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JtREFACB ••• ••• ... ... ..• ... ... Vll 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... ... xi 

I. De seftbm sagramentis. De psalmo, Exergitatus 

SUM bt depecit spiritus 1 

II. The Hours op the Cross 79 

III. Db degem pregeptis 86 

IV. [De septem mortalibus peggatis] ... ... ... 98 

V. [The five Joys op the Virgin Mary] ... ... 115 

VI. [On the Virgin Mary] 127 

VII. On the Trinity, Creation, the Existence of Evil, 

Devils, Adam and Eve, etc. 130 

J3IOa£S ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xOI 




The work which I now bring before the public has been long in 
preparation. Several circumstances, which it is no use specifying 
here, have combined to delay its appearance. I am not quite certain 
whether it has got any better for having been " pressed " ever so 
much longer than old Horace recommended ; but I do believe that 
nobody has been the worse for the delay, except, perhaps, myself. 

In editing the text I have adhered as closely as possible to the 
MS. The punctuation is mine, and so is the expansion of the usual 
contractions. The MS. has no punctuation ; only a dot is sometimes 
put after a word, which generally serves as a mark of separation. 
Several letters, especially g, /.*, d, t, h, often have a flourish attached 
to them, which Thomas Wright in his edition has either disregarded 
or replaced by an e, I have thought it best simply to retain the 
flourish, though in some cases metre and ryme seem indeed to require 
the expansion of it into a sounded vowel, generally weak e. Missing 
letters, or words to bo supplied, I have put within square brackets ; 
such as are to be omitted, within parentheses. The bracketed 
numbers in the right margin refer to the pages of Mr. Wright's 

It has not been my aim to give what they call a critical text. 
The dialect of the scribe of the MS., it is true, is different from that of 
the author. But then, what is the dialect of the author ] How shall 
we know exactly, when he rymes, for instance, he : chaiite : tre : Noe : 
me : he : \e; and, on the other hand, hy : leuedy : loliy : %, etc.l — 
was : glas '.pas : solas : Sathanas; and tees : sugges% when O.E. dio 
is represented by aw as well as oio, even in ryme 1 — The standard 
M.Kt. document, the * Ayenbite,* representing as it does the language 
of an East-Kentish author, cannot teach us any particulars about the 
West-Kentish dialect of Shoreham, which, although preserving some 
common Kentish peculiarities, may, moreover, have been to some 
extent influenced by the speech of the neighbouring capital. Con- 
sidering this, I have been careful not to normalize the language of 
the MS. on the basis of that of the * Ayenbite.' I have substituted 

viii Preface, 

Kentish forms for noii-Kentish ones when the former were demanded 
by the ryme; but in the interior of verses I have left the non- 
Kentish forms untouched. There is, of course, no consistency in the 
spelling of the MS.; but I have not thought myself entitled to make 
it uniform. Accordingly, I have not altered the spelling, for instance, 
in such cases as eijen : dre^en, the sign 3 being also used by the scribe 
for consonantal y ; or — drawe^ : gna^e"^ ; sor^e : niance (laice^ mce^ 
sorwe, folwen^ etc., by the side of la^e, o^e, sor^ey fd^en, etc.); dri/t(t)e, 
ryt{t)e, myt{t)ey by the side of dryyte, ^J^c, niy^te, etc. ; caut : nau^t ; 
ouyte : brmite; wroute, etc. 

In all these cases the * Ayenbite ' has preserved the old spirantic 
(front or back) 3 {h\ as in la^e^ o)e, 807'^e, -iyt^ -a^t, -o^t; and it is 
even probable that Shoreham, too, may, as a rule, have used the same 
spellings. But I am not sure that he did so consistently ; for I do 
not know to what extent the labialisation or fronting of ^, or the 
reduction of ^ to a mere breath-glide may have been carried out in 
his pronunciation ; though it should be mentioned that there are no 
unquestionable rymes suggestive of such changes to be met with in 
these poems. In the pronunciation of the scribe, the spirantic 3 
before t was certainly silent ; for he is particularly fond of writing ^t 
for simple t 

When a spelling is merely graphic, as when ou is written for o, I 
have left it unaltered. There is still another case in which I have 
not thought it safe enough to interfere with the spelling of the MS. It 
concerns the M.Kt. representatives of the O.E. diphthongs, especially 
ea and group-lengthened ea, which are represented in M.Kt. by ea, 
yea, ya, to, ye^ e. The usual spellings in the Shoreham MS. are ea, 
e, ee, rarely eja, ya, ye. Now, for my part, I am almost convinced 
that those digraphs, at least in Shorehara's pronunciation, simply 
meant an 6-sound, except, perhaps, initially. This is proved by rymes. 
In order, however, not to seem to prejudge a matter still in contro- 
versy, I have thought it best to let alone such rymes as dead : 
queed ; deaue : by , , hue ; ejafe : de]^e ; -leas, -lyas : was ; quead : 
glad ; yhcUde : tealde : felde : ealde ; spak : on-leak, etc. 

All such particulars I meant to have dealt with in the Introduc- 
tion, where I intended to give a synopsis of Shoreham's language. 
Seeing, however, that for an adequate treatment of Shoreham's 
language it was absolutely necessary to study it in connexion with 
the other M.Kt. texts; and that a full analysis of their phonetic and 
inflexional systems, for which I have already collected the materials, 

Preface. ix 

would have swelled the bulk of this volume too much : I was 
obliged to desist from my original purpose, and to reserve a detailed 
account of the dialectal peculiarities of M.Kt. for a second volume, 
which is also to contain observations on Shoreham's metre and 
versification, and a glossarial index. 

The metrical structure of the lines has, no doubt, often been 
fadly deranged by the scribe of the MS. In many cases it would be 
easy to mend it by transposing or inserting a word, adding a iinal e, 
and the like. Tempting though it was to make such slight correc- 
tions, I have, as a rule, abstained from altering the MS. text for 
metrical reasons alone. Only here and there, when the metre or 
ryrae seemed to demand it, I have restored a final e left out by the 
scribe ; and even this, I am afraid, I have not done quite consistently. 

It will be seen that, by the side of a considerable number of regular 
verses, there occur others which show metrical licences, but are per- 
fectly clear as regards the sense, and do not seem to call for any 
emendation. How then are we to know how many licences the poet 
may have allowed himself, when there is only one MS. of his works 
left, and that one sadly corrupted 1 I have, therefore, been content 
to try and restore the original sense where the blundering copyist of 
the MS. has perverted it, or even managed to produce downright 
nonsense. Only such emendations as seemed to me absolutely certain 
have I adopted into the text ; any conjecture that might seem in the 
least doubtful I have relegated to the notes. More than once I have 
been driven to mere guessing ; and several passages have proved so 
puzzling, that I have not been able even to guess at the probable 
sense. I have, therefore, been obliged to leave them as they stand in 
the MS. 

In the notes I have chiefly attempted to clear up and illustrate, 
as far as possible, from sources which the poet is likely to have 
known, the meaning of all the passages that seemed to need any 

My principal aim, then, in re-editing the poems has been to make 
the transmitted text intelligible. I am fully conscious of my short- 
comings ; yet I hope that fair critics, such as can realise the difficulty 
of the task,* will not be too hard upon me. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my sincere thanks to all 
those from whom I have received kind help. First and foremost of 
all to Dr. Fumivall, who not only looked through my notes, and 
wrote the head-lines at the top of the pages, but also took the great 

X Preface, 

trouble tyo collate the proofs with the MS., and gave- me many a 
valuable hint for the reconstruction of the text. If on some points I 
did not quite agree with him, and would rather have my own way, it 
was not in a spirit of dogmatism, but in consideration of facts 
gathered from a study of Shoreham's language and versification, which 
led me to adopt a different view. 

I am further indebted to Professor Biilbring of Bonn, who kindly 
ascertained for me the MS. readings of some passages about which I 
was doubtfuL 

My grateful acknowledgments are also due to the Reverend 
Father Clemens Blume, S.J., co-editor of the * Analecta Hymnica,' 
and the Reverend Dr. Valentin Teuber, for communications most 
welcome to me in my search after the possible Latin sources of the 
poems. And last, but not least, I have to thank my friend Mr. W. 
H. LoVel, whose kind help, whenever asked for, was always given me 
most readily. 

Greifswald, May 1902. 



The Manuscript. 

The poems here printed have been transmitted to us in a single 
MS. : Additional MS. 17,376, in the library of the British Museum, 
an octavo volume containing 220 leaves of vellum, the first 149 of 
which are filled up with a prose Version vf the Psalms, together with 
certain Canticles and the Athanasian Creed, in Latin and English. 
These have been edited by Karl D. Biilbring for the E. E. T. S., 
Part 1, 1891. In the Preface to that edition will be found a descrip- 
tion of the MS., and a reprint of Sir Frederic Madden's notice of its 
history, written by him on a fly-leaf prefixed to the IMS. 

Both the Psalter with the Canticles and the Athanasian Creed, 
and the Poems, are written by the same scribe, which has led to the 
false opinion that they are tlie work of one and the same author. 

The date of the MS., according to Sir Frederic Madden, is the 
earlier half of the 14th century. In a colophon at the end of the 
poem on the seven deadly sins (p. 114 of the present edition) the 
name of Archbishop Simon of Canterbury is mentioned. This is 
Simon Mepham, a Kentishman, who held the see from 1327 to 1333. 
So the MS. cannot have been written before 1327. Mr. Wright 
attributes it to the beginning of the reign of Edward III. But is it 
reaUy so early as that? Vamhagen (*Englische Studien,* II. p. 36, 
footnote), speaking of the portion which contains the poems, thinks 
that it can scarcely be assigned to an earlier date than the last 
quarter of the 14th centuiy, and if I were to judge only from internal 
evidence, especially that of the spelling, I should be strongly inclined 
to agree with him. Dr. Fumivall, however, assures me that in his 
opinion the MS. cannot be later than 1350. At any rate, it is not, 
as Mr. Wright fancied, an autograph of the poet, but a very careless 
copy made by an ignorant scribe whose dialect was different from 
that of the author, and who — besides freely substituting the forms of 
his own speech for the original ones — seems to have only imperfectly 
understood what he was copying: so full of corruptions is his text. 

xii hitrodiiction. Contents of the MS, 

the sense of riiimerous passages being sadly obscured, or even 
perverted into nonsense. 

In the earlier portions of the MS., chiefly in the poem on the 
Sacraments, rarely in other parts, we sometimes recognize a later 
hand, apparently that of a Kentishman, who ^vrote over the lines 
or in the margin what he fancied to be corrections of the text. 
His readings are not, however, based upon any independent MS. 
authority, but prove to be mere conjectures of little or no use for 
textual criticism. 

Contents op the MS. 

The MS. contains seven poems on religious subjects, in the 
following order: — 

T. De septem Sacramentis. De psalmo * Exercitatus sum et 
defecit spiritus.* 

The colophon at the end of it runs : Oretis pro anima domini 
Willelmi de Schorham qtumdam viearii de elmrt iuxta Ledes, Qwi 
compoAuit istam compllationem de septem sacramentis, 

II. The Hours of the Cross, combined with Hours of the 
Compassion of Our Lady. 

III. De decem preceptis. 

IV. [De septem mortalibus peccatis.] 

Colophon at the end of it : Oretis pro anima dmnini Willelmi de 
ScJiorJiam quondam viearii de chart itixta ledes qui composuit istam 
compllationem de septem mortalibus peccatis. Et omnibus dicentibus 
oracionem dominicam cum salviacione angelica xV** dies uenie a 
domino Sijm/)ne Archiepiscopo canttmrie conceduntur. 

V. The five Joys of the Virgin, composed at the request of a 

Colophon at the end of it : Oretis pro ardma Willelmi de Schorham 
qtiondani viearii de chart iuxta Ledes, 

VI. On the Virgin Mary. 

Colophon : Oretis pro anima domini Roberti Grosseteyte quondam 
Episcopi Lincohiice. 

VII. A didactic poem on the fundamental doctrines of the 
Christian faith : a sort of * Summa Theologiae,' treating of the grounds 
of our belief in the existence of a Deity, the Trinity, the creation, 
the revolt of Lucifer in heaven, the origin of evil, and the fall of 

Here the ^IS. breaks off, in the middle of a disquisition on 

Introd'itction, Authorship of the Poems, xiii 

original sin. But from a passage on p. 156-7 of the present eilition 

we learn that the poet intended to go on with the story of our 

redemption : 

For, ase man was fo?^ ti'owe hy-cou^t, 
In trowe he scholde he for-houyty 

pat J>e fende neste. 
And \at teas ine ]>e holy rode, 
por^ \e scJiedynge of pe hlode 

Of godes sone, 


This portion of the poet's work, if he did finish it at all, is lost. 

Authorship op the Poems. 

The question is, Are oi^ the poems contained in the MS. hy 
the same author whose name appears in the colophons at the end of 
the first, fourth, and fifth poems ? 

To this I think we may confidently answer that the weight of 
internal evidence goes as far as anything to prove the common 
authorship of all of them, with the possihle exception of No. YI, the 
Hymn to the Virgin. The colophon at the end of it suggests that it 
is a translation from Rohert Grosseteste, hut I have not heen able to 
discover the original. The language shows the common character- 
istics of the Kentish dialect as used by the poet in his undoubtedly 
genuine productions. In a few cases, however, we meet with forms 
which are apparently at variance with the ascertained usage of the 
author of the other poems ; as, for instance, on p. 129, 11. 61 ff., 
eJiyld [: myld : wykl : idyld, pa. pple. of stilleji]. The usual forms 
are mylde, wylde, presumably with a long i Ibid., IL 64-66, a 
cheaste ( = a chaste one) [: breate]. Cf. p. 60, 1. 1689, chaste [: Jmste] ; 
also the noun chastete, p. 49, 1. 1367 (but ehestete occurs in 
'Ayenbite,' p. 235). — p. 127,1. 18, hanne [: 7nanne] ; usually hennes 
[isennes] p. 41, 1. 1146, [: ke7ines] p. 60, 1. 1684. 

These Ciises are perhaps not strong enough to prove a different 
authorship for the Hymn. Poets who write in a special dialect have 
generally to grapple with the exigencies of ryme ; and Shoreham, as 
we shall see, is not an exact rymer. Besides, it is antecedently not 
very likely that the scribe of the MS., who did his work rather 
mechanically, should have given himself the trouble of putting in 
between the poetry of William of Shoreham, which his copy must 
have contained, a poem taken from a difEerent source. 

xiv Lttrahidion, The Aidhor, William of Sh<yirham, 

The Author. 

William of Shoreham was a Kentishman, no doubt a native of 
Shoreham near Otford (about seven miles and a half from Sevenoaks). 
He is stated to have been quondam vicarbts de ChaH iuxta Ledes, 
Leeds, in Kent, was a priory of canons regular, founded, according 
to Dugdale, in 1119. 

In 1320 Walter Reynolds, Archbishop of Canterbury (1313- 
1327), appropriated to the priory and convent of Leeds the rectory 
of Chart-Sutton, after the resignation of the last rector, Johannes 
Haukynge, on condition that a vicar should be maintained there. 
The documents relating to Chart and the transaction with the priory 
of Leeds are printed in Thorpe's * Eegistrum Roffense,' p. 207-209. 
But from none of them do we learn that the first vicar admitted was 
William of Shoreham, as Mr. Wright asserts in the Preface to his 
edition, p. vii. William's name is not once mentioned in the 
*Registrum,' nor anywhere else, as far as I know. We have no 
information about the circumstances of his life beyond the fact that 
he was vicar of Chart, which implies that he belonged to the 
Augustinian convent of Leeds. We also know that he cannot have 
occupied the place at Chart before 1320, and may further infer from 
the words of the colophon at the end of the fourth poem that he did 
not outlive Archbishop Simon Mepham. Those words seem to 
imply that the Archbishop granted a quadragene to all those who 
should say the Lord's prayer and Ave Maria for the soul of William 
of Shoreham, late vicar of Chart, which evidently points to a person 
already deceased at the time. This would indeed place the tenure 
of William's office close to the year 1320, and might justify the 
assumption that he was the first vicar of Chart. 

In the N.E.D. and in Stratmann-Bradley the quotations from 
Shoreham are given under date 1315. On what evidence I do not 
quite see. My own impression is that the language has a decidedly 
less archaic character than that of the standard Kentish work, the 
* Ayenbite of Inwyt,' which was completed in the year 1340. But 
this may well be owing to local differences. 

When we turn from the scanty and somewhat uncertain data on 
which our knowledge of William's outward life rests to the produc- 
tions of his mind and art, the features of the man and poet at once 
become more distinct. He reveals himself as a pious and learned 
theologian, well read in the writings of the ecclesiastical authors 

Introduction. Suljeds of tJic Poems. xv 

most reputed in his day ; sometimes, it seems, even resorting to 
remoter sources (see, for instance, his discourse on the origin of evil) ; 
well versed in tlie canon law (see the treatise on Matrimony) ; of a 
scholastic turn of thought, though not without a leaning towards 
interpreting matters in a mystical and allegorical way. At the same 
time we recognize the practical Churchman, who had the cure of 
souls ; who knew the spiritual wants as well as the capabilities of 
those pat leioed &ej>; and who, as a faithful shepherd, earnestly 
endeavoured to minister to them to the best of his ability. 

Four out of the seven poems, viz. L, III., IV. and VII., have a 
purely didactic aim, being intended to teach the Christian man — 1. 
what he has to believe (Xo. VII.) ; 2. what commandments to keep 
(Xo. III.) ; 3. what sins above all others to shun (No. IV. Of sin 
in general, the difference between original and actual sin, and the 
seven deadly sins in particular) ; 4. what means of grace to use for 
his salvation (No. I. Of the Sacraments). 

This is the sum and substance of all that is necessary for a 
Christian to know and keep. Under those heads are generally 
arranged the instructions given in the Catechism; and the very 
same topics are constantly dealt with at ecclesiastical Councils and 
Conventions, and parish priests enjoined to enforce them on the 
minds of their flocks. 

William of Shoreham, when he set himself to the task, brought 
all his zeal and learning to bear upon it ; and though his treatment 
of the subjects would sometimes seem to have a smack of scholasti- 
cism, yet, on the whole, it is well calculated for the comprehension 
of lay folk. 

There were, no doubt, many Latin compilations of a similar kind 
accessible to the poet, many a *Summa ' which, in composing his work, 
he might have followed. Still, considering that the general matter 
must have been as familiar to an erudite clergyman of the 14th 
century as it is to any tolerably well-instructed Catholic of our 
own day, and that for details William could easily resort to the 
standard ecclesiastical authors in the library of his convent, we need 
not, I think, look out for any particular source from which the poems 
in question might possibly have been drawn. 

The three remaining poems are of a different character. No. II. 
is a devotional piece. The portion of it that contains the * Hours of 
the Cross ' (or of the Passion of Our Lord) is an English rendering 
of the Latin * llorae ' which begii^ : Patris mjnentia^ Veritas divina, 

Xvi - Introdtictioii. Character of the Poet. 

etc., and of which several other translations in M.E. verse are known. 
Here, each Hour is followed by an apostrophe to Our Lady referring 
to her sorrows at the sufferings of Christ ; and it is probable that 
these stanzas, too, were translated from some Latin * Horae Compas- 
sionis B. Mariae Virginis,' though the original has not turned up yet. 

Ko. VI., the Hymn to the Virgin (after Grosseteste 1), is in a 
purely lyrical stmin, while in No. V., on the Joys of the Virgin, the 
lyric and epic elements are blended. All these pieces are pervaded 
with a genial warmth bf feeling. 

But, conspicuous as William of Shoreham's mental resources are, 
he is — as ten Brink in his ' Geschichte der englischen Litteratur ' 
(12, 328) remarks — no poet in the higher sense of the word. It is 
true, he has something to say, and shows also a certain degree of 
mastery over the language, but he lacks artistic insight into the 
proper nature of poetry, as well as skill in workmanship. That 
maxim of Rilckert's : 

" Was man kann in Prosa schreiben, 
Soil man nicht in Verse treiben," 

which holds true for all ages, and which Chaucer had the good sense 
to act upon when he made his Parson preach in homely prose, does 
not seem to have been fixed in William's mind. Thus it happens 
that we sometimes have to travel in the poems over arid tracts of 
ground ; and the unpleasant effect is even increased by the discrepancy 
between the contents and the form in which they are couched. 
This is particularly the case in the first poem, where the stanza 
chosen proves a very ill-suited instrument for a rather prosy discourse 
on the Sacraments ; and that, too, in the hands of a poet who is by 
no means a very skilled versifier. For, not only does he apparently 
allow himself several metrical licences — I say "apparently," because 
the condition of the MS. warns us not to rashly lay every fault to 
his own door, — ^but his somewhat limited store of good rymes often 
drives him to supply the want with cheap ones, use stock-phrases, 
tags (especially in the bob- and tail-verses), meaningless expletives, 
and other make-shifts to fill up the lines. This has sometimes a rather 
ludicrous effect, as, for instance, in the poem on the Joys of the 
Virgin, which is directed to a ^^ soste^'," when he ekes out a line 
(126/325) with the favourite expletive 7ny leue ftrofe?', just to get 
the wonted ryme with ofer (Jiyt nys non o^er being itself one of his 

Introd%iction, Editions of the Poems ; Textual Criticisms, xvii 

To sum up then : William of Shoreham was what Chaucer says 
of his Parson — * a lerned man, a clerk, that . . . his parishens 
devoutly tcolde teche ; ' a man highly respectable for his erudition, 
zeal and piety, but a very mediocre poet, whose works deserve 
perhaps to be studied more for linguistic purposes than for their 
intrinsic merits as poetry. 

Editions op the Poems; Textual Criticisms. 

The only complete edition, previous to the present one, was that 
by Thomas Wright : *The Religious Poems of William de Shoreham,' 
London, 1849, printed for the Percy Society. 

Some specimens of the poems have been printed in Anthologies : 
** De Baptismo "in * Specimens of Early English ' by Morris and 
Skeat, vol. ii. ; " De Ordinibus ecclesiasticis " in Wulker's ' Alt- 
englisches Lesebuch,' i. 21; the Song on the Joys of the Virgin in 
Matzner's * Sprachproben,' i. 260 ; and several obscure passages have 
been discussed by the editors in their notes. 

WtQker's * Lesebuch ' was reviewed by Zupitza in the * Zeitschrift 
fiir osterreichische Gymnasien,' 1875, where he also took occasion to 
correct a few errors in the transmitted text of Shoreham. In my 
* Beitrage zur Erklarung und Textkritik des William von Schorham,' 
Berlin, 1878, I tried to emend a number of corrupt passages; and 
my reviewers (Boddekker, in * Litteraturblatt,* ii. 60, Vamhagen, 
in 'Anzeiger fiir deutsches Altertum,' v. 257, and Kblbing, in *Eng- 
lische Studien,* iii. 164) have each of them contributed to the 
emendation of the text, especially Varnhagen and Kolbing, who 
continued their critical observations on the poems, the former in 
< Anglia,' iv. 200, the latter in * Englische Studien,' xxi. 154. 

What I owe to the endeavours of these scholars will be found 
duly recorded in the notes of the present edition. 


p. 5, Head-line. Insert 3. The Eucharist^ and change number 6 to 5. 

p. 5, 1. 127. Supply (6) = p. 6 of Wright's edition. 

p. 6, Head-line. Read 6. Holy Orders, 7. Matrimony. 

p. 8, 1. 211. dele comma after /or))6. 

p. 13, 1. 351. Read (14) for (15). 

p. 16, 1. 435. Read (17) for (16). 


[Brit. Mus. AMU. MS. 17,376.] 

I. §e Bt^ttm nntxnvmiiin. ^t i^nnlma, p»tmj 
(^utaivAm Bnm ti htftdt spiritws. 


SOnderliche his man astonedl 
In his owene mende, 
Wanwe he not® neuer wawnes he com]>e, 
Ne wider he schel wende ; 

And more, 
\)Qt al his lyf his here imengde 
Wife sorwe and eke wife sore. 

H And wanne he deife, ne mey me wite 8 

Woder he comef to wisse ; 
Bote as a stock* fer life f et body, 

Wife-foute alle nianere blisse. 11 

Wat f enkeste 1 
And hondred winter ^ef a leuef e, 

)?at his lyf mid f e lengeste. 

H Onnef e creft eny fat stat, 

Ac some creftef fat halue ; 
And for siknesse lechecreft. 

And for fe goute sealue 18 

Me makef e ; 
For wanTie man drawif in-to oldewarc?, 

Wei ofte his bones akef. 21 


Man do«8 not 
^ know whence 
4; he comes, nor 

whither he 

shall go. 

All his life is 
troubled with 
7 sorrow and 

And when he 
is dead, 
his bodv lies 
there like a 
stock, all 

A hundred 
years is the 
14 utmost space 
of life. 

(2) 15 

which is 
hardly ever 
though some 
attain half of 
it, helped by 
and salves ; 
for the ap- 
proach of old 
age often 
makes man's 
bones ache. 

5. In the MS. the * bob * of every stanza is written in 
right of the first line, a curved line running down from 
the * bob ' to the corresponding one of the last line. 

12. penkeste [: lengeste], phonetically 'pengste [: lengste], 

13. And hondred for An h. 

the margin to the 
the rime-word of 



2 I. The Seven Sacraments. Charity tlie Ladder to Heaven. 

And, be a 
man never 
so vigorous, 
when he 
grows old he 
shall pay 
nature's debt. 
Yet many a 
young man 
thinks he 
shall live 
long, and 
lives only a 
very short 

Thus we are 
all on the 
way hence. 

And yet it is 
said we are 
doomed to 
hell in Adam 
and Eve. 

[leaf 150, bk.] 

Man's right 
dwelling is 
in heaven. 

How then 
shall we get 
By a ladder; 

but not a 
ladder : 

there id one 
that Jacob 
saw in his 

This ladder 
is chaiity, 
the steps are 

On it Jesus 
mounted up, 
to teach us 
how to climb. 

U And be a man neuer so sprind, 

Jef he schel libbe to elde, 
Be him wel siker, fer-to he schel, 

And his de])es dette ^elde ; 

To gile 
Jet meni ^ong^ maw wenef longe leue, 

And leuej> wel litle wyle. 

U j3os we bef al awey-wardf, 

J)at scholde her byleue ; 
And ^et me seif ydemyd we befe 

In Adam and ine Eue 

Te helle : 
Wa3t hope his here of sauuement 

Now tiime his for to telle. 

U Me seif e fe ri3te wonejyng* 

Ine heuene hyt his to manne ; 
Ac heuene his hei^e, and we bef heuy, 

Howe scholde we fider fanned 

Bi leddre. 
Howe mey fat be 1 wo dar fer-oppe stei^e, 

For donate of f otes bleddre % 

U Man, J)y laddre nys naujt of wode 

J3at may to heuene leste ; 
Ac on fer his, fat iakob isei^e 

J3er he sleppe inne hys reste. 

Now schewe f is : 
Jjis ilke laddre is charite, 

Jje stales gode f eawis. 

U Her-on ihesus stawe vppe bi-fore, 

Al for to teche ous styje ; 










(3) 43 




25. In de^eSf y is written over the first « in a later hand. 

33. Iielle, MS. telU, 

34. sauuemerU, above it soule sauadouny written with pencil by a later 

43. ]>y, read>ys? 
51. sty^e, MS. stey^e. 

I. The Seven Sacraments, As Christ rose, so shall we rise. 3 

No we hyje, man, and folwe wel, 

A-doun fat J)ou ne syje 

By-weyled ; 
For yf J>ou nelt naujt climme J>os, 

Of heuene f ou heat yfayledl. 

U And fat man louye god and man, 

Ase charite hyt hotef ; 
J3at he so wel yfeawed be, 

)^at alle men hit notef e : 

Wat fanne ? 
Jet senne-les ne may he naujt be, 

Ac a deyfe, and he not wanne. 

H Of brokele kende his fat he deif e, 

For hy ne mo^e nau^t dury ; 
And aldey he to senne fallef , 
Her ne moje nau^t pury 

Of serewnessche. 
Jet hope f ou wel, man, for al f is, 
t)at go^de lyf wole f e wessche. 


U For def e ne fait naujt into wanhope, 
For godi him self for f e deide ; 

t)e f ridde day he aros a3eyn 
Of f e f rou} f er men hine leyde, 

Ine tokene 

})ait, man, f i body arise schel 
Of deif e, naw more to blokne. 

U t)e bible seyf e fat mawnys blod 
Hys ryjt f er saule giste ; 





Though a 
man ralfil 
the law of 
and be of 
noted virtue* 

he cannot 
be sinless, 
63 hut must die, 
and Icnows 
not when. 





(4) 71 


still he need 
not despair 
for fear of 
death, since 
God liimself 
died for us, 
and rose 
in token of 
our own 



The bible 
says that 
man's blood 
is the seat 
of the soul ; 

62. folwef MS. ffolwe, with a faint 3 over the w, 

67, 59. "pat, read >a3 ? 

67. ^no^e, 0^ on erasure. 68. w over en ; see note. 

70. The 3 in go^ small and indistinct. 

71. MS. irUo. 

78. blod, MS. hlodis, 

79. "per on erasure. 

4 I. The Seven Saoraments. 1. Baptism arid 2, Confirmation, 

washes filth 

To wash OS, 
Christ shed 
blood and 
water oat of 
His wound, 

sprang the 
sacraments of 
Holy Church. 
A sacrament 
is a sign of a 
holy thing. 

With Christ's 
blood man's 
soul has been 
bought, and 
with the 
water man is 
purged firom 

Baptism is a 
token of it. 

At Confirm- 
ation the 
baptized are 
mariced for 
with those 
in heaven. 

[leaf 151, bk.] 

purges man 
manner of 





And water wa88che)> ye felthe a-wey, 

per me wessche]) by liste 81 

J3e on-sounde : 
To wesschen ous cryst schedde his blod 

And water out of hys wonde, 

U Here-of spronge pQ sacremens 

Of holy chyrche digne ; 
And his to segge sacrement 

Of hdy pynge signe. 88 

For gode, 
Hon myjte fayrer signe be 
J^ane of ])e water and blode 1 

IF Man, jK)rwe pat blod fi soule his boujt 

Fram ]>e f endes powere ; 
And ]>orwe ]>at water iwessche ]>art 

Of J>yne sennes here. ' 95 

Nou loke, 
Joure Cristendom his tokene prof 

Of criste ])at we toke. 98 

H For, jef J>ou uangest pane cnstendom, (5) 99 

And for pan bi-lef[s]t clene, 
poxL schelt be marked to pet stede 

To wichen heuen) his ymene j 102 

To sope, 
Wanne pe bisschop bisschopep pe, 
Tokene of marke he set to pe. 

IT Ac cristendom hys sacrement 

Of so grete powere, 
))at hit porwe wasschep pane man 

Of senne alle manere ; 109 

And glorie 



97. ^oure, t^i* in a smaller handwriting, evidently a later addition to 
what looks more like ^a than p, 

101. stede, in a later hand on erasure. 

105. MS. too^, second o inserted by a late;* hand. 

109. MS. in cUle manere, in later addition, above the line. 

I. The 7 Sacraments. 4. Penarice. 6. Extreme Unction. 6 

Hit 8cheppeJ>, ;jeff man deyj^e, 
And schilt fram purgatorie. 

U And— for we bej> of nonn power 

To weryen ous fram schame — 
J5er der no f encJ acombry ous, 
Orist is mid ous to-same(8) ; 

And neade : 
Tokene ]yer-of his goddes bodi 
At cherche ine forme of brede. 

IT And 3et, — for man his so brotel 

Ine his owene kende — 
))a3 he tomi to senne ajen 
J)orwe fondyng* of J>e feende. 

By chaunce 
pat he may come to stat a-^eyn 
Jyorwe bare repentaunce. 

U Her-of we habbej) tokene gode, 

Wanne we fange]) penaunce 
For sennes ]7at we habbe]) idofi. 
To pynes allegaunce 

Ine fere ; 
For J>er we scholde hit vnder-go, 
Bote we pinede hit here. 

U pat man ne falle ine wanhope 

A-last wiJ)-oute bote, 
Al ]yat he he]) iseneged her 
WiJ) honden and wij fojte, 

WyJ) foute, 
Mou]>e, nase, and earen, and wi> sijt, 
Eliinge brenge)> hit to nou3te. 

180. MS. first pyneSf s nearly gone. 

133. Bote, MS. Sote. 

135. bote, te on erasure. 

139. earen, MS. ey^en ; see note. . 

and shields 
him from 
112 puigrtory. 

113 Feeble 

though we 
are, the fiend 
dare not 
harass OS, 
for Christ is 

115 with us. 

The token of 
it is Christ's 
119 body in form 
of bread. 

120 And though 
aman tnm 
to sin again. 


he may be 
1 o/» restored by 
UO mere repent* 








This is shown 
when we re- 
ceive Penanoe 
for oar sins. 

to alleviate 
the torments 
in the fire of 

To save a 
man from 
Extreme Uno- 
tion brings 
to nought all 
his sins. 

[leaf 152] 

6 I. The Seven Saeraments. 7. Holy Orders. 5, Matrimony, 

Some long 
for a life 
more rigor- 
OQB than the 
common life. 

This God 

grants by 

To those not 
able to live in 

God has given 
as ft relief. 

the Euchar- 
ist, Ordin- 
ation, and 
Unction are 
the seven 
sacraments of 
Holy Church. 


H 3et some he])e suche deuocioun, 
p&t hym ])ing])e he his al ydel 

For to libbe commun lif , 
Bote jef he hedde a brydel ; 

Wet Jjinge 

Of harder stat god graimte]), 
Wei tokne J)row3 his ordini[w]ge. 


II iet, pa} man mowe nau^t lecherie 

Forbere to donne ine dede, 
3et ne schal he iiau3t be for-lore, 

For god ^ef pe hym to rede 

Spousynge ; 
Tokene prof his J)e wedding* 

At cherche, and biterewping*. 


U Cristendom, and bisschoppying*, 
Penauns, and eke spousinge, 

Godes body ine forme of bred, 
Ordre, and Aneliinge, 

pes seuene 

Hep holicherche sacremens, 
pat bep tokenen of heuene. 


U God wescht, and markep, and foi^efp, 

And ioynep men an wyues, 
And freuerep porwe his body man, 

And grace sent, and lyues. 

Je, wanne ] 
Wanne we takep pe sacremens, 

]?ar we sep hit panne. 







(7) 155 






144. Bote, MS. Dote. 147. See note. 

148. ]>a3, MS. yat. 

151. MS. hi (nnderdotted) after god, 

164. MS. bitere wymcf , which may mean hitrewyin^ . For the parasitic c, 
cp. acherewen (= schrewen\ Sh. p. 143, 1. 380; cUregye, Ay. 81; cherecke, 
&S. 31. 

162. wndforysf^ begins next line in MS. 

168. si^ on erasure. 

i. The Seven Sacraments, The Nature of thenti 1. Baptism. 7 

II Jjaj we ne mowe hyt nau^t ise, 169 

Ne forjje ine bodie iurede, 
We sejje hit wel ine oure fey, 

And fredej) tit at nede 172 

Wel ejaj^e : 
God J^orwe miracles kefep hit 

A lyue and eke a depe. 175 

U And bote he porwe hys saeremens 176 

Ous ))08 bi-redde, 
Ne scholde we of his grace wite 

Wanne we hit toke and hedde 179 

To wisse ; 
))er-fore, he J)at bi-lefep hit nau3t 
Eijt wyt nej) of blisse. 

, (27) 
U Al hit bej) cherche sacremens 

J5et tokenep holi pynges, 
As hali water, and haly bred, 

Lijt, and belryngynges 186 

To leste ; 
And of alle ofer sacremens 

J5es seuene be)> fe greste. 189 

(1) [D]E baptismO. im margin-] 


CEistendom his ]7at sac?'ement 190 

j)a,t men her ferst fonge)) ; 
Hit opene]) to ous ))e heuene blisse, 

Jjat many man after longej) 193 

Wel sore ; 


(8) 183 

The opera- 
tion or the 
is not per- 
ceived oy 
the senses, 
but realized 
only by fiiith. 

Deaf 152, bk.] 

It is by the 
imparts us 
His grace. 

of the Church 
are all tilings 
that betoken 
holy things, 
as holy water, 
holy bread, 

But of all 
those Seven 

Baptism, the 
received first, 

opens to us 
the bliss of 

169. ba3, MS. }kU. 170. mrede, MS. inrede, 179. hedde, MS. hadde, 

182. MS. Iti^t wyt ne^ hfi of none blisse, he and none written by a later 
hand above the line, the former between ne^ and of, the latter after "blisse, 
with a mark before it, and a corresponding one before blisse^ to indicate the 
place of insertion. 

183. MS. bep in cherche ]>ese sacremens, in and 'pese in a later hand above 
the line; "pese is written in the margin after sacrtinenSf but marked for 
insertion before it. 

186. 8 in bdryngynges added by a later hand. 
192. MS. <m9to. 

8 I. The Seven Sacraments, 1. Baptism, must be hy Water. 

Th« matter i 
of baptism 
it natural 
water, and no 
other fluid : 

neither wine, 
eider, perry. 

[leaf 153] 

mead, or any 
other liquor 
that changes 
the nature of 

For such is 



but water is 
cold, though 
it be warmed 
by fire; 
therefore one 
ma^ baptize 
in It in time 
of Arost. 

This may not 
be done In 
ardent s^rit. 

For who ])at entre]) ))er 
He his sauff* euere more. 


H Nou ferst* ich wille telle 3011 

"Wet may be J?e materie 
Wer-inne cnstning* may be mad, 

pai bringe)) ous so merie 

To honoure : 
H^t mo^t be do ine kende water, 

And non ojer licour[e]. 


IT Jjer-fore ine wine me ne may, 
Inne si)>ere, ne inne pereye, 

Ne ine J)ing* fat neuere water nes 
pOT^ cristning* man reneye ; 

Ne inne ale. 

For, J)ie hijt were water ferst, 
Of water nep hit tale. 

(31) . 
H Ne mede, ne forfe, no of er licour 

pat chaunge]) wateres kende, 
Ne longej) nau^t to cristendom, 
pSL^t some foles hit wende 

For wete ; 
For soich is kendeliche hot, 
pa^t fer no f eer hit ne hete. 


H Ac water is kendeliche cheld, 
]?a) hit be warmd of fere ; 

J)er-fore me mey cristni fer-inne, 
In whaut time falfe a 3ere 

Of yse ; 

So mey me nau^t in ewe ardau72t, 
Jjat nej) no wateris wyse. 








(9) 211 






207. MS. may in a later hand above the line, between man and reneye. 

214. ya^f originally ^, as it seems, 3 inserted by a later hand. 

217. hete (from hcetan), MS. hente. 

219. pa^ corrected from yat, — d in warmd in a later hand. 

1. The Seven Sacrarnents. 1. Baptism: its Wards, 9 

U Al-80 me may inne sealte se 

Cristny wel mitte beste, 
And eke inne opere sealte watere, 
Bote me in to moche kes(cli)te 

Of sealte ; 
For ^ef ])at water his kende lest, 
pat cristning* stant te tealte. 

IT Ac 3yf per were ymengdf licour 

Oper wid kende wetere, 
Ich wojt wel, Jyrinne to cnstnye 
Hit nere nefur pe betere, 

Ac wonde ; 
For bote ])at water his kende haue, 
pai cristnynge may naujt stonde, 

IT In water ich wel pe cnstny her, 

As gode him self hyt di3te ; 
For mide to wessche nis nopynge 
pat man comep to so lijte ; 

In londe 
Nis non pat habben hit ne may : 
pat habbe hit wile, founde. 

IT pis bepe pe wordes of cristnyng* 

Bi pyse englissche costes : — 
*^ Ich cristni pe ine pe uader name, 
And sone, and holy gostes ; " 

And more, 
" Amen ! " Wane hit his ised per-toe, 
Confermep pet to-fore. 

IT pe wordes scholle be ised 
Wipe-oute wane and eche ; 







(10) 239 




One mar 
baptize in the 
sea, or other 
salt water, 
nnless too 
much salt be 
oast into it. 

Other fluids 
should not be 
mingled with 

Water is 9MMJ 
to be had 
242 everywhere. 

[leaf 153, bk.] 

The baptis- 
mal formula 
In English ; 


oKO to be said 
^^^^ without 

omission or 

233. wetere, MS. watere, 245. founde =^f(ynde, 

252. MS. ]fet (yer) to-fore^ ]>er added in the margin above fore, a caret 
being put between pet and to. 

10 I. The Seven Sctcraments. 1. Baptism, at the Font, 




The pope 
would not be 
too dignified 
a person to 

Therefore the 
recipients are 
brought to 
church, to be 
baptized by 
the priest. 

In case of 
need, any 
man may 

In baptism at 
the font, the 
priests dip 
the recipient 
ilirice, in 
honour of 
the Trinity. 

[leaf 154] 

Water cast 
on any limb 
baptizes a 
living man : 

And onderstand, hi 111036 bi sed 

In alle manere speche 

Ine lede, 
))at euerich man hi sigge mo3e, 

And cristny for nede. 

U Ac ^if man scholde icristnid be 

])at nej) none deaj^es signe, 
pe pope for te cristny hyne 

So nere naii3t te digne 

pe leste ; 
Jjer-fore hi bep in cherche brou3t 

To cristny of fe preste. 

U Ac he pat 3if so large water 
pe fend fi:am ous te reaue. 
In nede for to cristny men 
Jef alle men ileaue 

At f elle ; 
Olepi mot hym ine pe water, 
And eke pe wordes telle. 

U And wanne hi cristnep ine pe foun3t, 

pe prestes so pries depep, 
In pe honur of pe trinite, 
Ac gode 3eme kepep 

pe ned 
On time a elope pat water ikest, 
Ac ope pe heuede te bede. 

U Ac water ikest an oper leme 
Cristnep pe man alyue, 






(11) 267 







255, 258. mo^e, MS. more, 

267. Tie, h in 8k later hand on erasure. — ^if, read ^ifp ? or ^efi cf. 1. 270. 

272. MS. 01^ {me) m^t hym {depe) ine "pe water, me and depe added 
above the line ; see note. 

275. MS. pe so prestes, with marks of transposition. The ein'pe seems 
to have been altered from original i, the stroke over it being still visible. 
The original reading may possibly have been yise prestes, — depe]>, MS. 

278-280. See note. 

281. leme (limb)) MS. lone (or l&iie). 

I. The Seven Saa^aments. 1. Baptism^ to he done soon, 11 

Ac hit his sikerest in ))e heeued, 

J)er bej> J)e wittes fyue. 

Wei, brofer, 
JS'e non ne may icristned be 

Ar he his boren of moder. 

IT Jet gret peryl hy vndergoj^e 

))at cristne]) twyes enne, 
Oper to ^eue asent per-to, 
Oper for loue of kenne 

Wanne child arijt cristnyng' hep, 
And pat oper nau^t for-bedep. 

U Bote hi pis conne, hit his peril 

To pise medewyues ; 
For ofte children scheawip quike, 
Ibore to schorte lyues, 

And deyep : 
Bote hi ari^t icnstned be, 
Fram heuene euere hi weyep. 

U Ac jif pat child icristned his, 

Ac me fot at me hit wenep, 
J5ise habbep forme per-of 
A latin pat ham geniep 

To depe ; 
And ich schel seggen hit an englisch, 
Nou per-of neme ^e kepe. 

U ))e prest takep pat ilke child 
In his honden by-thuixte. 

but it is 
^_ ^ safest en the 
284 head, the seat 

of the five 


None may be 
baptized be- 
237 fore they are 




(12) 295 




nota 305 



Repetition of 
strictly for- 

incur risk by 
delaying tlie 
baptism of 
children, who 
often seem 
likely to live, 
but oie unex- 

form of 
wlien doubts 
arise as to 
whether a 
child has 
been bap- 

285. h and > in hro^ on erasure, in a later hand. 

287. he, MS. ^e. 

290. 0>er, MS. Orer, — to ^iie, read ^euep ? 

295. Bote, MS. Dote. 

803. me looks like ine, the tail of the 3 in ^^of the preceding line stand- 
ing directly over the first stroke of the m. In the space between fot and at 
there is in the MS. a sign resembling a rider, with a small bar at the top of 
it (;(), and over it something like an S or 5} all half blotted. 

12 I. The Seven Sacraments. 1. Baptism, of the Holy QhosL, 

Deaf 154, bk.] 

of being 
Hre profided 
for those 
who long for 
baptism, and 
cannot by 
any oontriv- 
anoe attain it 

One is called 
baptism of 
blood, or 
Martyrdom ; 
the other, 
baptism of 
the Holy 

haying been 
chamens at 
the church- 
door, are to 
be anointed 
at the font 
with chrism 
and oil. 

And 8ei]y : '^ ich ne cristni ))ei nau^t, nota 
Jef J)ou ert icristned ; " 312 

Eft sone : — 

" Ac 3yf J)ou nart, ich cristni J)e ; " 

And de]) ]>at his to donne. 315 


H Ac jet ]>er he]) cristnynges mo, 316 

Ac no man ne may dijtti ; 
For hi he)) godes grace self, 

Men of gode wil to rijti 319 

Wanne hi wolde icnstned he, 

And mo)e mid none ginne. 322 


U ))at on his cleped cristning* of hlode, (13) 323 

Wanne suche hlede)) for criste ; 
pat ofev of ])e holy gost, 

))at mo)e mid none liste 326 

Be icristned. 
And deyej) so : wanne hi hef deede, 

Ine heuene hi he]) igistned. 329 


U })Q children atte cherche dore 330 

So hep yprimisined ; 
And ])at hi hee])e eke atte fount 

Mid oylle and creyme alyned 333 

Al f aylle]) ; 
Hijt worpe]) cristnyng*, and ])at child 

])er-to hit auaille]). 336 

314. Over nart there is another nart (forn(^?) written in a later hand 
with pale ink, and after it a caret in red ink. 

315. deh, e erased after the >. 

319. MS. Men of gode (ine) wil to ri^if ine written by a later hand in 
the margin, a little above ri^i, 

322. mo^i MS. more, 

385. A later hand has added worche^ in the margin of the MS. — and peU 
child begins the following line in MS. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 2. C(mfirmati<m: its benefits* 13 

(2) [D]E confirmatione. nn margin} 


COnfermyng* his a sacrement, 337 

And o])er ))at we f ounge]) ; 
And wanne a man hit onderuange]?, 
Ine saule hit hine strange]), 340 

Wei li^tte ; 
For wanne a man yma[r]ked his, 
J)e stronger he his to fyjte. 


H And be pou siker ])at mannes lyf 

Is ri^t a kni^t-hod ine londe ; 
And so sey])e iob, pe holy man. 

N^ow mote we ])anne stonde 347 

To fijte : 
\)e feend, ))at flesch, and eke ])e wordle, 

Ageins ous be)) idijte. 350 


U pe feend wip prede acombrej) ous, (15) 351 

WiJ) wrejje, and wij enuie ; 
p&t fleisch wi]) sleu))e and glotonie, 

And eke wij) lecherie, 

Jjouw-wyse ; 
pe wordle, wiJ) here faljse scheawinge, 

Schent ous wiJ) coueytise. 


U Ac he ])at ine saule is strange, 

))at he wi)>-stent hi alle, 
And hardeliche hert o))re men, 

A-doun ])at hi ne falle, 

Ac stonde. 

the second 
the soul of 


344 Man's life is 
a warfiuneon 

nota 354 


[leaf 155] 
The fiend, the 
flesh, and the' 
world are 
against us. 

The fiend 
assails us 
with pride, 
wrath, and 
envy; the 
flesh with 
slotli, glut> 
tony, and 
lechery : 
the world, 
with her fitlse 
show, puts us 
to shame 
with covet- 

358 But confirm- 
ation enables 
us to resist 
them all, 
and to fortify 
other men, 

352 that they 

may not fkll. 

388. foungep. The author probably wrote fongep [: 8tr<mge}>], 

848. stranger, r written over o. 

346. seype, y above the line. 

847. mote, MS. wote. 

855. MS. 'poiu vjyae, 

858. U above the line. 

14 I. The Seven SacraTnents. 2. A Bishop must confirm folk. 

The matter 
of this sacra- 
meat is the 

oil miogleA 
with balm. 
smears the 
bodj of the 
not !» held 
and balmbe- 
of holy 

As a prince 
dubs a 

so a prince of 
God's host 
confirms folic. 

deaf 155, bk.] 

He most be 
a bishop. 

In honoar of 
this sacra- 
ment the con- 
firmed are 
washed over 
the font, 

So his ihert |x)]^ conferming*, 
)^t for de)^ nele iiaa3t wonde. 


^ Kou ich mot of }yis saciement 

3ou telle ]>e materie, 
))at make]? man so hardiliche 

To stonde, an^ so merie 

Ine goste, 
))at he ne may naojt jweid be 

WiJ) blanding) ne wij> boste. 

U Hit his ])e oyle and baume ymeng* 

Iblessed, and wi(le), lestne : 
For oyle smere)) ])ane champion, 
J^at me [ne] schel him festne, 

Ne presse ; 
And baume his riche and tokened looz 
Of fare holy prowesse. 


IT A prince longej? for te do (15) 

])e gode kni^tes dobbynge ; 
And so a prmce of godes ost 

Schel do ))e confermynge, 

Nonw lo^er ; 
Jjer-fore hit mot a bisschopp be, 

Nis non J>er-to y ojer. 

U J)at me wasche men ouer fe fant 
After confirmement, 












363. In the margin, after confermin^t is written in a later hand of gode. 

364. JJflrf for on erasure. Over the first e in de^ there is a half-blotted 
letter resembling a, 

368. andf MS. an; but the stroke may as well be disregarded. 

378. In the MS. there is a flourish attached to the final d of and, which 
seems to permit the reading and }e wile lestne. But the e in wUe is appar- 
ently a later addition ; see note. 

376. The MS. has — \>ab me {ne) schel {on) him {euel) festne, the words in 
parentheses being written in a later hand above the line. 

377. looz, MS. loe^. 

383. MS. Noh; the writing worwt occurs p. 6, 1. 113. 
385. y o^er, see note. 

I. The Seven Hacraments. 2. Confimuition : its Sign. 15 

. Nis naujt do bote for pat honour 
Of l^ilke sacrement 

Soe here ; 
Jjer-fore me wescht and kerf J) J>ane clout, 
And bernej) him in pe fere. 

U J5e bisschop pese wordes sep — 

And bep wordes of selpe : — 

" Ich signi pe wip eigne of croys, 

And wip pe creme of hel[p]e 

Ine pe foreheued pe crouche a set, 
Felpe of fendes to bermi. 

H Ine pe foreheued he crouchep hine, 

\)dX him ne schamie boute 
(Bote) for to bi-knowe cristes name 
Wip-oute alle manere doute ; 

And binne 
Jjorwe creymie anoynt strange he bi-compe 
His sauuement to wini^e. 

IT Ac hou his hit, per bepe so fele 

Confermed of mankenne. 
And per so feawe stondep styf 
To fytte a3enis senne 

Maligne % 
For hi ne fongep nou3t pat ping*, 
Bote pe bare signe. 

U Jje signe his of pis sacrement 
Mid creyme pe markynge ; 









(16) 407 


and the con* 
cloth is 
washed and 

The words 
spoken by 
the r - 



The sign of 
tlie cross is 
made on the 
foreliead, that 
the oonftrmed 
may not be 
asliamed to 
name; and 
the unction 
with chrism 

S'ves them 
strengtli to 
win salva- 

If so many 
are confirm- 
ed, and yet so 
few stand 
firm to fifflit 
against sin. 

it is because 
they do not 
receive the 
thing, but 
only the sign. 

The sign of 
A'XA tills sacra- 
* ^ * ment is the 

marking with 

chrism ; 

392. fere, MS. fure, 

399. hermiy h on erasure ; see note. 

400. crouchep, MS. crotUkep. 

401. MS. hiiie be aschamedf hiive altered from him; hem 9k later hand on 
erasure, as well as the a and final d in aschamed, 

402. Omission of Bote suggested by Varnhagen ; see note. 
404. Hnnet MS. m)> ginney in a later hand ; see note. 
409. styf, y on erasure. 

412. lyiTijfy e seems erased at the end. 

16 I. The 7 Sacraments. 2. Conjimuition : loss of its benefits. 

the thing is 
ttrength im- 

Deaf 156] 

which none 
can get with- 
out good fldth 
and good will. 

wlierein we 
are altogether 

Though chil< 
dren receive 
the thing, 
they lose it 
when later 
tempted by 
the fiend. 

because they 
do not stand 
^nn, but 
make each 
other fkll. 
Tet they may 
stand again, 
when they 
lead a better 
life, and give 
up to devo- 

Then God at 
onoe makes 
them strong, 

Ac ping ])at ])er bi-tokned his, 
Streng]>e his ]>at god schel bringg* 

Amonge ; 

WijH)ute god fey and god wil 
Mey non ]>is ping foenge. 

H Ac nou ]>at wil p&t is to gode 

His al iset bi-hinde ; 
And fi bileaue of ihc.6ii crist 
His nou al weuerinde : 

per-iore ne habbe]) nau^t ]>at ])ing, 
Bote ])e bare signe. 

U Ac ]>are children take pat ping 

In hare childhod so p(o)are, 
Hit lese]) wanne hi come]) to wit 
J)our3 hare misauenture 

Of senne : 
Anon pe foend fonde]) hy so, 
And he ne spare]) nenne. 

U p&i de]) ])at hi nastonde]) nou^t, 

Ac ech o])ren aschrenche]) ; 
Ac )et, hy mowe jet stonde bet, 
Wanne hi ham bet bi-))enche]) 

To leue. 
And do ham to deuocioun, 
}ef god ham streng])e jiue. 

U And |)anne gode, ])at his so god, 
Anon hi stronge make]). 









(16) 435 




420. MS. ounder foengCf auder written in a later hand above the line. 
The original reading may possibly have been auonge, 

426. nau^ begins next line in MS. The adopted reading proposed by 

428. pare, read )»a), or )m^ jxU 1 

430. HUf MS. hy Hit, hy written in the margin by a later hand. 

434. nenne, MS. fianne. 

437. ^, MS. flf; see note. For Ac we ought probably to write And, 

438. bi-penchep, MS. hi penkep, 
441. ^ue, MS. ^iue. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 2. A Thing and a Sign in alL 17 

As hi habbe]) deuocioun, 

And hie godf fey takej^^ 

Eeuersed ; 
And al his Ipo^ \Q,i sacrement, 

J^ei^e hit ne be nau^t reheised. 

H For waTine me take)) fis sacrement. 

His soule prente take]) ; 
And ])at hi nefermo for-lest, 
Kaujt hi ])at god for-sakej), 

Ac healde]) 
Ine stat ))at sacrement ine man, 
Wanne he ine gode byaldejj. 

H And as Jjys ylke sacrement 

He)) ))yng* and toke hijs signe. 
So habbe]> ])e o))ere sacremei2S 
Syx3c pat bepe so digne : 

Her signe, droppinge in ))e water, 
And J)yng« hijs for-3euynge. 

H J)ys ylke sygne, and eke pys J)yng^, 

In oure child-hode we hyt toke ; 
Ac after-ward we lore pat pyng*, 
]X> we to scnne toke 

By wylle. 
Amend[e] we, pe prente lefp 
Ine oure saule wel stille. 

H Hym seine no man hebbe schel 
To pe bischoppynge ; 

according as 
they have 
445 devotion and 
tnie faith; 

and all is 
through this 
448 Bacrameut. 







(18) 463 




For, when a 
man receives 
this sacra- 
ment, his soul 
receives an 
indeUble cha- 
racter, that 
preserves the 
efficacy of the 
sacrament in 

Deaf 156, bkj 

when he 
grows strong 
m virtue. 

And as in this 
sacrament, so 
in tlie others, 
is a thing 
and a sign. 

This sign, 
and also this 
thing we toolc 
in our child- 
hood; but we 
lost the thing 
by sinning 

No man shall 
present him- 
self for con- 
firmation : 

449. m«, MS. we, 

453. MS. o/c hine healdep, kine in a later hand above the line, ae seems 
originally to have been )>a^, the initial ]> and part of tlie cross-stroke of the 
final t having been erased. See note. 

455. Tie, MS. ^e. 

467. ffe^, MS. Her.— toke, read e^? 

461. Her, read Hep ? — droppinge, read depinge % 

462. foT'^euyn^e, MS. for-^emynge, 
464. hyt, MS. ^yt. 


18 I. The Seven Sacraments. 3. The Sacrament of the Altar. 

in token of 
his spiritnal 
Hnother shall 
present him. 

Parents are 
not to present 
their own 

or they will 
contract spi- 
ritual affinity. 

Three of the 
seven sacra- 
ments convey 
an indelible 
and Ordina- 

[leaf 157] 
That is, be- 
cause tliey 
are received 
once only. 

It fklls now 
to spealc of 
the Eucha- 

Happy, in- 
deed, were 
those who 
could see 

Ino tokne of feblesce of hijs goste 
An ofer schel liim brynge 

And lefte, 

Ase he ne mi3te nau^t hym self 
To confermynge crefte. 

U Ac her ich segge aperteliche, 
t)ys men and eke fis wyues, 
J5at hi ne hebbe hare o^e child 
By hare quicke lyues, 

And rede ; 
For jef hy dofe, man and hys wyf 
Jjer drawep god-sibrede. 

U Of seue sacremens pre 

Prente ine herte make]) ; 
J5at bej) cristnyng*, and confermynge, 
And ordre ))at men take}? 

Wei blipc ; 
J3at hijs, for no man hy ne take)) 
Bote onelepy syfe. 









(3) [D]E Sacramento Altaris. :inmar0in:\ 


Ou hy^t by-ualj) to telle 30U — 
And so ich mo^t wel nede — 
Of godes flesch and eke hys blode 
At cherche ine forme of brede 

And wyiie ; 
J3at freuerej) ous in onre exil, 
And lypej) oure pyne. 

U H^e blife my3ten hy be 
J5at folwede cryst in londe, 

(19) 491 




472. feblesce, MS. fehUstc. 

489. MS. ]>at {hy) hijs {ne take) for tw 'man hy ne takep, hy ne takep 
having been crossed out, and the words in parentheses added by a later 
hand over the line. 

496. ]>atf t above the line. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 3. Christ at the LaM Supper, 19 

t)at my3te hyne eche day yse, 

Hijs swete lone to fonde 501 

Ine ke))])e ! 
So mowe we be, for ous nep he 

Hy-faylled neuer sepfe. 


U For po hijs tyme was ycorae 505 

Ko leng* to dwelle here, 
pat weto brede and honde he toke, 

J)er he set atte sopere, 508 

And seyde : 
" Takep and etep, pys hijs my body " ; 

Of sope he ham aueyde. 511 


H For-wy hyjt moste nedes be 512 

Al sope pat he sede ; 
\)sit alle pyng* his ase he seip 

J3y resoun wole pe rede. 515 

Lo dede : 
He seyde to al pe worlde, " be," 

And al was ase he sede. 518 


U N'ammore maystrye ny« hijt to hym (20) 519 

To be ine bredes lyche, 
))ane hym was ine pe liche of man. 

To kepen ous hijs ryche ; 522 

))et makep 
J)at hy bep alle mis-by-leued 

]?at oper prof for-sakep. 


H pe fend hym-self him maky mey 526 

Wei dyuerse liknynges. 

each day in 
the flesh ; 

so may we be, 
for He has 
504 never failed 

At the LsRt 
Supper He 
took braid. 

and said: 

*' Take, and 
eat, this is 
My body." 

And what He 
said must 
needs be true : 

He said to 
tlie world— 
"be I ".and 
all was as 
He said. 

It is as easy 
for Him to be 
in the like* 
ness of bread 
as it was in 
the likeness 
of man. 

525 [leaf 157, bk.] 

The fiend 
himseli' may 
assume divers 

502. ke\>]>e altered from ke}>e^ 

503. nep, MS. ner^ 

504. Hy-faylled = yfaylled, 
507. and haiide =: an Jumde, 

513. 8gpe, with indistinct e ; read s0\>e ? or sepe pat = sinoe ? 

515. py, MS. pys^ the » h^ing written over the line in a later hand. 

616. Lo, distinctly so in MS. {Wr. To). 

20 I. The Seven SacramerUs. 3. Christ at the Lust Sujyper. 

to do us 

much more 
may Gtod for 
our good. 

When the 
bread was 
chaiif^ed into 
His body* He 
took the cup, 

and said to 
the twelve : 

" Take, and 
drink ye all 
of this cha- 

This is the 
chalice of My 
blood, of the 
new testa- 

And: "Do ye 
thus, and 
when ye do it, 
do it in re- 
of Me." 

When He 
said ; ** Do ye 

He ^ve them 
power to do 
It, and to 
transmit that 
power to such 
as are wor- 
thy; though 
He did not 
even except 
Judas, the 
worst man on 

Of best, of men, and of wymmew, nota 

And mani o]»er ])ynges, 529 

To nusy : 

Wei bet may godi to oure prou 

Dyuerse formes vsy. 532 


H J)o J)at pe bred ytoumed was 533 

In to hys body selue, 
He toke fe coppe wif fe wyne and water, 

And seide eft to }>e twelue nota 536 

Yuere : 
" Takep and drynkef euerech on 

Of fis chalice here. 539 

(78) ■ 
51 J)ys hys fe chalis of my blode, 540 

Of testament newe, 
J)at schal be schad? for manye men " ; 

And — ase we sey^ep gode and trewe nota 543 

And kende — 
" And doj) ^e fos, wawne ^e hyt dofe, 
Do J) hyt in mine mende." 


H po j)at he sede : *' doJ> 30 J>os," 
Jje hey^e kyng< of heuene, 

He ^af ham power to don hyt, 
And forj) power to ^euene 

Wei werfe, 

J}a3 he ne toke iudas out, 
J}e worste man on erfe. 


