rparoTreBevovTos 
dTreard\tj Map<o? KeXao?, dvrjp dyaOos, Trpo- 



XXVI. }$ov\evouev ov Be rov FaXySa TT poe\0 elv t 
real Oviviov p,ev ovrc ewj^TO?, KeXaou Be real Aa- 
rrapopfjiaivrwv real crcfroBporepov rov Oviviov 



ToO "OOwvos ev rw crrparoTreBq) 1 real 
LLIKOOV wdtOv 'louXfo? "ATT^/CO? ra)v ovrc 

' I I ' 

ev Tot? Bopvtyopois arparevofievo^ yv/jivq* 
7rpoa<f)ep6fj.evos /cat jBo&v dvriprjxevai rov Kaicra- 
po<i rro\e/jiiov awd/jievos Be Bid rwv rrpoearwrwv 106t F 
eBei^e rto FX/3a TO ^t^>o? rjfjLayfjievov. 6 Be 
/SXe'-v/ra? 7T/30? avrov, " Tt? ere" elrrev, "erce\ev(T6 ; ' 
ToO Be dvOpo)7rov TT)I> rricrriv elrrovros /cal rov 



262 






GALBA xxv. 3-xxvi. 2 

appearance and terrified, permitted them to enter. 
And after Otho was inside the camp, no one opposed 
him. For those who were ignorant of what was 
going on, scattered about as they were by ones and 
twos, were designedly enveloped by those who knew 
and were privy to the plot, and so gave in their 
adherence, at first through fear, and then under 
persuasion. 

News of this was carried at once to Galba in the 
Palatium and the priest was still standing there with 
the entrails in his hands, so that even men who 
were altogether indifferent and sceptical about such 
matters were confounded and filled with wonder at 
the divine portent. And now a motley crowd came 
streaming out from the forum ; Vinius and Laco 
and some of the freedmen stood at Galba's side 
brandishing their naked swords ; Piso went out and 
held conference with the guards on duty in the 
court ; and Marius Celsus, a man of worth, was sent 
off to secure the allegiance of the Illy nan legion 
encamped in what was called the Vipsanian portico. 
XXVI. And now, as Galba purposed to go forth, 
and Vinius would not permit it, while Celsus arid 
Laco urged it and vehemently chided Vinius, a 
rumour spread insistently that Otho had been slain 
in the camp; and after a little, Julius Atticus, a 
soldier of distinction among the guards, was seen 
rushing up with his sword drawn, and crying out 
that he had slain the enemy of Caesar ; and forcing 
his way through the crowd about Galba, he showed 
him his sword all stained with blood. Then Galba 
fixed his eyes upon him and said, " Who gave thee 
thy orders ? " Whereupon the man replied that it 
was his fidelity and the oath that he had sworn, at 

263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

opKov ov a>fjLO(T, KOi TOV 7r\r)0ovs eTTifiocovTOs to? 
i>, fcal KpoTovvTos, e/u,/3a? et? TO (fropeiov CKO/JLL- 



TO) re Au Qvcrai KOI (fravfjvai rot? TroXtra/? 
os. eyn/^aXo^TO? e et? T^ dyopdv, 
rpoTraia irvev yLtaro?, dTrrjvrrjcre <f>rf/J>Tj tcpa- 
3 Tew rov "Qdbjva TOV (TT/oaTet'/uiTO?. ola 5e eV 
7r\r}0ei TOCTOVTM, TWV pev avaaTpefyeiv, TWV 8e 
Trpoievai, TMV & Qappelv, ran' Be cnricrTeiv ftowv- 
rwv, Kal TOV (fropeiov, KaOdjrep ev K\vSa)Vi, Bevpo 



KOL TTVKVOV dirovevovTOS, 



VOVTO Trp&TOv tTTTret?, elra oTrXtrai Sia T% 11 av- 

\ov /3a(ri\ifcf)<; TrpocrfyepofJievoi, /ua (pcavfj fjieya 

4 /Soco^re? K7roSo)i> La-Tacrdat TOV IBiWTrjv. TMV 



OVV 7TO\\0)V SpO/AOS TjV, OV 



aXX,' TTL ra? crroa? Kal ra fj,6Tcopa TT)? d 

Oeav KaTdXa^^avovTWv. 'Ar^XXtou Be 
elKova FaX/^a TrpocrovBia-avTOS, dp- 
TOV 7ro\e/jLov TToiijcrd/j.ei'Oi TrepirjKOVTHrav TO 
(fropeiov a>? B* OVK TV%OV ai/TOv, Trpoarjyov 
ecrTraa-jj-evois roZ? %L(f)ea-iv. rj^vve Be ovBels ovBe 
v7reo~Tr) ir\r]V evbs dvBpos, ov fj,6vou ^Xto? eTrelStv 
ev fjivpidcri TOcravTais diov T^9 f Pa>/xat&)^ rjye- 
5 /jLOvias' IZe/jiTrpoovios fjv AT}^<JO? eKaTOVTapxrjs, 
ovBev IBia xprjcrTov VTTO FaX/3a 7T67rov0(t)S, TW Be 
KO\U> Kal TW VO/JLO) ftorjOwv TTpoeffTtj TOV 
l TO K\i)fj,a TrpwTov, o5 Ko\d%ovo~iv e 
TOI)? 7r\r)ja)v Beo/jievovs, eirapdfievos 

eftoa Kal Bt,eKe\evTO (ei&eadai TOV 



264 



GALBA xxvi. 2-5 

which the multitude cried out that he had done well, 
and gave him their applause. Then Galba got into 
his litter and was carried forth, wishing to sacrifice 
to Jupiter and show himself to the citizens. But 
when he was come into the forum, there met him, 
like a change of wind, a report that Otho was master 
of the army. Then, as might be expected in so 
great a crowd, some cried out to him to turn back, 
others to go forward ; some bade him to be of good 
courage, others urged him to be cautious ; and so, 
while his litter was swept hither and thither, as in a 
surging sea, and often threatened to capsize, there 
came into view, first horsemen, and then men-at- 
arms, charging through the basilica of Paulus, and 
with one voice loudly ordering all private citizens 
out of their way. The multitude, accordingly, took 
to their heels, not scattering in flight, but seeking 
the porticoes and eminences of the forum, as if to 
get a view of a spectacle. Hostilities began with 
the overthrow of a statue of Galba by Attilius 
Vergilio, and then the soldiers hurled javelins at the 
litter; and since they failed to strike it, they 
advanced upon it with their swords drawn. No one 
opposed them or tried to defend the emperor, except 
one man, and he was the only one, among all the 
thousands there on whom the sun looked down, who 
was worthy of the Roman empire. This was Sem- 
pronius Densus, a centurion, and though he had 
received no special favours from Galba, yet in 
defence of honour and the law he took his stand in 
front of the litter. And first, lifting up the switch 
with which centurions punish soldiers deserving of 
stripes, he cried out to the assailants and ordered 
them to spare the emperor. Then, as they came to 

261; 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TO 



s TO.? iyvvas 
XXVII. Toy Be Yd\(3av, a7roK\iQevTOS rov 



Trepl rov Kou/m'ofc Ka\oi>{ievov \UKKOV, 



o 3e Tt]V a-^ayrjv TTporetVa?, " A/jare," 
" et rovro TO) >;/tt&) 'Pajf^aiwv a^eivov ecrn. 
2 TroXXa? ii/ ou/' e\a/3e vrX^^a? et9 T6 ra 






KOI TOI)? (3pa%iovas, aTrecr^a^e Se avrov, a)? o/ 
TrXetcTTOi \eyovcri, Ka/xoupto? Ti? eV TOU Trevrercai- 
Setcdrov rdy/uaros. evioi 5e Tepevriov, ol Be Ae/ca- 
icrropovcriv, ol B Qdftiov <&d/3ov\ov, bv 

aTTOKo^ravra rrjv /ce4)a\r)v 
i'to (TV\\aftovTa, Bid. TTJ 
3 \r)7TTOi> ovaav evre/ra TW^ cri;^ avru) 

OVK ecuv-rcov, a\X' K<f>dVTf Trdcri Troielv rrjv dv- 
BpayaOiav, TrepnreipavTa Trepl A-07% 
ttJ'a7r>;\ayTa Trpe&fivTOv Trpocrwirov, a 
re Kocr/j-iov teal ap^fepeto? /tat virdrov, 

coaTrep at iSd/c^ai, 7roXA,a/a? /A6racrrpe(/>o- 
, Kul /cpaSaivovra Trjv ^OJ^TJV ai^aii fcarap- 



Toy ' "O0a)va, T/}? K(f)a\f)<$ K0/jiicr0ia-r)<;, dva- 
Kpayelv \6yovffiv " OuSeV eVrt rovro, co ffvcrrpa- 
4 riwrai, TrjV Heiawvos /AO* /ce0aA,r;^ Sei^are" /uer' 
6\Lyov B rj/ce Ko^i^ofJievr]' TpayOtis yap efavyev 
6 veavLG/cos, Kal KaraSLa)^0ei^ VTTO blovp/cov rivds 
dTT(T$dyr) vrpo? TO> /ep<w TT}? 'Ecrrta?. aTrec^dr- 
rero Be Kal Qvivtd? 6/j,o\oywv KOLVWVOS yeyorevai 
Yd\ftav fTfyco/zocri'a?' ey9oa yap 
rrapd 



266 



GALBA xxvi. 5 -xxvii. 4 

close quarters with him, he drew his sword, and 
fought them off a long time, until he fell with a 
wound in the groin. 

XXVII. The litter was upset at the place called 
Lacus Curtius, and there Galba tumbled out and lay 
in his corselet, while the soldiers ran up and struck 
at him. But he merely presented his neck to their 
swords, saying : " Do your work, if this is better for 
the Roman people." So, then, after receiving many 
wounds in his legs and arms, he was slain, as most 
writers state, by a certain Camurius, of the fifteenth 
legion. Some, however, ascribe his death to Teren- 
tius, others to Lecanius, and others still to Fabius 
Fabulus, who, they say, cut off Galba's head and was 
carrying it wrapped in his cloak, since its baldness 
made it difficult to grasp ; then, since his companions 
would not suffer him to hide his deed of valour, but 
insisted on his displaying it to all eyes, he impaled 
on his spear and thrust on high the head of an aged 
man, who had been a temperate ruler, a high priest, 
and a consul, and ran with it, like a bacchanal, 1 
whirling about often, and brandishing the spear all 
dripping with blood. 

But Otho, as they say, when the head was brought 
to him, cried out : " This is nothing, fellow-soldiers ; 
show me the head of Piso." And after a little it 
was brought to him ; for the young man had been 
wounded and tried to escape, and a certain M ureas 
ran him down and slew him at the temple of Vesta 
Vinius also was slain, and he admitted himself a 
party to the conspiracy against Galba by crying out 
that he was put to death contrary to the wishes ot 

1 So the Bacchanals with the head of Pentheus (Euripides, 
Bacchae, 1153 ff.). 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



jap Kal TOVTOV TYJV K<pa\rjv dTTOTe/novTes Kal 

AaKcovos eKo/jiicrav TT/JO? TOV "Qdwva 5&>/3ea? al- 

5 TOLWT69. &)? be 



jap vetcpuv TrecrovTw, ou? 



OI/T&)? rare 7roXA,ol TOV <f)6vov 
fjievoi, ^et/oa? Be KOL ^i(f>rj tcaOaLfjidcrcrovTes eVe- 
BCLKVVVTO Kal 5&)/9a? grow j3ifi\ia BiSovres TO) 
"OOcovi. eiKOcri <yovv teal e/carov evpedrjcrav 
vcfrepov CK TWV jpafJLfjLaTiwv, oO? 6 Ovire\\io<f 
Q ai/a^V;T7;cra? avrayra? aTreicTeivev. r/tce Be Kal 
M.dpio<; KeXao? et? rr^i/ 7rape/jL{3o\ijv. Kal TTO\- 
\wv aurov Kartiyopovvrwv on rou? 
7TiOe TW Td\jBa ftoriOelv, KOI TOV 

ocoiro?, "Qdwv OVK e/3ov\TO' 
Be dvTi\e.jeiv ov^ OUTCOS e(f>r) 
diroKTevelv avTov elvai jap a Bel TrpoTepov eKirv- 
OecrOai Trapa TOV dvBpos. efceXevaev ovv BrjcravTas 
<f)v\aTTeiv, Kal 7rapeBa>K rot? /j,d\iaTa 



XXVIII. EL^LJ? oe /3ou\rj (TvveKoXelTo. KOI 
Kaddirep d\\oi jejovoTes 1} Oewv d\\a)v jejovo- 
T(0v avve\6 ovTes W/JLVVOV opKov virep TOV " 
ov auro? Oyttocra? OVK eTrjprjcre- Kal Kaicrapa 
^efiacTTov dvrjjopevov, GTI TWV veKpwv 
ev rat? uTrart/cai? e.crQr}aiv eppi/n/Aevwv eVt r/;? 
2 djopds. rai? Be KecpaXals a>? ovBev el^ov Tt 
)(py}crdaL, TTJV /j,ev Qviviov Trj 



1 Bergk, Lyr. Or. Frag, ii. 4 p. 398. 
268 



GALBA xxvu. 4-xxvin. 2 

Otho. However, they cut off his head, and Laco's 
too, and brought them to Otho, of whom they 
demanded largess. And as Archilochus says x that, 

" Only seven lay dead on the ground, where we 
trod their bodies under foot. But we who slew are 
a thousand," 

so in this case, many who had no part in the murder 
smeared their hands and swords with blood and 
showed them to Otho, as they presented him with 
written petitions for largess. At any rate, a hundred 
and twenty were afterwards discovered by means of 
these petitions, all of whom were sought out and 
put to death by Vitellius. Marius Celsus also came 
into the camp. There many denounced him for 
trying to persuade the soldiers to defend Galba, and 
the majority clamoured for his death, but Otho 
did not wish it ; however, since he was afraid to 
oppose them, he said he would not put Celsus to 
death so quickly, since there were matters about 
which he must first question him. He therefore 
ordered that he be fettered and kept under guard, 
and handed over to those in whom he put most 
trust. 

XXVIII. A senate was at once convened. And 
as if thev were now other men, or had other gods to 
swear by, they united in swearing an oath to support 
Otho an oath which he himself had sworn in 
support of Galba, but had not kept. Moreover, 
they gave him the titles of Caesar and Augustus, 
while the dead bodies, all headless in their consular 
robes, were still strewn over the forum. And as for 
the heads, when they had no further use for them, 
that of Vinius they sold to his daughter for twenty- 

269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

teal rrevraKoaiwv Bpax/j,a)v drreBovro, rrjv Be 
Heicrcovos r) yvvrj ekaftev Qvepavia Ber)0el(ra, rrjv 
Be rd\/3a Tot9 Tlarpoftiov Bov\oi$ eBwprjaavro. 
3 Xa/3oWe9 Be eKeivoi teal rrdvra rporrov aiicicra- 
Kal Ka@v{3pi<Tavres eppi^av y TOI/? VTTO TWV 
dpwv Ko\a^o}jievov<$ Oavarovcriv 6 Be TOTTO? 

/caXetrat. TO Be aw^a rou 
II pier/cos r EX/3tSio? avei\eTo, rov "O^wyo? 
eda^re Be VVKTOS 'Apyelos 



XXIX. Toiavra ra Kara rov Td\ftav, avBpa 
yevet, fMjre TrXovrw TroXXwi/ d7ro\i<f)@VTa 
fjiov Be TrXourw Kal <yevei Trpwrev- 
<ravra irdvTwv TWV icaff* avrov, irevre avro/cpa- 
ropwv rjye/jLOVLais e/jL/Sicocravra fjuerd ri/jif)s /cal 
Bo^rjs, ware rfj B6$;r) /jiaX\ov rj rfj BvvdfJiei xa6- 

2 e\elv Ne/?o)2'a. rwv yap l crvv7n,Ti6eaeva)v rore 
rot/? iiev ovBels rj$;i(ocre rr}? 7776/^01/^9, ol B' eav- 
TOi/9 dir^^iwcraVt FaX/8a9 ^e Kal K\i)Qels Kal 

avroKparajp Kal rfj OvtvBiKOS e^rra- 
ovo^a roX/z?;, Kii'Tj^a Kal 
avrov \yof.iV7]v rrjv aTToaracnv eVot^cre 

3 e/ji(f)v\iov } dvBpos rjyefJLOviKov rv\ovcrav. oOev oir 
eavrw ra irpdy^iara \afjL/3dvei,v, aXXa /j.d\\ov 
eavrov olofJLevos BiBovai, rofc rrpdyfAacnv, ap%eiv 

rwv vrro Tiye\\ii>ov Kal Nvfju^iBiou rerida- 



4 Kayu,^XXo9 rwv rore r Pu>/jLaicov. vTrepeLrrofMevos Be 
rw yijpa, a\pi rwv O7r\a)v Kal rwv crrparevfid- 
rwv aKparos r]v Kal dp%aio<; avroKpdrwp, 



1 Ka.df\flv Nepa)fa. TWV yap .T,\, Bekker, aft^r Coraes : 
Kade\au> Ne'pw^a rwv /c. T. \. 

270 



GALBA xxviii. 2-xxix. 4 

five hundred drachmas ; that of Piso was given to 
his wife Verania in answer to her prayers ; and that 
of Galba was bestowed upon the servants of Patrobius. 
They took it, and after heaping all manner of insult 
and outrage upon it, cast it into a place called 
Sessorium, where those under condemnation of the 
emperors are put to death. The body of Galba was 
taken up by Priscus Helvidius, with the permission 
of Otho ; and it was buried at night by Argivus, a 
freed man. 

XXIX. Such were the fortunes of Galba, a man 
surpassed by few Romans in lineage and wealth, and 
both in wealth and lineage the foremost of his time. 
During the reigns of five emperors he lived with 
honour and high repute, so that it was by his 
high repute, rather than by his military power, 
that he overthrew Nero. For of his partners in 
the task, some were by all men deemed unworthy 
of the imperial dignity, and others deemed them- 
selves unworthy. But to Galba the imperial title 
was offered and by him it was accepted ; and by 
simply lending his name to the bold measures of 
Vindex, he gave to his revolt (as his rebellious 
agitation was called) the character of a civil war, 
because it had acquired a man who was worthy to 
rule. Wherefore, in the belief that he was not 
seizing the conduct of affairs for himself, but rather 
giving himself for the conduct of affairs, he set out 
with the idea of commanding the petted creatures 
of Tigellinusand Nymphidius as Scipio and Fabricius 
and Camillus used to command the Romans of their 
time. But being gradually weighed down by his 
years, in arms and camps, indeed, he was an 
" imperator " of a severe and ancient type ; but 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

& KOI Adtctovi KOI rot? d7re\evdepoi<; jravra ra 
7ro)\ov<Ti 7rape~)(wv eavrov, olov Nepwv 
TOi? d7r\tjcrTOTdroi<;, ov&eva TroOovvra 
rr)v ap^rjv, oiKTeioavras Be TOU? TroXXovs rov 
Odvarov 



272 



GALBA xxix. 4 

just as Nero put himself in the hands of his most 
insatiate favourites, so Galba put himself in the 
hands of Vinius and Laco and their freedmen, and 
they made merchandise of everything, so that he 
left behind him no one who wished him still in 
power, but very many who were moved to pity at 
his death. 



273 



OTHO 



oeoN 

I. 'O Be ^eoorepo? avroKpdrwp d/ji ^fjiepa Trpo- 
e\6(t)v /? TO Ka7riTa)\iov eOvcre' KOI K\evcra<; 
Mdptov KeXcroi/ d^drjvai TT/OO? avrbv rjffTrdcraTO 
Kal 8i\'0r <f)i\av0pd)7ra)<;, KOL TrapefcdXeee TT}? 



rj 
rov Be KeXcrof ft7;r' cvyevvws 

, d\\d <>i]cravTOS avro 



rov TpOTrov SiSovai TO eyK\Tj/j,a TTICTTLV, 
yap on, Yd\ftq fteftaiov eavrov 
v$ep.iav oy$ei\ev, rjydcrQyjcrav ol 

2 d/j.(j)orepcov KOL TO arpaTKOTiKov eTrrjvecrev. ev Be 

7roA,X.a BijfjLOTiKa Kal <fii\dv@ ] po)7ra Bia- 
, oz; [lev avro<$ VTrareveiv %povov ?j/jL\\e, 
TOVTOV /ie/oo? evei/iev Ovepyivbfp 'Poixfxp, Tot? be 
a7roSe8ei7//.eVoi? t'Tro Ne/owi'o? 77 Td\/3a 
errjprjcre T? inrareia^. iepwcrvvais Be 

3 r)\iKiav TrpoijKovras rj Sogav eKocr^cre. Tot? Be 1067 
eVl Nepwi'o? (frvyovai real K.a-re\6oi)criv eVl Td\/3a 
ffv<yK\rjTiKoi<; Trdaiv ajreBw/cev oaa JAIJ TreTrpa/jieva 

TWV KT7]fjidTwv etcdcTTOV l egevpicrfcev. oOev ol 
irpwroi /cal KpdricrTOi TreffrpiKores irporepov a>? 



1 eK<i<TTov Coraes and Bekker, after Stephanus, for the 
fKacrrov of the MSS. : i/ca 

276 



OTHO 1 

I. AT daybreak the new emperor went forth to 
the Capitol and sacrificed ; then, having ordered 
Marias Celsus to be brought to him, he greeted that 
officer, conversed with him kindly, and urged him to 
forget the cause of his imprisonment rather than 
to remember his release. Celsus replied in a manner 
that was neither ignoble nor ungrateful, saying that 
the very charge made against him afforded proof of 
his character, for the charge was that he had been 
loyal to Galba, from whom he had received no 
special favours. Both speakers were admired by 
those who were present, and the soldiery gave their 
approval. In the senate Otho spoke at length in a 
kindly strain and like a popular leader. For part of 
the time during which he himself was to have been 
consul, he assigned the office to Verginius Rufus, 
and all those who had been designated as future 
consuls by Nero or Galba he confirmed in their 
appointment. To the priesthoods he promoted those 
who were preeminent in age or reputation. More- 
over, to all the men of senatorial rank who had been 
exiled under Nero and restored under Galba, he 
restored whatever portions of each man's property 
he found to be unsold. Wherefore the citizens of 
highest birth and greatest influence, who before this 

1 With Plutarch's Otho may be compared Suetonius, Otho ; 
Dion Cassius, Ixiv. 10 15 ; Tacitus, Hist. i. 46 ii. 49. 

277 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

OVK dvBpos, aXXa rivos r) Tloivijs r) 7ra\a/j,vaiov 
Batfjiovos d(pvd) rot? Trpdy/nacriv eTrnreTrroyKoro^, 
rjBiov? eyevovro rat? e\,7rl(Tl Trpbs rrjv r)yjJioviav 
wonrep Bia/j,eiBi(t)(Tav. 

II. 'Ofjiov Be 'Pft)/^atoi'9 Trai^ra? ov&i> evtypavev 
ovSe to/ceictxraTO TT/?O? avrbv a>? ra 



avry TO) <)oq) T7<; fcodcrQ)<; rjv 



2 biifjiocTLOV 77 TroXt?, 

cra)/Aa.To?, aura? re ra? dvocrlovs KOI dpptfrovs ev 
yvvai^l TTopvaiS Kal aKaddprois ey/cvXivSijaets, 
al? ert Trpocrea-Trcupe &va0avaTovvTO<i avrov TO 
aKoKaaTov emSpaTTO/uevov, ecr^drijv Tiftrnpiav 
etroiovvTo /cal TroXXwz; dvrd^ia Oavdrcov oi 
<r(o<f)povovvTs. r]via Be roi/? TroXA-oi)? oyu,a>9 TW 
rj\iov opwv fjLerd TOCTOVTOVS real TOIOVTOVS t' 

3 avrov oi>% opwvras. eTrefji-^rev ovv eir avrov 6 
*Q6a>v et? TOI)? Tre/ot 2,iv6e<Tcrav dypovs' etcel ycip 
Biyrdro, TrXota)^ Trapop^ovvrwv, rt>? (^eu^o/ze^o? 

Aral TOV 76 7re/-i<#eWa ^pvcriw vroXXa) 
reveiprjffe Trapetvaf /JLIJ Treicrdevri Be 
Bcopa /Jiev eBoa/cev ovBev rjrrov, eSetfOrj Be v 
ew? av aTTOJ;vpr)Tai TO <yeveiov /cal \aficbv 
eavrov eXaLfiorofirjaev. 

III. OI/TO) Se TW Brj/jLy Trjv BiKaiordrrjv r}Bovi)v 
a-TroSoi/? o Kato-a/3, at/To? tSta? e^dpa^ ovBevi 
TOTrapaTrav e/nvrjcri/cdKija-e, Tot? Se TroXXot? X a P i ~ 
OVK efawye TO rrpwrov eV Tot? OedrpoL^ 
)i/ Trpoa'ayopeveadaf teal TIVWV el/covas Ne- 
178 



OTHO i. 3-111. i 

had felt a shuddering fear that it was not a man, but 
some genius of retribution or avenging spirit, that 
had suddenly fallen upon the state, became more 
cheerful in their hopes for a government which wore 
a face so smiling. 

II. But nothing so gladdened all Romans alike, 
and won their allegiance to the new emperor so 
much, as his treatment of Tigellinus. Men were 
not aware that Tigellinus was already punished by 
his very fear of that punishment which the city was 
demanding as a debt due to the public, and also by 
incurable bodily diseases ; and besides, there were 
those unhallowed and unspeakable grovellings of his 
among the vilest harlots, for which his lustful nature 
still panted, clutching after them as his life painfully 
ebbed away ; these were looked upon by reasonable 
men as extremest punishment and an equivalent of 
many deaths. Nevertheless it vexed the common 
people that he should see the light of day after so 
many good men had been robbed of that light by 
him. Accordingly, Otho sent a messenger to fetch 
him from his country estate at Sinuessa ; for he was 
staying there, where vessels lay at anchor, that he 
might fly to more distant parts. He tried to bribe 
the messenger with a large sum of money to let him 
go, but failing in this, he made him gifts neverthe- 
less, and begged him to wait till he had shaved ; 
and taking the razor he cut his own throat. 

III. And now that the emperor had given the 
people this most righteous gratification, he did not 
remember his own private grievances against any 
man soever, and in his desire to please the multitude 
did not refuse at first to be hailed in the theatres 
by the name of Nero, and when statues of Nero 

279 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



pwvos e/9 tovfjifyaves TrpoOefjLevwv ovrc eVooXucre. 
2 KXouy9to9 Be 'Poi)</>09 et9 'Iftijpiav (frrjal KO/j,i(r07Jvat 
Bt7r\o)fj,aTa, ot? eK7re/j,rrovai TOV<; ypa/jL^arr)- 
</>ope>U9, TO TOV Nepcovos 06TOV ovo/jLa Trpocrye- 

ov JLTV a\\a 



TOU? 

TOVTW 

' 



Be r^9 rjyefjiovias /cardcrTaa'tv avrw 
, ol fucr6o<p6poi ^aXe7roi)9 Trapel^ov 
Trapcuce\evofjievoi Kal <f>v\dr- 
fcai KoKoveiv TOVS d^ioXoyovs, e!V 
Bi evvoiav, eire 

3 ravrrj TOV rapdrreiv Kal 7ro\e^O7roteiv. 
VQV Be TTefjL^ravro^ avTOv Trjv 

(TTrelpav TlcrTta? aTrd^ovra, fcdiceivov VVKTOS en 

Kal TCL oVXa rat9 ayua^at9 e 
, ol Opao-vTaTOi Trdvres ejBowv ovBev 
rov KpiGTrlvov rjtceLV Biavoov/jievov, aXXa TTJV crvy- 
K\r)TOve7ri')(ipeiV7rpd<y/jLa<n i>6a)TepOL<f,Kal TO, OTrXa 

4 KaTa Kattra/309, ov Ka/crapt TrapaKOfAi^ecrdai. TOV 
Be \6yov TroXXw^ ciTTTOfjievov Kal Trapo^vvovTos, ol 

TT\a/jL(3dvovTO T0)i> d/jLaa)v, ol Be TOVS evi- 

eKaTOVTap%as Bvo Kal TOV 
avTov djre/CTeivav, TrdvTes Be BiaaKevacrd/jievot 
7rapaKa\e(TavTS aXXryXof 9 Kaicrapi florjQeiv rj\av- 
vov 6/9 TTJV 'Pto/jLijv Kal 7rv06fjLevoL Trap 
BeiTTveiv oyBorjKOVTa a-vyK~\,ijTiKovs, ecpepovTO 
TCL ^acrtXeta, vvv Kaipov elvat, \eyovTe<$ ev 

5 irdvTas dve\eiv TOL^ KatVapo9 7roXeyLttou9. rj JJLCV 
ovv 7roXt9 ft>9 avTLKa BiapTrayrjcroiuLev'r) Oopvftov 



1 Of. Chap, viii 4 
280 



OTHO in. 1-5 

were produced in public, he did not prevent it. 
Moreover, Cluvius Rufus tells us that "diplomas," l 
such as couriers are provided with, were sent to 
Spain, in which the cognomen of Nero was added to 
the name of Otho. However, perceiving that the 
men of highest birth and greatest influence were 
displeased at this, Otho gave up the practice. 

But while he was placing his government on this 
basis, the paid soldiers began to make themselves 
troublesome by urging him not to trust the influential 
citizens, but to be on his guard against them and 
restrict their power. It is uncertain whether their 
goodwill led them to be really apprehensive for him, 
or whether they used this pretext for raising dis- 
turbance and war. And so, when the emperor sent 
Crispinus to bring back the seventeenth legion from 
Ostia, and while that officer was still getting the 
baggage together at night and loading the arms 
upon the waggons, the boldest of the soldiers all 
began to cry out that Crispinus was come on no 
good errand, and that the senate was attempting to 
bring about a revolution, and that the transportation 
of the arms was an act of hostility, not of service, 
to the emperor. The notion prevailed with great 
numbers and exasperated them ; some attacked the 
waggons, others killed two centurions who opposed 
them, as well as Crispinus himself; and then the 
whole body, putting themselves in array and exhort- 
ing one another to go to the help of the emperor, 
marched to Rome. Here, learning that eighty 
senators were at supper with Otho, they rushed to 
the palace, declaring that now was a good time to 
take off all the emperor's enemies at one stroke. 
Accordingly, the city was in great commotion, 

VOL. xi. K 281 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTO\VV, ev Be rot? f3acn\eioL<s rjcrav BtaBpo/juai, 
KOI rov "Odcova Beivrj Karehd/ji/Savev airopla. <>o- 

n ' \ * V ^5f> y \ 5> j /- \ 

pov/j.vo$ yap wjrep TCOV avopoyv auro? r)v oope/50? 

K6iVOlS, KOi 7T/009 CiVTOV aVTj pTtf/bieVOVS (t)pa Tttt? 

otyecriv avav&ov? Kal TrepiSeeis, eviovs KOI 



6 yvvaiKwv rjKovras eirl TO BCLTTVOV. apa Be Tou9 

aOai Kal irpaiiveiv K6\evcra^, a/JLa Be Toi>9 /ce/cX?;- 
fjievovs avbpas dvaar-rrjaa^ xaO* erepas dvpas 

d(j)f)K' Kal /JLLKpOV <f)0^<Tai> VTTGK<^VyOVTe<S, Bid 

fjLia-dofyopwv a)0ov/JLevt0v et9 TOZ^ dvBpwva Kal 
OavofJLevtov TI yeyovacriv ol Kat<7a/909 vroXe- 

7 /Jiioi. rare [lev ovv opOos CLTTO T7/9 K\ivrj<; TroXXa 106^ 

Kal Beijdels Kal /j,r)Be BaKpvwv 0et- 

U9* Trj 6 varepaia 



airavTas /car' civ 



Kal TrevriJKOvra Bpa^/jiai^ elafjXOev et? TO 
8 aTparoTreSov, Kal TO yLtei TrXr^o? eiryvecrev, to? 
TT^O? avrov evvovv Kal TrpoOvfiov, oXtyow? Se TIVCLS 
OVK 7r dyado) <j)ijcras viroLKOVpelv, Bia{3d\\ovra<; 



avrov Ti]v /jierpiOT^Ta Kal rrjv e/ceivwv 



Oeiav, i]%Lov crvvayavaKrelv Kal crvyKO\d%LV. 
Be Trdvrwv Kal K\ev6i>rcDV, Bvo /zo- 



IV. Tavra ol ^ev dyaTrwvres rjBrj Kal TTL- 
<TTeuoz/T9 eOav/jia^ov rr^v /x.eTa/3oX?;y, ol 6' dvay- 
Kala 7ro\iTVfjiaTa rrpos -rov Katpov )}yovi>TO, 
282 



OTHO in. 5-iv. i 

expecting to be plundered at once ; in the palace 
there were runnings to and fro ; and a dire per- 
plexity fell upon Otho. For while he had fears 
about the safety of his guests, he himself was an 
object of fear to them, and he saw that they kept 
their eyes fixed upon him in speechless terror, some 
of them having even brought their wives with them 
to the supper. But he sent the prefects of the 
guard with orders to explain matters to the soldiers 
and appease them, while at the same time he 
dismissed his guests by another door ; and they 
barely succeeded in making their escape as the 
soldiers, forcing their way through the guards into 
the great hall, asked what was become of the 
enemies of Caesar. In this crisis, then, Otho stood 
up on his couch, and after many exhortations, and 
entreaties, and not without plentiful tears, at last 
succeeded in sending them away ; but on the follow- 
ing day, after making a gift of twelve hundred and 
fifty drachmas to every man, he went into the camp. 
There he commended the great body of the soldiers 
for their goodwill and zeal in his service, but said 
that there were a few of them who were intriguing 
to no good purpose, thereby bringing his moderation 
and their fidelity into disrepute, and he demanded 
that they share his resentment against these and 
assist him in punishing them. All his hearers 
approving of this and bidding him to do as he 
wished, he took two men only, at whose punishment 
no one was likely to be distressed, and went away. 

IV. Those who were already fond of Otho and 
put confidence in him admired this change in his 
behaviour, but others thought it a policy forced upon 
him by the situation, wherein he courted popular 

283 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



avTOv Bia TOV 7r6\6/jLOV. tf&rj yap 

l Bvva- 



avroKpropos veirjo)^' Ka 

(j)oi>Ta)V aeu TI 7rpoa")((*>pelv erceiv(p (f>pd- 
%OVT<;, erepoi Be 1 ra TLavvovi/ca Kal ra AaX/xa- 
Kal ra Trepl Mvcriav (Trparev/jLara 8r)\ovvT<> 



2 f(7ai jiera rwv 



a(f)iKro Kal Trapa MovKiavov ypd/jLfjLara Kal Trapa 

, TOV {lev ev 2vpia, TOV &e eV 



eirai- 



eypa^rev OutreXXtw Trapaivwv crTpaTi<o- 
TLKCL (ppoveiv, a>9 %/o^/iara vroXXa SMCTOVTOS avTOv 
Kal Trb\w, cv y fiicoaeTai pa&Tov Kal TI^ 
3 fiiov fJieP rjawxias. avTeypatye Se KaKelvos 

crvxrj TT/JWTOI/' e/c Se TOVTOV Sie- 
TroXXa ft\dcr<j)r}ijia Kal da\'y 
aXX^'Xoi? eypafyov, ov ^efSw? yaer, 
$ Kal yeXotco? OaTepov TOV eTepov a 
dfj,(J)OTepoi<; oveiBr) \o(,Sopovi>TOS. acrcorta? yap 
Kal //,aXa/a9 Kal aTreipias 7ro\e/j,a)v Kal TWV 
Trpocrdev eVl Treviq %pewv 77X7^01/9 epyov r)V ei 



aVTWV 



Se Kal ^avracr^aTwv TroXXw^ \eyo- 
Ta [lev aXXa <f)TJ/jias dBecnroTovs Kal dfj,(f>i- 



284 



elSov afyei/JLevas eV TWV 
) Svva/Aeviys, Kal TOV ev 
ia vrjcry Yatov KeuVa/)O9 dvSpidvTa 



Kpareiv pr) Svva/Aeviys, Kal TOV ev 



OTHO iv. 1-4 

favour because of the war. For already there were 
sure tidings that Vitellius had assumed the dignity 
and power of emperor ; and swift couriers were 
continually coming with accounts of ever new 
accessions to him, although others made it clear 
that the armies in Pannonia, Dalmatia, and Mysia, 
with their leaders, adhered to Otho. And quickly 
there came also friendly letters from Mucianus and 
Vespasian, who were at the head of large forces, the 
one in Syria, the other in Judaea. Otho was elated 
by these, and wrote to Vitellius advising him not to 
have more than a soldier's ambitions, in which case 
he should be rewarded with a large sum of money, 
and a city, where he could live in the utmost ease 
and pleasure and be undisturbed. Vitellius also wrote 
to Otho in reply, at first in a somewhat dissembling 
manner ; but afterwards both got excited and wrote 
one another abusive letters filled with shameful 
insults ; not that either brought false charges, but it 
was foolish and ridiculous for one to storm the other 
with reproaches applicable to both. For as regards 
prodigality, effeminacy, inexperience in war, and 
multiplicity of debts incurred in a previous state of 
poverty, it were hard to say which of them had the 
advantage. 

There were many reports of signs and apparitions, 
most of which were of uncertain and dubious origin ; 
but everybody saw that a Victory standing in a 
chariot on the Capitol had dropped the reins from 
her hands, as if she had not power to hold them, 
and that the statue of Caius Caesar on the island in 



1 8^ supplied by Sint.*, after Schaefer ; Bekker assumes a 
lacuna before frepoi. 

285 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LL1JT6 aeiff/JLOv yeyovoTos /u.fjre Trvevjuaros d(j) y ecr- 
5 Trepas peTacrTpafyevra TT/JO? ra9 dvaro\ds' o $aai 
(Tv^r]vai irepl ra9 rjpepas e/ceivas ev afc ot Trepl 
OveaTrecriavbv efjL$>avw<$ ijBrj T&V TrpayfjLaTwv dvre- 
\a/JL/3dvovro. real TO irepl rov vfji{3piv Se 




cnj/ieiov 

fj,ev yap wpa irepl r)v y^akiaTa ol irora^ol 
QOVGIV, aX,\' OUTTO) TOCTOUTO? rjpQrj Trporepov, 

rocraOra /ecu SiecfrOeipev, vTrepxyOeis xal 
TTO\V /j,epos TT}? TroXea)?, TrXeta'TO^ 
Se ev w TOI^ 7rl Trpdcret, StaTrwXoucri CTITOV, a>? 
Beivrjv aTTopiav rj/jLepwv avj(y&v 
V. 'Evrel Se ra? "AXTret? 

Ke^t^a.9 /cat OuaX?;? 
ev 'Pco^rj AoXo/3eX\a9, 
dvrfp, vTro-^iav irapel^e TO?? 
vecorepa typovelv. eKeivov jjiev ovv, etre avrbv eiVe 
aXXoi/ SeSoiKtos, et? jro\iv ' AKVVIOV TrapeTre^^re Tra- 
paOappvvas. KardXeycov Be TWV ev reXet avvefcSTJ- 
eralfev ev rouroi? Aral Aev/ciov rov Ov'ire\\iov 
TrpocrOels ovSev ovre 



2 

TOV OuiVeXXtoi' al r?}9 yvvaifcos, OTTO)? 
<f>o{3>]arovTai irepl avrwv. rf)? Be f 



vov, Karea'T'rja-ev, el're at TOVTO irpd^a^ eVl 



(Trap' eiceivov <y&p el\TJ(j)ei rrjv d 
6 ^aftlvos, d<j)L\eTO Be FaX/Sa9 auroi/), etre 
evvoiav eveBei/cvuro Qveo-Treaiav) teal 



3 AUTOS A 4 ^ out/ ei/ ByOi^tXXw, TroXet T-/}? 'IraXta9 
286 



OTHO iv. 4-v. 3 

the Tiber, without the occurrence of earthquake or 
wind, had turned from west to east, which is said to 
have happened during the time when Vespasian was 
at last openly trying to seize the supreme power. 
The behaviour of the Tiber, too, was regarded by 
most people as a baleful sign. It was a time, to be 
sure, when rivers are at their fullest, but the Tiber 
had never before risen so high, nor caused so great 
ruin and destruction. It overflowed its banks and 
submerged a great part of the city, and especially 
the grain-market, so that dire scarcity of food 
prevailed for many days together. 

V. And now, when word was brought to Rome 
that Caecina and Valens, who were in command 
with Vitellius, were in possession of the Alps, Dola- 
bella, a man of noble family, was suspected by the 
praetorian soldiers of revolutionary designs. Otho 
therefore sent him away (through fear of him or of 
someone else) to the town of Aquinum, with words 
of encouragement. And in his selection of the men 
in authority who were to accompany him on his 
expedition he included also Lucius, the brother of 
Vitellius, without either increasing or diminishing 
his honours. He also took strong measures for the 
safety of the wife and mother of Vitellius, that they 
might have no fear for themselves. Moreover, he 
appointed Flavins Sabinus, a brother of Vespasian, 
prefect of the city, either because in this way also 
he could honour the memory of Nero (for Nero had 
bestowed the office upon Sabinus, but Galba had 
deprived him of it), or rather because, by advancing 
Sabinus, he could show how he favoured and trusted 
Vespasian. 

Well, then, Otho himself tarried behind at Brixil- 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Trepl rov 'HpiBavbv aTreXei^d^, crrparyyovs Be 
rwv Bvi>d/jL(DV e^eTre/JL^e M.dpiov re Ke\aov 
^.ovrjrooviov Tlav\lvov en re FaXXov Kal 
vav, avBpas evB6t;ov<;, xprjcracrOai Be ,ar) Sv 
ewl ra)V Trpay/J,drct)v &)? TrporjpovvTO rot? eav- 
TWV Xoyicr/iot? $i ara^iav fcal OpacrvrrjTa T>V 
GTpaTiWTWV. ov yap r)j;LOVV erepcav afcoveiv, &><? 
irap avT(*)i> rov avTO/cpaTOpo? TO ap%6tv e^oz^ro?. 
rjv /Jiev ovv ovBe ra TWV TroXe/jLicov vyiawovra 
TrawrdiracrLV ov&e %eLpoi]0r) roi? t^yefjioa-LV, a\V 
Kal aoftapa Sid rrjv avrijv air Lav. ov 
aXV e/ceLVOis ep,Treipia ye Traprjv rov /za^ecr^at 
5 Kal TO KajAveiv l e'^aSe? ovres OVK efyevyov, ovroi 
Se /jLa\aKol fiev tfcrav VTTO o-%oX^9 Kal Stair^s 
, 7r\eicrrov %pbvov ev Oedrpois Kal Travrj- 



yvpecri Kal irapa crK^vrjv /3e/3iO)/coTe?, vftpei, 
KO/JLTTW eTra/jLire^eiv eftoiiXovro, 



Ta? \eirovpyLa$ co? Kpeirroves 
co? dSvvaroi fyepeiv. 6$e ^Trovpi 

eKivSvvevcre fiiKpov e\6ovras av- 
6 e\elv avrov. vftpews Be Kal /SAao^^ta? ouSe/ita? 
tyetcravro, TrpoBoryv Kal \v/jLewva ru>v Kaicrapos 
Kal 7rpay[idrQ)v \eyovre<$. evioi Be Kal 
evres ijBrj vvKros ri\.6ov eVt rr]V aKrjvrjV 
alrovvres* elvai yap avrols TT/OO? Kaiaapa 
eov, OTTOO? eKeivov Kanyyoprja-tocriv. 
VI. flvij&e Be ra Trpdypara Kal ^LtrovpLvav ev 
\oiBopia Trepl Tl\aKevriav yevo/j,evr) 
roov crrparicorwv. ol ydp Ovire\\iov TO?? rei^ecrt, 



Bekker, after Coraes : TOV Kafj.veiv. 
288 



OTHO v. 3-vi. i 

lum, a town of Italy on the river Po, but sent his 
forces on under the command of Marius Celsus and 
Suetonius Paulinus, besides Gallus and Spurina. 
These were men of distinction, but were unable 
to conduct the campaign according to their own 
plans and wishes, owing to the disorderly and 
arrogant spirit of their soldiers. For these would 
not deign to obey other officers, since, as they said, 
they had made the emperor their commander. It 
is true that the enemy's troops also were not 
altogether in condition, nor under the control ot 
their officers, but fierce and haughty, and for the 
same reason. Nevertheless, they were certainly 
experienced in fighting, and being accustomed to 
hard labour, they did not shun it ; whereas Otho's 
men were soft, owing to their lack of employment 
and their unwarlike mode of life, having spent most 
of their time at spectacles and festivals and plays, 
and they wished to cloak their weakness with in- 
solence and boasting, disdaining to perform the 
services laid upon them because they were above 
the work, not because they were unable to do it. 
When Spurina tried to force them into obedience, 
he came near being killed by them. They spared 
him no abuse nor insolence, declaring that he was 
betraying and ruining the opportunities and the 
cause of Caesar. Nay, some of them who were 
drunk came at night to his tent and demanded 
money for a journey, for they must go, they said; to 
Caesar, in order to denounce their commander. 

VI. But Spurina and the emperor's cause were 
helped for the time by the abuse which his soldiers 
received at Placentia. For when the troops of 
Vitellius assaulted the walls, they railed at the 

289 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 






rrap ra? e7rae/<?, cncr]VLKOv<$ Ka Trvppivtar? 

^ , 7TO\fjLOV Be 

l arpareias direLpov^ KOI dQedrovs drcoKa\ovv- 
T?, KOI /.ieya (frpovovvras tVl ru> yepovros dv- 
OTT\OV fcecj>d\.r}V aTrore/^eLV, rov 
et? Se dywva real (JLCL^V dvSpwv OVK av 
2 KaraftdvTas. ovrw <ydp rapd^0^aav VTTO rov- 

*-.JO.r\r*/ f/ 

TMV TWV oveiowv Kai oieKaijcrav cocrre Trpoo-Trecreti' 
TW ^Trovpiva, Seo/LLevoi %pr)(T0ai Kal Trpoa-rdrreiv 
ai)roZ?, ovSeva KIV&VVOV ov&e irovov 

Se 



e (jvarar]^ ret^OyLta^ta? Ka 



ol rov ^TTovpiva, KOI cfrovci) jroXXq) rovs e 
drcoKpova-d/jLevoi, &ienipr)<jav ev&o^ov TTO\IV teal 
rwv 'IraXwy ouSe/zia? rjrrov dvOovcrav. 
3 *Haav Be Kal rd d\\a rwv Ovlrc\\iov crrparrj- 
ol "O^wro? evrv^elv d\v7r6repot Kal rrokeai, 
/Siatraf?- eKelvcov Be Ke.vtVa? pep ovre (fxovrjv 
ovre a-^jjia Sr/fj.oriK6s, dX)C eVa^r/? Kal aXXo- 
/COTO?, cjco/zaTO? /jieydXov, Ta\ariKW*s d 



Kal ^eiplffLv eveaKevac-fjievos, arjfieiois Kal ap%ov- 
4 (TL 'Pwjjia'iKols BidXeyo/Aevos. Kal rrjv 



avrw \oydSrjv irrrreis O 

ft) KeKocrfjirifj,evr]v eTTKfravws. Qdfiiov Be Ovd- 
\evra rov erepov (rrparijyov ovre dprrayal 
fjLLfDv ovre K\orral Kal BcopoBoxiat Trapd 
ve7ri/n7r\a(rai> xpri/j&ri6uevov, ciXXa 
Bid rovro /3paBeci)$ oBevwv vareprjaai T//? rrpore- 
5 pa? ytia^j??. ol Be rov YieKivav alriwvrai, a-rrev- 
Bovra rrjv VLKVIV eavrov yevecr9ai, rrplv CKCLVOV 



290 



OTHO vi. 1-5 

soldiers of Otho who manned the ramparts, calling 
them actors, dancers, spectators at Pythian and 
Olvmpian games, men who had never known or 
seen a campaign or fighting, and thought highly of 
themselves because they had cut off the head of a 
defenceless old man (meaning Galba), but would not 
openly enter a conflict and battle of men. Otho's 
soldiers were so disturbed by these reproaches, and 
so inflamed, that they threw themselves at the feet 
of Spurina, begging him to use them and command 
them, and pleading excuse from no danger or toil. 
And so, when a fierce assault was made upon the 
walls and many siege-engines were brought to bear 
upon them, Spurina's men prevailed, repulsed their 
opponents with great slaughter, and held safe a city 
which was famous and more flourishing than any in 
Italy. 

In other ways, too, the generals of Vitellius were 
more vexatious than those of Otho in their dealings 
with both cities and private persons. One of them, 
Caecina, had neither the speech nor the outward 
appearance of a Roman citizen, but was offensive and 
strange, a man of huge stature, who wore Gaulish 
trousers and long sleeves, and conversed by signs 
even with Roman officials. His wife, too, accompanied 
him, with an escort of picked horsemen ; she rode 
a horse, and was conspicuously adorned. Fabius 
Valens, the other general, was so rapacious that 
neither what he plundered from the enemy nor 
what he stole or received as gifts from the allies 
could satisfy him. Indeed, it was thought that this 
rapacity of his had delayed his march, so that he 
was too late for the battle at Placentia. But some 
blame Caecina, who, they say, was eager to win the 

291 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e\delv, aXXot? re /u/eporepoi? TrepLTrecrelv 
fjiaa-i /cal fjid'ffiv ov Kara Kaipov ovBe 
(rvvdtyai, /jiiKpov Trdvra rd Trpdy/Aara Bta<p@ei- 
pacrav avrols. 

VII. 'E-Tret yap dirOKpovcrOels TT?? Tl\aKVTLas 
6 Ke/aW? eVl K/je/aco^v Mp^crev, erepav TTO\IV 
evSai/nova KOI /^eydXrjv, TT/JWTO? /nev "Kvvios 
FaXXo? TT^O? TJLKaitevtiav ^irovpiva /3or)6wv, a 
rj/covae tcaP 6Sbv TOU? H\aKvrivovs 
vai, KivSvveveLv Be TOI/? eV Y^pefJba>vr), 
eicel TO (rrpdrevfjia KOI KarecrTparoTT eBevae TT\I)- 
' T&V TToXejiicov eTretra /cdi r&v 



2 evcacTTO? /3orf0ei T> a-rpa-r^yy. rov Be 

eh \dcria ^wpla ical v\a)Srj 

Be 7rpoe^e\dcrat /ceXevcravTOS, KCLV 1070 
ol TroXeyiuoi Kara piKpov dva^wpelv 
teal dva<j>vyiv, axpi av virdyovTe? ourw? e'yu,/3a- 
\wcriv ouTOi/9 et? T^ eveBpav, e^rjyyeCkav avro- 
fjiO\ot ra) KeXcro). /cal ouro? yuef iTnreva-Lp 
vrej;e\d(ra$, r 7T(f)v'\ay^eva)<f Be xpw- 
BLM^CL /cal rrjv eveBpav Trepicr^wv KOA, 
s, e/cdXei rovs oTrXiTa? etc TOV o"rparo- 

3 TreBov. Kal BOKOVCTIV av e7re\6ovT^ ev fcaipS) fjLtj- 
Beva \iirelv TWV iro\efjiiwv, aXXa jrav TO fierd 
Ke/ct^a (rrpdrev/Aa crvvrpltyai Kal dveXelv eirLo-iro- 
fj,evoi TO?? iTnrevai,' vvvl Be 6 Tlav\ivos otye /cal 
a X^V irpOGftorjOijcras alrLait ea^ev evBeecrrepov 

4 TT}? Bogrjs a-Tparrjyrjcrai, BS ev\dfteiav. ol Be 
TroXXol ro)V crTpaTitoTwv /cal TTpoBoGiav eveKa- 
\ovv avT(p, Kal irapoa^vvov TOV "Qdoova, /jLeya\r)- 



292 



OTHO vi. 5-vii. 4 

victory himself before Valens came, and so not only 
made other minor mistakes, but also joined battle 
inopportunely and without much spirit, thereby 
almost ruining their whole enterprise. 

VII. For when Caecina, repulsed from Placentia, 
had set out to attack Cremona, another large and 
prosperous city, first Annius Gallus, who was coming 
to the help of Spurina at Placentia, hearing upon the 
march that Placentia was safe, but that Cremona was 
in peril, changed his course and led his army to 
Cremona, where he encamped near the enemy ; then 
his colleagues l came one by one to his aid. Caecina 
now placed a large body of men-at-arms in ambush 
where the ground was rough and woody, and then 
ordered his horsemen to ride towards the enemy, 
and if they were attacked, to withdraw little by 
little and retreat, until they had in this way drawn 
their pursuers into the ambush. But deserters 
brought word of all this to Celsus, who rode out 
with good horsemen to meet the enemy, followed 
up his pursuit with caution, surrounded the men in 
ambush, and threw them into confusion. Then he 
summoned his men-at-arms from the camp. And 
apparently, if these had come up in time to the 
support of the cavalry, not a man of the enemy 
would have been left alive, but the whole army with 
Caecina would have been crushed and slain. As it 
was, however, Paulinus came to their aid too slowly 
and too late, and incurred the charge of sullying his 
reputation as a commander through excessive caution. 
But most of the soldiers actually accused him of 
treachery, and tried to incense Otho against him, 

1 Celsus, Paulinus, and Spurina (v. 3), although Spurina is 
not mentioned further. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



yOpOUVT$ ft)? VeViKYIKOTWV CIVTWV, TT)<$ 

OVK Trl TCOLV Trpoe\@ov(Trjs tca/cia TWV 



6 Be "QttcOV OV Ol/Tft)? 7TLO-T6VV aUTOi? ft)9 /3ov- 



fir) Sorcelv dmcrTelv. eire^^rev ovv Tinavbv 
7rl ra (TTparevfiara TOV d$6X<pbv KOI TIpoxXov 
TOV eTrap'Xpv, o? elj/ev epyq) rrjv TTaaav ap^tjv, 
5 Trpocr^/jia oe r)V o T/.Tfai/o?. oi Be Trepl TOV KeX- 
crov real YlavXlvov a\Xa>9 efaiXtcovro a-v/JLfBovXwv 
tcai (pi\o)V, e^ovcriav KOI $vva/miv ev rot? 
/j,r)$6/jiiav e^o^re?. f)V Be 0opv/3a>$rj 
KOI ra Trapa rot? TroXeyatOi?, yaaXtcrra 8e rot? VTTO 
TW Qvd\evTi' KOI TT}? irepi TYJV evebpav /Lta^? 
d r 7rayye\,@icrr)s e%a\.e7raivov OTI /JLTJ irapeyevovro 
yitr;8e r//uivvav dvSpwv TCKTOVTWV diroQavovrcov. 
[jioXis e Tretcra? KOL Trapai'rricrdfJLevos oop/jurjfjievovs 
avrovs j3d\\iv dv%eve tcai (Tvvrjtye roi? Trepl 



VIII. 'O &e"Q0(i)V 7rapayv6fjLvo$ ei? B?;T piatcov 
TO o-rpaTOTreSov (eari 8e 7ro\L^i>r] r n\r}<riov 
TO BrjrpiaKov} eftovXevero Trepl rfjs 
KOI HpOK\w /JLV eSoicei Kal Tiriavq), 
TWV cnpaTev/jbdrayv OVTWV 'irpoOv^wv Kal 7rpoa(f)d- 
rov T^? viKrjs, &Laywvi(Ta<j6ai Kal pr) KadfjaOai 
rrfv dtcfjirjv dfJi^\vvovTa T?}? Svvdfjiews Kal Trepi- 
fievovra QwreXkiov avrov eic FaXaTta? ei 
2 Ylav\2vo<? $e rot? nev 7roXez,tot? er) jrdvra 



r> 



. 

(t)v fia)(ovi>rai irapeivai, Kai jmrjev ei'Cetv, 
Be TT}? fj$rj Trapova-i^ OVK eXaTrova 7rpoaS6fi/JLOi> 
filvai Swapiv K Mucr/a? Kal lt\.avvovia<s, dv TOV 
avTOV Trepi /jLei'rj Kaipov, aXXa /JLTJ crrpaTrjyfj 
3 TOV TWV 7ro\./jLia)v. ov yap dfJLJB\v~epoi<^ ye 



294 



OTHO vn. 4-vin. 3 

loudly boasting that they had been victorious, but 
that their victory was made incomplete by the 
cowardice of their commanders. Otho did not 
believe them, and yet wished to avoid the appear- 
ance of disbelieving them. He therefore sent to 
the armies his brother Titianus, and Proculus, the 
prefect of the guards ; of these two men Proculus 
had the entire authority in reality, and Titianus 
only in appearance. Celsus and Pauliiius, too, 
enjoyed the empty title of friends and counsellors, 
but had no power or influence in the conduct of 
affairs. There were disturbances also among the 
enemy, and especially among the troops of Valens ; 
for when these were told about the battle at the 
ambuscade, they were enraged because they were 
not present and had given no aid where so many 
men had lost their lives. They actually began to 
stone Valens, but he finally succeeded in pacifying 
them, and then broke camp and joined Caecina. 

Vlll. Otho now came to the camp at Bedricum 
(a little village near Cremona) and held a council of 
war. Proculus and Titianus were of the opinion 
that he ought to fight a decisive battle while his 
armies were flushed with their recent victory, and 
not sit there dulling the efficiency of his troops and 
waiting for Vitellius to come in person from Gaul. 
Paulinus, on the contrary, said that the enemy 
already had all the resources with which they would 
give battle, and lacked nothing, whereas, in the case 
of Otho, a force as large as the one he already had 
might be expected from Mysia and Pannonia, if he 
would only wait for his own best opportunity and 
conduct the campaign to suit that of the enemy. 
For his men were now confident of success in spite 

295 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rare rot? vvv Oappovo~iv air* e 



av 



aXX' ere Trepiovcrias dyayvieiffOar real %&>/H9 Be 
rovrov rrjv Biarpiflrjv elvai irpos avrwv ev d(j)0o- 
voi$ Tracriv OVTWV, exeivois Se rov %povov diropiav 
Trape^etv TWV dvajKaicov ev 7roXe//ta Kade^o/Jievois. 
4 ravra \<yovri HavXivw Mdpios KeXcro? eyevero 
"Awto? Be FaXX-o? ov Trapijv 
eveTO TreTTTWKtoS d<f> ITTTTOV, 
TO? Se "O^co^o? avra) crvvef3ov\vcre 
d\\a rrjv K Mfcrta? Trepi/J-eveiv 

ovaav. ov fjii^v 7T6t^TO TOUTOt?, aXXa etcpd- 

ol TTyoo? Tr)V fjiafflv TrapopfiSivre^. 
IX. Alriat Be TrXeto^e? aXXcu vw a\\a)v Xe- 
77^08^X0)? Se 01 crrparTjjiKol Trpocrayo- 
KOI rd^iv e^o^re? Bopv(f)6pa)v, rorc 
IJLCL\\QV d\yj0ivfjs ryevo/Aevoi arpareias KOI ra? ev 
y/jig Siarpiftas KCU Biairas avroXe'/zoL'? KOI Travij- 
TToOovvres, OVK rjcrav naOeKrol 
fj.d^tjv, co? ev0v<; e 7riBpo/jLrj^ 

2 fjievoi Tou? evavTiQVs. BOKCI Be /JirjBe auro? " 
e};ava(j)epeiv eri, irpbs rrjv dB-rj^orrjra fjiijBe VTTO- 
/jieveiv drjdeia KOI f^a\aKorrj r n TOU? ircpl rwv 
vwv Xoyicr/jLovs, eKirovovfJievos Be rat? 
crTrevBeiv eyKaXvifrd/jievos, wcnrep djro 

3 /jLtOeii-ai. TO, Trpdy/j.aTa Trpo? TO (jwrvyov. KCU 107J 
rovro /j,ev BnyyeiTO ^exovvBos 6 pijrwp eVl TMV 
eVicTToXcot' 761^0/ie^o? rov "QOcovos. ere/oaw Be r)V 

296 



OTHO vni. 3-ix. 3 

of their inferior numbers, and he would not find them 
less keen after they had received reinforcements, 
nay, their superiority would lead them to fight all the 
better. And besides,, delay was to their advantage, 
since they had everything in abundance, while to the 
enemy time would bring a scarcity of supplies, since 
they were occupying a hostile country. So Paulinus 
argued, and Marius Celsus voted with him. Annius 
Gallus was not present, being under treatment for a 
fall from his horse, but Otho asked his advice by 
letfer, and his counsel was not to hasten the battle, 
but to await the forces from Mysia, which were 
already on the march. Nevertheless, Otho would 
not listen to these counsels, and the day was carried 
by those who urged immediate battle. 

IX. Various other reasons for this are given by 
various writers ; but manifestly the praetorian 
soldiers, as they were called, who served as the 
emperor's guards, since they were now getting a 
more generous taste of real military service and 
longed for their accustomed life of diversion at 
Rome in which festivals abounded and war was 
unknown, could not be restrained, but were eager 
for the battle, feeling sure that at the very first 
onset they would overwhelm their opponents. 
Moreover, it would seem that Otho himself could 
not longer bear up against the uncertainty of the 
issue, nor endure (so effeminate was he and so unused 
to command) his own thoughts of the dire peril con- 
fronting him ; but worn out by his anxieties, he veiled 
his eyes, like one about to leap from a precipice, and 
hastened to commit his cause to fortune. And this 
is the account given by Secundus the rhetorician, 
who was Otho's secretary. But others would tell us 

297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dreoveiv ori rot? (nparevfjiacriv d{jL(f)orepoi<; Trapi- 
aravro opfial iroXXal &><? ei9 ravrb crvve\6elv real 
fjiaXivra pels civTOvs 6jJ>o(j)povijcravra<; etc rwv ira- 
povrwv rjye/jiovircwv eXecr#at rov dpicrrov, el 8e /JLIJ, 
rrjv crvyic\r)TOv Ofiov KaQicravras efalvai rrjv 
4 a'lpecriv e/ceivrj TOV avro/cpdropos. Kai OVK UTTCL- 
ACO? ecrri, fjLrjSerepov rore TWV Trpoaajopevo/j.evMv 
avTOKparopwv evSoKi/jLovvros, eTTiTrLrrreiv roiov- 
TOU? SiaXoto'LtoL'? rot? rvricriois KOI SidTrovois real 



ra)i> GTpaTiwrwv, a>? 

real Beivov, a 7rd\ai $ia *S.v\\av real Mdpiov, elra 
Kaicrapa real Tlo/ATTijlov wKreipovro Bpwvres d\- 
Kal Tracr^o^re? oL TroXlrat, ravra vvv VTTO- 
T) Ovire\\.ia) \aLfia pyias real olvo(f)\vyia^ 
r} Tpv(f)fjs real a/coXacrta? "QOcovi Ttjv rjje^LO- 
5 vlav ^opi'jjrj/jLa 7rpo0e/AVOvs. raur' ovv inro- 
voovat, TOU? re irepl rov KeXcrop alaOavo^evov^ 
e/j,{3a\elv $iaTpi{3ijv, eXTrt'^b^ra? avev /za^?/? teal 
TTOVCOV KpLOrjcreffdai ra Trpdj/Jiara, real TOV? jrepl 
rov'Q0o)va (f>o/3ov/jLevov<$ eVtra^urat rrjv 

X. At"To? Be 7rd\iv et? Bpt^iXX 
reai rovro TTpoae^afJiapr^v, ov% on fiovov TTJV ei> 
avrov Trapovros atw real $>i\.OTijjLiav 
TWV dyajvi^o/jievwv, aXXa, real TOU? eppw- 
real Trpodv/jLordrov^ Bi avrbv LTnrels 
reai 7reou$ aTrayaywv <f>v\aret]i> rov crco/mro? 
w&Trepel crro/tco/z.a l TT)? ovvdfj,eay$ direKo^re. 

%(Vvej3,'ri Be rat? rjfAepais etceivais real rrepl rov 

npioavov dy&va yev(T@ai, rov ^.tv Ke/aVa ^ev- 

yvvvTo? Tr)V Sidfiacrnt, ra)i> Be "QQ&vos eipyovrwv 



298 



OTHO ix. 3-x. 2 

that both armies were strongly inclined to confer ; 
and above all, if they could agree, to elect as 
emperor the best of the commanders who were with 
them, but if not, to convene the senate and commit 
to it the choice of an emperor. And since neither 
of the men who then had the title of emperor 
enjoyed high repute, it is not unlikely that the 
real soldiers, those who knew what hardship was and 
had sense, should be led to reflect that it would be a 
dreadful and most hateful thing if the evils which 
the citizens had once to their sorrow inflicted 
upon one another and suffered because of Sulla and 
Marius, and again because of Caesar and Pompey, 
should now be endured again only to make the 
imperial power a means for providing for the glut- 
tony and drunkenness of Vitellius or for the luxury 
and licentiousness of Otho. It is suspected, then, 
that Celsus was aware of these feelings, and there- 
fore tried to interpose delay, hoping that the issue 
would thus be decided without hardship and battle, 
and that Otho, fearing this, hastened on the battle. 

X. Otho himself returned to Brixillum, and in 
this too he made a mistake, not only because he 
took away from the combatants the respect and 
ambition which his presence and oversight inspired, 
but also because, by leading away as his bodyguard 
of foot and horse the men who were most vigorous 
and eager to please him, he cut away, as it were, 
the head and front of his army. 

During this time there was also a conflict at the 
river Po, where Caecina tried to build a bridge 
across the stream, and Otho's soldiers attacked him 



.a Doeliner's correction of the vulgate n ffi>)p.a, 
adopted by Sint. 8 

299 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

teal 7rpocr/jLa')o/jLV(i)v. o>9 Be ovSev ewepaivov, 

V0fJLVQ)V 6i9 TO, 7T\ola BaBa BeiOV Kal TTtTT^? 

dvd7r\a)v, Btd rov rropov nvevfjia rrpocrrreo~ov 
a<f>va) rrjv rrapeo'Kevao'fjievrjv v\rjv errl TO 1/9 
3 of 9 e^eppim^e. KCLTTPOV Be irpwrov, elra 
0X0709 etCTTecrova'r)?, raparro/jiei'OL KOL 
Swvres e/9 TOI^ Trora/jiov rds re vavs dverpeTrov 
/cal ra crco/^ara rot9 7ro\fiioi^ yuera 76X0)709 

ol Be YepfJLavol rot9 "O^a)^09 
7Tpl vijaiBa rov 7rora/j,ov 'jrpoa-fjL 
e/cpdrrfcrav teal Bie^Oeipav avT&v ov/c 6\iyov<$. 
XI. Yevojjievwv Be TOVTWV, Kal rwv ev BijTpi 
GTpariwrwv TOV "O^a>z^O9 eKffrepo/jievcov fjier opyfjs 
7U rr]V /jid^v, Trpoijyayev avrcvs 6 HpoK\o<> CK 
rov TSrjrpiaKov, Kal KarecrrparoTreBevcrev CLTTO 
Trevr^Kovra araBicov ouT&>9 a7ret/o&)9 /cal /caraye- 
X,a(TT&>9 ware, rrjs fjLei> wpas eapivfy ovatj<f, 
Be KVK\W TreBiayv 7ro\\a va^ara KOI 

2 aevvdovs e^ovrtav, vBaro? airdvei Trie^ecrOai,. rfj 
Be v&Tepaia ^ov\ofjuevov Trpodyeiv 7rl rou9 TTO\- 
fjiiovs 6Bov OVK e\drrova crraBiwv e/carov ol Trepl 
TOV Tlav\lvov OVK el'cov, aXX* qlovro Betv Trepi- 

Kal yu?) irpoirovelv eavrovs, /MjBe ev0vs K 
d^p TiOecrOai 777309 avBpas u>7T\icr p.e- 
Kai TrapareTay/jLevovs Kaff ^Gvy^iav, ev ocry 
TrpoLacriv avrol Tocravrijv 6Bov dvap-e/jiLy- 

3 fAva>v V7rovyla)v Kal aKoXovdwv. ovffrjs Be Trepl 
Tovrayv dvTi\oyia<; ev rot9 err parriyols rj\6e 
nap "O^ft)z/o9 iTTTrevs rwv Ka\ov/jLeva)v No 
ypd/A/mara KO/J-L^WV KeXevovra arj /jieveiv 
Biarpifietv, aXX' dyetv evflvs eirl roi/9 Tr 
eKelvoi fjiev ovv apavres e^wpovv, 6 Be 

300 



OTHO x. 2-xi. 3 

and tried to prevent it. Not succeeding, Otho's 
men loaded their vessels with torchwood full of 
sulphur and pitch, and began to cross the river ; 
but a blast of wind suddenly smote the material 
which they had prepared for use against the enemy, 
and fanned it afire. First smoke arose from it, then 
bright flames, so that the crews were confounded 
and leaped overboard into the river, upsetting their 
boats, and putting themselves at the mercy of a 
jeering enemy. Moreover, the Germans attacked 
Otho's gladiators at an island in the river, over- 
powered them and slew not a few of them. 

XI. These disasters threw Otho's soldiers at 
Bedriacum into a rage for battle, and Proculus 
therefore led them forth out of Bedriacum, and after 
a march of fifty furlongs pitched his camp, but in a 
manner so ignorant and ridiculous that his men were 
troubled by lack of water, although it was the 
spring of the year and the plains around abounded 
in running streams and rivers that never dried up. 
On the following day he proposed to make a march 
of no less than a hundred furlongs and attack the 
enemy, but Paulinus objected, and thought they 
ought to wait and not tire themselves beforehand, 
nor join battle immediately after a march with men 
who had armed and arrayed themselves at their 
leisure, while they themselves were advancing so 
great a distance with all their beasts of burden and 
camp-followers. While the generals were disputing 
about the matter, there came from Otho a Numidian 
courier with a letter which ordered them not to 
wait or delay, but to march at once against the 
enemy. Accordingly, they decamped and moved 
forward, and Caecina, who was much disturbed on 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TTJV (f>oSoi> dVTWv edopv/BijOr], Kal Kara 
crTrovBrjV dTro\nrd>v ra epya Kal rov rroTa/aov 
4 r)KV et? TO crrpaTOTredov. a>Tr\i<r ^evtov Be -ijBi] 
TCOV 7ro\\a)v, teal TO avvd^^a Trapa\afji{BavovT(av 
rrapd TOV Ovd\ei>TO$, ev oaay TTJV rd^iv Sie\dy- 
ra rdy/^ara, TOU? dpiarovs rwv 



XII. 'E/zTTtTTTet Se Tot? TrporeTay/Aevots ra>i> 
"O0a)vo<; e/c &jj TLVOS alrias Bo^a Kal Xoyos o 



TWV 
7T/305 avrovf. co? ovv 771)9 rjcrav, rjcnrda-avTo 






TJV 7rpoaay6pevcrii> OVK ev[j,ev)<$, d\\a 
Ovp,ov KOI 



VTTOVOLCL KCLTO, TWV dcnracra^evwv &>9 

2 Trapearr). Kal rovro Trp&rov avrovs erdpa^ev 1Q' 
7/87; Tuv TrdXefjLiwv ev ^(epcrlv OVTCOV. elra 
a\\wv ovBev r\v 

/jiv aTa^lav TO, crtcevcxpopa TOt9 

Trapel^e, TroXXoi'9 5e TO, 
eirolei Tafyptov oWa jj,crTa /ca opvy- 
aTtov, a (j)oj3ov/j.6voi /cal 
vp$r)v Kal KaTa pepr) TroXXa 

3 evavTioi?. fjiovai Be Svo \eyea)V<; (OVTCD yap TO, 

Ka\ovaiv), eTriK\ri<jLv rj /jie 
, r) Be 

rreBiov e^eXi^aaai tyiXov Kal 
vofJUfJiov Tiva [Jid'xyv, (yvfjiTreaovcrai (j)a\ayyr)B6v, 
efjid*)(pvTO TTO\VV ^povov. ol fjLcv ovv "Q6cavo<s 
r}aav evpwcrToi Kal dyaOoi, rroXe/jLOv Be 
TOTe rrpwTov irelpav \afjLJSdvovTes' ol 
302 



OTHO xi. 3-xii. 3 

learning of their approach, hastily abandoned his 
operations at the river and came to his camp. 
There most of the soldiers had already armed them- 
selves, and Valens was giving out the watchword to 
them, and while the legions were taking up their 
positions, the best of the cavalry were sent out in 
advance. 

XII. And now, for some reason, it was believed 
and rumoured among Otho's vanguard that the 
generals of Vitellius would come over to their side. 
Accordingly, when these drew near, Otho's men 
greeted them in a friendly fashion and called them 
fellow-soldiers. The enemy, however, returned the 
salutation in no kindly spirit, but with anger and 
hostile cries, so that those who had greeted them 
were dejected, and were suspected of treachery by 
the others on their side. This was the first thing; 

o 

that threw Otho's men into confusion, and at a 
time when the enemy were close at hand. And 
besides, nothing else was done properly, since the 
baggage-train wandered about among the fighting- 
men and caused great disorder. Moreover, the line 
of battle was often broken by the nature of the 
ground, which was full of trenches and pits, and in 
avoiding or going around these the men were com- 
pelled to engage their opponents promiscuouly and 
in many detachments. Only two legions (to use the 
Roman word), that of Vitellius called "Rapax" (or 
Devourer) and that of Otho called " Adiutrix " (or 
Helper}, got out into a treeless and extended plain, 
engaged in full formation, and fought a regular 
battle for a long time. Otho's men were sturdy 
and brave, but were now for the first time getting a 
taste of war and fighting ; those of Vitellius, on the 

33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be Ovlre\\iov TroXXtwi' dyatvcov e'#ae9, 77877 
yrjpaiol Kal irapaK^d^ovres. 

4 'Op/jLijaavTC? ovv eV avrovs ol " 

KOI TOV derov dfaiKovro, Travras OJAOV n rou? 
Trpojjid'xpvs drroKrelvavres' ol 8e VTTO ala-^vifrj^ KCU 
0/0777? e/LtTrecro^re? civ-rol^ TOV re irpecr^evT^v TOV 
'Qpfiio'iov etcreLvav Kal 7ro\\a rcov 
ijp'rraa'av. rot? Se /JLOVOfid^oi^ e/juTreipiav 
re Kal 0dpao<? e^eiv Trpos ra? o-v/nTrXofcds SOKOV- 
GIV eTr^jayev Ouapo? AX<>}i>o9 rou9 Ka\ovfj,evov<i 

5 Bara/5ov9. elal Be Tep/nav&v iTTTreis apiaroi, 
vfjcrov oiKOvvres viro TOV 'Ptfvov Trepippeo/jLevrjv. 
TOVTOVS 6\iyoi /jLev Twv fiovo/Jid^wv vTrecTTijcrav, ol 
Be TrXei&Toi (frevyovTes eVt TOV 

GIV 6i9 <77r6t/9a9 TWV 7TO\/ALCOV aVTo 

u0' wv afJivvo/JLevoL Trdvres oyuaX<W9 Btecfr&dprjcrav. 

6 aia^iarTa Be rjyowlcravTO TrdvTWv ol (TTpar^ytKoi, 

oaov ev %epal <yeveo-0ai rov9 evavTiovs VTTO- 
, dXXel /cdi TOVS dfjTriJTOv^ eTi <j)o/3ov 



ov priv d\\d TCO\\OL <ye T&V "QOcovos 

^ auTOvs eftidcravTO Kal Bie^eTreaov Bid 

v KpaTovvTwv et9 TO GTpaTOTreBov. 
XIII. Tcoz^ Be aTpaT^ywv ovre ilpoK\o<t oi>Te 
Hav\ii>o$ oruvei(Te\6elv eToXfiirjaav, aXA-' e^K\Li>ai> 
<j)o/3ou/jLevoi TOL*9 o-TpaTU*)Ta<$ ijBrj Tr]v air Lav errl 
TOU9 crrparriyovs rpeirovra^. "Avvios Be FaXXo? 
dve\dn/3avev ev rfj rro\eL Kal Trape^vOelro roi)? 



Kal TroXXot? KeKparrfKora^ /j,epecri 
2 ra)v 7TO\efjLLcov. Mdptos Be KeXcro9 701)9 ev reXet 



34 



OTHO xn. 3-xin. 2 

other hand, had seen many battles and were used to 
them, but they were now old and past their prime. 

So Otho's men charged upon them, drove them 
back, and captured their eagle, killing nearly all 
who stood in the first rank ; but the others, impelled 
by shame and anger, fell upon their foes, slew 
Orfidius, the commander of the legion, and seized 
many of their standards. Against Otho's gladiators, 
too, who were supposed to have experience and 
courage in close fighting, Alfenus Varus led up the 
troops called Batavians. They are the best cavalry 
of the Germans, and come from an island made by 
the Rhine. A few of the gladiators withstood these, 
but most of them fled towards the river, where they 
encountered cohorts of the enemy in battle array, 
and in defending themselves against these, were cut 
off to a man. But the praetorian soldiers fought 
more shamefully than any others. They did not 
even wait for their opponents to come to close 
quarters, but fled through the ranks of their still 
unvanquished comrades, filling them with fear and 
confusion. Notwithstanding all this, many of 
Otho's men conquered those who opposed them, 
forced their way through the victorious enemy, and 
regained their camp. 

XIII. But as for their generals, neither Proculus 
nor Paulinus ventured to enter the camp with them, 
but turned aside through fear of the soldiers, who 
were already laying the blame for their defeat upon 
their commanders. But Annius Gallus received into 
the town the soldiers who gathered there out of the 
battle, and tried to encourage them. The battle 
had been nearly equal, he said, and in many parts of 
it they had overcome their enemies. Marius Celsus, 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ffvvayaycbv exeXevae aKOTrelv rb KOIVOV, o><? eVt 
ifyopa rrj\LKavrrj real <f)6vw ro&ovrw rro\t,rwv 
e "QOwvos, eirrep dvrjp dyaOos ecrnv, 
o~ovro<$ en TreipdaOai TT}? TU^T;?, OTTOU KOL 

Kparovvri yuera ^> 
alriav e^ovaiv cy? TTO\\OVS 
teal dyadovs av$pa<$ eV Aiftvrj Trapava\u>cravTes 
OVK dvayKaiays, KdiTrep dywvi^o/jLevoi Trepl TT}<? 
3 e P(t)fj,aio)v e\ev6epias. ra yap d\\a KOivr/v 7} 
Trape^ovcra Trdcriv eavrrjv ev OVK dfiaipeiraL 
dyaOwv, rb rcav irraicrcoaLV v\oyi(TT6iv TT/JO? 



rd 



Tavra \eytov erreiOe TOU? rjye/JLOviKovs. evrel 
S Treipw/jLevoi rovs crrparKora^ ewpcov elptfwrjs 
Seo/j,ei'ovs Kal Tiriavbs e'/ceXeue Trpecrfteveiv vrrep 
ofjiovoias, eBo^e KeXcrw Kal TdXXw fta&i^eiv Kal 
Sia\yecrdat TO?? Trepl rbv Ke/ctVa^ Kal Qvd\vra. 
4 fia&ifovcri Be avrols d7r/]VTr)(rai> e 

IJLZV Bvvafiiv r/>; KeKivrj/uevrjv \eyovres e 
7rl TO RrjTpiaxov, avrol Be VTTO TWV 



irepl ofiovdlas. eTraivecravres ovv oi 



i TOP Ke/\o~oi> exeXevcrav avrovs dva 
Ta? "naKiv aTravrav ytteT' avrcov Tot? irepl rbv 
KeKLvav. eirel Be eyyvs rjaav, eKivBvvevaev 6 
KeXcro?. erv%ov ydp ol Trepl rrjv eveBpav rjTTtj- 
5 fJLevoi Trporepov /TTTret? Trpoe^eXaui/oz^Te?. w? ovv 
Trpoa-iovra rbv KeXo-oi/ KaretBov, evOvs /3oi](ravres 
eir 'avrov. ol Be efcarovrdp^ai, rrpo- 
dveipyovrev Kal ra>v 
306 



OTHO xni. 2-5 

moreover, assembled the officers and urged them to 
consult the public good. Jn view of so great a 
calamity, he said, and the slaughter of so many 
citizens, not even Otho himself, if he were a good 
man, would wish to make further trial of his fortune, 
since even Cato and Scipio, by refusing to yield to a 
victorious Caesar after Pharsalus, had incurred the 
charge of needlessly squandering the lives of many 
brave men in Africa, although their struggle was in 
behalf of Roman freedom. For in general all men 
alike are subject to the decrees of fortune, but of 
one thing she cannot rob a good man, and that 
is the privilege, in case of adversity, of taking 
reasonable measures to correct the situation that 
confronts him. 

By this speech Celsus won over the officers. And 
after they had sounded the soldiers and found them 
desirous of peace, and when Titianus urged that an 
embassy be sent in the interest of concord, Celsus 
and Callus decided to go and confer with Caecina 
and Valens. But as they were on the way they 
were met by some centurions of the enemy, who 
said that their army was already in motion and was 
on its way to Bedriacum, and that they themselves 
had been sent out by their generals to treat for 
concord. Accordingly, Celsus commended them, 
and bade them turn back with him and go to meet 
Caecina. But when they were near the army of 
Caecina, Celsus ran risk of his life. For it chanced 
that the horsemen who had formerly been worsted 
by him at the ambush were riding on in advance. 
So when they saw Celsus coming up, they forthwith 
raised a shout and dashed against him. But the 
centurions stood in front of him and kept them off; 

307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiowvrwv ol rrepl TOP KeKivav irvOo- 
real rrpoae\daavre<$ rijv aKOcrp.iav ra^v rwv 1073 
Irfrrewv erravaav, rov Be KeA,croz> 
(f)i\0(f)p6v(0<; eftdBifyv uer* avrwv el<$ TO 

6 ev Be TOVTW peTa-voia Tiriavbv ea")(v e/ 

TrpecrfBeif real TWV a-rpancorMv rot/5 Opaavv- 
av0i<; avejBlfta^ev eirl ra rei^rj KCLI TOU? 
7rap6/cd\L /3or]9elv. TOV $e Ke/cLva Trpoa- 
eXacrcwro? rq> iirirco /cai rrjv &eiav opeyovros 

, a\X' ol JJLCV avro TWV 
TOV? o-Tyoartwra?, ol Be ra? 
e^rjecrav teal avefjii<yvvvTO rot? 

7 i]KQVcn,v. rjSiKei Be ouSet?, d\\a teal <f)i\o<f)po- 
avvai KOLI Se^cocrei? rfcrav, oyfiocrav Be irdvre^ Trepl 
rov Ov'ire\\iov KOL TTpocre^Mprjdav. 

XIV. OvTw fjiev ol 7T\eL(TToi Tfov Trapayevo/jLC- 
vwv d7rayye\\ov(Ti, ryevecrOai, TTJV fid^rjv, ovBe 
avrol tra^co? ojAo^oyovvres elBevai TO, K off e/cacrra 
&ta Trjv aia^lav KOI TIJV av(d^LcC\iav. e/jiol Be 
varepov oBevovri Bia rov rrehiov MeGrpios ^Xwpo?, 
dvr/p vrrariKos rwv rare //,?) Kara yva){J,r}V, aXX' 
fj,era rov ^'QOwvos yevofievwv, vecbv ovra 



TraXaibv eiriBei^a^ Biiyyeiro fiera rrjv 
e7re\0a)v IBelv ve/cpwv a-copov r^\i/covrov ware 
2 rov-f 7rt7ro\r}? arrreo'dat rcov derwv. Kal rrjv 
alrlav e(j)rj fyrwv ovre auro? evpelv ovre Trap* 
a\\ov rov rcvOeaOai. Bvi'icnceiv /j,ev yap rrapa 
TOU? e/jL(j)v\iovs TroXe/AOf?, orav rporrr] yevrjrat,, 
rc\eiovas etVo? ecrri, ru) /ArjBeva faypetv, ^pr}(jBai 
yap OVK ecrn rot? aKia-Ko^evoL^, rj 8' eVi rocrovro 



308 



OTHO xin. 5~xiv. 2 

the other officers also shouted to the horsemen to 
spare Celsus, and Caecina, hearing their cries, rode 
up and speedily brought his horsemen to order. 
Then he greeted Celsus in a friendly manner and 
went on with him to Bedriacum. But meanwhile 
Titianus had repented of having sent the embassy, 
and after ordering the more resolute of the soldiers 
back again upon the walls, he exhorted the rest to 
go to their support. However, when Caecina rode 
up on his horse and stretched out his hand to them, 
not a man resisted further, but some greeted his 
soldiers from the walls, while others, throwing 
open the gates, went forth and mingled with the 
advancing troops. There were no hostilities, on 
the part of Otho's men, but only friendly salutations 
and greetings, and all took oath to support Vitellius 
and went over to his side. 

XIV. This is the account which most of the 
participants give of the battle, although they them- 
selves confess that they were ignorant of its details, 
owing to the disorder and the unequal fortunes of the 
several groups. At a later time, when I was travelling 
through the plain, Mestrius Florus, one of the men 
of consular rank who were at that time with Otho 
(by constraint, and not of their own will), pointed 
out to me an ancient temple, and told me how, as 
he came up to it after the battle, he saw a heap of 
dead bodies so high that those on top of it touched 
the gable of the temple. The reason for this he 
said he could neither discover himself nor learn 
from anyone else. It is natural, indeed, that in 
civil wars, when a rout takes place, more men 
should be killed, because no quarter is given (there 
being no use for prisoners) ; but why the dead 



309 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



l av/ji<j)6pr)o~i<; OVK e 
vav\\oyio~rov. 

XV. Too Be "Od&vi Trpwrov fiev dcra<p r/?, axrrrep 
rrepl rwv rij\iKovra)v, rrpocrerrecre 



eVe! Be /ecu rerputfjievoi rives rjKov K rrs 



aTra / yye'\,\ovT<;, TOU? [lev (j)L\,ov<$ TITTOV av 
eOav/jiacrev OVK ewvras airayopeveiv, a\\a Oappelv 
TrapaK\evof*ei>ov<$, TO &e TO)V o-Tpariwrwv irdOo^ 
arracrav virepeftaKe TTIGTIV. oo? ovSet9 airr}\6ev, 
2 ov&e /jLerearr) 77/309 



TO Ka6^ avrov rjTWv airejvwa-fjievov rov r)ye/j,vo$, 



tVl Ovpas rj\Qov, efcd\ovv 
avroKpdropa, irpoe\6ovTOS eyivovro Trpoarpo- 
TTCLIOI, /uera /3o?}9 teal l&earias ^eupSiv rjirrovro, 
TrpocreTriTTTov, eBd/cpvov, eBeovro /jur) <70a9 ejKara- 
\nrelv, /JLIJ Trpo&ovvai Tot9 7ro\6/ito<9, d\\d ffitfj 



av e/jLTrvewcri Ka rv^a^ /ca ora)fj.acriv 
3 avrov. ravra O/JLOV rrdvres ifcerevov. ei9 Be row 

dvarelvas TO (09 Kal elrroiv, 
., Kalcrap, ovrcos vrrep crov Traparcray- 



eavrov. 



" 



a, rovra)v ovBev 7reK\a<T6 rov "OOcova, 
q) Be Kal KaOecrrwrt, rrpoaairrw rravra^oae 
T9 o-v/ret9 rreptayaywv, " Tavrrjv" elrcev, 
(Tvcrrpanwrai,, rrjv rj/jiepav e/eeivijSj ev rj 
rrpwrov erroirjcrare avroKpdropa, {laKapiayrepav 
rjyov/jiai, roiovrovs opwv V/JLCLS Kal rrfkiKOvrwv 
4 d^iov/jii>o^. d\\d /JLJJ fieL&vos drcoarepelre, rov 
djroOavelv vrrep roaovrwv Kal roiovrcov 
el T^9 Pcofiaitov rjye/j-ovias a^iO9 yeyova, 
Bel fie T?;9 e/nr)$ ^v^rj^ vrrep T?;9 rrarpiBos dfyeiBelv. 
olBa rrjv vitiffv To?9 evavriois ovre /3e/3aiav ovre 



OTHO xiv. 2-xv. 4 

bodies should be collected and heaped up in such a 
manner is not easy to determine. 

XV. To Otho there came at first, as is usual in 
such catastrophes, an indistinct rumour of the 
result ; but presently some of his soldiers who had 
been wounded came with direct tidings of the 
battle. Here one cannot so much wonder that his 
friends would not let him give up all for lost, and 
exhorted him to be of good cheer ; but the feelings 
of his soldiers towards him passed all belief. Not a 
man of them left him, or went over to the victorious 
side, or was seen to despair of the emperor's cause 
and seek his own safety, but all alike came to his 
door, called upon him as emperor, became his 
humble suppliants when he appeared before them, 
seized his hands with cries and prayers, fell down 
before him, wept, begged him not to abandon them, 
and not to betray them to their enemies, but to use 
their lives and persons in his service as long as they 
had breath. Such were their united supplications. 
And one obscure soldier held up his sword, and with 
the words " Know, O Caesar, that all of us stand in 
this fashion at thy side," slew himself. 

