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THE MS., from which thefe Poems are fele&ed, came into 
the hands of the editor at the well-known auction of Dr. 
Afkew's MSS. in 1785. By the arms on both fides of the 
cover the book appears to have belonged to Henry Prince of 
Wales, fon to James the firft. The circumftance of moft 
of the poems not being known to exift elfewhere has induced 
the editor to fpecify the contents of the MS. in his preface- 
that any other pofleflbr of any of thefe pieces may know 
them to be the fame, and have the option of communicating 
intelligence upon the fubject. 


Page 19. line 10. after editions infert by Berthekt. 

25. line 15. fcarfe4y fhould be printed fcar*fe4y. 
27. line penult, in notes, for ablative read oblative. 

30. turn the comma at the end of v. 36 into a colon. 

31. v. 54. for grace re*concyle read gra*ce reconcyle. 
37. v. 138. for deer read deere. 

43. v. 230. for fogete \ez&forgete. 

52. v. 374. for th;r read th*r. 

53. v. 392. for ne read no. 

54. v. 405. for difplezfaunt read difplefaunt. 
58. line 3. after IL infert ESTOIT. 

Errors merely literal (as cowzentator, Wintowms, &c.) are not particularly 
fet forth. 


JL HIS publication contains fix poems, fele&ed out of feven- 
teen, which make the whole of a Mf. in the editor's poflef- 
fion, and were all written by THOMAS HOCCLEVE. He is 
more generally called OCCLEVE ; but his name is here fpelt 
as it (lands in the Mf. wherever this poet fpeaks of himfelf. 
Particulars of HOCCLEVE'S life have been very fparingly 
tranfmitted to us : fome of thofe too, which we have, are 
totally inconfiftent with many of his fentiments, as delivered 
by him in his poetry. Alfo the very time of his birth, and the 
duration of his exiftence, are left exceedingly at large by all 
who mention him. Yet both of thefe may be pretty nearly 
afcertained from what will occur in this felec~lion. It is moft 
probable, that HOCCLEVE was born about the year 1370. 
The reafons for this conclufion will be fully fet forth in notes 

B to 

to the paflages, whence the inference is drawn. From what 
our poet fays of himfelf*, he has been filled CHAUCER'S 
difciple. The age he was of, when firft honoured by the 
notice of this great matter, does not appear ; but according 
to the computation of his birth, he muft have been thirty 
years old when CHAUCER died. 

PITTS fays, that HOCCLEVE ftudied the law at Chefter's 
Inn, and was a writer to the Privy Seal for twenty years. 
His refidence at " Cheftres-j- Inne by the Stronde" is teftified 
by himfelf in the introduction to his poem de regimine prin- 
cipum. That he belonged to the Privy Seal for a confider- 
able length of time in the younger and middle part of his 
life, is almofl manifeft from paflages in the poems now pub- 
lifhed. When he quitted this office, or what means of fub- 
fiftence he afterwards had, cannot be fo clearly determined. 
PITTS feems to infmuate, that he was provided for by HUM- 
PHREY Duke of Glocefter, faying, " that he wonderfully 

* See teftimonies of CHAUCER in URRY'S edition, and WARTON'S Englijk Poetry^ 
Tol. ii. p. 43. 

f This was one of the buildings pulled down to make room for the firft erection 
of Somerfet Houfe\ but (according to DUGDALE'S Orig. Jurid.} was once the town 
refidence of the Bi/hops of LitchfielJ, who were formerly called bifhops of Chefter, 
[See SPELMAN'S Remains, p. 212 at bottom, and WRIGHT'S edition of Heylin's Help 
to Englijk Hi/lory, p. 58 and 60 and 130.] This accounts for the name of the edifice ; 
but at what time it was converted into an Inn for law-ftudents, and whether it was 
only made a part of Stronde Inn, are circumftances not fpecified either in DUGDALE 

" celebrated 

( 3 ) 

" celebrated this patron in his verfes." Both thefe things 
may poflibly be true ; but no fpecific vouchers are adduced 
for either by PITTS. Mr. WARTON indeed ftrengthens the 
latter aflertion by faying, " OCCLEVE in this poem \de regl- 
mlne principum\ and in others, often celebrates HUMPHREY 
Duke of Glocefter*." In thefe others (not feen by the edi- 
tor) Mr. WARTON probably had grounds for what he ad- 
vanced ; but the poem de reglmine principum makes no men- 
tion of HUMPHREY : nor was it at all likely that it fhould ; 
fmce, at the time of HOCCLEVE'S promulgating that work, 
HUMPHREY was neither Duke of Glocefter, nor of an age to 
be a patron. In the editor's Mf. are two little poems, which 
were fent with this piece, one to the Prince of Wales (after- 
wards HENRY V.) and the other to Prince John afterwards 
Duke of Bedford. There are pafTages of the poem to Prince 
JOHN, which almoft imply his being then under a tutor : 
and HUMPHREY was the youngeft of the princes. In all the 
feventeen pieces (contained in the editor's Mf.) there is cer- 
tainly not a word of HUMPHREY. Whatever was the fource of 
HOCCLEVE'S fupport in the latter period of his life, it is 
pretty evident from the laft poem in this felection, that he 
could be little fhort of eighty years of age at the time of his 
writing it. One of the dates afligned to his asra in TANNER'S 

* Hift. of Eng. Poet. vol. ii. p. 44. 

B 2 Bibliotheca 

C 4 ] 

Bibliotheca is 1454; which is very likely to have been the 
year of his deceafe. 

BALE tells us, " that OCCLEVE had imbibed the religious 
" tenets of WICLIFF and BERENGARIUS ;" and feemingly 
quotes a paffage from WALSINGHAM to prove it. As the paf- 
fage ftands in the printed copies of WALSINGHAM, it has been 
grievoufly mif-quoted by BALE. The hiftorian is fpeaking 
of WICLIFF in the year 1381, and fays of him " reaflumens 
" damnatas opiniones Berengarii et OCKLEFE." This paf- 
fage would make Wicliff an Ocklefian, inftead of Ocklefe a 
Wicliffian, and could never relate to our HOCCLEVE, then 
a boy not twelve years old. Indeed from comparing Wal- 
fingham with himfelf in his Tpodeigma Neuftrice, and with 
the Monk of Evejham's Life of Richard II. the words " et 
46 Ocklefe" feem rather fome blundering interpolation. Our 
author had fo little imbibed the tenets of that early reformer, 
that he frequently {hews himfelf much too violent againft 
Wicliff's followers. 

So many circumftances of HOCCLEVE'S private life are dif- 
played in the felected poems, that the editor's principal 
inducement, for giving thefe particular pieces to the public, 
has arifen from his obferving fuch kind of matter to be con-, 
tained in them. Private anecdotes in the leaft degree cha* 
racteriftical are always amufmg ; and when they bring us 
^ acquainted 

[ 5 ] 

acquainted with peculiar habits and manners after the inter- 
vention of centuries, can hardly fail of interesting readers of 
curiofity. The fubject of the chief poem in this publication 
is the poet's own diflipated life. Nor is his propenfity to 
extravagance unaccountable, fmce the example ofthefecond 
Richard's court was always before his eyes in his youth. 
Hardynge's Chronicle plainly fets forth the exceffive profu- 
fion of that unfortunate monarch. 

Truly I heard Robert Ireleffe fay 
Clerke of the greencloth, that to the houfehold 
Came every day, for the moft part alway 
Ten Thoufand folk by his mefles told 
That followed the houfe ay as they wold, 
And in the kechin three hundreth fervitours, 
And in eche office many occupiours. 

And Ladies faire with their gontilwomen, 
Chamberers alfo and launderers 
Thre hundreth of them were occupied then. 
There was great pride among the officers, 
And of all men for paflyng their compeers, 
Of rich array and much more coftious 
Than was before, or fith, and more precious. 


[ 6 ] 

Yomen and gromes in clothe of filke arayed 
Sattyn and damafk, in doublittes and gouns, 
In cloth of green and fcarlet, for unpayed. 
Cut worke was great, both in court and townes, 
Bothe in mens hoodes, and alfo in their gounes, 
Broudur and furres, and goldfmith werke ay new 
In many a wyfe eche day they did renewe. 

The poetical merit of our author has been varioufly 
eftimated by thofe that have treated of it. It would be idle 
to refer to Pitts or Bale, as arbiters in this way ; but 
WILLIAM BROWNE had an eafy vein of harmonious poetry, 
and cannot well be fuppofed an incompetent judge on the 
fubje6t. He has incorporated into his Shepherds Pipe (pub- 
lifhed in 1614) a whole poem written by HOCCLEVE, tranf- 
lated from Gefta Romanorum, and entitled tfhe Story of Jo- 
nathas. BROWNE foon after fays, 

Well I wot, the man, that firft 
Sung this lay, did quench his third 
Deeply, as did ever one, 
In the Mufes' Helicon. 

Mr. WARTON (in his Diflertation on Gejla Romanorum) 
directly diflents from the writer of thefe praifes : yet his 


[ 7 ] 

chief reafon for doing fo feems not to be warranted by the 
real ftate of the fat. His words are, " he [HOCCLEVE] has 
" given no fort of embellifhment to his original." Had Mr. 
WARTON found fault with the poet's mode of embellifh- 
ment, the editor would have felt a diffidence in a contrary 
opinion to that of fo able a critic ; but the general negation 
is certainly unfounded. HOCCLEVE indeed adheres clofely 
to the fubftance of the ftory, yet embelliihes it in various 
places by judicious infertions of his own, and of which there 
are no traces at all in his original. The tale would abfo- 
lutely appear in certain parts of it as if it had been muti- 
lated, were it not for thefe additional touches. In fome of 
them there is a ftrain of pleafantry fimilar to that of 
PRIOR ; and which the modern poet in one inftance pro- 
bably copied. At the meeting of Jonathas with his para- 
mour, HCICCLEVE fays, that he 

rowned * in her ear, 
Nat wot I what, for I ne cam nat there. 

PRIOR fays in Down ball, 

And Morley moft lovingly whifper'd the maid. 
The maid ! was fhe handfome ? why truly fo-fo : 
But what Morley whlfpeSd, we never Jball know. 

* Whifpered. 


[ 8 ] 

PRIOR had accefs to the Harleian Library, where he might 
as eafily have feen the Shepherd's Pipe, as he did T'he Not- 
browne Mayde. 

In his preceding volume of the Hiftory of Englifh Poetry 
Mr. WARTON had fpoken unfavourably of the talents of 
HOCCLEVE : he had called him " a feeble writer, as a poet," 
and gone fo far as to fay, " the titles of his pieces indicate a 
" coldnefs of genius." And might not fuch a remark be faid 
to indie ate fame degree of prejudice ? Many an admirable poem 
would (land in danger of being configned to oblivion, if an 
index expurgatorius fhould be framed from the bare infpection 
of titles. The very perfon here ftigmatifed for coldnefs of 
genius is (a few pages after) defervedly commended by his 
cenfurer, for exprefling great warmth of fenfibility in fome 
lines to the memory of Chaucer. 

Mr. WARTON'S final fentence againft HO-CCLEVE is 
grounded on fuppofmg in him a total want of " invention 
" and fancy." The editor of the prefent felection by 
no means prefumes to enter into competition with the judg- 
ment of fo eminent and ingenious a writer ; and, as far as evi- 
dence was equally open to both, acquiefces in the decifion of 
an infinitely fuperior authority. But there are ftrong reafons 
for believing, that none of the poems in the editor's Mf. 


[ 9 ] 

(except two of the fhorteft, already mentioned as fent to 
the Princes) could ever have been feen by Mr. WART ON*. 
Of the remaining fifteen the title only of one (in the words 
defuis prodigalitatibus) is in TANNER ; but, where the poem 
itfelf exifted, TANNER could give no intimation. The late 
Mr. TYRWHITT, whofe accuracy in refearches of this kind 
needs not be expatiated upon, knew of no other Mf. in 
which any of thefe fifteen pieces were to be met with. Now 
had fome of thefe, efpecially fome of the prefent feletion, 
been feen by Mr. WARTON, the editor really thinks, that 
this difcerning critic would have perceived more originality 
in HOCCLEVE, than he deemed him poffeft of, and confe- 
quently have held him in a fomewhat higher degree of efti- 
mation. There is at leaft through the whole of this Mf. 
a negative merit, which Mr. WARTON muft have accounted 
fingular in a poet of fo early a period : fince this very merit 
is alledged by himfelf againft allowing the authenticity of 
the poems called Rowley's. I mean, there are no ana- 
chronifms, " no incongruous combinations" in all thefe -f 

poetical remains. 

I now 

* It may be afked, why the editor did not offer Mr. Warton the ufe of this Mf. ? 
It was not in the editor's poffelfion, till a few years after Mr. Warton had publifhed ' 
his third and laft volume. 

f The editor does not affert, that HOCCLEVE was always free from any defect of 
this fort. In his Letter of Cupid (publifhed with Chaucer) this heathen god talks of 
angels and the fsoelve apoftles, of the F"irgin Mary and the Devil. But this Letter might 

C have 

I now proceed to give the reader a lift of the contents of 
the Mf. whence this felection is made, and which feems to 
have been written about the middle of the i5th century. 


A Complaint of the Virgin Mary ought to be number 
I. but wants the beginning, which was probably an il- 
luminated leaf, and torn out for the fake of the illumination. 
To prevent this imperfection of the volume from being ma- 
nifeft at firft fight, fome proprietor has tranfpofed the re- 
mainder of this piece into the middle of the next, and in- 
ferted it after the fecond leaf of what was properly the 
fecond poem, but of which the beginning now ftands fir ft. 
This fragment contains twenty-nine ftanzas of feven lines 
each, and ends thus : 

for your redemptioun. 

Cette compleynte paramount feuft tranflatee au 
comandement de Madame de Hereford* que dieu par- 

d y nt - This 

have been loft, or not known for Hoccleve's, and was probably one of his moft youthful 
competitions. There are in the editor's Mf. 2200 verfes on 17 different fubje&s, 
entirely clear of that abfurdity, which Mr. WARTON deemed infeparable from the 
productions of HocclevSs aera. If the contents of this Mf. had been all the remains 
of its author, they might have been made ufe of as a very ftrong argument in reply 
to Mr. WARTON'S. 

* Madame de Hereford was probably Anne, daughter to Thomas of Woodftock, 


[This French colophon, and moft of the titles following, 
cannot poflibly be quite fo old as the poems, to which they 
are refpe6tively annext : fome of them perhaps were not 
older than the Mf.] 

II. Cette feuft fee au temps q le R. H. la v l q dieu 
pdoint feuft a Hampton fur fon primer paffage vers 

This title ((landing firft in the Mf.) belongs to a balade 
addrefl to SIR JOHN OLDCASTELL ; from whofe critical fitu- 
ation at the time, as well as from the notoriety of the fub- 
jecl:, this balade may appear one of the propereft for pub- 
lication. But the editor has rejected it, as too great an impo- 
fition on the patience of his readers. It confifts of fixty-four 
eight-line ftanzas, and is much more of a theological difpu- 
tation, than a poetical exercife : one ftanza may ferve for a 
fample of its argumentation : 

Duke of Glocefter ; who, on the death of her mother the Dutchefs, in Odober 
1399, feems to have aflumed the title of Countefs of Hereford. The Lady fpoken 
of asfuch in Hardynge's Chronicle (198 b) could not well have been any other. 

C 2 Right 

. .: t - ] 

Right as a fpe6lacle' helpith feeble fighte, 
Whan a man on the book redith or writ, 
And caufith him to fee bet* than he mighte ; 
In which fpectacle his fighte nat-j- a bit 
But gooth thurgh :, and on the book reftith it ; 
The fa^me may men of ymages feye : 
Thogh the yma^ge nat the feint be, yit 
The fighte us myngith || to the feint to preye. 

So little does HOCCLEVE in this poem incline to Wicliffian 
principles, that in the zeal of papiftical orthodoxy he advifes 
OLDCASTELL to leave off ftudying " holy writ," and read 
Lancelot deLake , or Vegece^, or the Siege** off role or 'fhebcs. 
But if he will needs read the bible, he fends him to Judicum, 
Regum, Jofue, Judith, Paralipomenon, and Machabe -f -J- ; than 
which he tells him, 

Mo*re autentic fhalt thow fyn=de 
Ne mo^re pertinent to chivalrie. 

* Better. f Not. + Through. || Reminds. See Lye's Junius. 
A famous book of chivalrie. ^[ Vegetius. 

** Poems on each of thefe fubje&s were afterwards written by Lydgate ; but the 
books here recommended were moft likely to have been Latin or French. 

ft In other words, Judges, Kings, Jojhua, Judith, the Chronicles, and the Ma- 

*J None. Nor. 


[ '3 ] 

In the fame poem we have the following line : 

Ye medle' of al thyng, ye moot*//>oo the goos. 

This faying is dated in modern books of proverbs to be 
Scottijh. As there are alfo a few other words and phrafes 
ufed by HOCCLEVE, which are ftill current in fome northern 
counties, and which do not occur in other writers co-tem- 
porary with our poet, it might incline us to imagine, that 
he was of northern parentage^-. 

This fecond poem begins, > 

The laddre of hevene - 

III. La male regie de T. Hoccleve 
{lands firft in the prefent feledlion. 

IV. Cefte balade enfuante feuft faite au tres noble Roy 
H. le v' q dieu pardoint le jour q les Seigneurs de fon 
Roialme luy firent lour homages a Kenyngton 

contains five eight-line ftanzas, and begins, 

The kyng of kynges - 

* Muft. 

f In confirmation of this conje&ure it may be obferved, that HOCCLOUGH is the 
name of a parifh in Northumberland, At the fame time it mud be owned, that 
there are other parifhes in more fouthern counties whofe names approach full as 
near to that of HOCCLEVE, and that many words and phrafes which now exift only 
in the north, might in old times have been general over the ifland. 

V. Ceftes 

[ '4 ] 

V. Cedes balades enfuyantes feurent faites au tres 
noble Roy H. le quint q dieu pardoint, & au tres 
honorable compaignie du Jartier. 

The two balades, here coupled by a double title, confift 
of four eight- line ftanzas each, and the firft begins, 

To yow, welle of honur 

VI. Ad beatam Virginem. 

A penitential hymn of fifteen eight-line ftanzas, beginning 
Modir of lyf 

VII. Cede balade enfuyante feuft faite toft apres que 
les offes du Roy Richard feurent apportez a Weft- 

contains fix eight-line ftanzas, and begins, 

Wher as that this land - 

VIII is the laft of the feleftion. 

IX. Ad beatam Virginem. 

A prayer to the Virgin for her interceffion ; before the 
conclufion of which, Saint John is admitted to an equal fhare 
of the poet's adoration. Addrefles to the Virgin in former 


[ '5 I 

times were couched in phrafes ftrangely figurative. Godric 
(hermit of Finch ale) in the twelfth century flyles her 
" Chriftes Bur" [chamber] : in the fifteenth our courtly 
writer to the Privy Seal converts this chamber into a palace, 
and calls the Virgin " Paleys of Cry ft." The piece con- 
tains twenty feven-line ftanzas, and begins, 

Modir of God 

X. Ce feuft mys en le livre de Mons r . Johan lors no- 
mez ore Regent de France & Due de Bedford. 

This piece has already been mentioned, and exifts in one 
of the Mfs. in the Britifh Mufeum of the poem de reglmine 
principum. It contains three nine-line ftanzas, and begins, 

Unto the rial 

XI has no title. It is a mere petition in verfe to a 
clerical Lord Chancellor* for a patent to have arrearages 
paid, contains three eight-line ftanzas, and begins, 

Fadir in God 

XII. Ceftes balade & chanceon, &c. 
fecond in the felection. 

* The Archbifhop of Canterbury [Fitzalan a younger fon of an Earl of Arundel] 
was Lord Chancellor for three years from 1407. 

XIII. Cefte 

[ 16 ] 

XIII. Cefte balade enfuyante feuft mife en le fin du 
. livre del Regiment des princes 

(already mentioned, as addreft to Henry V. when Prince of 
Wales) is in all. the Mfs. of HOCCLEVE'S chief poem, which 
are perfect at the conclufion, though Number X. feems only 
to have been preferved in the Royal Mf. [17 D XVIII.], and 
in the editor's. The piece contains three eight-line ftanzas, 
and begins, 

O litil book 

XIV. Item au Roy, &c. 
fourth in the felection. 

XV. A. de B, &c. 

fifth in the fele&ion. 

XVI. Cefte balade enfuyante feut par le Court, &c. 
third in the fele&ion. 

XVII. Cefte balade enfuyante feuft tranflatee au com- 
mandement de mon meiftre Robert Chichele*. 

This tranflated poem is a religious meditation, confifting 
of twenty ftanzas ; the firft of which being tolerably poeti- 
cal is here tranfcribed at length. 

* A perfon of this name was twice (in 1411 and 1421) Lord Mayor of London, 
and probably brother to Henry Chichele made Archbifhop of Canterbury by Henry 
V. ; indeed he is exprefsly called fo in Wright's edition of Heylin. Weever (p. 409)- 
gives us the infcription on his monument, which records his general benevolence. 


[ I? ] 

As that I walkid in the monthe of May 

Befyde a grove, in an hevy mufynge, 

Flowers diverfe I fy* right frefh and gay, 

And briddes-f- herde I eek luftyly^: fynge, 

That to myn her=te yaf || a confortynge : 

But eve're' o thoght me ftang unto the herte, 

That dye I fholde and had=de no knowynge, 

Whansnef , ne** whidirf f I fholde hennes^ fterte. 


HOCCLEVE^S language was chiefly Chaucerian, but had 
fome real or feeming peculiarities of his own in it. Such 
of thefe as are general will be now treated of ; thofe that are 
particular will be confidered in the notes to the pafTages 
where they occur. 

The liberty taken by our early printers, of modernizing 
to their own time (totally or partially) many things that 
they printed, makes it exceedingly difficult to afcertain with 
precifion the exact ftate of our language at any former pe- 
riod. Neither are Mfs more infallible in this refpect, unlefs 

* Saw. f Birds. J Merrily. || Gave. One. 

f When. ** Nor. ff Whither. ft Hence. 

Depart fuddenly. 

D nearly 

[ '8 ] 

nearly co-eval with the production of the works themfelves. 
Thus there muft be a degree of uncertainty in all that can 
be faid about this matter. 

HOCCLEVE'S uniform* adherence to the old hem and 
Air, and never ufmg the more modern them and their to the 
middle of the fifteenth century, may appear fmgular to 
thofe, who fee writings of the fame period generally printed 
with the more modern words. But there is great likeli- 
hood, that others, befides HOCCLEVE, continued the fame 
practice. In LYDGATE'S Story of Thebes (printed with 
Chaucer in 1561) hem and her run through the whole of it. 
There may indeed be a particular propriety in Lydgate's ad- 
hering to thefe old words in his Story of Thebes ', fmce he in- 
troduces it as told at the fame time with the Canterbury 
Tales: confequently it required to be clothed precifely in the 
language of that aera. From Dugdale's edition of LYDGATE'S 
Dance of Death, and Mr. Reed's of his Chichevache and 
Bicorne, and a Mf. of his Legende of Selnte Margarete in the 
editor's pofleflion, it fhould feem as if he had ufed the new 

* That HOCCLEVE uniformly ufed thefe old words may be doubted, becaufe 
them and their conftantly occur in his tale of Jonathas, as printed in BROWNE'S Shep- 
herd's Pipe. But the royal Mf. of Jonathas in the Britifh Mufeum (17 D VI) has 
hem and hir throughout. 


[ '9 ] 

words and the old promifcuoufly*. Such is alfo the ufage 
in other authentic remains of Hen. Vth's reign, as printed by 
Hearne-f-. I'hem conftantly occurs in the metrical Boetius 
(Taviftock edition) written in 1410 : which would certainly 
be fufpicious, if it was not partly confirmed by Thorpe's trial 
in 1407, according to the copy of it (in State Trials) faid 
to be written by Thorpe himfelf. Lefs credit is to be given 
to the accuracy of the editions of GOWER'S Confejfio Amantis, 
which was finifhed by him in 1393. Indeed it is only for 
fome pages at the beginning of thefe editions, that we fee 
them and their ; nor are thefe words to be found at all in the 
Mf. of Go WER [Reg. 1 8 C. XXII.] At whatever period them 
got a footing in our language, hem certainly continued to 
hold a place in it fo late as 1486 ; for we frequently meet 
with this old word in the metrical book of hunting^ printed 
together with the treatife on hawking at St. Albans in that 


* The word them indeed in all thefe three copies of Lydgate's poems occurs but 
in one (Dayce of death) and there only once. 

f Verfes on the battle of Agincourt with Thomas tie Elmham, and the earl of Cam- 
bridge's letter with Foro-Julienfis. 