(21) 547 



534. seltcCf MS. sylue» 

635. Kolbing omits ]>e before toyne. I rather suspect that the words and 
^ivcUer are a later addition. See note. 

540. "pe chalis (Kolbing), MS. my chaZis, Kolbing also proposes to read 
in (for of) my blode, with reference to Luke xxii. 20. 

541. newCy MS. nywe, 
543-545. See note. 

546. mine, MS. ^oicre. ^our is written in a later liand on erasure, only 
the final e is original. Another youre, written with pencil, is faintly 
discernible in the margin to the left. 

550. forp, J> in A different hand. 

552. pa^, MS. pat. 

I. The 7 Sacraments, 3. ChHst*8 change in the Eucharist. 21 

H And nou J)at power hys y^iue 

Fram bysschoppe to preste, 
And 80 schel al so longe be, 
Ase cristyndom schel leste ; 

Se))J)e crist four ous an orfe come, 
He nolde ous nau^t for-lete. 

H J)a3 he w^re inne hys niawhodo 

Amanges ous to liotie, 
Jet nere he nau^t ^anne ous so ne^^ 
Ase nou we mowe hym nolye 

In vode : 
We honorie^ hyne al ihoUiche 
Ine flesch and eke ine blode. 

H Wat may amoui^ti J>at he wyle 

So by-come oure fode 1 
Chaunge]) he aujt, ase o^re mete^ 
In-to oure flesch and blode 

By kendel 
Nay, ac he chaunge]) ous in hym, 
To maky ous gode and hende. 

H And ase gode ))er his hole mete,, 

And sike hyt by-swikej), 
So his ])e mete dampnacion 
To hem ])at senne like]) 

To holde ; 
So he hyt tok and his lore, 
ludas, ])at ihesus solde. 










(32) 575 


And now that 
power is 
from bishop 
to priest, 

and shall be 
so long as 
shall lost. 

[leaf 158] 

Christ will 
never forsake 

Though He 
were to move 
among us as 
a man, He 
would not be 
so near us as 
He is now we 
enjoy Him in 
the Eucha- 

Having so 
become our 
food, does He 
change, like 
otlier food, 

into our flesh 
and blood P 

No, He 

changes us 
into Himself. 

And as other 
food is whole- 
some to the 
sound, but 
noxious to the 
sick, so is this 
food damna- 
tion to those 
tliat cleave to 

So Judas the 
traitor took 
581 it, and is lost. 

554. nou and hys on erasure, the former very indistinct. 

559. Se^^^t >)) on erasure. 

561. jxi^ 5 altered from some other letter, probably L 

565. vodCi MS. gocUt g altered from original v. 

567. btodCy a letter (probably u) erased between o and d. 

570. av^f MS. nau^t, n over a in a later hand. — inetc^ MS. mote, 

575. MS. hole meni rnete, inen written above the line in a later hand. 
The original reading of the MS. seems to have been holeitf and in 1. 576 
siken ; the final n is erased, but some faint traces of it are still discernible 
in sike. For a possible emendation of the corrupt passage see note. 

579, 581. holde [: soldel = Kt. healde [: sealde]. 

22 I. The 7 SacramefUs. 3. Sinners not to take the Eiccharist. 

the eommii- 
nlon must be 
deadly Bins. 

Even John 
the BapiUt 
when he 
Christ in the 

[leaf 158, bk.] 

so we must 
reoelve Him 
with diffi- 

Letliim who 
feels himself 
unworthy of 
Christ's body, 

for he that 
takes it mi- 
nation onto 

Some may 
say :— How 
sliall we thus 
keep away 
from the 
Lord's sup- 
perP when 
God tells 

** Whoso eat- 
eth My flesh 
and drinketh 
My blood 
hath eternal 

Though we 
do not take 
it sacrament- 



H J)er-fore ich segge a godes half 582 

To alle enstyne folke 
paiy wanne hy scholle yhooseled be, 

pai hy ne be a-bolke 585 

In prede ; 
Let ouwde and wrej>e and coueytyng*, 
Sleu])e and lestes on-lede. 

H Nys none of wymman beter ibore 

To seint lohan pe baptyste ; 
And jet he quakede wel ar; 

po he touchede crist 592 

Ine fe flomme : 
))anne aujte we wel aryjt to be 
To fange hym on-tromme. 

H per-fore, jef ^at je frede)» jou 

pai )e ne be nau^t digne 
For te be housledf wyj» Jjya body 

Ine ])i88re holy signe, 599 

WyJ>-drawe^ ; 
For, wo )»t hy^t take]) ondygneliche, 

Hys iugement he gna^e)). 602 

IT May somman segge : — hou schal me so (23) 603 

Fram J)er houslyng* dwelle 1 
Wanne god self aperteliche 

SeiJ> ous in fe gospelle — 606 

Wel monde : — 
" Who fat ete)> my flesch and drynke}> my blod 
He)) lyf wiJ)-oute ende." 609 

H J)a^ J)ou [ne] take hyjt wy}) j)e mou))e, 610 

Xe myd tej) J)er-on ne werche, 



594. au^e, ^ above the line. 

697. 5«, MS. he. — d in digne on erasure, apparently altered from s. 

599. pissi'ef MS. }fis\>re. 

607. MS. iVel to mende^ to above the line in a later hand. 

610. pa^f MS. }>at. 

I. The 7 SacrameTits. 3. Christ &folk, one mystical body. 23 





povL takest hyt, man, ^ef ))at ])ou art 

A lyme of holy cherche, 613 

To blysse, 
Wanne eny prest his messe syngef : 

Ilief hyt myd y wysse. 

51 For on hys godes flesch to nemme 

Ase mou])e fe mete take]), 
An-o))er ase pe mete y^ete nota 

In-to ]>e membres take]) ; 620 

Ac here, 
Crist hys ])at heued, ))e prest ]>e mou])e, 
J>e lymes fat folke i-vere. 

U And ase J)e bred to-gadere comfe 

Of menye greynys to bake, 
And ase J)e wyne to-gadere llouJ)e nota 

Of manye grapes ytake, 627 

Cryst and hijs membrys, men, 

O body bej)e ine mystyke. 630 

H Wet hys mystyke ne mey now wete (24) 631 

Be no J)ynge a-founde. 
Bote wanne fer hys o ])yng< yked, 

An o])er to onder-stonde 634 

Jjer-inne ; 
Hy ])at arede]) ])yse redeles 
Werche]) by filke gynne. 

U So wane fat body hym hys ked 638 

Of swete ihe^ cryst[e]. 
Me may wel onder-stonde J)er 

By J)ulke selue lyste 641 

An o])er : 

we may re- 
ceive it spi- 
ritually, as 
members of 
Holy Church, 

whenever a 
priest says 

For one is 
to take God's 
flesh as one's 
mouth takes 
food; an- 
other, as the 
food when 
eaten is trans- 
mitted to the 
Uere, Christ 
is the head, 
the priest the 
mouth, the 

{)eopIe are the 

And as bread 
is composed 
of many 

and wine is 
pressed Irom 
many grapes. 

[leaf 159] 
so Christ and 
His members, 
men, are one 

A mystical 
thing is one 
tliat involves 

637 like a riddle; 

as the notion 
of the body 
of Christ in- 
volves also 

623. i-vere, i? in a later hand. 
627. grapes, MS. greyns, 

631. wcte on erasure. After iio there is a half-blotted letter resembling h. 

632. afounde = afonde, OE. d/ondiaii, 
637. "pilke altered from ]>ick;e. 

24 I. The Seven Sacraments, 3. The Signs of the Eucharist. 

that of the 
union of 
Christ and all 
holy men. 

Then shoald 
they who re* 
united in love. 

The si^ of 
the sacra- 
ment is the 
tiie thing is 
Christ's body, 
and the body 
of the quick 
and the dead. 

As the limbs 
of the mate- 
rial body have 
divers ninc- 
tions, so have 
the members 

the hands are 
men that do 


well, the feet 
those that 
others well. 

All teke the 
true body at 
the Commu- 

but some to 
profit, some 
to perdition. 

Cryst and eke alle holy men 
O body, niy leue brofer. 

51 )^r-fore god he|) ^is sacrement 

Ymad of suiche ]>ynges 
\>dX my^te of manye mak* on, 
As cryst and hys derlynges 

Imonge ; 
penne scholde hy at one be 
In loue ])at scholde hyt fonge. 

U Nou onderstand : ])e signe her, 

Foorme hys of wyne and brede j 
Doble hys J>at f yng*, ryjt cristes body, 
And body of quike and dede. 

Ac broJ)er, 
Jet ryjte body f s^ hyt be ))yng*, 
Hyjt hys signe of \dX o))er. 

U Vor ase J»e ry^te bodyes lemes 

Habbe]) dyuerse wyke, 
So habbe]) ry^t membrys eke 
Of fe body ine mystyke : 

))at welde]) 
Hys honden, men be]) ))at wel do]), 
|)e fet, fat wel op-helde]). 

H Alle take]) J)at ryjt body 

J^yse men at hare houslyng^, 
Ac some to prou, and some to lere, 
Ine wyl of sene3ynge 

To derye ; 
Ac one gode aryjt hyt nome]), 
|?at body me hys mysterye. 








(25) 659 






644. MS. he^ hody^ hep written in the margin in a later hand. 

645. gcd, MS. gtiod, u over o. — A€)>, MS. bep. 
654. Doble MS. (Wr. Noble). 

657. Read — ^ Vyng^ ry^b body foj hyt be ? See note. 

664. Colon after hmdefii in MS. 

1. 7%e 7 Sacraments, 3. The Fucharist, Chat's Fksih & Blood. 25 

U Ac ^a^ we be tokned ])er 

Ine oure sauueoure, 
Ne lef J)OU nau^t J)e[t] we be fer, 
Ne forfe naujt of oure 

Jjaf were ; 
])a3 ])er be tokned J^ynges two, 
))er nys bote o fyng fere ; 

U And ))at hys swete iheau cryst 

Ine flesche and eke ine blonde, 
])at ])olede pyne and passyoun, 
And dia]) opone ))e roude, 

"Wei soure ; 
Ke lef non o)»er, crysteman, 
For safour ne coloore. 

U For |>at colour, ne J)at sauour, 
Ne bej) naujt ))er inne cryste, 
))£^ he ])er-inne schewe hym 
By hys myjte-foUe lyste, 

So coufe ; 
Ke myjte elles bet be seje, 
Ne beter yured inne mou]>e. 

H For jef he schewed hym in flesch, 

Oj)er ine blody J)ynge„ 
Hydous hyjt were to j)e syjte, 
And to ))e tast wlatynge 

And pyne 
])anne hys hyt betere in fourme of brede, 
And eke in forme of wyne. 

U For bred strerage]) J)e herte of man, 
And wyn hys herte glede]) ; 




(26) 687 






Though we 
are betokened 
in the myifti- 
cal body of 
our Saviour, 

there is bat 
one thing in 

680 and that U 
Jesus Clirist 
in flesli and 


believe none 
other, because 
686 of savour or 

For they are 
no essentials 
of Christ's 
body, though 
He shows 
Himself in 
form of bread 
and wine. 

to be better 
^«^ seen, and 
693 better tasted. 

For if He 
showed Him- 
self in mate- 
rial desh or 
blood, it 
would be 
hideous to 
the sight, 
and loath- 
some to the 
[leaf 160] 

the heart of 
man, and 
wine glad- 
dens it; 

683. opone, MS. opene, 

692. my^ = myyU he, 

693. yured. Over the u there is in the MS. a faint sign, which might 
be read as ^. 

694. ^fy / in a later hand on erasure. 
697. tast, MS. cast. 

26 I. The Seven Saa'amerUs. 3. The Eicchai'ist. Christ is one. 

and strength 
belongs to the 
body, and 
bliss feeds the 

That is wliy 
consists of 
bread and 

Christ has 
bought our 
liody. He lets 
His body sink 
into oars ; 
and bemuse 
He has 
bought our 
soul in blood, 
He lets us 
drink His 

Christ is not 
though He 
shows Him- 
self in two 
His body 
can never be 
thouglit to 
be without 

He is entire 

If aught 
break to 
pieces in tlie 
mouth or tlie 
hands, it is 
not He that 
is broken, 

no more than 
the image it- 
self is broken 
when a 
mirror is 

And 8trengJ>e longe)) J>e body, 

And blice J)e saule vedej) : 704 

And nede 
J)er-fore hys double sacrement, 

Of wyne, and eke of brede. 707 

H For he ybout he)) oure body, 708 

In-to 08 he let hys sinke ; 
And uor J>e saule ine J>e blod, 

Hys blod he let os drynke. 711 

Nou woste 
Wy J>er hys double sacrement : 

For note of body and goste. 714 

U Ac wen nau^t ))at cryst be to-schift, (27) 715 

Jjaj he schewej) ine boj)e ; 
To wene hys body wyJ>-oute blod, 

By J)a weye ne gofe 718 

To J»ryf te ; 
For fer he hys, he hys al yhol, 

Ne mey me hym to-schifte. 721 

U pe) ])er te-breke ^t ine ])e mou)), 722 

Oj>er ine J>yne honden, 
Hy t nas naujt he ^at hys to-broke ; 

Ensample ])ou myjt fonden : 725 

A[l j)y] myrour f ou myjt fol wel, 

Bote naujt ))e ymage schifte. 728 

703. loiigejf ]>e body, read l(ynge^ to )>. 6. ? 

704. vede}^ or sedep^ with a round s, is the reading of the MS., certainly 
wot fcde^ as printed by Wright. 

708. yhoiU, h altered from some other letter; after it a faint stroke, 
which cannot, however, be read as r. 

712, 714. The final e's in woate and goste very indistinct. 

720. A dot is put in MS. after the first hys. 

721. 7«<j, MS. ine. 

727. After A three letters erased, but traces of them are still visible ; 
the first letter was probably /, the last certainly y. By the side of ^, in 
the margin of the line, is written in^ and in the mai'gin of the following line 
]>2 selue sCf all in a later hand and in smaller characters. See note. 

728. schifte, MS. schefte. 

I. The 7 Sacraine^Us. 3. TJie Eucharist. A sinful pried. 27 


(28) 743 

U By fyse ensample fou inyjt yse 729 

He hys ine ech autere 
Y-hol ; ])e prest hys messe syngej), 

pe^ he ne be nau^t yhere, 732 

Ac wykke, 
Ase )>er be]) folea suiche fele, 

Ysawe al to ])ykke. 735 

H Ac ])£^ ]>e prest hys messe do 736 

Inne dedleche senne corse, 
pet sacrement, man, be |k>u syker, 
For hym nys na ]>e worse ; 739 

For loke, 
pe sacrement nys na ^e won, 
pof f&t ludas hyt toke. 

U Ac )?£^ hyt be neuer ]>e wors, 

Jpat sacrement an honde, 
pe bone ])at swych prest J^er by^t 
No stel ne schel hym stonde, 746 

Ac derye ; 
For he despyse^ ihesn cryst, 

Wanne he hym scholde herye. 749 

U Ac jyf fou wylt tak hyt to prou 750 

For ye and ]>yne freende, 
By^t repentaunt and ry^t deuout 

Take hys deaj) in J)y meende ; 753 

Naut ly3t[e] : 
pe more |k>u |)enkest so on hys dea]), 

pe more hys j)y meryte. 756 

H Manne, wanne J>yt takest, ase oJ)or mete 757 
In-to pj wombe hyjt sedlyj) ; 

730. MS. et^tUere. 

731. The MS. has a colon after V-hol. 
734. suiche, u altered to win 9, later hand. 
739. Tui >g, MS. iiase. 

745. hy^ = hyL 750. tak hyt for take hyt. 

754. lyyi{e\ = lyte, 757. yyt = )>e (for jxw) hyt. 

He is present 
on every 

[leaf 160, bk.] 

Though the 
priest be in 
deadly sin, 

tlie sacm- 
ment in none 
tlie worse 
for it. 

as it was 
none the 
wone though 
Judas took It. 

But tlie 
pravers that 
such a priest 
offers will 
stand him in 
no stead, 

because he 
Jesus Clirist. 

He who de- 
sires to re- 
ceive the 
Eucharist to 
his benefit, 
must call 
Christ's death 
to his mind. 

The Eucha- 
rist when 
received is 
taken into 
the stomach 
like other 

28 I. The 7 Sacraments, 3. The Eucharist effective, tJu/ vomited. 

not to be dU 

bat to com- 
fort body and 

in the very 
act of reoelvo 

[leaf 161] 

Though a 
flick nuui cast 
it up, if he 
has true be- 
lief, it re- 
mains in him 
to worlc out 
Ids salvation ; 

for God is om- 

He suffers 
well to be 
cast up, and 
yet to be 

As He, in the 
flesh, put 
men's belief 
in Him to the 
test, so He 
does in the 
form of bread. 


Ac ne defi]) naujt, ase ^y mete 

WyJ> fyne flescfe medly)>, 760 

Ac keuerej) 
Al ofer wyse, and so py body 

And J>y saule hy^t freueref. 763 

H Nabyd hy^t naujt, ase oJ>er mete, 764 

Hys tyme of defyynge, 
And ry^t anon hy^t freuerej) 
In )»are oundervanginge ; 

Of syke men, fa^ hy hyt keste op, 
Ne help]) hyt naujt pe lesse. 


H For yf J>e syke man hys gode 

In J>e leue of holy cherche, 
pe^ he hy3t cast op, hyt bylef^ 

Sauuacion to werche 

Kyjt peie ; 
For al at ones he mey be 

pet and elles-were. 777 

U He sofirej) wel to be kest op, 778 

And ^et to be honoured ; 
Ac he soffre)) (no^t) to be to-trede, 

And of bestes deuoured : 781 

And neade, 
Ase he by-leue assay}) in flesch, 

He assay)) ine forme of brede. 784 


H J}at body hy^t nys (na}t) fat j)er comfe op, 785 
3ef |)at a man hy3t keste ; 


(29) 771 


767. ounderv. or onnderv.t but the Tt-stroke seems to be erased. 

770. lesse, MS. ktsse, 

776. MS. he mey be god, god above the line in a later hand, evidently 
meant to gloss he, to which it is referred by the mark //. 

780. (no^) above the line in a later hand. See note. 

785. (na^) above the line in a later hand. — 7iys, n on erasure, probably 
altered from original A. See note. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 3. The Euchai^ic Elements, 29 

For al 80 longe hyt hys ])at body, 
Ase forme of brede schel leste ; 

Ine manne, 

)et )ȣ^ ]>e fourme of brede to-go, 
J)at body by-lef J) jet fanne. 

IT And jyf he passe)) naujt fram ous, 

Wanne wey aryjtt hym healdef, 
Wat ned hys for to take hym efte, 
J)er wylehe ous so wealde])1 

For mendo 
Of hys de))e and hys passyon, 
Ase he het atte hys ende. 


U Of pure wete hyt mot be, 

And eke of pure wyne, 
])et schel be to ])ys sacrement 

Ryjt of J)e grape of wyne 

I-lete ; 
For iesus seyj) J>e vygne he hys, 

And eke j)o greyn of wete, 

H And jef mannes deuocioun slake)>, 

Wanne he by-healdef — 
For hyt )>ink]) bote ofer bred 
An heaj fat fe prest healdej) — 

By-J)enche hym 
Of fe uertue fat fer hys, 

pat non errour adrenche hym ; 

II And tak en-saumple of fat he kneuf, 

))e preciouse stone : 
Jjaj he lygge amang* ofere ylyche, 
Me honouref hym alone ; 

So swete 






(30) 799 








substanoe of 
bread laato, 
it is the 
true body of 
Yet, tliooffh 
the bread oe 
resolved, thut 
body remahis 

Then, wliat 
need is there 
to receive 
Him repeat* 
ediy? In 
of His death 
and His pas- 
sion, as He 

The elements 
required for 
the sacra* 
inent are pure 
bread and 
pure wine. 

Deaf 161, bk.] 

If man's devo- 
tion slackens 
when he sees 
that what the 
priest ele- 
vates seems 
but ordinary 

let him be* 
tlihik himself 
of the virtue 
that is hi it; 

and remem- 
ber that the 
stone, though 
it lie among 
others like 
it, is alone 

791. yUi Wr. Tv^et, but the h is nuderdotted in MS. 

793. wey = we ; three letters erased between ary^ and hAprh, 

794. WaJt^ MS. ]>a^ ; the e in ned looks very much like o, 

798. heti MS. lu^ hU ; ]> in he^ on erasure, hit above the line in a later 

812. Some letter {n ?) erased before the initial a in adrenche. 

30 I. Th4^ Seven SctcQuments. 3. The Eucharist. 4. Penance. 

Whatever In- 
jury the con- 
may fuffer, 
it does not 
affect Jesoa: 

to long as the 
subfitance of 
bread lasts, 
every particle 

and It Is His 
blood as long 
as the form of 
wine lasts : 
not of vine- 
gar, nor water 
with a sprink- 
ling of wine: 

so little water 
shoald be 
admixt tlint 
the wine maiy 

For water 
itself is not 
Ood's blood, 
but signifies 
the people 
united with 
Christ in tlie 

Mid al fy wyl fer uertue hys, 
Grod self ine sacrement (ymete). 

U Na more ne greuej) hyt ihesus 

))ane sonne itrede in fel))e ; 
\^ eny best deuoured hyt, 
Ofer eny ofer onselfe, 

£ch screade 
3et al so longe hys godes body, 
Ase lest ])e fourme of breade. 

H And al so longe hyt hys blod, 

Ase lest J)e forme of wyne ; 
Nau3t of fynegre kende chald, 
Ne offe water droppyng* of wjme, 

Ac trye : 
So lyte water schel be me[w]gd, 
Jjat wyne habbe J)e maystrye. 

U For water self nys naujt J)at blod, 

Ac hyt hys an-ylyke 
To )»e folke ])at tome]) al to cryst 
Ine j)e body of mystyke. 

Nou, brofer, 
I-lef al f ys ine gode fey, 
For may no fyng* be so])er. 





(31) 827 






Cleaf leH] 

The sacra- 
ment of pen- 
ance, to be 
received for 
sins com- 
mitted lifter 

(4) [D]E penitencia. 

WAne man after hys crystendom 
He}) au3t ido wyf wronge, 
Penaunce hyt hys, a sacrement 
J}at men scholde fonge, 

And mote. 



819. Tlie MS. has a dot after sacrciiieiU; ymcte is a later addition. 
See note. 

830. ^IS. wfUerdroppymg or -droppying. 

836. To \>e folke, MS. live folke. 

841. Wancy MS. Aney with what seems to be a small innic w before it, 
intended for the rubricator. 

844. incn scholde, MS. scholde men, with the mark // before and after 

I. Th^e 7 Sacraments, 4. Penance: its 3 Parts. 1. Repentance. 31 

Penaunce he]) maneres j^re, 

J)oi^ sorje, schryfte, and edbote. 


H Jjy sorwe for fyne senne, man, 

Mot be ine gode wylle, 
J3at hy ne be naujt ine wanhope, 

pat made ludas to spylle j 

Ac crye 
Mercy to swete iheau cryst, 

Mid wyl to lete folye. 

H And jet fy wylle mot be so gret, 

And ine so gode faye, 
))at ])ou wenst ])ou noldest seneji eft, 
Jjer-fore fej J)ou scholdest deye 

Ine wytte ; 
For jef J)ou woldest for deaj) hyt do, 
J3y soi^e hys al to lyte. 

51 Jjej sorje hele man a-non 
Of velj) of sennes slyme, 
Jet ])anne were hyt naujt inouj 
J)e for [t]e sorwy on tyme, 

Ac euere, 
Ase longe ase, man, fy lyf ylest, 
Elles senne may keuere, 

H For so, man, senne greuej) in fe, 

And eke in alle |7yne, 
Ase wed schel growen ouer J>e corn, 
WyJ>-oute medicyne 

Of sorje. 
Nou her-on fenche, man, day and nyjt, 
An euen and a morwe. 



has three 
parts: re- 
shrift, and 

True repent- 
ance must be 
made with 
ffood purpose. 
The sinner 
shall not foil 
g51 Into despair. 

but cry mercy 
to Jesus 


(32) 855 


His purpose 
must be so 
stronfc that 
he thinks he 
would not sin 
afpiin though 
he should die 
for it. 



865 A life-long 
repentance is 


or expinte<1 
fin will re- 

860 For sin grows 
in man, 
as weeds over- 
grow com. 


[leaf 164, bk.J 


865. for te = for to. 

869. greuej, grows; cp. huu\>^ p. 29, 1. 813; fleu^, p. 97, 1. 343. It is 
difficult to decide whether the MS. has greii^^ or groue}^^ and in 1. 871 
greujen or growen, 

871. Ase, MS. ]>at. 

32 I. The 7 Sacraments. 4. Fe7iance : its 2nd part, Shrift. 

Let him think 
that througU 
sin he has 
lost the blisB 
of heaven, 
offended God, 

and deserved 
the torments 
of hell'fire; 

and let him 
also recall the 
hideous sight 
of dead men 
on the lAer, 
who would 
never have 
been dead but 
for the sin of 

With such 
let him 

wliich none 
can do pro- 

Serlv unless 
e thinks of 
the sins he 
has commit- 
ted, searching 
througli his 
whole life. 


U pench, J>oui^ J>y senne pou best ilore 

J)y blys of heuene ryche. 
And best iwre])ed ))ane kyng* 

pat non hys yliche ; 

And here 
))ou best of-serued dygnelyche 

Jje pyne of belle vere. 


U Dra) into mende pet bydous sijt 

Of deade men a bere^ 
pat nadde neuer deade ibe, 

)ef senne of adam nere ; 

Bye drytte, 
)et ))ou attest babbe more bydour 

Of fyne ojene vn-ry3te. 


H Myd sucber sorje scbryfte, man, 
Wei stylle, and no pyng loude ; 

For repentaunce onde]) pe bel, 
And scbreft byt mot out-croud e 

Al dene : 

For ^ef a3t lefj) J)at croude my3t, ^ 
God so J)ou schelt ywenne. 


U Ne non ne may bym scbryue ary^t, 

Bote 3ef be bym by-fojte 
Of sennes ])at be be]) ydo^ 

And bys lyf al f orj-so^te 

To kenne ; 




(33) 883 








877. >2/, read ]xj ? 

878. hest, MS. ?ie]f, 

879. Read — jxU non hys hys (or hym) yliche ? 

883. hydous, the final s altered from some other letter, probably r, — si^t 
added by a later hand. 887. drytte^ MS. drytte^, 

890. schryfte = schryf "pe. 

893, 895. croude, suggested by Stratmann ; MS. treude. 

896. MS. guod (or goud), w written over o; in the margin uo in. a 
later hand. 

899. heh MS. he]>. 

I. The Seven SacranuoUs, 4. ii. Confession, to he frequent, 33 







Ac manie desper to ])e prest 
Al one by seje of senne. 

IF And vnderstand ))at al ihol 
Mot be j)y schryfte, broker ; 
Na^t ])ar-of a kantel to a prest, 
And a kantel to an-o))er ; 

And ])a7me 
Tele, jef J>ou myjt by-j)enche J>e, 
Wet, hou, and wer. And wanne. 

IF And jef fou wylt, man, foi^ fy schryft (34) 911 

Laf J)y senne al a-drouje, 
Xe wynd ])ou naut ])y senne ine selke, 
Ac telle out al ])at rou^e 

Tys la^e ; 
Jef J)ou wenst deie, and nast no prest, 
Schryf j)e to ano])er felawe. 

IF Ac fat ne schalt f ou neuere do, 

Bote fe wantrokye of lyue ; 

And 3ef J)ou comste to lyue a^en. 

Eft frof j)ou most j)e scryue 

To preste, 
J}at he}) power to assoyly J>e, 
Jjoi^ power of |)e greste. 

IF ))a) man on tyme ihealde be 

To schryue hym a jere, 
To schryue hym wanne he sene^ed hef, 
Wei syker fyng* hyt were, 928 

And mete, 
Wald ^ef he sodeynlyche deif, nota [toter] 

One mast 
confess all 
sins to one 

[leaf 168] 
and tell when 
and where 
they wer» 



Don't wind 
thy sin in 
silk, but tell 
the rough of 

In peril of 
death, you 
may confess 
to a layman; 


but must 
repeat it to 
a priest if you 



You should 
shrive as often 
as you've 

lest you die 
suddenly, or 

And wald he hyt for-^ete. 

QQ1 forget your 


902. nuinie, t-stroke wanting in MS. — desper (Wr. dosper\ the first e 
looking very much Hke o, 

903. MS. Al hou (underdotted) one. See note. 
910. Dots in MS. after Wet, hou, and wer, 

914. Ac, MS. At, 915. Tys = To hrjs, 

916. deie, the initial d not quite distinct, resembling s, 
925. )>a3, MS. 303. 928. syker, read sykerer 1 


34 I. The Seven Sacraments. 4. ii. Confession with Humility. 

Unshriven sin 
is doubled. 

Don't shrink 
from confes- 
sion for 
shame : 

a little shame 
here is better 
than much of 

[leaf 168, bk.] 

it on Dooms- 

A man may 
be saved 
througti re- 
alone, if he 
has no chance 
of shriving. 

Shrift should 
be made 

with a lowly 
heart and 
weeping eyes. 

U For wanne man sodeynleche deif, 932 

Hys j)03t fe sor3e troublef ; 
And senne ony-schryue wanne he uor-^et, 

Hys senne J)er-be double]) 935 

To nusy ; 
For mytter senne j)at he dede 

Jje sleu])e hine wyle acusy. 938 

II Man, fichryf fe, and wonde none schame, (35) 939 

For-wy hyt hys to downe ; 
A lytel schame hys betere her, 

J)ane ouer-moche eft-sone 942 

To cref te 
By-uore god a domesday, 
Amang al godes schefte. 

H For J)a3 man mo^e isauued be 

J)orj bare repentaunce, 
Wanne he ne may to schryfte come, 

Jef hym vallef fat chaunce 949 

So holde, 
Jet ne may he nau^t y-sauued be, 
Be he hym schriue wolde. 

H J)er-fore j)y schryfte, man, schel be 

Wyjw)ute stoneynge, 
Myd herte I03, and, 3ef J>ou my^t, 

Myd J)yn ejene wepynge ; nota [later'i 956 

In treufe, 
J)et j)er be non ypocrysye, 

Bote repentaunce and reufe. 959 

H And 3yf fat fou to schryfte comst 960 

Ine fyse manere to fa[y]re. 





933. trouhlepf MS. tumhle]>. 
935. ]>er-be = per-ln/. 

952. Be, read Bote '( = but) ? Cf. however Znpitza's note to 1. 7853 of the 
JRomance of Ouy of War 10, ^ 15th cent, version. 
960. coTiist, MS. comff. 

I. Tlie 7 Sacraments, 4. iL Confession and iii. Satisfaction. 35 

pe schryft-uader fat uarf ary3t 

Tlien the con- 
fessor will hA 

Schal be wel de-bonayre 



And 1036 ; 

He schel wystlyche fy senne hele, 

Bet fane he wolde hys owe. 




IF Jef he fe scbel anoye a^t, (36) 


He will be 

Hyt wyle of-J>enche hym sore ; 

you pain ; 

And oJ>er-wyl anoye he mot, 

Wanne he schewef })e lore 


but some- 
times he must 

Of helfe, 

do so. 

Ase mot pe leche ine uoule sores, 

like the phy- 

Wanne he roynef pe felfe. 




IF J>er-fore 3e mote folyen hyt 


Therefore you 
must suffer it. 

WyjH)ute alle manere tole, 

Atid do J>er-by ententytiyche, 

3yf 3e wollef be hole 


To Hue ; 

If your own 

And to a betere be leaue gof, 

[leaf 164] 

Jef 3oure prest can nau3t schryue. 


priest cannot 
shrive you, go 
to a better 



IT Te [Jje] mo prestes fat fart ischryue 


Myd alle y-hole schryfte, 

J>e clenner fert a-3en8 god, 

And of fe more fryfte ; 


JN'au3t nyce, 

Jef hyt ne be nau3t to J>y prest 

Malice ne preiudice. 



IF Wanne man hys repentaunt ischriue, 


After repent- 
ant shrift 

He scholde don ed-bote : 

comes satis- 



And fe ferste hys, fat he by-fle 
Chypeana, of sennes rote ; 


The first 
thine is, to 
avoid occa- 
sions of sin. 

Ase quances, 

981. Te [\>e] = To [pe], 

991. ChypeanSf or Chypeausy is the reading of the MS., which is evidently 
corrupt. So is also by-fiek in 1. 993. For a possible emendation of the whole 
passage, see note. 

36 I. The 7 Sacraments, 4. iii. Saiisfaction, Penancey Prayer. 

is spiritual 
physic taken 
by good ad- 

Tliere are 
tliree kinds 
of penance : 

Fasting, and 

Praying is 
for sins of 
the spirit ; 

Fasting for 
sins of the 

for both 

[leaf 164, bk.] 

Praying in- 
cludes all 
kinds of devo- 
tional observ- 

He Jjat by-flek* wel lecherye 
Bi-ulekJ) foule continaunce. 

U Edbote hys dede after god conseyl 

Of gosslich medicine, 
Wanne senne sor y-clensed hys, 
To J>olye a lytel pyne 

J>et frete, 
J5at he ne be J)er-uore iwrete 
In purgatoryes hete. 

H J>re maner peyne man a-fangej) 

For hys senne nede ; 
Bene hys fat on, fat ofer fastyng', 
Jje frydde hys almesdede ; 

Ac woste. 
Bene hys and edbote yset 
For senne do ine goste. 

U For senne in flesch 

vestyng* hef fe flesch lofe ; 
Ac elmesdede senne bet 
Of gost and flesche bofe ; 

For fen chef 
Jjet almesdede senne quenkef, 
Ase water fat fer a-quenchef . 

U To byddyng* contemplacion 

Longef rede and wryte, 
To here predicacioun won, 
Lore, and herte smyte, 

And werche 


(37) 995 











996. gosslichf MS. gofflich = gostlich, 
1000. iwrete for iurete, ifrete, 
1002. a'fangejfj a dotted out in MS. 
1004. £en£f MS. iienne, — yat o}>er, MS. yo]>er. 
1007. Bene, MS. Sene. — andf read asel 
1010. he}> might be read bejf in MS. ; see note. 

1016, 1017, 1018. In MS. there are dots after byddyng, contempl., ufryte, 
predic, and won, 

1020. werche^ MS. wreche. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 4. iii. Fasting, Almsgiving. 37 

Dedes to 3yue deuocioun 
To men ine holy cherche. 


U Knewelyng*, trauayl, baruot go, 
WoUe-ward and wakynge, 

Discipline and lyte mete, 
pes longef to vestynge ; 

And here, 

Pelgrymage and beddyng* hard, 
riesch fram lykynge te arere. 


U Jeue, and lene, and conseil, 
Clofyng*, berbery, and fede, 

Vysyty syke and prysones, 
And helpe pouere at nede, 


For to ijor-3euene trespas, 
Tak dedes of elmesse. 


U And seue ^er fou scholdest, man, 
O dea[d]lyche senne pyny ; 

)?er-uore al )>at )>e prest fe hat 
To done schalt pou nsLU^t fyny, 

Ac more, 

For onneajje hys fer eny prest 
}3at peyne set so sore. 


H For by habbe]) uisyk* of men, 
Hy more sette pe lesse ; 



1023 To Fasting 
belong all 
kinds of 
inflicted on 
the flesh ; 



1030 toAims- 
giving, the 
corporal and 
works of 

nota[te«er] 1033 



Seven years' 
ought to be 
done for one 
deadly sin; 




but there is 
scarcely any 
priest who 
will enforce 
so much. 

[leaf 166 at 

1024. Wolle, very much like e in MS. 

1031, 1032. Dots in MS. after Clojyyng and syke. 

1038. pyny, MS. peyny. 1039. hat, MS. hust. 

1040. fyny in a later hand. Immediately after fyny, there follow in the 
MS. the concluding lines of the next stanza — For ^yf ]>ou to lyte peyns hest, 
and so on. The wanting portion of this, and the beginning of the following 
stanza are written at the bottom of the next page, and are marked with an 
.a. and bb. Corresponding letters after fyny show where the lines are to be 

1042 onnea]>e, MS. onmedpe (for onoiieape ?). 

1045. more, read tno^'i or niote ? 

38 I. The 7 Sacraments, 4. iiL Of Penance and Furgatwy, 

If you suffer 
too little here, 

[leaf 164, bk., 
at foot] 

you'U do it 
more in Pur- 

Priests must 
impotte little 

[leaf 165] 

or folk will 
do none. 

It is better 
to do a little 

and work out 
the rest in 

be not loath 
to do penance 
here, where 
there is ntill 
some raleaHe, 
which there 
is not in 

God's justice 
leaves no sin 

When a man 
sins, he 
wrongs God, 

Holy Church, 

and himself; 


(39) 1051 




And betere hys forte apeched be 

Of more for^efnesse 1047 

Jjane wreche ; 
For 3yf J)ou to lyte peyne best, 

Purgatory e byt scbal ecbe. 

IF And 3et Jjer bys anofer cas 

J>at prestes ^yuet so lyte 
Penaunce : ])a3 me telle bam 
Ry3t mocbe of sennes wyte, 

Ine mono, 
Me mot bam legge lytel on, 
Ofer by nolde do none. 

IT Beter bys fat by a lyte do 

Her ine obedience, 
And foluelle ]7at remenaunt 

Ine purgatoryes tense 1061 

Eft-sone \ 
Nys nau3t god to uor-lete a man 
}3at eny-J)ing* bys wyl bone. 

IT ))e bydde icb, brofer, be nau3t loJ> 

To do penaunce bere ; 
For 3et per bys bere som reles, 

So nys nau3t ine fe uere 1068 

Ne Jjoi^ J>e ry3t-uolnesse of god 

Nys no sen onipeynid. 1071 

IF Man, wane J>ou sene3yst, fre pou dest, 1072 

Jjou wrepest god almy3ty, 
To holy cbercbe on-bouxam fart, 

Makest fy selue on-ry3ty : 1075 

}3os mote 



1046. /or, MS. ffor, — te on erasure. 
1058. BeUr, MS. Sder, 

1064. eny']>ing, MS. eny ying. — wyl hone ? See note. 

1065. ZoJ>, )) on erasure. 1071. onipeynid^ ouipeynid MS. 
1076. MS. ])05 Je mofc, Je in a later hand above the Ime. 

I. The 7 Sacraments. 4. Penance. 5. Extreme Unction. 39 

Make fy pes wyj? alle fre 
Sorwe, schryfte, and edbote. 

U Man[y] takef fys sacrement, 

And gef a-wey on-digne, 
For he ne schryf}) nau3t of J)et Jjyng*, 
Bote of )>e bare signe 

To Wynne. 
J5e signe hys fat hys boute ydo, 
J)at Jjynge hys grace bynne. 

U Two Jjynges her-wyj>-ynne be)), 

For-3efJ>e, and repentynge ; 
Ac repentaunce hys signe also 
Of sennys f or-3euyng* : 

For so may man repenti hym, 
}3at fer uol^e)) no peyne. 

H Jxit was iked wel inne fe Jjef 

Ope caluaryes felde, 
]>o he escusede ihe^u cryst, 
And hym gelty gan ^elde 

Mid sourwe ; 
He deide and come to paradys, 
Na-bod he nau3t fort a morwe. 


(40) 1079 


so he wants 
shrift, and 

Many receive 
this sacra- 
ment un- 
worthily, as 
they don't 
care for the 
inward grace, 
bnt only the 
outward sign. 

[leaf 165, bk.] 




Two things 
are in it. 
Remission, . 
and Repent- 
ance, wnich 
is a sign of 
the remission 
of sins. 


1093 as was shown 
in the thief on 



(I. 5) [D]E uncione extrema. 


SAcrement of an-£liing' 
Nou her ich woUe telle, 
])at man uange]; wane he ne wen)> 
No lenge he my3te dwelle 

A lyue ; 
J3e bodyes euel fat libbe mey, 
And sone, hit mey to-dryue. 

[t« margin] 



5. Extreme 

The sacra- 
ment of Ex- 
treme Unc- 
tion is re- 
ceived when 
the approach 
of death is 


1089. for-ysuyrig^ MS. farJieiiyn^ . 

1105. lii)be nieij, MS. libbe tie i)uy, ?ie in a later hand above the line. 

40 I. The Seven Sacraments, 5. ^Extreme Unction. 

as St. James 

[leaf 166] 

The prayer 
of Mth shall 
recover the 
sick man. 

and his sins 
shall be for- 
given him. 

This is a 
great comfort 
for forgotten 

The unction 
should be 
received with 

(41) 1107 





IF Many for de-faute deife 

Of J)er anelyynge ; 
And 3yf hys saule after hys defe 
Soffrey harde pynynge 

In fere, 
So scholde hy nau3t, hedde he ihed 
Ky3t elyynge here. 

IF For seint iames, in hys bok*, 

Wyssef wyd gode mende 
Jpat, 3yf eny by-falj>e ry3t syke, 
J5e prest he scholde of-sende 

To hys ende ; 
And he schel elye hym wyjj ele, 
Hys sauement to wynne. 

IF Seynt iame seyfe fat orysoun 

Of fer holy by-leue 
Of hijs siknesse helfe wynfe, 
])at no fend schal reue 

J>e helj)e ; 
And 3ef fat he ine sennys be, 
For-^eue hys him fat felf e, 

IF }3ys his, brof er, and gret confort 

For for-^etene sennes, 
Jjat oure foman aredy hauef 
A^eynys fat we gof hewnes, 

Ta-tuite ; 
Ac 3ef we ary3t anelede bef , 
Hy3t gaynef ham wel lyte. 

IF Ac f anne hys man ary3t aneled, (42) 1 135 
Wanne he myd wyl hyt takef , 








1110. Soffrey^ read Soffre]}^ or Soffry (subjunct.). 1118. ende, read ynne ? 

1129. A later hand has written fer over for in for-^etene. — sennes, MS. 

1130. foman, fo above the line in a later hand. 1134. lyte, MS. lytel. 


T. The Seven Sacraments, 5. Eoctreme Unction. 41 

Myd by-leue of deuocioun, 

And repentaunce makef 

So digne ; 
And ^yf he hyt ofere wyse fangejj, 

Ne takej) ha bote Jje syngne. 

IT For fe sygne of J)ys sacrement 

J)e elyyng* ys boute ; 
J)at pyngge hys alleggaunce of euel, 
To lyf 3ef he schel loute ; 

And hennes 
J)a3 he wende, fat fyng* is eke 
Alleggaunce of hys sennes. 

IT And 3et me schal anelye a man, 

pa^ pat he lese hys speche ; 

For wet he ]>enche)> in hys mod 

Ke may ous no man teche ; 

Ac stronge 
He mot habbe deuocioun, 
\)ei schel a-ry3t hyt fonge. 

IT j5er-fore fis children elep me nau3t, 

Ne forfe none wode, 
For hy ne conne mende haue 
Of filke holy gode ; 

Ac fonge 
))e wode mey fat sacrement, 
Wane reles comef amonge. 

IT A prest mot do J)ys sacrement, 
For-why hy3t hys wel werjje ; 
And J)at seyde seynt lames wel, 
Jjer-wyle he 3ede an erfe ; 

Je hit hedde 












(43) 1163 


devoat faith 
and repent" 

The sign of 
the sacra- 
ment 18 the 
unction out- 
side; the 
thing is alle- 
viation of 
bodily evil, 
person lives ; 

and remis- 
sion of sins, 
if he dies. 

A man may 
be anointed 
though he 
lose His 

[leaf 166, bic.] 

Children are 
not anointed ; 

but lunatics 
may receive 
the sacra- 
ment in lucid 

It must be 
dispensed by 
a priest. 

1145. In the margin, by the side of To lyf^ is written in a later hand 
o\eT didpf to be inserted after lj(ff as indicated by the usual marks of 

1160. ])a3, MS. ]>ar. 

1167. MS. Ne none (expuncted). 

1164. wer'pe, MS. worpe. 

42 I. The Seven ScLcraments, 5. Extreme Unction. 

Tlie matter 
of the SHcrft- 
ment is the 
sacred oil, 

with bnlin. 

The words 
spoken at the 
unction are 
a prayer tor 
the healing 
of the sick 
one's sins. 

Also are 
anointed the 

[leaf 167] 
Ave senses, 
the feet and 
the breast; 

and the loins 
of men. 

and the navel 
of women, 
as the seats of 

J)o ich a lite her a-boue 
}3es holye wordes redde. 

IF ]>Q matyre of fis sacrement 

Hys ry3t fe oylle allone ; 
And Avanne ]>e bisschop blesse)) hyt, 
Baume ne ine[w]gj) he none 

J)er-inne ; 
For baume tokuejj lyues loos, 
Oyle, meray to wynne. 

IT For wanne man dei)), he let his lyf 

}3er J)e god los by-houef ; 
Ac senne, 3ef he farfe ary3t*, 
To bi-reusy he proueJ> ; 

To oure lorde 
Mercy he cryjj, and biddej) hym 
Mercy and misericorde. 

IT }3e wordes j^at per bej> ised, 
Hyt bep wordes of sealpe, 
For hy biddep pe sike man 
Of alle his sennes helpe ; 

In mende 
j5er-to me an-elep pe wyttes fy3f, 
And fe3et, and breste, and lenden. 


IT And for pe lecherye sy3t 

In lenden of pe manne, 
And, ase pe bok* ous seyp, hy sit 

Line nauele of pe wymman[e] : 

To hele, 
Me schel pe mannes lenden anelye, 

]>Q nauele of pe femele. 











(44) 1191 



1170. matyre, y written on original e, 

1173. MS. Baume 'per wi]> ne, ]>er rm]> being written over the line in a 
later hand. 

1187. MS. healpe, the a being dotted out. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 6. Holy Orders. 


(172) . 

U }3ys bef fe wordes wane me anelejj : — 1198 

" By fisse an-eliinge, 
And be hijs milse, for-3yue fe god noia \iater'\ 

Al pine senne3ynge 1201 

Mid eyen " ; 
And so he seyp be al hys lymes 

J5afc schoUe pe oyle dre3en. 1204 


H Caracter, pet is prente ycliped, 1205 

Nys non of eliinge, 
Ne furp of penaunce ne pe mo, 

Nof housel, nof spousynge, 1208 

In pede ; 
Eor man ofter pane ones takep 

\>Q sacremens for nede. 1211 

The words 
used for 

No character 
is impressed 
on the soul 
by Extreme 
Penance, tlie 
Eucharist, or 

(I. 6) [D]E ordinibtw ecclesiasticis. linmarginz 


6. Holy 

NOu her we mote, ine pis sarmon, 
Of ordre maky sa^e, 
Jjet was by-tokned suipe wel 
Wylom by pe ealde lawe 

To agynne, 
po me made godes hous, 
And ministres per-inne. 


U God ches folk* specialliche 

Hys holy folk* amonge ; 
}3at was pe kenred of leuy, 

Offyce for to fonge 

Ase broperen, 
For to seruy ine godes house 

By-fore alle pe noperen. 



Orders were 
in the Old 


(45) 1219 


by the tribe 
of Levi, 

[leaf 167, bk.] 


1207. fury on erasure in a later hand. — ne added over the line by a later 

1214. >6^, MS. >er. 

44 I. The Seven Sacraments, 6. ^e Seven Holy Orders, 

which name 
means 'set 
apart from 
the others.' 

As there are 
seven gifts 
of ttie Holy 
so tliere are 
seven orders, 
instituted by 
in whose per- 
son they were 
all united. 

They are :— 





U To segge hys * leuy ' an englysch, 
* Fram Jje noperen ytake * ; 

So bej) of ordre itake men, 
Ase wyte fram pe blake 

Of lyue : . 

Gode 3eue al yordrede men 
Wolde ary^t her-of schryue. 


U Ase fer bef of Jje lioly gost 

Jeftes ry3t folle seuene, 
So fer bejj ordres folle seuene, 

\>qX made cryst of heuene 

An erjje. 
And hedde hys ek ine hys monheJ>, 

To kefen hy wel werjje. 


U J)e ferste hys * doreward? * ycleped, 

J>e secunde * redynge,' 
Jje prydde hys icleped * coniurement * 

A^enys fe foule fynge 

to werie J>e ; 
J)e f erfe * acolyt * hys to segge y-wys, 

Tapres to here wel worfe. 


U )pe ordre fifte ycleped hys 
}3e ordre of * sudeakne,' 










(46) 1247 

1239. MS. : ^ iper' To ke ]>en hy : wel werjfe. The words ])« wer* are 
written in the margin in a later hand. They are to be inserted after hy, 
as the scribe has intimated by putting a colon before >^, and a corresponding 
one after hy. The space between ke and ]>en is a little wider than that 
between To and ke. 

1244. The original reading of the MS. was pe greste, which is really the 
bob-verse of the next stanza, erroneously anticipated by the scribe. A later 
revisor struck it out, or found it already struck out, and wrote above it what 
I read to werie \>e. Mr. "Wright has printed wersiexe ; but this is an error, 
evidently owing to the fact that the protracted upward stroke of the long / 
of greste happens to come in between the letters r and i in werie, while the 
oblique tag attached to the top of the / crosses the \> of pe. For the true 
reading see note. 

I. The 7 Sacramenis. 6. Holy Ch^ders. i. Doorkeepers, 45 

And hys pe syxte al-so ycleped 

J)e holy ordre of * dekene * ; 1250 Deacon. 

(And) ])e greste and Priest. 

}3e seuen[d]e hys, and hys yclyped 

\)e holy ordre of * prest[e].* 1263 

H Ine be elde la we synagoge ferst 1254 Godappoint- 

«/ o o ^ orders in 

God let the Ordres Werche, Jewish syna- 


And Jjat was sched of fat hys ly3t 

Nou wrojt ine holy cherche ; 1257 


Ich schel telle hou hyt was per, [loaf les] 

And hou hyt hys now here. 1260 

6. i. DooT' 


(I. 6. i) [D]E hoStiariis. linmargin^ 


ISTe be ealde lawe dore-ward? 1261 in the old law 

the door- 

Lokede dore and gate, keeper had to 

guard the 

bat ber ne scholde on-clene byng* aoors against 

'^ ' rj o the entrance 

Ky3t non entry per-ate, 1264 Jjj^"*'^®*"' 

Wei coujje : 
So dob bes dore-wardes ek* ?« ^'f^^ the 

Ine holy cherche noufe. 1267 c?,!J^'|,."" 

U And 3ef eny oper hyt dop, 1268 

Nys hyt ordre, ac ileaue 
To helpe, wane per nede iualp ; 

Ac me ne schal nau^t reaue 1271 

J>e office, 
Wyp-oute leue to don hyt : 
Ne be no man so nice. 1274 

(183) 3Kl'?r: 

H J3e bisschop, wanne he ordre]) j)cs, (47) 1275 ^^Sb'S' 
TakJ) hym fe cherche keyje, Z^l'' "'" 

1251. Omit And (see preceding footnote). The bob- verse left out here 
by the original scribe has been supplemented by the later reviser. 
1254 ff. See note. 
1257. toroyt, MS. wryt ; Zupitza wor^L 

1269. Dot in MS. after ordre, 

1270. Tielpe, MS. Tielpe, 

1275. MS. Jmjs clerekes {clerekcs added in margin by a later scribe). 

46 I. The Seven Sacrafnents. 6. Holy Orders, ii. Headers. 

This order 
Jesos took in 
the temple, 
when he cast 
out those that 
bought and 
sold therein. 

And seyj) : — " take|» and dof fol wel, 

Ase, wane 36 scholle deye, 1278 

Scholde ^elde 
Acounte of fet hys fer-onder clos : ** 
< Hardyst fet, wo-so hyt felde. 1281 

IT Ine Jje temple swete ihesus 1282 

Jjyse ordre tok* at ones, 
j)o fat he makede a baleys, 

And bet out for J>e nones, 1285 

}3o fat bou3te and sealde ine godes hous, 

}3at hys a hous of bene. 1 288 

6. ii. Reader 9. 

In the old lavr 
the Reader 
had to read 
the prophe* 

[leaf 168, bk.] 

so have the 
readers now. 

Before they 
are ordui lied, 
their ability 
sliall be 

This order 
was mani- 
fested by 

(I. 6. ii) [D]E lectoribus p» -<"•<"•»] 


NOu ich habbe of Jje ferste ytold, 
])dX ofer wyl ich tryo. 
Ine Jje aide la3e Jje redere 
Eede J>e prophessye, 

By wokke ; 
So schulle J>e rederes now 
Hyrede, and conne on-lowke. 

IT }3er-fore, ere hy J)ys ordre haue, 

Me schel hy wel assaye, 
Of fat hy redej) fat hy wel 
Ham conne aueye ; 

Of e-ren to reden schal me no3t, 
Ac soffiy hyt for nede. 

IT }3yse ordre swete ihesu cryst 
Kedde wel fat he hadde, 







(48) 1303 

1277. do>, MS. do>e)>. 

1281. Hardyst J read Hard ys. 

1295. Hy, MS. By. 1299. Hamy MS. Bavi. 

1304, 1306. Read hedde, redde. 

I. The Seven Sacraments, 6. Holy Orders, iii. Exorcists. 47 

])o he toke ysaies bok* 

Ine pe synagoge, and radde 

Wet welle. 
Wet he per redde, J)ou my3t se 

Ine seynt lakes god-spelle. 

U }3e bysschop, wenne he ordrep pes, 

J5e redyng* bok* hym takep, 
And seyp : — **tak and by-come redere 
Of word pat of god sniakep ; 

And blice 
Schelt habbe ase god prechour, 
Jef pou wolt do pyne offyce." 


when he took 
the book of 
Isaiah in the 
and read. 





At ordination 
the readinflr- 
book is deliv- 
ered to them 
by the bishop. 

(I. 6. iii) [D]E exorcistis. 

"KE prydde ordre [hys] coniurement, 
-■ And was ine pe ealde la3e 
To dryue out deuelyn out of men 
Fram god pat were dra3e 

Alyue ; 
])anne he mot habbe a clene gost, 
}3at schal pe oii-clene out-dryue. 

U ))e bisschop, wane he ordrep pes, 

Takp ham bok* of Cristnynge, 
Oper of oper coniuremens 
A3eyns pe foule pynge. 

And seggep :- 
" Takep power to legge hand 
Ouer ham pat fendes op biggep." 

H J3yse ordre, swete ihesxx cryst 
kedde Wei pat he hedde, 

[in margin] 







(49) 1331 

6. ill. Uxor- 

tlie office of 
the Exoicist 
was to drive 
out evil 

At onlinntion 
they receive 
from tlie 
of exorcisms. 

[leaf 169] 

Thi< order 
was raaiii> 
fe>ted by 

1307. See note. 

1316. do over the line in a later hand. 
1325. Tak\t, MS. Take, 
1328, 1330. 8egge]> [: biggey], see note. 

1332. kedde in MS. at the end of the preceding line, with a dot before it 
and another one after it. 

48 I. The Seven Sacraments. 6. Holy Orders, iv. Acolytes. 

when he 
drove devils 
out of men. 

])o he drof deuelen out of men 

J5at hym wel sore dredde. 

J)e apryse 
Ine pe elde la^e hyt ferst by-gau 

Kyng* Salomon, J>e wyse. 



6. iv. Aco- 

The Acolyte 
has to carry 

The bishop 
tells him how 
to look after 
lights, and lo 
hand over the 
offerinKs for 

In token of it, 
he receiver 
taper and 

Jefus mani- 
fested this 
order in him- 
self when he 
said : — ' I am 
the light of 
the world.' 

(I. 6. iv) [D]E aCCOlitis. \inmargin1 


T^E Ordre ferfe, accolyt hys, 
-■ To bere tapres aly3te, 
Wanne me schel rede J>e gospel, 

OJ)er offry oure dryte, 

To fenche^' 
}3at Jjet ly3t by-toknej) pat lyjt 

}3et nojjyng* may quenche. 


H And wanne pat he yordred hys, 
}3e bisschop schel hym teche 

Hdu he schel lokke cherche ly3t, 
And wyne and water areche 

To synge ; 

In tokne, taper and crowet 
To hand me schal hym brynge. 


H )3et pys ordre hedde ihesus 

We habbep wel a-founde, 
By pet he seyde : — " ich [a]m pat lyjt 

Of alle per wordle rounde 

A-boute ; 
Wo-so lokep, ne gep he naujt derk*, 

Ac ly3t ine lyues route." 










1336. la^f MS. U^e, added over the line. 

1339. aly^te is Varnhagen's emendation of the MS. reading abmUe, to 
which a later hand has added tin^ ri^. 

1341. MS. offry to oure dryte (= dry^), to added over the line. 

1349. synge, see note. 

1357 so added over the line. — ne altered from m«, the first stroke haying 
been erased. 

I. The Seven Sacraments, 6. ^oly Orders, v. SvMea/xms. 49 


U Ine ])e elde temple tokne was 

Of fe ordre of acolytes, 
))o certeyne men ly3te pat ly3t, 

Ase ]>e l£^e 3ef )>e rytes 

So brode ; 
Of weche ly3t hys ywryte 

Ine pe boke of exode. 

(50) 1359 



In the old 
temple, this 
WM preflirur- 
ed by certain 
tnen having 
to liffht the 

[leaf 169, bk.] 

(L 6. V.) [D]E subdiaconis, [e»«wr<7m] 


I^E ordre fifte, sudeakne hys, 
-■ J>at chastete en-ioy[n]eJ) ; 
For sudeakne bere]) pe chalys 

To pQ auter and aloyne)>, 

Ande weldef 
Al bare, and eke pe corperaus 

Onder pe deakne uealde)>. 


II Ine pe aide lawe y-hote hyt hys, 
))at hy ham scholde clensy 

pai bere ]>at uessel of god. 
And myd water bensy : 

By ry3tte, 

Clenne schel he in herte be 
pat schal pe chalys di3te. 


U And wanne fat he yordred hys, 

He take)) pe chalys bare. 
And he auange)) a crowet eke. 

And a towaylle nare 

luere ; 
For he schel honden heldo weter 

})at seme]) to pe autere. 









6. V. Subdea- 

The order of 

He carries 
the chalice to 
and flrom the 
altar, and 
touches the 
holy vessels 
with bare 

In the old 
law those 
who carried 
the vessels 
of God had 
to cleanse 


At ordination 
the Subdea- 
con receives 
tlie empty 
chalice, a 
cruet, and a 

He ponrs out 
water for 
officiants at 
the altar. 

1367, 1369. enioynep [: aloynep, MS. aolynep] suffgested by Znpitza. 
1375. bere, MS. >er&, ]> in a different hand, alteredfrom some otner letter. 

50 I. The Seven Sacraments. 6. Holy Orders, vi. Deacons. 

JesQs foand- 
ed this order 
when He 
washed His 
disriples' feet 
at the Last 

^ J)o hym wyp a schete ihesus 

After soper bygerte, 
And water in ta bacyn 
Myd a wel mylde herte, 

And wesschte 
Al hys apostlene ueet, 

Jjos ordre forjje he lesschte. 

(51) 1387 




Tlie order 
of Deacon itt 
more perfect. 

He hands- 
to the priest 

[leaf 170] 
wanted at 

In the old 
law they 
carried the 
Ark of the 
now they benr 
the stole upon 
their left 

and at ordin 
ation they 
receive a 
book of the 

(L 6. vi.) [D]E diacorn^. 


NOu of J)e sixte telle ich schel, 
J3at hys J)e ordre of deakne, 
J5et hys of more perfeccioun 
J3ane hys ordre of sudeakne ; 

He bryngej) 
To honde pet f e prest schel haue, 
Wanne he J)e masse smgej). 

^ Ine pe ealde lawe beren hy 

\)e hoche of holy cref te, 

And nou pe stole a-fongep hy 

Ope here scholder lefte, 

To agynne, 
And so for Jjane trauaylle her 
f)e Tj^t half for to wynne. 


[tM margin] 








U And at ordres auangej) hy 

J3e bok* of pe godspelle, 
For pan, to rede pe gospel, 

And sarmouTi for to telle, 1411 

Hy pet slepep ine senne slep, 

Amendement to maky. 1414 

1387. In the margin of the MS., above iJiestis, a later hand has written 
UmwayUi to be inserted before schete^ but evidently meant to replace or 
gloss it. 

1389. The verb is wanting here ; perhaps, we may supply keste . in ta = 
in to a, 

1399. hatte written twice in MS., the second crossed out. 

1412. Ta-wak for Ta-waky = to awaky. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 6. Holy Orders, vii. Priests, 51 

U Jjyse ordre swete ihesu cryst 

Ine hys trauayle kedde, 
))o he prechinde pet folk* 
To ry3tte weye ledde ; 

J3e f ridde 
Was, fo he wakede hym self 
J5e apostlefi for to bydde. 


1415 Jesus mani- 
fested this 
order when 
He preached 
tu the people, 


and roused 
the apostles 
1421 fi^m sleep. 

(I. 6. vii.) [D]E presbiteris. 

T^E seuende ordre hys of pe prest, 
y An hys icleped pe ealde, 
Bote nau^t of ^eres, ac of wyt, 
Ase holy wryt ous tealde ; 

For 3eres 
Xe make)) so nau3t pane prest aid, 
Ac sadnesse of maneres. 

U And wanne he y-ordred hys, 

Hym falp an holy gyse : 
Hys honden bep anoynte hope 
j3oi^-out a crowche wyse, 

Jjer-inne godes 03en flesch, 
Jjat fode is to pe stronge. 

H He takp pe helye inne of eyper half 

Yioyned atte breste, 
J3et no god hap ne he3i hyne, 
Ne non harm hyne don deste 

In mode, 
Ac penche on hym pat polede deap 
For ous op-one pe roude. 

6. vii. Prientn. 









The seventh 
01-der is that 
of Priest, 
who is called 
' the old one * 
not on acr 
count of age, 
but of wit. 

