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Full text of "A pocket hand-book of biography .."

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 



Shelf 



UNTTw > STATES OF AMERICA. 



A POCKET 



Hand-Book of Biography 



CONTAINING MORE THAN 



Ten Thousand Names of Celebrities 



IN 



EVERY SPHERE OF HUMAN ACTION 

SHOWING THEIR 

NATIONALITY, RANK OR CONDITION, PROFESSION OR OCCU- 
PATION, THE DATES OF THEIR BIRTH AND DEATH, 

AND EFFECTUALLY 

ANSWERING THE FREQUENT QUERY "WHO WAS HE?" 

/ 

COMPILED BY / 

HENRY FREDERIC REDDALL 

Associate Editor of The People's Cyclopedia, and Author of Fact, Fancy, and Fable,, 
From the Golden Gate to the Golden Horn, School-boy Days in 
Merrie England, etc., etc. . 



/y^/Z &vsJ$*~ 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. : 

C. W. BAKDEEN, PUBLISHER. 
1890. 






THE LIBRARY 
OF COMSRBA9 



Copyright, 1890, by Henry F. Eeddall. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



TN the following concise Dictionary of Biography par- 

ticular attention has been paid to the orthography and the 

matter of dates, the best and most recent authorities having 

been consulted. A doubtful or approximate date is followed 

by an interrogation point. The contraction "fl." stands for 

u flourished " — that is, lived. Nicknames, pen-names, etc., also 

designations of kinship, are printed in italics following the real 

name; The words in brackets denote some work, as a book or 

an invention, produced by the personage, or some famous 

episode in his history. The Hand-book will be found especially 

rich in names of living celebrities. 

H. F. R. 

New York, 1890. 



A POCKET 

HAND-BOOK OF BIOGRAPHY. 



A 
POCKET HAND-BOOK 



OF 



BIOGRAPHY, 



BORN. DIEDY 

Aa, van der, Christian Karl Hendrik, Dutch scholar. 1718... 1793 

Aagaard, Niels, Danish scholar and writer 1612. . .1657 

Aagesen, Svend, earliest Danish historian fl. 1186 

Aali Pasha, Turkish statesman and diplomat 1815. . .1871 

A arsons, van, Franz, Dutch diplomat 1572. . .1641 

Aartsberger, Alexander van der Capellen, Dutch 

statesman and author .* ? 1600. . .1656 

Aaron, Samuel, Am. educator 1800. . .1865 

Aasen, Ivar Andreas, Norwegian philologist 1813 

Aba, Samuel, king of Hungary 1044 

Abad, Diego Jose", Mex. poet 1727.. .1779 

Abad I., Abu Amru Ibn Habed, first Moorish king of 

Seville. Founder of the Abadite dynasty ? 1041- 

Abad II., Mohammed Don Hamed. Son. Conqueror 

of Andalusia 1012. . .1069 

Abad III., Mohammed Ibn Hamed. Son of Abad II. 

Deposed 1039 . . . 1095 

Abadie, Eugene H., Am. surgeon 1814... 1874 

Abad-y-Quiepo, Sp. -Mexican bishop 1775... 1824 

Abaka Khan, second Mongol king of Persia 1282 

Abamonti, Giuseppe, Neapolitan statesman ? 1759. . .1818 

Abancourt, d', Charles Xavier Joseph, war minister 

to Louis XVI. of France 1758. . .1792 

Abano, Pietro, Ital. astrologer and physician ?1250..?1350 

Abarbanel, Isaac ben Judah, Jewish biblical com- 
mentator and philosopher 1437. . .1508 

Abarca, Don Joaquim, Span, prelate and Carlist ? 1780... 1844- 

Abascal, Jose* Fernando, Span, viceroy of Peru 1743. ..1821 

Abasolo, Mariano, Mex. patriot 1780. . .1811 

Abati, de gli, Bocco, Florentine traitor fl. 1260 

A l;ati, Niccolo, Ital. fresco painter ? 1512. . .1571 1 

A bauzit, Firmin, Fr. philosophical writer 1679. . .1767/ 

Abb a die, d% Antoine Thomson, explorer of Brazil..... 1810 

Abbadie, d% Arnould Michel, Fr. explorer of Abys- 
sinia and the Galla country 1815 

Abbadie, d', Gov. of Louisiana 1710. . .1765 

Abbadie, Jacques, Fr. Reformed theologian 1658. . .1727 

Abbas-Ben- Abd-el-Mottalib, paternal uncle of Mo- 
hammed 566... 652 

9 



ABBAS— ABD-ER-RAHMAN 



BORN. DIED. 

Abbas. The Great. Shah of Persia 1557... 1628 

Abbas Mirza, Persian prince ?1783...1833 

Abbatucci, Jacques Pierre Charles, Fr. diplomat 1791... 1857 

A bbe, Cleveland, Am. astronomer and meteorologist. . 1838 

Abbeville, Claud Pere, Capuchin historian fl. 1614 

Abbey, Edwin Austin, Am. artist 1852 

Abbey, Henry, Am. author 1842 

Abbey, Richard, Am. M. E. clergyman 1805 

Abbon of Fleury, Fr. monk and savant. 945... 1004 

Abbot, Abiel, Am. Cong, minister 1765. . .1859 

Abbot, Abiel, Am. Cong, minister 1770. . .1828 

Abbot, Benjamin, Am. teacher 1762... 1849 

Abbot, Charles, first Lord Colchester, Brit, statesman.. 1757. ..1829 

Abbot, Ezra, Am. biblical critic 1819. . .1884 

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood, Am. author 1836 

A bbot, George, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of Canterbury 1562. . .1633 

Abbot, Henry Larcom, Am. soldier 1831. . .' 

Abbot, Joel, Am. physician 1766 . . .1826 

Abbot, Joel, Am. naval officer 1793. . .1855 

Abbot, Samuel, founder of theological seminary at 

Andover, Mass 1732. . .1812 

Abbott, Austin, Am. lawyer. [Law Reports and Digests.] 1831 

Abbott, Benjamin, Am. clergyman and revivalist 1732. . .1796 

Abbott, Benjamin Vaughn, Am. lawyer 1830. . . 1890 

Abbott, Charles, first Lord Tenterden, Lord-Chief- 
Justice of England , *. 1762. ..1832 

Abbott, Charles Conrad, Am. naturalist 1843 

Abbott, Edward, Am. journalist 1841 

Abbott, Gorham Dummer, Am. educator 1807. . .1874 

Abbott, Horace, Am. manufacturer 1806. . . 

Abbott, Jacob, Am. author. [Rollo Books.'] 1803. . .1879 

Abbott, John, Am. entomologist 

Abbott, John Joseph Caldwell, Canadian statesman. . . 1811 

Abbott, John Stevens Cabot, Am. historian 1805. . .1877 

Abbott, Joseph C, Am. journalist 1825. . .1882 

Abbott, Lyman, Am. Congregational clergyman 1835 

Abbott, Robert Osborne, Am. surgeon 1824... 1867 

Abbt, Thomas, Ger. mathematical writer 1738. . .1766 

Abdallah-Ben-Abd-el-Mottalib, Arabian mer- 
chant, Father of Mohammed -. . ? 545. . . 570 

Abdallah-Ibn-Balkin, last sultan of Grenada fl. 1073 

Abdallah-Ibn-Yasin. Fakih. Founder of the Al- 

moravide Empire 1059 

Abdel- Aziz II., Moorish viceroy of Spain ? 716 

Abd-el-Kader, or Abdul-Kadi r, Emir of Algeria..? 1807... 1883 

Abd-el-Malek, Arabian doctor and scientist ? 740. . .? 821 

Abd-el-Moumin, first caliph of the Almohades ? 1100... 1163 

Abd-el- Wahab, founder of the Wahabees ? 1692. . .1787 

Abd-er-Rahman, leader of the Saracens, killed at 

Poitiers 732 

Abd-er-Rahman, emperor of Morocco 1778. . .1859 

-Abd-er-Rahman I„ Ommiade sultan of Spain 731. . . 787 

10 



ABD-EIl-RAHMAN—A B U-HAMID 



BORN. DIED. 

Abd-er-Rahman III., Ommiade sultan of Spain... 891... 961 

Abdul- Aziz, sultan of Turkey... 1830... 1876 

Abdul-Humid II., sultan of Turkey 1842 

Abdul-Mejid, sultan of Turkey 1823. . .1861 

Abdurrahman, Ameer of Afghanistan, 1880 1830 

A'Becket, Gilbert Abbot, Eng. comic writer 1811. . .1856 

Abeel, David, Am. missionary to China 1804. . .1846 

Abegg, Julius Friedrich Heinrich, Ger. jurist 1796. . .1868 

Abeille, Gaspard, Fr. poet and dramatist 1648. . .1718 

Abel, Clark, Eng. surgeon and naturalist , ? 1780. . .1826 

Abel, Joseph, Ger. painter 1768. ..1818 

Abel, Niels Henrick, Norwegian mathematician 1802. „ .1829 

Abel, von, Jakob Friedrich, Ger. .philosopher 1751. . .1829 

Abelard, Pierre, Fr. scholastic and logician 1079. . .1142 

Abel de Pujol, Alexandre Denis, Fr. painter 1785... 1861 

A ben-Ezra, Abraham. The Wise. Jewish commen- 
tator ? 1119..? 1174 

Abercrombie, James, Brit, general in America 1706. . .1781 

Abercrombie, John, Scot, physician 1781... 1844 

Abercrombie, James, Am. clergyman 1758. . .1841 

Abercrombie, John Joseph, Am. soldier 1802. . .1877 

Abercromby , Sir Ralph, Brit, general ? 1738. . .1801 

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, fourth Earl of, 

Brit, statesman 1784. ..I860 

Abernethy, John, Irish Presbyterian divine 1680. . .1740 

Abernethy, John. Grandson of John. Eng. surgeon. 1764... 1831 

Abert, Colonel John James, Am. military engineer 1787. . .1863 

A bert, John James, Am. soldier. Son 1820 

Abert, Silvanus Thayer, Am. civil engineer. Son 1828 

A bert, William Stretch, Am. soldier. Son .' 1836. . .1867 

Abich, Wilh. Herman, Russo.-Ger. naturalist 1806 

Abildgaard, Nicholas Abraham, Danish painter 1744..? 1809 

Abildgaard, Peter Christian, Danish naturalist and 

physician 1740. . . 1808 

Abinger, James Scarlett, Lord, Eng. judge 1769. . .1844 

Abington, Frances, Eng. actress. ? 1731. . .1815 

About, Edmond Francois Valentin, Fr. author 1828. . .1885 

Aboville, Francois Marie, Comte de, Fr. soldier in Am. 1730. . .1817 

Abrabanel, Isaac, Port.-Jewish writer 1437. . .1508 

Abraham-a-Sancta-Clara. Ulrich von Megerle. R. 

C. preacher at Vienna 1642. . .1709 

Abrahams, Simeon, Am. physician and philanthropist 1809. . .1867 

Abrantes, d', Don Jose\ Port, statesman 1784... 1827 

A br antes, Laure Permont, Duchesse de, author of po- 
litical memoirs and wife of Due de Abrantes 1784. . .1838 

Abresch, Friedrich Ludwig, Ger. classicist 1699. . .1782 

Abrial, Joseph Andre\ Fr. statesman 1750 . . . 1828 

Absalon, or Axel, Icelandic Archbishop of Lund 1128... 1201 

Abt, Franz, Ger. musical composer 1819. . .1885 

Abu-Bekr, first caliph of Mecca ?571... 634 

Abu-Hamid-Algharali, Arabian philosopher and 

divine ? 1058... 1111 

11 



A B U-L-ABBA S— ADAMS 



BORN. DIED. 

Alm-1- Abbas-Abdallah. As-Seffah. First caliph of 

the Abbasides ?720... 754 

Abulfaraj, Mar Gregorius. Bar-Hebrceus. Armenian 

bishop and historian ... 1226. . .1286 

Abu-Moslem, Arabian general ? 720. . . 755 

Abu-Yusuf-Yakub IV. Almansoe. Sultan of Africa 

and Spain 1160. ..1198- 

Accolti, Benedetto, Florentine lawyer and historian. . 1415. . .1466 

Accum, Friedrich, Ger. chemist 1769. . .183a 

Acevedo, Felix Alvarez, Span, insurgent leader .1820 

Achar d, Alexis Jean, Fr . painter. 1807. . .1884 

Achard, Ameaee, Fr. novelist and dramatist 1814. . .1875 

Achard, Franz Karl, Ger. chemist 1753. . .1821 

Achenbach, Andreas, Ger. landscape and marine 

painter 1815 

Achenbach, Oswald, Ger. painter 1827 

Achen wall, Gottfried, Pruss. writer on statistics 1719. . .1772 

Achilles-Tatius, Greek writer. [Leucippe andClito- 

phon.] , fl. 5th c. A. D. 

Achillini, Alessandro, Ital. philosopher and physicist 1463. . .1512 
Ackermann, Johann Christian Gottlieb, Ger. med- 
ical writer and classicist 1756. . .1801 

Ackermann, Rudolph, Ger. printseller in London 1764... 1834 

Aekland, John Dyke, Brit, commander of grenadiers 

atthe battle of Stillwater 1778 

Aconz Rover, Stefan, Armenian writer 1740... 1824 

Aconzio, Giacomo, Ital. writer. [Stratagems of Satan.].? 1492..? 1556 

Acosta, de, Jose, Span, missionary and author 1539 ..1600 

A cquaviva, Andrea Matteo, originator of the cycle. ? 1456... 1528 
Acunha, de, Cristobal, Span. Jesuit and missionary... 1597..? 1680 

Adair, John, Am. general and politician 1757. . .1840 

Adair, Sir Robert, Eng. diplomat 1763. . .1855 

Adalbert, Saint. Apostle of the Prussians. Bishop of 

Prague and martyr 939... 997 

Adam, Adolphe Charles, Fr. pianist and composer 1803... 1856 

Adam, Albrecht, Ger. painter 1786. . .1862 

Adam of Bremen, ecclesiastical chronicler fl. 11th c. 

Adam, Alexander, Scottish teacher and classicist 1741. . .1809 

Adam, Lambert Sigisbert, Fr. sculptor 1700. . .1759 

Adam, Melchior, Ger. divine and biographer 1622 

Adam, Mme. Juliette, Fr. authoress 1845 

Adams, Abigail, Am. writer, wife of Pres. Adams 1744. . .1818 

A dams, Charles Baker, Am. naturalist 1814 . . .1853 

Adams, Charles Francis. Son of John Quincy. Am. 

lawyer and diplomat 1807 

Adams, George Madison, Am. soldier and congressman 1837 

A dams, Hannah, Am. authoress 1755. . .1831 

Adams, John, lawyer and jurist ; second President of 

the U.S 1735. ..1826 

Adams, John (properly Alex. Smith). Patriarch of 

Pitcaim Island 1764 . . . 1829 

Adams, John Couch, Eng. astronomer 1819 

12 



ADAMS— AETIUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Adams, John Quincy. Son of John. Sixth President 

of theU. S 1767... 184=8 

Adams. Samuel, Am. revolutionary patriot and 

statesman 1722. . .1803 

Adams, William Taylor. Oliver Optic. Am. story- 
writer for boys 1822 

Adamson, Michel, Fr. naturalist. 1727. . .1806 

Adamson, Patrick, Archb'p of St. Andrews, Scotland 1536. . .1592 
Addington, Henry, first Viscount Sidmouth. Eng. 

statesman 1755. . .1844= 

Addison, Joseph, Eng. poet and essayist. [Spectator.]. 1672... 1719 
Adelaide, queen of England. Consort of William IV. 1792... 1849 
Adelaide, princess of Orleans. Sister of Louis Philippe 1777.. .1847 
Adelaide, Saint, wife of Lothaire II., king of Italy, 

and later of Otho the Great ? 931. . . 999 

Adeler, Cord Siversten, Danish high admiral 1622. . 1675 

Adelgreif, Johann Albrecht, Ger. fanatic 1636 

Adelon, Nicolas Philibert, Fr. physician and writer. .. 1782. . .1862 

Adelung, Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1768. . .1843 

Adelung, Johann Christoph, Ger. philologist 1732. . .1806 

Adet, Pierre Auguste, Fr. envoy and chemist 1763. . .1832 

A dh-dhahebi, Arabian historian 1275... 1348 

Adler, Felix, Am. lecturer and author 1851 

Adler, Georg J., Am. professor and author of German 

and English Dictionary 1821. . .1868 

A dler , Jacob George, Danish orientalist 1755 . . . 1805 

Adlerbeth, Gudmund Goran, Swedish poet 1751. . .1818 

Adlerfeld, Gustaf, Swedish historian and diplomatist 1671... 1709 

Adolphus I, Count of Holstein 1106. . .1131 

Adolphus II. Son of Adolphus I. Warrior 1164 

Adolphus of Nassau, Ger. emperor .? 1252 1298 

A do 1 phus Frederick, King of Sweden 1710 . 1771 

Adolphus, John, Eng. lawyer and historian ? 1764. . .1845 

Adorni, Caterina Fieschi, Ital. poetess ? 1447. . .1510 

Adrets, des, Francis de Beaumont, Baron, Huguenot 

leader 1513. . .1587 

Adrian, Robert. Irish prof, of mathematics in Am ? 1775. . .1843 

Adrian I., pope 795 

Adrian IV., Nicholas Breakspere, pope 1159 

Adrian VI., pope 1459... 1523 

Adrian!, Giovanni Battista, Ital. historian 1513... 1579 

Adriano. The Friar. Span, painter 1630 

Aduarte, Diego, Span, historian ? 1570. . . 1637 

/EKanus, Claudius, Roman writer fl. 3d c. A. D. 

iEpinus, Franz Maria Ulric Theodor, Ger. electrician. 1724. . .1802 
Aertsen or Aartsen, Pieter. Pietro-Longo. Dutch 

painter 1519. .71573 

ASschines, Athenian orator B. C. 389... 314 

Aeschylus, Greek tragic poet B. C. 525. . . 456 

iEsop, Greek fabulist fl. 560 B. C. 

.Esopus, Clodius, Roman tragedian fl. 1st c. B. C. 

Aetius, Roman general ?396... 454 

13 



AFFO—AIBEK 



BORN. DEED. 

Aflb, Ireneo, Ital. antiquarian and historian 1741 . .? 180O 

Afire, Denis Auguste, Archbishop of Paris 1793. . .1848 

A fr an ius, Lucius, Roman comic writer fl. 100 B. C. 

Africa nu s, Sextus Julius, Christian historian ? 232; 

Afzelius, Adam, Swed. botanist 1750..? 183ft 

Agar, Jean Antoine Michel, Fr. financier 1771. . .1844 

Agardh, Karl Adolf, Swed. botanist 1785. . .1859 

Agasius, Greek sculptor fl. A. D. 10 

Agassiz, Louis John Rudolph, Swedish naturalist 

and teacher in America 1807. . .1875 

A gassiz, Alexander. Son. Am. naturalist 1835 

A gathius, Byzantine historian ? 536. . .? 582 

Agathoeles, tyrant of Syracuse B. C. ?360... 289 

Agesilaus II, king of Sparta B. C. ?444...?360 

A gier, Pierre Jean, Fr. judge 1748. ..182a 

Agis II., king of Sparta B.C. 427... 39a 

Agis III., king of Sparta B.C. 338... 330 

Agls IV., king of Sparta B.C. 245... 241 

Agnelli, Jacopo, Ital. Jesuit and writer 1701. . .1798- 

Agnello, Andrea, abbot and historian of Ravenna.. . fl. 9th c. 

Agnes, Saint, Roman child martyr 1 290. . . 303 

A gn esi, Maria Gaetana, Ital. m athematician 1718 . . . 1799 

Agnew, Cornelius Rea, Am. aurist and oculist 1830. . .1888 

Agnolo, d', Baccio, Florentine engineer and architect 1460.. .1545 
Agoult, d% Marie Catherine Sophie de Flavigny, 

Countess. Daniel Stem. Fr. authoress ? 1800 

A gr es ti, Livio da Forli, Ital. historical painter . .? 1580 

Agricola, Cnaeius Julius, Roman general 37. .. 93- 

Agricola, Georg. Bauer. Ger. mineralogist ? 1490. . .1555- 

Agricola, Johann. Schnitter. Antinomian divine of 

Saxony 1492. . .1566 

Agricola, Rudolph. Boelof Huysman. Dutch scholar 1443... 1485 

Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius, Roman statesman B. C. 63. . . 12 

Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius, Ger. 

scholar 1486. . .1535 

Agrippina II., mother of emperor Nero ?15... 60 

Aguado, Alexandre Maria, Span, financier in Paris.. . 1784.. .1842 
Aguesseau, d', Henri Francois, chancellor of France 1668... 1751 

A guilar, Grace, Eng.- Jewish authoress 1816. . .1847 

Ahab, king of Israel B.C. 875... 855 

Ahay, king of Judah B.C. 734... 728 

Ahlqyist, August Engelbert, Finnish philologist 1826 

Ahlwardt, Christian Wilhelm, Ger. philologist. . , 1760. . .183G 

Ahlwardt, Peter, Ger. metaphysician 1710. . .1791 

Ahlwardt, Theodor Wilhelm, Ger. orientalist 1828 

Ahmed I., Turkish sultan 1603. ..1617 

Ahmed II., Turkish sultan 1691.. .1695 

Ahmed or Achmet III., Ottoman emperor.... 1673... 1739 

Ahmed 8hah el Abdali, conqueror in India 71723... 1775 

Ahn, Johan Franz, Ger. grammarian 1796. . .1865 

Ahrens, Heinrich, Ger. jurist and author 1808 

Aibek-Azad-ed-Din, sultan of Egypt 1257 

14 



AIGNAN— ALBERT 



BORN. DIED. 

Aignan , Etienne, Fr. republican and writer 1773. . .1824 

Aigubere, John Dumas, Fr. dramatist 1692. . .1755 

Aiguillon, 'd, Armand de Vignerot-Duplessis-Riche- 

lieu, Due, prime minister of France 1720. . .1788 

Aikin. Dr. John, Eng. biographer and miscel. writer. 1747... 1822 

Ailly, d% Pierre, Fr. cardinal 1350..? 1425 

Aimard, Gustave, Fr . novelist 1818. . .1883 

Aiine-Martin, Louis, Fr. author 1781... 1847 

Ainmuller, Maximilian Emanuel, Ger. painter 1807. . .1870 

Ainslie, Hew, Scottish poet in America 1792 

Aiusworth, Robert, Eng. author of Latin dictionary. . 1660.. .1743 
Aiusworth, William Francis, Eng. traveler and ori- 
entalist 1807 

Aiusworth, William Harrison, Eng. novelist 1805 

Airy, George Bid dell, Eng. astronomer 1801 

Airey, Richard, Lord, Brit, soldier and diplomat 1803. . .1881 

Aiton, William, Scot, botanist 1731.. .1793 

Aitzema, Liemne van, Dutch historian 1600. . .1669 

A kl) a is emperor of Hindustan 1542. . .1605 

Akenside, Mark, Eng. poet 1721. . .1770 

Akerblad, Johan David, Swed. orientalist and anti- 
quary 1760... 1819 

Akers, Benjamin Paul, Am. sculptor 1825. . .1861 

Alacoque, Marguerite Mary, Fr. nun and visionary. . 1647..? 1690 
Aladdin. Son of Osman I. Organizer of the Janizaries fl. 1370 
Alain de Lille. The Universal Doctor. Fr. theologian 1114..? 1203 

A lama n. Lucas, Mex. statesman and author 1855 

Alanson, Edward, Eng. surgeon 1747... 1823 

Alar cod. de, Hernando, Span, explorer of the coast 

of California fl. 1540 

Alarcon y Mendoza, de, Don Juan Ruiz, Span.- 

Mexican poet ? 1600 1639 

Alarcon, Pedro Antonio de. Span, poet and novelist.. 1833 

A lard, Francis, Flemish Protestant theologian 1578 

A lar ic, conqueror of Rome. King of Visigoths ? 350 . . . 410 

Alasco, John, Polish reformer 1499. . .1560 

Alava, d', Miguel Ricardo, Span. gen. and statesman. 1771... 1843 

Alban, Saint, first Christian martyr of Britain ? 285 

Albani, Francesco, Ital. painter 1578. . .1660 

Albans, Saint, John of, Eng. physician, theologian, 

and philosopher ? 1253 

Albany, Louisa, Countess of. Wife of the Young Pre- 
tender ? 1753... 1824 

Albemarle, Arnold van Keppel, Earl of, Dutch 

courtier 1669. . .1718 

Alber, Erasmus, Ger. Protestant preacher and poet 1553 

Albergati-Capacelii, d% Francesco. Ital. dramat..? 1729. ..1804 

Alberoni, Giulio, prime minister of Spain 1664... 1752 

Albers, Johann Friedrich Hermann, Ger. physician. . 1805. . .1867 
Albert, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, consort of 

Queen Victoria 1819. . .1861 

A Ibert, Archbishop of Magdeburg 1489. . .1545 

15 



ALBERT— A L CIBIADES 



BORN. DIED. 

Albert, archduke of Austria and governor of the 

Netherlands 1559. . .1621 

Albert, archduke of Austria, field-marshal. Brother 

of Francis I... 1817 

Albert, first duke of Prussia 1490. . .1568 

Albert, king of Saxony 1873 1828 

A lbert , d' , Charles, Due de Luynes, constable of France 1578. . .1621 
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen 

Victoria 1841 

Albert I., German emperor 1248. ..1308 

Albert II. , German emperor, 1438-1439 1439 

Albert I. The Bear. Margrave of Brandenburg. 

Founder of the house of Brandenburg ? 1106. . .1170 

Albert III. The Achilles and The Ulysses. Margrave 

of Brandenburg 1414. . .1486 

Alberti, Johann, Dutch theologian and scholar 1698. . .1762 

Alberti, Leon Battista, Ital. architect and writer 

on art 1404 ... 1472 

Alberti, Salomon, Ger. anatomist , 1540. ..1600 

Albertini,von, Johann Baptist, Ger. Moravian bishop 1769... 1831 

Albertinus, ^Sgidius, Ger. satirist 1560. . .1620 

Alber'tus Magnus, Bavarian philosopher and school- 
man ? 1193... 1280 

Albicus, Sigismundus, physician and archbishop of 

Prague 1427 

A lbini, Franz Joseph, Ger. diplomatist 1748. . .1816 

A 1 bin us, Bernhard Siegfried, Ger. anatomist and phy- 
sician „ ? 1696 . . .1770 

Albinus, Clodius, Roman governor of Gaul 197 

Albitte, Antoine Louis, Fr. Jacobin 1812 

Albizzi, Bartolommeo, Tuscan writer 1401 

Albo, Jose", Span, rabbi and writer. 1428 

Alboin, king of the Lombards 573 

Alboni, Marietta, Ital. singer 1824 

Albornoz, de, Gil Alvarez Carillo, Span, cardinal and 

statesman 1300. . .1367 

Albrecht, Friedrich Rudolph, Austrian archduke and 

general 1817 

Albrecht, Wilhelm, Ger. agriculturist 1786. . .1848 

A lbret, d', Jeanne, queen of Navarre 1528. . .1572 

A Ibrici, Vincenzo, Ital. composer and organist fl. 1670 

Al bright, Jacob, Am. Methodist preacher 1759. . .1808 

Albrizzi, Isabella Teotochi, Countess of, Ital. authoress 1770. . .1836 

Albucasis, Arabian physician Died 12th c. 

Albumazar, Arabian astronomer ?776... 885 

Albuquerque, de, Alfonso, Port, conqueror in India. 1453... 1515 

Alcseus, Greek lyric poet fl. B. C. ? 611 

Alcaforada, Marianna, Port. nun. [Letters to De 

Chamilly] fl. 1662 

Alcamenes, Greek sculptor B. C 400 

Alciati, Andrea, Ital. jurist and scholar 1492. . .1550 

.Alcibiades, famous Athenian B. C. 450... 404 

16 



AL CMAN—ALEXA NDER 



BORN. DIED. 

Alcman, lyric poet of Sparta fl. B. C. ? 670 

A 1 cock, John, Eng. musical composer 1715... 1806 

Alcock, Sir Rutherford, Brit, diplomat 1809 

Alcoru, James Lusts, Am. statesman 1816 

Alcott, Amos Bronson. Am. teacher and philosopher 1799... 1888 
Alcott. Louisa May. Daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott. 

Am. authoress 1833. . .1888 

Alcott, William Alexander, Am. physician and educa- 
tor 1798... 1859 

Alcuin, Flaccus Albinus, Eng. theologian ? 725. . . 804 

Aldegrever, Heinrich, Ger. painter and engraver 1502..? 1562 

Alden, Ebenezer, Am. physician 1788. . .1881 

Alden, Henry Mills, Am. editor . 1836 

Alden, Isabella, Am. author 1841 

Alden, James, Am. naval officer 1810. ,.1877 

Alden, John, Pilgrim settler 1599. ..1687 

Alden, Joseph, Am. educator and author 1808. . .1885 

Alden, Roger, Am. soldier 1754. . .1836 

Alden, William Livingston, Am. journalist and author 1837 

Alderete, de, Bernardo, Span, linguist and author ? 1550 

► Aldini, Giovanni, Ital. natural philosopher 1762. . .1834 

Aldobrandini, Pietro, Ital. ecclesiastic 1571. . .1621 

Aldobrandini, Salvestro, Ital. jurist 1499. . .1558 

A Id rich, Henry, Eng. theologian and logician 1647. . .1710 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, Am. poet and miscel. writer. 1836 

A ldridge, Ira, Am. mulatto tragedian 1804. . .1867 

Aldringer or A 1 (ringer, Johann, Aust. fleld-marsbal 1634 

Aldrovandi or Aldrovandus, Ulysses, Ital. natu- 
ralist ? 1524... 1607 

Aldrovandini, Pompeo Agostino, Ital. painter 1677. . .1739 

Aleandro, Girolamo, Ital. scholar and professor 1480. . .1542 

Aleandro, Girolamo. The Younger. Ital. poet and 

antiquary 1574. . .1629 

Alecsandresco, Grigoric, Roumanian poet 1812 

Ale*gre, d', Yves, Marquis, marshal of France 1653. . .1733 

A 1 em an , Louis, Fr. cardinal and statesman 1390 . .? 1450 

Aleman, Mateo, Span, writer fl. 16tb c. 

Alemanni, Luigi, Ital. poet 1495. ..1556 

Alemany, Joseph Sadoc, Am. Catholic archbishop.. . . . 1814 

Alembert, d% Jean le Rond, Fr. mathematician 1717. . .1783 

Alencon, Francois, Duke of Berri and Anjou, suitor of 

Queen Elizabeth of England 1554. . .1584 

Ales, or A 1 esse, Alexander, Scot. Lutheran divine 1500. . .1565 

Alessi, Galeazzo, Ital. architect 1500. . .1572 

Alexander I. (Battenberg) , prince of Bulgaria 1857 

Alexander I., Pavlovitch, emperor of Russia 1777... 1825 

Alexander II., Nicolaivitch, emperor of Russia...... 1818... 1881 

Alexander II., king of Scotland 1214 1198. . .1249 

Alexander III., king of Scotland 1249 1241. ..1286 

Alexander III., pope in 1159 .1181 

Alexander III., Nikolaivitch-Romanoff, czar of 

Russia 1845 

17 



ALEXANDER—ALFONSO 



BORN. DIED. 

Alexander VI., Rodrigo Lenzuoli Borgia, pope 1430.. .1503 

Alexander VII., Fabio Chigi, pope, 1655 1667 

Alexander VIII., pope, 1689 1691 

Alexander of Hales, Eng. theologian 1245 

Alexander the Great, king of Macedon B.C. 356... 323 

Alexander, Abraham, Am. statesman 1718. . .1786 

Alexander, Archibald, Am. divine and author 1772. . .1851 

Alexander, Balas, king of Syria 150-146 B. C 

Alexander, James Waddel. Son of Archibald. Am. 

divine and author 1804. . .1859 

Alexander, Janneeus, king of Judea B.C. 104. . . 78 

Alexander, John, prince of Roumania 1861, but forced 

to abdicate 1866 1820 

Alexander, John Henry, Am. scientist 1812. . .1867 

Alexander, Joseph Addison. Son of Archibald. Am. 

theologian and orientalist 1809. . .1860 

Alexander, Karageorgevitch, prince of Servia 1842, 

but deposed 1848 1806 

Alexander, Nevski, Russian hero. Prince of Novgo- 
rod 1219... 1263 

Alexander Severus, Roman emperor 222... 235 t , 

Alexander, Stephen, Am. astronomer 1806... 1883 

Alexander, Sir James Edward, Eng. soldier, traveler, 

andauthor 1803 

Alexander, Sir William, Earl of Stirling, Scot. poet. .?1580. . .1640 

Alexander Trallianus, Greek medical writer fl. 6th c. 

Alexander, William, Lord Stirling, major-general in 

the Am. Revolutionary army < 1726. . .1783 

Alexandri, Basils, Roumanian poet and dramatist... 1821 

Alexis I., Comnenus, emperor of the East ?1048...1H8 

Alexis ? Michaelovitch, czar of Russia. Father of Peter 

the Great ? 1630... 1676 

Alexis, Petrovitch, prince of Russia. Son of Peter 

the Great 1690. ..1718 

Aleyn, Charles, Eng. historical poet ? 1640 

Alfani, Orazio di Paris, Ital. painter ? 1510... 1583 

Alfarabius, Arabian philosopher 950 

Alfieri, Vittorio, Ital. poet 1749.. .1803 

Alfonso I. The Catholic. King of Asturias 759 

Alfonso I., founder of the Portuguese monarchy 1094. . .1185 

Alfonso I., king of Aragon and Navarre. El Batalla- 

dor. Reigned 1104-1134. 
Alfonso II., of Asturias. The Chaste. Reigned 791-842. 

Alfonso III., of Asturias. The Great 912 

Alfonso V., king of Aragon, Sicily, and Naples. The 

Magnanimous 1458 

Alfonso V., king of Portugal. The African. Reigned 

1438-1481. 

Alfonso VI. of Castile. The Brave. 1030. . .1109 

Alfonso VII., king of Leon and Castile. Reigned 

1126-1157. 

Alfonso VIII. of Castile. The Noble 1155. . .1214 

18 



ALFONSO— ALLEN 



BORN. DIED. 

Alfonso IX., king of Leon. Reigned 1188-1230. 

Alfonso X. The Wise. King of Leon and Castile.... 1226... 1884= 

A lfonso XI. of Castile 1311 . . .1360 

Alfonso XII., king of Spain 1857. ..1885 

Alford, Henry. Dean Alford. Eng. poet and divine. . . 1810... 1871 

Alfred the Great, king of the West Saxons ?849... 901 

Algardi, Alessandro, Ital. sculptor and architect ?1598. . .1864 

Algarotti, Francesco, Count, Ital. critic & philosopher 1712. . .1764 

Alger, Cyrus, Am. inventor 1781... 1866 

Alger, Horatio, Jr., Am. author 1834 

Alger, Russell Alexander, governor of Michigan 1836 

Alger, William Rounseville, Am. clergyman and author 1822 

Alghisi, Francesco, Ital. musical composer 1666. . .1738 

Alhakem II., sultan and caliph of Cordova 913. . . 976 

Alhakem-Ibn-Atta. Al-Mokenna. Arahian prophet ?780 

Alhazan. Arabian philosopher and mathematician ? 1038 

Alibert, Jean Louis, Fr. physician 1766... 1837 

Ali-Bey, or Ali-Beg. Mameluke chief 1728... 1773 

Alibrandi, Girolamo, Sicilian painter 1470... 1524 

All-Ibn-Abu-Talib. Tlie IAon of God. Son-;n-law 

of Mohammed. Fourth Arabian caliph ? 602. . . 661 

Ali-Ibn-ul- Abbas, Arabian physician ? 994 

Ali Pasha. Arslan. Pasha of Janina..... ?1741...1822 

Alison, Rev. Archibald, Scotch divine and author 1757. . .1839 

Alison, Sir Archibald. Son of the Rev. Archibald. 

Scottish historian and essayist 1792. . .1867 

Alison, William Pulteney. Son of the Rev. Archibald. 

Scottish physiologist 1790. . .1859 

Al Kader, caliph of Bagdad ? 947..?1031 

Alkemade, van, Kornelis, Dutch antiquary 1654 . .1737 

Alkmar, van, Henrik, Ger. poet. [Reynard the Fox.], fl. 1498 
Allacci, or Allatius, Leone, librarian of the Vatican 1586. ..1669 
Allainval, d', Leonor Jean-Christine Soulas. Fr. dra- 
matic poet ? 1700. . .1753 

Allamand, Jean Nicolas S6"bastien. Fr. naturalist 1713. . .1787 

Allan, David, Scotch historical painter.. 1744. . .1796 

Allan, John, Am. Revolutionary patriot 1746. . .1805 

Allan, Sir William. Scotch historical painter 1782. . .1850 

A Hard, Jean Francois, Fr. general 1785. . .1839 

Allegrain, Christophe Gabriel, Fr. sculptor ?1711. . .1795 

A llegri, Gregorio, Ital. musician and composer ? 1580. . .1652 

A llein, Joseph, Eng. divine. [Alarm to the Unconverted.] 1633. . .1668 
Allemand, Zacharie Jacques Theo., Fr. vice-admiral.. 1762. . .1826 

Allen, Elizabeth Akers, Am. author 1832 

Allen, Elisha Hunt, Am. diplomat 1804. . .1833 

Allen, Ethan, Am. officer in Revolutionary war 1737. . .1789 

Allen, Grant, Am. naturalist — 1848 

Allen, Henry Watkins, Am. soldier and statesman 1830. . .1866 

Allen, Ira. Brother of Ethan. One of the founders of 

Vermont 1751... 1814 

Allen, Joel Asaph, Am. naturalist 1838 

A Hen, John, Scottish metaphysician 1770 . . . 1843 

19 



ALLEF—ALSTROMER 



BORN. DIED. 

Allen* Rev. John. Camp-meeting John Allen. Am. re- 
vivalist 1795... 1887 

A lien, Thomas, Eng. mathematician 1542. . .1632 

Allen, William, Am. biographer and miscel. writer 1784. . .1868 

Allen, William, Eng. chemist and philanthropist 1770. . .1843 

Allen, William. Earthquake Allen. Am. statesman... 1806... 1879 

A lien, William Henry, Am. naval officer 1784. . .1813 

Allen, Alan, or Alleyn, William, Eng. cardinal 1532... 1594 

Allerton, Isaac, Plymonth pilgrim ? 1583. . .1659 

Alletz, Pierre Edouard, Pr. writer 1798. . .1850 

Alleyn, Edward, Eng. actor and philanthropist 1566. . .1626 

Allibone, Samuel Austin, Am. author. [Critical Dic- 
tionary of English literature.'] 1816. . . 1889 

Allier, Achille, Fr. engineer and antiquary ? 1807. . .1836 

Allingham, John Till, Eng. dramatist fl. 1800 

Allingham, William, Irish poet 1828... 1889 

Allioni, Carlo, Ital. physician and botanist 1725. . .1804 

Alliot, Pierre, Fr. physician fl. 1666 

Allison, William B., Am lawyer, soldier, and senator. 1829 

A llix. Pierre, Fr. Protestant theologian 1641. . .1717 

Allori, Alessandro, Ital. painter 1535. . .1607 

Allori, Cristofano. Son. Ital. painter 1577... 1620 

Allouez, Claude Jean, Fr. Jesuit missionary in Amer. 1620. . .1690 

A list on, Robert Francis Withers, Am. statesman 1801. . .1864 

AUston, Washington, Am. painter 1779... 1843 

Almagro, de, Diego, companion of Pizarro in Peru. .71463... 1538 
Al-Mamun, or Al-Mamoun, Aben Abbas Abdallah, 

caliph of Bagdad. Philosopher and astronomer 786. . . 833 

Al-Mansur, or Al-Mansour, or Abu- Amir-Mo- 
hammed, regent of Cordova 939. . .1002 

Al-Mansur, or Al-Mansour, Abu Jaffar Abdallah, 

Arabian caliph . Founder of Bagdad ? 712 . . . 775 

Alma-Tadema, Laurenz, Belgian painter '. 1836 

Almeida, de, Brites, the Port. Joan of Arc fl. 1386 

Almeida, de, Dom Francisco, first Port, viceroy of 

India 1510 

Almeida, de, Nicolao Tolentino, Port, satirical poet.. 1745... 1811 
Almeida-Garrett, de, Jo&s Baptista, Port, poet and 

dramatist 1799, . .1854 

Almici, Camillo, Ital. writer 1714. . .1779 

Almodovar, Don Ildefonso Dias de Ribera, Duke of, 

Span, diplomatist and writer 1794 

Almonde, van, Philippus, Dutch admiral 1646. . .1711 

Almonte, Juan Nepomuceno, Mex. general and states- 
man 1804. . .1869 

Almquist, Karl Jonas Ludwig, Swed. poet and novelist 1793. . .1844 

Almy, John J., Am. naval officer 1814 

Alp-Arslan, Seljukian sultan of Persia ? 1030. . .1072 

Alpini, Prospero, Ital. botanist and physician ^.? 1553. . .1617 

A Iquier, Charles Jean Marie, Fr. diplomatist 1752. . .1826 

Alsop, Richard, Am. poet and journalist 1761. . .1815 

Alstrdmer, or Alstroemer, Jonas, Swed. benefactor 1685. . .1761 

20 



ALT—AMEILHON 



BORN. DEED. 

Alt, Rudolph, Austrian painter 1812 \ 

Altaroche, Marie Michel. Fr. writer 1811 . 

Altdorfer, Alhrecht, Ger. painter and engraver 1488. . .1538 

Alten, von, Karl August, Graf, Hanoverian general. . 1764. . .1840 
Altenstein, Ton, Karl Stein, Baron, Prus. statesman 1770... 1840 

Althammer, or Althamer, Andreas, Ger. divine 1498. . .1564 

Altken, Ehan, introduced the madder-plant from Per- 
sia into France 1711... 1774 

Althorp, John Charles, Viscount and Earl Spencer, 

Eng. statesman 1782. . .1845 

Alting, Jacob, Ger. theologian and Hebraist 1618. . .1679 

Altissimo, Ital. poet and improvisatore fl. 1514 

Alva, or Alba, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of, 

Span, general in the Netherlands 1508. . .1582 

Alvarado, de, Alonzo, Span, conqueror in Mexico — fl. 1548 
Alvarado, de, Pedro, Span, officer, companion of Cor- 

tez 1541 

Alvarez, Francisco, Port, priest and writer on Abys- 

synia after 1540 

Alvarez, Don Jose\ Span, sculptor 1768. . .1827 

Alvarez, Juan, Mex. general and president 1790. . .1870 

A 1 via no, Bartolommeo, Venetian general 1455. . .1515 

Alvinczy von, Joseph, Baron, Austrian general 1735. . .1810 

Alvord, Corydon A., Am. printer , 1812. . .1874 

A lvord, Henry Elijah, Am. educator 1844 

Alxiuger, Johann Baptist, Ger. poet 1755. . .1797 

Alyattes, king of Lydia. Father of Crozsus B. C 560 

Amadeo, or Amadei, Giovanoi Antonio, Ital. sculptor.? 1400..? 1474 

Amadeus T., king of Spain. Son of Victor Emmanuel. 1845 

A madeus V. , count of Savoy. The Great 1249. . .1323 

Amadeus VI., prince of Savoy 1334. ..1383 

Amadeus VIII., first duke of Savoy.. 1383... 1451 

Amalie, Anna, duchess of Saxe-Weimar 1739. . .1807 

Amalie, or Amelia, Anna, princess of Prussia, mus- 
ical composer 1723. . .1787- 

Amalteo, Girolamo, Ital. physician and poet 1506. . .1574 

Amalteo, Pomponeo, Venetian painter 1505. . .1588. 

Amar, Jean Pierre Andre", Fr. demagogue 1750. . .1816 

Amari, Michele, Ital. historian and politician 1806 

Amasis, king of Egypt, conqueror of the Hyksos fl. 1700 B. C. 

A masis, king of Egypt — B. C. ? 525 

Amati, Girolamo, Ital. antiquary t 1768. . .1834 

Amato, Joao Rodriguez. Amatus Lusitanus. Port. 

physician and anatomist 1511. . .1568 

Amato, d', Giovanni Antonio. 11 Vecchio. Neapol- 
itan painter 1475. . .1555 

Amaury, or Amalric I., king of Jerusalem ? 1136. . .1173 

Amaury of Charters, Fr. theologian and philosopher 1205 

Amberger, Christoph, Ger. painter 1568 

Amboise, d', George, Fr. cardinal and prime-minister 1460. . .1510. 

Ambrose, Saint, bishop of Milan. Latin father ? 340. . . 397 

Ameilhon, Hubert Pascal, Fr. antiquary 1730. . .1811 

21 



AMELOT—ANA CLETUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Amelot, de la Houssaye, Abraham Nicolas, Fr. 

writer 1634. . .1706 

Amelu u ghi, Girolamo, Ital. burlesque poet ? 1547 

Amerbach, Boniface, Ger. scholar 1495. . .1562 

Amerling, Friedrich, Ger. painter 1803 

Amersfoordt, Jacob, Dutch orientalist 1786. . .1824 

Ames, Adelbert, Am. soldier 1835 

Ames, Edward Raymond, M. E. bishop 1806. . .1879 

Ames, Fisher, Am. orator and statesman 1758. . .1808 

Ames, Joseph, Am. painter 1816. . .1872 

Ames, Mary Clemmer. Mrs. Hudson. Am. authoress. 1839... 1884 

Ames, Oakes, Am. manufacturer 1804.. .1873 

Ames, Samuel, Am. jurist 1806. . .1865 

Amherst, Jeffrey, Lord, Brit, field-marshal 1717. . .1797 

Amici, Giovanni Battista, Ital. optician and astronomer 1784. . .1863 

Amidas, Philip, Eng. navigator 1550. . .1618 

Amigoni, Jacopo, Venetian historical painter 1675. . .1752 

Amiot, or Amy ot, Joseph, Fr. Jesuit missionary 1718. . .1794 

Anilines Karl Gustav, Ger. designer and engraver ? 1650. . .1701 

Amman, Justus, of Zurich, Swiss engrav. and painter.? 1539.. .1591 
Ammanati, Bartolommeo, Florentine arch, and sculp. 1511..? 1592 

Ammen, Daniel, Am. naval officer 1820 

Ammen, Jacob, Am. soldier 1808 

Ammianus, Marcellinus, Roman historian ? 395 

Ammirato, Scipione, Ital. historian 1531... 1601 

Ammon, von, Christoph Friedrich, Ger. Prot. theol. . . 1766.. .1820 
Ammonius, Saccus. Lithotomus. Alexandrian 

surgeon fl. 3d c. B. C. 

Amontons, Guillaume, Fr. mathematic. and inventor 1663... 1705 

Amoretti, Carlo, Ital. naturalist and geographer ? 1740. . .1816 

Amor y, Robert, Am. physician 1842 

Amory, Thomas Coffin, Am. lawyer 1810 

Amory, Thomas, Eng. dissenter, divine, and biographer 1701. . .1774 

Amos, Hebrew prophet fl. 800 B. C. 

Ampere, Andre* Marie, Fr. electrician and scientific 

writer 1775... 1836 

Ampere, Jean Jacques. Son. Prof, of Fr. literature. 1800... 1864 

Ampudia, Pedro de, Mexican general fl. 1840 

Amr u, Saracen general and conqueror of Egypt 663 

Amsdorf, von, Nikolaus, Ger. Lutheran reformer 1483. . .1565 

Amsler, Samuel, Ger. engraver 1791. . .1849 

Amurath, or Murad, I., Ottoman sultan 1319... 1389 

Amurath, or Murad, II. , Ottoman sultan 1405. . .1451 

Amurath, or Murad, III., Turkish sultan. Reigned 

1574-1595. 
Amurath, or Murad, IV. The Turkish Nero. Otto- 
man sultan 1610. . .1640 

Amurath V., Turk, sultan. Reigned May- Aug., 1876. 

Amyot, Jacques, Fr. savant and bishop of Auxerre — 1513. . .1593 

Amyraut, Moses, Fr. Protestant theologian 1596..? 1664 

A nacharsis, Scythian philosopher fl. 6th c. B. C. 

Anacletus II., antipope, elected 1130 1138 

22 



ANA CREON—ANDRONIGUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Anacreon, Greek lyric poet B. C. ? 563. . . 4=78 

Anasco, de, Juan, companion of De Soto in Florida.. . fl. 1540 

Anaxagorag, Greek philosopher B. C. 500. . . 428 

Anaximander, Greek philosopher B. C. 610. . . 547 

Anaximenes, Greek philosopher fl. 6th c. B. C. 

A ii eel ot, Jacques Arsene Francois Polycarpe, Fr. dra- 
matic writer 1794 . . . 1850 

Anclllon, Johann Peter Friedrich. Pruss. historian.. 1766. . .1837 
Anckarstroem, Johan Jakob, assassin of Gustavus 

III. of Sweden 1760. . .1792 

Ancre, d% Concino de' Concini, Marquis, marshal of 

France 1617 

Andersen, Hans Christian, Dan. novelist and story- 
writer 1805... 1875 

Anderson? Alexander, first wood engraver in America 1775. . .1870 

Anderson, Henry James, Am. educator 1799. . .1875 

Anderson, James, Scot, writer on agriculture 1739. . .1808 

Anderson, Johann, Ger. publicist 1674. . .1743 

Anderson, John, Scot, founder of the Andersonian 

Institution 1726... 1796 

Anderson, Martin Brewer, Am. educator 1815 

Anderson, Nils Johan, Swed. botanist 1821 

A nderson, Rasmus Bjorn, Am. author 1*846 

Anderson, Richard Henry, Am. soldier 1816.. .1879 

Anderson, Robert, Am. general. Defender of Fort 

Sumter 1805... 1871 

Anderson, Rufus, Am. author 1796... 1880 

Andersson, Carl Johan, Swed. explorer 1827. . .1867 

Andrada, de, Antonio, Port. Jesuit missionary ? 1580. . .1634 

Andrada, de, Fernao Perez, Port., naval commander 
of the first European fleet to China in 1518. 

Andrada e Sylva, statesman of Brazil 1765... 1838 

Andral, Gabriel, Fr. physician and writer 1797. . .1853 

Andrassy, Gyula, Count, Hungarian statesman 1823. . .1890 

Andre*, Major John, Eng. spy 1751. . .1780 

Andrea of Pisa, Ital. architect and sculptor ? 1270. . .1345 

Andreae, Jacob, Ger. Lutheran theologian 1528. . .1590 

Andre ae, Johann Valentin, Ger. satirical writer 1586 . . .1654 

Andreani, Andrea. Mantuano. Ital. engraver 1540. . .1623 

Andreini, Giov. Battista. Ital. poet and dramatist ? 1578..? 1652 

Andreossi, Antoine Francois, Fr. officer and diplo- 
matist 1761... 1828 

Andres, Juan, Span. Jesuit writer 1740. . .1817 

Andrew, John Albion, Am. statesman. Gov. of Mass. 1818. . .1867 
Andrew II., king of Hungary. Reigned 1205-1235. 
Andrews, Ethan Allen, Am. philologist. [Latin-Eng- 
lish Lexicon.'] 1787 . . .1858 

Andrews, Lancelot, Eng. divine 1555. . .1626 

Andrews, Stephen Pearl, Am. abolitionist and philos. 1812. . .1886 
Andrieux, Francois Guillaume Jean Stanislas, Fr. 

author 1759 . . . 1833 

Andronicus, Livius, Latin poet fl. 3d c. B. C. 

23 



ANDRONICUS—ANTIGONUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Andronicus I., Comnenus, emperor of tlie East ? 1110. . .1185 

Andros, Sir Edmund, Eng. colonial governor in Am. . . 1637. . .1714 

Androuet du Cerceau, Jacques, Fr. architect 1592 

Anel, Dominique, Fr. oculist and surgeon ? 1679..? 1730 

An gel i, Filippo, Ital. landscape painter 1600..? 1646 

Angeli, Heinrich von, Austrian painter 1840 

Angelio, Pietro, Ital. poet 1517. . .1596 

Anghiera, de, Pietro Martire. Peter Martyr. Ital. 

statesman and historian 1455. . .1526 

Anglesey, Henry William Paget, Marquis of, Brit. 

field-marshal 1768. . .1854 

Angouleme, d, Marie Therese Charlotte, Duchess, 

daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette 1778. . .1851 

Anguisciola, Sofonisba, Ital. painter 1530. . .1625 

Anhalt-Bernberg, Christian L, Prince of, Ger. states- 
man and warrior 1568. . .1630 

Anicet-Bourgeois, Auguste, Fr. dramatic author 1806 

Anjou, Duke or Count of, famous noble house of France. 

Anna Carlovna, Russian grand-duchess 1718. . .1746 

Anna Comne'na, daughter of Alexis I., emperor of 

Constantinople, princess and Byzantine historian. . . 1083. . .1148 
Anna Ivanovna, empress of Russia. Niece of Peter 

the Great 1693 . . .1740 

A nne, queen of England. Daughter of James II 1664. . .1714 

Anne de Beaujeu, regent of France 1462... 1522 

Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII. of France 1602. . .1666 

Anne of Brittany, queen of Charles VIII. of France. 1476.. .1514 

Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII 1557 

Annesley, Arthur, Earl of Anglesey, Eng. statesman. . 1614. . .1686 
Annius of Viterbo, Ital. monk and literary impostor 1432 ..1502 

Anquetil, Louis Pierre, Fr. historian 1723. . .1808 

Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham Hyacinthe, Fr. orient- 
alist 1731.. .1805 

Ansaldi, Casto Ennocenzio, Ital. theol. and antiquary. . 1710. . .1779 
Anscarius. The Apostle of the North. Missionary to 

Scandinavia ? 801 . . . 864 

Ansdell, Richard, Eng. animal painter 1814. . .1885 

Anselm, or Anselmo, Saint, archbishop of Canterbury ?1033. . .1109 

Anseime, Antoine, Fr. preacher and poet 1652. . .1737 

Anselme, or Ansel, of Laon, theologian and teacher. .? 1050... 1117 

Anselmo, Saint, bishop of Lucca .»....? 1036. . .1086 

An sgar, Saint. Apostle of the North... 801... 865 

Anson, George, Lord, Eng. navigator 1697. . .1762 

A nspach, Elizabeth, Margravine of 1750. . .1828 

Ansted, David Thomas, Eng. geologist 1814 

Anster, John, Irish poet ? 1798. . . 1867 

Anstruther, Sir John, chief-justice of Bengal 1753. . .1811 

Antar, or Antarah, Arabian chief and poet fl. ? 500 

A nthon, Charles, Am. classical scholar 1797. . .1867 

Anthony, Saint, Egyptian founder of monachism 251. . .? 356 

Anthony, Saint, of Padua, Franciscan monk 1195. . .1231 

Antigonus. Cyclops. Gen. of Alexander the Great.B. C. 382. . . 301 

24 



ANTIG ONUS—AHA G 



BORN. DIED. 

Antigonus, king of Judea B. C. 80... 37 

Antigonus Boson, king of Macedon B. C 220 

A u tig on us Gonatus, king of Macedon B. C. 319. . . 240 

Antiochus. The Great. King of Syria B. C. 237. . . 187 

Antiochus. Epiphanes. King of Syria B. C. ? 165 

Antiochus Soter, king of Syria. Reigned 280-261 B. C. 

Antipater, regent of Macedonia B. C 319 

A ntiphon, Athenian orator B. C. ? 479 * 

Antisthenes, Greek cynic philosopher fl. ?400B. C. 

Antoine, Jacques Denis, Fr. artist 1733... 1801 

A n toine de Bourbon, husband of Jeanne d'Albert, 

queen of Navarre 1518.. .1562 

Antonelli, Giacomo, Ital. cardinal 1806. . .1876 

A lit one llo, Antonio. Da Messina. Ital. painter ? 1414. .71493 

Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor and 

philosopher 121... 18CP 

Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor 86... 161 

Antonio Nicolas, Span, bibliographer and critic 1617. . .1684 

Anto ni u*, Marcus. Mark Antony. Roman general. B. C. 83... 30 
Anviiie, d% Jean Baptiste Bourguignon, Fr. geographer 1697. . .1782 

Anwari, Persian lyric poet ?1200 

Apaczai, or Apatzai, Joannes, Hungarian scholar 1659 

Apelles, famous Greek painter fl. 330 B. C. 

Apicius, Marcus Gabius, Roman epicure 14. . . 37 

Apian, Peter, Ger. mathematician and astronomer 1495..? 1551 

Apollinaris. The Younger. Bishop of Laodicea fl. 362 

Apollinar^s Sidonius, Caius Sollius, Saint, Roman 

patrician, bishop and poet ?431. . .?484 

Apoll odorus. The Shadoiver. Athenian painter. .B. C. 440. r - 

Apolionius Ty.inseus, Pythagorean philosopher fl. 1st c. 

Appollodorus of Cliarystus, Greek comic poet fl. 3d c. B. (X 

Appollonius Pergseus, geometer of Alexandria fl. 3d c. B. C. 

Appciiouius Rhodius, Greek poet.... fl. 3d c. B. C. 

Appian, Greek historian fl. 2d c. A. D. 

Appiani, Andrea, Ital. painter 1754. .? 1818 

Applegath, Augustus, Eng. inventor of vertical print- 
ing-press 1788. . .1871 

Appietoo, Nathan, Am. capitalist 1779. . .1861 

Appleton, Samuel, Am. merchant and philanthropist 1766... 1853 

Appleton, Thomas Gold, Am. author 1812... 1884^ 

Apraxin, Fedor, Russ. admiral 1671. . .172& 

Apraxin, Stefan, Russ. general 1758 : 

Aprosio, Angelico, Ital. writer and monk 1607. . .1681. 

Apuleius, Roman satirist and philosopher fl. ? 130 

Aquil a, Caspar. Adler. Ger. Protestant theologian. . . 1488... 1560^ 
A qui i a. Ponticus. Greek- Jewish proselyte. Trans- 
lator of the Old Testament fl. 85 

Aquinas, Saint Thomas. The Angelic Doctor. Ital. 

scholastic teacher ? 1224. . .1274r 

Arabi Pasha, leader of Egyptian revolt in 1882 1840 

Arago, Dominique Francois. Fr. astronomer and 

physicist 1786. . .1853? 

25 



ARAGO— ARGYLL 



BORN. DIED. 

Arago, Emmanuel, Fr. advocate and politician 1812 

Arago, Etienne. Brother. Fr. litterateur 1803 

Arago, Jacques Etienne Victor. Brother. Fr. writer 

and traveler 1790. . .1855 

AraktcheyefF, Alexei, Count, Russ. general and 

statesman 1769. . . 1834 

Aram, Eugene, Eng. scholar. Executed for murder. . 1704... 1759 
Aranda, Don Pedro Pablo Abarca y Bolea, Count of, 

Span, diplomatist and statesman 1718 . .? 1799 

Arany, Janos, Hungarian poet 1817. . .1882 

Aratus, Greek gen. Leader of the Achsean League. B. C. 271. . . 213 

Aratus, Greek poet and astronomer fl. 3d c. B. C. 

Araujo d' A zevedo, Antonio, Port, statesman 1754... 1817 

A rbogast, or Arbogastes, Roman general 394 

Arbogast, or Arbogaste, Louis Francois An toine, Fr. 

mathematician 1759. . .1803 

Arbuckle, James, Scot, poet 1700..? 1734 

A rbuihno t, John, Brit, author and physician 1675. . .1735 

Arcadius, Byzantine emperor. Son of Theodosius the 
Great. Reigned 395-408. 

Arceeilaus, Greek philosopher.. B.C. 316... 241 

Arch, Joseph, Eng. politician and labor reformer 1828 

Archdale, John, governor of North Carolina fl. 1695 

Archelaus. Physicus. Greek philosopher fl. 5th c. B. C. 

Arehenholz, Johann Wilhelm, Ger. writer ? 1741. . .1812 

Archilochus, Grecian lyric poet of Paros B. C. ? 714. . . 676 

Archimedes, Greek mathematician B. C ? 287. . . 212 

Arco, del, Alonzo, Span, painter 1625. . .1700 

Arcon, d', Jean Claude Ele"onor le Michaud, Fr. en- 
gineer 1733. . .1800 

Ardeshir Babegan, king of Persia ?240 

Aretin, von, Johann Christoph, Anton Maria, Baron, 

Ger. writer 1773... 1824 

Aretino, Pietro, Ital. satirist 1492. . .1557 

Arezzo, d', Guittone, Ital. poet 1294 

A r gall, Samuel, deputy-governor of Virginia 1572. . .1639 

Argand, Aime\ Swiss physician and chemist. Inventor 

of the Argand lamp 1803 

Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August, Pruss. as- 
tronomer 1799. . .1875 

Argens, d', Jean Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis, Fr. sol- 
dier and writer 1704. . .1771 

Argensola, de, Luprecio- Leonardo, Span, lyric poet.? 1563... 1613 

A r gout, d% Antoine, M. A., Count, Fr. financier 1782... 1858 

Argiielles, Augustin, Span, minister of state 1775. . .1844 

Argyll, or A r gyle, Archibald Campbell, eighth Earl 
and first Marquis of, partisan of Cromwell. Be- 
headed 1598... 1661 

Argyll, or Argyle, Archibald Campbell, ninth Earl 

of, confederate of Monmouth. Beheaded 1685 

Argyll, or Argyle, George John Douglas Campbell, 

eighth Duke of, Brit, statesman and author 1823 

26 



ARGYLL— ARNE 



BORN. DIED. 

Argyll, John Campbell, Duke of 1678. ..1743 

Argyropulas, Johannes, Greek professor 1415. . .I486 

Arias Montanus, Span, orientalist and biblicist 1527. . .1598 

Ariosto, Ludovico, famous Ital. poet 1474. . .1533 

Ario v is t u§, Ger. chief fl. 58 B. C. 

Arista, Mariano, Mex. general and president 1802. . .1855 

Aristarchus, of Samothrace, Greek grammarian and 

critic fl.? 150 B.C. 

Aristarchus, Greek astronomer fl. 3d c. B.C. 

Aristides. The Just. Athenian statesman and gen- 
eral B.C ?468 

Aristippus, Greek philosopher B. C 425 

Aristobulus I., king of Judea. Reigned 105-104 B. C. 
Aristobulus II., king of Judea. Reigned 60-63 B. C. 

Aristophanes, comic poet of Greece. B. C. ? 444...? 380 

Aristophanes of Byzantium, Greek grammarian and 

critic fl. 225 B. C. 

Aristotle, Greek philosopher B. C. 384... 322 

Arius, Greek patriarch of Alexandria and founder of 

Arianism 336 

Arkwright, Sir Richard, inventor of spinning-jenny. 1732. ..1792 

Arlotto. 11 Piovano. Ital. burlesque poet ?1396..?1483 

Armaguac, d', Bernard, Count, constable of France 1418 

Armansperg, Joseph Ludwig, Count, Bav. statesman 1787. ..1853 
Armfelt, Gustaf Mauritz, S wed. lieutenant-general and 

courtier 1757. . .1814 

Arminius, Jacobus. Jacob Har men. Dutch theologian 1560... 1609 

Armitage, Edward, Eng. painter 1817 

Armitage, Thomas, Am. Baptist minister and historian 1819 

Armstrong, James, Canadian jurist 1821 

Armstrong, John, Brit, poet and physician ? 1709. . .1779 

Armstrong, John, Am. Rev. soldier and author 1758. ..1843 

Armstrong, John, Eng. medical writer 1784. . .1829 

Armstrong, Moses K., Am. author and politician 1832 

Armstrong, Samuel Chapman, Am. soldier and edu- 
cator 1839 

Armstrong, Sir William George, Eng. inventor. 

[Armstrong gun] 1810 

Arnaud, Henri, pastor and leader of the Waldenses. . . 1641. . .1721 
Arnaud, d% Francois T. M. de Baculard. Fr. miscel- 
laneous writer 1718. . .1805 

Arnauld, Angelique, Fr. nun and writer 1624. . .1684 

Arnauld, Antoine. The Great. Fr. philosopher 1612. . .1694 

Arnauld, Antoine. L'Avocat. Fr. orator 1560. . .1619 

Arnauld d'Andilly, Robert, Fr. theological writer.. 1588... 1674 
Arnauld, Marie Jacqueline Angelique, abbess of Port 

Royal 1591... 1661 

Arnault, Vincent Antoine, Fr. author 1766. . .1834 

Arnd, Johann, Ger. Lutheran theologian and writer. . . 1555. . .1621 

Arndt, Ernst Moritz, Ger. poet 1769. . .1860 

Arne, Thomas Augustine, ^ng. musician and com- 
poser 1710... 1778 

27 



ARNETH— ARTEMISIA 



BORN. DIED. 

Arneth, von, Alfred, Austrian historian 1819 

Arngrimsson, Eystein, Icelandic poet 1361 

Arnheim, von, Johann Georg, Ger. diplomatist and 

general . .? 1581 . . . 1641 

Arnim, Elisabeth, or Bettina, Ger. authoress 1785. . .1859- 

Arniin, Harry Karl Kurt Eduard, Count, Pruss. diplo- 
mat 1824. . .1881 

Arnim, von, Ludwig Achim, Ger. poet 1781... 1831 

Arnobius, Afer, rhetorician of Numidia fl. ?290 

Arnold of Brescia, or Arnaldo, Ital. reformer 1155- 

Arnold, Benedict, Am. traitor 1741. . .1801 

Arnold, Edwin, Eng. poet. Light of Asia 1832 

Arnold, Isaac Newton, Am. lawyer 1815. . .1884 

Arnold, John, Eng. horologist and inventor 1744. . .1799 

Arnold, Matthew. Son of Thomas Arnold. Eng. poet 

and essayist 1822. . .1888 

Arnold, Samuel, Eng. musical composer ? 1740. . .1802 

Arnold, Sophie, Fr. actress 1744. . .1803 

Arnold, Thomas, of Rugby, Eng. teacher and historian 1795. . .1842 
Arnold, Thomas Kerchever, Eng. editor of school 

classics ? 1800. . .1853 

Arnoidus de Villa Nova, Fr. physician, theologian, 

astrologer, and alchemist ? 1235. . .1314 

Arnold von Winkelried, Swiss patriot 1386 

Arnott, James Moncrieff, Brit, surgeon 1794. . .1885 

Arnott, Neil, Scot, physician and natural philosopher.? 1788. . .1874 

Arnoul, bishop of Lisieux and writer ? 1184 

A mould, Ambrose Marie, Fr. political economist and 

author 1750... 1812 

Aromatari, degli, Guiseppe, Ital. physician and nat- 
uralist ? 1586. . . 1660 

Arpad, founder of the Hungarian monarchy 869. . . 907 

Arreboe, Anders, Danish poet 1587. . .1637 

Arrhenius, Clas, or Claudius, Swed. historian 1627. . .1695 

Arrian, Flavius, Greek historian ? 100. . .? 170 

Arriaza, Juan Bautista, Span, poet 1770. . .1837 

Arrivabene, Giovanni, Ital. politician and economist. 1801. . .1881 

Arrowsmith, Aaron, Eng. geographer 1750. . .1823 

Arrowsmith, John, Eng. Puritan divine. 1602. . .1659 

Arrowsmith, John. Nephew of Aaron. Eng. geogra- 
pher 1790 . . . 1873 

Arsaces, founder of the kingdom of Parthia fl. 3d c. 

Arsinoe, daughter of Ptolemy I., king of Egypt fl. 4th c. B. C. 

Arsinoe, queen of Ptolemy Philopator * . . .B. C 41 

Artaud, Nicolas Louis, Fr. writer and Greek scholar.. 1794. . .1861 

Artaxerxes I. Longimanus. King of Persia. . . ,.B. C 425 

Artaxerxes II. Mnemon. King of Persia B. C. 362 

Artaxerxes III, Ochus. King of Persia. Reigned 
361-338 B. C. 

Artedi, Peter, Swed. naturalist 1705. . .173S 

Artemidorus of Ephesus, Gr. geographer fl. 100 B. C. 

Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus fl. 480 B. C 

28 



ARTEMISIA— ASSEMANI 



BORN. DIED. 

Artemisia, consort of Mausolus, prince of Caria fl. ? 350 B. O. 

Arteveld, van, Jacob. Brewer of Ghent. Popular 

leader of Ghent ? 1300 . . .1345 

Arteveld, van, Philip. Son. Chief of the insurrec- 
tion in Flanders ? 1340. . .1382 

Arthur, Brit, king and hero of the Round Table fl. 5th or 6th c. 

Arthur, Chester Alan, vice-president and 21st presi- 
dent of the U. S 1830 . . . 1886 

Arthur, Timothy Shay, Am. story-writer 1809. . .1885 

Artigas, Jose\ South Am. general ? 1760..? 1825 

Arundel, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury 1353. . .1413 

Arundel, Thomas Howard, Earl of, Eng. patron of art 1592. . .1646 

Arvieux, d% Laurent, Chevalier, Fr. orientalist 1635... 1702 

Arwidsson, Adolf Ivar, Swed. poet/. 1791... 1858 

Aryabhatta, or Aryabahr, Hindoo mathematician 

and astronomer. Earliest known algebraist fl. 1st c. 

Asa, king of Judah. Reigned 929-873 B. C. 
Asbjornseu, Peter Kristen, Norwegian student of 

folklore 1812 

Asbury, Francis, first Methodist bishop in America 1745. . .1816 

A sell am, Roger, instructor of Queen Elizabeth 1515. . .1568 

Asclepiades, Bithynus, Greek physician B. C ? 90 

Aselli, or Aselio, Gasparo, Ital. anatomist. Discov- 
erer of the lacteal vessels ? 1580. . .1626 

Asgill, Sir Charles, Eng. general 1762. . .1823 

Ash, Edward, Eng. physician and scholar ? 1770... 1829 

Ashhumer, Charles, Am. geologist 1854 

Ash burn ham, John, Eng. royalist 1604... 1671 

Ashburtou, Alexander Baring, Lord. Eng. financier 

and statesman. 1774. . .1848 

Ashe, John, Am. Revolutionary patriot 1721. . .1781 

Ashe, Ashi, or Asser, Rabbi, Jewish savant. Author 

or compiler of the Babylonian Talmud 353 . . . 427 

Ashmo le, Elias, Eng. antiquary.. . 1617. . .1692 

Ashmun, Jehudi, Am. philanthropist 1794. . .1828 

Ashpitel, Arthur, Eng. architect and archaeologist 1807. . .1869 

Asinari, Federigo, Count of Camerano. Ital. poet 1527. . .1576 

Askew, Ascough, or Ayscough, Anne, Eng. Luth- 
eran martyr ?1529. . .1546 

Asoka, king of Maghada, India fl. 2d c. B. C. 

Aspasia of Miletus, mistress of Pericles B. C ? 432 

Asper, Hans Jean, Swiss painter 1499. . .1571 

Aspertini, Amico, Bolognese painter 1474. . .1552 

Aspinwall, William H., Am. merchant-prince 1807. . .1875 

Asquini, Fabiano, Count, Ital. rural economist 1726. . .1818 

Assar o tti, Ottavio Giovanni Battista, Ital. priest and 

teacher of the deaf and dumb 1753. . .1829 

Assas, d', Nicolas, Chevalier, Fr. captain of regiment 

of Auvergne. 1760 

A ssemani, Guiseppe Simone, Syrian orientalist 1687. . .1768 

Assemani, Joseph Aloysius, Ital. ecclesiastical writer 

and orientalist.. 1710... 1782 

29 



ASSEMANI—A TTUCKS 



BORN. DIED.. 

Assemani, Simon, orientalist. Professor at Padua. . . 1752. . .1821 
Assemani, Stephen Evodius, bibliophile, librarian of 

the Vatican 1707... 1782: 

A sser, Eng. monk. Biographer of Alfred the Great ? 910 

Assheton, William, Eng. divine 1641. . .1711 

Assing, Ludmilla, Ger. authoress 1827. . .1880 

Ast, Georg Anton Friedrich, Ger. scholar and teacher. 1778. . .1841 

Astbury , J., of Shelton, Eng. potter ? 1678. . .1743 

Astell, Mary, Eng. authoress 1668. ..1731 

Astle, Thomas, Eng. antiquary ? 1735. . .1803 

A stley, Sir Jacob, Eng. royalist general 1651 

Astley, Philip, founder of the amphitheater, London. . 1742. . .1814 

Astoega, Emanuele de, Sicilian composer 1681. . .1736 

Astolphus, king of the Lombards. Reigned 749-756. 
Astor, John Jacob, Am. capitalist. Founder of the 

Astor Library in New York ^ 1763. . .1848 

A stor, William B. Son. Am. capitalist 1792... 1875 

Astor, William Waldorf. Grandson of John Jacob. 

Am. diplomat and author 1850 

As true. Jean, Fr. medical writer and teacher 1684. . .1766 

Asty ages, king of Media. Reigned 584-550 B. C. 

A tahualpa, last Inca of Peru 1533 

Ataulphus, king of tbe Visigoths. Reigned 410-415. 
Atha ben Hakim. Mokanna. The Veiled Prophet of 

Khorassan 780 

Atha M e !ik, Persian historian 1227. . .1282 

A thalia, queen of Judah. Reigned 843-837 B. C. 

Athanasius, Saint, Greek father of the church ?296... 373 

Athelstan, or ^thelstan, king of England ?895... 941 

A then ago r as, Greek philosopher fl. 168 

A the* nas, Pierre Louis, Fr. rural economist 1752. . .1829 

A then reus, Greek writer. [Banquet of the Learned. .]. .fl. 3d c. A. D. 
A thias, Rabbi Joseph, Ger. Jewish printer. [Hebrew 

Bible.] 1700 

Atkinson, Edward, Am. economist 1827 

Atkinson, Thomas, Prot. Episcopal bishop of N.C 1808. ..1881 

Atkinson, Thomas Witlam, Eng. landscape painter 

and traveler 1799. . .1861 

Atlee, John Light, Am. physician 1799. . .1885 

Atiee, Washington Lemuel, Am. surgeon and author. . 1808. . .1878 
Atondo y Antillon, Don Isidoro, Span, admiral and 

explorer of Lower California fl. 1683 

Attains I., king of Pergamus B.C. 241... 197 

Attains II., king of Pergamus B.C. 159... 138 

Attalus III., king of Pergamus B.C. 138... 133 

Attar-Ferid-ed-Din, Persian poet 1119. . .1221 

Atterbom, Peter Daniel Amadeus, Swed. poet 1790. . .1855 

Atterbur y , Francis, bishop of Rochester 1662. . .1732 

Atticus, Titus Pomponius, Roman philosopher B. C. 109. . . 32 

Attila. The Scourge of God. King of the Huns 453 

Attacks, Crispus, mulatto leader of mob in the Boston 

massacre 1770- 

30 



A TWA TER—A TIGER 



BORN. DIED. 

Atwater, Lyman Hotchkiss, Am. educator 1813. . .1883 

Attwood, George, Eng. mathematician 1745. . .1807 

Att wood, Thomas, Eng. mnsic composer 1767. . .1838 

Auber, Daniel Francois Esprit, Fr. musician and com- 
poser 1784... 1871 

Aubert, Jean Louis, Abbe", Fr. poet, critic, and fabulist 1731. . .1814 
Aubert du Bayet, Jean Baptiste Annibal, Fr. general 1759.. .1797 

Auber tin, Edme, Fr. divine and writer 1595. . .1652 

Aubery. Antoine, Fr. historical writer 1616. . .1695 

Aubery, Louis, Sieur du Maurier, Fr. historical writer 1687 

Aubignac, Frangois He*delin, Abbe*, Fr. dramatist 1604. . .1676 

Aubigne, d', Theodor Agrippa, Fr. historian and sa- 
tiric poet 1550. . .1630 

Aublet, Jean Baptiste Christophe Fusee, Fr. botanist. . 1720. . .1778 

Aubrey, John, Eng. topographer and antiquary 1626. . .1697 

Aubry, Claude Charles, Fr. general 1773. . .1813 

Aubry, Frangois. Fr. revolutionist ? 1750..? 1800 

Aubusson, d', Pierre, Fr. warrior and statesman 1423. . .1503 

Auchmuty, Sir Samuel, Brit, general 1756. . .1822 

Auckland. George Eden, Earl of, governor-general of 

India .*. 1784. ..1849 

Auckland, William Eden, Baron v Brit, diplomat 1750. . .1814 

Audeber t, Jean Baptiste, Fr. naturalist and engraver 1759. . .1800 
Audeuaerde, van, Robert, Flemish painter and en- 
graver 1663 . . . 1743 

Audifret-Pasquier, Edme Armand Gaston de, Duke, 

Fr. statesman 1823 

AudifFredi, Giovanni Battista, Ital. astronomer 1714. . .1794 

Audi (fret, d', Charles Louis Gaston, Marquis, Fr. finan- 
cier and senator 1787 

Audiguier, d', Vital, Sieur de la Menor, Fr. poet ? 1569. . .1624 

Audley, Thomas, lord chancellor of England 1488. . .1544 

Audouin, Jean Victor, Fr. entomologist 1797. . .1841 

A udran, Claude. Father. Fr. engraver 1592... 1677 

Andran, Edraond, Fr. composer of comic opera 1842 

Audran, Girard, Fr. historical engraver 1640. . .1703 

Audr a n , Jean . Nephew. Fr. engraver 1667 . . 1756 

Audrein, Yves Marie, Fr. ecclesiastic and politician 1800 

Audubon, John James, Am . ornithologist 1780. . .1851 

Auenbrugger von Auenbrug, Leopold, physician at 

Vienna and inventor of percussion 1722. . .1809 

Auer, Anton, Bavarian porcelain painter 1778. . .1814 

Auerbach, Berthold, Ger. Jewish novelist. 1812 

Auerspergr, Carlos, Prince, Austrian statesman 1814 

Auersperg, Prince Adolph Wilhelm Daniel, Austrian 

statesman , 1821. . .1885 

A uersperg, von, Anton Alexander, Count. Anastasius 

Grun. Ger. poet 1806. ..1876 

Auffenberg, von, Joseph, Freiherr, Ger. dramatic 

poet 1798... 1857 

Auger, Athanase, Abbe\ Fr. political and classical 

writer 1734.. .1792 

31 



A UGER—A U VRIGNY 



BORN. DIED. 

Auger, Hippolyte Nicolas Just, Pr. novelist 1797 

Auger, Louis Simon, Pr. critic and writer 1772. . .1829 

Augereau, Pierre Francois Charles, Duke of Castigli- 

one, marshal of France. . . % 1757. . .1816 

Augier, Guillaume Victor Emile, Fr. dramatist and 

poet -. 1820. . .1889 

Auguis, Pierre Jean Baptiste, Fr. revolutionist ? 1745. . .1810 

Augur, Christopher Colon, Am. soldier 1821 

Augurelli, Giovanni Aurelio, Ital. Latin poet ? 1454. . .1524 

A ugust Wil helm , Brother of Frederick II 1722 . . .1758 

Augusti, Christian Johann Wilhelm, Ger. theologian. . 1771. . .1841 
Augustin, Jean Baptiste Jacques, Fr. miniature painter 1759. . .1832 

Augusti a , Saint. Apostle of the Anglo-Saxons 605 

Augustine, Saint, Numidian Dishop of Hippo 354. . . 430 

Aug us tin us, Antonius, archbishop of Tarragona. 

Span, jurist ? 1516. . .1586 

Augustus Caesar, first Roman emperor 63 B. C. . .14 A. D. 

Augustus I., Frederick, elector of Saxony and king 

of Poland 1670... 1773 

Augustus, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich, prince of 

Prussia 1779. . .1843 

Augustus, Wilhelm, Prince, brother of Frederick the 

Great 1722. ..1758 

Aulich, Louis, Hungarian general 1792. . .1849 

Aulnaye, de 1% Francois Henri Stanislas, Fr. writer. 1739... 1830 
Aumale, d% Charles de Lorraine, Due, a chief of the 

League 71554...1631 

Aumale, d', Henri Eugene Philippe Louis d'Orleans, 

Due, Fr. general. Son of King Louis Philippe 1822 

Aumont, d% Jean, Fr. general and marshal 1522. . .1595 

Aunoy, or Aulnoy, Marie Catherine Jumelle de Berne- 

ville, Countess of, Fr. authoress. [Fairy Tales.'] ? 1650. . .1705 

Aurelian, Claudius Domitius, Roman emperor ? 212. . . 275 

Aurelio, Giovanni Muzio, Ital. Latin poet fl. 1520 

Aurelle de Paladines, Claude, Fr. general 1803 

Aurifaber, Johann Goldschmid, Luther's assistant 1519. . .1575 

Aurispa, Giovanni, Ital. writer and scholar. 1369. . .1460 

Aurivillius, Carl, Swed. orientalist 1717. . .1786 

A urungzebe, emperor of Hindustan 1618... 1707 

Ausonius, Decimus Magnus, Latin poet and teacher. ? 310. . .? 394 

Austen, Miss Jane, Eng. novelist 1775. . .1817 

Austin , John, Eng. legal writer 1790. . .1859 

Austin, Mrs. Sarah, nee Taylor, Eng. writer and trans- 
lator A 1793.. .1867 

Austin, Stephen F., founder of the first colony of Texas 1836 

Autenrieth, von, Johann Hermann Ferdinand, Ger. 

physician and medical writer 1772. . .1835 

Autran, Joseph, Fr. poet 1812 

Auvergne, d* , Pierre, Fr. troubadour , ? 1215 

Auvigny, d% Jean du Castre, Fr. writer ? 1710. . .1743 

Auvray, Felix, Fr. painter 1800. . .1833 

Auvrigny, d% Hyacinthe Robillard, Fr. historian 1675. . .1719 

32 



AZOUT—AZEGLIO 



BORN. DIED. 

Azout. Adrian, Fr. mathematician 1630..? 1692 

Auzoux, TModor Louis, Fr. physician and inventor.. . 1797 

Aval os, d', Ferdinando, Marquis of Pescara, Neapol- 
itan general ? 1489. . .1525 

Avanzi, d% Jacopo di Paolo, Ital. painter fl. 1376 

A v anzini, Giuseppe, Ital. mathematician and physicist 1753. . .1827 
Avaux, d', Claude de Mesmes, Count, Fr. diplomatist.? 1595. . .1650 
Aveiro, Don Jose* de Mascarenhas, Duke of, Port, con- 
spirator 1708... 1759 

Avellaneda, de, Alonzo Fernandez, Span, author fl. 1614 

Avellaneda, de, Gertrudis Gomes, Span, poetess 1816... 1864 

A velloni, Francesco, Ital. dramatist 1756. . .1837 

Avenpace, Span. Arabian philosopher ? 1130 

Aventinus, Johannes. Thurnmaier. Ba v. historian.. 1466... 1534 

Avenzoar. Ibn Zohr, Arabian physician ?1075...1162 

Averani, Benedetto, Florentine classical scholar 1645 . . .1707 

Averani, Giuseppe. Brother. Ital. jurist 1662... 1738 

Averell, William Woods, Am. soldier 1832 

Averroes. Ibn Boshd. Arabian philosopher and 

physician ?1149. . .1198 

Avicenna. Ar. Ibn Sina, Mohammedan physician 

and philosopher 980. . .1037 

A vila, de, Gil Gonzalez, Span, divine and historian.. .? 1577. . .1658 

Aviler, Augustin Chas., Fr. architect 1653. . .1700 

Avitus, Saint, archbishop of Vienne, France. Latin 

poet 525 

Avrigny, d% Charles Joseph Lorillard, Fr. poet 1760. . .1823 

A vril, Jean Jacques, Fr. engraver 1744. . .1832 

Ayala, de, Balthasar, Flemish jurist ? 1548. . .1584 

Ayala, de, Pedro Lopez, Span, historian and poet 1332. . .1407 

Ayer, James Cook, Am. manufacturer 1818. . .1878 

Ayeshah, favorite wife of Mohammed 611...? 677 

Aylesbury, Sir Thomas, Eng. patron of learning 1576. . .1657 

Ayllon, de, Lucas Vasquez, companion of Cortez 1526 

Aylmer, John, tutor to Lady Jane Grey 1521. . .1594 

Aymar, Jacques, Fr. impostor 1662 

Ayolas, de, or d'A yolas, Juan, Span, adventurer fl. 1534 

Ay rault, Pierre, Fr. jurist 1536. . .1601 

Ayrer, or Eyer, Jacob, Ger. dramatic poet 1605 

Ayre&, Romeyn Beck, Am. soldier 1825. . .1888 

Ayscoagh, Rev. Samuel, Eng. antiquary and writer.. 1745... 1804 

Ayscue, or Ayscough, Sir George, Eng. admiral ..?1674 

Ayta, Ulric van Zuichem Viglius, Dutch jurist and 

statesman 1507. . .1577 

Aytoun, Sir Robert, Scot, poet 1570. ..1638 

Aytoun, William Edmondstoune, Scot, professor and 

poet 1813... 1865 

Azais, Pierre Hyacinthe, Fr. philosopher 1766. . .1845 

Azanza, de, Miguel Jose\ Span, statesman.. 1746. . .1826 

Azara, de, Don Felix, Span, naturalist 1746. . .1811 

Azeglio, d% Massimo Taparelli, Ital. statesman and 

author ?1800...1866 

33 



AZEVEDO—BA CON 



BORN. DIED* 

Azevedo, de, Ignazio, Port, missionary 1527. . .1570 

Azo, Azzo, or Azolinus, Portius, Ital. jurist ?1225 

A zun i, Domenico Alberto, Sardinian jurist and anti- 
quary 1749... 1827 

Azzarkal, Arabian mathematician and astronomer. . fl. ?1000 
Azzoguidi, Germino, Ital. physician and author 1710. . .1814 



Baader, von, Franz Xavier, Ger. philosopher and 

mystic 1765. . .1811 

Baan, Jan van, Dutch portrait painter 1633. . .1702 

Baba-Ali, dey of Algiers 1718 

Ba bbage, Charles, Eng. mathematician 1791. . .1871 

Babbitt, Isaac. Am. inventor 1799. . .1862 

Babcock, OrvilleE., Am. soldier 1835... 1884 

Babek. Al Khorremi. Persian impostor 837 

Baber, or Babur, Zahir eb-Din Mohammed, founder 

of the Mogul Empire in India 1483. . .1530 

Bab e nf<, Fran cois Noel, Fr. revolutionist 1764... 1797 

Babinet, Jacques, Fr. natural philosopher 1794. . .1872 

Babington, Anthony, Eng. conspirator. Executed 1586 

Babington, William, Brit, chemist and naturalist 1756. . .1833 

Babo, von, Franz Marius, Ger. dramatist 1756... 1822 

Baccio della Porta. Fra Bartolommeo di San Marco. 

Ital. painter 1469... 1517 

Bacciochi, Felice Pasquale. Consort of Napoleon's 

sister, Marie Elisa 1762... 1841 

Bach, Alexander, Baron, Austrian statesman 1813 

Bach, Johann Christian, Ger. composer 1735 . . .1782 

Bach, Johann Christoph, Ger. composer and organist. . 1643. . .1703 
Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich. Son of Johann Se- 
bastian. Ger. musical composer 1732... 1795 

Bach, Johann Sebastian, famous Ger. composer and 

musician 1685... 1750 

Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel. Son of Johann Sebas- 
tian. Ger. musical composer 1714. . .1788 

Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann. Son of Johann Sebas- 
tian. Ger. organist 1710. . .1784 

Bache, Alexander Dallas, Am. philosopher 1806. . .1867 

Bache, Franklin. Cousm. Am. physician and chemist 1792. . .1864 

Bachelet, Jean Louis Theodore, Fr. historian 1820 

Bachman, John, Am. naturalist 1790... 1874 

Baciccio, Glambattista Gauli, Genoese painter 1639. . .1709 

Back, Sir George, Eng. arctic navigator 1796 

Backer, van, Jakob. Jacob of Palermo. Dutch 

painter 1530... 1560 

Backus, Isaac, Am. clergyman. " Separatist." 1724. . .1806 

Bacler-d'Albe, Louis Albert Ghislain, Baron, Fr. 

painter 1762... 1824 

Bacon, Francis, Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans, 

Eng. philosopher 1561... 1626 

Bacon, John, Eng. sculptor 1740. . .1799 

34 



BA CON—BAIRD 



BORN. DIED- 

Bacon, Leonard, Am. scholar and divine 1802. . .1881 

Bacon, Leonard Woolsey, Am. clergyman 1830 

Bacon, Nathaniel, Virginian patriot 1630. . .1677 

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, Eng. statesman and lord keeper. 1510. . .1579 
Bacon, Roger, Friar. The Admirable Doctor. Eng. 

philosopher 1214..?1292 

Baconthorp, John. The Resolute Doctor. Eng. monk ? 1346 

Badalocchio. Sisto Rosa. Ital. painter 1581... 1647 

Baden, Jakob, Dan. philologist 1735. . .1804 

Baden-Baden, Ludwig Wilhelm, Margrave of, Fr. 

general 1655. . .1707 

Badger, George Edmund, Am. statesman 1795. . .1866 

Badius, Jodocus, or Josse, Flemish printer and poet. . . 1462. . .1535 

Baer, von, Karl Ernst, Rus. naturalist 1792. . .1876 

Baerle, van, Gaspard, Dutch theologian and Latin 

poet 1584... 1648 

Baert, de, Alexandre Balthasar Francois de Paule, 

Baron, Fr. senator and author 1750. . .1825 

Baez, Buenaventura, president of the Dominican Re- 
public ?1820 

Baffin, William, Eng. navigator ? 1584. . .1622 

Bagehot, Walter, Eng. essayist and journalist 1826. . .1877 

Baggesen, Jens Immanuel, Danish poet 1764. . .1826 

Baglione, Giovanni, Ital. painter ? 1573..? 1644 

Baglivl, Giorgio, Ital. physician and medical writer. . . 1669. . .1707 

Bagnacavallo, Bartolommeo, Bolognese painter 1484. . .1542 

Bagnoli, Giulio Cesare, Ital. dramatic poet ? 1630 

Bagration, Peter, Prince, Russ. general 1765. . .1812 

Bagshaw, Edward, Eng. lawyer and political writer. . 1604. . .1662 

Bahr, or Baehr, Johann Christian Felix, Ger. scholar. 1798 

Bahrdt, Karl Friedrich, Ger. theologian 1741. . .1792 

Baier, Johann Jacob, Ger. physician and naturalist. . . 1677. . .1735 

Bai'f, de, Jean Antoine, Fr. poet 1532. . .1589 

Bailey, Gamaliel, Am. journalist 1807. . .1859 

Bailey, Jacob Whitman, Am. microscopist •. 1811. . .1857 

Bailey, Nathan, Eng school-master and lexicographer 1742 

Bailey, Philip James, Eng. poet and lawyer 1816 

Bailey, Theodorus, Am. rear-admiral 1803. . .1877 

Baillie, Joanna, Scot, poetess 1762. . 1851 

Baillie, Matthew. Brother. Scot, physician and anat- 
omist 1761... 1823 

Baillie, Robert, Scot, theologian and historian 1599. . .1662 

Baillon, de, Guillaume, Fr. medical writer 1538. . .1616 

Baillon, Emmanuel, Fr. naturalist 1802 

Baillot, Pierre Marie Francois de Sales, Fr. violinist. . . 1771. . .1842 

Bailly, Jean Sylvain, Fr. astronomer 1736. . .1793 

Baily, Edward Hodges, Eng. sculptor ? 1788. . .1867 

Baily, Francis, Eng. astronomer 1774. . .1844 

Bain, Alexander, Scot, metaphysician and author 1818. . .1877 

Bainbridge, William, Am. commodore. 1774. . .1833 

Baini, Giuseppe. Ital. musician 1776.. .1844 

Bair d, Sir David, Scot, general 1757. . . 1829 

35 



BAIRD—BALECHO U 



BORN. DIED. 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Am. naturalist. Secretary- 
Smithsonian Institution 1823. . .1887 

Baius, or De Bay, Michael, Flemish theologian 1513. . .1589 

Bajazet I„ sultan of the Ottomans 134=7. . .14=03 

Bajazet II., Turkish sultan. Reigned 1481-1512. 

Baker, Edward Dickinson, Am. senator. 1811 . . .1861 

Baker, Henry, Eng. naturalist 1698. . .1774= 

Baker, Osmun Cleander, Am. clergyman 1812. . .1871 

Baker, Sir Samuel White, Eng. explorer in Africa 1821 

Baker, Valentine. Baker Pasha. Eng. soldier 1831 . . .1887 

Bake well, Robert, Eng. agriculturist ? 1725. . .1795 

Bakhuysen, or Backhuysen, Ludolf, Dutch painter.. 1631... 1709 

Bakunin, Mikhail, Russ. revolutionist 1814 . . . 1876 

Balard, Antoine JerOme, Fr. chemist. Discoverer of 

bromine 1802 

Balban-Gheias-ed-Din, king of Delhi 1286 

Balbastre, Claude Louis, Fr. organist 1729. . .1799 

Balbi, Adriano, Ital. geographer 1782. . .1848 

Balbi, Giovanni, Genoese monk and author 1298 

Balbo, Cesare, Ital. writer and statesman 1789. . .1853 

Balboa, de, Vasco Nunez, Span, adventurer 14=75. . .1517 

Balbuena, Bernardo, Span, poet 1568. . .1627 

Balch, George B., Am. naval officer 1821 

Balchen, Sir John, Eng. admiral ? 1669. . .174=4= 

Baldaya, Alfonso Gongales, Port, explorer fi. 14=34= 

Balde, Jakob, Ger. Latin poet 1603. . .1668 

Baldi d' Urbino, Bernardino, Ital. mathematician, 

poet, and philologist 1553. . .1617 

Baldinger, Ernst Gottfried, Ger. medical writer 1738. . .1804= 

Baldini, Baccio, Ital. engraver 1436. . .1515 

Baldinucci, Filippo, Florentine artist and writer 1624. . .1696 

Baldovini, Francesco, Ital. poet 1635. . .1716 

Balducci, Francesco, Sicilian poet ? 1600. . .1642 

Bal dung, Hans. Griin. Ger. painter and engraver 1470..? 1550 

Baldwin I., emperor of Constantinople 1171. . .1206 

Baldwin. Bras de Fer, or Iron Arm. First count of 

Flanders 877 

Baldwin I., king of Jerusalem and brother of God- 
frey de Bouillon. 1058... 1118 

Baldwin I., of Flanders, emperor of Constantinople. 

Reigned 1204-1205. 
Baldwin II., emperor of Constantinople. Reigned 

1228-1261. 
Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem. Reigned 1118-1131. 
Baldwin III., king of Jerusalem. Reigned 1143-1162. 
Baldwin IV., king of Jerusalem. Reigned 1173-1184. 
Baldwin, John Dennison, Am. journalist and antiqua- 
rian 1809... 1883 

Baldwin, Mathias William, Am. locomotive manufac- 
turer 1795... 1866 

Bale, John. Bishop of Ossory. Brit, author 1495. . .1563 

Balechou, Jean Joseph Nicolas, Fr. engraver 1715. . .1765 

36 



BALEN— BANTING 



BORN. DIED. 

Balen, van, Hendrik, Flem. painter , 1560. . .1632 

Bales, Peter, Eng. caligrapher 1547. . .1610 

Bales tra, Antonio, Veronese painter 1666. . .1740 

Balfe, Michael William, Irish musician and composer. 1808. . .1870 

Balfour, Alexander, Scot, author , 1767. . .1829 

Balfour, Sir James, Scot, judge 1583 

Balfour, JohnHutton, Brit, botanist and physician.... 1808... 1884 

Baliol, de, or de Balliol, John, king of Scotland ? 1259. . .1314 

Balio 1, Edward. Son of John. King of Scotland 1363 

Ball, Thomas, Am. sculptor 1819 

Ballanche, Pierre Simon, Fr. philosopher and writer. 1776. . .1847 

Ballantyne, James, Scot, printer and journalist 1772. . .1833 

Ballon, Hosea, Am. Universalist preacher and author 1771.. .1852 
Ballon, Hosea. Grand-nephew. Am. Universalist cler- 
gyman. First president of Tufts college, Mass 1796. . .1861 

Balmes, Jaime Lucio, Span, politician, theologian and 

philosopher , 1810. . .1848 

Balnaves, Henry, Scot, reformer 1575 

Balsamo, Paolo, Ital. agriculturist and writer 1763. . .1818 

Baltard, Louis Pierre, Fr. architect and engraver 1765. . .1846 

Balthasar, Theodor, Ger. Reputed inventor of the 

solar microscope fl. 1710 

Baltzer, Johann Baptist, Ger. Roman Catholic theo- 
logian 1803... 1871 

Bala e? de la, Jean, Fr. cardinal and intriguer ? 1420. . .1491 

Baluze, Etienne* Fr. historian 1630. . .1718 

Balzac, de, Honored Fr. novelist 1799. ..1850 

Balzac, de, Jean Louis Guez, Seigneur, Fr. writer 1594... 1654 

Bancroft, George, Am. historian 1800 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, Am. historian of the Pacific 

States 1832 

Bandel , von, Joseph Ernst, Ger. sculptor 1800. . .1876 

Bandello, Matteo, Ital. novelist 1480. . .1562 

Bandiera, Attilio (b. 1870), and Emilio (b. 1819). 

Brothers. Ital. patriots. Executed 1844 

Bandinelli, Baccio, Ital. sculptor 1487. . .1559 

Bandini, Angelo Maria, Ital. antiquarian and bibliog- 
rapher 1726... 1800 

Bandino, Domenico, Ital. scholar and writer 1340. .? 1413 

Bandtke, Jerzy Samuel, Polish historian 1768. . .1835 

Baner, or Banier, Johan Gustavus, Swed. field-mar- 
shal 1595... 1641 

Bangs, Nathan, Am. Methodist clergyman 1778. . .1862 

Banim, John, Irish novelist 1798. . .1842 

Banks, Sir Joseph, Eng. naturalist 1743. . .1820 

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, Am. politician 1816 

Banks, Thomas, Eng. sculptor 1735. . .1805 

Banneker, Benjamin, Am. negro mathematician 1731. . .1806 

Bannister, Henry, Am. divine and educator 1812. . .1883 

Banquo, Scot, thane. Accomplice of Macbeth 1066 

Banting, William, London merchant. Published 

scheme for curing corpulence 1797... 1871 

37 



BANVARD—BARCLA T 



BORN. DIED. 

Banvard, John, Am. artist 1820 

Bar, von, or Baer, Karl Ernst, Ger.-Russ. naturalist. . 1792. . .1876 
Baraguey d'Hilliers, Achille, marshal of France.. 1795... 1878 
Bar aguey d'Hilliers, Louis. Father. Fr. general.. 1764... 1812 
Bar ante, Amable Guillaume Prosper, Baron de Bru- 

giere, Fr. statesman 1782 . . .1866 

Baratier, Johann Philip, Fr.-Ger. precocious youth... 1721... 174=0 

Baratynski, Yevgeni Abramovitch, Russ. poet 1844 

Barbacena, Feiiberto Caldeira Brant, Marquis of, 

Brazilian soldier and statesman 1772. . .1842 

Barbadoro, Bartolommeo, Ital. scholar fl. 1545 

Barbancois, de, Charles Helion, Marquis, Fr. noble- 
man and agriculturist 1760. . .1822 

Barba ra, Saint, Christian martyr .? 235 

Barbarossa, Khair-ed-Din, Corsair king of Algiers. .? 1476. . .1547 
Barbarossa, Arudj or Horuk. Brother. Corsair king 

of Algiers ? 1474 . . .1518 

Barbaroux, Charles Jean Marie, Fr. representative. . 1767.. .1794 

Barbauld, Anna Letitia, Eng. writer 1743... 1825 

Barba zan, de, Arnauld Guilhem, Fr. general .1432 

Barber, Francis, Am. officer in the Revolutionary war 1751. ..1783 

Barber, John Warner, Am. historian 1798 

Barberini, Francesco, Ital. poet 1264. . .1348 

Barberini, Francesco, Ital. cardinal. Founder of the 

Barberini Library 1597. . .1676 

Barbes, Armand, Fr. revolutionist 1809. . .1870 

Barbeu-Dubourg, Jacques, Fr. naturalist 1709... 1779 

Barbeyrac, Jean, Fr. historian and jurist 1674. . .1744 

Barbiano, Alberico, Count, Ital. commander 1409 

Barbie* du Socage, Jean Denis, Fr. geographer 1760... 1825 

Barbier , Antoine Alexandre, Fr. bibliographer 1765. . .1825 

Barbier, Henri Auguste, Fr. satiric poet 1805 

Barbiere, del, Domenico. The Florentine, Ital. paint- 
er, sculptor, and engraver ? 1506 

Barbosa, Ayres, or Arius, Port, philologist and poet. . 1460. . .1530 

Barbosa Machado, Diego, Port, historian 1682. . .1770 

Barbour, James, Am. statesman 1775... 1842 

Barbour, John, Scot, poet and historian ? 1316..? 1395 

Barbour, John Merrett, Am. jurist 1807. . .1881 

Barbour, John S., Am. politician 1790. . .1855 

Barbour, Oliver Lorenzo, Am. lawyer 1811 

Barbour, Philip Pendleton, Am. lawyer and judge 1783. . .1841 

Barchou de Penhoen, Auguste Theodore Hilaire, 

Baron, Fr. author 1801. . .1855 

Barclay, Alex., Brit, author. Trans, of Ship of Fools 1552 

Barclay, Jean, Fr. writer. [Argenis.'] 1582. . .1621 

Barclay, John, Scot, divine. Founder of Barclayans 

or Bereans 1734... 1798 

Barclay, Robert, Scot. Quaker writer 1648. . .1690 

Barclay, William, Scot, jurist in France ?1546. . .1606 

Barclay de Tolly, Michael, Prince, Russ. field- 
marshal ? 1755.. .1818 

38 



BAB GOCHEBA— BARON 



BORN. DIED. 

Bar Cocheba, leader of the Jews in their revolt 
against Hadrian. Slain about 135 A. D. 

Bard, Samuel, Am. physician and writer 1742. . .1821 

Bardas, Byzantine usurper. Assassinated 866. 

Bardesanes, Syrian Gnostic about 170. . . 200 

Bardi, Girolamo, Ital. physician and philosopher 1603. . .1670 

Ba rdin, Etienne Alexandre, Fr. general 1774. . .1840 

Barebone, Praise God, Eng. fanatic leather-seller 1680 

Barentz, Willem, Dutch navigator 1597 

Bar ere de Vieuzac, Bertrand, Fr. revolutionist 1755. . .1841 

Baretti, Giuseppe, Ital. writer and teacher London 1716. . .1789 

Bargagli, Scipione, Tuscan writer 1612 

Barges, Jean Joseph L^andre, Fr. orientalist 1810 v 

Bargiel, Woldemar, composer 1828. . 

Barham, Richard Harris. Thomas Ingoldsby. Eng. 

divine and humorist 1788. . .1845 

Baring, Francis Thornhill, Lord Northbrook, Eng. 

statesman. Viceroy of India 1872-1876 1826 

Baring, Sir Francis, Eng. capitalist. Founder of the 

banking-house of Baring & Co 1740. . .1810 

Baring-Gould, Sabine, Eng. author 1834 

Barjaud, Jean Baptiste, Fr. writer and soldier 1785. . .1813 

Barkah Khan, cbief of the Kharizmians 1246 

Barker, George Frederic, Am. physicist 1835 

Barker, Jacob, Am. financier 1779. . .1871 

Barksdale, William, Am. soldier 1821. . .1863 

Barlow, Francis ChanniDg, Am. soldier 1834 

Barlow, Joel, Am. poet and patriot 1754. . .1812 

Barl ow, Peter, Eng. mathematician 1776. . .1862 

Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter, Am. education- 
ist. President Columbia College 1809 . . . 1889 

Barnard, Henry, Am. educator 1811 

Barnard, John Gross, Am. soldier 1815. . .1882 

Barnard, Lady Anne, Scot, poetess. [Auld BoMn Gray.'] 1750... 1825 

Barnard, William Stebbins, Am. naturalist 1849 

Barnave, Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie, Fr. revolu- 
tionist and orator 1761. . .1793 

Barnby, Joseph, Eng. composer , 1828 

Barnes, Albert, Am. minister. [Notes on the New Testa- 
ment.] 1798... 1870 

Barnes, Demas, Am. publisher 1827. . .1888 

Barnes, George O., Am. preacher. The Mountain 

Evangelist 1842 

Barnes, Joseph K., surgeon-general U. S. A 1817. . .1883 

Barneveldt, Johan van Olden, Dutch statesman 1549. . .1619 

Barney, Joshua, Am. commodore 1759. . .1818 

Barnum, Phineas Taylor, Am. showman 1810 

Barocci, Fiori Federigo, Ital. painter 1528. . .1612 

Baroccio, or Barozzio, Giacomo da Vignola, Ital. 

architect 1507. . .1573 

Baroehe, Pierre Jules, Fr. statesman 1802 

Baron, Michel, Fr. actor and dramatic writer 1653. . .1729 

39 



BAR ONIUS—BARTLETT 



BORN. DIED. 