None of these things, however, broke Otho down, 
but looking all around with a countenance composed 
and cheerful, he said : " This day, my fellow-soldiers, 
I deem more blessed than that on which ye first 
made me emperor, since I see you so devoted to me 
and am judged worthy of so high honour at your 
hands. But do not rob me of a greater blessed- 
ness that of dying nobly in behalf of fellow-citizens 
so many and so good. If I was worthy to be Roman 
emperor, 1 ought to give my life freely for my 
country. 1 know that the victory of our adversaries 

3 11 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

lo"xvpav ovaav. dirayyeXKovo'L rrjv etc Mixrt 
ov TTO\\WV rAo)v 6Soi> 



5 ijSrj Kara/Baivovaav eirl TOV 'ASpiav. 'Acrid real 
^Lvpia teal AiyvirTos real ra 7ro\e^ovvTa 'louSat'oi? 

r\ re crvyK\rjTo<^ Trap 1 



teal r&Kva T&V evavricov /ca 



OVK ecm TT^O? ' AvvijSav ovSe Tlvppov ov&e K//A- 
/3/30U5 o 7r6\f.iosu7rep T7}?'IraX/a?, aXXa'Pco/jLaioi^ 
7ro\6fjiovvTs afJL^QTepoi Tqv TTarpiSa real vucwvrts 
aSiKOv/^ev /cal VLKWJJLGVOI. teal yap TO a<ya9ov TOV 
6 rpaTOvvTOs Keivr) xareov eari. Tria-revcrare TTO\- 
Xa/a9 OTI Bvva/jLat tcaXXiov airoOavelv TJ ap^eLv. 
ov yap opw TI TrjXiKOVTov 'Pay/jiaiois o^eXo? 

tepaTij(ras, rjXiteov eVtSou? e^avrov inrep 10' 
/eal ofjiovoias, real TOV ^ Trd\iv rj/^epav 
v eTTibelv TTJI> 'IraXtai/." 
XVI. ToiavTa StaXe^et'?, teal Trpbs TOVS GVL- 
<TTd(j6ai teal Trapa/edXeiv eirij^eLpovvTa^ a 
crd/jLevos, TOV? re <pi\ovs cWXeuey a 
real TMV (TuyfcXrjTirecov TOVS irapovTas' rot? 
Trapovcnv eVecrreXXe teal ypd/^/jiaTa Trpbs ra? 
7roXi9, OTTO)? Trapareo/nicrdtocriv eWt/^w? teal yuera 
2 da(j)a\eia<;. TT poo-ay 6/nevos Be TOV dSeXfpL^ovv 
KOKKIJIOV, TL fJieipcLKiov ovTa, Bappelv 7rapercd\i 
teal IJLTJ SeSievai OVLTX\IOV, ov teal (JLrjTepa real 
yeveav teal yvvaitea auro?, wcrvrep olreeiwv teij&6- 
, $ia(f)V\dai. Sia TOVTO yap ovSe 



eo~7ro,r)o~iv, a)? avvp^oi repaTro~avTOs avTou, 
fJiTf TrpoaaTToXoiTO TTTaicravTO^' " 'Ereelvo Se," 
elirev, ' o) iral, vrapeyyvw/jLai aoi 



312 



OTHO xv. 4-xvi. 2 

is neither decisive nor assured. I have word that 
our forces from Mysia are already approaching the 
Adriatic, and are only a few days distant from us. 
Asia, Syria, Egypt, and the armies fighting against 
the Jews, are on our side ; the senate, too., is with 
us, as well as the wives and children of our 
adversaries. Still, it is not to defend Italy against 
Hannibal, or Pyrrhus, or the Cimbri, that our war is 
waged, but both parties are waging war against 
Romans, and we sin against our country whether we 
conquer or are conquered. For the victor's gain is 
our country's loss. Believe me when I insist that I 
can die more honourably than I can reign. For I 
do not see how my victory can be of so great 
advantage to the Romans as my offering up my life 
to secure peace and concord, and to prevent Italy 
from beholding such a day again." 

XVI. So he spake, and after resisting firmly those 
who tried to oppose and dissuade him, he ordered 
his friends to depart, as well as the men of senatorial 
rank who were present ; to those who were absent 
he sent the same command, and wrote to the cities 
urging them to escort the travellers on their way 
with honour and in safety. Then he sent for his 
nephew Cocceius, who was still a youth, and bade 
him be of good cheer and not fear Vitellius, whose 
mother and wife and children he had kept safe and 
cared for as though they were his own. He had 
desired, he said, to make him his son, but had put 
off the adoption, in order that the youth might share 
his power after he had prevailed, and not perish with 
him after he had failed. '-'And now, my boy," he 
said, " this is my last charge to thee ; do not alto- 

voi,. xi. r 3 J 3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tri\a0ea0ai TravTarracri pyre ayav 

ori Kaierapa 9elov ecr^e?." 
3 TevbfJievos Be drro TOVTWV /mera uiKpbv ij/covae 
0opv/3ov Kal /3o?}9 errl Ovpais. 01 yap crrpariMTai 

TO)V <TVyK\r)TlKMV TOfc? a7TLOV(TL &tr)7Tlk.QW O.7TO- 

crfyd^eiv, el pr) Trapa^evovaiv, a\\a ol^crovrai 
rbv avrofcpdropa Kara\nrovTe^. 7rd\iv ovv jrpo- 
virep TWV dv&pwv (froftrjdeh, Kal TOL*? 
ov/ceri Se^Ti/co? oi)Se Trpao?, d\\a 
is, teal ^ter' opyrjs et? TO Oopvftovv 
s, cnre\6elv eTroiijerei' e'i 



KCU 



XVII. "HS?; be ecrTre/oa? oi/cr^? ervjr>?<re, 
6\iyov vSaros, Sveiv OVTWV avra) 

eKarepou KarefjidvOave TO crTracr/ta TTO\VV 

\\r/ > / 5' n ' ?^' v . * '-\ 

KUL TO erepov aireowKe, uarepov be t? Ta? ayica\a<$ 

dva\aft(bv TOU? ot/ceTa? 
\o(>povov/j.evo$ Sieve^e rwv 
TT\OV, TO) Se e\aTTOv, ov 
d<peiB(*)v, d\\d TO tear d%iav Kal TO 
2 7rt/ieX&)9 (f)v\dTT(i)i>. 

TO \OLTTOV dverraveTO TT}? VVKTOS, WCTTC 

alcrddveaQai, /3a^e&>? avTOv Kad- 
opdpov Se /eaXecra? dTre\ev0epov c5 
TCL rrepl TOU? crvyK\ijTtKovs, fiaOelv 
e' Kal TrvOofJievos yeyovivai TO?? direp- 






Troei Tot9 crTpaTicoTais 

ei, IJMJ @t\ei<? KaKws L/TT' avTcov aTroOavelv a>9 
3 av[jL7rpdi;as TOV OdvaTov" ee\9ovTos Se TOV 
avdpctiTrov TO i<po<> VTroaTtjcras opOov d 
Tal<? ^epai, Kal TrepirrecrMV avu>Bev, oaov 



OTHO xvi. 2-xvn. 3 

gather forget, and do not too well remember, that 
thou hadst a Caesar for an uncle." 

This done, after a little he heard tumult and 
shouting at his door. For as the men of senatorial 
rank were departing, the soldiers threatened to kill 
them if they did not remain, instead of forsaking 
their emperor. Once more, then, he went forth, 
since he feared for the men's safety. He was no 
longer gentle and suppliant, however, but stern of 
countenance, and looking angrily round upon the 
most turbulent of the soldiers, he made them go 
away submissively and in fear. 

XVII. It was now evening, and being thirsty, he 
drank a little water. He had two swords, and after 
examining the blade of each for a long time, he 
laid one of them aside, but put the other under 
his arm, and then called his servants. These he 
addressed kindly, and distributed money to them, 
more to one and less to another, not as though 
lavish with what was no longer to be his, but with 
strict regard to moderation and the claims of merit. 
After sending the servants away, he betook himself 
to rest for the remainder of the night, and slept so 
soundly that his chamberlains heard his heavy breath- 
ing. Just before dawn he called a freedman with 
whom he had arranged for the departure of the 
senators, and bade him learn how they fared. And 
when he was told that all of them had what was 
needful for their journey, " Go thou, then," he said 
to the freedman, '' and show thyself to the soldiers, 
unless thou wishest them to put thee to a miserable 
death for helping me to die." Then, when the man 
had gone out, with both hands he held his sword 
upright beneath him, and fell upon it, giving but a 

3'5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fJiovov rjcrOero TOV rrovou teal rot? e/cro? 
irapea-^ev. dpa^evwv Be TWV TraiBwv 
r]v evOvs CLTTCIV TO (jTpaTOTre%ov Kol TTJV 

TTO\,IV 67T6t% K\av8 [LOS' KCU /XGTa /So?}? Ol (TTpCLTl- 

wrai eia'tTreaov tVt ra? 6vpas /cat a>\ofyvpovTO, 



TOV avrofcpdropa /MjSe KGo~\.vcravTa<; CLTTO- 
4 Oavelv vjrep avrcoy. cnreaTr) Se ov$el<$ TMV fear* 
eyyvs OVTWV TWV TroXe/ita)^, a\\a 






~ \ \ 

TO (TM/jLa KCLl TCVpaV 

'J V TOt? OTrXoj? Ol 



i fiacrTCKrai TO Xe^o? emyavpov/jLevoi. TWV &e 
a\\(t)i> OL fJLev TO rpav/jia TOV veicpov rca,T6(pi\ovv 
TrpocnrLTrTOVTSS, ol Be T^TTTOVTO TWV %eipwv, ol Be 
Trpoa-e/cvvovv Troppw6ev. evioi Be TTJ rrvpa 
Bas v(j)VTs eai^TOu? aTrecr^a^a^, ovBev eVSr/ 



VTTO TOV 



OVTC Treiaa'6ai Beivbv VTTO TOV KpaTovvTOS BeBio- 
5 T?. a\\ eoi/ce fJL f r)$evi TWV TrcoTTOTe rvpavvtov f) 
fiaai\ea)v Beivbs ouTfo? epcos eyyevecrdat, KOI 
Trept^avr)*} TOV ap-%Li>, a>? ettelvoL TOV 
icai VTTCIKOVGLV "QOtovos T)pdcr67jaav 
o TTO^O? 7rpov\L7rev, dX\d 



XVI 1 1. Td /j.ev ovv a\\a rcaipov oUelov e 
\.%trr}vcit.' Kpv^cLVTe^ Be Trj yrj TO, \ei^lravd TOV 
Juwvos OVTC jJLeyeOei o~rjfJiaTO<$ OVT emypcKpfjs 107 
bytcw TOV Tafiov e-rroLrjcrav eTri$6ovov. elBov Be 
ev L>pigi,\\(t) yevop.evo^ KOI /jLvrj/jLa LLeTpiov Kal 
316 



OTHO xvn. 3-xvin. i 

single groan as he felt the pang. The servants 
outside heard his groan and raised a wailing cry, and 
at once the whole camp and the city were filled 
with lamentation. The soldiers, with loud cries, 
burst in at the door, and then bewailed their 
emperor, full of anguish., and reviling themselves 
because they had not watched over him and pre- 
vented him from dying in their behalf. Not one of 
his followers went away, although the enemy were 
near, but after attiring the body and preparing a 
funeral pyre for it, they escorted it thither with 
military honours, and full of exultation were those 
who won the privilege of carrying the bier. Of the 
rest, some embraced the emperor's body and kissed 
his wound, others grasped his hands, and others still 
made him their obeisance at a distance. There 
were some, too, who first put their torches to the 
pyre and then slew themselves, not, so far as could 
be known, because they were either indebted to 
the dead for favours, or fearful of punishment at 
the hands of the victor. Nay, it would seem 
that no king or tyrant was ever possessed by so 
dire and frenzied a passion for ruling as was that 
of these soldiers for being ruled and commanded 
by Otho ; not even after his death did their yearn- 
ing for him leave them, nay, it abode with them 
until it finally changed into an incurable hatred for 
Vitellius. 

XVIII. Well, then, the rest of the story is now in 
place. They buried the remains of Otho, and made 
a tomb for them which neither by the great size of 
its mound nor by the boastfulness of its inscription 
could awaken jealousy. I saw it when I was at 
Brixillum. It is a modest memorial and the inscrip- 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TJV e7Tiypa(f)r)V OVTW<$ e^ovcrav, el 



2 ' P^TreOave Be "O0wv eTr) /Jiev 7rra /cal TpiaKovra 
ftidoa'as, ap^as Be Tpeis /JLT/va^, d7ro\nra)v Be fir) 
%eipova<; yu-7/8' eXarrof? rwv TOV /3iov avrov 



yap ov&ev eTrieifcea-Tepov Ne/3&)^o? aTreOavev evye- 
vecrrepoi 1 . 

3 Ot Be (Trpariwrai IToXXtwi'o? TOV erepov TWV 
7rdp")(wv 6/jLvveiv evdvs els TOV QviTe\\iov K\v- 
cravTos eBvcrxepatvov fcai TrvOofievoi TWV crvy- 

KXtfTLICMV ev'lOVS 6TI TTapelvCLL TOU? JJLV aX\Of? 

d<f)f]Kav, Ovepyivitp Be 'PoixfiM trpdy^aTa Trapei- 
-^ov afia rot? 6VXot9 eX^d^re? eVl TrjV ol/ciav /cal 
KaTaKa\ovvTs avOis Kal /ceXeuo^re? dp^eiv rj 

4 Trpecrfteveiv virep CLVTWV. o Be TTJV rjyefjioviav 
r)TT(i)/jL6vti)V rrapdXafielv, veviKtjKOTayi' TcpoTepov 
fjir) 6e\r)cras, ^aviKov yyeiTO' Trpeafteveiv Be TT/^O? 
TOU? Tep/Aavovs BeBi,(i)S, TroXXa {3e/3idcr6ai rcapd 
yvw/jLijv LTT' CLVTOV BOKOVVTCLS, e\ade Bi eTepatv 
dvpwv exTroBwv 7rotr;<Ta? eavTov. a>? Be TOVTO 
eyvwcrav ol crTpaTiwrai, TOU? re op/cou? 

Kal roi? Treyot TW Ke/cuvav TrpocreOcvTO 



Bekker adopts Aai/iO(r, the correction of 
Lobeck. 



OTHO xvin. 1-4 

tion on it, in translation, runs thus: "To the 
memory of Marcus Otho." 

Otho died at the age of thirty-seven years, but he 
had ruled only three months, and when he was gone, 
those who applauded his death were no fewer or 
less illustrious than those who blamed his life. For 
though he lived no more decently than Nero, he 
died more nobly. 

As for his soldiers, when Pollio, their remaining 
prefect, 1 ordered them to swear allegiance at once 
to Vitellius, they were incensed; and when they 
learned that some of the senators were still there, 
they let all of them go except Verginius Rufus, 
and him they annoyed by going to his house in 
military array and inviting him again, 2 and even 
urging him, to assume the imperial power, or to go on 
an embassy in their behalf. But Verginius thought 
it would be madness for him to accept the imperial 
dignity now, when they were defeated, after refusing 
it before, when they were victorious, and as for 
going on an embassy to the Germans, he feared to 
do so, since they felt that he had often done them 
violence beyond all reason; and so he stole away 
unobserved by another door. When the soldiers 
learned of this, they consented to take the oaths, 
and joined the forces of Caecina, thus obtaining 
pardon. 

1 The other was Proculus, (vii. 4 ; .xiii. 1). 

2 See The Galba, vi. 3 ; x. 2 ff. 



3 T 9 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



The Roman numerals refer to the volume, the Arabic to the page. Numbers 
marked off by semicolons belong to lemmata omitted for the sake of brevity. 

A name without a number following two or more with numbers indicates 
uncertainty as to the identity of the person referred to. 

Bergk is used for Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci, 4th ed.; Kock for Kock, 
Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta; Nauck for Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum 
Fragmenta, 2nd ed. 



ABANTES, Euboean tribe referred to 

by Homer and Archilochus, 1. 10 
Abantidas, aimed at tyranny of 

Sicyon, XI. 4 ; slain, 6 
Abas, river where Pompey defeated 

Albanians, V. 208 
Aboeocritus, boeotarch defeated at 

Chaeroneia by Aetoliaus, XI. 34 
Abolus, river where Timoleon defeated 

Mamercus, VI. 340 
Abra, attendant of Pompeia, VII. 

152, 464 
Abriorix (Ambiorix) destroys army of 

Titurius and Cotta, VH. 500 
Abuletes, imprisoned by Alexander, 

VII. 414 
Abydos, scene oi naval battle, iv. 

78 
Academus, gave name to Academy, 

1.74 
Academy, near Athens, XI. 78; 

beautified by Cimon, II. 446; 

ravaged by Sulla, iv. 362. See 

also I. 406 " 
Academy, new, rep. by Philo, Cleito- 

machus, Carneades, VII. 88, n. 606 
Academy, old, rep. by Antiochus of 

Ascalon, II. 606 

Acamantis, tribe of Pericles, ill. 6 
Acanthians, their treasury, iv. 234, 

280 
Acarnania, overrun by Pericles, III. 

60 ; given to Pyrrhus, IX. 360 



Acarnanians, defeated by Agesilaus, 
V. 62 ; fight for Antigonus, X. 114 

Acastus, son of Pelias, eaten by worms, 
IV. 410 

Acca Larentia, wife of Paustulus, I. 
100 

Acerrae, city north of Po, V. 446 

Acestodorus, quoted, II. 38 

Achaeans, helped by Agesilaus, V. 62; 
league against Philip, vn. 40; 
league joined by Sicyon, XI. 20; 
choose Aratus general, 34 ; alliance 
with Alexander, 38; joined by 
Corinth, 52; by Megara, Troezen, 
Epidaurus, 54, 58; joined by 
Cleonae, 64; ask aid of Sparta, 

X. 30; joined by Megalopolis, 

XI. 68; allied with Aetolians, 74; 
joined by Aegina, Hermione, 
Arcadia, 78 ; by Argos and Phlius, 
80; by Mantineia, 82; war with 
Sparta, X. 54, 58, 62, 80, 84, XI. 86, 
90 ; aided by Antigonus, X. 266 ; 
recover Argos, XT. 102; war with 
Aetolians, X. 126, XI. 108; Philo- 
poernen cavalry leader, X. 27-' ; 
invite Philip, XI. 108; defeat 
Machanidas, X. 280, 284; with 
Romans against ftabis, 292 ; against 
Philip, 334 ; exiles restored, n. 326. 
See also X. 274, 314, 360, 370 

Achaeans, Phthiotic, III. 56, V. 418, 
130, X. 350 



3 2I 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Achaeans' harbour, in Troad, II. 506 
Achaicus, surname of Mumniius, 

IX. 464 

Acharnae, Attic deme, II. 66, 252 
Acheloiis river, III. 60 
Achillas, has Pompey killed, V. 316 ; 

wars on Caesar, VII. 558 ; executed, 

V. 324 
Achilles, defeats Paris, I. 78; deified 

in Epeirus, IX. 346 ; slain by Paris, 

IV. 452 

Achilles, rescues infant Pyrrhus, 

IX. 350 
Achradina, strongest part of Syracuse, 

V. 484, VI. 62, 66, 76, etc. 
Acilius, friend of Brutus, VI. 176 
Acilius, soldier of Caesar, vil. 478 
Acilius, C., quoted, I. 158; interprets 

Greek, II. 370 
Acilius Glabrio, M', defeats Antiochus, 

etc., II. 334, 340, IV. 364, X. 366 
Acontium, mountain in Greece, IV. 

380, 388 

Acrae, in Sicily, VI. 58 
Acrillae,in Sicily, V. 482 
Acrocoriuthus, X. 82, 90, XI. 34, 36, 

64, 76, 102 
Acron, slain by Eomulus, I. 134, 190, 

V. 454 
Acropolis of Athens, It. 28, 54, 416, 

446,612, III. 42, IX. 338 
Acrotatus (1), sou of Cleomenes, 

father of Areus, X. 10 
Acrotatus (2), son of Areus, slain at 

Megalopolis, IX. 434, X. 10 
Acruriura, mountain in Phocis, VIII. 

222 

Actaeon (1), Plataean hero, II. 246 
Actaeon (2), torn to pieces by dogs, 

VIII. 2 
Actaeon (3), torn to pieces by lovers, 

VIII. 2 

Acte, joins Cleomenes, XI. 94; Deme- 
trius, IX. 58 
Actium sea-fight, IX. 278, VI. 246; 

V. 174 
Acuphis, made ruler by Alexander, 

vil. 390 

Ada, queen of Caria. vil. 286 
Adeimantus (1), Athenian archon, 

11.16 
Adeimantus (2), Athenian general at 

Aegospotami,iv. 106 
Adiabeni, support Ti Cranes, II. 552, 

558 



Adiutrix, legion of Otho, XI. 302 
Admetus (1), loved by Apollo, I. 

318 
Admetus (2), king of Molossiaus, 

shelters Themistocles, II. 64 
Adonia festival, described, III. 256, 

IV. 48 
Adramyttium, home of Xenocles, 

VII. 90 
Adranum, saved by Timoleon, VI. 286. 

298 
Adranus, god honoured in Sicily, VI, 

286 

Adrasteia, mountain range, II. 496 
Adrastus, helped by Theseus, I. 66, 

VII. 150 

Adria, Tuscan city, II. 128 
Adria, northern sea, II. 128 
Adria, where Philistus wrote history, 

VI. 24 
Adria? garrisoned bv Antigonus, S3. 

26 
Adrian, officer under Lucullus, II. 

520 

Adriatic sea, II. 198 
Adultery, unknown at Sparta, I. 252 ; 

Solon's law, 466 
Aeacidae, II. 44 ; IX. 432 
Aeacides, father of Pyrrhus, IX. 58, 

346, 350 
Aeacus, described, I. 20, VII. 224; 

sanctuary at Aegina, 70 
Aeantid tribe, lost 52 at Plataea, 

II. 272 

Aedepsus hot springs, IV. 408 
Aediles, two kinds, IX. 470; IV. 158 
Aedui, rebel against Caesar, VII. 506 
Aegae (1), little Aeolic citadel, II. 

70 
Aegae (2), garrisoned by Pyrrhus, 

IX. 432 
Aegean, made free sea by Cimon, 

II. 428 

Aegeid, Attic tribe, III. UoJ, IV. 56 
Aegeus, his history, I. 6, 24, 32, 44, 

196, 200 

Aegialia,littleisland, X. 118 
Aegia?, banker of Sicyon, XI. 40 
Aegina, II. 44, IV. 252, VII. 2, 64, 

70 
Aeginetans, attacked by Athens, 

IT. 10; 46; 52; in. 84; expelled by 

Athenians, 98; 230; restored by 

Lysander, IV. 268; join Achaean 

league, XI. 78 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Aegium, attached to Rome by Cato 

Major, II. 336; X. 86; 106; XI. 84, 

96; 120 

Aegle, loved by Thesens, I. 40, 66 
Aegospotami, Lysander defeats 

Athenians, IV. 106, 254, 258, 

XI. 176 
Aegyptians, I. 318; months in year, 

368; wheel, 356; revolt from 

Persia, n.84; send grain to Athens, 

III. 108 

Aelia, wife of Sulla, IV. 344 
Aelii, their poverty, VI. 366, 432 
Aelius, Sextus, consul with Flamini- 

nus, X. 324 
Aelius Tubero, married Aemilius 

Paulus' daughter, VI. 366, 426, 432 
Aemilia (1), mother of Romulus by 

Mars, I. 92 
Aemilia (2), wife of Scipio Magnus, 

VI. 358 
Aemilia (3), wife of Glabrio, then of 

Pompey, IV. 432, V. 134 
Aemilii, patrician family, I. 334, 

VI. 358 

Aemilius, common crier, VI. 454 
Aemilius, M., elected consul, II. 206 
Aemilius Lepidus, M., stone bridge 

over Tiber, 1.338; VI. 454 
Aemilius Papus, Q., consul with 

Fabricius, IX. 410 
Aemilius Paulus, Lucius (1), death at 

Cannae, in. 158 f., VI. 358 
Aemilius Paulus, Lucius (2), son of 

preceding, VI. 358 ; aedile, augur, 

360; war in Spain, 362 ; divorces 

Papiria, children, 364; subdues 

Ligurians, 366 ; general again< t 

Perseus, 378; victory at Pydna, 

400 f.; triumph, 440; two sons 

die, 446 ; address to people, 448 ; 

censor, 454; death, 456 
Aemilius Scaurus, see " Scaurus." 
Aenaria, island near Minturnae, IX. 

566, 574 
Aeneas, father of Romulus and 

Aemilia, husband of Roma, I. 92; 

descendants ruled in Alba, 90; 

brought Palladium and Samo- 

thracian images to Italy, II. 144; 

founded Lavinium, iv. 188 
Aenus, Thracian city, viu. 258 
Aeolia, Nicogenes its wealthiest man, 

II. 70 
Aeolian, spoken in Phocis, II. 408 






Aequians, defeated by Postumius 
Tiburtus, II. 96 ; war on Rome, 
176, 182; IV. 216 
Aeropus (1), Macedonian, IX. 46 
Aeropus (2), friend of Pyrrhus, IX. 

368 
Aeschines (1), of Lamptrae, plotted 

with Persians, II. 252 
Aeschines (2), the Socratic, quoted, 

11.292,111.68, 92 
Aeschines (3), orator, I. 430, VII. 8, 

20, 30, 38, 52, 58 
Aeschylus (1), kinsman of Timoleon, 

vi. 270 

Aeschylus (2), Argive, XI. 56 
Aeschylus (3), defeated by Sophocles 
died in Sicily, II. 430; VII. 242 
Eleusinians, cited, I. 68 
Persians (341-3), II. 40 
Prometheus Loosed (Nauck 68), 

V. 116 
Seven against Thebes (395 f. and 

435), I. 4 (592 f.), II. 220 
Suppliants (226), 1. 116 
(Bergk, II. 242), vil. 214 
(Nauck, 107), IX. 84 
Aesculapius, friend of Sophocles, 

I. 320; temple in Epidaurus, V. 
174 

Aesion, on Attic orators, vil. 26 
Aeson, Macedonian river near Pydna, 

vi. 396 
Aesop, talk with Solon, I. 482; 

fables, m. 418, XI. 70, 88; V. 

428 
Aesop, tragedian imitated by Cicero 

vu. 94 
Aesuvian meadow, battle between 

Tarquin and Romans, I. 522 
Aethiopians, attacked by Perseus, 

II. 410 

Aethra, Theseus' mother, I. 8, 12, 16; 
carried off by Hector, etc., 78 

Aetolians, defe'at Athenians, III. 226 ; 
destroy city of Oeniadae, alliance 
with Antipater, vil. 366, XI. 8; 
defeat Boeotians at Chaeroneia, 34; 
driven from Pellene by Aratus, 70, 
X. 32 ; allied with Achaeans, XI. 74 ; 
invade Laconia, X. 88 ; war with 
Demetrius, IX. 100: conquered, 
364, XI. 94; war with Achaeans, 

X. 126 ; defeat Aratus at Caphyae, 

XI. 108; support Romans, X. 334, 
338 ; at Cynoscephalae, 344 ; oppose 

3 2 3 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Flamininus, 346 f.; join Antiochus, 

362, II. 340; kill Nabis, X. 296; 

attacked by Acilius Qlabrio and 

Philip, 364 
Aerds, title of tyiants, II. 228, 

IX. 370 
Afranius, Pompey's legate in Spain, 

VIII. 52 ; held Armenia, V. 204 ; 

defeats Parthians, 208; subdues 

Arabians about Amanus, 216 ; 

consul, 228; defeated by Caesar, 

in Spain, 290, VII. 530, 542 ; V. 286 ; 

defeated at Thapsus, VII. 566 
Africa, governed by Sextilius, IX. 576 ; 

secured for Sulla by Pompey, V. 140 ; 

province of Pompey, VII. 512; of 

Cassias, VI. 168 
African war, II. 310 
"Africanus," Scipio's surname, IX. 

464 
Agamemnon, sacrificed daughter, V. 

14 ; ten years taking Troy, III. 82 ; 

V. 12 ; VIII. 2 

Agariste, Pericles' mother, III. 6 
Agatharcus, with Zeuxis,III. 40 ; with 

Alcibiades, IV. 42 
Agathocleia, Ptolemy's mistress, X. 

124 
Agathocles, of Syracuse, gives 

daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, 

captures Corcyra, IX. 368; nearly 

takes Carthage, 388 ; 60 ; 386 
Agathocles, Lysimachus' son, IX. 76 ; 

war on Demetrius, 116 f. 
Agave, in '' Bacchae " of Euripides, 

III. 420 

Age, golden, II. 436 

Ager Eomanus, divided up by Numa, 

I. 362 

Agesias, of Acharnae, II. 252 
Agesilaiis, Archidamus' son, lineage 

and character, V. 2, 36, 50, 64, 70, 

I. 298, VI. 344, VIII. 152, X. 8; 
king with Lysander's help, V. 6, 

IV. 292 ; war on Persia, V. 12 f., 

II. 464, IV. 296 f., XI. 174; defeats 
Tissaphernes, V. 24, XI. 174; 
given control of navy, V. 26 ; 
alliance with Cotys, 28; sets cities 
in order, plans attack on Susa and 
Ecbatana, recalled, 38, 416 ; defeats 
Trallians, 42 ; invades Boeotia, 
Coroneia battle, 44 f ., suppresses 
Lysander's speech, 54, IV. 318; 
attacks Corinth and Argos, V. 56; 

324 



seizes Heraeum, 58 ; defeats Acarna- 
nians, 62 ; approves seizure of 
Gadmeia, 66 ; invades Boeotia, 
criticized, 72, 374, I. 244; declares 
war on Thebes, Leuctra, V. 78 ; 
XI. 178; declines battle with 
Epaminondas, V. 86 ; refuses peace 
with Thebans, 94; goes to Egypt, 
100; deserts Tachos for Nectana- 
big, 106 ; death, 112 

Sayings: I. 268, V. 58; IV. 300, 
V. 20; 32; 44; 64; 72; 104; 106; 
110; XI. 174; 178 

Agesilaiis, supports Agis, X. 14 20; 
spoils Agis' plans by avarice, 30, 
34; saved by son Hippomedon, 
36 

Agesipolis, Pausanias* son, succeeded 
by Cleombrotus, V. 66, X. 8; 
befriended by Agesilaiis, V. 54; 
saves Epaminondas and Pelopidas 
at Mantineia, 350 

Agesipolis, Cleombrotus' son, short 
reign, X. 8 

Agesistrata, Agis' mother, X. 10; 
supports son in reforms, 16 ; 42 ; 
death, 46 

Agiadae, royal line of Sparta, IV. 302, 
318, X. 8 

Agias, w th younger Aristomachus 
seizes Argos, XI. 66 

Agiatis, Gylippus' daughter, Agis' 
wife, then Cleomenes', X. 50; 
death, 98 

Agis (1), son of Archidamus and 
Lampido, brother of Agesilaiis and 
king of Sparta, I. 296, V. 2; wife 
Timaea corrupted by Alcibiades, 4, 
8, IV. 64 ; plots against Alcibiades, 
66 ; from Deceleia besieges Athens, 
252, 268 ; fined for omitting sacri- 
fice, I. 238; gold and silver subvert 
Lycurgus' laws, 296, X. 12 ; when 
dying acknowledges Leotychides as 
his son, IV. 292, V. 6 

Agis (2), son of Archidamus III., slain 
by Antipater at Megalopolis, v. 40, 
yn. 58, x. 8 

Agis (3), son of Eudamidas, 5th from 
Agesilaiis, V. 112, X. 8; character, 
10; seeks to restore Lycurgus' 
constitution, 14 f. ; got "rhetra" 
before senate, 16 ; " rhetra " rejected, 
24; supplants ephors by others, 
28; ruined by Agesilaiis, 30, 34; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL 'THE LIVES' 



aids Achaeans against Aetolians, 

30, XI. 70; slain by Leonidas, V. 

112, X. 42 f.; saying, 46 
Agis, sayings, I. 264, 2C8 
Agnus, Attic deme, I. 26 
Agrarian law of Licinius Stolo, n. 194 
Agraule, Attic deme, n. 62, IV. 60 
Agraulus, young warriors' oath in 

sanctuary of, IV. 38 
Agriculture of Cato Major, U. 366, 

378, 390 
Agrigentum, supports Dion, VI. 56 ; 

Neapolis in its territory, 102 ; 

repeopled after Timoleon pacified 

Sicily, 344 ; IX. 416 
Agrippa, M., Octavius' friend, IX. 214 ; 

Cassius' prosecutor, VI. 184; at 

Actium, IX. 284 f. ; married Marcel - 

lus and Octavia's daughter, then 

Octavius', 330 
Agrippa Menenius, speech to plebs on 

Mons Sacer, IV. 130 
Agrippina the Younger, had son 

Lucius by Ahenobarbus, married 

Claudius Caesar, IX. 332 ; mother 

of Nero, XI. 234 
Agylaeus, Spartan ephor, X. 66 
" Agoge," defined, V. 2, X. 72 
Ahala, Servilius, slew Spurius Maelius, 

VI. 126 

Ahenobarbus, origin of name, VI. 420 
Ahenobarbus, Cn. Domitius (1), 

invaded Africa, V. 136; slain at 

Utica by Pompey, 140 
Ahenobarbus, Cn. Domitius (2), with 

Antony against Parthians, IX. 230 ; 

264; deserts to Octavius and dies, 

280 
Ahenobarbus, Cn. Domitius (3), 

married Agrippina, had son L. 

Domitius, IX. 332. 

Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (1), pro- 
consul of Hither Spain, slain by 

Seitorius' quaestor, vm. 30 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (2), married 

Porcia, sues for consulship, m. 358, 

426, V. 250, vm. 332; yields 

Corfinium to Caesar, VH. 526; in 

Pompey's camp, V. 290, 334, VH. 

178, 544; led Pompey's left at 

Pharsalus, V. 294, vn. 548 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (3), married 

Antony and Octavia's daughter, IX. 

332 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (4), son 



of Cn. D. Ahenobarbus and Agrip 

pina, adopted by Claudius, became 

Emperor Nero, IX. 332 
Aias, Periboea's son, I. 66 ; Eurysaces 

and Philaeus' father, 426, IV. 2 
Aidoneus, king of Molossians, had 

wife Persephone, daughter Cora, 

dog Cerberus, slew Peirithoiis, 

imprisoned Theseus, I. 72, 80 
Aigialia, see " Aegialia." 
Aigikoreis, original Attic tribe, why 

so called, I. 468 
Aigle, see " Aegle." 
Aiybs e\oc, see " Goat's Marsh " 
Aii Locutii ara, erected by Camillus. 

n. 168 
Aipeia, Cvprian city renamed Soli, I. 

478 

Ajax, see " Aias." 
'A/ceo-is, possibly related to "ancile," 

I. 352 
Alalcomenius, Boeotian for Maimac- 

terion, II. 278 
Alba, ruled by Aeneas' descendants, 

I. 96; 112; Romulus king on death 

of Numitor, 172; II. 130; vil. 582 
Alban lake, its overflow a prodigy, 

11.98 

Alban mount, V. 494 
Alban villa, Pompey's, V. 254, 324, 

VII. 160 

Albanians, adjoin Iberians in Cau- 
casus, II. 554, V. 204 ; crushed by 

Pompey, 206 f ., 230 ; conquered 

by Canidius, IX. 214 
Albinius, Lucius, helps Vestals in 

flight, II. 144 
Albinus, Postumius, wrote history in 

Greek, n. 336 
Albinus, legate slain by Sulla's 

soldiers, IV. 342 
Alcaeus, wrote epigram on defeat of 

Philip at Cynoscephalae, X, 344 
Alcaeus of " Sarclis, poisoned by 

Mithridates, V. 212 
Alcander, blinded Lycurgus in one 

eye, pardoned by him, I. 234 
Alcetas, Tharrhypas' son, Arybas' 

father, IX. 346 
Alcetas, gets letter from Alexander 

the Great, vil. 382 ; refuses to serve 

under Eumenes, vni. 90 ; wants 

chief command under Eumenes, 102 
Alcibiades, his family, guardians, 

tutor, etc., I. 256, IV. 2, K. 296 ; 

3 2 5 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



character, III. 236, 246, IV. 4 f., 38, 
62, VIII. 150, an orator, III. 62, 
IV. 24 ; favourite of Socrates, 8 f., 18 ; 
of Timon, 42, IX. 296: fought at 
Potidaea, at Delium, iv. 18; 
married Hipparete, 20 ; victorious 
in chariot races, 24, VII. 2; 
enters public life, IV. 22, 28 ; with 
Nicias effects ostracism of Hyper- 
bolus, II. 232, ill. 246, IV. 30; 
upsets Peace of Nicias, III. 242, 
IV. 32 ; made general, allies Argos, 
Mantinea, and Elis with Athens, 

III. 244, IV. 36; urges Sicilian 
expedition, III. 250, IV. 44; 
general with Nicias and Lamachus 
for Sicilian expedition, HI. 252, 

IV. 46 ; accused of mutilating the 
Herrnae, IV. 48, 60; sails, takes 
Rhegium, plans campaign, recalled, 

III. 258, IV. 52, 58 ; saves Messana 
from Athenians, escapes at Thurii, 
58; flees to Sparta, 60; urges 
sending Gylippus to Sicily and 
fortifying Deceleia, 62; corrupts 
Agis' wife, Timaea, 64, v. 4; 
flees to Tissaphernes, IV. 66, v. 6; 
advises him in conduct of war, 

IV. 68, 240 ; opposed by Phrynichus, 
70; made general by army at 
Samos, 74; recalled from exile, 
mates great change in situation, 
wins naval battle off Abydos, 78, 
238; imprisoned by Tissaphernes, 
escapes, SO ; captures Cyzicus, 82 ; 
defeats Pharnabazus, takes Selym- 
bria, 86; takes Byzantium, 90; 
returns to Athens, 92; attnoks 
Andros, leaves Antiochus over fleet 
at Samos, 102, 242 ; fleet defeated 
by Lysander, 104; deposed, warns 
Athenian generals at Aegospotami, 
106, 256; flees to Bithynia, 108; 
then to Pharnabazus in Phrygia, 
110; slain, 114; statue in forum 
at Home, I. 336. See also II. 296; 
III. 106 

Sayings : IV. 6, 14, 16, 22, 34, 38, 
58, 60 

AJcidamas, his rhetorical system 
obtained by Demosthenes according 
to Ctesibius, VII. 12. 
Alcimenes, Achaean noble, with 
Dion's expedition against Syracuse, 
1.48 

326 



Alcimus, the Epeirot, sturdiest man 
under Demetrius, slain at Rhodes, 
IX. 50 

Alcimus, place near Piraeus, II. 88 

Alcmaeon, Amphiaratis' son, re- 
sembled Orontes, the Persian, XI. 8 

Alcmaeon, Megacles' father, I. 486 ; 
led Amphictyons in defence of 
Delphi, 430 

Alcmaeon, Leobotes' father, II. 62 ; 
denounced Therm'stocles, 292 

Alcmaeonidae, Athenian family, I. 492 

Alcman, lyric poet. Helots forbidden 
to sing his songs, I. 290 ; eaten of 
worms, IV. 440 ; Fragment 35 
(Bergk m. 51) quoted, I. 272 

Alcmene, Lysidice's daughter, Pelop's 
granddaughter, Heracles' mother, 
I. 16; body disappeared like 
Romulus', 180; her monument at 
Haliartus near Rhadamanthus* 
tomb, IV. 312 

Alcmeon, see '* Alcmaeon." 

Alcyoneus, son of Antigonus, IX. 458 f . 

Alea, name of Rhadamanthus' tomb 
at Haliartus, IV. 312 

Alesia, Gallic city taken by Caesar, 

VII. 506 

Alexander (1), see " Paris." 
Alexander (2) the Macedonian, warned 

Aristides of Mardonius" plan, II. 

256; 448 
Alexander (3), king of Macedonia, at 

war with Ptolemy, V. 404 ; slain by 

him, 406 
Alexander (4), soldier of Alexander 

the Great, VII. 390 
Alexander (5), son of Alexander the 

Great and Roxana, engaged to 

Dei'dameia, IX. 354 
Alexander (6), son of Polysperchon, 

married Cratesipolis, IX. 22; 

approaches Athens with army, 

VIII. 220 

Alexander (7), son of Cassander, 
expelled by his brother Antipater, 
asks help of Demetrius and Pyrrhus, 

IX. 86 ; given Antipater's land by 
Pyrrhus, 360 ; slain by Demetrius, 
90, 340, 362 

Alexander (8), son of Demetrius and 
Dei'dameia, lived and died in Egypt, 
IX. 134 

Alexander (9), son of Pyrrhus and 
Lanassa, IX. 370 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Alexander (10), tyrant of Corinth, 
made alliance with Achaeans, XI. 
38; poisoned by Antigonus, 36 

Alexander (11), led Thracians at 
Pydna, VI. 400 

Alexander (12), 3rd son of Perseus, 
his fate, VI. 452 

Alexander (13), Polyhistor ( ?) taught 
Crassus philosophy of Aristotle, 
III. 320 

Alexander (14), Strabo's freedman, 
stole public property, V. 122 

Alexander (15), son of Antony and 
Cleopatra, IX. 218; given Armenia, 
Media, and Parthia, 262 

Alexander of Antioch, with Antony 
against Parthians, IX. 244, 248 

Alexander the Great, lineage, VII. 224; 
birth, 228; appearance, v. 118, 
VII. 230 ; character, 232, 242, 284 f., 
338 f., IX. 152 ; teachers, VII. 236, 
240, 286, 296; as regent subdued 
Maedi, fought at Chaeroneia, 244; 
quarrel with father, 246; at 20 
becomes king, 250 ; defeats Syrmus, 
king of Triballi, 252; defeats 
Thebans, 54, 254, VIII. 180 f., 
IX. 140 f.; by Greeks chosen 
leader against Persians, VII. 258; 
strength of his army, 260 ; battle of 
Granicus, II. 138, VII. 262 f.; 
storms Halicarnassus and Miletus, 
268; subdues Pisidia, Phrygia, 
Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, cuts 
Gordian knot, 272; treated for 
illness by Philip the Acarnanian, 
276; defeats Dareius at Issus 
278 f.; takes Tyre, 292; takes Gaza, 
296 ; founds Alexandria, visits 
Temple of Ammon, 300 f.; holds 
contests of dithyrambic choruses 
and tragedies, 308 ; rejects Dareius' 
peace proposals, 310 ; defeats 
Dareius at Arbela, 316 f. ; pro- 
claimed king of Asia, 326 ; traverses 
Babylonia, 328; takes Susa, 332; 
ravages Perns, hears Dareius is 
captured, sends Thessalians home, 
348; takes Dareius' camp, 350; 
invades Hyrcania, V. 206, VTI. 352; 
invades Parthia, assumes barbaric 
dress, 354 ; routs Scythians, 356 ; 
attempts to mix Macedonians and 
barbarians, marries Roxana, 358; 
plotted against by Philotas and 



others, 362 f . ; murders Cleitus 
368 f. ; prepares to invade India, 
VI. 384, VII. 384; exchanges gifts 
with Taxiles the Indian, massacres 
Indian mercenaries, 390; conquers 
Porus, 394 f . ; founds Bucephalia, 
398 ; his men refuse to cross Ganges, 
400 ; severely wounded in attacking 
Malli, 402 ; pardons captured 
gymnosophists, 404 f . ; reaching 
ocean orders Nearchus to return by 
sea with fleet, reaches Gedrosia, 
410, VIII. 80; punishes erring 
subordinates, VII. 414; reaches 
Persia, 416; marries Stateira, 418; 
reaches Ecbatana in Media where 
Hephaestion dies, V. 428, VII. 424; 
reaches Babylon, 426 ; dies of fever, 
66, 432 

See also II. 248, V. 38, 232, VI. 
372, 384, VII. 48, 58, 60, VIII. 80, 
86, 182, 184, 190, IX. 58, 64, 338, 
X. 2C4, 382 

Sayings: V. 40; VII. 232; 234; 
236; "240; 246; 250; 252; 256, VIII. 
184; VII. 258; 260; 262; 268; 280; 
282; 284; 286; 288; 298; 306; 310; 
320; 334; 338; 340; 342; 346; 350; 
370; 372; 378; 388 f.; 392; 394; 
406; 426; 430 

Alexander of Macedon, quoted, I. 12 

Alexander of Myndus, quoted, IX. 
506 

Alexander of Pherae, humbled by 
Pelopidas, V. 402 f . ; takes Pelo- 
pidas prisoner, induced by Epami- 
nondas to surrender him, 406 ; 412 ; 
renews his oppressions, 418; 420; 
defeated at Pharsalus by Pelopidas, 
422; slain at instigation of wife, 
430 f.; ruled Thessaly 10 months, 
called tragedy-tyrant by Dionysius, 
XI. 208 

Alexandria, founded, VII. 298; great 
library destroyed, 560; VIII. 320; 
X. 122 

Alexandrians, worship Cleomenes after 
his death, X. 140; liked Antony, 
IX. 202 

Alexandropolis, city repeopled and 
renamed by Alexander, vil. 244 

Alexas, the Laodicean, most influential 
Greek with Antony, executed by 
Octavius, IX. 302 

Alexas .the Syrian ,IX. 288 

3 2 7 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Alexicrates, chief cup-bearer to 
Pyrrhus, ix. 358 

Alexippus, physician, cured Peucestas 
of illness, VII. 346 

Aliens at Athens, n. 2, iv. 12 

Allia, river flowing into Tiber, II. 136 

Allia, battle of, I. 343, II. 134 f . 

Alliance, see " Treaty." 

Allies, Athenian, continue to pay 
assessments but stop military 
service, II. 436. See also " Hel- 
lenes " and " Delos, Confederacy 
of." 

Allobroges, their part in conspiracy 
of Catiline, VIT. 124 

Alopece, deme of Lysander, n. 86 ; 
of Aristides, 210; of Thucydides, 
III. 32 

Alopecus, bilinear Haliartus, IV. 318 

Alphabet, that used after Eucleides, 
11.212 

Alps, II. 126; northern boundary of 
Tuscany, 128; VI. 366 

Alsaea, city seized by Cleomenes, X. 64 

Alycus, Sciron's son, slain at 
Aphidnae, I. 76 

Alycup, place in Megara, I. 76 

Amantius, disgraces Caesar by greed, 
VII. 562 

Anianus, mountain in Cilicia, V. 216, 
VII. 174, IX. 122, 124 

Amarsyas, father of Phereclus, I. 34 

Amathusians, I. 42 

Amazoneum, place at Athens, place 
in Chalcis, I. 62 

Amazons, war with Theseus, I. 58, 60, 
62, 64, 190; attacked by Heracles, 
II. 544 ; their queen visits Alexander, 
VII. 356 ; habits and country, v. 208 

Ambiorix, see " Abriorix." 

Ambracia, III. 57 ; given Pyrrhus by 
Alexander, IX. 360; 368 

Ambrones, ancestral name of Ligur- 
ians, IX. 514; defeated Manlius 
and Caepio, defeated by Romans 
at Aquae Sextiae. 512 f. 

Ambustus, Q. Fabius, one of three 
sent to consult oracle at Delphi re 
Alban lake, II. 102; though 
ambassador, fights Gauls, I. 348, 
11.132; appointed military tribune, 
134 

Ameinias, the Deceleian, slays 
Ariamnes, Xerxes' brother, II. 42 ; 
rivals Aristides at Plataea. 388 



Ameinias, the Phocian, Antigonus' 
general, enters Sparta, IX. 444 

Ameria, Italian city, IX. 508 

Amestris, Artaxerxes' daughter, 
married to father, XI. 192 

Amfidius, Tullus, of Antium, plans 
with Coriolanus war on Rome, IV. 
170 f. ; quoted, 172; advises 
Volscians to summon Coriolanus, 
182; becomes jealous, 192; causes 
Coriolanus' death, 214; slain by 
Romans, 218 

Amisus, rich city founded by Athens, 
II. 510, 530; besieged, 514; sacked 
by Lucullus, 526 ; restored by bun, 
530; V. 212; 222 

Ammon, son of Zeus and Pasiphae, 
XI. 20; II. 462; in. 254, 260; his 
temple in Africa, IV. 288; 304; VII. 
228; consulted by Alexander, 304; 
424 

Ammonius, philosopher, taught Plu- 
tarch and his friend Themistocles 
11.90 

Amnaeus, Roman senator, VIII. 280 

Amoebus, singer, XI. 38 

Amompharetus (1), one of five 
Spartan umpires re Salamis, I. 428 

Amompharetus (2), Spartan at Plataea, 
II. 264 

Amorgus, Athenian naval defeat off, 
IX. 28 

Amphares, compasses death of Agis, 
his mother, and grandmother, X. 40, 
46, 48 

Amphiaraiis, father of Alcmaeon, 
XI. S; II. 220; his oracle, 270 

Amphicrates, rhetorician, died at 
court of Tigraues, II. 540 

Amphictyons, persuaded by Solon, 
wage war on Cirrha, I. 428; urged 
by Sparta to exclude cities that did 
not fight against Persia, II. 56 ; 33C 
426; IV. 362 

Amphilochia, given Pyrrhus by 
Alexander, IX. 360 

Amphipolis, won by Athenians, II. 
426 ; Cleon and Brasidas fall in 
battle there, III. 236 ; 242 ; V. 308 ; 

VI. 416; 418 

Amphissa, Philip successful there, 

VII. 42; IX. 198 

Amphitheus, bribed by Persian money, 

iv. 308 
Amphitrope, Diophantus' deme, II. 294 



328 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Amphitryon, Alcmene's husband, IV. 
312 

Amulius, descendant of Aeneas, dis- 
possesses his brother Numitor, 
exposes Ilia's children, I. 96 ; father 
of Ilia's twins, 93, 102; slam by 
Romulus and Remus, 112, 158, 188 

Amycla, Alcibiades' Spartan nurse, 
I. 256, IV. 2 

Amyclas, father of Daphne according 
to Phylarchus, X. 20 

Amyntas, Macedonian, sent by Philip 
on embassy to Thebes, VII. 42 ; in 
exile advises Dareius not to attack 
Alexander in narrow passes, 278 

Amyntas, king of Lycaonia and 
Galatia, sends army to Antony, 
IX. 276 ; deserts to Octavius, 280 

Anacharsis, meeting with Solon, bon 
mot, I. 414 

Anacreon of Teos, poet, III. 4, 78 

Anaitis, name of Artemis of Ecbatana, 
XI. 1 92 

"Aj-a/ce?, derived from ii-acrxecrts, 1. 352 

"AvcucTej, why kings so called, I. 78 

Anaphlystus, Euthippus' deme, II. 458 

Anapus, river in Sicily, VI. 58, 312 

1 ' \va.<T\<Ti<:, possibly related to 
" ancile." 

Anaxagoras of Clazomene, teacher of 
Themistocles, II. 6 ; his philosophy, 
influence on Pericles, ill. 10, 14, 16, 
290, IV. 262; in. 20; 52; attacked 
by Diopeithes' bill, 92 ; saved from 
imprisonment by Pericles, 290; 
saying, 54 

Anaxandrides, Delphian, quoted, IV. 
280 

Anaxarchus, sophist, Alexander's 
friend, VII. 244, 306, 374 

Anaxenor, lute-player with Antony, 
IX. 186 

Anaxidamus, of Chaeroneia, helps 
Sulla, IV. 382, 390 

Anaxilas, one of five Spartan umpires 
re Salamis, I. 428 

Anaxilalis, of Byzantium, tried at 
Sparta for surrendering city and 
acquitted, IV. 90 

Anaximenes, orator, says funeral 
orations began with Solon, i. 526, 
VII. 70 

Anaxo, carried off by Theseus, I. 66, 
196 

Anazarbus, see " Quinda." 



Ancharia, Octavia's mother, IX. 206 

Ancharius, of senatorial rank, slain 
by Marius' men, ix. 584 

Ancilia, story of, I. 350 f . 

Ancus Martius, Numa's grandson, 
completed wooden bridge over 
Tiber, I. 338; IV. 118 

Andocides, orator, II. 88 ; suspected 
of mutilating Hermae and im- 
prisoned, III. 254, IV. 54 f . 

'Av&pela, Cretan name for trvo-eriVia, 

I. 236 

Andrians, reply to Themistocles 

asking money, II. 56 
Androcleides (1), accused of being 

bribed by Persia to oppose Spartans, 

IV. 308 ; outlawed from Thebes, 

slain through Leontidas, V. 350 f . 
Androcleides (2), helps rescue infant 

Pyrrhus, IX. 348 
Androcleides, records saying of 

Lysander, IV. 250 
Androcleion, helps rescue infant 

Pyrrhus, IX. 348 
Androcles, opponent of Alcibiades, 

IV. 48 

Androcottus, subdued all India, VII. 
400 ; his opinion of Alexander, 402 
Androcrates, Plataean hero, his shrine, 

II. 246 f. 

Androcydes of Cyzicus, painter, V. 400 
Androgeos, Minos' son, his murder 

led to invasion of Attica, I. 28 f ., 190 
Andromache, character in " Trojan 

Women " of Euripides, V. 414 
Andromache, Dion's sister, murdered 

by Hicetas, VI. 120 
Andromachus (1), Timaeus 1 father, 

welcomes Timoleon's expedition, 

VI. 284 
Andromachus (2), betrays Romans to 

Parthians, III.406 

Andron of Halicarnassus, cited, I. 56 
Andronicus, the Rhodian, published 

copies of works in Apellicon's 

library, IV. 406 
Andros, given 250 settlers by Pericles, 

III. 34; people defeated by 
Alcibiades, IV. 102 

Androtion, re Solon's seisachtheia, I. 
442 ; speech against by Demos- 
thenes, VII. 36 

Anecdotes, I. 262, 264, 268, 270, 276, 
280, 290, 392, 412, 420, II. 232, 

V. 340, VII. 76, 90 

3 2 9 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



v, used for avta by Athenians, 
I. 78; possibly related to " ancile," 
352 

Arenas, used for ai/w by Athenians, 
1.78 

Angelus, helps rescue infant Pyrrhus, 

IX. 348 

Anicius, L., captures Genthius, king 

of Illyrians, with wife and children, 

VI. 386 
Anienus, ordered by Caesar to cut 

through isthmus of Corinth, VII. 

578 
Animals, examples of Greek kindness 

to, II. 316, III. 2, IV. 22, 24, V. 144, 

148, 388, VII. 396 
Anio river, I. 558 ; plebs seceded to it, 

IV. 128 ; battle of, n. 198 f. 
Annalius, L., senator, struck by 

Crassus,IIl.426 
Annius, C., sent to Spain by Sulla, 

worsts Sertorius, VIII. 18 
Annius, T., defeats Ti. Gracchus in 

public debate, X. 178 
Annius, soldier of Marius, slays M. 

Antoniiis, IX. 588 

Annius Gallus, see " Gallus, Annius." 
Antaeus, killed by Hercules, I. 22; 

buried in city of Tingis, vill. 24 
Antagoras, the Chian, offends Pausan- 

ias, joins Athenians, II. 284 
Antalcidas, Spartan, Leon's son, sent 

to Tiribazus re peace, V. 62 ; 

peace of, dictated by Artaxerxes, 

its terms, XI. 176; V. 416, XI. 178; 

V. 86 ; starved to death, XI. 178 
Sayings : I. 244, V. 72, 374; 86 

Antemnae, its people conquered by 
Komulus and transferred to Rome, 
1.138; yields to Sulla, IV. 422 

Antenor, Epichannus' treatise dedi- 
cated to him, I. 334 

Anthedon, Boeotian city destroyed 
by Sulla, IV. 408 

Anthemion, Anytus' father, IV. 12, 150 

Anthemocritus, Athenian herald, III. 
86 

Anthesterion, IV. 372, IX. 60 f. 

Antho, Amulia's daughter, intercedes 
for Ilia, I. 96 

Antias, Valerius, re Sabine girls 
seized by Romans, 1. 130 ; re books 
put in Numa's coffin, 38U ; version 
of scandal about L. Flamininus, 

X. 374 

33 



Antiates, most warlike of Volscians, 
IV. 136. See also " Antium." 

" Anticato," writen by Caesar, VII. 
568 

Anticleides, re queen of Amazons, 
VII. 356 

Anticrates, Spartan, slew Epaminon- 
das, V. 98 

Anticyra, granary for Antony, IX. 
294 

Anticyra, prostitute of Demetrius, 
IX. 54 

Antigenes the One-eyed, punished 
by Alexander, VII. 420; leader of 
Silver-shields, envies Eumenes, VIII. 
116; with Teutamus plots against 
Eumenes, 126 

Antigenes, says queen of Amazons 
came to see Alexander, vil. 356 

Antigenidas, re flute-playing, IX. 4 

Antigone of Pydna, reports Philotas' 
words to Alexander, VII. 362 

Antigone, Berenice's daughter by 
Philip, married to Pyrrhus, IX. 
356, 358; had son Ptolemy, 360, 
368 

Antigoneia, new name given Man- 
tineia, XI. 106 

" Antigonids," name of bowls, VI. 442 

Antigonis, new tribe at Athens in 
honour of Antigonus, IX. 26 

Antigonus the One-eyed, general and 
successor of Alexander, his children, 
his career, VI. 372, VIII. 4, IX. 6, 8, 
332, 334; VIII. 84; with Antipater 
to conduct war against Eumenes, 
102 ; defeats Eumenes at Orcynii, 
104 ; 108 ; aspires to supreme power, 
114 ; 120 ; 122 ; defeated by Eumenes, 
130; decides to execute Eumenes, 
134; punishes Eumenes' betrayers, 
136; IX. 10; sends son Demetrius 
against Ptolemy, 12 ; 16 ; frees 
Athens, 18; 24; asks Demetrius to 
fight Ptolemy for Cyprus, 34 ; wins 
Cyprus, 40 ; when 80 years old 
attacks Ptolemy unsuccessfully, 
42 ; defeated by league of other 
kings and slain/66, VIII. 210; his 
royal line brought to end by 
Aemilius Paulus, VI. 460 

Sayings: I. 140, V. 340, 342, 
Vlii. 108, IX. 40, 366 

Antigonus Doson, made regent, then 
king by Macedonians, IV. 142, VI. 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



372 ; crosses Geraneia with large 
force, X. 92 ; garrisons Corinth, 

X. 96, XI. 88, 98, 100, 102 ; takes 
Tegea by siege and surprises 
Orchomenos and Mantineia, X. 100, 

XI. 104; advances to Argos, X. 
106 f . ; defeats Cleomenes at 
Sellasia, 112 f., 266 f.; offered 
Philopoemen command, 270; 274; 
takes Sparta, restores laws and 
constitution, returns to Macedonia 
and dies, 118; XI. 106 

Antigonus Gonatas, Demetrius' son, 
had a son Demetrius, VI. 372; IX. 
134; defeats Boeotians, 98; tries to 
liberate his father Demetrius, 128; 
buries him, 132 ; defeated by 
Pyrrhus, 430 ; 444 ; agrees to leave 
Argos, 450 ; 452 ; defeats Pyrrhus, 
who is slain, 460; XI. 8; 2~0; 32; 
gets Acrocorinthus, 36; loses 
Megara, 54; ally of Aristippus, 
tvrant of Argos, 58 ; dies, 76 
" Sayings : IX. 430, XI. 32 

Antigonus the Jew, beheaded by 
Antony, IX. 218 

Antigonus, re Tarpeia's father, I. 
142 

Antilibanus, Mount, Arabs dwell near 
it, VII. 292 

Antilochus, writes verses in honour of 
Lysander, IV. 282 

Antiinachus of Colophon, defeated 
in poetic contest by Niceratus, 
consoled by Plato, IV. 282; his 
poetry seems laboured, VI. 346 

Antimachus of Teos, epic poet, saw 
eclipse on day Rome founded, I. 
120 

Antioch by Daphne in Syria, II. 534, 
V. 218, VIII. 262, IX. 78 

Antioch in Mygdonia, called Nisibis 
by barbarians, captured by Lucul- 
lus, II. 578 

Antiochis, Aristides' tribe, II. 210; 
victorious in poetic contest, 212 ; 
opposed Persian centre at Marathon, 
224 

Antiochus, sea captain, great favourite 
of Alcibiades, iv. 22 ; defeated and 
slain off Ephesus by Lysander, 
102 f., 242, 454 

Antiochus (Soter), son of Seleucus 
and Apameia, ix. 76 ; defeated by 
Demetrius, 70 ; married his father's 



wife Stratonice, 92 ; made king of 
Upper Asia by his father, 94 

Antiochus the Great, not to be 
compared with Xerxes, II. 396 ; 
spurred on by Hannibal, X. 346; 
348; 354; won back most of 
Seleucus Xicator's dominions, II. 
334; VI. 362; crosses to Greece, 
joined by Aetolians, X. 362 ; 
defeated at Thermopylae, returns 
to Asia, II. 336 f., 3~8S, IV. 364, 
X. 302, 364; in flight marries 
Cleoptolemus' daughter, 304, 366; 
defeated in Phrygia by Scipio, 
II. 504, 'III. 398, X. 378; "terms of 
peace, VI. 370 

Antiochus of Ascalon, in treatise 
" Concerning Gods " mentions 
battle of Taurus, II. 564; led Old 
Academy, friend of Lucullus, 606; 
admired by M. Brutus, VI. 128 ; 
his lectures attended by Cicero; 
his philosophy, VII. 88, 90 

Antiochus of Comrnagene, besieged 
by Ventidius, comes to terms with 
Antony, IX. 212 

Antiope, Amazon, seized by Theseus, 
loved by SoloL?, I. 58, 62, 196; had 
son Hippolytus by Theseus, 64 

Antiorus, Lycurgus' son, I. 302 

Antipater, Alexander's general, his 
surrender demanded by Thebans, 
VII. 254; 280; defeated and slew 
Agis in Arcadia, V. 40, X. 8 ; fearing 
Alexander, makes alliance with 
Aetolians, VII. 366 ; rebelled against 
by Olympias and Cleopatra, 414; 
suspected of poisoning Alexander, 
436 ; besieged by Leosthenes in 
Lamia, 66, VIII. 86, 196; with 
Leonnatus defeated by Greeks in 
Thessaly, 200; defeats Greeks at 
Crannon, II. 138 ; advances on 
Athens, VII. 70, vm. 202 f . ; exe- 
cutes Hypereides, Aristonicus, and 
Himeraeus, VII. 70; gives Athenian 
poor land in Thrace, vm. 208; 210, 
VII. 218; sends soldiers to arrest 
Demosthenes, 70 f.; 78; r.ith 
Craterus crosses to Asia against 
Perdiccas, VIII. 90; 92; to help 
Antigonus against Eumenes, 102 ; 
married daughter Phila to Deme- 
trius, IX. 32, 90, 334; before dying 
appoints Polysperchon general-in- 

331 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



chief, and Cassander chiliarch, 

viii. 216; died in Macedonia, 

114 
See also VII. 342, 382, 388, 422, 

428 

Sayings: II. 390, IV. 224; VTII. 

144; 212 
Antipater, Cassander's son, murders 

his mother Thessalonice, expels his 

brother Alexander, attacked by 

Pyrrhus, IX. 86, 90, 360 
Antipater of Tarsus, dedicated philo- 
sophical treatises to Blossius, X. 

162 ; his dying words, IX. 596 
Antipater of Tyre, Stoic philosopher, 

friend of Cato the Younger, VIII. 

244 
Antiphanes, wrote farce ridiculing 

Batalus, VII. 10; 24 
Antiphates, rebuked by Themistocles, 

11.50 
Antiphilus, Phocion's successor, 

defeats and slays Leonnatus, VIII. 

198 f. 
Antiphon, the Ehamnusian, slanders 

Alcibiades, IV. 8; discredited, 

ill. 226 ; executed owing to Demos- 
thenes, VII. 36 ; saying, IX. 196 
Antisthenes, says Amycla Alcibiades' 

nurse, IV. 2 

Sayings : I. 300, III. 4 
Antistia (1), Appius Claudius' wife, 

quoted, X. 150 
Antistia (2), Antistius' daughter, 

married to Pompey, V. 126 ; divorced 

by him, 134, IV. 432 
Antistius, praetor, gave Pompey 

daughter in marriage, V. 124; slain 

by Marius' men, 136 
Antistius (should be Appuleius) gives 

Brutus 500,000 drachmas, VI. 180 
Antium, Volscian town, its people 

fight Komans, IV. 136; its land 

raided by Coriolanus, 148 ; attacked 

to distract plebs' attention, 162 f . ; 

166; 214; VI. 172 
Anton, Hercules' son, progenitor of 

Antonii, IX. 146 
Antonia (1), C. Antonius' daughter, 

M. Antony's wife, divorced by him, 

IX. 156 
Antonia (2), M. Antony and Octavia's 

daughter, wife of Domitius Aheno- 

barbus, IX. 332 
Antonia (3), M. Antony and Octavia's 

332 



daughter, Drusus' wife, Germani- 
cus' mother, IS. 332 

Antonias, name of Cleopatra's " flag- 
ship," IX. 274 

Antonii, descended from Anton, 
Hercules' son, IX. 146 

Antonius, 0. (1), consul with Cicero, 

VII. 108, IX. 156 ; bribed by offer of 
province of Macedonia to support 
Cicero, VII. 110; sent to fight 
Catiline, 120 ; defeats Catiline, 136 

Antonius, 0. (2), praetor, IX. 170 ; 

captured and executed by order of 

Brutus, 184, VI. 182 f., 186 
Antonius, L., tribune of plebs, IX. 170 ; 

fought against Octavius, fled from 

Italy, 202 
Antonius (Saturninus, L.) revolts 

from Domitian, defeated, VI. 420 
Antonius, M., supported Sulla, slain 

by order of Marius, IX. 138, 586 
Antonius Creticus, M., M. Antony's 

father, brief account of, IX. 138 
Antonius, P., prosecuted by Greeks 

before M. Lucullus, praetor of 

Macedonia, VII. 448 
Antonius Honoratus, military tribune, 

loyal to Galba, against Nymphidius, 

XI. 232 
Antonius, helps to murder Sertorius, 

VIII. 72 

Antonius, celebrated triumph, his 
daughter captured by pirates, 
V. 176 

Antony, Mark (1), son of Antonius 
Creticus and Julia, IX. 138; cor- 
rupted by Curio and Clodius, 
studied oratory in Greece, 140; 
defeats and captures Aristobulus 
in Syria, 142 ; supporting Ptolemy, 
takes Pelusium, 144; appearance 
and character, 144 f., 188 f . ; joining 
Caesar's party, elected tribune of 
plebs and augur, reads Caesar's 
letters to senate, 148, V. 268, VII. 
516; presents Caesar's new pro- 
posals, with Cassius flees to Caesar, 

IX. 150, V. 270, VII. 518; disgraces 
Caesar by dissoluteness, 562, IX. 
152, 158; captures Lissus, brings 
troops from Italy to Caesar, 154, 
VII. 536; led Caesar's left at 
Pharsalus, V. 294, IX. 156; marries 
FuMa, Clodius' widow, 160; consul 
with Caesar, 162; offered Caesar 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



diadem, 164, VII. 584; Antony 
spared by conspirators on plea of 
Brutus, detained outside senate, 
596, VI. 162 f., IX. 166; proposes 
amnesty on murder of Caesar, 
pronounces funeral oration, 168, 
VI. 166 f., VII. 190; has rival in 
Octavius, VI. 174, VII. 192 f., IX. 
170 f . ; attacked by Octavius at 
Mutina, 174, VI. 452, VII. 198; 
forms triumvirate with Octavius 
and Lepidus, 200, VI. 186, IX. 178; 
proscribes Cicero, 180 ; defeats 
Cassius atPhilippi, 182 f., VI. 216 f. ; 
gives Brutus burial, 246, 256, IX. 
184; levies money in Asia, 186; 
meets Cleopatra, 194; divides 
empire with Octavius, marries 
Octavia, 204; learns of Ventidius' 
victory over Parthians, 210 ; makes 
peace with Antiochus of Com- 
magene, 212 ; meets Octavius at 
Tarentum, 216; increases Cleo- 
patra's territory, 218 ; begins war 
against Parthians, 218; deserted 
by Artavasdes, Armenian king, 224 ; 
led by Phraates to retreat, 228; 
crosses river Araxes into Armenia, 
250; met by Cleopatra, 254; 
Octavia reaches Athens on way to 
him, 256; beguiled from wife by 
Cleopatra, 258 ; drawn into war 
with Octavius, 260 f . ; war against 
Antony voted at Rome, 272; 
Antony's forces, 274f. ; defeated 
in naval battle off Actium, 282 f., 
I. 372 ; flees with Cleopatra to 
Egypt, IX. 288; revels with Cleo- 
patra, 300; hearing Cleopatra is 
dead, falls upon his sword, 310; 
left 7 children by his 3 wives, 330 

See also VI. 140, 186, 190, 192, 
210, 230, VII. 142, 188, 192 

Sayings : IX. 148, 186, 304, 310 
Antony (Julius Antonius), FuMa's 
son, third in esteem of Octavius, 

IX. 330; marries Octavia and 
Marcellus' daughter, Agrippa's 
divorced wife, 332 

Antyllius, Q., lictor slain in brawl, 

X. 226 f.; not murdered by C. 
Gracchus, 248 

Antyllus, Antony and Fulvia's son, 
executed by Octavius, IX. 300, 318, 
330 



Anytus, Anthemion's son, lover of 

Alcibiades, IV. 12; tried for 

failure to relieve Pylos, first to bribe 

jurors, 150 
Aollius or Avillius, Romulus and 

Hersilia's son, 1. 130 
Aoiis, river in Greece, VII. 534 
Apama (1), Artaxerxes' daughter, 

married Pharnabazus, XI. 192 f. 
Apama (2), Artabazus* daughter, 

given in marriage to Ptolemy by 

Alexander, VIII. 80 
Apama (3), Antiochus' mother by 

Seleucus, IX. 76 
'ArreAAafeiv, to assemble the people, 

1.222 
Apelles (1), painted Alexander of too 

swarthy a colour, vil. 230 ; opinion 

of Protogenes" painting, ix. 52; 

gave talent to be admitted to 

society of artists of Sicyon, XI. 28 
Apelles (2), courtier of Philip, Anti- 

gonus 1 son, XI. 110 
Apellicon, his library seized by Sulla, 

ete., rv. 406 
Apeimantus, admirer of Timon, IX. 

298 
Aperantians, harried by Macedonians, 

X. 364 
Aphetae, reached by Persian army, 

II. 20 
Aphidnae, Helen hidden there, I. 72 f . ; 

captured by Dioscuri, 76 ; 78 ; lost 

to Athens under Theseus, 198 
Aphidnus, Theseus' friend, guarded 

Helen, I. 72 ; adopted Tyndaridae, 

78 
Aphrodite, Theseus' guide to Crete, 

why called " Epitragia," I. 36; 

" April " derived from " Aphrodite," 

368, II. 506; mother of Harmonia 

by Ares, V. 386; abhors wars, 

myrtle her plant, 496 
Aphytae, city in Thrace, besieged by 

Lysander, IV. 288 
Apis, sacred bull, X. 128 
Apollo, loved Phorbas, Hyacinthus, 

Admetus, Hippolytus the Sicyonian, 

I. 318 ; father of Syrus by Sinope, 

II. 544; patron of Athens, flayed 
flute-player, IV. 8 ; gave Cadmus 
cow for guide, 382 ; temple of at 
Actium plundered by pirates, V. 174 

Apollo, name of costly room of 
Lucullus, II. 602 

333 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Apollo the Laurel-bearer at Phlya, 

II. 44 

Apollo Lyceius, IX. 450, 454 
Apollo, Pythian, half property of 

Thebans consecrated to him by 

Sulla, IV. 390 ; 420 ; gets golden bowl 

from Romans, V. 456 ; Antony 

plans to finish his temple, IX. 186; 

vouches for Lycurgus' laws, X. 244 
Apollo Tegyraeus, brief account of, 

V. 378 
Apollo Thurius, why so named, 

IV. 382 
Apollocrates, eldest son of Dionysius 

the Younger, put in command of 

citadel of Syracuse, VI. 80 ; 116 ; 

makes terms with Dio and leaves 

Syracuse, 106 
Apollodorus (1) of Phalerum, ardent 

disciple of Socrates, vill. 346 
Apollodorus (2), used speeches written 

for him by Demosthenes, vii. 36, 

216 

Apollodorus (3), commandant of Baby- 
lon under Alexander, vii. 426 
Apollodorus (4),proves Lycurguslived 

long before first Olympiad, I. 204 
Apollodorus (5), the Sicilian, Cleo- 
patra's friend, vii. 558 
Apollonia (1), in Illyria near Dyrrha- 

chium, IV. 408; taken by Caesar, 

vii. 532; Octavius studied there, 

194, VI. 174, IX. 170; favoured 

Brutus, VI. 180 f . 
Apollonia (2), on the river Rhyndacus, 

II. 504 
Apollonia (3), in Sicily, ruled by tyrant 

Leptines, VI. 318 
Apollonides (1), Dion's intimate 

friend, IX. 126 
Apollonides (2), Stoic, with Cato at 

Utica, VIII. 396, 402 
Apollonius (1), Melon's son, taught 

Caesar and Cicero oratory, VII. 90, 

446 ; quoted, 92 
Apollonius (2), tyrant of Zenodotia 

in Mesopotamia, III. 364 
Apollophanes of Cyzicus, brings 

Agesilalisand Pharnabazus together, 

V. 32 
Apollothemis, says Lycurgus died in 

Elis ; I. 302 
Aponius, informer under Nero, XI. 

222 
Apothetae, at foot of Mt. Taygetus, 

334 



where Spartans exposed sickle 

children, i. 254 

Appiaii Way, see " Way, Appian." 
Appii, always belonged to party of 

senate and nobles, VI. 454 
Appius, governor of Sardinia, visit? 

Caesar at Luca, vn. 494; bring- 

from Gaul Pompey's troops lent 

Caesar, V. 266 
Appius, M., questioned by Cicero, 

vii. 148 
Appius Claudius (1), hostile to pleb?, 

supports Coriolanus, IV. 164 
Appius Claudius (2), marries daughter 

to Ti. Gracchus, X. 150; helps Ti. 

Gracchus frame agrarian law, 164; 

one of three to distribute public 

land, 174 
Appius Claudius (3), partisan of Sulla 

defeated by Telesinus the Samnite, 

IV. 418 

Appius Claudius Caecus, gave suffrage 

to freedmen, I. 518 ; opposes peace 

with Pyrrhus, speech quoted, IX. 

402 f. 
Appius Claudius Pulcher(l), sent with 

force to Syracuse, V. 466, 470; 

when consul, helped take Capua, 

III. 200 
Appius Claudius Pulcher (2), candidate 

for censor with Scipio Africanus 

the Younger, VI. 452 f . ; quoted, 454 
Appius Clausus, Sabine, with 5000 

families migrates to Rome, founder 

of Claudian family, I. 556 f . 
Appius Clodius, brother of Lucullus' 

wife, sent to Tigranes by Lucullus 

with demand for surrender of 

Mithridates, II. 526, 534 f. 
Appnleius, see " Antistius." 
April, origin of name, celebration en 

the 1st, I. 368 
Apsephion, archon, names judges in 

contest between Aeschylus and 

Sophocles, 11.428 
Apsus river, described, X. 328 
Aptera, place in Crete, IX. 448 
Apuleius, L., accuser of Camillus, 

II. 122 
Apulia, where Hannibal defeats and 

slays proconsul Gnaeus FuMus, 

V. 502 

Aquae Seztiae, scene of battle 
between Romans and Teutones, 
IX. 510 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Aqueducts, P. and Q. Marcius, 
brought best supply of water to 
Rome, IV. 118 

Aquillii, nephews of Collatinus the 
consul, corrupted by Tarquin's 
envoys, I. 510 f. ; condemned and 
beheaded, 516 f. 

Aquillius, tribune of plebs, supporter 
of Cato the Younger, VIII. 338 

Aquillius, M'., left in charge of army 
by Marius, IX. 498 

Anuinius, M., called Adrastus by 
Cicero, vil. 150 

Aqulnum, town, XI. 286 

Aquinus, defeated by Sertorius, VIII. 
36 

Ara Aii Locutii, see " Aii Locutii ara." 

Arabia, triumphed over by Lucullus, 
V. 230; III. 382; traversed by 
Antony, IX. 220 

Arabia Nabataea, invaded by Deme- 
trius, IX. 16 ; part toward outer sea 
given to Cleopatra, 218 

Arabian Gulf, IX. 296 

Arabs, those about Mt. Antilibanus 
attacked by Alexander, vu. 292; 
nomadic A. moved to new localities 
by Tigranes, 11.536; come from sea 
of Babylonia to join Tigranes, 554; 
kings of, offer Lucullus their 
possessions, 568; slay Roman 
fugitives after Carrhae, III. 416 ; 
those about Petra burn Cleopatra's 
ships, K. 296 

Arachosia, has Sibyrtius as governor, 
VIII. 136 

Aracus, appointed admiral to succeed 
Callicratidas, IV. 248 

Arar river, Tigurini crushed there by 
Labienus, vil. 486; 504 

Arateium, tomb of Aratus in Sicyon, 
XI. 120 

Araterium, place in Gargettus, I. 80 

Aratus (1), on murder of father 
Cleinias, escapes to Argos, XI. 4 f.; 
plots to overthrow tyrant Nicocles, 
10; expels Nicocles, attaches city 
to Achaean League, 20, X. 256 ; 
his character, 276, XI. 22, 30 f.; 
gets 25 talents from Ptolemy, 24; 
going to Egypt gets 150 talents 
more, SO; courted by Antigonus, 
32 ; as general of League, ravages 
Locris and Calydonia, goes to help 
Boeotians, 34 ; takes Acrocorinthus 



from Antigonus, 40 f., X. Si : 
persuades Corinthians to join 
Achaean League, XI. 52 ; tries to 
free Argos from tyranny, 56 f . ; 
brings Cleonae into Achaean League, 
64; defeats and slays Aristippus, 
tyrant of Argos, 66 ; brings 
Megalopolis into League, 68; in 
Aetolian war gets help from Sparta, 
70, X. 32 f . ; defeats and drives 
Aetolians out of Pellene, XI. 72 f . ; 
makes peace and alliance between 
Achaeans and Aetolians, 74; tries 
to seize the Peiraeus, 76 

Defeated at Phylacia by Bithys, 
Demetrius' general, 76 ; persuades 
Diogenes to give up the Peiraeus, 
Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium 
to Athenians for 150 talents, brings 
Aegina, Hermione, and greater part 
of Arcadia into League, 78; brings 
Argos and Phlius into League, 80; 
defeated by Cleomenes near Mt. 
Lycaeum, captures Mantineia, 82, 
X. 60; fails to support Lydiades, 
who is defeated and slain by 
Cleomenes, 62, XI. 84; defeats 
Megistonoiis at Orchomenus, but 
refuses re-election as general, 86, 
X. 80 ; after defeat of Achaeans at 
Hecatombaeum blocks peace with 
Cleomenes, 86, XI. 90; punishes 
disaffected at Sicyon, 92 ; loses 
Corinth, 94, X. 90 ; at Aegium 
secures vote of assembly to call in 
Antigonus, 82, 92, XI. 98; sailing 
to Epidaurus, helps recover Argos 
from Cleomenes, 102, X. 94; 
criticised for concessions to Anti- 
gonus, XI. 104: founds new settle- 
ment at Mantineia, 106 ; defeated 
by the Aetolians at Caphyae, 108 ; 
becomes estranged from Philip, 
112 f. ; poisoned through plot of 
Philip, 118; buried at Sicyon, 
120 

See also X. 54, 58,80, 274 
Commentaries of Aratus cited, 
X. 34, 84, 86, 90, XI. 74, 76, 88 

Aratus (2), Aratus' son, wronged by 
Philip, XI. 112 ; poisoned by Philip, 
122 

Araxes river, II. 554; tributary of 
Cyrnus, V. 206 ; boundary between 
M'edia and Parthia, IX. 250 ; 256 

335 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES ' 



Arbaces, Mede punished by Artaxerxes, 
IX. 156 

Arbela, where Alexander defeated 
Persians, II. 138, VII. 316 ; V. 210 

Arcadia, II. 244 

Arcadians, acorn-eaters, IV. 122 ; have 
four months, I. 368; lost large 
territory to Spartans led by Sous, 
206; malicious toward Spartans, 
V. 60; raided by Agesilaiis, 84; 
opposed by Pelopidas and Epami- 
nondas at Mantineia, 350 ; detached 
from Spartan confederacy, 396 ; 
united into one power, 398 ; except 
Mantineia, received into allegiance 
by Demetrius, IX. 58, X. 56; 
greater part join Achaean League, 
XI. 78 

Arcesilaiis (1), Spartan, his victories, 
II. 434 

Arcesilaiis (2), Academic, X. 256, XI. 10 

Arcesilaiis (3), false friend of Agis, X. 40 

Archagetai means " kings," I. 222 

Archedamus (Archedemus), Aetolian, 
mocked Flamininus, X. 390; 
follower of Perseus, VI. 416 

Archedemus, sent to invite Plato 
to Syracuse, VI. 36 

Archelaiis (1), colleague of Charilaus, 
the Spartan king, I. 218 

Archelaiis (2), naturalist, possible 
author of elegy addressed to Cimon, 
II. 412, 416 

Archelaiis (3), led Antigonus' forces 
in Oorinth, defeated by Aratus, 
XI. 50 ; captured and dismissed, 
52 

Archelaiis (4), Mithridates 1 general, 
controls sea, his operations, IV. 358, 
IX. 556 ; lies with fleet at Munychia, 
IV. 372,454; sets out for Chaeroneia 
378; defeated at Chaeroneia by 
Sulla, 382 f.; defeated at Orcho- 
menus by Sulla, 392 f ., n. 504 ; 
parleys with Sulla near Delium, 
IV. 396; meets Sulla at Philippi, 
400 f . ; urges Lucullus to invade 
Pontus,ll.494; 498 

Archelaiis (5), merchant of Delos, 
arranges meeting between Sulla and 
Archelaiis, Mithridates' general, 
IV. 396 

Archelaiis (6), friend of M. Antony, 
warred on by him, then given royal 
burial, ix. 144 

336 



Archelaiis (7), king of Oappadocia, 
fights under Antony, IX. 276 

Archeptolis, Themistocles* son, 
marries Mnesipotolema, his half- 
sister, ii. 86 f. 

Archery, power of Parthian bows, 
III. 388 

Archestratus (1), choral poet in time 
of Peloponnesian war, II. 212 ; 
saying re Alcibiades, IV. 42, 284 

Archestratus (2), introduces decree to 
denounce Phocion to Polysperchon, 

VIII. 222 

Archias(l), with Leontidas and Philip, 
persuades Phoebidas to seize Cad- 
meia, v. 350 f. ; with Leontidas, 
made ruler of Thebes, 66 ; slain by 
Pelopidas' followers, 360 f . 

Archias (2), hierophant at Athens, 
sends warning to Archias, Theban 
tyrant, V. 364 

Archias (3), the exile-hunter, arrests 
Hypereides, Aristouicus, and 
Himeraeus, and sends them to 
Antipater, tries to get Demosthenes, 
vii. 70 f . 

Archibiades, Athenian, nicknamed 
Laconistes, VIII. 166 

Archibius, gives Octavius 2000 talents 
to spare statues of Cleopatra, IX. 
330 

Archidamia, Spartan woman, urges 
men to defend city against Pyrrhus, 

IX. 438 

Archidamia, Agis' grandmother, very 
rich, x. 10, 16; executed by 
Amphares, 46 

Archidamidas, Spartan, sayings : I. 
266, 268 

Archidamus (1), Zeuxidamus' son, 
left sons Agis and Agesilaiis, V. 2, 
452 ; lined for marrying little 
woman, 4 ; saves Sparta at time of 
earthquake, 454 ; tries to avoid war 
with Athens, III. 84; invades 
Attica, 94 

Sayings : III. 22 ; 318, X. 112 

Archidamus (2), Agesilaiis' son, Agis 
and Eudamidas' father, I. 296, 
v. 112, x. 8; intercedes for Spho- 
drias, V. 70 ; conquers Arcadians in 
"tearless battle," 92 ; 96 ; slain with 
his army in Italy, II. 138, X. 8 

Archidamus (3),succeeded Eudamida?, 
followed by Eudamidas, X. 8 ; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES' 



defeated by Demetrius near 
Mantineia, IX. 84 

Archidamus (4), Agis' brother, escapes 
after his death, X. 50 ; called from 
Messene, made king, executed, 60 

Archidamus (5), Aetolian, remains 
with Perseus in his flight, VI. 416 

" Archilochi," work of Cratinus, II. 434 

Archilochus, loved by gods for sake 
of Muses, I. 318, III. 4; his tone 
adopted by Cato the Younger in 
iambics, vni. 250 

(Bergk II. 383), 1. 10 

(Bergk II. 392), III. 80 

(Bergk II. 383), VIII. 160 

(Bergk II. 428 f ), IX. 520 

(Bergk II. 398), XI. 268 

Archimedes, his geometry, mechanics, 
defence of Syracuse, V. 470 f.; 
asked that cylinder enclosing sphere 
with formula be placed on his 
grave, 480 ; his death, 486 

Archippe, Lysander's daughter, 
Themistocles' wife, II. 86 

Archippus, quoted (Kock I. 688), IV. 4 

Architeles, Athenian, opposes Themis- 
tocles at Artemisium, II. 20 

Archonides, Syracusan, vi. 88 

Archons, in ancient times chosen 
by lot; ex-archons promoted to 
Areiopagus, in. 26 ; to be chosen 
from all the people, 11. 280 ; IX. 26 

See also II. 210, 214, 226, 228, 428, 
VII. 58 

Archytas, with Eudoxus, orginated 
art of mechanics, v. 470; Pytha- 
gorean; persuaded to assist in 
bringing Plato to Sicily, VI. 36; 
rescues Plato from peril, 40 

Arcissus, ex-harmost of Thebes, 
executed by Spartans, V. 370 

Arcturus, his rising cause of storm, 
VI. 52 

Ardea, led by Camillus, its people 
defeat Gauls, II. 150 

Ardettus, place in Athens, I. 62 

Areiopagus, Council of, established 
by Solon. Its duties, I. 454, 464; 
tried Peisistratus for murder, 494, 
II. 30 ; attacked by Ephialtes, 436 ; 
its power broken by Ephialtes, 
450, III. 20, 26; to investigate 
Harpalus matter, VII. 62 ; supports 
Phocion, viii. 178; induced by 
Cicero to honour Cratippus, VII. 142 



Areius, philosopher, honoured in 
Alexandria by Octavius, IX. 316 f . 

Ares, gave victory over Persians, II. 
272 ; father of Harmonia, V. 386 

Aretaeus, name of Dion's son accord- 
ing to Timaeus, VI. 68 

Arete, daughter of Dionysius the 
Elder and Aristomache, marries 
Thearides, then Dion, her uncle, 
VI. 12 ; married to Timocrates, 42 ; 
restored to Dion, 108; murdered 
by Hicetas, 120 f., 340 

Arethusa (1), in Macedonia, had tomb 
of Antony, I. 302 

Arethusa (2), given Monaeses by 
Antony, IX. 220 

Areus, Spartan king, Acrotatus' son, 
fell at Corinth, X. 10, IX. 434; 436; 
444; 446; 452 

Argas, nickname of Demosthenes, 
vii. 10 

Argileonls, Brasidas' mother, replies 
to Amphipolitans, I. 282 

Arginusae, sea-fight of ; Callicratidas 
defeated, III. 108, IV. 248 

Argives, misgoverned, drove out 
kings, I. 226; defeated utterly by 
Spartans, IV. 234 ; left in Amplric- 
tyonic Alliance through Themis- 
tocles in spite of Spartans, II. 56; 
hated Sparta, urged by Alcibiades 
to look to Athens, IV. 32 ; 292 ; make 
alliance with Athens, III. 244, iv. 
36 ; after Mantineia crush attempt 
of "The Thousand," persuaded by 
Themistocles to attach city com- 
pletely to Athens, 38 ; on left wing 
at Coroneia, routed by Agesilatis, 
V. 46 ; hindered at Isthmian games 
by Agesilaiis, 56; with Cleomenes 
fight against Corinthians, VI. 268 

Argivus, freedman, buried Galba by 
night, XI. 270 

Argo, commanded by Jason, I. 38 

Argolis, overrun by Cleomenes, X. 58 

Argos, expelled king Gelanor, cap- 
tured by Dauaiis, IX. 454; II. 62; 
V. 174; detached from Spartan 
confederacy, 396 ; freed by Deme- 
trius, IX. 58; XI. 6; IX. 446; scene 
of battle, where Pyrrhus is slain, 
450 f . ; under tyrant Aristomachus, 
XI. 56 ; attacked by Aratus, 60 f . ; 
seized by Agias aud younger 
Aristomachus, 66; joins Achaean 

337 



GENERAL IN 7 DEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



League, 80, 102 ; Achaeaus meet 
there to confer with Cleomenes, 

X. 84; joins Cleomenes, 88 f., 

XI. 90 ; lost to Cleomenes, X. 96 ; 
its land ravaged by him, 106; 
recovered by Achaean League, 
XI. 102 

Ariadne, falls in love with, carried 
off by Theseus, I. 36, 196 ; deserted 
by Theseus, 66; various stories 
about her, 40 ; honoured in festival 
of Oschophoria, 50 

Ariaeus, Cyrus' friend, at Cunaxa, 
XI. 148 

Ariamnes (1), Xerxes' brother, slain 
at Salamis, II. 42 

Ariamnes (2), Arab chief tain, treacher- 
ously gives Crassus bad advice, 

III. 374, 382 

Ariarathes (1), king of Cappadocia, 
to give place to Eumenes, VIII. 84; 
captured, 88 

Ariarathes (2), Mithridates' son, over- 
running Thrace and Macedonia, 

IV. 358 ; poisoned by M., V. 212 
Ariarathes (3), buys Mithridates* 

sword-belt, V. 224 
Ariaspes, Artaxerxes' son, scared into 

committing suicide, XI. 200 
Arimanius, Persian god, II. 76 
Ariminum, V. 442 ; occupied by 

Caesar, V. 272, vil. 520, VIII. 360 
Arimnestus (1), general of Plataeans, 

interprets his dream to Aristides, 

II. 246 
Arimnestus (2), Spartan, slays Mar- 

donius, II. 270 
Ariobarzanes (1), Mithridates' father, 

ix. 10 
Ariobarzanes (2), reinstated as king 

of Cappadocia by Sulla, IV. 334 f.; 

to receive Cappadocia again from 

Mithridates, 398; 404 
Ariobarzanes (3), king of Cappadocia, 

to be supported by Cicero, vil. 

172 
Ariomandes, Gobryas' son, leader of 

Persian forces at Eurymedon, 

IT. 440 
Aiiovistus, defeated by Caesar, escapes 

across Rhine, VII. 486 f . 
Ariphron, Xanthippus' son, Pericles* 

brother, Alcibiades' guardian, iv. 