At ordin- 
ation, both 
his hands, 
joined cros 
wise, are 
anointed ; 

[leaf 170, bk.] 

and the stole 
is put over 
both his 


1419. Inridde, MS. predde. 

1432. crowche: in the MS. there is a stroke discernible between the 
letters c and r, which led Mr. Wright to print ciroioche. 
1436. helye inne, see note. 

52 I. The Seven Samuments. 6. Holy Orders, The Tonmire. 

The Priest 
receives the 
chalice with 
the wine. 
And the paten 
with the 

Christ mani- 
fested His 
1. by conse- 
craUng His 
body at tlie 
Last Sapper, 

2. by offering 
it on the 

H He takj) pe chalys wyp pe wyne, 

And brede of pe pateyne ; 
He hej) power to sacry hyt, 
And pet prof hys per seyne 

Wei trewe. 
Inne pe elde lawe pe ordre agan, 
Ine tokne of pyssere newe. 

11 Cryst kedde pat he hys a prest 

Ry3t in double manere : 
J3at on, po he sacrede hys body, 
])er he set atte sopere ; 

Jjet oper, 
\>o he an rode ofifrede hys body 
For ons, my leue broper. 

(53) 1443 






The Tonture, 

Clerical ton- 
sure is a pre- 
paration for 
the orders. 

Clerk roenns 
*beiroir God's 
woric,' — 

to teach folk 

and cure 

[leaf 171] 

[D]E p^'ima tonsura. 

TO pys ordre crounebet 
Ys an apparyllyng*, 
J3at hys in holy cherche y-cleped wel 
Jje furste scherynge 

Of clerke ; 
Gierke hys to segge an englysch, 
* Eyr of godes werke.' 

U Ac godes werk* an erpe was 

))e puple for to teche ; 
And also pour^ hys holy depe 
Of sennes he was leche : 

J)es werkes 
Men takep after ihesxi cryst, 
Wanne hy by-comep clerkes. 

[in marifin'] 







1446. See note. 

1452. sacrede, MS. sacreded, 

1455. an rode, MS. drode, u erased between o and d. 

1457. Read To "pyse ordres ? — crounebet, read crounenient ? See note. 

1458. apparyllyn^j MS. apparyhlyncf , 

1459-60. Read Jw^ hys in holy cherche wel Ycleped "pef, sch. ? 
1463. werke, MS. worke. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 6. Holy Orders. The Ton^are. 53 


^ And 3yf hy douj) wel hare deuer 

Ine fysse heritage, 
Ne may hem falle after pys lyf 

Non ou74-worJ) desparage ; 

To wysse, 
Ry3t ymarissched schelle hy be 

In heuene-ryche blysse. 


H Jje croune of derke y-opened hys, 
TokneJ) fe wyl to heuene, 

])et habbe mot pat entri schel 
Into eny of pe seuene ; 

And sedder 

TokneJ), ase he ine ordre aryst, 
J3et hys pe croune breddour. 


H J)er drof bischop hys dignete 

To maky f ulke seuene ; 
And hyt by-toknep pane bisschop 

In pe bisschopriche of heuene 

So werthe, 
Was vicary pe pope hys 

I-maked here an erpe. 

^4) 1471 which, if they 
^ ' duteously 

perform, they 
shall be re- 
warded after 
this life. 



U Jjyse ordres to pys sacrement 

By ry^te longi scholle, 
And pat mo be pat gode bep, 

)}es makep al pat foUe 

Be astente ; 
))er-fore ich abbe ondo 30U pos 

For pyse sacrement[e]. 










The tonsure 
of tlie clerk 
is open, to 
show that 
his mind is 
to be directed 

These orders 
make up the 


1482-84. See note. 

1489. MS. wrethe, 

1490. MS. WcLs and hys "pe pope vicary, — and added over the line by a 
later hand ; after hys, po is dotted out. 

1492. pyse, MS. iry]>e; for this and the following lines see note. 
1497. pos, read \>ys ? 

54 I. The Seven Sacraments. The work of Conscience. 

But they 
have also a 
The Chris- 
tian is a 
house of God, 
in which 
there must 
be some 

[leaf 171, bk.] 

is the door- 
the doors are 
the five 
senses, which 
it guards 
from foul 

It is also the 
reader, ex- 
holy lore. 

drives the 
fiend away 
with remem- 
brance of 
passion. It 
sets the soul 
aflame with 

and cleanses, 
it from filth. 

reads the 

and bears the 
burden of 
this lite. 

in expectation 
of heaven. 





Conscience is 
the mass- 

U And nou ich wolle ondo fys eft (55) 1499 

By pe wey of mystyke ; 
For crystene man hys godes hous : 
Hye mote habbe wyke 

Nou lestlich schel ich on-louke pys, 
Ase god wyle grace 3yue. 

f Jjet ine-wyt hys fe dore-ward, 

J3e doren wyttes fyue ; 
He schel loky wel bysylyche, 
))at no lykynge in dryue 

))at stenchep ; 
Jjet inwyt hys f e reddere eke 
Jjat holy lore f enchep. 

^ ))et inne-wyt dryf J) pe fend a-wey 

Myd meende of crystes pyne ; 
J3et inwyt ly3t per saule ly3t 
Myd peawes gode and fyne ; 

To hele, 
Jjet inwyt wescht pe felpe awey, 
And greydep pe f essele. 

U J)et inwyt redep pat gospel, 

Wane hy t herep crystes lore ; 
And 3et per-to hys charge hyt berp 
Of left half swype sore, 

To abyde 
After pys lyf pe heuene blys. 
And kref te pe ry3t[e] syde. 

U ))at inwyt hys pe masse prest, 
J3at ine pe herte slakep 








(56) 1527 

1502. JTye, see note. 

1504. lestlich altered from lett ich, which is still quite distinct in MS. — 
ich (written i^) after schel added over the line. See note. 

1510. stenche\>, MS. stenJcep. 1521. Tierepy MS. hererep. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. The Christian's Dwty, 55 

Jjane auter of deuocioun, 

Wane man hys bene make)) ; 

No lesse 

Nys hyt, wane man stedeuast by-leff, 
Sacrement of fe messe. 

H On inwyt mey al f ys wel do, 

And ine \q manne werche, 
Ase on may al pys ordres haue 
Ey t wel in holy cherche ; 

Ase here, 
3ef her nys suiche mynystre non, 
))ys temple stent iuere. 

H Jjer-fore ech man fat crystene hys, 

Hys wyttes loky fyue, 
And fenche op-an fe lore of god, 
And fendes frani hym dryue, 

And ly3te 
Myd gode fewes al hys lyf , 
And fer-to do hys my3te ; 

H And wessche and greydy hys fessel, 

And do trewlyche hys charge. 
And make ofErynge of hys beden, 
Myd wil do eknesse large : 

J3ys wyke 
By pys 3e iseoj) how ech mey do 
Ine manere of mystyke. 

H J3e signe hys of fys sacrement 
Jje bisschopes blessynge, 












(57) 1555 

serving at/ 
the altar of 
devotion in 
tlie lieart. 

One Con- 
science may 
perform all 
this, as one 

Eerson may 
ave all the 
such minis- 
ter,the mystic 

[leaf 178] 

service, too, 
is inter- 

Therefore let 
every Chris- 
tian dis- 
chaive those 
functions in 
a mystical 

The sign or 
the sacra- 
ment is the 

1530. henCy first e rescmbUng o in MS. 

1535. Between rruinne and werclie^ to added over the line by a later hand ; 
the r in werche on ei-asure. 

1540. iuere (= i[n]fere), MS. etiere, 

1547. do, d altered from t. 

1549. do altered from to. 

1550. mo^, MS. maked, 

1551. wil do J MS. wel to. 


I. The Seven Sacramenits. 7. MatHirwny. 

with the 



the tiling in 
wisdom and 

ForJ) myd f e admynystracioim 
Jpat he de]) atte ord[r]ynge ; 

And grace 

Of wyt and of auctoryte 
Jjet fyng* hys ine fe place. 



7. Matri- 

Matrimony is 
a token of the 
union be- 
tween God 
and Holy 
Church, . 

[leaf 172, bk.3 

As God loves 
Holy Churchy 
so ought hus- 
bands to love 
their wives ; 
and wives 
not to be 
vicious and 
towards their 

(I. 7) [D]E matWmonio. vnmarffin} 


HEr longe]) nou to fys sarmon 1562 

Of spousyng* for to werche, 
J3et hys fe tokne of pe ioynyng* 

of Gode and holy cherche ; 1565 

And woste, 
Ky3t holy cherche ycleped hys 

Jjat holy folk* ine goste. 1568 

U And ase per mot atter sponsyng* 1569 

Be ry3t a-s^it of hope, 
Of man and of per wymman ek*, 
Yn loue and nau^t y lope, 1572 

By-tuixe god and holy folk* 
Loue hys wel trye and ryehe. 1575 

U Jjanne a^te men here wyues loue, 1576 

Ase god dop holy cherche ; 
And wyues nau3t a^ens men 

Non on-wrestnesse werche, 1579 

Ac po-lye, 
And nau^t on wrest op-sechen hy, 

Ke tounge of hefede holye. 1582 

U Ine wlessche ioynep man and wyf, (58) 1583 
Children to multeplye ; 

1565. of in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 
1581. omorestf e hardly to be distinguished from o. — sechen, MS. 

I. 7 Sacraments. 7, Matrimony. Adultery from the Devil. 67 





And god ha]) taken oure flesch 

Of ])e mayde maiye ; 1586 

Wei f erren 
perof springe)) ^t holye stren 

I-lykned to ])e sterren. 

IF Wei fayr fasme hys pys sacrement, 

And marye was by-gonne 
Jjo hyt by-gan ine paradys, 

Are adam were y-wonne 1593 

To senne ; 
Ac fo changede to uylenye 
p-dt stat of man-kenne. 

H For 3ef he hedde ihealde hym, 
Ase god hym hedde y-maked, 
He hedde y-brout forj^e hys bearm-team 

WyjH)ute senne ismaked. 1600 

Wet ))anne ] 
3et holy stren by-tokned hys 
By strenyng* of pe mane. 

IF Hyt was god self fat spousyng* ferst 

pe fend hyt was ))at schente hyt al 
Myd gyle and hys abette, 

Wrancheuel : 
Spouso)) scheawy]) wet god per dede ; 

Hordom, wat dede fe deueL 1610 

. (231) 
IF For wanno man dra^]) to hordom, (59) 1611 
He let hys ry3t[e3 spouse ; 



WHS insti> 
Paradise be- 
fore the fidl 
of Adam. 

Had man re- 
mained in 
tlie state of 
woald not 
have had the 
smack of 

God insti- 

the devil per- 
- ^^_ verted it to 
1607. adultery. 


As the adul- 
terer forsakes 
liis spouse^ 

1588. 8pringe]>, the r added above the i. 
1595. yo, altered to so. 

1597. he written above the line (in a later hand ?). 

1598. y-maked, y added above the line by a later hand. 
1604. Dots in MS. before and after /(?rs^. 

1610. Hordom, MS. Hov/rdom, but the u seems to have been crossed out. 
1612. He crossed out in MS., and the abbreviation for arid written in 
the margin. 

58 I. I%e 7 SacrameiUs. 7. MatHnumy. Consent needed. 

so did Adam, 
forsake the 

But it often 
happens that 
some tliink 
tliey live in 
while they 
live in 

Therefore I 
will tell you 
all about the 

As to God, 
the tacit con- 
sent of the 
parties to 
marry would 

but to the 
Clmruh, it 
has to be 
declared in 

Dumb and 
deaf persons 
may express 
their consent 
by signs. 

So dede adam ine paradjrs 

Hys ry3t[e] lord! of house, 1614 

Of heuene : 
Jje gode forhorede pe fend 

Wyf hys blaundynge steueno. 1617 

^ Jjat def pat god menteynej) wel 1618 

lly3t spousyng* her an erpe, 
And euer mo schel go to schame 

Hordom, and pet hys werj)e ; 1621 

3het some wenep ligge in spoushop, 

And lipe ijie hordome. 1624 

U J)er-fore ich wylle telle 30U 1625 

Jje lore of ry^t spousynge, 
Jpat 3e ne take horedom, 

Wanne takep weddynge. notawie 1628 

Nou lestnep 
J3e lore al of pe la3e y-wryte 

])at holy cherche festnep. 1631 

U Ase to god, hyt were y-now 1632 

]pat bare assent oof hope, 
Wyp-oute speche and by-treupynge, 

And alle manere ope. — 1635 

And speche? 
))er mote be speche, of hare assent 
Holy cherche to teche. 

U And 3ef pe man oper pat wyf 

By cheaunce dou?wbe were, 
Jcf [me] may wyten hare assent 

By soum oper abere, 1642 

And deaue. 

1618. wel in MS. at the begiuning of tlio following line. 
1621. wer\>ei MS. icor^, 

1627. 3c, MS. he, 

1628. Kead— fTa/i/te je L w. ? 


(60) 1639 

I. The Seven Sacrainents. 7. Matrimony. Betrothal, 59 

Two forms 
are used in 
a marriage, 
one with 
words of 
present time ; 



the other, 
with words 
ot future 
mutual ac- 

Hy mowe be wedded wel 3eiig* [leaf 173, bk.] 

By holy cherche leue. 1645 

U Two manere speches bef iwoned 1646 

J5er two men for to nomene, 
J3at one of fyng* fat hys nou, 

Jjat ofer of te comene, 1649 

Wel coupe : 
" Her ich f e take " wordes bep 
Of pyng^ pat hijs noupe. 

H And ^ef me seype : — " ich wille pe haiie, 

And per-to treupe ply3te," 
He spekep of pyng* pat his to come, 

))at scholde be myd ry3te . 1656 

Of treupe ; 
Ac pat ferste ne fayllep nau3t, 

Jpat oper may for sleupe. 1659 

H And 3yf an oper treupep sepe 1660 

Wyp word of pat hys noupe, 
J3e ferste dede halte bep, 

Ne be hy nase coupe, 1663 

As none, 
Bote 3ef per fol3ede pat treupyng* 
A ferst flesch ymone. 

II For pet complep pet spoushod 

After pe by-treupyng*, 
J3at hyt ne may [nau3t] be ondon 

Wyp none wyp-seggynge, 1670 

By ryjte ; 
And pa3 hyt were her ondo, 

Hy3t halt wyp oure dry3te. 1673 

1647. "per two^ read }ter-to ? 

1660. Between treu\>e\f and se]>e there is a blank in MS. ; ]>e in sepe is 
written in a later hand. 

1662-1664. See note. 

1666. flesch ymone, redid flesches y7n(mc, or fleschlich ymone; but cp. ako 
p. 62, L 1747. 

1672. >a3, MS. pat. 

The first 
never fails, 
the otlier 

A contract 
in present 
terms avoids 
a previous 
for future 

if it had not 
been followed 

1666 J>y»««"*i 


(61) 1667 

For that 
and makes it 

60 I. The 7 Sacraments, 1 . Matrimony, Adulterous Marriages. 

inny be 
throagh false- 
neu of 
nartiee, or 
for want of 


[leaf 174] 

such persons 
is commit* 
ting adultery. 

If any is in 
that case, lie 
ought to 
observe con- 
tinence, or, at 

perform the 
marital duty 
with a sor- 
rowAil heart. 

Still, he must 
do great pen- 
ance all his 


U And her may treufyiig* be ondo 
Jjorwe fal[8]ne8se of partye, 

And for de-faute of witnessryng*, 
WyJ) wrang* and trycheiye ; 


Me weddef suyche, and liggep so 
For pan ine hordome. 

U Ne hy3t ne may no man ondo 

By lawe none kennes, 
And so by-leuej) euer-mo 
Fort o])er wende]) hennes : 

So bryngej) hem in suche peryl, 
Jjat hy ne mowe aryse. 

U Ac 3ef eny hys ine pe cas, 
Eedich pat he be chaste ; 
And 3yf hys make mone crauep, 
Ine leyser oper in haste, 

He mo3t hy3t do wyp sorye mod? 
And — skyle wert — wepynge. 

^ Jyt he mot gret penaunce do 

))e dayes of hys lyue, 
And 3et pe more, 3ef [he] hap maked? 
An hore of hys wyf[e], 

Jpat ere 
Jef pat he hedde y-wedded hy, 
A goud wymman hyt were. 

H For suche la3e is pat manye bep. 
Men oper wymmen of elde, 










(62) 1695 




1680. Between }>an and ine the space of two or three letters left empty 
in MS. 

1683. hy-lett€]>, read by-lef]t hyt ? 

1698. The spelling toyfe [: lyue\ occurs, p. 67, 1. 1899. 

1702. &e>, read he ? 

I. The 7 Sacraments, 7. MatHmony, Ages of parties. 61 

))ar suche contract y-maked hys, 

J3at mo3e ry3t proue ^elde, 1705 

And scholle ; 
And ^et of no lees fane of tuo 

"Nya proue to pe folle. 1708 

U And 3yf ry3t contract ys ymaked 1709 

Wy^f -oute wytnessynge, 
?ef hy by-knowej) openlyche 

By-fore men of trewynge, 1712 

To-gidere y-hoten scholle hy be, 

J)^ ofer eft for-sake. 1715 

H J3at hys, bote hy wedded be 1716 

To opren er hy hy3t by-knewe ; 
For J)a3 hy by-knowe hyt, 

Ne hys nau3t y-helde trewe 1719 

By lawe ; 
For 3ef hy were, hyt scholde be 

Jjese spousebrechene sawe. 1722 

II Of ham pat scholde y wedded be (63) 1723 

Her pe age pou my3t lerne : 
Jjet knaue child for-tene 3er notabiie 

Schel habbe, ane tuel pe perne. 1726 

At seue 3er me maky may, 

Ac none ry^t weddynge. 1729 

H For pe3 hy were by assent 1730 

Ry3t opelyche y wedded, 
And, ase pyse childre ofte hep, 

To-gadere ry3t y-bedded, 1733 

By ry3te, 

1705. mo^e, MS. more, 

1715. >fi^, 3 altered, it seems, from t. 

1717. by-knewe, MS. hyknovje, 

1718. ))a3, MS. l^r, 

1723. MS. Of]Kxi (crossed out) ham >*. 

1726. ane = and; tuel = tuelf; same form, p. 129, 1. 70. 

The contract 
muBt be made 
before two 
witnesses at 

A clandes- 
tine contract 
valid by the 
avowal of the 

[leaf 171, bk.] 

they were 
not wedded 
to others be- 
fore entering 
upon it. 

The age re- 
quired for 
marriage is 
14 years in 
males, 12 in 

may be made 
at seven 

62 I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. Matrinwiiy : CorUraMs. 

may be dis- 

unless they 
renew the 
consent iu 
time of 

A contract 
exacted by 
is invalid, 

unless onn- 
by consent 

[leaf 175] 

As to condi- 
tioned con- 
tracts, if tlie 
condition is 
honest, it 
delays the 
wedding till 
it is fulfilled. 

if consum- 
mation has 
not followed. 

Bote 3ef hy ^yue ine tyme assent, 
Departed be y myjte. 

U And fe tyme is, wane afer can 

Oj)er fleschlyche yknowe ; 

For wanne hy habbej) pet ydo, 

Ne mowe hi be to-frowe. 

In sa^e 
Hy bef icliped puberes, 
Jjat hys a worcJ of lawe. 

H Ne no treufyng* stonde ne schel 
WyJ) strenjje ymaked ine mone. 
Bote J)er fol3y by assent 
lty3t flesch y-mone 

Ine dede ; 
For f et foluellej) pat spoushof , 
As ich before sede. 

U And 3yf hy hope by assent 

J3e prydde treupe leyde, 
Her^ eyper oper for to haue, 
Oper word to asenti seyde, 

Ope[r] swore, 
Jef hy soffrep hym mone of flescfi, 
Hys wyf and nau3t hys hore. 

U And 3ef per hys condicioun 

Yset atter treupynge, 
Jef hyt hys goud wyp-oute qued?, 
Hyt lettep pe weddynge 

Bote 3ef per ulesches ymone be 
Fol3ynde, ase ich ear tealde. 

1736. y = hy, 

1737. dper = ay]>er; see note to p. 34, L 961. 
1742. pubereSf MS. pukeres, 

1747. fleschy readfleschlich'i cf. p. 59, 1. 1666. 
1750. y erased between e and d iu scde, 
1757. ffys = ffy is. 








(64) 1751 







I. The 7 Sacraments, 7. Matrimony, Religious can't wed. 63 

U And hit is wykked condicioun, 1765 

Couenaunt of schreawed-hede ; 
Ase 3ef he seyp : — " ich wille fe haue 

3ef J)ou deist suche a dede 1768 

Of queade ; " 
J5a3 jjet couenant be nau^t y-do, 

Hy schoUe hem weddy nede. 1771 


^ Bote fat quead be ajeins spoushoj), 1772 

Ase ich schel here teche : 
And 3ef man seyf ; — " ich wolle fe haue 

Jyf fou wilt be spousbreche, 1775 

Ofer wealde 
For te destniwen oure streii," 

J)at treufyng* darf nau^t healde. 1778 

If the con- 
dition is 

the marriage 
ttliali take 
place tlipugl) 
the conditiuii 
be not kept. 

But if the 
implies any 
vile deed 
against the 
purpose of 

the contract 
is void. 


H Sudeakne mey be y wedded nau^t, 
Monek*, muneche, ne no frere, 

l^e no man of religion, 
Profes 3ef fat he were 

To leste : 

Of chaste[te] professipun 
Hys solempne by-heste. 


U Ac jef man of religion 

Be hys ryt fre wille 
Ouer tyme of professioun 

HeldeJ) hym prynne stylle, 

Schel hym nau^t be religioun, 

Jpa^ he be nau3t professed. 

(65) 1779 Subdeacons, 
■monks, nuns, 
and friars 
may not wed, 
nor professed 
religious : 


[leaf 175, bk.] 




nor such as— 
thougli not 
professed — 
remain in 
beyond the 
time of pro- 


1765. t in hit possibly altered from original s\ is added over the line by 
a later hand. 

1766. sehreawed'hedef MS. schrewead hede, 
1772. spousJwp, MS. spoubhd^. 

1776. wealde, the e added over the a. 

1778. d in e^r/" written on erasure in a later hand. 

1788. professUmn, read probacioun ; see note. 

64 I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. Matrimony. Adulterers, 

they are 
bound to 
keep to a 

may marry 
each otiier 
when they 

if they have 
not con- 
tracted with 
words of pre- 
sent mutual 
acceptance, ' 
or procured 
the death of 
their part- 

Lepers may 
marry sound 
persons by 
mutual con- 

[leaf 176] 

If they have 
in present 

^ Ac 3ef per were ry^t treupyng* 

))at may nau^t be released, 

Ere hye in-to suche ordre came, 

And here hi be professed, 

To sofe, 
Hy scholde a3en to J>e spousyng*. 
And lete al ])at to no])e. 

H Hye pat pe man for-leyen hepe 

Vnder hys ry3t[e] wyf[e], 
Oper 3yf hy hosebonde hep 
Ine pet spousbreche alyue, 

Bi dome, 
3et hi my3te be wedded eft, 
Jef hy sengle by-come. 

U Bote 3ef hy by-treupede hem 
Wyp worde of noupe itake, 
Oper bote hy by-speke his depe 
In hare senuolle sake, 

To sla3e ; 
For panne scholde hy weddi nou3t, 
By none ry3t[e] lawe. 

U Meseles mowe y- wedded be, 

jef hi asenti wylle. 
An, pa3 oper bicome mesel, 
To-gadere healde hem stylle ; 

To nomene. 
Bote pe treupinge bare be 
Wyp wordes of to comene. 


U For 3ef pet hy by-treuped be 
Wip worde of nou ytake. 







(66) 1807 







1799. to no]>e added by a later hand. 

1804. Bif MS. Si. 1808. noupe, u written over o in a later hand. 

1814. MS. mowe |>a, the latter underdotted. 

1819. treupinge J MS. treupege, the second e on erasure ; ge added by a 
later hand. 1820. to on erasure in a later hand. 

I. The 7 Sacraments, 7. Matrimony : invalidation of it, 65 

or consum- 
mated a 

they are 
bound to 

except the 
sick one 
enter a 

Of er wyd wordes of to come, 

WiJ) dede of flesclies sake, 1824 

Jjer, brofer, 
Seel be renoueled fei a-gonne hijs, 

And ayfer foljy ofer. 1827 

IT Bote J)e syke in-to a spytel hous 1828 

Entry, fer bej) museles, 
Jjanne der fe hole nau3t 

Jjer-ine folwy hijs meles, 1831 

Ne hijs gyf te ; 
Fal])e ham nanjt in such compaigni 

To-gadere be anyjt. 1834 

IT And ine pe weddynge ne gaynet noujt (67) 1835 

Jjaj f on Jje ofer by-swyke, 
Wanne f on wene)) fe of er be hoi, 

And wedded fane syke, 1838 

Ne-tinde : 
Ne bef no f ynges bote two 

Jjat oundof fe weddynge : 1841 

IF J)at on hys, wanne he weddej) fe fral, 1842 

And wenef fe frye take ; 
Jjat of er, wanne he weddef one of er 

Jjane hys ry3te make, 1845 

By-gyled : 
pe lawe of go($ ne sentef noujt 

Jjat man be so by-wyled. 1848 

IF And jyf f et one weddef fe fral, 1849 

And wenef f e frye weddy ; 
And 3yf a spyet fat sof e f rof, 
And wondef naujt to beddy 1852 

Ine mone, 

1826. re in renotieled (which may as well be read umieled) above the line 
in a later hand. I suppose the original reading to have been uoliield. 
1831-2. See note. 

1837. Jxm, MS. \>em. 1841. oundo]>, MS. -dep, 

1849. MS. ^nfone (underdotted) ]>et one, 


Only two 
kinds of 
error can 
marriage : 

1. if a man 
marries a 

tliinking she 

2. if one mis- 
takes the 

If a free man 
consam mates 
with a thrall, 

66 I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. SpiHtual Affinity. 

[leaf 176, bk.] 

they may not 
be divorced. 

affinity im- 
])edefl mar- 
riage between 
and god- 

and devolves 
also npon 
their respect- 
ive wives or 
as well as 
the bodily 
parents of 
the children. 

It obtains 
also between 
the baptizer 
and the bap- 

and between 
the former 
and the 
parents of 
the baptized; 

and is equally 

Jef he by wyl seruef fat flescR, 
Ey3t partyng* worthe hym none. 

IF And 3yf \>j wyf hebbef a child, 

Wane fou he best for-leye, 
!Ne my^t [fou] nau3t weddy fat childe nota [to/«r] 








Eft, faj fat fy wyf deye. 

By lawe ; 
Ne forfe fe moder fet hyt beer, 
Ne woldest f ou nase y-fa^e. 

IT And 3yf ))ou hebbest so a child, (68) 1863 

pe lawe y-wryte hyt sede, 
\)y wyf, fat his f yn 030 flesch, 
Dra^ef eke f e godesybred[e], 

Jjat hy ne may weddy fat chili?, 
Ne fade[r] fet hyt bi3ete. 

IT Jjet ilke fat y-crystned hys 

Ne may weddy by la3e 
Him fat hym crystnef , ne hys child, 
Ne wolde nase ua3e, 

Ac lete, 
And eke hem fat hym hebbef so, nota [/a^«-] 
And alle hare bijete. 

IT And forf e, fader and moder 

})at hyne fleschlyche forf wysef 
Gostlyche for hym by-sebbe bef 
To ham fat hine baptijef ; 

And heuen 
Jjer-fore, f a3 hy ham weddedf eft, 
Ne myt[e hy] so by-lenen. 

IT And ase f e gossybrede dra^f 
Ey3t to ous after crystnynge, 








1857. he=hyfSLCc\i3.fem. 1868. .w. = ?w)to : this and the others are later. 
1860. By, MS. Sy. 1873. wolde = wolde he. 1877. MS. /or >«. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 7. Consanguinity, 67 

So gossibrede dra^e)) ek* 

Kyjt after confermynge 

By lawe, 
Jjat so ne mo^e hy weddy naujt, 

Ne wolde hy nase y-ua^e. 

IT More godsibrede nys f er nau3t 

Jjane hys y-mene^ed here, 
Godfader wedded godsones child 
Fol wel, my leue fere ; 

'No senne 
ISTef man and wyf fat weddef ham, 
Godfader fej he habbe enne. 

H And 3yf a man hebbej) fy child. 

And naujt bye f yne wyfe, 
J5y wyf may weddy fane man 
Wel after Jjyne lyue. 

And libbe ; 
And in fat cas fon myjt weddy 
To fyne wyfes gossibbe. 

IT And [faj] fat lawe for-bede nau3t 

Jjat man and wyf ymene 
Toe-hebbe a child?, jet scholdy naujt 
Honestete so jwene, 

Ne wette 
Schrewede tonge for te speke, 
For sclaunder me schal lette. 

IT J)e sibbe mowe to-gadere naujt 

Jje foerf e grees wyf-inne ; 
Ne me ne scholde telle f e stok, 
Ac after hym by-ginne 

To telle ; 


at conftrm- 

[leaf 177] 


(69) 1891 



other caaes 
of spiritual 
affinity im- 
pNsdins mar- 
riage there 
are none. 



1898 A widow 
or widower 
may marry 
the god- 
parent of 
their step- 

1901 child. 


1 905 Common 

of hasband 
and wife, 
though not 

f prohibited, 

x«/vv^ propriety. 




within tlie 
4th degree 
of canonical 
ity are in 

1897. he = hy, 1905, for-bede, MS,/or-hode, 

1907. scholdy = scholde hy, 

1914. scholde, MS. schoUe, 

1915. Ac, MS. "pat, — by-ginne, MS. bygenne; see note. 

68 I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. Marriage. Affinity, Banns. 

of oontract- 
iog marriage. 

wiw a 
whether in 
or fornica- 
tion, con- 
tracts affinity 
them and 

[leaf 177, bk.] 

their con- 
and impedes 
with them. 

Banns to be 
published at 
church on 
three several 

And 3ef ofer fe fifte of-takef , 

To-gare ino3e hy dwelle. 1918 

IT Jef fou myd word of pet hys novfe (70) 1919 

Ary^t bi-treupest one — 
Oper p£^ pet [J>ou] bi-treupy hy naujt — 
And hast flesches mone, 1922 

By lawe 
Alle here sybbe affinite 

To pe for pan schel drawe. 1925 

IT And pet ine pe selue degre 1926 

J)at hy bep here by-sybbe ; 
And 3ef pou weddest euy of ham, 

In inceste schoUe 30 lybbe notahene iiatm-} 1929 

An erpe, 
Jef hy ysibbe ine degres 

Ey3t wyp-inne pe ferpe. 1932 

IT And so drawyp hy affinite 1933 

Wyp alle pyne sibbe, 
Ase pou of hire sibben dra3st 

For pan, pa3 hy ne libbe ; 1936 

Hyt dep pe Inonynge ine flesch, 

Jje3 non ne wyte ne se hy3t. 

IT And holy cherche y-hote hep. 

Me schal maky pe cryes 
At cherche oppe holy day3es pre 

By-fore pe poeple pryes, 1943 

To assaye, 
To sech contrait 3ef me mey 

Of destorber a-naye. 1946 

1917. fifie, US.Jixte, 

1918. To-gare = to-gadere, — tno^, MS. more. 

1919. of, MS. if. — vpe in novpe in a later hand. 
1934. Wyh MS. Wyl. 

1937. de}>, MS. dop, 

1938. Inonynge, probably altered from nopynge; but see note. 
1946. Of, MS. Ef 



I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. Matrimony. Impotency. C9 

IT For, erf e f e banes [be] y-gred, 

He ]rat ))e treuj^e make]) 
Far]) ase he fat great work by-gunf , 
And ])anne conseil take)), 

And teylej) ; 
Ac mani man ])at so by-gun]> 
WyJ) grete harme faylef. 

IT And faj pe weddyng* were maked 

Ase hyt mytte by lawe, 
Jet hyt myjte eft be ondo, 
And eft al-so to-draw6. 

Wet wyse % 
Jef per ne mey nofere kendelyche 
Do pe flesches seruyse. 

IT J)et hys, ^ef pat ere pe weddynge 

Folle pat ylke lette, 
Jjat oper were so ilet. 
To do pe flesches dette 

By kende ; 
For jef pat lettyng velle sepe, 
Ne scholde hy nou^t to-wende. 

IT And pa^ pet on bi-wichched be 

))anne hy to-gadere come, 
Jjat hy ne myjte don ry^t nau3t, 
Ne a-sayde [hy] nase lome, 

And wolde : 
Jet pre jier hy abyde scholde, 
To-do ere hi be scholde. 

IT And p^ pat seruyse be foul, 
Jet hyt hys tokne of gode ; 

(71) 1947 




1954 A marriage 
may be dis- 
solved if 
either party 

1957 ^B^inpotou^ 

[leaf 178] 



1961 and the in- 
existed before 
ttie marriage 







(72) 1975 

else they 
must wait 
three years 
before they 
can be 

1947. er^ = O.E. cbt >a«. 
1951. y in teylej hardly distinguishable from )>. 

1959. Jw ne over the line in a later hand ; nd^re altered from neuere. 
The original reading was probably — ^efme mey neuere kenddychey etc. 

70 I. The Seven Sacraments. 7. Matrimony: its 3 JBeneJUs. 

No genera- 
tion is pos- 
sible without 
fleslUy lust. 

Its gratifica- 
tion is a 

and may be 
exacted by 
the law. 

[leaf 178, bk.3 

The three- 
fold good in 
matrimony : 
1. faith not 
to be broken 
adultery ; 

2. procreation 
of children 
not to be 
hindered by 
the refiisal of 
one's body ; 









For hyjt by-toknef fe takyng* 

Of oure flescfi and blode nota liater^ 

Ine cryst[e] : 
No stren may non encressy 

WyJ)-oute flesches loste. 

IF And dette hy3t hys in spousod, 

Wanne fe ofer hyjt wolde ; 
For 3yf hyt jjofer noldo do, 
Destrayned be he scholde 

By rytte 
To do hyt, jyf fat he may : 
j)e lawe hef seche my^te. 

IT And fa} man habbe bysemer 

Of seche manere destresse. 
Be hem wel syker, hyt hys ydo 
For wel grete godnesse 

Of lyue ; 
For elles nolde fe la3e nau3t 
Of suche fynge schryne. 

IT In spoushod bej? godnesse fre, 
Treufe, streny[n]g<, and signe. 
Treufe hys, fat fer no gile be 
Jjonrwe spousebreche maligne ; 

Ac, brofer, 
Jjat on may spousbreche by-come 
For de-faute of fet ofer. 

IT )?at ofer godnesse hys strenyng*, (73) 2003 

})er me may children wene ; 
Ac }yf fat on f of ren warnef hys flesch, 
Ne my3t[e] hy naut strene : 










1980. "Resid No stren ne may encressy nou 'i 1983. wolde^ MS. welde. 
1984. hyt }>operf MS. ])yt oper. 1988. seche (such), MS. }>ehe. 

1994. ])e added over the line by a later hand. 
1997. A dot before strenyg and after it in MS. 
2005. Dot before and aftev flesch. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 7. Matrimony. Excitements. 71 

\>o scholde fat godnesse be 
By-twene ham in lette. 

IT J)e frydde- godnesse hys sacrament, 

)}at hijs ])e holy signe 
Of the ioynyng* of god self 
And holye cherche digne, 

J)at avayle)) ; 
And ^yf [lH>n] Jjo}>ren warn)) hys flescli, 
})at sacrement hem faylej). 

IF By Jjyse fre hy mo3e ise 

Wanne hy ine flesche sene3ef, 
Wanne hy wyf-oute fyse fre 
Wy)) fleschlich mone me[n]ge)) : 

hare ofer, 
J)e more hy hyt dojj, fe wors hi be)?, 
And god al-so fe lofer. 

% Ase jef hy hyjt my^te wel a- come 

To letten ofer wyle, 
And lesse do hyt pane hy dof, 
WyJ)-oute operes peryl[e], 

Ac blondeJ>, 
And — ^nys n5 ned — wyj) foule handlyng* 
OJ)er oper afondef. 

% Ne hy ne wondep messeday, 

Ne none holy tyde, 
Ne holy stede, wyf-oute peryl 
J)a} hy myjte abyde ; 

Spy, felpe ! 
J)er hy myjte hyt do kendelyche, 
On-kende hys hare onselthe. 











(74) 2031 



3. gacrament, 
that is the 
gign of the 
union of 
Christ and 
Holy Church. 

Sexual inter- 
course with- 
out these 
tliree is 

But instead 
of being con- 
tinent, they 
ollen entice 
each other. 

[leaf 179] 

neitlier liolv 
tide nor holy 

and delight- 
ing even in 
90^7 unnatural 
^yJOt practices. 

2008. jw, MS. «J)0 (evidently meant for so)^ the 8 added by a later hand. 

2009. in lette, MS. inlette. 

2014. avayle^: the original reading seems to have been fayle]^, which 
was corrected by a later hand to abayle^f or, as I should read it, avayle]>. 
The metre requires vayle^. 

2021. MS. Tiare o]>er oper, the first o\fer above the lino in a later hand. 

2022. hy hyt, MS. }n/t; cf. 2024. 2029. no above the Jine. 

72 I. The Seven Sacraments, 7. Mutual Abstinence. 

Entire ab- 
with good 
intention and 
by maUul 

like Maiy's 
and Joseph's, 
is not against 

nor contrary 
to any of the 
three goods of 
matrimony ; 

Christ and 
tlie holy 
sools, that 
love each 
other in 

Both partners 
may by 
mutual con- 
sent enter 
into religion, 
and take a 
solemn vow 
of chastity. 






IT Hyt nys naujt a3en8 sacrement 2038 

Of god and holy cherche, 
Jjay hy nolde by gond purpos 

Ine hare flesche werche, 2041 

By-f eldl ; 
So ferde maiye and ioseph, 

By assent pat clene hem hdJ. 


% For pey hye wolde [by assent] 

In flesch by-leue clene, 
Jet a3eyns treupe nere hyt nou3t, 

Ne forpe s^eyns strene. 2048 

Hon scholde hy3t 
Aje gode purpos of strene [be], 

Bote ofer of ham wolde hy3t ? 


IF Ne hyjt nys ajeyns sacrement 

By assent ])a3 hy be clene 
In spoushof, jef hy louiej) hem, 

And wel libbep imene ; 

Cryst and fys holy saulen eke, 

Al louie]) hem ine clannesse. 


IT And 3yf bofe bej) of god wylle. 

And of assent at emne, 
To take to religion •». 

And makye a vou solempne, 2062 

Hy mytte 
In chastyte for euere mo 

Seruy oure drytte. 2065 





(75) 2059 

2040. 'pay = pa^—d in govd and r (above the line) in purpos in a 
later hand. 

2041. werche, MS. toorche, 

2045. pey = ]>a^. The line is too short. I have added by assent (cp. 11. 
2044, 2053), which yields the two wanting stress syllables. 
2054. louiep, MB. leuies. 

2058. louiep, the u altered to k; by a later hand. 
2062. a between makye and vou inserted by a later hand. 

I. The Seven Sacraments. 7. Caitses fm^ Separation, 73 

IT And jef fat eyf er ofer may 

Kendelyche serue, 
Ne 11103611 hy a^eins wyl to-go, 
Er ])ane o\&r schal sterue ; 

No sauue, 
Bote 3ef ^t on for-houred be, 
He may de-partyng haue. 

IT And 3ef hy so departed be, 

Ghastite he mote take, 
So longe ase ])o])res lyf ylest 
]}at whas hys ry3t[e] make ; 

Nyst gabbe, 
Jef he oper pane hy for-lyj), 
A^en a schel hys habbe. 

IT Jja3 hy mysdede, jet, and he wyle, 

Eft s^eyn he may craue, 
J?a} per such a departyng* be. 
And hijs wyf ajeyn haue, 

And scholde ; 
J)£g hy wyj)-seyde hyt openlyche, 
And ajeyn come nolde. 

IT Ac vnder-stondl for pet hordom 

))at makep pes to stryue, 
))at eche hordom ne partep naujt 
))e man al fram hys wyf[e]. 

Nou lestne : 
3ef pe oper opren so by-swykep, 
No moje hy noujt onuestne. 

% Ne pa} a wyf by-gyled be 

Of an oper by wrake, 
And wenep wel to f or-leye be 
Of hyre ryjtte make ; 

Jet more, 










But they may 
not separate 
ajpiinBt the 
will of either. 

Adultery is 
the only 
cause for 

and tlie 
parties sep- 
arated are 
bound to 
cliastity dur- 
ing each 
other's life. 

If the man 
fornicates, he 
is obliged to 
tAke his wife 
back again. 




(76) 2087 

is excluded : 







1. if a wife 
is beguiled 
by another 
whom she 
thinks her 
husband ; 

2070. No sautLe, read To saue ? 
2090. maiif MS. inani or mam. 

2076. wlias = was. 

74 I. The Seven Sdcramcnts, 7. Matrimony. Spovse absent. 

[leaf 180] 

2. if she is 
ravisbt ; 

8. if one pros- 
titutes the 

4. if one, 
the otiier 
dead, hits 

If a partner 
be long al>- 
sent on pil- 
grimage tlie 
other shall 
not re-marry 

till the absent 
one's deatli 
is proved. 

If a man 
retainH his 
wife after 
her adultery, 

he cannot 
divorce her. 

The sign of 
the sacra- 
ment is the 
plighting of 
troth in pre- 
sent terms. 









J)a3 hy be strengfe be for-leye, 
Takjj he nau3t houre lore. 

IT Ne 3ef fon fofer profre)) 
Wyjj any ofer to beddy ; 
Ne 3ef J)on wenf fis ofres def, 
And he anofer weddy : 

))a3 come 
J)e make a3en, ne schelde hy be 
To-do for hordome. 

IT Ac 3et, noil ou/iderstand for ham 

J)at goof a pylgrymage : 
On weddejj, foper abyde schel 
Wet ofer passef age 

By kende, 
Ofer wat fat fer be of hys deaf 
Ky3t god and certayn mende. 

IT And 3yf [fe] man halt ase hys wyf (77) 2115 

After jje gelt hys spouse, 
})a3 he by hyre ne ligge nou3t, notawie iiater-\ 
Ofer halt hys ine hys house, 

In tome, 
Ne schal hy nau3t de-parted be 
Fram hym for hordome. 

U J)e signe hys of fe sacrement 

pe treufynge wel couf e, 
Ofer cowf e signe of fet asent, 
Wyf worde [of] fat hijs nouf e ; 

And dygne 







2099. be, MS. ben, 2100. he = hy, 

2101. pro/re]>f MS. proof re]> ? for profere]> ? 

2103. Ne crossed out ; the abbreviation for and written in the margin ; 
€ written over the o in Jxm; we7i]> altered to webiip (the I inserted, the i 
written over the line) : all by a later hand. 

2104. weddy (subj.), MS. wedde]^, 
2108. 3€^, MS. het. 

2110. After (hi a letter erased; e over the o in )>o])cr, 'per {er abbreviated) 
on ei-asure in a later hand. See note. 

2123. wcl on erasure. 2124. coic]>e, MS. copey. 

I. Tlie Seven Sacraments. St. John's Booh. 


Jjynges per bef her mo fan on, 
Onder f ys ylke signe, 

H J)et o Jjyng hys fet hoi assent 

By-tuixte man an wyf[e], 
"Wat byndi[n]g hys of fe spousehoj), 
To helde to ende of lyf[e] ; 

And, brofer, 
J)ys ilke fyng' a signe hys eke 
Of Jjyng to-forin an-ofer. 

H And fat fyng* hys, as ich seyde her, 

\)o ich her-an gan werche, 
pG holy ioynyng* of godself 
And of al holy cherche ; 

In tome 
Of 8pou[s]hoJj fys aueyement 
LoukeJ) 30U for hordome. 

"pjO seynt lohan in fe apokalips 
J Sej priuetes of heuene. 
He sej a bok:< was fast ischet 
WyJ) strong[e] lokes seuene ; 

A wonder ! 
Ne myjte hy no man ondo 
Aboue in heuene and onder. 

H And J)o fat seint iohan y-se3 fat, 

Wei sore he gan to wepe ; 
\)o seyde an angel : — " wep f ou nou3t, 
Ac take wel gode kepe : 

J)ys sygne 


Of the things 


2129 one is the 
full couseut 
of both to 
bhid them- 
selves to- 
{pether for 

[leaf 180, bk.] 



2136 the other is 
a sign of the 
union of 
Christ and 
Holy Cliurch. 



(78) 2143 




St. Jolui ill 
the Apoca- 
lypse saw a 
book shut 
with 7 strong 

wliich no 
inun could 



An angel 
said to liim : 
' Do not weep. 

2131. byndig for the most part on erasure, in a different hand. 

2134. Dot after >y7ig'. 

2135. to fo in a, later hand on erasure, only rin original, but the last 
stroke of the n half erased, and after it an erasui-e of one or two letters. Was 
the ori^al reading perhaps \>er-inne ? 

2137. werche, MS. worche, 2141. aiuiye . ., second e over line. 

2142. pu written in the margin, —/or, read /ram ? 
2144. priuetes f MS. pruietes, the t-stroke put in the wrong place. 
2148. my^f MS. my^y (i. e. my^te hy), hy written in the margin, in 
another hand. 

76 I. The Seven Sacraments. Vision of the Book of them. 

the Holy 
Lamb who 
has been 
slain is well 
worthy to 
loose the 

This book is 
the mystery 
of the sacra- 
ments, shut 
up Trom all 

[leaf 181] 

till Jesus, the 
Holy Lamb 
slain for us, 
undid the 
quaint locks, 
and revealed 
tlie sacra- 

when Nico- 
demu8 came 
to Him by 

tion, when 

]?at holy lambe J'at sla3en hys 
To ondo hyt hys wel dygne." 

IT Jjys ylke bok* f e mistyk ys 

Of ))eso sacrementis, 
])dX were ischet fram alle men, 
Wat god hymself out sewt hys 

To touwne ; 
For, be fou syker, hy were in god, 
Er pan J>e wordle by-gounne. 


IT For ase he wyste wel [ynoj] 

We scholde be by-gyled. 
So euer wyste he pat pe feend 

Scholde ajen be by-wyled 

porj cryste; 
Ac he hyt hadde wel priue 

For satemases lyste ; 

IF Al what OS com pet ilke lambe, 

Ihe«us, pat was y-slawe, 
))at onne-schette pe queynte loken 
]}at spek of pe aide lawe, 

And seuene 
So kedde out pyse sacremens, 
By-nepe and boue in heuene. 

1! ))e ferste loke onleke ihesus, 
Ase he wel coude and my3te, 
])o nychodemus to hym come 
At one tyme by nyjte. 

To lemy, 
And he ondede hym cristendom : 
No leng* he nolde hyt demy. 


IF J)at lok [he] on-leak* of confermyng* 
})er hijs apostles leye 









(79) 2171 





notabile {jkUer] 





2164. wel [yiw}l cf. p. 150, 1. 586. 

I. The 7 Sacraments. 3. Eucharist ; 4. PcTiance ; 5, 6. 77 

Slepynde, f o fat he ham bed 

Aryse for to preye 

Jjat hy ne nolle into fondyng*, 

Ac fat hye weren stronge. 

IF J)e frydde loke on-leke ihesus 

))er he set atte sopere, 
))o he sacrede hys flesch and blod, 
Ase ich 30U seyde hyt here, 

So holde, 
In fourme of bred and eke of wyn, 
J)at we hyt notye scholde. 

If And f peter in ore ny^t 

Jjryes hedde hyne for-sake, 
And he by-held hyne fer a set, 
Ey^t atte hys pynyng stake, 

Nem kepe, 
))er he on-leke penaunce loke, 
J)o peter gan to wepe. 

f J?e fyfte, fat hys Elyynge, 

Cryst on-leke to oure wayne, 
]^ hand and fet and al hys lymes 
I-persed were ine payne 

For al f e sennes of oure lemes : 
Anon so be we anelede. 


He bade the 
apostlea pray. 


that they 
might not 

2191 wnnto 

temptation ; 


the Eucha- 
rist, at the 
Last Supper; 




(80) 2199 


when Peter 
at the sight 
of His suffer- 
ings was 
moved to 







when His 
hands and 
feet were 
pierced, and 
all His limbs 

for the sins 
of our limbs ; 

% J)e syxte on-leke swete ihesus, 2213 

Of ordre nobyng* ome, ordination, 

- , , , when He 

po ne a-ueng for oure loue received the 

crown of 

pe croune of scharpe J^omes; notauie [/at«r] 2216 thoms; 

Wei wyde 

2187. he above the line in a later hand. 

2195. here = ere, 2199. orey O.E. d(w)re, MS. o^e. 

2205. MS. vor to, vor over the line in a later hand. 

2206. JyfUy MS. fy^, 2208. fet orfot in MS.? 
2210. One-helede, unhealed ; the looks almost like E in MS. 

78 I. The Seven Sacraments. Pray for William of Shoreham. 

when His 
side was 

out of which, 
aa. woman of 
the rib of 
man's riglit 
side, sprang 
Holy Church, 
God's spouse. 

Lord, grant 
us Thy sacra- 

tliat we may 
have tliem 
ready at our 

[leaf 182] 

and let us 
have our 
portion with 

Ondede f e lok« of ry^t spousyng* 
J)e wounde onder hys syde. 






IF For ase wymman com of fe ryb 

Of fe mannes ry3t syde, 
So holyche[rche], spouse of god, 

Sprang^ of fane wonden wyde ; nou [to<«r] 

Nou leste 
Hou Jat was hed conseyl ine god 

Sprounge hijs out at hys brest[e]. 


IF Nou, lord, fat coudest maky open (81) 2227 

)}et no man coude ounschette, 
And canste wel schetten fet by[s] open, 

]^at none of er can dette, 

To hopye 
So graunte ous fyne sacremens, 

J)at non errour ne (ous) a-scapye ; 




IT And fat we hys mote aredy haue, 

Lord, her at oure nede, 
Jjat no deue3l ne a-combry ous. 

Lord, f ou hy^t ham for-bede 

Amonge ; 
And for f e tokene fat we neme, 

Lat ouse f y dole fonge. AMEN. 






Oretis pro anima domini WilleZmi de Schor- 
ham, quondam vicam de chart, iuxta 
Ledes. Qui composuit istam compila- 
tionem de septem sacramentis. 

2229. MS. ^ hy be opeUy be over the line in a later hand. 

2230. ca7i dette, MS. man derte, 

2233. MS. ous above the line in a later hand. See note. 
2240. holy written in the margin by a later hand, and marked for inser- 
tion before dole. 

II. The Hours of the Cross, Betrayal of Christ, 79 

II. l^^i^"!^ n0ster, ^omiut labia mea 

Vipxm, €k\ (82) 

l%Ou opene myne lyppen, LorcH, 
-I Let felfe of seime out-wende, 
And my mouf e, wyf wel god accorc} 

Schel fyne worschypyng* sende. 4 

H Deus, in adiutoriuiw meum intende ! 

[G]ode atende to my soconr, 
Lord, hyje, and help me fyjte. 

Glorye to f e fader and sone, 

And to Jje gost of myjtte ; 8 

Ase hyt was ferst, and hijs, and schal 

Euere more be wyj) ry^tte. 10 

[Hora matutina], 

UAderis wyt of heTie[ne] an he}, 
So])nesse of oure dry3te, 
God and man y-take w£is 

At matyn-tyde by ny3te. 14 

))e disciples \Q.i were his, 

Anone hy hyne for-soke ; 
I-seld to gywes, and by-traid, 

To pyne hyne toke. 18 

ADoramus te, christQ^ et benediscimw^ tibi, &c'. 

IT We pe honrep, ihe«u cryst, 
And blesse]), ase pou os tonjtest ; 

For J)our3 py crouche and passion 

Jjys wordle J?ou for-bou3test. 22 

[o» le(tflS2} 

Ps. 1, 17. 

[leaf 182, bk.] 
Ps. Ixix. 2. 

[If. 182» front] 

At Matin-tide 
Jesus was 
forsaken bv 
His disciples. 

delivered to 
the Jews, and 
taken away 
to His pas- 

We honour 
Thee, Jesus 
Christ; for. 
through Thy 
cross and 
Thou hast 
the world. 

2. out-wende in a later hand on erasure. 

3. ^ in god half erased. 

4. yiig sende in a later hand on erasure. 

5-10. In the MS., as well as in Wright's edition, these lines are inserted 
^^ the wrong place, between 11. 26 and 27. 

9. and schal in MS. at the beginning of the next line. 
13. y-take^ y above the line. 18. Read hy hyne ? 

80 II. The HouTB of the Cross. Appeal to Christ, Marys woe. 

[leaf 182, bk.] 

Jesas Christ, 
Son of God, 

put Thy 
croM, pain, 
and passion, 
and Thy 
death be- 
twixt ns and 

and give the 
living mercy 
and grace; 
Holy Church, 
accord and 
peace; us, 
glory and 
eternal life! 

O sweet 
Lady, what 
was thy woe, 

when the 
bloody sweat 
ran down 
from Jesus, 

Oaf 1831 

and thy dear 
Child was led 
forth like a 
a thief. 

Oremu^, Somine ihera cliristQ. 

We fe byddej), ihesu cryst, 
Godes sone alyue, 
Sete crouche, pyne and passyoun, 

And fy defe fat hys ryue, 26 

By-tuext ous and iugement, - (83) 

])at no fend ous ne schende, 
Nou, ne wanne fe tyme comfe 

)>et we scholle hennes wende ; 30 

And 3yf fe lyues mylse and grace, 

\>Q dede red and reste, 
Holy cherche acoid and pays, 

Ous glorye and lyf fat beste ; 34 

])at leuest and regnest wyf fe fader 

J)er neuer nys no pyne, 
And also wyj> J>e holy gost*, 

Euere wyf-oute fyne. AmeN. 38 

Ave maria gracia plena, domint^ tecum. 
Benedicta tu, &c\ 

OSwete leuedy, wat fey was wo, 
J)o ihesus by-come morne, 
For drede fo fe blodes dropen 

Of swote of hym doun ome ! 42 

And, leuedy, f e was wel wors, 

po fat f ou se3e in dede 
)5y leue childe reulyche y-nome, 

And ase a f ef forf e lede. 46 

And ase he f olede f et for ous, 

Leuedy, wyf-oute sake, 
Defende ous, wanne we dede befe, 

pat noe fende ous ne take. 50 

25. MS. Sete on (on over the line in a later hand) crouche; but cp. the 
Latin text. 

26. Between this and the following line the verses 5-10 above are inserted 
in the MS. 

31. mylse, MS. mysse. 

32. MS. red and and. 39. ^y = ))«. 

40. TTwrTie, MS. inxtme. 46. y erased before lede. 


At Prime, 
Jesus was led 
before Pilate, 

falsely ac- 



and Kpit in 
the face. 


II. Hours of the Cross. Trials ToQ^ture & Mockery of Christ. 81 

IT Pater noste?\ God, atente to my socour ! LorcJ, 
11736, etc. [D]Eus in adiutorium mQum. [p. 79] 
Jjomine ad. IT Hora prima. (84) 

T prime, ihesus was iled 
To-fore syre pylate, 
J5ar wytnesses false and fele 

By-lowen hyne for hate. 54 

--^ IT In fane nekke hy hene smyte, 
Bonden hys honden of my3tte, 
By-spet hym fat swe[t]e semblant 

J5at heuene and erfe a-ly3tte. 58 

U ADoramus te christe. Vve fe honouref, &c\ 
domme ihesu christe. VVe J>e biddef, ihesu. cryst. 
Aue maria, &c\ 

swete leuedy, wat fe was wo 
A gode, fry-day es morwe, 
J50 al fe ny3t y-spende[d] was 

In swete ihesues sorwe ! 62 

J50U se3e hyne hyder and f yder ycached, 

Fram pylate to herode ; 
So me bete hys bare flesch, 

J5at hy3t arne alle a blode. 

And ase he folede fat for ous, 

Leuedy, wif-oute crye, 
Scheld? ous, wanne we deade bef , 

Fram alle feenden mestrye. 70 

^ PAter noster. DEus in adiutoriuwi. God, atende to [ieaH8s,bk.] 
my socour! [p. 79] Crucifige, &c\ [Hora tcrtia.] 

|rucyfige ! crucifige ! 
Gredden hy at ondre ; 
A pourpre clof hi dede hym on, (85) 

A scome an hym to wondre ; 

Hy to-stek* hys swete hef ed 

Wyf one f omene coroune ; 

57. MS. \kU ]>at swe — e semblant. The wanting t in swete is owing to a 
hole in the parchment used by the scribe. 

59. Versicle. horuncrep, MS. ?i(ntmcre]>. — domine, MS. d fSd, the small d 
being intended for the rubricator. 

60. monoe, MS. mor\>e (or in or^, as Wright). 


O sweet Lady, 
what wa8 thy 
woe on the 
morrow of 

when Jestts 
was chased 
from Pilate 
to Herod, 
His bare flesh 
HO beaten, 
R({ that it all ran 
" with blood! 


Him!* they 
cried at Uu< 

He was 
clothed with 
74 purple, in 
mockery ; 
His head 
pierced with 
a crown of 

82 II, The Hours of the Cross, Jesus nailed on the Cross. 

and He bore 
His cross to 

sweet Lady, 
what was thy 
woe, when 
Jesus was 
doomed ; 
when He, 
so ruefully 
beaten and 
bruised, was 
loaded with 
the heavy 

At the sixth 
hour Jesus 
was nailed 
on the cross, 
between two 

In His agony, 

[leaf 184] 

they stanched 
His thirst 
with gall. 

Toe caluarye his crouche ha beer 

Wei reuliche ou3t of fe toune. 78 

U V7, Adoramu* te. Ue J>e honouref, ihe^u cryst, ut 
supra [p. 79], Jjomme ihe^u ch^te. VV e f e byddej), 
ih«5u cryst [p. 80]. [A]ue mana, &c\ 

Oswete leuedy, wat fe was wo, 
)}o ])at me ihe^us demde, 
po pat me oppone hys swete body 

pe heuye crouche semde I 82 

To here hyt to caluary, 

I-wys, hyt was wel wery ; 
For so to-bete and so to-boned, 

Hy^t was reweleche and drery. 86 

And alse he folede fat for ous, 

Leuedy, a fysse wyse, 
I-scheldl ous, wanne we dede bejj. 

From alle fendene lewyse. 90 

U DEus in adiutorium. Gode, atende to my socour. 

[p. 79] Pater noster. Hora sexta. 

/^n crouche y-nayled was ihesus 

Atte 8ix3te tyde ; 
Stronge peues hengen hy 
On eyfer half hys syde ;J 

Ine hys pyne hys stronge perst 
Stanchede hy wyp 3alle, 

So pat godes holy lombe 
Of senne wesch ous alle. 




U ADoramu* te christe. We f e honouref, ihesu cryst 
[p. 79]. Oiemus. Domine ihesu. christe. Vve pe 
biddep ihesu cryst [p. 80]. Aue maria grsiia plewo. 

Oswete leuedy, wat f e was wo, 
J)o f y chyld was an-honge, 
Itached to f e harde tre 

Wyf nayles gret and longe ! 102 

81. hys — stoete separated in MS. by the hole in the parchment. So also 
se — mdCf 1. 82, which proves that the hole must have existed before the 
scribe wrote these lines. 

94. On in MS. at the end of the preceding line. — syde, MS. sede. 

O sweet Lady, 
what was thy 
woe when thy 
child was 
fastened to 
the hard tree 
with long 
nails ! 

II. The Hours of the Gross. Jesus yields up the Ghost, 83 

J3e gywes gradden : " com a-doun ! " 

Hy neste wat y mende, 
For fran ha })ole[de] to be do 

To def for man-kende. 106 

And ase he henge, leuedy, four ous 

A heye oppon fe helle, 
Ischeld ous, wane we deade ben, 

J)at we ne hongy in helle. Amen. 110 

The Jews 
not Icnowing 
that He was 
death for 


H Pater noster. Deus in adiutoriu?/i. 
to my socoor [p. 79]. Lord, hy3e, &c*. 

tte none ihe^u cryst 
])ane harde dea]) f elde ; 
Ha grade "hely" to hys fader, 
J5e soule he gan op-^elde. 

A kni3t wyj> one scharpe spere 
Stang* hyne ij>e ry^t syde ; 

Jjerfe schok*, f e sonne dym 
By-come in fare tyde. 

God, atende 
Hora nona. 




H Adoramus te. We fe honouref , ih^m cryst [p. 79]. 
Domme ihesu christe. We fe byddef , ihesu cryst 
[p. 80]; Aue maria gracia plena, &c\ (87) 

swete leuedy, wat fe was wo, 
po ihesua deyde on rode ! 
J)e crouche, and fe ground onder hym, 

By-bled was myd his blode. 122 

J3at swerde persed f yne saule J>o, 

And so hyt dede wel of ter ; 
J)at was fy sorwe for f y child : 

Def e adde be wel softer. 126 

And ase he foled fane def, 

Leuedy, for oure mende, 
Schulde ous, wanne we dede bef , 

Fram def wyjH>uten ende. Amen. 130 

104. y = hy, 

108. helle, MS. htdle, 

118. by-come in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 

At Noon, 

crying* Eli* 
to His &ther, 
yielded up 
tlie gliost. 

A knight 
pierced His 
right side. 
The earth 
the son be- 
came dim. 

sweet Lady, 
what was thy 
woe, when 
Jesus died on 
the cross. 

Deaf 184, bk.] 

stained with 
His blood! 

The sword 
pierced thy 

that was the 
sorrow for 
thy child: 

death would 
have been 

84 II. Tfie Hours of the Cross. Christ taken dovm & buried. 

U Pater nosier. Deus in adiutorium. God, attende to 
my socour. Lorde hi3e, &c'. [p. 79] De cruce de- 
poni/wr. hora, etc. [Hora vespertina.] 

Of fe crouche he was do 
At auesanges oure ; 
J)e strengfe lotede ine god 
Of cure sauueoure. 

At Evensong 
Jesus was 
taken from 
the cross. 