Bar on his. or Baronio, Cesare, Ital. cardinal and 

writer 1538... 1607 

Barral, Jean Augustin, Fr. chemist. First extracted 

nicotine 1819 

Barragan, Miguel, Mex. general and president 1835 

Barrande, Joachim, Fr.-Austrian paleontologist 1799... 1883 

B arras, de, Paul Frangois Jean Nicolas, Count, Fr. 

revolutionist 1755. . .1829 

Barre", Colonel Isaac, Brit, officer. Opposed Stamp Act 1726. . .1802 
Barre, de la, Jean Frangois le Fevre, Chevalier, Fr. 

victim of religious intolerance 1747 . . .1766 

Barrelier, Jacques, Fr. botanist 1606. . .1673 

Barreto, Francisco, Port, missionary and Jesuit 1588. . .1663 

Barrett; John, Irish classical scholar ? 1750. . .1821 

Barrett, Lawrence, Am. tragedian 1838 

Barrington, Daines, Eng. writer and naturalist 1727. . .1800 

Barring ton. Sir Jonah, Irish lawyer and author 1767. . .1834 

Barrios, Justi Rufino, Cent. Am. statesman 1835. . .1885 

Barron, James, Am. commodore 1768. . .1851 

Barron, Samuel, Am. naval officer 1763. . .1810 

Barros, de, Joao. The Portuguese Livy. Port, historian 1496... 1570 

Barrot, Camille Hyacinthe Odillon, Fr. statesman 1791. . .1873 

Barrow, Isaac, Eng. theologian and mathematician. . . 1630. . .1677 

Barrow, Sir John, Eng. traveler and geographer 1764. . .1848 

Barrundia, Jose" Francisco, statesman of Honduras. . . 1779. . .1854 

Barry, Sir Charles, Eng. architect 1795. . .1860 

Barry, Sir David, Irish physician and physiologist 1780. . .1835 

Barry, Edward Middleton, Eng. architect 1830. . .1880 

Barry, James, Irish historical painter 1741. . .1806 

Barry, du, Marie Jeanne Gomard de Vaubernier, 

Comtesse, mistress of Louis XV. of France 1746 . . . 1793 

Barry, Martin, Eng. physiologist 1802. . .1855 

Barry, William Farquhar, Am. soldier 1818. . .1879 

Bart, Jean, Fr. naval officer 1651. . .1702 

Bartag, du, Guillaume de Salluste, Fr. poet 1544. . .1590 

Bartli, Christian Gottlob, Ger. philanthropist and 

author 1799... 1862 

Barth, Heinrich, Ger. explorer 1821. . .1865 

Barthe'lemy, Auguste Marseille, Fr. satiric poet 1796. . .1867 

Barthe'lemy, Frangois, Marquis de, Fr. statesman 1747.. .1830 

Barthe'lemy, Jean Jacques, Fr. writer and archaeolo- 
gist .... 1716.. =1795 

Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire, Jules, Fr. savant 1805 

Barthez, or Barthes, Paul Joseph, Fr. medical writer 1734. . .1806 
Bartholdi, Frederic Auguste, Alsatian sculptor. [God- 
dess of Liberty.] 1834... .... 

Bartholin, Kaspar, Danish anatomist 1585. . .1630 

Bartholin, Thomas, Dan. medical writer 1616. . .1680 

Bartlett, Dwight K., minister of the Reformed Church 

in America. 1830 . . .1881 

Bartlett, John Russell, Am. writer. [Dictionary of 

Americanisms, Familiar Quotations.] 1805 

40 



BARTLETT—BATE 



BORN. DIED. 

Bartlett, William H. C, Am. scientific writer. 1804 

Harriett. William Henry, Eng. artist, traveler, and 

writer 1809. . .1854 

Bartoli, Daniele, Ital. Jesuit and writer 1608. . .1685 

Bartoii, Pietro Santi. Perugio. Ital. engraver and 

painter ? 1635 . . . 1700 

Bartolini, Lorenzo, Ital. sculptor ? 1777. . .1850 

Bariolocci, Giulio, Ital. scholar and ecclesiastic 1613. . .1687 

Bartolommes, Fra, Florentine painter 1469. . .1517 

Bartolozzi, Francesco, Ital. engraver ? 1725. . .1817 

Barton, Benjamin Smith, Am. naturalist 1766. . .1815 

Barton, Bernard. The Quaker Poet. Eng. poet 1784. . .1849 

Barton, Elizabeth. Holy Maid of Kent. Eng. fa- 
natic 1534 

Barton, William P. C, Am. botanist 1856 

Bartram, John, Am. botanist 1701. . .1777 

Bartram, William, Am. naturalist 1739. . .1823 

Bartsch. von, Johann Adam Bernhard. Austrian 

engraver. [Le peintre-graveur.] 1757 . . . 1820- 

Bartsch, Karl Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1832 

Barye, Antoine Louis, Fr. sculptor 1795. . .1875- 

Baschi, Ital. monk. Founder of the order of Capu- 
chins ? 1500... 1552 

Basedow, Johann Bernhard, Ger. educator 1723. . .1790 

Basil, or Basilius, Saint. The Great. Bishop of Ces- 

area 329 ... 379 

Basil I., Byzantine emperor. Reigned 867-886. 
Basil II,, Byzantine emperor. Reigned 976-1025. 

Basil- Valentine, Ger. chemist fl. 15th c. 

Basiliscus, emperor of the East 477 

Baskerville, John, Eng. letter founder and printer. . 1706. . .1775 
Basnage de Beauval, Jacques, Fr. ecclesiastical 

writer and historian 1653. . ,172a 

Bass, George A., Eng. surgeon and navigator. [Discov- 
ered Bass Strait in 1798.1 f . 

Bassani, Giovanni, Ital. inventor fl. 17thc. 

Bassano, Giacomo da Ponte. II Bassano. Ital. painter 1510... 1592 
Bassanville, de, Anai's Lebrun, Countess, Fr. author- 
ess 1806 

Basselin, Olivier, Fr. poet ?1350. . .1419 

Bassi, Laura Maria Catarina, Ital. authoress and pro- 
fessor of philosophy 1711. . .1778 

Bassompierre, de, Francois, Baron, marshal of 

France, courtier, and writer of memoirs 1579. . .1646 

Bast, Friedrich Jakob, Ger. scholar and diplomatist. . . 1772. . *1811 

Bastian, Adolph, Ger. traveler and ethnologist 1826 

Bastian , Henry Charlton, Eng. physiologist 1837. . . .... 

Bastiat, Frederic, Fr. political economist 1801. . ! 185*6 

Bastide, Jules, Fr. politico-economist and author 1800. . .1879 

Bastien-Lepage, Jules, Fr. painter 1848. . .1884 

Batbie, Anselm Polycarpe, Fr. lawyer and statesman. . 1827. . .1887 

Bate, William B., Am. soldier and senator 1824. . . . 

41 



BATES— BAYER 



BORN. DIED. 

Bates, Edward, Am. statesman 1792 

Bates, Henry Walter, Eng. traveler and naturalist 1825 

Bates, Joshua, Am. financier in London. Philanthro- 
pist 1788... 1864 

Bates, William, Eng. non-conformist divine and biog- 
rapher 1625. . .1699 

Bathori, Elizabeth, Princess. Niece of Stephen Bdthori. 

Murderess of young girls 1614 

Bathori, Sigismund, prince of Transylvania, 1581-1598 1613 

Bathori, Stephen, king of Poland 1532... 1586 

Bathurst, Allen, first Earl, Eng. statesman 1684. . .1775 

Bathurst, Ralph, Eng. poet, philosopher, and theol. . . 1620. . .1704 

Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo, Ital. painter 1708. . .1787 

Batteux, Charles, Fr. critic 1713.. .1780 

Batthyanyi, Kazmer, Count, Hungarian patriot and 

statesman 1807 . . . 1854 

Batthyanyi, Lajos, Count, Hungarian statesman 1809. . .1849 

Batu Khan, Mongol conqueror ? 1256 

Baudelocque, Jean Louis, Fr. surgeon 1746. . .1810 

Baudin des Ardennes, Charles, Fr. vice-admiral.... 1784... 1854 

Baadrillart, Henry Joseph Leon, Fr. economist 1821 

Baudry, Freaeric, Fr. litterateur and linguist 1824. . .1885 

Bauer, Bruno, Ger. theologian and biblical critic 1809 

Bauer, Ferdinand, Ger. botanical painter 1744 . . .1826 

Bauer, Georg Lorenz, Ger. orientalist and theologian. 1755. ..1806 

Bauhin, Gaspard, Fr. anatomist and naturalist 1560. . .1624 

Bauhin, Jean, Fr. botanist and physician 1541. . .1613 

Baume, Antoine, Fr. chemist , 1728. . .1804 

Baume, de la, Nicolas Auguste, marshal of France.. .? 1636... 1716 
Baumeister, Johann Wilhelm, Ger. veterinary writer 1804... 1846 
Ban m gar ten, Alexander Gottlieb, Ger. philosopher. 

Founder of the science of aesthetics 1714 . . .1762 

Baumgartner, von, Andreas, Austrian statesman 

and savant 1793. . .1865 

Baumgartner, Karl Heinrich, Ger. physiologist 1798 

Baur, Ferdinand Christian, Ger. Protestant theologian. 
Professor at Tubingen. Founder of the Tubingen 

School of Theology 1792. ..1861 

Bausset, de, Louis Francois, Fr. cardinal and writer. . 1748. . .1824 
Bautain, Louis Eugene Marie, Fr. theologian and 

philosopher 1796. . .1867 

Baverini, Francesca, Ital. musician ? 1420 

Baxter, Richard, Eng. Nonconformist divine 1615. . .1691 

Bayard, de, Pierre du Terrail, Chevalier, Fr. warrior 1475. ..1524 

Bayard, James Asheton, Am. statesman 1767. . .1815 

Bayard, James Asheton, Am. statesman 1799. . .1880 

Bayard, Thomas F., Am. statesman. Secretary of 

State of the U. S. in Cleveland's cabinet 1828 

Bayazid. or Bajazet I. llderim. Sultan of the Ot- 
tomans 1347. ,.1403 

Bayer, Francisco Perez, Span, antiquary 1711. . .1794 

Bayer, Gottlieb Siegfried, Ger. orientalist 1694. . .1738 

42 



BA YEUX—BEA UVA U 



BORN. DIED. 

Eayeux, George, Fr. jurist and writer 1752 . . .1792 

Bay le, Gaspard Laurent, Fr. physician 1774. . .1816 

Bay le, Pierre, Fr. philosopher and critic 1647. . .1706 

Bayley, Sir John, Eng. judge. [Bills of Exchange.']. . . . 1763. . .1841 

Bayly, Thomas Haynes, Eng. poet 1797... 1839 

Bazaine, Frangois Achille, Fr. general 1811. . .1888 

Bazard, Amand, Fr. socialist 1791. . .1832 

Bazhenof, Vasili Ivanovitch, Russ. architect 1737. . .1799 

Bazin, Antoine Pierre Louis, Fr. philologist 1799. . . 1863 

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of 1805. . .1881 

Beales, Edmund, Eng. political economist 1803. . .1881 

Beard, George M., Am. physician and author 1839. . .1883 

Beaton, or Bethuue, David, Cardinal and primate of 

Scotland 1494... 1546 

Beatrice Portinari, Florentine lady, immortalized 

by Dante 1266. . .1290 

Beattie, James, Scot, poet and writer 1735. . .1803 

Beauchamp, Joseph, Fr. astronomer 1742. . .1801 

Beauchamp, Richard, Earl of Warwick, Eng. general ? 1380. . .1439 
Beauchamp, Richard, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Salis- 
bury 1481 

Beauchamp, de, Alfonse, Fr. litterateur 1767. . .1832 

Beauclerk, Topham, Eng. scholar. Friend of Dr. 

Johnson 1739... 1780 

Beaufort, Henry, Eng. cardinal. Bishop of Winches- 
ter ? 1370... 1447 

Beaufort, de, Louis, Fr. historian in Holland 1795 

Beauharnais, de, Alexandre, Vicomte, first husband 

of Josephine, who married Napoleon Bonaparte 1760. . .1794 

Beauharnais, de, Eugene. Son of Alexandre and 

Josephine. Viceroy of Italy 1781.. .1824 

Beauharnais, de, Hortense Eugenie. Daughter of 
Alexandre and Josephine. Wife of Louis Bonaparte 

and mother of Louis Napoleon .... 1783. . .1837 

Beaumanoir, de, Philipe, Fr. jurist 1296 

Beaumarchais, de, Pierre Augustin Caron, Fr. dra- 
matic writer 1732. . .1799 

Beaumelle, de la, Laurent Angliviel, Fr. writer 1727. . .1773 

Beaumont, Basil, Eng. rear-admiral 1669. . .1703 

Beaumont, Francis, Eng. dramatic poet. Colleague 

of Fletcher '. 1586... 1615 

Beaumont de la Bonniere, de, Gustave Auguste, 

Fr. publicist and writer 1802. . .1866 

Beauplan, de, Guillaume le Vasseur, Fr. geographer ? 1670 

Beauregard, Peter Gustavus Toutant, Am. Confeder- 
ate general 1817 

Beauregard, Charles Victor. Wovrgard. Fr. general 1764... 1810 

Beausobre, de, Isaac, Fr. Protestant theologian 1659. . .1738 

Beautemps-Beaupre*, Charles Frangois, Fr. hydro- 

grapher 1766 . . .1854 

Beauvais, Charles Theodore, Fr. general and writer. . 1772. . .1830 

Beauvau, de, Charles Juste, marshal of France 1720. . .1793 

43 



BEB UT OFF— BEG ON 



BORN. DIED* 

Bebutoff, Vasili, Prince, Russ. general 1792. . .1858- 

Beccafumi, Domenico, Ital. painter and sculptor 1484. . .154$ 

Beccari, Giacomo Bartolommeo, Ital. physician and 

writer 1682 . . . 1766 

Beccaria, di, Cesare Bonesana, Marquis, Ital. philos- 
opher and political writer 1738. . .1794 

Beccaria, Giambattista, Ital. electrician 1716. . .1781 

Becerra, Gasparo, Span, painter and sculptor ?1520. . .1570 

Becher, Johann Joachim, Ger. chemist ? 1625..? 1685 

Bechstein, Johann Matthaus, Ger. ornithologist 1757. . .1822 

Beck, Christian Daniel. Ger. philologist and writer 1757.. .1832^ 

Beck, James Burnie, Am. lawyer and senator 1822. . .1890 

Beck, John Brodhead. Brother of T. B. Beck. Am. 

physician 1794 . . . 1851 

Beck, Karl, Austrian poet 1817. . .1879 

Beck, Lewis C, Am. naturalist 1798. . .1853 

Beck, Theodoric Romeyn, Am. physician and author. . 1791. . .1855 

Becker, Christiane Amalie Luise, Ger. actress 1777..? 1796 

Becker, Georges, Fr. painter ?1845 

Becker, Karl, Ger. painter 1820 

Becker, Karl Friedrich, Ger. historian 1777. . .1806 

Becker, Nikolaus, Ger. poet 1816. . .1845 

Becker, Rudolph Zacharias, Ger. tale writer 1752. . .1822 

Becket, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury 1117. . .1170 

Beckford, William, Eng. author 1760. . .1844 

Beckmann, Johann, Ger. writer on rural economy. . .-. . 1739. . .1811 

Beckx, Pierre Jean, general of the Jesuits 1795. . .1878 

Becquerel, Alexandre Edmond, Fr. physicist 1820 

Becquerel, Antoine Cesar. Father. Fr. electrician... 1788 

Beddoes, Thomas, Eng. physician and chemist 1760. . .1808 

Bede. The Venerable. Eng. monk and ecclesiastical 

historian ?672...?735 

Bedeau, Marie Alphonse, Fr. general 1804. . .1863 

Bedell, Gregory Townsend, Am. divine 1793. . .1834 

Bedell, William, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Kilmore 1570. . .1642 

Bedford, John Plantagenet, Duke of, regent of France ? 1390. . .1435 
Beecher, Catherine Esther. Sister of JET. W. B. Am. 

authoress 1800. . .1878 

Beecher, Henry Ward, Am. pulpit orator and lecturer 1813.. .1887 
Beecher, Lyman. Father. Am. preacher and theolo- 
gian . 1775... 1865 

Beechey, Frederick William, Eng. navigator and nat- 
uralist 1796. . .1850 

Beechey, Sir William. Father. Eng. portrait painter 1753... 1839 

Beek, David, Dutch portrait painter 1621. . .1656 

Beer, Michael, Ger. dramatist 1800. . .1833 

Beer, Wilhelm. Brother. Ger. astronomer 1797. . .1850 

Beethoven, van, Ludwig, Pruss. musical composer.. . . 1770. . .1827 

Begas, Karl, Ger. painter 1794. . .1854 

Begas, Askar, Ger. painter 1828.. .188a 

Begas, Rheinhold, Ger. sculptor 1831 

B e" g on , Michel, Fr . antiquary 1638 . . . 1710 

44 



BEHAIM— BELLINI 



BORN. DIED. 

Behaira, or Behem, Martin, Ger. navigator, astrono- 
mer, and geographer 1436..? 1506 

Ben am, Hans Sebald, Ger. painter and engraver 1500..? 1550 

Behm, Ernst, Ger. geographer 1830.. .1884 

Behn, Mrs. Aphara, Eng. dramatist, novelist, and poet.? 1640. . .1689 

Behnes, William, Eng. sculptor ? 1801. . .1864 

Behr, Wilhelm Joseph, Ger. publicist 1775. . .1851 

Behring, Vitus, Danish navigator ? 1680. . .1741 

Beke, Charles Tilstone, Eng. traveler and author 1800. . .1874 

Bekker, Elizabeth, Dutch novelist and poetess 1738. . .1804 

Bekker, Immanuel, Ger. philologist and author 1785. . .1871 

Belcher, Sir Edward, Eng. naval officer and explorer. 1799. . .1877 

Belcher, Jonathan, Am. colonial governor 1681. . .1757 

Belgiojoso, Christina Trivulzio, Princess of, Ital. pa- 
triot and writer 1808. . .1871 

Belidor, de, Bernard Forest, Fr. engineer and writer. 1693. . .1761 

Belisarius. Roman general : ?505... 565 

Belknap, Jeremy, Am. historian and clergyman 1744. . .1798 

Bell, Alexander Graham. Son of Andrew. Inventor of 

the speaking telephone 1847 

Bell, Andrew, Scot, educationist and founder of the 

monitorial system of teaching 1753. . .1832 

Bell, Sir Charles, Brit, anatomist and physiologist 1774. . .1842 

Bell, John, of Edinburgh, surgical writer 1763. . .1820 

Bell, John, Am. statesman 1797. . .1869 

Bell, John, Scot, traveler 1691. . .1780 

Bell, John, Eng. sculptor 1811 

Bell, Robert, Brit, journalist and miscellaneous writer 1800. . .1867 

Bell, Thomas, Eng. naturalist 1792 

Bella, dell a , Stef ano, Ital. etcher in copper 1610 . . . 1664 

Bellamy, Jacobus, Dutch poet 1757. . .1786 

Bellamy, Mrs. George Anne, Eng. actress and writer. . 1733. . .1788 

Bellamy, Joseph, Am. divine and writer 1719. . .1790 

Bellarmiuo, Roberto, Ital. cardinal and controversial- 
ist 1542... 1621 

Bell ay, du, Guillaume de Langey, Fr. soldier, diplo- 
mat, and author. 1491. . .1543 

Bellay, du, Joachim. The French Ovid. Fr. poet 1524. . .1560 

Bellay , Jean du, Fr. cardinal 1492. . .1560 

Belle-Isle, Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, Fr. general 

and diplomat 1684. . .1761 

Belle-Isle, Louis Charles Armand Fouquet, Fr. general 1693. . .1747 

Bellenden, William, Scot. Ciceronian scholar fl. 1615 

Belllard, Augustin Daniel, Count, Fr. general and di- 
plomatist 1769 . . .1832 

Bellingham, Richard, colonial governor of Massachu- 
setts 1592. . .1672 

Bellini, Gentile, Venetian painter ? 1421..? 1508 

Bellini, Giovanni, Venetian painter 1426. .? 1516 

Bellini, Jacopo, Ital. painter 1470 

Bellini, Laurentio, Ital. anatomist , 1643. . .1704 

Bellini, Vincenzo, Sicilian musical composer 1802. . .1835 

45 



BELL MA N—BENVENUTI 



BORN. DIED~ 

Bellman, Karl Mickel, Swed. poet 1740. . .1795- 

Bellomont, Richard Coote, Earl of, Eng. governor of 

New York and Massachusetts 1636. . .1701 

Belloni, Geronimo, Roman banker and writer 1761 

Bellot, Joseph Rene*, Fr. arctic navigator 1826. . .185a 

Bellows, Henry Whitney, Am. Unitarian divine 1814. . .1882 

Belloy, de, Pierre Lament Buirette, Fr. dramatist 1727. . .1775 

Belmontet, Louis, Fr. poet and political writer 1798. . .1879 

Bel on, Pierre, Fr. naturalist and traveler 1517. . .1564 

Belsham, Thomas, Eng. Unitarian divine and writer. . 1750. . .1829 

Belvedere, Andrea, Ital. painter 1646. . .1732 

Belzoni, Giovanni Battista, Ital. traveler and explorer.? 1778. . .1823 

Bern, Jdzef, Polish general and Turkish pasha 1795. . .1850 

Bembo, Pietro, Ital. cardinal and writer 1470. . .1547 

Benbow, John, Eng. admiral 1650. . .1702: 

Bendemann, Eduard, Pruss. painter 1811 

Benedek, von, Ludwig, Austrian general 1804. . .1871 

Benedetti, Giovanni Battista, Ital. mathematician 1590 

Benedict XIV., cardinal Prospero Lambertini. Pope 1675... 1758 

Benedict of Aniane, Roman Catholic Saint 750... 821 

Benedict, Sir Julius, Ger. composer 1804. . . 1885 

Benedict, Saint, Ital. founder of the Benedictine order 480.. . 543 

Ben eke, Friedrich Eduard, Ger. philosopher 1798. . .1854 

Benezet, Anthony, Fr. philanthropist 1713. . .1784 

Benfey, Theodor, Ger. linguist and orientalist 1809 

Ben gel, Johann Albrecht, Ger. theological writer 1687. . .1752 

Benger, Miss Elizabeth Ogilvy, Eng. authoress 1778. . .1827 

Beniowsky, Moritz August, Count, Hungarian advent- 
urer 1741. ..1786 

Benivieni, Geronimo, Florentine poet ? 1453. . .1542 

Benjamin, Judah P., Am. lawyer. Secretary of State 

to the Confederacy 1811 . . .1884 

Benjamin, Park, Am. poet and journalist 1809. . .1864 

Bennett, James Gordon, founder of the New York 

Herald 1795... 1872 

Bennett, John Hughes, Eng. physician 1812 

Bennett, "William Sterndale, Eng. pianist and composer 1816. . .187& 
Benningsen, Levin August Theophil, Count, Russ. 

general 1745... 1826 

Benoit, Rene\ Fr. theologian 1521. . .1608 

Benserade, de, Isaac, Fr. court poet 1612. . .1691 

Benson, Joseph, Eng. Methodist divine and author 1748. . .1821 

Bentham, Jeremy, Eng. political and legal writer 1748. . .1832 

Bentinck, George Frederick Cavendish, Lord, Eng. 

statesman 1802. . .1848 

Bentinck, William, Dutch statesman. First Earl of 

Portland 1649... 1709 

Bentivoglio, Cornelio, Ital. cardinal and art patron. . . 1668. . .1732 

Bentley, Richard, Eog. critic and Classical scholar 1662. . .1742 

Benton, Thomas Hart, Am. statesman 1782. . .1858 

Benvenuti, Carlo, Ital. mathematician and philoso- 
pher 1716... 1789- 

46 



BENVENUTI—BERNHARD 



BORN. DIED. 

Benvenuti, Pietro, Ital. painter 1769. . .1844: 

Benzel, Eric, archbishop of Upsal. Swed. scholar and 

author 1675... 1743 

Benzoni, Geronimo, Ital. voyager ? 1519 

Be* ranger, de, Pierre Jean, Fr. lyric poet. 1780. . .1857 

Berard, Auguste, Fr. surgeon 1802. . .1846 

Be*rard, Auguste Simon Louis, Fr. statesman and 

director-general of mines 1783. . .1859 

Berard, Pierre Honore\ Fr. surgeon 1797. . .1858 

Berchoux, Joseph, Fr. poet 1765. . .1839 

Berengario (Lat. Barengarius), Giacomo. Carpensis. 

Ital. surgeon and anatomist fl. 1502 

Be*renger de Tours, Fr. ecclesiastic 998. . .1088 

Berenice, or Bernice, Jewish queen. Favorite of 

Titus ? 28 aft. 70 

Beresford, Marcus Gervase, archbishop of Armagh 

(Prot.) and primate of all Ireland 1800. . .1885 

Beresford, William Carr, ViscouDt, Brit, general 1768. . .1854 

Berg, von, Joachim, Ger. philanthropist 1526. . .1602 

Bergamasco, Giovanni Battista 1500. . .1579 

Bergasse, Nicolas, Fr. jurist and writer 1750. . .1832 

Bergenroth, Gustav, Pruss -EDg. historian 1813. . .1869 

Berger, Jean Jacques, Fr. senator 1790 

Berger, Ludwig, Ger. musical composer 1777..? 1845 

Bergerac, de, Savinien Cyrano, Fr. dramatist and 

novelist, and. notorious duelist 1620. . .1655 

Bergh, Henry, Am. philanthropist. [Society for the 

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.'] 1823 . . .1888 

Ber ghaus, Heinrich, Ger. geographer 1797 

Berghem, Nikolaas van Harlaem, Dutch landscape 

painter 1624. . .1683 

Berghk, Theodore, Ger. linguist 1881 

Bergman, Tobern Olof, Swed. chemist and naturalist.. 1735. . .1784 

Beriot, de, Charles Auguste, Belgian violinist 1802. . .1870 

Berkeley, George, Irish metaphysician 1684. . .1753 

Berkeley, Sir William, royal governor of Virginia ? 1610. . .1677 

Berlichiugen, von, Gotz, or Gottfried. The Iron 

Hand. Ger. warrior 1480. . .1562 

Berli nghieri, Andrea Vacca, Ital. surgeon 1772. . .1826 

Berlioz, Hector, Fr. musical composer 1803. . .1869 

Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules, marshal of France. 

Carl XIV. Johan, king of Sweden and Norway 1764. . .1844 

Bernard, Claude, Fr. physiologist 1813. . .1878 

Bernard, Saint, Fr. ecclesiastic 1091. . .1153 

Bernard, Sir Francis, governor of Massachusetts 1714. . .1779 

Bernardes, Diogo, Port, poet ? 1540. . .1596 

Bernard de Men thou , Saint, founder of the hospices, 

Great and Little Saint Bernard 923 . . . 1008 

Bernardo del Carpio, Span, soldier fi. 9th c. 

Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar. Protestant general 1604... 1639 
Bernhard, Karl, pseud, of St. Aubain. Danish nov- 
elist ?1800...1865 

47 



BERNHARDI—BESTUZHEF 



BORN. DIED. 

Bernhardt* August Ferdinand, Ger. philologist ? 1769. . .1820 

Bernhardt, Sarah, Fr. tragedienne 1850 

Berni, or Bernia, Francesco, Ital. burlesque poet ? 1490. . .1536 

Bernier, Francois, Fr. traveler and physician ? 1630. . .1688 

Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo. The Cavalier Bernini. 

Ital. painter, sculptor, and architect 1598. . .1680 

Bernoulli, or Bernoulli!, Daniel. Son of Jean. 

Swiss mathematician and physicist 1700. . .1782 

Bernoulli, Jacques, or James, Swiss mathematician.. . 1654. . .1705 
Bernoulli, Jean, or John. Brother of James. Swiss 

mathematician. 1667. . .1748 

Bernstein, Aaron, Ger. journalist and politician 1812. . .1884 

Bernstein, Georg Heinrich, Ger. orientalist 1787. . .1860 

Bernstorff, von, Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count, Dan- 
ish statesman 1712. . .1772 

Beroaldo, Filippo. The Elder. Ital. scholar and writer 1453... 1505 

Berquin, Arnaud. JJAmi des Enfants. Fr. writer 1749. . .1791 

Berrien, John McPherson. Am. lawyer and statesman 1781. . .1856 
Berry, or Berri, de, Caroline Ferdinande Louise, 
Duchesse, daughter of Ferdinand I., king of the 

Two Sicilies 1798. . .1870 

Berry, Rev. Charles A., Eng. Congregational minister. 1851 

Berryer, Antoine Pierre, Fr. political orator and leader 1790. . .1868 

Bert, Paul, Fr. scientist and statesman 1833. . .1886 

Bertaut, Jean, Fr. bishop of S6*ez, and poet 1552. . .1611 

Ber thelot.< Pierre Eugene Marcellin, Fr. chemist 1827 

Berthet, Elie Bertrand, Fr. novelist 1815 

Berthier, Louis Alexandre, prince of Wagram. Mar- 
shal of France 1753. . .1815 

Berthold, Arnold Adolf, Ger. physiologist 1803. . .1861 

Berthollet, Claude Louis, Fr. chemist 1748. . .1822 

Berth oiid, Ferdinand, Swiss inventor of marine clocks 1727. . .1807 

Bertin, Louis Frangois, Fr. journalist 1766. . .1841 

Bertini, Henri, Eng. and Fr. composer and pianist 1798 

Bertrand, de, Henri Gratien, Comte, Fr. general 1773. . .1844 

Bertuch, Friedrich Justin, Ger. journalist and author. 1747.. .1822 
Be*rulle, Pierre, Fr. cardinal and founder of the Car- 
melite order in France 1575. . .1629 

Berwick, James Fitz-James, Duke of, marshal of 

France 1670 . . . 1734 

Berzelius, Johan Jakob, Baron, Swed. chemist 1779. . .1848 

Bescherelle, Louis Nicolas, Fr. grammarian and lex- 
icographer 1802 

Beskow, Bernard, Swed. dramatist 1796. .' 

Bessarion, John, or Basil, Greek cardinal and patri- 
arch of Constantinople ? 1395. . .1472 

Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm, Pruss. astronomer 1784. . .1846 

Bessels, Emil, Ger. arctic explorer 1847. . .1888 

Bessemer, Henry, Eng. engineer and inventor 1813 

Bessier es, Jean Baptiste, Fr. marshal 1768. . .1813 

Bess on, Jacques, Fr. mathematician and inventor fl. 1569 

Bestuzhef, . Hex. Alexandrovitch, Rus3. novelist ? 1795. . .1837 

48 



BESTUZHEF-RIUMIN—BILLE 



BORN. DIED. 

Bestuzhef-Riumin, Alexis Petrovitch, Count, Russ. 

diplomatist 1693. . .1766 

Betham, Sir William, Eng. antiquary and genealogist 1779. . .1853 
Be'thencourt, de, Jean, Seigneur, Fr. conqueror of 

the Canary Isles 1425 

Beth tine, George Washington, Am. clergyman and 

poet 1805. . .1862 

Betterton, Thomas, Eng. actor 1635. . .1710 

Beudant, Francois Sulpice, Fr. physicist 1787. . .1852 

Beurnonville, de, Pierre de Ruel, Marquis, Fr. mar- 
shal and statesman 1752. . .1821 

Beust. von, Friedrich Ferdinand, Count, Ger. states- 
man 1809 

Beveridge, William, Eng. prelate and orientalist 1637. . .1708 

Bewick, Thomas, Eng. artist and- wood-engraver 1753. . .1828 

Beyle, Marie Henri. Stendhal. Fr. writer 1783. . .1842 

Beza, Theodore, Fr. reformer and Calvinistic theo- 
logian 1519. . .1605 

Biagioli, Nicolb Giosafatte, Ital. litterateur 1768. . .1830 

Bianchi, Giovanni Battista. Ital. anatomist and writer 1681. . .1761 
Bianchini, Francesco, Ital. philosopher and mathema- 
tician 1662... 1729 

Bianconi, Charles, inventor of the Irish car system. . .? 1787 

Biard, Auguste Francois, Fr. painter 1800 

Bibbiena, Bernardo, Ital. cardinal 1470. . .1520 

Bichat, Marie Frangois Xavier, Fr. physiologist and 

anatomist 1771. . .1802 

Bickersteth, Rev. Edward, Eng. theological writer. . . 1786. . 1850 

Bicker st eth, Robert, Eng. bishop of Ripon 1816. . .1884 

Biddle, John. The Father of English Unitarians. Eng. 

theologian 1615... 1662 

Biddle, Nicholas, Am. financier. President of the 

United States bank 1786. . .1844 

Biddle, Nicholas, Am. naval commander 1750. . .1778 

Biela, von, Wilhelm, Ger. astronomer 1782. . .1856 

Bielski, Martin, Polish historian 1495. . .1576 

Bienville, de, Jean Baptiste Lemoine, Sieur, colonial 

governor of Louisiana and founder of New Orleans. 1680. . .1768 

Bierstadt, Albert, Am. landscape-painter 1828 

Bigelow, Erastus Brigham, Am. inventor 1814 

Bigelow, Jacob, Am. physician, botanist, and writer.. 1787. . .1879 
Bignon, Louis Pierre Edouard, Fr. historian and 

statesman 1771. . .1841 

Biheron, Marie Catherine, Fr. anatomist 1719. . .1786 

Bilderdijk, or Bilderdyk, Willem, Dutch poet 1756. . .1831 

Biiniiger, or BiilfGnger, Georg Bernhard, Ger. phys- 
icist and mathematician 1693. . .1750 

Bilguer, Jean Ulric, Swiss surgeon and author 1720. . .1796 

Billard, Charles Michel, Fr. physician 1800. . .1832 

Billaud-Varennes, Jacques Nicolas, Fr. Jacobin 1756. . .1819 

Billault, Auguste Adolphe Marie, Fr. statesman 1805. . .1863 

Bille, Steen Andersen, Danish rear-admiral 1797 

49 



BILLING— BLANCHARD 



BORN. DIED. 

Billing, Archibald, Eng. physician and medical writer 1791. . .1881 

Billings, William, Am. musical composer 1746. . .1800 

Biuet, Jacques Philippe Marie, Fr. mathematician and 

astronomer 1786. . .1856 

Biiiney, Amos, Am. naturalist. ..-..■ 1803. . .1847 

Binney, Horace, Am. lawyer and statesman 1780. . .1875 

Biorn, or Bjdrn, Icelandish historian fl. 17th c. 

Blot, Jean Baptiste, Fr. mathematician and philosopher 1774. . .1862 

Birague, de, Rene", Cardinal, Fr. politician ? 1510. . .1583 

Birch, Samuel, Eng. Egyptologist 1813 

Birch, Thomas, Eng. historian and biographer 1705. . .1766 

Bird, Edward, Eng. painter 1772. . .1819 

Bird, Golding, Eng. physician and physicist 1815. . .1854 

Birkbeck, George, Eng. physician and philanthropist. 1776. . .1841 

Birney, James G., Am. antislavery politician 1792. . .1857 

Biron, de, Armand Louis de Gontaut, Due de Lauzun, 

Fr. military commander 1747. . .1793 

Biron, Gontaut. Son. Fr. diplomat. 1817. . .1884 

BigchofF, Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm, Ger. anatomist 

and physiologist 1807 

Bishop, Anna, Eng. singer 1814. . .1884 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley, Eng. musical composer. . . 1780. . .1855 
Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince, Pruss. states- 
man 1815 

Bj or lis on, Bjornstjerne, Norwegian author 1832 

Black, Jeremiah S., Am. jurist. 1810. . .1883 

Black, Joseph, Scot, chemist and anatomist 1728. . .1799 

Black, William, Eng. novelist 1841 

Black Hawk, Am. Indian chief 1767. ..1838 

Blackburn, Joseph Clay Styles, Am. senator 1838 

B 1 a ek bur n , Luke Pryor, Kentucky statesman 1816 . . . 1887 

Blackie, John Stuart, Scot, author 1809 

Biackstoue, Sir William, Eng. jurist 1723. . .1780 

Black well . Elizabeth, first woman in the United States 

who received the degree of M.D 1821... .... 

Blackwood, William, Scot, publisher. [Blackwood's 

Magazine.'] 1776... 1834 

Blaine, James Gillespie, Am. statesman 1830 

Biainville, de, Henri Marie Ducrotay, Fr. zoologist 

and physician 1777. ..1850 

Blair, Hugh, Scot, divine and professor of rhetoric 1718. . .1800 

Blake, Robert, Brit, admiral ?1599...1657 

Blake, William, Eng. artist and poet 1757. . .1827 

Blakeney, Rev. R. P., canon of York. Eng. contro- 
versial writer 1800 . . . 1885 

Blakey , Robert, Eng. metaphysician 1795. . . .... 

Blanc, Auguste Alexandre Charles. Brother. Fr. art- 
critic 1815 

Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis, Fr. author and politician. . . 1813 

Blanchard, Francois, Fr. aeronaut 1738... 1809 

Blanchard, Laman, Eng. journalist and writer 1803. . .1845 

Blanchard, Thomas, Am. inventor 1788. . .1864 

50 



BLANQUI—BOERHAA VE 



BORN. DIED. 

B la mini, JerOme Adolphe, Fr. political economist 1798. . .1854 

Blanqui, Louis Angnste. Brother. Fr. socialistic rev- 
olutionist 1805 

Blenuerhassett, Harman. associate of Aaron Burr. . . 1765. . .1831 
Blessington, Margaret, nee Power, Countess of, Irish 

woman of letters 1789. . .1849 

Blicher, Steen Steensen, Danish poet 1782... 1848 

Bligh, William, Eng. navigator 1753. . .1817 

Blind, Karl, Ger. political agitator 1820 

B lizard, Sir William, Eng. anatomist and surgeon 1743. . .1835 

Bloch, Markus Elieser, Ger. Jewish physician and 

naturalist..... 1723... 1799 

Bloch, JoanDa Koerten, Dutch female artist 1650. . .1715 

Blodgett, Rufus, Am. senator 1834 

Bloemaert, Abraham, Dutch painter ? 1564. . .1647 

Bloemcn, van, John Francis, Flemish painter 1656. . .1740 

Bl om, Karl Magnus, Swed. naturalist and physician. . . 1737. . .1815 

Blomfield, Charles James, bishop of London 1786.. .1857 

Blonde 1 , Francois, Fr. architect and military engineer 1617. . .1686 

Bl oomfield, Robert, Eng. poet 1766. . .1823 

Bloomfietd, Samuel Thomas, Eng. divine and scholar 1790... 1869 

Blount, Charles, Eng. deistical writer 1654. . .1693 

Bliic her, von, Gebhard Lebrecht, Pruss. field-marshal 1742... 1819 

Bluhme, Friedrich, Ger. jurist 1799 

Blum, Robert, Ger. publicist 1807. ..1848 

Blumauer, Aloys, Ger. poet 1755. . .1798 

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, Ger. naturalist and 

physiologist 1752 . . . 1840 

Blunt, Edmund March, Am. nautical writer 1770. . .1862 

Bltintschli, Johann Kasper, Ger. jurist 1808... 1881 

Boabdil. El Chico. Last Moorish king of Grenada ? 1536 

Boaden, James, Eng. writer 1762... 1839 

Boadicea, Brit, queen 62 

Boardnian, George Dana, Am. missionary 1801. . .1831 

Bobadilla, de, Francisco, Span, political administra- 
tor. Sent Columbus in chains to Spain fl. 1500 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Ital. novelist 1313. . .1375 

Boccage, du, Manoel Maria Barbosa, Port, poet 1771. . .1806 

Boccage, du, Marie Anne Le Page, Fr. poetess 1710. . .1802 

Boccalini, Trajano, Ital. satirist 1556. . .1613 

Bochart, Samuel, Fr. scholar and Protestant theolo- 
gian 1599 . . . 1667 

Bockh, August, Ger. philanthropist and antiquary 1785. . .1867 

Bode, Johann Elert, Ger. astronomer 1747. . .1826 

Bodenstedt, Friedrich Martin, Ger. author 1819 

Bodin, Jean, Fr. political writer 1530. . .1596 

Bodley, Sir Thomas, founder of the Bodleyan library 

at Oxford 1544. . .1612 

Bodmer, Johann Jakob, Swiss journalist 1698. . .1783 

Bodoni, Giambattista, Ital. printer and scholar 1740. . .1813 

Bodwell, Joseph, governor of Maine 1818. . .1887 

Boerhaave, Hermann, Dutch physician and philos.. 1668... 1738 

51 



BOETHIUS— BONAPARTE 



BORN. DIED. 

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus, Ro- 
man philosopher and statesman ? 470. . .? 525 

Boethius, Hector, Scot, historian ? 1465..? 1536 

Boetie, de la, Etienne, Fr. writer 1530. . .1563 

Bogardus, James, Am. inventor 18Q0...1874 

Bogdanovitch, Ippolit Fedorovitch, Russ. lyric poet. 1743. ..1803 

Boggs, Charles Stewart, Rear-admiral U. S. N 1811. . .1888 

Bohemond I., Marc, prince of Antioch. Norman 

crusader ? 1060 . . .1111 

Bohlen, von, Peter, Ger. orientalist 1796. . .1840 

Bohm, Theobald, Bavarian flutist 1802 

B 6hme, Jakob, Ger. mystic and visionary 1575 . . . 1624 

Bonn, Henry George, London publisher 1800 

Bohn, Johan, Ger. physician and writer 1640. . .1718 

Bohngtedt, Ludwig, Ger. architect 1822. . .1885 

Bdhtlingk, Otto, Ger. -Russ. orientalist. [Sanskrit-Ger- 
man Dictionary.] 1815 

Boiardo, Matteo Maria, Count of Scandiano, Ital. poet.? 1434.. .1494 

Boi'eldieu, Francois Adrien, Fr. composer 1775. . .1834 

Boileau-Despre'aiix, Nicolas, Fr. poet, satirist, and 

critic 1636... 1711 

Boisrobert, de, Francois le Metel, Fr. writer and wit 1592. . .1662 

Boissard, Jean Jacques, Fr. antiquary and poet 1528. . .1602 

Boissere'e, Suipice, Pruss. architect and antiquary.. . . 1783. . .1854 

Boissieu, de, Jean Jacques, Fr. engraver 1736. . .1810 

Boissonade, Jean Francois, Fr. philologist 1774. . .1857 

Boiste, Pierre Claude Victoire, Fr. lexicographer 1765. . .1824 

Boivin, Marie Anne Victoire Gillain, Fr. physician and 

authoress 1773... 1841 

Boker, George Henry, Am. poet 1823.. .1890 

Boleyn, Anne, wife of Henry VIII. of England ? 1507. . .1536 

Bolingbroke, Henry Saint John, Viscount, Eng. states- 
man and political writer 1678. . .1751 

Bolivar, Simon, liberator of Bolivia 1783. . .1830 

Bologna, da, Giovanni, Flemish sculptor in Italy 1524... 1608 

Bolognini, Giovanni Battista. The Elder. Ital. painter 1611... 1688 

Bolton, Robert, Eng. Puritan divine and author 1572. . .1631 

Bombelli, Rafaello, Ital. mathematician fl. 16th c. 

Bon de Saint-Hilaire, Francois Xavier, Fr. scholar 

and writer 1678... 1761 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, Napoleon I. Emperor of the 

French 1769 . . . 1821 

Bonaparte, Charles Lucien Jules Laurent. Son of 

Lucien. Writer on natural philosophy 1803 . . . 1857 

Bonaparte, Jerome. Brother of Napoleon I. King of 

Westphalia 1784 . . .1860 

Bonaparte, Joseph. Brother of Napoleon I. King of 

Naples and Spain 1768. . .1844 

Bonaparte, Louis. Brother of Napoleon I. King of 

Holland 1778... 1846 

Bonaparte, Lucien. Brother of Napoleon I. Prince 

of Canino 1775.. .1840 

52 



BONAPARTE— B ORGHESE 



BORN. DIED. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon Eugene Louis. Son of Napoleon 

III. Killed in South Africa 1857.. .1879 

Bonaparte, Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul. Prvnce 

Napoleon. Son of Jerome 1822 

Bonaparte, Napoleon II., or Napoleon Francois 

Charles Joseph. Son of Napoleon I. and Maria Louisa 1811. . .1832 
Bonaparte, Napoleon III., or Charles Louis Napoleon, 
known as Louis Napoleon. Son of Louis. Em- 
peror of the French 1808. ..1873 

Bonaparte, Pierre Napoleon. Son of Lucien. 1815. . .1881 

Bonaventura, Saint. The Seraphic Doctor. Ital. 

scholastic theologian 1221. . .1274= 

Bonchamp, de, Charles Melchior Artus, Marquis, Fr. 

general 1759... 1793 

Bond, George Phillips. Son. Am. astronomer 1826... 1865 

Bond, William Cranch, Am. astronomer 1789. . .1859 

B ondi, Clemente, Ital. poet 1742 . . . 1821 

Bonheur, Mile. Rosalie, called Rosa, Fr. painter of 

animals 1822 

Boniface I., pope 422 

Boniface, Winfrid, Saint. The Apostle of Germany ? 680. . . 755 

Boniface VIII., cardinal Benedetto Gaetani, pope. . . 1228. . .1303 
Bonnechose, de, Francois Paul Emile Boisnormand, 

Fr. historian and miscellaneous writer 1801 . . .1875 

Bonner, Edmund, bishop of London. Persecutor ? 1495.. .1569 

Bonnet, Charles, Swiss naturalist and philosopher 1720. . .1793 

Bonneval, de, Claude Alexandre, Comte, Fr. advent- 
urer 1675... 1747 

Bonneville, Benjamin L. E., Am. soldier and traveler.? 1795. ..1878 

Bonnivard, de, Francois. Prisoner of Chillon 1496. . .1570 

Bonnycastle, John, Eng. mathematician 1821 

Bononcini, Giovanni Battista, Ital. composer ? 1670. aft. 1752 

Bonpland, Aime", Fr. botanist and traveler 1773. . .1858 

Bonstetten, de, Charles Victor, Swiss author 1745. . .1832 

Bonvicino, Alessandro, Ital. painter 1514. . .1564 

Boone, Daniel, Am. explorer and colonizer 1735. . .1820 

Booth, Edwin. Son of Junius Brutus. Am. actor 1833 

Booth, John Wilkes. Son of Junius Brutus. Assassin 1839.. .1865 

Booth, Junius Brutus, Eng. tragedian 1796. . .1852 

Booth, * General " William, Eng. evangelist. [Salva- 
tion Army.] 1829 

Bopp, Franz, Ger. philologist. [Vergleichende Gram- 

matik.] : 1791... 1867 

Borda, Jean Charles, Fr. mathematician and astron- 
omer 1733... 1799 

B or de , Andrew. Merry- Andrew. Eng. pb ysician ? 1500 . . . 1549 

Borden, Simeon, Am. civil engineer 1798. . .1856 

Bordeu, de, Th^ophile, Fr. medical writer 1722. . .1776 

Bordone, Paride, Ital. painter ? 1510. . .1588 

Borelli, Giovanno Alfonso, Ital. philosopher and math- 
ematician 1608 . . . 1679 

B orghese, Maria Pauline Bonaparte, Princess 1780. . .1825 

53 



B OR GHESI—B UGIGA UL T 



BORN. DIED. 

Borghesi, Bartolommeo, Count, Ital. numismatist 1781. . .1860 

Borgi, Giovanni, Ital. founder of ragged schools ? 1735..? 1802 

Borgia? Cesare, Ital. cardinal and military leader ?1457. . .1507 

Borgia, Lucrezia. Sister. Duchess of Ferrara 1523 

Borgognoue, Ambrogio, Ital. painter ? 1480 

Born, von, Ignaz, Hungarian mineralogist and philol- 
ogist 1742... 1791 

Borne, Ludwig, Ger. political writer 1786. . .1837 

Borri, Giuseppe Francesco, Ital. impostor and empiric 1627... 1695 

Borromeo, Carlo, Saint, Ital. cardinal 1538. . .1584 

Borromeo, Federigo. Cousin. Cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Milan 1564.. .1631 

Borrow, George, Eng. writer and traveler 1803 

Bory de Saint Vincent, Jean Baptiste George Marie, 

Fr. naturalist and geographer 1780. . .1846 

Bos, or Bosch, Hieronymus. Le Joyeux. Dutch 

painter ? 1450... 1500 

Bosc, Louis Augustin Guillaume. Fr. naturalist 1759. . .1828 

Boscan Almogaver, Juan, reformer of Span, poetry.? 1500... 1544 

Boscawen, Edward, Eng. admiral 1711. . .1761 

Bo9covich, Ruggiero Giuseppe, Ital. physicist 1711. . .1787 

Bosio, Francois Joseph, Baron, Ital. sculptor 1769. . .1845 

Bosquet, Pierre Francois Joseph, marshal of France.. 1810... 1862 
Bosquillon, Edouard Francois Marie, Fr. physician 

and scholar 1744. . .1816 

Bosscha, Herman, Dutch philologist and poet 1755. . .1819 

Bossi, Giuseppe, Ital. painter and poet 1777. . .1815 

Bossi, de, Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio, Baron, Ital. poet 

and diplomatist 1758. . .1823 

Bossuet, Jacques Benigne, Fr. bishop of Meaux and 

pulpit orator 1627... 1704 

Bossut, Charles, Fr. mathematician 1730. . .1814 

Bost, Jean Augustin, Fr. Protestant divine 1815. . .1881 

Boswell, James, biographer of Dr. Johnson 1740. . .1795 

Bosworth, Joseph, Eng. philologist and clergyman.. . . 1788. . .1876 
Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of, husband of Mary 

of Scotland ? 1526... 1576 

Botta, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo, Ital. historian 1766 . .1837 

Botta, Paolo Emilio, Fr. archaeologist ? 1800. . .1870 

Bottari, Giovanni Gaettano, Florentine scholar 1689. . .1775 

Boucher, Johann Friedrich, inventor of Dresden 

china 1682. ..1719 

Botticelli, Sandro, Ital. painter ? 1440. . .1515 

Bottiger, Karl August, Ger. archaeologist 1760. . .1835 

Bottiger, Karl Wilhelm, Swed. poet 1807 

Botts, John Minor, Am. politician 1802. . .1869 

Boucliardon, Edme, Fr. sculptor 1698. . .1762 

Boucher, Jonathan, Eng. political writer and philolo- 
gist ? 1738... 1804 

Boucher de Perthes, Jacques, Fr. archaeologist 1788... 1868 

Bouchet, Claude Antoine, Fr. surgeon 1785. . .1839 

Boucicault, Dion, Irish dramatist and actor 1822 

54 



BOUDINOT—BO YD 



BORN. DIED. 

Boudinot, Elias, Am. patriot and philanthropist 1740. . .1821 

Boudot, Jean, Fr. author. [Latin-French Dictionary.]. 1685... 1754 
Bouflers, de, Louis Francois, Due, marshal of France 1644... 1711 
Bougainville, de, Louis Antoine, Fr. navigator and 

geographical discoverer 1729. . .1811 

Bouguer , Pierre. Fr. mathematician 1698. . .1758 

Bonn ours, Dominique, Fr. Jesuit and critic 1628. . .1702 

Bouille, de, Francois Claude Amour, Marquis, Fr. 

general and writer 1739. . .1800 

Bouillon, de, Godfrey, hero of the First Crusade ? 1060. . .1100 

Bouillon, de, Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Due, Fr. 

marshal 1555. . .1623 

Boulanger, Georges Ernest Jean Marie, Fr. general. . . 1837 

Boullongne, Bon, Fr. painter ? 1640. . .1717 

Boulton, Matthew, Eng. engineer 1728. . .1809 

Bouquet, Jean Claude, Fr. mathematician 1819. . .1885 

Bourbaki, Charles Denis Sauter, Fr. soldier 1816 

Bourbon, de, Charles, Due. Constable Bourbon. Fr. 

general 1490. . .1527 

Bourdaloue, Louis, Fr. Jesuit preacher 1632. . .1704 

Bourdon, Isidore, Fr. physician and author 1796 

Bourdon, Louis Pierre Marie, Fr. mathematician 1799. . .1854 

Bourdon, Se*bastien, Fr. painter 1616. . .1671 

Bourgeois, Charles Arthur, Fr. sculptor 1838. . .1886 

Bourgeois, Sir Francis, Eng. painter 1756. . .1811 

Bourguet, Louis, Fr. antiquary and naturalist 1678. . .1742 

Bourignon, Antoinette, Flemish fanatic 1616. . .1680 

Bourmont, de, Louis Auguste Victor, Comte de 

Ghaisne, marshal of France 1773. . .1846 

Bourne, Hugh, Eng. founder of the Primitive Meth- 
odists 1772... 1852 

Bourrienne, de, Louis Antoine Fauvelet, Fr. diplo- 
matist and biographer 1769. . .1834 

Boussiugault, Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonne*, Fr. 

chemist 1802. . .1887 

Bouterwek, Friedrich, Ger. philosopher and critic 1766. . .1828 

Bout well, George Sewall, Am. politician and financier 1818 

Bouvar t, Alexis, Fr. astronomer 1767^. . 1843 

Bouvier, Andre" Marie Joseph, Fr. physician 1746. . .1827 

Bouvier, John, Am. jurist and writer 1787. . .1851 

Bowdich, Thomas Edward, Eng. traveler in Africa. . . . 1790. . .1824 

Bowditch, Nathaniel, Am. mathematician 1773. . .1838 

Bowdoin, James, Am. statesman 1727... 1790 

Bo wen, Francis, Am. professor and author 1811 

Bowie, Richard J., Am. jurist 1807. . .1881 

Bowles, Samuel, Am. journalist 1826. . .1878 

Bowles, William Lisle, Eng. poet 1762. . .1850 

Bo wring. Sir John, Eng. statesman and linguist 1792. . .1872 

Bowyer, William, Eng. printer and scholar 1699. . .1777 

Boxhorn, Marcus Zuerius, Dutch historian and critic. 1612. . .1653 

Boyce, William, Eng. composer and organist 1710. . .1779 

Boyd, Linn, Am. representative 1800. . .1859 

55 



B YDELL—BREISLAK 



BORN. DIED. 

Boy dell, John, lord mayor of London. Art publisher. 1719... 1804 

Boyer, Alexis, Baron, Fr. surgeon 1757. . .1833 

Boyer, Jean Pierre, mulatto general and president of 

Hayti 1776... 1850 

Boyle, Charles. Nephew of Bobert. Fourth earl of 

Orrery 1676... 1731 

Boyle, Robert, Irish chemist and philosopher 1626. . .1691 

Boylston, Nicolas, benefactor of Harvard College 1716. . .1771 

Boylston, Zabdiel, Am. physician 1680. . .1766 

Bozzaris, or Botzaris, Marcos, Greek patriot ? 1790. . .1823 

Bracciolini, Francesco. DelV Api. Ital. poet 1566. . .1646 

Braddock, Edward, Brit, general in America ? 1715. . .1755 

Braddon, Mary Elizabeth, Eng. novelist 1837 

Bradford, Augustus W. War governor of Maryland. . . 1806. . .1881 

Bradford, Oliver Morton, Am. journalist 1835. . .1881 

Bradford, William, second governor of Plymouth Col- 
ony 1589... 1657 

Bradford, William, first printer in Pennsylvania 1660. . .1752 

Bradley, James, Eng. astronomer 1692. . .1762 

Bradshaw, John, Eng. judge 1586. . .1659 

Bradstreet, Anne, New England poetess. 1612. . .1672 

Bradstreet, John, Am. major-general ' 1711. . .1774 

Bradwardin, Thomas. The Profound Doctor. Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury 1290. . .1349 

Braekeleer, de, Ferdinand, Belgian painter 1813. . .1883 

Bragg, Braxton, Am. Confederate general 1815. . .1876 

Brahe, Tycho, Danish astronomer 1546. . .1601 

Brain erd, David, Am. missionary to the Indians 1718. . .1747 

Braithwaite, WiUiam, Eng. medical writer 1816. . .1885 

Bramah, Joseph, Eng. inventor of Bramah press 1749. . .1814 

Br am ante d'Urbino, Donato Lazzari, Ital. architect, 

painter, poet, and musician 1444. ..1514 

Bran de, William Thomas, Eng. chemist 1788. . .1866 

Brandt, Joseph. Thayandanega. Mohawk chief ? 1742. . .1807 

Bran tome, Pierre de Bourdeilles, Fr. historian ? 1527. . .1614 

B rascassat, Jacques Raymond, Fr. painter 1805 

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne, Fr. ar- 
chaeologist 1814 

Brassey, Lady Ann, Eng. authoress 1840. . .1887 

Braun, August Emil, Ger. archaeologist and writer 1809. . .1856 

Brauwer, or Brouwer, Adrian, Dutch painter 1608... 1640 

Bravais, Auguste, Fr. natural philosopher 1811. . .1863 

Bravo, Nicolas, Mexican general 1790. . .1854 

Bravo-Murillo, Juan, Span, statesman 1803. . .1873 

Bray, Thomas, Eng. clergyman and philanthropist 1656. . .1730 

Brazza, de, Pierre Savorgnan, Fr. African explorer.. 1840 

Breck, Daniel, Am. lawyer and congressman 1788. . .1851 

Breckinridge, John Cabell, Am. politician 1821. . .1875 

Brederode, van, Hendrik, Count, Dutch patriot 1531. . .1568 

Bredow, Gabriel Gottfried, Ger. historian 1773. . .1814 

Br eguet, Abraham Louis, Swiss watchmaker; 1747. . .1823 

Breislak, Scipione, Ital. geologist 1748. ..1826 

56 



BREITHA UPT—BR GLIE 



BORN. DIED. 

Breithaupt, Johann August Friedrich, Ger. mineral- 
ogist 1791 

Breitinger, Johann Jakob, Swiss Protestant theolo- 
gian and writer 1701. . .1776 

Breitkopf, Johann Gottlob Immanuel, Ger. printer. . . . 1719. . .1794 

Bremer, Fredrika, Swed. novelist ? 1801... 1865 

Brennus, chief of the Senonian Gauls fl. 390 B. C. 

Brentano, Clemens, Ger. novelist and dramatist 1777. . .1842 

Bretonueau- Pierre, Fr. physician and medical writer 1771. . .1862 

Bretschneider, Karl Gottlieb, Ger. theologian 1776. . .184S 

Breughel, Jan. Velvet Breughel. Flemish painter 1569... 1625 

Brewster, Benjamin Harris, attorney-general of the 

United States 1816 . . .1888 

Brewster, Sir David, Scot, physicist 1781. . .1868 

Brewster, William, Plymouth Pilgrim father 1566. . .1644 

Brialmont, Alexis, Belgian military writer 1820. . .1885 

Brian Boroihme, or Brian Bom, king of Ireland.. . ? 927. . .1014 

Bridget, Saint, patroness of Ireland 1302 . . . 1373 

Bridgewater, Francis Henry Egerton, eighth Earl of. 

[Bridg&ivater Treatises.'] 1758. . .1829 

Bridgewater, Francis Egerton, third Duke of, pro- 
moter of canals 1736. . .1803 

Bridgman, Laura, Am. blind deaf mute 1829. . .1889 

Briggs, Henry, Eng. mathematician. [Logarithmic 

Tables.] 1556... 1630- 

Bright, John, Eng. orator and statesman 1811. . .1889 

Bright, Richard, Eng. physician. IBrighVs Disease of 

the Kidneys.'] 1789... 1858 

Brignoli, Pasquale, Ital. tenor 1824. . .1884 

Brindley, James, Eng. canal engineer 1716. . .1772 

Brin ton. Daniel Garrison, Am. soldier and scientist. . . 1837 

Brinton, Robert M., Am. general 1828. . .1885, 

Brinvilliers, de, Marie Marguerite d'Aubray, Mar- 
chioness, Fr. poisoner executed 1676 

Brisson, Barnabe", Fr. lawyer and philologist 1531. . .1591 

Brisson, Mathurin Jacques, Fr. naturalist 1723. . .1806 

Brissot de Warville, Jean Pierre, Fr. revolutionist. 

Originator of the Girondists 1754. . .1793 

Britton, John, Eng. antiquary 1771. ..1857 

Brizzi, Francesco, Ital. painter 1574. . .1623 

Brocchi, Giovanni, Battista, Ital. naturalist 1772. . .1826 

Brock, Isaac, Brit, major-general 1769. . .1812 

Brockhaus, Friedrich Arnold, Ger. publisher 1772. . .1823 

Brocklesby , Richard, Eng. physician and writer 1722. . .1797 

Broderick, David Colbreth, Am. senator :. . 1818. . .1859 

Brodhead, John Romeyn, Am. historian 1814. . .1873 

Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins, Eng. surgeon 1783. . .1862 

Brofferio, Angelo, Ital. politician, advocate, and poet. 1802. . .1866 
Brogiie, de, Achille LConce Victor Charles, Due, Fr. 

statesman 1785. . .1870 

Brogiie, de, Albertine Ida Gustavine de Stael, Duch- 

>, Fr. writer ?1797...1838 

57 



BROGNI—BRUN 



BORN. DIED. 

Brogni, Giovanni Allarmet, Cardinal, Ital. prelate 1342. . .1426 

Brondsted, Peter Oluf, Danish archaeologist 1781. . .1842 

Brongniart, Adolphe Theodore. Son. Fr. botanist 

and scientific writer 1801. . .1876 

Brongniart, Alexandre, Fr. chemist and mineralogist 1770. . .1847 

Bronte', Charlotte. Currer Bell. Eng. novelist 1816. . .1855 

Brooke, Augustus Stopford, Eng. Unitarian preacher. 1832 

Brooks, Charles T., Am. Unitarian divine 1812. . .1883 

Brooks, James, Am. journalist. Established the New 

York Express 1810. . .1873 

Brosses, de, Charles, Fr. antiquary and writer 1709. . .1777 

Brougham, Henry, Lord, Brit, statesman and author.. 1779.. .1868 

Br o ugh ton, William Robert, Eng. navigator 1763. . .1822 

Broussais, Francois Joseph Victor, Fr. physician 1772. . .1838 

Broussonnet, Pierre Auguste, Fr. physician and nat- 
uralist 1761... 1807 

Brown, Benjamin Gratz, Am. politician 1824. . .1885 

Brown, Charles Brockden, Am. novelist 1771. . .1810 

Brown, Goold, Am. grammarian 1791. . .1857 

Brown, Hugh, Ayrshire poet 1800. . .1885 

Brown, Jacob, Am. major-general 1775. . .1828 

Brown, John, Scot, physician. Inventor of Brunonian 

System 1735... 1788 

Brown, Captain John, of Ossawattomie, Am. anti- 
slavery agitator 1800. . .1859 

Brown, Robert, Eng. botanical writer 1773. . .1858 

Brown, Robert, Eng. Puritan theologian. Founder of 

the sect of Brownists ? 1550. .? 1630 

Brown, Samuel, Scot, poet and chemist 1817. . .1856 

Brown, Thomas, Scot, professor of moral philosophy. 1778... 1820 
Browne, Charles Farrar. Artemus Ward. Am. hu- 
morist 1834... 1867 

Browne, Maximilian Ulysses, Austrian general 1705. . .1757 

Browne, Sir Thomas, Eng. physician and author 1605. . .1682 

Brownell, Thomas Church, first president of Trinity 

College, Hartford 1779. ..1863 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, Eng. poetess 1809. . .1861 

Browning, Robert, Eng. poet 1812. ..1889 

Brownlow, William Gannaway. Parson Brownlow. 

Am. politician... ; 1805. ..1877 

Bro wn-Se*quard, Edouard, Fr. physiologist 1818 

Brownson, Orestes Augustus, Am. writer and theol. . 1803. . .1876 

Bruce, James, Scot, traveler 1730. . .1794 

Bruce, Robert, king of Scots 1274. . .1329 

Brucker, Johann Jakob, Ger. historian and divine 1696. . .1770 

Brueys d'Aigalliers, Francois Paul, Fr. admiral 1753. . .1798 

Brugnatelli, Luigi Gasparo, Ital. chemist and natural 

philosopher 1761... 1818 

Bruhms, Charles Christian, Ger. astronomer 1881 

Brummell, George Bryan. Beau Brummell. Eng. fop 1778... 1840 

B rumoy, Pierre, Fr. writer 1688. . .1742 

Brun, Friedrike Sophie Christiane, Ger. authoress.... 1765... 1835 

58 



BRUNA CCI—BUCKMINSTER 



BORN. DIED. 

Brunacci, Vincenzo, Ital. mathematician and writer. 1768... 1818 

Brunck, Richard Francois Philippe, Fr. critic 1729. . .1803 

firune, Guillaume Marie Anne, Fr. general 1763. . .1815 

Br une haut , consort of Sigebert of Austrasia 613 

Brunei, Isambard Kingdom. Son. Eng. engineer — 1806... 1859 
Brunei, Sir Mark Isambard, engineer of the Thames 

Tunnel 1769... 1849 

Brunelleschi, Filippo, Florentine architect 1377. . .1444 

B r une t, Jacques Charles, Fr. bibliographer 1780 . . .1867 

Brunings, Christian, Dutch hydraulic engineer 1736. . .1805 

Bruno, Giordano, Ital. anti-Christian writer 1550. . .1600 

Bruno, Saint, founder of the order of Carthusians ? 1040. . .1101 

Brunof, Ernest Philip, Baron, Russ. diplomatist ? 1796 

Brunswick-Liineburg, Karl William Ferdinand, 

Duke of, Russ. general against the Fr. Republicans. 1735. . .1806 

Brunton, Mary Balfour, Brit, novelist 1778. . .1818 

Brutus, Lucius Junius, Roman patriot fl. 500 B. C. 

Brutus, Marcus Junius, one of the assassins of Csesar.B. C. 85. . . 42 

Bruyere, de la, Jean, Fr. author and moralist ? 1646. . .1696 

Bruy n, Kornelis, Dutch traveler and painter 1652 . .? 1720 

Bruys, de, Pierre, Fr. fanatic, burned at the stake ? 1147 

Bryant, William Cullen, Am. poet and journalist 1794. . .1878 

Brydges, Sir Samuel Egerton, Eng. writer 1762. . .1837 

Buache, Philippe, Fr. geographer 1700. . .1773 

Bube, Adolph, Ger. poet 1802 

Bubua Littiz, Ferdinand, Count of, Austrian general.? 1768.. .1825 

B ucer, Martin. Kuhhorn. Ger. reformer 1491 . . .1551 

Buch, von, Leopold, Pruss. geologist 1774. . .1853 

Buchan, David, Brit, arctic explorer 1780..? 1837 

Buchanan, Claudius, Scot, divine and writer 1766. . .1815 

Buchanan, George, Scot, historian and poet 1506. . .1582 

Buchanan, James, fifteenth President of the United 

States.... 1791... 1868 

Buchanan, Robert, Scot, poet 1841 

Buchez, Philippe Joseph Benjamin, Fr. philosophical 

writer 1796. ..1865 

Buchner, Friedrich Karl Christian Louis, Ger. philoso- 
pher 1824 

Buck, Dudley, Am. composer and musician. [Light of 

Asia.] 1839 

Buckingham, George Villiers, first Duke of, lord high 

admiral of England 1592. ..1628 

Buckingham, George Villiers, second Duke of. Son. 

Eng. courtier 1627. . .1688 

Buckingham, James Silk, Eng. traveler and author. . . 1786. . .1855 

Buckla nd, Cyrus, Am. machinist and inventor 1799 

Buckland, William, dean of Westminster. Geologist. 1784. . .1856 
Buckle, Henry Thomas. [History of Civilization in 

England.] 1822 . . . 1862 

Buckley, James M., Am. Methodist minister and editor 

Buckminster, Joseph Stevens, Am. Unitarian preacher 

and scholar 1784... 1812 

59 



BTJCQTJOI—BTJRGKMAIR 



BORN. DIED. 

Bucquoi, Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count, 

Austrian general 1561. . .1621 

Bude, Guillaume, Fr. scholar 1467. . .1540 

Buel h Don Carlos, Am. general 1818 

Buffier, Claude, Fr. theologian and author 1661. . .1737 

Buffon, de, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte, Fr. natu- 
ralist 1707... 178a 

Buffura, James Needham, Am. abolitionist 1807. . .1887 

Buford, Abraham, Am. turfman 1815. . .1884 

Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte, Am. brigadier-general. . 1807. . .1885 
Bugeaud de la Piconnerie, Thomas Robert, Due 

d'Isly, Fr. marshal 1784. ..1849 

Bugenhagen, Johann. Pomeranus. Ger. reformer.. 1485... 155& 

Bugge, Thomas, Danish astronomer ? 1740. . .1815 

Buhle, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. philosopher 1763. . .1821 

Bulgaria, Thaddeus, Russ. novelist and essayist 1789. . .1859 

Bull, George, Eng. theologian and author 1634. . .1710 

Bull, Ole Bornemann, Norwegian violinist 1810. . .1880 

Bullant, Jean, Fr. architect ? 1520. . .157* 

Buller, Right Hon. Charles, Eng. statesman 1806. . .1848 

Bullinger, Heinrich, Swiss reformer 1504. . .1575 

Bullions, Peter, Am. editor of classical school-books. . 1791. . .1864 
Biilow, Ton, Friedrich Wilhelm, Count, Pruss. general 1755. . .1816 

Eiilow, von, Hans Guido, Ger. pianist and composer. . 1830 

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton, Baron 

Lytton, Brit, novelist 1805.. .1873 

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward Robert, Baron Lytton. Owen 
Meredith. Son of Edward George Earle lytton. Eng. 

poet 1831 

Bulwer, Sir Henry Lytton Earle, Eng. author and di- 
plomatist 1804.. .1872 

Bunsen, von, Christian Karl Josias, Baron. Chevalier. 

Pruss. scholar and embassador 1791. . .1860 

Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm. Cousin. Ger. chemist 1811 

Bunyan, John, Eng. preacher. [Pilgrim's Progress.'].. . 1628. . .1688 

Buonafede, Appiano, Ital. writer 1716. . .1793 

Buonamiei, Castruccio, Ital. writer 1710. . .1761 

Buonarroti, Filippo, Ital. revolutionist 1761. . .1837 

Buonarroti, Michael Angelo, Ital. painter, sculptor, 

and architect 1474... 1563 

Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig, Swiss traveler in the 

East 1784... 1817 

Burden, Henry, Scot, mechanician in America 1791. . .1871 

Burdett, Sir Francis, Eng. politician 1770. . .1844 

Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina, Baroness. Daugh- 
ter of Sir Francis Bur dette. Eng. philanthropist 1814 

Burdette, Robert J., Am. humorist and lecturer. 

Hawlceye Man 1842 

Burger, Gottfried August, Ger. poet. [LenoreJ] 1748. . .1794 

Surges, Thomas, Eng. theologian and writer 1756. . .1837 

Burges, Tristam, Am. orator and jurist 1770. . .185$ 

Burgkmair, Hans, Ger. painter and engraver .? 1473. . .1559 

60 



BUR GOYNE— BUTLER 



BORN. DIED. 

Burgoyne, John, Eng. general and dramatic writer. . . 1730. . .1792 
Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, Baronet. Son. Eng. field- 
marshal 1782.. .1871 

Burgundy, Louis, Duke of, father of Louis XY. of 

France 1682... 1712 

Buridan, Jean, Fr. schoolman ? 1315. . .1358 

Burigny, de, Jean Levesque, Fr. author 169,2. . .1785 

Burke, Edmund, Eng. statesman and orator 1729 or 1730. . .1797 

Burke, Sir John Bernard, Eng. genealogist 1815 

Burke, " Father " Tom, Irish orator 1830. . .1883 

Burlamaqui, Jean Jacques, Swiss jurist 1694. . .1748 

Burleigh, William Cecil, Lord, Eng. statesman 1520. . .1598 

Burlingame, Anson, Am. diplomatist 1822. . .1870 

Bur man u, Pieter, Dutch philologist 1668. . .1741 

Burmeister, Hermann, Ger. naturalist 1807 

Burnes, Sir Alexander, Brit, traveler in India 1805. . .1841 

Burnaby, Frederic Gustavus, Eng. soldier, novelist, 

and traveler. [Ow Radicals, Bide to Khiva.] 1842. . .1885 

Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury 1643. . .1715 

Burnett, Mrs. Frances Hodgson, Am. novelist. [Little 

Lord Fauntleroy.]. 1849 

Buruouf, Eugene, Fr. orientalist 1801. . .1852 

Burns, Robert, Scot, poet 1759.. .1796 

Burnside, Ambrose Everett, Am. general 1824. . .1881 

Burr, Aaron, third Vice-President of the United States 1756. . .1836 
Burritt, Elihu. The Learned Blacksmith. Am. re- 
former and linguist 1810 

Burton, Richard Francis, Brit, traveler 1821 

Burton, Robert, Eng. philosopher and author. [Anat- 
omy of Melancholy.'] 1576. . .1640 

Busbecq, Augier Ghislen, Flemish traveler and anti- 
quary 1522. . .1592 

Busby, Dr. Richard, Eng. pedagogue. Master of West- 
minster School 1606 . . .1695 

Busching, Anton Friedrich, Ger. geographer and the- 
ologian 1724. . .1793 

Buschmann, Johann Karl Eduard, Ger. philologist 1805 

Busembaum, Hermann, Ger. author 1600. . .1668 

Bush, George, Am. Swedenborgian divine and author. 1796. . .1859 
Bus knell. Horace, Am. Congregational divine and 

author 1802... 1876 

Bustamante, Anastasio, Mexican general and presi- 
dent 1780... 1851 

Bute, John Stuart, third Earl of, Eng. statesman 1713. . .1792 

B u tin, Ulysse, Fr. painter 1838. . .1884 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin, Am. lawyer and politician 1818 

Butler, John, Tory leader in the Revolutionary war 1794 

Butler, Joseph, Eng. theologian. [Analogy of Belig- 

ion, etc.] 1692... 1752 

Butler, Samuel, Eng. poet. [Hudibras.] ? 1612. . .1680 

Butler, William Allen, Am. poet. [Nothing to Wear.] . 1825 

B utler, William Orlando, Am. soldier 1791. . .1886 

61 



BUTTMANN—CJBLIUS AURELIANUS 

BORN. DIED- 

Buttmann, Philipp Karl, Ger. philologist 1764. . .1829- 

Buttner, Christian Wilhelm, Ger. naturalist and phi- 
lologist 1716... 1801 

Button, Thomas, Eng. navigator fl. 1612 

Buturlin, Dmitri Petrovitch. Russ. historian 1790. . .185Q 

Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, Brit, philanthropist 1786. . .1845 

Buxtorf, Johann, Ger. Hebraist. Professor at Basel. . 1561. . .1629 
Buxtorf, Johann. Son. Ger. Hebraist. Professor at 

Basel 1599... 1664 

Buys, Paulus, Dutch statesman fl. 1550 

Buzot, Francois Leonard Nicolas, Fr. politician 1760. . .1795 

Byles, Mather, Am. clergyman and wit 1706. . .1788 

Byng, John, Eng. admiral 1704. . .1757 

Bynkershoek, van, Kornelis, Dutch jurist 1673..? 1745- 

Byrgius, Justus, or Biirgi, Jobst, Swiss mathemati- 
cian 1552... 1633 

Byron, George Gordon, Lord, Eng. poet 1788. . .1824 

Bystrom, Johan Nils, Swed. sculptor 1783. . .1848 

Bzowski, or Bzovius, Abraham, Polish theologian. . . 1567. . .1637 



Caballero, Firmin, Span, journalist and statesman. ... 1800 

Cabanis, Pierre Jean George, Fr. physician, philoso- 
pher, and politician 1757. . .1808 

Cabarrus, Francois, Fr. financier in Spain 1752. . .1810 

Cabat, Nicolas Louis, Fr. landscape-painter 1812 

Cabet, Etienne. Fr. communist 1788. . .1856 

Cable, George W., Am. novelist 1845 

Caboche, Simonet, a butcher of Paris and chief of a 

band called Cdbochiens fl. ? 1412 

Cabot, George, president of the Hartford Convention.. 1751. . .1823 
Cabot, John, Anglo- Venetian navigator. Discoverer 

of the North American continent in 1497 ? 1498 

Cabot, Sebastian. Son of John. Eng. navigator ? 1477. .? 1557 

Cabrai de, Pedro Alvarez, Port, navigator ? 1526 

Cabrera, Don Ramon, Span, general 1810. . .1876 

Caceia, Guglielmo. 11 Moncalvo. Ital. painter 1568. . .1625 

Cadalso, de, Jose\ Span, poet and satirist 1741. . .1782 

Cadamosto, da, Luigi, Ital. navigator ? 1432..? 1480 

Cade, John. Jack Cade. Brit, rebel 1450 

Cadet de Gassicourt, Charles Louis, Fr. pharmacist 

and author 1769 . . . 1821 

Cadet de Gassicourt, Louis Claude. Father. Fr. 

chemist 1731. . .1799 

Cadet de Vaux, Antoine Alexis Francois, Fr. chemist 1743. . .1828 
Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, Fr. explorer and 

founder of Detroit ? 172a 

Cadogan, William, first Earl, Eng. general 1726 

Cadoudal, Georges, Fr. royalist ? 1769. . .1804 

Cadwalader, John, Am. Revolutionary general 1743. . .1786 

Csedmon. Father of English Song. Anglo-Saxon poet ? 680 

Cfielius Anrelianus, Greek physician fl. 2d c. 

62 



CyESA E— GAL GEE A 



BORN. DIED. 

Caesar 9 Caius Julius, Roman general and dictator. .B. C. 100. . . 44 
Caffarelli du Falga. Louis Marie Joseph Maximilien, 

Fr. general 1756... 1799 

Caffarelli, Gaetano Majorano. Ital. soprano 1703... 1783 

Cagliari, Paulo. Paul Veronese. Ital. painter ? 1530 . . . 1588 

Cagliostro, di, Alessandro, Count, Sicilian impostor. 1743. .1795 

Cagnola, Luigi, Marquis, Ital. architect 1762. . .1833 

Cagnoli. Antonio, Ital. astronomer and philosopher. . . 1743. . .1816 

Cahours, Auguste, Fr. chemist 1813 

Caille, Jules Michael, Fr. sculptor 1881 

Caille, de la, Nicolas Louis, Fr. astronomer. 1713. . .1762 

Caille, Rene", Fr. traveler in Africa 1799. . .1838 

Caillet, Guillaume. Jacques Bonhomme. Fr. insuiv 

gent leader 1359 

Cailliaud, Frederic, Fr. traveler . 1787. . .1868 

Cail lot, Joseph, Fr. actor 1732. ..1816 

Cain, Richard Harvey, fourteenth bishop of the Af- 
rican M. E. Church 1820... 1887 

Caird, James, Scot, agriculturist 1816 

Cairnes, John Elliot, Eng. political economist 1824. . .1875 

Cairns, Hugh McCalmont. Lord Cairns. Irish lawyer * 

and orator 1819 

Caius, John, Eng. physician and author 1510. . .1573 

Cajetan, Thomas de Vio, Ital. cardinal and theologian 1469. . .1534 

Calamy, Edmund, Eng. divine 1600. . .1666 

Calcar, van, Jan Stephen, Flemish painter 1500. . .1546 

Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio, Ital. anatomist 1725. . .1813 

Caldara, Polidoro. Caravaggio. Ital. painter 1492. . .1543 

Calderino, Domizio. Ital. philosopher and scholar ? 1447. . .1478 

Calderon de la Barca, Pedro, Span dramatist 1600. ..1681 

Caldwell, Joseph, Am. scholar. President of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina 1773. . .1835 

Calef, Robert, Boston merchant. Opposer of witch- 
craft persecutions ? 1723 

Calepino, Amhrogio, Ital. lexicographer 1435. . .1511 

Calhoun, John Caldwell. Am. statesman 1782. . .1850 

Caligula, Caius Csesar, Roman emperor 12. . . 41 

Calixtus, Georgius, Ger. Lutheran divine 1586. . .1656 

Calkoen van Beek, Jan Frederik, Dutch astronomer 1772. . .1811 

Callanan, James Joseph, Irish poet 1795. . .1829 

Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall, Eng. landscape painter. 1779... 1844 
Callcott, John Wall. Brother. Eng. musical composer 1766... 1821 

Calleja, Don Felix del Rey, SpaD . general 1750..? 1820 

Callet, Jean Francois, Fr. mathematician 1744. . .1798 

Callieres, de, Frangois, Fr. statesman and writer 1645. . .1717 

Callimachus, Greek poet and grammarian B. C ? 240 

Callisen, Adolph Karl Peder, Danish physician 1786 

Callisen. Hendrik. Danish surgeon 1740. . .1824 

Callot, Jacques, Fr. artist and engrraver 1593. . .1635 

Calmet, Augustin, Fr. monk. [Historical and Critical 

Dictionary of the Bible.] 1672. . .1757 

.Calogera, or Calogiera, Angelo, Ital. scholar 1699. . .1768 

63 



CA L OMARDE— GAMPOMANES 



BORN. DIED. 

Calomarde, Francisco Tadeo, Span, statesman ? 1775. . .1843 

Calonne, de, Charles Alexandre, Fr. statesman 1734=. . .1802 

Calprenede, de la, Gauthier de Costes, Seigneur, Fr. 

novelist ? 1612... 1663 

Calvart, or Calvaert, Denis. 11 Mammingo. Flem- 
ish painter 1555. . .1619 

Calvert, George, first Lord Baltimore, founder of 

Maryland ?1582...1632 

Calvert, Leonard, first governor of Maryland ? 1606. . .1647 

Calvi, Lazzaro, Genoese painter 1502. . .1607 

Calvin, John, Fr. Protestant reformer at Geneva 1509. . .1564 

Camargo, Marie Anne Cuppi, dancer of Brussels. . .... 1710. . .1770 

Cambace*res, de, Jean Jacques Regis, Fr. statesman. . 1753. . .1824 

Cambiaso, Luca, Ital. fresco painter 1527. . .1585 

Cambini, Giuseppe, Ital. composer 1746. .? 1832 

Cambon, Joseph, Fr. revolutionist .. 1754. . .1820 

Cambroiine, de, Pierre Jacques Etienne, Baron, Fr. 

general 1770.. .1842 

Cambyses, king of the Medes and Persians B. C 522 

Camden, Charles Pratt, first Earl of, lord chancellor 

of England 1714.. .1794 

Camden, William, Eng. antiquary 1551. . .1623 

Camerarius, Joachim, Ger. scholar and writer 1500. . .1574 

Camerarius, Rudolf Jakob, Ger. physician and botanist 1665. . .1721 

Cameron, Donald. The Gentle Lochiel. Scot, chieftain 1748 

Cameron, Richard, Scot, covenanter and founder of 

the Cameronians 1680 

Cameron, Simon, Am. politician 1799. . .1889 

Caminlia, de, Pedro Vaz, Port, explorer fl. 1500 

Camoens, Luis, Port. poet. [Imsiad.'] 1524. . .1579 

Campan, Jeanne Louise Henriette Genest, Madame, 

Fr. educationist 1752 . . .1822 

Camp ane 11a, Tommaso, Ital. philosopher 1568. . .1639 

Campaui, Matteo, Ital. optician fl. 17th c. 

Campbell, Alexander, founder of the Campbellites. . . . 1786. . .1866 
Campbell, Archibald, Marquis of Argyll, Scot. Cove- 
nanter 1598. . .1661 

Campbell, Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll, royalist 1685 

Campbell, Colin, Lord Clyde, Brit, field-marshal. ....... 1792. . .1863 

Campbell, George, Scot, divine and author 1719. . .1796 

Campbell, John, Lord, Brit, jurist and statesman 1779. . .1861 

Campbell, Thomas, Brit, poet 1777. . .1844 

Campe, Joachim Heinrich, Ger. writer and philan- 
thropist 1746 . . .1818 

Campeggio, Lorenzo, Ital. cardinal 1474. . .1539 

Camper, Pieter, Dutch anatomist and naturalist 1722. . .1789 

Camphausen, Ludolf , Pruss. statesman 1803 

Camphuysen, Dirk Rafelsk, Dutch landscape painter. 1586. . .1627 

Campi, Giulio, Ital. historical painter ? 1500. . .1572 

Campian, Edmund, Eng. Jesuit and author 1540. . .1581 

Campomanes, Pedro Rodriguez, Count, Span, states- 
man and political economist 1723. . .1802 

64 



C AMU CCINI— GAPPELLA RI 



BORN. DIED. 

Camuccini, Vincenzo, Roman painter ? 1775. . .1844 

Camus, Armand Gaston, Fr. politician 1740. . .1804 

Camus, le, Antoine, Fr. physician 1722. . .1772 

Canals or Canaletto, Antonio, Ital. painter 1697. . .1768 

Canaui, Giovanni Battista, Ital. anatomist 1515. . .1579 

Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg, Am. general 1819. . .1873 

Cancellieri, Francesco, Ital. scholar 1751. . .1826 

Cancrin, Georg, Count, Russ. statesman ? 1774. . .1845 

Candlish, Robert Smith, Scot, preacher 1807. . .1873 

Ca ndolle, de, Augustin Pyramus, Swiss botanist 1778. . .1841 

Canga-Argiielles, Jose", Span, statesman 1770. ..1843 

Canini, Angelo, Ital. linguist 1521. . .1557 

Canisius, Petrus. Be Hondt. Dutch Jesuit and theo- 
logian 1521 . . . 1597 

Canning, Charles John, Earl, Eng. statesman 1812. . .1862 

Canning, George. Fatter. Eng. statesman 1770. . .1827 

Cano, Alonzo. El Bacionero. Span, painter 1601... 1664 

Cano, del, Juan Sebastian, Span, navigator 1526 

Canonica, della, Luigi, Ital. architect 1742. . .1834 

Canonicus, Narragansett chief ? 1565. . .1647 

Cano va, Antonio, Ital. sculptor 1757. . .1822 

Canrobert, Francois Certain, Fr. marshal 1809 

Canstein, Karl Hildebrand, Baron, Ger. philanthro- 
pist and promoter of biblical knowledge 1667. . .1719 

Cantacuzenus, John, emperor of Constantinople and 

historian ? 1411 

Cantarini, von, Simone, Ital. painter 1612... 1648 

Cantemir, or Kantemir, Antiochus, Prince. Son. 

Russ. embassador and poet ? 1709. . .1744 

Cantemir, Demetrius, Russ. historian and orientalist. 1673. . .1723 

Canter, Willem, Dutch critic and philologist 1542. . .1575 

Canterzani, Sebastiano, Ital. mathematician 1734. . .1819 

Canton, John, Eng. savant and experimental philoso- 
pher 1718... 1772 

Cantu, Cesare, Ital. historian 1805 

Canute, or Runt, king of England and Denmark ? 995. . .1035 

Canz, Israel Gottlieb, Ger. philosopher 1690. . .1753 

Capefigue, Jean Baptiste Honore' Raymond, Fr. his- 
torian 1802. . .1872 

Capel, Arthur, Earl of Essex, lord-lieutenant of Ireland 1635. . .1683 

Capell, Edward, Eng. critic 1713. . .1781 

Capeilo, Bianca, grand duchess of Tuscany and wife 

of Francis de' Medici ? 1542. . .1587 

Capet, Hugh, king of France ?940... 996 

Capistrano, da? Giovanni, Ital. monk, preacher, and 

writer 1386... 1456 

Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius, Ger. reformer and scholar ? 1480. . .1541 
Capmany, de, Antonio, Span, philologist and historian 1742. . .1813 
Capo d'lstria, or Capodistrias, John Antony, 

Count, president of Greece.. 1780.. .1831 

Cappel, Louis. The Yottnger. Fr. theologian 1585. . .1658 

Cappellari, Gennaro Antonio, Ital. writer 1655. . .1702 

65 



GA PPELL 0— GARNO GHAN 



BORN. DIED. 

Cappello, Bernardo, Ital. poet ? 1500. . .1565 

Capperonnier, Claude, Fr. linguist and critic 1671. . .1744 

Capponi, Gregorio Alessandro, Marquis, Ital. scholar 

and antiquary 1685. . .1746 

Caprara, Giovanni Battista, Ital. cardinal 1733. . .1810 

Caracalla, Marcus Aurelius Antonius. Bassianus. 

Emperor of Rome 188. . . 217 

Caraccioli, Francesco, Prince, Neapolitan admiral ?1748. . .1799 

Caractacus, ancient Brit, chief ? 54 

Caraffa, or Carafa, Michele, Neapolitan composer. . . 1785. . .1872 

Caraglio, Giovanni Giacomo, Ital. engraver ? 1510..? 1570 

Cara-Mustapka, grand vizier of Turkey 1634. . .1683 

Caravaggio, da, Michel Angelo Amerighi, Ital. painter 1569. . .1609 
Cardan, Jerome, Ital. physician and mathematician. . 1501. . .1576 
Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, Earl of, Brit. 

general 1797 . . . 1868 

Cardonne, Denis Dominique, Fr. orientalist 1720. . .1783 

Carduccio, or Carducho, Bartolommeo, Florentine 

painter in Spain 1560. . .1610 

Carduccio, Vincenzo. Brother. Ital. painter in Spain 1568... 1638 

Careme, Marie Antoine, Fr. cook 1784. . .1833 

Carew, Sir Benjamin Hallowell, Brit, admiral ? 1760. . .1834 

Carew, Thomas, Eng. poet and courtier ? 1589..? 1639 

Carey, Henry Charles, political economist in America. 1793 

Carey, Matthew. Father of Henry C. Am. author 1760. . .1839 

Carey, William, Eng. missionary and orientalist 1761. . .1834 

Carlissimi, Giovanni, Ital. composer ? 1582..? 1674 

Carle*n, Emilia Flygare, Swed. novelist 1807 

Carleson, Eduard, Swed. diplomatist 1704. . .1767 

Carleton, Sir Guy, Lord Dorchester. Brit, general 1724.. .1808 

Carleton, William, Irish novelist 1798. . .1869 

Cavil, Gian Rinaldo, Count, Ital. antiquary and his- 
torian 1720... 1795 

Carlisle, Sir Anthony, Eng. surgeon and physiologist. 1768... 1840 
Carlisle, George William Frederick, Earl of, Eng. 

statesman and writer. 1802. . .1864 

Carlisle, John G., Am. statesman and legislator 1835 

Carlos, Don, infante of Spain and pretender to the 

crown 1788... 1855 

Carlowitz, Eloi'se Christine, Baroness of, Fr. authoress 1797 

Carlstadt, Andreas, Ger. reformer ? 1483. . .1541 

Carlyle, Joseph Dacre, Eng. orientalist 1759. . .1804 

Carlyle, Thomas, Brit, essayist and historian 1795. . .1881 

Carmagnola, Francesco, Ital. general ? 1390... 1432 

Carmeli, Michel Angelo, Ital. monk and scholar ? 1700. . .1766 

Carmignani, Giovanni Alessandro, Ital. jurist 1768... 1847 

Carminati, Bassiano, Ital. physician 1750. . .1830 

Carmon telle, Fr. dramatic writer 1717. . .1806 

Carmouche, Pierre Frederic Adolphe, Fr. dram- 
atist 1797... 1868 

Carneades, Greek orator and philosopher B. C. ? 215. . . 129 

Carnochan, John Murray, Am. surgeon 1817. . .1887 

66 



GARNO T— CAB TO UCHE 



BORN. DIED. 

Carnot, Lazare Hippolyte. Son. Fr. politician and 

writer 1801... 1888 

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite. Father. Fr. mil- 
itary administrator and strategist 1753. . .1823 

Carnot. Grandson. President Fr. republic. See 
Sadi-Carnot. 

Caro, Annibale, Ital. poet 1507. . .1566 

Caroline Amelia Augusta, queen of Ed gland. Wife 

of George IV 1768. ..1821 

Car on, Francois, Fr. director-general in India 1674 

Car on, Rene" Edouard, Canadian statesman 1800. . .1876 

Carpani, Giuseppe, Ital. dramatic poet 1752. . .1825 

Carpenter, Lant, Eng. divine and writer 1780. . .1840 

Carpenter, Matthew B., Am. politician 1824. . .1881 

Carpenter, William Benjamin. Son. Eng. physiolo- 
gist .*. 1813... 1885 

Carpentier, Pierre, Fr. antiquary and author 1697. . .1767 

Carpi, da, Girolamo, Ital. painter and architect ? 1500... 1556 

Carpi, da, Ugo, Ital. engraver. Reputed inventor of 

clair-obscwr ? I486..? 1530 

Carpini, Giovanni di Piano, Ital. traveler in Tartary. .? 1220 

Carpzov, Benedict, Ger. jurist and author 1595. . .1666 

Carracci, Annibale, Bolognese painter 1560. . .1609 

Carraccl, Ludovico, founder of the Bolognese school 

of painting 1555... 1619 

Carranza, de, Bartolome", archbishop of Toledo and 

writer 1503. ..1576 

Carrara, da, Jacopo, lord of Padua 1324 

Carre", Michel, Fr. author 1819. ..1872 

Carrel, Nicolas Armand, Fr. political writer 1800. . .1836 

Carreno de Miranda, Don Juan, Span, historical 

painter 1614 . . .1685 

Carrera, Rafael, president of Gautemala 1814. . .1865 

Carrere, Joseph Barthelemi Francois, Fr. physician. . 1740. . .1802 

Carrier, Jean Baptiste, Fr. demagoerue 1756. . .1794 

Carriere, Moritz, Ger. philosophical writer 1817 

Carroll, Charles, Am. patriot. Last surviving signer 

of the Declaration of Independence 1737. . .1832 

Carron, Gui Toussaint Julien, Fr. priest and writer.. . 1760. . .1821 
Carson, Christopher. Kit Carson. Am. frontiersman. 1809... 1868 

Carstairs, Rev. William, Scot, divine 1649. . .1715 

Carstens. Asmus Jakob, Danish historical painter — 1754. . .1798 

Cartellier, Pierre, Fr. sculptor 1757. . .1831 

Carter, Miss Elizabeth, Eng. scholar and writer 1717. . .1806 

Carter, John, Eng. artist. [Bat-catcher and his Dogs.~\. 1815. . .1850 

Carteret, John, Earl Granville, Eng. statesman 1690. . .1763 

Cartheuser, JohannJFriedrich, Ger. physician 1704. . .1777 

Cartier, Sir George Etienne, Canadian statesman 1814. . .1873 

Cartier, Jacques, Fr. navigator and explorer 1494 ..? 1555 

Cartmell, James, vice-chancellor Cambridge Univer- 
sity 1811... 1881 

Cartouche^ Louis Dominique, Fr. bandit 1693. . .1721 

67 



CARTTER— GASTELAR 



BORN. DIED. 

Cartter, Davis K., Am. jurist 1812. . .1887 

Cart wright, Edmund, Eng. inventor and writer 1743. . .1823 

Cartwright, John, Major. Brother of Edmund. Eng. 

political reformer 1740. . .1824 

Cartwright, Peter, Am. Methodist preacher 1785. . .1872 

Car us, Karl Gustav, Ger. physician and naturalist 1789. . .1869 

Carus, Victor Julius, Ger. zoologist 1823 

Carvajal, Tomas Jose" Gonzales, Span, author 1753. . .1834 

Carvajal, de, Francisco, Span, military commander.? 1464... 1548 

Carvalho d'Acosta, Antonio, Port, geographer 1650. . .1715 

Carver, John, first governor of Plymouth colony 1621 

Carver, Jonathan, Am. traveler 1732. . .1780 

Cary, Alice, Am. poetess 1820. . .1871 

Cary, Phoebe. Sister of Alice. Am. poetess 1824... 1871 

Cary, Rev. Henry Francis, Eng. poet. Translator of 

Dante 1772... 1844 

Casa, della, Giovanni, Ital. poet 1503. . .1556 

Casabianca, Louis, Fr. naval officer ? 1755. . .1798 

Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo de Seingalt, Ital. ad- 
venturer 1725 . . .1803 

Casas, de las, Bartolome\ Span, missionary 1474. . .1566 

Casaubon, Lat. Casaubonus, Isaac, Fr. critic and 

commentator 1559. . .1614 

Caselius, Johannes, Ger. philologist and writer 1533. . .1613 

Caseneuve, de, Pierre, Fr. philologist — 1591. . .1652 

Casimir I. The Pacific. King of Poland 1058 

Casimir II. The Great. King of Poland 1309. . .1370 

Casimir-Perier. See Perier 1811. ..1876 

Caspari, Carl Paul, Ger. theologian 1814 

Casper, Johann Ludwig, Ger. physician 1796 

Cass, Lewis, Am. statesman 1782... 1866 

Cassagnac, de, A. Granier. (Granier, Adolph Ber- 
nard.) Fr. publicist and journalist ? 1806 

Cassagaae, de, Paul. Son. Fr. journalist 1841 

Cassas, Louis Francois, Fr. painter and architect 1756. . .1827 

Cassel, Johann Philipp, Ger. philologist 1707. . .1783 

Casserly , Eugene, Am. lawyer and legislator 1822. . .1883 

Cassia, John, Am. ornithologist 1813. . .1869 

Cassini, Giovanni Domenico, Ital. astronomer at the 

observatory of Paris < 1625. . .1712 

Cassini, Jacques. Son of Giovanni Domenico. Fr. 

astronomer 1677. . .1756 

Cassini, de Thury, Cesar Francois. Son of Jacques. 

Fr. astronomer and topographer 1714. . .1784 

Cassius, Andreas, Ger. chemist. [Purple of Cassius.~\. . fl. 17th c. 

Cassias Longinus, Caius, Roman patriot B. C 42 

Castagno, del, Andrea, Florentine historical painter.? 1408..? 1480 

Castalio, S6bastien, Fr. theologian 1515. . .1563 

Castafios, de, Francisco Xavier, Duke of Baylen, Span. 

general 1755.. .1852 

Caste 1, Louis Bertrand, Fr. mathematician 1688. . .1757 

Castelar, Emilio, Span, statesman 1832 

68 



CASTELL—CATO 



BORN. DEED. 

Castell, Edmund, Eng. orientalist 1606. . .1685 

Castellan) Antoine Louis, Fr. painter and architect. . . 1772. . .1838 
Castellane, de, Esprit Victor Elisabeth Boniface, 

Count, marshal of France 1788. ..1862 

Castelli, Benedetto, Ital. mathematician 1577. . .1644 

Casteiii, Ignaz Friedrich, Ger. dramatist 1781. . .1862 

Castello, Giovanni Battista. 11 Bergamasco. Ital. 

painter ? 1500..? 1579 

Castelnau, de, Michel, Fr, diplomatist ? 1520. . .1592 

Castelvetro, Ludovico, Ital. critic 1505. ..1571 

Casti, Giovanni Battista, Ital. poet 1721. . .1803 

Castiglioue, Baldassare, Ital. statesman and poet 1478. . .1529 

Castiglione, Carlo Ottavio, Count, Ital. linguist and 

antiquary 1784. . .1849 

Castiglioue, Giovanni Benedetto. 11 Grechetto. Ital. 

painter 1616. . .1670 

Castilho, de, Antonio Feliciano, Port, poet 1800 

Castilla, Don Ramon, president of Peru 1797. . .1867 

Castille, Charles Hyppolyte, Fr. writer 1820 

Castillo, del, Bernal-Diaz, Span, officer with Cortez 

in Mexico fl. 1520 

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount, second Mar- 
quis of Londonderry, Brit, statesman 1769. . .1822 

Castre*n, Matthias Alexander, Finnish philologist 1813. . .1852 

Castre*n, Robert. Son. Swed. author 1851. . .1883 

Castro, de, Esteban- Rodriguez, Port, physician ? 1560. . .1637 

Castro, de, Guiliem, Span, dramatist 1569. . .1631 

Castro, de, Inez, wife of the crown prince, Dom Pedro 

of Portugal. Assassinated 1355 

Castro, de, Joao, Port, general and navigator 1500. . .1548 

Castro, de, Vaca, Span, magistrate 1558 

Castruccio-Castracani, Ital. soldier and poet 1284. . .1328 

Catalani, Angelica, Ital. vocalist ? 1785. . .1849 

Catel, Charles Simon, Fr. musical composer 1773. . .1830 

Catesby, Mark, Eng. naturalist ? 1680. . .1749 

Cathcart, Sir George, Eng. general 1794... 1854 

Cathcart, William Schaw, first Earl of, Eng. diplo- 
matist 1755 . . . 1843 

Cathelineau, Jacques, Vendean general 1759. . .1793 

Catherine of Aragon, queen of England. Wife of 

Henry VIII 1486... 1536 

Catherine I., empress of Russia. Wife of Peter the 

Great ?1685...1727 

Catherine II., empress of Russia. Wife of Peter III. 1729... 1796 

Catherine, Saint, of Alexandria ? 307 

Catherine de' Medici, queen of Henry II. of France 1519... 1589 

Catiline, Lucius Sergius, Roman conspirator B. C 62 

Catinat, de, Nicolas, Fr. general 1637. . .1712 

Catfneau-Laroche, Pierre Marie S6bastien, Fr. civil 

officer and writer 1772. . .1828 

Catlin, George, Am. artist and tourist 1796. . .1872 

Cato, Marcus Porcius. The Elder. Roman patriot. B. C. 234... 149 

69 



GATO— CECILIA 



BORN. DIED. 

Cato, Marcus Porcius. The Yowiger. Roman philoso- 
pher and patriot B.C. 95... 46 

Cats, Jakob, Dutch statesman and poet 1577. . .1660 

Cattaneo, Carlo, Ital. political economist ? 1815 

Catullus, Caius Valerius, Roman poet B. C. 87. . . 47 

Catullus, Quintus Lutatius, Roman general and 

scholar B. C 87 

Catterraole, George, Eng. painter 1800... 1868 

C auction, Joseph Edouard, Canadian journalist and 

statesman 1816. . .1885 

C audi on, Pierre, bishop of Beauvais. Judge of Joan 

d'Arc 1443 

Cauchy , Augustin Louis, Fr. mathematician and poet.. 1789. . .1857 
Caulaiucourt, de, Armand Augustin Louis, Fr. 

officer and diplomatist 1773. . .1827 

Caumont, de, Arcisse, Fr. antiquary 1802 

Caus, or Caulx, de, Salomon, Fr. engineer ? 1576..? 1630 

Caussin de Perceval, Armand Pierre, Fr. orientalist 1795... 1872 
Cavaignac, Eleonore Louis Godefroy, Fr. journalist.. 1801. . .1845 
Cavaignac, Jean Baptiste. Father. Fr. revolutionist. 1762... 1829 
Cavaignac, Louis Eugene. Brother of E. L. O. Fr. 

general 1802. . .1857 

Ca valcanti, Bartolommeo, Ital. scholar 1503. . .1562 

Cavalier, Jean, leader of the Camisards ? 1679. . .1740 

Cavalieri, Bonaventura, Ital. mathematician 1598. . .1647 

Cavalli, Pietro Francesco, Ital. composer ? 1599. . .1676 

Cavallo, Tiberio, Ital. natural philosopher in London. 1749. ..1809 

Cavanilles, Antonio Jose", Span, priest and botanist 1745. . .1804 

Cave, Edward, printer. Founded The Gentlemen's 

Magazine 1691. . .1754 

Cave, William, Eng. divine and scholar 1637. . .1713 

Cavedoue, Giacomo, Ital. painter 1577. . .1660 

Cavelier, Pierre Jules, Fr. sculptor 1814 

Cavendish, Henry, Eng. chemist and natural philos. . 1731.. .1810 

Cavendish, Thomas, Eng. navigator 1564. . .1593 

Caventou, Joseph Bienaime", Fr. chemist 1797 

Cavour, di, Camillo Benso, Count, Ital. statesman 1810... 1861 

Caxton, William, earliest Eng. printer ? 1412. . .1492 

Cay ley , Sir George, Eng. philosopher 1773. . .1857 

Caylus, de, Anne Claude Philippe de Tubieres, Count, 

Fr. antiquary and writer 1692. . .1765 

Caylus, de, Martha Marguerite de Villette de Murcay, 

Marquise, Fr. woman of fashion 1673. . .1729 

Cazales, de, Jacques Antoine Marie, Fr. politician 1758... 1805 

Cean-Bermudez, Juan Augustin, Span, writer on art 1749.. .1829 
Cecchi, Giovanni Maria, Ital. comic poet and lawyer. . 1517. . .1587 
Cecco d'Ascoli. Francesco Stabili. Ital. physician, 

astrologer, mechanician, and poet 1257. . .1327 

Cecil, William, Lord Burleigh, lord treas. of Elizabeth 1520.. .1598 

Cecil , Robert, Earl of Salisbury, Eng. statesman 1560. . .1612 

Cecilia, Saint, Roman martyr and patroness of music. 

St, Cecilia's Day, November 22 fl. 2d or 3d c. 

70 






GEILLIER—GHABROL DE VOL VIC 

BORN. DIED. 

Ceillier, Dom Rerni, Fr. theologian 1688. . .1761 

Celakowsfcy, Frantisek Ladislav, Bohemian poet 1799. . .1852 

Celeste, Madame, Eng.-Fr. dancer and actress ? 1814 

Celestine I., pope. Successor to Boniface 1 432 

Celestine V., Saint. Petro da Murrone. Pope 1215. . .1296 

Cellarius, Christoph, Ger. critic and geographer 1638. . .1707 

Cellier, Alfred, Eng. composer 1846 

Cellini, Benvenuto, Ital. artist in metal 1500. . .1570 

Celsius, Anders, Swed. astronomer 1701. . .1744 

Celsius, Olaus, Swed. botanist and orientalist 1670. . .1756 

Celsus, Roman philosopher. Antichrist] an writer fl. 2d c. 

Celsus, Aurelius Cornelius. Roman medical writer fl. 1st c. 

Celtes, Conrad, Ger. poet-laureate 1459. . .1508 

Cenci, Beatrice. La Belle Parricide. Roman girl, 

famous for her beauty and tragical fate ? 1583. . .1599 

Centlivre, Mrs. Susanna, Eng. dramatic writer ? 1667. . .1723 

Cerceau, du, Jean Antoine, Fr. poet 1670... 1730 

Cerda, de la, Juan Luis, Span. Jesuit and critic ? 1560. . .1643 

Cerinthus, Syrian heresiarch. Founder of the Cerin- 

thians fl. 1st c. 

Cerisier, Antoine Marie, Fr. historian 1749. . .1828 

Certon, Salomon, Fr. poet ? 1550. . .1610 

Cervantes, Saavedra, de, Miguel, Span, novelist. 

[Don Qwixote.~] 1547. . .1616 

Cervolle, or Cervole, de, Fr. freebooter ? 1300... 1366 

Cesalpino, Andrea, Ital. physician, physiologist, and 

botanist 1519 . . . 1603 

Cesar e> di, Giuseppe Cavaliere, Neapolitan historian. 1783. ..1856 

Cesari, Antonio, Ital. critic and translator ? 1750. . .1828 

Cesari, Giuseppe. Cavaliero d'Arpvno. Ital. historical 

painter ? 1560... 1640 

Cesarini, Virginio, Ital. poet 1595. . .1624 

Cesarotti, Melchiore, Ital. poet 1730. . .1808 

Cesi, Federigo, Prince, Ital. naturalist 1585. . .1630 

Ce'spedes, de, Carlos Manuel, president of the revolu- 
tionary republic of Cuba 1819. . .1874 

Ce'spedes, de, Pablo, Span, artist 1538. . .1608 

Ceva, Tommaso, Ital. Jesuit, poet, and mathemati- 
cian 1648. .71736 

Cevall os, Pedro, Span, diplomatist 1764. . . 1838 

Chabannes, de, Antoine, Comte de Dammartin, Fr. 

general ? 1410. . .1488 

Chabanon, de, Michel Paul Guy, Fr. writer 1730. . .1792 

Ctaabas, Francois Joseph, Fr. archaeologist 1817 

Chabert, de, Joseph Bernard, Marquis, Fr. navigator, 

astronomer, and geographer 1723. . .1805 

Chabot, Francois, Fr. revolutionist 1759. . .1794 

Chabot, de, Philippe, admiral of France 1543 

Chabrillaii, de, Celeste Venara, Countess. Mogador. 