% 1486. This St. Albans edition is one of the moft remarkable books in the 
annals of Englifh typography. Yet in the variorum Shakfpeare of 1785, and alfo 
in a later edition of it, a note to the fecond part of Hen. VI. (aft 2) tells us, 

D 2 that 

Many of Mr. TYRWHITT'S grammatical hints on the lan- 
guage of CHAUCER may ferve equally for HOCCLEVE. The 
latter ufes the plural of the prefent tenfe in en, as torments ; 
and of the preterit, as feiden ; alfo the infinitive, as with- 
drawn ; and the participle, as founds. This termination 
however is fubjecT: to two alterations : the firft, when the e 
is omitted on account of a preceding 0, as in doon ; the other, 
when the n is cut off- a liberty often practifed by old Eng- 
lifti writers, even with words which ftill retain the n in mo- 
dern language. Thus we fee take, throw, and be ufed by 
HOCCLEVE, as participles. 

The termination th * was ufed by Hoccleve in the fecond 
perfon plural of the imperative, as beeth, keeplth, dooth. Mr. 

that Juliana Barnes's book of hawking was fi'-Jl printed at Weftminfter 1496. This 
Weftminfter edition was indeed the/r/? of an additional treatife onfijhing : but could 
any comentator izkeji/Jiing for hawking ? 

* It may not be here out of the way to obferve, that the termination in s of the 
third perfon fingular of the prefent tenfe was in ufe at the very beginning of the 
i4th century. This appears from a metrical pfawter (deemed by Selden of the age 
of Edward II.) of which there are fome extracts in Weever, p. 153. About the mid- 
dle of the fame century Laurence Minol, and other verfifiers fome years later, extended 
this termination to the plurals both of indicative and imperative. That fuch ter- 
mination was moft intelligible to the common people in Hoccleve's days, may be 
concluded, from its occurring no lefs than four times in the fhort proclamation for 
apprehending Sir John Oldcaftell. The fame formation may be found (once at leaft 
for rime-fake in the word accreivs) in Hardynge's chronicle, and not unfrequently in 
the St. Albans edition of Juliana Barnes ; yet it was fo generally avoided by the befl 
writers of old Englifh, that it may be regarded as a proof of inferiority of ftyle in 
any author before the i6th century. 


[ 21 ] 

TYRWHITT calls this termination etb ; which would not fuit 
the Mf. of Hoccleve, where it is much oftener itb. Whether 
this variation was the author's own, or only that of the Mf. 
is more than the editor can venture to pronounce. Of two 
royal Mfs of the poem de regimine principum, one [17 D. 
XVIII, which Mr. Warton calls the bed] has always itb in 
the fame words, that the other [ 1 7 D XIX] has etb. This 
variation equally takes place in the third perfon fmgular of 
the indicative. 

Mr. TYRWHITT muft have known, that in Chaucer's time, 
and even earlier, fome nouns (not ending in e) formed their 
plurals by the mere addition of j. In the prologue alone to 
the Canterbury Tales are, nations ,feffions, coverchiefs^parijhens^ 
and achatours ; none of which words come within a rule of 
contraction, afterwards mentioned by that learned editor. 
Confequently what he fays (vol. iv. p. 3 1 ) is a little defective 
with regard to plurals, though perfectly accurate as to geni- 
tive cafes. All thofe plural nouns of three fyllables, accented 
on the firft, which Mr. TYRWHITT* remarks were diflylla- 
bles by contraction in Chaucer, are neceflarily diflyllables in 
the editor's Mf., as fervants : though the fame word, when 
accented upon the fecond, is written and pronounced a tri- 

* Lee his note onpalmere's, p. no. 


fyllable, asfervbntes. This innovation, inafmuch as it makes 
the letters accord with the found, appears to be an improve- 
mentat lead in orthography. 

The infinitives after fome particular verbs (as -bid) have 
generally in the prefent times no to prefixt to them : this 
omiflion of to before an infinitive feems to have been practifed 
by HOCCLEVE after mofl verbs indifcriminately. 


In a volume of fo little bulk, as the prefent is, there can 
be no excufe for fparing any pains in compofing the glojfary, 
which may tend to render it more ufeful. It therefore gene- 
rally refers to the paflages, which contain the words needing 
explanation. A view of the context often gives better in- 
formation of the import of a word, than does any expofition 
by the glofTarift. The editor of Wintownis Cronykll might 
have been content with ftating his reafons for omit- 
ting fuch references himfelf, without carping at the prefer- 
able mode adopted by Mr. TYRWHITT. Mr. Macpherfon's 
argument againft fuch a ferviceable addition goes much 
more to the point of form, than to fubftance. If a gloflarift 
is able in a fmall compafs to rival the lexicographer, why 
fhould he not ? more efpecially, when he happens to treat of 


[ '3 ] 

words, which come not within the plan of any lexicogra- 
pher whatever ? This method of making a gloffary ferve 
in fome refpe6l as a verbal index to the work itfelf, is a con- 
fiderable help to all thofe, who are difpofed to be ftudiers of 
language. Confining the advantage of fuch a labour merely 
to the perufal of a fmgle book, is depriving the literary world 
of a benefit, almoft infinitely more extenfive. 

The actual ufage of words by his author, and the con- 
fequential inftruction to be derived from it by readers of old 
Englifh, being the points principally confidered by the editor 
in his gloflary, he has no recourfe to mere etymological de- 
rivations, except when requifite for proof, or for illuftrating 
an expofition. 

He thinks it needlefs, to load the gloflary with words, that 
were created by the regular formation of verbs, which was 
then ufed, and which has partly been defcribed in this pre- 
face. He obferves the fame rule in regard to other words, 
which will be further adverted to in the following fection 
on orthography. 

He looks upon it as fuperfluous, to explain any word, 
whofe old fignification is properly given in Johnfon's dic- 
tionary which, with all its faults, fhould be in every 
reader's hands, till the public is provided with a better. If 


the fame word is ufed in different fenfes, only thofe that are 
obfolete are taken notice of in the glofTary. 


The editor makes a point of omitting nothing in the pieces 
here publifhed, which he finds in his Mf. If he adds but fo 
much as a letter, which the metre calls for, he prints it in 

He has fcrupuloufly adhered to the practice of the Mf. in 
dividing fome words which are now conftantly one, as un to, 
wher as, ther of, &c. It makes the edition a faithful copy of 
old orthography. 

The reader will frequently meet with a duplication of 
vowels, as in aart, weel, ooth, &c. but as this does not feem 
to make any alteration in found, or number of fyllables, no 
further notice will be taken of it. 

T is frequently put for /, w for u, and y or / for e. 

Little variations of fpelling that are common in books of 
the laft century, and others from which no ambiguity can 

be occafioned, are left to be diftinguifhed by the reader's 





It may be ufeful, to add a few obfervations to what Mr. 
TYRWHITT has already laid down on the verification of 

Excepting one or two inftances, where trifyllables ac- 
cented on the firft, and ending in es, are reduced to diiTylla- 
bles, and which will be marked by an apoftrophe, the final 
es (throughout HOCCLEVE) always makes a fyllable of itfelf, 
and is never loft in the preceding one. Flou*res, and heroes 
may ferve for examples. 

The final en follows the fame rule, as in know^en : alfo 
the final ed, as in cleaved. 

The letter e in the middle of a word often makes a fylla- 
ble, where moderns would not think of pronouncing one, 
as in fcarfe^ly*. Where the e is not pronounced, it is fome- 
times abfolutely omitted, as in tikly and jhaply : it is not 
omitted indeed in every, becaufe that word feems always to 
have been a diflyllable in metre. The reader is defired to 
take for granted that this middle e makes a fyllable, wherever 
no mark indicates the contrary. 

* This mode of pronunciation is to be found ia SPENSER, who makes fa*fe*ty 
a trifyllable in F. Q. B. iii. C. 5. ft. 36. 

E There 

[ 26 ] 

There are many fyllables in modern language, which are 
ftill allowed to be fuch by grammarians, but are always loft 
by contraction in general pronunciation, or in verfe. Thefe 
however were ufually diftinc~l fyllables in old Englifh, and 
muft be regarded as fuch in HOCCLEVE. Thus we read 
precious, cotidi^an, fapisence, confufisoun. This rule not 
being without exception, a mark of contraction is added 
where it is otherwife ; as in victorious. 

This divifion of fyllables is fometimes carried ftill further : 
thus ie is but one fyllable, as in verif/V ; but add a confonant 
and it is fometimes two, as in mortified * : and even with- 
out an additional confonant by changing / into jy, as in 

Particular diftinctions of pronunciation will be pointed 
out by marks, but the reader no further apprifed of the 
general ones. 

The editor clofes this preface with a thankful acknow- 
ledgment of having received many very ufeful hints, com- 
municated by the judicious author of the Curialia. 

* Thus triced is a diflyllable in SPENSER, F. Q. B. Hi. c. 9. ft. 25. 




Precious trefor incomparable, 
O ground and roo^te of profperitee, 
O excellent richef=se commendable 
Aboven abk that in eer^the be, 

Who may fuftee*ne thyn adverfitee ? 5 

What wight may him avante of worldly welthe, 
But if he fully ftand in grace of thee, 
Eerthely god, piler of lyf, thow helthe ? 


V. 5. Adverjltee is both here and elfewhere ufed by Hoccleve in the fenfe of ad- 
verft influence : See alfo Chaucer's R. R. 5547. " Fortune's adverfity" is in fome 
verfes of the time of Hen. VIII. printed with Robert of Gloceiler, p. 580. 

V. 6. Him avante.'} This verb, by the ufage of it in Chaucer and Hoccleve, 
ieems to have required the ablative cafe with it. 

V. 8. Mr. WARTON thought it a fufficient objection to the authenticity of Row- 

E a Icy, 

Whil thy powder and excellent vigour 

(As was plefimt un to thy worthynefle) 10 

Regned in me, and was my governour, 

Than was I wel ; tho felte I no dureffe, 

Tho farfid was I with hertes gladnefTe : 

And now my body empty is, and bare 

Of joie, and ful of feekly hevynefle, 15 

Al poore of efe, and ryche of evel fare. 

If that thy favour twyn*ne from a wight, 
Smal is his efe, and greet is his grevance. 
Thy love is lyf, thyn haste fleeth downright. 
Who may compleysne thy difleverance 20 


ley, that " we have long and laboured invocations to Truth, to Hope, to Content, 
" and other divinities of the pagan creed, or rather of the creed of modern poetry." 
Here however we have a whole poem addrefl to the divinity Health, not indeed 
the pagan one (for Hygeia was a * female) but of a poetical creed, which exifted half 
a century previous to the date attributed to Rowley. 

* There is indeed mention in PAUSANIAS of a male deity of health, who was 
worfhipt in various parts of Greece by various names, one of which was Telefphorus : 
but it can hardly be imagined, that HOCCLEVE was at all acquainted with the work 
of this Greek author. 

V. ii. Regned.~\ " Which regne in mannys body." Dives and Pauper. Pre. i. 
ch. 2. 

V. 20. Complcyne.'} The word complain in its a&ive fenfe of lament is to be found 
.even in Johnfon's Dictionary, with an example from Dryden. The propriety of 


Bettre than I, that of myn ignorance 
Un to feeknefTe am knyt, thy mortal fo ? 
Now can I know^e feef^te fro penance, 
And whil I was with thee cowde I nat fo. 

My grief and bify fmert cotidian 25 

So me labouren and tormenten fore, 

That what thow art now wel remembr' I can, 

And what fruyt is in keepynge of thy lore. 

Had I thy powder kno wen or this yore, 

As now thy fo compellith me to knowe, 30 

Nat fholde his lym han cleved to my gore 

For al his aart, ne han me broght thus lowe. ; - 

fuch ufage is there doubted, but was frequent in old Englifli. " I dar not compleynt 
his fortune" is in Tiptoft Erie of Wirceftre's tranflation of Cicero de amiciti. 
The fall of prynces he did alfo compleyne. 

LY DG AT E'S proL to Bochas. 

V. 25. Bify, troublefome : one of its fenfes in Johnfon's Di&ionary. 
V. 31. Lym is certainly not ufed here in the fame literal fenfe, which old glof- 
faries attribute to it, but rather means aflive mini/let; or injlrument. 

that he come and defend us 

Foles fro thefe feends lyms. 

P. Ps. Plfion, laft paflus. 
" Oft tymes the feend and the feendes lyms teach well." 

Dives and Pauper, Pr. i. ch. 46. 

V. 31 and 32. Lines like thefe might well occjtfion W. BROWNE to fay of H-oc- 
CLEVE, in the beginning of the feventeenth century, 
There are few fuch fwaines as he 
Now adayes for harmonic. 


C 3 ] 

But I have herd men fey*e longe ago, 
Profperitee is blynd, and fee ne may ; 

And verifie I can wel, it is fo, 35 

For I myfelf put have it in aflay, 
Whan I was weel, cowde I confidere it ? nay : 
But what ? me longed aftir novelrie, 
As yeeres yon*ge yernen day by day ; 

And now my fmert accufith my folie. 40 

Myn unwar yowsthe knew nat what it wroghte, 

This woot I wel, whan fro thee twynned fhee : 

But of hir ignorance hir felf fhee foghte, 

And knew nat, that fhee dwellynge was with thee. 

For to a wight were it greet nycetee 45 

His lord or freend wityngly for toffende, 

Left that the weighte of his adverfitee 

The fool opprefle, and make of him an ende. 

V. 36. Put have for have put. Ver. 37. Conjidcre it pronounced conjidrit. 

V. 38. But -what ?~\ This phrafe is ufed by Wicliff(Philipp. ch. i. v. 18.) as the 
tranflation of quid enim, which is the literal verfion of the Greek : ivhat then are the 
words in the prefent teftament. 

Me longed.'} Oblative cafe for nominative formerly frequent. 
V. 43. Soghte. See Gloflary. 

V. 44. Dwellynge -was lalth thee.~\ In familiar language at prefent, living tuith <t 
perfon often means being his domejiic fervant. 


[ 3' ] 

From hennes foorth wole I do reverence 
Un to thy name, and hold of thee in cheef ; 50. 

And wer=re ma^ke, and fharp refiftence 
Ageyn thy fo and myn, that cruel theef, 
That undir foo=te me halt in mefcheef, 
So thow me to thy grace re^concyle : 

O! now thyn help, thy focour and releef, 55 

And I for ay mif reu=le wole exyle. 

But thy mercy exce-de myn offenfe, 

The keene affautes of thyn adverfarie 

Me wole oppref?fe with hir violence. 

No wondir, thogh thow be to me contrarie ; 60 

My luftes blynde han caufid thee to varie 

Fro me, thurgh my folie and imprudence ; 

Wherfore I wretsche cursfe may and warie 

The feed and fruyt of chyldly fapience. 

V. 49. Do reverence is the fame kind of phrafe as do homage. 
V. 50. Hold of thee in cheef alludes to tenures in capite. 

V. 53. Mefcheef means diftrefi, " Releve pore folke in theyr nyfckeef." Dives 
and Pauper. 


As for the mo^re paart yowthe is rebel 65 

Un to refon, and hatith hir do6lryne, 

Regnyn^ge which, it may nat ftan^de wel 

With yowthe, as far as wit can ymagyne. 

O yowthe alias ! why wilt thow nat enclyne, 

And un to reuled refoun bowse thee, 70 

Syn refoun is the verray ftreigh^te lyne, 

That ledith folk un to felicitee ? 

Ful feelde is feen, that yow^the takith heede 

Of perils, that been likly for to fall ; 

For have he take a purpos, that moot neede 75 

Been execut, no confeil wole he call ; 

V. 67. Regnynge which muft fignify which being predominant. But here is a gram- 
matical irregularity, not unfrequent with HOCCLEVE. There is no regular antece- 
dent to which : fome expreffion muft be fupplied (fuch as aver/ion to reafon) which 
conveys the aggregate fenfe of the two preceding lines. 

V. 73. Toiuthe in this place feems intended to mean perfonally a youth (or young 
man) as reprefentative of youth .in general. Though he in all its cafes is frequently 
fubftituted for //, yet the repetition here of fuch ufage for many lines together, the 
whole tenour of the paflage, and the apoftrophe at the conclufion, concur in de- 
noting perfonification. There certainly however is a manifeft confufion of gender, 
between the female perfonage in verfes 42, 3, 4, and the male one here. 


[ 33 ] 

His ow*ne wit he deemeth beft of all, 
And foorth ther with he renneth brydillees, 
As he that nat betwixt hony and gall 
Can jusge, ne the wer*re fro the pees. 80 

All othir mennes wittes he defpifith; 

They anfweren no thyng to his entente ; 

His rakil wit only to him fouffyfith ; 

His hy prefumption nat lift confente 

To doon, as that Salomon wroot and mente, 85 

That red^de men by confeil for to werke : 

Now, yow^the, now thou fore {halt repente 

Thy lightlees wittes dull, of refon derke. 

My freendes feiden un to me ful ofte, 

My mis reu4e me cau=fe wolde a fit, 90 

And redden me in efy wyfe and fofte 

A lyte and ly^te to withdrawen it : 

V. 88. Of refon derke.~\ Not illumined by reafon. 

Jerked his memory and reafon. 

LYDGATE'S F. of P. II. ch. viii. 


[ 34 ] 

But that nat mighste fynke in to my wit, 

So was the luft y-rooted in myn herte : 

And now I am fo rype un to my pit, 95 

That fcarfely 1 may it nat afterte. 

Who fo cleer y*en hath, and can nat fee, 

Ful fmal of ye availlith the office. 

Right fo, fyn refon yoven is to me 

For to difcerne a vertu from a vice, 100 

If I nat can with refon me chevice, 

But wilfully fro refon me withdrawe, 

Thogh I of hir ha^ve no benefice 

No wondir, ne no favour in hir law. 

Refon me bad, and redde as for the befte 105 

To etc and drynke in tyme attemprely ; 
But wilful yowsthe nat obei?e lefte 
Un to that reed, ne fetste nat ther by : 

V. 96. The two negatives fcarfely and nat, inftead of making an affirmative, ac- 
cording to the Saxon idiom ftrengthen the negation. 

V. 98. Smal is here ufed adverbially for little ; and in Shakfpeare's time fmall 
was lefs diftinguifhed from little than it is at prefent : " by fmall and fmall" is a 
phrafe in Richard II. Te was probably pronounced eye ; and him muft be underftood 
after availlith, 

I take 

t 35 ] 

I take have of hem bothe outrageoufly, 
And out of tysme ; nat two yeer or three, 
But twenty wyntir pad continuelly 
ExcefTe at horde hath leyd his knyf with me. 

The cuftume of my repleet abftinence, 

And greedy mowth (receite of fwich outrage) 

And hondes two (as woot my negligence) 115 

Thus han me gyded and broght in fervage 

Of hir, that werre=i;eth eve'ry age ; 

Seeknefle I mee*ne, riotoures whippe, 

Habundantly that paieth me my wage, 

So that me neither daun^ce lift ne fkippe. 1 20 


V. in. Twenty wyntir very nearly fixes the year of Ho CCL EVE'S birth : for from 
another paffage this poem will appear to have been written late in 1406. Suppofing 
then thefe twenty years to reach back to his age of 16, he muft have been born in 
1370. This accords with his faying (v. 209) that his " yeeres be but yonge." 
Unlefs we make the twenty winters go back to his age of 16, we muft make him 
above 80, when he wrote the laft poem of this feleUon. Putting wynter for the 
plural years was common. " This twenty winter" is in Thorpe's trial : 

And a tawny taberde of twelve -ayn'ter age 
is a line in P. P. Vijions. 

V . 1 1 2 . Ley dhis knyf with was probably a proverbial phrafe for bore company at meak. 

V. 117. Worres'netli.] Obeied is made into four fyllables by Lydgate 
I obeyed unto his biddynge. Storie of Thebes. 

V. 119. Wage in the fingular number being ftill a northern idiom, and certainly 
not common with old Englim writers, affords a kind of preemptive evidence of 


t 36 ] 

The outward figne of Bachus and his lure, 

That at his do*re hangith day by day, 

Excitith folk to taafte of his moifture 

So often, that men can nat wel feyn nay. 

For me, I feye I was enclyned ay 125 

With outen daunger thidir for to hye me, 

But if fwich change up on my bak lay, 

That I moot it forber as for a ty*me : 

Or but I we*re nakidly beftad 

By force of the penylees maladie : 130 

For thanne in her*te cowde I nat be glad, 

Ne lull had noon to Bachus houfe to hie. 

Fy ! lak of coyn departith compaignie ; 

And hevy purs with herste liberal 

Qwenchith the thrifty hete of hertes drie, 135 

Where chinchy her^te hath ther of but fmal. 

HOCCLEVE'S northern birth. Yet the great latitude of poetical licenfe for rime- 
fake, and the pra&ice of ufing fingulars for plurals in other nouns, render the proof 
very difputable. Wage is ufed in the fame way for rime-fake in BARCLAY'S Ship of 

For your great labour fay what is your wage. 

V. 127. Thus Chaucer: 

That charge upon my bak I wole endure. 

Clerkes Tale. 

V. 136. Ther of] Here feems to be a fimilar kind of grammatical irregularity 
with what is taken notice of in v. 67 : ofmofi. probably relates to qivenching. 


[ 37 ] 

I dar net telle, how that the frefh repeir 
Of Venus femel, lufty children deer, 
That fo goodly, fo {haply were, and feir, 
And fo plefant of port and of maneere, 140 

And feesde cowden al a world with cheere, 
And of atyr paflyngly wel byfeye, 
At Poules heed me maden ofte appeere 
To talke of mirthe, and to difporte and pleye. 

Ther was fweet wyn ynow thurgh out the hous 145 

And wafres thik>ke : for this compaignie, 
That I fpak of, been fumwhat likerous ; 
Wher as they mowe a draght of wyn efpie, 

V. 138. is nearly copied from CHAUCER'S Squires Tale : 
Now dauncen lufty Venus children dere. 

V. 143. When biihops licenfed ftews, the apoftle Paul's head might be a proper 
fign for a brothel : the famion however of that time decently omitted prefixing the 
word Saint. 

V. 146. Wafres} Whatever fort of cake was meant by this word, it feems to 
have given a double name to a trade ; fince Chaucer fpeaks of a luafeter, and Pierce 
Plowman of wafrejiers. Lifton manour (Eflfex) was bound to find wafres at the 
.King's Coronation. Weever's Fun. Mon. 659, and Beck. Ten. 26. 

. Thikke means in plenty, as in ' thick and threefold.' 


[ 38 ] 

Sweete, and in wirkynge hoot for the maiftrie, 

To warme a ftomak with ther of they drank. 1 50 

To fuffre' hem paie had been no courtefie : 

That charge I took, to wyn*ne love and thank. 

Of loves aart yit touchid I no deel ; 

I cowfde nat, and eek it was no neede : 

Had I a kus, I was content ful weel, 155 

Bettre than I wolde han be with the deede. 

Ther on can I but fmal, it is no dreede ; 

Whan that men fpeke of it in my prefence, 

For fhame I wexe as reed as is the gleede. 

Now wole I torne ageyn to my fentence. 

V. 151. Suffre] Here, and in other places, Hoccleve removes e to the end of 
the word to get rid of a fyllable. 

V. 1 54. // tuas no nede\ In modern language it mould be there ; but fuch was 
the old phrafeology. " It is no nede, that I difpute long with you of deth." Tullye 
of 'old age ', printed by Caxton. 

V. 155. Kus\ There can hardly be a ftronger inftance of the promifcuous ufe of 
vowels in old Englilh than in this word. Kufs is ufed by GOWER, 

(Yet wole he ftele a kufs or two. B. v. f. 119. b.) 

and by LYDOATE in his Fall of Princes, and by CAXON in the Proud Lady of 'Love , 
and by SKELTON in Speak Parrot. The more ufual word in the old writers was 
kijje ; but Chaucer for rime's fake (in the Clerkes Tale} ufes ke/e. Wicliff's word 
is co^ which accords with the Saxon. 


