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Tip 

OoP. 5 



rfi 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

BDITED BT 
B. CAPPS, Ph.D., LL.D. T. B. PAGE, Litt.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, Litt.D. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES. 



VOLDMS I. 

THESEUS AND ROMULUS. 
LYCURGUS AND NUMA 
SOLON AND PUBLIOOLA. 

VOLUMB IL 

THEMISTOCLES AND CAMILLUS. 
ARISTIDES AND OATO MAJOR. 
CIMON AND LUCULLU8. 

VoLtJMK IlL 

PERICLES AND FABIUS MAXIMUS. 
NICIA8 AND CRASSU8. 

Volume IV. 

AJiCIBIADES AND CORIOLANUS. 
LYSANDER AND SULLA. 

VOLUMK V. 

A0B8ILAUS AND POMPBY. 
PELOIMDAd AND MARGE LLUS. 



PLUTARCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
VI 



DION AND BRUTUS 
TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS PAULUS 




• > 



LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

MCMXVIII 



307642 



r • 



• • • ' • • 



t 



• t « » I • # « 



• • -• 



• • • 



» • 






PREFATORY NOTE 

As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree- 
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) 
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the 
Parallel Lives has been taken as the basis for the 
text. Any preference of the one to the other, and 
any departure from both, have been indicated in the 
brief critical notes. An abridged account of the 
manuscripts and editions of Plutarch's Lives may 
be found in the Introduction to the first volume. 
None of the lAves presented in this volume is 
contained in either of the two oldest and best 
manuscripts. No attempt has been made, naturally, 
to furnish either a diplomatic text or a full critical 
apparatus. For these, the reader must still be 
referred to the major edition of the Lives by 
Sintenis (Leipzig, 1839-1846, 4 vol!., 8vo). The 
reading which follows the colon in the critical notes 
is that of the Teubner Sintenis, and also, unless 
otherwise stated in the note, of the Tauchnitz 
Bekker. 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Some use has been made of the Siefert-Blass 
edition of the Timoleon (Leipzig, Teubner, 1879), 
and also of Holden's edition of the same Life 
(Cambridge, Pitt Press Series, 1889). 

All the standard translations of the Ldves have 
been carefully compared and utilized, including that 
of the Brutus by Professor Long. 

B. PERRIN. 

Nkw Haven, CoNNBcncnT, U.S.A. 
DecemfjeVf J 91 7. 



vi 



CONTENTS 



PAGK 
FKEFATORT NOTE V 



t • • 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . . Vlll 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OP THE PARALLEL LIVES ix 

DION 1 

BRUTUS 125 

OOMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 249 

TIMOLEON 269 

AEMILIUS PAULUS . 357 

OOMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS PAULUS . . . 459 

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 467 



111 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



Volume I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

Volume II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillas. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 
Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and LucuUus. 
Comparison. 

Volume III. 

^5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 
imus. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

Volume IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 
nus. 
Comparison. 
;12) Ly Sander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

Volume V. 

[16) Agesilaiis and Poiupey. 

Comparison. 
(8) Pelopidas and Marcellua. 

Comparison. 



Volume VI. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 
Comparison. 
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 
Paulus. 
Comparison. 

Volume VII. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cioero. 

Comparison. 
(17) Alexander and Julius 
Caesar. 



Volume VIIL 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

Comparison. 
(18) Phocion and Cato the 
Younger. 



Volume IX. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) Pyrrh us and Caius Marius. 



Volume X. 
(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 
Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus. 
CTomparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 
ininus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUMR XI. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



vin 




THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF TlIK 
PARALLEL LTTRS. 

(1) TlMseos And Romulus. 
{2\ LycorgoB and Nama. 
(S) Sokm and PubUonla. 

(4) Themistodes and Gamillus. 

(5) P^cles and Faluus Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Ooriolannj*. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Pinnlas. 

(8) Pelopidas and Maroellua. 

(9) ArUtides and Cato the Rider. 

10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

11) Pyrrhus and Caias Marius. 

12) Lysander and Sulla. 

13) Cimon and Lucullus. 

14) Nicias and Crassus. 

15) Sertorius and Eumenee. 

16) Agesilaiis and Ponipey. 

17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

18) Phocion and Calo the Younger. 

19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Ouna 

Gracchus. 

,dO) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

21) Demetrius and Antony. 

22) Dion and Brutus. 
.•■•••••••••••• 

23) Aratus. 

24) Artaxerxcs. 

25) Galba. 
98) Otho. 



ix 



DION 



VOL. VI. 



AIQN 

I. 'Apa ye, waTrep 6 Sl/juovlSi]^ (f>7)(rlv, & J^y^\ 
Xoaaie XevexLcov, roh J^opivOioi^ ov firjviecv to »• i«24, p 
"iXiov iwiarpaTevaaat fiera twv *A;^at(wi', on ^^^ 
KaK€LVoi<; oi irepl TTuivkov i^ ^PXV^ l^oplvdioi 
yeyovoTC^ (rvvefid^^ovv TrpoOvfio)^, oCtg)? etVo? Tfj 
*AKa&r}fi€La fjLijre 'Peofiaiov^ firjre ''EWiyi/a? iyfca- 
\€iv taov ^pofiivov^ i/c t^? ypa(f>r]^ ravrrj^;, ^ 
Tov T€ l^povTOV 7r€pi€)(^ei /3lov fcol rov Aitovof;, &v 
6 fi€V avT(p JWcLTtovL irXTja ida a<; , 6 Bk toc^ \6yoi^ 
ivTpa(f>el^ Tot? TlXdrcovo^, &<Tir€p ifc fii,d<; &pfi7}' 
aav dfi<f>6T€poL TraXato-T/oa? iirl Toif<; fMcyiaTov^ 
dycova^, /cat to fiev ofioia jroWa koI dBeXifya 
TTpd^avra^ fjLapTvpi]aai T(p Kaffrjyefiovi tiJ? dpe- 
T^9 oTt Sec (l>poPi]a€i /eal Bc/caioavvrj Bvvafiiv eVl 
TO aifTo fcal tv^V^ avveXOecp, Xva KdWo<; dfxa 
kclL fiiyeOof ai woXitikoI irpd^ei^ Xd^Gxriv, ov 
ffavfiaa'Tov itTTiv. ci? yap 'iTTTro/ta^o? o dXei- 
irrr)^ eSj&ye tov? yeyv fivaa-fiepov^ irap avT^ fcal 
Kpia^ i^ a/yopa^ tBa>p <f>€povTa^ iiriyv&vai Troppco- 
0€Vt ovTOD TOV \6yov iarlv elxb^ t&v ireiratBev- 
fiipcov o^oito^ €7r€a0ai Tat? irpd^eaip, ififieXetdp 
Tipa Kol pvfffjLOP iTn<f>ipopra fierh rov wpifropTO^* 

9 



moN 

m 

• 

I. If it be true, then, O 'Socius Senecio,^ as Si- 
monides says,^ that Ilium "'is- not wroth with the 
Corinthians ** for coming up .against her with the 
Achaeans, because the Trojafts. 'also . had Glaucus, 
who sprang from Corinth, as a zealous ally, so it is 
likely that neither Romans nor G^eekjs* will quarrel 
with the Academy, since they fare' «alike in this 
treatise containing the lives of Dion" aj3'(}< Brutus, 
for Dion was an immediate disciple of, Plato, 
while Brutus was nourished on the doctri'neTJ. of 
Plato. Both therefore set out from one tra'ining- 
school, as it were, to engage in the greatest struggles. 
And we need not wonder that, in the performance 
of actions that were often kindred and alike, they 
bore witness to the doctrine of their teacher in virtue, 
that wisdom and justice must be united with power 
and good fortune if public careers are to take on 
beauty as well as grandeur. For as Hippomachus 
the trainer used to delare that he could recognize 
his pupils from afar even though they were but 
carrying meat from the market-place, so it is natural 
that the principles of those who have been trained 
alike should permeate their actions, inducing in 
these a similar rhythm and harmony along with 
their propriety. 

^ One of the many friends whom Plutarch made during his 
residence at Rome. See on Theseutj i. 1. 
2 Fragment 60 ; Bergk, Poet. Lyr, Or<uc%, iii.* p. 412. 

3 
B 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

II. At Se Tv')(ai, Tot9 avfjLTTTWfAaai fiaXXop tj 
Ta?9 Trpoaipiaea-iv oSaai ai avrdi^ avva/yovdL t&v 
avSp&v Tov? I3lov<; et? o^iaiirjTa, irpoavrfpi- 
Orjaav yap a/jL(f>6T€poi tov-tcXov?, eh o irpovOevro 
rh^ irpd^ei^; ifc iroWw\*jCa\ fieydXayv dyd)voDv 
fcaraffeaOac pJq Sui/T^^^Te?*. 6 he Trdvrwv dav- 
fiaaidoTaTov, oti. /odV'<n» Satfiovtov dfJL(j>OT€poi^ 
virehrjKtaae rrjv rsk^vT^v, 6fioi(o<; eKarepcp (f>da/xa' 

2 T09 €4? o-jriv Qv/c 'ev/ticvovf; irapayevofievov, fcairoc 
\0709 Tt? etrn, rcov dvaipovvrcov ra TOiavra, 
firfSevl av.-'vgup exovri tt potrireaelv ^(f>dvTaafia 
BaLfwvo<;' JAT^^e' eiScoXov, d\\h iraiBdpia xai yv- 
vaia /cal,Trapa<})6pov<; St daOeveiav dvOpcoTrov^; 
ev rhc^- .irXdvtp yjrvxv^ V SvcrKpaaia <Td>/iaTO<; 
761/0 J*/j*oi»9 S6fa9 i<f>€XK€adac Kevd^ koX dWoKo- 
Tffy^l- Saifiova irovrjpov iv aifrol^ Tr]V BecaiSai- 

3 fionav ^ €X0VTa<;, el Be Aicdj/ kuI IBpovTO^, avBpe<; 
ifjL^pi0ei^ Kol <\>LK6ao^oL koX 7Tpb<i ovSev dxpo- 
cr<^aX6t9 oifB^ evdXcoToi irddo^, ovtod^ vtto ^dapu- 
T09 hiereO-qaav &<Tre KaX i^pdaai irpb^ erepov^, 
ovK olSa pJq T&p irdvv iraXaicov rov droTTtaTarov 
dvayKaaO&pep 7rpocrB€xe(T0at> \6yov, a>9 rd (JMvXa 
Bacp>6via fcdi fida/cava, irpocfjiOovovvTa Tot9 dr/a- 
dol<; dvBpdai koI Tat9 irpd^eaiv evtard/ieva, 
Ta/oa%a9 /cat <f>6l3ou^ iTrdyei, aeiovra Kal (r<\)dX- 

4 XovTa rffv dperrjv, 0)9 /aj; Biafieivavre^ dirr&re^ 
ev T& KaX^ Kal dKepaioi ^eXriovo^ eKeivtov p^oipa^ 
fierd Tr)V reXevTrjv Tvywavv, dWd ravra p,ev 
€t9 dXXov dvaKeia0(o Xoyov, ev tovto) Be, BcaBe- 



^ r^v BcurtZaifiovlav Coraes and Bekker, instead of the that 
Bfnri9aifxoyiav of the MSS. : BtKriBaijuioytav. 



DION 

II. Moreover^ the fortunes of the two men^ which 
were the same in what befell them rather than in 
what they elected to do^ make their lives alike. For 
both were cut off untimely, without being able to 
achieve the objects to which they had determined to 
devote the fruits of their many and great struggles. 
But the most wonderful thing of all was that Heaven 
gave to both an intimation of their approaching 
death, by the visible appearance to each alike of an 
ill-boding spectre. And yet there are those who 
deny such things and say that no man in his right 
mind was ever visited by a spectre or an apparition 
from Heaven, but that little children and foolish 
women and men deranged by sickness, in some aber- 
ration of spirit or distemper of body, have indulged 
in empty and strange imaginings, because they had 
the evil genius of superstition in themselves. But if 
Dion and Brutus, men of solid understanding and 
philosophic training and not easily cast down or over- 
powered by anything that happened to them, were 
so affected by a spectre that they actually told others 
about it, I do not know but we shall be compelled to 
accept that most extraordinary doctrine of the oldest 
times, that mean and malignant spirits, in envy of 
good men and opposition to their noble deeds, try to 
confound and terrify them, causing their virtue to 
rock and totter, in order that they may not continue 
erect and inviolate in the path of honour and so 
attain a better portion after death than the spirits 
themselves. But this subject must be reserved for 
discussion elsewhere, and in this, the twelfth book ^ 

* The Pericles was part of the tenth " book " (chapter ii. 3), 
the Demosthenes part of the fifth (chapter iii. 1). The ordi- 
nary arrangement of the Litres is purely arbitrary. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOTtp T&v TrapaXKrjKfav iini ^ifov, rbv tov irpe- 
a^vrepov irpoeiaaydytafiev* 

III. ^lovvau)^ 6 TTpea-lSvTepo^ eh Ttjv ap'xrjv 
fcaTaara^ €v6v<; eyrjfie rijv ^^pfiOKpdrov^ tov 
^vpaKovaiov Ovyaripa. ravrrjv, ovirto t^9 rvpav- 959 
vlBo<; Ihpvfiivq^ /8e/8a/G)9, airoa-ToVTe^ oi Xvpa- 
Kovavoi Secvci^ Koi 7rapav6fjLOv<; v/3p€i^ eh to a&fia 
Ka0vl3picrav, i<f>^ ah TrporjKaTO tov /Slop e/covaio)^, 

2 Aiopvario^; Se Tr)v apyrjv avaXa^wv fcal KpaTvvd- 
fievo^ av0L<; ayeTac Svo yvvaiKa^ ajjua, Tr}V fiev i/c 
Aofcp&v opofia AoDpiBa, Tr)V Sk €7nx(opt>ov ^Api- 
aT0fid)(7fv, dvyarepa 'Iwiraplvov, irptoTevcavTo^ 
dvSpo^ XvpaKOvaioyv Koi AiovvaLO) avvdp^avTO^ 
OTe 7rpa>Tov avTOxpdToyp eTrl tov TroXefiov '^peffr) 
aTpaTrjy6<;, \eyeTai S* Vf^^Pf H^^ apxjyoTepa^ 
dyayeaffai fiid xal firjSevl yeveaOai (bavepo^s dv- 
0pd>7r(ov OTTOTcpa irpoTCpa avveXdoi, tov Be aXXov 
Xpovov i<rov vifKov kavTov huiTeXelv e/caTcpa, 
Koivfj fiev eldta-fievoov SeiTrvetv fieT^ aifTOv, irapct 

3 vvKTa Be ev fiepec o-vvavaTravofievcov. kultoi t&v 
Xvpaxovaicov ifiovXcTO to ttXtjOo^ ttjv eyyevrj 
TvXeov e'x^eiv Trj<; ^ivr)^* dXXd eKeivr) irpOTepa 
vTTTJpxe TeKovarj tov Trpe&^evovT.a tt}? Aiovvaiov 
yevea^ viov avTJ) fiorjffeiv tt/oo? to yevo^, 17 Be 
*ApiaTOfidxv TToXvv %/ooj/oi/ airat^ avvcpKei T(p 
Aiovvaio) Kaiirep airovBd^ovTC irepX Tr)V ck TavTrf^ 
TCKvayaiv,' o? ye xal tt^v firjTepa tTj^; AoKpiBo^ 
alTLaa-dfievo^ KaTa<f>apfia/c€V€iv ttjv ^ApiaTOfid- 
XV^ dire/CTeive, 

IV. TavTr)<; aSeX^o? &v 6 Alcov ev dpyfi P'ev 
elx^ TLpJqv diro ttj^ dBeX<\>ris, vaTepov 0^ tov 



DION 

of my Parallel Lives^ I shall begin with that of the 
elder man. 

III. Dionysius the Elder^ after assuming the reins 
of governments^ at once married the daughter of 
Hermocrates the Syracusan. But she^ since the 
tyranny was not yet securely established^ was ter- 
ribly and outrageously abused in her person by the 
seditious Syracusans^ and in consequence put an end 
to her own life. Then Dionysius, after resuming the 
power and making himself strong again, married two 
wives at once, one from Locri, whose name was 
Doris, the other a native of the city, Aristomache, 
daughter of Hipparinus, who was a leading man in 
Syracuse, and had been a colleague of Dionysius when 
he was first chosen general with full powers for the 
war. It is said that he married both wives on one 
day, and that no man ever knew with which of the 
two he first consorted, but that ever after he con- 
tinued to devote himself alike to each ; it was their 
custom to sup with him together, and they shared 
his bed at night by turns. And yet the people of 
Syracuse wished that their countrywoman should be 
honoured above the stranger ; but Doris had the 
good fortune to become a mother first, and by pre- 
senting Dionysius with his eldest son she atoned 
for her foreign birth. Aristomache, on the contrary, 
was for a long time a barren wife, although Dionysius 
was desirous to have children by her ; at any rate^ 
he accused the mother of his Locrian wife of giving 
Aristomache drugs to prevent conception, and put 
her to death. 

IV. Now, Dion was a brother of Aristomache, and 
at first was honoured because of his sister; after- 

^ In 405 B.a 

7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^povelv BiBov<; irelpav, rjSrf koS* kavrov rf^airaro 
irapct T(p Tvpdvvfp, xal 7rpb<: airaai toI^ SXKol^ 
eiprjTo Tot9 rapiaif; o ri av alrfi Aiajv SiSovai, 
SovTa^ Se 7rpo9 avrov avOrjfiepov <l>pd^€LV, wv Se 
KOL irporepov inJrrj\o<; r^ rjOec koI fi€ya\6(f>pa)p 
Koi dvBpcoBrj^, ere fiaXKov iiriScofce tt/oo? ravra 
deia Tivl Tvxv UkaToyvo^ eh XixeXiav irapa^a- 

2 XovTo^, KOT ovSeva \oyiapL6i/ dvdpdairivov* dXKa 
SaifJUDV T*9, <»9 €oi/c€, iroppcoOev ap)(7jv iXevdepia^; 
fiaWofievo^ XvpaKovaioK;, xal rvpavviZo^ Kard- 
Xvaiv fir)'xav(Ofi€vo<;, ixofuaev ef 'JTaXta9 et9 
'l^vpaKovaa*; Tlkdrtova kclL Aicova avvijyayev eh 
\6yov^ aifT&, viov fiev opra KofiiSfj, ttoXu Se evfia- 
0e(TTarov airdvrtov Totv TlXdTCJVi avyyeyovorwv 
KCLi o^vrarov viraicovaaL irpo^ dperrjv, a)9 auT09 
y€ypa<f)€ HXdroDV, tcaX ra irpdyjiaTa fiaprvpei, 

3 rpafpeU y€Lp iv ijOeaiv viro rvpdvvfp raTreivoU, 
/cat I3lov fxev dviaov koI H:aTa<l>6^ov, depaireia^ 
Se veoirXovTov /cat rpvcfyij^; dTreipoxdXov fcal 
Sicurr)^ iv r^Sovah xai irXeove^iai^ Ti0€fjb€vri<; to 
KaXov €^^9 fcal fi€aT6<$ yevofievo^, a)9 irp&Tov 
iyevaaro Xoyov fcal <f>iXoa'o<f>La^ "^yep^viKrj^ 7r/>09 
dp€Ti]v, dv€(l>X€xOv '^h^ '^^xh^ Ta^^u, koI rfj irepl 
avTov evireiOeia ra>v KaX&v aKa/cct)^ irdvv koX 
vecoTepiKW TrpoahoKrjaa^ vtto t&v avr&v Xoyiov 
SfjLOia irelaeaOai Aiovv<riov, iairovSao'e Kal Sie- 
irpd^uTO TTOLTfad/ievo^ (TXoXrjv avTOV ivTV')(jelv 
II\aTCi)i/i K<u d/covaai. 



8 



DION 

wards^ however^ he gave proof of his wisdom^ and 
was presently beloved by the tyrant for his own 
sake. In addition to all his other favours^ Dionysius 
ordered his treasurers to give Dion whatever he 
asked^ although they were to tell Dionysius on the 
same day what they had given. But though Dion was 
even before of a lofty character, magnanimous, and 
manly, he advanced still more in these high qualities 
when, by some divine good fortune, Plato came to 
Sicily.^ This was not of man's devising, but some 
heavenly power, as it would seem, laying far in 
advance of the time a foundation for the liberty of 
Syracuse, and devising a subversion of tyranny, 
brought Plato from Italy to Syracuse and made 
Dion his disciple. Dion was then quite young, but 
of all the companions of Plato he was by far the 
quickest to learn and the readiest to answer the call 
of virtue, as Plato himself has written,^ and as events 
testify. For though he had been reared in habits 
of submission under a tyrant, and though he was 
fully accustomed to a life that was subservient and 
timorous, as well as to ostentatious service at court 
and vulgar luxury and a regimen that counts pleasures 
and excesses as the highest good, nevertheless, as 
soon as he got a taste of a rational philosophy which 
led the way to virtue, his soul was speedily on fire ; 
and since he very artlessly and impulsively expected, 
from his own ready obedience to the call of higher 
things, that the same arguments would have a like 
persuasive force with Dionysius, he earnestly set to 
work and at last brought it to pass that the tyrant, 
in a leisure hour, should meet Plato and hear him 
discourse. 

^ About 388 B.O., if this first visit be not a myth. 
« EpUL vii. p. 327. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

V. Tevofiivr)^ Se t^9 (TWovaLa^ avrol^ ro fiev 
oXov irepl dvSpo9 a/)€T%, 'rr\€L<rT(ov Se irepX 
avhpeia^i BcaTroprjdipTcov, c&9 iravra^^ fmXXov 6 
n\aTG)i/ rj Tou? TvpdwoDS . d7ri(f)acv€v dvSpeiov^, 
ifc Be Tovrov rpairoixevo^ irepX SiKaioavvr)<; iSi- 
ha(TK€v a>9 fiaxapio^ p>€P 6 rtov Bifcauoyv, adXio^ Be 
6 T&p aBlfcoyv I3lo^, ovre tov? \o70i»9 e^epev 6 
Tvpavvo^ SxTiriEp €^e\€7;^6/x€V09, fjxOeTo re tow 
irapovai davfiaarSi)^ aTroBexofievoi^ rbv avBpa koI 

2 /erj\ovfi€Poi<: VTTO t&p Xeyofiipayp. TeXo9 Be dv/Mo- 
0€l<; Kol Trapo^vpffeh r/pdrrjaep avrov o ri Bi) 
Povkofiepo^ et9 XixeXiap 'irapayePOiTO. tov Be 
<f>ijaaPT09 dyaOop dpBpa ^rjTeip, viroTui/Bayp e/cel- 
i;09, " 'AWa vff T0V9 6eov<;,^^ eiire, " koI <l>aiprf 
/jLijirco TOLOvrop €vprjK(o<:,^* ol pip oip irepl top 
^ioDPa TOVTO TeXo9 ^opto t^9 opyfj^ yeyopcpai, 960 
Kot TOP HXaToopa airevBopTa avpe^eTrepirop iirl 
Tpirfpov^, ^ WoSXip eKop^i^ep et9 ttjp 'EWaSa top 

3 XirapTiaT^jp' 6 Be Ai>opv(rio^ Kpv(f>a tov TloXXiBo^ 
eiroirjaaTo Berjaip pAXiaTa pep dTroxTCipai top 
dpBpa KUTct irXovp, el Be pi], TrdpTO)^ diroBoaOaf 
^Xa^tiaeaOai yhp ovBep, a\V eifBaip^opijaeip 
opboiw^y BiKaLOP opTa, kcLp BovXo^ yeprfTau Bio 
Koi XeyeTUi TloXXi^ et9 Atyipap <j>€pa)p diroBoaOai 
TiXaToypa, iroXepov 7r/oo9 ^ABrjpaiov^ 01/T09 avTol<; 
Kol yltr)(l>L(rpxiT0^ 07rft)9 o Xrfcjidel^ ^Adrfpcutop ep 
AlytpTf TnTTpdo'KrjTai, 

4 Ov pLTjp ye Aicop eXaTTOP €l%€ irapd t& 
Aiopvai^ TLpLTj^ fj irLaTeto^, dXXd Trpeafieia^ t€ 
Ta9 pLcyiaTa^ Bt€p/C€i /cat trepLirop^po^ irpos Kap- 

^ irdvras Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske : trdtfra, 
10 



DION 

V. At this meetiiig the general subject was human 
virtue^ and most of the discussion turned upon man- 
liness. And when Plato set forth that tyrants least 
of all men had this quality, and then, treating of 
justice, maintained that the life of the just was 
blessed, while that of the unjust was wretched, the 
tjrrant, as if convicted by his arguments, would not 
listen to them, and was vexed with the audience 
because they admired the speaker and were charmed 
by his utterances. At last he got exceedingly angry 
and asked the philosopher why he had come to 
Sicily. And when Plato said that he was come to 
seek a virtuous man, the tyrant answered and said : 
"Well, by the gods, it appears that you have not 
yet found such an one." Dion thought that this was 
the end of his anger, and as Plato was eager for it, 
sent him away upon a trireme, which was conveying 
Pollis the Spartan to Greece. But Dionysius privily 
requested Pollis to kill Plato on the voyage, if it 
were in any way possible, but if not, at all events to 
sell him into slavery ; for he would take no harm, 
but would be quite as happy, being a just man, even 
if he should become a slave. Pollis, therefore, as we 
are told, carried Plato to Aegina and there sold him ; 
for the Aeginetans were at war with the Athenians 
and had made a decree that any Athenian taken on 
the island should be put up for sale. 

In spite of all this, Dion stood in no less honour 
and credit with Dionysius than before, but had the 
management of the most important embassies, as, 
for instance, when he was sent to Carthage and won 

II 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xn^ovlov^ iOavfidadr] Sia(f)ep6pTa><;* Koi rrjv trap- 
prja-iav €<f>€p€V avrov fiovov ayehov dSew Xiyovro^ 
TO TrapiaTcifievov, a)<; koX ttjv irepl Tektovo^ €7rt- 
5 irXrj^iv, )^va^oiJi€vr)<; ydp, dx; eoixe, t?;? Ti- 
Xcovo^ cip)(r]<:, avrov re rov TiXcova rod Acovva-iov 
yiXeora r^? ^iK€Xia<; yeyovivai (f)T]aavro^, oi fiev 
aXXoL TO aK&fifia Trpoaeiroiovvro davfid^eiv, 6 Se 
Aicov Bva'Xjepdva^, " K.al /i>;V," €^V> *' ^^ rvpav- 
1/619 Sid TiXmva marevOei^* hid ae Se ouSel? 
erepo^ marevOrjaercu.^^ rep ydp ovri <f)atv€rai 
KoXXiarov fiev T€X(ov iinSei^dfievof; Oeafia /novap- 
'Xpv^evrjv TToXiv, aXa-xi^Tov hk Aiovvato<;. 

VI. "OvrcdV Se Ai,opv(Ti<p iraiBayv rpi&v /jlcp €k 
T^9 AoKpiho<;, rerrdpwv he e^ ^Ap^rrofidxH^t &v 
hvo ffaav dvyarepe^, ^(o^^poavvrf xal 'ApeTi;, 
X(0(f>poavv7) fiev Aiowcritp r^ vl(p (xvvtpKrjaev, 
*Ap4r7) Se ^eapihri r^ dBeXcf}^. reXevrrja-avro^ 
Be rod dBeX^ov ^eaplBov Aioyv eXa^e rrjv ^ApirTjv 

2 dB€X(j>LBr]v oiaav, irrel Be voa&v eBo^ev 6 Acovv- 
(Tio<; ay8t(»TG)9 e^eiv, eire^xeiprjaev avr(p BiaXe- 
yeadat irepX rwv ifc rrj<; ^ Apia'rofid')(i]<; reKVtov o 
Aiayv, oi S' larpol r(p fiiXXovri rrjv dp'^rjv BiaBe- 
X^o'Oai 'x^api^ofievoi xacpov ov rrapea"xpv* w Be 
Tifjbaio^ (j)r)ai, Koi ^dppaKov vrrveorc/cbv alrovvri 
Bovre^ d(f>€iXovro rrjv ai<T0r)(riv avrov, Oavdrtp 
(Tvvd'^^avre^; rov virvov* 

3 Ov /Mr)v dXXd avXXoyov irp^rov rcov <f>iX(ov 
yevopAvov rrapd rov veov Aiovvaiov ovrw BieXe- 
X^V '^^pl r&v avp^^epovroDv irpo^ rov Kaipov o 

12 



DION 

great admiration. The tyrant also bore with his 
freedom of speech, and Dion was almost the only 
one who spoke his mind fearlessly, as, for example, 
when he rebuked Dionysius for what he said about 
Gelon. The tyrant was ridiculing the government of 
Gelon,^ and when he said that Gelon himself, true 
to his name, became the laughing-stock ('*gelos*') 
of Sicily, the rest of his hearers pretended to admire 
the joke, but Dion was disgusted and said : " Indeed, 
thou art now tyrant because men trusted thee for 
Gelon's sake ; but no man hereafter will be trusted 
for thy sake.** For, as a matter of fact, Gelon seems 
to have made a city under absolute rule a very fair 
thing to look upon, but Dionysius a very shameful 
thing. 

VI. Dionysius had three children by his Locrian 
wife, and four by Aristomache, two of whom were 
daughters, Sophrosyne and Arete. Sophrosyne be- 
came the wife of his son Dionysius,^ and Arete of 
his brother Thearides, but after the death of The- 
arides. Arete became the wife of Dion, her uncle. 
Now, when Dionysius was sick and seemed likely to 
die, Dion tried to confer with him in the interests 
of his children by Aristomache, but the physicians, 
who wished to ingratiate themselves with the heir 
apparent, would not permit it ; moreover, according 
to Timaeus, when the sick man asked for a sleeping 
potion, they gave him one that robbed him of his 
senses and made death follow sleep.^ 

However, in the first conference held between the 
young Dionysius and his friends, Dion discoursed 
upon the needs of the situation in such a manner 



* Gelon had been tyrant of Syracuse circa 485-478 B.C. 
« Cf. chapter iii. 3. ^ j^ 3(37 go. 



»3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ato>i/ wcrre tou9 aWov^ airavTa^ rrj fxev <f>povija€i 
iraiSa^; airoSet^at, rfj Se Trapfytjaia SovXov^ rrj^ 
Tvpavvi&o^ dy€vv&^ koX TrepKfyojSoD^ rh ttoWA irpb^ 
4 X^P^^ '^^ fJL€ipafCL<p cvfi^ovXevovra^, fiaXiara 
Be avTOv^ i^€7r\rj^€ rov airo JS^apxv^ovo^ kivBvvov 
iircKpefidfiepov ttj apxfi SeBoifcoTa^;, v7ro<rxofM€vo<;, 
ei fihf eiprjvr}^ heono Acovvaio^, TrXewa? evdif^ 
el^ Ai/Si/qv 0)9 apiara BiaOijaeadai rov woXcfiov, 
el Be woXefielv irpoOvfiolro, dpiyjreiv avTo<: IBLoi^ 
riXeai koI irape^eiv et? tov iroXefiop avT& 
7r€PTi]/covTa TpiTjpet^ €v 7r\60vaa<;^ 

VIL 'O fjL€v ovv Aiovvaio^ virep^vS)^ rr^v 
fieyaXoyjrvxi^v iOavfiaae kcu ttjv irpoOvfuav 
riydTrTjaev oi Be €\€7p^eo-^aA rfj XafiirpoTrjTi /cat 
raTreivovtrOai rfj Bvvdfiec rov dki^ovo^ olofievoi, 
TavTfjv €v0v<; o.pytjv Xa/Sovre^, ovBefiia^ e^elBovro 
(fxovip: tj TO fieipaxiov i^aypLaiveiv IfieWov Trpo? 
avTov, (09 xnrepxofievov Bik rrj^ OaXaTrrj^ rvpav- 
vLBa Koi nrepKTTT&VTa ral^i vavaX rrjv Bvvaficv eh 
Tou? ^ Kpiarofidyr}^ TraiBa^, dBeXtpiBov^; ovra^ 

2 avT^, <f>av€p(OTaTai Be xal /jueyiarai t&v ew 
^06vov KoX fuao<; alri&v vTrrjpxov j} tov ^Lov 
Bi>a<f>oph Kal TO T^9 BiaiTr^f; dfiiKTOv. oi fi€v yap, 
€v0if^ i^ dpxv^ veov Tvpdvvov KaX TcOpafifievov 
<f>av\(t)^ ofjbiXiav Kal avvrjOeiav rjBoval^ /cal xoXa- 
Keiai<; KaTdkafi^dvovTe^, del Tiva^ eptoTa^ Kal 
BiaTpi^cL^ €/jLr)xav&VT0 pe/M/SwBei*; irepl ttotov^ 

3 fcal yvvaixa^, Kal TratBtd^ CTepa^ do'XVP'Ova^, v<p^ 961 
&p 7) Tvpawl^, Aairep alBtfpo^, fjLaXaaaofiivT), 
T0t9 fi€P dpj(pfiivoi^ e^dvT) <f>iKdv9pto'jro^, Kal to 
Xiav dirdvOpoairov vnainJKep, ovk iirieiKeia tipI 

^ tZ ir\fo{taas van Herwerden : irXcovo-ai . 

14 



DION 

that his ¥dsdoin made all the rest appear children, 
and his boldness of speech made them seem mere 
slaves of tjrannj, who were wont to give their 
counsels timorously and ignobly to gratify the young 
man. But what most amazed them in their fear of 
the peril that threatened the realm from Carthage, 
was Dion*s promise that, if Dionysius wanted peace, 
he would sail at once to Africa and put a stop to 
the war on the best terms possible ; but if war was 
the king's desire, he himself would furnish him with 
fifty swift triremes for the war, and maintain them 
at his own costs. 

VII. Dionysius, then, was greatly astonished at 
his magnanimity and delighted with his ardour ; but 
the other courtiers, thinking themselves put out of 
countenance by (Dion's generosity and humbled by 
his power, began hostilities forthwith, and said every- 
thing they could to embitter the young king against 
him, accusing him of stealing into the position of 
tyrant by means of his power on the sea, and of 
using his ships to divert the power into the hands 
of the children of Aristoihache, who were his 
nephews and nieces. But the strongest and most 
apparent grounds for their envy and hatred of him 
lay in the difference between his way of life and 
theirs, and in his refusal to mingle with others. For 
from the very outset they obtained converse and 
intimacy with a tyrant who was young and had been 
badly reared by means of pleasures and flatteries, 
and were ever contriving for him sundry amours, 
idle amusements with wine and women, and other 
unseemly pastimes. In this way the tyranny, being 
softened, like iron in the fire, appeared to its subjects 
to be kindly, and gradually remitted its excessive 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiaXKov ff paOvjxia rov feparovPTO^ a/Afi\vvofi€vrf. 
eK Bk TOVTOV irpolovaa fcal vefiofiivT^ fcarct /uKpov 
7} irepX TO fieipcLKLOV aveai^ tov^ ahafiavrivovf; 
Secfwif^: €K€ivov^, oU 6 Trpea^vrepo^i Atovtiaiof; 
. e^rj SeBefievTfv aTToXeiireiv TtfV fiovapx^cLv, i^errj^e 
4 Kol Si€(l>0€ip€v, r}fiepa^ ^CLp, m <l>aaiv, ivevq- 
Kovra avve^w einvev ap^dfievot;, /cal ttjv avXrjv 
iv Tc5 XP^^^ TovTtp aiTovhaioi^ avipdai kol \07049 
a/3aTOV xal aveiaohov oiaav fuOai koX aKi^p,- 
fiara Kal ylraXfiol fcal 6pxv^€i^ kuI ^(op^oXox^at 
Kareixpv, 

VIII. 'Hi' ovv, Q)9 €t^09> o l^itov iiraxOv^ ^h 
ovoep 'qbv Kac vetoreptKov €VOioov^ eavrov, oto 
Kal iridavcL KaKi&v Trpoaprfixara raw aperals 
€Tn(f>ipovT€<; avrov Sci^aXXov, virepoylriav rrjv 
aep.voTrjTa kcu ttjv irapprjaiav avffdSetav airoKa- 
Xoi)]/T69* fcai vov0€T&v Karryyopelv iSoxei fcal /jlt) 

2 avp€^afjbapTdva)v Karatfypovelv* afiiXei Be fcal 
if>v<r€i Tipct TO f)0o^ 8yKov elx^ avrov xal rpaxv- 
Tr)Ta ivairpoaohov ivrev^et koX Sva^vfijSoXov. ov 
yhp p^ovov avSpl v€<p xai B tared pvp,fi4v at ra &ra 
fcoXaxeuii^ axapi^ fiv avyyeveaOai xal irpocdvTq^, 
iroXXoi Sk Kal r&v rrdvv XP^I^^^^ avr^ xal rtfv 
dirXorTjra Kal ro yevvalov dyaTrcovrav rov rp6- 
TTOV Karepjep^i^ovro t^9 op^iXla^, co? dypoiKorepov 
Kal jSapvrepov TroXiriK&v ^etcoi/ toa9 Beofiivoi^; 

3 avvaXXdaaovra. irepl a)V Kal UXdrcov varepov 
&<T'nep diro0€a*7ri^(ov cypay^e irpo^ avrov i^ev- 
16 



DION 

cruelty^ though its edge was blunted not so much by 
any clemency in the sovereign as by his love of ease. 
As a consequence^ the laxity of the young king gained 
ground Uttie by little^ until at last those ** adaman- 
tine 1x)nds '* with which the elder Dionysius said he 
had left the monarchy fastened^ were melted and 
destroyed. For it is said that the young king once 
kept up a drinking bout for ninety consecutive days 
from its beginning, and that during this time his 
court gave no access or admission to men or matters 
of consequence, but drunkenness and raillery and 
music and dancing and buffoonery held full sway. 

VIII. Dion, then, as was natural, was obnoxious 
to these men, since he indulged in no pleasure or 
youthful folly. And so they tried to calumniate him 
by actually giving to his virtues plausible names of 
vices ; for instance, they called his dignity haughti- 
ness, and his boldness of speech self-will. Even 
when he admonished, he was thought to denounce, 
and when he would not share men's sins, to despise. 
And in very truth his character had naturally a 
certain majesty, together with a harshness that re- 
pelled intercourse and was hard to deal with. For 
not only to a man who was young and whose ears 
had been corrupted by flattery was he an unpleasant 
and irksome associate, but many also who were in- 
timate with him and who loved the simplicity and 
nobility of his disposition, were apt to find fault 
with the manner of his intercourse with men, on 
the ground that he dealt with those who sought his 
aid more rudely and harshly than was needful in 
public life. On this head Plato also afterwards wrote 
to him,^ in a tone almost prophetic, that he should 

* EpUt. iv. ad Jin. 

VOL. VI. C 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xa/SelaOai rijv avOdheiav w iprifiia trvvoiKOvaav. 
ov fi7)V aWit t6t€ Tr\€i<TT0V Bofc&p aft09 virdp- 
'Xjeiv Sia rh irpdy/nara Kot fiovo^ ff fjudXiara rrjv 
TvpavviSa (raXevovaav dvopOovv KaX hia^vXdT- 
T€iv, iyivaxTKev ov tt/oo? X^P^^» aW' afcovTO<; inro 
')(p€ia^ Tov Tvpdvvov tt^wto? Siv koX pAyiaTO^. 

IX. Alriav Se tovtov rffv wrraihtvalav elvai 
vofii^ayv ijxfiaXetv avTOP €i9 hiarpi^h,^ iXevOepi- 
ov^ iipiXoTtfielro xal yevaai Xoyoop xal fJiaOijfid- 
T(ov '^doTToi&v, 0)9 dperrjv t€ iravaaiTO SeBm^; koI 

2 T0t9 KoKol^ ')(alp€i,v idiaffeirj, (f>va€i yap ov 
yeyopci T&p fftavXardroDP rvpdpptop 6 t^iopvaio^, 
a\X' o iraTTjp, SeSoiKO)^ fit) <f>povijfiaTO^ fieraXa- 
fia>p Kal (Tvyyepofiepofs povp €xov<tlp dpOpdrroi^ 
itnfiovXevareiep avr^ xal irapiXoiTo rrfp dpxv^, 
if^povpei KardicSj^iaTOP oXkoi, Si ipr^fiiap ofiikia^ 
eripaf; koX direipia irpaypbdrtop, 0)9 (f>a(np, d/jid^ia 
/cat Xv^vict^ fcal OL<l>pov^ ^vXlpov^ koI Tpwrre^a^ 

3 T€Kraip6/Jb€pov, ovToo yhp fjp airiaro^ Koi irpo^ 
airaPTa^i dpdpdairov^ vttoitto^ koI 7rpo^€l3Xr}fi€Po<; 
Bia (f>o^op Trp€a/3vT€po^ Aiopvaio^ &<tt€ firjBe 
T^9 Ke<f>aXr]^ ra^ T/3t%a9 d<f>€Xelp ^ KovpiKaU 
fiaxo-ipcLL^, dXXa t&p irXaarfap ri^ iTTKboir&p 
apdpa/cc Tf)P Ko^rjp wepiefcaiep, ^larfu Be 7r/}09 
avTOP €49 TO ooDfiariop ovre aoeXtpo^ ovu vio^ o)9 
ervyep rjfK^ieafiipo^y aW' eBei irpip etaeXOelp 
dirotvpra rifP iavTov aroXrjp CKaaTOP krepap 
apaXa^etp, opaOhra yvfipop xnro t&p ^vXarTOP- 

4 T(OP, iirel Bk AeTTTLPt}^ 6 aS€\<^09 avT^ ttotc 



^ a<ps\eiy Bekker, after Coraes, has afpaiptip, 
l8 



DION 

be on his guard against self-wiU, which was a ** com- 
panion of sotitude." ^ However, at this time, though 
circomstances led men to think him of more valoe 
than any one else, and the onlj or the chief sup- 
porter and guardian of the storm-tossed tyranny, he 
knew that it was not out of goodwill, but against 
the wishes of the tyrant and owing to his needs, 
that he was first and greatest. 

IX. Considering, then, that a reason for this lay 
in the tyrant's want of education, he sought to 
engage him in liberal studies, and to give him a 
taste of such literature and science as formed the 
character, in order that he might cease to be afraid 
of virtue, aud become accustomed to take delight in 
what was high and noble. For by natare Dionysius 
did not belong to the worst class of tyrants, but his 
father, fearing that if he should get wisdom and 
associate with men of sense, he would plot against 
him and rob him of his power, used to keep him 
closely shut up at home, where, through lack of as- 
sociation with others and in ignorance of affairs, as 
we are told, he made little waggons and lampstands 
and wooden chairs and tables. For the elder Diony- 
sius was so distrustful and suspicious towards every 
body, and his fear led him to be so much on his 
guard, that he would not even have his hair cut witli 
barbers' scissors, but a hairdresser would come and 
singe his locks with a live coal. Neither his brother 
nor his son could visit him in his apartment wearing 
any clothes they pleased, but every one had to take 
off his own apparel before entering and put on an- 
other, after the guards had seen him stripped. And 
once, when his brother Leptines was describing to 

* Cf. the Coriolanuif xv. 4. 

c 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ycofKov i^viTiv i^r)yov/j£i'0^ \aj3a>p \oyxV^ irapd 
Tivo<i T&v Sopv(f>6pa>p vTreypayjre top tottov, eKeivtp 
/JL€V laxvpw €xctk€7rrfv€, TOP Be Bopra rrjp \6yxv^ 
aireKT€LP€P, eXeye Se Toif^ <f>L\ovf; ^uXdrreaffai 
povp e^opra^ elBcb^ xal /SovXofjbipovi jxdXKop 
5 Tvpapp€LP fj Tvpapp€ia0ai. Koi Mapavap Bi ripa 
Ta>p TTporjy/Mipeop vtt* avrov teal T€Tayfi€pa>p i(f>^ 
riyefiopLa^ dpeiXe Bo^apra fcarit rov^ vttpov^ 
a^drreip ainop, w car ippola^ fieOrjfiepiprj^ xal 962 
BiaXoyiafwv t^9 oyfrecof; ravTrj<; eh top vttpop 
avT^ irapayepofjiepri^;, 6 fiep Bt) UXdriapi ffvfut)' 
del^; OTi fXT) 7rdpT(OP airop dpffpwTrcop dpSpeiorarop 
opra dTr€<l>r)pep, ovr(o 7repi<l>ofiop /cat roaovrcop 
viro BeCKia^ KaKtap fiecrrfp el^^ Tr)p '^v^^v. 

. iop o viop avTov, Kauairep et^pijrat, oiaXe- 
Xcj^rj/jiipop aTraiBevaia Koi avpreTpififiipop to 
rido^ 6 Alq)p op&p TrapexdXei rrpb^ iraiBeiap 
TpaTreaOai koi B€r)0rjpai tov irpdnTOv t&p ^iXoao- 

2 ifxop iraaap Berjaip iXdeip eh XiKcXlap* iXdoPTi 
Bi irapaaxelp avTOP, ottg)? BiaKoafiTjOeh to ^0o^ 
eh dp€Tij<; Xoyop, kuI tt/^o? to ffeiOTUTOP d^opjoito- 
ffeh TrapdBecyfia tojp optcop teal /cdXXiaTOp, cS to 
Trap Tiyovfiep^ ireiOofiepop e^ aKoafua^ Koafio^ 
ioTi, TToXXrjp fjL€P evSacfxoPLap kavTtp firj^c^ptjaeTai, 
TToXXriP Bk T069 TToXiTai^i, 6<ra pvp ep dOvfiia 
BiotKOvai 7r/309 dvdyKrjp t^9 dpxv^* tuvtu aQ)<f>po- 
avPTj Kot Bcfcaioavprj fieT evfiepeia^ iraTpopofiov- 
fiepa trapaa-x^^ ^^^ yepofiepo^; ^aaiXev^; ex Tvpdp- 

3 pov, T0U9 yap dBafiapriPov^ Beafiov^ ^^X> ^<^''^^P o 

20 



DION 

him the nature of a place, and drew the plan of it 
on the ground with a spear which he took from one 
of his body-guards, he was extremely angry with 
him, and had the man who gave him the spear put 
to death. He used to say, too, that he was on his 
guard against his friends who were men of sense, 
because he knew that they would rather be tyrants 
than subjects of a tyrant. And he slew Marsyas, one 
of those whom he had advanced to positions of high 
command, for having dreamed that he killed him, 
declaring that this vision must have visited his sleep 
because in his waking hours he had purposed and 
planned such a deed. Yes, the man who was angry 
with Plato because he would not pronounce him the 
most valiant man alive, had a spirit as timorous as 
this, and so full of all the evils induced by cowardice. 
X. This tyrant's son, as I have said, Dion saw to 
be dwarfed and deformed in character from his lack 
of education, and therefore exhorted him to apply 
himself to study, and to use every entreaty with 
the first of philosophers to come to Sicily, and, 
when he came, to become his disciple, in order that 
his character might be regulated by the principles of 
virtue, and that he might be conformed to that 
divinest and most beautiful model of all being, in 
obedience to whose direction the universe issues 
from disorder into order ; in this way he would pro- 
cure great happiness for himself, and great happiness 
for his people, and that obedience which they now 
rendered dejectedly and under the compulsion of 
his authority, this his moderation and justice would 
base upon goodwill and a filial spirit, and he would 
become jx, king instead of a tyrant. For the " ada- 
mantine bonds" of sovereignty were not, as his 

21 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trarrjp eKeyev avrov, f^ofiov KaX /3iav xal ve&v 
7r\^^09 elvai koI fiapfidpcov fivpiavSpov (f>v\aKiiv, 
evvoiav Se koI irpoOvfiiav xal x^P^^ iyyevofjievrjv 
vtt' dperrj^ Kal hiKaioavvq^, a, Kaiirep ovra 
fiaXaKcorepa tS>p avvrovayv fcal a/cKtfp&v eKeivtov, 
lax^porepa irpo^ Biafiovrjv 'qyefiovia*: virdpx^iv, 

4 x^P^^ ^^ TOVTCDV d^iXoTifiov clvcu KoX a^ffXov 
Tov apxoPTa, T^ fi€V a(i>fiari irepiTrw d/nrexo- 
fi€vov teal T§ Trepl rifv otKYjacv dfiponjTi, teal 
fcaraa-Kevfj Xafiirpwop^vov, 6fu\ia Se xal \6yq) 
jj/qSev ovra tov irpoo'TVXovTO^ aefivorepov, firjSe 
T^ yjrvxv^ TO fiaaCXjeiov d^tovvra KeKoafirjfiipop 
ej^eti/ /3aai\i/cw fcal irpewovTax;, 

XL Tavra iroWdfci^ rod Aioi>vo^ Trapaivovvro^, 
Kal T&v \6ya>v tov ItXaTcopo^ etrTtv ov<TTiva<; vtto- 
aTreipovTO^;, etrx^v Ipfo^ top /^lopvaiop o^v^ kcu 
Trepcfiavrj^ tcjp t€ Xoycop koI t^9 a-vpovaia^ tov 
n\aTfi)i/09. evdif^ ovp 'A^jyi/afe ttoWA fxep 
e^oiTa ypdfifuiTa irapa tov ^lopvaiov, TroWal S' 
iTTiaKrjyfrei^: iraph tov /^(opo^, aWai S' ef 'IraX/av 
iraph T&p Tlvffayopifc&p, SiafceXevofiipcop irapa- 
yepeaOaL koX via^ yjrvxv^ i^ovala fieyaXj} fcai 
BvpdfjL€L 7r€pi<f)€pofiipi]<: iiTiXafieaOai xal KUTa- 

2 cyjilv ifi0pt,d€aTepoi^ XoyiafioU, IlXaTtop fiep 
OVP, (89 ^rjaip avTo^f kavTOP altrxvpdeh pAXiiTTa, 
firf So^eie X0709 elpai fwvop, epyov 8' eKwv ovB€Vo^ 
CLP a'^aaOcu, fcal irpoahoKrjaa^ Bi epo^ dpSpo^ 
&air€p 'qyep^PiKov [lipovs iKKa0ap0€PTO<; oXrjp 
laTpevaeip XifceXUtp poaovaap, vir'^Kovaep. 

Oi Bk T^ Aleopi TToXefiovPTe^ <f>oPovp^poc ttjp 
TOV Aiopvaiov /xeTa^oXiip iiretoap avTOP diro t% 



22 



DION 

£ather used to saj, fear and force and a multitude 
of ships and numberless barbarian body-guards, but 
goodwill and ardour and favour engendered bj virtue 
and justice; these, though they were more flexible 
than the bonds of severity mid harshness, were 
stronger to maintain a lasting leadership. And be- 
sides all this, it was mean and spiritless in a ruler, 
while his body was magnificently clothed and his 
habitation resplendent with luxurious furnishings, 
to be no more majestic in his intercourse and con- 
versation than an ordinary man, and not to insist 
that the royal palace of his soul should be adorned 
in meet and royal fashion. 

XL Since Dion frequently gave him such advice, 
and artfully mingled with it some of Plato's doc- 
trines, Dionysius was seized with a keen and even 
frenzied passion for the teachings and companionship 
of Plato. At once, then, many letters began to come 
to Athens from Dionysius, and many injunctions 
from Dion, as well as others from the Pythagorean 
philosophers of Italy, all of whom urged Plato to 
come and get control of a youthful soul now tossed 
about on a sea of great authority and power, and 
steady it by his weighty reasonings. Plato, accord- 
ingly, as he tells us himself,^ out of shame more than 
any thing else, lest men should think him nothing 
but theory and unwilling to take any action ; and 
further, because he expected that by the purification 
of one man, who was, as it were, a controlling factor, 
he would cure all Sicily of her distempers, yielded 
to these requests. 

But the enemies of Dion, afraid of the alteration 
in Dionysius, persuaded him to recall from exile 

^ Epiat, vii. p. 328. 

«3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ipvyrj^ fieTairifiirecrBai ^iXca-rov, avipa koX ire- 
TTaLSevfiivov irepl \6yov<; fcal rvpavvife&v fj0&v 
i/nreipoTarov, (»9 avrirayfia ttoo^ HXdreova koI 

3 ^L\o<ro(f)iav ifcetvov e^ovre^. o yap Brj ^tXtcro? 
ef ap'xrjf; re tj} rvpapviBi KaOtarafiePT) irpoffvpLo- 
TUTov eavTou Trapeay^, koX ttjv aKpav 8i€<pv\a^€ 
<f>povpapx^v €7rl TToXvv ^(povov, fjv Se X0709 w 
Koi Ty fiTfTpl irXrjaid^oi rod irpea^vrepov ^lovv- 
aiov, Tov Tvpdvvov p,ff iravrdiraaiv arfvoovvro^, 
hrel Be AeTrTlvr)^:, i/c yvvaiKO^ ^v Zia^Oelpa^ 
ireptp avvoiKovaav ea'xje yevofiipwv avT& Svelv 
dvyarepcov, Ttfv erepav eBta/ce ^i\iar<p p/rfoe <^pd- 
<ra<i 7r/309 Aiovvaiov, opytaOeX^ iKelvo^ rrjv pkv 
yvvaiKa tov Aeirrivov S?;cra9 iv wiSai^ KaBelp^e, 

4 TOV he ^iKkttov i^rjkaae ^ixeXla^, ^vyoPTU irapa 
^ivov^i Tivk^ eh tov ^ASplav, ottov fcal Sofcei Ta 
ifKelcTTa avvdelvai T179 iaTopia^ o")(p\d^oi)v» ov 
yap iiravrjkffe tov Trpea^vTepov ^&vto<;, dWh 
fieTct T7JV €K€LVOv TeXevTijv, &airep etprjTai, KaTtj- 963 
yayev avTov tt/jo? Aicova t&v dWcov <f)06vo^, dx; 
avToh T€ p^Wov iiriT^qSeLov ovTa kuI ttj Tvpav- 
vlSi jSe^aioTepov, 

XIL 05to9 p^v.ovv evdv<; /eaTeXffmv ht^ire^v/cei 
T?}9 Tvpavviho^' T^ Se Aiayvt xal Trap* dXKcav 
eTvyyavov oiaai But/SoXal xal KaTTfyopiai irpo^ 
TOV Tvpavvov, W9 hieC\jeyp.ev(p irepl KaTaXvcreo)^ 
Try; dpXV^ irpo^ re ©eoSoriyi; KaX irpo^ 'Hpa- 
KXelSrjv, '^XTTi^e /j>ev ydp, ©9 eoi/ce, Sih UXaToovo^ 
irapayevop^evov to SeairoTi/cov xal Xlav atcpaTOv 
d(f>e\a)v T^9 TVpairvlBo^ ep^p^Xrj Tiva KaX v6p>ipLov 
2 apxpvTa TOV Aiovvo'i.ov KaTa(rTi]<reiv el Bi dvTi- 



24 



DION 

Philistus^ a man versed in letters and acquainted 
with the ways of tyrants, that they might have in 
him a counterpoise to Plato and philosophy. For 
Philistus at the outset had most zealously assisted in 
establishing the tyranny, and for a long time was 
commander of the garrison that guarded the citadel. 
There was a story, too, that he was very intimate 
with the mother of the elder Dionysius, and that 
the tyrant was not wholly ignorant of the fact. But 
when Leptines, who had two daughters by a woman 
whom he had corrupted when she was living with 
another man and then taken to wife, gave one of 
them to Philistus without so much as telling Diony- 
sius, the tjnrant was wroth, put the wife of Leptines 
into fetters and prison, and banished Philistus from 
Sicily. Philistus took refuge with some friends in 
Adria, and there, it would seem, in his leisure, com- 
posed the greater part of his history. For he did 
not return to Syracuse while the elder Dionysius 
was alive, but after his death, as I have said, the 
envy which the other courtiers felt towards Dion 
brought about his recall ; they thought him a more 
suitable man for their purposes, and a stauncher 
friend of the tyranny. 

XII. Philistus, then, as soon as he had returned, 
was in close touch with the tyranny ; and there were 
others also who brought slanders and accusations 
against Dion to the tyrant, alleging that he had 
been in conference with Theodotes and Heracleides 
concerning a subversion of the government. For 
Dion had hopes, as it seems likely, that by means of 
the visit of Plato he could mitigate the arrogance 
and excessive severity of the tyranny, and con- 
vert Dionysius into a fit and lawful ruler; but if 

25 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Paivot KaX fit) /MiKcurtroiTo, KaraXvaa^ i/eelvov 
eyvcoKei Tfjp troXireidv a'jroSiSovai ^vpaKovaioi^, 
ovK erratv&p fiev SrjfioKpaTiav, trdma)^ hk /SekTio) 
TvpavvlSo^ 'qyov/JL€vo<: roi^ StafiapTavovacv vyiai- 
vovat)^ apiaroxpaTLa^. 

XIII. 'Ely TOtavTTf Se /caraaTdaec t&v irpaypA- 
Tcov ovTwv TlXdra>v d^ XcKcXiav a^iKOfxevo^ irepl 
fiev tA9 irpdra^: airavn^trei^ 0avfiaaTr]<; ervyx^ave 
(l>i\o<f>poavpi]<; Kal rifii]^, KaX yap apfia r&v 
ffaaiXiK&v avT(p irapearr) K€KO<rfLrjfjL€vov hiairpe- 
TTW aTTo^dpTi T^9 T/3ti}poi;9, fcol dvalav eOvaev 6 
rvpavvo^ 0)9 evrv^VfJUiTO^ fieyoKov rfi dp'xij trpoo'- 

2 76701/0T09. aiSft)9 Bk avfjLTToa'Ltov KaX ayripLa' 
Tia/JLO<; avXrj^ KaX TTpaovq^; avrov rov rvpdvvov 
trepX CKaara r&v 'XP'qiJLaTi^^oixevwv BavpLaarii^ eve- 
Sa)K€V iKiriBa^i p>€Ta/3o\7j<; toI<; TroXLraif;. <f>opa 
Se T49 Ijv iirX X6yov<: Kal <l>iXo<ro<l>iav dirdpTtov, 
KaX TO Tvpavveiov, w ^aai, Kovioprb<; viro irX^- 

3 0ov^ tS)V y€(Dp£TpovvTcov KaTCi'X^ev, r)p,€p&v hk 
oXiytdv St^yevop^voDV Ovaia pep 7]v irdrpio^ iv T049 
TVpavveioi^' tov Bk KrjpvKo^, &aiT€p eldOei, Karev- 
J^apevov Siapb€V€CV Tr)v rvpavviha jaadXevrov iroX- 
Xoi)^ Xpovov^, 6 Acopvaio^ XiyeTai irapearw^, 
" Ov iravarit^ <f>dvai, " KarapiopLevof; ripXvi*^ tov- 
TO Kop,ihfi T0U9 frepX tov ^iXiarov iXtmrjcrev, 
apwxpv riva rov HXdrcovo^; fiyovpiivov^ eaeaOai 
^/ooj/G) KaX trvvrjOeiq T7)p SvvapLiv, el vvv €k avvov- 
aia^; oX/7^9 rjXXoifOKev ovtod KaX pLera/SeffXTjKe 
Tr)v yv(i>p/qv to p^etpdKiov. 

26 



DION 

Dionysius should oppose his efforts and refuse to be 
softened^ he had determined to depose him and 
restore the civil power to the Syracusan people ; not 
that he approved of a democracy^ but he tliought it 
altogether better than a tyranny in lack of a sound 
and healthy aristocracy. 

XIII. Such was the condition of affairs when Plato 
came to Sicily,^ and in the first instances he met 
with astonishing friendliness and honour. For a 
royal chariot, magnificently adorned, awaited him 
as he left his trireme, and the tyrant offered a sacri- 
fice of thanksgiving for the great blessing that had 
been bestowed upon his government. Moreover, the 
modesty that characterized his banquets, the deco- 
rum of the courtiers, and the mildness of the tyrant 
himself in all his dealings with the public, inspired 
the citizens with marvellous hopes of his reforma- 
tion. There was also something like a general 
rush for letters and philosophy, and the palace was 
filled with dust, as they say, owing to the multitude 
of geometricians there. ^ After a few days had passed, 
there was one of the customary sacrifices of the 
country in the palace grounds ; and when the herald, 
as was the custom, prayed that the tyranny might 
abide unshaken for many generations, it is said that 
Dionysius, who was standing near, cried : " Stop 
cursing us ! " This quite vexed Philistus and his 
party, who thought that time and familiarity would 
render Plato's influence almost irresistible, if now, 
after a brief intimacy, he had so altered and trans- 
formed the sentiments of the youthful prince. 

* Soon after 368 b.c. 

^ Geometrical figures were traced in ioosw sand Btrewn 
upon the floor. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XIV. Ovfcir oiv teaff^ eva xal 7ut0paiw<;, aXXa 
7rdvT€<i ava<f>avBov iXoiSopovv rov Aia>va, Xeyopre^ 
w ov XeXrjue KareTrahfov KaX KaraKpapfidaaeop t& 
TWaTcovo^ \6ycp Aiovvtnov, 07ra>? d<f>€vrof; ifcov- 
aia)^ avTOV Kal irpoefiivov rrjv dp')(r]v virdka^iov 
€69 70^9 ^ Apio'rofid'yrjf; irepiarrja-rj iralSa^, &v 
Oelo^ iariv, eviot oe irpoaeiroLovvro hva-xepai- 
veiv, el TTpoTepov p,lv *A0i]valoi vavTiKai^ koX 
ire^iKoi^ ovvdfieo't fieydXai^ Bevpo irXewavre^i 
aTTcoXoPTO KaX BL€(f)6dprja'ap irpoTCpop fj Xa^eip 

2 Xvpaxovaa^, pvpI Se Bi epo^ ao<f>i(rTOv KaraXvovai, 
Tr)p Aiopvalov TVpappiSa, a-Vfiireiaapre^ avTOP i/c 
T&p fivpLa>p Bopv(ji6p<ap dirohpdpra, ical fcaraXi- 
iropra rh^ rerpaKoaia^ rpnjpei^ fcal tou9 fivpiov^ 
iTnrel^ xal tou9 TroXXdKt^ to(tovtov^ oirXira^y iv 
^AKaSfffieia to (riaoTrco/jLepop dyadop ^i]T€ip koI Sia 
yetofierpia^ evSaipopa y€P€a6ai>, ttjp ip dpxv '^^^ 
XPVf'^^^ ^^^ Tpv^alf; evBatfiopiap i\l<t)Pi fcai to£9 
Aicopo^ dS€X<f>iBol(; irpoifiepop. 

3 'E/^ TovTcop vTTo^ia^ irpcorop, elra xal (bapepoD- 
Tcpas opyi]^ koI SLa<f>opd<; yepo/iipr)^, iKOfiLadtf ti^ 
€7naToX7j Kpv<f>a 7r/oo9 At^opvacop, fjp €yeypdxf>ei 
i^Uop 7r/)09 T0U9 Kap)(7fBopia)P iTrificXtfrctf; fceXevoDv, 
orap Aiopval^ we pi t^9 elprjPfi^ BtaXeya>PTat, fitj 
Yft)/)l9 aifTOV TTOdjaaaOai tt^p €pt€v^ip, d)9 irdpra 

4 urjaofiipov^ dfUTairT(OT(o^ Bi ainov, ravrrjp 
dpaypov^ duopvaio^ ^CXLaTto koL fi€T ixeipov 
/SovXevo'dfievo^, m <f>rjai Tifiaio^, inrrjXOe top 
Al(OPa V€7rXa(Tfiipai<; BtaXvaear xal p^eTpia 
(TKrjyfrd/iepo^ BiaXXdTTeaOaC t€ 0?;<7a9, fiopop t€ 
dirayaycbp viro ttjp aKpoiroXcp 7r/)09 ttjp ddXaa- 964 

28 



DION 

XIV. They therefore no longer abused Dion one 
by one and secretly, but all together and openly, 
saying that he was manifestly enchanting and be- 
witching Dionysius with Plato's doctrines, in order 
that the tyrant might of his own accord relinquish 
and give up the power, which Dion would then as- 
sume and devolve upon the children of Aristomache, 
whose uncle he was. And some pretended to be 
indignant that the Athenians, who in former times 
had sailed to Sicily with large land and sea forces, 
but had perished utterly without taking Syracuse, 
should now, by means of one sophist, overthrow the 
tyranny of Dionysius, by persuading him to dismiss 
his ten thousand body-guards, and abandon his four 
hundred triremes and his ten thousand horsemen 
and his many times that number of men-at-arms, 
in order to seek in Academic philosophy for a mys- 
terious good, and make geometry his guide to hap- 
piness, surrendering the happiness that was based 
on dominion and wealth and luxury to Dion and 
Dion's nephews and nieces. 

As a consequence of all this, Dionysius became at 
first suspicious, and afterwards more openly angry 
and hostile, and just then a certain letter was secretly 
hrought to him, which Dion had written to the Car- 
thaginian officials, urging them, whenever they should 
treat with Dionysius for peace, not to hold their in- 
terview without including him, since he would help 
them to arrange everything securely. This letter 
Dionysius read to Philistus, and after consulting 
Avith him, according to Timaeus, he beguiled Dion 
hy a feigned reconciliation. That is, after moderate 
protestations and a declaration that their quarrel 
was at an end, he led him off alone beneath the 

29 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aav, eSetfe Ttfv iinaToXrjv /cat KaTr}y6prj(r€P 0)9 
avviaTafiivov fiCTa KapXH^ovicov ctt' avrov, 
5 diroXoyelaOat Be ^ovXofiii^ov tov ^iwvo^ ovk 
avaax6/Jb€vo^, aXX* evOv^, 0)9 elx^t ivdefjLcvo^ ek 
aKariov trpoffira^e roh vavrai<: fco/u^ovra^ avrov 
ixdelvai irpo^ rrjv 'IraXtai/. 

XV. Tevofievov he tovtov fcal <f>avivro^ a)fiov 

T0t9 avOpODTTOL^, TfJV fl€V olfCLUV TOV TVpOVVOV TTCV- 

00^ elx^ BicL Ta9 yvvalKa^y ri he 7roX*9 tS)v %vpa- 
fcovaitav eTrrjpro Trpdyfiara vedirepa xal fiera^oXi^p 
Trpoahexofiivt) ra')(elav €K tov irepX Al<ova Oopv- 
^ov Kol T779 7rpo9 TOV Tvpavvov airtaTLa^ t&v 

2 aXkayv. h hfj avvop&v 6 Aiovvato^ Koi hehoiKW^, 
Toi»9 fiev <l>[Xov<: irapefivOelTO xaX Ta9 yvvacKa^ C09 
ov ^1/7^9, a)OC diTohrjiuas T(p Aiaypi yeyevr}fievq^, 
C09 fJiTj Ti ')(e%pov opyfj TTpo^ T7)p avOdheiuv avTov 
rrapovTo^ dfJuapTeiv ^laadeit)' hvo he vav<; irapa- 
hov<; ToU Aiayvo^ oiKeloi^ eiceXevaev evdefievoi^ oaa 
PovkoLVTO T&v CKeivov XPVH^'^^ ^^'' OepdirovTa^ 

3 dirdyeiv irpb^ avTov el^ TleXoirovvrfaov, fjv S' 
ovaia fieydXtf t& Aicdvi xal ax€h6v ti TvpavviKtj 
irofiirr) KaX KaTaaxevrj irepl Trjv hiaiTav, fjv 01 
(piXoi <TvXXal36vT€^ ifco/xi^ov, aXXa S' eirefiireTo 
TToWA iraph t&v yvvatK&v /cal t&v eTuipoDV, 
&aT€ xprifxdTWv evexa koI ttXovtov Xafiirpov ev 
T0t9 '^EXXriGLV elvai fcal hia<f)avrjvat t^ tov <l)vyd' 
&)9 eviropia Tt^v t^9 TvpavvLho^ hvvafivv, 

XVI. TiXaTcova he Aiovvaioq eifOif^; fikv eh Trjv 
aKpoTToXiv fieTea-Tfjaev, evTifiov avT^ (T^Vf^ciTi 

30 



DION 

acropolis down to the sea^ and then showed him the 
letter and accused him of conspiring with the Car- 
thaginians against him. And when Dion wished to 
defend himself^ he would not suffer it^ but at once 
placed him^ just as he was^ on board a small boat^ 
and commanded the sailors in it to set him ashore 
in Italy. 

XV. At this proceeding, which seemed to men a 
cruel one, the women in the household of the tyrant 
put on mourning, but the citizens of Syracuse were 
cheered by the expectation of a revolution and a 
speedy change in the government, since Dion's 
treatment caused such a commotion and the rest 
of the courtiers distrusted the tyrant. Dionysius 
saw this and was afraid, and sought to console the 
friends of Dion and the women by saying that he 
had not sent Dion into exile, but upon a journey, 
in order that his wrath at the man's self-will when 
at home might not drive him to do him some 
worse wrong. He also handed over two ships to 
the kinsmen of Dion and bade them to put on 
board whatever property and servants of Dion's 
they pleased and convey them to him in Pelopon- 
nesus. Now, Dion had great riches and an almost 
princely splendour of appointment in his way of 
living, and tliis his friends got together and con- 
veyed to him. Besides, many other things were sent 
to him from the women of the court and from his 
adherents, so that, as far as wealth and riches went, 
he was a brilliant figure among the Greeks, to whom 
the affluence of the exile gave some idea of the 
power of the tyrant. 

XVI. As for Plato, Dionysius at once removed 
him to the acropolis, where he contrived to give 

31 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
^€via<; <f>iXav0pdyirov (f>povpav firi')(av'qfTdfi€VO^, d>9 

hk fcal (TwSi,aLTi]a€t, /caff dire p yjraveiv avdpdyjrov 
ffrjpiov, iffiaffeh VTrofiivetv rrjv re^ ofiiXiav avrov 
fcal TOP \6yov, fjpdadrj rvpavviKov epcora, fwvo^ 
d^i&v VTTO n\aT0)i/09 dvrepaaffai teal ffavfid- 
^eaffai fidXiara irdmcov, eroipLO^ &v iTnTpiireiv 
TcL TTpdyfjLaTa /cal rrjp rvpavvlha firi Trporifi&vri 

2 rrjv 7rpo9 ^i(ova <f>i\Lav t^? tt/oo? avrov. f)P oiv 
T& HXdrcopi avpj(f>opa to irdffo^ avrov rovro, 
fiaivofiipov Kaddirep oi Bvaepayre^ vtto fryXoTU- 
7r/a9, Kol 7roXKct<; fjuip opyci^ ip oXlytp XP^^^> 
TToXXa? he SiaX\a7^9 Kal Beija-ei^ rroiovpAifov 
wpo^ avrop, dxpoaaOac Se r&p Xoycjp Kal xocvo^pelp 
rrj'i rrepl i^iXoao<j>Lap wpayfiarda^ (TTrovSd^ovro^ 
fi€P vrr€p<l>va>^, alSov/MCPov Si roif^ drrorperrovra^; 
0)9 Sia^ffaprja-ofiivov, 

3 'Ej/ rovr<p Bk iroXifiov ripo^ ijirreaopro^ drro- 
TrifjLTrei rop HXdrcova, (TVpffejJLSPo^ eh &pap erov^ 
/xeraTrefJLyJraaffai Aicopa, Kal rovro /xep evffif^ 
iylrevaaro, ra^ Se TrpoaoSov^ r&p KrrffjLdrayp dire- 
rrefiirep avr&, d^ixop UXdrcopa avyypeopai irepl 
rov ')(p6pov oicL rop iroXe/Juop' elpijpr)^ yap yepo- 
fi€Pr)<; rd^to'Ta fieraTrefiyjreadai rop Aicapa, xal 
a^iovp avTOP '^av^^ap dyeip xal firjhep vecorepi^eip 
firjSe ^Xaa<f>r)fie2p Kar avrov 7r/oo9 tou9 '^EXXrjpa<:, 

XVIL Tavra erreiparo iroielp TTXaTwi/, KaX 
Aiaypa rpi'^a^ erri ^CXo<To<f)Lap ip ^AKaSrffAeia 
a-vpelx^v. ^K€i fiep oip ep aarei irapct KaX- 
Xiinr^ ripl r&p ypcopi/iayp, aypop Si Siaytoyrjs 

32 



DION 

liim a guard of honour under pretence of hospitable 
kindness^ in order that he might not accompany 
Dion and bear witness to his wrongs. But after 
time and intercourse had accustomed Dionysius to 
tolerate his society and discourse^ just as a wild 
beast learns to have dealings with men, he conceived 
a passion for him that was worthy of a tyrant, de- 
manding that he alone should have his love returned 
by Plato and be admired beyond all others, and he 
was ready to entrust Plato with the administration 
of the tyranny if only he would not set his friend- 
ship for Dion above that which he had for him. 
Now^ this passion of his was a calamity for Plato, 
for the t3rrant was mad with jealousy, as desperate 
lovers are, and in a short space of time would often 
be angry ¥rith him and as often beg to be reconciled ; 
for he was extravagantly eager to hear his doctrines 
and share in his philosophical pursuits, but he dreaded 
the censiu*e of those who tried to divert him from 
this course as likely to corrupt him. 

At this juncture, however, a war broke out, and 
he sent Plato away, promising him that in the summer 
he would summon Dion home. This promise, indeed, 
he immediately broke, but he kept sending to Dion 
the revenues from his property, and asked Plato to 
pardon his postponement of the time of Dion's re- 
call, because of the war ; as soon as peace was made 
he would summon Dion home, and he asked him to 
be quiet, and to attempt no revolution, and to say no 
evil of him to the Greeks. 

XVII. This Plato tried to effect, and kept Dion 
with him in the Academy, where he turned his at- 
tention to philosophy. Dion dwelt in the upper 
city of Athens ^ with Callippus, one of his acquaint- 

1 The ** upper city," as distinguished from the Piraeus. 

33 
VOL. VI. n 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X^'piv iKTrjaaro, xal tovtov icrepov eU XiKcXiav 
wXitov SiTrevclmrep Saopehv ISodkcv, (^ fiaXi^ara 
T&v ^Adrflrqtn (f>i\a)V ixpV'^o /cat avvScrjT&ro, ^ov- 
Xo/jUvov rov TtkaTcovo^ ofxikLa X^P^^ ^X^^^V ^^^ 
iraiSid^ ifi/ieXov^ /caret xaipov aTTTOfievt} Kcpavvv- 

2 fjL€POv a(l>r)Svv€a0ai rov AioDvo^ rb ^0o^, roiovro^ 
Si Ti9 6 '^irevaiinro^ fjv* ff KaX aKCjyjrai ar/adov 
ainov iv roh StWo*? o Tifjuov Trpoarjyopeva'ev. 
avT^ Si TLKaTODVi yoprjyovvrt rralStov X^P^ '^^^ 
T€ xppov i](TKr)a€V o Aitov /cal rb Sairdpfffia irav 
ireXeae irap iavrov, avyxa^povPTOf: rod UXdrayvo^ 
rffv ToiavTfjv if>iXoTi/uav rrpo^ tov^ ^AdtjvcUov^, 

0)9 iKeivtp fidXXop evvoiav fj So^av avr^ ^ipovaav, 955 

3 'E7re<^otTa 5€ koX ral^i aXXat^ iroXeaiv 6 Aicov, 
Koi (rvv€<rx6Xa^€ Ktd cweTravriyvpi^e roi^ apl- 
aroi^ KoX iroXniKdHTdroi^ dvSpdaiv, oifSiv iv rf} 
SuiLTrj aoXoiKov iiriSeifcvvp^evo^ ovSe rvpawiKbv 
ovSh €7rtT€0pv/Mfievov, dXXii (T(o(f)poavpr)v KaX ape- 
Tt}P xal dpSpeiap xal irepl X6yov<; xal irepl ff>CXo- 
ao<f)iap evo'XVP'Opa^ SuiTpil3d<;, i<f>* 0I9 evpota 
irapct, irdpTtov iyipero xal ^rjXo^ avrw rifjuii re 
Srffjuoaiai Kal ylrrj<f)L<rfiaTa irapa t&p iroXecov, 

4 AaKcSai/JLOPiot Si /cal X'n'aprtdrrfv avrbp inroLri' 
aapTO, T^9 Aiopvaiov Kara^popijaavTe^ 0/07^9, 
Kolirep avTol^ t6t€ irpoOv/Mfo^ iirl tou9 Si]/3aiov^ 
avfifiaxovPTO^. XeycTai Si wore top Alwpa rov 
Meyapio)^ TlroioSwpov Seofjuevop iirX rrjp oiKiav 
iXOelp' ^p Si, 0)9 €oi/c€, t&p irXovtrimp t*9 KaX 

5 Svpartap JlroioSaypo^* oxXop oip iirX dvpai^ 
lSa)P 6 Almp KaX irXtjOo^ daxoXiwp KaX Svaip- 
T€VKTOP avrbp KaX SvatrpoaoSop, dTriSayp 7r/)09 
Toy9 (f>iXov^ Svax^paipopra^ KaX ayapaKTovpra^, 

34 



DION 

ances^ but for diversion he bought a country-place, 
and afterwards, when he sailed to Sicily, he gave 
this to Speusippus, who was his most intimate friend 
at Athens. For Plato desired that Dion's disposition 
should be tempered and sweetened by association 
with men of charming presence who indulged season- 
ably in graceful pleasantries. And such a man was 
Speusippus; wherefore Timon, in his "Silli," spoke 
of him as " good at a jest/* And when Plato him- 
self was called upon to furnish a chorus of boys, 
Dion had the chorus trained and defrayed all the 
expense of its maintenance, and Plato encouraged 
in him such an ambition to please the Athenians, on 
the ground that it would procure goodwill for Dion 
rather than fame for himself. 

Dion used to visit the other cities also, where he 
shared the leisure and festal enjoyments of the 
noblest and most statesmanlike men, manifesting 
in his conduct with them nothing that was rude or 
arrogant or effeminate, but rather great modera- 
tion, virtue, and manliness, and a becoming devotion 
to letters and philosophy. This procured him the 
emulous goodwill of all men, and decrees of public 
honours from the cities. The Lacedaemonians even 
made him a citizen of Sparta, without any regard 
for the anger of Dionysius, although at that time the 
tjrrant was their zealous ally against the Thebans. 
And it is related that Dion once went to pay a visit 
to Ptoeodorus the Megarian, upon his invitation. Now 
Ptoeodorus, it would seem, was one of the wealthy 
and influential men of the city ; and when, therefore, 
Dion saw a crowd of people at his door, and a press 
of business, which made him difficult of access and 
iiard to come at, he turned to his friends, who were 

35 
D 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



"Tt toCtoi/," €<^?;, " fJL€fi(f>6/JL€0a; Koi ycip avrol 
iravrco^ iv ^vpaKov<rcu^ ofioca tovtoi^ iwoiovfjiev.^ 
XVIIL ^povov Se irpolovro^; o ^lovvaio^ ^rfXo- 
TVTTCJV fcal SeSot/cft)9 rov i^iayvo^ Ttfv irapa toi<s 
''EKX'qaiv evvovav, iiravaaro ra^ irpoaohov^ airo- 
ariWayv koX ttjv ovaiav irapiSa/cep ISioi^ iirLrpo- 
TTOi^, j3ovk6pL€vo^ Be Kal rrfp €t9 tou? <f>i\o<T6<f)ov(: 
SicL UXaTcova xa/coSo^iav dvafid^eaOai, ttoXXol'? 
avvTJye r&v ireiraihevadaL SoKOVvrtov, <f>i\oTi' 
/jLOVfievo^; Sk r^ BcaXeyeadat vepteivai irdpTtov, 
rjvayfcd^ero Toi<i IlXdrtovo^ trapaKovafiafTL kukA^ 

2 XPV^^^^' ^^^ irdXiv CKetvov itroBu, koX xareyi- 
v<aaK€v auT09 avTOv fxt) ')(prjadfi€VO<; irapovri firjBe 
SiuKOvaa^ oaa Ka\&^ el'xev, ola Se rvpavvo^ 
€fjL7r\rjKT0<: del raU iindvfdai^ Kal irpb^ irdaav 
o^vppOTTO^ airovhriv, €vdv<; Apfirjaev iirl top flXa- 
T(Opa, Kal iraaap /Ltr/^^ai/^v atpa>p, avperreiae tov^ 
irepX ^Apyyrap TIvOayopiKoif^ t&p ofiokoyovp/^pcop 
dpaBoxov^ yepofiipov^; xaXetp TlXdTcopa' Si €K€L- 
pov yap avToi^ iyeyopu <f>iKia xal ^epia ro irpS)- 

3 TOP. oi S' eirefjLyjrap 'Apx^BijfWP trap avTOP* 
€7r€fiyjte Sk teal Aiopvaio^ Tpiijprf teal (jylXov^ 
Seqaofiipov^ Tov IlXaTWj/o?* avT09 re <ra<fiS}^ Kal 
Siapp7]Sr)p eypayfrep C09 oifSep ap yipoiTo t&p 
fieTpLdop Aiaypc firj TreiadipTo^ TLXdTWPO^ iXdeip 
619 XiKeKiap, ireiadipTO^ Sk irdpra, iroWal S* 
d<f>LK0PT0 7r/709 Aidova trapd t^9 aS6X^^9 Kal 
yvpaiKO^ iiriaKrjy^eL^i helaOai II\aTft)i/o9 vfraKOv- 
aai AiopvaUp xal firj irp6<\>aaip 7rapaa-j(€lp. ot/ro) 

36 



DION 

vexed and indignant at it^ and said : " Why should 
we blame this man ? For we ourselves used to do 
just so in Syracuse." 

XVIII. But as time went on^ Dionysius became 
jealous of Dion and afraid of his popularity among 
the Greeks. He therefore stopped sending him his 
revenues^ and handed his estate over to his own 
private stewards. However, with a desire to make 
head against the bad repute which he had also won 
among the philosophers on Plato's account, he as- 
sembled at his court many men with a reputation 
for learning. But he was ambitious to surpass them 
all in discussion, and was therefore driven to use 
inaptly what he had imperfectly learned from Plato. 
So he yearned once more for that philosopher, and 
reproached himself for not having utilized his pres- 
ence to learn all that he should have learned. And 
since, like a tyrant, he was always extravagant in his 
desires and headstrong in all that he undertook, he 
set out at once to secure Plato, and, leaving no stone 
unturned, persuaded Archytas and his fellow Pytha- 
goreans to become sureties for his agreements, and 
to summon Plato; for it was through Plato, in the 
first place, that he had entered into friendly rela- 
tions with these philosophers. So they sent Arche- 
demus to Plato, and Dionysius also sent a trireme 
for him, and friends to entreat his return. He also 
wrote to him himself in clear and express terms, 
sa3ring that no mercy should be shown to Dion unless 
Plato were persuaded to come to Sicily; but if he 
were persuaded, every mercy. Dion also received 
many injunctions from his wife and sister, that he 
should beg Plato to listen to Dionysius and not 
afford him an excuse for further severity. Thus it 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fi€P 8i] <f>ri<nv 6 TUXdrfov iXOelv to rplrov el^ tov 
TTopOfiov TOV frepi '^KvKKav,^ 

6<f>p €Ti Tr^v oXoTfv avapjeTpTjaeie ^dpv/3Siv* 

XIX. *Ei\0a)p Se /j£ydXi]<; fiev avTov iv€7r\r)<T6 
')(apd<;, fieydXrj^ Be irdXiv cXttiSo? ^iKeXiav, avvev* 
XOfievrjv KoX <rvp><l)ikoTifiovfi€Vi]v IlXaTwi/a fiev 
^iXlaTov irepiyeveadai, <f>tXo(TO<f>Lav Se Tvpav- 
viho^, fjv Se iroXXff fxkv t&v yvvai/c&v (rirovSrj 
irepl aifTov, e^alpeTO^ Se irapa r^ Aiovvaio) 
7rt(7TA9, fjv ovSel<; dXXo^ el'xev, dSiepevvrjTov avTw 

2 irXr^a-id^eiv, S(opea^ Se ^/OT/yLcaTWi; ttoXX&v xaX 

TTOXXdKl^ TOV fJL€V St>S6vT0<;, TOV Sc flTJ SexofJiCPov, 

7rapa)v ^ApLaTL7nro<; 6 KvpTjvato^; da<f>aX&^ €<f>rj 
fieyaXoyjrvxov eivai Aiovvaiop' avTot(; fiev yap 
fii/cpa ScSopai ttXelopwp Seofiepoi^, TlXdTcovi Se 
TToXXa firjSep Xafi^dvopTi. 

3 Mera Se ri? TrpdoTa^ (}>iXo<f)poavpa^, dp^apApov 
TiXdT(OPo<; epTvyxdpeip trepX Alcopo^;, virepOia-ei^ 
TO irp&TOP fiaaVt eiTa p^ep^y^et^ KaX Sia(f>opal Xap- 
ddpovaai tov^ e/CT09, iiriKpvTrTop^pov Atovvaiov 

KOI Tai<; aXXai^ top UXdT(opa Bepaireiat^ KaX 966 
Tipal^ ireipcopepov wapdyeip dfro tt}? Aitopo^ ev- 
voia^, ovS* avTOP ep ye T0Z9 TrpooTOif; ^/ooi/ot? aTro- 
KaXvTTTOPTa TTjp dTTiaTiap avTov KaX yjrevSoXoyiap, 

4 aXV eyKapTepovPTa KaX a^VM^T^'^op^pop. ovTtd 
Se SiaKetp,ep(i>p irpo^ dXXijXov^ KaX Xapddveip 

^ SkvAAov as in Plato, Epiat, vii. p. 346 ; Coraes retains 
the 'itK€\iay of the MSS. 

38 



DION 

was^ then^ that Plato^ as he himself says, '^came for 
the third time to the straits of Scylla, 

That he might once more measure hack his way to 
feU Charybdis."! 

XIX. His arrival filled Dionysius with great joy, 
and the Sicilians again with great hope; they all 
prayed and laboured zealously that Plato might 
triumph over Philistus, and philosophy over tyranny. 
The women also were very earnest in his behalf, 
and Dionysius gave him a special token of his trust, 
which no one else had, in the privilege of coming 
into his presence without being searched. The t3rrant 
offered him, too, presents of money, much money 
and many times, but Plato would not accept them. 
Whereupon Aristippus of Cyrene, who was present 
on one of these occasions, said that Dionysius was 
safely munificent; for he offered little to men like 
him, who wanted more, but much to Plato, who 
would take nothing. 

After the first acts of kindness, however, Plato 
introduced the subject of Dion, and then there were 
postponements at first on the part of Dionysius, and 
afterwards faultfindings and disagreements. These 
were unnoticed by outsiders, since Dionysius tried 
to conceal them, and sought by the rest of his kind 
attentions and honourable treatment to draw Plato 
away from his goodwill towards Dion. And even 
Plato himself did not at first reveal the t3rrant*s 
perfidy and falsehood, but bore with it and dis- 
sembled his resentment. But while matters stood 
thus between them, and no one knew of it, as they 

^ Odyssey, xii. 428, with slight adaptation from the first 
person. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iravra^ olofiivcov, 'EXifctov 6 Kv^iKfjvo^ eh r&v 
Il\dTG)V09 (TVVYjdfov rfslov TTpoelirev exXeiylnv xal 
yevofievi]^ 0)9 irpoelire, ffavfiaadel^ inro rov Tupdv- 
vov hcopeav eka^ev dpyvpiov rdXavTOv, ^Apl- 
(TTtTTTTO? Be irai^eov irpo^ tou? aXkov^ <f>i\o<T6<f>ov<i 
€<f>r} Ti Kol auT09 ex^iv r&v TrapaSo^tov irpoeitrelv. 
eKeiv(ov he (f>pdaai SeofievoDv, " H pokey cd tolvvv,*' 
elirev, " oXCyov 'x^povov TlXdrayva xal Aiovvaiov 

5 ex^pov^ yevriaoiJLevov<;>^ reko^ ik rrjv fiev ovaiav 
Tov Al(i)vo<; 6 Aiovvaco^; eTrooXei koX rd ^^/oiy/iara 
Karelx^, TiXdroDva S* ev t^ irepX rrjv olxLav Krfrtp 
ZiavToapjevov eh tou? fii<T6o<f>6pov<; p,eTearrj<Te ird- 
Xai fiiaovvra^ avrov Koi ^rfTovvra^: dveXelv ©9 
Treldovra Aiovvaiov d^eivai rrfv rvpavviSa koI 
^rjv dSopvcjioprjTov, 

XX. 'El/ Toiovr(p Se Kivhvv^ yevo/juevov tov 
IlXdrayvo^ 01 irepl ^ApxvTav TrvOo/ievoi Tayy irefi" 
TTOvai irpea^eiav KaX rpiafcovropov, diraiTovvTe^ 
TOV dvhpa irapd Aiovvaiov tcaX XeyovTe^ w^ av- 
T0U9 Xa/Scbv dvahoxovf; ttj^ da^aXeia^ irXevaeiev 
eh XvpaKovaa<;» diroXeyofjievov Be tov Aiovv- 
aiov TTfv ex^pO'V eaTidaeai KaX <f>iXo(f>poavvai^ 

2 wepX T^i^ irpoTTOfiTrijv, hf he rt irpoax'^^vTo^ wpo^ 
avTOv ToiovTov elireiv " *H ttov, TlXaTcov, troXXd 
KaX heivd KaTTjyopijaei^ tj/jl&v 7rpo9 Tot'9 av/ii<f>iXo' 
aoffyovvTa^;**^ virofjieihidaa^ eKeivo^ direKpivaTo* 
" M^ ToaavTff Xoytov ev ^AKahrj/Meia yevoiTo aivd- 
vi^ &aTe aov Tiva fimffiovevaai.^^ ToiavTijv p,ev 
Ttjv diroaToXrjv tov UXdTcovo^ yeveaOai Xeyovaiv 
ov p,€VTOi Ta n\aTft>yo9 avTov irdw tovtois aw- 
dhei. 



40 



DION 

sapposed^ Helicon of Crziciis, <»e of Plato's inti- 
mates^ predicted an eclipse of the sun. This took 
place as he had predicted^ in consequence of which 
he was admired by the tyrant and presented with a 
talent of silver. Thereapon Aiistippos, jesting with 
the rest of the philosophers, said that he himself 
also could predict scHnething strange. And when 
they besought him to tell what it was, " Well, thenj" 
said he, " I predict that ere long Plato and Dionysios 
will become enemies." At last Dionysius sold the 
estate of Dion and appropriated the money, and re> 
moving Plato from his lodging in the palace garden, 
put him in charge of his mercenaries, who had long 
hated the philosopher and sought to kill him, on 
the ground that he was trying to persuade Dionysius 
to renounce the tyranny and live without a body- 
guard. 

XX. Now when Archytas and his fellow Pjrtha- 
goreans learned that Plato was in such peril, they 
quickly sent a galley with an embassy, demanding 
him from Dionysius and declaring that Plato had 
taken them for sureties of bis safety when he sailed 
to Syracuse. Dionysius sought to disprove his enmity 
to Plato by giving banquets in his honour and making 
kind provisions for his journey, and went so far as 
to say something like this to him : '' I suppose, Plato, 
thou wilt bring many dire accusations against me to 
the ears of your fellow philosophers." To this Plato 
answered with a smile : " Heaven forbid that there 
should be such a dearth of topics for discussion in the 
Academy that any one mention thee." Such, they 
say, was the dismissal of Plato ; Plato's own words,i 
however, do not entirely agree with this account. 

^ Epist. vii. p. 349 f. 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXL tdfov he Kol rovToi<; ixd^^iraLve, xal fier 
oXiyov 'xpovov i^eirdkefioodrj iravTaTracn 7rvff6fjL€vo^ 
TO irepl rr^v yvvalfca, wepl ov fcal TlXaTcov yvi^aTO 
ypcufxjov 7r/}09 Aiovvaiov, fjv he tovovtov. fierct 
Ttjp ifcfi6\r)v Tov Al(ovo^ airoirifiTreov TlXdreova 
Aiovvaco<; eKeXevaev avrov hi airopprjroDv irvde- 
aOai, fiTf Ti KQ)Kvoi rrjv yvvaiKU 7r/)09 ydfiov €T€p<p 

2 hodrjvar kol yhp fjv \0709, eW a\7)dr)<; etre avv' 
reOel^ vtto t&v Aiaova fiKTovvTcov, e&9 ov Kaff r]ho- 
V7)v 6 ydfjLO^ ett} Aicovt yeyova)^; ovh* eifapfwa-To^ rf 
7r/oo9 Tfjv yvvauKa aufi/Sieoo'i^, ay; oiv fjxev 6 
TlXaTtov ^Adrjva^e /cat r^ Alcovl irepX Travrcov 
€V€TVX€, ypd^ei irpo^; tov Tvpavvov ifnaToXr^v to, 
fiev aWa a'a<f)&<; irdaiv, avTo he tovto fwvtp 71/(0- 
pcfjLov eKeivfp (f>pd^ov(Tav, <W9 hiaXex^CLr) Aicopi 
irepl TOV 7rpdyfiaT0<; i/ceCvov kol atjyohpa hrj\o<: eirj 
XoXeiraivtov, el tovto AiovvaLo^ e^epydaavTo. 

3 KoX t6t€ fiev €Ti iroW&v eXTrlhcov ova&v irpo^ 
Ta9 hiaXvaeu^ ovhev eirpa^e irepl Trjv dheX^ffv 
vewTepov, dXX' eXa fieveiv avTr)v fieTh tov iraihiov 
TOV Ata)V09 ol/cov<rav. iirel he TravTdiraaiv 
davfjL^dTd)^ elx€ fcai TLXdTtov atfdi<; eXOwv aire- 
'7r€fi<f>0i] 7r/}09 aTrexOciav, ovtg) tt)v ^ApeTrjv 
axovaav evl t&v (jyiXcov TifioxpaTei hihcoaiv, ov 
fiijjLTiadfievo^ r^i/ /cara 76 tovto tov iraTpo^ 
eTTcei/ceiav, 

4 ^^lyeyovei ydp, (09 eoiKe, KcLKeivep TioXv^evo^ 
TTfv dh€X<f)rfv €%(»v avTOV ®e<rTrjv TroXefxco^. anro- 



43 



DION 

XXI. But Dion was vexed by all this, and shortlj 
afterwards became altogether hostile when he learned 
how his wife had been treated, an which matter 
Plato also spoke covertly in a letter to Dionyaus. 
The case was as follows. After the expulsion of 
Dion, and when Dionysius was sending Plato back,^ 
he bade him learn from Dion confidentially whether 
he would oppose his wife's manying another man ; 
for there was a report, whether true or concocted 
by Dion's enemies, that his marriage had not proved 
agreeable to him, and that he did not live harmo- 
niously with his wife. Accordingly, after Plato came 
to Athens and had conferred with Dion about eveiy- 
thing, he wrote a letter to the tyrant which spoke 
of other matters in a way that was clear to anybody, 
but of this particular matter in language that could 
be understood by Dionysius alone, saying that he 
had talked with Dion about that business, and that 
Dion would evidently be exceedingly angiy if Dio- 
nysius should carry it through.' Now, as long as 
there were many hopes of a reconciliation, the tyrant 
took no violent measures with his sister, but suffered 
her to continue living with Dion's young son ; when, 
however, the estrangement was complete, and Plato, 
who had come to Sicily a second time, had been sent 
away in enmity, then he gave Arete in marriage, 
against her will, to Timocrates, one of his friends. 
And in this action, at least, he did not imitate the 
reasonableness of his father. 

For the elder tyrant also, as it would appear, had 
a sister, Theste, whose husband, Polyxenus, had be- 
come his enemy. When, therefore, Polyxenus was 



^ For the first time ; cf. chapter zvi. 3. 
> Cf. Epist. jdii p. 362 ad Jin. 



43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hpdvTo^ ovv avTov Bta ^ofiov koX <f>vy6vT0^ ifc 
ZcKcXia^ fi€Ta7r€fiy^dfi€Vo^ I^Tidro ttjv aS€\(f)ijv, 
OTi (TweiSvia rrjv (pvyrjv rov avBp6<; ov KarelTre 

5 7rpo9 avTOV. 17 S* aveKTrXrJKTO)^ xal vrf AC d<j>6' 
^0)9* "EZ^' ovTOD aoi BoKa>, Aiovvaie, ^avXri yvvff 
yeyovivai /cal avavSpo^ &<tt€ irpoyvovaa rrjv 
<f>vyrjv rov dvSpo^ ovk av (TweKTrXevaai /cat /juera- 
G%idv T^9 aiT^9 '^vxv^f a\V ov Trpoeyvcop' iirel 
KaX&^ €iX€ fioi fiaXkov TloXv^ivov yvvatKa (fiev- 967 
yovTO^ f] (Tov TVpavpovpTO<; dSeXf^ffp XeyeaOai.^^ 
ravra t^9 Searrf^ Trappijaiaaafiiprj^; ffavpAaai 

6 Xiyovai top rvpappop. iOavfiaaav he KaX oi 
XvpaKovaioi TtfP dperrjp t% yvpaiKo^, &aT€ Kal 
fjuerd Ttfp KardXvaip t^9 rvpappiBo^ eKeiprf Tififjp 
Kol Oepaireiap fiaaiXiKrjp virdpxeiP, dirodapovar}^ 
he Brj/jLoaia 7r/oo9 rrfp Ta<f>ffp iira/coXovdrja-ai tov^ 
TToXira^, ravra fiep oip ovk d')(pr)(Trop e'x^i rrjp 
7rap€K/3aaip, 

XXII* 'O Be AicdP iprevOep r]Brj rpetrerai, irpb^ 
iToXepLOPi avrov fiep TlXdroypo^ ifCTroBwp iarafxevov 
Bl alBcb rrj^ 7rpo<; Aiopvaiop ^epia<i KaX yrjpa<;, 
^Treva-LTTTrov Be Kal ra)p SXKwp eraipmp r^ Alcopi 
avXXaii^apoPTCop Kal TrapaKeXevofiepcop eXevOe- 
povp ZtiKeXiap yelpa^; opeyovaap avr^ Kal rrpoOv- 
2 /ia>9 vTToBeyop'eprfp, ore ydp ep %vpaKovaaL<i 
tlXdroDP BierpilSep, oi irepl ^irevaiirivop, <b9 eoiKe, 
fuiXXop dpa/uypvfJL€Poi roh dpOodiroLs Karefidp- 
Oapop Tffp Bidpoiap avra>p, Kal rb jmp irpayrop 
€<f>ol3ovvro rffp Trappfja-iap ©9 Bidireipap oJktop 
viro rov rvpdppov, XP^^V ^' eiriarevaap, 6 yap 
auT09 ^p Trapd irdprcop X0709 Beofiepwp koX irapa- 
K€X€vofiipo>p eXdelp AUopa fiif pav^ exovra firjB^ 

44 



DION 

moved by fear to run away and go into exile from 
Sicily^ the tyrant sent for his sister and upbraided 
her because she had been privy to her husband's 
flight and had not told her brother about it. But 
she, without consternation, and, indeed, without fear, 
replied : " Dost thou think me, Dionysius, such a 
mean and cowardly wife that, had I known before- 
hand of my husband's flight, I would not have sailed 
off with him and shared his fortunes? Indeed, I 
did not know about it; since it would have been 
well for me to be called the wife of Polyxenus the 
exile, rather than the sister of Dionysius the tyrant." 
The tyrant is said to have admired Theste for this 
bold speech. And the Syracusans also admired the 
virtue of the woman, so that even after the dissolu- 
tion of the tyranny she retained the honours and 
services paid to royalty, and when she died, the 
citizens, by public consent, attended her funeral. 
This is a digression, it is true, but not a useless 
one. 

XXII. From this time on Dion turned his thoughts 
to war. With this Plato himself would have nothing 
to do, out of respect for his tie of hospitality with 
Dionysius, and because of his age. But Speusippus 
and the rest of his companions co-operated with Dion 
and besought him to free Sicily, which stretched out 
her arms to him and eagerly awaited his coming. 
For when Plato was tarrying in Syracuse, Speusippus, 
as it would appear, mingled more with its people 
and learned to know their sentiments ; and though 
at first they were afraid of his boldness of speech, 
thinking it a trap set for them by the tyrant, yet 
in time they came to trust him. For all now spoke 
in the same strain, begging and exhorting Dion to 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oirXlra^ fiffS" Lirrrov^, aXX* avrov eU inrffperiKov 
i/jL^dvra XPW^^ '''^ cr&fia koI Toivofia %i,K€Kid)- 

3 Ta«9 €7rl Tov Aiovvcriov, ravra r&v irepl ^irev- 
anrTTOV a/yyeWovrmv iirtppwaOeX^ i^evokoyei 
Kpv<l>a Kol &' kripwv iinKpviTTOfievo^ rrjv Scd- 
vouLV, <njv€7rpaTrov Be Kal r&v ttoXitik&v iroWol 
Kol T&v (l>tXoa'6<f>Ci)V, o T€ KvTTpio^ "EivSrifw^;, 6^*9 iv 
^Apia-ToreXi]^ airodavovra tov irepl y^v^^^ Bid- 

4 Xoyov iTToirjae, xal TifiayvtBi]^; 6 AevxaSto^. aw- 
iarrjaav Be /cal MtXrai; avT^ tov Qea-a-oKov, 
avBpa fidvTiv /cal /A€Te<rx^/coTa Trj^ iv ^AxaBrifieia 
BiaTpi^rj^, T&v S' vTTo TOV Tvpdwov 'n'€<f>vyaB€V' 
pAvaav, ov fxelov fj yikmv ovtcov, irivTC teal eiKoai 
fjLOvoi TTJ^ aTpaTeia^ i/cotvtovrjaav, oi B* aXKoi 

5 irpovBoaav diroBetKida'avTe^, 6pfir)Trjpiov S' ^v 
fi Zafcvvdioov v^aof;, e*9 ffv oi aTpaTi&Tat, avvek- 
dyrfo-av oKTaxoaloav iXdTTOv^ y€v6/jb€voi, yvdptfiot 
Bi trdvTe^ etc iroW&v /cat fieydXtov CTpaTei&v, koi 
Toh awfUKTCv TJaKfip^ivoi BLa<f>€p6vTeof;y ip/ireipia Be 
/cal ToXfiff 7ro\v irdvTcov KpaTiaToi, /cal Bvvdp^vov 
7r\7j0o<; o<Tov rfXirt^ev i^eiv iv %i/C€\ia Aicov vireK- 
Kavaai /cal (rvve^opfirjaai tt/oo? d\K7]v. 

XXIII. Oi/TOi TO fiev irpcoTOV aKovaavre^ iirl 
/iiovvaiov /cal Si/ceXiav alpeaOai tov (ttoXov, 
e^eTrXdytfaav /cal KaTeyvaxrav, c!)9 opyrj^ tlvo<; 
7rapa(f>pocrvvrf xal fiavia tov Alcovo^ ^ ^/o^o-Teii/ 
iXwiSav diropLa piiTTovvTO^ iavTov 6^9 direyvaxT' 
fiiva^ 7r/oa^6£9' /cal Tot9 eavTc^v ^^yep^ai /cal 
^€voX6yoi<; wpyL^ovTO fit) Trpoenrovaiv evBv^ e( 
2 apxv^ TOV iroXefiov. iirel ok AicDV t^ X6y<p tA 
aadpa ttj^ TVpavvlBo<; eire^ioav iBLBaaKev, a)9 ov 

46 



DION 

come without ships, men-at-annSy or horses ; he was 
simply to come himself in a small boat^ and lend the 
Sicilians his person and his name against Dionysius. 
Encouraged by this information from Speusippos, 
Dion collected mercenaries secretly and by tiie 
agency of others, concealing his purpose. He was 
assisted also by many statesmen and philos<^>hers, 
such as Eudemus the Cyprian, on whose death 
Aristotle wrote his dialogue " On the Soul/' and 
Timonides the Leucadian Furthermore, they en- 
listed on his side Miltas the Thessalian also, who 
was a seer and had studied in the Academy. But 
of those who had been banished by the tyrant, and 
there were not less than a thousand of them, only 
twenty-five took part in the expedition ; the rest 
played the coward and abandoned it. The rendez- 
vous was the island of Zacynthus, and here the 
soldiers were assembled. They numbered fewer than 
eight hundred, but they were all well known in con- 
sequence of many great campaigns, their bodies were 
exceptionally well trained, while in experience and 
daring they had no equals in the world, and were cap- 
able of inciting and inflaming to share their prowess 
all the host which Dion expected to have in Sicily. 

XXIII. At first, indeed, when these men heard 
that their expedition was directed against Dionysius 
and Sicily, they were full of consternation and de- 
nounced the enterprise, declaring that Dion, in a 
mad frenzy of anger, or in despair, was plunging 
into desperate undertakings ; they were also enraged 
at their own leaders and recruiting officers for not 
having told them at the very outset about the war. 
But when Dion addressed them, setting forth in 
detail the unsound condition of the tyranny, and 

47 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aTparidora^;, aXXa fiaXXov 'qy€fjb6va<; avrov^ /cofu- 
^ot XvpaKov<TLa)p fcal r&p aWcov ^iKeXtayr&v 
irdXat 7r/309 aTroaracriv eroifiayv vTrapxovTayv, 
fiera Be top Aicova hiaXe'xjBevTO*; avToU 'A\/ca- 
fievov^y 09 TTpwTO? cjp 'A^^aiwi/ Bo^jf xal yepet 
avpcarpaTevep, iTveiad'qa'ap, 

3 *Hi^ jjikp ovp 0€pov<; afCfiTj koI KaT€t)(pp irrfaiat 
rb ireXayo^i, ^ Se aeXijprj Bc')(pfbrfpiap ^ye, r^ S' 
'AttoXXcow dvaiap /jLeyaXoirpeirrj irapaaKevdaa^: 6 
Alcdp iTTOfiirevae fierh. r&p a-TparioDTOJP KeKotrp/q- 
/JLCPODP ral^ iraP07rXlai<; tt/oo? to Upop' xal /Lter^ 
rfjp 6v<riap ip rm arahitp r&p ZaxvpOicop Kara- 

4 KXidipTUf; auToif<; elaria, davfidfypra^ apyvp&p 
KoX %/[)uo-a>j/ iKTray/xaToyp Koi rpaire^ajp virepfidX- 
Xovaap IBccoTiKOP ttXovtop XafnrpoTtfTa, xal Xo- 
yi^Ofi€POV^ oTi irapijKfiaKa}^ dprjp rjSi] xal roaav- 

T179 eviroplwi Kvpio^ ovk &p iiri'yetpol'q 7rapa/36Xoi^ 968 
irpdyfiao'i X&'/oU iXiri&o^ /Se/Saiov xal <f>lXa}p 
ipBiSoPTcop ixeidep avT& Ta9 7r\€t<7Ta9 fccu fieyi- 
<rTa9 d<l>opfid^. 

XXIV. MctA Si tA9 (riropSi.^ Kal t^9 pepo/JLia-- 
fiiva^ xarevx^^ i^iXiirep 17 aeXrjprj. xal roi^ 
fi€P irepl TOP ^Iwpa davfxacnop ovSep fjp Xoyi^o- 
fihoL^ tA9 iKXenrjiKk^ irepioSov^ xal t^p yipo- 
fjbiprjp rov aKcdcfjuiTO^ dirdprr^aip 7r/309 rifp 
aeX'qPTiP Kol T^9 7^9 rrjp dpTi<f>pa^ip 7r/}09 top 
2 fjXiop, iirel Si T049 aTparLcorai^ Biarapax'^ciaip 
IBei Tipo^ iraprjyopia^, Mt\Ta9 o fidpri^ ip fiia^ 
fcaraarci^ CKiXeve dappelp avjom Koi irpoaBoieav 

48 



DION 

declaring that he was taking them, not as soldiers, 
bat as commanders of the Sjracusans and the rest 
of the Sicilians, who had long been ready fcHr a 
revolt; and when, after Dion, Alcimenes, who was 
an Achaean of the highest birth and reputation and 
a member of the expedition, had argued with them, 
they were persuaded. 

It was now midsunmaer,^ the Etesian winds ' pre- 
vailed at sea, and the moon was at the full. Dion 
had prepared a magnificent sacrifice to Apollo, and 
marched in solemn procession to the temple with his 
soldiers, who were arrayed in full armour. After 
the sacrifice, he gave them a banquet in the stadium 
of the Zacynthians, where, as they reclined on their 
couches, they wondered at the splendour of the gold 
and silver beakers, and of the tables, for it passed 
the limits set by a private man's fortune; they 
reasoned, too, that a man who was already past his 
prime and was master of such great affluence, would 
not engage in hazardous enterprises unless he had 
solid hopes of success, and friends over there who 
offered him unbounded resources. 

XXIV. But after the libations and the customary 
prayers, the moon was eclipsed. Now, to Dion this 
was nothing astonishing, for he knew that eclipses 
recurred at regular intervals^ and that the shadow 
projected on the moon was caused by the interposi- 
tion of the earth between her and the sun. But 
since the soldiers, who were greatly disturbed, 
needed some encouragement, Miltas the seer stood 
up amongst them and bade them be of good cheer, 

^ 357 B.C. 

* Winds blowing steadily from the North during the 
summer. 

49 

VOL. VI. E 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tct KpcLTiara' arjfiaipeiv yap to Saifboviov e/cXet- 
y^iv Tti/09 T&v vvv iiri^avSyv iirKJiavia-Tepov Se 
fir)B€v elvav rrj^ tiiovvaLov TvpavviBo<;, ^9 to 
Xafbirpov airoa^eaeiv i/ceivov^ €v0if^ dyjrafievovf; 

3 St/ceXta?. TOVTO fiev ovv 6 MtXra? €t9 fiiaov 
i^edrjKC iraar to Se t&v fieXiaa&v, at Trepl to, 
irXola Tov Aicovo^i &(l>0r)aav ia/juov Tuifi^dvovaai 
fcaTCL irpvfipav, Ihia 7rpo<; avTOV /cal tov^; ^tXou? 
€(f)pa^€ BeBiivac /at; xaXal fiev ai irpd^ei^ ainov 
yivcovTaL, ypopov S' oXuyov avBrjaaa-ai fiapavO&ai, 
XiycTai Be xal t^ ^lovvaitp iroXKk TepaTdBrj 

4 irapa tov Baifwviov yeveaOai arjfiela. aero? 
\ fiev yctp apirdaa^ BopaTiov Tvvo<i t&v Bopv<j>6p(ov 

dpdfi€VO<i vyjrov xal (f)ip<M)v dif>rjK€V eh tov 0v06v' 
17 Bk irpoaKkv^ovaa 7rpo<: ttjv dxpoTroXiv dd- 
Xaaaa fiiav r)fiepav to vBayp yXv/cv Koi iro- 
Tifiov 7rapea")(€v, &(TTe yevcrafievoi^; Trdai KUTa- 
BtjXov elvai, X^^P^^ ^' eTe)(6rj(Tav avT& t&v fiev 
aXXtav ovSevo^: evBeel^i fwpioov, &Ta S' ov/c e^ovTe^, 

5 dire(f>alvovTO B* oi pAvTei^ tovto fiev diroaTd- 
(7€G)9 Kal direiOela^ elvai arjfjLeiov, a>9 ovkcti t&v 
ttoXlt&v dKOvaofievwv ttj^ TVpavviBo^, Tr^v Be 
yXvKVTr)Ta ttj^ 0aXd<r<n]^ fieTa/SoX^v Kaip&v 
dviap&% fcal irovqp&v eh irpdyfuiTa p^/7i;o'Ta 
(fyepeiv XvpaKovaioi^, dero^i Bi depdircov A^o9, 
Xoyxrj Be irapdarjfiov dp-y^l^ fcaX BvvaaTeia^' 
d(f>avia'fi6v oiv xal KaTdXvaiv Ty TvpavviBi l3ov- 
Xeveiv TOV t&v 6e&v fieyiaTOV. TavTa /mcv ovv 
^eiaropLTTO^ laToprjKe. 

XXV. Tou9 Be aTpaTiwTa^; tov^ Aitovof; i^eBe- 
^avTO aTpoyyvXai Bvo vav(:, TpiTOv Be ttXoIov ov 
fieya /cal Bvo TpiafcovTopoi Traprj/coXovOovv, oirXa 

50 



DION 

and expect the best results; for the divine powers 
indicated an eclipse of something that was now re- 
splendent ; but nothing was more resplendent than 
the tjrranny of Dionysius, and it was the radiance of 
this which they would extinguish as soon as they 
reached Sicily. This interpretation, then, Miltas 
made public for all to know ; but that of the bees, 
which were seen settling in swarms upon the sterns 
of Dion's transports, he told privately to him and 
his friends, expressing a fear that his undertakings 
would thrive at the outset, but after a short season 
of flowering would wither away. It is said that 
Dionysius also had many portentous signs from 
Heaven. An eagle snatched a lance from one of 
his body-guards, carried it aloft, and then let it drop 
into the sea. Furthermore, the water of the sea 
which washed the base of the acropolis was sweet 
and potable for a whole day, as all who tasted it 
could see. Again, pigs were littered for him which 
were perfect in their other parts, but had no ears. 
This the seers declared to be a sign of disobedience 
and rebellion, since, as they said, the citizens would 
no longer listen to the commands of the tyrant ; the 
sweetness of the sea-water indicated for the Syra- 
cusans a change from grievous and oppressive times 
to comfortable circumstances ; an eagle, moreover, 
was servant of Zeus, and a spear, an emblem of 
authority and power, wherefore this prodigy showed 
that the greatest of the gods desired the utter dis- 
solution of the tjrranny. Such, at all events, is the 
account which Theopompus has given. 

XXV. The soldiers of Dion filled two merchant- 
ships, and a third transpoi*t of small size, together 
with two thirty-oared galleys, accompanied these. 

E 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se, X^P^^ ^^ ^^X^^ ®' arpari&raL, Sicr^^tX/a^ fikv 
iKOfii^ev aairiSat;, ^eXrj B^ koI ho para iroXKd, 
Koi irXrjOo^ i<l>oSi(i>v a<l>0ovov, ottg)? iTriXiirrj 
fbrjShv avTOv^ TropToiropovvTa^, are Brj to avfiTrav 
i'rrl TTvevfJUKrc koI OaXdaay TreiroirjfMepov^ tov 
ttXovp Si a to Tr)v yrjv if>o^eia6ai xaX irvvffdvea'Oai 
^lKkttov iv ^lairvyca vavKoxovma irapa<f>v\dT- 

2 T€iv, dpaL(p Bk Kal fiaXaKq> irvevpuTt TrXevaavTe^ 
fip^ipa^ ScoSexa, ttj TpLaxaiSeKaTrj xarh Udx^vov 
rjaav, axpav tt}? ^iK€\Ia^, xal TLp&TO^ pJkv 6 
Kvl3€pvi]T7j(; Kara rdxo^ ixeXeva-ev dirofiaXveiv, 
W, av diroairaaOSxTL t^9 7^9 xaX rfjp axpav 
hcoPTe^ d^&tri, ttoXX^? rjp.epa^ xal pvKTa<i iv t^ 
ireT^Ayei rpi/3rjaofj,€POV^, &pa Oipov^ potop irepifii- 
vopra^, Alcop hk rrjp iyyv<; t&p TroXefiLcov diro^ 
fiaaip SeBto)^ Kal r&p irp6a<o fidXXop dyjraadai, 

3 l3ovX6fi€vo'i irapiirXevce top Hdxvpop. i/c Be 
TOVTOV Tpax^^ P'^p dirapKTias iTrnreatop rjXavpe 
iroXX^ kXvBcopc Ta<; vav^ diro ttj^ Xi/ceXia^, 
dtTTpairal Be Kal ^poPTol ^apivTO^; ^ ApKTOvpov 
avp/ireaowai iroXvp i^ ovpapov ^6£/Li6)j;a Kal 
payBalop op/Spop i^ix^ap' c5 tc^p pavr&p avp- 
Tapax0€VTa)P Kal irXdvt)^ yepopiprjf; KaOop&aiv 
al(f>piBiop viro tov KvpaTO^ d)0ovp,€pa^ tA? vav^ 
iirl TTjp irpo<; AljSvtj KipKipav, J pdXiara Kpfjp.- 
P€oBr]<: dirrfPTa Kal Tpax^la irpoacj^epopipoi^ av- 

4 T0Z9 17 prjao^. piKpop ovp BerjaavTe^ €Kpi,<f>rjvai 
Kal avpTpifirjpai irepl Ta^; ireTpa^ i^id^ovTO 7r/)09 
KOVTOP 'iTapa(\>€p6pspot poXi^t 60)9 x^''H^^ {Xw- 

52 



DION 

Moreover, beades the arms which his soldiers had, 
Dion carried two thousand shields, missiles and 
spears in great numbers, and a boundless store of 
provisions, that they might suffer no lack as they 
traversed the high sea. For they put themselves 
entirely at the mercy of winds and sea during their 
voyage, because they were afiaid of the coast, and 
learned that Philistus was watching for them with 
a fleet at lapygia. After sailing with a light and 
gentle breeze for twelve days, on the thirteenth 
they reached Pachjmus, a headland of Sicily. Here 
Protus their pilot urged them to disembark with all 
speed, since, if they should be forced away from the 
shore, and should relinquish the headland which they 
had gained, they would be tossed about on the high 
sea for many days and nights, awaiting a south 
wind in the summer season. But Dion, fearing to dis- 
embark near the enemy, and wishing to land farther 
along the coast, sailed past Pachynus. Thereupon 
a boisterous wind from the north rushed down upon 
them, raised a great sea, and drove the ships away 
from Sicily, while flashes of lightning and peals of 
thunder, now that Arcturus was just rising, con- 
spired to pour down from the heavens a great storm 
of furious rain. The sailors were confounded by this 
and driven from their course, until on a sudden they 
saw that their ships were driving with the sea upon 
Cercina, off the coast of Africa, at a point where 
the island presented the roughest and most preci- 
pitous shore for their approach. Accordingly, after 
a narrow escape from being cast ashore and dashed 
to pieces on the rocks, they plied their punting-poles 
and forced their way along with great difficulty, until 



53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoXovfiivai^ K€<])a\a2^ rrj^ fieyd\rf(; XvpTCO)^ 969 
oin"€9. aOvfiovai S' avToi^ tt/oo? ttjv ya\T]vi]v 
KoX Bia<f>€po/jb€voi^ avpav tivcL Kariinreipev -fi 
X^pO' voTiov, ov irdvv TrpocBexpfievot^ votov ovBk 

6 Tn<TTevov<n tjj fierafioXfj, Kark fiixpov Bi ptov- 
vvfievov Tov TTvevfiaro^ xal fieyedo^ Xafi/Sdvovro^ 
eKTeivavre^ oaov fjv Icricov, koI irpoaev^dpuevoi 
T0Z9 Oeoh, weXdyioL irpb^ ttjv XcfceXiav €(f>€vyop 
dirb T779 Aifivrf^' xal Oeome^ i\a(f)pw Tre/jLirTalot 
Karh yiiv(pav dyp/uaavro, iroTuafidriop iv r^ 
'Zt/ceXia t^9 ^ap^V^ovLfOv ejntepaT€ia<;. ervx^ 
Be iraptov 6 Kapxv^ovio^ dpx^^ XvvaXo^ iv r^ 

6 x^P^V* ^€Vo<; S)V Kol (f>l\o<i AicDVOf;. dyvo&v Bh 
TTfv irapovaiav avrov xal tov tnokov, itreiparo 
KOi)\v€iv T0U9 (rTpaTL(i>ra<i diro^alvovTa^, oi Be 
/Mcrh T&v OTrXoiv €KBpafb6vT€^ dvexTeivav pJkv 
oifBiva, direLprjKei yhp 6 Aicov Bih rtjv oiaav 
airrm <f>CKLav irpo^ tov IS.apxv^oviov, <f>€vyov(ri Bi 
(TXtveia-TTeaovTe^ aipovai to x^P^ov, ft)9 S' dwi^V' 
TTjaav dWT]Xoi^ oi riyefwve^ KaX rjairda'ajno, 
Al(ov fi€v direBcDKe ttjv iroXiv XvvdXtp, ovBev 
oBiKija'a^, ZvvaXo^ Bi tou9 aTpaTKOTa^ i^evi^e 
Kol avfiirapeaxeva^ev &v £^L(ov iBetTO, 

XXVI. MdXKTTa S' avTov^ iOdppvve to av/x- 
^e/Srj/cb^ avTOfiaTO)^ TrepX Ttfv diroBtf/uav tov 
^tovvaLOV* vecoaTl yctp iKTreirX€VKci}<: iTvyx^vev 
oyBoiJKOVTa vavalv €t9 ttjv ^iToXiav, Bio xal tov 
Alcovo^ irapanaXovvTo^ ivTavda tov9 oTpaTmTa^ 

54 



DION 

the storm abated^ when they learned from a vessel 
which they spoke that they were at what were called 
the Heads of the Great Syrtis. And now they were 
disheartened by the calm in which they found them- 
selves, and were drifting up and down, when a gentle 
southerly breeze was wafted to them from the land, 
although they were by no means expecting a south 
wind and could not believe in the change. Little 
by little, however, the wind freshened and grew 
strong, so that they spread all the sail they had, 
and praying to the gods, fled over the sea from 
Africa towards Sicily. For five days they ran swiftly 
on, and came to anchor at Minoa, a little town in 
that part of Sicily which the Carthaginians con- 
trolled. Now, it chanced that Synalus, the Cartha- 
ginian commander, was in the place, and he was a 
guest-friend of Dion's. But not knowing of Dion*s 
presence or of his expedition, he tried to prevent 
his soldiers from landing. These, however, rushed 
on shore with their arms, and although they killed 
no one, since Dion had forbidden it because of his 
friendship with the Carthaginian, they put their 
opponents to flight, dashed into the place with the 
fugitives, and captured it. But as soon as the two 
commanders had met and greeted one another, Dion 
restored the city to Synalus, without doing it any 
harm, and Synalus entertained the soldiers and sup- 
plied Dion with what he wanted. 

XXVI. But what most of all encouraged them 
was the accidental absence of Dionysius from Syra- 
cuse ; for it chanced that he had recently sailed 
with eighty ships to Italy. Therefore, even though 
Dion urged his soldiers to recruit themselves here 



55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

apaXafi/Sdveiv iroKvv ypovov iv rfj daXdaarj 
fC€KaKa)fi€Vov<;, ovy virefieivav avrol airevSovre^ 
apTrdaai tov Kaipov, aW' ixeXevov ^yeiaOaL rov 

2 ^iwva irpo^ Ta9 ^vpaKovaa^, aTroaKevaad' 
fievo^ oiv rib irepioma rtov oirXfov koL t&v <f>op- 
tL(ov ixel, Kal rov XvpdXov BerfdeL^, orav fj 
Kaipo^, airoa-Teikai tt/oo? avrov, i^dSi^ev iirl ra? 
XvpaKovaa^. Tropevo/jLevtp S' avT& irp&rov fiev 
^AKpayavTLVcov irpotre'xcoprfa'av iirireii BtaKoaioL 
T&v irepX TO "EiKvofiov olKovvrayv, fiera Be tovtov^ 
TeXqfoi* 

3 ^o/xP Be T^9 (jytjfirjf; BiaBpa/xovar]^ eh ^vpa- 
/covaa^ Tt.fioKpdTri<;, 6 rfj Aicovo^ yvpaifcl (TVPOIk&v, 
Aiopvalov S' dBe\<l>7}f t&p aTroXeXetfLfiepcap ev rfj 
TToXet <f>i\a)p irpoeaTco*;, eKire/jLTreL xarh Td')(p^ 
ayyeXop to) Acopvaitp ypafifiara KOfii^opra irepl 
T^9 Alcopo^ a^t^€&)9. auTO? Be toI^ Karh ttjp 
ttoKlp irpoaelve dopv^ot^ xal Kiprj/jbaciv, iirrjp- 
fiePMP fiep wapTcop, Bia S* dinariap en /cal <l>6fiop 
'qav'x^a^oPTODP. rtp Be 7r€fi(f>0€PTi ypa/jLfiaT0<f>6p(p 

4 TV'XT) T49 (rvfiirLTrreL irapdXoyo^, BiairXevaa^ 
yap eh rrjp 'IraXiap teal ttjp 'VrjyLvrfp BieXjffcop, 
iirecyofiepo^ eh J^auXooviap 7r/0O9 Aiopvaiop dinjp' 
rrfce riPC t&p avpi]0(op iepelop vecocrrX Teffvfiipop 
feofiL^oprr xal Xa^wp trap ainov fiotpap t&p 
Kpe&p ey&pei airovBfj, rrj^ Bk pvkto<; /Jb€po<i 
oBevaa^ xal fii/cpop diroBapOelp virb kottov 
fiiacdeh, €!)9 eZve, irapet rrjp oBop ip vXj) tipI 

6 KariKXipep eavrop, 7r/)09 Bk rrjp ocfjifjv Xvko^ 
eireXOdp, fcal Xa06fiepo<; t&p fcpe&p dpaBeBefjueVcop 
eic TTj^ wqpa^, (»^€To <l>€pa)v djia <tvp avToh ttjp 
irrjpap, ip y tcl^ eina'ToXet^ 6 av0p(OTro^ el'xep. 

56 



DION 

after their long hardships on the sea^ thej would not 
consent to it, so eager were they of themselves to 
seize their opportunity, but urged him to lead them 
towards Syracuse. Accordingly, he deposited his 
superfluous arms and baggage there, asked Synalus 
to send them to him as opportunity offered, and 
marched against Syracuse. As he was on his way 
thither, first he was joined by two hundred horse- 
men belonging to the Agrigentines who dwelt about 
Ecnomum, and then by men of Gela. 

But the report of his doings quickly flew to Syra- 
cuse, where Timocrates, who had married Dion's 
wife, the sister of Dionysius, and who stood at the 
head of the tyrant's friends now left in the city, 
speedily sent off* a messenger to Dionysius with 
letters announcing the arrival of Dion. He himself, 
moreover, took steps to prevent any disturbances or 
tumults in the city, where all were greatly excited, 
but as yet kept quiet owing to their distrust and 
fear. But a strange misfortune befell the man who 
h^ been sent with the letters. After he had crossed 
to Italy and passed through the territory of Rhegium, 
and as he was hastening on to Dionysius at Caulonia, 
he met one of his acquaintances who was carrying 
an animal that had been recently sacrificed, and after 
accepting from him a portion of the flesh, went on 
his way with all speed. But after travelling part of 
the night, he was compelled by weariness to take a 
little sleep, and lay down, just as he was, in a wood 
by the side of the road. Then a wolf came to the 
spot, attracted by the scent, and seizing the flesh 
which had been fastened to the wallet in which the 
man had his letters, went ofi* with it and the wallet 



57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(»9 Be SieyepOel^ fjaOero teal ttoWA fidrrjv irXavrf- 
deU Kol Sid^a^ ovx evpev, eyvco fir) iropeveadaL 
hiX^ 'T&v ypa/JifidTcop irpo^ rov Tvpavvov, d\X' 
d7ro£/)^9 i/C7roSa>v yepiadai, 

XXVIL Aiovvaio^ fiev oZv o'y^e koI irap ere- 
panv e/ieWe TrvpOdvea-dai rov iv ^iKeXia iroXe/jLov, 
Auiovi Be iropevofiev^ K.aiiapivaloi re irpoceOevro 
Koi T&v KUT^ aypov<; XvpaKOvaicov dviarafiiveop 
iireppei ttXtjOo^ ovk oXiyov. ol Be fierct Ti/w- 
KpoTov^ rd? 'ETTtTToXa? (f>v\d<Ta'OVT€<; Aeovrivoi 
KoX K.afi7ravoL, \6yov '^evBrj TrpoairepAlravro^ eh 
avToif^ Tov ^Lcovo^ cw? eirl rd? iroXei^i irp&rov 970 
rpeTToiTO rd^ ixelpcov, diroXnroPTe^ ^'xppro top 

2 TifjLOKpdrrjp roh olKeioi^ ^orjOijaopref;, 0)9 S' 
dirrjyyeKrj ravra irpo^ top £^L(OPa irepX Ta^ ^Axpa^ 
aTpaTOTreSevopTa, pvfCTo<: eri tov? aTpaTicoTa^ 
dpaaTrjora^ irpo^ top "Avairop iroTafiop fjKep, 
direxoPTa t^9 TroXeoa^ Bixa araBiov^, epTavda 
Bk TTfP TTOpeiap eTTLtTTrjaa^ ecif) ay id^cTO tt/oo? top 
TTOTafWP, dpaTeXXoPTt t^ r/Xicp irpocev^dfiepo^'. 
afia B* oi fidpTei^ irapd t&p Oe&p pIktjp €(f>pa^op 
avT^. fcal ffeaadfiepoi top Aioopa Bed ttjp Ovaiap 
€aT€<f>apa)fi€P0P oi irapoPTe^ diro fudf; opfjurj^; eaTe- 

3 (f>apovPTO 7rdi/T€9. Tjaap Be irevTaKuayCXicop ovk 
eXaTTOv^ irpoayeyopOTe^ xaTa ttjp oBop* oairXta' 
fiepoi Be ^avXcof; ex tov irpoaTV^ovTO^ dpeirXrj- 
povp T§ irpoOvpia Ttjp t^9 Trapaa-Kevrj^ epSeiap, 
&<TTe KiPTjaaPTO^ tov Alcjpo^ Bp6fia> x^petp fxeTa 
X^pd^ f^oX l3oT]^ dXXijXov^ irapaKoXovvTa^ hrX 
TTJP iXevOepiap. 