Fr. circus rider and authoress 1824 

Chabrol de Volvic, Gilbert Joseph Gaspard, Count, 

Fr. civil officer, politician, and writer 1773.. .1843 

71 



GHA CON— CHANTREY 



BORN. DIED. 

Chacon, Pedro, Span, priest and writer 1525. . .1581 

Chadwick, Edwin, Eng. social economist 1801 

Chaix d'Est-Ange, Gustave Louis Adolph Victor 

Charles, Fr. advocate 1800. . .1876 

Chal grin, Jean Francois Th^rese, Fr. architect 1739. . .1811 

Challoner, Richard, Eng. Roman Catholic divine and 

author 1691. . .1781 

Chalmers, Alexander, Brit, editor. [General Biograph- 
ical Dictionary.] 1759. . .1834: 

Chalmers, George, Brit, historian and biographer 1742. . .1825 

Chalmers, Rev. Thomas, Scot, divine 1780. . .1847 

Chamberlain, Joseph, Eng. parliamentarian 1836 

Chambers, Ephraim, Eng. cyclopedist 1740 

Chambers, Robert, Scot, writer and publisher 1802. . .1871 

Chambers, Sir William. EDg. architect ? 1726. . .1796 

Chambers, William. Brother of Robert. Scot, editor 1800... 1883 

Chambon de Montaux, Nicolas, Fr. physician 1748. . .1826 

Chambord, de, Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieu- 
donne\ Comte, head of the elder branch of the Bour- 
bon dynasty 1820. . .1883 

Chambray, de, Georges, Marquis, Fr. historian 1783..? 1850 

Chamfort, or Champfort, Se"bastien Roch Nicolas, 

Fr. poet and litterateur 1741. . .1794 

Chamier, Daniel, Fr. Protestant theologian ? 1570. . .1621 

C ha mil lard, Michel, Fr. minister of state 1651. . .1721 

Chamilly, de, Noel Bouton, Marquis, Fr. general 1636. . .1715 

Chamisso, von, Adalbert, Ger. lyric poet 1781. . .1838 

Chamousset, de, Claude Humbert Piarron, Chevalier, 

Fr. philanthropist 1717. . .1773 

Champagne, de, Philippe, Flemish painter in Paris. . 1602. . .1674 
Champagny, de, Jean Baptiste Nompere, Due de Ca- 

dore, Fr. statesman 1756. . .1834. 

Champe, John, Am. revolutionary soldier ? 1752..? 1798 

Champeaux, de, Guillaume, bishop of Chalons 1121 

Champier, Symphorien, Fr. physician 1472. . .1539 

Champion, Anthony, Eng. writer ? 1724. . .1801 

Championnet, Jean Etienne, Fr. general 1762. . .1800 

Champlain, de, Samuel, Fr. explorer, founder, and 

governor of Canada 1567. . .1635 

Champmesle*, Marie Desmares, Fr. actress 1644. . .1698 

Champollion, Jean Francois. Brother of Jacques Jo- 
seph. Fr. Egyptologist 1791. ..1832 

Champollion-Figeac, Jacques Joseph, Fr. archaeol. . 1778... 1867 

Chandler, Richard, Eng. archaeologist 1738. . .1810 

Chandos, John, Eng. military commander 1369 

Changarnier, Nicolas Anne The"odule, Fr. general 1793. . .1877 

Chanler, Mrs. John Armstrong (maiden name AmeUie 

Rives), Am. novelist. [The Quick or the Dead.] 1863 

Channing, William Ellery, Am. divine and writer 1780. . .1842 

Chantal, de, Jeanne Francoise Fremiot, Baroness, Fr. 

devotee 1572... 1641 

Chantrey, Sir Francis, Eng. sculptor 1782. . .1841 

72 



CHANZ Y— CHARLES 



BORN. DIED. 

Chanzy, Antoine Eugene Alfred, Fr. general ? 1823. . .1883 

Chapelain, Jean, Fr. poet and critic 1595. . .1674 

Chapel le, Claude Emmanuel Luillier, Fr. poet 1626. . .1686 

Chapiii, Edwin Hubbell, Am. Universalist divine and 

orator 1814 

Chapman, George, Eng. dramatic poet 1557. . .1634 

Chapone, Mrs. Hester, Eng. authoress 1727. . .1801 

Chappe, Claude, Fr. inventor of a telegraph 1763. . .1805- 

Chapsa 1, Charles Pierre, Fr. grammarian 1787. . .1858 

Chapta], Jean Antoine, Comte de Chanteloupe, Fr. 

chemist and statesman 1756. . .1832 

Charas, Moise, Fr. chemist and pharmacist 1618. . .1698 

C hardin, Sir Jean, Fr. merchant and traveler 1643. . .1713 

Chardon, de la Rochette, Simon, Fr. philologist 

and HeUenist 1753 . . .1814 

Charette de la Con trie, Francois Athanase, Ven- 

dean royalist 1763 .. . 1796 

Charlemagne, Charles the Great, or Charles I., 

emperor of the West and king of France 742 . . . 814 

Charles I. Charles Stuart. King of England. Exe- 
cuted 1600... 1649 

Charles II., king of England 1630. ..1685 

Charles II. The Bald. King of France 823. . . 877 

Charles IV. The Fair 1294. ..1328 

Charles V. Tlie Wise. 1337.. .1380 

Charles VI. The Mad or The Beloved 1368. . .1422 

Charles VII. The Victorious 1403. ..1461 

Charles IX 1550. ..1574 

Charles X 1757... 1836 

Charles I., or Charlemagne, emperor of Germany 

and king of France 742. . . 814 

Charles III. The Fat ?832... 888 

Charles IV., king of Bohemia 1316... 1378 

Charles V., kiDg of Spain 1500. ..1558 

Charles VI. 1685... 1740 

Charles VII., Karl Albrecht 1697. . .1745 

Charles of Anjou, king of Naples and Sicily ? 1220. . .1285 

Charles Albert, Carlo Alberto Amadeo, king of Sar- 
dinia rf98...1849 J 

Charles I., king of Spain. Charles V. of Germany. 1500. . .1558 • 

Charles II 1661... 1700^ 

Charles III, 1716. . .1788 

C harles IV 1748 . . . 1819 

Charies Emanuel I. Ttie, Great. Duke of Savoy 1562. . .1630 

Charles IX., king of Sweden 1550. ..1611 

Charles X., Gustavus 1622... 1660 

Charles XII 1682. . .1718 

Charles XIII 1748. ..1818 

Charles XIV., John. See Bernadotte 1764. ..1844 

Charles XV., king of Sweden and Norway 1826. . .1872 

Charles I., prince of Roumania 1839 

Charles, or Karl, Archduke of Austria, commander. 1771... 1847 

T6 



CHARLES THE BOLD—OHAUVEAU 

BORN. DIED. 

Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy 1433... 1477 

Charles Edward Stuart. The Young Pretender. 

Eng. prince 1720. . .1788 

Charles, Mrs. Elizabeth Rundle, Eng. authoress ? 1826 

Charles, Jacques Alexandre C6sar, Fr. eleetrician 1746. . .1823 

Charles Martel, duke of Austrasia 694. . . 741 

Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint, Fr. painter and engraver.. 1792. . .1845 

Charleton, Walter, Eng. physician and author 1619. . .1707 

Charlevoix, de, Pierre Frangois Xavier, Jesuit mis- 
sionary in America 1682. . .1761 

Charnock, Stephen, Eng. divine and author 1628. . .1680 

Charost, de, Armand Joseph de B^thune, Fr. philan- 
thropist 1728 . . . 1800 

Charpentier, Francois, Fr. author 1620. . .1702 

Ch arras, Jean Baptiste Adolphe, Fr. military writer. . 1810. . .1865 
Charriere, de, Isabelle Agnete de Saint-Hyacinthe, 

Fr. novelist ? 1740... 1805 

Charron, Pierre, Fr. philosopher 1541. . .1603 

Chartier, Alain, Fr. poet 71385. .?1455 

Charton, Edouard, Fr. journalist 1807 

Chart res, de, Robert Philippe Louis Eugene Ferdi- 
nand d'Or leans, Due, Fr. prince. Grandson of Louis 

Philippe 1840 

Chase, Salmon Portland, Am. statesman 1808. . .1873 

Chasles, Michel, Fr. geometer 1793 

Chasles, Victor Euphemion Philarete, Fr. journalist.. 1798... 1873 

Chassaigne, Frangois, Fr. composer of comic opera. . . 1847 

Chassepot, Antoine Alphonse, Fr. inventor 1833 

Chasteler, du, Jean Gabriel Joseph Albert, Marquis, 

Austrian general 1763. ..1825 

Chastellux, de, Frangois Jean, Marquis, Fr. officer 

and writer 1734... 1788 

Chateaubriand, de, Frangois Auguste, Viscount, Fr. 

author 1768... 1848 

Chatel, Jean, Fr. fanatic ?1575...1594 

Chatham, William Pitt, first Earl of 1708. ..1778 

Chatterton, Thomas, Eng. poet 1752. ..1770 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, father of English poetry ? 1328. . .1400 

Chaudet, Antoine Denis, Fr. sculptor and painter 1763. . .1810 

Chaudon, Dom Louis MaTeul, Fr. historical writer 1737. . .1817 

Chauliac, de, Gui, Fr. surgeon fi. 14th c. 

Chaulieu, de, Guillaume Amfrye, Fr. lyric poet 1639. . .1720 

Chaulnes, de, Michel Ferdinand, Due, Fr. naturalist. . 1714. . .1769 

Chaumette, Pierre Gaspard, Fr. revolutionist 1763. . .1794 

Chaumonot, Pierre Marie Joseph, Fr. Jesuit and mis- 
sionary in Canada 1611. . .1693 

Chauncey, Isaac, Am. naval officer 1772. . .1840 

Chaussard, Pierre Jean Baptiste, Fr. writer 1766. . .1823 

Chaussee, de la, Pierre Claude Nivelle, Fr. dramatic 

author 1692. ..1754 

Chaussier, Frangois, Fr. physician and anatomist 1746. . .1828 

Chauveau, Pierre, J. O., Canadian statesman 1820 

74 



CHA UVEA U-LA GARDE— CHI A EAMONTI 

BORN. DIED. 

Chauveau-Lagarde, Claude Francois, Fr. advocate. 1760... 1841 

Chauvelin, de, Francois Bernard, Fr. politician 1766... 1832 

Chauvenet, William, Am. mathematician 1820. . .1870 

Chauvin, Etienne, Fr. Protestant refugee ? 1649. . .1725 

Chave*e, Honore* Joseph, Belgian philologist 1815 

Chazal, Fr. artist 1793. . .1854 

Chazelles, de, Jean Mathieu, Fr. hydrographer 1657. . .1710 

Cheeshhateaumuck, Caleb, the only Indian who was 

graduated from Harvard College 1646. . .1666 

Cheever, Ezekiel, Am. teacher 1615. . .1708 

Cheever, George Barrel, Am. clergyman 1807 

Cheke, Sir John, Eng. statesman and scholar 1514. . .1557 

Chelmsford, Frederick Thesiger, Baron, lord chancel- 
lor of England 1794. ..1878 

Chemnitz, Martin. Ger. Protestant divine 1522. . .1586 

Chemnitzer, Ivan Ivanovitch, Russ. fabulist 1744. . .1784 

Chenedolle, de, Charles Julien Pioult, Fr. poet 1769. . .1833 

Chenery, Thomas, Eng. Arabic scholar and editor 

London Times 1826. . .1884 

Chenevix, Richard, Irish writer 1774. . .1830 

Che"nier, de, Andre" Marie. Son of Louis. Fr. poet... 1762... 1794 

Ch^nier, de, Louis. Father. Fr. historian 1723. . .1796 

Che"nier, de, Marie Joseph. Son of Louis. Fr. drama- 
tist 1764... 1811 

Chenot, Claude Bernard Adrien, Fr. engineer 1803. . .1855 

Cherbuliez, Antoine Elisee, Swiss political economist 1797... 1869 

Cheri, Rose Marie Cizos, Fr. actress 1824. . .1861 

Che' ron, Elisabeth Sophie, Fr. poetess, writer, and 

painter , 1648.. .1711 

Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore, Ital. 

musical composer 1760 . . .1842 

Chervin, Fr. physician 1783. . .1843 

Chery, Philippe, Fr. historical painter 1759. . .1838 

Chesebro', Caroline, Am. authoress 1825. . .1873 

Cheselden , William, Eng. surgeon and writer 1688. . .1752 

Chesney, Francis Rawdon, Brit, explorer in the East. 1789. ..1872 
Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth Earl of. 

[Letters.-] 1694.. .1773 

Chevalier, de, Antoine Rodolphe, Fr. Hebraist 1507. . .1572 

Chevalier, Michel, Fr. economist.. 1806 

Cheverus, Jean Louis Anne Madeleine Lefebvre, Fr. 

cardinal and philanthropist 1768. . .1836 

Cheves, Langdon, Am. statesman 1776. . .1857 

Chevrenl, Michel Eugene, Fr. chemist and savant 1786. . .1889 

Chevreuse, de, Marie de Rohan Montbazon, Duchesse, 

Fr. beauty and intriguer 1600. . .1679 

Cheyne, George, Scot, physician and mathematician. .? 1671.. .1742 

Che*zy, de, Antoine Leonard, Fr. orientalist 1773. . .1832 

Che*zy, von, Wilhelmine Christiane. Wife. Ger. au- 
thoress 1783... 1856 

Chiabrera, Gabriello, Ital. lyric poet. . . . 1552. . .1637 

Chiaramonti, Scipione, Ital. astronomer 1565. . 1652 

75 



CHIARI— CHRISTIAN 



BORN. DIED. 

Chiari, Giuseppe, Ital. historical painter 1651. . .1727 

Chichele, Henry, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of Canter- 
bury ? 1362... 144a 

Checkering, Jonas, Am. piano-forte manufacturer. . . . 1798. . .185$ 

Chifflet, Jean Jacques, Fr. physician and writer 1588. . .166a 

Child 9 Sir Josiah, Eng. merchant and political econo- 
mist < . . 1630 . . . 1699 

Child, Lydia Maria, nee Francis, Am. philanthropist 

and authoress 1802. . .1880 

Childebert I., king of the Franks ?495... 558 

Childebrand, prince of the Franks and companion of 

Charles Martel in the crusade against the Saracens., fl. 737 

Childeric I., king of the Franks ?436... 481 

Children, John George, Eng. chemist and electrician. 1777... 1852 

Childs, George W., Am. editor and publisher 1829 

Chillingworth, William, Eng. theologian ? 1602. . .1644 

Chilperic I. , king of the Franks 539... 584 

Chimay , de, Jean Marie Ignace Therese, Princess, nee 
Cabarrus, wife of Tallien. Fr. beauty and leader of 

fashion ? 1775... 1835 

Chinchon, Countess of, wife of the Spanish viceroy of 

Peru. Introduced Peruvian bark into Spain fl. 1632 

Chipman, Nathaniel, Am. jurist 1752. . .1843 

Chirac, Pierre, Fr. physician 1650. . .1732 

Chisholm, Mrs. Caroline, nee Jones, Eng. philanthro- 
pist 1810 

Chitty, Joseph, Eng. jurist 1776. ..1841 

Chladni, Ernst Florens Friedrich, Ger. physicist 1756. . .1827 

Chlopicki, Jdzef , Polish general and dictator 1772. . .1854 

Chmielnicki, Bogdan, Cossack chief 1593. . .1657 

Choate, Rufus, Am. advocate and jurist 1799 . . . 1859 

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nikolaus, Ger. artist 1726. . .1801 

Chodzko, Jakob Leonard, Polish historian 1800 

Choiseul, de, Etienne Frangois, Due, Fr. statesman.. 1719... 1785 
Choiseul -Go u flier, Marie Gabriel Florent Auguste, 

Count, Fr. traveler and author 1752. . .1817 

Choisy , de, Frangois Timoleon, Abbe", Fr. author 1644. . .1724 

Chopin, Frederic Frangois, Polish pianist and musical 

composer 1810 . . . 1849 

Choris, Louis, Russ. painter 1795.. .1828 

Chorley, Henry Fothergill, Eng. musician 1808. . .1872. 

Choron, Alexander Etienne, Fr. writer on music 1771. . .1834 

Chouan (real name Cotlereau), Jean, chief of the 

French royalist insurgents during the Revolution.. . 1757. . .1794 
Chouet, Jean Robert, professor of philosophy in Geneva 1642. . .1731 
Chouteau, Auguste (born 1739, died 1829), and Pierre 
(born ? 1749, died 1849), brothers. Founders of the 
city of St. Louis, Mo. 
Chre"tien or Chrestieu, Florent, Fr. poet and writer. . 1541.. .1596> 

Chretien (or Chrestien) de Troyes, Fr. poet ?1150..?120G 

Christian, or Christiern I., king of Denmark. 

(1418-1481) ?1425...148L 

76 



CHRISTIAN— CINQ MARS 



BORN. DIED. 

Christian, or Christiern II. (1513-1523) 1481. . .1559 

Christian, or Christiern IV. (1588-1648) 1577. . .1648 

Christian, or Christiern VII. (1766-1808) 1749. . .1808 

Christian, or Christiern VIII. (1839-1848) 1786... 1848 

Christian, or Christiern IX 1818... .... 

Christina, queen of Sweden. Daughter of Gustavus 

Adolphus 1626... 1689 

Christine de Pisan, Ital. poetess in France ? 1363..? 1431 

Christison, Robert, Scot, physician ? 1798 

Christmas, or IVoel-Fearn, Henry, Eng. clergyman.. 1811... 1868 

Christophe, Henri, Negro king of Hayti 1767 . . .1820 

Christopulus, Athanasius, Greek poet 1772. . .1847 

Chrysoloras, Manuel, reviver of Greek in Italy ? 1355. . .1415 

Chrysostom, John, Greek father of the church. Born 

at Antiochin Syria... ... , 347... 407 

Chubb, Thomas, Eng. theological writer 1679. . .1746 

Church, Benjamin, Am. officer in King Philip's War. . 1639. . .1718 

Church, Frederick Edwin, Am. landscape painter 1826 

Churchill, Charles, Eng. poet and satirist 1731. . .1764 

Churchill, John, Duke of Marlborough. 1650. . .1722 

Churchill, Lord Randolph Henry, Eng. statesman and 

chancellor of the exchequer 1886 1849 

Churruca y Elorza, de, Cosme Damian, Span, ad- 
miral 1761 . . . 1805 

Cialclini, Enrico, Ital. general ? 1811 

Ciampini, Giovanni Giustino, Ital. antiq. and historian 1633.. .1698 

Ciampoli, Giovanni Battista, Ital. lyric poet 1589. . .1643 

Cibber, Colley, Eng. dramatic author and actor 1671. . .1757 

Cibrario, Luigi, Ital. historian and jurist 1802. . .1870 

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Roman orator B. C. 106. . . 43 

Cicogna, Pasquale, Venetian doge 1595 

Cicognara, da, Leopoldo, Count, Ital. writer on art. 

[History of Modem Sculpture.] 1767 . . .1834 

Cid, or Cid Campeador— that is, Lord Champion (real 
name Ruy, or Rodrigo Diaz), a famous Castilian 

hero ....? 1040... 1099 

Cienfuegos, de, Nicasio Alvarez, Span, poet 1764. . .1809 

Cignani, Carlo, Ital. painter 1628. . .1719 

Cignaroli , Giovanni Bettino, Ital. painter. 1706. . .1772 

Cigoli, da, or Civoli, Ludovico Cardi, Florentine 

painter 1559.. .1613 

Cilley, Joseph, United States Senator from New 

Hampshire 1791... 1887 

Cimabue, Giovanni. Father of Modern Painting. Flor- 
entine painter ? 1240..? 1302 

Cimarosa, Domenico, Neapolitan musical composer.. . 1749. . .1801 

Cimon, Athenian commander. B. C. 510. . . 449 

Cincinnato, Romulo, Florentine painter ? 1525. . .1600 

Cincinnatus, Lucius Quintius, Roman dictator. .B. C. ? 520...? 439 

Cino da Fistoja, Ital. jurist and poet 1270..? 1337 

Cinq Mars, de, Henri Comer de Ruze\ Marquis, Fr. 

conspirator 1620... 1642 

11 



CIPRIANI— CLARKE 



BORN. DIED. 

Cipriani, Giovanni Battista, Ital. painter ? 1727. . .1785- 

Cirillo, Domenico, Ital. botanist and physician 1734. . .1799 

Cissey, de, Ernest Louis Octave Conrtot, Fr. soldier 

and politician. Minister of war 1812 

Cittadini, Pietro Francesco. II Milanese. Ital. painter.? 1613. . .1681 

Civiale, Jean, Fr. physician and writer 1792. . .1867 

Chilis, Claudius, leader of the Batavi fl. 70 

Civitali, Matteo, Ital. sculptor and architect 1435..? 1501 

Claflin, Horace B., Am. merchant 1811. ..1885 

Claflin, William, governor of Massachusetts 1869-1871. 1818 

C I a ir au t , Alexis Claude, Fr. mathematician 1713 . . . 176& 

Ciairon, Claire Josephe Hippolyte de Latude, Fr. 

actress 1723. . .1803 

Clairville, Louis Francois Nicolaie, Fr. dramatic 

writer 1811 

C 1 ajus, Johann. Clai. Ger. clergyman 1533 . . . 1592 

Clapisson, Louis, Fr. composer 1808. . .1866 

Clapperton, Captain Hugh, Scot, traveler in Africa. . . 1788. . .1827 
Clarac, Charles Othon Fre*deric Jean Baptiste, Count, 

Fr. antiquary 1777... 1847 

Clare, John, Northamptonshire peasant and poet 1793. . .1864 

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, first Earl of, lord chancel- 
lor of England and historian 1608. . .1674 

Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, fourth 

Earl of, Eng. statesman 1800.. .1870- 

Clarendon, Henry Hyde, second Earl of, lord-lieuten- 
ant of Ireland 1638... 1709 

Claridge, Richard, Eng. Quaker minister and author. 1649... 172a 

Clark, Alvan, Am. optician 1804. ..1887 

Clark, Eliphalet, Am. homceopathist 1801. . .1883 

Clark, Sir James, Brit, physician 1788. . .1870 

Clark, Lewis Gaylord, Am. writer. Editor of the 

Knickerbocker 1810. . .1873 

Clark, Willis Gaylord. Brother of Lewis Gaylord. 

Am. journalist 1810. . .1841 

Clarke, Adam, Brit. Methodist clergyman and com- 
mentator ? 1760. . .1832 

Clarke, Edward Daniel, Eng. traveler and mineralogist 1769. . .182£ 
Clarke, George Rogers, Am. general and frontiersman 1752. . .181& 
Clarke, Henri Jacques Guillaume, Due de Feltre, mar- 
shal of France 1765. . .1818 - 

Clarke, Henry F., brevet major-general U. S. A 1821. . .1887 

Clarke, Henry Hyde, Eng. philologist and engineer. 

[Dictionary.] 1815 

Clarke, James Freeman, Am. writer and Unitarian 

minister . 1810. . .188S 

Clarke, Jeremiah, Eng. musical composer 1670. . .1707 

Clarke, John, one of the founders of Rhode Island 1609. . .1676 

Clarke, Mary Victoria Cowden, Eng. authoress 1809 

Clarke, Samuel, Eng. philosopher and metaphysician 1675... 1729 s 
Clarke, William, general, explorer, and governor of 

Louisiana Territory 1770. ..183a 

78 



CLARKSON— CLERMONT- TONNERRE 

BORN. DIED. 

Clarkson, Thomas, Eng. slavery abolitionist 1760. . .1846 

Claude, Jean, Fr. Protestant 1619. ..1687 

Claude Lorraine (real name Claude Gele*e), Ital. 

painter 1600 . . .1682 

Claudian, Claudius, last of the Latin classic poets ? 365. . .7408 

Claudius, Matthias, Ger. poet. [Rhine-wine Song-]- . . . 1743... 1815 

Claudius I., emperor of Rome B. C. 10. .A. D. 54 

Claudius II., Marcus Aurelius. GotMcus. Emperor 

of Rome 214... 270 

Clause I, Bertrand, Count, Fr. general 1772. . .1842 

Clausen, Henrik Nicolai, Danish divine and statesman 1793 

Clause witz, von, Karl, Pruss. general 1780. . .1831 

Clausius, Rudolf J. E., Ger. mathematician 1822. . .1888 

Claverhouse, John Graham of, Viscount Dundee 1643. . .1689 

Clavier, Etienne, Fr. judge and writer 1762... 1817 

Claviere, Etienne, Fr. statesman and financier 1735. . .1793 

Clavigero, FraDcisco Saverio, Mex. historian ? 1720. . .1793 

Clavijo y Faxardo, Jose\ Span, writer ? 1726... 1806 

Clavius, Christoph, Ger mathematician 1537. . .1612 

Clay, Henry, Am. orator and statesman 1777 . . .1852 

Clay borne, William, early Virginia colonist fl. 1650 

Clayton, John Middleton, Am. statesman 1796. . .1856 

Cleanthes, Greek stoic philosopher B. C. ? 300. . .? 220 

Clearchus, Lacedaemonian general B. C. . ? 400 

Cleave land, Parker, Am. mineralogist 1780. . .1858 

Cleef, van, Jan, Flemish painter 1646. ..1716 

Cleef, or Cieve, van, Joost. The Fool. Flemish 

painter ? 1485..? 1530 

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. Mark Twain. Am. hu- 
morist 1835 

Clement I., or Clemens Romanus, bishop of Rome ? 30...? 100 

Clement IV. , Guido Fulcodi, pope 1268 

Clement V. , Bertrand Garcias de Goth, pope ? 1264. . .1314 

Clement VII., Giulio de' Medici, pope ? 1475... 1534 

Clement VIII. , Tppolito Aldobrandini, pope 1605 

Clement XI., Giovanni Francesco Albani, pope ... 1649. . .1721 

Clement XIV., Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganga- 

nelli, pope 1705... 1774 

Clement, Felix, Fr. musician and composer 1822. . .1885 

Cle"ment, Francois, Fr. Benedictine author 1714. . .1793 

Clement of Alexandria, Christian father and writer 220 

Clementi, Muzio, Ital. musical composer 1752. . .1832 

Cleobulus, one of the seven sages of Greece fl. 6th c. B. C. 

Cleomedes, Greek astronomer fl. ? 2d c. A. D 

Cleomenes HI., Spartan king and reformer B. C 220 

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt B.C. 69... 30 

Clerc, Laurent, teacher of deaf mutes in France 1785. . .1869 

Clerc, Nicolas Gabriel, Fr. physician and historian 1726. . .1798 

Clerfayt, or Clairfait, de, Francois Sgbastien Charles 

Joseph de Croix, Count, Austrian general 1733. . .1798 

Clermont-Tonnerre, de, Stanislas, Comte, Fr. polit- 
ical writer 1747... 1792 

Id 



CLESINGER— CODDINGTON 



BORN. DIED. 

Clesinger, Jean Baptiste Auguste, Fr. sculptor ? 1820... 1883 

Cleveland, Charles Dexter, Am. author and scholar. . . 1802. . .1869 
Cleveland, Grover, twenty-second President of the 

United States 1837 

Cleveland, Rose Elizabeth. Sister. Am. educator and 

author 1845 

C liff b r d, Nathan, Am. jurist 1803 . . . 1881 

Climacus, Joannes. Scholastic™. Monk and author.. ?525... 605 

Clinton, De Witt, Am. statesman 1769. . .1828 

Clinton, George. Brother of James. Am. statesman 

and Vice-President of the United States 1739. . .1812 

Clinton, Sir Henry, Eng. general in America 1738. . .1795 

Clinton, Henry Fynes, Eng. writer. [Chronology of 

Rome.] 1781... 1852 

Clinton, James. Father of De Witt. Am. brigadier- 
general 1736... 1812 

Olive, Robert, first Lord, Brit, general and statesman. . 1725. . .1774 
Clootz, Jean Baptiste, Baron. Anacharsis Clootz. 

Pruss.-Fr. revolutionist 1755. . .1794 

Cloquet, Jules Germain, Baron, Fr. surgeon 1790 

Clotaire I. Son of Clovis. King of France 497. . .? 561 

Clotilda, or Clotilde, Saint. Wife of Clovis 475. . . 545 

Cloud, Saint, or Clodoald. Grandson of Clovis 560 

Clouet, Jean Francois, Fr. chemist and metallurgist. . 1751. . .1801 

Clough, Arthur Hugh, Eng. poet 1819. . .1861 

Clovis I., founder of the Frankish monarchy ?465... 511 

Clowes, William, Eng. printer 1779.. .1847 

Clugny de PVuis, Jean Etienne Bernard, Fr. comp- 
troller-general of finances 1729. . .1776 

Cluseret, Gustave Paul, Fr. brigadier-general in 

America 1823 

Cluver, Lat. Cluverius, Philipp, Ger. geographer 1580. . .1623 

Cobb, Howell, Am. politician 1815. . .1868 

Cobb, Sylvanus, Am. story-writer. [Orion the Gold- 
beater.] 1813 . . . 1887 

Cobbe, Frances Power, Eng. rationalistic writer 1822 

Cobbett, William, Eng. political writer 1762. . .1835 

Cobden, Richard, Eng. politician and economist 1804. . .1865 

Cobham, Sir John Oldcastle, Lord, Eng. martyr ? 1360. . .1417 

Coccejus, Johannes, Ger. Hebraist. Commentator.... 1603... 1669 

Cocchi, Antonio, Ital. physician 1695. . .1758 

Coccia, Carlo, Ital. musical composer 1789. . .1873 

Cochet, Jean Benoit De*sire*e, Abbe", Fr. archaeologist.. . 1812 

Cochin, Charles Nicolas, Fr. engraver and writer 1715. . .1790 

Cochran, William, Scot, artist 1738. . .1785 

Cock burn, Sir Alexander James Edmund, Eng. jurist. 1802 

Cockbur n, Sir George, Brit, admiral 1772. . .1853 

Cockburn, Henry Thomas, Lord, Scot, jurist 1779. . .1854 

Cocker, Edward, Eng. arithmetician ? 1631..? 1677 

Cockerell, Charles Robert, Eng. architect 1788. . .1863 

Codazzi, Agostino, Ital. geographer in Venezuela 1792 

Codding ton, William, founder of Rhode Island 1601. . .1678 

80 



CODRINGTON— COLLINS 



BORN. DIED. 

Codrington, Sir Edward, Eng. vice-admiral 1770. . .1851 

Codrington, Sir William John. Son. Eng. general. . . 1800 

Coehoorn, van, Menno, Baron, Dutch engineer ? 1641... 1704 

Coello, Claudio, Span, painter 1621. . .1693 

Cceur, Jacques, Fr. financier and merchant ? 1400. . .1456 

Coeur de Lion. See Richard 1 1157.. .1199 

Coffin, Charles, Fr. poet 1676. . .1749 

Coffin, John, Sir Isaac, Eng. admiral 1759. . .1839 

Cogalniceano, Michael, Roumanian historian 1806 

€ oghetti, Francesco, Ital. painter . 1804 

Cogniard, Theodore, Fr. playwright. 1806. . .1872 

Coigny, de, Frangois de Franquetot, Due, Fr. marshal 1670. ..1759 

Coit, Thomas Winthrop, Am. theologian 1804. . .1885 

Coiter, Volcher, Dutch pathologic anatomist 1534. . .1576 

Cokaine, Sir Aston, Eng. royalist and doggerel poet. . . 1608. . .1684 

Coke, Sir Edward, lord chief-justice of England 1549. . .1634 

Coke, Thomas, first bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church 1747. . . 1814 

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, Marquis de Seignelay, Fr. 

financier 1619 . . .1683 

Colburn, Warren, Am. mathematician 1793. . .1833 

Col burn, Zerah, Am. mathematical prodigy 1804. . .1840 

Colby, Thomas, Eng. engineer and ordnance surveyor. 1784. . .1852 
Colden, Cadwallader, Am. physician, politician, and 

botanist 1688. . .1776 

Cole, Thomas, Eng.- Am. painter 1801. . .1848 

Colebrooke, Henry Thomas, Eng. orientalist 1765. . .1837 

Coleman, William T., California pioneer and capital- 
ist 1824 

Colenso, John William, Eng. bishop and writer 1814. . .1883 

Coleridge, Hartley. Son of S. T. C. English writer 

and poet 1796. ..1849 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, Eng. metaphysician and 

poet 1772... 1834 

Colet, John, Eng. clergyman and dean of St. Paul's — 1466. . .1519 

Co let, Louise, nee Revoil, Fr. poetess and novelist 1810. . .1876 

Colfax, Schuyler, Am. politician 1823. . .1885 

Coligni, de, or Coligny, de, Gaspard, Fr. admiral. 

Leader of the Huguenots 1517.. .1572 

Colin, Alexander, Belgian sculptor 1526. . .1612 

Colic', Charles, Fr. poet and song writer 1709. . .1783 

Colle, dal, Raffaelino, Ital. painter ? 1490. . .1530 

Collet, Philibert, Fr. writer 1643. . .1718 

Colletet, Guillaume, Fr. poet 1598. . .1659 

Colley, Sir George Pomeroy, Brit, general 1835. . .1881 

Collier, Sir George, Brit, admiral 1795 

Collier, Jeremy, Eng. theologian and writer 1650. . .1726 

Collier, John Payne, Eng. antiquary and author. 1789. . .1883 

Collin, von, Heinrich Joseph, Ger. poet 1772. . .1811 

Collingwood, Cuthbert, Lord, Eng. admiral ? 1748. . .1810 

Collini, Cosimo Alessandro, Ital. scholar 1727. . .1806 

Collins, Anthony, Eng. author and free-thinker 1676. . . 1729 

81 



COLLINS— CONDfi 



BORN. DIED. 

Collins, William, Eng. poet 1720. . .1756 

Collins, William Wilkie, Eng. novelist 1824. . .1889 

Col Jinson, Peter, Eng. botanist 1693. . .1768 

Collombet, Francois Zenon, Fr. author 1808. . .1853 

Collot d'Herbois, Jean Marie, Fr. revolutionist ? 1750. . .1796 

Colman, George. The Elder. Eng. comic dramatist. . .? 1733. . .1794= 
Coins an, George. The Younger. Son. Eng. dramatic 

poet , 1762. . .1836 

Colombo, Realdo, Ital. anatomist 1576 

Colonna, Prospero, Ital. general 1452. . .1523 

Colonna, Vittoria, Ital. poetess 1490. . .1547 

Colot, or Collot, Germain, Fr. lithotomist fl. 1480 

Colquhoun, Patrick, Scot, statistical writer 1745. . .1820 

Colquitt, Alfred Holt, Am. statesman. Son 1824 

Colquitt, Walter J., Am. lawyer. Father 1799. . .1855 

Colt, Samuel, Am. inventor. [Revolving Pistol.'] 1814. . .1862 

Coltellini, Agostino, Ital. poet 1613. . .1693 

Colton, Walter, Am. clergyman and writer 1797. . .1851 

Columba, Saint. Colum-kille. The Apostle of Cale- 
donia. Christianized Scotland 521... 597 

Columbanus, Saint, Irish monk 543. . . 615 

Columbus, Christopher (Ital. Cristoforo Colombo; 
Span. Cristoval Colon), Genoese discoverer of 

America ? 1436 . . . 1506 

Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus, Roman agri- 
cultural writer fl. 1st c. 

Columna, Fabius, Ital. botanist 1567. . .1650 

Combalot, Theodore, Fr. priest 1798. . .1873 

Combe, Andrew, Scot, physiologist 1797. . .1847 

Combe, George. Brother. Scot, phrenologist 1788... 1858 

Combes, Edmond, Fr. traveler and writer 1812. . .1872 

Comenius, John Amos. Komenski. Moravian friar 
and grammarian. Wrote the first pictorial school- 
book 1592... 1671 

Comines, de, Philippe, Fr. historian 1445. . .1509 

Commandino, Federigo, Ital. mathematician 1509. . .1575 

Commerson, Philibert, Fr. botanist 1727. . .1773 

Commodus Antoninus, Roman emperor r-. 161. . . 192 

Com n en us, famous Byzantine family (? 1050 to ? 1460). 

Comonfort, Ygnacio, president of Mexico 1812. . .1863 

Compagnoni, Giuseppe, Ital. author 1754. . .1834 

Comparetti, Andrea, Ital. naturalist and physician. . . 1746. . .1801 

Comstock, John Lee, Am. author of school-books 1789. . .1858 

Comte, Auguste, Fr. philosopher. [Positivism.'] 1798. . .1857 

Conant, Roger, early settler in Massachusetts 1593. . .1679 

Conant, Thomas Jefferson, Am. Biblical scholar 1802 

Concha, de la, Jose\ Marquis of Havana, Span, gen- 
eral 1800 

Concina, Daniele, Venetian theologian ? 1686. . .1756 

Condamine, de la, Charles Marie, Fr. traveler, geog- 
rapher, scientist, and writer 1701. . .1774 

C onde", Jose* Antonio, Span, orientalist ? 1765. . .1820 

82 



CONDfi— CONYBEARE 



BORN. DIED. 

Conde% de, Henry I. de Bourbon, Prince 1552. . .1588 

Conde*, de, Louis I. de Bourbon, Prince, Fr. general. . . 1530. . .1569 
Conde, de, Louis II. de Bourbon, Prince, Due d'En- 

ghien. The Great Conde. Fr. general 1621... 1686 

Condillac, de, Etienne Bonnot, Fr. metaphysician 1715. . .1780 

Condorcet, de, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, 

Marquis, Fr. metaphysician 1743. . .1794 

Confucius, Chinese Kuug-fu'-tse, i. e., Reverend 

Master Kung, Chinese philosopher B. C. 551 . . . 479 

Congleton. Henry Brooke Parnell, Lord, Brit, politi- 
cian 1776. ..1842 

Congreve, William, Eng. dramatic poet 1670. . .1729 

Congreve, Sir William, Eng. engineer. [Congreve 

rocket.'] 1772... 1828 

Conkling, Roscoe, Am. lawyer and senator. 1829. . .1888 

Conneau, Henri, Fr. physician ? 1802 

Conolly, John, Eng. physician 1795. . .1866 

Conrad, or Konrad I., duke of Franconia and king 

of Germany 918 

Conrad II., king of Germany and emperor of the 

Romans 1039 

Conrad III., king of Germany 1093.. .1152 

Coming, Hermann, Ger. jurist, antiquary, and philos- 
opher , 1606. ..1681 

Consalvi, Ercole, Cardinal, Roman statesman 1757. ..±824 

Conscience, Hendrik, Flem. novelist 1812. . .1883 

Considerant, Victor, Fr. socialist 1805 

Constable, Archibald, Scot, publisher 1774. . .1827 

Constable, John, Eng. landscape-painter 1776. ..1837 

Con stan s I., Flavius Julius, emperor of Rome ? 320. . . 350 

Constant de Rebecque, Henri Benjamin. Benjamin 

Constant. Fr. orator, statesman, and writer 1767. . .1830 

Constantine I. The Great. Emperor of Rome 272. . . 337 

Constantine, Nikolayevitch, grand duke of Russia 1827 

Constantine, Pavlovitch, grand duke of Russia 1779. . .1831 

Contarini, Andrea, doge of Venice ? 1300.. .1382 

Conte% Nicolas Jacques, Fr. painter and mechanician.. 1755.. .1803 
Conti, Antonio Schinella, Abbe*, Ital. poet and philos- 
opher 1677.. .1749 

Conti, de, Francois Louis de Bourbon, Prince, Fr. 

general 1664... 1709 

Contreras, de, Hieronimo, Span, poet and historian. . fl. ? 1600 

C ontucci , Andrea. Sansovino. Ital. sculptor 1460 . . . 1529 

Conway, Henry Seymour, Eng. field-marshal 1720. . .1795 

Conway, Moncure Daniel, Am. author resident in 

England 1832 

Conway, Thomas, Count de, general in the Am. revo- 
lutionary army 1733 . .? 1800 

Conybeare, William Daniel, dean of Llandaff. Eng. 

geologist 1787... 1857 

Conybeare, Rev. William John. Son. Eng. author. 

[Lifeof St.Paul.'] 1857 

83 



GO OK— CORNEILLE 



BORN. DIED. 

Cook, Eliza, Eng. poetess 1817. ..1889 

Cook, Captain James, Eng. navigator r 1728. . .1779 

Cooke, George Frederick, Eng. actor 1756. . .1812 

Cooke, John Esten, Am. novelist 1830 

C o om be, William, Eng. writer. [Dr. Syntax.} 1741 . . . 1823 

Cooper, Anthony Astley, first Earl of Shaftesbury, 

Eng. statesman 1621 . . . 1683 

Cooper, Sir Astley Paston, Eng. surgeon 1768. . .1841 

Cooper, James Fenimore, Am. novelist 1789. . .1851 

Cooper, Peter, Am. philanthropist. Founder of 

" Cooper Institute " 1791 . . . 1883 

Cooper, Samuel, Am. patriot and theologian 1725. . .1783 

Cooper, Thomas, Am. natural philosopher, politician, 

and author. 1759. . .1839 

Cooper, Thomas Sidney, Eng. animal painter 1803 

Coote, Sir Eyre, Brit, general. Commander in India. . 1726. . .1783 

Cope, Charles West, Eng. historical painter 1811 

Copernicus, Nikolaus, Polish or Pruss. astronomer... 1473... 154=3 

Copland, Scot, physician 1792.. .1870 

Copleston, Edward, bishop of Llandaff. Eng. author 1776... 1849 

Copley, John Singleton, Am. historical painter 1737. . .1815 

Coquerel, Athanase Laurent Charles, Fr. Protestant 

divine 1795. ..1868 

Coray, Adamantios, modern Greek author 1748. . .1833 

Corbaux, Fanny Doetger, Eng. miniature and water- 
color painter 1812 . . . 1883 

Corbet, Richard, Eng. poet 1582. . .1635 

Corbin, Austin, Am. capitalist and railroad manager. 1835 

Corbineau, Jean Baptiste Juvenal, Fr. general 1776. . .1848 

Corbould, Edward Henry. Son. Eng. water-color 

painter 1815 

C orboul d, Henry, Eng. artist 1787. . . 1844 

Corcoran, William W., Am. banker and philanthropist 1798. . .1888 
Cor day d'Armans, de, Mariane Charlotte, Fr. hero- 
ine. Assassinator of Marat 1768. . .1793 

Cordier, Pierre Louis Antoine, Fr. mineralogist and 

geologist 1777... 1861 

Cordova, de, Fernando Fernandez, Span, captain- 
general of Cuba 1792 

Cordova, de, Francisco Fernandez, Span, discoverer 

of Yucatan 1518 

Corelli, Arcangelo, Ital. violinist 1653. . .1713 

Corenzio, Belisario, Greek painter at Naples ? 1588. . .1643 

Coriolano, Bartolommeo, Cavaliere, Ital. engraver.. 1590... 1654 
Coriolanus, Caius (or Cneius) Marcius, Roman hero.. aft. B. C. 489 

Corliss, George H., Am. machinist and inventor 1820. . .1888 

Cormenin, de, Louis Marie de la Haie, Vicomte, Fr. 

jurist and writer. 1788. . .1868 

Cornaro, Luigi, Venetian medical writer ? 1467. . .1566 

Cornbury, Edward Hyde, lord governor of New York 1723 

Corneille, Pierre, Fr. dramatic poet 1606. . .1684 

Corneille, Thomas. Brother. Fr. dramatist 1625. . .1709 

84 



CORNELIA— GOTTA 



BORN. DIED. 

Cornelia, Roman matron. Wife of Gracchus fi. 2d c. B. C. 

Cornelia, Cornelius, Dutch painter 1562. . .1638 

Cornelius, von, Peter, Ger. painter 1787. . .1867 

Cornet, de, Mathieu Augustin, Count, Fr. statesman. . 1750.. .1832, 
Cornhert, or C oornliert, Diederik, Dutch author. . . . 1522. . .1590 

Corniani, Giovanni Battista, Count, Ital. author 1742. . .1813 

Cornu, Se"bastien Melchior, Fr. painter 1804 

Cornwallis, Charles, first Marquis and second Earl. 

Lord Cornwallis. Brit, general 1738. . .1805 

Corona, Leonardo, Ital. historical painter 1561. . .1605 

Coronado, de, Francisco Vasquez, Span, explorer of 

New Mexico ? 1510... 1542, 

Cor onelli, Marco Vincenzo, Ital. geographer ? 1650. . .1718 

Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille, Fr. landscape-painter.. 1796... 1875 

Corrado, Sebastiano, Ital. scholar 1556 

Correa de Serra, Jose* Francisco, Port, botanist and 

scholar 1750... 1823- 

Correggio, da, Antonio Allegri, Ital. painter 1494. . .1534 

Corsini, Edoardo, Ital. philosopher and antiquary 1702. . .1765 

Cortereal, Gaspar, Port, navigator ? 1501 

Cortes, or Cortez, Hernando, or Hernan, Span, con- 
queror of Mexico 1485..? 1547 

Corti, Luigi, Count, Ital . diplomat 1826. . .1888 

Corticelli, Salvadore, Ital. grammarian 1690. . .1758 

Cortona, da, Pietro Berrettini, Ital. painter ? 1596. . .1669 

Cortot, Jean Pierre, Fr. sculptor 1787. . .1843 

Corvisart-Desmarets, Jean Nicolas, Baron, Fr. med- 
ical writer 1755. ..1821 

Cor win, Thomas, Am. orator and statesman 1794. . .1865 

Coryat, Thomas, Eng. traveler and writer 1577. . .1617 

C os me, Jean Baseilhac, Fr. lithotomist 1703. . .1781 

Cosnac, de, Daniel, Fr. prelate. Archbishop of Aix. . .? 1630. . .1708 

C ossali, Pietro, Ital. mathematician 1748. . .1815 

Cosse*, de, Charles, Comte de Brissac, Fr. marshal 1505. . .1563 

Cossigny de Palma, Joseph Francois Charpentier, 

Fr. naturalist 1730 . . .1809 

Costa, Paolo, Ital. author 1771. . .183ft 

Costa-Cabral, da, Antonio Bernardo, Duke of Tho- 

mar, Port, statesman 1803 

Costanzo, di, Angelo, Neapolitan poet and historian. 1507. ..1591 
Coste*, Jean Francois, Fr. physician and medical writer 1741. . .1819 
Coste, Jean Jacques Marie Cyprien Victor, Fr. natu- 
ralist 1807 

Costello, Dudley, Brit, novelist 1803. . .1865 

Coster, or Roster, Laurens Janszoon, Dutch me- 
chanic ? 1370. ..1440 

Coster, Samuel, Dutch dramatist. ? 1580 

Coster, Joseph Francois, Fr. financier 1729. . .1813 

Cot, Pierre Auguste, Fr . painter 1837 . . . 1883 

Cotelier, Jean Baptiste, Fr. professor of Greek 1627. . .1686 

Cotes, Roger, Eng. mathematician and astronomer. . . . 1682. . .1716 

Cotta, Ton, Bernhard, Ger. geologist 1808 

85 



COTTA—CRAMEB 



BORN. DIED. 

Cotta, Johann Friedrich, Baron von Cottendorf, Ger. 

journalist 1764 . . . 1832 

Cottin, Sophie Ristaud, Fr. novelist 1773.. .1807 

Cottle, Joseph, Eng. bookseller 1770. . .1853 

Cotton, John, Puritan minister in Boston 1585. . .1652 

Cotton, Pierre, Fr. Jesuit. Confessor to Henry IV 1564. . .1626 

Cotugno, Domenico, Ital. anatomist 1736. . .1822 

Coucy, de, Robert, Fr. architect 1311 

Couder, Louis Charles Auguste, Fr. historical painter. 1790 

Coulanges, de, Philippe Emanuel, Marquis, Fr. song- 
writer 1631... 1716 

Coulomb, de, Charles Augustin, Fr. philosopher 1736..? 1806 

Coumondouro§, Alexander, Greek statesman 1812. . .1883 

Courbet, Gustave, Fr. painter.. 1819 

Courbet, Jean, Fr. admiral 1828. . .1885 

C our cell es, de, Etienne, Arminian divine and critic. 1586... 1658 
Courier de Me*re", Paul Louis, Fr. political writer....? 1773... 1825 

C our not, Antoine Augustin, Fr. mathematician 1801 

Court de Ge*belin, Antoine, Fr. author 1725. . .1784 

Courtenay, John, Irish politician and writer ? 1741. . .1816 

Courtois, Jacques. 11 Borgognone. Fr. painter in Italy 1621... 1676 
Courvoisier, Jean Joseph Antoine, Fr. politician.... 1775... 1835 

Cousin, Jean, Fr. painter ? 1500..? 1589 

Cousin, Victor, Fr. metaphysician and philosopher — 1792. . .1867 

Coustou, Guillaume, Fr. sculptor 1678. . .1746 

C oust ou, Nicolas. Brother. Fr. sculptor 1658 . . .1733 

Couthon, Georges, Fr. revolutionist 1756. . .1794 

C outo, de, Diogo, or Diego, Port, historian 1542. . .1616 

Couture, Thomas, Fr. painter 1815 

C overdale, Miles, bishop of Exeter. Eng. divine ? 1483..? 1565 

Covilhao, or Covilham, da, Joao Peres, Port, ex- 
plorer ?1450 

Cowley, Abraham, Eng. poet 1618. . .1667 

Cowper, William. Grand-nephew of Lord Chancellor 

Cowper. Eng. poet 1731. . .1800 

Cowper, William. Eng. anatomist. ICowper's glands.'] 1666... 1709 
Cowper, William, Earl, lord high chancellor of En- 
gland 1664... 1723 

Cox, Samuel Sullivan, Am. politician and diplomat. .. 1824. ..1889 

Coxcie, or Coxie, Michael, Flemish painter 1497. . .1592 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, Am. bishop and poet 1818 

Coxe, William, Eng. historian and writer of travels. . 1747. . .1828 

Coypel, Antoine, Fr. painter 1661. . .1722 

Coysevox, Antoine, Span, sculptor in France 1640. . .1720 

Cozzen s, Frederick Swartwout, Am. author 1818. . .1869 

Crabb, George, Eng. philologist. [English Synonyms.] 1778... 1854 

Crabbe, George, Eng. poet 1754... 1832 

C raig, John, Scot, reformer ? 1511. . .1600 

Craig, Sir Thomas, Scot, lawyer and antiquary. ?1540. . .1608 

Craik, Dinah Maria Mulock, Eng. authoress 1826. . .1887 

Craik, George Lillie, Eng. professor and author 1799. . .1866 

Cramer, Johann Andreas, Ger. theologian and poet. . . 1723. . .1788 

86 



GRANA OH— CR OKE 



BORN. DIED. 

Cranach, or Kranach, von, Lucas, Ger. painter and 

engraver 1472. . .1553 

Cranch, Christopher Pearse, Am. artist and poet 1813 

Cranch, William. Father. Am. jurist 1769... 1855 

Cranmer, Thomas, Eng. reformer. Archbishop of 

Canterbury 1489. . .1556 

Cranz, David, Ger. historian and Moravian missionary 1723. . .1777 

Crashaw, Richard, Eng. poet ? 1605..? 1650 

Crawford, Isabella Valaney, Canadian authoress 1829. . .1887 

Crawford, Thomas, Am. sculptor 1814. . .1857 

Crawford, William Harris, Am. statesman 1772. . .1834 

Crayey, de, Gaspard, Flemish painter 1582... 1669 

Creasy, Sir Edward Shepherd, Eng. historian 1812. . .1878 

Crebillon, de, Prosper Jolyot, Fr. dramatist 1674. . .1762 

Credi, di, Lorenzo, Ital. painter ? 1454..? 1536 

Creicliton, John, Irish soldier 1648. . .1733 

Creighton, Robert, Eng. clergyman. Composer of 

sacred music 1639 . . .1736 

Crelle, August Leopold, Ger. architect 1780. . .1855 

Cre*mienx, Isaac Adolphe, Fr. politician and advocate 1796 

Cremonini, Cesare, Ital. Aristotelian philosopher 1550. . .1631 

Cre*qui, de, Francois de Bonne, Due de Lesdiguieres, 

Marshal of France ? 1624 . . . 1687 

Crescentini, Girolamo, Ital. singer 1769. . .1846 

Crescenzi, de% Pietro, Ital. writer on agriculture 1230... 1320 

Crescimbeni, Giovanni Maria, Ital. poet and critic 1663. . .1728 

Crespi, Giuseppe Maria. 11 Spagnuolo. Bolognese 

painter 1665... 1747 

Crenze* de Lesser, Auguste Francois, Baron, Fr. 

dramatist and poet 1771. . .1839 

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich, Ger. antiquary and philol- 
ogist 1771.. .1858 

Creveccenr, de, Hector Saint- Joan, Fr. agriculturist. 1735... 1813 
Crichton, James. The Admirable Crichton. A Scot. 

prodigy of learning and accomplishments 1560. . .1583 

Crillon, de, Louis des Balbes de Berton, Fr. general.. 1541... 1615 

Crispi, Giovanni, Ital. statesman 1819 

Crittenden, Alonzo, Am. educator 1800. . .1883 

Crittenden, John Jordan, Am. statesman 1786. . .1863 

Crockett, David, Am. backwoodsman 1786. . .1836 

Croesus, king of Lydia fl. 560 B. C 

Croghan, George, inspector-general of the United 

States army 1791... 1849 

Croker, John Wilson, Brit, statesman and author 1780. . .1857 

Croker, Thomas Crofton, Irish author 1798. . .1854 

Croly, George, Irish author. [Salathiel.'] 1780 . . . 1860 

Cr oly , Mrs. J. C, Am. author. Jennie, June 1840 

Cromwell, Oliver, lord protector of the English com- 
monwealth 1599. . .1658 

Cromwell , Richard. Son of Oliver Cromwell 1626. . .1712 

Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex, Eng. statesman 1540 

Crooke, Philip S., Am. soldier and lawyer ... 1810. . .1881 

81 



CROPSEY—CUYP 



BORN. DIED* 

Cropsey, Jasper Frank, Am. artist 1823. 

Crosby, Alpheus, Am. educationist. {Greek Grammar.] 1810 

Crosby, Howard, Am. clergyman and Greek scholar. . 1826 

Crosse, Andrew, Eng. electrician 1784. . .1855 

Cruden, Alexander, Scot, author of a Concordance 

to the Bible 1701. . .1770 

Cruger, John, colonial mayor of New York city 1710. . .1792 

Cruikshank, George, Eng. humorous artist 1792. . .1878 

Cruik shank, or Cruickshanks, William, Scot. 

anatomist 174=5. . .1800 

Cmsenstolpe, Magnus Jacob, Swed. author 1795. . .1865 

Crusins, Christian August, Ger. theologian 1715. . .1775 

Cruz, da, Agostinho, Port, poet and monk 1540. . .1619 

Cruz, de la, Juan, Span. Carmelite friar and writer.. . 1542. . .1591 

Cruz, de la, Juana In6s, Mexican poetess .... 1651. . .1695 

Csokonai, Vit^z Mihaly, Hungarian poet 1773. . .1805 

Csoma de Koros, S&ndor, Hungarian scholar and 

traveler 1790. . .1842 

Cubitt, Sir William, Eng. civil engineer 1785 . . . 1861 

Cud worth, Ralph, Eng. Arminian divine and philos- 
opher 1617... 1688 

Cujas, Jacques, Fr. jurist 1520. ..1590 

Cullen, Paul, Irish cardinal. Archbishop of Dublin.. . 1803. . .187& 

Cullen, William, Scot, medical writer 1712. . . 1790* 

Culpepper, Thomas, Lord, governor of Virginia 1719 

Cumberland, Richard, Eng. moral philosopher 1632. . .1718 

Cumberland, Richard. Great-grandson. Eng. dram- 
atist 1732... 1811 

Cumming, John, Brit, clergyman 1810. . .1881. 

Cumming, Roualeyn George Gordon, Scot, traveler in 

Africa 1820... 1866 

Cummins, Maria S., Am. novelist 1827. . .1866 

Cunningham, Allan, Scot, author and critic 1785. . .1842 

Cunningham, John, Irish poet 1729. . .1773 

Curaudau, Francois Rene", Fr. chemist and inventor. . 1765. . .1813 

Cur ran, John Philpot, Irish orator and statesman 1750. . .1817 

Currie, James, Scot, physician and scholar 1756. . .1805 

Curry, Daniel, Am. Methodist minister and editor. . . . 1808. . .1887 

Curtis, George William, Am. author 1824 

Cur tius, Ernst, Ger. archaeologist and historian 1814 

Cur tius, Georg. Brother. Ger. philologist i820. . .1885 

Curtius, Marcus, legendary Roman hero fl. 4th c. B. C. 

Cushing, Caleb, Am. politician, orator, and jurist 1800. . .1879 

Cushnian, Charlotte Saunders, Am. actress 1816. . .1876 

Cushman, Robert, one of the founders of Plymouth 

colony ? 1580. . . 1625 

Custine, de, Adam Philippe, Count, Fr. general 1740. . .1793 

Cuthbert, Saint, Eng. monk. Bishop of Durham 687 

Cuvier, Frederic. Brother. Fr . naturalist 1773 . . . 1838 

Cuvier, Georges Chretien Leopold Frederic Dagobert, 

Baron, Fr. naturalist 1769. . .1832 

Cuyp, or Huyp, Albert, Dutch painter 1605. . .1683 

88 



CYPRIAN— BALE YMPLE 



BORN. DIED. 

Cyprian, Saint, Latin father. Bishop of Carthage — ? 200. . . 258 

Cyril, Saint, bishop of Alexandria ? 376. . . 444 

Cyril, Saint, bishop of Jerusalem ? 315. . . 386 

Cyrus. The Elder, or The Great. King of Persia. .B. C 529 

Czajo wski, Michael, Polish novelist 1808 

Czartoryski, Adam Jerzy, Prince, Polish statesman. . 1770. . .1861 
Czermak, Johann Nepomuk, Bohemian physiologist. . 1828. . .1873 

Czerny , George. Kara George. Servian leader ? 1770. . .1817 

Czerny, Karl, Austrian composer 1791. . .1857 

Czuczor, Gergely, Hungarian writer 1800. . .1866 



Daboll, Nathan, Am. teacher and mathematician ? 1750. . .1818 

Dacier, Andre*, Fr. scholar 1651. . .1722- 

Dacier, Anne Tenneguy-Lefevre. Mme. Dacier. Wife. 

Fr. Greek scholar 1654. . .1720- 

Da Costa, Izaak, Dutch poet 1798. ..I860 

Dael, van, Jan Frans, Belgian painter 1764. . .1840 

Da en dels, Herman Willem, Dutch general 1762. . .1818 

Da Gama, Vasco. See Gania, da 71450...1524 

D' Agincourt, Jean Baptiste Louis George Seroux, Fr. 

archaeologist 1730. . .1814 

Dagobert I., king of the Franks 600...?638 

Da guerre, Louis Jacques Mande\ Fr. inventor. [Da- 

guerreotype.'] 1789. . .1851 

Dahl, Johann Kristen Clausen, Norwegian landscape 

painter 1788... 1857 

Dahl, Mikael, Swed. portrait painter 1656. . .1743 

Dahl, Vladimir Ivanovitch. Kosdk Isuganski. Russ. 

novelist , ? 1802... 1872 

Dalilberg, Eric, Swed. engineer and general 1625. . .1703 1 

Dahl bom, Anders Gustaf , Swed. entomologist 1806. . .1859 

Dahlgren, John Adolf, Am. rear-admiral 1809. . .1870 

Dahlgren, Karl Johan, Swed. poet and novelist 1791. . .1844 

Dahlmann, Fried rich Christoph, Ger. historian 1785. . .1860 

Daille, Jean, Fr. Protestant divine 1594. . .1670* 

Dalayrac, Nicolas, Fr. musical composer 1753. . .1809 

Dalberg, von, Karl Theodor Anton Maria, arch-chan- 
cellor of the German Empire and author 1744. . .1817 

Dale, Richard, Am. commodore 1756. . .1826 

Dale, Sir Thomas, Eng. colonial governor of Virginia 1620 

Dalechamps, Jacques, Fr. physician and botanist 1513. . .1588 

Dalgarno, George, of Aberdeen, Brit, philologist ? 1627. . .1687 

Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, first Mar- 
quis of, Brit, statesman. Governor-general of India 1812. . .1860 

Dalin, von, Olof, Swed. historian and poet 1708. . .1763 

Dallas, Alexander James, Am. statesman 1759. . .1817 

Dallas, George Mifflin. Son. Vice-President of the 

United States 1792. . .1864 

Dair Ongaro, Francesco, Ital. poet 1808. . .1873 

Dalrymple, Sir David, Lord Hailes. Great-grandson of 

first Viscount Stair. Scot, judge and historian 1726. . .1792 

89 



DALE YMPLE— DARIUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Dalrymple, James, first Viscount Stair, Scot, jurist. . . 1619. . .1695 

Dalton, John, Eng. chemist and meteorologist 1766. . .1844 

Dalton, John Call, Am. physiologist 1825 

Dalzell. Andrew, professor of Greek in Edinburgh 

University ? 1750... 1806 

Damas, Francois Etienne, Fr. general 1764. . .1828 

Damascene, John. John of Damascus. Chrysorrhoas 
(gold-pouring). Christian saint. Governor of Da- 
mascus ?700...?760 

Damiani, Pietro, Ital. cardinal and writer ? 988 . . . 1072 

Damiens, Robert Francois, Fr. regicide 1714. . .1757 

D amir on, Jean Philibert, Fr. eclectic philosopher 1794. . .1862 

Damja hics, Janos, Hungarian general 1804. . .1849 

Dampier, William, Eng. navigator ? 1652..? 1712 

Dampierre, de, Auguste Henri Mari Picot, Marquis, 

Fr. general 1756 . . . 1793 

Danirosch, Leopold, Am. musical conductor 1885 

Damrosch, Walter. Son. Am. musical conductor .. . 1853 

Dana, Charles Anderson, Am. editor. [New York Sun.] 1819 

Dana, Francis, Am. jurist 1743. . .1811 

Dana, James Dwight, Am. geologist and mineralogist. 1813 

Dana, Richard Henry, Am. poet and essayist 1787. . .1879 

Dana, Richard Henry, Jr., Am. lawyer and author 1815 

Dana, Samuel Luther, Am. chemise 1795. . .1868 

Danby, Francis, Brit, landscape-painter 1793. . .1861 

Dancourt, Florent Carton, Fr. comedian 1661. . .1725 

Dandini, Pietro, Ital. painter 1647. . .1712 

Dandolo, Enrico, blind doge of Venice ? 1100..? 1205 

Dandolo, Vincenzo, Count, Ital. chemist 1758... 1819 

Dane, Nathan, Am. jurist and statesman 1752. . .1835 

Danicnn, Francois Andre". Philidor. Fr. composer 

and chess-player ? 1727. . .1795 

Daniel, Gabriel, Fr. Jesuit and author 1649. . .1728 

Daniel, Hermann Adalbert, Ger. theologian and geog- 
rapher 1812. . .1872 

Daniel, Samuel, Eng. poet and historian 1562. . .1619 

Daniele, Francesco, Neapolitan antiquary 1740. . .1812 

Daniell, John, Frederick, Eng. physicist 1790. . .1845 

Daniell, William, Eng. landscape-painter 1769. . .1837 

JDannecker, Johann Heinrich, Ger. sculptor 1758. . .1841 

Dantau , Jean Pierre, Fr. sculptor 1800. . .1869 

Dante (contracted from Durante) degli Alighieri, 

Ital. poet 1265... 1321 

Danton, Georges Jacques, Fr. revolutionist. 1759. . .1794 

Dantz, or Danz, Johann Andreas, Ger. orientalist at 

Jena 1654 . . . 1727 

Daran, Jacques, Fr. surgeon. [Bougie.] 1701. . .1784 

D'Arblay, Madame. Frances Burney. Eng. novelist. . 1752... 1840 

Darboy, Georges, archbishop of Paris 1813. . .1871 

Darcet, Jean, Fr. physician and chemist ? 1727. . .1801 

Daries, Joachim Georg, Ger. philosopher and jurist. . . 1714. . .1791 

Darius Hystaspis I., king of Persia B. C 485 

90 



DARLEY— DAVIS 



BORN. DIED. 

Darley, Felix O. C, Am. artist 1822. . .1888 

Darling, Grace, of Fame Islands, Eng. heroine 1815. . .1842 

Darling, William, Am. anatomist and anthor 1802. . .1884 

Darnley, Henry Stuart, Lord, husband of Mary, Queen 

of Scots 1546 . . . 1567 

Dartmouth, George Legge, first Lord, Eng. admiral... 1648... 1691 
Daru, Pierre Antoine Noel Bruno, Fr. statesman and 

writer 1767. . .1829 

Darwin, Charles Robert. Grandson of Erasmus. Eng. 

naturalist 1809 

Darwin, Erasmus, Eng. physiologist and poet 1731. . .1802 

Dasent, George Webbe, Eng. writer ? 1818 

Dashkoflf, Yekaterina Romanovna, Russ. princess 1744. . .1810 

Dathe, Johann August, Ger. orientalist and theologian 1731. . .1791 

Dati, Carlo Roberto, Ital. philologist 1619. . .1676 

Daub, Karl, Ger. theologian and professor 1765. . .1836 

Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie, Fr. naturalist 1716. . .1800 

Daubeny, Charles Giles Bridle, Eng. physicist and 

chemist 1795. . .1867 

D'Aubigne*. See Aubigne", d', and Merle D' Aubigne*. 

Daubigny, Charles Francois, Fr. painter 1817 

Daudin, Francois Marie, Fr. naturalist ? 1774. . .1804 

Daumas, Melchior Joseph Eugene, Fr. general and 

writer 1803... 1871 

Daumer, Georg Friedrich, Ger. speculative philosopher 1800 

Daumesnil, Pierre, Fr. general 1777. . .1832 

Daun, von, Leopold Joseph Maria, Count, Austrian 

field-marshal 1705. ..1766 

Daunou, Pierre Claude Francois, Fr. political writer.. . 1761. . .1840 
Davanzati-Bostichi, Bernardo, Florentine author... 1529... 1606 

Davenan t, Sir William, Eng. dramatist 1605 . . . 1668 

Davenport, Edward L., Am. actor 1816. . .1877 

Davenport, Ira, Am. legislator 1841 

Davenport, John, Puritan divine at New Haven, 

Conn 1597... 1670 

David, Saint, patron of Wales ?490... 544 

David, Felicien C6sar, Fr. musical composer 1810. . .1876 

David, Jacques Louis, Fr. painter 1748. . .1825 

David, Pierre Jean. David d'Angers. Fr. sculptor 1789. . .1856 

Davidson, Lucretia Maria, Am. poetess 1808. . .1825 

Davidson, Margaret Miller. Sister. Am. poetess 1823. . .1837 

Daviel, Jacques, Fr. oculist 1696 . . . 1762 

Davies, Charles, Am. mathematician 1798. . .1876 

Daviess, Joseph Hamilton. Jo Daviess. Am. lawyer. . 1774. . .1811 

Davila, Enrico Caterino, Ital. historian 1576. . .1631 

Davis, Cushman K., Am. lawyer and senator 1836 

Davis, Henry Winter, Am. politician 1817. . .1865 

Davis, Jefferson, president of the " Confederate States 

of America " 1808 . . . 1889 

Davis, John. Honest John Davis. Am. statesman 1787... 1854 

Davis, John, Eng. navigator. [Davis Strait.'] 1605 

Davis, Joseph Barnard, Eng. scientist 1S20 . .1881 

91 



DA VOUT—DELESSEBT 



BOEN. DIED. 

Davout, Louis Nicolas, Duke of Auerstadt and Prince 

of Eckmtihl, marshal of France 1770. . .1823 

Davy, Sir Humphry, Eng chemist 1778.. .182£ 

Dawes, Richard, Eng. critic and Greek scholar 1708. . .1766 

Da wis o n , Bogumil, Polish actor 1818. . .1872, 

Dawson, John William, Canadian geologist and natu- 
ralist 1820 

Day, Jeremiah, Am. mathematician. President of 

Yale College 1773 . . . 1867 

Day, Stephen, first printer in New England 1611. . .1668 

Day, Thomas, Eng. philanthropist and author 1748. . .1789* 

Dayton, William Lewis, Am. statesman 1807. . .1864 

Deak, Ferencz, Hungarian statesman and orator 1803... 1876; 

Deane, Silas, Am. diplomatist 1737. . .1789 

Dearborn, Henry, Am. general 1751... 1829 

Decamps, Alexandre Gabriel, Fr. painter :. . 1803. . .1860 

Decatur, Stephen, Am. naval officer 1751 . . .180& 

Decatur, Stephen, Jr. Son. Am. commodore 1779. . .1820 

Decazes, Elie*, Duke, Fr.statesman 1780. . .1860 

Decazes, Louis Charles Elie" Amanien, Duke, Fr. Or- 

leanist statesman. Son 1819. . .1886 

Decembrio, Pietro Candido, Ital. writer 1399. . .14=77 

Dee, John, Eng. astrologer 1527. . .1608 

Deffand, du, Marie de Vichy Chamroud, Marquise.... 1697... 1780 
De Foe, or Defoe, Daniel, Eng. author. [Robinson 

Crusoe.] ? 1661. ..1731 

De Forest, John William, Am. author 1826 

De Grey and Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Rob- 
inson, Earl, Brit, statesman 1827 

De Haas, Maurice F. H., Dutch marine painter in New 

York ?1830 

Dejean, Pierre Francois Marie Auguste, Fr. entomol- 
ogist 1780. ..1845 

Dejoux, Claude, Fr. sculptor 1731. . .1816 

De Kalb, John Baron, Ger. general in America 1721. . .1780 

De Ray, James E., Am. naturalist 1792... 1851 

Deken, Agatha, Dutch authoress 1741. . .1804 

Dekker, de, or Van Decker, Jeremias, Dutch poet..? 1610... 1666 

De la Beche, Sir Henry Thomas, Eng. geologist 1796... 1855 

Delacroix, Ferdinand Victor Eugene, Fr. painter 1799. . .1863 

Delalande, Pierre Antoine, Fr. naturalist and traveler 1787. . .1823 

Delambre, Jean Baptiste Joseph, Fr. astronomer 1749. . .1822 

Delano, Captain Amasa, Am. traveler 1763. . .1823 

De la R ame% Louisa. Owida. Eng. novelist ? 1840 

De la Rive, Auguste, Genevese natural philosopher.. 1801... 1873 
Delaroche, Paul, or Hyppolyte, Fr. historical painter. 1797.. .1856 

Delaunay, Charles Eugene, Fr. astronomer 1816. . .1872 

Delavigne, Jean Francois Casimir, Fr. poet 1793. . .1843 

Delaware, Thomas West, Lord, governor of Virginia 1618 

Delbr iick, Martin Friedrich Rudolph, Pruss. statesman 1817 

Delescluze, Louis Charles, Fr. revolutionist 1809. . .1871 

Delessert, Benjamin, Fr. financier and naturalist 1773. . .1847 

92 



DELFICO—DERMOD Y 



BORN. DIED. 

Delfico, Melchior, Neapolitan political economist 1744. . .1836 

Delille, Jacques, Fr. poet 1738. . .1813 

Deliniers, Jacques Antoine Marie, viceroy of Buenos 

Ayres 1756.. .1810 

Del isl e, Guillaume, Fr. geographer 1675 . . .1726 

De lisle, Joseph Nicolas, Fr. astronomer 1688. . .1768 

Delitzsch, Franz, Ger. theologian 1813. . .1890 

Delnias, Antoine Guillaume, Fr. general , 1768. . .1813 

Delolme, Jean Louis, Swiss political writer 1740. . .1806 

De Long, George Washington, Am. naval officer. 

[Jeannette Expedition.] 1844 . . .1881 

Delorme, Marion, Fr. beauty and courtesan ? 1612. . .1650 

D el or me, Philihert, Fr. architect ? 1518. . .1577 

Delpech, Jacques Mathieu, Fr. surgeon and writer ? 1775. . .1832 

D e I uc , Jean Andre", Genevese physicist 1727 . . . 1817 

Del vine ourt, Claude Etienne, Fr. jurist 1762. . .1831 

D embinski, Henryk, Polish general 1791. . .1864 

Demetrius Phalerius, Attic orator B. C. ? 345. . .? 283 

Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Macedonia B. C. ? 338. . .? 282 

D emetz, Fr6d6ric Auguste, Fr. philanthropist 1796. . .1873 

Demi doff*, Nikolai, Count, Russ. counselor and scholar 1774. . .1828 
Demme, Hermann Christoph Gottfried. Karl Stille. 

Ger. novelist 1760... 1822 

Democritus. The Laughvng Philosopher. Greek phi- 
losopher B.C. ?460...?361 

Demoivre, Abraham, Fr. mathematician 1667. . .1754= 

De Morgan, Augustus, Eng. mathematician 1806. . .1871 

Demosthenes, Athenian orator B. C. ? 385. . . 322 

Denham, Dixon, Eng. traveler 1786. . .1828 

Denham, Sir John, Eng. poet 1615. . .1668 

D eu ina , Giacomo Maria Carlo, Ital. historian 1731 . . .1813 

Denis, or Denys, Saint, first bishop of Paris. Patron 

saint of the French 272 

Denman, Thomas, Lord, lord chief -justice of England 1779. . .1854= 

Dennis, John, Eng. writer 1657. . .1734 

Denon, Dominique Vivant, Baron, Fr. archaeologist... 1747. ..1825 

Deparcieux, Antoine, Fr. mathematician 1703. . .1825 

De Pauw, Washington C, Am. manufacturer and 

philanthropist 1822... 1887 

D eper thes, J ean Baptiste, Fr. writer on art 1761 . . . 1833 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell, Am. railroad manager 

and financier 1834 

De Peyster, Abraham, acting governor of New York. 1658.. .1728 

Depping, Georges Bernard, Fr. author 1784. . .1853 

Depretis, Augustin, Ital. orator and statesman 1810. . .1887 

De Quincey, Thomas, Eng. author 1785. . .1859 

Derby, Edward Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, fourteenth 

Earl of, prime-minister of England 1799. . .1869 

Derby, Edward Henry Smith-Stanley, fifteenth Earl 

of. Son. Eng. statesman 1826 

Derham, William, Eng. philosopher and divine 1657. . .1735 

Dermody, Thomas, Irish poet 1775. ..1802 

93 



DERZHA YIN— DEXTER 



BORN. DIED. 

Derzhavin, Gavriil Romanovitch, Russ. poet and 

statesman 1743. . .1816 

Desaguliers, John Theophilus, Fr. physicist 1683. . .1744 

Desaix de Veygoux, Louis Charles Antoine (called 

Desaix), Fr. general 1768. . .1800 

De'saugiers, Marc Antoine Madeleine, Fr. song- writer 1772... 1827 

Desauit, Pierre Joseph, Fr. writer on surgery 1744. . .1795 

Des Barres, Joseph Frederick Wallet, Eng. hydrog- 

rapher 1722. ..1824 

Descartes, Rene", Fr. philosopher 1596. . .1650 

Desfontaines, Rene" Louiche, Fr. botanist and traveler 1751. . .1833 

Deshoulieres, Madame Antoinette, Fr. poetess ? 1634. . .1694 

Desjardi ns, Jean, Fr. physician 1549 

Desmarres, Louis Auguste, Fr. oculist 1810 

De Smet, Peter John, Am. Jesuit missionary to the 

Indians 1801... 1873 

Desmoulins, Benoit Camille, Fr. revolutionist 1762. . .1794 

Desnoyers, Auguste Gaspard Louis Boucher, Baron, 

Fr. engraver 1779. . .1857 

Desor, Edward, Swiss naturalist 1811 

De Soto, Bernardo, president of Costa Rica 1887 1854 

De Soto, Fernando, Span, explorer. Discoverer of 

the Mississippi River ? 1496... 1542 

Desport, Frangois, Fr. surgeon ., ? 1700..? 1760 

Desportes, Philippe, Fr. poet ? 1545. . .1606 

Despres, Josquin, Flemish musician ? 1450..? 1530 

Dessaix, Joseph Marie. L'lntrepide. Fr. soldier 1764... 1834 

Dessa lines, Jean Jacques, Negro emperor of Hayti. . . .? 1760. . .1806 

Dessaulx, Louis Philippe, Fr. statesman 1798. . .1881 

Dessolles, Jean Joseph Paul Augustin, Marquis, Fr. 

general 1767... 1828 

Destouches, Philippe Nericault, Fr. dramatist 1680. . .1754 

Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude, Count de 

Tracy, Fr. philosopher 1754. . .1836 

Deutsch, Emanuel Oscar, Gter. Hebraist 1831. . .1873 

Devaux, Jean, Fr. surgeon 1649. ..1729 

Develin, John E., Am. lawyer 1821. ..1888 

De Vere, Maximilian Scheie, Am. author 1820 

Deville, Charles^Sainte- Claire, Fr. geologist 1814. . .1876 

Deville, Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire. Brother. Fr. 

chemist 1818 

Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess of, Eng. beauty 1757. . .1806 

Devrient, Gustav Emil, Ger. actor 1803. . .1872 

Devrient, Ludwig. Uncle. Ger. actor 1784 . . .1832 

De Wette, Wilhelm Martin Lebrecht. Ger. theolo- 
gian 1780... 1849 

Dewey, Chester, Am. naturalist 1784. . .1867 

Dewey, Orville, Am. clergyman 1794 

De Witt, Jan, eminent Dutch statesman 1625. . .1672; 

Dewsbury, William, Eng. preacher of the Society of 

Friends ? 1620... 1688 

Dexter, Samuel, Am. statesman 1761. . .1816 

94 






DEXTER— DIO CLETIAN 



BORN. DEED. 

Dexter, Timothy. " Lord Timothy." Eccentric Am.. 1747... 1806 
Dias, Bartholomeu, Port, navigator. Discoverer Cape 

of Good Hope 1500 

Diaz , Porfirio, Mexican soldier ? 1830 

Dibdin. Charles, Eng, naval song-writer 1745. . .1814 

Dibdin, Thomas Frognall. Nephew. Eng. bibliographer 1776... 1847 

Dick, Thomas, Scot, author 1772.. .1857 

Dickens, Charles, Eng. novelist 1812. . .1870 

Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth, Am. lecturer 1842 

Dickinson, Daniel Stevens, Am. jurist and statesman. 1800. . .1866 
Dickinson, Don Manuel, postmaster-general in the 

Cleveland cabinet 1846 

Dickinson, John, Am. political writer 1732. . .1808 

Dicquemare, Jacques Francois, Fr. naturalist 1733. . .1789 

Diderot, Denis, Fr. philosopher and writer 1713. . .1784 

Didot, Alfred (b. 1828), son of Ambraise Firmin, and 

Paul (b. 1826), firm of Firmin IHdot Freres. Fr. 

printers and publishers. 
Didot, Ambroise Firmin. Son of Firmin. Printer and 

pubbsher * 1790. . .1876 

Didot, Firmin, Fr. publisher and typographer 1764. . .1836 

Didron. Adolph Napoleon, Fr. archaeologist 1806. . .1867 

Diebitsch, Hans Karl Friedrich Anton, Count, Russ. 

field-marshal 1785... 1831 

Diefenbach, Lorenz, Ger. author 1806. . .1883 

Dieffenbach, Johann Friedrich, Pruss. surgeon 1792. . .1847 

Diemen, van, Anthony, Dutch governor in the East 

Indies. He sent out an expedition under Tasman, 

who discovered Van Dieman's Land 1593. . .1645 

Diepenbeck, van, Abraham, Dutch painter 1607. . .1675 

Dieskau, Ludwig August, Ger .-Fr. general in America 1701... 1767 
Diesterweg, Friedrich Adolf Wilhelm, Ger. educator. 1790.. .1866 
Dieterici, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. statistician. . 1790. . .1859 

Dietrich, Christian Wilhelm Ernst, Ger. painter 1712. . .1774 

Dietz, Fedor, Ger. painter 1813. . .1870 

Diez, Friedrich Christian, Ger. philologist 1794. . .1876 

Disby, Sir Kenelm, Eng. philosopher 1603. . .1665 

Digges, Thomas, Eng. astronomer and mathematician 1595 

Dilke, Ashton, Eng. publicist 1850. . .1883 

Dilke, Sir Charles Wentworth, Eng. legislator and 

author 1843 

Dillenius, Johann Jakob, Ger. botanist 1687. . .1747 

Dill man, Christian Friedrich August, Ger. orientalist 1823 

Dilworth, Thomas, Eng. school-teacher and compiler 1780 

Diman, Jeremiah Lewis, Am. educator 1831. . .1881 

Dindorf, Wilhelm, Ger. philologist 1802 

Dingelstedt, von, Franz, Ger. author 1814 

Diniz, or Denis, king of Portugal 1261. . .1325 

Diniz de Cruz, Antonio, Port, poet 1730..? 1798 

Dinter, Gustav Friedrich, Ger. educationist 1760. . .1831 

Dinwiddie, Robert, lieutenant-governor of Virginia. .? 1690. ..1770 

Diocletian, Roman emperor 245. . . 313 

95 



MOD A TI—D OLLINGER 



BORN. DEED. 

Diodati. Giovanni, Swiss theologian 1576. . .1649 

Diodorus, or Diodorus Siculus, Roman historian.. fl. 1st c. B. C. 

Diogenes, Greek Cynic philosopher B. C. ? 412. . . 323 

Dion of Syracuse, statesman and. patriot B. C ? 353 

Dion Cassius, Bithynian historian of Rome ?155 

Dionis du Sejour, Achille Pierre, Fr. geometer 1734... 1794 

Dionysius. The Elder. Tyrant of Syracuse B. C. ? 430. . . 367 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Greek historian B. C. ? 70 . . . ? 7 

Dionysius Exiguus, an abbot at Rome. Reputed 

founder of the Christian era as now established fl. 6th c. 

Diophantus, of Alexandria, Greek algebraist fl. ? 5th c. 

Dioscorides Pedanius, Greek medical writer fl. ? 2d c. 

Dippel, Johann Konrad, Ger. rationalist 1673. . .1734 

Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfleld, prime min- 
ister of England and author 1805... 1880 

Disraeli, Isaac. Father. Eng. miscellaneous writer. . 1766... 1848 
Dithmar, or Ditmar, Justus Christoph, Ger. writer... 1677. ..1737 
Ditters von Dittersdorf, Karl, Ger. musical com- 
poser 1739. . .1799 

Ditton, Humphrey, Eng. mathematician 1675 . . .1715 

Dix, Dorothea Linde, Am. philanthropist 1805. . .1887 

Dix, John Adams, Am. general and statesman 1798. . .1879 

Dix, Morgan. Son. Am. Protestant Episcopal divine. 1827 

Dixon, William Hepworth, Eng. author 1821 

Dmitrief, Ivan Ivanovitch, Russ. poet 1760. . .1837 

Doane, George Washington, Am. bishop 1799. . .1859 

Dobell, Sydney. Sydney Yendys. Eng. poet 1824. . .1874 

Ddbereiner, Johann Wolfgang, Ger. chemist 1780. . .1849 

Dobrentei, Gabor, Hungarian author 1786. . .1851 

Dobrizhoffer, Martin, Jesuit missionary in South 

America 1717. . .1791 

Dobrowski, or Dobrovsky, Jozef, Slavic philologist. 1753... 1829 

Dodd, William, Eng. clergyman. Forger 1729. . .1777 

Doddridge, Philip, Eng. dissenting divine 1702. . .1751 

Doderlein, Johann Christoph, Ger. theologian and 

critic ? 1746... 1792 

Dodge, Mary Abigail. Gail Hamilton. Am. authoress.? 1838 

Dodington, George Bubb, Baron Melcombe, Eng. pol- 
itician 1691... 1762 

Dodoens, Rembert, Dutch botanist and physician ? 1518. . .1585 

Dodsley, Robert, Eng. poet and bookseller 1703. . .1764 

Does, van der, Jacobus, the Elder. Dutch painter. 1623... 1673 

Does, van der, Simon. Son. Dutch painter 1653..? 1700 

Dob erty, Robert Remington, Am. editor and author.. 1847 

Dohm, Christian Wilhelm, Ger. diplomatist and au- 
thor 1751... 1820 

Dolce, or Dolci, Carlo, or Carlino, Tuscan painter 1616. . .1686 

Dolet, Etienne, Fr. scholar 1509. . .1546 

Dolgoruki, Vassili Vladimirovitch, Russ. field -mar- 
shal 1667.. .1746 

Dollinger, Johann Joseph Ignaz, Ger. Catholic theo- 
logian 1799... 1890 



DOLLOND—DOUAY 



BORN. DIED. 

Do 11 ond, George, Eng. mathematical instrument 

maker 1774. ..1852 

Dollond, John, Eng. optician. Inventor of the achro- 
matic telescope 1706. . .1761 

Dolomieu, de, Deodat Gui Sylvain Tancrede de Gra- 

tet, Fr. geologist and mineralogist 1750. . .1801 

Domat, Jean, Fr. jurist and writer 1625. . .1696 

Dombey, Joseph, Fr. botanist and traveler 1742. . .1796 

Dombrowski, Jan Henryk, Polish general 1755. . .1818 

Domenichi, Luigi, Ital. writer and translator ? 1500. . .1564 

Domenichino. Domenico Zampieri. Bolognese painter 1581... 1641 

Domenico, Alexis. 11 Greco. Greek painter ? 1547. . .1625 

Dominic, Saint, or Domingo de Guzman, Span. 

founder of the order of Dominicans 1170. . .1221 

Dominis, de, Marc Antonio, Ital. theologian and 

physicist 1566. . .1624 

Domitian, Roman emperor ?51... 96 

Donaldson, John William, Eng. classical scholar 1811. . .1861 

Donatello, or Donato, Ital. sculptor 1383... 1466 

Donati, Giovanni Battista, Ital. astronomer 1826. . .1873 

Douati, Vitaliano, Ital. naturalist 1713. . .1763 

Donatus, bishop of Casse Nigree. Founder of the Don- 

atists fl. 305 

Donders, Frans Cornells, Dutch oculist 1818 

Doueau, Hugues, Fr. legal writer 1527. . .1591 

Doni, Giovanni Battista, Ital. antiquary 1593. . .1646 

Donini, Girolamo, Ital. painter 1681..? 1740 

Donizetti, Gaetano Ital. musical composer 1798. . .1848 

Donne, John, Eng. divine and poet 1573. . .1631 

Donnelly, Ignatius, Am. author and Shakesperean 

controversialist. [The Great Cryptogram.] 1837 

Donoso -Corte*s, Juan Francisco Maria de la Salud, 

Marquis de Valdegamas, Span, statesman 1809. . .1853 

Donovan, Edward, Eng. naturalist 1798. . . 1837 

Doppelmayr, Johann Gabriel, Ger. mathematician. . . 1671. . .1750 

Dorat, Claude Joseph, Fr. poet 1734. . .1780 

Dore, Paul Gustave, Fr. artist 1833. . .1883 

Doria, Andrea, Genoese admiral and statesman 1468. . .1560 

Dorigny, Sir Nicolas, Fr. engraver 1657. . .1746 

Dorleans, Pierre Joseph, Fr. Jesuit and historian 1644. . .1698 

Dorner, Isaak August, Ger. theologian 1809. . .1884 

Dorr, Thomas Wilson, Am. politician. [Dorr Rebel- 
lion,] 1805. ..1854 

Dorset, Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of, Eng. wit and 

poet 1637... 1706 

Dorset, Thomas Sackville, first Earl of, Eng. states- 
man and author 1536. . 1608 

Dorsey, John Syng, Am. surgeon and physician 1783. . .1818 

Dorsheimer, William, lieutenant-governor of New 

York, editor, and congressman 1832. . .1888 

Dossi, Dosso, Ital. painter 1474. . .1558 

Douay, Felix Charles, Fr. general 1818 

97 



DOUCE— DRUSUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Douce, Francis, Eng. antiquary 1762. . .1834: 

Douglas, Archibald. Bell-the-Cat. Great earl of An- 
gus. Scot, nobleman ? 1514 

Douglas, David, Brit, botanist and traveler 1798. . .1834= 

Douglas, Gawin, or Gavin. Son of Arch. Bell-the-Cat. 

Scot, poet ? 1474=... 1522 

Douglas, John, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Salisbury. 

[Criterion, or Miracles Examined.'] 1721 . . . 1807 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Am. politician 1813. . .1861 

Douglass, Frederick, Am. orator. Formerly a slave. .? 1817 

Dousa, or Van der Does, Jan, Dutch statesman, 

historian, and poet 1545. . .1604 

Douw, or Dow, Gerard, Dutch painter 1613. . .1680 

D o ve, Heinrich Wilhelm, Ger. physicist 1803 

Dow, Lorenzo, Am. preacher 1777. . .1834 

Downing, Andrew Jackson, Am. landscape gardener. 1815. . .1852 

Dowse, Thomas, Am. book-collector 1772. . . 1856 

Doyen, Gabriel Frangois, Fr. historical painter. 1726. . .1806 

Doyle, Richard, Eng. artist 1826. . .1883 

Dozy, Reinhart, Dutch orientalist 1820 

Drake, Sir Francis. Eng. navigator ? 1537. . .1596 

Drake, Friedrich, Ger. sculptor 1805 

Drake, Joseph Rodman, Am. poet. [The Culprit Fay.] 1795. . .1820 

Draper, Henry, Am. physiologist and chemist 1837. . .1882 

Draper, John Christopher. Brother of Henry. Am. 

physiologist and chemist 1835. . .1885 

Draper, John William. Father. Am. chemist and 

physiologist 1811. . .1882 

Drayton, Michael, Eng. poet 1563.. .1631 

Drayton, William Henry, Am. statesman 1742. . .1779 

Drebbel, van, Cornells, Dutch philosopher 1572... 1634 

Drelincourt, Charles, Fr. Protestant minister 1595. . .1669 

Drevet, Pierre, Fr. engraver 1697. . .1739 

Drexel, Joseph W., Am. banker and philanthropist.. . 1830. . .1888 

Dreyschock, Alexander, Bohemian composer 1818. . .1869 

Dreyse, von, Johann Nikolaus, Pruss. mechanician. 

Inventor of the needle-gun 1787. . .1867 

Drouais, Jean Germain, Fr. painter 1763. . .1788 

Drouet d'Erlon, Jean Baptiste, Count, marshal of 

France and governor-general of Algeria 1765. . .1844 

Drouot, Antoine, Count, Fr. general of artillery 1774. . .1847 

Drouyn de Lhuys, Edouard, Fr. diplomatist 1805... 1881 

Droysen, Johann Gustav, Ger. historian 1808. . .1884 

Droz, Francois Xavier Joseph, Fr. writer .- 1773. . .1850 

Drum, Richard C, Am. general 1825 

Drummond, Sir Gordon, Brit, general in America 1771. . .1854 

Drummond, Thomas, Brit, naval officer. [Drummond 

light,] 1797... 1840 

Drummond, William, of Hawthornden, Scot, poet 1585... 1649 

Drury, Drew, Eng. naturalist 1804 

Drusus, Claudius Nero. Drusus Senior. Roman gen- 
eral B. C. 38... 9 

98 



DE YANDER—D UFFERIN 



BOBN. DIED. 

Dryander, Jonas, Swed. naturalist 1748. . .1810 

Dry den, John, Eng. poet 1631. . .1700 

Duane, William, Am. editor and politician 1760. . .1835 

Duane, William John. Son. Lawyer. Secretary of 

United States treasury . 1780. . .1865 

Diibner, Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1802. . .1867 

Dubois, Antoine, Baron, Fr. surgeon 1756. . .1837 

Dubois de la Boe, Franciscus, Ger. or Dutch physi- 
cian and writer 1614. . .1672 

Dubois, Guillaume, Cardinal, Fr. statesman 1656. . .1723 

Dubois, Jean Antoine, Fr. missionary in India 1765. . .1848 

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil, Ger. physiologist 1818 

Bubos, Jean Baptiste, Fr. historian and writer on art. 1670. . .1742 

Dubs, Jakob, Swiss statesman 1822 

Dubufe, Claude Marie, Fr. painter 1790. . .1864 

Dubufe, Edouard. Son. Fr. painter 1820... 1883 

Dubuisson, Francois Rene" Andre*. Fr. naturalist 1763. . .1836 

Du Cange, Charles Du Fresne, Fr. historian and phi- 
lologist 1610 . . . 1688 

Ducarel, Andre" Coltee, Fr. antiquary in England 1713. . .1785 

Duccio di Buoni nsegn a, Ital. painter 1340 

Du Chaill u, Paul Belloni, Fr. traveler in Africa 1835 

Duchatel, Pierre, Fr. prelate. Bishop of Macon 1552 

Du Chatelet, Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Bre- 

teuil, Marchioness, Fr. authoress 1706. . .1749 

Duche*, Jacob, chaplain of the first Continental Con- 
gress 1739. ..1798 

Duchesne, Andre", Fr. geographer and historiographer 1584. . .1640 
Duckworth, Sir John Thomas, Baronet, Brit, admiral 1748. . .1817 

Ducis, Jean Francois, Fr. dramatic poet 1733. . .1816 

Duckwitz, Arnold, Ger. politico-economist : 1816. . .1881 

Duel os, Charles Pineau, Fr. biographer 1704. . .1772 

Ducornet, Louis Cesar Joseph, Fr. painter „ 1806. . .1856 

Ducos, Roger, Fr. politician and lawyer ? 1750. . .1816 

Ducrot, Auguste Alexandre, Fr. general 1817 

Dudevant, Madame Amantine Lucille Aurore, nee 

Dupin. George Sand. Fr . novelist 1804 . . . 1876 

Dudith, Andreas, Hungarian divine and writer 1533. . .1589 

Dudley, Benjamin Winslow, Am. surgeon 1785 . . . 1870 

Dudley, Charles Edward, Am. senator. His widow 

founded the Dudley observatory 1780. . .1841 

Dudley, Joseph, governor of Massachusetts 1647. . .1720 

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, favorite of Queen 

Elizabeth of England ? 1532.. .1588 

Duer, John, Am. jurist and writer 1782. . .1858 

Duer, William Alexander. Brother. Am. jurist and 

writer \. 1780... 1858 

Dufaure, Jules Armand Stanislas, Fr. statesman 1798. . .1881 

Du Fay, Charles Francois de Cisternay, Fr. electrician 1698. . .1739 

Duff, Alexander, Scot, missionary in India ? 1806 

Dufferin, Frederick Temple Hamilton Blackwood, Earl 

of, Eng. statesman. Governor-general of Canada.. 1826 

99 



D UFO UR—D UNNING 



BORN. DIED. 

Dufour , Guillaume Henri, Swiss general 1787. . .1875 

Dufre*noy, Adelaide Gillette-Billet, Fr. poetess 1765. . .1825 

Dufre*noy , Pierre Armand, Fr. geologist 1792. . .1857 

D ufresney , Andre" Ignace Joseph, Fr. physician 1733. . .1801 

Dufresny, Charles Riviere, Fr. dramatist 1648... 1724 

Dugdale, Sir William, Eng. antiquary 1605 . . . 1686 

Dughet, Gaspard. Le Guaspre. Fr. landscape-painter 

at Rome 1613... 1675 

Duguay-Trouin, Rene", Fr. admiral 1673. . .1736 

Du Guesclin, Bertrand, constable of France ? 1314. . .1380 

Duhamel, Jean Baptiste, Fr. natural philosopher 1624. . .1706 

Duhamel, Jean Marie Constant, Fr. mathematician. . . 1797. . .1872 
Duhamel du Monceau, Henri Louis, Fr. agriculturist 1700.. .1782 

Dujardin, Felix, Fr. naturalist 1801. . .1860 

Duj ardin, Karel, Dutch painter ? 1640. . .1678 

Dulaure, Jacques Antoine, Fr. historian 1755. . .1835 

Dullaert, Heyman, Dutch painter 1636. . .1684 

Duller, Eduard, Ger. historian and poet 1809. . .1853 

Dulong, Pierre Louis, Fr. chemist and naturalist 1785. . .1838 

Dumanoir, Philippe Francois Pinel, Fr. dramatist... 1806... 1865 

Dumarsais, Cesar Chesneau, Fr. grammarian 1676. . .1756 

Dumas, Alexandre, Fr. novelist and dramatist 1803. . .1870 

Dumas, Alexandre. Son. Fr. dramatist and novelist. 1824 

Dumas, Jean Baptiste, Fr. chemist 1800. . .1884 

Dumas, Matthieu, Count, Fr. soldier and historian 1753. . .1837 

Dume'ril, Andre" Marie Constant, Fr. naturalist 1774. . .1860 

Dumesnil, Marie Francoise, Fr. actress 1711..? 1803 

Dumoucel, Theodore Achille Louis, Fr. scientific 

writer 1821... 1884 

Duraont, Augustin Alexandre, Fr. sculptor 1801. . .1884 

Dumont, Charles^ Albert, Fr. archaeologist 1842. . .1884 

Dumont, Pierre Etienne Louis, Swiss scholar and sec- 
retary of Bentham 1759. . .1829 

Dumont d'Urville, Jules SSbastien C6sar, Fr. navi- 
gator 1790..J.842 

Dumoulin, Charles, Fr. jurist 1500. . .1566 

Dumouriez, Charles Francois, Fr. general 1739. . .1823 

Dunbar, William, Scot, poet ? 1465. .? 1530 

Duncan I., king of Scotland, murdered by Macbeth ? 1040 

Duncan, Adam, Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, 

Brit, admiral 1731 . . .1804 

Duncan, Thomas, Scot, artist 1807. . '.1845 

Duncker, Maximilian Wolfgang, Ger. historian 1811 

Dundas, Henry, Viscount Melville, Brit, statesman ?1740. . .1811 

Dundounald, Thomas Cochrane, tenth Earl of. Lord 

Cochrane. Eng. admiral 1775. . .1860 

Dunglison, Robley, Am. physician and medical writer 1798. ..1869 
Dunmore, John Murray, fourth Earl, governor of 

Virginia 1732... 1809 

Dunn, William McKee, brigadier-general United 

States army 1810 . . . 1887 

Dunning, John, Lord Ashburton, Eng. lawyer 1731. . .1783 

100 



DUNOIS—DUSSEK 



BORN. DIED. 

Dunois, de, Jean, Count. The Bastard of Orleans. Fr. 

commander and one of the national heroes of France 14=02. . .1468 
Dons Scotus, John. The Subtle Doctor. Scot, scho- 
lastic theologian ?1265. . .1308 

Duns tan, Saint, archbishop of Canterbury 925. . . 988 

Dunster, Henry, first president of Harvard College 1659 

Dupanloup, Felix Antoine Philippe, Fr. prelate 1802. . .1878 

Dupaty, Louis Marie Charles Henri Mercier, Fr. 

sculptor 1771. ..1825 

Duperre", Victor Guy, Baron, Fr. admiral. 1775. . .1846 

Duperrey, Louis Isidore, Fr. hydrographer 1786. . .1865 

Duperron, Jacques Davy, Fr. cardinal 1556. . .1618 

Dupetit-Thouars, Louis Marie Aubert, Fr. botanist. . . 1758. . .1831 
Dupin, Andre' Marie Jean Jacques, Fr. lawyer and 

politician 1783... 1865 

Dupin, Pierre Charles Frangois, Baron. Brother. Fr. 

geometer and statistician 1784. . .1873 

Dupin, Louis Ellies, Fr. ecclesiastical historian 1657. . .1719 

Dupleix. Joseph Francois, Marquis, Fr. governor in 

India. 1697... 1764 

Duplessis, Joseph Siffrein, Fr. painter 1725. . .1802 

Duponceau, Peter Stephen, Am. lawyer and scholar. 1760.. .1844 

D upon t, Samuel Francis, Am. rear-admiral 1803 . . .1865 

Du Pont de IVemours, Pierre Samuel. Grandfather 

of Samuel Francis Du Pont. Fr. political economist 1739. . .1817 

Duprat, Antoine, Fr. cardinal and statesman 1463. . .1535 

Duprat, Pascal, Fr. author and journalist 1814. . .1885 

Duprez, Gilbert Louis, Fr. vocalist 1806 

Dupuis, Charles Francois, Fr. philosopher 1742. . .1809 

Dupuy , Louis, Fr. journalist and writer 1709. . .1795 

Dupuy tr en, Guillaume, Baron, Fr. anatomist 1777. . .1835 

Duquesne, Abraham, Fr. naval commander 1610. . .1688 

Duquesnoy , Francois, Flemish sculptor 1594. . .1646 

Durau, Don Augustin, Span, author ? 1794 

Durand, Asher Brown, Am. painter and engraver 1796. . .188& 

Durand, Sir Henry Marion, Eng. officer and lieuten- 
ant-governor in India 1812. . .1871 

Durand^ Jean Nicolas Louis, Fr. architect 1760. . .1834 

Durante, Francesco, Ital. composer of sacred music. . 1693. . .1755 

Duranti, Durante, Count, Ital. poet and orator 1718. . .1780 

Diirer, Albrecht, Ger. painter and engraver 1471. . .1528 

Duret, Francisque, Fr. sculptor ? 1805 

Durham, John George Lambton, Earl of, Eng. states- 
man . Go vernor- general of Canada 1792 . . . 184& 

Durham, Milton J., Am. lawyer and congressman 1824 

D iiringsfeld, von, Ida, Ger. authoress 1815. . .1876 

Dupoc, Gerard Christophe Michel, Duke of Friuli, Fr. 

general 1772... 1813 

Duruy, Victor, Fr. historian and minister of education 1811 

Duseh, Johann Jakob, Ger. poet 1725. . .1787 

Du Sommerard, Alexandre, Fr. archaeologist 1779. . .1842 

Dussek, Johann Ludwig, Bohemian musical composer 1761.. .1812v 

101 



DUTENS—EBERS 



BORN. DIED. 

Dutens, Joseph Michel, Fr. political economist 1765. . .184=8 

Dutrochet* Rene* Joachim Henri, Fr. physiologist 1776. . .184:7 

Duvair, Guillaume, Fr. moralist and writer 1556. . .1621 

Duval, Alexandre Vincent Pineu, Fr. dramatist 1767. . .1842 

Duval, Valentin Jameray, Fr. antiquary 1695. . .1775 

Duvaucel, Alfred, Fr. naturalist 1792. . .1824, 

Duvergier de Hauranne, Jean, Fr. Jansenist the- . 

ologian 1581. . .1643 

Duvergie*' de Hauranne, Prosper, Fr. statesman 

and writer 1798. . . .... 

Duvernoy, Georges Louis, Fr. anatomist and zoologist 1777.. .1855 
Duveyrier, Honore* Nicolas Marie, Baron, Fr. author. 1753.. .1839 

Duvoisin, Jean Baptiste, Fr. theologian 1744. . .1813 

Duyckinck, Evert Augustus, Am. writer. [Cyclopedia 

of American Literature.] 1816. . .1878 

Duyckinck, George Long. Brother. Am. writer 1823. . .1863 

Duyse, van, Prudens, Flemish poet ? 1805. . .1859 

Dwight, Tira othy, Am. divine 1752.. .1817 

D wight, Timothy. Grandson. Am. educator. Presi- 
dent Yale College 1886 1828 

Dyce, Alexander, Scot, editor and scholar. [Sftafees- 

peare.'] 1797. . .1869 

Dyce, William, Scot, historical painter 1806. . .1864: 

Dyck, van, Philip, Dutch painter 1680. . .1752 

Dyer, George, Eng. scholar and author 1755. . .1841 

Dyer, John, Brit, poet 1700.. .1758 

Dyer, Mary, Quaker martyr, hanged on Boston Com- 
mon 1660 

Dykes, John Bacchus, Eng. clergyman and composer 

of church music 1842 

Dymond, Jonathan, Eng. Quaker writer and moralist 1796. ..1828 



Eachard, John, Eng. divine 1636. ..1697 

Eadmer, Eng. monk and historian 1124 

Eads, James Buchanan, United States navy. Famous 

engineer 1820... 1887 

Earle, Pliny, Am. inventor 1762. ..1832 

Earlom, Richard, Eng. engraver ? 1742. . .1822 

Early, Jubal A., Confederate general ? 1815 

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock, Eng. painter 1793. . .1865 

Eaton, Amos, Am. naturalist 1776. ..1842 

Eaton, William, Am. soldier. Consul at Tunis 1764. . .1811 

Ebel, Johann Gottfried, Ger. geologist 1764. . .1830 

Ebeling, Christoph Daniel, Ger. geographer and his- 
torian 1741... 1817 

Ebelmen, Jacques Joseph, Fr. chemist 1814. . .1852 

Eber, Paul, Ger. Protestant divine and Hebraist 1511. . .1569 

Eberhard, August Gottlob, Ger. author 1769. . .1845 

Eberhard, Johann August, Ger. philosopher and writer 1739. . .1809 

Eberhard, Konrad, Ger. sculptor 1768. . .1859 

Eber s, Georg Moritz, Ger. Egyptologist 1837 

102 



EBERT— EGERTON 



BORN. DIED. 