Snch a death 
He, the mcdi' 
cine of life ! 

Suche a deaf a vndor-3ede, 

Of lyf fe medicine ; 
Alas, hi was y-leyd adoun, 

J}e croune of blisse, in pyne. 



O sweet Lady, 
what was thy 
woe, when 
Christ was 
taken from 
the cross. 

Thejr ooald 
not forbear 
who saw thee 
weep, and 
with often 

[leaf 185] 


H Adoramus te. We f e honouref , ihe«u crist [p. 7^. 
doinine ihesn chrufte. VVe J>e biddef, ihesu cryst 
[p. 80]. Aue maria gra//a plena. (88) 

swete leuedy, wat J>e was wo, 
j5o cryst was do of rode ! 
For as a mesel fer he lay, 

A-stouned, in spote and blode. - 142 

For-bere wepyng ne my3t hy 
J5at se3e al hou fou weptyst ; 

Al hy J>e se3e of hym blody, 

So ofte ))ou hine by-cleptyst. 146 

And ase he folede fe fylfe 

For felfe of oure sennes, 
Helpe ous, leuedy, we clene be, 

Wanne we scholle wende hennes. AmeN. 

H Pater noster, &c\ Deus [in] adiutorium. God, 
attende to my socour, &c*. Lord hi3e, &c\ [p. 79] 
Hora complettorij. 

At complyn hyt was y-bore 
To fe beryynge, 
J)at noble corps of ihesu cryst, 

Hope of Hues comynge. 154 

132. auesaTigeSf read e^tesanges'i = *hora vespertina.' 

133. Between strengpe and lotede there is in the MS. a mark of insertion, 
and in the right margin, after god, lefte is written by a later hand. 

136. dea^f a written over e. 

At Compline 
Christ's noble 
corp«e was 
carried to the 

11. Hours of the Cross, The Virgin on seeing her Son buried, 85 

Wei richeleche hit was anoynt, 
Folfeld hys holy boke ; 

Ich bydde, lord, J>y passioun 
In myne mende loke. 

H Adoranius te. We J>e honouref , ihcsu cHst [p. 79]. 
Jjomine ihesu christe. We byddej), ihesu. cryst 
[p. 80]. Aue maria, gracia plena, &c\ 

Oswete leuedy, wat fe was wo, 
And drery was fy mone, (89) 
\)o J?ou sei3e J>y lefe sone 

Ibered vnder fe stone ! 165 

)5at fou wystest foui^ fy fey 

Aryse fat he scholde, 
A drery fay hyt was to fe 

)jat he lay vnder molde. 166 

And ase he was four ous y-berod. 

And aros pourwe hys my^tte, 
Help ous, leuedy, a domes day, 

)jat we aryse mytte brytte. Amen. 170 

U }3yse oures of J>e canowne. 
Lord, mene3e ich J?e wel fayre, 

WyJ) wel gre3t deuocioun, 

A reyson de-bonayre. 174 

And ase f ou foledest, lor[d], for mo 

Ope caluaryes doune, 
So, acordaunt to J>y trauayl, 

LordI, graunte me fy coroune. AmeN. 

163. ]>at, read ]>a^ %—fey, MS. /ey>, > added by a later hand. 

165. fay^ MS. fay^, > in a later hand on erasure. 

170. In the right margin a later hand has added >c leuedy. 

and so the 
were fulfilled. 


sweet Lady, 
what WHS thy 
woe, when 
thou sawest 
thy dear son 
bturied under 
the stone ! 

Though thou 
knewest that 
He should 
arise, it was 
a dreary 
faith, when 
He lay under 
the ground. 

These canoni- 
cal liours, 
Lord, I com- 
[leaf 185, bk.] 

with great 

And afl Thou 
HUfTeredst lor 

so grant me 
Thy crown. 


III. The Ten Canimandmmts. 

The man who 
keeps Gkxl's 
mente, and 
not only be- 
fore men. 

sreat shall be 
his reward. 

If thou keep- 
est them, 
Gk>d says He 
will be foe to 
thy foes, and 
friend to thy 

Thy sasten- 
aiice thou 
Shalt have, 
though no 
delicacy in 

[leaf 186] 

(III.) gt litttm prmptis. (90) 

H pE man ])at godes hestes halt, 

And fat niyd gode wylle, 
And nau3t one by-fore men, 

Ac bofe lou(? and stylle, 4 

Meche hys fe mede fat hym worfe, 

By so fat he na-drylle ; 
}ef ho hys brekef , and so by-leeff , 

Hys sauyle schal he spylle. 8 

U 3ef f ou hys halst, man, god f e seif e 

Ha wole be f e so kende, 
He wole be fo to f yne fon, 

And frend to fyne frende ; 12 

Hye fe mysdof , ham wyle mysdo, 

And haue f ys in fyne mende : 
Hys angel schal to-for f e go 

To wyte fe fram fe fende. 16 

U Jjyne sustenaunce f ou schol[t] haue, 

)5y3 nau3t a lyue delyco, 
Ac mete and clof es renableliche, 

And lyf ine herte blysce. 20 

pa3 folk* f e heelde a nice man, 

pQT-iove nert f ou nau3t nyce ; 
I-likned worf f y gode loos 

So swete so fe spyce. 24 

7. by-leefp, MS. by loefp ? 

8. sauyle, MS. sauylle, first I underdotted. 
13. Hye, read Ewo ? 

21. MS. anice. 

III. The Ten Commandments. Love God and all men, 87 

H Jef fe pat art a crystene man 

Wei hy healde by-fallej>, 
Syker pou myjt be of pat lond? 

)jar melke and hony wallep ; 28 

)jat hys pe blysse of heuene a-boue, (91) 

pSLT holy soulen stallep 
Ine glorye per none ende nys, 

Ne none swetnesse a-ppallep. 32 

U To wyte panne wat god ha3t 

Is eche man wel y-halde ; 
)5rof ich may telle ase ich wof , 

Ase oper men me tealde, 36 

And ase hyt hys in holye boke 

I-wryten ine many a f elde : 
Lestnep to mey, par charyte, 

Bope 3onge and ealde. 40 

U O pyng* hyt hys, al pat god hat, 

Bote a two he hy3t dy3te, 
And pat hys loue, man, syker pou be, 

To louye wyp py my^te. 44 

J)ou ert y-helde, man, per-to 

By skele and eke by ry3tte ; 
J)ou penke her-on, par charyte, 

By dayes and eke by ny3tte. 48 

H J)ys loue god hep y-di3t a tuo 

Amang< hijs hestes alle. 
J)e ferste hys, for to louye god, 

By-falle what so falle ; 52 

Seppe to louye alle men, 

So bropren scholde ine halle, 
Wyp-outen bytemesse of mode, 

pa,t hijs pare saule galle. 56 

Thou mayst 
be sure of 
the land 
where milk 
and honey 
flow : that is, 
the bliss of 

Each man 
is bound to 
know what 
God com* 
tlierefore I 
will tell you. 

One thing 
it is, 

and that is 

This love is 
divided into 

1. love of 

[leaf 186, bk.] 

2. love of all 

89. mey = me, 

40. ealde, the a altered by a later hand from o, which was written on 
erasure ; an e before it is still clearly distinguishable. 
44. my^, MS. my^t, with a flourish to the t. 

88 III. The Ten Cmnmandments. The Two Tables of them. 

He who keeps 
these two 
ments of 
Charity fnl- 
fils all the 
law of Ood, 
and sayings 
of the pro- 

Qod has given 
ten com- 
He wrote 
them with 
His own 
finger upon 
two tablets 
of stone, 
and handed 
tht>m to 

One table con- 
tained tliree 
of these ten 

[leaf 187] 

which relate 
to love of 
the seven 
relate to love 
of man. 

H }3e man fat healdef J)ys[e] two, 

Of charyte f e heastes, 
Al he folue[l])) fe lawe of gode, 

And prophetene gestes. 
Ac lasse loue J>er hys wyj) men 

Jjane be wyf wylde bestes : 
J)at doj) fat manye y-schodred ben 

Fram heuene-ryche festes. 

U Ten hestes hauej) y-hote god, 

Ase holy wryt ous tealde ; 
Ope two tablettes of ston 

Wyf hys finger bealde 
He hys wrot, Moyses by-tok*, 

Wylom by da3es ealde, 
To wyse man hou [he] schal wel 

J^ese ten hestes healde. 

U In ston ich wot fat he hys wrot, 

In tokne of sykernesse, 
J)at wo fat wole ysaued be, 

\)Q more and eke f e lesse, 
By-houef fat he healde hy 

Wyf al hys bysynysse. 
Alias ! feawe f enchef f er-on 

I[n hare] wykkednesse. 


U )jet o table hedde fry 

Of f yse hestes tene ; 
])Q f ri longef to loue of gode, 

Ase hy3t schel wel be sene. 
J)e seuen longet to loue of man, 

J)at none scholde wene 









63. y-schodred, r written over e ; see note. 

69. Kolbing supplies wind before Moyses. 

71. {he'\ supplied by Kolbing. 

73. wot, small r written over o in MS. 

75. wo = who, MS. wCy originally wey, the y afterwards erased. 

80. I[n hare], MS. / a ; between them there is a blank covering some 

five or six letters. 

86. none, read nan ne ! 

III. 10 Commandinerds: 3 on Love to God; 7 cm Laoc to Men, 89 


Ine J)of er table sete fo, 

To-gadere and al y-mene. . 

U Honury J>ou schelt enne god?, (93) 

Hym one to by-knowe ; 
Take nau^t hys name in ydelschepe, 

WyJ) ydel wynde to bio we ; 92 

Hal^e ])ou ])e masseday, 

Ase he comf e in fe rewe ; 
In fese fre schewyf fe loue of god, 

Were hyt hys to sewe. 

U Worschipe fy fader and moder eke ; 

Ne bryng* no man of lyue ; 
Do fe to none lecherye, 

)5a3 J>e f ondyngge dryue ;» 
Wytnesse uals ne here fou pon ; 

Of feffe J)Ou ne schryue ; 
Coueyte none mannes wyf, 

Ne nau3t of hys forstryue. 104 

H J)ys befe fe seuene fat loue of man 

Schewe[J)] what hy3t be scholde ; 
}ef eny man faylef any of f ys, 

Nys hy3t bote an on-holde. 108 

Ac al to fewe louyej) ham, 

And wyllej) J>at ofer wolde ; 
Alas ! wat schal be hare red 

Wanne hy bej) vnder molde 1 112 

U Ac many man desceyued hys, 

And wenej) pat he hys helde ; 
And weynej) pat he be out of peryl, 

0]yer ine senne so schealde, 116 

J)at hym ne doutep of no breche 

Of godes hestes healde ; 

and should 
not be put 
88 with the 

Thou shalt 
lionour one 

take not His 
name in vain ; 

hallow the 
mass-day : 

in these three, 
the love of 
96 God shows 

Honour thy 
father and 
mother ; 
deprive no 
man of his 
life; give not 
thyself to 
lechery ; 

bear no false 
witness ; 
love not theft; 

covet no 
man's wife, 
nor anything 
that is his. 

These seven 
show what 
love of Man 
ought to be. 

[leaf 187, bk. J 

But many a 
man fancies 
that he keeps 
the com- 
mandments ; 
or^— thinking 
it but a 
trifling sin- 
is not afraid 
of breaking 

95. schewy}^ . . god : MS. ))e Imie of god schewy hit : hit^ as well as to in 
L 96, above the line in a later hand. But see note. 

90 III. The Ten CommandmerUs. Folk must act them. 

The Book of 
Wisdom says 
every man 
should know 
the com- 
often rehearse 

and even tie 
them to his 

For man's 
ten fingers 
and toes are 
symbols of 
the ten com- 

Yet some man 
can speak 
them to per- 
fection ; 
but in his 
deeds he fares 
a8 though he 
knew nothing 
of them. 

[leaf 188] 

It is not 
enough to 
speak them ; 

we must also 
act up to 

Ac he not nefer wat hy beef, (94) 

Ne neuer hy ne tealde. 120 

II I-wryte hyt hys, ich telle hyjt f e, 

Ine pe boke of wysdome, 
pat eche man scholde conne hy, 

And rekeny wel y-lome ; 124 

And fat hy nere nau^t for-jete, 

Wane of ere f ou3tes come, 
Tys fyngres scolde man byndo hy 

For doute of harde dome. 128 

II For mannes honden and hys fet 

Beret tokene wel gode 
Of alle f e tenne comaundemens : 

pat, man, fyt onder-stoude ! 132 

Ten fyngres and ten fine tone, 

Of flesche and bon and blode, 
Toknef fat f yne workes ne be, 

A3eyns fe hestes, for-broude. 136 

IT )et somman hijs fat passioun-lyche 

Can telle hy myd f e beste, 
Ac ine hys dedes uares he 

Ase he naujt of hem neste ; * 140 

And 3et hym f ingf fat he def wel, 

And for to come to reste ; 
Ac al desceyued schel he be, 

Wanne comef fe grete enqueste. 144 

U Here-fore nys hy3t nau3t y-nou3 

To telle hy uor to conne : 
And telle and werche wel f er-by, 

Jjanne hys hy3t alle y-wonne. 148 

127. Tys = to [te] hys; cp. p. 33, L 915 ; also \>yt, 1. 132 = Jxw [>«] hyt. 

132. onder-stoudCf ou written for o; so also mfor-hroudef \, 136. 

137. pasHioun-lychey read passing-lyche ^ 

146. MS. ne (over the Une in a later hand) iwr to omne. 

III. The Ten GommandmenU, Pray for Grace to keep them, 91 

For wel to conne, and nau3[t] to don, (95) 

Nys nafer rawe ne y-sponne ; 
Lytel hijs worf , bote hyt endy wel, 

J)yng* fat hijs wel by-gonne. 152 

U J>ey hyt be wel lyttelyche ysed, Though it \% 

be lerste heste a rowe, say * Honour 

' one God/ 

For to honoury anne god, 

Hym one to by-knowe, 156 

Jjenche fou most wel bysyly. 

And f y wyjt fran by-stowe, 
And bydde hym, fat J)ou hyt mote do, humbT*"™ 

Wel myldeleche a knowe. 160 kn^.^'tob^^ 

(e)-\\ able to do it. 

H For bou ne myit hytte nefere do, For thou 

__ .f *i canst never 

Man, wel wyf-oute grace : do it without 

So heb bys wordle bounde be SPJ**!^'''® 

' '•' ' World en- 

WyJ) here lykynges lace. 164 ^iJ{j®Jer***® 

j3er-fore fe by-houej) godes helpe, pleasures. 

J)at he hyt wolde arace, 
So fat fou ne teldest no worf 

Of [here] blandynge face. 168 

U For vsi by wyl reiofvelb more if tiiou re- 

-yj TJ J U jr ioicestmore 

In enyes kennes fynges, in tiiinjM of 

Be hy3t fy childe, ofer f y best, 

Land, brouches, ober rynges, 172 whatever 

' r J & ' they be, than 

Ofer a^t elles, wat so hyt be. Deaf iss, bit.] 

Bote god fat hys kynge of kynges, ISo^ost not 

J)ou ne a-nourest god ary3t, bSt ms suiJ-' 

Ac dest is onderlynges. 176 


149. to doUf MS. no don, 

151. dy in endy on erasure ; wel in MS. at the beginning of the next line, 
with a dot after it. 

153. lyttelyche for lyttelyche. 

164. lacef MS. lausCf u and s on erasure in a later hand. 

169. reioyep, MS. re i op. 171. py (Kblbing),MS. pe. 

172, rynges, MS. ryngep. 

174. MS. Bote yne god, yne added by a later hand above the line. — 
heuefoe (underdotted) after of. 

175. In the margin, above ary% a later hand has written na^t^ to be 
inserted after anourest. 

92 III. Ten CommandmetUs. 1. No Idolatry, 2. Swearnot idly. 

Believe in no 

nor -even in 

but perform 
thy worship 
as Holy 
teaches thee. 

Examine thy 
own thouglit. 

and if thou 
dost not 
honour God 

The second 
meut shows 
man's default 
in swearing 
idly every 

The swearer 
shaJl have 
much to an- 
swer for 

at the hour of 

[leaf 189] 

unless the 
mercy of God, 
our auditor, 
forgive hitn 
his arreai's. 

H By-lef fou in no wychecraft, 

No ine none teliinge, 
Ne forfe inne none ymage self, 

}?a3 ]7at be great botninge ; 
Bote as al holy cherche J?e tek[J?] 

))ou make fyne worfynge, 
For gode nele nau^t fat f ou hyt do, 

Bote by fere wyssynge. 

II panuQ asay fyn 036 ))03t 

By fysser ylke speche, 
And 3yf f ou annourest god ary3t, 

jjyno inwit wyle f e teche ; 
And 3yf J>ou fynst fat fou ne dest, 

Amende, ich f e by-seche : 
Jjou ert a sot, and my3t do bet. 

And so si3st yn fe smeche. 

U )jat of er heste ape?iielyche 

Schewed mannes de-faute, 
Wanne he alday sweref ydelleche 

In kebbyng* and in caute. 
Mechel hys fat he makef hym 

Her-efterwarcJ to touty, 
Wenne he schal hys a-countes 3yue 

Of ech idel sente. 

U Jjenne ne couf e ich nanne red 

Of fylke a-countes onre, 
Nere f e milse of god self, 

Oiire alder auditoTir[e], 
)5at woUe f e arerages for-3eue, 

Jef hyt hys to hys honoure ; 
Ac cesse, man, of f y ydelschep. 

Of er ich wole out wel soure. 










194. schewed = schewe]>. 196-200. See note. 

203. After milse, a later hand has added above the line <fc inerd. 

111.10 ConimaTidments. S. The Sabhath. 4f. Honour Parents. 93 

^ J)e frydde heste apertelyche (97) 

ScheweJ) fy wykked rote, 
Wanne J)ou [ne] halst fy masseday, 

As god hyt haf y-hote, 212 

Ac werkest, of er werky dest, 

Werkes fat bef to note : 
\)e wykkede ensaumple fat f ou 3efst 

jjou a-beyst, ich fe by-hote. 216 

II And f aj f ou ne werche naii^t, 

Ac gest to f yne gloutynge, 
Of er in eny of er folke 

In pleye of fretynge, 220 

J}ou halst wel wors fane masseday 

)5ane man myd liys workynge ; 
J)are-fore do f e al y-hoUiche 

)5at day to holy fy nge. 224 

II \)e ferf e heste schewef f e 

J)at f ye senne schal sle f e, 
}yf f ou rewardest f yne eldrynges nau3t 

A lyue and eke a defe, 228 

J)at were wel besy to brynge f e forf e, 

As hy my^ten onnef e ; 
3yf f ou hy gna3st and flag3st ek*, 

Ey3t hys fat fendes flea f e. 232 

H Nau3t nys fys heste y-hote of god 

For suche eldren al-lone, 
Ac hys of mannos eldren eke 

As he te3t atto font-stone, 236 

The third 
ment sboTirs 
thy wicked 
habit in not 
keeping the 

but working, 
or causing 
work to be 
done for tliee, 

though, by 
feasting in 
private, or 
public meny- 

thou keepcst 
the mass-day 
even worse 
ttian a man 
ducH with liis 

The fourth 
ment allows 
that thy sin 
shall slay 
thee, if thou 
dost not 
reward thy 

[leaf 189, bk.] 
Tliis applies 
also to our 

210. Jw/, MS. toy]*. 

213. werky, y altered from e, 

217. )>a3 (Kolbing), MS. ])a^ ; we may as well read []w3] ^aL 

218. yyne (suggested by Kolbing), MS. pyjie; but sec note. 

219. 220. See note. 223. do (Kolbing), MS. to. 

225. fer\>e, MB./este ov/efte, 

226. sle \>ey MS. sle\>e. 
230. on7ie}>e, MS. onny]>e. 
232. flea pe, MS. flea}>e. 

94 III. The Ten ComTrumdments. 5. Kill not : speak no et?il. 

Holy Church. 

The fifth 
ment shows 
not to kilt, 
or speak evil 
of, or harm, 
or foully twit 
any one. 

He, too, is a ! 

who sufTers 
any one to 
die of want ; 

and— as St. 
John reminds 
us — so is he 
that hates 
any man. 

[leaf 190] 

J>er holy cherche fy moder hys 

In fader crtstes mone ; 
}ef J)ou ert on-boxom to hyre, (98) 

Grace of God ne wor])e ))e none. 240 


H )5e fyfte heste schewe]) fe 

)}at ])ou ne schalt nau^t smyte, 
Ne nau3t ne mysHsegge ne mys-do, 

Ne naujt foulleche at-wyte. 244 

For ofte f e mannes sle3te arystj 

Were man hy3t wenef wel lyte ; 
And he pat spille)) mannes lyf, 

VeniouTise hyt schel a[c]wyte. 248 


IT And 3ef per hys mansle3j>e pur, 

As ous tellej) holy boke, 
}yf eny man for de-faute deyf , 

And eny hym for-soke 252 

To helpe hym of fat he may, 

Hys lyf to saue and loke : 
Her dere 3er acusep fele 

J)at god and orf e touke, , 256 


% And 3et seint iohan pe-wangelyst 

Al into mende dra3ep, 
He pat hatyep eny man. 

He seche pat he hym sla^e. 260 

Manye suche mansle3pen bep, 

)jat al day men for-gna3ep, 
& Sweche bep in helle depe, 

J5at deuelen al to-drawep. 264 

238. MS. And, fader in cristes mone ; see note. 
244. foulleche^ M.S, foules he, 
246. lyte, MS. lytel. 

248. a[c]ioyte (Kolbing). 

249. je/j read ^et ? — mansle^]>ef MS. sle^ ]>e. 

260. See note. 

261. 7nansle^]>en : MS. -sle^ 'pen. 

263. w in Sweche over the line, in the original hand-writing, it seems. 

III. The 10 Commavdments. 6. No Lechery. 7. No Theft. 95 

H J)e sixte heste schewef wel 

))e so])e to al mankenne, 
J5e dede ydo in lechery 

Hys ry3t a dedleche senne ; 
And elles nere hy3t nau3t for-bode 

amange ])e hestes tenne : 
))e ])at segge]) hyt nys nau3t so, 

hare wy3t hys al to penne. 

f Her hys for-bode glotenye, 

So ich fe by-hote ; 
For hyt noryssef lecherye, 

Ase fer, fe brondes hote. 
And J)a3 fer be alone lomprynge 

In lecheryes rote, 
Al hyt destruef charyte, 

Wyf wrake and wyf Jjrete. 

H J)e seuende heste schewed wel 

Man schal be true in dede, 
))at no man abbe of ])e o])eres naiit 

Jjorj fef te wycke rede ; 
For al hys ])efte ])at man te3t 

Myd wyl of wynnynghedo 
A3ens pe ry3t 03eres wyl, 

So lawe y-wryte hyt sede. 

U Jeanne hys hyt a fef, wo-so hyt bo, 

]?at manne god so take]), 
Be hy3t by gyle ofer mestry, 

0])er wordes ])at he crake]). 
In londe suche his many a ])ef 

))at y-now hym make]) ; 









The sixth 
ment shows 
that the deed 
done in 
lechery is a 
deadly sin. 

Here is also 
gluttony ; 

for it nour- 
ishes lechery 
as hot brands 
nourish fire. 

Tlie seventh 
ment shows 
that man 
shall be 
honest; that 
he shall not 
have by theft 
belonging to 

to himself 
other men's 

good, either 
y guile, 
or force, 
or cajoling 

[leaf 190, bk.] 
is a thief. 

269. foT-hode begins next line in MS. 

271. 80 in. MS. transposed to the following line. 

275. hyt, MS. ick. After lecherye an underdotted a is written in MS. 

283. yreUi. distinctly so in MS. 285. abbe, read nahhe% (Kblbing). 

286. wynnynghede'i MS. toymynghede. 

96 III. The Ten CommandmerUs. 8. No Lies, 9. iVb Adultery. 

The eighth 
mont forbids 
false witness ; 
and that is, 

all manner 
of fiilsehood, 
to do man 
harm in body 
or souL 

All lying is 

only lying 
for a good 
purpose is 
not quite a 
deadly sin. 

The ninth 
ment forbids 
the will to 
[leaf 191] 
do lechery, 
and especially 

He wenj) by chere of iugement, 

Ac helle after hym wakef. 296 

H J)e e^tende heste fe for-bed 

J)e false wytnessynge ; 
And fat hys, man, syker Jjou be, (100) 

Alle manere lesynge 300 

To hermy in [hys] body man, 

Ofer in hys ofer f ynge, 
Ojjer in hys saule, and fat hys worst, 

In peryl for to brynge. 304 

H Al hyt hys senne fat me le^f , 

Bote fat men le^f for gode 
Ry3t deadlyche senne nys fat nau^t. 

For myldenesse of mode. 308 

Ac elles, man, al fat f ou legst 

Is deaf lich and for-brode ; 
\)o f et hy3t usef , ich wot hy bef 

Vn-wyser fane fe wode. 312 

U Alas ! onnef e eny man 

J)at f yse heste(s) healde ; 
Alle hy bef y-torned to lesynge, 

J)es 3onge and eke f es ealde. 316 

J)er-to hys mentenauwce great, 

Jjat makef hy wel bealde : 
Do 3e nau3t so, par chary te, 

Ac 30ure tongen 36 wealde. 320 

U \)e ne3ende heste f e for-bed 

J)at wyl to lecherye, 
And to spousbreche nameleche, 

Jjat so meche hys to glye. 324 

Jjanne nys hyt naii3t one dea[d]lyche 

Swych dede to com ply e, 

295. chere, read schere {skere)f See p. 105, 1. 183. 

303. Kiilbing suggests leaving out in. 316. ealde, MS. olde. 

III. The 10 Commandments. 10. Covet no mun*s things. 97 

Ac ys pat uoule wyl al so 

To swyche fylenye. 328 


U )>e tefe heste Jje fo[r]-bet (101) 

Wyl tou oper manne pynge, 
For pat desturbet charyte, 

In onde man to brynge. 332 

DefendeJ) 30U for godes loue 

Fram alle wykked wyllynge ; 
For suche wyl hys for dede iset 

In godes knelecbynge. 336 


U Nou ich 30U bydde for pe blode 

];at ihe«us blede on pe rode, 
))at in te herte takep pys two 

To joure soule fode ; 340 

And fo[l]}ep nau3t in pys wordle 

J3e uyle commune floude 
))at fleup in-to pe fendes moupe ; 

And so seipe iop pe gode AmeN. 344 

The tenth 
ment forbids 
otiier men's 

Refrain from 
all wicked 
desires; for 
will standH 
for deed in 
Qod's view. 

For the sake 
of Jesus' 
blood, take 
tlie com* 
to heart. 

330. Urn = to. 

339. Omit^tt;o? 



98 IV. The Seven Deadly Sins. The effects of Sin. 

oagiitto be 

[IT a one 
til that 

sin bring! 
man down. 

and distnrbs 
God's peace. 

[leaf 191, bk.] 

Sin makes a 
man beweep 
what he once 
laughed at ; 

sin Is sweet 
and pleasant 
ill the com- 

and tastes 
sour when 

Sin makes 
ever new 
tliough it be 
forgotten ; 

it makes all 
the misery 
on earth. 

IV. [gie stpttm m0rtaIilTtts pwratts.] (102) 



Enne make]) many ])raly 
))at scholde be wel fry ; 
And senne make]) many fal, 
|?at he ne mote i])y. 

Senne brynge]) man a-doun, 

))at scholde sitte a deys ; 

Senne make]) storbylo[u]n, 

J)ar scholde be godes peya. 

■ (3) 
Senne make]) by-wepe 

J3at somman er by-loj ; 
Senne bryngef wel depe 

l)at hym wel hy3e dro^. 

Senne hys swete and lyke]), 

Wanne a man hi de]) ; 

And al so soure hy bryke)), 

Wanne he ueniaunce y-sej). 

Senne make]) nywe schame, 

Jja^ hy f or-jete be ; 

And senne bryngef men in grame, 

))ar er was game and gle. 

And senne make]) al ))e who 

))at man an er])e he]), 





8. pey8t MS. peays, the a inserted (and the s added) by a later hand. 
13. Between hys and swdc some letters erased. 

20. and gle later hand. 

21. who = i/;o; same spelling, 11. 29, 46, etc. 

22. Ae>, MS. hap. 

IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. Folk dorit mind Hell or Purgatoon/, 99 

And brynge]) mannes saule also 

and brings 
man's soul 

In belles uoule bref. 


into bell. 


And bey man be fram helle y-wared 

And though 

f)ouT^ repentaunce bere, 

may save him 
from hell, he 

3et ne may nau^t some man be spared 

will not be 

Fram purgatories fere, 




J)at be no scbel soffry fer bys wbo, (103) 

Ase be bijs bere ateyut ; 

And ber nys fer namore )»er-to 

))anne bys fer dereynt. 



Ac purgatorie and belle, 

Bat men do 
not mind 

Hy hep so lyte by-leued. 


J)at, wbat so meuere telle, 

[Men] bef prof al adeued. 



Hem wolde doiifcy more 

and are more 
afraid of a 

A lytel pyne ber. 

[leaf 192] 

bane bam wolde al bat sore 

little pain 

And on-ysely fer. 


than of all 
that torment- 
ing fire. 


Ac bwo se3 euer eny 

But who ever 
had real 

)?at bedde of senne glye. 

delight from 

For pond ofer for peny 

Diji r 

)?at be ne cbangede bys blye, 



Wyf scbame and eke wyf scbonncle, 

Wyp soi^e and eke wyp wbo 1 

25. y-wared, MS. y-wered, 

30. cUeyntf MS. cUenkt. 

32. dereynt. In the MS. the second e is written close to the long-tailed 
r, and a stroke drawn through the tail of the r, such as generally occurs in 
the letter p ; so that the word intended by the scribe may really have been 
depeyrU, See note. 

34. Hy be^ in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 

35. what so nieue men telle^, men (above the line), and the ]> in telle}> in 
a later hand. 

41. eny later hand. 
43. peny, MS. peyne. 

100 IV. The Seven Deadly Sins. Sinful pleasure is but short. 

Either ex- 
perience the 
torment after 

or taate the 
sorrow fol- 
lowing sin, 
so that only 
may tall 
to thee. 

tempted to 

And ])at was ked in londe 

By some nau3t feru ago. 48 

))anne ich may wyssy ase ich can. 

Mi self ])a3 ich be spre]), 
Jjat, bote f ou wylle wondy, man, 

J)y pyne after fy def, 52 

Wonde pe 8or3e fat hys her 

Foljende after fy queed ; 
And 3et ])e tyt pe lasse fer, 

Whanne J)e fal]) to be dead. 56 

Whanne pou scholdest sene3y, 

By-fenche, leue frend, 
And paj fy flesch J>e mene^y, (104) 

pe wordle oper fe fend, 60 

By-J)enche hou schort hys fe lykynge, 

And hou pe schame hys stronge, 
And hou fou wrepest fane kyng* 

Of heuene wyf fy wrongs. 64 

f)i^ man mo3e ])or3 hys resoun 

Ywyte wanne he mys-def , 
Jet fer by-houef gre3t sarmouw 

To hame fat lewed befe. 68 

For f eawe of ham conne f e skele 

Hou senne a-boute comef ; 
And fat a-combref swyf e fele 

))at none kepe nomef. 72 

50. Mi self, MS. / Mi self Mi (in a different hand) inserted between 
/ and self. 

51. wondy, 53. Wonde, read uoTidy, Uonde ? 

52. yy pyne, read Jw pyne ? 57. evieyy in lighter ink. 
58. By-^en^, read By-'pench ]>e ? 

63. vfrepest, the r written over the e. 

64. wk (underdotted) after he^vene in MS. 

65. mo^j MS. Tno^o. After 'por^, resoun is written, but has been crossed 
out and underdotted. 

consider how 
short is the 
delight, and 
how great 
the shame, 
and how thou 
wrathest the 
King of 

Lay folk 
ne«i detailed 

[leaf 102, bk.] 


bow sin 
comes about. 

IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. Sin started vnth Adam and Eve. 101 

J)er-fore fys tale rymej) 

Hou men in senne be|), 
And hou senne by-lymef 

Man ])at to senne hym de]), 76 

J)er-fore neme ^e kepe 

Al hou ])e senne syt, 
))at ^e ne falle to depe 

For wane of ^oure wyt, 80 

Nou lyst hou man hys bounde 

Wyf senne swyfe stronge, 
And hou he beref deaf-wounde, 

And fenym fare a-monge. 84 

\>Q wonde swel]) an ake]), 

So do]) ])e naddre steng*, 
And gret and gretter make]), 

And feljje make freng*. 88 

Iwounded was mankende (1^^) 

After pat hy was wro^t, 
J)orj fe neddre, fe feend[e], 

])at hy he]) al J^or^-soujt 92 

Jjorwe J)e fenym of senne 

))at al mankende slak]) : 
Nys nou non [of] fat kenne 

)}at ])at fenym ne take]). 96 

And pat fenym was ferst y-kest 

On eue and on adam. 
And so forJ)e Jjenne hyt her ylest, 

Ase kenne of-3emeJ) yne man. 100 

77. MS. ^er fore fore (struck out). 

85-88. See note. 

95. Nys, MS. Nes. 

97. y-kesti MS. y-kast, 

100. ^emep yne on erasure iu a later hand. 

is to open 
men's eyes. 

Man is 
Iwuiid witli 
sin, and 
upon him. 

Mankind was 
after ttie 
creation by 
tlie serpent, 
tlie fiend. 

He cast tlie 
venom of sin 
first on Adam 
and Eve; 
and now is 
none of tlieir 
race tliat is 
not infected 
with it. 

[leaf 193] 

102 IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. Original Sin, not OocCs/auU. 

So not even 
the child, 
when living, 
is sinless. 

so long as it is 

This sin is 
original sin. 

Now, many a 
fool has said 
that it was 
nnwise of 

who might 
have done 
to lead us 
into such 

Bnt it is not 
forus to re- 
proach Qod. 

disputes with 
Him shall be 

So hy3t nys nau3t senne-lyas, 

])at child )>at haue)) lyf, 
Ybore oJ>er on-bore was, 

bote Crystnynge breke)> )>at stryf. 104 

Oryginale |)ys senne hys cleped, 

For man of kende hyt take]) 


. . Here two lines are wanting,] 108 

Ey3t so hys al mankende a-merred 

poT^ pe route of f enym, 
))at do|) paX mannes body ybered 

Nys bote a lyte slym. 112 

Her-vppe y))03t haf meny a man, 

And ised many a foul 
J)at on-wyslyche god ous by-gan, 

And hys red was to coul, 116 


))at let man to suich meschyef, 

J)at my3te hyt habbe vndo ; 
Ac 3ef Jjou wolt by gode lief, 

))enche ])ou namore so. 120 

Ne velfe hyt nau3t to clypye a3en, (106) 

We soej) wel hyt hys fous, 
God te atwyte oure won 

No longej) nofyng* to ous. 124 

For wo dysputej> a-3eyn hym. 
Concluded schel he be ; 

104. bote, in the handwriting of a later revisor of the text. It had been 
erroneously written at the end of line 103, where it has been erased. 

106. After takep, a later hand has added syn. 

117. let, read ledde ? — meschyef, the second e written over the y; so also 
in the corresponding ryme-word lief the i is written over the e. 

123. toon, read toen t but see note. 

125. wo{= who), MS. toe. 

IV. The 7 Deadly Sins, The Pot and Potter: Manand God, 103 

Dispute naii3t, ac kepe nym, 

Wo )»art, and who hys he. 128 

Wat helpf hyt fe crokke 

J)at hys to felfe ydo 
A^e J)e crokkere to brokke : — 

" Wy madest J)ou me so ? " 132 

J)e crokkere myjte segge : 

" Jjou proud erfe of lompet, 
Ine fel])e ])ou schelt lygge, 

J)ou ert naujt elles nejt." 136 

Ry^t 80 may god an-swerye |)e, 

Wanne J)ou hym at-wyst ; 
Wat help])e hyt so wrau to be, 

Wanne fou wyf gode chyst] 140 

Do nau^t so, ac mercy crye, 

J3at fe [ne] tyde wors ; 
For suiche al day, me may ysy, 

EncresseJ) here cors. 144 

Ac be )»ou wel, man, be )»e wo, 

Of gode ne tel fou nau3t ly3te ; 
For syker be, fat he let do. 

He let hyt do wyf ry3te. 148 

Swech ry3t scheawef wyf God aboue, 

J)e[3] hy3t be hyd fram fe ; 
]?enche namore, for godes loue, (107) 

So he3e pryuete. 152 

Ac fench J>ou nart bote esche, 
And so fou lo3e fe, 

Shall the pot 
thrown into 


dirt, quarrel 
witli the 
* Why hast 
thoa made 
me thus P ' 

The potter 
might flay : 
' Thou proud 
clay deaervest 
no better.' 

So may God 
answer thee 

Do not 80, 
but cry 

and do not 
God's justice. 

Think that 
thou art but 
ashes, and 
thyself. . 

129. Wat, aiS. ^, 

137. an'Swerye, originally and swerye, the d afterwards erased. 

143. ysy, MS. yse, 

i46. lyyU, MS. lytel, 

149. Ood aboue in MS. at the beginning of the next line. 

104 JY. The 7 Deadly Sins, Adttal Sin in ThmtgM and Deed. 

[leaf IMJ 

will be 
granted thee, 
else thou wilt 

since 'Ck>d 
resistetb tlie 
proud, and 
giveth grace 
to the 

Another kind 
of sin is per- 
petrated by 
man himself. 

which is 
'actual' sin. 

and is done 
either in 
thought, or 
speech, or act. 

And byde god fat he wesche 
pe Mpe ])at hys in ])e. 

And J)y3 fou lange abyde, 
Ne at-wyt hym naujt f y who, 

Ac tyde pe what by-tyde, 
|}ou ))onke hym eueie mo. 

And 80 soum grace J)e by-tyt, 

Ac eUes fe hy for-gest ; 
For god wyf-stondej) hym J>at chyt 

And 830 god wrest^ 

Ase he wyf-stent pe prouden, 

And myld[en] grace sent 
To libbe a-mang* ])e louden, 

Wenne o])ere hop ischent. 

Nou we seef wel hou hyt hys 

Of l^ane oryginal ; 
Kou lest ou man [may] do amys 

poT^ hys 03ene gale. 

pys senne come)) nau3t of )>y ken, 

Ac py self ech del ; 
po seggep pys lerede men, 

And clypyej) hyt * actuel.* 

Jjys manere senne nys nau3t ones, 

Ac hys ischyt in pry. 
In pou3t, in speche, in dede amys, 

J)ys may ech man ysy. 








156, \>e in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 

160. ponke, MS. jfevike, 

161. by-tyt, MS. by tyde. 
167. Read ainang >6 aUmden ? 
176. jx), read so ? 

lY, The 7 Deadly Sins. All men sin. Sins, the DeviUs host. 105 

He ])at ne ])yiike]) nau3t bote wel, 

And speke]) and do]) al ryjt, 
))e man hys sckere of actuel, 

Ac ho hys here so bry^t % 

Ho hys he ])at al be)) wel 

))e ])03tes ])at he kak])e ) 
And who hys ])at speke scheal 

Aryjt al ])at he speke]) 1 

And wo hys he J)at alnewe[y] 

de)) wel al ])at he de]) ? 
No man, no man, ac ny^t and day 

J)ys men by-soyled be)), 

So as hy be)) men, ase we see]), 

WyJ sennes al ])0i3-|)erled : 
Many hys pe senne J)at me de|) 

In tal ])e wyde wordle. 

Of senne ich wot by J)yse sckele 

))at ])er hijs wel great host ; 
And, for ])e fend iumt so f ele, 

J)er-of hys alle hys host. 

And he araye)) hare trome 

As me a-reyt men in fy^t. 
For he syk]) gode ])eawes some 

A-3enes ham ydy3t. 








thoufifhts and 
words are 
all good? 


[leaf 104. bk.] 
No man's. 

Many sins 
are com- 
mitted in tlie 
wide world. 

They are tlie 
devil's host. 


which he 
affainst the 
virtues, as 
men are 
arrayed in 

181. 7w over the line in MS. 

184. ho — who, as in 1. 185; MS. he. 

186. kaJc^e, read kek^, from ke(^c]he, to catch ? 

190. dep in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 

194. ^yr^'^ledf read }>or^-perle (O.E. \nirh-pyrel, adj.), and the corre- 
sponding ryme-word werdle H 

195. dep, MS. dop. 
197. sckele, MS. sckyle. 

203. sanie in MS. at the beginning of the following line. 

106 IV. 7 Deadly Sins; the 7 DemU whom Christ drove out 

This 18 the 
fi^ht on 
earth, that is 
all won or 
lost; and the 
fighters are 
chosen ac- 
cording to 
their wortli. 

Captain of 
sins is tlie 

[leaf 195] 

Princes under 
him, and 
leaders of 
the host. 

are seven 

those whom 
Christ drove 

And ase god dy3t feawes 

In alle gode men, 
pe feend a-raye]) ])e schreawes 

In wykken per a-3en. 

pjQ bys ])at fyjt an evpe 

]?at al wyn]) o|)er lest*, 
And ase pe fyjttere hys werthe, 

pQ cheueteyn hym chest 


Ac cheueteyn of senne 
Ich wot J>at J>e fend hys, 

For wyse, and alle kenne 
Araye]) hys amys. 

• (55) 
And ase ])ere in bataylle 

O kyng* berejj fe bee^, 
Soe hyt were a gret faylle 

Jef fe host were em-he3. 

pQT-tare me make]) prynses 

pe host to gouemi, 
And ase whe-welen fe Imses 

To-gadere heldef hy. 

And ase al paX hys here 

By souedajes gef. 
Of senne alle manere 

Seue deuelen prynces bejj : 

J)at seuene certeygne 

J)at Cryst kest out, hyt seyj) 








205. dy^, MS. dysL 

211. werthey MS. worthe^ written at the beginning of the following line. 
216. Araye^ MS. ; Wr. Arayes, 
218. hee^, MS. hee^. 
226. soueda^es = seue da^es, 

229. seiiene, MS. \>ene. Read pe seuene % or pcub bep pe seuene ? (cp. p. 89, 
1. 105) — or omit pat before Cryst in the following line ? 

IV. 7 Deadly Sins. 1. Pride in Women, Monks, all folk. 107 

Of marie maudaleyne 

))at goospel ])at ne vreyp. 232 

(59. i.) 
\)Q ferste pryns hys prede, 

pskt lede]) |>ane flok*, 
pat of alle oj^ere onlede 

Hys rote and eke stole*. 236 

For nya non of fe syxe 

]?at hy ne come]) of faxie. 
For myx of alle myxe 

In heuene hy by-gan. 240 

Prede suwej> in floures (HO) 

Of wysdom and of wyt, 
Amang leuedys in boures 

pe foule prude sy3t. 244 

Ynder couele and cope 

J)e foule prede lyfe ; 
pe^ man go gert wyj) rope, 

Jet prede to hym swyf. 248 

Prede sy3t vnder ragge 

Wei cobel and wel blklgf ; 
))at kepep wordes bragge 

And countenaunces 3alde]). 252 

Nys non, fa^ som myt wene, 

))at some prede ue take]), 
Ne none so proud, ich wene, 

As he ])at al for-sake]). 256 

For who hys )»at neuere set hys Jjou3t 

And er])e to be he3 1 
Who hys hit fat neuer yfou3t 

Of pompe )»at he se3 1 260 

232. weyp. Eolbing writes ^e3>, and 1. 230 se^\>, 
249-252. See note. 258. he^y MS. hy^, 

259. Read ^at neucr lhe\>] yJH)^ ? 

of Mary 

The first 
prince is 

root and 
stock of all 
other vices. 

originator of 
tlie turmoil 
in heaven. 

Pride suclcs 

in flowers of 

wisdom and 


sits in ladies' 


is hidden 
under cowl 
and cope; 

[leaf 195. bk.] 
under rags. 

There is no 
one free from 

For, who has 
never been 
ambitious P 

108 IV. The 7 Deadly Siiis. 1. Pride: how it shows itself. 

or rebelled 
at^ainst his 
sovereign ? 

or been im- 
patient of 

or elated 
with praise F 

he sliould 
be honoured 
for ostenta- 
tious deeds ? 

or been 
towards sub- 
ordinates ? 

Who yst ))at neuer nas rebel 

Ajeins hys souerayn % 
Wo ist \2X be nome schel, 

And nabbe noii agayn 1 264 

Who yst ]»t neuere gollich nas, 

Wanne chaunce at wylle come 1 
Who yst )»at, wanne he preysed was, 

Neuer at hej hyt nome) 268 

Who hyst ])at neuer ])0)te 

He scholde honoured be 
For dedes fat he wroute, (HI) 

Wanne men (ne) hyjt mytte se? 272 

Who hys ))at neuer hejj^e dro^ 

Towarcl hys fat wes % 
Ho hys [fat] neuer ne kedde W03 

In boste to hys sugges 1 276 

Ho nef wyf pompe y-schewed hym 

3et of er fane he was 1 
Nou ypocresy, kepe nym, 

Eegnef , hyt nys no leas. 280 

Ho yst fat neuer nas yblent * 

Wyf non surquydery ? 
J)at hys, wanne a proud man hef y-ment 

Of er fane hyt schel by. 284 

Wo fat neuer ne dede f ous 

He wole prede by-flej ; 
}ef fat kebbede eny of ous, 

Ich wo3t wel fat he le3. 288 

263. ist, MS. hist, the h underdotted. For the sense of 11. 263-4 see note. 
265. ysty MS. hyst, h underdotted. — gollickf MS. godlich, 
274. wes, MS. tvas. 

283. Jiep y-merU in MS. at the beginning of the following line, with a dot 
after it. 286. wole, see note. 

or pompously 
assumed a 
character not 
his own ? 

[leaf 196] 

or been 
with pre- 
sumption ? 

IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. 1. Pride, HeaH-sin. 2. Envy. 109 

J)e man pe hym wole a-fayty 

Of prede fat hys so he3, 
Fol wel he ino3t hys weyti 

Bofe fer and ne^. 

For jef he let to nofe 

))at he ne awaytef hy, 
Ich segge hym wel to sofe 

J)at ry^t proud schel he by. 

For prede hys a senne of herte, 

And bouute schewef hy 
WyJ) kebbynges aperte 

And weddyng* many a bly : 

))or3 dedes of bostynge, 

And atyr stent and say, 
And oper suche )»ynge(8) 

J)at men vsyef al day. 

(77. ii.) 
]?at of er feend of onde 

Hys pryns and cheuetayn ; 
J)at senne hys ryf in londe, 

And naujt hys hyre wayn. 

For sorwe he hef of gode, 

And harm hys hyre blysse ; 
In hyre pryncy mode 

Jje hert[e] wait al fys. 

J)ys senne hys ouer-nyce, 

Ac holde schal hy be 
)?e senne of meste malice 

Ajeyns chary te ; 









He who 
wants to 
subdue pride 
in himself 
must be con- 
tinnslly on 
his guard 
against it. 

Pride is a sin 

itself in 
and goi^eous 

The second 
fiend is prince 
of Bnoyt 

that is, vexa- 
tion at other 

Deaf 196, blc.] 

men's pros- 
perity, and 
delight in 
their harm. 

It is the sin 
of greatest 

296. ly, MS. he, 

300. weddyri^ for wedyn^, clothing, O.E. ^ewlMian ? — Tnany a hly (O.E. 
hlio)j MS. manyable. 

302. sUrU K>r stendf pa. pple., O.E. sUSnarif to adorn with precious 

stones ? — say, read gay ? 

311. prynq/j read pryncely "i 

110 IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. 2. Envy. 3. Wrath: Vengeance, 

for love is its 


and to betray 
the good ones, 
its aim. 

Envy is a sin 
of the heart, 
itself by 
and vilifying 
the good 
and Kind. 

The third sin 
is Wrath. 

When a 
man's wishes 
and conceits 
are crossed, 

he meditates 
revenge on 
tlie opponent. 

So Wrath is 
ever fretting 
and being 

[leaf 197] 

Wamie loue hys here preye, 

Al for to conf undy, 
And wyl het to by-traye 

))at wolde gode by. 320 

Onde hys a senne of herte, 

And bouute schewep hy, 
To hanny and to herte, 

Wanne hy dep bacbyty ; 324 

Wanne hy holde]) hy wreches 

))at god and hende bep, 
And opere sonche plecches 

Schewep wat onde dep. 328 

(83. iii.) 
))e prydde senne hys wrethe, 

))at so meche hys itelde ; 
Hyt makej) blod and brethe (H^) 

Aboute ]}e herte aneld. 332 

Wanne manne ne]) nan^t hys chaunce 

to wylle, and alse ]}enk]}, 
He compasyp veniaunce 

To hym pat a-jen clenkep. 336 

And so hyt fret and hys y-frete 

Euere in egrete, 
And wanne hy het to meche hete, 

Hyt lettep charite. 340 






have to 
1. 248). 

"^enk^ [: 



het for he^y as 1. 339. 

After schewe^ an nnderdotted w is written in MS. 

wreches, MS. werches, 

pleccJies, MS. plocches ? 

bretJiej MS. breche (or broche). 

chaunce^ MS. thoiiHC, for chorisCj a possible form ; if we retain it, we 

alter the corresponding ryme-word ve^iiawice to veniatise (op. p. 94, 

to wylle in MS. at the end of the preceding line. — alse = alse he, — 
c^g?l^-eJ>], MS. yipithe. We may as well write ^eng^ [: clengp], 
in egrete, MS. megrete, i-stroke wanting. 
hy, read hyt 1 — h^ = he}>. 

lY, The 7 Deadly Sins. 4t.C(y»etousness: Manwum-ioorship, 111 

Tnne herte hys pys senne3ing<, 

And bouute schewep mod 
])0T^ cheste and mysdoynge 

And wyj)-drawynge of god. 344 

(87. iv.) 
Coueytyse hys pe ferfe, 

Ilych dropesy, 
Wanne al pat hys an erpe 

To hyre hys al besy. 348 

And hou hy habbep by uerkp, 

And mannes herte byset, 
Fram gode and so ]>anne name y-ke3t 

Seruise of mamenet. 

))aj hy by herte senne, 

Jet boute schewep hy 
To mochel amang* mankenne 

Jjoi^ wrang* an trychery ; 356 

Jjorj jeskynge efter gode, 

]}oi3 boi^ and pernor ^elde, 
JX)rw wrechydnesse of mode, 

And neuer more ful-felde. 360 

(91. V.) 
J)e fyfte senne hys sleupe (H'^) 

Of pat man scholde do, 
Hye brekep god[e] treupe 

Wyp god and man also, 364 

Wanne man letep adrylle 

)?at he god 3elde schel. 
And for-sluggyp by wylle 

])at scholde men to stel. 368 

846. fer^e, MS. furte. 349-352. See note. 

353. ^, MS. ]fat, 

354. schewep, MS. sc?ieut}>, 

857. MS. yikytigefram (expnncted) efter. 

367. foT'Sluggy^f MS. -slaggyy (corrected N.E.D.). 

This sin is in 
the heart, 
itself in 
quarrels and 

is the fourth 

which b also 

352 "^o'^Ji^Pof 

It is a sin of 
the heart, 
but mani- 
fests itself 

in avarice, 

and miserable 
and insatiable 
of mood. 

The iiah sin 
is Sloth, 

when a man 
neglects his 
duties to- 
wards God; 
and man. 

112 IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. 6. Gluttony: its 4 kinds. 

[leaf 197, bk.] 

whether from 

S rem of 

or idleness. 

Qlwttonv, the 

and Lechery, 
the seventh, 
are sins of 
the flesh. 

Tliere are 
four kinds of 
Gluttony :— 

1. consuming 
too much 

2. and too 

3. devouring 
too greedily 
at meal'time; 

4. eating be* 
tween times, 
if one is not 

Of horte come]} ]}es senne, 

And schewe[})] boute al-so 
Hon hy lettej) mankenne 

Of J^at scholde by do. 

Hyt hys forwe besynesse 

))at men for-slewyf hyt, 
And ofer wyle for^ ^delnesse 

God dede onido for-slyt. 

(95. vi. vii.) 
Glotonye hys |>e syxte, 

And hys mo ine fleascfi y-do ; 
And lecherye, fe nyxte, 

In flesche hys senne al-so. 

Ac glotonye entycyp 

To lecherye her, 
Ase ])at hy norysse]; 

Hote brondes pet fere. 

Of glotonyes foure 

Jje boke spekej) openlyche : 
To meche fode deuoury, 

And to lykerouslyche, 

And to freche to fretene 

Wanne man hijs tyme hep, 
And out of tyme to hetene 

))at none siknesse nep. 








376. onidOf MS. enido (the i's have no stroke). 

378. moy MS. me or wie, of which the following iiie may be only a 

380. in JlescJie in MS. at the end of the preceding line. 

381. entycifpy MS. entypy]^. 

383. After Tm^ysse^^ hote (expuncted). 11. 383-4 probably ought to mn 
thus : — ^at hy [also] noryssep 

Ase hote brondes petfer. 
385. glotonyes foure, Kblbing's emendation ; MS. glotonye hysfmtrK 
389. And^ MS. Ando. 390. man, MS. men. 

IV. Hie 7 Deadly Sins. 7. Lechery. iTicest, Sodoniy. 113 

(99. vii.) 
Of lecherye comep wreche, 

Foul speche, and foul delyt, 
Commune hordom, spousbreche. 

Incest, and sodomyt. 

And hys incest wyp kenne 

))e lecherye so ; 
And sodomyt hys senne 

A3ens kende y-do. 

By-feld bef men in slepe, 

Ase glotonye hyt bryngep ; 
And ofte hyt do]) moni kepe 

])at man wakynge ]>encke]). 

Ac ^ef euyl hyt come nau^t. 

Dea[d]lyche senne next. 
Ac hou hyt falle]) y-lome ne^. 

Ech man nau3t y-wyst. 

J^yse manere sennes seuene, 

Ase ^e hys here ise^e]}, 
I-letteJ) men fram heuene, 

And al dedlyche hy bej), 

Wanne hy y-fou^t bep oper y-speke, 

0))er y-don in stat 
A3e pe lawe of god, to breke 

))e hestes pat he hat. 

Of alle pe sennes pa[t] per bep 
))os berep pat los ; 


oomee foal 
speech, and 
foul delight, 
incest, and 

Incest and 



400 [leaf 198] 




These seyen 
sins debar 
men from 

and are all 
deadly sins. 

in thought, 
or speech, 
or act. 


Of all sins 
they bear 
the prize. 

393. toreche in MS. at the beginning of the following line. 

395. spousbreche in MS. at the beginning of next Une. 

396. sodomyt, t altered from e. 

401. slepe, MS. sleau^; see note. 

402, 404. hrynge^ : \Hmckep, read breng^ : "peng^. 

405-408. I have transcribed these lines as they are written in the MS. 

410. ^, MS. he. 

411. I-leUe^f, MS. Me lette^ 


114 IV. The 7 Deadly Sins. All sins are included in them. 
for ail others For euerech senne bat me deb 

are included 

in them. Longe]) to some of pos. 420 


And her-by fou myjt, man, y-seo (116) 

hou here ende hys sour ; 
Nou loke her-in, pur charite, 

And make hyt fy myrour. 424 

Oretis pro anima domtni WilleZmi de 
Schorham, quondam vicarw de chart iuxta 
ledes, qui composuit istam compilactonem 
de septem mortalib!^ peccaiis. Et omni- 
[iif.i98.bk.] b-w^ dicentibt^ oracionem ^dominicam cum 
salutacione angelica, XI* dies uenie, a 
domino Symone, Archiepiscopo cantuarie, 

419. de\f, MS. do^, 420. >(», MS. \e8. 

421. And in MS. at the beginning of the following line. 

V. The 5 Joys of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God. 115 

V. \_^\t Jfihf^ |02S 0f i\t Virgin P^arg.] 


MEche hys pat me syngep and redep, (117) 
Of hyre ])at al mankende gledej) 
Ibore "was here on erthe ; 3 

And pey alle speke, pat spekep wyd tonge, 
Of hyre worschype, and murye sounge, 
Jet more he were werthe. 6 

Jjyse aungeles heryep here wyp steuene, 

Ase he hys hare quene of heue[ne], 

And eke hare blysse ; 9 

Ouer al erpe leuedy hys here, 
And poi^-out helle gep here power, 

Ase he hys emperysse. 12 

Cause of alle pyse dignyte, 
\>ox^ clennesse and humylyte. 

Was godes owene grace ; 15 

Wer-poi3 he ber pan heuene kyng* : 
Worschype hys worpy ine alle pyng^, 

In euereche place. 18 

Al pat hys bone and vnder molde, 

Hou myjt hyt bote hyt bowe scholde 
To hyre owene mede 1 21 

Wanne he pat al pys wordle schel welde 

To hyre worschipe hys yhelde 

For here moder-hede. 24 

2. gledep, MS. gladep. 

4. ]>ey = >«3. — alle speke, MS. ]>ey I alle 9peke, 

6, ke = hy ; so, too, 11. 8, 12, 16. — werthe, MS. worthe, 

10. hys = hy ys; so, too, L 17. 

Mary is 
worUi higher 
praise than 
all tmieues 
on earth 
can bestow 
upon her. 

She is Queen 
of Heaven, 

Ladv over all 

and powerful 
in hell. 

because, by 
the grace of 

she bore 
the King of 

who is Him- 
self bound to 
worship her 
as mother. 

116 V. 6 Joyz of tJie Virgin Mary : 4 on Earth; 1 in Heaven. 

[leaf 199] 

How can I, 
BO foul, sing 
of Mary? 

Yet, sister, 
yoa bid me 
do so. 

And with her 
help, I will. 

Her joys are 
so many, that 
no man can 
tell them. 

Four kinds of 
them she had 

Al fyse maydenes, wyf-out host, 

Hy berej) god in here goste, 

In hare holy })oujt[e] ; 
Ac hy wyj>-oute mannes ymone 
In body, and nau^t in gost a-lone, 

To manne hyne broute. 

Of hyre pat hys J^os dygne of take, 

Hon myjte ich of hyre songes make, 

))at am so foul of lyue ) 
And pou me bede, soster, synge. 
And alle in-to one songe brynge 

Here swete ioyen fyue. 

To segge pat ich hyt maky can, 

))at am so one-connende a man, 

Dar ich me nau^t auanty ; 

Ac tryste ich wolle to oure leuedy, 

And maky hyt ase hyt wyle by, 

And ase hy hy[t] wole me granty. 

As man ine hys by-leaue ysep, 

Ioyen of hyre so fele per bep, 

I^e may hys no man telle, 

Ase hy hap of hyre leue sone : 

Hyt passep al mankendes wone, 

And out of mannes spelle. 

Four manere ioyen hy hedde here 

Of hyre sone so lef an dere, 

Wytnes opan pe godspelle ; 











29. alone, MS. aJxme (Wr. corr.). 

31. of take, read op-take, assumptat Matzner writes of lake (O.E. lac, 
gift, offering). 

34. And, read Ac'i (Kolbing*8 conjecture). 

42. hy hy[tli, MS. hy hy ; Matzner omits one hy, — wole, distinctly so in 
MS. ; Wr. woJde. 

46. hys (not hyt) in MS. 

V. 5 JoyB of the Virgin. The Ist, when Gahriel greeted her. 117 

And alpe] come]) of fe blysse (H^) 

)5at hye hej> nou, wyf-oute mysse. 

So stiremes of J>e welle. 54 

))e wylle ))at hys in paradys 
Fol wel by-toknep fys auys, 

WyJ) here stremes foure, 57 

)?et oine]> out oner al J^at londe, 
I^ys neuer erj>lyche man pat fond 

Hon fele come of fe staure. 60 


Jjys wulle hys god self man by-come» 
Of hym pys ioyen beji alle y-nome, 

And alle ine uour manere : 63 

))e furste was wyji concepcioun, 
))o ]>e angel gabryel come a-doun 

Ine stede of messager[e]> 66 

To brynge J>e tyfynge by-fore 
J)at cryst of hyre wolde by bore> 

Mannes trespas to ^elde, 69 

For to brynge ous out of helle : 
Wo mytte ])enche ofer telle 

Wat ioye J^er y uelde ! 72 

In na^areth, J»e ryche toun» 
Aue maria was ]}at soun 

Of gabrieles steuene ; 75 

l>o was pat mayde wel ygret^ 
And wyp a present wel ageet 

Fram vader oure of heuene. 78 

So he was ine hyre ycome, (120) 

For fleasch and blod of hyre to nome, 

Ase pe angel hyre seyde ; 81 

62. ofpCf MS. o/te ^ (Matzner corr.). 59. Nys, read Nes ? 

63. tumr, MS. nout, Matzner notie = new ; but cp. 1. 49. 
71. An o has been cancelled after mytte. 

76. wel is the reading of the MS. ; Wr. was. 

77. ivel ageetf Matzner weleget (for weleged)^ enriched ; see note. 

all coming, 
like streams 
out of the 
well of bliss. 

as the four 
mnning out 
of the well 
[leaf 199, bk.] 
in Paradise. 

This well is 
God Himself 
become man: 
from Him all 
her Joys are 

The first was 
at the Con- 
ception, when 
the Angel 

brought her 
the tidings 
that Christ 
should be 
born of her. 

and greeted 
her with 
*Ave Maria.' 

1 18 V. 5 Joysqfthe Virgin Mary, The \st. Hov) hiiid Joseph was. 

So she con- 
ceived Him 
breakinff her 
vow of dean 

Sidnt John 
the Baptist 
leaped in 
his mother's 

[leaf 200] 

womb, when 
she spoke 
to her. 

knowing her 
with child. 

would not 
have her 
stoned to 
death, accord- 
ing to the 

and rigoiced 
when the 

should be 
included all 
her other 
joys while 
going with 

Ne hy of mannes mone neste, 
Ne hy ne brek* nau^t hyre by-heste, 
Ac euere clene a mayde. 