2,8 
Aristaenus, Megalopolitan, general of 

333 



Achaeans, sent to prevent Philo- 
poemen being exiled, X. 290; 304 

Ari^taeus, his disappearance like that 
of Romulus, 1. 178 

Ari-tagoras, town-clerk of Cyzicus, 

II. 500 

Aristander of Telmessus, seer with 
Philip, and then with Alexander, 
VII. 226, 2GO, 294, 296, 316, 32'J, 
368, 374 

Aristeas, Argive, invites Pyrrhus to 
Argos, IX. 446 ; admits him, 450 

Aristides (1), Lysimachus' son, his 
family and position, n. 210 f ., 390f . ; 
his political principles; opposed 
Themistocles, 8, 214, 436 ; character, 
8, 216 f., 250, 260, 436; fought 
brilliantly at Marathon, 224; 
ostracized, 16, 32, 230, 248; 
supports Themistocles at Salamis, 
36 f . 234, ; condemns Themistocles' 
plan to break bridge of boats, 238 ; 
leads Athenians at Plataea, 244 f . ; 
proposes decree to assembled 
Greeks re war against Persians, 
278; proposes decree to make 
government democratic, 280; con- 
demns Themistocles' plan to burn 
Greek naval station, 56, 282; by 
tat and diplomacy steals leader- 
ship from Spartans, 282, 420; 
chosen by allies to levy assessment 
upon them, 286 f. ; his death, 294, 

III. 18; leaves family in poverty, 
296, 392. See also II. 58, 418, 

IV. 228 

Sayings: II. 44, 218, 220, 222, 

236, 242, 250, 288 

Aristides (2), Xenophilus' son, II. 212 
Aristides (3), Locrian, companion of 

Plato, VI. 274 
Aristides (4), author of " Milesiaca," 

III. 418 
Aristiou, tyrant at Athens, I. 338, 

II. 530; character and acts; 

besieged by Sulla, IV. 366; forced 

to surrender by Curio, 372 ; 

poisoned by Sulla, 400 
Arislippus (1) of Gyrene, quoted re 

Dionysius, VI. 38; re Plato and 

Dionysius, 40 
Aristippus (2) of Argos, has feud with 

Aristeas, IX. 446 
Aristippus, succeeds Aristomachus as 

tyrant of Argos; prosecutes 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Achacans for attack in time of 

peace, XI. 58; 60; fights with 

Aratus at Chares river, 62 f . ; 

defeated and slain, 64 f. 
Aristoboule, name given by Themis- 

tocles to temple of Artemis built 

by him, n. 60 
Aristobulus (1) of Alexandreia, cited 

re Demosthenes, vii. 56 ; re Alex- 
ander, 260, 268, 272, 284, 356, 432 
Aristobulus (2), king of Jews, taken 

by Pompey, V. 216; led in his 

triumph, 230 ; having caused Jews 

to revolt, defeated and taken with 

his son by Antony, IX. 142 
Aristocleitus, father of Lysander of 

the Heracleidae, IV. 234 
Aristocrates (1), speech against, by 

Demosthenes, VII. 32 
Aristocrates (2), cited re Lycurgus, 

I. 216, 302 ; re Philopoemen, x. 302 
Aristocrates (3), rhetorician with 

Antony, IX. 294 
Aristocritus, sent to Philip by 

Pixodarus to arrange a marriage, 

VII. 248 
Aristodemus (1), ancestor of Lycurgus, 

1.206; V.52 
Aristodemus (2) of Miletus, courtier 

of Antigonus and Demetrius, IX. 20, 

38 
Arsitodemus (3), tyrant, defeats and 

slays Acrotatus at Megalopolis, 

X. 10; killed through plotting of 

Ecdemus and Megalophanes, 256 
Aristodicus of Tanagra, murders 

Ephialtes, III. 32 
Aristogeiton (1), his granddaughter 

given dowry by Athenians, II. 298 
Aristogeiton (2), public informer at 

Athens, yill. 166 ; speech against 

him delivered by Demosthenes 

himself, VII. 36 ; VIII. 168 
Aristomache, Dion's sister, Dionysius 

the Elder's wife, VI. 6; her children, 

12; 108; drowned by order of 

Hicetas, 122 
Aristoraachus (1), exile from Sicyon, 

friend of Aratus, XI. 10 
Aristomachus (2), tyrant of Argos, 

killed by slaves, succeeded by 

Aristippus, XI. 58 
Aristomachus (3), with Agias seizes 

Argos, XI. 66 ; resigns and is made 

general of Achaean League, XI. 80 f ., 



X. 58; tortured at Cenchreae and 
drowned, XI. 102 

Aristomenes, thrice offered sacrifice 
for 100 Spartans slain, I. 168; said 
by Messenians to have slain 
Theopompus, Spartan king, X. 48 

Ariston (1), helps Peisistratus become 
tyrant, I. 490 

Ariaton (2), Corinthian captain, by 
ruse defeats Athenians undeV 
Menander and Euthydemus, III. 280 

Ariston (3), captain of Paeonian?, 
rewarded by Alexander, vii. 338 

Ariston (4) of Chios, cited, n. 354, 
VII. 24, 74 

Ariston (5) of Ceos, philosopher, cited, 
II. 8, 216 

Aristonicus (1) of Marathon, executed 
by Antipater, VII. 70 

Aristonicus (2), son of harpist's 
daughter, used reputed connexion 
with Eumenes to fill all Asia with 
wars and rebellions, X. 384 

Aristonicus (3), joined in Asia by 
Blossius,X. 194 

Aristonicus (4), Mithridates' admiral, 
taken by Lucullus, II. 504 

Aristonous, harper, his encounter 
with Lysander, IV. 282 

Aristophanes (1) : 

Acharnians, 524 f ., in. 88 
Babylonians (Kock I. 408), m. 76 
Birds, 638 f., III. 234 
Farmers (Kock I. 416), in. 234 
Frogs, 1425. 1431-1432, IV. 40 
Knights, 358, III. 222; 382, IX. 

28; 815, II. 54 
Lysistrata, 1137 f., II. 454 
Wasps, 44 f ., IV. 4 

Aristophanes (2), one of Alexander's 
bodyguards, VII. 372 

Aristophon (1), painted Nemea with 
Alcibiades in her arms, IV. 42 

Aristophon (2), archon, VII. 58; VIII. 
160 

Aristotle (1), native of Stageira, 
tutored Alexander, VII. 240; 242; 
introduced Alexander to works of 
Theodectas, 272; thought Callis- 
thenes able speaker, but lacking in 
common sense, 380; related to 
Callisthenes, hated by Alexander, 
384; said to have counselled 
Antipater to poison Alexander, 
436 ; had gift of persuasion accord- 

339 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES ' 



ing to Antipater, II. 390, IV. 224; 
called river of liquid gold by Cicero, 
vii. 140; abused by Timaeus, ill. 
210 ; his writings in library of 
Apellicon the Teian; seized by 
Sulla and sent to Rome, IV. 406 

Statements : Theseus gave up 
absolute rule, I. 54; Lycurgus and 
Iphitus established Olympic truce, 
204 ; Why 28 members in Council 
of Elders at Sparta, 220 ; Crannon 
a river and Babyca a bridge, 222 ; 
KpvTrreia one of Lycurgus' institu- 
tions, 288 ; Ephors on coming into 
office declared formal war on 
Helots, 290; Honours paid 
Lycurgus less than deserved, 300 ; 
Solon supported Delphian oracle, 
428; Tables of law at Athens were 
called Kvp/35, 472 ; Ashes of 
Solon scattered on island of Salamis, 
498; Lucius saved Borne from 
Gauls, II. 148; Pythocleides was 
Pericles' music teacher, III. 10; 
(should be Plato, Alclbiades, 1. 118c) ; 
Pericles defeated by Melissus in 
sea-fight, 76 ; Athenians not brutal 
to Samians, 78; Ephors having 
entered upon office, bid all men to 
shave moustaches and obey laws, 
X. 66 

Constitution of Athens, (25. 4), 
III. 32; (27. 3), II. 432; (27. 4), 
m. 26 ; (28. 5), ill. 212 

Constitution of Bottiaea (Athen- 
ians were not put to death by 
Minos, but made slaves, etc.), I. 30 

Iliad of the Casket, edition 
carried by Alexander, vn. 242, 298 

On Nobility of Birth? (Myrto, 
granddaughter of Aristides, wife of 
Socrates?), II. 296 

On the Soul, occasion of its being 
written, VI. 46 

Fragment 56 (Rose), V. 346 ; 97, 
V. 384; 556,1.6 

Politics (II. 6. 8), 1. 244 

Problems, (30. 1), IV. 236 
Aristotle (2), logician, with Deinias, 

slays Abantidas, XI. 6 
Aristotle (3), causes revolt against 

Cleomenes in Argos, X. 94, XI. 102 
Aristoxenus, musician, says Lycurgus 
died in Crete, I. 302 ; falsely says 
Myrto, granddaughter of Aristides, 

340 



was wife of Socrates, II. 296; VI. 
294 ; his memoirs tell of Alexander's 
person, VII. 232 

Aristratus, tyrant of Sicyon, painted 
by Melanthus and Apelles, XI. 28 

Aristus, brother of Antiochus of 
Ascalon, friend of M. Brutus, VI. 
128 

Armenia, attacked by Perseus, II. 
410; disturbed by Neopotolemus, 
VIII. 88; ruled by Tigranes, II. 512 ; 
Lesser A. occupied by Lucullus, 
526; 536; invaded by Lucullus, 
548 ; conquered by Lucullus, 140, 
572,111.370 ; people of, join Tigranes, 
II. 554; nature of ground and 
weather, 576, 590; Lucullus' 
trophies there, 592; added to 
Pompey's sway by Manilian Law, 
V. 190; invaded by Pompey on 
invitation of young Tigranes, 202, 

VII. 106 ; left in charge of Afranius 
by Pompey, V. 204; 208; 216; 
triumphed over by Pompey, 230; 
conquered by Canidius, IX. 214; 
traversed by Antony, 220 

Armilustrium, on Aventine, has grave 

of Tatius, 1.164 
Army, Roman, its armour and 

weapons improved by Oamillus, 

II. 198 ; its weapons, 558 f . 
Arnaces, royal eunuch, sent with 

message from Themistocles to 

Xerxes, II. 46, 240 
Arpates, Teribazus' son, slays Areames, 

XI. 202 
Arpinum, Cicero had country-seat 

there, VII. 100; IX. 468 
Arrhenides, father of Callicles, vii. 62 
Arrhidaeus, Philip's son, to marry 

Pixodarus' daughter, VII. 248; 

drugged by Olympias, 436 ; orders 

Eumenes to wage war on Antigonus, 

VIII. 116 

Arrius, Q., brings news of Catiline's 

army, VII. 118 
Arron, Tuscan, led Gauls into Italy, 

II. 126 f. 
Arruntius, led Octavius* centre at 

Actium, IX. 288 
Arsaces, Parthian king, sends message 

to Crassus, III. 366 ; V. 314. See also 

" Hyrodes." 
Arsacidae, Parthian royal line, III. 

420 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Arsames, illegitimate son of Artaxer- 
xes, slain by Arpates, XI. 200 f . 
Arsania river, battle of, between 

Lucullus and Armenians, II. 074 f . 
Arsian grove, scene of battle between 

Tarquin and Romans, I. 522 
Arsicas, name of Artaxerxes n. at 

first, XI. 128 
Arsis river, where Pompey defeats 

Carbo's cavalry, V. 130 
Artabanus, gives audience to Themis- 

tocles, II. 72 

Artabazes (Artabazus), comes to 
Crassus' camp with 6000 horsemen, 
III. 370 ; seized by Antony because 
deserted in Media by him, IX. 340. 
See also " Artavasdes." 
Artabazus (1), with 40,000, escaped at 

Plataea, 11.272 
Artabazus (2), father of Pharnabazus, 

VIII. 96 ; of Barsine, 80, VII. 284 
Artagerses, commander of Cadusians, 
slain at Cunaxa by Cyrus, XI. 146 f ., 
156 

Artasyras, the King's Eye, discovers 
and reports death of Cyrus, XI. 152, 
158 

Artavasdes (Artabazes) Mng of 
Armenia, punished by Hyrodes, 
III. 376 ; sends message to Crassus, 
380; reconciled to Hyrodes, 420; 
deserts Antony, IX. 224; robbed 
Antony of victory, led in triumph 
at Alexandria, 252 ; wrote tragedies 
orations, histories, ni. 420 
Artaxas, king of Armenia, induced 
by Hannibal to build Artaxata 
and make it Armenian capital, II. 
572 

Artaxata, royal city of Tigranes, 
attacked by Lucullus, II. 572 ; left 
untaken, 578 

Artaxerxe(l),surnamed Longimanus, 
Xerxes' son, XI. 128; received 
Themistocles, II. 72, 76 f . 
Artaxerxes (2), son of Dareius and 
ParysatiP, grandson of Artaxerxes 
I., XI. 128; in danger from his 
brother Cyrus, 132 f . : his character, 
134; rebelled against by Cyrus, 
136 f.; warned by Tissaphernes of 
Cyrus' intention, 138; urged by 
Teribazus to fight, 140; battle of 
Cunaxa, 142 f . ; death of Cyrus, 
148 f.; Clearchus and his fellow- 



generals seized and slain, 166 f.; 
A. fails to capture Greeks, who had 
come with Cyrus, 172; attacked 
by Ageiilaus, drives Spartans from 
Asia and the sea by bribery, 174 f . ; 
dictates Peace of Antalcidas, 176; 
refuses Spartans money after 
Leuctra, 178 ; puts Tissaphernes to 
death, 180; marries his daughter 
Atossa, 182 ; fails in war against 
Egyptians, and against Cadusians, 
184 f.; proclaims Dareius his suc- 
cessor, 190 ; makes an enemy of 
Teribazus, 194; is plotted against 
by Teribazus and Dareius, 194f.; 
has Dareius executed, 198 f.; on 
learning of death of his sons 
Ariaspes and Arsames through his 
son Ochus, he dies, ninety-four 
years old, 200 f. See also V. 416 

Sayings : XI. 134, 136 
Artayctus, husband of Xerxes' sister, 

II. 38 
Artemidorus (1), guided Lucullus to 

position above Mithridates, II. 516 
Artemidorus (2), Cnidian philosohper, 
gives Caesar a written warning, 
VII. 594 

Artemis, temple of, built by Themis- 
tocles and named Aristoboule, 
II. 60 ; temple of, named Proseoea, 
24 
Artemis of Ecbatana, called Anaitis, 

XI. 192 
Artemis, Ephesian, temple of, burned, 

VII. 230 
Artemis Eucleia, temple of, had tomb 

of Euchidas, 11.276 
Artemis Orthia, temple of, in Sparta, 
I. 72 ; youths flogged to death at 
her altar, 262 

Artemis, Persia, highly honoured by 
barbarians beyond Euphrates, li. 
548 
Artemis of Colophon, at banquet of 

Alexander, yil. 372 
Artemis of Priapus, II. 510 
Artemisia, fights for Xerxes at 

Salamis,!!. 18f., 42 
Artemisium, location and description, 

11.22; IV. 2 
Artemisius, Macedonian name of 

month, VII. 204 

Artemon Periphoretus, engineer, told 
of in brief, III. 78 

341 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Arthmiadas, chief helper of Lycurgus, 

I. 218 

Arthmius of Zeleia, disfranchised for 
offering gold of Medes to Greeks, 

II. 18 

Artisans, list of kinds at Athens, 

III. 38 

Artorius, M., Octavius' friend, VI. 

218 

Arts, compared with senses, IX. 2 
Aruns (1), Lars Porsena's son, urges 

father to make peace with Romans, 

I. 550; rescues Roman maidens, 

552 
Aruns (2), Tarquin's son, and Brutus, 

the consul, slay each other, I. 522 
Arverni, with Carnuntini (Carnutes), 

lead revolt against Caesar, vil.504f. 
Arybas, son of Alcetas, and father by 

Troas of Aeacides, IX. 346 
Arymbas, brother of Olympias, wife 

of Philip of Macedon, VII. 226 
As, current copper coin in time of 

Camillus, II. 124 
Asbolomeui, name of Damon's 

descendants, II. 408 
Ascalis, son of Iphtha, Maurusian, 

defeated by Sertorius, VIII. 22 
Ascalon, Antiochu of, see " Antio- 

chus of Ascalon." 
Asclepiades (1), Hipparchus' son, 

reports death of Alexander, VIII. 

194 
Asclepiades (2), answered by Didymus, 

I. 404 

Asclepias, temple of, at Epidaurus, 
plundered by pirates, V. 174 

Asculum (1) taken by Strabo, V. 124 

Asculum (2) battle of, IX. 412 f . 

Asia (1), separated from Asia by 
isthmus 300 furlongs long, ix. 296 ; 
set in order by Agesilaiis, V. 38; 
cleared of Persians by Cimon, II. 
438 ; VII. 264 ; wrested from Romans 
by Mithridates; 150,000 Romans 
massacred in one day, IV. 358, 404; 
398 ; fined 20,000 talents by Sulla, 

II. 532, IV. 406 ; its state after 2nd 
Mithridatic war; relieved by 
Lucullus, II. 532, VII. 90; 180; 
decreed province of Trebonius, 
VI. 168; being subdued by Par- 
thians under Labienus, IX. 204 

Asia (2), Themistocles' youngest child, 
reared by Phrasicles, II. 88 

342 



Asiatic style of oratory, popular in 
Antony's time, IX. 140 

Asiaticus, Galba's freedman, helped 
Otho, XI. 250 

Asinaria, Syracusan festival to cele- 
brate capture of Nicias, III. 304 

Asinarus river, where Nicias made last 
stand, III. 302 

Asinius, Antony's friend, IX. 156 

Asinius Pollio, accompanies Caesar 
over the Rubicon, vil. 522 ; sent 
against Cato in Sicily, VIII. 362 : 
with Caesar at Pharsalus, V. 304; 
with Caesar in Africa, VII. 566 : 
cited, 552, V. 304 

Asopian plain, I. 424 

Asopis, Sinope's mother, II. 544 

Asopus river, Persians encamped by 
it before Plataea, II. 244, 256 

Aspasia (1), Milesian, Axiochus' 
daughter, herrelations with Periclep, 
III. 68; tried for impiety, begged 
off by Pericles, 92 

Aspasia (2), Phocaean, Hermotinus' 
daughter, Cyrus' special favourite, 
Artaxerxes* concubine, made 
priestess of Artemis of Ecbatana, 

III. 72, XI. 190 f. 
Aspendus, city in Asia, IV. 76 
Aspetus, name of Achilles in Epeirote 

tongue, EX. 346 

Asphalius, name of Neptune, why 
given, 1. 86. 

Aspis, strong position in Argos, IX. 
450, 452, X. 88 

Assessment, of Hellenes by Aristides-, 
H. 286, 386; paid by Athenian 
allies, 438; 130,000 on lists at Rome, 
widows and orphans excused, 

I. 534; revised by censors, II. 346 ; 
that of Cato the Elder, 354 

Assian plain, where Archelaiis en- 
camped, rv. 380 
Assus river, empties into Cephisus, 

IV. 378 ; crossed by Sulla, 380 
Assyrians, settled in Tigranocerta, 

11.552; III. 382 
Asteria, Salaminian, wooed by Cimon, 

II. 416 

Asteropus, ephor, first to extend 

power of office, X. 70 
Astronomy, Anaxagoras' account of 

heavenly bodies, IV. 262; V. 12; 

more exact science in Plutarch's 

time, II. 274. See also " Meteor." 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Astura, place of Cicero's on sea-coast, 

VII. 202 
Astyochus, admiral opposed to 

Athenians, rv. 70 f . 
Astypaleia, Cleomedes of, see " Cleo- 

medes of Astypaleia." 
Astyphilus of Posidonia, interprets 

Cimon's dream, n. 460 
Asylum, God of, I. 114 
Ateius, tribune of plebs, tries to keep 

Crassus from leaving city on 

Parthian expedition, in. 362 
Ateius, M., first of Sulla's men to 

mount wall of Athens, IV. 368 
Athamania, in Greece, traversed by 

Caesar, V. 286 

Athamanians, plundered by Mace- 
donians, X. 364 
Athanis, cited, VI. 318, 350 
Athena, temple of, at Athens, I. 430; 

patroness of Athens, II. 28, IV. 8; 

II. 28, 30 ; by showing olive-tree, 
won against Poseidon, II. 54; her 
temple at Plataea restored, 276; 
502; statue of her by Pheidias, 

III. 40, 44, 88 f. ; Plynteria of, when 
celebrated, IV. 98; 368; IX. 54: her 
precinct at Belbina commands 
entrance into Laconia, X. 56 

Athena of the Brazen House, X. 26, 36 

Athena Hygieia, statue of her set up 
by Pericles, in. 44 

Athena Itonis (Itonia), temple of, 
V. 50, IX. 432 

Athena Optilitip, given temple by 
Lycurgus, I. 236 

Athena Syllania, I. 220 

Athenians Kites, customs, etc.: 
rites in memory of Salamis taken 
by Solon, I. 426 ; bury dead facing 
west, 428; fond of euphemisms, 
442 ; great enemies of wolves, 468 ; 
oath of young warriors, IV. 38; 
Adonia festival, 48; rites on 
March 1st in memory of deluge, 372 
Laws, etc. : laws re idleness, I. 
280,450,464,494; archons at first 
chosen by lot, III. 26 ; ostracism, 
II. 234, III. 246 f.; law re citizen- 
ship, 106 f . ; law re divorce, IV. 20 

Tribes named from occupations, 
I. 468; taught Greeks to sow grain 
and kindle fire, n. 434; pay tribute 
to Minos, 1.28; assembled into one 
city by Theseus, 50 f . ; divided 



into three classes, 54 ; attacked by 
Megarians, and lose Nisaea and 
Salamis, 432 ; Hill-men, Plain-men, 
and Shore-men dispute re form of 
government, 434; debts cancelled 
by Solon, 442 ; A . given laws by 
Solon, 448 f . ; made subject to 
Peisistratus, 488 f . 

Burn Sardis, fight at Marathon, 
II. 224 f.; fight at Salami*, 40 f., 
236 f.; tempted by Xerxes to 
cease struggle, 240 ; fight at 
Plataea, 248 f.; fortify city, 52 f.; 
win allies from Spartans through 
Aristides, 282f.; send aid to 
Corcyra against Corinth, III. 82 ; 
besiege Potidaea, 84; attacked by 
Spartans under Archidamus, 94; 
afflicted by pestilence, 98; make 
peace with Spartans through Nidas, 
236; enter on Sicilian expedition, 
250 f., IV. 44 f.; suffer disaster m 
Sicily, III. 302 f . ; Alcibiades begins 
to help Athenians again, IV. 70 ; 
defeated by Lysander at Aegos- 
potami, and forced to surrender 
their city, 106 f ., 264 f . ; accept 
Lysander's terms, 270; ruled by 
Thirty Tyrants, 274; expel the 
Thirty, 290; grateful to Thebans 
for he'lp, V. 354 

Embroiled with Sparta through 
Pelopidas, 372 ; aroused by Demos- 
thenes to unite with Thebans 
against Philip, VII. 42 ; defeated 
(at Chaeroneia) by Philip, 46 ; 
asked by Alexander to surrender 
Demosthenes and certain others, 
56 ; placate Alexander through 
Phocion, VIII. 182; besiege Anti- 
pater in Lamia, VII. 66 ; threatened 
by Antipater's army, VIII. 202 ; 
accept his terms, 204, II. 140 ; turn 
against Phocion, VIII. 220; 
governed for Demetrius the Phaler- 
ean for Cassander, IX. 18; freed 
by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 20; 
highly honour Demetrius, 24 f . ; 
freed" from Cassander's siege by 
Demetrius, 52 ; revolt from Deme- 
trius, and are besieged by him, 
114; assisted by Aratus in regaining 
freedom, XI. 78; send Carneades 
and Diogenes to Rome to beg 
cancellation of fine of 500 talents, 

343 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



II. 368 ; besieged by Sulla, iv. 360 f. ; 
their city captured, 368 f.; 
especially loved Octavia, IX. 266 
Athenodorus (1) of Imbros, released 
from prison by Alexander at 
Phocion's request, VIII. 186 
Athenodorus (2), actor, fined by 
Athenians, when Alexander pays 
fine, VII. 308 

Athenodorus (3) Cordylion, Stoic 
philosopher, at Pergamum, won 
over by Cato the Younger, VIII. 
256, 268 

Athenodorus (4), Sandon's son, wrote 
book, addressed to Octavia, I. 
548 

Athenophanes, Athenian, makes 
experiment with naphtha, VII. 328 

Athens, made metropolis by Theseus, 
I. 4, 52 ; had perpetual fire, that 
went out In tyranny of Aristion, 
338; very poor in time of 2nd 
Persian war, II. 242 ; fortified under 
Themistocles, n. 52 ; beautified by 
Cimon, 446; adorned by Pericles, 
III. 34 ; enriched with holidays and 
public festivals by Pericles, 198 ; 
down to time of Caesars greatly 
outshone Rome in great public 
works, temples, etc., III. 204; taken 
by Lysander, who tore down long 
walls, IV. 108, 270; her walls 
rebuilt by money from Pharnabazus, 
V. 62 ; spared by Alexander, vn. 
256; entered by Pyrrhus, IX. 378; 
captured by Sulla, IV. 344, 370; 
visited by Cato the Elder, II. 336 ; 
given 50 talents by Pompey, V. 224 ; 
visited by Cicero, VII. 88; welcomes 
Brutus, VI. 176 

Athletic training, III. 174, X. 260, XI. 6 

Athos, mountain, to be made into 
statue of Alexander, VII. 426 

Atilia, Serranus' daughter, Cato's 
wife, divorced for unseemly conduct, 
yill. 28, 250, 254 

Atilius (M. Atilius Regulus), II. 386 

Atilius, M., consul with T. Manh'us, 
when temple of Janus was closed, 
1.372 

Atilius Vergilio, overthrows G-alba's 
statue, XI. 264 

Atillius, friend of Brutus, VI. 212 

Atiso river, bridged by Lutatius 
Catulus, IX. 524; 526 

344 



Atlantic Islands, called Islands of the 

Blest, described, vm. 20 
Atlantic Ocean, V. 214, VII. 498, VIII. 

20 
Atlantis, the lost, story of, heard from 

Egyptian priests by Solon, who 

tried to put it in poetry, I. 476, 494 ; 

story of, left unfinished by Plato, 

496 
Atlas, reputed father of Pasiphae, X. 

20 
Atossa, daughter of Artaxerxes, 

married by him, XI. 182, 194; 

urges Ochus to remove his rivals, 

200 
Atreus, part of, acted by Aesop, 

vil. 94 

Atridae, II. 424 
Atropatena, ravaged by Antony, 

IX. 222 

Atropateni, routed by Lucullus, 

II. 574 

Attaleia, city in Pamphylia, V. 312 
Attalus (1), uncle of Cleopatra, wife 

of Philip, VII. 246; offends 

Pausanias, 250; 382 
Attalus (2), king, supports Flamininus' 

appeal to Thebans, dies of stroke, 

X. 338,11.140, IX. 274 

Attalus (3) Philometer, grew poisonous 
plants, IX. 46 ; made Roman 
people his heir, x. 176 

Attia (Atia), daughter of Caesar's 
sister, mother of young Caesar, 
VII. 196, IX. 206 

" Attic History," by Ister, I. 78 

Attica, mostly unfruitful and worth- 
less; manufacturing encouraged by 
Solon, I. 464, 468; invaded by 
Mardonius, II. 242 ; often invaded 
by Spartans, I. 74; invaded by 
Archidamus, III. 94; invaded 
by Sphodrias at night, V. 374; 
freed from Cassander, IX. 52 ; 
invaded by Aratus, XI. 54 

Atticus, gets letter from Brutus, 
VI. 190 

Atticus, Julius, praetorian, claims 
to have slain Otho, XI. 262 

Attis, two of the name, one a Syrian, 
the other an Arcadian ; both killed 
by wild boar, vm. 2; story of, 
among Phrygians resembles that 
about N"uma and Egeria, I. 316 

Attius, Tullus, see " Tullus Attius." 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Attius Yams, made governor of 
Libya by Pompey, with Scipio 
and Juba after Pharsalus, vill. 372 

Avx/u,o>i> Xvtri?, possibly connected 
with " ancile." 

Aufidius, in conspiracy against 
Sertorius, vill. 68, 74 

Aufidus, river in Italy, III. 160 

Augur, defined, V. 438, VI. 360; 
Cicero augur in place of younger 
Crassus, VII. 172; Antony with 
help of Curio, IX. 148 ; Ti. Gracchus, 
X. 160 

August, month originally called Sex- 
tilis, I. 370, IX. 534 

Augustus Caesar (Octavius), son of 
Octavius and Attia, made heir and 
adopted son in Caesar's will, vil. 
196, IX. 1C2, 206; quarrelling with 
Antony about inheritance, he 
supports Cicero, VI. 174, VII. 194, 
IX. 170f.; fights at Mutina, VI. 
184, VII. 198; becomes consul, 
forms triumvirate with Antony 
and Lepidus, VI. 186, VII. 200, 600, 
IX. 178 ; indicts Brutus and Cassius 
for murder, VI. 184; marries 
Clodia, Fulvia's daughter, ix. 180; 
with Antony wars on Brutus and 
Cassius in "Macedonia, VI. 208 f., 
VII. 606, IX. 182 f.; after Philippi 
returns illto Kome, 184 ; reconciled 
to Antony, divides empire with 
him and 'Lepidus, 202 f . ; makes 
peace with Sextus Pompeius, 206 ; 
renews peace with Antony at 
Tarentum, 214 f.; makes war on 
Pompeius, 216, 262; finds cause 
of complaint in Antony, 256, 260 f . ; 
disturbed by Antony's preparations 
and unrest in Italy, 268; reads 
Antony's will, 270; has war 
declared, 272 ; crosses Ionian sea 
and occupies Torune in Speirus, 
278; wins at Actium, 284 f.; after 
receiving surrender of Antony's 
land forces, makes settlement with 
Greeks, 292 f . ; offers to spare 
Cleopatra, recalled to Italy, 304; 
next year takes Pelusium, defeats 
Antony, 306 f.; learns of Antony's 
death, 314; enters Alexandria, 
316; executes Antyllus, Antony's 
son, 318; interviews Cleopatra, 
320 f . ; orders Cleopatra buried 

VOL. XI. 



with Antony, 330; becomes consul 

with Cicero's son as colleague, 

vil. 208; has doors of Janus' 

temple closed, I. 372 

His Memoirs, addressed to 

Agrippa and Maecenas, cited, V. 

520, VI. 184, 218, VII. 214, IX. 182, 

292 

Sayings: VI. 256, yii. 208, IX. 318 
Aulis, where Agesilaiis is hindered 

in sacrifice, IV. 308, V. 14 f . 
Aurelia, J., Caesar's mother, VII. 

152, 462 
Aurelius, C., effects reconciliation 

of Pompey and Crassus, V. 170, 

III. 350 

Aurelius, Q., slain in Sulla's pro- 
scription, IV. 428 
Autocleides, his " Exegetics " cited, 

III. 292 

Autoleon, king of Paeonians, IX. 368 
Autolycus (1), founder of Sinope. 

etc., II. 542 f. 
Autolycus (2), athlete, executed by 

the Thirty, IV. 274 
Automatia, worshipped by Timoleon, 

VI. 346 
Auximum, Pompey levies troops 

from there, V. 128 

Aventine hill, 1. 154, 164, 358, X. 230 
Avillius, later name of Aollius, 1. 130 
Axiochus, Aspasia'.s father, III. 68 
Axius river, IX. 104 
Axius, suspected father of Crassus' 

son, VII. 144 
'Afoves, wooden tablets on which 

Solon's laws were written, I. 472 



Babyca, in Plutarch's time called 

Cheimarrus ; a bridge according to 

Aristotle,!. 222; V. 382 
Babylon, visited by Alexander, VII. 

42C; vni. 84; Xi."l40 
Babylonia, sea of, II. 554; has fiery 

soil, in. 332 ; submits to Alexander, 

Vil. 328; invaded by Demetrius, 

IX. 16 
" Bacchae," of Euripides, sung before 

Hyrodes, III. 420 
Bacchiadae, fled from Corinth to 

Lacedaemon, IV. 234 
Bacchides, eunuch of Mithridates, 

II. 524 
Bacchus, see " Dionysus." 

M 345 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



"Bacchylides,"Frag. 29 (Jebb, Batch. 

p. 423), I. 320 
Bachelors, Thales of Miletus one, 

I. 416; penalized by Lycurgus, 

248; forced by Camillas to marry 

widows, II. 96 
Bactria,III.360, 434 
Bactrian cavalry, attack Macedonians, 

VII. 320 
Baculus, from /SaKTrjpia, is a rod in 

lictor's bundle, 1. 172 
Baebius, M., consul with P. Cornelius 

about 400 years after Nuna, I. 380 
Baetica, named from river Baetis, 

viii. 20 ; governed by Fufidius, 30 
Baetis river, II. 330; empties into 

Atlantic, VIII. 20; 30 
Bagoas, had house at Susa, VII. 342 
Bagoas, favourite of Alexander, VII. 

412 

Baiae, had warm baths, IX. 554 
Balbus, sent by Sulla, attacks 

Telesinus, IV. 418 
Balbus, Cornelius, flatterer of Caesar, 

VII. 582 
Balbus, Postumius, son-in-law of 

Pablicola, I. 560 
Balissus, stream crossed by Crassus' 

army, III. 384 
Balte, nvmph, reputed mother of 

Epimenides of Phaestus, I. 432 
Bambyce, earlier name of Hierapolis, 

IX. 220 

Bandius, see " Bantius." 
Bantia, Italian city, v. 514 
Bantius, Lucius, won to Romans 

by Marcellus, V. 458 
Barbius, supports Otho, XI. 258 
Barca (1), saying re Hannibal, III. 

168 
Barca (2), invites Cato and Munatius 

to supper, VIII. 326 
Bardyaei, slave bodyguard of Marius, 

IX. 584, 590 

Bardyllis, marries daughter Bircenna 

to Pyrrhus, IX. 368 
Bargylia, city freed by Lentulus, 

X. 354 

Barsine (1), Artabazus' daughter, 

taken as mistress by Alexander, 

VII. 284, VIII. 80 
Barsine (2), Artabazus' daughter, 

given by Alexander to Eumenes, 

Viii. 80 
Basilica (Pauli Aenulii), built by 

346 



(Lucius Aemilius) Paulas, VII. 514. 
XI. 264 

Basilica Porcia, erected in forum 
by Cato the Elder, II. 356 ; tribunes 
of plebs transacted business there, 

VIII. 246 

Basillus, L., sent by Sulla to seize 

city-gate of Rome, IV. 354 
Eastarnae, see " Bistcrnae." 
Bataces, priest of Great Mother at 

Pessinus, IX. 308 
Batalus, nickname of Demosthenes, 

VII. 10 

Bathycles, left beaker at Delphi, I. 414 
Baton, of Sinope, cited, X. 34 
Bean, white, its use, III. 7fi 
Bedriacum, Otho's soldiers there, 

XI. 300, 306 
Bedricum (Bedriacum), little village 

near Cremona, XI. 294 
Bees, bred in putrefying oxen, X. 140 
Beetles, bred in putrefying oxen, X. 

140 
Belaeus, furnishes ship for Marius' 

flight, IX. 574 

Belbina, had precinct of Athena, X. 56 
Belgae, V. 246; occupied one third 

of G-aul ; utterly defeated by Caesar, 

VII. 490 f. 
Belitaras, said to have given pisou 

to Statira, XI. 170 
Bellinus, Roman praetor, taken by 

pirates, V. 176 
Bellona, temple of, IV. 348, 424, VII. 

112 

Beluris, secretary, XI. 180 
Belus, temple of, at Susa, VII. 274 
Beneventum, Pyrrhus defeated near 

it by M'. Curius, IX. 426 
Bequest, Cicero received one of 

90,000 denarii, VII. 100 
Berenice (1), Ptolemy's wife, Anti- 
gone's mother; courted by Pyrrhus, 

IX. 354 

Berenice (2) of Chios, Mithridates' 

wife, strangled, n. 526 
Berenicis, city on peninsula of 

Epeirus, built by Pyrrhus, IX. 360 
Beroea, taken by Pyrrhus, IX. 110, 

374 ; Pompey's headquarters, V. 280 
Berytus, city of Phoenicia, IX. 254 
Bessus, seizes Dareius, vil. 248 ; 

executed by Alexander, 252 
Bestia, failed against Jugurtha, IX. 

482 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Bestia (L. Calpurnius), opposes Cicero, 
viz. 138 

Beverage, water used by Cato the 
Elder on campaigns, II. 306 

Bias, declined golden tripod, 1. 412 

Bibulus, L. Calpurnius (1), husband 
of Porcia, by whom he had two 
sons, VIII. 292 f. ; as consul opposes 
Caesar's measures, 310, V. 236; 
overawed by Caesar's supporters, 
238, VIII. 312 ; remained at home 
for last eight months of his consul- 
ship, V. 240, VII. 474; proposes 
Pompey be made sole consul, v. 
528, Mil. 350 ; made admiral by 
Pompey, 366; wages war on 
Parthians, IX. 148 

Bibulus, L. Calpurnius (2), Porcia's 
son, tells of incident in his mother's 
life, VI. 152, 176 

Bibulus, Publicius, tribune of plebs, 
denounces Marcellus, V. 510 f. 

Billeting, Sulla billets soldiers on 
people of Asia, IV. 406 

Bt'oi TrapaAAijAot, of Plutarch, 
mentioned, I. 2 

Bion, cited re Amazons, I. 58 

Bircenna, Bardyllis' daughter, married 
to Pyrrhus, IX. 368 

Bisaltae, Thracian people to whom 
Pyrrhus sent 1000 settlers, III. 34 

Bisanthe, in Thrace, IV. 106 

Bisternae, Gallic people along Danube, 
stirred up by Pyrrhus, VI. 376; 
send 20,000 men "to aid Pyrrhus; 
on account of his stinginess they 
return, 382 

Bithynia, iv. 80; surrenders to 
Alcibiades property of Chal- 
cedonians, 86, II. 326; ruled by 
Prusias, X. 378; conquered by 
Mithridates, IV. 358; 398; II. 490; 
invaded by Mithridates, 492 ; 502 ; 
510; VIII. 66; held by Glabrio, 
given to Pompey by the Manilian 
law, V.I 90; occupied by Pharnaces, 
VII. 560 ; decreed province of 
Cimber,vi.l68 

Bithys, general of Demetrius II., 
defeats Aratus at Phylacia, XI. 76 

Bito, named by Solon as happy man, 
I. 480 

Blossius of Cumae, philosopher, 
friend of Antipater of Tarsus, said 
to have incited Ti. Gracchus to 



agrarian reform, X. 162, 186; 
pardoned, joined Aristonicus in 
Asia, committed suicide, 192 

Bocchoris, his judgment in case of 
Thonis, IX. 66 

Bocchus (1), king of Numidia, won 
over by Sulla, surrenders Jugurtha 
to Romans, IV. 328, 332, IX. 484; 
called ally of Roman people, and 
set up trophies on Capitol, iv. 336, 
IX. 552 

Bocchus (2), king of Libya, supports 
Antony, IX. 276 

Boedromia, Athenian celebration, 1. 62 

Boedromion, Athenian month, I. 62, 
11.138, 140, 274, VII. 68 

Boeorix, challenges Marius to set 
place and day for battle, IX. 530 

Boeotarchs, laws re their laying down 
command, V. 396 f . ; VII. 44 

Boeotia, settled by Ophelias and his 
subjects, II. 404; at Ceressus con- 
quered Lattamyas and Thessalians, 
138; formed terminus of medising 
part of Greece, 18; traversed by 
Xerxes, 234; 240; gave divine 
honours to Eucleia, 278; III. 56; 
invaded by Tolmides, 58 ; defeated 
Athens at Coroneia, in. 58, IV. 2, 
V. 50 ; IV. 292 ; displeased by Peace 
of Nicias, III. 240; allied with 
Sparta, III. 242, IV. 32 ; defeated 
Athenians, III. 284 ; IV. 90 ; favoured 
Athenian refugees, 308 ; magistrates 
stop sacrifice of Agesilaiis at Aulis, 
IV. 308, V. 16; often invaded by 
Agesilaus, I. 244, V. 46, 72 ; invaded 
by Cleombrotus, V. 66, 372; had 
territorial dispute with Athenians, 
VIII. 164; defeated by Athenians 
under Leosthenes, 196 ; allied with 
Demetrius, IX. 52 ; restless under 
Demetrius, 96 f . ; defeated at 
Chaeroneia by Aetolians, XI. 34 ; 
besieged Megara, X. 28G ; joined 
Romans, 338 ; scene of fighting 
between Sulla and generals of 
Mithridates, IX. 578; occupied 
by Dorylaus, IV. 390 ; II. 494 

Boii, northern people, 1. 142 

Bola, Latin city, taken by Volscians 
under Coriolanus, IV. 186 

Bona Dea, who she was ; how 
worshipped, vn. 128, 152, 462 

Bononia, meeting of Octavianup, 

347 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Antony, and Lepidus near It, 

vil. 200 

Borysthenis, Sphaerus of, X. 52 
Bosporus, held by son of Mithridates, 

IV. 358; v. 196; controlled by 
Mithridates, 214 

Bosporus, possible route of Amazons, 

1.60; V. 206 
" Bottiaea, constitution of," by 

Aristotle, I. 30 
Bottiaeans of Thrace, descendants of 

first-born of Cretans, once sent to 

Delphi, I. 30 
Boukatios, first month of Theban year, 

V. 398 

Boulimia, a disease, theory as to its 

cause, VI. 180 

Roys, Roman, how educated, I. 396 
Boys, Spartan, how educated, I. 254 f ., 

396 

Brachyllas, Theban, X. 336 
Brasidas, son of Argileonis, I. 282 ; 

honoured by Chalcidians, 298; 

slain at Amphipolis, III. 236; IV. 

234; 280 
Brauron, place in Attica where son 

of Ajax resided, I. 428 
Brazen House, see " Athena of," 

and XaAfct'oiKos. 
Brennus, king of Gauls, recognizing 

Q. Ambustus, stops battle, and 

marches against Rome, II. 132 ; 

enters Rome by Colline gate, 146; 

surrounds Capitol with a guard, 

148; agrees to leave country on 

payment of 1000 gold Ibs., 164; 

defeated by Camillus, 166 f.; 

quoted at length, 130; 158; says 

" vae victis," 164 
Bribery, in elections at Rome began 

long after time of Coriolanus, at 

Athens Anytus first to bribe jurors, 

iv. 150; Demosthenes bribed, 

VII. 30; XI. 242 
Bride, Roman, had hair parted with 

spear, 1. 134 
Bridge over Tiber, details concerning, 

1.336 
Briges, Brutus* name for his camp 

servants, VI. 226 
Britanni, Caesar's expedition against 

them, V. 246, VII. 498 
Britomartus, king of Gauls, slain 

by Claudius Marcellus, I. 138, V. 

450 

348 



Brixillum, Italian town on the Po, 

XI. 298 
Bronze-shields, in Perseus' army 

at Pydna, VI. 402 ; IV. 388 
Brundisium, II. 342, IV. 408; occupied 

byPompey, V. 278; 284; VII. 164; 

180; 186; IX. 214; station of 

Octavius' fleet, IX. 278 
Bruttians, attacked by Thuirians, 

VI. 298; slay disgraced mercenaries 

of Timoleon, 332; in. 182; put to 

the sword by Fabius, 184 
Eruttius Sura, defeats Archelalis 

thrice at Chaeroneia, iv. 360 
Brutus (1), a steward, ancestor of 

M. Brutus according to some, 

VI. 126 
Brutus (2), son of the tyrannicide, 

VI. 154 

Brutus, Junius, leader in secession 
of plebs, one of first tribunes, 
IV. 130 

Brutus, D. Junius (Gallaecus), tri- 
umphed over Lusitanians, X. 194 

Brutus Albinus, D. Junius, friend of 
Caesar, IX. 162 ; joins conspiracy 
to murder Caesar, vi. 150, VII. 592 f . ; 
596 ; given province of Cisalpine 
Gaul, VI. 168; his death avenged, 
186 

Brutus, L. Junius, assisted by Publi- 
cola, drove out kings, I. 504 f., 

VII. 584; I. 506; his sons plot to 
restore Tarquins, 508 ; has his sous 
executed, 514; slays Aruns in 
battle, and is slain by him, 522 ; 
ancestor of Brutus, the tyrannicide, 
VI. 126, 144; quoted, I. 514 

Brutus, M. Junius (1), praetor, sent to 
forbid Sulla advancing, IV. 350 

Brutus, M. Junius (2), defeated by 
Pompey, V. 128 f.; father of the 
tyrannicide; holds Cisalpine Gaul 
for Lepidus, surrenders to Pompey 
at Mutina, executed by Geminius, 
152 f. 

Brutus, M. Junius (3), his lineage, 
VI. 126 f.; studied philosophy and 
rhetoric, 2 f., 128 f.; sent to Cyprus 
with Cato, his uncle, 130, VIII. 322 ; 
joins Pompey's party VI. 132 f., V. 
282 ; pardoned by Caesar after 
Pharsalus, VI. 136, VII. 552; put 
in charge of Cisalpine Gaul by 
Caesar, VI. 138; made praetor, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



140, VII. 574; led to conspire 
against Caesar, yi. 144 f . ; lets 
Porcia, his wife, into the secret, 
152 f.; helps murder Caesar, 162, 

VII. 188, 598 ., IX. 164; has 
Antony spared, VI. 164, IX. 166; 
addresses the people, VI. 166, vn. 
600; withdraws from Rome, 604, 
VI. 172, IX. 170; rebukes Cicero 
for supporting Octavius, 174, VII. 

.196, 220; sails for Athens, VI. 
176 ; convicted of murder of Caesar, 
184; meets Cassius at Smyrna, 
188; exacts money of the Lycians, 
192f.; quarrels with Cassius at 
Sardis, 200 f . ; sees a phantom at 
night, 204, VII. 606; defeats 
Octavius at Philippi, VI. 218 f., 
vil. 606, IX. 182- learns of defeat 
and death of Caspius, VI. 224; 
fights again, VI. 234 f.; slays 
himself, 244, VII. 608; statue of 
him at Milan, VI. 256. 

See also V. 154, VII. 190, 586, 

VIII. 410, IX. 168 

Sayings and letters : VI. 130, 
146, 148, 174, 176, 178, 204, 206, 
214 f., 224, 228, 242,244 

Brutus, T. Junius, son of M. J. Brutus 
and Vitellia, plots to restore 
Tarquins, I. 508 f . ; executed by 
his father's order, 514 

Brutus, Ti. Jumus, son of M. J. Brutus 
and Vitellia, plots to restore 
Tarquins, I. 508 f . ; executed by his 
father's order, 514 

" Brutus," account of Caesar's murder 
by Empylus, VI. 128 f . 

Bubulcus, Roman surname, I. 532 

Bucephalas, horse tamed by Alex- 
ander, VII. 23G, 322, 352, 398 

Bucephalia, city on banks of Hydaspes 
built by Alexander in memory of 
Bucephalas, VII. 398 

Bulla, its meaning and use, I. 152, 
vin. 38 

Busiris, sacrificed by Hercules, I. 22 

Butas, Cato the Younger's chief agent 
in public matters, VIII. 404; wrote 
in elegiac verse explanations of 
Roman customs, 1. 158 

Bntes, Persian general, sets fire to 
Elon In Thrace, killing himself, 
II. 422 

Buthrotum, town in Epirus, VI. 182 



Byllis, town in Illyrium, VI. 182 
Byzantium, in. 56, 288; freed of 
"Pausanias by the allies, II. 420 f . ; 
Athenians capture Persians there, 
430 ; revolts from Athens, retaken 
by Alcibiades, IV. 88 f.; attacked 
by Philip, saved by Athenians, 
VII. 40, 244, VIII. 174 ; governed by 
Cato, VII. 170, VIII. 318; VII. 142 



Cabeiri, gods in Samothrace, v. 520 
Cabira, n. 512 ; Mithridates make? 

stand there, 514; taken by 

Lucullus, 524 
Cadmeia (1), sister of Neoptolemus, 

IX. 358 
Cadmeia (2), citadel, I. 66 ; seized by 

Phoebidas in time of peace, V. 64; 

382; VII. 254 
Cadmus, given cow as guide by Apollo, 

IV. 382 
Cadusians, attacked by Artaxerxes, 

XI. 184 
Caecias, a Spanish wind from north, 

VITT. 44 
Oaecilia (1), daughter of Metellus, the 

pontifex maximus, wife of Sulla, 

IV. 342 

Oaecilia (2), mother of Lucullus, II. 470 
Caecilius, wished to denounce Verres, 

VII. 98 

Caecilius (Calactinus), made com- 
parison of Demosthenes and Cicero, 

VII. 6 
Caecilius Metellus, see " Metellus, 

Caecilius." 
Caecina, Vitellius* general, occupying 

Alps, XI. 286 ; repulsed from 

Placentia, 290; defeated before 

Cremona, 292; defeats Otho's 

men, 300 f . 

Caecus, Roman name, iv. 144 
Caedicius, M., reports hearing super- 
natural voice, II. 126, 168 
Oaelius, orator, VII. 174 ; defended by 

Cicero, 212 
Oaeninenses, Sabine people, defeated 

and settled at Rome by Romulus, 

1.136 

Caenum, fortress of Mithridates, V. 212 
Caepio (Servilius), engaged to Julia; 

losing her, promised Pompey's 

daughter, V. 238, VII. 474 
Oaepio, Q. Servilius (1), defeated by 

349 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Cimbri, II. 140, 560, VIII. 6, IX. 504, 
512 

Caepio, Q. Servilius (2), beloved 
brother of Cato the Younger, VIII. 
236, 238, 244; military tribune in 
Servile war, 252; died at Aenus 
in Thrace, 258 

Caesar, exchanges words with Sulla, 
IV. 334 

Oaesar, 0. Julius (1) in danger from 
Sulla, VII. 442; captured by pirates, 
444; studies under Apollonius at 
Rhodes, 446 ; wins popularity as an 
advocate at Borne, 448 ; elected 
military tribune, 450 ; went to 
Spain as quaestor under Vetus, a 
praetor, 452 ; revives party of 
Marius, 454 ; elected pontifex maxi- 
mus, 456; suspected of being 
implicated in Catiline's conspiracy, 
458 ; divorces Pompeia, 4C2 f . ; 
receives Spain as province, has to 
borrow from Crassus, 466 f . ; elected 
consul, 472; gets many popular 
laws passed in spite of opposition 
of his colleague Bibulus, 472 f . ; 
betroths his daughter Julia to 
Pompey, 474 ; subdues Gaul, 476 f . ; 
meeting Pompey, Crassus and 
others at Luca, arranges to have 
his command in Gaul continued 
for five more years, 494; repels 
German invasion, and invades 
Germany, 496 f . ; invades Britain, 
498 ; loses by death his daughter 
Julia, Pompey's wife, 500; sup- 
presses revolt of Gaul, 502 f . ; takes 
Alesia, 506 f . 

Becomes estranged from Pompey, 
510; is not allowed to stand for 
consulship in his absence, 51 2 f.; 
invades Italy, 520 f . ; is deserted 
by Labienus, 526; enters Rome, 
528 ; overcomes Af ranius and Varro, 
Pompey's legates in Spain, 530; 
crosses to Greece, 532 f . ; defeated 
by Pompey, 536; defeats Pompey 
at Pharsalus, 546 f . ; reaches 
Alexandria just after Pompey's 
death, 554; wages war in Egypt, 
556 f . ; defeats Pharnaces at Zela, 
560 ; returns to Rome, 562 ; 
defeats Pompeians at Thapsus, 
566 ; celebrates an Egyptian, a 
Pontic, and an African triumph, 

350 



570; defeats Pompey's sons at 
Munda, 572 ; appointed dictator 
for life, 574 ; by clemency tries to 
disarm opposition, 574 f.; plants 
colonies of veterans at Carthage 
and Corinth, 576; plans new 
enterprises, 576 f.; ad justs calendar, 
578; arouses hatred by desire to 
be king, 580 f . ; refuses diadem 
offered by Antony, 584; is con- 
spired against by Brutus, Cassius, 
and others, 586 f.; assassinated, 
596; his body burned in forum, 602; 
56 years old at death, 604 

See alw III. 334, 354, 356, 360, 
390, 434, V. 178, 232, 236, 238, 240, 
248, 264, 268, 272, 276 f., 280, 284, 
292, 324, VI. 132, 134, 136, 138 f., 
150, 162, 168, 180, VII. 132 f., 138, 
146, 152, 156, 158, 176, 178 f., 186, 
188, 194, 196, VIII. 288, 296 f., 
310 f., 316, 332, 346, 354, 358 f., 
362, 378, 408, IX. 148, 150 f., 160 f., 
170 
His letters mentioned, VII. 556, 

562 
His speeches and poems, vii. 

444 
Anti-Cato, VII. 182, 446, 568, 

VIII. 324, 362, 366 
Commentaries, VII. 496 
Unnamed works, V. 280, 296, 524 
Sayings: III. 332, V. 272, VI. 
138, 140, 142, VII. 182, 456, 466, 
468, 476, 486, 522, 530, 534, 538, 
548, 552, 566, 568, 588, 590, 598 

Caesar, 0. Julius (2), his relations 
with Nymphidia, XI. 224; puts 
T. Vinius in prison, 228; son of 
Germanicus, killed, IX. 332. See 
also I. 140, 154 

Caesar, Claudius, punishes Vinius 
mildly for theft, XI. 228 

Caesar, Lucius (1), kinsman of the 
great Caesar, vm. 396 

Caesar, Lucius (2), Antony's uncle, 
given up to Octavius, VII. 200, IX. 
178; rescued by his sister, 180 

Caesarion, son of Caesar and Cleo- 
patra, VII. 560, IX. 260, 300; 
executed by Octavius, 320 

Caieta, Cicero had lands there, VII. 
204 

Caius, foster brother of Mithridates, 
V. 224 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



" Oaius," name called out at sacrifice 

to Romulus, I. 184 
Calanus, gymnosophist, meets Alex- 
ander and Onesicritus, VII. 244, 
408 ; has himself burned on funeral 
pyre, 416 

Calauria (1), has temple of Poseidon, 
V. 174, vil. 70, 76 ; scene of Demos- 
thenes' death, vin. 210 

Calauria (2), place in Sicily, VI. 336 

" Gale," Indian word of salutation, 
VII. 408 

Calendar, renaming and numbering 
of days of month by Solon, I. 474; 
adjusted by Is r uma, 366; adjusted 
by Caesar, VII. 578; II. 274 

Calends, Roman name for 1st day of 
month, XI. 252; of March, very 
nearly same as 1st of Anthesterion , 
IV. 370; VII. 84 

Calenus, took Megara, VI. 142 ; held 
15 cohorts for Caesar at Athens 
and Megara, VII. 544 

Callaeci, in Spain, conquered by 
Caesar, vil. 468 

Callaeschrus, father of Critias, IV. 96 

Calliades, Athenian, defeated by 
Chalcidians in Thrace, HI. 226 

Callias (1), the Torchbearer, steals 
gold at Marathon, 11. 226; when 
prosecuted, helped by Aristides, 
his kinsman, u. 290; ambassador 
to Persian king, honoured by 
Athenians, 446 

Callias (2), the Rich, son of Hippo- 
nicus, HI. 70 ; said to have married 
Elpinice, u. 414; said to have 
given Hipparete to Alcibiades as 
wife, IV. 20 

Callias (3), the Syracusan, said by 
Ctesibius to have given Demos- 
thenes the rhetorical systems of 
Isocrates and Alcidamas, VII. 12 

Callibius, made harmost at Athens 
by Lysander, IV. 274 

Callicles, son of Arrhenides, VII. 62 

Callicles, money-lender at Athens, 
VIII. 162 

Callicrates (1), Spartan, slain at 
Plataea, II. 266 

Callicrates (2), with Ictinus architect 
of Parthenon, in. 40 

Callicrates (3), Syracusan, slain by 
Lamachus, in. 270 

Callicrates (4), descendant of Anti- 



crates, contemporary of Plutarch, 

V. 98 

Callicratidas, succeeds Lysander in 

Asia, rebuffed by Cyrus, IV. 244; 

defeated in sea-fight at Arginusae, 

248; I. 298, XI. 178 
Callidromus, hill at Thermopylae, u. 

338 
Callimachus (1), rivalled Aristides for 

2nd place at Plataea, II. 386 
Callimachus (2), prolongs defence of 

Amisus, II. 528; defender of 

Nisibis, taken by Lucullus, 578 
Callimachus (3), of Alexandria, cited, 

III. 246, IV. 444, VII. 378 
Callimedon, Athenian orator, joins 

party of Antipater, vil. 66; op- 
poses Phocion, VIII. 206; flees 
from Athens, 220 ; condemned in 
absentia by Athenians, 228 
" Callinicus," a cognomen or epithet, 

IV. 142, IX. 464 

Calliphon, exile, begs Sulla to spare 

Athens, IV. 370 
Callipides, tragic actor, rebuffed by 

Agesilaiis, V. 58 ; IV. 92 
Calippus, host of Dion in Athens, 

VI. 32 ; accompanies Dion to 
Sicily, 60, 118; slew Dion, and 
got possession of Syracuse, exe- 
cuted by Leptines and Polysper- 
chon, III. 260, VI. 114, 286, 462 

Callisthenes (1), Athenian orator, his 
surrender demanded by Alexander, 

VII. 56 

Callisthenes (2), philosopher, relative 
of Aristotle; his experience with 
Alexander, VII. 252 f., IV. 440; 
cited, II. 138, 296, 440, 444, V. 
46, 380, VII. 302, 322 

Callisthenes (3), freedman of Lucul- 
lus, II. 608 

Callistratus (1), orator, gave Demos- 
thenes first notion of becoming 
orator, VII. 10; 32 

Callistratus (2), Mithridates' private 
secretary, II. 522 

Callistus, Caligula's freedman, Nym- 
phidia's father, XI. 224 

Calpurnia, Piso's daughter, J. Caesar's 
wife, V. 238, VII. 474; 590; put 
most of Caesar's treasure in charge 
of Antony, IX. 170 

Calpurnii, descended from Calpus, 
I. 376 



351 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Calpurnius Lanarius, murdered Julius 
Salinator, VLU. 18 

Oalpurnius Piso, see " Piso, Calpur- 
nius." 

Calpus, son of Numa, ancestor of 
Oalpurnii, I. 376 

Calvinus, Gnaeus Domitius, consul, 
V. 256; commanded centre for 
Caesar at Pharsalus, V. 294, VII. 
546; defeated by Pharnaces, flees 
from Pontus, 560 

Calvinus, Lucius (should be Gnaeus 
Domitius), V. 294 

Calvisius (Statianus, C.), companion 
of Octavianus, accuses Antony for 
treatment of Cleopatra, ix. 270 

Oalydonia, ravaged by Aratus, XI. 34 

Oalydonian boar, slain by Meleager 
and Theseus, I. 66 

Camarinaeans, join Dion, VI. 58 

Oambyses, said to have lost 50,000 
men in desert sand, vil. 302 

Camels, first seen by Romans at 
battle of Hhyndacus according to 
Sallust, II. 504 

Cameria, people of, attack Romans, 
are defeated; made colony, I. 166 

Camerinurn, 1000 of its men made 
citizens by Marius for braverv, 
IX. 540 

" Camillus," meaning of word and 
relation to Greek, I. 330, IX. 464 

Camillus, Furius, the offices he held, 
II. 94; defeats Falerians and 
Capenates, 98; appointed dictator, 
defeats Faliscans and Capenates, 
104; takes Veii, 106; celebrates 
splendid triumph, arouses oppo- 
sition, 110; besieges Falerii, 116 f. ; 
arouses opposition by opposing law 
for division of city, goes into exile, 
122; is fined 15,000 asses in 
absentia, 124; leading Ardeans, 
defeats band of Gauls, 152; ap- 
pointed dictator to drive out 
Gauls, 156; routs the Gauls with 
slaughter, 166 

Opposes moving citizens to Veii, 
170; appointed dictator for war 
against Aequians, Volscians, and 
Latins, 176; utterly defeats Latins 
and Volscians, 180; captures city 
of Aequians, brings Volscians to 
terms, 182 ; recaptures Sutrium, 
184; opposed by Marcus Manlius, 

35 2 



made military tribune, 186 ; helps 
In conviction of Manilas, 188; 
with Lucius Furius leads an army 
against Praenestines and Volscians, 
defeats them, 190f.; cows the 
Tusculans, 192 f . ; made dictator 
fifth time to fight Gauls, 198; 
defeats the Gauls, 200 f . ; captures 
Velitrae, 202; dies of plague, 20C. 
See also I. 184, III. 124 

His words quoted, II. 106, 118 

Campania, in. 134; its cities subdued 
by Fabius Maximus, 200; VII. 94; 
146 

Oampanians, desert Timocrates and 
return home, VI. 58 

Campi Philippi, scene of battle where 
Brutus and Oassius were defeated, 
VI. 210 

Campus Martius, II. 196, V. 254, VII. 
116 

Camulatus, soldier, deserts Brutus, 

VI. 236" 

Camurius, soldier, said to have slain 
Galba, XI. 266 

Canethus, father of Sciron, I. 56 

Canicius, G., commands part of slaves, 
defeated by Crassus, III. 346 

Canidius (1), tribune of people, 
proposes that Pompey reconcile 
Ptolemy to people of Alexandria, 
V. 244; Oato's friend, sent to 
Cyprus in advance, vill. 320, 322, 
324; sent by Cato to take charge 
of Ptolemy's treasures, and then 
discarded, VI. 130 

Canidius (2), Antony's general, con- 
quered Armenia, and kings of 
Iberians and Albanians, IX. 214; 
234; 264; leads Antony's land 
forces at Actium, IX. 280, 284; 
ordered by Antony to retire with 
army through Macedonia into Asia, 
290; deserts his army by night, 
292; 300 

Caninius Revilius, consul for one day, 

VII. 576 

Cannae, battle of, III. 146, 160, V. 

456, 500 

Canobie shore, I. 476 
Canobic mouth of Nile, vn. 298 
Canopus, city in Egypt, IX. 338, X. 

132 
Cantharus, harbour of, near Athens, 

Vin. 208 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Oanuleia, vestal appointed by Numa, 

I. 340 

Canus, famous fluter, 33. 238 

Canusium, refuge of Roman fugi- 
tives from Cannae, V. 456; scene 
of battle between Marcellus and 
Hannibal, 506 

Canutius, Greek actor, VI. 172 

Capaneus, character in play of 
Euripides, V. 346 

Capenates, defeated by Camillus, II. 
98, 104, 130 

Caphis, Phocian, sent by Sulla to get 
treasures of Delphi, iv. 362 ; leads 
Hortensius and army safely to 
Sulla, 374 

Caphisias (1), Aratus' friend, XI. 
12 f. 

Caphisias (2), famous fluter, rx. 366 

Caphyae, seized by Aratus, X. 58; 
scene of Aratus' defeat by Aeto- 
lians, XI. 108 

Capito, Fonteius, sent to bring 
Cleopatra to Syria, IX. 216 

Capitol, fortress of early Rome, 
guarded by Tarpeius, betrayed to 
Sabines by Tarpeia, I. 140; 170; 
fortified by Romans against Gauls, 
350, II. 142, m. 168; 1.536; re- 
ceived from Tarentum colossal 
statue of Heracles, had equestrian 
statue of Fabius Maximus in 
bronze, III. 184; burued in Sulla's 
time, IV. 412 

Capitoline Hill, called Tarpeius for a 
time, I. 144, 328; steepest at 
Carmental gate, II. 156 ; scaled by 
Gauls, but saved by sacred geese, 
160 

Capitolinus (0. Scantilius), colleague 
of Marcellus in aedileship, V. 438 

Capitolinus, Q., made dictator, casts 
Manlius into prison, II. 186 

Cappadocia, subdued by Alexander, 

VII. 272 ; assigned to Eumenes, 

VIII. 84; governed by Eumenes, 
86; visited by Marius, IX. 548; 
Sulla sent there, IV. 334 ; conquered 
by Mithridates, 358; 398; II. 486; 
VIII. 66 ; ravaged by Tigranes, 

II. 586; robbed and plundered by 
Lucullus, III. 370; added to 
Pompey's sway by Manilian law, 
V. 190; trumphed over by Pom- 
pey, V. 230, VII. 172; occupied by 



Pharnaces, 560; ruled by Arche- 
lalis, IX. 276 

Cappadocians, II. 614; some trans- 
planted to Tigranocerta, 552 

" Caprarius," derived from "capra." 
I. 532 

Capra tine Nones, see " Nones Capra- 
tine." 

Capua, went over to Hannibal, in. 
168; reduced by Fulvius and 
Appius, 200; X. 214; Norbanus 
shut up there by Sulla, IV. 412 

" Carabus," surname of Callimedon, 
VIII. 206 

Caranus, ancestor of Alexander the 
Great, VII. 224 

Carbo, Gnaeus Papirius (1), defeated 
by Cimbri and Teutones, IX. 504 

Carbo, Gnaeus Papirius (2), perse- 
cutes Sulla's supporters in latter's 
absence, IV. 396; succeeds Cinna, 
V. 126; unsuccessfully opposes 
Sulla's advance on Rome, VIII. 14; 
his cavalry routed by Pompey at 
river Arsis, V. 130; abandons his 
own army and sails off to Libya, 

IV. 418; executed by Pompey, 

V. 136; consul thrice, 138; VI. 190 ; 
his remark re Sulla, IV. 414 

" Career," name of a Roman prison, 

VI. 450 

Cardia, home of Eumenes as a boy, 
vin. 178 

Caria, received colony brought by 
loxus and Ornytus, I. 18; has 
panthers, VII. 174; money to pay 
fleet levied from it by Alcibiades, 
IV. 102; touched by Aratus, XI. 
26 

Carians, called cocks by Persians, 
XI. 148 

Carinas, general of Carbo's faction, 
advances against Pompey, V. 128 

Carmania, traversed by Alexander in 
7 days, VTI. 412 

Carmenta, who or what she was, 

I. 156 

Carmental gate, where Capitoline is 

steepest, II. 156 
Carmentalia, feast for mothers; why 

so called, I. 156 
Oarneades, founder of New Academy, 

II. 606, VII. 88; sent to Rome as 
ambassador, attracts Roman youth 
by his eloquence, II. 368 

353 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Carneius, Syracusan month, same as 
Athenian Metageitnion, ill. 304 

Carnuntini (Carnutes) with Arverni 
lead revolt against Caesar, vil. 504 

Carrhae, near scene of Crassus' de- 
feat, III. 394, 402-408 

Carthage, III. 62, IV. 44; danger to 
Syracuse, VI. 14; nearly taken by 
Agathocles, IX. 388; III. 190; de- 
stroyed by Scipio the Younger, 
II. 380, 596, V. 484, VI. 414, X. 246 ; 
colony founded there by C. Grac- 
chus, 218; II. 578; V. 140; restored 
as colony by Caesar, VII. 576 

Carthage, New, refuge of Sertorius, 
VIII. 18 

Carthaginians, III. 250, VI. 280; 
come to Sicily with large armament, 
286 f ., 302 ; admitted to Syracuse 
by Hicetas, 302 ; assemble great 
force to invade Sicily, 316; de- 
feated by Timoleon at river Crime- 
sus, H. 138, VI. 320-322, 324, 
330; II. 140; made peace with 
Timoleon, VI. 340; refused peace by 
Pyrrhus unless they abandoned 
Sicily, IX. 420, 422 ; attack Pyrrhus 
in the strait, 424 ; at war with 
Masinissa, II. 380 ; III. 162 ; driven 
from Spain by Scipio, 190 

Carvilius, Spurius, first in Rome 
to divorce wife, I. 198, 394 

Caryatides, dancing, on ring of 
Clearchus, XI. 168 

Carystus, city in Euboea, VI. 178 

Casca, P., one of Caesar's murderers, 
VI. 156, 162, VII. 596 ; with Brutus 
at Philippi, VI. 228 

Casilinum, city and district on border 
of Campania, in. 134 

Casinum, town in Latium, III. 134 

Caspian sea, Albanians lived by it, 
II. 554; ill. 428; receives river 
Cyrnus, V. 206 f . ; VII. 352 

Cassander, brother of Pleistarchus 
and Phila, IX. 76 f . ; father of 
Philip, 86; husband of Thessa- 
lonice, father of Antipater and 
Alexander, 360 

Cassander, Antipater's son offends 
Alexander, VII. 428 f . ; appointed 
chiliarch by Antipater before dying ; 
becoming rebellious, sends Xicanor 
to replace Menyllus in Athens, 
VIII. 216; put Demades and his 

354 



son to death, 214, VII. 78; quarrels 
with Polysperchon after death of 
Alexander, VIII. 114, 216; enemy 
of Aeacides, offers 200 talents for 
infant Pyrrhus, IX. 350; 18; 22 ; 
VII. 32; IX. 40; driven out of 
Attica by Demetrius, 52 ; 90 

Cassandra, Priam's daughter, X. 20 

Oassandreia, VII. 56; thither fled 
Demetrius after loss of Macedonia, 
IX. 112 

Cassius, C. Longinus (1), governor of 
Cisalpine Gaul, defeated by Spar- 
tacus, III. 340 

Cassius, C. Longinus (2), of school of 
Epicurus, VI. 206; husband of 
Junia, Brutus' sister, rival of Brutus 
for office of city praetor, 140, VII. 
574, 586 f.; with Crassus on 
Parthian expedition, III. 370, 374, 
380, 384, 402, 406, 408, VI. 140; 
plans Caesar's murder, 126, 136, 
140, 142 f., 156 ; murders Caesar, 
V. 154, VI. 160, VII. 188, 596, IX. 
164; 168, VI. 168; prosecuted by 
M. Agrippa for murder of Caesar 
and condemned, 184 ; meets Brutus 
at Smyrna, 186; takes Rhodes, 
192; 198; quarrels with Brutus 
at Sardis, 200, 210; 212; defeated 
at Philippi, slays himself, 224, VII. 
604, IX. 182 f. 

Quoted : VI. 144, 146, 192, 206, 
214, 224 

Cassius, Q. Longinus, with Antony 
flees to Caesar, IX. 1 50 

Cassius Scaeva, soldier of Caesar's 
at battle of Dyrrhachium, VII. 480 

Castor, hymn played to him as 
Lacedaemonians marched to battle, 
I. 274; like Pollux in sculpture, 
and yet different, X. 146. See also 
" Dioscuri " and " Tyndaridae." 

Castulo, city of the Celtiberians, 
vill. 6 

Castus, commands part of slaves, 
defeated by Crassus, III. 346 

Catana, in Sicily, in. 162, 264, 266, 
IV. 52, V. 520, VI. 122, 290, 304, 
342 

Cataonia, district in Cappadocia, IX. 
120 

Catiline, Lucius, his character and 
acts, defeated for consulship, VII, 
106 f ., iv. 430 ; his conspiracy. 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



VII. 456 f ., VIII. 286 f . ; Crassus and 
Caesar inculpated by Cicero, in. 
352; defeated and slain by Anto- 
nius, VII. 136. See also VI. 134 f., 
VII. 116, 152 

" Cato," a 3rd Koman name, IX. 
464 

" Cato," work written by Cicero, 
VII. 446, 568 

Cato, grandfather of Cato the Elder, 
II. 302 

Cato, M. Porcius (1), father of Oato 
the Elder, II. 302 

Cato, M. Porcius (2), the Elder, 
lineage, appearance, character, n. 
302 f . ; served under Fabius Maxi- 
mus at capture of Tarentum, 308; 
enters public life at Rome, 310; 
goes to Africa as Scipio's quaestor, 
objects to his extravagance, 310 f . ; 
his manner of life, 312 f.; his 
oratory, 320 f . ; elected consul 
with Valerius Flaccus, wins suc- 
cesses in Hither Spain, 330 f.; 
celebrates triumph, 334; serves 
under M'. Acilius against Antiochus 
the Great, 334; busy in prosecu- 
tions, 342 f . ; his activity as censor, 
346 f . ; erected Basilica Porcia, 
356 ; a good family man, 360 f . ; 
his treatment of his slaves, 314 f ., 
364 f.; goes into business, 366 f.; 
opposes Greek learning, 368 f . ; 
marries again late in life, 374; 
composed speeches, histories, and 
a book on farming, 378 ; brought 
about destruction of Carthage, 
380 f . ; died, leaving son Salonius, 
384 

See also VIII. 236, 246, X. 372 f. 
His writings cited : II. 302, 
304, 308, 314, 318, 330, 342, 352, 
358, 360, 364, 366, 370; book of 
recipes, 372, 376; speeches, his- 
tories, work on farming, 378 

Sayings: II. 306, IV. 132; II. 
322-328; 332; 344; 358; 374; 376; 
382; 384; V. 340 

Cato, M. Porcius (3), Licinianus, son 
of Cato the Elder, fought brilliantly 
at Pydna, married Tertia, daughter 
of Aemilius Paulas, II. 362 f., 374, 
VI. 366, 410; died, II. 374, 376 

Cato, M. Porcius (4), Salonius (Salo- 
uianus), son of Cato the Elder and 



Salonia, II. 376; father of Marcus, 
died in praetorship, 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (5), grandson of 
Cato the Elder, 11. 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (6), son of Salonius, 
became consul, grandfather of Cato 
the philosopher, n. 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (7), the Younger, 
his lineage and character as a boy, 
VIII. 236-244; studies Stoic philo- 
sophy with Antipater the Tyrian, 
244 ; his first speech in the forum, 
246; his manner of life, 248f. ; 
marries Atilia, daughter of Ser- 
ranus, 250; takes part in Servile 
war, 252 ; goes to Macedonia as 
military tribune, 254; winsAtheno- 
dorus the Stoic, 256; makes tour 
of Asia, 260 f . ; serves as quaestor, 
268-278; opposes Clodius, 278; 
prosecutes Murena for bribery, 
284; advocates death penalty for 
Catilinarian conspirators, 286 f . ; 
unfortunate with women of his 
household, 290 f . ; opposes Metellus 
and Pompey, 296 f.; rejects mar- 
riage alliance with Pompey, 306 f . ; 
opposes Pompey and Caesar, 310 f . ; 
is sent to Cyprus and court of 
Ptolemy, 318 f.; returns success- 
ful, 326 f . 

Opposes Cicero's proposal to 
make invalid acts of Clodius as 
tribune, 330; supports Lucius 
Domitius for consul against Pompey 
and Crassus, 332 ; fails to be elected 
praetor, 336; opposes Crassus and 
Pompey, 338; is elected praetor, 
340 ; approves of Pompey being 
made sole consul, 350; fails to be 
elected consul, 356 ; proposes that 
Caesar be surrendered to the 
Germans, 358; joins Pompey at 
Dyrrhachium, is sent to Asia, 364; 
arouses Pompey's soldiers by his 
speech, 368 ; joins Sextus Pompeius 
in Libya, 370; meets Juba, 372; 
strengthens Utica for defence, 376 ; 
receives news of Thapsus, 378; 
helps fugitives leave Utica, 394; 
refuses to ask mercy of Caesar, 
396 ; commits suicide, 406 

See also II. 384, 606, 608, III. 
334, 354, 358, 426, 430, 434, V. 
218, 228, 236, 238, 240, 250, 256, 

355 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



264, 272, 274, 282, 288, VI. 128, 
130, 134, VII. 132 f., 138, 168, 170, 
176, 180, 212, 458, 460, 472, 474, 
496, 512, 540, 562, 568, VIII. 150 f., 
IX. 150 

Sayings : II. 600, VIII. 246, 254, 
262, 264, 290, 308, 318, 324, 342, 
346, 354, 358, 360, 392, 394, 396, 
398, 400 f. 

Cato, M. Porcius (8), son of Cato the 
Younger, pardoned by Caesar, slain 
at Philippi, VIII. 408 f ., VI. 236 f . 

Gatulus, Q. Lutatius (1), consul with 
Marius in latter's 4th consulship, 
IX. 500 f . ; gives important tasks 
to Sulla, IV. 332 ; forced to retreat 
by Cimbri, IX. 522 f.; joined by 
Marius, 526; led centre at Vercel- 
lae, 530 ; wrote of Vercellae, 534 f . ; 
triumphs with Marius, 538; com- 
mits suicide, 590 

Catulus, Q. Lutatius (2), elected 
consul with Lepidus, IV. 434, V. 
150 f . ; won war against Lepidus 
according to Lucullus, 196; conse- 
crated 2nd temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus, I. 540; V. 156; op- 
poses Gabinian law, 178; opposes 
Manilian law, 192 ; when censor 
reproved by Cato, VIII. 270; vn. 
132; 456; attacks Caesar's proposal 
re Catiliuarian conspirators, 458 ; 
ancestor of S. Galba, XI. 210; 
quoted, vil. 156, 454. See also III. 
354 

" Catulus," illustrious Roman name, 
VII. 82 

" Catus," means wise and prudent, 

II. 302 

Caucasus mountains, II. 512, V. 204, 

208 
Caulonia, city in Italy, in. 182, VI. 

56 
Caunians, how some escaped pirates, 

III. 308; in army of Artaxerxes 
when Cyrus was slain, XI. 150, 154, 
158 

Caunus, city in Caria, IX. 124 
Cebalinus, reveals plot of Limnus to 

Alexander, VII. 364 
Cecrops, I. 196 

Celaenae, in Phrygia, VIII. 102, IX. 16 
" Celer," why surname of a Metellus, 

I. 118, IV. 142 
Celer, companion of Romulus, slew 

356 



Remus according to one account, 

I. 116 

Celer, Q. Caecilius Metellus, how he 
got surname " Celer," I. 118, IV. 
142; put in charge of outside 
affairs by Cicero during trouble 
with Catiline, VII. 118; husband of 
Clodia, 154 

Celeres, origin of name, I. 116 ; 
attendants of Romulus, 170; dis- 
banded by Numa, 328 

Celsus, Clodius, of Antioch, friend 
of Nymphidius, XI. 232 

Celsus, Marius, faithful to Q-alba, 
spared by Otho, XI. 268; 276; in 
command of part of Otho's forces, 
288 : outgenerals Caecina at battle 
of Cremona, 292, 294, 298, 304 f., 
306 f . 

Celtiberians, neighbours of Gauls, 

II. 126; receive 200 talents to 
become Cato the Elder's allies, 
II. 330; warred on by Scipio 
Africanus, IX. 468; those in 
Castulo defeated by Sertorius, vni. 
8 

Celtorians, neighbours of Gauls, II. 
126 

Cenchreae, harbour-town of Corinth, 
where Thebans defeat Athenians, 
V. 398; captured by Demetrius, 
IX. 54, XI. 52; 64; 102 

Censor, his powers and duties, II. 
346, VI. 454; Cnmillus censor, II. 
96 ; Cato the Elder and Valerius 
Flaccus, 310, 350; Crassus and 
Lutatius Catulus, III. 352; Cen- 
sorinus twice, IV. 118; Gellius and 
Lentulus, V. 168; Aemilius Paulus 
and Marcius Philippus, VI. 454; 
Lutatius Catulus, VIII. 270; Ti. 
Gracchus the Elder, X. 144; 
Flamininus and M. Claudius Mer- 
cellus, 372; Cato the Elder, 374 

Censorinus (1), twice censor, intro- 
duced law forbidding this, IV. 
118 

Censorinus (2), 0. Marcius, brings 
suit against Sulla for bribery, IV. 
336 

Censorinus (3), accompanies Crassua 
against Parthians, III. 390, 396 

Censorinus (4), L. Marcius, left in 
charge of Greece by Antony, IX. 
186 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Census, at Athens, I. 450, in. 108 ; at 

Rome, VI. 454, VII. 570 
Centaurs, begotten of cloud by 

Ixion, X. 2 ; at war with Lapithae, 

I. 66 f., 190 
Ceos, island, II. 8; has small part 

called lulis, VII. 2; sends settlers 

to Gela, VI. 344 

Cephalo, friend of Aratus, XI. 118 f. 
Cephalus, summoned from Corinth 

by Timoleon to establish civil 

polity of Syracuse, VI. 320 
Cephisodorus, friend of Pelopida?, 

slain by Leontidas, V. 368 
Cephisodotus, sculptor, related to 

Phpciou, VIII. 188 
Cephisus river, receives river Assus, 

IV. 378, 382, 392, VII. 44, 244 
Ceramicus, II. 416, IV. 368, 370, 

VIII. 224. 

Ceraunian mountains, VIII. 210 
Cerberus, Aldoneus' dog, killed Peiri- 

thoiis, I. 72 ; delivered to Heracles 

by Cora, in. 210 
Cercina, island off Africa, VI. 52, ix. 

578 
Cercyon, Arcadian, slain by Theseus, 

I. 22, 66 

Cereatae, see " Cirrhaeton." 
Ceres, I. 162; festival of, in. 170 
Ceressus, where Thebans defeated 
Lattamyas and Thessalians, II. 
138 
Cethegus, Cornelius (1), deposed from 

priesthood, V. 446 

Cethegus, Cornelius (2), companion 
of younger Marius, IX. 574; in 
control of Rome, induced to help 
Lucullus get province of Cilicia, 

II. 486 f . ; takes part in conspiracy 
of Catiline, VII. 120, 124, 126, 458, 
vni. 286; executed, vn. 134 f., 
158 

Chabrias, Athenian, father of Ctesip- 
pus, VII. 36; his character; won 
sea-fight off Naxos, II. 138, vm. 
156160; commands fleet under 
Tachos the Egyptian, V. 104 

Chaeron (1), sou of Thuro, founded 
Chaeroneia, IV. 382 

Chaeron (2), of Megalopolis, sent to 
Delphi by Philip of Macedon, vn. 
228 

Chaerondas, archonship of, vil. 58 

Chaeroneia, founded by Chaeron, IV. 



382 ; settled by people from 
Thessaly led by Peripolitas, IL 
404; I. 64; Plutarch's native town, 
vn. 44; Philip defeats Greeks 
there, II. 138, V. 384, VII. 46 f., 
244; Aetolians defeat Boeotians, 
XI. 34; Bruttius Sura repulses 
Archelaus, IV. 360 ; 378; 382; Sulla 
defeats Mithridates 1 generals, n. 
480, 504, IV. 382 f.; 11.406 

Chaeroneians, fight for Sulla at battle 
of Chaeroneia, IV. 384 

Chalcaspides, in Mithridates' army, 
IV. 378. See also " Bronze-shields." 

Chalcedon, attacked by Alcibiades, 
IV. 84 f.; handed over to Athens 
by Pharnabazus, 88; II. 492, 496; 
Cotta besieged there, 494 

Chalcidians, I. 298 ; their Hippobotae 
banished by Pericles, III. 66 ; 
defeat Calliades and Xenophon, 
Athenian generals in Thrace, 226; 
X. 366 f . 

Chalcidice, VII. 20 

Chalcis, city in Euboea, IV. 388, 390, 
302, 354, X. 354, 366 f . 

Chalcodon, Elphenor's father, I. 80; 
chapel of, in Athens, 62 

Chaldaeans, II. 610; subdued by 
Lucullus, 526; IX. 582; XI. 256 

XaAjaoiKo?, temple of Athena at 
Sparta, I. 218, X. 26, 36 

Chalkous, an Athenian thief, VII. 28 

Chameleon, cannot turn white, IV. 62 

Chaonians, under command of 
Ptolemy, IX. 440 

Characitani, Spanish people, defeated 
by Sertorius, VHI. 42 f . 

Chares (1), Athenian, V. 344, VII. 
214, VIII. 154; fails at Hellespont, 
174; defeated Persians, XI. 34 

Chares (2), of Mitylene', cited, VII. 
280, 294, 356, 380, 384, 418, VIII. 
184 

Chares river, scene of battle between 
Aratus and Aristippus, XI. 62 

Charicles (1), mentioned by comic 
poet Telecleides, III. 220 

Charicles (2), son-in-law of Phocion, 
intimate with Harpalus, brought to 
trial, VIII. 192 f.; 220 ; condemned 
to death in absentia by Athenians, 
228 

Chariclo, wife of Sciron, mother of 
Peleus and Telauiou, I. 20 

357 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Charidemus, vin. 4; proposed for 

general at Athens after Chaeroneia, 

178, 182, VII. 56 
Charilaiis, posthumous son of Poly- 

dectes, brother of Lycurgus, I. 

210 f., X. 250, I. 218; concurred in 

measures of Lycurgus, X. 70 ; 

quoted, I. 266 
Charillus, see " CharilaUs." 
Charimenes, seer, joins plot to kill 

Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos, 

XI. 56 
Charinus, proposes decree against 

Megarians, III. 86 

Oharmion, waiting-woman of Cleo- 
patra, IX. 274, 326 f. 
Charmus, boy lover of Peisistratus, 

1.406 
Charon (1), Theban, conspirator with 

Pelopidas, V. 354, 360 f ., 366 ; 

elected boeotarch, 370; led Theban 

cavalry at Plataea, 400 
Charon (2), of Lampsacus, cited, II. 

72 

Charonitae, what they were, IX. 170 
Charops, son of Machatas, X. 330 
Cheileos, Arcadian, helps Themisto- 

cles, II. 18 

Cheimarrus, see " Babvca." 
" Cheirons," see " Cratinus." 
Chelidonian isles, II. 440; western 

limit for Persian navy after Eury- 

medon, 444 
Chersonese, Thracian, conquered by 

Cimon and turned over to Athens, 

II. 446 ; received 1000 settlers from 

Pericles, III. 34, 58, VIII. 174; 

ravaged by Demetrius, X. 74: II. 

482 

Chersonese, Syrian, Demetrius ban- 
ished there, IX. 128, 132 
Chians, offer leadership to Aristides, 

II. 284, 440, IV. 26; revolt from 

Athens, 66 
Chilo, slave and school-teacher of 

Cato the Elder, II. 360 
Chiloras (1), daughter of Leotychides, 

wife of Cleonymus, IX. 434," 438 
Chilonis (2), daughter of Leonidas, 

wife of Cleombrotus, X. 36 f. 
Chios, Chabrias died there, vm. 156; 

II. 478 

Chlidon, Theban, V. 358 
Choeac, month in Egyptian calendar, 

I. 122 

358 



Choerilus, poet in retinue of Lysander, 

IV. 280 f . 
Cholargus, deme of Pericles, ill. 6; 

of Xenocles, 40; of Hipparchus, 

250 
Choregus, Themistocles won as c. 

with Phrynichus as poet, II. 16 ; 

Aristides victorious as, 212 ; kings 

of Cyprus act as, vil. 308 
Chorus, dithyrambic, vil. 308 
" Chreocopidae," name given Solon's 

friends for sharp practice, I. 446 
Chrysa, place at Athens, I. 62 
Chrysantes, character in Xenophon 

(Cyrop. IV. 1, 3), v. 528 
Chrysermus, father of a certain 

Ptolemy, X. 130 
Chrysippus, cited, XI. 2 
Chrysis, mistress of Demetrius, IX. 54 
Chrysogonus (1), Pythian victor, 

IV. 92 

Chrysogonus (2), freedman of Sulla, 
accuses Boscius of murder, vil. 
86 f. 

Chthonian Earth, temple of, at 
Hermione, plundered by pirates, 

V. 174 

Cicer, Latin for chick-pea, VII. 82 
Cicero, how first bearer of name got 

it, VII. 82 

Cicero, M. Tullius (1), his race and 
name, VII. 82 ; studied until Sulla 
became master, 86 ; defended 
Rosciup, heard Antiochus of Asca- 
lon, 88 f . ; studied oratory with 
Xenocles, Dionysius, Apollonius ; 
philosophy with Poseidonius, 90 f . ; 
weak in delivery at first, 92 ; 
quaestor in Sicily, 82, 94; prose- 
cuted Verres, 98 f . ; his wife and 
property, 100 ; courted by the 
great, elected praetor, 102 ; defends 
Manlius, 104 

Elected consul to oppose Cati- 
line, 106; wins Antonius' support 
by giving him province of Mace- 
donia, secures defeat of bill to 
appoint decemvirs, 110 f.; secures 
defeat of Catiline for consul, 114 f . ; 
given by senate unlimited power 
to preserve state, 118, III. 354 f.; 
his life threatened by Marcius and 
Cethegus, he denounces Catiline 
in senate, and latter leaves citv, 
VII. 120 ; has to deal with Lentulus 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



and other plotters in city, 122 f . ; 
reveals to senate evidence against 
Lentulus and others, 126 f.; hears 
Silvanus, Caesar, Cato and others, 
speak in senate regarding punish- 
ment of conspirators, 130 f., 456 f., 
Till. 290; has Lentulus and Cethe- 
gus executed, yii. 134, ix. 140; 
called father of his country, becomes 
vainglorious, II. 596, VII. 138 f . 

Hated by Clodius and others, 
150 f.; driven into exile, 156 f., 
II. 608, V. 234, 240, VIII. 318; 
with help of Pompey is recalled, 
VII. 168, V. 244 ; in attempting to 
annul acts of Clodius as tribune, is 
opposed by Cato, VII. 168, VIII. 
330; defends Milo for killing 
Clodius, VII. 170 ; elected augur, 
given Cilicia as province, 172 ; 
on return attempts to reconcile 
Pompey and Caesar, 174, 518, 
V. 270; joins Pompey in Greece, 
VII. 176, V. 282; offered command 
of Pompey's fleet after Pharsalus, 
refuses, VII. 180, vm. 370 ; received 
kindly by Caesar, VII. 182; retires 
to study philosophy and write; 
proposes honours for Caesar, 184, 
574; plans writing history of 
Rome, divorces Terentia, 186; 
not informed of plot to murder 
Caesar, 188, VI. 148 

After murder of Caesar, proposes 
amnesty in senate, vil. 190; fears 
Antony, 192 ; helps Octavius get 
support of senate and people, 194, 
IX. 172; rebuked by Brutus for 
supporting Octavius, VI. 174, VII. 
196; has Antony driven out of 
city, and Octavius given power 
of praetor, 198, IX. 174; betrayed 
by Octavius and proscribed, VI. 
18C, VII. 200, IX. 178; slain, 180, 
VII. 206 

See also V. 274, VI. 172, 184, 
VII. 82, 448, VIII. 310, 314, IX. 158 
Letters cited : 

Ad Att. (II. 1. 8), VIII. 150; 
(vil. 11), V. 280; (vm. 7. 2), 
VII. 176 

Ad Fam. (n. 10. 2 f . and 11. 
2), VII. 174 

To irorgias, VII. 142 

To Herodes, VII. 142 



To Pelops of Byzantium, vil. 

142 
Unidentified letters, V. 226, 

VII. 140, 184 
Other works cited : 
Acad. Prior. II. (Lucullus), II. 

606; (II. 38. 119), VII. 140 
Brutus (31. 121), vil. 140 
Cato, VII. 446, 568 
De Consulatu Suo, in. 352, 

VII. 460 
De Divinatione (I. 26. 56), X. 

198 ; (I. 46. 103), VI. 380 
De Senectute (12. 42), n. 352, 

X. 374 

In Catil. (I. 5. 10), VII. 120 
In Pisonem (29. 72 f.), vil. 