S8 



DION 

too. When the man awoke and perceived what had 
happened, he wandered ahont a long time in search 
of what he had lost, hut could not find it, and there- 
fore determined not to go to the tyrant without the 
letters, hut to run away and disappear. 

XXVII. Dionysius, therefore, was destined to learn 
of the war in Sicily late and from other sources ; but 
meanwhile, as Dion proceeded on his march, he was 
joined by the Camarinaeans, and no small multitude 
of the rural Syracusans revolted and swelled his 
ranks. Moreover, the Leontines and Campanians 
who were guarding Epipolae^ with Timocrates, in 
consequence of a ^Ise report which Dion sent to 
them that he would attack their cities first, deserted 
Timocrates and went off to assist their own peoples. 
When news of this was brought to Dion as he lay 
encamped near Acrae, he roused up his soldiers 
while it was still night and came to the river Ana- 
pus, which is ten furlongs distant from the city. 
There he halted and sacrificed by the river, ad- 
dressing his prayers to the rising sun, and on the 
instant the soothsayers declared that the gods 
promised him victory. When, too, the audience 
beheld Dion with a wreath on his head for the 
sacrifice, with one impulse they all crowned them- 
selves with wreaths. No fewer than dye thousand 
men had joined him on the march, and though they 
were wretchedly armed with such weapons as came 
to hand, their enthusiasm made up for their lack of 
equipment, so that when Dion gave the word they 
advanced on the run, exhorting one another with 
joyful shouts to win their liberty. 

^ The plateau west of the city of Syracuse. See the note 
on Nicias, xvii. 1. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXVIII. T&v S' ip rfj TToXei ^vpafeovtrioDv ol 
uJ^v yvtopifJ'^^ 'f^* %a/}tein"€9 iaffrjra KaOaphv 
tyovre^ airi^vTayv iirl tA? 7nJ\a9, oi Se ttoWoI 
roi9 Tvpdvvov f^iKoi^ iireTiOevTO kcu avvripira- 
top Tou? KoXovp^ipov^ TrpoaayayyiSa^, apdpdoTTOV^ 
apoalov^ Koi 0€oh ix^pov^, ot irepiepoaTovp ip 
Ttj iroXei tcarafiefiiyfiepot toI^ ^vpaKovcrioL^ ttoXu- 
TTpayfiopovpre^ koi SiayyiWoPTCf; t^ rvpappcp ra? 

2 T€ Biapoia^: koX t^? (fxopa^ i/cdaTayp, ovroi pip 
ovp irp&TOC Slktjp iBCBoaap xnro t&p irpoarvy- 
XjBipoPTWP dTTOTvpnraPi^op/epor Tip^oxpaTt)^ Be 

(TVp^pZ^ai T0t9 <f)pOVpOV(Tl TtJP dxpOTToXlP p,T] BvPTJ- 

BeU tinrop \a$oi)P Bie^eireae tt}? TroXe®? fcaX 
irdpra <f>€vy(op ipiirXijae <f>6/3ov fcal rapa^V^t iirl 
p,€i^op alpoup rh rov Aicopo^, eo? p^rj Boxoit) p^rpiop 

3 T« Beia-a^ diro/Se^rjKipai ttjp ttoXip. ip rovTcp 
Be Kol Au(OP Trpoaepxopepo^; tjBtj Kara^aprjf; fjp, 
7rpa>T0^ auT09 ayTrXiapivo^ Xapirpm, fcal trap 
avTOP €P0€P pep 6 dB€\<f>o<; M€yaK\7J<;, epOep oe 
KaXXtTTTTO? ^AOrjvalo^;, iareffiavwpAvoi, t&p Be 
^epoop eKarop pep eiiroPTO <f>vXaKe<; irepl top 
Aicopa, T0V9 S' aX\ov9 ^op oi XoxayoX Bia- 
KeKoar prfpApov^, Oeayp^epcop t&p ^vpa/eovaimp /cal 
Bexopepwp &(nr€p iepdp Tipa kol 0eo7rp€7rrj Trap- 
Trr)P ekev6epLa<; xal Br)poKpaTLa<; Si' ct&p oktq) 
KoX TeTTapdxoPTa KaTCOvarf^ eh ttjp ttoXip, 

XXIX. 'EttcI Bk elcrjXOep 6 Al<&p KaTa Ta9 
T€p£PLTiBa<; 7rv\a^, ttj adXinyyi fcaTairavaa^ 
TOP 06pv/3op, iKTjpv^ep OTi Aiayp koX yieyaKkri^ 
rjfcoPTe^; iirl KaToXvaet t^9 TvpappiBo<; iXev- 
Oepovai ^vpaxovaiov^ koI tou9 a\Xoif9 Xi/ceKKo- 
Ta9 ATTO Tov Tvpdppov. /3ov\6p^po^ Be teal Bi 

6o 



DION 

XXVIII. As for the Syracusans in the citj, the 
men of note and cultivation^ in fresh apparel^ went 
to meet them at the gutes^ while the multitude set 
upon the tyrant's friends and seized those called 
tale-bearers^ wicked men whom the gods hated^ who 
went up and down in the city busily mingling with 
the Syracusans and reporting to the tyrant the sen- 
timents and utterances of every one. These^ then^ 
were the first to suffer retribution^ being beaten to 
death by those who came upon them ; but Timo- 
crates^ unable to join the garrison of the acropolis^ 
took horse and dashed out of the city^ and as he 
fled, filled everjrthing with fear and confusion, ex- 
aggerating the strength of Dion, that he might not 
be thought to have abandoned the city through fear 
of any trivial danger. Meanwhile Dion drew near the 
city and was presently seen, leading the way himself 
in brilliant armour, with his brother Megacles on one 
side of him, and on the other, Callippus the Athenian, 
both crowned with garlands. A hundred of his 
mercenaries followed Dion as a body-guard, and his 
officers led the rest in good order, the Syracusans 
looking on and welcoming as it were a sacred religious 
procession for the return of liberty and democracy 
into the city, after an absence of forty- eight years. 

XXIX. After Dion had entered the city by the 
Temenitid gate, he stopped the noise of the people 
by a blast of the trumpet, and made proclamation 
that Dion and Megacles, who were come to over- 
throw the tyranny, declared the Syracusans and the 
rest of the Sicilians free from the tyrant. Then, 

6i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iavTOv Trpoaayopevaai tou9 avOptoirov^ avijei Sih 
rrj^ *Aj(^paBivrj^, iKaTepooOev iraph rrjv oBov r&v 
ItVpaKOvaitov iepela /caX Tpaire^a^ /cal xparrjpa^ 
iardvTfav^ /cal Ka0* ot^ yivoiTO Trpox^rat^ re 
fiaWovroDV xal irpoaTpCTrofieptav Hairep deov 

2 KaTGvyal^* ffv S' viro rrjv aKpoiroXiv tcaX rh 
irevTairvKa, Aiovvaiov KaraaKevaaavTO^, rpuo- 
TpoTTiov xarcufiav^^ koX inlrrjXov, iirl rovro irpo- 
/Si9 iBrffjLrjyoprjae xal irapdapfir^ae roif^ iroXira^ 
dvr€X€<T0at> t^? iXevdepia^, ol he 'xaipovre^ teal 
if>i\oj>povovp>€voi KareaTr^aav ap/fxyrepov^ avro- 
Kpdropa^ arpaTTfyovf;, xal irpoaeiKovro, fiovKo- 
pAvfov KoX heop^voiv i/ceivayv, avroh (rwdp^ovra^ 
eiKoaiv, &v r]p>Laei^ ffaav ix r&v puerh Aitavo*: afro 

3 T?79 <l>vyrj^ cvyKarepx^p^vcov, rol^ Se pAvreaiv 
aJfdi^ i86fC€i TO p>iv virb 7r6Ba<; Xa/Sciv rov Atcoi/a 
Srjp^rjyopovvTa rrjv <l>CkoTip,Lav koX to dvaOrfpu 
rod rvpdvvov Xapm'pov elvai arip^lov on S' 
fjKiorpo'Triov fiv i<f> ov ^eySiy^w VpiOv arparrjyo^, 
iapptohovv pit) rpoirrjv riva t^9 Txy)(ri^ ai 7rpd^€t<; 
ra^elav Xd^coaiv. etc rovrov t^9 P'^v 'E7rt7roX^9 
iXoiv roif^ Kadeipypjipov^; r&v iroXir&v eXvae, 

4 rr}P Se dxpoiroXiv direr eix^'^^p. eph6p,y S' fip,epa 971 
^lopvato^ KarerrXevaep eh rrjp dxpoiroXip, xal 
Aicopc Trpoarjyop dpLa^ai iravoTrXia^: a^ XvpdXrp 
KariXiire. ravra^ SUpeipie roh TroXlrai^;, r&p 

S* aXX(op Ixaaro^ eavrop, 0)9 Svparop fjv, eKoapsi 
Koi vapelx^p oirXiri^p irpodvpop, 

XXX. Aiopvaio^ Se irp&rop ihla rrpb^ Aitopa 
Trpea-jSei^ hreprrep diroTreip(apLevov erreira KeXev- 
aapro^ e/ceivov SiaXeyeauai KOipfj Xvpaxovaioi^ 

62 



DION 

wishing to harangae the people himself^ he went 
up through the Achradina^^ while on either side of 
the street the Syracusans set out tables and sacri- 
ficial meats and mixing-bowls, and all, as he came to 
them^ pelted him with flowers^ and addressed him 
with Yows and prayers as if he were a god. Now, 
there stood below the acropolis and the Pentapyla 
a tall and conspicuous sun-dial, which Dionysius had 
set up. Mounted upon this, Dion harangued the 
citizens and exhorted them to assert their liberty. 
And they, in their joy and affection, made Dion and 
Megacles generals with absolute powers, and besides, 
at their wish and entreaty, chose twenty colleagues 
to hold office with them, half of whom were of tnose 
who had come back from exile with Dion. To the 
soothsayers, moreover, it seemed a most happy omen, 
that Dion, when he harangued the people, had put 
under his feet tlie ambitious monument of the tyrant ; 
but because it was a sun-dial upon which he stood 
when he was elected general, they feared that his 
enterprise might undergo some speedy change of 
fortune. After this, Dion captured £pipolae and set 
free the citizens who were imprisoned there ; then he 
walled off the acropolis. On the seventh day Diony- 
sius put in with his fleet and entered the acropolis, 
and waggons brought Dion the armour and weapons 
which he had left with Synalus. These he distri- 
buted among the citizens as far as they would go, and 
all the rest equipped themselves as best they could 
and zealously offered their services as men-at-arms. 

XXX. At first, Dionysius sent envoys privately to 
Dion and tried to make terms with him ; then, when 
Dion bade him confer publicly with the Syracusans, 

^ An extension of the city, covering the eastern part of 
the plateau of Epipolae. 

^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

609 eKjevdepot^ oiaiv, eyipovro \6yoi Bi^ t&v 
7rpi(7^€a)v irapk rov Tvpdwov <f>LXdv6 panroi,, <^o- 

p(ji)V VTTKT'XyOVpAvOV fl€Tpl6Tr)Ta Kol pafTTWvrjv 

arpareL&v, &v &v avroi avfiyjtrjtj^oi yevayprai, 

2 ravTa €')(\eva^ov oi Xvpatcovaioi, Aicov 8* dire- 
KpLvaro Tot9 irpea^taL fit) SiaXeyeadai tt/oo? 
avToif^ Acovvaiov, el fifj rrfv dp'XTjv d(f>Li](riv 
a<f)€vri Se avfiirpd^eiv dheiav avro^, kcLv aXko tl 
T&v fierpiojv Svvrjrai, fi€fivr}/jLevo^ t^9 olKeiorrjrof;. 
Tavra Acovvaio<s irn"pv€i, koI irdXiv eirep/rre irpea- 
^€49 Kekevoiv fjKuv Tiva<; eh Tr}v dxpoTroXiv tS)v 
^vpafcova-iwv, 0I9 ra fiev ireidoDV, ra oe ireiOofievo^' 

3 StaXe^eTai irepl r&p koiptj avfKJ>€p6vroi>v, eirefX' 
(pdfja'av oiv avhpe^ irpo^ axnov 0^9 Atcoi^ iSo/ci- 
fiaae, fcal X0709 7ro\i'9 ex t^9 aKpa^ ei<; tou9 
XvpaKOvaCou^; xar'^ec Aiovvaiov d^rjaetv rffv 
Tvpawiha kclI fjuaXXov eavrov iroiTjaeo'dai ^ X^P^^ 
rj Alcovo^. 

*Hi/ Se S0X09 V 7rpo<r7rotr/(rt9 avrrj rov rvpdp- 
vov Koi axevcopia Kara t&v XvpaKovaiayv. roif^ 
fiep ydp eXdopra^ irpo^ avrop ex t/^9 7roX€a)9 
avyxXeiaaf; eZ^e, tou9 Se fjLLa0o(l>6pov<; 77/309 Sp- 
dpop €fi7rX'q<Ta^ dfcpdrov Spofitp irpb^ to irepnei- 

4 Xto-/ta T&p XvpaKov<ri(op i^rJKC' yepo/JLCprj'; oe rrj^; 
irpoa^oXri^ dpeXiriarov KaX t&p ^ap^dpayp dpd- 
aec iroXX^ /cat 6opv^<p xadatpovpTtop to SiaTei- 
p^t(7/L6a /cat T0?9 XvpuKovaioif; i7n(f>€pofi€PQ)p, ovBel^ 
eToXfia fiepdop dfivpea0ai, ttXtjp t&p ^eptov t&p 
AloDPOf:, 01 Trp&Top alaSofievoi top Oopvffov 

5 e^efiorjOrjaap, ovB* ovtoi Be t^9 ^or}6eia^ top 

^ •Koi'lifffaBat a correction by Sintenis of the MSS. iroi^<ra- 
aBaiy which Coraes omits and Bekker brackets. 

64 



DION 

on the ground that they were a free people^ the envoys 
brought generous propositions from the tyrant^ who 
promised such moderate taxes and easy military ser- 
vice as the people themselves should agree to by 
vote. These offers were derided by the Syracusans, 
and Dion made answer to the envoys that Dionysius 
was not to confer with them unless he renounced his 
sovereignty ; but on his renouncing this^ Dion would 
himself procure immunity for him^ and any other 
reasonable privilege that was in his power, mindful 
of the close relationship between them. These con- 
ditions Dionysius approved, and again sent envoys, 
bidding some of the Syracusans to come to the 
acropolis, where, both parties making concessions, 
he would confer with them concerning the common 
good. Accordingly, men were sent to him whom 
Dion approved. And frequent reports came to the 
Syracusans from the citadel that Dionysius would 
renounce the tyranny, and would do this to please 
himself rather than Dion. 

But this was a treacherous pretence on the part of 
the tyrant, and a piece of knavery directed against the 
Syracusans. For he kept in close custody the depu- 
tation that came to him from the city, and towards 
morning plied his mercenaries with strong wine and 
sent them on a dash against the siege-wall about the 
acropolis. The attack was unexpected, and the Bar- 
barians, with great boldness and loud tumult, began 
to tear down the cross- wall and attack the Syracusans, 
so that no one dared to stand on the defensive, except 
the mercenaries of Dion, who first noticed the dis- 
turbance and came to the rescue. And even these 



6s 

VOL. VI. F 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rpoTTOV avv€<j>p6vovv ovS' elariKOVOV vtto Kpairyrj<; 
Kal TrXdvtf^ r&p (f>evy6vT(i)v ^vpuKOvaicov ava- 
'n'€<l)vpfi€va)v avTot^ fcal BiexOeovTcov, irpiv ye Sfj 
Aitop, eTrel \eyovT09 ovBel^ fcariJKOvev, epycp to 
irpaxTeov v<prjyi]aaadai fiov\6fievo^ ifi^dKKei 

6 Trp&TO^ €t9 Toi»9 fiap/3dpov^. koX yiverat irepl 
axnov 6^€ia Kal Seivif fid')(rj, yivmcKOfievov ov^ 
fjrrov VTTO r&v iroXefiUov ff r&v <f)tK(ov wpp/rjaav 
yhp afia irdpTt^ ifi0oi]<ravT€f;. 6 S' 1]P fiev fjBrf 
l3apvr€po^ 81 rfKiKiav ^ Karh roiovrov^ ay&va<:, 
aXxfj Bi fcal Ovfi^ rov^ ^ irpoa^epopAvoxp; uc^terra- 
fievo^ Kot dvaKOTTTfov TtTpaxTKGTai Xoyxv '^V^ 
X^tpa, 7r/)09 Sk tA aWa ^eKrj xal tA? ix %€4po9 
TrXrjyit^ fi6\i^ 6 Ocopa^ fipKeae Bih t^9 dairiBo^ 
Sopaai TToWoA? koI Xoyxai^^ TVirro/jLevo^* &v 

7 KaraKKaadivrtov Kareireaev o Al(ov, elra dvap- 
TraaOeU vtto t&p aTpaTicoT&v eKeiPOi^ phf fiye- 
fiopa Tt/JLQ)vLSr)P iiriar'qaep, auT09 Bl ttjp ttoKlp 
tinr(p irepieXavPfOP rov^ re Xvpcucovaiov^ eirave 
<f>vyrf<i, Kal r&p ^€P&v tow <f>v\drropra^ rrjp 
^ K'x^paBiP7)p dvaarriaa^ irrryye rol(; /3apfidpoi^ 
aKfirjra^ eKireiropr^fiepoi^ Kal irpoOvfiov^ diravBA- 

8 aip i^Brf irpo^ rifp irelpav, eKiriaapre^ yhp afia 
T§ irpdrrj pvfi'p rijp iroKip arratrap ef hnBpojxri^ 
Kadi^eip, elra rrapa Bo^ap ePTvy')(dpopre^ dvBpdai 
rrKi^Krai^ Kal fiayifjioif; dpeariWopro rrpo^ rr}P 
aKpoiroXiP, Sri Be fidWop, (i? ipeBcDxap, iiriKei- 
fi€PQ)p r&p *EXXr]pa)p rparrop^epoL KareKXeiaOyjaap 
et<i ro rel')(p^, epBofxrjKOpra p^ep Kal reaaapa^ 
atroKrelpavre^ r&p p^rk Aiaopo^;, eavr&p Be 
TToXXou? diro/SaXopre^, 

^ Tohs the article is suggested by Sintenis. 
66 



DION 

knew not how to render aid, nor could thej hear 
what was said to them, owing to the shouts and wild 
movements of the fugitive Sjracusans, who mingled 
confusedly with them and broke through their ranks. 
But at last Dion, since no one could hear his orders, 
wishing to show bj his example what should be 
done, charged foremost into tlie Barbarians. Then 
there arose about him a fierce and dreadful battle, 
since he was rec<^puzed by the enemy as well as by 
his friends, and all rushed towards him at the same 
time with loud shouts. He was now, by reason of 
his age, too unwieldy for such struggles, but he with- 
stood and cut down his assailants with vigour and 
courage until he was wounded in the hand with a 
lance ; besides, his breastplate hardly sufficed to resist 
the other missiles and hand-to-hand thrusts, and he 
was smitten through his shield by many spears and 
lances, and when these were broken off he fell to 
•the ground. Then, after he had been snatched away 
by his soldiers, he put Timonides in command of 
these, while he himself, mounting a horse, rode about 
the city rallying the flying Syracusans, and bringing 
up a detachment of his mercenaries who were guard- 
ing Achradina, led them against the Barbarians, — 
fresh and eager reserves against a worn-out foe, and 
one that already despaired of his cause. For they 
had expected at their first onset to overrun and 
occupy the whole city, and now that they had un- 
expectedly encountered men who could smite and 
fight, they retired towards the acropolis. But as 
they gave ground, the Greeks pressed all the harder 
upon them, so that they turned their backs and were 
driven into the shelter of the citadel ; they had slain 
seventy-four of Dion's men, and had lost many of 

their own number. 

67 

r 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXI. Tevofieiff)^ Se Xafiirpa^ t^9 vUfi^ ol 
fjL€v XvpaKovaioi tov9 ^evov^ exarbv fival^ iare- 
(jxivmaav, ol ik ^ivoi /^i(ova ')(pva(p aT€<f>dvtp. 
KrjpvKe^ Se irapa tov Aiovvaiov Karifiaivov 972 
irmaroXa^ tt/oo? Aicova irapk t&p ol/ceicov yvvac- 
K&v KOfiL^ovTe^. fiLa S' ^v e^(ii)0€v iinyeypap,' 
fiivT), " T^ Trarpi, irap 'Iirrrapivov^ tovto ycip 

2 fpf ovofia T^ Ata)i/09 vi^. Kanoi (^'qaX Tlfiaio^ 
^Aperalov avrov airo rrj^ firfrpo^ 'A/oeriy? /caXel- 
adar TifUDVLStf Se fJLoXKov, d}^ otofiai, ire pi ye 
TOVTtov iriarevTeov, apBpl <f)L\ip xal o'vcrrpaTKOTTf 
Aicovo^. ai fi€V ovv oKKat rok Xvpa/eovatoi^ 
apeyvcoaOrjaav iiriaroXal woWA^ ixeaia^ xal 
Setjaei^ eypvtrai irapa t&v ywaLK&v, rtfv Bk irapii 
TOV waiB6<; elpai hoKovaap ovk itoprcop ^apepw 
\v0rjpac l3iaardfjL€P0^ 6 Aia)i/ eXvaep. fjp ok iraph 
TOV Aiopvaiov, rot? fiep- ypafifiaoi tt/oo? top^ 
Ai(OPa, 7019 S^ Trpdyfiaat tt/oo? tov<: Xvpa/covai- 
ov^ SiaXeyofiipov, a^x^f^^ ^^^ exovaa S€r)a€(o<; koI 
iiKavoXoyia^, avyKeifiipr) Se tt/oo? iuL^o\r}P tov 

3 Alaypo^. VTTOfiPijaei*; t€ yap fjaap cjp virkp ttj^ 
TvpappiSo<i CTTpa^e irpoBvfjM)^, Koi xaTh t&v 
(f>i\TdTa)P cLTreiXcu awpLaTtop, dheK^rj^ koX tckpov 
/cal yvpatKo^;, iiriafcij^jrei^ t€ Seipal /li€T* 6Xo<f>vp 
fi(OP, teal TO fidXia-Ta Kiprjaav avTOP, d^iovPTO^ 
fitf KaOaipelp, aWA irapaXafiPdpeiP Ttfp Tvpav- 
pvSa, firjB* iXevdepovp fitaovpra^ dpffpdyrrov^ teal 
fipr)aiKaKovPTa<;, dXX* avTOP apyeip, irapixoPTa 
Toh <^tXot9 /cal olfceloi^ ttjp aa^aXeiap, 

XXXII. ^Apor/ipaxTKOfiipoop Bi tovt(op ovx* 
Sirep fjp BiKaiop, elayei tou9 ^vpaxovaiov^ iic- 
irXrjTTeadai ttjp airdOeiop fcal Trfp fieyoiXoy^vxiciP 

68 



DION 

XXXI. The victory was a brilliant onCi and the 
Syracusans rewarded Dion's mercenaries with a hun- 
ched minas^ while the mercenaries honoured Dion 
with a wreath of gold. And now heralds came down 
from Dionysius bringing letters to Dion from the 
women of his family. There was also one addressed 
outside^ ''To his father^ from Hipparinus" ; for this 
was the name of Dion's son. Timaeus, it is true^ 
says he was called Aretaeus, from his mother Arete ; 
but on this point at leasts in my opinion^ Timonides 
is rather to be trusted, who was a friend and fellow- 
soldier of Dion's. Well, then, the rest of the letters 
were read aloud to the Syracusans, and contained 
many supplications and entreaties from the women ; 
but that which purported to be from Dion's son, the 
people would not allow to be opened in public. 
Dion, however, insisted upon it, and opened the 
letter. It was from Dionysius, who nominally ad- 
dressed himself to Dion, but really to the Syracu- 
sans ; and it had the form of entreaty and justification, 
but was calculated to bring odium on Dion. For 
there were reminders of his zealous services in behalf 
of the tyranny, and threats against the persons of 
his dearest ones, his sister, children, and wife ; there 
were also dire injunctions coupled with lamenta- 
tions, and, what affected him most of all, a demand 
that he should not abolish, but assume, the tyranny ; 
that he should not give liberty to men who hated 
him and would never forget their wrongs, but take 
the power himself, and thereby assure his friends 
and kindred of their safety. 

XXXII. When all this had been read aloud, it did 
not occur to the Syracusans, as it should have done, 
to be astonished at the firmness and magnanimity of 

69 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov Aitovo^ virkp t&>v KaX&v KaX hiKaimv airi- 
axvpi'^ofiivov 7r/}09 roiavra^ otKeLorijTa^, aX\' 
vTToyjria^ xal <f>6/3ov Xa^ovre^ ^PX^^* ^^ fieydXrj^ 
ovarj^ dvd/yxrjq ixeivtp ^ecSeaOai tov TVpdvvov, 
7r/)09 €T€pov^ ^Btj TTpoaTaTa^ aTrefiXeTrov koX 
pAXiara irvvOavofievoL fcaTairXeip ^HpaKXeiBrjv 

2 dv€7rTO7]0rf(rav, ffv Be t&v ^vyaZtav 'HpaKXelSrf^, 
(nparriyiKO^ fiev dvOpcoTro^ xal yvcopifio^ d<f>* 
"^yefwvia^ ^i/ €<7%€ irapd to?9 rvpdwoi^, ovk 
dpapa)<; Se rrjv yvd>fii]v, dXXd tt/jo? irdvTa fcov<l>Of:, 
fftciara Se /Sefiaco^; iv Koiv(ovia Trpay^droov dpxvv 
ixovToav fcal Bo^av. o5to9 iv HeXoirovpijaip tt/oo? 
Aicava araaidaa^ hfvto Ka0* avrov IBiocroXo^ 
irXelv €7rl tov Tvpavvov, e?9 re ^vpaKowa^ d^iKo- 
pjevo^ eTTTa Tpiripecri KaX TpiaX ttXoiol^ Aiovvaiov 
fjL€v avdi^ €vp€ irepiTeTeix^cixevov, iTrqp/jiivov^ Be 

3 T0U9 Xvpafcova-iov^, evdif^ oiv vireBveTO Tffv 

T&v iroXX&v x^P^^f ^X^^ f^^^ '''* ^^^ <f>va€i iri- 
Oavov KaX KivrjTLKov oxXwj Oepaireveadat {V^toOi/- 
T09, vTToXafi^dvcov Be KaX /JLCTdycov paov avT0v<:, 
oi TO aep^vov tov A 10)1^09 w /Sapif KaX BvaTroXi- 
T6VT0V d7r€a'Tpe<f>ovTO Bid ttjv yeyevrffiivtfv ex tov 
KpaTclv dv€<riv KaX OpaavTrjTa, irpo tov Brjfio^ 
elvat TO BripxiyfoyeltrOat deXovTC^. 

XXXIII. KaX wp&Tov fiev eh eKKXrjaiav d<f>^ 
avTiov (TvvBpafiovTe^ etXovTO tov 'HpaKXeiBrfv 
vavapxov, ineX Be Aiayv irapeXdwv rjTiaTO ttjv 
iK€Lvq> BiBofiivTjv dpxv^ d<f>aLp€0'iv elvat T779 irpo- 
Tepov avT^ BeBofM€vi]s, ovk€ti yap avTOKpdTO>p 

70 



DION 

Dion, who was resisting in behalf of honour and 
justice such strong claims of relationship, but they 
found occasion for suspecting and fearing him, on 
the ground that he was under a strong necessity of 
sparing Dionysius, and at once turned their eyes 
towards other leaders. And particularly, when they 
learned that Heracleides was putting in to the har- 
bour, they were all excitement. Now, Heracleides 
was one of the exiles, a man of military capacity and 
well known for the commands which he had held 
under the tyrants, but irresolute, fickle, and least to 
be relied upon as partner in an enterprise involving 
power and glory. He had quarrelled with Dion in 
Peloponnesus, and had resolved to saU on his own 
account and with his own fleet against the tjnrant ; 
but when he reached Syracuse, with seven triremes 
and three transports, he found Dionysius once more 
beleaguered, and the Syracusans elated with victory. 
At once, then, he sought to win the favour of the 
multitude, having a certain natural gift of persuading 
and moving a populace that seeks to be courted, and 
winning them over to his following all the more 
easily because they were repelled by the gravity of 
Dion. This they resented as severe and out of 
place in a public man, because their power had 
given them license and boldness, and they wished 
to be flattered by popular leaders before they were 
really a people. 

XXXIIJ. So, to begin with, they held an assembly 
of their own calling, and chose Heracleides admiral. 
But Dion came forward and protested that in giving 
this office to Heracleides, they had done away with 
that which they had before given to him, for he 
would no longer be general with absolute powers 

71 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7ro\eQ>9 Oewv avdnXeto^ aXfiaro^ Ttfv KC^aXtfP xai 
TO wpoaoDirov, co? Si] Tiva<i (f>€vy(DV omKoina^;. 
ifi/SaXayv S^ TOtovTO^ eh ttjv ayopcLv HXeyev viro 
T&v ^evcov Tov Ata)i;o9 iTri/SefiovXevaOai, Kal Tr)v 

3 K€<f>a\rjv ifreheiKwe Tcrpoofiivrjv' koI woWou? 
eZ%€ Toi'9 cvvayavafCTovvra^ koX avvtaTafiivov^ 
Kara tov Aia)vo^, cb? Seivh xal rvpavvcKci irpdr- 
Tovro^, el <l>6voi^ xal Kuvhvvoi^ t&v ttoXit&v 
d(f>aip€lTai> Trjv irapprjaiav, ov /jltjv aXXd, Kaiirep 
dfcptTov Kal rapa^oiSou? iKKKriaia^ y€Po/JL€vr)<:, 
wapeXdoDV 6 Aiav aTreXoyeiTo /cal tov X&o'iv 
a7r€<l>aiv€ t&v Aiovvauov Sopvcjiopfov evo^ dSe\(f>ov 
ovTU xai Be i/ceivov ireireur iievov aTaatdaai fcal 
trvvTapd^ai Ttfv iroXiv, ovS€/ud<; Aiovvaitp acoTrj- 
pia^ ov<T7}^, ttXtjv ttj^ ifceivtov dintTTias teal Sia- 

4 <f>opd^ 7r/E>09 avTov^. apui K oi fiev laTpol tov 
%(i)<TiSo<; TO Tpavfia fcaTUfiavOdvovTe^ evpuncov 
€^ iTTiTToXij^ pJaXKov rj xaTacfyopa^ fyeyevrffievov. 
ai phf yap viro ^l^ov^ ifKriyaX p^dXiCTa to pAaov 
VTTO /Sdpov^ TTii^ovai, ri Se tov "Zcoa-iSo*; XewTov 
Tjv SioXov Kal TToXXA? elj^ev dp^d^, co? cIko^, vir 

6 d'Xrfj^iovo^ dvUvTO^, elTa av0i<: iirdyovTO^. fjKov 
Be Tive^ T&v yveopifiav ^vpov KopL^ovTe^ eh ttjv 
eKKXtfalav, Kal Bi/rjyovfievoL ^aBL^ovaiv avToh 
Koff oBov dwaPTTJaaL tov X&aiv rjfiayp^ivov Kal 
XeyovTa <f>€vy€LV tov<; Alcovo^: ^evov^ co? dpTico^ 
vir eKeivoDV TeT pa)fi€vo<;* €v0v<; ovv BidnKovTe^ 
dvBptoTrov fjuev ovBeva Xafieiv, viro ireTpav Be 
KotXriv Keifievov IBelv ^vpov, odev eKetvo^ A^ffrj 



irpoaepxofievo^ . 

XXXV. *Hv fiev oiv ijBt] fwxdrjpd Ta irepl tov 



74 



DION 

through the city almost naked^ his head and face 
covered with bloody as though he were trying to 
escape pursuit. In this condition he dashed into 
the assembly and told the people there that he had 
been set upon by Dion's mercenaries^ and showed 
them his head with its woimd& He found many to 
share his resentment and take sides with him against 
Dion, who, they said, was committing dire acts of 
tyranny, if by murder and peril of life he sought to 
rob the citizens of their free speech. However, 
although the assembly had become confused and 
tumultuous, Dion came forward and showed in his 
own defence that Sosis was a brother of one of the 
body-guards of Dionysius, and had been induced by 
him to raise confusion and faction among the citizens, 
since there was no safety for Dionysius except in 
their mutual distrust and dissension. At the same 
time, too, the physicians examined the wound of 
Sosis and discovered that it had been made by 
razure rather than by a downright blow. For the 
blows of a sword, by reason of its weight, make 
wounds that are deepest in the middle, but that of 
Sosis was shallow all along, and intermittent, as 
would be natural if he stopped his work on account 
of pain, and then began it again. Besides, certain 
well known persons brought a razor to the assembly, 
and stated that as they were walking along the 
street, Sosis met them, all bloody, and declaring 
that he was running away from Dion's mercenaries, 
by whom he had just been wounded ; at once, then, 
they ran after them, and found no one, but saw a 
razor lying under a hollow rock in the quarter from 
which Sosis had been seen to come. 
XXXV. Well, then, the case of Sosis was already 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X&tTlV npO(Try€VO/JL€Pa>V Si TOVTOK T0«9 i\iffxpi^ 

olfC€T&p Karafiaprvpovvrav ©9 ^i wkto^ i^iXOot 
fiovo^ ey&v to ^vpov, o? re KaTrjyopovvre^ tov 
Aia)VO<; iTrcxwDT/crai/ 6 re SrjfU)^ KaTay}rr]<f>iadfi€VO^ 
Odvarov tov zdxriSo^ SirfWaaaeTo r^ ^icdvi, 

2 Toif^ Si fxiaOo^opov^ ovSev ffTTOV iv viroy^iai^ 
elxov, KaX fidXiaTa t&v ifKeiaTtDV arfrnvtinv wpb^ 
TOV Tvpavvov ijBrj yLVOfiiptov kutcL ffakaTTav, 
iiruhri ^lXktto^ fjKev i^ ^lairvyia^; €X(*>v ttoWA? 

TpLTjpei^ Al0VV(TL<p Por)dri(T(OVi Kol T&v ^ivoDV 

ovTODV oirXiT&v ovSefiiav Itl yprjaiv ivofii^ov elvai 
7r/oo9 TOV TTokefiov, aXKct Kaxeivov^ €<^' eavToU 
iaeaffat vav/SuTai^ oiai koI to xpaTO^ i/c t&v 

3 V€&v fCTCofievoi^. Sti Be fwXKov avrov^ iTrrjpev 
evTVxia tl^ yevopAvq KUTtt OaXaa-aav, iv ff viKTj- 
travre^ tov ^IXictov a)/ia)9 fcal ffap^apifcw avT^ 
irpo<rrfviy0i](rav, ''Ei<f)opo^ fiiv oiv (f>i](riv 6)9 
akio'KOfJuevrj^ T779 V€o>^ kavTov aviXoi, TifuoviBrj^ 

Si TrpaTTOfiivai^ ef a/ox^^ ''"^*^ irpd^eai TavTai^ 974 
psTct Alcovo^ Trapayevofievo^ xal ypdffxov wpo^ 
^irevanrrrov tov ^iX6ao<i>ov laTopel ^&VTa Xrj- 
^Orjvac T^9 TpLTjpov^ €69 Tfiv ytjv ixTreaovai]^ tov 

i ^lKkttov koX irp&Tov fiiv diroSvaavTa^ avTov 
TOV ddpaxa T0V9 Svpaxovaiov^ Koi yvfivov CTriSei- 
^afjAvov^ TO a&fia irpoTrrfKaKit^eLV 01/T09 i^Sr) 
yepovTov hreiTa Tr)v K€<f>aXriv diroTefielv kcu Toh 
iraurl irapaSovvcu to o'&fia, KcXevaavTa^ eXxevv 
Sia T^9 'AxpaSivrj^ /cal KaTa^aXelv eh Tct^ Auto- 

6 fua^. (hi oi fidXXov e<l>vPpL^cov 6 TifjLaio^ ex tov 
a-fciXov^ ifyqal tov x®^ov tA iraiSdpia Tbv veKpov 
iffyayfrdfjueva tov ^iXtaTov avpeiv Sih Trj^ TToXeto^, 
^(Xeva^ofievov inro r&v XvpaKovaiav TrdvTtov, 

76 



DION 

desperate; but when^ in addition to these proofs, 
his servants testified that while it was still night he had 
left the house alone and canying the razor, Dion's 
accusers withdrew, and the people, after condemning 
Sosis to death, were reconciled with Dion. 

However, they were none the less suspicious of 
his mercenaries, and especially so, now that most 
of the struggles against the tyrant were carried on 
at sea, since Philistus had come from lapygia with a 
large number of triremes to help Dionysius ; and since 
the mercenaries were men-at-arms, they thought them 
of no further use for the war, nay, they felt that even 
these troops were dependent for protection upon the 
citizens themselves, who were seamen, and derived 
their power from their fleet. And they were still 
more elated by a successful engagement at sea, in 
which they defeated Philistus, and then treated him 
in a barbarous and savage fashion. Ephorus, it is true, 
says that when his ship was captured, Philistus slew 
himself; but Timonides, who was engaged with Dion 
in all the events of this war from the very first, in 
writing to Speusippus the philosopher, relates that 
Philistus was taken alive after his trireme had run 
aground, and that the Syracusans, to begin with, 
stripped off his breast-plate and exposed his body, 
almost naked, to insult and abuse, although he was 
now an old man ; then, that they cut off his head, 
and gave his body to the boys of the city, with 
orders to drag it through Achradina and throw it 
into the stone quarries. And Timaeus, enlarging 
upon these indignities, says that the boys tied a rope 
to the lame leg of the dead Philistus and dragged 
his body through the city, while all the Syracusans 
mocked and jeered as they saw drawn about by the 

77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

opdvTtov Tov (TKeXov^ eXKOfievov rov clirovra firj 
helv i/c Tvpawiho<i (fievyeiv Aiovvciov Xtrtrtp ray el 
')(pd>fi€Vov, aWA rov cxiXov^ eXfcofievov. koitol 
TOVTO 4>t\f<rT09, 0)9 v<f>* cripov Xex^^v, ou% v<f)* 
avTov, TTpo^ ^lovvaiov i^ijyyeKKev, 

XXXVL 'AX\A Tifiaco^ ovk uSlkov Xa^obv 
irpocfyaaiv ttjv vTrkp t^9 TvpavviSo^; tov ^iKl(ttov 
airovBrjv Kol Triariv i/jLTriirXaraL t&v kut airov 
fikaa(f>rjfii&v, cS rov^ [m^v aBi/cqOipra^ t6t€ avy- 
^oaarov iariv laeo^ ^XP*" '^^ ^^^ avaLaOrirov 
opyrjq 'X^aXcTToif^ yeviadcu, tou9 S' varepov avy- 
ypd<l>0PTa^ ra ireirpay^va tcai r^ fiev fii^ fiif 
\v7n]0€VTa^ avTOv, r^ 8i \6yq) vpw/iei/ov?, 97 Bo^a 
Trapairelrai firj fied^ vlSpeoD^ firfdk fierii fitofioXo- 
;^ta9 oveiSi^eiv rct^ avfi<f>opd^, &v ovhkv d7ri)(€i 
/caX rov apiarov dvhp&v i/c rvyrj<; ficracx^tv. 
2 ov fJLTfv ovS* "Effyopo^ vyiaivet rov ^iXiarov iyKto- 
fiid^Q)v, 09, tcaiirep &v heworaro^ dBiKoi^; Trpd/y- 
fiaai KoX Trov7)pol<; Tjffeaiv €ifaxVf^ova<; alrLa<; 
ireptPaXelv koX Xoyov^ exovra^ Koa/juov i^evpelv, 
auT09 avrov ov Bvvarai irdvra firjx^^^f^^^^^ 
e^eXiadai rrj^ ypa(f>rj^, 0)9 ov ^L\orvpavv6raro<; 
dvOpdyirtov ykvoiro Koi fidXiara irdvrmv del 
t^rj\(M)(ra<i Koi Oavfidcra^ rpv(f>r}v xal Bvvap,LV Koi 
irXovTovq Kol ydfMOv^ roif^ rci>v rvpdwcov. dXXd 
yap ^iXiarov fJLcv 6 firjre rd<; irpd^ei^ iiraiv&v 
fi'qre tA? TiJ;^a9 ovecBi^oDv ififieXiararo^. 

XXXVII. Merd Be rrjv <^iXi<Trov reXevrrjv 
Aiovva-io^ €7r€fi7r€ irpo^ ^Icova rrjv p,€V aKpotroXiv 
ixeivto TrapaBiBov^: fcal rd oirXa teal rov<; fiiaOo- 
<f>6pov^ Kal irevre /j,rjv&v ivreXrj rovroi^ fiiarOov, 
avrb^ 8' d^t&v vrroairovBo^ e/9 ^IraXlav direkdelv 

78 



DION 

leg the man who had said to Dionysius that he must 
not run away from his tyranny on a swift horse^ but 
wait until he was dragged from it by the leg. And 
yet Philistus has stated explicitly that this was said 
to Dionysius by another^ and not by himself. 

XXXVI. But Timaeus, finding a fair excuse for 
his animosity in the zeal and fidelity which Philistus 
showed in behalf of the tyranny, gluts himself with 
the slanders against him. Now, those who were 
wronged by Philistus while he lived may perhaps be 
pardoned for carrying their resentment to the length 
of maltreating his unconscious body ; but those who 
in later times write histories of that period, and who 
were not harmed by his life, but avail themselves 
of his writings, owe it to his reputation not to 
reproach him, in insolent and scurrilous language, 
for calamities in which fortune may involve even the 
best of men. However, Ephorus also is unsound in 
heaping praises upon Philistus; for, although he is 
most skilful in furnishing unjust deeds and base 
natures with specious motives, and in discovering 
decorous names for them, still, even he, with all his 
artifice, cannot extricate himself from the charge of 
having been the greatest lover of tyrants alive, and 
more than any one else always an emulous admirer 
of luxury, power, wealth, and marriage alliances of 
tyrants. Verily, he who neither praises the conduct 
of Philistus, nor gloats insultingly over his misfor- 
tunes, takes the fittest course. 

XXXVII. After the death of Philistus, Dionysius 
sent to Dion offering to surrender to him the acro- 
polis, his munitions of war, and his mercenaries, 
with five months' full pay for these, and demanding 
for himself the privilege of retiring unmolested into 

79 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

KCLKel KaroiK&v Kapirovadai rrj^ Xvpaxovaia^ tov 
Kokovfjuevov Tvapra, iroW^v xal arfoJBrjv j((U)pav 

2 avqKOva-av airo OaXdrvq^ eh ttjv fiecoyeiov, ov 
npoaBe^ajjLevov Be tov t^iwvo^, aXXA heiadai t&v 
XvpaKOvaiGyv KeXevaavro^, ol fikv ^vpaKovaioL 
^Avra Xrj'yh'eadai tov Alovvo-iov iXniaavTef; diri]' 
Xaaav tov9 Trpia^ei^, €/c€cvo<: Bk ttjv p^ev axpav 
^ AiroXKoKpaTei, t^ irpeafivTeptp t&v iravBayp, 
TrapiBcoKCP, auT09 Bi Trvevpa Trjpijaa*; im<f>opov 
Koi TCL TipKOTara t&v aaypATODV koX t&v XP'^^pd- 
Tcov iv0€/jL€vo^ 649 T^9 vav<: \a0a}v tov vavap^ov 
'Hpa/cXeiSrfv i^iirXevaev, 

3 *0 Bk KaK&<; dxovtov xai dopv^ovp^vo^ viro t&v 
iroXiT&v *'\inr(ovd Tiva t&v Brfp^tycoy&v KaOL'qai 
Trpo/coKeio'ffai tov Brjp^v iirl 7779 dvaBaap^ov, (09 
iXevdepla^ dp^rjv oiaav ttjv laorqTa, BovXeia^; B^ 
Tr)v irevlav Tot9 CLKTrfpoai, trvvrfyop&v Be Tovrtp 
fcal TOV Aicova KaTaaTaa-id^cDV evavriovp^evov 
eireiae tov9 ^vpa/couaiov^ TavTa '^<f>iaa(T6ai 
tcaX T&v ^evoDV tov piaffov diroaTepeiv koL aTpa- 
TTjyoi)^ €T€/)ou9 ekia-dai, t^9 ixeivov jSapvTrjTO^ 

4 dTraWayevTa^;, ol S', &<r7r€p i/c paKpd^ appa)- 
o-Tta9 T^9 TvpavviBo^ evdif<: einx'^ipovvTe^ e^avL- 
cTaaffai, xai irpdTTeiv tA t&v aifTovop^vpAvtov 975 
Tcapd fcaipov, €a(f>dXKovTO p^kv avTol Tai^ irpd- 
^eaiv, ipiaovv Be tov AioDva fiovXopevov Sairep 
laTpov ev dxpi/Sei koI a'(i)<f>povovarj BiabTri kutu- 

(T'Xeiv Tf)V TToXlV, 

XXXVIII. ^^KK\rfatd^ova-i S' avTOi^ iirl vicu^ 
dpj(aZ^i Oipov<i p£<fovvTO^, e^aiaioi fipomal xal 
Bioarfplai irovqpaX avve/Saivov €<f>* ^pipa^ BeKa* 
irhne avve)(&^, dvia-TaaaL tov Brjpov vtto Beitri" 

80 



DION 

Italy^ and of enjoying during his residence there the 
revenues of Gyarta^ a large and rich tract in the 
territory of Syracuse^ extending from the sea to the 
interior of the island. Dion^ however^ would Dot 
accept these terms^ but bade him apply to the Syra- 
cusans^ and these^ hoping to take Dionysius aHve^ 
drove away his ambassadors. Upon this^ the tyrant 
handed over the citadel to Apollocrates^ his eldest 
son^ while he himself^ after watching for a favourable 
wind and putting on board his ships the persons and 
property that he held most dear, eluded the vigilance 
of Heracleides the admiral, and sailed off. 

Heracleides was now stormily denounced by the 
citizens, whereupon he induced Hippo, one of their 
leaders, to make proposals to the people for a distri- 
bution of land, urging that liberty was based on 
equality, and slavery on the poverty of those 
who had naught. Supporting Hippo, and heading a 
faction which overwhelmed the opposition of Dion, 
Heracleides persuaded the Syracusans to vote this 
measure, to deprive the mercenaries of their pay, 
and to elect other generals, thus ridding themselves 
of the severities of Dion. So the people, attempting, 
as it were, to stand at once upon their feet after 
their long sickness of tyranny, and to act the part 
of independence out of season, stumbled in their 
undertakings, and yet hated Dion, who, like a 
physician, wished to subject the city to a strict 
and temperate regimen. 

XXXVIII. As they met in assembly to assign new 
commands, the time being midsummer, extraordinary 
peals of thunder and evil portents from the heavens 
occurred for fifteen days together, and dispersed the 

8i 

VOL. VI. O 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Saifiopiaq /craXvo/xevov irepov^i airohel^ai arparrj' 

2 70U9. iireX Be <l>v\d^avT€<: evStav araOepav oi 
Srjfiaycoyol avveriXovv ra^ ap'^aipeaia^, ySoD? 
afia^eif^ ov/c di]0r)<; ovB* aireipo^ oxXcdv, aWo)? 84 
TTG)? TOT€ 7r/)09 Tov iXuvvovTa dvfuoOeh fcal (f>vya}p 
aTTo TOV ^vyov, Sp6fi<p 7r/)09 to Oearpov Ap/unjo'e' 
Kol TOP fiev Srjfiop €v0if<; dpiaTrjae koI Sieafci- 
Saaep ovSepl koc/jl^ <f)€vyopTa, t^9 S' aWrj^ 
TToXco)? iireBpafie crKipT&p xal TapaTTcop oaop 
vaTCpop oi 7ro\€/MOi #faT€cr%oi/. oi pJrjp dXKii, 
TavTa 'XpLipeLv idcravTC^ oi Xvpafcovtrioi irepTs 
fcal eiKoai aTpaTrjyov<} €)(€ipOT6pr}aap, &p el^ fjv 

3 'H/oaAc\€tSi79' teal tou9 ^cpov^ viroTre/jLTropTe^ 
Kpvff>a TOV Ato>z^09 d<l>iaTaaap zeal fieTCKuXovp 
7r/oo9 avTOv^, iTrayycWoficpoi koX Ti;9 7ro\tT€ta9 
laofioipiap. oi Be TavTa fjihf ov irpoaeBe^aPTO, 
TOP Be Aicjpa ttio'tw fcal Trpodv/MH)^ fieTa t(op 
oirXtop dpoKa^oPTes koI avfif^pd^avTes inrrjyop i/c 
T?)9 7ro\ea)9, dBcKovpTC^ fiep ovSepa, iroXXh Bk 
T0V9 ipTvyxdpoPTa^ €t9 d)(apiaTiap xal fio^^V 

4 pUlP 01/€tStfoi/T€9. oi Be Tt}^ oKLyOTTJTO^ avT&p 

Kal TOV fiTi TTpoeirfxeipeip Kara^fypoprjaavTe^, KaX 
yepofiepot ttoXv irXeiov^ eK^Lvcop, i<pd>pfir)a'ap w 
paBico*: eiriKpaTfjaoPTe^ ip t^ iroXei xal irdpTa^ 
avTOv^ KaTa/CTepovpTe^, 

XXXIX. 'Ei/ TOi/r^) Be 76701/0)9 apdyKt]^ xal 
TVXV^ o A 10)1; Tf fidx^adai toI^ noTuTai^ tj ficTa 
T&p ^evtop diroffapeip, ttoXXo. fiep IfceTevep opeycop 
Ta9 %€t/9a9 T0A9 ^vpa/covaioi^ xal tt^p uKpoiroXtv 

83 



DION 

people^ whose superstitious fears prevented them 
from appointing other generals. And when, after 
waiting for settled fair weatlier, the popular leaders 
were proceeding to hold the elections, a draught-ox, 
who was quite accustomed to crowds, but now for 
some reason or other got angry at his driver and 
broke away from the yoke, made a dash for the 
theatre, and at once dispersed and scattered the 
people in disorderly flight ; then he ran, plunging and 
throwing everything into confusion, over as much of 
the rest of the city as the enemy afterwards occupied. 
However, the Syracusans paid no heed to all this, but 
elected twenty-five generals, one of whom was Hera- 
cleides; they also sent secretly and without his 
knowledge to Dion's mercenaries, and tried to get 
them to leave his service and come over to their 
side, promising them even an equality of civic rights. 
They, however, would not listen to these proposals, 
but showing fidelity and zeal, took their weapons in 
their hands, put Dion in their midst, encompassed 
him about, and tried to conduct him out of the city, 
doing violence to no one, but roundly reviling those 
whom they encountered for their base ingratitude. 
Then the citizens, seeing that the mercenaries were 
few in number and did not offer to attack, despised 
them, and having become far more numerous than 
they, set upon them, thinking to overpower them 
easily before they got out of the city, and slay 
them all. 

XXXIX. And now Dion, seeing that fortune com- 
pelled him either to fight against his fellow citizens 
or perish with his mercenaries, fervently besought 
the Syracusans, stretching out his hands to them. 



83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irepiirXeaov iroXefiicov oiaav inrep<f>aiPO/M€P(ov tA 
reixv ^^^ '^^ y€v6fi€va Kodopdavroiv eiriheucvv- 

2 fjL€vo<;' (09 S' 7)v airapaLrriTO^ 17 t&v iroKK&v ^opit 
Kal KaT€l')(€v &aTT€p iv neXa/yei to t&v Syfiayaf- 
y&v irvevfia riyp iroKtv, ifi/3o\rj^ fiev airoa'xiiTdaL 
T0J9 ^hfot^ iTpoaera^ev, oaov 8* iinhpafwinoiv 
/i6T^ ^orj^ Kal T0t9 07r\o*9 Ttva^a/Mcvav ovSel^ 
ifj^tve T&v XvpaKOvaiayv, a\\' ^')(pVTO <pevyovT€^ 
ava T^9 dyvtd^, ovBevo^; iwiBtrnKOVTO^* €vdv<; yap 
airio'Tpe^ev 6 Aiaov tou9 ^evov^ fcal irporjyev eh 

A€OVTLVOV<;, 

3 01 S* apyovT€9 T&v XvpaKovaitov KaTayiXaaTOi 
yeyovoTe^ virb t&v yvvaiK&v, Kal Ttfv ala)(vvi]v 
avaXajSelv ^rjTOVvTe^, avdi^ oirXlaavTe^ tov<; 
iroXtTa^ iSicoKOV tov Aia>va. Kal KaTi\aj3ov jJLev 
iirl Sia^daei Tivb<; iroTapjov Kal TrpoiTLinrevaav 
ayjtifiaxovvTe^' W 3* idpeov ovKeTi irpaoD^ ovBe 
iraTpiK&f; virofiivovTa Td<i afiapTia^ avT&v, dXKa 
0ufi& Tou? ^ivov^ €7naTpi<l>ovTa koI irapaTUTTO- 
fievov, ala^iova (f>vyrfv ttj^ irpoTepa^ (f>vy6vT€<; 
v'ir€j(a>P^o'o>y €h Tf}v iroXiv, ov iroXK&v diroOav- 

6vT(OV. 

XL. A/a>va Se AcovtIvoi Xafiirpai^ iSexpvTo 
Tifiah, Kal T0V9 ^ivov^ dveXdfi^avov fiurOoi^ Kal 
TTokiTeLai^* irpb^ Be tov? XvpaKovaiov^ iirpi- 
a^evov d^iovvT€^ Ta BiKaia toI^ ^evot^ iro^eiv, oi 
Bk irpi(T$eLf; eirefiylrav KaTqyoprjCovTa^ ^Uovo^ 
2 T&v oe avfifiAj^fov airdvTdv €t9 AeovTivov^ dOpoi- 
aOivTcov Kal yevofievcov Xoyoov iv avTol^;, eBo^av 
dBiKelv ol ^vpaKov<Tiot' T0t9 Be KpiOeltrtv virb 
T&v avfifid^wv ovK ivifieivav Tpv^&VTe^ ijBrf Kal 



84 



DION 

and pointing out to them the acropolis^ which was 
full of enemies peering over the walls and watching 
what was going on below; but since no entreaties 
could stay the onset of the multitudes^ and the city, 
like a ship at sea, was at the mercy of the blasts of its 
demagogues, he ordered his mercenaries not to make 
a charge, but simply to run towards their assailants 
with loud cries and brandishing of weapons ; which 
being done, not a Syracusan stood his ground, but 
all promptly took to flight along the streets, where 
none pursued them. For Dion immediately ordered 
his men to wheel about, and led them forth to 
Leontini. 

But the leaders of the Syracusans, now that they 
were become a laughing-stock for the women, sought 
to redeem their disgrace, armed the citizens again, 
and pursued after Dion. They came upon him as 
he was crossing a river, and their horsemen rode up 
for a skirmish ; but when they saw that he no longer 
bore with their faults in a mild and paternal spirit, 
but was angrily wheeling his mercenaries about and 
putting them in battle array, they broke into a more 
disgraceful flight than before, and retired into the 
city, with the loss of a few men. 

XL. The Leontines received Dion with splendid 
honours, took his mercenaries into their service, and 
gave them civic rights ;^they also sent an embassy 
to the Syracusans with a demand that they should 
do the mercenaries justice. The Syracusans, how- 
ever, sent envoys to denounce Dion. But when all 
the confederates had assembled at Leontini and dis- 
cussed the matter, it was decided that the Syracusans 
were in the wrong. By this decision of their con- 
federates, however, the Syracusans would not abide, 

85 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fi€yaXo<l>povovvT€^ cttI t^ firjS€p6<: a/coveiv, aX\a 
'XpriaOai BovXevovai koX ^ofiovfiAvoi^ top Srjfiov 
aTpaTr)yol^. 

XLI. 'E/c Tovrov /carairXeovaiv ek rr^v iroXiv 
irapa ^lovvaiov rpi^pei^ Ninlriov ayovaai rov 976 
NeairoKirrjv, alrov koI yprip^ra KOfii^opra tol^ 
nToXiopKov/jL€voi<;, yevo/ievf)^ Be vavpxi'xLa^ iviKcov 
fi€v oi ^vpaKovaioL koX Teaaapa^ r&v rvpavviK&v 
ve&v eXalSov, v^p[aavT€<i Be ttj vl/cjj, koI Be 
dvapx^v TO ^(alpov eh TroTOf? fcal avvovaia^ 
fiaviKa^ rp€ylravTe<;, ovro) rtav ypr^aipLKov rjfieXrj' 
aav &<TTe t7)v axpoiroXiv €)(€iv ookovpt€^ i]Bi] xai 

2 TTfv TToXiv TTpoa-aTTe/SaXov. 6 yap Nvyjriof; 6pa>v 
ovBev vyialvov ev t§ iroXei fiepo<;, aXXa rov fxev 
o'xXov avXrjp^aai KaX pAOai^ eh vvfcra fiaOelav 
a^ flpApa^ KaT€)(6fJLevov, roif^ Be (nparriyov^ 
emrepiropAvov^ re rovrtp r^ iravrjyvpia/M^ xal 
Trpoadyeiv dvdyKfjv fieOvovacv dvOpcowoi^ okvovv- 
ra^t apiara r^ xaipw "Xprfodfievo^; eire^eiprjae r^ 
TeiyicfiaTi' koX Kparriaa*; koI BiaOpvyjra^ €<l>7jfce 
Tov^ /Sap^dpov^, fceXevaa^ 'X^prjaOai roh irpoa' 

H Tvyxdvovtnv eo? /SovXovTai kclI Buvamat, rax^co^ 
p^ev ovv oi XvpaKovaioi to kokov ^aOovro, fipaBe- 
0)9 Be Kol ^a\€7ra)9 awe^oridovv eKireirXifypAvoi, 
TTopdijai^ yap fjv tcl yuvop^va Tr)9 iroXeoa^, t&v 
p>€V dvBp&v <f>opevopAva>v, t&v Be Tei^x&v /caTa* 
a/ca7rTop4v(av, yvvaiK&v Be Kal iraLBcov dyopAvav 
€t9 TTiv dxpoiroXip p£T olpxoyTJ^, direyvoiKOTtov Be 
tA irpdyfULTa t&v aTpaTtfy&v Kal XPW^^'' /^V 
BwapAvfav T0A9 iroXiTais irpo^ tou9 7roX€p.LOV^ 
dva7r€<f>vpfievov^ xal <rvp,p>efuyfievov^ avToU 
TravraxoOev. 

86 



DION 

being now insolent and fiill of pride because they 
were subject to no one^ but had generals who were 
in slavish fear of the people. 

XLI. After this, there put in at the city triremes 
from Dionysius, under the command of Nypsius the 
Neapolitan, who brought food and money for the 
beleaguered garrison of the acropolis. In a naval 
battle that ensued the Syracusans were indeed vic- 
torious, and captured four of the tyrant's ships, but 
they were made wanton by their victory, and in 
their utter lack of discipline turned their rejoicing 
into drinking-bouts and mad carousals, and were so 
neglectful of their real interests that, when they 
thought themselves already in possession of the 
acropolis, they actually lost both it and their city 
besides. For Nypsius, seeing no saving remnant in 
the city, but the multitude given over to music 
and revelry from dawn till midnight, and their 
generals delighted with this festivity and reluctant 
to use compulsion with men in their cups, made the 
best use of his opportunity and attacked their siege- 
works, and having mastered these and broken them 
down, he let his Barbarians loose upon the city, 
bidding them treat those whom they encountered 
as they could and would. Quickly, then, were the 
S3rracusans aware of the mischief, but slowly and 
with difficulty did they rally to oppose it, so utterly 
distracted were they. For it was a sack of the city 
that was now going on, its men being slain, its walls 
torn down, and its women and children dragged 
shrieking to the acropolis, while its generals gave up 
all for lost and were unable to employ the citizens 
against the enemy, who were everywhere inextric- 
ably mingled with them. 

87 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLII. OvTCO Se T(ov Kara rrjv iroXiv iyovrtov 
KoX rov KivBvvov 7rpo9 rfjv ^ Pi.'xpahiv'qv TrXtfcrid- 
^oi/T09> eh ^v fiovov Tfv KaX Xoittov d'7r€p€L<raa'0ai 
TTjv iKiriha Trai/re? fuv i<l>p6vovv, SXeye 8k oiSefc, 
alax^vofievoi Ttfv dxctpicTLav fcal rijv d^ovkiav 
rrjv npb^ AUoVa, '7rXi]V ye Srj t^9 dvdr/Krj^ 
€Kl3ui^0fi€vrj^ irapa r&v avfifidxo)v Kal t&v iir- 
iretov yiperai ifxovrj tcdkelv Aicova xal fierairifi- 

2 Treaffai rov^ TleXoTTOVvrjaiov^ ex Aeovriv&v. w 
Bi irp&TOV rj/covaOt) fcal direToKfirjOrj tovto, 
Kpavytf Koi X^P^ ^^^ Sdxpva roif^ XvpaKovaiov^ 
Kareixev evyppAvov^ ein^fyavrjvai rov avhpa teal 
TToOovvra^i rr^v Syjriv avTov koi /lefwrjfievov^ t^9 
irapci rd Seivd pcofirj^ /cal Trpodv/ua^, cb? ov fiovov 
avTO^ ffv dveKirXrjKTO^, dXXd xdxelvov^ irapelxe 
dappovvra^ koX dhew toI^ iroXepioi^ avfifbepofii' 

3 I/0V9. eif0v^ oJfV ifcrrefiTTovai wpo^ avrov diro 
fikv T&v (rvfifidxf*>v ^ApxG>viB7)v koX TeXcatSryv, 
dirb Sk T&v lirirewv irivTe tov<; irepX *KKKdviKov, 
ovTOi SieXdaavre^ Ttfv oSov iTriroi^ diro pvTrjpo^ 
flKOv eh AeovTLvov^ t^9 '^fiipa^ ijS^ KaTatbepo- 
p>€V7j<i. diroiT'qhriffavTe^ he t&v LTnronv xal t^ 
Ala)vi irpwTtp irpoairecovTe^ BehaKpvfievoi tA? 

4 avpj^opd^ T&v Xvpa/eovaitov €<f>pa^ov. ^817 Sk teal 
T&v AeovTlvfov Tivh dirrjVTdDv koX t&v TieXoirov- 
vt)cia>v fidpoi^ovTo irpo^ tov Ala>va 'ttoXXol, t§ 
aTTovBy xal t§ herjaei t&v dvBp&v virovoovvTe^ 
elval Ti KaivoTepov, evdxf^ otv '^yeiTO irpb^ ttjv 
eKKXtfalav aifToh, xal avvBpapLOVToyv npouvfioo^: 01 
Trepl TOV ^ ApX(i)viBfjv fcal tov 'EXXdvi/cov eiaeX- 
dovTe^ e^TfyyeiXdv t€ /Spaxeoi)^ to fieyeffo^ t&v 
xaK&v, Kol TrapeKoXow Toif^ ^evov^ iirafivvai 

88 



DION 

XLII. While the city was in this plight and the 
Achradina in imminent perils all knew who was the 
only man left upon whom they could fasten their 
hopes^ but no one spoke his name^ because they were 
ashamed of their ingratitude and folly towards Dion. 
However^ now that necessity constrained them^ some 
of the allies and horsemen cried out that Dion and 
his Peloponnesians should be summoned from Leon- 
tini. As soon as this venture was made and the 
name heard^ the Syracusans fell to shouting and 
weeping for joy; they prayed that Dion might 
appear upon the scene^ and yearned for the sight 
of him^ and called to mind his ardour and vigour in 
the presence of danger^ remembering that he was 
not only undaunted himself^ but made them also 
bold and fearless in engaging their enemies. Im- 
mediately, therefore, they sent a delegation to him, 
Archonides and Telesides from the allies, and Hel- 
lanicus with four others from the horsemen. These, 
sending their horses over the road at full gallop, came 
to Leontini just as the sun was setting. Then, leaping 
from their horses and throwing themselves at the 
feet of Dion first of all, with streaming eyes they 
told him the calamities of the Syracusans. Presently, 
too, some of the Leontines came up and many of 
the Peloponnesians gathered about Dion, conjectur- 
ing from the haste and suppliant address of the men 
that something quite extraordinary was the matter. 
At once, then, Dion led his visitors to the place of 
assembly, the people eagerly gathered there, Ar- 
chonides and Hellanicus with their companions came 
before them, reported to them briefly the great 
disaster, and called upon the mercenaries to put 
away their feelings of resentment and come to the 

89 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Toi<; 'XvpaKOVO'Coi^, to fivrftTtKafcelv a<f>€VTa<;, a>9 
fiCL^ova Slktjv B€Sg)k6t€OV avT&v rj Xafielv av oi 
KUKW TrerrovdoTe^ rj^Lftxrav, 

XLIII. YiavaajjAvtov he tovtodv ciyrj fxev ei^^ 
iroWrf TO Bearpov* avaaTavro^ Be rov Alcovo^ 
Kol Xeyeiv dp^afievov iroWa r&v BaKpvcov ixiri- 
TTTOvra rijv (fxovrjv €7r€(T)(€V ol Be ^evoi irapeKoXovv 
Bappelv KCLi cvvtJxBovto, fiiKpov oZv avaXa^oov 
i/c Tov ttolOov^ eavTOv 6 Aia>v, ""AvBpe^*^ €(f>7j, 
'* TleXoTTOwqaiot /cal trvfi/naxoi, ^ovKevaofievov^ 

2 vfia^ ivravffa irepl vjjl&v avT&v cvvrp/ayov, ifioi 

Be irepl ifiavrov fiovXeveaOat, xaXw ov/c ex^i 977 
^vpaKOV<Ta)v aTroWvfievcjv, dW el a&aai firj 
Bvvai/iffp, aTreifii rai irvpi koX t^ Trrw/jLari rrj^ 
iraTpLBo^ €VTa(f>r}a6fi€Vo^, vfiel^ Be, ^ovKofievoi 
fiev €Tt Kol vvv jSorjOelv toI^ d^ovKordroL^ rjiuv 
teal Bvcrvx^craTOi^;, vfierepov epyov oiaav op- 
dovre Tr)v '^vpafcovaicjv ttoXiv el Be /j£fKl>6fi€voi 
^vpa/covaLoi<; virepoyjrea'de, t^9 ye Trporepov dperrj^ 
Kol irpoOvfiia^ irepX ifie X^P''^ d^iav KOfiL^oia-ffe 
irapa tcjp dewv, fiejjLvrjfievoi I^ifovo^, c&9 ov6* vfid^ 
dBi/covfievovf; irporepov ovO^ varepop tou? TroXira^ 
Bva-rvxovPTa<; eyKaTaXLirovro^^^ 

3 ^EiTL S' avTov XeyovTo^ oi fiev ^epot fierd fcpav* 
yrj^ dpeirrjB'qaav dyeip kc^ fior^OeXp Karh rdxo^ 
/ceXevopre^, ol Be irpeafieis t&p ^vpafcovaiap irept- 
fiaXopre^ rjairdaapro iroXXd fiep CKeiptp, iroXXd 
Be roh ^evois dr/aOd irapd t&p 0€&p eixofiepoi. 
90 



DION 

aid of the Syracusans^ since those who had wronged 
them had suffered a heavier punishment than those 
who had been wronged would have thought it right 
to exact. 

XLIII. When the messengers had made an end 
of speakings there was a profound silence in the 
theatre; then Dion rose and began to speak^ but 
copious tears checked his utterance ; his mercenaries, 
however^ sympathized with him and bade him take 
heart. Accordingly, after he had recovered a little 
from his grief, he said : *' Men of Peloponnesus and 
allies, I have brought you together here to deliberate 
upon your own course of action. As for me, it is not 
meet that I should consult my own interests now that 
Syracuse is perishing, but if I cannot save her, I shall 
return to seek a grave amid the blazing ruins of my 
native city. But you, if you are willing even now, 
after all that has passed, to come to our help, who 
are the most foolish and the most unfortunate of 
men, pray restore the city of Syracuse and the work 
of your own hands.^ If, however, in your displeasure 
at the Syracusans, you shall leave them to their 
fate, at least for your former bravery and zeal in 
my behalf may you obtain a worthy reward from 
the gods, and may you think of Dion as one who 
abandoned neither you when you were wronged, 
nor, afterwards, his fellow citizens when they were 
in distress." 

While he was still speaking, the mercenaries sprang 
to their feet with shouts and bade him lead them 
speedily to the city's relief, while the Syracusan 
envoys embraced them passionately, invoking many 
blessings from the gods upon Dion, and many upon 

^ SyracuBe was colonized from Corinth, in Peloponnesus. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/earao-ravTO^ Sk tov Oopvfiov irapijyyeiXcp 6 AIodp 
€v0v<; ainovTa^ irapaa/cevd^eo'dat koI tenrvrjtrav- 
Ta? fjKeiv fierh t&v oirKiov eh avrbv ixelvov tov 
Toirov, iyvoDKw^ SicL vvkto<; ^orjOelv. 

XLIV. 'El/ Be TaL<; ^vpaKovaai^ t&v Aiovvalov 
aTpaTTfy&v, ci'xpi fiev fjv '^fiepa, woWct fca/ccL ttjv 
TToKiv epyaaapAvtoVi yevofievrj^ Sk vvkto^ avaxo>- 
pr}(TdvTOi>v eh Ttfv dxpoTroXiv kul Tiva^ ef eairr&v 
6\iyov<: dTro/SaXovTmv, dva6appri<TavTe<i oi Srffia- 
ytoyol T&v XvpaKovaiayv, xal tov9 TroXc/i^oi;? 
eKTriaavTe^ aTpefii^aeiv iirl Toh Siave'Trpayfiivoi^, 
irapeKoXovv tov^ irdXiTa^ avOi^ iav Aitova, te&v 
wpoa-irj ficTCt t&v ^evcov, fir) hiyeadai p/rjSk irapa- 
'Xjaapelv T779 dpeTrj^ efceivoi^ 0)9 /cpeiTToaiv, d\\d 
aco^eiv T^v iroXiv /cal Trfv ekevdepiav avTOv^ Si* 

2 eavT&v. irdXiv oiv eTrifnrovro irpo^ tov AioDva, 
iraph fiev t&v CTpaTfjy&v diroTpeTrovTe^, rrapd Se 
T&v imrifov koX t&v yvaypifioyv iroXtT&v iincirev' 
BovTe^ Tffv TTopelav. KaX Bid tovto /3paB€(o^ cifia 
Kol Kord aTTOvBrjv Tropevofievo^ irpoayei, t^9 Be 
vv/CTO^ TrpoeXOovat)^ oi fiev fMiaovvTe^ tov Alodvu 
KaTelxov TA9 TTvXa^ 0)9 dTroK\ei<TOVTe^ avTov, 6 Bi 
Ninjrio^, ix t^9 OKpa^ ai0i^ ttoW^ irpodvfiOTe' 
pov^ yeyovoTa^ xal TrXeiova^ €<l>iel^ tou9 fiKrdo^o- 
pov^, TO fikv 'jrpoTei'Xio'fjLa irav ev0v^ /caTiaKairTe, 

3 TTfv Bk voTuv icaT€Tpex€ /cal Bii^pira^ev, ffv Bi 
^ovo^ pkv ovK€Ti fwvov dvBp&v, dWd Kal yvvai- 
K&v KoX iraiBtov, dpirayaX B* oXtyai, t^dopo^ Be 
irdvTtov TToXw. direyvoDKOTo^ ydp i^Bi] tA irpdy- 
fjMTa TOV Aiovvaiov /cal tou9 XvpaKovalov^ B€iv&^ 
fie/uaffKOTo^, &a'irep evTa<f>id(rai ttjv TvpawLBa 
Tjj TToXei iriTTTOvaav €l3ov\eTO, Kal tov ^itovo^ 

92 



DION 

bis mercenaries. And when the tumult was allayed, 
Dion ordered his men to go to their quarters and 
Doake themselves ready, and, after taking supper, to 
come with their arms to that very place, for he was 
determined to go to the rescue by night. 

XLIV. But the soldiers of Dionysius at Syracuse, 
as long as it was day, did much mischief to the 
city ; when night came, however, they retired to the 
acropc^s, having lost some few of their number. 
Upon this, the popular leaders of the Syracusans 
plucked up courage, and in the hope that the enemy 
would rest content with what they had done, ex- 
horted the citizens once more to ignore Dion, and 
if he should come up with his mercenaries, not to 
admit them, nor yield precedence to them as superior 
in point of bravery, but to save their city and their 
liberty by their own efforts. Accordingly, fresh mes- 
sengers were sent to Dion, some from the generals 
forbidding his advance, but others from the horsemen 
and more reputable citizens urging him to hasten it. 
For this reason he came marching on now slowly, 
and now at top speed. As the night advanced the 
enemies of Dion took possession of the gates in 
order to shut him out, but Nypsius, sending his 
mercenaries once more from the citadel in greater 
numbers and with more impetuosity than before, 
tore down at once the entire siege -wall, and overran 
and sacked the city. And now there was a slaughter 
not only of men, but also of women and children ; 
there was little haling away of prisoners, but a great 
destruction of all alike. For since Dionysius now 
despaired of his cause and fiercely hated the Syra- 
cusans, he wished to make their city as it were a 
tomb for his falling tyranny. So his soldiers, fore- 

93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

trpoKaraXafifidvovre^ Tr)V PorjOeiav iirX tov ofi5- 
rarov Sia irvpo^ ttclvtodv oXedpov teal a(f>avLa'fi6v 
i'Xi^pV^ov, Tci fiev iyyu^ airo ^^etpwi' Saal koI 
Tiafiirdaiv vTroirifiTrpavTe^, et9 Se tA irpoato Sea- 
4 aireipovTe^; diro ro^oav irvpo^oXov^. <f)€vy6pTcov Se 
T&v XvpaxovaioDV ol fiev iv rai<i ohol^ i<f>ov€vovTo 
KaraXafi/SavofievoL, to Se eh Ta<; olxia^ Karahvo- 
fievov aidi^f; inro rov irvpo^ i^iiriTrTe, iroW&p ijSr} 
<l>Xj6yofi€Pa)v Kol KaTcu(f>epofiev(ov iirl tou9 SiaOi- 

XLV. TovTO TO irajQo^ fuiXiaTa tvjv ttoTuv 
avitp^e ^Uovi irdvToyv (rvfiffxavqaavTo^v, erirx^e 
fihf yctp ovKCTi (TTTOvh^ wopevo fievov, co9 ffKovaev 
eh Trjv aKpoTToluv KaraKeKXeladai rov^ iroXe- 
filov^. TTpolovar)^ he t^9 rip>epa<i irp&TOV iinreh 
aTnjvTrja-av avrq> rrjv Sevrepav /caTaXrjylnv diray- 
yeKXovTe^* eirevra koX t&v virevavTLOvpivoov evioi 

2 iraprjaav iireLyeaOai Seofievoi. avineivovTO^ he 
TOV /ca/cov pJaXXov 'HpaKXeiSr)^ tov aB€X<f>6v i^i- 
irepA^eVi elTa SeoBoTrfp top delop, Ixerevtop api]- 
yeiPf (i? finjSepo^ avTexoPTO^ Toh TroXe/uoi^, 
avTOv Si TeTpo) fievov, ttj^ Be 7ro\eo)9 /UKpop dire- 
'Xpvarj^ dpaTeTpd<l>0ai xal KaTaireTrprjaOai, tolov- 
T(op dyyeXfidTODP t^ Alcopi irpoaireaoPTfop Iti phf 
e^tjKOPTU aTaSiov^ t&p TrvXwp aTret^e' ^/9a^a9 Bi 
TOP kipSvpop Tot9 ^€POi<; fcal irapaxeXevadfiepo^ 
ovK€Ti /SdSrjp ffyepy dXXk Spop^m to OTpdTevp^a 978 
7r/}09 TtfP TToXiP, aXXwp iir a\\o49 dpTia^oPTtap 

3 Koi Seop^epcop €Treiye(T0ai. 'X^p'qadpjepo^ hi 6av- 
pMGT<p Td')(€i, KaX wpodvpia t&p ^cpodp elai/SaXe 
hid T&p irvX&v eh ttjv '^KaTopirehov Xeyopivnjv 
fcal T0U9 p^p iXa<l>pov^ eif6if^ d(f>rJK€P iXffelp irpo^ 

94 



DION 

stalling the succour which Dion was bringing^ re- 
sorted to the speediest destruction and annihilation 
of everything by burning, setting fire to what was 
near them with the brands and torches in their 
hands, and scattering fiery arrows from their bows 
among the remoter parts. As the Syracusans fied, 
some were overtaken and slain in the streets, and 
those who sought cover in their houses were driven 
out again by the fire, many buildings being now a- 
blaze and falling upon those who were running about. 
XLV. Owing to this disaster more than to any 
thing else, the city was thrown open to Dion by 
unanimous consent. For he was no longer marching 
in haste, since he had heard that the enemy had 
shut themselves up in the acropolis. But as the day 
advanced, first, horsemen met him with tidings of 
the second capture of the city ; next, even some of 
his opponents came with entreaties that he would 
hasten his march. Moreover, as the mischief grew 
worse, Heracleides sent out his brother, and then 
Theodotes his uncle, begging Dion to help them, 
since no one now resisted the enemy, he himself was 
wounded, and the city was almost demolished and 
consumed by fire. When these amazing messages 
reached Dion, he was still sixty furlongs distant 
from the city gates; but after telling his merce- 
naries of the city's peril and exhorting them, he 
led his army towards the city, no longer in marching 
step, but on the run, while one messenger after 
another met him and begged him to hasten. His 
mercenaries advancing with astonishing speed and 
ardour, he burst through the gates into what was 
called the Hecatompedon, and at once sent his light- 
armed troops to charge upon the enemy, in order 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot^ TToXefiiov^, (09 ISovci daparjaai roU Xvpa- 
Kovaioi^ iyyivoiTO, tou9 S' oirXiras ainb^ avvi- 
rarre kclL t&v ttoXit&v tou9 iirippiovTa^i koX 
avviarafiivov^, opOiov^i X6%ot;9 iroi&v koX Siaip&v 
tA? '^ycfiovla^, 07ra)9 iroXkaxoOev afia irpoa-fpi- 
poiTo ^ofiepdrepov. 

XLYI. 'EttcI Sk ravra wapaaicevaadfievo^ KaX 
Tol^ 0€Oi^ TTpoaev^dfievo^ &^6rj Sici Trj^ ttoXcg)? 
aya)v iirl tov<: iroXefuov^, xpavyij xal %ap^ zeal 
TToXu? aXaXayao^ €u%at9 6/jlov xal irapaKKrjtreaL 
fjL€fiiyfievo^ iyLVCTO irapcL t&v Xvpaxovaitov, top 
p^lv tiitova acorrjpa kcu deov diroKoKovvrtov, tou9 

2 he ^ivov^ aSeX^ov^ Koi TToXira^. ovheX^ hk (jylX- 
avTO<: ovTOD^^ rjv koL (l>i\6yjtvxo^ iraph rov rore 
Kaipov $9 oif /jLoXXov inrep fiovov Alodvo^ ^ r&v 
aXKtov aTrdvTwv dycuvi&v i<l>aCv€TO, irpdorov irpo^ 
Tov Kiviwov TTopevofievov Si aXjJLaro^ koX irvpo^ 

Kul V€Xp&V TTOXXWI/ K€lfl€Va)V iv Tat9 7rXaT6taA9. 

'Hi; fiev oiv xal tcl iraph t&v TroXcfiitov <^ofi€ph 
TTavrdiraaiv dTrrjypKOfievmv xal irapareraypAvcDV 
iraph TO TeLXtcfia x^XeirrfV exov fcal ZvaeK^ia- 
aTov Tr)v irpoaohov o S' eK tov irvpo^ kIvBvvo^ 
cTdpaTTe fiaXXov tou9 ^ivov^: teal hvaepyov iiroLei 

3 Tr)v TTOpeiav. kvkX^ yctp inro ttj^ <f>Xoyo^ irepi- 
eXdfiTTOVTO Ta9 olxia^ irepivefw/jLevrj^' kciI Siairv- 
poi^ iirifiaivovTe^ epevirioi^ kclL /caTa(f>€pop.€voi^ 
diroppifYpaa'i p^eydXoK viroTpixovTe^ iirKr^aX&f;, 
Kal TToXvv ofiov Kairv^ Sunropevop^voi fcovtopTov, 
iireip&VTO avvix^tv fcal fir) hiaairav Trfv Td^iv, 
«9 Se irpoaifu^av toi^ TroXefiloi^, iv X€/0(rl piv 

^ ^iXavroi o^ws Gora^a, after Reiske (ovrws <f>l\avros 
Bekker) : <f>i\avrQs, 

96 



DION 

that the Syncasans migbt take eovnge at the sight : 
he also marshallfd his men-at-anns in person, U^ 
gether with those of the dtixeiis who kept luiuung 
up and forming with them, diriding his commands 
and forming companies in column, that he might 
make a nuHe fcnrmidable attack from manj points 
at once. 

XL VI. When he had made these preparations and 
had prayed to the gods, and was seen leading his 
forces through the city against the enemy, shouts of 
joy and loud battle-cries mingled with prayers and 
supplications were raised by the Syracusans, who 
called Dion their saviour aiid god, and his merce- 
naries their brethren and fellow citizens. And no 
one was so fond of self or fond of life in that emer- 
gency as not to show himself more anxious about 
Dion alone than about all the rest, as he marched at 
their head to meet the danger, through blood and 
fire and the mass of dead bodies lying in the 
streets. 

It was true, indeed, that the enemy presented a 
formidable appearance, for they had become alto- 
gether savage, and had drawn themselves up along 
the demolished siege-wall, which made the approach 
to them difficult and hard to force; but the peril 
from the fire disturbed the mercenaries of Dion 
more, and made their progress arduous. For they 
were surrounded on all sides by glowing flames 
which were spreading among the houses ; they trod 
upon blazing ruins and ran at the risk of their lives 
under falling fragments of great size; they made 
their way through clouds of dust and smoke; and 
yet they tried to keep together and not break their 
ranks. Moreover, when they joined battle with the 

97 

VOL. VI. H 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oKiytop 7r/oo9 oX/701/9 iyivero fid^V ^*^ ^V^ aTevo- 
TTjra fcal Ttfv dvtofiaXiav rov roirov, Kpavyfj Se 
Kot TTpoOvfua T&v XvpaKOvtrieav eTnppoDadvrcjv 

4 i/SidaOrjo'av ol irepl top Nvyfnop. xal to fiep 
TrXeiaTOP avTcop eh rifp axpowoXip iyyif^ oiaap 
apa<f>€vyop iaco^ero* rov^ S' a7r6\£i<f>0ePTa^ efo) 
fcal SiauTTrapePTa^ aprfpovp oi ^epoi StayKOpre^, 
diroXavaip Bk rrj^ PiKtif; ip t^ irapavriKa koI 
XO'pdp Kol wepifioXaf; epytp rrfkiKOvrtp trpeirovaa^ 
ov irapiax^p o Kaipo^, iirX ra^ olxia^ TpairopApcDP 
T&p ^vpaKovaitop koX to irvp fioki^ ip t^ pvktI 
fcaraa^eadpTODP, 

XLVII. ^Hfiepa K &^ fjp, t&p pJkp aXKoip ovhei^ 
inrifieipe hrjpMytoy&p, aXKd fcaTayp6pT€<; eairr&p 
€(f>vyop, 'Hpa/cXeiSrji; Si fcal ©€o86ti;9 auTol ko- 
fuaaPT€<i iavTOv^ t^ Alcopi TrapiBcoKap, aSi/cetp 
ofidkoyovpTes koX Seop^pot ^cXtIopo^ i/ceipov tv- 
X^Ip t} yeyopaaip avTol irepl ifceipop' Trpiiretp Be 
^(opi TffP aWr)P airaaap dperffp davy/cpiTOP 
e^oPTi Kal TT/oo? opyr)p KpeiTTOPi (l>aPYJpai t&p 
rjyptop^priKOTWP, ot irepX ov irpoTepop iaTaaiaaap 
7r/>09 avTOP pvp rJKovaiP ^TTdadat Trj<; dpeTtj^ 

2 6p>o\oyovPT€^, TavTa t&p irepl top 'HpaKkeiStfp 
BeopAptop oi phf ^iKoi irapexeXevopTo t& Almpi 
pi} (fyeiBeaOai xax&p /cal ^aa/cdpap dpOpdircop, 
dWd Kal Tot? CTpaTicoTai^ ^^a/oto-ao-^at top 'Hpa- 
xXeiBrjv Kal tov iroluTevpxLTO^ i^eXeip Brfpoxo- 
Triap, iiripapef; poarjpM, TvpappiBo^ ovk ekaTTOP. 
o Bk Aicjp irapapvdovpepo^ avTOvs eXeyep a>9 Tot9 

98 



DION 

enemj^ only a few on each side could fight at close 
quarters^ so narrow and uneven was the place ; but 
the Sjracusans encouraged them with eager shouts^ 
and Nypsius and his men were overpowered. Most 
of them fled back into the acropolis^ which was near, 
and so saved themselves; but those who were left 
outside and scattered hither and thither, were pur- 
sued and slain by the mercenaries. No immediate 
enjoyment of their victory, however, and none of the 
glad congratulations befitting so great an achieve- 
ment were possible for the Syracusans in that emer- 
gency ; they turned their attention to their burning 
houses, and only by toiling all night did they succeed 
in putting out the fire. 

XLVII. When it was day, not one of the other 
popular leaders would remain in the city, but passed 
judgement on themselves by taking to flight; Hera- 
cleides and Theodotes, however, came of their own 
accord and surrendered themselves to Dion, acknow- 
ledging that they had done wrong, and begging him 
to treat them better than they had treated him ; it 
was meet, they said, that Dion, who was their superior 
in every other virtue, should also show himself a 
better master of his anger than his ungrateful foes, 
who were now come confessing that in the very 
quality to which they had formerly disputed his 
claim, namely, virtue, they were his inferiors. Though 
Heracleides and Theodotes thus besought Dion, his 
friends exhorted him not to spare such base and 
envious men, but to give Heracleides over to the 
mercy of his soldiers, and to rid the commonwealth 
of the hunt for mob-favour, which, no less than 
tyranny, was a raging distemper. But Dion tried to 
soften their resentment, saying that while other 

99 
H 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjL€V aWoK <TT/3a 71770*9 irpo^ oTrXa fcal iroKefiov jJ 
irXelar'q t^9 a<TKrj(T€(!>^ iariv, avT(p tk ttoXvv , 
')(p6vov iv ^AKaSrjfieia fie fieXir f}T at Ovfiov irepi- 
elvai Kal <l)06vov /cat (jyiXoveiKia^ irdarj^* &v iiri- 
Seift? ia-rtv ovx V ''^po^ <l>c\ov^ Koi ^/jt/cttou? 
fiCTpiorrff;, aXV et Ti9 ahitcovfievo^ evTrapairriTO^ 

3 eXri KoX Trpao<; toI^ ajMaprdvovar fiovKeadai S' 
^YipaKkeihov fifj toctovtov hwdfiet koI ^povrj^ei 979 
xpaTCJV oaov xpV^'^otijtl /cat BiKaioavvr) fpavrjvar 

TO yap^ a\7)6w ^eXriov iv tovtoi<;' ai hk tov 
TToXi/JLOV KaTopd(i>aei<i, et fcal avOpdairoav firjSeva, 
Trfv 76 TVXV^ Siafjj^Kr/SijTOvaav e^pvaiv. el S* 
^HpaxXeiSr)^ d-Tnaro^ xal KaKo^ Sia <h06vov, ou 
TOL KoX ^oiva Seiv 6vfi^ 8ia<f>ffelpai rrjv dperrjv 
TO yap dvTirifKopelo'dai tov irpoaStKecv vofi^ 
SiKaiorepov wpLaffai, <I)v<t€l yivofievov airo fud^ 

4 daOeveia^. avdpdyrrov Be /cafciav, el xal x^Xeirov 
iariv, ovx o^*^®? aypiov elvai iravrdiraai KaX 
BvaKoXov Acre fiif fiera^dWeiv j^ayoiTt viKrjffeiaav 
virb T&v iroWdfci^ ei iroiovvrayp, 

XLVIIL TotouTot9 Y/3>7crtt/Aei^09 XoyiafjLot^ 6 
Aiayv d^rfKe rov^ ^^P^ ''"^^ 'HpafcXeiBrjv. rpairo- 
fi€V0<; Be 7r/oo9 to oiaTeLXt'O'fia, t&v fiev ^vpa- 
KOvaioDV exaa-TOV i/cekevaev eva /coyfravTa aTavpov 
677^9 KaTapdXKeiv, tou9 Be ^evov^ einaTriaa^ Bid 
vvkt6<;, dvaTravofjiivcov t&v XvpaKOvaCaov, ekaOev 
diroaTavpcoaa^; ttjv dfcpoiroTuv, &<TTe fxeS* 'qfiepav 
TO Taxo9 ical Tr}v ipyaaiav 0€aaafievov<; ofiolo)^ 
2 davfid^eiv tov^ iroXiTa^ koX tov9 nro\efdov<;. dd- 
yjra^ Be tov^ TedvijKOTa^ t&v XvpaKovaioov xal 
Xvadfievo^ tou9 edkeoKOTaf;, Biax^Xiayv ovx ekuT- 



100 



DION 

generals trained themselves mostly for arms and war, 
he himself had studied for ^ Ibng time in the Academy 
how to conquer anger^ enw, and all contentious- 
ness ; and it was no manifest^tioQ of such self-mastery, 
he said^ when one was kind tb IViends and benefactors, 
but when one who had been\WjiQiiged was merciful 
and mild towards the erring ; bG&'ides, he wished men 
to see that he was superior to 'Heracleides^ not so 
much in power and wisdom^ as ^^.'Vqodness and 
justice; for therein lay real superio^rify; whereas 
successes in war, even though they had. to 'be shared 
with no man, must at least be shared with fortune. 
Moreover, if envy led Heracleides to be faithless and 
base, surely anger must not drive Dion to sully* his 
virtue ; for although taking vengeance for a i?J«er>f]^ 
was in the eyes of the law more just than the doieg 
of the wrong unprovoked, by nature it sprang fvqxr, -: 
one and the same weakness. Furthermore, baseness*' • 
in a man, even though it be a grievous thing, was-^-' 
not so altogether savage and obstinate that it could 
not be conquered by frequent benefactions and 
altered by' a sense of gratitude. 

XLVIII. After using such arguments as these, 
Dion set Heracleides and Theodotes free. Then 
turning his attention to the siege-wall, he bade each 
one of the Syracusans to cut a stake and lay it down 
near the works, and setting his mercenaries to the 
task all night, while the Syracusans were resting, 
he succeeded in fencing off the acropolis, so that 
when day came the citizens and the enemy alike 
were amazed to see with what speed the work had 
been accomplished. He also buried the dead Syra- 
cusans, ransomed those who had been taken prisoners, 
although they were fully two thousand in number, 

lOI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Toi/a9 ovra^, iKfe\f)aiav trvv^yaye. koI irapeXOoDv 
'HpafcXei^^ €ia"qyri<Tax6\ yvtoiirjv avro/cpdropa 
arpaTTyybv eXeaOai Ai§d^d- xara yijv xal OdXaxr- 
aav. aTToBe^afiivoDv, JSe *t&v apiarrav koX yeipo- 
Tovelv KcXevovroDV JffqpvjSrjaev 6 vavTixb^ o;^\o9 
Koi fidvavao^, ayjSpi^Ao^ iKirLTTTovri rr}^ vavap- 
%ta9 T^ 'HpafcXeiSif, Koi vofu^ayv avrov, el teal 
ToXXa p/rjSevo^'d^iof; icTi, SrjfioTiKcoTepov ye irdv- 
T&)9 elvai TOp*ixitovo^ koX fmWov vrro X^^P^ '^^^^ 

3 TToWoi?. .*o/ye*Ata)i/ tovto /jlcp id>rJK€v avroh xal 
TTjv Kara OaKaTTav dpxrjv aTreSea/ce r^ 'Hpa- 
/c\eiSr},'vj)o^ Si rrj^ 7179 fcal r&v oiki&v top dva- 
SacLCoy Uj^pfitffievoi^ ivavritoOel^ KaX ra vporepop 
yjrr)tfffi&^€VTa irepl rovrcov aKvpcoa-a^ ikvirtjaev. 
o^Ssv'evOv^ krepav dpxv^ XajSayv 6 'HpaKXeiStf^ 

'.T,qii^ <TvveKTT\ev(TavTa<; psT avrov arpaTKOTa^ 

. .^ /ml vavTa^ iv M€(ra"qvp KaOtjfievo^ eSrjfiaydyyet 

' '"'''xaX TTapw^vve Karh rod Aitovo'; C09 rvpavvelv fieK- 

' •'• . \oi'T09' a VT09 Bk 7rpo9 Aiovvtriov iiroielTo avvOi]' 

4 Ka^ Kpv<f>a Sia ^dpaKo^ tou 'SttrapTidrov, fcal 
TOVTO T&v yveopifitoTdTODV Xvpa/covaimv irrrovor)' 
(rdvTODV, <rTa<7t9 ^v iv t& o-TpaTOTriBtp xal Bi^ avTrjv 
diropia KaX airdvi^ iv TaL<; Xvpaxovaaif;, &<tt€ 
iravrdiraaiv dpnrjxavelv tov Alcova xal KaK&^ 
d/coveiv VTTO Tcov ^iKoDV ovTCo Svafierax^ipio'Tov 
avdpoDirov KaX Bi€<f)0apfievov viro <f>06vov xaX irovrj- 
pia^ av^ijaavTa Kaff avTov tov 'lipaKXeiSTjv. 

XLIX. ^dpaxo^ Be 7r/oo9 Ne^ iroXei t^9 'A^- 
payavTLvrj^ aTpaToireBevovTo^, i^ayayiav tou9 
XvpaKOvaiov^; i/3ov\€TO phf iv eripo) xaip^ Biayto- 
viaatrOat irpo^ avTOV, 'UpaxXeiBov Be koI t&v 



loa 



DION 

and then held an assembly. Here Heracleides came 
forward with a motion that Dion should be chosen 
general with absolute powers by land and sea. The 
aristocracy approved of this motion and urged the 
appointment; but the mob of sailors and day- 
labourers tumultuously opposed it, being vexed that 
Heracleides should lose his office of admiral, and 
considering him, even though good for nothing in 
other ways, at least altogether more a man of the 
people than Dion and more under the control of the 
multitude. This point Dion yielded to them, and 
restored the command by sea to Heracleides ; but 
when they insisted upon the redistribution of land 
and houses, he opposed them and repealed their 
former decrees on this head, thereby winning their 
displeasure. Wherefore Heracleides at once renewed 
his machinations, and, when he was stationed at 
Messana, artfully tried to exasperate against Dion 
the soldiers and sailors who had sailed thither with 
him, declaring that Dion intended to make himself 
t3n*ant; but he himself was all the while making 
secret compacts with Dionysius through the agency 
of Pharax the Spartan. When this was suspected 
by the better class of Syracusans, there was dissen- 
sion in the army, and therefore perplexity and want 
of provisions in Syracuse, so that Dion was altogether 
at a loss what to do, and was blamed by his friends 
for having strengthened against himself a man so 
perverse and so corrupted by envy and baseness as 
Heracleides was. 

XLIX. Now, Pharax was encamped at Neapolis, 
in the territory of Agrigentum, and thither Dion led 
forth the Syi'acusans. Dion wished to settle the 
issue between them at a later opportunity, but 

103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vavT&v fearafiodvTODV 0)9 ou /SovXerai fJid'xtf Kplvai 
Tov iroXcfiov AioDV, aW* ael fiivovro^ ap)(€iv, 

2 avayfcaaOel^ avvifiaXe teal 'qTTtjdrj, yevofiivrj^ Sk 
ttJ? TpOTTtj^ ov fiapeia^, a\Xh fiaXXov i<^' eavr&v 
teal TOV (TraaiA^eiv rapaxOevTwv, atiOi^ 6 Al(ov 
'rrap€(T/c€vd^€To fidx^aOai koX <TVV€TaTT€ ireidtov 
Kol 7rapadappvp(ov. rrj^ Se vvkto^ dp'^ofiivt)^ 
dyyeWerac irpb^ avrbv 'HpaKXelSrfv apavra tov 
aToXov irXeiv iirl ^vpafcova&v, iyvtoKOTa Ttfv 
TToktv KaTaXajBeiv /caKcivov airofcXeiaai fi€Ta tov 

3 (TTpaTevfjuiTo^;, €vdv<i oiv dvdka/3cbv Toif^ hvva- 
TG)TaT0i;9 Koi irpodvfWTdTov^ imrdaaTO Sid ttj^ 
vvKTo^' KoX irepl TpiT'qv &pav t^9 i^fiipa^ vpo^ 
Tah TTvXat? Ijv, aTuSiov^ /eaTqw/eo)^ iirTa/coalov^, 

* HpaKXeiSt]^ Sk Tat9 vavaiv, w dfiiXX(Ofi€vo^ 980 
vaTiprjaev, diroirXjevaa^; koX irXavd/JLevo^ iv Tai<; 
wrpd^€(riv daKoiro)^ iiriTvyxdvei raiavX^ tcS 
XfrapTidTff, <f>da'K0VTi irXetv i<f> ^yefiovia %ik€- 
XioDT&v €/c Aa/ceSaifiovo^, 0)9 irpoTepov ttotc 

4 TvXi'mro^, aafievo^i oiv dvaXa^ayv tovtov tov 
avSpa Koi irepiaylrdfievof; &(nr€p dX€^i(f>dpfjbaKov 
tov AtG)i/09 iireSeiKVVTO Tot9 av/Mfid'Xpi^* xal 
KTipvKa irkpmtdv eh TA9 Xvpaxovaa^ iKcXeve Se- 
'X^eadai tov 'ZirapTuiTrfv ap^ovTa T0U9 TToXiTa^, 
diroKpivafiivov Bi tov Ai<ovo^ cd9 eialv apxome^; 
ixavol T0A9 XvpaKov<rioi<;, el Se irdvTCd^ Sioi xal 
X'JrapTidTov 7019 irpdr/fiaaiv, avTo^ o5to9 elvai, 

5 /caTd iToir)(nv yeyovoD^ XirapTiaTTj^, ttjv fiev dp')(}jv 
6 TaCavXo^; d7riyv<o, 'rrXevaa^ Be irpo^ tov Aicjva 

104 



DION 

Heracleides and his sailors kept crying out against 
him^ saying that his wish was not to decide the war 
by a battle^ but to have it last forever^ that he might 
remain in power. He was therefore forced into an 
engagement, and was worsted. Since, however, the 
defeat of his men was not severe, but due more to 
their own seditious disorders than to the enemy, 
Dion again prepared for battle and drew up his 
forces, persuading and encouraging them. But in 
the evening word was brought to him that Hera- 
cleides with his fleet was sailing for Syracuse, deter- 
mined to occupy the city and shut Dion and his 
army out of it. Immediately, therefore, he took with 
him his most influential and zealous supporters and 
rode all night, and about nine o'clock next day was 
at the gates of the city, having covered seven hun- 
dred furlongs. But Heracleides, who, in spite of 
all his efforts, arrived too late with his ships, put 
out to sea again, and being without definite plans, 
fell in with Gaesylus the Spartan, who insisted that 
he was sailing from Sparta to take command of the 
Sicilians, as Gylippus had formerly done.^ Hera- 
cleides, accordingly, gladly took up this man, at- 
tached him to himself like an amulet, as it were, 
against the influence of Dion, and showed him to 
his confederates ; then, secretly sending a herald to 
Syracuse, he ordered the citizens to receive their 
Spartan commander. Dion, however, made answer 
that the Syracusans had commanders enough, and 
that if their situation absolutely required a Spartan 
also, he himself was the man, since he had been 
made a citizen of Sparta. Thereupon Gaesylus gave 
up his pretensions to the command, and sailing to 

1 See the NiciaSy chapters xix. ff. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

BiTjWa^e Tov 'HpaKXeiStfv opKov^ Sovra xal Trto*- 
T€i^ rh^ fieyitrra^, ah auT09 o rala-vXo^ &fioa€ 
Tifi(opo^ eaeadai Aitovi xal KoXaarrf^ *HpaK\eiSov 
KaKOTTparyfiovovvTO^. 

L. *Efc TOVTov KareXvaav fiev oi Xvpa/cova-ioi 
TO vavTiKov, ovB^v yap fjv epyov avrov, fieyoKai 
ie hairdvai Tot9 irXeovait KaX ardcrefo^ axf>op/iai 
T0A9 apxovai' Ttfv Se axpav iirokiopicovv i^oiKo- 
Bo/JLi]a'avT€9 to irepiTel'x^ia'fia, firjoevb^ Be toa? 
iroXiopxovfj^OL^ fiorjOovvTo^, iirikiirovTO^; Be <ti- 
Tov, T&v Be fiia6o<f>6poi)v yivopiviov irovrjp&v, 
a'iToyvov<; o u/09 tov Acovvaiov tcl irpdyfiaTa KaX 
{TTreiadp^vo^ irpo^ tov Aitova ttjp fiev d/cpav i/ceivto 
fjL€Th T&v oirXoav xal t^9 aXXrf^ xaTaa-Kevr]^ irape- 

2 Ba)fC€V, auT09 Be ttjv firjTepa xal Ta9 dB€X(f>a^ 
dvaXaj3a>v xal TrevTC irX^qpaaaafievo^ Tpirjpei^i i^e- 
irXei 7r/)09 tov iraTepa, tov Alcovo^ da(l>aX&^ fiev 
eKTre/JLTTOVTO^, ovBevo^ Be t&v iv Xvpaxovaai^ 
diroXeiiTOVTO^ ifceivrjv Ttfv oyiv, aXXh xal tou9 fii) 
irapovTa^ eTnfiocofievcjv, oti Tr)v rnxepav TavTtjv 
KaX TOV rfXtov iXevOepai^ dvia^ovTa Tae9 Xvpa- 

3 Kovaai^ ovk iihop&tnv, oirov yap eri vvv t&v 
Xeyo/juevoov KaTa t^9 tvxv^ irapaBeiyfiaTtov ep^a- 
veaTaTov eaTi KaX p^yiaTOv 17 Aiovvalov ^vyi], 
Tbva XPV BoKelv avT&v eKelvmv Ttfv t6t€ %a/)ai; 
yeveadoj, KaX TnjTuKOV (f>povrja'ai tov9 Ttfv p^eylaTijv 
T&v TTWiroTe TVpavviBtov KaOeKovTa^ eXax^o-Tai^ 
a^opp>aU; 

LI. *E/ic7r\€i}<rai'T09 B^ tov ^ KiroXXoKpaTov^, 

KaX TOV AtQ>V09 €A9 T^ aKpOTToXlV /SaBi^OVTOf; , OVK 

eKapTepi)aav at yvvalKe^ ovB^ avep^eivav elaeXffelv 



106 



DION 

Dion^ effected a reconciliation between him and 
Heracleides^ who took oaths and made the most 
solemn pledges^ in support of which Gaesjlus him- 
self swore that he would avenge Dion and punish 
Heracleides if he worked any more mischief. 

L. After this the Sjracusans discharged their fleets 
since it was of no use^ while it involved great outlays 
for the crews^ and caused dissension among their com- 
manders ; they also laid siege to the citadel afler they 
had finished building the wall that enclosed it. No 
one came to the help of the besieged, provisions 
failed them, and the mercenaries became mutinous, 
so that the son of Dionysius gave up his cause for lost 
and made terms with Dion. The citadel he handed 
over to him together with the arms and other equip- 
ment there, while he himself, taking his mother and 
sisters and manning five triremes, sailed away to his 
father. Dion allowed him to depart in safety, and 
no one who was then in Syracuse missed that sight, 
nay, they called upon the absent ones also, pitying 
them because they could not behold this day and the 
rising of the sun upon a free Syracuse. For since, 
among the illustrations men give of the mutations 
of fortune, the expulsion of Dionysius is still to this 
day the strongest and plainest, what joy must we 
suppose those men themselves then felt, and how 
great a pride, who, with the fewest resources, over- 
threw the greatest tyranny that ever was ! 

LI. After Apollocrates had sailed away, and when 
Dion was on his way to the acropolis, the women 
could not restrain themselves nor await his entrance, 

107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov, a\V €7rl ra^ Ovpa^ i^iSpafwv, 17 fiev 
* ApiaTOfjLd')(rj Tov vlov ayovtra rov Aicovo^, rj 8' 
^Apirr) KaroTTiv eiirero Safcpvovaa, koI hiairo- 
povaa 7r&<s cunrdariTai koX irpoaeLirri rov avSpa 

2 KOLVdDvLa^ avrfj 7rpo<: erepov yeyevrj/jLevrjf;, da-- 
iraa-afievov S' avrov irpArov rtfv d8€\<f>7}v, etra 
TO iraihiov, 17 Apiarofiaxv irpoaaya/yova'a rrjv 
^Aperrjv, " 'Htu^^oO/acj/, ck Aifov,^^ 607;, " <rov (f>€v- 
yovTO^' fJKa>v Se xal vik&v d(f)^pr}fca<; fifi&v dirdv- 
TQ)V T^9 KaTrj(f>€La^, irXrjv fiovrj^; ravrrj^, fjv ifrelhov 
17 hvarvxT}^ €70) (TOV ^&vro^ kripcp axweXOelv 
^iaaOelaav, ore oZv ak xvpiov rjfiSiv t] tvxv 
7re7roir)fC€, tto)? avT^ Siaira^ cKeivrjv ttjv dpdyKrjv; 
TTorepov ©9 Oeiov fj xal (i? avBpa ae daTrdaerai ;" 

3 TOiavra t^9 ^Apcarofidxv^ Xeyovarj^ 6 Aioyv i/cBa- 
Kpvaa^ irpo<Triydy€TO ^iXoaropya)^ Trjp yvvalKa' 
KcCl TTapaSov<; airy tov vlov iKeXevaev et? ttjv 
oiKiav TTJV avTOV ^aSi^eiv, oirov xal auT09 Bit)- 
TttTO, TTJV uKpav iwl TOi<: XvpafcovaLOi<; iroirjad' 

LTI. OuTO) Bk T&v irpayiiaTtov avTm irpoKexo^- 
prjKOToyv ovBkv diroXavaai irporepov rj^Ltoae Tr}9 
irapovar)^ €VTi;%ta9 fj to /cal <f)i\joi^ xApiTa^ koI 
avfifidxoi^ Bayped^, ^oKiaTa Be T0t9 iv darei 
avv^deai Kal ^ivoi^ dTroveljiai Tiva ipiXavOpcoiria^ 
Koi Tifirj<; fiepiBa, t§ fieyaXoy^v)(l(} Trjv Bvvafiiv 
2 virep^dXXofievo^, iavTov Bk XiTca<i fcal aay^povo)^ 

6/C T&v TVXOVTCJV Bl^fCCl, daVfia^6fJL€V0^ OTl, firj 

fiovov %iKeMa<; re xal Kapxv^ovo^, dWd xal t^9 981 
'EXXaSo9 0X179 diropkeirovar)^ irpo^ avTOV evrffie- 
povvTa, fcal firjBh out© fuiya t&v Tore vofii^ov- 

108 



DION 

but ran out to the gates^ Aristomache leading Dion's 
son, while Arete followed after them in tears^ and at 
a loss how to greet and address her husband now 
that she had lived with another man. After Dion 
had greeted his sister firsts and then his little son^ 
Aristomache led Arete to him, and said : " We were 
unhappy, Dion, while thou wast in exile; but now 
that thou art come and art victorious, thou hast taken 
away our sorrow from all of us, except from this 
woman alone, whom I was so unfortunate as to see 
forced to wed another while thou wast still alive. 
Since, then, fortune has made thee our lord and 
master, how wilt thou judge of the compulsion laid 
upon her ? Is it as her uncle or as her husband that 
she is to greet thee ? " So spake Aristomache, and 
Dion, bursting into tears, embraced his wife fondly, 
gave her his son, and bade her go to his own house ; 
and there he himself also dwelt, after he had put 
the citadel in charge of the Syracusans. 

LI I. And now that his enterprise had been so 
successful, he thought it not right to enjoy his 
present good fortune before distributing thanks to 
his friends, rewards to his allies, and particularly to 
his Athenian associates and to his mercenaries some 
mark of kindness and honour, his generosity leading 
him beyond his resources. But as for himself, he 
lived with simplicity and moderation on what he 
had, and men wondered at him because, while his 
successes drew upon him the eyes not only of Sicily 
and Carthage, but also of all Hellas, and while he 
was regarded by the people of that time as the 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TG>v, fjuqS* iTri(f>av€aTipa^ irepX aXKov ^yefiova 
ToXfir}^ /cat Tvxv^i yeyopevac SoKova-ff^, ovtco 
frapelx^v kavrov iaOiyn koX OepaireLa koX Tpaire^rj 
fierpiov, &<Tir€p iv ^KKah'qpueia (TvaatT&v fiera 
n\aT6)i/09j oifK iv ^eva^ol<; icaX fua0o(l>6poi^ hiai- 
Toofievo^, ol? al kuO^ kKaa-rriv r^fiepav irXfjcrfioval 
/cal airoXavaci^ irapapAjOLa t&v ttovodv xal t&v 

3 KLvivvtov eiaiv, a\V ixeiptp fikv TiXaTtov €ypa<l>€v 
ft>9 7r/oo9 €va vvv TTfi olxovfiivr)^ tovtov a7ravT€<; 
dTTofikerrovo'tv, airo^ Sh ixelvo^, a>9 eoiKCV, cufyedpa 
irpb^ %v ^dopiov /ud^ 7ro\€cd9, rrjv *A.Kairifieiav, 
K<u TOV9 avToOi Kot OeaTOL^ KaX iiKaara^ iylvco- 
(TK€v ovre irpd^iv ovre roXfiav ovt€ vlktjv riva 
ffavfid^ovra^, aXkd pLovov el Koo'p.Lco^ xal aaxppo- 
vco<: Tr} Tvxu XP^Tat /cal irapix^i fiirpiov iavrov 

4 iv TrpwypMai p,€yd\oi<; dTrodKoirovvra^;, tov pAv- 
rot TTcpl Ta9 6p,i\ia^ oy/cov xal tov irpof; tov SrjpLOV 
aT€vov^ i(f)i\ov€LK€i pLTjSev v^eXelv p,rjBe x^Xdaai, 
/caLTOV T&v irpaypLaToyv avT^ ^ApiTO^: ivBe&v ov- 
T(ov, KoX YtkaToavo^ iiriTLp^&vTo^, (»9 elpij/cafiev, 
Kol ypuKJiovTO^ OTi 17 avOdheia iprjp^ia avvoi/c6^ 
i(TTLV, dXKd <f>v(r€i tc <f)aiV€Tai irpo^ to indavov 
hvaKepddTtp KexprjpLevof;, dvTKnrav tc tov^ Xvpa- 
Kovdiov^ dyav dveipiivov^ /cal SiaT€0pvp,p,ivov9 
irpodvp^ovp^vo^. 

LIII. 'O yap 'Hpa/cXeiSi]^ aZ6i<; iireKetTO* teal 
wp&TOV p>kv 6t9 avviSpLov irapa/caXovp£vo^ oi/c 
i/SovXcTO ^ahi^eiv ISicoTrj^ yap &v pLCTct twv. 
aXXaov iKKXTjaid^civ ttoXlt&v, eireiTa KaTrjyopei 

no 



DION 

greatest of living men^ and was thought to be blessed 
with courage and good fortune beyond any other 
commander^ he was nevertheless so modest in his 
dress^ his attendance^ and his table^ just as though 
he were messing with Plato in the Academy^ and 
not living among captains of mercenaries and paid 
soldiers, who. find in their daily feastings^ and other 
enjoyments^ a solace for their toils and perils. Plato^ 
indeed^ wrote to him ^ that the eyes of all the world 
were now fixed upon him alone^ but Dion himself^ 
as it would seem^ kept his eyes fixed upon one spot 
in one city^ namely^ the Academy^ and considered 
that his spectators and judges there admired neither 
great exploits nor boldness nor victories^ but watched 
to see only whether he made a discreet and decorous 
use of his good fortune, and showed himself modest 
in his high estate. Nevertheless^ he made it a pomt 
not to remit or relax at all the gravity of his manners 
or his haughtiness in dealing with the people^ al- 
though his situation called for a gracious demeanour^ 
and although Plato, as I have said,^ wrote and warned 
him that self-will was "a. companion of solitude." 
But he seems to have been of a temper naturally 
averse to graciousness, and, besides, he was ambitious 
to curb the Syracusans, who were given to excessive 
license and luxury. 

LJII. For Heracleides once more set himself in 
opposition to him. To begin with, when he was 
invited by Dion to attend the council, he refused to 
come, saying that as a man in private station he 
would meet in assembly with the other citizens. 

^ E'pist. iv. p. 320 : Hffrt rohs i^ airda'fis r^s oiKoviJL4vi\$ «li 
%va r6irou airoiSA^irciv, koI iv Tovrtf fi^Kiara irphs tr4. 
^ In chapter viii. 3. 

II I 



PLUTARCH*S LIVES 

Tov Al(ovo<; on t^j/ axpav ov Korea KW^e xal r^ 
hrjixcp TOV Aiovvaiov Td<})ov Q)pfjLr)fi€va) Xvaat xai 
TOV vcKpov eK^aXetv ovk eireTpe-^e, fier aire pur eraL 
Se i/c Kopivdov avpL^oiiXov^ koI avvdpxovTa^, 

2 dtra^LMV roif<; TroXtra?. t^ S' ovtl pLeTeiripLireTO 
Toif^ }^opiv0iov<; 6 Aicov, fjv iirevoei iroXiTeiav 
paov ikTTL^cov fcuTaa-Tijaeiv irceivayv Trapayevo- 
p^ivcov. iirevoei he ttjv piev aKparov hr^pLOKparlav, 
W ov 7ro\iT€Lav, aXXa iravTOTrcoKiov ovaav ttoXi- 
Tet&v, KUTct TOV TLXaToyva, KcoXveiv, AaKoyvcKov 
8i Ti /caX Kp7)Tifcov (T'xripLa pi^dpLevof; ix hrjpLOv 
KCiL ^aaCXeLa^, dpitTTOKpaTiav e^ov ttjv iiriaTa" 
Tovaav KaX jSpafievovaav Tct p^iyiaTa, KadiaTavai 
Kol KoapLeiv, op&v KoX T0O9 JS^opivdiov^i oXiyap" 
'X^iKcoTCpov T€ iroXLTevQpAvov^ KCii putf iroXXa t&v 
Koivtov iv T(p hrjpLtp TrpaTTOVTa^, 

3 'Xl? oZv paXiaTa npo^ TavTa tov 'HpaKXetSrfv 
ivavTidaeaOai irpoaeSofca, koX tSlXXu Tapa')((i>h'r)^ 
Koi €vpL€TddeT0^ KoX aTa<Jia<TTLKo^ fjv, 0&9 irdXai 
^ovXopevov<; avTOv iKooXvev dveXelv, tovtoi^ iire- 
T/oe\/re TOT€* KaX irapeXOovTe^ eh ttjv olKiav 

4 aTTOKTivvvova-iv avTov. iXvirrjae Se a<j>6Spa tov^ 
XvpaKOVtTLOV^ dirodavdv, o/io)? Se tov Aiayvo^ 
Ta<f>d^ T€ XapLTrpafs irapaaKevdaavTo^ xal pL€T^ 
TOV (TTpaTevpbaTOf; eiropbivov irpoTrep^y^avTo^ tov 
V6Kp6v, eiTa BiaXe)(divT0<; avTol^, avveyvcoaav (o? 
ov Bvvarov fjV Tapaa<T0p,ev7jv iravaaaffai ttjv 
TToXiv 'HpaKXeiSov xal ALtavo^ dpu TroXiTevO' 
pevcov, 

112 



DION 

Next, he publicly denounced Dion for not demolish- 
ing the citadel, and for checking the people when 
they set out to open the tomb of Dionysius and cast 
out his dead body^ and for sending to Corinth for 
counsellors and colleagues in the government^ there- 
by showing contempt for his fellow citizens. And 
in fact Dion did send for assistance to the Corinthians, 
hoping the more easily to estabhsh the civil polity 
which he had in mind if they were at his side. And 
he had it in mind to put a curb upon unmixed de- 
mocracy in Syracuse, regarding it as not a civil 
polity, but rather, in the words of Plato,^ a '^ bazaar 
of polities"; also to establish and set in order a 
mixture of democracy and royalty, somewhat after 
the Spartan and Cretan fashion, wherein an aristo- 
cracy should preside, and administer the most im- 
portant affairs ; for he saw that the Corinthians had 
a polity which leaned towards oligarchy, and that 
they transacted little public business in their assembly 
of the people. 

Accordingly, since he expected that these measures 
would find their chief opponent in Heracleides, and 
since the man was in every way turbulent, fickle, and 
seditious, he now yielded to those who had long 
wished to kill him, but whom he had hitherto re- 
strained ; so they made their way into the house of 
Heracleides and slew him. His death was keenly 
resented by the Syracusans ; but nevertheless, when 
Dion gave him a splendid funeral, followed the body 
to its grave with his army, and then discoursed to 
them upon the matter, they came to see that it was 
impossible for the city to be free from tumults while 
Heracleides and Dion together conducted its affairs. 

^ Republic f viii. p. 557 d. 

VOL. VI, I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LIV. *Hj; Si Ti<s eralpo^ rov Al<ovo^ i^ 'A^iy- 
v&v, K^dWiTTTTo^, ov (fyqaiv 6 UXdrcov ovk diro 
iraLSeia^, aW' ix fivarayeayi&v koX t^9 irepLTpe- 
'Xpvar)<: iraipeia^ yv(opifiov avT(p yeveaOai koX 
avvT^ffr}, p^Ta(T')((U)v Bk rrj^ arparela^ /cal rip^- 
fjL€vo^, &aT€ fcal (TweKrekdelv eh t^9 XvpaKOv<Ta<: 
7r/)ft>T09 Tcjp eTaipdnv afravrtov, €a'T€<f>avG)fi€vo<; koI 

2 Xap^trpo^ iv roh dyaxn kol Stao-iy/x-o?. eTrel Se, 
T&v 7rpa)Tcov xal fieXriartov <J>lXq)v tov Alcovo^ 
dvrfkcDfxevwv virb rov TroXefiov, xal redvrjKoro^ 982 
^YipaKXelhov, tov t€ Btj/jlov icopa t&v XvpaKovdcov 
€p7)/jLOV rjyep^ovof; ovTa koI tov^ aTpaTLa)Ta^ tou9 
fi€Td AUovo^ irpoaexovTa^ avT^ fidXiaTa, fiiapco- 
TttTO? dv0p(O7ra)v yevofjuevof; koX irapTdTraaiv iXirl' 
cat; ^LKeXLav dOXov e^eiv tt;? ^evotcTovia^;, co? he 
ifxuTLv €Vioi, fcal TdXavTa irpoaXa^wv eifcoai tov 
f^ovov jiiadov irapd t&v TroXe/MLdov, hii(l>deip€ KaX 
irap€aK€va^€ Tiva^ t&v ^eva>v iirl tov Aicova, 
/caKorjOeaTdTTjv dp'xrjv kol iravovpyoTdTqv iroir)- 

3 adpevo^. del yap Tiva^ (jxovd^ t&v (TTpaTicDT&v 
7r/oo9 ifcelvov fj XeXeypeva^i dXrjd&^ dva^ipmv rj 
TreirXaa/JLeva^ v<f>* avTOv, ToiavTfjv e^ovaiav eXa^e 
Sid Tr)v irlaTiv &(tt evTvy)(^dveiv xpv<f>a xal Sia- 
XeyeaOai /jueTd irapprjaia^i 0I9 ^ovXoito xaTd tov 
ALwvo^, avTOv KeXevovTO^, iva firjSe eh XavOdvy 

4 T&v v7rovXco<; xal Svafiev&<; i^ovTcov* ifc Se tov- 
TCDV (Tvve^aive tou9 fiev irovqpov^ KaX voaovvTa<i 
evpiGKeiv Ta^y f^oX avviaTdvai tov KdXXiTrirov, 
el Se T49 dirodddfievo^ Tov<f Xoyov^ avTov Kal T-qv 
ireipav i^eLiroi irpb^ tov Aicova, p,r] TapdTTeadai 



114 



DION 

LIV. Now^ there was a certain comrade of Dion's 
named Callippus^ an Athenian^ who^ as Plato says^^ 
had become intimately acquainted with him^ not as 
a fellow pupil in philosophy^ but in consequence 
of initiation into the mysteries and the recurrent 
comradeship which this brought. He took part 
in Dion's expedition and was held in honour by 
him, so that he even entered Syracuse with him 
at the head of all his comrades, with a garland 
on his head, after winning glorious distinction in 
battle. But now that the chief and noblest friends 
of Dion had been consumed away by the war, and 
Heracleides was dead, he saw that the people of 
Syracuse were without a leader, and that he him- 
self was very much in favour with Dion's soldiers. 
Therefore, showing himself the vilest of men, and 
altogether expecting that he would have Sicily 
as a reward for murdering his friend,' and, as 
some say, having received twenty talents from the 
enemy to pay him for doing the murder, he bribed 
some of Dion's mercenaries into a conspiracy against 
him, beginning his work in a most malicious and 
rascally manner. For he was always reporting to 
Dion various speeches of his soldiers against him, 
either actually uttered or fabricated by himself, and 
in this way won his confidence, and was authorized 
to meet secretly with whom he would and talk freely 
with them against Dion, in order that no lurking 
malcontents might remain undiscovered. By this 
means Callippus succeeded in quickly discovering 
and banding together the evil-minded and discon- 
tented citizens, and, whenever any one who had 
repulsed his overtures told Dion about them, Dion 

^ JB^M^ vi. p. 333. 

I 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fir)B€ 'xaXeiraiveiv ifcelvov, w? a TrpoairaTTe rov 
KaWiTTTrov irepaivovrof;. 

LV. '^vvLarapAvrjs hi ttj^ iirclSovXrj^: <l>d<rfia 
yiverai rtp ^icovi fiiya koI re/oarfiSc?. irvy)(^av€ 
fiev yap oyjre t^9 rjpApw; KaOe^ofievo^ iv ircundht 
T^9 oiKiaf; fiovo^ &v irpo^ eavr^ rffv Stdvoiav 
i^ai<f>vr]^ Se '>^6^ov yevofiivov irpb^s Oaripcp iripaTi 
T^9 <rToa9, dno/SXiylra^ ert <ba}To^ ovto^ elSe 
yvvalKa fieydXrjv, aroXfj fikp Kai 'irpo<r(i>TT(p p,r)hh/ 
*Epivvvo<; rpayiKT]^ TrapdXXdrrovaav, aaipovaai/ 

2 Se KaXKvvTp(p rivl rrjv olfciav. ixTrXayel^ Se 
SeivA^ Koi 7r€pL<l>o/3o^ yevofievo^ fiereirifiylraTO 
Toif^ <^frXov9 /cal iir^yelro Ttjv oyjtiv avrol^ Koi 
Trapafiiveiv iSeiTO kol avvvvKrepeveiv, iravrd- 
iraxTtv iKCTariKW e%a)j/ kuI SeBot/cob^ fir) irdXiv 
eh o'^iv avT& fWVcodivTi to ripa^ dfpLfcrjrat. 
TovTO fi€v oZv aJfdis ov crvveTreae. fieff* ripApwi S' 
6\iya^ vw avrov a"xeBbv avjliTat^ &v, €k taj/o? 
XviTTji; /cal opyrj^ jMiKpav KaX iraihiKrjv dpyTjv 
Xafiovarj^, eppi'^ev eavrov diro toO Teyov<; cttI 
rriv K€^a\rjv xai Bie^ddpr), 

LVI. 'Ej/ TOiovToi^ Be rov Aimvo^ 01/709, o 
KdWcmro^ en fiaXXov eix€TO t;';9 €7ri/3ov\ry;, 
Kal Xoyov el^ roif<% XvpaxovaCov^ i^iBayxev w 6 
Alcop, airai^ yeyovoo^, eyvcoKe tov Aiovva-iov 
KoXelv ^A7roWofcpdT7}v /cal iroieicrdai BidBoxov, 
dB€'\xf>iBovv fxev ovTa rrj^ eavrov yvvaiKo^, Ovya- 
rpiBovv Be t^9 dBe\(l>r]<:, ijBrj Be fcal tov Ai<ova 
Kal Ta9 yvvaiKa^ virovoia t&v irparrofiivcov €?%€, 

2 fcal fJLTjvvaet^ eyiyvovTO iravrayodev, aXK piev 
Aiojp, ft)9 eoixev, iirl tol<; Kara rov 'HpakXelBrjp 
dxffop^po<i, Kal TOP ^ovop eKelpop, W9 Tipa tov 

116 



DION 

was not disturbed nor vexed^ but assumed that 
Callippus was merely carrying out his injunctions. 

LV. As the plot was ripening, Dion saw an ap- 
parition of great size and portentous aspect. He 
was sitting late in the day in the vestibule of his 
house^ alone and lost in thought, when suddenly a 
noise was heard at the other end of the colonnade, 
and turning his gaze in that direction he saw (for it 
was not yet dark) a woman of lofty stature, in garb 
and countenance exactly like a tragic Fury, sweeping 
the house with a sort of broom. He was terribly 
shocked, and, becoming apprehensive, summoned 
his friends, told them what he had seen, and begged 
them to remain and spend the night with him, being 
altogether beside himself, and fearing that if he 
were left alone the portent would appear to him 
again. This, indeed, did not occur a second time. 
But a few days afterwards his son, who was hardly 
a boy any more, in a fit of angry displeasure caused 
by some trivial and childish grievance, threw himself 
headlong from the roof and was killed. 

LVI. While Dion was thus heavily afflicted, Cal- 
lippus was all the more intent upon his plot, and 
spread a report among the Syracusans that Dion, 
being now childless, had made up his mind to send 
for Apollocrates, the son of Dionysius, and make him 
his successor, since he was his wife's nephew and his 
sister s grandson. And presently both Dion and his 
wife and sister began to suspect what was going on, 
and information of the plot came to them from every 
quarter. But Dion, as it would seem, being in distress 
at the fate of Heracleides, and suffering continual 
vexation and depression at thought of the man's 



117 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Plov KaX T&v irpd^eonv avT& KrfKlSa irepiKeifievrjv, 
8va)(^epaivo}v ael xal /Sapvvofievo^, etirev on 
TToWcLKL*; ^Srj dvrjaKeiv €toi/j,6^ itXTi xal 7rape)(€iv 
T^ ^ovXo/Jueva) aifxirreip auTov, el ^rjv Seijcrei fit) 
fiovov T0U9 ix^pov^i aWa xal tou9 spCkov^ ^v- 
XaTTOfiepov, 

3 Ta9 Se yvvaifca^; optav 6 KaWtTTTro? i^era- 
^ovaa^ oLKpifiw TO Trpdjfia, fcal (fio^t^deC^, ijXOe 
7r/}09 avra^ dpvovfxevo^ xal SaKpvayv kol iriariv 
rjv /SovKovrat hihovai ffovXo/aevo^, ai S* rj^lovv 
avTov ofioaai top fiiyav opKOv, ffv Be tolovto^' 
Kara^d^; eh to t&v &€afio(f>6p€ov TCfievo^ 6 hihov^ 
Tr]V irlaTLV, lep&v tlvcdv yepofiiptov, Trepi/SdWeraL 
TtfV Trop<f)vpLSa T^9 0€ov, Kal \a/3a>v SaSa Kaio- 

4 fiiv7)v diropiVvcTt, TavTa iroirjaa^ 6 KaWt7r7ro9 
iravTa, Kal tov op/cov dirofioaa^, ovt<k> KaTeyiXaae 
T&v Oe&v &(TT€ irepifieiva^ ttjv iopTtjv ^9 cj/uLoae 
0€ov, Spa TOV <f)6vov iv Toh Kopeloi^, ovSev ?<7<b9 
TO irepl T7JV rj/Jiipav t^9 deov TroiTfcdfievo^, 0)9 
da€^ov/i€V7j<; Trdvrayf;, el Kal KaT SXK/ov %/ooi/oi' 
ea^aTTC tov /MvaTrjv avT7]<; 6 fivaTaycoyo^;. 