[ 39 ] | | 

Of him, that hauntith taverne of cuftume, 
In fhor;te wordes the profyt is this 
In double wyfe ; his bagge it fhal confume, 
And make his ton^ge fpeke of folk amis : 
For in the cup=pe felden founden is, 165 

That any wight his neigheburgh commendith. 
Beholde and fee, what avantage is his, 
That God, his freend, and eek him felf offendith ! 

But oon avantage in this cas I have : 

I was fo ferd with any man to fighte, 1 70 

Cloos kepte I me ; no man durfte I deprave 

But rownyngly : I fpak no thyng on highte : 

And yit my wil was good, if that I mighte 

For lettynge of my manly cowardyfe, 

That ay of ftrokes impreflid the wighte : 175 

So that I dur^fte medlen in no wyfe. 

V. 165, &c. There is great affinity between this remark and the following lines 
on the fame fubjecl: : 

Perhaps alas ! the pleating theme was brought 
From this man's error, from another's fault, 
From tbpics, which good-nature would forget, 
And prudence mention with the laft regret. 

PRIOR'S Solomon. 

V. 175. Wighte for weight. This is a ftrong inftance of the poetical licence of 
that age in changing a word for the fake of rime. CHAUCER had previoufly made 
the .fame alteration. See Troil. v. 1385. 


[ 40 ] 

Wher was a gretter maiftir eek than y, 
Or bet acqweyntid at Weftmy'nftre yate ; 
Among the taverneres namely, 

And cookes ? whan I cam, eerly or late, i8q 

I pynchid nat at hem in myn acate, 
But paied hem as that they ax*e wolde ; 
Wherfore I was the welcomer algate, 
And for a verray gentil man y-holde. 

And if it happid on the fomere's day, 185 

That I thus at the taverne had^de be, 

Whan I deparste fholde, and go my way 

Hoom to the privee feel, fo wowid me 

Hete, and unluft, and fuperfluitee 

To walke un to the brigge and take a boot, 1 90 

V- 177- y (fignifying I) feems to be fpelt in this manner for the lake of riming 
in/iew as well as found : but it was ufually T in Wicliff. 

V. 185. Somere's] This is an inftance of a word of three fyllables (accented on 
the firft) being reduced to a difTyllable. Had it been a plural, according to the 
tenour of the Mf. it would have been written fomers ; but no fuch liberty is here 
taken with genitive cafes, though they feem to have been abridged in the fame 
manner foon after ; as we have for genitives fingular in FORTESCUE on Monarchy the 
words, kings, fuljetts, &c. 

V. 1 88. Hoom to the privee feel\ By this it mould feem, that fome of the clerks 
of the Privy Seal were then refident at the Office, and that the faid Office was not 
far from the water-fide. The editor can learn no more. 

V. 190. Brigge} In later times there was a bridge over a creek, which ran up 
into the garden belonging to Whitehall : there might have been one there, before 
that fpot was a garden. 


That nat durfte I contrarie hem all three, 
But dide all that they ftired me, god woot. 

And in the wyntir, for the way was deep, 

Un to the brigge I dreffid me alfo ; 

And ther the bootmen took up on me keep, 195 

For they my riot kneewen fern ago : 

With hem I was y-tuggid to and fro, 

So wel was him, that I with wol*de fare. 

For riot paieth large'ly evere mo; 

He ftyntith never, til his purs be bare. 200 

Other than maiftir callid was I never 

Among this meynee in myn audience ; 

Me thoghte I was y-maad a man for ever : 

So tikelid me that nyce reverence, 

That it me ma^de larger of defpence, 205 

Than that I thoghte han been. O Flatene, 

The guyfe of thy traiterous diligence 

Is folk to mefcheef haaflen and to hie. % 

V. 1.92. S tired me] That is, Jiirred me to. 

V. 206. Thoghte feems to be ufed in the fenfe of meant to : indeed it is only the 
omiffion of to (common with Hoccleve) which makes the phrafeology differ from 

V. 208. Before haajlen there is another elliptical omiffion of to. 

G Al 

[ V ] 

Al be it that my yeeres be but yonge, 

Yet have I feen in folk of hy degree, 210 

How that the venym of Faveles tonge 

Hath mortified hir profperitee, 

And broght hem in fo fharp adverfitee, 

That it hir lyf hath alfo throwe adoun : 

And yit ther can no man in this contree 215 

Unnethe efchu=e this confufioun. 

Many a fervant un to his lord feith, 

That al the world fpekith of him honour, 

Whan the contrarie of that is footh in feith ; 

And lightly leeved is this lofengour : 220 

His hony wordes wrappid in errour 

Blyndly conceyved been, the more harm is. 

V. an. Faveles.'] Cajolerie is the trueft explanation of Favel, as given by CAR- 
PENTIER in his Supplement to Du Cange. Favel is perfonified both in P. P's. 
Vljions^ and in SKELTON'S Bouge of Court e. The gloflarift to Pieces of Popular Poetry 
(publifhed 1791) explains/aw/ by the general word deceit, and unfortunately refers 
the reader to Bouge of Courte ; whereas in that poem Pavel and Difceyte are diftint 
perfonages ; though the latter (for the fake of rime) is firft called fubtylte. In 
BARCLAY'S Ecclogues we read of 

Flatterers, and liers, carters of f of ell. 

PUTTENHAM too calls Curry-favel a figure in poetry (p. 154). Both thefe authorities 
confirm the fame gloflarift's conjecture about the expreflion of currying favour. 

V. 219. Contrarie} This feems to be an inftance of what Mr. TYRWHITT has 
remarked in CHAUCER ; that two quick fyllables fometimes make but one in metre. 


[ 43 ] , 

O ! thow, Favele, of lefynges auctour, 
Caufift al day thy lord to fare amis. 

The combreworldes clept been enchantours 225 

In bookes, as that I have or this red, 

That is to fcy^e, fotil deceyvours 

By whom the peple' is mis gy*ed and led, 

And with plefan^ce fo foftred and fed, 

That they fogete hem felf, and can nat feele 230 

The foothe of the condition in hem bred 

No motre, than hir wit were in hir heele. 

Who fo that lift in the book of nature 

Of beeftes re=de, therin he may fee, 

If he take heesde un to the fcripture 235 

Wher it fpekth of meermaides in the fee, 

How that fo inly mirie fyngith fhee, 

That the fhipman ther with fallith a fleepe, 

V. 232. Hir TO// -were in liir leele muft have been an old proverb. 

V. 233. The book of nature of beeftes.~} Whatever book is here vouched, its author 
feems to have been more credulous than Pliny ; who fpeaks of the fame quality at- 
tributed to Sirens, and not worthy of belief. Nat. Hift. lib. xi. 

V. 237. S/iee has no proper antecedent ; but muft either mean one of the meermaiJes, 
or be ufed like a plural, 

G 2 And 

t 44 ] 

And by hir aftir devoured is he. 
From al fwich fong is good men hem to keepe. 240 

Right fo the feyned wordes of plefance 

Annoyen aftir, thogh they plefe a tyme 

To hem that been unwyfe of governance. 

Lordes, beeth waar, let nat Favel you lyme ; 

If that yee been envolupid in cry me, 245 

Yee may nat deesme men fpeke of you weel : 

Thogh Favel peynte her tale in profe or ryme, 

Ful holfum is it trufte her nat a deel. 

Holco*te feith up on the book alfo 

Of fapience, as it can teftifie, 250 

Whan that Ulixes faillid to and fro 

By meermaides, this was his policie : 

All eres of men of his compaignie 

With wex he ftop^pe leet, for that they noght 

Hir fong Iholde hee^re, left the armonie 255 

Hem might un to fwich deedly fleep han broght, 

V. 240. This final line of the ftanza is very much in the manner adopted by 

V. 248. Thj^.] That is to truft. Another omiffion of to before an infinitive. 
V. 249. Holcote.] See the Glofiary. 


[ 46 j ; ; 

And bond him felf un to the fhippes maft. 

So thus hem all faved his providence. 

The wys man is of peril fore agaft. 

O flaterie, o lurkyng peflilence, 260 

If fum man dide his cure and diligence 

To ftoppe his eres fro thy poefie, 

And nat wolde herkne' a word of thy fentence, 

Un to his greef it were a remedie. 

Ah nay! al thogh thy ton^ge wer ago, 265 

Yit canft thou glofe in contenance and cheere ; 
Thou fupportift with lookes evere mo 
Thy lordes wordes in e^che mateere 

V. 261. If fum man.] This idiom of ufing the fingular inftead of plural num- 
ber was not very uncommon. " Sum forefter may bring moo men to the feld, than 
" may fum knight, or fum efquier." Fortefcue on monarchy, p. 22. 

Dide his cure and diligence.} Thus in Lydgate. 

Full befily did her diligence. 

Storie of Thebes. 

V. 262. Poefa feems to mean mujical enchantment, as LYDGATE calls Amphion's 
building Thebes with his harp darke poefie. 

263. Herkne is here turned into a monofyllable by tranfpofition of letters, as 
fuffre, v. 151. For its meaning fee the gloflary. 


[ 46 ] 

Althogh that they a my^te be to deere : 

And thus thy gyfe is ; privee and appert 270 

With word and look among our lordes here 

Preferred be, thogh ther be no differt. 

But whan the fobre, treewe, and weel avyfid 

With fad vifage his lord enformeth pleyn, 

How that his governance is defpyfid 275 

Among the peple', and feith him as they feyn, 

As man treewe oghte un to his fovereyn, 

Confeillynge him amende his governance, 

The lordes her^te fwellith for defdeyn, 

And bit him voi*de bly^ve with mefchance. 280 

V. 269. Amyte is ufed elliptically for at a mite. So in LYDGATE'S Troy-book 
" deare inogh a mite." 

V. 270. Privee and appert. "\ Perfons in private and public capacities is the only fenfe 
of thefe words fuitable to the context. A privee man is explained by TYRWHITT, a 
man entrufted with private bujinefs, and appert means public. In the next century we 
meet with a corruption of this phrafe, " privy or pearte." So it ftands in a fatire 
on Wolfey, entitled Rede me, &c. 

V. 271. With is put for fy, as in Lydgate : 

With kynges and prynces in every regyon 

Greatly preferred. 

Prol. to Bochas. 

V. 276. Seith ufed a&ively like tells : as LYDGATE in Troy-book, 
" loke thou/zy Aim/a." 

V. 278. Amende mould have to before it now, but was probably then as intelli- 
gible without. 


[ 47 ] 

Men fetten nat by trousthe now adayes, 
Men love it nat, men wole it nat cherice, 
And yit is trou=the beft at all aflayes : 
Whan that falfe Favel, fouftenour of vice, 
Nat wi=te fhal how hi^re to chevyce, 285 

Ful boldely fhal trouthe hire heed up bere. 
Lordes, left Favel you fro we*le tryce, 
No lenger fouffre' hir neftlen in your ere. 

Be as be may, no more of this as now ; 

But to my mis reu=le wole I refeere ; 290 

Wher as I was at e*fe weel ynow, 

Or excefle un to me leef was and deere, 

And or I kneew his erneftful maneere : 

My purs of coyn had refonable wone ; 

But now ther in can ther but fcant appeere : 295 

ExcefTe hath ny exyled hem echone. 

V. 285. Hire.'] This word is very feldom made a diflyllable; but the metre abfo- 
lutely requires it mould be fo in this line : it feems almoft as neceffary too in a line 

of Chaucer ; 

Becaufe that he fer was from hi*re fight, v. 339$. 

V. 291. Wher as.] TYRWHITT fays in his gloffary " w/ier in compofition fome- 
times fignifies which.' 1 '' Thus iv/ier as here may fignify as to which referring to mis- 
reuk in the line before. There is the fame ufage of ivheras in GAXTON'S Proud Lady 
of love. ch. i. 

V. 294. Coyn mult in this place be confidered as a plural (like yere and wyntir), 
elfe there can be no grammatical fenfe in the laft line of the ftanza. 


The feend and excef*fe been convertible 

As enditith to me my fantafie. 

This is my (kill, if it be admittible : 

Excefle of mete and drynke is glotonie, 300 

Glotonie awakith malencolie. 

Malencolie engendryth werre and ftryf, 

Stryf caufith mortel hurt thurgh hir folie : 

Thus may excef=fe reve a foule hir lyf. 

No force of al this : go we now to wacche 305 

By nightertasle out of al mefure, 

For as in that fin^de cowde I no macche 

In al the privee feel with me tendure ; 

And to the cuppe ay took I heede and cure, 

For that the dryn^ke appall fholsde noght : 310 

But whan the pot emptid was of moifture 

To wake aftirward cam nat in my thoght. 

But whan the cuppe had thus my neesde fped, 

And fumdel mo^re than neceflitee, 

With repleet fpirit wente I to my bed 3 1 5 

And bathid ther in fuperfluitee ; 


[ 49 ] 

But on the morn was wight of no degree 

So loothe as I to twyn^ne fro my cowche, 

By aght I woot---aby*de, let me fee, 

Of two as looth I am feur kowde I towche. 320 

I dar not feyn, Prentys and Arundel 

Me countrefete, and in fwich wach go ny me ; 

But often they hir bed loven fo wel, 

That of the day it drawith ny the pry^me 

Or they rife up ; nat can I tell the ty=me 325 

Whan they to bed^de goon, it is fo late. 

O Helsthe lord, thou feed hem in that cry*me, 

And yit thee looth is with hem to debate. 

V. 320. Tcnuche, that is, make mention. This fenfe of touch withwz joined to it is in 
Johnfon's di&ionary ; but formerly it was followed by of: " touch and fpeke both of 
Afcanius and of Silvius." R AST ELL'S Cronicle. 

Though I have touched of this enormitie. 

BARCLAY'S Skip of Fools. 

V. 321. Prentys and Arundd.~\ Whether thefe two gentlemen belonged to the 
Privy Seal, or not, feems doubtful : had they been in the fame department with 
Hoccleve, they would moft likely have been mentioned in the next poem. 

V. 324. Pryme. See the Gloflary. 

H And 

[ 5 ] 

And why ? I n'at : it fit nat un to me, 
That mirour am of riot and excefle, 330 

To knowen of a goddes pryvetee : 
But thus I ymagyne, and thus I gefTe ; 
Thow meeved art of tendre gentilnefle 
Hem to forber, and will hem nat chaftyfe, 
For they in mirthe and vertuous gladnefle 335 

Lordes reconforten in fundry wyfe. 

But to my purpos : fyn that my feeknefle, 

As wel of purs as body, hath refreyned 

Me fro Taverne and othir wantonefTe, 

Among an heep my name is now defteyned ; 340 

My grevous hurt ful litil is compleyned, 

But they the lak compleyne of my defpenfe. 

Alas ! that evere knyt I was and cheyned 

To cxcefle, or him dide obedience. 

Defpenfes large enhaunce a mannes loos, 345 

Whil they endure ; and whan they be forbore, 

V. 331. Goddes pryvetee.'} LYDGATE fays of Amphiorar, 

was alfo fecree 

With the Goddes, knowing her privetee. St. of Th. 

V. 335. Pertuous.'] The word here feems to mtznfalubrious. We ftill ufe 'the 
verlue of medicines.' Lydgate fpeaks of ' vertuous plente.' Fall of Ps. B. iv. ch. 14- 


t 5i 

His name is deed ; men keepe hir mowthes cloos 
As nat a peny had he fpent to fore : 
My thank is qweynt, my purs his ftuf hath lore, 
And my carkeis repleet with hevynefle : .35 

Be waar, Hoccleve, I re^de thee therefore, 
And to a me-ne reu4e thow thee drefle. 

Who fo paflyn^ge mefu*re defyrith 

(As that witneflen ol;de clerkes wyfe) 

Him felf encombrith often fythe and myrith, 355 

And for thy let the me*ne thee foufFyfe : 

If fwich a conceit in thyn her^te ryfe, 

As thy profyt may hindre' or thy renown 

If it were execut in any wyfe, 

With manly refoun thrifste thow it down. 360 

Thy rentes annuel, as thou wel wood, 
To fcar^ce been greet coftes to fufteene ; 
And in thy cofre pardee is cold rooft ; 
And of thy manuel labour, as I weene, 

V. 349. My thank mufl mean thanks due to me. So Lydgate has 

Lefeth oft his thank. 

Fall of Ps. B. v. ch. 17. 

V. 364. Manuel mufl: be a diffyllable, and was therefore likely to be pronounced' 
mamuel : u and w were often confounded, as in dell, frequent in Maundevile. The 
fame kind of pronunciation might take place in the word continue^ v. in. 

H 2 Thy 

Thy lucre' is fwich, that it unneth is feene, 365 

Ne felt ; of yyftes feye I eek the fame : 

And fte4e, for the guerdon is fo keene, 

Ne darft thow nat, ne begge alfo for fhame. 

Than wolde it fee^me, that thow borwid haaft 

Mochil of that, that thow haaft thus defpent 370 

In outrage and excefTe and verray waaft. 

Avy;fe thee ; for what thyng that is lent 

Of verray right moft hoom ageyn be fent ; 

Thow thir in haaft no perpetuitee : 

Thy dettes pai^e, left that thow be fhent, 375 

And or that thow ther to compel lid be. 

Sum folk in this cas dreeden more offenfe 

Of man for wyly wrenches of the lawe, 

Than he dooth either god or confcience ; 

For by hem two he fettith nat an hawe. 380 

V. 377. Folkdreeden.~\ Here folk, as a noun of multitude, has a verb plural-^ 
yet is regarded as Jlngnlar by he in the third and fourth lines of the flanza. 

V. 380. An (not in the Mf.) is wanted for the metre. In the laft poem of the 
Mf. is " nat laorth an hawe" At is omitted, as in v. 269. before a mite, and as in 
CHAUCER'S R. R. 5730. 

they fett nat a kke. 


[ 53 ] 

If thy conceit be fwich, thow it withdraw e 
I rede, and voide it clene out of thyn herte ; 
And firft of god, and fyn of man have awe, 
Left that they bosthe ma^ke thee to fmerte. 

Now lat t\iis fmert warnyn^ge to thee be; 385 

And if thow maift heer aftir be releeved 

Of body and purs, fo thow gy*e thee 

By wit, that thow no mo^re thus be greeved. 

What riot is, thow taaftid haaft and preeved. 

The fyr, men feyn, he dreedith that is brent ; 390 

And, if thow fo do, thow art wel y-meeved : 

Be now ne lenger fool, by myn afTent. 

Ey ! what is me ? that to my felf thus longe 

Clappid have I ! I tro^we, that I rave. 

Ah nay ! my poo^re purs and peynes ftronge 395 

Have artid me fpeke, as I fpoken have. 

V. 386. Releeved feems here to be ufed in a fenfe a little different from its com- 
mon one. As in the following line of Earl Rivers : 

Thingis derked to light hit dooth releve. 

Alfo in P. Ps. Vifions, paflus 1 8 : 

And that death in them fordid, my deth fhal releve. 

V. 393. What is me ?~\ An ellipfis for laftat is come to me ? 

t 54 ] 

Who fo him fhapith mercy for to crave, 

His leflbn moot recorde in fundry wyfe ; 

And whil my breeth may in my body wave, 

To recorde it unnethe I may fouffyfe. 400 

god, o Helthe, un to thyn ordenance, 
Weleful lord, meekly fubmitte I me ; 

1 am contryt, and of ful repentance, 
That eve're' I fwymmed in fwich nycetee, 

As was difpleafaunt to thy deitee : 405 

Now kythe on me thy mercy and thy grace ; 
It fit a God been of his gra*ce free ; 
Foryeve, and nevere wole I eft trefpace. 

My body and purs been at ones feeke, 

And for hem bothe I to thyn hy noblefle, 410 

As humblely as that I can, byfeeke 

With herte unfeyned ; reewe on our diftrefTe ; 

Pitee have of myn harmful hevynefle ; 

Releesve the repentant in difefe ; 

Defpende on me a drope of thy largefle 415 

Right in this wyfe, if it thee like and plefe. 

V. 407. It fa a god.~\ Gower fol. 9. 

It fit a preeft. 


t 55 ] 

Lo ! lat my lord the Fourneval I preye 

(My noble lord, that now is treforeer) 

From thyn hynef;fe have a tokne' or tweye 

To pai-e me that due is for this yeer 420 

Of my yeerly ten pounds in thefchequeer ; 

Nat but for Michel ter^me that was laft : 

I dar nat fpeke a word of ferneyeer, 

So is my fpirit fimple* and fore agaft. 

I kepste, nat to be feen importune 425 

In my purfuyte ; I am ther to ful looth : 
And yit that gy*fe ryf is and comune 
Among the peple now, withouten ooth ; 

V. 417. Fourneval.] Thomas Nevil (Lord Furnival jure uxoris) was conftituted 
(jointly with Sir John Pelham) Treafurer of the kingdom, by both Houfes of Parlia- 
ment in 1405. See Parliamentary Hift. vol. ii. p. 85. See alfo DUGDALE'S Mon. 
Ang. vol. ii. p. 938. col. ii. where this fame perfon is called " Treaforer of England." 

V. 423. Ferneyeer (as explained in the glofiary) means the foregoing year. In 
the margin of the Mf. is this note : " annus ille fuitannus reflri&ionis annuitatum." 
Of the year 1405 there is a ftatute in old French and not tranflated (7 H. IV. ch. 16.) 
which flops the payment of annuities lately granted, to fecure it to thofe of older 
date. By the paflage in the poem, and by the note, itfhould feem, thatHoccLEVE 
had one of thefe late grants, and that the ftatute continued in force only for a 
twelvemonth. This line (together with that which mentions the treafurerfhip of 
Lord Furnival) almoft fixes the date of this poem to the clofe of 1406, or very be- 
ginning of 1407. 

V. 428. Withouten ooth.~\ This phrafe feems to mean beyond eccafon for an oath to 
my affertion. Withutcn langage in the Corpus Chrifti play means no need to fay more. 

[ 56 ] 

As the fhamelees cravour wole, it gooth, 
For eftaat real can nat al day werne ; 430 

But poo^re fhamefaft man ofte is wrooth ; 
Wherfosre for to cra*ve moot I lerne. 

The proverb is, the doumb man no land getith : 

Who fo nat fpekith, and with neede is bete, 

And thurgh arghnefle his ovv*ne felf forgetith, 435 

No wondir thogh an othir him forgete ; 

Neede hath no lawe, as that the Clerkes trete ; 

And thus to cra^ve artith me my neede, 

And right wole eek, that I me entremete, 

For that I axe is due, as god me fpeede. 440 

V. 431. For the fenfe of wrooth here, fee the gloffary. 

V. 435. His none /elf] This expreffion may ferve to confirm WALLIS'S opinion, 
that felf was a fubftantive. Mr. TYRWHITT held the contrary in his vindication of 
his appendix to Rowley ; but allowed, that felf had been made a fubftantive of in the 
1 6th century: he had not (when he wrote this vindication) feen the editor's Mf. 
Any other fuch inftance, either in the i $th century, or earlier, the editor acknow- 
ledges th#t he has not found ; yet he cannot conceive, but that this fingle authority 
is an undeniable one. 

[ 57 ] 

And that, that due is, thy magnificence 
Shunneth to \ver*ne, as that I byleeve ; 
As I feide, reew*e on myn impotence, 
That likly am to fteiwe yit or eeve, 

But if thow in this wy*fe me releeve : 445 

By coyn I geste may fwich medecyne, 
As may myn hur=tes aI4<? that me greeve 
cleene, and voi*de me of pyne. 

V. 442. Shunneth with an infinitive after it, though not very common, is as 
modern as Waller, 

The lark, that Jkuns on lofty boughs to build 
Her humble neft, &c. 





JL HE Son^ne with his bemes of brightneffe 
To man fo kyndly is and norifhynge ; 
That lakkyng it day ne^re but dirknefle ; 
To day he yeveth his enlumynynge, 

* HENRY SOMER was made a Baron of the Exchequer, Nov. 8th, 1408 [See 
DUGDALE'S Series]. This poem muft confequently have been older than that 
period : how much, cannot well be afcertained ; but the editor conceives its moil 
probable date to be the clofe of the year 1407. 