Seynt johan fe baptyst on-bore, 
\>o hy spek hys moder by-fore, 

lite ioye he gan to asprynge. 
Ely^abet wel fat aspyde, 
Hou a spylede onder hyre syde, 

And made hys reioyynge. 

More encheyson hadde oure leuedy 
loyous and blyfe for to by, 

Wyf-oute prede and boste ; 
For in hyre selue hy hyne fredde, 
Fol wel hy wyste hou [hy] hyne hedde 

])oT^ self ])e holy goste. 

Joseph kedde ])at he was mylde, 
))o fat he wyste hy was wyj> chylde, 

A-wey he wolde alone ; 
Ha nolde nau^t he were a-slawe, 
Ne forfe y-iuged by fe lawe 

To by stend wyf stone. 

Ac ioseph was wel blyfe, aplyjt, 
))o to hym cam f e angel bry^t, 

To segge hym wat he scholde ; 
Wel blyffere my3te be fat may, 
))at was y-conforted al day 

Wyf aungeles wanne hy wolde. 

In f yssere ioye we scholde by-louken 
Al hyre ioyen of uourti woken 
))e wylest he jede wyf chylde. 












84. ACf read Aa % 

92. hy, MS. he, 

95. [At/] inserted by Matzner. 

100. he = hy ; so, too, 1. 111. 

104. }>o, MS. So, 

89. hyre^ MS. hys (Matzner con.). 

Y.b Joys of the Virgin Mary. 2nd Joy, the Birth of Christ, 119 

Of hyre [banne] hyt was god game, 
))er-iime Jiet vnicom weks tame 

]}at er ])an was so wylde. 

(20. ii.) 
l^et ofer ioye of hyre ycore 
y Was of ihesus, of hyre ybore 

A crystemasse ny3te, 
WyJ-oute soi^e, wy|H)ute sore ; 
And so ne schal Jier neuer more 

Wymman wyp childe dyjte. 

For so hy hyne scholde ferst auonge, 
])er nes no senne Jier amonge, 

Ne noe flesches lykynge ; 
))er-fore of hyre y-bore he was, 
Ase ]>e Sonne passe^t \ox^ \& glas 

Wyf-outen on openynge. 

In suafebendes hy hyne dy^te, 
Ase hyt hys J>e chyldes ry^te, 

And jef hym melk* to souke ; 
))a} hyt were fustre of nyjt, 
))er nas wane of no ly3t, 

\>Q heuene gan onlouke. 

Out com an aungel wy]> great leem 
In-to \q feld of bedleem, 

Amonges ]>e schepherden, 
Te telle Jwit cryst was ybore ; 
))er come singinde J^er-fore 

Of angeles manye verden. 

))anne sede he swyfe wel 
Oracia plena, gabryel, 

And pat hys " fol of grace " ; 











The second 
joy she had 
at the birth 
of Christ, 
[leaf 200. bk.] 

She had con- 
ceived Him 
without the 
taint of sin ; 

80 He was 
brought forth 
as tlie sun 


126 jhjough 

His birth was 
announced by 
the angel to 
the shepherds 
in the field of 

So it proved 
true that 
Mary was 

112. See note. 114. ]>an, MS. \>ans^. 

120. d0e, Matzner proposes be difiHe, Perhaps we ought to read 
hyt dyjU. 122. n€s (Matzner nas), MS. nys, 

126. Omission of on proposed by Matzner. 

133. leem, second e, being written close to the m, looks like o in MS. 
135. schep; MS. si^iop'i 

120 V. 5 Joys of the Virgin. 2nd Joy, the 3 Kings' Offerings. 

The ox and 
ass in the 
stable, seeing 
tlieir Creator 

[leaf 201] 

lyint; in the 

rejoiced in 
their way. 

On the eighth 
day He was 
and named 

Great was 
Mary's joy 
wiien the 
three Kings 
from tlie East 
offered their 

and Simeon, 
wlien He 
was presented 
in the temple, 
of Him. 

And when He 
was twelve 
years old. 

Wanne glorye of hyre hys fol a-boue, 
And pays igrad for hyre loue 

Of angeles in place. 144 

))e oxe and asse in hare manyour, 
]>o ])at hy se^en hare creatour 

Lyggynde in hare, forage, 147 

Al one-knowynge J)a3 hy were, 
Hy makede ioye in hare manere, 

And eke in hare langage. 150 

Ope J>e heje e3tynde day 
He onder-^ede pe gywen lay, 

And was ycircumcysed. 153 

lesus me clepede hyne fer-uore, 
Ase aungeles, er he were ybore, 

Hys eldren hadde y-wysed. 156 

Mochele ioye hy aspyde, 
J)e kynges fre fat come ryde 

Fram be easte wel iverre ; 159 

Gold, myrre, stor, were here oflFrynges, (123) 
))at he was lord and kyng of kynges 

Wel by-toknede fe sterre. 162 

\>o fat he scholde y-ofifred by 
In fe templo domini, 

Ase la3e ^ef fe termes, 165 

Symeon, fe olde man, gan crye. 
And spek of hym fur prophecye. 

And tok hym ine hys earmes. 168 

f)o he was bote twelf wynter aid. 
And hej ine fe temple he seat wel bald, 

And fa^ he speke smale, 171 

146. creatour f MS. crecUtire. 

150. Wr. i-verrey MS. tuerre (distinctly). 

163. by, MS. be, 164. templo, so MS. 

167. fur =/or (Matzner) ; or ought we to read "por^ (also spelt "pour^) ? 

169. he, MS. ^. 

170. ^7u2 ( = An) he^, MS. he^ he, but the he has been cancelled. . 

V. 5 Joys of the Virgin, ^rd Joy, Christ's Besur7'ection. 121 

Many man wondrede on hym pere, 
Foi to alle clerkes ])at \>qi were 

He ^af answere and tale. 174 

Alyue uertu was hys childe-hode, 
And so he com to hys manhode ; 

Ine flom iordanes syche 177 

He was ycrystned, \>e heuene onleake, 
f)e fader of heuene doun to hym spake, 

pe gost com coluere ylyche. 180 

To pyssere ioye longye scholle 
Alle fe ioyen pat hyre folle 

Of hyre chylde god, 183 

Fram pan tyme he was ybore 
For al mankende pat was for-lore, 

For[t] he deyde one pe roude. 186 

(32. iii.) 
1%E prydde ioye pat com of cryste (124) 
-■ Hadde oure leuedy of hys opryste 

Fram deapes harde hende, 189 

Out of pe sepulcre per he laye, 
Ase hyt fel pane prydde daye 

After hys lyues ende. 192 

Wet ioye of hym myjte be more 
After suiche soi^ynge and swyche sore, 

Ase hye yseye hine feye, 195 

))anne isije hyne come to Ijrue a^en, 
And euereft more alyue to ben, 

And neuere eft to deyje] 198 

))at he was lyf and strengpe and my^te. 
And pat he kedde on Estre ny^tte, 

Al ine pe d.awyynge : 201 

He astonish- 
ed the doctors 
in the temple 
with His 
and answers. 

Having come 
to manhood. 
He was 
[leaf 201, bk.] 
in Jordan. 

To this joy 
belone all tlie 
joys she had 
from the 
time of 
Christ's birth 
until His 

The third joy 
of Our Lady 
sprang from 

wherelry He 
showed tliMt 
He was life, 
and strengtii, 
and miglit. 

175. Alyue, read Al yne ? cp. p. 123, 1. 253, Aline ioye was hyre Tnende, 
— ehylde-hode, MS. -Tiope, the > not quite distinct. 

183. Read Of hyre chyld >e gode ? cp. p. 126, L 348, iesits 'pe gode, 
186. FoH, until (Matzner), MS. For, 
197. Omit And'i 

122 V. 5 Joyz of the Virgin. Srd Joy, Christ* 8 re-appearance. 

The earth 

and angels 
from heaven 
in white 

(leaf 202] 

that He 
was risen. 

Then it 
proved true 
what the 
angel iiad 
said to her, 

that* God is 
with thee.' 

Al J>a[t] was an erthe schok*, 
And heuene aboue vnder-toke 

Hys holy vppe-rysynge. 204 

pBi doun come aungeles whyte ine wede, 
And pat he was aryse hy sede, 

And hare sawe was trewe ; 207 

Jjat he ne laye naujt vnder molde 
For to arsaye, ho so wolde, 

Jjane stone hye ouqr-prewe. 210 

))a3 ]2at he ine hys manho|) deyde, 
Doniimta tecum. ])at a seyde, 

))o pe aungel here by-redde, 213 

())at hys to seggene " god es myjtte "), (125) 
Ine ry3te sope hyt moste sitte 

))et god-hop wel hyt kedde. 216 

Nedde oure leuedy pyse blysse a-lohe, 
Ac al hyre f rendes in hyre mone, 

So meche was here pe more ; 219 

For more hijs blysse god and clene 
Among* frendes to habbe ymene, 

After sor3ynge and sore. 222 

pat hy were blype, po hye (here) sejen 
So glorious alyue, wyp here e3en, 

))et hy yseye er ine paygne ! 225 

Furste a schewed hym wyp a fayre chaunce 
To here pet hys ensample of repentaunce, 

Marye magdaleyne. 228 

And so hyseye hyne peter, and sepenes hy alle, 
And per thomas of ynde, a k[n]owes yfalle, 

Groped hys holy wounde ; 231 

214. MS. godes myytte ; myytte = myUe^ myd \>e. ^^ 

215. sitte; Matzner^^, i e. fi^e^ fight. 

223. Jiere MS. ; Wr. were (omitted by Matzner). — se^en, MS. si^, 

229. hyseye = yseye = yse^, saw; MS. hygeye, Matzner hygede, hied. — 
sepenes, first e resembling o ; Wr. sothenes, Matzner sothes, 

230. Iii7i]owes, corrected by Matzner. 

231. Groped, MS. Groped; cp. 1. 240. 

Tliis joy of 
Our Lady's 
was so much 
the greater 
as sfie shared 
it with all 
her friends. 

He showed 
himself first 
to Mary 

and after, to 
all the 

V. 5 Joys of the Virgin, The Uh Joy, She sees Christ ascend. 123 

Jjare he fond flescfi and blod myd fe bones, 
An nou he gan to crye loude for pe nones : 

" My lord ich abbe y-founde." 234 

Houre lord hym answerde in ]}et cas : 
'' )X>u leuedest, for ])ou se^e me, thomas, 

pai ])ou me haddest y-founde ; 237 

Ac, thomas, ich fe telle, yblessed hy bep, 
1)0 ])at on me by-leuej) and nau^t me se]), 

Ne gropyej) none wounde." 240 

To J^yssere ioyen schoUe by yleyd (126) 

Alle J>e ioyen fat moje be yseyd, 

Ine wyttes o\>ei in mende, 243 

Fram crystes resurreccioun, 
Wat comepi hys ascensioun 

At foorty d^^en ende. 246 

(42. iv.) 
I^E fer])e ioye telle ich may, 
-■ pat fel opon J>e holy poresday, 

Opone a mounteyne heje ; 249 

Hi se^ ihesus, and opre some. 
Of flesch and blod of hyre ynome, 

Op in-to heuene steje. 252 

Al ine ioye was hyre mende, 
\>o hy seje here and oure kende, 

Ihesus, hyre leue sone, 255 

In-to pe blysse of heuene sty, 
To agredy wor J>y scholde hy be 

At hyre assuwpcioun[e]. 258 

And jet ne were hyt nojt y-noj 
One to agredy hyre looj 
And hej ine heuene blysse, 261 

touched His 
cried :— * My 
Lord, I have 
found Thee!* 

But Our Lord 
answered : — 
* Blessed are 
those Uiat 

[leaf 208, bk.] 

believe in 
Me, and do 
not see Me.' 

To this joy 
are to be 
referred all 
her joys 
from Christ's 
until His 

The fourth 
joy she felt 
on Holy 
upon a 
when she saw 
Jesus ascend 
into heaven. 

there to pre- 
pare her own 

246. (20^071, MS. sojen (Wr. corr.). 

249. mounteynef MS. mounte yne. 

250. ffi (not he) in MS. 
254. po, MS. ^0. 257. See note. 
261. And (sst an) he^. 

247. l>e/€r)>« in MS. 

124 V. 5 Joys of the Virgin Mary. The 4ith Joy, Doomsday. 

and also onr 

it being our 
own fiiult if 
after death 
we do not 

[leaf 203] 

get there 
with Uiin. 

He will oome 
down again 
on Dooms- 

reward men 
according to 
their deeds. 

In order to 
Ciirist's com- 

£ anions in 
let us avoid 

and crave 
tlie help of 
God and 
Our Lady, 

who is so 

as the Gospel 
tells us, 

All her joys 
on Whit- 

and from the 
time of 
until her 
belong to 

Ac oure also, hyt nis non ofer, 
For he hys oure kencle brofer, 

))at leue we to wysse. 264 

Ine hym ne schal hyt nati3t lang* be 
\>dX we to hym ne scholle te, 

Wanne we scholle wende hennes ; 267 

Ac schel on ous, fat bej) onkende, (127) 

Ne dra^e]) nau}t hys loue to mende, 

And wrefej) hyne wyj? sennes. 270 

And ^et he hys milde and sparyef some, 
And ase he wente op, he wole come 

A dbmesday wel bry3te, 273 

For te trye manne dede, 
And after dede ^iue mede 

And iugement to ry^tte. 276 

Betere red nys fer non hero 
For to be crystes yuere. 

And hy^ ine heuene blysse, 279 

Bote felfe of senne to by-vly, 
And bydde god and oure leuedy 

))at hy ous helpe and wysse. 282 

For hyre poer nys nou3t y-lessed, 
Ac toup alle ofren hys y-blessed, 

Sofe wyf and mayde ; 285 

Ase fat godspel tellef ous, 
Benedicta tu in mulierihus, 

Eli3abeth hyt sayde. 288 

Al here ioyen a lok-sounday. 
And alle fe fat me aspye may, 

))at hyre and erfe telle, 291 

Al fram crystes ascencioun, 
Al wat comf e hyre assumpcioun, 

To fyssere loungy schelle. 294 

265. schali MS. sch4iU (Matzner corr.). 274. tryCy MS. crye, 

280. fet}^e (not fol^e) in MS. 291. arid = an. 

V. 5 Joys of the Virgin. 5th Joy; her Ascent into Heaven. 125 

(50. V.) 
l^E fyfte ioye of oure leuedy (128) 

J Not er[f]lych man hou hyt may by, 

Ne fer-of [may] more aspye, 297 

Bote ])at ])e gloriouse beerde 
Out of fyse world (fe) gloriouse ferde, 

WyJ) greate melodye. 300 

One-couJ) to fe, man, hys J>es figure, 
For fe offyce of hyre sepulture 

Was al an heuene gyse ; 303 

And toller hys man to heuene speohe 
))anne be a best, ]>£^ man hym teche 

Eeyson and mannes wyse. 306 

J)er-fore nys J>er-of naut y-wryte, 
For man ne mot nou^t her y-wyte 

Wat hys so hej a steuene ; 309 

Ac holy cherche der wel by-knowe 
J)at hy ne folede none dea])es frowe, 

]?at lowe]) ])at lyf of heuene. 312 

Hyt hys y-wryte fat angeles brytte 
To holy manne deafe alyjte 

[J)et] her an erfe leye ; 315 

In holy bok* hys hyt inome 
pBi god hym self a wolde come, 

Wanne hy scholde deye. 318 

J)er-bye we mowe wel y-wyte, 
pSL^ per be nau^t of y-wryte, 

]>at cryst hym self was fere ; 321 

Myd hym of heuene fe ferede, (129) 

)>e eadi leuedy for to lede, 

Most here no fend offere. 324 

Of the fifth 
joy of Our 
Lady man 
knows no 


more than 
that the glori- 
ous bride 
from this 

in heavenly 

It is written 
that angels 
desoen&d to 
holy men 
dying on 

and it may 
be assumed 
that Christ 

with the 
host, came 
down to lead 
the blessed 
Lady away. 




299. (pe) omitted by Matzner. 

811. frowe, MS. yro^e. 

312. loiDef'= lo^pf MS. lotoeTf Matzner lowerth. 

320. be MS. (Wr. he, Matzner corr.). 

120 V. 5 Joy^ of the Vi/rgin. 5th Joy, Mary is Queen of Heaven. 

body and 


[leaf 804] 

up into His 

Hy wente vppe, my leue brofer, 
In body and soule, hyt nys non o])er, 

For cryst hys god and kende : 327 

\)B.t body ])at he tok* of hys ojen, 
Hon mytte hyt ligge a-mang* pQ lojen, 

Wyf-oute honour and mende 1 330 

))anne ich dar segge mid gode ryjte 
]?at alle ]>e court of heuene aly3tte 

Attare departynge ; 333 

And cryst hym self a^eins hyre com, 
And body and saule op wy]> hym nom 

In-to hys wonyynge. 336 

]>at hy hys quen, ase ich er mende. 
Here grace hy may doun to ous sende^ 

Hire ioye to fol-uelle. 339 

Ich hopye hy nele nau3t let ous spylle. 
For he hys al to hyre wylle 

Of ioye ))at hijs fe welle. 342 

For of hyre wombe he hys fat frut, 
Were-of ])es angeles habbe]) hare dut, 

And men hare holy fode ; 345 

£li3abeth, hy sede ])ys : 
" Et henedictuB fructvs ventris 

Tui, terns fe gode." 348 

Of songe hys to fen ende y-brout, (130) 

Ase fou best, soster, me by-so3t, 

Ase ich bene my3tte &ede. 351 

Nou syng* and byde J>e heuene queue 
J)et hy ous brynge al out of tene 

At oure mest[e] nede. AmeN^. 354 

Oretis pro anima WilleZmi de Schorham, 
quondam vicarit de chart iuxta Ledes. 

337. \KUy read \^ar ; cp. p. 113, 1. 417. 342. ^ hys repeated in MS. 
349. Of, Matzner (a, indefinite article). 

There she is 

and will not 
let us perish, 
I hope; for 
He tnat is 
the well of 
bliss, is 
to her will. 

being the 
fruit of 
her womb. 

as Elizabeth 
said to her. 

Let ns pray 
her to bring 
us out of 

VI. The Virgin ilwry is Noah's Dove, Sinai's Bush, etc. 127 

VI. [#n % BuQin Parg.] 


MArye, mayde mylde and frfe, 
Chambre of f e trynyte, 
One wyle lest to me, 

Ase ich J>e grete wyj) songe ; 
J3a3 my f et on-clene be, 
My mes J)ou onder-fonge. 

J)ou art quene of paradys. 
Of heuene, of erthe, of al J>at hys ; 
J>ou bere fane kyng* of blys, 

WyjH)ute senne and sore ; 
]?ou hast y-ryjt ])at was amys, 

Ywonne fat was y-lore. 

]?ou ert fe coluere of noe, 
Jjat broute J)e braunche of olyne tre, 
In tokne fat pays scholde be 

By-tuexte god and manne ; 
Suete leuedy, help fou me, 

Wanne ich schal wende hannc. 


J)ou art J>e bosche of synay, 

J)ou art fe rytte sarray, 

t>ou hast ybroujt ous out of cry 

Of caleng* of fe f ende ; 
J)ou art crystes o^ene drury, 

And of dauyes kende. 







Deaf 204, bk.l 

Mary, Virjrin, 
Chamlier of 
the Trinity, 

liflten to ray 

Tiiou art 
Queen of 
and Eaith ; 
Bearer of 
the King of 
bliss ; 
oar Re- 

tlie Dove of 
Nuah, ^ 

the Bush of 
the true 


5. MS. fct vn on clene, vn onderdotted. 

1 28 VI. The Virgin Mary is David* 8 sling, Solomon* s temple^ etc. 

thy Son is 
the Stone ; 
thou the Rod 
of Aaron; 

[leaf 205] 

the Temple 
of Solomon ; 
Wonder of 
Gideon ; 
Gladder of 
Simeon ; 

Judith, the 

chosen Qaeen 
of Ahasuerus, 
the mighty 

Gate of Steel; 

fair Uachel; 

]?ou ert ]}e slinge, ])y sone ])e ston 
J)at dauy slange golye op-on ; 
j3ou ert fe ^erd al of aaron 

Me dreye ise3 spryngynde : 
Wytnesse at ham euerechon 

J3at wyste of fyne chyldynge. 

])ou ert ]>e temple Salomon, 

In f e wondrede gedeon, 

J)ou best ygladed symeon 

WyJ) fyne swete offrynge 
In ])e temple atte auter ston, 

\VyJ> ihesus, heuene kynge. 

J)ou ert Judith, fat fayre wyf, 

])ou hast abated al ])at stryf, 

Olofemes wyf bys knyf 

Hys heuede fou hym by-nome ; 
J)ou best ysaued here lyf 

J)at to fe wylle come. 

j3ou ert hester, fat swete fyng*, 

And asseuer, fe ryebe kyng*, 

Jjey hej) yehose to hys weddyng*, 

And quene be hef a-uonge ; 
For mardochQUS, fy derlyng*, 

Syre aman was y-honge. 

J)e prophete ezechyel 

In hys boke hyt wytnessef wel, 

]?ou ert fe gate so stronge so stel, 

Ac euere y-schet fram manne \ 
J)ou erte fe ryjte uayre rachel, 

Fayrest of alle wymman[ne]. 












41. lyf, MS. Uf. 

46. >ey = )>«. 
4G. he, read ]>e ? 

47. For, not In ("Wr.), is the reading of the MS. 

VI. The Virgins Maidenhood unbroken by Christ* s biQih, 129 

the hill 

spoken of 

by Daniel 

(ii. 85); 



of all wearied 


In thee rested 


[leaf 205, bk.] 

Thou hast 
tamed the 
wild unicorn; 

thou art the 
woman seen 
by St. John 
in tlie Apoci* 
lypse (xii, i;. 

By ry^te toknynge fou ert fe hel 
Of wan spellede danyel ; 
J)ou ert emaus, fe ryche castel, 57 

J)ar restef alle werye : 
Ine fe restede emanuel, 

Of wan y-spekej) ysaye. 60 


Ine fe hys god by-come a chyld ; 
Ine fe hys wreche by-come myld, 
Jjat vnicom fat was so wyld 63 

Aleyd hys of a cheaste : 
Jjou hast y-tamed [hyt], and i-styld, 

Wyf melke of fy breste. 66 

Ine ])e apocalyps sent lohn 
Ise^ ane wymman, wyf sonne by-gon, 
Jjane mow[w]e al onder hyre ton, 69 

I-crouned wyj) tuel sterre ; 
Swych a leuedy nas neuere non, 

WyJ) fane fend to werre, 72 

Ase fe Sonne takef hyre pas 
Wyf-oute breciie f 013-out fat glas, 
• J)y maydenhod, on-wemmed hyt was 75 

For here of f yne chylde ; 
Nou, swete leuedy of solas, 

To ous senfolle be f ou mylde. 78 


Haue, leuedy, fys lytel songe, (1^^) 

j)&t out of senfol herte sprong< ; 

A^ens fe feend fou make me strong*, 81 

And 3yf me fy wyssynge^ 
And f a^ ich habbe y-do f e wrang*, 

J)ou graunte me amendynge. 84 

Oretis pro anima domini Roberti 
Grosseteyte, quondam Episcopi Lincolmae. 

60. wan y-spekep, MS. wany spekep, 
65. y-tamedy MS. y tamend, n underdotted. 

70. iuelf twelve ; same form p. 61, 1. 1726. 71. Swych, MS. sioyl. 
83. wran^ [: strong : spron^ : songe\. The true Mid. -Kent forms are : 
'^jyi'ang [: Strang : sprang : sang], 


As the sun 
glass withoat 
breaking it, 
so wasuiy 
by the birth 

Make me 
against the 
fiend, and 
grant me 
of my sins ! 

130 VII. Fools think there is no God, Heaven, or Hell. 

[leaf 206] 

The fool Bays 
in his heart : 
* There is no 

and I fear 
that there are 
many such 

VII. #n % Crinitg, €xmixan, t|^^ €nst- 


N holy sauter me may rede (135) 

Hou god J>ourwe fe prophete sede, 

Dauyd, y-wysse, 3 

]?at f ol in hys herte sede : 
* per nys no gode/ dar man nau^t drede 

To don amys. 6 

Seppe hyt hys so, hyt hys grete doute 

J)at J>are be woxe of fare route 

Man! a f ol, 9 

J3at wenejj ryt, wyf-oute mysse, 

J)at fer nys god ine heuene blysse, 

NehellepooL 12 

])at eny soche be crystene man, 

God for-bede ! and naujt for J>an, 

We y-soej) al day 15 

J)at menye y-crystnedde were, 
FareJ) ryt ase hy nere 

Nau^t of fe fay. 18 


And manye of ham ])at be]> so fel[l]e, 
]?at ])a3 me godne sckele hem telle, 

Nau^t hy^t ne gan]) : 21 

4. 'Bj6ad\KU[\te]/ole^ 
7. Sep^, MS. pesse, 
9. MS. ifani amdfdU, 
12. hdUy MS. UUe. 

15. MS. V3ey aoep, 

16. Kolbing proposes to put a colon after dcty in L 15, and to write 
menye \Hit. 

21. ganp, read genp (for geitip) ? See note. 

even Chris- 

VII. If there is no Gody who holds up the heavy Earth ? 131 

A^en hy clappej) J>ys and pat. 

And manye of ham not neuere wat, 

Ne wat he men]>. 



To sechen hyt hys wel lytel prys 


It is of little 

Reyson to telle, fet hys y-wys, 

u8« rdftBoning 
with them. 

Ac lete ham be ; 


For, bote hy take a betere fay, 

Atte last hy goj) to schame a-way, 

Me may hyt see. 



Ac 3ef fou wenst, man, J>at errour, 

[leaf 206, bk.] 

})B.t ])are ne be no sauueour 

Ne of er lyf, 


And hyt be for de-faute of lore, 
Lest now wat ich segge more, 

But, if you 
are ignorant. 

Wyf-oute stryf. 

And 3ef fou [be] ylered man. 
And onderstan[s]t ^et al for fan 

No god ne be, 
Ich acsy fe a questioun, 
And, ase hyt longef to reysoun, 

And-swere fou me. 

Jje erthe hys heuy, wyf-oute wylle, 
Jjat wey y-seof, and by al stylle 

To gonne f rop. 
Wat, hou faref hy fat hy nasynkef , 
Ase here kende were, hyt f ynkef ; 

Ho halt ys op ? 



let me ask 
you a 




Who holds 
the heavy 
earth up tliat 
it does not 

25. sechen (dat. plur. ), Eolbing seek, 
28. For, Kolbing Ac 
35. h (underdotted) after toot in MS. 

37. be supplied by Wright. — onder8tan{s]t, in the following line, would 
rather suggest the ino. art (ert), but change of mood is found e&ewhere. 
44. wey = we. 

47. yynke^ in MS. (Wright ^enke\i), 

48. Ho = who. 

132 VII. An almighty Being must exist to hold up Earth, etc. 

It has been 
answered ; 
there is no 
need of sup- 
porting it, 
seeing that it 
is solid and 

This is fklse, 
as can be 

[leaf SOT] 
by the revo- 
lution of Uie 
sun, moon, 
and stars 

around it. 

So there mast 
be a supreme 
Power that 
holds np the 

and the stars 
round it. 

Herto me seyf, and hef ysed, 

To healde hy op hyt nys no ned, 

Ne neuere nes, 
For chisel, grauel, stones harde, 
Ande here depnysse ry^t dounwarde 

Hys endeles. 

]?at ])at be fals me may aspye 
By wytnesse of philosopbye 

And clerkes f ele ; . 
And fals ich may hit prouie wel, 
pet hyt hys ned, and were ich schel, 

By f ysse skele. 


\>Q Sonne and monne and many sterren 
By easte arysef swyfe ferren, 

Ase ham y-worJ>e ; 
By weste hy grendef, alle fyse, 
And comejj a^en J>er hy aryse 

Al vnder forfe. 


)5os my^t wete wel, wo-so wolde, 
J)e wolkne by-clepf al J)e molde, 

And so hyt doJ> ; 
Ne may hy nau^t ])anne be endeles 
))at ])os be-go so hys and wes, 

An ])at hys sou])e. 


Ac saye ry3t J>os — and ich afowe 
J)at euerech man hyt mo^t alowe 

J)at reson bent : — 
Hy^t hys a my3t of alle my3tte 
J)at halt op ferfe and sterren bry^te 

Aboute itrent. 












55. 'pat pat, Kolblng ; MS. pa^ ]>€U. 

60. skele, MS. skyle, 61. monne or moune ? 

71. wes, MS. was. 

VII. This Being of Might is God; His Son is Wisdom. 133 


Jjys ilke mytte, for hyt wel may, (138) 

BryngeJ) forfe a wyt of swete aray, 

J)et no swech nys ; 81 

For al ])at hys an he3 and lo3e 
Hit schif t and ditte]) ase hys o^e. 

And 80 hyt hys. 84 


Wat mskep sonne, mone, and sterren 
To certeyn go, aboute and ferren. 

And f ayUef na^t 1 87 

Hyt mot wyt and wysdom, neade, 
\)et of ]>e mytte ])et ich er sede 

Hys forJ>e ara^t. 90 


Nou J>ou sixte wel hou hyt syt, 
J)ys ylke my^te and eke J>ys wyt, 

In oure boke : 93 

J)e mytte hys fader of oure crede, 
Wysdom fe sone, for wytti-hede 

J)at he forf toke. 96 


Euer was J>ys ylke my^tte, 
And euer worf, bye gode ryte, 

Ne say naujt nay ! 99 

Hou mytte hyt [cesse], and eft by-gynne, 
J)et nede nej> of none gynne, 

Acaldomey? 102 


And ase hyt hys by-fore y-nome, 
J)a3 J>at wyt of f e mytte [come] 

By kende wey, 105 

J)at wyt was euere na])eles, (139) 

J)e my^tte nys neuer wytles, 

Ne by ne may. 108 

This Power 
brings forth 
a divine 
Wisdom that 
disposes and 
orders every- 

[leaf 207, bk.] 

The Power is 
tlie Father of 
our Creed, 
the Son ; 

and as the 
Power is 

so is the 

87. nayt, MS. nou^. 

100. cese (or dcye) supplied by Eolbing ; cessCf p. 92, 1. 207. 


VII. Christ was net made, fmt begotten. 

This iit in 
with the 
Creed, •ung 
nearly every 

•The Son is 
of the Father 
alone: not 
made, or 
created, bnt 

pear 206] 

Do not think 
too much 
about this ex- 

but believe it. 


and Son are 

Her-to acordej) oure fay, 
Jjat holy cherche ne^ eche day 

Wei merye syngef, 
Ine a song* ofte by note 

* Quicunqae uidt ' J)et hys y-hote, 

Ey^t ase me singe]). 

For fei hyt of fe uader seyj), 
And of J>e sone to-gadere leyj), 
In boke yset : 

* J)e sone hys of fe fader alone 
Engendred, nau^t ymad of mone, 

Nef o|)e[r] wet.' 

Folye hyt hys to meche to penche 
Of J)e engendrure, and pynne adrenche, 

Of fader and sone : 
So ase hy befe, piy] euer were, 
And soche by-^ete neuere nere 

Elles ine wone. 

Ac nau^t for)) fan, fat hyt be sof 
Holy cherche to wytene dof , 

We wyten hyt wel ; 
Ilef hyt, of er fou ert by-caut, 
For ho fat nele by-leue hyt nau^t, 

To helle he schel. 


And f elke sone 3et naf eles 
Ey^t ase f e fader hys endeles, 

Ase my^t and wyt : 
Jef euer was [fader], euer was sone. 
For bef e reysoun and eke wone 

Alowef hyt. 












114. singepf Eolbing yingy. 

120. Nef = ne of; wet, MS. wai, 121. ^riche, MS. 'pynche, 

122. 'pynne = pe ynne ; or shall we read yryuTic ? 

124. \hy\i so also Kolbing. 

127. /orj) jwn ^for ^n. 

VII. The Holy Ghost is Love, sprung from Power & Wisdom. 135 

Nou we habbe)) uader and sone, 
Ase hye bej) ry^t ine persone, 

And J>an-chey8ouw. 
Wat may fe holy goat nou be ? 
Persone }>rydde in trynyte, 

Nou herkne reysouw. 

))ou sixt ]>et al ])at faif ary^t, 
Be hyt Jjyster, be hyt ly^t, 

To acord hys wyue ; 
For ^ef fer were werre a-boue 
Amang< pe sterren, and no loue, 

Al hy to-dryue. 

And bote a truwe loue come 
Of ]>are my^tte and ])a wysdome, 

Ne my^t hyt by ; 
And ry3t of ham he moste come, 
For werof elles te be y-nome 

Can non ysy. 

Euer-to lef fat loue were, 
For my3tte and wysdom neuer nere 

WyJ)-oute acord ; 
For 3ef acord hem hedde yfaylled, 
Ar ayder ofer hedde a-gaylled 

Wyf wykked word. 

Hou scholde my3tte maky wrake, 
Ofer eny descord onder-take 

WyJ) o^e wyt? 
So nest, ac euer weren hy : 
])anne moste loue euer by, 

Nou f qu sixt hyt. 











The third 

Krson in the 
inity is the 
Holy Ohoet. 

For, ■• the 
eoonomy oF 
the Un {verse 
depends on 
love and 

Deaf 806, bk.] 

so a true Love 
most spring 
from the said 
Power and 

never have 
been without 


and as thcnr 
are eternal, 
so must 
Love be. 

147. wyiLe'i 

148. werre^ Eolbing; MS. weyre, 

162. fa, £[olbing ^re, 161. Ar = hare. 

165. 0^, MS. e^, 

166. 7i>68t = nes it. 

136 VII. The Holy Ghost is one God with the Faiher and Son, 

This Love is 
the Holy 
Ghost, who, 
as the Creed 
has it. 

from the 
Father and 
the Son : 

not begotten, 
nw created; 

[leaf 209] 

and is co- 
eternal with 

These three 
are really 

diverse in 

and in their 

yet one God. 

J)ys loue hys self fat holy spyry t ; 
J)er-to acordejj holy wry3t 

Ine ])ylke songe 
J)at ich was embe, [of] oure f aye, 
]?at holy cherche singe]) a daye 

At pryme longe : 

* J)e holy [gost] of [fe] fader ryche 
And of J>e sone, of ofer ylyche, 

So he f or[J>] comef ; 
KoJ>er by-3ete, ne forfe i-wro^t 
Of a^t J>at hys, ne forfe of no3t ' : 

By lawe hyt nomej). 

And euer was J>at holy spyry 3 1, 
J)at ylke songe wytnessef hyt, 

And more fer-to : 
))at he schal by, and hys, and was 
Ase fader of heuene ry3t endeleas/ 

And sone al-so. 

Jet oure by-leaue wole onder-gon 
J)at fyse fre bej) ry3t al on. 

And nys no wrong* ; 
J)^ hy be ine reyson dyuers, 
god hyt hys, and stent in uers 

Ine ]>ulke song". 

])a3 my3te, wysdom, and eke loue, 
Hy pre by, ase ich sede a-boue. 

Diners ine werk*, 
Ine hem self god hy bef ; 
Kys non ])at a^t elles y-se]) 

So god [a] clerke. 

177. comepf MS. cmn^ [: 7iom€>, 2 plur. Imperat.]. 

178. hy-^y MS. by-hete. 

179. for^, K6\)a\rig formed. — tm?}^, MS. nau^, 
184. he (or hyt ?), MS. hy. 












185. Ascy MS. ]^at. 
191. and^ Kolbing ase. 

190. reyson, read persone ? See note. 
195. yjerk^ MS. work. 

VII. Why the Three Persons of the Trinity are one God, 137 

And iia]>eles ofte hy bef y-blent, 
Jjyse clerkes, wyf here argument, 

Ande gynnej) le3e ; 
Hare 036 wyt, hyt hym by-kechej), 
])at god so sotylleche seche]), 

])at syt so he^e. 

J)e fader hys god, for he may al ; 
J)e sone hys god, for he wot al, 

WyjK)ut[e] crye ; 
\)G gost hys god, ])at one]) al, 
Jet ne bej) hy bote o god al, 

Kau^t godes fry. 

J)a3 my3tte be to fe fader yleyd, 
And wysdome of fe sone yseyd, 

And loue pe gost*, 
Jet hep hy J>re of one my3tte, 
Of one wytte and loue ly3tte, 

poT^ fay pe hyt wosf . 

Nou J)ou syxt wel fat encheysoun 
Of oure by-leue, and eke reysouw, 

J)et o god hys ; 
Jef fou f enkest forfer hou hyt may be, 
Go nau3t to ni3 hys maieste. 

To fenche amys. 

["VTjOu hys al fys by skele ondo, 
[jl\ J And by-leaue alegged fer-to, 

J)at god hys he. 
Nou we moste y-wyte more. 
Of J>yse worldle some lore, 

Hou hy3t may be : 











Why Father, 
Son, and Holy 
Ghost are 
each God. 

[leaf 209, bk.] 
And though 
power be 
attributed to 
the Father, 
and wisdom 
to the Son, 
and love to 
the Ghost, 
they are all 
of one power, 
and wisdom 
and love. 

Do not eo too 
near God's 
in reflecting 
further on 
this mystery. 

201. k^, MS. lye. 

199. y-blerUf MS. y hUndtt d underdotted. 
202. by-kechep, MS. by ch (underdotted) kechep, 

205. cU, MS. alle, U underdotted. 

206. godf Eolblng ; MS. stoete, see note. — cUy MS. aZl (second I underdotted). 
211. ^ over the line. 213. Kolbing supplies (>/' after loue. 

216. In MS. this line is written in the margin. — ^y weakened form of }^ou. 

138 VII. God made the World out of nothing. 

Did the 
World also 
exist from 
eternity ? 

[leaf 210] 

No: God's 
and supreme 
entailed that 
He should 
create it. 

and He made 
it out of 

for there was 
neither form 
nor matter, 
light nor 

Wader J)y[s] worldle euer were, 
Ofer a some tyme nere, 

And Jjo by-gan 1 231 

Euerte mytte hy nau^t by, 
Ich schal fe telle reyson wy^ 

So]}e ase ich can. 234 

For godes my^tte, ande eke hys wyt, 
And eke hys wylle, to sofEry hy^t 

So were W03 ; 237 

For he hys almytty, ase ich er sede, 
Al-wys, and wyl ine god-hede, 

J)et hys yno^. 240 

Ac 3ef he nedde fys world y-wrou3t, (144) 
And my3te and coufe, and dede hy^t noujt, 

Hyt were amys ; 243 

Ac hys al-my3tte hys of suche entaylle, 
And hys al-wyt, hoii mytte hyt faylle 

Of fet god hys ? 246 

He made hyt al, nys hyt non ofer, 
And fat of nau3te, my leue brofer, 

He made hys werke ; 249 

For er he a-gounne hys work* so merye, 
Nas nofer fourme ne materye, 

Ne ly3t ne derk*. 252 

Ne acombre nau3t J)y wyt any mo, 
To meche to fenche hou hyt was fo, 

Hyt [nys] nau3t worf ; 255 

Hou man hyt my3te wete ich not, 
For so to wytene, ase god hyt wot, 

Comest fou nau3t forfe. 258 

229. Wader = whether, MS. Fader, 232. EuerUy Kolbing EterTie, 

234. So}^, Kolbing Soche. 238. he, MS. Je. 

244. al-myyttey MS. al myytty. 245. al-tuyt, MS. al mytty; see note. 

251. founne^ u over the line. 247. MS. al hy (underdo tted). 

253. a7iy mo, MS. aiid mo. 

VII* God is present everywhere, in everything. 139 


Ac some mey acsy, war god was 
J)o noJ>yng* of fe worlde nas, 

Ne great ne smal) 261 

J)er fe worlde hys nou, was he, 
And 3et he hys, and euer schal be, 

Ihole ouer al. 264 

He hedde nede of none gynne, 
Ne ^t now nef, to wonye ynne, 

J)ou kepe nym ; 
Jef fe falj) frof to be aposed, (1^5) 

Sey, god nys nau^t in fer worldle aclosed, 

Ac hy hys ine hym. 

])a3 hy nabbe ende ne for]}e gol, 
Jet ouer al he hys y-hol, 

WyJ)-oute drede ; 
Nau3t o del here, anofer fere, 
Ase great body, as hyt were, 

J)at al by-3ede. 276 

J)ou wost he may by yj)03t of me 
Alle yhollyche, and eke of fe 

Wei betere, ich ply3te ; 279 

He may by wel ine dyuers I03 
Ky3t al at ones, wel yno3 : 

J)at deijj hys my3tte. 282 

J)yse wordle he made^ as ich er sede, 
Al ase hy hys ry3t nou ine dede. 

And I03 and he3 ; 285 

Ine J>e gynynge of holy wryt, 
Hou he hyt made ry3t per hyt sy3t, 

Ich hyt yse3e. 288 

268. /aZj), MS. faly, 

271. %, read he ? 

273. drede, Eolbing; MS. crede. 

Bat where 
was God 
when there 
was nothing ? 

Where the 
world is now; 


or say, God is 
not enclosed 
in the world, 
_^- but the world 
270 is in Him; 

[leaf 210, bk.] 

and though 
infinite. He 
is entire 
everywhere : 

He is omni- 

140 VII. God, in six days, created all things good. 

In six days 
He created 
all: heaven 
antl earth, 

and dry land 
and plants, 
the celestial 

and the 

and lastly 


And all was 


[leaf 211] 

for every 
creature of 
God must 
needs be 
sinless by 

since He 
loathes evil- 

YHienoe then 
comes all the 
evil in the 
world P 


Ine da3es sixe he made hyt Ry^t : 
Heuene and erthe and wolkne bry^t, 

Jjet water te-dy^t, 
Tren and gras and er))e dre^e, 
Sonne and mone and sterren grey3e, 

Jjat bej) 80 bry3t ; 


Fo^eles, fisches ine pe depe, 
Bestes, wormes for to crepe, 

And a last, man ; 
So ])at hyt was god and sad, 
Al pys world, ))at was ymad 

Of hym fat can. 


Al hyt was god, wy))-oute lak*, 
HartJ and nesche, wyte and blacke, 

And al ))at wes : 
Nedes godes creature 
Moste be ry^t by nature, 

Al senneles. 


Jef quead so were of gode y-nome, 
By ry^tte he my^tte be wyf-nome 

Ey3t ase a qued ; 
J)er-fore ne my3te he nau3t do wro))e : 
Ac schrewadnesse bej) hym lofe, 

And hys for-beade. 


And sej)))e god self hyt for-beade, 
Wannes come]) forfe al fat queadf. 
So meche fer hys % 











303. wes, MS. vkls. 

306. senneles, MS. sennes Us, 

307. y'rwinCf Kolbing y-come. 

310. dOf Kolbing be. 

311. hym altered from 7ie7n. 

313. And, Kolbing Ac. — sep]>e, MS. ]>esse., 

. But He suffe^^s EvU to exist, to let us win Heaven, 141 

And wel to donne apayne)) ueawe, 

Ac hym apayne]) many a screwe 

To do amy 8. 318 


)5at god hyt soffre]), hou mey hyt be, 

Se])])e of so great my^tte hys he 

J^et, 3ef ha wolde, 321 

He my3tte uordo pat hys quead, (1*17) 

And lete ons libbe, and nau3t be dead 1 

Hyt ]>ing)) ha scholde. 324 

Leue bro|»er, 3ef he so scholde, 
By J)e syker pat he so wolde, 

Ac he hyt nele. 327 

Ich kan pe telle reyson wy 
He let y-worJ)e quead to by ;' 

Nou harkne skele. 330 

)}at alper-ferste ^at god schop, 
Jjat was heuene, fer nys no wop, 

Sop for to telle ; 333 

For he hyt made of swyche aray. 
For alle manere blysse and play 

J>er to folfeUe. 336 

Ac blysse hys, nys nau3t folfeld, 
War-fore pat heuene hys al ydueld, 

And 3et nou worp ; 339 

Ac ich schel telle wat hys pat blysse, 
And so we schoUe wyte to wysse 

Hou quead comep forpe. 342 

Jef pe by-falp auancement 
Of 3efpe pat pe was yment, 

Wel blype art pou ; 345 

Sorely, Ckxl 
might, and 
ought to, do 
away with it, 
and let as 

If He ought 
to. He would 
certainly do 

but I will 
tell you why 
He suffers 
evil to exist. 

[leaf 211, bk.] 

The first 
thing He 
created was 

destined to 
be the place 
of perfect 

But bliss 
would not 
be perfect. 

316. apayyie^i MS. apanye^, 

317. many a screwe, MS. Truing ascrewe (Wright correx. ). 
319. mey, MS. tneny, 324. Dot after ying}f in MS. 
337. hys, Kolbing ther, 339. wor}), MS. ti)er\>. 
344. }efpe, MS. ^efpe, 343. atLance-, MS. auence- 

142 VII. Why Evil is. Strife is necessary for Conqued. 

if the joy of 
than which 
none is 
greater, were 

And 3ef ))e falle]) to be eyr 
Of a regne mechel and fayr, 

More hys py prou. 34S 

Ac nys no blysse ne no feste 0-^^) 

A3eyns fe ioye of conqueste 

)5et hys J)or3 god ; 351 

Ne mey me more ioye aspye, 
Jjane wanne a man )jor3 pur mestrye 

KeJ> hys manhod. 354 

And to great defaute hyt were, 
}ef no ioye of conqueste nere, 

So merye hys hy : 357 

Nou sixt fou panne mytte beste 
Hou ioye pat comep of conqueste 

Mot neades by. 360 


Nys gryt stryf wyJ)-oute queade, 

And per conqueste hys, stryf hys neade, 

And som yschent : 363 

Jjanne nys hyt to god no wrang* 
To soffre queade pe gode amang* 

To auancement. 366 

For 3ef quead nere in none pynge, 
Jjer nere stryf ne contekynge, 

Ne no wyp-sey ; 369 

And jyf stryf nere, ne victorye, 
So scholde ine heuene [faylly] (pat) glorye, 

Ac hyt ne mey. 372 

Jjer-fore per hys a maystre schreawe, 
Wyp hym mo bep, and pet nau^t ueawe, 

And neades mote ; 375 

369. nOy Kolbing 7V(nt,% 

371. Jm*^ omitted by Kolbing. Boddekker proposed to write — Hmi scholde 
me haue ^at glorye. 

372. t in hyt indistinct in MS. 

373. maystre^ MS. mastrye. 

[leaf 212] 

But where 
conquest is 
there must 
needs be 
strife, and 
some one 

And if there 
were no 
wron^ in 
there would 
not be strife 
nor con- 
tention, nor 
either, and 
so the glory 
of Heaven 
would have 

There must 
have been 
some one 

^VII. Why Evil is. Lucifer began it : his War in Heaven. 143 

For he hys heaued of schrewednesse, (149) 
As god hys cheaf of alle godnesse 

And alle bote. 378 

Hou mytte schreaudnesse by, 
Bote scherewen were hy 

Jjat hy ferst ))ou3te ? 381 

For god ne dede no quead in dede, 
For al was god, ase ich er sede, 

Al pat he wroute. 384 

Jjes ilke screawe so hys ly3t-bam, 
))at in-to helle god at-arn 

Ferst for hys prede ; 387 

Ac god hyne makede fayr yno3, 
Bry^t ande schene, and he3est in I03, 

Ferst ine hys dede. 390 

Ac are he were y-niad parfyt, 
Ase gode soffrede hy3t, 

He waux wel proud? : 393 

He wolde sette hys sete ryche 
Of north half, and be god ylyche. 

To be a-lowed. 396 

And so he weny ferst by-gan 
WyJ) gode ine heuene, and 3et te pan 

Oper wel fele, 399 

WyJ) hym pat helde wyp alle my3tte, 
Angeles pat god hedde ymad bry3tte 

In alle wele. 402 

Jjys by-ganne schrewednesse (1^^) 

Op an he3, ine heuene blysse, 

Jje ferste day; 405 

380. hy, MS. by. 383. For, Kolbing But. 

386. ly^'bam, MS. ly^ banr. Kolbing reads the two Unas 
^ereatoe so hy^ : ly^tbere, That god drove into helle fere ; but see 

387. Ferst, Kolbing Than. 388. Ac, Kolbing For. 
396. Twrth, MS. norch (Wright corr.). 

398. te yan, Kolbing by than (temporal). 

being diief of 
evil, as Grod 
i8 chief of 

began doing 

since God 
could not 
have done it. 

And that was 

[leaf 212, bk.] 

who waxed 
proud, and. 

wanting to 

first began to 
malce war in 

he and his 

: — Thes ilke 

144 VII. Why Evil is; arid why the Angels were not all good. 

But they 
were all 
driven out 
witli Lucifer. 

Those, how- 
ever, who did 
not side with 
the left, gprew 
stable, so as 
never to sin. 

Two reasons 
there are why 
tlie Anfifels 
had not been 
made perfect 

[leaf 218] 

one was for 
the good 

that they 

through pure 
earn everlast- 
ing joy; 

the other 
for the devil 
and his 
that they 
should be 
to the com- 
pletion of the 
glory of 
Heaven, and 
lose their 

for the profit 
of man. 

Hy^t moste neades for fe glorye, 
Elles hedde y-faylled fyctorye, 
Ac hyt ne may. 



Ac alle hy weren ydryuen out, 
WyJ) lucyfer fat was so stout, 

j)OT^ godes my3tte ; 
Hy fat ne hylde wyf fe left 
Sta[b]le woxe, fat neuere eft 

Senejy ne my3tte. 

Tuo skeles bef , fat me may wyte, 
pat none nere ymad parfyte 

Ine heuene ferst, 
Er f e bataylle yended was 
By-twexte god and sathanas 

Jjat now hys werst. 

reyson was for angeles gode 
|pat chose ary3t, and faste stode 

At f ylke dede : 
For fat hy scholde, f 013 pur co[w]queste, 
Habbe ioye euere to leste 

For hare mede. 

Jjat of er reyson was for f e deuel, 
J5at he schal to mys wende hys cheuel 

Jjor3 hys malyce, 
So fat folueld were fe glorye, (1^1) 

And hym seelf f or3 noble uictorye 

Lys al hy[s] blysse. 

Jef hy hade be mad parfy3t, 
We nedde y-haued ry3t no profy3t 
Ine heuene a-boue ; 

411. \>or^, MS. ])o^r, 413. Stalb]lef so also Eolbing. 

414. Senejy, MS. Sene yy, 

420. werstt MS. worst, 428. See note. 

432. Lys, Kolbing les. 

433. hadet MS. I^ade, first e underdotted. 










k^ II. Justification of the eternal punishment of bad A ngels. 1 45 

Nou schal man be in hare I03, 
And habbe ioye and blysse yno^, 
And pes and loue. 

And 8e])])e hyt moste nides by 
Jjet soche schrewen were hy, 

Ase gode hyt mente, 
Hon yst fet hy ine helle slabbep, 
And ])are-tou none grace nabbe]) 

To repente ? 

Sappose here hijs o iustyse, 
God and truwe in alle wyse, 

And wys of rede ; 
And dampnejj penes for to ordeyne 
Pays in londe, nau3t fo[r] weyne, 

Ne for queadhede. 

Suppose he fat schel hem spy lie, 
And honge)) hy wyj) grete wylle, 

And hys wel glad ; 
Ne he nef reuthe of hys em-cryste, 
Jja3 hy neuere of peipe neste : 

pes hys a quead, 

For ])at he hys mansle3))e pur. 
Of wylle of mysauenture, 

To spylle blod ; 
And he ))at mente hyt, pal iustyse 
Hys to prey^ in ))ysse wyse 

For hys wyl god. 

So pou sixte fat me may dy3te 
Quead for gode, and fat wyf ry3tte. 
And so me def ; 












who shall 
now oecapy 
their place. 

But, why 
are the fallen 
angels con- 
demned to 
hell, without 
the grace 
of ever 
repenting ? 

Suppoee there 
is a Judge 

who con- 
thieves, to 
secure the 
peace of the 

[leaf 218, bk.] 

and there is 
another who 
hangs inno- 
cent folk : 

this is a 

while the 
former is to 
be praised for 
his good 

So bad things 
may serve 
for good 

437. yno^ in a later hand. 443. ^re-tou = per-to, 

450. queadhede^ MS. quead heuede, 
454. revihe^ MS. revoke. — em-cryste, MS. eny eryste. 
456. >e/>J, MS. j^ef pe, 457. MS. ma/nsU^ >«. 

465. d«f, MS. der (Wright correx.). 

146 VII. Out of Lucifer's damnation came good. 

Tims God 
suffered the 
Evil One 
to fall into 

and suffered 
his evil- 
doing, be- 
cause good 

[leaf 214] 
Nor was it 
done by Him 
out of malice, 
although He 
through His 

frace, have 
isposed the 
to choose 
wliat was 

For, is it not 
God's right 
to grant, or 

And hy pat dof hyt ine deade, 
Wy)) hare wyl of schrewed-hede, 
Dampnable bef. 

J)08 mo^e we wel by reysoun scheawe 
Jjat, fa3 god soffrede such a schreawe 

Al for to spylle, 
Hyt was for gode, ase ich er sede, 
And lucyfer in hys raysdede 

Was wykke of wylle. 

And pare-uore dampnable he hys. 
For he was [glad] to don amys, 

J)o pat he my^tte ; 
And god soffred pat ylke dede, 
For god come prof, ase ich er sede, 

Ase god hy3t dyjtte. 

Ne hyt nys of god no malyce 
J)e3 he hyni soffrede lese hys blysse 

And alle hys wele, 
Al pa3 he por3 hys grace my3tte 
Habbe y-don hym wilni pat ry3tte ; 

Nou harkne skele. 

Hyt onbycome ine eche place 
3ef ech [p]yng* hadde ylyche grace 

To ioye and blysse ; 
And ich mey 3yuen, and eke wyp-dra3e, 
Al pat myn hys, by gode la3e, 

Wyp-oute malyce. 

Ne may nau3t panne god al-so, 
War he wyle, hys grace do, 
And eke wyp-dra3e. 












466. ine deade, read in mysdede ? cp. 1. 473. 

476. [glad\i cp. L 453 ; Kolbing greedy, or glad. 

481. 710, MS. ne, 482. lese Kblbing, MS. lasse. 

483. And Kolbing, MS. In, 

484. pa3, MS. j>a^. 491. MS. myn myn, Kolbing myn o^e. 

^11. Why God grants and withholds Cttom, is His Secret 147 

Jef he wole, wy)K)ut malyce, 
And wype-oute alle raanere uyce ? 

Nys fys god laje? 498 

}es, y-wys, god la^e hys : 
Jjet hyt be al ase hys wyl hys 

Hyt wyle wel by-come ; 501 

Nys non fat conne dy3te hyt bet, 
Al-J)a3 hyt penche wel on-net, 

Hys wyl, to some. 504 

)5er fat god wyle grace 3eue 
Euer to libbe, hyt mot leue 

Ine sauement ; 507 

And far he wyle hys grace wyj)-dra3e, 
Nys nau^t malyce, ac hyt hys la3e 

And iugement. 510 

Ac wy he grauntef grace to one, (1^4) 

And soche and oferen grauntyef none, 

Segge ich ne kanne ; 513 

Bote fet hys hys priuete 
Of hys domes in equyte, 

Wyf wyl to fanne. 516 

For fer nys nou3t of fysse wylle 
Her to iugy, ac be we stylle. 

We bej) y-let* ; 519 

For dauyd ous to wyten dej), 
In boke, fat godes domes bef 

A grouwdlyas pet. 522 

For hys ne may no wyt areche, 
Bote fo f et hym self wyle teche 

He scheawyf hy, 525 

His grwe as 
He likes r 

498. ]>ys, MS. nys. 
505. ^eue, MS. ^ytie, 
608. hys, MS. toy\>, 
514. See note. 
516. layl, MS. uxL 

501. Omit Hyt 'i 

Certainly it 
is ; for it is 
fit tliat He 
sliould do His 
will in all 

[leaf 214, bk.] 

But, why He 
grants grace 
to some, and 
none to 
is the secret 
of His Judg- 

which are a 



(P». XXV. 7), 

not to be 
soundeil by 
any man's 

148 VII. The DemVs eternal Damnation justified. 

Thus the 
Devil and his 
adherents are 
damned to 

And this is 
one of the 
reasons why 
they may 
never repent: 

[leaf 215] 

As white is 
set off and 
by juxta- 

Eosition of 

as the wise 
man seems 
wiser in the 
company ol' 
fools ; 

and as in 
battle it 
gives more 
pleasure to 
see all foe- 
men fail ; 

so the exult- 
ation of the 
blessed in 

And fe he nele, hy bef pryue : 
Al ))at y-ordeyned hef he 
Mot neades by. 

J)u8 fe deuel ydampned hys, 
And wyjj hym al-so fat bef hys, 

Deuelen wel mo ; 
For fat fe grace of god him fayllef , 
Moche hys fe pyne fat hem eylef , 

And eke fe who. 

Wy hy ne mo3e, ase ich er sede, 
Wel repenty of hare mysdede 

Lest enne skele, 
j^at ich schal segge, ase ich can ; 
Mo bef , ac f et longy te man 

^e bef naii3t fele. 

Swyf e fayr f yng* hys fat wyte, 
And f er by-syde blak* a lyte, 

Wel ydy3t ; 
Jje wyte hyt f e uayrer makef , 
And [hym] selue more hyt blakef , 

And al hyt hy3t. 

)}e wyse man f e wyser semef 
Jjer f et menye foules dremef , 

And no reysouw ; 
]>Q merrer hyt hys ine bataylle 
)}et me sykf al f e vomen faylle, 

And falle a-doun. 


Jjys lykynge hys for heuene blysse, 
Jjat leste schal wyf-oute mysse 
Ase euere mo ; 












526. he nelCf MS. henele, 527. hep, MS. he]>. 534. wTw = wo, 
539. ac, MS. at. — longy, read longep'i 542. hlalif y MS. blold. 

543. ydy% MS. ydryyt. 544. MS. "pe wyte pe itayrer hyt make}). 
547. tuyse, MS. vryser. — semep, MS. sonep. 
551. me sykp, MS. Tnsykp. 555. Ase, Kolbing And. 

"VII. TJic DeviVs wo7'k is to breed Strife, Wrath, & Malice. 149 

Jjar hys so meche fe more merye 
Jje deuel ys ))at me[y] nau3t ne derye, 
And helle also. 

Hy J)et J)er hep so 111036 ysy 
Wat peryl ascaped bejj hy, 

And be fe blyfere ; 
So ))at folueld fe ioye nere, 
Bote euere helle pyne were, 

And frynne wifere. 

Ac wo bejj werfer for to by 
Euer ine helle fanne hy 

Jjer sech gelt hys 1 
)5enne mey be wel fys skele : 
)5a3 grace faylly ham to wele 

No wonder nys. 

And ase angeles fe faste stode 
For heuer eft by-come gode, 

And glad an blyfe, 
Ry3t deuelen [so] for screawed-hede 
Euer mo forse scholle brede, 

And wrefe and nype. 

Ac fo hy hedde ine heuene ytopped, 
Wy nedde hy be ine helle y-stopped 

For euere mo, 
Ac Nau3t her in ))ys myddelnerde, 
For to maky men oflferde, 

And to mysdo 1 

For fo hye weren out y cached, 
And ou3t of hare I03 arached 
For hare senne, 












is the greater 
because of 
the existence 
of a Devil 
that can do 
no harm, and 
also of hell. 

which tlieir 
ioy would not 
be complete. 

[leaf 215, bk.] 

And as the 
angels who 
stood firm 
became good 
for ever, 
so the devils 
shall for ever- 
more be 
violence and 
wrath and 

But, why 
have they not 
been locked 
up in hell, 
instead of 
being per- 
mitted to 
terrify and 
tempt men 
here on 
earth P 

556. \>ar, read ^at ? 557. de^iel ys, MS. deicelys, 

659. mo^. MS. more. 660. be\>, MS. bey. 

666. hy, Matzner, Spp. II. , s. v. guU, MS. by, 

569. wele, MS. wole. 574. My^t deuelen [so], Kolbing My^t [so] deuelen. 

575. 7no, MS. me (or ine, i-stroke wanting?) ; see note. 580. Ac, MS. At. 

150 VII. Ma7b was not made perfect, that he might be tried. 

When their 

Elaoe in 
eaven hud 

God created 
man, that 
he should 
win it for 

But he could 
not have 
won the 
glory without 

[leaf 216] 

lie was not 
created per- 

and one tree 
in paradise 
was forbidden 

And as he 
was made of 
earth, it was 
fit for him 
to be tried 
on earth ; 

and that is 
why the 
devils were 
not loclced 
up in hell. 


We mo^e weten liyt wel y-nou 
Jjat al ydel was hare I03 

Jjat hy weren ynne. 588 

Aud one-by-comeleche ))yng* hyt were 
Jef eny I03 ))er lefy were, 

Seruynde of nou3t[e] ; 591 

J)ar-fore god made mannes schefte, (1^7) 

Jjat ylke I03 al for to crefte, 

Ase god hy3t poute. 594 

Ac manne ne mytte nau^t fe glorye 
Crefte, wy))-oute victorye, 

My leue brofer ; 597 

For 3ef he nadde hy3t foi^ conqueste, 
Folueld ne mytte be hys feste 

Al ase ano])er. 600 

J>are-fore god made hym god and wys, 
And mayster ouer al paradys, 

Ac nau3t parfyt ; 603 

For trou J)[r]ynne god for-bead, 
Ase he nolde nou3t be dead, 

Nau3t take hyt. 606 

And god reyson was fat he nere 
Nau3t parfyt, ase ofer were 

To-uore ysed ; 609 

Ac, ase he was y-mad of erfe, 
Ey3t here an erfe hyt was wel werfe 

He were asayd. 612 

))er-fore nas helle naii3t y-schet, 
Ne deuelyn Jjer-inne nau3t y-det 

Ine fare crybbe, 615 

alf 80 also Kolbing ; MS. ase. 
^efy MS. 3C3. — le^y, the e resembling in MS. 
iyrefUy MS. crafte. 596. Read Crefte \al] ? 

he nerey MS. henere, 611. wcr^e. MS. wor^e. 

y'detf MS. y dut. 