LVII, "OvTcov Se irXeiovoiv iv Ty KOivoavLa t^9 
trpd^eto^t Kade^ofievov A(a>i/09 iv oiKijfiaTi KXiva^ 
TLvd<; exovTi fierd t&v (piXcov, ol /x-ei/ efo) Tr)v 983 
oIkLov 7r€pt€aTr)aav, ol Be 7r/309 Tah 0vpat<; tov 
oXkov Koi Tat9 dvploTLv ^aav> avTol S' ol irpoa- 
(fiipeiv Ta9 X€t/7a9 fieXXovTe^ ZaKvvdioi, irapfjXdov 



118 



DION 

murder^ which he regarded as a stain upon his life 
and actions, declared that he was ready now to die 
many deaths and to suffer any one who wished to 
slay him, if it was going to be necessary for him to 
live on his guard, not only against his enemies, but 
also against his friends. 

But Callippus, seeing that the women were inves- 
tigating the matter carefully, and taking alarm, came 
to them with denials and in tears and offering to give 
them whatever pledge of fidelity they desired. So 
they required him to swear the great oath. This 
was done in the following manner. The one who 
gives this pledge goes down into the sanctuary of 
Demeter and Persephone, where, after certain sacred 
rites have been performed, he puts on the purple 
vestment of the goddess, takes a blazing torch in 
his hand, and recites the oath. All this Callippus 
did, and recited the oath; but he made such a 
mockery of the gods as to wait for the festival of 
the goddess by whom he had sworn, the Coreia, and 
then to do the murder.^ And yet it is possible that 
he took no account of the day, since he knew that 
the goddess would have been utterly outraged even 
if at another time her mystic were slain by his 
mystagogue.2 

LVII. Many had conspired to do the deed, and as 
Dion was sitting with his friends in an apartment 
containing couches for entertainment, some of the 
conspirators invested the house outside, while others 
stood at the doors and windows of the apartment. 
The actual assassins, who were Zacynthians, came in 

1 353 B.C. 

^ Implying that Callippus had himself initiated Dion into 
the mysteries of Demeter. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avev ^iff>&v iv rol^ 'Xt'T&fnv. afxa S* oi fiev ef<» 
Ta9 Bvpa^ iTTKTTTaadfievoi Karelxov, oi he t^ 
Aicovt '7rpoa'7r€a6vT€<; /cardyyeiv iireip&vro kov 

2 (TVVTpl^eiv avTov, &<; S* ovoev iirepaivov, 'provv 
^i<f>o^' ovSel^; S' iroXfia Ta<; 0vpa<; avol^ai. av- 
X^ol yap Tjcav evSov oi fiera rov Aicovof:, wp 
efcacTOf; olofievo^;, av ifcetvov Trporjrat, hiaatoa-eiv 
eavTov, ovtc iroXfia ^orjdeiv* SiaTptfirj^ Se ye- 
vofi€vr)<; AvKODV 6 ^vpaKovaio^ opiyei rivl r&v 
ZaKvvdiayv Sict Trj<; dvpiho^ eyyeiplhiov, « Kadd- 
irep iepelov rov ^ioiva Kparovfiei/ov irdXai koI 

3 BeoiTTOfievov direa^a^av. eifdv<; Be fcaX Trjv 
dBeXifiTjv fuera t^9 yuvaiKo<i iyfcvfiovo^ ovarf^ €t9 
T^i' eipfCTTjv €ve0a\ov, fcal (rvvi/St} t§ yuvaiKi 
TXrjfioviaTaTa Xo'^evdeiar) rexeiv ev r^ Secr/MO- 
TTjpitp iraihdpiov appev oirep icaX Opi'^ai fiaXKov 
irapefidkovTO ireiaaarai roix; (^vXaxa^, ^Brf rov 
KdXXiTnrov dopv^ovpAvov rot? irpdypMxnv, 

LVIII. 'Ev apX^ pAv yap diro/creiva^; rov 
Aicova Xap/irpo^ rjv koi xarel'^^e ret*; XvpaKovaa^* 
Kol 7r/309 rfjv ^Adrjvaicov eypa^e iroXiv, fjv p,d- 
XtaTa /icTCL T0U9 0€oif<: io<f>eCkev alBeladai koi 
BeBievai ttjXikovtov p,vaov^ dy^dp^vo^;, aXV 
eoLKev dXri0&^ XeyeaOai to ttjv iroXiv efceivriv 
^epeiv avhpa<; dperfj t€ tov^ dyadoif<: dpiarov^ 
xal /caKia tou9 <f>avXov^ irovrjpordTOV^, KaOdirep 
avT&v KaX 7f x^P^ KdXXla-Tov fueXi xal xdveiov 
2 d)Kvpx)p(OTaT0V dvaBiBtoaiv, ov p,rjv ttoXvv xpovov 
6 K.dXXi7nro^ eyKXrjfia rrj^ tv^^^ icai rwv 0e&v 
irepcrjv, 0)9 irepiopdvrwv ef dtre^rjpwro^ avOpaoirov 
TTJXiKOVTOv KT(ip£V0v rjyep^ovLa^i KaX irpdypLara' 
ra^v S' d^iav BvKrjv eScofcep, 6pp,7]aa<; p,ev yap 

I20 



DION 

unarmed and without their cloaks. Then at the 
same time those outside closed the doors and held 
them fast^ while those inside fell upon Dion and 
tried to strangle and crush him. They made no 
headway^ however, and called for a sword ; but no 
one ventured to open the door. For Dion's com- 
panions inside were many in number ; but each of 
them thought that by abandoning Dion to his fate 
he would save his own life, and so no one ventured 
to help him. After some delay, Lycon the Syracusan 
handed through the window to one of the Zacyn- 
thians a shortsword, and with this they cut Dion's 
throat as if he had been a victim at the altar; he 
had long since been overpowered and was quivering 
before the stroke. At once, too, they cast his sister 
into prison, together with his wife, who was big with 
child. His wife had a most wretched confinement, 
and gave birth in the prison to a male child, which 
the women ventured to rear, with the consent of 
their guards, and all the more because Callippus was 
already involved in great trouble. 

LVIII. At the outset, indeed, after he had killed 
Dion, Callippus was a glorious personage, and had 
Syracuse in his power. He actually wrote a letter to 
the city of Athens, which, next to the gods, he ought 
to have held in awe and fear after setting his hands 
to so great a pollution. But it appears to be truly said 
of that city that the good men whom she breeds are of 
the highest excellence, and the bad men of the most 
despicable baseness, just as her soil produces sweetest 
honey and deadliest hemlock. However, Callippus 
did not long remain a scandal to fortune and the 
gods, as though they had no eyes for a man who won 
leadership and power by so great impiety, but speedily 
paid a fitting penalty. For on setting out to take 

121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kardvrfv Xa^etv, evOv^ dire/SaXe rct^ %vpaKov(Tav 
ore Kal (l>a(rcv avrov etTreti/ on iroXiv diroXtokeKa}^ 

3 TvpoKvqaTLV €cXrj(f)€v. iiridefievo^ Se Mea-a-rjvioi^ 
/cal Tov? 7rX€t(7TOV9 arTpaTi(OTa<; diroKea-a^, iv 0I9 
^(Tav oi l^icova KaraKTeivavre^;, ovhefiia^ he ird- 
Xea)9 avTOV iv ^iKekia 7rpo(rS€XOfJ'€vr]<;, aXXd 
fiiaovvTtov dirdpTcov Kal irpo^aXKojievdyv, 'F^ycop 
Kareayev. ixel Be Xvirpw^ irpdrrcov xal fcaxw 
Siarpe^cDV tou9 ficcrOoihopovf;, viro Actttlvov xal 
HoXxmep'X^ovTO^ dvjjpedrj, XRV^^M*^^^ ^i<f>i>Sl^ 
Kord ri/vvv ^ fcaX Aicova TrXrjyrjvaC <f>a(riv. 
iyvciadrf oi r^ fieyeffec {Ppa')(y yap f)v, &<nrep 
rd AaKcovifcd) /cal t§ KarafTKevfj rrj^ Teyvrj^y 

4 elpya^fievov yXa<l>vp&^ fcal 7reptTTW9. TOiavTr)v 
fiev oiv Ttaiv KdXXiTnro^ eSay/ce* 

Trjv S* ^Apiarofiaxv^ ^^^ '^V^ ^ApcTTjv, c»9 
d(f)€L07ja'av ix t^9 €lpKTr]<;, dvaXa^iov *l/c€Trj<; 6 
'Xvpa/covaio^, el^ t&v ^icovo^ ifiLXcov yeyovw, 
iBofcei 7r4<rT«9 /cal KaX&^ TrepierreLV, elra avfi- 
Treiadel^; viro tcop ACo>po<; i'xOp&v Kal irapa- 
a-Kevd<Ta^ irXolov avTal^, 0)9 eh TleXoTrovvrjaov 
diroo'TaXfjaofiipai^, CKiXevae Kard irXovp diro- 

5 a<f>d^avTa^ eK/SaXelv eh rrjv ddXatraap. oi Be 
^<i><Ta<: in KarairovnaOrivai Xeyovai, Kal ro 
iraiBiov fieT avr&v. TrepirjXde Be Kal tovtov 
d^va iroivrj r&v TeroXfirf/jLevtov. air 6^ re yap 
VTTO TifwXeovTo^ dXoif^ diredape, Kal dvyarepa^ 
Bvo TTpoaaireKTeLpav avrov Aiayvi Tificopovvre^ 01 
^vpaKOvarioi, irepl &v iv r^ TifioXeovro^ fiiof 
KaO* eKaara yiypairrai. 



132 



DION 

Catana^ he at once lost Syracuse ; at which time, as 
they say, he remarked that he had lost a city and 
got a cheese-grater. 1 Then he attacked Messana 
and lost most of his soldiers, among whom were the 
murderers of Dion ; and since no city in Sicily would 
receive him, but all hated and spurned him, he took 
possession of Rhegium. But there, being in strait- 
ened circumstances and unable to support his mer- 
cenaries properly, he was put to death by Leptines 
and Polyperchon, who, as fortune would have it, used 
the shortsword with which Dion also was said to have 
been smitten. And it was known by its size, which 
was short, after the Spartan fashion, and by the 
style of its workmanship, being delicately and cun- 
ningly wrought. Such, then, was the penalty which 
Callippus paid. 

As for Andromache and Arete, when they were 
released from prison, they were taken up by Hicetas 
the Syracusan, who had been one of Dion s friends, 
and who was thought to be faithfully and honourably 
disposed towards them. Afterwards, having been 
persuaded by the enemies of Dion, he got a ship 
ready for them, pretending that they were to be sent 
into Peloponnesus, and ordered the sailors, during 
the voyage, to cut their throats and cast them into 
the sea. Others, however, say that they were thrown 
overboard alive, and the little boy with them. But 
Hicetas also met with a punishment worthy of his 
crimes. For he himself was captured by Timoleon 
and put to death, and the Syracusans, to avenge 
Dion, slew his two daughters also ; of which things 
I have written at length in my Life of Timoleon.^ 

^ Apparently the meaning, in Sicilian Greek, of the word 
Gatana. Callippus maintained himself in Syracuse only 
thirteen months. ^ Chapters xxxii. and xxxiii. 

123 



BRUTUS 



BP0YT02 

I. MdpKOv 8e B/oouTOv '7rp6yovo<; fjv ^lovvio^ 984 
BpoOro?, ov aveavqaav iv KaTrtTcoXi^ ')(aXKOvv 
oi iraXai 'Fcofialot fiea-ov tmv iSaaiXiayv, iaira- 
afxevov ^t^o?, co? ^ejSacoTara KaraXvaavra 'Tap- 
KvvLOV<;, aX\* ifcelpo^ flip, &(TiTep rh yfrv'^p'^XaTa 
r&p ^L<t>&p, (TKXrjpov eK (j>va€eo<; koI ov fiaXaKop 
e'Xwv viro Xoyou to rj0o^ ^XP* iraiho^opia^ i^co- 

2 fC€iXe T^ dvfi& T^ /caret t&p rvpapvaop, ovroal 
S', vTrep ov ypdtjyerai ravra, iraiheia /cal Xoyqy 
Sia (f>cXoa'o<l>ia<i Karapi^a^ to ^do<;, kcu rrjv <^v<tlp 
ip,^pidtj Kal irpaelap ovaap iireyeCpa^ ral^ irpax- 
Tifcal^ oppMi^, ip^p^XiaTara So/cei xpadijpai Trpo? 
TO KaXov, &(TT€ /cal T0U9 direxSapop^epovi avrcp 
ilk Tfjp iirl K.aiaapa avvwpLoaiap, el pAp ri 
yevpalop t) irpd^i^ '^pey/ce, Bpouroi) irpoad'TrTeip, 
tA Svax^pif^Tcpa Se t&p yeyoporeop rpeiretp el^ 
Kdaaiop, OLKCLOP p,€P optu BpovTOv /cal <j>lXop, 
dirXovp Bk T^ TpoTT^ /cal Kadapop ov'^ 6pLoi(o^. 

3 Xep/SbXla Ee r^ P'VT'qp dp€<f>€p€ to yipo^ eh ^AdXap^ 
XepfiiXiop, 09 MaOuov ^iropiov TvpappiSa Kara- 
(TKeva^op^epov /cal TapdTTOPTO^ top Sijp^op eyxei- 
piSiop Xa^cbp inrb p.dXrj^ irporjXdep eh dyopdp 
Kal irapaaTa^ t^ dpSpl 7rXr)a-iop, d)9 epTvy')(dpeLP 

126 



BRUTUS 

I. Marcus Brutus was a descendant of that Junius 
Brutus whose bronze statue, with a drawn sword in 
its hand, was erected by the ancient Romans on the 
Capitol among those of their kings, in token that he 
was most resolute in dethroning the Tarquins. But 
that Brutus, like the tempered steel of swords, had 
a disposition which was hard by nature and not 
softened by letters, so that his wrath against the 
tyrants drove him upon the dreadftil act of slaying 
his sons;^ whereas this Brutus, of whom I now 
write, modified his disposition by means of the 
training and culture which philosophy gives, and 
stimulated a nature which was sedate and mild by 
active enterprises, and thus seems to have been most 
harmoniously attempered for the practice of virtue. 
As a consequence, even those who hated him on 
account of his conspiracy against Caesar ascribed 
whatever was noble in the undertaking to Brutus, 
but laid the more distressing features of what was 
done to the charge of Cassius, who was a kinsman 
of Brutus, indeed, and his friend, but not so simple 
and sincere in his character. Servilia, the mother of 
Brutus, traced her lineage back to Servilius Ahala, 
who, when Spurius Maelius was seditiously plotting 
to usurp absolute power, took a dagger under his 
arm, went into the forum, drew nigh the man, as if 

* See the Puhlicolay chapter vi. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TL fiiXKwv KaX 8iaXiy€<T0ai, irpoavevaavra ira- 
rd^a^ d7r€KT€ive. 

4 TovTo fiev oiv ofioXoyovfievov icnr to Se 
irarp^ov yepo^ oi Sea tov Kaiaapof; (I>6pov ex^pav 
riva KOL Bvafievecav diroSeiKviifievoi irpo^ ^povrov 
ov ihaaiv ek tov eK^akovra Tapfcvviov^ avrfKetv* 
ovBev yctp ifceivtp \€i<l>0TJvai yevo^ avekovri tou? 
viov^, dWct hrjfiorriv tovtov, ol/covofwv viov 
ovra TApovTOV, dprc xal irpcorjv €t9 dpxovra 

5 irpoeXdelv, Tioaei,id)VLO^ 8' o <f>i\6<ro(f>o<; roif^ 
fjL€V ivrfXiKOV^ ^r)alv diroXeaOai tov ^povTOV 
TraiSa? w laroprfTai, rplrov Be X€i<f>0rjvai vrfinov, 
o^' oif TO yevo^ dypfirja-dar koI t&v ye KaS* 
avrov ix t^? olxia^ yeyovorcov iirt.<^av&v dvhp&v 
dva(f)ip€iv iviov^ irpo^ tov avBpidvTa tov ^povTOV 
TTfv o/jLoioTTjTa Ttj^ lBea<;, irepl fiev ovv tovtcov 
ToaavTa, 

II. XeplSiXia^ Bk t^ BpovTOV firfTpb<; dB€X<f>6^ 
fjv JUdTtov 6 <f>iX6(ro<l>o^, ov fidXiCTa 'PoDfiaicov 
i^ijXoixrev ovto? Oelov ovra zeal irevOepov vaTepov 
yevofJLevov, tmv Be 'KXXrjvi/ccov <f>iXo<T6<l>(ov ov- 
Sei/o? fiev, ft)9 aTrXw? elirelv, dvrJKOo^ rjv ovBe 
dXXoTpLo^, Bia(f>€p6vT€d^ S' etTiTovBaKev irpb^ tov^ 

2 dirb IlXdTeovo<:. xal tt^v veav fcal fiearjv Xeyo- 
fievr]v ^ AfcaBijjjLeiav ov irdvv irpoatefievo^ e^rjpTqTo 
T)]^ TraXacd^, xal BieTcXet Oavfid^cov fikv 'Ai/t/- 
oxov TOV ^ AaKaXcovLTr^Vy <f>iXov Be koI avfifiiayTTjv 
TOV dB€7<j(j>ov avTOv ireiroLr^fievo^" ApiaTov, dvBpa 
T§ iJiiv iv Xoyoi^ e^ei ttoXXcov (f)cXo(T6(l>ot)v XecTro- 
fievov, evra^ia Be xal irpaoTrfTi toi^ irpdoToi^ 

3 ivdfiiXXov. 6 S* "EifiTTvXo^ ov koI aifTO^ iv Tai^ 



128 



BRUTUS 

intending to confer privately with him, and when he 
inclined his head to listen, stabbed him to death. ^ 

This, at all events, is generally admitted ; but as 
to the lineage of Brutus by his father's side, those 
who display great hatred and malevolence towards 
him because of the murder of Caesar denv that it 
goes back to that Brutus who expelled the Tarquins, 
since no offspring was left to him when he had slain 
his sons. The ancestor of Brutus, they say, was a 
plebeian, son of a steward by the name of Brutus, 
and had only recently risen to office. Poseidonius 
the philosopher, however, says that the two sons of 
Brutus who were of age perished according to the 
story, but that a third son was left, an infant, from 
whom the family descended. He says, moreover, that 
there were certainly illustrious men of this house in 
' his own day, some of whom called attention to their 
likeness in fornv and features to the statue of Brutus. 
Thus much, then, on this head. 

II. Servilia, the mother of Brutus, was a sister of 
Cato the philosopher, and Brutus had a higher esteem 
for him than for any other Roman, Cato being his 
uncle and afterwards becoming his father-in-law. 
There was practically no Greek philosopher with 
whom Brutus was unacquainted or unfamiliar, but he 
devoted himself particularly to the disciples of Plato. 
To the New and Middle Academy, as they are called, 
he was not very partial, but clung to the Old. He 
was therefore always an admirer of Antiochus of 
Ascalon, whose brother Aristus he had made his 
friend and housemate, a man who in learning was 
inferior to many philosophers, but who in good sense 
and gentleness vied with the foremost. Empylus 
also^ who is often mentioned by Brutus himself in 

1 In 439 B.C. Cf. Livy, iv. 13 f. 

129 

VOL. VI. K 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eTriaToKal^i KaX oi <f)L\oi fiifivtjvTat. iroWdKc^ a><; 
avfifiiovvTO^ avT<pj prjTwp 7]v KaX /caraXiXoLire 
fUKpov flip, ov ^avkov Se avyypafjLfia irepX tyj^ 
Kaiaapo^ avaipi(r€(o<i, o B/aoOro? hrvykypairTai, 

^PoyfialarX fiev oiv rja/crjTO tt/oo? ra? Sie^oiov^ 
KaX T0U9 dy&va^ iKavay^ 6 B/joDto?, 'EWrfvcarX 985 
Se Ttjv a'n'0(j>6€y/iiaTiKr)v KaX AaKcoviKtjv iinTr)- 
Sevcjv fipa'x^vXoyiav iv Tah iinaTokah ipLaxov 

4 7rapd(T7jfi6^ i(TTLv, olov fjSf] KaOearrjKW eh rov 
TToXcfiov ypd^sL YlepyajX'qvoW " ^Akovco vfia^ 
Ao\oj3eXXa SeBoDKepai ')(prifiaTa* a el fiev eKovre^ 
eSore, o/JLoXoyelre dhiKelv el he aKovre^, diro- 
Seu^are t«3 ifioX eKOvje^ hovvaiy irdXiv ^apiot^* 
" At ^ovXaX Vfio)i/ oXiyeopOL, ai virovpyiac ^pa- 

5 helai. Tt TOVTtav reXo^ evvoelaOe;^^ KaX erepav 
" Sdvdioi T7JV efi7}v evepyeaiav virepihovre^ Td(j>ov 
diTovoia^ eaxv^ci^f' t^i/ irarpiha; Yiarapel^; he 
TriarevaavTe^ eavrov^ ifioX ovBev • iXXeiTrovai 
hioiKovvre^ ra Ka6^ eKaara t?)9 eXevOepla^, 
i^ov ovv KaX v/MV rj rrjv Uarapeoyv Kpiatv fj rrjv 
Savdlcov TV')(rjv eXeadaiy to fiev ovv r&v irapa- 
arifioav yevo^ eTriaToXidov tolovtov iaTLV, 

III. "Kri Be jxeipaKiov &v Karww to) deitp 
avvafrehrfp/qaev eh l^virpov eirX YlroXefialov diro- 
araXevTL, YiroXep^aiov oe hLa(^6eipavro^ eavrov o 
KdTMV avTO^ €P 'PoSw Biarpifirjv e^cop dvayKaiav 
€TVX€ p^v i]Srj Ttva t&v ^LXtov KaviSiov iirX rijv 
T&v XPVM-drtov (f>vXaKffP aTreaTaXKoo^, BeLaa^ &' 
eKelvov d)9 ovk d<f>e^6/jLepov KXoTrrjf;, eypayjre t^ 
B/oovry irXelp rrjp Taxiarrjp eh Kvirpop €K Hap,- 
(f>vXia^* €Ke2 yctp eavrop dpaXap^^dpcop €K tipo^ 
2 dcOepeia^ Sirjyep. 6 Bi KaX pAXa aKcop ^Xevae, 

130 



BRUTUS 

his letters, and also by his friends, as a housemate 
of his, was a rhetorician, and has left a brief but 
excellent account of the assassination of Caesar, 
entitled "Brutus." 

In Latin, now, Brutus was sufficiently trained for 
narrative or pleading ; but in Greek he affected the 
brevity of the apophthegm and the Spartan, of which 
he sometimes gives a striking example in his letters. 
For instance, when he had already embarked upon 
the war, he WTOte to the Pergamenians : '^ I hear 
that ye have given money to Dolabella ; if ye gave 
it willingly confess that ye have wronged me ; if 
unwillingly, prove it by giving willingly to me." 
Again, to the Samians : " Your counsels are paltry, 
your subsidies slow ; what, think ye, will be the end 
of this } *' And in another letter : " The Xanthians 
ignored my benefactions, and have made their country 
a grave for their madness ; but the Patareans en- 
trusted themselves to me, and now enjoy their 
freedom in all its fulness. It is in your power also 
to choose the decision of the Patareans or the fate 
of the Xanthians." Such, then, is the style of his 
remarkable letters. 

III. While he was still a youth, he made a journey 
to Cyprus with his uncle Cato, who was sent out 
against Ptolemy.^ And when Ptolemy made away 
with himself, Cato, who was himself obliged to tarry 
a while in Rhodes, had already dispatched one of 
his friends, Canidius, to take charge of the king's 
treasures ; but fearing that he would not refrain 
from theft, he wrote to Brutus bidding him sail with 
all speed to Cyprus from Pamphylia, where he was 
recruiting his health after a severe sickness. Brutus 
set sail, but very much against his will, both because 
* Cf. Cato the Younger, chapters xxxiv.. xxxvi. 

K 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOP T€ KaviSiop alhovfievof; cw? dTLficD<; direppifi- 
fiepov VTTO Tov KaTcopOf;, kol o\co<; ttjp TOtavTr)p 
iirifieXetap /cat Sioifcrjaip, are Si) pio^ koI o'^o- 
XacTT?;?, ovK iXevdepiop ovS* eavrov 7rocov/JL€PO<;, 
ov firjp dWcL Kol irepl ravra avpreipa^ iavrop 
VTTO TOV KaToypo^; enrrjpiO'q, /cal Ti]^ ovaia^ ^^o,p- 
yvpLadeiarj^; apaXa^cDP tcl liKelaTa t&p 'X^prjfidTcop 
eh ^Vdyfxrjp eirXeva-ep. 

IV. 'ETrel Se tcl irpdyfiaTa SieaTTj Tlo/Mirrjtov 
Kal K-aiaapo^ i^epeyfca^epoop to, oirXa kol t% 
riy€/JL0pia<; Tapa'xOeLanr)^^ cTrtSofo? fiep fjp aiprjae- 
adai TU }^qi(Tapo<i' 6 yap TraTijp avTOv Bid top 
UofjLTTTjlop iTedprjKU irpoTepop* d^i&p Se ra Koipd 
Ta>p ISieop iTTLTrpoaOep TroielaOaL KaX ttjp JJofi- 
7rr)tov POfU^ayp vTToOeaip fieXTiopa irpo^ top 7ro\e- 
p.op elpai T7J<; tov Kaiaapo^^ eKeip(p irpoaideTo, 

2 KaiTOi irpoTepov dTraPTrja-a^ oi/Se TrpoaelTre top 
UofJLTTjjlop, dyo^ rjyovfiepo^ fiiya iraTpo^ <f)0pel 
BLaXiyea-Bar totc S' cw? dp)(OPTi t^9 iraTplho^; 
vrroTa^a^ eavTOP €t9 KiXiKiap eirXjevae irpeafiev- 
T^9 fiCTa S^CTTtof TOV Xxi')(OPTo^ T7)p iTTap')(iap, 

3 ft)9 S' iKei irpaTTCiP ovSep ^p /juiya fcal avprjeaap 
€t9 TavTO ^Srj UofJL7n]lo<; Kal Kaiaap dycopi^ofiepoi 
irepX tS)p oXcop, fJKCP €t9 M.aK€BopLap ideXopTrj^; 
TOV klpBvpov fieOi^cop' otc Kai (fyaai Uo/jLwq'iop 
TfadepTa Kal OavpLoxrapTa irpoaioPTo^i avTov xaOe- 
^ofievov i^apaaTYjpai KaX irepifiaXeip m KpetTTOPa 
irdpTtop opcopToyp, ip Be ttj aTpaTela t^9 'fjfJLepa^ 

^ rrjs rod Kalffapos Lentz : rod Kalaapos, 
132 



BRUTUS 

he had regard for Canidius^ whom he thought to 
have been ignominiously discarded by Cato, and be- 
cause on general grounds he considered such pains- 
taking attention to administrative affairs to be illiberal 
and unworthy of himself as a young man addicted to 
letters. However, he applied himself to this task 
also, and won Cato's praise, and after converting the 
king's property into money, took most of the treasure 
and set sail for Rome. 

IV. Here, when the state was rent by factions, 
Pompey and Caesar appealing to arms and the su- 
preme power being confounded, Brutus was expected 
to choose the side of Caesar, since his father had 
been put to death a while before at the instiga- 
tion of Pompey;^ but thinking it his duty to put 
the public good above his own, and holding that 
Pompey's grounds for going to war were better than 
Caesar s, he attached himself to Pompey. And yet 
before this he would not even speak to Pompey when 
he met him, considering it a great abomination to 
converse with the murderer of his father ; now, how- 
ever, looking upon him as his country's ruler, he put 
himself under his orders, and set sail for Cilicia as 
legate with Sestius, to whom the province had been 
allotted. But since there was nothing of importance 
for him to do there, and since Pompey and Caesar 
were now about to meet in a supreme struggle, he 
came of his own accord into Macedonia to share the 
danger. It was then, they say, that Pompey was 
so filled with delight and admiration that he rose 
from his seat as Brutus approached, and in the sight 
of all embraced him as a superior. During the cam- 
paign, for whatever part of the day he was not with 

See the Pompey ^ chapter xvi. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oaa fiTj HofjLTrrjtco avvrjv irepl \6yov^ fcal ffifiXia 
Btirpt^ev, ov fiovov top aXXov 'xpovov, dWa teal 
4 irpb T^9 fieyd\r]<; fid)(7](;. ^v jxev dfc/JLrj dipov^ xal 
KavjJLa TToXi/ tt/oo? iXcoSecri %w/}tot9 iaTparoTreSev- 
KOTcov, T^ Be B/oouTft) ov Ta')(e(o^ rjKOV oi rfjv 
crKTjvrjv fcofiL^ovT€<;. iKTTovqdei^ Se ire pi ravTa, 
fiearj/jL^piaf; fi6\c<; dXeiylrdfievo^; kol (f)ayoDV oXiya, 
T&v aXXcop fj KuffevSovTcov fj Trpo^ iinvoia KaX 
(f>povTiSc Tov pieXXovTO^ ovTcov, avTo<; ci'xpi' t?)? 
kairepa^ eypa^e (TwrdrTcov eTTiTOfirjv IIoXvI3lov, 

V. Aeyerat Se koX J^alaap ovk dpueXelp tov 
dvSpo^, dXXct KOL TTpoeiirelv toI^ v<f) eavrov y)ye- 
fioaiv ev TTj fid)(Tj p'V fcreiveiv 3povTOv, dXXd 
<f)eihea6ai, KaX irapacrxovra fiev eKovaito^ ayeiv, 
el Se dirofid'x^oLTo 7rpo<; ttjv avXXyyfriv, eav Koi fit) 
iSid^eaOai' koI ravra irotelv ifj jjLr)Tpl tov J^pov- 

2 TOV ^epfiiXia '^api^opuevof;, iyvcoKet yap, ©9 eoixe, 9^3 
veavia^ &p cti ttjv Xep^cXiav iTrcfiavelaav avTtp, 

Kol Ka&* o&? fxdXtaTa ')(p6vov^ 6 epw^ eire^Xeye 
yevofJLevov top BpovTov eTreireLaTo tto)? e^ eavTov 
yeyovevai* XiyeTai Se t&p irepl KaTiXtpap irpay- 
p^aTcov /JsydXcDP ifiTreTTTco/coTcop eh Tr)v avyfcXijTOp, 
a fiLKpov eSerjaev dpaTpey^ai ttjp ttoXiv, eaTdvai 
fiep 6/jLov K^aTcova fcal Kataapa Sia(f)€po/jLepov<; 
Trepl yvcofirjf;, ev TOVT(p Se ypafifiaTiSiov fuxpov 
irpoaSoOevTO*; e^(o0ev Kaia-apL, top fiep dvayipoo' 
(TKeiv attoirfi, K.dTO)va Se /3odv i? Secvh iroiel 
Kataap evTev^ei^ koX ypdfifiaTa irapa tcop iroXe- 

3 ^ieop IT poaSe'Xpixevo<;, dopvpi]adpT(OV Se iroXX&p, 

134 



BRUTUS 

Pompey, he busied himself with books and literature, 
not only tlie rest of the time, but even before the 
great battle.^ It was the height of summer, tlie 
heat was great (since they had encamped in marshy 
regions), and tliey that carried the tent of Brutus 
were slow in coming. But though he was thus all 
worn out, and thougli it was almost noon before he 
anointed himself and took a little food, nevertheless, 
while the rest were either sleeping or occupied with 
anxious thoughts about the future, he himself was 
busy until evening in making and writing out a 
compend of Polybius. 

V. It is said, moreover, that Caesar also was con- 
cerned for his safety, and ordered his officers not to 
Icill Brutus in the battle, but to spare him, and take 
him prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily, and 
if he persisted in fighting against capture, to let him 
alone and do him no violence ; and that Caesar did 
this out of regard for Servilia, the mother of Brutus. 
For while he was still a young man, as it seems, 
Caesar had been intimate with Servilia, who was 
madly in love with him, and he had some grounds 
for believing that Brutus, who was born at about the 
time when her passion was in full blaze, was his own 
son. It is said also that when the great conspiracy 
of Catiline, which came near overthrowing the city, 
had come to the ears of the senate, Cato and Caesar, 
who were of different opinions about the matter, 
were standing side by side, and just then a little 
note was handed to Caesar from outside, which he 
read quietly. But Cato cried out that Caesar was 
outrageously receiving letters of instruction from the 
enemy. At this, a great tumult arose, and Caesar 

* At Pharsaliis in Thessaly, in August of 48 d.c. 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal Tov Kaiaapo^ to SeXrdpcov, o)9 eZye, t^ 
KaTcavt irpoa-iovTOSi ava^vovra Xep/StXia^ tt}? 
aS€\(f>r](; aKoXaarov iiTLaToXiov i/cetvo fikv plyjra 
TT/oo? TOV Kaiaapa fcal elTreiv " KpaTCi, fiidvae, 
TT/oo? Be Tr)v yvdfirjv /cal tov \6yov aJjdt^ i^ ^PXV^ 
Tpaireadat. ovtco fiev ^v 6 tt/jo? Kaiaapa Xep- 
iSiKia^ 6/90)9 irept^o'qTo^, 

VI. T€VOfi€vr)<i Se t% xaTU ^dpaaXov fJTTrj<; 
Kol Tlofnrrjtov fiev iirl OdXaaaav SL€K7r€a'6vTO<;, 
TToXcopKovfiivov Sk TOV ycLpaico^f eXaOev 6 ^povTO^ 
KaTa iTvXas irpo^ tottov eXcoBr) Kal p^dTOV vSutcov 
fcal KaXdpx)v <f>epovaa^ e^eXdcav koX Sia vvkto^ 

2 diroacodeU €t9 AdpLcaav, €K€L0€v Se ypdyjravTO^ 
avTov K.aL(Tap fjadrj re aco^op^evcp, fcal KeXevaa^ 
wpo^ avTov iXdelv ov povov d(l>7JK€ t^9 alTia<;, 
dXXa K<u Tipxop,€vov iv Toh pdXiaTa irepX avTOv 
elx^v. oiSevo9 S' oirrj (l>€vyoi Uop-mjlof; eiirelv 
exoi/T09, a\V diropla^ ovarj<:, oSov Ttva <rvv t& 
B/oouTft) ^aSi^ayv povo^ dTreweipaTO ttj^ yvcopij^. 
KOi So^avTO^ €K Tivcov SiaXoyuTpoyv apiaTa irepX 
T979 Jlopirrjtov TeKpaipeaOai (jivyrj^;, d(f>€l^ TaXXa 

3 Tr)v iiT AlyvfTTOV avveTCivev. jdXTut HopTrrjiov 
pev, wairep etfcaae BpovTO^;, AlyvTTTfp Trpoafia- 
\6vTa TO 7r€7rp€opivov iSe^aTo, Kaiaapa Se Kal 
7r/309 KdatTtov iirpavve B/50DT09. koX ot) koI T(p 
T(ov At^vcov ^aaiXel irporjyop&v pev '^ttclto tov 
peyedov^ tS)v KaTr)yopLa>v, Seopevo^ Se Kal irapai- 
Tovpevo^ irepl tovtov^ ttoXXtjv avTcp Siiaayare t% 

4 dpxv^' XeycTac Be Kalaap, ore irpcaTov fJKovaev 

^ vepl Toxnov transposed by Bekker, after Vogelin, to the 
following sentence, between avrov and Xiyovrot (jas soon as 
he heard him speaking in his behalf), 

136 



BRUTUS 

gave the missive, just as it was, to Cato. Cato found, 
when he read it, that it was a wanton bit of writing 
from his sister Servilia, and throwing it to Caesar 
with the words " Take it, thou sot," turned again to 
the business under discussion.^ So notorious was 
Servilia's passion for Caesar. 

VI. After the defeat at Pharsalus, when Pompey 
had made his escape to the sea and his camp was 
besieged, Brutus went out unnoticed by a gate lead- 
ing to a place that was marshy and full of water and 
reeds, and made his way safely by night to Larissa. 
From thence he wrote to Caesar, who was delighted 
at his safe escape, and bade him come to him, and 
not only pardoned him, but actually made him a 
highly honoured companion. Now, since no one 
could tell whither Pompey was fleeing, and all were 
in great perplexity, Caesar took a long walk with 
Brutus alone, and sounded him on the subject. 
Certain considerations advanced by Brutus made his 
opinion concerning Pompey' s flight seem the best, 
and Caesar therefore renounced all other courses 
and hastened towards Egypt. But as for Pompey, 
he put in at Egypt, as Brutus conjectured, and there 
met his doom ; as for Caesar, however, Brutus tried 
to soften him towards Cassius also. He also served 
as advocate for the king of Africa,^ and though he 
lost the case, owing to the magnitude of the accu- 
sations against his client, still, by supplications and 
entreaties in his behalf he saved much of his king- 
. dom for him. And it is said that Caesar, when he 

^ Of. Cato the, Younger^ xxiv. 1 f. 

2 Probably an error, either of Plutarch's, or of the MSS. 
In 47 B.C. Brutus pleaded unsuccessfully before Caesar the 
cause of Deiotarus, king of Galatia. Coraes would read 
TaKarSov for Aifivwy, 

137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTOv XeyovTOf;, elirelv irpo^ tov<; (jiLXov^* "Ofiro? 
6 veavia^ ovk olSa fiev h ^ovXerai, irav S* o ^ov- 
Xerai a(f)68pa ^ovXcrai.** to yap ififipiffhf; avrou 
fcal fiT) paSLa)<i p,r)Be iravTO^ vtttjkoov tov Seofievov 
7r/909 'Xjdpiv, aX>C eic Xoytafiov /cat Trpoaipiaeox; 
T&v KoXdv TrpaKTLKov, onoi rpeyfreiev, laxvpai'i 

5 ixpv^o Ta69 op/xaU /cat TeXecriovpyol^i. tt/oo? Se 
Ta? aSiKOVfi Seijaei^ aKoXaxevTO^ ffv, /cat rfjv vtto 
tS}v avaia'XvvT(i>^ XiirapovvTcov f/rrav, fjv evioL 
hvacoirelaOai /caXovaiv, alax^<^TV^ avhpX p^yoKto 
7roLovfi€VO<; elcoOei Xiyeiv co? ol fiijSev dpveiaOai 
hwafxevot SoKovaiv avT& fifj fca\(o<; Tr)V &pav 
hiaTeOelaOai. 

6 MeWft)!/ Se hia^aiveiv eh Al^vtjp Kalaap iirl 
VLdrcova /cal ^KrjTricova 3povT(p ttjp ivTO^ *'A\7r€(ov 
TaXarLav iirirpe^ev evTvxjia tlvI t^9 iirap'X^La^' 
Ta9 yap aXXa<; v^pei fcal irXeove^ia r&v ireTna- 
T€vp,ip(i)v (oairep atxP'CLXooTov^ Bia(j)opovvT(ov, ifcel- 
voi^ KoX T&v irpoaOev dTV')(rjfjLdTcov iravXa /cal 

7 wapafivdua Bpovro? yjv. Kal rrjv x^P''^ ^^^ 
l^aiaapa irdvrwv avrjiTTev, ft)9 avrw fiera Tr)V 
iirdvohov irepuovTL tyjv ^IraXiav rjBcaTOv Oia/jua 
Ta9 VTTO ^povT^ 7ro\€*9 yeviadaL, /cal 3povTOv 
avToVy aij^ovra rrjv i/ceivov ti/jltjv Kal avvovra 
KexapiafMevco^, 

VII. 'ETrel Be irXeiovcov arpaTrjyicbv oifa&v ttjv 
fieyiarov exovaav d^icofia, KaXovfievrjv Be ttoXi- 
TLKJjp, €7rtSofo9 ^p V B/oo{}to9 €^€IV TJ Ka<7crto9, ol 087 
fiev avTOv<; Xeyovaiv ef aWiSiv Trporipcov riav^fl 
Bia(f)epo/Jbepovf; en fidXXop VTrep tovtov BiaaTaac- 
daai, Kaiirep ol/ceiov^ opra^* ^lovpia ydp, dBeXif}^ . 

138 



BRUTUS 

first heard Brutus speak in public, said to his friends: 
^' I know not what this young man wants, but all 
that he wants he wants very much." ^ For the weight 
of his character, and the fact that no one found it 
easy to make him listen to appeals for favour, but 
that he accomplished his ends by reasoning and the 
adoption of noble principles, made his efforts, whither- 
soever directed, powerful and efficacious. No flattery 
could induce him to grant an unjust petition, and 
that inability to withstand shameless importunity, 
which some call timidity, he regarded as most dis- 
graceful in a great man, and he was wont to say that 
those who were unable to refuse anything, in his 
opinion, must have been corrupted in their youth. 

When Caesar was about to cross over into Africa 
against Cato and Scipio, he put Brutus in charge of 
Cisalpine Gaul, to the great good-fortune of the 
province ; for while the other provinces, owing to the 
insolence and rapacity of their governors, were plun- 
dered as though they had been conquered in war, 
to the people of his province Brutus meant relief 
and consolation even for their former misfortunes. 
And he attached the gratitude of all to Caesar, so 
that, after Caesar's return, and as he traversed Italy, 
he found the cities under Brutus a most pleasing 
sight, as well as Brutus himself, who enhanced his 
honour and was a delightful companion. 

VII. Now that there were several praetorships to 
be had, it was expected that the one of greatest 
dignity, that is, the praetorship of the city, would 
fall either to Brutus or to Cassius ; and some say that 
the two men, who were ali'eady slightly at variance 
for other reasons, were still more estranged by this 
circumstance, although they were relatives, since 

1 Cf. Cicero ad Alt. xiv. 1,2. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 BpouTOU, avvtpKei Ka<7<r^09' oi Se Kataapo^ efyyov 
ycvecOat rijv ^CKoveiKiav tovttjv, exarepc^ Kpvcjya 
Si iXTTiScov ipBiB6vT0<; eavrov, &XP^ ^^ irpoa'^Okv- 
T69 ouTft) KoiX irapo^uvdivre^ eh aycova xare- 
arrjaav, ^ycovt^eTo Be B/ooOto? evickeia koX dperfj 
irpo^ TToWa Tov K.aaaiov fcal Xafiirpa ra Uap- 

3 0LKa veavLev/jLara. Kalaap S' aKOucra^ /cal /3oV' 
Xev6fi€vo<; ev Tol'i <f>i\ot<; elire* '* AiKaiorepa fjuev 
\eyei Kdcracof;, Bpovro) 8e rfjv 7rp(OTr)v Soreov,^^ 
aTreBeix^V ^^ Katrcfo? e^' erepa <TTpaTi]y6<;, ov 
ToaovTOv evvoia<i ex^ov Si* fjv eXa^ev oaov opyrj^ 

S)v direTVX^' 

4 B/)oi)to9 Se KaX ToXka fierelxc t^9 Kaiaapo<; 
Swdfieco^ oaov effovXeTO. ^ovXofievco yap VTrijp- 
Xev elvai tcjv <f>iXa)v irpcarfp koX Svvaadai irXel- 
arov dW' elXKev avrop ?} Trepl Kdaaiov eTaipeia 
KaX direarpe^ev, avrtp p,ev ovTra) Kaaaitp SiijX- 
Xayfievov i^ ifceiyrf^ t^9 <\>iXoTip.ia^y aKovovra Se 
r&v (f)LX(t)v SiaKeXevofiivayv p,r) irepiopav avrov 
viTO Kaicrapo^ paXaaaofJuevov KaX KrjXovpevov, 
dXKa <f>ivy€iv rd^ rvpavviicd^ (j>iXo(f>po(Tvva<; xaX 
Xdpna^, ah ov ripcovra rrjv dpeTtjv, aW' etcrep- 
vovra TTjv dXKtjv /caX tov Ovpov virepeLTrovTa 
Xprjordai irpo^ avrov. 

VIII. Oi) pr)V oifSk Kaiaap dvvTroino^; rjv irdp- 
irav oiS' dSid^rjro^ irpo^ avrov, dXXa to pev 
^povrjpa KoX TO d^Uopa KaX tov<; (f>iXovf; iSeSiei 
tov dvSp6<;, eiriaTeve Se r^ 7]dec. KaX irpcorov pev 
^AvTcoviov KaX AoXo^eXXa Xeyopevtov vecoTepi^eiv 

140 



BRUTUS 

Cassius was the husband of Junia^ a sister of Brutus. 
But others say that this rivalry was the work of 
Caesar, who secretly favoured the hopes of each 
until, thus induced and incited, they entered into 
competition with one another. Brutus, however, 
made the contest supported only by his fair fame 
and his virtue, as against many brilliant and spirited 
exploits of Cassius in the Parthian war.^ But Caesar, 
after hearing the claims of each, said, in council 
with his friends: "Cassius makes the juster plea, 
but Brutus must have the first praetorship." So 
Cassius was appointed to another praetorship, but he 
was not so grateful for what he got as he was angry 
over what he had lost. 

And in all other ways, too, Brutus had as large a 
share in Caesar's power as he wished. Indeed, had 
he wished it, he might have been first among Caesar's 
friends and exercised the greatest power; but the 
party of Cassius drew him away from such a course. 
Not that he was reconciled to Cassius himself as yet, 
after their struggle for honours, but he gave ear to 
the friends of Cassius, who urged him not to suffer 
himself to be charmed and softened by Caesar, but 
rather to flee the tyrant's kindnesses and favours, 
for these were shown to him, not to reward his 
virtue, but to root out his vigour and his haughty 
spirit. 

VIII. However, even Caesar was not wholly with- 
out suspicion, nor free from the effects of accusations 
against Brutus, but, while he feared his high spirit, 
his great repute, and his friends, he Had faith in his 
character. Once, when he was told that Antony 
and Dolabella were plotting revolution, he said it 

* See the CrassuSy xviii. flF. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovfc €(\)r} Toi'9 Traver? fcaX fcofirjraf; ivo'xXeiv, aXKk 
TOv<i a^xpoif^ Koi L<T')(yov^ ifceivov^* l^povrop Xiycov 

2 /cat Kdaaiov eTreira rov ^povrov tlv&v Sia^aX- 
XovTcop fcal ^vXaTTetrOai wapaKeXevofievoiv rfj 
X^^P^ '^^^ (yco/MiTO^ aiTTOfievo^ elire* " Tt hi; ovk 
cLv vfjblv Sofcel BpovTO<; avafielvai rovrX to cap- 
iciov;^^ (09 oihevl irpoarJKOv aXX^ fieO^ eavrov fj 
BpovTa> hvvaaOai roaovrov. xal fJuevroL Sokcl 
TrpwTo? av iv t^ iroXet yeveaOac /8ey8atft)9, oXiyov 
Xpovov dva(rx6fJL€V0<i J^aiaapi hevrepevaat ical 
TrapaKfidaai rijv hvvapLiv avrov xal fiapapdrjvac 

S rrju 67rl 70*9 /caropdcofiaa-ip idca^ So^av. dXXd 
Ka(7<7fc09, dpr)p dvfjLoeihrj^ Ka\ (jloXKop Ihia fuao- 
Kalaap rj KOipfj fii<TOTvpappo^, i^exavae koI 
KaTTjirei^e. Xiyerai Se B/)oDto9 fi€p ttjp dpxqp 
^apvp€a0ai, Kdao'io^ Se top apxopra /JLiaeip, 
aXXa T€ KaT avrov 7roiovfi€Po<; iy/cXrffiara zeal 
XeoPTOJp d(paip€(np, 01)9 Kao"crf09 fiep dyopapofieip 
fiiXXayp irapeaKevdaaTO, Kalaap Se fcaTaXt](f)dip- 
Ta9 ip Meydpoif;, off* 17 ttoXc^ rjXo) Scd KaXrjpov, 

4 Kareax^* ravra tcl ffrjpLa (Tv/Kpophp Xeyerau 
fieydXrfp yepeaOai ^leyapevaip, oi fjuep ydp ^Br) 
T^9 7roX€Ct)9 KaTaXaju,^apo/jLepr)<; Siiairaaap ra 
xXeWpa real rov^ heapbov^ dprjfcap, 0)9 ipLTroBoop 
€C7) Ta ffrjpia T0Z9 i'7n<\>€popiepOL<i, rd S* copovaep 
€69 avTov^ ifC€LPov<; Kal Staff iopra^ dponXov^; ^p- 
ira^ePf ware Kal to 69 iroXefiLOif; rrfp oyjnp olKTpdp 
yeviaffai, 

IX. Tft) 8' ovp l^acaitp TavTtjp fidXiard <l>aaLP 
airiap virdp^ai t^9 eTn/SovXijf;' ovk opffw XiyoiH 



142 



BRUTUS 

was not the fat and long-haired fellows that troubled 
him, but those pale and lean ones ; ^ meaning Brutus 
and Cassius. And again, when certain ones were 
accusing Brutus to him, and urging him to be on his 
guard against him, he laid his hand upon his breast 
and said : " What ? Think ye not that Brutus 
can wait for this poor flesh ? " implying that no 
one besides Brutus was fit to succeed him in such 
great power. And verily it appears that Brutus 
might have been first in the city with none to dispute 
liim, could he have endured for a little while to be 
second to Caesar, suffering his power to wane and 
the fame of his successes to wither. But Cassius, a 
man of violent temper, and rather a hater of Caesar 
on his own private account than a hater of tyranny 
on public grounds, fired him up and urged him on. 
Brutus, it is said, objected to the rule, but Cassius 
hated the ruler, and among other charges which he 
brought against him was that of taking away some 
lions which Cassius had provided when he was about 
to be aedile ; the beasts had been left at Megara, 
and when the city was taken by Calenus,^ Caesar 
appropriated them. And the beasts are said to have 
brought great calamity upon the Megarians. For 
these, just as their city was captured, drew back the 
bolts and loosened the fetters that confined the 
animals, in order that they might obstruct the on- 
coming foe, but they rushed among the unarmed 
citizens themselves and preyed upon them as they 
ran hither and thither, so that even to the enemy 
the sight was a pitiful one. 

IX. In the case of Cassius, then, they say this 
was the chief reason for his plotting against Caesar ; 

* Ct Caesar, Ixii. 5. ' Cf. CtuaaVf xliii. 1. 

H3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T€9. 6^ ^PXV^ y^P V^ '^V i>^f^^^ '^ov K.ao'a'Lov 
SvafJieveid tl^ fcal x^^^'^orrj^ tt/oo? to 761/09 twv 
Tvpdvvcov, (09 iSTjXcoaev ere 7rat9 &v /Sabi^cov €69 
ravTO TG) Tov XvWa iraiSl ^avaT<p SiSaaKaXelov. 
6 fjL€v yap ev to2<; Tracal fjieyaXrjyopcov rrjp tov 
7raT/oo9 iirrfvec fjLovapx^ctv 6 Be Kdaat>o(i iirava- 

2 ara^ kovBvXov^ iverpi^ev avT&, /3ovXofji€vcoi' Se 
T&v iTTCTpoTTcov TOV ^uvcTTOv Kol olKetcov iire^iivai 988 
Koi BiKa^eaOai Jlofi7n]cof; iKcoiXvae, kol a-vvaya- 
ya>v €69 TavTO tov^ 7ralSa<i dfi<f>oTepov^ dveKpive 
TTcpl tov irpdyfiaTO^, evda Bt) XiycTai tov Kao*- 
aiov elTTelv **^Ky6 Bij, & ^avaTC, ToXfirjaov ivav- 
TLOV TOVTOV (jy0iy^aa0ai top Xoyov iicelvov Iff o5 
Trapay^vvdrjv, iva aov irdXiv eyoa avPTpiyjrco to 
aTopxL, 

3 To4oDto9 /a€j/ 6 Kao-o'A09' ^povTOP Be ttoXXoI 
fiep Xoyoi irapa tmp avvi^Ocop, iroXXal^ Be (f>rjpai^ 
KoX ypd/jLfjLaaiP e^exaXovPTO /cal wapdopfieop eVl 
Trjp irpa^ip oi TroXiTai, t& /jl€P yap dpSpcdpTC 
TOV 7rpo7rdTopo<; ^povTOV tov KaTaXvaavTO^ Tr)v 
Tcop ^aaiXecop dpxv^ €7reypa(j>ov' "Et'^e pvp ^9, 
BpoOre*" fcai ""Xl^eXe ^ijp B/>oi}to9." to 8' av- 
Tov BpovTov /Srjfia aTpaTrjyovPTO^ evpia/ceTO fxeO* 
fjpiepap dpdirXeoap ypa/xfidToyp toiovtcop^ ** B/oouTe, 

4 fcadevBec^;^^ kuL "Oi/Kel BpovTO^ dX7j6(o<;,^^ atTtoi 
Be TOVToyp ol l^aiaapo^ KoXaKe^ aXXa^ t€ Tifxk^ 
eTri^dopov^; dpevpiaKovTe^ avT(p fcal BiaBrip,aTa 

TOl^ dpBpldcTL PVKTWp eTTlTlOePTe^, ft)9 T0U9 TTOX- 

Xov<; vira^ofievoL ^aaiXea Trpoaeiirelp uptX Blktu- 
TO/009. TOVPaPTLOP S' dirrjpTrjaep, 0)9 ip to?9 irepl 
JLaia-apo^ aKpi^Si^ yeypaiTTai, 

X. Kacro'tfii) Bk TreipcopTi tov9 <f)iXov^ irrl Kai- 

144 



BRUTUS 

but it is not so. For from the outset there was in 
the nature of Cassius great hostility and bitterness 
towards the whole race of tyrants, as he showed when 
he was still a boy and went to the same school with 
Faustus the son of Sulla. For when Faustus blustered 
among the boys and bragged about his father's ab- 
solute power, Cassius sprang up and gave him a 
thrashing. The guardians and relatives of Faustus 
wished to carry the matter into court, but Pompey 
forbade it, and after bringing the two boys together, 
questioned them both about the matter. Then, as 
the story goes, Cassius said : " Come now, Faustus, 
have the courage to utter in this man's presence that 
speech which angered me, and I will smash your 
face again." 

Such was Cassius ; but Brutus was exhorted and 
incited to the undertaking by many arguments from 
his comrades, ann by many utterances and writings 
from his fellow citizens. For instance, on the statue 
of his ancestor, the Brutus who overthrew the power 
of the kings, there was written : " O that we had 
thee now, Brutus!" and ^'O that Brutus were alive!" 
Besides, the praetorial tribunal of Brutus himself 
was daily found covered with such writings as these : 
" Brutus, art thou asleep ? " and '^ Thou art not really 
Brutus." These things were brought about by the 
flatterers of Caesar, who, among other invidious 
honours which they invented for him, actually put 
crowns upon his statues by night, hoping to induce 
the multitude to address him as king instead of 
dictator. But the contrary came to pass, as I have 
written fully in my Life of Caesar.^ 

X. Moreover, when Cassius sought to induce his 

^ Chapter Ixi. 
VOL. VI. L 



PLUTABCH*S LIVES 

a- a pa iravre^ oofioXoyovv, el BpoOrov 1770*70 • Set- 
a0ai yap ov ^eipcov ovSe T6Xfi7)<; rrfv Trpd^tv, aWa 
56^9 avBpof; olo<; ovto^ icTtv, &aTrep KaTap')(p' 
fievov KoX fie^aiovvTO^ avT& t^ trapelvai ro 
SiKaiov el Sk fjLi], Kot Spa)VTa<; ddv/jLoripovf; eae- 
aOav Kol BpdaavTa^ ifiroTTTOTepov^' co? ovk &i 
i/ceivov to epyov, el /caXrjv ah lav eL')(ev, dnenra- 

2 fiepov. Tama trvfixfipovriaa^ eveTVxe "RpovTcp 
irpoTepo^ ix T779 hia<f)opd<i eKeivrf^, Kai fiCTa Tct^; 
SiaXvaet^ teal <fiCKo^poavva^ rjpcoTrjaev el Ttj vov- 
/jLrjvia Tov MapTLOV firjvo^ eyvayxev el^ avyKXrjrov 
irapecvar irvvOdveadai yap cw? \6yov virep ^aaL- 
\eCa<; Kaiaapa^ ol <f>LXoL Tore KaOrjaoiev, ^riaav- 
Tof; he TOV BpovTov firj irapievai, " Ti o5i/," elirev 
6 Kacro-to9, " dv KaXcbaiv ^/ia?;*' "'E/aov epyov" 
e<\>7j o B^oi)T09, " ^S?7 to pii) aieoTrdv, aW* d/jLvveiv 
Ttj iraTpihi^ K(ii irpoaTroOvqaKeiv t^9 eKevOepLa^^ 

3 KaX 6 Kdaaio<i eirapOei'i, "Tt9 S'," etTre, "'Pw- 
fjiaieov dve^eTat aov TrpoairoOvqcTKOVTO^ ; dpa 
dypo€L<i, & B/ooOre, aeavTov ; fj to /Srjfjid aov 
SoKel^ KaTaypd<f>eiv Toi'9 v<f>dvTa<; /cal Toif^ Kairrj- 
\oi/9, ov'xi T0U9 irpcoTov^ KaX /cpaTiaTOV^ Taxha 
TToieiP, irapd ftev t&v SXKwv aTpaTrjy&v €7ri,S6a-€L<: 
Kal 6ea<; KaX fiovofidxov^, irapd aov Be (09 o<l>Xf)fia 
iraTpcKov TTjv KaToKvaiv t^9 TvpavviBo<i dirai- 

4 TOVPTa^, avTOV<i B virep <tov irdvTa 'rrda')(€iv irpo- 
ffv/JLOV^ ovTa^i olov d^iovai xaX TrpoaBe')(pVTai 

* kfiuvuv tJ varpili Lentz, comparing Appian, B.G, ii. 113 : 
146 



BRUTUS 

friends to conspire against Caesar, they all agreed to 
do so if Brutus took the lead, arguing that the under- 
taking demanded, not violence nor daring, but the 
reputation of a man like him, who should consecrate 
the victim, as it were, and ensure by the mere fact 
of his participation the justice of the sacrifice ; other- 
wise they would be more timid in doing the deed 
and more suspected after they had done it, since men 
would say that Brutus would not have declined the 
task if the purpose of it had been honourable. After 
reflecting on this, Cassius made Brutus his first visit 
since the quarrel above mentioned,^ and when they 
were again on a friendly footing, asked him whether 
he had made up his mind to attend the meeting of 
the senate on the Calends of March ; for it had come 
to his ears, he said, that Caesar's friends would then 
move to have him made king. When Brutus answered 
that he should not attend, " What, then," said Cas- 
sius, " if we should be summoned ? " " It would at 
once be my duty,'* said Brutus, "not to hold my 
peace, but to defend my country and die in behalf 
of liberty." Then Cassius, elated, said : " But what 
Roman will consent to have thee die in such defence ? 
Dost thou not know thyself, Brutus ? Or dost thou 
think that thy tribunal was covered with inscriptions 
by weavers and hucksters, and not by the foremost 
and most influential citizens? From their other 
praetors they demand gifts and spectacles and gladi- 
atorial combats ; but from thee, as a debt thou owest 
to thy lineage, the abolition of the tyranny; and 
they are ready and willing to suffer anything in thy 
behalf, if thou showest thyself to be what they ex- 

* Chapter vii. 1-3. 

L 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<f)avivTO^r ^'^ TOVTOV Tr€piPak(ov rov Bpqvrov 
rjoTraXeTO, Koi BiaXvOevre^ ovtco^ erpiwovTo 7rp6<; 

XI. ^Hv Si T4? Faio? Aiydpio^ twv UofiTrrjiov 
(piXcov, ov eVl TOVTcp KarrjyoprjdevTa H^dlaap aire- 
Xvaev, oyT09, ouv i5? d<j>€L07f Sifct]^ X^P^^ ^X^^> 
dWd hi fjv ifccvovp€v<T€v dpxijP ^apvvopievo^, 
iX^po^ V^ KaCaapt, twj; Se ire pi BpovTOv iv 
T0t9 fwXia-Ta (TvvrjO'q^;. irpo^ tovtov aaOevovvra 
BpouTOf; elaeXdcov, "'H Aiydpie,** etirev, " iv oiq> 
Kacpo) voaeh,^* Ka/c€lvo<: €vOv<; eh dyx&pa Siava^ 
ara^ xal Xa^ofievo^ axnov t^9 Sefta?, "'AXV 
el ri,r ^"^(TLVf "& BpoOre, aeavrov <f)pov€t^ a^iov, 
vyiaivcoJ' 

XII. 'E^ TOVTOV Sia7recp(Ofi€Poc /cpv(f>a t&v yvco- 
pi/jLcov 0I9 eTTiaTevov dvefcoivovvTO /cat TTpoaeXdjx- 
^avov, ov fiovov tcov cvvtjOcov Troiovfievoi t^i/ 
aXpeaLv, cOOC 0(tov<; riiriaTavTO To\/in]Ta^ ovTa^ 

2 d/yaOoif^ /cal BavaTOV KaTaifypovrjTd^, hto /cal 
Kifcepoyva, tovto /xep iriaTeoa^;, tovto he evvoia<; 
€V€Ka Trp&Tov oma irap avTol^, direKpif-^avTO, 
/JL7) Tft} <j)va€i Tokfir)fi evhet)^ elvai 'n'po<TeCKr](f>oi>^ 
vTTo XP^^^^ yepovTiKTfP evXd^eiav, elra TrdvTa 
Ka0* e/caaTOV dvdy<ov Tot9 Xoyia/ioh eh dxpav 
da<l>d\€iav, dfi^Xvprf Ttfv dxfiijv avT&v ttj^ irpo- 989 

3 Ovpia^ Tdxov^ SeofjLevrjv, iirel Kal t&v aXX(ov 
eTULpcov 6 BpovTO<: ^TaTiXiov t€ TrapeXnre top 
^Eirifcovpeiop koI ^acopiop epaaTtjp KdTcopo^, oti 
TTopptoOep avToU Toiavrrjp tlpcl kvkX^ Trepi/Sa- 
XoPTO^ ip Tft) SiaXeyeo'dai. xal (TVfi(j)iXoa'o<j)€ip 



148 



BRUTUS 

pect and demand.'* After this, he embraced Brutus 
and kissed him, and thus reconciled they betook 
themselves to their friends. 

XI. There was a certain Caius Ligarius ^ among 
the friends of Pompey, who had been denounced as 
such, but pardoned by Caesar. This man, cherisliing 
no gratitude for his pardon, but rather offended by 
the power which had put his life in jeopardy, was an 
enemy of Caesar, and one of the most familiar friends 
of Brutus. Once, when this man was sick, Brutus 
came to see him, and said : " O Ligarius, what a 
time this is to be sick ! " Ligarius at once raised 
himself on his elbow, clasped Brutus by the hand, 
and said : " Nay, Brutus, if thou hast a purpose 
worthy of thyself, I am well." 

XIL After this, they secretly tested the sentiments 
of well known men in whom they had confidence, 
selecting not only from their intimates, but all whom 
they knew to be bold, brave, and contemptuous of 
death. For this reason, too, they kept their plans a 
secret from Cicero, although he was foremost among 
them, not only for the confidence, but also for the 
good will which he inspired. They feared that the 
caution which time and old age had brought him, 
combined with his natural timidity, and further, his 
habit of calculating all the details of every enterprise 
so as to ensure the utmost safety, would blunt the 
edge of their ardour at a crisis which demanded 
speed. Besides, Brutus also passed by, among his 
other friends, Statilius the Epicurean and Favoniua 
the devoted follower of Cato. The reason was that 
some time before he had put them to a very similar 
test by the round-about method of a philosophical 

^ He is called Qiiintus Ligarius in the Cicero, xxxix. 5. 

149 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irelpav, 6 fikv ^aoovio^ aireicpivaTO X^tpoi/ elvai 
fiovapx^ct^; irapavofiov irokepiov i/Ji(f>v\iov, 6 Se 
^TariXio^ €<l)rj rep ao<f)^ /cat vovv e'xpvrt. SicL (j>av- 
Xof? Kol avoTjTov^ Kivhvveveiv KaX rapdrTeaOai 
fiTj Ka07)K€iv. Trapcov Se Aa^ecov avTeiwev dfjL(f>o- 

4 Tepoi^. KaX o BpouTO? Tore p^ev (W9 exovro^ ri 
Tov Xoyov ^aXeTTOP Koi SvaKpiTov dTreaicoirrjaev, 
v<TT€pov Se Aafiecjvt /coivovrat to ,Sov\€vp,a. 
Be^ap^ivov Se 7rpodvp(o<;, tov erepov ^povrov, 
iirlKXriaiv ^A\/3ivov, aWo)? p,€v ovk ovra peKTTjv 
ov&€ dappaXeov, ippcop^ov Se irXijOei px)vop,d')(€i>v 
oft? €7rl dea 'Peopaiayp €Tp€(f)€, fcal irapa K-aLa-api 

5 iriGjevop^vov, ehoKet 7rpoady€a6at>. Kaaaiov Be 
Koi Aa^e&vo^ avrlp BiaXeyopivav ovBev direKpi' 
varo, TApovrtp S* airo^ ivrvx^i^ IBCa koI fia0a>v 
on T^9 7rpd^€(o<; 'qyepdyv iartv, d)px)\6yrfa-€ avp,- 
irpd^etv irpodvpxo^;. koX t&v aX\a)v Bk roif^ Trkei- 
(TTOv^ Kol dpiarovf; 17 Sofa tov IRpovTOv TrpoarjycTO. 

6 Kal prjO* opKov avvop6aavT€<: pLrjTe irlaTLV Ka6* 
Up&v \afi6vT€<; rj Borneo;, ovt(o<: airavTes ea^pv iv 
eavTOi^ Koi KaT€a-i<o'jrr)<Tav kol (TvvBiriverfKav &<TTe 
puvTeLai^ Kal <l>d<Tp£L(7c kol Upoi^ vtto t&v 0€<ov 
TTpoBeLKVvpLhfqv airKTTOv yeveaOai ttjv Trpd^iv. 

XIII. 'O Be BpouTO?, aT€ Br) to, irpc^Ta ttj^ 
'PQ)/ii79 (^povrjpuTa koX yevrj Kal dpeTCL^ ^f^pr/y- 
p,€P0^ kavTOv Kal irepivo&v irdvTa tov klvBuvov, 
e^cD pikv iireipaTO Karix^i'V irap eavT^ Kal KaTa- 
Koafielv Trfv Sidvoiav, oikoi Be Kal vvKToap ovk ^v 
6 avT09, dWA tA p>€V aKOVTa t&v vttvwv avTov ^ 

150 



BRUTUS 

discussion^ when Favonius had answered that civil 
war was worse than illegal monarchy ; and Statilius 
had declared that it did not become a wise and 
sensible man to be thrown into turmoil and peril for 
the sake of feeble and foolish folk. Labeo^ however^ 
who was present, argued against them both. At that 
time, on the ground that the question was rather 
difficult and hard to decide, Brutus held his peace, 
but afterwards imparted his purpose to Labeo, who 
readily concurred in it. Then it was decided to bring 
over to their cause the other Brutus, surnamed Albi- 
nus ; ^ in other ways he was not an enterprising nor 
even a courageous man, but the large number of 
gladiators whom he was maintaining for the Roman 
spectacles made him^ powerful, and he had Caesar's 
confidence. When Cassius and Labeo discussed the 
matter with him, he would make no answer ; but he 
had a private interview by himself with Brutus, and 
on learning that he was leader of the enterprise, 
readily agreed to co-operate. The most and best of 
the rest also were won over by the reputation in 
which Brutus stood. And although they exchanged 
neither oaths nor sacred pledges, they all kept the 
undertaking so much to themselves and were so 
secret in carrying it out together that, although it 
was foretold by the gods in prophecies and oracles 
and sacrificial omens,^ no one would believe in it. 

XIII. Now Brutus, since he had made the foremost 
men of Rome for dignity, family, and virtue, depen- 
dent on himself, and since he understood all the 
danger involved, in public tried to keep his thoughts 
to himself and under control ; but at home, and at 
night, he was not the same man. Sometimes, in spite 

* Cf. CaernVf chapter Ixiv. ' Cf. CaeaaVy chapter Ixiii. 

151 



PLUTARCH^S LIVES 

<l>povrU i^€<l>€p€, ra Se fiaXKov ivivofievo^ rq> 
Xoyia/uLSi feat hiarpi^o^v iv ral^ airopiai^ ovk 
i\dvdav€ Tr)v yvvaiKa avvavaTravofiivrjVy on fie- 
CTT09 i(TTt rapaxv^ dr]0ov<; fcal /cvfcXel ri irap 
kavTtp hva^opov fiovXev/na Kal Bvae^eXifcrov, 

2 'H Se tlopKLa Ovydrrjp fjuev, wairep etprjrai, 
KaTft>i/09 ^v, elye S* avTr)v 6 BpoDro? dve-y^rio^ &v 
OVK ix irapdevia^i dWd rov irpojepov reXeur?;- 
aavTo^ dvBpof; eXa^e /coprjv ovaav €ti koL iraihiov 
exovaav ef ifceivov /iiKpov, o5 Bi5^\o9 fjv opofui' 

KOL TC ^L^XihlOV fllKpOV d7rOflV7)flOV€VfJLdT(OV 

^povTov yeypafifievov utt' uvtov Siaaco^erai, 

3 <f>Ck6<nopyo^ S' rj Ilop/cia fcal <f>i\avhpo^ oiaa 
zeal fxea-TT) <^povrifiaTO^ vovv exovTO^, ov irpoTcpov 
itreyeiprjcrev dvepeaOai rov avSpa irepX rayv 
diroppijTcov 7j Xa^elv €avTrj<; Toiavrrjv htdireipav. 
Xa/Sovaa fia'^dipiov w rov<; owxcl^ ol Kovpeh 
d^aipovdL, Kal irdaa^ i^eXdaaaa rov OcCXdixov 
rd<; o7raSou9, TOfiffv ive^aXe r^ P'VP^ ^aOeiav, 
&<TTe pvGLv aifJiaTo<; iroXXfiv yeveaOai Kal fxerd 
fiiKpov oSvva^ T€ v€avLKd<; Kal ^piKa>E€i<; Trvperov^ 

4 iiriXa^elv €k tov rpavfiaro^. dycopccopro^ Se 

TOV ^pOVTOV Kal hv(T(^0p0VVT0^ iv dKfJLr} Ttj^ 

dXyrjSovo^ ova a BceXexOrj tt/oo? avrov ovro)^' 
"'Eyca, BpovT€, Kdrcovo^; ovara dvydrrfp eh tov 
aov iBoOtjV oIkov ovx Sxnrep ai iraXXaKcvofievai, 
KOLTT)*: fiede^ovaa Kal Tpaire^tfi; fiopov, dXXa 
KOivwvo^ fiev dyaff&v elvat, koivcovo^ Be dviap&v. 
ra fiiv oiv aa iravra irepl tov ydpjov afiepLtrTa* 
T(ov Bk Trap* ifJLOv rt? diroBei^L^ rj %a/ot9, el fMjJTC 
<TOi Tvddo^ diropprfTov a-vvBioiaoD fiijTe (l)povTlBa 

5 m(7T6G)9 Beofievrjv; oZS' oti yvvaiKeia <f>va'i^ 



BRUTUS 

of himself^ his anxious thoughts would rouse him out 
of sleep^ and sometimes^ when he was more than 
ever immersed in calculation and beset with per- 
plexities, his wife, who slept by his side, perceived 
that he was full of unwonted trouble, and was re- 
volving in his mind some difficult and complicated 
plan. 

Porcia, as has been said, was a daughter of Cato, 
and when Brutus, who was her cousin, took her to 
wife, she was not a virgin ; she was, however, still 
very young, and had by her deceased husband^ a 
little son whose name was Bibulus. A small book 
containing memoirs of Brutus was written by him, 
and is still extant. Porcia, being of an affectionate 
nature, fond of her husband, and full of sensible 
pride, did not try to question her husband about his 
secrets until she had put herself to the following 
test. She took a little knife, such as barbers use to 
cut the finger nails, and after banishing all her at- 
tendants from her chamber, made a deep gash in 
her thigh, so that there was a copious flow of blood, 
and after a little while violent pains and chills and 
fever followed from the wound. Seeing that Brutus 
was disturbed and greatly distressed, in the height 
of her anguish she spoke to him thus : '^ Brutus, I 
am Cato's daughter, and I was brought into thy 
house, not, like a mere concubine, to share thy bed 
and board merely, but to be a partner in thy joys, 
and a partner in thy troubles. Thou,^indeed, art 
faultless as a husband ; but how can I show thee any 
grateful service if I am to share neither thy secret suf- 
fering nor the anxiety whicli craves a loyal confidant ? 
I know that woman's nature is thought too weak to 

^ Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, colleague of Caesar in the 
consulship of 59 b.C!. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aaOevrj^ hoKel Xoyov iveyfcelv airopprfTOV aXX' 
€(ni T49, & TApovre, kuI rpo^fj^ ayaOrp; fcal 
ofiCKia^ XPV^'^V^ €^? ^1^0^ l(T')(y^' ifioX he koX to 
KaTa>i/09 elvai Ovyarepa /cal to ^povrov yvvaiKa 990 
irpoaetTTiv 0I9 irporepov fiev ^ttov iireiroideLVt 
vvv S' ifiavTTjp eyvcoKa /ecu tt/OO? iroyov arjTrrjrov 
6 elvai,^^ ravT* elirovaa heiKwaiv avT^ to rpavfia 
fcal SiTfyelraL rrfv ireipav, 6 S' CKirXayeU koI 
avaTeiva^ Ta? j^eZ/oa? i'Trev^aro hovvai rov^ 9eov^ 
airrqf fcaTopOovvri Tr)v irpd^iv dvBpl HopKia^; 
a^itp (f>aprjpai, Kot rore fiev aveXdfi^ave rrfv 
yvval/ca, 

XIV. Ilpoypa(f)€ia'rj'i Be /SovXrj^y el<; fjv iiriSo^o^ 
riv a(f)L^e(rdai Kalaap, eyv(oaav iircx^ipelv* /cat 
yap dOpooi /jl€T aKXT]\(ou dwiroTTTa)^ eaeaOai 
Tore, KoX Trdvra^ e^etv 6/jlov tou? dpiarov^ koi 
7rpd)T0v<; avSpa<;, epyov jieyaXov wpa'xdevTO<i ev- 

2 6v<; dvTiXafipavofJLevov^ t/J? eXevOepla^. eBoKec 
Se Kal to toO tottov Oelov eivai koI irpo^ avr&v* 
aroa yap fjv pia tcop irepl to Oearpov, i^eSpav 
exoucra ev rj Hop^injtov Tt? eiicoov elaTTJxei, rfj^ 
TToXeax; aT7}aap.€Pri<; ore rai^ aToal^ Kal T(p 
Oedrprp top tottop eKelpop eKoapjqaep, ek TavTr]p 
oJnf ri avyKXr)TO<; i/caXelro tov Mapriov p,r}po<; 
p^dXiara psaovpro^ (elSoif*; MapTLa^ ttjp r)p,epap 
'Vcopxiloi /caXovaip), &(Tr€ Kal haipxov Tt? ihoKei 
TOP apSpa TTj IIop^Trrjtov Bixj) irpoad^etp, 

3 'E\^oi;<r?79 hk TTj^ rjp.ipa^ B/oo{)to9 /i€i/ vTro^eo- 
adp^po^ eyxeLpiSiop p>6pr)<; avpeiSvta^ Trj<i yvpatKo<: 
irporjXOep, 01 S* aXXoi irpo^ Kdaaiop dOpoiaOepTe^ 
TOP viop avTOv TO KaXovp»€Pop dvhpelop Ip^dTiop 
dpaXap,^dpoPTa KaTrjyop eU dyopdp, eKeWep Se 

154 



BRUTUS 

endure a secret; but good rearing and excellent 
companionship go far towards strengthening the char- 
acter^ and it is my happy lot to be both the daughter 
of Cato and the wife of Brutus. Before this I put 
less confidence in these advantages, but now I know 
that I am superior even to pain." Thus having spoken, 
she showed him her wound and explained her test ; 
whereupon Brutus, amazed, and lifting his hands to 
heaven, prayed that he might succeed in his under* 
taking and thus show himself a worthy husband of 
Porcia. Then he sought to restore his wife. 

XIV. A meeting of the senate having been called, 
to which it was expected that Caesar would come, 
they determined to make their attempt there; for 
they could then gather together in numbers without 
exciting suspicion, and would have all the best and fore- 
most men in one place, who, once the great deed was 
done, would straightway espouse the cause of liberty. 
It was thought, too, that the place of meeting was 
providentially in their favour ; for it was one of the 
porticoes about the theatre, containing a session- 
room in which stood a statue of Pompey. This statue 
the city had erected in his honour when he adorned 
that place with the porticoes and the theatre.^ 
Hither, then, the senate was summoned about the 
middle of March ^ (the Romans call the day the Ides 
of March), so that some heavenly power seemed to 
be conducting Caesar to Pompey*s vengeance. 

When the day came, Brutus girt on a dagger, to 
the knowledge of his wife alone, and went forth, 
while the rest assembled at the house of Cassius and 
conducted his son, who was about to assume what was 
called the " toga virilis," down to the forum. Thence 

* Cf. Pompey t xl. 6. • March 15, 44 b.o. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irdvTes €49 Tr^v Uofnrrjtov CToav ififfaXovre^ Ste- 
Tpi/3ov, <»9 avTLKa K,aL(Tapo<; a<f>L^ofievov irpo^ 

4 Ttjv (Tvy/cXrjTov. €v6a hrj /xaXiara tcop dvSpcav 
TO diraOe^ fcal irapa rd heivd Ka6e(TTq/co^ idav- 
fiaaev dv rt? c/Scl)? to juiWov, ore ttoWo?? Sta to 
(TTpaTrjyeiv dvayfca^ofievoL XRV/^^"^^^^^^ ov fiovov 
irpdcof; rjfcpocbvTo r&v ivTvy')(av6vT(ov KoX htaf^epo- 
/jbivayv &aTrep a^oXd^ovTe^;, dWd xal Ta? Kpiaei^ 
€Kd<rTOL<; uKpL^el^ /caX fierd yvcofi7j<; ihihoaav, 

5 i7Ti/ii€\a)<; irpoae^ovTe^, iireX hi t*9 fir) fiovXo- 
p,€VO<; Slktjv uiroax^lv iireKaXelro K.aLaapa kol 
7roXu9 ^v l3o(bv fcal p,apTvp6fi€vo<;, d7rol3XiyJra<; 6 
Bpoi}T09 €49 T0U9 irapovTa^, "'E/a€ Kaiaap,** 
elwev, " oi5t€ fccoXvei Troielv rd Kard Toif<; v6fiov<; 
ovre K(o\v(T€t," 

XV. KaiTOi iroXKd Oopv^oohr] Kard TV)(r]v 
avToh 7rpoa€7r€<7€' irpoyrov fiev Koi fidXiara to 
/SpaSvpcLV TOP K-aiaapa t^9 't}p>epa^ it por^Kovar)^ 
KoX hvaiepovvTa tcaTk^^aOai, fiev virb t?}9 yvvaiKO<; 
ocKOL, KwXvea-Oai Se irpoeXOelv viro tkov p,dvT€(ov, 

2 SevTcpov Se KdcKa t&v avpeiBoTGyp cpI TrpoaeX- 
0(op Tt9 fcal Xal36/jL€P0<; t^9 Se^id^;, ** Xv pAp^ 
etirePi " dTreKpif^oa to d7r6ppr,TOP, & KdaKa, 
7r/oo9 r/fid^;, 3povTO^ Be fioi irdpTa fiep^'^pufcep^ 
ifcirXayePTO^ Se tov T^daKa yeXdaa<: ifceipo^;, 
" UoOep,** €(f)r}, " Ta;)^€&)9 ovto)^, & p,afcdpi€, ire- 
TrXovTTjKa^ &(TT €49 dyopapop^LttP diroSveadai; " 
irapd ToaovTOP piep o K^dcrfca^ rfXde <T<f>dXel^ 

3 dpxf>il3oXLa TTpoeadai to diropprjTOP' avTOP Se 

156 



BRUTUS 

they all hastened to the portico of Pompey and 
waited there, expecting that Caesar would straight- 
way come to the meeting of the senate. There any 
one Avho knew what was about to happen would 
have been above all things astonished at the indiffer- 
ence and composure of the men on the brink of this 
terrible crisis. Many of them were praetors and 
therefore obliged to perform the duties of their 
office, wherein they not only listened calmly to 
those who had petitions to offer or quarrels to com- 
pose, as if they had ample time, but also took 
pains to give their verdicts in every case with accu- 
racy and judgment. And when a certain man who 
was unwilling to submit to the verdict of Brutus 
appealed to Caesar with loud cries and attestations, 
Brutus turned his gaze upon the bystanders and 
said : '^ Caesar does not prevent me from acting 
according to the laws, nor will he prevent me." 

XV. And yet many things occurred to surprise 
and disturb them. First and foremost, though the 
day was advancing, Caesar delayed his coming, being 
detained at home by his wife because his omens were 
unpropitious,^ and prevented from going forth by 
the soothsayers. In the second place, some one 
came up to Casca, one of the conspirators, took him 
by the hand, and said : " You hid the secret from 
us, Casca, but Brutus has told me everything." And 
when Casca was dumb with amazement, the man 
burst out laughing and said : " How did you get so 
rich on a sudden, my good fellow, as to stand for the 
aedileship }" So near did Casca come, in the mistake 
caused by the man's ambiguity, to disclosing the 

* Cf. Caeaavt Ixiii. 6. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

UpovTOV KOt Kdaaiov avrjp fiovKevriKO^ HottlKlo^ 
Aaiva<; aairaadixevo^; irpoOvfiorepov KaX yjnOvpi^ 
aa^ rjpe/Mi, '* ^vvevypP'CLiy^ (jiTja-lv, " vfuv ixTeXetv 
a Kara vovv €X€T€ fcal Trapa/ceXevofiat firj fipahv- 
veiv* ov yap aKoirarai to Trpayjxa^^ KaX Tavr 
eliroov diriaTT) 7roX\r)v' vTro^jriav i/JL^a\ci>p rov 
ireirvo'Sai Tr}V irpa^iv. 

'Ez/ TovTQ) Si Tt9 otfcoOep eOei irpo^ top ^povTOP 

4 dyyiWfOP avT^ Trjp yvpaifca 0pi]<tk€cp, rj yap 
Uopxla 7r/oo9 to fjbiWop i/CTraOrj^ ov(ra xal to 
fxeyedo^ fiff (f>epov<ra t^9 <f>popTLSo^ eavTrjp t€ 
/x6\i^ oXkoi Korelye, fcal 7r/309 irdpTa 06pv/3op 
xal ^0T]P, &<nr€p ai KaTda'xeTOi toI^ iSaK^tKolf: 
irdOeatp, e^aTTOvaa t&p fiep eiaioPTtop air 
dyopd^ €Ka<rTOP dpifcptpep o tl irpdTTOi BpoOro?, 

5 6T6/0OU9 Se avP€X<»>^ e^errefiTre. tgKo^ Se tov %f>o- 991 
pov fiTj/co^ yjifx^dpopTO^ ovKCT dpTevyj^p ri tov 
acofxaTo^ Bvpafii<i, aXV i^eXiiOrf koI xaTCfiapai- 
P€T0 T179 'sfrvxv^ dXvovarjt; Bid Trjp diropiap' KaX 
TTapeXBeip fiep eh to SeofidTiop ov/c effydrj, Trept- 
taTaTO S* avT7]P, wcTrep eTvyxapep, ip fiiaw KaOe- 
^ofiivrjp XLiroOvfiia KaX dd/jL^o<; dfiij'yapop, fj t€ 
Xpoa /jL€TafioXrjp iXd/x/Sape KaX Tr)p <f)coP7)p iiri- 

6 o^xv^o TrapTdiraaip. at Sc depdiraipaL irpo^ ttjp 
oy^LP dpcoXoXv^ap, KaX t&p yeiTOPcop avpSpa/iop- 
Tcop eirX 0vpa<; Ta%u irporjXOe ^rjfMf) KaX SieBoOt) 
X6yo<; d}<: T€0p7)Kvia^ auT^9. ov p.r}p dW' iK€Lpr)p 

. /JL€P dpaXdfi'yJraaav ep ^pax€t KaX Trap* iavTy 
y€P0/JL€Pi]p ai yvpaiKe^ eOepdirevop* 6 Se B/ooi)T09 
viro TOV Xoyov irpoaireaopTO^ avT^ avpcTapax^V 
fi€P, ft)9 cIko^, ov fJLrjp ye KaTeXnre to koipop ovS* 
eppvT) irpo^ TO olxeiop viro tov irdOov^. 

'58 



BRUTUS 

secret. Moreover, Brutus and Cassius were greeted 
more warmly than usual by Popilius Laenas, a senator, 
who then whispered quietly to them ; " I join you in 
praying for the accomplishment of what you have 
in mind, and exhort you not to delay, for the matter 
is on men s tongues." Having said this, he went 
away, leaving them full of suspicion that their under- 
taking had become known. 

At this juncture, too, a messenger from his house 
came running to Brutus with the tidings that his 
wife was dead. For Porcia, being distressed about 
what was impending and unable to bear the weight 
of her anxiety, could with difficulty keep herself at 
home, and at every noise or cry, like women in the 
Bacchic frenzy, she would rush forth and ask every 
messenger who came in from the forum how Brutus 
was faring, and kept sending out others continually. 
Finally, as the time grew long, her bodily powers 
could no longer endure the strain, but were relaxed 
and enfeebled as her perplexities threatened to drive 
her mad. She had not time to go to her chamber, 
but just as she was, sitting in the midst of her 
servants, she was overwhelmed with faintness and 
helpless stupor, her colour fled, and her speech was 
utterly stayed. Her maids shrieked at the sight, 
and since the neighbours came running in a crowd 
to the door, a report speedily went forth and a story 
was spread abroad that she was dead. However, she 
revived in a short time, came to herself, and was 
cared for by her women; but Brutus, though he 
was confounded,* naturally, by the startling tale, 
nevertheless did not abandon his public duty, nor 
was he driven by his affliction to dwell on his private 
concerns. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XVI. *'HS77 he Kalaap aTrrfyyiWero Trpoatwv 
iv <f>opei(p fcofii^ifievof;, iyvwKei yap tirX rol^ 
Upol^ aOvpoiv fJLrjBev eiriKvpovv Tore r&v ixei^o- 
vaav, aW' vTrep/BdWeadai g Kr^y^dfxevo^ affdevGiav, 
i/c^dvTC 8' avrqy rod ^opeiov irpoapveh HoiriXiOf; 
AaLua<;, eKelvo^ 6 p^iKptp irpotrOev €v^dp,€vo<; toi<; 
irepl l&povTov eTnTvyydveiv kol KaropOovVy huXe- 
yero TrXeico ypovov e<f>L(TTapLev(p koX Trpoa-ixovrc 

2 Tov vovv, oi ok avvtopt^QTav (Xeyia0(o yap ovTca^) 
T^9 P'^v (jxovfjf; ovK €7raiovT€<; avrov, T€Kpxiip6p^voi 
S* d<pi* S}v virevoovv p,i]waiv elvai T779 €7ri/3ovXrj^ 
T7}u KotvdKoyiaVy dveireaov re ral^i yvcopxii^, xal 
7r/oo9 dWijXov<; e/SXeyjrav dvdopoXoyovp^evov hia 
T&v Trpoa-doTTcov ft)9 ')(^prj prf Trepcpeveiv (TvXXrjyjriv, 

3 dXX^ eifOif^ aTToOvijaKeiv Si avrwp, Kaaaiov S' 
^Sr; Kai TLvcov aXXcov ra^ 'xelpa<; eTrt^e^XrjKOTCov 
rai^ Xa/Salf; vtto ra ipdria KaX cnrcopeveov Ta 
iyX^ipl'Sia, B/ooOto? eyxaTLSwv toG tov Aaiva 
<T)(rip,aTi heop.evov airovSrfv xal ov)(l KaTr)yo- 
povvTO^, i(j)0€y^aTo pev ovSev 8id to ttoXXov^; 
dXXoTpLOVf; dvapeixl'^dai, (f>aLBpa) Se t^ 7rpo<T(0'n'(p 

4 T0U9 irepl Kdaaiop eddppvve. /cat pera piKpov 
6 Aaivaf; tt^v Be^iav tov Kala-apof; KaTa<f>iXrj(Ta^ 
direcTT), <j>av€p6<i yevopevo^ 0)9 vnep eavrov KaX 
Tcov avT(p Tivo<; BcacfiepovTcov iiroieiTO ttjv 
evTcv^tv, 

XVII. T^9 ^e /3ovXr}^ €t9 rifv e^eSpav TrpoeiaeX- 
Oovarj^ oi pev SXKot, tov hi^pov tov K.aia'apo^; 
'jreptearTTfaav w ivTvy^dveLV ti peXXovT€<; avT&. 
KaX Kdaaiov pev Xeyerai TpeirovTa to TTpoacolrov 
et9 T7)v elxova tov Hopirrjiov irapaKokelv &(TiTep 



160 



BRUTUS 

XVI. And now word was brought that Caesar was 
comings borne on a litter. For in consequence of the 
dejection caused by his omens^ he had determined 
not to sanction any important business at that time^ 
but to postpone it^ under pretext of indisposition. 
As he descended from his htter, Popilius Laenas^ 
who^ a little while before^ had wished Brutus success 
in his enterprise, hurried up to him and conversed 
with him for some time, and Caesar stood and listened 
to him. The conspirators (for so they shall be called) 
could not hear what he said, but judging from their 
suspicions that what he told Caesar was a revelation 
of their plot, they were disconcerted in their plans, 
and mutually agreed by looks which passed between 
them that they must not await arrest, but at once 
dispatch themselves. Cassius and some others, indeed, 
had already grasped the handles of the daggers be- 
neath their robes and were about to draw them, when 
Brutus observed from the mien of Laehas that he 
was asking eagerly for something and not denouncing 
anyone. Brutus said nothing, because many were 
about him who were not in the plot, but by the 
cheerfulness of his countenance gave courage to 
Cassius and his friends. And after a little while 
Laenas kissed Caesar's hand and withdrew. He 
had made it clear that it was in his own behalf and 
on something which closely concerned himself that 
he had consulted Caesar. 

XVII. When the senate had preceded Caesar into 
the session-room, the rest of the conspirators stationed 
themselves about Caesar's chair, as if they intended 
to have some conference with him, and Cassius is said 
to have turned his face towards the statue of Pompey 
and to have invoked it, as if it had understanding ; 

i6i 

VOL. VI. M. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cuadap6fjL€vov, Tpe^cavio^ Se irepl tA? Ovpa<; 
^AvT(oviov iTTio'Traa'dfievo^ xal irpoa-OfiiX&v e^co 

2 Karecxe. ¥iai(rapi Se elaiovTi /jl€v t) avyKXrjTO^ 
v7r€^av€(TTi], KaOe^ofievov S" evdm iKelvoi irepi- 
kG'Xpv aOpooi,, mXKiov K.Lfi/3pov i^ kdVT&v irpo- 
/Sa\\oz/T€9 virkp ahek<\>ov i^v^dho^ Seofievov 
Kal avveSiovTo Trdvre^, dirTOfievoi re 'XJ^ip&v fcal 
arepva /cal fC€cf>a\rfv KaT€(f>iKovv. diroTpi^Ofievov 
Se TcL<; S€i}(T6c^ t6 irp&TOv, eW\ (09 ov/c dvieaav, 
i^avLGTapAvov ^ia, TiWio^ fiev dp.<f>0Tipai9 rat? 
'Xepalv ifc r&v &p,(ov /caricnraae to IjidTiov, 
Kao'/ca9 a 7rpa>T0<; {eiaTrjKeL ydp STTiadev) 
dva(T7rdaa<; to ft<^09 Si€\avv€L, ovk eh j3d0o<:, 

3 Trapd rbv &pjov, dvTiXafjLl3apop,ivov Be 7^9 Xay8^9 
rod K.ai<rapo<; xai fi&ya 'Pco p/ilarl dvaKpayovro^, 
" ^Avoaie Kdaxa, rl Trotel^T eKelvo^ '^Wr)vi(TTX 
rbv dSeX(f)bv Trpoaayopeva-a^ ixeXevae /Sorfffeiv, 
r]Brj 8k iraiop^vo^ virb iroW&v Kal kvkX^ irepi- 
^eircov Kal Si(o<raa6at, l3ov\6p.evo^, d)9 elBe 
BpovTOP eKKop^evov ^L<fio^ in avrov, Ttjp xelpa 
Tov K^dtTKU Kpar&v dcjyTJKe, xal r^ Ip-aTi^ Ttjv 
K€<f>a\rfv iyKaXyy^dp^vo^ TrapehwKe to a&p/i ral^ 

4 7r\i77at9. oi S d^eih&<; dvaireirXeypAvot. iroXKol^ 
irepl TO <T&pu ^/)C()/i€i/o£ Tor9 ^i(\>eaiv dXKrjKov^ 

eTLTpCOaKOV, &<TTe KoX l^pOVTOV €49 T^l' X^^P^ 

'TrXtfyifv Xa^elv tov <f)6vov avvejiairTopsvov, wifi- 992 
irXaadat he tov alpaTo^ airavra^, 

XVIII. OuTft) S' dvodavovTO^ avTOv l^povro^ 
p>€P 649 p^iaov wpoeXdcop i^ovXcTO Xiyeip Kal 

162 



BRUTUS 

but Trebonius drew Antony into conversation at 
the door and kept him outside.^ As Caesar entered^ 
the senate rose in liis honour^ but as soon as he was 
seated the conspirators surrounded him in a body, 
putting forward Tullius Cimber of their number with 
a plea in behalf of his brother, who was in exile. 
The others all joined in his plea, and clasping 
Caesar's hands, kissed his breast and his head. At 
first, Caesar merely rejected their pleas, and then, 
when they would not desist, tried to free himself 
from them by force. At this, Tullius tore Caesar's 
robe from his shoulders with both hands, and 
Casca, who stood behind him, drew his dagger 
and gave him the first stab, not a deep one, 
near the shoulder. Caesar caught the handle of 
the dagger and cried out loudly in Latin : " Im- 
pious Casca, what doest thou?" Then Casca, ad- 
dressing his brother in Greek, bade him come to his 
aid. And now Caesar had received many blows and 
was looking about and seeking to force his way 
through his assailants, when he saw Brutus setting 
upon him with drawn dagger. At this, he dropped 
the hand of Casca which he had seized, covered his 
head with his robe, and resigned himself to the 
dagger-strokes. The conspirators, crowding eagerly 
about the body, and plying their many daggers, 
wounded one another, so that Brutus also got a 
wound in the hand as he sought to take part in 
the murder, and all were covered with blood. 

XVIII. Caesar thus slain, Brutus went out into the 
middle of the session-room and tried to speak, and 

^ In Caewir, Ixvi. 3, Brutus Albinus is incorrectly said to 
have detained Antony in conversation. Cf. Appian, B. C. ii. 
117, and Cicero's letter to Trebonius {Epist. x. 28). 

163 
M 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

A:aTeJ%€ 6appvV(ov ttjp a-vyKXrjrov 17 S* viro heov^ 
€<l>evy€v cLTaKTO)^, KoX Trepl tA^ Ovpa^ cddiafio^ 
fjv Koi rdpaxo^, ovBevo^ hiwKOvro^; ovSi /care- 
Treiyovro^, laxvpw ycip iSiSo/cro firjSiva KTeiveiv 
erepov, aXXa trdvTa^ iirX tt^v iXevOepiav dvaxa- 

2 \elaOai. fcal T0Z9 fiev aX\oi^ iraaiv, oirriviKa 
hiecTKOirovvTO rrjv irpa^tv, ijpeaxev ^Avrdoviov 
iirt^a^aTTCiv K-aiaapt, fiovap'x^Lfcbv avSpa xal 
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dWh B/oouTO? iviarr) tt/jo? to fiovXevfia, irp&Tov 
fiev i<ryvpi^6fi€Vo^ t^ Sixaitp, SevTcpop S" viro- 

3 TideX^ iXiriSa t^9 fi€Tal3o\rj^» ov ydp direyLvo)' 
afC€v ev(l>va zeal ^iXoTijiov avSpa koI So^? 
ipa<TT7)v TOP ^KpTmpLOPy iKTToSobp K.aio'apo^ yepo- 
fiivov, (rvpe^dyjrea'Oai TJj iraTpiSi t^? ekevdepia^, 
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aep' €p Sk T(p t6t€ <f>6j3<p fi€Tal3a\a>p ia0rJTa 
SnjfioTixijp €<f>vyep. 

4 Ot Se irepl BpovTOP et9 to KaireTooiXiop €;^co- 
povp, jjfiay/iepoi. tA? ^^elpa?, koI tA ^L<f>rf yvfipa 
SeiKPVPTe^ iirl Trjp iXevdepiap TrapexaXovp touv 
7ro\tTa9. TO fihp ovp irpojTOP fjaap dXaXayfioi, 
Kai BiaSpofial t^ irddei fcaTct tvxv^ iiriyipofiepai 
irXeiopa top 66pv/3op iTroLrja-ap* w S' oi;T€ (fyopo^; 
aXXo^ ovd^ dpirayri tvpo^ iytPCTO t&p KcifUpoDV, 
0appovPT€<: dpe/3aiP0P at Te ^ovXevTal koI t&p 
SrffWT&p 'TToXXol TT/oo? Tov^ upSpa^ €49 TO Kavc- 



164 



BRUTUS 

would have detained the senators there with en- 
couraging words; but they fled in terror and con- 
fusion^ and there was a tumultuous crowding at the 
door^ although no one pressed upon them in pursuit. 
For it had been firmly decided not to kill any one 
else, but to summon all to the enjoyment of liberty. 
All the rest of the conspirators, indeed, when they 
were discussing their enterprise, had been minded 
to kill Antony as well as Caesar, since he w£is a 
lawless man and in favour of a monarchy, and had 
acquired strength by familiar association with the 
soldiery; and particularly because to his natural 
arrogance and ambition he had added the dignity of 
the consulship, and was at that time a colleague of 
Caesar. But Brutus opposed the plan, insisting in 
the first place on a just course, and besides, holding 
out a hope of a change of heart in Antony. For he 
would not give up the belief that Antony, who was 
a man of good parts, ambitious, and a lover of fame, 
if once Caesar were out of the way, would assist his 
country in attaining her liberty, when their example 
had induced him to follow emulously the nobler 
course. Thus Antony's life was saved by Brutus; 
but in the fear which then reigned, he put on a 
plebeian dress and took to flight. 

And now Brutus and his associates went up to the 
Capitol, their hands smeared with blood, and dis- 
playing their naked daggers they exhorted the 
citizens to assert their liberty. At first, then, there 
were cries of terror, and the tumult was increased 
by wild hurryings to and fro which succeeded the 
disaster ; but since there were no further murders and 
no plundering of property, the senators and many 
of the common people took heart and went up to 

i6S 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 reoXioi/. aOpoKrdiino^' Se rod irXi^Oov^ BieKix^V 
BpovTO^ iirayoDya rov Si^/jlov koI trpbrovra roi<: 
7r€7rpayfJL€V0i<;. iiraivovi/rav Si /cal xariivai 
/3o(ovT(»>if dappovpr€<; Karefiaivov €t9 a/yopdv, oi 
fi€v aXXoi avveirofievoi /jl€t aWi]\o)v, ^povrov 
Be TToWol T&v i7n<l>av&p irepiitrovTe^ iv fieatp 
TTovv Xap.TTpA^ Karrjyov dtrb t^ axpa^ xal 

6 KareaTtjaav eVl t&v €fij36\(ov, npo^ Se Ttfv 
oyfrcv oi iToXKoi, Kaiirep fiiydSe^ ovre^: koI irape- 
<TK€va<yfi€ifoi Oopvpelv, SieTpeaav /cal to fiiWov 
iSexovro Koap^tp koX (noair^. wpoeT^ovTO^ S' 
avTov Trdvre^ fiav')(iav r^ Xoytp frapeaxov on 
S' ov naai Trpb^ '^Sovrfv iyeyovei to cpyov, iS'^Xoo- 
aav dp^ap^evov Xeyeiv Klvva /cal Karrfyopelv 
Kaiaapot; dpapprjyvvp^vot irpo^ opyrjv koX KaKoj^ 
Tov l^LVpav \€yovT€<;, &(tt6 irdXiv tou? avhpa^ 

7 €49 TO T^airerdiktov direXOelv, Sv0a Bt) ScBlod^; 
TToXiopKLav 6 BpoOro? dTreirep.'rre tou9 dpiarov^ 
T&v fTvvavafidvTODV, ovk d^t&v t^9 aitia^; p.7j 
p^ere'XpvTa^ avTov^ avvvirohveaOai tov Kivhwov. 

XIX. Ov p^rfv dXXd Tjj vaTepaia t^9 ^ovXt]^; 
(TVveXBovari^ eh to t59 r?)9 iepov, ^Avtcovlov Se 
Kol TLXdy/cov koI Ki/cepcovo^ elirovTcov irepX dp^vq- 
aTva^ Kal 6p.ovoia^, eSo^e pr) pJivov aSeiav elvai 
T0t9 dvhpdcLV, dXXd koX yv(i>p>r)v irrrhp Tip&v 
irpodelvai Tot»9 viraTov^, koX TauT* €TTiyfrrj(l}ca'd- 
2 p£voi hieXvOrjaav, ^KvTcoviov he tov vlov eh to 
KaTTCTcoiXiov op,fipevcovTa irep,'>^avTos KaTtjXOov 
ol irepX ^povTOVi da-iratrp^oi t€ teal Be^maei.^ 

1 66 



BRUTUS 

the men on the Capitol. When the multitude was 
assembled there^ Brutus made a speech calculated 
to win the people and befitting the occasion. The 
audience applauding his words and crying out to him 
to come down from the Capitol^ the conspirators took 
heart and went down into the forum. The rest of 
them followed along in one another's company^ but 
Brutus was surrounded by many eminent citizens^ 
escorted with great honour down from the citadel^ 
and placed on the rostra. At sight of him the mul- 
titude^ although it was a mixed rabble and prepared 
to raise a disturbance^ was struck with awe^ and 
awaited the issue in decorous silence. Also when he 
came forward to speak, all paid quiet attention to 
his words ; but that all were not pleased with what 
had been done was made manifest when Cinna began 
to speak and to denounce Caesar. The multitude 
broke into a rage and reviled Cinna so bitterly that 
the conspirators withdrew again to the Capitol. There 
Brutus, who feared that they would be besieged, sent 
away the most eminent of those who had come up 
with them, not deeming it right that they should 
incur the danger too, since they had no share in the 
guilt. 

XIX. However, on the following day the senate 
met in the temple of Tellus, and Antony^ Plancus, 
and Cicero spoke in favour of amnesty and concord. 
It was then voted not only that the conspirators 
should have immunity, but also that the consuls 
should lay before the people a measure to pay them 
honours. After passing these votes, the senate broke 
up. Then, when Antony had sent his son to the 
Capitol as a hostage, Brutus and his associates came 
down, and there were salutations and greetings for 

167 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iyevovTO iravT(ov ava/xix'S ^vtcdv, koI Kdaariov 
fiiv *Aj/T(»i/t09 elaTta TrapaXa^dv, ^povrov Be 
AcTTtSo?, T0U9 S' aXKov<;, &<; t«9 eZp^e 7rpo9 IxaaTov 
3 ^ avvrideia^ fj <ptXo(f>poavvr)^, a/ia 8* tifiepq 
iraiXiv (rvveXOovre^ oi fiovXevral irp&TOP pikv 
*AvT(ovi<p Tifih^ ehoaav o)9 Karairavaavri iroXe- 
ficov ifi^vXicov ap^ijv eirena r&v irepl IBpovrov 
fiaav erraivoi r&v irapovroav, kclL t€\o9 eirap'XjLwv 
BiavofiaL B/aovTft) fiev yctp iyjrfj<l)iaavTO Kpr]Ti]v, 993 
Kaaaritp Si Acfiirrjv, Tpeficovitp Sk ^Aalav kol 
K,i/xfip<p l&idvviav, r^ S* kreptp l&povTtp ttjv irepl 
Tov !Yipthavov TaXariav, 

XX. McT^ hk ravra irepl r&v Kcdarapo^ Sia- 
ffrjK&v /cat Tcuprj^ avrov Xoymv ifi'rreaovTODv, xal 
T&v irepX Tov *AvTd>viov a^iovvrcDv rd^ re Sia- 
07]Ka^ dpayvcoaOrjvai xal tov acofiaro^ ixipopav 
yeviaOai firj Kefcpv/xfihnjv p/qS" aTip^ov, (09 /^^ /cal 
TOVTO TTapo^vvrj TOV Brjp^ov, K.daaio^ p^v ia")(yp&<; 
dvTeXeyev, elf € Sk ^povTO^ koI avvkydprjae, Bev- 

2 Tepov dpLapTclv tovto Bo^a^, Koi yap Avtcovlov 
<f)€C<Tdp,€VO^ aWiav €<r)(ev i7nT€i)(ia'ai t§ avvct)- 
pLoaia /3apvv koI BvapLayov TroXipuov, fcal rd irepl 
Trjv Ta<f)r)v hv 6 *AvT<ovto^ tf^iov Tpoirov idaa^ 
y€V€(70ai TOV iravTo^ (T(j)aXrjvai, irpa>TOv pukv ydp 
iv Tat9 BiaO'^Kat^ BeBop^ivtov KaT dvBpa ^Ptap^aioi^ 
irdai Bpaxp^v k/SBopL'^KovTa irevTe xaX rqt Brjpxp 
T&v iripav tov irorapLOV Ki]7rtov diroXeXeipLp^vGyv, 
oi vvv i<TTt Tvxv^ lepov, evvoia OavpaaTtf xal 

3 TToOo^ avTov T0U9 7roXtTa9 elkev eireiTa tov 

CtOpLaTO^ €t9 T^jV dyopdv KOp,ta0€VTO^ ^AVTCOVIO^ 

ewaivov, Sairep I0o^ €(ttI, Bte^eXddv, koI rd 
TrXrjOfi KivovpuBva irpo<; tov Xoyov op&v, eh oIktov 

i68 



BRUTUS 

all without discrimination. Cassius was taken home 
and entertained by Antony, Brutus by Lepidus, and 
the rest by their several comrades or friends. Early 
next morning the senate assembled again. In the 
first place, they gave a vote of thanks to Antony 
for having stopped an incipient civil war ; next, they 
passed a vote of commendation for the followers of 
Brutus who were present ; and finally, they distributed 
the provinces. It was voted that Brutus should have 
Crete, Cassius Africa, Trebonius Asia, Cimber Bi- 
thynia, and the other Brutus Cisalpine Gaul. 

XX. After this, the subjects of Caesar's will and 
of his burial came up for discussion. Antony de- 
manded that the will should be read publicly, and 
that the body should be carried forth to burial, not 
secretly, nor without honburs, lest this also should 
exasperate the people. Cassius, indeed, vehemently 
opposed these measures, but Brutus 3delded and 
agreed to them, thus making a second mistake, as it 
was thought. For by sparing Antony's life as he had 
done he incurred the charge of raising up against 
the conspirators a bitter and formidable foe ; and 
now, in allowing Caesar's funeral rites to be con- 
ducted as Antony demanded, he committed a fatal 
error. For, in the first place, when it was found 
that the will of Caesar gave to every single Roman 
seventy-five drachmas, and left to the people his 
gardens beyond the Tiber, where now stands a 
temple of Fortune, an astonishing kindliness and 
yearning for Caesar seized the citizens; and in the 
second place, after Caesar's body had been brought 
to the forum, Antony pronounced the customary 
eulogy, and when he saw that the multitude were 
moved by his words, changed his tone to one of com- 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjL€T€^a\€, Koi Ttjv iaOtJTa \affo>v rrjv Kaia-apo^ 
'PfiayfjUvrfv avinrrv^evy iinSeixvif/iievo^ ra^ But- 
KOTra^ Kot T&v rpavfidrayv rb ttXtjOo^, fjv oiv 

4 iielv ovBev €ti Koafio) yivofievov dW* oi fiev 
i06oi)v Toif^ dvhpo<f>6vov<; avaipeiv, oi S\ &<nTep 
eVl K\o>Stoi; toO BijfjLaycoyov irporepov, diro t&v 
ipya<TTr)pi(ov rd ^dOpa KaX rd^ rpairi^a^ dva- 
(nr&VT€^ Kol <TvyKOfiL^ovT€<i eh ravTO irafifieykOr^ 
TTvpdv evrjaav KaX rov veKpov €7nOivr€<; iv p^a^ 
iroXK&v p,€V lep&v, ttoXK&v S* davXcov koX d^e- 
^rjXtov Toircov Kadvjyi^ov. o)? he to irvp i^iXafJL- 
yjrev, dWa^odep aWo9 Trpoa^epofievoi Kal SaXov^ 
dvaair&vTe^ '^p>i<l>\€fCTov<; BiiOeov iirl 7^9 olxia^ 
T&v dvrjprjfcoToyv dvTOV ©9 ip>TrprjaovT€^, 

5 'AW' CKetvoc p^hf eS 'ir€<f>paypAvoi irpoTCpov 
direKpovaavTO tov klvBvvov fjv Si ta9 Kivva^, 
TToirfTiKO^ dvTjp, ovBkv T^9 ahia^ pL€T€Xcov, dWd 
Koi <^t\o9 T^aiaapo^; yeyoveof;, o5to9 ovap oSero 
KoXovp^evo^ viro Kaio'apo^ eVl heltrvov dpvelaOai, 
TOV Se \tirapeZv koX j3id^€<T0ai, t^\o9 S' dyeiv 

Xa^OpSVOV T^9 X€t/0O9 €t9 dxctvij TOTTOV KaX aKOT€l' 

vov, avTov S' aKOVTa KaX T€0ap,/37)p.evov hreaOai, 

6 TavTTjv IBovTi T^v oyjnv avT(p avve^rj irvpeTTeiv 

Bid VVKTO^' Opxa^ S* €(00 €V iKK0p,l^0p^V0V TOV 

<r(»/iaT09 alSovp,€vo^ p^ff irapelvat irporfKffev et9 
TOV o^Xov tjStj Siaypiaivopevov. 6^0€X^ Be KaX 
B6^a<; ovx oairep fjv Kivva^ elvai, d\\* €Ke2vo<; 6 
IS.aiaapa irpo^ ttjv iKKXrjalav evay^o^ XoiBopijaa^, 
BieaTrda-01], 

170 



BRUTUS 

passion^ and taking the robe of Caesar^ all bloody as 
it was, unfolded it to view^ pointing out the many 
places in which it had been pierced and Caesar 
wounded. All further orderly procedure was at an 
end, of course ; some cried out to kill the murderers, 
and others, as formerly in the case of Clodius the 
demagogue,^ dragged from the shops the benches 
and tables, piled them upon one another, and thus 
erected a huge pyre; on this they placed Caesar's 
body, and in the midst of many sanctuaries, asylums^ 
and holy places, burned it. Moreover, when the fire 
blazed up, people rushed up from all sides, snatched 
up half-burnt brands, and ran round to the houses 
of Caesar's slayers to set them on fire. 

These men, indeed, having previously barricaded 
themselves well, repelled the danger ; but there was 
a certain Cinna, a poet, who had no share in the 
crime, but was actually a friend of Caesar's. This 
man dreamed that he was invited to supper by Caesar 
and declined to go, but that Caesar besought and 
constrained him, and finally took him by the hand 
and led him into a yawning and darksome place, 
whither he followed unwilling and bewildered. 
After having this vision, he fell into a fever which 
lasted all night; but in the morning, nevertheless, 
when the funeral rites were held over Caesar's body, 
he was ashamed not to be present, and went out into 
the crowd when it was already becoming savage. He 
was seen, however, and being thought to be, not the 
Cinna that he really was, but the one who had re- 
cently reviled Caesar before the assembled people, 
he was torn in pieces. 

^ Clodius was killed in a street-brawl with Milo, 52 B.C. 
Of. Cicero, xxv. 1. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXI. ToOto to 'TtojOo^ fidXiara fierd ye t^i^ 
'Ai/Tcoi/tou fi€Ta/3o\rjv heifravre^; oi irepX 3povTOV 
av€X<^pV^^^ e/c T^9 TToXeo)?* /ecu Si€Tpi/3ov iv 
'AvTi^ TO irp&TOV a>9, OTav irapaicfidarf xaX 
fuipavOf) TO T^9 0/37%, av0i<; eh 'P(OfJ>rjv /caTi- 
6i/T69* h paBio)^ eaeaOai irpoaeBoKtop ev irXijOeai 
^0/9^9 aaraOfii^TOV^ kol ra'xeia^ <f>€pofjL^voi^, teal 
T^v (TvyKkrjTov evpovv exome^, fj tou9 JS.Lvvav 
hiaaira<TafJiAvov<i 'xaipeiv edaaaa tou9 ein tA9 
olKia^ Ti9 iKeivoiv iireXOovra^ dve^iyrei koI 
avveXafi/Savev, i]Srj Be xal 6 Brjfio^ d'^Oofievo^, 
^AvTtoviov aX'sBov eh fiovapx^av fcaOiarafjiivov, 
3povTOv eTTodet* koI TrpoaeBoKaTO t^9 Oea^ a^etp 
irapobv avTO^, &9 &<f>€tX€ aTparrjy&v Trapaaxctv, 
ala06fi6vo^ Bh 7roWou9 t&v vtto Kalaapo^ 
iajpaTevfievcDv koX yrjv kclL iroKei,^ irap e/ceCvov 
XafiovTtov €7ri/3ov\evovTa^ avr^ /cal xar oXiyov^ 
irapeiapeovTa^ eh Tf)v iroXiv ovfc effdpprjaep iX- 
Oeiv, aXV o Btjiio^ eOearo fitf irapovro^ exeivov 994 
rh^ 6ea^, d<peiBa><; irdw x^pvy^^f^^^^ ^^^ Trepir- 
Ta>9. Orfpia re yhp irdfiiroXXa (rvvecovrjfievo^ 
ifciXevae /irjBev diroBoaOcLi firjS' vTroXtirelv, dXXa 
TTcuTi Karaxpv^ciadai, tcaX t&v irepX top Aiopvaop 
rexyn&p avrb^ eh Neav iroXip Kara/Sa^ ipervx^ 
TrXeiaroL^' irepX Be Kapourlov riPo<; evrjfiepovpTo^ 
€P T0A9 dedrpoi^ eypa<l>e irpo^ Toi'9 ^CXov^ oirco^ 
ireiaapre^ avrop eicaydrfODatp* '^XXrjpwp yap 
ovBepa /SiaaOrjpai TTpoarjKeiP, eypa^e Be KaX 
Kixipcopi, irdprto^ irapaTVX^cp Tah Oeai^ Beofiepo^* 

172 



BRUTUS 

XXI. This incident more than anything else^ ex- 
cept, perhaps, Antony's change of heart, frightened 
Brutus and his adherents, and they withdrew from 
the city. At first they spent some time in Antium, 
with the idea of returning to Rome when the people's 
wrath had passed its climax and subsided. This they 
thought would readily come to pass, since multitudes 
are fickle and impetuous, and, besides, they had the 
senate in their favour, which let those who tore Cinna 
to pieces go unpunished, and yet tried to seek out 
and arrest those who had assaulted the houses of the 
conspirators. Already, too, the people were disturbed 
because Antony was assuming almost absolute power, 
and they longed for Brutus ; it was also expected 
that he would be present in person and conduct the 
spectacles which it was his duty as praetor to furnish. 
But Brutus learned that many of the veteran soldiers 
of Caesar who had received land and cities from their 
commander, were now plotting against his life and 
in small bands streaming into the city. He therefore 
had not the courage to come. The people, however, 
had their spectacles, in spite of his absence, and 
these were very lavishly and magnificently appointed. 
For Brutus had purchased a great number of wild 
beasts, and now gave orders that not one should be 
sold or left behind, but that all should be used ; and 
he himself went down to Naples and conferred with 
a very large number of actors ; and regarding Ca- 
nutius, an actor who enjoyed great fame, he wrote 
to his friends that they should persuade him to go 
to Rome ; for no Greek could properly be compelled 
to go. He wrote also to Cicero, begging him by all 
means to attend the spectacles. 



173 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXII. *Rv TOiavrr) 8e KaraaTdtret t&v irpa- 
y/idrtav 6vT(ov iripa yipcTat fiera^oXtf rov viov 
Kalaapo^ itreKJBovro^, oSto? f^v fiev i^ aS€\(f>LSr]^ 
^alaapo^, ypafifiari Si 7ra?9 vtt avrov koi 

2 KX/qpovop^os airoXekeip^pivo^* iv S' ^ AiroXKwvLa 
Biirpil3€v 0T6 Kaiaap dvrjpidr), axo\d^(*)v irepl 
X670U9 Kaxeipov iirl lidpdov^ ikavveiv €v0v^ 
iyvcoKora trpoapivtov, apa 8k tw irvdiaffat to 
irddo^ ffkdev ct? 'Pd>p7)p* koI Brjpayeoyiaf; dpxv^ 
Tovvopa Kaiaapo^i Oipepo^; eavT^ koX BiapepoDP 
TO /caTa\€i<f>d€P dpyvpiop T0Z9 TroXirat^ ^Aprmviop 
T€ Karea-raaia^e /cal ypripxiTa SiaSiBov^ avpLaTrf 
Kol avvryye iroXKov^ r&p vtto l^aiaapo^ ia-rparev' 

3 p€V(ov} iireX hk Kifcipayv r^ Trpo^ 'Avtcoviov 
plcei rh Kaiaapo^ eirpaTre, Tovrtp piv 6 B/ooOto? 
itrewXvfTTev lo"yvp&<i, ypdtfxov 0)9 ou Betrrrorrjp 
l3apvpoiro KiKepoDv, a\XA pxaovpTa SeaTrorrjp 
(\>ofiolTo, KoX TToKirevoiTO SovXeia^i aipeatp (piXap- 
OpcoTTOV ypd<f>cov /cal Xiycop d><; j^/>^<rT09 iarc 
Kaiaap. " 0/ 8^ Trpoyopoi" <l>rj(TLP, " -^p&p ovSe 

4 TTpaov^ SecTTTOTa? virepepop.** avr^ K e/? toOto 
Kaipov prjTe iroXep.eiv fie/Saico^; heSox^CL^ p^fjTc 
riav^d^eip, aW* hf popop elvat ^e^ovXevpApov, 
TO prj BovXeveiP' 0avp,d^€ip Be Kixepfopo^, ei 
iroXepop pep ip<f>vXiop /cat KLpBvpioBri BeBoixep, 
aiayphp Bk xal aBo^op elpripr^p ov i\>o^eLTai, tov 
S' ApT(i>PLOV CK^aXetp Trj<; rvpappiBo^ piadop 
alret to Kaiaapa Karaarrja-ai rvpappop. 

XXIII. 'Ei; phf oip Tat? Trpdrai^ iTna-ToXal^ 
roiovTO^ 6 ^povTO^' rjBrf Be t&p pkp (09 Kaiaapa, 
Toyp S* (09 ^ApTcopiop Btlarapeptop, iapitop Be r&p 

^ iffrpartvfifpuv as in xxi. 2 : arparevofiivtav, 
174 



BRUTUS 

XXII. Matters were at such a pass when a fresh 
turn was given to them by the arrival of the young 
Caesar. He was a son of Caesar's nieee^ but had 
been formally adopted by him^ and left his heir. He 
was pursuing his studies at Apollonia when Caesar 
was killed^ and had been awaiting him there after 
his determination to march at once against the Par- 
thians. As soon as he learned of Caesar's fate^ he 
came to Rome^ and as a first step towards winning 
the favour of the people^ assumed the name of Caesar 
and distributed to the citizens the money which had 
been left them by his will. Thus he deposed Antony 
from popular favour, and by a lavish use of money 
assembled and got together many of Caesar's veteran 
soldiers. When Cicero was led by his hatred of An- 
tony to take the side of Octavius Caesar, Brutus 
rebuked him severely, writing that Cicero did not 
object to a despot as such, but only feared a despot 
who hated him, and that when he declared in his 
letters and speeches that Octavius was a worthy 
man, his policy meant the choice of a kindly slavery. 
" Our ancestors, however," said he, " could not endure 
even gentle despots." As for himself, he had not as 
yet definitely decided, he said, either for war or for 
peace, but on one thing only was he determined, and 
that was not to be a slave ; and he was amazed, he 
said, that Cicero dreaded a civil war with all its perils, 
but was not afraid of a shameful and inglorious peace, 
and that, as a reward for driving Antony from the 
tyranny, he asked the privilege of making Octavius 
tyrant. 

XXIII. Thus, then, did Brutus express himself in 
his first letters to Cicero. But already one faction 
was forming about Octavius, and another about 

175 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TTpaTOTriScov SnTirep viro KtjpvKi wpoaTiOefievtov 
T^ irXeov BiBovTi, travrdiraai xarayvoif^ t&v 
'7rpayfidr€0v Syvo) fcaraXiTreiv ^IraXiav, koI Tref^ 
Sici Aevfcavia^ ^h ^EXeav iirl daXaaaav ffxev, 

2 odev 7] HopKia fieWova-a iroKtv eh 'VfOfir^v airo- 
rpairiaOai Xavddveiv fiev iireipaTO irepnradw 
exovaa, ypa<f>ff Se ta9 avrrjv TrpovSeoxe rSWa 

A rycvvauav ovaav. ffv yap ck t&v 'EWtjvik&v 
oodueoT^ irpoTre^TTOfievo'i "E/cto)/) vtto ^AvBpofjid' 
XV^ KOfii^ofiivrjf; irap avrov to Traiiiov, i/ceiv^ Si 

3 irpoafiXeTTOvarff^. TavTu Oeco/xivrjv ttjv YlopKiav 
Tf Tov 7rddov9 elKobv i^6Tr)^€P €i9 Sdxpva' zeal 
iroWdfci^ (l>oiT&aa t^9 rffiepa^ exXauv, ^AkOuov 

Se TAV09 T&v B/OOUTOU <f>l\ii}V TCL 7r/}09 ''EiKTOpa 

T^9 ^AvSpofidxv^ ^V Si€\06vTO(;, 

"ExTOp, uTap av fioi iaal iraTtjp xal iroTvia 

tirj-rnp^ 
fihe KoalyvTjTo^s, a if Be fwi 0a\€pb<; irapaKoiTTf^, 

4 fi€iBidaa<; 6 B/)oi)to9, " 'A\X' ov/c ifioi 7'/' elire, 
" TTpo^ Uop/ciav eireiaL <^dvai Th tov "KfCTopo^, 

laTOV rjXaxdTTjv T€ /cai dfKfuiroXoiai Kekeve* 

<T(i>fxaT0^ y^p diToXeiTreTai ^vaei t&v tacov dvSpa- 
yadrffuiTcov, yvwfirj S' vTrep t^9 iraTpiBo^, &<nrep 
fjixeht a/?t(7T6i5e4." tuvtu fjuev 6 t^9 lIopKia<; vlo<i 
laToprjKe Bi;)3\o9. 

XXIV. *Avax0€l^ S' BpovTO<; etceWev iir 

AOrjv&v €7r\ei. Be^afievov Be tov Bijfiov irpoOv- 

ficD^; avTov €v<f>rf/MaL<; /cal yjrrj^La fUKTi BitfTaTo fiev 

Trapa ^€V<p Tivi, %eofivri<TTOv K dxpodfievo^ tov 

AfcaBrffiiuKOv fcal Kparlirirov tov HepnraTYfTiKov 

176 



BRUTUS 

Antony^ and the soldiers^ as though for sale at 
auction^ flocked to the highest bidder. Altogether 
despairing, therefore, of the state, Brutus determined 
to abandon Italy, and came by land through Lucania 
to Elea by the sea. As Porcia was about to return 
thence to Rome, she tried to conceal her distress, 
but a certain painting betrayed her, in spite of her 
noble spirit hitherto. Its subject was Greek, — 
Andromache bidding farewell to Hector ; she was 
taking from his arms their little son, while her eyes 
were fixed upon her husband. When Porcia saw 
this, \he image of her own sorrow presented by it 
caused her to burst into tears, and she would visit it 
many times a day and weep before it. And when 
Acilius, one of the friends of Brutus, recited the 
verses containing Andromache's words to Hector, 

" But, Hector, thou to me art father and honoured 
mother 
And brother ; my tender husband, too, art thou,** 

Brutus smiled and said : " But I, certainly, have no 
mind to address Porcia in the words of Hector, 

^ Ply loom and distaff and give orders to thy maids,' ^ 

for though her body is not strong enough to perform 
such heroic tasks as men do, still, in spirit she is 
valiant in defence of her country, just as we are." 
This story is told by Porcia's son, Bibulus.^ 

XXIV. From thence Brutus put to .sea and sailed 
for Athens. Here the people welcomed him eagerly 
and extolled him in public decrees. He dwelt with a 
certain guest-friend, attended the lectures of Theo- 
mnestus the Academic and Cratippus the Peripatetic, 

1 Iliad, vi. 429 f.; 491. * Cf. chapter xiii. 2. 

177 
VOL. VI. N 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX (Tv/JL<f>iXo(TO(l>a)v iSo/cei Travrdiraaiv apyeiv Koi 

2 axoXd^eiv. eirpoTTe he tcl irpo^ rov TroXcfiov 995 
avvTroTTTO)^, Koi yctp eh ^aKeSoviap eirefiy^ev 
'Hpoa-Tparov olKeiovfievo^ rov^ inl t&v exei 
aTparoirehiov, koX tov^ <rj^oXafoi/Ta9 diro 'Poi/A?;? 

iv aarei veov^ dvekdfi^ave koX a-vveixev, &v fjv 
KoX KiKepcovo^ vlo^y ov eiraivel Sia^epovrcD^, xai 
^rjaiv, eiT eypi]yopev elr ivvirvid^eTai, ffavpA- 
^eiv ovTOt) yevvalov ovra koL /iiaorvpavvov, 

3 *Ap^dfiepo^ Bk T&v Trpayfidrayv dva<f>avS6p 
avTeadai, koI irvOofievo^ trXola 'PcofiaiKcL fieara 
^/jiy/AaTfi)!' ef 'A<rta9 irpoa'(f>epe<Tdai kcu aTpaTT)- 
yov iiTLTrXeiv dvhpa 'xapievra koX yvfopifiov, 
dirrjVTrjaev avT& irepl K.dpvo'Tov evrvxjl^v he koL 
ireLa-a^ xal 7rapa\afia>v tcL 7r\oia XajxTrporepap 
irrroBo^^TfP iiroieiTo. Koi yap ^p fjfiepa KaG" fjv 

4 iyeyopei Trp&rop 6 BpovTO?. ci!>9 ovp €Xj96pt€<; eh 
TO TTLPeiv €7nxv(Tet^ eiroiovPTO vLkti^ re B/oovtov 
Kol 'V(oixal(OP eXevdepia^, ert fiaXXop avrov^ 
p&aai ^ovKofiepo^ jJTTjae 'rroTijpiop /nel^op* xal 
\al3(op, aTT* ovZefiia^ irpo^daeco^ dpetfxopriare top 

aTL'X^OP TOVTOP' 

dWd fjL€ pLotp oXjOf) KaX A.r}Tov<; exTUpep vlo^. 