Ebert, Friedrich Adolph, Ger. bibliographer 1791 . . .1834 

Eble", Jean Baptiste, Fr. general 1758. . .1812 

Ecchellensi s, Abraham, Maronite orientalist 1664 

Eck, von, Johann Mayr, Ger. theologian 1486. . .1543 

Eckermann, Johann Peter, Ger. author 1792. . .1854 

Eckford, Henry, Am. shipbuilder 1775 . . .1832 

Eckersberg, Christoph Wilbelm, Danish painter 1783. . .1853 

Eckhart, von, Johann Georg, Ger. historian 1674. . .1730 

Eckhart, Meister (master), father of Ger. mysticism. .? 1250..? 1328 

Eckhel, Joseph Hilary, Austrian numismatist 1737. . .1798 

Eckhof, Conrad. The German Boseius. Ger. actor 1720. . .1778 

Edelinck, Gerard, Flemish engraver in France 1649. . .1707 

Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, Eng. statistical writer. . . .71766 . .1809 

Eden, Richard, Eng. writer on travels 1577 

Edes, Benjamin, Am. journalist and patriot "1732. . .1803 

Edgeworth, Maria. Daughter. Eng. novelist 1767. . .1849 

Edgeworth, Richard Lovell, Brit, inventor and author 1744. . .1817 

Edison, Thomas Alva, Am. electrician and inventor. . . 1847 

Edmund II. Ironside. King of the Anglo-Saxons — 989.. .1017 
Edmund, Saint, or Edmund Rich, archbishop of Can- 
terbury 1242 

Edrisi, Arabian geographer 1099..? 1164 

Edward II. The Martyr. King of the Anglo-Saxons. ? 962... 978 
Edward III. The Confessor. King of the Anglo- 
Saxons ? 1004 . . .1066 

Edward I. Longshariks. King of England 1239... 1307 

Edward II., lost the battle of Bannockburn 1284. . .1327 

Edward III. , gained the battle of Crecy, 1346 1312. . .1377 

Edward IV. [" War of the Roses."] 1441 . . .1483 

Edward V., supposed to have been murdered in the 

Tower 7 1470 . . . 1483 

Edward VI., son of Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour. . 1537.. .1553 

Edward . The Black Prince. Prince of Wales 1330 . . . 1376 

Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin, Eng. general in 

India 1819... 1868 

Edwards, Abraham, colonel United States army 1819. . .1887 

Edwards, Amelia Blandford, Eng. novelist 1831 

Edwards, George, Eng. ornithologist 1693. . .1773 

Edwards, Guillaume Fre"deric, Fr. ethnologist and 

physiologist 1777... 1842 

Edwards, Jonathan, Am. divine and metaphysician.. 1703... 1758 
Edwards, Jonathan. Son of Jonathan. Am. theolo- 
gian and metaphysician 1745. . .1801 

Edwin, king of Northumbria ?586... 633 

Eeckhout, van den, Gerbrant, Dutch painter 1621... 1674 

Effen, van, Justus, Dutch writer 1684.. .1735 

Egbert. The Great. King of West Saxons ? 775. . .? 836 

Egede, Hans, Danish missionary to Greenland 1686. . .1758 

Egerton, Francis Leveson Gower, Earl of Ellesmere, 

Eng. statesman and author 1800. . .1857 

Egerton, Thomas, Baron of Ellesmere, lord chancellor 

of England 1540 . . .1617 

103 



EG GER— ELLIS 



BORN. DIED. 

Egger, Emile, Fr. Greek scholar and commentator 1803. . .1885 

Eginhard, Fr. secretary and biographer of Charle- 
magne ?771...?844 

Egmont, Lamoral, Count of, Flemish soldier and 

statesman 1522. . .1568 

Egnazio (Giovanni Battista Cipelli), Venetian orator.? 1473... 1553 

Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried, Ger. naturalist 1795. . .1876 

Ehrensward, August, Count of, Swed. field-marshal. 1710... 1773 

Ehret, Georg Dionysius, Ger. painter of plants 1710. . .1770 

Ehrmann, Marianne, nee Brentano, Swiss authoress. . 1755. . .1795 
Eichendorf, von, Joseph Karl Benedict, Baron, Ger. 

poet, novelist, and dramatist 1788. . .1857 

Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried, Ger. biblical critic 1752. . .1827 

Eichwald, Edward, Russ. naturalist '. 1795 

Eimmart, Georg Christoph, Ger. astronomer 1638. . .1705 

Eisenhart, Johann Friedrich, Ger. jurist 1720. . .1783 

Eldon, John Scott, Earl of, lord chancellor of En- 
gland 1751... 1838 

Elgin, James Bruce, Earl of, Brit, statesman. Gov- 
ernor-general of Canada 1811. . .1863 

Elgin, Thomas Bruce, Earl of. Son. Brit, diplomatist. 

[Elgin marbles.] 1776... 1841 

Elias Levita, Ital. Jewish-Hebrew scholar 1472. . .1549 

ISlie de Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis 

Leonce, Fr. geologist 1798... 1874 

Eliot, Charles William, Am. educator. President of 

Harvard University 1834 

Eliot, Sir John, Eng. statesman and orator 1590. . .1632 

Eliot, John. "Apostle of the Indians." Am. clergyman 1604.. .1690 
Eliott, George Augustus, Baron Heathfield of Gibral- 
tar. Brit, general 1718.. .1790 

Elizabeth, queen of England 1533. ..1603 

Elizabeth, Saint, Elizabeth of Hungary 1207. . .1231 

Elizabeth-PetroTna, empress of Russia 1709. . .1762 

Ellenborough, Edward Law, Lord, chief-justice of 

England 1748. ..1818 

Ellenborough, Edward Law, first Earl of. Son. Brit. 

statesman 1790... 1871 

Ellery, William, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 1727... 1820 

Ellesmere, Francis Egerton, Earl of, Eng. statesman 

and author 1800... 1857 

Ellet, Charles, Jr., Am. engineer 1810. . .1862 

EUicott, Andrew, Am. astronomer 1754. . .1820 

Elliotson, John, Eng. physician and writer 1786. . .1868 

Elliott, Ebenezer. Corn Law Bhymer. Eng. poet 1781... 1849 

Elliott, Jesse Duncan, Am. commodore 1782. . .1845 

Elliott, William Greenleaf , Am. educator 1812. . .1887 

Ellis, George, Eng. miscellaneous writer 1745. . .1815 

Ellis, George Edward, Am. clergyman and writer 1814 

Ellis, Sir Henry, Eng. antiquary and author 1777. . . 1869 

Ellis, Mrs. Sarah Stickney, Eng. authoress 1812. . .1872 

104 



ELLISTON—ENZINA 



BORN. DIED. 

Elliston. Robert William, Eng. actor 1774. ..1831 

Ellsworth; Oliver, Am. jurist and statesman 174=5. . .1807 

Ell wood, Thomas, Eng. Quaker writer. Reader to 

Milton 1639. . .1713 

Elmes, Harvey Lonsdale, Eng. architect 1814. . .1847 

Elmsley, Peter, EDg. critic and classical scholar 1773. . .1825 

Elphinston, James, Scot, grammarian 1721. . .1809 

Elphinstone, Mountstuart, Eng. statesman and his- 
torian 1779 . . . 1859 

Elsheimer, Adam. 11 Tedesco. Ger. painter 1574. . .1620 

Elssler , Fanny, Viennese dancer 1811 

Elyot, Sir Thomas, Eng. diplomatist and lexicog- 
rapher : ? 1495... 1546 

Elzevir, Bonaventure (born 1583, died 71654), and 
Abraham (born 1592, died 1652), Dutch printers, at 
Leyden, of exquisite editions of the classics. 

Elzevir, Louis, Dutch printer at Leyden 1540. . .1617 

Emanuel. The Great, or The Happy. King of Portu- 

S al 1469... 1521 

Embury, Philip, first Methodist minister in America.. 1729. . .1775 
Emeric-David, Toussaint Bernard, Fr. archaeologist. 1755... 1839 

Emerson, George Barrell, Am. educationist 1797 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, Am. essayist and philosopher 1803 

Emerson, William, Eng. mathematician 1701. . .1782 

Emerson- Tennent, Sir James, Baronet, Brit, states- 
man and historical writer 1804. . .1869 

Emery, William Helmsley, brigadier-general United 

States army 1837 

Emilio, Paolo, Ital. historian 1460 ! . !l529 

Emiu Bey (Schnitzler), Austrian African explorer 1840 ! . '. .... 

Emmet, Robert, Irish insurrectionist 1780. . .1803 

Empedocles, Greek philosopher fl. 444 B.C. 

Encke, Johann Franz, Ger. astronomer 1791. . .1865 

Endicott, John, colonial governor of Massachusetts. . . 1589. . .1665 
Endicott, William Crowninshield, United States Sec- 
retary of War in Cleveland cabinet 1827 

Endlicher, Stephen Ladislaus, Hungarian botanist 1804... 1849 

En fan tin, Barthelemy Prosper, Fr. socialist 1796. . .1864 

Enfield, William, Eng. clergyman and scholar 1741. . .1797 

Engau, Johann Rudolph, Ger. jurist and writer 1708. . .1755 

Engel , Johann Jakob, Ger. author 1741. . .1802 

En gelbrechtsen, Cornells, Dutch painter 1468. . .1533 

Engelmann, Godefroy, Fr. manufacturer. One of the 

inventors of lithography 1788. . .1839 

Enghien, d% Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon, Due, 

Fr. prince. Executed by order of Napoleon 1 1772. . .1804 

English, Thomas Dunn, Am. author. [Ben Bolt.'] 1819 

Ennemoser, Joseph, Ger. physiologist 1787. . .1854 

Ennius, Quintus, Roman poet B. C. ?239. . . 169 

Entrecasteaux, d% Joseph Antoine Bruni, Fr. admi- 
ral and explorer 1739. . .1793 

Enzina, or Eucina, de la, Juan, Span, poet ? 1468..? 1534 

105 



EON BE BE A UMONT—ESCOBA R Y MEND OZA 

BORN. DIED. 

Eon de Beaumont, d% Charles Genevieve Louis 
Auguste Andre* Timothee. Chevalier oVEon. Fr. 

diplomatist 1728 . . .1810 

Eotvos, Josef, Baron, Hungarian statesman and writer 1813. ..1871 
JSpaminondas, Theban statesman and general. . .B. C. ?418. . . 362 

Ep£e, de 1» , Charles Michel, Fr. philanthropist 1712. . .1789 

Epictetus, Roman Stoic philosopher 60. . .? 120 

Epicurus, Greek philosopher. [Epicurean School.]. B.C. 342... 270 

Epimenides, Cretan poet and philosopher ft. ? 600 B. C. 

Epinay, d% Louise Florence Pe"tronille de la Live, Fr. 

authoress and mistress of Rousseau 1725. . .1783 

Episcopius, Simon. Bischop. Dutch theologian 1583... 1643 

Erard, S6bastien, Fr. manufacturer of musical instru- 
ments 1752... 1831 

Erasmus, Desiderius, Dutch scholar 1467... 1536 

Erastus, Thomas, Swiss physician and theologian 1524. . .1583 

Eratosthenes, Greek geometer and astronomer. .B. C. ? 276. . .? 196 
Ercilla y Zufiiga, de, Alonzo, Span. poet. [La 

Araucana.~] % 1533 . .? 1595 

Erckmann-Chatrian, Emile Erckmann (b. 1822), 
Alexandre Chatrian (b. 1826), Fr. literary partners. 

Erdmann, Johann Eduard, Ger. philosopher 1805 

Erdmann, Otto Linng, Ger. chemist 1804. . .1869 

Eric, or Ericson. See Leif Ericson. 

Eric XIV., king of Sweden. Son of Oustavus Vasa.. . 1533. . .1577 

Erieeira, Francisco Xavier de Menezes, Count, Port. 

general and author 1673. . .1743 

Ericsson, John, Swed. engineer and inventor in Amer- 
ica 1803... 1889 

Erigena, Joannes Scotus, Irish schoolman ? 875 

Erizzo, Sebastiano, Ital. antiquary and medalist 1525. . .1585 

Erlach, d% Jean Louis, Swiss general. Marshal of 

France 1595. . .1650 

Erman, Georg Adolf, Ger. physicist 1806 

Irman, Paul. Father. Ger. physicist 1764. . .1851 

Ernest Augustus, king of Hanover 1771. . .1851 

Ernest i, Johann August, Ger. theologian and philolo- 
gist 1707... 1781 

TSrnst, Heinrich Wilhelm, Ger. musician , 1814. . . 1865 

Erpenius, or Erpen, van, Thomas, Dutch orientalist 1584... 1624 

Errard, Charles, Fr. painter and architect 1606. . .1689 

Ersch, Johann Samuel, Ger. cyclopedist 1766. . .1828 

Erskine, Ebenezer, Scot, theologian 1680. . .1754 

Erskine, Thomas, Baron, lord chancellor of England.. 1750. . .1823 

Er win von Steinbach, Ger. architect 1318 

Erxleben, Johann Christian Polycarp, Ger. naturalist. 1744. . .1777 

Escalante, d', Juan, officer under Cortes in Mexico 1519 

Eschenbach, von, Wolfram, Ger. minnesinger ? 1225 

Eschenmayer, von, Karl Adolf August, Ger. philos- 
opher, metaphysician, and mystic 1768. . .1854 

Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio, Span, casuist and 

Jesuit 1589... 1669 

106 



ESCOIQ UIZ— ETHEL WULF 



BORN. DIED. 

Escoiquiz, Don Juan, Span, statesman 1762. . .1820 

Esmenai'd, Joseph Alphonse, Fr. poet 1770. . .1811 

Espagne, d% Jean, Fr. Protestant theologian 1591. . .1659 

Espafia, de, Don Carlos, Count, Span, general 1775. . .1839 

Espartero, Joaquin Baldomero, Duke de la Vittoria, 

Span, general and statesman 1792 . . . 1879 

Espejo, Antonio, Span, traveler. Discoverer of New 

Mexico fl. 1583 

Espinasse, de 1% or Lespinasse, de, Julie Jeanne 
Elebnore, Fr. lady, remarkable for social accom- 
plishments 1732... 1776 

Espinel, Vincente, Span, poet and novelist ? 1544..? 1634 

Espinosa, Jacinto Geronimo, Span, painter 1600. . .1680 

Espinosa, de, Don Diego, Span, cardinal 1502. . .1572 

Espre*mesnil, d% Jean Jacques Duval, Fr. politician. . 1746.. .1794 

Espronceda, de, Jose\ Span. poet 1808... 1842 

Esquirol, Jean Etienne Dominique, Fr. physician 1772. . .1840 

Esquiros, Henri Alphonse, Fr. writer 1814 . . .1876 

Ess, van, Heinrich Leander, Ger. Roman Catholic 

theologian 1770. ..1847 

Essen, Hans Henrik, Count, Swed. field-marshal 1755. . .1824 

Essex, Robert Devereux, second Earl of, earl marshal 

of England. Favorite of Queen Elizabeth. Executed 1567... 1601 
Essex, Robert Devereux, third Earl of, parliamentary 

general 1592. . .1646 

Essex, Walter Devereux, first Earl of, Eng. statesman 

and general 71540... 1576 

Estaing, d% Charles Hector, Count, Fr. admiral 1729. . .1794 

Este, a princely house of Italy, famous from the 10th c. 
Este, Alberto Azzo II., Ital. prince (b. 996, d. 1097), 
who married Kunigunde, a princess of the Bavarian 
house of Guelph. Their son, styled Guelph IV., is 
the ancestor of the royal line of Brunswick and 
Hanover. 
Este, d% Azzo V., Marquis, founder of the Estes of 

Ferrara 1192 

Esterhazy, noble family of Hungary, distinguished 

for wealth. First mentioned in 1238. 
Esterhazy de Galantha, Paul, governor-general of 

Hungary 1635. . .1713 

Est rades, d' , Godef roi, Comte, Fr. general and states- 
man 1607... 1686 

Estre'es, d% Victor Marie, Due, Fr. admiral 1660. . .1737 

Etampes, d', Anne de Pisseleu, Duchess, mistress of 

Francis I. of France .? 1508 . . . 1576 

Etex, Antoine, Fr. sculptor and architectural designer 1808. . . 1888 

Ethelbald, king of Wessex ? 860 

Ethelbert, king of Kent ?545... 616 

Ethelbert, king of the Anglo-Saxons ? 866 

Ethelred I. , king of the Anglo-Saxons 871 

Ethelred II. The Unready. King of the Anglo-Saxons 968. . .1016 

Ethelwulf, king of the Anglo-Saxons ?858 

107 



ETHEREGE—EYKENS 



BORN. DIED. 

Etherege, or Etheridge, Sir George, Eng. comic 

author 71636..? 1690 

Etienne, Charles Guillaume, Fr. writer 1778. . .184=5 

Etienne, or Estienne. Henry II., Fr. printer and 

author 1528 . . . 1598 

Etienne, or Estienne, Robert I., Fr. printer and 

scholar 1503 . . . 1559 

Ettmiiller, Ernst Moritz Ludwig, Ger. philologist 1802 

Etty, William, Eng. painter 1787. . .1849 

Euclid of Alexandria, Greek geometrician fl. B. C. 300 

Euclid of Megara, Greek philosopher B. C. ? 440 

Eudocia, Roman empress ?394...?461 

Eudoxus of Cnidus, Gr. astronomer B. C. ? 409. . .? 356 

Eugene of Savoy (Francois Eugene de Savoie-Carig- 

nan), Prince, Austrian general 1663. . .1736 

Eugenie (Marie de Montijo), empress of the Fr. 

Wife of Napoleonlll 1826 

Eugenius IV., Gabriele Condulmero, pope 1383. . .1447 

Enter, Leonhard, Swiss mathematician 1707. . .178a 

Euripides, Athenian tragic poet B. C. 480. . . 406 

Eusebius, Pamphili, bishop of Cesarea. Ecclesiastical 

historian ?270.:.?338 

Eustachi, or Eustachio, Bartolommeo, Ital. anatomist. 

[Eustachian tube.'] 1510 . . .1574r 

Eustis, William, Am. physician and statesman 1753. . .1825 

Eutropius, or Flavins Eutropius, Roman historian, fl. 364 

Eutyches, Greek heresiarch ? 375. . .? 454= 

Evald, or Ewald, Johannes, Danish poet 174=3. . .1781 

Evans, Sir De Lacy, Brit, general 1787. . .1870 

Evans, Marian. George Eliot. Eng. novelist ? 1820. . .1880 

Evans, Oliver, Am. engineer and inventor 1755 . . .1819 

Evans, Thomas, Quaker preacher and author 1798. . .1868 

Evarts, William Maxwell, Am. lawyer and statesman. 1818 

Evelyn, John, Eng. royalist and author 1620. . .1706 

Everdingen, van, Albert, Dutch painter 1621. . .1675 

Everett, Alexander Hill, Am. diplomatist and author. 1792.. .1847 
Everett, Edward. Brother. Am. orator and statesman 1794... 1865 
Ewald, von, Georg Heinrich August, Ger. Hebraist 

and biblical critic 1803. ..1875 

Ewell, Richard Stoddard, Confederate lieutenant-gen- 
eral ,. 1820... 1872- 

Ewer, Ferdinand C, Am. Protestant Episcopal divine. 1826... 1883 

Ewing, Greville, Scot, divine and lexicographer 1767. . .1841 

Ewing, Thomas, Am. statesman — 1789. . .1871 

Exelmans, or Excelmans, Remy Joseph Isidore, 

Baron, marshal of France and senator. . , 1775. . .1852 

Exmouth, Edward Pellew, Viscount, Eng. admiral. . . . 1757. . .1833 

Expilly, Jean Joseph, Abbe\ Fr. geographer 1719. . .1793 

Eyck, van, Hubert. Brother of Jan. Flemish painter 1366... 1426 
Eyck, van, Jan. Jan van Brugge. Flemish painter. . .? 1390..? 1441 
Eykens, or Eyckens, Pieter. The Elder. Flemish 

painter 1599. . .1640 

108 



EYRE—FALK 



BORN. DIED. 

Eyre, Edward John. Eng. explorer in Australia. Gov- 
ernor of Jamaica ? 1818 

TSytelwein, Johann Albrecht, Pruss. engineer and 

writer 1764..?1840 



Faber, George Stanley, Eng. divine and author 1773. . .1854 

Faber, Johann. The Hammer of Heretics. Ger. divine 14=70. . .1541 

Fabert, Abraham, Fr. general 1599. . .1662 

Fabius (Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus). Ciwic- 
tator (delayer). Roman general. Opponent of 

Hannibal B . C. ? 203 

Fabre, Marie Joseph Victorin, Fr. orator and poet 1785. . .1831 

Fabre d'Eglantine, Philippe Francois Nazaire, Fr. 

dramatic author and revolutionist 1755 . . . 1794 

Fabretti, Raffaelo, Ital. antiquary ? 1619. . .1700 

Fabriano, da, Gentile, Ital. painter 1370. . .1450 

Fabricius (Caius Fabricius Luscinus), Roman general 

and statesman fl. 280 B. C. 

Fabricius, Johann Albrecht, Ger. critic and bibliog- 
rapher 1668... 1736 

Fabricius, Johann Christian, Danish entomologist 1743..? 1807 

Fabrizio, Girolamo, Ital. anatomist 1537. . .1619 

Fabroni, Angelo, Ital. biographer 1732. . .1803 

Fabroui, Giovanni Valentino, Ital. chemist and nat- 
uralist 1752 . . . 1822 

Fabvier, Charles Nicolas, Baron, Fr. general 1782. . .1855 

Fabyan, or Fabian, Robert, Eng. chronicler ? 1450. . .1512 

Facciolati, Giacomo, Ital. philologist 1682. . .1769 

Faed, Thomas, Scot, artist 1826 

Fagel, Kaspar , Dutch counselor of state 1629 . . . 1688 

Fagius, Paul. Bilcher. Ger. reformer 1504 . . . 1550 

Fahlcrantz, Karl Johan, Swed. landscape-painter. . . . 1774. . .1861 
Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel, Ger. physicist. [Ther- 
mometer.] 1686 . . . 1736 

Fairbairn, Sir William, Scot, civil engineer 1789. . .1874 

Fair ban kg, Horace, governor of Vermont 1820. . .1888 

Fairchild, Charles Stebbins, Am. financier. Secretary 

of the treasury 1842 

Fairfax, Edward, Eng. poet and translator 1632 

Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, Eng. parliamentary general. . 1611. . .1671 
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord, Brit, nobleman in Virginia. 

Friend of Washington 1691. . .1782 

Faithorne, William, Eng. painter and engraver ? 1616. . .1691 

Fakhr-ed-Din, Ad-Razi, Mussulman doctor ? 1149. . .1210 

Falconer, Hugh, Scot, paleontologist 1808. . .1865 

Falconer, William, Scot, poet and lexicographer ? 1730. . .1769 

Falconet, Etienne Maurice, Fr. sculptor 1716. . .1791 

Falcucci, Niecolb, Ital. physician and writer ? 1350. . .1411 

Falieri, Marino, doge of Venice ? 1274. . .1355 

Falk, Johann Daniel, Ger. poet and dramatist 1768. . .1826 

Falk, Johan Pehr, Swed. physician and botanist 1727. . .1774 

109 



FALKLAND— FA UST 



BORN. DIED. 

Falkland, Lucius Cary, Viscount, Eng. secretary of 

state 1610. . .1643 

Falkner, Thomas, Eng. Jesuit missionary to Paraguay 1710. . .1784 

Fallmerayer, Philipp Jakob, Ger. author 1791. . .1862 

Falloppio, Gabriello, Ital. anatomist 1523. . .1562 

Falloux, de, Fre*de"ric Alfred Pierre, Viscount, Fr. 

author 1811 

Famin, Stanislas Marie C6sare, Fr. publicist 1799. . .1853 

Fancourt, Samuel, Eng. dissenting minister and pro- 
jector of circulating libraries ? 1678. . .1768 

Faneuil, Peter, Am. merchant, Founder of Faneuil 

Hall, Boston 1700... 1743 

Fanfani, Pietro, Ital. philologist 1817 

Fanniere, Francois Auguste, Fr. engraver and carver 1818 

Fanniere, Francois Joseph. Brother. Fr. engraver 

and carver. 1822 

Fanshawe, Sir Richard, Eng. statesman and poet 1608. . .1666 

Fantoni, Giovanni, Ital. lyric poet 1755. . .1807 

Fantuzzi, Giovanni, of Bologna, Ital. biographer fl. 1780 

Faraday, Michael, Eng. chemist and naturalist 1791. . .1867 

Farel, Guillaume, Fr. reformer 1489. . .1565 

Fargus, Francis J. Hugh Conway. Eng. novelist. 

[Called Back, Dark Days, etc.] 1849. . .1885 

Faria-y-Sousa, de, Manoel, Port, historian and poet 

in Madrid 1590. . .1649 

Farinacci, Prospero, Ital. jurist ? 1544. . .1618 

Farinato, Paolo, Ital. painter 1525. . .1606 

Farinelli, Carlo. Carlo Broschi. Neapolitan singer.. 1705... 1782 

Farini, Carlo Luigi, Ital. statesman and writer ? 1822. . .1866 

Farnaby, Thomas, Eng. school-master and author ? 1575. . .1647 

Farnese, Alessandro, duke of Parma, Ital. general in 

the service of Spain 1546. . .1592 

Farochon, Jean Baptiste Eugene, Fr. artist 1807 

Farquhar, George, Irish comic dramatist 1678. . .1707 

Farragut, David Glascoe, Am. admiral 1801. . .1870 

Farrar, John, Am. mathematician 1779. . .1853 

Farre", Arthur, Eng. surgeon and medical writer 1810. . .1887 

Farsetti, Giuseppe Tommaso, Ital. writer 1775 

Far well, Charles B., Am. senator 1823 

Farwharson, Scot, mathematician 1739 

Fasquelle, Jean Louis, author of Am. Fr. text-books. . 1808. . .1862 

Fatima, only daughter of Mohammed 632 

Fatio de Duillers, Nicolas, Swiss geometer 1664. . .1753 

Fauche, Hippolyte, Fr. Sanskrit scholar 1797. . .1869 

Faucher, Leon, Fr. political economist 1803. . .1854 

Fauchet, Claude, Fr. bishop and politician 1744. . .1793 

Faugere, Arnaud Prosper, Fr. litterateur 1810 

Faujas de Saint Fond, Barthelemi, Fr. geologist and 

traveler 1741. ..1819 

Fauques, Marianne Agnes, Fr. novelist 1720..? 1778 

Fauriel, Claude Charies, Fr. critic and historian 1772. . .1844 

Faust, or Faustus, Dr. Johann, Ger. necromancer ? 1480..? 1538 

110 



FA UST— FEE DIN AND 



BORN. DIED. 

Faust, Johann, Ger. goldsmith. Partner of Gutenburg 

and one of the inventors of printing ? 1466 

Fauveau, de, Mile. Fe*licie, Fr. female sculptor 1803 

Favart, Marie Justine Benoite, Fr. actress 1727. . .1772 

Favre, Jules Claude Gabriel, Fr. advocate and poli- 
tician 1809 

Favre, Pierre, Fr. Jesuit 1506. . .1546 

Fawcett, Henry, Eng. political economist and author. 1833. . .1884 

Fawkes, Guy, Eng. conspirator. [Gunpoivder Ptot.l 1606 

Fay, Theodore Sedgwick, Am. author 1807 

Fay olle, Francois Joseph Marie, Fr. poet and musician 1774. . .1852 

Fazy, Jean Jacques, Swiss statesman and economist.. . 1796 

Fea, Carlo, Ital. antiquary and writer 1753. . .1834 

Fearne, Charles, Eng. jurist 1749. . .1794 

Featherstonhaugh, George William, Am. traveler 

and geologist 1866 

Fecfener, Gustav Theodor, Ger. naturalist 1801 

Fechter, Charles Albert, Fr. and Eng. actor 1824 

Feckenham, de, John, Eng. Roman Catholic theolo- 
gian ? 1516 . . .1585 

Federici, Camillo, Ital. dramatist 1749. . .1802 

Fe"e, Antoine Laurent Apollinaire, Fr. naturalist 1789 

Fein, Eduard, Ger. jurist and legal writer 1813. . .1857 

Feitama, Sibrand, Dutch poet and litterateur 1694. . .1758 

Feith, Everard, Dutch archaeologist and writer 1597. . .1625 

Feith, Rhijnvis, Dutch dramatic poet 1753. . .1824 

Fe*letz, de, Charles Marie Dorimond, Abb<5, Fr. critic. 1767. ..1850 

Fe"libien, Andre\ Fr. architect and writer 1619. . .1695 

Felice, Fortunato Bartolommeo, Ital. author 1723. . .1789 

Felix, Ce*lestin Joseph, Fr. preacher 1810 

Fellenberg, von, Philipp Emanuel, Swiss educationist 1771. . .1844 

Feller, de, Francois Xavier, Belgian author 1735. . .1802 

Fellowes, Sir Charles, Eng. archaeologist and traveler 1799. . .1860 
Felton, Cornelius Conway, Am. author and professor 

of Greek 1807. . .1862 

Fenelon, Frangois de Salignac de la Mothe, archbishop 

of Cambray. Fr. prelate and author. [Telemaque.~\. 1651... 1715 

Fenton, Edward, Eng. naval commander ? 1550... 1603 

Fenton, Elijah, Eng. poet 1683. . .1730 

Fenton, Reuben E., Am. statesman. Governor of New 

York 1818.. .1885 

Fenwick, George, proprietor of part of Connecticut 1657 

Fenwick, Sir John, Eng. conspirator 1697 

Feodor I., czar of Russia , ? 1557. . .1598 

Feodor III., czar of Russia. Half-brother of Peter 

the Great '. 1661. . .1682 

Ferdinand I. , emperor of Germany 1503. . .1564 

Ferdinand II., emperor of Germany and king of 

Hungary and Bohemia 1578. . .1637 

Ferdinand IV., king of Naples. Ferdinand I. of the 

Two Sicilies 1751 . . . 1825 

Ferdinand II., king of the Two Sicilies. Bonriba 1810. . .1859 

111 



FERDINAND— FIELD 



BORN. DIED. 

Ferdinand I. The Great. King of Castile, Leon, and 

Galicia ? 1000. . .1065 

Ferdinand V, of Castile, II. of Aragon, III. of Na- 
ples, II. of Sicily. The Catholic. Founder of the 

Span, monarchy 1452. . .1516 

Ferdinand VII., king of Spain 1784. ..1833 

Ferguson, Adam, Scot, philosopher 1724. . .1816 

Ferguson, James, Scot, mechanician and astronomer. 1710.. .1776 
Ferguson, Major Patrick, Brit, officer in America. . . . .? 1744. . .1780 

Fergusson, James, Scot, architect 1808 

Fergusson, Sir William, Scot, surgeon and anatomist 1808... 1877 

Ferish tah, Mohammed-Kasim, Persian historian ? 1560..? 1626 

Fermat, de, Pierre, Fr. geometrician and poet 1601. . .1665 

Fernandez, Diniz, Port, navigator fl. ? 1446 

Fernandez, Juan, Span, navigator and discoverer 1576 

Fernel, Jean. The Modern Galen. Fr. physician and 

writer 1497... 1558 

Fernkorn, Anton Dominik, Ger. sculptor 1813 

Ferracino, Bartolommeo, Ital. mechanician 1692. . .1777 

Ferrand, Antoine Francois Claude, Count, Fr. author 1751... 1825 

Ferrara, Francesco, Ital. political economist 1810 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, Ital. painter and sculptor 1484. . .1550 

Ferrari, Giuseppe, Ital. philosopher ? 1811 

Ferrari, Luigi, Ital. sculptor 1810 

Ferreira, Antonio, Port, poet 1528. . .1569 

Ferreras, de, Juan. Span, historian 1652. . .1735 

Ferrier, James Frederick, Scot, metaphysician 1808. . .1864 

Ferriere, de, Claude, Fr. jurist 1639. ..1714 

Ferrieri, Innocenzo, Ital. cardinal-priest 1810. . .1887 

Fersen, von, Axel, Count, Swed. field-marshal 1755. . .1810 

Fesca, Friedrich Ernst, Ger. musician 1789. . .1826 

Fesch, Joseph, cardinal, Fr. prelate 1763. . .1839 

Fessenden, William Pitt, Am. statesman 1806. . .1869 

Fessler, Ignaz Aurelius, Hungarian author 1756. . .1839 

Feti, Domenico. IlMantuano. Ital. painter 1589... 1624 

Fe*tis, Francois Joseph, Belgian composer 1784 . . . 1871 

Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas, Ger. philosopher 1804. . .1872 

F euer bach, Paul Johann Anselm. Father. Ger. jurist 1775... 1833 
Feuillet, Louis, Fr. naturalist, geographer, and as- 
tronomer 1660. . .1732 

Feuillet, Octave, Fr. author 1812 

Fe*val, Paul Henri Corentin, Fr. novelist 1817. . .1887 

Feydeau, Ernest Aime\ Fr. author. [Fanny.'] 1821 . . .1873 

Feyjoo* y Montenegro, Francisco Benito Jeronimo, 

Span, critic and moralist ? 1676 . . . 1764 

Fichte, Immanuel Hermann. Son. Ger. philosopher. 1797 

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. metaphysician 1762. . .1814 

Ficino, Marsilio, Ital. Platonic philosopher 1433. . .] 

Fick, Adolf, Ger. physiologist 1829 . 

Field, Cyrus West, Am. merchant and organizer of the 

Atlantic Telegraph Company 1819. 

Field, David Dudley. Brother. Am. jurist 1805. 

112 



FIELD— FITZ GERALD 



BORN. DIED. 

Field; John, Irish composer and pianist. INoctumes.']. 1782. . .1837 
Fielding, Copley Vandyke, Eng. landscape-painter. ...? 1787. . .1855 

Fielding, Henry, Eng. novelist 1707. . .1754 

Fields, James T., Am. publisher, poet, and lecturer. ... 1817. . .1881 
Fiennes, William, Lord Say and Sele, Eng. statesman 1582.. .1662 

Fieschi, Joseph Marie, Corsican conspirator 1790. . .1836 

Fiesco, Giovanni Luigi, Count of Lavagna, Genoese 

conspirator 1525. . .1547 

Fiesole, da, Giovanni Angelico. Fra Angelico. Ital. 

painter 1387. . .1455 

Fievee, Joseph, Fr. litterateur 1767. . .1839 

Figueras, Estanislao, Span, statesman 1819 

Figueroa, de, Francisco. The Divme. Span. poet. . . .? 1540..?1620 

Figuier, Guillaume Louis, Fr. author 1819 

Filangieri, Gaetano, Ital. publicist 1752 . . . 1788 

Filelfo, Francesco, Ital. philologist and poet 1398. . .1481 

Filicaja, da, Vincenzo, Florentine poet 1642. . .1707 

Fillmore, Millard, thirteenth President of the United 

States 1800... 1874 

Finch, Heneagej first Earl of Nottingham, Eng. states- 
man 1621 . . .1682 

Finch, John B., Am. orator and temperance advocate. 1852. . .1887 

Fine, Or once, Fr. mathematician and mechanician 1494. . .1555 

Fin gal, legendary prince of Morven in ancient Cale- 
donia ? 282 

Fink, von, Friedrich August, Pruss. general 1718. . .1766 

Finlay, George, Scot, historian of Greece ? 1800. . .1875 

Finn, Henry J., Am. actor ? 1785. . .1840 

Finney, Charles G., Am. preacher. President of Ober- 

lin College 1792... 1875 

Fiorentino, Pier-Angelo, Ital. author 1806. . .1864 

Fiorelli, Giuseppe, Neapolitan archaeologist ? 1823 

Fiorillo, Johann Dominicus, Ger. painter and art- 
writer 1748. ..1821 

Firdousi, Firdusi, Abul Kasim Mansour, Persian poet ? 940..? 1020 

Firenzuola, Agnolo, Ital. poet 1493... 1545 

Firmin, Thomas, Eng. philanthropist 1632 . . .1697 

Fisch, George, Swiss-Fr. Protestant clergyman 1814 

Fischart, Johann. Mentzer. Ger. satirist ? 1545..? 1614 

Fischer, Gotthelf , Russ. naturalist 1771 . . .1853 

Fischer, Kuno (Ernst Kuno Berthold), Ger. philoso- 
pher 1824 

Fischer von Erlach, Johann Bernhard, Baron, Ger. 

architect. [Schoribrunn Palace.] 1650... 1724 

Fish, Hamilton, Am. statesman and secretary of state. 1808 

Fisher, John, Eng. bishop and opponent of the Refor- 
mation 1459. . .1535 

Fisk, Clinton B., Am. prohibitionist 1828 

Fisk, Wilbur, Am. educator. President of Wesleyan 

University 1792. ..1838 

Fitch, John, Am. inventor. [Steam-boat.] 1743. . .1798 

Fitzgerald, Edward, Lord, Irish revolutionist 1763. . .1798 

113 



FITZ HERBERT— FL URENS 



BORN. DIED. 

Fitzherber t, Sir Anthony, Eng. jurist 1538 

Fitzherbert, Maria, wife of George IV. of England... 1756... 1837 
Fitzroy, Robert, Eng. vice-admiral and meteorologist 1805. . .1865 

Fizeau, Hippolyte Louis, Fr. mathematician . . . 1819 

Flacius Illyricus, Matthias. Matthias Flach-Franco- 

witz. Ger. Protestant theologian ? 1520 . . . 1575 

Flacour, de, Etienne, Fr. commander at Madagascar. 1607.. .1660 
Flahaut de la Billarderie, Auguste Charles Joseph, 

Count, Fr. statesman and general 1785. . .1870 

Flamei, Nicolas, Fr. alchemist and benefactor ? 1330. . .1418 

Flaminio, Marcantonio, Ital. Latin poet 1498. . .1550 

Flammarion, Camille, Fr. astronomer 1842 

F I am steed, John, Eng. astronomer royal 1646. . .1719 

Flandin, Eugene Napoleon, Fr. painter and archaeol- 
ogist 1809 

Flan drin, Jean Hippolyte, Fr. historical painter 1809. . .1864 

Flaugini, Luigi, Ital. cardinal and writer 1733. . .1804 

Flaubert, Gustav, Fr. novelist ? 1821. . .1880 

Flavel, John, Eng. Non-conformist divine and author. 1627. . .1691 

Flaxman, John, Eng. sculptor 1755. . .1826 

Fl^chier, Esprit, Fr. pulpit orator 1632. . .1710 

Fleetwood, Charles, Eng. parliamentary general 1692 

Fleetwood, William, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Ely. . . . 1656. . .1723 

Flegel, Robert Eduard, African explorer 1855 

Fleischer, Heinrich Leberecht, Ger. orientalist 1801. . .1888 

Fleming, John, Scot, naturalist 1785. . .1857 

Flemming, Paul, Ger. poet 1609. . .1640 

Fletcher, Andrew. Fletcher of Saltoun. Scot, author. 1653... 1716 
Fletcher, John, Eng. dramatic author and poet. Col- 
league of Beaumont 1576. . .1625 

Fletcher, John William (originally Fle*chiere, de la, 

Jean Guillaume), Swiss divine in England 1729. . .1785 

Fleurieu, de, Charles Pierre Claret, Count, Fr. navi- 
gator, hydrographer, and statesman 1738 . . . 1810 

Fleury, de, Andre* Hercule\ Cardinal, Fr. statesman. . 1653... 1743 

Fleur y, Anselm, Fr. statesman 1800. . .1885 

Fleury, Claude, Abbe\ Fr. author 1640. . .1723 

Fleury, Emile Felix, Fr. general 1815. . .1884 

Fliedner, Theodor, Ger. philanthropist 1800 . . .1864 

Flint, Austin, Am. physician and medical writer 1812. . .1886 

Flint, Austin, Jr. Son. Am. physician and medical 

writer 1836 

Flood, Henry, Irish orator and writer 1732. . .1791 

Florez, Enrique, Span, monk and historian 1701. . .1773 

Florian, Saint, Ger. martyr. Patron saint of Poland. ?190... 230 

Florian, de, Jean Pierre Claris. Fr. author 1755. . .1794 

Florida Blanca, Jose* Monino, Count of, Span, states- 
man and political economist. ? 1728. . .1808 

Florio , John. The Resolute. Eng. grammarian 1545. . .1625 

Floris, Frans (real name De Vriendt), Flemish painter.? 1520. . .1570 

Flotow, von, Friedrich, Ger. musical composer 1812. . .1883 

Flourens, Marie Jean Pierre, Fr. physiologist 1794. . .1867 

114 



FL UGEL—FORKEL 



BORN. DIED. 

Fliigel, Gustav Leberecht, Ger. orientalist 1802 

Fliigel, Johann Gottfried, Ger. lexicographer 1788. . .1855 

Foerster, Wilhelm, Ger. astronomer 1832 

Fogarasy, Janos, Hungarian lexicographer and jurist 1801 

Fogelberg, Bengt Erland, Swed. sculptor ? 1787. . .1854 

Foggini, Pietro Francesco, Ital. archaeologist. Chief 

librarian of the Vatican 1713. ..1783 

Foglietta, Uberto, Ital. historian 1518. . .1581 

Foix, de, Paul, Fr. jurist and archbishop of Toulouse. 1528. . .1584 
Folard, de, Jean Charles, Fr. tactician and warrior... 1669... 1752 

Foley, John Henry, Irish sculptor 1818. . .1874 

Foley, Sir Thomas, Eng. admiral 1757. . .1833 

Folger, Charles J., Am. financier. Secretary of the 

treasury 1818. . .1884 

Follen, August {afterward Adolf Ludwig), Ger. poet. . 1794... 1855 
Follen, Charles Theodor Christian. Brother, Ger. 

scholar in America 1796. . .1840 

Folz, Hans, Ger. poet and Protestant reformer 1479 

Fonblanque, Albany William, Eng. journalist ? 1797. . .1872 

Fonblanque, John de Grenier, Eng. lawyer 1759. . .1837 

Fo nfrede, Jean Baptiste Boyer, Fr. politician 1766. . .1793 

Fcnseca, de, Eleonora Pimentel, Marchioness, Nea- 
politan heroine and martyr ? 1758. . .1799 

Fontaine, Alexis, Fr. geometer ? 1705. . .1771 

Fontaine, Pierre Francois Leonard, architect 1762. . .1853 

Fontana, Domenico, Ital. architect 1543. . .1607 

Fontana, Felice, Ital. philosopher and naturalist 1730. . .1805 

Fontanes, de, Louis, Marquis, Fr. author 1757. . .1821 

Fontanini, Giusto, Ital. antiquary and critic 1666. . .1736 

Fontenay, de, Jean Baptiste Blain, Fr. painter 1654. ..1715 

Fontenelle, de, Bernard le Bovier, Fr. writer 1657. . .1757 

Foote, Andrew Hull, Am. rear-admiral 1806. . .1863 

Foote, Henry Stuart, Am. politician 1800 

Foote, Samuel, Eng. comedian ? 1720. . .1777 

Foraker, Joseph Benson, Am. lawyer and orator. 

Governor of Ohio 1885-'87 1846 

Forbes, Duncan, Scot, judge and writer 1685. . .1747 

Forbes, Edward, Eng. naturalist 1815. . .1854 

Forbes, James David, Scot, physicist 1809. . .1868 

Forbes, Sir John, Brit, physician and medical writer. 1787... 1861 

Forbin, Claude, Fr. admiral 1656.. .1733 

Forbonnais, de, Francois Veron, Fr. financier 1722... 1800 

Force, Peter, Am. journalist and historical compiler. 1790. ..1868 

Forcellini, Egidio, Ital. lexicographer 1688. . .1768 

Forchhammer, Johann Georg, Danish geologist and 

chemist 1794. . .1865 

Ford, John, Eng. dramatist 1586..? 1639 

Fordyce, David, Scot, philosopher 1711. . .1751 

Foresti, E. Felice, professor of Italian in Columbia 

College ? 1793... 1858 

Forey, Elie FreMeYic, marshal of France 1804. . .1872 

Forkel, Johann Nikolaus, Ger. composer 1749. . .1818 

115 



FORMES— FO URNE YRON 



BORN. DIED. 

Formes, Karl, Ger. vocalist 1816. . .1889 

Forney, John Weiss, Am. journalist 1817. . .1881 

Forrest, Edwin, Am. actor 1806. ..1872 

Forster, Ernst Joachim, Ger. painter and writer on art 1800 

Forster, Heinrich, Ger. Roman Catholic pulpit orator 1800 

Forster, Johann Georg Adam. Son of Johann Rein- 
hold F. Ger. naturalist and writer 1754. . .1794 

Forster, Johann Reinhold, Ger. naturalist and traveler 1729. . .1798 

Forster, John, Eng. biographer and critic 1812. . .1876 

Forster, William, Eng. philanthropist 1784. . .1854 

Forster, William Edward. Son of William. Eng. 

statesman 1818 

Forsyth, John, Am. statesman and secretary of state. 1780.. .1841 

Forteguerri, Niccolb, Ital. bishop and poet 1674. . .1735 

Fortescue, Sir John, Eng. judge and writer on law. . .?1395..? 1485 

Fortoul, Hippolyte Nicolas Honore\ Fr. writer 1811. . .1856 

Fortune, Robert, Scot, botanist , 1813 

Fortuny, Mariano, Span, painter 1839. . .1874 

Fosbroke, Thomas Dudley, Eng. antiquary 1770. . .1842 

Foscarl, Francesco, doge of Venice ? 1372. . .1457 

Foscarini, Marco, Ital. statesman and author ? 1696. . .1763 

Foschini, Antonio, Ital. architect 1741. . .1803 

Foscolo, Niccolb Ugo, Ital. poet and miscellaneous 

writer 1777. . . 1827 

Fossombroni, Vittorio, Ital. statesman and engineer. 1754.. .1844 

Foster, Birket, Eng. artist ?1825 

Foster, John, Eng. essayist and moralist 1770. . .1843 

Foster, Stephen Collins, Am. ballad-composer 1826. . .1864 

Fothergill, John, Eng. physician and writer 1712. . .1780 

Foucault, Leon, Fr. natural philosopher 1819. . .1868 

Fouche, Joseph, Duke of Otranto, Fr. minister of po- 
lice 1763... 1820 

Foucher, Victor Adrien, Fr. jurist and writer ? 1803 

Fould, Achille, Fr. financier and statesman 1800. . .1867 

Foul is, Robert (b. 1707, d. 1776), and Andrew (b. 1712, 

d. 1775). Brother. Scot, printers in partnership. 
Foulon, Joseph Francois, Fr. financier and politician. 1715. . .1789 

Foulques de IVeuilly, Fr. priest and orator 1201 

Fouque*, Henri Auguste, Baron de la Motte, Pruss. 

general 1698. ..1774 

Fouquet, Jehan, Fr. painter b. ? 1415 . . .aft. 1475 

Fouquet, Nicolas, Marquis de Belle-Isle, Fr. financier. 1615. ..1680 
Fouquier-Tinville, Antoine Quentin, Fr. revolution- 
ist and public prosecutor 1747. . .1795 

Fourcroy, de, Antoine Francois, Fr. chemist 1755. . .1809 

Fourier, Francois Charles Marie, Fr. socialist. [Fou- 

rierism.] 1772. . .1837 

Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph, Baron, Fr. savant 1768. . .1830 

Fourier, Pierre. Pierre de Matamcourt. Fr. religious 

reformer ... t 1565 . . . 1640 

Fourmont. Etienne, Fr. orientalist and author 1683. . .1745 

Fourney ron, Benoit, Fr. inventor. [The twbvne.']. . . . 1802. . .1867 

116 



FO URNIER— FRANZ 



BORN. DIED. 

Fournier, Edouard, Fr. litterateur 1819. . .1880 

Fournier, Pierre Simon, Fr. engraver and type- 
founder 1712... 1768 

Fowler, Orson Squire, Am. phrenologist 1809 

Fox, Charles James, Eng. statesman and orator 174=9. . .1806 

Fox, George, Eng. founder of the Society of Friends or 

Quakers 1624. . .1690 

Fox, John, Eng. martyrologist. {Fox's Book of Martyrs.'] 1517... 1587 

Foy, Maximilien Se"bastien, Fr. general 1775. . .1825 

Fracastoro, Girolamo, Ital. astronomer, poet, and 

physician 1483. . .1553 

Fraccaroli, Innocenzo, Ital. sculptor ? 1804= 

Francesca, della, Pietro, Ital. painter ?1400..?1493 

Franceschini, Marcantonio, Ital. historical painter. . . 1648. . .1728 
Franchi, Ausonio (real name Bonavino), Ital. philoso- 
pher 1821 

Francia, Francesco. Francesco Baibolini. Ital. 

painter ? 1450..? 1518 

Francia, Jose" Gaspar Rodriguez. B^r. Francia. Dic- 
tator of Paraguay ? 1757 . . . 1840 

Francis, John Wakefield, Am. physician and writer. . . 1789. . .1861 
Francis, Saint, or Francis of Assisi, Ital. friar. 

Founder of the order of Franciscans 1182 . . . 1226 

Francis, Sir Philip, Brit, statesman and writer 1740. . .1818 

Francis I., king of France 1494. ..1547 

Francis II., emperor of Germany (I. of Austria) 1768... 1835 

Francis II., Maria Leopoldo, king of the Two Sicilies 1836 

Francis de Paula, Saint, Ital. Franciscan monk. 

Founder of the order Fratres Minimi 1416. . .1507 

Francis de Sales, Saint, Fr. Roman Catholic prelate, 

orator, and writer. Bishop of Geneva 1567. . .1622 

Francis Joseph. Grandson of Francis IT. Emperor 

of Austria 1830 

Franck, Adolphe, Fr. philosopher 1809 

Fran eke, August Hermann, Ger. divine and philan- 
thropist 1663... 1727 

Franco, Ger. writer on music aft. 1083 

Francceur, Louis Benjamin, Fr. geometer 1773. . .1849 

Francois de Xeufchateau, Nicolas Louis, Comte, Fr. 

writer and politician 1750 . . . 1828 

Francucci, Innocenzio. Innocenzio da Imola. Bo- 

lognese painter ? 1480. . .1550 

Frank, Johann Peter, Ger. physician 1745. . .1821 

Frank el, Zacharias, Ger. rahbi and writer 1801. . .1875 

Frankl, Ludwig August, Ger. Jewish poet 1810 

Franklin, Benjamin, Am. philosopher and statesman. 1706. . .1790 

Franklin , Sir John, Eng. arctic explorer 1786. . .1847 

Franklin, William. Son of Benjamvn. Governor of 

New Jersey 1729 . . . 1813 

Franklin, William Buel, Am. general 1823 

Franscini, Stef ano, Swiss statesman 1796. . .1857 

Franz, Robert, Ger. composer 1815 

117 



franz£n—fr£r on 



BORN. DIED. 

Franze*n, Frans Michael, Swed. poet 1772. . .1847 

Fraser, Alexander Campbell, Scot, metaphysician 1819 

Fraser, James Baillie, Scot, traveler and author 1783. . .1856 

Fraser, Simon, Brit, general in the Am. Revolution 1777 

Frauenlob. Heinrich von Meissen. Ger. poet 1318 

Fra uenstadt, Christian Martin Julius, Ger. philosopher 1813 

Frnunhofer, von, Joseph, Bavarian optician 1787. ..1826 

Fr ayssinous, Denis Luc, Fr. pulpit orator 1765. . .1841 

Fred ego nde, wife of Chilperic I. of France ?545... 596 

Frederi ck I . Barbarossa. Emperor of Germany 1121 . . .1190 

Frederick II., emperor of Germany and king of 

Naples and Sicily 1194. . .1250 

Frederick VI., king of Denmark 1768... 1839 

Frederick VII., king of Denmark 1808. ..1863 

Frederick William. The Great Elector. Elector of 

Brandenburg and founder of the Pruss. monarchy.. 1620. . .1688 

Frederick I., first king of Prussia 1657. . .1713 

Frederick III. (Frederick William), king of Prussia 

and emperor of Germany 1831. . .1888 

Frederick William I. Father of Frederick the Great. 1688. . .1740 

Frederick II. Frederick the Great 1712. ..1788 

Frederick William II. Nephew of Frederick the 

Great 1744... 1797 

Frederick William III., founder of the Zollverein. 1770... 1840 

Frederick William IV 1795. ..1861 

Frederick Charles Nicholas, prince of Prussia and 

general 1828 

Frederick William Nicholas Charles (Frederick 

III.), emperor of Germany 1831 

Freeman, Edward Augustus, Eng. historian 1823 

Fregoso , Frederico, Genoese cardinal ? 1480. . .1541 

Freiligrath, Ferdinand, Ger. poet 1810. . .1876 

Freind, John, Eng. physician and medical writer 1675. . .1728 

Freinsheim, Johann, Ger. scholar 1608. . .1660 

Frelinghuysen, Frederick Theodore. Nephew. Am. 

statesman 1817. . .1885 

Frelinghuysen, Theodore, Am. statesman 1787. . .1862 

Frdmiet, Emmanuel, Fr. sculptor ?1824 

Fremont, John Charles, Am. explorer and general 1813 

Fre*mont d'Ablancourt, Nicolas, Fr. litterateur and 

diplomatist ? 1625. . .1693 

Fre'my, Edmond, Fr. chemist 1814 

F ren ch, Edwin W„ Am. Presbyterian divine. 1830. . .1885 

French, Mrs. L. Virginia, Am. author 1830. . .1881 

Freneau, Philip, Am. poet and journalist 1752. . .1832 

Frere, Sir Bartle, Eng. soldier 1815. . .1884 

Frcre, Charles Theodore, Fr. painter 1815 

Frcre, John Hookham, Eng. diplomatist and poet 1769. . .1846 

Fr 5 ret, Nicolas, Fr. antiquary and historical critic 1688. . .1749 

Frerichs, Frederick Theodor, Ger. medical author 

and professor 1819. . .1885 

Fre*ron, Elie Catharine, Fr. critic 1719. . .1776 

118 



frjSr on—fuentes 



BORN. DIED. 

Fre*ron, Louis Stanislas. Son. Fr. revolutionist 1765. . .1802 

Fre9ca, Henri, Fr. mathematician and academician... 1815... 1885 
Frescobaldi, Girolamo, Ital. organist and composer.. .? 1587..? 1655 

Fresenius, Karl Remigius, Ger. chemist 1818 

Fresnel, Augustin Jean, Fr. optician and geometer.. . 1788. ..1827 
Freteau de Saint-Just, Emmanuel Marie Michel 

Philippe, Fr. politician 1745. . .1794 

Freund, Wilhelm, Ger. lexicographer 1806 

Freundweiler, Henri, Swiss historical painter.. 1755 . . .1795 

Frey, Johann Jakob, Swiss engraver 1681 . . .1752 

Freycinet, de, Charles Louis de Saulces, Fr. states- 
man 1828 

Freycinet, de, Louis Claude de Saulces, Fr. navigator 1779. . .1842 
Frey tag, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Ger. orientalist. . . 1788. . .1861 

Frey tag, Gustav, Ger. author. [Soil u<nd Haben.] 1816 

Fre'zier, Am6de*e Francois, Fr. engineer and traveler. 1682.. .1773 

Friedemann, Friedrich Traugott, Ger. teacher 1793..? 1853 

Friedland, Valentin. Trotzendorff. Ger. educator 1490... 1556 

Friedlander, Ludwig, Ger. archaeologist 1814. . .1884 

Fries, Elias, Swed. botanist and orator 1794 

Fries, Jakob Friedrich, Ger. philosopher 1773. . .1843 

Frie9, Jean, Swiss philologist 1505.. .1565 

Frisch, Johann Leonhard, Ger. philologist and natu- 
ralist 1666... 1743 

Frischlin, Nicodemus, Ger. philologist and poet 1547. . . 1590 

Frisi, Paolo, Ital. mathematician 1728. . .1784 

Frith, William Powell, Eng. genre painter 1819 

Froben, Johann, Ger. printer 1460 . . .1527 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, Eng. navigator , ? 1536. . .1594 

Frochot, Nicolas Therese Benoit, Count, Fr. adminis- 
trator ?1757...1828 

Froebel, Friedrich, Ger. educationist. [Kinderg&rten 

system.] 1782. . .1852 

Froebel, Julius. Nephew. Ger. traveler and politician 1806 

Froila I., king of Spain 722... 768 

Froissart, Jehan, or Jean, Fr. chronicler 1337..? 1410 

Fromentin, Eugene, Fr. painter .". 1820. . .1876 

Frontenac, de, Louis de Buade, Count, Fr. governor 

of Canada 1620. . .1698 

Frothingham. Nathaniel Langdon, Am. clergyman... 1793... 1870 

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks. Son. Am. clergyman 1822 

Froude, James Anthony, Eng. historian 1818 

Fr ugoni, Carlo Innocenzio, Ital. poet 1692. . .1768 

Fry, Elizabeth, Eng. philanthropist 1780. . .1845 

Fryxell, Anders, Swed. historian 1795. 

Fuad Pasha, Turkish statesman ? 1814. . .1869 

Fuca, de, Juan. Apostolos Valerianos. Greek navi- 
gator ? 1632 

Fuchs, von, Johann Nepomuk, Ger. chemist 1774. . .1856 

Fuchs, von, or Fuchsius, Leonhard, Ger. botanist... 1501... 1566 
Fuentes, de, Pedro Henriquez d'Azevetlo, Count, 

Span, statesman and general 1560.. .1643 

119 



FOLKE— GALEN 

BORN. DIED. 

Fulke, William, Eng. divine and author ? 1538. . .158$ 

Fuller, Andrew, Eng. Baptist divine 1754... 1815 

Fuller, Sarah Margaret, Countess D'Ossoli, Am. au- 
thoress 1810. . .1850 

Fuller, Thomas, Eng. preacher and author 1608. . .1661 

Fullerton, Lady Georgiana, Eng. novelist 1825. . .1885 

Fulton, Robert, Am. engineer and inventor 1765. . .1815 

Funck, Johann Nicolas, Ger. philologist and antiquary 1693. . .1777 

Furness, William Henry, Am. religious writer 1802 

Ffirst, Julius, Ger. orientalist 1805. ..1873 

Furs ten berg, Friedrich Wilhelm Franz, Baron, Ger. 

statesman : 1729. . .1810 

Fuseli, John Henry, Swiss painter in England 1741. . .1825 

Fftssli, Johann Rudolf, Swiss artist 1709. . .1793 

Fyt, or Feydt, Jan, Flemish painter 1625. . .1671 



Gabbiani, Antonio Domenico, Ital. painter and en- 
graver 1652. . .1726 

Gabelentz, von der, Hans Conon, Ger. politician, 

philologist, and linguist 1807. . .1874: 

Gabler, Johann Philipp, Ger. theologian 1753. . .1826 

Gaboriau, Emile, Fr. author ? 1834. . .1873 

Gabourd, Ame"de"e, Fr. historian ? 1805. . .1867 

Gabriel, Jacques Ange, Fr. engineer and architect. . . .? 1710. . .1782 

Gabrielli, Catarina, Ital. singer 1730. . .1796 

Gachard, Louis Prosper, Belgian archivist 1800 

Gacon, Francois, Fr. poet and satirist 1667. . .1725 

Gaddi, Angelo, Ital. painter ?1324. . .1387 

Gaddi, Taddeo. Father. Florentine painter ? 1300..? 1352 

Ga de, Niels Wilhelm, Danish composer 1817 

Gadsden, Christopher. Am. statesman 1724. . .1805 

Gadsden, James. Grandson. Am. statesman. [The 

Gadsden purchase.'] 1788. . .1858 

Gaetano, Saint. Gaetano di Tiene. Ital. priest 1480... 1547 

Gagarin, Ivan, Russ. Jesuit and author 1814 

Gage, Thomas, Brit, general in America ? 1720. . .1787 

Gagern, von, Heinrich Wilhelm August, Baron, Ger. 

statesman and author 1799. . .1880 

Gagnier, Jean, Hebrew and Arabic professor at Oxford 1670. . .1740 

Gali n, Joseph Gottlieb, Swed. mineralogist 1745. . .1818 

Gail, Jean Baptiste, Fr. Hellenist and author 1755. . .1829 

Gail lard, Gabriel Henri, Fr. historian 1726. . .1806 

Gaiilardin, Claude Joseph Casimir. Fr. historian 1810. . .1881 

Gaines, Edmund Pend leton, Am. general 1777. . .1849 

Gaines, Myra Clark. Wife. Am. heiress ? 1805. . .1885 

Gainsborough, Thomas, Eng. painter 1727. . .1788 

Gaj, Ljudevit, Croatian author and journalist 1810 

Galba, Servius Sulpicius, Roman emperor B. C. 3. . A. D. 69 

Gale, James, Eng. inventor, totally blind 1833 

Galen, Claudius, Roman physician and medical author 130. . .? 200 

Galen, von, Christoph Bernhard, Ger. prelate ? 1600. . .1678 

120 



GALERIUS— G ANTE A UME 



BORN. DIED. 

Galerius, Caius Valerius Maximianus, Roman emperor 311 

Galhegos, de, Manoel, Port, poet 1597... 1665 

Gaiiani, Ferdinando, Ital. political economist 1728. . .1787 

Galiano, Antonio Alcala, Span, writer and orator ? 1791 

Galien, Joseph, Fr. physician and philosopher 1699. . .1782 

Galilei, Galileo {commonly known by Ms Christian 

name, Galileo), Ital. astronomer 1564. . .1642 

Galimard, Nicolas Auguste, Fr. painter 1813 

Galin, Pierre, Fr. musician 1786. .71822 

Gall, Franz Joseph, Ger. physician. Founder of 

phrenology 1758. . .1828 

Gallagher, William D., Am. poet 1808 

Gallait, Louis, Belgian historical painter 1810. . .1887 

Gall and, Antoine, Fr. antiquary and orientalist 1646. . .1715 

Gallas, von, Matthias, Count, Austrian general 1589. . .1647 

Gallatin, Albert, Am. statesman 1761. . .1849 

Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins, Am. clergyman. Found- 
er of the first institution in America for instruction 

of the deaf and dumb 1787... 1851 

Galle, Johann Gottfried, Ger. astronomer 1812 

Gallegos, Fernando, Span, painter 1461 . . .1550 

Galletti, Johann Georg August, Ger. historian and 

geographer ... 1750 . . . 1828 

Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius, Roman empe- 
ror ?235... 268 

Gallitzin, Mikhail Mikhailovitch, Prince, Russ. gen- 
eral 1674... 1730 

Gallois, Jean, Fr. critic and journalist 1632. . .1707 

Gallas, Caius Sulpicius, Roman astronomer fl. 166 B. C. 

Gait, John, Scot, author 1779. . .1839 

Galuppi, Baldassare. Buranello. Ital. musician 1703. . .1785 

Gal uppi, Pasquale, Ital. philosopher 1770. . . 1846 

Galvani, Aloisio, or Luigi, Ital. discoverer of galvanism 1737. . .1798 

Galvao, Antonio, Port, traveler and historian ? 1503. . .1557 

Galvez, de, Bernardo, Count, Span, governor of Lou- 
isiana 1756 . . . 1786 

Galvez de >f ontalvo, Luis, Span, poet 1549. . .1610 

Garaa , da, Vasca, Port, navigator ? 1450. . .1524 

Gamaches, Etienne, Fr. philologist and natural phi- 
losopher 1672 . . . 1756 

Gambara, Veronica, Ital. poetess 1485. . .1550 

Gambart, Jean F61ix Adolphe, Fr. astronomer 1800. . .1836 

Gambetta, Leon, Fr. statesman 1838. . .1882 

Gambier, James, Baron, Brit, admiral and diplomatist 1756. . .1833 

Gammel, William, Am. author 1812 

Gandclfi, Gaetano, Ital. historical painter and en- 
graver ?1744...1802 

Ganual , Jean Nicolas, Fr. chemist 1791 . . .1852 

Gans, Eduard, Ger. jurist 1798. . .1839 

Gansevoort, Peter, Am. officer in the Revolutionary 

War 1749... 1812 

Ganteaume, Hon ore" Joseph, Count, Fr. admiral 1755. . .1818 

121 



GAR AT— GATES 



BORN. DIED. 

Garat, Dominique Joseph, Fr. author 1749. . .1833 

Garavagli a, Giovita, Ital. engraver. 1790. . .1835 

Garay, Janos, Hungarian poet 1812. . .1853 

Garay, de, Juan, Span, general. Founder of Buenos • 

Ayres 1541... 1592 

Garcao, Pedro Antonio Correa, Port, lyric poet ? 1724. . .1772 

Garcia, Manuel de Populo Vicente, Span, composer 

and vocalist 1775. . .1832 

Garcia de Mascarenhas, Braz, Port, poet and war- 
rior 1596... 1656 

Garcilaso de la Vega. The Spanish Petrarch. 

Span, poet 1503 . . .1536 

Garcilaso de la Vega. The Inca. Peruvian histo- 
rian of Span, descent ? 1540..? 1620 

Gardiner, Stephen, Eng. Roman Catholic prelate 1483. . .1555 

Garfield, James Abram, twentieth President of the 

United States 1831. . .1881 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, Ital. patriot 1807. . . 1882 

Garissoles, Antoine, Fr. Protestant divine and poet. . 1587. . .1650 

Gamier, Adolphe, Fr. author. 1801. . .1864 

Gamier, Jean Jacques, Fr. historian and Hebraist 1729. . .1805 

Gamier-Pages, Louis Antoine, Fr. politician 1803. . .1878 

Gar ofalo. Benvenuto Tisio. Ital. painter , 1481 . . . 1559 

Garrett, John Work, Am. railroad financier 1820. . .1884 

Garrick, David, Eng. actor, poet, and dramatist 1716. . .1779 

Garrison, William Lloyd, Am. abolitionist 1804. . .1879 

Garth, Sir Samuel, Eng. physician and poet ? 1672. . .1719 

Gartner, Joseph, Ger. botanist 1732. . .1791 

Garve, Christian, Ger. philosopher and translator 1742. . .1798 

Garzi, Luigi, leal, painter 1638. . .1721 

Garzoni, Tommaso, Ital. writer 1549. . .1589 

Gascoigne, George, Eng. poet ? 1536. . .1577 

Gascoygne, or Gascoigne, Sir William, Eng. judge.? 1350. ..1413 
Gascoygne, William, Eng. inventor of the microm- 
eter ? 1621... 1644 

Gaskell, Mrs. Elizabeth Cleghorn, nee Stevenson, Eng. 

authoress % ? 1810. . . 1865 

Gasparin, de, Adrien Etienne Pierre, Comte, Fr. agri- 
cultural writer and politician 1783. . .1862 

Gasparin, de, Agenor Etienne, Comte. Son. Fr. 

publicist 1810... 1871 

Gasparini, Francesco, Ital. musical composer 1665. . .1727 

Gasparino, Barzizzio, Ital. philologist and author 1370. . .1431 

Gass, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Joachim, Ger. the- 
ologian 1813 

Gassendi, Pierre, Fr. philosopher 1592. . .1655 

Gasser, Simon Peter, Ger. jurist and political econo- 
mist 1675... 1745 

Gassion, de, Jean, marshal of France 1609. . .1647 

Gast, Rev. John, Irish historian 1715. . .1788 

Gataker, Thomas, Eng. divine and critic 1574. . .1654 

Gates, Horatio, Am. major-general 1728. . .1806 

122 



GATLING—GELL 



BORN. DIED. 

Gatling, Richard Jordan, Am. inventor 1818 

Gatteaux, Jacques Edouard, Fr. sculptor and engraver 1788. . .1881 
Gatterer, Johann Christoph, Ger. geographer and 

historian , 1727. . .1799 

Gatti, Bernardino. 11 Sogaro. Ital. painter ? 1495. . .1575 

Gau, Franz Christian, Ger. architect 1790. . .1853 

Gaubil, Antoine, Fr. missionary to China 1689. . .1759 

Gaucher, Charles Etienne, Fr. writer on art 1740. . .1804 

Ga udeu, John, Eng. bishop and political writer 1605. . .1662 

Gaudeuzi, Pellegrino, Ital. poet 1749. . .1784 

Gaudenzio, Paganinl, Ital. Hellenist 1596. . .1648 

Gaudichaud-Beaupre*, Charles, Fr. botanist 1780. . .1854 

Gaudin, Martin Michel Charles, duke of Gaeta. Fr. 

financier and minister of finance 1756. . .1844 

Gaultier, Aloysius Edouard Camille, Abbe", Fr. edu- 
cator ? 1745... 1818 

Gaultier, Leonhard, Ger. engraver 1552 

Gaume, Jean Joseph, Fr. author 1802. . .1869 

Gauss, Karl Friedrich, Ger. mathematician. [Helio- 
trope.] 1777... 1855 

Gaussin, Jean Catherine, Fr. actress ? 1711. . .1767 

Gautama, Indian philosopher. The legendary founder 

of Buddhism B. C. ? 624 . . . ? 543 

Gamier, Jean Alfred, Fr. savant 1792. . .1881 

Gautier, Jean Francois Eugene, Fr. violinist and com- 
poser 1822 

Gautier, Theophile, Fr. poet, novelist, and critic 1811. . .1872 

Gavarni, pseudonym of Sulpice Guillaume Paul Chev- 
alier. Fr. caricaturist 1801. . .1866 

Gavazzi, Alessandro, Ital. priest and politician 1809. . .1889 

Ga vest on , Piers, favorite of Edward II. of England 1312 

Gay, Claude, Fr. naturalist '. . . 1800 

Gay, John, Eng. poet and dramatist 1688. . .1732 

Gay, Marie Francoise Sophie, Madame, Fr. novelist — 1776. . .1852 

Gayangos, de, Pascual, Span, historian and orientalist 1809 

Gayarre*, Charles E. Arthur, Am. historian 1805 

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, Fr. chemist 1778. . .1850 

Gaza, Theodore, Greek reviver of Greek literature. . . .? 1400. . .1478 

Gazzainga, Marietta, Ital. soprano 1826. . .1884 

Geary, John White, Am. general and politician 1819. . .1873 

Geber, Abu Musa Jaffar al-Sofl, Arabian chemist fl. 8th c. 

Ged, William, Scot, inventor of stereotyping ? 1690. . .1749 

Geddes, Alexander, Scot. Roman Catholic biblical critic 1737. . .1802 

Gedike, Friedrich, Ger. teacher and author 1754. . .1803 

Geefs, Guillaume, Belgian sculptor 1806 . . . 1860 

Geel, Jakob, Dutch writer and critic 1789 

Geer, von, Karl, Baron, Swed. naturalist 1720 . . .1778 

GefTrard, Fabre, president of Hayti 1806 

Geibel, Emanuel, Ger. poet 1815. . .1884 

Geiger, Abraham, Ger. rabbi and biblical critic 1810. . .1874 

Geijer, Eric Gustaf, Swed. historian and poet 1783. . .1847 

Gell, Sir William, Eng. archaeologist and traveler 1777. . .1836 

123 



GELLERT— GERBERT 



BORN. DIED. 

Gellert, Christian Ftirchtegott, Ger. poet and moralist 1715. . .1769 

Gelli, Giovanni Battista, Ital. miscellaneous writer 1498. . .1563 

Geminiani, Francesco, Ital. musical composer ? 1680... 1762 

Gemistus, George. Pletho. Greek Platonic philoso- 
pher fl. 1430 

Gendrin, August Nicolas, Fr. physician. 1796 

Genee, Richard, Ger. composer 1823 .. 

Genest, or Genet, Edmond Charles, Fr. diplomatist. . 1765. . .1834 

Genevieve, Saint, patron saint of Paris ? 422. . . 512 

Genga, Girolamo, Ital. painter and architect 1476. . .1551 

Genghis Khan, Asiatic conqueror ? 1160. . .1227 

Ge*nin, Frangois, Fr. philologist 1803. . .1856 

Genlis, de, Felicite* Stephanie Ducrest de Saint-Aubin, 

Countess, Fr. novelist 1746. . .1830 

Gennaro, Giuseppe Aurelio, Ital. lawyer and writer. . . 1701. . .1761 
Genoude, Antoine Eugene, Fr. journalist and historian 1792. . .1849 
Genovesi, Antonio, Ital. metaphysician and political 

economist 1712. . .1769 

Genseric, king of the Vandals. A famous conqueror. ?406... 477 

Gens on ne, Armand, Fr. advocate and politician 1758. . .1793 

Gen til, Jean Baptiste Joseph, Fr. writer 1726. . .1799 

Gentz, von, Friedrich, Ger. publicist 1764. . .1832 

Geoffrin, Marie Therese Rodet, Fr. social leader 1699. . .1777 

Geoffroy of Monmouth, Eng. chronicler ? 1100. . .1154 

Geoffroy, Etienne Frangois, Fr. physician and author 1672.. .1731 
Geoffroy, Louis Julien, Abbe", Fr. litterateur and critic 1773. . .1814 

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, Fr. zoologist 1772. . .1844 

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. Son. Fr. zoologist 1805... 1861 

George, Saint, patron saint of England . . * ? 303 

George, Henry, Anglo- Am. politico-economist 1839 

George I. , Lewis, king of Great Britain 1660. . .1727 

George II., Augustus, king of Great Britain 1683. . .1760 

George III., William Frederick, king of Great Brit- 
ain 1738... 1820 

George IV., Augustus Frederick, king of Great Brit- 
ain 1762... 1830 

Georges, Mile. Marguerite Josephine, Fr. actress 1787. . .1867 

Geramb, de, Ferdinand, Baron, Fr. Trappist 1772. . .1848 

Gerando, de, Joseph Marie, Fr. philosopher 1772. . .1842 

Gerard, Alexander, Scot, divine and writer 1728. . .1795 

Gerard, Cecile Jules Basile. Tlie Ldon Killer. Fr. 

officer. 1817... 1864 

Ge*rard, Etienne Maurice, Count, marshal of France. . 1773.. .1852 

Ge>ard, Frangois Pascal Simon, Baron, Fr. painter 1770. . .1837 

Ge*rard, Jean Ignace Isidore. Grandville. Fr. carica- 
turist 1803... 1847 

Gerard-Thorn, founder of the order of St. John of 

Jerusalem ? 1040. . . 1121 

Gerber, Ernst Ludwig, Ger. organist and writer on 

music 1746... 1819 

Gerbert, Martin, Baron von Hornau, Ger. writer on 

music 1720... 179a 

124 



GERDIL— GIFFORD 



BORN. DIED. 

Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond, Savoyard philosopher. . . 1718. . .1802 

Gerdy , Pierre Nicolas, Fr . physiologist 1797 . . . 1856 

Gerhard, Eduard, Ger. archaeologist 1795. . .1867 

Gerhardt, Charles Fre*de"ric, Fr. chemist 1816. . .1856 

Gerhardt, Paul, Ger. poet and Lutheran preacher 1607. . .1676 

Gericault, Jean Louis ThCodore Andre", Fr. painter. . . 1790. . .1834= 

Gerlach, von, Ernst Ludwig, Pruss. journalist 1795 

Geiiach, von, Otto. Brother. Ger. theologian 1801. . .1849 

Ger 1 ache, de, Etienne Constantin, Baron, Belgian 

historian and statesman 1785 

Germain, Saint, of Auxerre, Fr. theologian ? 380. . . 448 

Germanicus, Caesar, Roman general B. C. 14. .A. D. 19 

Ge*r6me, Jean L6on, Fr. painter 1824 

Gerry, Elbridge, fifth Vice-President of the United 

States 1744... 1814 

Gerson, de, Jean Charlier, Fr. theologian 1363. . .1429 

Gerstacker, Friedrich, Ger. traveler and writer 1816. . .1872 

Gervinus, Georg Gottfried, Ger. historian and politi- 
cian 1805. . .1871 

Gesenius, Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm, Ger. oriental- 
ist 1786... 1842 

Gesner, von, Konrad, Swiss naturalist 1516. . .1565 

Gessler, Austrian bailiff killed by William Tell ? 1307 

Gessner, or Gesner, Salomon, Swiss poet and painter 1730.. .1788 

Gfrorer, August Friedrich, Ger. historian 1803. . .1861 

Ghazan Khan, Mongol sovereign of Persia ? 1270. . .1304 

Gherardesca, Ugolino della, Ital. partisan leader 

doomed to starvation in the Gualandi Tower 1289 

Ghiberti, Lorenzo, Ital. sculptor 1378 . .? 1455 

Ghika, John, Prince, Roumanian diplomat 1818. . .1881 

Ghirlandaio. Domenico Corradi. Florentine painter 1451... 1495 
Giambelli, Federigo, Ital. military engineer and pyro- 
technist fl. 1585 

Giannelli, Pietro, Ital. cardinal 1807. . . 1881 

Giannone, Pietro, Ital. historian 1676. . .1748 

Giannotti, Donato, Ital. historian. 1494. . .1563 

Giardini, Felice, Ital. violinist and composer 1716. . .1796 

Gibbon, Edward, Eng. historian 1737. . .1794 

Gibbons, Grinling, Eng. sculptor and carver in wood. . 1648. . .1721 

Gibbons, Orlando, Eng. organist and composer 1583. . .1625 

Gibbs, Josiah Willard, Am. philologist 1790. . .1861 

Gibert, Balthasar, Fr. savant and critic 1662 . . .1741 

Giber t de Montreuil, Fr. troubadour fl. 12th c. 

Gibson, John, Eng. sculptor 1791. . .1866 

Gibson, Thomas Milner, Eng. statesman 1806 . . .1884 

Giddings, Joshua Reed, Am. statesman 1795. . .1864 

Giesebrecht, von, Friedrich Wilhelm Benjamin, 

Ger. historian 1814 

Gieseler, Johann Karl Ludwig, Ger. church historian. 1792.. .1854 

Gilford, Sanf ord Robinson, Am. painter 1823 

Gilford, William, Eng. journalist and critic. [Quar- 
terly Review.] 1757.. .1826 

125 



GIGLI— GIRARDIN 



BORN. DIED. 

Gigli, Girolamo. Nenci. Ital. author 1660. . .1722: 

Gignoux, Francois Regis, Fr. painter 1816 

Gigoux, Jean Francois, Fr. painter 1806 

Gil bert , Davies. Giddy. Eng. scholar 1767. . . 1839 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, Eng. navigator 1539. . .158a 

Gilbert, Sir John, Eng. painter 1817 

Gilbert, Nicolas Joseph Laurent, Fr. satiric poet 1751. . .178G 

Gilbert, Walter Bond, Eng. organist in America 1829 

Gilbert, William, Eng. physician and natural phiV>s. 1540... 160a 
Gilbert, William Schwenk, Eng. poet and dramatist. 

[Bab Ballads, Gilbert and Sullivan Operas.] 1836 

Gilchrist, John Borthwick, Scot, orientalist 1759. . .1841 

Gilchrist, William Wallace, Am. musician 1846 

Gilder, Richard Watson, Am. editor and author 1844 

Gilder, William Henry, Am. explorer 1838 

Giles, William Branch, Am. statesman 1762. . .1830 

Gilfillan, George, Scot, author 1813 

Gilfillan, Robert, Scot, poet ?1798...1850 

Gill, Andre, Fr. caricaturist 1839. ..1885 

Gill, John, Eng. theologian and author 1697. . .1771 

Gilles, Pierre, Fr. naturalist, traveler, and writer 1490. . .1555 

Gillespie, William Mitchell, Am. civil engineer 1816. . .186a 

Gillies, John, Scot, historian 1746. ..1836 

Gillmore, Quincy Adams, Am. soldier 1825. . .1888 

Gillott, Joseph, Eng. manufacturer of steel pens 1800. . .1872; 

Gillray, James, Eng. engraver and caricaturist 1785. . .1815 

Gilpin, Bernard. Apostle of tlie North. Eng. reformer 1517... 158a 

Gilpin, Rev. William, Eng. critic and biographer 1724. . .1804 

Gil Vicente, Port, dramatist 1485. ..1557 

Gil y Zarate, Don Antonio, Span, dramatist 1793 

Gingnene", Pierre Louis, Fr. historian 1748. . .1816 

Ginkel, van, Godard, Earl of Athlone, Dutch general.? 1630. . .170a 

Gioberti, Giovanni Antonio, Ital. chemist 1761. . .1834 

Gioberti, Vincenzo, Ital. philosopher and statesman. . 1801. ..1852: 
Giocondo, Fra Giovanni, Ital. architect and anti- 
quary ? 1450. .71521 

Gioja, Melchiorre, Ital. political economist 1767. . .1829 

Giordano, Luca. Fa Presto. Neapolitan painter 1632... 1705 

Giorgione, Giorgio Barbarelli, Ital. painter 1477. . .1511 

Giotto, Florentine painter and architect 1276. . .1336 

Giovanetti, Giacomo, Ital. jurist and economist 1787. . .1849 

Giovini, Angelo Aurelio Bianchi, Ital. author 1799. . .1862 

Giovio, Paolo, Ital. Latin historian 1483. . .1552 

Giraldus Cambrensis, Eng. historian ? 1147..? 1220 

Girard, Gabriel, Fr. philologist ? 1677. . .174a 

Girard, Pierre Francois Eugene, Fr. painter and en- 
graver 1805 . . .1881 

Girard, Pierre Simon, Fr. engineer and scientific writer 1765. . .1836 
Girard, Stephen, Am. banker. Founder of Girard 

College ^ 1750... 1831 

Glrardin, de, Delphine Gay, Mme. Wife of Emile 

Gvrardim,. Fr. authoress 1804. . .1855 

126 



GIRARDIN— G OD UNOFF 



BORN. DIED. 

Girardin, de, Emile, Fr. journalist 1806. . .1881 

Gir ardin, Jean Pierre Louis, Fr. chemist 1803 

Girardin, Marc, or Saint-Marc, Fr. journalist 1801. . .1873 

Girardon, Francois, Fr. sculptor 1628. . .1715 

Giraud, Charles Joseph Barthelemy, Fr. jurist 1802 

Girodet-Trioson, Anne Louis, Fr. painter 1767. . .1824= 

Gislason, Conrad, Icelandic philologist 1808 

Giudici, Paolo Emiliani, Ital. author 1812. . .1872 

Giulio Romano, Ital. painter 1492.. .1546 

Giusti, Giuseppe, Ital. satirical poet 1809. . .1850 

Giustiniani, Agostino Pantaleone, Genoese philologist 1470... 1536 

Gladstone, William Ewart, Eng. statesman 1809 

Glaire, Jean Baptiste, Fr. orientalist 1798 

Glaisher, James, Brit, meteorologist ? 1820 

Glanvill, Joseph, Eng. philosopher 1636. . .1680 

Glass, Solomon, Ger. theologian and Hebraist 1593. . .1656 

Glauber, Johann Rudolf, Ger. chemist. [Glauber's 

salts.'] 1604... 1668 

Gleditseh, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. botanist 1714. . .1786 

Gleichen. von, Friedrich Wilhelm. Russworm. Ger. 

naturalist 1717... 1783 

Gleig, George Robert, Scot, divine and author ? 1796 

Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig, Ger. poet 1719. . .1803 

Glendower, Owen, Welch chieftain ? 1349. . .1415 

Gliddon, George Robins, Am. Egyptologist 1809. . .1857 

Glinka, Feodor Nikolaevitch, Russ. writer 1788 

Glisson, Francis, Eng. physician and anatomist 1597. . .1677 

Gloucester, Robert of, early Eng. writer fl. ? 1280 

Glover, Richard, Eng. poet and dramatist 1712. . .1785 

Gl tick. Christian Friedrich, Ger. jurist 1755. . .1831 

Gluck, von, Christoph Wilibald, Ger. composer 1714. . .1787 

Gmelin, Johann Friedrich. Nephew of J. G. G. Ger. 

naturalist 1748... 1804 

Gmelin, Johann Georg, Ger. naturalist 1709. . .1755 

Gmelin, Leopold. Son of J. F. G. Ger. chemist 1788. . .1853 

Gneiseuau, von, August Neidhardt, Count, Pruss. 

field-marshal 1760 . . . 1831 

Gobelin, Gilles and Jean. Brothers. Fr. dyers fl. 1450 

Godard, Ernest, Fr. aeronaut 1885 

God dard, Jonathan, Eng. physician and chemist 1617. . .1674 

Godefroi, Denis. The Elder. Fr. jurist 1549... 1623 

Godfrey, Thomas, Am. mathematician. [Quadrant.'] 1740 

Godfrey of Bouillon, Fr. chief of the first crusade.. .71058.. .1100 

Godin, Louis, Fr. astronomer 1704. . .1760 

Godiva. Lady Godiva. Wife of Leofric, Earl of 

Leicester. Romantic Eng. heroine fl. 11th c. 

Godkin, Edwin Lawrence, Am. journalist 1831 

Godman, John D., Am. physician and naturalist 1794. . .1880 

Godolphin, Sidney, Earl of, Eng. statesman ? 1630. . .1712 

Godoy, de, Don Manuel, Duke of Alcudia. The Prince 

of Peace. Span, courtier 1767. . ..1851 

Godunoff, Boris Fedoroviteh, czar of Russia 1552. . .1605 

127 



G OD WIN— G OR RINGER 



BORN. DIED. 

Godwin, Earl of Wessex, Eng. statesman ? 1053 

Godwin, George, Eng. architect 1815. . .1886 

Godwin, Parke, Am. journalist 1816 

Godwin, William, Eng. novelist. [Caleb Williams.]... 1756. . .1836 

Goes, van der, Hugo, Flemish painter ? 1420..? 1480 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, Ger. author 1749. . .1832 

Goflfe, William, Eng. Puritan and regicide ? 1605. . .1679 

Gogol, Nikolai Yassilievitch, Russ. writer ? 1810. . .1852 

Gohier, Louis Je*r6me, Fr. politician and author 1746. . .1830 

Goldoni, Carlo, Ital. dramatic and comic author 1707. . .1793 

Goldsborough, Louis Malesherbes, Am. rear-admiral 1805... 1877 
Goldschmidt, Hermann, Ger. painter and astronomer 1802. . .1866 
Goldsmith, Oliver, Irish poet, historian, and novelist. . 1728. . .1774 

Goldstficker, Theodor, Ger. Sanskrit scholar 1821. . .1872 

Golius, Jakob, Dutch orientalist 1596. . .1667 

Golovnin, Vasili, Russ. navigator 1776. ..1832 

Goltzius, Heinrich, Dutch painter and engraver. 1558. . .1617 

Gomar, Francis, Flemish Calvinistic theologian 1563. . .1641 

Gombaul d, de, Jean Ogier, Fr. poet and wit 1567. . .1666 

Gomez, Estevan, Port, explorer 1525 

Gomez, Sebastiano, Span, painter ? 1616..? 1690 

Goncalvez, Joaquim Affonso, Port, missionary to 

China 1780... 1841 

Goncalvez Diaz, A., Brazilian poet 1823. . .1866 

Gondi, de, Philippe Emanuel, Fr. general ? 1584. . .1662 

Gondola, Giovanni di Francesco, Illyrian poet 1588. . .1636 

Gongora y Argote, de, Luis, Span, poet 1561. . .1627 

Gonsalvo de Cordova, Hernandez. The Great Cap- 
tain. Span, warrior ? 1443. . .1515 

Gonthier, Johann, Ger. anatomist and writer 1487. . .1574 

Gonzaga, de, Thomas Antonio Costa, Brazilian poet. . 1747. . .1793 
Gonzaga, di, Giovanni Francesco, first marquis of 

Mantua ... 1394 . . . 1444 

Gonzalez de Berceo, Juan, Span, poet 1196... 1266 

Good, Dr. John Mason, Eng. physician and author 1764. . .1827 

Goodall, Frederick, Eng. painter 1822 

Goodrich, Chauncey Allen, Am. divine and scholar 1790. . .1860 

Goodrich, Samuel Griswold. Peter Parley. Nephew 

ofC.A.G. Am. author 1793.. .1860 

Goodyear* Charles, Am. inventor of rubber goods 1800. . .1860 

Goppert, Heinrich Robert, Ger. botanist 1800 

Gordon, George, Eng. political agitator 1750. . .1793 

Gordon, William, Eng. clergyman and historian 1730. . .1807 

Gore, Catherine Grace, Eng. novelist 1799. . .1861 

G5rgei, Arthur, Hungarian general 1818 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinaudo, Eng. lord proprietary of 

Maine 1647 

Gorgias, Greek rhetorician and sophist B.C. ?487...?380 

G ori, Antonio Francesco, Ital. antiquary 1691 . . . 1757 

Gorres, Jakob Joseph, Ger. publicist and author 1776. . .1848 

Gorringer, Henry H., Am. sailor and engineer. 

{Brought the Central Park obelisk from Egypt. .] 1839. . .1885 

128 



G ORTCHAKOFF— GRAFE 



BORN. DIED. 

GortchakofT, Alexander, Prince, Russ. statesman and 

diplomatist 1798 . . . 1883 

Gortchakoft", Mikhail, Prince, Russ. commander 1795. . .1861 

G or to n, Samuel, pioneer settler in Rhode Island ? 1600. . .1677 

Gortz, George Heinrich, Baron, Swed. statesman 1719 

Goschel, Karl Friedrich, Ger. jurist and author. 1784. . . .... 

Goschen, George Joachim, Eng. statesman 1831 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, Eng. voyager to America 1607 

Goss, Sir John, Eng. composer 1820 

Gosse, Philip Henry, Eng. naturalist 1810. . .1888 

Gosselin, Pierre Frangois Joseph, Fr. geographer 1751. . .1830 

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, Am. pianist and composer 1829. . .1869 

Gottschall, Rudolph, Ger. author 1823 

Gottsched, Johann Christoph, Ger. author and critic. . 1700. . .1766 

Gough, Hugh, Viscount, Brit, field-marshal 1779 . . . 1869 

G ough, John B., Am. lecturer on temperance 1817. . .1886 

Gough, Richard, Eng. antiquary 1735. . .1809 

Goujon, Jean, Fr. sculptor and architect ? 1515. . .1572 

Goulart, Simon, Fr. Protestant divine and historical 

writer 1543... 1628 

Gould, Augustus Addison, Am. naturalist 1805. . .1866 

Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, Jr., Am. astronomer 1824 

Gould, Hannah Flagg, Am. poetess 1789. . .1865 

Gould, Jay, Am. financier 1836 

Gould, John, Eng. ornithologist 1804. . .1881 

Gounod, Charles Frangois, Fr. musical composer 1818 

Goupil, Jules, Fr. painter 1841. . .1883 

Gourgaud, Gaspard, Baron, Fr. general i 1783. . .1852 

Gourgues, de, Dominique, Fr. mariner ? 1530..? 1593 

Gournay, de, Marie le Jars, Fr. writer and editress. .. 1566. . .1645 

Gousset, Thomas Marie Joseph, Fr. cardinal 1792. . .1866 

Gouvea, de, Antonio, Port, jurist and philosopher 1505. . .1566 

Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Laurent, marshal of France. . . . 1764. . .1830 

Govinda Singh, chief of the Sikhs 1661. . .1708 

Go wer, John, Eng. poet ? 1320. . .1402 

Gowrie, John Ruthven, Earl of, leader of the " Raid 

of Ruthven " 1577 . . . 1600 

Gozlan, Leon, Fr. dramatist 1806. . .1866 

Gozzi, Carlo, Count, Ital. dramatist and novelist ? 1718. . .1806 

Gozzoli, Benozzo, Florentine painter 1405 . . .1485 

Graaf, van, Regnier, Dutch physician and physiologist 1641. . .1673 

Grabbe, Christian Dietrich, Ger. dramatic poet 1801. . .1836 

Graberg von Hernso, Jakob, Swed. geographer 1776... 1847 

Gracchus, Caius Sempronius, Roman statesman. B. C. ? 157. . . 121 
Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius. Brother. Roman 

statesman .B. C. ?168. . .? 133 

Gradenigo, Pietro, doge of Venice 1249. . .1311 

Grady, Henry Woodfen, Am. editor. [Atlcmta Consti- 
tution.] 1845... 1889 

Grseme, John, Scot, poet 1748. . .1772 

Grsevius, Johann Georg. Grdfe. Ger. classical scholar 1632... 1703 

Grafe, van, Albrecht. Son. Ger. oculist 1828. . .1870 

129 



GRAFE—GRATTAN 



BORN. DIED. 

Grafe, van, Karl Ferdinand, Ger. surgeon 1787. . .1840 

Graham, George, Eng. mechanician and watch-maker 1675. . .1751 

Graham, George Rex, Am. editor .. 1813 

Graham, John, of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee 164=3. . .1689 

Graham, Sylvester, Am. vegetarian advocate. [Gra- 
ham bread.] 1794 . . .1851 

Graham, Thomas, Brit, chemist 1805. . .1869 

Graham, William Alexander, Am. statesman 1804. . .1875 

Grahame, James, Scot, historian. [History of the 

U.S.] , 1842 

Gram, .Tohan, or Hans, Danish philologist 1685 . . .1748 

Gramont, de, Antoine Age*nor Alfred, Duke, Fr. di- 
plomatist 1819 

Gramont, de, Philibert, Comte, Fr. courtier 1621. . .1707 

Granada, de, Fray Luis, Span, pulpit orator 1504. . .1588 

Granby, John Manners, Marquis of, Eng. general 1721. . .1770 

Grandi, Guido, Ital. mathematician 1671 . . .1742 

Grandpre*, de, Louis Marie Joseph Ohier, Count, Fr. 

navigator 1761. . .1846 

Granet, Francois Marius, Fr. painter 1775. . .1849 

Granger, Francis, Am. lawyer and politician 1792. . .1868 

Granger, Gideon, Am. statesman 1767. . .1822 

Granger, Gordon, Am. soldier 1821.. .1876 

Granger, Robert S., Am. soldier 1816 

Granier de Cassagnac, Adolphe Bernard, Fr. jour- 
nalist and historical writer ? 1808 

Grant, Mrs. Anne, of Laggan, Scot, authoress 1755 . . . 1838 

Grant, Sir Francis, Scot, artist 1803. . .1878 

Grant, James, Scot, novelist 1822. ..1887 

Grant, James Augustus, Brit, traveler 1827 

Grant, Sir James Hope. Brother of Sir Francis. Brit. 

general 1808. ..1875 

Grant, Sir Patrick, commander-in-chief in India 1856. 1804 

Grant, Robert Edmund, Scot, physiologist and zoolo- 
gist 1793 

Grant, Ulysses Simpson, general and eighteenth Pres- 
ident of the United States 1822. . .1885 

Granvelle, de, Antoine Perrenot, Cardinal, Span. 

statesman 1517. . .1586 

Granville, George, Baron Lansdowne, Eng. author 

and politician 1667... 1735 

Granville, Granville George Leveson Gower, Earl, 

Brit, statesman 1815 

Granville, John Carteret, Earl, Eng. statesman 1690. . .1763 

Grasse-Tilly, de, Francois Joseph Paul, Comte. 

Count de Grasse. Fr. admiral 1723. . .1788 

Grassman, Hermann Gtinther, Ger. mathematician 

and linguist 1809... .... 

Graswinkel, Theodorus, Dutch jurist and political 

writer 1600. . .1666 

Gratry, Auguste Joseph Alphonse, Abbe", Fr. theologian 1805. . .1872 

Grattan, Henry, Irish orator and statesman 1746. . .1820 

130 



GRA UMANN— GREG OR Y 



BORN. DIED. 

Graumann, Johann Philipp, Ger. financier 1710. . .1762 

Graun, Karl Heinrich, Ger. musical composer 1701. . .1759 

Gravelot, Hubert Francois Bourguignon, Fr. engraver 1699. . .1773 

Graves, Thomas, Lord, Brit, admiral 1725. . .1802 

Gravesande, van 's, Willem Jakob, Dutch philoso- 
pher and mathematician 1688. . .1742 

Gravier, Jacques, Fr. missionary in America 1708 

GraVina, Giovanni Vincenzo, Ital. jurist 1664. . .1718 

Gray, Asa, Am. botanist 1810. . .1888 

Gray, Edmund Dwyer, Irish parliamentary agitator. . . 1844. . .1888 
Gray, George Robert. Brother of J. E. G. Eng. orni- 
thologist 1808... 1872 

Gray, John Edward, Eng. naturalist 1800 . . . 1875 

Gray, Captain Robert, Am. discoverer of the Columbia 

River 1755... 1806 

Gray, Thomas, Eng. poet. [.Elegy.'] 1716. . .1771 

Graziani, Francesco, Ital. vocalist 1829 

Greatrakes, Valentine, Irish empiric 1628 . .? 1700 

Greaves, John, Eng. orientalist and mathematician.. . 1602. . .1652 
Greeley, Horace, founder of the New York Tribune.. . 1811. . .1872 
Greely, Adolphus Washington, general United States 
army. Am. explorer and chief signal officer. 

{Greely Expedition.'] 1844 

Green, John Richard, Eng. historian 1837. . .1883 

Green, Samuel Abbott, Am. physician and archseolo^ 

gist 1830 

Green, Seth, Am. fish culturist 1817. . .1888 

Green, William, Am. abolitionist 1796. . .1881 

Green, William Mercer, Protestant Episcopal bishop 

of Mississippi 1798 . . . 1887 

Greene, George Washington. Grandson of General 

Greene. Am. author 1811 

Greene, Nathanael, Am. revolutionary major-general 1742... 1786 

Greene, Robert, Eng. dramatist ? 1560. . .1592 

Greenleaf, Benjamin, Am. author of mathematical 

text-books 1786.. .1864 

Greenleaf, Simon, Am. jurist 1783. . .1853 

Greenongh, Horatio, Am. sculptor 1805. . .1852 

Greg, William Rathbone, Eng. political writer 1809. . .1881 

Gre*goire, Henri, Fr. revolutionist 1750. . .1831 

Gregory I., Saint. The Great. Pope ? 540... 604 

Gregory VII. Hildebrand, Saint. Pope ? 1018 . . .1085 

Gregory XIII., Ugo Buoncompagni, pope. . 1502. . .1585 

Gregory XVI., Bartolommeo Alberto Capellari, pope 1765. . .1846 
Gregory, David. Nephew of James. Scot, mathema- 
tician 1661... 1708 

Gregory, James, Scot, geometrician. Inventor of re- 
flecting telescope 1638. . .1675 

Gregory of Nyssa, Saint, Greek father of the church. . 332. . . 394 

Gregory of Tours, Saint, father of Fr. history ? 540. . . 595 

Gregory, Olinthus Gilbert, Eng. mathematician and 

philosopher 1774... 1841 

131 



GREGORY NAZIANZEN—GROSSE 

BORN. DIED. 

Gregory IVazianzen, Saint, bishop of Constantinople ? 326...? 389 
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Saint, bishop of Neo-Ces- 

area ?210...?270 

Grenfell, George, Eng. missionary to Central Africa. . 1845 

Grenvil le, George, Eng. statesman. [Stamp Act.] 1712. . .1770 

Grenville, Sir Richard, Eng. naval officer 1540. . .1591 

Gresham, Sir Thomas, Eng. merchant 1519. . .1579 

Gresham, Walter Quinton, Am. soldier and jurist 1832 

Gresset, Jean Baptiste Louis, Fr. poet and dramatist. 1709.. .1777 

Greswell, Edward, Eng. theological author 1797. . .1869 

Gre*try, Andre* Ernest Modeste, Fr. musical composer. 1741. ..1813 

Greuze, Jean Baptiste, Fr. painter 1726. ..1805 

Greville, Sir Fulke, Lord Brooke, Eng. poet and phi- 
losopher 1554. . .1628 

Grevy, Francois Paul Jules, president of the French 

Republic 1813 

Grew, Nehemiah, Eng. vegetable anatomist ? 1628. . .1711 

Grey, Charles, Earl, prime minister of England 1764. . .1845 

Grey, Henry George, Earl. Son of Charles, Earl Grey. 

Eng. statesman «... 1802 

Grey. Lady Jane, noble and gifted Eng. lady 1537. . .1554 

Gribeauval, de, Jean Baptiste Vaquette 1715. . .1789 

Griboyedoff, Alexander Sergievitch, Russ. dramatist. 1795. ..1829 

Gridley, Richard, Am. major-general 1711. . .1796 

Griesbacb, Johann Jakob, Ger. biblical critic 1745. . .1812 

Griffin, Gerald, Irish novelist and poet 1803. . .1840 

Grijalva, de, Juan, Span, navigator 1527 

Grillparzer, Franz, Ger. dramatist 1791. . .1872 

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria, Ital. Jesuit and physicist.? 1618. ..1663 
Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco. 11 Bolognese. Ital. 

painter 1606. . .1680 

Grimke, Thomas Smith, Am. scholar and philanthro- 
pist 1786... 1834 

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior, Baron, Ger. writer 1723. . .1807 

Grimm, Jakob Ludwig, Ger. philologist and jurist 1785. . .1863 

Grimm, Wilhelm Karl. Brother of J. L. G. Ger. phi- 
lologist 1786. ..1859 

Grimshaw, William, Am. author of school-books 1782. . .1852 

Griscom, John, Am. educationist 1774. . .1852 

Grisebach, August Heinrich Rudolf, Ger. botanist 1814 

Griselda, legendary Ital. heroine fl. ? 1100 

Grisi , Giulia, Ital. opera singer 1812. . .1869 

Griswold, Rufus Wilmot, Am. author 1815. . .1857 

Grocyn, William, professor of Greek at Oxford, Eng. 1442. ..1519 

Gronovius, Jakob, Ger. philologist 1645. . .1716 

Gronovius, or Gronov, Johann Friedrich. Father. 

Ger. critic and antiquary 1611. . .1671 

Groot, Gerhard. Gerard the Great. Founder of the 

" Brethren and Clerks of the Common Life." 1340. . .1384 

Or os, Antoine Jean, Baron, Fr. painter 1771. . .1835 

Gross, Samuel, Am. surgeon and medical writer 1805. . .1884 

Grosse, Julius Waldemar, Ger. author 1828 

132 



GR OSSETESTE— G UIGGIOLI 



BORN. DIED. 

Grosse teste, or Gr cathead, Robert, Brit, theologian.? 1175. . .1253 

Grossi, Tominaso, Ital. poet 1791. . .1853 

Grosvenor, Benjamin, Eng. dissenting divine 1675. . .1758 

Grote, George, Eng. historian 1794. . .1871 

Grotefend, Georg Friedrieh, Ger. archaeologist 1775. . .1853 

Grotius, or De Groot, Hugo, Dutch jurist 1583. . .1645 

Grouchy, de, Emmanuel, Marquis, Fr. general 1766. . .1847 

Grove, Frederick, Eng. musician and author 1838 

Grove, Sir William Robert, Eng. physicist. [Correla- 
tion of Forces.'] 1811 

Gruber, Johann Gottfried,- Ger. scholar and cyclo- 

pedist 1774... 1851 

Grumbach, von, Wilhelm, Ger. insurrectionist ? 1503. . .1566 

Grundtvig, Nicolai Frederik Severin, Danish author. . 1783. . .1872 

Grundy, Felix, Am. statesman and jurist 1777. . .1840 

Gruner, Wilhelm Heinrich Ludwig, Ger. engraver 1801 

Gruter, Jan, Flemish antiquary 1560. . .1627 

GryiicTeus, Simon, Ger. Hellenist and theologian 1493. . .1541 

Gryphius, Andreas, Ger. poet 1616. . .1664 

Guadet, Marguerite Elie, Fr. orator and leading Gi- 
rondist 1758... 1794 

Guarini, Giovanni Battista, Ital. poet 1537. . .1612 

Guarini da Verona, reviver of classical learning 1370. . .1460 

Guarneri, Giuseppe Antonio, violin maker 1683. . .1745 

Guatimozin, last Aztec emperor of Mexico ? 1497. . .1525 

Gu din, Jean Antoine The*od.ore, Fr. marine painter 1802 

Guelph, noble Ger. family, originally Ital., and traced 

to the 9th c. 
Gue'neau de Montbe'liard, Philibert, Fr. naturalist 

and economist 1720. . .1785 

Gue'ne'e, Antoine, Fr. ecclesiastic and writer 1717. . .1803 

Guerard, Benjamin Edme Charles, Fr. archaeologist. 1797... 1854 
Guercino, Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, Ital. painter. 1590.. .1666 

Guericke, Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand, Ger. theologian 1803 

Guericke, von, Otto, Ger. natural philosopher. \Air- 

pwmp.]. 1602. . .1686 

Guerin, Jean Baptiste Paulin, Fr. painter 1783. . .1855 

Guerin, Pierre Narcisse, Baron, Fr. painter 1774. . .1833 

Gue*rin, de, Eugenie, Fr. authoress 1805. . .1848 

Gue*r in, de, Maurice. Brother of Eugenie. Fr. poet.. 1810... 1839 
Gue*rin-Me"neville, Felix Edouard, Fr. naturalist. . . . 1799. . .1874 

Guerrazzi, Francesco Domenico, Ital. author 1805. . .1873 

Guerrero, Vicente, mulatto president of Mexico ? 1770. . .1831 

Guess, or Se-quoyah, George, Cherokee half-breed. 

Inventor of the Cherokee alphabet ? 1770. . .1843 

Guettard, Jean Etienne, Fr. botanist and mineralogist 1715. . .1786 

Guglielmi, Pietro, Ital. musician and composer 1727. . .1804 

Guglielmini, Domenico, Ital. mathematician 1655. . .1710 

Guibert, de, Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte, Fr. 

author and soldier 1743. . .1790 

Guicciardini, Francesco, Ital. historian 1482. . .1540 

Guiccioli, Teresa Gamba, Countess, friend of Byron. . 1801 

133 



G UIDI— G UTS-MUTHS 



BORN. DIED. 

Guidi, Carlo Alessandro, Ital. lyric poet 1650. . .1712 

Guido, Guerra, Ital. military captain fl. 1254 * 

Guido delle Colonne, Sicilian historian fl. 13th c. 

Guido Reni, Ital. painter 1575. . .1642 

Guignes, de, Joseph, Fr. orientalist 1721. . .1800 

Guigniaut, Joseph Daniel, Fr. scholar and antiquary. 1794 

Guillard, Nicolas Francois, Fr. lyric poet 1752. . .1814 

Guillaume. Frere Guillaume. Fr. painter on glass. . . 1475... 1537 

Guillaumet, Gustavus Achille, Fr. painter 1840. . .1887 

Guillemeau, Jacques, Fr. surgeon ? 1520. . .1613 

Guil low, Marie Nicolas Silvestre, Abbe", Fr. author 1760. . .1847 

Guillotin, Joseph Ignace, Fr. physician. [The guillo- 
tine.] 1738... 1814 

Guilmeth, Alexandre Auguste, Fr. archaeologist 1807 

Guiuand. N., Swiss optician ? 1745. . .1825 

Guiraud, Pierre Marie Therese Alexandre, Baron, Fr. 

dramatist 1788. ..1847 

Guise ard, Robert, Norman conqueror. First duke of 

Calabria ? 1015... 1085 

Guischard, Karl Gottlieb, Ger. author 1724. . .1775 

Guise, de, Charles, Cardinal de Lorraine, Fr. states- 
man 1525... 1574 

Guise, de, Francois de Lorraine, Due, Fr. general and 

statesman 1519. . .1563 

Guise, de, Henri I. de Lorraine, Due. Le Balafre (the 

Gashed) . Fr . general and statesman 1550 . . .1588 

Guise, de, Henri II. de Lorraine, Due, generalissimo 

of the Neapolitan insurgents 1614. . .1664 

Guizot, Francois Pierre Guillaume, Fr. historian and 

statesman 1787. . .1874 

Gummere, John, Am. mathematician 1784. . .1845 

Giinderode, von, Karoline, Ger. poetess 1780. . .1806 

Gunter , Edmund, Eng. mathematician and astronomer 1581 . . . 1626 

Giinther, Anton, Ger. philosopher ? 1785. . .1863 

Gurney, Sir Goldworthy, Eng. inventor 1793. . .1875 

Gurney, Joseph John, Eng. philanthropist 1788. . .1847 

Gurowski, Adam, Count, Polish patriot and author... . 1805. . .1866 

Gush t asp, legendary Persian king. 