Til. To tenipt Adain, tJte Devil ttcrned into a Serpent. 151 

For ))at hy scholde man asaye 
Wa))er he was worpe for to deye 

Ofer to libbe. 

Ac po ]}e deuel hyt aspyde 
J)at man hym scholde per abyde 

To be assayde, 
He pou^te gyle al onder-go, 
For of fet he hadde her ydo 

He was affrayde. 

Nas wonder p^ he were aflfrayd, 
For swype wel he was auayd 

Of mannes stad ; 
For after god semblant he here, 
And he pou^te a fet hym uel er, 

f)o he was ymad. 

Ac hys enuie ajeins man 
So great by-comej), pet al for pan 

He nolde lette 
psit he nold[e] man afounde, 
And an hym, bote he mytte stonde, 

Hys uenym sette. 

And dede hym in an addre wede, 
]}at best was of mest schreuhede, 

Of alle beste ; 
Hyt moste neades screwed by-come, 
])o pat hy[t] hedde ine hym y-nome 

Soch a tempest[e]. 

And he gan to pe trowe glyde 
Jjat was for-boden, al forte abyde 
After hys praye ; 



When the 
Devil dis- 
covered that 
man should 
621 be tempted, 

he made up 
his mind to 
use wile; 








for he was . 
afraid of 
what he had 
done before. 

seeing that 
man bore 
the likeness 
of God 
upon him. 

[leaf 216, bk.] 

So he put on 
a serpent's 

and glided 
on to the for- 
bidden tree. 


623. Jier = er, 

625. tuerej MS. wede (corr. Miitzner, Spp. II, s. v. anayen, erroneously 
for auayen), 

629. Tiely MS. tuel. 632. hy-c(yine\>^ read ly-comy pret. ? 

636. aetUy MS. a&iUe, 

152 VII. How the Demi, as a Serpent, tempted Eve. 

Not daring, 
however, to 
assail Adam, 

he tamed to 
Eve« whom 
he thought 
to be less 

and addressed 
her oat (^ 
the tree: 

'Why has 
God forbid- 
den you to 
eat of all the 
firuits in 

[leaf 217] 

* We eat of 
all the trees,* 
said Eve, 

'but this tree 
we must not 

lest we 
should die.' 

'No/ quoth 
the fiend, 
' you shall 
not; but Ood 
knew well 

that your 
eyes should 
be opened, 
and you 

should be 
like gods. 

Ac sore hyni drade for to faylly, (1^9) 

And doTste nau3t adam asaylly, 

Al for to waye. 648 

Ac wel hym ]}0U3te ))at eue nas 
Ka^t so stedefast ase adam was, 

Jjat was hyre lorde ; 651 

And ase hy come, he gan here knowe, 
And to hyre speke out of fe trowe 

Jjys ylke word : 654 

" Leue dame, say me now, 
Wy hej) god for-bode hyt 30W 

J)et 30 ne mote 657 

£ten of al ))at frut ])at hys 
Here growynde in paradys 

To 30ure bote 1 " 660 

"We etej) y-nou," quaf eue, "y-wys, 
Of alle ])e trowes of paradys. 

And bef wel gled ; 663 

Bote ]}ys trow mote we nau3t take, 
For bo])e me and mynne make 

God hyt for-bede, 666 

And seyde, 3ef we fer-of ete, 
We scholde deye, and lyf for-lete 

And alle blysse." 669 

" Nay," quaj) fe fend, " ac 3e ne scholde, 
Ac he wot fol wel wet he wolde, 

Jjat for-bead pys. 672 

He wot wel, 3ef 30 J)er-of toke, (l^^) 

Wyf e3en scholde 3e forf loke 

Ry3t ase godes, 675 

656. ^ow Kolbing, MS. now. 

657. 3e, MS. he. 
663. gled, MS. glad. 
670. acy Kolbing )>a^. 
673. He, MS. Je. 

671. loel, MS. wel wel. 

"VII. Adam and Eve ea^ the apple, and God qttcstions them. 153 

And conne bo]>e god and quead, 
And neuer fe rafer be dead 

For hys for-bodys." 678 


J)08 he gan hyre herte ablowe, 
And hy 863 J>at frut ine fe trowe 

Was fayr and god, 681 

And et frof, dame lykerouse, 
And made ek* eten hyt hyre spouse : 

Hy weren wode. 684 


Anon opened pet boj^e hare e3en, 
And naked ]>at hy weren y se^en, 

And woxe of-schamed ; 687 

WyJ leanes hy helede hem fer-fore ; 
'Ne mytte hy no leng* be f or-bore 

To be y-blamed. 690 


Ac fo hy herde god speke, 
Wei sone an hal by-gonne freke, 

Wer J>et hy mytte. 693 

" Adam," quaj) god, " wer my^tou be 1 " 
QueJ) he : " lord, ))o we herde pe, 

We were of fly^te ; 696 


And nedes moste, lord, to 8o))e, 
Al for fat we be J) naked bofe, 

Ase uole fynges." 699 

QueJ) god : " ho haj) y-scheawed 30U (161) 
)pat ^e be]) bojie naked nou, 

Bote 3oure Etinges 1 " 702 

good and evil, 
and should 
never die 
for it.' 

.Tims he 
swelled her 

and she ate 
of the fruit, 
and made her 
eat also. 

then that 
they were 

th^ covered 
with leaves; 

[leaf 217, bk.] 

and when 
tliev heard 
God's voice, 
they souglii a 
' Adam, 
wliere art 
thou ? ' 
Said Adam : 
* Lord, when 
we heard 
Thee, we fled. 

becaase we 
are naked.' 

Quoth God: 
* Who has 
made you 
aware of your 
but your 
eating ? ' 

683. Tnade, MS. irwden. 
688. helede, MS. helde. 

692. by gonne preke ; Kblbing by-gonne hy soke. The two lines probably 
^ught to run thus : — Ac \>o hy herde godes speche, 

Wei sone an hal hy gonne seche. See note. 

701. 3e, MS. he. 

702. Etinges, Kolbing doinges. E resembles or s in MS. ; but see note. 

154 VII. Their Excuses. GocCs Doom on the Serpent and Eve. 

Said Adam : 

* The woman 
made me 
break Thy 

Then said 
God to Eve : 
« Why liaat 
thou thu8 
misled man?' 

Eve an- 
swered:* Woe 
the while ! 
the serpent 
has beguiled 

God then 
cursed the 

[leaf 218] 

to the woman 
her doom, 

Sede adam wyferlyche to gode : 
" Nedde ich y-broke nau3t fy for-bode, 

Ne nau3t do so, 705 

Nedde J)e wymman, lord, y-be 
)?at to fela3e ])0U niadest me, 

Hy dede me hyt do." 708 

Jjo seyde god almy3ty to eue : 
" Wy madest fou man mys-byleue, 

And fous mys-went ? " 711 

Ac fo seyde eue : "so wey ))at wyle ! 
Jje eddre, lord, wyf hyre gyle 

HeJ) ous y-schent." 714 

Jjo by-gan god speke to fat worm : 
" For J)ou areredst feme storm 

And alle fys hete, 717 

Acorsed be fou bestes by-syde, 
Opone fy wombe fou schalt glyde, 

And erfe frete. 720 

And ich schal makye contekhede 
By-tuyce fyne and wyues sede, 

And moche to pleity ; 723 

So schal py power be by-reued, 
J)at 3et schal wymman trede fine heued, 

And J)ou hyre wayti." 726 

So sede he wymman here lere, (1^2) 

Hou hy scholde al hyre children here 

Ine sor3e and stryf, 729 

708. Hy, MS. Hyt^ but t nearly rubbed out. — dede^ MS. dede hyt. 
712. MS. Ac so (underdotted) Jx?. — so wey \>at wyle, Kolbing sc wey 
"pat ivyle. 

723. pleity f Kolbing playte, MS, pleny. 

724. Kolbing inserts ]>e after power, 

725. ^et, 80 also Kolbing, with a query ; MS. ^ef. 

726. Kolbing hyre [heel] wayti. See note. 

727. So, read Jx? ? — here lere, Kolbing scholde lere (* should leam *). 

Vll. God's JiidginerU on Adam. But let noGhristiande^air. 155 

And J>et liy scholde lybbe her 
Euere ine mannes dauiiger 

Al liyre lyf. 

To adam seyde god of heuene : 
" For fou dedest by j)ine wyues steuene 

J>et was for-hote, 
Jjer[j)e] hys acorsed ine J>yne deade, 
In swinched fou schalt fy lyf leade, 

And ete ine swote, 

Al wat |}ou art a3en ycome 
In-to er])e |}at part of ynome, 

Jjor^ dea]>es bends ; 
For fou nart bote of poudre y-welt, 
And a3en into poudre schelt, 

Manne, at fyne ende." 

JX)r3 fe fend, fat hys oure uo, 
J)os by-ganne f erst al oure wo 

Jjot we bej) inne ; 
An J>os by-ganne ferst trecherye 
J)or3 J)e feend, and ek^ enuye, 

Manne for to wynne. 

And wonderuol was fys assay, 
And wonder-lyche 3ede man a- way, 

Ly^tlyche y-lore ; 
Ac wonder-lyche ^et forf niyt fan 
Her ine fys world hys euer man 

To sorwe y-bore. 

Ac, crystene man, for al fys wounder, 
Loke fat f ou ne go nau^t onder 

J)or3 wantrokynge ; 
For sof e apreued hys f ys sa3e, 
Bof e by f e elde and nywe la^e, 

Wyf-oute lesynge. 












and gave 
sentence on 

that he 
should retarn 
to dust, 
of which he 
was inade. 

This was the 
beginning of 
all our misery 
by tlie 
treachenr of 
the fiend. 

[leaf 218, bk.] 

was man's 
trial, and 
came he out 
of it, likely 
to be lost. 

But let no 
despair for 


737. 8toi7iched for swiiuih-hed ? or simply an error for swinche ? 

156 VII. Though Death was in the tree. Life was also in it. 

was God's 

for as the 
fiend in 
heaven, when 
he strove 
fcir mastery, 
w:u over- 

so, when he 
meant to use 
secret wile. 

God thought 
to meet him 
with the 
same device. 

For in the 
tree was 
death, as was 
from God's 
prohibition ; 

[leaf 219] 

but life was 
also in it, 
hidden from 
the fiend. 

It was not 
for nothing 
called Tree of 

for, as man 
was beguiled 
through a 
tree, he 
should be 
on a tree ; 

And skepjfol was fys ordinaunce, 
\>^ man by-uolle so hard a chaunce 

Jjor^ trycherye ; 
For Jjorj mestrye fat lie uorf dro3 
Jje feend in heuene lias hys I03, 

Jjor^ pur mastrye. 

Ry^t al-80, fo he gyle J)ou3to, 
For to brynge man to no3te 

God almy^ty, fat hys wyl wyste, 
A3eyns hym J)03te go by lyste 

Al so styllyche. 

For ine j)e trowe deaf was kene, 
And fat god made wel y-sene, 

Jjet hyt for-bead ; 
And he weste fat god hyt sede, 
Jef man f rof ete he scholde awede, 

And eke be dead. 

Ac lyf was al-so ine f e trowe, 
Ac fat ne my3te be naujt y-kiiowe, 

For god hyt hedde ; 
For hyt was pryue for a wyle 
A3e f e fendes priue gyle 

Jje man for-ledde. 

For nau3t nas hyt ycleped ne hys 
Trou of lyne in paradys, 

Ac wyste ; 
For, ase man was f or3 trowe by-cou3t, 
In trowe he scholde be for-bou3t, 

Jjat f e fende neste. 












764. by-uoUe may also be read by uelle in MS. 

767. lias seems to be the reading of the MS. ; Wright has^ which makes 
no sense. 

778. Andy Kolbing For. — Ac, MS. 3c. — westc^ Kolbing wete (pres.). 

781. ACy Kolbing And. 784. F(yr, Kolbing And. 

787. nc hys, Kolbing y-wis. 789. Kolbing Ac [god hy(\ wyste. 

VII. Mans Redemption was fore-ordained. 157 

And pat was ine fe holy rode, 
Jjor^ pe schedynge of pe blode 

Of godes sone, 
Ase ich her-af ter telle may, 
Jjat he tok of a clene may 

A3eyns wone. 

Hedde he wyst per hedde ybe 
Lyf for-boute ine pe appeltre, 

He nedde assaylled 
Noper adam ne non of hys ; 
Ac are pe worlde was al pys 

Was y-conseyled. 

God wyste wel pat man schold erry, 
And por^ on-boxamnesse uerry 

Fram alle healpe ; 
J)er-fore pat consayl was wel trye 
A3eyns pe feendes foule enuie 

To abatye welpe. 

J)ys consayl, hou hyt scholde be, 
Al was y-consayled of pre 

Ere eny tyme. 
Of fader and sone and holy gost, 
Jjat ich was embe, ase pou wel wost, 

Ferst in pyse ryme. 

And was pat conseyl so ytayled, 
Jjat hyt ne my3te habbe faylled 

To bote of manne. 
And certeyn tyme yset per-to, 
And hou hyt scholde be y-do. 

And wer and wanne. 











and that was 
on the Holy 
Rood-tree, bj 
the shedding 
of Christ's 

Had the fiend 
known that, 
he would 
not have 

But all was 
nrom the 

[leaf 219, bk.] 

by the 
Trinity, . 


and a certain 
time fixed 
for its being 
carried out. 

794. schedynge, MS. schewynge. 

797. Kblbing inserts lyf, or hody^ between ))a< and he. 

800. foT-Jxmtef TQAdfor-holel Kblbing for-houle {=■ for-lwle). 

803. al yySy MS. arid hys. 812. of yre, Kolbing of [hein] |>re. 

815. aae Kolbing, MS. ^. 817. Kolbing puts was after conscyL 

158 VII. Why Salvationwas long delayed. Guilt of Adam's issue. 

And so man- 
kind toiled 
here on earth 
5000 years 
and a half, 

ere the time 
of lite came. 

One reason 
wliy Go<l 
deferred it so 
long may 
have been, 

that Death 
should mani- 
fest his sway» 

and man be- 
come sensible 
of his over- 

and that the 
fiend might 
&ncy man 
woald never 

get out of 
is misery. 

Deaf 220] 

But what was 
the guilt ot 
those unborn 
when Adam 
and Eve 
sinned ? 

By their 


our first 




corrupted ; 

And her mankende swank and dalf 
ry3f fousend wynter and an half, 

And 3et wel mo, 
Er Jjane f e tyme of lyue come, 
And deaj) man hedde for hys dome 

And helle also. 

J)et go[d] so longe abod, fe skele 
Wel mey be Jjys, fat on of uele : 

To mannes mende ; 
For deaJ) scholde hys meystryes kefe. 
And [man] forsopie and for-sef e 

In deajjes bende, 

Jjat [he] my3te ry3t wel y-knowe 
J3at he was ry3t al oue[r]-frowe 

And harde y-nome ; 
And fe fend hy3t my3te wene 
Jjet men out of so longe tene 

Ne my3te come. 

Ac her aryst a que8tio[u]n : 

\)o fat adam was bro3t a-doun 

And eue al-so. 
Wet gelt hedden hy fat fo nere, 
Jjet hy to def e ischape were, 

And eke to wo ? 

J)ou syxt, brofer, by fan by-fore, 
J3at oure aldren were al for-lore, 

Adam and eue ; 
For far nas of ham no partye 
Jjat nas tomed to vylanye. 

So to by-leue. 

829. skele, MS. skyle, 

830. of, MS. 08. 

836. otte[ryprmoe, MS. oue ]>reawe. 
844. Jx) nere, MS. ]>onere (Wright con*. ). 













VII. Baptism alone saves Children from Damnation, 159 

Ac now be wey of ham y-come, 
WyJ) flesch and blod of ham i-nome, 

Jjet was ablowe 
)5or^ pe fenym of pe fende ; 
)5anne falj) ous rewelyche by kende 

To soffry wowe. 

And fos pat chyld to nyft y-bore, 
pa^ hyt deyde, hyt wore for-lore 

}ef crystnynge nere, 
J)or3 pe flesch pat. hyt nome 
Of hys eldren pat hyt of come, 

Jjat wykkede were. 

And neades moste [hyt], leaue broper, 
Ry3t of ham come, and man of oper, 

And be nature ; 
For elles nadde man y-be 
Nau3t y-lych gode in trynyto 

}X)r3 engendmre. 

J)a3 hy be por3 senne demeyned. 
So nas hyt nau3t ferst y-ordeyned, 

J)y[s] engendmre ; 
For po man senne3ed in paradys, 
Al chaungede pat flesch a-mys 

To mysauenture. 

Files nedde hyt be no senne, 
J)y[8] engendmre of al mankenne 

In al pys wone, 
Ac senne-leas hyt hadde ybe, 
Ase pe engendmre in trynyte 

Of fader and sone. 











and 80 are 
we, their 
descendants ; 

but for bap- 
tism, every 
child would 
be lost, 

sprung from 
parents ; 

as, indeed, 
one man 
must natur- 
ally descend 
from the 
other, or 
man's gener- 
ation would 
not have re- 
sembled that 
of Oodin 


Had man not 
sinned in 


the genera- 
tion of all 
would have 
been UU' 
tainted with 

like that of 
the Father 
and Son in 

853. wey = we, 

862. Eolbing would supply hap after hyt, 

865. Eolbing connects tnis stanza with the preceding one, by putting a 
^^^mma after vxre, 1. 864. 
867. And, Kolbing All. 

160 VII. The difference hehoeen God's and marCs begetting. 

there is this 

that God, the 
Father, en- 
sendered His 
Son in an ex- 

while man 
haa to Mde 
bis time of 


Ase mannes ylyche ymad of tre 
May nau^t be al ase man may be 

Inne alle fynge, 
Ne godes ylyche, man, y-wys, 
Ne may nau3t be al ase god ys, 

Of heuene kyng*. 


For god, ])e fader, hys leue sone 
Engendrede out of alle wone, 

Wyf-oute tyde ; 
Ac man haj> certayn tyme of elde 
Wanne he may engendrure ^elde, 

And tyme abyde. 






886. Nc, Kolbing }w. 

Notes. Pages 1-3, Lines 0-70. 161 


120/170 means page 120, line 170. 

P. 1, Heading. Ps. Ixxvi. 4: "Memor fui Dei, et delectatus sum, et 
exercitatus sum, et defecit spiritus mens." 
1/9. io toisse^ for certain. 

I/13. The spelling and for an, as in and handredj is most often found 
in the unstressed prepos. an: — and honde, 1 9/507; and erfe, 107/2 58, 
124/291 ; and he^, I2O/170, I23/261. The addition of the d is probably 
merely graphic, and may be due to the reverse fact, that the unemphatic 
conj. and is frequently written a?i, according to the pronunciation. 

1/15, 16. crefUj to attain. Cf. 84/943, 54/1526, I5O/593, 596. Intr. 
crefte to^ I8/476. 

2/22. sfnind, O.E. sprin{g)d, active, vigorous. 
2/26. To gile^ to (his own) deception, in self-delusion. 
2/27. For the position of ^e* cp. 3O/824-5 ' ^<^h screade ^et also longe 
hys godes hody^ etc.; 68/1622: Home ^het some n'>ene\> ligge in spoushopj 
■^tid li\>e inh&rdome. We are reminded here of the M.E. poem known by 
the name of * Long Life,' and may also compare the following passage in 
the * Library of Early English Writers,* ed. by C. Horstmann, vol. i. p. 137 
C' Our daily work,'' MS. Arundel 507 = MS. Thornton, p. 311) :— 

And saynt Jerom sais : na thing so mikil bigilis man as \>at he knowis 
"'^^oght \>e tyme of his life, \>at to him is vncertayn. db yt hightis he himself 
^ng life, as he might at his will dryue dead ohake, 

2/47. Now schewe \>is can hardly be strained into sense. It seems as 
rf the eye of the scribe, in writing \nsj had been caught by the same w^ord 
^t; the beginning of the next line. Did the poet perhaps write : Now 
^^Hreaiois, as a sort of expletive, such as are not unfrequently found in the 
»>ob- verses ? 

2/48, 49. **Scala coeli caritas est, cuius gradus diversae virtutes." 
-Honor. Augustod. (Migne, 172, 1239). 

3/57. And pat may possibly mean 'if (that), even if, although.' 
-Matzner does not mention the combination of that with and, either in the 
Spp. or in the Gramm. ; but an instance of it is found in * Engl. Stud.* viii. 
^SO: Moche eviU water shall ye fynde : whiche do sethe, and scomme hit, 
^**d that hit be coid, or that ye drynke hit. It is as likely, however, that 
the scribe of the Shoreham MS. should have miswritten \)at for J^aij here, 
*® lie evidently did elsewhere, e. g, 6/148, 7/169, 59/1672, I46/484, etc. 
-^ 'J some cases the error appears to have been detected by a later reviser, 
^*^o accordingly altered the wrong \>at again into the correct J>aj, c. g, 
®/2i9, 6I/1715. 

3/64-70. It is hard to guess what the scribe can have meant by Of 
^^^Umes&che. Varnhagen, 'Anglia,* iv. 201, referring to a passage on 

Ac }pench ^ou nart bote essche, 
And so "pou lo^e \>e, 
And hyde god \>at he wesche 
pe fdlpe fat hys in 'pe, 


162 Notes. Page 3, Lirus 64-70. 

supposes the original reading here to have been Of esscJie, He therefc 
translates 11. 67-8 : ** Hier kann er sich nicht reinigen vom Staube" (he 
he cannot cleanse himself from dust), dust (essche) meaning either '*d& 
Irdische" (earthiness), or better, perhaps, "Schmutz der Siinde" (filth • 
sin). This essche, he argues, was not understood by the corrector, wl 
accordingly put screwn before it, the whole being intended for 
(schrevmesse) = pravitas. But, apart from the error in the latter statemeKi'^^ ent 
(the MS. having distinctly serett?-, not screw-, and, as Dr. Fumivall assur^^^s: jres 
me, like the rest, in the original handwriting), I doubt whether esaehe ^ is 

ever used in the sense of * foetor (sordes) peccati ' = fdjfe or fel\>e • of 

senne, as Shoreham otherwise expresses it, which seems to me the onr Mrxuly 
one agreeing with 1. 66 : And (ddey he to senne faUe]^. In the passa^^^^actge 
referred to by Varnhagen essche appears in its literal sense of dusr ^g»_^st : 
"Memento homo quia pnlvis es, et in pulverem reverteris." Waivir^^" -«i"g 
however this objection, I do not think that by the adoption of Vamhagenr"^ ^n's 
conjecture every difficulty is cleared away. In my 'Beitrage zr — "^"^ 
Erklarung und Textkritik des William von Schorham,' I observed th .^rrtfliat 
the form m©3e, 11. 65, 67, could only be subjunct, or plur. ind. pres., eith- .m^:^^^^ 
of which was impossible here. Vamhagep questions my statement b^ ^y 
pointing to two passages in * Ayenbite * where mo^e renders Fr. puetj ar"*" -^^^ 
must therefore be taken as 3rd sing. ind. pres. But is this quite certaim:™*^ ^^' 
In the first passas^e, * Ayenb.* 10, — yef he hit wot and moyi hit do^ se ^^u 
Je set e h pnet fairef there may as well be a change of mood, wldch is Ic^ t? 
no means uncommon in conditional clauses. In the very sentence quot fa^^ ^^^J?^*^ 
by Varnhagen there is such an obvious change, Dan Michel translatim"^ ^^^f 
the French s'4l ne V rent la ouil doit , , , ou s^il ne V fait oii conseU c^ 
sainte egUse by — hete yef he hit yelde \fer ha ssel (yef he hit wot and mo^ 
hit do,) o>per yef he ne dej? by \>e rede of holy cherche, — ^The second passag*' 
* Ayenb.' 21, runs : \>et wen\> by more wor\> \>aniie he hy \ o)^r mare 
j)amie he mo^e ; o\>er more coniie \>anne he can, etc. = qyCU cuide ptus « 
qtte U ne wiut, ou plus pooir qxCU ne piiet, ou plus savoir qv^H ne tet^ et 
But I do not really see why 171036 should not be subjunct. as well as 
preceding hy, in spite of the indie, in the Fr. text, which is, * ' 

retained in the following can. There are even more passages than ».m«/«>^^ ^ , . 
in * Ayenb.* to which Varnhagen might have referred in support of hi: ^* *"* 

opinion that m>o:^e is used as 3rd sing, indie. ; for instance, pp. 104, 16^^^ . 
193. In all these passages however the subjunctive is just as consisteir^ ^^'^ 
with English usage as tlie indicative. Unless, therefore, other evidenc^:^ ^va 
be adduced, I cannot persuade myself that riMie ever represents the Sr^*"^^ ^^, 
sing, indie, pres., at least in M.Kt. ; and I still hold that in our stanza w *^ 
must have been corrupted by the scribe from original may he (not::^ ^^te 
particularly that 03 in 1. 67 is written on erasure). This is not ^^^-^S 
incredible when we consider that h and 3 are often confounded in the ^*^* ^o. 

For hy, 1. 65, may possibly mean for why (cp. the spelling ho for 
who, IO8/275, 277, 281, 131/48). 

As to pury, ). 67, it is of course the M.K equivalent of O.F^ 
purer* Stratm.-Bradley gives only instances of tlie pa. pple. pwreof^ 
Godefroy has it also as a verb neuter, but only in the sense of ' ^pureflE^ ^^h 

It may still be mentioned that Kolbing in his edition of ' Arthour an** 
Merlin/ p. Ivi, footnote, thinks that for the unintelligible serewnessckt 
shall probably have to substitute a word ending in -^lesae, such as^|nne»^^^^ 
[: wesschel. This conjecture rests on the doubtful supposition that OJ^^^' 
sc became ss (i. e. voiceless a) in M.Kt ; and, besides, it overlooks the fac::^^^^ 
that the bob-verse cannot have more than one stress. 

Notes. Pages 3-7, Lines 78-170. 163 

3/78. " anima carnis in sanguine est," Levit. xvii. 11. — gisbe is here = 
O.Fr. giste, resting-place. 

4/83-86. CI Thom. Aquin., * Summa Theolog.* p. iii. quaest. 62, art. 5 : 
*' Unde manifestum est quod sacramenta Ecclesiae specialiter habent 
virtutein ex passione Ghristi, cuius virtus quodammodo nobis copulatur 
per susceptionem sacramentoruin ; in cuius signum de latere Christi 
pendentis in cruce fluxerunt aqua et sanguis, quorum unum pertinet ad 
baptismum, aliud ad eucbaristiam, quae sunt potissima sacramenta/' 
Cp. also Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 92) and Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 
192, 216). 

4/87, 88. ^* Sacramentum est sacrae rei signum,*' August, Hugo de 
St Vict, Petr. Lonib. etc. 

4/89. F(yr gode^ truly, in good earnest ; cp. Fr. pour de hon. Tbe 
phrase occurs in the same sense in Rob. of Gloucester; see 'Anglia,' 
xiii. 284. 

4/97. Instead of jmwe we ought to read oure^ or — what seems to me 
preferable^to recur to the original reading 3a (O.E. ^ia), only changing it 
into the Kt. 30. 

4/101. to f>et stede^ to the place of those ; cp. the use of which for the 
genit in Chaucer's * Prologue to the C. T.,' I 4. 

5/1 1 1. A stress-syllable is panting here. 

5/125. to stat, to the state of grace. 

5/129-30. To pynes cdlegaxmce hie fere^ to tlie alleviation of the 
torment in the fire (of Purgatory), pynes is genit. 

5/132-3. Cp. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 892). **Nam prius purgandus 
est igne purgationis qui in aliud saeculum distulit fructum conversionis " 
(according to August, * De vera et falsa Poenit.,' c. 18). 

5/139. The necessity of altering ey^en into earen or i/e(a)reH, as the 
Kt. forms are, is obvious, not only because of the following Bht, but also 
in consideration of the real practice at Extreme Unction, to which allusion 
is here made. 

6/142. We ought perhaps to read : hit (for he) his cd ydel, 

6/147. ordinige is probably a mistake for ordininge (ordeninge^ from 
orde(%)ni\ or odringe, from ordren. — tokne may possibly be miswritten for 
tckne]^, or else tokne \>rmo^ may be an error for tohie Yrof ; see below, 1. 
153. At any rate, the line, as it stands, is too long, while in the pre- 
ceding one a stress-syllable is wanting at the end. We might perhaps 
transpose Wd into 1. 146, after graunte]>, 

6/165. In 11. 162-3 the effects of five sacraments are described, viz. 
those of Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Matrimony, and The Lord's 
Supper. In 1. 165, therefore, we have to expect a mention of the effects 
of the remaining two sacraments, namely, Ordination and Extreme 
Unction. Ghrace refers to the former ; cp. 56/ 15595. : And grace Ofwyt 
and of atictoryte \et \>yng hys ine \>e place. Consequently lyxves ought to 
refer to the Extreme Unction. I take it as plur. of hrf. One of the 
effects of Extreme Unction is the alleviation of the bodily illness of the 
sick man, so that he may live on, if God thinks it expedient for him. 
Cp. 1. 1105-6 : \>e bodyes enel \>at lihbe mey, And sone^ hit mey to-dryue; 
1. 1144-5, )pat \>yngge hys aUeggoAince ofenel, To lyf^efhe schel loute, 

7/170. nef(yr\)e occurs also 8/21 1, 25/676, 4I/1157, 66/1861, etc. (spelt 
fur\f 43/1207) J andfor\>e 66/1877. I^ *^® N.E.D. the passage on 8/21 1- 
13 is quoted under forthj A, adv., 3. d, and the meaning assigned to/or|je 
is 'further, moreover, also.' This may be right indeed as regards the 
meaning only. But the form of the word seems to me rather to connect 
it with O.E. /urjsitm, M.E. for])e{n). What makes me think so is, that 

164 Notes, Page 7, Lines 183-189. 

f<yr\>e in at least four passages, viz. 26/676, 4I/1157, 72/2084, ^^^ 139/27I*. ~m^ '^^v 
is used OS a distinct dissyllable, while the representative of O.E. for}?^ ^:^^^rx\^ 

thoui^h sometimes written for\>e in the MS., is always monosyllabic. — 

iurede {frede, 1. 172), perceive. 

7/1835. *A11 those things which betoken holy things, as holy water^-»^dt«r 
etc., are sacraments of the Church; and of all sacraments (for o))er cf2^^=> c1 
Zupitza's note to * Guy of Warwick/ 2nd vers., 1. 659) these seven are tlie^ f fci^tli 
greatest' — This seems to be inconsistent with what had been said above, -^^.^•v* 
I. 166 if. : Onstetidom and hisschoppyinge . , , . j>es seuene He\f h6licherche^^^^is:^''di 
scicremens. The discrepancy is evidently owing to the poet, in compiling^ M'^K'-i"iin 
his tract, following diiterent authorities. Before the middle of the 12thrff^ ^^ 2( 
century, when Petrus Lombardns proposed a more adequate definition ■oft:<r>- m a 
the term * sacramentmn,' and fixed the number and order of tlie sacra— j»"x: C3rj 
ments as they were afterwards (about the time of Alexander de HalesJ^ei «^ I^Jei 
generally accepted and finally sanctioned by the council of Trent, th^xJ^:^ th 
opinions of the schoolmen differed with regard to what holy rites andt^^"^-^*" 
things — according to the received definition of * sacramentum ' as * sacral -•^'^^^ra 
rei signuni' — were to be numbered among the sacraments. Hugo de St.^^3 Si 
Victore distinguishes three kinds of sacraments. He says, *De Sacra— -«*"^^''3 
mentis,' lib. I. p. ix. c. 7 (Migne, 176, 327): **Tria genera sacra— J*"3^ ^* 
mentoruni in prima consideratione discemenda occurrunt. Sunt eninnr:* mmhiih 
quaedam sacramenta in (|uibus principaliter salus constat et percipitur.'rr*'^'^*" 
sicut aqua baptismatis et perceptio corporis et sanguinis Chnsti. Alia^i^^-^"* 
sunt, quae, etsi necessaria non sunt ad sulutem (quia sine his salus haberi-*^^^^^' 
potest), proficiunt tamen ad sanctificationem, quia his virtus exerceri et"^^ ■* ® 
gratia amplior acquiri potest, ut aqua aspersionis, et susceptio cineris, et"^^ « » ® 
similia. Sunt rursum alia sacramenta quae ad hoc solum instituta esse^^^*?®* 
videntur, ut per ipsa ea quae caeteris sacramentis sanctificandis et in — m:^^ '°" 
stitnendis necessaria sunt, quodaramodo praeparentur et sanctificentur, vel^^"'^'^®' 
circa personas in sacris ordinibus perficiendis, vel in iis quae ad habitura^T*"*^ *^""^ 
sacrorum ordinum pertinent initiandis, et caeteris huiusmodi« Primr^*"^*"* 




ergo ad salutem, secunda ad exercitationem, tertia ad praepwirationeni^^'*^??^ 
constituta sunt." Cp. also lib. II. p. 6, c. 1 (Migne, 176, 439). In ^8*^^^^^! 

* Summa Sententiarum ' he mentions the sacraments of Baptism, Confirm-^ 
ation, the Edcharist, Penitence (the heading of the chapter is only ** De 
poenitentia," not " De sacramento poenitentiiie ; *' but it begins with — 
*' Sacramentum poenitentiae," etc.), and Extreme Unction. Tract* vii., 

* De Coniugio ' (Migne, 176, 154) is probably not by Hugo ; but ^ _ 
Matrimony is expressly designated by him as a sacrament ("coniugii ^^4) 
sacramentum ") in *De Sacrament.' lib. XL p. xi. c. 1 (Migne, 176, 479). 
These all belong to the first class. Of the sacraments of the third class, 
Hugo says (Migne, 176, 439) : '* Et ilia quidem quae administrationis ^^Z^f 
sive praeparationis sunt, ordinibus cohaerent, quoniam et ipsi ordines (of 
'which he treats in lib. II. p. iii.) sacramenta sunt, et quae circa ordines 
considerantur, qnalia sunt indumenta sacra, et vasa, et caetera huias* 
modi." — To the sacraments of the second class, " quae ad exercitationein 
instituta sunt," he gives the name of " sacramenta minora," and says 
(Migne, 176, 471) : " Ex his igitur sacramentis alia constant in rebus . . t 
Alia autem constant in factis . . . Alia in dictis constant." Under these 
three heads a great many minor sacraments are enumerated; "Aqua 
aspersionis {hali ivater\ susceptio cineris, benedictio ramorum et cereomm 
{li^t)j signa quorum sonitu fideles in unum convocantur" (bdryngynges)^ 
etc. Afterwards, when the number of sacraments proper had been 
definitely fixed at seven, the minor sacraments of Hugo were comprised 
under the common name of " sncramentalia." 


Notes. Pages 7-8, Lines 192-207. 165 

The author of the tract *De Caeremoniis, SacramentiB, OflSciis et 
Observationibus Ecclesiasticis ' (probably Robertus Paululus, c. a. 1178) 
already recognizes the seven sacraments as specified and arranged by the 
Magister Sententiarum. But he still calls them 'the principal sacra- 
ments' (Migne, 177, 388), which impUes that there were other sacraments 
of minor dignity and efficacy. The same epitliet, ' principalia/ is given 
them in the statute of the synod held in London a. 1237, Cap. ii. ; only 
the order in which they are enumerated is slightly dififerent. It is clear, 
therefore, that the poet in writing the passage on p. 7, where he niunbers 
Kali water, holy bred, etc., among the sacraments of the Church, adding 
that ofaUe o\>er sacremens \>es se'tiene he\> \>e grestty must have drawn from an 
older source ; while, on the other hand, in the passage on p. 6, he simply 
expresses the received doctrine of his own time, which had been accepted 
also by the Church of England, and no longer admitted of any distinction 
between "sacramenta maiora'' (or " principal ia ") and "sacramenta 
minora." Cp. * Concilium Lambethense * (* Constitutiones Fratris Joannis 
de Peckam'), a.d. 1281 (in 'Harduini Collect. Act. Concil.* vii. 861); 
* Synod. Exoniensis,' A.D. 1287 {ibid, 1074). A later reader of the MS. 
seems to have been aware that the poet's statement on p. 7 was not quite 
in agreement with the established significance of the term * sacrament ; ' 
so, by way of emendation, he put in the words (in) cherche Qpese) sacremeiis, 
without, however, making things any better for it. 

For holy bred see D. Hugonis Mathoud ' Observationes ad Libros 
Sententiarum Roberti Pulli' (Migne, 186, 1131); Mr. Simmons's note on 
p. 336 of *The Lay Folks' Mass Book ;' Mr. Peacock's note on p. 89 of 
Myrc's * Instr. for Parish Priests ; ' and * The Antiquary,* No. 101. 

7/192. Cp. Thom. Aquin. *Summ.' p. iii. quaest. 69, art. 7 : **Respondeo 
dicendum quod aperire lanuam regni coelestis est, removere impedi- 
nientum quo quis impeditur regnum coeleste introire. Hoc autem 
impedimentum est culpa et reatus poenae. Ostensum est autem supra 
. . . quod per baptismun omnis culpa et omnis reatus poenae tollitur. 
Undo consequens est quod efifectus baptismi sit apertio ianuae regni 
coelestis." Gf. also * Synod. Exoniensis * (*Harduini Coll. Act. Concil.' 
vii. 1075) : '^ Baptismi sacramentum adeo est necessariuni, quod sine co 
non est salus, nee aliis quam baptizatis regni coelestis ianua aperitur." 

8/195-6. We ought probably to read : 

For who \>at entre\> jjer, he his 
Yaa{iiyued eiiere more. 

8/204-7. The right interpretation of these lines mainly depends on the 
meaning of the verb reneye. In my * Beitiage,' etc., I expressed some 
doubts as to whether reneye can be taken here in its usual sense of 
" renegare," to deny, renounce. That something was not quite clear in 
I. 207 as it originally stood in the MS. seems to have been felt by the 
revisor of the text, who thought it necessary to insert may between m^n 
and reneye. But this is of course a stupid make-shift Varnhagen 
(* Anglia,' iv. 202) thinks he can get over the difficulty in the following 
way. Relying on a passage in Dr. Morris's *0. E. Homilies,' ii. 197, 
where the word man (= O.E. man) is apparently used to render the 
Latin * diabolus,' he supposes that in 1. 207 too, moti (i. e. man) means 
* the evil one ' ; and, adhering to the usual signification of reneye, trans- 
lates wian reneye by — *to renounce the devil.' Plausible as this 
explanation may seem to be, I am afraid there are some fatal objections 
to it. In the first place, a form man = O.E. mun, is quite impossible in 
the sound-system of the M.Kt. dialect, even if it were at all probable that 
so exceptional a use of the word man as that inferred from a single 

166 Notes. Page 8, Lints 207-208. 

passage in the 0. E. H. should have survived into the Kt. of the 14thrf :*=^it^ 
century. Secondly, supposing that *^In wine etc. one cannot thronghKrC-^^ ng 
baptism renounce the devil " makes any sense, it is not the sense require€E>^'x n 
by the context here, whidi must be this: — "baptizing must be done incri « 
natural water, and no other liquor (8/202-3). Therefore, one cannot^^^z^MrM^m 
baptize a man in wine, or cider, or perry, or any liquor that never had, oso « > 
has changed, the properties of water." This cannot, however, have beepcr^ ^^c 
expressed by what Varuhagen takes to be the meaning of 1. 207. For.-mo""^*' 
although it is true that the abrenimciation of Satan forms an e88entiar.s»^^At 
part of the baptismal rite, it has nothing to do with the act of baptizin^^c^^zi 
itself, t. e. immersion in water, or application of water by pouring ok<:> 
sprinkling ("effusio, aspersio"), of which it is only an indispensable ^^J-^l 
preliminary. According to the ritual of the Roman Church the abrennn-crfl:' «n 
ciation is perfonned in the following manner: Priest: " Ahrenuidif Mf:^^ '^^^ 
Satanop.?*^ Snonsor. in behalf of the child? ^^ Ahrttnuvdiny Pr • ** Kk^^S- **J 

Satanae?^^ Sponsor, in behalf of the child: ^^ AbrennntioJ'* Pr.: "E/ 
omnihis operibtis mis?^* Sp. : ^^ Abrenuntio.^^ Pr. " JJf owmfttw |)om|>/&.^ ^25-«p 
eius?^^ Sp. : ^^ Ahrenuntio, Immediately after the abrenunciation th»«4^ ^'- 
child is anointed with the oil of catechumens. Then follows th^*^-^ ^^ 
Profession of Faith, and the question of the priest : '*N,,ms bajptizarif^ ^^ i*»/ 
to which the sponsor answers : " Vclo ; " and it is not till all this ha»-«» mrKhs 
been done that the priest proceeds to the administration of baptism. 
See Martene, * De Antiq. Eccl. Kit.,* lib. i., cap. 1, art 13. 

If, then, for these reasons, Varnhagen's interpretation of man rtneif 
is untenable (as I believe it is), the question arises, — What else car 
reneye mean here? It is with some hesitation that I venture to propose ^^^^^^^ 
the following solution. Godefroy, in his * Dictionaire,' has recordea ^^^j3^^~ -^ 
O.Fr. verb nier (nj/er, niter, neier), the signification of which in Mn.Fr-« *"^*- ^* 
is nettoyerj jnirifier. It was used in a figurative as well as literal senses ^*^®* 
as a few of the examples quoted by Godefroy will show : 

Puis (yiit le cors lavd, et tres bienfait niei' (* Chans. d'Antiochey' viii. vs^ — • ^ 
1092, P. Paris). . . 

De mes occidtes choses neie me. (Lib. Psalm. Oxf. xviii. 13) = "iii Mr^^ A 
occidtis meis munda me." 

Qiiant U fa acumfieniies, 

Sifn sipiirs et ai niies, 

K'il lie remest gotite ne lie^ 

^^6 ds oec/ite Tie ds roli/6 
(Du Chevalier au barizel, 906, Meon Fabl. i*. 238.) Du Cange alsc^^*^'^^* 
mentiones the word s. v. nectemre. With this verb nter, or neier, 1 air* \^^^ 
inclined to connect Shoreham's reneye. It is true, there is no O.Fr.** ^^^^' 
authority, as far as I know, for the compound renter, reneier; but tlii»^ ^ "^ 
may be accidental, and is not, at any rate, a proof of its non-existence ^^^ ^ 
in A.Fr. The meaning of reneye then would be * to re-purify or cleans^^^^. 
again * ; and this seems to me indeed an appropriate paraphrase of th^ ^^^g 
notion of baptizing. Through baptism man is re-purified from all sins. ^^^~ .* 
whether original or actual, with which he is polluted, and is restoredf^*-^ 
again to the former state of innocence. He cannot, however, be baptized. ^^^ ] 
i.e. re-purified, in wine or cider or perry, or any liquor other than water: ^'^JI' 
** Aqua exstinguit, mundat, et candidat prae caeteris liquoribus. Idcircc:^^?^ 
in baptismate camis incentiva exstinguit, peccatorum tam originaliunn^ ^y 
quam actualium labem abluit, innocentiae candorem reducit, et dum sic^ ^^ 
coelestis Patris imaginem reformat, filios adoptionis regenerat.** (Huf'^^ -^ 
de St. Victore, Migne, 177, 170.) 

8/208. The question whether it was permitted to baptize in ale, 
was sometimes done for want of water, was put by the Archbishop 


Notes, Fagc& 8-9, Lines 209-245. 167 

N^ldros (Ni*aro8s = Throndlyem) in Norway to Pope Grep:ory IX., who 
iecided it in the negative ; see Martene, * De Antiq. Eccl. Kit./ Jib. i., cap. 

I, art. 14, 1. 

8/209. V"^ — H«3» H3> one of the forms representing O.E ]>€ah, ]>eh. 

8/210. * It does not tell for, is not accounted, water.' 

8/21 1, ne for])e^ see n«te to 1. 170, above. Morris, * Specim. of E. E.,' 
jrroneously explains /orJ?e as * froth, scum.' 

8/216, 218. Cp. *Kt. Sermons' (Morris, O.E. M., p. 30) : ]>et water is 
laturdioke schald .... \>at vnpi^ ^t is naturdlidie hot ine him sdue. 

8/222. For tliis use of the partit. genit. see Zupitza's note to § 123 of 
loch's Gramm. ii. ; Einenkel, ^ Streifziige,' p. 104. 

9/230-31. * For if water loses its nature, baptism stands too pre- 
mrious ; ' cp. 1. 238 : \Kd cristnynge may nan^t stonde, — te, weakened 
form of to, — tealtet O.E. tealt. 

9/236. ^vonde is imperat. : * avoid, refrain from, forbear; ' O.E. wondian. 

In order to be qualified for baptism, water must not lose its properties 
by any transmutation. This is what the poet illustrates in tlie preceding 
stanzas. Thom. Aquin., *Summ.' III. quaest. 66, art. 4, puts it thus: 
'* Quaecumque igitur transmutatio circa aquam facta est per artem, sive 
commiscendo, sive alterando, non transmutatur species aquae. Undo 
in tali aqua protest fieri baptismus : nisi forte aqua admiscatur per artem 
in tarn parva quantitate alicui corpori, quod compositum magis sit aliud 
luam aqua . . . Sed transmutatio quae fit natura quandoque quidem 
Bpeciem aquae solvit : et hoc fit quando aqua efficitur per naturam de 
substantia alicuius corporis mixti, sicut aqua conversa in liquorem uvae est 
vinum, unde non habet speciem aquae. Aliquando autem fit per 
Daturam transmutatio aquae sine solutione specie! : et hoc tarn per 
Eilterationem, sicut patet de aqua calefacta a sole, quam etiam per 
tnixtionem, sicut patet de aqna fluminis turbida ex permixtione terres- 
trium partium. Sic ergo dicendum est. quod in qualibet aqua qualiterr 
cumque transmututa, dummodo non solvatur species aquae, potest fieri 
baptismus; si vero solvatur species aquae, non potest fieri baptismus. 
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod transmutatio facta in aqua maris, et 
Btiam in aliis aquis quae penes nos sunt, non est tanta quod solvat 
speciem aquae." Hegarding the admissibility of an admixture of foreign 
ingredients, he makes a proviso similar to that made by Shoreham in 

II. 228-9, namely, that there should not be effected by the admixture 
'* tanta resolutio corporum lixatorum in aqua, quod liquor plus habeat de 
alien a substantia quam de aqua.*' 

9/241-2. * For, to wash with what one comes to so easily, is nothing.' 

9/243. -^^ londe may possibly mean 4n the country,' as on 145 /449; 
or — m a wider sense — *on earth,' as I3/345. We may, however, as 
well take it as a mere tag, with no great force of meaning (in which case 
we had better put the semicolon after it). The phrase, which is common 
in M.E., occurs also 1 8/499, IOO/47. Similar tugs are : in lede^ IO/257 ; 
ine ke\>\>ey 1 9/502 ; in \)ede, 43/1209. 

9/244-5. * There is none that cannot get it: whoever wants to have 
it, let him try (and seek).' fmindej for /onde, is 3rd sing, subjunct. 

That the abundance of water, and the facility of obtaining it every- 
where is one of the reasons which make it the fittest matter for baptism, 
and congruous, as it were, to the necessity of that sacrament, is often 
insisted on by ecclesiastical writers. Cp., for instance, Hugo de St. 
Victore (Migne, 176, 136): **Quare in aqua tantum baptismus fiat, 
Haimo super Epistolam ad Homanos: Quaerit aliquis quare in aqua 
solummodo et non aliquando in vino baptismus consecretur. Cui respondti 

168 Notes, Pages 9-10, Lines 251-273. 

beatus Ambrosius idcirco uniformiter id fieri in aqua, ut intelligatur quod, 
sicut aqua sordes corporis aut vestis abluit, ita baptismus maculas aniraao 
sordesque vitiorum emundando abstergit. Augustinus reddit banc? 
causam, ut nullum inopia excusaret quod posset si vino Tel oleo fieret*^ 
Similarly Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 845). Thom. Aquin., * Summ.' III. 
quaest. 66, art. 3, says : '^ Respondeo dicendum . . . quarto, quia rations 
suae communitatis et abundantiae est conveniens materia necessitatier 
huius sacramenti: potest enim ubique de facili haberi." See also IV. 
Sent. dist. III. art. 3. 

9/251-2. "Amen,** when added thereto, confirms what has been said - 
before. X>et to-fore^ cp. I68/S47 : pmt syxt^ hro\>ery by \>an by-fore >o^, etc. 
The form of baptism founded on the words of Christ, Matth. xxviii. 19 : 
" Eantes ergo docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et 
Filii, et Spiritus sancti," has always been the most common, and is now 
the only one admitted. There were, however, other forms in use, e. g, : 
"Te baptize in nomine (domini Jesu) Christi," about the validity of^ 
which the opinions of the elder theologians varied. See Dr. G. L. Hahn, 
*Die Lehre von den Sncramenten,' Breslau, 1864, p. 147; Martene, *De 
Antiq. Eccl. Rit.,' 1. I. cap. 1, art. 14. Some of those forms were 
expressly pronounced heretical (Martene, I. c). 

9/254. Wi\>e-oute toane and echey without diminution and addition. 
Cp. Myrc, IL 131-134 : 

Englysch or latyn, wliether me sey\>i 
Hyt suffyseth to thefeyth, 
80 that \>e wordes be seyde on rowe, 
Byyt as be-fore I dyde ^ow sckowe. 
It was even thought an illicit diminution to leave out the words '* Ego 
te baptizo/* which are, indeed, wanting in some rituals (see Martene, 
1. I. cap. 1, art. 14, 19). This was decided by pope Alexander III. (Deer. 1. 
III. tit. 42, c. 1): ^*Si quis puerum ter in aqua immerserit in nomine 
Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti, Amen, et non dixerit. Ego baptize te in 
nomine Patris, etc., non est puer baptizatus.'* See also Thom. Aquin. 
* Summ.' III. quaest 66, art. 5, ad secund. — With regard to additions, of 
which Martene (1. 1, cap. 1, art 14, 16) gives some examples from GalHcan 
rituals, if they did not virtually alter the sense of the words on which 
the efficacy of the sacrament depends, and were not made with tlie 
intention of introducing some new form not sanctioned by the Church, 
they were not considered to be absolutely detrimental to the validity of 
the sacrament. See Thom. Aquin., * Summ.' III. quaest. 60, art. 8. 

10/260 ff. The sense is : * If a man were to be christened who has no 
sign of (imminent) death about him (in which case any one might baptize 
him), it has to be done by a priest at the church, the holiness of the 
sacrament being such, that even the pope would not in the least be too 
dignified a person to administer it' 

10/263. 'So = O.Fr. si; cp. I2/331, I43/385 ; Matzner, Gramm. II. 125. 

10/268. reaue must mean here * to tafce away (forcibly), to repel,' for 
which we may compare Spenser, * Mother Hubberdes Tale,' 11. 23-24 ; 
They sought my troubled sense how to deceave 
With talke, that might unquiet fancies reave. 
Cp. also reuefroy Langl. *P. Plowm.' C, xvii. 1. 

10/271-3. At feUe cannot possibly mean *that fell, sinned,* as Morris 
('Specira. of E. E.') explains it I would rather suggest that we may 
take it in the sense of ' at full,' fede being the regular M.Kt. equivalent 
of O.E. fyllo. The additions of the later corrector in 1. 272 may without 
hesitation, be disregarded. — Olepi may stand for depi hi^ as sdioldy, ^Ij 

Notes. Page 10, Lines 278-280. 169 

1907, stands for schMe hy; myity, 73/2084, for my^te hy, and possibly 
di^Uiy 12/317, for dhtte hi. In the same way, mot hym may be 
expanded into mote hym^ it being not unfrequently^ the case that an 
unstressed final e, wliich in scanning a line would have to be elided 
before a following word beginning with a vowel or h, is omitted in 
'writing. The missing infinif. {cridny) can easily be supplied from 1. 269. 
€lepi must be an adverb. The sense of the stanza then is : ' He timt 
gave (or gives ?) so largely water to repel the Fiend from us, gave all 
men permission at full to christen men in case of need ; only they must 
^christen) him in (the) water, and also pronounce the words.' 

As to lay baptism, its restrictions io early times, and the gradual 
extension of the right of baptizing in cases of necessity to all lay persons 
"without discrimination of sex or creed, see Martene, 1. 1, cap^ 1, art. 3 ; W. 
Smith and T. Cheetham, *Dict. of Christ Antiq.' I. p. 167. 

10/278-80. This is one of the many corrupt passages (alas, too many I) 
"where I must confess myself unable to restore the exact wording of the 
original, though I believe I can guess at the sense intended by the 
author. — In the first two lines of the stanza he says that when baptism is 
administered by priests at the font, the recipient is thrice immersed in 
"water, in honour of the Trinity. This was the ordinary mode of bap- 
tizing. Other legitimate modes were, by single immersion (cf. Martene, 
3. I. cap. 1, art. 14, 8), and by aspersion or effusion. The following decree 
of the synod of Nimes (c. a. 1284) shows the practice of the Western 
Church in the later half of the 13th century : " Praecipimus itaque ut 
infans, quam cito natus fuerit, si periculum mortis sibi immineat, ita 
<][Uod presbytero nequeat praesentari^ a circumstantibus masculis, si 
praesentes fuerint, baptizetur in aqua calida, vel frigida, non in alia 
liquore ; et in vase mundo, vel ligneo vel lapideo vel quolibet alio. Vel 
«i vas haberi non possit, fundatur aqua super caput baptizandi,. et dicantur 
^erba quibus debet aliquis baptizari. Vel si masculi praesentes no fuerint, 
a circumstantibus feminis baptizetur ; etiam a patre, vel a matre, si alii 
oion fuerint a quibus valeat baptizari . . . Infantem ter immergendo in 
aqua baptizans dicat sic : Petre, vel Martine, ego baptizo te in nomine 
Patris, etc. Si tamen una tantum immersio facta fuerit, erit nihilominus 
l)aptizatu8 ... Si tamen tanta copia aquae haberi non possit, ut infans 
dn ea totaliter mergi possit, cum scutella vel scypho vel alio vase aliqua 
<|uantitas aquae super infantem effnndatur a baptizante, et effundendo 
<licat baptizans : Ego te baptizo, etc." (Harduini * Act. Cone' VII. p. 904). 
It is remarkable that in the constitutions of councils and convocations 
held in England during the 13th century, when they treat of baptism, or 
urge the necessity of parish priests instructing their flocks how to baptize 
in cases of need, there is, as far as I can see, no indication of any other 
mode of applying the water than by immersion. See, for instance, 
the decrees of the synods of Worcester, a. 1240, cap. V., and Exeter, a. 
1287, cap. II, English ecclesiastical meetings of the 14th century do not 
seem to have dealt with the matter at all. In spite, however, of the 
negative evidence, the practice of pouring out the water, which had from 
early times been in common use at the baptism of the sick under fear of 
approaching death ^'clinic baptism'), and which in the case of new-bom 
infants being in penl of death is testified by Myrc, 11. 109-112, must have 
been known also to Shoreham. There can be little doubt that in the 
passage in question he alludes to it when he speaks of the vxiter ikest on 
time, and says that it should be poured {to hede — to offer ?) upon the 
heaa. It is only the meaning of the words a clo\e within the context 
that does not seem to be quite clear. For a possible explanation we may 
perhaps refer to the fact that those who were baptized in the ordinary 

170 Notes, Pages 10-12, Lims 281-317. 

way at the font used to be immersed in the water with their bodies 
absolutely naked; see Martene, 1. I, cap. 1, art 14, 9; *Dict. Christ. 
Antiq.' I, p. 160. When, however, in case of urgent need, the water was 
poured over the head only, it would not seem to have been necessary for 
the baptized to be unclothed for that purpose ; and tliis may possibly be 
indicated by a cl6}^e, 

10-11 /28 1 -87. The reason why the water should be poured on the bead 
rather than any other part of the body is thus ^ven by Thorn. Aquin., 
whom the poet closely follows (*SuTOm.' p. iii., quaest 66, art. 7) : •*, . . 
principalis pars corporis, praecipue quantum ad exteriora membra, est 
caput, in quo vigent omnes sensus, et interiores et exteriores. Et ideo, 
si totum corpus aqua non possit perfundi propter aquae paucitatem yel 
propter aliquam auam causam, oportet caput perfundere, in quo mani- 
festatur principium animalis vitae. ' 

In regard to the question whether a child can be baptized before it is 
born, WiUiam strictly adheres to the opinion maintained oy Petr. Lombard, 
on the authority of Isidor, * De Summo Bono,' and August.. * Epist. ad 
Dardanum,' " Quod in niaterno utero nullus baptizari potest. A some- 
what modified view is taken by Thorn. Aquin., * Snmm.* Ill, quaest 68, 
art 11. He says: " exspectandum est totalis egressio pueri ex atero ad 
baptismum, nisi mors immineat. Si tamen primo caput egrediatur, in quo 
fundantur omnes sensus, debet baptizari periculo imminente, et non est 
postea rebaptizandus, si eum perfecte nasci contigerit Et videtur idem 
faciendum quaecumque alia pars egrediatur periculo imminente." As to 
the latter point, however, ho is not so positive ; cp. also IV. Sent dist. 
6, quaest 1. The practice recommended by Thomas was afterwards 
generally adopted ; see the Statutes of the synod of Nimes (1284) : " Si 
vero, muliere in partu laborante, infans extra ventrem matris caput tan- 
tum emiserit, et in tanto periculo infans positus nasci nequiverit, mfundat 
aliqua de obstetricibus aquam super caput infantis dicens : Ego te bap- 
tizo," etc. Cp. Myrc, 11. 91-96. The same Statutes also contain the 
proviso that, if a woman should die before giving birth to the child, and 
the latter be supposed to be still alive within the mother^s womb, the mid- 
wife should rip up the mother in order to save the child's life, and baptize 
it ; for which we may also compare Myrc, 11. 97-109. 

11/301. weye\> is formally equivalent to O.E. weyi^. The strictly Kt 
form would be we:^e\>. It is used as an intrans. verb in the sense of ' to 
move ' or * be removed * (from heaven). 

11/303-5. The reading of the MS. seems to be hopelessly corrupt ; but 
the sense of the whole passage must clearly be this : If any doubt arises 
as to whether a child is baptized, or whether the form essential to the 
validity of baptism has been duly observed, the child is to be re-baptized 
^^sub conditione," the Latin formula (englisht in the following stanza) 
being': ^^ Si baptizatus es, ego te non baptize ; sed si nondum baptizatus 
es, ego te baptize, etc." See Martene, 1. 1, cap. 1, art. 16, 9. There are 
several canons of provincial councils enjoining priests to be very careful 
and particular in their inquiries about the form employed at the previous 
baptism. See, for instance, * Const. Ric. Poore ' (c. a. 1217), cap. XVIII. ; 
* Const Prov. S. Edmundi' (c. a. 1236), cap. XI. ; Synod. Wigom. (a. 1240), 
cap. v.; Concil. Lambethense (1281), cap. III. ; Synod. Exon. (1287), cap. 
II. ; and cp. also Myrc, 11. 560 ff. If tuene]), 1. 303, is right, we shall 
probably have to alter geniep, 1. 305, into genep, which may stand for 
geine^^ avails, serves ; cf. note to p. 130, 1. 21. 

11/310. by-thuixte [: icristned] is evidently a blunder of the scribe; 
but I do not know how to emend it. 

12/317. diitti may possibly stand for diitte hi (sc. the ciistn/ynges) = 

Notes. Page 12, Lines 322-336. 171 

* administer them/ For tliis particular meaning' of tlie verb cp, the fol- 
lowing passage in * Ayenbite,' p. 147 : And ^pous hit hat zay^vte peter ]>et fc 
ptodnesse ])e^ god oiis hep y-lend, pet toe hise di^te to mire nixte = Et end 
le cofnmande saint Pierre qiie les graces qxie Dieit no^is a presides, que nous 
les aminiatrons a nos proesmes, 

12/322. mid none ginne, as below, 1. 32fi, mid ivone liste, by no con- 
trivance, by no manner of means ; cp. also 28/637, 641. 

For the two substitutional modes of baptism mentioned in the follow^p 
ing stanza, viz. baptism of blood (" baptisma sanguinis *'), and baptism of 
the Holy Ghost (^^ baptisma flaminis, sive Spiritus Sancti '*), consult 
Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 131-133) ; Petr. Lombard (Migne, 192, 
S17); Thorn. Aquin. *Summ.* III., quaest. 61, art. 11 ; IV. 8ent.dist. 4, 
c^uaest. 3, art. 3. 

12/331. The meaning of the term prim(i)sinen^ primseneuy is eluci- 
dated by a quotation in * Ayenbite,' p. 188, from Sulpitius Severus, *De 
>rita Beati Martini.' The Latin text runs thus: ^^Martiims adhuc cate- 
cjliumenus Ivic veste me cootexit'' (Migne, 20, 162); and this is rendered 
fcy — Martin yet nou yprim^sened me hep yssred mid ]iise dopey — yprimaefned 
^corresponding to " catechumenus." 

Catechumens used to be initiated into the Christian communion by 
"the sign of the cross and imposition of hands. In addition to this primi- 
'tive rite, there were in the Latin Church other rites in early use, which 
still form part of the office of baptism. Such are — breathing on the face 
^'^ insufflatio in faciem "), putting salt in the mouth of the baptized (** salis 
dn 08 immissio **), exorcism, touching the ears and nose with spittle (^^ sputi 
in nares auresque tact us ^\ These ceremonies, and some others originally 
connected with the catecnumenate, as the imposition of a name, prelim- 
inary instruction in the form of short interrogations and responses, are 
accompanied by appropriate prayers, and are performed outside the 
church ("ante (foras) ianuas ecclesiae" — atte cherche dore\ except the 
touching with spittle, which now takes place after the child has been 
introduced into the church and carried to the font. They constitute the 
"Ordo ad catechumenum faciendum (infantem)" of the Baptismal Ritual, 
and the performing of them, which is expressly reserved to priests, is 
called " catechismum f acere, catechizare (et exorcizare)." 