5 €Ti he Kol frpo<: tovtoi^ ItTTopovaip, ore ttjp 
TeXevT aiap ep ^Odinroi^ fiaxovfiepof; e^tjet fid- 
XV^9 o'vpOrjfjLa Trap ainov Toh (TTpaTicoTaif: 
^ATToWaypa Bo0rjpau Sio xal tt}^ <TVfi(f>opa^ 
TL0epTai arffieiop iKeivrjp ttjp dpa(f>(i)P7)aip, 

178 



BRUTUS 

discussed philosophy with them, and was thought to 
be wholly given up to literary pursuits. But without 
any one's suspecting it, he was getting ready for 
war. For he sent Herostratus into Macedonia, de- 
siring to win over the commanders of the armies 
there, and he united in his service all the young 
Romans who were studying at Athens. One of these 
was Cicero's son, on whom he bestows high praise, 
declaring that whether awake or asleep and dream- 
ing, he was amazed to find him of such a noble 
spirit and such a hater of tyranny. 

Afterwards he began to act openly, and having 
learned that Roman transports full of treasure were 
approaching from Asia, and that an accomplished 
and well-known man was in command of them, he 
went to meet him at Carystus, After conferring 
with him and persuading him to hand over the 
transports, he prepared an entertainment of unusual 
splendour; for it was Brutus's birthday. Accord- 
ingly, when they were come to their wine, and were 
pledging " Victory to Brutus," and " Liberty to the 
Romans," wishing to animate them still more, Brutus 
called for a larger beaker, and then, when he had 
received it, without any ostensible reason, recited 
this verse : — 

"But I am slain by baleful Fate and Leto's son." ^ 

And still further, in addition to this, historians tell 
us that when he was going out to fight his last battle 
at Philippi, the watchword which he gave out to his 
soldiers was " Apollo." ^ Therefore they conclude 
that when he recited that verse, it also was a presage 
of his calamity. 

^ Patroclus to Hector, Iliads xvi. 849. Leto's son was 
Apollo, and the name was thought to mean Destroyer. 

179 

N 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXV. *E/ic TOVTOV irevrriKOVTa fiev avT(p fivpid- 
oa^ AvTia-Tiof; a<p tap rfye teat avTo^ €i^ iToXiav 
')(^pf)fidTO)v SlSq)(tiv, oaoi hi irepl Sea-traXiav eri 
T% HofiTrrjfov (nparia^ itfKav&VTO avveppeov 
aapMf(o^ npo^ avrov iinrel*; Bi iremaKoaiov^ 
d<j)€iXero ISlvva irpb^ AoXo^iWav ayovro^ eh 

2 ^ ha Lav. iTTiTrXevaa^ re rfj Arjp,rfTpuiSi, ttoW&p 
07r\(0P i^ayop,€PO)P irpo^ ^Aptooviop, a Kaiaapo<; 
TOV irpoiepov KeXevaapTO^; iirl top TlapOixop 
iiron^ffrj TroXep^op, iKparr^aev. 'Oprrjalov he rov 
CTparrjyov irapahovro^ avrqi Maxehopiap, ical 
T&p €P kvk\<p ^aaikecov Koi hvpaar&v avpiara- 
pipcop KaX TTpoaridepepcDP, ayyiXKerai Tdlo^, o 
^AmcoPLov dheXcfyo^i, i^ 'IraXwi? hia/Se^rfKco^ fia- 
hl^eip evdv^ eirX tcl^ hvpapei^ &9 ep ^Einhappq) 

3 Kol 'AiroXXxopia Bariwo? avpel'x^. l3ov\6pepo^ 
ovv (f>ddaat> fcal wpoXafieip 6 B/joOto? e^ai^pr^^; 
dpatTrrja-af; tov<; <jvp avr^ hia 'XjoapLaip 'xaXeTT&p 
PL<p6pepo^ iiropevero* teal ttoXv irporjXOe rov^ 
KopL^opra^ TO aptarop, eyyif^ ovp ^Eirihappov 
yepopepo^ hih kottop koI ylrv'X^o^ i^ovTuplaae. 
avpTrliTTec he paXiara to irdOo^ ;^toi/09 oi/o-iy? 

4 TTOPOvai /cat KTtjpeai Kai dpOpdnot^, etre rov 
deppov hid irepiy^v^ip koX trvKvoiaiP, Srap ipro^i 
airap fcaffeipx^V* '^V^ Tpo(f>ijv cW^ow? dpaXiaKOP- 
T09, €?T€ hpipela Kal Xcttt^ Ttj<: ^lopo*; hiaXvo- 
piptf^ iovaa itpot) ripvei to a&pa KaX hia^deipet 
TO deppop cf avTOV dvpa^e hiaaireipopepop. tA? 
ydp €<f>ihp(oa-€i^ irapex^tP hoKel to ffeppop dirap- 

i8o 



BRUTUS 

XXV. After this, Antistius ^ gave him five hundred 
thousand drachmas from the moneys which he was 
personally taking to Italy, and all Pompey's soldiers 
who were still wandering about Thessaly gladly 
flocked to his standard. He also took from Cinna 
^ve hundred horsemen that he was conductino- to 
Dolabella in Asia. Then sailing to Demetrias, whence 
great quantities of arms, which the elder Caesar had 
ordered to be made for his Parthian war, were being 
conducted to Antony, he took possession of them. 
After Hortensius the praetor had delivered up Ma- 
cedonia to him, and while all the surrounding kings 
and potentates were uniting on his side, word was 
brought that Caius, the brother of Antony, had 
crossed over from Italy and was marching directly 
to join the forces under Vatinius in Epidamnus and 
Apollonia. Wishing, therefore, to anticipate his ar- 
rival and capture these forces, Brutus suddenly set 
out with the forces under him and marched through 
regions difficult of passage, in snow storms, and far 
in advance of his provision-train. Accordingly, when 
he had nearly reached Epidamnus, fatigue and cold 
gave him the distemper called ^'boulimia/' This 
attacks more especially men and beasts toiling through 
snow ; 2 whether it is that the vital heat, being wholly 
shut up within the body by the cold that surrounds 
and thickens it, consumes its nourishment completely, 
or that a keen and subtle vapour arising from the 
melting snow pierces the body and destroys its heat 
as it issues forth. For the sweat of the body seems 
to be produced by its heat, and this is extinguished 

1 A mistake for Appuleius (Cicero, Philippics^ x. IJ • 
Appian, B.C. iii. 63), who was quaestor in Asia. ' 

 As it did the " Ten Thousand " in Armenia (Xenoplion 
Anah. iv. 5, 7 f.). r » 

i8i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r&VTi T«5 yfrirxp^ irepl rrjv iirKJydvecav cr/Sevvv- 
fi€vov. vTrip &p iv iripoif; fiaWov rjirofyqrai, 

XXVI. AiTTodv/jbovvTO^ Se tov ^povTov Kal 
fjLr)S€Po<; €p^oi/T09 iv r^ (TTparoTriSa) /jLfjSev eSo)- 
Scfiov, rjvayfcdadrja'av oiirepX avrov iirl tol'9 ttoXc- 
fiiov^ KaTa(f>vy€lv xal Tah irvXai^; TrpoaeXOovre^ 
aoTOV rjTOVv Toi/? ^vXaKa<;. oi he Siafcovaavre^ 
TO (TVfjLiTTeo/JLa TOV l^povTov TTaptjaav avToX Kal 
airia koI irora Kop^i^ovre^, av6^ Syv 6 ^povTO<;, 
ft)? rrjv iroXiv irapiXa^ev, ov fiovov tovtoi^, 
aWa Kal irdai Sia toutou? <f>cKap0p(O7r(i}^ 
e'XprjO'aTO, 

Vdlo^ S* ^A.VT(ovio^ *A7roXXa)vva 7rpoa^aXa>v 
cKct Toi'9 iyyif<s ovra^ eKaXec aTparicora^, iirel 

8' OVTOL T€ TT/OO? ^pOVTOV (pVOVTO fCol TOU? 

^ AnoXXayvidra^ yaOero ret 3povTOV <f>povovvTa<;, 996 
ifcXiircov rffv ttoXiv eh ^ov0p(OTov ifidSc^e. koI 
irp&Tov fiev diroXXvai T/0€t9 cnreipa^i Kaff" oSov 
VTTO 3povTov fcaraKOTreLaa^' enecra tou? Trepl rrjv 
BuWtSa TOTTOi;? 7rpoKaTaXr)(l>0€VTa<; iir^'xeipoiv 
ifcJSid^eaffai Kal p^d^V^ crvvd'y^a^ KiK€p<opi viKa- 
rai. TOVTtp yap 6 ByooDro? ixPV'^^ (TTparrjy^ 
Kal iroXXci Si avrov KaTdpOoDcre, Xa^obv Be tov 
rdlov iv )(a>pLoi^ eXcoBeai, pxiKphv hieairaap.ivov 
ovK etaaev ip^ffaXelv, dXXh TrepitTnrevae, <f>elS€' 
a0ac KeXevoDv, (U9 p^rii p4,Kpov loiwv iaopAvoav* h 
Kal avve^Tf, TrapiBoaav yhp iavTov^ Kal tov 
aTparrfyov, Aare p^ydXrjv ijSrf irepl tov B/ooOtoi; 
Svvap>iv etvai, XP^^^^ f^^ ^^^ iroXitv iv TLp>fj 
TOV rdlov JJ76 Kal tA 7rapdar)pLa T179 dp^rj^ ovk 
d(f>^p€i, Kaiirep, W9 (paa-iv, dXXayv re iroXX&v Kal 



182 



BRUTUS 

by the cold which meets it at the surface. But I have 
discussed this matter more at length elsewhere.^ 

XXVI. Now^ since Brutus was faint^ and since not 
one of his soldiers had anything in the shape of food^ 
his attendants were obliged to have recourse to their 
enemies^ and going down to the gate of the city 
they asked the sentinels for bread. These, when 
they heard of the mishap of Brutus, came to him 
themselves, bringing food and drink. Wherefore 
Brutus, when the city had surrendered to him, treated 
not only these men humanely, but also all the other 
citizens for their sake. 

When Caius Antonius drew near Apollonia, he 
summoned the soldiers who were in the vicinity. 
These, however, went to Brutus, and Caius perceived 
also that the people of Apollonia favoured the cause 
of Brutus. He therefore left the city behind and 
set out for Buthrotum. To begin with, he lost three 
cohorts on the march, which were cut to pieces by 
Brutus; next, when he tried to force the positions 
near Byllis which his opponents had earlier occupied, 
and joined battle, he was defeated by Cicero. For 
Brutus employed this young man as general, and won 
many successes through him. When, however, he 
came upon Caius in marshy regions and with his forces 
widely scattered, Brutus would not permit his men 
to attack them, but rode about giving orders to spare 
them, in the belief that they would soon be his own. 
And this actually came to pass. For they surrendered 
themselves and their general, so that now Brutus 
had a large force about him. For a long time, then, 
he held Caius in honour, and would not deprive him 
of the insignia of his command, although, as we are 

^ Of., for example; Morale, pp. 691 f. 

'83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kifcepaavo^ anro *Vd}p,r^ ypa4f>6vTmv xal xeXevov- 
Ta>p avaipelv ap^dfievav hi fcpiHpa roh '^e/wo'i 
SiaXiyeaffai xal TrotrfKravTa vewrepurfiov evOe- 
b fuvo^ el^ vaifv i^vXaTTe. rcav Se ouL^aphnenv 
arparuor&p eh ^ AiroXKtovLav airoaravrtov koX 
KaXovvTa>v ixel top Bpoihov, ovk €<f>7) rovro 
Trdrpiov elvai 'Ptjfuiioi^, aXX* iiceivov^ irpos top 
apxotna XPV^^^ fiaSi^opra^ ainov^ irapanelaOai 
rifp iwl T0i9 ^futprrffiepot^ 6pyi]P, i\0ovai Se 
teaX SeofiipOK avyypcofifjp eSaxe. 

XXVII. MeXXoPTt S* avT^ Sia/3aip€ip eh rrjp 
^Aaiap fjxev ayyeXia nrepl rrj^ ev ^Pa>p>rj fiera- 
fioXfj^. 6 ykp veo^ KaZaap rjv^i]0rj fiev irrro t^9 
l3ov\fj^ iif *Apr(opcop, ex^aXcbp Si t^ 'IrdKia^ 
iteeiPOP avTO^ rjBrj <f>ofiepb^ fjP, irrraTeiap re fipd}- 
fiepo^ Trapct p6/jlop, koI arpaTevfUiTa rpeifxap 

2 fjueydXa, t% 7roX€Ce)9 ovBip Beofievrf^. 6p(op Bi koI 
ravra ttjp fiovXtfp ^apvpofieprjp xal irpo^ top 
3povrop a(f>op&aap e^oo xal yjrri<f>i^ofi€Prjp ixeiv(p 
xal ^efiaiovaap ra^ eirap'xf'CL^i eSeiae. xal top 
flip *ApT(opiop TrifiTTtop eh <l)iXiap irpovxaXeiTOt 
tA? Bi Bvpdfiei^ ry iroXei irepiarija'a^ virareiap 
eXa/Sep, oinrto irapv fieipaxiov &p, dW' elxoarop 
ay (OP iro^t tt)9 aino^ ep roh VTrofipij/maaip etprjxep. 

3 €v0if^ Bi Blxa^ d^opov xarh rS>p vepl top TApovrop 
elaijyep, ci? apopa irp&rop ep dp'x^ah rah fieyi- 
arai^ dprjprixorwp axpiTOP* xal xarijyopop eiri- 
(TTfjo'e Upovrov fikp Aevxiop Hoppi^ixiop, Kacr- 
aiov Bi Map /COP ^ Ay pLirirap. ci)<f)Xiaxapop oip 
rd^ Bixa^ epjjfia^ dpayfca^ofi€pa)P (bipeip ^lrrj<f>op 

4 r&p Bixaar&p, Xeyerat Bi tov xrjpvxo^, &<nr€p 

184 



BRUTUS 

told^ Cicero and many others besides wrote to him 
from Rome and urged him to put the man to death. 
However^ when Caius began to hold secret commu- 
nications with the officers of Brutus^ and incited a 
revolt^ Brutus put him on board a ship and kept him 
under guard. And when the soldiers who had been 
corrupted by Caius withdrew to Apollonia and in- 
vited Brutus to come to them there^ he told them 
this was not a Roman custom^ but that they must 
come themselves to their commander and seek to 
avert his wrath at their transgressions. And when 
they came and asked his pardon^ he granted it. 

XXVII. But as he was about to cross into Asia^ 
tidings came to him of the change that had taken 
place at Rome. For Octavius Caesar had been 
strengthened by the senate against Antony^ and 
after ejecting his rival from Italy, was himself now 
an object of fear, soliciting the consulship illegally, 
and maintaining large armies, of which the city had 
no need. But when he saw that even the senate 
was displeased at this and turned their eyes abroad 
to Brutus, confirming him in command of his pro- 
vinces by their vote, he became afraid. So he sent 
and invited Antony to become his friend, and then, 
stationing his forces about the city, secured the con- 
sulship, although he was still a mere youth, being in 
his twentieth year, as he himself has stated in his 
Commentaries, Straightway, then, he brought in- 
dictments for murder against Brutus and his associ- 
ates, accusing them of having slain the first magistrate 
of the city without a trial. He appointed Lucius 
Cornificius to be prosecutor of Brutus, and Marcus 
Agrippa of Cassius. Accordingly, their cases went 
by default, the jurors voting under compulsion. And 

i«5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eioadev, airo rov firjfiaTo^ top B/ooOtoi/ im rrfp 
SiKfjv KaXovvTO^, TO fi€V 'ttXtjOo^ iiriBijXoiyf; arevd- 
^ai, T0V9 S' ap[<TTOv<; /cwjravra^ eh yrjv tjavxiav 
ayeiv, TLottKiov Si XcXlkcov 6<f)dr]vai SaKpvaavra, 
• KaX hta rfjv airiav rainriv oXiyov varepov eva 
6 T&v 7rpoypa(f>ivT(ov iirl Oavdro) yeveaOai, fiera 
ravra BiaXXayevre^ oi rpw, Kalaap, ^Avrcovio^, 
AerriBo^;, BieveifiavTO rct^ iirap-xlcL^ <T(j)ayd<; re 
Kal 7rpoypa<f>a^ dvBp<ov BtaKoaiwv iiroLrja-av, iv 
oh Kal Ki/cepcov diridave, 

XXVIII. TovTcov ovv eh MaKcBoviav airay- 
yeXOivTWV eK/SiaaOeh 6 BpoOro? eypayjrev 'OpTrf- 
acq) /creivai Tdiov ^Avrcoviov, cw? Srj Idpovrq) re 
Kal KiKepojvi Tifio)pa)p, t^ fiev ovri <f>LXa>, t& Se 
Kal KarcL yevo^ TrpoaiJKOVTi, Sta ravO^ vcrrepov 
^AvTcovio^ 'OpjrjaLOV iv ^iXiinrotf; Xa^wv r(p 

2 /j,vi]fJbaTt rov dB€X<f)ov 'JTpoaea-<f>a^e» l&povro^ 8e 
T^9 KtAcepwi^o? reXevTT]^ ttj atria <prjalv alcrxv- 
vecrdai fidXXov fj r^ irddei avvaXyelv, iyKaXelv 
he roh itrl 'IPd/Jurj^ (f>i\oi<;' SovXevecv yap avrayv 
air La fiaXXov fj roov rvpavvovvrwv, Kal Kaprepelv 
opcovra^ Kal Trap6pra<: a firfS* aKoveiv avroi^ 
aveKrov fjv, 

Ilepav(oaa<: Si rov arparov eh ^Aaiav ijSi] 
Xafirrpov ovra, vavriKov fiev i^prvero aroXov iv 
^idwLa KoX rrepl Kv^ikov, 'ire^fj 8' avro^ iiriobv 
KaOiararo ra<; iroXuf; Kal roh Svvdcrrai^ ^XPV' 

3 fidrt^e, Kal tt/do? ^daaiov eire/nrev eh Xvpiav dir 
Alyvirrov /McraKaX&v ov yap dp^r^v Krcofxevov^; qqj 

i86 



BRUTUS 

it is said that when the herald on the rostra pro- 
nounced the customary summons for Brutus to appear^ 
the multitude groaned audibly^ while the better 
classes bowed their heads in silence; and that Publius 
Silicius was seen to burst into tears, and was for this 
reason- soon afterwards put on the list of the pro- 
scribed. After this, the three men, Octavius, Antony, 
and Lepidus, were reconciled with one another, 
distributed the provinces among themselves, and 
sentenced to death by proscription two hundred 
men. Among those put to death was Cicero. 

XXVIII. Accordingly, when tidings of these 
events were brought to Macedonia, Brutus felt 
compelled to write to Hortensius commanding him 
to kill Caius Antonlus, on the plea that he was thus 
avenging Cicero and Brutus Albinus, one of whom 
was his friend, and the other his kinsman. For this 
reason, at a later time, when Antony had captured 
Hortensius at the battle of Philippi, he slew him on 
the tomb of his brother. Brutus, however, says that 
he felt more shame at the cause of Cicero's death 
than grief at the event itself, and threw the blame 
upon his friends at Rome. He said their servitude 
was due to themselves rather than to their tyrants, 
and that they consented to be eyewitnesses of things 
of which they ought not even to hear. 

He now crossed into Asia with his army,' which 
was already a splendid one, and equipped a fleet in 
Bithynia and at Cyzicus, while he himself, proceeding 
by land, settled the affairs of the cities and gave 
audiences to the potentates of the country. He 
also sent to Cassius in Syria, recalling him from his 
expedition to Egypt; for it was not to win empire 

^ About the middle of 43 B.o. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov<:, a\\* IkevOepovvra^ Ttfv iraTplSa rifv Suva- 
fjLiVj ^ KaraKva-ovac roif^ rvpdvuov^, avvarfovTa^ 
7r\avd(r0ar Seiv oJfv fjLefjLvqfievov^ fcal (f>v\dTTOv- 
ra^ TTjv vTToffeaiv /jltj fiaKphv airqprria'daL t% 
'IraX/av, aX>C iKeure cnrevhuv koL /Sorjffeiv toc^ 

4 "ViraKovaamo^ Sk rov Kaaaiov koX Kara/SaL- 
vovro^ aTTrjVTa* koX ire pi Xfivpvav a\\i]\oi<: 
ipCTvyxo^t^ov ofp^ ov irptorov iv Tleipaiel %ft)/)t- 
aOevre^ ApfiTjaav 6 fikv et? %vpiav, 6 Se eh Maxe- 
Boviav. ^v oiv rjhovri re fieydXrj fcal Odpao^ 
avToc^ CK T^9 irapovcrr)^ eKariptp SvvdfJb€(o^. 

5 opfir^aavTe^ yap ix t^9 ^IraXia^ ofioia ^vydhtov 
TOA? aT«/LtOTaTOA9 dyprfp/iTOi fcal avoTrXoi, firj vavv 
ivTjpr), fir) a-TpaTicoTrjv eva, fir) iroXiv e^^ovre^, ov 
TToKKov irdvv 'xpovov SiayevofjLevov avvrfKBov el^ 
ravTO KoX vava\ KaX TreK) koX iinroi^ koI XPV' 
jxaaiv d^i6fia')(pL BcayayvKraadai irepl t^9 'P(w- 
fiaicov rjyefjLOVLa^ ovre^, 

XXIX. 'E^SouXero p^kv ovv taov eyeiv TLp.rj<; 
/cat irapi'xeiv 6 Kdaaio^, €(l>0av€ S* o BpoOro? 
c!)9 Tct iroXXa <\>oi,t&v tt/oo? avrbv rfKiKha re irpov- 
')(pvra KaX awp^ari irovelv op^ieo^ p,rf hvvapAv(p 
')(p(op,evov. Tjv he Bo^a Kdaaiov p,€v etvai Becpov 
iv T0t9 woKep^iKoi^;, opyy Bk rpaxvv fcal <f>6^(p 
/jmXXop dp'xppra, irpo^ Be tou9 avprfietf; uyporepov 
2 T^ yeXoifp koX ^CKoaKdoiTT-qp' ^povrop Be \eyovci 
Bi dperrjp <f>tXeiaOai p.ep viro t&p ttoWcop, 
epacrOat S vtto t&p ^i\(i>p, 0avp.d^eadai 8' vtto 
TCJP dpiarayp, p^iaelaOat Be firjB vtto t&p TroXe- 
fiiayp, OTi irpao^ o dvifp Bta<f>ep6pT(o^ koX p/eya- 



1 88 



BRUTUS 

for themselves^ he said, but to give liberty to their 
country, that they were wandering about and col- 
lecting forces with which to overthrow the tyrants ; 
they must therefore keep their purpose carefully in 
mind and not get far removed from Italy, but rather 
hasten thither and give aid to their countrymen. 

Cassius obeyed, and as he was returning, Brutus 
went to meet him. Their interview at Smjnma was 
the first they had had since they parted at Piraeus 
and set out, the one for S3rria, the other for Mace- 
donia. They therefore derived great pleasure and 
courage from the forces which each now had. For 
they had set out from Italy like the most wretched 
of exiles, without money, without arms, having not 
a ship equipped with oars, not a single soldier, not a 
city ; but before very long they had met, having a 
fleet, an army of foot and horse, and money, which 
made them worthy antagonists in the struggle for 
supremacy at Rome. 

XXIX. Now, Cassius was desirous that Brutus and 
he should have equal honour, but Brutus forestalled 
this by coming to him generally, since he was an 
older man and unable to endure the same amount of 
hardship. Cassius had the reputation of being an 
able soldier, but harsh in his anger, and with an 
authority based largely on fear, although with his 
familiars he was rather prone to laughter and fond 
of banter. But the virtues of Brutus, as we are told, 
made him beloved by the multitude, adored by his 
friends, admired by the nobility, and not hated even 
by his enemies. For he was remarkably gentle and 

189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\6^pQ}V Kol 7r/0O9 iraaav 6pyr)v koI rjSovffV Kol 
irkeove^iav airaOrj^, opdiov Se rrfv yvoofirjv koI 
dfcafiTTTov eaTcoaav virep rov koXov koI Sixaiov 

3 Sia^vAArTdov, fcal fxeyiaTOV VTrrjp'xev aitr^ irpo<: 
evvoiav xal Bo^av 17 t^9 irpoaipiaeco^ ttlo'ti^, 
ovT€ yctp iKelvo^ 6 fiiya^ TIo/iTTT/io?, el J^aia-apa 
KaOeiXev, ^XTrtJero ^e^aio)^ irporjaeaOat T0Z9 
vofioi^i Trfv Svva/Jiiv, a\V del ra irpdypxtra Kade- 
^eiv, virareLa^ ovofuiTC xal hiKraropia^ fj tlvo^ 
oKKt)^ fiaXaKiorepa^ dp')(rj^ irapafivdovfievo^ rov 

4 SrjfjLov Kdaaiov Se tovtov, a<l>oSpbv avSpa /cal 
dvfioeihrj /cal iroXKa'Xpv irpo^ to KephaXeov e/c- 
(f>€p6fjL€vov Tov Sifcaiov, 7rai/T09 fmXXov ^ovto 
iroXefieiv koI irXavaadai koX kivSvp€V€IV avr^ 
Tiva ivvaareiav KaraaKeva^ofievov, ovk iXev- 
Oepiav rot? irdkiratf;. rd fikv yap en rovrcov 
Trpea/SvTepa, TLivvai Kal Mdpioc xal Kdp^cope^, 
ddXov iv fieao) /cal T^iav irpoOifievot rr)v irarpiBa, 
/uLovopovxl pr]T&<; virep rvpavviho^ €7ro\€/Jbrj<rav. 

5 Bpovrep Sk Xeyovai firfSe roi/f; ix^pov^ irpocr^dX- 
\eiv T0iavT7}v fieTa^oX'qv, aW' ^Avtcovlov ye 
Kal iroWovf; d/covaai XeyovTo<; w? /jlopop oXolto 
^povTOP iindeaOai Kaiaapt 7rpoa)(0€PTa tjj Xa/jL- 
irpoTqTi /cal t^ (ftaiPopApai KaX^ t?)? irpd^eo)^, 
T0U9 S* aXXovf; iirl top dpBpa avaTrjpai ficaovpTa^ 

6 Kal ff>6opovPTa^. odep l^povTo^ ov tjj Svpdfjuet 
ToaovTOP oaov t§ dpcT^ 8^X09 co-tip i^ wp ypdt^et 
Treirovdw, ypd<f)€i Sh irpo^ ^Attikop fihrj tcS 
KipBvptp TrXrjo-id^ap ip t^ KaXXLa^(p t^9 tv^V^ 

190 



BRUTUS 

large-minded^ free from all anger^ pleasurable iDdul- 
genee, and greed, and kept his purpose erect and 
unbending in defence of what was honourable and 
just. And the strongest reason for the favour and 
fame which he achieved was the confidence felt in 
his principles. For no one had expected that Pompey 
the Great, if he overthrew Caesar, would insist on 
dismissing his forces in obedience to the laws, but 
all thought that he would continue to retain his power, 
appeasing the people by using the name of consul- 
ship or dictatorship or some other less obnoxious 
form of government. And now it was thought that 
Cassius, vehement and passionate man that he was, 
and often swept from the path of justice by his 
passion for gain, was incurring the perils of wars 
and wanderings principally to establish some great 
power for himself, and not liberty for his country- 
men. For the men of a still earlier time than Pompey 
and Cassius, men like Cinna and Marius and Car bo, 
made their country the booty or prize round which 
they fought, and they all but confessed that they 
waged war to establish a tyranny. But Brutus, we 
are told, was not accused even by his enemies of 
such a departure from his principles; nay, Antony 
at least, in the hearing of many, declared that in 
his opinion Brutus was the only conspirator against 
Caesar who was impelled by the splendour and by what 
seemed to him the nobility of the enterprise, whereas 
the rest banded together against the man because they 
envied and hated him. Wherefore Brutus relied not 
so much on his armies as on his virtuous cause, as is 
clear from his letters. When he was already nearing 
the perilous crisis, he wrote to Atticus that his cause 
had the fairest outlook that fortune could bestow, 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elvac rh Ka6^ avrov fj yap viKrjaa*; eKevdeptoa-eiv 
TOP 'PoDfiaicov Sijfiov rj SovXeia^ diroOavoiv diraX- 
\ayi]a€adai' Koi tcov oXXodp aa<f>a\&^ avroi^ 
Kul 0€fiaL(a<: ixovTcov ev aSrjXov elvai, iroTepov 
7 ^taxrovTai fier iXevdepla^ fj TeOvrj^ovrai, Map- 
Kov 8' ^KvT(oviov d^iav <l>r)al t^? avoia^ BiSovai 
SiK7)v, h^ iv ^povTOi^ Koi K.a<T<rioi^ teal KaTcocrt 
(Tvvapidfieladai Bvvdfievo^ Trpoa-OiJKrjv iavTOv 
*OKTa^i^ SiS(OfC€' KCLV firj vvv riTTrjOfj fier eKeivov, 
/jLiKpov varepov €K€iv<p fia'^elTai. ravra fikv oZv 
aTToOeairiaai KaX&<i irpo^ to fiiXXov eoixev, 

XXX. 'Ei/ Sk T§ 'S,fivpv7f TOTS T&v 'x^prf^aTcjv, 99g 
h TToXXA <TW€iX6x€i' Ka(7<7409, ri^Lov fieraXafielv 
tA ykp ovra KaravriXfOKevai vavTrrjyovfjLcvo^ aro- 
Xov ToaovTov (p iraaav v<f> iavrot^ f^ovai rrjv 
evTO^ 0dXacr<Tav, ovk etwv fiep ovv top Kdaaiov 
ol <l>iXoi BiSovai, 7UyovT€<; a>9 ov SuKaiov, a au 
<f}€iS6fJL€V0^ Bia(f>vXdTT€i^ xal (fiOovtp avvdr/€i<;, 
eKeivov Xa^ovra Srjfiaya>y€cv xal 'xapi^^crOat T0t9 
aTpaTUorai^' ov firjv aXV eSayxev avrtp rpirov 

2 fiipo^ dirdvTCDV. KaX TrdXiv hiaardvre^ iirl tA? 
TTpoarjKovaa^ eKaripcp irpd^ei^, J^daato^ fiev eXcov 
'PoBov OVK iineiKw^ i'XprjTo toa9 irpdypuat, KaX 
ravra irepX rtfv elaohov rol^ Trpoaa/yopevovaiv 
avrov iSacrtXea KaX Kvpiov diroKptvdfievo^' " Oi;t6 
^aaiXev^; ovre Kvpco^, rov Bk Kvpiov KaX ^aacXeay^; 
(fioveif^ KaX KoXaarrj^^ B/>oi)T09 Be Avklov^ rjrei, 

3 j(pi^fiara KaX arparov. iireX Bi ^avKpdrrj(; 6 
BripM^o>yo^ dveiruae ra? 7ro\€^9 d<f>LaTaa0ai KaX 

192 



BRUTUS 

for he would either conquer and give liberty to the 
Roman people, or die and be freed from slavery; 
and that amid the general security and safety of 
their lot one thing only was uncertain, namely, 
whether they were to live as freemen or die. He 
says also that Mark Antony was paying a fitting 
penalty for his folly, since, when it was in his power 
to be numbered with such men as Brutus and Cassius 
and Cato, he had given himself to Octavius as a 
mere appendage ; and that if he should not now 
be defeated with him, in a little while he would be 
fighting him. Herein, then, he seems to have been 
an excellent prophet. 

XXX. At the time when they were in Smjrma, 
Brutus asked Cassius to give him a part of the large 
treasure which he had collected, since he had ex- 
pended what he had himself in building a fleet large 
enough to give them control of all the Mediter- 
ranean. The friends of Cassius, then, tried to dis- 
suade him from giving anything to Brutus, arguing 
that it was not right that what he was keeping by 
his frugality and getting together at the price of 
men's hatred should be taken by Brutus for the 
winning of popular favour and the gratification of 
his soldiers. However, Cassius gave him a third of 
the whole amount. Then they parted again for their 
respective undertakings. Cassius took Rhodes, but 
managed matters there with undue rigour, and that too 
though he had replied to those who hailed him, when 
he entered the city, as their lord and king, " Neither 
lord nor king, but chastiser and slayer of your lord 
and king." Brutus, on his part, demanded money 
and soldiers from the Lycians. But Naucrates, the 
popular leader, persuaded the cities to revolt, and 

193 

VOL. VI. O 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\6<f>0VS T*m9 ft)9 €?/)f0VT€9 irapoSoV TOV 3p0VT0P 

fcareXd^opTO, Trp&rov fikv apicrroTTOiovfiivoi^; av- 
T0i9 iTreTre/JAlrev tTTTret?, i<^' &v k^aKoaiot Bc€(f>0d- 
prjaav, iireira tcl xtopia koX iroKlxva^; Xafi^avcov 
airekvev avev Xvrpdnv airavra^ co? wpoaa^ofievo^ 

4 evvoia ro Wvo^, oi 8' rfaav avOdhei^, a fiev 
i/SXaiTTOVTO 7rpo9 opyrfv Tiffifxepoi, rrj<; S* imei- 
Ksia^ KaX <f>iXavd ptoiria^ Karaf^povovvre^, ^XP^ 
ov aweXdaa^i el^ Bdv0ov avT&v tov? fia^x^c/jLcord' 
TOV($ iiroXi6pK€L, TOV Be TroTUfiov irapct Trjv iroXtv 
7rapapp60VT0<; v'jT0V7j')(pix€V0i hiehihpaa-KOv* ffXi- 
(TKOVTO Se BiKTvoyv Sia iropov Kadie/uievoDV eh 
fivOov, &v TCt axpa fccoSaxri irpoar^pTqp.evoi^ hie- 

6 arjfjLaivev evOiff; rbv ivaX'^Bevra, firj^avaif; Si tktl 
T&v 'BtavOioav vvfCT(op iiriSpafiovTcov fcal irvp 
ifi/SaXoVTiov, o)^ aTrcKXeio'd'qa'av aiadopAvtov tcop 
'FayfiaUov 7r/)09 to t€ixo^ fcal irpevfia XapLirpop 
apeppLTTi^ep iirl tA? cTrdX^ev^ Tr)P <l>X6ya t&p 
iyyv<; oIkicop aPTiXafjL/3apofiepr)p, Setera? o Byoouro? 
virkp tt}? TToXcft)? cKeXevae Karaa^eppvpaL KaX 
fiorjOelp. 

XXXI. Tot*? Sk AvKLOV^ SetPTj ti<; i^ai<f)pri^ 
irpo<i diropoiap opfirj xal Xoyov Kpeiaa-tov Kare- 
a")(€P, 9jp ap Tt9 epcdTi dapdrov fidXiara frpoaec- 
xdaeiep' ol ye fiera iraihoup Koi yvpaiK&p iXev- 
depoi T€ fcal BovXoi koI iraaa rfXtKia tou? fikp 
TToXefuov^ 7rpb<: Tr)P <\>X6ya ^orjdovvTa^ diro t&p 
reix^^ efioXXov, avTol Se xdXafiop koI ^vXa /cal 
nrdv xmiKKavfia 7rpo(r<f>ipovr€^ f/yop i7r\ rifp iroXiv 

194 



BRUTUS 

the inhabitants occupied certain commanding hills in 
order to prevent the passage of Brutus. Brutus^ 
therefore, in the first place, sent horsemen against 
them while they were at breakfast, and these slew 
six hundred of them ; next, he took their strong- 
holds and villages, but dismissed all his captives 
without ransom, in order that he might win the 
people over by kindness. They were obstinate, 
however, feeding their anger upon their injuries, 
and despising his clemency and kindness, until he 
drove the most warlike of them into Xanthus and 
laid siege to the city. They tried to escape by 
swimming under the surface of the river which 
flowed past the city. But they were caught in nets 
which were let down deep across the channel ; the 
tops of these had bells attached to them which in- 
dicated at once when any one was entangled. Then 
the Xanthians made a sally by night and set fire to 
some of the siege- engines, but they were perceived 
by the Romans and driven back to their walls ; and 
when a brisk wind fanned the flames back towards 
the battlements and some of the adjoining houses 
took fire, Brutus, fearing for the safety of the city, 
ordered his men to assist in putting out the fire. 

XXXI. But the Lycians were suddenly possessed 
by a dreadful and indescribable impulse to madness, 
which can be likened best to a passion for death. At 
any rate, all ages of them, freemen and slaves with 
their wives and children, shot missiles from the walls 
at the enemy who were helping them to combat the 
flames, and with their own hands brought up reeds 
and wood and all manner of combustibles, and so 
spread the fire over the city, feeding it with 



193 
o 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO TTvp, 6peyovT€'i avT(p irdaav vXtjv xal irdvra 

2 rpoTTov i^epedi^ovTC^ Kal (Tvv£KTpe^ovr€^, co? S' 
fi <f>Xo^ pvelaa xal Sia^axraaa iravra^offev ttjv 
TToXip SUXa/jLyfre iroW'^, irepnraBSiv iirX toa9 
yivofjiivoi^ 6 B/ooCto? e^coOev irapiiTiTeve irpoOv- 

fJLOVfieVO^ fio7)0€lv, Kol Ttt? X€?/)a9 OpiyODV T0t9 

Sav0ioi<; iSecTO {fyeLBeo'dai /cal aco^eiv rr}v iroktv, 
ovhevo^ avTtp irpoaexpvro^t aXKii irdvra rpifrrov 

3 €avTOv<i aTToWvpTcov, ov fiopop dvBp&p re Kal 
yvvaifcc^v, dWa /cal rd iraihia rd fu/epd fierd 
Kpavyr]^ koI dXaXayfiov rd fiep eh ro irvp 
rjWero, rd S* avoaOep diro r&v rei'X&v i^crpa- 
'^7]\l^€p avrd, rd Se rot? ^t0eo*t r&p irariptop 
vir€0aWe ra? (Tif>ayd^ yvfivoupra Kal KeXevopra 
iraleiv. &<f>d'q he rrj^ ttoXco)? Sia<t>0ap€L(n]^ yvpif 
Kpefia/JiivT) fiep i^ dy^opr)^, iraihiop Bi pcKpop 
i^rjprrjfjiiprf rov rpaxv^o^* Xa/juirdSi Sk KaiopApij 

4 rrjv oiKLav v(f)d7rrov<ra. koI rov Oed/uirof: rpayt- 
Kov <f)apepro^ iSelv fiep ovy^ virefieipev o B/ooSto?, 
iSuKpvae Be aKovaa^* Kal yepa^ eKijpv^e r&p 
arparioDr&v oari^ dp BvpTjOfj Avkiop dpBpa vepi- 
aa>aai, <f>aal Be /jlopov^ eKarop TreprijKOPra yepe- 

5 adai T0V9 fir) Bia^vyopra^: ro (ra>0TJpa^. Sdvdioi 

fiep otfp Bid iroXK&p ypopeop &a7rep elfiapfieprfv 999 
irepioBop Bia<f)dopd^ airoBiBopre^ rtjp r&p rrpo- 
yovoDP dpepedxrapro rfj rokfirj rv)(rfP' Kal ydp 
€Kelpoi rr)v iroKip ofioiay^ eirl r&p TlepaiKAv 
KaraKavaapr€<; eavroxf<i Bce^Oeipap. 

XXXII. "Bpovro^ Be rtfp Ilarapeayp ttoXip op&v 
d'm(rxvpi^ofi€PT)p 7r/?09 avrop, &kp€i fiep einx'^ipelp 
KoL BirjTTOpelro, rffp avrrfp BeBm^ diropoiap, eytov 

196 



BRUTUS 

all sorts of material and increasing its strength 
and fury in every way. When the flames had 
darted forth and encircled the city on all sides^ 
and blazed out mightily^ Brutus^ distressed at what 
was going on^ rode round outside the city in his 
eagerness to help^ and with outstretched hands 
begged the Xanthians to spare and save their city. 
No one heeded him, however, but all sought in every 
way to destroy themselves, men and women alike ; 
nay, even the little children with shouts and 
shrieks either leaped into the fire, or threw them- 
selves headlonir from the walls, or cast themselves 
beneath their fathers' swords, baring their throats 
and begging to be smitten. After the city had been 
thus destroyed, a woman was seen dangling in a 
noose; she had a dead child fastened to her neck, 
and with a blazing torch was trying to set fire to her 
dwelling. So tragic was the spectacle that Brutus 
could not bear to see it, and burst into tears on 
hearing of it; he also proclaimed a prize for any 
soldier who should succeed in saving the life of a 
Lycian. But there were only a hundred and fifty, 
we are told, who did not escape such preservation. 
So then the Xanthians, after long lapse of time, as 
though fulfilling a period set by fate for their de- 
struction, had the boldness to renew the calamity 
of their ancestors ; for these too, in the time of the 
Persian wars, had likewise burned down their city 
and destroyed themselves.^ 

XXXII. When Brutus saw that the city of Patara 
was holding out strongly against him, he hesitated 
to attack it, and was in perplexity, fearing that it 
would be afflicted with the same madness; but as 

» Cf. Herodotus, i. 176. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be yvvalKa<i avr&v alxM'CiXf^TOvq d(l>rJKev avev 
Xvrpcov, ai 8' dvBp&v re xal irareptov iinf^av&v 
oicai Snjyovfiepac top B/oovto!^, o)? dvrjp elrj 
(rco(f>pov€<TTaTo<; fcal BiKatoTarof;, eireiaav et^ai 
2 fcal irapahovvai, rijv ttoKlv, €k Be tovtov koL 
Trdvre^ ol XolttoI irpoaeX'^PV^^^ iirLrpey^avTe^ 
eavTov^; eKeivto, tvxopt€<; Be 'x^p'qarov KaX irap 
ekirlBa^ evyvdypLOvo^, 09 76, Kaaaiov 'PoStof? virb 
TOP avTov XP^^^^ dvayKaaavTo^ IBia piev ov 
iK€KT7]VTo ^P^^^v KaX dpyvpov elaeveyKelv airav- 
Ta? (ef ov avv^x^Tj wepl oKTaKicrxp^td rdXavra), 
Br}fioaLa Be t^i^ ttoXiv aWoi<; irevraKoaioi^ ^rffiid)- 
<raPTO<;, avTo^ eKarov koX irevTrjKOVTa rdkavra 
AvKLov^ Trpa^dpevo^, aWo Be ovBev dBiK^ara^, 
ave^ev^ev eir iayvta^, 

XXXIII. IloXXa p^ev ovv a^ia p,vi]p>r)<; epya koI 
TLpLOL^ direBei^aro koX /coXdaeai rwv d^lcov w S' 
avT6<; T€ rjaOf} p^dXiara koI 'Pwp^icov 01 Kpd- 
TKTTOi, TOVTO BiTjyrjaopai, Hop^Trrjtov Mdyvov 
irpoa^aKovTOf; Alyvirr^ Kara tlr/Xovaiov, ottt)- 
VLKa T7JI/ p^yd\r)v dp^V^ diro^aXiov vtto Kaiaapo^ 
€<f>uyep, 01 Tov fiaa-tXeo)^ en iraiBo^ ovro^ eirLTpo- 
Trevovre^ ev fiovXrj p^erd rayv (f>L\(i)v r^aav, ov Kara 

2 ravrd ral^ yvwpbai^ 4>ep6pLevoi, toi? /iei/ ydp 
eBofcei Be)(€(r6ai, toa9 S* direoOetP AlyvTrrov rov 
avBpa, SeoBoTo^; Be ri^ XZo?, iirl pnaO^ ptfropi- 
K&v \6ya)v BiBd(Tfca\o<: r^ ffaaiXel avvdv, rj^tto- 
pAvo^ Be Tore tov avveBpiov Bi ipyp^iav dvBp&v 
fieXrioveov, dpxf>oT€pov^ BiapLaprdvoma^ drri- 
^aive, Kol Tov^ dvdXa/Seiv fcal tov<: d^lvat 

3 KeXevovTa^ rov lIop,7n]iov* ev ydp elvcu trvp^epov 



198 



BRUTUS 

he held some of its women prisoners of war^ he 
released them without ransom. They were the *wives 
and daughters of prominent men^ and by rehearsing 
the praises of Brutus^ calling him a man of the 
greatest moderation and justice^ they persuaded them 
to yield and surrender their city. Consequently all 
the rest of the Lycians came and entrusted them- 
selves to him^ and found that his goodness and kind- 
ness exceeded their hopes. For whereas Cassius^ 
about the same time^ compelled the Rhodians indi- 
vidually to pay in to him all the gold and silver they 
possessed (thus accumulating about eight hundred 
talents)^ and fined the city as a whole five hundred 
talents more, Brutus exacted only a hundred and 
fifty talents from the Lycians, and, without doing 
them any other injury, set out with his army for 
Ionia. 

XXXIII. Many were his memorable achievements 
in meting out rewards or punishments to those who 
deserved them, but I shall here describe only that 
in which both he himself and the chief men of Rome 
took especial pleasure. When Pompey the Great, 
after he had been stripped of his great power by 
Caesar, put in as a fugitive at Pelusium in £g3rpt, 
the guardians of the boy king were holding a council 
with their friends, at which opinions differed. Some 
thought they should receive Pompey, others that 
they should repulse him from Egypt. But a certain 
Theodotus, of Chios, who was attached to the king 
as a paid teacher of rhetoric, and was at this time 
deemed worthy of a place in the council for lack of 
better men, declared that both were wrong, both 
those who would admit and those who would reject 
Pompey ; for there was but one advantageous course 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ifc T&v irapovrayv, Se^afiivov^ airoKreivai. koI 
irpoareTreiire rdv \6yov 7rav6fi€vo<;, on v€Kpo<; ov 
hoLKvei, Trpoadefjbivou Be ry yv(!>p>r) tov avveSpiov 
TrapdBeiyfia t&v dTriarayv xal dTrpoaBoKTjTayv 
€K€iTO Ilofi7n]lo<; Mdyvof;, t^9 QcoSotov prjropeia^ 
/cal SeivorrfTO^s epyov, 0)9 avro^ 6 aoffyiarrj^ eXeye 

4 fieyaXav^ovfievo^, oXiyo) S' varepov iireXdovTO^ 
Kaiarapo^, oi fiev hiKa^ tivvvovtc^ dirdiKkuvTo 
Kaxol KaK&^y 6€oSoT09 he irapd t^9 tvj(7j<; ')(p6vov 
€49 aho^ov KaX airopov xal irXdvqra fiiov itri- 
Sav€i<Tdfievo<; t6t€ ^povrov iiriovra rfjv ^Aaiav 
ovK €\a0€v, aXX' dva)(0€l^ koI Ko\aa0€l<; ovofia 
TOV davaTOv irXAov eax^v fj tov ^[ov» 

XXXIV. K,daracov 8^ IBpovTo^ eh ^dpSei^ 
exdXei, xal irpoaiovTV jxeTa t&v ^i\(ov dirijvTrja'e' 
KaX ird^ 6 (TTpaTO^ oi>ir\t<T[ievo^ avTOKpdTopa^ 
dji(f>oT€pov^ irpoarjyopevaev. ola 8 ev nrpdypbaai 
/leydXoi^ koI (f)lXoi^ ttoWoI^ teal rjyep,6aLV aiTi&v 
avTOL^ 9r/)09 dW'qXovf; eyy evofievcov kuI SiafioX&v, 
irplv erepov tl iroieLv, evdv<; ex iropeia^ KaS* av- 
Toif^ ev oLKTip^aTL yevofievoL /ceKXeta-fievayv t&v 
Ovp&v KoX fiTjBevo^ rrapovTO^, e^P&VTo fiifiylreaL 

2 irp&Tov, eiT iXiyxoi^ xal KaTr}y opiate, eic Be 
TOVTOV irpo^ Bdxpva seal Trapprjatav fieTd irddov^ 
iK<l>€pop>€va>v, 6avfjbd^ovTe<; oi <f)iXoi ttjv Tpa'xy- 
Ti/ra T7}9 opyrj^ teal tov tovov, eBetaav fii] tl ck 
TOVTOV y€vr)Tar. irpoaeXdelv Bi dTreiprjTo, MdpKo<; 
Be 4>aQ)i;to9> ipacTT)^ yeyovw^ KaTcovo^, ov Xoytp 

2PO 



BRUTUS 

in view of the circumstances, and that was to receive 
him and put him to death. And he added, as he 
closed his speech, ^'A dead man does not bite." 
The council adopted his opinion, and Pompey the 
Great lay dead, an example of the unexpected and 
incredible in human life, and it was the work of 
Theodotus and his clever rhetoric, as that sophist 
himself was wont to say with boasting.^ A little 
while afterwards, however, when Caesar came, the 
other wretches paid the penalty for their crime and 
perished wretchedly; as for Theodotus, after borrowing 
from Fortune enough time for a wandering, destitute, 
and inglorious life, he did not escape the notice of 
Brutus, who at this time traversed Asia, but was 
brought to him and punished, and won more fame 
for his death than for his life. 

XXXIV. Brutus now summoned Cassius to Sardis,' 
and as he drew near, went to meet him with his 
friends ; and the whole army, in full array, saluted 
them both as Imperators. But, as is wont to be the 
case in great undertakings where there are many 
friends and commanders, mutual charges and accusa- 
tions had passed between them, and therefore, imme- 
diately after their march and before they did anything 
else, they met in a room by themselves. The doors 
were locked, and, with no one by, they indulged in 
fault-finding first, then in rebukes and denunciations. 
After this, they were swept along into passionate 
speeches and tears, and their friends, amazed at the 
harshness and intensity of their anger, feared some 
untoward result ; they were, however, forbidden to 
approach. But Marcus Favonius, who had become a 
devotee of Cato, and was more impetuous and frenzied 

* Cf. Pompty, chapters Ixxvii.-lxxiC 

' Iq the early part of 42 b.g. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjMXkov ff (f)opa Tivi fcal irdOei fiavi/c& <f)i\o(ro<f>&v, 
i/3dBi^€V €t<ra> tt/oo? avToif^: /ccoXvofievo^ virb t&v 

3 oIk€t&v. aW' epyov f]v eTTiXa/SeaOai, ^acoviov 1000 
7r/oo9 OTiovv opovaavTov a^ohpo^ yap ^p iv Tract 

Koi irpoX'eipo^, iirel to 76 fiovXevTtjp eivai 
^PcofJLaieov iavTov ovSevo^; a^iov rjyelTO, r^ Be 
/cvviK^ T^9 'irapp'qaia<; TroWaKi^ d<f>7Jp€t ttjv 
XO'^'rroTrjTa, fcal to axaipov avrou fjuera 7raiBi.d<; 
heypfievoyv, jSia Btf rore r&v irapovraav hKoad- 
jievo^ rd^ dvpa^ elo'rjXde, jxerd irXdc jiaro^i (f>(ovrj<; 
CTTtf irepaiv(ov 0I9 rov ^earopa XP^I^€vov'^Ofir)po^ 
7r€7roLrj/c€V 

dWd irideaff** afi<j)co Se pecoTcpo) iarop ifielo, 

4 fcal rd e^?}?. e<^' 0I9 6 fiep Kacr<rto9 iyeXaaep, 6 
Se B/5oi)T09 i^€/3a\€P avrop dirXoKVpa koX '^evBo- 
Kvpa Trpoaayopevcop, ov fi7)p dXXd rore tovto 
Trj<; 7rpo<; dXX'^Xov^ hia<f>opd^ 7roii]adfi€POL Tre/oa? 
€vdv9 Bi€Xv0r)<Tap. fcal Kaaaiov Belirpop irape- 
XOPTO^ i/cdXet tou9 <l>iXov9 ByooOro?. rjBrj Sk 
KaraKeifiePtop ^a(i)pio<; ^fce XeXovfiipo^' /lap- 
TVpOfiepov Se IBpovTOV firj KeKXr^jiivop avTOP tjkccp 
KoX fceXevoPTO^ dirdyup eVl rrjp dpcDrdTO) teXipijp, 
pLa irapeXdoop eU rrjp /liarjp KaTetcXiffrj* koI 
TraiBidp 6 'rroTO^ ea^^p ovk d'xapip ovB^ d<f>iX6- 

ao^op. 

XXXV. T^ S' varepaia 'RpovTo<i dpBpa 'Pco- 
fialop iarpaTTjyrjKOTa fcal TT€inarevp.epop vir 

302 



BRUTUS 

than reasonable in his pursuit of philosophy^ tried to 
go in to them^ and was prevented by their servants. 
It was no easy matter, however^ to stop Favonius 
when he sprang to do anything, for he was always 
vehement and rash. The fact that he was a Roman 
senator was of no importance in his eyes, and by the 
'^cynical" boldness of his speech he often took away 
its offensiveness, and therefore men put up with his 
impertinence as a joke. And so at this time he 
forced his way through the bystanders and entered 
the room, reciting in an affected voice the verses 
wherein Homer ^ represents Nestor as saying : — 

" But do ye harken to me, for ye both are younger 
than I am," 

and so forth. At this Cassius burst out laughing; 
but Brutus drove Favonius out of the room, calling 
him a mere dog, and a counterfeit Cynic.^ However, 
at the time, this incident put an end to their quarrel, 
and they separated at once. Furthermore, Cassius 
gave a supper, to which Brutus invited his friends. 
And as the guests were already taking their places at 
the feast, Favonius came, fresh from his bath. Brutus 
protested that he had come without an invitation, 
and ordered the servants to conduct him to the 
uppermost couch ; but Favonius forced his way past 
them and reclined upon the central one. And over 
the wine mirth and jest abounded, seasoned with wit 
and philosophy. 

XXXV. But on the following day Lucius Pella, 
a Roman who had been praetor and had enjoyed 

1 niad, i. 269. 

2 A follower of Antisthenes was called a ** Cynic," or dog- 
like, probably from the coarse and brutal manners affected 
by the school. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov, AevKiov IleXXai^^ XapSuiv&v KarrfyopovV' 
rtov iirl K\o7rai<; Sfffwaia fcarayvoif^ fjrifitoa'e' xal 
TO Trpdyfia Kdaaiov ov fiCTpUo^ ikihrrjaev, airro^ 
yap 6\Lyai<; r)p,ipai^ €/j.7rpo<T0€v iirl Tot^ avTot^ 
iXeyx'^cvTa^ aSixjjfiaai Siio 6t\oi;9 ISla vovOeri]' 

2 (ra9 ^avep&^ a(f>7JK€ KaX Bc€T€\£1 ypdypsvo^. odev 
rJTiaro rov Bpovrov o)9 ayav ovra vofUfiov koX 
Sifcatov €v Kaip^ TTokLT€ia<; Scofiivtp fcal ^CKav- 
dptoiria^, he rS>v cISmv tS>v MapTicov eKekevev 
avTov fivrjfiop€V€iv eKeivayv, ev al? Kaiaapa 
€fCT€ivav, ovK avTov ay ovra Ka\ ^epovra Trdvra^ 
avdpdyirov^, aW' kreptov ivvafiiv ovra ravra 

3 TrpaatromcDv 0)9, eX tl<; eari irpw^aai^ Kokri 
fieO' ^9 dfieXelrai to Bi/caiov, afjLeivov fjv tov9 
Kaiaapo^ <j>i\ov^ vtropAveiv fj rov^ eavr&v irepio- 
pay ahtKOvvra^, "^FiKcivoi^ fikv yhp avavipia^, 
ahiKia^ Se So^a fiera /civBuvcov 7)pXv KaX irovwv 
irpoaeari.^ roiavrrj fi€v 17 rov IBpovrov irpoal- 
p€<n^ ^v, 

XXXVI. 'EttcI Se BialSaivetv i^ ^Aaia^ efiek- 
\ov, Xeyerai r^ 3povTq) fiiya aripuelov yeviaffai. 
<f>v<T€i fJLCv yap Tjv iireypi^yopo^ 6 avrjp xaX rov 
virvov eh oXuyov y^ovov fiopiov daxijo'ei xaX 
a-a)(f)poavvy avinjyev, '^fjL€pa<: fiep ovBeirore Kotfjuo- 
fievo^, vvKTtop he roaovrov oaov ovt€ ti irpdrreiv 
ovT€ r<p huLkeyeaffai, Trdvrcov dparravofiiwov, 
2 irapelx^* Tore h^ rov iroXefiov avveaT&ro^ iv 
X^polv e^oiv Ti9 ifirep r&v okwv irpd^ei^, /caX 
rerapAvo^ Trj if>povrihi irpo^ to fieWov, 67rf)VLKa 
Trp&TOV dif} eairipa^ iirivvo'Td^eie T0t9 citloi^, 
rjhtf TO Xoiirbv i^pv^o t^ vvktX irpo^ Tct KaTeirei- 
yovTa T&v irpayfiaTtov, el hi avveXoi /caX KaTOi- 

2Q4 



BRUTUS 

the confidence of Brutus^ being denounced by the 
Sardiahs as an embezzler of the public moneys^ was 
condemned by Brutus and disgraced ; and the matter 
vexed Cassius beyond measure. For a few days 
before, when two friends of his had been convicted 
of the same misdeeds, he had privately admonished 
them but publicly acquitted them, and continued to 
employ them. He therefore found fault with Brutus 
on the ground that he was too observant of law and 
justice at a time which demanded a policy of kind- 
ness. But Brutus bade him remember the Ides of 
March, on which they had slain Caesar, not because 
he was himself plundering everybody, but because 
he enabled others to do this ; since, if there is any 
good excuse for neglecting justice, it had been better 
for us to endure the friends of Caesar than to suffer 
our own to do wrong. "For in the one case," said 
he, " we should have had the reputation of cowardice 
merely ; but now, in addition to our toils and perils, 
we are deemed unjust." Such were the principles 
of Brutus. 

XXXVI. When they were about to cross over from 
Asia, Brutus is said to have had a great sign. He 
was naturally wakeful, and by practice and self- 
restraint had reduced his hours of sleep to few, 
never lying down by day, and by night only when 
he could transact no business nor converse with any 
one, since all had gone to rest. At this time, how- 
ever, when the war was begun and he had in His 
hands the conduct of a life and death struggle, and 
was anxiously forecasting the future, he would first 
doze a little in the evening ader eating, and then 
would spend the rest of the night on urgent business. 
But whenever he had fully met the demands of such 

.205 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

tcovofi'^cete rrjv irepl ravra ^eiav, apeyivooaKe 
^ipKiov /A€XPt T/)tTi79 ^i/Xa/t^9, fcaO^ fjv eldffeaap 
iKaTomapxoi /cat vtXtap^oi (f^oirav irpo^ axnov. 

3 ©9 oi'i' CfieXKev i^ Acta? Bia/Sifid^eiv to crTpd- 
revfia, vv^ fjbkv fjv /SaOvrdri], ^«9 5' elyev ov 
irdw Xap^irpov rj (tktjvi], irav Be to (XTpaToirehov 
aia)7rif xaTelx^v* 6 Be avWoyi^op^vo^ ti kuI 
aKOTT&p 9r/oo9 eavTOP eBo^ep alaffeaffai ripo^: elai- 
OPTO^, d7rofi\e'>^a^ Be irpo^ rrjp etaoBop opa 
Beipijp /cal dWoKOTOP oyp'CP eK<f)v\ov a^o/xaTO^ koI 

4 (jyoffepov, ckottt) TrapearoiiTo^ avT&, To\p.jjaa<i 
Bi epea-ffai, " Tt9 ttot' &p,** elirep, *' dpffpojirajp rj 
0e&p, rj ri /3ov\6p>epo<; ijxei^ 0)9 rffia^i*^ 'T'7ro(f>0iy' 
yerai S' avr^ to <^dapaL' "'O <709, w BpoOre, 
BalpLoap KaKov oyjrei Be ps irepl <I>£\t7r7roi;9." /cal 
6 3povTO^ ov BiaTapax0€i^, ""Oylrofiai" elirep, 

XXXVII. ^ A<f>apiadePTO<; B^ avTov tou9 iral^a^ 
CKdXer prjre S* d/covaai Tipa (fxopffp p,rjT IBeip 1001 
oylnp (paaKOPToop, tots p,ep €7n]ypv7rprj<T€P' apxi S' 
rip^pa rpaiTop^PO^ irpo^ Kdaaiop €(f>pa^e TYfp 
oyfrip, 6 Be to29 *lSi7nKOvpov \6yoi<; ;^/oa)/A€i'09 /cat 
irepX TOVTcop €0o<; e^j^v Bta^epeaffai 7r/?o9 top 
IRpovTOP, "'H/I6T6/0O9 o5to9," elirep, "& BpovTe, 
\0709, o)9 ov TrdpTa Trda^pp^P d\r)0&(; ovS* 
6p&p>€P, aXX vypop p.ep ti X/o^/xa /cat dnaTrjXop 
17 ala0riai^, €ti S' o^vTcpa 17 Bidpoia /ctpeip avTo 
Kal p^TafidWetp dir ovBepo^ virdp^pPTO^ iirl 
2 traa-ap IBeap, /cqptp p^ep yap eoiKCP ^ 17 Tvircjo-i*;, 
yfrvxv ^' dp0pd>TTOv, to TrXarropepop /cal to TrXar- 
TOP ixovap TO ainro, paa-Ta troi/cCWeiP avTrjp 

^ iSoiKtp Bekker adopts the early anonymous correction to 
l^wOcy (on xoax the impression is outside^ but the S(nU, etc.), 

206 



BRUTUS 

business in shorter time, he would read a book until 
the third watch, at which hour the centurions and 
tribunes usually came to him. Once, accordingly, 
when he was about to take his army across from 
Asia, it was very late at night, his tent was dimly 
lighted, and all the camp was wrapped in silence. 
Then, as he was meditating and reflecting, he thought 
he heard some one coming into the tent. He turned 
his eyes towards the entrance and beheld a strange 
and dreadful apparition, a monstrous and fearful 
shape standing silently by his side. Plucking up 
courage to question it, "Who art thou," said he, 
"of gods or men, and what is thine errand with 
me } " Then the phantom answered : " I am thy 
evil genius, Brutus, and thou shalt see me at Phi- 
lippi." And Brutus, undisturbed, said : " I shall see 
thee." 1 

XXXVII. Wlien the shape had disappeared, Brutus 
called his servants ; but they declared that they had 
neither heard any words nor seen any apparition, 
and so he watched the night out. As soon as it was 
day, however, he sought out Cassius and told him of 
the apparition. Cassius, who belonged to the school 
of Epicurus, and was in the habit of taking issue on 
such topics with Brutus, said : " This is our doctrine, 
Brutus, that we do not really feel or see everything, 
but perception by the senses is a pliant and deceitful 
thing, and besides, the intelligence is very keen to 
change and transform the thing perceived into any 
and every shape from one which has no real exist- 
ence. An impression on the senses is like wax, and 
the soul of man, in which the plastic material and 
the plastic power alike exist, can very easily shape 

» Cf. Caesar, Ixix. 5-7. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX (TXi/ftaTtfe^i/ hC iavTTJ<f inrapxci* Srfkovai Se 
ai Kara tou9 virpov<: rpoirai rSyv oveipcov, &? 
TpeveTai to (fyavTaariKov ef cipxV^ ^pa'^eia^ 
iravTohairh KaX irdOrj koI elBoyKa yivofievov, 
KLvelcrOai S' aeX 7r€<f>VK€* KLvrjai^ 8' ai/TO) <f>av- 

3 Tuaia t*9 ^ vorfai^;, aol Be /cat to aSyjia 
7a\ai7r(opovfi€vop <f>va€i> rrjv Bidvoiav alcopel kol 
TraparpeTrei. Baip^ova^ S' oi!t' elvai iridavov ovr 
ovra^ dv0p(O7ra)v e'xeiv elBo<; fj (fycovtfv ^ BvvafiLv 
et9 iJyLta? Bii^KOva-av o)? eycoy^ av ifiovXop^rfv, Xva 
pjj p,6vov oirXoi^ fcal ittitoi^ kol vaval roaavrai^^, 
aXXa tcaX deSyv apeoyalf; iiredappovfiev, oaitord- 
Twv epyayv fcal KaXXiartov rjyep^ove^ oi^tc?." 
Toiovrot^ fiev 6 Kdaaio^: CTrpavve \6yoi^ top 

B/OOVTOl/. 

4 ^lEp>l3aiv6vT(t)v Bk T&v arpaTKOT&v cttI t^9 
TT/owTa? ar)/jLaia^ derol Bvo a'vyKaraa-fCTJylravTe^; 
opov avvBiCKopi^ovTO, KOL 7rapr)Ko\ov0ovv viro 
T&v (TTpariwT&v Tpe(f>6p^vot p^XP^ ^iXLTrrrcDV, 
i/cel S' Vf^^P^ M*? '^P^ '^V^ H'^XV'^ w;^oi/To 
diroTTTdp^evoL. 

XXXVIII. Th pev ovv ifkelaTa t&v iv iroaiv 
idv&v iTvyxavev o B/ooOto? vnijKoa ireiroi'qiievo^. 
el Bi Tt9 r) TToXi^ rj BvvdaTrj^ Trapelro, TOTe 
irdvTa^ irpoaayopLevoi P'^XP^ '^V^ fcaTct &d<Tov 
OaXdaar)*; TrpofjXdov. eKel Be t&v irepl No/o- 
fiavov iv Tot9 'S,T€vo2<; XeyopAvoi^ koX irepl to 
Xvp,l3o\ov aTpaTOTTcBevovTcov, irepieXOovTe^ av- 
T0U9 r)vdyKa(rav diroaTrfvai koX irpoeaOai Tct 
2 %a>/9ta. p,iKpov Bi koX ttjv Bvvapiv avT&v \afieiv 
iBerjo'av, vTroXeiiropAvov Bih voaov Kaicapo*;, el 
p,if 7rpoa€fioi]0r]aev 'Ai/t(»j/ao9 o^vtijti Oavp,aaTfj 

2o8 



BRUTUS 

and embellish it at pleasure. This is clear from the 
transformations which occur in dreams^ where slight 
initial material is transformed by the imagination 
into all sorts of emotions and shapes. The imagina- 
tion is by nature in perpetual motion^ and this motion 
which it has is fancy, or thought. In thy case, too, 
the body is worn with hardships and this condition 
naturally excites and perverts the intelligence. As 
for genii, it is incredible either that they exist, or, if 
they do exist, that they have the appearance or the 
speech of men, or a power that extends to us. For 
my part, I could wish it were so, in order that not 
only our men-at-arms, and horses, and ships, which 
are so numerous, but also the assistance of the gods 
might give us courage, conducting as we do the 
fairest and holiest enterprises." With such discourse 
did Cassius seek to calm Brutus. 

Furthermore, as the soldiers were embarking, two 
eagles perched upon the foremost standards and were 
borne along with them, and they kept the army 
company, being fed by the soldiers, as far as Philippi. 
There, only one day before the battle, they flew 
away. 

XXXVIII. Most of the peoples encountered on 
the march Brutus had already brought into subjec- 
tion ; and now, whatever city or potentate had been 
omitted, they won them all over, and advanced as 
far as the Thasian sea. There Norbanus and his army 
were encamped, at what were called The Narrows, and 
near Symbolum ; but they surrounded him and com- 
pelled him to withdraw and abandon his positions. 
They almost captured his forces, too, since Octavius 
was delayed by sickness ; and they would have 
done so had not Antony come to his aid with such 

209 

VOL. VI. P 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

)(/}rf<rdfi€vo^, wctt' airiareiv rov^ irepl B/ooOtov. 
^X^€ Bi Kalaap varepov 'qfiepai<; hixa, koX Kare- 
arparoTreSevaev ivavriov BpovTou, Kaatriov Sk 

3 Ta 8' iv /jiiacp tS)v arpaTOTriBcov irehia 'Payfiaioi 
KUfiTTov^ ^iXiTTirov^ KoKovar koI fjA^iarai t6t€ 
*Pa)fiaL(ov Svvdfi€i^ aWi]\at<: <TVV€(f>€povTo. ttX?;- 
061 fi€v ovv ov Trap* oXiyov iXeiirovTo r&v irepX 
Kaiaapa, xoafiq) S* oifKtov KaX "KafiirpoTrjri Oav- 
fiaarov i^€<j>dpi] to Bpovrov cTpdrevfia. ypvaro^ 
yap fiv aifToh ra ifKelfTra t&v oirXtov koL apyvpo^ 
dfpecBm KaraxopyiyyiOei^, KaLirep eh TSXXa tov 
BpovTOv a'(o<f>povL SiavTr) teal KeKcikaxTfievrf ')^rjadac 

4 T0U9 177€/AOI/a9 iOC^OVTO^, TOV S' iv X€/0(rl Kal 
irepX TO a&fia ttXovtov ^cto ti Kal <f)povrjfiaTO^ 
irapix^iv to?9 <f>CkoTifioTipoL<;, tou9 hh <f>tXoK€phei^ 

Kal /LMl%t/iG)T6/)OU9 TTOieiP, &aiT€p KTrj/JidTCOV T&V 

oir\a>v Trepiexofievov^. 

XXXIX. 0/ fi€v oZv irepl l^aLaapa Kadappiov 
€v T^ ydpaKi, 7roirjadfjL€voi, fiiKpov tc <tLtov Kal 
Spaxf^La*: KaT avSpa ireme Biiveifiav 6t9 dvaiav, 
oi he irepl Boovtov KaTayv6vT€<; avT&v t% dwopla^ 
^ fiiKpoXoyua^, irp&Tov fiev iv viraLOptp tov orx/oa- 
Tov, &a7rep eOo^ iaTiv, €Kddr)pav, eireiff* Upeitov 
irXrjdri KaTcL Xo^ov^ Kal SpajQia^ eKdcTtp irevTrj' 
KovTa SiaSovTC^, evvoLa Kal irpodvfua r^9 Svvd- 
2 fieco^ irXeov elxov. ov firjv dXXa trrjfJLetov ev T<p 
KaOap/Jb^ fiox^VP^^ ISo^e K.aaai(o yevecdai, tov 1002 
yap aTe<\>avov axn^ KaTea-Tpafifievov 6 pa/SSovj/o^ 
TrpoariveyKe, XeycTai Se Kal irpoTcpov ev uea 
Tivl Kal TTOjiiTy XP^^V^ Kaaaiov Nlktjv Bia(f)ep0' 



2IO 



BRUTUS 

astonishing swiftness that Brutus could not believe 
in it. Octavius came, however, ten days later, and 
encamped over against Brutus^ while Antony faced 
Cassius. 

The plains between the armies the Romans call 
Campi Philippic and Roman forces of such size had 
never before encountered one another. In numbers 
the army of Brutus was much inferior to that of 
Octavius, but in the splendid decoration of its arms 
it presented a wonderful sight. For most of their 
armour was covered with gold and silver, with which 
Brutus had lavishly supplied them, although in other 
matters he accustomed his officers to adopt a tem- 
perate and restricted regimen. But he thought that 
the wealth which they held in their hands and wore 
upon their persons gave additional spirit to the more 
ambitious, and made the covetous even more war- 
like^ since they clung to their armour as so much 
treasure. 

XXXIX. Octavius and Antony now made a lustra- 
tion^ of their armies in their camps, and then dis- 
tributed a little meal and five drachmas to every man 
for a sacrifice; but Brutus and Cassius, despising 
their enemies' poverty or parsimony, first made lus- 
tration of their armies in the open field, as the custom 
is, and then distributed great numbers of cattle for 
sacrifice among their cohorts, and fifty drachmas to 
every soldier, and thus, in the goodwill and zeal of 
their forces, they were at an advantage. However, 
it was thought that Cassius had a baleful sign during 
the lustration ; for the lictor brought him his wreath 
turned upside down. And it is said that before this, 
also, in a procession at some festival, a golden Victory 
belonging to Cassius, which was being borne along, 
^ A solemn review, with ceremonies of purification. 

p 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 fiAvqv ireaelvy oKia06vTo<; rov ^epovro^. en S* 
opved re (rapKO<f>dya TroWa KaS" rjfiApav iTre^xu^ 
vero T^ (TTpaTOTriStp, teal fieXKTo^v &<f>dff<rav 
€<Tfiol avviardfievoL irepl tottov rivet rod 'xapoiKo^ 
ivro^, OP i^ifcKeKTav oi fidvrei^ a^oaiovp^voi rtfv 
Sei(nBaLfjLovLav drpifia koI rov K-dtraiov avrbv 
vTTO^ipovaav ck r&v ^lEiriKOvpov Xoyoov, touv Se 
arparmra^ rravrdrrcun SeSovXcofiivrjv. 

4 '^OOev ovS^ ffv rrpodvfio^ 8i^ M^X^^ ^^ '^^ 
rrapovri yeviadai rrjv xpiaiv, dWct rpifiuv fj^Lov 
XP^^^ '^^^ rroXejJLOv, epptofievov^ y^7]fia(ri,v, ottXmv 
Be Kal atofidrayv rfKriOei Xeiwofievov^. 3povro^ 
Sk fcal iTporepov eairevSe r^ rax^rq> r&v tciv- 
hvvfov huLKpiBeX^ fj rfi rrarpihv rtfv ekevdeplav 
dvdXa^elv rj irdvrat; dvOpdnrov^ evo')(kovfiivov^ 
Barrdvai^ fcal arpareiai^ zeal rrpoardrffJMtnv 

5 drraXKd^ai fcafc&v, xal rore roif^ rrepl avrov 
liriret^ op&v ev rol^ rrpodytaai koX raX^ d'^iiuvx^ai^ 
evrjp^povvra^ koI Kparovvras i^rjpro rb {fypovrj/iw 
Kai rive^ avrofioXLai yevofievai irpo^ rov^ rroXe- 
piov^ KoX Bia^oXal Kaff erkptav Koii vrrovotai 
rroKKov^ r&v KacTa-iov <f>CKa>v fjierearrjaav iv r^ 

6 avveBpitp irpo^ ^povrov, eh Bk r&v 3povrov 
<l>l\{ov AriWio^ rjvavriovro, rov ye "veip^&va 
rrepifMelvai /ceXevav. epopsvov Be rov opovrov 
rivL ^eXrimv eaeaffai vopl^ei per evuLvrov, "E* 
p^r^Bev^ elrrev, " olKKo, rr\eL<o fiidxyopLai xpbvov^ 
rrpb^ rovro Kdaaio^ eBvayepave, teal roi^ aXXoi^ 
vpoae/cpovaev ov perpieo^ o *Arl\\io^. iBeBotero 
Bff pd'xeo'ffai rf} varepaia. 

XL. Kal Bpovro^ pJkv iv ekiriai KoXdi^ koI 



2ia 



BRUTUS 

fell to the ground^ its bearer having slipped. And 
besides, many carrion birds hovered over the camp 
daily, and swarms of bees were seen clustering at a 
certain place inside the camp ; this place the sooth- 
sayers shut off from the rest of the camp, in order 
to avert by their rites the superstitious fears which 
were gradually carrying even Cassius himself away 
from his Epicurean doctrines, and which had alto- 
gether subjugated his soldiers. 

For these reasons Cassius was not eager to have 
the issue decided by battle at present, but thought 
it best to protract the war, since they were strong 
financially, although inferior in the number of their 
arms and men. Brutus, however, even before this 
had been anxious to have the issue decided by the 
speediest of hazards, that he might either restore 
freedom to his country, or relieve mankind of cala- 
mitous expenditures and requisitions for military 
service. At this time, too, he saw that his horse- 
men were successful and victorious in the preliminary 
skirmishes, and was therefore lifted up in spirit. 
Besides, sundry desertions to the enemy, and sus- 
picions and assertions that others would follow, 
brought many of the friends of Cassius in the council 
over to the side of Brutus. But one of the friends 
of Brutus, Atillius, opposed his wishes, and urged 
delay till winter at least was past. And when Brutus 
asked him how he thought he would be better off 
another year, " If in no other way,'* said Atillius, ^^ I 
shall have lived longer." At this answer Cassius was 
vexed, and the rest also were not a little annoyed by 
AtiUia& So it was presently decided to give battle 
on the next day. 

XL. Brutus was full of hopefulness at supper, and 

213 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xoyia-fioh ^iXoa6^oi<; yevofievo^; irapa to Behrvov 
aveiravero* Kdaaiov Se MecraaXa? ^rjal SeiTTvelv 
re KaS* eavrop oXiyov^ r&v (rvvrjOayv irapaXa- 
fiovTa, Kol avvvovv opaaffai fcal aitoirrfKoVi ov 
<f>v(r€i TOLovTov ovTa* iravaa/jLevov he rov ieiirvov 
Xa^ofievop t^9 %€*po9 avrov <T<f>6Bpa TOtrovrov 
elTrelv, &a'irep elddei ^LKo<f>povovfievo^i 'EW»;i/a#c§ 

2 (fxovfj* " MapTvpofULL (re, MeaadXa, ravra Hofi- 
irqitp Mayi/^ irda-'xeiv, dvayKa^o/juevo^ SicL fiui<; 
M'^XV^ dvapph^ai rov vepl t^9 irarplSo'i Kvfiov, 
dyaOrjv pAvroi ylrvxv^ exo>fi€V el^ rrjv rvxv^ dtjiO' 
pMvre^, fl, Khv ^ov\ev<T(!i)fieda kukw, dintTTelv ov 
Bi/caiov.^^ ravra elirovra (l>i]alv 6 M-eaadXa^: 
reXevraia irpo^ avTov dtnrdaatrOat rov K.daaiov* 
elvai Be /ce/cXrjfiepo^ €t9 rifv va-Tepaiav iirl Behrvov 
vir avTov yevedXiov oiaav, 

3 ^Kfia y VP'^pO' irpovKeiro fiev t^ ^povrov 
ydpaKi KaX T^ Kaa-fTLOv a-v/i/SoXov dy&vo^ <f)oiVL- 
fcov^ ^6Tft)j/, avTol Be avvrjXdov €t9 to fiecov rS)v 
arparoTriBtov /cal Xeyei Ka<7(Tto9* "Eti; fiev, & 
BpoOre, vi/cdv fcal cvvelvat rov iravra 'Xpovov 
dXXrjXot^ eZ Trpd^avTa^' iirel Be ret fieyiara r&v 
dvdp<airlv(ov dBrjXorara, Kal t^9 f^dyrj^ irapa 
yvdfirjv /cpidelarj^ ov pdBiov aZdi^ dXXrjXov^ IBelv, 

4 ri yLvdaxei^; irepX <f>vyfj^ xal reXevrij^;*^ teal o 
B/ooi}T09 direKplvaro' " N€09 (ov eyd, K-daaie, xai 
wpayfjidr(t>v aireipo^, ovk olS* oirto^ ev <l>iXoa'0(f>i^ 
Xoyov d^rjKa fxeyav. 'priao'dfirjv JS.dra>va Bia- 
Yprj<rdpsvov eavrov, w ovx otriov ovS dvBpo^ 
epyov virox^i^p^lv r^ Baifwvi /ecu fitf Biyetrdai ro 

5 av/jLTTLirrov aBeA^, aW' diroBiBpda/ceiv. vvvl '5' 



214 



BRUTUS 

after engaging in philosophical discussion^ went to 
rest; but Cassius^ as Messala tells us^ supped in 
private with a few of his intimates^ and was seen to 
be silent and pensive^ contrary to his usual nature. 
When supper was over, he grasped Messala's hand 
warmly, and, speaking in Greek, as was his custom 
when he would show affection, said : ^' I call thee to 
witness, Messala, that I am in the same plight as 
Pompey the Great, in that I am forced to hazard the 
fate of my country on the issue of a single battle. 
With good courage, however, let us fix our waiting 
eyes on Fortune, of whom, even though our counsels 
be infirm, it is not right that we should be distrust* 
ful.'* With these last words to him, Messala says, 
Cassius embraced him ; and he had already invited 
him to supper on the following day, which was his 
birthday. 

As soon as it was day, a scarlet tunic, the signal for 
battle, was displayed before the camps of Brutus 
and Cassius, and they themselves came together 
into the space between their armies. Here Cassius 
said : ^* May we be victorious, Brutus, and ever after- 
wards share a mutual prosperity ; but since the most 
important of human affairs are most uncertain^ and 
since, if the battle goes contrary to our wishes, we 
shall not easily see one another again, what is thy 
feeling about flight and death ? ** And Brutus made 
answer: "When I was a young man, Cassius, and 
without experience of the world, I was led, I know 
not how, to speak too rashly for a philosopher. 
I blamed Cato for making away with himself, on the 
ground that it was impious and unmanly to yield to 
one's evil genius, not accepting fearlessly whatever 
befalls, but running away. In my present fortunes, 

215 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aWoto^ iv TOL^ Tvyavi f^tvoficw Ktu deov /ca\&^ 
TO. irapovra firj /Spa/SevaavTO^ ov Beofiai iraXtv 
aWa9 eKirlha^ i^eXiyy^cv xal irapaaKevd^, dXV 
diraWd^ofjLai ttjv TV')(r)v iiraiv&v TAapTLat^^ 
elBoi^ Sov^ T§ TrarptSi rov ifiavrov I3lov aWov 
e^rjaa Sc ixeivrfv ekevOepov koX evBo^ov.^* iirl 
T0UT0A9 J^daaio^ ipLeiZiaae koX top Bpovrov aaTra- 1003 
adpspo^, "TavTa," €<l>7j, " <f>povovvTe^ itofiev iirl 
Toif^ TToKep.iovf;. rj yap viKrjtrofuv fj viK&vra^ ov 
(l>ofirjd'qa6pL€0a ." 

6 Merd ravra irepl raf ۩9 avrotf; X0709 iyevero 
T&v ifyCkoDV irapovToyv. koI "BpovTO^ i^reiTO Ka<r- 
aiov avT09 rjyelaOai rod Se^iov xiparo^, o 81 
ifiireipiap xal rjkiKiav fwXKov wovto ILacraL^ 
irpoarjKeiv, ov firjv dXKk /cal rovTo Kdaa-io^ 
€Ba>K€, Kol T&v rayfidrayv to fia^ifidTaTOV eypvra 
M6(7cra\ai/ iKeXevaev iirl tov Se^iov KaTaa-rrjvai, 
Kol B/)oi;T09 ev6v<; i^ye rov^ iinrei^ k€ko<tijl7I' 
pAvov^ Siairpeirm, koI to ire^ov ov tr'XpKaiTepov 
irapepi^dXXev, 

XLI. ''Etvxov S' oi irepl ^Aindviov diro t&v 
iX&v, 0I9 TrepietTTpaToirehevov, ip^/3dX\ovT€^ Ta- 
<f>pov^ eh TO ireBiov kol to,^ iirl OdXaa-aav oSov9 
TOV Kcuraiov irepi/coirTOVTe^i. i<l>^Bp€V€ Be Kai- 
aap, ov irapwv auT09 Bi daOevecav, aW' 17 Bvva- 
/it9, ov irdvv puyelaOat irpoaBo/c&aa Toif^ ttoXc- 
plov^, dXKa p^ovov eKBpop^al^ ypriadai irpo^ tA 
epya xal ^iXeaiv iXa^poi^ zeal 0opv/3oi^ tou9 

2 opvaaovTa^ iiriTapdaaetv Koi Tot9 dvTi/reTa- 
yp,€Voi^ ov irpocreyovTe^ eOavpu^ov ttjv irepX tcl^ 

^ ktcoM/^v f/la^Uus Corals and £«kker have 4iraiv&v tri 
(because) Mapriais ktX,, after Reiske. 

216 



BRUTUS 

however^ I am become of a different mind; and if 
God does not decide the present issue in our favour^ 
I do not ask once more to put fresh hopes and pre- 
parations to the test^ but I will go hence with words 
of praise for Fortune ; on the Ides of March I gave 
my own life to my country^ and since then^ for her 
sake^ I have lived another life of liberty and glory." 
At these words Cassius smiled^ and after embracing 
Brutus, said : *' Thus minded, let us go against the 
enemy ; for either we shall be victorious, or we shall 
not fear the victors.". 

After this, they conferred together about the order 
of battle in the presence of their friends. And Brutus 
asked Cassius that he might have command of the 
right wing himself, although his years and experience 
made this post seem more appropriate for Cassius. 
However, Cassius not only granted him this favour, 
but also ordered Messala with the most warlike of 
the legions to take position on the right. Brutus 
at once led out his horsemen magnificently equipped, 
and with no less promptness put his infantry also in 
array. 

XLI. The soldiers of Antony were engaged in 
running trenches from the marshes, at which they 
were encamped, into the plain, thus cutting off Cas- 
sius from access to the sea. Octavius was quietly 
watching the course of events, — not being present 
in person, owing to sickness, but his forces for him ; 
they had no expectation at all that their enemies would 
give battle, but thought they would merely sally out 
against the works and with light missiles and cla- 
morous cries tiy to disturb the workers in the 
trenches. So papng no attention to their oppo- 
nents, they were amazed at the loud and confused 

217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra/^pov^ icpavyrfv aarjfiop ovaav KaX iroWrjv 
7rpoa'<f>€pofi€vr)v. iv rovTtp ypafJLfiareUov re trapa 
3povTOV T0A9 rjyefioai ^oitcovtodv, iv 0I9 fjv to 
avpdtffia yey pa fipAvov, avrov re irape^covTo^ Jtt- 
ir^ TcL rdyfiaTa koI 7rapaOappvvovTo<;, oXiyoi fiev 
e^Oatrav afcovcrac to (rvpffrjfJLa Trapeyyvdfievov, oi 
Zk irKeltTToi firj irpoafieivavre^ ^PP'V M'^ ^^* aXa- 

3 XayfjL^ Trpoae^epovTO toi<; TroXefiloi^, yevofiivrf^ 
he Bi ara^iav ravrrjp avoDfwXia^ xal hiaairaaijjov 
r&v TayfiaToov to M€<T<7a\a irpojTOV, elra tA 
avv€^€vyfi€va TraprjKKaTTe to Kaiaapo^ apiaTe- 
pop* teal fipa^ea tS)v ea-xaToov diyovTe^ koX 
KaTa^aXoPTC^ oi ttoWou?, a\V inrepKepdaaPTC^, 

4 ifiTTLTTTOvo'ip €49 TO aTpaTOTTeSop. Kal H^alaap 
flip, 0)9 OUT09 €P Toi^ virofiP'^fiao'iP laTOpel, tS)p 
(l>i\a}p TAV09 ^ApTaypiov MdpKov koO^ vttvop ISopto^ 
oyfrip fceXevovaap ifcaTrjpai K.aiaapa fcal fiCTeX- 
detp ifc Tov ')(apaico^y €<f)0a(r€ fiixpop vTreKKOficaOel^ 
eSo^e T€ Tedpapcu. to yhp (fyopelop k€pop aKOPTioi^ 
KoX vaaol^ /3aXXoPT€9 hirjXaaap» ffP Sk (f>6po^ ip 
T^ aTpaToirihtp t&p d\t,a/cop£pa)p, xal BKry^iXioi 
AaKcSaifjiopcmp t]kopt€<: iiriKovpoi, peaxxTL avyxuT- 
eKOirrfaap. 

XLII. Ot Be fit) KVKXeoadfiepoi tov9 Kaiaapo^, 
dWct avp/neaoPTe^, paBito^: fiep direTpiylrapTO TCTa- 
payfiipov^;, koX iie<f>6eipap ip 'xepaXp^ Tola Ta- 
yfiuTa, fcal avpeio-iireaop €i9 to aTpaTOireoop T049 
ifyevyovaip virb pvfirj^ tov xpaTcip avpepex^ipTe^, 
fieff* iavT&p eYoi;T€9 top ^povTOP' h S' ov avpelSop 
2 oi piK&PTe^ ioeiKPve T0t9 ^TTrj/jLCPOif; 6 Katpo^. eJ9 

^ X*p<f^v oonjectured by Sintenis and Bekker : x^P^^» 
218 



BRUTUS 

outcries which came to them from the trenches. At 
this pointy while tickets with the watchword written 
upon them were being carried to his officers from 
Brutus^ and while Brutus himself was riding along 
past the legions and encouraging them^ few of his 
men succeeded in hearing the watchword as it was 
passed along^ but most of them, without waiting for 
it, with one impulse and with one war-cry, rushed 
upon the enemy. This disorder threw the legions 
out of line and touch with one another, and first 
that of Messala, then those that had been drawn up 
with it, went beyond the left wing of Octavius ; they 
had only a brief contact with its outermost lines, and 
slew only a few men, but outflanked it and burst 
into their camp. And Octavius, as he himself tells us 
in his Commentaries, in consequence of a vision which 
visited one of his friends, Marcus Artorius, and 
ordered that Octavius should rise up from his bed 
and depart from the camp, barely succeeded in 
having himself carried forth, and was thought to 
have been slain. For his litter, when empty, was 
pierced by the javelins and spears of his enemies. 
Those who were taken prisoners in the camp were 
slaughtered, and two thousand Lacedaemonians who 
had recently come as auxiliaries were cut to pieces 
along with them. 

XLII. The legions of Brutus which had not out- 
flanked the forces of Octavius, but engaged them in 
battle, easily routed them in their confusion and cut 
to pieces three legions at close quarters ; then they 
dashed into their camp with the fugitives, borne on 
by the impetus of their victory and carrying Brutus 
with them. But here the vanquished saw an oppor- 
tunity of which the victors were not aware ; for they 

ai9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rfap rh yvfivct kov irapappriyvvfieva rrf^ ivamia^ 
<f>d\ayyo<;, fi ro Be^iov aTreairda'dTj npo^ rtfp Sico- 
^Lv, ixrdfievoi to p,€V fieaov ovk i^icoaav, dW* 
dy&vt /jL€yd\q> avveixovro, to S' evcovvfiov aTa^ia 
KoL dyvoia t&v yevofievwv iTpiylravTo koI KUTa- 
Sid)PavT€^ €69 TOP ydoaKU BieiropOovv ovSeTcpov 

3 Tcov avTOKpaTopcDV 7rapovTO<;, Avtcovio^ t€ yap, 
CO? (fyaaiv, i/CK\iva^ iv dpx$ ttjv etpoSov eh to 
6\o9 dv€'xa>pv^^f ^^^ K.at<rap oifSafwv ^pavepo^ fjv 
i/cireaoDV tov xdpaKO^;, dXKa ^povTq> tiv€^ c»9 
dvffprjKOTe^ avTov hreheiKwov rjfiaypAva tA ^l^f), 
if>pd^ovT€^ ISiav fjv el'xe KaX ffKtKlav. i]Sff ie to 
fieaov i^eco/cei (fyovip 7r6\X& tou9 dvTiTerofffiivov^, 
Koi iravT€\&^ iSoKCL KpuTelv 6 B/>oi;T09, Aa-irep o 

4 Ka(raeo9 icpaTeladai. koX tovto fiovov avT&p 
SU<f>0€tp€ Ta irpdypMTa, tov fiev ©9 vik&vti Kacr- 
friip fit) fiorjO'^aavTo^, tov Se BpovTov cb9 aTToXw- 
XoTa fit} ireptfjLeivavTO^' iirel t^9 y€ vifcq^ opov o 
M60'(Ta\a9 TideTai to TpeU a€T0U9 teal woWa 
arfp,€ia Xaffeiv t&v TroXefiloov, eKeLvov^ 8k furiBiv, 1004 

* Avaytop&v 8' o B/}o{}to9 rfhr) hLaiTeiropB'qpAvmv 
T&v K.aL(rapo^ iffavfiaae to K.aaaLov o'TpaT'qyiov 
ovx op&v inlnfKov, Aairep elcodei, irepi^aiiVOfievoVt 
ovhe TSiXKa KaTa ^^copav iprjpnrTO yap evdv^ Tct 
irkeloTa kol zeaTeairaaTo t&v iroXepie^v ifirrreaov- 

5 TO)!'. aW' oi BoKOvvTC^ 6^vT€pov /SXirreiv t&v 
€TaLpa)v €(l>pa^ov avT^ iroWh pkv opav xpdvrj 
XdfnrovTa, 7roX^ot'9 S* dpyvpom dvpeov^ iv t^ 
XdpaKi Tov Kcta-aiov hia<f>epopjevov^* ov/covv So- 
Kctv avToh oijT dptOfwv ov0* oirKiapiov eivat t&v 
diroXeXeLfifiivafv ^vXd/coDV ov firjv ovBk irXijffo^ 



290 



BRUTUS 

charged upon the broken and exposed parts of their 
opponents' line, from which the right wing had been 
drawn away in pursuit. The centre did not yield to 
them^ but fought them vigorously; the left wing, 
however, owing to their disorder and ignorance of 
what had happened, they routed and pursued into 
their camp, which they sacked. Neither of the 
generals was with his men ; for Antony, we are 
told, turned aside from the attack at the outset and 
withdrew into the marsh, and Octavius was nowhere 
to be seen after he had forsaken his camp ; indeed, 
sundry soldiers declared that they had slain him, 
showing Brutus their bloody swords and describing 
his youthful appearance. But presently the centre 
drove back their opponents with great slaughter, and 
it appeared that Brutus was completely victorious, as 
Cassius was completely defeated. And one thing alone 
brought ruin to their cause, namely, that Brutus 
thought Cassius victorious and did not go to his aid, 
while Cassius thought Brutus dead and did not wait 
for his aid ; since Messala considers it a certain proof 
of the victory that he captured three eagles and many 
standards from the enemy, while they took nothing. 
As Brutus was returning from his victory, the 
camp of Caesar having been already destroyed, he 
was amazed not to see the tent of Cassius towering 
above the others, as usual, nor the other tents in their 
wonted place ; for most of them had been demolished 
at once when the enemy burst in. But the sharper 
sighted among his companions told him they coidd 
see many helmets gleaming, and many silver breast- 
plates moving about in the camp of Cassius; they 
did not think that either the number or the armour 
was that of the garrison left behind ; however, they 

221 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€7r€K€iva ipaivea-ffai pe/cp&p oaov eUo^ ^v veviKrf- 
6 fievcov KarcL Kpdro^ rayfidroov roaovrayv. ravra 
irpfoTOV evvotav KarearritTe t^ Bpovry toS avfi- 
TTTcofiaro^' KCLi fcaraTuTTcbv ^povpctv iv r£ arpa- 
Toirehfp tS)v iroXefiicov aveKaXeiro tov^ SicoKovra^ 
teal avvrjyev (09 Kaaai^ jSorjdTjaayv, 

XLIII. ^EtiriirpaKTo S' ovto) tA Kar avrov. 
ovT€ Tr)V irpcoTtjv ixSpofirjv r&u irepX ^povTOv 
ffSioDf; elhev avev awO'/jfiaTO^ koX Trpoararfiiaro^ 
yevofiipfjv, ov0* ore Kparovvre^i evdit^ &pp,riaav €^' 
apirayijv Koi oD^iXeiav, tov irepuivai koX kv/cXov- 
affai T0U9 iroXe/uov^ apsKriaavTe^, fjpeaKev avr£ 

2 T^ irpaTTOfieva^ fieKKrjaet Se Ttvi> xal hiarpi^fj 
fiaXKov fj TrpoOvfda xal Xoyiajj^ arpaTrjy&v viro 
TOV Se^iov r&v iroXe/ucov irepieKapL^dvero* koX 
T&v linretov evdif^ airoppayevrtov <f>vy^ nrpo^ rrjv 
daXaaaav op&v xai T0U9 7r€^ov<; ivSiSovra^; i'rrei- 
poLTO KarixciP koI irapaKokelv, ivo^ Bk a'qp^io- 
(f>6pov <f>€vyovro(; dtftapirdaa^ to (TtjfieLov eirij^e 

TTpO T&v TToS&V, /17)Sk T&V TTCpl TO (T&fia T€Ta- 

3 yfievcov avTOv Trpo6vpbo>^ €ti avpLfievovTayv. ovtco 
Si) Piaadei^ dve'Xji^PV^^ M^'^* okCycov eVl \6<f>ov 
eypvTa irpb^ to ireoiov (TKoird^. aXV outo^ fiev 
ovSev KaTeiSev fj fioXi^ tov ydpa/ca TropdovjJLCvov, 
fjv yhp aaOevT)^ Tr)v Syjrtv, 01 Se irepl avTov iinr€l<; 
idpoDV iroWov^ TTpoaeKavvovTa^, ot^^ 6 3povTo^ 
errejM'y^ev, etxaae 3' o Kdaaio^ iroXefuovf: elvai 
/cal Si(i>fC€iv €7r' avTOV, ofua^ Sk t&v irapovTcav 

4 ?va TiTLViov diri(TT€i\€ fcaToyjrofievov. o5to9 ovk 
S\a0€ Toif^ linria^ irpoaicav, aW*, <»9 elSov avSpa 
ipCkov KoX K^curaitp ttkttov, dXakd^avTC^ v(f>* ^So- 



222 



BRUTUS 

said^ there were not so many dead bodies visible 
there as might have been expected if so many legions 
had been overwhelmed. This was what first made 
Brutus aware of the calamity ; and leaving a guard 
in the captured camp of the enemy, he called his 
men back from the pursuit and united his forces with 
the purpose of assisting Cassius. 

XLIII. With Cassius matters had gone as follows. 
He had been disturbed to see the first sally of the 
troops of Brutus, which was made without watch- 
word or command, and when, being victorious, they 
rushed at once afler booty and spoil, with no thought 
for the envelopment of the enemy, he was vexed at 
the way things were going. Besides, exercising his 
command with hesitation and delay rather than with 
readiness and decision, he was enveloped by the 
enemy's right wing. His horsemen at once broke 
away in flight towards the sea, and seeing his in- 
fantry also giving ground, he tried to rally them. 
He snatched the standard from a standard-bearer 
who was in flight, and planted it in the ground 
before him, although not even his body-guard were 
inclined to hold together any more. Thus, then, 
under compulsion, he withdrew with a few followers 
to a hill overlooking the plain. But he himself 
could see nothing, or next to nothing, of the sacking 
of his camp, for his vision was weak ; the horsemen 
about him, however, saw a great troop riding up 
which Brutus had sent. But Cassius conjectured that 
they were enemies, and in pursuit of him. Never- 
theless, he sent out one of those who were with 
him, Titinius, to reconnoitre. The horsemen spied 
this man as he came towards them, and when they 
saw that he was a trusted friend of Cassius, his in- 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

v^9 oi fikv avvi]0€i<; rfowd^ovro t€ fcal iBe^iovvro 
KaraTrffS&PTe^ dirb r&v iinraov, ol 8' clKKol irepl 
avTOv iv KVK\(p TrepieXavvovTe^ afia iracavt koI 
Trardyq) Sih x^P^^ dfierpiav to fiiyiarov direipyd- 
aavTo fcaKov. 

5 "ESofe yap 6 Kdacrio^ d\rj0&^ viro r&v troXe- 
p^itov ex^o'Oai rbv Ttriviov, teal tovto Stj ^i^aa^, 
" ^iko^vxovvre^ dvepLeivap^ev avSpa (jiiXov dp- 
Tra^op^evov inro r&v irokepitov IBelv,^* a7r€%a)/)»;(r€i; 
€?9 Tiva axrfvrjv eprjpov, eva t&v aTrekevdiptov 
i<f)€\Kva'dp£vof;, UipSapov, hv ix r&v Kari, Kpda-- 
aov arvxTlP^TCdv iirl ravTrjv cZp^e rrjv dvdyKr)v 

6 v^^ avTov wapeaKevaaphfov, aXKii lidpdov^ pkv 
BU<l>vy€, t6t€ Se rh^ ')(\apvha^ iirX rtjv K€<f>aXfjv 
dvayaya>v xal yvpvwaa^ rov rpdyrjT^v diroKoyfrat 
irapea-x^v, evpiffrf ydp rj /c€<l>aX7f hix<i tov <ra)- 
paro^. TOV Se HivSapov ovBeU elSev dvOpdyirtov 
perct TOV <f)6vov, i^ oi kclL irapia'xev ivioi^ Bo^av 

7 dveXeiv tov avBpa pfj /ceXevadek, oXiyrp • S' 
vaT€pov oX ff linretf; iyivovTO (l>av€pol, xal TtTt- 
vio^ i(TT€tf>ava>p4vo<; vir avT&v dvyet irpo^ Kacr- 
aiov. €t>9 Bk fcXavOp^ fcal ^orj t&v (fiCXcov 
6Bvpop,€Pcov Kal Bv(r<f>opovvTa)v eyvoy to irddo^ tov 
aTpaTTiyov koX ttjv ayvoiav, iairda'aTO to ^if^o^ 
Kcu TToWA KaKura^ t^9 fipaSvTrJTo^ kavTov 

XLIV. BpovTO^ Bi TTfV pL€v fJTTav iyva)ica>^ tov 
KaaaCov TrpotTrfXawe, tov Bk ddvaTOv iyyv^ tjBtj 
TOV ydpaxo^ rj/covaCk fcal t^ pev a&pa *rr€pt* 1005 
/eXavtra^, xai irpoaayopevca^ ta^aTOV dvBpa 
^Ptopmtov TOV K.d(r(riov, w ovk €tc ttj iroXei 
TrjXiKOVTOv f^povrjpjaTo^i eyyeviaOai Bvvapivov, 

234 



BRUTUS 

timates, shouting for joy, leaped from their horses 
and embraced him warmly, while the rest rode round 
him with shouts and clashing of arms, thus, in their 
boundless joy, working the greatest mischief. 

For Cassius thought that Titinius was actually 
taken by the enemy, and with the words " My love 
of life has brought me to the pass of seeing a friend 
seized by the enemy," he withdrew into an empty tent, 
forcing along with him one of his freedmen, Pindarus, 
whom, after the disaster which befell Crassus,^ he used 
to keep in readiness for this emergency. From the 
Parthians, indeed, he had made his escape ; but now, 
drawing his robes up over his face and laying bare 
his neck, he offered it to the sword. For his head 
was found severed from his body. Pindarus, how- 
ever, no man saw after the bloody deed, and there- 
fore some have thought that he slew his master 
unbidden. A little later it became evident who the 
horsemen were, and Titinius, whom they had crowned 
with garlands, came up to report to Cassius. But 
when the lamentable cries of his distressed and 
weeping friends made known to him the grievous 
fate of his general and his error, he drew his sword, 
reproached himself bitterly for his slowness, and slew 
himself. 

XL IV. When Brutus learned of the defeat of 
Cassius, he rode towards him, but heard of his death 
when he was already near his camp. He mourned 
over the body, and called Cassius "the last of the 
Romans," implying that such an exalted spirit could 
no longer arise in the city. Then he decked the 

^ Cassius had been quaestor for Crassus on the disastrous 
Parthian expedition in 53 B.o. {Crassita, xviii. 6). 

225 

VOL. VI Q 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Treptia-TetXe fcal direirefiylrev eh %d<TOv, eo? /irt; 

2 avy)(yaLV avrodi 7rapda'xoi> KrjSevofievov. avTO<i 
Se Toi>9 arpaTKora^ avpayaycav irapefivdrjaaTO' 
fcal irdvTcov op&v direareprffievov^ r&v dvayKaioDV 
V7r€(TX€T0 KUT avSpu StcT^^tXta? SpaxP'O'^ dvrl 
T&v aTToXayXoTcov, ol Be wpo^ re roif<; \6yov<; 
dveOdppTjaap avrov xal rrj^ Scjpea^ edavp^aav 
TO p,er/e6o^' fcal fiercL fiorj^ irpovirep/y^av diriovra, 
p,eyaXvvovre<; co? fiovov di]TTr)TOv iv ry p^XV '^^^ 

3 reaadpayp avTOfcparopcov yeyevqpMvov, ep,apTvpeL 
8k TO epyov on ttj p^XV '^^pieaeadai #ca\a>? 
iirio'Tevev okiyoi^ yap rdypaaiv diravra^ erpe- 
yjraTO tov9 avTiardvTa^. el Se tratnv exp'H^o/^o 
7r/)09 rrjv p^XV^ '^^^ H'V TrapeXdovre^ ol ifKelaToi 
T0V9 TToXepLiov^ eirl tA t&v iroXepLitov &pp,r}a'av, 
ovBev av iSoKei p,€po<; avT&v diroXiTrelp drjT- 

TTfTOP. 

XLV. "Eiirea'ov Bk tovtcov p,kv OKTaKiay^^^oi, 
tTvv T0t9 arpUTevopePOi^ ol/C€Tai<;, 069 Bpiya^ 6 
B/}oi}T09 iivopxL^e* t&v S' evavTiayv yieaadXa^ 
(f>7j(rlv oleaOai irXeiov^ tj Bi^irXaaiov^, Bco fcal 
pLoXXov TjOvpovv CKelvoc irplv fj 'KaaaLov Oepdirwv 
SvopLa A7)p>7^Tpio<; d(f)LKeTO 7r/}09 *Ajn(oviov eaire- 
pa^, €v6v<; diro tov ve/cpov Ta<; p^Xa/ii;3a9 Xaficbv 
2 Koi TO ft<^09. &v KopnaOevTcov 08x0)9 e6dppri<rav 
&aTe ap! fipiipa irpodyeiv &TrXia pLevqv eirl pMXV 
TTjv Bvvapxv, 'RpovT(p Bk t&v aTpaToireBtov e/ca- 
Tipov aaXevovTo^ eiriaffiaX&^i (to pJev ydp ainov 
KaTaireirXriapAvov alxp^^Xdntdv eBeiTO 0t/Xa/c^9 
dxpiffov^, TO Be Kaaa-Lov Ttfv p^Ta^oXrjv tov 
apxovTO^ ov paBUa^ €(f)ep€v, dXXh xal ^dovov 



226 



BRUTUS 

body for burial and sent it to Thasos^ in order that 
the funeral rites might not disturb the camp. He 
himself^ however^ assembled the soldiers of Cassius 
and comforted them; and seeing that they were 
deprived of all the necessaries of life^ he promised 
them two thousand drachmas the man^ to make good 
what they had lost. They were encouraged by his 
words and amazed at the largeness of his gift ; and 
they sent him on his way with shouts^ exalting him 
as the only one of the four commanders who had 
not been defeated in the battle. And the results 
bore witness that his confidence in a victory in the 
battle was well grounded ; for with a few legions he 
routed all those opposed to him. And if he had 
employed them all in fightings and if the most of 
them had not passed by the enemy and set upon the 
enemy's possessions^ it would seem that his victory 
must have been complete. 

XLV. There fell on his side eight thousand men^ 
including the camp servants whom Brutus called 
Briges ; ^ but the enemy, in the opinion of Messala, 
lost more than twice as many. They were therefore 
the more dejected of the two, until an attendant of 
Cassius, named Demetrius, came to Antony in the 
evening, bringing the robes and the sword which he 
had taken at once from the dead body. This en- 
couraged them so much that at break of day they 
led their forces out arrayed for battle. But both the 
camps over which Brutus had command were in dan- 
gerous straits. His own was filled with prisoners of 
war and required a heavy guard; while that of Cassius 
was dissatisfied with the change of commanders, and 
besides, as vanquished men, they were full of hatred 

1 The name of a Thracian tribe (Herodotus, vii. 73). 

227 
q2 



PLUTARCH*S LIVES 

Tl /Cal fU<TOV^ '^TTTJ/lipOl^ ivfjv aVTol^ TTpO^ TO 

v€VLKi]fc6^)y OTrXiaai fiev tSofe to (nparevfia, 

3 M^X^? 5' airea')(eTO, r&v S' cu'x^fia\d>TQ)v to fiev 
SovTu/cov 7rXrj6o<; iveiXovfievov vTroirrcD^ to?? ott- 
\ot9 ifceXevaev dvaipe0rjvai, t&v 8* iXevOepcop 
Toif^ fiev aireXve (j)d<rKOi)v viro r&v iroXefutov 
fxaXXov TjXayKevai avroif^ ^ xal irap iKcivoi^ 
al')Qi(iXdiTov<i elvai kcu hovXov^, irap avr^ B' 
iXevOipov^ teal TrdXiTa^' 0)9 Bk 70v<; <f>iXov<; edpa 
fcal T0i»9 '^yefiova^ aBtaXXaKTO)^ e'xpvra^, airo- 
KpvTTTODV KoX (TweKirefiiroyv caa^ev. 

4 *Hi; Be Tt9 Bo\oi5/ii/to9 fUfio^ koI ^aKovXitov ye- 
X6i)T07roio9 f}Xft)/coTe9, 0V9 iv ovSevl Xoytp TiOefievov 
Tov 3povTov wpoadyovre^ ol (jiiXot Karrjyopovv 
609 ovBk vvv TOV Xiyecv fcal (TKcoTrreLV irpo^ v/3piv 
avT&v airexop'evov^. iireX he ^povro^ fiev iaiya 
7rpo9 eTepai^ &v ^povricn, MeaadXa^; Be Kop^ivo<; 
eBiKalov 7rXrjyai<; KoXaaOevra^ eirl afcrjvry; yv- 
fjLVOv<i diroBodrfvai T0t9 (rrparriyol^ t&v iroXefiicov, 
oTTQXi elBaxTiv olcop BeovTai aTpaTCvofiepoi avfjL- 

6 TTOT&p Kal avpTjdcop, evLOL fiep t&p TrapoPTcov 
eyeXatrap, IIo7r\to9 Be Ka<7/ca9f o irp&TO^ Kat- 
aapa iraTa^a^, " Ou ^aXa>9/* €<l>7j, " TeOptf/coTi 
Kaa-(TL<p 7ratfovT69 fcal yeXcoTO'rroiovpTe^ epayi^o- 
fj£P* aif Se," elirep, " & BpovTC, Bei^ei^ 07rft)9 exei^ 
fiprjfMTf^ 7roo9 TOP aTpaTTfybv rj KoXd<ra^ fj ifiv- 
Xd^a^ Toi;9 yXevaaoixivov^ koX fcaK&<; epovvTa^ 

6 aifTOP,** irpo^ tovto ^povro^ ev fidXa Bva"X€- 
pdpa^, "Tt oip" elirev, "ifiov trvpOdpeaOe, Kdaxa, 
fcal ov frpdTTCTe to Bo^av vfup;" Tainrjp ixelpoi 
Tr)p diroKpiaiP avyKUTdOeaip iroirjad/iepoi fcaTct 

^ auTovs bracketed by Sintenis*. 
228 



BRUTUS 

and jealousy towards those who had been victorious 
Brutus therefore decided to put his army in array, 
but to refrain from battle. Moreover, the multitude 
of slaves among his captives were found suspiciously 
moving about among the men-at-arms, and he or- 
dered them to be put to death ; of the freemen, 
however, he released some, declaring that they had 
more truly been captured by his enemies, in whose 
hands they were prisoners and slaves, while with 
liim they were freemen and citizens ; and when he 
saw that his friends and officers were implacably 
hostile to them, he saved their lives by hiding them 
and helping them to escape. 

Among the prisoners there was a certain Volum- 
nius, an actor, and Saculio, a buffoon, to whom Brutus 
paid no attention ; but the friends of Brutus brought 
tiiem forward and denounced them for not refraining 
even now from insolent and mocking speeches to 
them. Brutus had nothing to say, being concerned 
about other matters, but Messala Corvinus gave his 
opinion that they should be publicly flogged and then 
sent back naked to the enemy's generals, in order to 
let these know what sort of boon companions they 
required on their campaigns. At this some of the 
bystanders burst out laughing, but Publius Casca, the 
one who first smote Caesar, said : " It is not meet 
for us to celebrate the funeral rites of Cassius with 
jests and mirth ; and thou, Brutus, wilt show what 
esteem thou hast for the memory of that general 
according as thou punishest or shieldest those who 
will abuse and revile him." To this Brutus, in high 
dudgeon, said : " Why, then, do ye enquire of me, 
Casca, instead of doing what seems best to you ? '* 
This answer was taken to be a condemnation of the 

929 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
T&v aJSyJUov avOpwTTODv, Bii(f)6€ipav avroifs aira- 

XLVL ^E/c TOVTOV Ttjv SoDpeav diriSaofee roU 
arpaTKOTai^, /cal ficfcpa ficfiyjrdfjuevo^ iTrl r^ to 
(rvvffr)fia fiij XalSovra^ avev 'irapayyiXfiaTO^ 
araKTorepov ivaXeaOai rot? iroXejMloi^, virea'^eTO 
KokS)^ aycDviaafievoi^ 8vo ttoXci^ eh apTraryifv 
Kal i}if>k\eiav dvija-eiv, QeaaaXovLKffv Kal Acuce- 1006 

2 haifJLOva, TOVTO T<p ^povTov I3l^ jmovov Ivecrrt 
r&v iyKXrjfidTcov dvaTroXoyrjTOV, el xal woXv 
TOVTWP heivoTepa vifcrjrijpui rot? arpaTevofievoi^ 
*AvT(i>vio^ fcal Kataap i^ericav, oXiyov helv ird- 
<ri;9 'IraXia? tov^ iraXaiov^ oiKrjTopa^ i^eXd- 
aavre^, Xva "X^topav ifcelvoi koI ttoXc*? Ta9 fLtj 

3 irpoo'TjKova'a^ Xd/Scoaip. dXXd tovtoi^ p,€V apyeiv 
fcal Kparelv inrifceiTO rov iroXefiov t^\o9, B/ooury 
he Sid So^av dperrj^ ovre vixav ovre c(o^ea6av 
(rvvex<i>p€iTO irapd r&v iroXX&v fj fierd rov fcaXov 
fcal Sixaiov, fcal ravra Kaaaiov reOvqKOTo^, h^ 
alriav el^e fcal ^povTOV ivdyeiv eh evuL r&v 

4 l3iaioTepQ)V. dXV {oairep ev wX^ m^SaXiov 
avvTpi$ivTo^ erepa ^vXa irpoarjXovv icaX trpoaap" 
fioTreiv iTTix^ipova-iv, ovk ei fiev, dvayxoLa Se, 
pLaxop^evoi Trpo^ rtfv ;^/}6tai/, ovr(o IBpovro^ ev 
Swdfiei Toaavrrj teal fieredpov^ irpdrffiaaiv ovk 
txpi^v laoppoTTOvvra arrpaTrjyov rjvayKd^ero XPV' 
(Tuai TOt? Trapovai teal iroXXd irpdaceiv Kal 

5 Xeyeiv tcjp eKelvoi^ Bo/covvtodv, eSoKei 8' otra 
T0U9 Kaaalov arpaTKora^ tpovTo ^eXriov^ irapi- 
^eiv Bvo'fieraxeipio'Toi ydp ^<rav, iv fiev r^ 
arpaTOirehtp Si dvapx^av Opaavvofievoi, wpb^ Si 
Tot'9 TToXe/jLLOv^ Sid Tt/v ^TTav diroSeiXi&VTes* 

330 



BRUTUS 

poor wretches, and they were led off and put to 
death. 

XLVI. After this, he gave the soldiers their pro- 
mised rewards, and after gently chiding them for 
not getting the watchword and for rushing upon the 
enemy without command and in great disorder, he 
promised that if they now fought well, he would 
turn over to them two cities for plunder and booty, 
Thessalonica and Lacedaemon. This is the only accu- 
sation in the life of Brutus against which no defence 
can be made, even though Antony and Octavius 
practised far greater cruelty than this in rewarding 
their soldiers, and drove her ancient inhabitants out 
of almost the whole of Italy, in order that their 
followers might get land and cities to which they 
had no right. But in their minds conquest and do- 
minion were the end and object of the war ; whereas 
Brutus had such a reputation for virtue with the 
multitude that he was not permitted either to conquer 
or to gain safety except with honour and justice, 
especially now that Cassius was dead, who was ac- 
cused of leading Brutus with him into some acts of 
violence. But just as sailors, when their rudder has 
been shattered, try to fit and fasten other timbers 
in its place, striving to meet their needs, not well, 
indeed, but as best they can, so Brutus, not having 
in his great army and dangerous plight a general 
who was equal to the emergency, was forced to 
employ such as he had, and to do and say many 
things which they approved. And so he decided to 
do whatever they thought would make the soldiers 
of Cassius better men. For these were very intract- 
able ; their lack of a leader made them bold in camp, 
while their defeat made them afraid to face the 
enemy. ^^^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLVII. OvBcp 8i /SiXriop elx^ ret irpar/fiaTa 
TO 49 irepl Kauaapa Kal ^AvTmviot/, dyopa re 
'XptopAvois dvar/Kala Kal hih KoiX6rr)Ta tov 
CTpaTOiriSov 'xecfiAva jiox^VPov irpoahoK&atv. 
eiXovfievoi yap irpo^ eXetri /cat /xerA rrjv fidxv^ 
6fil3pa>p <f)6ivo7ra}piv&v iTnyevofievcov irrfKov /car- 
eiripnrKavTO tA? (TKtjva^ teal t/Saro? irapa'XP^p^ 

2 irrjyvvfievov Sict i/rOj^o?. iv Tovrcp 8' ovtriv avrol^ 
fjfcev dyyeXia itepl t^9 Karh ddXarrav yevo/iiprj^ 
aTU%ia9 irepl rrjv (nparidv. i^ 'IraXta? ydp 
TToXXrjv KOfii^ofievTjv irapd Kaiaapo<; at BpovTov 
vr]€<: iTTiTreo'ovaai 8i€<f>u€ipav, &v oXLyoi iramd- 
irfKTi T0U9 TToXepiov^ hia^vyov7&^ viro Xifiov t&p 
iaTLwv KoX T&v axoivLCDV €<t6lovt€<: SieyevovTo, 
ravT dKovaavT€<i ecTrevSop Bid fid^V^ xpidrjpai 
7rp]p aiaffiaOai top ^povTop oaop avr^ yiyopep 
eifTVYia^, Kal ydp r)fJiepa fua avpifit) top t€ /caTd 
yrjp afia Kal top xaTd ddXaTTap dr^&pa fcptdtfpai. 

3 TVXV ^^ ''"*''* fidXXop fj /caxia Ttap iv toU^ pavaXp 
rjyefJLOPaiyp ^yporftre to /caTopffayfia B/joOto? rjfiep&p 
elKoat Biayepofiepayp. ov ydp dp eh BevTepap 
fidxv^ TTporjXOe, tA fiep dpayKola Tff aTpaTia 
7rap€(TK€vaa-/ii€Po^ eh iroXvp 'xpopop, ip /caX^ Be 
T7J^ X^P^^ lBpv/jL€V0^, &aT€ fcol ;^6£/ie!)j/09 dirade^ 
Kal 7r/0O9 T0U9 TToXefuovf; Bvaex/SiaaTOP ?;j^€4i/ to 
(TTpaTOTreBop, t^ Bk KpaTelp l3ej3aL(o^ t^9 OaXaTTrjf; 
Kal P€PCKr]K€Pai ire^y to Ka6^ uvtop eir eXiriBcop 
fieydXayp xal <f)popi]/jLaTO^ yeyopio^, 

4 'AWi tS)p irpa/yfidTODP, ©9 eoiKep, ovKeTi, 
TToXXoh OPT (OP KaOexT&p, dXTiA fjLopapxid^ Beo- 
fievti)P, 6 ^€09, e^drfeip Kal fieTaa-Trjirai top fiovop 
ifi7roBa>p oPTa t^ KpaTelp Bupafieptp ^ovXop^evo^, 

232 



BRUTUS 

XL VI I. But Octavius and Antony were no better 
off; they were scantily provisioned^ and the low site 
of their camp made them expect a grievous winter. 
For they were huddled together on the edge of 
marshes^ and the autumn rains which fell after the 
battle kept filling their tents with mud and water 
that froze at once, so cold was the weather. More- 
over, while they were in this plight, word came to 
them of the disaster which had befallen them at sea. 
For a large force which was being brought from 
Italy by command of Octavius was attacked by the 
ships of Brutus and destroyed, and the small remnant 
of them that escaped their enemies were driven by 
hunger to subsist upon the sails and tackle of their 
ships. On hearing of this, they were eager to have 
the issue decided by battle before Brutus learned 
what great good fortune had come to him. For it 
happened that the conflicts on sea and land were 
decided on one and the same day. But by some 
chance, rather than by the fault of his naval com- 
manders, Brutus was ignorant of their success until 
twenty days afterwards. Otherwise he would not 
have proceeded to a second battle, since his army 
was supplied with provisions for a long time, and he 
was posted in an advantageous position, so that his 
camp did not suffer from wintry weather, and on the 
side towards the enemy was almost impregnable, 
while his secure mastery of the sea and the victory 
of the land forces under his own command had put 
him in high hopes and spirits. 

But since, as it would seem, the government of 
Rome could no longer be a democracy, and a mon- 
archy was necessary, Heaven, wishing to remove 
from the scene the only man who stood in the way 

^53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aTTe/eoyfre rijv rvxv^ iKeivrjv, Kainep iyyvrdrw rov 
fit) \a0€iv Tov BpovTov a<f)ifcofiivrfv, uiWovro^ 
yap avTov fidx^cOai irpo fxid^ ^fiipa^ oyjrk KXco- 
Bio^ Tt9 i/c T&v TToXepiayv avTOfioko^ fjKev, afyyiX- 
\a)v oTi 8i€<f>0apfJL€vov yaOrjfjLevoi tov <tt6\ov oi 

5 irepX Kaio'apa airevBovai SiayayvLO'aaffai, ravra 
Xeyav 6 avuptoiro^ ovk eZ^^e iriaTLV ov8* e& oylnv 
fjkde T^ BpovTfp, KaTO^povriOeU iravrdiraaiv ©9 
p^rjBev dxTfKooi)^ vyik^ rj rh 'y^€vhrj irpo^ X^P''^ 
dirayyiXKfov. 

XLVIIL 'Ev iK€Lvrj Sk t§ vvktI irdXiv ^acrti; 
€49 Sylnv iXdetv to tfydcfia t& BpovTtp, /cal Ttfv 
avTffv iiriSet^dfiepop o^^iv oifhev eiireiv, aXhJ 
oiXca-Oai, TloTrkio^ Se Bo\ovfivio<;, dvrjp <f>i\6' 
ao<f>o^ Kol avv€(TTpaT€Vfi€vo^ dir dpxv^ BpovT<p, 
TOVTO /Jbkv ov \ey€i to arjfieiov, fiekvaaSiv hi <f>rj<n 1007 
TOV Trp&Tov dcTov dvd'rrXeayv yeviaffar koI t&v 
Ta^idpycov tivo^ dir aifTo/idTOV tov fipax^ova fiv- 
pov pooivov i^avOelv, xal iroWdxc^ i^a\€[<l>ovTa^ 

2 Kot dirofidTTOVTa^ fir)Skv irepaivetv, koX irpo t?}9 
/idxv^ ct^TTj^ derov^ Bvo avfiireaovTa^ dW'qXoi^ 
iv fieraixf^^ twi; aTpaTOiriScov fidx'^<T6di, koX 
aiyrfv airioTOV ex^tv to irehiov Oetofiivtov dtrdvTtov, 
el^ai Bi Kal ^vyeXv tov KaTh "RpovTov. hk 
AlOLo'^ irepifioTjTo^ yeyovev 6 Ttj^ 'rrvkff^ dvoi- 
XOelcr)^ diravTrjaa^ t^ ^epovTi tov dcTov /cal 
fcaTaKOweU rai^ fiaxaipaL^ viro t&v aTpaTitOT&v 
oloDviaafAivoDV, 

XLIX. Ilpoayayci)v Sk ttjv ^dXayya Kal xaTa- 
a-T'^aa^; ivavTiav T0t9 iroXepioi^ iirelx^ iroXvv 
Xpovov vTToyjriai ydp avT^ Kal p/qvvaei,^ Kard 



«34 



BRUTUS 

of him who was able to be sole master^ cut of} from 
Brutus the knowledge of that good fortune^ although 
it very nearly reached him in time ; for only one day 
before the battle which he was about to fight^ late 
in the day^ a certain Clodius deserted from the 
enemy, and brought word that Octavius had learned 
of the destruction of his fleet and was therefore 
eager for a decisive struggle. The man found no 
credence for his story, nor did he even come into 
the presence of Brutus, but was altogether despised; 
it was thought that either he had heard an idle tale, 
or was bringing false tidings in order to win favour. 

XLVIIl. On that night, they say, the phantom 
visited Brutus again,^ manifesting the same appear- 
ance as before, but went away without a word. 
Publius Volumnius, however, a philosopher, and a 
companion of Brutus in all his campaigns, makes 
no mention of this omen, but says that the fore- 
most standard was covered with bees; and that of 
its own accord the arm of one of the officers sweated 
oil of roses, and though they often rubbed and wiped 
it off, it was of no avail. He says also that just 
before the battle itself two eagles fought a pitched 
battle with one another in the space between the 
camps, and as all were gazing at them, while an 
incredible silence reigned over th« plain, the eagle 
towards Brutus gave up the fight and fled. And the 
story of the Ethiopian is well known, who, as the 
gate of the camp was thrown open, met the standard- 
bearer, and was cut to pieces by the soldiers, who 
thought his appearance ominous. 

XLIX. After Brutus had led out his forces in battle 
array and stationed them over against the enemy, he 
waited a long time ; for as he was reviewing his 

^ See chapter zxxvi. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Tivaav TrpoaeirLiTTOv eino'KOTrovvTt' to (TTparevfUi' 
Koi T0U9 imria^ edpa fid')(r)^ ap')(€iv ov irdvv 
7rpodvfiov<; 6vTa<;, dXV ael wpoafiivovTa^ rb r&v 

2 we^&v epyov, eir e^ai^vrj^ avrjp iroXefiiKo^ koX 
Terifirjfiipo^ €7r' avSpeia ScairpeTrw irapib tov 
BpovTOv avrov €^i7nraadfi€Vo<; fxeTa^dWerai 
7r/oo9 Toif<; TroXejuou*;' KafiovXaro^ Se eKoKeiTO, 
TOVTov lSa)v 6 B/>oi;T09 '^Xyrjaev la')(vpS><;* fcal to, 
fxev UTT* 6py7}<;, tu Se (f)6l3(p fiel^ovo^ fi€Ta^o\rj<; 
KoX TTpohoaia^ €v6if<; iirl tou9 ivavriov^ ^yev, eh 

3 &pav €vdT7)v TOV rfkiov fcaTacfyepofievov, koDl t^ 
fiev KaS" avTov iKpdTTjae fiipec koX irporjXBev 

VTTO'X^OpOVVTt T^ dpKTTep^ T&V TToXeflioyV iyKCL' 

fievo^' Kal (TweTreppaxrav ol Innreh dfia tol^ 
TT€^OL<; ifi^aXovTB^ T€Tapayfi€Voi^* to S* erepov 
K€pa<;, 0)9 fit) KVK\<o6elr}, t&v 'qyefiovcov dvTLirape^' 
ayovTcop, TrXrjOeL Se XetTrofiivcov, huairaTo fiiaov 
kolI yvyvop^vov dad€V€<; ovk dvTelx^ '^^^^ ivamLoi^, 

4 dXhJ €<f>vy€ TTp&TOV. ol Se tovto BiaKoylravTC^ 
€v0if<; ifcvK\ovvTO tov ^povTov, avTov fiev oaa fcal 
aTpaTTjyiKrj^ koi (TTpaTtcoTiKrj^; dp€Tr]<; epya fcal 
^€t/?l fcal yv(o firj irapd to, Beivd Trpb^ to vikolv 
dTToSeiKVVfievov, cS Be irXeov €<t)(6 Trj irpoTepa 
fidxv> TOVTO) ^XaiTTOfievov. t&v fiev yap iroXe- 
fuoov TO viKtjOkv evOif^ diroXwXet Tore* t&v Be 
Kaaaiov TpairevTtov oXiyov Biethdaprjaav, ol Be 
aco^ofievoL T(p 7rpoi]TT7]adai irepiBeetf; ovt€^ dve- 
TrXrjaav d0vfua<; fcal rayoaj^rj? to irXelaTOP tov 

5 aTpaTevfJLUTO^, evTavda koX Mdpfco^ 6 KaTcovo^ 

236 



BRUTUS 

troops he became suspicious of some of them^ and 
heard them accused of treachery ; he saw, too, that 
his horsemen were not very eager to begin the battle, 
but always waited to see what the infantry did. Then, 
of a sudden, a man who was a good soldier and had 
been conspicuously honoured for his bravery by 
Brutus, rode out of the ranks and went over to the 
enemy ; his name was Camulatus. The sight of this 
gave Brutus great distress; and partly from anger, 
partly because he was afraid of greater treachery and 
desertion, he led at once against the enemy, at about 
three o'clock in the afternoon. With the part under 
his own immediate command he was victorious, and 
advanced, pressing hard upon the retreating left 
wing of the enemy ; his cavalry, too, dashed forward 
along with the infantry and fell upon a disordered 
foe ; the other wing, however, which was extended 
by its commanders to prevent their being surrounded 
by the enemy, to whom they were inferior in num- 
bers, was thus weakened in the centre and could 
not hold out against their opponents, but fled first. 
After cutting their way through this wing, the enemy 
at once enveloped Brutus. He himself displayed all 
the valour possible in a soldier and commander, con- 
tending with judgment and personal prowess for 
victory in the terrible crisis ; but that which was an 
advantage for him in the former battle was a detri- 
ment to him now. For in the former battle the 
conquered wing of the enemy had been at once de- 
stroyed, but when the soldiers of Cassius were routed, 
only few of them were slain, and those who then 
escaped, rendered fearful now by their former defeat, 
filled the greater part of his army with dejection and 
confusion. Here Marcus the son of Cato also, fighting 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vto9 iv Toi^ apicTOi^ tcaX yevvaioraTOi^ rSv vitov 
lia'Xpfjjevo^ KoX KaraTTOvovfievo^ ov/c €(f>vy€v ovS* 
el^ev, dWa ypdfievo^ re rfj x^''P^ ^^^ if)pd^cDV 
ocrT*9 €17}, Kai iraTpodev ovofid^av, eireaev iiri 
TToWoi^ vexpoh T&v irdKefiicov, hrnrrov hi xal 
T&v aXXcDV oi KpdriaTOi tov ^povrov irpoKiv- 
Swevovre^. 