Gustavus I., commonly called Gustavus Vasa, king 

of Sweden 1496. . .1560 

Gustavus Adolphus, or Gustavus II., king of Swed. 1594. . .1632 

Gustavus III., king of Sweden 1746. . .1792 

Gustavus IV., Adolphus. Son of Gustavus III. King 

of Sweden 1778. ..1837 

Gutenberg, Johann, or Henne. Gdnsfleisch. Ger. re- 
puted inventor of printing ? 1400. . .1468 

Guthrie, Dr. Samuel, Am. chemist and inventor 1848 

Guthrie, Thomas, Scot, divine and philanthropist 1803. . .1873 

Guthrie, William, Scot, author ? 1708. . .1770 

Gutierres, Garcia, Span, poet and dramatist 1812. . .1884 

Guts-muths, Johann Christoph Friedrich, founder of 

the Ger. system of gynmastics (Turnwesen) 1759. . .1839 

134 



G UTZKO W—HA GHE 



BORN. DIED. 

Gutzkow, Karl Ferdinand, Ger. novelist 1811 

Giitzlaff, Karl, Prass. missionary and Chinese scholar 1803.. .1851 
Guy, Thomas, Eng. philanthropist. [Guy's Hospital.'].. 1643. . .1724: 

Guy, William Augustus, Eng. physician 1810. . .1885 

Guy on, Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte, Madame, 

Fr. mystic and authoress 1648. . .1717 

Guyot, Arnold Henry, Swiss naturalist and geographer 

in America 1807. . .1884 

Guyton de Morveau, Louis Bernard, Fr. chemist 

and scientific writer 1737. . .1816 

Guzman, Felix, pianist 1885 

Guzman, de, Alfonzo Perez. The Good. Span, com- 
mander 1258.. .1309 

Gwilt, Joseph, Eng. architect 1784. . .1863 

Gwin, William McKendry, Am. capitalist 1805 . . .1888 

Gwynn, Eleanor, mistress of Charles II. of England. . .? 1650..? 1690 

Gyongy osy , Stephen, Hungarian poet 1620 . . . 1704 

Gyrowetz, Adalbert, Bohemian composer 1763. . .1850 

Gyulay, Franz, Count, Hungarian general 1799. . .1862 



Haas, Johann Matthias, Ger. historian 1684. . .1742 

Haas, De, M. F. H., Am. marine painter 1839 

Haase, Heinrich Gottlob Friedrich Christian, Ger. 

philologist 1808 

Habeneck, Antoine Francois, Fr. musician 1781. . .1849 

Haberlin, Franz Dominicus, Ger. historian 1720. . .1787 

Habert, Pierre Joseph, Baron, Fr. general 1773. . .1825 

Habicht, Christian Maximilian, Ger. orientalist 1775... 1839 

Hachette, Jean Nicolas Pierre, Fr. mathematician... 1769... 1834 

Hackert, Philipp, Ger. painter 1737. . .1807 

Hackett, Horatio Balch, Am. biblical scholar 1808. . .1875 

Hackett, James Henry, Am. actor 1800... 1871 

Hacklander, von, Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. author.. . 1816 

Hadji Khalfa (real name Mustapha Ben Abdal- 

lah). KaUb Tchelebi (noble secretary). Turkish 

historian 1658 

Hadley, James, Am. philologist and professor of Greek 1821. . .1872 

Hadley, John, Eng. astronomer. [Hadley's Sextant.] 1744 

Hadrian, Roman emperor 76... 138 

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich, Ger. naturalist 1834 

Haen, Antoon, Dutch physician 1704. . .1776 

Haflz, Mohammed Shems ed-Din, Persian poet ? 1300..? 1390 

Hagedorn, Christian Ludwig, Ger. art-critic and 

writer 1713. . .1780 

Hagedorn, von, Friedrich, Ger. poet 1708. . .1754 

Hagen, Ernst August, Ger. writer on art 1825 

Hagen, von der, Friedrich Heinrich, Ger. philologist 1780... 1856 

Hagenbach, Karl Rudolf, Ger. historian 1801. . .1874 

Haggard, H. Rider, Eng. writer. [King Solomon's 

Mines, She, Mr. Meesoris Will, etc.] 1856 

Haghe, Louis, Eng. painter and lithographer 1802. . .1885 

135 



HAGUE— H ALLEY 



BORN. DIED. 

Hague, William, Am. Baptist minister and author. . . . 1808. . .1887 

Hahn, August, Ger. theologian 1792. . .1863 

Hahu, Philipp Matth'aus, Ger. mechanician and in- 
ventor 1739. . .1790 

Hahnel, Ernst Julius, Ger. sculptor 1811 

Hahnemann, Samuel Christian Friedrich, Ger.. phy- 
sician. Founder of the homeopathic system 1755. . .1843 

Hahn-Hahn, von, Ida Marie Luise Sophie Frieder- 

ike Gustave, Countess, Ger. authoress 1805 

Haidinger, Wilhelm, Ger. geologist and mineralogist 1795 

Hakluy t, Richard, Eng. historian and geographer ? 1553. . .1616 

Halbig, Johann, Ger. sculptor 1814= 

Haldane, Robert, Scot, philanthropist 1764. . .1842 

Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, Am. naturalist and 

philologist 1812 

Hale, Edward Everett, Am. clergyman and author 1822 

Hale, John Parker, Am. statesman 1806. . .1873 

Hale, Sir Matthew, Eng. jurist and writer 1609. . .1676 

Hale, Captain Nathan, Am. patriot 1755. . .1776 

Hale, Sarah Josepha, nee Buell, Am. authoress 1795 

Hales, John. The Ever-Memorable. Eng. divine and 

critic 1584. . . 1656 

Hales, Stephen, Eng. natural philosopher 1677. . .1761 

Halevy, Jacques Francois Fromental Elie, Fr. com- 
poser 1799 . . . 1862 

Hale*vy, Leon, Fr. dramatist 1802. . .1883 

Halford, Sir Henry, Eng. physician and Latinist 1766. . .1844 

Haliburton, Thomas Chandler. Sam Slick. Nova 

Scotian humorist 1802. . .1865 

Halifax, Charles Montagu, Earl of, Eng. statesman. . . 1661. . .1715 
Halifax, George Saville, Marquis of, Eng. statesman. . 1630. . .1695 

Hall, Basil, Scot, traveler and author 1788. . .1844 

Hall, Charles Cuthbert, Am. Reformed minister 1828 

Hall, Charles Francis, Am. arctic explorer 1821. . .1871 

Hall, Charles H., Protestant Episcopal minister 1820 

Hall, James, Am. author and judge 1793. . .1868 

Hall, James, Am. geologist 1811 

Hall, Joseph, Eng. bishop and author 1574. . .1656 

Hall, Marshall, Eng. physician 1790. . .1857 

Hall, Newman, Eng. dissenting minister and author. . 1816 

Hall, Robert, Eng. Baptist divine 1764. . .1831 

Hall, Samuel Carter, Eng. author 1800 

Hall, Mrs. S. C. (Anna Maria Fielding). Wife of S. 0. 

H. Irish authoress 1805. . .1881 

Hallam, Arthur Henry, essayist and poet 1811. . .1833 

Hallam, Henry. Father. Eng. historian and critic. . . 1777. . .1859 

Halle", Jean Noel, Fr. physician 1754. . .1822 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, Am. poet 1790. . .1867 

Halleck, Henry Wager, Am. general and military 

writer 1815... 1872 

Haller, von, Albrecht, Swiss physiologist 1708. . .1777 

Halley, Edmund, Eng. astronomer and mathematician 1656. . .1742 

136 



HA LLI WELL- PHILLIPS— HARDEE 

BOBN. DIED. 

Halliwell-Phillips, James Orchard, Eng. antiquary 

and philologist 1820. . .1889 

Hals, Franciscus, Dutch painter . ., 1584. . .1666 

Halstead, Murat, Am. journalist 1829 

Hamaker, Hendrik Arens, Dutch orientalist 1789. . .1835 

Ha maim, Johann Georg, Ger. philosopher 1730. . .1788 

Hamberger. Georg Erhard, Ger. physician 1697. . .1755 

Hamer ton, Philip Gilbert, Eng. author 1834 

H ami I car Barca, Carthaginian general. Father of 

Hannibal B. C 229 

Hamilton, Alexander, Am. lawyer and statesman 1757. . .1804 

Hamilton, Count Anthony, Fr. writer, born in Ireland.? 1646. . .1720 

Hamilton, Frank Hastings, Am. surgeon 1813. . .1886 

Hamilton, Sir William, Scot, philosopher and meta- 
physician 1788. . .1856 

Hamilton, Sir William, Brit, antiquary 1730. . .1803 

Hamilton, Sir William Rowan, Irish astronomer and 

geometer 1805 . . . 1865 

Hamlin, Hannibal, Am. statesman 1809 

Hammerich, Frederik Peder Adolf, Danish author. . . 1809 

Hammer-Purgstall, von, Joseph, Baron, Ger. ori- 
entalist and historian 1774. . .1856 

Hammond, William Alexander, Am. physician 1828 

Hamon, Jean Louis, Fr. painter 1821. . .1874 

Hampden, John, Eng. statesman 1594. . .1643 

Hampden, Renn Dickson, Eng. bishop and moral phi- 
losopher 1793. . .1868 

Hampton, Wade, Am. general 1755. . .1835 

Hampton, Wade. Grandson. Confederate lieutenant- 
general 1818 

Hancock, John, Am. statesman 1737. . .1793 

Hancock, Winfield Scott, Am. general 1824. . .1886 

Handel, Georg Friedrich, Ger. musical composer 1685. . .1759 

Hanel, Gustav Friedrich, Ger. jurist 1792 

Hanka, Venceslav, Bohemian philologist 1791. . .186L 

Hanke, Henriette Wilhelmine. Arndt. Ger. novelist 1785... ... r 

Hankel, Wilhelm Gottlieb, Ger. physicist 1814 

Hannibal, Carthaginian general B. C. 247. . . 183 

Hansard, Luke, Eng. parliamentary printer 1752. . .1828 

Hansemann, David Justus Ludwig, Pruss. statesman 

and financier 1790 

Hansen, Peter Andreas, Ger. astronomer 1795. . .1874 

Hans Sachs, Ger. shoe-maker and poet 1494. . .1576 

Hansteen, Christoffer, Norwegian astronomer 1784. . .1873 

Han way, Jonas, Eng. philanthropist and author 1712. . .1786 

Harbaugh, Henry, Am. clergyman 1817. . .1867 

Harcourt, d', Henri, Due, Fr. general and diplomatist 1654. . .1718 
Harcourt, Sir Simon, first Viscount Harcourt, lord 

chancellor of England 1660. . .1727 

Harcourt, Sir William George Granville Vernon, Eng. 

lawyer 1827 

Hardee, William J., Confederate general. [Tactics.']. . 1818. . .1873 

137 



HARDENBERG— HARRISON 



BORN, DIED. 

Hardenberg, von, Friedrich, Ger. author 1772. . .1801 

Hardenberg, von, Karl August, Prince, Pruss. states- 
man 1750... 1822 

Hardicanute, king of England and Denmark ? 1017. . .1042 

Hardin, Benjamin, Am. lawyer and legislator 1784. . .1852 

Harding, Chester, Am. portrait painter 1792 . . . 1866 

Harding, James Duffield, Eng. painter and writer on 

art 1798... 1863 

Hardingc, Henry, Viscount, Eng. general 1785 . . .1856 

Hardouin, Jean, Fr. Jesuit and writer 1646. .1729 

Hardt, von der, Hermann, Ger. philologist 1660. . .1746 

Hardwicke, Philip Yorke, first Earl, Eng. jurist 1690. . .1764 

Hardy, Sir Thomas Masterman, Brit, naval officer . . . . 1769. . .1839 
Hare, Augustus Julius Charles. Nephew of J. 0. JET. 

Eng. author 1834 

Hare, Julius Charles, Eng. clergyman and author 1796. . .1855 

Hare, Robert, Am. physicist 1781. . .1858 

Haren, van, Willem, Dutch poet 1713. . .1768 

Hargraves, Edmund Hammond, Eng. discoverer of 

gold in Australia ? 1816 

Hargreaves, James, Eng. inventor of the spinning- 
jenny ?1770 

Haring, Wilhelm. Wilibald Alexis. Ger. novelist 1797. . . 1871 

Hariri, Abu Mohammed Kasem ben Ali, Arabian 

poet ? 1045. .71122 

Harlan, John M., Am. jurist 1834 

Harlay, de, Achille, Fr. jurist 1536. . .1616 

Harless, Gottlieb Christoph Adolf, Ger. Protestant 

theologian 1806. . .1862 

Harley, Robert, Earl of Oxford, Eng. statesman 1661. . .1724 

Harmar, Josiah, Am. general 1753. . .1813 

Harms, Claus, Ger. theologian 1778. . .1855 

Harney, William Selby, Am. general 1798 

Harold I. Harefoot. King of the Anglo-Saxons 1041 

Harold II., last Saxon king of England 1066 

Haroun-al-Raschid (" Aaron the Just "), caliph of 

Bagdad ?765... 809 

Harper, Robert Goodloe, Am. lawyer and statesman. 1765. . .1825 
Harrington, James, Eng. political writer. [Oceana.']. 1611... 1677 
Harriott, Thomas, Eng. mathematician and astron- 
omer 1560. . .1621 

Harris, James, of Salisbury, Eng. philologist. [Her- 
mes.'] ; 1709 . . .1780 

Harris, Samuel S., Am. Protestant Episcopal bishop. . 1841.. .1888 

Harris, Thaddeus William, Am. entomologist 1795. . .1856 

Harris, Thomas Lake, Am. reformer 1823 

Harris, William L., bishop in the Methodist Episcopal 

Church 1817... 1887 

Harris, Sir William Snow, Eng. physicist and inventor 1792. . .1869 

Harris, William Torrey, Am. educationist 1835 

Harrison, Benjamin, signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence ? 1740... 1791 

138 



HARRISON— HA VEL GK 



BORN. DEED. 

Harrison, Benjamin. Grandson of William Henry. 
Am. senator and twenty-third President of the 

United States 1833 

Harrison, John, Eng. mechanician. Inventor of the 

chronometer for ascertaining longitude 1693. . .1776 

Harrison, William Henry, general and ninth Presi- 
dent of the United States 1773. . .1841 

Hart, James McDougal, Am. painter, born in Scotland 1828 

Hart, Joel T., Am. sculptor ?1810...1877 

Hart, John Seely, Am. educationist 1810 . . . 1877 

Hart, William. Brother of J. McD. H. Am. landscape 

painter 1823 

Harte, Francis Bret, Am. author. 1839 

Hartley, David, Eng. physician and philosopher 1705. . .1757 

Hartmann, Moritz, Ger. poet 1821. . .1872 

Hartmann, von, Eduard, Ger. philosopher 1840 

Hartshorne, Joseph, Am. physician and surgeon 1779. . .1850 

Hartsoeker, Niklaas, Dutch philosopher and optician 1656. ..1725 

Hartzheim, Joseph, Ger. Jesuit and historian 1694. ..1763 

Harvard, John, founder of Harvard College. . . : ? 1608. . .1638 

Harvey, Sir George, Scot, painter 1805. . .1876 

Harvey, William, Eng. anatomist and physician. 

Discoverer of the circulation of the blood 1578. . .1657 

Hase, Karl August, Ger. theologian 1800 

Hasenclever, Peter, Ger. manufacturer and writer.. . 1716. . .1792 
Hassard, John R. G., Am. literary and musical critic. 1836. . .1888 

Hasse, Johann Adolf, Ger. musical composer 1699. . .1783 

Hasse, Karl Ewald, Ger. physiologist 1810 

Hassel, Johann Georg Heinrich, Ger. statistician 1770. . .1829 

Hasselquist, Fredrik, Swed. naturalist 1722. . .1752 

Hasting, or Hastings, Scand. viking or sea-rover fl. 9th c. 

Hastings, Francis Rawdon Hastings, Marquis of, Eng. 

military commander. Governor-general of India.. . 1754. . .1826 

Hastings, Hugh T., Am. journalist 1820. . .1883 

Hastings, Warren, Eng. statesman and governor- 
general of India 1732. ..1818 

Hatfield, Edwin F., Am. Presbyterian divine 1807. . .1883 

Hatton, John Liphot, Eng. composer 1815. . .1886 

Hauch, von, Johannes Carsten, Danish poet 1791. . .1872 

Haufif, Wilhelm, Ger. novelist 1802.. .1827 

Hauksbee, or Hawksbee, Francis, Eng. physicist...? 1650..? 1732 

Haupt, Moritz, Ger. philologist and writer 1808. . .1874 

Hauptmann, Moritz, Ger. musical composer 1792. .. 1868 

Haureau, Jean Barthelemy, Fr. author 1812 

Hauser, Kaspar, mysterious Nuremberg foundling... .? 1812.. .1833 

Hauser, Miska, Hungarian violinist 1822. . .1887 

Hausser, Ludwig, Ger. historian 1818. . .1867 

Haussmann, Georges Eugene, Baron, Fr. politician. . . 1809 

Hautefeuille, de, Jean, Fr. mechanician 1647. . .1724 

Hautpoul, d% Alphonse Henri, Marquis, Fr. general. 1789... 1865 

Hafiy, Rene" Just, Abbe\ Fr. mineralogist 1743. . .1822 

Havelock, Sir Henry, Brit, general 1795. . .1857 

139 



EA VEN—HEEMSKERK 



BORN. DIED- 

Haven, Erastus Otis, bishop of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church 1820. . .1881 

Haven, Joseph, Am. clergyman and philosopher 1816. . .1871 

Hawkesworth, John, Eng. miscellaneous writer. .....? 1715. . .1773 

Hawkins, Caesar Henry, Eng. surgeon 1795. . .1884= 

Hawkins, Sir John, Eng. rear-admiral ? 1520. . .1595- 

Hawks, Francis Lister, Am. clergyman 1798 . . . 1866 

Hawley, Joseph Roswell, Am. statesman 1826 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, Am. author 1804. . .1864 

Hay den, Ferdinand Yandeveer, Am. geologist 1829. . .1887 

Haydn, Joseph, Ger. musical composer 1732. . .1809- 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert, Eng. painter 1786. . .1846 

Hayes, Augustus Allen, Am. chemist 1806 

Hayes, Isaac Israel, Am. explorer 1832. . .1881 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, nineteenth President of 

the United States 1822 

Haynau, von, Julius Jakob, Baron, Austrian general 1786... 1853 

Hayne, Friedrich Gottlob, Ger. botanist 1763. . .1832 

Hayne, Isaac, Am. revolutionary officer 1745 . . .1781 

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, Am. poet 1830 

Hayne, Robert Young, Am. statesman and orator. . . . 1791. . .1840 
Hayne, William, Am. Baptist minister and scholar. . . 1808. . .1887 

Hay ward, Abraham, Eng. critic 1802. . .1884, 

Hazard, Rowland Gibson, Am. author 1801 

Hazen, William B., brigadier-general United States 

army. Meteorologist 1834. . .1887 

Hazlitt, William, Eng. critic and miscellaneous writer 1778. . .1830 
Head, Sir Edmund Walker, Baronet, governor-general 

of Canada 1805 . . . 1868 

Head, Sir Francis Bond, Eng. author. Lieutenant- 
governor of Canada 1793. ..1875 

Headley, Joel Tyler, Am. historical writer 1814 

Healy, George Peter Alexander, Am. painter ■ 1813 

Hearne, Samuel, Eng. traveler in Brit. America 1745. . .1792 

Heath, William, Am. revolutionary general 1737. . .1814 

Hebbel, Friedrich, Ger. dramatist 1813. . .1863 

Hebel, Johann Peter, Ger. poet 1760. ..1826 

Heber, Reginald, Eng. bishop of Calcutta and poet. . . . 1783. . .182ft 

Heberden, William, Eng. physician 1710. . .1801 

Hubert, Jacques Rene\ Pire Duchesne. Fr. dema- 
gogue 1755... 1794 

Hecker, Frederick Karl Franz, Ger. statesman 1811. . .1881 

Heckeweider, John, Moravian missionary in Amer.. . 1743. . .1823 

Hecquet, Philippe, Fr. physician and author 1661. . .1737 

Hederich, Benjamin, Ger. philologist and lexicog- 
rapher 1675... 1748 

Hedge, Frederick Henry, Am. divine and author 1805 

Hedlinger, Johann Karl, Swiss die-cutter 1691. . .1771 

Hedwig, Johann, Ger. botanist 1730. . .1799 

Heem, van, Jan David, Dutch painter of fruit, flow- 
ers, etc 1600 . . . 1674: 

Heemskerk, van, Jacob, Dutch admiral 1607 

140 



HEEEEN—HENNE 



BORN. DIED. 

Heeren, Arnold Hermann Ludwig, Ger. historian 1760. . .184=2 

Hefele, von, Karl Joseph, Ger. theologian 1809 

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Ger. philosopher. . . . 1770. . .1831 
Heiberg, Johann Ludwig, Danish poet and dramatist. 1791. . .1860 
Heiberg, Peder Andreas, Danish dramatist and poet. . 1758. . .1841 
Heidegger, Karl Wilhelm, or Baron von Heideck, 

Ger. general and artist 1788. . .1861 

Heilmann, Johann David, Ger. Hellenist and theolo- 

gist 1727... 1764 

Heine, Heinrich, Ger. poet and miscellaneous writer..? 1800. . .1856 
Heineccius, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. lawyer and author 1681.. .1741 
Heinecken, Christian Heinrich, Ger. infant prodigy. . 1721.. .1725 

Heinicke, Samuel, Ger. educator 1729. . .1790 

Heinse, Johann Jakob Wilhelm, Ger. writer on art. . .? 1748. . .1803 
Heinsius, Antonius, grand pensionary of Holland. . . . 1641. . .1720 

Heinsius, Daniel, Dutch poet and philologist 1580. . .1655 

Heinsius, Niklaas. Sworn of Holland. Son of D. H. 

Dutch Latin poet 1620. . .1681 

Heister, Lorenz, Ger. surgeon 1683. . .1758 

Hell, Maximilian, Hungarian astronomer 1720 . . .1792 

Heller, Joseph, Ger. writer on art 1798. . .1849 

Heller, Stephan, Ger. composer 1814 

Helmers, Jan Frederik, Dutch poet 1767. . .1813 

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand, Ger. phys- 
icist, anatomist, and physiologist. lOphthoJmo- 

scope.] 1821 

Helmont, van, Jan Baptista, Flemish physician and 

chemist 1577 . . .1644 

Helmont, van, Segres Jacob, Flemish historical 

painter 1683... 1726 

Heloi'se, abbess of the Paraclete and friend of Abelard 1101. . .1164 

Helps, Sir Arthur, Eng. historian and essayist 1817. . .1875 

Heist, van der, Bartholomeus, Dutch painter 1613..? 1670 

Helve" this, Claude Adrien, Fr. philosopher and author 1715. . .1771 
He man s, Felicia Dorothea, nee Browne, Eng. poetess. 1794. . .1835 

Hemsterhuys, Frans. Son. Dutch philosopher 1722... 1790 

Hemsterhuys, Tiberius, Dutch philologist 1685. . .1766 

Henault, Charles Jean Francois, Fr. historian and poet 1685. . .1770 

Henderson, Thomas, Scot, astronomer 1798. . .1844 

Hendricks, Thomas Andrews, Am. statesman 1819. . .1885 

Hendschel, Albert, Ger. caricaturist 1834. . .1883 

Henfrey, Arthur, Eng. botanist 1819. . .1859 

Hengist, Jutish chief. Founder of the kingdom of 

Kent 488 

Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm, Ger. Protestant theo- 
logian 1802.. .1869 

Henke, Heinrich Philipp Konrad, Ger. theologian. . . . 1752. . .1809 
Henkel, Johann Friedrich, Ger. chemist and mineral- 
ogist 1679.. .1744 

Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jakob, Ger. physiologist 1809 

Henley, John. Orator Henley. Eng. preacher 1692. . .1756 

Henne, Antonia, Am. singer 1850. . .1887 

141 



HENNEPIN— HERDER 



BORN. DIED. 

Hennepin, Louis, Flemish missionary and explorer 

of the Upper Mississippi b. ? 1640. .aft. 1701 

Henrietta Maria, queen of England 1609. . .1669 

Henrion de Pansey, Pierre Paul Nicolas, Fr. jurist 

and author 1742. . .1829 

H e n r iq u el-Bap on t, Louis Pierre, Fr. engraver 1797 

Henriqnez, Crisostomo, Span, author 1594. . .1632 

Henry I. Beauclerc. King of England 1068. ..1135 

Henry II., first of the Plantagenet line 1133. . .1189 

Henry III, Of Winchester. Waged war with the barons 1207... 1272 
Henry IV. Bolingbroke. First of the Lancastrian 

dynasty 1366 . . . 1413 

Henry V. Of Monmouth 1388.. .1422 

Henry VI. Of Windsor. [War of the Roses.'] 1421. . .1471 

Henry VII., founder of the Tudor line 1456. . .1509 

Henry VIII. [English Reformation.'] 1491. . .1547 

Henry I., king of France ? 1011... 1060 

Henry II., married Catherine de' Medici 1519. . .1559 

Henry III. Henri de Valois 1551. ..1589 

Henry IV. Le Grand. King of France and of Na- 
varre. First French king of the house of Bourbon. 

Assassinated. 1553. . .1610 

Henry I. The Fowler. Emperor of Germany 876... 936 

Henry II., Saint. The Lame. Founded monasteries 

and schools 972. . .1024 

Henry III. The Black, or The Bearded 1017. . .1056 

Henry IV. , contended agaiDSt Pope Gregory VII 1050. . .1106 

Henry V. The Young. Last emperor of the Salic line 1081. . .1125 

Henry VI. TheCruel 1165.. .1197 

Henry the Xiion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria 1129. . .1195 

Henry the Navigator, Port, prince. Promoter of 

navigation 1394. . .1460 

Henry, Etienne Ossian, Fr. chemist 1798 , 

Henry, Joseph, Am. physicist. Secretary of the 

Smithsonian Institution 1797. . .1878 

Henry, Matthew, Eng. divine and commentator 1662. . .1714 

Henry, Patrick, Am. statesman and orator 1736. . .1799 

Henselt, Adolph, Ger. pianist 1814. . .1889 

Henslow, John Stevens, Eng. botanist 1796. ..1861 

Hentz, Caroline Lee, nee Whiting, Am. authoress 1800. . .1856 

Heraclitus. The Naturalist. Greek philosopher fl. 500 B. C. 

Herapath, William, Eng. chemist 1796. . .1868 

He"rault de Sechelles, Marie Jean, Fr. revolutionist. 1760... 1794 

Herbart, Johann Friedrich, Ger. philosopher 1776. . .1841 

Herbelot, d% Barthelemy, Fr. orientalist 1625. . .1695 

Herbert, Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Eng. 

author 1581... 1648 

Herbert, George, Eng. poet 1593. . .1632 

Herbert, Henry William. Frank Forester. Am. author 1807.. .1858 

Herbert, Sidney, Baron, Eng. statesman 1810. . .1861 

Herder, von, Johann Gottfried, Ger. philosopher, 

preacher, and writer 1744 . . . 1803 

142 



HEREDIA—HE VELIUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Heredia, Jose* Maria, Cuban poet 1803. . .1839 

Heriot, George, Scot, philanthropist. [HerioVs hos- 
pital.] 1563... 1624 

Herkimer, Nicholas, Am. general 1777 

Herkomer, Hubert, Eng. artist and author 1835 

Hermann (Arminius), Ger. hero B. C. 16. .A. D. 21 

Hermann, Johann Gottfried Jakob, Ger. philologist 

and critic 1772 .. . 184=8 

Hermelin, Samuel Gustavus, Swed. mineralogist 1744. . .1820 

Hermes, Georg, Ger. theologian. [Hermesianism.]. . . . 1775. . .1831 

Hermocrates, Syracusan statesman and general. B. C ? 406 

Hernandez, Francisco, Span, physician and natur- 
alist fl. 16th c. 

Herod. The Great. King of the Jews B. C. 72..A. D. 4 

Herodian, Greek writer on Roman history fl. 3d c. 

Herodotus. Father of History. Greek historian. B.C. ? 484...? 420 
He'rold, Louis Joseph Ferdiriand, Fr. opera composer 1791... 1833 
Heron, or Hero, Greek mathematician and mechan- 
ician. [Hero's fountain.] fl. 3d c. B. C. 

Herophilus, Greek anatomist fl. ? 300 B. C. 

Herrera, de, Fernando. The Divine. Span, poet 1534. .71597 

He rrera, de, Francisco. The Elder. Span, painter... 1576... 1656 

Herrera, de, Jose* Joachim, president of Mexico 1851 

Herrera y Tordesillas, de, Antonio, Span, historian.? 1549. . .1625 
Herreros, Manuel Breton de los, Span, poet and 

dramatist ?1796 

Herrick, Robert, Eng. poet 1591. . .1674 

Herring, John Frederick, Eng. painter 1795. . .1865 

Herschel, Caroline Lucretia. Sister of Sir Wm. As- 
tronomer 1750. . .1848 

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William. Son of Sir 

Wm. Astronomer and philosopher 1792. . .1871 

Herschel, Sir William, Ger. astronomer in England.. 1738... 1822 

Hertz, Hendrik, Danish poet 1798. . .1870 

Hertzen, Alexander, Russ. author 1812. . .1870 

Hervey, James, Eng. divine. [Meditations.'] 1713. . .1758 

Her wegh, Georg, Ger. lyric poet 1817. . .1875 

He>y, de, Thierry, Fr. surgeon ? 1505. . .1599 

Herz, Heinricb, Ger. pianist and composer 1806. . .1888 

Hesiod, Greek epic poet fl. ? 800 B. C. 

Hess, Johann Jakob, Swiss Protestant theologian 1741. . .1828 

Hess, von, Reinrich, Baron, Austrian general 1788 

Hess, von, Heinrich, Ger. historical painter 1798. . .1863 

Hess, von, Peter. Brother. Ger. painter of battle- 
pieces 1792... 1871 

Hesse, Adolph Friedrich, Ger. organist 1809. . .1863 

Heuglin, von, Theodor, Baron, Ger. traveler 1824. . .1876 

Heuschling, Philip Francois Theodore, Belgian polit- 
ico-economist 1802. . .1883 

Heusde, Philippus Willem, Dutch author 1778. . .1839 

Hen sin ger, Jakob Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1719. . .1778 

Hevelius, Johannes, Polish astronomer 1611 . . .1688 

:3 



14? 



HE WES—HITCHCO GK 

BORN. DEED. 

Hewes, Joseph, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 1730. . .1779 

Hewitt, Abram Stevens, Am. manuf acturer. Mayor 

of New York 1822 

Hewson, William, Eng. anatomist 1739. . .1774 

Heyden, van der, Jan, Dutch painter ? 1637. . .1712 

Heyne, Christian Gottlob, Ger. philologist 1729. . .1812 

Heyse, Johann Ludwig Paul. Son. Ger. author 1830 

Hey so, Karl Wilhelm Ludwig, Ger. philologist 1797. . .1855 

Hey wood, Thomas, Eng. actor and dramatist ? 1650 

Hickes, George, Eng. philologist and author 1642. . .1715 

Hickoli, Laurens Perseus, Am. metaphysician 1798 . . . 1888 

Hicks, Elias, Am. preacher of the Society of Friends. . 1748. . .1830 
Hidalgo y Costilla, Don Miguel, Mexican revolu- 
tionist 1811 

Higginson, Francis, Eng. divine in America 1588. . .1630 

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, Am. author 1823 

Hilar ion, Saint, founder of monastic life in Palestine ?292. . . 371 

Hilary, Saint, bishop of Aries ?400. . . 449 

Hilary, or Hilarius, Saint, Ital. writer and bishop 

of Poitiers ? 300 . . . 367 

Hildebrand, Saint. See Gregory VII., pope... ? 1018... 1085 

Hildebrandt, Ferdinand Theodor, Ger. painter 1804. . .1874 

Hildreth, Richard, Am. historian 1807. . .1865 

Hill, Ambrose Powell, Confederate general 1825. . .1865 

Hill, Daniel Harvey, Am. general 1821 

Hill, David Bennet, governor of New York 1885, et seq. 1843 

Hill, Rev. Rowland, Eng. Methodist preacher 1744. . .1833 

Hill, Sir Rowland, Eng. author of cheap postage sys- 
tem 1795 

Hill, Thomas, Am. clergyman and educator 1818 

Hillard, George Stillman, Am. lawyer, orator, and 

author 1808 . . . 1879 

Hiller, von, Ferdinand, Ger. composer 1811... 1885 

Hillhouse, James Abraham, Am. poet 1789... 1841 

Hilton, William, Eng. historical painter 1786. . .1839 

Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich, Ger. composer 1765. . .1814 

Hincks, Sir Francis, Canadian statesman „ 1807. . .1885 

Hincmar, Fr. prelate. Archbishop of Rheims ?806... 882 

Hind, John Russell, Eng. astronomer 1823 

Hipparchus, Bithynian founder of scientific astron.. .fl. ? 150 B. C. 

Hippeau, Celestin, Fr. author and educationist 1803 

Hippel, von, Theodor Gottlieb, Ger. author 1741. . .1796 

Hippocrates. The Father of Medicine. Greek physi- 
cian B.C. 460...? 357 

Hippolytus, Saint, Greek bishop and martyr A. D. ? 238 

Hiscock, Frank, Am. lawyer and senator 1834 

Hitchcock, Edward, Am. geologist. President of Am- 
herst College 1793. . .1864 

Hitchcock, Robert B., commodore United States navy 1803. . .1888 
Hitchcock, Roswell Dwight, Am. theologian and 

author. 1817. . .1887 

144 



HITTORFF— HOLLAR 



BORN. DIED. 

Hittorff, Jacques Ignace, Fr. architect 1793. . .1867 

Hit zig, Ferdinand, Ger. biblical critic 1807. . .1875 

Hoadley, Benjamin, Eng. prelate 1676. . .1761 < 

Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood, Am. jurist and statesman 1816 

Hoar, George Frisbie. Brother. Am. lawyer and 

statesman 1826 

Hobart, Augustus Charles. Hobart Pasha. Marshal 

of the Turkish Empire 1822. . .1886 

Hobart, John Henry, Am. Protestant Episcopal bishop 1775... 1830 

Hobbes, Thomas, Eng. philosopher 1588. . .1679 

Hobhouse, John Cam, Lord Broughton, Eng. author. 1786. . .1869 

Hoclie, Lazare, Fr. general 1768. . .1797 

Hockstetter, von, Ferdinand, Ger. traveler and geol- 
ogist 1829. . .1884 

Hodge, Archibald Alexander, Am. theologian 1822. . .1886 

Hodge, Charles, Am. theologian and professor 1797. . .1878 

Hodgkinson, Eaton, Eng. physicist 1789. . .1861 

Hoe, Richard March, Am. inventor. [Hoe's lAghtning- 

Press.] 1812 

Hoefer, Johann Christian Ferdinand, Ger. writer 1811 

Hoek, van, Jan, Flemish painter ? 1597. . .1650 

Ho et, Gerard, Dutch historical painter 164=8 . . .1733 

Hoeven, van der, Jan, Dutch naturalist 1801. . .1868 

Hofer, Andreas, Tyrolese patriot 1767. . .1810 

Hoffman, Charles Fenno, Am. author 1806. . .1884 

Hoffman, John T., governor of New York 1828. . .1888 

Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Wilhelm (Amadeus). Ger. 

author and musician 1776 . . . 1822 

Hoffmann, Friedrich, Ger. physician 1660. . .1742 

Hoffmann von Fallersleben, August Heinrich, 

Ger. poet 1798. . .1874 

Hofland, Barbara, nee Wreaks, Eng. authoress 1770. . .1844 

Hofmann, August Wilhelm, Ger. chemist 1818 

Hogarth, William, Eng. painter and engraver ? 1697. . .1764 

Hogg, James. The Ettrick Shepherd. Scot, poet ? 1772 . . . 1835 

Hobenlohe, a princely family of Germany. 
Hohenstaufen, a princely family of Germany. 
Hohenzollern, a princely family of Germany. 
Holbach, von, or d', Paul Henri Thyry, Baron, Fr. 

philosopher 1723. . .1789 

Holbein, Hans, or Johann. The Yowiger. Ger. painter.? 1498.. .1543 
Holberg, von, Ludvig, Baron, Danish historian and 

dramatist 1684. . .1754 

Holbrook, John Edwards, Am. naturalist 1795. . .1871 

Ho I croft, Thomas, Eng. dramatist and translator 1745. . .1809 

H o Hushed, Raphael, Eng. chronicler ? 1580 

Holland, Sir Henry, Eng. physician 1788. . .1873 

Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, Baron, Eng. 

statesman 1773. . .1840 

Holland, Josiah Gilbert. Timothy Titcomb. Am. 

author... 1819... 1881 

Hollar, Wenzel, Bohemian engraver 1607. . .1677 

145 



H0LL1S— HOPKINS 



BORN. DIED. 

Hollis, Thomas, Eng. benefactor of Harvard College. . 1659. . .1731 
Holnian, William Steele. The Great Objector, Am. 

congressman 1822 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Am. physician, poet, and 

essayist 1809 

Hoist, Hans Peder, Danish poet 1811. . ..... 

Hoistenius, Lucas, Ger. scholar and librarian of the 

Vatican 1596... 1661 

Holt, Sir John, lord chief -justice of England 1642. . .1709 

Holt, Joseph, Am. statesman 1807 

Hdlty, Ludwig Heinrich Christoph, Ger. poet 1748. . .1776 

Holtzendorff, von, Franz, Ger. jurisconsult 1829 

Holub, Emil, African explorer 1850. . .1887 

Holyoake, George Jacob, Eng. reformer 1817 

Holyoke, Edward Augustus, Am. physician and cen- 
tenarian 1728 . . . 1829 

Homann, Johann Baptist, Ger. geographer and map 

engraver ? 1663. . .1724 

Homberg, Wilhelm, Ger. chemist and physician 1652. . .1715 

Home, Daniel Dunglas, Brit, spiritualist 1833. . .1886 

Home, Sir Everard, Scot, surgeon 1756. , .1832 

Home, Henry, Lord Karnes, Scot, philosopher and 

jurist 1696... 1782 

Home, or Hume, John, Scot, dramatist ? 1724. . .1808 

Homer, epic poet of Greece fi. about 1000 B. C. 

Honorius, Flavius, Roman emperor of the West 384. . . 423 

Honorius I., pope 638 

Hontheim, von, Johann Nicolaus, Ger. jurist 1701. . .1790 

Hood, Edwin Paxton, Eng. Congregational minister 

and author 1S20 . . . 1885 

Hood, Robin, legendary Eng. outlaw fl. ? 12th c. 

Hood, Samuel, Viscount, Brit, admiral 1724. . .1816 

Hood, Thomas, Eng. poet, wit, and miscellaneous 

writer 1798... 1845 

Hooft, Pieter Cornelis, Dutch poet and historian 1581. . .1647 

Hoo gvliet, Arnold, Dutch poet 1687. . .1763 

Hook, Theodore Edward, Eng. author 1788. . .1841 

Hooke, Robert, Eng. mathematician and inventor 1635. . .1703 

Hooker, Joseph, Am. general 1814 

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. Son of Sir Wm. J. H. Eng. 

botanist 1817 

Hooker, Richard, Eng. divine. {The Laws of Ecclesi- 
astical Polity.'] 1554. . .1600 

Hooker, Rev. Thomas, one of the founders of the col- 
ony of Connecticut 1586. . .1647 

Hooker, Sir William Jackson, Eng. botanist 1785. . .1865 

Hooker, Worthington, Am. physician and author 1806. . .1867 

Hooper, John, Eng. reformer and martyr 1495..? 1555 

Hope, Thomas, Eng. writer and patron of the fine arts.? 1770. . .1831 
Hope, Thomas Charles, Scot, chemist. [Strontites.']. . . 1766. . .1844 

Hopkins, Charles Jerome, Am. musician 1836 

Hopkins, Edward, governor of colony of Connecticut. 1600.. .1657 

146 



HOPKINS— HO WARD 



BORN. DEED. 

Hopkins, Esek, first commodore of Am. navy 1718. . .1802 

Hopkins, John Henry, Protestant Episcopal bishop. . . 1792. . .1868 

Hopkins, Johns, Am. philanthropist . . . 1795. . .1873 

Hopkins, Lemnel, Am. poet 1750... 1801 

Hopkins, Mark, Am. scholar and educator. President 

of Williams College 1802. ..1887 

Hopkins, Samuel, founder of the Hopkinsian school 

of theology 1721.. .1803 

Hopkins, Stephen, Am. statesman. Signer of the 

Declaration of Independence 1707. . .1785 

Hopkinson, Francis, Am. author, and signer of the 

Declaration of Independence. [T7ie Battle of the 

Kegs.] 1738... 1791 

Hopkinson, Joseph. Son. Am. jurist and author. 

[Hail, Columbia.] 1770.. .184=2 

Hopper, Isaac Tatem, Am. Quaker philanthropist 1771. . .1852 

Hoppin, Augustus, Am. artist 1828 

Horace, or Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Latin 

poet B. C. 65 . . . 8 

Hormayr, von, Joseph, Baron, Tyrolese historian... 1781... 1848 

Horn, Gustaf , Count, Swed. general 1592. . .1657 

Home, Richard Hengist, Eng. author ? 1803. . .1884: 

Home, Thomas Hartwell, Eng. divine and author. . . . 1780. . .1862 

Horner, Francis*, Brit, statesman 1778 . . .1817 

Horrox, or Horrocks, Jeremiah, Eng. astronomer. .? 1619. . .1641 

Horsl ey , Samuel, Eng. prelate and author 1733 . . . 1806 

Hortense Euge'nie de Beauharnais, wife of Louis 

Bonaparte and queen of Holland 1783. . .1837 

Horvath, Mihaly, Hungarian historian 1809 

Hosack, David, Am. physician and author 1769. . .1835 

Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue, Am. sculptor 1830 

Hotchkiss, B. B., Am. inventor. [Machine gum.'] 1824=. . .1885 

Ho tin an, Francois, Fr. jurist and publicist 1524=. . .1590 

Hottinger, Johann Heinrich, Swiss orientalist and 

theologian 1620. . .1667 

Houdin, Robert, Fr. conjurer 1805. . .1871 

Houdon, Jean Antoine, Fr. sculptor 1741. . .1828 

Hough, Franklin, Am. historical writer 1822 

Hough, John, president of Magdalen College. Bishop 

of Worcester 1651 . . .1743 

Houghton, Richard Monckton Milnes, Lord, Eng. 

author 1809 

Houssaye, Arsene, Fr. author 1815 

Houston, Sam, president of Texas and Am. general. . 1793. . .1863 

Hontm an, Cornells, Dutch navigator 1560. .71608 

Hoveden, de, Roger, Eng. historian fl. ? 1150 

Howard, Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, Eng. 

admiral 1536. . .1624 

Howard, George William Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, 

Eng. statesman and author 1802. . .1864 

Howard, Henry, Earl of Surrey, Eng. poet 1516. . .1547 

Howard, John, Eng. philanthropist 1726 . . . 1790 

147 



HOWARD— HULL 



BORN. DIED. 

Howard, John Eager, Am. revolutionary soldier and 

statesman 1752. . .1827 

Howard, Oliver Otis, Am. general 1830 

Howard, Thomas, third Duke of Norfolk, Eng. states- 
man and general ? 1473. . .1554 

Howard, Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, friend of 

Mary Queen of Scots 1572 

Howe, Elias, Am. inventor of the sewing-machine 1819. . .1867 

Howe, George, Am. Presbyterian divine and educator 1800. . .1883 
Howe, John, Eng. clergyman, chaplain to Cromwell. 1630... 1705 

Howe, Julia Ward. Wife of S. G. H. Am. poetess. . . 1819 

Howe, Richard, Earl. Brother of Sir Wm. H. Brit. 

admiral 1725... 1799 

Howe, Samuel Gridley, Am. philanthropist 1801 . . .1876 

Howe, Sir William, Viscount, Eng. general in America 1729. . .1814 

Howell, James, Brit, author ? 1595. . .1666 

How ells, William Dean, Am. author 1837 

Howitt, Mary (Botham). Wife of Wm. Eng. authoress.? 1804. . .1888 

Howitt, William, Eng. author 1795 

Howson, John Saul, dean of Chester. Eng. biblical 

exegete 1814. . .1885 

Hoyle, Edmund, Eng. writer on games 1672. . .1769 

Hr otsvitha, Ger. nun and Latin poetess: r fl. 10th c. 

Hubbard, William, Am. clergyman and historian 1621. . .1704 

Huber, Frangois, Swiss naturalist 1750. . .1831 

Huber, Jean Rodolphe. The Tintoretto of Switzerland. 

Swiss painter 1668 . . . 1748 

Huber, Johann Nepomuk, Ger. theologian 1830 

Hubert, Mathieu, Fr. preacher 1640. . .1717 

Hiibner, Karl, Ger. painter of genre pictures 1814 

Hiibner, Rudolf Julius Benno, Ger. painter 1806 

Hue, Evariste Regis, Abbe\ Fr. missionary to China. . . 1813. . .1860 

Hudson, Henry, Eng. navigator and explorer 1611 

Hudson, Henry Norman, Am. essayist 1814 

Huerta, de la, Vincente Garcia, Span, poet and critic 1729.. .1797 
Huet, Pierre Daniel, bishop of Avranches. Fr. scholar 1630.. .1721 

Hufeland, Christoph Wilhelm, Ger. physician 1762. . .1836 

Hugel, von, Karl Alexander Anselm, Ger. traveler 

and naturalist 1796. . .1870 

Huger, Isaac, Am. revolutionary general 1742. . .1797 

Huggins, William, Eng. astronomer 1824 

Hughes, John, Am. archbishop 1797. . .1864 

Hughes, John, Eng. poet and essayist 1677. . .1720 

Hughes, Robert Ball, Am. sculptor 1806. . .1868 

Hughes, Thomas, Eng. author. [Tom Brown's Schools 

days.'] 1823 

Hugo, Gustav, Ger. jurist 1764. . .1844 

Hugo, Victor Marie, Vicomte, Fr. poet and romance 

writer 1802. . . 1885 

Hulin, Pierre Augustin, Comte, Fr. general 1758. . .1841 

Hull, Isaac, Am. commodore... 1775. ..1843 

Hull, William, Am. general in the war of 1812 1753. . .1825 

148 



HULLAH— HUTCHINSON 



BORN. DIED. 

Hullah, John, Eng. musical composer 1812. . .1884 

Humayun, emperor of Hindustan e 1508. . .1556 

Humbert, Joseph Amable, Fr. general ? 1755. . .1823 

Humboldt? von, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander, 

Baron, Ger. naturalist 1769. . .1859 

Humboldt, von, Karl Wilhelm, Baron. Brother. Ger. 

philologist and statesman 1767. . .1835 

Hume, David, Scot, historian and philosopher 1711 . . . 1776 

Hume, Joseph, Brit, politician ? 1777. . .1855 

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, Ger. pianist and compos. 1778. . .1837 
Humphrey, Heman, Am. clergyman. President of 

Amherst College..... 1779... 1861 

Humphreys, David, Am. soldier and poet 1752. . .1818 

Hunfalvy , Pal, Hungarian philologist 1810 

Hunt, Benjamin Faneuil, Am. lawyer 1792. . .1857 

Hunt, David, Am. soldier 1802. . .1886 

Hunt, Henry Jackson, Am. soldier 1819 

Hunt, James Henry Leigh, Eng. poet and essayist 1784. . .1859 

Hunt, Richard Morris, Am. architect 1828 

Hunt, Robert, Eng. author and philosopher 1807 

Hunt, Robert Woolston, Am. metallurgist 1838 

Hunt, Thomas Sterry, Am. chemist and geologist 1826 

Hunt, Washington, governor of New York 1843-'49. . . . 1811. . .1867 
Hunt, William Henry, Eng. painter in water-colors. . . 1790. . .1864 

Hunt, William Holman, Eng. painter 1827 

Hunt, William Morris, Am. painter 1824. . .1879 

Hunter, John, Scot, anatomist and surgeon 1728. . .1793 

Hunter, John Dunn, Am. adventurer 1798. . .1827 

Hunter, Robert Mercer Taliaferro, Am. statesman 1809. . .1887 

Hunter, William. Brother of John. Scot, anatomist 

and physician 1718 . . . 1783 

Huntingdon, Selina, Countess of, patron of the Eng. 

Calvinistic Methodists 1707... 1791 

Huntington, Daniel, Am. painter 1816 

Huntington, Samuel, signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence 1731. . .1796 

Hunyady, Janos, Hungarian general 1456 

Huot, Adolphe Joseph, Fr. engraver 1841. . .1883 

Huppazoli, Francesco, Piedmontese centenarian 1587. . .1702 

Hurd, Richard, Eng. prelate and author 1720. . .1808 

Huskisson, William, Eng. statesman and financier. . . 1770. . .1830 

Huss, John, Bohemian religious reformer ? 1375. . .1415 

Hussein Pasha, last dey of Algiers .? 1773. . .1838 

Husted, James William. Bald Eagle of Westchester. 

Am. legislator 1833 

Hutches on, Francis, Irish metaphysician in Scotland 1694... 1747 

Hutchinson, Anne, Am. religious enthusiast 1591. . .1643 

Hutchinson, John, Eng. philosopher. Founder of 

Hutchinsonianism 1674 . . . 1737 

Hutchinson, Lucy, Eng. authoress 1620. . .1659 

Hutchinson, Thomas, governor of the province of 

Massachusetts 1711... 1780 

149 



HUTTEN— INNOCENT II 



BORN. DIED 

Hutten, von, Ulrich, Ger. poet and theologian 14=88. . .1523 

Hut ton, Charles, Eng. mathematician 1737. . .1823 

Hutton, James, Scot, mineralogist and geologist 1726. . .1797 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, Eng. naturalist 1825 

Huygens, or Huyghens, Christian, Dutch natural 

philosopher 1629 . . .1695 

Huysum, van, Jan, Dutch painter 1682. . .1749 

Hyacinthe, Charles Loyson, Pere. Pire Hyacinthe. 

Fr. pulpit orator 1827 

Hyatt, James W., Am. financier 1837 

Hyatt, Theodore, Am. educator 1826. ..1887 

Hyde, Thomas, Eng. divine and orientalist 1636. . .1703 

Hyder Ali, sultan of Mysore ?1718...1782 

Hypatia of Alexandria, mathematician and philos. ?370... 415 
Hyrtl, Joseph, Austrian anatomist 1811 



Iberville, d', Pierre le Moyne, Sieur, Canadian naval 

and military command er 1661 . . .1706 

Ibn Khaldun, Arabian historian 1332. . .1406 

Ibrahim Bey, Mameluke chief ? 1735. . .1816 

Ibrahim Pasha, viceroy of Egypt 1789. . .1848 

Ideler, Christian Ludwig, Pruss. astronomer 1766. . .1846 

Inland, August Wilhelm, Ger. dramatist 1759. . .1814= 

Ignatieff, Nicholas Paul, Russ. general 1832 

Ignatius, Saint. Theophorus. Bishop of Antioch ? 107 

Ignatius, Saint, patriarch of Constantinople ? 798. . . 878 

Hire, Johan, Swed. philologist 1707. . .1780 

Imad-ed-Din, Mohammed. Al-Kateb. Persian his- 
torian and poet 1125. . .1201 

Imbert, Joseph Gabriel, Fr. painter 1654. . .1740 

Inchbald, Elizabeth, nee Simpson, Eng. novelist 1753. . .1821 

Infante, Jose* Miguel, Chilian statesman 1778. . .1844 

Ingelow, Jean, Eng. poetess 1830 

Ingemann, Bernhard Severin, Danish poet and author 1789. . .1862 

In genii ousz, Jan, Dutch physician and chemist 1730. . .1799 

Ingersoll, Charles Jared, Am. politician and author. . 1782.. .1862 

Ingersoll, Ernest, Am. naturalist 1852 

Ingersoll, Jared. Father of C. J. I. Am. jurist 174=9 . . . 1822 

Ingersoll, Ralph Isaacs, Am. statesman 1788. . .1872 

Ingersoll, Robert Green, Am. lawyer and orator 1833 

Inghirami, Francesco, Ital. archaeologist 1772. . .1846 

I n g Mr a mi, Tommaso. Fedra. Ital. scholar and orator 1470... 1516 

Inglis, Henry David, Scot, tourist and writer 1795 . . .1835 

Inglis, Sir John Eardley Wilmot, Eng. major-general.? 1814. ..1862 

Ingraham, Rev. Joseph H., Am. author 1809. . .1866 

Ingres, Jean Dominique Auguste, Fr. painter 1781. . .1867 

Ingulphus, or Ingulf, Eng. monk. Abbot of Croyland.? 1030... 1109 

Inman, Henry, Am. painter 1801. . .1846 

In nes, Cosmo, Scot, antiquarian writer 1799. . .1874 

Inness, George, Am. landscape-painter 1825 

Innocent II., Gregorio de' Papi, or Papareschi, pope.? 1090... 1143 

150 



INNO GENT III.— J A GKSON 



BORN. DIED. 

Innocent III. , Giovanni Lotario Conti, pope ? 1161. . .1216 

Innocent XI. , Benedetto Odescalchi, pope 1611. . .1689 

Iredell, James, Am. jurist 1751. . .1799 

Irenseus, Saint, Greek bishop of Lyons. [Adversm 

Hcereses.] ?130...?202 

Irene, empress of Constantinople ? 752. . . 803 

Ireton, Henry. Son-m-law of Oliver Cromwell. Eng. 

genera 1 1610 .. . 1651 

Iriarte, Ignacio, Span, painter 1620. . .1685 

Iriarte, de, Tomas, Span, poet ? 1750..? 1790 

Irons, William Josiah, Eng. religious writer 1812. . .1883 

Irving, Edward, Scot, preacher 1792. . .1834 

Irving, Henry (real name John Brodribb), Eng. 

Shakespearean actor 1838 

Irving, Washington, Am. author 1783. . .1859 

Isabella I. The Catholic. Queen of Castile and Leon. 
Wife of Ferdinand of Aragon and patron of Co- 
lumbus 1451 . . . 1504 

Isabella II. (Maria Isabel Luisa), ex-queen of Spain.. 1830 

Isabel le of France, queen of England. Wife of Ed- 
ward II 1308... 1358 

Isabey, Jean Baptiste, Fr. miniature-painter 1767. . .1855 

Isambert, Francois Andr6, Fr. politician and jurist. . . 1792. . .1857 

Isfendiyar, Persian hero fl. 6th c. B. C. 

Isidore, Saint, Span, scholar. Bishop of Seville ? 570. . . 636 

l9la, de, Jose* Francisco, Span. Jesuit and satirist 1703. . .1781 

Ismail Pasha, or Ismail I., khedive of Egypt 1830 

I § n ar d, Maximin, Fr . revolutionist 1751 . . . 1830 

Isocrates, Athenian orator B. C. 436. . . 338 

Isturiz, de, Francisco Xavier, Span, statesman 1790. . .1871 

Itard, Jean Marie Gaspard, Fr. surgeon 1775 . . .1838 

lttenbach, Franz, Ger. painter 1813 

Iturbide, de, Augustin, emperor of Mexico 1783. . .1824 

Ivan III., Vasilievitch, czar of Russia 1438. . .1505 

Ivan IV., Vasilievitch. The Terrible. Czar of Russia. 1529... 1584 

Ivory, James, Scot, mathematician 1765. . . 1842 

Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva, Mexican historian. . .? 1568..? 1648 
Izard, Ralph, Am. statesman 1742. ..1804 



Jab! on ski, Daniel Ernst, Pruss. Protestant theologian 1660. . .1741 
Jablonski, Paul Ernst. Son. Pruss. theologian and 

Egyptologist 1693... 1757 

Jackson, Andrew, general and seventh President of 

the United States 1767. . .1845 

Jackson, Charles Thomas, Am. physicist 1805 

Jackson, Helen Hunt. H. JET. Am. authoress 1830. . .1885 

Jackson, James, Am. physician and professor in Har- 
vard College 1777.. .1867 

Jackson, John, bishop of London 1811. . .1885 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan. Stonewall Jackson. Con- 
federate general 1824. . .1863 

151 



JACOBI—JAPIX 



BORN. DIED. 

Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich, Ger. metaphysician 1743. . .1819 

Jacobi, Johann Georg. Brother of F. H. J. Ger. poet. 1740. . .1814 

Jacobi, Karl Gustav Jakob, Ger. mathematician 1804. . .1851 

Jacobi, Moritz Hermann. Brother of K. O. J, J, Ger. 

physicist. One of the inventors of electrotyping. . . . 1801. . .1874 
Jacobini, Ludovico, cardinal and papal secretary of 

state 1832 . . .1887 

Jacobs, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. author 1764. . .1847 

Jacob y , Johann, Ger. publicist 1805. . .1877 

Jacotot, Josephs, Fr. educationist 1770. . .1840 

Jacquand, Claudius, Fr. painter 1805 

Jacquard, Joseph Marie, Fr. inventor. [Jacquard 

loom.-] 1752... 1834 

Jacquemart, Albert, Fr. author 1808 

Jacquemont, Victor, Fr. naturalist 1801. . .1832 

Jac quin, von, Nicolas Joseph, Austrian botanist 1787. . .1817 

Jaell, Alfred, Ger. pianist and composer 1832 

J ahn, Friedrich Ludwig, Ger. patriot 1778. . .1852 

Jahn, Johann, Ger. orientalist and theologian 1750. . .1816 

Jahn, Otto, Ger. philologist 1813. ..1869 

Jahr, Georges Henri Gottlieb, Ger.-Fr. homeopathic 

physician 1801 

Jakob, von, Ludwig Heinrich, Ger. author 1759. . .1827 

Jalabert, Charles Francois, Fr. painter 1819 

Jamblichus, Syrian Neo-Platonic philosopher fl. ? 325 

James I. , king of Scotland. Assassinated ? 1394. . .1437 

James II., stabbed William the eighth Earl of Douglas 1430. . .1460 

James III., warred with his malcontent nobles 1443. . .1488 

James IV., f ell at Flodden 1472. ..1513 

James V., father of Mary Queen of Scots 1512. . .1542 

James I. , king of England. (VI. of Scotland.) 1566. . .1625 

James II. , king of England. (VII. of Scotland.) 1633. . .1701 

James, George Payne Rainsford, Eng. novelist 1801. . .1860 

James, Sir Henry, Eng. engineer and inventor. [P7io- 

tozincography.] 1803 

James, John Angell, Eng. dissenting divine and author 1785. . .1859 
James Francis Edward Stuart, Chevalier de St. 
George. The Pretender. Son of James II. of En- 
gland 1688... 1765 

Jameson, Anna, Mrs., nee Murphy, Irish authoress 1797. . .1860 

Jameson, Robert, Scot, naturalist 1774 . . . 1854 

Jami, Persian poet 1414. . .1492 

Jamieson, John, Scot, clergyman and lexicographer. . 1759. . .1838 

Janauschek, Fanny, Bohemian tragic actress 1830 

Janin, Jules Gabriel, Fr. dramatic critic 1804. . .1874 

Janney, Samuel M., Am. Quaker preacher and author 1801 

Jansen, Cornelis, Dutch theologian. \Jansenists.~] 1585. . .1638 

Janson, Nicolas, Fr. printer. Inventor of Roman type 1428..? 1481 

Janssens, Abraham, Dutch historical painter 1569. . .1631 

Januarius, Saint, patron saint of Naples 272. . . 305 

Janvier, Antide, Fr. watch-maker and inventor 1751. . .1835 

Japix, Gysbert, Frisian poet 1603. . .1666 

152 



JARDINS—JOBERT 



BORN. DIED. 

Jar dins, des, Marie Catherine, Fr. authoress 1640. . .1683 

Jasmin, Jacques. Barber poet of Agen. Fr. Provencal 

poet 1798... 1864 

Jasper, William. Sergeant Jasper. Brave Am. soldier 1750... 1779 
Jaubert, Pierre Ame'de'e Emilien Probe, Fr. orientalist 1779. . .184=7 

Jaucourt, de, Louis, Chevalier, Fr. philosopher 1704. . .1779 

Jay, Antoine, Fr. journalist 1770. ..1854 

Jay, John, first chief-justice of the United States 1745. . .1829 

Jay, William. Son. Am. jurist and philanthropist.... 1789... 1858 

Jay ade va, Hindu poet fl. 12th c. 

Jeanne d' Albret, queen of Navarre 1528. . .1572 

Jeanne d'Arc. See Joan of Arc ?1411...1431 

Jeannin, Pierre. Le President. Fr. statesman 1540... 1622 

Jeanron, Philippe Auguste, Fr. painter 1809 

Jefferson, Joseph, Am. actor 1829 

Jefferson, Thomas, third President of the United 

States 1743. ..1826 

Jeffrey, Francis, Scot, lawyer, critic, and essayist. 

Editor of the Edinburgh Review 1773. . .1850 

Jeffreys, George, Lord, infamous Eng. judge ? 1648. . .1689 

Jeffries, John, Am. physician and aeronaut ? 1745. . .1819 

Jellachich, Joseph. Baron JellachicTi de Buzim. 

Commander-in-chief of the Croats 1801 . . . 1859 

Jena, von, Baron Carl J., Pruss. soldier 1805. . .1881 

Jenkins, Edward, Eng. author. [Battle of Dorking, 

Ginx's Baby.} 1838 

Jenkins, John Joseph, Eng. water-colorist 1812. . .1885 

Jenner, Edward, Eng. physician. Discoverer of vac- 
cination 1749... 1823 

Jenner, Sir William, Eng. physician and pathological 

anatomist 1815 

Jennings, William, Eng. miser 1701. . .1797 

Jenyns, Soame, Eng. author 1704. . .1787 

Jerichan, Jean Adolphe, Dan. sculptor 1818. . .1883 

Jerome, Sophronius Eusebius, Latin father of the 

Church ?345... 420 

Jerome of Prague, Bohemian religious reformer ?1378. . .1416 

Jerrold, Douglas William, Eng. humorist and author. . 1803. . .1857 

Jerrold, William Blanchard. Son. Eng. author 1826. . .1884 

Jervis, John, Earl of St. Vincent, Eng. admiral 1734. . .1823 

Jessel, Sir George, Eng. jurist 1818. . .1883 

Jesup, Thomas Sidney, Am. major-general ? 1788. . .1860 

Jewell, John, bishop of Salisbury. [Apologia Ecclesice 

Anglicanm.] 1522. . .1571 

Jewett, Pliny A., Am. physician and electrician 1816. . .1884 

Jewsbury, Maria Jane (Mrs. Fletcher), Eng. writer. ..? 1800.. .1833 

Joachim, Joseph, Ger. violinist 1831 

Joan of Arc ; Fr. Jeanne d'Arc. La Pucelle d'Or- 

leans, or The Maid of Orleans. Fr. heroine ? 1411 . . . 1431 

Joanna I,, queen of Naples 1327. . .1382 

Jobert, Antoine Joseph. Jobert de Lambolle. Fr. 

surgeon ? 1799 . . . 1867 

153 



JOBSON—JOLIET 



BORN. DIED. 

Jobson, Frederick James, Eng. Wesleyan divine 1812. . .1881 

Jodelle, Etienne, Sieur de Lymodin, Fr. dramatist. . . . 1532. . .1573 

Jogues, Isaac, Fr. Jesuit missionary in America 1607. . .1646 

Johannes Secundus (Jan Everard), Dutch poet. 

[Basia.~\ 1511 . . . 1536 

John I. The Great. King of Portugal 1357. . .1433 

John I., Saint, pope ?470... 526 

John VIII ?820... 882 

John X., Giovanni Cenci ?884... 928 

John XII., Ottaviano Conti ?937... 964 

John XXII . , Jacques d'Euse ? 1244. . .1334 

John XXIII. . Baltassare Cossa ? 1360. . .1419 

John II. Le Bon, or The Good. King of France ? 1319. . .1364 

John II., or Casimir V., king of Poland 1609... 1672 

John III., or Sobieski. John SobiesM. King of 

Poland ? 1625... 1696 

John, king of England. [Magna Charta.~] 1166. . .1216 

John, king of Saxony 1801 . . .1873 

John (Johann Baptist Joseph), archduke of Austria. . . 1782. . .1859 
John, duke of Burgundy. The Fearless. Assassinated.? 1370. . .1419 

John of Austria, Don, Span, general ?1547...1578 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward 

III. of England 1340. . .1399 

John of Lieyden. Johann Boccold, or Bockelson. 

Dutch fanatic ? 1510. . .1536 

John of Salisbury. Johannes Parvus. Eng. scho- 
lastic philosopher ? 1120. . .1180 

John the Baptist, prophet B. C. ?5..A. D. 28 

John the Evangelist, or St. John, apostle ? 100 

Johnson, Andrew, seventeenth President of the 

United States 1808. . .1875 

Johnson, Eastman, Am. painter 1824 

Johnson, George Henry Sacheverell, Eng. mathema- 
tician 1808... 1881 

Johnson, Sir John. Son of Sir William. Brit, general. 1742. . .1830 

Johnson, P. C, commodore United States navy 1826. . .1887 

Johnson, Reverdy, Am. statesman 1796. . .1876 

Johnson, Colonel Richard Mentor, ninth Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States 1780. . .1850 

Johnson, Samuel, Eng. lexicographer and miscellane- 
ous writer 1709... 1784 

Johnson, Sir William, Brit, general and colonist in 

America 1715. . .1774 

Johnston, Albert Sidney, Confederate general 1803. . .1862 

Johnston, Alexander Keith, Scot, geographer 1804. . .1871 

Johnston, James F. W„ Scot, chemist and agricultur- 
ist ?1796...1855 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston, Confederate general 1807 

Joinville, de, Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis 

Marie d'Orle*ans, Prince, son of King Louis Philippe. 1818 , 

Joinville, de, Jean, Sire, Fr. chronicler ? 1224..? 1319 

Joliet, Louis, Fr. explorer of the Mississippi 1645..? 17Cfo 

154 



JOLY— JUDSON 



BORN. DIED. 

Joly, Marie Elisabeth, Fr. actress 1761. . .1798 

Jomard, Edme Francois, Fr. geographer and archaeol- 
ogist 1777... 1862 

Jomelli, Nicolb, Ital. composer 1714. . .1774 

Jornini, HeDri, Baron, Fr. writer on the art of war 1779. . .1869 

Jones, Inigo, Eng. architect ? 1572. . .1652 

Jones, Jacob, Am. naval officer 1770. . .1850 

Jones, John Paul, Am. naval officer, born in Scotland. 1747. . .1792 

Jones, Owen, Brit, architect 1809. ..1874 

Jones, Samuel P., Am. evangelist 1847 

Jones, Thomas Rymer, Eng. comparative anatomist. .? 1810 

Jones, Sir William, Eng. orientalist 1746. . .1794 

Jonson, Ben, Eng. dramatist ? 1574. . .1637 

Jordaens, Jakob, Flemish painter.. 1594. v 1678 

Jordan, Camille, Fr. politician and orator 1771. . .1821 

Jordan, Dorothy, or Dora. Dorothy Bland. Irish act- 
ress ?1762..?1816 

Jordan, Wilhelm, Ger. poet 1819 

J org, Johann Christian Gottfried, Ger. physician 1779. . .1856 

Jorg, Joseph Edmund, Ger. author 1819 

Jorgenson, Jorgen, Danish adventurer 1779..? 1830 

Joseph II., emperor of Germany 1741... 1790 

Josephine (Marie Josephe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie), 

empress of France. Wife of Napoleon 1 1763. . .1814 

Josephus, Flavius, Jewish historian ?37...?100 

Jdsika, Miklos, Baron, Hungarian novelist 1796. . .1865 

Jost, Isaak Markus, Ger. historian of the Israelites 1793. . .1860 

Joubert, Barthe*Iemy Catherine, Fr. general 1769. . . 1799 

Joubert, Joseph, Fr. essayist 1754. . .1824 

Jouckbloet, William Joseph Andrew, Dutch poet and 

litterateur 1817. . .1885 

Jouett, Matthew Harris, Am. painter 1788 . . . 1827 

Jouffroy, The"odore Simon, Fr. eclectic philosopher... 1796... 1842 
Jouffroy d'Arbans, de, Claude Francois, Marquis. 

Fr . mechanician . [Steam navigation.'] ? 1751 . . . 1832 

Joule, James Prescott, Eng. natural philosopher 1818 

Jourdan, Antoine Jacques Louis, Fr. physician 1788. . .1848 

Jour dan, Jean Baptiste, Comte, marshal of France... 1762... 1833 

Jouy, de, Victor Joseph Etienne, Fr. author ? 1764. . .1846 

Jovellanos, de, Gaspar Melchior, Span, poet 1744. . .1811 

Jovian, Flavius Claudius, Roman emperor 331. . . 364 

J o wett, Benjamin, Eng. Greek scholar and professor. . 1817 

Juanes, Vicente, Span, painter 1523. . .1579 

Juan y Santacilla, Jorge. Bon Jorge Juan. Span. 

explorer 1712. . .1774 

Juarez, Benito Pablo, president of Mexico 1806. . .1872 

Judah Halle vi (the Levite). Abut Hassan. Span. 

rabbi. IKwzari.] ? 1080..? 1140 

Judson, Adoniram, Am. Baptist missionary 1788. . .1850 

Judson, Edward, Am. story-writer. Ned Buntlvne 1822. . .1886 

Judson, Emily (Chubbuck). Fanny Forester. Wife. 

Am. authoress 1817 . . .1854 

155 



JUG URTHA—KAMPFER 



BORN. DIED, 

Jugurtha, Numidian king B. C 104: 

Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus). The Apostate. 

Roman emperor 331 . . . 363 

Julien, Pierre, Fr . sculptor 1731 . . . 1804= 

Julien, Stanislas Aignan, Fr. orientalist 1799. . .1873 

Julius II., Giuliano della Rovere, pope 1441 . . . 1513 

Jullien, Louis Georges, Fr. musician 1812. . .1860 

Jumonville, de, Coulon, Fr. officer in Canada ? 1725. . .1753 

Jung, Joachim, Ger. philosopher and botanist 1587. . .1657 

Junghuhn, Franz Wilhelm, Ger. naturalist. 1812. . .1864r 

Jungmann, Josef Jakob, Bohemian philologist 1773. . .1847 

Jung-Stilling, Johann Heinrich, Ger. mystic 1740. . .1817 

Junius, Franciscus. Francois du Jon. Fr. Protestant 

theologian 1545 . . . 1602 

Junius, Franciscus. Son of Franciscus. Eng. philol- 
ogist 1589... 1677 

Junius, de, Adriaan, Dutch physician and philologist. 1512. . .1575 

Junker, Emil, Russo-Ger. African explorer 1840 

Junot, Andoche, Due d'Abrantes, marshal of France. . 1771. . .1813 

Jurieu, Pierre, Fr. Protestant divine 1637. . .1713 

Jussieu, Adrien. Son of A. L. J. Fr. botanist 1797. . .1853 

Jussieu, Antoine Laurent, Fr. botanist 1748. . .183d 

Jussieu, Bernard. Uncle of A. L. J. Fr. botanist 1699. . .1777 

Jussieu, Laurent Pierre. Cousm of Adrien. Fr. bot- 
anist 1792 

Juste, Theodore, Belgian historian 1818 

Justi, Karl Wilhelm, Ger. theologian and author 1767. . .184$ 

Justin, Latin historian fl. 3d or 4th c. 

Justiu I., or Justinus, Flavius Anicius. The Elder. 

Byzantine emperor 450. . . 527 

Justin II. The Younger. Nephew of Justinian I. By- 
zantine emperor 57& 

Justin Martyr (Justinus Flavius), Church father in 

Palestine ?105...?165 

Justinian I„ Flavius Anicius. The Great. Nephew of 

Justml. Byzantine emperor ?482... 565 

Juvenal, or Juvenalis, Decimus Junius, Roman 

satirical poet fl. ?100 

Juxon, William, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of Canter- 
bury 1582... 1663 



K aab , Arabian poet 662 

K. aas, Nikolaus, Danish statesman and regent 1535. . .1594 

Kalakaua, David, king of the Hawaiian Islands 1836 

Kali das a. The Shakespeare of India. Hindu poet. ... fl. ? 50 B. C^ 
Kalkbrenner, Friedrich, Ger. pianist and composer. . 1784.. .1849 

K.alm, Peter, Swed. naturalist and traveler 1715. . .1779 

Kamehameha IV., king of the Hawaiian Islands. . . . 1834. . .1863 
Karnes, Henry Home, Lord, Scot, judge and writer. . . 1696. . .1782 
Kampen, van, Nikolaas Godfried, Dutch historian... 1776... 1839 
Kampfer, Engelbrecht, Ger. botanist and traveler. . . . 1651. . .1716- 

156 



KANARIS— KELLER 



BORN. DIED. 

Kanaris, Constantine, Greek naval hero and states- 
man ?1790 

Kane, Elisha Kent, Am. arctic explorer 1820. . .1857 

Kane, Sir Robert, Irish chemist 1810 

Kant, Immanuel, Ger. metaphysician 1724. . .1804 

Kapiolani, wife of Kalakaua I. of Hawaii 1834 

Kapnist , Vasili, Russian poet 1756 . . . 1823 

Karajitch, Vuk Stefanovitch, Servian scholar 1787. . .1864 

Karamzin, Nikolai Mikhailovitch, Russ. historian. . . . 1765. . .1826 

Karaveloff, Peter, Bulgarian statesman 1840 

Karr, Jean Baptiste Alphonse, Fr. novelist 1808 

Karsch, Anna Luise. The German Sappho. Ger. 

poetess 1722 . . . 1791 

Karslake, Sir John, Brit, jurist 1821. . .1881 

Karsten, Karl Johann Bernhard, Pruss. mineralogist 1782... 1853 
Kastner, Abraham Gotthelf, Ger. mathematician and 

poet 1719... 1800 

Kater, Henry, Eng. mathematician 1777. . .1835 

Katkof, Michael Nikephorovitch, Russ. editor 1820. . .1887 

Katona, Istvan, or Stephen, Hungarian historian 1732. . .1811 

KaufFmann, Maria Angelica, Swiss painter 1741. . .1807 

Kaulbach, von, Wilhelm, Ger. painter 1805. . .1874 

Kaunitz, von, Wenzel Anton, Prince, Austrian di- 
plomatist 1711. ..1794 

Ravauagh, Julia, Irish authoress 1824 . . .1877 

Kavanaugh, Hubbard Hinde, one of the bishops of 

the Methodist Episcopal Church, South 1802. . .1884 

Kazinczy, Ferencz, Hungarian author 1759. . .1831 

Kean, Charles John. Son of E&nrmnd. Eng. actor... 1811... 1868 

Kean, Edmund, Eng. tragedian ? 1787. . .1833 

Kean, Ellen (Tree). Wife of C. J. K. Eng. actress. . . . 1805 

Keane, John, first Lord Keane, Brit, general 1781. . .1844 

Kearny, Lawrence, Am. commodore 1789. . .1868 

Kearny, Philip. Nephew of S. W. K. Am. major- 
general 1815 . . .1862 

Kearny, Stephen Watts, Am. brigadier-general 1794. . .1848 

Keats, John, Eng. poet ? 1796... 1821 

Keble, John, Eng. divine and poet. {The Christian 

Year.-] 1792... 1866 

Keene, Laura, Am. actress 1820. ..1873 

Keightley, Thomas, Brit, author 1789. . .1872 

Keill, John, Scot, mathematician and natural philos- 
opher 1671... 1721 

Keim, Theodor, Ger. theologian 1825 

Keiser, Reinhard, Ger. musical composer 1673. . .1739 

Keith, Alexander, Scot, author 1791 

Keith, George, Earl marischal of Scotland and Pruss. 

diplomatist ? 1685... 1778 

Keith, George Keith-Elphinstone, Viscount, Brit. 

admiral 1746. ..1823 

Keith, James. Brother of George. Pruss. field-marshal 1696... 1758 

Keller, Joseph, Ger. engraver 1811. . .1873 

157 



KELLERMANN—KIEPERT 



BORN. DIED. 

Kellermann, de, Francois Christophe, Duke of 

Valmy, marshal of France 1735. . .1820 

Kellogg, Clara Louise, Am. singer 1842 

Kemble, Charles. Brother of J. P. K. Eng. actor 1775. . .1854 

Kemble, Frances Anne. Fanny Kemble. Daughter of 

C. K. Eng. actress 1811 

Kemble, John Mitchell. Son of C. K. Eng. Saxonist. 1807.. .1857 
Kemble, John Philip. Brother of Mrs. Siddons, Eng. 

tragedian 1757. . .1823 

Kempelen, von, Wolfgang, Baron, Hungarian mech- 
anician. [Automaton chess-player . ] 1734 . . . 1804 

Kempis, a, Thomas, Ger. abbot of Mount St. Agnes 

and missal writer. [Be Imitatione Christi.] ? 1380. . .1471 

Ken, Thomas, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Bath and Wells 1637. . .1711 

Kendall, Amos, Am. statesman 1789. . .1869 

Kendrick, Asahel Clark, Am. Greek scholar and 

author 1809 

Kennedy, Benjamin Hall, Eng. classical scholar 1804 

Kennedy, John Pendleton, Am. statesman and author 1795. . .1870 

Kennicott, Benjamin, Eng. biblical critic 1718. . .1783 

Kenrick, Francis Patrick, Am. Roman Catholic pre- 
late 1797... 1863 

Kensett, John Frederick, Am. artist 1818. . .1872 

Kent, Edward Augustus, Duke of, father of Queen 

Victoria 1767... 1820 

Kent, James, Am. jurist. [Kent's Commentaries.] 1763... 1847 

Kent, William, founder of the Eng. style of landscape 

gardening ? 1684 . . . 174a 

Kenton, General Simon, Am. pioneer 1755. . .1836 

Kenyon, Lloyd, Lord, Brit, jurist 1732. . .1802 

Kepler, Johann, Ger. astronomer 1571. . .1630 

Keppel, Augustus, Viscount, Eng. admiral 1725. . .178$ 

Ker, David, Eng. traveler and correspondent .... 1841 

Ker, John, Brit, bibliographer 1740. . .1804 

Ke*ratry, de, Auguste Hilarion, Fr. author 1769. . .1859- 

Kerfoot, John Barrett, Rt.-Rev., Protestant Episcopal 

bishop of Pittsburg 1816. ..1881 

Kergue*len-Tre*marec, de, Yves Joseph, Fr. navi- 
gator 1745... 1797 

Kerner, Andreas Justinus, Ger. lyric poet 1786. . .1862 

Kessels, Matthias, Dutch sculptor 1784. . .1836. 

Ketteler, von, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron, Ger. pre- 
late 1811 

Key, Francis Scot, Am. poet. [Star-spangled Banner.]. 1779. ..1843 

Key, Thomas Hewitt, Eng. philologist 1799. . .1875 

Keyser, de, Nicaise, Belgian painter 1813 

Khosru I. , Sassanide king of Persia 579^ 

Khosru II. Grandson. King of Persia 628 

Kidd, William. Captain Kidd. Am. pirate. Executed. 71650... 1701 

Kielmeyer, von, Karl Friedrich, Ger. naturalist 1765. . .1844 

Kien Lung, emperor of China 1710. . .1799* 

Kiepert, Heinrich, Ger. geographer 1818 

158 



KILIAN— KLEIN 



BORN. DIED. 

Kilian, Lucas, Ger. engraver 1579. . .1637 

Killigrew, Anne, Eng. poetess and artist 1660. . .1685 

Kilp a trick? Judson, Am. general 1836. . .1881 

Kimball, Richard Burleigh, Am. author 1816 

Kimberly, John Wodehouse, Earl of, Eng. statesman 1826 

Kimchi , David, Fr. Hebrew scholar ? 1240 

Kind, Johann Friedrich, Ger. writer. \T>er Freischihtz.] 1768. . .1843 

Kin g, Peter, Eng. jurist and lord chancellor 1669. . .1734 

King, Rufus, Am. statesman 1755. . .1827 

King, Thomas Starr, Am. divine and author. 1824. . .1864 

King, William Rufus, Vice-President of the United 

States . 1786... 1853 

Ki n g lake, Alexander William, Eng. author 1802 

Kingsley, Rev. Charles, Eng. author 1819. . .1875 

Kingsley, James Luce, Am. Latin scholar 1778. . .1852 

Kingston, Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of, Eng. 

beauty 1720 . . . 1788 

Kinkel, Johann Gottfried, Ger. author 1815 

Kinsella, Thomas, Am. journalist 1832. . .1884 

Kip, Francis Maerschalk Kip, Am. Reformed minister 1807. . .1888 
Kippis, Andrew, Eng. dissenting minister and biog- 
rapher 1725... 1795 

Kirby, William, Eng. entomologist 1759'. . .1850 

Kireher, Athanasius, Ger. Egyptologist and philos- 
opher 1602. . .1680 

Kirchmaier, Georg Kasper, Ger. chemist 1635. . .1700 

Kirchoff, Gustav Robert, Ger. physicist 1824. . .1887 

Kirch off, Johann William Adolf, Ger. philologist 1826 

Kirk, Edward Norris, Am. clergyman and author 1802. . .1874 

Kirkaldy, Sir William, Scot, soldier. Hanged 1573 

Kirkbride, Thomas S., Am. alienist _ 1809. . .1883 

Kirke, Sir David, Eng. colonial adventurer 1596. . .1656 

Kir Id a nd, Caroline Matilda, nee Stansbury, Am. 

authoress 1801. . .1864 

Kirkland, John Thornton, president of Harvard Col- 
lege 1770. ..1840 

Kirkland, Samuel, founder of Hamilton College and 

missionary to the Indians 1744. . .1808 

Kirkwood, Daniel, Am. mathematician 1814 

Kirsten, Peter, Ger. physician and orientalist 1577. . .1640 

Kirwan, Richard, Irish chemist and geologist ? 1750. . .1812 

Kisfalndy, Karoly, Hungarian dramatist ? 1790. . .1830 

Kisfaludy, Sandor. Brother. Hungarian poet 1772... 1844 

Kiss, August, Pruss. sculptor 1802. . .1865 

Kitchener, William, Eng. physician. [The Cook's Or- 
acle.] ? 1775... 1827 

Kitto, John, Eng. biblical writer 1804. . .1854 

Klapka, Gyorgy, Hungarian general 1820 

Klaproth, Martin Heinrich. Father. Ger. chemist... 1743... 1817 

Klaproth, von, Heinrich Julius, Ger. orientalist 1783... 1835 

Kle*ber, Jean Baptiste, Fr. general ? 1754. . .1800 

Klein, Jakob Theodor, Ger. naturalist 1685. . .1759 

159 



KLEIST— KOSEGARTEX 



BORN. DIED. 

Kleist, von, Ewald Christian, Ger. poet 1715. . .1759 

Kleist, von, Heinrich, Ger. poet and novelist 1776. . .1811 

Klengel, Johann Christian, Ger. painter 1751. . .1824 

Klenze, von, Leo, Ger. architect 1784. . .1864 

Klingenstierna, Samuel, Swed. mathematician ? 1689... 1785 

Klinger, von, Friedrich Maximilian, Ger. dramatist, 

novelist, and soldier. ISturm wad DrangJ] 1753. . .1831 

Klinkerf tist, Ernst, Ger. astronomer 1827. . .1884 

Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb, Ger. poet 1724. . .1803 

Klotz, Christian Adolph, Ger. scholar and critic 1738. . .1771 

Kl fiber, Johann Ludwig, Ger. jurist and politician... 1762... 1837 

Kmety , George, Hungarian and Turkish general ? 1810. . .1865 

Kuapp, Georg Christian, Ger. theologian 1753. . .1825 

Knapp, Jacob. Elder Knapp. Am. Baptist revivalist 1799... 1874 

Knapp, Ludwig Friedrich, Ger. chemist 1814 

Knebel, von, Karl Ludwig, Ger. author 1744. . .1834 

Kneeland, Samuel, Am. physician and naturalist 1821 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, Ger. portrait-painter in Eng. . . 1648. . .1723 

Knight, Charles, Eng. editor and author 1791. . .1873 

Knight, John Prescott, Eng. portrait-painter 1801. . .1881 

Knight, Richard Payne, Eng. antiquary 1750. . .1824 

Knight, Thomas Andrew. Brother. Eng. vegetable 

physiologist 1758... 1838 

Knipperdolling, Bernhard, Ger. fanatic 1536 

Knott, J. Proctor, Am. congressman and governor 1830 

Knowles, James Sheridan, Irish dramatist 1784. . .1862 

Knox, Henry, Am. revolutionary general 1750. . .1806 

Knox, John, Scot, religious reformer 1505. . .1572 

Knyphausen, von, William, Baron, Ger. general. . . .? 1730. . .1789 

Kobell, von, Franz, Ger. mineralogist 1803 

Koch, Joseph Anton, Ger. painter in Rome 1768. . .1839 

Koch, Karl Heinrich Emanuel, Ger. naturalist 1809 

Koch, von, Christoph Wilhelm, Ger. historical writer 1737. . .1813 
Kock, de, Charles Paul, Fr. novelist and dramatist. .. 1794. . .1871 

Kock, de, Henri. Son. Fr. novelist 1821 

Koekkoek, Bernard Cornells, Dutch landscape- 
painter 1803 . . . 1862 

Kohl, Johann Georg, Ger. author 1808. . .1878 

KShler, Johann David, Ger. writer 1684. . .1755 

Kolbe, Adolf Wilhelm Hermann, Ger. chemist 1818 

Kolcsey, Ferencz, Hungarian poet, orator, and critic. 1790.. .1838 

Kollar, Jan, Hungarian poet and scholar 1793. . .1852 

Kdlliker, Rudolf Albert, Ger. physiologist ? 1818 

Konig, Friedrich, Ger. inventor of steam printing- 
press 1775... 1833 

Kftnigsmark, von, Maria Aurora, Countess, mother 

of Marshal Saxe .? 1670. ..1728 

Koppen, Friedrich, Ger. philosopher 1775. . .1858 

Kdrner, Karl Theodor, Ger. poet 1791. . .1813 

Kosciusko, Thaddeus (Tadeusz), Polish patriot ? 1746. . .1817 

Kosegarten, Johann Gottfried Ludwig, Ger. orient- 
alist 1792... 1860 

160 



KOSSUTH— LABED Y&RE 



BORN. DIED. 

Kossuth, Louis, Hungarian orator and statesman 1802 

Kotzebue, von, August Friedrich Ferdinand, Ger. 

dramatist 1761 . . .1819 

Kotzebue, von, Otto. Son. Russ. navigator 1787... 1846 

Krasicki, Ignacy, Polish prelate and writer ? 1735. . .1801 

Krasiuski, Waleryan, Count, Polish author ? 1780. . .1855 

Krasze wski, Jozef Ignacy, Polish author 1812. . .1887 

Rraus, Christian Jacob, Ger. economist 1753. . .1807 

Krause, Karl Christian Friedrich, Ger. philosopher.. 1781... 1832 
Krausa, Jacob Friedrich, Ger. orientalist and archae- 
ologist 1819... 1883 

Kiauth, Charles Porterfleld, Am. divine and author. . 1823 

Kr ehbiel, Henry Edward, Am. musical critic 1854 

Kreutzer, Rudolph, Ger. violinist and composer 1766. . .1831 

Kriidener, de, Juliane de Vietinghoff, Baroness, 

Russ. mystic 1764. . .1824 

Krug, Wilhelm Traugott, Ger. philosopher 1770. . .1842 

Krummaclier, Friedrich Adolf, Ger. fabulist and 

theologian 1768. . .1845 

Krummacher, Friedrich Wilhelm. Son. Ger. author 1796... 1868 
Krummaclier, Gottfried Daniel. Brother of F. A. K. 

Ger. preacher 1774. . .1837 

Kriinitz, Johann Georg, Ger. encyclopedist 1728. . .1796 

Krupp, Alfred. Son. Ger. gun-maker 1812. . .1887 

Krupp , Friedrich, Pruss. cast-steel founder 1826 

Kruseustern, von, Adam Johann, Russ. navigator. 

IReise um die Welt.~] 1770. . .1846 

Krylofl; or Kriloff, Ivan Andrievitch, Russ. fabulist. 1768. ..1844 
Kublai-Khan, founder of the Mongol dynasty of 

China 1294 

Kugler , Franz Theodor, Ger. writer on art 1808. . .1858 

Kuhn, Adalbert, Ger. philologist 1812 

Kfihne, Gustav, Ger. novelist 1806 

Kuhner, Raphael, Ger. philologist 1802 

Kung, Prince (Kung-Chien-Wang), Chinese statesman 1835 

Kunth, Karl Sigismund, Ger. botanist 1788. . .1850 

Kuranda, Ignaz, Ger. author 1811. . .1884 

Kurtz, Johann Heinrich, Ger. theologian 1809 

Kurz, Heinrich, Ger. author born in Paris 1805. . .1873 

Kutuzoff, Mikhail. Prmceof Smolenskoi. Russ. gen. 1745... 1813 

Kiitzing, Friedrich Traugott, Ger. naturalist 1807 

Kuyp, or Cuyp, Albert, Dutch landscape-painter 1606..? 1683 

Kyrle, John. The Man of Boss. Eng. philanthropist. 1664. . .1754 



Labadie, de, Jean, Fr. mystic. [Labadists.] 1610. . .1674 

Labat, Jean Baptiste, Fr. missionary 1663 . . .1738 

Labbe, Philippe, Fr. Jesuit and polygrapher 1607. . .1667 

Labe, Louise. La Belle Cor dUre. Fr. poetess 1526... 1566 

La Bedolliere, de, Emile Gigault, Fr. author 1814 

Labedoyere, de, Charles Angelique Francois Huchet, 

Count, Fr. general 1786. . .1815 

161 



LABICHE—LAFFITTE 



BORN. DIED. 

Labiclie, Eugene Marin, Fr. dramatist and academi- 
cian 1814 . . . 1888 

La Billardiere, or Labillardiere, de, Jacques Julien 

Houton, Fr. naturalist 1755... .1834= 

Lablache, Luigi, Ital. singer 1794. . .1858 

Laborde, de, Alexandre Louis Joseph, Count. Father. 

Fr. politician and author 1774. . .1842 

Laborde, Leon Emmanuel Simon Joseph, Count, Fr. 

art-writer 1807. . .1869 

Labouchere,, Henry, Baron Taunton, Eng. statesman 1798... 1869 
Laboulaye, Edouard Rene" Lefebvre, Fr. jurist, pub- 
licist, and historical writer 1811. . .1883 

Labourdonnais, or La Bourdonnaie, de, Bertrand 

Francois Mahe\ Fr. naval officer. 1699 . .? 1755 

Labrouste, Pierre Frangois Henri, Fr. architect 1801. . .1875 

La Caille, de, Nicolas Louis, Fr. astronomer 1713. . .1762 

Lace'pede, de, Bernard Germaine Etienne de la Ville, 

Count, Fr. naturalist and statesman 1756. . . 1825 

La Cerda, famous Span, family (1269-1425). 

La Chaise d'Aix, Francois, Pere. Pdre Lachaise. 

Fr. Jesuit 1624... 1709 

Lachmann, Karl, Ger. critic and philologist 1793. . .1851 

Lachner, Franz, Ger. musical composer 1804. . .1890 

Laclos, de, Pierre Ambroise Frangois Choderlos, Fr. 

revolutionist and author 1741. . .1803 

Lacombe, E. Henry, Am. lawyer and jurist 1840 

Lacombe, Louis, Fr. composer of comic opera 1818 

Lacordaire, Jean Baptiste Henri, Fr. divine and 

orator 1802. . .1861 

Lacoste, Jean Amand. Saint Amand. Fr. author and 

dramatist 1798. . .1885 

Lacretelle, de, Jean Charles Dominique, Fr. historian 1766. . .1855 
Lacretelle, de, Pierre Louis. Brother. Fr. jurist and 

writer 1751... 1824 

Lacr oix, Paul. P. L. Jacob Bibliophile. Fr. author. . . 1806. . .1884 

Lacroix, Sylvestre Frangois, Fr. mathematician 1765... 1843 

Lacr u z, de, Juana Inez, Mexican poetess 1651... 1695 

Lactantius, Lucius Ccelius Firmianus. The Christian 

Cicero. A father of the Latin Church, born in Africa ? 260. . .? 325 

Ladislas II., king of Poland ? 1350. ..1434 

Ladvocat, Jean Baptiste, Fr. Hebraist and writer 1709. . .1765 

Laemlein, Alexandre, Bavarian -Fr. painter 1813 

Laennec, Rene" Theodore Hyacinthe, Fr. physician. 
Inventor of the stethoscope and discoverer of aus- 
cultation ; 1781... 1826 

Laer, van, Pieter. 11 Bamboccio. Dutch painter 1613... 1673 

La Farge, Marie Cappelle, supposed Fr. poisoner 1816. . .1852 

La Farina, Giuseppe, Ital. historian 1815. . .1863 

Lafayette, de, or La Fayette, Marie Jean Paul 
Roch Yves Gilbert Motier, Marquis, Fr. general and 

patriot 1757... 1834 

Laffltte, Jacques, Fr. banker and politician ! 1767. . .1844 

162 



LAFITA U—LAMENNAIS 



BORN. DIED. 

Lafitan, Joseph Frangois, Fr. Jesuit missionary 1670. . .1746 

Lafitte, Jean, Fr. corsair of the Gulf of Mexico ? 1780..? 1817 

Lafolie, Louis Guillaume, Fr. chemist 1739. . .1780 

La Fontaine, de, Jean, Fr. fabulist and poet 1621. . .1695 

Lafosse, de, Charles, Fr. historical painter 1640. . .1716 

Lia Fuente, Modesto, Span, historian 1806 

Lagrange, de, Count Frederic, Fr. statesman 1816. . .1883 

Lagrange, de, Joseph Louis, Comte, Fr. geometer and 

astronomer. \Mecanique Analytique.'] 1736 . . . 1813 

La Grange, de, Joseph de Chancel. La Grange- 
Chancel. Fr. poet ? 1676 . . . 1758 

La Harpe, de, Jean Frangois, Fr. dramatist and critic 1739.. .1803 

Lahire, de, Philippe, Fr. geometer 1640. . .1718 

La Hontan, de, Armand Louis de Delondarce, Baron 

de la Hontan et Herleche, Fr. explorer in America. .? 1667. . .1715 
Laine*, Joseph Henri Joachim, Vicomte, Fr. states- 
man and orator 1767. . .1835 

Laing, Alexander Gordon, Scot, traveler in Africa 1794. . .1826 

Laing, Malcolm, Scot, historian 1762. . .1818 

Lake, Gerard, Viscount, Brit, general in Iadia 1744. . .1808 

Lalande, de, Joseph Je"r6me Le Francais, Fr. astron- 
omer 1732... 1807 

Lalanne, Maxime, Fr. etcher 1886 

Lalemant, Jerdme, Fr. Jesuit missionary in Canada. . 1593. . .1673 
Lallemand, Charles Frangois Antoine, Baron, Fr. 

general 1774. . .1839 

Lallemand, Claude Frangois, Fr. physician and sur- 
geon 1790... 1854 

Lally, Thomas Arthur, Count, Baron of Tollendal in 

Ireland. Fr. general in India 1702. . .1766 

Lally-Tollendal, de, Trophime Gerard, Marquis. 

Son of Thomas Arthur Lally. Fr. politician 1751 . . .1830 

Lamar, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus, Am. senator and 

judge 1825 

Lamarck, de, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, 

Chevalier, Fr. naturalist 1744. . .1829 

Lamarmora, di, Alfonso, Marquis, Ital. general 1804 

Lamarque, Maximilien, Count, Fr. general and poli- 
tician 1770. ..1832 

Lamartine, de, Alphonse Marie Louis, Fr. author, 

politician, and orator 1790. . .1869 

Lamb, Charles, Eng. essayist and humorist 1775. . .1834 

Lamballe, de, Marie TheYese Louise de Savoie-Carig- 

nan, Princess of, murdered in the Fr. revolution. . . . 1749. . .1792 
Lambert, Daniel, Eng. giant who weighed 739 pounds 1769. . .1809 

Lambert, Frangois, Fr. religious reformer. 1487. . .1530 

Lambert, Johann Heinrich, Ger. physicist 1728. . .1777 

Lambert, John, Eng. parliamentary general ? 1620. . .1692 

Lambert, Sir John, Brit, general 1772. . .1847 

Lambruschini, Luigi, Ital. cardinal 1776. . .1854 

Lamennais, de, Hugues Felicite" Robert, Abbe\ Fr. 

religious and political writer 1782. . .1854 

163 



LAMETH—LA NOUE 



BORN. DIED. 

Lameth, de, Alexandre Theodor Victor, Count, Fr. 

revolutionist 1760 . . .1829 

La Mettrie, de, Julien Offray, Fr. philosopher 1709. . .1751 

Lamoignon, de, Chre"tien Francois, Fr. statesman... 1644=... 1709 
Laraont, Daniel S., private secretary to Governor and 

President Cleveland 1851 

Lamoriciere, de, Christophe Louis LCon Juchault, 

Fr. general 1806. . .1865 

Lamotte, Jeanne de Valois, Madame, Fr. adventur- 
ess ?1756...1791 

La Motte-Fouque*, de, Friedrich Heinrich Karl, 

Baron, Ger. poet and novelist. [Undine.] 1777. ..1843 

Lamouroux, Jean Vincent Felix, Fr. naturalist 1779. . .1825 

Lampadius, Wilhelm August, Ger. metallurgist 1772. . .1842 

Lancaster, Sir James, Eng. navigator ? 1550. . .1620 

Lancaster, Joseph, Eng. educationist ? 1778. . .1838 

Lance, George, Eng. painter 1802. ..1864 

Lancelot, Dom Claude, Fr. grammarian ? 1615. . .1695 

Lancisi, Giovanni Maria, Ital. scholar and physician. . 1654. . .1720 
Landen, John, Eng. mathematician. [Residual Anal- 
ysis.] 1719. ..1790 

Lander, Richard, Eng. traveler in Africa 1804. . .1834 

Landi, Ortensio, Ital. comic writer ? 1500..? 1560 

Landini, Christoforo, Ital. savant 1424. . .1504 

Landon, Letitia Elizabeth. L. B. L. Eng. poetess. . . . 1802. . .1838 

Landor, Walter Savage, Eng. author 1775. . .1864 

Landseer, Sir Edwin, Eng. animal-painter 1803... 1873 

Lane, Edward William, Eng. orientalist. [Arabic 

Lexicon.'] 1801. . .1876 

Lane, Sir Ralph, colonial governor of Virginia ? 1530. . .1604 

Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. Writer on the- 
ology ?1005...1089 

Lang, Andrew, Eng. essayist and novelist 1847 

Langbein, August Friedrich Ernst, Ger. author 1757. . .1835 

Langdon, John, Am. statesman .* 1739. . .1819 

Lange, Johann Peter, Ger. theologian 1802 

Langenbeck, Maximilian Adolphe, Ger. physician 

and medical writer 1816. . .1887 

Langfrey, Pierre, Fr. historian 1828 

Langhorne, John, Eng. poet and translator 1735. . .1779 

Langlande, Eng. monk. [Vision of Piers Plowman.]., fl. 14th c. 

Langles, Louis Mathieu, Fr. orientalist 1763. . .1824 

Langlois, Victor, Fr. orientalist 1829. . .1869 

Langton, Stephen, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of Can- 
terbury 1160. ..1228 

Laugtry, Mrs. Lilian, Eng. actress 1852 

Languet, Hubert, Fr. political writer 1518. . .1581 

Lanier, Sidney, Am. poet 1842. . .1881 

Lanjuinais, Jean Denis, Count, Fr. statesman 1753. . .1827 

Lankester, Edwin, Eng. physician and naturalist — 1814. . .1874 
Lannes, Jean, Duke of Montebello, marshal of France 1769.. .1809 

La Noue, de, Francois. Bras de Fer. Fr. soldier 1531. . .1591 

164 



LANSJD WNE—LA UDERDALE 



BORN. DEED. 

Lansdowne, Henry Petty Fitzmaurice, third Marquis 

of. Son. Eng. statesman 1780.. .1868 

Lansdowne, William Petty, first Marquis of, and Earl 

of Shelburne, Brit, statesman 1737. . .1805 

Lantier , de, Etienne Francois, Fr. author 1734. . .1826 

Lanza, Giovanni, Ital. statesman 1815 

Lanzi, Luigi, Ital. antiquary and writer on art 1732. . .1810 

Lao-tse, Chinese philosopher B. C. ? 565 

La Perouse, de, Jean Francois de Galaup, Count, 

Fr. navigator. Perished by shipwreck 174=1 . .? 1789 

Lapham, Increase Allen, Am. physicist 1811. . .1875 

Laplace, de, Pierre Simon, Marquis, Fr. astronomer 

and mathematician. [Mecanique Celeste.] 1749. . .1827 

Lappenber g, Johann Martin, Ger. historian 1794. . .1865 

Lardner, Dionysius, Brit, scientific writer 1793. . .1859 

Lardner, Nathaniel, Eng. theologian and writer 1684... 1768 

La Rive, de, Charles Gaspard, Swiss chemist 1770. . .1834 

La Rochefoucauld, de, Francois, Due, Prince of 

Marsillac, Fr. writer and moralist 1613 . . .1680 

La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, de, Francois Alex- 
andre Fre"de*ric, Due, Fr. philanthropist 1747. . .1827 

La Rochejaquelein, de, Henri du Verger, Count, 

Fr. Vendean chief 1772... 1794 

Laromiguiere, Pierre, Fr. metaphysician 1756. . .1837 

Larrey, Dominique Jean, Baron, Fr. army surgeon. . . 1766. . .1842 
La Salle, Jean Baptiste, Fr. priest. Founder of the 

" Brothers of the Christian Schools " 1651 . . .1719 

La Salle, de, Robert Cavelier, Sieur, Fr. explorer....? 1635... 1687 
Lasca, Antonio Francesco Grazzini, Ital. poet and dra- 
matist. Founder of the Florentine Academy 1503. . .1583 

Lascar is, Andreas Johannes. Rhyndacenus. Greek 

philologist ? 1445.. .1535 

Las Cases, de, Emmanuel Augustin Dieudonne", 

Comte, Fr. writer. [Memorial de Samte-H&WneJ] .... 1766. . .1842 

Lasker, Eduard, Pruss. statesman 1829. . . 1884 

La ski, Jan, Polish Protestant theologian 1499. . .1560 

Lassaigne, Jean Louis, Fr. chemist 1800. . .1859 

Lassen, Christian, Norwegian orientalist 1800. . .1876 

Lasso, di, Orlando, or Orlandus, Belgian composer. ... 1520. ..1594 

Latham, John, Eng. ornithologist 1740. . .1837 

Latham, Robert Gordon, Eng. philologist and ethnol. 1812 

Latimer, Hugh, Eng. reformer and martyr ? 1490. . .1555 

Latour d'Auvergne, de, The*ophile Malo Corret, Fr. 

soldier. " The first grenadier of France." 1743. . .1800 

Latreille, Pierre Andre", Fr. entomologist 1762. . .1833 

Latude, de, Henri Masers, Fr. prisoner of state 1725... 1805 

Laube, Heinrich, Ger. poet and novelist 1806. . .1884 

Laud, William, archbishop of Canterbury. Executed. 1573... 1645 

Lauder, William, Scot, literary impostor 1771 

Lauderdale, James Maitland, Earl of, Scot, statesman 1759. . .1839 
Lauderdale, John Maitland, Duke of, Cabal minister 

in England 1616... 1682 

165 



LA UD ON— LEA VITT 



BORN. DIED. 

Laudon, von, Gideon Ernst, Baron, Austrian field- 
marshal and generalissimo 1716. . .1790 

Laudonniere, de, Rene" Goulaine, Fr. explorer of 

Florida fl. 1562 

Laugier, Auguste Ernest Paul, Fr. astronomer 1812. . .1872 

Laugier, de, Ce"sar de Bellecour, Count, Ital. author. . 1789 

Launitz, van der, Nikolaus Karl Eduard Schmidt, 

Ger. sculptor 1797. . .1869 

Laurence, French, Eng. poet and lawyer 1809 

Laurens, Henry, Am. statesman 1724. . .1792 

Laurens, John. Son. Am. officer in the Revolution- 
ary war : 1753. . .1782 

Laurent, Francois, Fr. historian and publicist 1810 . . .1887 

Laurent- Joanne, Adolphe, Fr. geographer and car- 
tographer. 1813. . .1881 

Lauriston, de, Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, 
Marquis. GHrandnepheiv of John Law. Marshal of 

France 1768.. .1828 

Lauzun, de, Antonin Nompar de Caumont, Due, Fr. 

adventurer ? 1633. . .1723 

Lavalette, de, Antoine Marie Chamans, Count, Fr. 

military officer and postmaster-general 1769. . .1830 

Laval-Montmorency, first Roman Catholic bishop 

of Quebec 1622. ..1708 

Lavater, Johann Kaspar, Swiss physiognomist 1741. . .1801 

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, Fr. chemist 1743 . . .1794 

Law, George, Am. capitalist 1806. ..1881 

Law, John, of Lauriston, Scot, financier in France. 

ILcw's Bubble.] 1671. ..1729 

Law, William, Eng. divine, mystic, and writer 1686. . .1761 

Lawrance, John, Am. jurist and statesman 1750. . .1810 

Lawrence, Abbott, Am. merchant and philanthropist 1792. . .1855 
Lawrence, Albert Gallatin, Am. soldier and lawyer. . 1835. . .1887 
Lawrence, Amos. Brother of Abbott. Am. merchant 

and philanthropist 1786. . .1852 

Lawrence, James, Am. naval captain 1781... 1813 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, Eng. portrait-painter 1769. . .1830 

Lawrence, St., Roman Christian martyr 258 

Lawrence, William, Eng. surgeon and writer 1783. . .1867 

Lawrence, William Beach, Am. jurist 1800. . .1881 

Layard, Austen Henry, Eng. orientalist and archaeol- 
ogist 1817 

Laynez, Diego, Span, general of the order of Jesuits. 

An associate of Loyola.' 1512. . .1565 

Lazarus, Emma, Am. poet, translator, and magazinist 1851. . .1887 
Lazzarini, Giovanni Andrea, Ital. painter and writer 1710. . .1786 

Lea, Isaac, Am. naturalist 1792... 1886 

Leach, William Elford, Eng. naturalist 1790. . .1836 

Leake, William Martin, Eng. traveler and archaeolo- 
gist 1777... 1860 

Leathes, Stanley, Eng. theologian 1830 

Loavitt, Joshua, Am. journalist 1794.. .1873 

166 






LEBAS—LEFORT 



BORN. DIED. 