I 2 And 

[ 60 ] 

And caufith al fruyt for to wexe and fprynge : 5 

Now fyn that fon*ne may fo moche availl, 
And mooft with Somer is his fojournynge, 
That fefoun bontevous we wole affail. 

Glad cheerid Somer, to your governaill 

And gra^ce we fubmitte al our willy'nge ; 10 

To whom yee freendly been, he may nat faill 

But he fhal have his refonable* axynge : 

Aftir your good luft be the fefonynge 

Of our fruytes ; -the lafae myghelmefTe 

The tyme of yeer was of our feed ynnynge ; 1 5 

The lak of which is our greet hevyneffe. 

We trufte up on your freendly gentilleffe, 

Yee wole us helpe, and been our fuppoaill : 

Now yeve us caufe ageyn this criftemefTe 

For to be glad, o lord ! whether our taill 20 


V. 8. JJJ/alll, that is, with importunity. 
, V. 18. Suptaaitt\ See the gloffary. 

V. 20. O Io)-d] Somer feems to be here addreft as a deity, in the fame manner 
as Health in the former poem. 

Wluther appears in this place only to have the power of making the fentence 

interrogative. It is ufed in the fame manner by Wicliff. " If his fone axe him 


r 6' j 

Shall foo*ne make us with our fhippes faill 
To port falut ? if yow lift, we may fynge, 
And elles moot us bosthe mourne and waill 
Till your favour us fen*de releevynge. 

We your fervantes Hoccleve, and Baillay, 25 

Hethe and Offeree, yow byfeeche and preye, 
Haftith our herveft as foone as yee may ; 
For fere of ftormes our wit is aweye ; 

breed, whether he.wole take him a ftone?" Mat. ch. 7.. .This is- but one inftance of 
many, that might be produced from the fame book. 

V. 21, &c. With our Jtiippes faill to port falut f\ Port falut was a kind of proverbial 
expreflion, and fo ufed in the tranflation of Cicero de fene flute printed by CAXTON ; 
but the Jhippes that were to be procured by their faill (or exchequer tally) to carry 
them to this fafe port, were moft probably nobles (the gold coin which had a Jhip for 
the reverfe), fince our author certainly ufes ./&//>/> in this fenfe in the next poem. 

V. 25. HOCCLEVE, &c.] By the poet's naming himfelf firft, we may conclude, 
that he was the fenior in office of the four. . , . . - t ... . -.; 

V. 28. Our wit is aweye] So in GOWER, 

out of him felfe awey. Fol. 35. . 

By the rimes of the four firft lines of this itanza, there feems to have been a dif- 
tinclion of found between the fyllables ay and eye which we are not now 'aware of: 
or elfe rimes were expected to match to the fight as well as to the ear. Of this in^ 
deed we have feen inftances already, and mail meet with more. HOCCLEVE was 
exa&er in his rimes than even moft modern poets. -I, 1. - 


[ 62 ] 

Were our feed inned, wel we mighten pleye, 

And us defporte, and fynge, and maske game ; 30 

And yit this rowndel ihal we fynge and feye 

In truft of yow, and honour of your name. 

Somer, that rypeft mannes fuftenance 

With holfum hete of the Sonnes warmnefle, 

Al kynde of man thee holden is to bleffe. 35 

Ay thankid be thy freendly governance, 

And thy frefh look of mirthe and of gladneffe. 

Somer, that rypeft mannes fuftenance 

With holfum hete of the Sonnes warmnefle, 

All kynde of man thee holden is to bleffe. 40 

V. 3 1. RownJel] From v. 33 to the end of this poem is a fample of old Englim 
roundels, which Cotgrave defines " a rime, or fonnet, that ends as it begins." A fpe- 
cimen of the rime in the definition may feem in CHAUCER'S Knight's Tale, v. 1512, 
13, 14; and of the fonnet here. Cotgrave's definition is incomplete, by making no 
mention of the rcpttition of the burden in the middle. In this refpet the definition in 
diStionalre des Trevoux (adopted by Johnfon) is more to the purpofe ; but neither does 
that exactly correfpond with this Englim relique, for it makes the fonnet confift of 
thirteen lines ; of which eight accord to one rime, and five to another : here we 
have fourteen lines in all, and nine of them to one rime. This roundel is what is 
called chanceon in the title to the piece. 


[ 63 ] 

To hevy folk of thee the remembrance 
Is falve and oynement to hir feeknefle ; 
For why we this (hul fynge in criftemeffe : 

Somer, that rypeft mannes fuftenance 

With holfum hete of the Sonnes warmnefle, 45 

Al kynde of man thee holden is to blefle. 

V. 43. For -why] See the gloflary. 





WORSHIPFUL Sir, and our freend fpecial, 
(And fe\aw*e in this cas we call yow) 
Your lettre fent un to us cleerly al 
We ha*ve red, and underftanden, how 


* Said Court the editor apprehends muft mean the Ceurt fo called in the beginning 
of this title, and not the Exchequer ; becaufe, though Henry Somer was made a 

K Baron 

[ 66 ] 

It is no wit to your conceit, as now, 5 

\}:{Q the ru4e foorth as we been inne, 
But al an othir ru4e to begynne : 

Reherfynge, how in the place of honour, 

The Temple, for folace and for gladnefle 

(Wher as nat oghste ufid been errour 10 

Of over mochil waaft or of excefle) 

Firft wern we foundid to u?fe largeffe 

Baron of that Court in 1408, he could hardly remain fo after being appointed its 
Chancellor. When his latter promotion took place, does not appear ; but there 
was a new appointment of a baron in 1409, another in 1410, and of three more in 
1414 ; either of which might be in the room of Somer. This Company feems to have 
been formed of members of the Middle Temple. The Temple is mentioned ifi the 
poem; and Cheflre's Inn (where HOCCLEVE ftudied the law) appears to have then 
belonged to the Middle Temple. Though the editor can throw very little light upon 
the particular cuftom of the feaft here treated of; yet he gives the piece to the pub- 
lic, as a fingular curiofity in its way, and perhaps more intelligible to abler antiqua- 
ries, than to himfelf. It certainly is not publifhed to fet off the poetical talent of its 
author, being merely an epiftolary altercation vernfied, and in a ftyle for the moft 
part much embarrafied. 

V. 5. No ivit feems another way of fpelling no whit: but take wit forfenfe, and 
the paffage will be equally intelligible. Ufeth no -uytte is a phrafe in Caxton's 

V. 6. Ufe~[ Another omiffion of to before the infinitive. 


In our defpenfes ; but for to exceede 
Refon we han, efpyed yee nat beede. 

Yee allegge eek, how a rule hath be kept 1 5 

Or this, which was good as yee have herd feyn ; 

But it now la*te ceflid hath and flept, 

Which good yow thynkith were up take ageyn ; 

And, but if it fo be, our Court certeyn 

Nat likly any whyle is to endure, 20 

As hath in mow^the many a cre-ature. 

Yee wolden, that in confervacioun 

Of our honour, and eek for our profyt, 

That thentente of our old fundacioun 

Obferved migtute been, and to that plyt 25 

Be broght as it was firft, and pafTe al qwyt 

V. 13. To exceede} At the Middle Temple an additional difh to the regular dinner 
is ftill called exceeding; : to which appellation Maffinger alludes (in the Pidhire) by the 
expreflion of " feftival exceedings ;" but his editor Coxeter, not knowing the origin 
of the phrafe, thinks * exceeding feftivals' had been better. 

V. 14. Efpyed yee nat beede.] that is, you do not fay has beenfeeh by you. 

V. 1 8. Tow thynkith is the fame kind of phrafe as me thinks : yow is the oblative 
cafe, and not the nominative. 

V. 26. fajfe alquyt out of the daunger} This phrafeology was common with old 
writers. Fabian has it in a paffage, where daunger is ufed more peculiarly, than 
by Hoccleve: he is fpeaking of two fheriffs imprifoned in the 38th year of Hen. III. 
and fays, " how they pafjyd out of the kynges daunger^ I fynde not." 

K 2 Out 

[ 68 ] 

Out of the daunger of outrageous waaft, 

Left with icorn and repreef feed us fwich taaft. 

Un to that crude fix=e fhippes grete 

To yeve us han yee grauntid and benight, 30 

To bye ageyn our dyner flour or whete ; 

And befide it, as refon wole and right, 

Paife your lagh, as dooth an othir wight, 

That by mefusre rulith him and gyeth, 

And nat as he, whom outrange maiftrieth. 35 

In your lettre contened is alfo, 

That if us lift to chaunge in no maneere 

Our neew*e gy^fe, ne twyn?ne ther fro, 

The firsfte day of May yee wole appeere ; 

That day yee febte be with us in feere ; 40 

And to keepe it yee wole be reedy. 

This is theffeft of your lettre foothly. 

V. 29. Sixjkippes grete can mean nothing elfe in this paffage, than^/fo whole nobles; 
which HOCCLEVE calls fhips for the reafon already given in the note to II. 21. 

V. 40. Sette be : that is, appoint to be. 


To the which in this wy^fe we anfwere : 

Excefe for to do be yee nat bownde, 

Ne noon of us, but do as we may bere ; 45 

Up on fwich ru4e we nat us ne grownde. 

Yee been difcreet, thogh yee in good habownde : 

Dooth as yow thynkith for your honeftee ; 

Yee and we all arn at our libertee. 

At our lafste dyner, wel knowen yee, 50 

By our Stywardes limitacion, 

(As cuftume of our Court axith to be, 

And ay at ou^re congregacion 

Obferved) left al excufacion, 

Warned yee wern for the dyner arraye 55 

Ageyn thorfday next, and nat it delaye. 

We yow nat holde avyfid in fwich wyfe, 

As for to make us deftitut that day 

Of our dyner, take on yow that empryfe : 

V. 48. TOI-J thynkith.'} See note to v. 18. 

V. 50. At our laftedyner, &V.] By the whole of this ftanza it may be inferred, that 
each dinner had a Steward, who then appointed the time for the next dinner. Alfo 
a new Steward feems to have been appointed at the fame time, who bore a con- 
fiderable mare of the charge. This (we may prefume) was now Sir Henry Somer. 

V. 56. Delaye means to delay. 

V. Co. Take for or to take. 


[ 7 ] 

If your luft be, dryveth excefle away ; 60 

Of wysfe men mochil folke ler*ne may ; 
Difcretion mefurith eve*ry thyng ; 
Defpende aftir your pleafance and lykyng. 

Enfaumpleth us, let feen and us miroure : 

As that it feemeth good to your prudence, 65 

Reu4e that day, for the thank lhal be youre ; 

Booth, as yow lift be drawe in confequence ; 

We truften in your wys experience : 

But keepith wel your tourn, how fo befall, 

On thorfday next, on which we awayte all. 70 

V. 641 Let feen and us miroure^ for and let us fee a pattern. This tranfpofition of 
and is very unufual ; yet there does not feem any other way of making fenfe of the 
paflage, but by putting let feen by itfelf, and making miroure a verb for which laft 
ufage the editor can find no trace of an authority. 

V. 67. As yow lift be draw in confequence. ~\ The meaning is, * as it pleafes you to 
have drawn into a precedent.' 

V. 70. Awayte is here ufed in a neutral fenfe, like wait. Lydgate ufes it in 
the fame way in his Troy-book : 

Medea, to awayte upon her knight, &c. 





VICTORIOUS kyng, our lord ful gracious, 

We humble li*ge men to your hynefle 

Meekly byfeechen you, o kyng pitous, 

Tendre pitee have on our (harp diftrefle : 

For, but the flood of your rial largefle 5 

Flowe up on us, gold hath us in fwich hate, 

That of his love and cheertee the fcantnefle 

Wole arte us three to trotte un to Newgate. 

* Mofl probably Hen. V. and towards the end of his Ihort reign. 

The poem is fele&ed, to fhew the continuance of HOCCLEVE'S pecuniary diftreffes. 

V. 8. Us three probably includes two of our poet's three joint-petitioners to the 
Undertreafurer, that are named in No. II. v. 25, 6. 


t 7* 1 

Benigne li*ge Lord, o havene and yate 
Of our confort, let your hy worthyneffe 10 

Oure indigences foftne and abate ; 
In yow lyth al, yee may our greef redrefle. 
The fomsme, that we in our bill expreffe, 
Is nat exceflif, ne outrageous ; 

Our long fervice alfo berith witnefle 1 5 

We han for it be ful laborious. 

O lisge Lord, that han be plentevous 

Un to your liges of your grace algate, 

Styntith nat now for to be bontevous 

To us your fervants of the o]-de date : 20 

God woot, we have been ay eerly and late 

Lovynsge lisge men to your noblefle ; 

Lat nat the ftrook of indigence us mate, 

O worthy Prinsce, mirour of proweffe. 

V. 13. We in our bill exprejfe.] By this it appears, that thefe verfes only accompa- 
nied a more regular petition [bill] prefented to the King. 

V. 20. The olde date.'] This expreffion makes it probable, that the verfes were 
written towards the conclufion of this reign: by which time HOCCLEVE might have 
been in his office 25 years; for the ftoppage of his annuity in the laft reign, implies, 
that he had a grant from Richard II. [See note to v. 423.] 



A de B, & C de D, &c. 

uEE heer my maiftr' Carpenter, I yow preye, 
How many chalenges ageyn me be ; 
And I may nat delivre' hem by no weye, 

* This is not the title to the poem, but written in the margin, even with the firft 
line. Under thefe initials is alfo this marginal note. " Cefte balade feuft ten* 
" drement confideree, & bonement executee." 

V. i. Carpenter, ] Rofs of Warwick fays, that John Carpenter (made in 1443 
Bimop of Worcefter) was recommended for promotion by Henry V. on his death-bed. 
He might therefore be in circumftances to affift Hoccleve early in the next reign. 
By a patent of the ^th of Henry VI. printed in the laft part of the third volume of 
DUGDALE'S Monafticon (p. 177, col. 2.) it appears, that a John Carpenter (probably 
the fame) was one of the executors of the famous Richard Whityngton. 

L So 

[ 74 ] 

So me werreyeth coynes fcarfetee, 

That ny coufin is to neceflitee ; 5 

For why un to yow feeke I for refut, 

Which that of confort am ny deftitut. 

Tho men, whos names I above exprefle, 

Fayn wolden that they and I evene were ; 

And fo wolde I, god take I to witnefle. 10 

I woot wel, I moot heere, or elles where 

Reckne' of my dettes, and of hem anfwere ; 

Myn*te for the dreede of god and awe 

Fayn wolde it qwyte, and for conftreynt of lawe. 

But by my trousthe nat wole it betyde : 1 5 

And therfore, as fair as I can and may, 

With afpen her*te I preye hem abyde, 

And me refpy=te to fum lenger day ; 

Some of hem grante, and fome of hem feyn nay ; 

V. 5. Coii/in.] And very cojyns through hafty cruelte 
To the wode furies infernall. 

LTD. Fall of Vs. 
V. 8. Abwe^ that is, in the initials at the top of the laft page. 

V. 14. // anfwering to dettes is a confufion of number; which grammatical in- 
accuracy old Englifh writers were indeed frequently guilty of. 


[ 75 ] 

And I fo fore ay dreede an aftir clap, 20 

That it me reveth many a deep and nap. 

If that it lykid un to your goodneffe 

To be betwixt hem and me fwich a mene, 

As that I mighste kept be fro durefle, 

My hevy thoghtes wolde it voi^de clene. 25 

As your good plefance is, this thyng demene 

How wel that yee doon, and how foone alfo 

I fuffre may in qwenchynge of my wo. 

V. 21. Many a both here, and in III. 21, makes but two fyllables; as is always 
the cafe in MILTON, and frequently in SPENSER. 

V. 23. Herri) though not in the Mf. is clearly required both for fenfe and metre, 
V. 28. Suffre.~\ See Gloffary. 

L 2 GO 


(jrO litil pamfilet, and ftreight thee drefle 

Un to the noble rootid gentillefle 

Of the mighty prince of famous honour, 

My gracious Lord of Yorke, to whos noblefle 

Me recommansde with hertes humblefle, 5 

As he that have his grace and his favour 

Fownden alway, for which I am dettour 

For him to preye ; and fo dial my fimplefle 

Hertily do un to my dethes hour. 


* This poem has no title, but foon difcovers itfelf to have been fent and addreft 
to Richard Duke of York, father to Edward I V 

The nine-line ftanzas (of which it confifts) were not veiy common with our old 
poets ; and even in thofe few of the kind the arrangement of rimes was moftly 
different from what it is here : but DUNBAR'S Golden Terge exactly correfponds with 
the metre of this poem. 

V. i. Pamfilet.'] Whether this word relates fingly to the prefent poem, or to a 
number of the poet's other pieces accompanying it, is not fo clear. HOCCLEVE 
calls his poem de regimine principum alfo a pamfilet. SK ELTON fpeaks of a noble pam- 

V. 6. He.] A grammatical irregularity for him. See GlofTary. 

His grace and his favour fwmden alway , &V.] Here we have a plain acknowledg- 

Remembre his worthynefle I charge thee, 10 

How ones at London defired he 

Of me, that am his fervant and ihal ay, 

To have of my balades fwich plentee, 

As ther weren remeynynge un to me, 

And for nat wole I to his wil feyn nay, 1 5 

But fulfille it as ferfoorth as I may, 

Be thow an owter of my nycetee 

For my good lordes luft and game and play. 

My lord byfeeke eek in humble maneere 

That he nat fouffre thee for to appeere 20 

In thonurable fighte or the prefence 

Of the noble princefle, and lady deere, 

My gracious lady, my goo.d lordes feere, 

The mirour of womanly excellence ; 

Thy cheer is naght, ne haaft noon eloquence 25 

To monftre thee before hir y?en cleere : 

For myn honour were holfum thyn abfence. 

ment of a long feries of obligations. The poet's addrefs to his friend Carpenter 
feems to have been the lateft of his complaining ftrains. It is therefore by no means 
improbable, that the latter part of his life was rendered comfortable by the liberality 
of the Duke of York. 

V. iz. Shalufed elliptically forjfral be. See TYRWHITT'S gloflary to Chaucer. 

V. 25. Haaft.'} Thw is underftood. 


[ 79 ] 

Yit ful fayn wolde I have a mefTageer 
To recommarude me with herte enteer 
To hir benigne and humble wommanhede ; 30 

And at this tyme have I noon othir heer 
But thee, and fmal am I for thee the neer ; 
And if thow do it nat, than fhal the dedc 
Be left, and (that nat kepte I) out of dredc 
My Lord, nat I, fhal have of thee poweer ; 35 

Axe him licenfe, up on him crie and grede. 

Whan that thow haft thus doon, than aftirward 

Byfeesche thow that worthy Prince Edward, 

That he thee leye apart, for what may tyde, 

Left thee behol^de my maiftir Picard. 40 

I warme thee, that it fhal be ful hard 

For thee and me to halte on any fyde, 

But he efpie us : yit no force ; abyde ; 

Let him look on ; his herte is to me ward 

So freendly, that our lhasme wole he hyde. 45 

V. 40. Picard (of whom the editor has found no mention elfe-where) muft have 
been the name of Edward's tutor. Edward was but feven years old in 1449; at 
which period HOCCLEVE'S age could be little fhort of eighty. 


[ 8 ] 

If that I in my wrytyn^ge foley'e 
(As I do oft, I can it nat withfeye) 
Meetrynge amis, or fpeke unfyttingly, 
Or nat by juft peys my fentences weye, 
And nat to thordre' of endytyng obeye, 50 

And my colours fette ofste fythe awry, 
With al myn her^te wole I buxumly, 
It to amende and to corre6te, him preye ; 
For undir his correction ftande y. 

Thow foul book un to my Lord feye alfo, 55 

That pryde is un to me fo greet a fo, 
That the fpe&acle forbedith he me, 
And hath y-doon of tysme yere ago ; 
And for my fighste blyve haftith me fro, 

V. 50. Thordre is the ordre in the Mf. ; but metre requires the contraction ; and, 
that being the cafe, the Mf. authorifes this mode of junction by many fimilar ones. 

V. 51. Colours."] Thus Lydgate in his Fall of Princes fpeaks of Chaucer's 
" colours of fwetenes," 

and fays of himfelf, 

Of frefh colours I toke no manere hede. 

V. 57. The fpeflade.~\ This word (both here and in the lines cited in the preface) 
muft mean nearly the fame as is now called a pair of fpeflacles. So thought the late 
worthy optician, Mr. Adams, whofe profeffional judgment and truly communicative 
difpofition the editor had availed himfelf of upon the fubject. SKELTON in his 
Crown of laurel has the ^>\\\ra\fpeiade s. 


And lakkith that that fholde his confort be, 60 

No wondir thogh thow ha-ve no beautee. 
Out up on pry=de, caufer of my wo ! 
My fighte is hurt thurgh hir adverfitee. 

Now ende I thus : the holy Trinitee, 

And our Lady the bleflid mayden free, 65 

My Lord and Lady have in governance, 

And grante hem joie and hy profperitee, 

Nat to endure oonly two yeer or three, 

But a thoufand : and if any plefance 

Happe migrate on my poo^re fouffiflance 70 

To his proweflfe and hir benignitee, 

My lyves joie it were, and fuftenance. 

V. 65. Free feems to have been an ufual epithet bellowed -on the Virgin : 

annunciation of owre ladyfre 

purification of owre lady fofre. 

JULIANA BARNES on hunting. 


A N 





The fmall figures, when by themfelves, refer to the correfponding lines ia 
the firft poem ; when they have Roman numerals prefixt, then to thofe 
of the poem pointed out by the faid numerals. 

Immediately after each word to be explained is an abbreviation, denoting the 
part of fpeech ; as v. for verb, n. for noun, &c. 

Alb. The St. Alban's edition of the book on hawking, hunting, and 

Cootarmuris, in the year 1486. 

Carp. Carpentier's Supplement to the GlolTary of Du Cange. 

Caxt. Caxton. 

Ch. Chaucer. 

C. C. Pla. Corpus Chrifti Play, printed in Stevens's MonafHcon. 

Div. & Pau. Dives & Pauper, Pynfon's edition, 1493. 

M 2 Doug. 

[ 84 ] 

Doug. Vir. Gloffary to Gawin Douglas's Virgil by Ruddiman. 

E. R. Earl Rivers's Moral Proverbs, printed by Caxton. 

Fab. Fabyan's Chronycle. 

Fort. Fortefcue on Monarchy. 

G. Gower. 

Hylt. , Walter Hylton's Scala Perfe&ionis, Notary's edition, 1567. 

L. Lydgate. 

M. V. Maundevile's Voyage. 

M. L. D. Manning's edition of Lye's Dictionary. 

P. L. Gloffary to Peter Langtoft by Hearne. 

P. P. Pierce Ploughman's Vifions. 

Prompt. Promptorium, &c. printed by Pynfon in 1499, but compiled 

in 1440. 

R. G. Gloffary to Robert of Glocefter, by Hearne. 

Spen. Spenfer. 

< Tipt. Tiptoft Earl of Worcefter's Tranflation of Cicero de Amicitia , 

or elfe his other trait printed by Caxton with it. 
Tyr. Tyrwhitt's Gloffary to Chaucer. 

Wlc. Wicliff's Teftament according to the edition of it by Lewis. 

The Gloffary there annext to it omits many of its obfolete 

fcf denotes a word not to have been ufed (as far as the editor can 

difcover) by any other author than HOCCLEVE. 




(prep.) 4. Above. G. and L. 
Abyde (v.) 319. V 17. VI 43. Stay. Wic. 
Acate (.) 181. Purchafe. Tyr. Achate. 
Accufith (v.) 40. Difcovers. 'Tyr. 
K? Admittible (adj.) 299. Admittable. This does not feem to have been a 

real word, but only a change of a vowel by poetical licenfe for the fake 

of rime. 

Adverfitee, (.) 5. 47. VI 63. See note to 5. 
Agaft (part.) 259. 424. Terrified. Tyr. 

Ageyn (prep.) 52. 1119. Ill 31. 56. V 2. Againft. Tyr. 
Ago (part.) 265. Gone. Tyr. 
Al (adv.) 16. 192. III7. Quite. Tyr. 
(conj.) 209. Although. Tyr. 
Al day See day. 
Algate (adv.) 183. IV 18. Always. Tyr. 