214 
Philipp., vn. 206 ; (II. 22. 55), 

IX. 150, 158 
Philosophical dialogues, VII. 

184, 210 

Pontius Glaucus, VII. 84 
Pro Caelio (12. 28), VII. 212 
Pro Milone, VII. 172 
Pro Murena, VII. 170, 212, 

vm. 284 

Pro Plancio, VII. 94 f . 
Sayings : II. 602, VII. 98 f., 104, 
134, 140, 144 f., 156, 178 f., 450, 
580, VIII. 248 

Cicero, M. Tullius (2), son of the 
orator, joins Brutus' forces, VI. 
178, VII. 198; defeats C. Antonius, 
VI. 182 ; chosen colleague in consul- 
ship by Octavianus, VII. 208 
Cicero, Q. Tullius, brother of the 
orator, vil. 130, 166; attacked by 
Gauls, rescued by Caesar, 502 ; 
with his son proscribed and exe- 
cuted, 202 

Cilicia, n. 84, rv. 252; allotted to 
Pleistarchus, Cassander's brother, 
IX. 76 ; occupied by Demetrius, 78 ; 
invaded by Seleucus, 120 ; governed 
by Octavius, who dies and is suc- 
ceeded by Lucullus, II. 486 f., 544; 
taken from Tigranes by Lucullus, 
V. 202; 182; given Pompey by 
Manilian law, 190, 230; governed 
by Cicero, VII. 172; ix. 218; 
276 

Cilicians, join Sertorius, VIII. 18, 22 
Cilician ships, defeated by Cimon, 
II. 462 



359 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES ' 



Cilles, Ptolemy's general, defeated 
by Demetrius, IX. 14 

Cimber, Tillius, petitions Caesar, 
vil. 596 

Cimbri, invade Italy, and destroy 
Oaepio's army, II. 140, 560, 
VIII. 6, IX. 488; 496; 502; force 
Catulus to retreat, 526; defeated 
by Marius at Vercellae, 530, II. 
596, VII. 454 

Cimmerians, said to be same as 
Cimbri, IX. 490 

Cimon (1), grandfather of the famous 
Cimon, dubbed Coalemus, II. 412 

Oimon (2), compared with Lucullus, 
II. 410; his family and character, 
41 2 f . ; his appearance ; serves 
with distinction against Persians, 
418 f., 282 ; takes command of 
allies, captures Elon from Persians, 
422 ; seized Scyros, found Theseus' 
bones, 426 f., I. 84: very generous 
to citizens, II. 432 f . ; incorruptible, 
popular with allies, 436 f.; cleared 
Asia of Persian arms from Ionia 
to Pamphylia, 438 f . ; defeats 
Persians at Eurymedon, 440 f.; 
makes Persia accept humiliating 
peace, 444 

Beautifies Athens, 446; ac- 
quitted on charge of being bribed 
by Alexander, King of Macedonia, 
448, III. 30; popular with Sparta, 
II. 452, 56; ostracized for helping 
Sparta, 466, III. 26; recalled, 28, 
II. 458 ; sails against Egypt and 
Cyprus, 460 f . ; dies besieging 
Oitium, 464, III. 32 

See also II. 14, 66, 84, 244, 292, 
316, III. 14, 18, 26, 82, 198, 204, 
VII. 32. 

Sayings : II. 436, 452, 456 

Cimonian funeral monuments, II. 
466 

Cineas (1), father of Thallus, vm. 
172 

Cineas (2), Thessalian, pupil of 
Demosthenes; urges Pyrrhus not 
to go to aid of Tarentuin, IX. 384; 
sent to Tarentuin with 3000 
soldiers, 388, 392 ; sent by Pyrrhus 
on embassy to Rome, 402; 406; 
408; sent on second embassy to 
Rome, 412 ; sent ahead to Sicily, 
418 

360 



Cingonius Varro, see " Varro, Cin- 
gonius." 

Cinna, L. Cornelius (1), father of 
Cornelia, once supreme at Rome, 
VII. 122, 442; bribes L. Terentius 
to slay Pompey, V. 122, 124; 
permitted by Sulla to be elected 
consul, IV. 356 ; supports Marius, 
vin. 10; defeated by Octavius in 
the forum, 12, IX. 578; joined by 
Marius, 580; enters Rome with 
bodyguard, 584 ; drives Crassus to 
Spain, III. 322 ; assassinated 
Octavius, IV. 364; 396; IX. 586; 
has Bardyaei Flam, 590, VI. 190; 
slain by centurion, V. 126, vm. 
12 f., in. 326 

Cinna, L. Cornelius (2), cowed when 
he starts to denounce Caesar, VI. 
166, 170, VII. 602; gives Brutus 
500 horsemen, VI. 180 

Cinna, poet, friend of Caesar, killed 
in mistake by mob, VI. 170 ,VII. 602 

Circe, mother of Romanus by Odys- 
seus, I. 92 

Circeii, Roman colony, surrenders to 
Coriolanus, IV. 184, IX. 562 

Circeium, promontory of Latium, vil. 
202, 578 

Circus Maximus, has altar of god 
Census hid underground, I. 128, 
154 

Circus Flaminius, II. 592, V. 510, X. 
322 

Cirrha, I. 302 ; outraged oracle of 
Delphi, 428 

Cirrhaeton(Cereatae ?), village in terri- 
tory of Arpinum, IX. 468 

Cissus, announces absconding of 
Harpalus to Alexander, vil. 346 

Cissusa, spring where infant Dionysus 
bathed, IV. 312 

Cithaeron, mountain, had cave of 
Sphragitic nymphs, II. 246, 248, 
252, IV. 310, VII. 56 

Cithaeronian Hera, II. 246 

Citiaeans, vil. 322 

Citium, besieged by Cimon who died 
there, II. 464, 466, X. 52 

Cius, revenue of, offered Phocion by 
Alexander, VIII. 186 

Clarius, river in Cyprus, I. 476 

Claros, sanctuary of, V. 174 

Clastidium, battle of, in which 
Marcellus routs Gaesatae, V. 448 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Claudia, daughter of Appius Claudius, 
wife of Ti. Gracchus, X. 150 

Claudian family, descended from 
Appius Clausus, a Sabine, I. 558 

" Claudius," surname from physical 
characteristic, IV. 144 

Claudius, Appius, see " Appius 
Claudius." 

Claudius, M., father of M. Claudius 
Marcellus, V. 436 

Claudius Caesar (Ti. Claudius Drusus 
Nero Germanicus), son of Drusus 
and Antonia, became emperor, 
married Agrippina and adopted h^r 
son L. Domitius, giving him name 
Nero Germanicus, IX. 332, XI. 228, 
252 

Claudius Marcellus, see " Marcellus, 
Claudius." 

Clausus, Appius, see " Appius 
Clausus." 

Clazomenae, III. 254, IV. 80 

Cleaenetus, Cleomedon's son, dis- 
graced himself, IX. 56 

Cleander, of Mantineia, reared Philo- 
poemen, X. 256 

Cleandridas, father of Gylippus, in. 
66 ; bribed by Pericles, 64 

Cleanthes (1), cited, IV. 14 

Cleanthes (2), freedman and physician 
of Cato the Younger, VIII. 404 

Clearchus (1), Macedonian, sent on 
embassy to Thebes, vn. 42 

Clearchus (2), ordered by Spartans 
to help Cyrus, XI. 138; fought at 
Cunaxa, 142 f.; seized and exe- 
cuted by Artaxerxes, 166 f. 

Cleidemus, cited, I. 38, 62, II. 30, 272 

Cleinias (1), friend of Solon, I. 444 

Cleinias (2), father of Alcibiades, 
fought at Artemisium, slain at 
Coroneia, IV. 2, 60 

Oleinlas (3), chief magistrate of 
Sicyon, father of Aratus, slain by 
Abantidas, XI. 4 

Cleisthenes, grandfather of Agariste, 
expelled Peisistratidae, established 
constitution, II. 214, 450, III. 6 

Cleitarchus, cited, n. 72, VII. 356 

Cleitomachus, teacher of Philo the 
Academic, Ml. 86, 90 

Cleitor, woman of, wife of Cimon, 
II. 450 

Cleitorians, outwitted by Soils, I. 
208 



Cleitus (1), saves Alexander's life at 
battle of Granicus, vn. 266; 
murdered by Alexander, 258, 368- 
374 

Cleitus (2), brings Phocion and his 
party to Athens for trial, VIII. 
224 

Cleitus (3), Brutus' servant, refuses 
to slay him, VI. 242 

Clemency, temple of, decreed, VII. 
574 

Cleobis, named by Solon as happy 
man, I. 480 

Cleocritus, Corinthian, at battle of 
Salamis, II. 236; 274 

Cleodaeus, son of Hyllus, father of 
Lanassa, IX. 346 

Cleomantis, Lacedaemonian, sooth- 
sayer with Alexander, vn. 368 

Cleombrotus (1), younger brother of 
Agesipolis, succeeds to throne of 
Sparta, X. 8; sent into Boeotia 
with army, V. 66, 370; sent again, 
78 ; defeated and slain at Leuctra, 
78, 394, IV. 452, X. 48 

Cleombrotus (2), son-in-law of Leo- 
nidas, made king of Sparta, X. 26 ; 
with Agis replaces ephors, 28; 
pardoned by Leonidas, 36-40 

Cleomedes, of Astypaleia, disappeared 
like Romulus, I. 180 

Cleomedon, father of Cleaenetus, IX. 
56 

Cleomenes (1), one of 5 Spartan 
arbitrators, I. 428 

Cleomenes (2), son of Cleombrotus, 
king of Sparta after his brother 
Agesipolis, had 2 sons, Acrotatus 
and Cleonymus, X. 8 f . 

Cleomenes C3), son of Leonidas, 
marries Agiatis, widow of Agis, 
X. 50; studies philosophy with 
Sphaerus of Borysthenis, succeeds 
Leonidas as king, 52 ; decides to 
change order of things, 54; sent 
by ephors to occupy precinct of 
Athena at Belbina, 56; defeats 
Aratus near Mt. Lycaeum, 58, XI. 
82 ; defeats Aratus and Lydiades 
at Megalopolis, 82 f ., X. 60 f . ; has 
ephors slam, 66, XI. 86; restores 
constitution of Lycurgus, X. 68 f . 

Devastates land of Megalopolis, 
74 : his manner of life, 76 f . ; takes 
Mantineia, defeats Achaeans at 



361 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Dyme, 78 f., XI. 90; demands 
leadership of Achaeans, X. 80 f . ; 
repeats demand at 2nd conference, 
is insulted by Aratus, 84 f., XI. 
90; takes Argos, X. 88, XI. 90; 
joined by Cleonae, Phlius and other 
cities, X. 90 ; gets Corinth, 90, XI. 
92 f . ; repeats demand for leader- 
ship of Achaeans, promises Aratus 
yearly pension of 12 talents, 96, 

X. 92 ; checks Antigonus, 92 ; 
loses Corinth and Argos, 96, XI. 
102; takes Megalopolis, X. 102, 
264; defeated by Antigonus at 
Sellasia, goes to Egypt, 112-122, 

XI. 106; put in detention, X. 130; 
breaks out of prison, 134; slays 
himself; had been king of Sparta 
16 years, 136 

His words quoted : X. 56, 72, 
78, 104, 116, 120, 128, 134 

Cleomenes (4), Athenian orator, IV. 
270 

Cleon (1), attacks Pericles, III. 96, 
102; opposed by Nicias, '212; his 
methods, 214, 222, X. 148; his 
connection with Pylos affair, HI. 
230 f ., 234 ; slain 'at Amphipolis, 
236; aped later by Stratocles, IX. 
26; quoted, Til. 232 

Cleon (2) of Halicarnassus, his speech 
on changing the constitution of 
Sparta memorized by Lysander, 
IV. 302, 318, V. 54 

Cleon (3) of Sicyon, murdered, XI. 4 

Cleonae, taken by Corinth, II. 456 ; 
scene of Hypereides' execution, 
VII. 70, VIII. 210; brought into 
Achaean League by Aratus, XI. 
64 ; goes over to Cleomenes, X. 90 

Cleonaeans, with Argives fight Corin- 
thians, II. 268 

Cleonice, of Byzantium, slain by 
Pausanias, 11/420 

Cleonides, Ptolemy's general, offered 
bribe by Demetrius to free Sicyon 
and Corinth, IX. 34 

Cleonymus (1), son of Sphodrias, 
intercedes for his father, V. 70; 
slain at Leuctra, 80 

Cleonymus (2), the Agiad, father of 
Leonidas, did not become king of 
Sparta, X. 8 f . ; scared from Thebes 
by Demetrius, IX. 96 ; invites 
Pyrrhus to attack Sparta, 404 f . 

362 



Cleopater, Achaean commander of 
the Acrocorinthus, XI. 92 

Cleopatra (1), niece of Attalus, married 
to Philip, VII. 246, 250, 296 ; rebels 
against Antipater and takes Mace- 
donia to rule, 414 

Cleopatra (2), by letter invited Leon- 
natus to claim Macedonia, VIII. 86, 
102 

Cleopatra (3), daughter of Mithridates, 
wife of Tigranes, II. 540 

Cleopatra (4), banished by Potheinus, 
recalled by Caesar, whom she 
captivates, VII. 556 f., IX. 160; 
summoned to Cilicia by Antony, 
captivates him, 190 f.; called to 
Syria by Antony, given Phoenicia, 
Cpele Syria, Cyprus, large part of 
Cilicia, balsam-producing part of 
Judaea, part of Arabia Nabataea 
sloping toward outer sea, 216 f.; 
had two children by Antony, 
Alexander and Cleopatra, 218; 
sent back to Egypt by Antony, 
220; draws Antony back to 
Alexandria, 258 ; declare* Queen 
of Egypt, Cyprus, Libya, and Coele 
Syria by Antony, to share her 
throne with Caesarion, 260; pre- 
vails upon Antony to let her 
accompany him to war, 264; 
honoured by Athenians, 268 ; drives 
Titius and Plancus to Octavius, 
268 ; given the libraries of Por- 
pamum by Antony, 270; estranges 
Geminius, M. Silanus, and Dellius, 
friends of Antony, 272 

Induces Antony to wage war on 
sea, 276, 280; with 60 ships flees 
for Peloponnesus, followed by 
Antony, 288; sent ahead into 
Egypt from Paraetonium, 294 ; 
tries to escape with ships into Red 
Sea, 290 ; holds revel with Antony, 
tests different poisons, 300; asks 
of Octavius Egypt for her children, 
302 ; promised reasonable treat- 
ment if she casts out Antony, 304 ; 
allows Antony to execute wife and 
children of Seleucus, has tomb 
erected near temple of Isis, 306 ; 
hauls dying Antony into her tomb, 
taken by Proculeius, 312 f.; holds 
parley with Octavius, 320 f . ; com- 
mits suicide and is buried beside 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Antony in royal state, 324; 39 
when she died, had been queen 
22 years, shared her power with 
Antony more than 14, 330 

Sayings: 202, 272, 278, 322, 
324 f. 

Cleopatra (5), daughter of Antony 
and Cleopatra, given in marriage 
by Octavia to King Juba, IX. 218, 
330 

Cleophanes, with Phocion in battle 
near Tamynae, vin. 172 

Cleophantus, son of Themistocles and 
Archippe, II. 86 

Cleoptolemus, his daughter married 
to Antiochus, X. 366 

Cleora, wife of Agesilaiis, V. 52 

Clepsydra, IX. 212 

Clientes, means dependants; their 
relation to patrons, I. 126 

Clitarchus, see " Cleitarchus." 

Clodia (1), sister of Clodius, wife of 
Metellus Celer, and called Quadran- 
taria, VII. 154 

Clodia (2), sister of Clodius, II. 582 ; 
divorced from Lucallus, 594 

Clodia (3), daughter of Fulvia, to be 
married to Octavius, IX. 180 

Clodius (1), praetor, defeated by 
Spartacus, III. 338 

Clodius (2), bis " An Examination 
of Chronology " cited, I. 30 C 

Clodius (3), soldier of Lepidus, IX. 
176 

Clodius, deserter in Brutus' camp, VI. 
234 

Clodius, Appius, see " P. Clodius 
Pulcher." 

Clodius Celsus, see " Celsus, Clodius." 

Clodius Macer, governor of Africa, 
does not join Galba, XI. 216, 230; 
slain by Trebonius at the order of 
Galba, 236 

Clodius Pulcher, P., brother-in-law 
of Lucullus, serves under him in 
Asia, II. 534; demands Mithridates 
from Tigranes, and is refused, 536 ; 
secretly incites the soldiers against 
him, 582; IX. 140; helped Cicero 
in Catiline affair, VII. 152 ; com- 
mits sacrilege against Bona Dea, is 
brought to trial, is witnessed against 
by Cicero, is acquitted, 150 f., 
462 f . ; elected tribune, drives 
Cicero into banishment, 150, 156 f., 



162, 168, 476, V. 234, 240, VIII. 
316 ; burns down Cicero's villas, 
attacks Pompey, sends Cato on 
mission to Cyprus, V. 240 f., 

VII. 166, VIII. 318; attacks Cato 
after his return from Cyprus, 

VIII. 344; brings charge against 
Cicero for destroying records of 
tribunes, VII. 168;' slain by Milo, 
170 ; his funeral, VI. 170. See also 
VIII. 278, 310 

Cloelia, Roman maiden, her adven- 
ture, I. 552 

Cloelia (2), 3rd wife of Sulla, divorced, 
IV. 344 

Cloelius, general of Carbo's faction, 
advances against Pompey, V. 128 

Clothes, see " Dress." 

Clubs, political, encouraged by Ly- 
sanderin Asia, IV. 244; 206; 290 

Clunia, city in Spain, XI. 218 

Clusium, besieged by Gauls, gets help 
of Rome, I. 348, II. 128 

Cluvius Rufus, cited, XI. 280 

Cnacion, later called Oenus, river at 
Sparta, I. 222, V. 382 

Cnidus, II. 440; near it Pharnabazus 
and Conon defeat Peisander in 
naval battle, V. 46, XI. 176 ; II. 478 : 
given freedom by Caesar, VII. 554 

" Coalemus," nickname of Cimon's 
grandfather, II. 412 

Coans, fish up golden tripod, to be 
given to wisest man, I. 412 ; join 
Lucullus, II. 478 

Cocceius, Otho's nephew, XI. 312 

Coele Syria, given Cleopatra by 
Antony, IX. 216 

Coelius, led left wing for Antony at 
Actium, IX. 284 

Coenus, ordered by Alexander to 
attack Porus' right wing, VII. 396 

Coinage, Solon made mina have 100 
instead of 73 drachmas, I. 444; 
purchasing power of drachma in 
Solon's time, 466 ; prices in Solon's 
time compared with those of 
Plutarch's time, 468; IV. 276; 
Lycurgus replaces gold and silver 
currency by iron, I. 228 f., II. 390, 
IV. 276, 28~4; price of sheep and 
oxen in early Roman Republic, 
I. 530, 532; value of Greek and 
Roman coins compared, II. 124, 
III. 130, IV. 326 ; Persian coin has 

363 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



figure of archer on it, v. 40, XI. 

174 

Colchis, I. 66, II. 514, V. 190, 202 ; 
invaded by Pompey, 206 ; 230 

Colias, cape where Athenian women 
sacrificed to Demeter, I. 422 

Collatinus, Tarquinius, tee " Tar- 
quinius Collatinus." 

Colline gate, where unchaste Vestals 
were buried alive, I. 342; gave 
Brennus entrance to Home, II. 
146 

Collytus, Attic deme, VII. 28 

Oolonis, village, threatened by 
Messenians, X. 308 

Colony, to Caria by loxus and 
Ornytus, I. 18; of Athenians to 
the Chersonese, to Naxos, Andros, 
Thrace, Thurii,lll. 34, 58 ; to Siiiope, 
62; to Hestiaea, 66: to Syracuse 
from Asia and Corinth, VI. 316 ; to 
Agrigentum and Gela from Velia 
and Ceos, 344; to Velitrae by 
Romans, IV. 144; to Tarentum 
and Capua proposed by C. Grac- 
chus, X. 214; to Carthage by 
C. Gracchus, 220, 226 

Colophonians, freed from Epigonus 
by Lucullus, II. 478 

Collytus, in Athens, VII. 28 

Corneas, archon at Athens, I. 496 

Comet, after Caesar's murder, vn. 
604 

Comedy, Greek, from it conclude 
Greek doors opened outwards, I. 
554; II. 596 

Comic poets, m. 8, 44, 50, IV. 24, 
28 

Cominius, consul, invests Corioli, IV. 
132; 140 

Cominius, Pontius, carries message 
through Gauls to Capit =1, II. 154 f . 

Comitium surrounded by circular 
trench, I. 118; derived from coire, 
150 

Commagene, V. 230, IX. 276 

Commentaries, of Aratus, XI. 6, 74, 
76, 88; of J. Caesar, VII. 496 

Communism, of age of Cronos, II. 
436 

Commissioners, ten, sent to organize 
Pontus, II. 588; X. 348 

Concord, temple of, vowed by 
Camillus, II. 204; built by consul 
Opimius, X. 238; VII. 126 

3 6 4 



Confederacy of Delos, treasury moved 

to Athens, III. 34 
Connidas, tutor of Theseus, 1. 10 
Conon (1), friend of Solon, I. 444 
Conon (2), father of Timotheus, IV. 

338; escapes from Aegospotami to 

Evagoras in Cyprus, IV. 108; 260; 

XI. 176; with Pharnabazus defeat? 

Peisander off Cnidus, V. 46, XI. 

176 f . ; ravages coast of Laconia, 

V. 62 

Conopion, burned body of Phocion, 

VIII. 230 

Considiu?, aged senator, VII. 476 

Consta, P., summoned as witness by 
Cicero, vil. 148 

Cousualia, Koman festival, held 
August 18th, I. 134 

Consuls: M'. Acilius, X. 364; M. 
Aemilius and L. Sextus (1st 
plebeian), II. 206; Antony, vn. 
190, 584, IX. 170: Antony and 
Caesar, VI. 164; M. Atilius and 
T. Manlius, X. 364; Brutus and 
Collatinus, 1st consuls, I. 504; 
Caesar, in. 354, VII. 562 ; 3rd tune 
with Lepidus, IX. 160; 4th time, 
VII. 570; 5th time with Antony, 

IX. 162; Caesar and Bibulus, v. 
236, yil. 472 ; Caesar and Scrvilius 
Isauricus, 532 ; Camillus, not oncp, 
IT. 94; Carbo, thrice, V. 138; 
Cato Major and Valerius Flaccus, 
II. 310, 330; Catulus and Marius, 
IV. 332; Cicero and C. Antonius, 
VII. 108, IX. 156; Cinna, IV. 356; 
Cominius, IV. 132; Cotta, IX. 470; 
Crassus and 0. Scipio, III. 192 ; 
L. Domitius, VUI. 30 ; Gn. Domitius 
and Messala, V. 256; Fabius 
Haximus, 5 times, III. 174, 188, 

VI. 366; Fabius, son of Fabius 
Maximus, III. 186; 0. Fabricius 
and Q. Aemilius, IX. 410; 0. 
Fannius, X. 214; Flaccus, II. 582, 
IV. 390 ; Fulvius Flaccus, X. 238 ; 
C. Flaminius, III. 122 ; Flaminius 
and Furius, V. 442 ; T. Flaminmus, 

X. 296; T. Flamininus and Sextus 
Aelius, X. 324; Fulvius and 
Appius, III. 200; Gabinius and 
Piso, VII. 160; S. Galba, XI. 210; 
Gellius and Lentulus, III. 34H; Ti. 
Gracchus, twice, X. 144; Hirtius 
and Pansa, VI. 452, VII. 190, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



IX. 174; M. Horatius, 5th man 
elected, I. 634; Hostilius, VI. 
376; Laevinus, IX. 392 ; Lentulus, 
V. 270, VII. 166, 518, IX. 150; M. 
Lepidus, IV. 434, V. 150; Lucullus 
and M. Gotta, II. 484, V. 162; 
Lucretius, 4th time, I. 534; C. 
Mancinus, X. 152; Manius, X. 
304; Marcellus, V. 464, X. 324; 
3rd time, V. 466; 4th time, 496; 
5th time, 512 ; Marcellus, 5 times, 

III. 174, V. 436, 442, X. 372; Mar- 
cellus and Gnaeus Cornelius, V. 
446; 0. Marcellus, V. 268, VII. 
514, IX. 148; Marius, IX. 482, 
486; 1st time, IV. 328; 2nd and 
3rd times, 330, IX. 492, 498; 4th 
time with Lutatius Catulus, 500; 
5th time, 522; 6th time, 542; 
7th time, 590; younger Marius, 

VIII. 14; Maxiinus, VII. 576; 
Cornelius Merula with Octavius, 

IX. 578; Caecilius Metellus, IX. 
476; L. Murena and Silanus, 
VIII. 284; Norbanus, IV. 410; 
Octavius and Cinna, VIII. 10, IX. 
578; Octavius Caesar, VI. 184; 
with Cicero's son, VII. 208; Opi- 
mius, X. 226; Orestes, 198; 
Paulus, V. 268, VII. 514; Aemiliu.s 
Paulus, twice, VI. 366; Aemilius 
Paulus, son of preceding, 366; 
2nd time, 378; Philippus, vni. 
330; Piso, Y. 182; Piso and 
(labinius, 240, VII. 474, VIII. 316; 
1'ompeius, IV. 350; Pompey and 
Crassus, III. 350, V. 166, 250, VIII. 
334; Pompey, sole consul, V. 
258, VII. 512, VIII. 350; Valerius 
Publicola, I. 518; 2nd time with 
T. Lucretius, 542; 3rd time, 546; 
4th time, 556 ; L. Quintius (Plami- 
ninus), II. 350; Caninius Revilius, 
VII. 576 ; Rufinus, IV. 324 ; Mucius 
Scaevola, X. 162 ; Cornelius Scipio 
(Africanus Major), III. 190; Scipio 
(Africanus Minor), IX. 492; Scipio 
( Asiaticus), IV. 414, V. 130 ; Metellus 
Scipio with Pompey, 262; Scipio 
Nasica and 0. Marcius, 444; Ti. 
Sempronius, 444, II. 334; Silanus 
and Murena, VII. 116 ; Spinther, 
V. 244; Sulla and Q. Pompeius, 

IV. 342 ; M. Valerius and Postumius 
Tubertos, I. 654 ; Valerius Corvinus, 



many times, IX. 542; Terentius 

Varro and Aemilius Paulus, III. 

158 f. 

" Consuls" means counsellors, I. 128 
Consulship, arrogant powers taken 

away by Publicola, I. 568; III. 

186; why candidates wear toga 

without tunic, IV. 148; given to 

Marius absent, IX. 492 
Census, god of counsel; his altar in 

Circus Maximus, I. 128 
Contributions, II. 482, 532, III. 36, 

IV. 22 

Copillu*, chief of Tectosages, cap- 
tured by Sulla, IV. 330 

Coponius, commander of garrison at 
Carrhae, III. 404 

Cora, daughter of Aldoneus and 
Phersephone, I. 72 

Cora, temple of, near Hysiae at foot 
of Cithaeron, II. 248; goddess of 
Syracuse, delivered Cerberus into 
Heracles' hands, III. 210; goddess 
of Eleusis, IV. 60 

Coracesium, promontory in Cilicia, 

V. 184 

Corcyne, nurse, accompanied Ariadne 
to'Naxos, I. 42 

Corcyra, n. 64; aided by Athens, 
III. 82, 84; in league against 
Philip, VII. 40, VI. 278; captured 
by Agathocles, IX. 368; garrisoned 
by Demetrius, 372; VI. 448; vm. 
370 

Corduba, VII. 482 

Cordylion, surname of Atneuodorus 
the Stoic, VIII. 256 

Coreia, festival of Persephone, VI. 
118 

Corfinium, surrenders to Caesar, vn. 
526 

Corfinius, refurnished Pompey's house, 
VII. 562. See also " Corniflcius." 

Corinth, I. 56, 412, II. 16, 274, 64, 
456 ; at war with Corcyra, III. 82, 
84; its territory raided by Nicias, 
228; displeased" by Peace of Nicias, 
240, IV. 48, 292; battle of, V. 40, 
44; captured by Agesilaiis and 
Teleutias, 56; in league against 
Philip, VII. 40; sends Timoleon to 
Sicily, VI. 206; 268; 270; 276; 
sends Timoleonreinforcements, 298 ; 
304; 308; 312; sends colonists to 
Syracuse, 314; 332; freed by 



365 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Demetrius, IX. 58 ; X. 10 ; XI. 20 ; 
joins Achaean League, 52; 56; 
joins Cleomenes, X. 90, XI. 94; 
garrisoned by Antigonus, 96; pro- 
claimed free by Flamininus, X. 
350, 358; brought over to Eome 
by Cato the Elder, n. 336 ; taken 
by Mummius, III. 430, IX. 464, X. 
316 ; restored by Caesar, VII. 
576 

Coriolanus, C. Marcius, his family 
and character, iv. 118 f. ; fought 
against Tarquin when a boy, 122 ; 
takes Corioli, 132f.; helps the 
consul rout the Volscians, 136f.; 
is named Coriolanus, 140 ; opposes 
the plebs, runs for consul, not 
elected, 148 f . ; opposes distributing 
corn gratis, 154f. ; is denounced 
by the tribunes, 156 f . ; condemned 
by the tribunes to be cast from 
Tarpeian rock, is rescued, 160 f . ; 
is tried before the people and 
condemned to perpetual banish- 
ment, 166 f . 

Goes to the Volscians, 170; is 
appointed general with Tullus for 
war on Rome, raids Roman land, 
182 f.; takes Circeii, ravages land 
of Latins, takes Bola, 186; be- 
sieges Lavlnium, marches against 
Rome, 188; gives terms of peace 
to Roman embassy, 190; with- 
draws and attacks allies of Rome, 
192; returns to attack Rome, 194; 
spares Rome and withdraws at the 
intercession of his mother, 208; 
hated by Tullus and asked to give 
an account of his administration, 
214; slain by a party of VoLscians, 
216 

His words given: 136, 140, 166, 
172 f., 208 

Corioli, captured from the Volscians, 
IV. 132 

Cornelia (1), daughter of Scipio, wife 
of Ti. Gracchus the Elder, refused 
hand of Ptolemy; mother of the 
Gracchi, X. 146 f., 152; 162; 206; 
said to have helped C. Gracchus in 
his seditious measures, 226; her 
life after death of C Gracchus, 
240; IX. 556 

Cornelia (2), daughter of Metellus 
Scipio, married Publius, son of 

366 



Crassus, then Pompey ; her accom- 
plishments, V. 260, 286; learns of 
disaster at Pharsalus, flees with 
her husband, 310; sees Pompey 
murdered, receives remains of 
Pompey, buries them at Alban 
villa, 320 f . 

Cornelia (3), daughter of Cinna, wife 
of Caesar, VII. 442, 450; had 
daughter by Caesar who married 
Pompey, 452 

Cornellii, three fated to become 
monarchs at Rome, Vli. 122, IX. 
464 

Cornelius, leader of party of Sulla's 
men, spares Caesar for 2 talents, 
VII. 444 

Cornelius, C., acquaintance of Livy, 
augurs Caesar's victory at Phar- 
salus, VII. 554 

Cornelius, Gnaeus, appointed col- 
league in consulship by Marcellus, 
V. 446, 448 

Cornelius, P., with M. Baebius con- 
sul about 400 years after Numa, 
I. 380 

Cornelius Cethegus, see " Cethegus, 
Cornelius." 

Cornelius Cossus, won spolia opima 
from Tolumnius the Tuscan, I. 138, 

V. 454 

Cornelius Laco, prefect of praetorian 

guard under Galba, XI. 230; slain 

by Otho's soldiers, 268 
Cornelius Merula, consul with 

Octavius, replacing Cinna, IX. 578 
Cornelius Nepos, cited, II. 608, V. 

520, X. 194 
Cornel-tree, the sacred, story of, 

I. 154 
Cornificius, L., prosecutor of Brutus, 

VI. 184 

Cornificius, Q., has 2 legions for 
Caesar, VII. 544 

Cornutus, rescued from Marius by 
slaves, IX. 586 

Coroebus, began sanctuary of mys- 
teries at Eleusis, III. 40 

Coroneia, battle of, Athenians under 
Tolmides defeated by Boeotians, 
III. 58, IV. 2; battle of, between 
Agesilaiis and Thebans, V. 40, 
46 

Corrhagus (Corrhaeus), Stratonice's 
father, IX. 6 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Oorrhagus, son of Demetrius and 

Eurydice, IX. 134 
Corsica, sea about it cleared of 

pirates by Pompey, V. 182 
Corvinus, Valerius, 6 times consul 

like Marius, IX. 542 
Corynetes, slain by Theseus, I. 188. 

See also " Periphetes." 
Cos, people of, join Lucullus, II. 

474 
Cosa, in Etruria, colonized by Rome, 

X. 324 
Cosconius, slain by Caesar'3 mutinous 

soldiers, VII. 560 
Cosis, brother of Albanian king, slain 

by Pompey, V. 208 
Cossaeans, slaughtered by Alexander, 

VII. 424 
Cossinius, praetor, slain, and his 

camp captured by Spartacus, III. 

338 
Cossus, Cornelius, see " Cornelius 

Cossus." 
Cossus, Liciuius, sent to consult 

oracle of Delphi re Alban lake, II. 

102 
Cost, of clothing, II. 314 ; of fish, 322 ; 

of public works, 35G 
"Cothurnus," nickname of There- 

menes, III. 212 

Cotta, defeated by Sertorius in sea- 
fight, VIII. 30 
Cotta, Caesar's legate, destroyed with 

army by Gauls, VII. 500 
Cotta, L. (1), opposes Marius, IX. 

470 
Cotta, L. (2), censor, very fond of 

wine, vii. 150 
Cotta, M., consul with Lucullus, II. 

484; sent with ships to guard 

Propontis and Bithynia, 490; de- 
feated by Mithridates, is besieged 

in Chalcedon, 494 
Cotylon, Varius, intimate of Antony, 

left with 6 legions to guard Gaul, 

IX. 178 
Cotys, king of Paphlagonians, makes 

alliance with Agesilaiis, V. 28 
Council of Elders, established by 

Lycurgus, I. 218 

Council of 500, at Athens, II. 458 
Courts of justice, transferred again 

to knights by Pompey, V. 168 
Crane, dance instituted by Theseus, 

still kept up by Delians, I. 44 



Craneion, suburb of Corinth, VII. 
258 

Craunon, battle of, Greeks defeated 
by Antipater, n. 138, VII. 68, VIII. 
200 

Crassianus, C. (Crastinus or Cras- 
sinius), centurion of Caesar, slain 
at Pharsalus, V. 300, VII. 548 

Crassus (1), Scipio's colleague in 
consulship, urged by Fabius Mazi- 
mus to thwart Scipio ; was pontifei 
maximus, III. 192 

Crassus (2), brother of Licinia, X. 
232 

Crassus (3), husband of Scribonia, 
father of Piso, executed by Nero, 
XI. 254 

Crassus (4), son of the triumvir, 
resembled Arius, VII. 144 

Crassus, M., his family, in. 314; his 
avarice and wealth, 316 f . ; gener- 
ous, eloquent, kindly, 320 ; escaped 
when Cinna and Marius prevailed, 
322 ; joins Sulla and raises force, 
326 f.; rival of Pompey, 328; 
victorious when Sulla is defeated, 
320, IV. 416, 420 f.; lent Caesar 
large sum, III. 332 f., VII. 468; 
chosen to conduct war against 
Spartacus, III. 340; disciplines 
troops when his legate Mummius 
is defeated, 342 ; defeats parts of 
Spartacus 1 force, 344, 346, V. 164, 
196; defeats Spartacus again, III. 
348 

Elected consul with Pompey, 
quarrels with him, 350, V. 168, 
VIII. 334; inactive as censor, 
accused by Cicero of being in 
Catilinarian conspiracy, III. 352, 
VII. 116, 158; reconciled to Cicero, 
168, III. 354; forms triumvirate 
with Pompey and Caesar, 354 f ., 
VII. 470; has understanding with 
Caesar and Pompey at Luca, in. 
356, VII. 494, VIII. 332; through 
violence is elected consul with 
Pompey, gets province of Syria, 
III. 360, VIII. 334; crosses to the 
east, takes Zenodotia, III. 364; 
receives embassy from Hyrodes, 
368; encouraged by Artabazes, 
king of Armenia, 370 ; duped by 
Ariamnes, 374; opposed by Surena, 
376 f.; gets discouraging message 



3 6 7 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



from Artabazes, 380; defeated by 
Parthians, 382 f.; leaves Carrhae 
by night, 408; forced to go with 
the Parthians?, 412 ; is slain, 416, 
V. 254, VII. 510 

See also II. 592, 596, 606, V. 226, 
VII. 102, 144, 146 

Quoted : III. 318, 330, 352, V. 170, 
364, 368, 374, 398, 412 

Crassus, P. (1), pontifex maximus, 
helps Ti. Gracchus draw up his 
agrarian law, X. 162 ; father-in- 
law of 0. Gracchus, elected land 
commissioner in place of Ti. 
Gracchus, 194 

Crassus, P. (2), son of M. Crassus, 
admirer of Cicero, III. 354, V. 260, 
VII. 168; came from Caesar in 
Gaul with 1000 troopers for his 
father, III. 366, 384; slain at 
Carrhae, 390, 400, V. 310, VII. 
172 

Crastinus, see " Crassianus." 

Craterus (1), husband of Phila, K. 
32 ; vii. 344 ; wounded by Perdic- 
cas, 346 ; quarrels with Hephaes- 
tion, 360, 362, 382, sent back to 
Macedonia by Alexander, vill. 
186 ; defeats Greeks at Crannon, 
and crosses to Asia to overthrow 
Perdiccas, VII. 68, VIII. 90, 200; 

VII. 70 ; VIII. 92 ; sends Antipater 
into Cilicia, advances against 
Bumenes, is defeated and dies, 

VIII. 94 f., IX. 32 

Craterus, the Macedonian, collected 
various decrees, II. 444; cited, 
294 

Crates, philosopher, induces Deme- 
trius to raise siege of Athens, IX. 
116 

Cratesicleia, mother of Cleomenes, 
assists him, marries Aristonotis, X. 
60 ; goes as hostage to Egypt, 98 ; 
executed by Ptolemy, X. 136 

Cratesipolis, wife of Alexander, son 
of Polysperchon, visits Demetrius, 

IX. 22 

Cratinus, comic poet, cited : 

Arohilochi (Kock I. 11), II. 434 
Cheirons (Kock I. 86), in. 8, 70 
Nemesis (Kock I. 49), ra. 8 ; (94), 

I. 472 ; (100), III. 42 
Cratippus, V. 310 ; received Roman 
citizenship from Caesar at Cicero's 

368 



request, VII. 142 ; his lectures 

attended by Brutus, VI. 176 
Craugis, Philopoemen's father, X. 256 
Cremation, alive, VII. 416 f. 
Cremona, battle of, Caecina worsted 

by Otho's men, XI. 292 
Creobylus, see " Crobylus." 
Creon (1), father of Menoeceus, V. 

390 
Creon (2), character in tragedy, VII. 

72 
Creophylus, posterity of, in Ionia 

preserved poems of Homer, I. 214 
Cretan, civilization, simple and severe, 

I. 214; government, mixture of 
democracy and royalty, VI. 112 ; 
javelin, X. 444 

Cretans, once sent offering of flrst- 
born to Delphi, some of Athenian 
descent, etc., I. 30; submit to 
Philip, son of Antigonus, XI. 110; 
serve with Aemilius Paulus, VI. 
392, 416 ; won over by Lucullus, 

II. 474 

Crete, visited by Lycurgus, I. 212; 

worst nest of pirates after Cilicia, 

cleared of them by Metellus, V. 

188 ; decreed province of Brutus, 

VI. 168; X. 288 f. 
"Creticus," surname of Antonius, 

father of M. Antony, IX. 138 
Crimesus river, in Sicily, VI. 322 ; 

battle of, 324 f . 
Crispinus (1), consul with Marccllup, 

slain by Hannibal in ambush, V. 

516 
Crispinus (2), Poppaea's husband, XI. 

2-16; slain by Otho's soldiers, 280 
Critias, son of Callaeschrus, moved 

decree for recall of Alcibiades, IV. 

96; one of Thirty Tyrants, II. 

434; cited, I. 230, II. 434, 454 

(Bergk II. 279 f .), IV. 96 
Crito, borrowed 70 minas from 

Socrates, II. 214 

Critola'idas, one of 5 arbiters in dis- 
pute between Athenians and Megar- 

ians, I. 428 

CritolaUs, cited, III. 20 
Crobylus (1), cited, VII. 40 
Crobylus (2), beautiful boy, VII. 286 
Croesus, sent bowl to Delphi, I. 414; 

had interview with Solon, 478; 

defeated and spared by Cyrus, 

484 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



Crommyonian sow, called Phaea, 

slain by Theseus, I. 18 
Cronos, age of, II. 286, 436 
Groton, I. 178 ; given portion of 

spoil from Arbela by Alexander, 

VII. 328 
Crustumerium, its people defeated 

and moved to Rome by Romulus, 

I. 138 
Cteslas, physician with Artaxerres 

II., XI. 128 ; describes death of Cyrus 

at Ounaxa, 148 f. ; rewarded by 

Artarerxes, 156; tells anecdote 

about Clearchus and himself, 166 .; 

sent to help Conon, 176 
Cited: 140, 146, 148 L, 154 f., 

170 

Ctesibius, cited by Hennippus, VII. 12 
Ctesiphon, brought to trial in matter 

of the crown, vn. 58 
Ctesippus, son of Chabrias, vil. 36; 

helped by Phocion, VIII. 158 
Ctesium, city in Scyros, II. 426 
Culeo, Terentius, forces Flamininus 

and Marcellus, the censors to receive 

into citizenship all offered if of free 

parents, X. 372 
Culleo, vainly urges Pompey to 

divorce Julia, V. 242 
Cumae, Blossius of, X. 160 
Cunaxa, 500 furlongs from Babylon; 

battle of, XI. 142 f. 
Cures, of the Sabines, native city of 

Numa Pompilius ; from it " Qui- 

rites " derived, I. 314 
" Cures, a new," term applied to 

Epimenides of Crete, I. 432 
Curiae, named after 30 seized Sabine 

maidens, I. 130, 152 
Curio (1), Sulla's legate, besieges 

Aristion in the acropolis and forces 

him to surrender, IV. 372 
Curio (2), Cato's friend, VIII. 266; 

aedile with Favonius, 348, IX. 140 
Curio (3), rescues Caesar in Catilin- 

arian trouble, VII. 460 ; bought by 

Caesar, acts for him hi Rome, 

V. 268, VII. 514 f., IX. 140, 148; 

driven from senate by Lentulus, 

VII. 518 
Curius, M'., II. 324, 38(3, 394; hero 

of 3 triumphs, drove Pyrrhus from 

Italy, 306; defeated Pyrrhus at 

Beneventum, IX. 426; quoted, II. 

306 



Curtius, Sabine, caught in bo<? hence- 
forth called "lacus Curtius," I. 

144 
Custom, of boiling all sorts of pulse 

together on 7th of Pyanepsion, 

I. 46 ; Spartans brought bodies of 

kings home for burial, V. 112 
Cyanean isles, western limit for 

Persian navy, n. 444 
Cybernesia, celebrated in honour of 

of Nausithoiis and Phaeax, I. 34 
Cybisthus, son of Solon's sister, 

adopted by him, I. 418 
Cychreus, father-in-law of Sciron, I. 

20; hero sacrificed to by Solon, 

424 
Cyclades, being subjugated by Arche 

Mis, IV. 358 
Cyclops, cave of, n. 326 ; blinded, XI. 

208 

Cycnus, slain by Hercules, I. 22 
Cydnus river, in Asia, VII. 274, IX. 

192 

Cyinda, see " Quinda." 
Cyllarabis (Cylarabis, Cyllarabium), 

gymnasium just outside of Argos, 

IX. 452, X. 86, 110 
Cylon, his murder caused pollution 

and strife, 1. 430 ; Athenians ordered 

by Spartans to drive out this 

pollution, III. 94 
Cyme, where Themistocles landed in 

Asia, II. 68 ; VII. 586 
Cynageirus, rivalled Aristides for 

2nd place at Plataea, II. 388 
Cynisca, Agesilatts' sister, enters 

" chariot at Olympian contests, V. 52 
Cynosarges, gymnasium of Hercules 

outside Athens, frequented by 

aliens, II. 2 
Cynoscephalae, Amazons' graves there, 

"l. 64; Pelopidas defeats Alexander 

of Pherae there and is himself slain, 

V. 422; Flamininus defeats Philip 

of Macedon there, VI. 372, X. 340 
Cynossema, promontory of Salamis, 

'origin of name, II. 30 f., 318 
Cypris, I. 478 
Cyprus, has grove of Ariadne Aphro- 

*dite, I. 42; visited by Solon, 476; 

11.84; 442; 460; scene of Oimon's 

death, 462 f., III. 32; 74; surrenders 
to Alexander, VII. 292; 308; IX. 12 ; 
won from Ptolemy by Demetrius, 
IX. 341.; 11.478; administered by 



369 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Cato, V. 240, 316, VII. 170, VIII. 346 ; 
given to Cleopatra, IX. 218 

Cypselus, Periander's father, XI. 8 

Gyrene, set in order by Ecdemus and 
"Megalophanes, X. 256 ; ruled by 
son of Demetrius and Ptolemais, 
IX. 134; given fired constitution 
by Lucullus, II. 474; received 
Cato, closed gates to Labienus, 
VIII. 370 f . ; western terminus of 
Antony's empire, ix. 276 

Cyrnus river, its source, tributary, 
and mouth, V. 206 

Cyrrhestica, in Asia, IX. 122, 212 

"Cyrus," Persian word for sun, *XI. 
128 

Cyrus the Elder, named from sun, 
XI. 128; 130; defeated and spared 
Solon, I. 484; his tomb visited by 
Alexander VII. 416, IX. 152 

Cyrus the Younger, son of Dareius 
and Parysatis, XI. 128; 190,111. 72; 
receives Lysander at Sardis, IV. 
240; 246; asks Sparta to send 
Lysander again, 248; promises 
Lysander anything he wants, 252 ; 
280; remained satrap of Lydia 
and commander of the king's forces 
in maritime provinces on death of 
Dareius, XI. 130; accused of plot 
against life of Artaxerxes, pardoned 
by latter, 132; makes secret 
preparations, 132 f.; gets aid of 
Spartans, marches against the 
king, is slain at Cunaxa, 136 f., 
IV. 452; quoted, XI. 142 

Cythera, captured by Nicias, III. 
"228; 430; V. 86; X. 118 

Cytheris, actress, favourite of Antony, 
"ix. 158 

Cyzicus, sends embassy to Sparta 
supported by Pharnabazus, IV. 66 ; 
taken by Athenians, 82 ; besieged 
by Mithridates, relieved by Lucul- 
lus, II. 498, 504; VI. 186 



Dactyli, Idaean, played tricks like 

those of Picus and Faunus, I. 

360 
Daedalus, son of Merope, pursued 

by Minos, fled to Athens, protected 

by Theseus, I. 38 
Daesius, month in which Macedonian 

kings were wont to take the field, 

370 



VII. 264; 432; Sicyonian month, 
same as Anthesterion, XI. 122 
Da'imachus, Plataean, cited re Solon, 

I. 572 ; his treatise " On Religion " 
cited, IV. 262 

Dalmatia, armies there faithful to 
Otho, XI. 284 

Damagoras, commands Khodian gal- 
ley, II. 482 

Damascus, VII. 280 

Damastes (1), surnamed Procrustes, 
slain by Theseus, I. 22 

Damastes (2), cited, n. 138 

Damippus, Spartan, captured by 
Marcellus, V. 482 

Damochares, plots against Agis, X. 
40 ; helps execute him, 44 

Damocleides, prominent Theban, 
takes part in expulsion of Spartans 
at Thebes, V. 356 ; with Pelopidas 
slays Leontidas and Hypates, V. 
366 

Damocrates (1), Plataean hero, II. 
246 

Damocrates (2), Spartan exile, quoted, 
X. 66 

Damon (1), Pericles' music teacher, 
ostracized, II. 214, III. 10, 226 

Damon (2), Macedonian soldier of 
Alexander, VII. 286 

Damon (3), Peripolitas, of Chaeroneia, 
story of his life, II. 404 f.; his 
descendants called Asbolomeni, 408 

Damonides, of deme Oa, advises 
Pericles, III. 26 

Damophantus, leader of Eleian 
cavalry, slain by Philopoemen, X. 
272 

Damoteles, betrays Cleomenes at 
Sellasia, X. 114 " 

Damurias river, where Timoleon 
defeated Hicetas, VI. 336 

Danaiis, captured Argos, IX. 454 

Dandamis, gymnosophist, meets One- 
sicritus, VII. 408; 244 

Dandarians, barbarian people dwell- 
ing about Lake Maeotis, II. 518 

Danube river, Bisternae settled along 
it, VI. 376 ; scene of battle between 
Alexander and Syrmus, king of 
Triballi, VII. 252 ; regions along it 
subdued by Tiberius Sempronius, 

II. 334 

Daochus, Thessalian, sent by Philip 
on embassy to Thebes, VII. 42 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Daphne, daughter of Amyclas, the 

same as Pasiphae according to 

Phylarchus, X. 20 

Daphne, grove near Antioch, II. 534 
Dardanians, defeated by Perseus, 

VI. 376 
Dardanus, in Troad, meeting-place 

of Mithridates and Sulla, IV. 402 
Dardanus (1), founded Troy, II. 144 
Dardanus (2), shield-bearer of Brutus, 

VI. 242 

Dareius (1), sent Datis to subdue 
Hellenes, II. 10, 224 

Dareius (2), father of Artaxerxes, 
Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres by 
Parysatis, XI. 128 

Dareius (3), his generals defeated at 
the river Qranicus, VII. 262 f . ; 
encouraged by Alexander's long 
delay in Cilicia, 274; defeated by 
Alexander, 278; makes proposal 
to Alexander, 310 ; marches against 
him with a million men, 314; 
escapes from rout of Arbela, 324; 
V. 40 ; seized by Bessus, dies in 
presence of Polystratus, 348; body 
sent to his mother, 350; quoted, 
310 f., 350 f. 

Dareius (4), oldest son of Artaxerxes 
II., proclaimed successor to the 
throne, XI. 188 f. ; plots death of 
Artaxerxes, is detected and put to 
death, 196f. 

Daric, Persian coin, IV. 240 

Darius, see " Dareius." 

Dascylitis, lake near Cyzicus, II. 500 

Dassaretis, in Illyria, X. 330 

Datis, sent by Darius to subdue 
Hellenes, II. 224 

Daunians, plunder Pyrrhus' baggage 
at Asculum, IX. 416 

Day, white, III. 78 

Debts, cancelled in Athens by Solon, 
I. 442, 570; debtor class cham- 
pioned by M. Manlius, II. 186; 

VII. 418; IV. 348; 11.532; VII. 452 ; 
470; 556; IX. 140 

Decadarchies, instituted in Asia by 

Lysander, IV. 242, 266, 268 
Deceleia, fortified on advice of 

Alcibiades, IV. 62; 98; 252 
Dechas, death chamber of prison at 

Sparta, X. 44 
Decimation, what it is, IX. 226; III. 

342 



Decrees, II. 18, 204, 244, 280, 444, 

458, III. 28, 68, 84, 88, 210, 252, 

IV. 42, 96, 254, 270, 318, V. 354, 

VI. 10, VII. 48, 68, 146, 168, VIII. 

222, 230, IX. 32 
Deianeira, III. 70 
Deldameia (1), married Peirithous, I. 

68 
Dei'dameia (2), daughter of Aeacides, 

sister of Pyrrhus, wife of Deme- 
trius, IX. 58, 348, 354; mother of 

Alexander, 134; 72; dies, 78, 362 
Deidius, brings in head of elder of 

Pompey's sons, VII. 572 
Delmachus, father of Autolycus, II. 

544 
Deinarchus (1), Corinthian, denounced 

Demades to Cassander, VII. 78 ; 

put to death by Polysperchon, 

VIII. 222 
Deinarchus (2), served under Timo- 

leon in Sicily, VI. 312, 320 
Deinias, with Aristotle the logician, 

slays Abantidas, XI. 6 ; cited, 

66 
Deinocrates, Messenian, induces Mes- 

sene to revolt from Achaean league, 

captures Philopoemen, X. 306, 370 ; 

executes Philopoemen, commits 

suicide, 314 
Deinomache, daughter of Megacles, 

mother of Alcibiades, IV. 2 
Deinon, cited, VII. 332, XI. 128, 140, 

146 f ., 154, 170, 172, 178 
Deloneus, son of Eurytus the Oechal- 

ian, I. 18 
Deipnophoroi, women who took part 

in procession of Oschophoria; why 

so called, I. 50 

Deirades, Athenian deme, IV. 70 
Deiotarus, Galatian, guest-friend of 

Cato's father, welcomes Cato, who 

refuses his gifts and leaves soon, 

VIII. 260 f . ; meets Crassus, III. 

364; flees with Pompey, V. 308; 

deserts to Octavius, IX. 280 
Ae/cd/Soioy (ten oxen), origin of term 

as referring to money, I. 54 
Delium, has temple of Apollo, IV. 

396 ; battle of, Athenians defeated, 

18, 316,111.226 
Dellius, sent by Antony to bring 

Cleopatra to him in Cilicia, IX. 

190 f.; 272 
Delos, island, athletic contests insti- 

371 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



tuted there by Theseus, I. 44; 
Confederacy of, II. 290; III. 216 

Delos, mountain near temple of 
Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 378 

Delphi, visited by Lycurgns, I. 21G ; 
has perpetual fire, that went out 
3 times, 338; where 7 wise men 
once met, 412 ; had golden tripod 
and bowl sent by Croesus, 414; 
its records cited, 430, 472 ; had 
treasury of Acanthians, IV. 234; 
280; II. 114; seized by men led 
by Philomelus and Onomarchus 

VI. 334; 428 

Delphi, oracle of, I. 52 ; told Theseus 
to found city where he found 
himself full of sorrow, 60, 82; 
180; 216; 220; 294; 318; 424; 428; 
438; II. 28; 102; 246; VII. 260; XI. 
120 

Delphians, freed from Phocians by 
Spartans, II. 436 ; dispossessed of 
sanctuary at Delphi by Spartans, 
restored by Athenians, III. 62 

Delphinium, contains enclosure where 
house of Aegeus stood, I. 24, 34 

Demades, his character and ability, 

VII. 20, 24, 30, VIII. 144; moves 
that Athenians take part in con- 
gress proposed by Philip, vill. 
180; induces Alexander to forgo 
demand for surrender of Demos- 
thenes and others, VII. 56; moves 
sentence of death on Demosthenes, 
70, vin. 202; executed by Oas- 
sander, 212, VII. 78 

Sayings : Draco's laws written 
in blood, I. 450, VII. 28, 30, VIII. 
144, 194, X. 110, XI. 208 

Demaenetus, popular leader at Syra- 
cuse, attacks Timoleon, VI. 348 

Demaratus (1), father of Tarquin, 
I. 138, 536 

Demaratus (2), Spartan, wishes to 
wear tiara upright like Persiau 
kings, II. 80; XI. 130 

Demaratus (3), Corinthian, rebukes 
Philip, VII. 246, 336; dies after 
seeing Alexander on throne of 
Dareius, 384; cited, V. 38 

Demaratus (4), Rhodian, his release 
secured by Phocion from Alexander, 

VIII. 186 

Demaratus, saying, I. 268 
Demaretus, with Deinarchus brought 



Timoleon's 2nd reinforcement from 
Corinth, led part of troops against 
Hicetas, VI. 312, 320; commands 
cavalry at battle of river Crimesus, 
326 

Demariste, Timoleon's mother, VI. 
266, 272 

Demeas, son of Demades, executed by 
Cassander, vm. 214 

Demeter, sacrifice to, at Sparta 
12th day after death of kinsman, I. 
286, 422; goddess of Eleusis, IV. 
60, II. 246 ; temple of, near Hysiae 
at foot of Cithaeron, 248 

" Demetria," new name of festival 
Dionysia, IX. 28 

Demetrias, city settled by Demetrius 
from small villages about lolcus, 
IX. 134; Plamininus ordered to 
keep it garrisoned, X. 348; had 
great store of arms for Parthian 
war, VI. 180 

" Demetrias," new name of Sicyon, 
IX. 58 

Demetrias, new tribe at Athens in 
honour of Demetrius, IX. 26 

" Demetrias," new name for " Old 
and New," last day of month, ix. 
28 

" DemetrioD," new name of month 
Mounychion, IX. 28 

Demetrius (1), herald of Syracuse, 
VI. 354 

Demetrius (2), surnamed Pheido, in 
retinue of Alexander, vil. 382 

Demetrius (3), brother of Antigonus, 
by some said to be the father of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, IX. 6 

Demetrius (4), Poliorcetes, character 
and lineage, IX. 6 f ., VIII. 134; 
when 22 defeated by Ptolemy at 
Gaza, IX. 12; defeats Cilles, 
Ptolemy's general, 14 ; raids Naba- 
taean Arabs, invades Babylonia, 
16; frees Athens of Demetrius 
Pharlereus, 18 f. ; frees Megara, 
22 ; takes Munychia and razes 
fortress, restores to Athens ancient 
form of government, 24 f . ; marries 
Eurydice", had married Phila, 32 f.; 
defeats Menelaiis and Ptolemy at 
Cyprus, 34 f . ; saluted as king with 
his father, 40 

Fond of building ships and 
engines of war, 46; takes Rhodes, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



48 f. ; rescues Athens from Cas- 
sander, 52 f . ; drives his enemies 
out of the Peloponnesus, pro- 
claimed Commander-in-Chief of the 
Greeks, 58; defeated with his 
father at Ipsus by rival kings, 
68 f., 380 ; is warned off by Athens, 
72; ravages Chersonesus, 74; 
marries his daughter Stratonice' to 
Seleucus, takes possession of Cilicia, 
78 ; drives Lachares from Athens, 
80 f.; defeats Sparta twice, 84; 
has Alexander slain and becomes 
king of Macedonia, 88 f., 360 f.; 
gets Thessaly, occupies Boeotia, 
96 ; conquers Aetolia and ravages 
Epeirus, 100, 364; very ill at 
Pella, drives Pyrrhus out of 
Macedonia, 106, 370; is attacked 
by Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysi- 
machus, deserted by his army 
loses Macedonia and flees to 
Cassandreia, 110 f., 374f. 

Sails for Asia to wrest Caria and 
Lydia from Lysimachus, marries 
Ptolemals, 116, 378; withdraws 
to Taurus mountains, 120 ; is 
successful against Seleucus, but 
falls sick and is deserted by most 
of his men, 122 ; surrenders to 
Seleucus, 126 ; is carried a prisoner 
to the Syrian Chersonese; died in 
his 55th year, 132 ; the children 
he left, 134 

See also VII. 32, IX. 354, 372 

Demetrius (5), the Phalerean, brother 
of Himeraeus, VII. 70 ; had pension 
given to 2 descendants of Aristides, 
II. 296 ; ruled Athens for Cassander, 
expelled by Demetrius and given 
safe conduct to Thebes, IX. 18 f. ; 
condemned to death in absentia by 
the Athenians, vm. 226 

Cited : I. 276, 466 (his " Socra- 
tes "), II. 210, 212, 214, 226, 296, 
VII. 22, 24, 26, 34 

Demetrius (6), the Thin, son of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, IX. 134 

Demetrius (7), son of Demetrius 
Poliorcetes and Ptolemals, ruled 
Cyrene 1 , IX. 134 

Demetrius (8), son of Antigonus 
Gonatas, marries Nicaea to help 
his father get the Acrocorinthus, 
XI. 36 ; his general Bithys defeats 



Aratus, 76; after short rule died, 
leaving a son Philip in his boyhood, 
VI. 372 

Demetrius (9), son of Philip, sent to 
Eome as hostage, X. 346 ; executed 
by his father on false charge 
brought by his brother Perseus, 

VI. 374 

Demetrius (10), of Pharos, XI. 114 
Demetrius (11), the Magnesian, cited, 

VII. 36, 68, 70 

Demetrius (12), the Peripatetic, with 

Cato at Utica, VIII. 396, 402 
Demetrius (13), freedman of Pompey, 

V. 120, 216, 264 

Demetrius (14), attendant of Cassius, 

VI. 226 

Demo, sur named Mania, mistress of 

Demetrius, IX. 54, 64 
Demochares (1), of Leuconoe, relative 

of Demosthenes, cited, vil. 74; 

ban mot re Stratocles, exiled for it, 

IX. 56 
Demochares (2), of Soli, called 

Demetrius " Fable," IX. 64 
Democles, beautiful Athenian youth, 

IX. 56 
Democracy, favoured by maritime 

empire, II. 54; gains control at 

Athens, 450 

Democrates, lover of Alcibiades, IV. 8 
Democritus, as to what we ought to 

pray for, VI. 260 
Ar}ju.oi, play of Eupolis, III. 8 
Demoleon, accompanied Autolycus, 

II. 544 

Demon, cited, I. 36, 50 
Demon of Paeonia, VII. 56 ; cousin 

of Demosthenes, brings in decree 

recalling him from exile, 68 
Demonax, messenger of Archelalis 

to people of Cyzicus, n. 498 
Demophilus, accuser of Phocion, slain 

by his son, VIII. 232 
Demophon (Demophoou), son of 

Theseus, and Antiope, I. 64; had 

son Munychus from Laodice", 78; 

founded city in Cyprus near river 

Clarius, 476 

Demopolis, son of Themistocles, II. 88 
Demosthenes (1), Athenian general, 

defeated in Aetolia, in. 226 ; forti- 
fied Pylos, 230; 278; arrives in 

Sicily with large force, makes night 

attack on Epipolae and is defeated, 

373 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



284, 286; with his force captured 
by Syracusans, 300; executed by 
orders of Syracusans, 306 ; IV. 2 

Demosthenes~(2), father of the orator, 
called the Cutler owing to his 
business, VII. 8, 48 

Demosthenes (3), his parents and 
race, vii. 8; left by his father at 
age of 7 with estate of 15 talents, 
wronged by his guardians, 8; 
inspired by Callistratus to become 
an orator, 10 f . ; brings suit against 
his guardians, 14; encouraged by 
Eunomus and Satyrus, 16 ; trains 
diligently in private, 16 f . ; did not 
speak off-hand, 20 ; copied Pericles 
in some things, 22 ; overcame 
indistinctness and lisping by re- 
citing speeches with pebbles in his 
mouth, 26 ; humorous in extempore 
rejoinders, 28 

After outbreak of Phocian war 
entered public life with credit, 
28 f. ; was not a time server, but 
capable of being bribed, 34; 
prosecuted Antiphon and Thaoris 
and had them executed, 36 ; wrote 
speeches for others, 36 ; persistent 
opponent of Philip, 38; incited 
Athenians to drive Macedonians 
out of Euboea, and to other acts 
against Philip, 40; after Philip 
took Elateia and occupied Phocis, 
D. advised the people to cling to 
Thebes, 42 ; arouses the allies to 
fight Philip, but was not brave at 
battle of Chaeroneia, 46 f. 

Rejoices publicly on death of 
Philip, 52 ; gets the Greeks to form 
a league once more, and raises 
opposition to Alexander, 54 ; after 
destruction of Thebes his surrender 
is demanded by Alexander, but he 
is pardoned at intercession of 
Demades, 56 f., Till. 182 ; supports 
Agis the Spartan in his uprising, 
VII. 58; successfully defends Ctesi- 
phon against Aeschines, 58 ; accepts 
bribe from Harpalus, 60; is con- 
demned to pay fine of 50 talents 
and imprisoned, escapes to Aegina, 
64; on death of Alexander, sup- 
ports rising against Antipater, 66 ; 
recalled from exile, 68 ; after defeat 
of Greeks at Crannon, escapes from 

374 



Athens, 70, VIII. 202 ; his surrender 
demanded by Antipater, 204 ; con- 
demned to death on motion of 
Demades, vii. 70; dies by taking 
poison in temple of Poseidon at 
Calauria, 70 f ., viii. 210 ; is honoured 
after death by the Athenians, vii. 
76 ; Plutarch's " Life of Demos- 
thenes " drawn from what written 
or oral sources he could find, 6 
78, I. 64 

See also II. 308, VII. 56, 92, 142, 
VIII. 156, 160, 164, 178, IX. 3S4 

Sayings: VII. 20; 24, vm. 15C; 
VII. 26; 28; 38; 56; 64; 68; 
72 f. 

Orations mentioned or cited : 
Against Androtion, VII. 36 
Against Aristocrates, 32, 36 
Against Aristogeiton, 36 
Against Meidias, 28, IV. 24 
Against Timocrates, vii. 30 
Concerning Halonnesus, 24 
For the Immunities, 32, 36 
For Phormion, 36 
On the Crown (171f.), S; 

(132 f.), 34; 32; 38 
On the False Embassy, 38 
Philippics, 32 

" Demosthenes, Roman," term ap- 
plied to Cato the Elder, II. 312 
Demsstratus, moved that generals 
on Sicilian expedition have full 
powers, III. 252, iv. 46 
Denarius, its value, why so called. 

II. 124 
Densus, Sempronius, only centurion 

to defend Galba, XI. 264 
Dercetaeu?, one of Antony's body 

guard, IX. 314 

Dercyllidas, Spartan general, being a 

bachelor, snubbed by young man, 

I. 248 ; waged war on Persians, XI. 

174 

Dercyllus, Athenian general, attempts 

to arrest Nicanor, vm. 218 
" De Senectute," by Cicero, II. 352, 

X. 374 

Deucalion (1), with Pyrrha said by 
some to have established sanctuary 
at Dodona and dwelt among 
Molossians, IX. 346 
Deucalion (2), son of Minos, de- 
manded surrender of Daedalus: 
slain by Theseus, I. 38 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Dexithea, mother of Romulus by 
Aeneas, I. 92 

Dexoiis, slew Megacles, companion of 
Pyrrhus, IX. 398 

" Diadematus," surname of one of 
the Metelli ; why given, IV. 142 

Diagoras, Olympian victor, V. 428 

Dialectics, Latin terms for it pro- 
vided by Cicero, VII. 184 

Diamperes, gate of Argos, IX. 450 

Diana, temple of, at Rome, X. 234 

Dicaearchia, opposing factions in it 
reconciled by Sulla, and code of 
laws prescribed, iv. 440 

Dicaearchus, I. 44, 74, V. 52 

Dicomes, king of Getae, promised to 
help Antony, IX. 280 

Dictator, what he was, how ap- 
pointed, etymology of the name, 

II. 134, 170*, III. 126, V. 504; for- 
bidden by ancient law to use horse 
in the field, in. 126 ; IX. 156 

Dictators: Fabius Euteo, 2nd dic- 
tator with M. Junius, in. 146; 
Caesar, VII. 130, 532, IX. 156; 
2nd time, VII. 562; Camillus, II. 
104; 2nd time, 158, 170; 3rd time, 
180; 4th time, 194; 5th time, 94, 
198; Quintus Capitolinus, 186; 
Pabius Maximus, III. 12G f.; Quin- 
tus Fulvius, V. 504; M. Junius, 

III. 146; Minucias, V. 446; Sulla, 

IV. 430; Postumius Tubertus, II. 
96 

Dictius, praetor, sends Sertorius as 

military tribune to Spain, vni. 6 
Didyma, plundered by pirates, V. 174 
Didymus, grammarian, made reply 

to Asclepiades re Solon's tables of 

law, I. 404 
" Dies Alliensis," named from disaster 

at river Allia, II. 136, 140 
Dies nefasti, some examples of, II. 

136, 5GO 

Dieutychidas, cited, I. 206 
Dindymene, mother of the gods, 

warns Themistocles, II. 82 
Dinon, see " Deinon." 
Diocleides, informer against Alci- 

biades, IV. 54 
Diocles (1), ruler of Megarians, lost 

Elensis to Theseus, I. 20 
Diocles (2), sou of Themistocles, 

adopted by his grandfather 

Lysander, II." 88 



Diocles (3), Syrian, helps Aratus 
capture the Acrocorinthus, XI. 
40 f. 

Diocles (4), of Peparethus, source for 
Fabius Pictor, gives most generally 
accepted story of Romulus and 
founding of Rome, I. 96; first 
to publish " Founding of Rome," 
112 

Diodorus (1), the Topographer, cited, 

I. 84; "On Tombs," II. 88; 450 
Diodorus (2), son of Sophax, Libyan 

king, had army of Olbianians and 

Mycenaeans, VIII. 24 
Diogeiton, Theban leader against 

Alexander of Pherae after death 

of Pelopidas, V. 430 
Diogenes (1), of Sinope, has verbal 

encounter with Dionysius the 

Younger, VI. 296 ; his reply to 

Alexander, VII. 258; had Onesi- 

critus as a follower, 408 
Diogenes (2), guardian of Peiraeus, 

XI. 76; bribed to give up Peiraeus, 

Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium 

to Athenians, 78 
Diogenes (3), Stoic, sent by Athens as 

ambassador to Rome, II. 368 
Diogenes (4), step- son of Archelalis, 

fell at Orchomenus, IV. 394 
Diogenes, adopted Lycurgus' design 

for a civil polity, I. 300; cited, 

III. 148 
Diomedes (1), son of Emathion, sent 

Romus from Troy, I. 92 
Diomedes (2), friend of Alcibiades, 

shabbily treated by him, IV. 26 
Dion, disciple of Plato, VI. 2, 8 f ., 

II. 212; brother of Aristomache, 
loved and trusted by Dionysius 
the Elder, VI. 6f.; impresses 
Dionypius the Younger, 12 f . ; 
envied by the other courtiers, 14 f.; 
attempts to interest Dionysius in 
liberal studies, 18 f. ; joins in 
inviting Plato to Sicily, 22 ; op- 
posed by Philistus and others, 
24 f.; expelled from Syracuse, 30; 
studies with Plato in the Academy 
at Athens, 32 ; made citizen of 
Sparta, 34 ; has his income stopped 
by Dionysius, 36 ; his estate con- 
fiscated by Dionysius, 40 ; becomes 
altogether hostile to him, 42 

Plans war, 44; not deterred by 

375 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



eclipse of moon sails with expe- 
dition against Dionysius, 48 f ., 

111. 290; reaches Pachynus, head- 
land of Sicily, VI. 52; lands and 
is entertained at Minoa, 54; joined 
by men of Agrigentum and Gela, 
56; joined by Camarinaeans, 58: 
enters Syracuse, and issues pro- 
clamation, takes Epipolae and 
walls off the acropolis, 60 f.; 
negotiates with Dionysius, 62 f . ; 
repulses attack from the citadel, 
64 f.; is suspected by Syracusans, 
68 f.; opposed by Heracleides, 
70 f . ; in vain slandered by Sosis, 
72 f . ; receives offer of surrender 
from Dionysius, 78 

Opposed by Hippo and Hera- 
cleides, 80; retires from Syracuse 
to Leontini, 84; is summoned 
from Leontini to rescue Syracuse, 
88; drives troops of Apollocrates 
back into the acropolis, 94 f . ; 
pardons Heracleides and Theo- 
dotes, 98; opposes redistribution 
of land and houses, 102 ; is defeated 
by Pharax at Neapolis, 102; 
hurries back to Syracuse and fore- 
stalls Heracleides and Gaesylus, 
104; receives surrender of acro- 
polis from Apollocrates, 106 ; takes 
back his wife Arete, 108; lives 
simply but through haughtiness 
becomes unpopular, is opposed by 
Heracleides once more, llOf. ; 
allows Heracleides to be murdered, 

112, 312 ; is plotted against and 
murdered by Calippus, 114 f ., 262, 
III. 260 

See also II. 212, VI. 248, 460 
Quoted VI. 12, 36, 90 

Dionassa, 2nd wife of Eunomus, 
mother of Lycurgus, I. 206 

Dionysia, festival, called Demetria 
in honour of Demetriu?, IX. 28 

Dionysius (1), the Elder, very sus- 
picious, kept his son shut up, VI. 
18; composed lyric poems and 
tragedies, 296 ; account of women 
he married and early troubles, 6 ; 
pardoned frankness of his sister 
Theste, 44; banished Philistus, 
24; executed children of Aristides 
the Locrian, 274; aided by the 
Fpartans, V. 420; honours and 

376 



trusts Dion, hears Plato and is 
angered, VI. 6f.; sends Plato 
away, requests Pollis to kill or sell 
him, 10; his children and death, 
12: his funeral, V. 428 
See aho I. 458, IV. 236 
Quoted : VI. 10, 12, 16 

Dionysius (2), the Younger, son of 
Doris, VI. 6; married Sophrosyne, 
12 ; offered help against Carthage 
by Dion, 14 ; kept secluded by his 
father, 18 ; urged by Dion to invite 
Plato to Sicily, 20; invites Plato 
to Sicily, recalls Philistus from 
exile, 22; becoming suspicious, 
sends Dion to Italy ; finally sends 
Plato away, 30; ally of Sparta 
against Thebes, 34; jealous of 
Dion, confiscates his property ; 
induces Plato to come to Sicily 
again, then dismisses him, 36; 
absent when Dion's expedition 
arrives, returns to Syracuse, negoti- 
ates with Dion and the Syracusans, 
then suddenly attacks, 54 f. ; is 
driven back to the acropolis, 64; 
sends letter to Dion, 68 ; offers to 
surrender conditionally ; being re- 
fused, sails away, leaving citadel 
in charge of his "son, 80, 262, 340, 
III. 290; in 10th year of his exile 
drives out Nisaeus, and becomes 
tyrant of Syracuse once more, VI. 
262 ; defeated by Hicetas and shut 
up in acropolis, 280 ; surrenders to 
Timoleon; spends rest of his life 
in Corinth, 290 

Quoted : 26, 40, 294 f. 

Dionysius (3), Colophonian, his pic- 
tures seem forced and laboured, 
VI. 346 

Dionysius (4), sent from Corinth to 
establish civil polity of Syracuse, 
VI. 320 

Dionysius (5), Messenian, executed by 
Alexander, vn. 428 

Dionysius (6), Syrian, brother of 
Diocles and Erginus, XI. 44 

Dionysius (7), Chalcus, his poems 
extant; founded Thurii, in. 224 

Dionysius (8), Magnesian, taught 
Cicero oratory, vn. 90 

Dionysius (9), of Halicarnassus, cited, 
I. 138; ("Antiq. Rom." 8. 2), IV. 
220; IX. 400; 414 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Dionysius, pattern deity of Deme- 
trius, IX. 8 ; cited, XI. 208 

Dionysodorus, of Troezen, cited, 
XI. 2 

Dionysus, married one of the two 
Ariadnes, and begot Staphylus, 
I. 42 ; with Ariadne honoured in 
festival of Oschophoria, 50, II. 114; 
378 ; 408 ; 410 ; 462 ; III. 216 ; benefi- 
cent deeds of, IV. 308 ; mortal who 
became immortal, V. 378 ; called 
Euius and Thriambus by Greeks, 
496 ; orgies of, practised by Mace- 
donian women, vn. 226, 258; had 
Gynaeceia as one of his mothers, 
462 ; his figure in " Battle of the 
Giants" at Athens blown down, 
IX. 274 

Dionysus Carnivorous, receives sacri- 
fice of 3 Persian youths before 
Salamis, II. 40, 238, V. 392 

" Dionysus, New," term Antony 
applied to himself, IX. 274 

Diophanes (1), general of Achaean 
League, invades Laconia, X. 300; 
kept out of Sparta by Philopoemen, 
390; 368 

Diophanes (2), rhetorician, exile from 
Mitylene, said to have urged Ti. 
Gracchus to attempt agrarian re- 
form, x. 160 ; executed after death 
of Ti. Gracchus, 192 

Diophantus, of deme Amphitrope', 
said to have prosecuted Aristides 
for taking bribe, II. 294 

Diopeithes (1), introduced bill for 
impeachment of those not believing 
in gods, III. 92 

Diopeithes (2), cites oracle against 
claims of Agesilalis to throne, IV. 
294, V. 6 

Diopeithes (3), Athenian general, vn. 
214, VIII. 160 

Dioscorides, writer of treatise on 
Spartan civic polity, cited, I. 236, 
V. 98 

Dioscuri (Tyndaridae, Castor and 
Pollux) demanded their sister Helen 
of Theseus, 1. 70 ; stormed Aphidnae, 
then received into Athens, 74; 
initiated into Eleusinian mysteries ; 
adopted by Aphidnus, honoured 
as gods and called Anakes, 76, 352 ; 
appeared on Lysander's ship, IV. 
260; golden stars of, set up at 

VOL. XI. 



Delphi by Lysander, disappear be- 
fore Leuctra, 280; sacrificed to by 
Alexander, VII. 368 ; called princes 
of Sparta, X. 358; seen in Rome 
after defeat of Tarquins, VT. 420; 
seen in forum after battle of Lake 
Regillus; Ides of July conse- 
crated to them, IV. 124 ; temple of, 
in Samothrace, VI. 418; in forum 
at Rome by fountain, IV. 124, 350, 

VIII. 298; decorated by Caeciliua 
Metellus, V. 120 

Diphilus (1), priest of Saviour-gods 
at Athens, IX. 114 

Diphilus (2), (Kock II. 576), III. 208 

Diphridas, ephor of Sparta, orders 
Agesilaiis to invade Boeotia im- 
mediately, V. 44 

Diploma, what it was, XI. 222, 280 

Dipylum, originally called Thriasian 
gates, III. 86, IV. 370 

Disaster, natural, ancient deluge, 
IV. 372 ; at Alban lake, II. 98 

Diseases: gout, its symptoms, IV. 
408; ulceration of bowels and 
bein? eaten by worms, afflicted 
Sulla and others, 438; boulimia, 
theories as to cause of, vi. 180 ; 
cataract, endured by Timoleon, 
350 ; quinsy, VII. 62 ; epileptic fits, 
of Caesar, 482 ; pleurisy of Marius, 

IX. 592 

Dithyrambic chorus, VII. 308 

Dium, city where Alexander met 

Demetrius, IX. 86 

Divorce, Hipparete applies for one 
from Alcibiades, IV. 20 ; decrees of 
Romulus concerning, I. 160; none 
at Rome for 230 years, 198; of 
Cloelia by Sulla, IV. 344 ; of Clodia 
and Servilia by Lucullus, II. 594; 
of Antistia by Pompey, V. 134; of 
Mucia by Pompey, 226 ; of Papiria 
by Aemilius Paulus, VI. 366 
Docimus, strives for chief command 

under Eumenes, VIII. 102 
Dodona, sanctuary there, said to 
have been established by Deucalion 
and Pyrrha, IX. 346 ; IV. 304; VIII. 
208 

Dodonaean Zeus, oracle of, II. 76 
Doe, white, of Sertorius, VIII. 28, 54 
Dog, of Xanthippus, had tomb at 

Salamis, II. 30, 460 
Dolabella (1), Gn. Cornelius, Sulla's 



N 



377 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



legate, IV. 414, 420; had naval 
command, which Sulla tried to 
take away from him, 448; im- 
peached by Caesar, acquitted, VII. 
448 

Dolabella (2), P. Cornelius, disgraces 
Caesar by his madness, VII. 562 ; 
introduces law for abolition of 
debts, opposed by Antony, IX. 
156 f., 160; objected to by Antony 
as colleague in consulship, 162; VI. 
130; accused of plotting against 
Caesar, 140, VII. 588, IX. 164; 
went to Syria without Cicero, VII. 
190; VI. 180 

Dolabella (3), P. Cornelius, acts for 
Caesar Augustus, IX. 324 

Dolabella (4), favoured for emperor 
by some, XI. 254; sent away by 
Otho to Aquinum, 286 

Doliola, name given place in temple 
of Quirinus where jars of Vestals 
were buried, II. 144 

Dolo, what it is, X. 168 

Dolopians, inhospitable and savage, 
refused to give up bones of Theseus, 
I. 82 ; driven from Scyros by 
Cimon, who sent bones of Theseus 
to Athens, II. 428; harried by 
Macedonians, X. 364 

Domitian, changed names September 
and October to Germanious and 
Domitianus, I. 370; built 4th 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 
640 f . ; learns of the defeat of the 
rebel Antonius, VI. 420 f . 

Domitius, see " Ahenobarbus " and 
" Calvinus." 

Doors, of house of M. Valerius alone 
opened outwards. Greek doors all 
did, I. 554 

Dorians, in Asia, III. 56 

Doris, raided by Xerxes, II. 26 

Doris, Locrian, wife of Dionysius 
the Elder, VI. 6; had 3 children, 
12 

Dorylaiis, general of Mithridates, 
lands at Chalcis, occupies Boeotia, 
is worsted in skirmish with Sulla 
near Tilphossium, iv. 390; slain 
in mutiny, II. 522. 

' Doson," surname given Antigonus 
in mockery, IV. 142, vi. 372 

Dowry, Terentia brought Cicero 
100,000 denarii, VII. 100 



" Drachma," original meaning of, 

IV. 278; II. 510 

Draco, laws of, repealed by Solon 
except one relating to homicide, 
I. 448 ; said lesser crimes deserved 
death, and for greater ones no 
heavier penalty could be found, 
450; 454 

Dracontides, moves a bill that 
Pericles deposit his accounts of 
public moneys with the prytanes, 
etc., III. 92 

Dramatic artists, assembled at Samos 
by Sulla, IX. 266 

Dramatic tetralogy, had farcical 
appendage, III. 14 

Dreams, II. 460, 500, 502, 506, 542, 
544, III. 8, 44, 350, IV. 112, 176, 
288, 352, 414, 440, V. 14, 170, 198, 
292, 306, 390, 392, VI. 4, 116, 170, 
206, 218, 234, 276, VII. 72, 84, 194, 
226, 292, 368, 544, 590, 602, VIII. 
94, IX. 10, 68, 172, 374, 442, X. 
64, 198 

Dress, II. 518, 536, IV. 236, 376, IX. 
98, 262 

Dromichaetes, treated Lysimachus, 
his captive, humanely, IX. 132 

Dromocleides, Sphettian, IX. 32 ; 
proposes that Piraeus and Munychia 
be handed over to Demetrius, 84 

Drusus (1) Livius, criticizes C. Grac- 
chus, X. 148; tribune, tries to 
weaken 0. Gracchus, 214; 220 

Drusus (2) Livius, uncle on mother's 
side, reared Cato the Younger, his 
brother Caepio, sister Porcia, half- 
sister Servilia, VIII. 236, 238 

Drusus (3), son of Livia, step-son of 
Octavius, married to Antonia, 
progenitor of Germanicus and 
Claudius, IX. 332 

Dryad, VII. 462 

Duris, Samian, descendant of Alci- 
biades, IV. 92 ; credibility as 
historian attacked by Plutarch, 
III. 78 

Cited: III. 78, IV. 92, 280, V. 
6, VII. 46, 56, 260, 356, VIII. 78, 
152, 184 

Dyme, city of Achaean League, XI. 
24 ; Achaeans defeated there by 
Cleomenes, X. 80 ; XI. 108; given to 
pirates as residence by Pompey, 

V. 186 



378 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Dyrrhachium, IV. 408; VII. 164; V. 
278; Caesar driven from it by 
Pompey, vn. 480; 180 



Earthquake, at Sparta, I. 292, II. 

452, IV. 66; at Athens, III. 244; 

during battle of lake Thrasyniene, 

124; VII. 164 
Ecbatana, in Media, V. 38, 416, VII. 

34, 424, XI. 192 
Ecdelus, Arcadian of Megalopolis, 

friend of Aratus, XI. 10, 16 
Ecdemus, Megalopolitan, made tutor 

of Philopoemen; his career, X. 256 
Echecrates, prophet-priest of oracle 

of temple of Apollo Tegyraeus, v. 

378 
Echecratides, sophist, liberated by 

Alexander on request of Phocion, 

VIII. 186 
" Echedemia," early name of 

Academy ; named after Echedemus, 

I. 74 
Echedemus, in army of Dioscuri, 

gave name Echedemia to what 

was afterwards called Academy, 

I. 76 

Echidna, fabled serpent, III. 418 
Eclipses, I. 120, III. 288 f., 290, 292, 

V. 46, 420, VI. 40, 48, 56, 400, VII. 

316 

Ecnomum, in Sicily, VI. 56 
Economy, domestic, taught by Cato 

the Elder, n. 390 
Ecphanes, father of Mandrocleidas, 

X. 14 

Ecprepes, ephor, cut out 2 of 9 lute- 
strings of Phrynis, the musician, 

X. 24 

Ecregma, in Egypt, IS. 142 
Edessa, in Macedonia, IX. 106, 370; 

where Lysimachus attacked Pyr- 

rhus, 380" 
" Editia," possibly at base of " phi- 

ditia," I. 236 
Edonian women, about Mt. Haemus, 

VII. 228 
Education, Spartan, I. 244 f., 396, 

V 2; Athenian, IV. 8, 16; II. 118; 

Eoman, I. 396; Cato the Elder's 

education of his son, II. 360; 

Aemilius Paulus' education of his 

children, VI. 370: of Spanish boys 

by Sertorius, VIII. 38; III. 318 



Egeria, goddess, consorted with Nurua 
Pompilius, I. 316, 332; 350; 360 

Egestaeans, descendants of Trojans, 
aided by Athenians, III. 210; 250 

Egypt, revolts against Persia with 
Athenian aid, II. 84; 460 f.; III. 
62; XI. 184; II. 474 f.; VII. 180 

Egyptians, think Lycurgus visited 
them and copied some features of 
his constitution from them, I. 214; 
318; IX. 142 

" Eight," as first cube and double 
first square, represents power of 
Poseidon, I. 86 

Elon, city on banks of Strymon, 
taken from Persians by Cimon and 
the land given Athenians, II. 422 f. 

Eirens, young men at Sparta, 20 
years old, 2 years out of class of 
boys ; their duties, I. 258 

Eiresione, what it is, I. 46 

'E/caToja/Sow, (100 oxen), origin of 
term as referring to money, I. 54 

Elaea, its revenue offered Phocion 
by Alexander, vm. 186; II. 484 

Elaeus, in Chersonese, IV. 254 

Elatea, plains of, IV. 374 

Elateia, surprised by Philip, vn. 42 ; 
VIII. 222 

Elatus, first ephor, in reign of Theo- 
pompus, I. 224 

Elea (Velia), on coast of Italy, VI. 
176, 456 

Eleans (Eleians), secede from Lacedae- 
monians, and make alliance with 
Athens, HI. 244, IV. 36; X. 56; 
helped by Cleomenes, 58 ; have 
Langon restored to them by 
Cleomenes, 80 

"Electra," of Euripides (v. 167 f.), 
cited, IV. 272 

"Elegies," of Critias (Bergk II. 
279 f.), cited, IV. 96 

Eleius, twin son of Cimon and woman 
of Arcadia, n. 450, III. 82 

Elephants, VII. 296 ; used by Pyrrhus 
in Italy, IX. 414, 428; used by 
Hannibal and routed, V. 508 

Elephenor, son of Chalcodon, accom- 
panied by sons of Theseus to Ilium, 
I. 80 f . 

Eleusis, taken by Theseus from the 
Megarians, I. *20, 68, 70, II. 42, 
246 ; sanctuary of mysteries at ; 
by whom built, in. 40, 86 ; mysteries 

379 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



of, profaned by Alcibiades, it is 
charged, IV. 48; festal rites of, 
described; celebrated by Alci- 
biades, 98; v. 374; captured by 
Demetrius, IX. 80 

Eleutherae, I. 68 

Eleutheria, celebrated at Plataea 
every 4th year, II. 278 

Elimiae, battle of ; Hostilius repulsed 
by Perseus, VI. 376 

Elis, detached from Spartan con- 
federacy by Thebes, V. 396 

Elpinice', Cimon's sister, her tomb, 
II. 412; scandal about her, 414, 
450; gets Pericles not to press 
charge of treason against Ciinon, 
448, III. 30 ; quoted, 80 

Elymaeans, kings of, send ambas- 
sadors to Pompey, V. 208 

Elysian Field, of which Homer sang, 
believed to be the Atlantic Islands, 

VIII. 22 

Emathion, father of Diomedes, I. 92 
Embalming, Agesilaiis' body enclosed 

in melted wax instead of honey, 

V. 112 ; 222 
Embassies: III. 216, 242, 244, 250, 

IV. 34, 66, 144, 180, 194, 238, 248, 

V. 416, VI. 386, VII. 38, 40, 42, 56, 

IX. 406 

Embezzlement, II. 220, III. 90 
Empedocles, on effect of love and 

^hate, IX. 12 

Empylus, rhetorician and housemate 
of M. Brutus; wrote account of 
Caesar's murder called " Brutus," 

VI. 130 

Enarsphorus, son of Hippocoon, 
sought to carry off Helen when still 
a child, I. 72 

Endeis, daughter of Sciron and 
Chariclo, mother of Peleus and 
Telamon, I. 20 

Endymion, story of, among Arcadians, 
resembles that about Numa and 
Egeria, I. 316 

Engyium, city of Sicily, brief descrip- 
tion and history of, V. 488 

Enna, city of Sicily, V. 488 

Enyalius, temple of, on Salamis, 
erected by Solon, I. 426 

Epaminondas, his family, poverty, 
character, generalship, n. 212, V. 
346 f., VI. 344 f., VIII. 150; saves 
life of Pelopidas at Mantineia, v. 

380 



350; suffered by Spartans to remain 
in Thebes when other popular 
leaders were outlawed, 352 ; urges 
Theban youth to vie with Spartans 
in wrestling, 356 ; comes to aid of 
Theban exiles with armed follow- 
ing, 368 ; introduces Pelopidas and 
his companions to Theban assembly, 
370; decides to fight Cleombrotus, 
388; his tactics at Leuctra, 394; 
as boeotarch with Pelopidas invades 
Peloponnesus, defeats Athenians 
while returning, brought to trial 
for prolonging command, acquitted, 
396 ; opposed politically by Mene- 
cleidas, 400; with allies ravages 
Laconia, and challenges Agesilaiis 
to battle, 84; busy in Pelopon- 
nesus, 404 ; sent to Thessaly, rescues 
Pelopidas and Ismenias, 414; 
builds Messene, repulsed by Agesi- 
laiis before Sparta, slain at Manti- 
neia, 94, IV. 452 ; buried at public 
expense, III. 19ft; V. 78. 

See also II. 324, 394, IV. 228, X. 
260, 292, XI. 42 

Quoted : I. 242, IV. 126, V. 76, 
348, 492 

Epaphroditus, freedman of Octavius 
Caesar, IX. 316 

" Epaphroditus," official title adopted 
by Sulla in writing to Greeks, IV. 
434 

Eperatus, general of Achaeans, XI. 
110 

Ephesians, honour Alcibiades, IV. 26 ; 
defeat Athenians under Thrasyllus 
84 ; made prosperous by Lysander ; 
headquarters of Persian generals, 
238; IX. 270 

Ephesus, naval battle near it won by 
Lysander over Athenians under 
Antiochus, IV. 104, 242; X. 382; 
II. 542; 550; assembly point for 
Antony's navy, IX. 264 

Ephetai, Draco addresses himself to 
them in cases of homicide, I. 454 

Ephialtes (1), in trying to dethrone 
Council of Areiopagus, opposed by 
Ciinon, n. 436; 444; acting for 
Pericles, broke power of Council of 
Areiopagus, 450, III. 20; 26; II. 
454 ; his character, career, manner 
of death, 30 f . 