Lebas, Philippe Francois, partisan of Robespierre 1765. . .1794 

Lebeau, Charles, Fr. historian and poet 1701. . .1778 

Leblauc, Nicolas, Fr. chemist 1753. ..1806 

Iiebceuf, Edmond, Fr. marshal 1809. ..1888 

Lebon, Joseph, Fr. revolutionist 1765. . .1795 

Lebrun, Charles, Fr. painter 1619. . .1690 

Iiebrun, Charles Francois, Duke of Piacenza, Fr. 

statesman and writer 1739. . .1824 

Iiebrun, Marie Louise Elisabeth, Mme., nee Vigee, Fr. 

painter 1755... 1842 

Iiebrun, Pierre Antoine, Fr. poet and dramatist 1785. . .1873 

Iiebrun, Ponce Denis Ecouchard. Lebrun Pindare. 

Fr. lyric poet 1729... 1807 

Liecky, William Edward Hartpole, Brit, author 1838 

!Le Clerc, Jean, Swiss Protestant theologian 1657. . .1736 

Iieclerc, Victor Emmanuel, Fr. general 1772. . .1802 

L<e Conte, John, Am. physicist 1818 

lie Conte, John Lawrence, Am. entomologist 1825 

Iieconte de Lisle, Charles Marie, Fr. poet 1820 

Lecoq, Henri, Fr. naturalist 1802. . .1871 

Iiecouvreur, Adrienne, Fr. actress ? 1690. . .1730 

Liedebour, von, Karl Friedrich, Gter. botanist 1785. . .1851 

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste, Fr. socialist 1808.. .1874 

!Ledyard, John, Am. traveler 1751. . .1789 

Lee, Alfred, Protestant Episcopal bishop of Delaware 1807... 1887 
!Lee, Ann. Mother Ann. Founder of the Shakers in 

America 1736. ..1784 

Lee, Arthur. Brother of B. H. L. and F. L. L. Am. 

diplomatist 1740.. .1792 

Lee, Charles, Am. major-general born in England 1731. . .1782 

Lee, Fitzhugh, Am. soldier 1835 

Lee, Francis Lightfoot, signer of the Declaration of 

Independence 1734. . .1797 

Lee, Harriet, Eng. novelist 1756. . .1851 

Lee, Henry. Light-Horse Harry. Am. general and 

governor of Virginia 1756. . .1818 

Lee, Jesse, early Methodist evangelist in New England 1758. . .1816 

Lee, Nathaniel, Eng. dramatist ? 1657. . .1691 

Lee, Richard Henry, Am. orator, statesman, and patriot 1732. . .1794 
Lee, Robert Edward. Son of Gen. Henry Lee. Am. 

Confederate general 1807. . . 1870 

Lee, Samuel, Eng. orientalist 1783. . .1852 

Leech, John, Eng. artist and caricaturist ? 1817. . .1864 

Leeuwenhoek, van, Dutch naturalist 1632. . .1723 

Lefebvre, Francois Joseph, Duke of Dantzic, marshal 

of France 1755... 1820 

Lefebvre-Desnouettes, Charles, Count, Fr. general. 1773. . .1822 

Lefevre, Pierre, Fr. Jesuit. Friend of Loyola 1506. . .1546 

Lefevre d'Etaples, Jacques, Fr. theologian and 

scholar ? 1455... 1537 

Le Flo, Adolf Emmanuel Charles, Fr. soldier 1804. . .1887 

Lefort, Francois, Swiss-Russian general 1656. . .1699 

167 



LEFRAKC—LEimOX 



BORN. DIED. 

JLefranc, Jules, Fr. sculptor 184:2. . .1881 

Lefuel, Hector Martin, Fr. architect 1810. . .1881 

Legare*, Hugh Swinton, Am. statesman and scholar. . . 1797. . .1843 

Legendre, Adrien Marie, Fr. geometer 1752. . .1833 

Leggett, William, Am. author 1802. . .1839 

Legouve", Gabriel Marie Jean Baptiste, Fr. poet 1764. . .1812 

Legrand, Jacques Guillaume, Fr. architect 1743. . .1807 

Legrand du Saulle, Henri, Fr. physician 1830 

Lehmann, Johann Gottlob, Ger. mineralogist 1767 

Leibnitz, von, Gottfried Wilhelm, Baron, Ger. philos- 
opher and mathematician 1646. . .1716 

Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of, favorite of Queen 

Elizabeth ? 1532. . .1588 

.Leicester of Holkham, Thomas William Coke, Earl of, 

Eng. agriculturist 1752. . .1842 

Leichhardt, Ludwig, Ger. explorer in Australia 1813. . .1848 

Leidy, Joseph, Am. naturalist and physiologist 1823 

Leif Ericson. Tlie Bed. Early Scandinavian voy- 
ager to America fl. about 1000 

Leigh, Sir Edward, Eng. theologian, critic, and philol- 
ogist 1602... 1671 

Leighton, Frederick, Eng. painter 1830 

Leisler, Jacob, insurrectionist governor of New York, 

1689-1691 1691 

Lejeune, Henry, Eng. painter ? 1819 

Lejeune, Louis Francois, Baron, Fr. general and 

painter 1775... 1848 

Lekain, Henri Louis Cain, Fr. tragic actor 1728. . .1778 

Leland, Charles Godfrey, Am. author 1824 

Leland, John, Eng. antiquary and linguist ? 1506. . .1552 

Lelewel* Joachim, Polish historian 1786. . .1861 

Leloir, Auguste, Fr. painter 1809.. .1884 

Lely, Sir Peter. Van der Faes. Dutch portrait-painter 

in England ., 1617... 1680 

Lemaire, Nicolas Eloi, Fr. classical scholar 1767. . .1832 

Lemaistre, Antoine, Fr. advocate and writer 1608. . .1658 

Lemaitre, Fretteric, Fr. actor ? 1800. . .1876 

Lemercier, Louis Jean Nepomrucene, Fr. dramatist. . 1771.. .1840 

Le*mery, Nicolas, Fr. chemist. [Cows de chimie.] 1645. . .1715 

Lemoiue, Francois, Fr. historical painter 1688. . .1737 

Lemon, Mark, Eng. journalist and humorist. 1809. . .1870 

Le Monnier, Pierre Charles, Fr. astronomer 1715. . .1799 

Le Moyne, Canadian family distinguished as Amer- 
ican colonizers fl. 17th and 18th c. 

Le Moyne, Sanvolle, first colonial governor of Louis- 
iana ?1671...1701 

Lempriere, John, Eng. scholar. [Classical Dictionary.'].? 1765... 1824 
Lenau, Nikolaus. Niembsch von Strehlenau. Ger. poet 1802. . .1850 
L'Enclos, de, Ninon, or Anne, fascinating Fr. lady.. . 1616. . .1706 
Lenfant, Jacques, Fr. Protestant divine and historian 1661. ..1728 

Lennep, Tan, Jacobus, Dutch novelist 1802. . .1868 

Lennox, Charlotte, nee Ramsay, Am. novelist 1720. . .1804 

168 



LENOIR— LE SAGE 



BORN. DIED. 

Lenoir, Alexandre, Fr. archaeologist 1761. . .1839 

Lenoir, Charles Pelage, Abbe\ Fr. author 1819 

Lenormant, Charles, Fr. archaeologist and historian. 1802.. .1859 

Leuormant, Francois. Son. Fr. archaeologist 1835... 1883 

Lenotre, Andre\ Fr. architect and garden designer. . . . 1613.. .1700 

Leo I., Saint. The Great. Pope ? 390... 461 

Leo III., Saint, pope ?750... 816 

Leo IV., pope. Defended Rome against the Saracens ?800... 855 

Leo X., Giovanni de' Medici, pope 1475. . .1521 

Leo XIII. 9 Gioachimo Pecci, pope 1810 

Leo I., Flavius. The Thracian. Byzantine emperor. . ? 400... 474 
Leo III., Flavius. Thelsawrian. Byzantine emperor ?680... 741 

Leo V., Flavius. The Armenian. Byzantine emperor 820 

Leo VI., Flavius. The Philosopher. Byzantine em- 
peror ? 865 . . . 911 

Leo, Heinrich, Ger. historian 1799 

Leo, Leonardo, Ital. musical composer 1694..? 1745 

Leo Africanus. Al-Hassan Ibn Mohammed, Moorish 

traveler 71485..? 1526 

Leonard, James Francis, Am. telegrapher and elec- 

. trician 1834. . .1862 

Leonardo da Pisa, Ital. mathematician ? 1170 

Leonhard, von, Karl C&sar, Ger. geologist 1779. . .1862 

Leoni, Leone, Ital. sculptor and engraver of medals ? 1592 

Leonidas, heroic king of Sparta B. C 480 

Leopardi, Giacomo, Count, Ital. poet 1798. . .1837 

Leopold I. The Great. Emperor of Germany 1640... 1705 

Leopold II., emperor of Germany 1747. . .1792 

Leopold I., Georges Chretien Fr&Ieric, king of the 

Belgians. 1790... 1865- 

Leopold II., Louis Philippe Marie Victor, king of the 

Belgians 1835 .. 

Leopold II., grand duke of Tuscany and archduke 

of Austria 1797. . .1870 

Leopold I., prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Pruss. general 

and inventor of modern military tactics 1676. . .1747 

Leopold, Karl Gustaf , Swed. poet 1756. . .1829 

Lep autre, Jean Andre", Fr. horologist 1709. . .1789 

Le Pays, de, Rene", Sieur Plessis-Villeneuve, Fr. poet 1636... 1690 

Lepere, Charles Philippe, Fr. statesman 1822. . .1885- 

Lepsius, Karl Richard, Ger. philologist and Egyptolo- 
gist 1810... 1884 

Lerdo de Tejada, Sebastian, president of Mexico 1825 

Lermontoff, Mikhail Ivanovitch, Russ. poet 1814. . .1841 

Leroux, Pierre, Fr. socialist and writer 1798. . .1871 

Leroy, Julien, Fr. horologist and author 1686. . .1759 

Leroy, Julien David. Son of Julien. Fr. architect. . . .? 1724. . .1803 

Ler o y , Pierre. Son of Julien. Fr. watchmaker 1719 . . . 1785 

Leroy d'Etiolles. Jean Jacques Joseph, Fr. surgeon. 1798.. .1860 
Leroy de Saint-Arnaud, Jacques Achille, marshal 

of France 1801. ..1854 

Le Sage, Alain Rene\ Fr. novelist. [Gil Bias.] 1668 . . .1747 

169 



LESCOT—LHERITIER DE BRUTELLE 

'born. died. 

Lescot, Pierre, Fr. architect. [Louvre.] ? 1510. . .1571 

Lescure, de, Louis Marie, Marquis, Fr. Vendean chief 1766. . .1793 
Lesdiguieres, de, Francois de Bonne, Duke, Fr. gen- 
eral 1543. . .1626 

Lesley, John, bishop of Ross. Scot, prelate 1527. . .1596 

Lesley, John Peter, Am. geologist 1819 

Leslie, Alexander, Earl of Leven, Scot, general 1661 

Leslie, Charles Robert, Eng. historical painter 1794. . .1859 

Leslie, Sir John, Scot, mathematician and physicist.. . 1766. . .1832 
Lesseps, de, Ferdinand, Viscount, Fr. diplomatist and 

engineer of the Suez Canal 1805 

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, Ger. author / 1729. . .1781 

Leasing, Karl Friedrich. Grandnephew. Ger. painter 1808 

L'Estrange, Sir Roger, Eng. political writer 1616. . .1704 

Lesueur, Ciceron, Fr. architect and author 1794. . .1883 

Lesueur, Eustache, Fr. painter 1617. . .1655 

Le Sueur, Jean Fran cois, Fr. musical composer 1760. . .1837 

Letronue, Antoine Jean, Fr. archaeologist and critic. . 1787. . .1848 
Leuekart, Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolph, Ger. zoolo- 
gist 1823 

Leuret, Francois, Fr. physician and author 1797. . .1851 

Leusden, Jan, Dutch orientalist 1624. . .1699 

Leutze, Emanuel, Am. historical painter 1816 . . .1868 

Leveque, Jean Charles, Fr. philosopher 1818 

Lever, Charles James, Irish novelist 1806 . . .1872 

Leverett, Frederick Percival, Am. scholar. [Latm 

Lexicon.'] 1803. . .1836 

Leverett, Sir John, colonial governor of Massachusetts 1616 . . . 1679 

Leverrier, Urbain Jean Joseph, Fr. astronomer 1811 . . .1877 

Le*vesque, Pierre Charles, Fr. historian and translator 1736. . .1812 
Levi, Leone, Brit, writer on economics and commerce. 1821. . .1888 

Le*vis, de, Francois, Due, marshal of France 1720. . .1787 

Levizac, de, Jean Pons Victor Lecoutz, Abbe", Fr. 

grammarian 1813 

Lewald, Johann Karl August, Ger. author 1792. . .1871 

Lewes, George Henry, Eng. philosophical writer 1817. . .1878 

Lewes, Marian Evans. Wife. George Eliot. Eng. 

novelist ? 1820 

Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, Eng. statesman and 

writer 1806 . . . 1863 

Lewis, John Frederick, Eng. painter 1805 . . . 1876 

Lewis, Matthew Gregory. Monk Lewis. Eng. novelist 

and dramatist 1775. . .1818 

Lewis, Meriwether, Am. explorer in the North-west. . 1774. . .1809 

Lewis, Morgan, Am. general and jurist 1754. . .1844 

Lewis, Tayler, Am. scholar and author 1802. . .1877 

Lewis I., Karl August. See Louis 1 1786. ..1868 

Leyden, John, Scot, poet and orientalist 1775. . .1811 

Ley den, van, Lucas. Lucas Dammesz. Dutch painter 1494... 1533 

Leys, Jean Auguste Henri, Belgian painter 1815. . .1869 

L'He*ritier de Brutelle, Charles Louis, Fr. botan- 
ist. Assassinated 1746. . .1800 

170 



LHOMOND—LINLE Y 






BORN. DIED. 

Lliomond, Charles Francois, Fr. educator. [Viri 

-Romce.] 1727 . . . 1794 

L'Hdpital, Guillaume Francois Antoine, Marquis de 

Saint Mesme, Fr. geometrician 1661. . .1704 

L'Hdpital, Michel, chancellor of France 1505. . .1573 

Libelt, Kardl, Polish political and philosophic writer.. 1807.. .1877 

Liberi,Pietro, Cavaliere. Libertvno. Ital. painter 1605... 1687 

Liberius, Saint, pope ? 300. . . 366 

Iiibri-Carrucci, Guillaume Brutus Icile TimolCon, 

Count, Ital.-Fr. mathematician 1803 . . . 1869 

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph, Ger. physicist 1742. . .1799 

Lichtenstein, Martin Heinrich Karl, Ger. naturalist. 1780... 1857 
Lichtwer, Magnus Gottfried, Ger. poet and fabulist. . 1719. . .1783 
Lick, James, Am. philanthropist. [Lick Observatory, 

Cal.] 1796... 1876 

Liddell, Duncan, Scot, physician and mathematician. 1561. . .1613 
Liddell, Henry George, Eng. scholar. [Lidell and 

ScoWs Greek Lexicon.'] ? 1811 

Liddon, Henry Parry, EDg. clergyman 1830 

Lieber, Francis, Am. publicist born in Prussia 1800. . .1872 

Lie big, von, Justus, Baron, Ger. chemist 1803. . .1873 

Lieven, Dorothea, nee von Benkendorff , Princess of, 

Russ. diplomatist ? 1785. . .1857 

Lightfoot, John, Eng. theologian and Hebraist 1602. . .1675 

Ligne, de, Karl Joseph, Prince, Austrian general and 

author 1735 . . .1814 

Ligonier, John, Earl, Eng. field-marshal 1678. . .1770 

Liguori, da, Alfonso Maria, St., Ital. bishop and 

founder of the order of Redemptorists 1696. . .1787 

Lilburne, John, Eng. political agitator 1618. . .1657 

Lilly, John, Eng. dramatist ?1553..?1600 

Lilly, William, Eng. astrologer 1602. . .1681 

Lily, William, Eng. school-master. [Lily's Grammar.].? 1466... 1523 

Limborch, van, Philippus, Dutch theologian 1633. . .1712 

Linacre, Thomas, Eng. physician and scholar ? 1460. . .1524 

Lincoln, Abraham, sixteenth President of the United 

States 1809... 1865 

Lincoln, Benjamin, Am. Revolutionary general 1733. . .1810 

Lincoln, Levi, Am. lawyer and statesman 1749. . .1820 

Lincoln, Levi. Son. Am. lawyer and statesman 1782... 1868 

Lind, Jenny (Mrs. Goldschmidt), Swed. vocalist 1821. . .1887 

Linde, Samuel Bogumil, Polish lexicographer 1771. . .1847 

Linden, Charles, Am. botanist 1810. . .1888 

Lindenau, von, Bernhard August, Ger. astronomer.. 1780... 1854 

Lindley, John, Eng. botanist 1799. . .1865 

Lindsay, Sir David, Scot, poet ? 1490..? 1567 

Ling, Peter Henrik, Swed. founder of curative gym- 
nastics 1776 . . .1839 

Lingard, John, Eng. historian 1771. . .1851 

Lingelbach, Jan, Flemish painter 1625. . .1687 

Linguet, Simon Nicolas Henri, Fr. advocate and writer 1736. . .1794 
Linley, Thomas, Eng. musical composer ? 1725. . .1795 

in 



LINNjEUS—L oftus 



BORN. DIED. 

Linnseus, von, Carl, Swed. botanist 1707. . .1778 

Linnell, John, Eng. painter 1792 

Linton, William James, Eng. engraver 1812 

Lippi , Fra Filippo, Ital. painter 1412. . .1469 

Lippiucott, Sara Jane, nee Clarke. Grace Greenwood. 

Am. authoress 1823 

Lipsius, Justus, Flemish critic and philologist 1547. . .1606 

Liscov, Christian Ludwig, Ger. satiric author 1701 . . .1760 

Lisle, de, Guillaume, Fr. geographer 1675. . .1726 

List, Friedrich, Ger. political economist 1789. . .1846 

Lista-y-Aragon, Don Alberto, Span, mathematician, 

poet, and political writer 1775. . .1848 

Lister, Martin, Eng. naturalist and physician ? 1638. . .1712 

Liszt, Franz. Abbe Liszt. Hungarian pianist and 

composer 1811 . . . 1886 

Lithgo w, William, Scot, traveler 1583. . .1640 

Litta, Pompeo, Count, Ital. historian 1781. . .1852 

Littleton, Edward, Lord, Eng. statesman 1589. . .1645 

Littleton, Sir Thomas, Eng. jurist. [Tenures.'] ? 1420. . .1481 

Littre", Maximilien Paul Emile, Fr. philologist 1801. . .1881 

Littrow, Karl Ludwig. Son. Ger. astronomer and 

author 1811 

Littrow, von, Joseph Johann, Ger. astronomer 1781. . .1840 

Liverpool, Charles Jenkinson, first Earl of, Brit. 

statesman 1727. . . 1808 

Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, second Earl of. 

Son. Brit, statesman 1770. ..1828 

Livingston, Edward, Am. statesman and jurist 1764. . .1836 

Livingston, Philip, Am. statesman. Signer of the 

Declaration of Independence 1716. . .1778 

Livingston, Robert R. Brother of Edward. Am. 

statesman 1746 . . . 1813 

Livingstone, David, Scot, explorer in Africa 1813. . .1873 

Livy (Titus Livius), Roman historian B. C. 59.. A. D. 17 

Llewellyn I., prince of Wales ? 1190..? 1240 

Llorente, Don Juan Antonio, Span, historian 1756. . .1823 

Lloyd, Henry, Brit, officer and writer on tactics 1729. . .1783 

Lloyd, Humphrey, Eng. divine and scientist 1800. . .1881 

Lobau, de, Georges Mouton, Comte, marshal of France 1770. . .1838 
Lobeck, Christian August, Ger. philologist and anti- 
quary 1781... 1859 

Lobeira, de, Vasco, Port, author. [Amadis de Gaul.'].! 1360. . .1403 

Lobel, Mathieu, Flemish botanist 1538.. .1616 

Lobo, Francisco Rodriguez, Port, poet ? 1550..? 1629 

Lobo, Jeronimo, Port, missionary ? 1595. . .1678 

Lochran, O. A., Am. lawyer and jurist 1829. . .1887 

Locke, David Ross. Petroleum V. Nasby. Am. satirist 1833... 1888 

Locke, John, Eng. philosopher and theologian 1632 . . . 1704 

Lockhart, John Gibson, Scot, writer and critic 1794. . .1854 

Lockyer, Joseph Norman, Eng. astronomer 1836 

Lodge, Thomas, Eng. poet ? 1556. . .1625 

Loftus, William Kennett, Eng. archaeologist ? 1820. . .1858 

172 



LOGAN— LOTIOH 



BORN. DIED. 

Logan, Benjamin, early pioneer of Kentucky ? 1742. . .1802 

Logan, James, author and secretary of William Penn 

in Pennsylvania 1674=. . .1751 

Logan, John, Scot, author 1748. . .1788 

Logan. Tah-gah-jute. Am. Indian chief ? 1725. . .1780 

Logan, John Alexander, Am. general and statesman. . 1826. . .1886 

Logan, Sir William Edmond, Canadian geologist 1798 

Lola Montes, Creole ballet-dancer and adventuress. 1824... 1861 
Lomazzo, Giovanni Paolo, Ital. painter and writer on 

art 1538..? 1600 

Lombard, Lambert, Flemish painter and architect. . .? 1506. . .1565 

Lombard, Peter, Ital. theologian ? 1100..? 1160 

Lombard!, Alfonso, Ital. sculptor 1487. . .1536 

Lome, de, Depuy, Fr. engineer 1817. ..1885 

Lome*nie, de, Louis Leonard, Fr. author 1818. . .1878 

Lomonosofi', Mikhail, Russ. poet and grammarian 1711. . .1765 

Londonderry, Charles William Stewart Vane, Mar- 
quis of, Brit, general 1778. . .1854 

Long, George, Eng. classical scholar 1800 

Long, Roger, Eng. astronomer. [Uranium.] ? 1680. . .1770 

Long, Stephen Harriman, Am. engineer 1784. . .1864 

L on get , Francois Achille, Fr. physician 1811. . .1871 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, Am. poet 1807 

Longhi, Giuseppe, Ital. engraver 1766. . .1831 

Longinus, Dionysius Cassius, Greek philosopher and 

critic ?213... 273 

Longomontanus, Christian, Danish astronomer 1562. . .1647 

Longstreet, James, Confederate lieutenant-general. .? 1820 

Longueil, de, Christophe, Fr. Latin scholar 1490. . .1522 

Longueville, de, Anne Genevieve de Bourbon Conde", 

Duchess, Fr. political agitator 1619.. .1679 

Longworth, Nicholas, Am. horticulturist 1782. . .1863 

Lonnrot, Elias, Finnish philologist 1802 

Loomis, Elias, Am. physicist and mathematician 1811. . .1889 

Lope de Vega Carpio, Felix, Span, poet and dram- 
atist 1562... 1635 

Lopez, Carlos Antonio, president of Paraguay 1790 . . .1862 

Lopez, Don Francisco Solano. Son. President of 

Paraguay ? 1827. ..1870 

Lopez, Narciso, Cuban revolutionist 1799 . . .1851 

Loretz, John B., Am. organist 1812. . .1887 

Lorinser, Karl Ignaz, Ger. physician 1796. . .1853 

Loriot, Antoine Joseph, Fr. mechanician 1716. . .1782 

Lome, John George Edward Henry Sutherland Camp- 
bell, Marquis of, governor-general of Canada 1845 

Lorraine, de, Charles. Cardmal de Lorrame. Fr. 

statesman 1525. . .1574 

Lossing, Benson John, Am. historian and engraver. . . 1813 

Lothaire I., emperor of the West ? 795. . . 855 

Lothaire II., or III. The Saxon. Emperor of Ger- 
many 1075... 1137 

Lotich, Peter. Secimdus. Ger. poet 1528. . .1560 

173 



LOTZE— LUBBOCK 



BORN. DIED. 

Lotze, Rudolf Hermann, Ger. philosopher 1817 

Loudon. John Campbell, fourth Earl of, Brit, general 

in America 1705. ..1782 

London, John Claudius, Scot, horticulturist and bot- 
anist 1783... 1843 

Lough, John Graham, Eng. sculptor 1804. . .1876 

Louis I. Le Debonnavre, or The Pious. Son of Char- 
lemagne. Emperor of the West and king of France. 778. . . 840 

Louis VI. Le Gros, or The Fat. King of France ? 1078. . .1137 

Louis IX., Saint Louis 1215. ..1270 

Louis XI. Son of Charles VII. Established post- 
offices in France 1423.. .1483 

Louis XII., war with the Republic of Venice 1462. . .1515 

Louis XIII. , had Richelieu for prime minister 1601. . .1643 

Louis XIV. Le Grand, or The Great. [" L'etat c'est 

moi."\ 1638... 1715- 

Louis XV., lost Canada and other colonies 1710. . .1774 

Louis XVI., guiUotined 1754. ..1795 

Louis XVII., Dauphin. Son of Louis XVI. and Marie 

Antoinette 1785... 1795 

Louis XVIII. (Louis Stanislas Xavier). Monsieur..* 1755... 1824 

Louis I. (Ludwig Karl August), ting of Bavaria 1786... 1868 

Louis I V . The Bavarian. Emperor of Germany ? 1285. . .1347 

Louis, Antoine, Fr. surgeon 1723. . .1792 

Louis, Pierre Charles Alexandre, Fr. physician 1787. . .1872 

Louis Napoleon. See Bonaparte, Napoleon III. 

Louis Philippe, king of the French 1773. . .1850 

Louvet de C ouvr ay, Jean Baptiste, Fr. revolutionist 1760... 1797 
Louvois, de, Francois Michel Letellier, Marquis, Fr. 

statesman and minister of state 1641 . . .1691 

Lovat, Simon Fraser, Lord, Scot. Jacobite conspirator,? 1670... 1747 

Love, John, Am. general 1820. . .1881 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parish, Am. abolitionist, murdered by 

•a mob.... , 1802... 1837 

Lovelace, Richard, Eng. poet 1618. . .1658 

Lover, Samuel, Irish author 1797. . .1868 

Lowe, Johann Karl Gottfried, Ger. composer 1796. . .1869 

Lowe, Robert, Eng. statesman 1811 

Lowe, Sir Hudson, Brit, general. Governor of St. 

Helena 1769 . . .1844 

Lowe, Sophie, Ger. singer 1815. ..1866 

Lowell, James Russell, Am. poet 1819 

Lowell, John, founder of the Lowell Institute, Boston 1799. . .1836 

Lower, Richard, Eng. anatomist ? 1631 . . .1691 

Lowndes, Rawlins, Am. lawyer and statesman 1722. . .1800 

Lowth, Robert, Eng. bishop, author, and critic 1710. . .1787 

Loyola, de, St. Ignatius, Span, founder of the Society 

of Jesus (the Jesuits) 1491. ..1556 

Loy son, Charles. Pere Hyacinthe. Fr. pulpit orator. 1827 

Lozier, Clemence Sophia Harned, Am. physician 1813. . .1888 

Lubbock, Sir John William, Baronet, Eng. astronomer 1803. . .1865 

Lubbock, Sir John. Son. Eng. archaeologist 1834 

174 






L UBKE—L YTTEL TON 






BORN. DIED. 

Liibke, Wilhelm, Ger. historian of art 1826 

Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus), Roman poet ? 39. . . 65 

Lucas, Charles Jean Marie, Fr. reformer 1803. . .1874 

Lucas, John, Eng. painter 1807. . .1874 

Lucca, Pauline, Ger. vocalist 1842 

Lucian, Greek satirical author ? 120. . .? 200 

Lucian, Saint, Greek priest and Christian martyr.... ? 250...? 312 

Lucilius, Caius, Latin poet: B. C. ?148... 103 

Liicke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich, Ger. theologian.? 1792. . .1855 

Lucretia, Roman woman, illustrious for her virtue. B. C 510 

Iiucretius (Titus Lucretius Cams), Roman poet. .B. C. 95. . . 52 
Lucullus, Lucius Licinius, Roman consul and gen- 
eral B.C. ?110... 57 

Ludlow, Edmund, Eng. republican leader 1620. . .1693 

Lud wig, Christian Gottlieb, Ger. botanist 1709. . .1773 

Li i! d wig, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. physiologist. . . 1816 

Luftt, flans. The Bible Printer. Ger. printer 1495 . . .1584 

Luiui, Bernardino, Ital. painter aft. 1530 

Luitprand, Lombard historian ? 920. . . 972 

Lukin, Lionel, Eng. inventor of the life-boat ? 1742. . .1834 

Lully, Jean Baptiste, Ital.-Fr. composer 1633. . .1687 

Lullv, Raymond. The Enlightened Doctor. Span, phi- 
losopher ? 1235... 1315 

Luu dy , Benjamin, Am. abolitionist 1789 . . . 1839 

Lushington, Stephen, Eng. politician and abolitionist 1782. ..1873 

Luther, Martin, leader of the Ger. reformation 1483. . .1546 

Liitke, Feodor, Russ. traveler 1797 

Luxembourg, de, Francois Henri de Montmorency- 

Bouteville, Due, marshal of France 1628. . .1695 

Luviies de, Honore* Theodoric Paul Joseph d'Albert, 

Due, Fr. archaeologist 1802... 1867 

Luzan, Don Ignacio, Span, poet and critic 1702. . .1754 

Luzerne, de la, Anne Ce*sar, Fr. diplomatist 1741. . .1791 

Lycurgus, Spartan lawgiver B. C. ? 9th c. 

Lydgate, John, Eng. poet ? 1375..? 1461 

Lye, Edward, Eng. philologist and antiquary 1704. . .1767 

Lyell, Sir Charles, Brit, geologist 1797. . .1875 

Lyman, Azel Storrs, Am. inventor. tl/yman-Haskell 

gun.'] 1814. . .1885 

Lynch, Thomas, Jr., signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence 1749. . .1779 

Lynd hurst, John Singleton Copley, Baron, lord chan- 
cellor of England.... 1772. ..1863 

Lyon, Mary, founder of Mount Holyoke Seminary 1797. . .1849 

Lyon, Nathaniel, Am. general 1819. . .1861 

Lyons, Edmund, Lord, Brit, admiral 1790. . .1858 

Lyons, Lord, Right Honorable Richard Bickerton 

Pennell, Brit, statesman and diplomat 1817. . .1887 

Lysander, Spartan statesman and general B. C 395 

Lysias, Athenian orator B. C. 458... 378 

Lysimachus, Greek general and king of Thrace. .B. C. ?360. . . 281 
Lyttelton, George, Lord, Eng. statesman and author. 1709. . .1773 

175 



MA AS— MA CKENZIE 



BORN. DIED. 

Maas, Niklaas, Dutch painter 1632. ..1693 

Mabillon, Jean, Fr. Benedictine and author 1632. . .1707 

Mably, de, Gabriel Bonnot, Abbe", Fr. publicist 1709. . .1785 

M abuse, de, Jan. Gossaert. Flemish painter ? 1499. . .1562 

Macadam, John Loudon, Scot, improver of roads 1756. . .1836 

Mac-Ardell, James, Eng. mezzotint engraver ? 1710. . .1765 

Macartney, George, Earl of, Brit, diplomatist 1737. . .1806 

Macaulay, Catherine, nee Sawbridge, Eng. authoress 1733... 1791 
Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron Macaulay of 
Rothley, Eng. historian, essayist, poet, and states- 
man 1800. . .1859 

Mac-Auley, Catherine E., Irish philanthropist. 

Founder of the order of the Sisters of Mercy 1787... 1841 

Macbeth, king of Scotland ? 1056 

MacCheyne, Robert Murray, Scot, divine 1813. . .1843 

Macchi, Mauro, Ital. author, journalist, and orator ... 1818. . .1881 

MacClellan, George Brinton, Am. general 1826. . .1885 

Mac-Clintock, Sir Francis Leopold, Irish arctic ex- 
plorer 1819 

Mac-Clintock, John, Am. Methodist clergyman and 

author 1814... 1870 

Mac-Clure, Sir Robert John Le Mesurier, Brit, arctic 

navigator 1807 . . . 1873 

Mac-Cosh, James, Scot, metaphysician 1811 

MacCrie, Thomas, Scot, divine and theological his- 
torian 1772 . . . 1835 

Mac Cull ash, James, Irish mathematician 1809. . .1847 

MacCulloch, John, Brit, geologist 1773... 1835 

MacCulloch, John Ramsay, Scot, political economist 1789... 1864 
Mac Donald, Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre, 

Duke of Taranto, marshal of France 1765 . . .1840 

Mac Donald, Flora, Scot, heroine 1720... 1790 

Mac Donald, George, Scot, author 1824 

Macdonough, Thomas, Am. commodore 1783.. .1825 

Macedo, de, Joze" Agostinho, Port, poet ? 1770. . .1831 

Macfarren, George Alexander, Eng. composer 1813 

MacGeoghegan, James, Irish historian ? 1698..? 1760 

Macgillivray, William, Scot, ornithologist and author 1796. . .1852 

Macgregor, John, Brit, statistician 1797. . .1857 

Machiavelli, Niccolb, Florentine statesman and polit- 
ical writer 1469. . .1527 

Maclivaine, Charles Pettit, Am. Protestant Episcopal 

bishop 1798 . . . 1873 

Mackay, Charles, Scot, poet 1812 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, Scot, explorer in North 

America ? 1760 . . .1820 

Mackenzie, Alexander Slidell, Am. naval officer and 

author 1803. . .1848 

Mackenzie, Henry, Scot, novelist 1745. . .1831 

Mackenzie, Sir Morell, Eng. physician to Emperor 

Frederick of Germany 1839 

Mackenzie, Robert Shelton, Brit, and Am. journalist 1809... 1881 

176 



MACKENZIE— MAHMOUD I. 



BOEN. DIED. 

Mackenzie, William Lyon, leader of Canadian insur- 
gents 1795... 1861 

Mackintosh, Sir James, Brit, statesman and historian 1765. . .1832 

MacKnight, James, Scot, commentator 1721... 1800 

Mack von Leiberich, Karl, Baron, Austrian general 1752. . .1828 

Mac Lane, Louis, Am. statesman 1786. . .1857 

Maclaurin, Colin, Scot, mathematician 1698. . .1746 

MacLean, John, Am. jurist and statesman 1785. . .1861 

Macleod, Norman, Scot, clergyman and author 1812. . .1872 

Maclise, Daniel, Irish historical painter 1811. . .1870 

Maclure, William, Scot, geologist in America 1763. . .1840 

MacMahon, Marie Edme Patrice Maurice, Due de 

Magenta, president of the Fr. Republic. 1808 

MacNab, Sir Alan Napier, Canadian statesman 1798. . .1862 

Macneil, Hector, Scot, poet 1746. . .1818 

Macomb, Alexander, Am. general 1782. . .1841 

Macon, Nathaniel, Am. statesman 1757. . .1837 

Macpherson, James, Scot, poet 1738. . .1796 

Mac-Pherson, James Birdseye, Am. general 1828. . .1864 

Macready, William Charles, Eng. tragedian 1793. . . 1873 

Madden, Sir Frederick, Eng. antiquary 1801. . .1873 

Madison, James, fourth President of the United States 1751 . . .1836 

Madler, Johann Heinrich, Ger. astronomer 1794. . .1874 

Ma doc, legendary Welsh prince and navigator fl. 12th c. 

Madoz, Pascual, Span, politician and author. 1806. . .1870 

Madvig, Johann Nikolai, Danish statesman and phi- 
lologist 1804 

Maecenas, Caius Cilnius, Roman statesman and patron 

of letters B. C. ? 70. . . 8 

Maerlant, Tan, Jakob, Flemish poet ?1235...1300 

Maffitt, John Newland, Am. revivalist. 1794. . .1850 

Magalhaens, de, Domingos Jose" Goncalves, Brazilian 

poet ? 1810 

Magee, William, archbishop of Dublin 1765. . .1831 

Magellan, Fernando, Port, navigator ? 1470. . .1521 

Magendie, Francois, Fr. physiologist 1783 . . . 1855 

Maggi, Carlo Maria, Ital. poet 1630. . .1699 

Magini, Giovanni Paolo, Ital. violin maker fl. 1600 

Maginn, William. Morgan Odoherty. Irish author... 1793... 1842 
Magliabecchi, Antonio, Ital. bibliographer and 

scholar 1633 . . . 1714 

Magnan, Bernard Pierre, marshal of France 1791. . .1865 

Magnus, Heinrich Gustav, Ger. chemist 1802. . .1870 

Magnusson, Finn, Icelandic archaeologist 1781. . .1847 

Magone, Daniel, collector of customs at New York .... 1831 

Maguir e, John Francis, Irish author 1815 . . . 1872 

Magyar, Laszld, Hungarian traveler in Africa 1817. . .1864 

Mahan, Asa, Am. clergyman and author 1799 

Mabmoud, sultan of Ghuzni. Mohammedan con- 
queror in India. 967. . .1030 

Mahmoud II., sultan of Delhi 1246. . .1266 

Mabmoud I., sultan of Turkey 1696. ..1754 

171 



MAHMOUD IL—MANCim 



BORN. DIED, 

Mahmond II., sultan of Turkey 1785.. .1839 

Mahn, Karl August Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1802 

Mahone, William, Am. soldier, lawyer, and senator. .. 1836 

Mahony, Francis. Father Prout. Irish journalist ? 1805. . .1866 

Mai, Angelo, Cardinal, Ital. librarian and scholar 1782. . .1854 

Mailath, Janos Nepomuk, Count, Hungarian historian 1786. . .1855 

Maillard, Olivier, Fr. Cordelier and preacher ? 1440. .1 1502 

Maimonides, Moses, or Moses ben Maiinon, Span. 

Jewish rabbi, philosopher, and writer 1135 . . .1204 

Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner, Eng. jurist 1822. . .1888 

Maine de Biran, Marie Francois Pierre Gonthier, Fr. 

metaphysician 1766 . . . 1824 

Maintenon, de, Francoise d'Aubigne", Marquise, con- 
sort to Louis XIV 1635. ..1719 

Maisonneuve, Jules Germaine Francois, Fr. surgeon. 1810 

Maistre, de, Joseph Marie, Count, Ital. statesman 1754. . .1821 

Maistre, de, Xavier, Count. Brother. Fr. novelist... 1764... 1852 

Maitland, Sir Richard of Lethington, Scot, poet 1496. . .1586 

Maittaire, Michel, Fr. philologist and bibliographer. . 1668. . .1747 

Makart, Hans, Austrian painter 1840. . .1884 

Mai an, Solomon Caesar, Eng. clergyman and linguist. 1812 

Malcolm III. Canmore. King of Scotland 1093 

Malcolm, Sir John, Brit, general and historian 1769. . .1833 

Malczewski, Antoni, Polish poet ? 1792. . .1826 

Malebranche, Nicolas, Fr. philosopher 1638. . .1715 

Malek-Shah, sultan of the Seljukian dynasty ? 1054. . .1092 

Malesherbes, de, Chretien Guillaume de Lamoignon, 

Fr. statesman. Guillotined 1721. ..1794 

Malherbe, de, Frangois, Fr. poet 1555. . .1628 

Malibran, Maria Felicita, nee Garcia, Fr. singer and 

actress 1808 . . .1836 

Mallet, Charles Auguste, Fr. philosopher 1807 

Mallet, David, Scot, poet ?1700...1765 

Mallet, Paul Henri, Swiss historian 1730. . .1807 

Mallock, William Hurrell. [The New Republic. Is 

IAfe Worth Living?] 1849 

Malmesbury, James Howard Harris, third Earl of, 

Eng. statesman 1807 

Malmesbury, William of, Eng. historian ? 1095. .? 1143 

Malone, Edmond, Irish Shakespearean scholar , 1741. . .1812 

Malpighi, Marcello, Ital. anatomist 1628. . .1694 

Malte-JBrun, Conrad. Malthe Conrad Bruwn. Danish 

geographer 1775. . .1826 

Malthus, Thomas Robert, Eng. political economist 1766. . .1834 

Mains, Etienne Louis, Fr. engineer and physicist 1775. . .1812 

Mamiani, Terenzio della Rovere, Count, Ital. philoso- 
pher ?1802...1885 

Mamoun, Al, Aben Abbas Abdallah, seventh Abbas- 
side caliph of Bagdad 786. . . 833 

Manchester, Sir Edward Montagu, Earl of, Eng. 

statesman 1602. . .1671 

Mancini, Hortense, Duchess of Mazarin, Ital. beauty. . 1646.. 

178 



MANCim—MAB CH 






BORN. DIED. 

Mancini, Pasquale, Ital. statesman ? 1815 

Manco Capac, first inca of Peru fl. about 1000 

Mander, van, Carel, Flemish painter and biographer.. 1548.. .1606 

Mandeville, Sir John, Eng. traveler ? 1300. . .1372 

Manes, or Manichseus, founder of the sect of Mani- 

chaeans ?240...?274 

Manetho, Egyptian historian fl. 275 B. C. 

Manetti, Giannozzo, Florentine orator and scholar 1396. . .1459 

Manfred, prince of Tarentum and king of the Two 

Sicilies ? 1233... 1266 

Manfredi, Eustachio, Ital. geometer and astronomer. . 1674. . .1739 

Manin, Daniele, Ital. patriot and statesman. 1804. . .1857 

Manley, Maryde la Riviere, Eng. authoress ?1672...1724 

Manly, John, Am. naval commander 1733. . .1793 

Mann, Horace, Am. educationist 1796. . .1859 

Manning, Daniel, Am. journalist and financier 1839. . .1887 

Manning, Henry Edward, Eng. cardinal and author. . 1808 

Mansard, Francois, Fr. architect. [Mansard Roof.]... 1598... 1666 

Mansard, Jules Hardouin. Nephew. Fr. architect 1645. . .1708 

Mansel, Henry Longueville, Eng. philosopher 1820. . .1871 

Mansfeld, von, Ernst, Count, Ger. general 1585 . . . 1626 

Mansfield, William Murray, Earl of, lord chief -justice 

of England 1705. ..1793 

Mansour, Al, Abou Jaffar Abdallah, second Abbasside 

caliph and founder of Bagdad 713. . . 775 

Mantegna, Andrea, Ital. painter 1431. . .1506 

Man tell, Gideon Algernon, Eng. geologist and writer. 1790.. .1852 
Manteuffel, Karl Rochus Edwin, Baron, Pruss. field- 
marshal 1809. . .1885 

Manuel, Francisco, Port, poet 1734.. .1819 

Manuel, Jacques Antoine, Fr. politician and orator. . . 1775. . .1827 

Manuel I. Comnenus, Byzantine emperor ? 1120. . .1180 

Manuel II. Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor 1348. . .1425 

ManUtius, Aldus. The Elder. Ital. printer. Inventor 

of the type called Italic ? 1449. . .1515 

Manzoni, Alessandro, Count, Ital. writer 1784. . .1873 

Mapes, Walter, or Calenius, Welsh scholar and satirist ? 1210 

Maquet, Auguste, Fr. novelist. Literary partner of 

Alexandre Dumas 1813. . .1888 

Mar, John Erskine, eleventh Earl of. Bobbing John. 

Scot. Jacobite 1675 . . .1732 

Marat, Jean Paul, Fr. revolutionist 1744. . .1793 

Maratti, Carlo. Carluccio delle Madonne. Ital. painter 1625... 1713 

Mar beau, Jean Baptiste Francois, Fr. philanthropist. 1798 

Marbeck, John, Eng. composer ? 1585 

Marceau, Francois Severin des Graviers, Fr. general. 1769. ..1796 

Marcel, Jean Joseph, Fr. orientalist 1776 . . . 1854 

Marcello, Benedetto, Ital. musical composer 1686. . .1739 

Marcellus, Marcus Claudius, Roman consul and con- 
queror of Syracuse B. C. ? 268. . . 208 

Marcet, Jane Haldimand, Swiss scientific writer . . 1769. . .1858 

March, Francis Andrew, Am. philologist 1825 

179 



MARCHAND—MARRAST 



BORN. DIED. 

March and* Etienne, Fr. navigator 1755. . .1793 

Marches!, Pompeo, Ital. sculptor 1790. . .1858 

Marcy, Randolph B., Am. general 1810. . .1887 

Marcy, William Learned, Am. statesman 1786. . .1857 

Maret, Henri Louis Charles, Fr. theologian 1805 

Maret, Hugues Bernard, Duke of Bassano, Fr. states- 
man 1763... 1839 

Marey, Etienne Jules, Fr. physiologist 1830 

Margaret. Margaret of Angouleme. Queen of Navarre 

and author 1492. . .1549 

Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI. of England. . 1429. . .1482 

Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands 1480. . .1530 

Margaret of Denmark. The Semiramis of the North. 

Queen of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden 1353. . .1412 

Margaret of Valois, queen of France 1553. . .1615 

Margaret, queen and patron saint of Scotland 1046..? 1093 

Margaret, Saint, virgin of Antioch and martyr 275 

Mar g gr a f , Andreas Sigismun d , Ge r. chemist 1709 . . . 1782 

Marheineke, Philipp Konrad, Ger. theologian 1780. . .1846 

Maria Christina, queen dowager of Spain 1806. . .1878 

Maria II. da Gloria, queen of Portugal 1819... 1853 

Maria de' Medici, queen of France 1573... 1642 

Maria Louisa, empress of France 1791. ..1847 

Maria Theresa, empress of Germany and queen of 

Hungary and Bohemia 1717. . .1780 

Mariana, Juan, Span, historian 1536. . .1623 

Marie Amelie, wife of Louis Philippe 1782. . .1866 

Marie Antoinette, Josephe Jeanne de Lorraine, wife 

of Louis XVI. of France. Executed 1755. . .1793 

Mariette, Auguste Edouard, Fr. Egyptologist 1821. . .1881 

Marini, Giambattista, Ital. poet 1569. . .1625 

Marinoni, Giovanni Giacomo, Ital. mathematician... 1676... 1755 

Mario, Giuseppe, Marquis di Candia, Ital. singer 1810... 1883 

Marion, Francis, Am. revolutionary general 1732. . .1795 

Mariotte, Edme, Fr. physicist. [Mariotte's Law.] 1620. . .1684 

Marius, Caius, Roman general and consul B. C. 157. . . 86 

Marivaux, de, Pierre Carlet de Chamblain, Fr. author 1688. . .1763 

Mark ham, Clements Robert, Eng. geographer 1830 

Marlborough, John Churchill, Duke of, Eng. general. 1650. ..1722 

Marlowe, Christopher, or Kit, Eng. dramatist 1564. . .1593 

Marmier, Xavier, Fr. author 1809 

Marmont, de, Auguste Frederic Louis Viesse, Duke 

of Ragusa, marshal of France 1774. . .1852 

Marmontel, Jean Francois, Fr. author 1723. . .1799 

Marno, Ernest, Austrian traveler and naturalist 1844. . .1883 

Marochetti, Carlo, Baron, Sardinian sculptor 1805. . .1867 

Marot, Clement, Fr. poet 1495. . .1544 

Marquette, Jacques, Fr. explorer of the Mississippi. . . 1637. . .1675 

Marquez, Leonardo, Mexican general ? 1818 

Marracci, Ludovico, Ital. orientalist. Editor of the 

Koran 1612. ..1700 

Marrast, Armand, Fr. statesman and journalist 1801. . .1852 

180 



MARR YA T—MASGA GNI 



BORN. DIED. 

Marryat, Frederick, Eng. naval officer and novelist.. . 1792. . .1848 
Mars, Anne Francoise Hippolyte Boutet, Fr. actress. . . 1779. . .1847 

Marsden, William, Brit, orientalist 1754. . .1836 

Marsh, George Perkins, Am. philologist and diploma- 
tist 1801 

Marsh, James, Am. theologian and scholar 1794. . .1842 

Marsh, Othniel Charles, Am. naturalist 1831 

Marshall, Humphrey, Am. politician 1812. . .1872 

Marshall, James W., discoverer of gold in California 

in 1848 1812... 1885 

Marshall, John, Am. jurist and statesman 1755. . .1835 

Marshall, Thomas Francis, Am. orator 1801 . . .1864 

Marshall, William Calder, Scot, sculptor 1813 

Marshman, Joshua, Eng. missionary and Chinese 

scholar 1767... 1837 

Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count, Ital. naturalist 1658. . .1730 

Marston, John, Eng. poet ? 1570..? 1634 

Marston, Philip Bourke, Eng. poet, novelist, and es- 
sayist 1850. . .1887 

Martens, Thierry, or Dietrich, Flemish printer ? 1450. . .1534 

Martial, Latin poet 43. . . 104 

Martignac, de, Jean Baptiste Sylvere Gaye, Viscount, 

Fr. statesman 1776. . .1832 

Martin, Bon Louis Henri, Fr. historian 1810. . .1883 

Martin, Felix, Fr. Jesuit in Canada. Founded St. 

Mary's College 1804 

Martin, Francois, Xavier, Fr. jurist and historian in 

America 1764... 1846 

Martin, John, Eng. painter 1789. . .1854 

Martin, Luther, Am. lawyer 1744. . .1826 

Martin, Saint, bishop of Tours, horn in Pannonia ? 316. . .? 400 

Mar tine, Randolph Brant, Am. lawyer and jurist 1842 

Martineau, Harriet, Eng. authoress 1802. . .1876 

Martineau, James. Brother. Unitarian divine and 

author 1805 

Martinez de la Rosa, Francisco, Span, statesman, 

orator, and poet 1789 . . . 1862 

Martini, Giambattista, Ital. musical composer 1706. . .1784 

Martini, Jean Paul Egidius. 11 Tedesco. Ger. musical 

composer 1741 . . . 1816 

Martini, Vincenzo, Span, musical composer 1754. . .1810 

Martius, von, Karl Friedrich Philipp, Ger. botanist. . 1794. . .1868 

Martyn, Henry, Eng. missionary 1781. . .1812 

Mar veil, Andrew. The British Aristide*. Eng. author 1620... 1678 

Marx, Karl, Ger. socialist and journalist 1818 

Mary I • Bloody Queen Mary. Queen of England 1516 . . . 1558 

Mary II. , wife of William III. of England 1662. . .1694 

Mary Stuart, queen of Scots. Beheaded 1542. ..1587 

Masaccio, real name Tommaso Guidi, Ital. painter.? 1401... 1443 
Masaniello (contraction of Tommaso Aniello), 

Neapolitan insurgent chief 1620... 1647 

Mascagni, Paolo, Ital. anatomist 1752. . .1815 

181 



MASCARON—MA URIGE 



BORN. DIED. 

Ma scar on, Jules, Fr. preacher and author 1634. . .1703 

Masham, Abigail Hill, favorite of Queen Anne ? 1670. . .1734 

Masinissa, king of Numidia B.C. ?240... 148 

Maskelyne, Nevil, Eng. astronomer. [Nautical Al- 
manac] 1732. . .1811 

Mason, Francis, Am. missionary to Calcutta 1799. . .1874 

Mason, George, Am. statesman 1726. ..1792 

Mason, James Murray, Am. statesman 1798. . .1871 

Mason, Jeremiah, Am. lawyer and statesman 1763. . .1848 

Mason, John, Captain, founder of New Hampshire 1635 

Mason, John, Captain, conqueror of the Pequots 1600. . .1672 

Mason, John Mitchell, Am. divine and orator. 1770. . .1829 

Mason, John Y., Am. statesman 1799. . .1859 

Mason, Lowell, Am. musical composer 1792. . .1872 

Massasoit, sachem of the Wampanoags. Father of 

King Philip ? 1580. ..1661 

Massena, Andre\ Prince of Essling, marshal of Na- 
poleon I 1758... 1817 

Massey, Gerald, Eng. poet 1828 

Massill on, Jean Baptiste, Fr. pulpit orator 1663. . .1742 

Massinger, Philip, Eng. dramatist 1584. . .1640 

Masson, Antoine, Fr. engraver 1636. . .1700 

Masson, David, Scot, critic and scholar ? 1822 

Masudi, Abul-Hasan Ali ben Husein ben Ali, Arabian 

historian ? 890 . . . 956 

Mather, Cotton, Am. theologian and writer 1663. . .1728 

Mather, Increase. Father. Am. divine. President of 

Harvard College 1639. . .1723 

Mathew, Theobald. Father Mathew. "The Apostle 

of Temperance." Irish priest 1790. . .1856 

Mathews, Charles, Eng. comedian 1776 . .? 1835 

Matsys, Quentin, Flemish painter ? 1460. . .1529 

Mattei, Paolo. Paoluccio. Ital. painter 1662. . .1728 

Mattel, Roger Luigi Antici, Ital. cardinal 1811. . .1883 

Matter, Jacques, Fr. philosopher and historian 1791. . .1864 

Matteucci, Carlo, Ital. author. [Elsctro-physiology.']... 1811... 1868 
Matthew Paris, or Matthew of Paris, Eng. his- 
torian ? 1195. . .1259 

Matthias, emperor of Germany 1557. . .1619 

Maturin, Charles Robert, Irish preacher and novelist. 1782.. .1824 

Matzner, Edward, Ger. philologist and grammarian. . 1805 

Maudsley, Henry, Eng. physiologist 1835 

Mauduit, Israel, Eng. political writer 1708. . .1787 

Maunder, Samuel, Eng. compiler ? 1790. . .1849 

Maupertuis, de, Pierre Louis Moreau, Fr. astronomer 1698. ..1759 
Maurepas, de, Jean Fr6de*ric Phelypeaux, Comte, Fr. 

statesman 1701. . .1781 

Maurer, von, Georg Ludwig, Ger. jurist 1790. . .1872 

Maurice, Antoine, Fr. theologian and orientalist 1677. . .1756 

Maurice, John Frederick Denison, Eng. clergyman 

and author 1805... 1872 

Maurice, elector of Saxony. Ger. general 1521 . . . 1553 

182 



MA URIGE OF NASSA TJ—Mc G UFFEY 

BORN. DIED. 

Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange. Dutch war- 
rior 1567... 1625 

Mauricius, Flavins Tiberius, Byzantine emperor ? 539. . . 602 

Maury, Jean Siffrein, Fr. cardinal and orator 1746. . .1817 

Maury, Louis Ferdinand Alfred, Fr. archaeologist 1817 

Maury, Matthew Fontaine, Am. hydrographer 1806. . .1873 

Mavrocordatos, Alexander, Greek statesman 1791. . .1865 

Maximilian I. , emperor of Germany 14=59. . .1519 

Maximilian (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph), archduke 
of Austria and emperor of Mexico. Executed in 

Mexico 1832. . .1867 

Maxwell, James Clerk, Eng. physicist 1831 . . .1880 

May, Samuel Joseph, Am. clergyman and abolitionist. 1797. . .1871 
Mayenne, de, Charles de Lorraine, Due, Fr. general. . 1554. . .1611 

Mayer, Alfred Marshall, Am. physicist 1836 

Mayer, Johann Tobias, Ger. astronomer and mathe- 
matician 1723 . . .1762 

Mayer, Julius Robert, Ger. physicist 1814 

Mayer, Karl, Ger. musician 1799. . .1862 

Mayhew, Henry, Eng. author and journalist 1812 

Mayhew, Jonathan, Am. clergyman and controver- 
sialist 1720 . . . 1766 

Mayhew, Thomas, first minister of Martha's Vineyard 1621. . .1657 
Mayne, Sir Richard, first Eng. commissioner of police 1796.. .1868 
May n waring, Arthur, Eng. political and miscellane- 
ous writer 1668... 1712 

Mazarin, Jules, or Giulio, Cardinal, prime minister of 

Louis XIV 1602. ..1661 

Mazeppa, Jan, hetman of the Cossacks ? 1645. . .1709 

Mazzini, Giuseppe, Ital. patriot and revolutionist 1805. . .1872 

Mazzuola, Girolamo Francesco Maria. 11 Parmigi- 

ano. Ital. painter ? 1503. . .1540 

Mc Arthur, Duncan, Am. soldier and governor of Ohio 1772. . .1839 

McCabe, Edward, cardinal-archbishop of Dublin 1817... 1885 

McCloskey, John, first Am. cardinal 1810. . .1885 

McClurg, John Alexander, Am. Presbyterian divine, 

lawyer, and author 1804. . .1859 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, Am. inventor of reaping 

machine 1809. . .1884 

McCrea, Jane, Am. woman killed by Indians 1754. . .1777 

McCreary, James Bennett, Am. soldier and legislator 1838 

McC re ery, Thomas C, Am. senator 1817 

McDonald, Joseph EwiDg, Am. senator 1819 

McDougall, Alexander, Am. general 1731. . .1786 

McDowell, Irvin, Am. general 1818... 1885 

McDuffie, George, Am. politician ? 1788. . .1851 

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy, Irish journalist 1825. . .1868 

McGettigan, Daniel, Roman Catholic archbishop of 

Armagh 1814... 1887 

McGlynn, Edward, Irish-Am. Catholic priest and 

orator 1832 

McGuffey, William Holmes, Am. educator 1800. . .1873 

183 



McHALE— MENDELSSOHN 

BORN. DIED. 

McHale, Most Rev. John, archbishop of Tuam 1791. . .1881 

McRcan, Thomas, Am. patriot and jurist 1734. . .1817 

McMaster, James A., Am. author and editor 1820. . .1866 

McMaster, John Bach, Am. historian. [History of 

the People of the United States.'] 1839 

Mead, Larkin Goldsmith, Am. sculptor 1835 

Meade* George Gordon, Am. general 1815. . .1872 

Meagher, Thomas Francis, Irish revolutionist 1823. . .1867 

Me any, Stephen Joseph, Irish agitator 1824. . .1888 

31e*chain, Pierre Francois Andre", Fr. astronomer 1744. . .1805 

Medhurst, Eng. missionary and Chinese scholar 1796. . .1857 

Medici, de', Alessandro, first Duke of Florence, assas- 
sinated. 1510. . .1537 

Medici, de% Cosmo I. The Elder. Chief of the Flor- 
entine Republic 1389. . .1464 

Medici, de', Cosmo. The Great. First grand duke of 

Tuscany 1519. . . 1574 

Medici, de', Lorenzo I. The Magnificent. Prince of 
Florence, poet, scholar, and patron of art and liter- 
ature 1448... 1492 

Mehemet AH, or Mohammed Ali, pasha or viceroy 

of Egypt 1769 . . . 1849 

M^hul, Etienne Henri, Fr. composer. [Joseph.] 1763 . . .1817 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, Am. Revolutionary officer. . . 1740. . .1823 
Meinhold, Johann Wilhelm, Ger. divine and writer.. . 1797.. .1851 

Meissner, Alfred, Ger. poet. [Ziska.] 1822 . . . 1885 

Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest, Fr. painter ? 1813 

Mej ia, Tomas, Mexican soldier. Executed ? 1812 . . , 1867 

Mekhitar, Peter, Armenian reformer.. 1676. . .1749 

Melanchlhon. Philip, Ger. Lutheran reformer 1497. . .1560 

Melbourne, William Lamb, Viscount, Eng. states- 
man 1779... 1848 

Melchthal, von, Arnold, legendary Swiss patriot fl. 1307 

Melendez Valdez, Juan Antonio, Span, poet 1754. . .1817 

Me letius, Saint, bishop of Antioch , ? 310. . . 381 

Meli, Giovanni, Sicilian poet 1740. ..1815 

Mel Ian, Claude, Fr. designer and engraver 1598. . .1688 

Mellin, Gustaf Henrik, Swed. historical novelist 1803 

Melloni, Macedonio, Ital. physicist. 1801. . .1853 

Melmoth, William, Eng. writer and classical trans- 
lator 1710... 1799 

Melo, de, Manuel, Port, author (who wrote in Span.).. 1611... 1665 

Melville, Andrew, Scot, religious reformer 1545. . .1622 

Melville, George W., engineer United States Navy. 

Arctic explorer. [Jeanette Expedition.] 1842 

Melville, Herman, Am. traveler and novelist 1819 

Memling, Hans, Flemish painter 1425 

Memminger, Charles Gustavus, Am. politician 1803 

Me*nage, Gilles, Fr. scholar, critic, and writer 1613. . .1692 

Mencius, Chinese philosopher fl. 400 B. C. 

Mendana de Neyra, Alvaro, Span, navigator 1541... 1595 

Mendelssohn, Moses, Ger. philosopher 1729. . .1786 

184 



MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLD Y— MEYER 

BORN. DIED. 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. Grandson, Ger. 

musical composer 1809. . .1847 

Mendez-Pinto, Fernam, Port, traveler ? 1510. . .1583 

Mendoza, de, Diego Hurtado, Span, author and 

diplomatist ? 1503. . .1575 

Meudoza, de, Ifiigo Lopez, Marquis de Santillana, 

Span, poet 1398... 1458 

Menefee, Richard Hickman, Am. orator and states- 
man 1809. . .1841 

Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, Span, admiral and col- 

onizer of Florida 1519. . .1574 

Mengs, Anton Rafael, Ger. painter and writer 1728. . .1779^ 

31 en no Symoiis. Menno Simonis. Dutch religious 

reformer ? 1496. . .1561 

Menshikoff, Alexander Danilovitch, Prince, Russ. 

statesman ? 1672... 1729 

MenshikofT, Alexander Sergeievitch, Prince. Great- 
grandson. Russ. general 1789... 1869 

Menzel, Karl Adolf, Ger. historian 1784. . .1855 

Menzel, Wolfgang, Ger. author and critic 1798. . .1873 

Merc adante, Saverio, Ital. composer 1797. . .1870 

Mercator, Gerard, Flemish geographer 1512. . .1594 

Mercer, Hugh, Am. Revolutionary officer ? 1720. . .1777 

Mercier, Louis Se*bastien, Fr. poet and critic 1740. . .1814 

Meredith, William Morris, Am. lawyer and politician 1799. . .1873 

Merian, Maria Sibylla, Swiss artist and naturalist 1647. . .1717 

Me"rime*e, Prosper, Fr. novelist and historian 1803. . .1870 

Merivale, Charles. Son. Eng. author 1808 

Merle d'Anbigne", Jean Henri, Swiss historian 1794. . .1872 

Merlin. Merlin Ambrosius. Brit, seer and magician., fl ?450 
Merlin de Douai, Philippe Antoine, Count, Fr. 

jurist 1754... 1838 

Mer ode, de, Francois Xavier Marie Frederic Ghislain, 

Fr. Roman Catholic prelate and philanthropist 1820. . .1874 

Merrick, James, Eng. poet. [The Chameleon.] 1720. . .1769 

Mery, Joseph, Fr. author 1798. . .1866- 

Mesmer. Friedrich Anton, Ger. originator of mes- 
merism o.. ? 1733... 1815 

Messier, Charles, Fr. astronomer 1730. . .1817 

Metastasio, Pietro Antonio Domenico Bonaventura, 

Ital. poet,, 1698. ..1782 

Metcalfe, Thomas, Am. soldier, congressman, and gov- 
ernor of Kentucky 1780. . .1855 

Metternich, von, Clemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, 

Prince, Austrian statesman 1773. ..1859 

Metzu, Gabriel, Dutch genre-painter 1615 . .? 1658 

Meulen, van der, Antoine Francois, Flemish painter 1634... 1690 
Meusel, Johann Georg, Ger. bibliographer and histo- 
rian 1743.. .1820 

Meyer, Johann Georg. Meyer von Bremen. Ger. 

painter 1813. . . . ... . 

Meyer, Johann Heinrich, Ger. writer on art , 1759. . .1832 

185 



MEYER— MILLER 



BORN. DIED. 

Meyer, Leo, Ger. philologist 1830 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo. Jakob Meyer Beer. Ger. com- 
poser 1794. ..1864 

Mey erheim, Friedrich Eduard, Ger. painter 1808 

MCzeray, de, Francois Eudes, Fr. historian 1610. . .1683 

Mezzofanti, Giuseppe Gaspardo, Ital. linguist 1774. . .1849 

Mia21, Edward, Eng. dissenter and editor 1809. . .1881 

Miantonomoh, sachem of the Narragansetts 1643 

Miaulis, Andros, Greek admiral ? 1770. . .1835 

Michael Angelo Buonarroti, Ital. painter, sculptor, 

architect, and poet 1474. . .1563 

Michaelis, Johann David, Ger. biblical critic 1717. . .1791 

Michaud, Joseph Francois, Fr. historian and journalist 1767. . .1839 

Michaux, Andre\ Fr. botanist and traveler 1746. . .1802 

Michel, Francisque Xavier, Fr. archaeologist 1809. . .1887 

Michelet, Jules, Fr. historian and miscellaneous 

writer 1798... 1874 

Michelet, Karl Ludwig, Ger. philosopher and author.. 1801. . .1876 

Micheli, Piero Antonio, Ital. botanist 1679. . .1737 

Michelis, Friedrich, Ger. theologian 1815 

Mickie wicz, Adam, Polish poet 1798. . .1855 

Mickle, William Julius, Scot, poet and translator 1734. . .1788 

Middleton, Arthur, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 1743 . . .1788 

JVfiddleton, Conyers, Eng. theologian and controver- 
sialist 1683... 1750 

Middleton, Thomas, Eng. dramatist ? 1570. ,.1627 

Middleton, Thomas Fanshawe, bishop of Calcutta. 

Eng. theologian 1769. . .1822 

Midhat Pasha, Turkish statesman 1822 

Miel, Jan. Giov. della Vite. Flemish painter 1599. . .1664 

Mieris, Frans. The Elder. Dutch painter 1635. . .1681 

Micros iawski, Ludwik, Polish revolutionist 1814 

Mifflin, Thomas, Am. patriot and general 1744. . .1800 

Mign ard, Pierre. The Roman. Fr. painter 1610 . . . 1695 

Migne, Jacques Paul, Abbe\ Fr. editor 1800. . .1875 

Mignet, Francois Auguste Marie, Fr. historian 1796. . .1884 

Miguel, Dom Maria Evaristo, Port, prince 1802. . .1866 

Miklosich, von, Franz, Slavic philologist and author. 1813 

Mil burn, William Henry. The Blmd Preacher. Am. 

divine 1823 

Milizia, Francesco, Ital. architect 1725. . .1798 

Mill, James, Brit, philosopher and political economist 1773. ..1836 
Mill, John Stuart. Son. Eng. philosopher and polit- 
ical economist 1806 

Mil 1 ais, John Everett, Eng. painter 1829 

Millar, John, Scot, jurist and author 1735. . .1801 

Miller, Hugh, Scot, geologist and writer 1802 . . . 1856 

Miller, Joaquin (real name Cincinnatus Heine 

Miller), Am. poet 1841 

Miller, Joseph, Eng. comedian ? 1684. . .1738 

Miller, Samuel, Am. Presbyterian clergyman 1769 . . . 1850 

186 



MILLER— MORA NNA 



BORN. DIED. 

Miller, Warner, Am. senator 1838 

Miller, William, Am. prophet of the Millerites 1781. . .1849 

Miller, William Allen, Eng. chemist . . . . 1817. . .1870 

Miller, William Hallows, Eng. physicist and mineral- 
ogist 1803... 1880 

Millet, Aime\ Fr. sculptor . ? 1816 

Millet, Jean Francois, Fr. painter ? 1815. . .1875 

Millin, Auhin Louis, Fr. archaeologist 1759. . .1818 

Millocker, Karl, Austrian composer 1842 

Mills, Clark, Am. sculptor. : 1815. . .1883 

Milman, Henry Hart, EDg. poet and historian 1791. . .1868 

Miln e-Ed war ds, Henri, Fr. naturalist - 1800. . .1885 

Mil ner, Isaac, Eng. scholar and author 1751. . .1820 

Milner, Joseph. Brother. Eng. church historian 1744. . .1797 

Milnes, Richard Monckton, Lord Houghton 1809. . .1885 

Miltiades, Athenian general and statesman fl. ? 500 B. C. 

Mil ton, John, Eng. poet 1608. . .1674 

Mind, Gottfried. The Raphael of Cats. Swiss painter. 1768... 1814 

Minghetti, Marco, Ital. statesman 1818 

Minie", Claude Etienne, Fr. inventor. {Minie rifle.] .... 1810 

Minuit, Peter, first governor of New Netherland 

(N. Y.) 1641 

Mirabeau, de, Gabriel Honore* Riquetti, Comte, Fr. 

orator and revolutionist 1749. . .1791 

Miramon, Miguel, Mexican general 1832. . .1867 

Miranda, Francisco, Venezuelan revolutionist ? 1750. . .1816 

Miranda-Liampson , Sir Curtis, Eng. publicist 1807. . .1885 

Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della, Count, Ital. scholar. . 1463.. .1494 
Mirbel, de, Charles Francois Brisseau, Fr. botanist. . . 1776. . .1854 

Mitchel, John, Irish revolutionist 1815. . .1875 

Mitchel, Ormsby Macknight, Am. astronomer and 

general.. . 1810... 1862 

Mitchell, Donald Grant. Ik Marvel. Am. author 1822 

Mitchell, Lucy Myers, Am. writer on art 1845. . .1888 

Mitchell, Miss Maria, Am. astronomer 1818. . .1889 

Mitchell, S. Weir, Am. physician and physiologist 1829 

Mitchill, Samuel Latham, Am. physician and natu- 
ralist 1764... 1831 

Mitford, Mary Russell, Eng. authoress 1786. . .1855 

Mitford, William, Eng. historian 1744. . .1827 

Mithridates VI. The Great. King of Pontus. . .B. C. ? 132. . . 63 

Mitscherlich, Eilhard, Ger. chemist and author 1794. . .1863 

Mittermaier, Karl Joseph Anton, Ger. jurist 1787. . .1867 

Moawiyah, caliph and founder of the Ommiyad 

dynasty ? 610. . . 680 

Mobius, August Ferdinand, Ger. mathematician 1790. . .1868 

Mocqnard, Constant, private secretary of Louis Na- 
poleon 1791... 1864 

Moffat, Robert, Eng. missionary in Africa 1795. . .1883 

M ogila, Peter, Russ. author. {Confession of Faith.] . . . . ? 1597 . . . 1646 
Mokanna (the veiled), Alhakem-ibn-Atta, Moslem 

impostor ? 780 

187 



MOHAMMED— MONTCALM DE SAINT- VERAN 

BORN. DIED* 

Mohammed, or Mahomet, Arabian prophet. 

Founder of the Mohammedan religion ?571... 632 

Mohammed II. The GreaU or The Victorious. Turk- 
ish sultan . 1430. . .1481 

Mohammed IV., Turkish sultan 1642... 1692 

Mohl, von, Hugo, Ger. botanist 1805. . .1872 

Mohl, von, Julius. Brother. Ger. orientalist 1800. . .1876 

Mohler, Johann Adam, Ger. theologian. [Symbolik.']. 1796... 1838 

Mohs, Friedrich, Ger. mineralogist ? 1773. . .1839* 

Moigno, Francois Napoleon Marie, Fr. mathemati- 
cian and scientist 1804 

Moir, David Macbeth, Scot, poet and novelist 1798. . .1851 

Moivre, de, Abraham, Fr. mathematician 1667. . .1754 

Molay, de, Jacques, last grand-master of the Knights 

Templars 1314 

Molbech, Christian, Danish author 1783. . .1857 

Mole*, Louis Mathieu, Count, Fr. statesman 1781. . .1855 

Moleschott, Jacob, Ger. physiologist 1822 

Moliere, real name Jean Baptiste Poquelin, Fr. 

dramatist 1622. . .1673 

Molina, Luis, Span. Jesuit and theologian 1535..? 160O 

Molinos, de, Miguel, Span, mystic. [Qwietists.] 1627. . .1696 

Moltke, von, Helmuth Karl Bernhard, Count, Pruss. 

field-marshal 1800 

Molyneux, William, Irish mathematician 1656. . .1698 

Momad, Ditlev Gothard, Danish statesman and author 1811. . .1887 

Mommsen, Christian Matthias Theodor, Ger. historian 1817 

Monboddo, James Burnet, Lord, Scot, jurist 1714. . .1799 

Monckton, Robert, Brit, general in America 1782 

Moncreiff, Sir Henry Wellwood, Scot, divine 1750. . .1827 

Monge, Gaspard, Comte de Peluse, Fr. geometer 1746. . .1818 

Monk, George, Duke of Albemarle, Eng. general 1608. . .1670 

Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of, Eng. rebel 1649. . .1685 

Monnard, Charles, Swiss author 1790. . .1865 

Monnier, Marc, Fr. historian 1828. . .1885 

Monnoyer, Jean Baptiste, Fr. fruit and flower painter 1635. . .1699 

Monro, Alexander. Primus. Brit, anatomist 1699 . . . 1767 

Monroe, James, fifth President of the United States. . 1758. . .1831 
Mons, van, Jean Baptiste, Belgian chemist and hor- 
ticulturist 1765 . . .1842 

Monstrelet, de, Enguerrand, Fr. chronicler ? 1390. . .1453 

Montagu, Basil, Eng. lawyer. Editor of Bacon's works 1770. . .1851 

Montagu, Elizabeth, nee Robinson, Eng. authoress 1720. . .1800 

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, Eng. authoress ? 1690. . .1762 

Montaigne, de, Michel Eyquem, Seigneur, Fr. philos- 
opher and essayist 1533. . .1592 

Montalembert, de, Charles Forbes Rene\ Comte, Fr. 

statesman, orator, and political writer 1810. . .1870 

Montalembert, de, Marc Rene\ Marquis. Grand- 
father. Fr. military engineer 1714. . .1800 

Montcalm de Saint-Ve*ran, de, Louis Joseph, 

Marquis, Fr. general. 1712. . .1759 

188 



MONTECTJGULI—MOEAZAN 



BORN. DIED. 

MontecHculi, de, Raimondo, Count, Austrian general 

and tactician 1608. . .1681 

Moutefiore, Sir Moses, Eng. Jewish philanthropist... 1784... 1885 

Montemayor, de, Jorge, Port, poet and novelist ? 1520... 1562 

Montespan, de, Francoise Athe*nai's de Rochechouart, 

Marquise, a mistress of Louis XIV 1641. . .1707 

Montesquieu, de, Charles de Secondat, Baron, Fr. 

jurist and philosopher 1689. . .1755 

Monteverde, Claudio, Ital. composer. ? 1565. . .1649 

Montezuma II., last Aztec emperor of Mexico ? 1480.. .1520 

Montfaucon, de, Bernard, Fr. critic and antiquary.. 1655... 1741 

Montfort, de, Simon, Fr. crusader ? 1150. . .1218 

Montfort, de, Simon, Earl of Leicester. Son. Chief 

of the Eng. barons in the time of Henry III ? 1200. . .1265 

Montgolfler, Jacques Etienne, inventor of the air- 
balloon 1745 . . .1799 

Montgolfler, Joseph Michel. Brother. Fr. mechan- 
ician 1740. . .1810 

Montgomery, James, Scot, poet 1771... 1854 

Montgomery, Richard, Am. general. Fell at Quebec. 1736... 1775 

Montgomery, Robert, Eng. poet 1807... 1855 

Montholon, or Montholon-Se*monville, de, Charles 

Tristan, Marquis, Fr. general 1783. . .1853 

Monti, Vincenzo, Ital. poet 1754. . .1828 

Montmorency, de, Anne, first Due, constable of 

France 1492. . .1567 

Montmorency, de, Henri II., last Due. Grandson. 

Marshal of France. Executed 1595. . .1632 

Montpensier, de, Anne Marie Louise d'Orle*ans, 

Duchesse. Mademoiselle. Fr. princess 1627 . . .1693 

Montpensier, de, Antoine Marie Philippe Louis 
d'Orle"ans, Due, Fr. prince. Youngest son of King 

Louis Philippe 1824 

Montrose, James Grahame, Marquis of, Scot, royalist. 1612. . .1650 
Monts, de, Pierre du Guast, Sieur, Fr. colonizer of 

Acadia ? 1560... 1611 

Montucla, Jean Etienne, Fr. mathematician 1725. . .1799 

Montyon, or Monthyon, de, Antoine Jean Baptiste 

Robert Auget, Baron, Fr. philanthropist 1733. . .1820 

Moore, Clement Clarke, Am. professor and poet 1779. . .1863 

Moore, John, Brit, physician and author 1729. . .1802 

Moore, Sir John. Son. Brit, general 1761. . .1809 

Moore, Thomas, Irish poet 1779. . .1852 

Morales, de, Luis. ElDivmo. Span, painter 1509... 1586 

Moran, Thomas, Am. artist 1837 

Morand, Sauveur Francois, Fr. surgeon 1697. . .1773 

Morandi-Manzolini, Anna, Ital. anatomist and 

modeler 1716... 1774 

Morata, Olympia Fulvia, Ital. authoress 1526. . .1555 

Moratin, de, Leandro Fernandez, Span, dramatist. ... 1760. ..1828 
Morazan, Francisco, last president of the Republic of 

Central America 1799. . .1842 

189 



MORE— MORSE 

BORN. DIED- 

More, Hannah, Eng. authoress 1745. ..1833 

More, Henry, Eng. philosopher 1614.. .1687 

More, Sir Thomas, Eng. philosopher and statesman. 

Executed 1480 . . . 1535 

Moreau, Jean Victor, Fr. general 1763. . .1813 

Morel, Fre*deric. The Younger. Fr. printer and Greek 

scholar 1558... 1630 

Morell, Thomas, Eng. philologist 1703. . .1784 

Morellet, Andre", Abbe\ Fr. political economist 1727. . .1819 

Morelos, Jose* Maria, Mexican revolutionist 1780. . .1815 

Mor£ri, Louis, Fr. compiler of Grand Dictionnavre 

Historique 1643. . .1680 

Moreto y Cabana, Augustin, Span, dramatist ? 1600. . .1660 

Morgagni, Giovanni Battista, pathological anat- 
omist 1682... 1771 

Morgan, Daniel, Am. Revolutionary general 1736. . .1802 

Morgan, John Hunt, Am. Confederate soldier 1825. . .1864 

Morgan, Lady Sydney, nee Owenson, Irish authoress.? 1783.. .1850 

Morgan, William, Am. mechanic. Abducted 1775. . .1826 

Morgan, William F., Am. Protestant Episcopal min- 
ister 1817... 1888 

Morghen, Raffaelle Sanzio, Ital. engraver 1758. . .1833 

Morhof, Daniel Georg, Ger. author. [Polyhistor.] 1639. . . 1691 

Mdrike, Eduard, Ger. poet 1804. . .1875 

Morin, Frederic, Fr. author 1823 

Morland, George, Eng. painter ? 1764. . .1804 

Morland, Sir Samuel, Eng. mechanician and inventor.? 1625. . .1695 
Morley, Henry, Eng. author and professor of Eng. 

literature 1822 

Morley, Thomas, Eng. composer. [Oriana.']. ? 1604 

Mornay, de, Philippe, Seigneur du Plessis-Marly. 

Duplessis-Mornay. Fr. Protestant chief 1549. . .1623 

Morny, de, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, Due, Fr. 

statesman 1811. . .1865 

Morphy, Paul, Am. chess expert 1837. ..1884 

Morrill, Anson P., governor of Maine 1803. . .1887 

Morrill, Lot M., Am. senator 1815. . .1883 

Morris, Charles, Am. commodore 1784. . .1856 

Morris, George P., Am. poet and journalist 1802. . .1864 

Morris, Gouverneur, Am. statesman 1752. . .1816 

Morris, Lewis. Half-brother of Gouverneur M. Signer 

of the Declaration of Independence 1726 . . . 1798 

Morris, Robert, Am. statesman and financier , . 1734. . .1806 

Morris, William, Eng. poet 1834 

Morrison, Robert, Eng. missionary and orientalist... 1782... 1834 
Morrison, William R., Am. soldier, lawyer, and con- 
gressman 1825 

Morse, Edward S., Am. naturalist 1838 

Morse, Jedediah. Father of S. F. B. M. Am. geogra- 
pher 1761. ..1826 

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, Am. artist and inventor. 

[Telegraph.] 1791. ..1872 

190 



MORTIER—MUL GRA VE 



BORN. DIED. 

Mortier, Edouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph, Duke of 

Treviso, marshal of France 1768. ..1835 

Mortimer, Roger, Earl of March, favorite of Isabella, 

queen consort of Edward II. of England ? 1287. . .1330 

Morton, James Douglas, Earl of, regent of Scotland. . 1530. . .1581 

Morton, John, Eng. prelate and statesman 1410. . .1500 

Morton, Levi Parsons, Am. banker 1824 

Morton, Nathaniel, Am. historian. [New England' 's 

memorial.] 1612. . .1685 

M or ton, Oliver Perry, Am. statesman 1823 . . . 1877 

31 or ton, Samuel George, Am. naturalist and ethnolo- 
gist 1799... 1851 

Morton, Thomas, Eng. dramatist 1764... 1838 

Morton, William Thomas Green, Am. dentist and 
physician. Discoverer of the use of ether as an 

anaesthetic 1819. . .1868 

Moscheles, Ignaz, Ger. pianist and composer 1794. . .1870 

Moseley, Henry, Eng. scientific writer ? 1802. . .1872 

Mosenthal, Salomon Hermann, Ger. dramatist 1821. . .1877 

Moser, George Michael, Swiss-Eng. enameler ? 1705. . .1783 

Moser, Johann Jakob, Ger. jurist 1701. . .1785 

Moser, von, Friedrich Karl. Son of J. J. M. Ger. 

publicist 1723. . . 1798 

Mosheim, von, Johann Lorenz, Ger. ecclesiastical 

historian 1694 . . . 1755 

Moss, Thomas, Canadian jurist 1836. . .1881 

Mothe Cadillac, de la, Antoine, Fr. explorer. 

Founder of Detroit in America ? 1660..? 1720 

Motherwell, William, Scot, poet and journalist ? 1797. . .1835 

Motley, John Lothrop, Am. historian 1814. . .1877 

Mott, Lucretia, nee Coffin, Am. social reformer 1793. . .1880 

Mott, Valentine, Am. surgeon 1785... 1865 

Moultrie, William, Am. Revolutionary general 1731. . .1805 

Mounier, Jean Joseph, Fr. statesman 1758. . .1806 

Mo watt, Anna Cora (Ritchie), nee Ogden, Am. actress 1819. . .1870 
Mozart, Johann Chrysostomus Wolfgang Amadeus 
(commonly called Wolfgang), Ger. musical com- 
poser 1756... 1791 

Miicke, Heinrich Karl Anton, Ger. painter 1806 

Mudge, John, Eng. optician and mechanician 1793 

Mndie, Robert, Scot, naturalist and author 1777. . .1842 

Muggleton, Ludowick, Eng. fanatic. [Muggletonians.'] 1609. . .1697 
Muhlbaeh, Luise (Mrs. Theodor Mundt), Ger. novelist 1814. . .1873 
Muhlenberg, Henry Melchior, founder of the Ger. 

Lutheran Church in America 1711. . .1787 

Muhlenberg, John Peter Gabriel, Am. general 1746. . .1807 

Muhlenberg, William Augustus. Great-grandson of 
H. M. M. Am. Protestant Episcopal clergyman and 

poet 1796... 1877 

Mulder, Gerard Jan, Dutch chemist. [Proteine.~\ 1802. . .1847 

Mulgrave, Constantine John Phipps, Lord, Eng. 

arctic navigator * 1744. . .1792 

191 



MULLER—NAIRNE 



BORN. DIED. 

M filler, Charles Louis. Miiller de Paris. Fr. painter. 1815 

Mfiller, Friedrich, Ger. comparative philologist 1834 

Mfiller, Friedrich Max, Ger.-Eng. Sanskrit scholar. ... 1823 

Miiller, George, Eng. philanthropist, born in Prussia. 1805 

Mfiller, Gerhard Friederick, Russ. historian 1705. . .1783 

Mfiller, Johann, Ger. physiologist and anatomist 1801. . .1858 

Mfiller, Karl Otfried, Ger. archaeologist 1797. . .1840 

Mfiller, Otto Frederik, Danish naturalist 1730. . .1784 

M filler, Sophie, Ger. tragic actress 1803 . . .1830 

Mfiller, Wilhelm. Father of F. Max M. Ger. lyric poet. 1794. . .1827 

Mfiller, von, Johannes, Swiss historian 1752. . .1809 

Mfiller von Ronigs winter, Wolfgang. Ger. poet.. . . 1816 

Muloch, Dinah Maria (Mrs. Craik), Eng. authoress 1826 

Mulready, William, Brit, painter 1786 . . .1863 

Munch, Andreas. Son, Norwegian poet 1810... 1884 

Munch, Peder Andreas, Norwegian historian 1810. . .1863 

Munchausen. See Raspe. 

Muudt, Theodor, Ger. author 1808. . .1861 

Munkacszy, Michael (Michael Lieb), Hungarian 

painter 1844 

Murat, Joachim, marshal of France and king of 

Naples 1771... 1815 

Muratoii, Ludovico Antonio, Ital. archaeologist 1672. . .1750 

Muravieff, Nikolai, Russ. general ? 1794. . .1866 

Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, Brit, geologist 1792. . .1871 

Murdoch, James Edward, Am. actor and elocutionist. 1811 

Murfree, Mary Noailles. Charles Egbert Craddock. 

Am. novelist 1850 

Murillo, Bartoloine* Est<§ban, Span, painter 1618. . .1682 

Murner, Thomas, Ger. satirist 1475..? 1536 

Murray, Alexander, Scot, philologist 1775. . .1813 

Murray, E. C. Grenville, Eng. author and diplomat. . . . 1828. . .1881 

Murray, Eli Huston, Am. soldier 1843. . . — 

Murray, or Moray, James Stuart, Earl of, regent of 

Scotland .? 1533... 1570 

Murray, John, founder of Universalism in America. . 1741. . .1815 

Murray, Lindley, Am. grammarian 1745. ..1826 

Murray, William Henry Harrison, Am. clergyman... . 1840 

Musaus, Johann Karl August, Ger. writer 1735. . .1787 

Muspratt, James Sheridan, Irish chemist 1821. . .1871 

Musschenbroek, vau, Pieter, Dutch mathematician. 1692... 1761 

Musset, de, Louis Charles Alfred, Fr. poet 1810. . .1857 

Mussey, Reuben Dimond, Am. surgeon 1780. . .1866 

Mustapha I., sultan of Turkey 1639 

Muziano, Girolamo, Ital. painter 1528..? 1592 

Myers, William, general United States Army 1830. . .1887 

My tens, Daniel. The Elder. Dutch painter in England 1590..? 1660 



Nachtigal, Gustav, Ger. explorer 1831. . .1885 

Nadir Sh ah, king of Persia 1688 . . . 1747 

Nairne, Carolina Oliphant, Baroness, Scot, poetess 1766. . .1845 

192 



NANA SAHIB— NEER 



BORN. DIED. 

Nana Sahib. Dhundoo Punt. Leader of the Sepoy 

mutiny 71824 

Nanteuil, Robert, Fr. painter and engraver 1630. . .1678 

Napier, Sir Charles. Cousin of Sir C. J. N. Brit, ad- 
miral 1786 . . . 1860 

Napier, Sir Charles James. Brother of Sir W. F. P. N. 

Brit, general 1782... 1853 

Napier, John, Laird of Merchiston, Scot, inventor of 

logarithms 1550. . .1617 

Napier, Robert, Scot, engineer and ship-builder 1791. . .1876 

Napier, Sir William Francis Patrick, Brit, general 

and author 1785. . .1860 

Napier of Magdala, Robert Cornells Napier, Baron, 

Brit, general 1810. . .1890 

Napoleon Bonaparte. See Bonaparte. 
Napoleon III., Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Louis Napoleon. Emperor of the French 1808 . . .1873 

Naquet, Alfred Joseph, Fr. physician and author 1834 

Narbonne-!Lara, de, Louis, Count, Fr. statesman 

and soldier 1755. . .1813 

Nares, Edward, Eng. divine and writer 1762. . .1841 

Nares, Robert. Cousin. Eng. critic and theologian . . . 1753. . .1829 
Naruszewicz, Adam Stanislaw. The Polish Tacitus. 

Polish historian and poet 1733 ... 1796 

Narvaez, de, Pamfilo, Span, warrior in America 1480... 1528 

Narvaez, de, Ramon Maria, Duke of Valencia, Span. 

statesman ? 1800 . . . 1868 

Nash, Richard. Beau Nash. Eng. fop and gambler... . 1674. . .1761 

Nash, Thomas, Eng. dramatist ? 1564..? 1600 

Nasmyth, Alexander, Scot, painter 1758. . .1840 

Nasmy th, James. Son. Brit, inventor 1808. . .1890 

Nasr-ed-Din, shah of Persia 1829 

Nast, Thomas, Am. artist 1840 

Naudet, Joseph, Fr. scholar and historian 1786. . .1878 

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. composer 1741. . .1801 

Naumann, Moritz Ernst Adolf. Son. Ger. physi- 
cian 1798. ..1871 

Navarrete, Martino Fernandez, Span, historian 1765 . . .1844 

Navez, Francois Joseph, Belgian painter 1787. . .1869 

Nay lor, James, Eng. religious enthusiast ? 1616. . .1660 

Neal, Daniel, Eng. historian 1678. . .1743 

Neal, John, Am. poet and miscellaneous writer 1793. . .1876 

Neal, Joseph Clay, Am. humorist 1807. . .1848 

Neale, John Mason, Eng. divine and author 1818. . .1866 

Neander, Johann August Wilhelm, Ger. ecclesiastical 

historian 1789... 1850 

Nebrissensis, Antonius. Antonio de Leorixa. Span. 

scholar 1444. . .1522 

Nebuchadnezzar, Chaldean king of Babylon B. C 561 

Necker, Jacques, Fr. financier and statesman, born in 

Geneva. Father of Mme. de Sta61 1732. . .1804 

Neer, van der, Aart, or Arnold, Dutch painter ? 1619. . .1683 

193 



NEES VON ESENBECK— NICC OLINI 

BORN. DIED. 

Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried Daniel, 

Ger. botanist 1776. . .1858 

Negrelli, von, Aloys, Austrian engineer 1799. . .1858 

Neilson, Joseph, Am. lawyer and jurist . 1812. . .1888 

Ne*laton, Auguste, Fr. surgeon 1807. . .1873 

Nelles, Samuel Sobieski, Canadian preacher and ed- 
ucator 1823. . .1887 

Nelson, Horatio, Viscount Nelson of the Nile, Eng. 

admiral 1758. . .1805 

Nelson, Thomas, Am. statesman 1738. . .1789 

Nelson, William, Am. sailor and soldier 1825. . .1862 

Nemours, de, Louis Charles Philippe Raphael d'Or- 

16ans, Due, Fr. prince. Son of King Louis Philippe. 1814 

Nepos, Cornelius, Roman historian and biogra- 
pher r fi. tern. Augustus. 

Neri, de, Filippo, Saint, Ital. founder of the society, 

" Priests of the Oratory " 1515. . .1595 

Nero, Lucius Domitius, Roman emperor 37. . . 68 

Nerva, Marcus Cocceius, Roman emperor 32. . . 98 

Nesselrode, von, Karl Robert, Count, Russ. diplo- 
matist 1780... 1862 

Nestorius, Syrian bishop ? 440 

Netscher, Gaspar, or Kaspar, Ger. painter ? 1639. . .1684 

Neuhof, von, Theodor, Baron, Ger. adventurer ? 1686. . .1756 

Neukomm, von, Sigismund, Chevalier, Ger. composer 1778... 1858 

Neumann, Karl Friedrich, Ger. orientalist 1798. . .1870 

Neuville, de, Alphonse, Fr. battle-painter 1837. . .1885 

Nevin, John Williamson, Am. theologian. [Mercers- 

bwrg System.'] 1803 

Newcastle, Henry Pelham Fiennes-Pelham- Clinton, 

Duke of, Eng. statesman 1811. . .1864 

Newcastle, Thomas Holies Pelham, Duke of, Eng. 

statesman ? 1693. . .1768 

Newcastle, William Cavendish, Duke of, Eng. gen- 
eral 1592. ..1676 

N ewe omb, Simon, Am. astronomer 1835 

N ewe omen, Thomas, Eng. mechanician, and one of 

the inventors of the steam-engine fl. 1700 

Newman, Francis William, Eng. theologian and 

author 1805 

Newman, John Henry. Brother. Eng. theologian 

and author 1801 

Newport, Christopher, commander of the first expe- 
dition for the settlement of Virginia in 1606. 
Newton, Sir Isaac, Eng. philosopher and mathema- 
tician 1642. ..1727 

Newton, John, Am. military engineer 1823 

Ney, Michel, Duke of Elchingen, Prince of the Moskwa, 

and marshal of France 1769. . .1815 

Nicander, Karl August, Swed. poet. Executed 1799. . .1839 

Niccoli, Niccolb, Florentine restorer of learning 1364. . .1437 

Niccolini, Giovanni Battista, Ital. poet 1785. . .1861 

194 



NIC COLO DA PISA—NOLLET 



BORN. DIED. 

Niccolo da Pisa, Ital. sculptor and architect ? 1278 

Niceron, Jean Pierre, Fr. biographer 1685. . .1738 

Nicholas I. (Nikolai Pavlovitch), emperor of Russia. . 1796.. .1855 

Nicholas I. The Great, and Saint. Pope ? 800... 867 

Nicholas V., Tommaso Parentucelli, or Tommaso da 

Sarzana, pope 1398. . .1455 

Nicholas, Saint, bishop of Myra. Guardian of children ? 340 

Nichols, Edward T., Am. rear-admiral 1823. . .1886 

Nichols, John, Eng. editor and publisher. [Gentleman's 

Magazine.'] 1745. . .1826 

Nichols, John Gough. Grandson of John. Eng. anti- 
quary 1806... 1873 

Nichols, or Nicolls, Colonel Richard, first Eng. gov- 

ernorof New York fl. 1664 

Nicoiai, Christoph Friedrich, Ger. author 1733. . .1811 

Nicolai, Karl Otto Ehr en fried, Ger. composer 1810. . .1849 

Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris, Eng. antiquary 1799. . .1848 

Nicole, Pierre, Fr. novelist 1625. . .1695 

Nicollet, Jean Nicolas, Fr. astronomer and geologist. 1786. . .1843 
Nicot, Jean, Fr. scholar, introduced tobacco into 

France 1530. . .1600 

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg, Ger. historian and philolo- 
gist 1776... 1831 

Niebuhr, Karstens. Father. Ger. traveler in Arabia.. 1733... 1815 
Niel, Adolphe, marshal of France and minister of war 1802. . .1869 

Niemcewicz, Julian Ursin, Polish author 1757. . .1841 

Niemeyer, August Hermann, Ger. religious and edu- 
cational writer 1754. . .1828 

Niepce, Joseph Nicephore, Fr. chemist. One of the 

inventors of photography 1765. . .1833 

Niepce de Saint-Victor, Claude Marie Francois. 
Nephew. Fr. chemist. Inventor of photography on 

glass 1805... 1870 

Nieuwentyt, Bernardus, Dutch philosopher 1654. . .1718 

Nightingale, Florence, Eng. philanthropist 1820 

Niles, Hezekiah, Am. journalist. [Niles's Register.] 1777. . .1839 

Nilsson, Christine, Swed. singer 1843 

Nilsson, Sven, Swed. naturalist 1787. . .1883 

Nisard, Jean Marie Napoleon D6sire\ Fr. author 1806 

Nitzsch, Gregor Wilh elm, Ger. philologist and author 1790... 1861 

Nitzsch, Karl Ludwig. Father. Ger. theologian 1751... 1831 

Noailles, de, Adrien Maurice, Due, marshal of France 

and statesman 1678 . . . 1766 

Noailles, de, Louis Marie, Viscount. Grandson. Fr. 

statesman 1756 . . . 1804 

Noailles, de, Paul, Viscount, Fr. historian and aca- 
demician 1801. ..1885 

Nodier, Charles, Fr. poet and litterateur ? 1783. . .1844 

Noel, Baptist Wriothesley, Eng. dissenting divine 1799. . .1873 

Noel, Francois Joseph Michel, Fr. grammarian ? 1755. . .1841 

Nollekens, Joseph, Eng. sculptor 1737. . .1823 

Nolletj Jean Antoine, Abbe", Fr. natural philosopher. . 1700.. .1770 

105 



NOODT—OBERLm 



BORN. DIED. 

Noodt, Geraert, Dutch jurist and professor of law 1647. . .1725 

Nordenskjdld, Adolf Erik, Swed. arctic explorer 1832 

Nordhofl, Charles, Am. author 1830 

Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps, Marquis of, 

Eng. statesman 1797... 1863 

Norris, John, Eng. Platonist and author 1657. . .1711 

North, Francis, Baron Guilford, Eng. jurist 1637. . .1685 

North, Frederick, second Earl of Guilford and eighth 
Baron North. Lord North. Great-grandson of 

Francis. Eng. statesman 1733. . .1792 

Northcote, James, Eng. painter and author 1746. . .1831 

Northcote, Sir Stafford Henry, Eng. statesman 1818. . .1887 

Northumberland, Algernon Percy, fourth Duke of, 

Eng. peer and vice-admiral 1792. . .1865 

Northumberland, Henry Percy, first Earl of, father 

of Hotspur 1408 

Northumberland, John Dudley, Duke of, beheaded. . . 1502. . .1553 

Norton, Andrews, Am. theologian and scholar 1786. . .1853 

Norton, Caroline Elizabeth Sarah, nee Sheridan, Eng. 

authoress 1808. . .1877 

Nostradamus, de, Michel, Fr. astrologer 1503. . .1566 

Notman, John, Scot, architect in America 1810. . .1865 

Nott, Eliphalet, Am. divine. President of Union Col- 
lege 1773... 1866 

Nottingham, Heneage Finch, first Earl of, Eng. law- 
yer and statesman. Lord-chancellor of England .... 1621 . . .1682 
Noue, de la, Francois. BrasdeFer. Fr. commander. 1531... 1591 
Nour-ed-Din (Malek al-Adel Nour-ed-Din Mahmoud), 

sultan of Syria and Egypt ? 1116..? 1174 

Novalis, assumed name of Friedrich von Harden- 

berg, Ger. mystical writer 1772. . .1801 

No vatian, priest at Rome. [Novatians.] n\ 3d c. 

Novella, learned and beautiful Ital. lady 1312. . .1366 

Novello, Clara, Eng. singer 1828 

Novello, Vincent, Eng. composer and organist 1781. . .1861 

Novikoff, Nikolai Ivanovitch, Russ. author. 1744. . .1818 

Noyes, Daniel J., Am. theologian 1811. . .1885 

Noyes, George Rapall, Am. biblical scholar 1798. . .1868 

Noyes, John Humphrey, Am. communist at Oneida, 

N.Y 1811. ..1886 

Nugent, George Grenville, Lord, Eng. statesman and 

author 1788 . . . 1851 

Nunez, Alvar. Cabeca de Vaca. Span, explorer ? 1490. . . 1564 

Nunez, Fernando de Guzman. Pincianus. Span. 

scholar and promoter of Greek learning ? 1470. . .1553 

Nunez, Pedro, Port, mathematician 1492. . .1577 

Nuttall, Thomas, Eng.- Am. naturalist 1786. . .1859 

Nyerup, Nasmus, Danish historian and antiquary 1759. . .1829 



Oates, Titus, contriver of the sham " Popish plot " ? 1619. . .1705 

Oberlin, Jean Frederic, Fr.-Ger. philanthropist 1740. . .1826 

196 



OBRENO VITGH— OLD MIX ON 



BORN. DIED. 

Obr enovitch, Milosch, prince and soldier of Servia. . . 1780. . .1860 

O' Brien, R. B., dean of Limerick. Controversialist 1885 

O'Brien, William Smith, Irish patriot and political 

agitator 1803... 1864 

O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey, Irish author in Amer- 
ica ?1804 

Occam, William of. The Invi/ncilile Doctor. Eng. scho- 
lastic philosopher ? 1280. . .1347 

O' Conn ell, Daniel, Irish orator and political agitator. 1775. . .1847 

O'Connor, Feargus Edward, Irish chartist 1796. . .1855 

O'Conor, Charles, Am. lawyer. .* 1804. . .1884 

Oct a via, sister of the emperor Augustus and wife of 

Mark Antony B. C. ? 70. . . 11 

Odescalchi, Marc Antonio, philanthropist of Rome. ...?1620. . .1670 

Odier, Louis, Swiss physician 1748. . .1817 

O do acer, king of Italy. Executed 493 

O'Donnell, Leopold, Count of Lucena and Duke of 

Tetuan, marshal of Spain 1809. . .1867 

O'Donovan, John, Irish archaeologist 1809. . .1861 

CEcolampadins, Johannes. Hausschevn. G-er. re- 
former 1482. ..1531 

Oeder, Georg Ludwig, Ger. botanist. [Flora Danica.]. 1728. . .1791 

Oehlenschlager, Adam Gottlob, Danish poet 1779. . .1850 

Oersted, Anders Sandoe, Danish jurist and statesman. 1778. . .1860 
Oersted, Hans Christian. Brother. Danish electro- 

magnetist 1777. . .1851 

Oeser, Adam Friedrich, Ger. painter and modeler 1717. . .1799 

Oetinger, Friedrich Christoph, Ger. theologian 1702. . .1782 

Oettinger, Eduard Marie, Ger. novelist and bibliogra- 
pher 1808... 1872 

Offenbach, Jacques, Fr. composer of comic operas 1819. . .1880 

Ofterdingen, von, Heinrich, Ger. minstrel fl. ? 1200 

Oggione, Marco, Ital. painter ? 1470. . .1530 

Ogilby, John, Scot, poet and geographer 1600. . .1676. 

Ogilvie, John, Scot, poet 1733. . .1814 

Oglethorpe, James Edward, Brit, general. Founder 

of the colony of Georgia 1696. . .1785 

O'Hara, Theodore, Am. poet, journalist, and soldier. 1820... 1867 

Ohlmuller, Joseph Daniel, Ger. architect 1791. . .1839 

Ohm, Georg Simon, Ger. electrician. [OJim's law.] 1787. . .1854 

Ojeda, de, Alonzo, Span, adventurer with Columbus..? 1465 

O'Keeffe, John, Irish dramatist 1747... 1833 

Oken, Lorenz, Ger. naturalist 1779. . .1851 

Olaf, Saint, viking and king of Norway 1030 

Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus, Ger. astronomer. 1758. ..1840 
Oldcastle, Sir John, Lord Cobham, Eng. reformer and 

martyr ?1360...1417 

Oldenburg, Henry. Grubendol. Ger. writer in En- 
gland ? 1626... 1678 

Oldham, John. The English Juvenal. Eng. satirical 

poet 1653. ..1683 

Oldmixon, John, Eng. historian .- 1673. . .1742 

197 



OLDYS—OBIGEX 



BORN. DIED. 

Oldys, William, Eng. antiquary and bibliographer 1687. . .1761 

Olearius, Adam, Ger. traveler and orientalist ? 1599. . .1671 

Olier de Verneuil, Jean Jacques, Fr. priest. Founder 

of the seminary of St. Sulpice 1608. . .1657 

Olin, Stephen, Am. Methodist divine 1797. . .1851 

Oli pliant, Laurence, Eng. traveler and author 1829. ..1888 

Olivarez, Gasparo de Guzman, third Count of, and 

Duke of San Lucar de Barrameda, Span, statesman. 1587. . .1645 
Oliver, Andrew, lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts 1706. . .1774 
Olivet, d% Joseph Thoulier, Abbe", Fr. author and 

critic • 1682 . . . 1768 

Olivier, Guillaurae Antoine, Fr. entomologist 1756. . .1814 

Olivier, Theodore, Fr. mathematician 1800. . .1853 

Ollendorff, Henri Godefroy, Ger. educator and gram- 
marian % 1803 . . .1865 

Ollivier, Emile, Fr. advocate and politician 1825 

Olmsted, Denison, Am. natural philosopher 1791. . .1859 

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Am. landscape gardener — 1822 

Olney, Edward, Am. scholar and educator 1827. . .1887 

Ohiey, Jesse, Am. geographer 1798. . .1872 

Olozaga, Don Salustiano, Span, statesman, ? 1803 

Olshausen, Hermann, Ger. Protestant theologian 1796. . .1839 

Omar I., second caliph. Captor of Jerusalem. As- 
sassinated ? 581. . . 644 

Omar Pasha (Michael Lattas), Austrian-Turkish 

general ? 1805... 1871 

O'Meara, Basry Edward, Irish surgeon in St. Helena.? 1780. . .1836 

O'Neill, Eliza, Irish actress . ? 1795. . .1872 

Onslow, Arthur, Eng. speaker of the House 33 years. 1691.. .1768 

Oort, van, Adam, Flemish painter 1557. . .1641 

Oost, van, Jacob. The Elder. Flemish painter 1600. . .1671 

Opie, Amelia, nee Alderson, Eng. authoress 1769. . .1853 

Opie, John. Husband of Amelia. Eng. historical 

painter 1761... 1807 

Opitz, Martin. Opitz von Boberfeld. Ger. poet 1597. . .1639 

Oppert, Jules, Ger. orientalist in Paris 1825 

Oppolzer, von, Theodor, Baron, Austrian astronomer 1841... 1886 

Opzoomer, Carolus Wilhelmus, Dutch philosopher 1821 

Orange, William, Prince of. The Silent. Founder of 

the Dutch republic. Assassinated 1533 ... 1584 

Orbigny, d% Alcide Dessalines, Fr. naturalist 1802. . .1857 

Orcagna, Andrea di Cione, Ital. artist ? 1329..? 1389 

Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, Am. soldier 1818. . .1883 

Orellana, Francisco, Span, discoverer of the Amazon 

River ?1550 

Orelli, Johann Kaspar, Swiss philologist 1787. . .1849 

Orense, Jose* Maria de Albaida, Marquis, Span, states- 
man ? 1802. . .1880 

Orfila, Mateo Jose Bonaventura, Fr. chemist 1787. . .1853 

Oriani, Barnaba. Ital. astronomer 1752. . .1832 

Oribasius, Greek physician and medical writer fl. 4th c. 

Origen, Christian writer of Alexandria ? 185 . . .? 254 

198 



ORLEANS, L'—OUDINOT 



BORN. DIED. 