L. 'Hi' Si Tt9 AovKiWio^, dvrjp dya06^, iv toI^ 
eraipoi^. o5to9 op&v jSap/Sdpov^; riva^ iinria^ 
iv rfi Buo^et t&v fiev aXKcav ovSeva woiovfiivov^ 
\6yov, eKavvovTa^ hk pvSrfv iirl tov UpovTov, 
eyvQ) irapaKivSwevaa^ ip/rrohoDv avTol^ yeveaOai. 
Kol fXLKpov viroketifidei^ avTO^ etfyq B/9oSto9 elvar 
Kol TTiOavo^ ffv irpo^ ^AvTa>viov Beo^evo^ ayeiv 
iavTov, 0)9 maiaapa BeBoixax:, iKeivtp hk Oapp&v, 

2 ol £' dairaadfievoL to evprffia xal TVXff Tivl 
OavfiaaTfi xe^pW^^^ vofu^ovTC^ ijyov tov avhpa 
aKOTov^ fjSrj, IT poire p^y^avTe^ i^ avT&v Tiva^ 
dyyiXov^ iraph tov *AvTa>viov, avTo^ re ovv 
rjadeis dirijVTa T0t9 ayovai, xal t&v aWcov ol 
TTwdavofievoi ^&vTa 3povTOv KOfiL^eadai, aweTpo- 
X^^ov, oi fiev eXeeivov r/yov/ievot T779 ti;y^9, oi Sk 
T^9 Sof»79 dvd^iov, aypav ffapffdpcDV viro (biKo- 

3 yfrvx^a*; yevofievov, iireX S' iyyv^ fjaav, fiev 
'Ai/Tft)wo9 virio'Trj, htairop&v oirco^ XPV Se^aaOai 

TOV TipovTOv, 6 Se AovxiWiofs Trpoaax^eU fidXa 1008 
TcOapprfKco^ "MdpKov fiiv,** eltrev, "*Avt(ovi€, 
^povTov ovSel^ iJp7jK€v ovS* &v eXoi iroXi/uo^* fiij 
ToaovTOV rj tvxv fcpaTijaeie 77)9 dpCTrj^, aW 
eKelvo^ €vp€0ija€Tai ^&v ff irov koX ve/cpo^ dPloi^ 

4 Keifievo^ eavTov. iyia Zk tou9 aov^ CTpaTioDTa^ 

238 



BRUTUS 

among the bravest and noblest young men^ was over- 
powered, but would not yield nor fly, but plying his 
sword, and declaring that he was Marcus Cato and 
Marcus Cato's son, fell dead upon the many enemies 
whom he had slain.^ The bravest of the rest fell 
also, risking their lives in defence of Brutus. 

L. Now, there was a certain Lucilius, a brave man, 
among the comrades of Brutus.^ This man, seeing 
some barbarian horsemen ignoring all others in their 
pursuit and riding impetuously after Brutus, deter- 
mined at the risk of his life to stop them. So falling 
behind a little, he told them that he was Brutus. 
The Barbarians believed him because he asked them 
to conduct him to Antony, pretending to be afraid of 
Octavius but to have no fear of Antony. They were 
delighted with their unexpected prize, and thinking 
themselves amazingly fortunate, led Lucilius along in 
the darkness which had now fallen, after sending 
ahead some messengers to Antony. Antony himself 
was pleased, of course, and set out to meet the 
escort, and all the rest also who learned that Brutus 
was being brought in alive flocked together, some 
thinking him to be pitied for his misfortune, others 
that he was unworthy of his fame in thus allowing 
his love of life to make him a prey of Barbarians. 
When they were near, however, Antony paused, at a 
loss to know how he ought to receive Brutus; but 
Lucilius, as he was brought forward, said with great 
boldness : " Marcus Brutus, O Antony, no foe has 
taken or can take ; may fortune not so far prevail 
over virtue ! Nay, he will be found living, or possibly 
even lying dead as becomes him. It is by cheating 



* Cf. CqUo the Younger^ Ixxiii. 3. 

* Cf. Antony t Ixix. 1. 



239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrapaKpovadfxevo^ rJK(o, iraffelv ovScv eVl tovt^ 
T&v avrfxiarcov irapanovfievo^** tuvt elirovTo^ 
tot) KovklXkLov koX 7rdvTQ)v iKirXwyivrcav 'AptcJ- 
i/t09 TTpos T0V9 icopi<TavTa<i avrov airofiXh^a^y 
"'Httoi; p^aXeTTO)?," elirev, "& ava-rpaTi&Tai, 
5 (f>€p€T€ T§ afiapTLa irepivfipla-Oai hoKovvTe^, a\V 
cC f<rT€ KpeiTTOva t»)9 ^7]T0Vfi€vr}<; aypa^ rjprjKoref:, 
TToKifiiov yhp ^ffTovvTe^ fj/cere (f>i\ov fipZv fcofu- 
foi/T69' w €70) B/ooury fi€V ov/c olSa fih tou? 
Oeoif^ o Ti &v ixprjad/Mffv ^Stvrt, roiovrav S* 
avhptav <f>i\(ov Tvyvdvoifii fidWov rj TroXc/itcoi'." 
rauT* eliroiv kol top KovkLXKiov daTraadfievo^ 
TOT€ fiev ivl r(ov <f>C\.a)v avvear'qaev, varepov Sk 
j(pwfi€vo^ €19 irdvra iriar^ koX ^e^aico iieriXeae, 
LI. B/3o{)to9 a Sia/Sd^ TA peiffpov vX&Se^ koI 
irapdKprjfivov ijBrj (tkotov^ 01/T09 ov ttoXu irpoifK- 
0€v, dXX* iv TOTTCp KoiXcp Kol trirpav eyovrt 
fieydXrjv irpo/ceip^evrjv Ka0L<ra^, oXiyav nepl avrov 
fiyep^ovtov koX (jiiXtav ovrcov, Trp&ra fiev diro/SXi' 
'^a9 et9 TOP ovpavov daripcov ovra fiearov ave- 
^Oiy^aTO Svo arixov^, S)v top ere pop l^oXavfJiPio^ 
dpeypayire' 

ZeO, fif) XdOoi ae r&vS* 89 a?TA09 fcaK&p* 

2 rov £' eripov (fyrjalp iirCXadeadai, puerii Si 
p,iKpop Tcjp ip Tji P'dxo f^po avTov ireaoproiv 
iraipeop Ifcaa-Tov ovopA^oDP pLaXiaTa rg ^Xaffiov 
p,pi]fir) Kol Tp Aa^e&po^ iireareva^ev. fjp S' 
avrov itpea-Pevri)^ 6 Aa^edv, 6 Bi ^Xd/Sio^ 
errapxo^ t&v reypir&p, ip rovrtp Si Tt9 avro^ 
re Bi'^tja-a^ xal rop Bpovrop op&y ofioicD^ exovra. 



340 



BRUTUS 

these soldiers of thine that I am come^ and I am 
ready to suffer for it any fatal penalty." When 
Lucilius had thus spoken and all were in amaze- 
ment, Antony turned to his conductors and said: 
''I suppose^ my fellow soldiers^ you are vexed at 
your mistake and think that you have been flouted ; 
but be assured that you have taken a better prey 
than that you sought. For you sought an enemy^ 
but you come bringing me a friend. Since, by the 
gods, I know not how I could have treated Brutus, 
had he come into my hands alive ; but such men as 
this I would have my friends rather than my ene- 
mies." With these words he embraced Lucilius, and 
for the time being put him in charge of one of his 
friends, but ever afterwards found in him a sure and 
trusty helper. 

LI. But Brutus, after crossing a brook which ran 
among trees and had precipitous banks, would go no 
further, since it was already dark, but sat down in a 
hollow place with a great rock in front of it, having 
a few officers and friends about him. First, he turned 
his eyes to the heavens, which were studded with 
stars, and recited two verses, one of which Volumnius 
has recorded : — 

" O Zeus, do not forget the author of these ills ! " ^ 

the other Volumnius says he has forgotten. Then, 
after a little, he called the name of each of his 
comrades who had fallen in the battle to defend him, 
groaning most heavily at the mention of Flavius and 
Labeo. Labeo was his legate,^ and Flavius his chief 
of engineers. At this point, someone who was thirsty 
himself and saw that Brutus was thirsty too, took a 

^ Kuripides, Medeia, 334 (Kirchhoff). 
* Cf. chapter xii. 3 ff. 

241 

VOL. VI R 



PLUTARCH*S LIVES 

XafioDV fcpdvo<; iirl rov irorafiov fcareSpafie. 

3 y}r6(f>ov Se xaTci Oarepa irpoaTreaovro^ BoXou- 
fivio^ irporjKde KaToyjrofievo^, koI <rvv avrm 
AdpBavo^ 6 vTraaTTia-Ti]^. iiraveXdovrc^; Se fierct 
fiiKpbv '^ptorrja-av irepl tov iroDfuvro^, riBiKS}^ Si 
(T^ohpa fieihidaa^; o BpoOro? irpo^ tov BoXov- 
fiviov " 'E#c7r€7roTa4," elirev, " aXV Irepov v/mv 
/eofiia0i]<T€Tat*^ Tre/A^^el? S' o avTo^ iKLvhvvevcev 
viro T&v TToXcfucov aX&vai koX fi6\i^ iawOrf 

4 rerpcofjiepo^. elKa^ovri Be avr^ firj iroXKov^ iv 
T§ fJ^XV T€Opdv€U XTaTvWio^: vneo'Trj Biei twv 
iroKefiicop i/circuadfievof; (aXXto^ yhp ovk ^p) 
xaToy^affai to arpaTSweBop, xal irvpaop apa^ 
dvTrep €vptf TUKel aa^ofiepa, irdXip d^i^eadai 
irpo^ ainop, 6 fikp oZp irvpaop VP^V '^^^ SrarvX- 
XCou irapeXdopTo^ eh to o-TpaToireBop, w? S' ovk 
eirapyei ypoptp ttoW^ B/ooOto? eLirep* "*Ai/ {§ 
XTarvWto?, d<f)i^€TaiJ** avpi^-q S' ainop ewapep- 
^o/iepop ifiTreaecp eh tov<; iroXefiiov^ koI Bia- 
^Oaprjpai. 

LII. Tlpoiova7j(: Be t^? pvkto^ inroKXipa^, w 
ervye xaOe^ofiepo^, 7rp6^ oIkcttjp eavTov KXeiTOP 
iXaXei. atcoir&PTO^ Bk tov KXeiTov /cal BuKpv- 
01/T09, aZ0i^ eiruTiraadfiepo^ top VTraairiaTrjp 
AdpBapop IBia Tipk^ avr^ irpoae^epe \070v9. 
T€Xo9 Bk TOP DoXovfiPiop uvTOP 'EXXt^pio-tI t&p 
Xoyoop Koi Tfj^ daKYjaew^ vTrefiltivriaKe* xal irape- 
xdXei Ty X^^'P^ avpe^dyltaaOai tov ^L<f>ov^ avT^ 
2 Kot avpeirepecaai ttjp irXrjyijp, tov Be BoXof- 
fipiov Bia>aafiepov koI t&p AXXodp ofioiayf; ixoPTcop, 
cIttopto^ Bi Tipo^ a>9 Bet fitj fiepeip, dXXA (fyevyeip, 



242 



BRUTUS 

helmet and ran down to the river. Then a noise fell 
upon their ears from the opposite direction, and Vo- 
lumnius went forth to reconnoitre, and with him 
Dardanus his shield-bearer. After a little while, 
however, they returned, and asked about the water 
to drink. Whereupon, with a very expressive smile, 
Brutus said to Volumnius : " It is drunk up ; but 
another draught shall be fetched for you." Then the 
same man who had brought the first was sent for 
more, but he ran the risk of being captured by the 
enemy, was wounded, and with difficulty came off 
safe. Now, since Brutus conjectured that not many 
of his men had been killed in the battle, Statyllius ^ 
promised him that after cutting his way through the 
enemy (there was no other way), he would recon- 
noitre the camp, raise a blazing torch if he found 
things there in safety, and then come back to him. 
Accordingly, the blazing torch was raised, since 
Statyllius succeeded in reaching the camp; but 
after a long time had passed and he did not return, 
Brutus said : " If Statyllius is alive, he will come 
back." But it so happened that he fell in with the 
enemy on his way back, and was slain. 

LII. As the night advanced, Brutus turned, just 
as he sat, towards his servant Cleitus, and talked 
with him. And when Cleitus wept and made no 
answer, Brutus next drew Dardanus his shield-bearer 
aside and had some private conversation with him. 
Finally, he spoke to Volumnius himself in Greek, 
reminding him of their student life, and begged him 
to grasp his sword with him and help him drive home 
the blow. And when Volumnius refused, and the 
rest likewise, and some one said they must not tarry 

* Cf. Cato the Younger, Ixv. 4 f.; Ixxiii. 4. 

243 
R 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^auaard^, "Haw fiev ovv,'* e<f>r}, ^' (pevKTeov 
aW oif Sia Tcov iroS&v, dXXa Sid rtov ^6t/owJ/.' 
i/Jifidkobv Se TTjv he^idv eKaaTro jxaKa (f>aiBp6^ 
fjheadai fiev €<^y} fieydXr^v rjSovrjv on r&v <f)iK(av 
avTOP ovSeU i'^evaaro, ttj tvxd S' iyKoKeiv 

3 virep T^9 iraTpiBo^' eavrov Be t&v vevtrKrjKOTwv 
fjLaKapL(OT€pov vo/iL^€iv, ovK e;^^€9 ovSe Trpcorfv 
fiovov, dWd KoX vvp, dirdkeiiTOvTa ho^av dperrj^, 1009 
r^v ou0^ ottXoi^ ovt€ ')(pripa(Ti,v diroXeiylrovaip oi 
K€fcpaTr)K6T€<;, ci? /itf Sofcelv ort Bixaiov^ apBpa^ 
ahiKoi Kol KUKol j^^i;<7T0V9 diroXiaaPTe^ ov irpoa- 

4 rjKOPTO)^ apxovai, SerjOeU Se fcal TrapaKaXiaa^ 
a(o^€ip eavToif^ dpex'^pv^^^ dircoTepoD perd Svelp 
fj Tpi&p, ip oh ffp KoX ^rpdroDp o diro Xoyaop 
pr)ropiKa>p yeyopw avr^ avp'q07)<;. xal tovtop 
eyyiara 'irapa(rr7j<Tdp€Po<: eavr^ kcu to ^i(f>o^ 
yvp,pop iir\ t^9 Xa/Sij^; Ta?9 p^epcrlr dpxf>oT€pat^ 

6 ipeia-a^ fcal irepi/ireaoiP eTeXevrrjaep. oi Be <j)aaip 
OVK avTOP, dXXd top ^TpaTtopa, iroXXd irdpv tov 
3povTOV BerfdePTO^, diroaTpe^apTa ttjp oylrip Otto- 
o-Ttjaai TO ^i^o<;' i/celpop Bk pvp^j) irpoapaXopTa 
TO aTcppop KaX Bmaapra avpTopoD^ diroOapeip, 

LIIL TovTOP Bk TOP XTpaTODpa MeaadXa*; €Tal' 
po^ &p BpovT^ Kaiaapi BiaXXayeh €7rl axoXrj^ 
7roT€ 7rpoai]yay€, xal Baxpvaa^; eltrep' "05to9 
iaTip, & Kalaap, 6 dpijp, 6 t^ ip,^ BpovTtp tt^p 
TeXevTaCap virovpytjaa^ ;^ap^i//' diroBe^dp^po^ 
oip Kaiadp ea^BV ainop €P tc toU iropot^ koX 
244 



BRUTUS 

but ^y, Brutus rose and said : '' By all means must we 
fly ; not with our feet, however, but with our hands." 
Then, after clasping each by the hand, with a very 
cheerful countenance he said he rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding joy that not one of his friends had proved 
false to him, and as for Fortune, he blamed her only 
for his country's sake ; himself he regarded as more 
to be envied than his conquerors, not yesterday and 
the day before merely, but even now, since he was 
leaving behind him a reputation for virtue, which 
those who surpassed in arms or wealth would not 
do; since the world would believe that base and 
unjust men who put to death the good and just were 
unfit to rule. Then, after earnestly entreating them 
to save themselves, he withdrew a little way in the 
company of two or three friends, among whom was 
Strato, who had been his intimate since they studied 
rhetoric together. This man he placed nearest to 
himself, and then, grasping with both hands the hilt 
of his naked sword, he fell upon it and died. Some, 
however, say that it was not Brutus himself, but 
Strato, who at his very urgent request, and with 
averted eyes, held the sword in front of him, upon 
which he fell with such force that it passed quite 
through his breast and brought him instant death. ^ 
LIII. As for this Strato, Messala, the comrade of 
Brutus, after a reconciliation with Octavius, once 
found occasion to introduce him to his new master, 
and said, with a burst of tears : '^ This is the man, 
O Caesar, who did the last kind office for my dear 
Brutus." Accordingly, Strato was kindly received 
by Octavius, who, in his subsequent labours, and 

^ The battles at Philippi occurred in 42 B.C., and Brutun 
was forty -three years of age when he died. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iv Tot9 Trepl "A/cnov ar/Aa-iv eva r&v irepi aifTOV 

2 dyaO&v yevofievoDV *EiWT]V€i>v. avrbv Be tov Meo*- 
aaXav Xiyovaiv varepov iiraivovfievov viro Kai- 
aapo^ oTi, Kaiirep iv ^iTdinroi^ iroKjefiiwraTo^ 
ainoU yepopevo^ Sict BpovTOV, iv ^AxTLip irpodv- 
porarov iavTov irapia'xj^v, " 'E70) to£," <f>dvcu, " & 
K.al<rapy ael rr^ ^eXriovo^ koX SiKaioripa^ ripLry; 
KoX pjeplho<i iy€v6prjv,*^ 

3 Tov Sc ^povTOV 6 'AvTc»i/to9 avevpiov TeOvtjKora 
TO p,€V ao^pa rfj TroXvTeXeaTdTrj t&v iavrov <f>ot' 
vikCSoov irepi/SaXeiv iKeXevaev, varepov Se rr^v 
<f)oivii€iSa KeKXeppivrfv aiadop^vo^ diriicTeive tov 
v<f>€X6p.€vov. rd Se Xeiyjrava 7rp6^ rrjv pufTepa tov 

4 lipovTOV XepfiiXiav direirep^'y^e, Hopfciav Sk ttjv 
BpovTOv yvvaiKa ^iKoXao^ 6 (f)iX6(TO<f>o^ laTopei 
KoX OvaXepio^ Md^ipo<; /3ovXop^vr]v diroOavelv, 
0)9 ovheX^ itreTpeTre t&v <f>LXa>v, dXXd irpoaexeiVTo 
KoX irape^vXaTTOv, i/c tov ttu/oo? dvapirda-aa-av 
dv0paKa<; KaTainelv koI to aTopa avyKXelaaaav 

6 Koi p,v(Ta(Tav ovtoo 8ia<f)0aprjvai,. /caLTOi (f>ip€Tai 
TL<i iiTKTToXrj ^povTov TTpo^ Tov^ <l>iXov^ iyfca- 
XovvTo^ avTol^ zeal 6Xo<f>vpopevov irepX t^? liop- 
KLa<;, ©9 dpeXfjdeia-rjf; vir avT&v koX irpoeXop^evij^ 
8cd v6<rov xaTdXnreiv tov fiiov. €oi/C€v oiv 6 
N4«oXao9 ^yvoffKevai tov ;^oi/oi/, iircl to ye 
Trddofs fcal tov epwTa t^9 yvvaiKo^ kcu tov Tpo- 
TTOV T^9 TeXevTTj^; VTrovorjaai SlSeoai koX to itn- 
aTo^iOV, etirep apa t&v yvrjcricov iaTiv. 



24O 



BRUTUS 

especially at the battle of Actium^ found him^ as 
well as other Greeks^ a brave partisan. And it is 
said that Messala himself was once praised by 
Octavius because^ though at Philippi he had been 
most hostile to him and Antony for the sake of 
Brutus^ at Actium he had been a most zealous ad- 
herent of his ; whereupon Messala said : " Indeed, 
O Caesar, 1 have ever been on the better and juster 
side." 

When Antony found Brutus lying dead, he ordered 
the body to be wrapped in the most costly of his own 
robes, and afterwards, on hearing that the robe had 
been stolen, put the thief to death. The ashes of 
Brutus he sent home to his mother Servilia.^ As for 
Porcia, the wife of Brutus, Nicolaiis the philosopher, 
as well as Valerius Maximus,^ relates that she now 
desired to die, but was opposed by all her friends, 
who kept strict watch upon her; wherefore she 
snatched up live coals from the fire, swallowed them, 
kept her mouth fast closed, and thus made away 
with herself. And yet there is extant a letter of 
Brutus to his friends in which he chides them with 
regard to Porcia and laments her fate, because she 
was neglected by them and therefore driven by 
illness to prefer death to life. It would seem, then, 
that Nicolaiis was mistaken in the time of her death, 
since her distemper, her love for Brutus, and the 
manner of her death, are also indicated in the letter, 
if, indeed, it is a genuine one. 

^ Suetonius (Divus Augustus, 13) says that the head of 
Brutus was sent to Kome to be thrown at the feet of Caesar's 
statue* ' De/actia mem, iv. 6^ 5. 



»47 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



AIONOS KAI BPOYTOY SYrKFlSlS 

I. HoW&v TOLVVp T0t9 avSpdaiv virap^avrtov 
KoK&p, iv roi<: 7rpa)T0c<; Se tov fi€yi(rTov<; i\a)(i' 
(7Tat9 a<j>opfiaU yeveadac, tovto t^ ^Uovi KaXKi- 
arov iaTiv. ov yhp elx^ tov afi<l>ial3r)T0vvTa, 
KaOa/rrep 6 Upovro^ Kdaa-iov, dvBpa tt/oo? fiev 
dperrfv xal So^av ovy ofMoito^ d^ioTriarop, eh Se 
TOV TToXefiov ovK ikaTTOva^ roXfit) xal BeivoTtjTt 
KoX Trpd^ei avfi^oXd^ irapaaxofievov, cS ye xal 
TOV iravTO'; epyov irpoairoiovaiv evioi rrjv apx^v, 
r/yefiova Ttj^ €7rl Kaiaapa yvdjir)^ tovtov arpe- 

2 fiovvrt ^povTtp yeviaOai XiyovTC^, Ateoi/ S' foairep 
oirXa KaX irKola icaX aTpaTUDTiKriv Svva/uv, ovt<o 
Koi (f>t\ov^ KoX avvepyoif^ cttI t})v irpa^iv avrb^ 
iavT^ <f>aiv€Tai /cTfjo'dfievo^. ov firjv ovS* co? 
B/doOto? ck t&v irpayfidrcov avr&v Koi tov iroXi- 
fiov irXovTOV €a")(e KaX Bvvafiiv, ovtcj KaX Aiav, 
dWci Tq> iroXifiq) irpoeKTrfveyKev avTO^ tov eavTOV 
ifKovTov, vwep T^9 T&v TToXiT&v eXjsvOepla^ Tot9 

3 T^9 <f>vy^ 60o8to*9 TTpoKaTaxP'n^dfievo^, €ti Se 1010 
B/ooi}T09 fikv Kol K-daaio^, ovk ov dadiaXh r/a-V' 
X^v ayeiv iKireaovai t^9 'Pdtfirf^, dW oa^fiX/qKOiTi, 
SlKf)v OavdTOV KaX SiaKOfiivoi^, dvayKoito^ eh tov 
iroXe/jLOv KaT€<f>vyov KaX Tct tnofUiTa toU owXoi^ 
TrapaKaTaOifievoi SuKivBvvevo'av vtrip avT&v to 
wXiov fj T&v TToXiT&v, AUov B* dBeecTepov iv t§ 
<f>vy^ TOV <f>vyaZevaavTo^ Tvpdvvov KaX rjBiov Bid- 
ywv dveppiyjrev CKCbv klvBvvov to<tovtov eirX ry 
(T&<raA ^iKe\iav» 



248 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

I. We see^ therefore^ that both men had many 
noble traits, and especially that they rose to the 
greatest heights from the most inconsiderable be- 
ginnings; but this is most to the credit of Dion. 
For he had no one to dispute his eminence, as Brutus 
had in Cassius, a man whose virtue and fame did 
not inspire confidence in like degree, but who, by 
reason of his boldness, ability, and efficiency, con- 
tributed no less than Brutus did to the war ; indeed, 
some attribute to him the origin of the whole enter- 
prise, declaring that he took the lead in the plot 
against Caesar when Brutus was passive. Dion, how- 
ever, appears to have acquired by his own efforts, 
not only arms and vessels and a military force, but 
also friends and co-workers for his enterprise. How- 
ever, Dion did not, like Brutus, win wealth and power 
from the course of the war itself, nay, he contributed 
his own wealth for the war, expending in behalf 
of the liberty of his countr3rmen those resources 
which supported him in his exile. And further, it 
was not safe for Brutus and Cassius to keep quiet 
after their banishment from Rome, but since they 
were condemned to death and pursued, it was of 
necessity that they resorted to war ; and in commit- 
ting their persons to the protection of their arms they 
incurred danger in their own behalf rather than in 
behalf of their countrymen ; whereas Dion was living 
with greater confidence and pleasure in his banish- 
ment than the t3n*ant who banished him, and yet of 
his own accord he haasarded a peril so great in order 
to save Sicily, 

249 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

II. Kal fM}v ovx ofioiov i^Lovvciov XvpaK0vaL0i<; 
fj Kaia-apo^ dTraXXayrjvai 'Pay fjuaioi^. 6 fiiv yap 
ovS*^ fipvelro rvpawo^ elvai fcaxtov re pvpicov 
ifiireirXrjKeL ^iKeklav 17 he Kaiaapo^; apxv avvi- 
arafievT} fiev ovk oXiya roi^ ivavriovfievoi^; irpay- 
fiara 'irapi(T')(€, Be^afiivoi^ Sk xal fcpaTrjffeio'iv 
opofia Kal S6Krf(ri<; i(f>dvrf fiovov, epyov S' air* avTri<i 
ovhev d)fiov ovBk rvpavviKov VTrrjp^ev, dWd xal 
ieofiivoi^ eBo^e T0t9 Trpdr/fiaai fiovap')(ia^ irpao- 
TUTO^ &(nT€p larpo^ vir avrov rov Saifiovc^ 

2 SeSoadai. 010 K.aLaapa fiev eifOif^ €Tr66r)<r€V 6 
'PoifLaidov SrjfJLo^, Hare %a\€7ro9 yeviaOat koX 
dirapaiTrjTO^ T0Z9 dweKTOvotri, Aioova S' 17 Aiovv- 
aiov irdpeai^ ix 'S.vpa/cova&v seal to fit) fcuTa- 
<rKdyfrai rov vporepov rvpdvvov rov rdipov hrai- 
Tiov fidXiara irpo^ tou9 TroXtra? iiroLrio'eif, 

III. 'Ei/ airraid roivvv Tal^ iroXefiiKai^; irpd- 
^€<Tiv 6 fiev Aicov ajjL€fnrro<; yeyove a-TpaTY)y6<;, 
ft>9* fiev avTO^ il3ov\€V€TO T0t9 TTpdyfiaaiv aptara 
')(p(!>fi€VO<;, h S' iirraiaOrj St* erepov^ dvaXa^cbp 

2 Kol fieraaTTjaa^ iirX to /ScXtiov 6 Sk 3povTo^ rov 
ea^arov dywva virep t&v oXayv ov0^ VTroarrjvac 
SoK€i <l>povLixa)^ ovT€ <r<^aX€l9 iwavopOeoaiv evpelv, 
aXV direlire xal irpoelro ra? iXiriSa^, oifS* oaov 
UofiTTijio^ i7nToXfii](Ta^ t§ tvxV ^^^ ravra ttoX- 
X^9 p^v avTodc XeiTTOfiivrj^ iXiriBo^ €v Tot9 ott- 
Xo«9, Tat9 a vaval /cpar&v irdarj^; ^efiaico^ t% 
OaXdaatf^, 

3 *^0 Si fUyuTTOv iariv &v iyKaXovai Bpovnp, rb 
aouOepTa ry Kaiaapo^ 'X^dpiri koX a-dxravra t&v 



^ ofiJ' Bekker corrects to otn*. 

* dbs with Coraes and Bekker : fiy* 



250 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

II. And verily it was not a like thing for Syracuse 
to be rid of Dionysius and Rome of Caesar. For 
Dionysius was even an avowed tyrant^ and filled 
Sicily with countless ills ; whereas the rule of Caesar^ 
although during its establishment it gave no little 
trouble to its opponents^ stilly after they had been 
overpowered and had accepted it, they saw that it 
was a tyranny only in name and appearance, and no 
cruel or tyrannical act was authorized by it ; nay, it 
was plain that the ills of the state required a mon- 
archy, and that Caesar, like a most gentle physician, 
had been assigned to them by Heaven itself. There- 
fore the Roman people felt at once a yearning for 
Caesar, and in consequence became harsh and im- 
placable towards his murderers; whereas Dion, for 
letting Dionysius escape from Syracuse, and for not 
demolishing the tomb of the former tyrant, was held 
most culpable by his countrymen. 

III. Next, as regards their actual military achieve- 
ments, Dion was a consummate general ; where he 
himself made the plans, he achieved the best results, 
and where failure was due to others, he restored and 
bettered the situation. Brutus, on the other hand, 
as it seems, was unwise in entering upon the last 
supreme struggle, and when he was defeated, could 
not find a way to restore his cause, but gave up and 
abandoned his hopes, not even facing adverse fortune 
with as much resolution as Pompey, and that too 
although on land he had much ground for confidence 
left in his troops, and with his fleet was secure master 
of all the sea. 

Moreover, the gravest charge which is brought 
against Brutus, namely, that although his life was 
spared by the kindness of Caesar, together with the 

251 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a-vveaXoDKOTwv Strove e^ovkero koL ^iXov vofii^o- 
fjuevov fcal irpoTifirjOevra iroXK&v aifroxcipa tov 
cdxramo^ yeifiaOcu, tout' ov/c av Tt9 €?7rot Kara 
AioDVO^, aWh Tovvavriov, ol/ceio^ fjAv &v iiLovv- 
aiq> fcal <^t\o9 &pdov rh irparffiara teal auvhie^v- 
XaTTev, €KTr€<Ta)v Bk t^9 TrarpiSo^ kclI dBi/ctfffeU 
irepl Tr)v r^vvaiKa icaX ttjv ovciav airoXjeaa^ ck 
7rpo<f>avov^ eh iroXefiov /eariaTTj vofiifiov xal Bi- 

4 Kaiov, ff tout' avTt(rTpi<l)€i irp&Tov; h yap ek 
eiratvov vvdpx^t toU dvSpdai fieyiarov, 17 tt/oo? 
T0U9 TVpdvvov^ diriy(jS€ia xal fiiao'Trovrjpia, tovt 
eiXi/cpivi^ iari tcS Bpovr^ xal xadapov, liia yap 
ovSev iyKoK&p Kaiaapi rrj^ feoivrjf; irpoeKivhvvevev 

5 iXevdepia^* 6 S' el firj Ka/c&<; eiradev avro*;, ovk 
cLv iiroXep/qae* koX tovto irfXavTai Tat9 IlXaTa)- 
i;o9 i'jno'ToXat^, ef &v i^Xo9 iariv w dTro/3Xr)6€U 
Ttj^ TVpawLBo^, OVK diroa-Td^, KareXvae ^novvaiov, 

€Tt BpOVTOV fJL€V Koi UoflTTTfttp <f>CX0V iTTOLTjaeV, 

i^Opov Svra, xal woXcfiiov JS^auaapi, to Koivfj 
avfitfyepov, C09 ^Opa^ op<p xal (fiiXia*; ivl XP^P^^ov 

T^ ZtKaLtp' AlWV 8k 7r/909 X^P^^ &p0ov TTOXXd 

Aiovvaiov, or fjy fie/Saio^ ain^, koI irpo^ opyifv 

6 dTTiarrjOeU iiroXep^ijae. Sto rovrtp phf ovh^ oi 
<l>lXoi 7rdvT€^ iiriaTevaav, 0)9 p^eracmja'a^ Aiovv- 
(Tiov OVK &v iSe/SaKoaaiTO ttjv dpxh^ avr^, 
wpcforepq) rvpawlSo^ 6v6fiaT$ vapayaya>v roir; 
woXiTa^, we pi Se toO B/ooutou tAi/ ix^p&v ^f 
aKoveiv OTi /ioi/09 t&v iirl Kcdaapa awapap^av 

353 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

lives of all the fellow captives for whom he wished 
to intercede, and although Caesar held him a friend 
and honoured him above many, he struck down his 
preserver with his own hand, — this charge no one can 
bring against Dion. On the contrary, while he was 
a courtier and friend of Dionysius, he tried to set 
the state in order and help in preserving it; but 
when he had been banished from his country, wronged 
as a husband, and deprived of his property, he openly 
resorted to a war that was lawful and just. Or does 
this argument reverse itself at once ? For that which 
redounds to the praise of both men is their hostility 
to tyrants and hatred of their baseness, and this is 
disinterested and sincere in the case of Brutus, since 
without any private grievance against Caesar he risked 
his life for the common liberty; whereas, had not 
Dion himself been mistreated, he would not have 
gone to war. And this is made manifest by the letters 
of Plato, from which it is clear that Dion did not 
revolt, but was cast out from the tyranny, and there- 
fore overthrew Dionysius. Still further, it was the 
public good that made Brutus a friend even to Pompey, 
who was his foe, and an enemy to Caesar, since he 
determined both hatred and friendship by justice 
alone; Dion, on the other hand, gave Dionysius 
much support in order to win his favour, when he 
was secure in his confidence, and when he was dis- 
credited by him, it was to gratify anger that he went 
to war. Therefore Dion was not trusted even by all 
his friends, who felt that after removing Dionysius 
he might secure the government for himself, enticing 
his countrymen along by some milder name than that 
of tyranny ; but the enemies of Brutus were wont to 
say that of all the conspirators against Caesar he 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€va irpovOeTO aKoirbv air apxv^ ^XP* T€\ov<; rtfv 
wcLTpLov dwoBovvai 'Pufiaioi^ iroKireiav. 

IV. "Avev ye fiifp tovtodv 6 irpb^ Aiovvaioi^ 1011 
ayoDV oux ofioio^ fjv hrjirov r^ irpo^ Kaiaapa. 
Aiopvaiov fiiv yhp ovheX*; oari*; ovk av Kare^po- 
VTjae T&v avpi]Oa>v iv pAdaif; koX fcvl3oi<s /cal 
jwai^l Ta9 irXeiara^ iroiovpAvov Biarpifid^' 
TO Se rrjv KaXaapo^ KardXvaiv el^ vovv ip,- 
fiaXeadai xai /atj <f>oj3r)0rjvai ttjv SeiPOTrjra xal 
Bvpap,ip /cal TVYHP, ^^ ^^^ Toupopu rov^ Hap- 
OvaUop KoX *1po&p PaaCKels ovk eta fceiOevSeip, 
vir€p<f>vov^ fjp ^Iruxv^ fccu irpo^ p.'qOhf v<f>UaOai 

2 d>60a) Tov <l)popi]fjLaTO^ Svpap,€pr)^, iio t& fiev 
o<f>0€PTL p.6pop €p %ifc€\ia p,vpidSe^ ovk oXiyai 
avpiarrjtrap iirl Aiopvaiop' 17 hk Kaiaapo^; Bo^a 
Kol irea-oPTO^ &p0ov tov^ <f>l\ov<;, KaX Tovpofia top 
')(^p7^(TdpLepop fjpep CK iraiSb^ dp,ri')(dpov irp&Top 
€v6v^ etpai 'Pcop>aia)p, w d\e^L<f>dpp.aKOP tovto 
irpos TTjp ^KvTODpiov irepia^dpLepop exOpap koi 
hvpap^p, 

3 Et Be (^irjdei Tt9 otl fieydXoi^ fikp . cuy&aip 
Aiap e^e^oKe top Tvpappop, Kaiaapa 8k BpovTO<; 
€KT€CPe yvfipop Kol a(f>v\aKTOP, aifTo tovto SeiPo- 
TtjTO^ aKpa^ xal aTpaTrfyia^ ^p epyop, apBpa 
ToaavT7]p TrepifiefiXrjfiipov hvpap^p aifyvXaKTOv 
\al3etp Kal yvfipop, ov ycip €^aL<f>prf<; ovBe p,6po^ 
'fj aifp oXlyoi^ etnTrea-wp dpelXep, dW' eK iroXKov 
avpOel^ TO fiovKevpxi KaX fieTct iroW&v eiriOe' 
p£PO^, &p ouSel? hfrevaaT avTOP, ^ yhp evdif^ 
eKpipe Toif^ dpiaTOv^ ^ t^ TrpoKpipac tov9 inaTev- 

4 OePTa^ ayaOov^ irrolrjae. Aiayp Sk 6?t€ Kpipa^ 
KaK&^ eiri<rTev(T€P eavTOP iropripols efre XP^H'^^^ 

254 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

alone had one aim from first to last^ namely the re- 
storation to the Romans of their ancient form of 
government. 

IV. However, apart from these considerations, the 
struggle against Dionjsius was surely unlike that 
against Caesar. For Dionysius must have been de- 
spised by every one of his associates, devoted as he 
was to wine, dice, and women ; but to plan the over- 
throw of Caesar, and not to fear the ability, power, 
and good fortune of the man whose very name robbed 
the kings of Parthia and India of their sleep, be- 
tokened an extraordinary spirit, and one which fear 
could never induce to remit its lofty purposes. 
Therefore Dion had only to be seen in Sicily, and 
many thousands joined him in attacking Dionysius ; 
whereas the fame of Caesar, even after he had fallen, 
supported his friends, and his name raised the help- 
less boy who adopted it to be at once the foremost 
Roman, and he wore it as a charm against the power 
and hatred of Antony. 

But should it be objected that Dion cast out the 
tyrant only after great struggles, while Brutus slew 
Caesar unarmed and unguarded, this very circum- 
stance was a result of the highest ability and gene- 
ralship, namely, that a man enveloped in such great 
power should be taken unarmed and unguarded. For 
not on a sudden, nor alone, or with a few helpers 
only, did he fall upon him and slay him, nay, his 
plan was long in forming, and his attack was made 
with many helpers, not one of whom proved false to 
him. For either he chose out at once the best men, 
or his choice of them before others, and his confi- 
dence in them, made them good. But Dion either 
chose unwisely and entrusted himself to bad men, 

255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iiroirfaev ix XPV^'^^^ irovripov^, ovherepov iraOetv 
avhpX <f)povlfi^ TrpoarJKev, iiriTifia Se xal IlXa- 
TO)!/ avr^ TOLOVTOv^ eXofiivq) .<J>l\ov^, v<f> &v airw- 

\€T0. 

V. Kal Aiavo^ fiev rifnopo^ ovSeU i(l)din) ire- 
aovTO^' aXKa "Bpovrov koI t&v iroXefiicov ^Avrto- 
VLO<; fiev €0aylt€V ivSo^ay^, K.alaap Bi xal t^9 
TifJM^ iTiiprjaev, larijKe Se 'x^aXxov^ avhpih^ iv 
MeSioXdvq) rrj^ ivrb^ "AXirecop FaXarta?. tovtop 
varepov ISwv 6 l^alaap elKoviKov ovra koX ')(apUv- 
TO)? elpyaafiivov TraprfXOev eW hrtara^ fiera 
fiifcpov aKpo(OfJL€V(av iroXX&p tou9 ap^oj/ra? ifcdXei, 
<f>dafC(ov €K<TiTovZov avT&v rijv iroXiv €iXr)(f)€vai 
2 iroXifuov expvaav trap avTy, to flip oip irpoii- 
TOP, 0)9 el/co^:, fjppovPTO, xal rlpa TUyoi hiairopovp- 
T€9 6t9 oKXrjXov^ a/iripXe^ap, w S' iTTLarpiy^a^ 
6 K.aio'ap •7r/)09 top dphpidpra KaX avpayayfbp to 
irpoacoTTOP, "'AW' ov^ o5to9," €(f)rj, " 7roX€fito<; 
&p '^fiirepo^ ipTavda earrjKep ; " en fiaXXop Kara- 
TrXayipTC^ ia-iooinja'ap. 6 Sk fieiSidaa^ iirypeae 
T€ TOt'9 TaXdra^ o)^ to?9 <f>LXoL<i Kot irapa tcL^ 
Ti;;^a9 ^efiaiov^ opra^, koX top dpBpidpTa KUTct 
j(^d)pap fiipeip eKeXevae. 



256 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

or else treated the men of his choice so as to turn 
them from good to bad^ neither of which mistakes 
a prudent man ought to make. And in fact Plato 
censures him for choosing such friends as proved his 
ruin. 

V. Further, no one arose to avenge Dion's death ; 
but in the case of Brutus, Antony, an enemy, gave 
him illustrious burial, and Octavius, an enemy, actu- 
ally took care to preserve his honours. For a bronze 
statue of him stood in Mediolanum in Cisalpine Gaul. 
This statue, at a later time, Octavius noticed as he 
passed by, for it was a good likeness and an artistic 
piece of work ; then stopping, after a little, in the 
hearing of many he summoned the magistrates and 
declared that he had caught their city violating its 
treaty and harbouring an enemy of his. At first, 
then, as was natural, they denied it, and looked at 
one another in perplexity, not knowing what he 
meant. Then Octavius, turning to the statue and 
knitting his brows, said : '^Well, is not this an enemy 
of mine who stands here ? " At this, the magistrates 
were still more dumbfounded and held their peace. 
But Octavius, with a smile, praised the Gauls because 
they were true to their friends even in adversity, 
and gave orders that the statue should remain where 
it was. 



257 

VOL. VI. 8 



TIMOLEON 



n 



n 



TIMOAEQN 

*E/iol^ T^9 r&v jSlcov a'^aadai fiev 7pa^% 235 
avpifirj Bi* €T€pov^, iirifiiveiv Be koX il>i\oX'a>p€iv 
^Bff /cal Bi* ifiavTOv, S^airep iv iaoirrp^ ry iaropia 
ireipcofievov ap,S}<i ye irta^ Koafielv koX a<f>ofAOiovv 
irpo^ ra^ ifceivayv apera^ top /Slop. ovBep yap 
dXV rj avpBiaiTi]a'€t Koi tru^fiiaxrei to yipop^pop 
eoifcep, OTUP &(nrep iiri^epov/jLepop exaaTOP axn&p 
€P fiipei Bih T^9 i<TTopia^ viroBexofiePoi Kal irapa- 
T^xififidpopTe^ apaOecop&fiep " ocrao^ etfp 616^ re,** 
T^ KvpKOTaTa Kol fcdWKrTa irpb^ Np&aip diro 
T&p irpd^eeop \afiPdpoPTe<i, 

•2 ^ev, <f>ev' TL TOVTOV x^pfia fiei^op iip Xd/Soi^, 

Koi^ irpo^ iirapopdwaip rjdSiP epepyoTepop; Arjfio- 

KpiTo^ fiep ykp eirxeadaL <l>'t]<Ti Belp ottq)? evXoy^ 

XJ^v elBdXayp Tvyxdp(op,ep koI Th avfi<f>v7ui Kal t^ 

XPV^'^^ P'OWop ^pip €K Tov irepiexoPTO^ ^ tA 

<Pav\a fcal tcl (tkcucl avpxl>€pr)Tai, \6yop ovt 

dXrfOr] Kol irpo^ airepdpTOv^ €K<f>€p0PTa BeiaiBat- 

3 pxiPia^ eh <l)i\o(To<l>iap KaTafidXKwp' 'qpeU Be Ttj 

irepX Tf)p laTopiap BiaTpififi kuI t§9 ypa<f>rj^ ry 

^ ifiol with Bekker, af tet Stephanas and Reiske : ifial filp. 
' Kal supplied by Sintenii, after Schaefer ; Bekker sup- 
plies ^. 

260 



TIMOLEON 

I BEGAN the writing of my " Lives " for the sake 
of others^ but I find that I am continuing the work 
and delighting in it now for my own sake also, using 
history as a mirror and endeavouring in a manner 
to fashion and adorn my life in conformity with the 
virtues therein depicted. For the result is like nothing 
else than daily living and associating together, when 
I receive and welcome each subject of my history in 
turn as my guest, so to speak, and observe carefully 
*' how large he was and of what mien," ^ and select 
from his career what is most important and most 
beautiful to know. 

" And oh ! what greater joy than this canst thou 
obtain," * 

and more efficacious for moral improvement? De- 
mocritus says we ought to pray that we may be 
visited by phantoms which are propitious, and that 
from out the circumambient air such only may en- 
counter us as are agreeable to our natures and good, 
rather than those which are perverse and bad, there- 
by intruding into philosophy a doctrine which is not 
true, and which leads astray into boundless supersti- 
tions. But in my own case, the study of history and 
the familiarity with it which my writing produces, 

1 As Priam admired Achilles, Iliad, xxiv. 630. 
* An iambic trimeter from the Tympanistae of Sophocles 
(Nauck, Tra{^ Orate, Frag^, p. 270). 

a6i 



i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TVPfiOeia irapaaKevd^ofjiev eavrov^, ra^; t&v apl" 
(TTfov KoX ioKifimrdTtov ^vrjfia^ virohexpfievov^ 
aeX Tal<i yjrvxaU, et ri <f>av\ov fj KatcorjOe^ ^ dyev- 
v€^ ai T&v avvovTcav e^ avdytctf^ ofuXiat Trpocr- 
^dWovaiv, cKKpoveiv teal Si€o0€ta0ai, irpos ra 
KaWiara r&p irapaBeiyfidTcop tKeo) fcal irpaelav 

4 dTro<TTp€ff>ovT€<; TTjv Stdvoiav, &v ip r^ irapoPTi 
7r/)o/c€;^€t/)fc<r/4€^a <roi top TifwXiovTo^ tov K,opiv- 
6Lov Koi TOP AifiiKiov J\av\jov fiiop, dpBp&p ov 
fiovop Tat9 aipeaecrip, d\\d xal tui^ Ti;;^ai9 dya- 
0aU ofwico^ K€XPV/^€poi)p iiri Tct irpdyfuiTa, koI 
Biafi(l>iafij]Tr)(Tip irape^oPTWp iroTepop einroTfiia 
fidWop rj ^popifi<T€v Ta fUytaTa t&v ireirpayfiepoDP 
KaTtopdwcap, 

I. Ta fiep XvpaKOvaiwp irpdyfiaTa irpb t% 236 
TtfwXeovTO^ €t9 Xc/ceXiap diroaToXr)^ ovtch^ ^^X^^' 
eirel Alodp fiep i^eXdaa^ daopvaiop top Tvpavvov 
€v0v^ dprjp€0r) SoXto Kol BiiaTrjaap ol aifp Al(opi 
'S.vpaKovaiov^ iX€v0€p(oaapT€<;, y Se iroXi^ dXXop 
€^ dXXov fi€Taj3dXXovaa avpe^&i TVpappov viro 
7rXi]0ov^ KUK&p fitKpop diriXenrev eprjfio^ elvcu, 
T^9 8' &XXrj<; XiKcTua^ ij fiev dvdcTTaTO^ koX airoXif; 

2 iravTdrcaaip tjSt) Sid tov^ TroXifwv^ ^'^HPX^^* ^*' 
he irXelaTai iroXei^ irTrb /Sap^dpmp fuydScop xai 
aTpaTUOT&v dfua0(op KaTeixoPTO, paBia>^ 'irpoaie- 
fUpwp T^9 fi€Tal3oXd^ T&p hvvatTTei&Py Atopvo'to^ 
€T€t SefcdTip ^€Pov^ a-vvayaymf KaX tov totc Kpa- 
TovvTa T&y ^vpaKovcitav Hvaalov i^eXdaa^, 

263 



fl 



TIMOLEON 

enables me^ since I always cherish in my soul the 
records of the noblest and most estimable characters^ 
to repel and put far from me whatever base^ malicious^ 
or ignoble suggestion my enforced associations may 
intrude upon me^ calmly and dispassionately turning 
my thoughts away from them to the fairest of my 
examples. Among these were Timoleon the Corin- 
thian and Aemilius Paulus^ whose Lives I have now 
undertaken to lay before my readers ; the men were 
alike not only in the good principles which they 
adopted^ but also in the good fortune which they 
enjoyed in their conduct of affairs^ and they will 
make it hard for my readers to decide whether the 
greatest of their successful achievements were due 
to their good fortune or their wisdom.^ 

I. The state of affairs in Syracuse^ before the ex- 
pedition of Timoleon into Sicily^ was as follows. 
After Dion had driven out Dionysius the tyrant, he 
was at once treacherously slain,^ and those who had 
helped him to free Syracuse were divided among 
themselves. The city, therefore, was continually ex- 
changing one tyrant for another, and owing to a 
multitude of ills was almost abandoned, while as for 
the rest of Sicily, part of it was ruined and already 
wholly without inhabitants by reason of the wars, 
and most of the cities were occupied by Barbarians 
of mixed races and soldiers out of emp]o3rment, who 
readily consented to the successive changes in the 
despotic power. At last Dionysius, in the tenth 
year of his exile,^ collected mercenaries, drove out 
Nisaeus, who was at that time master of Syracuse, 

^ In the MSS. this Introduction stands as the first chapter 
of the Aemilius Paidua, 
' See the DioUt chapter Ivii. This was in 354 b.o. 
* 346 B.o. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aveXajSe ra Trpdy/iaTa iraXiv koI Ka0€i(TT7]K€L 
rvpavvo^ i^ ap)(i]^, irapaXoyo)^ fiev viro /jLiKpa<; 
hvvdfjueoD^ TTfv fieyiarrjv tcjv ircoTrore rvpavvi8a)v 
aTToXecra?, TrapaXoycorepov S' a!f0i<; ifc <f>vydSo<; 
Kal TaTreivov tmv i/c/SaXoprcov /cvpio^ yevofievo^, 

3 oi fJikv ovv vTrop£LvavT€<: ip TJj iroXec twv Xvpa- 
Kovaiaov iSovXeuov ovr aXX©? iineLKel Tvpdvvfp 
Kal Tore iravrdTraa-iv viro avpA^op&v dTrrjypKa- 
pMvfp Tr)v "^v^V^f oi he fieXrio'Toi Kal yvcoptfKO- 
Taroi irpo^ iK€Tr)V rpairivTe^ top hvvao'TevovTa 
Toiiv AeovTLVODv iTT€Tp€y^av avToif<f ixeivip Kal 
(TT parrjyov clXovto rov TToXefwv, fieXriw piv ov- 
S€vo<; Svra r&v 6poXoyovp£va>^ Tvpdwaov, erepav 
S' ovK e'XpvT€<; d7roa'Tpo<f>i]v, Kal TnarevcravTe*; 
^vpaKovautp ro yivo^ ovti Ka\ K€K7r)p4v^ Svvapdv 
d^cofiaxov 7r/309 rov rvpavvov, 

II. 'Ei/ Tovrtp Be Kap)(rjSovLOi)V aroXtp p£ydXa> 
Trapayevopievwv eU XiKeXiav Kal rot? irpdypuaiv 
eiraKopovpAvoov <f>ofir)0ePT€<: ol '^iKeXi&Tac irpe- 
a/3eiap €/3ovXopto irep^ireip eh rrjp ^IStXXdha Kal 
iraph KopipOCcop jSoijOeuip alreip, ov puopop Bia 
Tfjp avyyepeiap ovB* a<f> &p ijBrj iroXXaxi^ evepye- 
Tr)PTo iriaTevopref; eKeipoi^, dXXa koI KaOoKov 
Tfjp iroXtP op&pres ^iXeXevdepop koI fiiaorvpappop 
oitrap del, Koi t&p iroXep^top rov^ irXeia-rov^ Kal 
p^yitrTov^ TrerroXepLTjKvtap ovx v^rep riyefiopia^ Kal 
TrX€OP€^la<;, aXX' virep rrj^ twi/ 'EXXijpmp eXev- 

2 depia^. 6 8' 'iKerrj^, are Stj t^9 Grparriyia^ 
virodeaip ttjp rvpapplBa Treiroir^p^po^, ov ttjp 
XvpaKOvo'iwp iXevOepiap, Kpv<l)a fiep TjBt) Trpo? 
Tou? KapxvBopiovi SieiXeKTO, <l>ap€p&s Be Toif^ 



264 



TIMOLEON 

recovered the ^ower again^ and established himself 
as tyrant anew ; he had been unaccountably de- 
prived by a small force of the greatest tyranny that 
ever was^ and now more unaccountably still he had 
become^ from a lowly exile^ master of those who 
drove him forth. Accordingly, those of the Sjrra- 
cusans who remained in the city were the slaves of 
a tyrant who at all times was unreasonable, and 
whose spirit at this time was rendered altogether 
savage by misfortunes, but the best and most dis- 
tinguished of them had recourse to Hicetas the ruler 
of Leontini, put themselves under his protection, 
and chose him their general for the war; not that 
he was better than any acknowledged tyrant, but 
because they had no other refuge, and felt confidence 
in one who was a Syracusan by birth and possessed a 
force that was able to cope with that of Dionysius. 

II. Meanwhile the Carthaginians came with a large 
armament to Sicily and were watching their oppor- 
tunity, and the Sicilian Greeks, in their fright, wished 
to send an embassy to Greece and ask for assistance 
from the Corinthians, not only because they trusted 
them on account of their kinship^ and in conse- 
quence of the many benefits they had already re- 
ceived from them, but also in general because they 
saw that the city was always a lover of freedom and 
a hater of t3n*ants, and had waged the most and 
greatest of her wars, not for supremacy and aggran- 
dizement, but for the liberty of the Greeks. Hicetas, 
however, since he had made a tyranny for himself, and 
not the freedom of Syracuse, his sole object in taking 
the field, had already held secret conferences with the 
Carthaginians ; yet openly he commended the plan of 

* Syracuse was founded by Corinthians in 735 B.C. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

%vpaKovaiov9 iTrjjvei Kal tov^ irpitrfiei^ el^ IleXo- 
irovvrja-ov (rvve^errefiy^ev, ov ^ov\6/jl€Vo^ iXffeiv 
crvfifiax^v ifC€t0€v, aXX* idv, oirep elxb^ f^v, ol 
K.opivOiot, Bia tA? 'EkXtfviKa^ rapa'XP'^ icaX aa'xp- 
X/a9 aTreiirtoai Ttfv ^oi]0€iav, i\7ri^a}v paov iirX 
Tov? Kapxv^oviov^ ra irparffiara fierd^eiv koX 
XP^o-^f^Oou avfifidxoi^ xai avvaytopnTTaU i/c€LVOi^ 
iirl T0V9 liVpaKOvcrlov^ fj Karii rov rvpawov. 
ravra fiiv oiv oXiyov varepov i^XejxOv* 

III. T.&P Se TrpiajSeoDP vapayepojjUvoDv, ol Ko- 
pivOioi, KrjZecrOai, fup oeL t&v airoLKihwv irokecav 
KoX fidXiaTa Trj<s XvpaKovaiiov eiwdore^;, ovSevo^ 237 
S' auT0V9 TOT€ T&V 'EXXrfvtK&p Kark tvxv^ irapev- 
o'xkovvTO^, aW' iv eiprfVYi koX (rxoXfi Sidyovre^, 
iyp^<f>LaavTO irpoffuficof; /SotfOelv, ^rfrovfiivov Se 
(TTparrfyov Koi t&v dpxovTfov ypa^vTtov koi irpo- 
fiaXKofUvtov T0U9 evBoKifji^lv iv t§ iroXei airov- 
Sd^ovTa^, eh €k t&v ttoXK&v dvatTTa^ iavofiaae 
TifioXiovTa Tov TifioSijfiov, firfTe vpoaiovra T0Z9 
Koivol^ €Ti fiTjT iXyriSo^ TOiavTtf^ yevofievov fj 

2 'n'pocupia'€(a<s, dXXh ffeov tivo^, (09 eotxev, ek vovv 
ifil3a\6vTO^ T^ dvOpcoirq)' ToaavTr) koI irepl ttjv 
aipecriv eifdv^ eXap/^e tvxv^ evpivua Kal Toi^ 
oKKai^ Trpd^eaiv eirtf/coXovOrjae X^P^^ iiriKoa^ 
p^vtra Tffv dpertfv tov dv8po^, 

*Hi/ p,€v oiv yoviaov iiri^av&v iv Ttj froXei, 
Tip,oS^pov Koi /^rfpapi<TTi]^, ffuXoiraTpi^ Bi xal 
irpao^ oicupepovTio^ oaa p>rf <r<f>6Spa puaoTvpavvo^ 

3 elvat KoX p>i<T07r6vr)po^. iv Si T0Z9 iroXipoi^ ovtcj 

366 



TIMOLEON 

the Syracusans and joined them in sending the em- 
bassy to Peloponnesus^ not because he wished that an 
allied force should come from there^ but because he 
hoped that if, as was likely^ the Corinthians should re- 
fuse their assistance because the disturbed condition 
of Greece kept them busy at home, he might more 
easily turn the control of affairs into the hands of 
the Carthaginians and use these invaders as allies 
and helpers in a struggle against the Syracusans or 
against Dionysius. This^ then^ was fully proved a 
little later. 

III. But when the embassy arrived, the Corinth- 
ians, since they were wont to be ever solicitous for 
their colonial cities and for S3rracuse in particular, 
and since by good fortune there was nothing in 
Greece at that time to disturb them, but they were 
enjoying peace and leisure, voted readily to give the 
assistance desired. And while they were seeking 
for a commander, and the magistrates were writing 
down the names of those in the city who were eager 
for the honour and proposing them for election, one 
of the common people rose to his feet and nominated 
Timoleon the son of Timodemus, although he no 
longer took part in public business, and had no ex- 
pectation or purpose of doing so ; but some god, as 
it would seem, put it into the man's mind to nominate 
him, such was the kindliness of Fortune that shone 
forth at once upon his election, and such the grace 
that attended his subsequent actions and adorned 
his virtues. 

He was born of parents who were illustrious in 
the city, Timodemus and Demariste, and he was a 
lover of his country and exceedingly gentle, except 
as he was a hater of tyrants and of base men. As 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

koXg)^ zeal ofiaXm^ ixeKpaTo rtjv ^v<tiv axrre ttoX- 
\fjv fiev iv V€(p avvecriVy ovk eKdrrto hi yrjp&VTO^ 
avBpelav iiri^yaiveaOai Toi^ irpa^ectv. d8€\<f>6v 
S' etx'^ Ti/JiOibdvrjv, irpeafivTepov, ovSev axn^ irpoa- 
ofioiov, aW €fnr\rjKTOV Kal SietfiOapfiivov epayri 
p^vap'xjici^ ^TTO (biXcov tfiavXmv koX ^evoyv arpa- 
TKoriK&v aeX irepi avrov ovtcov, ex^cp tl Sokovvtu 
payBalov iv tol^ crpaTeLai^; Kal <f)iXofCLvBvvov, 

4 tp Kol T0U9 TToXtra? TrpoaayofJievo^ cb? avifp ttoXc- 
fjLiKO^ Kol SpacTfjpio^ i<f>* r/yep^vi&v erarTCTO. 
teal 7rpo9 ravra TifioXeayv avrtp trvvi^pyei, ra fiev 
d/iapTijfiaTa iravTairatrtv diroKpvTTTwv ff fiiKpd 
(fxiiveaffai iroi&p, & 8' 17 <l>v(rt^ i^e<f>€pev aarela 
/caraKO<Tfi&v fcal <Tvvav^o>v. 

IV. 'Ep Be Tff irpo^ ^Apyeiou^ tecu KXcfavaiov^ 
fidxV '^^^ KopivfficDV 6 fi€V Ti/io\€(ov ervx^v iv 
roi<; oifSirai^ reraypAvo^, rbv Se TifjLO(l>dvrjv r&v 
linriwv fiyovp^evov /caTokap^fidvei klvSvvo^ o^v?. 
o ydp iiriro^ avrbv diretTeiaaro trXriyfj irepiireaoDv 
eh T0U9 iroXepiov^y koi t&v eraiotov oi p,€v €vdv<; 
iaKopiriaO'qa-av <f>ol3f)d€VT€^, ol ok irapap^ivavre^i 
oTuyoi 7r/>09 ttoWov^; p^axofievoi j^a\€7ra)9 avrel- 

2 x^^' ^^ ^^^ ^ TificiXicov KarelSe to arvp^/Sefiij/co^, 
hpopifp irpoafioriOrjaa^i kcu rrjv d<nriha tov Tifio- 
(l>dvov^ Keifievov irpoOep^vo^, Kal TroWa ^,kv 
dxovTLapura, nroXkh^ hi TrXrjyh^ i/e ^^tpov dvaBe- 
^dp.€V0^ eh TO a&fia koI ret oirXa, fxoki^ iaxraro 
Toif^ TToXeaiov^ Kal hUamae tov dBeXxfyov, 

'ETret S 01 Kopiv0ioi SeSioTC^ p.f} irdOoiev ola 
Kal irpoTepov viro t'&v avp.pMXo^P diroPa\6vTe<; 
Tfjv TToXtv, iyjrrj^iaavTO Tp€(f>€iv ^evov^ TeTpa- 

268 



TIMOLEON 

a soldier his nature was so well and evenly attempered 
tliat great sagacity was manifested in the exploits of 
his youth^ and no less bravery in those of his old 
age. He had a brother Timophanes^ older than he, 
and not at all like him^ but headstrong and filled 
with a ruinous passion for absolute power by worth- 
less friends and foreign military adventurers who 
were ever about him^ and having the reputation of 
being rather impetuous and fond of danger in mili- 
tary service. Therefore he won followers among the 
citizens and as an efficient warrior was given posts of 
high command. And Timoleon aided him in obtain- 
ing these^ trying to conceal his mistakes altogether 
or to make them seem trifling, and embellishing and 
enhancing his good natural qualities. 

IV. In the battle fought by the Corinthians against 
the Argives and Cleonaeans,^ Timoleon was stationed 
among the men-at-arms, and Timophanes, who com- 
manded the cavalry, was overtaken by extreme peril. 
For his horse was wounded and threw him in among 
the enemy, and of his comrades, some scattered in 
panic flight, while the few who remained fought 
against great numbers and were with difficulty hold- 
ing their ground. Accordingly, when Timoleon saw 
what had happened, he came running to the help of 
Timophanes and held his shield over him as he lay 
on the ground, and after receiving many javelins and 
many hand to hand blows upon his person and his 
armour, at last succeeded in repulsing the enemy 
and saving his brother. 

After this, the Corinthians, fearing lest they should 
suffer a second loss of their city through the treachery 
of their allies,* voted to maintain four hundred mer- 

* Perhaps between 368 and 366 b.c. 

^ Aa they had at the hands of the Argives in 393 B.C. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Koaiov^ ical tovtodv ap-xpvra Ti/uHfxivffv teario'Trf' 

3 aav, 6 Be r&p Ka\(av koX BiKaia>v tnrepiSwv evOif^ 
iirepaivev ef &v Troi'qaerai Ttfv iroKiv u^' avr&t 
KaX av^vov^ dvekatv aKpLTOv^ r&v irpo»T(ov iroXi- 
T&v avehei^ev avTO^ kaxnov Tvpavvov, fiapeo)^ <^6- 
ptav 6 TtfwXeiov, ical avji^piiv iroiovfievo^ iavTov 
rifv iiceivov xaKiav, hrexclpyfire fikv avrm SiaXe- 
yeaOcu xal Trapa/eaXetv d(f>ipTa ttjv fuiviav xai 
iv<TTxr)(iav t^ hriOvpia^ eKeiv-q^ ^r/Telv riva tcjp 
'^fiaprrffxiptDv hrcofopOioaiv irpo^ roif^ ttoXltu^, 

4 anmaapihfov K ixeivov Koi KaTa^povqaavro^t 
ovTta irapakafioiv r&v fiev oIkcUdv Alcx^^ov^ 
dSeXjffiov ovra rrj^ Tifuxpdvov^ ywaiKo^, r&v Be 
<l>i\a)V Tov fiavriv ov Xdrvpov pJkv %€oirop.'iro^, 
"Et^po^i he Koi Tip£iio<i ^OpOayopav ovofid^ovai, 
Kol BiaXi7ra>p fjpApa^ okCya^ av0i<: dvijSi] irpo^ 
TOP dB€\<f>6v zeal irepurrdme^ avrov oi rpw 
xaOiKirevov dXKcL vvv ye j(pr}adfjL€vop XoytapM 

5 fieTa/SaXeaOai. rov Sk Tipx)<f>dpov^ irp&TOP pep 
aincjp KUTayeX&pTO^, cTreiTa Bk tt/jo? opytfp CK^e- 
popivov KaX ')(aXeiTaipoPTO^, 6 pep TipoXiiop dno' 
j^topijaa^ pAicpop avTov icai avy/caXv^dp^po^ 
eiaTiJKei Baxpwop, e/ceipoi Be ra ^i<f>f] cnrao'dp^epoi 
raxif Bia^OeLpovaiv avrop, 

V. T% Be irpd^eto^ Btal3orj0eiarj<; ol pep xpd- 238 
Tiaroi T&p K.opip0ia)P ewypovp ttjp p^a-OTroprjpiap 
Kal p,eyaXoy^V)(^Lap tov Tt/xoXeoin-o^, oti ;^piycrT09 
iip KOI <f>iXoLK€io^ optd^i TTfp vuTpiBa TTj^ olfcla^ 
Kol TO KaXop Kal BiKaiop irpoerLpi^ae tov avpL- 

270 



TIMOLEON 

cenaries, and put Timophanes in command of them ; 
but he, without regard for honour and justice, at once 
took measures to bring the city under his own power, 
and after putting to death without a trial great 
numbers of the leading citizens, declared himself 
tjrrant. At this, Timoleon was greatly distressed, and 
considering his brother's baseness to be his own mis- 
fortune, he attempted to reason with him and exhort 
him to renounce that unfortunate and mad ambition of 
his and seek to make some amends for his transgres- 
sions against his fellow citizens. But when his brother 
rejected his appeals with scorn, he took his kinsman 
Aeschylus, who was a brother of the wife of Timo- 
phanes, and his friend the seer whose name, accord- 
ing to Theopompus, was Satyrus, but according to 
Ephorus and Timaeus, Orthagoras, and after waiting 
a few days went up again to his brother; and the 
three, surrounding him, besought him even now to 
listen to reason and change his mind. But Timo- 
phanes first mocked them, and then lost his temper 
and was violent, whereupon Timoleon withdrew a 
little space from him and stood weeping with muffled 
head, while the other two, drawing their swords, 
speedily despatched him.^ 

V. The deed having been noised abroad, the most 
influential Corinthians applauded Timoleon for his 
hatred of baseness and greatness of soul, in that, 
although a kindly man and fond of his family, he 
had nevertheless set his country before his family. 
And honour and justice before expediency ; for when 

1 Diodoras (xvi. 65, 4) says that Timoleon slew his brother 
with his own hand in the marketplace; Nepos (Timoltoriy 
i. 4) supports Plutarch's account, though with differing 
details. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<l>€povTO^, apiarevovra fikv virep t?}? irajpLho^ 
iiaa^a-a^ rov aZ€\(f>6v, itn^ovXevaavTa Be avrfj 

2 Koi tcaraBovXaxxd/jLevov dTroxreiva^;. oi Be firf 
Bvvdfievot ^rjv iv rfj BfffWKpaTia fcal irpb^ roif^ 
Bvpaara^ mrofiXeTreiv elcoBoTe^; r& fiev davdrta 
Tov Tvpdvvov irpoaeiToiovvTO 'XfiiipeiVt tov Be Tcfio- 
Xeovra XoiBopovme^ w dcre^Se? e^eipyaafiivov xal 
fiva&Be^ epyov el^ ddv/uav TrepUarrja'av, eTrel Be 
Kol TTiv firjTepa Bva^opelv 7rvd6fievo<i /cal ^oovd^ 
re B€ivd<i koX Kardpa^; eir avrov dpaaOai ^piKOi- 
BeL<; i^dBi^e irapafivOr^aofievo^, rj Bh irpoaiBelv 

3 oxfx^ virifieive rrjv oyfriv, dWa rrjv olKiav dire' 
kXeia-e, rore Brj iravTaTraai irepiXvira^ yevofievo^ 
Kol cvvrapa'xOeX^ rrfv Bidvotav &pp/q<T€ fxev w 
BtaxfiOep&v eavTov d'ir€X€O'0ai rpo^ri^, r&v Be 
<f>i\(op ov Tre pilB6vT(ov, dWd iraxrav Berftrip kuI 
Traa-av dvdyKr)P trpoaeveyfcafiivcDV eyvto f^i/ fcad^ 
eavTov, etc fieaov yevofievo^* teal iroXireiav piiv 
airaa-av d^ij/ce, tou? Be irpdnov^ ypovov^ oifBe 
KaTi,^j>v eh irokiv, aXX' dBrjfiov&v /cav 'rfKavtofievo^ 
ev T0t9 eprj/JLOrdroi^ tcov dyp&v Biirpi^ev. 

VI. 0(5x0)9 ai Kplaei^i, av fifj /Se/SaiorrjTa teal 
pcofjLTiv €K \oyov Kttl <f>CKo<To^la<; TrpoaXd^coaiv 
eirX Ta9 irpa^ei^f (reiovrai koli 7rapa<f)€povTaL 
paBico^ xnro r&v Txryovreov eiralvtov Kol "^oycov, 
ixKpovofievai t&v oifceiayv \oyi<rfi&v, Bel ydp ov 
fjiovov, d>9 €OiK€, Ttfv TTpd^cv KaXrjp elvai koX 
BiKaiap, aWA Koi rifv Bo^ap, d<l>^ fj<i irpaTrerai, 
2 /jLovip^op Kol dfieidTTTOiTOP, ipa irpdrrcup^p Boki- 
fidaapre<;, fir]K &<nrep oi Xlypoi rd TrXijafiia t&p 
iBea/Jidrap o^vrdrrj BidoKOPre^ eiriOvfiia rdxio^TU 



272 



TIMOLEON 

his brother was fighting valiantly for his country, 
Timoleon had saved his life^ but after he had plotted 
against her and enslaved her^ Timoleon had slain 
him. However, those who were unable to live in 
a democracy and were accustomed to pay court to 
men in power, while they pretended to rejoice at 
the death of the tyrant, still, by their abuse of Ti- 
n^oleon as the perpetrator of an impious and abomin- 
able deed, they drove him into despondency. And 
now he learned that his mother was angry with him 
and uttered dreadful reproaches and fearful impreca- 
tions against him, and went to plead his cause with 
her ; but she could not endure to see his face, and 
closed her house against him. Then indeed he 
became altogether a prey to grief and disordered 
in mind, and determined to starve himself to death ; 
but his friends would not suffer this, and brought all 
manner of entreaty and constraint to bear upon him, 
so that he made up his mind to live by himself, apart 
from the world. So he gave up all public life, and 
for a long while did not even return to the city, but 
spent his time wandering in great distress of mind 
among the most desolate parts of the country. 

VI. So true is it that the purposes of men, unless 
they acquire firmness and strength from reason and 
philosophy for the activities of life, are unsettled and 
easily carried away by casual praise and blame, being 
forced out of their native reckonings. For it would 
seem that not only our action must be noble and 
just, but the conviction also from which our action 
springs must be abiding and unchangeable, in order 
that we may be satisfied with what we are about to do, 
and that mere weakness may not make us dejected 
over actions which have once been accomplished, when 

273 

VOL. VI. T 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bva)(€p€Livov<riv ifnrXrfaOivre^, ovrtaf; rifiel^ eirX 
Tai9 irpd^eat avvreXeaOeio'ai^ advfi&fiev Si atrdi- 
veiav aTTOfiapatvofikvrf^i t^9 rov kcCKov (f>avTa(rLa^. 
ala'xpov yhp 1} fierdvoia iroiel koX to KdK&<; ire- 
TTpayfMepov, ^ S* ef iirLO-TTJfii]^ a)pfjir)fiiprf koX Xo- 
yuTfiov Trpoaipeai^ ovS^ av irraicoKTiv ai irpd^ei^ 

3 fM€Ta/3dW€Tau 816 ^(OKitav fiev 6 ^Adffvato^ roi^ 
virb AeGxrdhfOv^ irparTOfiepoi^ ivavrtcjOeC^, iireiSr) 
Karopdovv ixeipo^ iS6fC€i fcal Ovovra^ edpa teal 
/jLeya\av)(pvfjLipov^ t§ vUri T0U9 ^Adrfvaiov^, elirev 
cJ>9 iffovkcTO &v avT^ ravra fiev TrpaxOrjvai, 
^efiovKevcOai B* i/ceiva* at^ohporepov S' ^Apiarei- 
Brf^ 6 AoKpo^, el? i>v r&p n\aTQ>i'09 iralptov, 
alrovvTO^ fiev ainov yvvalxa Atovvalov tov irpe- 
aj3vripov fiiav r&v dvyariptav, ffhiov av €(fyq veKpav 

4 IBelv rtfv Koprjv fj TVpdvvto avvoifcovaav, diroKreL- 
vavTo^ Sk Toif^ iratBa^ avrov fier oXiyov xpovop 
TOV Aiovvalov Kai irvdofievov irpo^ vfipiv el TtfP 
avTffv eri yvdfitfv e^oi frepl Trj<: iKS6a€(o<; t&v 
0uyaT€payp, aTreKpivaTO toU p^p yeyepripAvoi^ 
Xvireladai, rot? 8' elprfp^ipoi^ p^t) p.eTapA\€a0ai. 
TavTa p,€P ovp tao}^ p,ei^opo^ koL TeKjeioTepa^ 
apeTTj^ i<TTL% 

VII. To Be Tip^oXeopTo^ iwl 70*9 'ir€'rrpayp.ivoi<; 

TrdOo^, €iT olfCTO^ ^P TOV TeOpTf/COTO^ eiTC T% 

' p/qTpo^ alBio^, ovT(o /caTi/cXaae koI avperpiylrep 

avTov TifP Bidvoiap &<rT eiKoai aj^eBop ct&p 

Biay€Pop>ipa>p p.i]Bk pid^ imffiapov^ p.r)Bi iroXtTi^Kf]^ 

2 aylraaffai nrpd^ef^^, dpayopevOipTO^ ovp avTOv, 

274 



TIMOLEON 

the fair vision of the Good fades away ; just as gluttons 
who devour cloying viands with the keenest appetite 
are very soon sated and then disgusted with them. 
For repentance makes even the noble action base ; 
whereas the choice which springs from a wise and un- 
derstanding calculation does not change^ even though 
its results are unsuccessful. For this reason Phocion 
the Athenian^^ after having opposed the activities of 
Leosthenes^ when Leosthenes was thought to be 
successful and the Athenians were seen sacrificing 
and exulting over the victory^' said he could have 
wished that the achievement were his own^ but was 
glad that he counselled as he did. And with more 
force Aristides the Locrian^ one of Plato's com- 
panions, when Dionysius the Elder asked him for 
one of his daughters in marriage, said he would be 
more pleased to see the maid dead than living with 
a tyrant ; and when, after a little while, Dionysius put 
his children to death and then asked him insultingly 
whether he was still of the same mind about giving 
his daughters in marriage, answered that he was 
afflicted by what had been done, but did not repent 
him of what had been said. Such utterances as 
these, then, betoken perhaps a larger and more 
consummate virtue. 

VII. But the grief of Timoleon over what had 
been done, whether it was due to pity for his dead 
brother or to reverence for his mother, so shattered * 
and confounded his mental powers that almost twenty 
years passed without his setting his hand to a single 
conspicuous or public enterprise. Accordingly, when 

^ See the Phociaiit xxiii. 4. 

' Won by the allied Greeks under I^ieosthenes over Anti- 
pater bf Macedonia, in 323 B.C. The victory was soon 
followed b}^ the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon. 

275 
T 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal rod htjfiov iTpodvfMa<i Se^afxivov zeal X€«/e>o- 
Tovrjaavro^i avaara^ Ti;Xe#c\etS»79 o rore fcal 
Bvvdfiet teal Sofiy vptarevayv iv r^ TroXei, irape^ 
fcaXei TOP Ti/JLoXiovra irepl tA? irpa^€L<; ayaOop 
avhpa elvai teal yevvatov, "*Av fih yap,** €(f>ff, 
" fcaXo)^ ayavitT'p, rvpavvov aprjprjKipai S6^op,€P, 239 
ap Be <f)av\a)^, oBeX^op** 

3 Uapaaxeva^ofiipov Sk tov TifioXSoPTOf; top 
€/c7rXovp Koi <rrpaTi(i>Ta<: avpdyopro^, eKopiadr) 
ypd/jifiara 7r/}09 rov^ Kopip0iov<; itap 'l/cirov 
fMtjpvopra TfiP fJL€TafioXi}P avrov kcX irpohoaLav. 
iy; yap rd^t'O'Ta rov^ npeo'fiei^i i^eirefAyjre, T0i9 
KapXf}Bopioi<; irpoaOifiepo^ dpo^apSav eirparre 
pjerr i/ceipap ottcd? Aiopvaiop i/c0aXa>p Xvpatcov- 

4 a&p avro^ Sarai rvpappo^, xal SeBoiKw p,rf 
irporepop iXOovar)^ ix Koplpdov hvpdp^td^ xaX 
(TTpaTrfyov iia^vytoaip ai Trpd^ei^ avrop, etrep,- 
yffCP iwKTToXrjp to?9 KopipOioi^ (fipd^ovaap d>^ 
ovSep Biop TTpdypuTa xal Sairdpa^ i^eip avTov^ 
irXiopra^ ct? St/^eXtai/ KaX kipSvpcuoptu^, aX\ci>9 
T€ fcal JSiap'xrjSopiayp dirayopevoPTiOP icaX irapa- 
(^vXaTTopApoDP paval iroXXal^ top ctoXop, 0&9 
auT09 dpay/caaOeU i/ceipap ^paZvPOPTcap Troifj- 

5 aaiTO (Tvp>pMXov<: iirl top Tvpappop, tovt€op tk 
T&p ypap.pM,TiOP dpaypfoaOepTWP, ei icai Ti9 ^7r^a)9 
eZve irpoTepop t&p Kopipdimp irpo^ ri^p arpareiap, 
TOT€ Trdpra^ 17 7r/)09 top 'ixerrfp opyrj trapfo^vvePf 
&<TT€ avyyppfqyriaai irpodvp^^ t^ TipoXiopTi Koi 
avp/irapaaK€vd<Tai top I/cttXovp, 

YIII. VepopAvtop &€ T&p P€&p cToipMP, teal to79 
(TTpaTKOTai^ &p eSei TropicrdipTcap, at pip Upeiai 
T^9 Koprf^ opap eBo^ap iBeip t^9 0€h<i rrpo^ 

276 



TIMOLEON 

he had been nominated general^ and the people had 
readily approved of it and given him their votes^ 
Teleeleides^ who was at that time the foremost man 
in the city for refutation and influence, rose up and 
exhorted Timoleon to be a noble and brave man in 
his enterprises. " For if/* said he, "thou contendest 
successfully, we shall think of thee as a tyrannicide ; 
but if poorly, as a fratricide." 

But while Timoleon was getting ready for his 
voyage and collecting soldiers, a letter was brought 
to the Corinthians from Hicetas which disclosed his 
treacherous change of sides. For as soon as he had 
sent out the eml^ssy, he openly attached himself to 
the Carthaginians and acted with them in order to 
expel Dionysius from Syracuse and become its tyrant 
himself And fearing lest his opportunities for action 
should escape him if a general and an army came 
from Corinth in advance, he sent a letter to the 
Corinthians telling them that there was no need of 
their putting themselves to the trouble and expense 
of a voyage to Sicily with all its jicrils, especially 
since the Carthaginians, with whom their delay had 
forced him to make an alliance against the tyrant, 
forbade their expedition and were on the watch for 
it with a large fleet. When this letter had been 
read publicly, if any of the Corinthians had before 
been lukewarm towards the expedition, their wrath 
against Hicetas now incited them all, so that they 
eagerly joined in supplying Timoleon and helping 
him get ready for his voyage. 

VIII. When the fleet was ready, and the soldiers 
provided with what they needed, the priestesses of 
Persephone fancied they saw in their dreams that 
goddess and her mother making ready for a journey, 

m 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

cLTTohijfiiav Tivk <TT€\\ofihfa^ fcal Xeyovara^ eb? 
TifidKeovTi fieWovo-i avfiirXelv eh XifceXiav, Sio 
fcal TpiTjpri KaTcurKevda-avres Uphv oi KopivOioi 

2 ralv dealv inrcavofUKrav. avro^ £' ixetvo^ eh 
A€\<^ou9 rropevdeh edvae r^ Oe^, KciX Kara- 
fiaivovTo^ 6*9 TO fiavreiov avrov yiverai arjfieiov, 
€K yap T&v KpejiajjAifwv dvaffrjfiaTtav raivia ti<; 
diToppvelca teal <f>€pofihn), aTe4>dvov^ exovtra xai 
Nt^a9 €fJL7r€7rot/ci\fi€va^, ireptiireae t§ Ke^aXfj 
Tov TifUjiKiovTo^, a>9 Boiceip avrov viro rov Oeov 
(Tr€(f>avovfievov inl rct^ irpd^ei^ TrpoTrifnrea-dai, 

3 Nai;9 Se KopwOia^ psp e^oiv iirrd, KepKvpala^ 
Be Svo, Kal TTfv Se/edrrjv AevfeaBitop irpofrirapa- 
a-yoPTtov, dvi^x^V' ^^^^ vvkto^ ififiaXoDV eh to 
treXayo^ teal irvevfiari KaX^ XP^f^^^^ eSo^ev 
al<f)viSc€i)<; payevra rov ovpavov inrip rij^ vew^ 
ifcx^at TToXv Kol trepKpave^ Trvp, ex hi rovrov 
Xafnra<; dpOelaa rah pvariKah epj^eprj^ KCii 
av/jLTrapadeova-a tov avrov BpofLOV, rj fidXiara 
rrj^ ^Ir aXia^ iireixov oi Kv/Sepvijrai, KarlttKri'^ev, 

4 oi he fwvret^ ro (f>dafia roh oveipaai r&v iepeicjv 
paprrvpelv d'lre^aLvovro, kcu rd^ Oed^ frvv^airro- 
pAva^ T^9 (rrpareia^ wpoff>aivecv e^ ovpavov ro 
treXa^' elvai yap iepdv rrj^ Ko/Of/? rifv XifceXiav, 
iwel Kal rd irepl rffv dpirayifv avr66i pvdoXo- 
yovtn yeveaffai fcal rifv vij<rov ev roh ydpuoi^ 
dvaKaXvirrripiov avr^ SoOrjvai, 

IX. Ta p^iv oiv irapd r&v de&v ovret rov (rro- 
Xov iffdppvve' Kal aireviovre^, i»9 ^ to ireXayo^ 
SianXeovre^, eKopi^ovro irapd rifV *IraXiav. rd 

^ After this word, Sintenis and Bekker assume a lacuna 
in the text, in which other motives for haste were given. 

378 



TIMOI.EON 

and heard them say that they were going to sail 
with Timoleon to Sicily. Therefore the Corinthians 
equipped a sacred trireme besides^ and named it after 
the two goddesses. Furthermore^ Timoleon himself 
journeyed to Delphi and sacrificed to the god^ and 
as he descended into the place of the oracle^ he 
received the following sign. From the votive offer- 
ings suspended there a fillet which had crowns and 
figures of Victory embroidered upon it slipped away 
and fell directly upon the head of Timoleon^ so that 
it appeared as if he were being crowned by the god 
and thus sent forth upon his undertaking. 

And now^ with seven Corinthian ships^ and two 
from Corc3rra^ and a tenth which the Leucadians 
furnished^ he set sail.^ And at nighty after he had 
entered the open sea and was enjoying a favouring 
wind^ the heavens seemed to burst open on a sudden 
above his ship, and to pour forth an abundant and 
conspicuous fire. From this a torch lifted itself on 
high^ like those which the mystics bear, and running 
along with them on their course, darted down upon 
precisely that part of Italy towards which the pilots 
were steering. The soothsayers declared that the 
apparition bore witness to the dreams of the priest- 
esses, and that the goddesses were taking part in 
the expedition and showing forth the light from 
heaven; for Sicily, they said, was sacred to Per- 
sephone, since mythology makes it the scene of her 
rape ; and the island was given to her as a wedding 
present. 

IX. Such, then, were the signs from Heaven which 
encouraged the expedition ; and making haste, since 
they were crossing the open sea, they skirted the 

1 lu 344 B.a 

279 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

piav T^ TifMoXioPTi teal Sva&vfdaw roh irrpa- 

2 TM0Tai9 irapevxev* o </<!/> 'Ixeri^ A'^X^ PCFCinyciii^ 
buovxHTiov ical ra irXeurra /i€/:»7 t»v 2tvpaKW9w 
KareiXfj^of^ iicehfov fiev ek rifv axpoiroXiw xai 
TTpf KoKovfiipffP ^fjaov awcoToKfiepov avro^ 
avveirdKiopxei teal avfATrepiereix^^^, Kapxil^oviou^ 
Se ^pomL^eiv itciXevev ottok ovic hrifir^oiTO 
TifioXiap XifccXia^, aXX* anfoaOhrrtov ixeivaop 
avToi icaff ^airxjMv SuivefLOVpreu irpo9 aWi]\ov^ 
rijp PTfaop, oi &€ iripirovauf eiKOiri rpiiipei^ W 
'Pijyiop, iif> &p eirenXeop Trpeaffeurai vap avrov 
TTpb^ TipoXeopra tcopi^opre^ Xoyov^ T049 Trparro- 

3 fiepoi^ opjoiov^, irapaymyai yap einrpencK teal 
wpoiftdtrei^ fftrop hrl pax'^poh fiovXevfiaaiPt 
cL^iouPTWP avrop fUp, el fiavKovro^ TifnoXeopra 
(TvpfiovXop vJKeiP Trap 'I/cirrjp tcai tcoip^ifpop €u 
ZunreiTparfpjEvtDP airaprtop, ra^ Se pav^ icaX tovc 
a-Tparmra^ aTroariWeip eh KopipOop, 09 rov 
iroXep^ov fuicpop airoXeiiropro^ amrpprjirOcu, Kap- 240 
j(riSopi(OP he tctoXveip rifp StdffaaiP tcai fidxeaffai 

4 7r/>09 piafyfiApov^ eroifuop oprtop, w oip tcara- 
vXevaapTe^ el^ to 'Prjyiop oi l^opipOtoi rol^ re 
'TTpea-fievfjuuri tovtoi^ eperirxpp kcu tov9 ^oipiKa^ 
oi) irpoatD pavXoxovpra^: tcarelhop, fiyfOopro pip 
vfipiap^poh teal irapiararo Trdaip opyrj irpo^ top 
'lK€Tffp Kal heoq inrep XitceXimrAp, ot^ a'a(l>w 
ecoptop idXa Xei7rop£pov^ teal ptaOop 'Itcery pip 
TrpoSoaia^, Kapj(rfSopiois Bk TvpavpiSo^, iSotcei 
8' apri')(aP0P inrepfiaXeadai xal rav axnodi r&p 
/3apl3dp(op pav^ SnrXaala^ iifyoppovaa^ teal rifp 
exet pj^ff 'Itcerov SvpapiP, § aTpaTrfyqaoPTe^ 
ffKoiep. 

280 



TIMOLEON 

coast of Italy. But the tidings from Sicilj much 
perplexed ^Timoleon and disheartened his soldiers. 
For Hicetas^ after defeating Dionysius in battle and 
occupying most of the outlying portions of Syracuse^ 
had shut the tyrant up in the acropolis and what was 
called The Island, where he was himself helping to 
besiege and wall him in, while he ordered the Cartha- 
ginians to see to it that Timoleon should not land in 
Sicily, but that he and his forces should be repulsed, 
and that they themselves, at their leisure, should 
divide the island with one another. So the Cartha- 
ginians sent twenty triremes to Rhegium, on board 
of which were envoys from Hicetas to Timoleon carry- 
ing proposals which conformed to his proceedings. 
For they were specious and misleading suggestions 
covering base designs, the envoys demanding that 
Timoleon himself, if he wished, should come to Hicetas 
as counsellor and partner in all his successes, but that 
he should send his ships and his soldiers back to 
Corinth, since, as they claimed, the war was almost 
finished, and the Carthaginians were ready to prevent 
their passage and to fight them if they tried to force 
one. When, therefore, the Corinthians, after putting 
in at Rhegium, met these envoys, and saw the C-ar- 
thaginians riding at anchor not far off, they were 
indignant at the insult put upon them, and were all 
of them filled with rage at Hicetas and fear for the 
Sicilian Greeks, who, as they clearly saw, were left 
to be a prize and reward, to Hicetas on the one 
hand for his treachery, and to the Carthaginians on 
the other for making him tyrant. Moreover, it 
seemed impossible to overcome both the ships of 
the Barbarians confronting them there with twice 
their numbers, and the force under Hicetas in 
Syracuse, where they had come to take command. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X. Ov fiffp a\X' 6 Ti/jboXicdv Toh Trpea/SevraU 
Koi ToU apxovai t&v Kapxv^ovlcav iinvxiav 
iiri€i/cS»^ €<l>rj ireLdccOai fiev 0I9 /ceXevovai (jL yap 
&v /cat nrepaiveiv airei0S)v), iOiXeiv Be ravra 
iToXeto^ 'EWrfviBo*: teal ^tXiyv /coivrj^ t% 'Pr)yiva)v 
evavriov aKOvaa^ teal elirojv airaXKarreo'dai' 
KaX yap axn^ tovto irpo^ axr^aXeiav Zia^ipHv, 
KaKcivov^ ififievelv /Se/Saiorepov oh iirayyeKKovrai 
irepX XvpaKOvaifov Zrjp^tp /jidpTvpi ra^ 6fio\oyia9 

2 TTapaKaraBefjLevov^, ravra S* inrereivev air oh 
airdrrjv irrl r^ Suifidae^ rexyd^wv, fcaX cvve- 
re^va^ov 01 r&v ^Vvjyivfov arpartfyol, irdmre^ 
iiriOvfiovvre^ iv Kopivffloi^ ra irpdyfiara r&v 
'^iKOuoDr&v y€V£a-0ai, fcal <l>ol3ovfi€VOi rtfv r&v 
^apPdpcDV yeirviaaiv. Bio avvrjyov ixxXfjalav 
zeal tA? irvXa^ aTrifcXeiov, w fJ^ rrpo^ aXXo ri 
rpeireadai tov? iroTura^, xai irapeXdovre^; eh ro 
TrX7jOo<; ej^p&vro firfKei Xoywv, erepo^ ereptp rrapa- 
BiBoif^ rtjv airrrjv inroOeo'iv wpo^ ovBev reXo^, 

3 dXXa Bidyovre^ aX\Q>9 rov xpovov, eiw? dvay(d&' 
<nv al r&v Kopivffiwv rpiripei^, Ka\ Kapxv^oviov^ 
€7rl Ti)9 eKKXtfaia^ Karexpvre^ dwirSirrto^, are 
teal rod Ti/JLoXeovro^ irapovro^ xal rrapixovro^ 
BoKfjciv 0(T0V oirtto irpo^ rbv Xoyov avitrra^Oai 
KaX Brjfiriyopeiv. ft)9 S' airrjyyeiXi. ri^ avr^ Kpv<f)a 
tA? /liv aXXa^ rpirfpei^; dvTJX^^^h p^av Bk rijp 
exeivov irepip^veiv v'iroXeXei,p,pAvriVf BiexBv^; rov 
oxXoVf a/Aa r&v irepX ro firjp^a 'Pffyivmv a-weTn- 
KpvrrrovrwVi /cal /eara/Bh^ iirX rifv OdXarrav 

282 



TIMOLEON 

X. However, after Timoleon had met the envoys 
of Hicetas and the commanders of the Carthaginians, 
he calmly said that he would obey their commands 
(for what would he accomplish by refusing ?), but he 
wished that, before he went away, their proposals 
and his reply should be made in the presence of the 
people of Rhegium, a Greek city and a friend of 
both parties ; for this would conduce to his own 
safety, and they, on their part, would abide more 
firmly by their promises regarding the Syracusans if 
they made a people witness to the agreements into 
which they entered. In making this overture to 
them he was contriving a deceit which should secure 
his safe passage across the strait, and the leaders of 
the Rhegians helped him contrive it, since they were 
all desirous that the affairs of the Sicilian Greeks 
should be in the hands of the Corinthians, and feared 
to have the Barbarians as neighbours. Therefore 
they convened an assembly and closed the gates, in 
order that the citizens might not engage in any other 
business ; then they came forward and addressed the 
multitude in lengthy speeches, one handing over to 
another the same topic and coming to no conclusion, 
but protracting the time to no apparent purpose, 
until the Corinthian triremes should have put to sea, 
and keeping the Carthaginians in the assembly free 
from all suspicion, since Timoleon also was there and 
led them to think that he was on the point of rising 
to address the people. But when some one secretly 
brought him word that the other triremes had put 
to sea, and that one only, his own, had been left 
behind and was waiting for him, he slipped through 
the crowd unnoticed, with the connivance of the 
Rhegians about the bema, went down to the sea, 

283 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 i^i'rrXevare Sect ra'jAcDV. xal /caTij)(0f}aav el^ 
TavpofUviov T^9 ZiKeXia^, inroSexofievov xal 
Ka\ovvTO<; avrov^ In frdXai irpoOvfico^ 'Ai/8yoo- 
fia/xpv rov Ttjv troKiv €Xovto<; fcal Bvva(rT€vovro<;. 
o5to9 Ijv Trarrjp Tifiaiov rov iaropiKov, koX ttoXv 
KpdrKTTo^ T&v Tore SvvaaT€v6vT(ov iv XiKeXia 
y€v6fi€vo^ T&v T€ cavTOV iroXiT&v 'qyelro vofiifio)^ 
Kol hiKaioD^, KaX irpo^ tov<: TVpdwov^ <f>av€pb<; rjv 

5 del BiaKcifiePO^ dir€X0&<i kol dWorpLw^, Sio koX 
TifiokiovTi tore ttjv iroKiv opfirfrrjpiov irapiaxG, 
KoX Tov^ iroTdra^ eireiae avvwyoovi^etrdai rol^ 
TSjoptvdLot,^ KoX avvekevOepovv Ttfv XcxeXiap, 

XI. Oi S* iv T<p 'T?rfy{^ Kapxv^ovioi rov Ti/jlo- 
XeovTO^ dv7fy/M€vov koi rrj^ iKK\ri<ria^ BiaXvOeLarf^ 
yaXeirA^ <l>€povr€^, iv r^ KaTea-rpaTrjyijadai Sia- 
Tpi/3fiv TO 69 ^Vriyivoi<; irapevxp^* ^^ ^oivixe^ Svre^ 
ovK dpitTKOivro rol^ Bi d7rdrrj<; irparTOfievoi^, 

2 trifrrrova-L S* oiv eh to Tavpofieviov irpetr^evrrjv 
iiri rpirjpov^,h^ ttoXXA S^aXe^^^el? tt/oo? toi' ^AvSpo- 
fiaxov, iirax^S)^ f^oX ffap/Sapixm dvareivdfievof; 
el fit) rijv Ta')(i<TTqv ix/SdWet tou? K.opivfflov<;, 
T€\o9 virriav rfjv y^elpa Sei^a^, cZt' avffc^ Kara- 
<TTpe'^a<; rj'rreikriae ToiavTtjv ovaav avr^ ttjv ttoKlv 
ToiavTTjv froi'^aeiv, yeXdca^ S* 6 ^AvSpo/xaxo^ 
aXXo fiev ovBev direfcpivaro, rrjv Se ^eZ/^a vvv fiev 
vTrrlav, w iKelvo^, vvv Se Trprjvrj nporeiva^ ifci- 
Xevaev diroTrXeiv avrov, el firj fiovXoiro rtfv vavv 
dvrl TOiavTf)^ yeveaOai rotavTr)v. 

3 'O S' 'I/C6T179 irvffofievo^ Ttfv rov TifioXeovro^ 
8idl3a<riv xal <f>o/3rf0eh fieTewifiyfraro froXXh^ 
r&v KapxvBovt(ii)v rpirjpeL^. ore koX TravrdTraai 241 

284 



TIMOLEON 

and sailed off with all speed. And they put in at 
Tauromenium in Sicily, whither they had been 
earnestly invited some time ago, and where they 
were now kindly received by Andromachus, the 
master and ruler of the city. Andromachus was 
father of Timaeus the historian/ and after making 
himself by far the most powerful of the rulers in 
Sicily at that time, not only led his own citizens in 
the ways of law and justice, but was also known to 
be always averse and hostile to tyrants. Therefore at 
this time also he allowed Timoleon to make the city a 
base of operations, and persuaded his citizens to join 
the Corinthians in their struggle to set Sicily free. 

XI. But the Carthaginians in Rhegium, afler Ti- 
moleon had put to sea and the assembly had been 
dissolved, were indignant, and in their discomfiture 
afforded amusement to the Rhegians, seeing that, 
though Phoenicians, they were not pleased with 
what was effected by deceit. Nevertheless, they sent 
an envoy aboard a trireme to Tauromenium, who, 
after a long conversation with Andromachus, in 
which he menaced him in insolent barbaric fashion 
if he did not expel the Corinthians as soon as pos- 
sible, finally showed him his hand with the palm up, 
and then turning it down, threatened that he would 
turn his city as completely upside down. Andro- 
machus, however, with a laugh, made no further 
reply than to stretch out his hand, as the Barbarian 
had done, now palm up, and now palm down, and 
then order him to sail off, if he did not wish his 
ship to be turned upside down in the same fashion. 

But Hicetas was afraid when he learned that Ti- 
moleon had crossed the strait, and sent for great 
numbers of the Carthaginian triremes. And now it 

285 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

awefirj roif^ %vpaKovaiov<i airoyv&vav Tr)v aio- 
TVfplav, op&pra^ tov fiev Tufiivo^ avr&v Kapxv- 
Sovlov^ Kparovirra^, rifv Se iroXiv ^Ixirrjv exovra, 
Tfj^ S* aKpa^ Kvpievovra Aiovvaiov, TifioXiojna 
Sk &air€p ix Kpaairehov rivo^ Xeirrov t^9 Tavpo- 
fieviT&p Tro\ixvrj<; tt} XtfceXia irpoarjpTrjfiivov ctt' 
eKrriSo^ ^ atruevov^ tcaX Ppayfeia^i hvvdfieto^* Xf^- 
(tiv f^ap avT^ <TTpaTi€OT&v Kol Tpo<f>r]<; tovtoi^ 

4 avayKaia^ irXiop ovSev virripx^v. ovB* iiritTTevov 
ai 7roX€i9 hidifKeai xaK&v ovaai Koi irpo^ atrav- 
ra^i aTrqypKDfjLevcu tou9 1770 v/i€i/o 1/9 arpaToirihwy, 
p,d\iara Bia rifv KaWiinrov xal ^dpa/co^ dinaTL' 
av, &v phf *A0rfvalo^ &v, 6 Be AaKeSaifiovco^Sf 
dpL^orepoi hi <f>daKOvre^ inrep t^9 iXevOepia^ 
i^xeip xal KaraXveip to^9 p^pdpxov^, 'xpvaop 
dirihet^ap * t§ ^LKeXLa rh^ ev rfj rvpavpihi avfi- 
ipopii^ KOI pMKapitorepovq Sokcip i'rroLrjaap tov<: 
KaTaaTpeyjrapra^ ip Ttj SovXela t&p iirthoproDP 
Tr}P avTOPOfilap, 

XII. OvSip oJ>p eKeipfOP ficXriopa top KopipOiop 
caeaOai irpoaSoKcoPTC^y dXXh raifTci irdXip rJKcip 
7r/)09 avTov<: o-o<f>la'fiaTa xal heXedtrpura, p,€T 
iXiriScop ^^/oiycTTWi/ Kal ^LXapdpunroup v7roa)(^ea€u>p 
€t9 p,€Ta0oXrjp Seairorov Kaipov TLdaaevopipov^, 
VTrdirrevop koI Bie/cpovopro t^9 t&p KopiP0ia>p 

2 TrpOKXi]<r€i^ irXijp ASpapiT&p, 01 iroXip p,iKpctp 
pAp, Upap £* ovaap 'ABpapov, Oeov tipo^ rip^ta- 
pepov Bia<f>ep6pro)^ ip oXf^ XixeXla, KaToi/coupre^ 
iaraalaaap 7r/)09 dXXrjXov^, oi pkp *lfcirijp irpoa- 
ayopepoi /cai Ka/>^^8oi/iot;9* 01 Bk irpo^ TipoXiopra 

^ ^«' iKitlSos Bekkcr has air* ^Air/5of, after Coraes. 
' iixiZti^av Blass, after Hemsterhuis : (Sti^ay, 

286 



TIMOLEON 

was that the Syracusans altogether despaired of their 
deUverance^ seeing their harbour in the power of the 
Carthaginians^ their city in the hands of Hicetas^ 
and their citadel in the possession of Dionysius; 
while Timoleon had but a hold as it were on the 
fringe of Sicily in the little city of Tauromenium^ 
with a feeble hope and a small force to support 
him ; for apart from a thousand soldiers and provi- 
sions barely sufficient for them^ he had nothing. 
Nor did the cities feel confidence in him^ over full 
of ills as they were and embittered against all 
leaders of armies^ particularly by reason of the per- 
fidy of Callippus ^ and Pharax^^ one of whom was an 
Athenian^ and the other a Lacedaemonian ; but both 
of them^ while declaring that they came to secure 
the freedom of Sicily and wished to oveHhrow its 
tyrants^ made the calamities of Sicily under her 
tyrants seem as gold in comparison^ and brought 
her people to think those more to be envied who 
had perished in slavery than those who had lived to 
see her independence. 

XII. Expecting, therefore, that the Corinthian 
leader would be no whit better than those who had 
preceded him^ but that the same sophistries and 
lures were come to them again, and that with fair 
hopes and kind promises they were to be made docile 
enough to receive a new master in place of an old 
one, they all suspected and repulsed the appeals of 
the Corinthians except the people of Adranum. 
These dwelt in a city that was small, but sacred to 
Adranus, a god highly honoured throughout all Sicily, 
and being at variance with one another, one party 
invited in Hicetas and the Carthaginians, while the 

* The false friend of Dion {Dion, chapters liv-lvii. ). 

• Cf. the Dioriy xlviii. 3 ; xlix. 1 f. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

SiairefjbTTOfievoi, KaL ir(o^ anr aifTOfiaTov avvir\r)(€ 
(nrevhovTtov afi<f>oT€p<op eh eva /caipop afi^ripoi^ 

3 yeveaOai rrjv irapovaiav. oKlC 'I/ceri;? p,€v fJKe 
'ir€VTaKi<T'xi\iov^ arparKoTa^ ^X^v, TifjLokeovTi Se 
oi avfiwavTe^ ^aav ov TrXelovf: yCKitov 8caK0<ria>v 
01)9 ava\al3a>v ifc rov Tavpojiepi^ov, aTaSi(ov w/oo? 
TO *ASpavbv ovrcDv rerTapaKovra /cal rpiafcoaitov, 
Tff fiev irpiOTTf r&v fifiep&v ov ttoXv p^po<; t^9 
6S0V TrpoiXafie Koi KaTr^vkiaaTO, ry S' varepaia 
cvvTovoifi oSevaa^ Kal 'xaXena ^(lUipLa hieKdi)v 
rjSff T^9 ripipa^ KaTa^epop^ivr)^ fiKovaev apri 
npoap^yvvvai top 'Itcirrfp rm iroXi^iq) xal Kara- 

4 arpaTOTre&eveip. oi fikp otnf \o')(ayo\ koX ra^iap^oi 
Tov^ irpdrov^ iiriari^a-ap w ifjupayovai Koi Siapa- 
Travaa/jLepoi^ ')(prfa'6fi€voi 7rpodvfioT€poi^, 6 Bk 
Ti,fio\€(op hniTopevofiepo^ iSelro ravra fitf iroietp, 
a\X' ayeip Kara ra/xp^ kcu avpdirreip to?9 iro- 
Xefiioi^ davprdfcroi<; ovaip, d>^ cIko^ apn iravo- 
/jL€pov^ ohoLTTOpla^ KoX ircpl (TK'qph^ Kal SeiiTpop 

5 daxoXovf; 6pTa<i, icaX Xiya>p afia ravra, rrjp 
duTrlha Xa^wp ^yeiro irp&TO'i Sawep iirl plktjp 
TrpoBrjXop, oi S* clwopto redapprjKore^, eXarrop fj 
rpidfcopra arahiov^ en t(op iroXejuUcop dTrixopre^:. 
(09 Bk Kal TovTovf Si7jX0op, iwiirLTTTOVO'tp avToi^: 
TitpaTTOfjLipoL<: xal (f>€vyovaip a>9 irp&TOP ^aQopro 
irpoaiopra^, odep dprjpidfffxap fup ov iroXX^ 
irXeiov^ rpiaKotntaPf idXaaap Sk SI9 roaovroi 

6 fwi'Te9, iX'r)<f)0tj &€ TO arparoireBop. oi &' ^ASpapi- 
rai rd<! TrvXa^: dpol^apre^ irpOfTeOepro r^ Ti/jlo- 
XeoPTi, furd ^piKjj^ /cal davfiaro^ dwayyeXXopre^ 
0)9 evKTrafiiprjf^ t^9 fid)(7)^ oi fikp lepol rov pea) 

288 



TIMOLEON 

other sent an invitation to Timoleon. And by some 
freak of fortune, both generals hastening to answer 
the summons, both arrived at one and the same time. 
But Hicetas came with five thousand soldiers, while 
Timoleon had no more than twelve hundred all told. 
Taking these with him from Tauromenium, he set 
out for Adranum, which was three hundred and forty 
furlongs off. The first day he advanced only a small 
part of the journey and bivouacked for the night ; but 
on the second day he quickened his pace, and after 
traversing difficult regions, when day was already 
declining he heard that Hicetas was just arriving at 
the little city and pitching his camp. Accordingly, 
his captains and taxiarchs halted the van-guard, in 
order to give the men food and rest and so make 
them more ready to fight ; but when Timoleon came 
up, he begged them not to do this, but to lead on 
with speed and engage the enemy while they were 
in disorder, as they were likely to be when just at 
the end of their march and busy with their tents 
and supper. And as he thus spoke, he took his 
shield, put himself at the head, and led the soldiers 
on as if to certain victory. And they followed, em- 
boldened by his example, being now distant from the 
enemy less than thirty furlongs. And when they 
had traversed these too, they fell upon the enemy, 
who were confounded and took to flight as soon as 
they perceived them coming up ; wherefore not 
many more than three hundred of them were slain, 
while twice as many were taken alive, and their 
camp was captured. Moreover^ the people of Adra- 
num threw open their gates and joined Timoleon, 
reporting to him with terror fod amazement that at 
the beginning of the battle the sacred poii;als of 

289 

VOL. VI. U 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7ri;\c!>i/69 avrofULToi Suipoiydeiev, oSdeir) Bk rov 
0€ov TO fjikv hopv aeiofxevov €k rrj^ aLXf"fj^ axpa^, 
TO Sk TrpoacoTrov IBp&ri iroW^ peofxevov, 

XIII. TaOra i\ (i? eoixev, ov rrjv Tore pUtjv 
€(T7]fiaive /wvov, aWa kol rct^ fiera ravra 
irpa^u^, ah iKeivo^ 6 ayoiv ap')(^]v evrvx^i 
irapecx'^* f^oX yap iroXei^ evdu^ iirnrpea^evofie' 
vat TrpoaeriQevTO r^ TtfioXeovrt, xai MdfiepKO^ 
6 KardpT)^ rvpavvo^, iroXepLiaTt)^ avijp teal XPV' 
fiaaiv ippcofiivo^, ehonKev avrov eU (TVfifiax'i'O.v* 

2 TO he fiiyioTOV, aino^ Aiovvfrto^ aTreiprjfco)^ tjBt) 242 
Tat9 iXiria-i teal fUfcpov aTroXeiiroyv ixTToXiopKel- 
aOai Tov fi€V 'Ikctov KaTe<f>p6v7i<Tev aicxp^^ 
7}TTr}pAvov, TOV he TifioXeovTU Oavfid^oDv CTrefi'^ev 
€K€iV(p /cal KopivOiot^ 7rapahihoif<; avTOV fcal ttjv 
aKpoiroXiv, he^dfievo^ S' o TifioXecov ttjv dvikiri- 
arov evTVxjiaVi diroaTiWei tou9 Trepl ^vfcXeihrjv 

KOL Tr/Xifiax^^' avhpa^ Kopivdlov^, eh ttjv dxpo- 
iroXiv, Kul (TTpaTKOTa^ t€t paxoaiov^;, ov^ ojxov 
TrdvTU^ ovhk <f>av€p(b^, ahvvaTov yap rjv €<l>opfiovv- 
Tcav TToXefUwv, dWa fcpv(f>a /cal KaT oXiyov^ 

3 Trapeia-TreaovTa^. oi fiev ovv crTpaTi(OTfu irape- 
Xaj^ov TTJV dxpoTToXiv teal Ta Tvpavvela pSTa ti,^ 
7rapaaK€urj^ fcal t&v y(^pr)aifjL(ov irpo^ tov TroXefiov 
Liriroi T€ yap evrjaav ovk oXXyoi Kal iraaa p/q- 
'^avrjfidTfav ihea /cat ^eX&v ttXyjOo^, oirXav S* 
direxeivTO fivptdhe^ eiTTa TedrfaavpuTfiivfov ex 
iraXaiov, (JTpaTi&Tai he hia)(^tXioi t^ Atovvaio) 
iraprjaav, ot>^ CKeivo^, w? ToXXa, tc5 TifioXeovTi 
irapehcoKev, auTO? he ypVH^'''^ Xa0cbv kuI t&v 
<l>lX(ov ov TToXXo^? eXauev e/cwXevaa^ tov 'Ik€tijv. 

4 xal KOfjuaOeh eh to tov Ti/jloXcovto^ ^aTpUTO' 

290 



TIMOLEON 

their temple flew open of their own accord, and the 
spear of the god was seen to be trembling to the 
tip of its point, while copious sweat ran down his 
face. 

XIII. These prodigies, as it would seem, were a 
sign not only of the victory which was then won, 
but also of the achievements succeeding them, to 
which that struggle afforded a propitious beginning. 
For cities at once sent envoys to Timoleon and 
espoused his cause, and particularly Mamercus, the 
tyrant of Catana, a warlike and wealthy man, pre- 
sented himself as an ally. And what was most im- 
portant, Dionysius himself, now grown desperate and 
almost forced to surrender, despised Hicetas for his 
shameful defeat, and in admiration of Timoleon sent 
to him and his Corinthians offering to surrender him- 
self and the citadel to them. Timoleon accepted 
this unexpected good fortune, and sent Eucleides 
and Telemachus, men of Corinth, into the acropolis, 
and with them four hundred soldiers, not all at once, 
nor openly, for this was impossible when an enemy 
was blockading the harbour; but they made their 
way in secretly and in small companies. These 
soldiers, then, took over the acropolis and the castle 
of the tyrant, together with his equipment and 
stores for the war ; for there were many horses 
there, all sorts of engines of war, and a great quan- 
tity of missiles, and armour for seventy thousand men 
had been stored up there for a long time. Diony- 
sius also had with him two thousand soldiers ; these, 
as well as the supplies, he turned over to Timo- 
leon, while he himself, with his treasure and a few 
of his friends, sailed off without the knowledge of 
Hicetas. And after he had been conveyed to the 

291 
u S 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irehov. Tore irp&Tov IBicorrj^ koX raireivo^ 6(f>0€L^, 
inl fud^ veo)^ /cat yprjfjLaTayv oXiycov el^ T^opivdov 
airearakTjy yevprjOei^ fiev Koi rpac^et? iv rvpavviSi 
TTf Traa&p i7n(f>av€(TTdT7) teal fieyia-Ttf, xaraaxcov 
Se ravTtjv err) Sifca, Sci^Scfca S' aWa fiera rfjv 
^Icovo^ aTpareiav iv ay&aL KaX iroXefWi^ Bta- 
^oprjOeh, a S* eirpa^e rvpavv&v 0I9 eiraOev virep- 

6 fiaXofievo^, /cat yctp vl&v ivrfKixcov Bavdrov^ KCii 
Ovyareptav KarairopvevaeL^ irapOivcop iirelSe, koI 
Tfjv avTrfV dSeXxpijv /cal yvvatKa ^Sxrav fiev eh to 
a&fia Tat9 da-eXr/eardTat^i viro r&v iroXefiKov 
7ihoval<; irapavofirfdelaav, fiia S* dirodavovcav 
fxerh r&v tckvcov, KaraTTovricrOetaav eh to ire- 
\a709. TavTa fJLev oiv iv Toh irepl Alcovo^ d/cpi/3w 
yeypairrai. 

XIV. Tov Bi Aiovuciov KaTairXeva-avro^; eh 
KopivOov, ovSeh fjv ^^XXrjVcov 89 ov'XJL Oedaaadai 
icaX irpoaeiTreiv irroOija-ev avTov, dXX^ 0% re xai- 
povT€^ iirl Tah <TVfju(f>opah Sid jua-o^ acfievoi 
(TvvrfXdov olov ippififievov vtto ti)? tvyt)^ irari]- 
aovre^i oX re tt/oo? tti)V fieTa^oXriv Tpeno/jLevot koL 
avp/iradovvTe^ iffe&VTO iroXXtfv iv daOeviac Toh 
dvO pcnirivoi^ Kal TrpoBijXoi^ t7)v t&v dSijXtov ai- 

2 Ti&v fcal Beiayv Svvaficv. ovSev ydp ovre (f>v(recD^ 
6 t6t€ Kaipo^ ovre r^^^j/iy? oaov ixeivo rvj^iy? 
epyov iTrehei^aro, tov XixeXia^ oXiyov efiTrpoadev 
rvpavvov iv KopLv6(p SiarpijSovra irepl Tr)V oy^o- 
irtoXiv fj /caOrjfievov iv fivpoTrtoXitp, irlvovra /ccKpa- 

1 There is nothing in the Dion to justify this statement. 
The cruelties described were committed by the revolting 
people of Locri, to whom Dionysius had made himself odious 

2Q2 



TIMOLEON 

camp of Timoleon, where for the first time he was 
seen as a private person and in humble garb^ he was 
sent off to Corinth with a single ship and a small 
treasure, having been born and reared in a tyranny 
which was the greatest and most illustrious of all 
tyrannies, and having held this for ten years, and 
then for twelve other years, after the expedition of 
Dion, having been involved in harassing struggles 
and wars, and having surpassed in his sufferings all 
his acts of tyranny. For he lived to see the violent 
deaths of his grown-up sons and the violation of his 
maiden daughters, and the shameful abuse of the 
person of his wife, who was at the same time his 
sister, and who, while living, was subjected to the 
most wanton pleasures of his enemies, and after 
being murdered, together with her children, was 
cast into the sea. These things, then, have been 
fully described in my Life of Dion.^ 

XIV. But as for Dionysius, after his arrival at 
Corinth there was no Greek who did not long to 
behold and speak to him. But those who rejoiced 
in his misfortunes were lead by their hatred to come 
together gladly that they might trample, as it were, 
upon one who had been cast down by Fortune ; while 
those who regarded rather the reversal of his fortune 
and sjmipathised with him, saw strong proof, amid 
the weakness jQf things that are human and seen, of 
the power of causes that are unseen and divine. For 
that age showed no work either of nature or of art 
that was comparable to this work of Fortune, namely, 
the recent tyrant of Sicily in Corinth, whiling his 
time away at a fishmonger's or sitting in a perfumer's 

during his residence there from 366 to 346 B.o. Cf. Athenaeus. 
p. 541 c e. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiivov airo t&v tcairrfKelfov kcu SiairXrjfeTi^ofievov 
iv ixicr^ TOfc? a<^' &pa^ ipya^ofievoi^ yvvcuot^t 
Ta9 Bk fiovaovpyoif^ iv ral^ ^hal^ SiSda/covra, 
Koi Trepl OearpiK&v aapAnov ipi^eip airovhd^^ovra 

3 nrpo^ i/ceiva^ xal irepX fiiXov^ apfiovLa^, ravra 
S* oi fiev aWo)9 aXvovra zeal (jyvaet padvjxov ovra 
zeal ffiCKaKoKaarov tpovro iroielv tov Aiovvaiov, 
oi S* virep tov KaTa(f>pov€l<r0ai koI firj ^opepov 
elvai T0Z9 KopivOioi^, firjS* wttotttoj/ co? jSapwo- 
fievov TTjv fierafioXtfv tov fiiov xal Trpayfidrajv 
i<l>U/j£Vov, eTTiTrfSeveiv /cal biroKpiveaOai irapib 
<f>vaiv, iToWriv a/SeKTcpiav iTriSeiKvvfievov iv t^ 
a"X^o\d^€iv. 

XV. Oi fif)v aXXh /cal \oyoi Tivi^ airrov 
fWJjfjLovevovTai, Si &v iBo/cei avp^ipeaOai, toi^ 
irapovaiv ovk ayewS)^, tovto fiev yap eh 
AevKaSa KaTa'XJBek, iroXiv aTrtpKicrpAvr^v viro 
KoptvOieov &air€p ttjv XvpaKOvaLwv, TavTov €<fir} 
irenovffivai toi^ iv afiapTripxKn yevofiivoi^ tcov 
veaviaKfov &)9 yap iKelvoc toi^ fiev dS€\<f>ol^ 
i\ap&^ avvhiaTpi^ovai, tou9 Se iraTepa^ ala'x^vvo- 
fievoi <f>€vyovaiv, ovtg)^ aifTO^ alhovfievos ttjv 
firjTpoTToXtv 7; 86(09 av avToOi fieT iKeiveov KaTOt- 

2 Kelv, TOVTO S iv KopivOtp ^ivov TLvhi aypouco- 243 

TCpOV 6t9 T4^9 fJi€T€i T&V (fil\oa'6<l>COV BuiTpi^d^, ol^ 

Tvpavv&v €'xaip€, 'x\evd^ovTo<i avTov, fcal Te\o9 
ipcoT&VTO^ TL Sff Ti}9 UXdTtovo^ diToXavaeie 
<ro<f>ia^, " OvSiv,^^ e<l)r), " <rol Bo/covfiev viro 11 Xa- 
T(ovo^ dHfieXfjaOai, tvxv^ fi€Tal3o\7jv ovto) (f>i' 
pojne^i** irpo^ he tov fiovaiKov * AptaTo^evov Kai 
Tiva^ dXKov^i irvvBavofihov^ oiroOev avT^ Kai rt? 



2y4 



TIMOLEON 

shop^ drinking diluted wine from the taverns and 
skinnishing in public with common prostitutes^ or 
trying to teach music-girls in their singings and 
earnestly contending with them about songs for the 
stage and melody in hymns. Some thought that 
Dionysius did these things as an aimless loiterer^ 
and because he was naturally easy-going and fond of 
license ; but others thought that it was in order to 
be held in contempt and not in fear by the Corin- 
thians^ nor under suspicion of being oppressed by the 
change in his life and of striving after power, that 
he engaged in these practices and played an un- 
natural part, making a display of great silliness in 
the way he amused himself. 

XV. However, certain sayings of his are preserved, 
from which it would appear that he accommodated 
himself to his present circumstances not ignobly. 
Once, namely, when he landed at Leucadia,^ a city 
which had been colonized by Corinthians, just like 
Syracuse, he said he had the same feelings as young 
men who have been guilty of misdemeanours; for 
just as these pass their time merrily with their 
brothers, but shun their fathers from a feeling of 
shame, so he was ashamed to live in their common 
mother-city, and would gladly dwell there with them. 
And again, in Corinth, when a stranger somewhat 
rudely derided him about his associations with phi- 
losophers, in which he used to take delight when he 
was a tyrant, and finally asked him what good Plato's 
wisdom did him now, ^^Dost thou think, said he, 
" that I have had no help from Plato, when I bear 
my change of fortune as I do ? ** Further, when 
Aristoxenus the musician and certain others inquired 

^ On his voyage from Syracuse to Corinth. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 17 7r/)09 HXdrcova yevoiTO fiifiyln^;, ttoW&v eifyq 
Kax&v Trfv Tvpavviha fiearrfv oiaav ovBev i')(eiv 
T7)\lkovtov rfKiKOV to firjSiva t&v \€yofi€va)v 
<f>LX(i)V fierh irapprjcrLa^ BiaXeyetrdar koI yhp 
avT09 vir €K€LV(ov a7ro(TT€p7j6rjpai rrj^ HXdrcDvo^ 
evvoia^, eirei hi r&v ^ovKofjAvoDV ri^ €v<f>v&v 
elvai a/cayirrcDV top Aiovvaiov i^eaeie to IfiaTiov 
elaicov TTpo^; avTov, d><; Brj irpb^ Tvpavvov, avTi' 
axdTTTWP eKelvo^ i/ciXeve tovto iroieiv oTav i^it) 
nap avTOV, firf ti t&v evhov exjaav aTrikffiy, 

4 ^iXiinrov Sk Tov Ma/ceSovo? wapct wotov Tivk 
\6yov fieTct elptoveia^ ifi^aXovTo^ irepl t&v fieX&v 
Ka\ T&v Tpay(phi&v a? irpea^vTcpof: Aiovvaios 
KaTeXiire, koI TrpoaTroiovfievov hiairopelv iv tLvi 
Xp6v(p TavTa iroielv ixeivo^ ia")(^6Xa^€V, ov <j)av- 
Xft)9 airrivTrjaev Aiovvcrio^ ehrcov " 'Ei; o5 cv 
Kayo) Koi Trai/re? oi pxi/cdpioi Sokovvtc^ elvai irepl 
/C(o0<i)va SiaTpiffo/jLev*^ 

6 TLXaTcov fJL€V ovv oiffc eTreiBev iv K.opiv0(p Aiovv- 
CLOV, dXX* €TVX€V 7]hrf T€0vr}/e(i<;, o Si ^cvcowev^ 
Aioyivrj^ airavTrjaa^; avT^ irp&TOv, "'II? dra^l- 
ft)9," €(f>7f, " Aiovva-i^e, f^?." i'7riaTdvT0<; 8' €«€t- 
vov fcal eiirovTO^* " Ei5 iroLel^t & ^loyeve^, (rvva- 
X06fi€vo^ r^filv rfTvyriKotji^^ "Ti ydp;^^ dlirev 6 
dkLoyevT)^, " o?€t fU (Toi (TVvaXyeiv, ov Siayava- 
KTeiv OTi TOMVTOV dpSpdwoSov &Vy teal Tot<; Tvpav- 
veiot^, &a"7r€p iraTTJp, iiriT'qheLo^ iyyqpdaa^; 
diToOavelv, ivTavOa irai^fov Koi Tpv<f)&v Sidyci^ 
296 



TIMOLEON 

what his complaint against Plato was and what its 
origin, he told them that of the many ills with 
which tyranny abounded there was none so great 
as this, that not one of those reputed to be friends 
speaks frankly with the tyrant; for indeed it was 
by such friends that he himself had been deprived 
of Plato's good will. Again, when one of those 
who wish to be witty, in mockery of Dionysius shook 
out his robe on coming into his presence,^ as if 
into the presence of a tyrant, Dionysius turned the 
jest upon him by bidding him do so when he went 
out from his presence, that he might not take any- 
thing in the house away with him. And when Philip 
of Macedon, at a banquet, began to talk in banter 
about the Ijrric poems and tragedies which Dionysius 
the Elder had left behind him, and pretended to 
wonder when that monarch found time for these 
compositions, Dionysius not inaptly replied by say- 
ing : *' When thou and I and all those whom men 
call happy are busy at the bowl.'* 

Now, Plato did not live to see Dionysius when he 
was in Corinth, but he was already dead ; - Diogenes 
of Sinope, however, on meeting him for the first time, 
said : " How little thou deservest, Dionysius, thus to 
live ! " Upon this, Dionysius stopped and said : '^ It 
is good of thee, O Diogenes, to sympathize with me 
in my misfortunes." " How is that ? " said Diogenes ; 
" Dost thou suppose that I am sympathizing with 
thee ? Nay, I am indignant that such a slave as thou, 
and one so worthy to have grown old and died in 
the tyrant's estate, just as thy father did, should be 

^ To show that no weapon was concealed there. 
^ Plato died in 348 B.C.; Dionysius catne to Corinth in 
343 BO. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 /x€^' Tjfiwvr «o"T€ /iot TrapaQdWovTi tovtoi^ ras 
^Oda-Tov (fxovd^, &9 d<f>iqai irepX r&v AeTrrivov 
Ovyaiipcov 6Xo<f>vp6fievo<;, w ifc fieyaXcov aya6&v 
T(av T^9 Tvpavviho^ eU raTreivrjv d<f>iy/i€V(i)v hi- 
anaVi <l>aiv€a6ai Oprivov^ yvvaiKO^ oKafido'TOv^ 
KoX 7rop<f}vpa<; xal 'Xpv(Tia irodovatf^, 

Tavra fikp oiv ov/c aWorpia rfj^ r&v fiicov 
dvaypa<f>rj^ ovBi dxpv^Ta So^eiv olofieOa firj 
airevSovai firjSe daxo^vfiivoi^ dxpoaTal^, 

XVI. T^9 Se ^lovvaiov Svarvx^o,^ napaXoyov 
<^ai/€t(ri79 ovx fJTTOV rj TifioXiovro^ einvxia to 
ffavfUKTrov eax^v. iirt/Sci^ yap XifceXia^i iv Tjfie- 
pai^ irevrrfKOvra ti]v t dxpoTroXiP r&v ^vpaKov- 
a&p irapiXa^e /cal Atovvaiov eh TleXoirovprjo'ov 
i^i'TTCfiyfrev. odev iTrippcoaOepTe^ oi 'KopCpOcot 
irefiTTOVinp avr^ hiaxt^ovs onrXiTa^ Koi hia- 

2 Koalov^ iirirel^, ot Kofiiaffepre^ ^TCP^ ^ovpuop 
T7JP i/c€i0€P irepatcoaip vtro K.apxvBopicop iroXXah 
pavcrl KarexofiipTj^i t^9 OaXdrrrj^ airopop op&pre^, 
€09 rjp dpdyKT) KUipop wepcfiipopra^ drpepmp avro- 
6 1, irpb^ KoXXiaTOP epyop aTrexpija'aPTo ry trxoXfj. 
SovploDP yap iirl UperTiov^ trrparevoPTdDP rrjp 
iroXip -rrapaXa^opTC^: &<nr€p irarpiSa fcaOapA^ 
/cal 7rt<rTG>9 SicffivXa^av. 