Ephialtes (2), Athenian leader whose 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



surrender was demanded by Alex- 
ander, vii. 56 
Ephialtes, put in fetters by Alexander 

for announcing the absconding of 

Harpalus, VII. 346 
Ephors, established as curb upon 

oligarchy at Sparta 100 years after 

Lycurgus in reign of Theopompus, I. 

224; 290; 296; bribed by Themis- 

tocles, II. 52, 244, 420 ; hold office 

for year only, v. 8, 10 ; how their 

power increased, X. 70 
Ephorus, cited, II. 72, 138, 440, 442, 

in. 78, IV. 94, 304, 318, V. 380, 

VI. 76, 78, 270 
Epicharmus, comic poet of school of 

Pythagoras, I. 334; cited, 334, 

642 

Epicles, of Hermione, harpist, II. 14 
Epicrates (1), of deme Acharnae, II. 

66 
Epicrates (2), shield-bearer of Tima- 

goras, V. 418 
Epicurus (1), one of Phocion's 

accusers, vm. 232 
Epicurus (2), II. G12, VI. 206, VII. 596 ; 

during siege of Athens maintained 

lives of associates by distributing 

beans, IX. 82, 408 
Epicydes, son of Euphemides, popular 

leader bought off by Themistocles, 

11.16 
Epicydidas, br ngs message to Ages- 

ilalis, v. 38 
Epidamnus, VI. 180. 
Epidaurus, besieged by Pericles, III. 

102; joined Achaean league, XI. 

54; taken over by Cleomenes, X. 

90, 94 ; sacred treasures, of, used by 

Sulla, rv. 362 ; temple of Asclepias 

there, V. 174 
Epigethes, prominent citizen of 

PellenS, XI. 72 
Epigonus, tyrant of Colophon, arrested 

by Lucullus, II. 478 
Epilycus, Tisander's father, ill. 104 
Epimenides, of Phaestus, considered 

by some one of 7 wise rneu, I. 432 
Epipolae, part of city of Syracuse, in. 

266, 284, VI. 58, 62 
Epirus, I. 72, II. 64, IX, 346 ; Pyrrhus 

put on its throne by Q-laucias, 352, 

356; devoted to Pyrrhus, 358; 

plundered by Demetrius, 100, 430, 

X. 328 ; overrun by Romans, X. 332 ; 



pillaged by troops of Aemilius 

Paulup, VI. 432 
Epitadeus, ephor, introduced law 

permitting man to give or will his 

estate to whomsoever he wished, 

X. 12 
Epitaph, of Abrotonon, mother of 

Themistocles, II. 2 ; 276 ; of Timon, 

IX. 298f. 

Epitimus, Pharsalian, in. 104 
" Epitragia," why a surname of 

Aphrodite, i. 36 
Epixyes, satrap of Upper Phrygia, 

plots to kill Themistocles, II. 82 
Epoptae, IV. 60. 
" Eppptic," term applied to secret 

philosophical teachings, VII. 240 
Erasistratus (1), father of Phaeax, 

IV. 28 
Erasistratus (2), son of Phaeax, cited, 

v.40 
Erasistratus (3), physician at court of 

Seleucus, IX. 92 
Eratosthenes, cited, I. 204; (On 

Wealth) II. 74; vn. 22, 74, 228, 314 
Erechtheus, ancestor of Theeeus on 

father's side, I. 6 ; father of Merope, 

grandfather of Daedalus, 38, 72 
Eresos, Phanias of, I. 496 
Eretria, Plutarch expelled from it by 

Phocion, VIII. 172 
Ergadeis, one of 4 original tribes of 

Attica; why so called, I. 468 
Erginus, Syrian, helped Aratus take 

Acrocorinthus, helped in attempt 

on Peiraeus, XI. 40, 76 
Ergoteles, waits to seize Themistocles 

when he lands in Asia, II. 68 
Erianthus, Theban, iv. 27'J 
Ericius, served under Sulla, IV. 378, 

384 
Erigius, friend of Alexander in his 

youth, banished by Philip, VII. 248 
Erinyes, shrine of, at Athens, I. 430 
Eros, Anthony's slave, refuses to kill 

him, IX. 310 

Erycina, in Sicily, IX. 574 
Eryx, taken by Pyrrhus, IX. 418 
Esquiline hill, a city-gate of Home 

upon it, IV. 354 
Estate, of Demosthenes, father of the 

orator, VII. 8 ; of Aemilius Paulus, 

VI. 458 
Eteocles, Spartan, re Lysander, tv. 

284 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Etesian winds, VI. 48 

"Ethics," book by Theophrastus, 

in. 110 
Etruria, pacified by Marcellus, V. 

512 ; its cities give C. Scipio money 

for war in Africa, m. 192 ; VH. 106 
Etymocles, friend of Agesilaiis, V. 70 
Eua, its meaning, V. 494 
Euboea, governed by tyrant Tyn- 

nondas, I. 438 ; siezed by Athens, 

III. 20, 56 ; reinvaded and subdued 
by Pericles, 66, 200; occupied by 
Archelaus, VI. 358; brought under 
sway of tyrants by Philip, freed by 
Athens, VII. 40 

Euboeans, fearing abandonment, send 

Pelagon with large sums of money 

to Themistocles, 11.20; in. 64; 

proclaimed free by Flamininus at 

Isthmian games, X. 350 
Eubulus, Athenian, orator merely, 

VIII. 160 
Euchidas, fetched fire from Delphi to 

Plataea in one day, 1000 furlongs, 

H. 276 

Kucleia, who she was, II. 278 
Eucleidas (1), Spartan at court of 

Artaxerxes II., XI. 134f . 
Eucleidas (2), brother of Cleomenes, 

chosen as colleague in kingship by 

him, X. 74, 248; commanded a 

wing at Sellasia, 114 ; defeated and 

slain, 116, 268 
Encleides (1), new alphabet used after 

his archonship, II. 212 
Eucleides (2), sent by Timoleon to 

receive surrender of acropolis from 

Dionysius, VI. 290 
Euctus, Perseus' treasurer, slain by 

him, VI. 416 
" Eudaemon," surname of 2nd Battus 

IV. 142 

Eudamidas (1), younger son of Archi- 

damus, succeeded his brother Agis 

to throne of Sparta, X. 8 
Eudamidas (2), succeeded Archi- 

damus, succeeded by Agis as king 

of Sparta, X. 8 
Eudamus, master of elephants under 

Eumenes, VIII. 128 
Eudemus (1), Cyprian, urges Dion to 

free Sicily. On death of Eudemus 

Aristotle wrote dialogue " On the 

Soul," vi. 46 
Eudemus (2), of Pergamum, brought 



will of Attains Philometor to Rome, 
X. 176 

Eudoxus, with Archytas, originates 
mechanics and uses it in geometrical 
problems, v. 470 

" Euergetes," surname, its origin, iv. 
142 

" Euius," name for Dionysus, V. 496 

Euius, flute-player of Alexander, vill. 
80 

Eulaeus, Perseus' treasurer, slain by 
him, VI. 416 

Eumelus, father of Xenagoras, VI. 
394 

Eumenes (1), of Cardia, his family; 
advanced by Philip, then by 
Alexander, VIII. 78 ; often quarrels 
with Alexander and Hephaestion, 
80 f . ; given satrapy of Cappadocia, 
Paphlagonia, and southern coast of 
Euxine as far as Trapezus, 84 ; helped 
by Perdiccas to master his satrapy, 
sent by Perdiccas to pacify Armenia, 
88; appointed, commander of 
forces in Armenia and Cappadocia, 
defeats Neoptolemus, 90; rejects 
overtures of Antipater and Craterus, 
92 ; defeats and slays them, 96 f . ; 
winters at Celaenae, 102 ; defeated 
through treachery by Antigonus at 
Orcynii, 104; takes refuge in Nora, 
108 

Besieged by Antigonus in Nora, 
110 f.; takes oath of fealty to 
Antigonus with alteration, then 
flees, 114f. ; receives letters from 
Macedonia ordering him to wage 
war on Antigonus, 116; prevents 
Antigonus with loss from crossing 
the river Pasitigris, 120; though 
sick deters Antigonus from attack- 
ing-, 122; though warned of plot 
against his life, still fights Anti- 
gonus with partial success, 126 f. ; 
taken prisoner by the Silver- 
shields, his own men, and given to 
Antigonus, 130 f., who finally has 
him executed, 136; 4. 
Quoted, 102, 108, 132, 134 

Eumenes (2), received at Rome with 
extravagant honours by senate, II. 
324; X. 384 

Eumenes, IX. 274 

Eumenides, shrine of, in Athens, I. 
62 



382 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Euruolpidae, Athenian family, IV. 60, 

96 

Eumolpus, IV. 368 
Euneos, Athenian, brother of Thoas 

and Solois, with former made 

president and law-giver of Pytho- 

polis by Theseus, I. 58 f . 
Eunomus (1), genealogy, relation to 

Lycurgus, I. 206 
Eunomus (2), Thriasian, upbraids 

Demosthenes, vn. 16 
Eunus, runaway slave who headed 

Servile war in Sicily eaten of worms, 

IV. 440 
Euphemides, Athenian, father of 

Epicydes, II. 16 
Euphorion, father of Solon according 

to Philocles, I. 404 
Euphranor, engineer, exile from 

Syracuse, made ladders for Aratus, 

XI. 12 

Euphrantides, seer, advises sacrific- 
ing 3 sons of Sandauce, II. 38, 

238 
Euphrates, crossed by Clodius, II. 

534, 546, 548, 590,; crossed by 

Crassus, III. 364, 372 
Euphronius, teacher of Antony and 

Cleopatra's children, sent by them on 

embassy to Caesar Octavius, IX. 

302 
Eupolemus, son of Hicetas, captured 

and executed, vi. 338 
Eupolia (1), daughter of Melesippidas 

wife of Archidamus, mother of 

Agesilaus V. 2 
Eupolia (2), daughter of Agesilaus, V. 

52 
Eupolis, cited : 

Cities (Kock I. 315), II. 450 
Demes (Kock I. 280), in. 8; 
(281), IV. 28; (282), m. 
70 

Maricas (Kock I. 308), III. 220 
Euripides, died and buried at Arethusa 

in Macedonia; his tomb struck 

by lightning, I. 302; knowledge 

of his poetry saved some Athenian 

prisoners at Syracuse, m. 308; 
Alexander of Pherae greatly affected 

by " Trojan Women," V. 414; some 

of his plays sent to Alexander, 
vn. 242 ; " Bacchae " being given 
before Hyrodes when head of 
CrassMS is brought in, m. 420 



Plays cited : 

Andromache 1 (587f.), 1. 392; (683), 

VII. 372 

Bacchae (4f.), IX. 114; (8), I. 
404; (260), VII. 378; (310 f.), 
X. 168; (1170-72), III. 420; 
(1179), 422 
"Blectra (167), IV. 272 
Epinikion (Bergk II. 266), IV.. 26 
Epitaph (Bergk II. 265), in. 268 
See also IV. 4, VII. 2 
Erechtheus Nauck (474), III. '.'38 
Hercules Furens (173 f .), VIII. 362 
Iphigeneia at Aulis (445 f .), III. 

224 

Licymnius (Nauck 507), V. 492 
Medeia (215), VI. 338; (334), 240 
Orestes (129), IV. 64 
Phoenissae (68), IX. 370; (396), 
34; (517 f.), 386; (524 f.), III. 
434; (532 f.), IV. 332 
Suppliants (653 f .), I. 66 ; (863), 

V. 34G; (1213), 68 
Trojan Women (766), V. 38 
Unidentified (Nauck 473), II. 
414; (474), III. 238; (6.VJ), VII. 
378; (671), V. 308; (679), III, 
168, V. 528, IX. 336; (680), I. 
28, 464 

Eurotas river, supplied rushes for 
pallet-beds of Spartan boys, 1. 258 ; 
V. 50 ; crossed by Thebans under 
Epaminonda?, V. 88, 396; 382 
Eurybiades, Spartan, humoured and 
bribed by Themistocles at Artemis- 
ium, II. 20 ; wishes to abandon 
Salamis, 234; worsted in wordy 
encounter with Themistocles, 32 ; 
given 1st prize for valour by 
Spartans, 48 
Eurycleidas, messenger of Cleomenes, 

X. 64 

Eurycleides, with Micion prevents 
Athenians from helping Aratus, XI. 
94 

Eurycles (1), his proposal as to treat- 
ment of the captive Athenians 
adopted by Syracusans, Hi. 304 
Eurycles (2), Laconian, son of 
Lachares, pursues Antony's ship 
at Actiurn, IX. 288 

Eurydice (1), sister of Phila, wife of 
Ptolemy, gives daughter Ptolemais 
in marriage to Demetrius, IX. 116 
Eurydice (2), widow of Opheltn--, 



383 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



descendant of ancient Miltiades, 

married by Demetrius, rx. 32 ; 

mother of Corrhagus, 134 
Eurylochus, of Aegae, soldier of 

Alexander, VII. 346 
Eurymedon, battles of, n. 440 
Eurymedon, brings Nicias money from 

Athens, III. 278 
Eurypon, Spartan king, gave name to 

royal line because popular, I. 208 
Eurypontids, a house of the Hera- 

cleidae, royal line at Sparta, I. 208, 

IV. 300, 318, V. 328 ; Agis one, X. 8 
Euryptolemus, father of Isodice, 

II. 416 ; son of Megacles, 452 ; 
kinsman of Pericles, III. 18; of 
AJcibiades, IV. 94 

Eurysaces, son of Ajax, with his 

brother Philaeus became Athenian 

citizen and made over Salamis to 

Athens, I. 426; founder of Alci- 

biades' family, IV. 2 
Euterpd, Carian, wife of Neocles and 

mother of Themistocles according 

to Phanlas, II. 2 
Euthlppus, of Anaphlystus, friend of 

Cimon, slain at Tanagra, II. 458 
Euthydemus, colleague of Nicias, III. 

278; with Menander defeated by 

Syracusans, 280 
Euthymus, Leucadian, defeated by 

Gisco, VI. 334; Hicetas' master of 

horse, captured and executed, 338 
Euthynus, Thespian according to 

Oallisthenes, warns Agesilalis, V. 96. 
Eutychus, his name of good omen to 

Octavian, EX. 284 
Euxine sea, expedition to, by Pericles, 

III. 60 ; northern limit of Eumenes' 
territory, VIII. 84; II. 482 ; boundary 
of territory of Iberians, V. 204 ; 206 

Evalcus, Spartan, slain by Pyrrhus,IX. 

448 
Evander (1) Arcadian, husband of 

Carmenta or Nicostrate, I. 156; 

came to Italy, 124 
Evander (2), Cretan, remains with 

Perseus in his flight, VI. 416 
Evander's hill, near Messene, X. 308 
Evangelus (1), Pericles' steward, most 

economical, in. 52 
Evangelus (2), his ' Tactics "' studied 

by Philopoemen, X. 264 
Evanthes, Samian, cited, I. 430 
Exathres, brother of Dareius, admitted 

384 



as companion of Alexander, vil. 

352 
Execestides, father of Solon, descended 

from Solon, I. 404 
" Exegetics,' work of Autocleides, in. 

292 
Exhibitions, choral and gymnastic, 

given by Nicias to win favour, in. 

214 
Expedition, Sicilian, in. 250 f., IV. 

44 f. 
Exports, from Athens, I. 470 



Pabia, sister of Terentia, Cicero's wife, 
slandered by Clodius, vm. 278 

Fabii, origin of the family, ill. 118; 
3 men of, sent as ambassadors to 
Gauls, denounced by the Fetiales, 

II. 130 f.; 300 of.sla'in by Tuscans, 
136 

Fabius (1), founder of family of Fabii, 

III. 118 

Fabius (2), pontifex maximus, with 
the other priests and aged ex- 
consuls refuses to leave Rome, n. 
146 

Fabius (3), great-grandfather of 
Fabius Cunctator, 6 times consul, 
served as legate under his son when 
latter was consul, in. 188 

Fabius (4), son of preceding, consul, 
celebrated triumph, in. 188 

Fabius (5), pro-praetor, sent grain 
from Spain to Rome, x. 210 

Fabius (6), Lucullus' legate, defeated 
by Mithridates, n. 584 

Fabius Ambustus, see " Ambustus, 
Q. Fabius." 

Fabius Buteo, dictator with Marcus 
Junius after Cannae, III. 146 

Fabius Fabulus, said to have slain 
Galba, XI. 266 

Fabius Maximus (1) Cunctator Verru- 
cosus, his family and character, in. 
118 f.; in his 1st consulship 
triumphs over Ligurians, 120 ; after 
defeat of Romans at lake Thrasy- 
mene appointed dictator, appoints 
M. Minucius master of horse, 126 ; 
follows Hannibal but avoids battle, 
130 f . ; pens Hannibal up in 
district of Casiliuum, 134; lets 
Hannibal escape, 138 ; denounced 
at Rome for his tactics, 140; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



ransoms prisoners at his own 
expense, 142 ; has to share power 
of dictatorship with Minucius, 146; 
rescues Minucius from disaster, 
who resigns his equality of com- 
mand, 152 f. ; lays down his 
dictatorship, 168; urges Aemilius 
Paulus the consul to be cautious, 
160 

Calms the citizens after Cannae, 
170; is put in command with 
Claudius Marcellus, 172; consul 
5 times, escapes Hannibal's trap, 
174 f.; believes in treating dis- 
affection mildly, 176 f.; recaptures 
Tarentum, 180f. ; incurs reproach 
of perfidy and cruelty, 184; is 
honoured by his son being made 
consul, 186 ; opposes Scipio and 
his policy, 190 f.; died at about 
time Hannibal set sail from Italy, 
196 

See also II. 308, III. 6, V. 456, 492, 
500, 506, VII. 478 

Quoted: III. 134,152,160,178, 184, 
186, 492 

Fabius Maximus (2) son of preceding, 
made consul, corrects his father, 
III. 186; died in consulship before 
his father, 120, 190 

Fabius Maximus (3), son of Aemilius 
Paulus and Papiria, VI. 364, 366; 
seizes pass through Perrhaebia, 
392; received all of his father's 
estate, 458 

Fabius Valens, commander of a legion 
under Verginius Rufus, takes oath 
of allegiance to Galba, XI. 226; 
slew Fonteius in Germany by order 
of Galba, 236; first to salute 
Vitellius as emperor, 254; iu 
possession of Alps, 286; his 
character, 290 f., 294 

Fabius Pictor, kinsman of Fabius 
Cunctator, sent to consult oracle of 
Delphi after Cannae, III. 170 f; 
follows Diocles of Peparethus in hi:-- 
account of Romulus and founding 
of Rome, I. 9G; cited, I. 96, 112, 
126 

Fables related : II. 50, IV. 130, V. 102, 
VII. 56, VIII. 162 

Fabricius, C., explains defeat at 
Heraclela, IX. 400 ; heads embassy to 
Pyrrhus re exchange of pri~o> ers, 



406, made consul, warns Pyrrhu? 
of plot to poison him, 410, x. 378; 
II. 386; 394; quoted IX. 408 

Fabulus, Fabius, see " Fabius 
Fabulus." 

" Faenum habet in corna," origin and 
significance of saying, III. 334 

Faith, see " Fides." 

Falerians, with Capenates, utterly 
defeated by Camillus, II. 98 ; con- 
quered by Camillus, 104; attacked 
by Romans under Camillus, make 
peace with Rome, 116 f., 130 

Falerii, attacked by Romans on 
account of insult to tribune 
Genucius, X. 204 ; besieged by 
Camillus, II. 116 ; induced to yield 
by his treatment of traitorous 
schoolmaster, 120, Hi. 122 

Faliscans, see " Falerians." 

Famine, in Citium, n. 466 ; in Athens, 

IV. 270 ; 366, in Rome, I. 546 
Fannia, divorced from Titinnius, 

befriends Marius, IX. 570 
Faunius, C., says Ti. Gracchus with 

himself first to scale wall of Carthage 

X. 152, elected consul, 212 ; 222 
Far-darter, epithet applied to Apollo, 

X. 358 
Fasces, what they were, I. 172; 

carried before Vestals in public, 

342; 528 
Father, his right to sell sons curtailed 

by Numa, I. 366 
Faunus, demi-god, once haunted 

Aventine, I. 158, 358; husband of 

Bona according to Romans, vil. 

462 
Fausta, twin daughter of Sulla and 

Metella, IV. 434 

Faustulus, servant of Amulius, ex- 
posed children of Ilia, I. 96 ; reared 

Ilia's twins, 102; 108; slain with 

Remus, 116 
Faustus, twin son of Sulla and Metella, 

FV. 434; thrashed by Cassius, VI. 

144; married Pompey's daughter, 

V. 238, 326, VII. 474; V. 224; 
placarded his household goods for 
sale, vil. 150 

Favonius, Cato's friend, last to take 
oath to uphold Caesar's land law, 
VIII. 314; vil. 496; 542; elected 
aedile, vni. 348; V. 274, VII. 524; 
V. 290, 334; on board ship acts as 

385 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Pompey's valet, 30G ; not informed 
of conspiracy to murder Caesar, 
VI. 148 f.; reconciles Brutus and 
Cassius at Sardis, -00 

Fear, temple to, at Sparta, X. 66; 
signs of, XI. 08 

" Febrata," ancient name of day of 
feast of Lupercalia, 1. 156 

February, means purification, I. 156, 
370; intercalary month called 
Mercedinus by Romans, 366 

Fees, for public services introduced by 
Pericles, III. 24; none charged by 
Cato the Elder, u. 304 

" Felix," title adopted by Sulla, IV. 
434 

Fenestella, cited, III. 326 

Ferentine gate, 1. 166 

Festival, of Adonis, described, III. 
256, IV. 48; of Ceres, III. 170; 
Coreia, VI. 118; Dionysiac, VII. 
308, IX. 28 ; Hyacinthia, at Sparta, 
II 244 ; Lupercalia, VII. 584 ; 
Lysandreia of Samians, IV. 280 ; of 
The Pitchers, IX. 298; Saturnalia, 
license of slaves then, iv. 386 ; 
Thesmophoria, V. 352; iv. 390 

Fetiales, priests established by Numa, 
their duties, I. 346, II. 132 

Fever-few, grew on acropolis at 
Athens, IV. 366 

Fidenae, people of, defeated by Romu- 
lus and taken to Rome, 1. 138, 164 ; 
attacked by Veii, 168; 560 f. 

Fidentia, battle there between Sulla's 
and Marius" men, IV. 412 

Fides, temple to, erected by Numa, 
I. 3fi2 

Fimbria, assassinated Flaccus, IV. 
36-1, 4U2, II. 490; defeated Mithri- 
dates by land, asked Sulla to cut 
him off by sea, 478 f. VIII. 64, X. 
384 ; when his soldiers go over to 
Sulla, commits suicide, IV. 404 ; II. 
582 f.: quoted, 480 

Fines: II. 412, 414, III. 64, 78, 102, 
226, IV. 320, 406, V. 4, 10, 98, 204, 
412, VI. 198, VII. 64, 100. 

Fire, perpetual, in Greece entrusted 
to widows past age of marrying; 
how rekindled if extinguished, I. 
338 f.; in Rome entrusted to 
Vestals, 338 ; appointed by Numa 
to be worshipped as first cause of all 
things, II. 142 

3 86 



Firmum, soldiers from, under Cafe 
the Elder at Thermopylae, II. 
338 

" Five Thousand," at Athens, on 
getting control are remiss in waging 
war on Sparta, IV. 74 

Flaccus, Fulvius, see " Fulvius 
Flaccus." 

Flaccus, Hordeonius, sent by Galba 
to succeed Verginius Rufus, xi. 
226; 244; 252. 

Flaccus, Valerius (1) induced Cato 
the Elder to enter public life, 
consul and censor with him, n. 
310, 330, 350; made chief senator 
by Cato, 350 

Flaccup, Valerius (2) consul with 
Marius in his 6th consulship, IX. 
542 ; chosen consul (with Cinna), 
crossing Ionian sea against Sulla, 
IV. 330 ; slain by his soldiers 
instigated by Fimbria, n. 582, iv. 
364, 402 

Flamen Quirinalis, added as priest of 
Romulus by Numa Pompilius, T. 
328 

Flamens, named from their caps called 
pilamenai, 1. 328, V. 446 

Flamininus, L. Quintius, naval com- 
mander on his brother's expedition 
to Greece, X. 328; expelled from 
senate by Cato the Elder, II. 350 f., 
X. 372 f. 

Flamininus, T. Quintius, statue of him 
at Rome, his disposition, X. 322 ; 
served as military tribune under 
Marcellus against Hannibal; consul 
before 30, and assigned to war 
against Philip, 324 ; crosses at 
once to Epirus and relieves Publius 
Villius, 328 ; learning of secret path, 
forces the heights held by Philip, 
330 f.; joined by Thessaly and 
Achaeans, 334; joined by rest of 
Greece, 336 ; is given extension of 
command, 338; defeats Philip at 
Cynoscephalae, 340 f ., IV. 364, ~VT. 
372, X. 292 ; is vexed by Aetolians, 
X. 344 ; restores Macedonia to 
Philip on terms, 346 ; proclaims 
freedom to the Greeks at the 
Isthmian games, 350 

Begins war with Nabis, tyrant of 
Sparta, and then makes peace with 
him, 358, 296 ; jealous of Philopoe- 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



men, honoured by Achaeans and 
given Roman prisoners sold as 
slaves by Hannibal, 360 ; spoils of 
war shown at Eome, 362 ; made 
lieutenant of Manius Acilius in war 
against Antiochus, 364 ; intercedes 
with Manius for Naupactus, 
Aetolians, and Chalcidians, 366 ; 
highly honoured by Chalcidians and 
other Greeks, 368 ; made censor 
with son of Marcellus, makes 
Scipio Dean of Senate, quarrels 
with Cato, 372 f., II. 356 ; censured 
for his persecution of Hannibal, X. 
378 f. 

See also II. 336, 386, X. 300, 306, 
316 
Sayings : X. 258 f., 370 f. 

Flaminius, circus of, decorated by 
Lucullus, II. 592 

Flaminius, C., routs Insubres after 
receiving senate's message of recall, 
V. 442 ; appointed master of horse 
by Minucius, 446 ; defeated and 
slain by Hannibal at Thrasyniene, 
III. 122 

Flavius (1), military tribune under 
Marcellus, put elephant to flight, 
V. 508. 

Flavius (2), tribune, deprived of 
office for taking royal diadems off 
Caesar's statues, vil. 584 

Flavius, C., Brutus' chief of engineers, 
slain at Pharsalus, VI. 240 f. 

Flavius Gallus, efficient officer under 
Antony, worsted by Parthians, IX. 
234 

Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's brother, 
made prefect of city by Nero, later 
by Otho, XI. 286 

Flora, courtesan, her relations with 
Pompey, V. 118, 252 

Florus, Mestrius, shows battlefield of 
Otho and Vitellius to Plutarch, XI. 
308 f. 

" Fodii," original form of " Fabii " 
according to some, m. 118 

Fonteius, slain in Germany by Valens 
by order of Galba, XI. 236 

Fonteius Capito, see " Capito, 
Fonteius." 

Forgery, by Hannibal, III. 176 

Fortune, temple of, beyond Tiber in 
Plutarch's time, vi. 168 

Fortune, Women's, temple of, erected 



by senate after Coriolanus spared 

city, iv. 210 
Forum Romanum, originally valley of 

slime there, I. 144; contained 

Basilica Porcia, II. 356 ; V. 442 
Fossae Cluiliae, 5 miles from Rome, 

IV. 188. 

" Four Hundred," see " Five 
Thousand." 

Fregellae, v. 516 ; conspiracy there, 
X. 202 

Frentanian, IX. 398 

Fufidius, creature of Sulla's, IV. 426 ; 
governor of Baetica, routed bv 
Sertorius, VIII. 30 

Fulcinia, mother of C. Marius, IX. 466 

" Fulvia," basilica in Rome, replaced 
by Paulus the consul, vil. 514 

Fulvia (1) reveals plot for his murder 
to Cicero, yn. 120 

Fulvia (2), widow of Clodius, married 
to Antony, IX. 160; had daughter 
Glodia, 180; quarrelled with L. 
Antonius, then with him fought 
Octavius and was defeated, 196, 
202; 198; died at Sicyon, 204 ; had 
son Antony, 266, 330 

Fulvius, tribune, opposes T. Flami- 
ninus' candidacy for consulship, 
X. 324 

Fulvius Flaccus, Gn., defeated and 
slain in Apulia by Hannibal, v. 502 

Fulvius Flaccus, M. f implores Ti. 
Gracchus to submit question of 
agrarian law to senate, X. 170; 
186 f. ; questions Scipio about death 
of Ti. Gracchus, 196; friend of C. 
Gracchus, his character and deeds, 
attacked by Livius Drusus, sus- 
pected of death of Scipio, commis- 
sioner with C. Gracchus for distri- 
bution of public land, 218 f. ; 220 ; 
urges C. Gracchus to resist consul 
Opimius, 226 ; with his partisans 
seizes Aventine hill, 230, 232 ; slain 
with his elder son, 234, 236 f . ; had 
been consul and celebrated triumph 
over Gauls, 230, 238 

Fulvius Flaccus, Q., consul with 
Appius, reduced Capua, III. 300 ; 

V. 504 

Funeral rites, Greek : regulations of 
Solon, I. 432, 462, 524; II. 278; at 
Sparta, V. 112; VI. 352; VII. 4'24 

Fuuerul rites, Roman : regulations of 

3*7 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Numa, I. 346 ; origin of custom of 

funeral oration, 524 ; 564 ; one to 

be pronounced over woman's body, 

11.114; III. 190 
" Furcifer," origin and meaning of 

term, IV. 178 
Furies, grove of, X. 236 
Furii, first made conspicuous by 

Camillas, II. 96 
Furius (1), consul with Flamiaius, 

leads forces against Insubriaus, 

recalled, V. 442 
Furius (2), legate of praetor Varinus, 

routed by Spartacus, III. 338 
Furius, L., son of Camillus, II. 182; 

colleague of Camillus in war with 

Praenestians and Volscians, 190; 

192 
Furnius, ablest orator in Rome, IX. 

270 



Gaben^, has winter-quarters of 
Eumenes' men, vin. 124 

Gabii, where Romulus and Remus 
were educated, I. 102 

Gabinian way, Brennus defeated 
beside it by Camillus, II. 166 

Gabinius, A. (1), military tribune 
under Sulla at Chaeroneia, IV. 378 

Gabinius, A. (2), intimate of Pompey, 
proposes law giving him almost 
unlimited power to wage war on 
pirates, V. 176; consul with Piso, 
240, VIII. 216 ; had law written out 
to depose Piso from consulship, v. 
182 ; gets province of Syria with 
helpof01odius,VII.156; 160; takes 
M. Antony as commander of the 
horse to Syria with him, reluctant 
to help Ptolemy recover Egypt, 
IX. 142 ; ordered by Caesar to bring 
his troops with all speed to 
Macedonia, 154 

Gaesatae, V. 440; defeated at Clasti- 
dium by Marcellus, 446 

Gaesylus, Spartan, reconciles Dion 
and Heracleides, VI. 104 

" Galata," later name of Mt. Acrurium. 
VIII. 222 

Galatia, visited by Marius, IX. 548; 
taken from Tigranes by Lucullus, 
II. 510, V. 202 ; added to Pompey's 
sway by Manilian law, 190 ; IX. 
276 



Galatians, baggage carriers with 
Lucullus, II. 510 

Galba, slain by Caesar's mutinous 
soldiers, VII. 562 

Galba, C. Sulpicius (1), Sulla's legate 
at Ohaeroncia, IV. 384 

Galba, 0. Sulpicius (2), cited, 1. 143 . 

Galba, Ser. Sulpicius (1), opposed 
triumph of Aemilius Paulus, VI. 
434, 438; impeached by Cato the 
Elder, II. 344 ; 386 

Galba, Ser. Sulpicius (2), proclaimed 
emperor on persuasion of Nym- 
phidius Sabinus, xi. 208 f.; his 
wealth and family, 210 ; career and 
popularity under Nero, 212; in- 
vited by Vindex to assume the 
imperial power, 214; joined by 
nearly all, 216; invites Verginius 
to join in preserving empire, 218; 
informed he has been proclaimed 
emperor by army, senate and people, 
218; secretly opposed by Nym- 
phidius, 220 f . ; fears Verginius, 
224; comes under influence of 
Vinius, 228; orders fellow-con- 
spirators of Nymphidius to be 
executed, 236; becoming un- 
popular owing to severity and 
greed, 236 f.; censured even for 
reasonable measures, 242 f . ; 
appoints Vinius and himself con- 
suls, 250 ; hated by soldiers for his 
stinginess, 252 

On learning that Vitellius had 
been proclaimed emperor in 
Germany adopts Piso' as his 
successor, 256 ; warned by priest 
Umbricius of treachery, 258; in- 
formed that Otho has been pro- 
claimed emperor, 202 ; slain by 
soldiers, 266 ; buried by Argivus, a 
freedman, 270 ; recapitulation, 270 ; 
quoted, 266. See also 286 

Galepsus, near Amphipoli^, vi. 416 

Galley, thirty-oared of Theseus, pre- 
served till time of Demetrius 
Phalereus, 1.48. See also " Ships." 

Gallia Narbonensis, VIII. 32 

Galloscythians, term applied to whole 
army of Cimbri and Teutoues, IX. 
488 

Gallus, Annius, commands part of 
Otho's forces, XI. 288; 292; 296; 
304 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Gallus, C. Cornelius, sent by Octavhis 
to help take Cleopatra alive, IX. 
316 

Gallus, Flavins, see " Flavius Gallus." 

Games : funeral games instituted by 

Minos, I. 30 ; gymnopaediae at 

Sparta, V. 80; 56; 252; Isthmian, 

VI. 322; X. 350; Nemean, parsley 
used for wreath, VI. 322 ; X. 88 ; 
284; 354; XI. 64; Olympic, IV. 24 ; 
V. 34 ; VII. 230 ; Pythian, V. 50 ; IX. 
100 

Gandarites, people of India, VII. 400 
Ganges, its width and depth, VII. 400 
Gardens, of Lucullus, II. 598 
Gargettus, has place called Araterion, 

1.80 
Garland, of oak leaves given by 

Romans to one who saves life of 

citizen, IV. 122 
Gates, Dipylon, Piraic, Sacred, of 

Athens, IV. 370 
Gaugamela, means camel's house; 

actual site of battle of Arbela, VII. 

316 
Gaul, its extent, IX. 488; given as 

province to Caesar for 5 years, V. 

240, VII. 474; given to Caesar for 

5 more years, III. 360, V. 250, VII. 

494; pacified by Verginius Rufus, 

XI. 224 
Gaul, Cisalpine, separated from Italy 

by Rubicon, vii. 490; invaded by 

Cimbri and Teutones, who rout 

Romans, Till. 6; II. 484; revolts, 

VII. 106; 110; held by Brutus for 
Lepidus, V. 152 ; governed by 
Cassius, III. 340 ; governed by 
Brutus, VI. 138 ; decreed province 
of Brutus Albinus, 168 

Gaul, Transalpine, Cimbri and Teu- 
tones defeat many large Roman 
armies there, IX. 490 

Gauls, of Celtic stock, early migrations 
and settlements, I. 408, II. 126, 404, 
IX. 488 ; attracted to Italy by love 
of wine, II. 126, VI. 368; besiege 
Clusium, II. 128; on recognizing 
Fabius Ambustus, Roman am- 
bassador among their foes, march 
on Rome, 132, I. 348; defeat 
Romans at battle of Allia, 160, 
n. 136 ; sack Rome, 1. 142, 184, 350, 
II. 148, V. 440; defeated by 
Ardeans led by Camillus, II. 160; 



fail to take Capitol on account of 

geese, 158; suffering from plague, 

come to agreement with besieged 

on Capitol, 162; cut to pieces by 

Camillus, 166; in 2nd march on 

Rome defeated by Camillus at the 

Anio, 198. Clodius in his 'An 

Examination of Chronology " says 

ancient records lost when Gauls 

sacked Rome, I. 306. 

Destroy Ptolemy Ceraunus and 

his army, IX. 416; 426; 430 f.; 

fight Rome after 1st Punic war, v. 

436, 440 f . ; defeated by Flaminius, 

442, III. 122 ; 334 ; II. 560 ; III. 392 ; 

rise against Caesar, are subdued, 

VII. 502 ; XI. 242 
Gaza, principal city of Syria, taken 

by Alexander, VII. 296; IX. 12 
Gedrosia, in Persia, vii. 410 f. 
Geese, sacred, give alarm on Capitol, 

II. 160 
Gegania, one of two first Vestals 

appointed by Numa, I. 340 ; 394 
Gela, Aeschylus' grave near, n. 430, 

VI. 56 ; repeopled after Timoleon 

pacified Sicily, 344 
Gelae, neighbours of Albanl and 

Amazons, V. 208 
Gelanor, king of Argos, expelled by 

faction, IX. 454 
Geleontes, one of 4 original Attic 

tribes, why so called, I. 468 
Gellianus, friend of Nymphidius 

Sabinus, XI. 224; 230 
Gellius, L., consul, crushed Germans 

in Spartacus' forces, in. 340 ; vrii. 

252; censor, V. 170; opposed 

Caesar's agrarian law, VII. 146 
Gellius, M., VII. 150 
Gelon (1), tyrant of Syracuse, VI. 12 ; 

defeated Carthaginians at Himera 

318; sends grain to Rome, IV. 154 
Gelon (2), plots against Pyrrhus, IX 

356 f. 
Geminius (1), of Terracina, enemy of 

Marius, IX. 562, 568 
Geminius (2), I'ompey's friend, V. 118 ; 

by his orders slays Brutus the 

Elder, V. 154 

Geminius (3), Antony's friend, IX. 272 
Genthius, king of lilyrians, VI. 376 ; 

bribed by Perseus to imprison 

Roman embassy, taken by L. 

Anicius, 386 



389 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Genucius, tribune of people, insulted 

by Falerians, X. 204 
Geometricians, VI. 26; cited, 394 
Geometry, studied by Archimedes, V. 

470 
Geradas, Spartan, re adultery at 

Sparta, I. 252 
Geraestus, near Aulis, V. 14 
Gerandas, Spartan, slain in skirmish 

with Thebans, V. 402 
Geraneian range, in Greece, X. 92, 

XI. 70 
Gergithus, its revenue offered Phocioii 

by Alexander, vm. 186 
" Germanicus," title accepted by 

Vitellius, XI. 254 
Germanicus, descended from Drusus 

and Antonia, had son Caius, IX. 

332 

Germanicus Nero, see "Nero Ger- 
manicus." 
Germans, under Ariovistus, crushed 

by Caesar, VII. 488 f . ; IX. 488 
" Germanus," earlier name of Ker- 

malus, I. 98 
Germany, ravaged for 18 days by 

Caesar, VII. 498 
Gerontes, appointed at Sparta by 

Lycurgus himself, afterwards 

elected, I. 282 

Getae, Dicomes their king, IX. 280 
Ghosts : 11.406, 420, VI. 206, 234, VII. 

606 
Giants, Battle of, group of figures at 

Athens, IX. 274 
Gifts : n. 432, 530, 566, 594, III. 26, 

108, 316, 350, IV. 154, 436, V. 112, 

230, VII. 562, IX. 146 
Gigis, maidservant of Parysatis, 

executed by Artaxerxes, XI. 170 f. 
Gisco (1), assists Hicetas and Ma- 

mercus, VI. 334 ; defeated by Timo- 

leon, 340 

Gisco (2), with Hannibal, III. 162 
Glabrio, AT. Acilius (1), see " Acilius 

Glabrio." 
Glabrio, M'. Acilius (2), his wife 

Aemilia taken from him by Sulla 

and given to Pompey, IV. 432, v. 

134; had province of Bithynia, V. 

190 
Glaucia, helps Marius oppose Metellus, 

IX. 542; drives him from Rome, 

IV. 446 
Glaucias, king of Illyrians, befriends 

390 



infant Pyrrhus, restores him to his 

father's throne, IX. 350 f. 
Glaucippus, son of Hypereides, spoke 

against Phocion, VIII. 152 
Glaucus (1), Corinthian, ally of 

Trojans, VI. 2 
Glaucus (2), Hephaestion's physician, 

crucified by Alexander, vil. 424 
Glaucus (3), son of Polyir.edes, dis- 
tinguishes himself under Phocion, 

VIII. 172 
Glaucus (4), physician, warns Dellius 

of Cleopatra's plot against him, IX. 

272 
Glyoon, moves Menon the informer be 

given immunity from taxation, III. 

90 
Gnathaemion, Argive sempstress, 

mother of Perseus, VI. 374, XI. 124 
Goat's Marsh, where Romulus dis- 
appeared, I. 176, 186, 308,11. 180: 

I. 184 
Gobryas, father of Ariomandes, II. 

440 
Gold, withdrawn from currency by 

Lycurgus, I. 228 ; scarce in Rome in 

Gamillus' time, II. 114 
Gornphi, city of Thessaly, taken by 

Caesar, vil. 542 
" Gouatas,' surname of Antigonus, 

VI. 372 
Gongylius, reaches Syracuse from 

Corinth, tells of Gylippus coming; 

slain, in. 274 f. 
Gordium, home of ancient Midas, 

taken by Alexander, VII. 272 
Gordius, driven out of Cappadocui 

by Sulla, iv. 334 
Gordyaean mountains, VII. 316 
Gordyen, Zarbienus, king of, II. 534, 

568, 584; invaded by Parthian 

king, relieved by Afranius, V. 208 
Gordyeni, some moved to Tigranocerla 

by Tigranes, II. 552 ; join Tigranes 

with their hosts, 554 ; join Lucullus ; 

the reason, 568 

Gorgias (1) Leontine, cited, II. 434 
Gorgias (2), officer under Eumenes, 

VIII. 98 
Gorgias (3) rhetorician, censured by 

Cicero, VII. 142 
Gorgi'Ias, with armed following helps 

Theban exiles, V. 368, 370; 

boeotarch with Pelopida?, 372; 

first formed sacred band, 382; 386 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



, Leonidas' wife, quoted, I. 



Gorgoleon, Spartan polemarch, slain 

in battle with Thebans at Tegyra, 

V. 380 
Gorgon, her head lost from image of 

goddess, II. 30 
Gorgus, sailing from Ceos, repeopled 

Gela, VI. 344 
" Gorpiaeus," name of month in 

Cyprus, I. 42 
Gortynians, in Crete, aided by Areus, 

IX. 436; helped in war by Philopoe- 
men, X. 288 f . 

Gouras, Tigranes' brother, nominal 
defender of Nisibis, captured by 
Lucullus, II. 578 

Gracchus, Ti. Sempronius (1) married 
Cornelia, daughter of Scipio 
Africanus, X. 144, 146, 152 ; father 
of Ti. and C. Gracchus, twice 
consul, censor, had 2 triumphs, 
144; subdued many of Spaniards, 
but made peace with Numantines, 
154; when consul named Scipio 
Nasica and C. Marcius his suc- 
cessors, then found he had made 
mistake in taking auspices, V. 444; 
died leaving wife with 12 children, 

X. 146 

Gracchus, Ti. Sempronius (2) son of 
Ti. Gracchus and Cornelia, daughter 
of Scipio, brother of C. Gracchus, 
X. 144; contrasted with his 
brother, 146f. ; made augur, 
becomes son-in-law of Appius 
Claudius, 150; served with the 
younger Scipio in taking Carthage, 
. as quaestor served under consul C. 
Mancinus against Numantia, 152 f . ; 
why he began to agitate for his 
agrarian laws, 158 f.; advised by 
Crassus, pontifex maximus, Mucius 
Scaevola, jurist, and Appius 
Claudius, 162 f.; his bill vetoed by 
Octavius another tribune, intro- 
duces one more severe, ordering 
wrongdoers to vacate without 
compensation illegally acquired 
land, 166; his life in danger, 168; 
illegally has Octavius removed from 
office, 170 f.; his agrarian bill 
becoming law, is chosen with 
Appius Claudius and his brother to 
survey and distribute the public 



laud, 174; proposes that money 
willed Rome by king Attalus be 
given citi?.ens who received public 
land to aid them in stocking their 
farms, 176; defends his course in 
respect to Octavius, 178f. ; stands 
for tribune for following year, 182 ; 
warned by Fulvius Flaccus of plan 
to kill him, 188; slain by mob of 
opponents, 190; his body thrown 
into river, his friends banished or 
executed, 192. See alto 198 

Gracchus, C. Sempronius (1), son of 
elder Ti. Gracchus and Cornelia, 
X. 144; Quoted, 164, 180 

Gracchus, C. Sepronius (2), son of elder 
Ti. Gracchus and Cornelia, X. 144 ; 
9 years younger than his brother, 
150, 198 ; reared with brother by his 
mother, 146; contrasted with his 
brother, 6, 146 ; while serving under 
Scipio against Numantia, appointed 
one of 3 men to administer agrarian 
law of Ti. Gracchus, 174; married 
Licinia, 194; 196; goes as quaestor 
with consul Orestes to Sardinia, 198 ; 
canvasses for tribuneship, 202 ; 
elected 4th, introduces 2 laws, 1st, 
that magistrate deprived of office 
should not be allowed to hold 
office again, 2nd, that magistrate 
banishing citizen without trial 
should be prosecuted, 204 f. ; pro- 
poses 5 laws to gratify people 
and overthrow senate, 206 f . ; 
becomes very powerful, his further 
measures and activities, 208 f . ; 
gets C. Fannius elected consul, is 
made tribune again, 214; outbid 
by colleague Livius Drusus, 214 f.; 
sails off to found colony at Carthage, 
meanwhile further undermined by 
Drusus, 218; returns in 70 days, 
220; changes his residence from 
Palatine to near forum, opposed 
by consul Fannius, 222 ; not 
elected tribune 3rd time, 224 ; many 
of his laws to be revoked by consul 
Opimius and followers, 216 ; dis- 
tressed by murder of consul's 
servant Antyllius, 226 ; warned of 
danger by his wife, 232 ; prevented 
from slaying himself by 2 com- 
panions, flees, 234 : slam, his body 
thrown into the Tiber, his property 



39 i 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE -LIVES' 



confiscated, 236 ; his memory 
honoured by the people, 238 

Wrote pamphlet explaining what 
induced Ti. Gracchus to undertake 
agrarian reform, 162, quoted, 204 f. 

Qracinus, one of conspirators against 
Sertorius, yin. 68 

Granicus, river, where Alexander 
defeats Persians, II. 138, VII. 264; 
where Lucullus defeats Mithridates, 
II. 504 

Granius (1) Harms' step-son, IX. 560; 
accompanies Marius in flight, 564, 
574 

Granius (2), magistrate of Dicaearchia, 
ordered strangled by Sulla, iv. 442 

Granius Petro, quaes'or in Caesar's 
army, taken by Scipio, kills 
himself, VII. 480 

Grants, for festivals, by Pericles, III. 
24 

Great Mother, prophesies victory for 
Romans against Cimbri and Teu- 
tones, IX. 508 

Greece, invaded by Darius' forces 
under Datis, II. 224; invaded by 
Xerxes, 18, 234; invaded by 
Antiochus the Great, 334; toured 
by Aemilius Paulus after Pydna, 
VI. 428; its sacred treasures taken 
by Sulla, iv. 362 ; Pompey's great 
force there, V. 280 

Greek, understood by Cato the Elder, 
II. 336 ; spoken fluently by Lucullus 
II. 470 

Greek culture, opposed by Cato the 
Elder, n. 370 

Greek words, once numerous in Latin, 
V. 454 

Greeks, defeat Persians at Marathon, 
Salamis, Plataea, Mycale, Arbela, 
II. 10, 40, 138, 264, VII. 136; are 
medising, n. 18, 268; saved by 
Themistocles, 20; pay war con- 
tribution fixed by Aristides at 460 
talents, 286 ; under leadership of 
Cimon, 420; defeated by Persians 
in Egypt, 618; have no success 
against Persians after Cimon, 464; 
their peace disturbed by Alcibiades, 
IV. 32 f . ; despised Persians after 
return of 10,000, XI. 172 f.; have 
Peace of Antalcidas dictated to 
them by Persian king, 176; 
honoured Dion, VI. 34; defeated 

392 



by Philip at Chaeroneia, II. 138, 

VII. 48 f.; 250 f.; united against 
Alexander by Demosthenes, 54 ; 
proclaim Alexander leader against 
Persia, 258 ; crushed at Crannon by 
Antipater and Craterus, 68, II. 138, 

VIII. 200 ; subjugated by Cassander 
and Ptolemy; Antigonus and 
Demetrius attempt to free them, 

IX. 18 f.; tempted to revolt by 
Ptolemy, governed by Demetrius' 
son, 108 f . ; helped by Pyrrhus 
against Demetrius, 378; had little 
contact with Romans up to time of 
Flamininus, X. 326 ; 334, 336, pro- 
claimed free by Flamininus at 
Isthmian games, 296, 350, 386; 
welcomed at Lucullus' house in 
Rome, n. 604; treated well by 
Antony, IX. 184 

Greeks and their generals 
criticized, X. 352 f., 386 f.; their 
opinions and laws opposed to 
father marrying daughter, XI. 182 

Greeks, Asiatic, some moved from 
Cilicia and Cappadocia to Mesopo- 
tamia by Tigranes, II. 536 ; many 
transplanted from Cilicia to Tigra"- 
nocerta, 552; sent from Tigrano- 
certa to their homes by Lucullus, 
566 

Greeks, Italian, fight battle at river 
Sagra, VI. 420 ; invite Pyrrhus, IX. 
384 

Greeks, Sicilian, send to Corinth for 
help and get Timoleon, VI. 264; 
freed from Carthaginians by 
Timoleon, 332 

" Grypus," cognomen or epithet, IX. 
464 

Gulf, Arabian, see " Arabian Gulf." 

Gyarta, large rich tract in territory of 
Syracuse, VI. 80 

Gylippus (1), comes from Sparta to 
aid Syracuse, III. 272-, IV. 62. VI. 
104; in first battle defeated by 
Athenians, next day defeats them, 
III. 276 ; captures Plemmyrium 
with large stores and moneys, 278; 
282; 296; receives proposal of truce 
from Nicias, 300 ; slays or captures 
Athenian force, spares Nicias, 302 ; 
is refused request to be allowed to 
take Athenian generals captive to 
Sparta, 304; III. 66; 1.298; son of 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Cleandridas, banished for abstract- 
ing 30 talents from 1000 sent by 
Lysander to Sparta, III. 66, 306, IV. 
274 f., VI. 460 

Gylippus (2), father of Agiatis, X. 50 

Gylon, father of Demosthenes' 
mother, banished on charge of 
treason, VII. 8 

Gymnasium, at Athens, near it 
Theseus buried, I. 84. 

Gymnopaediae, at Sparta, I. 218, V. 
80 

Gymnosophists, said to have been 
consulted by Alexander, I. 216; 
caused Alexander much trouble 
VII. 404 f.; 408 

Gynaeceia, same as Roman " Bona 
Dea," mother of Midas according 
to Phrygians, VII. 128, 462 

Gythium^ Cleomeues puts to sea from 
it, X. 11G; relieved by Philopoemen, 
294 



Habrotonon, Thracian, mother of 

Themistocles, II. 2, 8 
Hades, II. 372 
Haemon, afterwards called Thermo- 

don, flows past Heracleum, I. 64, 

VII. 46 
Hagnon (1), father of Theramenes, 

III. 212, IV. 270; amends bill of 

Dracontides, III. 92 
Hagnon (2), Teian, with Alexander, 

VII. 286; 342; 382 
Hagnonides, public informer, VIII. 

210; denounces Phocion as traitor, 

220; 222; 226; executed by 

Athenians, 232 
Hagnothemis, cited, VII. 436 
Hair, sheared on fore part of head by 

Theseus, Abantes, Mysians, I. 10 ; 

shaved off by Argives, worn long 

by Spartans, IV. 234 
Halae, burial place of Timon, IX. 298 ; 

destroyed by Sulla, IV. 408 
Haliartus, tomb of Rhadamanthus 

near it ; Lysander routed and slain 

there, IV. 312, 452 ; Halicarnassus, 

in Caria, native city of Euterpe, II. 

2 ; stormed by Alexander, vii. 268 ; 

besieged by Ptolemy, relieved by 

Demetrius, IX. 18 
Halimus, deme of Thucydides, II. 

412 



Halonnesus, speech on, by Demos- 
thenes, VII. 24 

Hamilcar, with Hasdrubal, com- 
mander of Carthaginian forces 
defeated by Timoleon at river 
Crimesus, VI. 320 

Hamilcar Barcas, II. 324 

Hannibal, invaded Italy, III. 122, V. 
456 ; defeats Flaniinius at lake 
Thrasymene in Tuscany, III. 124; 
tries to force Fabius to fight, 132 ; 
escapes from Fabius' trap by ruse, 
136, 200; spares Fabius' fields to 
bring odium upon him, 140 ; traps 
Hinucius, retires when Fabius 
comes to rescue, 150f.; destroys 
Roman army at Cannae, 162 f . ; 
refuses to attack Rome ; how helped 
by Cannae, 168; defeated by 
Marcellus at Nola, V. 462 ; 464 ; 500 ; 
slew Gn. Fulvius the proconsul and 
most of his army in Apulia, 502 ; 
fights drawn battle with Marcellus 
near Numistro, 502 ; fights battles 
with Marcellus near Canusium, 
506 f . ; worn out with fighting 
Marcellus, afraid of Fabius, III. 174 ; 
loses Tarentum to Fabius, begins to 
realize insufficiency of his forces. 
186 ; traps and slays the consuls 
Marcellus and Cri^pinus, V. 518; 
recalled to Carthage, defeated by 
Scipio, 40, II. 398, III. 192, X. 144, 
328; stirs up Antiochus against 
Rome, 346 ; after defeat of Antiochus 
goes to Artaxas the Armenian and 
supervises building of city Artaxata, 
II. 572 ; flees to Prusias in Bithynia, 
commits suicide, X. 378 f. 

See also 1. 162, II. 304, 334, III. 6, 
176, V. 344, 524, 528, VIII. 4, X. 384. 
Quoted: III. 154, 162 f.; 186, v. 
458, 506 f., 520, IX. 366, X. 380 

Hanno, Carthaginian admiral, VI. 306 

Harmony, goddess, born of Ares and 
Aphrodite, V. 386 

Harmost, left in each city by Lysander, 
IV. 266 ; Callibius the 'Spartan in 
Acropolis, 274; Sphodrias, at 
Thespiae, V. 66 ; 370 

Harpalus (1), banished by Philip, 
honoured afterwards by Alexander, 
VII. 250; appointed governor of 
Babylonia by Alexander, 332 ; sent 
books to "Alexander, 242; ab- 

393 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



sconded, 346; tried to bribe 
Phocion, VIII. 190, bribed Demo- 
sthenes, sent from city, vil. 60, 
216 

Harpalus (2), served with Aemilius 
Paulus against Perseus, VI. 392 

Hasdrubal (1), see " Hamilcar." 

Hasdrubal (2), conquered in Spain by 
Scipio, X. 328 

Heads of the Great Syrtis, VI. 54 

Health, temple of, had statue in 
honour of Cato the Elder, n. 356 

" Hecaergos," name given Apollo, X. 
358 

Hecate, honoured for her hospitality 
by Theseus, I. 26 

Hecalesia, sacrifice to Zeus Hecalus 
in honour of Hecale], 1.26 

" Hecaline," diminutive of Hecale, I. 
26 

Hecataeus (1) sophist, what Archi- 
damidas said about him, I. 266 

Hecataeus (2), tyrant of Cardia, urges 
Leonnatus to go to aid of Antipater, 
distrusts Eumenes, VIII. 86 

Hecataeus (3) of Eretria, cited, VII. 
356 

Hecatombaeon, Athenian month, I. 
52, 84; same as Boeotian Hippo- 
dromius, II. 138; V. 78; same as 
Macedonian Lolis, VII. 228 f. 

Hecatombaeum, near Dyme, X. 80 

Hecatompedon, part of Syracuse, VI. 
94 

Hectemorioi, or Thetes, Athenians 
who paid a sixth of increase as rent, 
1.436 

Hector, captured and plundered 
Troezen, carried off Aethra, I. 78 ; 
V, 188; Spartan youth closely 
resembled him, XI. 8 

Hecuba, V. 414 

Hedylium, mountain, iv. 378 f. 

Hegemon, accompanies Phocion to 
Polysperchon, viii. 224 ; condemned 
to death with Phocion, 228 

Hegesias, cited, VII. 230 

Hegesipyle, Thracian, wife of Miltiades, 
mother of Cimon, II. 412 

Hegestratus, Athenian archoii, I. 496 

Helen, rape of, by Theseus led to war 
in Attica and Theseus' banishment 
and death, I. 6fi, 196; different 
accounts of rape of, 70 ; on way to 
Troy threw golden tripod into sea, 

394 



which fished up was offered as prize 

to wisest man, I. 412 
Helenas, son of Pyrrhns and Bircenna 

IX. 370, 454; found and sent back 

to Epeirus by Alyoneus, 460 
Heliaea, in Athens, VIII. 178 
Helicon (1) of Cyzicus, friend of Plato, 

predicted eclipse of sun, VI. 40 
Helicon (2), made belt for Alexander, 

VII. 322 

Helicon, mountain, IV. 318, V. 48 
Helicus, X. 102 

Heliopolis, Psenophis of, I. 476 
Helius, adherent of Nero, executed 

by Galba, XI. 240 
Hellas, came into closer relations with 

Persia after time of Themistocles, 

II. 80. See also " Greeks." 
Hellanicus (1), cited : I. 32, 56, 58, 60, 

70, IV. 54 
Hellanicus (2), sent by Syracusans to 

implore help of Dion, VI. 88 
Hellenes, see " Greeks." 
Hellenic Council, II. 274, 278 
Hellespont, II. 240, 506, III. 50; 

Philip driven from it by Phocion, 

VIII. 174 f. 

Helots, made slaves by Spartans 
under Soils, 1. 206 ; tilled ground for 
Spartans, 278 ; slain by young men 
of "krupteia," 288, 290; treated 
very harshly, 386 ; did all business, 
prepared and cooked meals, etc, 
388; 464; revolt from Sparta at 
time of great earthquake, I. 292, n. 
454 f . ; many desert from Agesilaiis 
to enemy, v. 90 ; those who could 
pay 5 Attic minas freed by Cleo- 
menes ; 2000 armed in Macedonian 
fashion, x. 100 

Helvetii, defeated by Caesar and forced 
to return home, VII. 486 

Helvia, Cicero's mother, VII. 82 

Helvidius Priscus, took up Galba's 
body, XI. 270 

Henioche, daughter of Pittheus, wife of 
Canethus, mother of Sciron, I. 56 

Hephaestion, friend of Alexander, 
yn. 340, 346; followed Alexander 
in adopting barbarian mode of life, 
quarrels with Craterus, 360 ; 382 ; 
quarrels with Eumenes, VIII. 78 f.; 
dies at Ecbatana to great grief of 
Alexander, splendidly buried, 82, 
V. 428, VII. 424 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Heptachalcum, place at Athens, IV. 
368 

Hera, statue of, at Argos, III. 4 ; 70 ; 
attacked by Ixion, x. 2 ; festival of, 
among Samians to be called Lysan- 
dreia, IV. 280 ; temple of, I. 482 ; 
temples of, at Samos, Argos, 
Lacinium, plundered by pirates, V. 
174; temple of, at Corinth, seized 
by Aratus, XI. 54 

Hera, Cithaeronian, II. 246, 266 

" Heracleia," name of precincts dedi- 
cated to Herakles by Theseus, I. 80 

Heracleia, taken by Demetrius, IX. 52 

Heracleia, sacked by M'. Acilius, X. 
364 

Heracleia, in Pontus, ghost-oracle of, 
II. 422; reached by Mithridates, 
508 

Heracleia, in Italy, battle between 
Pyrrhus and Laevinus near it, IX. 
394 

Heracleidae, how maintained by 
Athenians, I. 48 ; included Spartan 
kings, 206 ; united with Dorians 
and came into Peloponnesus, but 
only 2 houses, Eurypontidae and 
Agiadae, furnished kings, IV. 300; 
234; IX. 464 

Heracleides (1), Syracusan boy, brings 
on sea fight, III, 292 

Heracleides (2), Syracusan, Dion 
accused of plotting with him 
against Dionysius, VI. 24; returns 
from Peloponnesus to Syracuse; 
brief account of him ; becomes rival 
of Dion, 70 ; though admiral, fails 
to prevent Dionysius sailing away, 
supports popular proposals, 80; 
elected general, 82 ; recalls Dion, 
94; pardoned by Dion, 100; 
appointed admiral, renews his 
machinations against Dion, 102 ; 
prevented from occupying Syracuse 
by Dion, takes up G-aesylus the 
Spartan, 104; reconciled to Dion 
by Gaesylus, 106; again plots 
against Dion, who has him slain, 
112 

Heracleides (3), of Cyme, cited, XI. 
182 

Heracleides (4), Ponticus cited : I. 
404, 466, 494, 496, II. 72, 146, III. 
102, VII. 293 

Heracleitus : (Frag. 74, Bywater 30), 



I. 182; (Frag. 105, Bywater 41), 
IV. 170; (Frag. 116, Bywater 45), 
214,11.136 

Heracleium, II. 38, III. 294, VI. 392, 
IX. 271 

Heracles (1), destroyed some powerful 
wicked men in Hellas, cowed others ; 
after he slew Iphitus and went to 
Lydia, old villainies burst forth 
anew, but Lydia got peace and 
security, I. 14, 296 ; kinsman of 
Theseus, 16 ; sacrificed Busiris, 
wrestled Antaeus to death, slew 
Oycnus, dashed out Termerus* 
brains, 22; instituted Olympian 
games in honour of Zeus, 56 ; ac- 
companied by Theseus in campaign 
against Amazons, 58, 544; slew 
Antiope and her Amazons, 64 ; 68 ; 
initiated into Eleusinian mysteries 
at instigation of Theseus, 70 ; 78 ; 
secured Theseus' release from 
Aidoneus, 80; father of Telephus, 
92 ; ancestor llth removed from 
Lycurgus, 206, 446; II. 2; had 
daughter Eucleia by Myrto, 278; 
410 ; statue of, removed from Taren- 
tum and set up in Capitol at Rome by 
FabiusMaximus,lll. 184; 210; had 
tendency to melancholy according 
to Aristotle, IV. 236; V. 380; said 
to have loved Tolaiis, 384 ; father 
of Macaria, 390; ancestor of 
Alexander, VII. 224; took Ilium, 

VIII. 2 ; had son Sophax by Tinga, 
settled Olbianians and Mycenaeans 
about city of Tinga, 24; had son 
Anton, IX. 146 ; shown in paintings 
with Omphale taking away his 
club and lion's skin, 336 

Heracles (2), son of Alexander by 

Barsin6, vin. 80 
" Heracles, bowl of," VII. 432 
Heraea, IV. 294; city belonging to 

Acaaean league, seized by 

Cleomenes, X. 64 
" Heraea," Greek for " Junonia," X. 

220 
Heraeum, II. 266 ; at Corinth, seized 

by Agesilaus, V. 58 ; X. 94 ; 110 
Heralds, at Rome, I. 354 
Hercules, I 114; became father of 

1st Fabius, III. 118 ; 350 
Hercynii, inland limit of Cimmerians, 

IX. 490 

395 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Hereas, Megarian, cited, I. 40, 76, 428 
Herennius, C., reluctant to witness 

against Marius, IX. 472 ; with 

Perpenna defeated by Pompey, V. 

158 
Herennius, centurion, kills Cicero, VII. 

206 
Herippidas, V. 28; harmost in 

Thebes, executed by Spartans, 370 
Hermae, of stone, dedicated by 

Cimon, II. 424 
Hermae, mutilation of, III. 210, 254, 

IV. 48, 52 

Hermaeus, priest with Mithridates' 

army, II. 522 
Hermagoras, rhetorician, opposed by 

Poseidonius at Rhodes, V. 224 
Hermes, to east of Delphinium at 

Athens, called Hermes at Aegeus' 

gate, I. 24 
" Hermes of Andocides," why so 

called, III. 254, IV. 56 
Hermes Terrestrial, n. 280 
Herminius, helped Horatius defend 

the bridge, I. 544 
Hermione', joins Achaean league, XI. 

78; taken by Cleomenes, X. 90; 

had temple of Chthonian Earth, 

V. 174; purple came from there, 

VII. 332; Epicles of, II. 14 
Hermippus (1), comic poet, prosecutes 

Aspasia for impiety, III. 92 ; 

(Kock I. 236 f .), cited, 96 
Hermippus (2), cited : I. 218, 278, 

406, 418, 430, VII. 12, 26, 70, 74, 

380 
Hermocrates, Syracusan, his daughter 

married Dionysius the Elder, VI. 

6; son of Hermon, destined to 

cause most of Athenian reverses, 

III. 210: 296; 304; his saying re 

Nicias, 264 
Hermolails, plots against Alexander, 

is executed, VII. 382 
Hermon (1), father of Hennocrates, 

III. 210 
Hermon (2), slew Phrynichus, crowned 

by Athenians, IV. 74 
Hermotimus, Phocaean, father of 

Milto, III.. 72 
Hermus, left by Theseus as one of 

governors of Pythopolis, I. 60 
Hermus, on road from Athens to 

Eleusis, has tomb of Pythonice', 

VIII. 192 

396 



Hero, niece of Aristotle, mother of 
Callistheties, VII. 384 

Herod, Jew, sends army to Antony, 
IX. 276; deserts to Octavius, 300, 
302 

Herodes, urged by Cicero to study 
philosophy with Cratippus, VII. 142 

Herodorus Ponticus, cited I. 68, 
66, 70, 114 

Herodotus (1), story about him among 
Bithynians resembles that about 
Numa and Egeria, I. 316 

Herodotus (2), cited : (VIII. 3), n. 
56 ; (5), 20 ; (93), 46 ; (IX. 46), 258 ; 
(64), 388; (85), 272 

Herophytus, Samian, not so shrewd 
as Cimon, II. 430 

Herostratus, sent into Macedonia by 
Brutus to win over commanders of 
armies there, VI. 178 

Hersilia, only married Sabine woman 
seized, married to Hostilius or to 
Romulus, I. 130, 146; appealed for 
reconciliation between Romans and 
Sabines, 150 

Hesiod, loved by gods for sake of 
Muses, 1. 318 ; verse expunged from 
his poems by Peisistratus, 40; 
rebuked for calling some days good 
and others bad, II. 136. Works and 
Days (309), II. 390; (311), I. 408; 
(366}, XI. 240 ; (370) quoted and 
ascribed to Pittheus on authority of 
Aristotle, I. 6 ; calls Minos " most 
royal," 30 

Hestia, goddess, forbids Tarchetlus 
murdering his daughter, I. 94 

Hestiaea, II. 22 

Hestiaeans, expelled from their 
country by Pericles, III. 66 

Hesuchia, priestess of Athena at 
Clazomenae, III. 254 

Hexapyla, of Syracuse, cut through 
by Marcellus, V. 482 

Hicctas, of Leontini, chosen general 
by Syracusans, secretly negotiates 
with Carthaginians, VI. 264; 276; 
defeats Dionysius, shuts him up in 
acropolis, orders Carthaginians to 
prevent Timoleon from landing, 
280; 284; defeated by Timoleon, 
288 ; continues siege of acropolis of 
Syracuse, tries to have Timoleon 
assassinated, 298; summons to his 
aid Mago, 302, 304; his forces in 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Syracuse defeated and driven out 
by Timoleon, 312 ; compelled to 
forsake cause of Carthage, demolish 
his citadels and live as private 
person at Leontini, 318 ; invades 
territory of Syracuse, defeated and 
executed, 334 f. ; had murdered 
Andromachd and Arete, 122, 340 

Hidrieus, Carian, gets letter from 
Agesilaiis, V. 36 

Hiempsal, king of ISTumidia, IX. 574, 
576 ; given larbas' kingdom by 
Pompey, V. 142 

Hierapolis, in. 366; formerly called 
Bambyce, given Monaeses by 
Antony, IX. 220 

Hiero (1), tyrant of Sicily, refused 
Themistocles Ms daughter's hand, 

II. 66 

Hiero (2), intimate friend of Nicias, 

III. 224 

Hiero (3), king of Syracuse, receives 
gifts from Romans, v. 456 ; had per- 
suaded Archimedes to make prac- 
tical application of his geometry, 
470 

Hieronymus (1), historian, sent by 
Antigonus to make treaty with 
Eumenes, VIII. 114; left as governor 
of Boeotians by Demetrius, IX. 96 ; 
cited, 400, 414 

Hieronymus (2), Rhodian philosopher, 
cited, II. 296 ; V. 36 

Hieronymus (3), tyrant of Syracuse, 
dies, V. 466 

Hieronymus (4), of Carrhae, urges P. 
Crassus to escape to Ichnae, III. 
394 

Hill-men, at Athens, favoured 
democracy, I. 434; led by Peisis- 
tratus, 486 

Himera, river in Sicily where Gelon 
defeated Carthaginians, VI. 318 

Himera, Sicilian city, pardoned by 
Pompey, V. 140 

Himeraeus, brother of Demetrius the 
Phalerean, executed by Antipater, 
vii. 70 

Hippada Telountes, Athenians able 
to keep horse or getting 300 
measures yearly, Solon's 2nd class, 
I. 450 

Hipparchus (1) of Cholargus, kinsman 
of Peisistratus, lirst man ostracised, 
III. 250 



Hipparchus (2), father of Asclepiade?, 

vni. 194 
Hipparchus (3), son of Theophilus, 

first freedman to desert Antony for 

Octavius, K. 292; 304 
Hipparchus (4) Spartan, father of 

Aristocrates the writer, I. 216, 302 
Hipparete', daughter of Hipponicus, 

wife of Alcibiades, applied for 

divorce, IV. 20 
Hipparinus (1), father of Aristomache, 

once colleague of Dionysius the 

Elder, VI. 6 
Hipparinus (2), Dion's son, called 

Aretaeus according to Timaeus, VI. 

68 
Hippias (1), sophist of Elis, published 

list of victors at Olympic games, I. 

308; cited, 276 
Hippias (2), one of 3 young men 

fleeing with infant Pyrrhus, IX. 

348 
Hippias (3), mime with Antony, IX. 

158 
Hippikon, distance of 4 furlongs, I. 

408 
Hippitas, lame friend of Cleomenes In 

Egypt, X. 134, 136 
Hippo, tyrant of Messana, VI. 80 ; 

shelters Mamercus, caught and 

executed, 342 
Hippobotae, wealthy class of Chal- 

cidians, banished by Pericles, III. 66 
Hippoclus, father of Pelopidas, V. 346 
Hippocoon, father of Enarsphorus, I. 

72 

Hippocrates (1) mathematician, en- 
gaged in trade, I. 408 
Hippocrates (2), physician, consulted 

by Persian king, his reply, n. 372 
Hippocrates (3), father of PeidLstratus, 

1.490 
Hippocrates (4), general when 1000 

Athenians lost at Delium, III. 226 
Hippocrates (5), Spartan governor of 

Chalcedon, defeated and slain by 
Alcibiades, IV. 86 

Hippocrates (6), commander of 
Syracusans, seizes city and defies 
Marcellus, V. 4C8; his camp at 
Acrillae captured by Marcellus, V. 
482 

Hippodrome, at Rome, I. 102 
Hippodromius, Boeotian month, same 
as Athenian Hecatombaeon, II. 138 

397 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Hippolyta, not Antiope', said by 
Cleidemus to have been the name of 
the Amazon whom Theseus married, 
1.62 

Hippolytus (1), or Demophoon, son of 
Theseus and Antiope, I. 64 

Hippolytus (2), Sicyonian, loved by 
Apollo, I, 318 

Hippomachus, trainer, his saying, VI. 
2 

Hippomedon, son of Agesilaiis, urges 
father to support Agis, X. 14 ; saves 
father, 36 

Hlpponicus (1), friend of Solon, I. 
444 

Hipponicus (2), father of Callias the 
Eich by wife who later married 
Pericles, III. 70; gave Alcibiades 
his daughter Hipparete to wife, IV. 
18 f. 

Hipponium, city of Lucania, later 
called Vibo, VII 162 

Hipposthenides, Theban, one of con- 
spirators assisting Pelopidas, V. 
356 

Hirtius, consul elect with Pansa, 
keeps Cicero at Borne to support 
them, VI. 452, vil. 190 ; with Pansa 
defeats Antony at Mutina but is 
himself slain, 193, IX. 174 

History of Borne, written by Oato the 
Elder for his son, II. 362 ; planned 
by Cicero, vil. 186 

Histories of B,utilius, V. 212 

" Hoc age," its meaning, I. 356, IV. 
178 

Homer, poems of, preserved among 
posterity of Creophylus in Ionia, 
first made really known by Lycur- 
gus, I. 214; said by Timaeus to 
have met the elder Lycur-gus, 
204; "Od." S3. 631 inserted by 
Peisistratus, 40 ; " II." n. 557 f . 
inserted by Solon according to most 
writers, 426; II. 424; III. 172; his 
view as to man's responsibility for 
his actions, IV. 196; used by 
teachers, 16 ; always brings his 
boldest and most valiant heroes 
into battle well armed, V. 342 ; his 
poetry characterized, VI. 346 ; Alex- 
ander considered Iliad viaticum of 
military art, had Aristotle's re- 
cension called Iliad of the Casket, 
VII; 242 ; 298 ; H. said to have been 



born at los, aad to have died at 
Smyrna, VIII. 4; IX. 420; 490; 
studied by Philopoemen, X. 264; 
XI. 246 

Iliad, (I. 18Sf.) IV. 198, (238 f.) 

IX. 106, (259) VI. 202, (491 f.) IX. 
382, X. 128, (II. 204) IX. 320, (363) 
V. 384, (547) I. 64, (557 f.) 426, 
(607) XI. 106, (III. 144) I. 78, (172) 

X. 68, (IV. 175) V. 40, (431) X. 68, 
(V. 340) VII. 306, (VI. 161 f.) IV. 176, 
(429 f.) VI. 176, (491) 176, (IX. 
438 f.) X. 256, (XI. 544) V. 302, 
(XII. 243) IX. 442, (XIV. 86 f.) 
436, (XV. 189) 254, (XVI. 849) VI. 
178, (XIX. 15 f.) X. 280, (XX. 467) 
VII. 28, (XXI. 107) 3SO, (XXII. 207) 

V. 188, (XXIII. 296 f .) 24, (XXIV. 162) 
IX. 192, (525 f.) VI. 446, (630) 260. 

Odyssey (I. 47) X. 196, (IV. 230) 

III. 236, (246) IV. 172, (354 f.) VII. 
298, (VIII. 75 f.) V.12, (IX. 299) 

IV. 198, (339) IV. 196, (494) VIII. 
180, (XI. 14 f.) IX. 490, (XII. 428) 

VI. 3S, (XIV. 162) I. 474, (222 f .) II. 
392, (XVIII. 158) IV. 196, (XIX. 179) 
I. 32, IX. 106, (307)1. 474 

Verse not now in poem?, IV. 196 
Homoloichus, Chaeroneian, assists 

Sulla, IV. 382, 390 
Honoratus, Antouius, see " Antonius 

Honoratus." 
Honour and Virtue, temple to, by 

Marcellus, V. 512 
" Hoplias," former name of stream 

Hoplites, IV. 316 
Hoplitai, one of 4 original Attic 

tribes, composed of warriors, I. 468 
Hoplites, stream near Haliartus, or, 

as some say, Coroueia, IV. 316 
Horatius Codes, helped by Herminius 

and Lartius, saves Borne by holding 

bridge, I. 544 
Horatius Flaccus, " Epist." I. 6. 45 f., 

cited, n. 598 
Horatius, M., elected consul to 

succeed Lucretius, I. 534; quarrels 

with Publicola about consecration 

of temple to Jupiter Capitoliuus, 

538 
Horcomosium, place at Athens, 

adjoining Theseum, I. 64 
Hordeonius Flaccus, see " Flaccus, 

Hordeonius." 
" Horns," place in Megara, II. 38 



398 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Ilortensius, Q. Hortatus (1) orator, 

brother of Valeria, IV. 436 ; legate 

of Sulla in Greece, IV. 374, 384, 386 ; 

appeared for Verres, VII. 98 ; sur- 
passed Cicero at trial of Licinius 

Murena, 170 ; admirer of Cato, 

takes Cato's wife Marcia, Vlii . 2 92 f . ; 

made her his heir, 362 ; II. 472 
Hortensius, Q. Hortatus (2) delivered 

up Macedonia to Brutus, vi. 180; 

ordered to kill 0. Antonius, and 

after Philippi slain on his tomb by 

Antony, 186, IX. 184 
Hostilius (1) Sabine, husband of 

Hersilia, grandfather of Hostilius 

who was king after Numa, fell in 

battle between Romans and Sabines, 

1. 130, 146 
Hostilius (2), Tullus, king after Numa, 

his character and death, I. 146, 

382 
Hostilius Mancinus, Aulus, consul, 

repulsed by Perseus at Elimiae, 

VI. 376 
Hostius, L., first parricide at Rome, 

I. 162 
" House of Hermes," place in Pytho- 

polis, I. 60 
" House of Tiberius," place in Rome, 

XI. 260 
Houses, of Cato the Elder, did not 

have plastered walls, n. 314 
Hyaciuthia, festival celebrated at 

Sparta, II. 244 

Hyacinthus, loved by Apollo, I. 318 
Hybla, in Sicily, attacked by Nicias, 

III. 262 
Hybreas, rebukes Antony in behalf of 

Asia, IX. 188 
Hyccara, barbarian fastness in Sicily, 

overthrown by Nicias, in. 262 
Hydaspes, river in India, VII. 394 
Hydra, " cutting off its heads," 

proverbial expression, X. 244 
Hydrus, II. 444 

Hyllus, father of Cleodaeus, IX. 346 
" Hymenaeus," nuptial cry of Greeks, 
: -I. 132 
Hypates, one of Theban tyrants, slain 

by Pelopidas' band of conspirators, 

V. 366 f. 

Hyperbatas, Theban general, X. 80 
Hyperbolus, of deme Perithoedae, last 

man ostracised, II. 252, in. 248, IV. 

28 



Hyperboraeans, army of, captured 
Rome, II. 146 

Hypereides, denounced Demosthenes, 
but admitted him to be man of 
mark, VII. 30, 32 ; father of Glaucip- 
pus, VIII. 152; 160; his surrender 
demanded by Alexander, 182 ; 196 ; 
leaves Athens in advance of Anti- 
pater, 202 ; his surrender demanded 
by Antipatcr, 204; executed by 
Antipater at Cleonae, 210, VII. 70 ; 
quoted, VIII. 168 

Hypsaeus, Publins Plautius, with 
Scipio and Milo, candidate for con- 
sulship, VIII. 350; when on trial, 
appeals to Pompey in vain, V. 262 

Hypsechidas, one of 5 Spartan arbiters 
in dispute between Athens and 
Megara, I. 428 

Hypsicrnleia, concubine of Mithri- 
dates, V. 200 

" Hypsicrates," pet name of Hyp^i- 
crateia, V. 200 

Hypsion, Plataean hero, II. 246 

Hyrcania, invaded by Alexander, 
VII. 352 ; left by him in haste, V. 
206 ; III. 376 ; 434 

Hyrcanian sea, reached by Alexander, 
VII. 352; II. 590; V. 208; 214 

Hyrodes (also called Arsaces, q. v.), 
driven from Parthia, restored, by 
Surena, in. 378 ; having divided his 
forces, he himself attacks Armenia 
to punish Artavasdes, and sends 
Surena to attack Crassus, 376; 
informed of Crassus' death, 416 ; 
becomes reconciled to Artavasdes, 
the Armenian king, acquainted with 
Greek language and literature, 420 ; 
his general Pharnapates defeated 
by Ventidius, IX. 210 ; his son 
Pacorus defeated and slain by 
Ventidius, 212, III. 422 ; strangled 
by his son Phraates, 422, IX. 218 

Hysiae, at foot of Mt. Cithaeron, near 
it temple of Eleusinian Demeter 
and Cora, II. 248 



laccheium, the so-called, II. 296 
lacchus, escorted from Athens tc 

Eleufis on 2Uth of Boedromion, II. 

140, IV. 98, VIII. 206 
Jalysus, story of, painted by Pro- 

togenes the Caunian ; what Apelles 

399 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



said of it; destroyed in fire at 
Koine, IX. 50 f . 

lalysus, native city of Timocreon, II. 
58 

lampsas, see " Hiempsal." 

lapygia, VI. 52, 76 

lapygian promontory, on coast of 
Italy, IX. 390 

larbas, king, confederate of Domitius, 
captured and his kingdom given to 
Hiempsal, V. 144 

Iberia, visited by Lycurgus according 
to Aristocrates, I. 216 

Iberia, triumphed over by Pompey, 
V. 230. 

Iberians (1), of Spain, used by Cartha- 
ginians in their battles, VI. 330; 
mixed with Ligurians, 368; mourn 
death of Aemilius Paulus, 456 ; 
their sons educated at Osca by 
Sertorius, 36 ; 56 ; some killed by 
Sertorius, others sold into slavery, 
68; after murder of Sertorius 
submit to Pompey, 72 

Iberians (2), neighbours of Albanians, 

II. 554 ; some as lancers in Tigranes' 
army, 574; one of 2 greatest 
peoples about Caucasus Mts. ; extent 
of territory, V. 204; short account 
of; defeated by Pompey, 206 ; 212 ; 
conquered by Canidius, Antony's 
general, IX. 214 

Iberian mountains, source of Cyrnus 

river, V. 206 
Ibycus, calls Spartan maids " phaino- 

merides," I. 390 
Icelus, freedman, announces Nero's 

death to Galba, given name 

Marcianus, XI. 218 f. ; helped Otho, 

250 
Ichnae, city not far from Carrhae, 

espoused Roman cause, III. 394 
Ichneumon, found in Asia, vn. 346 
Ictinus, with Oallicrates, architect of 

Parthenon, III. 40 
Ida, mountain, VIII. 192 
Idaeus, secretary of Agesilaus, V. 34 
Idas, with Lynceus, carried off Helen 

according to some, I. 70 
Idomeneus, cited : n. 214, 222, 242, 

III. 30, 102, Vli. 38, 56, vm. 
152 

*I?paf, title of tyrant?, II. 228 
letae, place in Sicily, \1, 334 
Ignatius, with 300 horsemen reaches 

40O 



Carrhae with news of battle, then 
rides on to Zeugma, in. 402 

Ilia (or Rhea, or Silvia) Numitor's 
(laughter, made Vestal virgin, de- 
livered of twins, imprisoned by 
Amulius, I. 96 ; said Mars father of 
her babes, but Amulius was real 
father, 98 

Ilia, first wife of Sulla, to whom she 
bore a daughter, IV. 344 

Iliad, see " Homer." 

llicium, from i'AeoK, place where 
Numa met Jupiter, I. 360 

Ilium, taken in Thargelion according 
to Ephorus, Callisthenes, Damastes, 
and Phylarchus, II. 138; thrice 
taken, vm. 2 f . ; Alexander sacri- 
fices to Athena there, VII. 262 ; II. 
502; 506 

Illyrians, conquered by Parmenio at 
time of Alexander's birth, vii. 230; 
ravage Macedonia, X. 112; Glaucias 
their king, IX. 350 ; fight against 
Cleomenes at Sellasia, X. 114 ; 268 ; 
VI. 376 

Illyricum, decreed to Caesar for 5 
years, V. 240 

Impeachment, of Servilius the augur 
by Lucullus, II. 470 

Inauguration, of Roman kings, I. 
326 f . ; of Persian kings, XI. 130 

India, visited by Lycurgus according 
to Aristocrates, I. 216; invaded by 
Alexander, VI. 384, VII. 384 ; V. 298; 
VI. 254 

Indian, In retinue of Augustus, 
burned himself to death as Calanus 
did, vn. 418 

Indian Ocean, III. 428 

Indian war, of Alexander, VII. 384 f. 

" Indian's Tomb," at Athens in 
Plutarch's time, VII. 418 

Indian?, Macedonian troops refuse to 
follow Alexander against them, vn. 
258 

Inferno of Homer, I. 40 

Ino, II. 104 

Inscriptions: 11.16,24,210; to mark 
battlefield of Plataea, 272 ; 276 ; in 
honour of Cato the Elder, 356 ; 424 ; 
by Nicias on stone at Delos, III. 218; 
IV. 234; V.I 84; VI. 394; on pedestal 
of Demosthenes' statue, VII. 76; 
268; on tomb of Cyrus, 416: on 
tomb of Timon the misanthrope, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



IX. 298 ; 432 ;x. 358; 368; in honour 

of Aratus, XI. 32 ; on Otho's tomb, 

318 
Insteius, M., with M. Octavius, led 

centre for Antony at Actium, IX. 

284 
Insubrians, their race and home ; call 

Gaesatae to their aid and wage war 

on Rome, V. 440; routed by 

Flaminius, 442 ; stirred up by 

Gaesatae, again make war on 

Rome, 446 ; submit to Rome, 452 
Insurrection, Servile, III. 334 f. 

See also " Spartacus." 
" Inter duos pontes," what it was and 

how formed, I. 520 
Interest, rate of in Asia, regulated by 

Lucullus, II. 532 
Interregnum, description of the one 

after death of Romulus, I. 312 
Investments, Cato the Elder's, n. 366 
lolas, son of Antipater and his chief 

cupbearer; feared by Alexander, 

vii. 428 ; believed to have poisoned 

Alexander, 434 
lolaiis, said to have been beloved by 

Hercules, V. 384 
lolcus, villages about it furnished 

settlers for new city Demetrias, IX. 

134 
Ion (1), of Chios, poet, when youth, 

came from Chios to Athens, n. 430. 
Cited : (Bergk II. 254) I. 40; II. 

418; 430: 456; III. 14; 82; vii. 6 
Ion (2), delivers Perseus' children to 

Romans, VI. 424 
" Ionia," name used for Athenian 

territory on pillar set up by Theseus 

on the Isthmus, I. 56 
Ionia, HI. 82; u. 438; almost all stirred 

to revolt by Alcibiades, iv. 66 ; vii. 

60 
Ionian civilizatioD, extravagant and 

luxurious, I. 214 
Ionian, Salamis so called in certain 

oracles, I. 428 

Ionian sea, VI. 443, VII. 532, IX. 390 
lonians, implored by Themistocles to 

help Greeks against Xerxes, II, 26 ; 

448; III. 56 
Iop6, daughter of Iphicles, married by 

Theseus, I. 66 
lophon, son of Peisistratus and 

Timonassa, II. 376 
los, where Homer was born, vin. 4 



loxids, colony of in Caria, founded by 

loxus and Ornytus, burns neither 

asparagus-thorn nor rush ou 

account of vow made by Perigune, 

1.18 
loxus, son of Melanippus, grandson of 

Theseus and Perigune, with 

Oruytus led colony into Caria, I. IS 
Iphicles, father of lope, I. 66 
Iphicrates, Athenian, best type of 

mercenary soldier, xi. 206; cuts 

Spartan division to pieces, V. 60 ; 

conducts unsuccessful war for 

Artaxerxes against Egypt because 

of quarrelling with Pharnabazus, 

XI. 184; cited, V. 342 
Iphitus, with Lycurgus established 

Olympian truce, I, 204, 278 ; slain 

by Hercules, 14 

Iphtha, father of Ascalts, VIII. 22 
Ipsus, battle of, in which Antigonu? 

was defeated and slain by the allied 

kings, IX. 80, 354 
Iras, waiting woman of Cleopatra, 

IX. 274, 326 
Isaeus, Demosthenes' guide in public 

speaking, VII. 12 
Isauricus, P. Servilius, candidate for 

pontifex maximus, defeated by 

Caesar, VII. 456; consul with 

Caesar, 532 
Isias, Corinthian, lands part of 

Timoleon's troops, VI. 312 
Isidas, son of Phoebidas, brave in 

defence of Sparta, V. 96 
Isidorus (Isodorus) naval commander 

of Mithridates, slain near Lemnos 

by Lucullus, II. 506 
Isis, temple of, near Cleopatra's tomb 

and monument, IX. 306 
"Isis, New," title given Cleopatra, 

26'J 
Islands, Atlantic, called Islands of the 

Blest; their character, VIII. 20 
Ismenias (1), Thebau, taught the 

flute, III. 4, IX. 4 
Ismenias (2), with Androcleides led 

Theban democratic party to which 

Pelopidas belonged, hated by 

Spartans, V. 350 ; carried to Sparta 
and executed, 352 
Ismenias (3), accompanied Pelopidas 

on embassy to Persian king, XI. 

178; on embassy to Thessaly, V. 
406; rescued by Epaminonda=, 414 

401 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Ismenus, sanctuary of, had oracle, IV. 

316 
Isocrates, charged fee of 10 minas, too 

much for Demosthenes to pay, VII. 

12; Orat. 12, " De bigis," written 

for son of Alcibiades, IV. 26 ; 

criticized by Cato the Elder, II. 

372 
Isodice', daughter of Euryptolemus, 

granddaughter of Megacles, wife of 

Cimon, II. 416, 452 
Isodorus, see " Isidorus." 
Isomantus, stream formerly called 

Hoplites, IV. 316 
Issorium, stronghold in Sparta where 

temple of Artemis stood, seized by 

200 mutineers, recovered through a 

ruse by Agesilalis, V. 88 
Issus, battle of, Alexander defeats 

Dareius, VII. 290, 322 
Ister, "Attic History," Bk 13, cited, 

I. 78, VII. 356 
Isthmian games, instituted in honour 

of Poseidon by Theseus, I. 56 ; 

victor to receive 100 drachmas 

according to Solon's regulation, 

466; victor's wreath at first of 

parsley, afterwards of pine, VI. 

322 f. ; freedom of Greece pro- 

clnimed at games by Flamininus, 

X. 350; V. 56 
Isthmus of Corinth, unites Greek 

continent, XI. 36 ; wall proposed 

there to block Persians, II. 26; 48; 

Greeks assembled there vote to 

join Alexander against Persians, 

Vii. 258 ; ix. 58 ; temple of Poseidon 

there, V. 174; Caesar proposed to 

dig through it ; had put Anienus in 

charge, VII. 578 
Isthmus between Libya and Asia, 300 

furlongs in width, IX. 296 
Isthmus at Rhegium, blocked by wall 

and ditch 300 furlongs long by 

Crastuy, III. 344 
Italia, Themistocles' daughter, 

married Pantholdes the Chian, u. 