[ 86 ] 

Amis (adv.] 164. 224. 111. Tyr. 
Appall (v.) 310. Grow flat. L. 

Which never fhall appal/en in my minde, 
But a\\vzie fre/Ze been in myne memorie. 

Pro/, to Stone of Thebes. 
Pall as a verb neuter is ft ill ufed in the fame fenfe. 

Appert See privee. 

?> Arghnefle (//.) 435. Indolence. Arg. for indolent may be found in M. 

L. D. Supp. Forming fubftantives by the addition of nes was the practice 

of other writers ; for in Cootarmuris we have longnes and brodenei. 
Armonie (n.) 255. Harmony. L. 

Arn (v.} Ill 49. Are. Tyr. , 

Arte (v.) IV 8. Conftrain. Tyr. 

Artith 438. 

Artid (part.) 396. 
As feems often to be redundant, like as in the modern phrafe as yet. See 

65. 182. 289. 307. 
Aflautes (.) 58. Aflaults. Tyr. 
Afterte (v.} 96. Efcape. Tyr. 
Attemprely (adv.) 106. Temperately. Tyr. 
Avantage (n.) 167,9. Advantage. Tyr. 
Avante (v.) 6. Boaft. Tyr. 
Au&our (.) 223. Source. Wic. 
Avyfe [with thee~\ (v.) 372. Look to thyfelf. Tyr. 
Avyfid (part.) 273. Ill 57. Advifed. Doug. Vir. 
Awayte (v.) Ill 70. See the note. 
Axe (v.) 182. 440. VI 36. Afk. Tyr. 


Axith (v.) Ill 12. Requires. Dh. & Pau. 
Axynge (.) II 12. Requeft. Tyr. 


Beede (v.) Ill 14. Say. R. G. See bud in the addenda to M. L. D. where 

one of the interpretations of beodan is pradicare. 
Behight (part.) Ill 30. Promifed. Tyr. 

Benefice (.) 103. Benefit. JVic. I. Tym. ch. 6. and Div. & Pau. Pr. iii. 
Bere (v.) 286. Ill 45. Bear. Tyr. 

Berith IV 15. 

Beftad (part.) 129. Circumftanced. Spen. 
Bet (adv.) 178. Better. Tyr. 
Bete (part.) 434. Beaten. Z. 
Bill (.) IV 13. Petition. L. 

This was the byl, which that Ihon Bochas 
Made unto Fortune. 

Fall of Ps. B. i. 
Bit (v.) 280. Bid. Tyr. 

Blyve (adv.) 280. VI 59. Quickly. Tyr. Blive. 
Bond (pret. oi bind) 275. Bound. Wic. 

" Held Jon and bond him." Mark, ch. 6. 
Bontevous* (adj.) II 8. IV 17. Bounteous. Z. Bountevous. 

* The letter v in this word, and in others of the fame formation, was probably 
pronounced like any"; fince in Maundeviles Voyage we meet with plenti/ous, and 


[ 88 ] 

Boot (.) 190. Boat. Wlc. 

Boot-men 195. 
Borwid (part, of borwe) 369. Borrowed. The verb borive (but in another 

of its old fenfes) is in C. C. Pla. 
Brent (part, of brenne) 390. Burnt. Tyr. 
Brigge (.) 190. 194. Bridge. M. V. 
K> Brydillees (adj.) 78. Without bridle. lees was the fame privative 

termination, as the modern hfs. 
But (conj.) 57. 129. IV 5. Unlefs. Tyr. 
But if (row/.) 7.445. Illig. Unlefs. P. L. 
Buxumly (adv.) VI 52. Submiflively. Tyr. 
Bye (v.) Ill 31. Buy. Wlc. L. and Fort. 
Byfeeke (v.) 411. VI 19. Befeech. Tyr. 
Byfeye (part.) 142. Befeen. Tyr. 


Carkeis (.) 350. Carcafe. The word carkes is in Fabyan. 

Ceflid (part.) Ill 17. Ceafed. Tyr. 

Chalenges (.) V 2. Claims. Wic. Chalange. 

Charge (.) 127. Bufmefs of weight. Tyr. 

Cheef 50. See the note. 

Cheer (.) 266. Appearance. Tyr. Chere. 

VI 25. Courtefy. R. G. 

Cheerid (adj.) II 9. Glad cheer id. Of a pleafant afpeft. L. has 
Hidoufly chered, and ugly for to fee. 

Stone of Thebes. 

Cheertee (.) IV 7. Regard. L. 
Cherice (v.) 282. Cherifh. Tyr. 


Chevice (v.) 101. 285. Bear up. See Carp, in chevir. Chevice is ufed 
in the fame fenfe by HOCCLEVE in his Letter of Cupid, printed with 
CHAUCER ; and alfo in CHAUCER'S Complaint of Mars, where Urry's 
gloflarift (not underftanding the word) would alter it to cherice. 

Chinchy (adj.) 136. Niggardly. Ch. R. R. 6002. 

Chyldly (adj.) 64. Of a child. L. 

In chyldly wy*fe on her gan to fmyle. 

Fall of Ps. II. ch. 22. 

This word (having no proper fubftitute in modern language) is worth 

Clappid (part.) 394. Talked quick. Tyr. 

Theyr tunge dappith. L. Chichevache and Bycorne. 

Clept (part, of clepe) 225. Called. Tyr. 

Combreworldes (n.) 225. Encumbrances to the world. Tyr. 

Compleyne (v. aftive.) 20. 342. Bewail. L. and Tipt. 
Compleyned (part.) 341. 

Comune (adj.) 427. Common. -L. and Tipt. 

Conceit (n.) Ill 5. Conception. Tyr. Concete. 

Confort (n.) IV 10. V 7. VI 60. Comfort. L. 

Confeil (n.) 76. 86. Counfel. Tyr. 

Confeillynge (part.) 278- Counselling. P. L. 

Contenance (n.) 266. Countenance. L. 

Contened (part.) Ill 36. Contained. Wic. prol. to apocal. 

Contrarie (v.) 191. Oppofe. Wic. 

Contree (n.) 215. Country. M. V. 

Cotidian (adj.) 25. Daily. Tyr. 

Countrefete (v.) 322. Imitate. Tyr. Contrefete. 

Kf* Cravour (n.) 429. One that craves. 

N Cure 

[ 9 ] 

Cure (.) 261. 309. Care. Tyr. 

Cuftume (.) 113. 161. Ill 52. Cuftom. Caxi. 


Dar (v.) 137. 321. 425. Dare. TY'ic. 
Daunger (.) 126. Coynefs. Tyr. 
Day (.) 185. V 1 8. Time. Tyr. 

Al day 224. 430. Always. L. 

Day by day. 39. 122. Continually. Wlc. 
Debate (v.) 328. Combat. Spen. 

Well could he turney, and in lifts debate. 

F. (^ B. II. C. i. ft. 6. 
Delivre (v.) V3- Difcharge. Wic. 

Demene (v.) V 26. Manage. Tyr. Demaine. See Carp. Difmanare. 
Departith (v.) 133. Separates. M. V. 

" Departethe Ytaille and Greece." ch. 5. 
Deprave* (v.) 171. Vilify. L. 
Derke (adj.) 88. Dark. Wic. and L. 
Defpenfe (.) 205. 342. Expence. Tyr. Difpence. 

Defpenfes. 345. Ill 13. 
Defporte (v.) II 30. Divert. Tyr. Difport. 

* The editor is much miftaken, if this verb is not ufed in the fame fenfe by 
Shakfpeare, even in a paflage which Johnfon has cited, as an inftance of its other 

meaning [to corrupt]. 

Who lives, that's not 

Depraved, or depraves ? 

Timon, act i. 

Let any reader only look at the context both' before and after. Even Johnfon 
fliews in the fame dictionary, that Shakfpeare ufed depi-avation for defamation,. 


. [ 9 ] 

Defteyned (part.) 340. Difparaged. Doug. Vir. Diftene. 
Dettes (n.) 375. V 12. Debts. L. 
Dettour (.) VI 7. Debtor. JVic. and Ttpt. 
Dide (v.) Did. fVic. and M. V. and L. 
DirknefTe (.) 115. Darknefs. L. 
Difplefaunt [adj.] 405. Difpleafmg. Tyr. 
Diflert* (.) 272. Defert or Merit. M. V. 
Difleverance (n.) 20. Separation. Doug. fir. 
Doumb (adj.] 433. Dumb. Wic. 

Dreede (.) 157. Doubt. Out of drede. VI 34. Without Doubt. Tyr. 
Drefle (v.) 352. Apply. VI i. Addrefs. Tyr. 
Dreffid me (pret.) 194. Took my way. L. 
Drope (.) 415. Drop. L. 
Durefle (.) 12. Hardfhip. Tyr. 
V24- Harm. L. 

For winter Storms might do them no dureffe. 

Fall of Ps. 


Effe<a (.) Ill 42. Subftance. 7>r. 

Eft (Wz/.j 408. Again. Tyr. 

Elles (adv.) II 23. Elfe. Elles where. Vn. Elfewhere. Tyr. 

Encombrith (v.) 355. DiftrefTes. Z. 

Enditith (v.) 298. Di&ates. 7>r. 

* Dis for </f was formerly ufed in other words derived from the Frenchj 
Lydgate's Fall of Princes has J/Vfolate, and </wgrade. 

N 2 *' Enluraynynge 

[ 9' ] 

K$> Enlumynynge (n.) II 4. Illumination. L. 

Enteer (adj.] VI 29. Entire. L. 

Entent (n.) 182. Intention. Tyr. 

Entremete (v.) 429. Interpofe. Tyr. Entermete. 

Envolupid (part.} 245. Wrapt up. Tyr. 

Erneftful (adj.) 293. Zealous. M. L. D. Earneft interpreted by Jludiofus. 

Efchue (v.) 216. Efchew or avoid. 6'. and L. 

Evere mo (adv.] 199. 267. Evermore. G. 

Execute (part.) 76. 359. Put in execution. L. 

Ey (inter -j.) 393. Tyr. 


Farfid (part.) 13. Stuffed. Tyr. 

Favell (.) 244,7. 2 ^4' 7' Favele. 223. Cajolery or flattery by words. 
Faveles (*. ftf.) 211. See the note. 

Feere (n.) VI 23. Wife. Infeere. Ill 40. In company. Tyr. 

Feith (n.) 219. Truth. ^/. in Cootarmuris : As fe'ith is ' as is the truth.' 

Felawe (.) Ill 2. Companion. Tyr. 

Femel (.) 138. Family. Doug. Vir. 

Ferd (part.) 170. Afraid. Tyr. 

Ferfoorth (adv ) VI 16. Far forth. Tyr. 

Fern ago (<wfo.) 196. Long ago. P. P. 80. b. 

Ferneyeer (n.) 423. The former year. This explication is thoroughly fub- 
ftantiated by the marginal annotation in the Mf. ; for which fee the note. 
It alfo accords with Tyrwhiti 1 s conjectural explanation of the fame word in 
CHAUCER'S Trollus ; only that it is there (perhaps unnecelTarily) fuppofed a 
plural. The interpretation of this word by Urry's gloflarift, who takes it 


[ 93 ] 

on Skinner's authority to be a corruption of Fevriere [February], is almoft 

Folie (.) 40. 62. 303. Folly. Tyr. 

K$> Foleye (v.) VI 46. Trifle. Carp. Folier. 

For like the French pour before infinitives. Tyr. 

(conj.) Becaufe that. Tyr. 

Fer thy (conj.) 356. Therefore. Tyr. 

For why (conj.) 1143. V6. Wherefore. JVic. Luk. ch. 12. v 3. Div. 
& Pau. Pr. viii. ch. i. towards the end. Alfo Hylt. in a few places. 
This fenfe of for why, which accords beft of any with the two paflages in 
HICCLEVE, is, notwithftanding its analogy with the foregoing article, very 
rare in old writers : the why in general (except where the two words make 
the whole of an interrogative fentence) is redundant, and makes no altera- 
tion in the accuftomed fenfes of for. 

Force (n.) 130. Neceflary confequence. Doug. Vir. No force. VI 43. 
No Matter. Tyr. No force of. 305. No matter for. Tyr. 

Foryeve (v.) 408. Forgive. Div. & Pau. 

Foftred (part.) 229. Nourifhed. Tyr. 

Free (adj.) VI 65. Liberal. Tyr. 

Fro (prep.) From. Tyr. 

Fundacioun (n.) Ill 24. Foundation. L. 


Gentillefle (.) II 17. Liberality. VI 2. Dignity. Tyr. 
Gefie (v.) 332. Guefs. Tyr. 
Gleede (n.) 159. Burning coal. Tyr. 
Good (.) Ill 47. Goods or Wealth. Tyr. 


[ 94 ] 

Governaill (.) II 9. Governance. Ch. 
Grede (v.) VI 36. Cry loudly. Tyr. 
Guerdon (.) 367. Retribution. L. 

Fraud quit with fraud is guerdon covenable. 

Fall of Pr. II. ch. 30. 
Gye (v.) 387. Guide. Tyr. 
Gyed 228! Gyeth III 34. 
Gyfe (.) 270. 427. Guife or fafhion. Tyr. 


Habownde (v.) Ill 47. Abound. L. 

Habundantly (adv.) 119. Abundantly. Hylt. 

Halt (pret. of hold.) 53. Held or kept. Tyr. 

Han for haven (plur. or wjf. of) Have. Tyr. 

He (^0.) VI 6. Him. P. L. This indeed feems to have been a common 

phrafeology. " He that moche hath moche behoveth." Dives & Pauper. 

ch. 4. 

is in all in its cafes ufed for it. Tyr. 

Hem (pro.) Them, and Themfelves. Tyr. 
Hennes (adv.) 49. Hence. Tyr. 
Herkne (v.) 263. Hear. L. 

When Thelamon herkened had his tayle. 
Highte (.) On highte. 172. Aloud. Tyr. who gives his interpretation 

only as a conjecture, but which is clearly confirmed by this paflage in 

HOCCLEVE. Indeed Spenfer ufes thefe words in the fame fenfe. 

F. Q., B. V. C. 4. ft. 45. 
Him is frequently ufed for himfelf. Tyr. 


C 95 ] 

Hir (pro.) Her, and their. Tyr. 

Hire (pro.) Her. 

285. Herfelf. 

Holcote (prop, name.) 249. Robert Holcote was a voluminous theological 
writer in the time of Ed. III. His latin treatife on the Wifdom of Solomon, 
which is referred to by HOCCLEVE, was printed at feveral places on the 
Continent in the fifteenth century. The reader that would know more of 
him, may confult TANNER'S Bibliotheca Britann. and FABRICIUS in his 
Blbl. lot. med. & inf. tetatis. 

Holfum (adj.) 248. II 34. VI 27. Wholfome. Good. L. 

Hondes (.) 115. Hands. Tyr. 

Honeftee (.) 11148. Honour. Wic. I Cor. ch. 12. 

How (adv.) V 27. In fuch manner as. R. G. 

{!=> Humblely* (adv.) 411. Humbly. 

Humblefle (.) VI 5. Humility. Tyr. 


Importune (adj.) 425. Troublefome. Tyr. 
Inly (adv.) 237. Thoroughly. Tyr. 
Inne (prep.) Ill 6. In. Tyr. 


Keep (.) 195. Care. Tyr. 

Kepte (pret. of kepe.) 425. Took care, Tyr. 

* This manner of forming adverbs extended formerly to feme others, which arc 
for found's fake entirely left off. Thus in the will of Hen. IV. (preferred in Wee- 

ver p. 208) we have the word voAollify, 


[ 96 ] 

Knyt (part.) 22. 343. Bound. Tyr. Knit. 

Kus (.) 155. Kifs. G. 

Kythe (v.) 406. Make known. Tyr. Kithe. 


&3> Lagh* (.) Ill 33. Juft fhare. M. L. D. interprets the faxon word 

by jus. 

Larger (adj.) 205. More prodigal. Tyr. Large. 
Lat (v.) Let. M. V. 
Leef (adj.) 292. Pleafmg. Tyr. Lefe. 
Leet (v.) Stoppe leet, 254. Made ftop. M. V. 

*' He leet fetten 12 greet ftones." ch. 6. 
Leeved (part.) 220. Believed. 7yr. Leve. 
Lenger (adv.) 288. 392. Longer. Tyr. 

(adj.) V 18. Z. 

Lefte (pret.) 107. Liked. Tyr. 

Lefynges (.) 223. Lies. 7>' r - 

Lettynge (.) 174. Hindrance. Z. 

*$> Lightlees (adj.) 88. Void of light. See Brydillees. 

Likerous (adj.) 147. Liquorifh. M. L. D. 

Lift (v.) 84. 233. Likes. 7y r - 

(imperfonal) I2O. II 22. Ill 37. 67. It pleafes. 7y r - 

Loos (w.) 345. Praife. Tyr. 

* This word has the fame orthography in an extraft (fee Weever p. 153) from an 
old Metrical pfauter, in the Bodleian Library : but there its fenfe exaftly corre- 
fponds with that of the modern word law. 


[ 97 ] 

Lore (part, of lere.) 349. Loft. G. 

The lofs is had, the lucre is lore. B. IV. 
Lofengour (. ) 220. Flatterer. Tyr. 
Luft (.) II 13. Ill 60. VI 18. Pleafure. Tyr. 
Lufty (adj.) 138. Lovely. P. L. 
Lym 31. See the note. 

Lyte. A lyte and lyte. 92. L. in Troy-book ufes a /y/<? adverbially for * a 
' little,' and lyte and lyte, for ' by little and little'. 


Magnificence (n.) 441. Dignity. L. 

Maiftir (177. 201.) feems to have been an honorary appellation. Wic. 
" And to be clepid of men maiftir" Mat. ch. 23. 

has my prefixt to it, when ufed in addreffing any perfon. V i. 

VI 40. 

Maiftrie (n.) For the maiftrie 149. In the beft manner. M. V. ch. 26. 
'The ma'ijlrie for the excellence was common : fo in G. 

The maiftrie 

Is, that a man himfelf defende 

Of thynge, which is nat to commende. B. III. 

Maiflrieth (v.} Ill 35. Mafters. L. 
Malencolie (.) 301,2. Melancholy. L. 
Maneere (n.) 140. HI 37. VI 19. Manner. P. L. and L. 
Mate (v.) IV 23. Fell. Carp. Mater. 
Mateere (n.) 268. Matter. Tyr. 

May (v.) II 27. V 1 6. VI 16. Have the power. Tyr. 
Ne may 34. Cannot. 

O Meetrynge 

Meetrynge (part.) VI 48. Making metre. L. 

Falfely metryd both of fhorte and longe. Troy-book. 
Meeved (part.) 333. Moved. L. 
Mene (adj.) 352. Middle. Tyr. 

(*) 356- Moderation. V 23. A mean. Tyr. 

Mefchance (n.) With Mefchance. 280. With a curfe on you. Tyr. With. 

Mefcheef (n.) 53. 208. Misfortune. Tyr. Mifchefe. 

MdTageer (n.) VI 28. Meflenger. X. 

Mefure (n.) 306. Ill 34. Moderation. Tyr. 

Meynee (n.) 202. People. P. L. 

Michel 422. Michaelmas.* 

Mirie (adj.) 237. Merry. P. L. 

Moche (adv.) II 6. Much. Tyr. 

Mochil (adj.) 370. Ill u. 61. Much. Tyr. 

83=- Monftre (v.) VI 26. Exhibit. Carp. Monftrant. 

Moot (v.) 75. 398. Vn. Muft. Tyr. Mote. 

II 23. Ufed imperfonally. 

More (adj.) 65. Greater. Tyr. 

Moft (v.) 373. Muft. Tyr. 

Mowe (v.) 148. May. Tyr. 

Myghelmefle 1114. Michaelmas. Dlv. & Pau. 


Naght (n.) VI 23. Nothing. Tyr. Naught. 
Nat (adv.) Not. Tyr. 

* Michel and Mafle might formerly make two words ; as we have Martyn mafic 
in R. G. 


99 , ( ' 

Ne (adv.) Not. (conj.) Nor. Tyr. 

Neer (adv.) VI 32. Nigher. 7}^ Nere. 

Neigheburgh (.) 166. Neighbour. . . Neighburgh. 

Nere (z>.) II 3. Were not. Tyr. 

Nightertale (.) 306. Night-time. Tyr. 

Noblefle (n.) 410. IV 22. VI 4. Dignity. Tyr. 

Noght (adv.) 254. 310. Not at all. Tyr. Nought. 

Noon (adj.) 132. HI 45. VI 25. 31. None. Alb. 

N'ot [for ne wot] (v.) 329. Know not. Tyr. 

Novelrie (n.) 38. Novelty. Tyr. 

Nyce (tf^'.) 204. Foolifti. Tyr. Nice. The contemptuous word nizy had 

probably this original. 
Nycetee (n.) 45. 404. VI 17. Folly. Tyr. Nicetee. 


Of (prep.) 387. IV 18. In. . <2. 

Of tyme* (adv.) VI 58. Oftentimes. ^/^. in Cootarmuns. Indeed of in 

old Englifh fometimes fignified oft. R. G. 
Ofte fythe (adv.] VI 51. Oftentimes. R. G. 
Oinement (.) II 42. Ointment. Tyr. 
On (prep.) VI 70. In. Tyr. 
Ones (adv.) 409. VI. n. Once. Tyr. 
Only (adv.) 83. Solely. Tyr. 
Oon (<w#.) 169. One. Alb. 

* Of tyme is printed as one word in Caxton's edition of Tiptoft, and in Pynfon's 
of Dives & Pauper. 

O2 Or 

Or (adv.] 292,3. 325. 376. Ere. Tyr. 

- (P re P-} 2 9- 22 6- 444- m J 6- Before. Tyr. 

Out (inter j.) VI 62. Tyr. 

Outrage (.) 114. 371. Ill 35. Excefs. Prompt. 

Outrageous (adj.) Ill 27. IV 14. Exceflive. L. 

Outrageoufly (adv.] 109. Exceflively. Af. V. 

Kfp Owter (.) VI 17. Completion. This conje&ural interpretation is here 

hazarded, on the ftrength of the old French verb outrer ; one of the fenfes 

of which is achever Jn Carp. 


Pamfilet (.) VI. i. Pamphlet. See note. Johnfon grounds his literal ety- 
mology (par un filet) of the modern word on Caxton's having printed 
\\.paunftet: but here we may fee, that the older orthography was different. 

Pardee (363) is an oath. Tyr. 

Paffyngly (adv.) 142. Exceedingly. Wic. 

Pees (n.) 80. Peace. Tyr. 

Peys (.) VI 49. Weight. P. L. Peis. 

Piler (.) 8. Pillar. Tyr. 

Pitous (adj.) IV 3. Compaflionate. Tyr. 

Play (.) VI 1 8. Sport. Tyr. 

Plentevous (adj.) IV 17. Abounding. JV'ic. To make clear fenfe of this 
paffage in HOCCLEVE, the reader fhould likewife turn to article Of. 

Plefance (.) 229. 241. Ill 63. V 26. VI 69. Pleafure. Tyr. 

Plefant (adj.) 10. 140. Pleafmg. L. 

Poefie (.) 262. See the note. 

Port falut II 22. See the note. 


[ ,01 ] 

Poules 143. Paul's. Tyr. 

Preeved (part.} 389. Proved. L. 

Privee 270. See the note. 

Privetee (n.) 331. Secret meaning. Wic. 

Pry me (.) 324. Nine o'clock in the morning. GlofTarifh by no means 
accord in their explication of this word : but it feems next to impoffible, 
that pryme fhould have been limited to one and the fame determinate import. 
Hearne (fee underne in P. L.} proves it to have meant " fix o'clock in the 
" morning." Mr. Tyrwhitt proves as clearly, that it flood for " the whole 
" firft quarter of an artificial day." Neither of thefe fenfes are applicable 
to the paffage in HOCCLEVE: but, as Hearne has fhewn, that pryme figni- 
fied a fixt point of time at the beginning of Mr. Tyrwhitt's period, it may 
alfo be inferred from HOCCLEVE, that it was likewife ufed for the clofe of 
it. Though the editor is unable to produce any other paflage equally de- 
cifive on this head, yet he certainly has met with fuch as are not repugnant 
to Hoccleve's ufage of pryme. That a word of this kind may have had fo 
great a latitude of fignification, is almofl evident from the vague and various 
ufages of morning in modern language. Alfo by a paflage in LYDGATE'S 
Troy-book it feeras highly probable, that our anceflors had a pryme of the 
night, as well as of the day : Medea finds, that the time of the moon's 

fhining will be, 

a quarter pafled after pryme. 