3 'O S' ^Ixirr)^ rrjp fi€P dfcpo'iroXtp t&p XvpaKOV- 
a&p eTToXiopKei Kal <tltop ixdiXvep elairXeiv roi^ 
KopipOioi^, TifjLoXiopTL Se 8vo (epov^ irapaa-Kevd- 
<7a9 SoXo<l>oP7JaopTa^ avTOP vviTrefiyftep eh ^ASpa- 
pop, ovT€ aXXa>^ irepi to a&/ia (TVPTerayfihrqv 

2Q8 



TIMOLEON 

living here with us in mirth and luxury." Wherefore, 
when I compare with these words the mournful ut- 
terances of Philistus about the daughters of Leptines, 
how from the great blessings of the tyranny they 
fell to a lowly life, they seem the lamentations of a 
woman who pines for her alabaster caskets and purple 
gowns and golden trinkets. 

These details, then, will not seem foreign to my 
biography, I think, nor without usefulness, to readers 
who are not in haste, and are not occupied with 
other matters. 

XVI. But though the misfortune of Dionysius 
seemed extraordinary, none the less did the good 
fortune of Timoleon have something marvellous 
about it. For within fifty days after his landing in 
Sicily the acropolis of Syracuse was surrendered to 
him and Dionysius was sent off to Peloponnesus. 
Stimulated by this success, the Corinthians sent him 
two thousand men-at-arms and two hundred horse- 
men. These got as far as Thurii, but seeing that 
their passage thence was impracticable, since the sea 
was beset with many Carthaginian ships, they were 
compelled to remain there quietly and await their 
opportunity, and therefore turned their leisure to 
advantage in a most noble action. When the Thu- 
rians, namely, went on an expedition against the 
Bruttians, the Corinthians received their city in 
charge, and guarded it honestly and faithfully to 
the end, as though it were their own. 

But Hicetas kept the acropolis of Syracuse under 
siege and prevented the importation of food for the 
Corinthians there; he also sent to Adranum two 
foreigners whom he had engaged to assassinate Timo- 
leon ; for Timoleon at no time kept a guard in array 

299 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ej(pvTi <l>v\aKi]v, teal t6t€ iravrdiratri SicL top 
0€ov aveifiipQ)^ fcal avviroTrrm^ a')(p\d^oim fJL€Tct 
T&v *ASpaviT&v. 01 Be 'n'€fi(f>6€VT€^ Kara Tvxnv 
irvdofievoL fiiWoura ffveiv avrov, ^kov €t9 to 
Upov viro T0t9 i/iarioi^ iyx^ipiSia KOfii^ovre^, koX 
rol^ irepietrrSxTi, rov I3a)fi6v avafJLiyjSivre^, iyyv- 

4 T€pa> KOTCL fic/cpbv iirex^ipovv. Koi oaov ovTro) 244 
irapafceXevofievoDV a\X?fXot9 €vdp)(€(rdai iraiei t«9 
avT&v Tov €T€pov Kara rrj^ ^e<^aX^9 ^l<f>€i, Kal 
ireaovTO^ ov0* 6 iraiaa^; e/ieivev ovS" 6 fierh rov 
7r\f)yivT0^ fj/cav, aXK* i/celvo^ fiiv, Hairep €l%6 to 
^Lfpo^, if>€vyo)v TTpo^ Tiva irerpav vyjrnjXrjp aveirrj- 
hrjaevy arepo^ he rov fitofiov Xa^ofievo^i aSeiav 
fJTeiTO iraph tov TifioXeovro^ eirl t^ irdvTa fj/qyv- 
aai, Kal \a^a)v efirjvvtre KaG* avrov xai Kara 
rov reOvrjKoro^ 0)9 rrefiffydeiev eKelvov diroKreV' 

6 ovvre<;» ev rovrtp Be Kal rop aTro t% Trerpa^ Kari)- 
yov Irepoi, fio&vra firjBev dBcKelv, d\V dvjjprjfcevai 
BiKaicD^ rop apdpeoirop inrkp irarpo^; reOpriKoro^, 
hp CKelpo^ aireKroprjKOi irporepop ip Aeopripoc^. 
Kal fiaprvpoupra^ elx^P ipiov<; r&p Trapoprcop, 
0avfid^opra<; afia ri)^ tv^V^ ^V^ evfirj'XP'Piap, ws 
iC erepcdv Srepa Kipovca Kal avpdyovaa irdpra 
iroppwOep Kal a-vyKarawXeKovaa Tot9 TrXeia-rop 
Biaxfyepeip BoKovai Kal firfSkp ex^iP 7rpo9 dWtfKa 
Koipop ael To?9 dWrjXwp xftV'^^^ f^^l TeXeai Kal 
apx^u^' 

6 Top fiep ovp apdpcorrop iarecpdpwaap oi Kopiv-- 

300 



riMOLEON 

about his person^ and at this time in particular^ owing 
to his trust in their god^ he was altogether without 
anxiety or suspicion in his diversions with the people 
of Adranum. The men who had thus been sent 
learned, as chance would have it, that he was about 
to offer a sacrifice, and therefore came into the sacred 
precinct with daggers under their robes, mingled with 
those who stood around the altar, and gradually drew 
nearer their intended victim. And as they were just 
on the point of exhorting one another to begin their 
work, somebody smote one of them on the head with 
a sword and laid him low, whereupon neither he who 
had struck the blow nor the companion of him who 
had received it kept his place ; but the one, with his 
sword still in his hand, fled to a lofty rock and sprang 
upon it, while the other laid hold of the altar and 
begged immunity from Timoleon on the condition of 
his revealing everything. And when he had obtained 
his request, he testified against himself and against 
his dead comrade that they had been sent to kill 
Timoleon. Meanwhile others brought down the man 
who had fled to the rock, who kept crying out that 
he had done no wrongs but had justly slain the man 
on behalf of his dead father, who had been mur- 
dered by him some time ago in Leontini. Some of 
the bystanders bore witness also to the truth of his 
words, and wondered, too, at the dexterity of Fortune, 
seeing how she makes some things lead up to others, 
brings all things together from afar, weaves together 
incidents which seem to be most divergent and to 
have nothing in common with one another, and 
so makes use of their reciprocal beginnings and 
endings. 

To this man, then, the Corinthians gave a reward 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 lot Scfca fjLval^, on r<2 <f>vKdTT0VTt SaifMovi rov 
TifioXiovra 7rd0o<; e%/>7;cre SIkuiov koI top ck 
TToWov TTapovia dvfiov avT^ irporepov ov xarav- 
aXaxrev, aXXa fier airiaf; tSta? irpb^ rrjv ifC€Lvov 
(TCDT'qpiav airo tv^'H^ SierTJprjaev, 17 S' eh top 
irapovTa Kaipov evTvxio. xal irpo^ ret fiiWovra 
Ta?9 iXiriaiv iirripev op&vra^ w lepov avhpa koX 
(jvv 0€^ TLficjpov rJKOpra rfj ^iKekia top TifioXi- 
opra ae^eaBai xaX (^vKdrTetP, 

XV 11. 'ft? he ravTfjf; ivrifiapTe t^9 ireipa^ 6 
'I/ceT^9 icaX irpof; TifioXioPTa 7ro\Xoi>9 ecopa avpi- 
(TTafiipov^, fiefiyjrdfiepo^ auTo? eavrop on rrfKi- 
KavTH]^ irapovari^ t^9 Kap)(7)&opL(op Bvpdfieay^; 
&(nrep ala'xypofiepo^ avrfi Kara fxiKpa XPV'^^^ 
teal XdOpa, tcKeirrcop fcal Trapeiadyayp rffp crufifia- 
Xl'^v» /x6T€7r€/x7r€TO Mdycjpa top arpaTrfyop aifTcop 

2 p^era tov (ttoXov irapTO^;. o he elaerrXei (fio^epo^ 
pavarl irePTtj/copTa Kal exaTOP KaraXap^^dptop top 
Xip,€Pa, ire^S)p he pvpidha<i e^ diro^i^d^oop fcal 
KaTacTTpaTOTrehevcop ep ttj iroXet tcjp XvpaKov- 
aioDP, &(TT€ irdpTa^; oXeaOai ttjp irdXai Xeyofjieprjv 
Kal TTpoahoKODfieprjp iKJSap/Sdpeoaip ijKeip i'rrl Tr)p 
XtKeXiap, ovheiroTe yap Kapxvhopioi^i virrjp^e 
TTpoTCpop p,vpiov^ TroXep^rjaaat iToXep,ov^ ep ^iKe- 
Xia Xa/Seip Ta<; %vpaKovaa^, dXXa t6t€ he^ap>€Pov 
TOV 'Ikctov Kal 7rapah6pTO<; ffp opap ttjp iroXip 

3 (TTpaToirehop ^apffdpcop oiaap, ol he rffp dxpo- 
TToXip T&p Kopip$L(i)p KaTe^ppTe^ i7rt(r(l>aX&^ Kal 

302 



TIMOLEON 

of ten minas^ because he had put his just resentment 
at the service of the deity who was guarding Timo- 
leon^ and had not at an earlier time expended the 
wrath which had long been in his hearty but with a 
personal motive had reserved it, under Fortune*s 
guidance, for the preservation of that general. 
Moreover, their good fortune in the present crisis 
raised their hopes for the future also, and they anti- 
cipated that men would revere and protect Timoleon, 
looking upon him as a sacred personage, and one 
who had come under divine guidance to avenge 
the wrongs of Sicily.^ 

XVII. But when Hicetas had failed in this attempt 
and saw that many were now thronging to the support 
of Timoleon, he found fault with himself because, 
when so large a force of the Carthaginians was at 
hand, he was using it in small detachments and 
secretly, as though he were ashamed of it, bringing 
in his allied troops like a thief and by stealth ; he 
therefore called in Mago their general together with 
his whole armament. Thus Mago, with a formidable 
fleet of a hundred and fifty ships, sailed in and oc- 
cupied the harbour, disembarking also sixty thousand 
of his infantry and encamping them in the city of 
Syracuse, so that all men thought that the barbariza- 
tion of Sicily, long talked of and expected, had come 
upon her. For never before in all their countless 
wars in Sicily had the Carthaginians succeeded in 
taking Syracuse; but now Hicetas admitted them 
and handed over to them the city, and men saw that 
it was a barbarian camp. But those of the Corinthians 
who held the acropolis were beset with difficulty 

* The Greek of this sentence is obscure, and has thus far 
defied emendation. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

;^aX€7ra>9 airijWaTTOP, Tpo(f>ij^ fikv iKav7]<: ovk €Tt 
irapovtrq^it aA^V ivBeo/xepoi Sici to <f>povp€ta0ai 
TO 1)9 \ip,iva<;, del Be ev dySycrt teal fidxcti'^ irepX rd 
reixv ^^^ Trpo? Trdv /jL7)'x^dvr)fia fcal 7r/>09 irdaav 
ISeav TToXiopKia^ fiepH^ovre^ avrov^. 

XVIII. Ov fjLTjp a\X' Ttp^Xicjv irape^o^ffei 
aiTOv ex Kardvr)^ fiiKpai^ dXidai koI XeTTTOt? 
dKarioL^ dno(rT€W(ov, d fidTuara 'xetP'&vi TrapeLO-- 
eTniTTe Sid r&v fiap^apiK&v Tpirjpcov vTroiropevo- 
fieva, 7r/oo9 top Kkuhtopa KaX top adXop eiceipcop 
BilaTafieptap, d Bfj avpop&PT€<; oi irepX top Ma- 
ya>pa xal top 'lKeTr)p e^ovXovTO tt^p JLaTUprfp 
eXeip, ef fj^ eia-eTrXet^ Td iTriTTjSeia Tot9 TroXiop- 
Kovfiepoi^' Koi Xa^oPTB^ Try; Svpdfieta^ Trfp fjiayi- 

2 pxoTaT'qp i^iirXevaap eic t&p XvpaKOV<r&p, o Se 
Koptpffio^ Neo)!/ (o5to9 ydp ^p dpxcop t&p iroXiop- 
/covfiepcop) KaTiBcbp dnrb ttj^ axpa^ tov<; vnroXe^ 
XeifijjApov<; T&p iroXe/Jucap dpy&q xal dp,€X&<f 
<^i;\aTToi^Ta9 €^ai<f>pr)^ iiriirea-e Bieairapfiipoi^ 
avToi*;' fcaX tou9 p^p dpeX(op, tou9 Bk Tpe^dpepo^;, 
iKpuTtjae KaX Kajiaxe Ttfp Xeyop^iprfp ^AxpaBipijp, 245 
h KpaTKTTOP eBoKei xaX dOpavaTOTUTOP virdpx^ip 

T^9 XvpuKOvaiayp pepo^ iroXeto^, Tpoirop Tipd avy- 
/ceip^eprjf; koI avprjpp.oap^epi]^ ex irXeiopap iroXecop. 

3 evTTOpi^a'a^ Bk KaX cLtov koX ;^i7/iaTa)P ovk d^rjKe 
TOP Tonop, ouB* dp€X<iprfa€ iraXiP iirX Ttfp aKpap, 
dXXd <f)pa^dp£P0^ top irepifioXop t^9 'A;^pa8ti/^9 
KaX avpdy^a^ Tot9 epvpxicn irpo^ ttjp dxpoiroXip 

Bl€<f)vXaTT€, T0U9 Bk TTCpX TOP MoTfiOPa KaX TOP 

'lKeTr)P iyyv^ rjBf) ti)9 KaTaprf^ oPTa^ iiTTreif^ €k 
XvpaKOva&p KaTaXal3a)p dirijyyeiXe Ttfp aXcoaiv 

I tla4ir\9i Holden's conjecture : lhr\u. 



TIMOLEON 

and danger ; for they no longer had sufficient food^ 
but suffered lack because the harbours were block- 
aded ; and they were forever dividing up their forces 
in skirmishes and battles around the walls^ and in 
repelling all sorts of engines and every species of 
si e are warfare. 

XVIII. However, Timoleon came to their aid by 
sending them grain from Catana in small fishing 
boats and light skiffs ; these would make their way 
in, especially in stormy weather, by stealing along 
through the barbarian triremes, which lay at wide 
intervals from one another because of the roughness 
of the sea. This soon came to the notice of Mago 
and Hicetas, who. therefore determined to take Ca- 
tana, from which provisions came in by sea to the 
besieged ; so taking with them the best of their 
fighting men, they sailed forth from Syracuse. But 
Neon the Corinthian (for he it was who commanded 
the besieged), observing from the citadel that the 
enemy who had been left behind were keeping an 
easy and careless watch, fell suddenly upon them as 
they were scattered apart ; some he slew, others he 
put to flight, and then mastered and took possession 
of the quarter called AohradinA. This seems to have 
been the strongest and least vulnerable part of the 
city of Syracuse, wliich was, in a manner, an assem- 
blage and union of several cities. Having thus sup- 
plied himself with grain and money, he did not give 
up the place, nor did he go back again to the citadel, 
but fenced in the circumference of Achradina, united 
it by his fortifications with the acropolis, and guarded 
both. Mago and Hicetas were already near Catana, 
when a horseman from Syracuse overtook them and 



305 

VOL. VI. X 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ti;9 *A)(fiaSLvrj(;, ical avvrapa'X&ivTe^ dve)(a>priaav 
Bict Ta')(€(ov, ovre \a/36vT€<; e</>* fjv i^rjKdov ovre 

XIX. TaSra fikv ovv en rfj irpovoLa kclL aperfj 
hihaxri riva irpo^ rrjv TV)(rjv afi(f>icr/3i]Trf(riv to S* 
iirl TOVTOL^ y€v6fi€vov navrdiraaiv eoixe a-vptfirjvat 
Kar evTV^lav, oi yap iv toa? %ovploL^ Star pi- 
/8oj/T€9 arpari&TaL r&v Kopivdioyv ap4i p.kv BeSio- 
Te9 ra? Kapxv^^^^^^ rpiijpeif;, at irape^vXarrov 
avTov^ psrk "Avvayvo^, apu 8' e^' r}pApa^ ttoWA? 
i^riypi(ap.ewi<; viro irvevp^ro^ Try; daXaTTtj^, ne^y 
Stii 3p€TTi(ov &pp,rjaav iropeveadar xal rit piv 
7r€t^oj/T€9, TCL Bc /3ia^6p€voi> Tov^ fiap^dpov^ eh 
'P'qyiov Kari/Saivov ere iroXvv %€i/ia)i/a tov TreXa- 

2 701/9 e^oi/TO?. 6 Se T&v K.apX'H^ovifov pavap^o^, 
c!>9 ov trpoaeioKa tou9 Kopivffiov^ /cat pArrfv 6?6to 
KaOrfadai, ireiaa^; aifTO^ iavrov vevotj/civai tl t&v 
(TOip&v Koi TravovpyoDV 7r/909 aTrdTtjp, aretpavm^ 
aaaOai tov^ vavra^ KeKeva-a^ koX tcoap/qaa^ tcl^ 
rpiijpei^ a<T7riaiv *KXXfjviKal^ koX (f>oiriKiaiv, 
eir\€i 7r/t>09 Ta9 Xvpa/cov<raf;. koI irapct rrjv a/cpo- 
'/roXip %/9(i&/i€J'09 poBL(p pera Kporov koX yeXxoTo^ 
e^oa 70^9 Kopipffiov^ rjfeeiv pepifcrjxo}^ Kal kc- 
'X€ip(opJpo<;, iv rfj 0a\drrr} \a0a>p SiawXeopra^, 
C09 Srj ripa hvadvpiap roi^ irdkiopKOvpipoi^ irapi- 

3 ^<op, eKCLPov Se ravra Xqpovpro^ koX <f>€PaKl^0PT0^ 
CK T&p BperTLcov Kara^e^r^KOTe^ oi Kopupdioi eh 
TO ^Vrfyiop, <»9 oviel^ Trap€(f>v\aTT€ kcu to irpevpa 
KareafieapApop irapaXoyw^ dxvpopa top iropop 

306 



TIMOLEON 

told them of the capture of Achradina. They were 
confounded by the tidings and went back in haste^ 
having neither taken the city against which they 
went forth, nor kept the one they had. 

XIX. In these successes, then, foresight and valour 
might still dispute the claims of Fortune ; but that 
which followed them would seem to have been wholly 
due to good fortune. The Corinthian soldiers, namely, 
who were tarrying at T^ii^rii^ partly because they 
feared the Carthaginian triremes which were lying 
in wait for them under Hanno, and partly because 
a storm of many days' duration had made the sea 
very rough and savage, set out to travel by land 
through Bruttium ; and partly by persuading, partly 
by compelling the Barbarians, they made their way 
down to ^ jji^egium w hile a great storm was still raging 
at sea. But the Carthaginian admiral, since he did 
not expect that the Corinthians would venture forth 
and thought his remaining there inactive an idle 
thing, after convincing himself that he had devised 
something clever and mischievous in the way of 
deceit, ordered his sailors to crown their heads with 
garlands, decorated his triremes with purple battle- 
flags and Greek shields, and sailed for Syracuse. And 
as he passed the acropolis at a dashing speed amid 
clapping of hands and laughter, he shouted that he 
was come from conquering and capturing the Corin- 
thians, whom he had caught at sea as they were 
trying to cross the strait ; supposing, indeed, that he 
would thus greatly dishearten the besieged. While 
he was thus babbling and playing the trickster, the 
Corinthians who had come down from Bruttium to 
Rhegium, since no one was lying in wait for them 
and the unexpected cessation of the storm liad made 

307 
X 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ISeiv Koi \elov '/rapelye, Ta^v Trkfjpda'aPTe^ ra 
iropOfjuela xal t^9 aXidca^ ra? irapovaa^ avi^yovro 
Kol hiexopi^ovro irpos ttjv XixeXiav, ovtco^ axr^a- 
\a)9 KaX 8(,ct Toaavrrj^ yaXTjvrj^ ware rov^ imrov^ 
iraph, rh ifKola irapavrj^ofiipov^ ix pvT)]pa)v €<f>€\- 
Ke<rdai. 

XX. JlepaieoOiuTODv Sh irdvTeop 6 Tifidkitav Se- 
^dfievo^ avTOv<; rrjv re Meaa-'^vrjv €vdif<: €l%€, xal 
avvra^dfievo^ i^dhi^ev iirX tA? ^vpaKOvaa';, ol^ 
evTvx^i Koi /carcopdov fiaXXov 1/ rfj Svvdfiet 
TreTroi,d(i}V ov ycip f^aav oi avv avr^ TrXeiov^ 
T€T paKicr^tXicDV. ayyeWofievrjf; Se t^9 i<f>6Bov t& 
Mdytopt Oopvffovfievo^ /cat SeSoi/co)^ eri fiaXKov 

2 6t9 viroy^iav ffKJBev ix toulvth)^ 7r/[)o0acr€a>9- €1^ 
T0t9 irepX rfjv irokiv T€vdrf€(ri, ttoXv filv ix Kpr^v&v 
TTOTifiov vSayp, iroXif S' i^ IXcai/ xal norafi&p 
KarappeovTfov eh ttjp ddXarrav Sexofiivoi^, ttXtj- 
00^ €7;^€\€Ci)i' v€/j£rat, xal iay^tXeia t^9 aypa^ 
T0t9 0ovXofi€VOif; del irdpeari, raxna^ oi Trap 
dpj(^OTep<ov fiiaffov arparevofievoi a"xpXrj^ ovcrrj^ 
/cal dvoy&v avvedrjpevov, ota S' ''EWi;i/69 oi/t€9 
Kal 7rpo<; dXXi]Xov^ ovk exovre^ IBicov direxjSei&v 
7rp6(f>aaiv, ip p,ep ral^ p^d^pLi^ SiexivSvpevop eu- 
p(oaT<M)^, €P Se Tat9 dpoyal^ 7rpoa(f}OiT&PT€^ dXXi]- 

3 Xot9 SieXeyoPTo. xal rore kolpop irepX rifp dXieiap 
exopre^ epyop ip Xoyoi^ ffaap, davfid^opre^ Ti)9 
OaXdaaT}^ T7]p €V(f>vtap xaX t&p ;^a>/}to>i/ ttjp Kara- 
aKevTjp, KaL t^9 ehre t&p iraph Tot9 l^opipdloi^ 
a-rparevofiipcDP' *' Toaavrrjp fieproi iroTup ^ to 
pAyeOo^ Kal to<tovtoi<; i^aKfffiiprfp xaXoi^ vfiel^ 
'^EiXXrjpe^ oin-€9 ex^apfiapSiaai irpodviielaOe, roi^ 

* ir6\iv Blass, after Corals : tV ir6\iy, 
308 



TIMOLEON 

the strait smooth and calm to look upon^ speedily 
manned the ferry-boats and fishing craft which they 
found at hand^ put oft*, and made their way across to 
Sicily, with such safety and in so great a calm that 
their horses also swam along by the side of the boats 
and were towed by the reins. 

XX. When they had all crossed over, Timoleon 
took them and at once occupied Messana, then, 
uniting them with his other forces, marched against 
Syracuse, relying on the good fortune and success that 
attended his efforts rather than on the strength of 
his army ; for his followers were not more than four 
thousand in number. But when Mago got tidings of 
his approach, disturbed and fearful as he was, he was 
made still more suspicious for the following reason. 
In the shoals about the city, which receive much fresh 
water from springs, and much from marshes and 
rivers emptying into the sea, great numbers of eels 
live, and there is always an abundance of this catch 
for anybody. These eels the mercenary soldiers on 
both sides, when they had leisure or a truce was on, 
used to hunt together. And since they were Greeks 
and had no reason for private hatred of one another, 
while in their battles they risked their lives bravely, 
in their times of truce they would visit and converse 
with one another. And so now, as they were busy 
together with their fishing, they conversed, express- 
ing their admiration of the richness of the sea and 
the character of the adjacent lands. And one of 
those who were serving on the Corinthian side said : 
" Can it really be that you, who are Greeks, are eager 
to barbarize a city of such great size and furnished 
with such great advantages^ thus settling Cartha- 



309 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaicL(TTOv<; Koi ^oviKtardrovs l^apxv^ovlov^ iyyv- 
ripio fcaroi/ci^ovre^ fuxSiv, irpo^ 0&9 eSei, ttoWA? 

4 ev'xeadai XifceXia^ irpoKeladai t^9 'EWaSo?* ^246 
Bofcetre tovtov^ arparov cuyeipavTa^ airo arrfKw 
'HpaKXeicov koI Trj<; ^ ArXavTiicrji; ^k€iv daXdrrrf^ 
Bevpo Kivhvv€v<rovTa<i virep t% 'Ikctov hvvaareia^; 

09 ei Xoyia-fiov elx^v rfyejJLovo^, ovk av i^€J3aW€ 
Tov^ Trarepa^ ovS^ ifrrjye rfj irarpihi Toi'9 ttoXc- 
piov^f dWa KaX Tt/x^9 icaX Svvdp^(o<; errvyyavev 
o(Ttf\^ irpeirei, Koptv0Lov<; xal TifioKeovra 7r6t<ra9." 
rovTOVf; tow \6yov^ oi p,ia'0o<f)6pot iieOporjcrav iv 
T^ CTTpaTOTreBot), teal irapia^xop viro'>^iav t& Ma- 
ycovi irpoSiBoaOai, XPV^^^*^^ irdXat 7rpo(f>da€<o^. 

5 Sio KoX Seop,€vov Tov ^Ik€tov 7rapap,€P€iv xal SiBd- 
(TKOvro^ o<T<p fieXriove^ elai r&v iroXep^mv, p^XXov 
ol6p.€vo^ dp^rfi KoX Tvxv ^t'weo-^at Tip^oXeovro^ ^ 
TTXrjOeL Bvvdp.€(a<; xrrrep^dXXetv, dpa<; evOi)^ dnri- 
irXevaep eh At/Svrfv, aiaxpw Kar ovheva Xoyt- 
ap^ov dvdpminvov etc roiiv x^ip&v dtfyeU XifceXiav, 

XXL T^ S' varepaia iraprjv 6 Tip^oXiayv iirl 
p^d^V^ (Jwrerayp^evo^, <m9 Be rrjv (pvyrjv eirvvOd- 
vovTO Koi rrjv epripiav edoptov r&v vewpimv, yeXdv 
avTOi<; eTryei ti^v dvavSpiav tov ^drftovo^, koI 
irepuovre^ eKrfpvrrov ev rfj iroXei p^rjvvrpa r^ 
^pdaavTi TOV T^apxnBovl(tyv (ttoXov ottj) a(l>d^ diro- 
2 BeSpaKev. ov p^fjv dXXd tov 'I/cctov (fyiXopuxovv^ 
T09 €Ti Kol T^i/ Xal3r)v ov irpolep^evov t^9 7roXe(»9, 
dXXd €/A7r€</)u/coT09 0I9 KaTel^e pepeai Kapiepol^ 

310 



TIMOLEON 

ginians^ who are the basest and bloodiest of men^ 
nearer to us, when you ought to pray for many 
Sicilies to lie as a barrier between Greece and 
them ? Or do you suppose that they have collected 
an army and are come hither from the pillars of 
Heracles and the Atlantic sea in order to risk their 
lives in behalf of the dynasty of Hicetas ? He, if he 
reasoned like a true leader, would not be casting out 
his kindred people, nor would he be leading against 
his country her natural enemies, but would be en- 
joying a befitting amount of honour and power, with 
the consent of Timoleon and the Corinthians/' Such 
speeches as these the mercenaries disseminated in 
their camp, and made Mago suspicious of treachery, 
though he had long wanted a pretext for going 
away. Therefore when Hicetas begged him to re- 
main and tried to show him how much superior they 
were to their enemies, he thought rather that they 
were more inferior to Timoleon in bravery and good 
fortune than they surpassed him in the number of 
their forces, and weighing anchor at once, sailed off 
to Libya, thus letting Sicily slip out of his hands 
disgracefully and for no reason that man could 
suggest. 

XXI. On the day after his departure, Timoleon 
came up with his forces * arrayed for battle. But 
when they learned of Mago's flight and saw the 
docks empty of vessels, they could not help laugh- 
ing at his cowardice, and went about the city pro- 
claiming a reward for any one who told them whither 
the Carthaginian fleet had fled away from them. 
However, since Hicetas was still eager for battle and 
would not let go his hold upon. the city, but clung 
to the parts of it in his possession, which were 

3" 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ov<rt fcal Svo'TTpoafid'X^ot^, SieXobv 6 TifioXemv ttjv 
hvvaixiv avTO^ fiev y ^latorarov T^v irapa to pel- 
6pov Tov ^Kvdirov TrpoaejSaWev, aX\ov<; S' ifc t^9 
A')(^paSivrj<; ixiKevev iirix^ipeiv, &v 'Icrta? '^yeiTo 
6 KopLvdio<;, T0V9 Si rpLTOV<; iirrjyou iirl Ta<; 
^EiriTToXh^ Aeivapxo^i kol ArjfjidpeTO^, ol Tr}v vare- 

3 pav dyayoj/re^ iic KopivOov ^orjOeiav. ajxa he koI 
TravraxoOev ri)^ i^oSov yevo^vr)^; KaX t&v ire pi 
TOV 'Ik€ti]v dvarpairePTCov xal <f>€vy6vT(0P, to /j,ev 
d\&vai Ttfv TToXiv Kar aKpa<; fcal yeviaffat ra- 
Xe(o^ vTrox^iptov ifcireaovroDV Ttav Tro\€fd<ov hi- 
/catov dvadelvai rfj r&v fiaxofiepoDV dvhpayaOia 
K(u TTj BeivorrjTi tov arpa^rrjyov, ro Se fir) dno- 
Oaveiv riva p/tjSe rpwdrfvai r&v KopivOicov iBiov 
epyov avTTJ^ ^ Ti/mo\€Ovto^ iirehei^aTO tvxv» 
KaOdnep ScafitXXwfiivrj tt/jo? t^j^ dperijv tov dv- 
S/909, Lva rcov iiraivov/j^evcov avrov rh fiaKapi^o- 

4 pieva p,aXKov ol irvvdavop^voL davfid^cDacv, ov 
yap fiovov ^iKeXiav irdaav ovK ^IraXiav €v0v<; i} 
<f)7]/JLrj Kdreax^Vt dXTC fniepwv oXLymv rj 'EW09 
Siij'xei TO fjL€y€0o<; tov fcaTopdcofJUiTO<;, &(tt€ ttjp 
T(ov KopLvOicov iroXiv dirio'TOvaav el BiaTriirXevKev 
6 c7ToXo9, ofiov fcal (Teacoafiivov^i koI vevifcrjfcoTa^ 
aKoveiv Toif^ dvSpa^, ovtco^ evporfaav al irpd- 
^€49, xal ToaovTo Tq) KdXXei Ta>p epytov to Ta^jo^ 
V '^^XV 'n'poa€07j/c€v» 

XXII. T€v6fM€vo<i Se t^9 dxpa^ Kvpio^ ovk enade 
/^icovi TavTO irdOo^, ouS' i<bcLcraTO tov tottov Sid 
TO /cdXXo<; Kal ttjv iroXvTeXeiav t^9 KaTaaKevr/^, 
dXXd TTfV eKelvov hta^aXovaav, elT diroXia-aaav 
vTToyjfiap <f>vXa^dp>^po(; iKijpu^e t&p XvpaKovaicop 



3T2 



TIMOLEON 

strong and dangerous to attack^ Timoleon divided 
his forces^ he himself attacking along the river 
Anapus where the struggle was likely to be hottest^ 
and ordering others^ under the lead of Isias the 
Corinthian^ to make their attempt from Achradina. 
The third division was led against Epipolae by 
Deinarchus and Demaretus^ who had brought the 
second reinforcement from Corinth. The attack was 
made in all three places at once, and the troops of 
Hicetas were overwhelmed and took to flight. That 
the city was taken by storm and fell quickly into 
their hands after the enemy had been driven out, 
it is right to ascribe to the bravery of the soldiers 
and the ability of their general ; but that not one 
of the Corinthians was killed or even wounded, this 
the good fortune of Timoleon showed to be her own 
work, vying emulously, as it were, with his valour, in 
order that those who hear his story may wonder at 
his happy successes more than at his laudable efforts. 
For his fame not only filled at once all Sicily and 
Italy, but within a few days Greece echoed with his 
great success, so that the city of Corinth, which was 
in doubt whether his armament had got across the 
sea, heard at one and the same time that it had 
safely crossed, and that it was victorious. So pros- 
perous was the course of his enterprises, and such 
was the speed with which Fortune crowned the beauty 
of his achievements. 

XXII. When he had become master of the citadel, 
he did not repeat the experience of Dion,^ nor did 
he spare the place on account of the beauty and 
great cost of its architecture, but guarding against 
the suspicions which had brought calumny and then 
destruction upon his predecessor, he made proclama- 

' See the Dion, chapter liii. 1. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTOv<; Bi a-vvdyeiv jJ^eydXrjv Svvafiiv (w? Irov^ 
&pa Sia/SrjaofjLevov^ eh Xi/ceXiap, 

XXIII. T&v Se ypafifiaToov rovrcov wapct rov 
TifioXiovTO^ KOfJLKTuevTayv, xal irpeafiewv afia 
irapovTQDV %vpaKovai<dv koI Seofievayv iirifiekr)- 
drjvai TYf^ 7roX€G)9 fcaX yevia-ffai irakiv ef virapxv^ 
olfaard^, ov)(^ ffpiracav oi KopivOcoi rrjv nXeove- 
^iav, ovSe 'rrpoaeiroirjaav avToi^ rrjv irokiv, aXKa 
irp&Tov fJLep iiriovre^ rov^ Upov^ dya>pa<; iv Ty 
'EiXXdSi^ Kol 7^9 /JbeyLO-Ta*; r&v iravryyvpewv 
dvrjyopevov viro KrjpvKWP on Kopipdiot Kara- 
XeKvKOTe; Ttfp ip %vpaKov<rai<; rvpappiBa, xal 

2 TOP Tvpappop i^eXijXafcoTe^, KcCXovat Xvpaxovai- 
0U9 fcal TO)!/ aXXayp Xi/ceXioDTWP top fiovXofiepop 
olxelp rrfp iroXip iXevdepov^ Kal avropofiov^, 
iir laoi^ Kal Stxaiot^ rffp ')((opap BiaXayopra^' 
eireira SiaTrifiTropTe^ dyyiXovt; et? Tf)p Kciav 
Kal rd^ pr](rov<;, oirov irXeiarov^ iirvpffapopro rayp 
(JyvydScop hieairapp^epov^ KaroiKelp, irapeKoXovp 
Upat irdpraf; eh ILopipdop, o)9 KopipOioyp da<f)aXrj 
TTOfiirifp Kal irXoia koI erpaTqyov'; Trape^oprtap 

3 tSt069 reXeaiP eh XvpaKOvaa^, Krjpvo'a'op.epeop 
Se TOVTCjp ri p,€p 7ro\A9 TOP SiKatorarop Kal KdXXi^ 
arop dtreXdiJi^apep erraipop koI ^rjXop, iXevde- 
povaa fJL€P diro t&p rvpdppayp, ad^ovaa S* diro 
T&p iSap^dpcDP, diroSiSov<ra Bk "oh iroXiTai^ ttjp 
Xo>po.p. 

Ol Be avpeXdopre^ eh Kopcpdop ovk opre^ 
iKapol TO TrXrjdo^ eBei^drjaap ex KopipOov koI 
T^9 aXXff^ 'E\XaSo9 irapaXa/Selp (tvpoikov^' koI 
yepofiepoi fivpitop ovk iXdrTov^; KareirXevaap eh 

^ 4v if 'EAAaSi with Coraes, Bekker, and Blass : 'EWd^i. 
316 



TIMOLEON 

assembling a great force with the intention of cross- 
ing into Sicily in the summer. 

XXIII. When these letters from Timoleon had 
been delivered, and were accompanied by Syracusan 
envoys who begged them to take thought for their 
city and to become anew its founders^ the Corinthians 
did not seize the opportunity for their own aggran- 
dizement, nor did they appropriate the city for them- 
selves, but, in the first place, they visited the sacred 
games in Greece and the greatest festival assemblages, 
and proclaimed by heralds that the Corinthians had 
overthrown the tyranny in Syracuse, and driven out 
the tyrant, and now invited Syracusans, and any other 
Sicilian Greeks who wished, to people the city with 
free and independent citizens, allotting the land 
among tliem on equal and just terms. In the second 
place, they sent messengers to Asia and the islands, 
where they learned that most of the scattered exiles 
were residing, and invited them all to come to Corinth, 
assuring them that the Corinthians, at their own 
expense, would furnish them with leaders and trans- 
ports and a safe convoy to Syracuse. By these pro- 
clamations the city of Corinth earned the justest 
praise and the fairest glory ; she was freeing the 
land from its tyrants, saving it from the Barbarians, 
and restoring it to its rightful citizens. 

When these had assembled at Corinth, being too 
few in number, they begged that they might receive 
fellow colonists from Corinth and the rest of Greece ; 
and after their numbers had risen to as many as ten 

3^7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 XvpaKovaa^, ffSr) ie kuI t&v i^ ^IroKia^ xal 
St^eX/a? TToXXol t^ TifioXeovTi avvekrfKvOetaav 
KoX y€POfiivoi<; avTOt^ i^aKicrfivpioi^ to 7rX^^09, 
C09 "KBavL^ etprj/ce, rfjv jxev x^P^^ SUveifJS, ra? 
Si oIkUl^ airiSoTO ')(LSJi(ov raXdvrwv, cifjua fikv 
vTToXenrofievof; tow apyaloi^; ^vpaKovaioi^ 
€^a)V€iadai tu^ avr&v, a/xa Se xPVf^'^^^ ^^' 
TToplav r<p Si]fjL<p fiTj'xavcofievo^ oSto)? irevopAvtp 
Koi Trpb^ TflXXa xai irpb^ rov iroXefwv &aTe xal 

5 Toif^ avSpidvra^ dnrohoaOai, '>^<f>ov huK^epofievrj^ 
inrip kKaarov koi yivofiiprj^ Kanjyopia^, &air€p 
avd pdn'irtov evdvva^ BvSoinrav ore Sij <f>aa'i rov 
TeXmvo^ dvBpidvTa rov naXaiov Tvpdwov hta- 
rrfp^a-ai tov^ XvpaKovaiov^, Karaxeiporovov- 
fievcov T&v aXKfov, dyafjuivov^ koI rtpL&vra^ 
TOP dvSpa T^9 VLKrj^ fjv irpo^ 'Ifiipa Kapxv 
Sopiov^ ivLKfjaev, 

XXIV. OvT(a Sk T^9 TToXecr)? dva^oDirvpovo'rj^ 
Kol 7r\i]povfi€vri<;, itrippeovToyv iravraxodev eh 

aVTr}V tS)V TToXlT&V, PovKOfieVO^ 6 Tl,fJLd\€Ct>V KOl 

tA? aXKa^ TroXet? iXevOepaxrat, /cal iravrdwaatv 
iKKoyjrai t^9 St/ccXta? Ta9 rvpavviSa^, iTrl Ta9 
X^^pCL^ CLvrSiv a-Tparevcov 'l/cerrjv fjuev i^vdyKaaev 
d'lroardvra KapxnSovioi>v 6fio\oyfj<rai rd^ dxpoTro- 
X€t9 KUTaa/cdylreiv xal fiiorevaeLv ISkottjv iv Aeov- 
2 rCvoi^, AeTTTLvov Be rov rvpavvovvro^ 'AttoXXco- 248 
i/ta9 fcal auxp&v oKXcdv TroiKiypitop, a)9 ifcipBupeve 
/card Kpdro^ oK&paL, irapahopro^ avrop i^eiad- 
fiepo^ eh TLopipOov dTrearetXe, koKop rfyovfjuepo^ 
ip rfj fiYirpoTTokei tou9 t^9 ^i/ceXia^; Tvpdppov^ 
VTTO r&p EWijpoDP dirodeiopeladai (f>trya8iK&^ 

3'8 



TIMOLEON 

thousand^ they sailed to Syracuse. But by this time 
many also from Italy and Sicily had flocked to Ti- 
moleon ; and when their numbers had risen to sixty 
thousand^ as Athanis states^ Timoleon divided the 
land among them^ and sold the houses of the city 
for a thousand talents^ thus at once reserving for the 
original Syracusans the power to purchase their own 
houses^ and devising an abundance of money for the 
community; this had so little, both for other pur- 
poses, and especially for the war, that it actually sold 
its public statues at auction, a regular vote of con- 
demnation being passed against each, as though they 
were men submitting their accounts. It was at this 
time, they say, that the statue of Gelon, their ancient 
tyrant, was preserved by the Syracusans, though 
they condemned the rest, because they admired 
and honoured him for the victory which he had won 
over the Carthaginians at Himera.^ 

XXIV. Seeing the city thus beginning to revive 
and fill itself with people, since its citizens were 
streaming into it from all sides, Timoleon determined 
to set the other cities also free, and utterly to root 
out all tyrannies from Sicily. He therefore made an 
expedition into their territories and compelled Hi- 
cetas to forsake the cause of Carthage, and to agree 
to demolish his citadels and live as a private person 
in Leontini. And as for Leptines, who lorded it 
over Apollonia and numerous other strongholds, when 
he was in danger of being taken by main force, he 
surrendered himself; and Timoleon spared his life 
and sent him off to Corinth, considering it a fine 
thing to have the tyrants of Sicily in the mother 
city where the Greeks could observe them living 

^ In 480 B.O., on the same day, it is said, as the victory at 
Salamis. Cf. Herodotus, vii. 166 

3^9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 KoX raireivw ^&vra^. tov9 Be fua0(Hf>6pov<; 
l3ov\6fi€VO^ ifc T% iroXefila^ ini^eXelaOai koX fitf 
axoXd^eiv, avTO^ fiev et? ra? XvpaKovaa<; iirav- 
rj\0€ TTJ KaToaTaaei, rrj^ iroKxTela^ irpoae^iov koL 
Tot9 Tj/eovatv i/e Kopivdov vofio0eTcu<; Ke<^a\A> 
Koi Aiovv<ri<p ra Kvpidnara koL KaXXiara aw- 

4 SiaO'qadDV, rov^ Si irepl Aeivapxov Koi Arj/jAperov 
€19 TT)v T&v KapxvBovi<ov i^eirefiy^ev iiriKpaTeiav, 
oi 7roX€i9 7roXXa9 a<f>iaTdvT€^ r&v fiap/3dpa>v ov 
fjLOVOp avToi Birjyop ev a^Bovoi^, oKkb, Koi XPV' 
flora irapeaKeva^op €19 rbv TroXefiov airb rS)v 
aKiaKOfikv^v, 

XXV. 'Ei^ TovTfp hi KapxH^opioi tcaraTrXiovaiv 
€49 TO AiXvfiau)P ayoPT€^ enra fivptdBa^ arparov 
KOI Tpiripei,^ hicucoaLa^ kcli irKma ')(!Xi,a KO/u^opra 
fiffX^api^^ teal reOpiinra koI <titop a^opop koX 
rijv aWr]p trapaaKcvi^p, (io9 ovk en iroirjaop^poi 
Kara fiepo^ top iroXjepuop, aX)C ofiov irdar)^ 2i- 
tceXia^ i^ekdaopre^ tou9 *'EXXi7j/a9* v^ yap ly 
Svva/U9 i^apKovaa xal pi) poaovpra^ fitfSe Sie- 
<f>0app£pov^ inr aXXi/Xo)!/ avWafiiada^ XiKekid- 
2 Ta9. irv06p£POi Bi iropOeladai rrjp iimcpdreiav 
avT&p, etfdv^ ^PyV ^/^ T0V9 Kopipdiov^ i'XJ^povp 
^AaBpovfia re xai ^AfuXjca a-TpaTfjyovprcop, rrj^ 
Se ayyeXia^ o^q>9 €49 Xvpaxovaa^ dif>iKopApip; 
ouT<o KareirXdytfaav oi Xvpatcovaioi irpo^ to 
fUy^o^ T^ Swdfieta^ Aare fw\i^ r^ TipLoXeoprg 
TpiaxiXLov^ dvo roaovT^p ikvpidB^p oTrXa Xa> 
320 



TIMOLEON 

the lowly life of exiles. Moreover^ he wished that 
his mercenaries might get booty from the enemy's 
country and not remain idle. Accordingly^ while he 
himself returned to Syracuse in order to apply him< 
self to the establishment of the civil polity and to 
assist the lawgivers who had come from Corinth^ 
Cephalus and Dionysius^ in arranging its most im- 
portant details in the most attractive way^ he sent 
forth the troops under Deinarchus and Demaretus ^ 
into that part of the island which the Carthaginians 
controlled, where they brought many cities to revolt 
from the Barbarians, and not only lived in plenty 
themselves, but actually raised moneys for the war 
from the spoils they made. 

XXV. Meanwhile the Carthaginians put in at Lily- 
baeum with an army of seventy thousand men, two 
hundred triremes, and a thousand transports carrying 
engines of war, four-horse chariots, grain in abun- 
dance, and other requisite equipment. Their purpose 
was, not to carry on the war by piece-meal any more, 
but at one time to drive the invading Greeks out of 
all Sicily ; for their force would have been sufficient 
to capture the native Greeks, even though they had 
not been politically weak and utterly ruined by one 
another. And on learning that the territory which 
they controlled was being ravaged by the Corinthians, 
they were furious, and straightway marched against 
them under the command of Hasdrubal and Hamil- 
car. Tidings of this coming quickly to Syracuse, the 
Syracusans were so terrified at the magnitude of the 
enemy's forces that only three thousand out of so 
many tens of thousands could with difficulty be 
brought to pluck up courage, take their arms, and go 

^ Of. chapter xxii. 3. 

321 
VOL. VI. Y 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 fioPTU^ roXfifjaat avpe^eXOelv, oi Sk iiia0o(^6poL 
T€T paKiaxiXt'Oi rb 7rXr)0o<; fjaav* Koi TOVTtov 
av0i^ ofTov %/\£0t Kad* oBov aTroB€i\ui(rapT€^ 
ave^dfyrjaap, a)9 ov^ vyiaipoPTO^ rov TifioXioPTO^, 
aXXA fiaipofiipov trap* '^Xixlap koI irpo^ kirrh 
fjLvpidSa^ iroXefuwp fierh nrePTaKia")(iXi(ii)p m'e^&p 
KOii 'xfi^^^ iirTritop jSaSl^opTO^, xal Siapr&PTO^ 
oSoP rip^p&p OKTO) rrjp SvpafjLip dvo t&p Xvpa- 
Kova&p, 00 €P ovT€ a-&0rjpai T0i9 <}>€vyovaiv ovt€ 

4 Tat^r^pat to(9 weaovaiP avr&p vwdp^ei. tovtov^ 
fjykp oip Tifiokie^p xipSo^ fjyeiro irpo rrj^ /^ax'?^ 
(papepoif^ yeyopora^, roif^ Se aWov^ iirippaxra^ 
KUTcL rd^o^: ^76 irpo^ top Kpifirjaop irorafiop, 
OTTov xal T0V9 K.ap)(i]SopLOV^ fjKovae avpawTetP, 

XXVI. *Apal3aLP0PTi Si ain^ irpo^ \6(l>op, hp 
inr€pj3a\6pr€<; ifieWop tcar6^€iT0(U ro arpdrevfui 
Koi TffP SvpafjLip r&p iroXefiieop, €fi/3dWovaiP 
'^fiiopoi aiXipa Kopi^oprev teal T0t9 (rrpaTKOTaif: 
€tarj\0e Troprjpop elpat ro arjfielop, otl rd fiPijfiaTa 
T&p P€fcp&p €l(o0apk€P eirLeiKS}^ creipapovp aeXcpoi.^' 
KoX irapoifiia tw itc tovtou yeyope, top iiriai^a' 
2 \a>9 P0(T0VPTa hela0ai treXipov, /3ov\6/iepo^ o5p 
auT0u9 dTToWd^aL t^9 SeiariSaifiopia^ teal tt/p 
hvaeKiTKTTeLap d^ekelp TifioXiayp, €7ri<TTi](ra^ 
T^p TTopelap aWa re irpiiropTa t^ Kaip^ St€- 
XMx^'H* ^^^ "^^^ (TTi<f>apop avToU eifyq irpo t^ 
piKr}^ Kop^^ofiepop avTO/idTG)^ el^ t^9 x^^P^^ 
rJKeiP, ^ Kopip0ioi <rT€<f>apovai tov^ ''laOfua pi' 
K&PTa^, Upop Kal iraTpiOP to a-TC/ifia tov aeXlpov 

322 



TIMOLEON 

forth with Timoleon. Furthenqore^ the mercenaries 
were only four thousand in number ; and of these, 
again, about a thousand played the coward on the 
march and went back to Syracuse, declaring that 
Timoleon was not in his right mind, but was more 
crazy than his years would lead one to expect, and 
was marching against seventy thousand of the enemy 
with five thousand foot and a thousand horse, and 
was taking his force a march of eight days away 
from Syracuse, so that those of them who fled from 
the field would find no safety, and those who fell 
upon it would have no burial. As for these men, 
then, Timoleon counted it gain that they had shown 
what they were before the battle; the rest he en- 
couraged and led them with all speed to the river 
Crimesus, where he heard that the Carthaginians 
also were concentrating. 

XXVI. As he was marching up a hill, from the 
crest of which they expected to look down upon 
the camp and the forces of the enemy, there met 
them by chance some mules laden with parsley ; and 
it occurred to the soldiers that the sign was a bad 
one, because we are generally accustomed to wreath 
the tombs of the dead with parsley ; and this has 
given rise to a proverb, namely, that one who is 
dangerously sick '* needs only parsley." Accordingly, 
wishing to free them from their superstitious fears 
and take away their despondency, Timoleon halted 
them on their march, and after discoursing other- 
wise as befitted the occasion, said also that the 
wreath for their victory had come into their hands 
in advance and of its own accord, the wreath with 
which Corinthians crown the victors at the Isthmian 
games, considering the garland of parsley to be tra- 

323 

Y 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vo/u^ovT€^. erv yhp rore r&v ^ladfiitov, Aairtp 
vvp T&v Nefieicop, to aeXtvov ijv a'Ti<f>avo^, ov 
3 irdXai Bk 17 irirv^ yiyovev^ ivrvywv oZv o Tifuh- 
\i(ov, &<Tir€p eiprfrat, toU arpaTKurai^ xal \a0a)v 
T&p aeXivfov Kareark^aTO irp&ro^ ainrS^, elra oi 
nrepX avrov ryyefiove^ koX to TfKrjOo^, ol hk fidvTci^ 
KaTiSovTe^ acToif^ Svo irpoa^epofievov^, &v 6 filv 
BpaKOVTa Toc^ ovv^iv e^epe Biawewapfievov, 6 Be 
XirTOTO KcxXayo)^ /liya xal BappaKeov, iircBei- 

KVVOV T0t9 O-TpaTKOTai^, Kol TTpO^ €^^^9 0€&V KoX 249 

dvak\r]<Tei9 iTodwovTO irdvTe^, 

XXVIL To fikv ovv eTO^ iaraiievov Oipov^ 
el'vev &pav, teal Xi^yovTi firfvl ^apf^rpu&vi irpb^ 
Ta9 Tpoird^ fjBrf avvrjiTTe top xaipop' ofUX^Tjp Bk 

TOV TTOTaflOV TTOW^l/ dpaBlBoPTO^ TTp&TOP fUP 

dTreKpvTTTeTo ^6<j)q) to ttcBlop, koI avpowrop ovBhf 
ffp diro T&p iroXejuiOp, ttX^i/ 77^7^ Tt9 oucpiTO^ fcal 
avfifiiyrj^ apan irpo^ top Xoibop iywpei irpoa-ayOep 

2 dpiaTa/Jbipfj^ oTpaTta^ ToaavTi]^. o)9 8* dpaj3dpT€^ 
iirl TOP Xoipop eaTTfaap oi Kopipfftoi fcdi OipjBPOi 
tA? acTTTtSa? BiapeiravoPTO, tov rfKiov itepi^epo^ 
fiipov Kot fieT€(api^0PT0<; ttjp dpaOvpiaatp, psp 
OoXepo^ dfjp d0poi^6fi€PO9 7r/709 t^ vyfrrfKd /cat 
trvpiaTdfiepo^ fcaTepifjxoae Tcts aKpapeia^, t&p Be 
virb TToBa^ TOircop dpaicaJdaipofUptop t€ K.pLpn]ao<: 
i^e(f>dpTf ical BtafiaiPOPTe^ avTOP &^67)aap ai 
iroXifiioi, irp^TOi^ fiep T0Z9 TedpLinroi^ eKirXfjicTt.' 
fe&^ irpof; dy&pa KaTeaxevao'p.ipoi^^ KaToinp Bk 

3 TovTODP fivploi^ ottXItcu^ XevKdaTTiai. tovtov^ 
eTCKp/dpopTO KapXflBopiov^ elpat r^ XafiirpoTffTi 
T^9 axev^ teal t§ fipaBvrfjrt KaX rd^ei Ttj^ 



324 



TIMOLEON 

ditionally sacred in their country. For at that time 
parsley was still used for wreaths at the Isthmian^ 
as it is now at the Nemean games^ and it was not 
long ago that the pine came into use instead. Ac- 
cordingly^ when Timoleon had addressed his soldiers^ 
as I have said^ he took of the parsley and crowned 
himself with it firsts and then the captains and the 
common soldiers about him did the same. Moreover^ 
the soothsayers^ observing two eagles coming up on 
the wing, one of which bore a serpent pierced with 
its talons, while the other flew with a loud and in- 
spiring cry, pointed them out to the soldiers, and all 
betook themselves to invoking the gods with prayers. 
XXVII. Now, the season of the year was early 
summer, the month of Thargelion was drawing to a 
close, and the summer solstice was near ; ^ the river 
exhaled a thick mist which at first hid the plain in 
darkness, and nothing could be seen in the enemy's 
camp, only an inarticulate and confused noise made 
its way up to the hill, showing that the vast host 
was moving forward. But after the Corinthians had 
ascended the hill, where they stopped, laid down 
their shields, and rested themselves, the sun was 
passing the meridian and drawing the vapours on 
high, the thick haze moved in masses towards the 
heights and hung in clouds about the mountain 
summits, while the regions below cleared up, the 
Crimesus came into view, and the enemy were seen 
crossing it, in the van their four-horse chariots for- 
midably arrayed for battle, and behind these ten 
thousand men-at-arms with white shields. These 
the Corinthians conjectured to be Carthaginians, 
from the splendour of their armour and the slowness 

^ It was early in June, 339 B.o. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

wopeia^. ^Jteri^ Be tovtov^ t&v Xoiir&v iOv&v 
eirippeivrfDv koX rifv hidfiaaiv /xer' i>0ivfiov koX 
rapaxv^ iroiovfievtav, cvviB^p 6 TipboXjea>v rov 
TTOTafwv avrol^ rapuevovra rov ttXi/^ovv t&v 
iro\€fiLa)v diroXa/Seiv oaoc^ iOiXoiev avrol jjA'XjB' 
aOai, ^al rov^ arpaTifOTa^ KoOopdv xekevca^ 
rifv ^aXayya r^ peidptp SiaXeXvfUvrjv Koi rov? 

4 fiev ^Sff SiafiefirfKora^, touv Bk fieWovra^, irpoc^ 
€Ta^€ £^7ffiap€T^ Xa/Sovri tou9 iinrel^ ifi/3a\€iv 
eh T0U9 Kapxn^ovLov<; /cat avvrapd^ai rov Sid- 
/coafiov air&v rrj<: irapard^eo)^ owra fcaOearaxTrj^, 
avT09 Be Karaj3d^ el^ rb weBlov rd fiev tcepara 
rol^ aXKoi^ XixeXitorai^ direBwKev, dvafu^a^ 
efcarip^ r&v ^vaov ov iroWov^, ev pMatp Bk irepl 
auTOv Xa^wv tov9 ^vpaKovaiov^ koX to fiax^'f^' 
rarov r&v fu<Tdo<f>6pa)V /Spaxvv /ikv XP^vov etreaxe 

5 TO r&v linreoiv diroOecop&v epyov, ©9 Be erceivov^ 
elBev xnro r&v dpfJbdrcDV irpo t^9 rd^e(os BiaQeovrcav 
eh X^^P^^ iXOeiv Tot9 KapxiBovioi^ ov Bvvafievov^, 
a\X' 07rft)9 l^Tf cvvrapax^eiev dvayxa^ofievov^ 
e^eXirrecv avvex&^ /cat irvtcvh^ ef emarrpoff>rj^ 
TTOieicffai rd^ iireXdaecf;, dvaXa^iov rr)v darriBa 
Koi fioijaa^ eirea-ffai Kal dappeiv Tot9 ire^oh 
eBo^ev vwep^vel (f^oovfj ical fxei^ovi fcexpV^ffo,i t% 
awrfiov^, elre r^ irdOei rrapd rov dy&va koI rov 
evOovtrtaafibv ovreo Biareivdfievo^, eire BaifiovLov 
riv6<;, 0)9 T0?9 7ro\Xot9 rore irapiarrj,, avvem- 

6 ^dey^afievov. raxv Be rrjv Kpavyr)v dprairoBov- 
rtov, KoX Trapeyyv(i>vr(ov dyeiv Kdl firj fiiXXeiv, 

326 



TIMOLEON 

and good order of their fharcfa. After these the 
other nations streamed on and were making the 
crossing in tumultuoos confusion. Then Timoleon^ 
noticing that the river was putting it in their power 
to cut off and engage with whatever numbers of the 
enemy they themselves desired^ and bidding his 
soldiers observe that the phalanx of the enemy was 
sundered by the river, since some of them had 
already crossed, while others were al)out to do so, 
ordered Demaretus to take the horsemen and fall 
upon the Carthaginians and throw their ranks into 
confusion before their array was yet formed. Then 
he himself, descending into the plain, assigned the 
wings to the other Sicilian Greeks, uniting a few of 
his mercenaries with each wing, while he took the 
Syracusans and the best fighters among his mercen- 
aries under his own command in the centre. Then 
he waited a little while, watching what his horsemen 
would do, and when he saw that they were unable 
to come to close quarters with the Carthaginians on 
account of the chariots which coursed up and down 
in front of their lines, but were forced to wheel 
about continually that their ranks might not be 
broken, and to make their charges in quick succession 
after facing about again, he took up his shield and 
shouted to his infantrymen to follow and be of good 
courage ; and his voice seemed stronger than usual 
and more than human, whether it was from emotion 
that he made it so loud, in view of the struggle and 
the enthusiasm which it inspired, or whether, as most 
felt at the time, some deity joined in his utterance. 
Then, his men re-echoing his shout, and begging 
him to lead them on without delay, he signalled to 



327 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r&v dpfidrayv irapekda-ai xal Karh leipa^ irpoa-' 
<f>€p€adai TO?? 7roXe/xtot9, auT09 Se tou9 tt/oo- 
fidxov^ irvKvtaaa^ r^ avpatnnafi^, fcal Ttfp 
adXirvyya KeXevaa^ iirKpOey^aaffat, irpoai/SaXe 
T0t9 ^apxn^ovLoL^. 

XXVIII. 01 Se TTjjV fikv irpdoTr^v iinSpofirjv 
inreerrrjaav ippayfiivco^, xal r^ KaTa'!r€<f>pdxOai tcL 
ampura aiSrjpot^ 0a>pa^c /cat x^XkoI^ xpdveatv 
da-iriSa^ re p,€yd\a^ Trpo^e/SXtjaOai BiCKpovovro 
rov SopaTiap^v, iirel Sk eh ^^V frvvrfXOev 6 
dycbv fcal ri'xyn^ oif)^ fjrrov tf pcoprj^ iyeyovei ro 
epyov, i^aL<l)vrj^ dirb r&v op&v 0povTai re <f>ofi€pal 
fcareppTJyvvvro xal irvpcoSet^ darpairal avve^e- 

2 TriTTTov. elra 6 irepl tou9 Xo0oi;9 fcal rh^ axptO' 
peia^ ^6^0^ €7rl Tqv p^axv^ /carimv, opL^p<p kcUL 
TTveupuTi Kot X^^^V o-vp,p,€p.iyp,ivo^, toi^ pev 
''TSiWrjaiv i^oTnaOev koI xard vmrov Trepiexciro, 
T&v Bk jSapfidpcov erviTTe rd TrpoawTra xal Karij' 
aTpawre rd^ oylrei^, apu \atXa7ro9 vypd^ xal 
0\o7O9 awexpv^ €k t&v V€<f>&v (f>€pop4vrj^, iv 
0I9 iroWd phf ffv rd Xvirovvra, KaX pAXiara tov^ 
direLpov^, ovx ffKiara Bk JSXdyjrai BoKOvaiv ai 
Ppovral KoX T&v oirXtov 6 iraTayo^ fcowTop^ivtov 
vSaT^ payBaltp Koi ^^aXa^i;, K(eiKv(ov aKOveaOai Td 

3 TTpocTTdyp^Ta t&v ffyepLovcDV, T0t9 Bk KapxH' 250 
BovLoi^ ovfc ovaiv cv^eovoi^ tov oirXurpLOv, a\V, 
&<rir€p etptfTai, KaTairetfypayp^oi^, o T€ irrfKo^ 
ip^TToBio^ fjV 01 Te KoKiTOL 7r\r)povp^voi t&v 
XtTdvayv vBaTo^, &(t0* avTol^ pev eh tov dy&va 
yprjaOai /SapeU fiaav KaX Bvaepyoi, paSioi Bi toU 
^EiW/qo'i TrepLTpeneaOat, KaX ireaovTe^ a/tv/^ai'oi 

328 



TIMOLEON 

his horsemen to ride along outside and past the line 
of chariots and attack the enemy on the flank^ while 
he himself made his vanguard lock their shields in 
close array^ ordered the trumpet to sound the charge^ 
and fell upon the Carthaginians. 

XXVIII. But these withstood his first onset 
sturdily^ and owing to the iron breastplates and 
bronze helmets with which their persons were pro- 
tected, and the great shields which they held in 
front of them, repelled the spear thrusts. But 
when the struggle came to swords and the work 
required skill no less than strength, suddenly, from 
the hills, fearful peals of thunder crashed down, and 
vivid flashes of lightning darted forth with them. 
Then the darkness hovering over the hills and 
mountain summits came down to the field of battle, 
mingled with rain, wind, and hail. It enveloped 
the Greeks from behind and smote their backs, but 
it smote the Barbarians in the face and dazzled 
their eyes, a tempest of rain and continuous flames 
dashing from the clouds. In all this there was 
much that gave distress, and most of all to the in- 
experienced ; and particularly, as it would seem, the 
peals of thunder worked harm, and the clatter of 
the armour smitten by the dashing rain and hail, 
which made it impossible to hear the commands of 
the leaders. Besides, since the Carthaginians were 
not lightly equipped, but, as I have said, encased in 
armour, both the mud and the bosoms of their 
tunics filled with water impeded them, so that they 
were unwieldy and ineffective in their fighting, and 
easily upset by the Greeks, and when they had once 
fallen it was impossible for them to rise again from 



329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 TTilLKiv itc TTf/Kov fJi£Ta T&v ovXc^v apoaTffvai. teal 
yhp 6 KpipLTiP'O^ viro t&v Bta/Saivovrav iKkvaOri 
fierfa^ i]or) roh ofifipoi^ V^^M^^» ^^^ i"^ weBiov 
TO wepl avTOv viro ttoXXAv (rwaytcela^ zeal ihdpay- 
ya^ viroKei/JLevov iirlfiTrXaro pevfidrwv ov Kork 
iropov <f>€po/jiAva}V, oh ol KapxvBovioi koKivSov- 
fievoi ;^aXc7rtt)9 airrjXKarrov, t€\09 ii rov ;^€t- 
fi&vo^ iinK€ip£VOv, Koi T&v ^FX\ijva>v t^v irpooTrjv 
Ta^iv avT&v, avSpa^ Terpafcoatov^, KaTa^akov- 

6 T(aVy iTpawT) to irXrjdo^ el^ ^1/7171/. xal iroXXol 
fiev iv T^ TreS/^ KaTaTuififiavofievoi hi€<f>9eLpovTO, 
'jTo'hXov^ Se 6 7roTa/i09 rot? It* irepaiovpAvot^ 
avfiiriTTTOVTa^ ifi/SdWaov xal 7rapa<l>epoiv aircolX' 
\v€, TrXeiaTOv^ Be t&v Xoffxov i<l>t€p4vov^ iiri- 
0€OVT€^ ol yp'iXoi fcaTeipydaavTO, XiyovTai yovv 
iv fivpioi^ vexpoh TpitrxiXioi K.apxnBovL€ov yeve- 

6 affcu, fieya t§ iroXei irevOo^, ovt€ yhp yeveaiv 
ovT€ irXovTOi^ ovT€ Bo^cu^ €T€poi fieXTtovc^ ffaav 
ifcelvayv, oiir anoOavovTa^ iroTk /ud fidxv '"'po- 
Tcpov ef aifT&v KapxvBovltov ToaovTOV^ p^vrj- 
p^vevovaiv, dXXct Aij3v(ri Tct woXXd zeal '^I/Srjpa'i 
/cal 'Sop.da'i xp^P'^oi irpo^ Tct^ P^X^^ dXXoTptai^ 
ffXdffai^ aveBkxovTO tA? f^TTa^. 

XXIX. 'EyvaxrOr) Be toI^ ''EXXrjaiv j Bo^a 
T&v TretTovTcov diro t&v Xa(f>vpci)v, iXdxi'O'To^ 
yhp fjv ;^aXAewi/ koI aiBijp&v to?9 a/cvXevovai. 
X6yo<;' ovTQ)^ d<p0ovo<i pev ^v apyvpo^, d<\idovo<; Be 
XP^^o^* fccil yhp TO aTpuTOireBov p^Ta t&v 
vTTO^vylayv Bia^dvTe^ eXafiov. t&v B* aixpoXio- 
ra)v oi pjkv iroXXol BiefcXdirrja'av viro t&v aTpa- 

TitOT&v, €49 Be fcoivov dircBelxOv^^^ TrevTaxiax^' 
Xioi TO 7rXrj0o^' rjXcf) Be koI BcaKocia t&v 

330 



TIMOLEON 

the mud with their weapons. For the Crimesus^ 
having been already greatly swollen by the rains^ 
was forced over its banks by those who were cross- 
ing it^ and the adjacent plain^ into which many 
glens and ravines opened from the hills^ was filled 
with streams that hurried along no fixed channels^ 
and in these the Carthaginians wallowed about and 
were hard beset. Finally^ the storm still assailing 
them^ and the Greeks having overthrown their first 
rank of four hundred men^ the main body was put 
to flight. Many were overtaken in the plain and 
cut to pieces^ and many the river dashed upon and 
carried away to destruction as they encountered 
those who were still trying to cross^ but most of 
them the light-armed Greeks ran upon and des- 
patched as they were making for the hills. At any 
rate^ it is said that among ten thousand dead bodies^ 
three thousand were those of Carthaginians — a great 
affliction for the city. For no others were superior 
to these in birth or wealth or reputation^ nor is it 
recorded that so many native Carthaginians ever 
perished in a single battle before, but they used 
- Libyans for the most part and Iberians and Numid- 
ians for their battles, and thus sustained their de- 
feats at the cost of other nations. 

XXIX. The rank of those who had fallen was 
made known to the Greeks from the spoils. For 
those who stripped the bodies made very little 
account of bronze and iron ; so abundant was silver, 
so abundant gold. For they crossed the river and 
seized the camp with its baggage-trains. As for the 
prisoners, most of them were stolen away and hidden 
by the soldiers, but as many as five thousand were 
delivered into the public stock; there were also 

331 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 redpiTTirayv. KaWiarrfv Sk /cal fieyaXotrpeTre- 
aTorriv oy^LV fj Tifiokiovro^ iTreSel/cvvro (tktjv^ 
irepKTwpevOelaa iraproSairoc^ Xa<l>vpoi^, iv 0I9 
Xi^ot /lev 0(opaKe^ epy atria Koi KoKKet Siatjii- 
poine^i /ivpiai Be dairiSe^s irpoeTeOrjcav. oXCyoi 
Se TToXXou? fTKvXevovTef: koI fieydkai^ ivTvyxja- 
povT€9 oi)^€\€lai^ Tpirrf fioXt^ Vf^P^f P^Tct rffv 
P'O/vriv eanjaav rpoiraiov* 

AfjLa Se T§ <I>VP'V ^V^ vIkti^ 6 Tip^Xeayv eU 
K.6ptv0ov eire/i'^e ra /cdXKiara r&v alyfiaXdTcov 
ottXwv, /3ov\6fi€VO^ avTOv Tfjv iraTpiha iraaiv 

3 avOpdnTroi^i ^rfKcoTrjv elvai, dewfievoi^ iv iKeivy 
fiovrj r&v '^WrjviK&v ttoXcgdv tou9 iTn^aveard- 
Tov^ vaoif^ ovx ^^XXtfvc/coi^ KCKoafirffiivov^ Xa- 
<f>vpoi^ oifS^ dnb avyyev&v (f>6vov /cal ofiotjyvXcov 
dvadrjfmToyv fwrnia^ drepirel^ e^ovra^, d\Xh 
/3apl5apiKct axOXa /caXXvaTaif; iinypaAalf; Brj- 
Xovvra puerh t^9 dvBpela^ t&v veviKrjfcoTcov r^v 
BiKaioavvrjv, otl Kopivdcoi teal TcfioXitov 6 arpa- 
T17709 iXevdepdaavTe^ tou9 Xt/ceXiav olxovvra^ 
*'EXXi]va<: diro KapxvBovia>v 'xapi^cT'qpia 0€oU, 
dviOrj/cav. 

XXX. 'E#c Tovrov KaTaXiiriav iv r^ woXe/ua 
Tou? fjLicOo^opov^ ayovja^ koI <f>€povTa^ rrjv r&v 
Kapj(r}Bovia)V em/cpdT€iav, aifro^ fJK€V eh Xvpa- 
Kovaav Kal tou? ;^t\foi;9 fiia'do<f>6pov^ iKclvov^, 
vff> &v iyfcareXel^Or} irpo rrj<; fidyrj^;, i^eKijpv^e 
rrj^ 'S,iK€Xla<;, xal irplv fj Bvvai rov ffXiov fivdrf- 
2 Kaaev ix XvpaxovaAv direXdetv, ovroi fiev ovv 
BiairXevaavre^ €19 ^IraXiav dnociXovTO irapa- 
awovBrjdivTe^ viro ^peTTLODV, fcal BUrjv ravTrjv 
TO Baifioviov auTol^ rrj^ irpoBoaia^ ivi0i]K€, 

332 



TIMOLEON 

captured two hundred of the four-horse chariots. But 
the most glorious and magnificent sight was pre- 
sented by the tent of Timoleon, which was heaped 
about with all sorts of spoils, among which a thous- 
and breast-plates of superior workmanship and 
beauty and ten thousand shields were exposed to 
view. And as there were but few to strip many, 
and the booty they came upon was great, it was the 
third day after the battle before they could erect 
their trophy. 

Along with the report of his victory Timoleon 
sent to Corinth the most beautiful of the captured 
armour, wishing that his own native city should be 
envied of all men, when in her alone of Greek 
cities they saw the most conspicuous temples, not 
adorned with Greek spoils, nor possessed of joyless 
memorials in the shape of votive offerings from the 
slaughter of kinsmen and fellow citizens, but decked 
with barbarian spoils which set forth in fairest in- 
scriptions the justice as well as the valour of the 
victors, declaring that Corinthians and Timoleon their 
general set the Greeks dwelling in Sicily free from 
Carthaginians, and thus dedicated thank-offerings 
to the gods. 

XXX. After this, he left his mercenaries in the 
enemy's territory plundering the dominion of the 
Carthaginians, and went himself to Syracuse ; there 
he ordered out of Sicily the thousand mercenaries 
by whom he had been deserted before the battle,, 
and compelled them to depart from Syracuse before 
the sun went down. These, then, after crossing 
into Italy, were perfidiously slain by the firuttians, 
thus receiving from the divine power a penalty for 



333 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T&v Si ire pi Tov MdfiepKov, rov Kardmi^ rvpav- 251 
vov, zeal 'Ik€T1]v, etre ^dovtp r&v KoropOovfiiucov 
viTO TifioXiojrro^, etre ^ofiov/iei'tov avrbv coy 
airia-Tov xal aarrovSov irpo^ tou9 Tvpdvvov<;, avfi- 
fia')(iav TTOirjaafiivoiV irpa^ roif^ Kapxv^oviov^ 
zeal KeKsvadvTiov irifnreiv ivvafuv koX CTpaTif' 
701/, €t pLf] iravrdiraai jSovXovrcu St^eXta? cac- 

3 'rrea-eiv, S'n^evo'e Tiafcayv vav9 phf €Xo>v kphopLrj- 
teovra, futrdot^opov^ he irpoaKafioDv "'EXXi;i/a9, 
oi/TTO) TTporepov ''EXXf)<ri^ xp^faafiivav Kapxv 
hovUov, iuKKk T0T6 OavfAacrdvrcDV (09 awwo- 
ardrov^ teal fiaxtp^Tdrov^ dvffpoyirav anrdvr&v. 
avcrrdvTe^ hi Koivff fier dW'^Xmv airavre^ iv r^ 
M.€(r<rr)via Terpaxoaiov^ t&v irapii Tifio\iovTO<i 
^€VQ)v iiTLKOvpows ircfjufiOevTa^s aTri/creivav, iv 
Si TJj Kapxv^^^^^ iiriKpareia irepl t^9 icaXov- 
fiiva^ 'lera? iveSpevaavre^ . roif^ fier ^iOvpjov 

4 rov Aev/caSlov fua'0oif>6pov^ Sii<f>0€ipav. i^ &v 
Kal fid7u<TTa rrjv TifwXiovro^ eirvxtav (Twi^rj 
y€V€(rdai Stoovvfiov, fjaav fiiv yhp oStoi t&v 
fiCTct ^iKofirjkov TOV ^coKeco^ xal *Ovo/idp)(pv 
A€\<l>ov^ KaToXafiovTcov xal fieraaxovTOiv ixeLvoi^ 
T^9 lepoavXia^, /uaovvTav Si irdvTtav airrov^ 
Kal ff>v7ixiTTop>€V€i>v itrapdTov^ yeyovoTa^, irXavdh' 
pevoi irepl Tr)v UeXoirowrja-ov vtto TifioXeovTO^ 
€ki](f>Oi]aav ereptov <TTpaTio»T&v ovk evTropovvTO^, 

6 d<t>i/c6fievot Si eh '^uceTuav oca^ fiiv eiceivtp 
awtfyaviaavTO fjuix^^ irdaa^ evLico^v, t&v Si 
TrXeiaTcov Kal fieylaTcav dymvfov TeKo^ ixovTov 

334 



TIMOLEON 

their treachery. Mamercus^ however, the tyrant of 
Catana, and Hicetas, whether through envy of the 
successes won by Timoleon, or because they feared 
him as one who distrusted tyrants and would make 
no peace with them, formed an alliance with the 
Carthaginians and urged them to send a general with 
an army if they did not wish to be cast out of Sicily 
altogether. Accordingly, Gisco set saiP with a 
fleet of seventy ships, and added Greek mercenaries 
to his forces, although the Carthaginians had never 
before employed Greek soldiers ; they did so at this 
time, however, because they had come to admire 
them as the best and most irresistible fighters in the 
world. After they had all united their forces in the 
territory of Messana, they slew four hundred of 
Timoleon's mercenaries who had been sent thither 
as auxiliaries, and in that part of the island belong* 
ing to the Carthaginians, near the place called 
letae, they set an ambush for the mercenaries 
under £uth3nmus the Leucadian and cut them to 
pieces. Herein even most of all did the good for- 
tune of Timoleon become famous. For these were 
some of the men who, with Philomelus the Phocian 
and Onomarchus, had seized Delphi and shared in 
their spoliation of the sanctuary.^ Then, since all 
mankind hated them and shunned them as men who 
had put themselves under a curse, they wandered 
about Peloponnesus, where they were enlisted in his 
service by Timoleon, in the dearth of other soldiers. 
And after coming into Sicily, they were victorious 
in all the battles which they fought under his 
leadership, but when the most and greatest of his 

^ In the spring of 338 B.O. 

' This was at the beginning of the second 80-oalled Sacred 
War, 356 B.O. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ixTrefiTTOfievoi irpo^ erepa^ vir avrov fioriOeia^ 
airdoiKovro ical KarapoKcoOrjaav, ovx ojjuov irdvTe^, 
aSXa KaT€t fiipo^, t^9 AiKfj^ avTol^ airoXoyov 

07r<i)9 firjSe/ua Tot9 dyaOoi^ diro rrj^ r&p xafc&p 
KoXdaeo)^ ffXdjSr) yivTjrai, rrjv fikv oiv irpo^ 
TifioXiopra r&v de&v evfieveiav ovx ^ttov iv ah 
irpo<r€Kpov<r€ trpd^etriv fj irepl &9 KarwpOov 
Oavfid^eaOai avvi^aivev, 

XXXI. Oi Sk iroWol t&v XvpaKOvai(ov ixoXi- 
iTcuvov virb r&v rvpdvvcov irpoTrrfKaKt^ofievoi. xaX 
ydp 6 M.dfi€pKO<: inl t^ iroi'^fiaTa ypdtf>eiv KaX 
rpaytpBLa^ fiiya <f>pova>v eKop^ira^e vifc^aa^ roin: 
fiLa0o<f)6pov^, /cat Ta9 dairiha^ dvaOei^ rol^ 0€Oi<: 
iXeyelov v^piaTiKov iireypayire* 

TdaS" oa-Tpeioypai^eh fcal ;^pv(r€\€^ai'Ti;X€AfT/ooi;9 
dcririSa^ daTTiBioi^ et\op>ev eifTcXeai, 

2 yepofiivfov Sk rovrcov fcal rov TifioXiovro^ eh 
K.dkavpLav arparevaavro^, 6 'Ixirff^ ip,^a\a>v 
eh rrjv XvpaKovaLav \eiav re av^t^V^ ekafie fcal 
iroWct, \vfi7)vdfi€vo^ fcal feaOv/Spicra^ dirrjWdT- 
rero trap avrrfv rr)v Kdkavpiav, Kara^pov&v 
Tov TifioXiovro^ 6\iyov<; aTparidna^ ^ovro^, 
ifcelvo^ Sk irpoXa^elv edaa^ iSicoKev l7nr€i<: iyfjoDv 
icaX ylriXov<;. alaOofievo^ Sk 6 'iKirrj^ rov Aa/iv- 
piav Sia^el3r]Kcb(; vTriarrj irapk tov irorapov c»9 
dfivvovfievo^' Kol ydp air^ Odpao^ ff re tov 
TTopov xa\€7roTi79 fcal TO Kpr}p,v&ie^ t% e/caripo)- 

3 0ev iyjS'q^ irapelx^* to?9 S^ p^rk tov Tcp4}\€ovTo^ 

^ rris Alims . . . iiriTi$€fi4v7is Sintenis, with the MSS. The 
corrupt passage is variously emended by different editors. 

336 



TIMOLEON 

straggles were over, they were sent out by hiiu to 
the assistance of others, and then perished utterly* 
not all at one time, but little by little. And Justice 
thus punished them^ while at the same time she 
sustained the good fortune of Timoleon, in order 
that no harm might come to the good from the 
chastisement of the wicked. So^ then^ the good 
will of the gods towards Timoleon was no less to be 
admired in his reverses than in his successes. 

XXXI. But the people of S^Tacuse were vexed at 
the insults heaped upon them by the tyrants. For 
Mamercus^ who valued himself highly as a writer of 
poems and tragedies^ boasted of his victory over the 
mercenaries^ and in dedicating their shields to the 
gods wrote the following insolent couplet : — 

"These bucklers, purple-painted, decked with 
ivory, gold, and amber. 
We captured with our simple little shields.*' 

And after this, when Timoleon was on an expedition 
to Calauria, Hicetas burst into the territory of Syra- 
cuse, took much booty, wrought much wanton havoc, 
and was marching off past Calauria itself, despising 
Timoleon, who had but few soldiers. But Timoleon 
suffered him to pass on, and then pursued him 
with cavalry and light-armed troops. When IliccUis 
was aware of this, he crossed the river Damuvias, 
and halted on the farther bank to defend himself; 
for the difficulty of the passage, and the steepness 
of the banks on either side, gave him courage. Then 

337 

VOL. VI. Z 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

tKdpyai^ ?pi^ ifiireaovaa Oavfiaarif xal ^^Xo- 
veiKia StaTpil3ffv hroUi t^9 p^XV^' ovSel^ yap 
fjv 6 povXop^evo^ kripov hia0aiveiv varepo^ iirX 
T0U9 iroXefuov^, aW* avro^ exaaro^ rj^iov 7r/oa>- 
raycopiaTelv, fcal Koapjov ov/c elxcv ri Sidfiaai^ 
i^todovvTcav KoX iraparpexovrcov aXXi]\ov^. fiov- 
Xofiievo^ ovv 6 TifioXiap K\r)p&aai tou9 fiyefiova^ 
eXafie irap kKourrov ScucrvXiov ifil3aXa>v 8k 
irdma^ eU rrjv iavrov 'xXafivha koX p,L^a^ eSet^e 
Tov irp&Tov Kara rvx^v jXv(f>rfv iyovra t^9 a'<f)pa' 

4 yZBo^ rpoTTouov. w 8k tovtov eloov ol veavia/coi, 
pierct x^P^^ avaKparfovTe^ ov/c en rbv AXXov 
virip^tvav KXrjpov, aXX' w Ikcutto^ rdxov^ elx^ 
TOP TTorap^v Sie^eXdaavre^ iv j^coorii; ^aav to?? 
iroXefiloi^, ol Si ovk iSe^avro rtfv filav avT&v, 
dXXh <l>€vyovr€^ r&v fihf oirXmv aitavre^ ofiaXw 
iareprjO'qa'av, v^Xtov? 8k dire^aXov ireaovra^. 

XXXII. Ov iroXXm Se varepov el^ rrfv Aeov- 252 
rlvtav arparevaa^ o Ttp^Xicov Xap,/3dv€i tov 
^Ik&ttiv ^&VTa fcal tov vlov EuTroXe/ioz/ koX tov 
iinrdpxw ^vOvpuov, viro t&v aTpUTuoT&v avvSe- 
divTa^ KoX KOfiKrOivTa^ irpb^ avTOv, 6 fikv oiv 
'Ikctt)^ Kol TO fieipdxiov a>9 Tvpavvoi kol irpohinai 
KoXaa0€VT€<; direOvqaKOv, 6 8' £{/dt;/i09, dvrjp 
ayadb^ &v irpo^. tou9 d/y&va^ xal ToXfirj 8ia<f>ipa)v, 
ov/c €TVX€V ol/cTOV S*^ pXaa'(^fiiav Tivh irpb^ 

2 T0U9 KopivOiov^ /caTrjyopTjOeia-av avTOv, XiycTUi 
yhp OTt T&v K.opiv0La>v iKaTpaTevaafUvoav iir 
avToif<s Srjfirjyop&v iv to?9 AcovtIvoi.^ ovSkv €(f)fj 
yeyovevai (f>o0€pbv ovSk SeivSv, el 

Kopivdcai yvvaiKe^ i^rjXOov hopxov. 
338 



TIMOLEON 

amoDg Timoleon's cavalry officers an astonishing 
strife and contention arose which delayed the battle. 
For not one of them was willing to cross the river 
against the enemy after another^ but each demanded 
to begin the onset himself^ and their crossing was 
likely to be without order if they crowded and tried 
to run past one another. Timoleon^ therefore^ wish- 
ing to decide their order by lot, took a seal-ring 
from each of the leaders, and after casting all the 
rings into his own cloak and mixing them up, he. 
showed the first that came out, and it had by chance 
as the device of its seal a trophy of victory. When 
the young men saw it, they cried aloud for joy and 
would no longer wait for the rest of the lot, but all 
dashed through the river as fast as they could and 
closed with the enemy. These could not withstand the 
violence of their onset, but fled, all alike losing their 
arms, and a thousand being left dead on the field. 

XXXII. Not long afterwards Timoleon made an 
expedition into the territory of Leontini and cap- 
tured Hicetas alive, together with his son Eupolemus 
and his master of horse Euthymus, who were bound 
and brought to Timoleon by his soldiers. Hicetas, 
then, and his young son, were punished as tyrants 
and traitors and put to death, and Euthjrmus, though 
a brave man in action and of surpassing boldness, 
found no pity because of a certain insult to the 
Corinthians which was alleged against him. It is 
said, namely, that when the Corinthians had taken 
the field against them, Euth3na[ius told the men of 
Leontini in a public harangue that it was nothing 
fearful or dreadful if 

" Corinthian women came forth from their homes." ^ 

An adaptation of Euripides, Mtdeiaj 215 (KirchhoflP), 
where Medea speaks to the cnorus in the first person. 

339 

z 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oi/Tft)? inro Tu^ycov jjmXKov fi irpd^ea^v 'rrovrjp&v 
aviaaOai 7r€<f>v/ca<nv oi iroXXoi* ;^a\€7rft)T€/ooj/ 
yap v^piv fj $\d^rjv <l)€povai, Kal to jj^v afiv- 
vea-dav ii epyeov d)9 avayfcaiov SiBorai to*? 
iroXefiovaiv, al Se ffXaa^rjfiiai irepiovala fiiaovK 
fj Katcla^ yiveaOat SoKovatp, 

XXXIII. *E7rav€\06vTO<; Se rod 'Tifio\€OVTO<i 
oi XvpaKOV(riOL tA? yvvaixa^ t&v irepl top 'I/c^riyi/ 
/cat tA? 6vyaTipa<: iv iKKXrjaia KaTaaTtjaapTe^ 
6t9 Kplaiv aireKTeipav, koX ooKel tovto t&p 
Ti/jLoXioPTO^ epycop axcLpitTTOTaTOp yepeadar firj 
yhp &p itceipov kodXvopto^ ovtq)^ tcL^ apOpdirov^ 

2 airoOapetp. Soxei Bk avTcL^ vTrepiBeiP fcal irpo- 
iaOai T& Ovfi^ T&p iToXiT&p hiicqp Xaf^fiaPOPTap 
virep dkidDPO^ Tov Aiopvaiop e/c^aXoPTO^. 'I/ceny? 
yap i<TTLP 6 Ttjp yvpaiKa tov Aitopo^ ^Kperqp koX 
Ttfp aSeX^p ' ^ApiaTOfidxv^ f^oX top vIop Iti 
TralSa KaTairoPTiaa^ fSi/ra?, irepX &p ip to) 
Aicopo^ yiypaiTTai fiio), 

XXXIV. MerA Bk Taxna CTpuTevaa^ iirl 
Mdp^pKOP eh KaTaprjp teal irepl to pevpu ttjp 
*'A/3oXop ex Traparafeo)? vnoaTdpra piKr^aa^ Kal 
Tpe-^dp^po^ virkp hia'xpdov^ dpetXep, &p fUpo^ 
oiffc oXlyop fiaap oi irep/^OePTe^ viro TiaK<opo<i eiri- 
fcovpoi ^0LPitc€<;, ix Be tovtov Kapxv^opioi fikp 
elpijprjp iwoiija-aPTO 7rp6<; avTOP B€7f)0€PT€^, &aT€ 
Trjp ei/T09- TOV AvKOv j(^ci>pap eja^iP, /cai T019 
^ovXofUvoi<;^ i^ avTiy; fieToi/ceiP Trpb^ ^vpaxov^ 
aLov^ 'XpripATa Kal yepea^ diroBiBoPTe^, Kal Toh 

^ TOis fiov\ofi4yois Coraes, Sintenis^, and Bekker, after 
Reiske (with AG) : rohs fiovXofjihovs, Corals and Bekker 
bracket the preceding koL 

340 



TIMOLEON 

So natural is it for most men to be more galled by 
bitter words than hostile acts; since insolence is 
harder for them to bear than injury. Besides, defen- 
sive acts are tolerated in an enemy as a necessary 
rights but insults are thought to spring from an 
excess of hatred or baseness. 

XXXIII. After Timoleon had returned, the Syra- 
cusans brought the wives and daughters of Hicetas 
and his friends to public trial, and then put theipi to 
death. And this would seem to have been the most 
displeasing thing in Timoleon's career ; for if he had 
opposed it, the women would not have been thus 
put to death. But apparently he neglected them and 
abandoned them to the wrath of the citizens, who 
were bent on taking vengeance in behalf of Dion, 
who drove out Dionysius. For Hicetas was the 
man who took Arete the wife of Dion, and Aristo- 
mache his sister, and his son, who was still a 
boy,* and threw them into the sea alive, concern- 
ing which things I have written in my Life of 
Dion.i 

XXXIV. After this, Timoleon made an expedition 
against Mamercus to Catana, conquered and routed 
him in a pitched battle near the stream of the 
Abolus, and slew above two thousand of his soldiers, 
a large part of whom were the Carthaginians sent 
him as auxiliaries by Gisco. Thereupon the Cartha- 
ginians made a peace with him which they sought 
themselves ; the terms were that they should keep 
the territory within the river Lycus, restoring their 
families and property to all who wished to change 
their homes from there to Syracuse, and renouncing 

1 Chapter Iviii. 4. 

341 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 rvpdvvoi^ airei/irdfievoi rtfv cvfifiaxiciv* MdfiepKo^ 
Bk SvaOvfi&v raU iXmaiv €7r\ev fiev eh ^iTokCav 
(09 Aevxavoif^ eTrd^onv TifioXiouTC xal 'SiVpaxov- 
aioi<;, CTTcl hk diroaTp^'^avTe^ oi aifv avT^ rct^ 
rpirjpei^ koX ifKevcravre^ eh ^ixeXlav t^ TifiO' 
TUovti Tf)V Kardvrjv irapiSeoKav, avayKaaOei^ 
fcal avTO^ eh Meaaijvrjv Kari^vye irpo^ ^'ImrcDva 

3 Tov rvpawovvra t^9 ttoXc©?. iireXOovro^ ie rov 

Ttfl0\€0V70<i aVToh KOL iroXlOpKOVVTO^ €fC T€ 7^9 

xal 0a\dTTrj<;, 6 fiev ^Ittitcov aTToBcSpdaKav iirl 
1/60)9 i]\o), Koi irapaXajSovre^ avrov oi Meaaijvioi, 
Kal Toif^ iraiSa^ eie r&v SiSaaKokelmv w iirl 
Oiafia /cdXTuo'Tov rijv tov rvpdvpov Tifjuopiav 
dyayovre^ eh Oearpov, yxiaavro xal 8i€<f>0€ipav 
6 Be MdfiepKo^ eavrov TifioXeovrt irapeSeoxev 
iirl T^ Sixrjv vTroayeiv iv XvpaKovaioi^ fir) 

4 KarrjyopovvTO^ TtfjboXeovTO^. dyOeh Bk eh rh^ 
Xvpaxovaa^, nrapeXJdoiv eh rov Bijfiov iirexelpei 
fiiv Ttva avyKeifievov €k TraXatoO \oyov \m 
avTov Bie^iivai, OopvjSoc^ Be irepnriirTcov xal rrjv 
ifCK\rja[av op&v dirapaiTTjTOV eOei piy^a^ to 
IfuiTiov Bih pAtrov tov OeaTpov, xal 7n)09 ti t&v 
^d9pa)v Bp6p,(p <f)€p6p£Vo^ (Tvvepprj^e Ttfv Ke(f>a\r)v 
0)9 diroOavovpievo^. oi p,rjv eruj^e 7c TavTT}^ t^9 
t€X€i;t779, aXX' ere ^&v diraxOAs ffvirep oi Xiycrral 
Bi/crjv eBcofce, 

XXXV. TA9 p^v oiv TvpavvlBa^ 6 Tip^oXicov 
TovTOv TOV TpoTTOv e^eKo^^e KaX T0U9 7ro\ip,ov^ 
eXvae* ttjv Bk okrjp vrjaov i^rjypitopAvrjv inro kok&v 
KoX Biap.€pAarjp4vr)v inrb t&v oijctfToposv irapa- 
\al5a)V ovT(D^ e^pApaxre KaX iroOeivrjv eitoi'qae 
iraciv &<TTe irXelv olxijaovTa^ eTepov^ oOev oi 253 

342 



TIMOLEON 

their alliance with the tyrants. Then Mamercus^ 
despairing of success^ took ship for Italy with the 
purpose of bringing the Lucanians against Timoleon 
and Syracuse ; but his companions on the voyage 
turned their triremes back^ sailed to Sicily^ and 
handed Catana over to Timoleon, whereupon Mamer- 
cus himself also was compelled to seek refuge in 
Messana with Hippo the tyrant of that city. But 
Timoleon came up against them and besieged them 
'by land and sea, and Hippo was caught as he was 
trying to steal away on board a ship. Then the 
Messanians took him into the theatre, brought their 
children thither from their schools to behold, as 
a glorious spectacle, the tyrant's punishment, and 
put him to torment and death. As for Mamercus, 
he gave himself up to Timoleon on condition that 
he should undergo trial at S3n*acuse, and that Timo- 
leon should not denounce him. So he was brought 
to Syracuse, and when he came before the people, 
attempted to rehearse a speech composed by him a 
long time before ; but being received with noise and 
clamour, and seeing that the assembly was inexor- 
able, he flung away his mantle, ran right across the 
theatre, and dashed head foremost against one of 
the stone steps, hoping to kill himself. However, 
he was not so fortunate as to die in this way, but 
was taken away, still living, and crucified like a 
robber. 

XXXV. In this manner, then, did Timoleon ex- 
tirpate the tyrannies and put a stop to their wars. 
He found the whole island reduced to a savage state 
by its troubles and hated by its inhabitants, but 
he made it so civilized and so desirable in the eyes 
of all men that others came by sea to dwell in the 

343 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 iroXiTat TTpoTtpov atreBlSpatrieov. /cal yhp Axpa- 
yavra koX ViKav, v6\ei<i fieydKa^ fieri, top 

Attikov TTokefiov vTrh Kap^^i^Sontaiu avairrdrovi 
yeyevi]ii4va<;, totg KarrnKtaav, t^v /mk oi irepi 
MeyeiXov koX ^epiinov cf 'EXen?, t^ii Se oi 
irepl Topyov e* Kew TrXevtrai/Te^ leal avvayayovTa 
Tovi apx<t^ov'i ■n'oKtrai' ol<; ov fwvov iiaAdXeiap eic 
iro\ep.ov Toaavrou KoX ya\^V7)t' ISpva/j.ivoii irapa- 
oXaiv, oKKa KOi raXKa TrapaaKevaaa^ icdL avfir- 

3 •jrpoOufirjOel'; &<nvep oIkiot})^ ijyairaTo. koI t&v 
aXKeop Si hiaKeipihiatv ofioito^ airavrtDV •irpo<; 
ainov, ov ttoKepov tk Xvatv, oi VQp,iav 8eaK, ov 
ywpa^ KaTQiKiapi'i, oii TroXiret'o? Sioraftv ^So«€( 
KaX&<t 'l%av, ^5 eKetvov pi} irpoad^jratro priBe 
Karaicoap.Tiav.ev, watrep epy^ avvreKovpAvtp 
Srjfiiovpy 6t itriSeiv riva X"/"" ^eoipiKri «o! 
irphrovaav. 

XXXVI, VloXKSiv yovv Kar ainov EXXtji'oji' 
fieydXaiv yevopevwp ital pxyaKa KarepyaaapAvwv, 
&v Ka\ 'YtfioBeot; ^v Kai 'Ayt}trlXaoi leaX IleXo- 
iriBa^ Kal 6 pdXtara i^ijXtD^eW inro Tt/ioXeoiTo? 
'EnraptivaivSa';, at p.kv ineivwv Trpd^eK ^iif rtvi 
KoX rrov^ ro Xapirpop e^€vr)voxaai pepiypApov, 
&are icai pfp'yjriv ipiaK eirtytveaoat icai pxrdvoiav, 
T&v Bi Tt/ioXiovTO^ epyiuv, e^a Xoyou depAvoK 
rifv -jrepl rov dBfX<f)ov dpdyKTjp, ovSiv i<mv 9I pi} 
T^ rov XatftoicXeovs, us <p7]fft Tipaioi}, iitt^mvetp 
Swpeirev' 

at 0FOL. rii &pa KvTrpt^ ^ tk 'ifttpoi 
■vPTjy^TOi 



TIMOLEON 

places from which their own citizens used to run 
away before. Agrigentum and Gela^ for instance^ 
great cities which had been ruined and depopulated 
by the Carthaginians after the Attic war, were re- 
peopled at this time, one by Megellus and Pheristus 
from Velia, the other by Gorgus, who sailed from 
Ceos and brought with his company the old citizens. 
To these settlers Tiraoleon not only afforded safety 
and calm after so long a storm of war, but also 
supplied their further needs and zealously assisted 
them, so that he was revered by them as a 
founder. All the other inhabitants also cherished 
like feelings towards him, and no conclusion of war, 
no institution of laws, no settlement of territory, no 
arrangement of civil polity seemed satisfactory, 
unless he gave the finishing touches to it, like a 
master builder adding to a work that is drawing to 
completion some grace which pleases gods and men. 
XXXVI. At any rate, though in his time Greece 
produced many men who were great and wrought 
great things, such as Timotheus, Agesilaus, Pelo- 
pidas, and Epaminondas (whom Timoleon most 
emulated), still, the lustre of their achievements 
was tarnished by a certain degree of violence and 
laborious effort, so that some of them were followed 
by censure and repentance ; whereas in the career 
of Timoleon, setting aside his necessary treatment 
of his brother, there is nothing to which it were 
not meet, as Timaeus says, to apply the words of 
Sophocles : — 

"Ye Gods, pray tell what Cypris or what winning 
love 
Was partner in this work }**^ 

» Nauck, Trag. Grace. Frag,^ p. 316. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 Kaddirep yctp rj fjJev *AvTtfidxov TToirfo-i^ koX ra 
^lovvabov ^(oypai^i^fiaTa, t&v Ko\o<f>(t>VLa>v, la")(vv 
exovra xal rovov ix/SelSuiafiivoi^ koI Karairovoi^ 
€0iK€, Tol^ Si 'NiKOfidyov ypa^ah teal roi^ 'Ofirj' 
pov (TTixpi^ fi€T€i T^9 a\\i79 Bwdfieo)^ /cal xdpiTo^ 
TTpoaeari to SokcIv eiyepw teal paSio)^ direip- 
ydaOai, outo)? irapct rrjv ^EiirafieivdvSov arpari]' 
yiav Kol rr^v *Ayr)(n\dov, ttoXvitovov^ yeuofiiva^ 
Koi 8v<rd^€ova(;, 17 Tifio\€OVTO<: avTe^era^ofiivrj, 
Kol fiCTct, Tov KoKov TToXv TO pdSiov €Xovaa, d)ai' 
verai T0t9 cS /cal hiKalca^ Xoyi^opAvoi^ ov Tv^^q^ 

3 epyov, aXX' dperrj^ 6VTVXov<rr}^, xairoi irdvTa y 
ifc^vo^ 649 Tfjv Tvxv^ apfjiTTe TcL KaropOovfieva' 
/cal yhp ypdffxDV rot? oikoc (piKoi^ koL Srjfirjyop&v 
7r/709 T0V9 ZtVpaKovaiov^ iroWdKi^ €<f>rj r^ 0€^ 
Xdpiv ex^iP OTi l3ov\6fi€VO^ a&aai ^iKsKiav iire- 
ypdy^aro ttjv avrov Trpoarjyopiav. i'rrl Se rrj^ 
olKia^ iepov IBpvadfievo^ AvTO/uiTia<; eOvev, avrrjv 

4 he Tr}V OL/ciav Up^ haifiovi KaOidptoacv, ipxei, S^ 
olKiav fjv i^eTKop avr^ aTparrjyia*; dpiarecov oi 
^vpaKovcTLOiy Koi r&v dyp&v rov rjotaTOv xal 
xdWiarov iv & /cal to irXeiaTOV tov xP^^^^ 
/caT€axo\a^€, psTaTrefiyjrdfJLevo^ oiKoOev Ttjv yv- 
valxa Kal tov<; TratSa^, ov yctp iiravifXjffev €19 
K.6piv0ov, ovBi KaTifii^e Toh 'TSXXrjviKoi^ Oopv- 
l3oi^ iavTov oiSe t^ ttoXiti/c^ (f>d6v^ irapiSco/cev, 
eh ov oi irXetarTOi t&v aTpaTijy&v aTrXiyo-rt^ Tifi&v 
/cal Swdfieeo^ i^oKcXXovaiv, a\X* i/cei /caT€fi€$v€ 
To?9 v(l>* iavTov fJbefj/qxci'VriiJbevoi,^ arfoJBol^ XP^' 
fievo^' &v fiiyia-Tov ffv to 7ro\€t9 TOtravTa^ /cal 
fivpidSa^ dvOptoircov 81 iavTov i<f>opav eifSai/w- 
vovaa^» 

346 



TIMOLEON 

For just as the poetry of Antimachas and the pic- 
tures of Dionysius^ both Colophonians^ for ail their 
strength and vigour^ seem forced and laboured, 
while the paintings of Nicomachus and the verses 
of Homer not only have power and grace besides, 
but also give the impression of having been exe- 
cuted readily and easily ; so, if we compare the 
generalship of Epaminondas and Agesilaiis, which in 
both cases was full of toil and bitter struggles, with 
that of Timoleon, which was exercised with much 
ease as well as glory, it appears to men of just and 
careful reasoning a product, not of fortune, but of 
fortunate valour. And yet all his successes were 
ascribed by him to fortune ; for in his letters to his 
friends at home and in his public addresses to the 
Syracusans he often said he was thankful to God, 
who, desiring to save Sicily, gave him the name and 
title of its saviour. Moreover, in his house he built 
a shrine for sacrifice to Automatia, or Chance, and 
the house itself he consecrated to man's sacred 
genius. And the house in which he dwelt was 
picked out for him by the Syracusans as a prize for 
his achievements in the field; they also gave him 
the pleasantest and most beautiful of their country 
estates, and at this he used to spend the greater 
part of his leisure time, after he had sent home for 
his wife and children. For he did not return to 
Corinth, nor did he take part in the disturbances of 
Greece or expose himself to the jealousy of his 
fellow citizens, the rock on which most generals, 
in their insatiable greed for honours and power, 
make shipwreck; but he remained in Sicily, en- 
joying the blessings of his own creation, the greatest 
of which was the sight of so many cities and myriads 
of people whose happiness was due to him. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXVIL 'EtTcI Sk XPV^> ^^ €01K€V, OV flOVOV 

iraai /copvSaWol^ \6<f)ov iyytyveaOai, Kara 2fc- 
fKoviSrjv, aWa /cat irdarf Sf)/JU)fcparia avKO<f>dpTrfv, 
itrex^ifnjaav /cal Ti/mo\^ovtc Svo r&v Srj/iayoiyy&v, 
Aa(f>vaTio<s /cat /^rjfiaLvero^. &v Aa^variov fiev 
avTOV irp6<i rtva SUrjv Kareyyv&VTO^ ovk eta 

2 Oopv^elv ovSe KwXveiv rovs TroXira?* kKoav yap 
auT09 VTTOfielvai roaovrov^ irovov^ koX kivBvvov^ 
virep Tov T0t9 vofioi^ 'xprjadai rov ^ovKopsvov 
XvpaKOvaitov tov Sc Ar)fiaiv€TOV ttoXXA /cari]' 254 
yoprjaavTO^ iv iKK\ri<ria rr)^ (rrpartfyUi^, irpo^ 
ixelvov fikv oifSkv avreltre, rolf; Si Oeol^ e^r) xa/jiv 
offyeiXeiv, oU ev^aro XvpaKOvalovf; imSelv t^9 
irapp^aLw; fcvpiova yevopAvov^, 

3 yi.iyi<Tra S' oiv KaX KoXKiara r&v Ka6* avrbv 
'FtWrjvfov op^\oyovpAva>^ hiairpa^apjevof; epya, 
Kol piovo^, £0' &9 oi aoi^KTTaX Sia r&v Xoywv t&v 
iravrjyvpi/c&v del wape/cdXovv irpd^ei^ rov^ ''EXXt;- 
va<:, iv Tainai<; dpia-revara^, xal r&v pkv avrodi 
KaK&v, a rrjv dp^aLav 'EWaSa KaTi<T')(ev, viro 
T^9 Tt5;^9 irpoe/CKOfucrOeU dvaipaKTO^ KaX KaOa- 

4 /)69, iTTiSei^dpevo^ Se Beivorrfra pev xaX dvBpeiav 
T0t9 j3apl3dpot<; fcaX Tot9 rvpdvvoi^, Si/caioa-vvqv 
Se /cal irpaoTTjTa roh '^EWrjari KaX Tot9 <I>CKoi^, rd, 
&€ Tr\el<rTa Tpoiraia t&v dydvav oSaKpvTa KaX 
dtrevOrj T0t9 iroXlTai^ KaTo^Tijaa^, Kaffapdv 8i 
Tr)V XiKeKiav iv ovS* 0X0^9 €T€acv okto) dlSicov KaX 

348 



TIMOLEON 

XXXVI I. But since^ as it would seem^ not only 
all larks must grow a crest^ as Simonides says^ but 
also every democracy a false accuser, even Timoleon 
was attacked by two of the popular leaders at Syra- 
cuse^ Laphystius and Demaenetus. Of these, La- 
phystius once tried to make him give surety that he 
would appear at a certain trial, and Timoleon would 
not suflTer the citizens to stop the man by their 
turbulent disapproval ; for he himself, he said, had 
of his own accord endured all his toils and dangers 
in order that any Syracusan who wished might avail 
himself of the laws. And when the other, Demae- 
netus, brought many denunciations in open assembly 
against his conduct in the field, to him, indeed, Ti- 
moleon made no answer, but said he owed thanks 
to the gods, for he had prayed them that he might 
live to see the Syracusans gain the right of free 
speech. 

So, then, having by general confession performed 
the greatest and most glorious deeds of any Greek 
of his time, and having been the only one to succeed 
in those achievements to which the rhetoricians, in 
their speeches at the national assemblies, were ever 
exhorting the Greeks; having been removed be- 
times by a happy fortune, pure and unstained with 
blood, from the evils which were rife in the mother 
country, and having displayed ability and valour in 
his dealings with Barbarians and tyrants, as well as 
justice and gentleness in his dealings with the Greeks 
and his friends ; having set up most of the trophies 
of his contests without causing his fellow citizens 
either tears or mourning, and having in even less 
than eight years ^ handed over to her inhabitants a 

^ 346-338 B.a 

349 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avvoLKcov KttK&v Koi voarffidrcov wapaBov^ roi^ 

5 KOTOiKOvaiv, rjSrf irpeafivTcpo^ i>v a7rr)fil3\vv0i] 
TTjv Byfnv, etra reXecw? iinjpddrj fier* oXXyop, ovt€ 
aifTo^ iavT^ 7rp6<l>aaiv Trapaax'^v ovt€ irapoivrj- 
OeX^ vTTo T^9 Tvyrjf;, aXXa avyyeptKT]^ tlvo^, o)9 
€OiK€V, (dria^ teal Kara/SoXij^ apxi t^ XP^^V (tw- 
emOe/xepTj^' Xiyovrai yctp ovk oKiyoi t&v /cara 
7€i/o9 avT^ irpoariKOVTfov o/juoio)^ aTrofidKetv rr)v 

6 o-^iv VTTO yripcn^ airo/MapavOelaav, o 8€*'Adavi<s 
€TL awearc^TO^ tov irpo^ "iTnrfova iroXifiov /cal 
'MLdfiepKov, iv M.v\al*s iirl arparoirihov ^tfalp 
airoyXavKtodrjvai rrjv oifrti; avTov, koI ir&ai <l>av€- 
pctv yeviaffai Tf}v irrfpcaaiv, ov /jltjv aTroaTtjvai Bth 
Tovro TTJ^ TToXiopKia^;, dX\' i/jLfi€LvavTa t^ ttoTU- 
pxp \a/3€iv rov^ rvpdvvov^' 0)9 Bk iiravrjXffev €A9 
Xvpa/covaa^, €v0v^ dirodeaOai Tr}v pjovapxidv koX 
TrapairelaOai tou9 7ro\6Ta9f t&p irpayfiaTODP 6t9 
TO KdWiarop tikoptcdp t^Xo9. 

XXXVIII. ^^Kelpop fi€P oiv avrop virofielpapra 
Ti)p (TVfufyopiLp aXvira)^ ^ttop ap Tt9 Oav/jLoaeie^ 
T&p Si XvpuKOvaLoDV a^top ayaaOai rifp 7rpo9 top 
apSpa Tififjp Kol xaptv ^p ineBei^apTo irewrfpa}- 
fiipq), <f>oiT&PT€^ iirl Ovpa^ avTol teal t&p ^ipcop 
T0V9 7rapein£n]fiovPTa^ ayoPT€^ 6*9 TtfP ol/cLav kol 
TO %a>/otoi/, 07ra)9 OedaaipTO top evepyiTtjp avT&p, 
dya\\6fjL€Poi xal fieya if>popovvT€^ OTi trap avT0(9 
^\e.TO KUTa^rjacu top /Slop, ovt(o Xa/jLirpa^ ifrapo- 
Bov T^9 €t9 Trjp 'EXXaSa Trapeafcevaarjiiprj^ axn^ 
2 Bik T&p exfTVX^fiaTtdp feaTatfypop'^aa^, iroW&v 
Bi KaX fieydXcdP eh ttjp ixetpov Tifirjp ypa<f>ofi€PG)p 
Kal 7rpaTTopL€P(op ovBepo^ fjTTOP fjp TO yjn}if>iaaa0ai 
TOP T&p ^vpUKovaltov Brjfiop, oadxi^ avfiiriaoi 

350 



TIMOLEON 

Sicily purged of her perpetual intestine miseries and 
complaints ; at last^ being now advanced in years^ he 
began to lose his sights and then^ after a little, 
became completely blind. He had done nothing 
himself to occasion this, nor was he therein the 
sport and mockery of Fortune, but suffered from 
some congenital disease, as it would seem, which 
came upon him with his years ; for it is said that not 
a few of his kindred lost their sight in a similar 
way, when it was enfeebled by old age. But Athanis 
says that while the war against Hippo and Mamercus 
was still in progress, in his camp at Mylae, his vision 
was obscured by a cataract in the eye, and it was 
plain to all that he was getting blind ; he did not, 
however, desist from the siege on this account, but 
persisted in the war and captured the tyrants ; yet 
after his return to Syracuse, he at once laid aside 
the sole command and begged the citizens to excuse 
him from it, now that matters had reached the 
happiest conclusion. 

XXXVin. Well, then, that he himself should 
bear his misfortune without repining is less a matter 
for wonder ; but the gratitude and honour which the 
Syracusans showed him in his blindness are worthy of 
admiration. They often went to visit him in person, 
and brought strangers who were sojourning in the 
city to his house and to his country seat to see their 
benefactor, exulting and proud that he chose to end 
his days among them and thus made light of the 
brilliant return to Greece which had been prepared 
for him by reason of his successes. And of the many 
great things decreed and done in his honour, nothing 
surpassed the vote passed by the people of Syracuse 
that whenever they went to war against alien peoples, 

351 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

itoKjb^^ avTol^ irpof; a\\o(f>vkov<;, Kopivffl^ XPV' 
affai (npai'qy&, /caXijv Se koI to irepl ra? ix- 
xXijaLa^ ytv6fi€Vov oyfriv eh Tifirjv avrov irap€iX€' 
TCL yap dWa S*' avr&v Kpivovre^ iirl rct^ fieU^ova^ 
3 huKTKe'y^ei'i CKeivov iKoXovv. 6 Sk fcofJLi^6fjL€VO<; Si 
a/yopd^ iirl ^evyov^ Trpo? to Bearpov iiropevero* 
Kcu T^9 am^vr^f;, &aiT€p iTyfyave Kadtjfievo^, eiaa- 
yofiipi]^, 6 fiiv Srjfio'i rjaird^ero fiia (fiapf} irpoca- 
yopevcov avrov, 6 S' apraairaadfievo^ xal ^(povov 
ripit Sou? Ta?9 ev^rffuai^ teal toi<; i7raivoi<;, elra 
BcaKovaa^ to ^tfTOVfjLevop, d7r€(f>aipeT0 jp<ofjn]v. 
iiTL'xeipoTOprideiarj^i Se rauTiy? ol fikv virrfpiTai 
TToKip aTrrjyop StA tov OeaTpov to ^evyo^, oi Be 
TToXiTac ^ofj Ka\ KpoTtp IT poire fiy^aPTes i/ceivov 
TjStf tA Xoiirct T&v hrj/JLoo'layv KaG" avToif^ ^XPV' 

flCLTL^OV. 

XXXIX. 'Ev TOLavrri hi yqpoTpo^ovpjevo^; Tififj 
fi€T evpoia^, &airep iraTtfp kolvo^, ifc fuxpa^ irpo- 
^a(7€fi)9 T^ TCP^^^ a'vv€(f)ayltafi€V7)^ iTeXevTrfaev. 
rip,ep&p Se hoOeia&v toI<; p,ev Xvpaxovaioif; el^ t^ 
irapaa/cevda'at Tct irepl Tr^v Ta(f>i]p, to?9 Se Trepioi- 
/eoi^ feat ^evoi<; eU to axrpeXOelp, ra t' aXKa Xafi- 
irpa^ j^o/[wyyta9 erv^e, xal to \ixo^ oi '^<f>^ t&p 
veaviaKiov irpoKpiOePTe^ €<f>epov Kefcocfirf/iivov Sia 
T&p l^iovvaLov Tvpavveifov tots fcaTea-xafifieptov. 
2 irpounrefLirop Sk iroXKai fwpidhe<f avhp&v xal yv- 255 
pai/c&v, &p 0-^*9 p^ep fjv eopnr^ irpeirova'a, TrdvTCdp 
€aTe<pava>p^pci)p xal xaffaph^ iaOijTa^ <f>opovPT(i)p, 
ifxapal Se xal Sdxpva avyxexpafiipa t^ fxaxa- 

352 



TIMOLEON 

they would employ a Corinthian as their general. 
Moreover, the proceedings in their assemblies afforded 
a noble spectacle in his honour, since, while they 
decided other matters by themselves, for the more 
important deliberations they summoned him. Then 
he would proceed to the theatre carried through the 
market place on a mule-car ; and when the vehicle in 
which he sat was brought in, the people would greet 
him with one voice and call him by name, and he, 
after returning their greetings and allowing some 
time for their felicitations and praises, would then 
listen carefully to the matter under debate and pro- 
nounce opinion. And when this opinion had been 
adopted, his retainers would conduct his car back 
again through the theatre, and the citizens, after 
sending him on his way with shouts of applause, 
would proceed at once to transact the rest of the 
public business by themselves. 

XXXIX. Cherished in old age amid such honour 
and good will, like a common father, a slight cause 
co-operated with his great age to bring him to his 
end.^ A number of days having been allowed in 
which the Syracusans might prepare for his funeral, 
while the country folk and strangers came together, 
the whole ceremony was conducted with great mag- 
nificence, and besides, young men selected by lot 
carried his bier with all its decorations through the 
precinct where the palace of Dionysius had stood 
before Timoleon destroyed it. The bier was escorted, 
too, by many thousands of men and women, whose 
appearance was one that became a festival, since all 
were crowned with garlands and wore white raiment ; 
while cries and tears, mingled with benedictions 

* In 337 or 336 B.C. 

353 

VOL. VI. A A 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

pi<TfjL^ Tov reOvrjKOTo^ ov Ti/jui]^ afpoaLoxnv ovSe 
XetTovpyiav ifc irpo^ovXevfiaro^, aXXa irodov St- 
fcaiov iireheiKvvvTo koX %a/3£i/ uXridivris evvoia^. 

3 T^Xo9 Si T% K\Lvr)fi iir\ Ttjv irvpav reOelar)^ Ai;- 
fjLtJTpio^, &9 ^v fieyaXoffxavorarof; t&v t6t€ Kv^pv- 
K(ov, yeypafifiivov avehre Kijpvyfia toiovtov* 

" 'O Srjfw^ 6 Xvpaxovaicov Tifioikiovra Tt- 
fioSijfiov Kopivdiov TovSe ddirrei fi€v SiaKo- 
aitcv fiv&v, irlfjirja-e K eh tov airavTa xpovov 
a/>f<aai, fiovaiKol^, Ittttixol^, yvfiviKoh, oti 
T0U9 Tvpdvvov^ KaraKvaaf; koX tou? /Sapfid- 
pov; KaTa7ro\€fn]aa^ Kal tol^ fieyiara^ r&v 
dvaardrcov iroXecop 01x10" a^ aTrehco/ee tov9 

VOflOV^ T0t9 StAC€\tC0Tat9." 

4 ^Kiroi'^aavTo 8k Ttfv Ta(j>ffv rod adfiaro^ iv 
ayop^, zeal «rToA9 v<nepov ir€pi/3a\6vT€<; Kal ira- 
XauTTpa^ ivoiKoBofitjaavre^ yvfjLvdaiov T0t9 vioi^ 
dvrj/cav /cal TifioXeovreiov irpoarffopevaav, avrol 
hi )(pol)fjL€voi iroXirela koX vofioi^ otf^ i/ceivo^ Kari- 
arrjaep, eVl ttoXvp ')(^p6vov evSaifiovovpre^ Bieri- 
7i£aaPn 



354 



TIMOLEON 

upon the dead^ betokened^ not a formal tribute of 
respect, nor a service performed in obedience to 
public decree, but a just sorrow and a thankfulness 
arising from genuine good will. And finally, when 
the bier had been placed upon the funeral pyre, 
Demetrius, who had the loudest voice of any herald 
of the time, read from manuscript the following 
decree : — 

"By the people of Syracuse, Timoleon, son 
of Timodemus, from Corinth, is here buried at 
a public cost of two hundred minas, and is 
honoured for all time with annual contests, 
musical, equestrian, and gymnastic, because he 
overthrew the tyrants, subdued the Barbarians, 
re-peopled the largest of the devastated cities, 
and then restored their laws to the Greeks of 
Sicily." 

Furthermore, they buried his ashes in the market 
place, and afterwards, when they had surrounded it 
with porticoes and built palaestras in it, they set it 
apart as a gymnasium for their young men, and 
named it Timoleonteum. And they themselves, using 
the civil polity and the laws which he had ordained, 
enjoyed a long course of unbroken prosperity and 
happiness. 



3S5 

A A 2 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 



AIMIAI02 nAYAOS 

II. Top AlfjLiXifov olicov iv 'l^d/Mt) r&v evirajpL- 
S&v y€yov€vai /cat iraXai&v oi irXelaroi avy- 
ypaf\>el<; ofioXoyovaiv. on S* 6 7rpa>T09 avT&v 256 
/cat T^ y€V€i Ttjv iircovvfuav d7ro\i7ra)v Md/iepKo^ 
r]v, IlvOayopov irai^ rod ao(l>ov, Bi aifivTdav 
\6yov teal X^P^^ AifiiXio^ irpoaayopevOeL^, eiprj- 
Kaaiv evioi r&v HvOayopa tyjv ^o/jua tov ^aa-t- 

2 \€(0<; TraiSevaiv dvaOevrtov, oi psv oiv irXelaTOi 
T(x)v €49 ho^av dtro ttj^; oIklu^ Tavrrj<; irpoekOovToav 
hi dperriv, fjv i^rjkmaavy evrvxv^^cLV, Acvklov Se 
HavXov TO irepX Kdvva<; drv^VM^ '^V^ ''"^ (f>p6vrfa-iv 
a/Ml /cat TTJV dvSpeiav ehei^ev, w yap ovk eirecae 
TOV avvdpxovTa /caoiXvcov /jLdx€(rdai, tov fjukv 
dy&po<; uKcov fieTeaxev avT^, t)}9 hi (f>vyrj^ ovk 
ifcoivcovrja-€V, dWit tov awdy^avTO^ tov klvBvvov 
iyKaTaXiirovTO^ avTo^ €<7Tft)9 /cal fiaxoficvo^ toi^ 
7ro\€fJLLoi<i iTekevrrjae. 

3 TouTOi/ dvydTTjp fiev AlfuXia ^K-qiriwvi t^ 
fjL€yd\q> avv(pK7}(T€V, vio^ hi TlavXo^ AlplXio^;, 
nepl ov TdSe ypd<f>€Tai, yeyovw iv ffKiKla /caTa 
Kaipov dvOovvTa S6fat9 fcal dptTal^ iirKJiavea-Td- 
Ta>v dvSp&v Kal psyi<TT(ov, BieXafJuylrev, ov Tainiu 



^ The first chapter has been transposed to serve as Intro- 
duction to both the Timoleon and the Aemilitu Faulu9, 

358 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 



II.i That the Aemilii were one of the ancient and 
patrician houses at Rome^ most writers agree. And 
that the first of them, and the one who gave his 
surname to the family, was Mamercus, a son of 
Pythagoras the philosopher, who received the surname 
of Aemilius for the grace * and charm of his discourse, 
is the statement of some of those writers who hold 
that Pytiiagoras was the educator of Numa the 
king. 3 Now, most of this family who rose to dis- 
tinction by their cultivation of virtue, were blessed 
with good fortune ; and in the case of Lucius Paulus, 
his misfortune at Cannae gave testimony alike to his 
wisdom and valour. F(n* when he could not dissuade 
his colleague from giving battle, he took part with 
him in the struggle, though reluctantly, but would 
not be a partner in his flight ; nay, though the one 
who had brought on the peril left him in the lurch, he 
himself kept his post and died fighting the enemy.^ 

This Paulus had a daughter, Aemilia, who was the 
wife of Scipio the Great, and a son, Aemilius Paulus, 
whose Life I now write. He came of age at a time 
which abounded in men of the greatest reputation 
and most illustrious virtue, and yet he was a con- 

* Plutarch suggests the identity of the Latin Aemilius 
with the Greek aiV^Aiof {winning), Cf. Odyssey, i. 66. 

* See the Numa, i. 2 f. 

* See the Fahiua Maximus, chapters xiv. and xvi. 

359 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot9 €vBoKi/jiov<Ti T0T6 v€oi^ iTriTfjSevfiaTa ^ijXm- 
cra?, oiSk t^v airrfv oSov dw ap')(ri^ iropevOet^, 
4 ovT€ yap Xoyop fjGKei irepX SvKa^, daTraa/Jiov^ re 
Kol he^L(i)<T€i<; Koi <f>iKo<f>poavvaf;, aU virorpe'XpvTe^ 
oi TToXhuoX Tov irjfiov eKT&vro depairevTifcol koX 
a-TTovSaloi y€v6fi€voh iravraTraaiv e^eXiire, tt/oo? 
ovBirepov a<f>v&<; ex^Vt W9 S' eKarlpov KpeiTTova 
rriv diT dvBpeiaf; koi hiKaioavvq^; xal irLareras 
ho^av avT^ TrepiTToiovfievo^t ol^ evOv^; hUif>€pe twi/ 
Ka0* rfKiKtav. 

IIL UpcoTrjv yovv t&v iin^avS>v dp^Syv dyopa- 
vofiiav p/BTeKBiav Trpoefcpiffrj BcKahvoiv dvhpSyv 
avjfaTToypayfrafiivcov, ob<; varepov airaina^ vira- 
T€va-at Xiyovai, yevofievo^ S* lepev^ t&v Av- 
yovpcov irpoaayopevofievcov, ob^ t^9 dir opvLOtov 
teal hio(T7)fieL(ov diroheiKviovai 'Pa>/jLaioi fiavri/cf]^ 

2 eTncKoirov^ xal <f>vXaKa^, ovra> irpoalaxje to*? 
narpwoi^ Weai koI Karevorjae rrjv rtov iraXai&v 
irepX TO Oelov evXa^eiav &aT€ rifiijv Tiva Sofcov- 
Gav elvai koX ^rfXovfievqv aXXto^ evexa So^rj^ rrjv 
leptixrvprjv t&v dfcpOTUToyv filav dnTO(f>rivai Texv&v, 
KaX fiapTvprjcai to?v (jyiXoao^oi^, oaoi Tr)v eu- 
aepeiav oapiaavTO Oepairela^ Oe&v itno'Trip/qv 

3 elvai, irdma yitp iSpaTO fier ifiireipiaf; vir 
avTov Kol aTrovSrj*;, a^pXr^v t&v aXXa>v ayovTo<i 
0T€ yiyvoiTO Trpo? TovTtp, fcal irapaXeiirovTO^ 
ovSkv ovSk /caivoTOfiovvTO^, dXXa Kal toI^ avvie- 



360 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

spicuous figure^ although he did not pursue the 
same studies as the young nobles of the time^ nor 
set out on his career by the same path. For he did 
not practise pleading private cases in the courts^ and 
refrained altogether from the salutations and greet- 
ings and friendly attentions to which most men 
cunningly resorted when they tried to win the favour 
of the people by becoming their zealous servants ; 
not that he was naturally incapable of either^ but he 
sought to acquire for himself what was better than 
both, namely, a reputation arising from valour, 
justice, and trustworthiness. In these virtues he 
at once surpassed his contemporaries. 

III. At all events, when he sued for the' first of 
the high offices in the state, the aedileship, he was 
elected over twelve competitors,^ all of whom, we 
are told, afterwards became consuls. Moreover, 
when he was made one of the priests called Augurs, 
whom the Romans appoint as guardians and overseers 
of the art of divination from the flight of birds and 
from omens in the sky, he so carefully studied the 
ancestral customs of the city, and so thoroughly 
understood the religious ceremonial of the ancient 
Romans, that his priestly function, which men had 
thought to be a kind of honour, sought merely 
on account of the reputation which it gave, was 
made to appear one of the higher arts, and testified 
in favour of those philosophers who define religion 
as the science of the worship of the gods. For all 
the duties of this office were performed by him with 
skill and care, and he laid aside all other concerns 
when he was engaged in these, omitting nothing 
and adding nothing new, but ever contending even 

» In 192 E.a 

361 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

peOtrcv aeX koX irepX r&v fUKp&v hia^pofievov^ koX 
hthdcKovro^ &^ el ro delov ei/co\6v ri^ '^eirai xal 
afi€fi<l>€^ elvai r&v afieXet&v, aXXit ry ye irokei 
XoXe'ffOP rj Trepl ravra avyyvoffJLi] koX irapopatrtf;' 
ovSeU ycip ef «PX^9 evOv^i pjeyaX(p irapavofirifiaTt, 
Kivel TToXiTeCav, dWa /cal rifv t&v fiet^opfov 
(f>povpav tcaraXvovaiv oi irpolep^voi rtfv iv tov; 
p^i/epoU CLKpl^tiav. 

4 "Ofioiov Si KoX T&v arpaTLcoTiK&v iOSiv re /cat 
varpieov i^ejacTrjv xal (f)v\aKa irapetx^v iavTov, 
ov Sfjfiar/coy&v iv T(p aTpaTTfyelv, oifS\ &aw€p 
oi 7r\€l<TT0L T0T6, ScvTcpa^ dp'xJoL^ TOi^ wpcoTai*; 
fivdfJLCVO^ Bih Tov ;^a/oi^6(7^at xal 7rpao<; elvai 
Tot? dpxofievoi^, aW Aairep Upev^ aWcjv opylwv 
hetv&v, r&v TTepX tA? {rrpaTeta? iO&v i^rjyovfjievo^ 
CKaara, /cat ^o^epo'i &v T0t9 aTreidovai kol 
irapafiaivovaiv, &p6ov rr^v irarpiha, pxicpov Beiv 
Trdpepyov ^yovfievo^ to vikuv tou? TroXcfiCov^ rov 
vaiBeveiv roiri TroXtra?. 

IV, SvtTTai/To? Se TOV tt/oo? ^kvrioxov rov fieyav 
TToXi/AOV Tot9 'Pco/jLaioL^, fcal r&v '^yefiovifccordrcov 
dvSp&v rerpafifiivcov irpo^ eKelvov, d\Xo<: dirb t^9 
eairipa^ dviarrf irokefJiO^, iv ^Ifir^pia Kcvrjfidrwv 
fM€yd\(ov yevop^evoov, iirl rovrov 6 AlfJiiXio^ i^e- 
irifi^Ofj trrparriyo^s ovx ^f ^X^^ TreXeKCi^, oaov^ 
e^ovatv oi (rrparrjyovvre^, dWei TrpoaXafiiav 
kripov^ roaovrov<;, &ar€ t^9 dp^fj^ virariKov 

2 yeviaOa^ rb d^itofia. P'dxv f^^ ohv SI? ix irapa- 257 
Ta{€a)9 ivi/crjae roif^ l3apfidpov^, irepl rpiafivplov^ 

36a 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

with his colleagues about the small details of cere- 
mony^ and explaining to them that» although the 
Deity was held to be good-natured and slow to 
censure acts of negligence, still, for the city at least 
it was a grievous thing to overlook and condone 
them ; for no man begins at once with a great deed 
of lawlessness to disturb the civil polity, but those 
who remit their strictness in small matters break 
down also the guard that has been set over greater 
matters. 