88 
Italian allies, expelled from Rome, X. 

222 ; strive for Roman citizenship, 

viu. 238 
Italus, father of Roma by Leucaria, I. 

92 
Italy, separated from Cisalpine Gaul 

by Rubicon, VII. 490 ; distracted by 

4O2 



pestilence, I. 350 ; first invasion of, 
by Gauls, II. 126 f.; invaded by 
Pyrrhus, IX. 390 f.; returned to by 
Pyrrhus from Sicily, 424 ; subdued 
by Romans soon after Beneventum, 
428 ; invaded by Hannibal, in. 122, 
V. 456 ; overrun by Hannibal, 168, 
II. 304; invaded by Cimbri and 
Teutones, ix. 488; mastered by 
Caesar in 60 days, V. 280 ^entrusted 
to Antony, IX. 152 

Ithagenes, father of Melissus the 
philosopher, in. 74 

Ithomatas, place walled in and 
garrisoned like the Acrocorinthus, 
XI. 114 

Ithome, stronghold of Messenians and 
Helots in revolt against Sparta, II. 
456; peopled with Messenians by 
Thebans, V. 398 

Itonis (Itonia) see " Athena Itonis." 

lulis, small part of Ceos, bred good 
actors and poets, VII. 2 

Lxion, embraced cloud instead of 
Hera and begat Centaurs, X. 2 



Janiculum, held 2 stone coffins, one 
with body of IS r uma, the other with 
sacred books he had written, I. 
378; occupied by Marius, ix. 580 

January, changed from llth to 1st 
month by Numa, I. 3G6; by many 
said to have been put in calendar 
by him, 368; named from Janus, 
370 ; nearly same as Athenian 
Poseideon, VII. 532 

January Calends, first day of Roman 
year, XI. 492, 590 

Janus, account of; why 2 faces; his 
temple at Rome, when closed, I. 
372 ; double doors of temple opened 
after Numa's death. 398 

Jason (1), commander of Argo, sailed 
about, clearing sea of pirates, I. 38 ; 
helped at Colchis by Theseus, 66, 
II. 410 

Jason (2), father of ThebS ; friend of 
Pelopidas, V. 410 

Jason (3), tragic actor in retinue of 
Hyrodes, III. 420 

Jews, stirred to revolt by Aristobulus, 
IX. 142 

Journals, with particulars of Alex- 
ander's last illness, VII. -132 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Jove, Olympian, iv. 380 

Juba (1), king, aids Cato and Scipio in 
Africa, VII. 562 ; VIII. 372; 374; his 
camp sacked by Caesar, vn. 566 ; 
escaped from Thapsus with few 
followers, VIII. 378; hidden in 
mountain with few men, sends 
letter to Cato, 384, 386 

Juba (2), son of preceding, led in 
Caesar's triumph; became one of 
most learned historians of Hellas, 
VII. 570; married Cleopatra, 
Cleopatra's daughter, IX. 330. 

Cited : I. 130, 132, 142, 330, 352, 
IV. 380, V. 524 

Judaea, subdued by Pompey and its 
king imprisoned, V. 216; 230; 
pacified by Antony, IX. 142 ; 
balsam-producing part given to 
Cleopatra, 218 

Jugurtha, the Numidian, bribed 
Opimius, X. 238 ; IX. 478 ; son-in- 
law of Bocchus, surrendered to 
Sulla, 484, IV. 328 ; led in triumph, 
died in prison, IX. 494 

Julia (1), sister of Caesar's father, wife 
of Marius the Elder, mother of 
Marius the Younger, VII. 442, ix. 
474 ; Caesar d elivers funeral oration 
over her in forum, VII. 450 

Julia (2), of house of Caesars, wife of 
Antonius Creticus, mother of M. 
Antony, after death of A. C. 
married Cornelius Lentulus, IX. 
138; 180 

Julia (3), daughter of Caesar, be- 
trothed to Caepio, married to 
Pompey, V. 238, 298, VII. 474, VIII. 
310 ; great love between her and 
Pompey, buried in Campus 
Martins, her death removes check 
on rivalry between Pompey and 
Caesar, V. 252, VII. 500 ; 570 

Julia (4), daughter of Augustus, 
married first to Marcellus, then to 
Agrippa, IX. 330 f. 

Julius, censor, died, II. 124 

Julius Proculus, see " Proculus, 
Julius." 

Julius Salinator, see " Salinator, 
Julius." 

July, named from J. Caesar, originally 
called Quintilis, I. 370 

June, derived from " Juno " or 
" iunior," I. 370 



Junia, sister of Brutus, wife of Cassius 

VI. 140 

Junius, governor of Asia, VII. 446 
Junius, M., dictator after Cannae, III. 

146 

Junius Silanus, see " Silanus, Juntas." 
Juno, temple of, in citadel of Veii, n. 

106 ; image of, transferred to 

Rome, 108 ; temple of, on Capi- 

toline, 160 

Juno of Hierapolis, IV. 366 
Juno Quiritis, her statue leans upon a 

spear, 1. 182 
Junonia, in Greek Heraea; colony 

founded on site of Carthage by C. 

Gracchus, X. 220 
Jupiter, received dedication of Capitol 

from Tarquin, I. 144; story of his 

conversation with Xuma, 360 ; 

garland of oak leaves sacred to him, 

IV. 122; 176 
Jupiter Capitolinus, temple of, built 

by Tarquin the Proud ; story of the 

terra cotta chariot for the roof, I. 

534; history of temple, 536 f. 
Jupiter Feretrius, origin of the term, 

I. 136 f., V. 454; 450; temple of, 

454 
Jupiter Stesius or Stator, origin and 

meaning of the term, I. 146 ; his 

temple at beginning of Sacra Via as 

you go up Palatine Hill, vil. 120 
Jus trium liberorum, what it was, I. 

342 
Justice, seated beside Zeus, VII. 376 ; 

Spartan idea of, V. 106 



?, its meaning, I. 240 
Kannathron, what it is, V. 52 
Ke<ca66i'cr0cu, its meaning, I. 240 
Keraton, sort of altar about which the 

" Crane " was danced by Theseus, 

1.44 

Ke'pavvos, title of tyrants, II. 228 
Kermalus, once called Germanus, 

jilace where trough containing 

Ilia's twins landed, 1. 98 
Kitaris, Persian for tiara, XI. 190 
Klaria, Spartan for mortgages, X. 30 
Klodones, women devoted to Orphic 

rites and orgies of Dionysus, VII. 

226 
ITothon, Laconian drinking- cun. its 

description, I. 230 



403 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Krupteia, at Sparta, its nature ; said 
by Aristotle to have been an 
institution of Lycurgue, I. 288 
Ku/Sepi/ijcrta, see " Cybernesia." 
Kurbeis, what they were, I. 472, 572 



Labeo, Q. Antistius, informed of 
conspiracy to murder Caesar, VI. 
150; Brutus' legate, slain at 
Pharsalus, 240 

Labienus, T., Caesar's legate, crushes 
Tigurini at river Arar, VII. 486 ; 
deserts Caesar for Pompey, V. 282, 
VII. 526; commander of Pompey's 
cavalry, V. 292; not admitted to 
Cyrene, vill. 370; quoted, vn. 180 

Labienus, Q., son of preceding, 
Parthian commander-in-chief, IX. 
196; subduing Asia from Euphrates, 
and Syria as far as Lydia and Ionia, 
204: slain by Ventidius, 210 

Labyrinth, Cretan, lair of Minotaur, I. 
28; a dungeon according to 
Philochorus, 30 ; its intricate wind- 
ings traversed by Theseus by means 
of thread given by Ariadne, 36; 
scene of battle between Theseus 
and Deucalion, 40 ; dance imitating 
its windings still performed by 
Delians, 44 

Laccopluti, nickname given by comic 
poets to descendants of Cailias, II, 
226 

Lacedaemonius, son of Cimon and 
woman of Arcadia, III, 82 ; sent 
with 10 ships to aid Corcyra, 82 

Lacetanians, Spanish tribe, subdued 
by Cato the Elder, II. 332 

Lachares (1) becomes tyrant of 
Athens, IX. 80; flee's when 
Demetrius blockades city, 82 

Lachares (2), father of Eurycles, 
executed by Antony on charge of 
robbery, 290 

Lachartus, Corinthian, upbraids 
Cimon, II. 456 

Laciadae, deme of Miltiades, n. 412 ; 
of Cimon, 432; of Thessalus, IV. 
60 

Lacinium, temple of Hera at, v. 174 

Laco, Cornelius, appointed prefect of 
praetorian guard under Galba, XI. 
230; 262; slain by Otho's men, 
268; 272 

404 



Laconia, its coasts ravaged by N icias, 
III. 230; by Conon and Pharna- 
bazus, V. 62; most of it detached 
from Spartan confederacy, 396; 
invaded by Demetrius, IX. 84; by 
Aetolia and 50,000 slaves taken, X. 
88; 110; invaded by T. Flamininus, 
300 

" Laconistes," nickname of Archi- 
biades, VIII. 166 

Laconizers, II. 456, 458 

Lacratidas (1), public prosecutor of 
Pericles according to Heracleides 
Ponticus, III. 102 

Lacratidas (2) Spartan ephor, IV. 320 

Lacritus, rhetorician, teacher of 
Archias according to Hermippus, 
VII. 70 

" Lacus Curtius," origin of the name, 
1. 144, XI. 266 

Ladder, so-called, road along coast of 
Pamphylia, VII. 272 

Laelius, reproached Cicero for not 
opposing Caesar, VII. 220 

Laelius, in army of Lepidus, IX. 176 

Laelius, C., friend of Scipio, attempted 
agrarian reform, X. 160; 250 

Laena, priestly mantle, derived from 
Greek " chlaina," I. 330 

Laertes, " to live life of," vn. 184 

Laevinus, consul, defeated by 
Pyrrhus at Heracleia, IX. 392 f ., 
398 ; not deposed by Eomans after 
Heracleia, 400 

Lais, courtesan, sold when girl from 
Hyccara and brought to Pelopon- 
nesus, III. 262, IV. 114 

Laius, Theban king, V. 386 

Lamachus (1), IV. 2 ; good soldier but 
lacked authority and prestige 
because of poverty, 58; left by 
Pericles to help Sinopeans against 
Timesileos, III. 60 ; elected general 
with Nicias and Alcibiades for 
Sicilian expedition, 252, IV. 46, 52 ; 
urges battle close to Syracuse, III. 
258, 260 ; slain by Calibrates before 
Syracuse, 270 

Lamachus (2), Myrinaean, wrote 
encomium on Kings Philip and 
Alexander; effectually answered 
by Demosthenes, vil. 20 

Lamia, in booty captured from 
Ptolemy by Demetrius at Salamis, 
IX. 36 ; 44 ; 54 ; 60 ; exacted money 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



from Athenians on her own account, 

62 ; anecdotes about her, 64 f ., 

336 
Lamia, Antipater besieged there by 

Leosthenes, VII. 66, yill. 86, IX. 346 
Lampido, wife of Archidamus, mother 

of Agis, V. 2 

Lampon, Athenian seer, ill. 14 
Lamponius, Lucanian, with Telesinus 

nearly overthrew Sulla at gates of 

Rome, IV. 418, 454 
Lamprias, Plutarch's grandfather, IX. 

198 
Lampsacus, II. 80, IV. 106 ; with help 

of Storax taken by Lysander, IV. 

254 
Lamptrae, Aeschines of, II. 252; 

Philomelus of, vill. 220 
Lanassa (1), daughter of Cleodaeus, 

wife of Neoptolemus and mother of 

Pyrrhus, IX. 346 
Lauassa (2), daughter of Agathocles of 

Syracuse marries Pyrrhus with city 

of Corcyra as dowry, IX. 368 ; leaves 

Pyrrhus and marries Demetrius, 

372 
Langobritae, attacked by Metellus, 

saved by Sertorius, VIII. 34 
Langon, cleared of Achaean garrison 

and restored to Eleians, X. 80 
Language, Carian, II. 270 
Laodic6, mother of Munychus by 

Demophoon, I. 78, II. 414 
Laomedon (1), king of Troy, wronged 

Heracles, III. 210, VIII. 2 
Laomedon (2), Orchomenian, how he 

became great long-distance runner, 

vil. 14 
Laomedon (S), gave dinner to Cimon 

and others, II. 430 
Laphystius, popular leader at 

Syracuse, attacks Timoleon, VI. 

348 
Lapithae, aided by Theseus, fight 

Centaurs, I. 66, 70 
Larentalia, festival in honour of Acca 

Larentia, I. 100 

Larentia (1), see " Acca Larentia." 
Larentia (2), why honoured, I. 100 
Largess of grain, given poor on 

suggestion of Cato, VIH. 296 
Larissa (1), imprisons Agesilaiis' 2 

ambassadors, Xenocles and Scythes, 

V. 42 ; taken by Epaminondas, 404 ; 

303; VI. 136; IX. 90 



Larissa ( 2 ), given Monaeses by Antony , 

IX. 220 
Larissus river, Achaeans fight 

Aetolians and Eleians there, X. 272 
Lars Porsena, of Clusium, attacks 

Rome, then withdraws, I. 542 f . ; 

father of Aruns, 550; bronze 

statue of, near senate-house, 554 
Lartius, helps Horatius defend the 

bridge, I. 544 
Lartius, T., left by the consul Comi- 

nius in charge of the siege of Corioli, 

IV. 132; 138 
Larymna, of Boeotla, destroyed by 

Sulla, IV. 408 
Lathyrus, surname of Ptolemy, iv. 

142 
Latin festival, added by vote of 

people, II. 204 
Latins, especially honour woodpecker, 

1.98; made alliance with Romulus, 

164; with Sabines wage war on 

Rome, are defeated, 556 f.; their 

country devastated by Coriolanus, 

Rome refusing help, IV. 186 ; with 

Volscians and Aequians invade 

Roman territory, II. 176 ; defeated 

by Camillus, 180; invited to 

participate in Roman franchise by 

0. Gracchus, X. 214 
Latinus, son of Telemachus, father of 

Romulus by Roma according to one 

account, I. 92 
Latinus, T., story of his dream in 

which Jupiter appeared, IV. 176 
Lattamyas, with his Thessalians 

conquered by Boeotians at Oeressus, 

II. 138 
Laughter, statue of, erected by 

Lycurgus, I. 280; temple of, at 

Sparta, X. 66 
Laurentum, people of, slay Tatius, I. 

162 f.; plague at, 166 
Laureium, silver mines at, the revenue 

shared among Athenians, n. 10, ill. 

218 

Lauron, in Spain, captured by 
. Sertorius in spite of Pompey, V. 158, 

VIII. 48 

Laverna, IV. 340 
Lavicum, captured by Volscians under 

Coriolanus, IV. 186 
Lavinia, mother of Aemilia by 

Aeneas, I. 92 
Lavinium, 1. 162 ; founded by Aeneas 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



contained sacred symbols of Roman 

ancestral gods, besieged by Vol- 

scians, IV. 188 
Law of nations, violated by Roman 

ambassador, II. 132 
Lebadeia, sacked by Lysander, IV. 310 ; 

sacked and despoiled of oracle by 

Mithridates, 376 
Lecanius, said to have slain Galba, XI. 

266 
Lechaenm, harbour at Corinth, seized 

by Aratus, XI. 54; X. 92 
Lectum, in Troad, II. 480 
Leges, neighbours of Albani and 

Amazons, V. 208 
Legion, what it was; why so called, 

I. 122 ; enlarged, 150 f . 

" Legs," name of long walls of Athens, 

II. 446 

Leibethra, image of Orpheus there, 

VII. 260 

" Lelton," means public hall, 1. 172 
Lemnos, II. 298, III. 72, 74; naval 

battle near it between Lucullus and 

Mithridates, II. 506 
Lentuli, the two, taken on board ship 

with Pompey in his flight after 

Pharsalus, V. 306 
Lentulus, sent to Asia by Flamininus 

to free Bargylia, x. 354 
Lentulus (Dolabella), 3rd husband of 

Cicero's daughter, VII. 188. See also 

" Dolabella (2), P. Cornelius." 
Lentulus Batiatus, had school of 

gladiators at Capua, III. 334 
Lentulus, Cornelius, offers consul 

Paulus his horse in rout at Cannae, 

III. 166 

Lentulus Clodianus, Gn. Cornelius, 
consul with Gellius, defeated by 
Spartacus, III. 340; censor with 
Gellius, V. 168 

Lentulus Cms, L. Cornelius, opposes 
Caesar bitterly, V. 272, VII. 512, 
518, 524; drives Antony from 
senate, ix. 150 ; lands in Egypt and 
is slain, V. 324 

Lentulus Spinther, L. Cornelius, con- 
sul, V. 244; with Pompey's army 
in Thessaly, V. 290, VII. 178, 544; 
falsely claimed share in murder of 
Caesar; executed by Antony and 
Octavius, 600 

Lentulus Sura, P. Cornelius, his 
character and career, leads Catiline's 

406 



followers left in Rome, VII. 122, 
458, VIII. 286 ; convicted, gives up 
office of praetor and is arrested, 
VII. 128; executed, 134, 136, 140, 
158, VIII. 296, IX. 138 

Leo, Valerius, entertains Caesar, VII. 
484 

Leobates, Alcmeon's son, of deme 
Agraule", accused Themistocles of 
treason, II. 62 

Leochares, moulded some of figures 
in hunting scene dedicated by 
Craterus, VII. 344 

Leocrates, Athenian general, re- 
strained by Aristides, II. 274; III. 
52; 198 

Leon (1), Spartan, father of Antal- 
cidas, XI. 176 

Leon (2), of Byzantium, companion of 
Phocion in the Academy, VIII. 176 ; 
quoted, III. 288 

Leouidas (1), brother of Polydectes' 
widow, attacks Lycurgus, I. 212 

Leonidas (2), slain at Artemisium by 
Xerxes' army, II. 24, V. 392, XI. 
178; quoted, X. 52 

Leonidas (3), son of Cleonymus, an 
Agiad, 8th in descent from the 
Pausanias who defeated Mardonius 
at Plataea, x. 8; becomes king, is 
unacceptable to people, 10 ; 
opposes Agis, 18, 22 ; indicted by 
Lysander and deposed, 24, 28; 
brought back from Tegea, pardons 
Cleombrotus, 36; expels ephors, 
plots against life of Agis, 40 ; slays 
Leonidas for attempting to restore 
ancient constitution, 42, V. 112 : 
X. 48 

Leonidas (4), kinsman of Olympian, 
tutor of Alexander, VII. 236, 286, 
298 

Leonidas, Gorgo's husband, quoted, 
266 

Leonnatus (1), sent by Alexander to 
reassure female relatives of Alex- 
ander, VII. 282; 342; to help 
Eumenes, joined by Hecataeus, 
plots against Perdiccas, VIII. 84; 
defeated and slain by Greeks, 200 

Leonnatus (2), Macedonian, saves life 
of Pyrrhus, ix. 396 f. 

Leontidas, with Archias and Philip 
persuades Phoebidas to seize 
Cadmeia, V. 350; with Archias 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



made ruler of Thebes by Spartans, 
66, 352 ; how slain, 3G8 
Leoutini, with Egesta sends embassy 
to Athens to urge Sicilian expedition 

III. 250; 260; VI. 58; receives Dion 
kindly, 84; 264; its territory 
invaded by Timoleon, 338 ; IX. 416 ; 
taken by Marcellus, V. 468 

Leontis, Athenian tribe, II. 2 ; opposed 

to Persian centre at Marathon, 

224 
Leontocephalum, village in Asia, n. 

82 
Leos, of Agnus, betrayed Pallantidae 

to Theseus, I. 26 
Leosthenes, Athenian, general merely, 

VII. 214, VIII. ICO; besiege'd 
Antipater in Lamia, VI. 274, vn. 
66, VIII. 196 f., 220, IX. 346 

Leotychides (1), the Elder, his question 
about square trees, I. 242 ; II. 58 

Leotychides (2), son of Timaea and 
Alcibiades, refused royal succession, 

IV. 64, 292, V. 6, 8, 326 ; father of 
Ohilonis, IX. 434 

Lepida, married Metellus Scipio, 

VIII. 250 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (1), see 
" Aemilius Lepidus, M." 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (2), chosen consul 
with support of Pompey, tried to 
deprive Sulla's body of usual 
burial honours, driven by Pompey 
from Italy to Sardinia where he 
died, IV. 434 f., 442, v. 150 f., 154, 
196, 326 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (3), when 
praetor, entrusted with Rome by 
Caesar, ix. 152 ; consul with 
Caesar in latter's 3rd consulship, 
160, VII. 590, 600, VI. 168, IX. 168, 
174; forms triumvirate with 
Octavius and Antony, VI. 186, VII. 
200, IX. 178 ; in command of Rome 
when Octavius and Antony went to 
fight Brutus and Cassius, 182 ; 
permitted to have Africa, 204 

(Lepidus?) Paulus, Aemilius, pro- 
scribed by his brother the triumvir, 

IX. 178 

Leptines (1), brother of Dionysius the 
Elder, VI. 18; gave one of his 2 
daughters to Philistus, 24 ; 298 

Leptines (2), with Polysperchon puts 
Callippus to death, VT.122; tyrant 



of Apollouia, surrenders and is sent 
to Corinth by Timoleon, 318 
Lerna, X. 80, XI. 90 
Lernaean hydra, IX. 406 
Lesbians, offer leadership to Aristides, 

H. 284; IV. 26; 66 
Lesbos, in. 56; captured by Paches, 

226; V. 286 
Leschai, I. 280 

Lesche, place at Sparta, I. 254 
Leto, II. 58; delivered of Apollo, V. 

378 
Leucadia, colonized by Corinth, VI. 

294; VI. 278; in league against 

Philip, VII. 40 
Leucaria, mother of Roma by Italu.*, 

I. 92 
Leucas, to be colony of Corinth and 

Corcyra in common, II. 64; V. 174 
Leucaspides, class of troops serving 

Antigonus, X. 100 
Leucon, Plataean hero, II. 246 
Leucothea, almost identical with 

Mater Matuta, II. 104 
Leuctra (1), battle at, Thebans defeat 

Spartans, Cleombrotus killed, I. 

300, II. 138, IV. 126, 280, 452, v. 

40, 78, 376, 394, 400, 414, X. 48, XI. 

178 ; plan of, has tombs of 

daughters of Scedasus; 2 other 

Leuctras, V. 390 

Leuctra (2), stronghold of Megalo- 
polis, occupied by Cleomenes, x. 60 
" Leuctridae," name given daughters 

of Scedasus, V. 390 
Leucus river, ran through plain at 

Pydna, VI. 396 ; 410 
Libitina (or Proserpina, or Venus) 

presides over services for dead. I, 

346 
Libo, L. Scribonius, blockading 

harbour of Brnndisium, beaten off 

by Antony, ix. 154 
Library, of Lucullus, II. 604 
Libya, I. 216, II. 474, in. 144, 190, 

250, IV. 44, 324, 328, VI. 310, VIII. 

372, Bocchus, king of, IX. 276; 

separated from Asia bv isthmus 

300 furlongs long, 296; 306; X. 122 
Libyans, used by Carthaginians in 

their battles, VI. 330 
Libyan sea, proposed by Pyrrhus as 

boundary between Carthaginians 

and Gre'eks, IX. 420; cleared of 

pirates by Pompey, V. 182 

407 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Libys, Lysander's father, X. 14 
Libyssa, village, in Eithynia, X. 380 
Lichas, Spartan, famous for hospi- 
tality, II. 434 
Licinia (1), daughter of P. Crassus, 

wife of 0. Gracchus, X. 194; 

deprived of her marriage portion, 

236 ; quoted, 230 

Licinia (2), vestal, her name con- 
nected with that of Crassus, III. 

314 
Licinius, trusty servant of C. Gracchus, 

X. 148, 234 
Licinius, P., first to invade Macedonia, 

defeated by Perseus, VI. 376 
Licinius Macer, see " Macer, Licinius." 
Licinius Philonicus, Roman of humble 

birth, VI. 454 

Licinius Stolo, see " Stolo, Licinius." 
Lictores, attended Romulus, their 

duties, derivation of word, I. 172 ; 

number of, VI. 362. See also 

" fasces." 

Licymnius, his tomb in Argos, IX. 458 
"Life of Oaecilius Metellus," cited, 

IX. 546 
Ligarius (0. or Q.?) pardoned by 

Oaesar, VII. 182 ; friend of Brutus, 

joins conspiracy to murder Caesar, 

VI. 148 
Liguria, traversed by Cimbri and 

Teutones, IX. 302 
Ligurians, defeated by Fabins 

Maximus, III. 120; also called 

Ligustines, brief account of them, 

subdued by Aemilius Paulus, VI. 

366 f.; 402; 458; call themselves 

Ambrones by descent, defeat 

Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae, IX. 

514 
Lilybaeum, Carthaginians land there, 

VI. 320 
LImnaeus, slain defending Alexander, 

Vii. 404 
Limnus, Macedonian from Chalaestra, 

conspires against Alexander and is 

killed, VII. 364 
Lindus, Marcellus dedicated treasures 

from Syracuse there, V. 520 
Lingones, their territory crossed by 

Caesar, VII. 506 
Lion's Head, village where Themis- 

tocles was to be murdered, II. 82 
Liparian galleys, capture Roman 

envoys on way to Delphi, n. 114 

408 



Liris, river, ix. 566 

Lissus, Pompeian, captured by 

Antony, ix. 154 
Lists of citizens, arranged by censors, 

II. 346 

Literature, loved by Lucullns, II. 472 
" Litores," original form of " lictores," 

I. 172 

Lituus, crooked staff used in augury, 
carried by Romulus ; preserved on 
Palatine, lost at time of Gallic 
invasion, found afterwards, I. 160 ; 
its use, II. 174 

Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar; 
related to Sulpicius Galba, XI. 210; 
IX. 322; 330 

Livius, M., lost Tarentum to Hannibal, 
HI. 186 

Livius Drusus, see " Drusus, Livius." 

Livius Postumius, led Latins against 
Rome after Gauls left, 1. 184 

Livy, of Patavium, historian, VII. 554 

Cited : (V. 22) II. 108, (XXIII. 1C. 

15) V. 462, (XXVII. 2) V. 502, (27) 

520, (XXXIX. 5) X. 378, 380, (42) 

II. 352; 564; 576; IV. 342; VII 554; 
590 

Locri Epizephyrii, favoured Hannibal, 

V. 514 
Locrians, give divine honours to 

Eucleia, n. 278 ; proclaimed free at 

Isthmian games by Flamininus, X. 

350 

Locrians, Ozolian, III. 56 
Locris, invaded by Orchomenians, V. 

376; ravaged by Aratus, XI. 34 
Lollius, M., colleague of Cato as 

quaestor, VIII. 272 
" Longimanus," surname of Arta- 

xerxes I., XI. 128 
"Long Walls," of Athens, called 

" legs," begun by Cirnon at his own 

expense, n. 446 
Lolls, Macedonian for month Hecatom- 

baeon, VII. 228 
Love, signs of, IX. 92 ; statue of, in 

Academy, dedicated by Peisi- 

stratus, I. 406 
Luca, where Caesar, Pompey, and 

Crassus met, III. 356, V. 248, VII. 

494 

Lucania, VI. 176, VII. 162, IX. 384, 394 
Lucanians, Mamercus planned to 

bring them against Timoleon, VI. 

342 ; those joining Pyrrhus after 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



neracleia are censured, IS. 400; 

inveterate foes of Rome, iv. 420 
Lucerenses, one of the 3 divisions of 

Roman people in time of Romulus ; 

derived from " lucus," 1. 152 
Lucilius, tribune, advises Pompey be 

made tribune and is attacked by 

Cato, V. 256 
Lucilius, comrade of Brutus, saves 

him from capture at Philippi, VI. 

238 ; becomes a friend of Antony, 

IX. 294 
Lucinus, Sextus, thrown down 

Tarpeian rock by orders of Marius, 

IX. 590 

Lucius (I), see " Furius, L." 
Lucius (2), brother of Scipio Africanus 

Maior, expelled from equestrian 

order by Cato the Elder, n. 354 
Lucius (3), brother of Valens, sent 

away by Otho with Dolabella, XI. 

286 
" Lucius," name called out on way to 

sacrifice to Romulus, I. 184 
Lucretia (1), wife of Numa, mother of 

Pompilia, I. 376 

Lucretia (2), suffered violence, com- 
mitted suicide, I. 502, 534 
Lucretius (1), father of Lucretia, 

elected consul with Publicola, died 

soon after, I. 534 
Lucretius (2) T., chosen consul as 

colleague to Publicola, I. 542 ; 

attacks and routs Sabine cavalrv, 

560 
Lucretius (3), invited first to express 

opinion re moving to Veii, II. 170 
Lucretius Ofella, urged to raise siege 

of the younger Marius at Praeneste, 

IV. 422 ; candidate for consulship 

against Sulla's wishes, murdered by 

his orders, 432 ; 448 
Lucullea, festivals in honour of 

Lucullus in Asia, II. 542 
Lucullean money, used widely and 

for long time, II. 474 
Luculli, the two, absent in Servile 

war, in. 432 ; VII. 478 
Lucullus, L. Licinius, his family and 

accomplishments, Sulla's memoirs 

dedicated to him, n. 470 f., 484; 

wrote Greek history of Marsic war, 

472 ; favoured and employed by 

Sulla, 474 f . ; commissioned by 

Sulla to collect the 20,000 talents 

VOL. XI. 



exacted from Asia and re-coin it, 
482 ; appointed guardian of Sulla's 
son; consul with M. Cotta, gets 
province of Cisalpine Gaul, 484; 
has money sent to Pompey in Spain, 
486, V. 162 ; with help of Praecia 
and Cethegus gets province of 
Cilicia and Mithridatic war, n. 488 ; 
advances against Mithridatcs, 494 ; 
comes to relief of Cyzicus, 498 ; cuts 
to pieces part of Mithridates' forces 
at river Rhyndacus, another part 
at river Granicus, relieves Cyzicus, 
504; refuses senate's vote of 3000 
talents for ships, 508; invades 
Mithridates' country by way of 
Bithynia and Galatia, 510 ; leaves 
Murena in charge of siege of Amisus, 
514; inflicts severe losses upon 
Mithridates, who flees, 520 ; found 
great treasure in Cabira and other 
places captured, 524; subdued 
Chaldaeans and Tibareni, occupied 
Lesser Armenia, 526 ; takes Amisus, 
which is sacked and burned by the 
soldiers, 528; frees cities of Asia of 
their financial oppression, 532 ; 
gives processions, festivals, etc. 
in cities of Asia, 542 ; leaving 
Sornatius as guardian of Pontus, 
sets out for 2nd war, crosses 
Euphrates, 546 : crosses Tigris and 
enters Armenia, 548; defeats 
Tigranes and invests Tigranocerta, 
552 ; utterly defeats Tigranes' 
great army near Tigranocerta, 
140, 556 f.; takes Tigranocerta, 
566 ; honours memory of Zarbienus, 
king of the Gordyeni, 568; decides 
to attack Parthia, but his soldiers 
refuse, 570; plundered Armenia and 
marched against Artaxata, royal 
residence of Tigranes, 572 ; defeats 
Tigranes at the river Arsania, 574; 
purposes to advance farther but 
the troops object, 578 

Begins to fail because of mutinous 
army, 578 f . ; is also secretly under- 
mined by P. Clodius, 582 ; cannot 
_jet army to march against Tigranes 
or against Mithridates, who had 
come back into Pontus from 
Armenia, 584; is superseded by 
Pompey, meets him in Galatia, but 
comes to no agreement with him, 

O 49 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



588 f., V. 190 f.; failed because he 
could not win the affection of his 
soldiers, II. 590; on return to 
Rome is attacked by Memmius and 
has difficulty in getting a triumph, 
592, VIII. 304; divorces Clodia, 
marries Servilia, sister of Oato, 
divorces her, II. 594; retires from 
public life, 596 ; his extravagance 
and luxury, 598 f., IX. 556; threw 
his libraries open to all ; fond of all 
philosophy, but favoured the Old 
Academy, II. 604 f . ; still supports 
his political friends at times and 
opposes Pompey, 606, vill. 308; 
opposes measures of Caesar the 
consul, 310, II. 608; retires even 
more from public life, loses his mind 
In old age, 376, 608; buried on his 
estate at Tusculurn, 610 

See also II. 406, 408, 410, III. 370, 
398, IV. 412, V. 192, 202, 216, 234, 
238, 240, VII. 151, 162, X. 384 

Quoted : II. 512, 648, 562, 598, 
602 

Lucullus, M. Licinius, loved by his 
brother Lucius, elected aedile with 
him, II. 472 f.; as Sulla's legate 
defeats 50 cohorts of enemy at 
Fidentia, IV. 412 ; when praetor of 
Macedonia tries P. Antonius for 
corruption, VII. 448; absent from 
Servile war, III. 432; prosecuted 
for his acts as quaestor under Sulla, 
bat acquitted, II. 592 ; died soon 
after his brother, 610 

Lucumo, wealthy Tuscan who 
wronged his guardian Arron, n. 
126 

" Lupa," means both she-wolf and 
courtezan, and may mean latter in 
reference to Romulus' nurse, I. 100 

Lupercalia, derivation of word; 
origin and nature of festival held in 
February, I. 156 f., 370, VII, 584; 
called Lycaea in Greek, IX. 164 

Luperci, what they do at the Luper- 
calia, I. 156, IX." 164 

Lusitanians, triumphed over by 
Brutus, X. 194; organized by 
Sertorius, vm, 24 f . ; conquered by 
Caesar, VII. 470 

Lusius, 0., serves under his uncle 
Marius; slain by Trebonius, IX. 
498 

4IO 



" Lycaea," related in meaning to 
Lupercalia, 1. 156, VII. 584, IX. 164 

Lycaeum, Mt., where Cleomenes 
defeated Aratus, X. 58, XI. 82 

Lycaonia, II. 544 ; added to Pompey 's 
sway by the Manilian law, V. 190; 
Amyntas king of, IX. 276 

Lyceum, at Athens, I. 62; ravaged 
'by Sulla, IV. 362 

Lycians, refuse Brutus' demand for 
money, VI. 192; forced to give 160 
talents, 198 

Lycomedes (1), king of Scyros, asked 
to restore lands to Theseus, mur- 
dered him, I. 82, II. 428 

Lycomedes (2), Athenian captain, 
first to capture Persian ship at 
Salamis, n. 44 

Lycomidae, Themistocles connected 
with family of, II. 4 

Lycon (1), Syracusan, supplies sword 
for murdering Dion, VI. 120 

Lycon (2), of Scarpheia, actor, brgs 
'10 talents of Alexander, vil. 310 

" Lycophon," used in pallet-beds of 
Spartan boys in winter for warmth, 
I. 258 

Lycophron (1), Athenian general, slain 
in battle with Nicias, III. 228 

Lycophron (2), brother of Heb6, helps 
slay Alexander of Pherae, V. 430 f. 

Lycortas,chosen general by Messenians 
to avenge death of Philopoemen, X. 
314 

Lycurgidae, anniversaries of death of 
"Lycurgus, I. 302 

Lycurgus (1), when he lived, I. 204 ; 
his lineage, 206; after death of 
Polydectes became king of Sparta 
for short time, 208; resigning 
kingship makes himself guardian 
of his brother's son, the new kine, 
210; accused of desiring the king a 
death, goes abroad and studies 
various forms of government, 212 ; 
on returning to Sparta undertakes 
to change the existing order of 
things entirely, 216 ; his most 
important innovation was the 
institution of a senate or Council of 
Elders, 218 ; gets oracle from Delphi 
to lend sanction to his work, 220 ; 
(ephors introduced later to curb the 
oligarchical element), 224; as 2nd 
measure redistributes the land, 226 ; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



next divides up the movable 
property, withdraws all gold and 
silver money and introduces iron 
currency, 228, IV. 276; banishes 
unnecessary arts, I. 230; intro- 
duces common messes, 232 

Attacked by wealthy citizens and 
blinded in one eye by Alcander, 
234; boys came to the public 
messes, 238; put none of his laws 
into writing, 240; forbade extra- 
vagance and making frequent 
expeditions against the same 
enemy, 242 ; carefully regulated 
marriages and births, 244; put 
public stigma upon confirmed 
bachelors, 248; his system of 
training for boys and youths, 
256 f.; examples of Spartan wit 
and brevity of speech, 266 f.; 
Spartan training in music and 
poetry, 270; their life in time of 
war, 274f. ; Lycurgus said to have 
been an experienced warrior, 276 ; 
training of Spartans lasted until 
full maturity, 278; Lycurgus 
trained citizens to have neither wish 
nor ability to live for themselves; 
how senators were elected, 282 ; 
regulations as to burial, 286 ; 
travel and presence of foreigners 
forbidden; what the " krupteia " 
was; treatment of Helots, 288 f.; 
bound citizens by oath to observe 
his laws until he returned, then 
consulted the oracle at Delphi and 
starved himself to death, 292 f. ; in 
reign of Agis gold and silver crept 
into Sparta, 296 ; Lycurgus' design 
for a civil polity adopted by Plato, 
Diogenes, and Zeno, 300 ; the place 
of his death, 302 

See also I. 320, 446, II. 214, 390, 
IV. 234, V. 72, X. 12, 68, 244, 250 
Sayings: 1.210,266 

Lycurgus (2), led Plain- men at Athens, 
"l. 486 

Lycurgus (3) of Byzantium, with 
Anazilaus and others, agreed to 
surrender the city to Aloibiades if 
it were not plundered, IV. 90 

Lycurgus (4), Athenian orator, VIII. 
160; his surrender demanded by 
Alexander, 182, VII. 56; VIII. 166; 
X. 356 ; quoted, III. 424 



Lycus, place to north of Greece, X. 
330 

Lycus river (1), in Asia Minor, II. 514, 
"ix. 118 

Lycus river (2), in Sicily, VI. 340 

Lydia, obtained peace and security 
through Heracles, I. 14; II. 432; 
invaded by Agesilalis, V. 24 

Lydiades, tyrant of Megalopolis, 
resigns, makes city a member of 
Achaean league, tries to rival 
Aratus, XI. 69, 80; attacks 
Cleomenes at Megalopolis and is 
slain, 84, X. 62 

" Lydians, procession of," a rite at 
Sparta, n. 266 

Lygdamis, said by some to have led 
Cimmerians into Asia, IX. 490 

Lynceus (1), with Idas said to have 
carried off Helen, I. 70 

Lynceus (2), Samian, cited, IX. 62 f. 

Lysander (1), father of Archippe, 
adopted Diocles, II. 86 

Lysander (2), statue of him at Delphi, 
his appearance, lineage, training and 
character, IV. 234 f.; put in com- 
mand of fleet after Athenian 
disaster in Sicily, 238; visits Cyrus 
at Sardis to accuse Tissaphernes of 
slackness, and gets 10,000 darics to 
increase pay of his sailors 1 obol a 
day, 102, 240 ; defeats Antochius, 
Alcibiades' pilot, off Samoa, 104.242 ; 
organizes oligarchic political clubs 
in cities of Asia, is succeeded by 
Callicratidas, 244 ; returns as vice- 
admiral under Aracus, 248 ; un- 
scrupulous and subtle, deceives 
democracy of Miletus, 250; 
promised every assistance by 
Cyru?, 252 ; storms Lampsacus, 254 ; 
defeats Athenians at Aegospotami, 
258 f.; slew 3000 prisoners includ- 
ing the admirals, 108, 260 f.; 
establishes oligarchies in the cities, 
266 f . ; takes Athens, imposes harsh 
terms, 270 f.; establishes 30 rulers 
in Athens and 10 in the Piraeus, 
garrisons the acropolis, 110, 274 

Annoys leading men by his 
ambition, 282 ; recalled by ephors, 
284; released by ephors, sets sail 
to meet strong opposition, 290; 
persuades Agesilaiis to claim 
throne, 292, v. 4 f . ; gets Agesilaiis 

411 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



appointed general for war against 
barbarians, and goes along as one 
of 30 counsellors, 12 f., IV. 296; 
thrust aside by Agesilaiis, 298, V. 
18; sent as ambassador to Helles- 
pont, induces Spithridates to revolt 
from Pharnabazus, returns to 
Sparta without honour, plans 
revolution, 20, 52, IV. 300 f. ; 
memorizes speech written by Cleon 
the Halicarnassian to persuade 
citizens, 302 ; his plot spoiled by 
cowardice of one of his co-workers, 
306 ; plunged Hellas into the 
Boeotian war, 308; took Orcho- 
menus, 310 ; defeated and slain by 
Thebans near Haliartus, 312 ; his 
speech on the constitution dis- 
covered by Agesilaus but not 
published, 318, V. 54; honoured 
highly after death, IV. 320 

See also 1. 298, III. 306, IV. 
112 

Quoted : IV. 250, 252, 292, 300 

Lysander (3), son of Libys, supports 
Agis in his attempted reforms, X. 14 ; 
elected by help of Agis, introduces 
bill to relieve debtors and divide 
land, but the bill is defeated, 18; 
indicts Leonidas and has him de- 
posed from kingship, 26 f . ; indicted 
for violating law, 28, 30 

" Lysandreia," name given their 
festival of Hera by Samians in 
honour of Lysander, IV. 280 

Lysandridas, of Megalopolis, captured 
by Cleomenes, driven out of Messene 
by Pbilopoemen, x. 104 

Lysanoridas, harmost in Thebes; 
being heavily fined, left Pelopon- 
nesus, V. 370 

Lysias, orator, Cato the Elder's model, 
say some, II. 320 

Lysicles, sheep-dealer, lived with 
Aspasia after death of Pericles, in. 
70 

Lysidicg, daughter of Pelops and H'p- 
podameia, sister of Pittheus, mother 
of Alcmene, 1. 16 

Lysimachus (1), father of Aristides the 
Just, of tribe Antiochis, of deme 
Alopece', II. 8, 210, 290, 418 

Lysimachus (2), son of Aristides, had 
daughter Polycrite'; given pension, 
II. 'J96 

412 



Lysimachus (3), grandson of Aristides 
very poor, II. 296 

Lysimacbus (4), Acarnanian, tutor of 
Alexander, VII. 36; saved from 
death by him, 294 

Lysimachus (5), king after Alexander, 
VII. 356; 382; IX. 30; begins to wear 
diadem, 40; 48; 60; 64; his territory 
ravaged by Demetrius, 74; father 
of Agathocles, marries one daughter 
of Ptolemy and takes another for 
his son, 76 ; deprived Demetrius of 
his cities in Asia, 86; 360; taken 
prisoner by Dromichaetes, then 
liberated, 98 ; leagued with Seleucus 
and Ptolemy against Demetrius, 
invades Macedonia from Thrace, 
108, 374; divides Macedonia with 
Pyrrhus, 112, 378 f.; attacks Pyr- 
rh'us at Edessa and gains Macedonia, 
380 ; 116 ; offers Seleucus large sum 
to put Demetrius to death, 130; 338 

Lysimachus (6), companion of Pyr- 
"rhus, IX. 442 

Lysippus (1), his statues well repre- 
sent Alexander, VII. 230; 268; 344 

Lysippus (2), general of Achaeans, X. 
286 



Macaria, daughter of Hercules, sacri- 
ficed, V. 390 

Macedonia, II. 448; entered by Pelo- 
pidas, scene of war between Ptolemy 
and Alexander, king of Macedonia, 
V. 404 ; IX. 106 ; invaded by Lysi- 
machus and Pyrrhus, 108", 370; 
divided between Pyrrhus and Lysi- 
machus, 112, 378; deserts Pyrrhus 
for Lysimachus, 380; invaded by 
Pyrrhus, 430; ravaged by bar- 
barians, who are utterly defeated by 
Antigonus, X. 118; invaded by 
Sulpicius and Villius late in season, 
X. 326; Greeks freed from it, VI. 
370; returned to Philip, X. 346; 
invaded by P. Licinius, VI. 376; in 
reign of Perseus subdued by 
Romans, 414 f., IX. 134; being over- 
run by Ariarathes, IV. 358; pro- 
vince of, voted to Antonius, VII. 110 ; 
voted to Piso, 156; delivered up to 
Brutus by Hcrtensius, VI. 180 

Macedonian garri on, attacked by 
Thebans, VII. 54 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Macedonian king, lets Agesilaus pass 
through territory as friend, V. 42 

Macedonians, I. 12; Greeks aroused 
against them by Demosthenes, VII. 
40 f.; 398; after Cassander's death 
ruled by his son Philip, IX. 86 ; pro- 
claim Demetrius king, 90; 366; 
proclaim Pyrrhus king, 376 ; driven 
from Peloponnesus by Aratus, X. 
82 ; expelled from Athens, XI. 78 ; 
harried by Illyrians, call Antigonus 
home, X. 112 ; call in Antigonus, 
cousin of Demetrius and make him 
first regent and then king, VI. 372 ; 
Greeks freed from by Romans, II. 
334 ; submit to Aemilius Paulus and 
are to pay 100 talents tribute, VI. 
418, 428; 458 

" Macedonicus," surname of Metellus, 
IX. 464 

Macer, Clodius, see " Clodius Macer." 

M acer, Licinius, convicted of fraud and 
died, VII. 102 

" Machaeriones," name given des- 
cendants of Anticrates who slew 
Epaminondas, V. 98 

Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, de- 
feated and slain by Achaeans under 
Philopoemen, X. 280 ; succeeded by 
Nabis as tyrant of Sparta, 286 

Machares, son of Mithridates, held 
Bosporus, asks to be Rome's 
friend, II. 544 

Machatas, father of Charops who 
was leading man in Epirus and well- 
disposed to Romans, X. 330 

Machinery, stage, referred to, IV. 302 

Macrinus, cognomen or epithet, IX. 
4G4 

Maecenas, Memoirs of Caesar Augustus 
addressed to him and Agrippa, VII. 
214, IX. 214 

Maedi, subdued by Alexander, vil. 
244; their country ravaged bv 
Sulla, IV. 402 

Maedica, force of Bisternae encamp 
there, VI. 382 

Maelius, Spurius, slain by Servilius 
Ahala, VI. 126 

Maeotic Lake (Lake Maeotis) II. 518, 
IV. 358, V. 206, IX. 488 

Magaeus, brother of Pharnabazus, 
ordered to kill Alcibiades, iv. 112 

Magas, brother of Ptolemy iv., X. 124 

Magi, n. 132, 138 



Magnesia, given Themistocles for 
bread, II. 80, 82, 84; Themistocles 
died there, 86, 88, 90 

Magnesia, Dionysius of, VII. 90 

Magnesia, visited by Titus, X. 354 

Magnesian lore, exposition of, heard by 
Themistocles, II. 80 

Magnesians, have garrisons put over 
them by Alexander of Pherae, V. 
418 ; freed by him under compulsion 
430; proclaimed free at Isthmian 
games by Flamininus, X. 350 ; 364 

Mago, Carthaginian, summoned for 
help by Hicetas, occupies Syracuse 
with fleet and army, VI. 302, 304; 
frightened, sails off to Libya, 310 ; 
commits suicide, 314 

Maia, mother of Mercury, I. 3 70 

Maimacterion, Athenian month, same 
as Boeotian Alalcomenius, II. 278 

Malaca, plundered by Crassus, III. 326 

Malchus, sends army to Alexander 
from Arabia, IX. 276 

Malcitas, leader of Thebans against 
Alexander of Pherae after death of 
Pelopidas, V. 430 

Malea, cape, IV. 358, X. 20, XI. 26 

Maliac gulf, III. 56 

Malli, people of India, attacked by 
Alexander who was severely 
wounded, VII. 402 f., 414 

Mamercii, descended from Mamercus, 
I. 376 

Mamercus (1), son of Pythagoras, I. 
334; surnamed Aemilius, founded 
Aemilian family according to some, 
VI. 35S 

Mamercus (2), one of Numa's 4 sons, 
named after son of Pythagoras, I. 
334, 376 

Mamercus (3), tyrant of Catana, be- 
comes ally of Timoleon, VI. 290; 
forms alliance with Carthaginians, 
334 ; writer of poems and tragedies, 
336 ; defeated at river Abolus, 340 ; 
tried and condemned at Syracuse 
and crucified, 342, 350 

Mamertines, called in by some Sicilian 
cities owing to hatred of Pyrrhus, 
IX. 422, 424; barbarians about 
Messana, conquered by Pyrrhus, 
420 ; harshly treated by Pompey, V. 
136 

Mamurius, Veterius, copied accur- 
ately the sacred shield, I. 350 ; re- 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



warded by having his name men- 
tioned in a song of the Salii, 354 

Mancinus, C., Roman consul, defeated 
several times in war against Nu- 
mantia and forced to make truce 
with enemy, X. 152 ; to be delivered 
up in bonds and unarmed to 
Numantines, 158 

Mandrocleidas (1), Spartan, sent as 
ambassador to Pyrrhus, IX. 436 

Mandrocleidas (2), son of Ecphanes, 
supports Agis in his attempted 
reforms, X. 14, 20; indicted for 
violating law by proposing abolition 
of debts and distribution of land, 
persuades 2 kings to act together 
and disregard ephors, 28 

Mandurium, in Italy, where Messa- 
pians slew Archidamus, X. 8 

" Mania," surname of Demo, IX. 64 

Manilius (1), expelled from senate by 
Cato the Elder for embracing his 
wife in the presence of his daughter, 
II. 352 

Manilius (2), tribune, proposes law 
giving Pompey charge of war 
against Mithridates, V. 1 90 ; brought 
before Cicero a praetor on charge of 
fraudulent accounting ; defended by 
him, vil. 104 

" Manipularis," derived from Mani- 
pulus, 1. 110 

" Manipulus," origin of the word, I. 
110 

Manius Curius, see " Curius, M." 

Manius (1), consul, a'fter defeating 
Antiochus, asked Achaeans to per- 
mit exiles from Sparta to return 
home, X. 306 ; opposed consider- 
ably by Philopoemen, 316. See also 
" Acilius Glabrio, M." 

Manius (2), tribune, opposes T. Flami- 
ninus' candidacy for consulship, X. 
324 

" Manlius," name common to family, 
IX. 464 

Manlius (1), implores Ti. Gracchus to 
submit question of agrarian law to 
senate, X. 170 

Manlius (2), brought into plot against 
Sertorius, VIII. 68, 70, 74 

Manlius, C., served with distinction 
under Sulla, led veterans in support 
of Catiline, vil. 114, 118, 120 

Manlius, L. (1), expert mountain- 

414 



climber helps Cato the Elder at 
Thermopylae, II. 338 

Manlius, L. (2), came from Gallia 
Narbonensis to help Metellus, VIII. 
32 

Manlius, T., in his consulship temple 
of Janus closed, I. 372 

Manlius Capitolinus, M., repulses 
attack of Gauls on the Capitol, II. 
160 f. ; supports the poor, is con- 
demned and thrown from the 
Capitol, 188 

Manlius Maximus, Gn., defeated by the 
Ambrones, IX. 512 

Mantineia, not received into allegiance 
by Demetrius, IX. 58, XI. 58; ally 
of Cleomenes, captured by Aratus, 
joins Achaean league, 82, X. 60; 
freed of Achaean garrison and 
restored to its own laws and con- 
stitution by Cleomenes, 78, XI. 90; 
captured by Achaeans with aid of 
Antigonus and its inhabitants sold 
into slavery, founded anew and 
name changed to Antigoneia, 104 f ., 
X. 100, 256, 280 

Mantineia, battle of, Thebans defeat 
Spartans, but Epaminondas is 
slain, V. 92, 98, 348; 2nd battle of, 
Demetrius routs Archidamus, IX. 
84; 3rd battle of, Philopoemen 
defeats Machanidas, X. 282 

Mantineians, secede from Sparta and 
make alliance with Athens, III. 244, 
IV. 36 ; revolt from Thebes, helped 
by Spartans, V. 94 

Manumission among the Romans, X. 
3C2 

Marathon, I. 68; named from Mara- 
thus, 74 f . ; Aristonicus of, vil. 70 ; 
battle of, Greeks under Miltiades 
defeat Persians, I. 82, II. 10, 138, 
224, 226, 386, 396, 418, XI. 34 

Marathonian bull, sacrificed to Del- 
phinian Apollo by Theseus, I. 26 

Marathus, Arcadian in army of Dios- 
curi, gave name Marathon to town- 
ship, I. 74 

Marcellinus, asks Pompey and Crassus 
if they intend to be candidates for 
consulship, III. 358, V. 248 

" Marcellus," means martial, V. 436 ; 
3rd Roman name, EX. 464 

Marcellus, quaestor with Cato the 
Younger, VIII. 276 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Marcellus, C. Claudius (1), consul, 
votes Caesar be declared public 
enemy unless he lays down arms, V. 
268, VII. 512 f.; asks Pompey to 
prepare defence against Caesar, V. 
270, IX. 148; VII. 194; had 2 
daughters and 1 son by Octavia, 
sister of Augustus, y. 522, IX. 330 ; 
died, 206 ; quoted, y. 270 

Marcellus, 0. Claudius (2), son of 
C. Marcellus and Octavia, sister of 
Augustus, married daughter of 
Augustus and died during aedile- 
ship, V. 522 ; made both son and 
son-in-law of Augustus, IX. 330 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (1), father of 
the following Marcellus, V. 436 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (2), 5 times 
consul, III. 174, V. 436, 522 ; mighty 
warrior, made curule aedile and 
augur, 438; appointed consul by 
the " interreges," appoints Gn. 
Cornelius his colleague ; wishes war 
with Gauls continued, 446 ; slays 
Britomartus, king of Gauls, winning 
"spolia opima," 450, I. 138; takes 
Mediolanum, grant Gauls equitable 
peace, is given triumph, v. 454; 
after Cannae takes the lead in 
fighting Hannibal, 456 f., III. 172 f. ; 
surprises Hannibal at Nola, V. 462 ; 
made consul 2nd time, defeats 
Hannibal near Nola, 464; consul for 
3rd time, sailed to Sicily, 466; 
storms Leontini, 468; captures 
Megara and Syracuse, 482 f . ; re- 
grets death of Archimedes, 486; 
humane and just in treating 
Sicilians, 488, III. 184; brought 
back beautiful works of art, 184, 
V. 492. 

Consul 4th time, is accused by 
Syracusans of having treated their 
city with undue severity ,is acquitted, 
496 f . ; moves against Hannibal, 
500; fights several engagements 
with varying success, 502 f.; spends 
summer at Sinuessa recuperating bis 
soldiers, 510 ; consul 5th time, 
calms Etruria, 512 ; ambushed and 
slain with his colleague Crispinus 
by Hannibal, 516 f., X. 324; his 
memorials, 520 f . ; compared with 
Pelopidas, 522 f. 
Quoted : V. 450, 478 



Marcellus, M. Claudius (3), son of 
preceding, V. 438 ; censor with T. 
Flamminus, expels 4 men from 
senate, X. 372 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (4),serves under 
Marius against Teutones, IX. 518 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (5), with 2 
others comes to consul Cicero at 
midnight to warn of plot, vil. 116 

March, used to be first month ; 
consecrate to Mars, I. 368; why 
moved by Numa, 370 

Marcia, daughter of Philippus, married 
to Cato, then to Hortensius, VTII. 
292, 326 ; left widow by Hortensius, 
again married to Cato, 362 

Marcianus, see Icelus." 

Marcii, patrician house at Rome, had 
many distinguished sons, IV. 118 

Marcius (1), urged Numa to accept 
kingship of Eome, I. 324 ; father of 
Marcius who married Pompilia, 
Numa's daughter ; rival of Hostilius 
for throne after Numa, defeated, 
starved himself to death, 378 

Marcius (2), son of preceding, hus- 
band of Pompilia and father of 
Ancus Martius, I. 378 

Marcius (3), with Cethegus ordered to 
kill Cicero, VII. 120 

Marcius (4), recently come from Rome 
to Pompey's camp, quoted, VII. 180 

Marcius, mountain where Romans 
were besieged by Latins, II. 17G, 
180 

Marcius, Ancus, son of Marcius and 
Pompilia, Numa's daughter, 5 
years old when Numa died, suc- 
ceeded Tullus Hostilius to throne, 
I. 378, IV. 118; completed wooden 
bridge over Tiber, I. 338 

Marcius, 0., consul with Scipio Nasica, 
not duly appointed and recalled, V. 
444 

Marcius, P., with Q. Marcius brought 
best and most abundant supply of 
water to Rome, IV. 118 

Marcius, Q., see preceding. 

Marcius Censorinus, see " Cen- 
sorinus." 

Marcius Rex, husband of Tertia, 
sister of Clodius, VII. 154 

Marcus, brother of Valerius, see 
" Valerius, M." 

" Marcus," name called out by people 

415 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



as they went to sacrifice to Mars, I. 
184 

" Marcus," praenomen of Camillas, II. 
148 

Mardian, a certain, acts as adviser and 
guide to Antony, IX. 230 

Mardian mounted archers in Tigranes' 
army, II. 574 

Mardion, eunuch of Cleopatra's, IX. 
274 

Mardonius, left behind by Xerxes to 
block pursuit, II. 12~f., 46; left 
behind with 300,000, threatens Hel- 
lenes and tempts Athenians, 240 ; 
invades Attica 2nd time, 242; 
repulsed with help of Athenians, 
252 ; decides to cross Asopus and 
attack Athenians unexpectedly, 
256, 260, 264 ; defeated and slain at 
Plataea, 226, 270, X. 8; quoted, II. 
240 

Margianian steel, III. 386 

" Margites," epithet applied to Alex- 
ander by Demosthenes, VII. 54 

Marian canal, IX. 502 

" Marian mule," origin of the term, 
IX. 494 

Marica, grove near Minturnae, IX. 572 

" Maricas," play of Eupolis, III. 220 

Marius, father of the famous Marius, 
IX. 466 

Marius, C. (1), about his name, IX. 
464; appearance, early training, 
family, 466 ; saw first service with 
Scipio Africanus in siege of Nu- 
mantia, 468; makes his mark as 
tribune of the people, 470; defeated 
for aedile, elected praetor, 472 ; re- 
ceives province of Farther Spain, 
marries Julia, aunt of J. Caesar, 474 ; 
serves with distinction in Africa 
under Caecilius Metellus against 
Jugurtha, 476; returns to Rome 
and is elected consul for war 
against Jugurtha, 480 f . ; succeeds 
Metellus in Africa, but Sulla, his 
quaestor, gets Jugurtha, 484, IV. 330 
Elected consul in his absence 
for war against Cimbri and 
Teutones, IX. 486, 492; celebrates 
triumph over Jugurtha, 492 f . ; 
drills his army and wins their 
respect, 494 f.; elected consul 3rd 
time, 498 elected 4th time with 
Lutatius Catulus, 500; confronted 

416 



by Teutones and Ambrones, 502 f . ; 
follows the barbarians to Aquae 
Sextiae, 510 ; cuts the Ambrones to 
pieces, 514; utterly defeats the 
Teutones, 518 f. ; receives news of 
being elected consul for 5th tune, 
522 ; agrees with Boeorix, king of the 
Cimbri, to fight on plain of Vercellae 
3rd day following, 530 ; utterly de- 
feats the Cimbri, 536 

Elected consul 6th time through 
bribery, supports Saturninus in 
many of his misdeeds, 542 ; when 
Metellus is recalled from exile sets 
sail for Cappadocia and Galatia 
hoping for war against Mithridates, 
548; on returning finds a rival in 
Sulla, 550; loses prestige in Social 
war, 552; by striving to get ap- 
pointed to war against Mithridates 
brings on civil strife, 536 f . ; gets 
appointed but Sulla refuses to hand 
over his troops and drives Marius 
from Borne, 560; is captured and 
taken to Minturnae, 568; frightens 
barbarian sent in to slay him, 572 ; 
is put aboard ship and sails to 
Africa, 574; is warned off by 
Sextilius the governor, rejoined by 
his son, 57G ; gathers a force and 
returns, 578 f. ; enters Rome with 
Cinna and puts many to death, 584 
f . ; kills Marcus Antonius the orator, 
586, IX. 138; elected consul 7th 
time, 590; dies of pleurisy, 592, 
596. 

See also II. 484, 596, III. 322, IV. 
328, 336, 344, 348, 350, 362, 354. 
454, V. 140, VI. 190, VII. 442, 450, 
478, VIII. 6, 10, 14, X. 384. 

Quoted : III. 318, IX. 550, 554, 
572, 576 

Marius, 0. (2), son of Julia, VII. 442 ; 
escapes to Africa, IX. 660 ; goes to 
Hiempsal to ask help, 574 ; escapes 
from him and with his father crosses 
to island of Cercina, 576 ; assumes 
consulship and is very cruel to his 
opponents, 596, VIII. 14; defeated 
with Norbanus by Sulla near Capua, 
IV. 410 ; defeated at Signia, flees to 
Praeneste, 416; besieged at Prae- 
neste by Ofella, 418, 422, V. 146 ; 
slew himself, IV. 428, IX. 598 
Marius, M. (1), sent by Sertorius to 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Hithridates from Spain with an 
army, advances against Lucullus, 
II. 494, VII. 66 ; captured and exe- 
cuted by Lucullus, II. 506 

Marius, M. (2), slain by Catiline, IV. 
430 

Marius Celsus, see " Celsus, Marius." 

Marphadates, royal host of Cato the 
Younger's son in Cappadocia, VIII. 
408 

Marriage, among Athenians as regu- 
lated by Solon, I. 456 f . ; would-be 
brides and bridegrooms sacrifice 
to Eucleia, II. 278, 296; libations 
at wedding feast at Athens, III. 18 ; 
why Romans called " Talasius " or 
"Talasio" at weddings, I. 130 f., 
V. 124 f . ; marriages reviewed by 
censors, II. 346; laws concerning, 
introduced by Sulla, IV. 450 ; 
regulations of Numa and Lycurgus 
compared, 1. 390 ; marriage as regu- 
lated by Spartans, 248 ; penalty at 
Sparta for not marrying, marrying 
late, or marrying badly, IV. 320 ; 
marriage with one who had proved 
cowardly in battle considered dis- 
grace at Sparta, V. 82, IX. 206 

Marrucinians, repulsed at Pydna, VI. 
406 

Mars, father of Romulus by Aemilia 
according to some, I. 92 ; field of, 
dedicated, 520 ; shrine of, burned 
and demolished by barbarians, kept 
letters of Romulus uninjured, II. 
174, IV. 390. See also " Enyalius." 

" Mars," name applied to spear con- 
secrated in the Regia, 1. 182 

Marsi, persuaded by Sulla to become 
friends and allies of Rome, IV. 
330 

Marsic war, Greek history of, by 
Lucullus, II. 472, VII. 86, VIII. 8 

Marsyas (1), slain by Dionysius the 
Elder, VI. 20 

Marsyas (2), cited, VII. 42 

Martha, Syrian woman used as pro- 
phetess by Marius, IX. 506 

Martialis, military tribune, Jets Otho's 
men into camp, XI. 262 

Martianus, gladiator, reputed father 
of Nymphidius Sabinus, XI. 224 

Marvel, raven stunned by shouting, v. 
180 

Maryllus, tribune removed from office 



for taking diadems off Caesar's 
statues, VII. 584 

Masabates, eunuch of Artaxerxes, had 
cut off hands and head of Cyrus, 
tortured and executed, xi. 164 f. 

Masinissa, friend of Romans, at war 
with Carthage, II. 380 

Masistius, commander of Persian 
cavalry in Mardonius' army, slain 
by Athenians, II. 254 

Maso, of consular rank, father of 
Papiria who married Aemilius 
Paulus, VI. 364 

Massalia (Marseilles), founded by 
Protis, a merchant, 1. 408 ; people of, 
fence vineyards with bones of thoso 
slain at Aquae Sextiae, IX. 520 

Master of Horse, his powers, IX. 156 

Mater Matuta, Camillus vows a temple 
to her; her rites almost identical 
with Leucothea's, II. 104 

Mathematicians, teaching as to 
course of sun, vni. 148 

Matronalia, festival for women, why 
instituted, 1. 154 

Mauricus, noble Roman of Galba's 
time, XI. 222 

Maurusians, in Africa, attack Ser- 
torius, VIII. 18 ; helped by Sertorius, 
22 ; slay some of his murderers, 74 

Maxims, those of Fabius Maximus re- 
sembled those of Thucydides, in. 
120 

Maximus, consul in Caesar's time, VII. 
576 

"Maximus," bestowed as title upon 
Valerius and Pabius Rullus, V. 146 

May, named from Maia, mother of 
Mercury, to whom it is sacred, or 
from " maior," I. 370 

Mazaeus, Persian general in battle of 
Arbela, VII. 320; his son offered a 
second province by Alexander, 342 

Mechanical contrivances, II. 500; 
siege works employed by Calli- 
machus, II. 528; engines of war, 
592 ; engine of artillery used by 
Marcellua, V. 470 ; engines used by 
ArchimeGes. 474; engines used by 
Demetrius, IX. 48 f. 

Mechanics, brief history of, V. 470 

Medea, fled from Corinth; living 
withjAegeus, tried to poison Theseus, 
I. 22 f . ; naphtha said to be the 
drug she used, VII. 330 

417 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Medes, attacked by Perseus, II. 410; 
invasion of, 416; flight of, from 
Hellas, 418; defeated at Mycale, 

VI. 420; II. 514; join Tigranes, 554, 
558 ; king of, sends ambassadors to 
Pompey, V. 208; king of, quarrels 
with Phraortes the Parthian, in- 
vites Antonv to come to his help, 
IX. 254; 276 

Media, XI. 140 ; eastern boundary of 

Lucullus' conquests, II. 618; 

triumphed over by Pompey, V. 230 
Mediolanum, captured by Marcellus, 

V. 452 ; VII. 484 
Mediterranean sea, divided by Pompey 

into 13 districts for war on pirates, 

V. 182 
Medius (1), in retinue of Alexander, 

VII. 432 

Medius (2), friend of Antigonus, IX. 

42 
Megabacchus, serves with Crassus in 

Parthia, in. 390; commits suicide 

with P. Crassus, 396 
Megabates, son of Spithridates, 

favourite of Agesilaiis, V. 28 
Megabyzus, gets letter from Alexander, 

VII. 348 
Megacles (1), persuaded Cylon and 

followers to stand trial and then 

murdered them, I. 430 
Megacles (2), son of Alcmaeon, led 

Shore-men, I. 486 ; with rest of 

Alcmaeonidae flees from Athens, 

492 
Megacles (3), father of Euryptolemus, 

who was father of Isodice', wife of 

Cimon, II. 416, 452 
Megacles (4), father of Deinomacb.6 the 

mother of Alcibiades, IV. 2 
Megacles (5), Dion's brother, VI. 60 
Megacles (6), friend of Pyrrhus, slain 

by Dexoiis, IX. 398 
Megaleas, courtier of Philip, son of 

Antigonus, XI. 110 
Megalophanes, of Megalopolis, made 

tutor of Philopoemen; his career, 

X. 256 

Megalopolis, in Arcadia, Leuctra near 
it, V. 390; Chaeron of, VII. 228; 
IX. 434 ; X. 8, 10, 74, 100, 256, 288 f., 

XI. 68 ; attacked by Spartans under 
Cleomenes, 82 f. 

Megara (1), annexed to Attica by 
Theseus, l. 64; attacked by Corinth, 



II. 456; garrisoned by Cassander, 1 
taken and freed by Demetrius, IX. 
22 ; seceded from Antigonus and 
joined Achaean league, XI. 54; 
besieged by Boeotians, X. 286; 
taken by Galenas, VI. 142, VII. 544. 

Megara (2), Macedonian town, IX. 348 

Megara (3), in Sicily, taken by Marcel- 
lus, V. 482 

Megarians, lost Eleusis to Theseus, I. 
20; 64; at war with Athens over 
Salamis, 420, 572 ; how outwitted 
by Solon, 422 f . ; during quarrel 
between Megacles and Cylon fac- 
tions recover Nisaea and Salamis, 
432; bury dead facing east, 428; 
hard pressed by Persian cavalry, 
succoured by Athenians, II. 252 ; 
revolt to Spartans, III. 64; com- 
plain to Sparta that Athenians keep 
them from market-places and har- 
bours over which they have con- 
trol, 84 ; decree of Athens against, 
cause of Peloponnesian war, 84 f . ; 
88 ; shut up in their city and island 
of Minoa seized by Nicias, 228; rv. 
90; in league against Philip, VII. 
40 ; helped by Athens, VIII. 176 

Megarid, Pegae in it, III. 60 ; razed by 
Pericles, 98 

Megellus, with Pheristus repeoples 
Agrigentum, VI. 344 

Megistonoiis, husband of Crateslcleia, 
convinced by Cleomenes that ephors 
must be removed and property 
divided to give Sparta supremacy 
in Greece, X. 62; stepfather of 
Cleomenes, places his property in 
the common stock, 72 ; 90 ; 94 ; de- 
feated by Aratus at Orchomenus, 
XI. 86; 9~6 

Meidias (1), Demosthenes spoke 
against him, IV. 24, VII. 28 

Meidias (2), exile, begs Sulla to spare 
Athens, IV. 370 

Melanippus, son of Theseus and Peri- 
gun6, father of loxus, I. 18 

Melanopus, unlike Demosthenes in 
character, quoted, VII. 30 f. 

Melanthius (1), poems of, II. 412; 
cited (Nauck 473). 414 

Melanthius (2), choregus, quoted, 
VIII. 188 

Melanthns, flourished in time of 
Philip of Macedon, his painting of 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



tyrant Aristratus saved at inter- 
cession of Nealces, XI. 28 

Melas, river, in plain about Orcho- 
menus, IV. 392 ; spreads out into 
marshes and lakes, V. 378 

Meleager, helped by Theseus in slaying 
Calydonian boar, I. 66 

Melesias, father of Thucydides, III, 
22, 212 

Melesippidas, father of Eupolia, V. 2 

Melians, attacked by Nicias, III. 430; 
chief blame for execution of grown 
men of Melos rests upon Alcibiades, 
IV. 42 ; restored to their homes by 
Lysander, 270 

Meliboea, how treated by Alexander 
of Pherae, V. 412 

Melicertes, games at Isthmus in honour 
of, at night, I. 56 

Melissus, son of Tthagenes, physicist, 
defeated Pericles at siege of Samos 
and was defeated by him, n. 6, 
III. 74 f. 

Melite, in Attica, residence of son of 
Ajax, 1. 428 ; Themistocles had house 
there, II. 60; Phocion had house 
there, VIII. 186 

Meliteia, city of, IV. 390 

Mellaria, in Spain, vin. 30 

" Melleirens," name given oldest of 
boys at Sparta, I. 258 

Melon, prominent Athenian exile who 
with Pelopidas and others takes 
part in expulsion of Spartans at 
Thebes, V. 356, 366, 368; elected 
boeotarch, assaults acropolis, 370 ; 
400; magistrate with Pelopidas, 
urges Sphodrias to seize the 
Piraeus, V. 68 

Melos, see " Melians." 

Memmius, 0., prosecutes M. Lucullus 
and opposes giving him a triumph, 
then prosecutes his brother Lucius, 
II. 592, VIll. 304; forced by Cato 
to desist, 306 ; said Cato spent his 
entire nights drinking, 248 

Memmius, L., Pompey's brother-in- 
law, left as governor of Sicily by 
Pompey, V. 140 ; slain in battle with 
Sertorius, VIll. 54 

Memnon, commander of Dareius on 
sea-board, dies, VII. 272; Barsine' 
his widow, 284 

" Memor," surname of Artaxerxes 
II., XI. 128 



Memphis, not visited by Lucullus, II. 
476 

Menander (1), appointed colleague of 
Nicias for Sicilian expedition, in, 
278; defeated by Syracusans, 280; 
one of Athenian generals at Aegos- 
potami, IV. 106 

Menander (2), companion of Alex- 
ander, executed for disobedience, 
VII. 386 

Menander (3), in command of Anti- 
gonus' baggaere, escapes, VIII. 106 

Menauder (4), (Kock 240), cited, VII. 
270 

Menander (5), general of Mithridates, 
routed by Sornatius, II. 520 

Menas, corsair under Sextus Pompeius, 
EX. 206 

Mende, III. 434 

Mendes, in Egypt, V. 106 

Menecleidas, opposes Epaminondas 
and Pelopidas to his own discomfi- 
ture, v. 400 f . 

Menecrates (1), physician, reproved 
by Agesilaiis, V. 58 

Menecrates (2), naval commander 
under Sextus Pompeius, ix. 206 

Menecrates (3), author of history of 
Bithynian city of Nicaea, cited, 1. 58 

Menedemus, chamberlain of Lucullus, 
II. 518 

Menelaiis, brother of Ptolemy, de- 
feated in Cyprus by Demetrius, ix. 
34; surrenders Salamis to Deme- 
trius, 38 

Menelaiis' Harbour, place on coast of 
of Libya where Agesilaiis died, 
V. 112 

Menemachus, general of Mithridates, 
defeated by Adrian, u. 520 

Menenius Aerippa, entreats plebs to 
return and tells fable of the belly and 
its members, IV. 130 

Menesthes, grandson of Scirus of 
Salamis, one of victims sent to Crete 
with Theseus, I. 34 

Menestheus (1), son of Peteos, grand- 
son of Orneus, stirred up Athenians 
against Theseus, I. 72 ; succeeded 
Theseus as king, led men from 
Ei'on against Troy and died there, 
82, II. 424 

Menestheus (2), Athenian general, in. 
160 

" Menexenus," work of Plato, ill. 70 

419 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Meninx, island touched at by Marios, 
IX. 574 

Menippus (1), friend of Pericles and 
colleague in generalship, III. 44 

Menippus (2), Carian, taught Cicero 
oratory, vil. 90 

Menoeceus, son of Creon, sacrificed in 
ancient times, V. 390 

Menoetius, father of Myrto, II. 278 

Menon (1), assistant of Pheidias, 
charges him with embezzlement and 
is rewarded, III. 90 

Menon (2), father of Theano, a 
priestess, IV. 60 

Menon (3), Greek general with Cyrus, 
spared by Artaxerxes, XI. 168 

Menon (4), Thessalian, led Greek 
cavalry when Leonnatus was de- 
feated and slain, VIII. 200 ; father of 
Phthia, won high repute in Lamian 
war, IX. 346 

Mentor, friend of Eumenes, VIII. 80 

Menyllus, friend of Phocion, com- 
mands Macedonian garrison in 
Athens, VIII. 206, 212 

Mercedinus, intercalary month of 
22 days inserted by Numa every 
other year after February, I. 366 

Mercedonius, intercalary month at 
Rome, VII. 580 

Merchants 1 , held in honour by Greeks, 
1.408 

Mercury, son of Maia, I. 370 

" Meriones," name appearing on 
spears and bronze helmets in temple 
in Bngyium in Sicily, V. 488 

Merope, daughter of Erechtheus, 
mother of Daedalus, I. 38 

Mesopotamia, raided by Demetrius, 
IX. 16; filled with Greeks by Tig- 
ranes, II. 536 ; 570 ; triumphed over 
by Pompey, V. 230 ; many cities in 
it join Crassus, III. 364; 368; 372; 
IX. 196 

Messala, father of Valeria, IV. 436 

Messala, M. Valerius, consul with 
Domititis, V. 256 

Messala Corvinus, M. Valerius, fought 
under Cassius at Philippi, VT. 216; 
228 ; fought for Octavius at Actium, 
244; reply to Augustus, 246. 
Cited : 214, 220, 226 

Messalae, trace descent to Publicola, 
I. 566 

Messana, saved from Athenians by 

42O 



Alcibiades, IV. 58; attacked by 
Calippus, VI. 122 ; occupied by 
Timoleon, 308; freed of tyrant 
Hippo, 342 ; V. 136 

Me<=sapians, offer help to Pyrrhus ship- 
wrecked, IX. 3U2 ; slay Archidamus 
at Mandurium, X. 8 

Messene, rebuilt by Epaminondas, V. 
94, 418; attacked by Demetrius, 

IX. 80; X. 102, 266; XI. 112; 116 f.: 
seized by Nabis, tyrant of Sparta, 
freed by Philopoemen, X. 286, 390; 
306; 388; 314 

Messenia, V. 330; ravaged by Aetol- 
ians, XI. 108 

Messenians, I. 168; 226; rose against 
Sparta after great earthquake, 
292, II. 456; restored by Thebans, 
V. 398; 100; X. 48 

Mestrius Floras, see " Floras, Mes- 
trius." 

Metageitnion, full moon of, nearly 
coincides with Ides of September, 
I. 538; called by Boeotians Pane- 
mus, not favourable to Greeks, II. 
138 f.; called Carneius by Syracu- 
sans, III. 304; VII. 68 

Metagenes, of deme Xypete", com- 
pleted sanctuary of mysteries at 
Eleusis, III. 40 

Metapontum, in Italy, III. 174 

Metella, wife of Sulla, had great in- 
fluence, IV. 344; 366; 396; bears 
twins Faustus and Fausta to Sulla, 
434 ; approves marriage of Pompey 
to Aemilia, her daughter by Scanrus, 
V. 134; IV. 436; VIII. 242 

Metellus, IV. 228 

Metellus, C., interpellates Sulla, IV. 
426 

Metellus, Q., upbraids Ti. Gracchus, 

X. 176 

Metellus Celer, Q. Caecilius, see " Oeler, 

Q. Caecilius Metellus." 
Metellus Creticus, L. Caecilius, tries to 

prevent Caesar from taking money 

from public treasury, V. 276, VI i. 

528 
Metellus Creticus, Q. Caecilius, 

captures pirates in Crete, V. 186 
Metellus Delmaticus, L. Caecilius, 

helps Marius get elected tribune, 

ordered to prison by him, IX. 468 f. ; 

decorated temple of Castor and 

Pollux, V. 120. 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Metellus Macedonians, Q. Caecilius, 
robbed of Corinth by Mummius, 

III. 430; IX. 464 

Metellus Nepos, Q. Caecilius, elected 
tribune with Cato, opposes Cicero, 
is opposed by Cato, vn. 138, vin. 
280 f . ; proposes law giving Pompey 
supreme power, 296 f. ; retires to 
Asia, 304 ; proconsul of Spain, visits 
Caesar at Luca, vu. 494 ; exchanges 
words with Cicero, 146 

Metellus Numidicus, Q. Caecilius, 
uncle on mother's side of Lucullus, 
11.470; IV. 446; appointed general 
for Jugurthine war, takes Marius as 
Legate, intrigued against by him, 
IX. 476 f., 480, 484; feared by 
Madus and caused to lose election 
for consul, 540; through duplicity 
of Marius is banished, studies 
philosophy at Rhodes, 540 f., 582 f., 
VIII. 312; recalled from exile, IX. 
548; quoted 546 

MetelJus Pius, Q. Caecilius, son of 
Metellus Numidicus, IX. 480; III. 
326; IV. 418; 310; V. 132; opposes 
Sertorius in Spain with indifferent 
success V. 156, 196, VIII. 4, 32, 46, 
50, 54, 58, 72 ; is pontifex maximus, 

IV. 342, VII. 456; 478; 376; 488 
Meteorites, fell at Aegospotami; dis- 
cussion of them, IV. 262 

Methydrium seized by Cleomenes, X. 

58 
Metilius, tribune of people, opposes 

Fabius Maximus, III. 140, 144 
Metoecia, festival instituted by 

Thefeus, to be held on 10th of He- 

catombaeon, I. 52 
Meton, astrologer, foresees disaster in 

Sicilian expedition, III. 256, IV. 44 ; 
Metou, citizen of Tarentum, op- 
poses inviting Pyrrhus, IX. 382 
Metrobius (1), public scribe in " Archi- 

lochi," of Cratinus, II. 434 
Metrobius (2), actor, liked by Sulla, 

IV. 328, 438 
Metrodorus (1), of Scepsis, incurs 

Mithridates' anger and is murdered, 

11.538 
Metrodorus (2), dancer, in Antony's 

train, IX. 186 
Micion (1), devastating sea-coast of 

Athens, defeated and slain bv 

1'hocion, VIII. 200 



Micion (2), with Eurycleides prevents 
Athenians from helping Aral us, XI. 
94 

Micipsa, king in Africa, X. 200 

Midas, I. 542 ; Gordium his home, VII. 
272 ; son of Gynaeceia according to 
Phrygians, 462 ; X. 380 

Mieza, place in Macedonia, VII. 240 

" Milesiaca," obscene work by Aris- 
tide?, III. 418 

Milesians, some quarrel with Coans 
over golden tripod, I. 412: fight 
with Samians for Priene, III. tU\ 
72 f . ; their popular leaders deceived 
and slain by Lysauder, IV. 250, 282 

Milesian wool, IV. 62 

Miletus, stormed by Alexander, VII, 
268; 1X116 

Milo, general under Perseus, VI. 394 

Milo Papianus, T. Annius, with Scipio 
and Hypsaeus candidate for con- 
sulship, VIII. 350; tribune, pro- 
secutes Clodius for violence, VII. 
166 ; kills Clodius, VII. 170 

Miltas, Thessalian seer, joins Dion s 
party, VI. 46; interprets omen of 
eclipse, VI. 48 f. 

Miltiades, father of Cimon by Hege- 
sipyle, II. 412 ; chief of 10 Athenian 
generals at Marathon with Aristides 
next, 10 f., 224; 388; of deme 
Laciadae, fined 50 talents, died in 
prison, 294, 412; 410; 426 

Milto, Phocaean, daughter of Hermo- 
timus, account of her, HI. 72 

Mimallones, Macedonian women de- 
voted to Orphic rites and orgies of 
Dionysus, vil. 226 

Mimnermus, addressed in verse by 
Solon, I. 566 

Mina, made to consist of 100 drachmas 
instead of 73 by Solon, I. 444 

Minas, corsair, served under Sexrtus 
Pompeius, IX. 206 f. 

Mindarus, Spartan admiral, defeated 
off Abydos by Athenians with help 
of Alcibiades, IV. 78; slain at 
Cyzicus, 82 

Minerva, statue of, dedicated in the 
Capitol by Cicero, VII. 162 

Minoa, inland seized by Nicias, III. 
228, 430 

Minoa, place in Sicily, VI. 54 

Minos, king of Crete, invaded Attica 
on account of murder of Androgeos, 

421 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



I. 28, 30 ; was king and lawgiver, 
had Rhadamanthus, as judge under 
him, 32; 36; 38; 320; 11.372 

Minotaur, part bull and part man, said 
to have destroyed youths and 
maidens sent as tribute, 1. 28 ; slain 
by Theseus, 36 

Mint, managed by Lucullus, II. 474 

Minturnae, Italian city, IX. 564; 568; 
its magistrates finally send Marius 
on his way, 572 

Minucius, 0., supports Brutus and 
advises not to give the exiled 
Tarquins their property, I. 508 

Minucius, M., one of the first 2 
quaestors appointed, I. 534 

Minucius Rufus, M., made Master of 
Horse by Fabiu? Maximus, III. 126; 
132 ; in Fabius' absence wins suc- 
cess over Hannibal, is given equal 
authority, is defeated by Hannibal, 
rescued by Fabius, 142 f., 202, 204; 
appointed" dictator, then deposed on 
account of bad omen, V. 446 ; 
quoted, III. 154 

Minucius Thermus, supports Cato his 
colleague against Metellus Nepos, 

VIII. 298 f. 

Miracles, discussion of, 11. 108 f., iv. 

210 f. 
Misenum, mole of, scene of meeting 

between Octavius, Antony, and 

Sextus Pompeius, IX. 206 ; is a 

promontory, 554, X. 240 
Mistletoe, used for making bird-lime, 

IV. 124 
Mithras, rites of, celebrated at 

Olympia by pirates, V. 174; xi. 

134 
Mithridates(l), young Persian, wounds 

Cyrus at Cunaxa, XI. 150 ; rewarded 

by Artaxerxes, 158; executed by 

him, 160 f. 
Mithridates (2), son of Ariobarzanes, 

founded line of Pontic kings, ix. 

10 
Mithridates (3), had son Pharnaces, 

VII. 560; interviewed by Marius, 

IX. 550; had 150,000' Romans 
butchered in one dav, IV. 401; war 
with, IX. 554 f.; to be checked by 
Sulla, IV. 334, 342 ; his early succes- 
ses and only slight reverses, 358 f . ; 
ravages Boeotia, IX. 578 ; his general 
Archelalis defeated at Chaeroneia, 

422 



IV. 382 f.; again ravages Greece 
390; his terms of agreement with 
Sulla, 398,400, 402; 454; VIII. 10, 
IX. 590 f., X. 384; besieged by 
Finibria, let escape by Lucullus, II. 
478, 480, 482, 488 ; in 2nd war with 
reorganized army invades Bithynia, 
II. 490; makes alliance with Ser- 
torius and receives army from Spain, 
494, VIII. 62 ; besieges Cyzicus by 
land and sea, II. 496; suffers de- 
feats at rivers Rbyndacus and 
G-ranicus at hands of Lucullus, 504 ; 
flees to Heracleia, 508 ; is father-in- 
law of Tisrranes, 512 ; defeats 
Romans at Cabira, 514 ; is defeated 
and flees, 520 f. ; escapes to Tig- 
ranes in Armenia, 526; demanded 
of Tigranes by Glodius, 536; 538; 

IV. 412; II. 544; 552; with Tigranes 
begins to assemble fresh forces, 56fi ; 
defeats Fabius and Triarius, 584, 

V. 216; defeated by Pompey near 
the Euphrates, 198; 204; among 
peoples of Bosporus, pursued by 
Pompey, 206, 210; documents of 
his found in fortress of Caenum and 
read by Pompey, 212 ; ends life, 
222, II. 618; quoted, VIII. 64 

Mithridates (4), cousin of Monaeses, 

warns Antony, IX. 244 ; 248 
Mithridates (5), king of Commagen 

fights under Antony, IX. 276 
Mithridates (6), of Pontus, ridicules 

Galba to Nymphidius Sabinus, XI. 

232; executed by Galba, 236 
Mithrobarzanes, general of Tigranes, 

defeated and slain by Lucullus, II, 

550 
Mithropaustes, the Persian king's 

cousin, rebukes Demaratus the 

Spartan, II. 80 
Mitylene, ruled by tyrant Pittacus, I. 

438; exiled Diophanes, X. 160; 

revolts and is subdued by Lucullus, 

II. 482 ; freed by Pompey for sake 

of Theophanes, V. 224; 308; 310 
Mnasitheus, helps Aratus drive 

Nicocles from Corinth, XI. 16 
" Mnemon," cognomen or epithet, IX. 

464 
Mnesiphilus, Phrearrbian, teacher of 

Themistocles, precursor of sophists, 

II. 6 
Mnesiptolema, daughter of Themis- 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



tocles, made priestess of Dindy- 
men, II. 82 ; married Archeptolis 
her half-brother, 88 

Mnestra, woed by Cimon, II. 416 

Moeroclcs, Athenian orator, VII. 32 ; 
his surrender demanded by Alex- 
ander, 56 

Molon, father of Apollonius the 
rhetorician, vil. 90, 446 

Molossians, had king Aldoneus, I. 72 ; 
had king Admetus, II. 64; had 
Pyrrhus as 1st king after the flood, 
IX. 346 ; expel Aeacides and bring 
to power sons of Neoptolemus, 348 ; 
drive out Pyrrhus and put Neopto- 
lemus on throne, 354 

Molossus, succeeds Phocion in com- 
mand, is captured by the enemy, 

VIII. 174 

Molpadia, said to have slain Antiop6 
or Hippolyta, I. 62 

Molus, river at foot of Thurium, IV. 
382; 390 

Monaeses, Parthian, fled to Antony, 
sent back to Phraates by him, TX. 
220, 244 

Moneta, temple of, built on site of 
Tatius' house, I. 152 ; built on site 
of Manlius Capitolinus' house, II, 
188 

Money-lenders at Rome, their op- 
pression, IV. 126 ; greatly afflicted 
Bithynia, driven out by Lucullus, 
II. 492 ; plunder Asia, 532 

Monime, Milesian, wife of Mithridates, 
forced by him to commit suicide, 
II. 524; her correspondence with 
Mithridates, V. 212 

Month, naming and numbering of its 
days by Solon, I. 474; Sabines 
adopted their months from Romans, 
154; Numa's arrangements of 
months, 366 

Moon, eclipse of, III. 288; shortly 
before battle of Arbela, VII. 316; 
before Pydna, VI. 398 

" Moon," surname of Cleopatra, 
daughter of Antony and Cleopatra, 

IX. 218 

Mora, military unit of Spartans, its 

strength, V. 380 
Moschian Mts., on border of Iberians, 

V. 204 
Mothakes, Helots raised with Spartans 

X. 64 



Mother of the Gods, had shrine at 

Pessinus, IX. 508 ; 550 
Mothers, goddesses of city of Engyium 

in Sicily V. 488 f. 
Mothone, seaport above Malea, XI. 

26 

Mt. Lycaeum, see " Lycaeum, Mt." 
Mounychion, see " Munychion." 
Mourning at Rome, periods of, regu- 
lated by Numa, I. 346, IV. 216 
Mucia, divorced by Pornpey, V. 226 
Mucianus, commander in Syria, 

friendly to Otho, XI. 284 
Mucius (1), client of Ti. Gracchus, 

elected tribune in place of M. 

Antonius, X. 174, 186 
Mucius (2), jurist, eaten of worms, IV. 

440 
Mucius (3), father-in-law of younger 

Marius, IX. 560 
Mucius Scaevola, C., his experiences 

with Porsena, I. 546 f . ; quoted, 548 
Mucius Scaevola, P., jurist, helped Ti. 

Gracchus draw up his agrarian law, 

X. 162 f. 
Mucius Scaevola, Q., statesman and 

leader of senate, helped Cicero 

to acquaintance with law, VII. 86 
Mummius, Crassus' legate, defeated 

by Spartacus, III. 342 
Mummius, C., sent by Sulla to seize 

city-gate and walls on Esquiline hill, 

IV." 3 54 
Mummius, L., took Corinth, had no 

cognomen, got surname Acha'icus, 

III. 430, IX. 464; X. 316 
Munatius (1), defended by Cicero, 

shows ingratitude, vil. 144 
Munatius (2), friend of Cato the 

Younger VTII. 254; 300; brings 

Pompey's proposal of marriage 

alliance to Cato, 306, 308 ; greatly 

angered by Cato's lack of trust in 

him, published treatise on Cato, 

322 f. ; in Bruttium receives under 

his protection Cato's younger son, 

360; cited, 292, 324 f. 
Munatius Plancus, L., spoke in favour 

of amnesty after murder of Caesar, 

VI. 166; joins Antony, IX. 176 ; flees 

to Caesar, tells of Antony's will, 

268 
Munatius Plancus Bursa, T., convicted 

in spite of Pompey's support, V. 262, 

Vin., 352 

423 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Munda, battle of; sons of Pompey 

defeated, VII. 572 
Mundus, trench about Comitium, I. 