Pyne (.) 448. Grief. Tyr. 

Qweynt (part.} 349. Quenched. Tyr. Queinte 
Qwyte (v.) V 14. Pay. Tyr. Quite. 


I02 3 


Rakil (adj.) 83. Headftrong. L. 
Real (adj.) 430. Royal. Tyr. 
Rebel (adj.) 65. Difmclined. L. 

Such as be rebell for to do plefaunce. 

Fall of Ps. 

Receite (.) 114. Receptacle. L. 
Reconforten (v.) 336. Comfort. Tyr. 
Recorde (v.) 398. 400. Remember. Tyr. 
Rede (v.) 382. Advife. 7y r - 

Redde (pret.) 86. 105. 

Redden (plur.) 91. 
Reed (.) 108. Advice. Tyr. 

-. (adj.) 159. Red. L. 

Kf Refeere (z>.) 290. Revert. This fenfe of the verb refer deviates in 

fome degree from any the editor has met with. 
Refut (n.) V 6. Refuge. Tyr. 
Regned (v.) u. Was predominant. L. 

Regnynge (part.) 67. 
Releeved (part.) 386. See tHe note. 
Releevynge (.) II 24. Relief. Div. & Pau. 
Renneth (v.) 78. Runs. Tyr. 
Repeir (n.) 137. Refort. Tyr. 
Repreef (n.) Ill 28. Reproof. Tyr. 
Refoun (n.) 70, I. 360. Reafon. JV'tc. 
Reve (v.) 304. Deprive of. P. L. 

Reveth. V 21. 


[ I0 3 ] 

Rewe (v.) 412. 443. Have compafllon. Tyr. 
Rial (adj.) IV 5, Royal. L. 
RichefTe (n.) 3. Wealth. Tyr. 
Riotoures (n.) 118. Intemperate liver's. Fab. 
Rowndel (.) II 31. See the note. 

S^ Rownyngly (adv.) 172. In a whifper. E. R. has rownyng the par- 
Rypeft (v.) II 33. Ripeneft. L. 

When Ceres hath full ryped every grain. 

Troy-book V. ch. 36. 


Sad (adj.) 274. Steady. M. V. ch. 14. 
Salomon 85. Solomon. Wic. 
Salut II 22. See Port. 
8^ Scantnefle (n.) IV 7. Scantinefs. 
Seeke (adj.) 409. Sick. Caxt. 
Seekly (adj.) 15. Sickly. Caxt. 

Seeknefle (n.) 22. 118. 337. 1142. Sicknefs, J/. V. 
Seelde (adv.) 73. Seldom. L. and TTpf. 
Seith (v.) 276. Tells. Af. T. 
Selden (adv.) 165. Seldom. T^- 
Self (pro.) 280. Selves. 7>r. 
Sentence (n.) 160. Purport. See 7)T. 
Servage (n.) 116. Servitude. Prompt. 
Sette by (#.) 108. Rate. Tyr. 
Setten by 281. Settith by 380. 


[ I0 4 J 

Sour (adj.) 320. Sure. E. R. 

Shal VI 12. See the note. 

Shamefaft (adj.) 431. Modeft. Tyr. 

Shapith (v.) 397. Makes ready. Tyr. Shapen. 

Shent (part.) 375. Ruined. L. 

Sholde (v.) Should. R. G. 

Shul (plur of foal) II 43. Shall. Tyr. 

SimplefTe (.) VI 8. Simplicity. Tyr. 

Sit for Sitteth (v. neut. imperfonal) 329. Suits. Tyr. 

(v . aft . imperfonal) 407. The fimilarity of figure in,/ and j 

joined to fimilarity of fignification, has induced fome of the ableft antiqua- 
ries to doubt this meaning of the verbyfr, and to fuppofe it an error for jit. 
Thus HEARNE in an old profe extract (which he has inferted in his Gloflary 
to Peter Langtoft under the word to name) meeting with the participles/ft//^, 
conjectures, that it ought to have been fitting. Yet this very participle 
occurs in this fenfe no lefs than eight times in LYDGATE'S Fall of Princes ; 
and all parts of the fame* verb in the fame fenfe are to be found in moft of 
the beft authors of the I4th, and I5th, and even the beginning of the 
i6th centuries: for this very participle is fo ufed in one of Barclay's 
eclogues, and in Froyflart, Thefe inftances are far too numerous to have 
arifen from errors of the pen ; and the preterit fate differs fufficiently from. 

* In the printed edition of the prologue to Cicero de amicltia tranflated by Tiptoft, 
the word f<?tteth occurs in the fame fenfe, but is probably an error of Caxton's 
prefs for s/tteth : as the latter word (fo ufed) appears three times after in the 
fame work. 

105 ] 

fit to deftroy fuch a fuppofition : but this preterit is frequently ufed in the 
fame way, of which take an inftance from Chaucer: 
It fate her wonder wel to (ing. 

R. R. 750. 

The modern verbfuit being both active and neuter^ and alfo imperfonal, feems 
the genuine reprefentative of the old Jit not yet totally obfolete ; for we 
ftill fay, ' fits well or ill upon.' 
Skill (.) 299. Reafon. Tyr. This ufage of ' Jkill is as modern as SHAK- 

SPEARE'S Winters Tale: 

You have 

As little ftill to fear, as I have purpofe 
To put you to't. 

The paffage is properly explained by WARBURTON ; whofe explanation is 
adopted by Johnfon and Steevens. Yet JOHNSON in his Dictionary gives 
no fuch fenfe of ftill, but produces this very paflage as an example of its 
other fenfes. One (hould really fufpedl, that the lexicographer had not 
collected his authorities for himfelf, nor even revifed them when collected 
for him. Such a fuppofition might clear him of downright ftupidity, but 
to the impeachment of his common honefty in dealing with the public. 
Let however his moral failings be 

interred with his bones. 
Men's literary deeds live after them, 

and are proper fubjedts of animadverfion, when an author's natural deceafe 
has entitled his literary charafier to an 













* This epitaph was written very foon after Dr. Johnfon's death, while Newf- 
papers were perpetually peftering the public with idle anecdotes about him. 


I0 7 











Sleeth (v.) 19. Slays. Tyr. Sle. 

Smal (adv.) 98. 157. VI. 32. Little. See the note to 98. 

Smert (.) 25. 40. 385. Smart. L. 

Smerte (v.) 384. Smart. Tyr. 

Socour (.) 55. Succour. L. 

Soghte (v.) 43. Paid homage to. L. 

O Lady Venus, whom I have fought. 

'Temple of Glafs. 

" Tofeche that ydole" means to worfoip it. M. V. ch. 16. 
Sonne (.) II i, &c. Sun. 'Tyr. 
Soothly (adv.) Ill 42. Truly. Tyr. 
Sotil (adj.) 227. Subtle. L. 
Souffifance (.) VI 70. Sufficiency or ability. Tyr. Suffifance. E. R. has 

fouffyfance for fufficiency. 
Souffyfe (v.) 356. Suffice. Div. & Paup. 

P 2 Souffyfe 

SoufFyfe (v. neut.} 400. L. 

Souffyfith 83. 
Souftenour (.) 284. Suftainer or fupporter. L. Suftenour. 

Fall of Ps. III. ch. 25. 
Spectacle (.) VI 57. See the note. 
Sterve (v.) 444. Perifli. Tyr. 
Styntith (v.} 2OO. Gives over. L. 
(imperative plur.} IV 19. 

Stywardes (.) Ill 51. Steward's. C. C. Pla. and M. V. 
Sumdel (adv.} 314. Somewhat. Tyr. Somdel. 

Suppoaill (.) IIi8. Support. L. has the fame word in his Storie of 
Thebes ; but Dr. Morell in his common place book (which is now in the 
editor's poffeffion) has unaccountably copied Lydgate's word, as if it was 
fupportayle. With a flight variation of orthography fuppawnil is in HAR- 
DYNGE'S, and in WYNTOWN'S chronicles; and the gloffarift to the latter 
derives it from the old French apuyal; but how that fhould form the firft 
fyllable of the Englifli word, is rather difficult to conceive. 
Sufteene (v,) 5 362. Suftain. L. 
Swich (adj.] Such. Tyr. 
Syn (conj.) 71. 99. II 6. Since. Ch. 

Syn that my life ne may no longer dure. Kn, Ta. 

(adv.) 337. Tyr. Sin. 

383. Next. L. 


Taille (.) II 20. Tally. Tyr. 

Taverneres (.) 179. Keepers of taverns. Tyr, 


[ I0 9 

Tendure (v.) 308. To endure. L. 
Than, Thanne (adv.] Then. Tyr. 
Theffea (.) 11X42. TheefFea. L. See E 
Thentente (n ) III 42. The entente. L. See Entente. 
Thefchequeer (n.) 421. The Exchequer. P. L. 
Thidir [adv.] 126. Thither. Tyr. 
Thikke (adj.] 146. In great quantity. Ch, 

As thikke as motes in the funne beme. v. 6450. 
Tho (adv.} 12. 13. Then. Tyr. 

-. (pro.) V 8. Thofe. Tyr. 

Thonourable (adj.) VI 21. The honourable. 

Thordre (.) VI 50. The order. Caxt. 

Thrifte (v.) 360. Thruft. Tyr. Threfte. 

Thrifty (adj.) 135. Thirfty. Dm. & Pau. 

Thurgh (prep.} Through. Tyr. 

Thurgh out (prep.) 145. Throughout. Tyr. 

To (adv.) 269. 362. Too. Tyr. 

(pr*P-) 45- In. Tyr. 

To fore (adv.) 348. Before. G. 

Toffende (v.) 46. To offend. 

Tokne (n.) 419. Token. M. V. 

Trefor (.) i. Treafure. E. R. 

Treforeer (n.) 418. Treafurer. Caxt. 

Trete (v.) 437. Declare. ^/J. Where this mater fhall be moor 

playnli tret it." Cootarmuris. 
Trowe (v.) 394. Believe. Tyr. 
Tryce (v.) 287. Thruft. Tyr. 
Tweye (adj.) 419. Two. Tyr. 


Twynne (v.) 17.318. Ill 38. Depart. Tyr. Twinne. 

Twynned (pret.) 42. 
Tyde (v.) VI 38. Happen. L. 


Venym (.) 211. Venom. L. 

Verray (adj.) 71. 184. 371,3. Very. Wic. 

Vertuous (adj.) 335. Salubrious. M. V. ch. 15. 

Unluft (.) 189. Idlenefs. Div. & Pau. " To mainteyne them in unluft^ 

" and in bodily eafe. Pr. vii. ch. 22. 
Unnethe (adv.) 216. 365. 400. Scarcely. Tyr. 

K$> Unflttyngly (adv.) VI 48. Unfuitably. L. and Fab. have unfittynge. 
Unwar (adj.) 41. Unwary. P. L. 
Voide (v.) 382. V2. Put away. L. 

When quene Vafly was voided for her pride. 

Fall of Ps. III. ch. 26. 

448. Clear. Tyr. 

(v. neut.) 280. Go away. Tyr. 


Wacch (.) 305. 322. Late revel. L. 

The wynter he fpent in lechery, 

In watch and ryot. 

Fall of Ps. V. ch. 15. 

Soon after he repeats the three, and calls them 
Nyght exceffe, ryot, and lechery. 


[ III ] 

Wafres (n.) 146. See the note. 

Warie (%>.} 63. Revile. Doug. Fir. 

Weene (v.) 364. Think. Tyr. Wene. 

Wei was him 199. Well off was he. See Tyr. 

Wele (n.) 287. Profperity. Tyr. 

Weleful (adj.) 402. Able to make happy. Tyr. and Tipt. 

Wern [for weren] (v.) Ill 12. 55. Were. L. 

Werne (v.) 430. 442. Refufe. Tyr. 

Werre (n.) 80. 302. War. Tyr. 

Werreith (v.) 117. V 4. Worries. L. 

Wexe (v.} 159. 115. Wax or grow. Tyr. 

Weye (v.) VI 49. Weigh. Div. & Pau. 

Whan, whanne (adv.) When. Tyr. 

Which (pro.) V 7. Who. ffic. 

Wighte (.) 175. Weight. Tyr. 

Willynge (.) II 10. Supplication. This word feems to have the fame 
meaning in Raftell's Chronicle: " His lordes in Normandye fent unto 
* kyng Henry [thefirfl] his brother wyllynge for to come into Normandye." 

Wite (v.) 285. Know. Tyr. 

With (prep.) 271. See the note. 

Withfeye (v.) VI 47. Deny. Tyr. 

Wityngly (adv.) 46. Knowingly. Div. & Pau. 

Wole (v.) Will. Wolde (pret.) Would. Tyr. 

Wommanhede (n.) VI 30. Womanly dignity. Tyr. 

Wone (n.) 294. Heap. Tyr. 

Woot (v.) Know, Knows, Knew. Tyr. Wot and Wote. 
Wooft. 361. Knoweft. 


Wowid (v.) 188. Wooed. 7}r. 

Wrecche (.) 63. A wretch. Wic. 

Wrenches (n.) 378. Quirks. Tyr. 

Wrooth 431. Chagrined. There are many paffages in L. and in Hyh, 

where this fenfe feems much more applicable to wroth, than that of angry. 

It probably has the fame meaning too in BARCLAY'S Ship of Fools: 

Be the poore wroth, or be he well apayde. 


Y is frequently prefixt to verbs and participles without altering their fignifi- 
cation. This practice very much prevails in Lydgate's Troy-book. 

Y (pro.) 177. VI 54. I. Wic. 

Yate (.) 178. VI 9. Gate. Tyr. 

Y-doon (part.) VI 58. Done. R. G. 

Ye (.) 98. Eye. Yen. (plur.) 97. VI 26. There was formerly great 
variation in the manner of fpelling this noun : nor has the editor met 
with it any where exactly fimilar to that of the Mf. Then in the Mf. of 
Lydgate's Legend of Seinte Afargarete comes the neareft. 

Yeer (.) no. VI 68. and Yere. VI 58. Years. Tyr. 

Yemen (v.) 39. Earneftly defire. Tyr. 

Yeve (v.) Ill 30. Give. Yeveth. II 4. Tyr. 

Y-holde (part.) 184. Holden. L. 

Yiftes (n.) 366. Gifts. L. 

Y-maad (part.) 203. Made. L. 


[ "3 ] 

Y-meeved (part.) 391. Actuated. L. 

Y-mceved only of trouth and of refon. 

Stone of Thebes* 

Ynow (adv.) 145. 291. Enough. Tyr. 
Yore (adv.) 29. Of a long time. Tyr. 
Yoven (part of yeve.) 99. Given. Tipt. 
Y-rooted (part.) 94. Rooted. L. 
Y-tugged (part.) 197. Conveyed. M. L. D. Teogan, ducere. 


I. begins page 27, ends page 57 


.... 59 , - 

- - 63 


.... 65, - 

- - 70 


.... 71, . 

- - 72 


- - - - 73 - 

- - 75 





A N 

S S A 

O N 




O N 






.Robertc (d: 

jaoUerte tye feupll. 



Ancient Illuminated Manufcript. 




XH I S MS of Eoii^te tlje SDntjlU" 
appears to have been tranfcribed word for 
word, from an edition in quarto, printed ei- 
ther by Wynken de Worde or Pynfon, of which 
I have feen a fragment confiding of fix 
leaves ; thefe have been -collated with the 
MS to which is prefixed this note. 

<f No mention is made of this edition in 
" Mr. Herbert's Typographical Antiquities, 
re Nor have I ever feen a complete copy or 
" heard of one : it is probable that the im- 
" preflion was deftroyed in the Fire of Lon- 
ff don. There are no cuts in the fragment. 


" The Drawings in the MS feem to be of 
" the time of Elizabeth or James I. 

" The MS. was formerly in the poflfefiion 
of Mr. Ratcliffe." 

Mr. Herbert has, in p. 228 and 229 given 
the contents of the feveral chapters, as it 
Jeems a curiofity, from an edition by W. dc 
Worde, extant among Bp. More's books, in. 
the Public Library, Cambridge, (D. 5. 2.) 
in profe, coinciding exactly in matter with 
this, and finifhing 

" Thus endeth the Life of Robert the Devil, 
" That was the Servant of our Lord, 

* c And of confcience that was full evil : 

** Imprinted in London by Wynkyn the Worde." 

In Bibl. Rawlinfoniana No. 881, 22 Jan. 
1727-8, is " I'he Famous Hiftorical Life of 
" Robert II. Duke of Normandy, Jurnamed 

( vii ) 

"for his monftrcus birth and behaviour) 
" tf)C gDitcll, 4/0. London 1599." 

Robert II, the fixth Duke of Norman- 
dy was the fon of Richard III, fifth Duke 
of Normandy, and father of William fur- 
named the Conqueror j fee the genealogi- 
cal tables, as mentioned in Typog. Antiq. 
p. 978, note t. and A. Mundy's Brief Chro- 
nicle of the Succefs of Times, p. 343. 

Mr. Warton in his Hift. of Englifh Poetry, 
vol. I. p. 189, note n, fays there is an old 
French profe Romance, |lftobe?t le SDtablt, 
firft printed in 1496, often quoted by Car- 
pentier ; and a French Morality in MS. . 
" Comment il fut enjoient a Robert le Diable, 
" fils du Due de Normandie, fourfes Mesfaits, 
" defaire lefoljans farlsr & defuis N. S. 6Ut 
" merci de lui" Beauchamp Recherches Th. 
Fr. p. 109. Another Romance in French 


( viii ) 

on this fubjeft is in vol. I. of the Eibliothe- 
que Bleue, 3 vol. i2mo. Liege, 1787. Thefe 
are probably the fame Robert. 

An old Englifh Morality on this tale un- 
der the title of Robert Cicyll, was repre- 
fented at the High Crofs in Chefter in 1529. 
A MS of which poem on vellum, is men- 
tioned alfo by Mr. Warton to exift in Tri- 
nity College Library, MSS No. Ivii. fol. 
But doubt if the Oxford MS has any connec- 
tion with or refemblance to, The Story of 

I. Herbert. 

ift Sept. 1797, 




O F 


>YSTEN lordinges that of marueyles 

lyke to heare 

Of a&es that were done fometyme in dede 
By cure elders that before vs were 
How fome in myfcheiffe their lyfe dyd leade 
And in this boke may ye fe yf that ye will rede 
Of one Robert the deuyll, borne in Normandye 
That was as uengeable a man as myght treade 
On goddes grounde for he delyted all in tyranyer 

A A Duke 

2 C6e Life of 

A Duke fometyme in Normandye there was 
Full uertuous and deuoute in all hys Jyuynge 
And in almofe dedes, he yede in the waye of grace 
Of knyghtlye maners, and manfull in iuftynge 
A Lordlye parfone, alfo courtes in euery thynge 
Hys d welly nge was at Nauerne vpon fayne 
At Chryftmas to honoure that holy tymc 
Open houfholde he kepte, and to pleafe God was 


A feafte he helde vpon a certayne daye 
Lordes come thyther of greate renowne 
And as they fate at dyner a knyght gan faye 
Vnto the Duke, and on hys knees kneled downe 
My lorde he fayd ye be owner of many a towne 
Yet haue ye no lady, nor none heyre 
After your dayes to reioyce youre grounde 
Therfore gett youe a princes that ys yonge and fayre. 

Wyueles longe faid the duke haue I taryed 
And lyued fole withoute any mate 
I fe well yt ys youre wyll that I fhoulde be maryed 
But yet woulde I haue one to myne eftate 
Accordynge, for and I (houlde take 
A Lady of nobler bloude than I am 
Or elfe of lower degre, foone fhoulde I forfake 
Myne owne worihip, and lyue lyke no man. 


Eo&erte t&e Detail* 3 

Yf I fhoulde nowe wedde, and after repent 
And lyue in forowe and greate langoure 
Than myght I faye that fortune had me fent 
A chaunce mysfortunate, diftaynynge the floure 
Of noble fame that fhoulde encreafe myne honoure 
Wherfore lordes all, accordinge to prudence 
A forefight fayeth Salomon ys worthe treafoure 
Yet be ye ruled by fortune a Lady of excellence. 

Than fayde to the Duke a Baron right bolde 
My lorde I befeke youre grace of audyence 
The Duke bade hym than faje what he woulde 
In Burgonye fayd the Baron ys a ladye of reuerence 
Daughter to the Earle, yf yt pleafe youre magnyfi- 
Her for to take, there wyll no man faye naye [cence 
Than to hys wordes the Duke gave credence 
And fayde I knowe well the Earles doughter that lady 


In procefTe that lady to the Duke was maryed 
A feafte was made of greate folempnytye 
And twelue yeares together they taryed 
Jn wealth and greate profperytye 
Goddes lawe they kepte and lyued vertuouflye 
Yet chylde together had they none 
They prayed to god with heart deuoutlye 
Yf yt pleafed hym for to fende them one. 

A 2 Euer 

4 Cbe life of 

Euer they prayed, but yt woulde not be 
In twelue yeare, chylde had they none 
Good dedes they dyd, and gaue almofe plentye 
Alacke faid thys Ladye fhall I lyve alone 
Ofte (he fyghed and made greate mone 
That no chylde on her body woulde fprynge 
The good Duke alfo ever dyd grone 
And fayed good Jefu yet heare my cryengc 

Lorde fende me a chylde the worlde to multyplyc 
The Duke fayde, yf it be thy wyll 
My wyfe foroweth in her partye 
I feare that flie wyll her felfe fp)ll 
Nothinge to the lorde that ys vnpoffyble 
Nowe heare my prayer for loue of thy mother 
Sende me a chylde my petycion to fullfyll 
For to be myrry I defyre none other. 

And on a tyme the Duke and Duches walked 
In a garden by them felfe alone 
Eche of them complayned and to other talked 
Howe they could haue no chylde, and made much 
Full greate, and faide joy have we none [mone ; 
I curfe them faide the Duke that made the maryage 
For I had leuer to have lyued ftyli alone 
Chylde have I none, to reioyce myne herytage. 


IRofcertc tbe Deuplt 5 

And faid yf I had be maryed to another ladye 
I knowe that I fhould have had chyldren ynowe 
The Duches auniVered as for her partye 
Yf I had chaunged, verylye I trowe [youe 

Thac chyldern I fhoulde haue had; none haue I by 
Let vs thanke god of that he doth vs fende 
For I beleue and do verelye trowe 
That all oure forowe he may yt amende. 

So on a morowe the Duke went on huntynge 
Hys hearte was fullfvlled all with thought 
In hys mynde chydde, and agayne god grudgynge 
He fighed fore inwardlye and ofte 
If he myght haue dyed, nothynge he rought 
And feyde god loueth not me, all in dyfpayre 
Many women haue chyldren : but myne nought 
Alas I trowe I fhall have none to be myne heyre 

The fende tempted foore the Duke tho 
That he wyft not what to do nor faye 
He left huntynge and homewarde he dyd go 
And in to hys chaumber he toke the waye 
So there the Duches at the fame tyme laye 
In as greate trouble as her hufbande was 
And to her lorde faide no chylde I beare maye 
I am vnhappye, and therewith fkyde alas. 


6 C&e life of 

He toke her in hys armes and her kyftc 
And of that Lady he had all his pleafure 
And fo begate a chyld ; and yt not wyfte 
The Duke to oure Lorde made hys prayer 
For to fende hym a chylde for to gladde hys chere 
The ladye faide the Deuyll now fende vs one 
For god wyll not oure petycion heare 
Therefore I trowe power hath he none 

She fayde yf I he ronceyued this houre nowe 
I geve yt to the deuyll both foule and bodye 
Lo thys lady was nere folyfshe I trowe 
And fullfylled with great obftynacye 
Her owne foule there (he dyd put in ieopardye 
For that houre flie dyd conceyve with a man chylde 
That whan he was borne lyued myfcheuouflye 
In thefte and murder lyke a tyraunte wylde 

The tyme drewe fo that nyne monethes was paft 
Than her tyme drewe on verye nye 
At the houre of byrth fhe laboured faft 
More than a moneth the boke doth fpecyfye 
She had many throwes, with many a pytteous crye 
Ladyes prayed for her, and gaue almefe dede 
They trowed verelye that fhe ftioulde dye 
With that our ladye wolde her helpe and fpede. 


tbc DeupH, 7 

And afsone as Robert the deuyll was borne 
The fkyes waxed biacke that it was wonder 
And fodenlye there began a full greate ftorme 
Rayne lyghtenynge with horrible thonder 
They feared that the houfe would ryue a fonder. 
Then blewe the wynde with greate power 
That they wende the dome had he comen there 
For downe wente wynuowes and euery doore. 