Orleans, d', Ferdinand Philippe Louis Charles Henri 
Joseph, Due, eldest son and heir of King Louis 

Philippe : 1810. ..1842 

Orleans, d% Jean Baptiste Gaston, Due, son of Henry 

IV 1608... 1660 

Orleans, d% Louis Philippe Joseph, Due. Philippe 

Xlgalite. Guillotined 1747... 1793 

Orleans, d% Philippe II., Due, regent of France 1671. . .1723 

Orloff, Alexei, Count. Brother of Grigori. Russ. ad- 
miral 1737. . .1808 

Orloff, Alexei, Count. Nephew. Russ. general and 

diplomatist 1787... 1861 

Orloff, Grigori, favorite of Catherine II. of Russia. . . . 1731. . .1783 

Or me, Rohert, Eng. historian in India 1728. . .1801 

Ormond, James Butler, first Duke of, lord lieutenant 

of Ireland 1610 . . . 1688 

Orsay, d', Alfred Guillaume Gabriel, Count, Fr. gallant 1801. . .1852 
Orsini, famous Ital. family in the Middle Ages. 
Orsini, Felice, Ital. who attempted to assassinate 

Napoleon III 1819... 1858 

Ortelius, Abraham, Ger. geographer 1527. . .1598 

Orton, James, Am. naturalist 1830. . .1877 

Osborn, Sherard, Brit, admiral 1822. . .1875 

Osceola, As-se-he-holar, chief of the Seminoles.... 1804... 1838 

Osgood, Frances Sargent, nee Locke, Am. poetess 1811. . .1850 

O'Shaughnessy, Sir William Brooke, Irish electrician 1809 

Osiander, Andreas. Hosemann. Ger. Protestant re- 
former 1498. . .1552 

Osman Digna, Arab chieftain. Lieutenant of " El 

Mahdi" 1847 

Ossian, mythical Celtic bard fl. ? 2d or 3d c. 

Ossory, Thomas Butler, Earl of, Eng. commander 1634. . .1680 

Ostade, van, Adrian, Flemish painter 1610. . .1685 

Osterwald, Jean Frederic, Swiss Protestant divine. .. 1663. . .1747 
Osana, Pedro Tellez y Giron, Duke of, viceroy of Na- 
ples 1579... 1624 

Otfried, Ger. monk and metrical writer fl. 9th c. 

Othman. The Conqueror. Founder of the Ottoman 

empire 1259. . .1326 

Othman I bn A If a a, the third caliph 656 

Otho, Marcus Salvius, Roman emperor 32... 69 

Otho I, The Great. Emperor of Germany 912 ... 973 

Otho I. (Otto Friedrich Ludwig), king of Greece 1815. . .1867 

Otis, James, Am. orator and patriot 1725. . .1783 

Ottendorfer, Oswald, Am. editor and journalist. 

[The New York Staats Zeitwng.'] 1822 

Otterbein, Philip William, Ger.-Am. founder of the 

Church of the United Brethren in Christ 1726. . .1813 

Ottley, William Young, Eng. writer on fine arts 1771. . .1836 

Otto, Friedrich Julius, Ger. chemist 1809. . .1870 

Otway, Thomas, Eng. dramatic poet 1651. . .1685 

Oudinot, Nicolas Charles, Due de Reggio, Fr. marshal. 1767.. .1847 

190 



UDR Y—PAKENHAM 



BORN. DIED. 

Oudry, Jean Baptiste, Fr. animal-painter 1686. . .1755 

Ousely, Sir William, Viscount Claramont, Brit, orient- 
alist 1771... 1842 

Outram , Sir James, Eng. general in India 1803. . .1863 

Ouvrard, Gabriel Julien, Fr. financier 1770. . .1846 

Ovando, Nicolas, Span, governor of Hispaniola ? 1460. . .1518 

Overbeck, Friedrich, Ger. painter 1789. . .1869 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, Eng. poet and philosopher, 

poisoned by the Earl of Somerset 1581. ..1613 

Overweg, Adolf, Ger. traveler in Africa 1822. . .1852 

Ovid, Publius Ovidius Naso, Roman poet B. C. 43. .A. D. 18 

Oviedo y Valde*s, de, Gonzalo Fernandez, Span.chron. 1478. . .1557 
Owen, John, Eng. Nonconformist divine and author. . 1616. . .1683 

Owen, Richard, Eng. anatomist and zoologist 1804 

Owen, Robert, Brit, social reformer 1771. . .1858 

Owen, Robert Dale. Son of Robert. Am. author 1801. . .1877 

Oxenstiern, Axel, Count, Swed. statesman 1583. . .1654 

Ozanam, Antoine Fr£d6ric, Fr. scholar and author 1813. . .1853 



Pacchioni, Antonio, Ital. anatomist. IGlandulce Poo- 

chioni.] ....? 1665... 1726 

Paccioli, Luca. Luca di Borgo. Ital. mathematician.? 1450 

Pacheco, Francisco, Span, painter and writer on art. . 1571.. .1654 
Pachomius, Saint, Egyptian founder of the first 

organized monastic community 292. . .? 348 

Pacini, Giovanni, Sicilian musical composer 1796. . .1867 

Paddock, Algernon S., Am. lawyer and senator 1830 

Padilla, de, Don Juan Lopez, Span, patriot ? 1490. . .1521 

Paer, Ferdinando, Ital. musical composer 1771. . .1839 

Paez, Francisco, Span. Jesuit missionary in Africa — 1564. .71622 
Paez, Jose" Antonio, Venezuelan revolutionary com- 
mander 1787... 1873 

Pagan, de, Blaise Francois, Count, Fr. military en- 
gineer 1604 . . . 1665 

Paganini, Nicolb, Ital. violinist 1784. . .1840 

Page, William, Am. painter 1811 

Paget, Sir James, Eng. surgeon and physiologist 1814 

Paggi, Giovanni Battista, Ital. painter 1554. . .1627 

Pail let, Alphonse Gabriel Victor, Fr. advocate 1795 . . . 1855 

Paine, Martyn, Am. physician and medical writer 1794 

Paine, Robert Treat, Am. lawyer. Signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence 1731. . .1814 

Paine, Robert Treat, Jr. Son. Am. author 1773. . .1811 

Paine, Thomas, Am. political and deistical writer, born 

in England. [Bights of Man. Age of Reason.'] 1737. . . 1809 

Paisiello, Giovanni, Ital. musical composer 1741. . .1816 

Paixhans, Henri Joseph, Fr. general and inventor. 

[Paixhan guns.] 1783. . .1854 

Pajou, Augustin, Fr. sculptor 1730. . .1809 

Pakenham, Sir Edward, Brit, general killed at New 

Orleans 1815 

200 



PAL A CKY—PABINI 



BORN. DIED. 

Falacky, Frantisek, Bohemian historian 1798. . .1876 

Palafox, Jose\ Duke of Saragossa, Span, patriot 1780. . .1847 

Palestrina, da, Giovanni Pietro Aloisio, Ital. com- 
poser 1524. . .1594 

Paley, William, Eng. theologian and moralist 1743. . .1805 

Palfrey* John Gorham, Am. divine and historian. 

[History of New England.] 1796. . .1881 

Pa ! grave ? Sir Francis. Cohen. Eng. historian 1788 . . . 1861 

Palgrave, Francis Turner. Son. Eng. art critic 1824 

Palikao, de, Charles Guillaume Marie Apollinaire 

Antoine Cousin-Montauban, Count, Fr. general 1796. . .1878 

Falisot. de, Ambroise Marie Francois Joseph Beau- 

vois, Fr. naturalist 1752. . .1820 

Palissy, Bernard, Fr. potter and enameler ? 1510. . .1590 

Palladio, Andrea, Ital. architect 1518. . .1580 

Pali as, Peter Simon r Pruss. naturalist and traveler... . 1741. . .1811 

Paliavicino, Sforza, Ital. historian 1607. . .1667 

Palliser, Sir William, Brit, inventor 1830 

Palma, Jacopo. II VeccHo (The Elder). Ital. painter, fl. ? 1500 
Palma, Jacopo. [The Younger. Grand Nephew.] Ital. 

painter ? 1544. . .1628 

Palmar oli, Pietro, Ital. painter and picture restorer 1828 

Palmblad, Vilhelm Fredrik, Swed. author 1788. . .1852 

Palmer, Alonzo B., Am. anatomist 1815... 1887 

Palmer, Erastus Dow, Am. sculptor 1817 

Palmer, John, projector of mail coaches in England. . 1742. . .1818 
Palmer, Ray, Am. Congregational minister and 

hymnologist . 1808 . . . 1887 

Palmerstou, Henry John Temple, third Viscount, 

prime minister of England 1784. ..1865 

Palomino de Velasco, Acislo Antonio, Span, painter 1653.. .1726 

Paludan-Muller, Frederic, Danish poet 1809 

Pamphilus, Saint, Syrian Christian martyr ? 245 . . . 309^ 

Panckoucke, Charles Joseph, Fr. editor 1736. . .1798 

Panini, Sanskrit philologist and grammarian fl. ? 4th c. B. C* 

Panizzi, Sir Antony, Ital. librarian of the Brit. Mu- 
seum : 1797 

Paoli, di, Pasquale, Corsican patriot 1726. . .1807 

Papillon, Feruand, Fr. physiologist 1847. . .1874- 

Papin, Denis, Fr. physicist. [Papin's digester.] 1647..? 171£ 

Papineau, Louis Joseph, Canadian politician 1789. . .1871 

Pappenheim, von, Gottfried Heinrich, Count, Ger. 

general 1594... 1632 

Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bom- 
bastus von Hohenheim, Swiss alchemist and physi- 
cian 1493. . . 1541 

Pardoe, Julia, Eng. authoress 1806. . .1862 

Pare*, Ambroise. The Father of Fr. Swrgery ? 1517. . .1590 

Paredes, Mariano, president of Mexico and general. ..? 1790. . .1849 

Pareja, de, Juan, Span, artist ? 1608. . .1670 

Parepa-Rosa. See Rosa, Euphrosyne Parepa. 

Parini, Giuseppe, Ital. poet 1729. ..179& 

201 



PARIS— PASQ UIER 



BORN. DIED. 

Paris, Alexis, Paulin, Fr. author 1800. . . 1881 

Paris, John Ayrton v Eng. physician and chemist 1785. . .1856 

Paris, de, Louis Philippe d'Orleans, Comte, Fr. prince. 

Grandson of King Louis Philippe and head of the 

Orleans family 1838 

Park, Edwards Amasa, Am. theologian 1808 

Park, Mungo, Scot, explorer in Africa 1771..? 1805 

Parker, Sir Hyde, Brit, admiral 1739. . .1807 

Parker, Joel, Am. jurist. War governor of New 

Jersey 1795... 1888 

Parker, John Henry, Eng. archseologist 1806. . .1884 

Parker, Joseph, Eng. dissenting preacher, author, 

and orator. Pastor of City Temple. [People's Bible.] 1830 

Parker, Linus J., one of the bishops of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church, South 1830. . .1885 

Parker, Matthew, archbishop of Canterbury. [Bish- 
ops' Bible.] 1504. . .1575 

Parker, Sir Peter, Brit, admiral 1721. . .1811 

Parker, Theodore, Am. theologian and scholar 1810. . .1860 

Parker, Willard, Am. surgeon 1800. . .1884 

Parker, Sir William, Eng. admiral and statesman 1781. . .1866 

Parkes, Sir Harry Smith, Brit, diplomat 1828. . .1885 

Parkhurst, John, Eng. linguist 1728. . .1797 

Parkman, Francis, Am. historian 1823 

Par men tier, Antoine Augustin, Fr. philanthropist 1737. . .1813 

Parmentier, Jehan, Fr. navigator. Explorer of the 

Indian Sea 1494. . .1530 

Parnell, Charles Stewart, Irish parliamentarian 1839 

Parnell, Thomas, Brit, poet 1679.. .1717 

Parny, de, Evariste De*sire" Desforges, Chevalier, Fr. 

poet 1753.. .1814 

Tarodi, Domenico, Ital. painter and sculptor 1668. . .1740 

Parr, Samuel, Eng. critic and scholar 1747. . .1825 

Parr, Thomas. Old Parr. Eng. centenarian 1483. . .1635 

Parrhasius, Greek painter fl. 400 B. C. 

Parris, Samuel, Salem witchcraft began in his family. 1653. . .1720 

Parrish, Joseph, Am. physician and medical writer 1779. . .1840 

Parrott, Robert Parker, Am. inventor. [Parrott 

owns.'] 1804... 1877 

Parry, Sir William Edward, Eng. arctic navigator. . . . 1790. . .1855 

Parsons, Theophilus, Am. jurist 1750. . .1813 

Parsons, Theophilus. Son. Am. jurist and writer.... 1797 

Parsons, Thomas William, Am. poet 1819 

Parton, James, Am. biographer. : 1822 

Parton, Sara Payson Willis. Fanny Fern. Wife. Am. 

authoress 1811... 1872 

Paruta, Paolo, Ital. historian 1540. ..1598 

Pascal, Blaise, Fr. philosopher and mathematician 1623. . .1662 

Pasdeloup, Jules Etienne, Fr. musician 1819. . .1887 

Paskevitch, Ivan Feodorovitch, Prince of Warsaw, 

Russ. general 1782. . .1856 

Pasquier, Etienne, Fr. advocate and historian 1529. . .1615 

202 



PASQUIER— PEDRO II. 



BORN. DIED. 

Pasquier, de, Etienne Denis, Due, Fr. statesman 1767. . .1862 

Pass, Tan, Crispin, Dutch designer and engraver fl. 1600 

Passaglia, Carlo, Ital. theologian 1812 

Passavant, Johann David, Ger. art historian 1787. . .1861 

Passow, Franz Ludwig Karl Friedrich, Ger. philol- 
ogist 1786... 1833 

Pasteur, Louis, Fr. chemist and physiologist. {Inocu- 
lation for hydrophobia.'] 1822 

Pater so n, William, founder of the Bank of England. .? 1658. . .1719 

Patkul, Johann Reinhold, Livonian patriot ? 1660. . .1707 

Patmore, Coventry Kearsey Dighton, Eng. poet 1823 

Paton, Sir Joseph Noel, Brit, painter 1821 

Patrick, Saint, apostle and patron saint of Ireland . . . ? 372. . .7493 
Patterson, Rohert Hogarth, Scot, author and editor. . 1821. . .1886 
Patti, Adelina Maria Clorinda, Marquise de Caux, op- 
eratic singer, born in Madrid 1843 

Pattison, Mark, Eng. minister and author 1813. . .1884 

Paul, Saint. Saul. Apostle of the Gentiles ? 10. . . ? 65 

Paul I., Petrovitch, emperor of Russia. Assassinated 1754... 1801 

Paul III., Alessandro Farnese, pope 1468. . .1549 

Paul IV., Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, pope 1476. . .1559 

Paul V,, Camillo Borghese, pope 1552... 1621 

Paulding, Hiram. Son of John. Am. rear-admiral. . . 1797. . .1878 

Paulding, James Kirke, Am. author and politician 1779. . .1860 

Paulding, John, one of the captors of Major Andre".. . 1758.. .1818 
Paul us, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob, Ger. theologian. . 1761. . .1851 
Paulus, ' Lucius JEmilius. Macedonicus. Roman gen- 
eral ..B.C. ?230... 160 

Pausanius, Greek traveler fl. 2d c. 

Pauthier, Jean Pierre Guillaume, Fr. Chinese scholar 1801. . .1873 

Pauw, van, Cornells, Dutch scholar 1739. . .1799 

Pauwels, Ferdinand, Belgian painter 1830 

Paxton, Sir Joseph, Eng. architect and horticulturist. 1803. . .1865 

Payen, Anselme, Fr. chemist 1795. . .1871 

Payer, Julius, Austrian arctic explorer 1841. . .1883 

Payne, John Howard, Am. dramatist. {Home, Sweet 

Home.'] 1792. . .1852 

Peabody, Andrew Preston, Am. theologian and author 1811 

Peabody, George, Am. banker in London and philan- 
thropist 1795... 1869 

Peacock, Thomas Love, Eng. poet and novelist 1785. . .1866 

Peale, Charles Wilson, Am. painter and naturalist 1741. . .1827 

Pe ale, Rembrandt. Son. Am. painter 1778... 1860 

Pearce, Zachary, Eng. bishop and commentator 1690. . .1774 

Pearson, John, bishop of Chester. Eng. theologian. . . 1613. . .1686 

Pecci, Gioachimo, Pope Leo XIII 1810 

Peck, Jesse Truesdell, bishop of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church 1811. ..1883 

Peck, John Mason, Am. Baptist divine and author 1789. . .1858 

Pecquet, Jean, Fr. anatomist and discoverer 1622. . .1674 

Pedro I. of Brazil and IV. of Portugal 1798. . .1834 

Pedro II. Son, Emperor of Brazil 1825 

203 



PEEL— PERKINS 

BORN. DIED. 

Peel, Arthur Wellesley, speaker Eng. House of Com- 
mons 1829 

Peel, Sir Robert, Baronet, Eng. cotton manufacturer. . 1750. . .1830 

Peel, Sir Robert. Son. Eng. statesman 1788. . .1850 

Peele, George, Eng. dramatist 1552..? 1598 

Peirce, Benjamin, Am. mathematician 1809 

Peiagius, founder of Pelagianism fl. 400 

Pelham, Sir Henry, Eng. statesman 1695. . .1754 

Pelissier, Amable Jean Jacques, Due de Malakoff, Fr. 

marshal and governor-general of Algeria 1794. . .1864 

Pelletan, Pierre Clement Eugene, Fr. author 1813. . .1884 

Pelletier, Bertrand, Fr. chemist 1761. . .1797 

Pell etier, Pierre Joseph. Son. Fr. chemist. [Qwlnine.] 1788. ..1842 

Pellico, Silvio, Ital. writer and patriot 1789. . .1854 

Pelopidas, Theban general B. C 364 

Pelouze, The*ophile Jules, Fr. chemist 1807. . .1867 

Pendleton, Edmund, Am. statesman 1721. ..1803 

Pendleton, George Hunt, Am. senator and diplomate. 1825. . .1889 

Pendleton, Nathaniel Green, Am. congressman 1793. . .1861 

Pene, de, Henri, Fr. journalist 1830. . .1888 

Penn, William, Eng. Quaker. Founder of Pennsyl- 
vania 1644... 1718 

Pennant, Thomas, Eng. naturalist and antiquary 1726. . .1798 

Penthievre, de, Pierre Philippe, Duke, Fr. sailor 1845 

Pepin. Le Bref (The Short). King of the Franks ? 714. . . 768 

Pepperell, Sir William, Am. general 1696. . .1759 

Pepusch, Johann Christoph, Ger. composer 1667. . .1752 

Pepys, Samuel, Eng. secretary to the admiralty. [Di- 
ary.] 1632... 1703 

Perceval, Spencer, prime minister of England. As- 

sassinated 1762 . . .1812 

Percier, Charles, Fr. architect 1764. . .1838 

Percival, James Gates, Am. poet and geologist 1795... 1856 

Percy, Henry. Hotspur. Slain at Shrewsbury 1403 

Percy, Pierre Francois, Baron, Fr. military surgeon. . . 1754. . .1825 
Percy, Thomas, Eng. bishop. [Beliques of Ancient En- 
glish Poetry.] 1728. . .1811 

Pereira, Jacob Rodriguez, Span, teacher of deaf mutes 1715. . .1780 
Pereira, Jonathan, Eng. physician. [Materia MedicaJ] 1804. . .1853 
Pereire, Emile (b. 1800— d. 1875) and Isaac (b. 1806), 
Fr. financiers, brothers. Founders of the Credit 
Mobilier. 

Perez, Antonio, Span, statesman ? 1539. . .1611 

Perez, Don Jose* Joaquin, president of Chili 1801 

Pergoiesi, Giovanni Battista, Ital. composer ? 1710..? 1737 

Pericles, Athenian statesman B. C. ? 495. . . 429 

Pe*rier, Casimir, Fr. financier and statesman 1777. . .1832 

Pe*rier, or Casimir-Pe"rier, Auguste Casimir Victor 

Laurent. Son. Fr. statesman 1811... 1876 

Perkins, Elisha, Am. physician. [Metallic tractors.]. . . 1741. . .1799 

Perkins, George Roberts, Am. mathematician 1812. . .1876 

Perkins, Jacob, Am. mechanician and inventor 1766. . .1849 

204 



PERKINS— PE YER 



BORN. DIED. 

Perkins, Justin, Am. missionary in Persia 1805. . .1869 

Perrault, Charles, Fr. author 1628. . .1703 

Perrault, Claude. Brother. Fr. architect, 1613. . .1688 

Perrin, Pierre, reputed the first writer of Fr. operas 1680 

Perrone, Giovanni, Ital. theologian 1794= 

Perronet, Jean Rodolphe, Fr. civil engineer 1708. . .1794 

Perrot, Georges, Fr. archaeologist 1832 

Perry, Matthew Calbraith. Brother. Am. commodore 1794... 1858 

Perry, Oliver Hazard, Am. commodore 1785. . .1819 

Persigny, de, Jean Gilbert Victor de Fialin, Due, Fr. 

minister of state 1808. ..1872 

Persius Flaccus, Aulus, Roman satirical poet 34... 62 

Persons, or Parsons, Robert, Eng. theologian 1546. . .1610 

Perthes, Friedrich Christoph, Ger. publisher 1772. . .1843 

Perty, Joseph Anton Maximilian, Ger. naturalist 1804 

Perugino, II, true name Pietro Vannucci, Ital. 

painter 1446... 1524 

Peruzzi, Baldassare da Siena, Ital. architect 1481. . .1536 

Peschel, Oskar Ferdinand, Ger. geographer 1826 

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, Swiss educationist 1746. . .1827 

Petau, Denis, Fr. chronologist 1583. . .1652 

Peter I., Alexeievitch. The Great. Czar of Russia. . . . 1672. . .1725 

Peter the Hermit, preacher of the first crusade ? 1050. . .1115 

Peter Martyr, or Vermigli, Pietro, Ital. theologian.. 1500... 1562 

Peterborough, Charles Mordaunt, Earl of , Brit. gen. 1658... 1735 

Petermann, August Heinrich, Ger. geographer 1822. . .1878 

Petermann, Julius Heinrich, Ger. orientalist 1806. . .1876 

Peters, Christian August Friedrich, Ger. astronomer. 1806. ..1880 
Peters, Christian Henry Frederick, Ger.-Am. astron- 
omer 1813 

Peters, Hugh, Eng. preacher and politician 1599. . .1660 

Peters, Wilhelm Karl Harting, Ger. traveler and sci- 
entist 1815... 1883 

Petersen, Niels Matthias, Danish philologist and his- 
torian 1791... 1862 

Peterson, Charles J., Am. editor and author 1819. . .1887 

Petigru, James Louis, Am. lawyer ? 1789. . .1863 

Pe*tion (Anne Alexandre Sabes), first president of the 

Republic of Hayti 1770. ..1818 

Pe*tion de Villeneuve, Je*r6me, Fr. revolutionist 1753. . .1794 

Petit, Jean Louis, Fr. surgeon 1674. . .1750 

Petitot, Jean, Genevese enamel-painter 1607. . .1691 

Petofl, Sandor, Hungarian patriot and lyric poet 1823..? 1849 

Petrarch, Francesco, Ital. poet 1304. . .1374 

Petri, Bernhard, Ger. agricultural writer 1767. . .1842 

Petrie, George, Irish archaeologist 1789 . . . 1866 

Pettingell, John Hancock, Am. theologian 1815... 1887 

Petty, Sir William, EDg. political economist 1623 . . . 1687 

Peucer, Kaspar, Ger. physician and mathematician. . . 1525. . .1602 

Peutinger, Konrad, Ger. antiquary 1465. . .1547 

Peyer, Johann Konrad, Swiss anatomist. [JPeyer's 

glands.] 1653... 1712 

205 



PEYRONNET—PICHEGRU 



BORN. DIED. 

Peyronnet, de, Charles Ignace, Comte, Fr. statesman 1778.. .1854 
Pfaff, Christoph Matthaus, Ger. Protestant theologian 1686... 1760 

Pfeiffer, Ida, Madame, Ger. traveler 1797. . .1858 

Phelps, Almira Hart Lincoln, Am. teacher 1793 

Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart, Am. authoress. [The Sunny 

Side.'] 1815... 1852 

Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart. Daughter. Am. authoress. 

[The Gates Ajar.'] 1844 

Phidias, famous Greek sculptor B. C. ? 490. . .? 432 

Philaret, Basil Drozdoff, Russ. prelate 1782. . .1867 

Philip. Kvng Philvp. Pometacom. Indian chief of 
New England. Sachem of Pokanoket. [King Phil- 
ip's War.~] 1676 

Philip II., king of Macedon B.C. 382... 336 

Philip II., or Philip Augustus, king of France 1165. . .1223 

Philip IV. The Fair. King of France 1268. . .1314 

Philip VI., of Valois, king of France 1293. . .1350 

Philip II., king of Spain 1527.. .1598 

Philip IV., king of Spain 1605. ..1665 

Philip V. (first of the House of Bourbon), king of Spain 1683. . .174=6 

Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy 1342. . .1404 

Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy 1396. . .1467 

Philips, Ambrose, Eng. poet and dramatist ? 1671. . .174:9 

Phillimore, John George, Eng. jurist 1809. . .1865 

Phillimore, Sir Robert Joseph. Brother. Eng. jurist. 1810 

Phillips, Adelaide, Am. singer, born in England 1833 

Phillips, John, Am. merchant and philanthropist. 

Founder of Phillips Academy at Exeter, N. H 1719. . .1795 

Phillips, John, Brit, geologist 1800. . .1874 

Phillips, Samuel, Jr. Nephew of J. P. of Exeter. Am. 
statesman. Organized Phillips Academy at An- 

dover, Mass 1751. . .1802 

Phillips, Wendell, Am. orator and reformer 1811. . .1884 

Phillips, William, Eng. mineralogist and geologist. . . . 1773. . .1828 

Philopeemen, Greek general and statesman B. C. ? 252. . . 183 

Philoppoteaux, Felix, Fr. historical painter 1815. . .1884 

Philp, Elizabeth, Eng. soDg-writer 1885 

Phips, Sir William, governor of Massachusetts 1651. . .1695 

Phocion, Athenian statesman and general B. C. ?403. . . 317 

Photius, patriarch of Constantinople. [Greek schism.'] ?815... 891 

Physick, Philip Syng, Am. physician and surgeon 1768. . .1837 

Piatt, Donn, Am. author and journalist 1819 

Piatt, John James, Am. poet 1835 

Piatt, Louise Kirby, Am. authoress 1826. . .1864 

Piazzi, Giuseppe, Ital. astronomer 1746. . .1826 

Picard, Jean, Fr. astronomer 1620. . .1682 

Picard, Louis Benoit, Fr. dramatist 1769. . .1828 

Picard, Louis Joseph Ernest, Fr. statesman 1821. . .1877 

Piccini, or Piccinni, Nicolb, Neapolitan composer.. . . 1728. . .1800 
Piccol omini, Alessandro, Ital. prelate and philosopher 1508. . .1578 
Piccolomini, Ottavio, Austrian general of Ital. origin 1599. . .1656 

Pichegru, Charles, Fr. general 1761. ..1804 

206 



PIGHLER—PIOMB 



BORN. DIED. 

Pichler, Aloys, Ger. author 1833. . .1874 

Pichler, von, Karoline, nee von Greiner, Ger. novelist 1769. ..1843 

Pickens, Andrew, Am. Revolutionary general 1739. . .1817 

Pickering, John. Son. Am. philologist and jurist. 
IGreek and English Lexicon. Vocabulary of Ameri- 
canisms.] 1777. . .1846 

Pickering, Timothy, Am. Revolutionary statesman. . 1745... 1829 
Pickersgill, Frederick Richard, Eng. historical 

painter 1820 

Picot, Michel Joseph Pierre, Fr. writer. 1770. . .1841 

Pictet, Francois Jules, Swiss naturalist ? 1800. . .1872 

Pierce, Franklin, fourteenth President of the United 

States 1804 . . .1869 

Pierce, George Foster, one of the bishops of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Cburch, South 1811. . .1884 

Pierer, Heinrich August, Ger. publisher 1794. . .1850 

Pierpont, John, Am. poet 1785. . .1866 

Pierson, Abraham, Am. divine. First president of 

Yale College 1641. . .1707 

Pigault-L<ebrun, Charles Antoine Guillaume (origi- 
nally Pigault de TEpinoy), Fr. novelist 1753... 1835 

Pignotti, LoreDZO, Ital. poet and historian 1739. . .1812 

Pike, Albert, Am. poet 1809 

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, Am. brigadier-general 

and explorer 1779. . .1813 

Pilatre de Rozier, Jean Francois, Fr. aeronaut 1756. . .1785 

Pillans, James, professor at Edinburgh. Educationist. 1778. ..1864 
Pilisbury, John Q., Am. prison reformer and official. . 1802. . .1885 

Piloty, von, Karl Theodor, Ger. painter 1826 

Pilpay, or Bidpay, Hindu fabulist unknown. 

Pinckney, Charles, Am. statesman 1758. . .1824 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, Am. Revolutionary 

officer and statesman 1746. . .1825 

Pinckney, Thomas. Brother of C. C. P. Am. general 

and diplomatist 1750. . .1828 

Pindar, Greek lyric poet B. C. ?522...?440 

Pindemonte, Ippolito, Ital. poet 1753. . .1828 

Pinei, Philippe, Fr. physician for the insane 1745. . .1826 

Pinelli, Bartolommeo, painter and etcher at Rome...? 1781.. 71835 

Pingre*, Alexandre Gui, Fr. astronomer 1711. . .1796 

Pinkerton, Allan, Scot.-Am. detective 1819. . .1884 

Pinkerton, John, Scot, author 1758. . .1826 

Pinkney, William, Am. lawyer, orator, and diploma- 
tist 1764... 1822 

Pinkney, "William, Am. Protestant Episcopal bishop 

of Maryland 1809. ..1883 

Pinner, Max, Am. pianist 1852. . .1887 

Pinzon, Martin Alonso, Span, navigator with Colum- 
bus 1493 

Pinzon, Vicente Yafiez, Span, navigator with Colum- 
bus. Discovered Brazil and Yucatan aft. 1523 

Piombo, del, Fra Sebastiano. Luciano. Ital. painter 1485... 1547 

207 



PIOZZI—PO GCETTI 



BORN. DIED. 

Piozzi, Mrs. (maiden name, Hester Lynch Salusbury). 

Mrs. Thrale. Eng. authoress. Friend of Dr. Johnson's 1739. . .1821 

Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, Ital. engraver 1720. . .1778 

Plron, Alexis, Fr. dramatist and poet 1689. . .1773 

Pisano, Nicola, Ital. sculptor ? 1200..? 1278 

Pisistratus, Athenian ruler or tyrant B. C. ? 612. . . 527 

Pitcairn, Major John, Eng. officer killed at Bunker's 

Hill 1775 

Pithou, Pierre, Fr. jurist and author 1539. . .1596 

Pitman, Isaac, Eng. inventor of phonography 1813 

Pitt, William, first Earl of Chatham. The Great Com- 
moner. .Eng. statesman 1708. . .1778 

Pitt, William. Son. Eng. statesman and orator 1759. . .1806 

Pius I., Saint, pope ?90... 157 

Pius II., Eneo Sylvio Piccolomini 1405. . .14=64 

Pius IV., Gianangelo de' Medici 1499. ..1565 

Pius V. , Saint, Michele Ghislieri 1504. . .1572 

Pius VI., Gianangelo Braschi 1717.. .1799 

Pius VII., Gregorio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti 1742. . .1823 

Pius IX . , Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti 1792 .. . . 1878 

Pizarro, Francisco, conqueror of Peru ? 1475. . .1541 

Planche", James Robinson, Eng. dramatist 1796. . .1880 

Planche*, Jean Baptiste Gustave, Fr. critic 1808. . .1857 

Planck, Gottlieb Jakob, Ger. theologian 1751. . . 1833 

PI an ta genet, a dynasty of Eng. kings founded by 
Henry II. (1154) and ending with Richard III. (1485). 
Plateau, Antoine Joseph Ferdinand, Belgian physicist 1801. . .1883 

Plato, Greek philosopher B. C. ? 429. . .? 348 

PlatoiT, Matvei Ivanovitch, Count, hetman of the Cos- 
sacks ? 1760. . .1818 

Plautus, Marcus Accius, or Attius, Roman drama- 
tist B.C. ?254... 184 

PI ay fair, John, Scot, mathematician and physicist. . . 1748. . .1819 

Playfair, Lyon, Eng. chemist 1819 

Pleasonton, Alfred, Am. general 1824 

Pleyel, Ignaz, Ger. musical composer 1757. . .1831 

Pliny (Caius Plinius Secundus). The Elder. Roman 

naturalist and author 23... 79 

Pliny (Caius Plinius Csecilius Secundus). The Yoimger. 

Nephew. Latin author and orator. ? 61...? 115 

Plotinus, an Egyptian Neo-Platonic philosopher.. ? 204. . .? 270 

Plowden, Edmund, Eng. judge and law-writer ? 1517. . .1584 

Pluche, Noel Antoine, Abbe\ Fr. naturalist and author 1688. . .1761 

Plumb, Josiah B., speaker of Canadian senate 1816. . .1888 

Plumier, Charles, Fr. botanist 1646. . .1704 

Plumptre, Edward Hayes, Eng. clergyman and pro- 
fessor 1821 

Plunkett, William Conyngham, Baron, Irish orator 

and judge 1764... 1854 

Plutarch , Greek biographer and moralist ? 49 . . . ? 120 

Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian chief Powhatan.? 1595. . .1617 
Poccetti, or Bernardino Barbatelli, Ital. painter.. 1542... 1612 

208 



PO CO CK—PONCELET 



BORN. DIED. 

Pocock, Edward, Eng. Arabic and Hebrew scholar 1604. . .1601 

Po die brad, George, king of Bohemia 1430. . .1471 

Poe, Edgar Allan, Am. poet 1809. . .1849 

Poerio, Carlo, Baron, Neapolitan statesman 1803. . .1867 

Poggendorff", Johann Christian, Ger. natural philos- 
opher 1796... 1877 

Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco, Ital. phi- 
lologist, scholar, and historian ? 1380. . .1459 

Poin dexter, George, Am. lawyer and politician 1779. . .1853 

Poinsett, Joel Roberts, Am. statesman 1779. . .1851 

Poirson, Auguste Simon Jean Chrysostome, Fr. his- 
torian 1795 . . .1871 

Poisson, Simeon Denis, Fr. mathematician 1781 . . .1840 

Poissonnier, Pierre, Fr. chemist and physician 1720. . .1798 

Poitevin, Auguste, Fr. sculptor ? 1819. . .1873 

Poivre, Pierre, Fr. traveler and administrator 1719. . .1786 

Poland, Luke P., Am. jurist and statesman 1816 . . .1887 

Pole, Reginald, Eng. cardinal and archbishop of Can- 
terbury 1500. . .1558 

Polevoi, Nikolai Alexievitch, Russ. author 1796. . .1846 

Poli, Giuseppi Saverio, Ital. naturalist and physiologist 1746. . .1825 
Polignac, de, Auguste Jules Armand Marie, Prince, 

Fr. minister of Charles X 1780. . .1847 

Polignac, de, Melchior, Fr. cardinal and diplomatist. 1661.. .1742 
Politian, Angelus, Angelo, Ital. classical scholar and 

poet. [Orfeo.~] 1454... 1494 

Polk, James Knox, eleventh President of the United 

States 1795... 1849 

Polk, Leonidas, bishop and Confederate general 1806. . .1864 

Pdllnitz, von, Karl Ludwig, Baron, Ger. memoirist. . 1692. . .1775 

Pollock, Sir George, Brit, field-marshal 1786. . .1872 

Poll ok, Robert, Scot. poet. [The Course of Time.'] 1799. . .1827 

Polo, Marco, Venetian^raveler ? 1252..? 1324 

Polybius, Greek historian -. B. C. ? 204. . .? 122 

Polycarp, Saint, bishop of Smyrna and martyr ? 80. . .? 169 

Polycletus, Greek sculptor and architect fl. 425 B. C. 

Polygnotus. The Homer of paim,tvng. Greek 

painter B.C. ?490...?425 

Pombal, de, Sebastiao Jose" de Carvalho e Melho, 

Marquis. The Portuguese Richelieu. Port, statesman 1699... 1782 
Pompadour, de, Madame Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, 

Marchioness, mistress of Louis XV 1721. . .1764 

Pompei, Girolamo, Ital. Hellenist and translator 1731. . .1788 

Pompey (Cneius Pompeius Magnus). The Great, 

R^man general B.C. 106... 48 

Ponce, Pedro, Span. Benedictine. First teacher of 

deaf-mutes ? 1520. . .1584 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, Span, discoverer of Florida ? 1460. . .1521 

Ponce de Leon, Luis. Fray Luis de Leon. Span, lyric 

poet ? 1527... 1591 

Ponce let, Jean Victor, Fr. mathematician and engi- 
neer 1788. ..1867 

209 



POND—POTHIER 



BORN. DIED. 

Pond, Enoch, Am. theologian and author 1791 

Pond, John, Eng. astronomer royal ? 1767. . .1836 

Poniatowski, Jozef Antoni. Nephew. Polish prince 

and marshal of France 1762. . .1813 

Poniatowski. See Stanislas Augustus. 

Pons, Jean Louis, Fr. astronomer 1761. . .1831 

Ponsard, Francois, Fr. dramatic poet 1814 . . .1867 

Ponsonby, Sir Frederick Cavendish, Eng. general 1783. . .1837 

Ponson du Terrail, de, Pierre Alexis, Fr. novelist. . 1829... 1871 
Pontano, Giovanni Gioviano, Ital. statesman and 

author 1426. . .1503 

Pont char train, de, Louis Phelypeaux, Comte, Fr. 

minister of state 1643. . .1727 

Ponte, da, Giovanni, Ital. architect. [Bridge of the 

Bialto.~] 1512... 1597 

Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa Indians ? 1712. . .1769 

Pont oppidan, Erik, Danish historian and antiquary.. 1698... 1764 
Pontormo, II (Jacopo Carrucci), Florentine painter. .? 1498. . .1558 

Poole, John, Eng. dramatist ? 1786. . .1872 

Poole, Paul Falconer, Eng. historical painter 1810 

Poore, Ben : Perley, Am. journalist 1820. . .1887 

Pope, Alexander, Eng. poet 1688. ..1744 

Pope, John, Am. general 1823 

Popham, Sir John, Eng. judge 1531. ..1607 

Poppig, Eduard, Ger. traveler and naturalist 1798 . . .1868 

Pordenone, II, Giovanni Antonio. Begillo. Ital. 

painter 1483..? 1540 

Porphyry, Greek philosopher and anti-Christian 

writer ? 233. . .? 305 

Porpora, Nicolb, Ital. composer ? 1686. . .1767 

Porson, Richard, Eng. Greek scholar and critic 1759. . .1808 

Porta, della, Giacomo, Ital. architect and sculptor.... 71525..? 1600 
Porta, della, Giambattista, Ital. physicist. [Camera 

obscwa.] ? 1540. . .1615 

Portaels, Jean Francois, Belgian painter 1820 

Portal, Antoine, Baron, Fr. anatomist and physician.. 1742.. .1832 
Portalis, Jean Etienne Marie, Fr. jurist and statesman 1745. . .1807 
Portalis, Joseph Marie, Count. Son. Fr. statesman. . 1778... 1858 

Porter, David, Am. commodore 1780. ..1843 

Porter, David Dixon. Son. Am. admiral 1813 

Porter, Fitz John. Nephew of David. Am. general . . . 1823. ...... 

Porter, Jane, Eng. novelist. [Thaddeus of Warsaw.].. . 1776. . .1850 
Porter, Noah, Am. metaphysician. President of Yale 

College. 1811 

Porter, Peter Buel, Am. politician and soldier 1773. T. 1844 

Porus, king of India , . . .B. C 317 

Posada-Herrera, Manuel, Span, diplomate 1812. . .1885 

Posidonius, Greek stoic philosopher B. C. ? 135. . . ?51 

Postel, Guillaume, Fr. orientalist and visionary 1510.. .1581 

Potent kin, Gregori Alexandrovitch, Prince, Russ. 

field-marshal and favorite of Catherine II ? 1736. . .1791 

Pothier, Robert Joseph, Fr. jurist 1699. . .1772 

210 



POTOCKI—PRfiVOST 



BORN. DEED. 

Potocki, Stanislas Kostka, Count, Polish statesman 1757. . .1821 

Pott, August Friedrich, Ger. philologist 1802 

Pott, Percival, Eng. surgical writer 1713. . .1788 

Potter, Alonzo, Am. Protestant Episcopal bishop 1800. . .1865 

Potter, Cipriani, Eng. composer an d pianist 1792 . . . 1871 

Potter, Hazard Arnold, Am. physician and surgeon... . 1811. . .1869 
Potter, Horatio, Protestant Episcopal bishop of New 

York 1802. ..1887 

Potter, de, Louis Joseph Antoine, Belgian revolution- 
ist 1786... 1859 

Potter, Paul, Dutch painter of cattle and landscapes. . 1625. . .1654 
Pouchet, Felix Archimede, Fr. naturalist and physiol- 
ogist 1800... 1872 

Pouillet, Claude Gervais Matthias, Fr. physicist 1791... 1868 

Poujouiat, Jean Joseph Francois, Fr. historian 1808 

Pounds, John, Eng. philanthropist. Founder of rag- 
ged schools 1766. . .1839 

Poussin, Nicolas, Fr. historical painter 1594. . .1655 

Powderly, Terence V., Am. labor reformer 1849 

Powell, Baden, Eng. philosopher and geometrician. . . . 1796. . .1860 

Powell, Thomas, Am. editor and author 1808. . .1887 

Power, Tyrone, Irish actor 1795.. .1841 

Powers, Hiram, Am. sculptor 1805. . .1873 

Powhatan, Indian sachem in Virginia ? 1550. . .1618 

Pownall, Thomas, Eng. antiquary and colonial gov- 
ernor , 1722. ..1805 

Poyningrs, Sir Edward, author of Poynings's Law in 

Ireland 1512 

Pozzo di Borgo, Carlo Andrea, Count, Russ. diplo- 
matist, born in Corsica 1764. . .1842 

Pradier, Jean Jacques, Fr. sculptor 1792. . .1852 

Pradt, de, Dominique Dufour, Abbe", Fr. diplomatist 

and political writer 1759. . .1837 

Praed, Winthrop Mackworth, Eng. lawyer and poet. . 1802. . .1839 
Pram, Christian Henriksen, Danish poet. [Stcerlwdder.'] 1756. . .1821 
Praslln, de, Cesar Gabriel, Count de Choiseul, Due, 

Fr. statesman 1712 . . . 1785 

Prati, Giovanni, Ital. lyric poet 1805 

Praxitel es, Greek sculptor. [Cnidian Venus.'] fl. 360 B. C. 

Preble, Edward, Am. commodore 1761. . .1807 

Preble, George H. Son. Am. admiral 1820... 1885 

Prentice, George Denison, Am. journalist and poet 1802. . .1870 

Prentis9, Sergeant Smith, Am. lawyer and orator 1808. . .1850 

Prescott, Colonel William, Am. Revolutionary officer. 1726. . .1795 
Prescott, William Hickling. Grcmdson. Am. historian. 1796.. .1859 
Pressense*, de, Edmond De"hoult, Fr. Protestant theo- 
logian and author 1824 

Preti, Mattia. 11 Calabrese. Ital. painter 1613. . .1699 

Preuss, Johan David Erdmann, Ger. historian 1785. . .1868 

Prevost, Sir George, Eng. general 1767. . .1816 

Pre*vost, Louis Constant, Fr. geologist 1787. . .1856 

PreVost, Pierre, Fr. painter of panoramas 1764. . .1823 

211 



PRE YOST— PTOLEMY 



BORN. DIED. 

Provost, Pierre, Swiss natural philosopher 1751. . .1839 

Pre*vost d' Exiles, Antoine Francois. Abbe Prevost. 

Fr. author. [Manon Lescaut.] 1697. . .1763 

PreVost-Paradol, Lucien Anatole, Fr. orator, jour- 
nalist, and diplomatist 1829. . .1870 

Price, Bonamy, Eng. politico-economist 1808. . .1888 

Price, Richard, Brit, divine and writer on finance 1723. . .1791 

Pri chard, James Cowles, Eng. ethnologist and physi- 
ologist 1785... 1848 

Prideaux, Humphrey, Eng. divine and historian 1648. . .1724 

Priessnitz, Vincenz, Ger. originator of the water-cure 1799. . .1851 

Priestley, Joseph, Eng. chemist and physicist 1733. . .1804 

Prim, Juan, Count of Reus and Marquis de los Castille- 

jos, Span, general and statesman 1814. . .1870 

Primaticcio, Francesco, Ital. painter 1490. . .1570 

Prime, Samuel Irenseus, Am. Presbyterian divine and 

author. Editor of The Observer 1812. . .1885 

Prince, Thomas, Am. divine and chronologer 1687. . .1758 

Pringle, Sir John, Scot, physician and natural philos- 
opher 1707... 1782 

Pringle, Thomas, Scot, poet 1789. . .1834 

Prior, Matthew, Eng. poet 1664. . .1721 

Priscian, Roman grammarian fl. ? 500 

Procaccini, Giulio Cesare, Bolognese painter 1548. . .1626 

Procida, di, Giovanni, Sicilian conspirator ? 1225..? 1303 

Proclus, Greek Neoplatonic philosopher 412. . . 485 

Procopius, Byzantine historian ? 495. . .? 565 

Procopius, Andrew. The Great. Leader of the Hus- 
sites 1434 

Procter, Adelaide Anne. Daughter of B. W. P. Eng. 

poetess 1825. . .1864 

Procter, Bryan Waller. Barry Cornwall. Eng. poet. .? 1790. . .1874 

Proctor, Richard Anthony, Eng. astronomer 1837. . .1888 

Prony, de, Gaspard Clair Francois Marie Riche, Baron, 

Fr. engineer and mathematician 1755 . . .1839 

Propertius, Sextus Aurelius, Roman poet B. C. 51. .aft. B. C. 16 

Protagoras, Greek philosopher and sophist B. C. ?480.. .?411 

Protogenes, painter of Rhodes fl. 330 B. C. 

Proudhon, Jean Baptiste Victor, Fr. jurist 1758. . .1838 

Proudhon, Pierre Joseph, Fr. socialist 1809. . .1865 

Prout, Samuel, Eng. painter in water-colors 1783. . .1852 

Prout, William, Eng. chemist and medical writer 1786. . .1850 

Prud'hon, Pierre Paul. The French Correggio. Fr. 

painter 1758. . .1823 

Prynne, William, Eng. Puritan political writer and 

antiquary 1600 . . . 1669 

Ptolemy I. Soter (savior). King of Egypt and 

founder of the Grseco-Egyptian dynasty B. C. ? 367. . . 283 

Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. Son. King of Egypt.. B. C. 809... 247 
Ptolemy, Claudius, Greek-Egyptian astronomer, geog- 
rapher, and geometer at Alexandria. [Ptolemaic 

system.] fl. 2d c. 

212 



PUCKLER-MUSKAU— QUATREMERE DE QUINGY 

BORN. DIED. 

Pftckler-Muskau, von, Hermann Ludwlg Heinrich, 

Prince, Ger. traveler and author 1785. . .1871 

Puffendorf, Samuel, Baron, Ger. jurist and publicist.. 1632. . .1694= 

Puget, Pierre, Fr. sculptor 1622. . .1694 

Pughe, William Owen, Welsh philologist and antiquary 1759. . .1835 
Pugin, Augustin Welby Northmore, Eng. architect. . . . 1812. . .1852 

Puiseaux, Victor Alexander, Fr. mathematician 1820. . .1883 

Pujol, Alexandre Denis Abel de, called Abel de Pu- 
jol, Alexandre Denis, Fr. painter 1785. . .1861 

Pulaski, Casimir, Count, Polish patriot. Killed at the 

siege of Savannah 1747. . .1779 

Pulci, Luigi, Florentine poet. [Morgante MaggioreJ] ? 1431 . .? 1487 

Pulszky, Francis Aurelius, Hungarian patriot and 

author 1814 

Pulteney, William, Earl of Bath, Eng. statesman 1682. . .1764: 

Pultock, Robert, Eng. author. [Peter WiTkins.] fl. 1750 

Punshon, W. Morley, Eng. Wesleyan divine 1824. . .1881 

Purbach, Georg, Ger. astronomer 1423. . .1461 

Pur cell, Henry, Eng. musical composer 1658. . .1695 

Purcell, John B., Roman Catholic archbishop of Cin- 
cinnati 1800 . . .1883 

Purchas, Samuel, Eng. compiler of travels 1577..? 1628 

Purely, Samuel A., Am. physician 1811. . .1888 

Purver, Anthony, Eng. scholar and biblical translator.? 1702. . .1777 

Pusey, Edward Bouverie, Eng. clergyman. \Puseyism.'] 1800 

Pushkin, Alexander Sergeievitch, Russ. poet 1799. . .1837 

Putlitz, Gustav Heinrich Gans zu, Ger. poet 1821 

Putnam, Israel, Am. Revolutionary general 1718. . .1790 

Putnam, Rufus. Cousin. Am. general and pioneer 

settler of Ohio 1738 . . . 1824 

Putter, Johann Stefan, Ger. publicist 1725. . .1807 

Pye, John, Eng. engraver. Father of the modern school 1782. . .1874 

Pym, John, Eng. patriot and orator 1584. . .1643 

Pynaker, Adam, Dutch landscape-painter 1621. . .1673 

Pynchon, William, Eng. theologian. One of the 

founders of Springfield, Mass ? 1590. . .1661 

Pyrrho, Greek philosopher and skeptic B. C. ? 360. . .? 270 

Pyrrhus, king of Epirus B. C. ? 318. . . 272 

Pythagoras, Greek philosopher B. C. ? 580. . .? 500 



Quackenbos, George Payne, Am. educationist 1826. . .1881 

Quaglio, Domenico, Ger. architectural painter 1786. . .1837 

Quaiu, Jones, Eng. anatomist, born in Ireland. . 1865 

Qua in , Richard, Eng. physician and medical writer. . . 1816. . .1887 

Quarles, Francis, Eng. poet 1592. ..1644 

Quartley, Arthur, Am. artist 1839. ..1886 

Quatrefages de Bre"au, de, Jean Louis Armand, 

Fr. naturalist and ethnologist 1810 

Quatremere, Etienne Marc, Fr. orientalist 1782. . .1857 

Quatremere de Quincy, Antoine Chrysostome, Fr. 

art critic and archaeologist 1755. . .1849 

213 



QUAY—RAHBEK 



BORN, DIED. 

Quay, Matthew Stanley, Am. senator 1833 

Queiros, de, Pedro Fernandez, Port, navigator ? 1560. . .1614 

Quekett, John Thomas, Eng. microscopist and natu- 
ralist 1815... 1861 

Quelly n, Jan Erasmus, Flemish painter 1629. . .1715 

Querard, Joseph Marie, Fr. bibliographer 1797. . .1865 

Querini, Angelo Maria, Cardinal, Ital. scholar 1680. . .1755 

Quesada, Manuel, general-in-chief of the Cuban 

patriot forces 1833 

Quesnay , Francois, Fr. economist 1694 . .1774 

Quesnel, Pasquier, Fr. Jansenist. [Beflexions morales.] 1634.. .1719 
Quetelet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques, Belgian statis- 
tician 1796... 1874 

Quevedo y Villegas, de, Francisco Gomez, Span. 

author 1580. . .1645 

Quicher at , Louis. [Latin-French Dictionary.] 1799 

Quin, James, Eng. actor 1693. ..1766 

Quinault, Philippe, Fr. dramatic poet 1635. . .1688 

Quincy, Josiah, Jr., Am. patriot and orator 1744. . .1775 

Quincy, Josiah. Son. Am. statesman and scholar 1772... 1864 

Quinet, Edgar, Fr. philosopher and author 1803. . .1875 

Quintana, Manuel Jose", Span, poet and patriot 1772. . .1857 

Quint Hi an (Quintilianus), Marcus Fabius, Roman 

rhetorician and critic ? 42. . .? 118 

Quintinie, de la, Jean, Fr. pomologist 1626. . .1688 

Quintus Curtius Rufus, Roman historian fl. 2d c. 

Quiroga, Jose\ Span. Jesuit and explorer 1707. . .1784 

Quitman, John Anthony, Am. general and politician. 1799.. .1858 



Rabanus (or Hrabanus) Maurus, Ger. theologian. ?776... 856 
Rabelais, Francois, Fr. physician, philosopher, and 

satirist ? 1495..? 1553 

Rachel (Elisabeth Rachel Felix), Fr. tragic actress. . . . 1820. . .1858 

Rachel, Joachim, Ger. satirical poet 1618. . .1669 

Racine, Jean, Fr. dramatic poet 1639. . .1699 

Racine, Louis. Son. Fr. poet 1692. . .1763 

Radcliffe, Ann, Eng. novelist. [Mysteries of Udolpho.] 1764. . .1823 
Radcliffe, John, Eng. physician. Founder of Radcliffe 

Library at Oxford 1650 . . .1714 

Radetzky, Joseph Wenzel, Count, Austrian general.. 1766... 1858 

R adowitz, von, Joseph Maria, Pruss. statesman 1797. . .1853 

Raeburn, Sir Henry, Scot, portrait-painter 1756. . .1823 

Raffles, Thomas, Eng. dissenting divine 1788. . .1863 

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford, Eng. naturalist and 

statesman 1781. . .1826 

Rafn, Carl Christian, Danish archaeologist 1795. . .1864 

Raglan, Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, Baron, Eng. 

general 1788. . .1855 

R a guar, or Ragnar Liodbrok, Scandinavian sea- 
king or freebooter fl. 790 

Rahbek, Knud Lyne, Danish author and critic 1760. . .1830 

214 



RAIKES—RASK 



BORN. DIED. 

Ralkes, Robert, Eng. founder of Sunday-schools 1735. . .1811 

Raimondi, Marc' Antonio, Ital. engraver ? 1480. .aft. 1539 

Rais, de, Gilles de Laval, Seigneur, marshal of France. 

Convicted of sacrificing children in diabolical rites.? 1406. . .1440 
Rakdczy, Franz Leopold, Prince of Transylvania. 

Patriot 1676. . .1735 

Rale, Se*bastien, Fr. Jesuit missionary to the Abenaki 

Indians. Killed at Norridgewock 1658... 1724 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, Eng. navigator, statesman, and 

courtier 1552. . .1618 

Rambouillet, de, Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise, 

Fr. leader of society 1588. . .1665 

Rame, de la, Louisa. Ouida. Eng. novelist 1840 

Rameau, Jean Philippe, Fr. musician and composer. . 1683. . .1764 
Rammohun Roy, Rajah, Hindu linguist and re- 
former ? 1776... 1833 

Ramorino, Girolamo, Giovanni Pietro, Sardinian 

general 71792... 1849 

Ramsay, Allan, Scot. poet. [The Gentle Shepherd.]. . . . 1685. . .1758 

Ramsay, Andrew Crombie, Brit, geologist 1814 

Ramsay, Andrew Michael. [Chevalier de Ramsay.] 

Scot, writer 1686... 1743 

Ramsay, David, Am. physician and historian 1749. . .1815 

Ramsay, Edward Bannerman, Scot. Episcopal clergy- 
man and author 1793. . .1872 

Ramsay, William, Scot, classical scholar 1806. . .1865 

Ramsden, Jesse, Eng. optician and inventor 1735. . .1800 

Ramus, Peter, or Pierre de la Ramee, Fr. philos- 
opher and scholar ? 1515. . .1572 

Ramusio, Giambattista, Ital. writer. [Raccolta di 

Navigazione e Viaggi.] 1485. . .1557 

Ranee, de, Armand Jean le Bouthillier, Trappist 

monk and reformer 1626. . .1700 

Randolph, Edmund. Nephew of Peyton. Am. states- 
man 1753... 1813 

Randolph, John, of Roanoke, Am. orator and states- 
man 1773... 1833 

Randolph, Peyton, president of the first Am. congress 1723. . .1775 
Randolph, Theodore F., " war governor " of New 

Jersey 1826. . .1883 

Ranke, von, Leopold, Ger. historian. [History of the 

Popes.] 1795... 1886 

Ransom, Thomas Edward Greenfield, Am. general. . . . 1834. . .1864 

Rantoul, Robert, Jr., Am. statesman 1805 . . .1852 

Rapallo, Charles A., Am. lawyer and jurist. 1822. . .1887 

Raphael Sanzio, or Santi d'Urbino, Ital. painter. . 1483.. .1520 

Rapin, Rene", Fr. Jesuit Latin poet 1621. . .1687 

Rapin, de, Paul, Sieur de Thoyras, Fr. historian 1661. . .1725 

Rapp, George, Ger. founder of the sect of Harmonists. 1770. . .1847 

Rapp, Jean, Count, Fr. general 1772. . .1821 

Rask, Rasmus Christian, Danish orientalist and phi- 
lologist... 1787... 1832 

215 



RA SPAIL—REGIOMONTANUS 



BORN. DIED. 

Raspail, Frangois Vincent, Fr. chemist and revolu- 
tionist 1794=. . .1878 

Raspe, Rudolph Eric. Baron Munchausen. Ger. ro- 

mancist 1737. . .1794= 

Rattazzi, Urbano, Ital. statesman 1808. . .1873 

Rau, Karl Heinrich, Ger. political economist 1792. . .1870 

Rauch, Christian Daniel, Ger. sculptor 1777. . .1857 

Ranch, Frederick Augustus, Am. theologian, born in 

Germany 1806. . .1841 

Raumer, von, Friedrich Ludwig Georg, Ger. historian 1781. . .1873 
Ravaillac, Frangois, Fr. regicide. Stabbed King 

Henry IV. to the heart (May 14, 1610) ? 1579. . .1610 

Ravignan, de, Gustave Frangois Xavier Delacroix, 

Fr. Jesuit and pulpit orator 1795. . .1858 

Rawdon, Francis, Marquis of Hastings, Brit, general. 1754. . .1826 
Rawlins on, George. Brother. Eng. scholar and his- 
torian 1815 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke, Eng. orientalist 1810 

Ray, John, Eng. naturalist 1628. . .1705 

Raymond IV. Raymond de St. Grilles. Count of Tou- 
louse. Crusader ? 1045. . . 1105 

Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, defender of the 

Albigenses 1156. . .1222 

Raymond, Henry Jarvis, Am. journalist. 1820. . .1869 

Raymond, John T., Am. actor 1836. ..1887 

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Frangois, Abbe\ Fr. his- 
torian 1713. . .1796 

Raynouard, Frangois Juste Marie, Fr. miscellaneous 

writer 1761... 1836 

Read, George, signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence 1733 . . . 1798 

Read, Nathan, Am. inventor 1759. . .1849 

Read, Thomas Buchanan, Am. poet and artist 1822. . .1872 

Reade, Charles, Eng. novelist 1814. . .1884 

Reagan, John H., Am. lawyer and senator 1818 

Reaumur, de, Rene" Antoine Ferchault, Fr. natural 

philosopher and inventor. [Thermometer.] 1683. . .1757 

Re"camier, Jeanne Frangoise Julie Adelaide, Madame, 

nee Bernard, accomplished Fr. lady 1777. . .1849 

Reclus, Jean Jacques Elise*e, Fr. geographer 1830 

Reddall, H. F. Frederic Alldred. Am. writer and 

editor 1852 

Redfield, Isaac Fletcher, Am. jurist 1804 

Redi, Francesco, Ital. poet and naturalist 1626. . .1698 

Red Jacket, or Sa-go-ye-watha, chief of the Sen- 

ecas 1752... 1830 

Reed, Henry, Am. scholar and author 1808. . .1854 

Reed, Joseph, Am. patriot and statesman. .' 1741. . .1785 

Rees, Abraham, Eng. cyclopedist 1743 . . . 1825 

Reeves, Sims, Eng. oratorio tenor singer 1821 

Regiomontanus (Johann Mtiller), Ger. astronomer 

and mathematician 1436. . .1476 

216 



REGIS— REUCHLIN 



BORN. DIED. 

Regis, de, Jean Baptiste, Fr. geographer ? 1665..? 1737 

Regnard, Jean Frangois, Fr. comic poet 1655. . .1709 

Regnault, Henri Victor, Fr. chemist and author 1810 

Regnier, Jacques, Auguste Adolphe, Fr. philologist. . . 1804. . .1884: 

Regnier, Mathurin, Fr. poet 1573. . .1613 

Regnier, Rene" Frangois, cardinal-archbishop of Cam- 

brai 1807... 1881 

R egulus, Marcus Atillius, Roman general B. C ? 25fr 

Reichardt, Gustave, Ger. composer 1813. . .1884 

Reichenbacli, Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig, Ger. natu- 
ralist. [Flora Germanica.] 1793 

Reichenbacli, von, Karl, Baron, Ger. chemist 1788. . .1869 

Reichstadt, Duke of. See Bonaparte, Napoleon II. 

Reid, Captain Mayne, Am. novelist, born in Ireland.. . 1818. ..1883- 

Reid, Samuel Chester, Am. naval officer. Designer of 

the United States flag 1783. . .1861. 

Reid, Thomas, Scot, mental philosopher 1710. . .1796 

Reid, Whitelaw, Am. editor 1837 

Reid, Sir William, Brit, meteorologist 1791. . .1858 

Reidel, August, Ger. painter 1799. ..1883 

Reil, Johann Christian, Ger. anatomist 1759. . .1813 

Reimarus, Hermann Samuel, Ger. scholar. [Wolfen- 

Mittel Fragments.] 1694. . .1768 

Reinesius, Thomas, Ger. physician and philologist 1587... 1667 

R einhart, B. F., Am. painter 1828. . .1885 

Reinhold, Karl Leonhard, Ger. philosopher 1758. . .1823 

Reiske, Johann Jakob, Ger. Arabic scholar 1716. . .1774- 

Reissiger, Karl Gottlieb, Ger. composer. [David.'] 1798. . .1859 

Rembrandt van Ryn, Paul Harmens, Dutch painter 1607... 1669 

Remenyi, Edouard, Hungarian violinist 1836. . .1S87 

Remusat, Jeanne Pierre Abel, Fr. orientalist 1788. . .1832 

Re'musat, de, Charles Frangois Marie, Count, Fr. 

philosopher and statesman 1797. . .1875 

Remy, or Remi, Saint. The Apostle of the Franks. 

Bishop of Rheims ?439... 533 

Re nan, Joseph Ernest, Fr. orientalist, author, and 

critic. [Vie de Jesus.] 1823 ^ 

Rendel, James Meadows, Eng. engineer 1799. ..1856 

Rene of Anjou. The Good. Titular king of Sicily. . . . 1409. . .1480- 

Rennell, James, Eng. geographer 1742. . .1830 

Rennie, John, Brit, engineer and architect 1761. . .1821 

Renwick, James, Am. physicist 1792. . .1863 

Reshid Pasha, Mustapha Mehemed, Turkish states- 
man 1802. . .1858 

Rethel, Alfred, Ger. historical painter 1816. . .1859 

Retz, de, Jean Frangois Paul de Gondi, Cardinal, Fr. 

prelate and intriguer 1614. . .1679* 

Retzius, Anders Johan, Swed. botanist and chemist . . 1742. . .1821 
Retzsch, Friedrich August Moritz, Ger. painter and 

designer 1779. . .1857 

Reuchlin, Johann, Ger. philologist, Hellenist, and 

Hebraist 1455. . .1522. 

217 



REUTER— RIEL 



BORN. DIED. 

Reuter, Fritz, Ger. poet and novelist 1810. . .1874 

Reuter, Julius, Ger. founder of Reuter's telegraphic 

agency 1815 

Revere, Paul, Am. engraver and patriot 1735. . .1818 

Rey, Jean, Fr. manufacturer and writer 1773. . .1849 

Reybaud, Marie Roch Louis, Fr. author 1799 

Reynald, Hermille, Fr. critic and author 1828. . .1883 

Reynaud, Antoine Andre* Louis, Baron, Fr. mathema- 
tician 1771. . .1844 

Reynolds, John Fulton, Am. general 1820. . .1863 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, Eng. portrait-painter ^ 1723. . .1792 

Rhallis, George Alexander, Greek statesman 1804. . .1883 

Rhazes, Arabian physician ? 852. . .? 932 

Ribault, Jean, Fr. navigator, killed by Spaniards in 

Florida ? 1520... 1565 

Ribera, Jose*. 11 Spagnoletto. Span, painter 1588. . .1656 

Ricardo, David, Eng. political economist 1772. . .1823 

Ricasoli, Bettino, Baron, Ital. statesman 1809 

Rieci, Scipione, bishop of Pistoja. Ital. reformer 1741. . .1810 

Riccio, Domenico. Brusasorci. Ital. painter 1494... 1567 

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, Ital. astronomer 1598. . .1671 

Rice, Nathan L., Am. Presbyterian minister, author, 

and teacher 1807. . .1887 

Rich, Claudius James, Eng. orientalist and traveler. . . 1787. . .1821 
Rich, Edmund, Saint, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of 

Canterbury ? 1190 . . .1242 

Richard I. Camr de Lion. King of England 1157. . .1199 

Richard II. [Wat Tyler's rebellion.'] 1366.. .1400 

Richard III., last king of England of the Plantag- 

enet line 1452. . .1485 

Richard of Cirencester, Eng. monk and historian fl. 1350 

Richards, Brinely, Welsh pianist and composer 1819. . .1885 

Richardson, Charles, Eng. lexicographer 1775. . .1865 

Richardson, Henry Hobson, Am. architect 1836. . .1886 

Richardson, Sir John, Scot, naturalist 1787... 1865 

Richardson, Samuel, Eng. novelist 1689. . .1761 

Richelieu, de, Armand Jean Duplessis, Cardinal and 

Duke, Fr. statesman 1585. . .1642 

Richer, Edouard, Fr. author 1792. ..1834 

Richmond, Charles Lennox, Duke of, Brit, general 1735. . .1806 

Richmond, Legh, Eng. divine and author. [Dairy- 
man's Daughter.} 1772. . .1827 

Richter, Gustav, Ger. artist 1822. . .1884 

Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich. Jean Paul. Ger. 

author. 1763... 1825 

Rickman, Thomas, Eng. architect and writer 1776. . .1841 

Ricord, Philippe, Fr. physician . - 1800. . . 1889 

Riddleberger, Harrison H., Am. lawyer and legislator 1840. . .1890 
Ridley, Nicholas, Eng. bishop, reformer, and martyr..? 1500. . .1555 
Riedesel, von, Friedrich Adolph, Baron, Ger. general 

in Am. in the Brit, service 1738. . .1800 

Riel, Louis David, Canadian half-breed rebel 1844. . .1885 

218 



RIENZI— R BIN'S GN 



BORN. DIED. 

Rienzi, Nicola Gabrini. Cola di Rienzi. Roman ora- 
tor and tribune ? 1313. . .1354 

R igaud, Hyacinthe, Fr. portrait-painter 1659. . . 174=3 

Rincon, del, Antonio, Span, painter ? 1446. . .1500 

Ripley, Eleazer Wheelock, Am. major-general 1782. . .1839 

Ripley, George, Am. journalist and miscellaneous 

writer 1802. . .1880 

Hipoii, Frederick John Robinson, first Earl of, Eng. 

statesman 1782. . .1859 

Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Robinson, Earl de 

Grey and Marquis of. Son. Eng. statesman 1827 ... 

Historic Adelaide, Marchioness del Grillo, Ital. actress 1821 

Ritchie, Thomas, Am. journalist 1778. . .1854 

Ritson, Joseph, Eng. antiquary 1752. . .1803 

Rittenhouse, David, Am. astronomer and mathema- 
tician 1732... 1796 

Ritter, Frederick Louis, Am. musician 1834 

Ritter, Heinrich, Ger. philosopher. [GescMchte der 

PMlos.] 1791... 1869 

Ritter, Karl, Ger. geographer 1779. . .1859 

Riva9, Angel de Saavedra, Duke of, Span, author 1791 

Rives, Amelie\ See Chanler, Mrs. 

Rives, William Cabell, Am. statesman 1793. . .1868 

Rizzio, David, Ital. musician. Favorite of Mary Queen 

of Scots ? 1540... 1566 

Roach, John, Am. iron ship-builder 1813... 1887 

Robbia, dell a, Luca, Florentine sculptor. Inventor 

of enameled terra-cotta ? 1400..? 1463 

Robert I. (Robert Bruce), king of Scotland 1274. . .1329 

Robert II., king of Scotland. First of the house of 

Stuart... 1316... 1390 

Robert, Louis Leopold, Swiss painter 1794. . .1835 

Roberts, David, Scot, landscape-painter 1796. . .1864 

Robertson, Frederick William, Eng. preacher and 

lecturer 1816. . .1853 

Robertson* James, Am. pioneer in Tennessee 1742. . .1814 

Robertson, James Cragie, Brit, clergyman and eccle- 
siastical historian 1813 

Robertson, Thomas William, Eng. dramatic writer.. . 1829. . .1871 

Robertson, William, Scot, historian 1721. . .1793 

Roberval, Jean Francois de la Roque, Sieur de, Fr. 

nobleman who attempted to colonize Canada 1547 

Roberval, de, Gilles Personne, Fr. mathematician 1602. . .1675 

Robespierre, de, Maximilien Joseph Marie Isidore, 

Fr. revolutionist 1758. . .1794 

Robin, Charles Philippe, Fr. anatomist and micro- 

scopist 1821. . .1885 

Robin Hood, legendary English outlaw fl. ? 12th c. 

Robin9, Benjamin, Eng. mathematician. Founder of 

science of gunnery 1707. . .1751 

Robinson, Edward, Am. philologist and biblical critic 1794. . .1863 

Robinson, Henry Crabb, Eng. lawyer and author 1775. . .1867 

219 



ROBINSON— ROLAND DE LA PLATIERE 

BORN. DIED. 

Robinson, Horatio, Am. mathematician and educator 1806. . .1867 

Robinson, John, Eng. Puritan divine and author 1575. . .1625 

Robison, John, Scot, natural philosopher 1739. . .1805 

Rob Roy. Robert Macgregor (Campbell). Scot, free- 
hooter ? 1660. .? 1735 

Rochambeau, de, Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, 
Count, general in America in 1780. Marshal of 

France 1725. . .1807 

Roche, Regina Maria, Eng. novelist. [The Children of 

the Abbey.] 1766. . .1845 

Rochefort-l<ucay, de, Victor Henry, Count. Henry 

Bochefort. Fr. journalist 1830 

Rochefoucauld. See La Rochefoucauld. 
Rochejaquelein, See L.a Rochejaquelein. 
Rochester, John Wilmot, second Earl of, Eng. courtier.? 1647. . .1680 
Rochette, Desire* Raoul, called Raoul-Rochette, 

Fr. archaeologist ? 1790. . .1854 

Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth, second 

Marquis of, prime minister of England 1730. . .1782 

Rockwell, Julius, Am. jurist 1805. ..1888 

Roderic, last king of the Visigoths of Spain 711 

Rodgers, John, Am. commodore 1771. . .1838 

Rodgers, John. Son. Am. rear-admiral 1811 

Rodney. Caesar, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ? 1730. . .1783 

Rodney, George Brydges, Lord, Brit, admiral 1718. . .1792 

Rodriguez, Alfonso, Span, religious author 1526. . .1616 

Roe, Edward P., Am. novelist 1840. . .1888 

Roebling, John Augustus, Am. engineer 1806. . .1869 

Roebling, John A. Son. Am. engineer 1836 

Roebuck, John Arthur, Brit, politician 1802 

Roederer, de, Pierre Louis, Comte, Fr. statesman... 1754... 1835 

Roger II., first king of Sicily ?1095...1154 

Rogers, Henry, Eng. author ? 1810 

Rogers, Henry Darwin. Brother of W. B. B. Am. 

geologist , ^ 1809. . .1866 

Rogers, James Blythe. Brother of W. B. B. Am. 

chemist 1803. . .1852 

Rogers, John, Am. sculptor 1829 

Rogers, John, Eng. divine and martyr, burned at 

Smithfield ? 1500... 1555 

Rogers, Randolph, Am. sculptor ?1825 

Rogers, Samuel, Eng. poet 1763. . .1855 

Rogers, William Barton. Brother of J. B. B. and 

H. D. R. Am. physicist and geologist 1805 

Roget, Peter Mark, Eng. physiologist and author 1779. . .1869 

Rogier, Charles, Belgian statesman and diplomate 1800. . .1885 

Rohan, de, Louis Rene* Edouard, Prince, Fr. cardinal 1734.. .1803 

Rohlfs, Gerhard, Ger. traveler 1834 

Rokitansky, Karl, Ger. physician and pathologist.. . . . 1804 

Roland de la Platiere, Jean Marie, Fr. Girondist 

minister of state 1734. ..1793 

220 



ROLAND— ROSSE 



BORN. DEED. 

Roland, Madame Marie Jeanne Philipon. Wife. Fr. 

Girondist. Guillotined 1754. . .1793 

R olfe, William James, Am. Shakespearean editor 1827 

Rolleston, George, Eng. anatomist 1829. . .1881 

Rollin, Charles, Fr. historian 1661. . .1741 

Hollo, or Hrolf, Norwegian viking. First duke of 

Normandy ? 860. . .? 930 

R omagnosi, Gian Domenico, ltal. jurist 1761. . .1835 

Romanoff, Michael Feodorovitch, first czar of the 

reigning dynasty of Russia ? 1598. . .1645 

R6mer, Olaf, or Olaus, Danish astronomer. 1644. . .1710 

Romeyn, Theodoric Dirck, Am. theologian 1744. . .1804 

R oniilly, Sir Samuel, Eng. lawyer and statesman 1757. . .1818 

Romney, George, Eng. painter 1734. . .1802 

Romulus, legendary founder of Rome (ahout750B. C.) fl. ?750 B. C. 

Rouge, Johannes, Ger. Catholic reformer 1813 

Ronsard, de, Pierre, Fr. poet 1524. . .1585 

Rooke, Sir George, Brit, admiral 1650. . .1709 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Am. author and legislator 1858 

Root, George Frederick, Am. musical composer. 1820 

Roquette, Adrien. Pere Boquette. Am. priest and 

missionary 1813. . .1887 

Rosa, Euphrosyne Parepa, Eng. singer, horn in Edin- 
burgh 1836... 1874 

Rosa, Salvator, ltal. painter 1615 . . .1673 

Rosas, de, Juan Manuel Ortiz, Argentine dictator 1793 

Roscoe, William, Eng. historian 1753. . .1831 

Roscommon, Wentworth Dillon, Earl of, Eng. poet. . .? 1633. . .1684 
Rose, Gustav, Ger. mineralogist and crystallographer. 1798. . .1873 

Rose, Heinrich. Brother of Gustav. Ger. chemist 1795. . .1864 

Rose, Henry John, Eng. author. [Bose's Biographical 

Dictionary.] 1801. . .1873 

Rose, Hugh James. Brother of H. J. B. Eng. divine 

and author 1795. . .1838 

Rosecrans, William Starke, Am. general 1819 

Rosellini, Ippolito, ltal. Egyptologist 1800. . .1843 

Rosen, Friedrich August, Ger. orientalist 1805. . .1837 

Rosenkranz, Johann Karl Friedrich, Ger. philoso- 
pher 1805 

Rosenmiiller, Ernst Friedrich Karl, Ger. orientalist. 1768. . .1835 
Rosenmiiller, Johann Georg. Father. Ger. Protest- 
ant theologian 1736. . .1815 

Rosini, Giovanni, ltal. author 1776. . .1855 

Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio, ltal. philosopher 1797. . .1855 

Ross, Sir James Clark. Nephew of Sir John. Brit. 

arctic navigator 1800. . .1862 

Ross, Sir John, Brit, arctic navigator 1777. . .1856 

Ross, John, or Roowes-koowe, head chief of the 

Cherokees ? 1790 . . . 1866 

Ross, Robert, Eng. major-general in America. Sacked 

Washington 1814 

Rosse, William Parsons, third Earl of, Eng. astron.. 1800... 1867 

221 



ROSSETTI—R UPERT 



BORN. DIED, 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, Eng. painter and poet 1828 

Rossi, Pellegrino, Count, Ital. statesman. Assassinated. 1787. . .184$ 

Rossini, Gioacchino, Ital. composer 1792. . .1868 

Rostoptchin, Feodor, Count, Russ. general ? 1765. . .1826 

Roth, Rudolf, Ger. orientalist 1821 

Rothermel, Peter F„ Am. painter 1817 .. 

Rothschild, Lionel Nathan, Baron de R. Son of Na- 
than Mayer B. Eng. banker and M. P 1808 

Rothschild, Mayer Anselm, Jewish banker at Frank- 
fort. Founder of the house of Rothschild 174=3. . .1812 

Rothschild, Nathan Mayer. Son. Financier in London. 1777... 1836 

Rotteck, von, Karl, Ger. historian and statesman 1775. . .1840 

Rouhiliac, Louis Francois, Fr. sculptor ? 1695. . .1762 

Rouget de l'lsle, Claude Joseph, Fr. poet and musi- 
cian. [Marseillaise, 1792.] 1760. ..1836 

Rouher, Eugene, Fr. politician 1814. . .1884 

Rousseau, Jean Baptiste, Fr. lyric poet 1670. . .1741 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Fr. philosopher and writer, 

born in Geneva 1712... 1778 

Rousseau, Theodore, Fr. landscape-painter 1812. . .1867 

Roussel, Pierre, Fr. physician and author 1742. . .1802 

Roustam, or Rustum, Persian hero fl. ? 600 B. C. 

Roux, Joseph Philibert, Fr. surgeon and pathologist.. 1780... 1854 

Rowan, John, Am. congressman 1771. . .1843 

Rowe, Nicholas, Eng. dramatist 1673. . .1718 

Rowley, William, Eng. dramatist fl. 1632 

Royer-Collard, Pierre Paul, Fr. philosopher and 

statesman 1763. . .1845 

Rubens, Peter Paul, Flemish painter 1577. . .1640 

Rubi ni, Giovanni Battista, Ital. vocalist 1795 . . . 1854 

Rubinstein, Anton, Russ. composer and pianist 1830 

Ruckert, Friedrich, Ger. orientalist and poet 1789. . .1866 

Rudbeck, Olaus, Swed. anatomist and botanist 1630. . .1702 

Rudolph I., of Hapsburg, emperor of Germany. 

Founder of the Austrian empire 1218. . .1291 

Rudolph II., emperor of Germany 1552. ..1612 

Rudolphi, Karl Asmund, Swed. physiologist 1771. . .1832 

Rufliiii, Giovanni Domenico. Lorenzo Benoni. Ital. 

patriot ? 1810 . . . 1881 

Ruge, Arnold, Ger. publicist and journalist 1803. . .1881 

Rugendas, Georg Philipp, Ger. battle-painter 1666. . .1742 

Ruggles, Samuel Bulkley, Am. scholar and publicist. . 1799.. .1881 

Ruhnken, David, Ger. philologist 1723. . .1798 

Ruisch, Frederic, Dutch anatomist. 1638. . .1731 

Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, Count, Am. natural 

philosopher 1753. . .1814 

Rumsey, James, Am. inventor. [Steam-boat.] ? 1743. . .1792 

Runjeet Singh, maharajah (great rajah, or king of 

kings) and founder of the Sikh empire ? 1780. . .1839 

Runkle, Cornelius A., Am. lawyer 1833. . .1888 

Rupert, Prince. Prince Bobert of Bavaria. Ger. war- 
rior 1619... 1682 

222 



RURIK—SACY 



BORN. DIED. 

Rurik. a Scandinavian prince. Founder of the Rus- 
sian empire 879 

Ruse henber ge r , William S. W., Am. naturalist 1807 

Rush, Benjamin, Am. physician. Signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence 174=5. . .1813 

Rush, James. Son of J>r. Benjamin. Am. physician 

and philanthropist. [Philosophy of the Human Voice.] 1786. . .1869 
Rush, Richard. Son of Dr. Benjamin. Am. statesman 

and diplomatist 1780. . .1859 

R us kin , John, Eng. writer on art, especially painting.. 1819 

Russell, John, Earl. Lord John BusseU. Eng. states- 
man 1792... 1878 

Russell, Odo, Lord, Baron Ampthill, Brit, diplomate.. . 1829. . .1884 

Russell, Thomas, Am. lawyer and judge 1825... 1887 

Russell,William, Scot, historian 1741. . .1793 

Russell, William Howard, Brit, journalist 1821 

Russell, William, Lord, Eng. patriot. Beheaded. 

[Rye House plot.] 1639. . . 1683 

Russell, William, Am. educationist and elocutionist. . 1798, . .1873 
Rutgers, Colonel Henry, Am. patriot and philanthro- 
pist ? 1746. ..1830 

Rutherford, Daniel, Scot, physician. [Nitrogen.'] 1749. . .1819 

Rutledge, Edward, Am. jurist. Signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence 1749. . .1800 

Rutledge, John. Brother. Am. statesman and jurist. 1739... 1800 
Ruysdael, Jacob, Dutch landscape and marine 

painter 71630... 1681 

Ruy ter, de, Michael Adriaenszoon, Dutch admiral. . . . 1607. . .1676 

Ryder, Thomas P., Am. composer and musician 1836. . .1887 

Ryerson, Adolphus Egerton, Canadian educationist.. 1803 

R viands, Peter, Eng. parliamentarian and author 1820. . .1887 

Rymer, Thomas, Eng. antiquary. [Rymer's Fadora.]..! 1639. . .1713 



Saad-ed-Din, Mohammed Effendi, Turkish historian. 1536... 1599 

Saadi, Sheik Moslih-ed-Din, Persian poet ? 1189. . .1291 

Saadia, Ben Joseph Saadias-Gaon, Jewish writer, 

born in Egypt 892. . .? 941 

Saavedra, de, Angel. See Rivas. 

Saavedra y Faxardo, Diego, Span, diplomatist and 

u author 1584 . . . 1648 

Sabellius, African bishop and anti-trinitarian fl. ? 250 

Sabine, Sir Edward, Brit, physicist 1788. . .1883 

Sacchi, Andrea, Ital. painter 1598. ..1661 

Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gasparo, Ital. composer ? 1735. . .1786 

Sacheverell, Henry, Eng. divine and politician ?1672. . .1724 

Sa chs, Hans, Ger. cobbler and poet 1494. . .1576 

Sackville, George, first Viscount. Lord George Ger- 

mavn. Eng. general and statesman 1716. . .1785 

Sackville, Thomas. See Dorset. 
Sacy, de, Antoine Isaac Sylvestre, Baron, Fr. orient- 
alist 1758... 1838 

223 



SA C Y—SAINT-REA l 



BORN. DIED. 

Sacy, de, Samuel Ustazade Sylvestre. Son. Fr. polit- 
ical writer 1801 

Sadi-Carnot, Marie Francois, president of the French 

Republic 1887 1837 

Sadler, Sir Ralph, Eng. statesman 1507. . .1587 

Sadlier, Mary Anne, nee Madden, Am, authoress 1820 

Sadoleto, Jacopo, Ital. cardinal and author 14=77. . .1547 

SaiTord, Truman Henry, Am. mathematician and 

astronomer 1836 

Sage, Russell, Am. financier 1816 

Saint-Arnaud. See Leroy de Saint- Arnaud. 

Saint-Aubin, de, Augustin, Fr. engraver.... 1736.. .1807 

Saint Clair, Arthur, Am. general 1734. . .1818 

Saint-Cyr. See Gouvion Saint-Cyr. 
Sainte-Aldegonde, de, Philip van Marnix, Baron, 

Flemish statesman and writer 1538. . .1598 

Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin, Fr. literary critic. . . 1804. . .1869 
Sainte-Croix, de, Guillaume Emanuel Joseph, 

BaroD , Fr. antiquary and scholar 1746 . . .1809 

Sainte-Marthe, de, Fr. Latin poet 1536. ..1623 

Saint-Evremond, de, Charles de Marguetel de Saint- 
Denis, Seigneur, Fr. courtier, wit, and litterateur. . . 1613. . .1703 

Saint-Germain, de, Count, adventurer in Paris 1795 

Saint-Hilaire. See Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and 
Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire. 

Saint-Hilaire, de, Auguste, Fr. botanist 1799. ..1853 

Saint John, Bayle. Son of J. A. S. J. Eng. traveler 

and author 1822. . .1859 

Saint John, James Augustus, Eng. traveler and 

author 1801 

Saint John, Oliver, Eng. jurist ? 1598. . .1673 

Saint- Just, Letellier, Canadian statesman 1820. . .1881 

Saint-Just, de, Antoine Louis Leon, Fr. revolutionist 

an d friend of Robespierre ? 1768 . . . 1794 

Saint-Lambert, de, Charles Francois, Marquis, Fr. 

poet 1716... 1803 

Sain t-Leger. Colonel Barry, Brit, officer in America 1789 

Saint Leonards, Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, 

Baron, Eng. jurist and statesman 1781. . .1875 

Saint-Marc Girardin. See Girardin. 

Saint-Martin, Antoine Jean, Fr. orientalist 1791. . .1832 

Saint-Martin, de, Louis Claude, Marquis. Unknown 

Philosopher. Fr. metaphysician 1743 . . .1803 

Sainton-Dolby, Charlotte, contralto singer 1821. . .1885 

Saint-Pierre, de, Charles Iren^e Castel, Abbe\ Fr. 

political economist and moralist 1658 . . . 1743 

Saint-Pierre, de, Jacques Henri Bernardin, Fr. 

author. [Paul et Virginie.] 1737. . .1814 

Saint-Priest, de, Alexis, Count, Fr. historian and 

diplomatist 1805. . .1851 

Saint-Re*al, de, Cesar Vichard, Abbe\ Savoyard his- 
torian 1639. . .1692 

224 



SAWT-SIMON—SANSO VINO 



BORN. DIED. 

Saint-Simon, de, Claude Henri, Count, Fr. socialist. 

ISt. Simomsm.'] 1760. . .1825 

Saint-Simon, de, Louis de Rouvroi, Due, Fr. memoir- 
ist 1675... 1755 

Saisset, Emile Edmond, Fr. philosophical writer 1814. . .1863 

Sala, George Augustus Henry, Eng. litterateur 1828 

Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, opposer of the 

crusaders 1137. . .1193 

Sal dan ha, Jo&o Carlos Oliveira e Daun, Duke of, Port. 

statesman and marshal 1791. . .1876 

Sale, George, Eng. orientalist 1680.. .1736 

Sale, Sir Robert Henry, Eng. major-general in the 

Afghan war (1840) 1782. . .1845 

Salieri, Antonio, Ital. musical composer. 1750. . .1825 

Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, 

third Marquis and eighth Earl of, Eng. statesman. . . 1830 

Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus), Roman histo- 
rian B.C. 86... 34 

Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise), Claudius, Fr. scholar 1588.. .1635 

Salo, da, Gasparo, Ital. violin-maker ? 1540 . .? 1614 

Salomon, Johann Peter, Ger. violinist and composer. . 1745. . .1815 

Salt, Henry, Eng. antiquary and consul in Egypt ? 1785. . .1827 

Saltonstall, Sir Richard, Puritan in Massachusetts 

colony 1586. .71658 

Salvador, Joseph, Fr. historian 1796 

Salvandy, de, Narcisse Achille, Comte, Fr. author. . . . 1795. . .1856 

Salvator Rosa. See Rosa. 

Salviati, Francesco Rossi. Cecco Rossi. Ital. painter.. 1510. . .1563 

Salvini, Tommaso, Ital. actor 1833 

Samoset, first Indian who visited the Pilgrims, in 1621. 

Sanchez, Francisco, Span, classical scholar 1523. . .1601 

Sancroft, William, Eng. prelate. Archbishop of Can- 
terbury 1616... 1693 

Sanctorious, Ital. physician 1561. ..1636 

Sand, Karl Ludwig, Ger. student and political fanatic. 

Assassinator of the dramatist Kotzebue. Executed. 1795. . .1820 

Sandby, Paul, Eng. painter in water-colors 1732. . .1809 

Sandeau, Leonard Sylvain Jules, Fr. novelist 1811. . .1883 

Sandeman, Robert, Scot, originator of the Sandeman- 

ians 1718 . . .1771 

Sandoval, de, Fray Prudencio, Span, historian ? 1560. . .1621 

Sands, BeD jamin F., Am. rear-admiral 1812. . .1883 

Sands, Robert Charles, Ana. author and journalist 1799. . .1832 

Sandys, Edwin, Eng. theologian. Archbishop of York. 1519... 1588 

Sandys, George. Son. Eng. poet 1577... 1644 

San Gall o, da, Antonio. Picconi. Ital. architect ? 1482... 1546 

San Martin, de, Jose", South American leader 1778... 1850 

San Micheli, Michele, Ital. architect 1484. . .1559 

San Miguel, de, Evariste, Duke, Span, general 1780. . .1862 

Sannazaro, Jacopo, Neapolitan poet 1458. . .1530 

Sanson, Nicolas, Fr. geographer 1600. . .1667 

Sansovino, Jacopo Tatti, Ital. architect 1479. . .1570 

225 



SANTA ANA—SCEAAF 



BORN DIED. 

Santa Ana, de, Antonio Lopez, president of Mexico 

and general 1798 . . . 1876 

Santerre, Antoine Joseph, Fr. revolutionist 1752. . .1809 

Santeul, de, Jean, Fr.-Latin poet 1630. . .1697 

Sautorini, Giovanni Domenico, Ital. anatomist ? 1680. . .1736 

Sappho, Greek lyric poetess fl. ?600B. C. 

Sardanapalus, king of Assyria fl. ?900 B. C. 

Sardou, Victorien, Fr. dramatist 1831 

Sargent, Lucius Manlius, Am. writer of tales 1786. . .1867 

Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino, president of the Ar- 
gentine Republic 1811 

Sarpi, Paolo. Fra Paolo. Ital. philosopher and histo- 
rian 1552... 1623 

Sars, Michael, Norwegian zoologist *. 1805. . .1869 

Sartain, John, Am. engraver, horn in London 1808 

Sarto, del, Andrea Vanucchi, Florentine painter ? 1488. . .1530 

Saulcy, de, Louis Felicien Joseph Caignart, Fr. 

archaeologist 1807 

Sauuderson, Nicholas, Eng. mathematician 1682. . .1739 

Sanppe, Hermann, Ger. philologist 1809 

Saurin, Jacques, Fr. Protestant preacher 1677. . .1730 

Saussure, de, Horace B6n6dict, Swiss naturalist 174=0. . .1799 

Sauvenr, Joseph, Fr. mathematician. [Musical Acous- 
tics.'] 1653... 1716 

Savage, Richard, Eng. poet 1698 . . . 1743 

S a vary, Anne Jean Marie Rene", Due de Rovigo, Fr. 

general and diplomatist 1774 . . .1833 

Savary, Jacques, Fr. financier. [Le parf ait Negotiant.] 1622.. .1690 

Savigny, von, Friedrich Karl, Ger. jurist 1779. . .1861 

Savile, Sir Henry, Eng. mathematician and classical 

scholar 1549 . . . 1622 

Savonarola, Girolamo, Ital. religious reformer 1452. . .1498 

Saxe, Hermann Maurice, Count of, marshal of France 1696.. .1750 

Saxe, John Godfrey, Am. humorous poet 1816 

Saxton, Joseph, Am. inventor 1799.. .1873 

Say, Jean Baptiste, Fr. political economist 1767 . . . 1832 

Say, Jean Baptiste. Son. Fr. statesman 1826 

Say, Thomas, Am. naturalist 1787. . .1834 

Sayce, Archibald Henry, Eng. philologist and Assyri- 

ologist 1846 

Scsevola, Caius Mucius, legendary Roman hero fl. 6th c. B. C. 

Sealiger, Joseph Justus, Fr. philologist and chronolo- 

gist 1540... 1609 

Sealiger, Julius Csesar. Father. Ital.-Latin poet and 

philologist 1484. ..1558 

Scanderbeg, Turkish Iskander Beg, or Bey, real 

name George Cast riot a, Albanian chief. ? 1410. . .1467 

Scarlatti, Alessandro, Neapolitan composer 1649. . .1725 

Scarlett, Peter Campbell, Brit, diplomate 1804. . .1881 

Scarpa, Antonio, Ital. anatomist 1747. . .1832 

Scarron, Paul, Fr. comic writer 1610... 1660 

Scbaaf, Carl, Ger. orientalist and lexicographer 1646. . .1719 

226 



SCHAD W—SCHOFIELD 



BORN. DIED. 

Schadow, Johann Gottfried, Ger. sculptor 1764. . .1850 

Schadow-Godenhaus, von, Friedrich Wilhelm. Son 

of Johann Gottfried Schadow. Ger. painter 1789 . . . 1862 

Schaeffer, Arnold, Ger. historian 1819. . .1883 

SchafF, Philip, Swiss theologian and author in Amer- 
ica 1819 

Schamyl, or Shaniyl, prophet warrior of the Cau- 
casus ? 1797... 1871 

Schauffler, William Gottlieb, Am. scholar and divine. 1798.. .1883 

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, Swed. chemist 1742. . .1786 

Scheffer, Ary, Dutch painter in Paris 1795. . .1858 

Seheffler, Johann. Angelus Silesius. Ger. mystic poet. 1624... 1677 
Scheiner, Christophe, Ger. mathematician. {Panto- 

graph.} 1575 . . . 1650 

Scheller, Emmanuel Johann Gerhard, Ger. lexicog- 
rapher 1735... 1803 

Schelling, von, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph. Ger. 

philosopher 1775... 1854 

Schem, Alexander Jacob, Ger.-Am. scholar, journalist, 

and statistician 1826. . .1881 

Schenck, Robert Cumming, Am. statesman 1809. . .1890 

Schenk, Noah Hunt, Am. Protestant Episcopal divine. 1820. . .1885 

Schenkel, Daniel, Ger .-Swiss theologian 1813. . .1885 

Scherzer, von, Karl, Chevalier, Ger. traveler 1821 

Schiller, von, Johann Christoph Friedrich, Ger. poet 1759... 1805 
Schinkel, Karl Friedrich, Ger. architect and painter. . 1781.. .1841 
Schlagintweit, Hermann (b. 1826), Adolf (b. 1829— d. 

1857), and Robert (b. 1833), Ger. travelers. 
Schlegel, von, August Wilhelm, Ger. critic and phi- 
lologist 1767... 1845 

Schlegel, von, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich. Brother. 

Ger. philosopher and critic 1772. . .1829 

Schleicher, August, Ger. comparative philologist 1821. . .1869 

Schleiden, Matthias Jakob, Ger. botanist 1804 

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst, Ger. theo- 
logian, philosopher, and orator 1768 . . .1834 

Schley, Winfleld Scott, Am. commodore 1839 

Schliemann, Heinrich, Ger. traveler 1822 

Schlosser, Friedrich Christoph, Ger. historian 1776. . .1861 

Schlozer, von, August Ludwig, Ger. historian 1735. . .1809 

Schmid, Leopold, Ger. Roman Catholic theologian 1808. . .1869 

Schmidt, Heinrich Julian, Ger. author 1818 

Schmitz, Leonhard, Ger. philologist in Edinburgh 1807 

Schneider, Conrad Victor, Ger. physician and anat- 
omist 1610... 1680 

Schneider, Eugene, Fr. politician 1805. . .1875 

Schneider, Hortense Catherine, Fr. actress ? 1835 

Schneider, Johann Gottlob, Ger. philologist and lexi- 
cographer 1750. . .1822 

Schnorrvon Karolsfeld, Julius, Ger. fresco-painter 1794... 1872 

Schoffer, Peter, Ger. printer. Partner of Faust ? 1430 . .? 1502 

Schofl eld, John McAllister, Am. general 1831 

227 



SCHOLL—SCHWENKFELD 



. . '. . BORN. DIED 

Scholl, Maximilian Samson Friedrich, Ger. historian. 1766... 1833 

Scholten, Johannes Hendrik, Dutch theologian 1811 

Schoniberg, Friedrich Armand Hermann, Duke of, 

Eng. general, born in Heidelberg ? 1616. . .1690 

Schomberg, de, Henri, Comte, marshal of France and 

diplomatist ? 1575. . .1632 

Schomburgk, Sir Robert Hermann, Ger .-Eng. traveler 1804. . .1865 

SchSn, Martin, Ger. painter ? 1420 . .? 1486 

Schonbein, Christian Friedrich, Ger. chemist. {.Ozone 

and gun-cotton.'] 1799. . .1868 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, Am. traveler and ethnolo- 
gist 1793... 1864 

Schopenhauer, Arthur, Ger. philosopher 1788. . .1860 

Schopflin, Johann Daniel, Ger. historian 1694. . .1771 

Schott, Andreas, Dutch historian and scholar 1552. . .1629 

Sch ouval off, Peter Andreievitch, Count, Russ. diplo- 
matist 1827 

Schrevelius, Cornelius, Dutch philologist. {Lexicon 

Manuale cfrceco-Latinum et Latino-Qrcecum.'] 1615 . . .1664 

Schroder, Friedrich Ludwig, Ger. tragedian 1744. . .1816 

Schroter, Christoph Gottlieb, Ger. inventor of the 

piano-forte 1699. . .1782 

Schubart, Christian Friedrich Daniel, Ger. poet 1739... 1791 

Schubert, Franz, Ger. composer 1797. . .1828 

Schubert, von, Gotthilf Heinrich, Ger. mystic 1780. . .1860 

Schulte, Johann Friedrich, Ger. theologian 1827 

Schultens, Albert, Dutch Hebraist and biblical com- 
mentator 1686. . .1750 

Schultz-Schultzenstein, Karl Heinrich, Ger. physi- 
ologist 1798... 1871 

Schulze, Ernst Konrad Friedrich, Ger. poet 1789. . .1817 

Schulze, Johann, Pruss. administrator of universities, 

etc 1786 

Schulze-Delltzsch, Herman, Ger. political economist 1808... 1883 
Schumacher, Heinrich Christian, Danish astronomer. 1780... 1850 

Schumann, Robert, Ger. musical composer 1810. . .1856 

Schurz, Carl, Ger. -Am. statesman and orator 1829 

Schuyler, Philip, Am. general and statesman 1733. . .1804 

Schwab, Gustav, Ger. poet 1792. . .1850 

Schwanthaler, Ludwig Michael, Ger. sculptor 1802. . .1848 

Schwartz, Marie Sophie, nee Birath, Swed. novelist. . . 1819 

Schwarz, Berthold. Konstantm Ancklitzen. Ger. 
monk and alchemist. Reputed inventor of gun- 
powder fl. 14th c. 

Schwarzenberg, von, Karl Philipp, Prince, Austrian 

field-marshal 1771 . . . 1820 

Schwegler, Albrecht, Ger. historian 1819. . .1857 

Schweigger, Johann Salomon Christoph, Ger. physicist 1779. . .1857 

Schweinfurth, Georg August, Ger. traveler 1836 

Schweinitz, von, Lewis David, Am. botanist 1780. . .1834 

Schwenkfeld, von, Kasper, Silesian religious re- 
former and founder of a sect 1490..? 1561 

228 



SCHWERIN—SEMMES 



BORN. DIED. 

Schwerin, von, Kurt Christoph, Count, Pruss. field- 
marshal 1684... 1757 

Seina, Domenico, Sicilian mathematician and physicist 1765. . .1887 

Scioppius, Caspar, Ger. classical scholar 1576. . .1649 

Scipio iEmiliauu3 Africanus Minor, Publius Cor- 
nelius, Roman general. Captured and destroyed 

Carthage B.C. ?185... 129 

Scipio Africanus Major, Publius Cornelius, Roman 

general. Invaded Africa and defeated Hannibal. B. C. ? 235. . .? 184 

Scoresby, William, Eng. navigator 1760. . .1829 

S co resby, William. Son. Eng. arctic explorer 1790... 1857 

Scott, Michael, reputed Scotch wizard ? 1291 

Scott, Thomas A., Am. railroad king 1809. . .1881 

Scott, Sir Walter, Scot, novelist and poet 1771. . .1832 

Scott, Winfield, Am. lieutenant-general 1786. . .1866 

Scribe, Augustin Eugene, Fr. dramatist 1791..? 1861 

Scrivener, Frederick Henry, Eng. biblical critic 1813 

Scudder, John, Am. missionary at Ceylon and Madras. 1793.. .1855 
Scudery, de, or Scude>i, de, Mile. Madeleine, Fr. 

authoress 1607... 1701 

Scars, Barnas, Am. Baptist clergyman and scholar. . . 1802. . .1880 
Seaton, William Winston, Am. journalist. [National 

Intelligencer.] 1785 . . .1866 

Sebastian, Dom, king of Portugal. Warrior 1554. . .1578 

Sebastian, Saint, Roman Christian martyr ? 255. . . 288 

Secchi, Pietro Angelo, Ital. astronomer 1818 

Seckendorf, von, Friedrich Heinrich, Count. Nephew. 

Ger. commander 1673. . .1763 

Seckendorf, von, Veit Ludwig, Ger. scholar 1626... 1692 

Secor, Charles Frederick, Am. metallurgist 1834. . .1881 

Sedgwick, Adam, Eng. geologist 1785. . .1873 

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Daughter of T. S. Am. 

authoress 1789 . . .1867 

Sedgwick, John, Am. general 1813. . .1864 

Sedgwick, Theodore, Am. jurist and statesman 1746. . .1813 

Seebeck, Johann Thomas, Ger. physicist. [Thermo- 
electric vile.] 1770 . . . 1831 

Seeley, John Robert, Eng. author ? 1834 

SCguier, Pierre, Fr. statesman and patron of learning. 1588. . .1672 

Seguin, Edouard, Fr. physician 1812 

SCgur, de, Louis Philippe, Comte, Fr. historian 1753. . .1830 

Se*gur, de, Philippe Paul, Comte. Son. Fr. historian. 1780. ..1873 

Selden, John, Eng. statesman and political writer 1584. . .1654 

Seleueus I. Nicator. First king of Syria B.C. 358. . . 280 

Selim III., sultan of Turkey 1761. ..1808 

Selkirk, Alexander, Scot, sailor. Left on Juan Fer- 
nandez ? 1676... 1723 

Sella, Quintino, Ital. statesman 1827. . .1884 

Selwyn, George Augustus, Eng. bishop and author 1809 

Semir amis, queen of Assyria fl. ? 2000 B. C» 

Semler, Johann Salomo, Ger. theologian 1725. . .1791 

Semmes, Raphael, Confederate naval officer 1809. . .1877 

229 



SENEGA— SHELBURNE 



BORN. DIED. 

Seneca, Lucius Anngeus, Roman Stoic philosopher. B. C. ? 5. A. D. 65 

SeuefeJder, Aloys, Ger. inventor of lithography 1771. . .1834 

Senior, Nassau William, Eng. political economist 1790. . .1864 

Sennacherib, king of Assyria fl. ? 700 B. C. 

Sepulveda, de, Juan Ginez, Span, historian 1490. . .1574 

Sergeant, John, Am. jurist and statesman 1779. . .1852 

Serrano y Dominguez, Francisco, Duke de la Torre, 

Span, statesman 1810. . .1885 

Sertorius, Quintus, Roman general B. C. ? 121 . . . 72 

Servetus, Michael, Span, theologian and author. 

Burned at the stake 1509. . .1553 

Sesostris. Barneses. King of Egypt fl. ? 1400 B.C. 

Sestini, Domenico, Ital. antiquary ? 1750. . .1832 

Severus, Lucius Septimius, Roman emperor 146. . . 211 

Se"vigne\ de, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise, Fr. 

letter-writer 1626. . .1696 

Sewall, Samuel, Am. jurist 1652... 1730 

Seward, Anna. The Swan of Lichfield. Eng. authoress 1747.. .1809 

Seward, William Henry, Am. statesman 1801. . .1872 

Sewell, William, Eng. clergyman and author 1805. . .1874 

Sewell, William Joyce, Am. senator from New Jersey 1835 

Seydlitz, von, Friedrich Wilhelm, Pruss. general of 

cavalry '. 1721 . . .1773 

Sey ffarth, Gustav, Ger. archaeologist 1796. . .1885 

Seymour, Horatio, Am. lawyer and politician 1810. . .1886 

Sforza, Francesco. Son of Giacomuzzo Attendolo 

Sforza. Duke of Milan. Ital . warrior 1401 . . .1466 

Sforza, Giacomuzzo Attendolo, Ital. warrior and con- 

dottiere. Founder of the house of Sforza 1369. . .1424 

Sforza, Ludovico. 11 Moro. Son of F. S. Duke of 

Milan 1451..? 1510 

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, first Earl of, 

Eng. statesman 1621 . . .1683 

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, third Earl of. 
Grandson. Eng. philanthropist, author, and free- 
thinker 1671... 1713 

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl 

of, Eng. philanthropist 1801 . . .1885 

Shairp, John Campbell. Principal Shairp. Scot, ed- 
ucator and author 1825. . .1885 

Shakespeare, Shakspeare, or Shakspere, William, 

Eng. poet and dramatist 1564. . .1616 

Sharp, Granville, Eng. philanthropist and abolitionist 1734... 1813 

Sharp, Solomon P., Am. legislator 1787. . .1825 

Shaw, Henry W. Josh Billings. Am. humorist 1818 . . .1885 

Shaw, Lemuel, Am. jurist 1781. . .1861 

Shays, Daniel, leader in Shays's rebellion 1747. . .1825 

Shea, John D. Gilmary, Am. historian 1824 

Shedd, William Greenough Thayer, Am. theologian. . . 1820 

Shee, Sir Martin Archer, Irish painter 1770. . .1850 

Sheil, Richard Lalor, Irish statesman and orator 1791. . .1851 

Shelburne. See L.ansdo\vne. 

230 



SHELLE Y— SIXES 



BORN. DIED. 

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, Eng. poet 1792. . .1822 

Shelton, William, Am. Episcopal divine 1798. . .1883 

Shengtone, William, Eng. pastoral poet 1714. . .1763 

Shepard, Charles Upham, Am. physicist 1804 

Shere Ali, ameer of Afghanistan 1863 1825. . .1869 

Sheridan, Philip Henry, Am. general 1831. . .1888 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, Irish dramatist and pol- 
itician 1751 . . .1816 

Sheridan, Thomas. Father of B. B. S. Irish elocu- 
tionist and lexicographer 1721. . .1788 

Sherlock, William, Eng. theologian and author 1641. . .1707 

Sherman, John. Brother of W. T. S. Am. statesman 1823 

Sherman, Roger, Am. statesman. Signer of the 

Declaration of Independence 1721. . .1793 

Sherman, William Tecumseh, Am. general 1820. 