118 
Munychia, in Athens, criticized by 

Epimenides of Phaestus, T. 434; 

entered by Macedonian garrison, 

VII. 70 ; garrisoned by Cassander, 
IX. 18, 20; captured and dis- 
mantled by Demetrius, 24 ; 84; XI. 
78; IV. 372 

Munychion, Athenian month, I. 36; 
IV. 272; VIII. 230; changed to 
Demetrion in honour of Demetrius, 
IX. 28 

Munychus, son of Demophoon and 
Laodice, legend of, I. 78 

Murcus, slew Piso, XI. 266 

Murena, L. Licinius (1), serves under 
Sulla in Greece, IV. 380; given loft 
wing bv Sulla at Chaeroneia, 384, 
388 

Murena, L. Licinius (2), left by Lucul- 
lus in charge of siege of Amisus, II. 
514 ; gives freedom to Tyrannic the 
grammarian, 530 ; 552 ; left in 
charge of siege of Tigranocerta, 556 ; 
elected consul with Silanus, VII. 116 ; 
brought to trial by Cato, defended 
by Cicero and Hortensius, 170, 212, 

VIII. 284, 286; supports Cato, 302, 
Musaeus, Fragment 21 (Kinkel, Ep. 

(,'raec. Frag., p. 229), cited, IX. 
564 

Muses, Spartan king would sacrifice to 
them before battle, I. 272 ; credited 
with oracular teaching of JSTuma, 
332 ; with Egeria give ISTuma ac- 
count of bronze buckler fallen from 
heaven, 350 

Museum, at Athens, battle with 
Amazons near it, I. 60 ; garrisoned 
by Demetrius, IX. 84; one near 
Thorium, IV. 382 

Mosic, fluto-playing held ignoble by 
Alcibiades, while lyre became a 
gentleman, IV. 6 

"Muthos," nickname of Demetrius, 

IX. 64 

Mutina, in Qaul, where Pompey be- 
sieged Brutus, father of the con- 
spirator, V. 154; where the con- 
suls TTirtius and Pansa defeated 
Antony but were themselves slain, 
IX. 174 

424 



Mutiny of Lucullus' troops, II. 570, 
576 f., 584 

Mycalo, where Greeks under Xanthip- 
pus defeated Persians, II. 138, III, 
6, VI. 420 

Mycenae, VIII. 24 ; XI. 66 

Mvgdonia, described; invaded by 
'Lucullus, II. 578 

Mylae, town in Sicily, VI. 350 

Mylasa, city in Asia, its revenue 
offered Phocion by Alexander, VIII. 
186 

Myron (1), of Phlya, prosecuted family 
of Megacles, I. 432 

Myron (2), general under Mithridates, 
'defeated by Adrian, n. 520 

Myronides, with Cimon and Xanthip- 
pus an envoy to Sparta, II. 244; 
general with Aristides and Leocrates 
at Plataea, 274; III. 52; 198; char- 
acter in " Demes " of Eupolis, 70 

Myrlilos (1), mentions Spartan youth 
who closely resembled Hector, XI. 
8 

Myrtilus (2), cup-bearer of Pyrrhus 
informs him of plot against his life, 
IX. 356 

Myrtle, Aphrodite's plant, V. 496 

Myrto (1), daughter of Menoetius and 
sister of Patroclus, had daughter 
Eucleia by Heracles, it. 278 

Myrto (2), granddaughter of Aristides, 
false story about her, II. 296 

Mysia, XI. 284 

Mystae, initiates in mysteries of 
'Eleusis, IV. 48, 60, VIII. 208 

Mysteries, Eleusinian, at Athens, when 
held, II. 140, VIII. 158, 206; out- 
rage upon, charged against Alcibi- 
ades, IV. 48, 52, 60, VII. 316 ; Deme- 
trius initiated ; the grades and 
times, IX. 60; celebrated by 
Voconius, II. 508 

Myus, city in Asia, given Themistocles 
by Persian king to supply meat, II. 
80 



Nabataeaus, V. 292 

Nabis, successor of Machanidas as 
tyrant of Sparta, seized Messene, 
frightened away by Philopoemen, 
X. 286, 310, 390; at war with 
Achaeans and Romans, defeats 
Philopoemen in naval battle, 292 ; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES 



routed by Philopoemen, 294; at- 
tacked by Flamininus who soon 
made peace with him, 358 ; treacher- 
ously slain by Aetolians, 296 
Nakedness, Koman vs. Greek custom, 

II. 362 

Names, Koman, of persons, discussed, 
IX. 464 

Naphtha, its properties shown to 
Alexander; theory as to its origin, 
VII. 328 

Naples, V. 264, VII. 100 

Narbo, city of Gaul, XI. 226 

Narbonensis, Gallia, vill.32 

Narnia, colonists sent to it, X. 324 

" Narrow," name of a place, VI. 208 

Narthacium, mountain near Pharsalus. 
V. 44 

Nasica, P. Cornelius Scipio, very large 
holder of public land, bitter hater 
of Ti. Gracchus X. 174; leads mob 
against Ti. Gracchus, who with more 
than 300 others was slain, 190; 
interrogates Blossius, 192; hated 
by people ; though pontifex maxi- 
mus, fled from Italy and committed 
suicide, 194 

Natural philosophy, its advantages, 

III. 14 

Naucrates, persuades Lycians to 

revolt from Brutus, VI. 192 
Naupactus, besieged by M.' Acilius, X. 

364 
Nauplia, Pyrrhus pitches his camp 

near it, IX. 450 

Nausicrates, rhetorician, cited, II. 466 
Nausithoiis, given as pilot to Theseus, 

I. 34 
Naxians, their account of Ariadne and 

Theseus, I. 42 
Naxos, II. 68 ; sea-fight oft Naxos, won 

by Athenians, 138, VIII. 156 ; III. 34 ; 

218; 266 
Nealces, friend of Aratus, tries to save 

picture of Aristratus, XI. 28 
Neander, one of 3 young men who 

fled with the infant Pyrrhus, IX. 

348 

Neanthes, of Cyzicus, cited, li. 2, 80 
Neapolis (1), V. 458; Lucullus had 

palaces there, II. 598, 612 
Neapolis (2), in territory of Agrigen- 

tum, VI. 102 

Neapolis (3), a part of Syracuse, V. 484 
Neapolitans, V. 264 



Nearchus (1), banished by Philip, 
honoured afterwards by Alexander, 
vn. 250; made admiral of fleet by 
Alexander, 410 ; meets Alexander 
at Gedrosia, 414; after sailing 
through ocean into Euphrates, joins 
Alexander, 426 ; 432 ; 434 

Nearchus (2), Cretan, pleads with 
Antigonus for life of Eumenes, vin, 
134 

Nearchus (3), Pythagorean, lodged 
Cato the Elder, II. 318 

Nectanabis, cousin of Tachos, 
revolts from him and is made king 
by the Egyptians, is joined by 
Agesilaiis, V. 104 f . ; having ousted 
Tachos, is himself opposed by a 
rival from Mendes, 106 ; distrusts 
Agesilaiis, retires into fortified city, 
routs opponents with help of Age- 
silaiis, dismisses him with gifts, 
108 f. 

Neleus, of Scepsis, to whom Theo- 
phrastus bequeathed his books, IV. 
406 

Nemea, where Athenians under 
Pericles defeated Sicyonians, III. 
60 ; painted by Aristophon with 
Alcibiades in her arms, IV. 42 ; XI. 14 

Nemean games, see " Games Nemean." 

" Nemesis," play of Cratinus, III. 8 

Neochorus, of Ualiartus, slew Ly- 
sander, IV. 316 

Neocles (1), father of Themistocles, 
11.2,6,214 

Neocles (2), son of Themistocles, II. 88 

Neon (1), commander of Corinthian* 
in acropolis of Syracuse, captures 
the Achradma, VI. 304 

Neon (2), Boeotian, remains with 
Porcena in his flight, VI. 416 

Neoptolemus (1), son of Achilles, after 
time of Deucalion took possession of 
country of Molossians and left line 
IX. 346 ; ancestor of Alexander on 
his mother's side, VII. 224 

Neoptolemus (2), brother of Arybas 
and uncle of Aeacides, IX. 348 

Neoptolemus (3), made king of 
Molossians in place of Pyrrhup, IX. 
354; shares kingdom with Pyrrhus 
who finally slays him, 356 f . 

Neoptolemus (4), commander of 
Alexander's Shield-bearers, VIII. 
78; 88; bid by Perdiccas to take 

425 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



orders from Eumenes, plans 
treachery, is defeated by Eumenes, 
flees to Craterus and Antipater, 90 ; 
defeated and slain by Eumenes in 
personal combat, 92 f. 

Neoptolemus (5), satrap of Mithri- 
dates, IX. 556 ; defeated off Tenedos 
by Lucullus, II. 482 

Nepos, see " Metellus Nepos." 

Nepos, Cornelius, see " Cornelius 
Nepos." 

"Nero," title given Otho by the 
people, XI. 278f. 

Nero Germanicus, son of Agrippina 
and Ahenobarbus, adopted by 
Claudius, became emperor, killed 
his mother, 5th in descent from 
Antony, IX. 332, XI. 206 ; ruined by 
Nymphidius Sabinus and Tigellinus, 
210, 240; his relations with Otho 
and Ppppaea, 246 f . ; gave gifts to 
theatrical people, 238 ; executed 
Crassus and Scribonia, Piso's 
parents, 254; proclaimed Greeks 
free at Isthmian games at Corinth, 
X. 358 ; sent Galba out as governor 
of Spain, Junius Vindex, general 
in Gaul, revolts, 212 ; denounced by 
Galba, 214; alarmed on learning of 
Galba's revolt, sells his property, 
216; announced as dead by Icelus, 
218 

Nervii, defeated by Caesar, VII. 492 

Nestor, of Homer, V. 384 

News, quick transmission of, IV. 124, 
VI. 418, 438 

Nicaea, Bithynian city, history of, by 
Menecrates, I. 58 

Niceaa, widow of Alexander, tyrant of 
Corinth, married to Demetrius, 
loses Acrocorinthus, XI. 36 f. 

Nicagoras (1), of Troezen, introduces 
bill to support Athenian families 
fleeing from Persians before battle 
of Salamis, II. 30 

Nicagoras (2), Messenian, secret enemy 
of Cleomenes, arouses Ptolemy's 
suspicion and hate of him, x. 128 

Nicanor (1), sent by Cassander to 
replace Menyllus in command of 
garrison at Athens, induced by 
Phocian to be mild to Athenians, 
viii. 216 ; escapes from Athens and 
plans hostilities, 218 

Nicanor (2), sent by Antigonus to 

426 



receive Eumenes as a prisoner, viii. 
130 

Nicarchus, great-grandfather of 
Plutarch, IX. 294 

Nicator, title of tyrants, II. 228 

Niceratus (1), father of Nicias, III. 212, 
220, IV. 28 

Niceratus (2), poet of Heracleia, given 
crown over Antimachus of Colo- 
phon, IV. 282 

Nicias (1), son of Niceratus, becomes 
a leader after death of Pericles, ill, 
212 ; sought by expenditure of 
money to win favour, 214f. ; very 
pious and superstitious, had large 
interests in silver mines of Laurium, 
218; timid and retiring, 220 f.; 
helped by his dependent Hiero, 224 : 
as general made safety his chief 
aim, and so was successful for most 
part, 226 ; some of his minor suc- 
cesses, 228 ; discredited by Cleon's 
success on Sphacteria, 234 ; brought 
about the " Peace of Nicias " ; its 
terms, 240, IV. 32 ; fails on embassy 
to Sparta, III. 244; arranges with 
Alcibiades his rival to have Hyper- 
bolus banished, 248 

Opposes expedition to Sicily, 
250; after being elected 1st oi~3 
generals for Sicily still vainly op- 
poses the expedition, 252, 430 ; 
after recall of Alcibiades from 
expedition discourages troops by 
inaction, 258 ; at end of summer 
sails against Syracuse and wins a 
success, 262 f . ; winters at Naxos, 
266 ; in spring seized Epipolae, de- 
feated Syracusans, and nearly 
circuravallated the city, 268 f.; on 
death of Lamachus is sole general 
and in great hopes, 270 ; disregards 
approach of Glyippus, 272 ; is de- 
feated by Glyippus, who ran a cross 
wall to intersect the besiegers' wall 
of enclosure, 276 ; repulses Gylippus 
on the water, but loses Plemmyrium. 
278; is reinforced by Demosthenes, 
who is defeated and urges return, 
280f. ; is about to change base 
when halted by eclipse of moon, 
288 f.; is defeated on the water, 
292 ; is defeated on the water again 
so that he cannot retire by sea, 
294 f. ; delays retiring by land until 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Syracusans block all the routes, 
296 f . ; conducts retreat for 8 
successive days until Demosthenes 
and his detachment is captured, 
300; is captured at river Asinarus 
and most of his men are slain, 302 ; 
suffers death, 306, 310 

See also III. 430, IV. 28, 30, 46, 52 
Quoted : in. 302 

Nicias (2), friend of Agesilaiis, V. 36 

Nicias (3), steward of Ptolemy's 
household, has freedom given him 
by senate, vin. 330 

Nicias (4), of Engyium, induced 
Marcellus to spare his city, V. 490 

Nicocles (1), Athenian, vin. 182 ; con- 
demned to death with Phocion, 228, 
230 

Nicocles (2), became tyrant of Sicyon, 
nearly lost city to Aetolians, XI. 8 ; 
his spies deceived by Aratus, 12 ; 
escapes from Sicyon, 20, X. 256 

Nicocreon, king of Salamis, com- 
petes as choregus against Pasicrates 
of Soli, VII. 308 

Nicodemus (1), lame and blind man, 
V. 348 

Nicodemus (2), Messenian, supported 
now Cassander now Demetrius, vn, 
32 

Nicogenes, wealthiest man in Aeolia, 
knew and sheltered Themistocles, 
II. 70, 76 

Nicolaiis, philosopher, cited, VI. 240 

Nicomache, daughter of Themistocles, 
given in marriage by her brother to 
Phrasicles, II. 88 

Nicomachus (1), brother of Cebalinus, 
reveals plot of Limnus to Alexander, 
VII. 364 

Nicomachus (2), his paintings 
characterized, VI. 346 

Nicomachus (3), of Carrhae, urges P. 
Crassus to escape to Ichnae, III. 394 

Nicomedeia, city in Bithynia, II. 508 

Nicomedes (1), son-in-law of Themi- 
stocles, II. 88 

Nicomedes (2), to receive Bithynia 
again from Mithridates, IV. 398; 
reconciled to Mithridates by Sulla, 
404; visited by Caesar, VII. 444 

Nicon (1), servant of Craterus, ar- 
rested by Peucestas, VII. 348 

Nicon (2), an elephant, IX. 456 

Nicon (3), an ass, IX. 284 



Niconides, Thessalian, made wonder- 
ful siege-engines, II. 500 

Nicopolis, city on Actium, IX. 278 

Nicopolis, wealthy woman, made Sulla 
her heir, IV. 328 

" NicostrateY* other name of Car 
menta, wife of Evander, 1. 156 

" Niger," Roman surname, IV. 142 

Niger, friend of Antony, brings mes- 
sage from Octavia to him, IX. 
256 

Nigidius, P., advises Cicero to put 
conspirators to death, VII. 130 

Niphates, VII. 316 

Nisaea, taken by Megara from Athens, 
1. 432 ; in. 228 ; sea-port of Megara, 
enclosed by wall and connected 
by walls with Megara, VIII. 178 

Nisaean horse, IX. 374 

Nisaeus, driven from Syracuse by 
Dionysius the Younger, VI. 262 

Nisibis, city in Mygdonia, called 
Antioch by Greeks, taken by Lucul- 
lus, II. 578, 592 

Nola, V. 458 ; battle of, Marcellus de- 
feats Hannibal, 462 ; defeats him 
again, 464 ; IV. 350 

Nonacris, cliff there had poisonous 
water, VII. 436 

Nones Capratine, day on which 
Romulus disappeared; reason for 
name, 1. 182, 186, 308, II. 178 

Nonius (1), rival candidate for tribune 
ship, slain by Saturninus, IX. 542 

Nonius (2), nephew of Sulla, IV. 356 

Nonnius, in Pompey's camp, VII. 
180 

Nora, stronghold on confines of 
Lycaonia and Cappadocia, VIII. 108 

Norbanus, encamped at Narrows near 
Symbolum, nearly captured with 
his army by Brutus and Cassius, VI. 
208 

Norbanus, C., consul, with Marius the 
Younger defeated by Sulla and shut 
up in Capua, IV. 410 f., VIII. 14 

Noricum, traversed by Cimbri, IX. 
502 

" Nous," term applied to Anaxagoras 
of Clazomenae, III. 10 

" Novi homines," what they were, II. 
302 

Novum Comum, colony established 
by Caesar in Gaul, VII. 512 

Numa Pompilius, when he lived; said 

427 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



to have been friend of Pythagoras, 
i. 306; of Sabine descent, 308; 
nominated king by the Romans, 
312 ; came from Cures, was son of 
Pompon, 314; married Tatia, was 
fond of country life, 316; in 40th 
rear invited to become king, 320; 
declines, 322; accepts and goes to 
Rome, 326; disbands the body of 
300 called " Celeres," appoints 
Flamen Quirinalis, 328 ; proceeds 
to make the city more gentle and 
iust, 330 ; claimed the nymph 
Egeria loved him, 316, 332 ; possibly 
influenced by Pythagoras, 334; 
instituted the Pontifices, 336; 
credited with consecration of the 
Vestal virgins, 1GO, 338, II. 142; 
their number, duties, privileges, 
the punishment for unchastity, 
340 f . ; said to have built temple 
of Vesta, 344; fixed 10 months as 
longest period for mourning, 346, 
IV. 216; established the Salii, the 
Fetiales, and many other orders of 
priests, I. 346; reason for establish- 
ing Salii, 350. Built the Regia and 
had another house on the Quirinal, 
354; gave many precepts resembl- 
ing those of Pythagoreans, 356; 
story of his conversation with 
Jupiter, 358 ; first to build temples 
to Faith and Terminus, 362; 
divided people into groups accord- 
ing to trades or arts, 364 ; amended 
law permitting fathers to sell sons, 
adjusted calendar, 366, VII. 580; 
built temple of Janus, 372 ; varying 
accounts of his marriages and off- 
spring, 376 ; succeeded by Hosti- 
lius ; his obsequies, 146, 378 ; 
quoted, 322 

See also 1. 154, IV. 178, V. 454, VI. 
^358, VIII. 152 

Numantia, defeats Mancinus, makes 
truce owing to Ti. Gracchus, X. 154, 
246 ; taken and destroyed by Scipio 
Africanus Minor, II. 596, VI. 414, 
IX. 468, 494, X. 158, 174 

Numerius (1), friend of Marius, IX. 
560 

Numerius (2), friend of Pompey, V. 
280 

Numidia, king of, captured by Scipio 
Africanus, III. 194 ; Bocchus king of, 

428 



IV. 328 ; Hiempsal king of, IX. 574 ; 
subdued by Pompey, v. 144 

Numidiang, used by Carthaginians in 
their armies, VI. 330; in army of 
Hannibal, III. 152 ; V. 464 ; 520 ; rout 
Caesar's cavalry, VII. 564 

Numistro, city in Lucania, V. 502 

Numitor, chose kingdom in prefer- 
ence to gold and silver, but was 
dispossessed by his brother Amulius ; 
had daughter Ilia, or Rhea, or Silvia, 
I. 96; his experience with Romulus 
and Remus, his daughter's children, 
102 f.; died in Alba, 172 

Nundinae, market-day coming every 
9 days, IV. 162 

Nurses, Spartan, I. 254, IV. 2 

Nussa (Nursia) Sabine city, home 
town of Sertorius, VIII. 4 

Nymphaeum (1), sacred precinct near 
Apollonia; story of satyr caught 
there, IV. 408 

Nymphaeum (2), sacred precinct fre- 
quented by Aristotle, VII. 240 

Nymphidia, daughter of Callistus and 
mother of Nymphidius Sabinus, 
XI. 224 

Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of court 
guard with Tigellinus; by offer of 
bribe gets soldiers to proclaim G-alba 
emperor, XI. 208 f.; orders Tigel- 
linus to give up his command and 
aspires to imperial position, 220 f . ; 
says he is son of C. Caesar who 
succeeded Tiberius; believed to be 
=on of Martianus a gladiator, XI. 
222 f.; tries to be made emperor 
and is slain, 230 f.; his adherents 
went over to Galba, 258 

" Nympholepti," term applied to 
natives of Cithaeron with oracular 
power, II. 246 

Nymphs, Sphragitic, had cave on peak 
'of Cithaeron, II. 246, 272 

Nypsius, Neapolitan, puts into 
Syracuse with food and money for 
beleaguered garrison of Dionysius, 
is defeated by Syracusans, then by 
surprise attack takes city, is de- 
feated by Dion, VT. 86 f. 

Nysa, citadel in India, attacked by 
Alexander, vii. 390 

Nysaeus, see " Nisaeus." 

Nyssa, sister of Mithridates, captured 
by Lucullus, II. 524 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Oa, Attic deme, in. 26 

" Oarses," name of Artaxerxes Mne- 
mon at first according to Deinon, 
XI. 128 

Oath, Athenian, what it is, IV. 38 

Oath, the great, how taken, VI. 118 

Obai, subdivisions of Spartan people 
made by Lycurgus, I. 220 

Obolus, Its original meaning, IV. 278 

Ocean, nothern, ix. 488 

Ochus, youngest son of Artaxerxes, 
rival of Dareius for throne, XI. 188 ; 
removes his two remaining rivals 
Ariaspes and Arsames, 200, 202 ; 
did not once come into Persia to 
avoid giving money to women, vii. 
416 

Octavia, sister of Octavius Caesar, 
daughter of Ancharia, married first 
to 0. Marcellus, on his death to 
Antony, ix. 206; mother of Mar- 
cellus by 0. Marcellus, dedicated 
library in honour of her son, V. 622 ; 
IX. 210 ; bore 2 daughters to Antony, 
reconciles Octavius and Antony, 
214 ; gets 20 vessels for her brother, 
1000 troops for her husband, 216; 
on way to Antony, is stopped at 
Athens by letters from him, 256 ; 
returns from Athens, lives in her 
husband's house, 260 ; ejected from 
Antony's house in Rome, takes all 
his children with her except eldest 
son by Fulvia, 266 f . ; reared 6 of 
Antony's children with her own, 
330 ; her daughters and whom they 
married, 332; had book addressed 
to her by Athenodorus, I. 548 

Octavius (1), governor of Cilicia, dies, 
II. 486 

Octavius (2), legate of Crassus, III 
402, 408, 412 ; attempting to rescue 
Orassus, is slain, 414 

Octavius (3), reputed to be of African 
descent, VII. 146 

Octavius, C. (1), father of young 
Oaesar, vii. 196 

Octavius, 0. (2), falsely claimed to 
have been one of Caesar's murderers, 
executed by Antony and young 
Oaesar, VII. 600 

Octavius, Gn. (1), admiral under 
Aemilius Paulus, anchors off Samo- 
thrace to prevent escape of Perseus, 
VI. 422 



Octavius Gn. (2), consul, defeats his 
colleague Cinna in the forum, and 
puts Cornelius Merula in his place, 
VIII. 10, IX. 578 f . ; remains in Rome 
on approach of Marius and is slain, 
582,1V. 364; IX. 592 

Octavius, L., sent by Pompey to 
Crete to succeed Metellus in fighting 
pirates, V. 188 

Octavius, M. (1), tribune of people, 
opposes Ti., Gracchus' agrarian law, 
X. 166 f . ; ejected from office on 
proposal of Ti. Gracchus, 170; 
206 

Octavius, M. (2), with 2 legions en- 
camped near Utica, asks Cato which 
of them is to command in province, 
VIII. 394; with M. Insteius com- 
manded centre for Antony at 
Actium, IX. 284 

Octavius Caesar, see " Augustus 
Caesar." 

October, called Domitianus by Domi- 
tian for short time, I. 370 

Odeum, built by Pericles, III. 42 

Odysseus, father of Romanus by 
Oirc6, I. 92; consulted shades of 
dead, IX. 490; II. 326; V. 12 

" Odyssey," see " Homer." 

Oedipus, fountain of, iv. 390 

Oenanth6, had great influence in 
government under Ptolemy iv., X. 
124 

Oenarus, priest of Dionysus, lived with 
Ariadne, I. 40 

Oeneid, Attic tribe, II. 458 

Oeniadae, ill. 60; their city de- 
stroyed by Aetolians, VI1.'3G6 

Oenopion, son of Theseus by Ariadne 
according to Ion of Chios, I. 40 

Oenus, at first called Cnacion, river 
at Sparta, I. 222 

Oetaeans, III. 56 

Ofella, Lucretius, see " Lucretius 
Ofella." 

Oil, its action, II. 392 ; spring of, 
discovered, vii. 388 

Olbianians, VIII. 24 

Olbius, pa*clagogue of children of 
Nicogenes, 1J. 70 

Oligarchy, II. 54, 266 f. 

" Oligoi," conservative party at 
Athens, III. 32 

Oligyrtus, its garrison expelled from 
Phlius by Cleomenes, X. 110 

429 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES 



*' Olive," name of spring where 

Apollo was born, V. 378 
Olizon, opposite Artemisium, II. 22 
Olocrus, mountain near Pydna, VI. 

408 
Olorus (1), Thracian king, father of 

Hegesipyle, II. 412 
Olorus (2), father of Thucydides the 

historian, descended from preceding 

II. 412 

Olthacus, Dandarian prince, under- 
takes to assassinate Lucullus, but 

fails, II. 518 
Olympia, II. 14; 68; 316; its sacred 

treasures used by Sulla, IV. 362; 

VII. 20 

Olympiad, 176th, II. 484 

"Olympian," surname of Pericles; 
how acquired, III. 22, 112 

Olympias, sister of Arymba?, married 
Philip of Macedon, VII. 226; de- 
voted Bacchante, kept great tame 
serpents, 228; spurred Alexander 
on to quarrel with his father, estab- 
lished by herson Alexander in Epirus, 
246 ; blamed for urging Patisanias to 
slay Philip, 250; 296; 340; rebels 
against Antipater and takes Epirus 
to rule, 414; put many to death, 
believed lolas to have poisoned 
Alexander, 436; drugged Arrhi- 
daeus and ruined his mind, 438; 
invited Eumenes to come and take 
charge of Alexander's little son, 

VIII. 116; IX. 50 

Olympic games, instituted by 

Heracles in honour of Zeus, I. 56~; 

Athenian victor got 500 drachmas 

by Solon's regulation, 466, II. 296. 

See also " Games." 
Olympic truce, said to have been 

established by Lycurgus and 

Iphitus, I. 204, 276 f. 
Olympieium, in Athens, unfinished, I. 

496 ; near Syracuse, III. 266 
Olympiodorus, with 300 Athenians 

sent to aid of Megarians at Plataea, 

II. 254 
Olympus, Cleopatra's physician, 

published history of her last days, 

IX. 320 

Olympus, town where pirates offered 

sacrifice, V. 174 
Olympus, mountain, VI. 386; its 

height, 394 

43 



Olynthus, VII. 20 

Omens : II. 34, 40, 44, 106, 108, 124, 
172, 174, 462, 496, 502, 548, 560, 
590, III. 14, 100, 122, 124, 208, 218, 
244, 256, 288, 294, 336, 362, 366. 
372, 382, IV. 46, 98, 174, 210, 260, 
280, 340, 346, 358, 372, 410, V. 68, 
78, 194, 294, 442, 464, 512, 516, VI. 
50, 62, 82, 150, 156, 178, 208, 210, 
234, 278, 322, 380, 398 f ., 418, VII. 
130, 164, 226, 230, 260, 270, 296, 
300, 386, 426, 546, 554, 588, 604, 

VIII. 208, IX. 28, 70, 210, 274, 284, 
308, 362, 450, 5U6, 564, 570, X. 26, 
144, 184, 220, 340, XI. 100, 256, 
284 f. 

Omipu.--, commended by Artaxerxe.- 
II., XI. 134 

Omphale, house of, had Hercules a.s 
slave, 1. 14; III. 70; IX. 336 

Onatius Aurelius, see " Aurelius, C." 

On eian hills, X. 92 

Onesicritus, philosopher of school of 
Diogenes the Cynic ; his experiences 
with gymnosophists, VII. 408 ; 
appointed chief pilot of fleet by 
Alexander, 410 

Cited : 242, 260, 356, 394, 398 

Onomarchus (1), one of party that 
seized Delphi and plundered 
sanctuary, VI. 334 

Onomarchus (2), keeper of Eumenes 
for Antigonus, VIII. 134 

Onomastus, f reedman of Otho, XI. 258 

Ophelas, ruler of Cyrene, first husband 
of Eurydic<, IX. 32 

Opheltas, with his subjects conducted 
from Thessaly to Boeotia by Peri- 
politas, II. 404 

" Opima," why term was applied to 
" spoiia," 1/138 

Opimius, L., failed to get elected con- 
sul when Fannius was supported 
by C. Gracchus, X. 222; elected 
consul, 226 ; given full power to act 
against C. Gracchus, 228; refuses 
C. Gracchus' terms of peace, 232 ; 
attacks party of Fulvius, 234 ; first 
consul to exercise power of dictator, 
convicted of fraud and spent his 
last days in infamy, 238 

Oplax, Frentanian, slain by Pyrrhus, 

IX. 398 

Oppius, C., friend of Caesar, cited, V. 
138; VII. 484 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE <LIV 7 ES' 



" Optip," latin for scout, XI. 258 
Opuntians, surrender voluntarily to 

Flamininns, X. 331 

Oracles, anonymous: IV. 294, 304, 
I 316, V. 6, VII. 46, 564, IX. 452. X. 

378 

Oracle of Apollo, I. 6, 36, II. 276, IV. 
122, VII. 44, 46, 50, 92, 228, VIII. 162 
See also " Delphi, oracle of." 
Oracle from Sibylline books, vil. 44 
Oracles of Ammon, Amphiaraii?, 
Dodona, Heracleia, Ismenus, see 
" Ammon, etc." 
Oracle from Lebadeia and cave of 

Trophonius, IT. 270, IV. 380 
Oration, funeral, delivered by Publi- 
cola in honour of Brutus earlier than 
any among Greeks, I. 524; by 
Pericles over those who fell at 
Samos, III. 80 ; of Fabius Maximus 
on the death of his son preserved, 
120, 190 

Orations : I. 106, 322, 324, II. IOC, 
236, 250, 290, 510 f., III. 160, 398, 
412, IV. 96, 130, 154 f., 172, 200 f .,204, 
206 f., V. 498, VT. 90, 168, 388, 426, 
438, 448, VII. 314, 458, VIII. 42, 6C, 
132, 154, IX. 282, 404, X. 38, 72, 80, 
118 f., 164,204,230,234 
Oratory, Asiatic, characterized, IX. 

140 
Orchalides, hill afterwards called 

Alopecus; its location, iv. 318 
Orchomenians, have left wing of 
Agesilatis* army at Coroneia; 
routed by Thebans, V. 46 
Orchomenians, treated severely by 

Thebans, V. 522 ; II. 408 
Orchomenus (1), secretly attacked by 
Aratus, X. 56; 64; A ratus defeated 
Megistonolis, stepfather of Cleo- 
menes there, XI, 86 ; surprised and 
plundered by Antigonus, 104, X. 
100; 110 

Orchomenus (2), taken by Lysander, 
IV. 310; espoused cause of Spar- 
tans; Pelopidas attempts to sur- 
prise it, V. 376; Sulla defeated 
Archelalis, Mithridates* general 
there, II. 480, 504, IV. 392 f., 408 
Orcynii, in Cappadocia; Antigonus 
defeated Eumenes there, vin. 104 
Oreites, their country traversed by 

Alexander in 60 days, VII. 410 
Oresteion, city In Arcadia, II. 244 



Orestes, consul, took C. Gracchus as 

quaestor to Sardinia, X. 198 
Oreus, Roman fleet off it defeated by 

Perseus, VI. 376 
Orexartes, river crossed by Alexander 

VII. 356 
Orfldius, commander of legion 

" Adiutrix " for Otho, slain, XI. 304. 
Oricum, VI. 434; V. 284; taken by 

Caesar, VII. 532 
Oritanians, defeated by Sertorius, VIII. 

8 
Orneus, grandfather of Menestheus, I. 

72 
Ornis, place just outside Corinth, 

XI. 44 
Ornytus, with loxus led colony into 

Caria, 1. 18 
Oroandes, Cretan, sails off leaving 

Perseus behind, VI. 422 
Orobazus, Parthian, ambassador from 

king Arsaces to Sulla, executed on 

return, iv. 334 
Oromasdes (Oromazdes) Persian god, 

VII. 312, XI. 200 
Orontes, Persian, closely resembled 

Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaralis, xi. 

8 
Orontes, Persian, married Rhodo- 

gune, daughter of Artaxerxes, XI. 

192 
Oropus, the affair of, VII. 10 ; brings 

suit against Athens, II. 3G8 
Orphans, made subject to taxation by 

Camillus, II. 96 
Orpheus, Plato banters followers of, 

II. 612 ; image of him at Leibethra, 

VII. 260 

Orphic rites, VIT.226 

Orsodates, rebellious barbarian shot 
by Alexander, VII. 386 

" Orthagoras," name of Corinthian 
seer and friend of Timoleon accord- 
ing to Ephorus and Timaeus, VI. 
270 

Orthopagus, peak of hillThurium near 
Chaeroneia, IV. 382 

Oryssus of Aptera in Crete, slays 
Ptolemy, son of Pyrrhus, IX. 448 

Osca, Spanish city where Sertorius 
had noble Spanish boys educated, 

VIII. 36, 68 

Oschophoria, Athenian festival in- 
stituted by Theseus in honour of 
Dionysus and Ariadne, I. 46, 48 f. 

431 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Ostanes, son of Dareius and Parysatis, 
brother of Artaxerxes, XI. 128, 136, 
180 

Ostia, VII. 578, IX. 560; seized by 
Marius, 580 

Ostracism, its nature and purpose, 
II. 214, 230 f., III. 28, 246, IV. 30; 
Hipparchus of Cholargus, 1st man 
to be ostracized, III. 250; Hyper- 
bolus, last man, 246; 202; 226 ; II. 
16; 62; 210; 456 

Otacilius, brother of Marcellus, saved 
by him in battle in Sicily, V. 438 

Otho, M. (1), praetor, was first to give 
special seats to knights at spectacles, 
VII. 112 

Otho, M. (2), married Poppaea. 
(lalba minded to declare him his 
successor, XI. 246 f . ; first of pro- 
vincial governors to go over to 
Galba, 248; plots against Qalba and 
is proclaimed emperor by the 
soldiers, 256 f. ; given titles of Caesar 
and Augustus, 268 

His first acts as emperor, 276 f . ; 
at first does not refuse name N ero, 
278; troubled by suspicions his 
paid soldiers had of influential 
citizens, 280 f. ; hears that Vitellius 
has assumed imperial power, 284; 
learning that Caedna and Valens, 
generals of Vitellius, are in posses- 
sion of the Alps, takes the field, 286 ; 
stops at Brbdllum and sends his 
army forward, 288; his general 
Spurina repels assault on Placentia, 
290; his general Celsus defeats 
Oaecina near Cremona, 292; Otho 
conies to the camp near Cremona 
and holds council of war, 294; 
decides on early battle and returns 
himself to Brixillum, 298 ; his army 
defeated by that of Vitellius, 302 f."; 
learns of defeat and resolves to die, 
310 f . ; after making some disposi- 
tions falls upon his sword, 312 f.; 
gets modest burial, 316; his troops 
swear allegiance to Vitellius, 318 

Otryae, place in Phrygia, II. 496 

" Oulamos," a? constituted by Lycur- 
gus, was 50 horsemen in square 
formation, I. 276 

Outer sea, DC. 488 

Ovatio, meaning of the word, des- 
cription of the thing, V. 494; cele- 

43 2 



brated by Crassus for Servile war, 

III. 350 
" Ovicula," surname of Fabius 

Haximus in childhood, III. 118 
Oxathres, son of Dareius and Pary- 

satis, brother of Artaxerxes 

Mnemon, XI. 128, 136 
Oxus, river in Asia, has very soft 

water, VII. 388 
Oxyartes, sou of Abuletes, slain by 

Alexander, vil. 388, 414 



Paccianus, sent to Africa by Sulla to 

help Ascalis, slain by "Sertorius, 

VIII. 22 
Paccianus, 0., taken prisoner at 

Oarrhae, III. 416 
Paccus, attendant of Cato the Elder in 

Spain, II. 332 
Paches, Athenian, captor of Lesbos, 

committed suicide, II. 294, in. 226 
Pachynus, headland of Sicily, VI. 52 
Pacorus, son of Hyrodes, marries sister 

of Artavasdes,' ill. 420; defeated 

and slain by Ventidius, III. 422, ix. 

212 I 

Paeania, deme of Demosthenes, VII. 

48 ; of Demon, 68 
Paedaretus, Spartan, rejoiced because 

300 better than himself, I. 282 
Paedonome, directed boys at Sparta, 

1.258 

Paeon, Amathusian, cited, I. 42 
Paeonia, V. 220 
Paeonians, ruled byAutoleon, IX. 368 ; 

VI. 402 
Pagasae, fleet of Greeks wintered there 

after Xerxes fled, II. 54 
" Pagi," divisions of Roman territory 

made by Numa, I. 362 
Painting, by Protogenes the Caunian, 

illustrating story of lalysus, IX. 50 ; 

of Hercules and Omphale, 336 ; of 

tyrant Aristratus by Melanthus, 

XI. 28 
Palaescepsis, city given Themistocles 

by Persian king for his support, II. 

80 
Palatine, settled by Trojan exiles 

I. 90, 146, 154, 160, 552, 554, VII. 

100, 120, 134, 172 
Palatium, XI. 262 
Palestine, triumphed over by Porupey, 

V. 230 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Palladium, in Athens, I. 62 ; on 

Athenian acropolis, dedicatory offer- 
ing of Nicias, III. 214; at Delphi, 

dedicated by Athens, HI. 254 
Palladium of Troy, in temple of Vesta, 

II. 144 
Pallantidae, I. 8; make war on 

Theseus; betrayed by Leos, are 

defeated, 24 
Pallantium, where Aratus prevents 

Aristomachus joining battle with 

Cleomenes, X. 58, XI. 82 
Pallas, had 50 sons, I. 8 
Pallene, township of, why it has no 

intermarriage with township of 

Agnus, I. 26 
" Palm," name of spring in Boeotia 

where Apollo was born, V. 378 
Palm, custom of giving it to victors 

begun by Theseus, I. 44 
Palm-tree, bronze, erected on Delos 

by Nicias in honour of Apollo, in. 

216 f. 
Palus Maeotis, VII. 352. See also 

" Maeotic Lake." 
Pammenes, kept Philip as hostage in 

Thebes, V. 404 f . ; quoted, 382 
Pamphilus, painter, some of his works 

collected by Aratus and sent to 

Ptolemy, XI. 28 
Pamphylia, II. 440, V. 312 
Pan, loved Pindar and his verses, 

1.318; 11.246 
Panactum, not restored to Athens with 

walls intact, III. 242, IV. 32; 

garrisoned by Cassander, reduced 

by Demetrius and restored to 

Athens, IX. 54 
Panaetius (1), commands Taenian 

trireme, II. 38 
Panaetius (2), cited, II. 212 f., 290, 

416, VII. 32 
Panathenaic festival, instituted by 

Theseus, I. 52 ; musical contests 

added by Pericles, III. 42 
Pandion, adopted Theseus, I. 24 
Pandosia, city in Italy, IX. 394 
" Panemus," Boeotian name for 

Metageitnion, II. 138, 274 
Pannonia, armies there faithful to 

Otho, XI. 284 
Panope, city destroyed by hosts of 

Mithridates, IV. 376 
Panopeans, Lysander buried in their 

soil, IV. 314 



Panopeus, father of Aigl6, 1. 40, 66 
Pans, resemble Picus and Faunus, I. 

358 
Pansa, consul with Hirtius, begs Cicero 

to stay at Rome, agreeing to put 

down Antony, VII. 190 ; VI. 452 ; 

wages war on Antony and is slain 

with Hirtius, at Mutina. VII. 198, 

IX. 174 
Pantaleon, most influential Aetolian, 

XI. 74 
Pantauchus, general of Demetrius, 

defeated in Aetolia by Pyrrhus, IX. 

100, 364 
Panteus, general under Cleomenes in 

capture of Megalopolis, X. 102 ; 

dies with Cleomenes in Egypt, 136 ; 

his wife executed by Ptolemy, 138 
Panthers, VII. 174 
Panthoidas, Spartan harmost, slain 

at Tanagra, V. 376 
Panthoides, Chian, son-in-law of 

Themistocles, II. 88 
Paphlagonia, subdued by Alexander, 

VII. 272; VIII. 84; IV. 39S; 11.580; 

triumphed over by Pompey, V. 230 ; 

ruled by Philadelphia, ix. 276 
Papiria, Maso's daughter, first wife of 

Aemilius Paulus, mother of Scipio 

and Fabius Maximus, VI. 364 
Papirius, M., slain by a Gaul, II 

148 
Pappus, source of Hermippus' story 

of Demosthenes' death, VII, 74 
Paraetonium, ix. 294 
Paralus, son of Pericles and his first 

wife, III. 70; last of Pericles' 

legitimate sons to die, III. 106 
Paralus, Athenian ship, escaped from 

Aegospotami, IV. 260 
Parapotamii, Boeotian city on the 

river Assus, in ruins in Sulla's time, 

IV. 378 
" Parasitein," practice of eating at the 

public table iu the townhall, regu- 
lated by Solon, I. 472 
Parauaea, in Macedonia, given 

Pyrrhus by Alexander, IX. 360 
Parilia, pastoral festival on April 21st, 

celebrated even before founding of 

Rome, 1. 120; 156 
Paris, defeated by Achilles and 

Patroclus in Thessaly, I. 78; slew 

Achilles at gates, IV. 452 ; his lyre 

VII. 62; IX. 338 

433 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Pariscas, eunuch of Cyrus the Younger 
XI. 162 

Parma, embassy from, acts as arbi- 
trator in dispute between Marius 
and Catulus, IX. 536 

Parmenides, natural philosopher, in. 
10 

Parmenio, conquered Illyrians at time 
of birth of Alexander, VII. 2i>0; 
father of Philotas, 248 ; 264; 276; 
284; 316 f.; 318 f.; 326; 342; exe- 
cuted by Alexander, 366 

Parnassus, IV. 374 

Parrhasius, made likenesses of 
Theseus, I. 10 

Parricide, no penalty for, ordained by 
Theseus, 1. 162 

Parsley, its use, VI. 322 f. 

Parthenon, built in Pericles* tune; 
Oallicrates and Ictinus the archi- 
tects, III., 40, IX. 54 

Parthia, invaded by Alexander, VI I. 
354; II. 592; III. 370; V. 314; VI. 254 

Parthian arrows, II. 592, III. 388, 390 f . 
400 

Parthians, send friendly embassy to 
Sulla, IV. 334 ; their power humbled 
by Tigranes, II. 536 ; Lucullus plans 
to invade their country, 570 ; 590 ; 
refer to Pompey settlement of 
territorial quarrel with Armenians, 
V. 216; Ateius, tribune of the 
people, tries to stop Crassus' ex- 
pedition against them, III. 362 ; 
send embassy to Crassus, 368; 
confront Crassus; their manner of 
fighting, 386 f . ; defeat and slay P. 
Crassus and his force, 390 f., VTI. 
172 ; defeat Crassus' main force, 
III. 398 f., VII. 172; warred 
on by Bibulus, IX. 148; threaten 
Mesopotamia and Syria, 196 ; under 
Labienus subduing Asia, 204; de- 
feated by Ventidius, 210; harass 
Antony's army, 232 f . ; 334 ; 46 

Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes 
I., wife of Dareius, mother of 
Artaxerxes II., Cyrus, Ostanes, 
Oxathres, XI. 128; favours Cyrus' 
claim to the throne, 130; intercedes 
for his life, 132 ; blamed for revolt 
of Cyrus, plots death of Stateira, 
138 f.; savagely punishes Carian 
who killed Cyrus, 158 f.; 162; has 
revenge on Masabates who cut off 

434 



head and hand of Cyrus, 164 f. ; 
tries to save Greek generals, 168; 
poisons Stateira, 170 f.; sent off to 
Babylon by Artaxerxes, 172; re- 
stored to favour, causes death of 
Tissaphernes, approves Artaxerxes' 
marriage to Atossa, his own 
daughter, 180 f . 

Pasacas, horse ridden by Cyrus at 
Cunaxa, XI. 146 

Pasargadae, where Persian king was 
inducted by priests, XI. 130 

Paseas, father of Abantidas, XI. 4; 
became tyrant of Sicyon ; slain by 
Nicocles, 8 

Pasicrates, king of Soli, choregus 
competing against Nicocreon, king 
of Salamis, VII. 308 

Pasiphae, accused of too great inti- 
macy with Taurus, I. 36; had 
temple and oracle at Thalamae, X. 
20 ; had precinct at Sparta, 64 

Pasiphon, dialogue of his cited, ill. 
218 

Pasitigris river, vni. 120 

Passaro, place in Molossian land, IX. 
356 

Pataecus, boasted he had Aesop's soul ; 
cited, I. 418 

Patara, city, surrenders to Brutus, 
VI. 198 

Patareans, VI. 130 

Patavium, vil. 554 

" Pater patriae," title conferred on 
Cicero by the people, vil. 138 

Patrae, its citizens persuaded by 
Alcibiades to attach their city to sea 
by bng walls, IV. 38; IX.22; XI.108; 
brought over to Rome by Cato the 
Elder, II. 336 ; IX. 274 

" Patres conscripti," name given by 
Romans to senators, I. 124 

Patricians, 100 in number chosen from 
people by Romulus ; who they were 
and why so called, I. 122 f.; 100 
Sabines elected to their numbers, 
150; those of Romans and 
Sabines united, 152; lost much 
power under Romulus; suspected 
when he disappeared, 172, 308 ; 
150 in number when Romulus died, 
312 ; accuse people of driving out 
Coriolanus unjustly, IV. 184; for 
bidden to have house on Capitoline, 
II. 188 ; one censor a patrician, 346 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Patrobius, adherent of Nero, executed 

by G-alba, XI. 240 ; 270 
Patrocles, advises Seleucus not to 

allow Demetrius to remain in 

country, IX. 118 f . 
Patroclus, with Achilles defeated Paris 

in Thessaly, I. 78; brother of 

Myrto, II. 278 
Patron, came to Italy with Evander, I. 

124 

" Patronatus," supposed to be de- 
rived from " Patron," I. 124 
Patronis, town in Greece, IV. 374 
Patrons, protectors, their relation to 

their clients, I. 126, IX. 472 
Paulinus, Suetonius, in command of 

part of Otho's forces, XI. 288; too 

slow at battle of Cremona, 292 ; lost 

his power to Proculus, XI. 294 ; 296 ; 

304 
Paulus, L. Aemilius (1), consul with 

Varro, III. 160; slain at Cannae, 

III. 166; VI. 358; quoted, III. 166 
Paulus, L. Aemilius (2), took over 

army in Macedonia, XI. 206 ; father 
of Scipio the Younger, subdued 
Perseus, II. 346, 362, IV. 364, XI, 
124 ; father of Tertia, and of Scipio 
the Younger, n. 364. See also 
" Aemilius Paulus, L." No. 2. 

Paulus, L. Aemilius (3), when consul 
bought by Caesar for 1500 talents, 
with which he built the Basilica in 
the forum, V. 268, VII. 514; brother 
of Lepidus the triumvir, proscribed 
by him, VII. 200, IX. 178 

Pausanias (1), father of Pleistoanax, 
I. 268, X. 8; commander of all 
Hellenic forces against Mardonius, 
joins Aristides, II. 238, 252, 256, 258, 
264; at prayer before battle, 266; 
defeats Mardonius at Plataea, 58, 
268 f ., X. 8 ; rapacious and severe 
toward allies, alienates them, II, 
282 f. ; has treasonable corres- 
pondence with Persians, 418; driven 
from Byzantium by allies, 422 ; 
makes treasonable proposals to 
Themistocles, discovered and put 
to death, 62 f. 

Pausanias (2), forms juncture with 
Agis and Lysander before Athens, 

IV. 268; frustrates Lysander's 
scheme to get pretext for taking 
Athens 2nd time, 290; sent with 



army against Boeotia, 310 ; comes 
to Haliartus and asks for body of 
Lysauder, makes truce, 314; flees 
to Tegea where he dies, 318; was 
son of Pleistoanax, succeeded by 
his elder son Agesipolis, X. 8 

Pausanias (3), slew Philip of Macedon, 
VII. 250; 52 

Pausanias (4), physician, gets letter 
from Alexander, vil. 346 

Pausanias (5), acting for Seleucus, 
seizes Demetrius and conducts him 
to the Syrian Chersonese, IX. 128 

Peace, altar of, built by Athenians to 
commemorate Eurvmedon, II. 446 ; 
of Antalcidas, V. 62, XI. 176; be- 
tween Octavius and Antony, IX. 
204, 216; between Greeks, V. 98; 
of Nicias, in. 240, IV. 32 ; between 
Philip and Romans, X. 346 ; be- 
tween Sextus Pompeius, Antony, 
and Octavius, IX. 206 f . ; between 
Sulla and Archelalis, IV. 398; 
between Timoleon and the Cartha- 
ginians, VI. 340 

" Peculium," derived from " pecus," 

I. 532 

Pedalium, place in the Chersonese, 

II. 544 

Pedicularis morbus, IV. 438 

Pedum, Latin city taken by Volscians 
under Coriolanus, IV. 186 

Pegae, in Megarid, III. 60, XI. 98, 100 

Peiralo gate, at Athens, I. 62, IV. 370 

Peirithoiis, becomes friend of The- 
seus, marries Deldameia, I. 68 ; 
helps Theseus carry off Helen from 
Sparta; is seized by Aldoneus, king 
of Molossians and killed, 72 

Peisianacteum, later called Painted 
Colonnade, adorned by Polygnotus, 
II. 414 

Peisander (1), sent to Athens to change 
form of government, IV. 74 

Peisander (2), put in charge of navy 
by Agesilaii*, v. 26; defeated off 
Cnidus by Pharnabazus and Conon, 
V. 46 

Peisistratidae, expelled by Cleisthenes, 
ill. 8 

" Peisistratidae, new," name given 
Pericles and his associates by comic 
poets, III. 50 

Peisistratus, related to Solon and great 
friend of his at first, I. 404, 406 ; of 

435 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES ' 



township Philaidae, 428 ; son of 
Hippocrates, 490; supported Solon 
in war on Balamis, 422 ; leading the 
Hill-men becomes tyrant of Athens 
in spite of Solon's opposition, 486 f ., 
572 ; courts Solon and retains most 
of his laws, made law that those 
maimed in war should be maintained 
at public expense, 494; expunged 
verse from Hesiod and inserted one 
in Inferno of Homer, 40; married 
Timonassa of Argolis and begot 
lophon and Thessalus, II. 376; III, 
16; saying of his, II. 376 
Pelagon, Euboean, II. 20 
Pelasgians, said to have settled city 

and called it Rome, I. 90 
Peleus, son of Aeacus and Endels, I. 20 
" Peleus," name given Philip by 
Lysimachus, Alexander's tutor, VII. 
236 

Pelias, father of Acastus, IV. 440 
Pelignians, repulsed at Pydna, VI. 406 
Pella, city of Macedonia, VI. 416 
Pella, L., ex-praetor, condemned by 

Brutus for embezzlement, VI. 202 
Pellene, X. 18; seized by Aetolians, 
freed by Aratus, XI. 70 ; stormed by 
Cleomenes, 90, x. 86 
Pelopidae, IX. 464 

Pelopidas, his character and career, 
V. 344; his famiJy and wealth, was 
friend of Epaminondas, 436 f . ; 
saved by Epaminondas in battle 
with Spartans against Arcadians at 
Mantineia, 348; arouses Theban 
exiles to attempt liberation of 
Thebes, 354; leads band of exiles to 
Thebes and slays Theban tyrants, 
356 f.; elected boeotarch, "drives 
Spartans from acropolis, 370; with 
Gorgias devises scheme to embroil 
Athens with Sparta, 372; wins dis- 
tinction in battles with Spartans, 
especially at Tegyra, 376 f., 380, 386 
First to side with Epaminondas 
to give battle to Cleoinbrotus, 388; 
before Leuctra has strange dream, 
390, 392 ; with his band of 300 turns 
the tide at Leuctra, 39 if.; boeo- 
tarch with Epaminondas Invades 
Peloponnesus, detaches most of 
Spartan allies, takes many cities, 
ravages Spartan land, 396 f.; re- 
stored Messenia and settled Ithome, 



tried for his life on return, 398 f . ; 
goes to help Thessalians against 
Alexander of Pherae, 402 f . ; goes 
to Macedonia and acts as arbiter be- 
tween Ptolemy and Alexander, king 
of the Macedonians, brings Philip 
and others as hostages to Thebes, 
404 ; goes once more to help Thes- 
salians against Alexander of Pherae, 
and to deal with Ptolemy who had 
killed the king of Macedonia, 406 ; 
is taken prisoner along with 
Ismenias by Alexander of Pherae, 
408; visited by Thebe, wife of 
Alexander, 410; with Ismenias is 
recovered by Epaminondas and 
brought home, is sent on embassy to 
Persian king, 414, XI. 178 f.; highly 
honoured by Artaxerxes, who grants 
all his demands, 416; sent once 
more to help Thessalians against 
Alexander of Pherae, 420; attacks 
him at Cynoscephalae and is slain, 
422 f. ; bitterly mourned and given 
splendid funeral by Thessalians, 
426 f. 

See also II. 212, VI. 344, XI. 34 
Quoted : V. 383, 410, 422 

Peloponnesian war, its causes, in, 
82~f ., 202 ; its course, 94 f ., 226 f ., 
IV. 42 f., 238 f. 

Peloponnesianp, their character, TI. 
414; attack Pylos, and 400 Spar- 
tans are cut off on island of Sphac- 
teria, III. 230 ; IV. 90 ; defeated by 
Athenians off Arginusae islands, III. 
108 

Peloponnesus, I. 72, n. 26, 460, III. 56 ; 
ravaged first by Tolmides, then by 
Pericles, 60 ; ravaged by Athenians, 
98; invaded by Thebans under 
Epaminondas and Pelopidas, V. 396 ; 
invaded by Demetrius, IX. 58; by 
Pyrrhus, 434 ; freed from Macedon- . 
ians by Aratus, X. 82; XI. 92; II. 
474 

Pelops (1), strongest of kings in 
Peloponnesus, ancestor of Theseus 
on his mother's side, I. 6 ; father of 
Lysidice and Pittheus by Hippo- 
dameia, 16 

Pelops (2), of Byzantium, gets angry 
letter from Cicero, VII. 142 

Pelusium, in Egypt, taken by Antony, 
IX. 142 f . ; by Octavius Caesar, 306 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Peneius river, in volume and speed 
equalled by Apsus, X. 328 

Penelop6, wife of Lysimachus, IX 60 

Pensions, given to descendants of 
Aristides by Athens and by Deme- 
trius, II, 296 

Pentakosiomedimnoi, those with 500 
measures yearly increase ; highest 
class in Solon's scheme, I. 450, II. 
210, 386 

Pentapyla, part of Syracuse, VI. 62 

Penteleium, won over by Cleoraenes, 
X. 86, XI. 90 

Pentheus, character in " Eacchae " of 
Euripides, III. 420 

"People's Flight," name of day on 
which Romulus disappeared, 1. 182 

Peparethus, Diocles of, I. 96 

Percote', city given by Persian king to 
help support Themistocles, II. 80 

Perdiccas (1), in Thrace, III. 428 

Perdiccas (2), with Alexander on his 
expedition, VII. 262; advanced to 
Hephaestion's place after his death, 
VIII. 78; accomplice of Roxana 
in murdering Stateira; in great 
authority after Alexander's death, 
Vli. 436; urged by Demades to 
seize Macedonia and deliver Greeks, 
78; informed of designs of Leon- 
natus by Eumenes, makes him 
satrap of Cappadocia, sends him 
back from Cilicia to reduce Armenia 
to obedience, viil. 86 f. ; 90; slain 
in mutiny in Egypt, 100 

Pcrgamenians, VI. 130 

Pergamum, X. 194; occupied by 
Mithridates, IV. 358; II. 478; home 
of A.thenodorus ; its libraries given 
to Cleopatra, IX. 270 

Pergamus, district of, in Crete, I. 302 

Hep! oLirilav 'Pio/j.a.iKtai', work by 
Plutarch, II. 140 

Periander, son of Cypselus, XI. 8 ; 
arranged joint conference and 
banquet for 7 wise men at Corinth, 
1.412; 432 

Ilepi /Sao-iAeias, work by Theophrastas, 
II. 68 

Periboea, mother of Aias, married by 
Theseus, I. 66 

Pericleidas, goes to Athens to get aid 
for Sparta against Helots and 
Messenianp, n. 454 

Pericles, his family and physical 



deformity, III. 6 f . ; had Damon as 
teacher in music, 8, II. 214 ; studied 
with Zeno the Eleatic and Anaxa- 
goras the Clazomenian, III. 10; as 
a young man reluctant to face the 
people 16 ; joined the party of the 
people and shunned society, 18 ; 
excelled as an orator, 20 f . ; aristo- 
cratic rather than democratic in 
administration, 24; opposes Cimon 
and the Council of the Areiopagus, 
26 ; has Cimon recalled from banish- 
ment, 28, II. 458; made lenient to 
Cimon by Elpinice, Cimon's sister, 
448,111.30; opposed by Thucydides 
of Alopece', leader of the " Good and 
True," 32; catered to the people, 
sent out numerous colonies, adorned 
Athens with public works, 34 f . ; 
had Pheidias as general overseer of 
these works, 40; has musical con- 
test added to Panathenaic festival 
42 ; denounced by Thucydides for 
lavish expenditure, 46 ; with banish- 
ment of Thucydides has a free 
hand, 46 f . ; untainted by cor- 
ruption ; invites all Greek states 
to send deputies to a council at 
Athens to deliberate on various 
questions, 54 f . ; led successful ex- 
pedition to the Chersonesus, 58; 
other achievements, 60 f.; right in 
seeking to confine power of Athen- 
ians within lesser Greece; bribes 
Cleandridas to have Spartan army 
withdrawn from Attica, 64 ; subdued 
cities in Euboea, 66 ; gets decree 
passed for expedition against 
Samians; his relations with Aspa- 
sia, 68 f.; conducts war against 
Samians, 72 f . ; receives surrender 
of Samians, 78 

When Peloponnesian war was 
imminent, persuaded people to send 
aid to Corcyraeans in their war 
against Corinth, 82 ; accused of thus 
furnishing enemies pretext for 
war, 84; hold responsible for war, 
86, 240; secures acquittal of 
Aspasia, 92 ; refuses to let Athenians 
attack invading army of Archi- 
damus, 94 f, ; sends 100 ships to 
ravage the Peloponnesus, parcels 
out Aegina among the citizens, 
razes the Megarid, 98; blamed for 

437 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



the plague, 100, 226; fails in ex- 
pedition against Epidaurus and is 
fined, his domestic troubles, 102 f . ; 
recalled to conduct of affairs, 106 ; 
asks suspension of law about 
children born out of wedlock ; what 
this law was, 106 f. ; his dying 
words, 110; an appreciation of 
him, 112 f. 

See also I. 256, II. 6, 286, 292, 294, 
324, 444, 450, III. 212, 214, 290, 
IV. 2, VII. 22, 32, VIII. 160 

Sayings : III. 24, 36, 46, 58, 80. 
110,1V. 8 

Ilepl evyei/euxs, possibly work of 
Aristotle, II. 296 

Ilep! evo-ejSet'as, treatise by Dal- 
machus, IV. 264 

Ilepl ^jmeptov, treatise by Plutarch, 
II. 138 

Perigune', daughter of Sinis, bore 
Melanippus to Theseus, afterwards 
lived with Deioneus, son of Eurytus, 

I. 18 

Ilepl /tifrj^aTo>i>, work by Diodorus 
the topographer, n. 88 

Perinthus, attacked by Philip, saved 
by Athenians, VII. 40, vnt. 174; 
besieged by Alexander, VII. 420 

Perioeci, received 30,000 lots of 
Laconian land in redistribution of 
Lycurgus, I. 228 ; attack Sparta, n. 
454 

Peripatetics, older, had no wide or ex- 
act acquaintances with writings of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, IV. 4U6 

Periphemus, hero to whom Solon 
sacrificed, I. 424 

Periphetes, Club-bearer, slain by 
Theseus, I. 16 

" Periphoretus," surname of (.he 
engineer Artemon, III. 78 

Ilepl TTA.OUTOV, work by Eratosthenes, 

II. 74 

Peripolitas, seer, conducted King 

Opheltas from Thessaly to Boeotia; 

his posterity, II. 404 
Ilepl \!tv\r)s, treatise by Heracleides 

Ponticus, II. 146 
IIepi<rKvAa.(o>(.<H, rites performed by 

Greeks, I. 160 
Peritas, favourite dog of Alexander, 

VII. 398 
Ilepl 0ewi>, treatise by Antiochus the 

philosopher, II. 564 

43S 



Perithoedae, deme of Hyperbolas, III. 
248, IV. 28 

Ilepl TOV evyovs of Isocrates, cited 
IV. 26 

Perpenna Vento, M., abandons Sicily 
to Pompey, V. 156; came to Spain 
to fight iletellus, is forced to join 
Sertorius, vill. 38f.; with Heren- 
nius defeated by Pompey, V. 158; 
defeated, captured, and executed 
by Pompey, 164, VIII. 72 f. ; quoted, 
66 

Perrhaebia, VI. 392; proclaimed free 
at Isthmian games by Flamininus, 
X. 350 

Persaeus, philosopher, commanded 
Acrocorinthus for Antigonus, XI. 
38; on its capture escaped to 
Cenchreae; anecdote about him, 
52 

Persephone, festival of; black heifer 
sacrificed, II. 500 

Perseus (1), his deeds against Aethio- 
pians, Medes, Armenians, II. 410 

Perseus (2), son of Philip, succeeds him 
to throne of Macedonia; said to 
have been really son of Gnathaenion, 
an Argive semptress, VI. 374, XI. 
124 ; wages war on Romans, II. 362, 
VI. 370; his lineage and events 
prior to his accession, 372 f., IX. 
134; in spite of his mean and 
ignoble character wins successes 
against Romans, VI. 374 f. ; through 
avarice loses the help of the Bis- 
ternae, 382 ; basely betrays Gen- 
thius the Illyrian king; had 4000 
cavalry and nearly 40,000 heavy- 
armed infantry, 386 ; taken in the 
rear by Scipio Nasica, 394; retires 
to Pydna and prepares for battle, 
396 ; is defeated by Romans under 
Aemilius Paulus, 400 f . ; flees from 
Pydna to Pella, 414 f. ; flees with 
his treasure from Pella to Amphi- 
polis, from there to Galepsus, then 
sails across to Samothrace and takes 
refuge in temple of the Dioscuri, 
416 f. ; is left in the lurch by the 
Cretan Croandes, who sails off with 
his treasure, 422 ; surrenders to the 
Romans, 424, II. 346; is led with 
his children in triumph of Aemilius 
Paulus, VI. 442 f.; the manner of 
his death, 450 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Persians, invaded Greece, II. 404; 
defeated by Greeks at Marathon 
Plataea, Mycale, Arbela, 138, 224, 
III. 6; came into closer relations 
with Greeks after time of Themis- 
tocles, II. 80 ; defeated by Cimorx OQ 
banks of Strymon, 422; 438 f.: de- 
feated at the Eurymedon, 442 f.; 
446 ; 464 ; defeated large forces of 
Greeks in Egypt, 618 ; 620 ; attacked 
by Agesilaiis, 404; send money to 
Demosthenes to aid in struggle 
against Philip, VII. 48; defeated 
by Alexander at river Granicus, II. 
138, VII. 262 ; some of their women 
marry Alexander's Macedonians, 
418 ; guard their women very 
jealously, II. 72 ; XI. 154 

" Persians " of Timotheus, opening 
verse, X. 284 

Persis, invaded and ravaged by 
Alexander, VU. 334; VIII. 120 

Pessinus, place in Asia Minor, VIII. 
268, IX. 508 

Pestilence, in Rome in time of 
Romulus, I. 166 ; swept Rome and 
Italy in time of Numa, 350 ; at 
Citium, II. 466 ; at Velitrae, IV. 144 ; 
at Athens, III. 98 f., 226 f.; atRome, 
II. 162, 206; in Demetrius' army, 
IX. 118 

Petelia, hill of, Hannibal slays 2500 
Romans there, V. 514; mountains 
of, III. 346 

Peteline Grove, scene of final trial of 
Manlius, II. 188 

Peteos, father of Menestheus, I. 72 

Peticius, takes Pompey, the two 
Lentuli, Favonius, and Deiotarus 
on board his ship, V. 306 f . 

Petilius, praetor, read Duma's books, 
which were then burned in Comi- 
tium, I. 380 

Petillius, supported by Cato the Elder, 
prosecutes Scipio the Great, II. 344 

Petinus, adherent of Nero, executed 
by G alba, XI. 240 

Petra, in northern Greece, vi. 392 

Petra, city in Arabia Petraea, V. 220, 
IX. 296 

Petrachus, the so-called, near Thurium 
in Boeotia, IV. 382 

Petro, Granius, see " Granius Petro." 

Petronius, in army of Crassus at 
Carrhae,Ill.412; legionary tribune, 



assists in attempt to save Crassus, 
414 

Petronius Turpilianus, of consular 
rank, ordered by Galba to take his 
own life, XI. 236, 240 

Pcucestas, with Alexander on his 
expedition, VII. 346 f . ; saves 
Alexander, 404 ; friend of Eumenes, 
with other satraps joins him, vni 
118 ; rejected by soldiers in favour 
of Eumenes, 120 f.; 124; fought 
ignobly for Eumenes against 
Antigonns, 130 

Phaea, the Crommyonian sow, or, as 
some say, a female robber called 
sow because of her life and manners, 
slam by Theseus, I. 18 f. 

Phaeax (1), said to have been Theseus' 
look-out man on his trip to Crete, I. 
34 

Phaeax (2), father of Erasistratus, V. 
40 

Phaeax (3), son of Erasistratus, able 
opponent of Alcibiades, IV. 28; he, 
not Nicias, striving with Alcibiades 
when Hyperbolus was banished 
according to Theophrastus, 30, III. 
250 ; his speech " Against Alcibi- 
ades " cited, IV. 28 

Phaedimus, warns Eumenes of plots 
against his life, VIII. 128 

Phaedo, archonship of, I. 82 

Phaedra, wife of Theseus, met with 
calamities, I. 64 

Phaenarete, wife of Samon, IX. 358 

Phaenippus, archon eponymous in 
year of Marathon, II. 228 

" Phaenomerkles," term applied to 
Spartan maidens, I. 248, 390 

Phaestus, Epimenides of, I. 432 

Phaethon, first king of Thesprotians 
and Molossians after the flood; 
came into Epeirus with Pelasgus, 

IX. 346 

Phalanx, its strength and weakness, 

X. 342 ; VI. 402, 406 

Phalerum, had temple of Scirus and 
memorial chapels for Nausithoiis 
and Phaeax,!. 34; haven of, II. 34; 
210; had tomb of Aristides, 296 

Phalinus, Zacynthian, sent by Arta- 
xerxes after Cunaxa to parley with 
Greeks, XI. 156 

Phallus, phantom of, in home of 
Tarchetius, king of Albans, I. 94 

439 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Phanias, Lesbian of Eresos, philo- 
sopher and historian, II. 40; cited : 
I. 436, 496, II. 2, 20 f ., 40, 74, 80 

Phanodemus, cited : II. 38, 442, 464 

Pharax, Spartan, emissary between 
Dionysius and Heracleides, defeats 
Dion at Neapolis, VI. 102, 286; 462 

Pharmacusa, island near which Caesar 
was captured by pirates, vil. 444 

Pharmuthi, Egyptian month, I. 122 

Pharnabazus (1), IV. 66; assists 
Spartans at naval battle of Abydos, 
80; defeated at Oyzicus by Alcibi- 
ades, 80 f . ; defeated by Thrasyllus 
and Alcibiades, 84; attempts to 
raise siege of Chalcedon, put to 
flight by Alcibiades, 86; makes 
peace with Athenian generals on 
conditions, 88; visited by Alcibi- 
ades in Phrygia, 110; bidden by 
Lysander to kill Alcibiades, 112 f., 
300 ; denounces Lysander to Sparta, 
284 f . ; V. 20 ; his province ravaged 
by Agesilalis, 28; has conference 
with him, 32 f . ; defeats and slays 
Peisander off Onidus, 46, XI. 176; 
with Gonon ravages coasts of 
Laconia, furnished money for re- 
building walls of Athens, V. 62 ; 
quarrels with Iphicrates and so 
conducts unsuccessful war against 
Egypt for Artaxerxes, XI. 184; 
quoted : V. 32 f. 

Pharnabazus (2), son of Artabazus, 
commands foreign horse under 
Eumenes, VIII. 96 

Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, revolts 
and thus drives his father to suicide, 
submits to Pompey and sends him 
gifts, V. 222 ; defeats Domitius and 
drives him from Pontus, occupies 
Bithynia and Cappadocia, defeated 
at Zela by Caesar and driven from 
Pontus, vil. 560 

Pharnacia, hiding place of Mithri- 
dates' women-folk, II. 524 

Pharnapates, most capable general of 
Hyrodes, slain by Ventidius, IX. 
210 

Pharos, visited by Alexander and 
made site of Alexandria, vil. 298 f.; 
560; IX. 296 

Pharsalia, plain of, V. 292 

Pharsalinnp, proud of cavalry, routed 
by Age.- ilaiis, V. 44 

440 



Pharsalus, occupied by Alexander of 
Pherae, V. 408, 422; battle of, 
Caesar defeats Pompey, V. 292 f., 
VI. 134, 136, VII, 180, 182, 546 f., 
IX. 156 

Pharygae, village of Phocis at foot of 
Mt. Acrurium, VIII. 222 

Phaselis, Hellenic city, joins Cimon 
against Persians, II. 440; vil. 272 

Phasis, II. 580 ; northern boundary of 
Lucullus' conquests, 618; river in 
Colchis, V. 206 

Phayllus, athlete of Croton, in 
Median wars fitted out ship at his 
own expense and sailed to Salamis, 
honoured in remembrance by Alex- 
ander, vil. 328 

Phegaea, Attic deme, IV. 60 

Pheidias, III. 4; general manager and 
overseer of public works under 
Pericles, III. 40; made golden image 
of Athena, became involved in 
scandal, 44; charged with em- 
bezzlement, dies in prison, 88 ; 
moulded Zeus of Homer according 
to Aemilius Paulus, VI. 428 

" Pheido," surname of Demetrius, VII. 
382 

Pheneus, captured by Cleomenes, X. 
86, xi. 90 

Pherae (1), ruled by Alexander, V. 
402, 406 

Pherae (2), Achaean city, menaced by 
Cleomenes, X. 78 

Pheraean, the, see " Alexander of 
Pherae." 

Phereboea, married by Theseus, I. 66 

Pherecles, approaches priestesses of 
Dodona for Lysander, IV. 304 

Phereclus, son of Amarsyas, accord- 
ing to Simonides was pilot of ship 
bearing Theseus and other victims 
to Crete, I. 34 

Pherecydes (1), though foreigner, 
honoured at Sparta, X. 24; lyric 
poet, eaten of worms and died, 

IV. 440 

Pherecydes (2), cited, I. 36, 58 
Pherecydes, wise man, put to death by 
Spartans and his skin preserved, 

V. 390 

Pherendates, commander of Persian 
infantry at Eurymedon according 
to Ephorus, II. 440 

Pherenicus, outlawed from Thebes by 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Spartans holding the Cadmeia, V. 

352; 356 
Pheristus, with Megellus, repeoples 

Agrigentum, VI. 344 
Phersephone, wife of Aldoneus, I. 

72 
Phiditia, Spartan for public messes; 

etymology of the word, I. 236, V. 54 
Phila, daughter of Antipater, wife 

first of Craterus then of Demetrius, 

IX. 32 f., 50, 334: 64; mother of 

Antigonus and Stratonic6, 76 f., 

90, 134; had sister Eurydice", 116; 

commits suicide, 112 
" Philadelphus," Greek surname from 

a special excellence, IV. 142 
Philadelphus, king of Paphlagonia, 

fights under Antony, IX. 276 
Philaeus, son of Ajax, became 

Athenian citizen and made over 

Salamis to Athens, I. 426 
Philagrus, teacher of Metellus Nepos, 

VII. 148 

Philaldae, Attic township to which 
Peisistratus belonged ; named after 
Philaeus, son of Ajax, I. 428 

Philargyrus, freedman of Cato the 
Younger, VIII. 328 

Philaras, stream joined by Hoplites, 
in Boeotia, IV. 316 

Philetas, poet, III. 4 

Philides, horse-breeder, 11. 14 

Philinna, mother of Arrhidaeus by 
Philip of Macedon, VII. 436 

Philip, with Archias and Leontidas 
persuades Phoebidas to seize Cad- 
meia, V. 350 f . ; polemarch at 
Thebes, 354; slain, 366 

Philip of Macedon, his character, vil. 
232, 234, VIII. 4; progenitor of 
Perseas, VI. 384; brought as 
hostage to Thebes by Pelopidas, 
V. 404 f . ; married Olympias, sister 
of Arymbas, VII. 226; took Poti- 
daea, 230; made Euboea submit 
to its tyrants, 40, VIII. 170 ; leaving 
Alexander as regent, made expedi- 
tion against Byzantium, VII. 244, 

VIII. 174 ; expelled from Hellespont 
through Phocion, 176 ; his successes 
in regard to Amphissa, Elateia, and 
Phocis, VII. 42; defeats Greeks at 
Ohaeroneia, n. 138, VII. 48, 244, 
VIII. 178; proclaimed commander- 
In-chief of Greeks, IX. 58 ; marries 



Cleopatra; vil. 2-16; IX. 338; slain, 
VII. 50, VIII. 180 

See also VI. 296, VII. 30, 38, 42, 
228, 236, 240, 246, 248, 250, VIII. 
78, XI. 52 

Quoted : III. 4, V. 386, VI. 29C, 
VII. 236 

Philip, companion of Alexander, made 
ruler of large territory in India, VI). 
398 

Philip, the Acharnanian, cures Alex- 
ander, vil. 276 

Philip (Arrhidaeus), see Arrhidaeus. 

Philip, father of Antigonus, IX. 6 

Philip, son of Antigonus and Strato- 
nic6, younger than his brother 
Demetrius, died early, ix. 6, 54 

Philip, eldest son of Cassander, after 
latter's death reigned over Mace- 
donians short time, then died, 
leaving two brothers, Antipater and 
Alexander, IX. 86 

Philip, had daughter Antigone by 
Berenice^ IX. 356 

Philip, successor of Antigonus Doson, 
sent into Peloponnesus by latter, 
XI. 106 ; supports Aratus as general 
of Achaeans, wins obedience of 
Cretans quickly, conducts vigorous 
campaign against Aetolians, 110; 
put to death courtiers for attacking 
Aratus, sets Messenians by the ears, 
112; lost his fleet to" Romans, 
ravaged territory of Messenians, 
116 ; got Taurion to poison Aratus, 
118; at war with Rome, X. 324; 
faces Publius Villius, 328; driven 
from mountains along Apsus by 
Flamininus, 330; 334; meets 
Flamininus, but refuses his terms, 
336 ; sends unsuccessful embassy 
to Rome, 338; defeated by 
Flamininus at Oynoscephalae, n. 
350, VI. 372, X. 292, 340, 386; 344; 
terms of peace with Rome, 346, 
362, XI. 122 ; left kingdom to his 
son Perseus, 124, II. 334 

See alto IX. 8, X. 274, 286, 348, 
388 

Quoted : X. 344 f., XI. 36 

Philip, freedman of Pompey, V. 320 

Philip (L. Marcius), married mother 
of young Caesar, negotiates with 
Cicero, VII. 194 

Philip, the Chalcidian, cited, VII. 356 



VOL. XI. 



441 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Philip of Theangela, cited, VII. 356 
Philippi, IV. 402; battle of, VI. 178, 

186, 208, 212 
Philippics, name given Cicero's 

speeches against Antony, VII. 142, 

206 
Philippides, enemy of Stratocles, IX. 

30 
Philippides (Kock in. 308), IX. 30, 

62 
Philippus, L., moves that Pompey be 

sent against Sertorius, V. 118, 156 
Philippus, Marcius, censor with Aemi- 

lius Paulus, VI. 456 
Philippus, gives his daughter Marcia 

first to Cato, then to Hortensius, 

VIII. 292 ; consul, 330 
Philistus, his language corrected by 

Timaeusjil. 210 ; recalled from exile 

by Dionysius, the Younger, VI. 22 f . ; 

advises Dionysius to banish Dion, 

28, 38; in wait for Dion's fleet at 

lapygia, 52 ; defeated and slain 

by Syracusans, 76 ; his books sent 

to Alexander, vil. 242. 

Cited : III. 276, 306, V. 428, VI. 

298 
Phillidas, contrives to be appointed 

secretary to Archias and Philip, the 

polemarchs, V. 354; helps exiles 

kill tyrants and drive Spartans from 

Thebes, 360 
Philo, arsenal of, burned by Sulla, 

IV. 372 
Philo, represented doctrines of Car- 

neades, founder of N ew Academy, II . 

606; disciple of Cleitomachus, his 

lectures attended by Cicero, vn. 8G ; 

90 

Philo, the Theban, cited, VII. 356 
Philoboetus, hill in plains of Elatea, 

IV. 374 
Philochorus, cited, I. 28, 30, 34, 36, 

58, 68, 80,111.292 
Philocles, one of Athenian commanders 

at Aegospotami, iv. 254; executed 

by Lysander, 264 ; 454 
Philocles, cited by Didymus, I. 404 
Philocrates, member of embassy of ten 

sent to Philip, VTI. 38 
Philocrates, servant of C. Gracchus, 

slays his master and then himself, 

X. 236 
Philoctetes, once ruled territory about 

Olizon, II. 22 f. 

442 



Philoctetes, character in play of same 
name, I. 400 

" Philoctetes," play of uncertain 
authorship (Nauck 841), cited, I. 
460 

Philocyprus, one of kings of Cyprus, 
loved Solon greatly, named new 
city Soli in his honour, I. 476. 

Philologus, freedman of Q. Cicero, 
betrayed Cicero to his murderer, 
punished by Pomponia, vn. 206 

Philombrotus, succeeded by Solon as 
archon, I. 436 

Philomelus, Phocian, one of party 
that seized Delphi and plundered 
sanctuary, VI. 334 

Philoneicus, Thessalian, offered Buce- 
phalus to Philip for 13 talents, VII. 
236 

Philonicus, Licinius, see " Licinius 
Philonicus." 

Philopoemen, son of Craugis, reared 
first by Oleander, then by Ecdemus 
and Megalophanes, X. 256 ; his 
appearance, 258 ; his character, 
260 ; youthful activities and train- 
ing, 262 f . ; stoutly resists Cleo- 
menes when latter seized Megalo- 
polis at night, 264; persuades 
Megalopolitans to refuse Cleomenes* 
offer to restore their city, 104, 266 ; 
distinguishes himself in battle at 
Sellasia, 266 ; refuses service under 
Antigonus, 270 ; serves with credit 
in Crete, is made commander of 
Achaean cavalry, defeats Aetolians 
and Eleians at river Larissus, 272 ; 
makes Achaeans independent of 
foreign protectors, changes armour 
and drill of troops, 276; defeats 
Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta at 
Mantineia, 280 ; honoured at 
Nemean games, 284 

His life attempted by Philip of 
Macedon, rescues Messene from 
Nabis, 286; serves with distinction 
as general of the Gortynians in 
Crete, 288; saved by Achaeans 
from being exiled by his native 
city, 290; chosen general against 
Nabis, defeated in naval battle, 
292; defeats Nabis, 294; gives 
secret umbrage to Flamininus, 296, 
360; brings Sparta into Achaean 
league, 296; shuts out Flamiuinus 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



and Diophanes from Sparta and 
brings it back again into the league, 
300 ; as general of Achaean league, 
tore down walls of Sparta, annexed 
it to Megalopolis, and abolished 
constitution of Lycurgus, 302 ; 
defeats Deinocrates, who had in- 
duced Messen6 to revolt from 
Achaean league, but is taken 
prisoner, 310; drinks poison sent 
in by Deinocrates and dies, 314; 
his death avenged, his funeral, 314 
See also 368, XT. 54 
Quoted : X. 258, 290, 304, 306, 
314 

Philosophers, their definition of love, 
I. 190; fared ill until Plato came, 
III. 290; troubled Alexander in 
India, many hanged by him, VII. 
392; assist Dio, VI. 46 ;'294; those 
at Athens treated with munificence 
by Pompey, V. 224 ; how speculative 
philosopher differs from statesman, 
III. 54 

Philosophy, higher, influence on 
Pericles, HI. 12; effect of its lack, 
XI. 24; II. 472 

Philosophy, natural, removes super- 
stition, HI. 14; Latin terms of, 
provided by Cicero, vil. 184 

Philostephanus, cited, I. 276 

Philostratus, philosopher, honoured 
by Cato in Sicily, vill. 374; par- 
doned by Octavius, IX. 318 

Phllotas, son of Pannenio and friend 
of Alexander, vil. 248; 254; 316; 
342; suspected of plotting against 
Alexander, is put to death, 360 

Philotas, physician of Amphissa, his 
anecdote about Antony, IX. 198 

Philotis, or Tutula, serving-maid, 
proposes and carries out ruse to 
defeat Latins, I. 184, u. 176 

Philoxenus, son of Ptolemy, given as 
hostage to Pelopidas, V. 406 

Philoxenus, dithyrambic poems of, 
sent to Alexander, vil. 242 

Philoxenus, commander of Alexander's 
forces on sea-board, VII. 284. 

Phlius, attacked by Agesilaiis in 
interests of its tyrants, V. 66 ; joins 
Achaean league, XT. 80; joins 
Cleomenes, X. 90, XI. 90; garrison 
of Oligyrtus expelled from it by 
Oleomenes, X. 110 



Phlogidas, Spartan, opposed to gold 
and silver coinage, iv. 276 

Phlogius, accompanied Autolycus, 
II. 544 

Phlya, native place of Myron, I. 432 ; 
had chapel shrine belonging to 
Lycomidae, which was burned by 
barbarian?, restored by Themis- 
tocles, II. 4; had temple of Apollo 
the Laurel-bearer, 44 

$6/3os, sacrificed to by Theseus, I. 62 ; 
by Alexander, vil. 316. See also 
" Fear." 

Phocaea, IV. 242 

Phocians, hid in caves near Tlthora 
on advance of Xerxes, IV. 374; 
forced by Spartans to free Del- 
phians, II. 456; driven from sanc- 
tuary at Delphi by Spartans and 
Delphians, reinstated, III. 62; 
denounced Thebans to Alexander, 
vil. 254; proclaimed free at 
Isthmian games by Flamininus, X. 
350 

Phocion, his lineage, pupil of Plato, 
then of Xenocrates, vill. 152 ; his 
character and power as speaker, 
154, VII. 24, 34; attached himself 
to Ohabrias, distinguished himself 
in sea-fight off Naxos, VTII. 156; 
strove to be both orator and states- 
man, his policies, 160; sent with 
small force to Eretria to oppose 
Philip, 170; sent to help allies 
on the Hellespont, 174; expels 
Philip from Hellespont, brings help 
to Megara, 176; put in charge of 
Athens after Chaeroneia, opposes 
rejoicing at Philip's death and 
opposition to Alexander, 180; 
persuades Alexander to turn his 
arms against the Barbarians and 
becomes his friend, 182; vexes 
Alexander by refusing his gift, 184, 
VII. 340; his domestic life, VTII. 
188; advises Athenians to accede 
to Alexander's request for trireme?, 
190; resists Harpalus' attempts to 
bribe him, 192; tries to restrain 
people when news of Alexander's 
death is brought, 194 

Opposes Leosthenes, 194, VI. 274; 
successfully opposes sending expedi- 
tion against Boeotians, VTII. 198; 
defeated Micion and his Mace- 

443 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



donians, 200; as envoy persuades 
Antipater not to invade Attica, 
202 ; with other ambassadors sent 
to meet Antipater at Thebes, 204; 
induces Antipater to exempt many 
from exile, 210; refuses gift of 
money from Menyllus, 212, XI. 42; 
persuades Antipater not to exact 
moneys due from city, VIII. 214; 
refuses to arrest Nicanor, Oas- 
sander's general, 218; deposed 
from command, 220 ; sets out with 
Deinarchus and others to meet 
Polysperchon, 222 ; taken back to 
Athens by Cleitus, virtually under 
sentence of death, 224; condemned 
to death by Athenian assembly, 
228; drinks the hemlock, 230; 
his burial, his death avenged, 232 

Sayings: 154, 158, 162, 164 f., 
174, 178 f., 190 f., 212, 226, 228 f., 
X. 4 
Phocis, raided by Xerxes, II. 26; 408; 

III. 56 ; IV. 310 ; occupied by Philip, 

VII. 42 

Phocus, son of Phoclon, victor as 
vaulting rider of horses, sent by 
his father to Sparta for training, 

VIII. 188 f.; 212; 228; takes ven- 
geance on Epicurus and Demo- 
philus for his father's death, 232 

Phoebidas, seized Cadmeia in time of 
peace, V. 64, 350 ; slain at Thespiae 
by Thebans, 376 

Phoebis, sent by Cleomenes to slav 
ephors, X. 64 

Phoenicia, iv. 252 ; with exception 
of Tyre, surrenders to Alexander, 
VII. 292; 308; its cities subdued 
by Tigranes, II. 534; V. 196; taken 
from Tigranes by Lucullus, 202 ; 
triumphed over by Pompey, 230; 
given to Cleopatra by Antony, ix. 
216 f. 

Phoenician ships, II. 440, 444, 462, 

IV. 70, 76 

Phoenicians, send ships to aid of 
Samians, III. 74; routed in Sicily 
by Pyrrhus and their territory 
subdued, IX. 418; call the cow 
" thpr," iv. 382 

Phoenix, reared Achilles, X. 256 
Phoenix, name which Lysimachus, 
tutor of Alexander, gave himself, 
VII. 236 

444 



Phoenix, his surrender demanded of 

Thebans by Alexander, vil. 252 
Phoenix, of Tenedos, commands 

foreign horse under Eumenes, Mil. 

96 
" Phoenix," name of fount where 

Apollo was born, V. 378 
Phorbas, father of Dexithea, I. 92 ; 

loved by Apollo, 318 
Phormio, Athenian general, IV. 2 
Phormio, prosecuted by Apollodorus, 

used speech written for him by 

Demosthenes, vn. 36, 216 
Phraata, large city besieged by 

Antony, IX. 222, 226, 252 
Phraates, Parthian, demands Tigranes 

of Pompey on plea that he is his 

son-in-law, and that Euphrates be 

adopted as boundary between his 

empire and that of the Romans, 

V. 204 
Phraates, put his father Hyrodes to 

death and seized kingdom, in. 422, 

IX. 218 
Phraortes, Parthian, quarrels with 

king of the Medes, IX. 254 
Phrasicles, nephew of Themistocles 

and husband of his daughter Nico- 

mach6, took charge of Asia the 

youngest, II. 88 
Plirixus, Spartan, V. 90 
Phrygia, n. 432 ; plundered by 

Agesilaus, V. 22 ; subdued by 

Alexander, VII. 272; IX. 116; 

Antiochus in battle there, x. 378 ; 

added to Pompey's sway by 

Manilian law, V. 190 
Phrygia, Upper, has Epixyes as satrap, 

11.82 
Phrygians, claim Bona or G-ynaeceia, 

and say she was mother of Midas, 

VII. 462 
Phrynichus (1), won in tragedy, II. 

16 
Unidentified play cited (Kock I. 

385), III. 222, IV. 54 
Phrynichus (2), Athenian general at 

Samos, opposes return of Alcibiades 

from exile, betrayed and denounced 

by Alcibiades, slain by Hermon, 

IV. 70 f . 
Phrynis, musician, had two of his nine 

lute-strings cut out by the ephor 

Ectrepes, X. 24 
Phthia, wife of Admetus, said to have 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ( LIVES ' 



suggested form of supplication to 
him, n. 66 

Phthia, daughter of Menon, the Thes- 
salian, married Aeacides and be- 
came mother of Deldameia, Troas, 
and Pyrrhus, IX. 346 

Phthiotis, Achaeans of, have garrisons 
put over them by Alexander of 
Pherae, V. 418; freed by Thebans, 
430; X. 350 

*vAa, subdivision of Spartans made 
by Lycurgus, I. 220 

Phylacia, in battle there Bithys, 
general of Demetrius, defeats 
Aratus, XI. 76 

Phylaclon, mistress of Stratocles, IX. 
26 

Phylarchus, his story about Themi- 
stocles fabricated, II. 88; great 
admirer of Cleomenes, X3. 88 

Cited : II. 88, 138, VII. 66, IX. 
438, X. 20, 60, 114, 118, XI. 88 

Phyle, in Attica, IV. 290, 310, IX. 54, 
442 

Phytalidae, men of race of, purified 
Theseus from bloodshed and feasted 
him, I. 22 ; superintended con- 
tributions toward a sacrifice to 
Theseus, 50 

Picenum, III. 340, V. 126 f ., 442 

Pictae, deputation reaches Sulla 
there, IV. 352 

Pictor, see " Fabius Pictor." 