Halfe the houfe the deuyll pulled downe 
Yet at ths last the wether waxed cleare 
So for dreade thys lady laye in a fowne 
That greate wetherynge ihe dyd fore feare ; 
Her gentlewomen bade her be of good chere 
They told her that the wather was gone and paft 
Then to the churche the chylde they dyd beare 
And chryftened yt Robert at the laft. 

He was as bygge the fame daye 
As fome chylde of twelue monethes olde 
When they came from Churche he cryed all the 
That yt made many hym to beholde [waye 

Men fade the chylde loked very bolde 
Hys teeth grewe fait when that he fhoulde foucke 
The noryli-e nypplcs fo harJe byte he woulde 
That yt went then to her verye hearte roote. 


* s C6e JLife of 

There durft no woman geue hym fuck in faye 
For hys teeth grewe fo peryllouflye 
That the noryfshe nypples be bote a waye 
But than they woulde no more byde the ieopardye 
So with an home he was fedde trewlye 
At the years ende he could bothe go and fpeake 
The elder he waxed, the more vnhappye 
Shrewdnes he woulde do bothe in houfe and ftreate 

Hurte would he do to woman and man 
Vngracious was he daye and nyght 
Yf he amonge any chyldren came 
He woulde them hurte both fcratche and byte 
Cafte ftones at theyr heades and fyght 
Breake their fhynnes and put Come eyes oute 
Lordes and ladyes of hym had greate delyght 
And wende yt had ben but wantonnes withoute 

. [doute. 

Mennes chyldren there he dyd muche harme 
Of them he hurte ftirewdelye many a one 
Breake bothe legge headde and arme 
Therefore he was beloued of none 
Hys companye chyldren forfoke everychone 
They dyd flee fro him as the deuyll fro holy water 
We wyll not haue hym amonge vs to come 
They fayd and he never do ; we be gladder. 


Ho&erte tfje DeuplU 9 

For and the chyldern had feen hym come 
In to the ftreate there for to playe 
They woulde take theyr legges, and away runnc 
To theyr fathers as fafte as they maye 
Roberte the Deuyll dothe come they would faye 
For yonge chyldren gave him that name 
The chyldren hydde them in corners eucry daye 
And to runne from hym they woulde leaue theyr game. 

And whan that he was aboute feuen yeare of aegc 
Hys father fette hym to fcole in dede 
With a dyfcrete man and a fage 
And prayed hys fonne that he would fpede 
For to learne both to wryte and reade 
And to Roberte the deuyll hys father fayde 
Sonne, yf thy lyfe in vertue thoue leade 
Than wyll I with the be right well a payed. 

Robert the Deuyll wente to fcole a lytell fpace 
And euer he thought yt to longe ywys 
He learned fo that he was paft all grace 
Yt happened at the laft he dyd amyfie 
Hys matter fayde Syr youe mufte amende thys 
Or elles forfothe ye fhalbe beate 
He fayde yf thou fmyte me I wyll make the wyfshe 
That thou thyne owne flefhe rather had eate. 

B Naye 

j.o Cfjc Life of 

Naye fayde hys mafter ye be to bolde 
And toke a rodde for to chafte hym {bone- 
So to beate hym he fayde that he woulde 
Roberte fawe what he purpofed to done 
And fayde ye were better Jette me a lone 
For with a dagger he thruft hym in to the bellyc 
That the bloude ran downe in to hys (hone 
So flewe hys mafter, and Jet hym deade lye. 

Whan Robert the Deuyll fawe hys mafter fall 
He fayde he woulde go to fcole no more 
Hys boke he threwe agaynft the wall 
The deuyll have the whyt that he was forye therfore 
Alacke he made hys fathers hearte foore 
When that hys mafter had flavne 
The Duches curfed the houre that he was bore 
She fayde of hys companye no man ys fayne. 

After that there woulde no pryft hym teache 
He folowed uice, he woule be ruled by none 
And mocke pryftes whan they fhoulde preache 
For and he into the church had gone 
He woulde (korne the clearkes euerychone 
And when they fonge, come them behynde 
So threwe duft in theyr mowthes by one and one 
And fome in theyr eyes to make them blynde. 


ftofcerte t&e JDiugll* i,r 

Yf he fawe any men or women deuoutlye knele 
For to ferue God with theyr prayer, or ftande 
Pryuelye behynde them woulde he fteale 
And geue them a fowce with hys hande 
To caufe fome to yell out theyr tongues longe 
Or els he woulde make theyr heades go to grounde 
Theyr neckes he hurte fore he was fo ftronge 
And many olde folkes he caufed to founde. 

Yt was vnpoflible for a clarke to write 
The dedes he dyd that weare full vengeablc 
Then gentlemen that weare fadde and dyfcretc 
Complayned to hys father withoute fable 
The Duke fayde, to chafte hym I am not able 
Than Robert was brought before hym 
He fayde : Sonne, thy dedes ben reproueable 
Thou fhameft me and all thy hole kynne. 

Thow doeft all thynge that dyfpleafeth god 
Thy fcolemafter thou fleweft with a knyfe 
Becaufe that he woulde haue beate the with a rodde 
To the pryftes in churche thou doeft muche greyfe 
Full ofte I wyfhe me oute of my lyfe 
For thou of thy dedes arte fo houge and perylloufe 
That chyldren younge bothe mayde and wyfe 
Whyche dothe the knowe geueth the theyr curfe 

B a All 

12 Cijclifcof 

All one with hym, in at the one care and out at 
He was neuer the better daye nor nyght [the other 
Hys olde laye kept, he woulde do none other 
He was neuer glad but when he dyd fyght 
To fwere and lye, theryn he had great delyght 
At laft hys mother to her lorde fpake 
And fayd yt were beft to make hym a knyght 
Thys noble ordre let Robert the deuyll take. 

For I truft then he wyll amende 
Whan he that greate othe doth heare 
Yt wyll make hym forye for that he dyd offende 
And the workes of god hereafter for to leare 
The Duke confented euen right there 
And afked Robert yf he would lyue vnder awe 
Of god, and the order of knight-hode beare 
He aunfwered I fett not thereby a ftrawe. 

At the laft Robert was made a knyght 
Hys father bade him take hede of hys othe 
To deftroye wronge and to maynteyne right 
And do trewe juftyce for leefe or for lothe 
For a knyght that in cheualrye goethe 
Euer agaynft vice he muft fyght 
And fupporte trewe maydens, and he fo dothe 
He ys an inherytoure of heaven, goddes own knyght. 


iRobettc f&e flDeupIU 13 

Robert aunfwered, father at youre commandement 
I wyll thys greate order vpon me take 
But for to chaunge all myne entent 
As for my manners 1 wyll not forfake 
All men (hall not ones me make 
For ro leaue my cuftomes olde 
I will contynewe and neuer wyll flake 
Thoughe 1 therfore my lyfe lofe (houlde. 

The Duke caufed a greate iuftynge to be 
Lordes came fro many a farre lande 
And Ladyes alfo that runnynge to fee 
He that {houlde be mofte doughtye of hande 
There was many a knight full ftronge 
That thought theyr rlot-hes of full greate pryce- 
Yet a gayne Roberte there myght none ftande 
As for worfliip by hym woulde none ryfe* 

A fyelde was ordeyned bothe brode and wyde 
With lyftes fayre where they fhould runne 
Tentes were pyght on euery fyde 
Greate was the people that thether come 
The daye was fayre, hole fhone the fonne [crye 
Greate trumpets blewe, the herauldes made theyr 
That euery knyght hys deuoure (houlde done 
For to proue who was mofte myghtye. 


14 Cftc Life of 

Knyghtes then dreflid them to the fyelde 
In fyluer armoure fayre and bright 
Barons doughtye with fpeare and fhylcle 
With helmes and haubreks that all the fyelde dyd 
Steedes in trappoure the was a goodlye fyght 
Speare heades that a ftrong cote woulde faylle 
Clothe of golde in harnes curyonflye pyght 
Worne of haburgin many a ftronge mayle. 

Roberte the deuyll came in as meke as a Lyon 
In his fyfte he had a greate fpeare 
Of fure wodde both toughe and longe 
Hys loke fo grymme many men dyd feare 
Alfo that houghe ftaffe that he dyd beare 
Was almoft as bygge as fome twayne. 
Vnoccupyed faide Robert why ftand we here 
For to leaue all worke he woulde full fayne. 

The Duke bade them all to begynne 
A fayre knyght then feutred hys fpeare 
In fayth fayde Robert I wyll run to hym 
And lyghtly turned hys greate ftede theare 
Eche agayne other fpeares did beare 
Thofe courfers dyd runne, they fmote in the fyelde 
Hartye were bothe, nought did they feare 
That knyght fmote Robert fore in the fhyelde. 


JRo&erte tfjelDeupil* 15 

That the ftroke made Robert right wrothe 
To him he thought to ryde agayne 
He feutred hys fpeare, and forthe he gothe 
With hys fhyelde Robert mette playne 
And ftroke fo foore that he fmote it euen in twayne 
And throughe the knightes fhulder the fpeare dyd 
I trowe therof Robert was fayne [runne 

And afked yf any more woulde come. 

Another knyght thought Robert to aflaylle 
So yode they together with greate raundone 
Loth were they bothe for to fayle 
And haftelye theyr ftedes ftrongelye dyd runne 
So fvvyfte with ftrenght Robert dyd come 
That hys fpeare ran thorowe the knyghtes bodye 
And to the earthe dead fell he downe 
AH men wondred of Robert trewlye. 

The thyrde knyght to the grounde he fmote 
And brake hys horfe backe a fonder 
There was none that myght ftande a ftroke 
Of hym that daye, nowe the people dyd wonder 
To fe that all knyghtes to hym were vnder 
For fo foore Robert dyd them aflayle (thonder 

A man had ben as good to haue be fmytten with 
As to haue a ftroke of hys hand without faylle. 


i6 C6e Life of 

Thre noble Barons he flewe there that daye 
He fared as he had ben a fyende of hell 
As was in earnefre ? and not in playe 
Fro theyr horfes many knyghtes he fell 
And breke theyr armes as the bokes do tell. 
For he trewe fo grefelye and foore 
That they knewe nother wo nor well 
On ftedes myght they ryde never more. 

All that he mette, he them, down threwc 
Yonge nor olde he fpared none 
For pittye had he no more than a Jue 
That daye he hurte there many a one 
And lyke a boore at the mouth he dyd fome 
He fought and ftroke all while that he was able 
In peace he woulde not haue them to ftande alone 
He loued murderers that were euer vengeable. 

To kyll and flea was all hys delyght 
Tenne noble ftedes backes he dyd bruft 
When that he at theyr mafters dyd fmyte 
Or with hys fpeare at them dyd thruft 
To fight euer more and more he had luft 
For all hys pleafure was in deathe fett 
And euer he cryed who wyll more iufte 
The deuyll was in hym no man myght hym lette. 



And whan hys father fawe howe in vengeaunce 
He was fett, and woulde no fad wayes take 
In hys thought he toke greate greuance 
And bade that all the knyghtes fhoulde departs 
Eche theyr waye, and no more juftes to make 
Than Robert woulde not obey the commaundement 
Of hys father, but fayd for owe ftioulde awake 
For then in myfcheif he fett all hys ententte. 

He woulde not go fro the battaylle 
But hue and flewe on euery fyde 
The ftronge knightes there he dyd aflaylle 
All the people fledde, they durft not abyde 
The knyghtes all awaye dyde tyde 
With lordes and Ladyes cuerychone 
Robert loughe whan he that fpyed 
Than thought he I will no more go home. 

Than Robert rode into the countre/ 
And robbed and kylled many a one 
Maydens and wyues he rauyfhed pytteouflye 
He pulled downe abbeys and houfes of ftone 
For all the Churches that he dyd by come 
Thorowe that countrey of Normandye 
By hys wyll there ftioulde frande none 
For all hyt pleafure was in murder and robberye. 

C He 

i8 C&eKUfeof 

He brente houfes and flewe yonge chyldren 
Death vpon death was all hys lyfe 
The countrey complayned to hys father 
Howe theyr feruantes were flayne with Robertes 
Some fayde he hathe rauyfhed my wyfe [knyfc 

And by cure doughters he hathe layne 
They prayed the Duke to ftynte that ftryfe 
Or to flee that lande they would full faync. 

The Duke wepte and fayde alas 
That euer I hym begate on woman 
My prayer vnto Jefu euer was 
For to fende me a chylde for I had none 
And nowe gode hath fente me one 
That maketh me full heauy and fad 
The Duches wayled and made great mone 
That from her mynde fhe was nye madde. 

The Duke made hys feruantes to ryde 
To feke Robert in Cyttie and in towne 
Good watche was layde on euery fydc 
On holte and heath in fyelde and towne 
And in euery place that they dyd come 
The countrey Robert dyd curfe and blame 
And prayed, that he myght haue an yll death foone 
For he the ordre of knyghthode dothe ihame. 


iRoberte tfce DeuglL 19 

With Robert at the laft thefe men mette 
They fayde that he fhoulde with them them goo 
All aboute Robert fhortlye they fette 
One afked hym what he woulde doo 
Wylt thou go with vs, he fayde noo 
And drewe hys fvvorde and with them dyd fyght 
Full greate woundes he gaue one or twoo 
And all the refydue he put to flyght. 

And all that he toke he put theyr eyes oute 
So bade them go feeke theyr way home 
And ferued them all fo withoute doute 
Thefe poore men they made greate mone 
So Robert departed and lefte them alone 
And fayde tell my father that yt ys for hys fake 
Then thefe men in tyme to the courte came home 
And fhewed what maftryes Robert dyd make. 

Thys good Duke in hearte was right wo 
When he fawe hys mennes eyes oute 
Fore angre he wyft not what to do 
But commaunded all the courte aboute 
Counftables and bayllifes with all theyr route 
All men to take hym who fo maye 
And in pryfon to put hym without doute 
He charged all men good watche to laye. 

C 2 So 

20 cje Life of 

So when Robert knewe of thys warke 
He gathered a great companye theues yll 
He gate hym into a forreft full darke 
Where yt was farre from boroughe or hyll 
There he lyued and all dyd he kyll 
That he myght fe in the heath fo playne 
Corne and fruites all dyd he fpyll 
In doynge myfcheif allwaye was he fayne. 

Yt was hys pleafure to eate fleflie on the frydaye 
A dogge dyd fafte as well as he 
Poore pylgrymes he kylled goynge by the ware 
And holy hermytes that lyued deuoutlye 
So on a daye he rofe vppe earlye 
And in the forreft feuen hermytes he founde 
Before a crofle knelynge on theyr knee 
Of theyr prayers to heauen wente the fownde. 

What holy whorefones he fayde be youc 
That gapeth vpwardes after the moone 
If ye be a thruft ye (hall drynke nowe 
And oute he drewe hys fwearde full foone 
The hermytes wyft no what to done 
But fuffered death for Jefus fake [runne 

So throughe one of theyr bodyes hys fworde dyd 
For feare all the other Jyd tremble and quake. 


iRofcerte tfje DeupH. ** 

Than he ftrake of theyr heades all 
And reioyfed at that perylloufe dede 
In fcorne he fayde, fyrs do youe fall 
Patter and praye ye in youre crede 
Full fafte thefe holy men dyd blede 
That Robertes clothes were readde as vermulon- 
With hys fworde he thought further to fpede 
In vengeaunce he rought not where he become. 

Lo thys caytifFe was blynde and myght not fee 
The cloudes had in clipped the Sunne of grace 
Lyke to an apple that the core doft putryfie 
The darke myftes of uice fmote hym in the face 
He was none of the fhepe of Ifrael but the kyd of 
He exyled pittye as dyd cruel Kynge Pharao [golyas 
Heaped full of fynne, as euer he was 
That flewe hys own mother, men called hym Nero- 

Then he lefte thefe feuen hermytes deadde 
And rode oute of the wodde lyke a wylde dragon 
So lyke a bore he threwe vp hys headde 
The bloude of the hermytes couered all hys gowne 
A (hepherde he fawe and rode to hym foone 
But whan the herdes man dyd hym efpye 
Yt was no hede to bydde hym begone 
He ranne hys waye then for feare dyd he crye. 


2s Cbe life of 

At the lafte he the {hepherde ouertoke in faye 
And afked what tydynges that he woulde tell 
The (hepherd agayne to hym dyd faye [hell 

I was of youe afrayde I wende ye had come oute of 
And as for tydynges, here ys darkenes caftell 
There lyeth the Duches of Normandye 
With many a lorde of her counfell 
Of all thys greate lande the royalltye. 

So Robert came to the townc there the caftell 
The people fa we one ryde as he had ben madde [ftode 
With a fworde in hande, and all arayed in bloude 
To runne in to houfe euery man was gladde 
At the laft Robert began to waxe fadde 
And fayde alas that euer he was borne 
In murder and myfchief my lyfe haue I ladde 
Hys heere of hys heade he thought to haue tornCi 

Than he was a bafhed foore in hys mode 
Whan that the people woulde hym not abyde 
What yt mente than he vnderftode 
Eucry body them felfe from hym dyd hyde 
Than to the Caftle gate Robert dyd ryde 
Ayd fayne with fome body he woulde fpeake 
But whan any man hym efpyede 
They ranne awaye as they dyd in the ftreate. 


Eofcextc tfce DeuslL 23; 

Than with a heauy hearte downe dyd he lyghfe 
And went ftreyght into the Caftell hall 
But when the people of hym had a fight 
None durft hym byde there at all 
Many for helpe dyd crye and calle 
Hys mother fawe hym as fhe fate at meate 
For feare fhe beganne to fall 
And hafted her awaye for to gette. 

And when he fawe hys mother goynge 
He fayde alas Lady mother fpeake with me 
Hys hearte for forowe braft in weepynge 
Whan he fawe her from hym fo flee 
And fayde to hys mother full pitteouflye 
Lady tell me howe that I was borne 
That 1 haue ledde my lyfe fo mifcheuouflye 
In the tempefts of uice with many a greate ftorme* 

Hys mother all unto hym tolde 
Howe fhe gave hym to the fende both foule and bodye 
And he afked her howe fhe durfte be fo bolde 
To gyue hym from god allmightye 
I knowe he fayd that I haue lyued fynfullye 
As euer dyd the emperoure greate Nero 
Amende I wyll and for mercye crye 
My dedes will J bewayile wherfoeuer I go.. 


24 CbeiUfeof 

Hys mother prayed hym to fmyte j>f her headde 
For the trefpace (he fayde, that I dyd to thee 
I am worthye therefore for to be deaddc 
To god I offended alfo in obftynacye 
Slea me (he fayde, and I forgiue yt thee, 
He fayde. Mother I wyll not do fo 
I had leuer be beaten full bytterlye 
And on my feate to the worldes ende to go. 

Than for woo Robert fell to the grounde 
And a greate whyle there he fo laye 
There fodenlye he rofe in that ftounde 
And faide Mother nowe I go my wayc 
To Rome wyll I hye as faft as I maye 
And prayed her to commende hym to hys father dere 
So he defyred them all for hym to praye 
And went forth with a full pytteous chere. 

So fhortly Robert tofce hys horfe and rode 
Streyght vnto the forreft to hys companye 
Than the Duches that in the Caftle abode 
Shryked full fore with a full pytteous crye 
And faide alas lorde to fynfull am I 
All women beware, curfe neuer your chylde 
And yf that ye do, then be youe in jeopardyc 
Alfo in myfcheyff they (halbe defyelde. 



Wyth that the Duke came into the chaumber 
And afked her why (he dyd wepe and wayle 
She fayde Robert youre fonne hath ben here [fayle 
And (hewed how that he wolde to Rome without 
Ah, fayde the Duke, I feare yt wyll lyttell auayle 
He is not able to make reftytucyon 
Alacke fayd the Duke yet am I gladde fauns fayle 
Tbat he ys wyllynge to make hys confeifion. 

Nowe ys Robert come to the forreft agayne 
And founde hys men all at dyner fyttynge 
To conuerte them to goodnes he would full fayne 
And fayde my felowes, with pytteous lamentyngc 
Let vs remember cure fynfull lyuynge 
And aflce god mercy with greate repentaunce 
Yf we leade thys lyfe ftyll, yt will vs brynge 
To hell withouie cnde, with horrible vengeauncCc 


Let vs remeniber he (aide our fynfull lyfc 
We haue murdered people full cruellye 
Rauyfhed maydens and many a wyfe 
Slayne pryftes and hermytes full pytteouflye 
And abbeys haue ben dyftroyed through our robbery 
With Nunnes, Ankers, take yt in remerobraunce 
Howe we put them in ieopardie 
Wherfore I dreade hell, with horrible vengeaunce. 
D Houfes 

jt C6e life of 

Houfes we haue brentte many a one 
And fpylte of chyldren much precyous blouse 
Compaflion there, nor pyttye had we none 
]n myfcheyff we delyted, and neuer in good 
And nowe let vs remember hym that dyed on the rode 
That from vs yet hath kept hys fworde by fufleraunce 
For and we nowe in deathes daunce ftode 
To hell flioulde we go, with horrible vengeaunce. 

One fayde Robert, what be youe there 
And ftode up and began hym to fkorne 
Will youe fee fellowes : the fox wylbe an anker 
What matter, ye be as wyfe as a ftiepe newe (home 
I trowe youre buttocke be prycked with a thornc 
For your wytt ys oute of temperaunce 
I woulde not haue thys tearme aboute borne 
That we flioulde to hell go with horrible venge- 


Another thefe (aide matter Roberte, harke 
To preache to vs yt ys all in vayne 
And what I faye, I prayc you yt marke 
Thys lyfe wyll we leade in wordes playne 
Euer yet in thefe workes we haue be fayne 
For our fyrme we entende not to do pennaunce 
We wyll not forfake thoughe ye ftryue vs agayne 
To hell woulde we rather go with horrible vengeaunce. 



Than Roberta fawe that they woulde not amende. 
But in myfcheyf there to lyue ftyll 
And to the poore men they wyll ofte offende 
Thus then he confpyred in hys wyll 
One after another for to kyll 
To make (hort he kylled them euerychone 
He fayde ye haue be readye euer to do euyll 
Therfore alyue wyll I not leaue one. 

He toldc them a good feruaunte muft haue good 
No we do I paye youe after your deferuynge [wages 
There dead in the floore all theyr bodyes fprayles 
Robert fhutt the doore and they laye within 
And fayde of myfcheyf this ys the endynge 
So he thought to fett the houfe on fyre 
But he dyd not, he yede a waye fighynge 
And fayd alas I haue payde my men theyr hyre. 

Than Robert toke hys horfe and blefTed hym 
So throughe the forreft he toke the waye 
Ouer hylles and downes faft rydynge 
Thus rode he ftyll all a longe daye 
And ofte for fynne he cryed well awaye 
Than of an abbaye he had a fight 
Whiche ofte he had robbed in good faye 
Alas faide Robert there will I lodge to nyght, 

D * For 

28 C6e life of 

Tor faulte of meate then he hongred fore 
And fayde to eate fayne I wolde haue fome 
Alacke riowe that euer I was bore 
And when the monkes dyd fe hym come 
Eehe man hys waye faft dyd ronne 
And faide here cometh the furyous ferpent 
Roberte, which ys I trowe a deuylls fonne 
That in murmer and myfcheif hath a greate talent. 