Furthermore, he showed a like severity in scruti- 
nising and preserving his country's military customs 
and traditions also, not courting popular favour 
when he was in command, nor yet, as most men did 
at this time, courting a second command during his 
first by gratifying his soldiers and treating them 
with mildness ; but, like a priest of other dread rites, 
he explained thoroughly all the details of military 
custom and was a terror to disobedient transgressors, 
and so restored his country to her former greatness, 
considering the conquest of his enemies hardly more 
than an accessory to the training of his fellow- 
citizens. 

IV. After the Romans had gone to war with 
Antiochus the Great, and while their most experi- 
enced commanders were employed against him, 
another war arose in the West, and there were great 
commotions in Spain. For this war Aemilius was 
sent out as praetor,^ not with the six lictors which 
praetors usually have, but adding other six to that 
number, so that his office had a consular dignity. 
Well, then, he defeated the Barbarians in two pitched 
battles, and slew about thirty thousand of them ; 

1 In 191 B.O. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aveXcov, Kal Sofcei to KaropOto/ia Trj<; (TrpaTtyyia^ 
wepL^avw yevea-ffai, x^P^^^ €v<f)vta kcll iroTafiov 
Tivo^ Bia/Sdaei paaToovrfv irapaa'xpvro^ ainov 
TTpb^ TO vifcrjfjLa Toh aTpaTuoTai^* iroXei^ Se 
irevTrjieovTa koX Biafcoaia^ i)(^€ipwaaTo Se^afiiva^ 

8 avTov ifcovcia)^, ^^PV^V ^^ '^^*' '^^<'"r€4 avvrjp/io- 
afievfjv aTToXiviiv Tr)v iirap'^iav €t9 'Ptofir^v iirav- 
rjXOev, ovBe hpayp,^ pud yeyovm^ eviropdTepo^ 
airb T^9 (TTpaT€ia^. fjv hk Kal ircpl ToXXa XPV' 
pbaTiaTTj^ apyoTepo^, evBdiravo^ Se Kal cufiCLBrf^ 
ifc T&v VTrap^ovTfov, ov iroXXa S' ^v, dXXa koX 
<l>€pprj^ 6(l>€iXofjL€VTf<; T§ yvvaiKL pLCTCi Tov OdvaTov 
ainov yXLa'Xpta^ i^tjp/ceaev. 

V. ''E/yrjfjLe Be Tlainpiav, dvSpo^ viraTiKov Ma- 
amvo^ OvyaTcpa, /cal xpovoi' avvoiKrjaa^ iroXvv 
axfirjfce tw ydfiov, Kaiirep ef avTfj^ KaXXiTeKvoTa- 
T09 yevofievo^' avTrj yap fjv 17 tov KXeivoTaTOV 
avT^ X/cryrrioDva TCKOvaa Kal Md^ipLov ^d^iov, 
aiTia Se yeypa/ifiiprj t^ Siaa'Tdaeto^ ov/c ffSBev 
eh VH^^f a\\' eoixev dXrjOij^ t«9 elvav X0709 irepl 
ydfiov Xvae<o^ yevopevo^, cJ)9 dpffp 'FcapLalo^ aire- 
irepLireTo yvvatKa, t(ov he <f>iX(ov vovderovvrtov 

2 avTov, " Ov^l fTa><f)pa)v; ovk evpop<j>o<; ; ovp^l Trat- 
So7ro£09;" irpoTeiva^ to VTroBrjpu (/coXtiov aino 
' Pw fuiiot /eaXov(nv) eiTrev "Ov/c evirpenff^ o5to9 ; 
ov veovpyrj^ ; dW oxftc &v elSeirj Tt9 vp'&p icaS* 6 
Ti 0Xl0€Tai pipof; ovpbos irov^,^^ t^ yhp ovtl 
pue^aXai piv dpuapTiai kolI dvaireiTTapkvai yvvai- 
Ka^ dvSp&v aXXa^ dinjIXXa^av, tA S' etc tivo^ 
arjSia^ xal Bvtrappioo'Tia^ ^Owv pu/epct fcal irvfcvh 
irpocKpovapLaTa, XavOdvovTa tov^ SXKov^, air- 



364 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and it would seem that his success was conspicuously 
due to his generalship^ since by choosing favourable 
ground and by crossing a certain river he made 
victory easy for his soldiers ; moreover, he made 
himself master of two hundred and fifty cities, which 
yielded to him of their own accord. He left the 
province in peace and bound by pledges of fidelity, 
and came back to Rome, nor was he richer by a 
single drachma from his expedition. And, indeed, 
in all other ways he was a rather indifferent money- 
maker, and spent generously and without stint 
of his substance. But this was not large ; indeed, 
after his death it barely sufficed to meet the dowry 
due to his wife. 

V. He married Papiria, a daughter of Maso, who 
was a man of consular dignity, and after he had lived 
with her a long time he divorced her, although she 
had made him father of most glorious sons ; for she 
it was who bore him that most illustrious Scipio, and 
Fabius Maximus. No documentary grounds for 
the divorce have come down to us, but there 
would seem to be some truth in a story told about 
divorce, which runs as follows. A Roman once 
divorced his wife, and when his friends admonished 
him, saying : " Is she not discreet ? is she not 
beautiful ? is she not fruitful } " he held out his shoe 
(the Romans call it '^calceus "), saying : ^* Is this not 
handsome ? is it not new ? but no one of you can 
tell me where it pinches my foot } " For, as a 
matter of fact, it is great and notorious faults that 
separate many wives from their husbands ; but the 
slight and frequent frictions arising from some un- 
pleasantness or incongruity of characters, unnoticed 
as they may be by everybody else, also produce 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

epyd^erai Ta^ avr)K€<rTov^ iv rat? <rvfi/3i(0(T€a'iv 
a\XoTpi67r)Ta<;, 

3 *0 8' ovv klfiikio^ airaWayeXf; t^9 TiampLa^ 
krepav Tjydyero' fcal Bvo iralBa^ appeva^ TeKovcqs 
TOVTOv^ p.ev iirl Trp olfcia<; elxc, tou9 Sk irporipov^ 
el<r€'n'dir)aep ot/coi^ rol^ fieyiaTOt^ /cal yiveai rot? 
€7rt^aj/ecrTaTOt9, tov fiev wpea-jSvTepov TfiS Maft- 
fjLOV ^a^iov TOV irevTCLKt^; virarevtravro^, tov Be 
vedoTcpov *K<^piKavov S/crjirieovo^s vio^i ave^iov 

4 ovTa Oifiepo^ ^Kfjiricora Trpoarjyopevae, t&v Be 
OvyaTiptop t&v AlfiiXtov ttjv fiev 6 Karcuvo? v/ov 
eyrjfie, Tr]v S' A?Xt09 Tov/Siptov, dvffp apitrTO^ koI 
fi€ya\07rp€7r€<TTaTa 'PoDfiaLcov irevla ^PV^dfievo^, 
^aav yap eicicaiBeKa avyyevel^, AXXi^i irdvTe^* 
oIklBcov Bk irdvu fiiKpbv ^v avToi^;, teal x^P^^^ov 
^v T]pfC€i irdai, fuav kaTiav vefwvai fMCTcL iraiBcov 

5 iroXK&v icaX yuvaiK&v. iv ah xal 17 Al/uXiov 
TovBe ffuyuTrjp ^v BU viraTevaavTo^ koX St9 dpi- 
ap^fieva-avTo^;, ovfc al(rxvvofjL€V7] ttjv treviav tov 
dvBpo^, dWh davfid^ovaa ttjv dpsTr^v Bl fjv 
irivT)^ ^p. oi Be pvp dBe\(f>ol Kal avyyeveh, hv fii) 
KXipuai Kal iroTajJuol^ xal BuLTeiX'^nfiaaiv opl- 
aaxTV T^ Koiva xal voWrfv €vpvxo>pUiv iv picrtp 
Xd^oDO'iv dii aKKr\K(dVi ov iravovTai Biacjiepofjievoi, 
TavTa fjL€v ovv fj laTopia Xoyl^cadai fcal Trapeiri- 
aKotrelv BiBcoai Toh ato^eaffai fiovXofiivoi^, 

VI. 'O S" Alfukio^ viraTO^ diroBeix^^l^ icrTpd- 
Tevaev iirl roif^ irapaXirtov^ Aiyva<;, ot^ evioi Kal 
Aiyva-Tivov^ ovofAa^ovai, fxaxtfiov Kal dvfioecBi^ 

366 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

incurable alienations in those whose lives are linked 
together. 

So then Aemilius^ having divorced Papiria^ took 
another wife ; and when she had borne him two 
sons he kept these at home, but the sons of his 
former wife he introduced into the greatest houses 
and the most illustrious families, the elder into thai 
of Fabius Maximus, who was five times consul, while 
the younger was adopted by the son of Scipio 
Africanus, his cousin-german, who gave him the 
name of Scipio. Of the daughters of Aemilius, one 
became the wife of the son of Cato, and the other 
of Aelius Tubero, a man of the greatest excellence, 
and one who, more than any other Roman, combined 
the greatest dignity with poverty. For there were 
sixteen members of the family, all Aelii ; and they 
had a very little house, and one little farm sufficed 
for all, where they maintained one home together 
with many wives and children. Among these wives 
lived also the daughter of that Aemilius who had 
twice been consul and twice had celebrated a triumph, 
and she was not ashamed of her husband's poverty, 
but admired the virtue that kept him poor. Brethren 
and kinsmen of the present day, however, unless 
zones and rivers and walls divide their inheritances 
and wide tracts of land separate them from one 
another, are continually quarrelling. These, then, 
are considerations and examples which history 
presents to those who are willing to profit by 
them. 

VI. Aemilius, then, having been appointed con- 
sul,^ made an expedition against the Ligurians along 
the Alps, whom some call also Ligustines, a warlike 

^ In 182 B.a. 

367 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

edvo^, ifiireipto^ he iroke^elv hihaa-KOfievov viro 
' Pco fiaicov Bia rrjv yeirviaarip, ra yap e<T'xaTa t^9 
'IraXta? kcu KaraXriyovTa Trpo? tA? "AXttc*? clv- 
T&p T€ T&v "AXiremv ra fcKv^ofieva r^ TvpprjviK^ 
ireXdyei xal 7rpo9 rfjv Al^vtjv avraipovTa ve- 
fiovrai, fjLe/iiyfiivot TaXdrai^ Kal Tot9 wapa\ioL<; 

2 *I/3i]pa>v. Tore he Kal t^9 ^aXarr?;? ayjrd/jievoi 
a/ed<l>€(Ti TreipariKoi^ d<fyripovvro Kal TrepieKOiTTOV 
7^9 ifiTTopia^, a')(^pi (tttjX&v 'HpaKXelaop dva- 
irTsAovTe^, einovTo^ oJfv rov KifxCKiov TeTpaKiar- 
fjLvpioi yevofievot to irXijdo^ vireaTrfaav 6 Si 
TOi'9 (Tvpmavra<i oKraKia-xtXiov^ e^wi' Trei/raTrXa- 
aioi^ oiauf avrol'i avveSaXe, Kal rpeylrdfievo^ Kal 
KaraKXeiaa^ eh ra reixv hUSwKe Xoyov <l>iXdv' 
Opfoirov Kal avfi^aTiKOV ov yctp ffv l3ov7^fiivoi^ 268 
T0i9 'P(OfMiloL<; iravrdiraatv eKKoy^at to KiyvoDV 
€0vo^, &<r7r€p epKO^ rj irpo^oXop ifjLiroSmv Keifievov 
Tot9 TaXaTtKol^ Kivijfiaa-iv iTraifopovfjuevot^ act 

3 irepl Ttjv 'IraXtar. TnnTevcavTe^ oJfv t^ AlfiiXitp 
Ta9 re vav^ Kal Th<; TroXei^ iveyeipiaav. o Be 7^9 
fiev 7ro\et9 ovSev dBiKi]aa<s rj fwvov tA Teixv 
irepieXiov aireScoKe, Ta9 Sk vav<i airdtra^s dt^eiXeTOt 
Kal ttXoIov ovSev airrol^ TpiaKdXfiov fiei^ov dire- 
Xiire* Tot'9 h* '^XtoKOTa^ vir avT&v KaTh yrjv ^ 
KaTd OdXaTTav dvea-dxraTo woXXoif^ Kal ^hov^ 
Kal 'PfOfiaiov^ evpeOhna^, eKeivrf fiev ovv ^ 
xnraTeLa t^9 eiprifieva^ irpd^i^ e'/ruf>av€Lf: e^x^v, 

4 ^T<TTepov he 7roXXa/c*9 Troirjaa^ <f>avepbv avTOV 
aiOi^ vrraTewai fiovXofjjevov Kai iroTe Kal irapay- 
yelXa^, (&9 direTux^ fcal 7rap(o<f>0r), to T^ittov 
'^(Tvxio.v cl^e, T&v iep&v iirifieXovfjLevo^ Kal Toif^ 

368 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and spirited folk^ and one whose proximity to the 
Romans was teaching it skill in war. For they 
occupy the extremities of Italy that are bounded 
by the Alps, and those parts of the Alps themselves 
that are washed by the Tuscan sea and face Africa, 
and they are mingled with Gauls and the Iberians 
of the coast. At that time they had also laid hold 
of the sea with piratical craft, and were robbing and 
destroying merchandise, sailing out as far as the 
pillars of Hercules. Accordingly, when Aemilius 
came against them, they withstood him with a force 
of forty thousand men ; but he, with eight thousand 
men all told, engaged their fivefold numbers, and 
afler routing them and shutting them up in their 
walled towns, gave them humane and conciliatory 
terms ; for it was not the wish of the Romans to 
extirpate altogether the Ligurian nation, since it lay 
like a barrier or bulwark against the movements of 
the Gauls, who were always threatening to descend 
upon Italy. Accordingly, putting faith in Aemilius, 
they delivered their ships and cities into his hands. 
Their cities he restored to them, either doing them 
no harm at all, or simply razing their walls ; but he 
took away all their ships, and left them no boat that 
carried more than three oars ; he also restored to 
safety those whom they had taken captive by land 
or sea, and these were found to be many, both 
Romans and foreigners. Such, then, were the 
conspicuous achievements of this first consulship. 

Afterwards he often made it clear that he was 
desirous of a second consulship, and once actually 
announced his candidacy, but when he was passed 
by and not elected, he made no further efforts to 
obtain the office, giving his attention to his duties 

369 

VOL. VI. B B 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

•naiSai AffteStv t^c fiiv iinx«>ptov vaiBei'av koI 
•Katpiov &airep outos ^vKr^ro, ri/v S' 'EXXjjwkjji' 
6 ^iKoTifiorepov. ov yap novov ypafifiariKol xal 
ffoifnaToX Kol p^Topei, dXKa leal TrXoffTai Kol 
t^arfoaAoi Koi ttwXcdv Koi trKvKaxtini i-TrurraTai 
Kai hiZduKoXot Sripai "EXXijye? ^aav irepl rovi 
veavioKOVi. o hk war^p, el /*^ ri hriiioviov ip,-no- 
iitv tit}, trap^v ael peXerSiai ical yvftva^opivoii, 
tjuXoTttcvoTaroi 'Paipaitav yevop-evQ^. 

VII. Twi' hi hrjfioaitnv irpd^eav Kaipht ^v 
iKt tvov TOTS leaff' ty Hepaei t^ MuKtSovwv 
0aci\ei iroXepovvTS^ iv ahiaf; tou9 arparijyov^ 
(tvov, oif Si aireipiav Koi draXfttav al<Tj(pSi^ xai 
««Ta7*\"f Tws TOW vpdyfiaiTi j^mp-ivovi ical ird- 

8 tryofTa? maicw paXKov fj iroiovvTat;. apjt fifv 
yhp 'Avrlojfpv Tov etrutk-TiOeina peyav ei^avra 
Tqs «lXX»?! 'AffUti virep top Tavpov ex^aXoPTet 
Kol KaTOKXelacuiTei eiV Xvpiav, iirl pvpLoit koX 
•irevTtiKtaxi-XioK TaXavTOi^ dyawija'avTa t^? 
BiaXvffiK, oXlycp Se irpoadev tp ^taaaXla aw- 
T/M'^oKTes ^iXiinrov xal roijs "EXXijcos dno 
Maxehovav iXevSepmffavrei, ^ re ^atXevi; oiSelv 
vapaffX'^To^ GK ToXpMP ^ tvpapiv, 'Avvi^av 

9 KarairoXtp^ffaPTe^, ovic dveKTov fiyovvTo TltpireZ 
KoBatrep AvriirdXtp t^ 'Papy^ Xrrov tf>ep6pevoi 
^,„m-MTr\iv/)ai, troXvv ^Bt] j(p6pov d.'Tro r&v Xet- 

irarptfiat {JTTtji voXepovPTt w/jos 
'oovvrev Sti ttoXX^ Ttjv MaKeSovatv 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

as augur^ and training his sons^ not only in the 
native and ancestral discipline in which he himself 
had been trained^ but also^ and with greater ardour^ 
in that of the Greeks. For not only the grammarians 
and philosophers and rhetoricians^ but also the 
modellers and painters^ the overseers of horses and 
dogs^ and the teachers of the art of huntings by 
whom the young men were sun^ounded^ were Greeks. 
And the father^ unless some public business pre- 
vented, would always be present at their studies 
and exercises, for he was now become the fondest 
parent in Rome. 

VII. As to public affairs, that was the period when 
the Romans were at war with Perseus,^ the king of 
Macedonia, and were taking their generals to task 
because their inexperience and cowardice led them 
to conduct their campaigns ridiculously and disgrace- 
fully, and to suffer more harm than they inflicted. 
For the people which had just forced Antiochus, 
surnamed the Great, to retire from the rest of Asia, 
driven him over the Taurus mountains, and shut him 
up in Syria, where he had been content to buy 
terms with a payment of fifteen thousand talents; 
which had a little while before set the Greeks free 
from Macedonia by crushing Philip in Thessaly ; and 
which had utterly subdued Hannibal, to whom no 
king was comparable for power or boldness; this 
people thought it unendurable that they should be 
compelled to contend with Perseus as though he 
were an even match for Rome, when for a long time 
already he had carried on his war against them with 
the poor remains of his father's routed army ; for 
they were not aware that after his defeat Philip had 

171-168 B.C. 



B 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

SvpUfiiv ^TTijdei^ <&t\i7r7ro9 ippco^vearipav Koi 
fiaxtf^d^Tcpap €Troir)<r€. irepl &v hUifu ffpax^ai)^ 
avo)0€V ap^dfjL€PO^, 

VIII. *Avrlyovo^ fieyKnoi^ BwrjOeU t&v 'AXe- 
^dvBpov BiaB6)(^a)v Kal o-TpaTtjy&v, KTrj<rdfievo<i 
eavT^ /cal yivei rfjv rov ^aa-ikito^ irpotrqyopiav, 
viov itT'xe ArjfjL'qTpvov, ov 7rat9 *AvTiyovo<; ffv o 
VovaTCL^ eTTovofiaadei^' tovtov Be Aij/x'qTpio^, 09 
avT09 re fiaaiKevaa^ y^povov ov woXvv, vlov re 
iralBa rijv fjKiKiav aTroXiircbv ^IXtitirov ireXev- 

2 rrjae, heiaavre^ hk ttjv avap^iav oi 7rpS>T0i 
MatceBovoDv ^Kvriyovov etrdyomai tov redpffKoro^ 
dpeyjnop opra, xal avpoiKLaaPT€<; avr^ ttjp firjripa 
TOV ^iXiinrov, irp&TOP fiep iiriTpoirop xal (rrpa- 
rrjyop, elra ireipwfiepoi ficTpiov Kal K0ipct><f)€7i^v^ 
^aaiXia Trpoatfyopevaap, iircKXi^dr) Be Acoacop 
ci)9 eirayyeXriKo^, ov TeXeaiovpyo^ Bk t&p inro- 

3 ax€0'€(»>p, fierh tovtop fiaciXevaa^ 6 4>t\t7r7ro9 
fipdrjaep ep roU fidXiara twi; /Saa-iXetop en 
fieipdKiop &p, Kal Bo^ap ea^^P o>9 dpaari^a'cop 
yiaKeBopiap eh to iraXaiop a^lcofia xal fi6po<; ein 
irdpra^ rjBr) Tr)p *T?a)fUiia)P BvpafiiP alpofUp'qp 
Ka0e^a>p, rfTTi]0el^ Be fieydXt) fidxo ttc/^I %k6' 
Tovaap virb Tirov ^Xafiiptpov rore fiev hrrij^e 
Kal irdpra rh KaS* eavrop iirirpey^e 'Pay/Maioi^, 

4 Kal Tvj(a)p ewiTifii]<rea>^ fieTpia^ tiydirriaep, va-Te- 
pop Be jSapem^ ^epwp, Kal ro /SaaiXeveiv %a/>tT£ 
^PoDfiaiayp '^yovfiepo^ alxM^Xwrov Tpvif>fjp dyaw&p- 

372 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

made the Macedonian armies far more vigorous and 
warlike than before. This situation I will briefly 
explain from the beginning. 

'VIII. Antigonus^ who was the most powerful of 
Alexander's generals and successors^ and acquired 
for himself and his line the title of King^ had 
a son Demetrius^ and his son was Antigonus sur- 
named Gonatas. His son in turn was Demetrius^ 
who, after reigning himself for a short time, died, 
leaving a son Philip still in his boyhood. The lead- 
ing Macedonians, fearing the anarchy which might 
result, called in Antigonus, a cousin of the dead 
king, and married him to Philip's mother, calling 
him first regent and general, and then, finding his 
rule moderate and conducive to the general good, 
giving him the title of King. He received the 
surname of Doson, which implied that he was given 
to promising but did not perform his engagements. 
After him Philip succeeded to the throne, and, though 
still a youth, flowered out in the qualities which 
most distinguish kings, and led men to believe that 
he would restore Macedonia to her ancient dignity, 
and that he, and he alone, would check the power 
of Rome, which already extended over all the world. 
But after he was defeated in a great battle at 
Scotussa by Titus Flamininus,^ for a time he took 
a humble posture, entrusted all his interests to 
the Romans, and was content to come off with a 
moderate fine. Aft^erwards, however, his condition 
oppressed him, and thinking that to reign by favour 
of the Romans was more the part of a captive 

^ In 197 B.C. The battle is usually named from a range of 
hills near Scotussa called Cynoscephaloe. See the Flami- 
ninus, chapters iii. and iv. 

11 7 



PLUTARCH'S LH'ES 

T09 €ipai fioXXov ri i^povnipa, col Ov/iop expvTO^ 259 
apSpo^, hrelxe r^ vokifup rijp ypc^firfp icai avpe- 
Tarrero \a0pa xal Trapovpym^, twp yap woKefop 
ra^ ipoZiov^ xal irapaOaKamiov^ aaOepck yepo- 
fiepa^ irepiopSiP teal VTrepi^fjLovi:, w Kara^popel" 

5 aval, ttoWtjv apcj avp^ye Svpapip, xai ra fietro- 
yeva x®/>/a koX ^povpva koX TroXei^ ottX&p koi 
XP^P^T(OP 'rroW&v koX aap^drayp axp^i^oPTcop 
efiTreTrXrjKO)^ i<r<opA<TK€t top irokepap koX avpclx^P 
(oairep iyK€Kpvp,p,hop aST/Xo)?. oirXfOP pep yap 
apyovprtop airUeiPTo rpeh pvpidBe^;, oKraKoaiai 
0€ (TLTov pehippfQP fjaap iy/caT&KoSoprjpepov rot? 
T€iy(€<7L, XPVf^T^op Be irXrjOoq oaop ijpxei piaffo- 
<f>opov^ €Trj Be/ca pvpiov^ Tpi<l>€ip Trpo-rroXepouura^ 
ri]^ X(opa^. 

6 Aw i/celpo^ pep ovk €<f>07j ravra KiPTJaai teal 
TTpowyayelp eU epyop, vtto Xinrif; koX BvaOvpiat; 
Ttpoepevo^ TOP ^iop' eyp<o yap aSt/ca>9 top erepop 
T&p vi&p AfjpijTpiop ifc Biafio\rj<; tov j(eipopo^ 
avr}prfK(t)^' 6 S' aTroXeciropevo^ 1//09 avTov Uepaev^ 
a pa rfj ^aaiXeia BieBi^aro rrjv irpo^ 'Pcopaiov^ 
e)(jSpav, ov/e irp i^iyyvo^ ipeyfceip Bta piKpoTi^ra 
Kal pox^VP^^^ fiOov^, €P ^ irad&p t€ irapToBairciP 
KoX poa-rjpaTeop ipoprwp iirpcoTevev rj ^iKapyvpia, 

7 Xiyerai Bk prjBe yvqaio^; (f>vvai, Xa^elp S* avrop 
fj aupoiKOvaa t^ ^PcXLTnroi) veoyvop dxeaTpia^ 
Tivo<; ^ApyoXcfei}^ TpoOaipiov Tovpopa TeKova-rj^, 
Kal XaOelp VTTo/SaXopipr), Bi h /cal paXitrra 

374 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

satisfied with meat and drink than of a man pos- 
sessed of courage and spirit^ he turned his thoughts 
to war, and made his arrangements for it in secrecy 
and with cunning. Thus, those of his cities which 
lay on the highroads and the seashore he suffered to 
become weak and rather desolate, so as to awaken 
contempt, while in the interior he was collecting a 
large force ; he also filled the fortresses, strongholds, 
and cities of the interior with an abundance of arms, 
money, and men fit for service, in this way prepar- 
ing himself for the war, and yet keeping it hidden 
away, as it were, and concealed. Thus, he had arms 
to equip thirty thousand men laid up in reserve, 
eight million bushels of grain had been immured 
in his strongholds, and a sum of money sufficient to 
maintain for ten years ten thousand mercenaries 
fighting in defence of the country. 

But Philip, before he could put these plans and 
preparations into effect, died of grief and anguish of 
mind ^ ; for he came to know that he had unjustly 
put to death one of his sons, Demetrius, on false 
charges made by the other, who was his inferior. 
The son, however, whom he left, Perseus, along with 
his father's kingdom, inherited his hatred of the 
Romans, but was not equal to the burden because of 
the littleness and baseness of his character, in which, 
among all sorts of passions and distempers, avarice 
was the chief trait. And it is said that he was not 
even a true-born son, but that Philip's wife took 
him at his birth from his mother, a certain semp- 
stress, an Argive woman named Gnathaenion, and 
passed him off as her own. And this was the chief 
reason, as it would seem, why he feared Demetrius 

* In 179 B.a 

375 



PLUTARCH'S IJVES 

SoKct Tov ArjfiTjTpiov (f>ol3r}0€l^ airoKTelvai, fiij 
yvrjtTiov ej^o)!^ o oIko^ hidho'xpv aTroKaXvyjnf rrjv 
ixeivov voOeiav. 

IX. Ov firjv dWd, fcaLirep &v dyevvrj^ xai 
raTTCivo^, vTTo p(Ofir)<; r&v TrpayfiaTcov dvathepo- 
fievo^ TTpo^ TOV TToXe/iiov ea-TT) koI SirjpeLO-aTo 
iroXvv %poi/oi/, rjye/iova^ t€ 'Pmfiaimv vwaTLKOv<; 
Kal (TTpaTevfjuiTa xal aroXov^ p,eyd\ov^ diroTpi- 

2 yjrdfjievo^, ivttov Bk xal Kpanjaa^. TloirXiov re 
yap AcKLVviov ifi^aXovra irpcoTOV eh ^aKehoviav 
Toeylrdfievo^ iinrofia'xio. Sio'Xf'XLov^ irevraKoaiov^ 
avhpa^ dr/aOoif^ direKTeive koI fwi/ra? aXKov^ 
i^afcoclov^ €\a/3€, tov t€ vavaTod fwv irepX ^[Ipeov 
opfWvvTO^ dirpoahoK'^TOv iirCirXovv Oi/ievo^ eiKoai 
fi€V avTo<f)6pTov^ oXxdBa^ ix^tpdaaTo, tA? S' 
dXXa^ (tLtov ye/JLOvaaf; fcaTeSvaev* hcpaTrja-e Se 

3 Kal irevTTjpLKa Teaaapa, fcal fMayrjv iTroXefirjce 
TO SevTcpov, iv ^ TOV viraTiKov OcttIXiov dve- 
KpovaaTO KaTapia^ofievov ^ KUTct Ta^ *EXijj,{a^' 
XdOpa Se Sid &€<rGaXLa<; ifi^aXovTa npoKuXov- 
fievo^ €49 f^dxv^ i<f>6^r)(T€, irdpepyov Se tov 
iroXifiov CTpaTeiav iirl ^apBaveh difievo^, ©9 Br) 
Tou? 'PtDfiaiov^ virepop&v Kal axoXd^ayv, fivpiov^ 
T&v fiappdpcdv KaT€Koylr€ koI Xeiav rfXdaaTo 

4 TToXXriv. vweKLvei Sk Kal FaXara? tov^ vepl tov 
"laT pov cuKrjfievov^, ot BaaTepvai^ KaXovvTai, 
(TTpaTOV iTTiroTqv Kal fidxtfiov, ^IXXvpiov<; re Sid 
Tevffiov TOV /5a<nX4a)^ TrapcKoXei (rvv€<f>d^jraa-0ai 

^ Karafita{6fituov Coraes and Sin tenia, after Bryan, for the 
Ka\ $iai6fAwoy of the MSS. , where Bekker brackets kuL 

' clt Baarr^pyat Coraes and Bekker, after Stephanus : 
BaarTtppau 



AEMILIUS PAUI.US 

and compassed his deaths lest the royal house 
having a true-born heir to the throne, should un- 
cover his own spurious birth. 

IX. However, although he was ignoble and mean^ 
the strength of his position led him to undertake 
the war, and he kept up the struggle for a long 
time, repulsing Roman commanders of consular rank 
with great armies and fleets, and actually conquer- 
ing some of them. Publius Licinius, for example, 
who was the first that invaded Macedonia, he routed 
in a cavalry battle, slew twenty-five hundred good 
men, and took six hundred prisoners besides ; then 
he made an unexpected attack upon the Roman 
fleet which was lying at anchor near Oreus, seized 
twenty ships of burden with their cargoes, and sank 
the rest together with the grain that filled them ; he 
also made himself master of four quinqueremes. He 
fought a second battle, too, in which he repulsed the 
consul Hostilius as he was trying to force his way 
into Macedonia at Elimiae ; and after Hostilius had 
broken into the country undetected by way of Thes- 
saly, he gave him a challenge to battle which he was 
afraid to accept. Furthermore, as a side issue of the 
war, he made an expedition against the Dardanians, 
implying that he ignored the Romans and that time 
hung heavy on his hands ; he cut to pieces ten 
thousand of the Barbarians and drove ofl* much booty. 
He also secretly stirred up the Gauls settled along 
the Danube, who are called Bistemae, an equestrian 
host and warlike; and he invited the lUyrians, 
through Genthius their king, to take part with him 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov TToXifiov. Koi X0709 tcaTecT'xev co? r&v fiap" 
fidpcov fjLtaO^ TreTreio-fievcov inr avrov Slit rrj^ 
tcdroi) TaXaria^ irapa rov ^ABpiav ififiaXciv eh 
TTjv ^IraXiap, 

X. Tavra Tot^ 'Payfiaioi^ irvvOavofiivoi^ iBoxcL 
Ta9 T&v arpaTrfjicovrcov ')(apLTa<; koX napayyeXia^ 
idaavra^ avTOv<; KoXelv iirl Tt)v ^ycfiopiav avhpa 
vovv e'xpvra tcaX TrpdyfULo-i "x^prjadai fi€ydXoi<; 
iTnardfievov* ovro^ 7]V IlaOXo? AlfiLXio^, rfXiKia^ 
fihf fjir) irpoaci) KaX irepX e^rjKovTa yeyovo)^ errj, 
pcofiT) Sk aco/JXiTo^; dxfid^oyv, Tr€<^paypAvo^ Se KijBe' 
(TTa?? /cat TTaiaX veaviai^; KaX <I>lXq>v irXijOei /caX 
<Tvyyev&v fieya Bwa/ievcop, dl Trdvre^ avrov vira- 
Kovcrai KaXovvTi tg> hrjfKp irpo^ rrfv viraTciav 

2 eireiOov, 6 he tear dp')(a^ fxev iOpvirrero irpo^ 2 GO 

T0U9 7roWoV9 KoX Bl€kXiV€ TTjV <l>LXoTifiLav avTcov 
KaX aTTOvZrjVy &<; firj heoiievof; tov dp'xeiv, <}>on(iv' 
Tcov Se KaO^ '^fiepav iirX dvpa<; KaX TrpoKaXovfie- 
veov avTOV eh dyopav KaX Kara^owvTmv iirelaOrj' 
KaX (paveX^; eifdv^ iv to?? fieriovai ttjv VTrareiav 
iSo^ev ovK dp'xjqv Xrjyjrofjbevo^, dXXa vLktjv KaX 
KpdTO<; TToXifiov KOfd^oyv KaX BiSov^ rot? iroXLTat^ 

3 KaTa^aiveiv eh rb ireBiov* p^era ToaavTrj*; iXwi' 
So? KaX irpodvfiia^ ehe^avro Trai/re? avrov xaX 
KaTecTTrjaav vTrarov ro Sevrepov, ovk edaavre^ 
KXrjpov yeveaffai, KaOdirep eidOei, irepX T(av 
€7rapyi&v, dXX* ev0v<; eK€iv(p 'slrrj(f>iadp£voi rov 
MaKeooviKOv iroXep^ov rr^v rjyepioviav. Xeyerai 8' 
avrov, CO? dmjyopevOrj Karci rov Tlepaio)^ arparrf- 
70?, VTTO rov hrjpov travro^ oiKaSe 7rpo7rep,(f>0evra 
Xafiirpw evpelv to Bvydrpiov ttjv Tepriav SeSa- 

378 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

in the war. And a report prevailed that the Bar- 
barians had been hired by him to pass through lower 
Gaul^ along the coast of the Adriatic, and make an 
incursion into Italy. 

X. When the Romans learned of these things^ 
they decided that they would bid good-bye to the 
favours and promises of those who wanted to be 
generals, and themselves summon to the leadership 
a man of wisdom who understood how to manage 
great affairs. This man was Paul us Aemilius, now 
advanced in life and about sixty years of age, but in 
the prime of bodily vigour, and hedged about with 
youthful sons and sons-in-law, and with a host of 
friends and kinsmen of great influence, all of whom 
urged him to give ear to the people when it sum- 
moned him to the consulship. At first he was for 
declining the appeals of the multitude, and tried to 
avert their eager importunities, saying that he did 
not want office ; but when they came daily to his 
house and called him forth into the forum and 
pressed him with their clamours, he yielded ; and 
when he presented himself at once among the candi- 
dates for the consulship, he did not appear to come 
into the Campus in order to get office, but as one 
who brought victory and might in war and offered 
them to the citizens. With such eager hopes did all 
receive him, and they made him consul for the 
second time,^ and did not permit a lot to be cast for 
the provinces, as was the custom, but at once voted 
him the conduct of the Macedonian war. And it 
is said that when he had been appointed general 
against Perseus, and had been escorted home in 
splendid fashion by the whole people, he found 
there his daughter Tertia, who was still a little child, 

1 In 168 B.O. 

379 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 tcpvfjAvrjv €Tt iraiBiov ovaav aa-ira^ofievov oiv 
avrijv ipoorav i<l>* OTip Xekvirrp'ar ri)v Bi Trcpi- 
fioKovaav koI KaTatpiKovaav, " Ov yap ola0a, 
elirelv, " & TraTep, on r/fiiv 6 Tlepa-ev^ rWvrifce ; 
Xiyovaav Kvvlhiov avvTpotf>ov ovtod Trpotrayopevo' 
fjLCvov' fcal rbv AlfJuXtov "*Aya0^ '^^XV'*' <i>o,vat, 
" & duyarep, Koi BixofMi rbv oltovov^^ ravra 
fiiv ovv Ki/cepcov 6 pyjrcop iv roU irepX iiainiKri^ 
iaroprfKev. 

XL ^eodorayv he rSyv vTrareiav \a^6vT(DV olop 
dvdofjLoXoyelaOai riva xdpiv fcal wpoaayopeveiv 
{l>i\o<f>p6v<o^ rbv hrjfiov dirb rov iSijfjLaro^, AlfuXiof; 
eh itCfcXtfaiav avvayaywv rov^ iroXxTa^ Tr)v fiev 
irpoTcpav irrrareiav fierekOelv eihr) airrb^ o.pxv^ 
heofjuevo^, tt)V Sk Sevrepav i/ceiveov OTparrfyov 

2 Seofiivtov Si' b /jLrjBeaiav airroi^ xapiv ex€tv, 
a\\\ el vofu^ovai Bi irepov fiikTiov e^eiv ra 
Kara rbv TroXefiov, e^iaraadai t^9 rfye/jLOvla^, el 
Se iriarevovo'iv avr^, /jlt) irapaaTpaTrjyeiv firjhe 
XoyoTTOieiv, aXV virovpyelv aKoirfj rd ieovra 
irpb^ rbv iroXefiov, Wt edv ap^ovro^ cipx^''^ fiyrc!)- 
aiv, €Ti fiaXhjov rj vvv KarayeXdarov^ iv rai^ 

3 aTparelai^ iaofiepov^, dirb rovrav r&v Xoycjv 
iroXXifV fiev alh& irpb^ avrbv eveiroiqae rol^ 
'rroXirai^f fieydXriv Se irpoaBo/elav rov fiiXXovro^, 
r)hofJL€VO)V dirdvTCOv on tov^ fcoXafcevovra^ irapeX- 
dovre^ etXovTo irappT^aiav eyovra koX <f>p6vr)fia 
fTTparriyov* ouTto^ eiri t^ Kparelv KaX p,€yiaTO<: 
elvai r&v oKXtov dperrj^ KaX tov KaXov hovXo^ 
fjv o 'Pi»/uuo>i/ Brjfio^. 

XII. AlfJuXiov Be TIavXov, 09 i^dpfirfaep irrX 



380 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

in tears. He took her in his arms^ therefore^ and 
asked her why she grieved. And she, embracing 
and kissing him, said : " Pray dost thou not know, 
leather, that our Perseus is dead ? '* meaning a little 
pet dog of that name. And Aemilius cried : " Good 
fortune ! my daughter, I accept the omen." Such, 
then, is the story which Cicero the orator relates 
in his work "On Divination." ^ 

XI. It was the custom for those who obtained the 
consulship to return thanks, as it were, for the great 
favour in a friendly speech to the people from the 
rostra ; 1)ut Aemilius, having gathered an assembly 
of the citizens, said he had sued for his first consul- 
ship because he himself wanted office, but for his 
second because they wanted a general ; wherefore 
he was under no obligation to them ; on the contrary, 
if they thought the war would be carried on better 
by another, he resigned the conduct of it ; but if 
they had confidence in him they must not make 
themselves his colleagues in command, nor indulge 
in rhetoric about the war, but quietly furnish the 
necessary supplies for it, since, if they sought to 
command their commander, their campaigns would 
be still more ridiculous than they were already. 
By these words he inspired the citizens with great 
reverence for himself, and with great expectations 
of the future, and all were glad that they had 
passed by the flatterers and chosen a general who 
had resolution and frankness of speech. Thus was 
the Roman people, to the end that it might prevail 
and be greatest in the world, a servant of virtue and 
honour. 

XII. Now, that Aemilius Paulus, after setting out 

^ Cicero, Dt divinatione, 46. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arparelav, irXov fiev cuTu^^ta xal paarcovij XPV' 
aaaOai iropeia^ Kara Balfiova TL0r)fjii, <rvv rdyet 
fcal fi€T d(r<f>a\€La^ el^ to aTpaToireBov Kopnauiv- 
ra* Tov hk TroXifiov koI t?)? arpaTfjytaf; avrov 

TO fieV ToX/JLt)^ O^VTTJTl, TO Sk /3ovX€V/JLa<Tl XPV' 

o"Tot9, TO Sk (f>i\(av ixOvfiotf; virrfpeaiai^, to Se t& 
iraph tA ieivh dappelv koX ypijadai Xoyia/xol^; 
apapoacv op&v SiaTreTrpayfievov, ovk Ix^ '^V 
XeyofievT) tov avSpo^ einv')(ia Xaumpov airoBovvai 
Kal Sida-fffiov epyov olov ereptav (TTpaT'qySiv. 

2 €t puq T£9 dpa Ttfv Hepa-io)^ ^iXapyvpiav AlpAXit^ 
Tvxv^ dycL^V^ irepl tcl irpdyfiaTa yeveadai <f)rfa'iv, 
fj Xafiirpd Kal fieydXa 7rpb<; tov iroXefiop dpdivTa 
Tat9 iXiriai Ta MaxeBovav dveTpe^e koL kutC' 
^aXe, irpo^ dpyvpiov aTroSetXida'avTO^, fjKov fiev 
yhp avT(p SerjOevTi BacTcpvat, fivpioi fiev linrel^, 
fivpioi Se Trapa^dTai, p,iado^6poi irdvTe^, avhpe^ 
o\f yeaopyeiv etSoTc?, ov irXeip, ovk dirb iroi/JLviav 
^Yjv V€fjL0VT€^, dXX* hf €pyov KOI fiiav Texy)]v 
fieXcT&VTe^ del fid'Yea'dai Kal KpaTelv t&v dvTi- 

3 TaTTOfiivayv, 0)9 oe irepl Trjv MaiSiKrjv KaTa- 
aTpaToireSevaavTe^i iirefxiyvvvTO tol^ Trapd tov 
paaCXeoa^ dvhpe^ v'^riXol fikv Tct adojjLaTa, dav- 
fiaaTol ik Ta9 fieXcTa^, fieydXav^oi Be Kal \a/x- 
Trpol TaA9 KaTh t&v iroXefuoyv direiXai^, 0dpao^ 
TrapeaTrjaav toi^ ^aKeBoai Kal Bo^av a>9 t&v 
*P(OfjLaia)v ovx VTTOfievovvTwv, dXX* iKirX^vyqao- 261 
fiivav T7}V oyjriv ainrjv Kal Tr}v KivrfCLV €k^v\ov 

4 oiaav Kal BvairpoaoirTOV, ovt(o BiaOel^ to^9 
dvdp&irov^ Tlepaev^ Kal toiovtiov' e/iTrXiycray 
iXTTiBwv, ahovfievo^ Kad* eKaaTov fiyep^ova ^^tX/- 

382 



L 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

upon his campaign^ had a fortunate voyage and an 
easy passage and came speedily and safely to the 
Roman camp, I attribute to the favour of Heaven ; 
but when I see that the war under his command was 
brought to an end partly by his fierce courage, 
partly by his excellent plans, partly by the eager 
assistance of his friends, and partly by his resolute 
adoption of fitting conclusions in times of danger, 
I cannot assign his remarkable and brilliant success 
to his celebrated good fortune, as I can in thie case 
of other generals. Unless, indeed, it be said that 
the avaricious conduct of Perseus was good fortune 
for Aemilius, since it utterly subverted the great and 
brilliant prospects of the Macedonians for the war 
(wherein their hopes ran high), because Perseus 
played the coward with his money. For there came 
to him from the Bisternae, at his request, ten 
thousand horsemen with ten thousand men to run at 
their sides, all professional soldiers, men who knew 
not how to plough or to sail the seas, who did not 
follow the life of herdsmen, but who were ever 
practising one business and one art, that of fighting 
and conquering their antagonists. And when these 
had encamped in Maedica and mingled with the 
soldiers of the king, — men of lofty stature, admirable 
in their discipline, great boasters, and loud in their 
threats against their enemies, — they inspired the 
Macedonians with courage and a belief that the 
Romans could not withstand them, but would be 
utterly terrified by their looks and movements, which 
were strange and repulsive. But after Perseus had 
disposed the feelings of his men in this way and 
filled them with so great hopes, upon being 
asked to pay each captain of the mercenaries a 

3^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0U9, 7rpo9 TO yiyvofievov rov ^(pvaiov irXrjdo^ 
lXiyyLda-a<; kol irapatfypovijaa^ vtto fiifcpoXoyia^ 
direiiraro Koi irporjKaTO rrjv avfi/jui'XLav, &a7r€p 

OLKOVOfJLCJV, OV TToXcflCJV ^P&)/JLaioi^, KOl XoyKTfJLOV 

aTToBda-fDV aKpijSrj t^9 eh top iroXefiov hairdvri<i 
0I9 iiroXi/jLcr Kairoi ScBaaxaXov^ el^ci/ iKeivov^, 
0I9 av€v T^9 aXXr}^ 'rrapaaKevrj^ crpaTtayT&v Bexa 
fivptdBe^ fjaav rjOpOLafievai xaX irapecTT&crai raU 

5 xpeta49. Be 7r/0O9 Svva/iiv dvTaipayv rrfXiKavrrfv 
KoX TToXeiiov OV ToaovTov fjv TO TrapaTp€(f>6/ievov, 
Biefi€Tp€L Kol TrapearjfiaLvero to xP^o'lop, ayjraadaL 
SeBiw &<nTep dXXorpLcov. teal TavT eirparrep 
OV AvB&v Ti9 ovBe ^oipUtav yeyovco^, dXXc^ t^9 
^AXe^dvBpov fcal ^CXiinTov Kara avyyeveiav ape- 
T^9 fierairoiov/jLepo*;, ot r^ rh Trpd^fiara r&v 
'XprjfidTCJV CDPrjTd, fxij ret ^/OTy/uiTa tS>v it pay pur wp 

6 7)yel<r6ai irdpTiop itcpuTrjaav. ippeOi] yovv on 
rh^ 7roX€t9 aipel t&p 'EtXXi]V(op ov ^iXiinro^, 
dXXct TO ^tXiiTTrov xp^<^^ov, ^AXe^apBpo^ Be t^9 
iir *IpBov^ cTTpaTeia^ dirrofjiepo^, xal /Sapifp 6pa)p 
Koi BvaoyKov rjBrf top UepaiKOP €<f)€Xfcop>€Pov<; 
ttXovtov Toif<; MaxeBopa^;, irpcoTa^ inreTrpr^ae TA9 
fiaaCXiKCL^ dpA^a<;, elra tou9 aXkov^ hretae ravro 
7roi7jaaPTa<: iXa^pov^ dpa^ev^ai 7rpo9 top iroXe- 

7 P'OP &<nrep XeXvfiepov^, Uepaei/^ Be top '^vaop 
auT09 avTOV xai tSkvcop koI fiaaCXeLa^ Kara- 
'Xedp^po^ ovK f}0€Xr}(r€ Bi 6Xiya>p aayffrjvai XRV' 
fidTODP, dXXd fi€Ta ttqXX&p KOfxiadeX^ irXovaco^i 

384 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

thousand pieces, he was bewildered and crazed at 
the amount of gold required, and out of parsimony 
renounced and abandoned the alliance, as if he were 
a steward, rather than a foe, of the Romans, and was 
to give an exact account of his expenditures for the 
war to those against whom he waged it ; and yet he 
had his foes to give him lessons, for, apart from their 
other preparations, they had a hundred thousand 
men assembled and ready for their needs. But he, 
tliough contending against so large a force, and in a 
war where such large reserves were maintained, 
measured out his gold and sealed it up in bags, as 
afraid to touch it as if it had belonged to others. 
And this he did although he was no Lydian or 
Phoenician born, but laid claim to a share in the 
virtues of Alexander and Philip, whose descendant 
he was, — men who mastered the world through their 
belief that empire was to be bought with money, not 
money with empire. At all events, it was a common 
saying that the cities of Greece were taken, not by 
Philip, but by Philip's money. And Alexander, when 
he was starting on his expedition to India, and saw 
that his Macedonians were dragging along after them 
their Persian wealth, which was already burdensome 
and heavy, set fire to the royal baggage- waggons 
first, and then persuaded his followers to do the same 
with theirs, and to set out for the war in light 
marching order, like men released from bondage. 
But Perseus would not consent to pour out his 
gold upon himself, his children, and his kingdom, 
and thus purchase salvation with a small part of 
his treasures, but chose to be carried with many 
treasures as the wealtliy captive, and to show the 



385 

VOL. VI. C C 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
alxM'ci^fOTO^ iiriSei^aaffai 'Pcofiaioi^ o<ra <f>€ta'd- 

XIII. Ov yctp fiovov aTT€ir€fi'^€ rov^ TaXdra^ 
'yjreva-dfiepo^, dWa teal TevOiov iirdpa^ tov 'iWu- 
piov iirX TpiUKoaioi^ TuXdvToi^ avv€<l>dyfraa0ai 
TOV TToXifiov Tct fi€p ^/oiy/uiTa 70*9 Trap avTOv 
Tr€fi<f>0€2ai TrpovdrjKev ^pi0fivjfi€pa xal /caTa- 
ai]jjLi]va(T0ai irapea'xj^v* ©? hk 7r€i<r0€U ^x^^^ ^ 
^Trjarev 6 Vev0to^ epyov daefik^ koX Setvbv eipaae 
{'rrpiafiei^ yd>p iXSovTa^ ^FfOfiaiayv ttdo? avTov 

2 avviXafie koI KaTeBrjaep), '^yovfievo^ o Hepaev^ 
ovSkv €Ti Sel<T0ai T&v 'Xpr)fidT(ov'Triv iKTroXifimaiv, 
aXvTU TOV VevOiov TrpohehoDKOTO^ ex0pci^ ivix^pa 
Kol Sict TrfKtKavTt)^ dSifcia^ ifjifie/SXtf/coTO^ kavTov 
ek TOV TToXefiov, dfrecTipijae tov Ka/coSaifjLova 
T&v Tpia/coaieov TokdvTODV, /cat TrepielSev oXiytp 
XPOP^ p^Tci Tcfcvoov teal yvvai/cb<; o)? diro veoTTia^ 
ap0€VTa T% /SatriXeia^ viro Aevxiov ^AvikIov 
(TTpaTTjyov 7r€fi(f>0€VTOf; iir avTOv /x€Ta hvvdpsca^i. 

3 EttI TOiovTOV dvTLTraXov iX0cbv 6 Al/iiXio^ 
avTOv fiev KaT€<t>p6vei, ttjv S' vtt* avT^ irapa- 
a/cev^v Kol ivvafiiv i0avfia^€v. fjaav yhp lirirel^ 
fjL€v T€TpaKiax!'Xioi, Trefot S' €t9 <l)dXayya TCToa- 
KiajJLvpioiv OV 7roWo*9 diroBeovTe^. IBpvfjievo^ 
Se TTpo T^9 0aXdTTrj9 irapa ttiv ^OXvfiiriKrjv 
vnwpeiav iirl ^(o/3ta>i/ ovhafiodev irpoaayeoyi/v 
expvT(ov Koi 7ravTO0€v vw avTOv hiaire^payfii- 
V€ov ipvfiaai teal 7r/!>0T€txt<r/xa<r* ^vXivoi^: TroXXr)v 
aSeiav ^yev, diroTpvcreiv XP^^^ '^^ x/^iy/iaTO)!/ 

4 Sawdvrj tov Al/iiXiov ffyovjievo^, 6 Bk Ttj yvdypjj 
fikv fjv ivepyo^ iirl irdv ^ovXevfia fcal irdaav 
Tpeirofievo^ irelpav, vtt dBela^ Sk t?}9 7rp6a0€v 

386 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

Romans how much he had saved and watched 
for them. 

XIII. For he not only sent away the Gauls after 
playing them false^ but also^ after inducing Genthius 
the Illyrian^ on payment of three hundred talents^ 
to assist him in the war^ he showed to the king's 
messengers the money all counted out^ and suffered 
them to put their seals upon the bags ; then^ when 
Genthius^ convinced that he had the price he had 
asked^ committed a dreadful and impious deed^ 
arresting and imprisoning a Roman embassy that 
had been sent to him, Perseus, thinking that the 
money was no longer needed to make Genthius an 
enemy of Rome, since before getting it he had given 
a lasting earnest of his hatred and had involved 
himself in the war by the great wrong which he had 
done, deprived the poor wretch of the three hundred 
talents, and suffered him in a little while to be taken 
from his kingdom with his wife and children, as 
birds from their nest, by Lucius Anicius, a general 
sent against him with an army. 

Aemilius, coming against such an adversary, 
scorned him indeed, but admired his preparations 
and his army. For Perseus had four thousand 
horsemen, and not much fewer than forty thousand 
heavy-armed footmen. And planting himself with 
the sea behind him, along the foot>hills of Mount 
Olympus, on ground which nowhere afforded an 
approach, and which had been fortified on all sides 
by him with bulwarks and outworks of wood, he lay 
in great security, thinking that by delay and expense 
he would wear out Aemilius. But Aemilius was a 
man who clung to his purpose, and tested every plan 
and method of attack; seeing, however, that his 

387 
c c 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov (nparov op&v Svaavatrx^TovvTa koI \6yfp 
TToWci SiaaTpaTTjyovPTa t&v airpaKToyv, eireTifJt/q- 
aev avTol^y xal irapijyyeiXe firfSev iroKvirpaypiovelv 
fi7)Bk <f)povTi^€iv, akX fj TO aa)fia to iavrov koI 
T7JV iravoTrXiav Ifcaarop oira)^ ivepyov irapi^et 
Koi 'X^prjaerai ^F(t)jjLaiKa><; rfj fiaxaipa, tov Kcupov 

6 TrapahovTO^; tov <TTpaTr)yov, tA? Se vvfCTCpiva^ 262 
ixeXevae <f>vXaKcL^ avev Xoyxt)^ if>vkdTTeiv, cw? 
fxaXKov IT poai^ovTWi KaX Stafiaxov/xivov^ irpo^ 
TOV virvov, av dfivvaarOai tou9 TToXjejilov^ fifj 
SvvcovTai TTpoaiovTa^i, 

XIV. ^EvoxXovfiivoov Be t&v dvdptoinov fid- 
XcaTa irepl ttjv tov ttotov 'xpeiav {koI yap oXlyov 
KaX TTOvrjpov iiriBve /cal avveXei^eTo trap* avTrjv 
Ttjv OdXaTTav), op&v 6 KlfuXio^ iiiya Kal xaTij- 
pe^e^ SevSpeaiv 6po<$ tov *'OXvfnrov eTriKeifievov, 
teal TeKfiaip6fievo<; t§ 'xXoDpoTrfTL Trj^ vXt}^ vafid- 
Tcov ex^tv dpy(h<i hih fidOov^ v7ro<pepofi€va)v, 
dvaiTVoa^ avToi<; xal <f>peaTa iroXXct irapd t^i^ 

2 viro) peiav &pvTT€, tA S' €vdv<: iiriixirXaTO pev- 
fidTCOv fcaOap&v, iinavvhihovTtov oXxfj fcal <f>opa 
TOV dXi^opAvov npb^ to fcevovfievov. 

KaLTOi TiV€<; ov ^aaiv vhdTtov cTolfUDv teeKpVfi- 
fiiveov irrjyd^ ivaTroKciaOai to?9 to Trot? i^ &v 
peovaiv, ovB diroKdXvyjrtv ovBk prj^iv clvai Trjv 
iK^oXrjv avT&v, dXX^ yiveatv xal avaTaaiv 
ivTavffa ttj^ vXrf<; i^vypaivo/ievrj^' i^vypaiveadai 
he 'nvKv6T7)Ti Kal yfrvy(^p6Tr)Ti Tr)v voTepav dva- 
388 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

army, by reason of their former license, was im- 
patient of delay, and inclined to dictate to their 
general many impracticable things, he rebuked 
them, and instructed them to take no thought or 
concern for anything, except how each man might 
keep himself and his armour in readiness for action, 
and ply his sword in Roman fashion, when their 
general gave them the opportunity. Furthermore, 
he ordered the night watchmen to keep watch 
without their spears, with the idea that they would 
be more on the alert and would struggle more 
successfully against sleep, if they were unable to 
defend themselves against their enemies when they 
approached. 

XIV. But his men were annoyed especially by the 
lack of drinking water, since only a little of it 
issued forth and collected in pools at the very edge 
of the sea, and that was bad. Aemilius, therefore, 
seeing that the lofty and wooded mountain of 
Olympus lay near, and judging from the greenness 
of its trees that there were veins of water coursing 
under ground, dug a number of vents and wells 
for them along the foot of the mountain. These 
were at once filled with streams of pure water, 
which, under the weight and impulse of the pressure 
that was upon them, discharged themselves into the 
vacuum afforded. 

And yet some deny that stores of ready water lie 
hidden away beneath the places from which springs 
flow, and that they merely come to light or force a 
passage when they issue forth ; they hold rather 
that the water is generated and comes into existence 
then and there through the liquefaction of matter, 
and that moist vapour is liquefied by density and cold. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

OvfuatTiv, orav iv /Sddei KaTadXi/Sela-a pevcTifcrj 

3 yivijTai, KaOdirep ycip oi fiaarol r&p yvvaiK&v 
oi)'^ &aTr€p ayyeia irXrjpei^ elalv iirippiovro^ 
€Tol/jLOV yaXaKTO^, dWct /icTa/SdWome^ rifv 
Tpo^rjv iv avTol^ ipyd^oPTUi ydXa xal StrfOovaiv, 
ovTft)? oi Trepi^VKToi KaX irihaKOihei^ roiroi rrj^ 
7% vBap fiev ovK exovaL KaXvTrro/ievov, oifSe 
Kokirov^ pevfiara teal fiddrj TroTafjL&v rotrovraiv 
ef eTOLfJLf)^ Koi viroKeifievi]^ d<f>i€pTa^ ^PXV^» """^ 
Se TTvevfJLa koX top depa t^ mi^eip KaX fcarairv- 

4 Kpovp diroffXifiopre*; eh vBoDp rpiirovai. rd yovp 
opvTTOfJuepa t&p j^co/Jtwi' . /icaWoi^ dpainhvet KaX 
Siapdei irpo^ rtfP roiavTfjp yjrf}\d<f>'i](np, &<nr€p 
oi fia<TToX T&p yvpaiK&p tt/oo? top ffrjXaafiop, 
dpxTfpaipoPTa KaX fwXdTTOPTa ttjp dpaOvfiiaaip' 
ocra S' dpyd ttj^ yrj^ <TVfnr€<f>paKTai, TV(f>\d irpo^ 
y€P€<rtP vSdTODP icTLP, OVK exoPTa t^i/ ipya^Ofiiptfp 

5 TO vypop Klprjaip, oi Sk Taxha Xeyoi/re? iiri- 
XEipelp BeScoKaac tol<; dTroprjTiKoi^, (»9 ovBk to 
alfUL T0t9 ?ft>ot9 eveaTiP, dXkd yevvcLTai irpo^ tA 
Tpav/JuiTa TTPevfuiTO^ tipo^ ^ aapK&p fiera^oXy, 
pvaip dTrepyaa-afiipr) koX o-vptij^ip. iXeyxoPTai 
Be Tot9 7r/309 Tov^ inropofwv^ xaX tA? fieTaXXela^ 
diraPT&fnp el^ /3d0i] iroTafwl^, ou KaT oXlyop 
avXXeyofiipoi^, &(nTep eiKo^ iaTip el yepeaip ck 
Tov irapaxpVM'^ KiPovfi€Pi]<; t^9 7^9 Xafi^dpovaiP, 
a\V dOpoot^ dpaxeofiipoi^, op&p Be KaX ireTpa^ 
irXrjyfj payeiat)^ e^eTrijBija'e pevfia Xdfipop vBaTO^, 
elTa iiriXiire, Taxha fiep irepX Totna^v. 

390 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

whenever^ that is^ it is compressed in the depths of 
earth and becomes fluid. For, they argue^ just as the 
breasts of women are not^ like vessels^ full of ready 
milk which flows out^ but by converting the nourish- 
ment that is in them produce milk and strain it out ; 
so those places in the ground which are chilly and 
full of springs do not have hidden, water, nor reser- 
voirs which send forth the currents and deep waters 
of all our rivers from a source that is ready at hand, 
but by forcibly compressing and condensing vapour 
and air, they convert them into water. At all 
events, those places which are dug open gush and 
flow more freely in response to such manipulation, 
just as the breasts of women do in response to suck- 
ing, because they moisten and soften the vapours ; 
whereas all places in the ground which are packed 
tight and unworked, are incapable of generating 
water, since they have not been subjected to the 
agitation which produces moisture. But those who 
hold this doctrine give the sceptical occasion to 
object that, on this reasoning, there is no blood in 
living creatures, but it is generated in response to 
wounds by a transformation of some vapour or flesh, 
which causes its liquefaction and flow. Moreover, 
they are refuted by the experience of men who dig 
mines, either for sieges or for metals, and in the 
depths encounter rivers of water, which are not 
gradually collected, as must naturally be the case 
if they come into existence at the instant that the 
earth is agitated, but pour fourth in a great mass. 
And again, when a mountain or rock is smitten 
asunder, a fierce torrent of water often gushes 
forth, and then ceases entirely. So much on this 
head. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XV. *0 S' AI/ilXio<: rjfiepa^ fiiv riva^ rjpifjLei, 
KaL <f>aa'i firjirore rrfXiKovrayp (TTparoiriSmv iyyv^ 
ovTO) <TVV€\06vT(ov 'qav')(iav yevia-dai roa-avTijv, 
iirel Se kivcjv airavTa koX ir€t.p(i)fjL€Vo^ eirvvOdvero 
piav elafioXrjv en fiovov a^poupov aTrdXeLireadai, 
Trjv hih Ueppai^iwi wapa to HvOiov xal ttjv 
IleTpav, T^ firf <f)v\dTT€a6at top tottov eXTr^o-a? 
fjLaXKov fj Si fjv ovfc €(f>v\dTT€TO hv<T')((oplav KOi 

2 TpaxvTrjra Setcra? €J3ov7^€V€TO, irp&TO^ Se r&v 
irapovTtov o NaaiKci^ iirL/caXovfievo^; ^KrjTricov, 
yafifipb*; *A<l>piKavov %Kr}iTioi>vo^, varepov Be pA- 
yiarov ev rfj avy/eXi]T<p SvvrjOeU, virehi^aTO t^9 
KV/cX(0(T€(o^ rjyep^v yeveadai, Sevrepo^ Se ^d/Sio^ 
Mfl^f/Ao?, 6 irp€(T/3vTaT0^ r&v Alp^iXiou TraiBcov, 

3 €Ti p^ipdfciov atv, dviari] irpoOvp^vp^vo^, r)(r0el^ 
ovv 6 Alp,LXio<; iihwaiv avroU ov^ oaov<; IToXu- 
^10^ etprjKev, aXV oaov^ avTo<i 6 Na<TiKd<; Xaffelv 
<l>rjai, y€ypa<l>0D^ irepl tS)v irpd^eaov tovtoov €7rt- 
aToKiov 7rp6<; riva Ta)v I3a(r iXicov, oi fikv ifcro^ 
rd^eo)*; *IraXtKol Tpia'X^uXcoi to irXfjdo^; ^aav, to 

4 8' evcovvfiov K€pa<; eh irevTaKi<T)(LXiov^. tovtoi^ 263 
irpoaXaffcDV 6 Naai/cd<; linrel^ ixaTOV etKocn fcal 
T&v Trap 'ApTTaXfp (dpatc&v /cal KprfT&p dvafiepa- 
yp^evcop SiaKoaiov^, €^(oppj)(Te Trj irpb^ ddXaaa-ap 
6S^, fcal feaTcaTpaTOTreSevae irapa to 'JipaKXeiop, 

0)9 8rj Ta2^ paval p^eXXoDP eKirepLTrXetp KaX kv- 

6 KXovaOai TO (TTpaToireZop t&p TToXepicop, iirel S' 

eheiTTP'qaap oi (TTpaTi&Tai fcal a/coTo^ iyepeTO, 

T0t9 i77€/iO(rt fppdaa^ to dXrjOe^ fiye Bia pvkt6<s 

392 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

XV. Aemilius kept still for several days, and they 
say that never was there such quiet when armies of 
such size had come so close together. But when, as 
he was trying and considering everything, he learned 
that there was one passage and one only that still 
remained unguarded, namely, the one through Per- 
rhaebia past the Pythium and Petra, he conceived 
more hope from the fact that the place was left 
unguarded than fear from the roughness and diffi- 
culty of it which caused it to be so left, and held 
a council of war upon the matter. Among those 
present at the council, Scipio, surnamed Nasica, a 
son-in-law of Scipio Africanus, and afterwards of 
the greatest influence in the senate, was first to 
offer himself as leader of the enveloping force. And 
second, Fabius Maximus, the eldest of the sons of 
Aemilius, though he was still a young man, eagerly 
volunteered. Aemilius, accordingly, delighted, gave 
them, not as many men as Polybius states,^ but as 
many as Nasica himself says they took, in a short 
letter which he wrote concerning these exploits to 
one of the kings, that is, three thousand of his 
Italians who were not Romans, and his left wing 
numbering five thousand. In addition* to these, 
Nasica took a hundred and twenty horsemen, besides 
two hundred of the mixed Thracians and Cretans 
with Harpalus, set out on the road towards the sea, 
and encamped by the Heracleum, as though he 
intended to sail round by sea and envelope the camp 
of the enemy. But when his soldiers had taken 
supper and darkness had come, he told his chief 
officers his real design, and then led his forces by 
night in the opposite direction, away from the sea, 

^ In a lost portion of Book XXIX. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S IJVES 

Tfjv ivavriav airo OaXdrrr)^, /cal KardKva-a^ ave- 
irave rrjv arpaTiav viro to TIvBlov, ivravOa tov 
^OXvfiTrov rb vyjro<; avareivet irXeov fj Bcku (ttoBL- 
ov^' arjiiaiveTat he iTriypdfi/jiarc tov iieTpiqaavTo^ 
oi5tg)9' 

6 OvXvfiTTOv Kopv<l>rj^ eiTi TlvOiov 'AttoWwi^o? 

iepov ijy^o^ evet, tt/oo? KaOcTov Se /JbCTpov,^ 
ifKrjpr) fiep Sefcdoa (TTaSltop piav, airrap eir avTji 

irXABpov TeTpairiBfp XevTrofievov fieyiOei. 
"EvfiijXov Se fiiv u/o9 iOrjKaTO fierpa tceXevOov 

Heivayopr)^' aif S', ava^, X^^P^ ^^^ iaffXa 
SiBov. 

7 KaiTOL Xeyovaiv ol yecofieTptfcoi /jli]T€ 6pov<; vyfro<: 
/JL7]T€ I3d0o^ 6a\d(T<Tri^ virep/SdWeiv 0€Ka GTa- 
hLov<;, o fievTOi Bevayopa^ ov Trapepyco^, dWct 
fieOoSq) Koi Si 6pydva>v €lXi](f)ivat SoKel ttjv 
/jL€Tprj(riv. 

XVI. 'O fjL€p ovv NaaiKci^ ivTavffa BievvKTe- 
pevae* t^ Se Ucpael tov Al/uTuov aTpcfiovpTa 
KaTa ^oipaj/ op&VTi koI fitf Xoyt^ofiivtp to yivo- 
p,evov airohph^ ifc T7J<; oSov Kp^9 avTojuuoXo^ ij/ce 
firjvvoDV TrjjV wepioSov t&v 'Pa)/ia£a>i/. o Be (tw- 
Tapa^jSw TO /i€I^ (TTpaToirehov ovk CKivrjae, 
fivpLOV^ S^ fiia'0o<f>6pov^ ^ivov^ xal Siax^Xiov^ 
MaK€86va<; Ml7<mvi irapahov^ i^awiaTeiXe, irapa- 
KcXevo'dfievof; Tayvvai fcal KaTaXajSeiv ra? virep- 
2 ^oXd^. TOUTOi^ fi€V TloXv/3i6^ <l>rfaiv eri Koifuo- 
fi€voi<: iiriTreaelv tov^ *Pci>fiaiov<;, 6 Si fiaaiKa*: 

^ irphs . . . fiirpov a correction suggested by Sintenis (and 
lopted by IBekker) 
ifitrpiiBri of the MSS. 



adopted by IBekker) of the unmetrical wphs rhv KdBtrov 8' 
ft" 



394 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and halted below the Pythium^ where he gave his 
army a rest. From this point Olympus rises to a 
height of more than ten furlongs^ as is signified in 
an inscription by the man who measured it : — 

"The sacred peak of Olympus, at Apollo's 
Pythium, has a height, in perpendicular 
measurement, of ten full furlongs, and besides, 
a hundred feet lacking only four. It was the 
son of Eumelus who measured the distance, 
Xenagoras ; so fare thee well, O King, and be 
propitious in thy gifts." 

And yet the geometricians say that no mountain has 
a height, and no sea a depth, of more than ten 
furlongs. It would seem, however, that Xenagoras 
took his measurement, not carelessly, but according 
to rule and with instruments. 

XVI. Here, then, Nasica passed the night ; but 
to Perseus, who did not infer what was going on 
because he saw Aemilius remaining quietly in his 
position, there came a Cretan deserter who had run 
away on the march, bringing him news of the circuit 
which the Romans had taken. Though Perseus was 
confounded at this, he did not move his camp, but 
sent out ten thousand foreign mercenaries and two 
thousand Macedonians under Milo, with orders to 
make haste and occupy the passes. These men, 
according to Polybius,^ were still asleep when the 
Romans fell upon them ; but Nasica says that a 
^ In a lost portion of Book XXIX. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

o^vp ay&va irepl roi^ aKpoi<; yeveaOai fcal kLv- 
Svvov, auT09 8^ SpuKtt fjiiadoff^opov eh xelpa^; 
(TVvSpafioPTa T^ ^i;o"T« 8ict tov arrrjOov^; Trard^a^ 
Kara^dkeiv, ifc^iaaOevrcov Se t&v iroXefuaov, koI 
TOV Mt\a>i/09 al(JXi<TTa ^evyovro^; avev t&v 
oirXcov fiovo')(iTa)VO^, aaifyaXw aKoXovOelv, cifia 
Karafii^d^dov eh rrjv ^oi/oai/ to (Trpdrevfia, 

3 TouTO)!' 8^ T(p Yleptrel irpoaTreaovrcov tear a 
Td)(o^ dva^ev^a<; fjyev OTriaa), Trepi<f>oPo^ yeyovobf; 
Kal (TvyK€XVfi^vo^ rah eKirLaiv, avrov S ofjuoo^ 
irpo riyi Yivhvq^ vTro/juivovra TreipdaOai fid^V^ 
dvayKolov ^v, rf r^ arpartp aKeSaaOevTc irepl 
Ta9 7ro\et9 h€')(€(T0aL tov iroXefiov, iweuTrep aira^ 
ifi^efirj/ce t§ X^P^> ^^X^ ttoWov <f>6vov Kal 

4 veicp&v i/area-eiv firj Bvvdfiepov. TrXtjdec fjuev ojrp 
dvSp&v avToffev irepielvav, irpoOvfiiav Be ttoWtjv 
V7rdpx€tv dfivvofievoi^ irepX TeKVwv koX ywaiKMV, 
i(f)Op&VTO<; efcaarTa tov ^aaiXeto^ koI TrpofcivBv- 
vevovTO^^ i/c TovTdov iOdpavvov ol <fii\oL tov Uep- 
aia* Kal ^aXofievo^ aTpaTOTreSov avveTaTTeTo 
irpos fidxv^t ^^^ '^^ X^P^^ fcaTeaKOTrcLTO, Kal 
Sippet Ta9 'qyefjLovias, ft)9 ev0v^ ef i(f>6Sov Tot9 

6 *Pcofiaioi^ diravrrjacdv, 6 Be T07ro9 fcal ireBiov rjv 
Ty <f>d\ayyi ^daeco<; iiriTriBov Kal p^wptwz/ ofiaXSyv 
BeofMevrj, koI \6<poi avvex^h a\Xo9 ef dWov to69 
yv/ivrjTevov<n Kal ylriXoh dva(f>vya^ Kal irepiBpo- 
fia<; exovTe^, Bia fieaov Be iroTafiol peovTe^ Puatov 
Kal AevKO^ ov fidXa fiaOeh tot6 (Oepov^ yap fjv 

396 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

sharp and perilous conflict took place for possession 
of the heights, and that he himself slew a Thracian 
mercenary, who engaged him, by striking him 
through the breast with his javelin, and that after 
the enemy had been driven away, and while Milo 
was flying most disgracefully without his armour or 
his cloak, he followed after them without danger, 
and brought his army with him down into the plain. 
After this disaster, Perseus hastily broke camp 
and retired ; he had become exceedingly fearful, and 
his hopes were shattered. But nevertheless he was 
under the necessity of standing his ground there in 
front of Pydna and risking a battle, or else of 
scattering his army about among the cities and so 
awaiting the issue of the war, which, now that it 
had once made its way into his country, could not be 
driven out without much bloodshed and slaughter. 
In the number of his men, then, he was superior 
where he was, and they would flght with great 
ardour in defence of their wives and children, and 
with their king beholding all their actions and risk- 
ing life in their behalf. With such arguments his 
friends encouraged Perseus. So he pitched a camp 
and arranged his forces for battle, examining the 
field and distributing his commands, purposing 
to confront the Romans as soon as they came 
up. The place afforded a plain for his phalanx, 
which required firm standing and smooth ground, 
and there were hills succeeding one another con- 
tinuously, which gave his skirmishers and light- 
armed troops opportunity for retreat and flank attack. 
Moreover, through the middle of it ran the rivers 
Aeson and Leucus, which were not very deep at 
that time (for it was the latter end of summer)^ 

397 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
&pa <f)0ipovTo^) iSoKovv Tivit Buaepyiav Ofuo^ roi^ 

XVII. 'O 5' AlfiiTuo^, ci)9 eh ravrop avpcfii^e 
T9> Naaixa, xaTe/Saive avprera^fiepo^ itrl tov^ 
TToXefiLov^, 0)9 S* elSe ttjp nrapdra^ip avT&p fcal 
TO wXijOo^, Oavfid(ra^ iiria-Trjae ttjp Tropeiap, 
avT09 Ti 7rpo9 iavTOp avWoyi^oficpo^. ol S' 1776- 
fWPiKol peapiafcoi vpoOvfiovfiepoi fid')(€a6aL irape- 
\avpoPT€<; iSeoPTO fir] fiiWeip, teal pAXiara trap- 
rayp 6 Naaixa^ t§ irepl top "OXvfnrop evrvxia 

2 T€0apprjfcw, 6 S* AlfuXio^, fieiStdaa^, "E? ye 264 
Tr)P o"i]p/^ enrep, " rfXtKiap eVxpP' cd -Se iroXXai 

fie ptKat hihdaKOvaai ra t&p '^TTtofiepayp dfiapTfj- 
fiara, /ccoXvovaip i^ oSov fidxv^ riOeaOai irpo^ 
<f>dXayya avPTerayfieprjp ijSi] Kal avpeaT&a-ap** 
ex TovTOv rii fiep Trp&ra teal icaTa<^prj irpo^ rov^ 
TToXefuov^ i/ceXeva-ep eh aireipa^ KaOiardfiepa 
iroieip <r)(rjfia irafmrd^eoj^, to 1)9 5' dw ovpa^ 
arpoLfhepra^ ip X^P9 X^P^*^^ fiaXeadai Kal arpa- 

3 TOTreoeueip, ovt(o Se r&p (Tvpex&v foh reXev- 
raioi^ KuO* vTrayayytiP i^eXiTTOfiepoDP iXaOe rifp 
irapdra^ip dpaXvaa^ xal KaraaTtjaa^ d0opvP<os 
€t9 TOP ydpaKa irdpTa^, 

'EttcI o€ pif^ yeyopei koX fieTh Seiirpop cV/oa- 
TTOPTO 7r/)09 VTTPOP Koi apdwavcip, alippiSiop rj 
o'eX'qp'q irXrfpri^ oiaa koX fi€T€€opof; ifieXaipcTO fcal 
Tov <^a>T09 dTToXiTTOPTo^ avT7)p Y/)6a9 dfieiylraaa 

4 TraPToSavd^ ^(I)apl<r0rf, t&p Se Ptofialcop, &airep 
i<TTl pepofiiafiepop, x^^^^^ "^^ iraTdyoi^ dpaxa- 
XovfUPfop TO <^a>9 avTrj^ kcu irvph TroXXh 3a\ot9 
Kal Saalp dpexoPTtop 7r/t>09 top oupapop, ovBep 
ofioiop eirpaTTOP ol MuKeSope^, dXXa (f>plKi] xal 

398 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

but were likely, nevertheless, to give the Romans 
considerable trouble. 

XVII. Aemilius, after effecting a junction with 
Nasica, came down in battle array against the 
enemy. But when he saw how they were drawn 
up, and in what numbers, he was amazed, and came 
to a halt, considering with himself. His young 
officers, however, who were eager for battle, rode up 
and begged him not to delay, especially Nasica, 
who was emboldened by his success at Mount 
Olympus. But Aemilius, with a smile, said to him : 
" Yes, if I had thy youth ; but many victories teach 
me the mistakes of the vanquished, and forbid me 
to join battle, immediately after a march, with a 
phalanx which is already drawn up and completely 
formed." After this, he ordered his foremost troops, 
who were in sight of the enemy, to form into cohorts 
and give the appearance of a battle line, while the 
others, wheeling to the rear, dug trenches and 
marked out a camp. And in this way, the troops 
next to the last wheeling off in due succession, before 
the enemy knew it he had broken up his battle line 
and brought all his men without confusion into their 
iiitrenchments. 

Now, when night had come, and the soldiers, after 
supper, were betaking themselves to rest and sleep, 
on a sudden the moon, which was full and high in 
the heavens, grew dark, lost its light, took on all 
sorts of colours in succession, and finally disappeared. 
The Romans, according to their custom, tried to call 
her light back by the clashing of bronze utensils 
and by holding up many blazing fire-brands and 
torches towards the heavens ; the Macedonians, 
however, did nothing of this sort, but amazement 

399 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Odfi^o^ TO arpaToirehov Karelx^ koX \0709 170" i^^ 

hia iroW&v i')((i}pei, ^aaiKeo)^ to (jxia/ia ar)/JUiL- 

6 vecv €K\€tyfriv. 6 S* KlfiiXio^ oiftc rjv fjLcv avrjKOOf; 

OvK dlT€ipo^ TTaVTCLTTaCTL TCdV ifcXeLTTTLK&P aV(0- 

futXi&u, at TT)P aeXijpfjv 7r€pi^€pofi€P^]v etv to 
(TKiaapa rrj*: 7^9 ipL^aXKovav T€Tayp,ipai<; irept- 
6Boi<; Koi dTroKpvTrrova-iv, dxpt o5 irapeKBovaa 
TTjp iTnafcoTOvpiptjv 'X^copav ttoKlp i7n\dp,yjrrj Trpo? 
TOP r]\iop' ov p>r)P dWd t^ Beitp iroXv pcficop kuI 

<f>LXo0UT1]^ top Koi fiaPTLKO^, ft)? cISc TTp&TOP T^I^ 

(reXrjpYjp diroKaOcupofieprfp, epBetca fioa^ov^ avTt} 
6 KaTeOvaep, dfia S* VH'^P^ '^^ 'UpaKXei /3ov0 vt&p 
ovK iKaXXiepei p^XP^^ elfcoar t& he irpd>Tfo Kal 
elfcoaT^ iraprjp to, a-rjpeta xal pitcqp dp.vpopepoi<; 
€^pa^€P, ev^dpepo^ ovp kutu j^o&p ckutop fcal 
dya>po<: lepov Tcp Betp, irpoaeTa^e hiaKoap^elp tok 
riyepJ)<TL top aTpaTOP eh p.dyrip* auT09 he ttjp 
diroKXiaiP /cal irepi,if)Opdp dpapepayp tov <^a>T09, 
07ra)9 P'f} KUTa irpoadmov pLa')(ppepot^ avTol^ eoadev 
' o ffXio^ dpTiXdpiroi, iraprjye top 'X^popop ev Ty 
aKTjp^ tcade^ofiepo^ dpaireTTTap^epy irpo^ to irehiop 
K(u TTfp (TTpaToirehelap t&p iroXepicop. 

XVIII. TlepX hk SeiXrip oi p,€P avTov <f>aaL tov 
Alp^iXiov Tex^d^oPTo^ ck t&p TroXepitop yepea-dai 
Trjv €7nx^^PV^^Vf d^dXiPOp Xttttop i^eXdaaPTa^ 
epfiaXeip avTol^ tov<; ^Vcopalov^, Kal tovtop 
dpxh^ A'-^X^^ hi'COKopevop irapa^X'^'^v* ol he 'Pw- 
pacK&p viro^vylfop ;)^opTao'/xaTa TrapuKopv^oPTcop 
aiTTeadai Sp^Ka^, &v ^AXe^apBpo^ ^yeiTO, tt/oo? 

400 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and terror possessed their camp, and a rumour 
quietly spread among many of them that the portent 
signified an eclipse of a king. Now, Aemilius was 
not altogether without knowledge and experience 
of the irregularities of eclipses, which, at fixed 
periods, carry the moon in her course into the 
shadow of the earth and conceal her from sight, 
until she passes beyond the region of shadow and 
reflects again the light of the sun ; however, since 
he was very devout and given to sacrifices and 
divination, as soon as he saw the moon beginning to 
emerge from the shadow, he sacrificed eleven heifers 
to her. And as soon as it was day, he sacrificed as 
many as twenty oxen to Hercules without getting 
favourable omens ; but with the twenty-first victim 
the propitious signs appeared and indicated victory 
if they stood on the defensive. Accordingly, having 
vowed to the god a hecatomb and solemn games, he 
ordered his officers to put the army in array for 
battle ; but he himself, waiting for the sun to pass 
to the west and decline, in order that its morning 
light might not shine in the faces of his men as 
they fought, passed the time sitting in his tent, 
which was open towards the plain and the enemy's 
encampment. 

XVIII. Towards evening, Aemilius himself, as 
some say, devised a scheme for making the enemy 
begin the attack, and the Romans, pursuing a horse 
which they had driven forth without a bridle, came 
into collision with them, and the pursuit of this 
horse brought on a battle ; others say that Thracians, 
under the command of Alexander, set upon Roman 
beasts of burden that were bringing in forage, and 



401 

VOL. VI. P P 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se TOVTOv<; eKSpofiffv o^elap iirraKoa-imv Aiyvcjv 
yepiaOac Trapa^orjOovvTcov Se 7r\€iop<ov eKarepoi^ 

2 ovT(o avvaTTTeaOat Tr)v fid'XTjv dfupOTepcDV. 6 phf 
oJfV AlfjuXtOf; &a'irep KV^epv^rrff; rq) jrapovn aaKtp 
Kal KiV7]/jLaTi T&v aTparoireBayv TCK/iaipofievo^ t6 
fiiyeffof; tov /tcWoiTO? ay&vo<;, etc t^9 aKr^vry; 
TrporfXJde koX tA rarffxara t&v ottXit&p iTrcojv 
irapeddppvvev, o he Nacrt/ca9 e^iinraadfjievo^ irpo^ 
Tov<s aKpofioXi^ofievov^i opa irdvra^ oaov oinra 
T0U9 irokepiov^ iv 'xepaiv ovra^, 

3 Tlp&TOi S* oi &paK€^ i')(^copovv, &v jidXiard 
(pTjaiv iKir\ayrjvai rr^v o'^^iv, avSpe^ vyjriiKol rh 
acj/JLara, XevKOf xal TTepiKafiirovTi Ovpe&v Kal 
TrepifCvrffiiSayv oTrXiap,^ pAXava^ vTrevSeSvp^ivoi 
')(LT&va^t opdci<; Bk popf\>aia<i ^apvaiiripov<i diro 
T&v Be^L&v &p.(ov €Tna€LOVT€^, irapa ik tou? 
&paKa<; ol p.i(r6off>6poi irapeve^aXKov, cjv aKeval 
re wavToBairai, Kal fjb€p,iyp,€POL IlaLOpe'; ^aap* 
iirl Be rauTOA? ayrjfui rpirop oi \QydBe<i, avTwv 
^aKsBoptav dperfj Kal rfkiKla to KaOapcoTurov, 
darpaTTTOPTC^ iwixpvcoi^i oir\oi<; Kal peovpyols 

4 (fyoipiKLaip, 0I9 Ka0iarap>ipoL^ el^ rd^ip ai r&v 265 
^aXKaaTriBcop iTravariXKovcrai <f>d\ayye^ €K tov 
')(dpaKos ipiirKrja'ap avyrj^ aiBrjpov Kal XapnrTj- 
B6po<: 'xoXkov to ireBiop, Kpavyrj<; Bk xal 0opv/3ov 
irapaKeXevopevcop Ttjp 6petpi]v, ovtco Be dpaaiw^ 

Kal /x€Ta Td')(pv<; iirrjeaav &gt€ tov^ irpoiTOv^ 
p€Kpov<; diro Bvetp aTaBLwp tov 'Peopul'Kov X'^P^' 
K0<; KaTairea-elp, 

XIX. Ttypofjiepri^ Be t^9 e(f>6Bov irapijp 6 At/it- 
X£09i fcal KaTeXdpL^apev fjBr) tou9 €p to?9 dyqpuai, 
M.aKeB6pa^ aKpa^ Ta9 aaplaa^ irpoaepi^peiKOTa^ 

402 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

that against these a sharp sally W£^s made by seven 
hundred Ligurians^ whereupon reinforcements were 
sent to either party, and thus the engagement 
became general. So then Aemilius, like a pilot, 
judging from the surging commotion in the armies 
the greatness of the coming storm, came forth from 
his tent and went along in front of his legionary 
troops encouraging them, and Nasica, after riding 
out to the skirmishers, saw that the whole force of 
the enemy was all but at close quarters. 

First the Thracians advanced, whose appearance, 
Nasica says, was most terrible, — men of lofty stature, 
clad in tunics which showed black beneath the white 
and gleaming armour of their shields and greaves, 
and tossing high on their right shoulders battle-axes 
with heavy iron heads. Next to the Thracians, the 
mercenaries advanced to the attack ; their equipment 
was of every variety, and Paeonians were mingled 
with them. Next to these came a third division, 
picked men, tlie flower of the Macedonians them- 
selves for youthful strength and valour, gleaming 
with gilded armour and fresh scarlet coats. As these 
took their places in the line, they were illumined by 
the phalanx-lines of the Bronze-shields which issued 
from the camp behind them and filled the plain with 
the gleam of iron and the glitter of bronze, the hills, 
too, with the tumultuous shouts of their cheering. 
And with such boldness and swiftness did they 
advance that the first to be slain fell only two fur- 
longs from the Roman camp. 

XIX. As the attack began, Aemilius came up and 
found that the Macedonian battalions had already 
planted tlie tips of their long spears in the shields 



403 

D D 2 



I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0?9 Ovpeoui T&v 'Ptofxatayv koX firj irpoaicfjievovf; 
€t9 €<f>tKTov avT&v Ttt? ^a'XCLipcL^* iireX he icaX t&v 
dXXoav Ma/ceSovxov rd^ re iriXTa^ i^ a>fjLOU irepi" 
airaadvTfav koI ral^ aapiaai^ d^ €Vo<; avvOi]- 
fiaro^ icKi0€i<TaL^ virodrdinnDv tou? Ovpeo^opov^ 
eiSe TTjv T€ p(ojuLT]v rov <Tvva<nnafwv koX rrjv rpa- 
XVTr)Ta T^9 TTpo^oXr}^, eK7r\r)^i<; avTov ea^^ xal 
S€09, ft)9 oifSev IBovra Tru^irore deapu <f>ofi€pQ)T€pov 

2 Koi 7roWa/CA9 varepov ep^fivr}ro rov irdffov^ iKel- 
vov teal T^9 o'^€«i)9. Tore Be irpo^ rov^ fjba')(ofi€vov^ 
iinheiKvvpLevo^ 'ikem kclL <f>aLSpbp iavrbv avev Kpd- 
vov^ Kal 0a>paKo<; Xirirtp iraprjkavvev, 6 Sk t&v 
MafceSovcov ^aaiKev^, &)9 (fyrjai TloXv^io^, t^9 
H^XV^ ^PXh^ Xa/i)9ai/oi;(7iy9 diroieCKidaa^ €t9 tto- 
\lv d<f>i'mrd<TaTO, a K'q'y^dpjevo^ 'Hpa^XcZ 0v€iv, 
BeiKd irapk BeCK&v iepa fir} Bexofiivq) firjS* €if)(a^ 

3 d0€fjUTOV<; iiriTeXovvTi, 0ep.LTov yap ovk eaTiv 

OVT€ TOV flf) fidXXoVTa fCaT€VaTO)(€CV OVT€ TOV fit) 

jxevovra fcparetv ov0* oXg)9 top diTpa/CTOv einpa- 
yeiv ovT€ TOV kukov evBaijMPeiv. dXXa rah Al- 
p^iXiou irap7)v €v;^a49 o 0€O^' ev')(€TO yitp Kpdros 
TToXip^v fcal vtKTjv Sopv /cpaT&v, xal pwxpp^vo^; 
TTapefcdXei av/xfiaxov tov 0€6v, 

4 Oi) p^fjv dXXd lloa€LB(i>vi6<; T49 iv ifceivoL^ to49 
y(p6voi^ Koi Tal<i TTpd^eai yeyovivai Xeycav^ laTo- 
piav Bi 7€7/oa0ft)9 "irepl Hepcio)^ ev wXeioai ^i- 
iSXLoi^, (fyrfalv avTOv oif^f^ viro BeCKiaf; ovSe rrfv 
0v<yiav irotrjadfievov alriav dtreXBelv, dXXh r^ 
irporipa t^9 P'dx^^ tv^civ XeXatcTiapevov v<f>^ 

404 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

of the Romans, who were thus prevented from reach- 
ing them with their swords. And when he saw that 
the rest of the Macedonian troops also were drawing 
their targets from their shoulders round in front 
of them, and with long spears set atone level were 
withstanding his shield-bearing troops, and saw too 
the strength of their interlocked shields and the 
fierceness of their onset, amazement and fear took 
possession of him, and he felt that he had never seen 
a sight more fearful ; often in after times he used to 
speak of his emotions at that time and of what he 
saw. But then, showing to his soldiers a glad and 
cheerful countenance, he rode past them without 
helmet or breastplate. The king of the Macedonians, 
on the other hand, according to Polybius, as soon as 
the battle began, played the coward and rode back 
to the city, under pretence of sacrificing to Heracles, 
a god who does not accept cowardly sacrifices from 
cowards, nor accomplish their unnatural prayers. 
For it is not in the nature of things that he who 
makes no shot should hit the mark exactly, or that 
he who does not hold his ground should win the day, 
or, in a word, that he who does nothing should be 
successful in what he does, or that a wicked man 
should be prosperous. But the god listened to the 
prayers of Aemilius, who kept wielding his spear as 
he prayed for might and victory, and fouglit as he 
invited the god to fight with him. 

However, a certain Poseidonius, who says he Hved 
in those times and took part in those actions, and 
who has written a history of Perseus in several 
books, says it was not out of cowardice, nor with the 
excuse of the sacrifice, that the king went away, but 
because on the day before the battle a horse had 

405 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iTTTTOV TO (r/ce\o9' iv Bi Trj fJidxp* fcalwep e^ovra 
Sv(7p^/)i;<rTft)9 fcal KcoikvofMCVov viro t&v (f)L\a)P, 
Lirirov avT& xeXevaai t&v ^opeonv irpoaayayeiv 
fcal 7r€pi/3dvTa crvfifil^ai rol^ iirl t% <f>dXayyo^ 

5 dOtopaKiaTov ^epofievoov Be TravTohair&v iKaTe- 
pcoOev /SeX&v, iraXrov ifiireaeiv okotrihrjpov avr^, 
KoX t5 jj^v oLKfiy fiij Biyeiv, dWA irXdyiov irapa 
TTjv dpiarepav ifKevpav irapaSpapslv, pvfijj Be Trj^ 
TrapoSov Tov re 'y^LT&va hiaKoy^ai xal ttjv adpKa 
<f>0Lvl^ai TV<f)\^ fia)\a)7n, troKvv %/ooi/oi/ Bta^u- 
Xd^avTi TOV Tvirov, TavTa fiev oiv 6 HoaeiBtovio^ 
virep TOV Hepaio)^ diroXoyelTai. 

XX. T&v Be 'PoDfiaifov, w avTea-Trjaav ttj (fyd- 
Xayyi, fir) Bvvafievmv ^id^e<T0ai, ^dXovi,o<; 6 t&v 
JleXiyvSiv 'qyovfievo^ apwdaa^ to aijfieiov t&v v(f> 
avTov eh T0U9 iroXepiov^ eppiyfre. t&v Be HeXi- 
yv&v (pi) ydp eaTiv 'IraXot? ffefiiTov ovS* oaiov 
iyKaTaXnreiv ar}p>elov) eiriBpafiovTODV irpo^ ixetvov 
TOV TOTTOv epya Beivd fcal Trddrj irap dfi(f>0T€pa)v 

2 diTTJvTa avprneaovTiov, oi fiev yap eKKpovetv t€ 
T0t9 ^i(f>€a-i Ta9 aapiaa^ eireip&VTo koX Trie^eiv 
Toh Ovpeoh icaX Tai<; ^e/otrli; avTot^ dvTiXafi^avo- 
p^voi irapcufyepeiv, ol Be ttjv m-po^oXi^v Kparvvd- 
fievoi BC dfi(f>0T€p(»>v fcal tov<; Trpo<nrlirTovTa<; 
avToU 07r\ot9 BteXavvovre^, ovt€ Ovpeov aTeyovTo^ 
ovT€ O&patco^ T?;i/ fivav t^9 a-apiaijf;, aveppLTTTOVv 
virep Ke<f)aXi]v to, adfiUTa t&v IleTuyv&v xal 
MappovKiv&v, xaT ovBeva Xoytafiov, dXXa Ovfi^ 
0r)pi(oBei, irpo^ evavTia^ irXijyd^ xal Trpoiirrov 

406 



AEMfLIUS PAULUS 

kicked him on the leg^ He says further that in the 
battle^ although he was in a wretched plight^ and 
although his friends tried to deter him^ the king 
ordered a pack-horse to be brought to him^ mounted 
it^ and joined his troops in the phalanx without a 
breastplate ; and that among the missiles of every 
sort which were flying on all sides^ a javelin made 
entirely of iron smote him^ not touching him with 
its point; indeed; but coursing along his left side 
with an oblique stroke^ and the force of its passage 
was such that it tore his tunic and made a dark red 
bruise upon his flesh, the mark of which remained 
for a long time. This, then, is what Poseidonius says 
in defence of Perseus. 

XX. The Romans, when they attacked the Mace- 
donian phalanx, were unable to force a passage, and 
Salvius, the commander of the Pelignians, snatched 
the standard of his company and hurled it in among 
the enemy. Then the Pelignians, since among the 
Italians it is an unnatural and flagrant thing to 
abandon a standard, rushed on towards the place 
where it was, and dreadful losses were inflicted and 
suffered on both sides. For the Romans tried to 
thrust aside the long spears of their enemies with 
their swords, or to crowd them back with their 
shields, or to seize and put them by with their very 
hands ; while the Macedonians, holding them firmly 
advanced with both hands, and piercing those who 
fell upon them, armour and all, since neither shield 
nor breastplate could resist the force of the Mace- 
donian long spear, hurled headlong back the Pelig- 
nians and Marrucinians, who, with no consideration 
but with animal fury rushed upon the strokes that 



407 



-I 

J 
i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

w0,oufi€P6)v Odvarov, ovt€o Se r&v irpofjuixfov 
Sia(f)0apivro)v dvefcoirrjaav oi KaToiriv avrojv iiri- 
TcrayfuUvor fcal <f>vy7) fiev ovk ffv, dvax'^p^<Ti'^ Bk 
irpiyi 6po<: ro KaXovfievov ^OXoKpov, &aT€ koX top 266 
AlfJuXiov IBovra (fyrfcvp 6 HotrevBwvio^ Karapprj- 
^aadcu TOP ;j^tTa)i'a, tovtoi/ fiep cpSiSoprmp, rSyp 
S' aXKwp ^P(Ofiai(OP Siarpeirofiipoyp rifV if>d\ayya 
irpoaPokiiP ovk exovaap, dW' &(nr€p 'XCLpcLKw- 
p,aTi T^ irvfcvcofiaTi t&p aapiffayp ifrraPTid^ovaap 
irdpToOep d7rp6(Tfia')(pp. 

'ETrel Be t&p re ^(^copicop dpw/id'koDP Sptcop, koX 
Bid TO /j,^Ko<: T^9 Trapard^eo)^ ov <l>v\aTTOvari^ 
dpapora top avpaaTridfiop, xaTelBe ttjp ^dXayya 
T&p MaxeBoprnv Kkdaet^ re ttoWA? koX Biacird' . 
afjuiTa Xa/Ji^dpovaap, ft)9 elxos eV fieydXoi^ aTpa" 
ToU fcal TTOiKiXai^ opfial^ t&p puxop'€P(OP, T0Z9 
p,ep ixOXifiop^prfv fiepeai, T0Z9 Be TrpoirLTTTOvaap, 
iirioDV 0^60)9 Koi Biaip&p t^9 (TTreipa^ €fceXev€P et9 
Ta BiaXeifJLfiaTa koX iceptofiaTa t^9 t&p iroXepitop 
Ta^€G>9 Trapep^TrLTTTOPTa^ xal avp^trXeKop^pov^ p,rf 
piap irpo^ airaPTa^, dXXd 7roXXd<; koI p,€p,iyfi€pa^ 
KttTa p>epo^ TA9 p^d^a^ TiOeaOai, TavTa tov pep 
KlpiiXLov Toi)^ rjyep^opas, t&p S* rjyep^opwp tow; 
o-TpaTi&Ta^ BiBatTKOPTCop, ©9 irp&TOP vireBvaap 
fcal SUaxop €i(r€o t&p oTrXaop, to?9 pep ifc irXayiov 
KUTct yvp^pd irpod^epopevoL, tov^ Be Tai^ irepiBpo- 
pal^ diroXap^^dpoPTe^, 17 p,€P lax^^ fcal to kocpop 
epyop €v0if^ d7ra>\co\e* t^9 (fidXayyo^ dpapprj- 
ypvpApT}^, €P Be Tat9 xaff* Ipa xal KaT oXiyov^ 
tTvaTdaecnp oi MaKeBope^ piKpol^ pep iyx^^p^Bioi^ 
cT^peovs xal TroBijpei^ dvpeov^ pvaaovTe^^ cXa* 

408 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

met them^ and a certain death. When the first line 
had thus been cut to pieces, those arrayed behind 
them were beaten back ; and though there was no 
flight, still they retired towards the mountain called 
Olocrus, so that even Aemilius, as Poseidonius tells 
us, when he saw it, rent his garments. For this part 
of his army was retreating, and the rest of the 
Romans were turning aside from the phalanx, which 
gave them no access to it, but confronted them as it 
were with a dense barricade of long spears, and was 
everywhere unassailable. 

But the ground was uneven, and the line of battle 
so long that shields could not be kept continuously 
locked together, and Aemilius therefore saw that the 
Macedonian phalanx was getting many clefts and in- 
tervals in it, as is natural when armies are large and 
the efforts of the combatants are diversified ; portions 
of it were hard pressed, and other portions were 
dashing forward. Thereupon he came up swiftly, 
and dividing up his cohorts, ordered them to plunge 
quickly into the interstices and empty spaces in the 
enemy's line and thus come to close quarters, not 
fighting a single battle against them all, but many 
separate and successive battles. These instructions 
being given by Aemilius to his officers, and by his 
officers to the soldiers, as soon as they got between 
the ranks of the enemy and separated them, they 
attacked some of them in the flank where their 
armour did not shield them, and cut off others by 
falling upon their rear, and the strength and general 
efficiency of the phalanx was lost when it was thus 
broken up ; and now that the Macedonians engaged 
man to man or in small detachments, they could only 
hack with their small daggers against the firm and 

409 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<l>pol^ Se irekrapioK: 7rpo<; ra^ i/ceivcov fiaxcdpa^ 
VTTO /3dpov^ KoX fcaTa<f)opd<; Sia iravro^ oifKov 
')((aiipov(TWi hrX ra awfiaTa, kokw dvT€xovT€^ irpd- 

TTOVTO. 

XXI. Kar^ T0VT0V9 H fiiya^ ffv dydiv, €v6a 
Sf) Kot MdpKO<i 6 KaTft)i/09 ^(09, AlfiiXlov hi f^afi- 
Ppo^'t iraaav aXxr^v iTrtSeifcvvp^vo^ aTre/Sake to 
^L(f>o^, ola Se veavia^ €VT€0pa/jLfievo<: ifSjeiaToi^; 
TraiSevfiatTi /cat fieydXtp irarpl fie^fdXry; dpeTtj^ 
aTToSei^ei^ 6<f)eLX(ov, ov ^kotov rjyrftTdfievo^ eivai 
irpoefjiivtp (tkvXov aurov ^&vto^ toi<; iroXefitoi^ 
iiriSpafJLe rrjv fidx^v, et rivd irov <j>iXov /cal (Tvvi]0r] 
fcariSoi, ^pd^cov to av/nreaov avr^ koX heofievo^ 

2 ^or}0elv, oi Be iroXXol Kai dyaOol yevofievoi fcal 
hia(T')(pvT€^ opfiff fua Tov^ aXXov^, irepX axnov 
v<f>7jyov/M€Vov efi/SaXXovai toi^ ivavrioi^, fieydXrp 
S* dy&vi Kol <f>6v<p TToXX^ Koi rpavfUKTiv waavre^ 
eK 'Xju>pcL^ fcaX roirov eprj/nov koI yvfwov Kara- 
(rxovre^ iirl ^ijTTfa-iv irpdiTovTo rov ^i^ov^, ©9 
he fioXi^ ev iroXKol^ o7rXo£9 kcu irrfOfiaai ve/cp&v 
/eefepvfifievov dvevpedrj, irepixO'pei^ yevojievoi xaX 
TracavLaame*; en Xap/frpoTepov evcKeivro toi^ (Tw- 

3 ear&artv en r&v iroXefUcav, /caX reXo^ ol Tpia-- 
X'^Xtoi Xoydh€<; ev rd^ei pAvovre^ KaX p^axopevov 
fcaTeKOirijcTav diravTe^' r&v S* aXX(ov fpevyovTc&v 
iroXv^ fiv 6 (fiovo^, &<tt€ to pJkv irehLov KaX Tr)v 
vTTwpeiav fcardTTewXrja-Oai ve/cp&v, rov hi AevKov 
irorapov rh pevpa tou9 ^Pa>palov^ rfj p^era t^v 
pidxv^ VH'^Pf hieXOelv eri pspbiypAvov aTpari, 
410 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

long shields of the Romans, and oppose light wicker 
targets to their swords, which, such was their weight 
and momentum, penetrated through all their armout 
to their bodies. They theyefore made a poor resist- 
ance and at last were routed. 

XXI. But the struggle between them was fierce. 
Here, too, Marcus, the son of Cato and the son-in- 
law of Aemilius,while displaying all possible prowess, 
lost his sword. Since he was a young man of the 
most generous education and owed to a great father 
proofs of great valour, he thought life not worth the 
living if he abandoned such spoil of his own person 
to the enemy, and ran along the ranks telling every 
friend and companion whom he saw of his mishap 
and begging them for aid. These made a goodly 
number of brave men, and making their way with 
one impulse through the rest, they put themselves 
under his lead and fell upon the enemy. With a 
great struggle, much slaughter, and many wounds, 
they drove them from the ground, and when they 
had won a free and empty place, they set themselves 
to looking for the sword. And when at last it was 
found hidden among great heaps of armour and 
fallen bodies, they were filled with exceeding joy, and 
raising songs of triumph fell yet more impetuously 
upon those of the enemy who still held together. 
Finally, the three thousand picked men of the Mace- 
donians, who remained in order and kept on fighting, 
were all cut to pieces ; and of the rest, who took to 
flight, the slaughter was great, so that the plain and 
the lower slopes of the hills were covered with dead 
bodies, and the waters of the river Leucus were still 
mingled with blood when the Romans crossed it on 



411 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\iyovTat ykp virep Siafivpiov^ irGvraKKTXi^ov^ 
airoOavelv. r&v Be 'Pcofiaioyv eneaov, 0)9 fiep 
UotreiStivto^ (f)i]a'ip, i/caTov, a>9 Bk NaaiKa^, oyBo- 
rjKovra. 

XXII. Kal KpicTLV fiev o^vtolttjv fieyiaTO^ dyobv 
65x09 etTX^v ivaTt}^ yap &pa<; dp^dfievoi fid'x^e- 
adai irpo Befcdrrj^ ivifcqaap* T(p Be XeiiTOfievtp t^9 
rjfiepa^ J^prjadfievoc irpo^ rr}V BLfo^iv Kal fiixP^ 
araBifov eKarov koX etfcocri Bt(o^avT€<i eairepa^ 
fiBv} ffaffela^ aTrerpdirovTO, Kal Tot'9 fi^v aWov^ 
ol OepdirovTe^ vtto XafnrdBoDV diravT&VTe^ fiCTct 
Xapa^ Kal /3o7]<; dirrfyov eirl 7^9 o'Kr)va<; (JxotI 
XafiTTOfievas Kal KCKoo'firjfiiva'i kittov Kal Bd(f)V7f^ 
aref^dvoi^' avrov Be top o-rpaTrfyov p^eya irevOo^ 

2 el)(^e, Bvelv yap vi&v avrov a-Tparevofievcov 6 
vedrepo^ ovBafwv ^avepo^ ^v, ov iffyiXei re fid- 
\taTa Kal irXecaTOv et9 dperrjv (fyvtrei irpovxpVTa 267 
T&v dBe\<l>&v etopa* 0VfioeiBrj Be Kal iftiXoTifiov 
ovja Tr)v '^v'x/i^y €Ti S' dvjLiraiB>a ttjv rfKiKiav, 
iravrdiraaLV diroXtoXevai xareBo^a^ev, vtt direi" 
pLa^ dvapLi')fievTa to?9 iroKefiioi^ fiaxofievoi^, 

3 airopovfiepov Be avrov Kal irepiiradovvTO^ f,(T9ero 
irav TO arpdrev/Ma, Kal fJLera^v BenrvovvTe^ dve- 
TT'^Bcop Kal BteOeop fierh XafiirdBcop, iroWol fiev 
eVl Tr)P axrjpfjp tov Alfickiov, ttoXXo* Be irpo rov 
XdpaKo^ ip Tot9 irpdroi^ P€Kpoh ^ijrovpre^. Kari]- 
if^ia Be TO arparotreBop Kal Kpavyij to ireBiop 
Karei^^p apaKaXovpApoDp top ^Krjirlcopa. ira<n yap 
dya<TTo^ fip ev0v<; e^ dpxv^, irpb<: fiyepLOPiap Kal 
412 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

the day after the battle. For it is said that over 
twenty-five thousand of their enemies were slain ; 
while of the Romans there fell, according to Poseido- 
nius, a hundred, according to Nasica, eighty. 

XXII. And this greatest of all struggles was most 
speedily decided ; for the Romans began fighting at 
three o'clock in the afternoon, and were victorious 
within an hour ; the rest of the day they spent in the 
pursuit, which they kept up for as many as a hundred 
and twenty furlongs, so that it was already late in 
the evening when they returned. All the rest were 
met by their servants with torches and conducted 
with joyful shouts to their tents, which were ablaze 
with light and adorned with wreaths of ivy and 
laurel ; but Aemilius their general was a prey to 
great sorrow. For of the two sons who were serving 
under him, the younger was nowhere to be found, 
and Aemilius loved him especially, and saw that he 
was by nature more prone to excellence than any 
of his brothers. But he was of a passionate and 
ambitious spirit, and was still hardly more than a 
boy in years, and his father concluded that he had 
certainly perished, when, for lack of experience, he 
had become entangled among the enemy as they 
fought. The whole army learned of the distress and 
anguish of their general, and springing up from their 
suppers, ran about with torches, many to the tent 
of Aemilius, and many in front of the ramparts, 
searching among the numerous dead bodies. De- 
jection reigned in the camp, and the plain was filled 
with the cries of men calling out the name of Scipio. 
For from the very outset he had been admired by 
everybody, since, beyond any other one of his family. 



413 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
irokneiav w aXKo^ ouSel^ t&v avyyev&v xexpa- 

fieVO^ TO ^^09. 

^O'^e S' oth/ r]S7f a'xeBov d7r€yva>afi€V0^ ix t^9 
Sko^co}^ TTpoa'pei fieric hvo fj rpi&v kraipav, 
aXfiaro^ koX <j)6vov iroXefucov avdirXeoi^^s, Aairep 
aKvXa^ yevvalo^, v^' 17801/^9 dKpar&^ t§ vl/etf 

<TVV€^€P€X0€i^' o5t69 icTt X/CtfTricor 6 T0t9 i/cvov- 

fievoi^ Xpovoi^ ^ Kapxv^ova xal NofiavTiav Kara- 
(T/cdylra^ Kol 7ro\if irp&TO^ dperfj rwv rore 'Poo- 
fialaov y€v6fi€P0<: koI Bvv7)0€l<: fiiyicTTOV. Alfiiklfp 
p,€v oZv T^i/ Tov KaTopdcofJLaro^ vep.e<xLV 6*9 erepov 
rj TVXV fcaipov virep^aXKojxevri rore iravrekri Ttjp 
'^SoPTjv dneSiBov t^9 vlkt)^. 

XXIII. Tlepaeif^ Be ^vyy pbkv ix UvBinj^ €t9 
TliWav a7r6;^a)/)€t, t&v iirirecdv iTnev/eco^ irdvTfov 
diro T^9 P'dxv^ Biaaecrtoafiivcov, eVel Be Kara- 
\ap,^dvavT€<; oi ire^ol rov^ 47r7r€A9 ft)9 dvdvBpov<i 
fcal IT poBeBiOKora^ \oiBopovvT€<f dtro t&p ittttcov 
&60VV KaX TrXrjyd^ iBiBoaap, Beiara^ top Oopv^op 
Sk TTJf; 6B0V 7rapiK\LP€ TOP iTTirop, Kal Ttfp Trap- 
(f)vpap, 0)9 fiff oid<Trjp.o<; elrj, TrepKnrdaa^ WeTO 
TTpocOep avTov, kuI to BidBrffxa Btd xecptop elvei/. 
0)9 Bk Kol TrpoaBiaXiyoLTO Tot9 eTaipoi^ ap,a 
^aBi^ayp, Kara^h^i i(f>etKK€T0 top Ilttttop, t&p Bk 
6 flip Tt9 vTToBrjp^ irpoairoiov/iiepo^ \e\vjiipop 
avpdiTTeip, 6 Bk Ittttop apBeiP, Be ttotov XPVK^^^f 
vTroXcLirojiepoi kut^ fiiKpop dTreBiBpaa/cop, ovx 
ovTco T0V9 TToXe/iiov^, o)9 Trfp ixeipov ^aX€7roT^;Ta 
BeBoiKOTC^, K€X(ipay/Ji€PO<s ydp viro t&p ku/c&p 



^ Xp6vois supplied by Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske. 
4M 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

he had a nature adapted for leadership in war and 
public service. 

Well, then, when it was already late and he was 
almost despaired of, he came in from the pursuit with 
two or three comrades, covered with the blood of the 
enemies he had slain, having been, like a young 
hound of noble breed, carried away by the uncon- 
trollable pleasure of the victory. This was that 
Scipio who, in after times,^ destroyed Carthage and 
Numantia, and became by far the most noble and 
influential Roman of his day. Thus Fortune, post- 
poning to another season her jealous displeasure at 
the great success of Aemilius, restored to him then 
in all completeness his pleasure in his victory.^ 

XXIII. But Perseus was away in flight from Pydna 
to Pella, since practically all his horsemen came 
safely off from the battle. But when his footmen 
overtook his horsemen, and, abusing them as cowards 
and traitors, tried to push them from their horses 
and fell to beating them, the king, afraid of the 
tumult, turned his horse out of the road, drew his 
purple robe round and held it in front of him, that 
he might not be conspicuous, and carried his diadem 
in his hands. And in order that he might also con- 
verse with his companions as he walked, he dis- 
mounted from his horse and led him along. But of 
these companions, one pretended that he must 
fasten a shoe that had become loose, another that 
he must water his horse, another that he himself 
wanted water to drink, and so they gradually lagged 
behind and ran away, because they had more fear of 
his cruelty than of the enemy. For he was lacerated 

1 In 146 and 133 B.C. 

^ The battle of Pydna is described by Livy in xliv. 36-41. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6t9 TTtti/ra? €^i]T€i Tpcireiv a<f> avTOv ttjp alriav 

3 T^9 rjTTfj^, iwel Be vvkto^ eh TleXXav ettreXOwp 
EvfCTOv Kal FivXaiov, tou9 itrl rod vofiio'/iaTo^s, 
a'jravrri<ravTa^ avTtp koX to, fiev iytcdXovvra^ 
irepX T&v yeyovorcov, ret Sk wapprjaia^ofiivovf; 
cLKalpco^ KoX avfifiovXevoPTa^ opyiadeh aireKrei- 
vev, auT09 t^ ^i^lBlo) iralcov afJL(f>OT€pov<;, ovSel^; 
irapefieivev avr^ irdpe^ KvdvSpov re tov KprjTo^i 
Kol *Apj(€Bdfiov TOV AlrcoiXov /cal rod IRoudtov 

4 N€&)i'09. T&v Be a-TpaTi€OT&p eTrrj/coXovdrfaav oi 
KprjTC^, ov Bi evpoiav, dWh Tot9 %/>J7/Lta<7ij/, 
&(nrep fcrjpioi^ fiiXiTTUi, irpo&XiTrapovPTe^^ irdfi- 
TToXXa yhp eirrjyeTO, koX irpovOrj/cep e^ avT&p 
Biapirdaai T0t9 K.prjalp ifcirco/jLaTa kol KpaTrjpa^ 
xal Tr)P aXXrjv ip dpyvpqt koI xP^^^ KUTaaKevrjp 

6 €t9 irePTrjKOPTa TaXdpTeop Xoyov, yepofiepo^ S' ip 
*Afi<j)t7r6X€i TTp&TOP, ecT eKeWep ip TaXtfylr^, Kal 
TOV ipo^ov fjLLKpop VTvavePTO^, eh TO avyyeph kol 
trpea^vTaTOv avTOv t&p poarj/jidTcop, t^p fitfcpo- 
Xoyiap, av6i>^ xmepex^^h oaBvpero irpo^ tov^ 
<^tXou9 (09 T&p ^AXe^dpBpov tov fieydXov XP^^^' 
fidTCOP evia Tot9 T^p^aX Sieppi^o)^ vir* dyvoLa^, 
KoX irapeKoXei tov<; ?;^oia'a9 dvTi^oX&p fcal Ba- 

6 /cpvcop dfjLeiylraaffai irpb^ pofiicfia. tov<; fiep ovp 
eTTicrTafiepov^ uKpi^W avTov ovk eXaOe Kprfri^cop 
7r/)09 KprjTU^, ol Be ireiadipTef; Kol diroBoPTe^ 
aTreffTepijOffO-av. ov yap diriBta/ce Tapyvpiop, aW^ 
TpidxcpTa TaXaPTa KepBdpa^ diro t&p <f>LXQ)p, a 
fiiKpop {fOTepop IfieXXop oi iroXifuoi Xi]yjfeaOai, 

416 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

by his misfortunes^ and sought to turn the responsi- 
bility for his defeat away from himself and upon 
everybody else. He entered Pella during the nighty 
and when Euctus and Eulaeus^ his treasurers^ came 
to meet him^ and^ what with their censure for what 
had happened and their unseasonably bold speeches 
and counsels^ enraged him^ he slew them^ smiting 
both of them himself with his small-sword. After 
this no one remained with him except Evander the 
Cretan, Archedamus the Aetolian, and Neon the 
Boeotian. Of his soldiers, only the Cretans followed 
after him, not through good will, but because they 
were as devoted to his riches as bees to their honey- 
combs. For he was carrying along vast treasures, 
and had handed out from them for distribution 
among the Cretans drinking cups and mixing bowls 
and other furniture of gold and silver to a value of 
fifty talents. He arrived at Amphipolis first, and 
then from there at Galepsus, and now that his fear 
had abated a little, he relapsed into that congenital 
and oldest disease of his, namely, parsimony, and 
lamented to his friends that through ignorance he 
had suffered some of the gold plate of Alexander 
the Great to fall into the hands of the Cretans, and 
with tearful supplications he besought those who 
had it to exchange it for money. Now those that 
understood him accurately did not fail to see that 
he was playing the Cretan against Cretans; but 
those who listened to him, and gave back the plate, 
were cheated. For he did not pay them the money 
he had promised, but after craftily getting thirty 
talents from his friends, which his enemies wer.e to 
get soon afterwards, he sailed across with them to 



417 

VOL. VI BE 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjLer avr&v hihrXevacv eU ^afio9pa/crjv fcal Sia- 
<l>€vya>v iirl rou9 ^loaxovpov^ l/cirevev. 

XXIV. 'Ael fih ovp Xeyovrac <l)tXofiaai\6ioi 268 
MaxeSove^, rore £' (09 ipeiafiari K€K\aa-fi€pq> 
TrdvTODV &fia crvfiTreaovroDp i^yxeipi^ovre^ avroif<s 
T«3 AlfuKi(p hvo fjfiipat^ Sikr}^ fcvpiov avrov Kare- 
arffaav M-atceSovia^, fcal BoKct tovto pMpTVpelv 
T0t9 euTVxi^ Tivl Tct^ trpd^ei,^ ixelva^ yeyovivav 
<l>da/covcnv, €ti 8k koI to irepX rijp Ovalap avp,- 
TTTCDfia SaijjLOPiop rip* ip ^ Ap^tiroKei Ovopto^ tov 
AlfiiXiov Kol T&p iep&p ipripyfiipiap xepavpo^ 
ipaKTjyfra^s e*9 top ^(Ofiop €7r€<f>Xe^€ /cal avyKU- 

2 Oijyiae ttjp lepovpylap, virep^dWei Si 0€i6t7)ti 
irdpTcof; koX tvxv '^^ '^V^ 0^/i^9. ^p fiep yhp 
r/fiipa TCTdpTT] pepiKrj/iiptp Ilepaei ire pi UvBpap, 
ip Si T§ 'P^P'Jf TOV Bvjfiov decopovpTO^ Itttti/cov^ 
dry&pa^ €^al<f)pr}<i ipewetre \67a9 €t9 to rrp&TOP 
TOV ffedTpov fiipo^ (09 AlfitXio^s fieydXy ^idxV ^^vi" 
fcrj/co)^ Hepo'ia KaTaaTpe<f>OLTO trvfiiraaav Ma«€- 

3 Sopiap. CK 8k TOVTov Ta^v t^9 <^^/*^9 dpax€o- 
fiiprj^ 6t9 TO 7rX^^09 i^iXafiylre X^P^ puBTcL KpoTov 
Koi l3o7J^ TTJP fjfiepap ixeiprjp xaTao'Xova'a ttjp 
iroXip, elTa, (09 X0709 ovk elx^P et9 dpx^p 
dpekOelp ^e^aiop, aW' ip irdaip o/iot g)9 if^aipero 
ir\ap(OfjLepo^, t6t€ fih iaKeSdaOr} xal Sieppvtf Tci 
Try; (l>'qfiri^, okiyai^ S* v<rT€pop ^fiipai^ irvdofiepoL 
aa(f>&<; iffavfia^op ttjp 7rpo8pafiovaap dyyeXiap, 
0)9 ip T^ y^evSei to dXrjdk^ ^^X^« 

418 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

Samothrace^ where he took refuge as a suppliant in 
the temple of the Dioscuri. 

XXIV. Now, the Macedonians are always said to 
have been lovers of their kings, but at this time, 
feeling that their prop was shattered and all had 
fallen with it, they put themselves into the hands of 
Aemilius, and in two days made him master of all 
Macedonia. And this would seem to bear witness 
in favour of those who declare that these achieve- 
ments of his were due to a rare good fortune. And 
still further, that which befell him at his sacrifice was 
a token of divine favour. When, namely, Aemilius 
was sacrificing in Amphipolis, and the sacred rites 
were begun, a thunderbolt darted down upon the 
altar, set it on fire, and consumed the sacrifice with 
it. But an altogether more signal instance of divine 
favour and good fortune is seen in the way the 
rumour of his victory spread. For it was only the 
fourth day after Perseus had been defeated at Pydna, 
and at Rome the people were watching equestrian 
contests, when suddenly a report sprang up at the 
entrance of the theatre that Aemilius had conquered 
Perseus in a great battle and reduced all Macedonia. 
After this the rumour spread quickly among the 
multitude, and joy burst forth, accompanied by 
shouts and clapping of hands, and prevailed in the 
city all that day. Then, since the story could not 
be traced to any sure source, but seemed to be 
current everywhere alike, for the time being the 
rumour vanished into thin air ; but when, a few days 
afterwards, they were clearly informed of the matter, 
they were astonished at the tidings which had 
reached them first, seeing that in the fiction there 
was truth. 

419 

E E 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXV. Aeyerai he koI rrj^ cttI Xdypa irorafi^ 
fidxv^ ^ItoXkot&v av0r)fjL€pov iv HeXoTrovvija-^ 
Xoyov yeviaOai, koI TlXaTaiaai t^9 iv MvKaXrj 
wpo^ Mi]Sov^, ^v Be *V(OfUUOi TapKVvlov^ fiera 
AarLva)v iiriaTpaTevtravra^ iviKrjaav, avrdyyeXoi 
^pd^ovT€<; A^ffrja-av airo tov arparov fuxpov 
varepov avBpe^ Bvo Kd\ol koI fieydKoi,, tovtov<: 

2 etxaa-av elvai AioaKOvpov^, 6 B* ivTV)(a)v Trp&ro^ 
avTol<: Kar dyopav irpo t^9 fcpijvq^, dvayjrvxovai 

T0U9 tTTTTOi;? IBp&Tl TTOW^ 7r€pipp€0fl€V0V^, iduv- 

fia^e TOV irepl t^9 vlfcrf^ \6yov. el0* oi piev iiri- 
ylravaat Xiyovrai t^9 vnTrjvr}^ avTOv rolv 'Xfipoiv 
aTpe/jui p,€tBi&VT€<;' 17 B* €v0v^ i/c fieXaLvrf^ Tpi')(p^ 
6t9 TTvpphv p,€Tal3d\jOV(Ta r^ p,€v \6yq) irLariv, t^ 
S' dvSpl Trapaax^'iv iiriKXqaiv tov * ArjvojSaplSov, 
oirep iaTl 'xaXKOTrwywva, Trdat Be tovtoi^ to 

3 Ka0* i7/ia9 yevofievov ttIgtiv wapea'^ev, otc yhp 
^AvT€ovio<: diriaTi] AoficTiavov /cal ttoXv^ TroXefJto^ 
dirb Tepfiavla^ TrpoaeBoKaTO, t^9 'Po)/ii;9 to par- 
TOfJievq^i d^vQ} Kal avTop^dTco^ 6 Brfpx)^ ef avTOv 
<f>rip>7iv dviBcofce vl/ci]<:, koI ttjv 'Vd>pLr]v iniBpapLe 
\0709 avTov T€ TOV ^AvT(oviov dvjjpfjarOai k(u tov 
aifv avT^ aTpaTevfuiTO^ fiTT'qpLkvov p/qBiv p,epo^ 
XeX€L<j>0ai. ToaavTffv Be XapurpOTriTa koX pvfirfv 
ri TTiaTL^ ecT'xev wcrre Kal Ovaai t&v iv r^Xe* 

4 woXXov^, ^ffTOVfjiivov Bk TOV TrpcoTov (f>pdaavTO^, 

^ A battle between the Locriana and Crotoniats, at some 
time in the sixth century B.o. 

420 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

XXV. It is said also that a report of the battle 
fought by the Italian Greeks at the river Sagra^ 
reached Peloponnesus on the same day^ and so did 
that of the battle with the Medes at Mycale come 
on the same day to Plataea.* And when the Romans 
conquered the Tarquins^ who had taken the field 
against them with the Latins^ two tall and beautiful 
men were seen at Rome a little while after, who 
brought direct tidings from the army. These were 
conjectured to be the Dioscuri. The first man 
who met them in front of the spring in the forum, 
where they were cooling their horses, which were 
reeking with sweat, was amazed at their report 
of the victory.^ Then, we are told, they touched 
his beard with their hands, quietly smiling the 
while, and the hair of it was changed at once 
from black to red, a circumstance which gave 
credence to their story, and fixed upon the man 
the surname of Ahenobarbus, that is to say. Bronze- 
heard. And all this is made credible by that which 
has happened in our time. When, namely, An- 
tonius was in revolt from Domitian,^ and a great 
war was expected from Germany, and Rome was in 
commotion, suddenly and spontaneously the people 
of their own accord spread abroad a report of a 
victory, ahd a story coursed through Rome that 
Antonius himself had been slain, and that of his 
defeated army not a portion was left alive. Belief 
in the story became so strong and distinct that many 
of the magistrates actually offered sacrifices. When, 
however, the author of the story was sought, none 

* It was when the Greeks at Mycale were about to attack 
the Persians that a rumour came to them of the victory of 
the Greeks at Plataea over Mardonius (Herodotus, ix. 100). 

^ See the CoriolamUf iii. 4. ^ In 91 a.d. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(09 oifSeU ^v, aX)C o X070? 6t9 aXKov i( aWov 
BicoKOfievo^ avSff>€vy€, xal reXo^ /caTaBv<: mawep 
eh iriXayo^ axctvc^ tov aireipov o')^Kov itfydvtf 
fjLrjSefiiav apxv^ ^^a^v fie/Satov, avTi) fikv 17 ifiiifitj 
Ta^v T^9 7ro\€ft>9 i^eppvrj, iropevopAvtp he t^ 
AopcTiav^ pera hvvdpew^ eirl rov iroXepov ijSvf 
KaS* oSov a^yeXia fcal ypappara (fypd^ovra Trjv 
VLKffv dnrriVTricTev, rj 6' avrov ^ rov KaropOdtpaTO^ 
ripApa Kol rip: (fiTJpi]^ iyivero, iirl ifKeov ^ Burpv- 
piov^ (TraSiov^ r&v Toirayv hteardirtov. ravra piv 
ovSeU dyvoel r&v fcaO^ fjpaf;, 

XXVL Vvalos Be 'O/crayS^o? 6 vavapx&v 
AlpiTutp Trpoaoppiadpevo^ rfj Xapod pdicrj Ttfv 
plv ddvXXav Trapel^e t^ Tlepaei Biit roif^ Oeov^, 
eKirkov Si xal (pvyijf; elpyev, ov pijv dXXh Xav- 
ddvei 7ra)9 o Hepaev^; ^OpodvBrjv ripei Kprjra 
Xep^ov exovra (rvpireiaa^ pera xprfpdrap dva- 
2 Xaffecv avrov. Be /cprjricrp^ XPV^^H^^^^ '^^ 
pev XRVM^"^^ vvKrcap dveXa/Sev, eKelvov Be t% 
erepa^ vvKro<; i]fceiv KeXevaa^ iirl rov 7rpo9 t^ 269 
Arfpr)rpi^ Xipeva pera r&v rcKVcav Kal OepaireLa^ 
dvay/caia^, ev0if<: d^^ eairepa^ direwXevaev. Be 
Uepcev^ oiKrph piv eiraa^e Bia arevrj^ dvpiBo^ 
rraph ro t6?%09 e/cprjpvopevo^ avrov Ka\ iraiBia 
Kal yvvai/ca ttovcov xal irXdvqf; aTreipov^, olfcrpo- 
rarov Bi arevaypov dffyrJKev, 0)9 T49 avr^ irT^u- 
Vfopevtp irapd rov alyiaXov ijBrf ireXdyiov rov 

^ vbrov Bekker adopts Reiske's correction to aM^, 
423 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

could be founds but it eluded all pursuit from one 
man to another^ and finally disappeared in the limit- 
less throngs as in a yawning sea^ and was seen to 
have no sure source. This rumour, then, quickly 
melted away in the city ; but when Domitian was 
setting out with an army for the war and was already 
on the march, messages and letters announcing the 
victory came to meet him.^ And the success itself 
was gained on the day when the rumour of it came 
to Rome, although the distance between the places 
was more than twenty thousand furlongs. These 
facts are known to every one of our time. 