Picus, demi-god, once haunted Avon- 
tine, etc., I. 358 

Pierio, said by some to have com- 
posed verses sung at banquet of 
Alexander, vil. 368 

Pigres, general, said by Eumenes to 
be coming against him, vm. 94 

" Pilamenai," connected with " flam- 
ines,"1.328 

Pillars of Hercules, III. 250, vi. 310, 
368 

Pinarii, descended from Pinus, son of 
Numa, I. 376 

Pinarius, husband of Thalaea, I. 394 

Pinarus, river, VII. 278 

Pindar (in passage not extant) says 
Bon of Theseus and Antiop6 called 
Demophoto, I. 64; he and his 
verses loved by Pan, 318 ; lu's 
descendants spared by Alexander, 
VII. 254 
Pyth. (2, 1 f .), V. 492, (8, 44 f.) XI. a 



Frg 77 (Bergk I 8 , p. 414) II. 22 ; 
Frg 131 (p. 444) I. 180; Frg 1C9 
(p. 458) IX. 104; Frg ]'JO (p. 466) 
I. 272; Frg 205 (p. 469) IX. 644; 
Frg 206 (p. 469) III. 208 ; Frg 232 
(p. 476) V. 516 

Pindarus, freedman, slays Cassius, vi. 
234, IX. 184 

Pinus, son of Numa, ancestor Ot 
Pinarii, I. 376 

Piracy, ships engaged in it not 
coliected by Lucullus, II. 478 

Piraeus, equipped and connected with 
Athens, II. 52; tomb of Themis- 
tocles near it, 88; entered by 
Lysander, IV. 270 ; vn. 2 ; 68 ; 
handed over to Demetrius, ix. 84; 
captured by Sulla, iv. 360, 372, 452 ; 
unsuccessfully attacked by Aratus, 
guarded by Diogenes, XI. 76; given 
up to Athenians by Diogenes, 78 

Piralc gate, see " Peiraic gate." 

Pirates, driven from Scyros by Lucul- 
lus, II. 426; attack Lucullus on 
way to Egypt, 476; save Mithri- 
dates, 508; Cilician pirates make 
bargain with Spartacus, then dis- 
appoint him, III. 342 ; their de- 
predations in Pompey's time, V. 
172 f.; by Gabinian law Pompey 
sent against them, 178 1, ; subdued 
by Pompey, 182 

Pirithoiis, see " PeirithoUs." 

Pisa, statue of Zeus at, III. 4 

Pisandrus, Plataean hero, II. 246 

Pisaurum, city near Adriatic, colonized 
by Antony, swallowed by chasms 
in earth, IX. 274 

Pisis, of Thespiae, urges Boeotians to 
revolt, spared by Demetrius and 
made polemarclT of Thespiae, ix. 
96 

Pisidiang.seeking to slay Themistocles, 
are captured, II. 82 ; overpowered 
by Alexander, VII. 272 

Piso, 0., historian, cited, I. 378, IX. 
594 

Piso, 0. Calpurnius, consul, interferes 
with Pompey in his war on pirates 
and comes near losing consulship, 
V. 182 ; makes report on Catiline's 
conspiracy, vn. 126; 456 

Piso, L. Galpurnius, marries his 
daughter to Caesar and is made 
consul, V. 238, 240, VII. 474, VIII. 

445 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



306, 316; gets province of Mace- 
donia with support of Clodius, 
VII. 156; advises Cicero to leave 
country, 160 f . ; urges Caesar to 
propose settlement with Pompey, 
530 

Plso Caesoninus, L. Calpurnius, sup- 
ported for consul by Pompey, y. 
228; assists Curio in taking opinion 
of senate, 268 

Piso Frugi, 0. Calpurnius, Cicero's 
son-in-law, goes to Pompey to beg 
aid for Cicero, VII. 1GO; 188 

Piso Frugi Licinianus, L. Calpurnlu?, 
son of Crassus and Scribonia, pro- 
claimed his successor by Galba, XI. 
254 f.; slain, 258, 266, 270 

Pissouthnes, Persian satrap, aids 
Samians, III. 72 

Pitane', fortress of Mithridates, II. 
478 

Pittacus, tyrant of Mitylen, I. 428 

Pittheus, son of Pelops, grandfather 
of Theseus, founded Troezen, etc., 
I. 6; persuaded Aegeus to take 
his daughter Aethra, 8; spread 
report that Poseidon was father of 
Theseus, 12; father of Henioche', 
grandfather of Sciron, 56 

Pityussa, island off Spain, attacked 
by Sertorius, vm. 18 

Pixodarus, satrap of Caria, hopes to 
marry his daughter to Arrhidaeus 
or Alexander, VII. 248 

Placentia, held by Otho's troops, XI. 
288 . 

Plague, see " Pestilence." 

Plain-men, at Athens, favoured olig- 
archy, I. 434; headed by Lycurgus, 
486 

Plancus, L. Munatius, speaks in 
favour of amnesty after Caesar's 
murder, vi. 166; joins Antony, 
IX. 176; abused by Cleopatra, 
deserts to Octavianus, 268 

Plancus, T. Munatius, on trial, sup- 
ported by Pompey, V. 262 

Plataea, Daimachus of, I. 572 ; heroes 
of, ii. 246; meeting place of 
Hellenic council, n. 274, 278 ; IV. 
310 

Plataea, battle of, Greeks defeat 
Persians, II. 46, 138, 214, 226, 238, 
386, 396, X. 8; Thebans defeat 
Spartans, V. 376, 400 

446 



Plataeans, had general Arimnfttus, 
II. 246; vote to move boundary 
toward Attica, rewarded by Alex- 
ander, 248, VII. 326; II. 274; 278; 
denounced Thebans to Alexander, 
VII. 254 

Plato, philosopher, adopted Lycurgus' 
design for a civil polity, I. 300; 
thought earth in secondary space, 
3-14; sold oil in Egypt to make 
expenses, 408 ; says Solon aban- 
doned work on story of lost 
Atlantis on account of old age, 
494; began story of lost Atlantis, 
496 ; gave performance of singing 
and dancing boys, II. 212, VI. 34; 
asked to write for Gyrene, makes 
oracular reply, II. 474; abused 
by Timaeus, III. 210; brought 
philosophy into good repute, 290; 
had tendency to melancholy 
according to Aristotle, iv. 236 ; 
admired poetry of Antimachus of 
Colophon, 282; opposed use of 
mechanical illustrations to assist 
geometry, V. 470 f. ; had Dion as 
immediate disciple, vi. 2 ; how 
treated in Sicily by Dionysius the 
Elder, 8; how by Dionysius the 
Younger, 26; kept Dion with him 
in the Academy, 32 ; his last visit 
to Syracuse, 36; wrote letter to 
Dionysius the Younger about treat- 
ment of Dion's wife, 42 ; refuses to 
help Dion in war against Dionysius 
the Younger, 44; 110; censures 
Dion for choosing men who proved 
his ruin, 252 ; dead when Dionysius 
came to Corinth, 296; taught 
Demosthenes according to Her- 
mippus, VII. 12; praised by Cicero, 
140; VIII. 152; says great natures 
exhibit great vices as well as great 
virtues, IX. 4; 78; his advice to 
Xenocrates, 466; his death-bed 
words, 594 
Alcibiades, (112) IV. 2, (122&) I. 

256 
Epistles, VI. 252 ; Epist. IV. (320) 

VI. 110, (ad fin.) IV. 152, 224, 

VI. 16 
Epist. VII. (327) VI. 8, (328) 22, 

(346)36, (349 f.) 40 
Gorgias (464) IX. 200, (518 f, 626) 

11.292 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Laws (630d) I. 288, (691e) I. 218, 
330, (692a) 1. 224, (7065) II. 12, 

X. 292 

Menexenus, III. 70 
Meno(93)II.86 
On the Soul, read by Cato just 

before his death, viil. 400 
Phaedrus (254a) ix. 216, (255) 
IV. 12, (270a) III. 22, (271c) 
III. 48 

Phnedo (68d) 1. 188 
Republic (3G3) II. 612, (376c) XI. 
206, (426e) X. 244, (458d) I. 
248, (473d) VII. 216, (475b) 84, 
(487e) I. 374, (557d) VI. 112, 
(5C2c) in. 20 
Symposium (179a) V. 384, (215) 

11.320 

Timaeus(37c)I. 292 
Plato, comic poet, IX. 296; (Kock I. 
651) II. 90; (Kock I. 654) in. 248, 
IV. 30; (Kock I. 655) III. 10 
Plebeians, their complaints about 
money-lenders, and secession, IV. 
126; unrest among them after 
Volscian war owing to scarcity of 
food and money, 144; angry when 
Coriolanus and other senators 
oppose free distribution of grain 
sent by Syracuse, 154; 184; get 
permission to elect one of consuls 
from their own body, II. 202, 204; 
one censor plebeian, 346 
Pleistarchus, brother of Cassander, 
receives Cilicia after defeat of 
Antigonus, goes to see Seleucus, 

IX. 76 

Pleistinus, brother of Faustulus, fell 
in battle between Romulus and 
Remus, i. 116 

Pleistoanax, king of Sparta, son of 
Pausanias, father of Pausanias, 

X. 8 ; invades Attica, but is bribed 
to withdraw, fined and goes into 
exile, III. 64; Saying, I. 208 

Plemmyrium, captured from Athen- 
ians by Gylippus, III. 278 

Plotius, accused Licinia the Vestal 
and Orassus, III. 314 

Plutarch, Eretrian, asks help of Athens 
against Philip, defeated and driven 
from Eretria by Phocion, VIII. 
170f. 

Plutarch, our, had intimate friend, 
Themistocles of Athens, attended 



school of Ammonius, the philoso- 
pher, II. 90 ; native of Chaeroneia, 
VII. 44; IV. 378 f. ; visits Rome and 
acquires the language, VII. 4; saw 
marble statue of Marius at Ravenna 
in Gaul, IX. 466 ; visited scene of 
battle between Otho and Vitellius, 
XI. 308; saw tomb of Otho at 
Brixillum, 316 
Works cited : 
Life of Aratus, X. 276; of 
Demosthenes and Cicero in 
5th book, vil. 6; of Dion in 
12th book, VI. 6; of Lys- 
ander, in. 66; of Metellus, 
IX. 546; of Pericles and 
Fabius Maximus, in. 6 ; of 
Timoleon, VI. 122 
On Days, II. 138 
Roman Questions, n. 140 
Sayings: I. 180, 362, 376, 396, 
398, 418, 460, 570, II. 110, 228, 316, 
392 f., 398, 410, 490, III. 2 f ., 14, 
54, 112, 152, 202, 214, 318, 386 
426, 428, 434, 436, IV. 120, 212 
252, 446 f., 450, V. 106, 312, 344, 
VII. 44, VIII. 344, IX. 476 f., 520, 
596, X. 2, 52, 168, 240, 248 f., 
278 f., 352, 384 f., XI. 4, 24, 106, 
186 f., 196 
Pluto, sacrificed to, by Publicola, I. 

556 
Plutus, blind and lifeless at Sparta, 

1.232 

Plynteria, see " Athena." 
Pnyx, at Athens, had bema, II. 54; 

f. 60 f. ; III. 232 

Po, river, V. 446 ; crossed by Marius, 
IX. 526; battle there between 
Caecina and Otho's men, XI. 298 f. 
Poets, nameless, cited, II. 222; 420; 
460 ; 472 ; 506 ; (Kock ill. 493), in. 
432 ; iv. 10, V. 414 ; IV. 326 ; (Nauck* 
921), 454; (Bergk III*. 622), V. 38; 
(Kock III. 484), 254; (Kock II. 80. 
128), VII. 22; (Nauck* 911), 150; 
378; (Nauck 921), ix. 318 
Polemarchs, at Sparta fine Agis, I. 
238; at Athens chosen by lot, in. 
26 ; at Thebes, V. 66, 354 
Polemon, strives for chief command 

under Eumenes, VIII. 102 
Polemon, cited, 1. 190 
Polemon, topographer, cited, XI. 28 
Polemon, king, taken prisoner by 

447 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Parthians, IX. 224; sent army from 
Pontus to Antony, 276 

" Poliorketes," title of tyrants, II. 
228; surname of Demetrius, IX. 
106 

Pollichus, goes to rescue his nephew 
Heracleides, III. 292 

Pollio, sole remaining prefect of 
Otho's soldiers, orders them to 
swear allegiance to Vitellius, XI. 318 

Pollio, Asinius, see " Asinius Pollio." 

Pollis, Spartan, sold Plato as slave 
In Aegina, VI. 10 

Pollux, see "Castor" and " Dios- 
curi." 

Polus, Aeginetan, pupil of Archias, 
VII. 70 

Polyaenus, fought always at side of 
Phllopoemen, X. 2S2 

Polyalces, ambassador from Sparta 
to Athens, III. 86 

Polyarchus, Aeginetan, charges Athen- 
ians with fortifying their city, II. 52 

Polybius, son of Achaean general 
Lycortas, friend of Philopoemen, 

X. 314 f . ; gets Scipio's aid in 
securing return of Achaean exiles, 
11.326; VI. 134 

Cited: II. 330, V. 380, 524, VI. 

404, X. 152, 300 

Histories (II. 47, 4f.) XI. 88, 

(II. 64, 1) X. 106, (II. 65, 2 & 7) 

114, (XXIX) VI. 392, 394 
Polycleitus (1), made statue of TTera 

at Argos, III. 4 
Polycleitus (2), cited, VII. 356 
Polycleitus (3), adherent of Nero, 

executed by Galba, XI. 240 
Polycrates (1), tyrant, III. 76; 

imitated by Lysander in his dis- 
regard for oaths, IV. 252 
Polycrates (2), descendant of Aratus 

and friend of Plutarch, XI. 2 f . 
Polycrates (3), son of Polycrates, 

XI. 4 

Polycratidas, one of embassy sent to 
generals of Persian king, quoted, 
1.282 

Polycrite, daughter of Lysimachus, 
voted public maintenance, II. 296 

Polycritus, physician at court of 
Artaxerxes, XT. 176 

Polydectes, half-brother of Lycurgus, 
I. 206; died soon after ascending 
throne, leaving it to Lycurgus, 



208; had posthumous son Chari- 
laii?, 1. 210 ; his widow plots against 
Lycurgus, 212 

Polydorus, king of Sparta, with his 
colleague Theopompus inserted 
clause in rhetra of Lycurgus, I. 
222 ; said to have added some lots 
to those distributed by Lycurgus, 
228 

Polyeuctus (1), son of Themistoclcs 
and Archippe, II. 86 

Polyeuctus (2), Sphettian, contrasts 
Demosthenes and Phocion as 
speakers, VII. 24, VIII. 154; VII. 32 ; 
counsels Athenians to go to war 
with Philip, vill. 154; demanded 
by Alexander, vil. 5r, 

Polygnotus, painter, his relations 
with Elpinice, II. 414 

Polygnotus, tower of, XI. 12 f. 

Polyidus, Plataean hero, H. 246 

Polymachus, of Pella, executed by 
Alexander for rifling tomb of 
Cyrus, VII. 41 6 

Polymedes, father of Qlaucus, VIII. 
172 

Polyphron, uncle of Alexander of 
Pherae, slain by him, V. 412 

Polysperchon, with Leptines, puts 
Callipus to death, vi. 122 

Polysperchon, appointed general-in- 
chief by Antipater before dying, 
VIII. 216; quarrels with Cassander 
after death of Autipater, 114; 
orders Eumenes to wage war on 
Antigonus and take 500 talents of 
treasure at Quinda, 116 ; plots 
against Phocion, 216 ; father of 
Alexander, 220, IX. 22; has Dein- 
archus of Corinth executed, refuses 
to hear Phocion, vill. 222; good 
general according to Pvrrhus, IX. 
366 

Polystratus, witnesses death of 
Dareius, VII. 350 

Polyxenus, husband of Thest, became 
enemy of Dionytdus the Elder, VI. 
42 

Polyzelus, Rhodian, cited, I. 446 

Pomaxathres, Parthian, slew Crassus, 
III. 416, 422 

Pomentinum, city of Italy with 
marshes near it, VII. 578 

" Pomerium," its etymology, I. 118 

Pompaedius Silo, leader of Latin 



44 8 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



allies in their effort to obtain 
Eoman citizenship, vni. 238; 
challenged Marius to battle, IX. 554 

Pompeia, Caesar's third wife, VII. 
452 ; loved by Clodius, 462 ; 
divorced by Caesar, 152, 460 

" Pompeii," name common to family, 
IX. 464 

Pompeii, Cicero had farm near it, 
VII. 100 

Pompeius, neighbour of Ti. Gracchus, 
said Eudemus of Pergamum gave 
Ti. Gracchus royal diadem and 
purple robe, X. 176 

Pompeius, Aulus, tribune of people, 
called Bataces impostor and died 
within week, IX. 508 

Pompeius, Gnaeu?, elder son of 
Pompey, sent to Syria by his father 
to raise a fleet, V. 278; enraged at 
Cicero after Pharsalus, vii. 180, 
vni. 370; enamoured of Cleopatra, 
IX. 192 

Pompeius, Sextus, younger son of 
Pompey, tells Cato of Pompey 's 
death, VIII. 370; supported by 
Spain, 382 ; holding Sicily and 
ravaging Italy, makes peace with 
Octavius and Antony, IX. 206; 
attacked by Octavius, 216; driven 
from Sicily by him, 262 

Pompeius Rufus, Q., consul with Sulla, 
IV. 342 ; his son slain by Sulpicius' 
mob, escapes himself, 350 

Pompeius Sextus Strabo, Guaeus, 
father of Pompey, able soldier, hated 
for his greed, V. 116 ; arrayed 
against Cinna, saved from mu- 
tinous troops by his son, 122 

Pompey, son of Strabo, loved by 
people, his character, V. 116 f. ; 
saved his father Strabo from 
mutinous soldiers, tried for theft 
of public property on his father's 
death, 122 ; wins favour with his 
judge, the praetor Antistius, be- 
comes engaged to his daughter, 
is acquitted, 124; married Antistia, 
126 ; when 23 raises force pre- 
paratory to joining Sulla, 128; 
defeats various enemies, 130; is 
saluted as "Imperator" by Sulla, 
sent to Gaul to help Metellus, 
132 ; divorces Antistia and marries 
Aemilia, step-daughter of Sulla, 



134; sent against Marians in 
Sicily, executes Carbo and Q. 
Valerius, 136 f.; sent by Sulla 
against Domitius in Africa, 140; 
defeats and slays Domitius, 142; 
captures lampsas and gives his 
kingdom to Hiempsal, subdues 
Africa within 40 days, 144; on 
his return greeted as " Magnus " 
by Sulla, 146 ; allowed to have 
triumph, 148 

Is left out of Sulla's will, 
appointed general against Lepidus, 
152 ; has Brutus, father of the 
Brutus who killed Caesar, slain, 
154 ; goes to Spain to help Metellua 
against Sertorius, 156 ; fights drawn 
battle with him, 160; after death 
of Sertorius completely defeats 
Perpenna, 162 ; returning from 
Spain defeats remnant of Spar- 
tacus' force, 164; receives 2nd 
triumph and consulship, 166 ; in 
constant collision with his colleague 
Crassus, 168 ; given command 
against pirates by Gabinian law, 
176f. ; clears Tyrrhenian and 
Libyan seas and sea about Sar- 
dinia, Corsica, and Sicily in 40 
days, 182 ; drives all piracy from 
the sea in less than 3 months, 186 ; 
treats Metellus in Crete unfairly, 
188 ; given command against 
Mithridates by Manilian law, 190 f . ; 
meets Lucullus in Galatia, 194; 
defeats Mithridates near Euphrates 
river, 200 : invades Armenia, 202 ; 
defeats Albanians and Iberians 
about Caucasus mountains, 206 f . ; 
in fortress of Caenum found and 
read private documents of Mithri- 
dates, 212 ; marches toward Petra, 
220 ; receives news of death of 
Mithridates, 222 ; while returning 
visits Athens and donates 50 
talents toward its restoration, 224; 
divorces Mucia, disbands his army, 
226 

Attempts to win Cato by mar- 
riage alliance, 228 ; celebrates 
triumph, 230; begins to lose 
reputation from this time, 232 ; 
refuses to help Cicero threatened 
with exile, 234 ; lends his support 
to Caesar the consul and marries 

449 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



his daughter Julia, 236 f.; with 
Caesar's help gets his enactments 
ratified which Lucullus contested, 
238; opposed by Glodius, 240; 
assists in recall of Cicero and by 
him is reconciled to senate, 242 i. ; 
is given direction of navigation and 
agriculture, 244; secures abund- 
ance of grain for the city, 246 ; 
has understanding with Caesar 
and Crassus at Luca, 248; elected 
consul with Crassus, with his help 
introduces laws giving Caesar his 
provinces for 5 more years, giving 
Crassus Syria and the expedition 
against the Parthians, and giving 
himself Africa, both Spains, and 
4 legions, 250 

Loses his wife Julia, learns of 
Crassus' death, 254; elected sole 
consul, 258; marries Cornelia, 
daughter of Metellus Scipio, 260; 
is to retain his provinces another 
4 years and receive 1000 talents 
yearly to maintain his soldiers, 262; 
demands his 2 legions back from 
Caesar, recovers from dangerous 
illness, 264; receives his 2 legions 
from Caesar, becomes filled with 
confidence in his power to suppress 
Caesar, 266; is commanded by 
the consuls to levy recruits but 
has difficulty in securing them, 270 ; 
issues edict recognizing state of 
civil war and ordering all the 
senators to follow him, 276 ; crosses 
from Brundiiium to Dyrrhachium, 
278; gathers great force and has 
irresistible navy, 280; refuses 
Caesar's offer of peace, routs his 
army but fails to take advantage 
of the victory, 284; pursues Caesar, 
288; is forced by his friends to 
offer battle to Caesar, 290; is 
defeated by Caesar at Pharsalus, 
292 f.; flees from the field of 
battle, 304; is joined by his wife 
Cornelia, 310 ; sails to Pelusium in 
Egypt, 316; is murdered by 
Ptolemy's agents, 322 ; his death 
avenged by Caesar, 324 

See also II. 140, 472, 484 f., 582, 
588 f., 594 f., 606, III. 328 f., 348 f., 
428 f., IV. 418, 430 f., 442, 448, VI. 
132, 136, 190, 198, 252, VII. 102 f., 

45 



114, 124, 158, 160, 166, 170, 176 f.. 

194, 468, 472 f., 478, 494, 500 f., 

610, 514 f., 524, 528, 538 f., 548 f., 

VIII. 4, 32, 48 f., 58, 72, 140, 264, 

306 f., 332 f., 340, 344 f., 352, 366 f ., 

382, IX. 148, 152, 160, 180 

Quoted : II. 600, V. 120, 136, 164, 

192, 304, 310 
Pompilia, only daughter of Numa and 

Tatia, I. 376; married Marcius, 

378 
Pompon (1), father of Numa Pom- 

pilius, I. 314 
Pompon (2), son of Numa, ancestor 

of Pomponii, I. 376 
Pomponia, wife of Q. Cicero, inflicts 

terrible punishment upon Philo- 

logus, VII. 208 
Pomponii, descended from Pompon, 

son of Numa, I. 376 
Pomponius (1), praetor, announces 

defeat at Thrasymene, III. 126 
Pomponius (2), companion of C. 

Gracchus, killed at wooden bridge, 

X. 234 
Pomponius (3), spared by Hithridates, 

11.514 
Pontic kings, line of, founded by 

Mithridates, ended by Romans, IX. 

12 
Pontifex Maximus, his duties, I. 338, 

342 f . ; Antony, IX. 208 ; Caesar, 

VII. 456 ; P. Liciiiius Crassus Dives, 

III. 192; P. L. Crassus Dives 
Mucianus, X. 162; Metellus Pius, 

IV. 342, VII. 456 ; Nasica, X. 194 
Pontifices, ascribed to Numa, why 

so called, I. 336 ; their duties, 346 
Pontius, his servant gives inspired 

message to SuJla, iv. 412 
Pontius Cominius, see " Cominius, 

Pontius." 
" Pontius Glaucus," poem by Cicero 

when a boy, vil. 84 
Pontus, II. 294; held by son of 

Alitliridatep, IV. 358; 11.494; 508; 

ravaged by Lucullus, 510 ; invaded 

by Lucullus again, 542; men sent 

from Rome to regulate its affairs, 

586; invaded by Pompey, Vll. 

106 ; triumphed over by Pompey, 

V. 230; freed of Romans by Phar- 
naces, freed of Pharnaces by Caesar, 
VII. 560 

Popilius, 0., defeated by Caesar as 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



candidate for military tribuneship, 
VII. 450 
Popilius Laenas, alarms Brutus and 

Casfrius by his words, VI. 158 
Popillius, as praetor had banished 
friends of Ti. Gracchus, flees from 
Italy, X. 206 

Popillius, military tribune, once when 

charged with parricide defended by 

Cicero, is one of his assassins, vii. 

204 f. 

Poppaea, wife of Crispinus, her acts, 

XI. 246 f. 
"Poppaea," name given Sporus by 

Nymphidius Sabinus, XI. 224 
" Populus," name given to those not 

in the legions, 1. 122 
Porcia (1), sister of Cato the Younger, 
wife of Lucius Domitius, VIII. 236, 
332 

Porcia (2), daughter of Cato the 
Younger and wife of Bibulus, to 
whom she bore 2 sons, vm. 292; 
mother of Bibulus, VI. 176; cousin 
and wife of Brutus, insists upon 
sharing his secret, 152, vin. 410; 
VI. 158; manner and time of her 
death, 246 
" Porcius," derived from "porcns," 

I. 532 

Porsena, Lars, declares war on Rome 
when she refuses to restore Tarquin 
to throne, I. 542 ; checked at 
bridge by Horatius and his 2 com- 
panions, 544 ; releases Mucius, 
who tried to kill him, 546 f. ; makes 
peace with Rome on conditions, 
550 ; honours Cloelia, 552 ; in 
retiring left his supplies behind for 
Romans, 554, 574; bronze statue 
of him near senate-house, 554 
Porsena's goods cried first, I. 554 
Porus, Indian king, defeated and 
captured by Alexander, restored 
to his kingdom and given title of 
satrap, VII. 394 f.; quoted, 398 
Poseideon, Athenian month, corre- 
sponds nearly to January, VII. 532 
Poseidon, patron god of Troezen, 
reputed father of Theseus, I. 12; 
Isthmian games in his honour 
instituted by Theseus, 56; honoured 
on 8th day of every month, 84; 
called Securer and Earth-stayer, 
86; contends with Athena for 



Athens, II. 54; v. 8; temples of, 
at the Isthmus, at Taenamm, at 
Calauria, plundered by pirates, 
174; VII. 70; X. 36 
Poseidonius, tells of his discourse at 
Rhodes before Pompey against 
Hermagoras the rhetorician, v. 224 ; 
wrote history of Perseus in several 
books, excuses king for retiring 
from battle of Pydna, VI. 404 f . ; 
taught Cicero philosophy, vii. 90 
Cited : V. 436, 458, 488 f., 520, 

VI. 128, 412, IX. 464, 692 f. 
Posidonia, Astyphilus of, II. 460 
Postuma, daughter of Sulla and 

Valeria, why the name, IV. 442 
Postumius, soothsayer, tells Sulla the 

omens are good, IV. 352 
Postumius, Livius, led Latin army 

against Rome, I. 184 
Postumius, Spurius, rival ot Ti. 

Gracchus, X. 162 
Postumius Tubertus (1), made consul 

along with M. Valerius, I. 554 
Postumius Tubertus (2), as dictator 

fought Aequians and Volscians, II. 

96 
Postumus, surname of child born after 

father's death, IV. 142 
Potamon, Lesbian, according to 

Sotion told of Alexander founding 

city in memory of his dog Peritas, 

VII. 398 

Potamus, place In Attica, n. 298 

Potheinus, eunuch, managed Ptolemy's 
affairs, called council of influential 
men to decide on fate of Pompey, 
V. 316, VII. 556; drove out Cleo- 
patra, plotted against Caesar, 556 ; 
put to death by Caesar, 558, V. 324 

Potheinus, official under Cleopatra, 
IX. 274 

Potidaea, colony of Corinth, revolts 
from Athens, III. 84; campaign 
against, IV. 18; taken by Philip 
at time of Alexander's birth, vii. 
230 

Potitup, Valerius, sent to consult 
oracle at Delphi about Alban lake, 
n. 102 

Praecia, controls Cethegus and thus 
secures Cilicia for Lucullus, II. 488 

Praeneste, IV. 416 ; younger Marius 
besieged there, 418 ; its inhabitants 
slaughtered by Sulla, 428, IX. 598 

451 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



Praenestines, with Vol-cians make 
war on Rome, II. 190 

Praesii, their kings said to be waiting 
for Alexander on banks of Ganges 
with large forces, revere altars left 
by him, vil. 400 

Praetor, in Macedonia in time of 
Lucullus, but Greece had none yet, 
II. 408 ; usually granted accused 
10 days in which to make defence, 

VII. 104 

Praetors: 0. Antonius, IX. 170; 
Antistius, V. 124; Brutus and 
Oassius, VII. 574; Brutus and 
Servilius, IV. 350; 0. Caesar, vil. 
138, 462, VIII. 298; Cato the 
Younger, 340; Cicero, vil. 102; 
Clodius, III. 336; Didius, in Spain, 

VIII. 6; Cornelius Lentulus 2nd 
time, VII. 122, 126; Lepidus, IX. 
152 ; M. Lucullus, of Macedonia, 
VTI.448; Marine, ix. 472; M. Otho, 
VII. 112; Aemilius Paulus with 12 
lictors, VI. 362; Petilius, I. 380; 
Pompouius, III. 126 ; Rubrius, VIII. 
254; Salonius, II. 384; Sulla, IV. 
334; 0. Sulpicius, VII. 126; P. 
Varinus, III. 338 ; Vatinius, V. 250 ; 
0. Vergilius, vn. 164; Verres, 98; 
Vetus, in Spain, 452 

Pranichus, poet, VII. 368 
Praxagoras, advises Neapolitans to 

offer sacrifices for Pompey's re- 
covery, V. 264 
Praziergidae, celebrate the rites of 

the Plynteria of Athene, IV. PS 
Prayer, Pythagoreans do not allow 

men to offer it cursorily, I. 354; 

after praying Roman turned to 

right, 11.106 

Priapus, Artemis of, n. 510 
Prices, II. 510, IV. 366, IX. 242, X. 

148, 360 f., XI. 184 
Priene, bone of contention between 

Samiana and Milesians, in. 72 ; 

assigned by Antony as place for 

dramatic artists to dwell in, ix. 

266 

Priestess, Pythian, iv. 304 
Prima, daughter of Herilia and 

Romulus, I. 130 
" Principia," Roman word for 

general's quarters, XI. 228 
" Prisons," original cognomen of 

Cato the Elder, IT. 302 

452 



Priscus, Helvidius, see " Helvidius 
Priscus." 

Prisoners, exchange of, between 
Fabius and Hannibal, in. 140 

Proauga, daughter of Agesilaiis, v. 52 

Procles, Spartan king, son of Aristo- 
demus and father of Soils. V. 52 

Proconnesus, Aristeas of, 1. 178 

Procrustes, slain by Theseus, I. 188 

Proculeius, bidden by Octavius to get 
Cleopatra alive, does so by ruse 
IX. 314 

Proculus, prefect of guards sent by 
Otho to army with full authority, 
XI. 294; leads troops out of 
Bedriacum for battle, 300 ; 304 

"Proculus," surname of child born 
in absence of father from home, 
IV. 142 

Proculus, Julius, by his story of seeing 
Romulus ascending to heaven quiets 
people, I. 176, 310; favourite of 
Romans, sent to invite Numa to 
accept the throne, 320 

Prodigies: I. 166, 176 f., 180, 308, 
634, II. 98, 126, 168, 452, 460 f., 
496, 500, 548, III. 14, 100, 122 f., 
244, 254, 288, 372 f., IV. 48, 210, 
260 f., 340, 344, V. 180, 420, 442, 
512, 516, VI. 48 f., 82, 210 f., 234, 
276 f., 290, 398, 418, VII. 130, 161, 
204, 260, 300 f ., 324, 386 f ., 588 f ., 
604 f., VIII. 208, IX. 274, 308, 450, 
508, 572, X. 140, 184 f., 220, 352, 
XI. 100 

" Prodikol," name given by Spartans 
to guardians of fatherless kings, 

I. 210 

Promachus, won prize by drinking 4 

pitchers of wine, vn. 418 
" Promanteia," meaning of word, 

secured for Athenians by Pericles, 

III. 64 
Promathion, compiler of history of 

Italy, cited, I. 96 
Property, III. 204, 218, 316, IV. 12, 

280, V. 50, 120 

Frophantus, brother of Cleinias, XI. 6 
Propontis, to be guarded by Cotta, 

II. 490 

Propylaea, of acropolis, Mnesicles its 

architect, in. 42 f . 
Proscription, III. 330, iv. 426 f. 
Proseoea, temple of Artemis, II. 24 
Proserpina, possibly same as Libitina, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES ' 



I. 346; VI. 118; 276. See also 

" Cora " and " Persephone 1 . " 
Prosper, see " Eutyehus." 
ilpof TOU? erai'povsi speech of 

Andocides, II. 88 

Protagoras, in discussion with Peri- 
cles, III. 104 ; exiled, 290 
Proteas, boon companion, forgiven 

by Alexander, vil. 340 
Prothoiis, opposes expedition against 

Thebes, V. 78 
Prothytes, her surrender demanded 

of Thebans by Alexander, vil. 

252 
Protis, merchant, popular with Gauls, 

founded Marseilles, I. 408 
Protogenes, Caunian, made painting 

for Rhodians illustrating story of 

lalysus, captured by Demetrius, 

IX. 50 

Protus, Dion's pilot, VI. 52 
Proverbs : I. 60, II. 540, III. 238, 246, 

IV. 64, 286, 448, V. 318, VI. 322, 

416, VII. 6, 318, VIII. 102, X 110, 

244, XI. 2, 160, 194, 208 
Provinces, extravagance of governors, 

n.320; 484; 488 
Proxenus, Macedonian, uncovers 

spring of oily liquid near river Oxus, 

VII. 386 f. 

Prusias, in Bithynia, harboured Han- 
nibal, asked by Flamininus to give 

him up, X. 378 
Prytaneium, I. 456; in Plutarch's 

time preserved some of Solon's 

tables of law, I. 472 ; VII. 76 
Prytanes, I. 456 
Prytanis, father of Lycurgus and 

Emiomus, I. 206 
Psammon, philosopher, heard by 

Alexander in Egypt, VII. 304 
Psenophis, of Heliopolis, learned 

Egyptian priest with whom Solou 

studied, I. 476 
Psiltucis (or Scillustis) Island in 

Indian ocean marking limit of 

Alexander's expedition, VTI. 410 
Psyche^ wife of Marphadates, VIII. 

408 
Psylli, Libyan people who charmed 

snakes, VIII. 372 
Psyttalein, small island In front of 

Salami?, II. 238 
Ptoeodorus, Megarian, visited by 

Dion, VT. 34 



rtolemaeus (1), eunuch of Mithridates 
11.522 

Ptolemaeus (2), encourages Otho by 
his prediction, xi. 256 

rtolemaif--, daughter of Ptolemy and 
Eurydice, married to Demetrius, 
IX. 78, 116; mother of ruler of 
Gyrene, 134 

Ptolemy (1), at war with Alexander, 
king of Macedonia, slew him and 
succeeded to throne, made peace 
with Pelopidas, V. 404 f . 

Ptolemy (2), nephew of Antigonus, 
given as hostage to Eumenes, VIII. 
108 f. 

Ptolemy (3), son of Pyrrhus and Anti- 
gone 1 , IX. 360, 368; repulsed by 
Acrotatus, 440; slain in battle by 
Oryssus, 446 f . 

Ptolemy (4), son of Chrysermus. 
friend of King Ptolemy but 
treacherous toward Cleornenes, x. 
130; slain by Cleomenes, 134 

Ptolemy (5), in charge of Alexandria 
under King Ptolemy, slain by 
Cleomenes, X. 134 

Ptolemy (6), king of Cyprus, opposed 
by Cato, slew himself, VI. 130, VIII. 
322 

Ptolemy (7), son of Antony and 
Cleopatra, given Phoenicia, Syria, 
and Cilicia, IX. 262 

Ptolemy Auletes, flees from Egypt, 
seeks Roman aid, V. 244 f. ; re- 
ceives kindness from Pompey, 314; 
disregards Cato's advice not to go 
to Rome, VIII. 320; bribes Gabinius 
to help him recover Egypt, IX. 142 : 
prevented by Antony from putting 
people of Pelusium to death, 144 

Ptolemy Ceraunus, with army peri.-hcd 
at hands of Gauls, IX. 416" 

Ptolemy Dionysius, indebted to Pom- 
pey, V. 314; makes war on his 
sister at Pelusium, 316; defeated 
by Caesar, disappears, 324 

Ptolemy Euergetes, X. 16 ; made ally 
of Achaeans, XI. 54; sent Aratus 
6 talents a year, 96, X. 92 ; 98 f . ; 
receives Cleomenes kindly, gives 
him pension of 24 talents, dies 
before sending him back to Sparta, 
122; 274 

Ptolemy Lathyrus, gives royal wel- 
come to Lucullus, but out of fear 

453 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



of Mithridates abandons alliance 
with Rome, n. 476; IV. 142 

Ptolemy Philadelphia, to help Aratus 
get back to Sicyon, XI. 10; re- 
ceives paintings from him, 28 ; 
gives Aratus 150 talents for Sicyon, 
30, 32 f. 

Ptolemy Philometor ( ?) X. 146 

Ptolemy Philopator, his character and 
treatment of Cleomenes, X. 124 f.; 
128 ; has Cleomenes imprisoned, 
130 ; 132 ; has mother and children 
of Oleomenes executed, 136; 140; 
290; built a ship with 40 banks 
of oars, IX. 108 

Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, com- 
panion of Alexander, banished 
from Macedonia by Philip, vn. 
250; received Apama, sister of 
Barging, from Alexander, vill. 80; 
threatened with attack by Per- 
diccas, 90; defeated Demetrius in 
Syria near Gaza, his general Cilles 
defeated by Demetriu?, IX. 12 f.; 
had more than one wife, 338 ; 
besieged Halicarnassus, with Cas- 
sander had subdued all Greece, 18; 
defeated by Demetrius in Cyprus, 
36 f ., 336 ; given title of king, 40, 
VII. 336; unsuccessfully attacked 
by Antigonus and Demetrius, IX. 
42; 60; marries one daughter to 
Lysimachus and one to the latter's 
son Agathocles, 76; marries his 
daughter Ptolemals to Demetrius 
and makes peace with him, 78, 116, 
354; marries his daughter Anti- 
gone' to Pyrrhus, his hostage, 356; 
sends 150 ships to assist Athenians 
against Demetrius, 82, 360; takes 
Cyprus, excepting Salamis, from 
Demetrius, 86; 360; leagued with 
Seleucus and Lysimachus against 
Demetrius, sails to solicit Greek 
cities to revolt, 108 f ., 374 
Cited : VII. 356 

Ptoiim, mountain near temple of 
Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 378 

Publicius Bibulus, tribune of the 
plebs, impeaches Marcellus but 
fails, V. 510 

Public land, allotment of, by Pericles, 
III. 24 

Publicola, L. Gellius, with Antony 
had right wing at Actium, IS. 284 f. 

454 



Pablicola, P. Valerius, his lineage, 
his eloquence and wealth, I. 502 ; 
disappointed at not being elected 
as one of first two consuls, with- 
draws from public life, 504 ; takes 
oath not to submit to Tarquins, 
506; brings to justice two sons of 
Brutus, the consul, for conspiracy 
to restore Tarquins, 508 f . ; pro- 
tects Vindicius, who revealed the 
plot to him, 516; elected consul, 
has Viudioius rewarded, 518; cele- 
brates triumph over Tuscans, first 
consul to drive into city on a 
four-horse chariot, 138, 524; takes 
measures to remove his unpopu- 
larity with the people, 526 f . ; uses 
his sole authority to have various 
important measures passed, 530 f . ; 
has first Lucretius, then M. Hora- 
tius as his colleague in consulship, 
534; is anxious to dedicate new 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 536 
Chosen consul 2nd time with 
T. Lucretius as his colleague to 
resist Lars Porsena, 542; is 
wounded in battle with Porsena, 
proposes honour for Horatius 
Codes, 544 ; consul 3rd time, defeats 
Tuscan army, 546 ; makes Porsena 
arbitrator in dispute with Tarquin 
and concludes peace with him, 
548 f . ; sends Cloelia and the other 
maidens back to Porsena, 550; 
advises and assists consuls in 
repelling attack of Sabines, 554; 
consul 4th time, induces Appius 
Clausus, a Sabine to move with 
many friends to Rome, 556 f.; 
defeats Sabines, 560; celebrates 
triumph and dies, 562, IV. 200 
Quoted : I. 558 

Publicolae, trace descent to Valerius 
Publicola, I. 566 

Publius, stole Mithridates' sword-belt, 
punished by Pharnaces, V. 224 

Publius Silo, see " Pompaedius Silo." 

Pulytion, played part of Torch-bearer 
when Alcibiades profaned mysteries, 
IV. 48, 60 

Punishment, II. 282, 616 f., 532, III. 
342 

Puteoli, see " Dicaearchia." 

Pyanepsion, month of, I. 46, 84, VII. 
'70, 76 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Pydna, n. 68, VI. 396 ; battle of, 398 f . 
Pylades, minstrel at Kcmean games, 

X. 284 
Pylagorae, delegates to Amphictyonic 

conventions, II. 56 
Pylius, adopted Hercules, I. 78 
Pylos, fortified by Demosthenes, 

attacked by Peloponnesians, III. 

230, 232 ; Spartans captured there, 

234, 238, 244, IV. 32 
Pyramia, in district of Thyreatis ; near 

it Danaiis first landed in country, 

IX. 454 

Pyrenees, II. 126 
Pyrilampes, comrade of Hercules, III. 

"44 

Pyrrha, wife of Deucalion, IX. 346 
Pyrrhidae, line of kings descended 

from Neoptolemus, IX. 346 
" Pyrrhus," surname of Neoptolemus, 

IX. 346 

Pyrrhus, son of Neoptolemna and 
Lanassa, IX. 346 

Pyrrhus, son of Aeacides and Phthia, 
his lineage, IX. 346 f . ; as infant 
given asylum by Glaucias, king of 
Illyrians, 348 f . ; when 12 years 
old restored to throne of Epeirus 
by Glaucias, when 17 driven from 
throne, joins Demetrius, fights at 
Ipsus, 352 f . ; goes to Egypt as 
hostage for Demetrius, 354; mar- 
ries Antigone 1 , daughter of Berenice 1 , 
returns to Epeirus, 356 ; slays 
Neoptolemus, who shared throne, 
adds to his territory, 360 ; quarrels 
with Demetriuf, 362; defeats his 
general Pantauchus, 100 f., 364; 
his ranking as a general, 102, 366, 

X. 382 ; marries several wives 
after death of Antigone", IX. 368; 
overran Macedonia, 370; makes 
agreement with Demetrius, 372 ; 
tabes Beroea, 110, 374; proclaimed 
king of Macedonia, 112, 376 ; enters 
Athens, 378; driven from Mace- 
donia by Lysimachus, 380 

Invited to Italy by Tarentines, 
384; sends Cineas ahead to Taren- 
tum with 3000 soldiers, then 
crosses himself, 388; defeats the 
Romans at Heracleia, 394 f . ; sends 
Cineas to Rome with proposals 
of peace, 402; tries to corrupt 
Fabricius, 406 ; warned by Fabri- 



cius of danger from poison, 410; 
sends Cineas again to negotiate 
peace, defeats Romans at Asculum, 
412 f.; invited to Sicily, defeats 
Carthaginians, 418 ; puts to death 
Thoenon, a Syracusan who had 
invited him to Sicily and incurs 
bitter hatred, 422 ; returns tc 
Italy, 424; defeated by Roman? 
at Beneventum, 426 

Returns to Epeirus and defeats 
Antigonus in Macedonia, 430 ; 
invited by Cleonymus to attack 
Sparta, 434 f . ; repulsed . from 
Sparta, 436 f.; loses his son 
Ptolemy, 448; enters Argos by 
night, is slain in street fighting, 
450 f. 

See also, II. 306, IX. 58, 74, 86, 
98, 106, X. 380 

Sayings: IX. 370; 374; 386 f.; 
394, X. 334 ; IX. 396 ; 416 ; 424 ; 432 ; 
436 

Pythagoras (1), Olympic victor, said 
to have helped Numa arrange 
government of Rome, I. 306 

Pythagoras (2), said to have been 
intimate friend of Numa, said to 
have lived 6 generations after him, 
I. 306; why supposed to have 
influenced Numa, marvels told ol 
him, 332; said first principle of 
being beyond sense or feeling, said 
to have been Roman citizen, 334; 
his statue in forum at Rome, 336 ; 
380; educator of Numa and father 
of Mamercus, VI. 358 

Pythagoras (3), seer, questioned by 
Alexander, VII. 426 

Pythagorean philosophers, in Sicily, 
"invite Plato, VI. 22 

Pythagoreans, place element fire in 
centre of universe and call it 
Vesta and Unit, I. 344; their pre- 
cepts enumerated and compared 
with Numa's, 354 f . ; why they 
do not entrust their precepts to 
writing, 380 

Pytheas, verbal encounter with 
Demosthenes, VIi. 18, 210; Athen- 
ian orator, joins party of Antipater, 
66; VIII. 190 

Pythian games, list of victors at, by 
Aristotle, 1. 428; IV. 282; conducted 
by Demetrius at Athens, IX. 100 

455 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Pythian priestess, approached by 

Lysander, IV. 304 
Pythium, VI. 392 f. 
Pythocleides, Pericles' music teacher, 

III. 10 
Pythocles (1), condemned to death 

with Phocion, vill. 228 
Pythocles (2), son of Polycrates, XI. 4 
Pythodorus (1), waiting to seize 

Themistocles, II. 68 
Pythodorus (2), torch-bearer, opposes 

initiating Demetrius into mysteries 

irregularly, IX. 60 
Pytholaiis, Phebe's brother, helps 

slay Alexander of Pherae, V. 430 
Python, story of, associated with 

birth of Apollo near temple of 

Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 378 
Python, of Byzantium, answered by 

Demosthenes, VII. 20 
Python, with Seleucus sent to temple 

of Serapis to ask whether Alexander 

should be brought thither, vil. 434 
Python, flute-player, IX. 366 
Pythonicd, mistress of Harpalus, her 

tomb built by Charicles, viii. 192 
Pythopolis, founded by Theseus where 

Solols, his friend, was drowned, I. 

60 



Quadrant, to be contributed by each 
citizen toward expense of Pub- 
licola's funeral, i. 562; smallest 
copper coin, VII. 154 

Quadrantia, nickname of Clodia, Til. 
154 

Quadrants, of Archimedes, V. 486 

Quaestors, introduced by Publicola, 

I. 532, 568 

Cato the Elder, II. 310; Cato 
the Younger, vill. 268; Cicero, 
VII. 82, 94; Ti Gracchus, X. 152; 
Granius Petro, VII. 480; Cornelius 
Lentulus, 122; M. Lollius, vill. 
272; Marcellus, 276; Sertorius, 
8 ; Sulla, IV. 328 ; Titius, IX. 234 ; 
P. Veturius and M. Minucius, I. 
534 

Quinda, treasure there, VIII. 116, IX. 76 

Quinsy, VII. 62 

Quintilis, original name of July, I. 
174, 370, II. 178, IV. 412 

Quintio, freedman of Cato the Elder, 

II. 366 



Quintius, L., see " Flamininus, L. 

Quintius." 
Quintup, officer of Crassus, defeated 

by Spartacus, III. 346 
Quintus, L., popular leader, quieted 

by Lucullus, II. 486 ; when praetor 

attacks Lucullus, 580 
Quirinalis, hill at Rome, named after 

Quirinus, I. 182 ; site of Numa's 

palace, 354 
Quirinus, name of Romulus deified, 

I. 178, 182, 310; temple of, n. 

144 
" Quiris," ancient word for spear or 

spear-head, 1. 182 
"Quirites," derived from "Cures," 

I. 150, 314 
" Quiritis," epithet applied to Juno, 

I. 182 
Quotations, anonvmeu? : l. 48; 76; 

78; 238; 240;'24C; 248; 268; 27<>; 

272; 284; 290; 374; 460; II. 12; 

126; 220; 260; 280; 304; 460; 472; 

UI. 20; 34 f.; 122; 196; 212; 368; 

428; IV. 10, V. 414; IV. 64; 84; 

280; 288; 326; 454; V. 102; 340; 

430; VI. 144; 354; VII. 62; 150; 

VIII. 188; IX. 592; XI.2 



Rain shower, dissolves assembly, 

X. 228 
Ramnenoes, named from Romulus, 

one of 3 Roman tribes, I. 152 
Ransom, 250 drachmas per man, HI. 

142 

Rapax, legion of Vitellius, XI. 302 
Rations, Cato the Elder took 3 Attic 

bushels per month for himself and 

retinue, II. 318 

Ratumena, gate of Rome, I. 536 
Ravenna, in Gaul, has marble statue 

of Marius, IX. 466 
Records, of Athens, II. 226; of 

Sparta, V. 52 

Recreation, of Cato the Elder, n. 378 
Red Sea, II. 618, V. 214, IX. 296 
Regia, I. 146, 182; built by Numa 

near temple of Vesta, i. 354 
Regillus, lake, battle of, IV. 122 
Remonia, burial place of Remus, I. 

118 
Remonium, afterwards called Rig- 

narium, precinct on Aventine, laid 

out by Remus, I. 114 



45 6 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



Remus, account of his birth and early 
life, 1. 102 f . ; handed over to Nurni- 
tor, believed to be child of Faustulus 
and Larentia, 106 ; laid out pre- 
cinct on Aventine, first called Remo- 
nium, afterwards Rignarium, 114; 
slain by Romulus, or by Celer, 11C, 
194; with his foster-fathers buried 
in the Remonia, 118 

Rent, of public land, forced up by 
Cato the Elder when censor, n. 
356 

Revenue, Athenian, from silver mines 
at Laureium, II. 10; embezzlement 
of, by Themistocles and others 
shown by Aristides, n. 220 f.; 
revenues from campaign i^iven 
Athens by Cimon, 432 ; how farmers 
of, were held up by Alcibiades once, 
IV. 14; great revenue required on 
account of Rome's wars, n. 96 ; 
public revenues at Rome, 50,000,000 
drachmas from taxes, 85,000,000 
more added by Pompey, V. 230 

Revolt, of Thasians from Athens, n. 
446 ; of Helots, 454 

Rex, Marcius, had Tertia, sister of 
Clodius to wife, vn. 154 

Rhadamanthus, judge under Minos, 
I. 32 ; believed to have once dwelt 
near Haliartus; husband of Alc- 
mene after death of Amphitryon, 
IV. 312 

Rhamnus, Micion lands there, vin. 
200; captured by Demetrius, IX. 
80; in. 226 

Rhtirniius, freedman of Antony, takes 
oath to slay his master if asked, 
IX. 248 

Rhea (1), see " Ilia." 

Rhea (2), mother of Sertorius, greatly 
loved by him, vni. 6, 62 f. 

Rhegium,' in Italy, taken by Alci- 
biades, IV. 52 ; helps Timoleon out- 
wit Carthaginians, VI. 282; 306; 
its garrison ordered by Fabius to 
overrun Bruttium and take Cau- 
lonia by storm, m. 182 

Rheneia, 'island very near Delos, m. 
216 

Rhetoric, value of, exemplified by 
Pericles, in. 48 f . ; taught by Aes- 
chines in Rhodes and Ionia, vn. 60 

Rhetra, meaning of term, I. 220, 244; 
224; 240; 242; V. 72 



Rhine, VII. 490 ; bridged and crested 
by Caesar, 498 

Rhipacan mountains, crossed by 
Gauls, II. 126 

Rhodes, 1U. 56 ; Aeschines taught 
Rhetoric there, vn. 60 ; gave Alex- 
ander belt made by Helicon, vn. 
322 ; ally of Ptolemy, warred en 
by Demetrius, DC. 48 ; makes terms 
with Demetrius, 52 ; gave Lucullus 
ships, n. 478; visited by Caesar 
for study, vn. 446 ; visited by Pom- 
pey, V. 224; visited by Cicero, vn. 
90, 174; lost its fleet, 178; taken 
by Cassius, VI. 192 

Rhodogune, daughter of Artaxerxes, 
married to Orontes, XI. 192 

Rhoemetalces, Thracian, Caesar's 
words regarding him, I. 140 

Rhoesaces (1), story of his experience 
with Cimon, n. 436 

Rhoesaces (2), Persian commander, 
slain by Alexander, vn. 266 

Rhoeteium, x. 102 

Rhomboid, in Megara, I. 64 

Rhone, canal run along its mouth by 
Marius, IX. 500 

" Rhopoperperethras," name given 
Demosthenes by one of Comic poets, 
vn. 22 

Rhosus, scene of meeting between 
Seleucus and Demetrius, IX. 76 

Rhus, in Megara, I. 64 

Rhyndacus, river, defeat of part of 
Mithridates' forces by Lucullus 
there, U. 504 

Rhyntaces, a little Persian bkd, XI. 
170 

Riddle, many owls sleeping under 
tiling, IV. '276 

Right, of selling children restricted by 
Numa, I. 3GC ; of appeal by defend- 
ant to people introduced by Publi- 
cola, of appeal by defendant to 
jurors introduced by Solon, 568 ; of 
three children, see " Jus trium libe- 
rorum." 

Rignarium, see " Remonium." 

Rites, at Sparta in commemoration 
of incident at Plataea, n. 266 ; per- 
formed by Athenians in month 
Anthesterion in commemoration of 
the deluge, IV. 372; Orphic, prac- 
tised by Macedonian women, vn. 
226 f . ; of Mithras, celebrated at 

457 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Olympia by pirates, V. 174; care 
with which Romans performed 
sacred rites, IV. 180; mysterious 
rites at Rome in month of Novem- 
ver, V. 442. See also " Funeral 
rites " and " Marriage." 

Road?, built by 0. Gracchus, X. 212 ; 
of Italy, all end at gilded column 
in Forum, XI. 260 

lloma (1), woman who gave her name 
to city, I. 90 ; married Latiuus, son 
of Telemachus, and bore him Romu- 
lus, 92 

Roma (2), daughter of Italus and 
Leucaria, or of Telephus, son of 
Heracles, married Aeneas, or Asca- 
nius, and gave her name to city, 
I. 92 

Roma Quadrata, built by Romulus, 
1.114 

Romans, why they honour second 
Larentia, I. 100; waged war on 
Sabines, 132; style of armour 
adopted from Sabines, 154; feared 
by neighbours, 168 ; nominated the 
Sabine, Numa Pompilius, as king, 
312 ; distracted by pestilence, 350 ; 
increased in power after forsaking 
institutions of Numa, 398; con- 
quered Tarquins and Latins, VI. 
420; afflicted by famine, I. 546; 
defeat Sabines and Latins, 556 f . ; 
could not by its vote enact a law 
without a previous decree of Senate, 
IV. 188; agree to pay 1000 Ibs. of 
gold to get rid of Gauls, n. 164; 
wish to move to Veii, but finally 
decide to stay where they are, 170 f. ; 
at war with Tarentum, IX. 382; 
under Laevinus defeated by Pyrrhus 
near Heracleia, 394 f . ; refuse to 
make peace with Pyrrhus, 412; 
lose 6000 men at Asculum according 
to Hieronymus, 414; after Bene- 
ventum get control of Italy and 
Sicily, 428 ; wage war on Ligurians, 
HI. 120 ; wage war on Gauls, V. 440 ; 
bury alive 2 Greeks and 2 Gauls in 
Forum, 442; send bowl to Delphi 
to celebrate victory over Gauls, 456 ; 
refuse to ransom prisoners after 
Cannae, and banish those who fled 
to Sicily, 466 f. ; with Achaeans 
wage war on Nabis, X. 292 ; defeat 
Antiochus, then give closer atten- 



tion to affairs of Greece, VI. 362, 
X. 302, 364 ; character changed by 
conquests, n. 314; at war with 
Philip V., X. 324; wage war with 
Perseus, subdue Macedonia, VI. 370, 
IX. 134; VI. 452; registered by 
Aemilius Paulus and Marcius Philip- 
pus, the censors, 454; how they 
punished those who accepted terms 
from the enemy, X. 156 f.; how 
they treated the land question, 
158 f . ; had army under Caepio 
destroyed by Cimbri, n. 140 ; sum- 
mon Marius to take command 
against Cimbri and Teutones, IX. 
492 ; 150,000 massacred by Mithri- 
dates in one day, IV. 404 ; defeated 
at river Lycus by Mithridates, n. 
514; under Lucullus conquer Ti- 
granes and the Armenians, n. 140 ; 
end line of Pontic kings, IX. 12; 
divided into 3 powerful parties, m. 
334 ; ready for revolution, vn. 108 ; 
defeated by Parthians, 172 ; defeat 
Pacorus, son of Hyrodes, or Arsaces, 
m. 422; subject to many dire 
events after death of Nero, XT. 206 

Romanus, son of Odysseus and Circe, 
colonized Rome, I. 92 

Rome, various theories as to origin 
of name, I. 90 ; founded by Romulus 
on April 21st, I. 4, 120, 122, 314; 
a sanctuary for fugitives, called 
sanctuary of God of Asylum, made 
in it by Romulus and Remus, I. 
114; how marked out, 118; grew 
because she incorporated with her- 
self those she conquered, I. 136 ; 
plague and dread portents at, 166; 
receives grain, part bought in Italy, 
part sent as gift from Syracuse, IV. 
154; menaced by Volscians under 
Coriolanus, 188; 7 large cities cap- 
tured from it by Volscians under 
Coriolanus, 192; again menaced by 
Coriolanus and Volscians, 194; how 
saved by Volumnia, mother of 
Coriolanus, IV. 200 f . ; captured by 
Gauls, then attacked by Latins 
under Livius Postumius and saved 
by strategy of Philotis, or Tutola, 
I. 184 f., 306, n. 146 f., V. 440; 
delivered by Camillus, n. 164 f . ; 
rebuilt within year, 174; struggle 
there between Sullan and Marian 



458 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LIVES ' 



factions concerning MithriJatic war, 
IV. 348, IX. 533; great changes in 
government of, introduced by Sulla, 
IV. 434 ; captured twice by Sulla, IV. 
452 ; occupied by Caesar, IX. 152 ; 
entrusted to Lepidus by the trium- 
virs, IX. 182; outshone by Athens 
in great public works, temples, etc. 
down to time of Caesars, m. 204; 
required monarchy to heal its ills, 
vi. 250; history of, planned by 
Oicero, vn. 186 

Romis, tyrant of Latins, drove out 
Tuscans and founded Rome, I. 
92 

Romulus, varying accounts of his 
lineage, I. 92 f . ; twin son of Ilia, 
Rhea, or Silvia, 96 ; exposed near 
river, 98 ; reared by Faustulus, 
swineherd of Amulius, 102 ; with 
his brother Remus, attacks and 
slays Amulius, 112 ; builds Roma 
Quadrata, 114; slays his brother 
Remus, as some say, 116 ; buries 
Remus in the Remonia, marks out 
the city, 118; founded Rome on 
April 21st, 120; divides men of 
military age into companies, each 
consisting of 3000 footmen and 300 
horsemen, 122 ; appointed 100 of 
most eminent to be councillors, call- 
ing the individuals "patricians" 
and their body a " senate " ; called 
nobles " patrons " and commonalty 
"clients," rape of Sabine women, 
126 ; origin of nuptial cry " Tala- 
sius," 132 ; slew Acron, king of the 
Caeninenses, routed his army, and 
took his city, 134 f., V. 454 ; mean- 
ing of " spolia opima," I. 138 

Attacked by Sabines under Ta- 
tius, who is admitted to citadel by 
Tarpeia, 140; fights Sabines with 
varying fortune, 144 f . ; led to make 
peace by the ravished daughters of 
the Sabines, 146 f. ; Sabines to 
dwell with Romans and Tatius to 
be king with Romulus, 150 ; 100 
Sabines added by election to the 
patricians and legions enlarged to 
6000 footmen and 600 horsemen, 
people arranged in three bodies, 
Ramnenses, Tatienses, Lucerenses, 
152 ; Romulus adopted oblong 
shields of Sabines, 154; said to 



have introduced consecration of 1m 
and to have appointed holy virgins, 
called Vestals, to guard it, was a 
diviner, enacted law concerning 
divorce, 160; buried Tatius, who 
was slain by friends of murdered 
ambassadors, but makes no attempt 
to bring murderers to justice, 162 f., 
322 ; took Fidenae and made it 
colony of Rome, 164; captured 
Cameria, transferred half of sur- 
vivors to Rome and sent colonists 
to Cameria, 166; defeats Veientes 
in two battles, 168; celebrates 
triumph, becomes haughty in bear- 
ing, had about him young men 
called Celeres, and Lictores, 170 f.; 
of his own motion divided territory 
acquired in war among his soldiers, 
and gave back their hostages to 
Veientes without consent of patri- 
cians, disappeared unaccountably 
short time after, conjectures as to 
manner of his death, 174 f., 308, 
n. 180, V. 178; Julius Proculus, a 
patrician, said he saw Romulus as 
a deity and received a meassge for 
the Romans from him, the people 
pray to him under name Quirinus, 
I. 178 ; died 54 years of age and in 
38th year of his "reign, 186 

Romus *(1), sent from Troy by Dio- 
medes, son of Emathion, founded 
Rome, I. 92 

Romus (2), brought to Italy with his 
brother Romulus, I. 92; named 
from " ruma," a teat, 102. See also 
" Remus." 

Roscii, two brothers with Crassus at 
Carrhae, m. 414. 

Roscius, comedian, had influence on 
Sulla in his latter days, IV. 438; 
imitated by Cicero, vn. 94 

Roscius, attacks Chrysogonus and is 
accused by him of murder, defended 
by Cicero and acquitted, VII. 88 

Roscius, "had Milesiaca" of Aristides 
in his baggage at battle of Carrhae, 
m. 418 

Roscius Otho, L., opposes Gabinian 
law, v. 180; introduced law giving 
knights separate seats at spectacles, 
vn. 112 

Roxana, married by Alexander, vn. 
358 ; mother of Alexander, IX. 354 ; 

459 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



murders Stateira and her sister, vu, 
436 

Roxana, sister of llithridates, put to 
death at his orders, II. 524 

Roxanes, chiliarch, his angry words 
to Themistocles, II. 78 

Rubicon, separates Italy from Cis- 
alpine Gaul, vn. 490; crossed by 
Caesar, 522, V. 272 

Rubrius, tribune, brings in bill for 
colony on site of Carthage, X. 218 

Rubrius, praetor in Macedonia, had 
Cato the Younger under him, vni. 
254 

Rubrius, M., with Cato at Utica, Vin. 
38G 

Rufinns, ancestor of Sulla, was consul, 
expelled from senate, IV. 324 

" Rufus," concerning the name, IV. 
142 

Rufus, L., gave Ti. Gracchus second 
blow, X. 190 

Rufus, Virginius, see " Virginius Ru- 
fus." 

Rullus, Fabius, received title Maxi- 
mus for expelling descendants of 
freedmen from senate, V. 148, m. 
118 

" Ruma," ancient Roman name for 
teat, I. 98 

Rumilia, goddess who presided over 
rearing of young children, I. 98 

" Ruminalis," name of fig-tree near 
which twins of Ilia grounded; ety- 
mology of word, I. 98 

Rutilius Rufus, P., legate of Caecilius 
Metellus in Africa, IX. 484 ; accused 
falsely by Theophanes; his his- 
tories, V. 212 ; cited, IX. 540 f . 



Sabaco, Cassius, friend of Marius, ex- 
pelled from senate, IX. 472 

Sabbas, induced by Gymnosophists to 
revolt from Alexander, vn. 404 f . 

Sabines, attacked by Romulus wan- 
tonly, I. 126 f . ; their daughters 
seized by Romans, 128; wage war 
on Romans, 132 ; Lacedaemonian 
colonists, lived in unwalled villages, 
134, 308; under Tatius march on 
Rome, treacherously admitted into 
citadel by Tarpeia, 140 ; challenged 
to battle by Romulus, 144 ; repulsed 
to Regia and temple of Vesta, 1 46 ; 



make peace, adopt Roman month.-, 
154; quarrel with Romans as to 
appointment of king on death of 
Romulus, 310 ; waged war on Tar- 
quin, son of Demaratus, 536; in- 
vaded Roman territory, 654 ; with 
Latins wage war on Rome and are 
defeated, 55C f. ; campaign against 
them undertaken on understanding 
that creditors would deal gently 
with debtors, IV. 126 

Sabine women, rape of, was act of 
necessity, I. 112 ; when and why 
carried out, 126 f.; rape took place 
on August 18th, 134 ; separate com- 
batants and bring peace, 146 f. ; 
quoted, 148 f. ; terms of peace, 150 ; 
received concessions from Romans, 
152 

Sabinus, friend of Cicero, prosecuted 
by Munatius, vn. 144 

Sabinus, Calvisius, Roman general, 
XI. 228 

Sabinus, Nymphidius, see " Nymphi- 
dius Sabinus." 

Sacred band of Thebans, account of 
it, V. 382 

Sacred gate, at Athens, IV. 370 

Sacred mount , where plebeians seceded 
to, beside river Anio, IV. 128 

Sacrifice, of hair to god at Delphi by 
youth in Theseus' time, I. 10; 
human sacrifice by Greeks before 
Salamis, n. 38 f. ; sacrifice by Aean- 
tid tribe of Athens to Sphragitic 
nymphs, 272 ; vowed by Fabiua 
Maximus, m. 130 ; human sacrifice, 
V. 390 f. ; 11 heifers sacrificed to 
the moon, 20 oxen to Hercules, by 
Aemilius Paulus, VI. 400 

Saculio, buffoon, executed after Phi- 
lippi, VI. 228 f . 

Sadalas, king of Thrace, with Antony 
at Actium, IX. 276 

Sagra river, battle of, fought by Italian 
Greeks, VI. 420 

Saguntum, battle in the plains of, 
between Sertorius and Metellus, 
vm. 54 

Sals, learned men of, gave Solon story 
of lost Atlantis, I. 494 ; Sonchis of, 
476 

Salaminian state-galley, for special 
occasions, m. 20; sent to bring 
Alcibiades home, IV. 68 



460 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Salamis, bone of contention between 

1 Athens and Megara, I. 420; re- 
covered from Athens by Megara, 
432 ; received ashes of Solon, 498 ; 
572 ; scene of defeat of Xerxes by 
Athenians, n. 12, 28, 38, 138, 242, 
388, 396, 416, 418; overrun by 
Lysander, IV. 252 ; plundered by 
Aratus, xi. 54; given up to Athe- 
nians by Diogenes, xi. 78 

Salamis, in Cyprus, Nicocreon, king 
of, vn. 308 ; where Demetrius de- 
feated Ptolemy in sea-fight, K. 
36 f . ; mother and children of Deme- 
trius besieged there by Ptolemy, 86 

"Salamis," title of poem by Solon, 
I. 422 

Salii, priests established by Numa, I. 
346 ; to guard bronze buckler that 
fell from heaven, 350 

Salinae, town in Italy, m. 338 

Salinator, Julius, sent with 6000 men 
by Sertorius to bar passage of 
Pyrenees, killed by Calpurnius La- 
narius, vm. 18 

Salius, from Samothrace or Mantinea, 
did not give his name to Salii, I. 
352 

Sallust, cited, n. 504; 580; IV. 450 

Salonius, married his young daughter 
to Cato the Elder in latter's old 
age, n. 376 

Salonius, son of Oato the Elder and 
grandson of Salonius, n. 376; son 
of Cato by 2nd wife, had son Marcus, 
died in praetorship, 384 

Salvenius, legionary soldier, brings 
Sulla oracle about affairs in Italy, 
IV. 380 

Salvius, commanded Pelignians at 
Pydna, VI. 406 

Salvius, centurion, helps murder Pom- 
pey, V. 318, 322 

Samaena, species of war-ship, m. 76 

Sambuca, of Marcellus, described, V. 
470; crushed by Archimedes' en- 
gines, 474, 478 

Samians, attacked by Athens for not 
desisting from war against Milesians, 
m. 68; fighting Milesians f or Priene, 
defeated by Pericles, who set up 
democracy, 72; defeated by Peri- 
cles oil island of Tragia, defeat 
Athenians, 74 ; their general Melis- 
sos defeated by Pericles, 76, U. 6; 



surrender to Pericles after 8 months 
m. 78 ; driven out and their cities 
handed over to men they had 
banished, IV. 268: vote that their 
festival be called Lysandreia, 280; 
addressed in letter by Brutus, VI. 
130 

Samnites, joining Pyrrhns after Hera- 
cleia, are censured, IX. 400 ; worsted 
by Romans, invite Pyrrhus back 
from Sicily, 422 ; discouraged by 
many defeats at hands of Romans, 
do not join Pyrrhus in large num- 
bers, 426 ; their ambassadors found 
Manius Curius in his cottage cooking 
turnips, n. 306 ; their cities which 
had revolted, taken by Marcellus, 
V. 502 ; spared Roman generals, X. 
158; inveterate foes of Rome, IV. 
420 

Samon, husband of Phaenarete 1 , IX. 
358 

Samos, siege of, n. 6, m. 68, 200; 
Athenian fleet there, IV. 70, 74, 104, 
242 ; siege of, V. 344 ; attacked by 
Lucullus, n. 478; temple of Hera 
there, V. 174 ; festivities held there 
by Antony and Cleopatra, IX. 264 f . 

Samosata, in Syria, besieged by Ven- 
tidius, IX. 212 

Samothrace, V. 520; Perseus takes 
refuge there after Pydna, VI. 418; 
422 ; n. 508 ; plundered by pirates, 
V. 174 

Samothracian image?, in temple of 
Vesta, brought to Troy by Dar- 
danus, carried to Italy by Aeneas, 
n. 144 

Sandauce, sister of Xerxes, wife of 
Artayctus, her three sons sacrificed 
to Dionysius Carnivorous by the 
Greeks, II. 38, 238 

Sandon, father of Athenodorus, I. 548 

Sapha, place in Asia where Amphi- 
crates is buried, n. 542 

" Sapiens," its meaning, X. 160 

" Sardians for sale," called by herald 
at Rome in celebrating victory, I. 
170 

Sardinia, X. 198 f.; province of Cato 
the Elder, n. 318 ; V. 154 

Sardis, I. 170; visited by Solon, 478; 
n. 80 ; 82 f. ; burned by Athenians, 
224; Cyrus meets Lysander there, 
JV. 240; 252; submits to Alex- 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



ander, VII. 262 f . ; taken by Deme- 
trius, IX. 116; meeting-place of 
Brutus and Cassius, VI. 200 

Sarmentus, favourite of Octavius 
Caesar, IX. 272 

Sarpedon, tutor of Cato the Younger, 
vili. 238; 242 

Satibarzanes, eunuch of Artaxerxes 
II., XI. 152 

Satiphernes, friend of Cyrus, slain by 
Artaxerxes at Cunaxa, XI. 148 

Satricum, captured by Tuscans, re- 
captured by Camillus, n. 192 

Saturn, temple of, made public trea- 
sury by Publicola, I. 532, X. 168 

Saturnalia, slaves then feasted with 
masters as Numa ordained, I. 386, 

IV. 386 ; the time fixed for carrying 
out Lentulus' plot, VII. 124 

Saturnian age, when there was neither 
slave nor master, I. 386 

Saturninus, L., tribune of people, sup- 
ports Marius for fourth consulship, 
EX. 498 f . ; slew Nonius, rival for 
tribuneship, introduced agrarian law 
with clause requiring senators to 
take oath not to oppose what people 
voted, IX. 542; gets all senators 
to take oath except Marius, helps 
Marius oppose Metellus, 544, IV. 
446; pitted against nobles by 
Marius, IX. 548 

Satyreius, P., gave Ti. Gracchus the 
first blow, X. 190 

Satyrs, resemble Picas and Faunas, 
1.358 

Satyrus, seer who helped slay Timo- 
phanes according to Theopompus, 
VI. 270 

Satyrus, actor, points out Demos- 
thenes' weaknesses to him, VII. 16. 
Saviour-gods," honorary title given 
Antigonus and Demetrius by Athe- 
nians, IX. 26 

Savings, anonymous, n. 502 ; rv. 386 ; 

V. 86 ; VI. 384 

Scaeva, Cassius, see " Cassius Scaeva." 
" Scaevola," means left-handed, I. 548 
Scaevola, Mucius, see "Mucius Scae- 
vola, C." 

Scalae Caci, beside dwelling of Romu- 
lus, near descent into Circus Maxi- 
mus from Palatine, 1. 152 
Scambonidae, deme of Alcibiades, IV. 
60 

462 



Scandeia, HI. 434 

Scarpheia, Lycon of, VII. 310 

Scaurus, illustrious Roman name, VU. 
82 

Scaurus, M. Aemilius, father of Aemilia 
by Metella, IV. 432, V. 134 

Scedasus, slays himself when his 
daughters are ravished, V. 390 

Scellius, companion of Antony in 
flight from Actium, IX. 288 

Scepsis, Metrodorus of, n. 538 f . ; 
Neleus of, IV. 406 

" Schinocephalus," name applied to 
Pericles by Comic poets, m. 8 

" Schinus," name for squill at times, 
ni. 8 

Schoolmaster of Falerii, punished by 
Camillus, n. 118 

Sciathus, II. 20 

Scillustis, island in Indian ocean 
reached by Alexander, vn. 410 

Scionaeans, restored to their homes 
by Lysander, IV. 270 

Scipio, Gnaeus Cornelius, son of P. 
Cornelius Nasica, father-in-law of 
Pompey, sent to Syria with his 
father to raise fleet, V. 278 

Scipio Asiaticus, L. Cornelius (1), II. 
388 ; conquered Antiochus, 504, m. 
398; ambassador with Flamininus 
to Prusias to demand death of 
Hannibal, X. 386 ; brother of Scipio 
the Great, condemned to pay fine, 
n. 344; expelled from equestrian 
order by Cato, 354 

Scipio Asiaticus, L. Cornelius (2), out- 
witted by Sulla, loses all his men 
to him, IV. 414, v. 130 vm. 14 

Scipio, P. Cornelius, made master of 
horse by Camillus, n. 104 

Scipio Africanus, P. Cornelius, son of 
Africanus Major, adopted younger 
son of Aemilius Paulus and Papiria, 
VI. 366 

Scipio Africanus Major, P. Cornelius, 
opposed by Cato the Elder, his 
quaestor, for extravagance on his 
campaign in Africa, n. 310 f . ; con- 
quered Carthaginians in Spain, 
made consul in spite of Fabius 
Maximus* opposition, crossed to 
Africa and defeated Hannibal, m. 
190 f., 202, vm. 2, X. 144, 328 ; 
382 ; surnamed Africanus, IX. 464 ; 
succeeded Cato the Elder in Spain, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



outwitted by him, n. 332 ; opposed 
politically by Cato the Elder, 346, 
386, 398; made princeps senatus 
by Flamininus, X. 372 ; because of 
attacks turned back upon people, 
II. 376 ; his brother Lucius expelled 
from senate by Cato, n. 354; had 
Aemilia to wife, VI. 358 ; his son 
adopted the son of Aemilius Paulus 
and gave him the name Scipio, 366 ; 
father-in-law of Scipio Nasica Cor- 
culum, 392; inferior to Caesar as 
general, vil. 478; second only to 
Pyrrhus as general in opinion of 
Hannibal, IX. 366 

Scipio Aernilianus Africanus Minor, P. 
Cornelius, son of Aemilius Paulus, 
grandson of Scipio the Great by 
adoption, contemporary of Cato the 
Elder, n. 346, 364, VI. 364, 366, 
446, 458; asked Cato the Elder's 
aid in behalf of the Achaean exiles, 
n. 326 ; consul contrary to the laws, 
IX. 492; n. 384; at Pydna, took 
Carthage and Numantia, 596, VI. 
412 f . ; reproached with aristocratic 
leaning of his father Aemilius 
Paulus, VI. 452 ; supported by com- 
mon people for censorship, 454; 
destroyed Carthage, vm. 2 ; be- 
sieged Nnmantia, IX. 468, 494 f . ; 
married daughter of Ti. Gracchus 
the Elder and Cornelia, X. 146, 152 ; 
most influential man at Rome, 
blamed for not saving Mancinus, 
was waging war on Numantia when 
Ti. Gracchus began to agitate for 
agrarian laws, 158; had C. Gracchus 
under him when besieging Numan- 
tia, 174 ; nearly lost popularity by 
expressing disapproval of Ti. Grac- 
chus and his measures, 194 f . ; had 
friend Laelius, vm. 252, X. 160; 
died tinder suspicious circumstances, 
I. 174, X. 218 f. 

Scipio Nasica, P. Cornelius (Scipio 
Metellus) with two others came to 
Cicero at midnight to warn of plot, 
vn. 116 ; father-in-law of Pompey, 
saved from trial by him, V. 260, 
326 ; with Hypsaeus and Milo can- 
didates for consulship, VHI. 350; 
chosen by Pompey as his colleague 
in consulship, V. 262 ; opposes com- 
promise with Caesar, vn. 516 f.; 



with his son Gnaeus sent to Syria 
to raise fleet, V. 278 ; 288 ; in Mace- 
donia, to be attacked by Caesar, 
VH. 540; disputed with Domitius 
and SpiiUher over Caesar's office of 
Poutifex Maximus, vn. 544 ; V. 290 ; 
said to have hid away greater part 
of treasure he brought from Asia, 
336; commanded centre at Phar- 
salns for Pompey, opposed to Lucius 
Calvinus, V. 294, vn. 54S; vm. 
250 ; vn. 480 ; quarrels with Varus, 
well received by Juba, takes com- 
mand of forces as proconsul, vm. 
372; VI. 138; escapes from Thapsus 
with few followers, Yin. 374 f., VH. 
562, 570; vm. 384 f. 

Scipio Nasica Corculum, son-in-law of 
Scipio Africanus, given task of 
seizing pass through Perrhaebia, VI. 
392 ; at battle of Pydna, 394, 398, 
402; 424; says 80 Romans slain 
at Pydna, 412; consul, with C. 
Marcius, laid down office on account 
of mistake in auspices, V. 444; 
opposed destruction of Carthage, n. 
382 

Scipio Nasica Serapio, large holder of 
public land, opposed Ti. Gracchus 
bitterly, X. 174; leads attack 
against Ti. Gracchus, 188 f. ; hated 
by people; though pontifex maxi- 
mus, fled from Italy and committed 
suicide, 194 

Scipio Sallustio, of family of Africani, 
put in forefront of battles in Africa 
by Caesar, vn. 564 

Sciradium, promontory of Salamis, I. 
426 

Sciraphidas, declared Spartans should 
not receive gold and silver coinage, 
IV. 276 

Sciron, son-in-law of Cychreus, father- 
in-law of Aeacus, grandfather of 
Peleus and Telamon, slain by The- 
seus ; disagreement as to his charac- 
ter, I. 20, 188; son of Canethus 
and Henioche, daughter of Pittheus ; 
Isthmian games in his honour 
according to some, 56 ; father of 
Alycus, 76 

Scirophorion, Athenian month, V. 
78 

Scirus, of Salamis, according to Philo- 
chorus furnished pilot and look-out 



463 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



man to Theseus ; temple to him at 
Phalerum, I. 34 

Scopadae, wealth of, n. 434 

Scopas, Thessalian, his remark about 
happiness, n. 354 

Scorpion, engine devised by Archi- 
medes for short-range work, V. 476 

Scotussa, town in Thessaly, I. 64; 
how treated by Alexander of Pherae, 
V. 412 ; where Flamininus defeated 
Philip, VI. 372, X. 338; V. 292, vn. 
546 

Scribonia, wife of Crassus, mother of 
Piso, executed by Nero, XI. 254 

Scrophas, quaestor under Orassus, de- 
feated by Crassus, m. 346 

Scyros, isle of, I. 80; inhabited by 
Dolopians, ruled by Lycomedes, 82 ; 
seized by Cimon, settled by Athe- 
nians, II. 426 ; has grave of Theseus, 
428 

Scytale (1), described, IV. 284 f . ; 112 

Scytate (2), fabled serpent, m. 418 

Scythes, ambassador of Agesilaiis, 
imprisoned in Larissa, v. 42 

Scythes, servant of Pompey, V. 320 

Scythia, V. 220; 298 

Scythia, Pontic, neighbour of Gaul, 
IX. 488 

Scythians, how they wear their hair, 
m. 386 ; shoot as they llee even 
better than Parthians, 388; twang 
their bows in midst of their drink- 
ing, IX. 44 ; mingle with Gauls from 
Pontic Scythia eastward, 488; 
routed by Alexander, vn. 356 

Sea, Ionian, boundary between Octa- 
vius and Antony, ix. 204 

Sea, outer, IX. 488 

Secundus, rhetorician, Otho's secre- 
tary, XI. 296 

Sedition, at Athens, I. 436 ; 486 ; at 
Sparta, V. 88; of Messenians, XI. 
112 ; at Rome, first to end in blood- 
shed since expulsion of kings, X. 
190; 234; caused by Cinna, IX. 
578 ; caused by Harms, iv. 344 

Seers, m. 370. 

" Seisactheia," term applied to can- 
cellation of debts under Solon, I. 
442, 448 

" Seismatias," name of tomb of Spar- 
tan youth crushed in earthquake, 
n. 454 

Seleucia, on the Tigris, n. 540 ; always 

464 



hostile to Parthians, m. 366 ; 368 ; 
374; captured for Hyrodes by 
Surena, 378; 418 

" Seleucid," name of a costly kind of 
bowl, VI. 442 

Seleucus, rumoured to have surren- 
dered Pelusium with consent of 
Cleopatra, IX. 306 ; steward of Cleo- 
patra, 322 

Sele-acus Nicator, helped by Alex- 
ander, vil. 348 ; 400 ; 434 ; expelled 
from Babylonia by Antigonus, re- 
covered it and set out on expedition 
to India and Mount Caucasus, IX. 
16 ; begins to wear diadem, 40 ; 60 ; 
defeats Antigonus and Demetrius, 
70 ; had sou Antiochus by Apama, 
the Persian, marries Stratonic6, 
daughter of Demetrius and Phila, 
76 ; makes friendship between De- 
metrius and Ptolemy, demands 
Cilicia of Demetrius, and on being 
refused that, Tyre and Sidon, had 
domain from India to Syrian sea, 
78 ; leagues with Ptolemy and Lysi- 
machus against Demetrius, 108; 
arranged engagement between De- 
metrius and Ptolemais, 116 ; 
marches into Cilicia with large force, 
118; repulsed by Demetrius, 120; 
122 ; seizes Demetrius and banishes 
him to Syrian Chersonese, 126; X. 
16; most of his former dominions 
won back by Antiochus the Great, 
n. 334 

Sellasia, X. 20; 102; Cleomenes de- 
feated there, 112, XI. 106; passes 
and heights there occupied by Spar- 
tans, X. 266 

Selvmbria, captured by Alcibiades, IV. 
80 

Sempronius Densus, see " Densus, 
Sempronius." 

Sempronius, Tiberius, consul, assisted 
by Cato the Elder in subduing 
regions in Thrace and 011 Danube, 
n. 334 ; see also " Gracchus, Ti. 
Sempronius (1)." 

Senate at Athens, created new by 
Solon, I. 568 ; its number increased 
from 500 to 600, IX. 26 

Senate, at Rome, instituted by Romu- 
lus, means council of elders, I. 124 ; 
150 in number, 150, 312; that of 
Romans and Sabines united, 152; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



accused of changing government to 
oligarchy on death of Romulus, 312 ; 
had 164 new members added by 
Publicola, 530, 5C8 ; sent ambassy 
to Delphi to consult oracle about 
Alban lake, n. 102; IV. 126; its 
decree necessary before people could 
enact law, 188; 190; permits ple- 
beians to elect one consul from their 
number, n. 204 ; likened by Cineas 
to council of kings, IS. 406 ; X. 338 ; 
sent 10 commissioners to Flamininus 
in Greece, X. 348; n. 324; 332; 
insults Ti. Gracchus, X. 174; 194; 
198; IV. 350; IX. 584; n. 594; 
V. 258; 282; VI. 168; 172; 184; 
vn. 118; 120; 126; 168; 198; 
494 ; rx. 148 f . ; 156 f . ; 168 ; 172 f . ; 
272 

Senate, at Sparta, instituted by Ly- 
curgus, manner of election, I. 218, 
282 ; why number was fixed at 28, 
220 

Senate, of 300 Romans at Utica, won 
in speech by Oato, vm. 378 f. ; dis- 
trusted by Cato, refuses to oppose 
Caesar, 386 

Senate, of Sertorius, vm 60 

Senatusconsulta ultima, vn. 118; X. 
228 

Seneca, persuades Nero to send Otho 
out as governor of Lusitania, XI. 248 

Senecio, Socius (or Sosius), friend of 
Plutarch, I. 2, VI. 2, vn. 2, 78 

Senones, neighbours of Gauls, II. 126 

Senses, how different from arts, IX. 2 

Sentius, praetor of Macedonia, iv. 360 

September, Ides of, nearly coincide 
with full moon of Attic Metageit- 
nion, I. 538; called Germanicus for 
a short time by Domitian, 370 

Septempagium, a territory of Veii 
surrendered to Rome, I. 170 

Septimius (1), once tribune of Pom- 
pey 's, helps murder him, V. 318 f. 

Septimius (2), defends Nyrnphidius 
Sabinus, XI. 234 

Septimuleius, brought head of 0. 
Gracchus to Opimius, X. 236 

Sequani, capture kings of Teutoncs in 
Alps, IX. 528; have Caesar's forces 
among them for whiter, vu. -190; 
remain faithful to Rome, 506 

Serapion, given gifts by Alexander, 
VU. 340 



Serapis, said by Dionysius to have 
freed him from chains and bid him 
sit on Alexander's throne, vn. 428 

Serbonian marshes, called blasts of 
Typhon by Egyptians, appear to 
be residual arm of Red Sea, IX. 
142 

Sergius, a mime, had great influence 
with Antony, ry. 158 

Seriphian, the, his encounter with 
Themistocles, n. 50 

Serpent, why associated with heroes, 
X. 140 ; omen of it, 144 

Serranus, father of Atilia, vm. 250 

Sertorius, Q., subduer of Spain, had 
no cognomen, IX. 464; one-eyed, 
belonged to family of some pro- 
minence in Sabine city of Nussa, 
vm. 4; reared by his widowed 
mother Rhea, served against Cimbri 
and Teutones under Caepio and then 
Marius, sent out as military tribune 
to Spain by Didius the praetor, 6; 
saves Roman soldiers in Castulo, 
appointed quaestor of Cisalpine 
Gaul, 8 ; opposed by Sulla in elec- 
tion for tribuneship, joins China, 10 ; 
disapproved of the severity of 
Marius and Cinna, had Marius' 
body-guards slain, 14; goes to Spam 
and wins over the Barbarians, 16; 
sent Julius Salinator with 6000 men 
to bar passage of Pyrenees, crossed 
to Africa and returned, 18; re- 
turned to Maurusia in Africa to 
fight against Ascalis, defeated Asca- 
lis and Paccianus, 22 

Invited by Lusitanians to be 
their leader, 24; organizes them 
and subdues neighbouring parts of 
Spain, 26; uses white doe to im- 
press Spaniards, 28 ; defeats all 
Roman generals sent against him 
including Metellus, 30 f . ; intro- 
duces Roman arms, signal?, and 
formations, educates Spanish boys 
of highest birth at Osca, 36 f . ; 
joined by Perpenna with 53 cohorts, 
40 ; forces the surrender of the 
Characitani, 42 ; opposed by Pom- 
pey, 40 ; takes Lauron in spite of 
Pompey, 48; fights drawn battle 
with Pompey, 52 ; defeated by 
Metellus but gets new forces, 56 ; 
gave name of senate to senators 



465 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE < LIVES' 



who fled from Rome to him, 60; 

makes treaty with Mithridates, C6 ; 

plotted against hy Perpenna and 

others, 68; murdered by Antonius 

and others, 72 

See also n. 486; 488; 494; V. 

146 ; 156 ; IX. 590 

Quoted: VIH.12; 42; 48; 52; 64 
Servii, Galba one of, XI. 210 
Servile war (War of Spartacus), HI. 

334 f., V. 164, Via. 252 
Servile war, in Sicily, m. 342, IV. 440 
Servile war at Sparta, I. 292, n. 456 
Servilia (1), mother of Brutus, de- 
scended from Servilius Ahala, VI. 

126; half-sister of Cato the 

Younger, daughter of his mother, 

128, vm. 236 ; wife of Silanus, 284 ; 

had intrigue with Caesar, 290, VI. 

134 f. ; received ashes of Brutus, 2-16 
Servilia (2), sister of Cato, divorced 

by Lucullus, n. 594, vm. 292, 304: 

with her young son by Lucullus 

taken to Asia by Cato, attacked by 

Caesar on this score, 366 
Servilii, Marcus Brutus one on his 

mother's side, vn. 586 
Servilius, meets Pompey with fleet at 

river Phasis at head' of fleet with 

which he guarded Euxine, V. 206 
Servilius, C., augur, accused L. Lucullus 

of peculation, impeached by the son 

L. Lucullus, n. 470 
Servilius, M., supports granting of 

triumph to Aemilius Paulus, VI. 436 
Servilius, praetor, sent to forbid Sulla 

advancing, IV. 350 
Servilius Vatia Isauricus, P. (1), 

general of Sulla, enjoys successes, 

IV. 418; V. 150 
Servilius Vatia Isauricus, P. (2), see 

" Isauricus, P. Servilius." 
Servius (1), added 2 more Vestals to 

first 4, 1. 340 
Servius (2), Sulla's candidate, rejected 

by people, IV. 356 
Servius G-alba, see " Galba, Ser. Sul- 

picius (1)." 

Sessorium, place of execution, XI. 270 
Sestius, P., given province of Cilicia, 

accompanied by M. Brutus, VI. 132 
Sestos, many barbarian prisoners cap- 
tured there by Athenians and their 

allies, n. 430; IV. 106 f.; 254; 

taken from Athenians by Lysander 

466 



and divided among his boatswains 
and pilots, 268 

Setia, VII. 578 

Seuthas, servant of Aratus, XI. 10 

Sextilius, legate of Lucullus, attacked 
by Mithrobarzanes, whom he de- 
feats, H. 550 ; attacks and routs 
Arabs, 552 

Sextilius, praetor, with lictors seized 
by pirates, V. 176 

Spxtilius, P., governor of Africa, orders 
Marius not to set foot in Africa. 
IX. 574 

Sextilis, former name of month 
August, I. 134, 370, IX. 534 

Sextius (Sextus), Lucius, first plebeian 
elected consul, n. 206 

Sextius, P., retained Cicero as an 
advocate, VH. 148 

Sextius Sulla, Carthaginian, contem- 
porary of Plutarch, his explanation 
of origin of nuptial cry " Talasius," 
I. 132 

Sextus, nephew of Pompey, vm. 242 

She-wolf, suckled children o