Than forthe he rode to the churche dore 
And difcended from his horfe right there 
So he kneled downe in the floore 
And to cure lorde god he made hys prayer 
Sayinge, fwete Jefu that bought me dere 
Haue mercy on me for that precyous bloude. 
That ran from your hearte with longis fpeare 
Which ftonge youe in the fide hangynge onthcroode* 

Then vp he rofe and went to the Abbot 
And fayde to hym with pitteoufe lamentynge 
I haue bene fo fymple father^ that ye well wot 
That nowe Ifeare the fworde that ys lyghtly comynge 
Of our lordes vcngeauhce for my falfe lyuynge 
And of all that I haue offended vnto youe 
Forgeue me for hys loue that was hangynge [bowe. 
Seuen hourcs on the crofTe and there hys head dyd 


Bo&erte t&e SDeugil, *? 

And when they hearde hym pitteouflye cwnplaync 
And in hys harde hearte toke repentaunce 
The monckes all thereof were fayne 
So there he tolde them all in fubftaunce 
Howe he was in wyllynge to fuffer pennaunce 
And to Rome to take hys Journeye 
So there he called to hys remembraunce 
Of hys lodge and therof toke the abbot the keyei 

Thys kcye to the Abbot there he toke 
And tolde hym that he fhoulde haue all the treafure 
In the theues lodge yf that he woulde loke 
That he had robbed fynce the fyrft houre 
And faide my meynye lyen dead in the floore 
The Abbot he prayed to geue hys father the keye 
For I wyll not flepe one night where I do another 
Tyll I in Rome with the pope fpeke maye. 

And praye my father to make reftytucyeii 
For me to all them that I dyd offende 
I crye hym mercy alfo I am hys fonne 
Hym for to myfchcif alfo I dyd entencfe 
But what thoughe, nowe I truft to amende 
There Robert toke hys leaue of all the hole couent 
ftys horfe and hys fworde he to hys father fende 
And fo departed and on hys fee te for the wentte. 


50 C6e life of 

Than rode the Abbot to the Duke of Normatidye 
And fhewed of Robert all that was befall 
There he delyuered vp the keye 
And of hys entente he fheowid the Duke all 
Then he hys men before hym dyd call 
And fayde I wyll ryde and reftore the goodes agayne 
And euery man hys owne haue (hall 
Then were the Dukes feruauntes all fayne. 

Nowe Robert walked ouer dale and hyll 
By holte and heath, many a wery waye 
He laboured night and daye euer ftyll 
At the laft he came to Rome on Sherethurfdaye 
All nyght poorely in the ftreate he layc 
And on the good frydaye to churche he went tywis 
Towardes the quyere and nothynge dyd faye 
For that daye the Pope fayed all the feruyce: 

The Popes feruauntes bade hym go backc 
They fmote Robert and thruft hym afyde 
Tho to hym felf he fayde, oute alacke 
Yet he thought boldlyer for to abyde 
Where people were thynneft there he efpyed 
So preft amonge them tyll he came to the pope 
And fell downe to hys fete and loude there he cryed 
As cayne the teares fell fro hys eyes god wottc* 


iRoberte t&e SDeupll* 31 

The popes feruauntes would haue pulled hym afyde 
Oure holy father, yet aunfwered naye 
Medle not with hym, lett hym abdyde 
That I maye here what he dothe faye ; 
Robert aunfwered I am here thys daye 
The fynfulleft lyuer that euer was founde 
Synce Adam was made in Canaan of claye 
I am the greateft fynner that lyued on grounde. 

The pope fayde what art thou good frende 
And whye inakeft thoue thys lamentacon 
Oh good father faide Robert to god I haue offended 
I defyre youe to heare my confeffion 
Of my greate fynnes the abhomynacon 
On them to mufe yt ys vnnumerable] 
Vice and I refted all waye in one habytacion 
"With murder and euery vnthryftye culpable. 

' Art thou Robert the deuyll fayde the pope than 
That ys the worft creatu re of all the worlde yll 
Yee yee fyr fayde Robert I am the fame man 
Greate myfcheyf haue I do, and muche yll 
As to robbe and flea, both burne and kyll 
The popa fayd, here in goddes name I thee warne 
By uertue of hys paffion ftande here ftyll 
Do to me nor my men no manor of harme, 


32 Cfccfcifeof 

Naye naye fayde Robert, neuer chryften man 
Wyll I hurte by night nor daye 
The pope toke hym by the hande than 
And bade hym hys confeilion to hym fayc 
Thereto Robert woulde not faye naye 
But all hys fynnes con faffed and tolde 
The pope whan he hym hearde dyd quake for frayc 
For to heare hys iynnes hys hearte waxed nye colde. 

And tolde ho we hys mother gaue hym to the feende 
In the houre of hys fyrft contemplacyon [of hell 
The pope fayd Robert I thee tell 
Thou muft go to an hermytc three miles withoute the 
Robert fayde with good will thys fhalbc done [townc 
Then wente he to the popes gooftlye father 
The pope commaunded hym Co to done 
That the hermyte might hys confeflion hearc. 

In the mornynge Robert walked ouer hyU and dale 
He was full werye of bis labourynge 
At the lafte he came in to a greate vale 
And foundc fame hermyte ftandinge 
He fpake with the hermyte, and (hewed of hys lyuynge 
And tolde that he was fente fro the pope of Rome 
But when that holy man hearde hys confeflion 
He fayed brother ye be right wellcomc. 


IRofcettc t&e 2>eupU, 33 

And for youre fynnes euer youe mufte be foryc 
For as yet I will not aflbylle youe 
In a lyttell chappell all nyght (hall youe lye 
Do ye as I do youe councell nowe 
Afke god mercye, and let youre hearte bowe 
For all thys nyght I wyll wake and praye 
Vnto oure lorde, that I maye knowe 
Yf in-faluacion ye do ftande in the waye. 

So they departed, the hermyte fell on flepe 
An aungell fodenlyc to hym dyd appeare 
And faide to Goddes cornmaundement take good kepe 
And of Robertes pennaunce thou fhalt heare, 
He mufte counterfeyt a fole in all manere 
The meate that he (hall eate, he mufte pull yt from 
And neuer to fpeake, but as he dombe weare [a dogge 
Thys pennaunce done, he fhalbe forgeuen of god. 

The hermyte with that fliortlye dyd awake 
And called Robert, and fpaeke to hym [take 

And faide heare nowe the pennaunce that ye (hall 
God commaundeth the to counterfet a foole in all 


Meate none to eate, withoute a dogge do yt brynge 
To the in hys mouth, then mufte thou yt eate 
No worde to fpeake, but as bdombe euer beynge 
With dogges euery nyght alfo thou muft fleepe. 

E The 

34 Cfcc life of 

The hermyte faid, tyll thy fynnes be forgeu* 
Thou muft do as I haue here fayde 
With thys fharpe pennaunce thou muft lyue- 
Tyll god of hys debtes by the be payde 
Forget not thys, in thy hearte let it be layde 
At the laft god wyll fende the worde agayne 
Robert wepte as thoughe he fhoulde haue dyed 
And fayde thys pennaunce will I do full fayne. 

The hermyte bade hym remember althynge 
And whan thy fynnes be cleane forgeuen the 
J3y an Aungell god wyll fende the warnynge 
Nowe maye thou no longer byde with me 
Robert blefled the hermyte then trewlyc 
So eche toke theyr leaue of other 
Nowe god for euer be wyth the 
He fayd to Robert, nowe farewell brother. 

There poore Robert departed fro the hermytfc 
And blefled hym and agayne went to Rome 
For to do hys pennaunce in the ftrete 
And whan that he thether was come 
Lyke as he had ben a foole he dyd ronne 
And lepte and daunced from one fyde to another 
Many folke laughed at hym foone 
And wende he bad ben a foole, they knew none other. 


Robcrte t&e DeuglU 35 

Boyes folowed hym throughe the ftrete 
Caftynge ftyckes and ftoncs at hym 
And fome with roddes hys bodye dyd beate 
The chyldren made greate (houtes and cryenge 
B urges of the cyttie at Robert laye laughynge 
Oute of theyr wyndowes to fe hym playe 
The boyes threwe dyrte and myre at hym 
Tims contynewed Robert manye a daye. 

Thus he played the foole on a feafon 
He came on a tyme to the Emperours Courte 
And fawe that the gate ftode all open 
Robert ranne into the hall and beganne to worke 
So daunced and lept and aboute fo ftarte 
At the lafte the Emperoure had pyttie on hym 
Howe he taere hys clothes and gnew hys (hyrte 
And bade a feruaunte meate hym for to brynge.' 

Thys feruaunte brought Robert plentye of meatfi 
So proferde hyt hym and faide go dyne 
Robert (ate ftyll he woulde not eate 
Yet god wotte hys belly greate pyne 
At laft themperoure fayde yonder ys afeounde of myne 
And bade hys feruaunte throwe hym a bone 
So he dyd, and whan Robert yt had fpyne 
Alack thought Robert, he (hall not cate yt alpne. 
2 He 

3$ Cfce JLife of 

He lept from the table and with the dogge fought 
And all for to haue the bone awaye 
The hounde at the laft by the fyngers hym caught 
So ftyll in hys mowthe he kepte hys ,praye, 
Whan Robert fawe that, downe he laye 
The dogge gnewe the one ende and Robert the other 
The Emperoure laughed whan he that fawe 
And fayde the dogge and he fought harde together,. 

The Emperoure fawe that he was hongrye 
And bade to throwe the dogge a hole Icffe 
Whan Robert fawe that he was glad greatelye. 
For to lofe hys parte he was right lothe, 
And agayne to the dogge he goeth 
So brake the loffc a fonder and to the houndev 
He gaue the one halfe to faye the fothe 
And eate the other as the dogge dyd on the grounded 

The Emperoure faide, fyth that I was borna 
Sawe I neuer a more foole natural! 
Nor fuche an ydeot (awe I neuer beforno 
That had leuer eate that that to the dogge dyd fall 
Rather then that that was proffered hym in the hall 
Than Robert toke hys ftaffe and fmote at forme and 


What forowe was in hys hearte they knewe not all . 
There men were gladde to fee hym playe the foole. 


fio&me tBe aTeupll, 37 

At the laft Robert went into a garden 
And there he founde a fayre fountayne 
He was a thurft and whan he had dronken 
He wente in to nys dogge agayne 
To folowe hym euer he was fayne 
Thus vnder a ftayre at nyght laye the hounde 
And euer hys pennaunce Robert dyd not dyfdayne 
Allwaye hys bed was with the dogge on the grounded 

Whan the Emperoure efpyed hym lye there 
Fett hym a bed to a man dyd he faye 
And lett yt be layed for hym under the ftayre 
So they dyd and Robert poynted as naye 
And woulde have them to beare the bed awaye 
Then they fett hym an arme full of ftrawe 
And therupon by hys dogge he laye 
All men marueyled that yt fawe. 

Muche myrth and fporte he madb euer amonge 
A'hd as the Emperoure was at dyner on a dayc 
A Jue fate at the borde, that greate rowme longe 
In that houfe beare, and was receyued all waye 
Than Roberte hys dogge toke in hys armes in faye 
And touched the Jue and he ouer hys (holder loked 


Robert fet the^ogges ars to hys mowth without naye 
Full -foorc the Emperoure loughc whan he fawe that. 


$8 Cbe life of 

Robert fawe a bryde t^t fhoulde be maryerf 
And foone he toke her by the hande 
So into a foule donge myxen he her caryed 
And in the myre he let her ftande 
The Emperoure ftode and behelde hym longe 
At the laft Robert toke a quycke Catte 
And ranne into the kechyn amonge. the throngc 
And thrcwe her quycke into the beefc pottc. 

Lordes and barons loughe that they couldc not 
To fee hym make myrth withoute harme [ftandc 
They faide he was the mcryeft in all that lande 
With that a meflenger the Emperoure dydwarne 
That aboute rome was many a Sarafyne 
And faide the Senefchall hathe gathered a great armye 
Becaufe ye wyll not let your daughter haue hym 
He purpofeth all Rome for to dyftroye. 

Thys Emperoure had a doughter that coulde not 
The whiche the Senefchall loued as hys lyfe [fpeake 
And ofte with the Emperoure he dyd treate 
For to haue her vnto hys wyfe 
And for that caufe the Senefchall made thys ftryfe 
Becaufe the Emperoure in nowife woulde 
Geue hym hys doughter, he fwere ofte fythc 
Maugre hys head wynne her he fhoulde. 


t&e DcuglL 39 

The Emperoure heard<bf the Sarafyns that were 
For to dyftroye theyr chryftyan Countrey [come 
He made a crye in greate Rome 
That younge and olde fhoulde make readye 
As manye as were betwene fyftene and fyxtye 
Lordes barons and knyghtes drewe out of euery coft 
With an houge companye and a myghtye 
They thought for to Fell the Sarafyns greate hoftev 

So forth withall bothe thefe hoftes mette 
Wyth weapons bright and ftedes ftronge 
So with foore ftrokes together theyfctte 
Theyr fpeares brafte in peces longe 
Many a doughtye was flayne in that thronge 
Greate horfes damped in yron wedes 
Oure chryften men were put to the wronge 
With woundes depen that full fore bledes. 

Oure lorde on hys feruauntes had companion 
And fent an Aungell with horfe and armure 
Vnto Robert as he dranke in the garden 
There the Aungell bade hym arme hym fure [dure 
And faide beftryde thys good ftede that longe will en- 
And in all hafte go ryde and helpe the Emperoure 
Alacke thought Robert ned hath no cure 
Than rode he forth the fpace of an hgure, 


4 C&elifeof 

He rode into the thyckeft of the fyelde 
And hue and flewe of the Sarafyns a greate numbre 
No fteele nor harburgyn that with hym helde 
Hys denies rouges as yt had ben thonder 
He fmote mennes bodyes cleane a fonder 
Hys fworde made many a head to blede 
That the Emperoure had greate wonder 
What knyght yt was that he fawe fo doughtye In 


With the helpe of god and Robert that knyght 
That daye the Sarafyns lofte the fyelde 
And whan that ended was that fyght 
Euery man houered and behelde 
Where that whyte knyght was that wepon dyd weldc 
But Robert wente into the garden 
And layde downe bothe harnes and {hyldc 
Yt vanyfhed a waye, he wyft not where yt became. 

And all thys fawe the Emperours doughter 
That the Aungell brought Robert the whyte ftede 
And howe at the welles fyde he dyd of all hys armurc 
Therof me had greate maruayle in dede 
At the laft the Emperours men dyd of theyr wede 
And came to dyner into theyr lordes hall 
The Emperoure faid this daye Jefu dyd vs fpedc 
And the white knyght fayre muft hym befall. 


fto&ertc t&e tDeupll, 41 

Than Robert came in lyke a foole playinge 
Into the hall, and leapte from place to place 
The Emperoure was glad to fe Robert daunfynge 
Than he fpyed a great race of bloude in Robertes face 
But that he gate when he in the battayle was 
The Emperoure wende that hys feruauntes had hurt 
And faide, there ys fome rybaude in this place [hym fo 
That hath, hurte my Robert, that no harm can do. 

The Emperoure afked whether that whyte knyght 
Hys lordes aunfwered, we can not (aye [was gone 
At the laft hys doughter that was bothe deafe and 
Euer (he poynted to Robert allwaye [dombc 

Her father wondred at her in good faye 
And afked her myftres, what hys doughter ment 
She faid, (he meaneth that Robert thys daye [dente, 
Holpe youe to wynne the fyelde with hys doughty 

Her myftres faid that Robertes greate bloudye race 
Youre doughter rneaneth he had it in the fyelde 
At her wordes the Emperoure afshamed was 
And waxed angrye and that hys doughter behelde 
He faide thys folyfh mayde thynketh he fought in tha 
He bade her meftres teache her more better [fieldc 
Far and (he will not wyfer be in her elde 
A foole (hall: (he dye, there maye no man let her. 

F Thaa 

4* <&e &ifc of 

Than the feconde tyme the Sarafms came to Rome 
And with the Emperoure fought afore fyelde 
The Aungell agayne to Robert dyd come 
And then he rode forth hys weapon to weidc 
He perisfhed breftplates and many afhyldc 
He ftrooke of bothe legge and arme 
The Emperoure that knyght agayne behelde 
To watche for hym hys men he dyd warne. 

But he was gone they wyft not whether 
So on the morowe an other fyelde was pyght 
The Emperoure charged euery man to do his endeu<$ 
For to haue knowen that whyte knyght 
So on the morowe that they (houlde fyght 
Syxe knyghtes laye in a woode preuelye and flyll 
They fayde we wyll of that noble man haue a fight 
And to our lorde brynge hym we wyll. 

On the morowe the lunne fhone bright 
Bothe partyes there was aflembled 
All the fyelde gauc a greate lyght 
Of the gleyues that glyftred, the ftedes trembled 
A wonder to heare the brydles that gyngled 
"With arbelaters they mot many a quarell 
All the grounde of the noyfe rombled f well. 

Throu^he the helpe of Robert the Chryften men fped 


Kobcrte tfce Deugli; 43 

That daye Robert proued hym doughtye of bande 
Manye fro theyr horfes downe he dyd fhlynge 
None was able hys dentc for to with ftande 
There men myght heare greate rappes ryngc 
The noyfe of gunnes made fuch a bellowynge 
All the fyelde fowneH as yt had ben thonder 
Of bloude greate gutters they myght fe runnynge 
And many a knyghtes head clefte a fonder. 

All Sarafyns fled, the chryften won the fyelde 
Robert rode awaye than full pryuelye 
The knyghtes in the wodde hym behelde 
And lowde vnto hym beganne to crye 
Syr knyght fpeake with vs for thy courtefye 
Robert thought not agayne to turne 
The other knyghtes rode after haftelye [runnei 
And fmote theyr horfes with fpores and. after .dyd 

Roberte ranne ouer dale and hyll 
Hys ftede was good that he had there 
A bolde knyght folowed after hym ftyll 
And into the refte he threwe hys fpeare 
So ftrongelye to Robert he hyt beare 
To haue flayne hys horfe, and fmote hym in the thye 
The fpeare head braft, and in hys legge bode there 
Than was thys gentle knyght full foorye* 

F2 Backe 

44 &e Life of 

Backe agayne rode than thys knyght fo bolde 
And {hewed the Emperoure that he was gone agayne 
There of hys fpeare heade he hym tolde 
To fee hym quod the Emperoure I woulde full fayne 
Than throughe all hys lande he dyd proclayme 
That he that woulde (hewc the greate wounde with 

the fpeare head 

Shoulde haue hys doughter, and not her layne 
Vnto hys wyfe her for to wedde. 

When the Senefchall hearde the proclamacion 
He made hymfelf a greate wounde throughe the thye 
So gate a fpeare and whyte armoure foone 
And fo rode to the Emperoure with all hys meynye 
And faid Syr Emperoure that valyaunt knyght am I 
That faued youe thre tymes fro grame 
The Emperoure faid to hym, thou art not lykelyc 
And bade hym holde hys peace for (hame 

At laft the Senefchall (hewed hym hys wounde 
And faid, beholde toys and the head of the fpeare 
The Emperoure was abafhed in that ftounde 
So there he gaue the Senefchall hys doughter 
And on the morowe he fhoalde be maryed vnto her 
So was the Emperoure by hym beguyled 
He wende verclye that he had ben there 
And fought in the field e as a knyght dough ted. 


On the morowe thys greate weddynge fhouldc be 
That the Senefchall fhoulde haue hys doughter 
And fo brought her to churche, the feruyce began 
There by myrakle thys lady fpake to her father [ready 
And faide thys traytoure he hath beguyled youe here 
For Robert was he that helpe you in the fyelde 
I fawe an Aungell brynge hym bothe fhylde and fpeare 
With thefe two wordesdowneonherkneesfhekneled. 

And the Emperoure whan he fawe hys daughter 
For ioye he was nere oute of hys mynde [fpeake 
And thanked god for that myracle greate 
Than the Senefchall with fhame fliranke behyndc 
So to die Pope the Emperoure dyd wyndc 
The mayde tolde the Pope what Robert had done 
And brought them to the welle the fpeare head to fyndc 
And betwene two ftones fhe efpyed yt fone. 


Than went to feke Robert bothe lordes and ladyes 
At the lafte they founde hym lye vnder the ftayrc 
Amonge the dogges and with them dydde eate 
They defyred hym to fpeake with wordes fayrc 
But he made fignes as he coulde not heare 
With that came an hermyte & toke hym by the fleue 
Sent thether by god he was hys gooftlye father 
And bade hym fpeake, fayinge hys fynnes were forgaue. 


*6 Cfre life of 

Yet was he afearde to fpeake, and durft not 
The Emperoure prayed hym to fe hys thye 
Robert woulde not heare, but whan he fa we the Pope 
He ranne and played hys tauntes about lyghtlye 
The pope bade hym fpeake for the loue of Marye 
Robert hym fcorned and gaue hym hys b.leflynge 
He woulde not breake hys pennaunce, he had leuer dye 
Then the hermyte bade hym fpeake, forgeuen is thy 


With that Robert fell downe on hys knee 
And thanked Jefu that forgaue hym hys myflyuynge 
The pope and the Emperoure were glad trewlye 
But moft of all that ladye made reioyfynge 
That was the Emperours doughter that yongelynge 
Defyringe her father that fhe myght Robert weddc 
For thy afkynge faid he, J gyue the my bleflynge 
In all the hade daughter yt fhalbe fpedde. 

Than Robert maryed the Emperours doughter 
A feaft was holde of great folempnytie 
Eche of them were full gladde of other 
And at the laft when ended was thys ryaltye 
He toke leaue of the Emperoure and to hys owne 
He yede for the imp hys father was dead [countrey 
Alfo a falfe knyght put hys mother in greate ieopardye 
>Vhych Robert at the Ufte hynge by the headde. 


Kobette fte JDeugU* 47 

With hys mother he mette in the cyttyeof Rome 
The Duches was then glad and blythe 
That Robert her fonne fo vertuous was come horn? 
Whiche in hys youthe lyued fo myfcheuous a lyfe 
Than all men loued hym, both mayde and wyfc 
Tyll it befell vpon a certayne daye 
A meflenger came from the Emperoure full fwythe 
And prayed hym to come to Rome in all the haft he 


He tolde that the Senefchall had greate warrc 
With hys lorde the Emperoure in dede 
Robert fent after men nye and farre 
In all the hafte thether he gan fpede 
But ere he came was done a myfcheuous dede 
The Senefchall the Emperoure had flayne 
For forowe Robertes hearte dyd blede 
In fyelde he woulde haue fought full fayne. 

The Senefchall hearde that Robert was come 
And purpofed for to mete hym in the fyelde 
He reared up many a black Sarafon 
With wepon ftronge bothe fpeare and fliyeWe 
So ether partyes other behelde 
And fought together a greate batteyll 
There Robert with hys handes the Senefchall kyldc 
So to hys countrey returned without fayle. 


48 C&e fcife of 

And whan he came agayne to Normandye 
He dreade euer god and kepte hys lawe 
So lyued he full deuoutelye 
For all thynge woulde he do- vnder awe 
And punyfhe Rebelles both hange and drawe 
Than was he called the feruaunte of god 
No thefe woulde he faue that he myght knowe 
For dreade of goddes righteoufnes the (harpe rodde. 

One chylde by the Emperours doughter he had 
That was a knyght with' Kinge charles of Frauncc 
In manfull dedes he hys lyfe ladde 
Doughty he was bothe with fpeare and launce 
Lo, thy Robert ended hys lyfe in pennaunce 
And whan he dyed hys foule went to heauen hye 
Nowe all men beare thefe in remembraunce 
He that lyueth well here, no euyll death fliall dye* 

Yonge and olde that delyteth to reade in ftoryc 
Yt fliall youe ftyrre to uertuous lyuynge 
And caufe fome to haue theyr memory e 
Of the paynes of hell, that ys euer duryngc 
By readynge bookes men knowe all thynge 
That euer was done, and hereafter (hallbe 
idlenes to myfcheif many a one doth brynge 
And fpecyally as we daylye may fee. 


iRobet t tfcc >eugiu 49 

Take youe enfample of thys ftory olde 
Howe that he in youth dyd greate vengeaunce 
In doynge myfcheife he was euer bolde 
Tyll god fent to hym good remembraunce 
And after that he toke fuche repentaunce 
That he was called the feruaunte of god by name 
And fo contynewed without varyaunce 
God geue vs grace that we may do the fame. 

Here endeth the lyfe of 
Robert the Deuyll. 


Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


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URL DEC 11 1979 


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