It is in this comprehensive signiHc^ition, I believe, that Shoreham here 
uses the verb pi^imii)sinen, O.Fr. prinsegner, presingner, commonly seems 
to mean *to baptize' ; but see also Du Cange, s. v. presingner: c^remonie 
qui exd lieu avant Vimmersion. 

12/332-36. There are two unctions at the font, one preceding, the 
other following, the act of baptism. After the renunciation, and before 
the profession of faith is made, the child is anointed on the breast and 
between the shoulders with the oil of catechumens ; while the unction of 
the head with chrism is performed immediately after the application of 
the water. 

Ought we not to change the indie, heebcy 1. 332, into the subjunct. 
he (by)? 

But it is another consideration that forces itself upon the miud in 
reading this stanza. Does it not look very much like a straggler? 
There is certainly little — if any — connection between it and the two 
immediately preceding it. The mention of the children being yprimi- 
sined at the church door and anointed at the font is here quite abrupt. If 
there was any occasion for the poet to allude to ceremonies concomitant 
with the act of baptism proper, it was, I believe, after the rebaptizing of 
children in case of doubt had been spoken of; that is, between lines 315 


172 Notes, Pages 12-13, LiTies 332-357. 

and 316. Od that occasion we migbtj at least, have soonest expected some 
allusion of this kind, in accordance with what we read in the canons of 
ecclesiastical councils, as well as in ancient rituals. When the solemn 
baptism at the font is administered to a child provisionally baptized at 
home under fear of approaching death, the priest has to go tlirough the 
whole of the haptismcal rite, unless satisfactory evidence has been obtained 
that the fonn employed at the previous baptism was valid, in which case 
only the ceremonies subsequent upon the application of the water have to 
be performed. Cf. Synod. Nemausensis (a. 1284), De Baptismo : " Cum _ 

vero . . . infans in necessetate a laico fuerit baptizatus, praecipimus, si J^\ 
supervixerit, ut presbytero quam citius lieri poterit praesentetur, qui 
inquirat solicite qualiter fuerit baptizatus ; et si forma praedicta non 
fuerit servata, faciat catechismum (pritim^ien), et baptizet mfantera inxta 
ecclesiao formam. Si autem dubitaverit an legitime fuerit baptizatus . . . 
in his casibus faciat sacerdos catechismum, et baptizet eum sub his verbis: 
*Si baptizatus es, non te baptize,' etc. — Si sacerdos invenerit infantem a 
laicis inxta formam ecclesiae baptizatum, ita quod non sit de hoc aliqua- 
tenus dubitandum, non rebaptizet, nee faciat catechismum, sed inungat 
eum in pectore et inter scapulas oleo benedicto . . . Tutius enim est, licet 
non necessarium, quod fiat praedicta unctio {Hv^t ioorfe]> cristnynge, cmd 
^KJiib child ]fer-to hit a/iMiUe]>), In hoc casu inungat etiam eum chrismate 
sacro in vertice, dicendo orationes quae dicuntur post baptismum, et faci- 
endo alia quaB post baptismum fieri consueverunt, sicut in libris bap- 
tismalibus continetur." See, too, Concil. Lambeth, (a. 1281), cap. III. 
and Martene I. cap. 1, art. 18, Ordo XVII. ex antiquo Rituali Eoclcs. 

Still, there is one reason conceivable why the poet may, after all, have 
purposely placed the stanza at the end of his treatise on Baptism ; that 
is, if the mention of the unctions at the font was intended to fonn a sort 
of connecting link with the following treatise on Confirmation, where, too, 
unction plays a prominent part. But this would not, at any rate, have 
been a very ingenious device. 

13/340. Cp. Petr. Lombard. (IVIigne, 192, 855) : " Virtus 'autem sacra- 
menti est donatio Spiritus Sancti ad robur." — Thom. Aquin. * Summ.' III. 
quaest. 72, art. 9 : " in hoc sacramento homo accipit Spiritum Sanctum 
ad robur spiritualis pugnae" . . . "in confirmatione roboraniur ad 
pugnam ..." 

13/342. ifmarked, marked, signed; cp. I5/414-15: \>e signe Jiisofpis 
sacrement Mid creyme \>e markinge; also 4/104-5. — '^^^^ mark, 'signa- 
culum,' put upon the confirmed is not unfrequently compared to the 
* nota militaris ' ; see Thom. Aquin. * Summ.' III. quaest 72, art. 4 : " Et 
ideo in hoc sacramento tria sunt necessaria . . . Tertium est signum quod 
pugnatori datur, sicut et in pugna corporali milites insigniis ducum insig- 
niuntur.'* — ibid. art. 9: "Unde convenienter signatur chrismate signo 
crucis in fronte propter duo. Primum quidem quia insignitur signo 
crucis, sicut miles signo ducis.' 

13/344-46. Job viii. 1 : "Militia est vita hominis super terram." 

13/349-50. The Fiend, the Flesh, and the World are the three spiritual 
enemies of mankind, according to St. Bemhard (Migne, 183, 343). Cp. 
also Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 177, 613): "Tres sunt qui movent 
bella contra nos: diabolus, caro et mundus. Diabolus ducit contra nos 
a^mina vitiorum, caro maloruru desideriorum, mundus prospera et 
ad versa.'* 

13/351-57. It is those three that tempt us to the deadly sinff; 
similarly in * P. Plovvm.', C, xix. 31 ff. 

Notes, Fages 13-15, Lims 355-392. 173 

13/355. \>oun-%oy»e, the unwise, to be connected with otw, 1. 351 ; cf. 
\>(m-'imjse, 60/ 168 5. 

14/364. tronde, flinch. For similar phrases of v:onde with fm-^ see 
Kolbing, * Amis & Amil.,' xlvi; Myrc, 1. 905-G: 

Wonde \>ow tiot f&r no schamey 
Feranentur I haue dmte \>e same, 

14/372. ymeng is probably only a clerical error for ynumg^ as in Kt. 
Serm. 34, amenges for amonges. Like amon^e, it is used adverbially ; cp. 
24/648 : cryst and hys d&iiynges Inwnge. 

14/373. I have restored what I believe to have been the original 
reading : and wi, ledne = and why, listen. 

14/375. The retention of ne would certainly improve the metre ; but 
the negative may be omitted ; cf. Zupitza's note to *6uy of Warw.' (15th 
cent, version), 11. 1301-3. 

The ingredients of the chrism used in the Latin Church are oil mnde 
from olives, and balsam, the signification of which is explained by Hugo 
de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 459) : " Chrisma ex oleo et balsamo conficitur, 
quia per oleum infusio gratiae, per balsamum odor bonae famae desig- 
natur." Cp. Shoreham, 42/1175-76, where this passage is almost liter- 
ally translated. Another signification is attributed to the oil by Thorn. 
Aquin. IV. Sent. dist. 7, quaest. I, art. 2, sol. 2, ad quint.: "oleum facit 
expeditum et ferventcm ad ea quae exterius sunt ; et ideo etiam pugiles 
oleo unguntur : et ideo competit magis oleum huic sacramento.*' And the 
same allusion to the unction of the athletes we find in Ambros., *De 
Sacram.,* 1. I. cap. 2 (Migne, 16, 419): " Venisti ad fontem, ingressus es t 
considera quos videris, quid locutus sis considera, repete diligenter. 
Occurrit tibi levita, occurrit presbyter : unctus es quasi athleta Christi, 
quasi luctam huius saeculi luctaturus . . .'' This interpretation has been 
adopted by the poet, who, in the mystic signification of the balsam, agrees 
with Hugo de St. Victore. 

14/385. y o^er. Wright has i/n o^er, but I cannot detect any trace of 
a letter in the space between y and ojer. As Wright's reading makes no 
more sense than that of the MS., I would suggest that we may read y- 
itojer = fitter, although there is no other M.E. authority for the supposed 
adj. yno^ ; cp. however, O.E. un^efoi, M.E. xmifo(u)h, by the side of O.E. 
uniefs^e, unsuitable. 

The office of Confirmation properly belongs to the bishops as succes- 
sors of the Apostles ; see Martene I, cap. 2, art 3 ; * Diet, of Christ. Antiq.,' 
p. 230. 

14-1 5/386-92. Cp. Myrc, IL 661-70. After having been anointed with 
chrism, the forehead of the confirmed used to be bandaged with a clean 
white linen band (dout, 1. 391) of suitable dimensions ("latitudinis et 
longitudinis competentis," Synod. Exon., a.d. 1287, cap. 3). The Synod 
of Cologne, a.d. 1280, cap. 5, gives the following directions : ..." tonde- 
antur capilli, maxime contra frontes dependentes, et laventur frontes 
diligenter ; et habeant bandellos de panno lineo spisso sine sutura et sloe 
nodo, latitudinis trium digitorum, et longitudinis competentis, albos et 
bene mundos." — The length of time these bands had to be worn varied 
between three and seven days. Three days are prescribed by the Con- 
stit. Synod. Episc. anonym, in Britann., a.d. 1237 ; Synod. Wigorn., a.d. 
1240, cap. 6; Synod. Colon., a.d. 1280, cap. 5 ; Synod. Exon., a.d. 1287, 
cap. 3. The bandages were then removed in church, and burnt, the fore- 
heads of the confirmed having been washed by the hands of the priests at 
the baptismal font : — " Parvuli confirmati tertio die post confirmationem 
deportentur ad ecclesiani, et frontes coruni per manus sacerdotum in 

174 Notes. Page 15, Lines 394-411. 

baptisterio, propter reverentiam cbrisinatis, (Jor }jcrf "hcmour of ^nlke saere- 
mente) abluentur ; et ligatiirae ipsorum tunc similiter in igne concre- 
mentur." Constit Synod. Episc. anonym, (a.d. 1237); see, too, th^ 
canons of the synods cited above. — here, 1. 390, from O.E. htere hkore ^ 
But the meaning must be * sublime, holy.' 

15/394-97. The Latin words are: "Signo te signo crucis, et con- 
firnio te chrismate salutis, in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. 

15/399. This line, as it stands, presents some difficulties. In the firsts 
place, there is the verb hermi, the meaning of which is doubtful. Accord- 
ing to the N.E.D. it means * to purge out ; ' but this has evidently been 
inferred only from our passage m Shoreham, and cannot well be evolved- 
out of the primary meaning * to bann.' Waiving, however, this scruple^ 
what does/eZJ>e offendes mean ? The phrase is certainly not a usual one^ 
As far as I can see, there is no other instance of it either in Shoreham 
or anywhere else. Considering the frequency of the combination fdpe oj 
senne{s), one might perhaps be inclined to suspect that tlie scribe mis- 
wrote fendes for serines. But then, * to purge out the filth of sin * is not on^ 
of the efEects usually attributed to the sign of the cross. And it is- 
obviously the efficacy of this sign that the poet meant to describe in 
11. 398-9 (the stress being laid on the words f e crmiche a set) ; while in the 
following stanza the reason.for putting it on the forehead is given. Now, 
the sign of the cross was particularly employed to put to flight the Devil, 
who, according to Origenes on Exodus, Homil. YI. § 8, and Lactantius, 
'Div. Inst.' IV. 27, trembles at the sight of it Cp. also Hugo de St 
Victore (Migne, 177, 423): "Signum crucis diabolo valde formidolosum 
est." I, therefore, believe that fendes is all right ; and if there be any- 
thing amiss (as I suppose there is), it must be in the words felpe and 
bermi. May not the original reading for hei'mi have been hermi (O.E. 
hearmian)? This was probably miswritten by the copyist, and eventu- 
ally altered by a later hand into hermi. — As to fdpe, however, I would 
rather abstain from proposing an emendation, which does not so readily 
suggest itself. 

15/401-2. There can be no doubt that the original reading was : )>a* 
him ne scham{t)e boute For to bi-knoioe crystes name. — hine, altered from 
him^ is quite impossible by the side of he a,schamed. The omission of 
Bote at the beginning of 1, 402 has been suggested by Varnhagen. For 
the sense cp. Thom. Aquin. ' Summ.' Ill, quaest. 67, art 9 : " Et ideo in 
fronte signatur chrismate, ut neque propter timorem neque propter erube- 
scentiam nomen Christi confiteri praetermittat" Cp. also Augustine, 
Serm. 160, al. 11. 

15/404. vriy ffinne is obviously a stop-gap or make-shift of a later 
revisor of the MS., which in this place may have had a lacuna. It makes 
doubtful isense, and spoils the metre. I am pretty sure that the poet 
himself wrote : And hinne, — hinne is the opposite of hoM,te^ 1. 401, as on 
39/1085, where the same ryme hynn^ [: wynne"} occurs. 

Fearlessness in confessing Christ outwardly (houte)^ i. e. publicly, and 
strength of the soul inwardly (hinne), that we may overcome spiritual 
enemies, and thereby win salvation, are the effects of the unction with 
chrism. And although the source of fortitude be in the heart, yet the 
i^ign of it appears in the front : — " principium fortitudinis est in corde, sed 
signum apparet in fronte ; unde dicitur Ezechiel iii. 8 : Ecce dedi . . . 
frontem tuam duriorem f rontibus eorum." (Thom. Aquin. * Sumni.' III. 
quaest 72, art. 9.) 

15/411. Maligne here seems to be a subst, answering to O.Fr. maligne 

Notes, Pages 15-17, Lines 412-461. 175 

^= malice, ni6chancet<^ ; see Qodefroy s. v.), with senile as genit sing, 
governed by it. 

15/412. For = for that, because; so also I54/716, I55/734. 

yat ^ing — fe hare signer cp. I6/414 ff., I7/456 H:'.; 39/1084-5 * I'^ signe 

Tiys \at hys hcnite ydo, ]>at ]>ynge hys grace hynne.—^ugo de St Victore 

(Migne, 178, 517) : — '* in omni Sacramento aliud est quod visibiliter foris 

^bmite) tractatur et cemitur, aliud est quod in visibiliter intus (bynne) 

c;reditur et percipitur. Quod foris est visibile et materiale, sacramentum 

«8t ; quod intus est in visibile et spirituale, res sive virtus sacrumenti est ; 

semper tamen sacramentum, quod foris tractatur et sanctificatur, signum 

«8t spiritualis gratiae,. quae res sacramenti est, et invisibiliter percipitur." 

I6/423. ihesUf MS. ihu. In expanding the usual contraction for Jesus 

3 have retained the /i, because we often find the full form of the name 

^written ihesuSj sometimes alone, and sometimes by the side of iesits. 

16/428. In the footnote I have suggested that we probnbly ought to 
Tead faiy or paj \>at instead of ]>are ; but cp. the use of O.E. f ccr in the 
sense of * in cjise that, if.' 
' 1 6/430. Hit may stand for hi hit; but the pronominal subject may 
easily be understood from the preceding noun diildren, 

1 6/437 ff. If we retain the reading nf of the MS., we have to construe : 
Ac ^f h\j mowe yi stonde bet (hypothetical clause) . . . And "pa/nne gode . . . 
<tnon hi stronge niake]> (consequent clause). But the sense we thus get is 
hardly that which the context would lead us to expect. Besides, And at 
the beginning of the consequent clause in I. 442 would be, at the least, 
exceptional. I have, therefore, changed :^if into yt, which easily yields 
. the sense required by the context, the logical order of the thoughts being 
this : — Although children take the thing (* rem sacramenti ') in their child- 
hood so pure, they lose it through sin when they come to wit, tempted 
- by the Fiend, who spares none (11. 428 ff.). Tliat is because they do not 
stand, but cause one another to fall {a^renchef). And yet, they may 
still stand better, when they bethink themselves of leading a better life 
and giving themselves up to devotion, if God grant them strength. And 
then, God, that is so good, makes them at once strong, according as they 
have devotion, etc. 

17/450. prente, "character indelebilis." 

17/453. ^^ hecdde]}: the nomin. ]>at has to be understood from the 
accus. ]?ai in 1. 451. But we had perhaps better restore the original read- 
ing ]>at for oc, and put a semicolon after forsake]}. The sense is : — For, 
when a man receives this sacrament, his soul takes an (indelible) impres- 
sion ; and that it never loses again, not even the soul that forsakes God ; 
that keeps the sacrament in effectual state in man, when he grows strong 
{byalde]f) in virtue. Cp. 11. 468-9 : Amende we, he prente lef]> Ine oure 
savle wd stiUe. According to the doctrine of the Romish Church, the 
three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Ordination impress upon 
the soul of the recipient a certain * character' (cp. 1 8/484 ff.). This 
doctrine was fully developed about the beginning of the 13th century ; 
but the opinions of the medieval theologians differed as to what was the 
precise nature of the * character.' Even the Council of Trent was con- 
tented to define it as a certain spiritual and indelible sign, in consequence 
of which those sacraments could not be reiterated (" signum quoddam 
.spirituale et indelebile, unde ea (so. sacramenta) iterari nou possunt*^). 
Cp. Shoreham, 1 8/484 ff., 43/1205. 

17/461. Her is perhaps tenable on the supposition that Crystnynge her 
was meant as a substitute for the genitive inflexion, the copula (is) 
having to be supplied after sigtie. But there is no other instance of this 

176 Notes. Pages 17-20, Lhies 470-545. 

use of the pronoun to be found in Shorcham ; so we shall probably have 
to write he y for her. 

17/470 tf. Cp. Thorn. Aquin. * Summ.* III. quaest 72, art. 10 : " et ideo 
ille qui ad hoc sacramentum accedit, sustentatur, quasi adhue spiritualiter 
imbecilis et puer." — leftCy 1.474, means Mevare, to lift, present to,' the 
same as hehhe, 1. 470. 

1 8/478. ]>ys men . . . ]n« wywes may possibly be datives plur. governed 
by segge. It seems preferable, however, to consider these nouns as the 
compound subject of the verb hehhe^ emphatically anticipated, and then 
repeated by means of the pronoun hi. The pronoun J?w is often used with 
little or no demonstrative force, either ^ to designate things or persons as 
sufficiently known in their qualities ' (Schmidt, Shakesp.-Lex.), or simply 
to add a certain emphasis to the noun connected with it; cp. II/296, 23/ 
636, 45/1266, 115/7, II6/25, etc. 

1 8/480. * as sure as they are alive ; ' or *upon their lives.' The same 
phrase occurs in Layam. 13834 : hi mine quicke liven. 

1 8/48 1, rede, advise. Construe : ich segge ]>at . . ., and rede. 

1 8/483. godsibrede, spiritual affinit}'. The cases in which spiritual 
affinity is contracted are enumerated on 66/18568". 

I8/489. I have restored the original reading of the MS., which it is 
hardly necessary to justify ; cp. 43/1205 ff. : Caractery ]>et is prente yclipedy 
Nys non of eliinge, etc. • . . For man ofter "pane ones takep \>e sacremens 
for nede. 

19/502. Ine ke]>]>e, an expletive phrase ; see note to 9/243. ^Ip^ is 
O.E. cylppo, native country. 

19/511. avsye {anaye\ to instruct, inform of; see N.E.D. s. v. avcty. 
The intin. occurs, 46/1299, 68/1946; the pa. pple. auayd^ I5I/626; aueye- 
menty instruction, 76/2141. 

19/516. Lo dede. It is not very likely that dede should be an aphetic 
form of in dede. I am rather inclined to take the phrase as equivalent to 
Mn.Fr. voild lefait. 

19/516-18. Cf. Ambros., lib. De his qiii mysteriis initiantury cap. 9: 
'^De totius mundi operibus legitur quia ipse dixit, et facta sunt, etc. 
Sermo igitur, id est, Filius, qui potuit ex nihilo facere quod non erat, non 
potest ea quae sunt in id mutare quod non erat?" 

19/525. oper Yrof, either thereof. *A11 those are misbelievers who 
deny that it is quite as easy for Gud to assume the likeness of bread as it 
was for liim to be in the likeness of man.' — The pa. pple. mis-hy-leued is 
used in an active sense ; cp. ]>e mishylefde, * Ayenb.' 252. 

20/535. "^^^ ^^^® ^B ^^ stands is too long. I suspect that the words 
and looter are a later addition, because neither the Evangelists, nor any of 
the Western forms of consecration contain any reference to Christ's mixing 
the wine with water, though in the canons of the Eastern liturgies it con- 
stantly appears ; cf. * Diet, of Christ. Antiq.* I. 272. 

20/543. seyyip cannot possibly be anything but seep, sep = O.E. seop ; 
cp. the spelling ise^ep [: bepi, II3/410 : *as we see God both true and 
kmd.* — and — and = et — et ; but the first and, between gode and tretoe, 
had perhaps better be omitted. 

20/545. And at the beginning of this line can be defended on the sup- 
position that it was meant to form part of the words of Christ, as quoted 
by the poet. It is possible, however, that William wrote ; And (l. 543) : 

Dop te pos, \and^ wanne 36 hyt dope, 

Dop hyt in mine (MS. ^oure) mende. 

The words of institution as given here do not exactly agree with 

either the Evangelists (Mattli. xxvi. 27, 28 ; Marc. xiV. 23, 24 ; Luc. xxii. 

Notes, Pages 20-22, Lines 551-592. 177 

20), or 1 Corintlu xi. 25, but are rather a variation of the formula of con- 
secration used in the Koman Liturgy : " Accipite et bibite ex eo oranes : 
hie est enim calix sanguinis mei, novi [et aetemi] testaineiiti, [mysterium 
fidei], qui pro [vobis et pro] multis effundetur £in remissionem pecca- 
toruin]. Haec (or *hoc') quotiescunque feceritis, in mei memoriam 
facietis (or — in meam commemorationem facite)." 

20/551. I take toerfc to be dat. plur. (= O.E. vyyr^um) governed by 
the preceding to ^eiiene. 

21/562. flotie, to move up and down, be conversant ; see N. E. D. s. v. 
floadif V. 2, b. 

21/565. vode, food, is undoubtedly the true reading; cp. 1. 569. 

21/570-73. "Augustinus (Lib. VII. Confess., c. 10) vocem de coelo 
aiidivit . • . : Gibus sum grandium, cresce et manducabis me ; non ut me 
mutes in te, sicut cibum carnis tuae, sed tu mutaberis in me " (quote'd by 
Hugo de St. Victore, Migne, 176, 471).— Ihid, p. 465: "Alibi quod man- 
ducatur incorporatur. Quando autem caro Christi manducatur, non quod 
mandncatur, sed qui manducat ei quern manducat incorporatur." Cp. also 
Guill. Abb. S. Theodor. (Migne, 180, 355) : " Hie est cibus qui non vadit 
in corpus, quia nequaquam sicut alii cibi in naturam vertitur corporis, sed 
corpus nostrum in suam vertit naturam." For au^t (1. 570) used a» an 
adverb see Znpitza's note to 1. 7799 of * Guy of Warw.,' 2nd vers. 

21/575-77. The scribe, in copying these lines, has evidently made 
some mistake. What the author probably meant to say is this: — *A8 
other (material) food is wholesome to the sound, but noxious to the sick, 
so is this (spiritual) food, i. e. Christ's body, damnation unto those who, 
persevering in sin, are in a state of moral disease.' May not the original 
reading have been : 

And ase oVer mete his holen god, 
And sike hyt by-simkelp. 
So his f is niete dampnacion 
To hem, etc. ? 

hy-svnkey, deceives, betrays into harm. A similar idea is expressed by 
Thorn. Aqum., * Summ.' Ill, quaest. 30, art 4 : "medicina quae datur iani 
liberatis a febre ad confortationem, noceret si daretur adhuc febricantibus 
• . . hoc autem sacramentum est medicina confortativa^ quae non debet 
dari nisi liberatis a peccatis." 

22/585. ahclke, swollen, inflated — a curious form, if it is really the pa. 
pple. of ahel^en = O.E. dhel^cm. We may perhaps compare it with dakf, 
3 sing, indie, prs. o£ sla^e, IOI/94, though the conditions for the change uf 
3 into k are not quite the same in both cases. 

22/586 ff. prede, o^indey mreye, etc., are the seven deadly sins. Cp. 
Hugo (le St. Victore (Migne, 177, 168): "Qui ergo de criminalibus 
nondum digne poenitueruiit, nut adhnc in affectu peccandi sunt, vel ali- 
quera hominem odio habent, corpus Christi non accipiant, ne moriantur. 
Incesti vero et luxuriosi periculosius sumunt," etc. 

22/588. Ustes, lusts, OJ^.lyst. — on-ledej 0,E.unlced(e), miserable, wicked ; 
cp. 107/235, where onlede is used substantively, in the sense of * vices.' 

22/589-90. none . . heter . . To seint Johan, This, I suspect, is simply 
an imitation of the Latin ablat. compar., which the poet may have found 
in his original ; cp. Luke vii. 28 : " Maior inter natos mulierum propheta 
loanne Baptista nemo est," — unless, indeed, to means * in comparison to/ 
as probably on 99/31 ; see the note to that passage. 

22/592. As to the final e in the accus. criste, which ought to be 
added for metrical reasons, see M. Reinianii, Die Sprache der mittelkent. 
Mwmgdien, p. 88. 


178 Notes. Pages 22-24, TAnes 595-645. 

22/595. <m-tromme (O.E. untnim) here means 'wanting courage, 

22/599. It is hardly admissible to divide Jtispre into 'pis.yre: — Iihe }h« 
fre holy signs, taking ^-e holy in the sense of * thrice holy,' though there 
are several M.E. instances of the use of cardinal instead of multiplicative 
numerals ; see Kellner, * Historic Outlines of Engl. Syntax,' § 265- In 
face of such spellings as spoufhof (for »poushod), ryngef (for rynges), 
entyfyf (for entycyl^), }H/f e (for )>i/«e), which are found in our MS., I have 
thought it preferable to alter ]>i«f re into fissre, which is the dative sing, 
femin. of the pronoun. The use of signe as a feminine noun, it is true, is 
anomalous, but seems to have a parallel in the correspondmg treatment 
of ordre, 52/ 1449. 

22/601-2. '^ Qui enim manducat et bibit indigne, indicium sibi mandu- 
cat et bibit," 1 Corinth, xi. 29. 

22/607. rnende is of course imperat, and the insertion of to by the 
revisor of the text was quite unnecessary. The context is clearly this : — 
* If you feel that you are not worthy to receive Christ's body, withdraw j 
for " he that eateth unworthily, eateth damnation to himself." Now some 
one might say : — How shall we thus keep away from the Lord's supper, 
when God himself plainly tells us in the Gospel (mind well): — "Whoso 
eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life " ? ' — The answer 
to this question is given in the following stanza : — * Though thou do not 
take it with the mouth, nor ply thy teeth thereon, thou takest it, man, to 
bliss, if thou art a member of the Holy Church, when any priest sings his 
mass : believe it for certain.' 

According to the doctrine of the Church, there is a twofold way of 
receiving the Eucharist: a sacrameutal, and a spiritual one ("Sumptio 
sacrainentalis et spiritualis "). We receive it sacramental ly, or corporall}', 
when we communicate; but we may also partake of it spiritually, if we 
feel an ardent desire to participate in the sacramental communion of the 
priest at mass. "lit quid paras dentem et ventrem?" — says August, 
tract 25 super loan. — "erode, et manducasti." Similarly Hugo de Stl 
Victore (Migne, 177, 366) : " Quidam autem licet corporaliter sumere 
non possint, tamen spiritualiter manducant spiritualem camem Christi, 
hoc est, efficientiam sacramentis, sine qua non est vita spiritualis." Ibid.^ 
p. 373 : " Conimunio, quae post cantatur (the author is expounding th^ 
ceremonies of the mass) innuit omnes fideles corpori Christi communicare, 
quod pro omnibus minister assumit sacramentaliter, ut sibi et omnibus 
sumatur spiritualiter." It is this spiritual participation in the Sacramento 
that the poet here alludes to, and which he further illustrates in th^ 
following stanza. 

23/623. i-vere — in vere (/ere), in company, all together. 

23/627. greynsy for grapes, is obviously an error of the scribe, ocoa-^ 
sioned by menye greynys in 1. 625. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne^ 
176, 140) : " sicut panis ex multis granis efficitur unus, vinum ex multii^ 
racemis in vinum confliiit, ita ex plurimis menibris Ecclesia, quae est^ 
corpus Christi, adunatur." Cp. also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 857)^ 
and Rom. xii. 5: "multi unum corpus snmus in Christo." 

23/631. wete is a substantive = O.E. weota. But the two lines maj^ 
possibly have run thus in the original : 

Wet hys mystyke ne mey non v^ete (know), 
Ne by no fi/7w/c a-fonde (find out). 

23/636. ))|/se, see note to 1 8/478. 

24/645 ft. *' Dominus noster corpus et sanguinem suuni in eis rebu^ 
commendavit quae ad unum aliquid redigunt ex multis" (quoted froiCB. 


Notes, Pages 24-26, Lines 657-710. 179 

'^ gust., tract. 26 in loan., by Thom. Aquin. *Summ.* III. quaest. 79, 
^^t, 1). 

24/657. The emendation I have proposed in the footnote Qpet yyng^ 
\j}fi body ]>a^ hyt he) has been suggested by a passage in Hugo d!e St. 
*" ict. (Migne, 176, 140), which seems to have been in the poet's mind 
hen he wrote this stanza : — " Sacramentum, et non res, sunt species 
iftibiles, id est panis et vini, et quae visibiliter celebrantur . . . Cum 
^^cclesia quoque saepissime in sacra Scriptura dicatur corpus Christi, et 
^ * uius corporis panis et vinum sacramenta esse leguntur . . . Sacra- 
^K^nentum et res, ipsum corpus Cliristi et sanguis : res, quantum ad illas 
^Species quibus significatur. jffoec res itemm sacramentnm est alterius, 
^cil. nnitatis capitis et membroruui quam efficit fides corporis et sanguinis 
XDomini ; et ista res sacramenti virtus appellatur." 

24/659 ff. Cp: Rom. xii, 4, 5: "Sicut enim in uno corpore multa 
YYiembra habemus, omnia autem membra non eundem actum habent : 
XI ta multi unum corpus sumus in Christo, singuli autem alter alterins 
irnembra." Cf. also Honor. Augustodun., *Eucharistion* (Migne, 172, 1250) : 
*"*" Corpus Domini tota Ecclesia praecHcatur, quae de omnibus electis 
Xit de multis membris in unum compaginatur. Huius corporis oculi 
^unt sapientes, nares discreti, inter bonum et malum discernentes, os 
"verbum Dei loquentes, dentes sacras Scripturas exponentes, inanus bona 
o^ranteSy pedes alios in necessitate p<yrtantesP 

24/668. tojprmiyXo profit ; to lerc (O.E. lyre), to perdition. 
24/669. Ine ivtjl of seneyynge = *' in volimtate peccandi ; '* Cp. Petr. 
XLiomb. (Migne, 191, 1146) on 1 Corinth, xi. 29 : "Indignus est qui aliter 
oelebrat mysterium Eucharistiae quam a Christo traditum est, et qui non 
cievota mente accedit ad Eucharistiam vel in voluntate peccandi manens." 
24/670. To derye^ to do injury, harm, to vex, grieve (O.E. derian). 
^The object to be understood is Christ's body. But we must not, perhape, 
^.ttach too much significance to the word, wliich seems rather to serve as 
«!. sort of expletive. 

25/676-7. nan^t of onre ]>at were^ nothinfr of what might be ours. Cp. 
27/750-1 : Ac ^yf ]>on wylt tak JiAjt to prou For Ipe and ])yne freende; 31/ 
S69-70 : For so, nmn, senne greue]) in )je. And eke in alle ]>yne ; 157/ 
So I— 2 : He nedde assaylled No\>ei' adam ne non ofhys. 

For the position of the relat. prou. cp. IO8/274 : Toward hys ]>at wes ; 
X26/342 : Of ioye ]>at hijs fe welle; I43/399-400 : O^per ivdfele Wy\> hym 
'jpat helde. 

25/687-8. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176. 141): **Quaeritur in 
^uo sit ilia species et sapor ille. Non enim possumus dicere quod sint in 
Substantia panis et vini, cum non sit ibi substantia panis et vini, sed 
"Xrerum corpus Christi ; nee audemus dicere quod insint corpM'i ChristlJ" 

25/694 ff. Cf. Thom. Aquin., *Sumnia contra Gent.' 1. IV. c. 64: 
**esset enim horrori sumentibus et abominationi videntibus, si corpus 
<Uhristi in sua specie a tidelibiis sumeretur." 

25/701 ff. Cf. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 177, 362) : " Sub tali 
Cfcutem Sacramento snmitur, id est sub specie panis et vini, propter banc 
isimilitudinem, quia panis confirmat et vinum laetificat cor hominis, et 
^bristus virtus est et laetitia hominum et angelonim. Et licet in qualibet 
Sstarum idem et totus sumatur, tamen in utraque sumitur, ad signifi- 
c;andum quod duplex est eft'ectus huins sacramenti." 

• 26/710. Construe : And nor (he ybottt he]>) ]>e sanies etc., uory as for in 
1, 708, = because. Regarding the sense of the stanza, cp. Petr. Lombard. 
(Migne, 192, 863) : ** Valet enim ad tuitionem corporis et animae quod 
percipimus, ut ait Ambros. commentario ad cap. 10 Epist. prioris ad 

180 Note^. Pages 2G-27, Lines 715-782. 

HebraeoR, quia caro pro sulnte corporis, sanguis vero pro nnima nostra 
offertur." The word sacrement in 1. 713 is used in its proper signification 
of "sacrae rei signiiin," as opposed to the "res sacramenti/ Cp. Hugo 
de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 140): ** Sacramentum, et non res, sunt 
species visibile?*, id est panis et vini, et ea quae ibi visibiliter celebrantur 

• . . Sacraraentum eniui est sacrae rei signuni." 

26/715 ff. Cp. Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 142): "Nunc di- 
cendum videtur quod, licet in duabns sumatur speciebus, tamen in 
utraque integer Christus sumitur. Non enira corpus sine sanguine, vel 
sanguis sine corpore esse potest." 

26/718-19. Literally: 'By that way don't thou go to thrift.' — "ba (in 

* Ayenb.' \o and fa) is the stressed form of the dat. sing. masc. and neut. 
of the demonstr. pronoun. — go)>e = go J?om, ]>e being the unemphatic form 
of ))oie, attached to the preceding verb; cf. I/12: wot ]>enkeste, and above, 
1. 712, ivoste. This unemphatic form is frequent in * Ayenb.' It is 
employed proclitically, for instance, p. 20 : Nou ]>ench H^t tod ine pine 
herte hou ofte ]>e hed ydo \>e Uke zenne ; p. 38 : yef f e miistf and na^t ne 
yelsty \>ou hit stelst — especially before auxiliary verbs: htuinne ]>e ssoldestj 
yef \>e tvylt^ ase \>e mij^, etc. ; as well as enclitically, e. g. p. 264 : Huan/nes 
comste? . . . and huet yze^e]>e ine hellef Gummere (*Americ. Joum. of 
Phil.,' IV. 287) is certainly wrong in calling it a dative-nominative, 
comparing it with the absolute use of the objective forms me (fhee\ hirrif 
etc. in Mn.E. Nor can it be a reflexive dative, as Voges supposes ('Anglia,' 
VI. 306, footnote) ; but it is a weakening of )>oif, as the frequent un- 
emphatic te is a weakening of the emphatic to, 

26/722 If. Cp. Hugo St Victore (Migne, 176, 469): ** Noli autem 
putare, quando partes vides in Sacramento altaris, quasi divisum sit vel 
separatum a se, aut velut per membra diacerptuui corpus Ciiristi. Ipse 
integer manet in se, nee dividitur, nee partitur.*' 

26/726. to'shffte ( not found in Stratm.-Bradley), to split, crack info 
pieces ; cf. O.E. tO-sllfan, Halliwell records diftj a slip or cutting, as a 
Suffolk word. 

In the following line I have restored what I believe to have been the 
original reading of the MS. The allusion is, no doubt, to the well-known 
" Exemplum de Speculo : '* * You may break a mirror all into pieces, but 
3'^ou cannot part the image itself ; that will appear entire in every, the 
smallest, particle of the glass.' See also *The Minor Poems of the 
Vernon MS.' (E. E. T. S. 1892), P. I., * De Festo Corporis Christi,' p. 177 f. 
The applicability of this example to the incorruptible body of Christ and 
his presence in every particle of the host has often been disputed ; so by 
S. Bonaventura, *Sent.' L. IV. dist. 10, quaest. 5, where the learned 
editors (PP. Collegii a S. Bonaventura, Ad Claras Aquas prope 
Florentiam, Tom. IV. 224) have annexed the following note: **Cf. 
Innocent. III. IV., * De sacro altaris Mysterio,' c. 8, ubi etiam impugnat 
exemplum de speculo. Exemplum ipsum ab Alex. Hal., S. IV. q. 10, m. 
7, a. 3, § 5, et a S. Thom. hie a. 3, quaestiunc. 3, attribuitur August, qui 
ipso, ut notat S. Thom., utitur in quodara sermone de verbis Evangelii 
. . . , qui in operibus Augustini non invenitur." — S. Thom., too, rejects 
the example as inappropriate ; and it was probably a similar consider* 
ation that induced the reviser of the MS. to tamper with the original 

27/732. y-here is opposed to xmjkhe in 1..733, and cannot, therefore, ^ 
simply mean 'obedient,' like M.H.G. geJioere, with which it is gerierally^^ 
connected, but seems rather to belong to O.E. /i^ore, gentle, good. 

For the notion expressed in this and the following stanzas cp. * D^^ 

Notes, Pages 27-28, Lims 758-781. 181 

Aninia/ liber III. (Appendix ad Hiigonis Opera, Migne, 177, 163) : 
" Propterea intra Catholicam Ecclesiain in sacramento corporis Christi niliil 
a bono mains, nihil a malo minus periicitur sacerdote, quia non in merito 
consecrantis, sed in verbo efficitur Creatoris et virtute Spiritus sancti. 
Omnia A^ero sacramenta, cum obsint indigne tractantibus, prosunt taraen 
per eos digne sumentibus . . . Sicut enim Judas, cui Dominus buc- 
cellam tradidit, . . non malum accipiendo, sed bonum male accipiendo 
locum in se praebuit diabolo, sic indigne quisque accipiens locum in se 
praebet diabolo." 

• 27/758. 8edly\>, from secUeti, which answers to non-W.S. *sedlaii = 
W.S. seUaUf to settle. 

28/764. Nabyd = ne abtfdy for ahyt (abidef), 

28/769. Keste op, vomit up, e vomit; cf. cast op, 1. 773; kente, 
1. 786. 

28/778-81. The sense of these lines as we read them in the MS. is: 
* It is no dishonour to Christ though the Eucharist be vomited up by a 
sick person who is otherwise devout and in the faith of the holy Church 
(cf. I. 772) ; but Christ in the Eucharist does not suffer Himself to be 
trampled upon, and devoured by beasts.' 

This seems, however, to be contradictory to what we read in 30/ 
820 ff. : Namore lie greue\> hyt ihesns . . . Jjaj eny best deuourtd hyt (i. e. 
the consecrated host), o\)er eny o]>er onsd\>e ; and 1 strongly suspect that 
the reviser of the text has by the insertion of no^t in 1. 780 materially 
altered the original meaning of the passage, which 1 guess to have been 
this: * Christ suffers the Eucharist to be vomited up by a devout and 
reverent sick person, without detriment to His dignity ; as He suffers it 
also to be trampled upon, and devoured by beasts. As He in the flesh 
put men's belief to the test (when they saw His body ill-treated), so He 
necessarily does in the holy sacrament.' 

If I have guessed rightly, we shall have to alter Ac at the beginning 

of I 780 into ase : — Ase he soffre^p [eke ?] to he to-trede. — ac marks the 

introduction of a disjunctive or adversative statement; but it is clear 

that a statement of tiio nature of an opposition to what has been said in 

the preceding lines cannot have been intended by the author. — Another 

mistake of the scribe's I suspect in 1. 783, where I would propose to write: 

■^se he by-leue assayde inflesch (instead of a8say\>). With this construction 

of the passage in question we may now compare the following quotations 

from ecclesiastical writers. The author of the treatise *De Anima,' I. III., 

says (Migne, 177, 170) : '* Quidquid deformitatis vel mutationis in Christi 

^cramento specie ten us contigerit, non debet a nobis extorquere fldem 

7^i*itatis eius, quoniam qui in corpore suo, cum Deus esset verus, multa 

^digna pertulit, nihil indignum in corpore suo usque in finem saeculi 

Pex-ferret, quamvis vere ibi sit." — Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 470) : 

"Tanta est dignitas et munditia corporis Christi, ut nee corruptione aliqua 

^*^ci possit, nee sordibus maculari. Itaque, si quando haec fieri videris, 

^^^litimere ipsi, sed sollicitus esto tibi. Ipse laedi non potest; tu noceri 

P^^t:e8, qui male credere potes." — Thom. Aquin. ' Summ.' III. quaest. 80, 

^**^ 3 : " etiamsi mus vel canis hostiam consecratam manducet, substantia 

^'^^^'poris Christi non desinit esse sub speciebus, qamdiu species illae 

^^nent, hoc est, quamdiu substantia panis manet ; sicut etiam si proiice- 

!!^^^r in lutum. Nee hoc vergit ad detrimentum dignitatis corporis 

^*^*yi8ti, qui voluit a peccatoribus crucifigi absque diminutione suae digni- 

^^"tis, praesertim cum mus aut canis non tangat ipsum corpus Christi 

$^5^tindum propriam speciem, sed solum secundum species sacramentales." 

^^^lat the revisor of the text had in mind was probably that the conse-^ 

182 Notes. Pages 28-30, Lines 785-821. 

crated elements must not be injured by being treated irreverently, or 
suffered to be destroyed through the negligence of those in whose charge 
they are put. Injunctions of Councils and Convocations to this effect are 
numerous ; cf. also Myrc's * Instructions for Parish Priests,' 1. 2005 ff. 

28/785. Here again the reviser's meddling with the text has turned 
the meaning of the author to the contrary. William meant to say tliat 
* it is indeed the true body of Christ that there comes up if a [sick] man 
evomits the Eucharist ; for so long is it that body, as the substance of the 

t consecrated] bread shall last Yet, though the substance of the bread 
e digested in the [stomach of the] recipient, even then that body remains 
in him ' — or, as we read it above, II. 773-7 : 

]?e3 he hy^t cast op, hyt bylef\> 
SauiMcion to loerche 

Ryyt \>ere; 
For al at ones he mey be 
per and eUes-were. 
The poet thus distinguishes between the corporal presence of Christ in 
the Eucharist, dependent upon the integrity of the elements; and the 
spiritual presence, that is, the lasting efficacy or ' virtue ' of the sacrament 
(if received worthily) after the consumption of the elements. This is in 
accordance with the doctrine of the Church. Cf. Hugo de St. Victore 
(Migne, 176, 471): **Quamdiu sensus corporaliter afficitur, praesentia 
eius corporalis non aufertur. Postquam autem sensus corporalis in 
percipiendo deficit, deinceps corporalis praesentia quaerenda non est, sed 
spiritualis retinenda, dispensatio completa est, perfectum sacramentum : 
virtus manet, Christus de ore ad cor transit." 

Accordingly, I. 785 ought to run : 

pat body hy^t hys (MS. nys) \>at \>er com\>e op, 

29/792 ff. The subject of the spiritual presence of Christ in the hearts 
of worthy communicants is continued : — * If He passes not from us so 
long as we hold Him aright, what need is there to receive Him again 
while He so possesses us ? ' — The answer is : — ' In remembrance of His 
death and His passion, as He commanded at His end;' that is, at the Last 
Supper, when He said to the Apostles : * This do in remembrance of me.* 
The slight emendations of the text I have thought it necessary to adopt 
in 1. 794 and 1. 798 need no justification. 

29/804. J^hn XV. 1 : *' Ego sum vitis vera." 

29/805. This seems an allusion to John xii. 24-25, as we learn from 
Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 177, 363) : ** Et nota quod non de qualibet 
pane hoc consecratur sacramentum, sed tantum de pane frumenti, quia 
ipse de se dicit : * Nisi granum frumenti cadens in terram mortuum 
fuerit, ipsum solum manet' (Joan, xii.)." 

29/8 1 3 ff. The example of the precious stone, which I remember 
haying heard or read elsewhere, though I cannot at the moment trace it 
to its source, is very apposite here. 

29-30/817-19 contain the application of the example to the consecrated 
bread in the Holy Sacrament : — * As the vnrtue and value of the precious 
stone in comparison to ordinary stones of a similar appearance, so is the 
virtue of the sacramental bread, which is God Himself, in comparison to 
other bread.' — This is clearly the sense intended by the author, which the 
scribe has perverted into pure nonsense. I confess myself unable ^' 
guess what the original reading was. 

30/821. Sonne itrede infeiye sounds rather* strange. May not, perhape^^, 
William himself have written stone instead of sonne^ with reference to f" 
simile in the preceding stanza ? 

Notes, Pages 30-31, Lines 822-86a 188 

30/822. hyt means the consecrated host. 

30/823, oihsd^ey unhap, mischance. The construction seems to he : 

* though a beast should devour it, or any other mischance [happen].' — 
It^'or the idea expressed in this stanza cp. note to 28/780 ff. 

30/829. flP^^^ (= vynegre) must be genit sing, governed by kende: 

* not of the cold nature of vinegar.' Cp. Thom. Aquin. IV. dist. xi. 
fE^uaest. 2, art. ^, sol. 2 : '^ Ad secundum quaestionem dicendum quod 
^secundum Philosophnm in VIII. Metaph. hoc roodo fit ex vino acetuni, 
^^uo ex vivo fit mortuum : unde sicut animal vivum et mortuum non sunt 
^iusdem speciei, ita. nee vinum et acetum ; et hoc ostendunt contrariae 
X>i'oprietate8, quia vinum est calidum, acetum autem frigidum ... Et 
ideo dicendum quod si vinum sit omnino acetum, de eo non potest 

30/830. droppyng for droppynde? The meaning mu«t be — water 
"vrith a sprinkling of wine. 

30/832-3. The Council of Tribur, a. 895, can. 19, decreed " ut duae 
partes sint vini, quia maior est maiestas sanguinis^Chnsti quam fragilitas 
;populi ; tertia aquae, per quam intelligitur iufinnitas humanae naturae.'' 
UMLartene I. cap. 3, art. 7, 30. Cp. also Thom. Aquin. * Summ.' III. quaest. 
^4, art 8. 

30/834 ff. Cf. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 864) : " Aqua vero admis- 
^enda est vino, quia aqua populum signat, qui per Christi passionem 
Tedemptus est. Calix ergo dominions, iuxta canonum pracceptum, aqua 
sn vino mixtus debet offerri, quia videmus in aqua populum mtelligi, tn 
^ino ostendi sanguinem Christi. Cum ergo in calice vino aqua miscetur, 
Cliristo populus adunatur.*' See also Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 
146) : " Per aquam quae in calice ponitur populus significatur ; " and 
Thom. Aquin. *Summ.' III. quaest. 74, art. 6-8. 

31/846-7. According to the doctrine prevalent in the time of the poet, 
and finally established by the Council of Trent, repentance {so^e), oral 
confession (schryfte), and satisfaction (edbote) are the three parts neces- 
sary for the completion of penance as a sacrament ; the three successive 
stages that the penitent has to go through in order to obtain the effects 
of the sacrament See Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 146) ; Petr. 
Lombard. (Migne, 192, 877); Thom. Aquin. *Suram.' IIL quaest 90, art. 
1-3. Cp. also *Ayenb.' p. 170-1, and Chaucer, 'Person. Tale' (Skeat, 
572, § 5). 

31/855 ff. C^' *Ayenbite,' p. 178: Ac A« ssd fenche of his zemies mid 
greabe drede and mid greate z(yr^e of herte, \ind him-zdite sse^ide ine him, 
zducy and habhe greate ssame to-um-e god^ cmd west 10U ]>et neurem>o to 
zenne ne ssd wende ayen ]>aj me ssolde hine al to-lieawe, 

31/859. The ryme uytte [: hftel is imperfect as regards the quantity of 
the vowels, lyte having a long i in Shoreham's dialect. Thig appears from 
rymes such as a lyte [: fa* iw/*e], I45/540-41 ; lyte (MS. lytd) [: Tatimte 
= to aitcite, inf.], 40/ 1 132, 11 34; [ismyte, inf. : atwyte : a4noyte\j 94/242, 
244, 246, 248. But we had perhaps better alter wytte into wyte, O.E. 
vMe, pimishment, penalty, torture, which makes tolerable sense. 

31/863. vdf of senne, "sordes peccati/' seems to be treated here 
as a sort of compound, the genit. (vell^ of sennes) being governed by 

31/868. keuere, recover, " reviviscere." — The necessity of a life-long 
repentance is urged by Pseudo-Augustine, * De vera et falsa Poenitentia,' 
cap. xiii. : "Quid restat nobis nisi semper dolere in vita ? Ubi enim dolor 
finitur, deficit poenitentia; si vero poenitentia finitur, quid relinquitur de 
venia?" See also Thom. Aquin. 'Summ.' III. quaest,84, art 8 ('*Utrum 

184 Notes. Pages 32-33, Lines 892-915, 

poenitentia debeat durare usque ad finem vitae *') ; and IV. diet. xvli. 
quaest. 2, art 4 ('' Utruui tota haec vita sit contritiouis teuipus "), where 
the subject is treated at large. 

32/892. Cf. Chaucer, * Person. Tale' (Skeat, 585, § 15) : 
c<mtricion dest/royeiJi the prinan of lidle. 
In the following lines, if we accept the emendation suggested by Strat- 
mann, <mt-cr(mde seems to mean Uo press out, evacuate, depopulate*; 
and croude^ 1. 895, the opposite, viz. * to crowd, fill (with a crowd).* But 
this is extremely doubtful. Tiie expression is, at the leasts very awk* 
ward ; nor do I know where the notion is taken from. 

ywenne (for yuoene; cp, ywene, 67/1908) is generally connected with 
O.E. dhwcenan, to vex, grieve. 

33/902-3. deeper is a possible A.Fr. fonn for despeir. It must bo 
imperative. This would suggest the emendation man ne for mams or 
mante (t-stroke wanting). The two lines seem, however, to be corrupt, 
though the sense of the passage can hardly be doubtful : — One need noti 
be afraid to disclose one's sins in secret to the priest alone 

33/904-7. Cf. *Ayenbite,' p. 175: — Eftei^ward be aarifte ssd hy ykvlp 
na^t to-ddd ine iisLe saritieres, Vor me ssel zigge at to onen^na^t o del Up 
onerif and ]>et ofer del to an-operen, — Chaucer, * Person, Tale' (Skeat, 
638) : Also thou ahalt shryve thee of aUe thy sinnes to o ma/Hj a/nd na^ 
a parcel (Shoreh. a kantel) to o m^n^ and a parcel to a/nother. — Pseudo- 
August., * De vera et falsa Poenit.' (Migne, 40, 1125) : " Cautus sit poenitens 
ne verecundia ductus dividat apud se confessionem, ut diversa diversis 
sacerdotibus velit manifestare." 

33/908-10. It is not sufficient for the penitent to confess his sins only ; 
he must tell also, if possible, the circumstances under which they were 
committed, as they may tend to aggravate the guilt. Cf. ' Ayenbite,' p. 
175 : EfterwQ/rd me sad zigge na:^t onelepUiche J>e zennea, ac J>e ahoute- 
stondinges alle pat m^ref be zennes. 

The circumstances to be considered at Confession have been summed 
up in the following hexameter : ^' Quis, quid, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, 
quomodo, quando ; " or — " quis, quid, ubi, cum quo, quoties, cur, quomodoy 
quando." Cp. * Ajicren Riwle,' 316 : Abuten sunne ligge^ six ^inges pet 
hit hdieU: o Latin circumstances; on Englisch, heo m,wwen heon ihoten 
totagges : persone^ stude^ time, manere, tale, cause, — * Cursor Mundi,' 27158 : 
Qua, quate, qvd^ quare, quam wit, quen . . See also Myrc, 1. 1517. 

33/91 1- 1 4. Cp. *Ayenbite,' 174: Efteruoard, huanne he is beuore his 
ssrifteuader, he ssel him ssriue operdiche, pet is to zigge pet he ssel zigge his 
zennes dyerliche and nakedliche . . . Chaucer, * Person. Tale' (Skeat, 586, 
§ 17) : J. 2 moot he seyd, and no thing excused^ ne hid, neforwrapped . . . 
Ibid,, 639: T^hou shalt nat eek peynte thy confessiown hy /aire subtil 
ioordes, to covere the vMyre thy sinne; for thanne higyUstow thyself, amd 
nai the preest ; thou m^ost tdlen it pleyrdy, be it nevere so fotd ne so 
horrible. — Synod. Nemausensis, a. 1284 (*I)e Poenitentia): **Item non 
debet confiteri verbis vel nominibus peccatorum sen criminum palliatis; sed 
quodlibet peccatum suo proprio nomine quantumcunque turpe exprimat." 

33/915. Tys la^e, according to the law, pr — as we should say — the 
rights of it. laie often means ^ custom, manner ; ' here it approaches the 
sense of ri^t : that which is right, due, or proper to a person or thing ; 
as, for instance, 11 9/ 127-8 : 

In suapehendes hy hyne dy^te, 
Ase hyt hys pe chyldes ry^te. 
See also N. E. D., s. v. law, 14. 15. tys = to hys; cp. 90/ 127: Tysfyngres 
ncolde man by^ide hy. 

Mtes. Page 33, Lines 916-93L 185 

33/916-17. Up to the Council of Trent, where the matter was decided 
"^CDtherwise, many theoloj^ciiiiis held tlie view that in peril of death, when a 
priest was not at hand, it was permitted to confess to any lay person, 
provided that the penitent had the intention to repeat his confession to a 
licensed priest if he should recover. (See next stanza.) The validity of 
3ay confession in case of necessity was assumed on the authority of Pseudo- 
Augustine, *De vera et falsa Poenitentia,* cap. 10: "Tanta itaque vis 
confessionis est, ut, si deest sacerdos, confiteatur proximo. Saepe enim 
-contingit quod poenitens non potest confiteri coram sacerdote, quern 
-desideranti hec locus nee tempus oflert ; et, si ille cui couiitehitur potes- 
tatem solvendi non habet, fit tamen dignus venia ex desiderio sacerdotis 
qui socio confitetur turpitudinem criminis. Mundati enim sunt leprosi, 
dum ibant ora vel se ostendere sacerdotibus, antequnm ad eos perveni* 
rent. Unde patet Deum ad cor respicere, dum ex necessitate prohibetur 
ad sacerdotes pervenire." See also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 883). — 
The sacramental character of such confession (" quaravis non sit sacra- 
jnentum perfectum ") is maintained by Thom. Aquin. IV. dist. xvii. art. 
3. For further information, see D. Hugonis Mathoud *■ Observationes ad 
-Xibros Sententiarum Roberti Pulli ' (Migne, 186, 1082). 

33/919. vxtntrokyCf refl. v., means * to despair,' and the verbal noun 
^vcmtrokyngey I66/759, * despair.' Stratmann-Bradley, s. v. wanti-ukien, 
refening to the passage in Shoreham, erroneously assigns to it the sig- 
nification *to fail, be wanting.' So also in the Kt. version of *Sawle8 
Warde' (*Ayenbite,' p. 265) wantrdkiynge does not mean Mack, want,' as 
Morris interprets it in the Glossary, but is used to translate the word 
desperatio of the Latin source. 

33/925-6. This was enjoined by the fourth Lateran Council (a. 1215) 
under Innocent III., cap. 21. 

33/930-31. tvald {^ejf)y O.E. weald, in case, lest. Note here the change 
of mood, dei\f being indie, prs., for-^ete subj. pret., — unless, indeed, dei}* 
has to be altered into the subj. deie or deide. 

Similar reasons why confession should not be delayed are given in 
*Ayenbite,' e. g- p. 173: Eftervxwd ]>e dya]>, \>et is yredy, cmd mieral 
iiapi\} jfane zeneiere, him ssd sterie zone him to ssrive . . . ; 174 : For 
<xssem^)che aae god ahyt more \>ane zene^ere, \e more he hvm smit ]>e m>ore 
feUaker, h/uanne he him yzi^]f ordosti cmd skawwl . . . Efterward ]>e Uke 
het late him ssriuep, uoryet ofte his z&nnes^ zivo ]>et onnyed^e hit heiutl]> "pet 
he by wel yssrixie ; uor he tioiyet munye zennes huerof he neure him ssel 
hepenche, and ziw him, iie ssel neure uor\fenche, ne neure by ssritie ; and 
\et is to him wel grot peril. — Also in Chaucer's * Person. Tale' (Skeat, 
637, § 88) : Certes, a man oghte hastily shewen hise sinnesfor m^anye causes : 
as for drede cf deeth, that c&meth ofte sodeidy^ and is in no certeyn what 
i/yme it shal be ne in what place; and eek the drecchinge of o synne draweth 
in a/nother . . . And if he aJbyde to his laste day, scar sly mat/ he shryven 
Mm, or remembre him of hise sinnes, or repenten him for the grevoiis 
maladie of his deeth. — Cp. also Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 560) : 
•* Valde difficile est ut tunc vera sit poenitentia, quando tnm sera venit, 
quando cruciatus membra ligat, et dolor sensum oppriniit, vix homo aliud 
cogitare potest" Qiys fo^t "pe sor^e troublep^ 34/933). — See, too, the decree 
of the Synodus Nemausensis (a. 1284), cap. 'l)e Poenitentia': "Verum 
quoniam periculosum est valde moram facere in peccato, praecipimus 
quod parochiales presbyteri frequenter moneant plebes suas, ut ad con- 
fessionem veniant quam cito poterunt post commissum peccatum, et hoc 
propter incertitudinem horae mortis. Item quia in extrema aegritudine 
viz potest aliquis de peccuto nedum poenitere, sed nee etiam cogitare. 

186 Notes, Page 34, Lines 939-96L 

Quia, tit ait Joannes (sc. Clirysostomus), cum aegritudine opprimeris^ vix 
uliud potes cogitare quam sentis : et illuc rapitur intentio mentis, ubi est 
vis doloris." 

34/939 ff. Cp. *01d English Homilies* (ed. Morris), 1. 35 f.: for-^ihetere 
eow is pet eow scamie hiforen "pam preoste ane^ penne on domes-dei heforetv 
criste and hefvren al hexvene wa/ra and hiforen al eor^e vxira and hiforen al 
hdle tmra. — *Ayenbite,' 179: Efterward he sael Uepdicke drinke a lite 
ssame, vm' to hexdy pe greate saame pet ]>e zene:^€s ahidep ate day^ of 
dorne^ httanne ech of pe toordle ssel yzi his o:^ene zennen, — Chaucer, * Person. 
Tale * (Skeat, 642, § 100) : Men sholden eek remembr&n hem of the shame 
tJiat is to com>e at the day of dome to hem that been nat penitent and 
shriven in this present lyf; for alle the creatures in erthe and in heUe 
shtdlen seen aperiiy al tJiat they hyden in this toorld. 

34/940. For-wy =for-whyy for, because; so also 19/5 12, 4I/1164. 

34/946-7. True repentance (i. e. contrition) always implies the 
purpose of shrift and satisfaction: '^Contritio est dolor pro peccatis 
assumptus cum proposito confitendi et satisfaciendi *' (Thom. Aquin. IV. 
djst. xvii. quaest. 2, art. 1). If a man has no chance of shriving him- 
self, he may be saved through repentance alone ; cp. 3I/862-3 But if he 
wilfully neglects confession, he cannot obtain remission of his sins. See 
Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 148): "Vere invisibiiis sacerdos eum 
qui vult confiteri et non potest ab hoc debito solvit ; sed quamdiu illud 
potest, nisi ore confiteatur non absolvitur. Certum namque est quod ille 
qui habet cor contritum vult contiteri ; sed istain bonam voluntatem de- 
serere potest . . . et si hac voluntate amissa nollet confiteri, et tund 
inoreretur, nulli est dubium eum damnari pro illo peccato quod confiteri 
noluit." Cp. also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 19*2, 881). 

34/949-51. We had perhaps better transpose ^et from I. 951 to 1. 949, 
thus : 

^et, yS %^ vaKe)> pat channce 

80 holde^ 
Ne m^y lie nau^t y-sawn/ed he, etc. 

34/954. stoneynge, astonishment, consternation, dread. 

34/955-6. Cp. Hildebertus Cenomanensis (Migne, 171, 426); "cum 
accesseris ad confessionem, noli ridere, sed peccasse te humiUter profitendo 
accede. Si potes, ploret oculus, si non, saltem doleat animus.'* Chaucer, 
* Person. Tale * (Skeat, 637, § 87) : The thridde signe is, how that thy shrift 
sJwlde he fuL of teres, if man may ; and if man ma/y nat xoepe with hise 
bodily eyen, lat him wepe in herte. 