XXVI. But to resume, Gnaeus Octavius, the 
admiral of Aemilius, came to anchor off Samothrace, 
and while he allowed Perseus to enjoy asylum, out 
of respect to the gods, he took means to prevent 
him from escaping by sea. However, Perseus some- 
how succeeded in persuading a certain Cretan named 
Oroandes, the owner of a small skiff, to take him 
on board with his treasures. So Oroandes, true 
Cretan that he was, took the treasures aboard by 
night, and after bidding Perseus to come during 
the following night to the harbour adjoining the 
Demetrium, with his children and necessary atten- 
dants, as soon as evening fell sailed off. Now, 
Perseus suffered pitifully in letting himself down 
through a narrow window in the fortress, together 
with his wife and little children, who were un- 
acquainted with wandering and hardships ; but most 
pitiful of all was the groan he gave when some one 
told him, as he wandered along the shore, that he 
had seen Oroandes already out at sea and under full 

^ Antonius did not get the help he expected from German 
auxiliaries, and was defeated by Appius Norbanus. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 ^OpodvSrjv Oiovra KariZwv €<f>paa€v, vireXafiire 
yhp f)fiepa, koI irdari^ ikiriho^ epvffw^ VTr€X<i>p€i 
^vyy TTpo<; to t€a;^09, ov \ada>v fiev, VTTO<f>dd<Tw; 
he Tov^ ^Payfjuaiov^, fiera t^9 yvvaiKO^, rh he 
iraihia avWa^oov avroi^ ^'Icoi/ eve^eipia-eVi h^ 
iraXai phf epd^fievo^ fjv rov Uepaeo)^, Tore he 
TrpohoTTj^ y€v6/i€vo<: alrLav irapea-'xe rtjp pAXtcra 
avvavayKaaaaav tov avOptoirov, d)9 Orjpiov aXi- 
aicop^evwv r&v rexvoiv, eh %€t/t}a9 ekOelv koL 
wapahovvai to cr&p>a to?9 eKeivoav xpaTOvaiv. 

4 ^EiricrTeve p^ev oiv pAXia-ra r^ Naaixa, KaKel- 
vov itcaXer p,f) wapovro^ hi KaraxXavaa^ Ttfv 
Tvxnv Kol Ttjv dvdyKrjv irepiaKeyp^dp^evo^ eha/eev 
avrov viroxsipiov t& Tvaitp, Tore p^dXiara iroLTj- 
aa<; ^avepov on t^9 ^ikapyvpia^ ffv ev avT^ tl 
KaKOV ayevvearepov 17 <f)iXoylrvxici, ht fjv, o pivov 
V '^^X^ '^^^ iiTTaiKOTcov ovtc dtpatpelrai, rov 

5 iXeov, direareprjaev eavTOV, herjffeU yetp d')(dr}vaL 
irpb^ TOV AlpIXiov, 6 p>ev &<; dvhpX p^dXtp ireirTm- 
KOTi TTTwyLta vep^arjTov koX hvaTvye^ e^avaaTk^i 
virrivTa p^Ta Ta>p ^iXcov hehafcpvp,evo(;' 6 8', 
ataxto'TOV deapxi, irpo^aXobv avTov eirX aTop^a seal 
yovaToyp hpa^dp£vo^ dvej3dXXeTo ijxovci^ dyevpet^ 

6 Kal heijaei^, a<: ovx virepuetvev ovh^ ffKovaev 6 
AlpiXio^ii dXXh irpoa-^Xeylra^ avTov aXyovvTi, Kal 
XeXvirrjpLevfp t^ 7rpo<ra}Trq>, " Tt t^9 ti;j^i79," 
elirev, " & TaXaiTreope, to pAyiaTov d<f>aipe't<; t&v 
eyKXtfpdTcov, TavTa irpdTTcov d(f>* &v ho^et^ ov 
Trap* d^lav aTVX^tv, ovhe tov vvv, dXXh tov irdXai 
424 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

sail. For day was beginning to dawn^ and so^ bereft 
of every hope^ he fled back to the fortress with his 
wife^ before the Romans could prevent him^ though 
they saw him. His children were seized and de- 
livered to the Romans by lon^ who of old had been 
a favourite of Perseus, but now became his betrayer, 
and fiimished the most compelling reason for his 
coming, as a wild beast will do when its young have 
been captured, and surrendering himself to those 
who had them in their power. 

Accordingly, having most confidence in Nasica, he 
called for him ; but since Nasica was not there, after 
bewailing his misfortune and carefully weighing the 
necessity under which he lay, he gave himself into 
the power of Gnaeus, thus making it most abund- 
antly clear that his avarice was a less ignoble evil 
than the love of life that was in him, and that led 
him to deprive himself of the only thing which 
Fortune cannot take away from the fallen, namely, 
pity. For when at his request he was brought 
to Aemilius, Aemilius saw in him a great man 
whose fall was due to the resentment of the gods 
and his own evil fortune, and rose up and came to 
meet him, accompanied by his friends, and with 
tears in his eyes ; but Perseus, a most shameful 
sight, after throwing himself prone before him and 
then clasping his knees, broke out into ignoble 
cries and supplications. These Aemilius could not 
abide and would not hear; but looking upon him 
with a distressed and sorrowful countenance, said : 
" Why, wretched man, dost thou free Fortune from 
thy strongest indictment against her, by conduct 
which will make men think that thy misfortunes 
are not undeserved, and that thy former prosperity, 

425 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
SaifJLOvo^ avd^io^ yeyovivat ; tL Si fiov Kara- 

/3dW€l^ TtfV vUtJV, KoX TO XaTOpOfOfia 7rO£€i9 

fii/cpov, iinSet/cpvfievo^ kavrov ov yevpalov oifSe 
irpeTTovra 'Pcofiaioav avraytoviaTijv ; aperrj rot 
Svarv^ovai fieydXrfv evct fioipav alcove kuI 
waph iroXe/uoi^, BeiXia ok 'Pco/iaLoi^, fcAv evwo- 
Tfifi, Trdvrrj drifiOTaTOv,^* 

XXVIL Ov fifjv dWA TOVTOV filv dvaaTriaa^ 
Koi S€^ia>ad/JL€Vo^ Tov/3€pa)vi irapiSoDK^v, aifTo^ 
Se T0U9 iralSa^ fcal tov<s yafifipov^ xal r&v SXKodv 
'qycfiovifc&v fidXiara tov^ vearipov^ eaca rfj^ 
crKr}vrj<i iTricnraadfievo^ iroXvv xpovov fjv irpo^ 
avT^ ai(oirfi Kadrnjuevo^, &aT€ OavpA^^etv airavra^, 
opfxriaa^ he irepX t^9 tv^V^ f^oX r&v dvOpwnLvoiv 
hiaXiyeaOai wpayfidTcov, '*^Apd 76," elvev," a^tov 
evirpayia^ irapoixrq^ avOpcDirov oma dpaorvveaOai 
Kal fieya <f)pov€iv Wvos fj woKiv fj fiatriXeLav 

2 Karaarpe^dpievov, fj rr^v p£Tal3o\r}v ravrr^v tt}? 
Tvxv^t ^ ^ irapdhuyp^a r^ iroXepLOVirn /coivri^ 
do'ffepela^ irpoffe'la'a iraiSevei firjSev q>^ p.6vipL0v 
KoX jSe^aiov hiavoelaOai; iroio^ yhp dv0pd>7roi<; 
Tov Oappeiv Katp6<;, orav ro xparetv erepcov 
pAXiara hehoiKevai Tr)V TV')(r}v dvayKd^jf, Kal r^ 
XdipovTi Sva0vp,iav cTrd/yp Toaavrrjv 6 t^9 frepi- 
^€popLiv7)<; KoX irpoata-TapLevq^ aXKor aXkot^ 

3 eipxLppjevt}^ Xoyiapio^; fj Tr)V ^AXe^dvSpov Stu- 
Soxn^i 09 iirl ifKelarov r^p0i] Bwdfieo)^ Kal 
piyttTTov €ax€ Kpdro^, &pa^ p>ia^ p^pitp ireaowav 
inro 7ro8a9 ffepsvoi, Kal toi'9 apTi p.vpid(ri ire^&v 

^ rTjs rvxvft ^ ■<> Sintenis^, Coraes, and Bekker, with the 
MSS.: iiT^xfl- 

426 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

rather than thy present lot^ was beyond thy deserts ? 
And why dost thou depreciate my victory^ and make 
my success a meagre one^ by showing thyself no 
noble or even fitting antagonist for Romans ? Valour 
in the unfortunate obtains great reverence even 
among their enemies^ but cowardice^ in Roman eyes^ 
even though it meet with success^ is in every way a 
most dishonourable thing." 

XXVII. Notwithstanding his displeasure^ he raised 
Perseus up^ gave him his hand^ and put him in charge 
of Tubero, while he himself drew his sons, his sons- 
in-law, and of the other oflScers especially the younger 
men, into his tent, where for a long time he sat in 
silent communion with himself, so that all wondered. 
Then he began to discourse of Fortune and of human 
affairs, saying : " Is it, then, fitting that one who is 
mortal should be emboldened when success comes 
to him, and have high thoughts because he has 
subdued a nation, or a city, or a kingdom } or should 
his thoughts dwell rather on this reversal of fortune, 
which sets before the warrior an illustration of the 
weakness that is common to all men, and teaches 
him to regard nothing as stable or safe ? For what 
occasion have men to be confident, when their con- 
quest of others gives them most cogent reason to be 
in fear of Fortune, and when one who exults in 
success is thrown, as I am, into great dejection by 
reflecting upon the allotments of Fate, which take a 
circling course, and fall now upon some and now 
upon others ? Or, when the succession of Alex- 
ander, who attained the highest pinnacle of power 
and won the greatest might, has fallen in the 
space of a single hour and has been put beneath 
your feet, or when you see kings who but just now 

427 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Koi yiKidaiv iinrewv roaavrac^ oTrXo^opovfiivov^ 
jScurikel^ 6p&VT€^ ix r&v iroXefiitov j(€ip&v i^rf- 
fiepa aiTva fcal norit \afil3dvojna^, olecOe rk 
KoB* rjfia<; evew rivet ^ePaiorriTa rvxv^ Siapxtj 
4 7r/309 Tov xp^^^^f o^ fcarajSaXovre^ vfiei^ ol veoi 
TO K€Vov ^pvayfia tovto koI yavpiafia t^9 VL/cr)<; 270 
Taweivol KaTa7rT7]^€T€ tt/oo? to fieWov, oeL /eapa- 
BoKOvvTC^ eh Ti KaTCUTKT^yjrei reXo^ kKacTtp rtjv 
T^9 Trapovarj^ einrpayla^ 6 haifuov vi/ii€<nv;** 
Toiavrd (pam woXKct SiaXex^^PTa tov Al/uXiov 
aTTOTrifiyltai tou9 veov^ ei fiaXa to Kavy(rfaa icaX 
Ttiv vlSpiv, ciairep 'XjaXiv^, r^ Xoytp kotttovti 
KeKoXacr fiAvov^, 

XXVIII. 'E/f TOVTOV TTjv fikv aTpUTikv irpo^ 
dvdwavaiv, avTOv Sk 7r/oo9 0iav t% 'EX\aXo9 
6T/96'^€ /cal Siayayyfjv evho^ov afia KaX <f>t\dvOpoD' 
'TTov, iintbv yap dveXdfi/Save tou9 hrjiiov^ KaX 
Td 7ro\iT€v/MaTa /ca0i(rTaTo, Kal Scoped^ iSlBou, 
Tah fi€v (TLTOV ex TOV paaCKiKov, TaA9 S' eXaiov. 
ToaovTov ydp evpeffrjvai (f>aaiv dwoKeifievov <5crT6 
T0V9 \a/jL^dvovTa^ xal Beofiivov^ iiriKiirelv irpo- 
Tepov fj /caTava\(i>0i]vai to irXrjOo^; t&v evpeOev- 

2 Tcov, iv Se A€X^o?9 I8a)v xLova pAyav T€Tpdyo»vov 
€K XLOwv XevK&v avvr}pfjLO(TfjLivov, €<f>* ov Tleptrico^ 
i/j^KKe 'Xpv(TOv^ dvhpia^ TiOecBai, TrpoaeTa^e tov 
avTov Teurjvar to^9 ydp '^tttj /Jbivov^ to?9 viKwaiv 
i^itTTaaOai xoapa^ irpoariKeiv, iv S* *0\vii7ria 
TOVTO Bfj TO TToXvOpvkrjTov iKclvov dva<l>0ey^a' 
orOaL ffMo-iv, a>9 toi' 'Ofiijpov Aia ^etSla^ dnro- 

3 trXdaaiTo, t&v Bk Sixa 7rpial3€a)v ifc 'Pcofirf^ 
d<l)ifeofiiv(ov MaxeSoai fikv d'rri8(o/e€ Ttfv x^P^^ 

428 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

were surrounded by so many myriads of infantry 
and thousands of cavalry, receiving from their 
enemy's hands the food and drink requisite for the 
day, can you suppose that we ourselves have any 
guarantee from Fortune that will avail against the 
attacks of time ? Abandon, then, young men, this 
empty insolence and pride of victory, and take a 
humble posture as you confront the future, always 
expectant of the time when the Deity shall at last 
launch against each one of you his jealous dis- 
pleasure at your present prosperity." Many such 
words were uttered by Aemilius, we are told, and he 
sent the young men away with their vainglorious 
insolence and pride well curbed by his trenchant 
speech, as by a bridle. 

XXVIII. After this, he gave his army a chance to 
rest, while he himself went about to see Greece, 
occupying himself in ways alike honourable and 
humane. For in his progress he restored the popular 
governments and established their civil polities ; he 
also gave gifts to the cities, to some grain from the 
royal stores, to others oil. For it is said that so 
great stores were found laid up that petitioners and 
receivers failed before the abundance discovered was 
exhausted. At Delphi, he saw a tall square pillar 
composed of white marble stones, on which a golden 
statue of Perseus was intended to stand, and gave 
orders that his own statue should be set there, for 
it was meet that the conquered should make room 
for their conquerors. And at Olympia, as they say, 
he made that utterance which is now in every 
mouth, that Pheidias had moulded the Zeus of 
Homer. When the ten commissioners arrived from 
Rome, he restored to the Macedonians their country 

429 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX r^9 7roX€i9 iKevOepa^ olxeip Kai airrovo/iov^, 
e/earop Si rdXavra 'Vwfiaioi^ vnoreXeip, ov nXeop 
fj hiirKaaiop rol^ /SaaiXevaiP eiaii^epop. Oia^ Se 
iraPTohair&p ar/diPfop kcu Ovaia^ e/rireK&p TOi9 
0eoi^ €<TTidaei^ koX Seiirpa irpovOero, X^RTY^^ 

4 jjL€P ix T&p fia<ri\ifc&p d<f>06pq> %/9(»/i£i/09> rd^ip 
Bk Kol Koafiop Kal Karafc\i<T€i^ kcu B€^i(oa€i<; koi 
TffP 7r/oo9 l/ecurrop avrov rrj^ xar d^iap Tt/1^9 
Kol f^CKoi^pocrvpr)^ ataffi^aip ot/TO)? aKpi/3fj xal 
7r€<ppoPTi(r/iiprjp ipheiKPvp.evo^ &aT€ 0avp>d^€ip 
T0U9 '^ EWff pa^, el fii]Bk Tr)p iraiSiAp ap4)ipop 
airoXeiirei <nrovhri^, aXKh rrjXixavra irpdrraop 
dptjp irpdyfJUiTa fcal roi^; fiifcpoi^ to irpiirop dvo- 

6 hihtoaip, hi Koi tovtoi^ exaipep, oti ttoW&p 
TrapeaKcvaapApcop kclL Xafiirp&p to fjhKnop avro^ 
fjp diToXavap^ koI 0iapxi roi^ irapovai, xal tt/oo? 
rov^ Oavfid^oPTa^ ttjp iirtpskeiap SXeye Trj^ 
avTTJ^ elpai yjrvxv^ TrapaTa^ed^ re irpoarrjpai 
Ka\&^ Kal avp^TToaiov, t^9 fiiv, Swo)^ Kf^o/Sepayrdrrf 

T0t9 TToXeflloi^, TOV S\ W eXf'XO'PKTTOTaTOP ^ TOi? 

6 (Tvpovaip, ovSepo^ S* ^ttop uvtov ttjp iXevOepio- 
rrjra Kal rifp fAeyaXoylrvx^dv hrrjpovp oi dpBpca- 
iroi, iroKif flip dpyvpiop, iroXi^ Bi p^/ouo-^oi' ck twi; 
fiaaiKiK&p riBpoiapApop ovS iheip iOek'qaaPTO^, 
dWh Tot9 ra/uai^ eU to Sripi<riop TrapaBopro^, 
fiopa rh ^ifiXla rod fia<ri\€(o^ <l>i\oypafifjLaTov<n 
rol^ vUiriP hrirpe^ep i^eXiaOai, Kal Butpifjuap 
430 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and their cities for free and independent residence ; 
they were also to pay the Romans a hundred talents 
in tribute^ a sum less than half of what they used 
to pay to their kings. He also held all sorts of 
games and contests and performed sacrifices to the 
gods^ at which he gave feasts and banquets^ making 
liberal allowances therefor from the royal treasury, 
while in the arrangement and ordering of them, 
in saluting and seating his guests, and in paying to 
each one that degree of honour and kindly attention 
which was properly his due, he showed such nice 
and thoughtful perception that the Greeks were 
amazed, seeing that not even their pastimes were 
treated by him with neglect, but that, although he 
was a man of such great affairs, he gave even to 
trifling things their due attention. And he was 
also delighted to find that, though preparations 
for entertainment were ever so many and splendid, 
he himself was the pleasantest sight to his guests 
and gave them most enjoyment ; and he used to 
say to those who wondered at his attention to details 
that the same spirit was required both in marshal- 
ling a line of battle and in presiding at a banquet 
well, the object being, in the one case, to cause 
most terror in the enemy, in the other, to give 
most pleasure to the company. But more than 
anything else men praised his freedom of spirit 
and his greatness of soul ; for he would not con- 
sent even to look upon the quantities of silver and 
the quantities of gold that were gathered together 
from the royal treasuries, but handed them over 
to the quaestors for the public chest. It was only 
the books of the king that he allowed his sons, 
who were devoted to learnings to choose out for 

431 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aptarela t^9 /a^X^? AtXitp Tov^epcovi r^ ya/M/3p^ 
7 (f>id\rjv iBmxe irivre XiTp&v oXkijv. oSto? iari 
Tov/3€pa)v hv €<f>afi€v fjL€T^ <Tvyy€v&v oIkcIv ck- 
/caiBi/carov, aTro yrjSiov fiifcpov hiaTpe^ofxeutov 
airdvTOiv. koX irp&Tov apyvpov ifcelvov <f>a<Tiv 
€t9 Tov AlXCav oIkov elaekdelv, vir aperrj^ teal 
Tifxris elaayofievov, tov S' aXKov ')(p6vov oifj 
avTov^ ovT€ tA9 yvvatfca^ ^ dpyvpiov XPV^^^^ ^ 
j(pvaov. 

XXIX. Ai(pKr)^iv(ov Sk irdvTdov avT(p KaX&<i 
da7ra<rdfi€V0<: tou9 '^EWrjvaf;, fcal wapa/caXiaa^ 
T0U9 MaxeBova^ fjLefivrjcrOai, t^9 BeSo/ievTj^ viro 
'PcofiaicDv i\ev0epla^ add^ovra^ avTrjv hi evvo- 
jiLa^ fcai ofwvoia^, dve^ev^ev eirl rrjv ''HTreipov, 
eycov Soyfia crvyKKrjTOV tov9 crvfifJLefJLaxrjfiipov^: 
avr^ Tf}v Trpo^ Hepaea fid)(rfv arpaTKora^ diro 

2 r&u ixel iroXeav a}(f>€\r]aai, ^ovX6fi€vo^ Sk nraaiv 
dfia /cat fiTjSevb^; irpocrioK&VTo^, aXV €^aL<f>vi]^ 
iTnTretrecv, fM€T€7r€fiyJraT0 tov<; irpdorov^ i^ iKdarri^ 071 
7roX6ft)9 dvhpa^ Sifca, /cal irpoaera^ev avroi^, o<to9 
dpyvp6<; iari koI %/}i'<ro9 iv olKiai<: /cal lepoh, 
rjpApa pV^V fcuTa^epeLV. eKdaTOi^ Bk avveTrefiyjrev 

0)9 €7r' avTO Bt) tovto ^povphv crrpaTicoT&v koI 
Tu^iapxov. TrpoairoLovfievov ^tfreiv teal irapdXafi- 

3 ^dveiv TO j^pv<rtoi/. ivaTdarj^ Bk t^9 rjpApa^, 
v(f>^ €va Koi TOV avTov afia /caipbv opfiijaame^ 
eTpaTTOVTO 7r/)09 /caTaBpofitfv fcal Biaprrayrjv t&v 
iroXecDV, &<rT€ &pa fua irevTeKaiBeKa dvOpwirtav 
i^avBpairoBia-Orjvai fivpidBa^, k^BofirfKOVTa Bi 
iroXei^ 7rop0rj6r)vai, yeviadai S' aTTo ToaavTfi^ 
<f>0opa^ /cal iravtoXedpia^ e/cdaTcp aTpaTicoTrj t^i/ 

^ rcks yvyaiKas Bekker, after tleiske : yvyalxas. 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

themselves^ and when he was distributing rewards 
for valour in the battle, he gave Aelius Tubero^ his 
son-in-law, a bowl of five pounds weight. This was 
the Tubero, who, as I have said,^ dwelt with fifteen 
relations, and a paltry farm supported them all. 
And that is said to have been the first silver that 
ever entered the house of the Aelii, brought in as 
an honour bestowed upon valour, but up to that 
time neither they themselves nor their wives used 
either silver or gold. 

XXIX. When he had put everything in good 
order, had bidden the Greeks farewell, and had 
exhorted the Macedonians to be mindful of the 
freedom bestowed upon them by the Romans and 
preserve it by good order and concord, he marched 
against Epirus, having an order from the senate to 
give the soldiers who had fought with him the 
battle against Perseus the privilege of pillaging the 
cities there. Wishing to set upon the inhabitants 
all at once and suddenly, when no one expected it, 
he sent for the ten principal men of each city, and 
ordered them to bring in on a fixed day whatever 
silver and gold they had in their houses and temples. 
He also sent with each of these bodies, as if for 
this very purpose, a guard of soldiers and an officer, 
who pretended to search for and receive the money. 
But when the appointed day came, at one and the 
same time these all set out to overrun and pillage 
the cities, so that in a single hour a hundred and 
fifty thousand persons were made slaves, and seventy 
cities were sacked ; and yet from all this destruction 
and utter ruin each soldier received no more than 

* Chapter v. 4. 

433 

VOL. VI, F F 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
Soaiv ov fiet^ov evSefca BpaxfJi'&v, <f>pZ^ai Si wdvTa^ 

dpOpcOTTOV^ TO TOV TTOXe/JLOV TcXo?, 649 fllKpOV OVTCO 

TO fcaO* €KaaTov \7jfifia /cat xipSof; eOvov^ oXov 
KaTaK€pfiaTia0€VTO^, 

XXX. AlfuXio^ fiiv olfv TOVTO irpd^a^ ftdTutrra 
iraph rijv avrov <f)vaiv iineLKrj xal 'xpriariiv oiaav 
€t9 ^ftpifcov KaTe^tf' /cdfceWev eh ^IraXCav fierd 
r&v Bvvdfiemv TrepaiaOel^ dviirXei rhv %vppCv 
iroTUfibp iirl rrj^ /SaaiXi/cij^ ixKaiBeKijpov^ xare- 
(TKevaafiivr)^ el^ Koafiov ottXoi^ alyjjLaXcoroi^i /cai 
il>oivi/c[ai /cal 'irop<f)vpai^, (09 teal Travrfyvpi^eiv 
e^coOev Koddirep eh riva 0pia/i/3iKrj^ deav Trofnrrj^ 
Kol irpoairoXaveiv rov^ 'Vwfiaiov^, t^ podi(p (ryi- 
Brjv virdyovTi rrjv vavv avTiTrape^drfovra^, 

2 01 Be aTpari&rai to?? l3a(riXi/coL<; 'Xf/jfiaaiv 
iiroif>daXfu<TavTe^i w ovx oatov rj^loxnf erv^pv, 
Q)pyL^ovTo fikv dBi]Xa)^ Bth tovto xal x^Xeir&f: 
elxov Trpb^ rov AlfilXiop, airmfievoi Be <f>avep&^ 
on j3apif<; yevoiTO xal BecTroTixo^ avroh apxcov, 
ov irdpv irpoOvfjLw^ eirl rrjp virkp rov ffpidfi^ov 

3 aTTovBifp dirriPTTjaap, alaOofiepo^ Be tovto Xip- 
fiio^ TdX^a^, exOpo^ AlfiiXiov, yeyopw Bi t&p 
VTT avTOP x^^^^PX^^* eOdppr)<r€P dpa<l>apB6p elirelv 
&^ ov BoT€OP etrf top 0pla/i/3op. ipeU Bk woXXh^ 
T^ CTpaTKOTiK^ irXijffei BialSoXh^ xarh tov 
aTpoT'qyov xal Trjp oSaap 6pyr)p ert jxaXXop 
i^epeOiaa^ jJtcato waph t&p Br^fiapx^v dXXrjp 
7}fjLepap' ixeiPTfp yhp ovx e^apxelp t§ xaTrjyopLa, 

4 riaa-apa^ in Xonrk^ &pa^ Ip^ot/O'ai'. t&p Bi 

434 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

eleven drachmas as his share, and all men shuddered 
at the issue of the war, when the division of a whole 
nation's substance resulted in so slight a gain and 
profit for each soldier. 

XXX. Aemilius, then, after executing a commis- 
sion so contrary to his mild and generous nature, 
went down to Oricus. From there he crossed into 
Italy with his forces, and sailed up the river Tiber 
on the royal galley, which had sixteen banks of oars 
and was richly adorned with captured arms and 
cloths of scarlet and purple, so that the Romans 
actually came in throngs from out the city, as it 
were to some spectacle of triumphant progress 
whose pleasures they were enjoying in advance, and 
followed along the banks as the splashing oars sent 
the ship slowly up the stream. 

But the soldiers, who had cast longing eyes upon 
the royal treasures, since they had not got as much 
as they thought they deserved, were secretly en- 
raged on this account and bitterly disposed towards 
Aemilius, while openly they accused him of having 
been harsh and imperious in his command of them ; 
they were therefore not very ready to second his 
eager desires for a triumph. And when Servius 
Galba, who was an enemy of Aemilius, although he 
had been one of his military tribunes, perceived this, 
he made bold to declare openly that the triumph 
ought not to be allowed him. He also sowed many 
calumnies against their general among the masses of 
the soldiery, and roused still further the resentment 
they already felt, and then asked the tribunes of 
the people for another day in which to bring his 
accusations, since that day was not sufficient, of 
which only four hours still remained. But when 

435 

F F 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irifiapj((ov Xeyeiv ainrov, el t$ jSovXercu, xeKev- 
ovTcav, ap^dfievo^ fiaKp^ kclL ffXaaiprjfua^ eyovri 
iravrohaira^ 'X^prfadai Xoytp tov 'Xfiovov dvrjXmae 
T^9 rifi€pa<;' /cal yevofiivov a/corov^ ol ficp 877- 
fiap'xpi Tfjv ifCKXrjaiap d<f>rjfcav, irpb^ Si rbv 
TdK^av ol arpari&Tac avvehpafiov Opaavrepoi 
yeyovore^:, /cat avyKpoTijcavre^ avrov^ irepl rbv 
opOpov aidi^ KaTa\afi/3dvovTai to KaTrercoXiov 
ixei yhp ol hripxip'xpi rrjv ifCK\ri<rlav IfieWov 
d^eiv, 

XXXI. "Afia S' fipipa rrj^; '^rii\>ov Sodeiarf^ fj 
re irpd^rrj <f>v\r) rbv 0pLafi0op dir€y^(f)i^€TO, koI 
TOV TTpdyfiaro^ alaOriat^ et9 rbv aXkov Srjfiov 
/cal r^v cvy/cXtfTov xaTijei, xal rb fikv irX^o^ 
vTrepaXyovp t^ tt poTrrfXaKi^eardai rbv AlfdXiov hf 
if>(M>val<; fjv dirpdKT0i<;, ol Sk yvfopifAcoraroi r&v 
dirb fiovXrj^ Setvbv elvai to yivofievov /3o&vr€^ 
dXX'^Xov^ irape/cdXovv i7riXal3ia0ai t^9 t&v 
(TrpaTia)T&v daeXyeia^ Koi ffpacvrrfro^, iwl irav 
dif>i^opAv'q^ avo/iov epyov km /Siaiov, el p/qihf 
ifnroSa}v avroi^ yevoiro TlavXov AlfjJXiov dfpeXi- 

2 (tOul t&v €7riviKl(av Tifi&v, dxrd/jLevoi Se rbv 
o'xXov Kul dva^dvTe^ dOpooi T0t9 Brjfidpxoi^ IXe- 
yov iinax€tv Tffv y^(l>o<f>opiav, a'xpi' ^v SiiXOaxriv 
a ^ovXovTav irpb<; to 7rX^^09. iinaxovTcov Si 
TrdvTcnv /cal yevo/jLCvrj^ (Tuoirr)^ dveXBoav dvrjp 
vTraTixb^ /cal TroXefilov^ et/coai Kal Tpei^ itc irpo- 
kX'qaea)^ dvpprj/cd^, M.dp/co^ Xep^iXio^, AlfdXiov 
piv €<f>rf HavXov, ^XIko^ avT0KpdT(»p yivoiTO,^vv 

3 p^dXiaTa yivcoaKciv, op&v o<rq^ d'neideLa^ yifwvTt 
/cal /ca/cia^ (TTpaTevfiaTi XP^H^^^^ oOrco xaXa^ 



436 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

the tribunes ordered him to speak, if he had any- 
thing to say, he began a speech which was long and 
full of all sorts of injurious statements, and so 
consumed the time remaining in the day. When 
darkness came, the tribunes dissolved the assembly, 
but the soldiers, now grown bolder, flocked to Galba, 
formed themselves into a faction, and before it was 
light proceeded to take possession of the Capitol ; 
for it waS" there that the tribunes proposed to hold 
the assembly. 

XXXI. As soon as it was day the voting began, 
and the first tribe was voting against the triumph, 
when knowledge of the matter was brought down 
to the rest of the people and the senate. The 
multitude, deeply grieved at the indignity offered 
to Aemilius, could only cry out against it in vain ; 
but the most prominent senators, with shouts against 
the ignominy of the thing, exhorted one another to 
attack the bold license of the soldiers, which would 
proceed to any and every deed of lawlessness and 
violence if nothing were done to prevent their 
depriving Aemilius Paulus of the honours of his 
victory. Then pushing their way through the 
throng and going up to the Capitol in a body, they 
told the tribunes to put a stop to the voting until 
they could finish what they wished to say to the 
people. All voting stopped, silence was made, and 
Marcus Servilius, a man of consular dignity, and one 
who had slain twenty-three foes in single combat, 
came forward and said that he knew now better 
than ever before how great a commander Aemilius 
Paulus was, when he saw how full of baseness and 
disobedience the ^rmy ^as which he had used in 
the successful accomplishment of such great and 

437 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOTOipOfoae ical fieyoKa^ irpd^ei^, Oavfid^eiv Se 272 
TOP Srjfiov el T019 aw *lWvpi&v xal Aiyvayv 
ayaWofievo^ BpLdfi^oi^ avr^ <f>0ov€l tov Ma- 
KcBovcov jSaaiXea ^&vra xal rfjv 'AXefai/Spou 
fcal ^iXlttttov Bo^av iviSeiv vtto to2^ ^PtoaaUov 

4 07r\ot9 ayofiivrjv cuxM^^^t^^^ " Tlw yap oi 
heivoVi^ elwep, " el, <^i]fir)^ irepl vi/crj^ d0e0aCov 
irporepov eh ttjv ttoXiv ifiireaovarj^, eOvaare roi^ 
6eol^ evxofiepot tov Xoyov tovtov raxeo)^ aTroXa- 
fielv Tr)v oyjnv, ^kovto<: Be tov crTpaTTjyov fiCTCt 
T^9 d\rf0ivr]<; vIkt}^ dtftaipelade t&v fiep de&p Tr)p 
Tifirfp, avT&p Be Ttfp Xfl'pdp, m <f>o0ovfjL€POi Oed^ 
craadai to /iiy€0o^ twp KaTop0a>fjbdT(OP ^ ^eiBo- 
fiepoi TOV iroke/uov; xaiToi xpeiTTOP ffp r^ wpo^ 
etcelpop eketp, fifj t^ 7r/)09 avToxpdTopa A06p(p 

5 \v07jpat, TOP 0pLafi0op, a\X' eh ToaavTrjp, * €<l>rf, 
" TO KaK(yq0e^ e^ovaiap Trpodyerrai BC vfi&p &aT€ 
ire pi aTpaTTfyia^ icaX upid/ifiov ToXfiq, Xeyeip 
ap0pa)'7ro^ ar/owTO? teal t^ awfuvn aTiK^top vtto 
XeioTffTo^ Kal aKiaTpaxl>[a^ irpo^ f}fia^ Toif^ Toaov- 
T0t9 TpavfUKTi ireiTaiBevfiepov^ dpeTa^ teal KaKia^ 
/cpipeip {TTpaTffy&p** dfia Be Ttj^ €a0rJTO^ Bia- 
ayoDP €^€<f>7)pe KaTCi t&p aTeppoDP a)TeiXa^ diriarTov^ 

6 TO TrXri0o^. elra fjLeTaaTpa<f>elfi epia tcjp ovk 
evwpeirw ep o^X^ yvfipovaaai BoxovPTtop tov 
adfiaTO^ dpeKdXvyjre, fcal wpo^ top TdX/3ap iiri" 
(TTpe^a^, "St' /i^i/," €ff>r}, "yeXji^ iirl toi5to49, 
iyo) ce aefipvpofiai irpo^ tov9 TroXtra?' virkp tov- 
Tcjp yhp rjfiepap Kal pvktu avpe^St^; imraa-dpi/epo^ 
TavT etryop. aXX' aye Xa^wp avTov^ eirl ttjp 
'^^<f}0P' €70) Be KaTa/Sk^ 7rapaKoXov0i]aw iraai, 
/coil ypwa-ofiat tov9 xaKov^ xal dxapioTov^ /cal 

438 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

fair exploits ; and he was amazed that the people^ 
while exulting in triumphs over Illyrians and 
Ligurians^ begrudged itself the sight of the king of 
Macedonia taken alive and the glory of Alexander 
and Philip made spoil by Roman arms. " For is it 
not a strange thing/* said he, " that when an 
unsubstantial rumour of victory came suddenly and 
prematurely to the city, you sacrificed to the gods 
and prayed that this report might speedily be veri- 
fied before your eyes ; but now that your general is 
come with his real victory, you rob the gods of their 
honour, and yourselves of your joy in it, as though 
afraid to behold the magnitude of his successes, or 
seeking to spare the feelings of your enemy ? And 
yet it were better that out of pity towards him, and 
not out of envy towards your general, the triumph 
should be done away with. But," said he, "to such 
great power is malice brought by you that a man 
without a wound to show, and whose person is 
sleek from delicate and cowardly effeminacy, dares 
to talk about the conduct of a general and his 
triumph to us who have been taught by all these 
wounds to judge the valour and the cowardice of 
generals." And with the words he parted his gar- 
ment and displayed upon his breast an incredible 
number of wounds. Then wheeling about, he un- 
covered some parts of his person which it is thought 
unbecoming to have naked in a crowd, and turning 
to Galba, said : " Thou laughest at these scars, but 
I glory in them before my fellow-citizens, in whose 
defence I got them, riding night and day without 
ceasing. But come, take these people off to their 
voting ; and I will come down and follow along with 
them all^ and will learn who are base and thankless 

439 



I 

I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Srjfiarf€^el(r0aL fmWov ip rol^ iroXefioi^ if arpa- 
TTfyeurOai fiouXofiepov^.^ 

XXXII. OvT« ^>aa\v inro t&v \6ymv rovrtav 
avaxoTTTfvai koI fLcraffaXelp to arpariwriKov 
&<rr€ iraaais Tok <f>u\dk iiTLKvpaiBfpfaL r^ Ai- 
fuXiip TOP 0piafiffov. nefuj^Orjvai S* ainov ouray 
Xeyovaiv. o fiev Srjfio^ ev re roU imnKol^ Oed- 
rpoK, h KlpKov^ Kokovai, irepi t€ Ttfv ar/opap 
ucpia Trq^dp^epoh icaX roKKa r^ iroKew^ pipf) 
/caraXaffopre^, cb? l/catrTa wapelx^ t^9 iropmrfi 
hron^iP, i0€&PTO icaOapals iadtfai K€Koap,r)fJt€Poi, 

2 ira^ Se pao^ apitpxro xal aTeifxipwp teal Ovp^tap^d- 
T09P fjp irX^prf^, vTrrfpeTcu re ttoXKoX koX pafiBopo- 
p,oi T0V9 ardKTfa^ avppiopra^ €i9 to pMaop koX 
BiaOiopra^ i^eipyopre^ apaireirrapAva^ tcl^ ohoh^ 
fcal KaOaph^ wapelxop. rrj^ he irop^irrff; eU "^p^epa^ 
rpel^ P€pep,rjp>€Pf)^, 17 pep Trpdrrj poki^ i^ap/ciaaaa 
T0t9 alyQioKdnoL^ dpSpidai xal ypa(f)al^ /ecu 
KoXoaaoh €7rl ^€vy&p ireprqKOPTa xal Staxoaitop 

3 KopifypApoi^ TovTWP ecrj^e Oeap. ry S* voTepaia 
ra /cdWiCTa kcu iroKineKiarrara r&p Ma#c€- 
hopiK&p oifKtop iiripirero iroWal^ apd^ai^, aind 
T€ pappaipopra ^oXk^ peotrpi^/crtp koX athi^pa, 
Ttpf re OiciP Ik Tkyytf)^ teal <rvpappoyfj<: w ap 
pdXiara avpirediOprjpMpot^ X^^V^ "^^^ avropdro)^ 
iolfcoi weTroirfpeva, fcpdprj irpb^ dairlfn KaX Oto- 

4 pa/ce^ iwl Kprjptai, fcal Kprjri/cal iriXrcu xal 
Qp^/cia yeppa koX <f>apiTpai pcrit linnfc&p dpap/B- 
piypipai xcCKip&p, kol ^L(f>rj yvppk Siit rovrtop 
irapapldxovra koI adpiaai TrapaireTrrjyvlai, <rvp- 
pcTpop ixoPTcop x^^^^*^H^ '^^^ ottXcop, &<n€ Tr^p 
TTpb^ aWrjfKa /cpovaip ip t^ Sui(f>ip€a0cu rpaxv 

440 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

and prefer to be wheedled and flattered in war rather 
than commanded." 

XXXII. This speech, they tell us, so rebuffed the 
soldiery and changed their minds that the triumph 
was voted to Aemilius by all the tribes. And it was 
conducted,^ they say, after the following fashion. 
The people erected scaffoldings in the theatres for 
equestrian contests, which they call circuses, and 
round the forum, occupied the other parts of the 
city which afforded a view of the procession, and 
witnessed the spectacle arrayed in white garments. 
Every temple was open and filled with garlands 
and incense, while numerous servitors and lictors 
restrained the thronging and scurrying crowds 
and kept the streets open and clear. Three days 
were assigned for the triumphal procession. The 
first barely sufficed for the exhibition of the captured 
statues, paintings, and colossal figures, which were 
carried on two hundred and fifty chariots. On the 
second, the finest and richest of the Macedonian 
arms were borne along in many waggons. The arms 
themselves glittered with freshly polished bronze 
and steel, and were carefully and artfully arranged 
to look exactly as though they had been piled to- 
gether in heaps and at random, helmets lying upon 
shields and breast-plates upon greaves, while Cretan 
targets and Thracian wicker shields and quivers 
were mixed up with horses* bridles, and through 
them projectea naked swords and long Macedonian 
spears planted among them, all the arms being so 
loosely packed that they smote against each other 
as they were borne along and gave out a harsh and 
dreadftil sound, and the sight of them, even though 

^ In November, 167 b.o. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX if>o0€pov v7rr)'^€Lv, KoL fi7}Be vepiKrjfiipayv a<f>0' 
5 pov elvcu Ttjv oyp'iv. ficTa Se ra? oirXoSopov^ 
dfid^a<; avSpe^ iTreiropevovro Tpta")(IXu)i vofiiafia 
(f>€povr€<; apyvpovv iv dyyeioi^ ewrafcoaloi^ irevrri' 
Kovra TpiTdkdvToi^, &v eKaarov avcL reaa'ape^ 
eKOfii^ov aWoi S^ /cparrjpa^ apyvpovv xal xepara 
Kot <f>id\a^ Koi KvXiKa^, eZ SiaKCKoafirffiiva irpb^ 
Oeap €Ka<TTa Kal irepirra r^ fieyiOei koI t^ 
7raxvTr)Ti rrj^ ropeia^. 

XXXIII. Trj^ Se Tpirr)^ fip,ipa^ eoodev pkv 
evdv^ eTTopevovro aa\7nyKTal fiiXo^ ov irpoaoBiov 
KoX TTOfiTTiKOP, dX\* ol(p fia^^fiipov^ eiroTpvpoviTiP 273 
avTov^ 'Pwfialoi, irpoaeyKeXevop^poi, fiercL Se 
Tovrov^ ijyopTo 'XpvaoKepcp Tpo(f>iaL /SoO? exarov 
ecKOtn, pirpcu^ rja-Krjfiipoi Kal arifipua-ip. oi S* 
ayopT€^ avToif^ peapiaKOi Trepi^ayfiaaip €V7rapv<^oi^ 
iaraXfjiipoi irpb^ Upovpyiap i'x^dpovp, teal waiSe^ 

2 apyvpa \oifiela /cat XP^^^ KOfii^opre^, elra 
fierd T0UT0U9 ol to XRvaovp POfiiapxi <f>€popr€^, 
eh dyyela rpiraXapTiaia ficfiepiorfiipop ofiolco^ 
T^ dpyvpLcp. TO 8e ttXtjOo^ fip t&p dyyeicop 
oyBoi]/copra rpi&p Biopra. tovtoi^ iire^aWop 
all T€ T7fv iepap <f>id\rfp dpexopre^, fjp 6 AlfiiXio^ 
€K xpvaov BeKa rcCKdprtop hia Xideop KareaKeva- 
<T€p, OL T€ rd^ *ApTiyoPLSa<; /cal XeXevKiha^; Kal 
&r)piKX6iov^ Kal oaa irepl Belirpop p^/Ofo-co/AaTa 

3 Tov Uepaicd^ i7riheiKPv/j^P0t> tovtol^ cTrefiaXXe 
TO dpfjLa TOV Tlepaeo)^ Kal Td OTrXa Kal to Bid' 
Srjfia T0Z9 07rXot9 iiriKeifiepop, eiTa fUKpov Bia- 
XeififiaTO^; 01/T09 ^Bt) Ta TCKPa tov ffaaiXea^ 
fjyero BovXa, Kal avp avTol<; Tpo(f>€a>p Koi BiBo' 



442 



I 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

they were spoils of a conquered enemy^ was not 
without its terrors. After the waggons laden with 
armour there followed three thousand men carrying 
coined silver in seven hundred and fifty vessels, each 
of which contained three talents and was borne by 
four men, while still other men carried mixing-bowls 
of silver, drinking horns, bowls, and cups, all well 
arranged for show and excelling in size and in the 
depth of their carved ornaments. 

XXXIII. On the third day, as soon as it was 
morning, trumpeters led the way, sounding out no 
marching or processional strain, but such a one as 
the Romans use to rouse themselves to battle. After 
these there were led along a hundred and twenty 
stall-fed oxen with gilded horns, bedecked with 
fillets and garlands. Those who led these victims to 
the sacrifice were young men wearing aprons with 
handsome borders, and boys attended them carrying 
gold and silver vessels of libation. Next, after these, 
came the carriers of the coined gold, which, like the 
silver, was portioned out into vessels containing 
three talents ; and the number of these vessels was 
eighty lacking three. After these followed the bearers 
of the consecrated bowl, which Aemilius had caused 
to be made of ten talents of gold and adorned with 
precious stones, and then those who displayed the 
bowls known as Antigonids and Seleucids and Thera- 
cleian,^ together with all the gold plate of Perseus's 
table. These were followed by the chariot of Perseus, 
which bore his arms, and his diadem lying upon his 
arms. Then, at a little inten^l, came the children 
of the king, led along as slaves, and with them a 
throng of foster-parents, teachers, and tutors, all 

^ These last were named from a famous Corinthian artist. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aKohjov Koi iraiSayeoyeov SeSatcpv^ievcov ox^^t 
avT&v T€ ra^ ^elpa^ opeyovTtov eh tov^ OearcL^ 
Kcd TCL iraihia SeurOai koX Xiraveveiv hihaaKov- 
4 TO) J/, fjv S' appeva fiev Svo, 0rj\u Sk €V, ov irdvv 
avfi<f>povovvTa r&v xax&v to fi€y€0o<; Sia rifv 
rfKiKiav rj koX fidWov eXeeiva tt/qo? ttjv fiera- 
fioXrjv T^9 avaLaOrjaia^ fjv, &aT€ jxiKpov rbv 
Hepaea fiaSi^eiv irapopcofMevov ovtco^ vir ot/crov 
Tot9 prjTTLOi^ irpoaelxov ra^ oylrei^ ol 'Feofiaioi, xal 
BaKpva TToWoU ifcl3dWeiv avvijSr], irdai he 
/lefuyfievrjv aXyrfSovi KaX yapiTi Tr)v deav elvai 
yJeXP^ oii ra iraihia trapriXdev. 

XXXIV. AvT09 hi T&v reKVwv o Uepaev^; xal 
T^9 Trepl avra ffepaireia^ xaroTriv enropevero, 
<f>aibv piv Ip^driov ap^wexop'evo^ xal Kprjirihaf: 
ex'^v €7nxo>piov^, viro hi p^eyeffov^ r&v xax&v 
irdpra 6ap,l3ovPTi Kal 7rapa7re7rXrfyp,€V<p fidXiara 
Tov Xoyiap^ov ioiKco^, xal tovtw S' €ltt€to %opo9 
^lXcov Kal (TVvrjOtoVy fie/Saprfp^iveov ra irpoawira 
irevdei, Kal rtp irpo^ Hepaea ffXeireiv del Kal 
huKpveiv evvoiav TrapiardvTfov T049 0ea}p,evoi^ oti 
TTjv eKeivov rv^V^ 6Xo(j>vpovTai t&v Kad^ eavTOv^ 

2 eXdxt'O'Ta <f>povTL^ovTe<;. Kairoi irpoaeTrep.'^e t& 
AliuXi<p heopievo^ p>r) iropLirevOrivai Kal TrapaiTOV- 
puevo^ TOV 0piafifiov. 6 he t^9 dvavhpCa^ avTOv 
Kal <l>iXoyltvxi(i^f w? eoiKe, KarayeX&v, " 'AXXA 
TOVTO 7*," elire, " Kal irpoTepov ^v eir* airr^ Kal 
vvv €<rTiv, av ^ovXrjrar " hr)X&v tov irpo alaxv- 
V179 BdvaTov, hv ovx v7rop£Lva^ 6 heiXaio^, dXX* 
vir iXirihcov tiv&v aTropuXaKiaOeh eyeyovei p,epo^ 
T&v avTov Xa^vpcov, 

3 'E0€fij9 he T0VT0i9 eKopi^ovTO xp^^ol a'T€<f>avoi 

444 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

in tearSj stretching out their own hands to the 
spectators and teaching the children to beg and 
supplicate. There were two boys, and one girl, 
and they were not very conscious of the magnitude 
of their evils because of their tender age ; wherefore 
they evoked even more pity in view of the time 
when their unconsciousness would cease, so that 
Perseus walked along almost unheeded, while the 
Romans, moved by compassion, kept their eyes upon 
the children, and many of them shed tears, and for all 
of them the pleasure of the spectacle was mingled 
with pain, until the children had passed by. 

XXXIV. Behind the children and their train of 
attendants walked Perseus himself, clad in a dark 
robe and wearing the high boots of his country, but 
the magnitude of his evils made him resemble one 
who is utterly dumbfounded and bewildered. He, 
too, was followed by a company of friends and inti- 
mates, whose faces were heavy with grief, and whose 
tearful gaze continually fixed upon Perseus gave the 
spectators to understand that it was his misfortune 
which they bewailed, and that their own fate least 
of all concerned them. And yet Perseus had sent 
to Aemilius begging not to be led in the procession 
and asking to be left out of the triumph. But 
Aemilius, in mockery, as it would seem, of the king's 
cowardice and love of life, had said : '^ But this at 
least was in his power before, and is so now, if he 
should wish it," signifying death in preference to 
disgrace ; for this, however, the coward had not the 
heart, but was made weak by no one knows what 
hopes, and became a part of his own spoils. 

Next in order to these were carried wreaths of 



445 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rerpaKotnoi ro irXrjOo^, ov^ ai iroXev^ apiareia 
T^9 vLkt)^ tc3 KifxtXitp ficrh irpeafieicjv eirefiyjrav, 
cIt avTO^ iire^aWev apfiari /ce/cocrfirjfjLevtp hia- 
'rrpeirS}^ iiriffe/Sij/ca}^, dvffp xal hi'XJOL Toaavrr)^ 
i^ovaia^ a^iodearo^, dXovpyiSa 'XpvaoiraaTOV 
afiire'xppi'^vo^ koX Bcupvrj^ kX&vu t§ Be^id irpo- 

4 T€LV(OP. iBa^prj^opei Sk xal crvfiTra^ o arparo^t 
T(p fiev apfuiTi' Tov aTpaTr)yov Kord X6')(pvfi xal 
Ta^ei^ kirofievo^i ahwv Be rd fiev oJSa? riva^ 
Trarpiov^ dvafiefuyfieva^ yiXcoTi, rd Be iraiava^ 
iinviKLOv^ Kal t&v BiaTreirpayfiivdov eiraLvov^ eh 
TOV AlfjLiXiov TTepifiXeirrov ovTa koI ^rjXaoTov viro 
irdvTODV, ovBevl Be t&v dyaO&v eiriifSovov* irXrjv el 
Ti Baijxoviov dpa t&p fieydXcDV teal virepoyKOiv 
etXfj'xev euTvymv dirapireiv kclL fjuiyvvvcu tov 
dvOpcoTTivov fitov, oTTft)? fiTjBevl KUKCJV dfcpaTO^ etTf 
Kol Kadapo^y dXXd KaS* "Ofirjpov apiaTa BoicSxri 
irpaTTCLv 0I9 al tvxo^i Tpoirrjv iir dficffOTepa t&v 
TTpayfjiaTcov €')(pv<Tiv. 

XXXV. ^llaav ydp avTtp Teaaape^ vloi, Bvo 
likv eh eTepa^ dTrtpKcafievoL avyyeveia^, w rjBrj 2*1 \ 
XiXeKTai, ^KTfTrieov koI ^d^Lo^, Bvo Be iracBet; cti 
Tr)v fjXLKlav, ob^ eirX Try; olfcia^ et'XJ^ t^9 eavTov 

2 yeyovoTa^ ef CTepa^ yvvaiKO^, &v 6 fiev ripApai^; 
irevTe irpo tov 0piafi/3ev€iv tov Al/uXiov CTeXev- 
T7i<Te Teaa'apeaKcuBeKeTi]^, 6 Be Ba>B€K€Tr)^ jjueTd 
Tpeh ^fi€pa<; Opiapi^evaavTO^ eTraireOavev, &aTe 
/jLTjBiva yeveaOac ^Ffo/iaLoyv tov tto^ou? dvdXyrjTov, 
dXXd fhpl^at Trfv a^fioTrfTa ttj^ ti5y^9 diravTa^;, w 
ovK yoiaaTO irivOo^ ToaovTov ei^ olxiav fi;\oi/ 
Kol xa/}a9 fcal Ovai&v yefiovaav eladyovaa, /cat 

446 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

gold^ four hundred in number^ which the cities had 
sent with their embassies to Aemilius as prizes for 
his victory. Next, mounted on a chariot of mag- 
nificent adornment, came Aemilius himself, a man 
worthy to be looked upon even without such marks 
of power, wearing a purple robe interwoven with 
gold, and holding forth in his right hand a spray 
of laurel. The whole army also carried sprays of 
laurel, following the chariot of their general by 
companies and divisions, and singing, some of them 
divers songs intermingled with jesting, as the ancient 
custom was, and others paeans of victory and hymns 
in praise of the achievements of Aemilius, who was 
gazed upon and admired by all, and envied by no one 
that was good. But after all there is, as it seems, a 
divinity whose province it is to diminish whatever 
prosperity is inordinately great, and to mingle the 
affairs of human life, that no one may be without a 
taste of evil and wholly free from it, but that, as 
Homer says,^ those may be thought to fare best whose 
fortunes incline now one way and now another. 

XXXV. For Aemilius had four sons, of whom two, 
as I have already said,^ had been adopted into other 
families, namely, Scipio and Fabius ; and two sons 
still boys, the children of a second wife, whom he 
had in his own house. One of these, fourteen years 
of age, died five days before Aemilius celebrated his 
triumph, and the death of the other, who was twelve 
years of age, followed three days after the triumph, 
so that there was no Roman who did not share the 
father s grief ; nay, they all shuddered at the cruelty 
of Fortune, seeing that she had not scrupled to bring 
such great sorrow into a house that was full of gratula- 

» Iliad, xxiv. 525 ff. " Cf. chapter v. a 

447 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
Karafuyvvovaa Opi^vov^ /cal hoKpva waiaaiv iiri- 

XXX VI. Ov firjv a\V o AlfiiXiof; 6p0&^ Xoyi- 
^6fi€vo<; avhpela^ koX dappakeoT^ro^ avdpwTroi^ 
ov 7r/}09 OTrXa /cal aapiaa^ 'xprjaiv elvat fiovop, 
dXXA 7r/)09 ndaav 6fia\&f; ti};^9 dvriaTaaiv, 
ovTco^ rjppLoaoTo xal Kare/coa-firjae ttjp rwv irapov- 
Tiov atrfKpaaiv &aT€ rot? dyaOoU rd (l>avXa xal 
rd olxeia T019 hripLoa-iot^ iva<f)aviadivTa /mt) ra- 
ireip&aat to fieyedo^ fjurfBe xaOvfipiaai to d^Ltofia 

2 T^ viK7}<;, Tov fjLev ye wpoTepop t&v Traihav diro- 
OavovTa Ody^a^ evdv^ iffpidfjL/Sevaev, 0)9 XiXexTar 
TOV Sk SevTipov puerd tov dpiafifiov TeKcvTTiaavTO^ 
awayayiDV el^ iKfcXrjaiav tov 'Payfuucov Brjp^ov 
i'XprjcraTO \oyoi<; dvhpo^ ov Seofiivov 7rapap.v0ia^, 
dWd irapapA)0ovpAvov tov9 nroXLTa^ hv<riraj9ovv- 
Ta9 i<\> ol^ iK€Cvo<; iivaTv^naev, i<f>ij ydp oti t&v 
dv6 poDwlviov ovhev ovSiiroTC Selaa^, t&v 8c OeLmv 
€09 dintTTOTaTov KoX 'jroifci\(aTaTOV irpdypM Ttfv 

3 Tit)(r)v del (fioP'qOeiSf pAXia-Ta irepX tovtov avTrj^ 
TOV TToXep^v, c5<T7rep irvevpuTO^ Xap^irpov, Tuk 
irpd^ecL irapovaf)^, SiaTeXoir] p,eTaPoXrjv Tiva 
KoX iraXippoLav irpotrhe'XpP'evo^, " Mia p,ev 7a/)/' 
elirevy " Vf^^P^ '^^^ *l6viov diro UpevTeaiov irepd- 
aa^ 6A9 KipKvpav KaTiJX^V^' Trep.irTalo^ S' eKeWev 
iv A€X<l>ok T^ 0€^ Ovaa^, cTipai^; aidi^ ai irhne 
TffV hvvafuv iv MaxeSovla irapeXaffov, xal tov 
eleodoTa avvTeXeaa^ KoJdappxtv avTrj^ zeal t&v 
irpd^ecov ev0v^ ivap^dp^evo^ iv '^pipai^ aXXacf: 
irevTeKaihe/ca to KdXXicTOv iireOrf/ca t^ iroXep,^ 

4 T^\o9, dinaT&v Si t§ tv^?? ^'^ ^171; evpoiav t&v 

448 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

tions^ joy, and sacrifices, or to mingle lamentations 
and tears with paeans of victory and triumphs. 

XXXVI. Aemilius, notwithstanding, rightly con- 
sidering that men have need of bravery and courage, 
not only against arms and long spears, but against 
every onset of Fortune as well, so adapted and 
adjusted the mingled circumstances of his lot that 
the bad was lost sight of in the good, and his private 
sorrow in the public welfare, thus neither lowering 
the grandeur nor sullying the dignity of his victory. 
The first of his sons who died he buried, and im- 
mediately afterwards celebrated the triumph, as I 
have said ; and when the second died, after the 
triumph, he gathered the Roman people into an 
assembly and spoke to them as a man who did not 
ask for comfort, but rather sought to comfort his 
fellow-citizens in their distress over his own mis- 
fortunes. He said, namely, that he had never dreaded 
any human agency, but among agencies that were 
divine he had ever feared Fortune, believing her to 
be a most untrustworthy and variable thing; and 
since in this war particularly she had attended his 
undertakings like a prosperous gale, as it were, he 
had never ceased to expect some change and some 
reversal of the current of affairs. "For in one 
day," said he, " I crossed the Ionian Sea from 
Brundisium and put in at Corcyra ; thence, in five 
days, I came to Delphi and sacrificed to the god ; 
and again, in other five days, I took command 
of the forces in Macedonia, and after the usual 
lustration and review of them I proceeded at once 
to action, and in other fifteen days brought the war 
to the most glorious issue. But I distrusted Fortune 
because the current of my affairs ran so smoothly, and 

449 

VOL. VI. Q O 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTpa'y^idrwv, w aBeia TroWi) xai Kivhvvo^ ovhel^ 
^v cnro T&v TroXefuoDV, fiaXiara Kara trkovv iBe- 
hieiv rrjv fxcTa^oXffv rov htdfwvo^ iir evrv^LcLy 
roaovTov arpaTov veviKrjKOTa Kal \d(f>vpa koI 
jSaaiXei^ alxp-o^Xo^rov^ KOfii^cov. ov fi^v aWa 
Kol aaodelf; irpo^ vfid^ Koi rffv iroKiv op&v eif^po- 
avvrjf; koI ^7]\ov /cat 0vai&v yifiovaav, en rrjv 
Tv^nv hC viroy^La^i el^oVt elSo)^ ovSev €i\cKpiv€^ 
ov8* avefiearjTOv avOpwiroi^ Toi)v /jLcyaXayv yjupi- 

6 ^OuAvTjV, KoX TOVTOV OV TTpOTCpOV ff '>^V)(T) '^^P 

^offov wSivovaa koI frepiaKOTTOvpAvq to fieWop 
virep T^9 TToXeo)? a<l>rJK€v ^ rrjXifcavTT) fJL€ irpoa- 
TTTalaai hv<nv')(ia irepX tov ol/cov, vla>v aplarayv, 
ouv ifiavT^ fiovov^ iknrop/qv Sia86xov^, rcuf>a<i 
iTraWijXov^ iv rjfiepai^ iepal^ fiera'xetpiadfjL&fov* 

6 vifv oiv aKLvivvo^ el fit rh fiAyitrra koX dapp£l), koX 
vofii^Q) rr)v rv^V^ v/mv irapafievelv dpkafir} koI 
fiejSaiov, Ifcavo)^ ycip ifwl zeal toi<; ifioh /cafcoi^ 
649 T^i^ T&v /caTcopOcofievtov aTTOKC'X^prjTai vifieaiv, 
ovK cK^aveaTepov e^ovaa irapdBeiyfia r^? avOpto- 
irlvrff; dxrOeveia^ tov 0piafi/3evo/j^vov tov ffpiap,- 
^evovTa' nrXfjv oti ITe/ocreL'? fiev e')(ei fcal vevi/crj- 
pAvo^ Toi)^ iralSaf;, Atfu7uo<i Bk tov? avTOv viK'qaa^ 
diri/SaXev** 

XXXVir. OvTOD fjL€v evyeveh xal p,eydXov<i 
\6yov<; TOV XlplXiov i^ dirTuiffTOV zeal d\r}0ivov 
ff>povripaTO^ ev tw Bi]p,(p BiaXex^V^O't' Xiyovtri, 
T^ Be Hepaei, fccUirep olxTeipa^ ttjv p^Ta/3o\i)v 
KoX pA\a fior)$rjaai irpodvp^rfOei^, ovBev evpero 
irXffv p^eTcuTTdaea)^ ex tov KoKovpAvov xdp/cepe 
Trap* avToi^ eh tottov /cadapov xal <^CKav0p(O' 

2 iroTepav BiaiTav, oirov if>povpovp€vo^, 109 pAv 01 

450 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

now that there was complete immunity and nothing 
to fear from hostile attacks^ it was particularly during 
my voyage home that I feared the reversal of the 
Deity's favour after all my good fortune, since 1 
was bringing home so large a victorious army, such 
spoils, and captured kings. Nay more, even when 
I had reached you safely and beheld the city full 
of delight and gratulation and sacrifices, I was still 
suspicious of Fortune, knowing that she bestows upon 
men no great boon that is without alloy or free from 
divine displeasure. Indeed, my soul was in travail 
with this fear and could not dismiss it and cease 
anxiously forecasting the city's future, until I was 
smitten with this great misfortune in my own house,^ 
and in days consecrated to rejoicing had carried two 
most noble sons, who alone remained to be my heirs, 
one after the other to their graves. Now, therefore, 
I am in no peril of what most concerned me, and am 
confident, and I think that Fortune will remain con- 
stant to our city and do her no harm. For that deity 
has sufficiently used me and my afflictions to satisfy 
the divine displeasure at our successes, and she makes 
the hero of the triumph as clear an example of human 
weakness as the victim of the triumph ; except that 
Perseus, even though conquered, has his children, 
while Aemilius, though conqueror, has lost his." 

XXXVII. With such noble and lofty words, we are 
told, did Aemilius, from an unfeigned and sincere 
spirit, address the people. But for Perseus, although 
he pitied him for his changed lot and was very eager 
to help him, he could obtain no other favour than a 
removal from the prison which the Romans called 
" career ** to a clean place and kindlier treatment ; 
and there, being closely watched, according to most 

451 
G o 2 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrXecaTOi yeypd^aaiv, aireKaprep-qa-ev, evtoi Si ttj^ 275 
TeXevTTJf; iBlov rcva koX iraprfWayfiivov rpoirov 
laropovari, fiefiylrafievov^ yap ti koX OvficoOevra^ 
avT& Tov<; TTepl ro aayfia arparLcoTa^, d)<; erepov 
ovSkv TihvvavTO Xvirelv koX fcaKovv avrov, e^eip- 
yeiv T&v VTTveov, koI irpoae'XpvTa^ aKpi^&f; ivi- 
araaffac rat? KaTa^opal<; koX fTVV€')(€iv iyprjyopoTa 
irdarri firjX^^V* f^XP^ ^^ tovtov tov Tpoirov i/c- 
3 iTovr)d€l<s eTekevTTjaev. ireXevrrfae Se fcal rcov 
traihitov ra Svo. top Sk rpirov, ^AXe^avhpov, 
ev(j>vd fiev iv t& Topevetv teal XeTrrovpyelv yevi- 
adai (f)aaLV, i/cfiaOopra Be tA 'Pw/iaifca ypdfifiara 
Kol Tr)P hidXeKTOv viroypafi/iaTeveiv toI? dp^ov- 
aiv, iinSe^iov k(u 'xapUvra irepl ravrrjv tt^v 
vTTTjpealav i^era^o/jLepov. 

XXXVIII. Tal<; Sk MaKcSopiKai^i wpd^eai rod 
Ai/jLcXiov SrjfiOTiKODTdTfjp irpocrypd(f>ov(jL V^piP 
virlp T&p *rroXX&p, w tocovtcop €t9 to Srj/noaiop 

t6t€ 'XpyjfldTOOV VTT aVTOV T€0€PrcOP &aT€ ar)K€Tl 

Serjaai top Srjfiop elaepeytcelp d)^pi t&p IpTLov 
KoX Udpaa )(^p6pQ)p, ot Trepl top irpeoTOP ^Aptcoplov 

2 Kal l^alaapo^ iroXefiop virdTevaap, xaxelpo S* 
iStop Kol irepLTTOp TOV AlfiiXiov, to airovBa^o- 
fiepop wro TOV hr^wv Kal Tifuofiepop hia(f>ep6pT(o^ 
iirX T^9 dpiaT0KpaTi/C7J^ fieipai irpoaipeaeG)^, kol 
firjBep elireip firjSe irpd^ai 'xdpLTi t&p ttoXK&p, 
dXXcL T0?9 irpdiTOL^ Kal KpaTiaTOi<; del avpe^erd' 
^eaffai irepl ttjp iroXiTetap. o xal xpovoi^ vaTC- 
pop "Attttio^ mpeiSiaep *A<j>pifcap^ XKr^irLtDPi, 

3 fieyoTTOi yhp optc^ €p ttj iroXei TOTe ttjp TifiijTi- 
fCTjp dpxv^ fi€Trje<Tap, o fiep ttjp ^ovXrjp e')(<ov Kal 



452 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

writers the king starved himself to death. But some 
tell of a very unusual and peculiar way in which he 
died^ as follows. The soldiers who guarded his 
person found some fault with him and got angry at 
him, and since they could not vex and injure him in 
any other way, they prevented him from sleeping, 
disturbing his repose by their assiduous attentions 
and keeping him awake by every possible artifice, 
until in this way he was worn out and died. Two 
of his children also died. But the third, Alexander, 
is said to have become expert in embossing and fine 
metal work ; he also learned to write and speak the 
Roman language, and was secretary to the magis- 
trates, in which office he proved himself to have 
skill and elegance. 

XXXVIII. To the exploits of Aemilius in Mace- 
donia is ascribed his most unbounded popularity with 
the people, since so much money was then brought 
into the public treasury by him that the people 
no longer needed to pay special taxes until the 
times of Hirtius and Pansa, who were consuls during 
the first w^ar between Antony and Octavius Caesar.^ 
And this, too, was peculiar and remarkable in Aemi- 
lius, that although he was admired and honoured by 
the people beyond measure, he remained a member 
of the aristocratic party, and neither said or did 
anything to win the favour of the multitude, but 
always sided in political matters with the leading 
and most powerful men. And this attitude of Aemi- 
lius was in after times cast in the teeth of Scipio 
Africanus by Appius. For these men, being then 
greatest in the city, were candidates for the censor- 
ship,^ the one having the senate and the nobles to 

* The so-called "War of Mutina," in 43 B.C.; cf. the 
CicerOy xlv. 3-5. • In 142 b.o. 

4S3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0U9 apLtrTOV^ irepl avrov avrri yap ^AinrLOi^ 17 
troXiTeia truTpLO^i' o hi fiiya^ fiev &v €<^' eavTOv, 
fieyakj} S' del ry irapa rod Sijfiov '^dpiri Kal 
(TTTOvSfi fC€')(prjjjb€vo<;. ft)9 ovv ifjb/SdWovTO^ el^ 
dyopav rov Xfcqirltovo^ KarelSe trapa trXevpav 6 
"Attttio^ dvOpwirov^ dyevveif; koI BeSovXevxoTa^, 
dyopaiov^ Sk fcal Svvafiivov^ &')(\ov avvayayeiv 
KoiX (TTCovtapxia koX Kpavyfi irdvra Trpdyfiara 

4 ^idcraadai, fxiya ^o-qcra^;, "*fl IlaOXe," elirev, 
" AlfilXce, ariva^ov viro 7^9 alaOojJbevo^ on gov 
rov vlov AifiiXio^ 6 /cijpv^ fcal AtKLvvLo<; 4>t\6- 
veiKO^ iirX Tifirjreiav KaTo/^ovciv^ ahXa Xfcrjirimp 
fiiv av^cov rd TrXeiara rov hrfjiov evvovv elxcv, 
AlfjbiXio^ Si, fcaiirep &v dpitrroKpaTtKo^, ovSev 
fjTTOV viro TMV TToW&v rjyaTraTO rov fidXiara 
Sij/iiaycoyelv /cal tt/oo? xdpiv ofxCKelv toI<; ttoXXoa? 

6 Bo/covPTO^* ihrjXaxrav he fierd rmv dXX(ov fcaX&p 
Kal TLfi'qTela^ amov d^c(oaapT€<;, ijrt^ €(ttIp dp^rf 
iraacop lepcoTdrrj zeal hvpap^pr} fieya irpo^ re 
ToXXa fcal Trpo? e^eraaip fiicop, ifc/SaXeip re yap 
e^eaTi (rvy/cX7]Tov rov dirpeirw ^wpra Tot9 rifjLi]- 
Tat9, /cal irpoypd'^ac top apia-rop, lttttov t d<f>ai' 
peaet t&p pecop drifidaai top dKoXa^aTaiPOpra, 
Kal T&p ovai&p ovTOt rd Tifii]/JbaTa Kal Ta9 diro- 

6 ypa(f>ds iTrcaKOTrovacp. direypdy^apTO fiev oZp 
KaT avTov fivpidhe^ diOpcoTToyp TpidKOPTa rpei^, 
€Ti 8' eiTTaKia'xl'XiOL TCTpaKoaiot irePT^KOpra hvo, 
Trj<; he fiovXrj<; TTpoeypayjre /lep MdpKOP AlfuXiov 
Aeirihop, 7]hr] TerpaKi^ Kapiroviiepov TavTtjp Ttfp 

454 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

support him^ for this was the hereditary policy of 
the Appii^ while the other^ although great on his 
own account^ nevertheless always made use of the 
great favour and love of the people for him. When, 
therefore, Appius saw Scipio rushing into the forum 
attended by men who were of low birth and had 
lately been slaves, but who were frequenters of the 
forum and able to gather a mob and force all issues 
by means of solicitations and shouting, he cried with 
a loud voice and said : " O Paulus Aemilius, groan 
beneath tiie earth when thou learnest that thy son 
is escorted to the censorship by Aemilius the common 
crier and Licinius Philonicus." But Scipio had the 
good will of the people because he supported them 
in most things, while Aemilius, although he sided 
with the nobles, was no less loved by the multitude 
than the one who was thought to pay most court to 
the people and to seek their favour in his intercourse 
with them. And they made this manifest by con- 
ferring upon him, along with his other honours, that 
of the censorship,^ which is of all offices most sacred, 
and of great influence, both in other ways, and especi- 
ally because it examines into the lives and conduct 
of men. For it is in the power of the censors to 
expel any senator whose life is unbecoming, and 
to appoint the leader of the senate, and they can 
disgrace any young knight of loose habits by taking 
away his horse. They also take charge of the pro- 
perty assessments and the registry lists. Accordingly, 
the number of citizens registered under Aemilius 
was three hundred and thirty-seven thousand four 
hundred and fifty-two; he also declared Marcus 
Aemilius Lepidus first senator, a man who had 

» In 164 B.a 

455 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTpoeBpiav, i^efidke he rpel^ avy/cXtirifcov^ ov t&v 
i7n<f)ava>v, koI Trepl Trjv rmv iinrefov e^iratnv 
ofJLOLQ)^ ifierpiaaev avro^; re koX MdpKio<; 4>t\t7r- 
7ro9 6 iTvvdp^cov avrov, 

XXXIX. Aiay/cTffiivwv Be tmv irXeiarcov Koi 
/jLeyioTODV evoa-qae voaov iv dp)(^ fiev iTTKTipaXrf, 
XP^^^ ^^ dKipBvvov, ipydSTf Se xal SvaaTrdXKa" 
KTOV yevofievTjv. eTrel Be Tteiadei^; viro tS>v iarp&v 
€7r\6V(T€v el^ *R\iav tt}? 'IraXta? xal hUrpifiev 
avToOi irXeiG) XP^^^^ ^^ TrapdXioi^ dypoi^ fcal 
TToWrjp rjavxlav exovaiv, iTToOtjaav avTov oi 
'Fcofiaioi, Kol (fxovcL^ iroXXoKi^ iv dedrpoi^ olov 

2 evxpP'^OL KaX ar7revSovT€<; ISelv a(f>r}Kav. ouarrj<; 276 
Se TLV0<; UpovpyCa^ dvayKaia^, rihr) Sh kcu hoKovv- 

T09 Ifcavco^ ^X^^^ avT^ rod (rcofuiTO^;, eiravrjkdev 
€19 *V(Ofir)v, KaKeivTfv fiev eOvae fiera tcov aXKoav 
J7)P Ovaiav lepecop, eTn<f>av(ji)^ rov SijfwiM irepi- 
/c€%i//X'€2/ov fcal %at/3oi^T09' Tj} S' varepaia irdXiv 
eOvaev avro^ virep avrov <T€OTi]pia to?9 Oeoi^. 

3 Koi (rvfi7r€pav0€L(Trj<;, ©9 'TrpoeCprfrai,, t% dva-ia^ 
v'iro(TTpe'^a^ oiKaSe xal /carafcKiffeL^, irpXv aiadi- 
adai KoX voYjaai ttjv fierajSoXrjv, iv iKtrrdaei 
Kal 7rapa<f>opa t^9 Biavoia^ yevofievo^ Tpcraio^ 
irekevTrjirev, oifSevo^ ivSef)^ ovS' areXtf^ t&v irpo^ 
evBacfiovLav vevofiiafievoDv yevo/xevo^, /cal yhp 17 
nrepl rfjv ixtfyopav Trofnrrj davfiacrjiov eax^, xal 
^i]\ov iiTiKoa fwvvra ttjv dperrjv rov dvSpb^ to?9 

4 dpiaTOi^ KCLi fiaKapKordroi^ ivTa<l)ioi^. ravra S* 
^v ov xp^^o^ ovS* iXifpa^ oifS" rj Xoctttj iroXvTeXeM 

456 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 

already held this presidency four times^ and he ex- 
pelled only three senators^ men of no note^ and in 
the muster of the knights a like moderation ^as 
observed both by himself and by Marcius Philippus 
his colleague. 

XXXIX. After he had performed most of the 
more important duties of this office, he fell sick of 
a disease which at first was dangerous, but in time 
became less threatening, though it was troublesome 
and hard to get rid of. Under the advice of his 
physicians he sailed to Velia in Italy, and there spent 
much time in country places l3ring by the sea and 
affording great quiet. Then the Romans longed for 
him, and often in the theatres gave utterance to 
eager desires and even prayers that they might see 
him. At last, when a certain religious ceremony 
made his presence necessary, and his health seemed 
to be sufficient for the journey, he returned to Rome. 
Here he offered the public sacrifice in company with 
the other priests,^ while the people thronged about 
with manifest tokens of delight ; and on the follow- 
ing day he sacrificed again to the gods privately in 
gratitude for his recovery. When the sacrifice had 
been duly performed, he returned to his house and 
lay down to rest, and then, before he could notice and 
be conscious of any change, he became delirious and 
deranged in mind, and on the third day after died.^ 
He was fully blessed with everything that men think 
conducive to happiness. For his funeral procession 
called forth men's admiration, and showed a desire 
to adorn his virtue with the best and most enviable 
obsequies. This was manifest, not in gold or ivory or 



^ See chapter iii. 1-3. 

* Seven years after his triumph, 160 b.o. 



457 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal <f>CKoTLfda rrj^ TrapaaKevrj^, aW evvoia.fcaX 
TifiTf KoX x^P^^ ^^ fiovov iraph r&v ttoXit&v, aXXa 
fcal TMV TToXcfucov, caot yovp xarct tv)(1]v 
Traprjaav ^l^rjptov kclL Aiyvcov koX Ma^eSoi/coi/, ol 
fiev la^vpol Tct aoofiara teal viot SiaXa^ovre^ to 
Xexo^ viriSvaav koX irapeKOfii^ov, ol Se Trpea/Sv- 
T€pot <rvv7)KoXov0ovv dpaKaXov/JLCVoi rov AI/jllXiov 
5 eifepyerrjv koI crcoTrjpa tcop irarplhmv, ov yap 
fiovov iv 0I9 etcpdrrjo-e Kaipol^ '^ttlco^ iraai fcai 
(f)LXav0 pdirayf; aTrrjXXdyrj ^pr/o-a/Aez/09, aWa fcal 
irapa iravra rov Xolttov 0iov dei tl wpaTTcov 
dyadov avToh fcal Kr)S6/JLevo<; coairep oitCeLiov Koi 
<rvyy€v<av SiereXeae. 

Tffv S* ovtrLav avrov fwXi^ eTrrd fcal rpidKOvra 
fivptdSoDV y€veadai Xiyovaiv, ^9 avTo<; fiev dfi- 
<f>oT€pov^ T0U9 vlov<i diriXiTTe KXr^povojiov^, 6 he 
ve(or€po<; ^fcrftritov t& dSeXtf)^ irdaav eyeiv trvve- 
X^PV^^^ avT09 €69 oIkov evTTOpcoTepov TOV ^A(f>pi' 
fcavov B€Sofi€vo<;. o5to9 fiev 6 UavXov AlfiiXiov 
rpoTTO^ Koi I3lo^ Xeyerai yevicrOai, 



TIMOAEONTO:S KAI nAYAOY AIMIAIOY 

2YrKPlSl2 

L ToiovTfov Be r&v Kara rtfv iaropiav ovrtovt 
BrjXov 0)9 ovK ex^i iroXXd^ Bia(l)oph<; ovBe dvo- 
fjLObOTqra^; r} avyKpici^, oi re yap iroXeixoi irpo^ 
ivSo^ov^ yeyovaaiv dfi<i>OT€poi<; dvTaymvKrrd^, 
T& fiev MaKcSova^:, Ta> Be ISxipxv^oviov^j aX t€ 
vlfcai 7r€pifi6rjTOi, tov fiev eXovro^; MafceBoviav 

458 



COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS 

the other ambitious and expensive preparations for 
such rites^ but in good will and honour and gratitude 
on the part, not only of his fellow citizens, but also 
of his enemies. At all events, out of all the Iberians 
and Ligurians and Macedonians who chanced to be 
present, those that were young and strong of body 
assisted by turns in carrying the bier, while the more 
elderly followed with the procession calling aloud 
upon Aemilius as benefactor and preserver of their 
countries. For not only at the times of his conquests 
had he treated them all with mildness and humanity, 
but also during all the rest of his life he was ever 
doing them some good and caring for them as though 
they had been kindred and relations. 

His estate, we are told, hardly amounted to three 
hundred and seventy thousand drachmas, to which 
he left both his sons heirs ; but the younger, Scipio, 
who had been adopted into the wealthier family of 
Africanus, allowed his brother to have it all. Such, 
as we are told, was the life and character of Paulus 
Aemilius. 



COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND 

AEMILIUS 

I. Such being the history of these men, it is clear 
that our comparison of them will have few points of 
difference or dissimilaritv to show. For the wars 
which both conducted were against notable antago- 
nists; in the one case against the Macedonians, in 
the other against the Carthaginians. Their victories, 
too, were far-famed: the one took Macedonia and 

459 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal Tf)v aii ^Avriyovov SiaSoxv^ €V e^So^ip 
fiaaiKel KarairavaavTO^, rov Be rci^ Tvpavvlha^ 
irdaw; avekovTo^ i/c XcKeXia^ koI ttjv vrjaov 
€\€V0€p(o<ravTO^* el fiff vr) Aia ^ovXolto ti<; 
irapeyx^tpecv w Alfii\io<; fikv eppcofxevfo Tlepael 

2 Kal rcofiaiov^ veviKij/cori, TcfwXewv Sk Aiovv- 
ai<p Travrdiraatv aTreiprjKOTi /cat fcaraTeTpififievfo 
(Tweirea-e, fcal irdXiv virep TcfioXiovTO^;, on 
troXKoi)^ fxev rvpdvvov^, fieyaXrjv he ttjv Kap^q- 
Sovieov Bvva/jLiv airo Trj<; TVXov(Trf<; arpaTiaf; 
iviKfjaev, ovy &<rirep AlfMiXio^ dvSpdaip i/uLTreipo- 

. 7roX€fioi<: fccu fieficbdrfKoo'iv apx€(T0ai ;^pa)/iei/o9, 
dXX^ fiiar0o(f>6poi^ ova I Kal arpaTKorcu^ drdKTOL^, 
wpo*; tfSovTfV eiffia/jApoi^: arpaTeveaOai, rd ydp 
air* ovK ?<n79 wapatTKevrj^; Xaa KOTopBdypuTa t^ 
orrpaTqy^ ttjv alriav irepiTidrja'c, 

II. K.a0apcjv oiw koX SiKaiojv ev toI<; Trod" 
yfiaaiv dp,<f>OTepwv yeyovorayv, AI/jllXco^ jxev virb 
T&v v6p,a)i/ /cat TTJ^ TrarpiSo^ outo)? eotfcev evOv^ 
d<f)ifC€(T0ai irapeaKevaap^evo^, TtfioXeeov Se roi- 
ovTov avTO^ eavTov Trapec^e. tovtov reKp^ripiov 
oTi 'Pay/jbalot p^ev 6fiaX&<; ev t& Tore XP^^^ irdv- 
T69 fjaav evraiCTov KaX VTrox^tpioi roh iOiap^oi^ 
teal TOV<: vop^ov^ SeSiore^ /cal tou9 TroXtra?, 
*EiXXi]vo)v Si ovSel<; Tjyep^ddv eariv ovhe arparriyo^; 
89 OX) SL€<l>0dprj Tore XtfceXia^ d^^dp^vo^; efew 

2 Ata>i/09. KaLrot Aieova ttoXXoI puovapx^cL^ ope- 
yea0at KaX ^aaCXeiav rivd AaKcovcfcrjv oveipoiro- 
Xelv virevoovv. Tipxiio^ Be fcal TvXnnrov axXew 277 
<l>7jai fcal dripuo^ diroTrep^yjrav ^vpafcovaiov^, (fyiXo- 
irXovriav avTOV Kal dirXr^ariav ev r^ arparrfyia 

i6o 



COMPARISON OFTIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS 

brought the royal line of Antigonus to an end in its 
seventh king ; the other abolished all the tyrannies 
in Sicily and set the island free. One might, indeed, 
argue otherwise, and say that Perseus was strong 
and victorious over the Romans when Aemilius en- 
gaged him, while Dionysius, when Timoleon engaged 
him, was altogether crushed and desperate. And, 
again, it might be said in favour of Timoleon that 
he conquered many tyrants and the force of the 
Carthaginians, large as it was, with what soldiers he 
could get, not having at his service, as Aemilius had, 
men who were experienced in war and taught to obey 
orders, but men who were hirelings and disorderly 
soldiers, accustomed to consult their own pleasure in 
their campaigns. For when equal successes follow 
an unequal equipment, the greater credit accrues to 
the commander. 

II. Further, in their administration of affairs both 
were just and incorruptible ; but Aemilius, it would 
seem, was made so from the outset of his career by 
the laws and customs of his country, while Timoleon's 
great probity was due to himself. There is proof of 
this in the fact that the Romans in the time of Aemi- 
lius were, all alike, orderly in their lives, observant 
of usage, and wholesomely fearful of the laws and of 
their fellow citizens ; whereas, of the Greek leaders 
and generals who took part in Sicilian affairs during 
the time of Timoleon, not one was free from cor- 
ruption except Dion. And Dion was suspected by 
many of being ambitious for a monarchy and dream- 
ing of a kingdom like that in Sparta. Furthermore, 
Timaeus says that even Gylippus was sent away in 
ignominy and dishonour by the Syracusans, because 
they found him guilty of avarice and greed while 

461 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaT&YifOiKOTot^. h hi ^dpa^ 6 XirapTtdrrf^ teal 
KaXXtTTTTO? 6 *A0r}valo^ ikiriaavTe^ ap^eiv Xifce- 
Xta? Trapevofirjaav xal trapeairovirfaav, viro iro\- 

3 \&v dvarfeypaiTTai. Kairoi rive^ fj irrfKiKayv fcv- 
piot TrpayfidroDv Svre^ oiroi roiavra ffkinaav; 
&v o fi€v iKireTTTOifcoTa %vpaKOva&v iOepdireve 
/^lovvaiov, KaWtTTTTo? Bk eh ^v t&p irepl AiWa 
^€pay&v, dWii Ti/ju)Kio)v alrrjaafiivoi^ xal 
B€7j0€t<Tiv avTOKpdrayp irep/^del^ ^vpa/covcrioi^, 
Kai Bvvafuv ov ^rjTclv dW* e^^iv 6<f)€i\a)v f^v 
eXafie fiov\ofi€va>v koX SiBoptcov, iripa^ iiroiTJaaro 
T^9 avTOV arpaTryyia^ koI dpx^^ Tr}V r&v irapa- 
vop^tav dpxovTODv KardXvaiv. 

4 'E/ic€?i/o fievTOi rov AI/m\lov Oavp^aarov, ort 
TrfkiKavTrjv ^aaCKeiav Karcurrpey^dp^evo^i ovSk 
hpaxP'V p^i^ova rifv ovaLav iiroirjorev, ovSk eiBev 
ovBk ^yjraro t&v 'X^p-qpArfdv, /cairoi ttoWcL Sov^ 
erepoi^ /cat ScopTjadp^evo^. ov Xeyto Se on Ti/io- 
\io)v p^p^TTTo^ icTTiv otKiav T€ KoXrjv XafioDV KoX 
'Xjaypiov* ov yap to \al3eiv ck toiovtcjv alaxpov, 
dWit TO pt) Xa^elv icpelrrov KaX irepiovala T179 
dperrj^, iv 0I9 e^eariv i'iriS€iKvvp^vrf(; to pbi) 
ieopievov. 

5 'ETTci Se, w <T(itpLaTO^ plyo^ fj Oakiro^: i^epeiv 
hvvapivov TO Trpo? dpL<f>oripa9 ei ire<f>vKo^ opiov 
T^9 pera/SoXd^ pfopaXecorepov, outg) '^1/5^^9 dxpa- 
T09 evpayaria xal icxy;, fjv ovre to evTV)(elv 
vfipei dpvTTTev Koi dvirja-iv ovt€ avp^opal rairei- 
vovai, (fiaivcTcu T6\6toT€/909 6 Ai/tiXi09) iv ;^aX€7ri7 

462 



COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS 

he was their general. ^ And how Pharax the Spartan 
and Callippus the Athenian violated laws and treaties 
in their hopes of ruling Sicily, has been told by 
many writers.^ And yet who were these men, or 
of how large resources were they masters, that they 
entertained such hopes ? One of them was a servile 
follower of Dionysius after he had been driven out 
of Syracuse, and Callippus was one of Dion*s captains 
of mercenaries. But Timoleon, at the earnest request 
of the Syracusans, was sent to be their general, and 
needed not to seek power from them, but only to 
hold that which they had given him of their own 
free will, and yet he laid down his office and command 
when he had overthrown their unlawful rulers. 

It is, however, worthy of admiration in Aemilius 
that, although he had subdued so great a kingdom, 
he did not add one drachma to his substance, nor 
would he touch or even look upon the conquered 
treasure; and yet he made many liberal gifts to 
others. Now, I do not say that Timoleon is to be 
blamed for accepting a fine house and country estate, 
for acceptance under such circumstances is not dis- 
graceful ; but not to accept is better, and that is a 
surpassing virtue which shows that it does not want 
what it might lawfully have. 

Furthermore, a body that can endure only heat or 
cold is less powerful than one that is well adapted 
by nature to withstand both extremes alike. In like 
manner a spirit is absolutely vigorous and strong if it 
is neither spoiled and elated by the insolence which 
prosperity brings, nor humbled by adversity. The 
character of Aemilius, therefore, was manifestly more 



^ See the Nicias, xxviii. 2 f. 
' 8ee the Timoltcm, xi. 4. 



463 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TVXJJ fcal trddet fieyaXrp rcS irepl tov<; 7raiSa<; 
ovhiv TV fiiKpoTcpo^ ouSe aaepLvorepo^ rj Bca rtov 
6 €ifTV)(r)fidra)v 6pa0eL<;' Tv/jLoXicJV Be yevvala irpd- 
fa? irepl top dSeX^op ovk dvT€<r)(€ r^ Xoycarfi& 
TTpo? TO irdOo^, dXKk fieravoia /cal Xvirrf rairei- 
vcddel^ ircbv etfcocri to /Stj/jui kolI ttjv dyopav tBeiv 
ovx vTrifiecve, Sec Sh ret ala^p^ ^evyeiv xal 
alSeladai, to Sk 7rpb<; iraorav dBo^iav evXa^h 
€'7n€t>Kov<; fisv i]6ov<: xal aTraXov, fieyedo^ Bk ovk 



464 



COMPARISON OFTIMOLEON AND AEMlLlOS 

perfect, since in the grievous misfortune and great 
sorrow brought upon him by the death of his sons he 
was seen to have no less greatness and no less dignity 
than in the midst of his successes; whereas Timo- 
leon, although he had acted in a noble way with 
regard to his brother, could not reason down his 
sorrow, but was prostrated with grief and repentance, 
and for twenty years could not endure the sight of 
bema or market-place. One should scrupulously shun 
disgraceful deeds ; but the anxious fear of every kind 
of ill report among men argues a nature which is 
indeed kindly and sensitive, but has not greatness. 



465 

VOL. VI. H H 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



H H 2 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



Achradina, pp. 67, 77, 89, 305, 307, 
313, the first extension on the 
main-land of the island city of 
Syracuse, stretching from the 
Great Harbour northwards to 
the sea. 

Acillus, 177, Caius, not otherwise 
known. 

Acrae, 59, a small city of Sicily 
about twenty miles west of 
S3rracuse. 

Adranum, 287, 289, 299, 301, a 
city of Sicily at the foot of the 
western slope of Mt. Aetna, 
founded by the elder Dlonyslus 
in 400 B.o. 

Adria, 25, an ancient and famous 
city of Cisalpine Gaul, originally 
a sea-port between the mouths 
of the Po and the Adige, but 
now some fourteen miles inland. 
It gave its name to the Adriatic 
sea. 

Agrigentum, 57. 345, one of the 
most powerful and celebrated of 
the Greek cities in Sicily, situated 
on the south-west coast of the 
island. It was colonised from 
Gela in 582 B.o. 

Agrippa, 185, Marcus Vipsanius, 
a fellow-student of Octavius 
Csesar at Apollonia, and a most 
intimate friend. He became one 
of the prominent and powerful 
men of the Augustan age. He 
lived 63-12 B.o. 

Alcimenes, 49, not otherwise 
known. 

Amphipolis, 47, 49, an important 
town in S.E. Macedonia, on the 
river Strymon, about three miles 
from the sea. 

Anicius, Lucius, 387, Lucius Ani- 
ciu8 GalluB, praetor in 168 B.C., 

PLUT. VI. 



acted in concert with Appius Clau- 
dius against Geathius the Illyrian, 
and was completely successful in 
a campaign of thirty days, for 
which he celebrated a triumph. 

Anti^onus (1), 373, 461, King of 
Asia, surnamed the One-eyed. 
Lived 382-301 B.O. 

Antigonus (2), 373, surnamed 
Doson. On the death of Deme- 
trius II. (229 B.C.) he was 
appointed guardian of his son 
Philip. He married the widow 
of Demetrius and assumed the 
crown in his own right. He 
supported Aratus and the Achaean 
League against Cleomenes of 
Sparta. He died in 220 B.C. 

Antigonus (3), surnamed Gonatas, 
373, a son of Demetrius Polior- 
cetes by Phila, and grandson of 
Antigonus King of Asia. He 
succeeded to the title of King of 
Macedonia on his father's death 
in 283 B.C., and gained possession 
of part of his realm in 277 B.C. 
He died in 239 B.C. 

Antimachus, of Colophon, 347, 
a great epic and elegiac poet 
who flourished during the latter 
part of the Peloponnesian War 
(420-404 B.C.). See the Lysander 
xviii. 4f. 

Antiochus of Ascalon. 129, called 
the founder of the Fifth Academy. 
He was a teacher of Cicero at 
Athens in 79-78 B.C., and Cicero 
speaks of him in the highest and 
most appreciative terms {Bru' 
tu8, 91, 315). 

Antiochus the Great, 363, 371, 
King of Syria 223-187 B.C. 
He wa.s defeated by the Romans 
under Glabrio at Thermopylae 
in 191, and by Scipio near 
Magnesia in Asia in 190 B.C. 



469 



^ 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



He made peace with Kome in 
188 B.C.. ceding all his domimons 
west of Mt. Taurus. 

Antium, 173, an ancient and 
powerful city of Latium, on the 
coast, thirty-eight miles south of 
Borne, the modem Porto d'Anzo. 

Antonius, Caius, 181-187, a 
brother of the triumvir, legate of 
Julius Caesar in 49 B.C., praetor 
urbanus in 44 B.C., receiving 
Macedonia as his province. 

Antonius, 421, Lucius A. Saturni- 
nus, governor of Upper Germany 
under Domitian, raised a rebel- 
lion ; but an inundation of the 
Rhine deprived him of the 
assistance t)f the Germans which 
had been promised him. Cf. 
Suetonius, Domit. 6. 

Am)ius, 453, 455. Appius Claudius 
Pulcher, consul in 143 B.C., 
father-in-law of Tiberius Grac- 
chus. He lived in constant 
enmity with Scipio Africanus the 
Yourger, 

Apollocrates, 81^ 107, 117, eldest 
son of Dionysius the Younger. 

Apollonia, 319, a small city in the 
central and northern part of 
Sicily, mentioned last by Cicero 
(in Verr. iii. 43, 103.) 

Apollonia, 175, 181-185, an 
ancient Greek city of Illyria, 
near the river Aoiis and about 
eight miles from its mouth. 
Towards the end of the Roman 
republic it became a famous seat 
of learning. 

Archedamua the Aetolian, 417. 
In 199-197 B.C. he acted with the 
Romans against Philip V. of 
Macedon. Later he was prom- 
inent in the war between the 
Aetolians and Rome, and joined 
Perseus in 169 B.C. 

Archedemus, 37, apparently a 
disciple of Archytas. 

Archytas, 37, 41, a Greek of 
Tarentum, distinguished as philo- 
sopher, mathematician, general, 
and statesman. He flourished 
about 400 B.C. and onwards. 
Cf . th.e MarcelltiSf xiv. 5. 

Arete, 13. 43, 109, 121, 123, niece 
and wife of Dion. 

470 



Aristides the Locrian, 275, men- 
tioned elsewhere (Aelian, Var. 
Hist.t xiv. 4) only as more grieved 
at the manner than at the fact 
of his death. 

Aristippus of Cyrene, 39, 41, 
founder of the CyrenaTc school of 
philosophy, obnoxious to Xeno- 
phon and Plato on account of his 
luxurious ways of living. 

Aristomache, 7, 14, 109. 121, 123, 
sister and mother-in-law of 
Dion. 

Aristoxenus the musician, 295. a 
pupil of Aristotle, and a philo- 
sopher of the Peripatetic school. 
Only fragments of his musical 
treatises have come down to us. 

Aristus, 129, brother of Antiochus 
of Ascalon, and a teacher of 
philosophy at Athens when 
Cicero was there in 51-50 B.C. 
{(nd Ait., V. 10, 5). Cicero calls 
him " hospes et familiaris mens " 
in Brutus, 97, 332. 

Athanis, 319^ 351, of Syracuse, 
wrote a history of the events 
attending and following Dion's 
expedition. He was probably 
one of the generals elected by the 
Syracusans in Dion's place (Dion, 
xxxviii. 2). 

Attillius (Atilius), 213, otherwise 
unknown. 

Atticus, 191, Quintus Caecilius 
Pomponianus. surnamed Atticus 
on account of his long residence 
in Athens, where he took refuge 
from the storms of the civil 
wars in 85 B.C. He was Cicero's 
most intimate friend. He re- 
turned to Rome in 65, and died in 
82 B.C., at the age of seventy- 
seven. He was a man of wealth, 
learning, and refinement. 



Bastemae, 377, 383, a powerful 
tribe of European Sarmatia 
(Russia). They were driven back 
across the Danube by the 
Romans in 30 B.C. 

Bibulus, 153, 177, Lucius Galpur- 
nius B., youngest son of the 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Bibulus who was Caesar's consular 
colleague in 59 B.C. He surren- 
dered to Antony after the battle 
at Philippi (42 B.C.), was par- 
doned by him, and made com- 
mander of his fleet. He died 
shortly before the battle of 
Actium (31 B.O.). 

Brundisium, 449, an important 
city on the eastern coast of 
Italy (Calabria), with a fine 
harbour. It was the natural 
point of departure from Italy to 
the East, and was the chief naval 
station of the Eomans in the 
Adriatic. 

Brutus, 151, 169, 187, Decimus 
Junius Brutus, surnamed Albinus 
after his adoption by Aulus- 
Postumius Albinus, the consul of 
99 B.C. He was widely em- 
ployed, highly esteemed, fully 
trustea, and richly rewarded by 
Julius (yaesar, and yet joined his 
murderers. After Caesar's death 
he opposed Antony successfully, 
but fell a victim to the coalition 
between Antony and Octavius in 
43 B.o. 

Buthrotum, 183, a city on the 
western coast of Epirus, opposite 
Ck>rcyra, celebrated by Vergil in 
Aeneid, ill. 293 ff . 



Calauria, 337, a town of Sicily not 
mentioned elsewhere. 

Calends (Kalends), 147, the Roman 
name for the first day of the 
month. 

Callippus, 33, 61, 115-123, 463, 
of Athens, a disciple of Plato in 
common with Dion, to whom he 
came to have much the same 
relation as Brutus Albinus to 
Julius Cesar. 

Camarina, 59. a famous Greek city 
on the souihem coast of Sicily, 
about twenty miles east of Gtela. 
It was colonized from Syracuse 
in 599 B.C. 

Canidius, 131, 133, perhaps the 
Publius Canidius Crassus who was 
the friend and supporter of 



Antony (Plutarch, Antony, 
xxxiv.-lxxi.). 

(Tanutius, 173, mentioned only here. 

Carbo, 191, Gnaeus Papirius C. 
a leader of the Marian party and 
consular colleague of Cinna in 
85 and 84 B.C. He was put to 
death by Pompey in 82 B.C. 
(Plutarch, Pompey, x. 3f.). 

Carystus, 179, an ancient city on the 
south coast of Euboea, famous for 
its marble. 

Casca, 157, 163, 229, Publius 
Servilius C., tribune of the people 
in 44 B.C. He fled from Borne 
after Caesar's murder, and died 
soon after the battle at Philippi, 
in which he fought. His brother 
Caius was also one of Caesar's 
murderers (Plutarch, Caesar. 
Ixvi. 5). 

Catana, 123, 291, 305, 335, 841, 843, 
an ancient city on the eastern 
coast of Sicily, about midway 
between Syracuse and Tauro- 
menlum, directly at the foot of 
Mt. Aetna. 

Cato (1), 411, Marcus Porcius C. 
Liciidanus. son of Cato the Elder 
by his first wife Licinia. It was 
after the battle of Pydna that 
he became the son-in-law of 
Aemilius Paulus. For his educa- 
tion, and his exploit at the 
battle of Pydna, see the Cato 
Major, chapter xx. 

Cato (2), 237, 239, son of Cato the 
Younger. After the death of his 
father, Caesar pardoned falm and 
allowed him the use of his 
patrimony. See the Cato Minor, 
chapter Ixxiii. 

Caulonia, 57, a Greek city on the 
eastern coast of Bruttium, con- 
quered by the elder Bionysius in 
389 B.C. 

C!eo8, 345, one of the Cyclades 
islands in the Aegean sea, about 
ttiirteen miles S.E. of Attica, 
moat famous as the birthplace of 
the great lyric poet Simonides. 

Cicero, 179, 183, Marcus Tuliius, 
only son of the great orator, bom 
in 65 B.O. He joined the army of 
Pompey in Greece when only 
sixteen yean of age, and gained 

471 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



credit aa an oflloer of cavalry. 
After Fharsalus, he resided at 
Athens, where he fell into loose 
habits for a time. After Caesar's 
death, he served as military 
tribune under Brutus. After 
Philipjpi, he was taken up by 
Octavius, and became his con- 
sular colleague in 30 B.C. See 
the Cicero, xlix. 4. 

Clmber, 163, 169, Lucius Tullius, 
had been one of Caesar's warmest 
supporters, and rewarded by him 
with the province of Blthynla. 
After Caesar's murder he went to 
his province, raised a fleet, and 
oo-operated effectually with Bru- 
tus and Cassius. 

Cinna (1), 191, Lucius Cornelius," 
leader of the Marian party during 
Sulla's absence in the East 
(87-84 B.C.). He was consul 
in 87, 86, 85, and 84. He was 
killed in a mutiny of his soldiers 
at Brundisium, where he had 
hoped to prevent the landing of 
Sulla. See the Pompey, chapter 

V. 

Cinna (2), 167, 181, Lucius Corne- 
lius, son of the preceding. He 
served under Lepidus and Ser- 
torius (78-72 B.C.), but was 
restored from exile by Caesar 
and made praetor in 44 B.C. 
He would not join the murderers 
of Caesar, but approved of their 

China (3), 171, 173, Caius Helvius, 
a friend of Catullus, and probably 
the same x)er8on as the Helvius 
Cinna whom Valerius Maximus 
(ix. 9, 1), Apnian {B.C. 11. 147). 
and Dion Cassius (xliv. 50) 
call a tribune of the people. Cf . 
Suetonius, Div. Jvl. 85 ; Plu- 
tarch, Caesar. Ixxiii. 2f. Only 
fragments of his poems remain. 

Clodius (Claudius), 171, Publius 
Claudius Pulcher, youngest son of 
the Appius Claudius mentioned in 
the SuUa^ xxix. S. He helped to 
demoralize the soldiers of Lucul- 
lus in Asia (LueuUus^ chapter 
xxxiv.), became a venomous foe 
of Cicero, was notorious for 
incest and licentiousness (Caetar, 



chapters ix. and x.), and was at 
last killed in a street-brawl with 
Milo in 52 B.C. {Cicero^ chapters 
xxviii.-xxxv.). 

C!olophon, 347, one of the Ionian 
cities of Asia Minor, situated on 
the river Hales, near the sea, 
north of Ephesus. 

Ck)rc3rra, 449, an island in the 
Ionian sea, opposite Eplrus, the 
modern CorfO. 

Comiflcius, Lucius, 185, afterwards 
an able supporter of Octavius in 
war on land and sea. He became 
consul in 35 B.C. 

Cratippus, the Peripatetic, 177, of 
Mitylene, a contemporary and 
intimate friend of (Dicero, and a 
teacher of Cicero's son. 

Orimesus (Crimisus). 823, 325, 381, 
a river in the N. W. part of Sicily, 
near Segesta. 

Cyzicus, 187, a Oreek city on the 
Proi)onti8, in Mjrsia, wonderfully 
situated on the neck of a pen- 
insula. 



Demetrias, 181, an important 
city in the S.E. part of Thessaly, 
at the head of the Pagasaean 
gulf, founded by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes about 290 B.C. 

Demetrium, 423, of Samothrace, 
probably a sanctuary of Demeter 
connected with the mysteries and 
worship of the Cabeiri. 

Demetrius (1), 373, Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus 
King of Asia, lived 337-283 B.C. 
See Plutarch s Life. 

Demetrius (2), 373, Demetrius 11.. 
son of Antigonus Gonatas, king of 
Macedonia 239-229 B.C. 

Demetrius (3), 375, younger, and 
only legitimate son of PhiUp V. 
of Macedon, sent to Borne as 
hostage after the battie of 
Cynosoephalae (197 B.C.), where 
he won that favonr of the 
Romans which roused the jeal- 
ousy of his brother Perseus and 
brought about his death. 

Diogenes, of Sinope, 297, a Cynlo 
philosopher, bom 412 b.o. He 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



became a pupil of Antisthenes 
the SocratiG at Athens, and 
changed from a dissolute to a 
most austere life. He was sold 
into sLayery at Corinth, where he 
acquired his freedom and passed 
his old age. He died in 323 B.C., 
according to Plutarch {MoraU^ 
p. 717 c) on the same day as 
Alexander the Great. 

Dionysius, of Colophon 347, a. 
pamter contemporary with Poly- 
gnotus (latter half of the fifth 
century B.C.), of whom he was 
said to be an imitator. Accord- 
ing to Aristotle, his work lacked 
idealism. 

DolabelU, 131, 141. 181, the 

{)rofligate and debt-ridden son-in- 
aw of Cicero, lived 70-43 B.C. 
He took part with Caesar in 
49 B.C., but approved of his 
murder, and gained the consul- 
ship for the remainder of the 
year 44. He was outlawed and 
declared a public enemy on 
account of his extortions In Asia, 
and committed suicide. 
Domitlan, 421, 423, Roman Em- 
peror 81-96 A.D. 



B 



Ecnomum (Ecnomus), 67, a hill on 
the southern coast of Sicily, 
between Agrigentum and Gela. 

Elea (Velia), 177, 345, 467, a Greek 
colony from Phocaea in Ionian 
Asia Minor, founded about 540 
B.C. on the N.W. coast of Lucania 
in southern Italy (Herod, i. 
164-167). It received the Roman 
franchise in 90 B.C., and was a 
noted health resort. 

Empvlus, 129, mentioned only here, 
unless he is the same person as 
the orator, Empvlus Rhodius, 
mentioned by Quintilian (x. 
6. 4). 

Ephorus, 77, 79. 271, of Cym6, 
pupil of Isocraies, and author of 
a nighly rhetorical history of 
Greece from the " Dorian Inva- 
sion " down to 340 B.C., in which 
year he died. 



Epicurus, 207, founder of the 
philosophical school named from 
him, born in Samoe, 342 B.C., 
died at Athens, 270 B.C. He 
established his school at Athens 
in 306, was a man of pure and 
temperate habits, and bore 
suffering with cheerful fortitude. 

Epidamnus, 181, the city on the 
coast of Illyria known in Roman 
history usually as Dyrrhachium. 
It was a free state, and sided 
consistently with the Romans. 

Epipolae, 313, a triangular plateau 
rising gradually westwards from 
Syracuse, visible from the interior 
of the island city, and surrounded 
by precipitous cliffs. Cf. the 
Nieiasy xvii. 1 ; xxi. 5-9. 

Eudemus, the Cyprian, 47, a 
member of the Platonic circle and 
an intimate friend of Aristotle. 
Aristotle's dialogue entitled 
" Eudemus, or On the Soul." is 
preserved only in scanty frag- 
ments (cf. Plutarch, MorcUs, 
p. 175 b, and Cicero, de Dio., 
i. 25, 53). Eudemus fell in a 
battle between the friends of 
Dion and the traitor Callippus 
(Diodorus, xvi, 36, 6). 

Evander, the (Cretan, 417, men- 
tioned only here. 



F 



Favonlus, 149, 151. 201, 203. 
Marcus F., called the " Ape of 
Cato," was aedile in 62, and 
praetor in 40 B.C. He joined 
Pompey in the East notwith* 
standing personal enmity to him, 
and accompanied him in his 
flight from Pharsalus (cf. the 
Pompey, Ixxiii. 6 f.) 

Flavins. 241, Caius F., an intimate 
friend of Brutus, and his prae- 
fectus fabrorum at Philippi. 



G 



Gaesylus, the Spartan, 105, 107, 

mentioned only here. 
Galba, 435-439, Servius SulpiclusG., 

military tribune under Aemllius 



473 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Faulus, praetor in 151, and 
famous for his faithless cruelty 
in his province of Spain. He 
was consul in 144 B.C. He was 
also an orator of power. 

Galepsus, 417, a colony of Thasos 
on the coast of Tlirace. 

Gela, 57, 346, an important Greek 
city on the southern coast of 
Sicily, between Agrigentum and 
Camarina. It was colonized in 
690 B.C. from Crete and Rhodes. 
The Carthaginians destroyed it in 
405 B.C. 

Gelon, 319, tyrant of S3^acuse 
485-478 B.C., and victor over the 
Carthaginians at Himera in 
480 B.C. 

Gentliius, 387, King of Illyria. He 
graced the triumph of liis 
conqueror, Lucius Anicius, in 
167 B.C., and died in captivity. 



Hanno, 307, had commanded 
successfully in the last war 
between the Carthaginians and 
Dionysius the Elder (368 B.C.). 
His failure to prevent the landing 
of Timoleon in 344 probably led 
to lus recall and the substitution 
of Mago in his place. He was 
afterwards put to death for 
conspiracy. 

Harpalus, 393, mentioned only here. 

Helicon, of Cyzicus. 41, for some 
time a resident at the court of 
Dionysius the Younger. Suidas 
mentions a work of his on 
astrology. 

Heracleides, 25, 71, 73, 81, 83, 95, 
99, 101-107, 111-117, was com- 
mander of the mercenaries of 
Dion3^ius the Younger, and fled 
from Syracuse with Dion (Dio- 
dorus, xvi. 6, 4). 

Hermocrates, 7, an eminent and 
nobly patriotic Syracusan at the 
time of the great Athenian 
expedition against the city (415- 
413 B.C.), and prominent in the 
narrative of Thucydides. After 
the destruction of the Athenian 
armament, he served his native 



city ably as admiral in conjunc- 
tion with the Spartan fleet, but 
was deposed in 409 B.C. by a 
rival political party, and was 
killed two years later in an 
attempt to gain possession of 
Syracuse by force. 

Herostratus, 179, mentioned only 
here. 

Hicetas, 123, 265, 277, 281, 283. 
287-291, 299, 303, 305, 311, 313, 
319, 335T-341. during the dis- 
orders following the death of 
Dion succeeded in establishing 
himself as tyrant of Leontlni. 

Himera, 319, an important Greek 
city on the northern coast of 
Sicily, at the mouth of the river 
of the same name. 

Hirtius, 453, Aulus H., a warm 
friend and supporter of Julius 
Caesar. He fell in gallantly 
leading an assault upon Antony's 
troops. 

Hortensius, 181, 187, Quintus H. 
Hortatus, a son of the great 
orator Hortensius, though appar- 
ently cast off by his father on 
account of dissolute habits. He 
joined Caesar in 49 B.o, and 
served him in important com- 
mands. In 44 B.C. he held the 
province of Macedonia, and 
Brutus was to succeed him. 

Hostilius, 377, Aulus H. Mancinus, 
consul in 170, and pro-consul in 
Greece in 169 B.C.. where he 
conducted a safe but inconclusive 
warfare against Perseus. 



lapygia. 53, the ancient (Greek) 
name for Calabria, the eastern 
peninsula of southern Italy. 
Probably the lapygian promon- 
tory is here meant. 

Ion, 425, a military officer of 
Perseus. 



Junia, 141, Junia Tertia, a half- 
sister of Brutus. She lived till 
22 A.D., and left large legacies to 
the leading men of Eome. 



474 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Labeo, 151, 241, Quintus Antistius 
L., an eminent Jurist, and father 
of a jurist more eminent still, 
who lived under Augustus. 
According to A^pian {B.C. iv. 
135), Labeo, unwilling to survive 
Brutus, had liimself killed by a 
trusty slave and buried in his tent. 

Lacedaemon, 231, apparently a 
town of Macedonia near Thessa- 
lonica. 

Laenas, Fopilius, 159, 161, a 
Roman senator, not otherwise 
mentioned (cf. Appian, B.C., 
ii. 115 f.). 

Leontini, 59, 85, 89, 301, 319, 339, 
an ancient Greek city of Sicily, 
between Syracuse and Catana, 
about eight miles inland. 

Lepidus. 169, 187, 455, Marcus 
Aemilius L., triumvir with Octa- 
vius and Antony. He joined 
the party of Caesar in 49, and was 
praetor in Spain in 48 B.C., 
Caesar's magister equltum in 
47 and 45, and his consular 
colleague in 46. After Caesar's 
murder he sided with Antony, 
and as member of the trium- 
virate received Spain and Nar- 
bonese Gaul as his province, 
then, in 40, Africa, where he 
remained till 36 B.C., when he 
was deposed from the triumvirate 
He lived till 13 B.C. 

Leptines. 123, 299,319, a Syracusan. 
who aided Callippus in capturing 
Bhegium in 351 B.C. His exile 
by Timoleon was in 342 B.C. 

Leucadia (Leucas), 295, an island 
in the Ionian sea. once a part of 
tiie mainland of Acamania. 

Licinius, Publius, 377, P. L. 
Crassus, consul in 171 B.C. 

Lilybaeum, 321, a promontory and 
city at the extreme western end 
of SicUy. 

Lycon, the Syracusan, 121, not 
otherwise mentioned. 

M 

Maedica, 383, the territory of the 
Maedi, a powerful tribe in 
western Thrace. 



Maflfo, 303-315, commander of the 
Carthaginian fleet and army in 
Sicily in 344 B.C., succeeding 
Hanno. 

Mamercus (1), 359, son of Pytha- 
goras. Cf. the Numa, xiii. 9. 

Mamercus (2), 291, 335-351. tyrant 
of Catana. 

Marrucinians, 407, a warlike tribe 
of central Italy, generally sharing 
the fortunes of the neighbouring 
Marsi and Pelignl, and after 
304 B.C. faithful allies of Home. 

Maso, 365, Caius Papirius M., 
consul in 231, died in 213 B.C. 

Maximus (1), Fabius, 393, 447, see 
Plutarch's Life. 

Maximus (2), Valerius, 247, compiler 
of a large collection of anecdotes, 
in the time of Augustus. 

Mediolanum, 257, the chief city of 
Cisalpine Gaul, the modern 
Milan. 

Messala, 215-229, 245, 247, Marcus 
Valerius M. Corvinus, bom about 
70 B.C., educated at Athens, 
and a friend of Horace. He 
attached himself to Cassius after 
the death of Caesar, and fought 
ably at Philippi. After the 
death of Cassius he became a 
supporter of Antony, and then of 
Octavius (Augustus). He was 
also a poet, historian, gram- 
marian, and orator. He wrote 
commentaries on the civil wars 
after Caesar's death. 

Messana, 103, 123, 309. 335, 343, 
an important city of Sicily, on 
the strait between that island 
and Italy, nearly opposite Ehe- 
gium. 

Milo, 395, 397, of Beroea, an officer 
in the army of Perseus. He had 
been successful against the Bo- 
man consul Licinius Crassus in 
171 B.C. From Pydna he fled to 
Beroea, but soon surrendered the 
place to Aemilius. 

Miltas, the Thessalian, 47-51, not 
otherwise mentioned. 

Mycal6, 421, a i)romontory in Asia 
Minor, opposite the island of 
Samos, where the Athenians 
defeated the Persians in 479 B.C. 

Mylae, 351, an ancient Greek city 

475 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



on the northern coast of Sicily, 
about thirty miles west of 
Messana, and generally depen- 
dent on that city. 

N 

Nasica, see Sciplo (2). 

Noon (1), the Corinthian, 305, 
mentioned only here. 

Neon (2), the Boeotian, 417, one of 
the principal authors of the 
alliance between the Boeotians 
and Perseus. After the battle 
of Pydna he fell into the hands of 
the Romans and was executed. 

NicolaOs, the philosopher, 247, 
probably Nicolaus Damascenus, 
a famous historian and philo- 
sopher of the Augustan age. 

Nisaeus, 263, not otherwise men- 
tioned. 

Norbanus, 209, an officer sent 
forward into Macedonia by 
Octavius and Antony (Appian. 
J?.C., ix. 87). ' ^ *'*' » 

Numantia, 415, a famous city in 

northern Spain. 
Nypeius, 87, 93, 99, not otherwise 

mentioned. 

O 

Octavius, Gnaeus, 423, 425, praetor 

in 168 B.C., consul in 165. He 

was assassinated in 162, while on 

an embassy in Syria. 
Oreus, 377, formerly called Histiaea, 

an ancient and important town 

in northern Euboea. 
Oricus (Oricum), 435, a town and 

harbour of Ulyria, a few miles 

south of Apollonia. 



Pachynus, 53, the south-eastern 
promontory of Sicily. 

Paeonians, 403, an ancient and 
powerful people of Upper Mace- 
donia. 

Pansa, 453, Caius Vibius P., a 
devoted friend of Julius Caes^, 
who made him governor of 
Cisalpine Oaul in 46, and consul 
for 43 B.O. with Hirtius. 



476 



^*i*'i (?a<»rean8), 131, 197, a 
flourishing city on the south- 
western coast of Lycia in Asia 
Minor, celebrated for its temple 
and cult of Apollo. 

Pelignlans, 407, a warlike people in 
central Italy, neighbours to the 
Marsi and Samnites, and after 
304 B.C. faithful allies of Rome. 

Pella, 415, 417, was made the 
capital of Macedonia by PhlUp II. 
and was the birthplace of 
Alexander the Great. It was 
some fifteen miles from the sea 
west of the river Axius. ' 

Pella, Lucius, 203, mentioned only 
here. 

Pelusium, 199, a strong frontier- 
town on the eastern branch of 
the Nile. 

Perrhaebla, 393, a district in 
northern Thessaly. 

Pharax, 103, 287, 463, perhaps the 
same person as the envoy from 
Sparta to Athens mentioned by 
Xenophon in Hell. vi. 6, 33, and 
as the Pharax characterized by 
Theopompus as most un-Spartan 
in his mode of life (Athenaeus. 
p. 536 c). 

I'Wllp, 371-375, Philip V. of 
^i^A^^i *''*® of t*ie ablest 
22^1%" B.?. "^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

Philippus, Marcius, 457 Oulntnn 
M.|.. consul in 186, ^d Tgata in 

l^t^^PlV^"" ^^*«^ r*'" he con- 
ducted the war against Perseus 
handing over his commsmd to 
Aemilius Paulus in the following 
year. He was censor with 
Aemilius in 164 b.c. 

PMlippi 179, 187, 207-211, a city of 
Macedonia on the river Strjrmon 
formerly called Crenldes, but 
renamed by Philip II. 

Philistus, 2&-29, 39, 53, 77, 79, 299 
a Syracusan. an eye-witness of 
the events of the Athenian siege 
of Syracuse in 415-413 b.c. 
which he described thirty years 
later in a history of Sicily. 

Plancus, 167, Lucius Munatius P. 
a friend and supporter of Julius 
Caesar, and after Caesar's death 
of Antony. He was consul in 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



42 B.C., a^i Caesar had planned. 
He abandoned the cause of 
Antony in 32, and joined Octa- 
vins, whose favour he thence- 
forth enjoyed. 

Flataea, 421, the little city of 
Boeotia near which the allied 
Greeks defeated the Persians in 
479 B.C. 

PoUis, the Spartan, 11, a Spartan 
naval commander in 376 B.O., 
defeated by Chabrias of Athens. 

PolybiuB, 135, 393, 395, 405, of 
Megalopolis in Arcadia, the 
Greek historian of the Punic 
Wars, bom about 204 B.C., 
long resident in Rome, and an 
intimate friend of the younger 
Scipio, with whom he watched 
the destruction of Carthage in 
146 B.C. 

Porcia, 153, 155, 247, wife of 
Marcus Brutus, daugher of Cato 
the Younger by his first wife. 
See the Cato Minor, Izxiii. 4. 

Poeeidonius, 129. 405-413, of 
Apameia in Syria, a Stoic 
philosopher, pupil of Panaetius 
of Athens, contemporary with 
Cicero, who often speaks of him 
and occasionally corresponded 
with him. 

Ptoeodorus, the Megarian, 35, 
mentioned only here. 

Pydna. 397, 415, 419, a town of 
southern Macedonia, on the 
Thermalc gulf. 

Pythagoras, the philosopher, 359, 
of Samos, flourished about 540- 
510 B.C. After extensive travels 
he settled in Crotona of southern 
Italy, and founded a numerous 
and mysterious sect. 

R 

Rhegium, 123, 281-285, 307, an 
important Greek citv in the 
Bruttian peninsula of southern 
Italy, nearly opposite to Messana 
in Sicily. 

S 

Samothrace, 419, 423, a large island 
in the northern Aegean sea, 
about forty miles south of the 
Thracian coast. 



Scipio (1), the Great, 359, 367, 
Fublius Cornelius S. Africanus 
Major, conqueror of Hannibal. 
He lived 234-183 B.o. 

Scipio (2), 393, 395, 399, 403, 418, 
425, Publius Cornelius S. Nasica 
Corculum, celebrated as jurist 
and orator, consul in 162, 
censor in 159, and consul a 
second time in 155 b.o. He 
appears to have written conmien- 
taries on this campaisn under 
Aemilius, which is his first 
appearance in history. 

Scipio (8), 189, Publius Cornelius S. 
Nasica, adopted by Metellus 
Pius and therefore often called 
Metellus Scipio. He was Pom- 
pey's colleague in the consulship 
for part of the year 52 B.O., and 
became a determined foe of 
Caesar. He killed himself after 
the battle of Thapsus (46 B.C.). 

Scipio (4), 365, 413, 415, 447, 453, 
455, 459, Publius Cornelius S. 
Aemilianus Africanus Mhior, 
younger son of Aemilius Paulus, 
adopted by Publius Scipio, the 
son of Scipio the Great, was 
bom about 185, and died mysteri- 
ously in 129 B.o. 

Servilia, 127. 129, 135, 137, 247, 
after the death of her first hus- 
band, the father of Brutus, 
married Decimus Junius Silanus, 
who was consul in 62 B.o. 

Servilius, Marcus, 437, mentioned 
only here. 

Sestius, 133, Publius Sestlus, a 
supporter of Cicero in the 
suppression of the Catilinarian 
conspiracy, and active in securing 
Cicero's recall from exile. See 
Cicero's oration pro Sestio. In 
the civil war, he sided first with 
Pompey, and then with Caesar. 

Sili(dus, Publius, 187, called Sllicius 
Coronas by Dion Casslus (xlvi. 
49), a Roman senator, appoin- 
ted one of the judges to try the 
murderers of Caesar. He ven- 
tured to vote for the acquittal 
of Brutua, and was therefore 
proscribed and put to death by 
the triumvirs. 

Simonides, 3, 349, of Ceos, the 

477 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



greatest Isrric poet of Oreeoe, 
556-457 B.C. 
Speusippus, 35. 45, 47, 77. a distin- 

guished disciple of Plato, whom 
e followed as head of the 
Academy (347-839 B.O.). 
Statilius, the Epicurean, 149, 151, 

mentioned only here. 
Strato, 245, meotioned only here. 



Tauromenium, 285-289, a city on 
the north-eastern coast of Sicily, 
about midway between Gatana 
and Messana. 

Thasos, 227, an island in the 
northern part of the Aegean sea, 
off the coast of Thrace, half a 
day's sail from Amphipolis. 

Theomnestus, the Academic, 177, 
a brother of the Aristus men- 
tioned in chapter ii. 2, and 
apparently his successor as head 
of the Academy. 

Theopompus. 51, 271, of Chios, a 
fellow-pupil of Isocrates with 
Ephorus, wrote anti-Athenian 
histories of Greece from 411 to 
394 B.C., and of Philip of Macedon 
from 860 to 336 B.O. 

Thessalonica, 231, an important 
city at the head of the Thermaic 
gulf, capital of the Roman 
province of Macedonia. 

Thurii, 299, 307, a Greek city of 
Lower lialy, on the gulf of 
Tarentum, near the site of the 
ancient Sybaris. Its coloniza- 
tion in 444 B.C. was one of the 
great projects of Pericles. See 
the Nieias, v. 2. 

Timaeus, 13, 29, 69, 77, 79, 271, 
285, 345, 461, of Tauromenium, 
lived between 350 and 250 B.o. 
During a long exile in Athens 
he wrote a voluminous history 
of his native island from earliest 
time down to 264 B.O. 

Timon, 35, of Phlius, a philosopher 
of the Sceptic school, author of a 
famous satiric poem called SiUi, 



taught successfully at Chalcedon 
and Athens. He flourished about 
280 B.C. 

Timonides, the Leucadian, 47, 67, 
69, 77, accompanied Dion to 
Sicily and fought on his side. 

Tlmothetts. 345, son of Conon the 
great Athenian admiral. He was 
made general in 378 B.C., and 
about 360 was at the height of 
i«j0 popularity and glory. 

Titinius. 223, 225, a centurion. 
His story is told also in Appian 
(B.C. iv. 113) and Valerius 
Maximus (ix. 0, ext. 2). 

Trebonius, 163, 169. Gains T., 
tribune of the people in 55 B.o., 
and an instrument of the first 
triumvin. He was afterwards 
legate of Gaesar in Gaul and was 
loaded witii favours by him, but 
joined his murderers. 

Tubero, 367, 427, 433, Quintus 
Aelius T., son-in-law of Aemilius 
Paulus. Gf. Valerius Maximus, 
iv. 4 ext. 9. 



Vatinius, 181, Publius V., tribune 
of the people in 59 B.C., and a 
paid creature of Gaesar. After 
Pliarsalus, Gaesar gave him high 
command in the East. He was 
compelled to surrender his army 
to Brutus, but did not forfeit the 
favour of Octavius and Antony. 

Velia, 345, 457, see Elea. 

Volumnius, Publius, 235, 241, 243, 
mentioned only here. 



Xanthus, 131, 195, 197, the largest 
and most prosperous city of 
Lycia in Asia Minor, at the 
mouth of the river of the same 
name. 



Zacynthus, 47, 49, 119, 121, an 
island oflf the western coast of 
Peloponnesus, the modem Zante. 



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THE LOEB CLASSICAL 

UBRARY. 

VOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHED. 

Latin Authors . 

APULEIUS. The Golden Ass. (Metamorphoses.) Trans, by 
W. Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. 

BOETHIUS: TRACTS AND DE CONSOLATIONE 
PHILOSOPHIAE. Trans, by Rev. H. F. Stewart. 

CAESAR : CIVIL WARS. Trans, by A. G. Peskett. 

CAESAR : GALLIC WAR. Trans, by H. J. Edwards. 

CATULLUS. Trans, by F. W. Cornish ; TIBULLUS. 
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( 1 63 1 ). 2 Vols. ( 2nd Impression. ) 

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{2nd Impression. ) 

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PETRONIUS. Trans, by M. Heseltine ; SENECA : APOCO- 
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TACITUS: DIALOGUS. Trans, by Sir Wm. Peterson; 
and AGRICOLA AND GERMANIA. Trans, by Maurice 
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Greek Authors. 



ACHILLES TATIUS. Trans, by S. Gaselee. 

APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. Trans, by R. C. Seaton. (und frnpressioH.) 

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Trans, by Kirsopp Lake. 3 Vols, {^nd 
/mission.) 

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DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised by J. M. 
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HESIOD AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS. Trans, by H. G. Evelyn 
White. 

JULIAN. Trans, by Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. Vols. I and II. 

LUCIAN. Trans, by A. M. Harmon. 7 Vols. Vols. I and II. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. Trans, by C. R. Haines. 

PAUSANIAS : DESCRIPTION OF GREECE. Trans, by W. H. S. 
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PINDAR. Trans, by Sir J. E. Sandys. 

PLATO: EUTHYPHRO, APOLOGY, CRITO, PHAEDO, PHAE- 
DRUS. Trans, by H. N. Fowler, {-ind Impression.) 

PLUTARCH: THE PARALLEL LIVES. Trans. by B. Pcrrin. nVols. 
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QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. Trans, by A, S. Way. 

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ST. JOHN DAMASCENE : BARLAAM AND lOASAPH. Trans, by 
the Rev. G. R. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 

STRABO : GEOGRAPHY. Trans, by Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. Vol. I. 

THEOPHRASTUS : ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Trans, by Sir Arthur 
Hon, Bart. 2 Vols. 

XENOPHON : CYROPAEDIA. Trans, by Walter Miller, s Vols. 

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