Sherwood, Mrs. Mary Martha, nee Butt, Eng. authoress 1775. . .1851 

Shirley, James, Eng. dramatist ? 1594. . .1666 

Shirley, William, Brit, general and colonial governor 

of Massachusetts 1693 . . .1771 

ShishkofF, Alexander Semenovitch, Russ. author and 

statesman 1754. . .1841 

Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, Eng. admiral 1650 . . .1707 

Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot, Duke of, Eng. poet and 

statesman 1660. . .1718 

Shubrick, William Branford, Am. rear-admiral 1790. . .1874 

Sibley, John Langdon, librarian of Harvard College.. . 1804. . .1885 
Sicard, Roch Ambroise Cucurron, Abbe\ Fr. teacher of 

deaf mutes 1742. . .1822 

Sichel, Julius, Ger. oculist in Paris 1802 

Sickingen, von, Franz, Ger. general and Lutheran 

reformer 1481. . .1523 

Sickles, Daniel Ephraim, Am. general and politician.. 1822 

Siddons, Sarah, nee Kemble, Eng. tragic actress 1755. . .1831 

Sidney, Algernon, Eng. republican patriot ? 1622. . .1683 

Sidney, Sir Philip, Eng. statesman and poet 1554. . .1586 

Siebold, von, Karl Theod or Ernst, Ger. physiologist.. 1797... 1885 

Siebold, von, Philipp Franz, Ger. naturalist 1796. . .1866 

Siegen, von, Ludwig, Ger. artist. [Mezzotinto engrav- 
ing.] 1609... 1680 

Siegert, August, Ger. painter 1820. . .1883 

Siegfried, semi-fabulous hero of Norse legends and of 

the Niebelungen-Lied Unknown. 

Siemens, Sir Charles William. Brother. Ger. inventor 

in London 1823. . .1883 

Siemens, Ernst Werner, Ger. inventor 1816 

Sieyes, Emmanuel Joseph, Comte. AbM Sieyis. Fr. 

revolutionist 1748 . . .1836 

Sigismund, emperor of Germany and king of Hungary 1368. . .1437 

Sigismund I., king of Poland 1466. ..1548 

Sigismund III., king of Poland and of Sweden 1566. . .1632 

Sigourney, Lydia Howard Huntley, Am. authoress 1791. . .1865 

Sikes, William Wirt, Am. author and journalist 1883 

o 



o ?1 



SILHO UETTE— SMITH 

BORN DIED. 

Silhouette, de, Etienne, Fr. financier. [Silhouettes. ,].. 1709... 1767 

Silliman, Benjamin, Am. physicist 1779. . .1864= 

Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. Son. Am. physicist 1816. . .1885 

Silvestre, de, Augustin Francois, Baron, Fr. rural 

economist 1762. . .1851 

Simeon Stylites, Syrian ascetic who lived on top of a 

pillar ?390... 459 

Simms, William Gimiore, Am. novelist 1806. . .1870 

Simon, Jules (Jules Francois Suisse-Simon), Fr. states- 
man and philosopher 1814 

Simon, Richard, Fr. philosopher and biblical critic. . . . 1638. . .1712 

Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet B. C. ? 556. . . 467 

Simpson, Sir James, Eng. general in the Crimea 1792. . .1868 

Simpson, Sir James Young, Scot, physician 1811. . .1870 

Simpson, John Palgrave, Eng. dramatic author 1810. . .1887 

Simpson, Matthew, Am. bishop of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church . . . . 1810 . . .1884 

Simpson, Thomas, Eng. mathematician 1710. . .1761 

Simrock, Karl, Ger. poet 1802. . .1876 

Sims, James Marion, Am. physician and surgeon 1813. . .1883 

Simson, Robert, Scot, mathematician 1687. . .1768 

Sinclair, Catherine. Daughter of Si/r J. Scot, authoress. 1800. ..1864 
Sinclair, Sir John, Scot, agriculturist and statistician. 1754. . .1835 
Sismondi, de, Jean Charles Leonard Simonde, Swiss 

historian and political economist 1773. . .1842 

Sixtus IV., Francesco d'Abescola della Rovere, pope. 1414. ..1484 

Sixtus V. , Felice Perretti, pope 1521. . .1590 

Sjogren, Andreas Johann, Finnish philologist 1794. . .1855 

Skeat, Walter William, Eng. philologist 1835 

Skelton, John, Eng. poet ? 1460. . .1529 

Skene, Colonel Philip, Brit, officer in America 1810 

Skoda, Joseph, Ger. physician 1805. . .1881 

Slater* John F., Am. philanthropist. [Founder of the 

" Slater Fund " to help the freedmenJ] 1816. . .1884 

Sleidan, Johann, Ger. historian 1506. . .1556 

Slidell, John, Am. lawyer and politician 1793. . .1871 

Sloan, Samuel, Am. railroad president 1817 

Sloane, Sir Hans, Brit, physician and naturalist 1660. . .1753 

Slocum, Henry Wadsworth, Am. general 1827 

Small, Samuel, Am. evangelist * 1851 

Smart, Benjamin Humphrey, Eng. lexicographer ? 1787. . .1872 

Smeaton, John, Eng. civil engineer. [Eddystone Light- 
house.] 1724... 1792 

Smiles, Samuel, Scot, author 1816 

Smillie, James, Am. engraver 1807. . .1885 

Smirke, Sir Robert, Eng. architect 1780. . .1867 

Smith, Adam, Scot, political economist 1723. . .1790 

Smith, Albert, Eng. novelist and humorist 1816. . .1860 

Smith, Alexander, Scot, poet 1830. . .1867 

Smith, Benjamin Bosworth, Am. Protestant Episcopal 

bishop of Kentucky 1794. . .1884 

Smith, Erminie A., Am. writer on Indian topics 1838. . .1886 

232 



SMITH— SONTAG 



BORN. DIED. 

Smith, George, Eng. orientalist ? 1825. . .1876 

Smith, Gerrit, Am. philanthropist 1797. . .1874 

Smith, Gold win, Eng. professor of modern history, and 

author 1823 

Smith, Green Clay, Am. soldier and legislator 1830 

Smith, Horace, Eng. miscellaneous writer 1779. . .1849^ 

Smith, James. Brother of Horace. Eng. miscellaneous 

writer 1775... 1839^ 

Smith, Sir James Edward, Eng. physician and botanist 1759.. .1828^ 
Smith, Captain John, Eng. adventurer. Founder of 

Virginia 1579... 1631 

Smith, John Lawrence, Am. mineralogist and chemist. 1818 

Smith, John Speed, Am. legislator 1792. . .1854 

Smith, Joseph, founder of the sect of Mormons 1805 . . .1844 

Smith, Leigh, Eng. arctic explorer 1830 

Smith, Robert Payne, Eng. orientalist 1818 

Smith, Seba. Major Jack Doivning. Am. author 1792... 1868 

Smith, Rev. Sydney, Eng. divine, essayist, and wit 1771. . .1845 

Smith, Thomas Kilby, Am. general 1820. . .1887 

Smith, Thomas Southwood, Eng. physician 1788. . .1861 

Smith, William, Eng. classical scholar 1814 

Smith, William. The father of English geology. Eng. 

geologist 1769... 1839 

Smith, Sir William Sidney, Eng. admiral 1764. . .1840 

Smithson, James Lewis Macie, Eng. physicist. Founder 

of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington ? 1765. . .1829 

Smollett, Tobias George, Brit, novelist 1721. . .1771 

Smyth, John F., Am. insurance expert 1825. . .1887 

Snell, Willebrord, Dutch mathematician. [Law of 

refraction of light.']. 1591. . .1626 

Snorri Sterluson, Icelandic poet and historian 1178. . .1241 

Snyders, Franz, Flemish painter 1579... 1657 

Soane, Sir John, Eng. architect 1753. . .1837 

Sobieski, John III., king of Poland ? 1625. . .1696 

Socinus, Faustus, Ital. religious reformer. [Socinian- 

ism.'] 1539. . .1604 

Socrates, Athenian philosopher B.C. ?470... 399 

Sohn, Karl Ferdinand, Ger. painter 1805. . .1867 

Solander, Daniel Charles, Swed. naturalist 1736. . .1782 

Solis, de, Antonio, Span, historian and dramatist 1610. . .1686 

Soils, de, Juan Diaz, Span, navigator. Killed and 

eaten by Indians 1516 

Solon, Athenian sage and lawgiver B. C. ?638...?558 

Soiyman. The Magnificent. Ottoman sultan ? 1495. . .1566 

Somers, John, Lord, Eng. statesman and lawyer 1651. . .1716 

Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke of, Eng. statesman.? 1500. . .1552' 
Somerville, Mrs. Mary, Scot, astronomer and physicist 1780. . .1872 
Sommering, von, Samuel Thomas, Ger. anatomist 

and physiologist 1755 . . . 1830 

Sonnini de Manoncourt, Charles Nicolas Sigisbert, 

Fr. naturalist 1751. . .1812 

Son tag, Mme. Henriette, Countess Rossi, Ger. vocalist 1806.. .1854 

233 



SOPHO CLES—SPRECKELS 



BORN. DIED. 

Sophocles, Greek tragic poet B. C. ? 4=95. . .? 406 

Sothern, Edward Askew, Am. actor 1830. . .1881 

SouMse, de, Benjamin de Rohan, Seigneur, Huguenot 

soldier 1583. ..1642 

Soule*, Pierre, Am. politician, born in France 1802. . .1870 

Soulie", Melchior Frederic, Fr. novelist 1800. . .1847 

Soulouque, Faustin. Faustin I. Emperor of Hayti. . .? 1785. . .1867 
Soult, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, Duke of Dalmatia, mar- 
shal of France 1769.. .1851 

South, Robert, Eng. divine and author... 1633... 1716 

Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of, Eng. 

statesman 1573. . .1624 

Sou thcott, Joanna, Eng. religious fanatic ? 1750. . .1814 

Southey, Robert, Eng. poet and miscellaneous writer. . 1774. . .1843 

Southworth, Emma D. E. (Nevitte), Am. novelist 1818 

SouTestre, Emile, Fr. author 1806. . .1854 

Sowerby, George Brittingham, Eng. artist and author 1812. . .1884 

Sowerby, James, Eng. artist and naturalist 1757. . .1822 

Soyer, Alexis, Fr. cook ? 1800. . .1858 

Spada, Lionello, Ital. painter 1576. ..1672 

Spagnoletto. Jose Bibera. Span, painter 1588. ..1656 

Spalding, Lyman, Am. physician. [Pharmacopceia of 

the United States.] 1775. . .1821 

Spalding, Martin John, Am. Roman Catholic prelate. 1810... 1872 
Spalding, Rev. Solomon, author of the Book of Mormon. 1761 . . .1816 

Spallanzani, Lazaro, Ital. anatomist 1729. . .1799 

Spangenberg, August Gottlieb, Pruss. founder of the 

Moravian Church in America 1704. . .1792 

Sparks, Jared, Am. historian and biographer 1789. . .1866 

Speed, James, attorney- general of the United States.. . 1812. . .1887 

Speke, John Hanning, Eng. explorer of Africa 1827. . .1864 

Spelman, Sir Henry, Eng. historian and antiquary. . . . 1562. . .1641 

Spencer, Charles, Am. criminal lawyer 1824. . .1887 

Spencer, Herbert, Eng. philosopher 1820 

Spencer, John Canfleld, Am. statesman 1788. . .1855 

Spener, Philipp Jakob, Ger. theologian. [Pietists.'] .... 1635 . . . 1705 

Spenser, Edmund, Eng. poet. [Faerie Queen.] ? 1553. . .1599 

Speranski, Mikhail, Count, Russ. statesman 1772..? 1839 

Spiegel, Friedrich, Ger. orientalist. A 1820 

Spielhagen, Friedrich, Ger. novelist 1829 

Spiess, Heinrich, Ger. painter 1832. . .1875 

Spindler, Karl, Ger. novelist 1796. ..1855 

Spinola, de, Ambrosio, Marquis, Span, general 1569. . .1630 

Spinoza, Baruch, or Benedict, Dutch philosopher 1632. . .1677 

Spofford, Harriet, nee Prescott, Am. authoress 1835 

Spohr, Ludwig, Ger. musical composer 1784. . .1859 

Spontini, Gasparo Luigi Paciflco, Ital. composer 1774. . .1851 

Spottiswoode, William, Eng. scientist and printer 1825. . .1883 

"Sprague, Charles, Am. poet 1791. . .1875 

Sprague, William Buell, Am. divine and author 1795. . .1876 

Sprat, Thomas, Eng. prelate and writer 1636. . .1713 

Spr eckels, Claus, Am. sugar manufacturer 1831 

234 



SPRENGEL— STEIN 



BORN. DIED. 

Sprengel, Kurt, Ger. physician and botanist 1766. . .1833 

Sprenger, Aloys, Swiss orientalist 1813 

Spring, Gardiner, Am. clergyman and author 1785. . .1873 

Spurgeon, Charles Haddon, Eng. Baptist preacher 1834 

Spurzheim, Johann Gaspar, Ger. physician and phre- 
nologist.. 1776... 1832 

Squier, Ephraim George, Am. archaeologist 1821. . .1888 

Stael-Holstein, de, Anne Louise Germaine, Bar- 
onne. Madame de Stael, nee Necker. Fr. authoress 

and leader in society 1766. . .1817 

Staempfli, Jakob, Swiss statesman 1820 

Stafford* William Howard, Viscount, Eng. statesman. 

Beheaded 1612. . .1680 

Stahl, Friedrich Julius, Ger. jurist 1802. . .1861 

Stahl, George Ernst, Ger. chemist. {Phlogiston theory.] 1660. ..1734 
Stan dish, Captain Miles, military leader at Plymouth, 

Mass ? 1584... 1656 

Stanfield, Clarkson, Eng. marine painter ? 1798. . .1867 

Stanford, Leland, Am. senator 1824 

Stanhope, Charles, third Earl. .Grandson of James. 

Eng. inventor 1753 . . .1816 

Stanhope, Lady Hester Lucy. Daughter of Charles. 

Eccentric Eng. woman 1776. . .1839 

Stanhope, James, first Earl, Eng. general and states- 
man 1673... 1721 

Stanhope, Philip Henry, fifth Earl. Lord Mahon. 

Grandson of Charles. Eng. statesman and historian. 1805. . . 
Stanislas Augustus (Poniatowski), king of Poland.. . 1732. . .1798 

Stanislas I. Leszczynski, king of Poland 1677. . .1766 

Stanley. See Derby. 

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. Dean Stanley. Eng. cler- 
gyman. Dean of Westminster and author 1815. . .1881 

Stanley, Henry M., original name John Rowlands, 

Am. explorer of Africa 1840 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters, Am. statesman 1814. . .1869 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Am. reformer. 1816 

Stanton, Henry B., Am. lawyer, politician, and writer. 1805. . .1887 

Stanton, Henry Thompson, Am. soldier and poet 1834 

Stanton, Richard H., Am. legislator 1812 

Stanwix, John, Brit, general in America 1765 

Stark, John, Am. Revolutionary general 1728. . .1822 

Staudlin, Karl Friedrich, Ger. theologian 1761. . .1826 

Staunton, Howard, Eng. editor of Shakespeare 1810. . .1874 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, Am. poet 1833 

Steele, Joel Dorman, Am. author of school books 1836. . .1886 

Steele, Sir Richard, Eng. essayist 1671. . .1729 

Steen, Jan, Dutch painter : . 1636. . .1689 

Steenwyk, Hendrik. The Elder. Flemish painter.... 1550... 1604 

Steevens, George, Eng. editor. [Shakespeare.'] 1736. . .1800 

Steffens, Heinrich, Norwegian philosopher 1773. . .1845 

Stein, von, Heinrich Friedrich Karl, Baron, Pruss. 

statesman 1757. . .1831 

235 



STEIN— STOKES 



BORN. DIED. 

Stein, Lorenz, Ger. jurist and political economist 1815 

Stenhouse, John, Eng. chemist 1820. . .1881 

Steno. Nicolas, Danish anatomist. [Steno's duct.'] 1638. . .1687 

Stephen, Saint, first Christian martyr stoned 36 or 37 A. D- 

Stephen, king of England. The last of the Anglo- 
Norman line 1105. . .1154 

Stephen I., Saint, king of Hungary 7979...1038 

Stephen Bathori. king of Poland 1532... 1586 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, Am- statesman 1812. . .1883 

Stephens, Mrs. Ann Sophia, nee Winterbotham, Am. 

authoress 1813. . .1886 

Stephens, James Francis, Eng. entomologist 1792. . .1852 

Stephens, John Lloyd, Am. traveler and author 1805. . .1852 

Stephens, Uriah Smith, Am. labor reformer 1821. . .1880 

Stephens, or Stephanus, Fr. family of printers. 
Stephenson, George, Eng. engineer. [Locomotive- 
engine.] 1781. . .1848 

Stephenson, Robert. Son. Eng. engineer. [Tubular 

bridge.] 1803. . .1859 

Sterling, John, Brit, critic and^ essayist 1806. . .1844 

Sterne, Rev. Laurence, Eng. humorous writer 1713. . .1768 

Steuben, Frederick William Augustus, Baron, Pruss.- 

Am. general 1730. . .1794 

Stevens, Edwin Augustus. Brother of B. L. S. Am. 

inventor and philanthropist 1795. . .1868 

Stevens, Isaac Ingalls, Am. general 1818. . .1862 

Stevens, Robert Livingston, Am. inventor 1788. . .1856 

Stevens, Thaddeus, Am. statesman and abolitionist. . . 1793. . .1868 
Stevens, William Bacon, Protestant Episcopal bishop 

of Pennsylvania 1815. . .1887 

Stevenson, Robert, Scot, engineer of light-houses 1772... 1850 

Stevenson, Robert Louis, Eng. novelist 1845 

Stewart, Alexander Turney, Am. merchant 1802. . .1876 

Stewart, Balfour, Brit, physicist 1828 

Stewart, Charles, Am. rear-admiral 1778. . .1869 

Stewart, Dugald, Scot, metaphysician 1753. . .1828 

Ste wwit, Sir Herbert, Eng. soldier 1841. . .1885 

Stiles, Ezra, Am. theologian. President of Yale College 1727. . .1795 

Stilicho, Flavius, Roman general under Theodosius 408 

Still e% Alfred, Am. physician and medical writer 1813 

Stillingfleet, Edward, Eng. theologian and bishop of 

Worcester 1635... 1699 

Stimpson, William, Am. naturalist 1832. . .1872 

Stirling, Sir William (Maxwell), Scot, author 1818 

Stockbridge, Francis B., Am. senator 1826 

Stockhardt, Julius Adolf, Ger. chemist 1809 

Stockton, Richard, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 1730. ..1781 

Stockton, Robert Field. Grandson. Am. commodore. 1796... 1866 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, Am. poet 1825 

Stokes, George Gabriel, Brit, mathematician. [Be- 

frangibility of light.] 1819 ► 

236 



STOLBERG— STUART 



BORN. DIED. 

Stolberg, von, Friedrich Leopold, Count, Ger. poet... . 1750.. .1819 
Stone, Charles P., general United States army. Noted 

engineer 1824= . . . 1887 

Stone, Lucy, Am. advocate of " woman's rights " 1818 

Stone, William Leete, Am. journalist and biographer. 1792.. .1844: 

Stone, William Leete, Jr. Son. Am. author 1835 

Storch, von, Heinrich Friedrich, Russ. political econ- 
omist : 1766... 1835 

Storey, Wilbur F., Am. journalist 1819. . . 1884= 

Storrs, Emery A., Am. lawyer and orator 1834. . .1885 

Storrs, Richard Salter, Am. clergyman 1821 

Story, Joseph, Am. jurist 1779. ..1845 

Story, William Wetmore. Son. Am. sculptor and poet 1819 

Sto we, Calvin Ellis, Am. clergyman and author 1802. . .1886 

Stowe, Mrs. Harriet Beecher. Wife of C. E. S. Am. 

authoress. [TJncle Tom's Cabin.'] 1812 

Sto we 11, William Scott, Baron, Eng. judge 1745. . .1836 

Strabo, Greek geographer B. C. ? 54. . A. D. ? 24 

S trade I la, Alessandro, Ital. musical composer 1645..? 1678 

Stradivarius, or Stradivari, Antonio, Ital. violin- 
maker of Cremona 1644. . .1737 

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of, Eng. statesman 1593. . .1641 

Strange, Sir Robert, Scot, engraver 1721. . .1792 

Stratford de Redcliffe, Stratford Canning, Viscount. 

Svr Stratford Canning. Eng. diplomatist 1788 . . . 1880 

Stratico, Simone, Count, Ital. mathematician ? 1730... 1824 

Stratton, Charles Heywood. General Tom Thvmb. 

Am. dwarf 1838. . .1883 

Strauss, David Friedrich, Ger. rationalistic theologian 1808. . .1874 

Strauss, Johann, Viennese musical composer 1804. . .1849 

Strauss, Johann. Son of Johann. Viennese musical 

composer 1825 

Street, Alfred Billings, Am. poet 1811 

Street, George Edmund, Brit, architect 1824. . .1881 

Strickland, Agnes, Eng. historical writer 1796. . .1874 

Stringham, Silas Horton, Am. rear-admiral 1798. . .1876 

Strong, James, Am. scholar and author 1822 

Strother, David Hunter. Porte Crayon. Am. artist 

and humorous writer 1816 . . .1888 

Strozzi, Filippo, Florentine statesman 1488. . .1538 

Struensee, von, Johann Friedrich, Count, Danish 

physician and statesman 1737. . .1772 

Strutt, Joseph, Eng. antiquary and engraver 1742. . .1802 

Struve, Burkhard Gotthelf , Pruss. jurist 1671 . . .1738 

Struve, von, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm, Ger. astrono- 
mer in Russia 1793 . . .1864 

Struve, Otto Wilhelm. Son of F. G. W. S. Russ. as- 
tronomer 1819 

Strype, John, Eng. clergyman and biographer 1643. . .1737 

Stuart, Arabella, cousin to James I. of England ? 1575. . .1615 

Stuart, Charles Edward. See Charles Edward 
Stuart. 

23? 



STUART— SWAN 



BORN. DIED. 

Staart 9 Gilbert Charles, Am. painter 1756. . .1828 

Stuart, James Francis Edward. See James Francis 
Edward Stuart. 

Stuart, Moses, Am. theologian and philologist 1780. . .1852 

Stukeley , William, Eng. antiquary 1687. . .1765 

Sturgeon, William, Eng. electrician and inventor 1783. . .1852 

Sturm, Jacques Charles Francois, Swiss mathemati- 
cian. [Sturm's theorem.] 1803. . .1855 

Sturm, Johann. The German Cicero. Ger. classical 

scholar 1507. . .1589 

Sturt, Sir Charles, Eng. explorer of New South Wales 1869 

Stuyvesant, Petrus, last Dutch governor of New 

Netherland (New York) ' 1602 . . .1682 

Suarez,, Francisco, Span. Jesuit and theologian 1548. . .1617 

Suchet, Louis Gabriel, Duke of Albufera, marshal of 

France 1770... 1826 

Suckling, Sir John, Eng. poet and courtier 1609..? 1642 

Sucre, de, Antonio Jose\ South American patriot and 

general 1793. . .1830 

Sue, Marie Joseph Eugene, Fr. novelist 1804. . .1857 

Suetonius Tranquil his, Caius, Roman historian ? 72...? 140 

Suhm, Peder Frederik, Danish historian 1728. . .1798 

Sulla, or Sylla, Lucius Cornelius (Felix), Roman dic- 
tator B. C. 138... 78 

Sullivan, Algernon Sidney, Am. orator and lawyer. . . 1826. . .1887 
Sullivan, Arthur Seymour, Eng. composer of comic 

operas, etc 1842 

Sullivan, James, Am. statesman 1744. . .1808 

Sullivan, John. Brother. Am. Revolutionary general 1740... 1795 
Sully, Maximilien de B^thune, Baron de Rosny and 

Due de, Fr. statesman 1560. . .1641 

Sully, Thomas, Am. painter, born in England 1783. . .1872 

Sumarokoff, Alexei, Russ. dramatist 1727. . .1777 

Summerfleld, John, Am. pulpit orator 1^98... 1825 

Sumner, Charles, Am. statesman and lawyer 1811. . .1874 

Sumner, Edwin Vose, Am. general 1796. . .1863 

Sumter, Thomas, Am. Revolutionary general 1734. . .1832 

Sunderland, Charles Spencer, third Earl of. Son. 

Eng. statesman 1674. . .1722 

Sunderland, Robert Spencer, second Earl of, Eng. 

statesman ? 1641. . .1702 

Surajah Dowlah, Hindu prince. [Black Hole of Cal- 
cutta.-] 1757 

Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, Eng. poet ? 1516. . .1547 

Sutherland, George Granville Leveson Gower, Duke 

of, Brit, peer, enormously rich 1758. . .1833 

Suvaroff, Alexei Vasilievitch, Count, and Prince Ital- 

iski, Russ. field-marshal 1729. . . 1800 

Swain, Charles, Eng. poet . 1803... 1874 

S w ainson, William, Eng. naturalist 1789. . .1855 

Swammerdam, Jan, Dutch entomologist 1637..? 1680 

Swan, Jabez, Am. Baptist exhorter 1799. . .1884 

238 



SWARTZ—TARLETOK 



BORN DIED 

Swartz, Olaus, or Olof , Swed. botanist 1760. . .1818 

Swayne, Noah Hayes, judge United States Supreme 

Court 1804... 1884 

Swedenborg, Emanuel, Swed. philosopher and theos- 

ophist 1688 . . .1772 

Swetckine, or Svetchiu, Anne Sophie, Fr. authoress 1782... 1857 
Sweyn, king of Denmark and father of Canute the 

Great ? 1014 

S wieten, van, Gerard, Dutch physician 1700. . .1772 

Swift, Jonathan, dean of St. Patrick's. Brit, author. . . 1667. . .1745 

Swinburne, Algernon Charles, Eng. poet 1837 

Swinton, John, Am. editor and labor reformer 1830 

Swisshelm, Jane Grey, Am. philanthropist and author 1816. . .1884 

Sybel, von, Heinrich, Ger. historian 1817 

Sydenham, Thomas, Eng. physician 1624. . .1689 

Syme, James, Scot, surgeon. [Syme's operation.'] 1799. . .1870 

Sze*chenyi, Istvan, Count, Hungarian statesman 1791. . .1860 



Tacitus, Caius Cornelius, Roman historian ? 55. .after ? 117 

Tagliacozzi. See Taliacotius. 

Taglioni, Maria, Swed. opera-dancer . 1804. . .1884 

Tai Handier, Rene" Gaspard Ernest, Fr. philosopher 

and critic 1817 

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe, Fr. author 1828 

Tait, Archibald Campbell, archbishop of Canterbury 

and author 1811 

Tait, Peter Guthrie, Brit, mathematician ? 1825 

Talabot, Pauline Francois, Fr. engineer 1800. . .1885 

Talbot, William Henry Fox, Eng. author and discov- 
erer of photography 1800. . .1877 

Talfourd, Sir Thomas Noon, Eng. tragic poet. [Ion.]. 1795. . .1854 
Taliacotius, Gasparo, Ital. surgeon. [Taliacotian 

operation.] , ? 1546. . .1599 

Taliaferro, Benjamin, Am. Revolutionary officer ? 1751. . .1821 

Taileyrand-Pe*rigord, de, Charles Maurice, Prince 

of , Fr. statesman 1754... 1838 

Tallien, Jean Lambert, Fr. revolutionist 1769. . .1820 

Tallmadge, James, Am. jurist and statesman 1778. . .1853 

Talma, Francois Joseph, Fr. tragedian 1763. . .1826 

Talmage, Thomas De Witt, Am. clergyman 1832 

Tamberlik, Henri, Ital. tenor 1820. . . 1889 

Tamburini, Pietro, Ital. theologian 1737. . .1827 

Tamerlane, or Timour, Asiatic conqueror 1336. . .1405 

Tancred, Norman leader in the first crusade 1078. . .1112 

Taney, Roger Brooke, Am. jurist 1777. . .1864 

Tann, von der, Ludwig, Pruss. general 1805. . .1881 

Tannahill, Robert, Scot, poet 1774.. .1810 

Tanucci, di, Bernardo, Marquis, Neapolitan statesman 1698. . .1783 
Tappan, Arthur, Am. merchant and philanthropist. . . . 1786. . .1865 

Tappan, Henry Philip, Am. divine and writer 1805. . .1881 

Tarleton, Bannastre, Eng. officer in America 1754. . .i833 

239 



TARNO WSKI—TENNEMAm 



BORN. DIED. 

Tarnowski, John, Polish general 1488. . .1561 

Tarquin the Proud, or Lucius Tarquiniu§ Super- 
bus, seventh and last king of Rome B. C ? 495 

Tartaglia, Niccolb, Ital. mathematician. [Cubic equa- 
tions.] ? 1500. ..1559 

Tartini, Giuseppe, Ital. violinist 1692. . .1770 

Taschereau, Jules Antoine, Fr. biographer and editor 1801. . .1874 

Tasman, Abel Janssen, Dutch navigator ? 1600. .aft 1644 

Tasso, Torquato, Ital. poet 1544. . .1595 

Tassoni, Alessandro, Ital. poet and critic 1565. . .1635 

Tate, Nahum, Brit. poet. [Psalms.] 1652 . . .1715 

Tauchnitz, Christian Bernhard, Baron. Nephew. 

Ger. publisher in Leipsic. [Tauchnitz editions.] 1816 

Tauchnitz, Karl Christoph Traugott, Ger. publisher. . . 1761. . .1836 

Tauler, Johann, Ger. mystic 1290. . .1361 

Tavernier, Jean Baptiste, Baron d'Aubonne, Fr. trav- 
eler 1605... 1689 

Taylor, Bayard, Am. traveler and author 1825. . .1878 

Taylor, Benjamin Franklin, Am. poet 1822. . .1887 

Taylor, Brook, Eng. mathematician. [Taylor's theorem.] 1685. . .1731 

Taylor, Sir Henry, Eng. poet and dramatist 1800 

Taylor, Isaac, Jr., Eng. theologian and philosophical 

writer 1787... 1865 

Taylor, Jane. Sister of Isaac, Jr. Eng. authoress 1783. . .1824 

Taylor, Jeremy, Eng. bishop and author 1613. . .1667 

Taylor, John. The Water Poet. Eng. poet 1580. . .1654 

Taylor, John, third President Mormon Church 1808. . .1887 

Taylor, Thomas. The Platonist. Eng. scholar 1758... 1835 

Taylor, Tom, Eng. dramatist 1817. . .1880 

Taylor, William, Am. Methodist missionary bishop 

and evangelist 1821 

Taylor, Zachary* Am. general and twelfth President 

of the United States 1784.. .1850 

Tecumseh, a cbief of the Shawnee Indians. Killed in. 

the battle of the Thames ? 1770. . .1813 

Tegethoff, von, Wilhelm, Baron, Austrian admiral. . 1827. . .1871 

Tegne*r, Esaias, Swed. poet 1782. . .1846 

Teignmouth, John Shore, Lord, Eng. governor-gen- 
eral of India 1751 . . . 1834 

Telford, Thomas, Scot, engineer 1757. . .1834 

Tell, Wilhelm, legendary Swiss hero fl. 1307 

Tellez, Balthazar, Port. Jesuit and historian 1595. . .1675 

Tellez, Gabriel. Tirso de Molina. Span, dramatist . . .? 1585 . . .1648 

Tempesta. Pietro Mulier. Dutch storm-painter 1637... 1701 

Temple, Sir William, Eng. statesman 1628 . . .1699 

Tencin, de, Claudine Alexandrine Gue*rin, Fr. woman 

of society 1681... 1749 

Tenerani, Pietro, Ital. sculptor 1789. . .1869 

Teniers, David. The Younger. Flemish artist 1610 . . . 1685 

Tennant, William, Scot, poet and philologist 1785. . .1848 

Tennemann, Wilhelm Gottlieb, Ger. historian of phi- 
losophy 1761. ..1819 

240 



TENNENT— TRIE BE Y 



BORN. DIED. 

Tennent, Sir James Emerson, Brit, author 1804. . .1869 

Tennyson, Alfred, Eng. poet laureate 1809 

Tenterden. See Abbott. 

Terbur g, Gerard, Flemish painter 1608 . . . 1681 

Terence (Publius Terentius Afer), Roman comic 

poet B.C. ?193...?159 

Terhune, Mary Virginia, nee Hawes. Marion Harland. 

Am. authoress ? 1835 

Ternaux, Guillaume Louis, Baron, Fr. manufacturer. 1763... 1833 

Ternaux, Henri. Nephew. Fr. author 1807. . .1864 

Ternay, de, Charles Louis d'Arsac, Fr. admiral ? 1722. . .1780 

Terpander, Greek musician. {.Seven-stringed lyre.']. . . .fl. ? 680 B. C. 

Terry, Alfred Howe, Am. general 1827 

Terry, Ellen, Eng. actress , 1844 

Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus), 

an early Latin father of the church born ? 150 

died between 220 and 240 

Testa, del, Tomaso G., Ital. novelist 1817. . .1881 

Tetzel, Johann, Ger. monk. Vender of indulgences. .? 1460. . .1519 

Teuffel, Wilhelm Sigismund, Ger. philologist 1820 

Texier, Charles Felix Marie, Fr. archaBologist 1802 

Thacher, James, Am. physician and author 1754. . .1844 

Thackeray, William Makepeace, Eng. novelist 1811. . .1863 

Thalberg, Sigismond, Swiss pianist 1812. . .1871 

Thales, Greek sage and philosopher B. C. ? 636. . .? 546 

Theiner, Augustin, Ger. Catholic divine and church 

historian * 1804. . .1874 

Thelwall, John, Eng. writer and elocutionist ? 1764. . .1834 

Themistocles, Athenian general and statesman. .B. C. ? 514.. .? 449 

The*nard, Louis Jacques, Baron, Fr. chemist 1777. . .1857 

Theobald, Lewis, Eng. play-writer. . . . « 1744 

Theocritus, Greek pastoral poet » fl. ? 270 

Theodora, empress of the East. ' Wife of Justinian 548 

Theodore, king of Abyssinia ? 1818 . . . 1868 

Theodoret, Syrian theologian and ecclesiastical his- 
torian ? 393. . .? 457 

Theodoric. The Great. King of the Ostrogoths ? 455. . . 526 

Theodorus of Cyrene, Greek philosopher fl. 310 B. C. 

Theodosius I., Flavius. The Great. Roman emperor ?346... 395 

Theophrastus, Greek philosopher B. C. ? 372. . .? 287 

Theresa, or Teresa, Saint, Sp*D. Carmelite nun and 

mystic writer. {Barefooted Carmelites .] 1515 . . . 1582 

The"roigne de Mericourt. Anne Josephe Terwagne. 

Fr. revolutionist 1762. . .1817 

Thesiger. See Chelmsford. 

The*venot, de, Jean, Fr. traveler and author 1633. . .1667 

The*venot, Melchisedech. Uncle. Fr. orientalist ? 1620. . .1692 

Thibaudeau, Antoine Claire, Count, Fr. revolutionist. 1765. . .1854 
Thibaut, or Theobold IV. or VI. as Count of Cham- 
pagne, and I. as King of Navarre, Fr. troubadour. . . 1201. . .1253 

Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus, Ger. jurist 1774. . .1840 

Thierry, AmeMe'e Simon Dominique, Fr. historian 1797. . .1873 

241 



TRIER R Y— TIGKELL 



BORN. DIED. 

Thierry, Jacques Nicolas Augustin, Brother. Fr. his- 
torian 1795... 1856 

Thiers, Louis Adolphe, Fr. statesman and historian. . . 1797. . .1877 

Thiersch, Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. philologist 1784. . .1860 

Thirl wall, Connop, Eng. bishop and historian 1797. . .1875 

Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu, Ger. theologian. . 1799. . .1877 

Thorn, James, Scot, sculptor 1799. . .1850 

Thomas, Antoine Leonard, Fr. writer 1732... 1785 

Thomas, George Henry, Am. major-general 1816. . .1870 

Thomas, Isaiah, Am. printer and journalist 1749. . .1831 

Thomas, John, Am. revolutionary general 1725. . .1776 

Thomas, Joseph, Am. physician and biographer ? 1811 

Thomas, Robert Baily, established the Old Farmer's 

Almanack 1766. . .1846 

Thomas, Theodore, Am. conductor 1838 

Thomasius, Christian, Ger. philosopher 1655. . .1728 

Thompson, Daniel Pierce, Am. novelist 1795. . .1868 

Thompson, Elizabeth (Mrs. Charles Butler), Eng. 

painter ? 1850 

Thompson, Joseph Parrish, Am. divine and author. . . 1819 

Thompson, Launt, Am. sculptor, born in Ireland 1833 

Thorns, William John, Eng. antiquary. [Notes and 

Queries.} 1802... 1885 

Thomson, Anthony Todd, Scot, physician. 1778. . .1849 

Thomson, Charles, Am. patriot, born in Ireland 1729. . .1824 

Thomson, James, Scot. poet. [The Seasons.'] 1700. . .1748 

Thomson, James, Brit, civil engineer 1816 

Thomson, Thomas, Scot, chemist 1773. . .1852 

Thomson, Sir William, Brit, physicist and mathema- 
tician 1824 

Thoreau, Henry David, Am. author and philosopher. 1817.. .1862 

Thornbury, George Walter, Eng. author 1828. . .1876 

Thornhill, Sir James, Eng. painter 1676. . .1734 

Thornwell, James Henley, Am. Presbyterian divine. 1812. . .1862 

Thorpe, Benjamin, Eng. philologist ? 1808. . .1870 

Thorwaldsen, Bertel, Danish sculptor 1770. . .1844 

Thon, de, Jacques August e, Fr. statesman and his- 
torian % 1553. . .1617 

Thouvenel, Edouard Antoine, Fr. diplomatist 1818. . .1866 

Thrasybulus, Greek patriot and military leader. B. C 390 

Throcmorton, Sir Nicholas, Eng. statesman. ? 1513. . .1571 

Thucydides, Athenian historian B. C. ? 471. . .? 400 

Thulden, van, Theodor, Dutch painter 1607. . .1676 

Thunberg, Carl Peter, Swed. botanist 1743. . .1828 

Thurloe, John, Eng. statesman 1616. . .1668 

Thurlow, Edward, Lord, lord chancellor of England. 1732. ..1806 

Thurman, Allen Granbery, Am. statesman 1813 

Tibaldi, Pellegrino. Pellegrino Pellegrini. Ital. artist 1527. .71598 
Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar), Roman 

emperor B. C. 42. . A. D. 37 

Tice, J. H., Am. astronomer 1809. . .1883 

Tickell , Thomas, Eng. poet and essayist 1686. . .1740 

242 



TICKNOE - TOLLENS 



BORN. DIED.- 

Ticknor, George, Am. author. [History of Spanish 

Literature.] 1791. .1871 

Tieck, Ludwig, Ger. poet and novelist 1773. . .1853 

Tiedemann, Dietrich, Ger. historian of philosophy... . 1748. . .1803 
Tied em aim, Friedrich. Son. Ger. anatomist and 

physiologist 178! g . k 1861 

Tiedge, Christoph August, Ger. poet 1752. . .1841 

Tigbe, Mrs. Mary, nee Blachford, Irish poetess 1773. . .1810 

Tilden, Samuel Jones, Am. lawyer and statesman 1814. . .1886 

Tilghman, William, Am. jurist 1756. . .1827 

Tillemont, de, Louis Se"bastien le Nain, Fr. priest and 

historian 1637... 1698 

Tillotson, John, Eng. theologian. Archbishop of 

Canterbury 1630. ..1694 

Tilly, von, Johann Tserclaes, Count, Ger. general in 

the Thirty Years' War 1559. . .1632 

Tilton, John Rollin, Am. landscape-painter 1833. . .1888 

Timbs. John, Eng. journalist and compiler 1801. . .1875 

Timoleon, Greek statesman and general B. C. ? 400. . . 337 

Timour. See Tamerlane. 

Tindal, Matthew, Eng. theological writer ? 1657. . .1733 

Tintoretto, II, real name Giacomo Robusti, Ital. 

painter 1512 . . . 1594 

Tippoo Sahib, sultan of Mysore, India 1749. . .1799 

Tiraboschi, Girolamo, Ital. Jesuit and author 1731. . .1794 

Tischbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm. The Younger. 

Ger. historical painter 1751. . .1829 

Tischendorf, von, Lobegott Friedrich Constantin, 

Ger. philologist and biblical paleographist and critic 1815 

Tissot, Charles Joseph, Fr. diplomat and author 1828. . .1884 

Tissot, Pierre Frangois, Fr. journalist and politician. . 1768. . .1854 

Tissot, Simon Andre", Swiss medical writer 1728. . .1797 

Titian, or Tiziano Vecellio, Venetian painter 1477. . .1576 

Titiens, or Titjens, Therese, Ger. vocalist 1834... 1877 

Tittmann, Johann August Heinrich, Ger. Protestant 

theologian 1773. . .1831 

Titus, Roman emperor 40. . . 81 

To bin, John, Eng. dramatist. [The Honeymoon.] 1770. . .1804 

Tocqneville, de, Alexis Charles Henri Clerel, Fr. 
statesman and political writer. [Democracy in 

America.] 1805. . . 1859 s 

Todd, Rev. Henry John, Eug. archdeacon, biographer, 

and editor 1763. . .1845 

Todd, James Henthorne, Irish archaeologist 1805. . .1869^ 

Todd, John, Am. clergyman and author 1800. . .1873 

Todd, Robert Bentley, Brit, physiologist and anatomist 1809.. .1860^ 

Todhunter, Isaac, Eng. mathematician 1820. . . 1884 

Todleben, Franz Eduard, Russ. military engineer 1818. . .1884 

Toland, John, Irish deistical writer ? 1669. . .1722- 

Toledo, de, Pedro, Marquis of Villafranca, Span. 

statesman and viceroy of Naples 1484. . .1555 

Tollens, Hendrik Corneliszoon, Dutch poet 1780. . .1856 

243 



TOLSTOI— TRENCK 



BORN. DIED. 

Tolstoi, Lyof N., Count, Russ. novelist 1828. . .1889 

Tomiine, George. Pretyman. Eng. prelate. Bishop 

of Winchester and author 1750. ..1827 

Tommaseo, Niccolb, Ital. statesman and scholar ? 1804. . .1874 

Tompkins, Daniel D M Am. statesman 1774. . .1825 

Tone, Theobald Wolfe, Irish revolutionist. [United 

Irishmen.] ., 1763. . .1798 

Tonna, Charlotte Elizabeth, nee Phelan. Charlotte 

Elizabeth. Eng. authoress 1792. . .1846 

Ton stall, or Tunstall, Cuthbert, Eng. bishop and 

statesman ? 1475. . .1559 

Tonti, Lorenzo, Ital. banker in France. [Tontines.]... fl. 1653 
Tooke, John Home, Eng. politician and philologist... . 1736. . .1812 

Toombs, Robert, Am. politician 1810. . .1885 

Tdpffer, Rodolphe, Swiss novelist 1799. . .1846 

Tordenskj old, Peter. WesseJ. Danish admiral 1691... 1720 

Torelli, Giuseppe, Ital. mathematician 1721. . .1781 

ToreSo, de, Don Jose" Maria Queypo de Llano Ruiz de 

Saravia, Count, Span, statesman and historian 1786. . .1843 

Torfaeus, or Tormodus, Icelandic scholar and anti- 
quary 1636. . .1719 

Torlonia, Alessandro, Prince, Ital. capitalist 1800 

Torquemada, de, Juan, Span, theologian and cardinal 1388. . .1468 
Torquemada, de, Tomas, Span, inquisitor-general . . .?1420. . .1498 

Torre, dell a, Giovanni Maria, Ital. physicist ? 1712. . .1782 

Torrey, John, Am. botanist and chemist 1798. . .1873 

Torricelli, Evangelista, Ital. physicist. [Barometer.']. 1608... 1647 

Torrigiano, Pietro, Ital. sculptor 1472. . .1522 

Torstenson, Lennart, Count of Ortala, Swed. general. 1603. . .1651 
Totila, properly Baduila, king of the Ostrogoths in 

Italy. Captured Rome in 546 552 

Tournefort, de, Joseph Pitton, Fr. botanist 1656. . .1708 

Tourville, de, Anne Hilarion de Cotentin, Count, Fr. 

admiral and marshal 1642. . .1701 

Toussaint I/Ouverture, Francois Dominique, Hay- 

tian negro general and liberator 1743. . .1803 

Townshend, Charles, second Viscount, Eng. states- 
man 1676... 1738 

Townshend, Charles. Grandson of Charles. Eng. 

statesman 1725. . .1767 

Towson, John Thomas, Eng. scientific writer on navi- 
gation 1827... 1881 

Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajanus), Roman 

emperor 52. . . 117 

Trail, Russell Thacher, Am. hydropathist 1812. . .1877 

Treadwell, Daniel, Am. inventor 1791 . . .1872 

Tredgold, Thomas, Eng. civil engineer 1788. . .1829 

Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux, Eng. biblical scholar 1813. . .1875 

Trench, Richard Chenevix, archbishop of Dublin. 

Brit, author 1807 

Trenchard, Stephen Decatur, Am. rear-admiral 1818. . .1883 

Trenck, von der, Franz, Baron, Austrian general.... 1711... 1749 

244 



TRENGK—TUPPER 



BORN. DIED. 

Trenck, von der, Friedrich, Baron. Cousin. Prus- 
sian officer imprisoned by Frederick the Great. 

[Memoirs.] 1726... 1794 

Trendelenburg:) Friedrich Adolf, Ger. philosopher. . . 1802. . .1872 
Trentowski, Ferdinand Beonislas, Polish philoso- 
pher 1808 

Tresckow, von, Udo, Pruss. general 1818. . .1885 

Trevelyan, George Otto, Eng. publicist 1838 

Trevi thick, Richard, Eng. engineer and inventor 1771. . .1833 

Trevor, Sir John, Eng. statesman and diplomatist 1626. . .1672 

Trew, Christoph Jakob, Ger. botanist and anatomist. . 1695. . .1769 

Tribolo, di, Niccolb. Pericoli. Ital. sculptor ? 1485. . .1550 

Tricoupis, Spiridon, Greek historian and diplomatist. 1791.. .1873 

Triqueti, de, Henri, Baron, Fr. sculptor 1802. . .1874 

Trithen, Frederick Henry, Swiss linguist 1820. . .1854 

Troehu, Louis Jules, Fr. general ? 1820 

Trollope, Anthony, Eng. novelist 1815. . .1882 

Trollope, Frances, nee Milton, Eng. authoress 1778. . .1863 

Tromp, van, Cornells, Dutch admiral 1629. . .1691 

Tromp, van, Maarten Harpertzoon. Father of C. 

van T. Dutch admiral 1597. ..1653 

Tronchin, Theodore, Swiss physician 1709. . .1781 

Troost, Gerard, Dutch chemist and geologist in Amer- 
ica / 1776... 1850 

Troplong, Raymond Theodore, Fr. jurist 1795. . .1869 

Troughton, Edward, Eng. mechanician 1753. . .1835 

Trousseau, Armand, Fr. physician 1801 . . .1867 

Trowbridge, John Townsend, Am. novelist and poet. . 1827 

Troyon, Constant, Fr. animal and landscape painter. 1813.. .1865 

Trumbull, Benjamin, Am. divine and historian 1735. . .1820 

Trumbull, James Hammond, Am. philologist 1821 

Trumbull, John, Am. satirical poet 1750. . .1831 

Trumbull, John, Am. painter 1756. . .1843 

Trumbull, Jonathan, Am. revolutionary statesman 1740. . .1809 

Truro, Thomas Wilde, Baron, lord high chancellor of 

England 1782... 1855 

Truxtun, Thomas, Am. commodore 1755. . .1822 

Truxtun, William T„ commodore United States navy 1824... 1887 

Try on, William, Brit, colonial governor in America 1788 

Tschirnhausen, von, Ehrenfried Walter, Count, Ger. 

mathematician and philosopher 1651 . . .1708 

Tschudi, JSgidius, or Gilles, father of Swiss history. . . 1505. . .1572 

Tucker, Abraham, Eng. metaphysician 1705. . .1774 

Tucker, St. George, Am. jurist and poet 1752. . .1827 

Tuckerman, Henry Theodore, Am. essayist and art 

critic 1813... 1871 

Tudor, William, Am. author 1779. . .1830 

Tulane, Paul, Am. philanthropist 1800. . .1887 

Tulloch, John, Scot, theologian and author 1822 

Tuomey, Michael, Am. geologist 1805. . .1857 

Tupper, Martin Farquhar, Eng. author. [Proverbial 

Philosophy.] 1810. . .1889 

245 



TURENNE— ULLMANN 



BORN. DIED. 

Turenne, de, Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte, 

marshal of France 1611. . .1675 

Turgeneff, Alexei, Russ. historian 1785. . .1845 

Turgeneff, Ivan, Russ. novelist 1818. . .1883 

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques, Baron de PAulne, Fr. 

financier 1727... 1781 

Turner, Edward, Brit, chemist 1797. . .1839 

^Turner, Joseph Mallord William, Eng. landscape- 
painter 1775... 1851 

Turn er, Samuel Hulbeart, Am. biblical critic 1790 . . .1861 

Turner, Sharon, Eng. historian 1768. . .1847 

Turner, William Wadden, Am. philologist 1810. . .1859 

Turpie, David, Am. lawyer and senator 1837 

Turretini, Frangois, Swiss theologian 1623. . .1687 

Turretini, Jean Alphonse. Son. Swiss theologian... 1671... 1737 

Tus9er, Thomas, Eng. poet ? 1515 . .? 1580 

Tweed, William Marcy. Boss Tweed. Am. politician 

and embezzler 1823. . .1878 

Twesten, August Detley Christian, Ger. theologian. . . 1789. . .1876 

Twesten, Karl. Son. Ger. statesman and author 1820. . .1870 

Twiggs, David Emanuel, Am. general 1790. . .1862 

Twiss, Sir Travers, Eng. jurist.. 1810 

Tychsen, Olaus Gerhard, Ger. orientalist 1734. . .1815 

Tyler, John, tenth President of the United States 1790. . .1862 

Tyler, Moses Coit, Am. professor of English litera- 
ture 1835 

Tyler, Wat, Eng. rebel 1381 

Tyler, William Seymour, Am. linguist 1810 

Tyndale, William, Eng. reformer and martyr ? 1484. . .1536 

Tyndall, John, Brit, physicist 1820 

Tyng, Stephen Higginson, Am. clergyman and 

author 1800. . .1885 

"Tyng, Stephen H. Son. Am. clergyman 1851 

Tyrwhitt, Thomas, Eng. philologist and antiquary. . .. 1730. . .1786 

Tyson, Edward, Eng. physician and anatomist 1649. . .1708 

Tytler, Alexander Fraser, Scot, jurist and historian. . 1747. . .1813 
^Tytler, Patrick Fraser. Son. Scot, historian. [His- 
tory of Scotland.'] 1791. . .1849 

Tzschirner, Heinrich Gottlieb, Ger. theologian 1778. . .1828 



Uccello, Paolo, Florentine painter ? 1390..? 1472 

Udall, Nicholas, Eng. teacher and dramatist.. 1506... 1564 

Ueberweg, Friedrich, Ger. philosopher. [History of 

PMlosophy.] 1826. . .1871 

Uffenbach, von, Zacharias Conrad, Ger. scholar 1683. . .1734 

Uhlan d, Johann Ludwig, Ger. lyric poet 1787. . .1862 

Uhrich, Jean Jacques Alexis, Fr. general 1802 

Ulfilas, or Ulphilas, bishop of the Goths. [Meso-Gothic 
Bible, earliest known specimen of the Teutonic lan- 
guage.] ? 311 . . .? 381 

Ullmaun, Karl, Ger. theologian 1796. . .1865 

246 



ULL OA— VALLANDIGHA M 



BORN. DIED. 

Ulloa, de, Antonio, Span, mathematician and naval 

officer 1716. . .1795 

Ulloa, de, Francisco, Span, discoverer of California.. . fl. 1540 

Ulpian (Domitius Ulpianus), Roman jurist 228 

TJlrich, Titus, Ger. poet 1813 

Ulrici, Hermann, Ger. philosopher and critic 1806 

Umbreit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl, Ger. Protestant 

theologian 1795. . .1860 

Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans in Connecticut 168S 

linger, Franz, Austrian paleontologist 1800. . .1870 

Upham, Charles Wentworth, Am. author 1802. . .1875 

Upham, Thomas Cogswell, Am. metaphysician 1799. . .1872 

Upton, Emory, brigadier-general United States army. 

[Upton's Tactics. 1 ] 1828. . .1881 

Urban II., Othon de Lagny, pope. [First Crusade.']. . .? 1042. . .1091) 

Urban V. , Guillaume de Grimoard, pope 1309. . .1370 

Urban VI. , Bartolommeo Butilli-PrignanO, pope 1318. . .1389 

Urban VIII., Maffeo Barberini, pope 1568. . .1644 

Ure, Andrew, Scot, chemist 1778. . .1857 

Urich, Joseph Alexis, Fr. soldier 1802. . .1881 

Urquhart, David, Scot, writer and politician 1805. . .1877 

Urquiza, de, Juste Jose", Argentine general and states- 
man 1800 . . . 1870 

Ursinns, Fulvius, Ital. classical scholar and antiquary 1529. . .1600 
Usher, or Ussher, James, Irish prelate and author — 1580. . .1656 

Uvaroff, Sergei, Count, Russ. statesman 1785 . . .1855 

Uwins, Thomas, Eng. painter 1783. . .1857 



Vaccaj, Nicolo, Ital. musical composer 1791. . .1849 

Vaccaro, Andrea, Ital. painter 1598. . .1670 

Vacherot, Etienne, Fr. philosopher 1809 

Vaillant, Le, Francois, Fr. ornithologist and traveler 1753... 1824 

Vaillant, SCbastien, Fr. botanist and author 1669. . .1722 

Valckenaer, Lodewijk Casper, Dutch philologist and 

critic 1715 ... 1785 

Valdemar. See Waldemar. 

Valde*s, Juan, Span, reformer in Italy ? 1495... 1540 

Valdez. See Melendez Valdez. 

Valdivia, de, Don Pedro, Span, conqueror of Chili....? 1510... 1559 

Valenciennes, Pierre Henri, Fr. landscape-painter. . . 1750. . .1819 

Valenin, Gabriel Gustav, Ger. physiologist 1810. . .1883 

Valentine, Saint, ecclesiastical martyr at Rome 270 

Valentine, William Winston, Am. philologist 1828. . .1885 

Valentinian, or Valentinianus I., Flavius, Roman 

emperor 321... 375 

Valerian (Publius Lucinius Valerianus), Roman em- 
peror ? 268 

Valette, de la, Jean Parisot, grand master of the 

Knights of Malta 1494. . .1568 

Valla, Lorenzo, Ital. philologist ... ? 1406 . .? 1457 

Vallandigham, Clement Laird, Am. politician 1820... 1871 

247 



VALLA URI— VAN SCHENDEL 



BORN. DIED. 

Vallauri, Tommaso, Ital. philologist 1805 

Valliere, de la. Mile. Frangoise Louise de la Bamne 

Le Blanc, Duchess, favorite of Louis XIV. of France 1644. . .1710 

Vallisnieri, Antonio, Ital. naturalist 1661. . .1730 

Valois, de, Charles, Fr. antiquary. [Valesiana.'] 1603. . .1676 

Valpy, Richard, Eng. classical scholar 1754. . .1836 

Valsalva, Antonio Maria, Ital. anatomist 1666. . .1723 

Vambe"ry, Arminius, Hungarian traveler and orient- 
alist 1832 

Vanbrugh, Sir John, Eng. dramatist 1666. . .1726 

Van Buren, Martin, eighth President of the United 

States : 1782. . .1862 

Vance, Zebulon Baird, Am. senator 1830 

Vancouver, George, Eng. navigator ? 1758. . .1798 

Vandamme, Dominique, Count, Fr. general 1770. . .1830 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, Am. capitalist 1794. . .1877 

Vanderbilt, William H. Son. Am. capitalist and 

railroad king 1885 

Vander Heist, Bartholomew, Dutch portrait-painter.? 1610..? 1670 

Vanderlyn, John, Am. painter 1776. . .1852 

Van der Meer, Jan. The Elder. Dutch painter ? 1625. . .1685 

Van der Meer, Jan. The Younger. Son. Dutch 

painter 1660... 1704 

Van der Meulen. See Meulen, van der. 

Van der Stucken, Frank, Am. musical conductor 1841 

Vandervelde, Willem. The Elder. Dutch marine 

painter 1610. . .1693 

Vandervelde, Willem. The Younger. Son. Dutch 

marine painter 1633. . .1707 

Vanderwerf, Adriaan, Dutch painter 1659. . .1722 

Vandyke, or Van Dyck, Sir Anthony, Flemish por- 
trait-painter, for some years in England, where he 

died 1599... 1641 

Vane, Sir Henry, Eng. republican statesman 1612.. .1662 

Van Erpen, Thomas. See Erpenius. 

Van Eyck. See Eyck, van. 

Van Helmont. See Helmont, van. 

Vanini, Lucilio, Ital. philosopher ? 1585. . .1619 

Vanloo, Charles Andre\ Carle Vanloo. Fr. painter. . . 1705. . .1765 

Vanl oo, Jean Baptiste. Brother. Fr. painter 1684 . . . 1745 

Vanmander. See Mandcr, van. 
Van Mons. See Mons. 

Vanni, Francesco, Ital. painter ? 1565. . .1609 

Vannucci, Pietro. See Ferugino, II. 

Va n Oost, Jacob. The Elder. Flemish painter ? 1600 . . .1671 

Van Oosterzee, Jan Jacob, Dutch theologian 1807 

Van Ostade. See Ostade, van. 

Van Praet, Jules, Belgian diplomate and historian... 1806... 1887 

Van Rensselaer, Solomon, Am. general 1774. . .1852 

Van Rensselaer, Stephen. The Patroon. Am. 

statesman 1764. . J 

Van Schendel, Petrus, Belgian painter 1806. 

248 



VANVITELLI— VELA SQ UEZ 



BORN. DIED. 

Vanvi telli, Luigi, Ital. architect 1700. . .1773 

Van Wart, Isaac, one of the captors of Andre* 1746. . .1828 

Vapereau, Louis Gustave, Fr. biographer 1819 

Varehi, Benedetto, Ital. historian and poet 1502. . .1565 

Varen, Bernhard, Dutch geographer and physician. ...? 1610..? 1660 
Vargas, Jose", Span, physician. President of Venezu- 
ela 1786. ..1854 

Vargas, de, Luis, Span, painter 1502. ..1568 

Varignon, Pierre, Fr. mathematician 1654. . .1722 

Varu hagen, de, Francisco Adolpho, Brazilian author 1816 

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August Ludwig Philipp, 

Gter. biographical and miscellaneous writer 1785 . . . 1858 

Varoli, Constanzo, Ital. anatomist. [Pons Varolii.] . . . .? 1543. . .1575 
Varro, Marcus Terentius, Roman scholar and 

writer B.C. 116... 28 

Vasari, Giorgio, Ital. biographer of artists 1512. . .1574 

Vasco de Gama. See Gama. 
Vasquez de Coronado. See Coronado. 
Vassar, John Guy. Brother of M. V. Am. philanthro- 
pist 1821.. .1888 

Vassar, Matthew, Am. philanthropist. [Vassar College.] 1792... 1868 
Vater, Johann Severin, Ger. philologist and theologian 1771. . .1826 
Vattel, de, Emmeric, Swiss publicist. [Law of Nations.] 1714. . .1767 
Vauban, de, Se*bastien Leprestre, Marquis, Fr. mil- 
itary engineer and marshal 1633. . .1707 

Vaucanson, de, Jacques, Fr. mechanician. [Autom- 
ata.'] 1709... 1782. 

Vaudreuil, de, Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis, Fr. gov- 
ernor-general of Canada ? 1641. . .1725 

Vaudreuil, de, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis. Son. Last 

Fr. governor of Canada. 1698. . .1764 

Vaugelas, de, Claude Favre, Fr. grammarian 1585. . .1650 

Vaughan, Henry. The Silurist. Brit, poet . . 1621 . . . 1695 

Vaughan, Sir John, Brit, general in America 1738. . .1795 

Vaughan, Robert, Eng. divine, historian, and editor 

of the British Quarterly Review 1795.. .1868 

Vaulabelle, de, Achille Tenaille, Fr. historian and 

journalist 1799 

Vauquelin, Louis Nicolas, Fr. chemist. [Chromium.] 1763. ..1829 

Vaux, Roberts, Am. philanthropist 1786. . .1836 

Vaux, de, Noel de Jourda, marshal of France 1705. . .1788 

Vecchi, de, Giovanni, Ital. painter 1536. . .1614 

Vecellio, Marco di Tiziano, Venetian painter 1545. . .1611. 

Vega. See Garcilaso de la Vega. 

Vega. See- L.ope de Vega Carpio. 

Vega, von, Georg, Baron, Ger. mathematician. [Log" 

arithmical Tables.] 1756. . .1802* 

Vehse, Karl Eduard, Ger. historian 1802. . .1870 

Veit, Philipp, Ger. painter 1793. . .1854 

Veitch, John, Scot, metaphysician. 1830. . .1885 

Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y, Span, painter. 

[Meninas.] 1599. . .1660 

249 



VELDE— VICTOR 



BORN. DIED. 

Velde, van der, Franz Karl, Ger. novelist 1779. . .1824 

Velpeau, Alfred Armand Louis Marie, Fr. surgeon. . . . 1795. . .1867 

Venddme, de, Louis Joseph, Due, Fr. general 1654. . .1712 

Venedey, Jakob, Ger. politician and author 1805. . .1871 

'Veneziano, Agostino. AugusUnus de Musis. Ital. 

en graver ? 1490 . .? 1540 

Veniero, Domenico, Venetian poet 1517. . .1582 

Ventura de Raulica, Gioaccbino. Father Ventura. 

Ital. pulpit orator. , 1792. . .1861 

Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph, Belgian painter 1799. . .1881 

Verdi, Giuseppe, Ital. musical composer 1814 

Vere, de, Sir Aubrey, Irish poet. 1788. . .1846 

Vere, de, Edward, seventeenth Earl of Oxford, Eng. 

poet and courtier. ? 1540. . .1604 

Vere, de, Thomas. Son of Sir Aubrey. Eng. poet and 

miscellaneous writer 1814 

Vergennes, de, Charles Gravier, Count, Fr. statesman 1717. . .1787 

Vergil, Polydore, Ital. historian in England ? 1470. . .1555 

Vergniaud, Pierre Victurnien, Fr. revolutionist 1759. . .1793 

Vermigli, Pietro. See Peter Martyr. 

Vernet, Antoine Charles Horace. Carle Vernet. Son 

of C. J. V. Fr. painter. [The Battle of Marengo.'] .... 1758. . .1836 
Vernet, Claude Joseph. Joseph Vernet. Fr. marine 

painter 1714... 1789 

Vernet, Jean Emile Horace. Horace Vernet. Son of 

A. C. H. V. Fr. painter of military subjects 1789. . .1863 

Vernon, Edward, Eng. admiral 1684. . .1757 

Veron, Louis Desire, Fr. journalist. 1798. . .1867 

Veronese, Paul. See Cagliari ? 1530. . .1588 

Verplanck, Gulian Crommelin, Am. author 1786. . .1870 

Verrazano, Giovanni, Florentine navigator. 1485..? 1527 

Verri, Pietro, Ital. political economist 1728. . .1797 

Verstegan, Richard, Eng. antiquary ? 1635 

Vertot, de, Rene" Aubert, Fr. historian 1655. . .1735 

Vertue, George, Eng. engraver 1684. . .1756 

Vesalius, Andreas, Dutch anatomist 1514. . .1564 

Vespasian (Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus), Ro- 
man emperor 9... 79 

Vespucci, Amerigo (Lat. Americus Vespucius), Ital. 

navigator from whom America is named 1451. . .1512 

Vestrig, Gaetano Apolino Baldassare, Fr. dancer 1729. . .1808 

Vestris, Lucia Elizabeth, Mme. (Mrs. Matthews), Eng. 

actress . 1797. . .1856 

Veuillet, Louis, Fr. journalist and author 1813. . .1883 

Viardot, Louis, Fr. author 1800. ..1883 

Viardot, Michelle Pauline Garcia, Fr. actress 1821 

Vicat, Louis Joseph, Fr. engineer. [Hydraulic cement.] 1786. . .1861 

Vicente, Gil, Port, dramatist ? 1485..? 1557 

Vico, Giovanni Battista, Ital. philosopher 1668. . .1744 

Vicq d'Azyr, Felix, Fr. anatomist 1748. . .1794 

Victor, or Victor-Perrin, Claude, Duke of Belluno, 

marshal of France 1764. . .1841 

250 



VICTOR AMADEUS IL—VIKCEXT 

BORN. DIED. 

Victor Amadeus II., duke of Savoy and king of Sar- 
dinia 1666... 1732 

Victor Emmanuel I., king of Sardinia 1759. . .1824 

Victor Emmanuel II., of Sardinia, and first king 

of Italy 1820... 1878 

Victoria, or Vitoria, Francisco, Span, theologian ?1550 

Victoria (Victoria Alexandrina), queen of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland and empress of India 1819 

Vida, Marco Girolamo, Ital. Latin poet ? 1485. . .1566 

Vidocq, Eugene Francois, Fr. convict and detective. . . 1775. . .1850 

Vien, Joseph Marie, Fr. historical painter. 1716. . .1809 

Viennet, Jean Pons Guillaume, Fr. politician and 

author 1777 . . .1868 

Vieta, Francis (Francois), Fr. mathematician 1540. . .1603 

Vieussens, Raymond, Fr. physician 1641..? 1720 

Vieuxtemps, Henri, Belgian violinist 1820. . .1881 

Vignola, da, Giacomo Barozzio, Ital. architect 1507. . .1573 

Vigny, de, Alfred Victor, Comte, Fr. poet and nov- 
elist 1799 . . . 1863 

Vikramaditya I., Hindu sovereign fl. ? 56 B. C. 

Villaneuva, de, Joaquin Lorenzo, Span, patriot and 

author 1757... 1837 

Villani, Giovanni, Ital. historian ? 1280. . .1348 

Villard, Henry, Ger. financier in America 1839 

Villars, de, Claude Louis Hector, Due, marshal of 

France 1653... 1734 

Vi lie gas, de, Este*ban Manuel, Span, lyric poet 1596. . .1669 

Villeh ardouin, de, Geoffroy, Fr. historian and diplo- 
matist ?1165..?1213 

Villele, de, Jean Baptiste Se"raphin Joseph, Count, 

Fr. statesman and minister of finance 1773. . .1854 

Villemain, Abel ^Francois, Fr. historian and educa- 
tionist 1790... 1870 

Villena, de, Don Enrique, Marquis, Span, scholar 1384. . .1434 

Villenave, Mathieu Guillaume The*rese, Fr. author... 1762... 1846 
Villeneuve, de, Pierre Charles Jean Baptiste Silves- 

tre, Fr. admiral 1763... 1806 

Villerme", Louis Rene", Fr. medical and statistical 

writer 1782... 1863 

Villeroi, de, Francois de Neufville, Due, marshal of 

France 1644... 1730 

Villers, de, Charles Francois Dominique, Fr. philos- 
opher ? 1765 . . . 1815 

Villiers, George. See Buckingham. 

Villoison, de, Jean Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse, Fr. 

Greek scholar ? 1750. . .1805 

Vince, Samuel, Eng. mathematician and astronomer 1821 

Vincennes, de, Jean Baptiste Bissot-"Sieur, Canadian 

founder of Vincennes, Indiana 1688. . .1736 

Vincent, Frank, Am. traveler and author 1841 

Vincent, John Heyl, D.D., LL.D., Am. educator and 

Methodist Episcopal bishop 1832 

251 



VINCENT— VOSS 



BORN. DIED. 

Vincent, Marvin Richardson, Am. Presbyterian min- 
ister and author 1834 

Vincent^ William, Eng. classical scholar 1739. . .1815 

Vincent de Paul, Saint, Fr. Roman Catholic re- 
former. Founder of the " Sisters of Charity ".' 1576. . .1660 

Vinci, da, Leonardo, Florentine painter. [Last Swp- 

per.-] 1452... 1519 

Vincke, von, Ernst Friedrich George, Pruss. orator 

and statesman 1811 

Viner, Cbarles, Eng. legal writer ? 1680. . .1756 

Vinet, Alexandre Rodolphe, Swiss theologian and 

author 1797... 1847 

Vinton, Alexander Hamilton, Am. Protestant Epis- 
copal divine 1807. . .1881 

Viollet-Leduc, Eugene Emmanuel, Fr. architect 1814 

Viotti, Giovanni Battista, Ital. violinist ? 1755. . .1824 

Virchow, Rudolf, Ger. pathologist 1821 

Viret, Pierre, Swiss Protestant reformer 1511. . .1571 

Virey, Julien Joseph, Fr. physician and medical 

writer 1775. ..1846 

Virgil (Publius Virgilius Maro), Roman poet B. C. 70. . . 19 

Viriathus, Lusitanian warrior B. C 140 

Viscaino, Sebastian, Span, navigator n. 1602 

Vise her, Peter, Ger. sculptor and founder ? 1460. . .1530 

Visconti, Ennio Quirino, Ital. archaeologist. . . . 1751. . .1818 

Visco n ti, Matteo I. The Great. Lord of Milan 1250 . . . 1322 

Vitel lius, Aulus, emperor of Rome 15... 69 

Vittorino da Feltre, Ital. educationist 1379. . .1447 

Vives, Juan Luis, Span, scholar and writer 1492. . .1540 

Vi viani, Vincenzo, Ital. mathematician 1622. . .1703 

Vladimir. The Great. Grand duke of Russia 1015 

Voelcker, Augustus, Eng. chemist 1823. . .1884 

Vogel, Eduard, Ger. traveler in Africa 1829. . .1856 

Vogt, Karl, Ger. naturalist and physiologist 1817 

Vogue*, de, Charles Jean Melchior, Count, Fr. archae- 
ologist ? 1825 

Voigt, Johannes, Ger. historian 1786. . .1863 

Voiture, Vincent, Fr. poet 1598.. .1648 

Volkmann, Alfred Wilhelm, Ger. physiologist 1801. . .1877 

Volney, de, Constantin Francois Chassebceuf, Count, 

Fr. author and infldel 1757. . . 1820 

Volta, Alessandro, Ital. physicist. [ Voltaic pile.'] 1745 . . . 1827 

Voltaire, de, Francois Marie Arouet, Fr. author 1694. . .1778 

Volterra, da, Daniele. Bicciarelli. Ital. painter 1509..? 1566 

Vondel, van den, Joost, Dutch poet 1587... 1679 

Von Werder. See Werder; 

Vorontzoff, Mikhail, Prince, Russ. field-marshal 1782... 1856 

Vdrosmarty, Mihaly, Hunfarian poet. [Szdzat.] 1800. . .1856 

Vorstius, Conrad, Ger. Protestant divine and contro- 
versial writer 1569. ..1622 

Vortigern, king of the Britons 485 

Voss, Johann Heinrich, Ger. poet and philologist 1751. . .1826 

252 



VOSSIUS— WALLA GE 



BORN. DIED. 

Vossim, Gerard Jan, Gter.-Dutch philologist and 

author 1577.. .1649 

Vouet, Simon, Fr. painter 1590. . .1649 

Vuillaume, Jean Baptiste, Fr. violin-maker 1798. . .1874 

Vulpiau, Edmond Felix Alfred, Fr. chemist and phy- 
sician 1826... 1887 

Vulpius, Christian August, Ger. writer. [Rinaldo 

Rinaldini.] 1762 . . .1827 



Waagen, Gustav Friedrich, Ger. art critic 1794. . .1868 

Wace, Master Robert, Anglo-Norman poet ? 1112..? 1184 

Wachter, Johann Georg, Ger. scholar and archaeolo- 
gist 1673... 1757 

Wachter, von, Karl Georg, Ger. jurist 1797 

Waddington, William Henry, Fr. archaeologist and 

statesman, of English descent 1826 

Wade, Benjamin Franklin, Am. senator 1800. . .1878 

Wadsworth, James, Am. philanthropist 1768. . .1844 

Wagner, Moritz Friedrich, Ger. traveler and natu- 
ralist 1813 

Wagner, Richard, Ger. musical composer 1813. . .1883 

Wagner, Rudolph. Brother of M. F. W. Ger. physi- 
ologist 1805. . .1864 

Wagner, Rudolph Johannes, Ger. chemist 1823 

Wahab. See Abd-el-Wahab. 

Waite, Morrison Remich, chief-justice of the United 

States 1816 . . . 1888 

Wakefield, Gilbert, Eng. philologist and critic 1756. . .1801 

Wakefield, Mrs. Priscilla, Eng. authoress 1751. . .1832 

Wakley, Thomas, Eng. physician. Founder of the 

London Lancet 1795. . .1862 

Walch, Christian Wilhelm Franz, Ger. ecclesiastical 

historian 1726. . .1784 

Walckenaer, Charles Athanase, Baron, Fr. author. . . 1771. . .1852 

Waldemar I. The Great. King of Denmark 1131 . . .1181 

Waldseemuller, Martin, Ger. compiler .? 1470. .aft. 1522 

Walewski, Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna, Count 

and Duke, Fr. statesman, born in Poland 1810. . .1868 

Walker, Amasa, Am. political economist 1799. . .1875 

Walker, Frederick, Eng. painter 1840. . .1876 

Walker, James, Am. clergyman. President of Har- 
vard College 1794 ... 1874 

Walker, John,. Eng. lexicographer 1732. . .1807 

Walker, Robert James, Am. statesman 1801. . .1869 

Walker, Sears Cook, Am. mathematician 1805. . .1853 

Walker, William, Am. filibuster in Nicaragua. Ex- 
ecuted 1824... 1860 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, Eng. naturalist 1822 

Wallace, Horace Binney, Am. author 1817. . .1852 

"Wallace, Sir William, Scot, hero and patriot ? 1270. . .1305 

Wallace, William Vincent, Irish musical composer. . . 1815. . .1856 

253 



WALLA GK— WARREN 



BORN. DIED. 

Wallack, James William, Eng.-Am. actor 1795. . .1864r 

Wallack, Lester. Son of J. W. W. Am. actor 1818 . . .188a 

Wa lie ostein, von, Albrecnt Wenzel Eusebius, 

Coimt, Austrian general. Assassinated 1583 . . . 1634 

Waller, Edmund, Eng. poet 1605.. .1687 

Waller, Sir William, Eng. parliamentary general 1597. . .1668 

Wallin, Johan Olof, Swed. poet and preacher 1779. . .1839 

Wallis, John, Eng. mathematician 1616. . .1703 

Wallon, Henri Alexandre, Fr. author 1812 

Walmesley, Charles, Eng. Benedictine monk and 

mathematf cian 1721 . . . 1797 

Walpole, Horace, fourth Earl of Orford. Son of Sir 

Bobert. Eng. author and wit 1717. . .1797 

Walpole, Sir Robert, Earl of Orford, Eng. statesman. 1676... 1745 

Walsh, Robert, Am. author and journalist 1784. . .1859 

Walsingham, Sir Francis, Eng. statesman ? 1536. . .1590 

Walter, Johann Gottlieb, Ger. physician and anat- 
omist ? 1735... 1818 

Walter, John, founder of the London Times 1739. . .1812 

Walter, Thomas Ustick, Am. architect. 1804 

Walther von der Vogelweide, Ger. minnesinger...? 1170..? 1228 
Walton, George, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ? 1740 . . .1804 

Walton, Izaak, Eng. writer. [The Complete Angler.'].. . 1593. . .1683 

Walworth, Reuben Hyde, Am. jurist 1789. . .1867 

Warbeck, Perkin, pretender to the crown of England. 

Hanged 1499 

Warbnrton, Adolphus F., Am. stenographer 1828. . .1888 

Warburton, Eliot Bartholomew George, Irish author. 1810. . .1852 
War burton, William, Eng. prelate. Bishop of 

Gloucester and author 1698. . .1779 

Ward, Andrew Harrison, Am. lawyer and legislator. . 1815 

Ward, Artemas, Am. Revolutionary general 1727. . .1800 

Ward, Durbin, Am. soldier and politician 1819. ..1886 

Ward, Edward Matthew, Eng. painter 1816 

Ward, John Quincy Adams, Am. sculptor 1830 

Ward, Marcus A., governor of New Jersey 1812. . .1884 

Ward, Robert Plumer, Eng. statesman and miscel- 
laneous writer '. 1765. . .1846 

Wardlaw, Ralph, Scot. Non-conformist divine 1779. . .1853 

Ware, Henry, Am. clergyman and professor of divinity 1764. . .1845 

Ware, Henry, Jr. Son of H. W. Am. clergyman 1794. . .1843 

Ware, William. Son of H. W. Am. author. [Zenobia.] 1797... 1852 

Waring, Edward, Eng. mathematician 1736. . .1798 

Warner, Charles Dudley, Am. author 1829 

Warner, Colonel Seth, Am. Revolutionary officer 1743... 1?84 

Warner, Susan. Elizabeth Wetherell. Am. authoress. 

[Wide, Wide World.-] 1818.. .1885 

Warren, Gouverneur Kemble, Am. general 1830 

Warren, John. Brother of General Joseph. Am. phy- 
sician 1753... 1815 

Warren, Sir John Borlase, Eng. admiral 1754. . .1822 

254 



WARREN— WEDEL 



BORN. DIED.- 

Warren, John Collins. Son of Dr. John. Am. physi- 
cian and anatomist 1778. . .185(T 

Warren, General Joseph, Am. physician and patriot. 

Kil led at Bunker Hill 1741 . . .1775 

Warren, Sir Peter, Brit, admiral 1703. . .1752 

Warren, Samuel, Eng. novelist. {Ten Thousand a Tear J] 1807. . .1877 

Warren, William, Jr., Am. comedian 1812 

Warrington, Lewis, Am. naval officer. 1782. . .1851 

Warton, Joseph, Eng. poet and critic 1722. . .1800 

Warton, Thomas. Brother. Eng. poet-laureate and 

critic 1728... 1790 

Warwick, John Dudley, Earl of, and Duke of North- 
umberland. Father of Lord Guilford Dudley. Be- 
headed 1502... 1552 

Warwick, Richard Neville, Earl of. The King-maker. 

Eng. warrior , . .? 1420. . .1471 

Washburn, Edward A., Protestant Episcopal rector 

in New York 1819. . .1881 

Washburn, Elihu Benjamin, Am. diplomatist 1816. . .1887 

Washburn, William B., governor of Massachusetts. . . 1820. . .1887 
Washington, George, general and first President of 

the United States 1732. . .1799 

Waterloo, Antoni, Dutch painter and engraver ? 1600. . .1662 

Waterton, Charles, Eng. naturalist and traveler . 1782.. .1865 

Watson, James Craig, Am. astronomer 1838 

Watson, John Fanning, Am. author 1779. . .1860 

Watson, Richard, Eng. prelate. Bishop of Llandaff 

and author 1737... 1816 

Watt, James, Scot, inventor 1736. . .1819 

Watteau, Jean Antoine, Fr. painter 1684. . .1721 

Watterson, Henry, Am. editor and congressman. 

[Louisville Courier -Journal J] 1840 

Watts, George Frederick, Eng. painter 1820 

Watts, Isaac, Eng. dissenting minister and poet. 

[Watts's Hymns.'] 1674. . .1748 

Waugh, Alexander, Scot, minister in London 1754. . .1827 

Way, A. J. H., Am. artist 1826 . . . 1888 

Wayland, Francis, Am. divine and moral philosopher 1796. . .1865 

Wayne, Anthony, Am. Revolutionary general 1745. . .1796 

Webb, James, Eng. swimmer. Browned in Niagara 

Rapids 1848 . . . 1883 

Webb, James Watson, Am. journalist 1802. . .1884 

Weber, Paul, Ger. landscape-painter ? 1820 

Weber, Wilhelm Eduard, Ger. physicist 1804 

Weber, von, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Baron, Ger. 

musical composer 1786. . .1826 

Webster, Daniel, Am. statesman and orator 1782 . . . 1852 

Webster, John, Eng. dramatist fl. 17th c. 

Webster, Noah, Am. lexicographer 1758. . .1843 

Wedderburn, Alexander, Baron Loughborough and 

Earl of Rosslyn, Brit, jurist and statesman 1733. . .1805 

Wedel, Georg Wolfgang, Ger. physician and writer. . . 1645. . .1721 

255 



WEDGWOOD— WHEATLEY 



BORN. DIED. 

Wedgwood, Josiah, Eng. potter 1730.. .1795 

Weed, Thurlow, Am. journalist 1797. . .1882 

Weeninx, Jan Baptist. The Old. Dutch painter 1621. . .1660 

Wehli, Charles, composer and pianist 1822. . .1887 

Weigel, von, Christian Ehrenfried, Ger. naturalist... 1748... 1831 

Weil, Gustav, Ger. orientalist 1808 

Weilen, Joseph, real name Weil, Ger. poet 1828 

Weir, Robert Walter, Am. painter 1803 

Weisbach, Julius, Ger. mathematician 1806. . .1871 

Weishaupt, Adam, Ger. professor of canon law, and 
founder of the order of the •• Illuminati," a human- 
itarian society. 1748. . .1830 

Weisse, Christian Felix, Ger. author 1726 . . . 1804 

Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb, Ger. archaeologist 1784. . .1868 

Wellesley, Richard Colley, Marquis. Brother of the 
Duke of Wellington. Brit, statesman and governor- 
general of India 1760. . .1842 

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of, Brit. 

field-marshal 1769... 1852 

Wells, Clark H ., rear-admiral United States navy 1822. . .1888 

Wells, David Ames, Am. economist 1828 

Wells, Gideon, secretary of the United States navy. . . . 1807. . .1878 

Wells, Horace, Am. dentist. [Ancesthesia.] 1815. . .1848 

Wells, Samuel Roberts, Am. phrenologist 1820. . .1875 

Wenceslaus, emperor of Ger. and king of Bohemia. . 1361. . .1419 
Wentworth, Benning, governor of New Hampshire. . 1696.. .1770 
Wentworth, Sir John. Nephew of B. W. Governor of 

New Hampshire . . 1736 . . . 1820 

Werder, von, August, Pruss. general 1808. . .1887 

Werder, Ludwig, Ger. inventor of the Werder gun 1885 

Wergeland, Henrik Arnold, Norwegian poet 1808. . .1845 

Werner, Abraham Gottlob, Ger. geologist and miner- 
alogist. [Neptunian theory.] 1750. . .1817 

Werner, Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias, Ger. dramatist 1768. . .1823 
Wesley, Charles. Brother. Eng. Methodist preacher. 1708.. .1788 

Wesley, John, Eng. founder of Methodism 1703. . .1791 

Wessel, Jan. Gansfort. Dutch theologian and re- 
former 1419... 1489 

"West, Benjamin, Am. painter in England 1738. . .1820 

Westall, Richard, Eng. painter in water -colors 1765. . .1836 

Westcott, Brooke Foss, Eng. professor of divinity 1825. . . .... 

Wester gaard, Niels Ludwig, Danish orientalist 1815. . .1878 

We stmacott, Sir Richard, Eng. sculptor 1775.. .1856 

Wettstein, Johann Jakob, Swiss theologian 1693. . .1754 

Wharton, Francis, Am. jurist and theologian 1820 

Wharton, Henry, Eng. clergyman and eccles. writer 1664... 1695 
Wharton, Philip, Duke of. Son of Thomas. Eng. 

orator and poet 1698.. .1731 

Wharton, Thomas, Marquis of, Eng. statesman ? 1640. . .1715 

Wharton, Thomas, Eng. anatomist. [Wharton's duet.].? 1610. . .1673 
Whately, Richard, archbishop of Dublin and author. 1787. . .1863 
Wheatley, Phillis, Am. Negro poetess, born in Africa.? 1753. . .1794 

256 



WHEA TON— WILDENO W 



BORN. DIED. 

Wheaton, Henry, Am. publicist and diplomatist 1785. . .1848 

Wheatstone, Sir Charles, Eng. physicist 1802. . .1875 

Whedon, Daniel D., Am. Methodist minister and com- 
mentator 1807. . .1885 

Wheeler, William Adolphus, Am. lexicographer 1833. . .1874 

Wheeler, William Almon, nineteenth vice-president 

of the United States 1819... 1887 

Wheelock, Eleazer, Am. clergyman. Founder and 

first president of Dartmouth College 1711 . . .1779 

Wheel right, John, Am. clergyman, horn in England. 

Founder of Exeter, New Hampshire 1594 . . .1679 

Whewell, William, Eng. philosopher and scholar.... 1794... 1866 

Whipple, Abraham, Am. naval officer 1733. . .1819 

Whipple, Edwin Percy, Am. essayist and critic 1819. . .1886 

W r histon, William, Eng. divine and mathematician .... 1667. . .1752 
White, Andrew Dickson, Am. scholar. President of 

Cornell University 1832 

White, Henry Kirke. Kirke White. Eng. poet, born 

in Spain 1785. . .1806 

White, Joseph Blanco, Eng. author 1775. . .1841 

White, Richard Grant, Am. author 1822. . . 1885 

Whitefield, George, Eng. preacher and founder of 

Calvinistic Methodists 1714... 1770 

Whitehead, William, Eng. poet 1715. ..1785 

Whitelock, Bulstrode, Eng. statesman 1605 ..1676 

Whitgift, John, Eng. prelate. Archbp. of Canterbury 1530... 1604 

Whiting, William, Am. lawyer 1813. . .1873 

Whitman, Walt, Am. poet 1819 

Whitmore, Thomas, Am. clergyman and author 1800. . .1861 

Whitney, Adeline D., nee Train, Am. authoress 1824 

Whitney, Eli, Am. inventor. [Cotton-gin.'] 1765. . .1825 

Whitney, Josiah Dwight. Brother of W. B. W. Am. 

geologist 1819 

Whitney, William Dwight, Am. comparative philol- 
ogist 1827 

Whittier, John Greenleaf , Am. poet 1807 

Whittington, Sir Richard, lord mayor of London. . . .fl. 1393. . .1419 

Whittlesey, Charles, Am. soldier and geologist 1808 

Whitworth, Sir Joseph, Eng. engineer and mechani- 
cian 1803 . . . 1887 

Wichern, Johann Heinrich, Ger. philanthropist 1808 

Wieland, Christoph Martin, Ger. poet 1733. . .1813 

Wiertz, Antoine Joseph, Belgian painter 1806. . .1865 

Wieselgren, Peter, Swed. philanthropist and author. 1800 

Wight, Orlando Williams, Am. author and translator. 1824 

Wikoff, Chevalier, Am. author, diplomate, and traveler 1813. . .1884 
Wilberforce, William, Eng. philanthropist and 

statesman 1759. . .1833 

Wilbrord, or Willibrod, Saint, apostle of the Frisians ? 657. . . 738 
Wilcox, Ella Wheeler, Am. poetess. [Poems of Pas- 
sion.] 1854 

Wildeno w, Karl Ludwig, Ger. naturalist 1765. . .1812 

257 



WILDER— WILLIS 



BORN. DIED. 

Wilder, Marshall P., Am. humorist 1851 

Wiley, Isaac W., one of the bishops of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church 1821 . . . 1884 

Wilfred, or Wilfrid, Saint, Anglo-Saxon prelate. 

Bishop of York ?634... 709 

Wilkes, Charles, Am. rear-admiral 1801 . . .1877 

Wilkes, John, Eng. political agitator 1727 . . .1797 

Wilkie, Sir David, Scot, painter 1785. ..1841 

Wilkins, Sir Charles, Eng. Sanskrit scholar 1749. . .1836 

Wilkinson, James, Am. general 1757. . .1825 

Wilkinson, Jemima, Am. religious impostor 1753. . .1819 

Wilkinson, Sir John Gardner, Eng. Egyptologist. .... 1797. . .1875 

Willan, Robert, Eng. physician 1757. . .1812 

Willard, Emma C, nee Hart, Am. educationist 1787. . .1870 

Wille, Johann Georg, Ger. engraver 1715. . .1806 

Wil lems, Jan Frans, Flemish philologist and historian 1793. . .1846 

'William I. Conqueror, King of England 1027. . .1087 

William IT. William Rufus 1056.. .1100 

William III. (William Henry of Nassau, Prince of 

Orange) 1650. ..1702 

William IV., uncle of Queen Victoria 1765. . .1837 

William I. (Frederik Wilhelm), king of the Nether- 
lands 1772... 1843 

William II. (Wilhelm Frederik Georg Lodewijk). . . . 1792. . .1849 
William III. (Wilhelm Alexander Paul Frederik 

Lodewijk) 1817 

William I. (Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig), king of 

Prussia and emperor of Germany 1797. . .1888 

William of Nassau. Same as Orange, William, 

Prince of 1533. . .1584 

Williams, Eleazar, Am. clergyman. Claimed to be 
the son of Louis XVI. of France and Marie Antoi- 
nette ? 1787... 1858 

Williams, Colonel Ephraim, Founder of Williams Col- 
lege, Mass 1715. ..1755 

Williams, John. The Redeemed Captain. Am. divine 1644... 1729 
Williams, John. The Apostle of Polynesia. Eng. mis- 
sionary 1796. . .1839 

Williams, John Stuart. Cerro Gordo Williams. Am. 

soldier 1820 

Williams, Monier, Eng. Sanskrit scholar 1819 

Williams, Roger, Eng. minister, born in Wales. 

Founder of Rhode Island 1599. . .1683 

Williams, Rowland, Eng. clergyman and author 1817. . .1870 

Williams, Samuel Wells, Am. Chinese scholar 1812. . .1884 

Williams, William, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence 1731... 1811 

Williamson, Hugh, Am. physician and scholar 1735. . .1819 

Willis, Francis, Eng. physician for the insane 1718. . .1807 

Willis, Nathaniel Parker, Am. poet and journalist 1806. . .1867 

Willis, Robert, Eng. physicist and mechanician 1800. . .1875 

Willis, Thomas, Eng. physician. [Anatomy of the Brain.] 1621 . .1675 

258 



WILLISTON— WLAD1MIR 



BORN. DIED. 

Williston, Samuel, Am. philanthropist 1795 . . . 1874 

Willoughby, Sir Hugh, Eng. arctic navigator 1554 

Wilmot, David, Am. statesman. [Wilmot proviso.]. . . 1814. . .1868 
Wilson, Alexander, Scot, ornithologist in America. . . . 1766. . .1813 

Wilson, Sir Erasmus, Eng. physician 1809. . .1884 

Wilson, George, Scot, chemist and physician 1818. . .1859 

Wilson, Henry {original name Jeremiah Jones Col- 
bath), eighteenth vice-president of the United 

States 1812... 1875 

Wilson, Horace Hayman, Eng. orientalist 1786. . .1860 

Wilson, James, Am, jurist. Signer of the Declaration 

of Independence 1742. . .1798 

Wilson, John. Christopher North. Scot, author 1785. . .1854 

Wilson, Richard, Eng. painter. ? 1713. . .1782 

Wilson, William Dexter, Am. scholar and author 1816 

Wiman, Erastus, Am. capitalist 1832 8 

Wimpffen, de, Emmanuel Felix, Fr. general of Ger- 
man descent. 1811. . .1884 

Winchell, Alexander, Am. geologist 1824 

Winckeimann, Johann Joachim, Ger. archaeologist. . 1717. . .1768 

Windham, William, Eng. orator and statesman 1750. . .1810 

Wi n dthorst, Ludwig, Pruss. politician 1834 > 

Winebrenner, John, Am. clergyman. [Winebrenne- 

r%ans.~] 1797... 1860 

Winer, George Benedict, Ger. theologian and orient- 
alist 1789... 1858 

Winkelried. See Arnold von Winkelried. 

Winslow, Edward, governor of Plymouth colony 1595. . .1655 

Win slow, Forbes Benignus, Eng. physician 1810. . .1874 

Winslow, Hubbard, Am. clergyman and author 1800. . .1864 

Winslow, Jacques Benigne, Fr. anatomist 1669. . .1760 

Winslow, John A., Am. rear-admiral 1811. . .1873 

Winslow, Miron. Brother of Hubbard. Am. mission- 
ary 1789.. .1864 

Winsor, Frederick Albert, Eng. introducer of gas- 
lights 71762... 1830 

Winthrop, John, governor of Massachusetts colony. . . 1588. . .1649 
Winthrop, John. Son. Governor of Connecticut col- 
ony ... 1606. ..1676 

Winthrop, Robert Charles, Am. statesman and author 1809 

Winthrop, Theodore, Am. author 1828. . .1861 

Wirt, William, Am. lawyer and author 1772. . .1834 

Wiseman, Nicholas, Eng. cardinal and author 1802. . .1865 

Wishart, George. The Martyr. Scot, religious re- 
former 1546 

Wither, George, Eng. poet. [Abuses Stript and Whipt.'] 1588... 1667 
Witherspoon, John, Am. divine, statesman, and au- 
thor. Signer of the Declaration of Independence.. . 1722. . .1794 

Wittekind. The Great. Saxon warrior 807 

Witzleben, von, Karl August Friedrich. Von Trom- 

litz. Ger. novelist 1773 . . .1839 

Wladimir. See Vladimir. 

259 



wOhler— wotton 



BORN. DIED. 

Wohler, Friedrich, Gter. chemist 1800 . . .1882 

Woleott, John. Peter Pindar. Eng. satiric poet 1738. . .1819 

Woleott, Oliver, governor of Connecticut. Signer of 

the Declaration of Independence . . 1726. . . 1797 

Woleott, Oliver. Son of Oliver. Am. statesman 1760. . .1833 

Wolf, von, Christian, Baron, Ger. philosopher 1679. . .1754= 

"Wolf, Fried. August, Ger. classical scholar and critic. 1759. . .1824 
"Wolfe, Charles, Irish poet. [Burial of Sir John Moore.] 1791 . . .1823 

Wolfe, James, Eng. general, killed at Quebec 1726. . .1759 

Wolff, Albert, Ger. sculptor 1814 

Wolff, Emil, Pruss. sculptor 1802 

Wolff, Joseph, Eng. missionary 1795. ..1862 

Wolff, Wilhelm. Thierwolff. Ger. sculptor 1816 

Wollaston, William Hyde, Eng. naturalist and phil. 1766... 1828 
Wollstonecraft, Mary (Mrs. Godwin), Eng. authoress 1759.. .1797 
Wolowski, Louis Francois Michel Raymond, Fr. po- 
litical economist 1810. . .1876 

Wolseley, Sir Garnet Joseph, Brit, general 1833 

Wolsey, Thomas, Eng. cardinal and minister of state. 1471. . .1530 
Wolzogen, von, Karoline, nee von Lengefeld, Ger. 

authoress 1763... 1847 

Wood, Fernando, Am. statesman 1812. . .1881 

Wood, George B., Am. physician and medical writer. . 1797 

Wood, Mrs. Henry, Eng. novelist. [East tyjnne.] 1820. . .1887 

Wood, Robert. Palmyra Wood. Brit, archaeologist... 1716... 1771 

Wood, William Page, Lord Hatherley, Eng. jurist 1801. . .1881 

Woodbury, Levi, Am. jurist and statesman 1789. . .1851 

Woodford, Stewart Lyndon, Am. lawyer and soldier. 1835 

Woods, Leonard, Am. clergyman and author 1774. . .1854 

Woods, Leonard, Jr. Son. Am. scholar. President 

of Bowdoin College 1807... 1878 

Woods, William B., justice of U. S. Supreme Court. . . 1823. . .1887 
Woodworth, Samuel, Am. poet. [Old Oaken Bucket.'] 1785... 1842 

Wool, John EUis, Am. general 1789. . .1869 

Woollett, William, Eng. engraver 1735. . .1785 

Woolman, John, Am. Quaker preacher 1720. . .1773 

Woolner, Thomas, Eng. sculptor 1825 

Woolsey, Theodore Dwight, Am. clergyman and au- 
thor. President of Yale College 1801 

Wooster, David, Am. Revolutionary general 1710. . .1777 

Worcester, Edward Somerset, Marquis of, Eng. 

inventor of steam-engine ? 1601. . .1667 

Worcester, Joseph Emerson, Am. lexicographer 1784. . .1865 

Worcester, Noah, Am. clergyman. [Massachusetts 

Peace Society.] 1758... 1837 

Wordsworth, Christopher, bishop of Lincoln 1807. . .1885 

Wordsworth, William, Eng. poet 1770. . .1850 

Work, Henry Clay, Am. song-writer 1832. . .1884 

Woronicz, John Paul, Polish pulpit orator and poet. . 1757. . .1829 
Worsaae, Jens Jakob Asmussen, Danish antiquary. .. 1821. . .1885 

Worth, William Jenkins, Am. general 1794. . .1849 

Wotton, Sir Henry, Eng. diplomatist and author 1568. . .1639 

260 



WOUVERMAN— YARRELL 



BORN. DIED. 

Wouverman, Philip, Dutch painter 1620. . .1668 

Wrangel, von, Karl Gustaf, Count, Swed. high ad- 
miral, grand marshal, and generalissimo 1613. . .1676- 

Wrangell, von, Ferdinand Petrovitch, Baron, Russ. 

explorer and governor of Russian America ? 1795. . .1870 s 

Wraxall, Charles Lascelles. Grandson. Eng. author. 1828... 1865 
Wraxall, Sir Nathaniel William, Bart., Eng. author.. 1751.. .1831 

Wrede, Karl Philipp, Prince, Ger. field-marshal 1767. . .1838. 

Wren, Sir Christopher, Eng. architect 1632. . .1723 

Wright, Frances (Mme. D'Arusmont). Fanny Wright. 

Scot, social reformer 1795. . .1852: 

Wright, Silas, Am. statesman 1795. ..1847 

Wright, Thomas, Eng. antiquary, born in Wales 1810. . . 

Wright, William, Brit, orientalist, horn in India 1830 

Wrisberg, Heinrich August, Ger. anatomist 1739. . .1808 

Wrottesley, John, Baron, Eng. astronomer 1798. . .1867 

Wurmser, Dagobert Sigismund, Austrian general 1724. . .1797 

Wurtz, Charles Adolphe, Fr. chemist 1817. . .1884 

Wuttke, Heinrich, Ger. historian 1818. . .1876 

Wyatt, James, Eng. architect 1746.'. .1813 

Wyatt, Sir Matthew Digby, Eng. architect 1820. . .1877 

Wyatt, Richard James, Eng. sculptor 1795. . .1850 

Wyatt, Sir Thomas, Eng. courtier, statesman, and poet 1503.. .1542- 

Wycherley, William, Eng. dramatist ? 1640. . .171& 

Wyclifle, Wiclif, or Wickliffe, John de, Eng. re- 
former and translator of the Bible ? 1324. . .1384. 

Wykeham, William of, bishop of Winchester. Lord 

high chancellor of England 1324 . . .1404^ 

Wyman, Jeffries, Am. comparative anatomist 1814. . .1874 

Wy ndham, Sir William, Eng. statesman 1687. . .1740 

Wyss, Johann Rudolf, Swiss author. [Swiss Family 

Bobinson.] 1781 . . . 1830 

Wythe, George, Am. jurist. Signer of the Declaration 

of Independence 1726. . .1806 

Wyttenbach, Daniel, Dutch philologist 1746. . .1820 



Xavier, Saint Francis (Francisco de Xavier). The 

Apostle of the Indies. Span. Jesuit and missionary. 1506... 1552^ 

Xenocrates, Greek philosopher B. C. 396. . . 314 

Xenophanes, Greek philosopher and poet B. C. ? 570. . .7480 

Xenophon, Athenian historian and general B. C. ? 445. . .? 355^ 

Xeres, de, Francisco, Span, historian with Pizarro... fl. 1547 

Xerxes. Xeroces the Great. King of Persia B. C 465 

Ximenes de Cisneros, Francisco. Cardinal Ximenes. 

Span, prelate and statesman 1436. . .1517 

Ximenes de Quesada, Gonzalo, Span, explorer ? 1495... 1546 



Yale, Elihu, patron of Yale College 1648. . .1721 

Yancey, William Lowndes, Am. politician 1814 . . .1863 

Yarrel I, William, Brit, naturalist 1784. . .1856 

261 



TA TES—ZEISBER GEE 



BORN. DIED. 

Yates, Edmund Hodgson, Eng. novelist 1831 

Yates, William, Eng. missionary at Serampore 1792. . .1845 

Yeardley, Sir George, governor of Virginia 1627 

Yolland, William, Eng. military eng. and scientist. . . . 1810. . .1885 

Yonge, Charles Duke, Eng. philologist and author 1812 

Yonge, Charlotte Mary, Eng. novelist 1823 

York, Edmund Plantagenet, first Duke of, founder of 

the house of York 1341. ..1402 

York von Warteuburg, Hans David Ludwig, Count, 

Pruss. field-marshal 1759. . .1830 

Youatt, William, Eng. veterinary surgeon 1777. . .1847 

Youmans, Edward Livingston, Am. chemist 1821. . .1887 

Young, Arthur, Eng. agriculturist 1741. . .1820 

Young, Brigham, leader and high-priest of the Mor- 
mons 1801 . . .1877 

Young, Charles Augustus, Am. astronomer 1834 

Young, Edward, Eng. poet. [Night Thoughts.] 1684. . .1765 

Young, Thomas, Eng. physicist 1773. . .1829 

Ypsilanti, Alexander, Prince, Greek revolutionary 

patriot 1783 . . . 1828 

Ypsilanti, Demetrius. Brother. Roumanian military 

commander 1793 . . .1832 

Yriarte, Ignacio, Span, painter 1620. . .1685 

Yriarte, de, Juan, Span, scholar 1702. . .1771 

Yriarte, de, Tomas. Nephew of Juan de Yriarte. 

Span, author. [Fdbulas literarias.] 1750. . .1791 

Ysabeau, Clement Alexandre, Fr. Jacobin. ? 1754..? 1823 

Yves, Saint, Pr. monk and jurist, and patron of lawyers 1253. . .1303 
Yvon, Adolphe, Fr. historical painter 1817 



Zabarella, Francesco. The Cardinal of Florence. Ital. 

theologian and author 1339. . .1417 

Zach, von, Franz, Baron, Ger. astronomer 1754. . .1832 

Zacharia, Just Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. poet and 

satirist 1726 . . .1777 

Zagoskin, Mikhail, Russ. dramatist and novelist. 1789. . .1852 

Zahn, Johann Karl Willi., Ger. architect and painter. . 1800. . .1871 
Zaliuski, Edmund Louis Gray, lieutenant United 

States army. [Dynamite gun.] 1849 

Zaluski, Jozef Andrzej, Polish bibliophile. [Zaluski 

IAbrary.] 1701... 1774 

Zamojski, Andrzej, Count, Polish statesman 1716. . .1792 

Zamojskl, Jan, Polish statesman and general 1541. . .1605 

Zamoyski. See Zamojski. 
Zampieri. See Domenichino. 

Zanchi, Girolamo, Ital. religious reformer 1516. . .1590 

Zarate, de, Agostin, Span, historian. [Conquest of Peru.] ? 1560 

Zarco, Joao Gonzalez, Port, navigator fl. 1419 

Zea, Don Francisco Antonio, South Am. statesman 1770. . .1822 

Zeisberger, David, Moravian missionary among the 

Indians 1721 . . . 1808 

262 



ZELLER— Z WIENER 



BORN. DIED. 

Zeller, Eduard, Ger. theologian and philosopher 1814 

Zeller, Jules Silvain, Fr. historian 1820. , A .... 

Zelter, Karl Friedrich, Ger. musical composer 1758. . .1832 

Zeno, Greek philosopher. Founder of the Stoic 

school B. C. ? 358. . .? 260 

Zeno, of Elea, Greek philosopher. [Dialectics.].. .B. C. ? 490 

Zeno. The IsavHan. Emperor of the East ? 426. . . 491 

Zeno, Apostolo, Ital. poet 1668... 1750 

Zeno, Carlo. Brother of Niccolo and Antonio. Grand 

admiral of Venice ? 1334. . .1418 

Zeno, Niccol6(b. ? 1330, d. ? 1395), and Antonio (b. ? 1336, 
d. 71405), Venetian navigators. Brothers. 

Zenobia, Septimia, queen of Palmyra aft. 274 

Zetterstedt, Johan Wilhelm, Swed. naturalist 1785. . .1874 

Zeuxis, Greek painter. [Helen.'] B. C. ? 450 

Zhukovski, Vasili Andreievitch, Russ. poet 1783. . .1852 

Ziegler, Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger. actor and dramatist 1760... 1827 

Ziethen, von, Hans Joachim, Pruss. general 1699. . .1786 

Zimmermann, Albert, Ger. painter 1809 

Zimmer raann, von, Clemens, Ger. painter 1789. . .1869 

Zimmermann, von, Johann Georg, Swiss physician 

and philosopher 1728. . .1795 

Zingarelli, Nicolb, Ital. musical composer 1752. . .1837 

Zingis. See Gengis Khan. 

Zinzendorf, von, Nikolaus Ludwig, Count, restorer 

of the Moravian sect 1700. . .1760 

Ziska, John, Bohemian general. Leader of the Hus- 
sites ? 1360... 1424 

Zobeldah, wife of Haroun-al-Raschid ? 765. . . 831 

Zoega, Georg, Danish archaeologist. [ObelisTcs.] 1755. . .1809 

Zollikofer, Georg Joachim, Swiss pulpit orator 1730. . .17S8 

Zoril la, Manuel Ruiz, Span, statesman 1834 

Zorilla y Moral, Jose", Span, poet 1817 

Zoroaster, founder of the ancient Persian religion unknown. 

Zrinyi, Miklds, Count, Hungarian general 1518. . .1566 

Zschokke, Johann Heinrich Daniel, Ger. author, 1771. . .1848 

Zuccarelll, Francesco, Ital. landscape-painter 1702. . .1788 

Zuccaro, Federigo, Ital. painter ? 1543. . .1609 

Zumala-Carreguy, Don Tomas, Span. Carlist gen- 
eral 1788. . .1835 

Zummo, Gaetano Giulio, Sicilian artist in wax 1656. . .1701 

Znmpt, August Wilhelm. Nephew. Ger. Latinist 1815 

Zumpt, Karl Gottlob, Ger. philologist. [Latm Gram- 
mar.] 1792. ..1849 

Zuniga. See Ercilla y Zufiiga. 

Znnz, Leopold, Ger. Hebraist 1794 

Zurbaran, Francisco, Span, painter of Seville 1598. . .1662 

Zurita, Gerdnimo, Span, historian 1512. . .1581 

Zwin ger, Theodore. The Elder. Swiss physician 1533... 1588 

Zwingli, Ulric, or Huldreich, Swiss reformer and 

patriot 1484... 1531 

Zwirner, Ernst Friedrich, Ger. architect 1802. . .1861 

263