Tne * Ayenbite * enumerates six conditions of shrift (p. 172 ff .), 
Chaucer's * Person. Tale' (636, § 87) four. From Thom. Aquin. (IV. 
dist. xvii. quaest. 3, art. 3, quaestiunc. 4) we learn that the schoolmen 
(" magistri ") used to consider sixteen conditions requisite to true confes- 
sion. They are contained in the following verses : 

" Sit simplex, humilis confessio, pura, fidelis 
Atque frequens, nuda, discreta, libens, verecunda, 
Integra, secreta, lacrymabilis, accelerata, 
Fortis, et accusans, et sit parere parata.'* 

34/961. to /a[i/]re, exceedingly fair. — The spelling a for ai is rare in 
Shoreham (aper for ayper occurs 62/1737), but is by no means unfrequent 
in * Ayenbite * ; e. g. xiariste, 142, 228 ; imsdines, by the side of m<iydines, 
232, 234; madenhod, by the side of maydenfiod, 228, 230, 231, 233; 
ymamed, 141 = ymaymed, 135 ; falep =failep, 80 ; faly, 173 (twice) ; yfatedy 
187. Considering the number of these instances, it would not, perhaps, 
be safe enough to simply call them clerical errors. I am rather inclined 

Notes. Pages 35-36, Lines 962-993. 187 

<) look upon them as indications of a peculiar pronunciation, in which 
^ e first element of the diphthong was broadened, and the second obscured, 
r almost completely absorbed. 

35/962 ff. The requirements of a good confessor are summed up in the 
oUowing verses : 

" Confessor dulcis, affabilis atque suavis, 
Prudens, discretus, mitis, pius atque benignus.'* 

35/973. roynepy cuts out ; Fr. rogner. 

35/975. toiey O.E. tdl, fault-finding, reproach. 

35/979-80. 3(wtr€ predy that is, your own parish priest, to whom under 

ordinary circumstances you are bound to make confession. Cp. Rob. 

ZPullus, *Sent' 1. VI. cap. 52 (Migne, 186, 902) : "Sin vero minus consilii 

s,pud siios sacerdotes inveniunt, atque ideo ah eis, aiit accepta licentia, 

«ut satisfactione poenitentiali iniuncta, ad alios melioris consilii viros 

confugerint . . . hos non solum non accuse, verum prudentiae vivaci- 

"tat^m commendo." See also D. Hugonis Mathoud * Observationes ad 

Xibros Sent.* Rob. Pulli (Migne, 186, 1088); Myrc, 'Instructions for 

Parish Priests,' 11. 813-878. 

The power of the keys, i. e. the power to bind and loose, is given to 
every priest at his ordination. This is what Thom. Aquin. calls the 
"clavis ordinis.'* According to the view of the elder ecclesiastical 
writers, every ordained priest is allowed to make unrestricted use of this 
power in confessing and absolving any person, whether committed to 
his spiritual charge or not. But already ah. 1093 Pope Urban II. 
decreed, — "ut deinceps nulli sacerdotum liceat quemlibet commissam 
alteri sacerdoti ad poenitentiam suscipere sine eius consensu cui prius 
se commisit, nisi pro ignorantia illius cui poenitens prius confessus 
est;" see Gratian, *De Poenitentia,' dist. 9, cap. 3 (Migne, 187, 1640). 
Consequently, the fourth Lateran Council under Innocent III. (1215) 
decided that absolution was valid only when pronounced by the 
"sacerdos proprius," or one who had got from him licence to hear 

35/981-4. Cp. Pseudo-August., *De vera et falsa Poenit.,* cap. 10: 
** Laborat enim mens patiendo erubescentiam ; et quoniam verecundia 
magna est poena, qui erubescit pro Christo fit dignns misericordia. 
Unde patet quod, quanto pluribus confitebitur in spe veniae turpitudinem 
criminis, tanto facilius consequetur misericordiam remissionis." 

35/985. Nau^t nyce, not foolishly, refers to 1. 981 : Te [fe] mo prestes 
]>at \Kwt ischryiiej and is opposed to 1. 982 : myd alle yhole schryfte. It is 
further explained by 11. 986-7. 

35/989. edbote., satisfaction. Shoreham never uses dedhote, 

35/99off. ChypeanSy or chypeatis, is an obvious corruption of some other 
word the probable meaning of which we can only guess from the context 
of the passage. * The first thing ' — the poet says — * for a man to do after 
repentant confession is, to avoid chypeans, the root of sins (of serines rote) ; 
as, for instance, he who wishes to avoid lechery avoids/oieie continannce^^ 
that is, unclean bearing, lascivious gestures, such as tempt and lead to 
lechery. — The theological term for things that tempt or give occasion to 
sin, and may therefore be called the roots of sin, is '* occasiones " ; and 
this, I believe, must have been the meaning of the original word that the 
scribe has corrupted into chypeans or chypeaus. Ought we, perhaps, to 
write ehe(i)so^ins (aphetic form of a-, enche{i)soivn8) ? 

36/993. hy-flek is an impossible form. We shall have to write either 
hy-fleky, as in 1. 994 (cp. sykf, y«ykp, wriJcp, etc.); or, as I would 

188 Notes. Pages 36-37, Lines 1002-1037. 

He \at by-fle wile lecherye, 
Bi-idekf fonle cmithiannceis). 
In order to get a perfect ryine with cmitinauncej the final s of ase 
qiuinces has to be omitted, or continawice to be changed into plur. con- 
tinances. — Observe the original O.Fr. form quances (Skeat, Philol. JBoc. 
Transact. April 18, 1890). 

36/icx)2. Cp. * Ayenbite/ 180: After }>e ssrifte corny yno^fnate^ fet is \e 
amendinge pet me sseL do hi ]?e wUle and hi pe rede of pe ssriitere, J>ei ssel 
deme \>e amendes he ]>e gdtes : o\er ine nestinges^ oper iive elmeasej o\>er ine 
henes, o];er ine o\>re \}hujesy ase be pan pet \:e zeniie ivcsep, — Hugo de St. 
Victorc (Migne, 176, 146) : ** Sutisfactio post confessioneni fit per ieiunia, 
orationes, et caetera bona opera." — **ieiunium, eleemosyna et oratio" 
are the three "opera satisfactoria," the pre tnaner peyne, because **opu8 
satisfactorium debet esse poenale" (Thom. Aquin.). 

36/1007. "ieiuuio sanatur pestes corporis, oratione pestes mentis'* 
(Ilieronym. — ahas auctor super Marcum, cap. ix.). — -/w, as seith seint 
lerome, by fastinye been saved the vyces of the fleshy and by preyere the 
vyces of the so\de (Chaucer, * Person, lale,' Skeat, 641, § 94). 

36/1009 is too short. As lope can only be plur., we shall probably 
have to write : 

For senne inflesche vestynges 
Be]> [<o] ]>e fiesche lopej 
or better, perhaps : 

For senne in flesch vesti/nges hep, 
[pat to] pe flesch [hep] lo\>e. 

36/1011-15. " Eleemosyna ab onmi peccato liberat" (Tob. iv. 24), 
— " Ignem ardcntem extinguit {iqua, et eleeniosyna resistit peccatis " 
(Ecclesiastic, iii. 33). For the folh)wing cp. Tlioni, Aquin. IV. dist. xv. 
quaest. 1, art. 4, sol. 3: "quidqiiiJ ad afflictioiiem corporis pertinet, 
totum ad ieiunium refert ; et quidc^uid ad proximi utilitatem expeditur, 
totum eleemosynae rationem habet; et similiter quaecumque latria 
exhibetur Deo, orationis accipit rationem." 

36/ioi8. i(Jon, probably = iwnc, habit 

36/1019. Lore here seems to mean instruction' (in the principles of 
the Christian faith), 'catechetical sermon,' which in Roman Catholic 
churches often forms part of the Sunday afternoon service, and is called 
in Gennan ** christliche Unterweisung," or " Christenlehre." In this 
sense it is parallel to predicacionn, and, like that, governed by the 
preceding to here. 

herte smyte, knocking upon the breast. 

37/1024. Wolle-wardi woolward. 

37/1027. here, O.E. hoere, hair-cloth, hair-shirt, cilice^ 

37/1032. prysoneSf prisoners, captives. 

The dedes of elmesse here enumerated are what the Roman catechis 
calls the corporal and spiritual works of charity. There are seven 
each kind. The corporal ones are : Visito (infirmum), poto (sitienten 
cibo (esurientem), redimo (incarceratum), tego (nudum), coUigo (i 
recolligo, hospitem), condo (i. e. sepelio, mortuum). — ^The spiritual wo 
are : Ckynsvle (in a double sense, viz. doce ignorantem, et dirige d 
tantem), castiga (delinquentem), solare (tristem), remitte (delinquentibii^ 
te),/er (i. e. porta infirmitates aliorum et gravamina), ora (pro omnibix 

37/1037. seueier is often put for a long, but indefinite period ; 
Skeat's note to 'P. Plowman,' C, V. 82; Zupitza's note to 1. 8667 of 
' Romance of Guy of Warwick,' 15th cent, version. But here we hav^^ 
take it literally ; cp. Gratian, c. 11, C. 33, quaest. 2 (diet.) : " Hinc eti 

Kotes, Pagefi 37-38, Lines 1044-1064. 189 

^cclesiastica consuetudine est usurpatnm ut maionim criminuin poeni- 
"tentia septem annorum spatio concludatiir, nisi vel officii excellentia, vel 
cjrirainum magnitude vulgarein constietudinem exccdens « . <. praeinissum 
epatiuin transcendere cogat." — The * Poen. Astesani,' referring to this 
passage in the Decret., says, c. 9 : "Nam regulariter pro quolibet peccato 
:inortali debetur septennis poenitentia, nisi dignitas delinquentis vel 
cjualitas delicti aliud suadeat" (quoted by Freisen, 'Geschichte des 
-canonischen Eherechtes,' p. 583, footnote). 

37/1044-5. Supposing uisyk to be right {in syke^ as Wright has it, is 
certainly wrong!), the sense of the two lines seems to be: *They (sciL 
the priests) have physic (for the spiritual diseases) of men (whose weak« 
Tiess they are to consult in administering), and must, therefore, enjoin 
i:he less penance.' — But it is very doubtful whether uisyk of men can 
really express so much. Note also the spelling with n, instead of/ (or 
jj^i), which is rather uncommon in words of French origin. 

38/1046-50. Cp. Thom. Aquin. opusc. 65, § 4: "Sacerdos non 
dmponat poenitentiam ita gravem, ut poenitens totum dimittat . - . , nee 
ita levem, ut contemnat peccatum . . . Tamen tutius est imponore 
minorem debito quam mniorem, quia melius excusamur apud Denni 
propter multam misericordiam qunm per niniiam severitatem ; quia talis 
-defectus in purgatorio supplebitur." — apeched, 1. 3, impeached, accused. 

38/1053-57. The question is, who is me, and who is meant by ham, in 
1. 1053 ? It might seem natural to refer ham to the preceding pi^estes; 
but there can be little doubt that it relates to the penitents, and me to 
"the confessing priests, as is clearly the case with me and ham, (see also 
%, 1. 1057) below in 1. 1056. — sennes may be genitive (cp. 'purgatorxjes^ 
i. 1061 ; sennys^ 1. 1089; hdles 99/24). — '^mte \_:lyte'] means 'punishment.' 
-^m^one is generally used by Shoreham in the sense of * companionship, 
communion, intercourse' (also ^sexual intercourse'). Once, on 85/i6o, it 
occurs in the signification of *moan, lamentation;' and this, I should 
think, would also suit here. We might perhaps translate ine m^one by 
* complainingly,' though we must not attach too much force to such 
expletive phrases in the bob- verses. The sense, then, of the whole stanza, 
as I understand it, is: * There is yet another case (circumstance) why 
priests giv^e so little penance: although you may tell them (sc. the 
penitents) complainingly a great deal about the punishment of sin, you 
nmst lay on them little penance, else they would do none.' 

This is quite in accordance with what Thom. Aquin. says in the 
following passage (quodhb. Ill, quaest. 13, art. 28): "unde melius est 
qiiod sacerdos poenitenti indicet quanta poenitentia esset sibi pro peccatis 
iniungenda, et ininngat sibi nihilominus aliquid qnod poenitens tolera- 
biliter ferat . , ." Cp. also Myrc, * Instruct, for Parish Priests,' 11. 164.S- 

38/1058 ff. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 555): **Tu tamen fac 
quod tibi praecipitur. Obediens esto in eo quod tibi iubetur." — ib. p. 
556: "* , magnum est si in hac vita incipere possis, etiam si non per- 
ficias. Nam et post mortem ignis quidam purgatorius dicitur, ubi 
purgantur et mundantur qui hie corrigi coeperunt et non perfecerunt." 
38/ 1 06 1, tense can hardly be anything but O.Fr. tens, time. 
38/1063-4, I do not know what to make of w\il hone* If I might 
venture upon a conjecture I should propose to write the two lines thus : 

Nys nan^t god to luyi'-lete a man 
pat eny-]nng hys to don(n)e [: eftsone']^ 
which we may translate : * It is not good to remit to a man (or, for a 
man to omit?) what has to be done somehow,' 

190 Notes, rages 38-40, Lines 1069-1136. 

38/1069. ^Teyned^ arranged, prepared? cf. O.E. geregman? 

38/1070-71. Cp. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192,893): '^Ex iustitiavero 
(Deus) impunituni non dimittit delictum." (Tlie sentence is from Augus- 

38/1076. The insertion of 36 between ]?o« and mote spoils the sense. 
The verb mote has for its compound subject the three nouns sortce, 
Bchryfte and edbote. For the peculiar notion expressed in this stanza cp. 
Albertus Magnus, * Compendium Theologiae Veritatis' (De partibus poeni- 
tentiae in communi, cap. xxvi.) : ** Item per peccatum offendit homo 
Deum, et Ecclesiam, et se ipsum. Sed per contritionem reconciliatur 
homo Deo, per confessionem Ecclesiae, per satisfactionem sibi." 

39/1081. he ne 9chi'yf]> nan^t of . . , he does not care for, or about. 
echtyne in this sense occurs also 44/1232, 7O/1995. For the terms signe 
and ying^ and their signification in the Sacrament of Penance, which is 
discussed by the ])oet in the following lines (39/1084-1089), cp. Thom. 
Aquin. 'Summ.'III. quaest. 84, art. 1: '*In sacramentis de quihus iam 
supra. diximus, est aliquid quod est sacramentum tantum (i. e. sncrne rei 
signum), aliquid quod est res et sacramentum, aliquid vero quod est res 
tantum . . . Etiam in poenitentia est aliquid quod est sacramentum 
tantum, scilicet actus exterius exercitus (pat hys hoxde ydo\ tarn per 
peccatorem poenitentem, quam etiam per sacerdotem absolTentem ; res 
autem et sacramentum est poenitentia interior peccatoris ; res aiitem 
tantum, et non sacramentum, est remissio peccati" — So the two things 
are, *' remissio peccati " (/oT^e/jje), and "poenitentia interior'* (repewtynge, 
repentantice). The latter, however, is also '* sacramentum '* {signe aim of 
aennys for:^eitynge). 

39/1091-1099. Cp. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 893) : *'Quod autem 
interdum sufficiat dolor interior ad vindictam peccati, certuin documen- 
tum habemus in illo latrone, Luc. 23, qui sola mentis contritione et 
coiifessione, stutiin ut conversus fuit, paradisum ingredi meruit.'* 

39/1100-04. See Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 899): "Praeter prae- 
missii, est etitim alind sacramentum, scilicet Unctio Intirmorum, quae fit 
in extremis." Myrc, *InRtr. for Par. Priests,' II. 1813-1816 : 

Wlien ])at he ys so oxier-dryxt^ 
pat he inay tio lengnr hpte, 
penne he schal an-elet be. 
And non er, I tvat'ne the, 

39/1105. The insertion of ne after libhe in MS. is due to the same 
revisor of the text that thought it necessary to add o]>er dia]> on 41 /i 145, 
which is equally preposterous. See note to that passage, pat refers, of 
course, to bodyes, 

40/iii4ff. James v. 14, 15: "Infirmatur quis in Tobis? Inducat 
presbyteros ecclesiae, et orent super eum, ungentes eum oleo in nomine 
Domini : et oratio fidei {myso^m of ]>er holy hy-leuey 11. 1121-2) salvabit 
infirm um, et allevabit eum Doininus ; et si in peccatis sit, remittentur ei." 

4O/1118. ende makes no'ryme with wynne. We may perhaps write: 
To hys xmne^ to his house. 

40/1128. This, brother, is a comfort, and a great one. a/nd is amplifi- 
cative here, as on I3/338. Confermyng his a sacrament, And ojper ]>at 
ive fminge]>; 39/ 1 106 :— J>e bodyes euel ]>at libbe meyy And sone,hit wet/ 

40/1130. fmnan is singular, ham in 1. 1134 is plural. So we shall 
have to alter either foman into fomen^ or ham into him,. The original 
reading, however, may have been nion, 

40/1136. myd ivyl, voluntarily. Extreme Unction is one of those 

Notes, rages 41-43, Lines 1137-1219. 191 

sacraments which were thought to require a free consent, not only the 
absence of repugnancy, on the part of the recipient, in order to render 
them effectual. The two others are, Penance and Matrimony. 

41/1137. Myd hy-letie of deuocioun, with devout faith. Hugo de St. 
Victore and Petr. Lombard, say : " iideliter et devote." Are we perhaps 
to write : myd by-letie and deuocioun ? 

41/1 142-3. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 899): "Sacramentum est 
ipsa unctio exterior." 

41/1143-48. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 677-8): "duplici ex 
causa sacramentum hoc institutum, et ad peccatorum scilicet remissionem, 
et ad corporalis infirmitatis allevationem (alleggaunce of euel), Unde 
constat quod qui banc unctionem iideliter et aevote percipit, per cam 
sine dubio et in corpore et in anima allevationem et consolationem 
accipere meretur, si tamen expedit ut in utroque allevetur. Quod si 
forte corporis sanitatem et valetudinem haberi illi non expedit, illam 
procul dubio quae est animae sanitatem et allevationem in huius unctionis 
perceptione acquirit." — Similarly Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 899). 

41/i 145. loutej lean, incline. — The absurdity of the insertion of o}>er 
dia\> after lyf is obvious from the following And hennes Jjoj he wende. 

The expression To lyf ^efhe schel loute is parallel to pe bodyes (end) j^at 
Uhhe mey, 39/ 1 105. 

41/1 1 53 ff. Cp. Thom. Aquin. IV. dist. xxiii. quaest. 2, art. 2, sol. 
3 : — "ad effectum huius sacramenti percipiendum plurimum valet devotio 
suscipientis . . . et ideo illis qui non possunt recognoscere, et cum 
devotione suscipere, hoc sacramentum non debet dari ; et praecipue 
furiosis et amentibus . . . nisi haberent lucida intervalla {Wane reles 
eome\> ammige) in quibus sacramenta recognoscerent, et sic ^is conferri in 
statu illo possent." — Ibid., sol. 4 : "hoc sacramentum exigit actualem 
devotionem in suscipiente, sicut Eucharistia : unde, sicut Eucharistia 
non debet dari pueris, ita nee hoc sacramentum." 

41/1167. * You had (= heard) it.' 

42/ 1 168. a lite her ahmte, viz. on 40/i 117. 

42/i 175-6. See note to I4/375. 

42/ 1 186. hidde\> may possibly be a substitute for hedep, offer. But 
there is no other trace of a similar confusion of the two verbs in Shoreham. 
So I should prefer taking pe sike man as dativus commodi. The words 
used at the unction are " verba deprecativa : " see Thom. Aquin, *Summ.' 
Suppl. p. iii. quaest. 22, art. 8 ; also iv. dist. xxiii. quaest. 1, art. 4, sol. 2. 

42/ 1 188. In mende, in remembrance. 

42/i 191-97. Cp. Thom. Aquin. *Snmm.' Suppl. p. iii. quaest. 32, 
art. 6: — "Ibi debet adhiberi remedium, ubi est maior vis morbi. ;Sed 
spiritualis morbus praecipue viget in viris in renibus, et in mulieribns 
in umbicilio, ut dicitur Job xl. 2 : * Fortitude eius in lumbis eius, et 
fortitude illius in umbicilio ventris eius,' secundum expositionem Gregorii 
(lib. xxxii. Moral., cap. xi.). Ergo ibi debet fieri inunctio." Also Append, 
ad Hugonis opera (Migne, 177, 127) ; — *' Lumbi a libidinis lascivia dicti, 
quia in viris causa corporeae voluptatis est, sicut in umbicilio feminis." 

fe hole, 1. 1193, means the Book of Job. 

43/1 199-1202. The Latin words are: "Per istam sanctam unctionem, 
et piissimam suam misericordiam, indulgeat tibi Dominus quidquid deli- 
quisti per visum," etc. 

43/1204. dre^en, O.E. dreo^an, bear, suffer. 

43/1209. ^'f^ ^^^^ (O.E. ];>eod), a mere expletive ; see note to 9/243. 

43/i2i9ff. Cp. Hrab. Mniirus (Migne, 112, 1167): "Sicut enim in 
veteri Testamento tribiis Levi prae caeteris tribubus peculiariter a 

ia2 NUes, rages 44-46, Lines 1232-1281. 

Domino electa est ad serviendum illi per diversa officia in tabemacnio : 
ita et clericus ordo specialiter electus est ad ministrandum Deo in vero 
Dei tabemaculo, quod est Ecclesia praesens." 

44/1232. schryue, take care of, mind ; cp. 39/io8i. 

44/1233 ff. CI Petr. Lombard, (Migne, 192, 900): "Septem sunt 
spirituulium officiorum gradus sive urdmes, sicut . . • et capitis nostri, 
soil. lesu Christi exemplo monstratur, qui omnium officia in semet ipso 
exhibnit . . . Septem autem sunt propter septiformem gratiam sancti 
Spiritus." See also Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 425). 

44/1242-3. cmdurement A^enys \>e fmde \>\phge: the same expression 
occurs on 47/1326-7. 

44/1245. The line as it stands, with its five stresses, is too long. But 
in my opinion there can be little doubt that the words \>efer}pe were meant 
by the author to form the bob-verse of the stanza, and that we, accord- 
ingly, shall have to read : 

p6 ynjdde hys (ideped) coniurement 
A^enys fe foiUe \^ynge ; 
]>e fer\>e 
Acoli/t hys to segge y-ivijs, 
Tapres to here wel werpe (MS. ivo^'pe), 

45/1254 ff. The true explanation of this stanza was given by Zupitza 
in the *Zeitschrift fiir osterreich. Gyranasien,' 1875, p. 129 : * In the Syna- 
gogue of the Old Testament God caused the orders to be made first; 
and that was a shadow (sched) of what is made light now in the Holy 
Church ; at the same time {itiere) I shall tell how it was there,' etc It 
was Zupitza, too, who suggested the reading woi^t instead of wryt in 1. 
1257, which I have only thought it necessary to alter into wroity or 
yivro{u):^t, these being the two forms actually occurring in Shoreham. 
Besides, I would ask whether we had not better omit the word lawe 
in 1. 1254? Very likely, the often recurring phrase ine }pe e{a)lde laux 
fiitted across the scribe's head as he was copying out ine )pe dde, and 
so he went the whole length of it, quite regardless of the following 

45/1261 ff. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 901): "Ostiarii iidem et 
ianitores sunt, qui in veteri Testamento electi sunt ad custodiara Templi, 
ut non ingrederetur in illud immundus." 

45/1270. helpe, to help: a necessary correction of helfe; cp. 46/1300- 
2 : Fo^'-hede o\>eren to reden schal me no^t, Ac soffry hyt for nede, 

45/1275 ff. ^®^^' Lombard. (Migne, 192, 901): " unde eis, cum ordi- 
nantur, claves Ecclesiae dantur ab episcopo, et dicitur eis : Sic agite 
tamquam rationem Deo reddituri pro rebus quae clavibus istis reclu- 

46/1277. dope]), the reading of the MS., is an impossible form. 
Wiilker's remark (* AE. Lesebuch,' I. 136) that it may perhaps be a new 
formation like hiiSo7i in the * Durham Book,' or sttndei in * Layamon,' to 
distinguish the singular from the plural, does not apply to the Kt. dialect, 
where the singular is regularly de)?, the plural do\>, 

46/1279. T^*® subject ^e is to be supplied from the preceding line. 

46/1281. I have proposed to alter hardy sb into hard ys, translating : — 
*That is hard, whosoever felt it.' The sentence, as I understand it, is 
meant to express the poet's sentiment on the heavy responsibility laid 
upon the ostiary by the preceding injunction of the ordaining bishop. 
As felde U^^elde] cannot be anything but the pret. subjunct. either of 
felen = O.E. fela^i, or Kt. felen = O.E. (W.S.) fylan, which is out of the 
question here, Wiilker's translation, — " Sehr verwegen (hardyst) ist (the 

Notes, Pages 46-47, Lines 1282-1330. 193 

Terb to be supplied), wer dies zii Grunde gcben liess " {felde from fellen)^ 
must be wrong. 

46/1282 ff. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 901) : " Hoc officium Dominus 
in sua persona suscepit, quando flagello de funiculis facto vendentes et 
cmentes eiecit de templo." 

46/1293. ^y «x>fcfce, by the week. The ryme woken [: hy-loukeii] 
occurs 118/ 109-10. 

46/1295. Hy refers to nrophesyCy 1. 1292, which is probably accus. 
plur. Tlie reading of the MS., By rede^ makes no sense. 

46/1299. ham aueye of^ to inform themselves of, acquaint themselves 
"with (the sense of wliat they read). Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 
176, 424): "Hi quidem, qui ad hunc gradum promoventur, litterarum 
scientia debent esse instructi, ut eorum quae legunt sensum intelligant." 

47/1307. Wet wielle. I am unable to guess what welle can possibly 
mean here. The Latin text which the poet is likely to have followed 
does not throw much light on it either. It runs thus, according to Hugo 
de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 424): " Hoc officium Dominus in propria persona 
ostendit, quando in medio seniorum librum Isaiae prophetae aperiens dis- 
tincte ad intelligendum legit.*' — If I were to venture on a conjecture, I would 
suggest tliat we may read : Wet? dwdle .', taking the phrase as a kind 
of interposition : * Stop now I What was it he read ? * to which the 
answer is given in the following lines : * What he read there, you may see 
in the Gospel of St. Luke.' Or should weUe be miswritten for uelle: *what 
might fall, chnnce to turn up ' (when he opened the book) V 

47/i3ioff. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 901): "Unde ei . . . traditur 
ab episcopo codex divinarum lectionum, et dicitur : Accipe, et esto verbi 
Dei relator, habiturus, si fideliter impleveris officium, partem cum his qui 
bene verbum Dei ministraverunt." 

47/1313 ; *' lector verbi quod Deo redolet." 

47/1322-3. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 902): "Debet autem habere 
spiritum mundum qui spiritibus immundis imperat." 

47/1328-30. The Latin words used by the ordaining bishop are : 
" Accipite (soil, librum exorcismorum), et habetote potestatem imponendi 
manus super energumenos, sive catechumenos." It is clear, therefore, 
that what we read in line 1330, Ouer ham ]>at fendes op higge\>, must 
have been intended to render the sense of "super energumenos (sive 
catechuipenos)." But, what is higge\> ? Wtilker connects it with he:^en^ 
hu^en (O.E. bemn, hy^an), and translates : " diejenigen, welche die Teufel 
aufbiegen (opbigge]>)^ i. e. antreiben,'* which he thinks is meant of the 
convulsive tits of the possessed. This is, of course, quite impossible. 
Vamhagen (*Anglia* iv., 204) rightly considers op as a preposition belong- 
ing to paii, and takes bigge]> in its usual sense of * dwell.' Accordingly, he 
translates : " Nehniet bin die Macht, die Hand denen aufzulegen, auf 
welchen die Teufel wohnen." But this, I believe, is equally impossible, 
because bigge])^ with its stopt g (from ON. byggja)y makes no ryme with 
8egge\> (or sigge^, as the Kt. form is)— even if it could be proved that the 
Northern verb Inggen was used at all in Southern M.EL I should, there- 
fore, propose to write UggeY instead of bigge\>, which would perfectly 
satisfy the demands of ryme, and, at the same time, make at least as 
good sense as bigge\> — hy \>at fendes op ligge\> being an almost literal 
translation of the Latin ^''obaessV^ But there still remains another 
difficulty with regard to segge]> or sigge]), which ought to be 3rd sing, 
indie, prs. I do not renien^ber having ever read sigge\> instead of say]^, 
zay\>, sey]> in any Kt. writer (Vamhagen cites one instance of segge^ 
as sing, from * Layamon ') ; yet I suspect we shall simply have to take 


194 Notes. Pages 47-49, Lines 1331-1369. 

it for what it was apparently meant. Perliaps we might refer to the 
form ligge\> in the following passage, 60/ 1678-80 : Home Me wedde\> 
suyche^ aiid ligge\> so For \>an itu hordome. Here, too, the exigence of the 
metre seems to have caused the substitution of the expanded form ligge\> 
for the usual Ztj>, the indefinite me being, as a rule, followed by a verb in 
the singular. Only w^e cannot feel quite sure, considering the habitual 
carelessness of the scribe, if the author himself did not write men instead 
of me, so that ligge]> may really have been intended for the plural. 

47/1331 ff. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192 902): " Hoc etiam officio usus 
est Christus, cum daemoniacos multos sanavit. Hie ordo a Salomone 
videtur descendisse, qui quendam modum exorcizandi invenit, quo dae- 
mones adiurati ex obsessis corporibus pellebantur." 

In eastern (Jewish and Arabic) tradition King Solomon was credited 
with great skill in magic arts ; see Dr. W. Smith, * Dictionary of tlie 
Bible,' 8. V. Solomon. Christian pilgrims visiting the holy places were 
shown the magic seal-ring by which he had obtained power over the evil 
spirits ; and in the middle ages, SoIonu)n'8 fight with demons became the 
subject of a vast cycle of legends. See also * Archiv f. d. Studium d. n. 
Sprachen u. Litteraturen,' cviii. 131. 

48/1335. apryse (for en-empryse)y enterprise, "undertaking. 

48/1339. Varnhagen's conjecture is corroborated by what we read in 
Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 425) : " Quarto loco succedunt acoly- 
thi, qui Latine dicuntur ceroferarii, quia accensos cereos deferunt, dum 
legitur evangelium, vel dum offertur sacrificium." 

48/1342-44. Petr. Lombard (Migne, 192, 902): "ut sub typo luminis 
corporalis ilia lux ostendatnr, de qua legitur, Joan. 1 i^Erat hix vera^ quae 
illuminat omnem, how.i7iem venientem in huiic mmndum,.^^ 

48/1347. lokke, in the awkward spelling of the scribe, stands for loke 
or loky; O.^. locian, to look after: "Ad acolythum pertinet praeparatio 
luminarium in sacrario" (Petr. Lombard., Migne, 192, 902). M.E. loken 
(from O.N. loka), to lock, is out of the question here, because the locking 
up of tlie church-lights does not form part of the duties of an acolyte. 

48/1349. Wiilker rightly saw that synge must be a verb, only he is 
wrong in translating it: "um diircli eiii Sinnbild anzudeuten." The 
true meaning is * to bless, consecrate ' (scil. tvytie and water), as appears 
from Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 425) : " Hi cum ordinantur, post- 
quam edocti fuerint ab episcopo qualiter in officio suo agere debeant . . . 
accipiunt et urceolum vacuum ad infundendum vinum in calicem, quo con- 
secrandus est sanguis Christi." See also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 902) : 
" Ipse (scil. acolytus) cereum portat, ipse urceolum cum vino et aqua 
suggesta pro Eucharistia subdiaconis praeparat." The spelling synge is 
peculiar. It ought probably to be syngne. What the ng seems to indi- 
cate may either be fronted n, or nasalized g, according to the common 
pronunciation of such Latin words as digniis, magmts, signum, etc. Cp. 
the spellings ingnel, * Ayenb.' 141 ; liiigne, ib. 160 ; diiig^netej ib. 215, 227, 
233 ; dyngnelyche, ib, 266, 267 ; or marufnUs, dingwiis, etc., in the Latin 
orthography of the period. At any rate, the ryme si/ngf[n]e [: hry^ige\ is 
only imperfect. 

48/1354. " Ego sum lux mundi ; qui sequitur me non ambulat in tene- 
bris, sed habebit lumen vitae" (St. John viii. 12). 

49/1359 ff.. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 902): " Huius officii formam 
illi gerebant in veteri Testamento, qui lucernas candelabri componebant 
et accendebant igne coelesti, ad illmninandas tenebras aquilonares." 

49/1365. See Exod. xxv. 31-39 ; xxxvii. 17-24. 

49/1367-9. Zupitza's emendation enioyne]> [: cUoyne]^] is convincing; 

Notes. Page 49, Lines 1370-1S85. 195 

cf. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 426) : ** Isti (scil. subdiaconi) sub- 
serviunt levitis, et vasa corporis et sanguinis Christi ipsis ad altare 
deferunt (bereW et iterum referunt {almfn^)^ Ibid. 177, 425 ; "Quinto 
loco ordinantur subdiaconi, qui ministerio altaris approximant . . . Undo 
lex continentiae imponitur illis." 

49^/1370-1. welde^ al hare: the subdeacons touch the holy vessels 
(chalice and paten) with bare hands, which the acolytes are not permitted 
to do. Cp. Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 177, 425): ** Hoc autera de lege 
veteri Bumptuin videtur, ubi praecipitur ut filii Caath vasa sanctuarii a 
filiis Aaron prius involuta accipiant^ et non tangant ea nuda, ne 

49/ 1 37 1-2. The corpermis (corporal, corporas) is a cloth of pure linen, 
usually starched, on which the elements are placed during the celebration 
of the mass. It is of moderate size, and as long as the chalice is covered, 
the corporal is folded together and put in a square case ijbursa) that rests 
on the top of the chalice. At high mass, when the celebrant is assisted 
by the deacon, subdeacon, and other attendants, the subdeacon- has to 
carry the chalice properly dressed to the altar, or to a side-table (" cre- 
dentia"). There it remains till the beginning of the offertory, when the 
deacon takes the corporal out of the burse, unfojds it, and spreads it on 
the altar ; then uncovers the chalice and places it, together with the paten 
and host, on the outspread corporal. If the chalice had been put on the 
side-table, the subdeacon has to take it to the altar, while the deacon 
fetches the burse with the corporal. After the communion, the subdeacon 
folds up the corporal, cleanses and dresses the chalice in the proper way, 
and places it, covered with veil and burse, on the altar or on the side- 
table, thence to carry it into the vestry when the mass is over. The sense 
then of the words pe sudeakne . . uealde]f fe corperaus is clear enough. 
Only I do not quite understand what onder ]>e deakne means. Is it * under 
the superin tendance of the deacon ? ' — the purely local meaning of the 
prepos. onder being, of course, out of the question here. But the folding 
of the corporal by the subdeacon is not, as far as I am aware, particularly 
superintended by the deacon. What seems to me more probable, there- 
fore, is, that the poet merely intended to convey the general notion, with 
no view to any particular case, that the subdeacon is subordinate to the 
deacon. This is what the very name of subdeacon implies, as is often 
expressly stated by ecclesiastical writers ; e. g. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 
192, 902) : " Graece hypodiacones vocantur quos nos subdiacones dicimus, 
qui ideo sic appellantur, quia subjacent praeceptis et officiis Levitarum." 

49/1373-76. "Mundamini qui fertis vasa Domini" (Isaiah Hi. 11). — 
hensy^ sanctify, purify. 

49/1381. hare here probably means 'empty.' Cp. Petr. Lombard. 
(Migne, 192, 903) : ** Hi, cum ordinantur, accipiunt de nianu episcopi 
patenam et calicem vacuum; ab archidiacono vero urceolum (a croicet) 
cum aquamanili, et manutergium " (a towoAjlle nare). — nare = O.E. nearu^ 
narrow. — lucre, together with it. Wright has printed xuire and Inere, 
The correction is by Zupitza (*Zeitschr. fur osterr. Gymn.' 1875, p. 129). 

49/1385. I am rather sceptical as to honden being used here in the old 
instrumental sense, though it can hardly be otherwise if helde really means 
* to hold ' (O.E. healdan). But may we not take hdde in the sense of * to 
pour out' (see N. E. D. s. v. hield, v. 7), and refer the relative clause ]>a^ 
servsp to J>e autere in 1. 1386 to the preceding honden, which in this case 
may very well be dative plur, ? That the pouring out of water for those 
who officiate at the altar to wash their hands in, does pertain to the office 
of the subdeacon, we may learn from Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 

196 Notes, Pages 50-51, Lines 1389-1422. 

426) : . . " urceum quoque et aquam, manile et manutergium tenere, et 
levitis pro lavandis manibus ante altare aquam praebere (debent) "... 
*' De manu vero archidiaconi (accipiunt) urceolum cum aqua, manile seu 
mantile, et manutergium, quibus mundare debent manus sacerdos et 
levita tractaturi divina sacramenta." See also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 
192, 903). 

50/1389. The verb, probably Iceste, as I have suggested, is indispens- 
able. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 426) : ** Hoc officio usus est 
Dominus, quando facta coena cum discipulis linteo {wy^p a schete) se 
praecinxit, et mittens aquam in pelvim pedes discipulorum lavit (et linteo 

50/1393. lesschte (/oi'fe) is said of the institution of the order. Wiilker 
(A.E. Lesebuch I, 137) translates : " Jesus . . erlaubte (allowed) diesen 
Orden fur die Zukunft (for the future), fiirderhin," connecting lesschte 
with O.Fr. lesser. The latter may possibly be right, though I should 
prefer translating lesschte f(yr]fe by — * let (go) forth, sent forth ; ' for which 
we may compare 76/2158-61 : 

]fese sacrementis, 'pat were ischetfram alle men^ 
Wat god hymself out sent hys To townne, 
50/1394. There is also a symbolical reason for assigning to the order 
of deacon the sixth place. This, we are told, is the mystical signification 
of the number, which is said to be * perfection.' See Hugo de St. Victore 
(Migne, 176, 426) : "• Diaconorum ordo sexto sequitur loco, non sine aliquo 
senarii mysterio, in quo propter perfectionem sui significatur operura per- 
fectio." Also Migne, 177, 350 : " Sexto loco succedunt diaconi, non sine 
mysterio senarii, qui numerus perfectionem significat." 

50/1402. hoche, O.Fr. htiche (hutica), ''cista, area." J)e hoche of holy 
crefte, the ark of holy power = the ark of the covenant. 

50/1403-7. Cp. Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 426): ^'diaconis 
super sinistrum humerum stola ponitur . . . quia quidquid laboris et sus- 
tinentiae in hac vita toleramus, tamquam in sinistra portamus, donee in 
dextera, hoc est in aetemitate, requiem habeamus." 

51/1419. The expression )?e "pridde suggests that there were two other 
manifestations, beside the one mentioned in 11. 1420-21, of Christ's holding 
the office of deacon. One of them, i, e, the second, was when he preached 
to the people (II. 1417-18). Consequently, the first must be sought for in 
the words — Ine hys trauayle, 1. 1416 ; and this, I believe, refers to what 
has been said of the deacon above, in II. 1403-7, namely, that he gets the 
stole put over his left shoulder, to remind him of the hardships he has to 
bear in this present life, that for ]fane traiiaylle her he may gain J>6 ry^t 
half in heaven. In the same manner, Christ's preaching to the people, 
and the arousing of the apostles from sleep, have their parallels in the 
functions of the deacon set forth in 11. 1410-11 and 1412-14. It woiM, 
perhaps, conduce to a better discrimination of the points enumerated, if 
we were to add and before po he prechinde, etc., in 1. 1417, to which I see 
at least no metrical obstacle. 

wahede^ 1. 1420, is of course transitive = * aroused the apostles ; ' fo^* to 
hydde, that they should pray. Cp. 76/2 186 if. : per hijs apostles leye Step- 
ynde, ]>o fat he ham bed Aryse for to preye Amonge, See aloo Hugo ae 
St. Victore (Migne, 176, 428) : *' Hoc otificio usus est Dominus . . . quando 
apostolos dormitantes ad oration em incitavit," etc. 

51/1422 ft, Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 428): "Septirao loco 
sequitur ordo presbyterorum. Presbyteri auteui interpretantur seuiores^ 
quia seniores Graeci presbyteros vocant. Debent enim presbyteri seniores 
esse in populo Dei; non tantum aetate corporis, quantum prudentia 

Notes. Page 51, Lines 1430-1436. 197 

niorum, et maturitate bonae conversationis, siciit scriptiim est : Senecttis 
venerabUis esty non dintnma, tieqiie amionim numero comp^itata, Cani 
enim siint se^is^is hominumy et aetas senectntis vita iwmacnlata (Sap. IV)." 

51/1430. grt/«c, guise, custoni, practice. 

51/1432. a croivche wyse^ crosswise. This is undoubtedly the true 
reading, as appears from the description of the ceremony in the Ponti- 
ficale Romanum (Daniel, 'Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae universae,' I. p. 
240) : *' Dicto primo versu hymni (scil. '* Veni creator") surgit Pontifex et 
sedet in faldisterio. Singuli ordinandi coram eo genua flectunt, et P. cum 
oleo catechumenorum inungit unicuique ambas inamis simvl iunctas in 
modum crv4ii8, producendo cum pollice suo dextro in dictum oleum intinc- 
to duas lineas, videlicet a pollice dextrae manus usque ad indicem sinis- 
trae, et a pollice sinistrae usque ad indicem dextrae, ungendo mox totaliter 
palmas," etc. 

51/1436. If hdye means anything, it must be oil {ele, elt). It is indeed 
possible that whoever wrote this and the following line may have thought 
of the unction of the hands of the priest as described in the passage cited 
above : " Pontifex cum oleo catechumenorum inungit ambas manus simul 
iunctas." This is what Wiilker assumes when he translates : '* Er nimnit 
das Oel auf der inneren Flache beider Hande, die anf der Brust zusam- 
mengefaltet sind." He adds, however, — "/uiZ/ diirfte wohl in hund zu 
andern sein ; denn die Hande des Presbyters werden nur auf der inneren 
Seite, nicht auf beiden Seiten gesalbt." But would not ct/fer hcmd yioyned 
(Me breste be a rather awkward expression ? If there is anything corrupt 
in the line, as I do believe there is, I suspect it is not halfj but hdye inne. 
In the first place, the line as it stands is too long. Secondly, what is of 
greater moment, the words — ))«< Ho god hap ne he^i hyne, etc., in 1. 1438 if. 
do not at all apply to the signification commonly attached to the unction, 
but they evidently relate to the ceremony of vesting the priest with the 
stole. When after the invocation of the Holy Spirit at the ordination the 
hands of the presbyter have been anointed, he receives the stole, which is 
a narrow scaif coming down to the knees, usually widened and fringed at 
the ends, and having a cross embroidered on it at the middle and at each 
extremity. It is laid over both his shoulders (of eylper half = on either 
side), the two strips being crossed upon the breast (yioyned atte breste), 
and secured by the girdle (^'cingulum**). The symbolical meaning 
assigned to this peculiar mode of the presbyter's wearing the stole is 
often mentioned by ecclesiastical writers ; see, for instance, Hugo de St. 
Victore (Migne, 175, 429): "Hi (sc, presbyteri) post invocationem S. 
Spiritus stolam super utrumque humerum accipiunt, quae in modum sus- 
tentaculorum dextrum latus munit et sinistrum, ut ex hoc intelligant se 
per arma iustitiae a dextris et sinistris esse munitos, ut eos nee adversa 
frangant, nee prospera extoUant.'* The right side was generally associated 
with the idea of prosperity, the left side with that of adversity ; e. g. in 
* Ayenbite,' p. 151 : Eftervxvrd he prouep ofte his work mid lead; \wr he 
nim)^ hede "pet his toit/r ne hongi ne stoiipiy ne ari^thalf be prosperite^ 
ne (defthalf be adiversite. See also Shoreham, 50/ 1404-7. Now, we can 
hardly fail to notice the very close resemblance between the words — 
J>6t no god hep ne h^yi hifne, Ne non harm hyne don ( = down) deste In 
modej and those quoted above from Hugo de St. Victore, — **ut eos nee 
adversa frangant, nee prospera extollant." Hence we are necessarily led 
to conclude that the reference, too, must have been to the same thing in 
both writers; and consequently, that the substitution of stole for helye 
inne^ forcible as it may seem, is unavoidable. 

deste^ by the way, cannot be the preterite of daschen^ as KSlbing will 

198 Notes, Pages 51-53, Lines 1441-1484. 

have it (*Arthour and Merlin,' Ivi, footnote). It is pres. subjunct. of 
desten^ which, if compared with the Sth. M.E. dusteriy would seem to point 
to an earlier form *dystan ; see also N. E. D., s. v. dustj v. 2. 

51/1441. Construe: Ac Qfet he) "penche on hym^ etc., ?i6 to be under- 
stood from the preceding oblique case hyne. It is not improbable that 
the two lines 1441-2 contain an allusion to the crossing of the stole upon 
the breast. If so, we have another corroboration of the conjectured read- 
ing stole in 1. 14.S6. 

62/1444. hrede is accus. sing., governed by tak\ ; but the true reading 
is pernaps hredes ; see the passage from Petr. Lombard, in the next note. 

52/1446-7. Translate: *And trust well {trewe, imperat, from treotma/n) 
that there is a sign thereof,* — signe to be taken in the sense of * prefigura- 
tion ' (viz. in the Old Testament) ; l^ro/", i. e. of his power to sacry hyt. 
This makes tolerable sense. Still, we are not told what the aeyne is, and 
besides, the position of ];>er is certainly not the usual one in an affirmative 
sentence. Considering, moreover, that the poet probably had before bim 
the following Latin passage which Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 904) 
quotes from Isidor. Hispalensis : " Accipiunt etiam calicem cum vino, 
et patenam cum hostiis {bredes? so also Hugo de St. Victore), ut per hoc 
sciant se accepisse potestatera placabiles Deo hostias offerendi," — one is 
strongly tempted to suggest the very slight alteration of J?er into )>e, 
which would bring the meaning of the line pretty close to the Latin 
quotation : — 'And that (i. e. the taking of the chalice with the wine, etc.) 
is the true (trewe) sign liereof ' (i. e. of his having received the power 01 

52/1450-56. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 429) : *; Hoc officio 
usus est Dominus, quando post coenam panem et vinum in corpus et 
sanguinem suum commutavit , , . Hoc quoque excellenter officium implens 
exhibuit, quando ipse sacerdos et hostia seipsum in ara crucis propter 
peccata generis humani obtulit." 

52/1457. The meaning of crounebet is perfectly clear, it being inter- 
pretea in 1. 1460 by ]>efurste scherynge^ — " prima tonsura." But I doubt 
whether such a word as croiitiebet exists ; at least, I have not found it 
recorded anywhere else. It is probably due to an error of the scribe, and 
ought, perhaps, to be crounement, answering to Latin " coronatio," which 
is used in the sense of * tonsure,' e. g. by Thorn. Aquin. IV. dist. xxiv., 
quaest. 3, art. 1, quaestiunc. 2. 

In the footnote, I have suggested that we may read to J^yse ordresj 
instead of to \>ys ordre, because the tonsure cannot properly be called a 
preparation {an apparyllynge ; see N. E. D. s. v. apparelling) for this, i. e. 
the presbyter's order only, considering that, as a sign of the entrance into 
the state of a cleric, it has to be received before any one can be promoted 
to any of the seven orders, the minor as well as the holy ones. See 
Notae in S. Gregorii Lib. Sacrament. (Migne, 78, 436). Thom. Aquin. 
therefore calls it " praeambulum ad ordinem." An apparyllynge to ordre 
would express the same meaning, while to \>y8 wdre is apt to convey a 
wrong notion. 

53/1476-7. The idea that the clerics (for their continence in the 
present life?) shall be married {xfmarisscked) in heaven, seems rather 
odd, especially when we remember that those of the minor orders are by 
no means condemned to * single blessedness ' on earth. I should propose 
to read ywarissched^ if it could only be shown that the verb was ever 
used in the sense of * to reward,' corresponding to the signification * gift, 
donation ' of the substant. tvarison in M.E. 

53/1482-4. According to Wiilker (A. E. Leseb. I. p. 138) sedder is 

Notes. Page 53, Lines 1482-4. 199 

tlie compar. of sid^ meaning "weit^r, ausfulirlicber, dentlicher" (more 
expressly); and breddour or hredder, as the ryme requires, is the 
comparat. of hrod, O.E. brad. This may be true, so far as hredder is 
concerned (cf. O.E. brcedra). But there is evidently something amiss in 
the lines as they have been transmitted by the scribe. Thus much only 
seems to be clear, that here, as in the preceding lines, the reference is to 
the clerical tonsure. — The proper shape of the tonsure in the Romish 
Church was that which the fourth Council of Toledo, a.d. 633, had 
proscribed, and which is still retained by the members of several monastic 
orders bound to strict observances. Canon 41 of the said Council runs as 
follows : — " Omnes clerici vel lectores, sicut levitae et sacerdotes, detonso 
superius capite, inferius solam circuli coronam relinquant : non sicut hue 
usque in Galliciae partibus facere lectores videntur, qui prolixis, ut laici, 
comis in solo capitis apice modicum circulum tondent. Kitns enim iste 
in Hispania hue usque haereticorum fuit . . . Qui autem hoc non custo- 
dierit, fidei catholicae reus erit." 

Subsequent Councils issued numerous decrees to the same effect, 
enjoining clerics to wear tonsures of appropriate shape and size, and not 
to let their hair grow, but to clip it so as to leave the ears bare — "ut 
pateant aures;" "usque ad patentes anres;'* "usque ad revelationem 
sensuum, id est, oculorum et aurium " (Hugo de St. Victore), as the 
phrases run. pe croune of dei'ke y-opened hysy in Shoreham, 1« 1478, 
^probably means the same thing. Of ecclesiastical meetings held not 
very long before, or about, the time of the poet, which have dealt with 
the subject, 1 mention only: the Synod of Worcester, a.d. 1240, cap. 
21 ; the Councils of London, a.d. 1268, cap. 5, and of Salzburg, a.d. 
1274, cap. 11 ; the Synod of Exeter, a.d. 1287, cap. 17; the Council of 
llavenna, A.D. 1314 and 1318. 

Ecclesiastical authorities generally speak of a twofold signification of 
the tonsure — (1.) in respect of its circular form : the corona is a symbol 
of the royal dignity of the cleric, as the minister of God ; for, according 
to S. Gregory, "servire Deo regnare est;" (2.) with regard to the 
removal of the hair, by shaving the top of the head and clipping the hair 
around the ears : this signifies that the mind of the cleric shall be 
unveiled towards God (the hair being given for a covering, 1 Corinth, 
xi.), and that he shall dismiss all worldly thoughts and occupations. 
See, for instance, Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 421) ; Petr. 
Lombardus (Migne, 192, 901) ; Thorn. Aquin., IV. dist. xxiv., quaest. 3, 
art. 1, sol. 1. Also the statutes of the Council of London, A.D. 1268, 
cap., 5 : — " Statuimus et districte praecipimus, ut clerici . . . coronas 
habeant probanda latitudine condecentes, in quibus depositio terre- 
norum, et regalis sacerdotis dignitas designatur ; " and the Council of 
Kavenna, a.d. 1314 ; "Clerici coronam condecentem portent, per quam 
designentur regalis esse generis, et sperare se assequi debere partem 
haereditatis divinae." Shoreham says, 11. 1478-9 : pe croune of clerke 
y-opened hys^ Tokne\> \>e wyl to heuens, etc. This is one signification of 
tlie tonsure : v?yl to he^iene means renunciation of worldliness, " depositio 
terrenorum." Should we not expect, then, to find, also in Shoreham, 
some allusion to the corona being a sign of the royal dignity appertain- 
ing to God's minister ? But nothing of the kind can be elicited, 1 believe, 
from the text as presented by the MS. 

It will be remembered that the Council of Toledo, in prescribing a 
certain form of the tonsure, strictly enjoins that it shall be worn by all 
clerics, whether of the lower or the higher orders ; and the same 
injunction was made by the Council of London as late as 1268 : 

200 Notes. Page 53, Lines 1490-1496. 

"StatuimuB et districte praecipimiis, ut clerici aniversi . . . aures 
patentee, crinibus non coopertas, et coronas habeant probanda latitudine 
condecentes." It appears, however, that the practice of shaving only a 
small circle on the crown, which had been condemned as heretical by the 
Council of Toledo, must have gradually crept in among the lower clergy 
(as indeed it has afterwards become universal with the seculars, even 
those in holy orders) ; and that the size of the tonsure was made a mark 
of distinction between the different orders. This is proved by the canons 
of the Councils of Salzburg (1274) and Ravenna (1314-18). The former, 
in prohibiting clerics to let their hair grow, seem to make a difference 
between "sacerdotes " and "clerici inferioris ordinis:" — "Edicto perpetuo 
prohibemus, ne clerici coiuam nutriant, max.inie sacerdotes, qui taliter 
tondeantur, ut pateant eis aures ; caeteri inferioris ordinis clerici in 
tonsura non multuin discrepent ab eisdem." The Council of Ravenna 
prescribed that those who were in holy orders, or bene6ciaries of 
cathedral and collegiate churches, should wear a wider corona, conceding 
to others one of medium or smaller size, according to their several 
stations : ** Clerici . . . coronam condecentem portent . . . ; quae scilicet 
sit rotunda, et ita tonsi sint inferius, quod aures pateant : ita quod, si in 
sacris fuerint, aut beneficiati in ecclesia cathedrali vel collegiata venerabili, 
secundum condecentiam sui status portent latiorem, alii vero mediocreui 
vel minorem, suis statibus condecentem." This expression, '^ coronam UUio- 
r&m'^ puts one in mind of Shoreham's phrase ]>e croane hreddoiir (or 
breddevy as the original form may have been) ; and the words — cLse he in 
ordre aryst point exactly the same way. So I guess that what the poet 
meant to express here is simply this, that the tonsure of a cleric is to be 
the wider, the higher the order to which he is promoted. Still, 1 do not 
quite comprehend the context of the whole passage from 1. 1478 onwards. 
Is the larger size of the tonsure of the higher clergy also symbolized by 
pe croune of derke being ^^y-opened^^ as the words And gedder toknep 
seem to suggest (whatever sedder may mean) ? Again, what connection 
is there between these lines and the following ones (11. 1485-6) ; f>er 
d/rof hischop hys dignete To maky \mlke sen/ene? — drof (exercised, 
practised) hys dignete is, moreover, a rather awkward expression. — And 
hyt hy-tokne\> \ane hissckop, etc. — What is it that betokens? I strongly 
suspect that the scribe has made here a sad confusion ; but I see no way 
to a possible emendation. 

53/1490. was = hiuis, whose. 

53/1492-6. Wiilker translates: "Deshalb (wegen der hohen Wiirde, 
die dem Priesterstande zukomiiit) sollen die Ordensgeistlichen nach dem 
ausseren Zeichen desselben, nach der Tonsur verlangen." In my *Beitrage 
zur Erklarung und Textkritik des William von Schorham' I have shown 
that this interpretation of the passage cannot be accepted, ordres here 
does not mean the monastic orders or the regular clergy (" die Ordens- 
geistlichen '^) ; and longi to \yys sacremenb must not be translated — ' to long 
for the outward sign (jsacremenb) of priesthood, i.e. the tonsure.' There 
is no sacrament of the tonsure, at least not in the theological system to 
which our author adheres (see Thom. Aquin. * Summ. Supplem.' p. iii., 
quaest 40, art. 2). Besides, it would be difficult to prove that in the 14th 
century the simple instrumental \>y was still used in the sense of 
* therefore, for this reason' (**deshalb"), as Wiilker translates, taking 
J>i/J>e ordres to be meant for \>y ]>e ordres. I still hold that )?y)?c is simply 
a clerical error for \yyse (for other instances of the same confusion of s and 
\>, see note to 22/599). Accordingly, I translate : * These orders shall 
belong of right to tliis sacrament.' 

Notes. Page 53, Lines 1492-6. 201 

The number of the orders that constitute the sacrament of ordination has 
been up to the present day a matter of controversy. William, in accord- 
ance with the received doctrine of his time, enumerates seven orders, 
from the door-keeper upwards to the mass-priest. Tlie difference is only, 
that formerly all the seven orders, the minor as well as the holy ones, 
were thought to partake of the sacramental character (" Et dicuntur hi 
ordines sacramenta," Petr. Lombard.), while the minor orders are now 
relegated to the rank of what are called *' sacramentalia." The order 
of priesthood, then, was regarded as the highest, and the episcopate, 
with its different branches of bishop, archbishop, metropolitan, primate, 
patriarch, and high pontiff, was considered to be, not a separate order, 
but a dignity and an office conferred upon certain persons in sacerdotal, 
or at least in one of the holy, orders. So by Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 
176, 423), and Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 904). Other clerical offices 
which are not orders in the sacramental sense are, for instance, those of 
the archipresbyter, the archidiaconus, the primicerius, the thesanrarius, 
etc. (see Hugo de St. Victore Migne, 176, 461). — Thom. Aquin. Q Summ. 
Supplem.' p. iii., quaest. 40, art. 5), in discussing the question whether 
the episcopate be an order, says : "Ordo potest accipi dupliciter. Uno 
modo secundum quod est sacramentum : et sic, ut prius dictum est, 
ordinatur omnis ordo ad Eucharistiae sacramentum. Unde cum episcopus 
non habeat potestatem superiorem sacerdote, quantum ad hoc episcopatus 
non erit ordo (episcopatus non est ordo secundum quod ordo est sacra- 
mentum). Alio modo potest considerari ordo secundum quod est officium 
quoddam respectu quarundam actionum sacrarum : et sic, cum episcopus 
habeat potestatem in actioTiibus hierarchicis respectu corporis mystici 
supra sacerdotem, episcopatus erit ordo.'* It is in this sense that Petr. 
Lombard. (Migne, 192. 905) speaks of an episcopal order (" Ordo autem 
episcoporum quadripartitus est"). 

I should not have mentioned these particulars, but that they may 
perhaps give us some clue to the explanation of 11. 1494-96 : And \>ai 
mo he \>at gode he\> \>e8 make\> al \>at fcHle Be astentcj which Wiilker (A. E. 
Leseb. I. 138) interprets as follows : " Die Geistlichen sollen wiinschen 
und dahin arbeiten (endeavour), dass mehr werde des, das gut ist (that 
there may be more of what is good), und dass alles Siindige, Torrichte, 
gehindert, vernichtet werde" (that all that is sinful, foolish, may be 
stinted, destroyed). I need scarcely say, however, that it will never do 
to render \>at mo be \>at gode he]> by — * that there may be more of what is 
good,' rrio^ gode, he]> being plurals. Nor must foUe be confounded with 
the noun fdlie, folly, as appears to have been done by Wiilker. Matzner 
(Ae. Sprachproben, I. 263, footnote to 1. 182) considers fclle to be the 
preterite of faUen, of which there are indeed several instances to be found 
in Shoreham ; even the ryme follel: schoUe] occurs on 121/i8i-2. Only 
I do not see that the meaning of trie passage here would be any clearer 
for it. If 1 may venture to offer another explanation, I suggest, in the 
first place, that we may take \)at foLle as a noun, corresponding to Mn.E. 
*.the full,' the whole, the total; we have it also on 6I/1708 : 'prmve to \>e 
foUe [: schdlXe']. Considering further that amd \>at is frequently miswritten 
in our MS. for and j^a^, I propose to read : And \)ai mo he ]>at gode he\>. 
The whole passage then, as 1 understand it, may be translated : * These 
orders (i. e. the seven treated of in the preceding section) shall belong of 
right to this sacrament ; and though there be more (than these) that are 
good, these make up the whole ' (i. e. they constitute the sacrament). 
There are, indeed, more than those seven ; so, for instance, the episcopate 
and other dignities and offices, that in a certain sense may be called 

202 Notes. Page 54, Lines 1501-1504. 

orders (see quotation from Thomas Aquinas above) ; there are also 
the monastic orders : but none of them have the character of sacraments. 
The expression — J>a^ rtw he \>at gode 6eJ>, it is true, is rather vague ; yet I 
believe that the meaning of it is sufficiently determined by the context in 
which it occurs. We have lastly to explain the obscure phrase Be astente. 
That the usual derivation of astente from O.E. astyntan, Kt. -sterUan, 
does not yield a sense suitable to the purport of the preceding lines, as 
we have interpreted them, is at once clear; but the way out of the 
difficulty is not so clear. If I venture to throw out a suggestion of my 
own I am quite aware that it merely originated in some preconceived 
notion of what the line may possibly contain, or ought to contain, in 
order to fit in the context. 

From early times it had been the practice of tlie Church to confer the 
orders gradually, — accumulation, or what was called ordination by leaps 
("per saltum,") having been strictly prohibited. This practice is still 
retained in the Romish Church; but the intervals at which the orders 
can be taken have been considerably shortened. The arrangement of the 
orders, therefore, is strictly ascendental, and no one can advance to a 
higher order unless he ascends to it by the steps of all the lower ones. 
See Martene, * De Antiqu. Eccles. Rit*' I. cap. 8, art. 39. Cp. also Hugo de 
St. Victore (Migne, 176, 423) : " Sequuntur deinde septem graduum 
promotiones, in quibus (clericus) per spiritualem potestatem altius semper 
ad sacra tractanda conscendit." Also Migne, 177, 349 : — " Sequitur ut 
videamus de septem ordinibus clericorum, qui sunt septem gradus 
Ecclesiae, per qiios qui clericus est ascendens efficitur ostiarius, lector, 
exorcista, acolythus, subdiaconus, diaconus, sacerdos." Now, my sug- 
gestion is that Be asteiite may perhaps be miswritten for Be ascente, by 
•ascent : * These seven orders, forming as they do an ascending series 
from the door-keeper upwards to the mass-priest, constitute the whole 
of the sacrament.* This is at least intelligible. The question is only : 
Did such a word as ascente, with the supposed signification, exist in 
Shoreham's language ? If this be denied, and astente be the true reading 
indeed, I confess myself at a loss how to explain it satisfactorily. My 
interpretation of the whole passage (11. 1492-96) may be wrong. But I 
have, after all, thought it best to take hold of the clue offered by such 
ecclesiastical writers on the subject as the poet is likely to have followed ; 
and, in spite of a few slight alterations in the transmitted text, I do not 
think that I have strained the sense more than other interpreters have 

64/i 501 . " Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos." 1 Corinth, 
iii. 17. 

54/1502-4. Wulker (A. E. Leseb. I. 138) says,— %e = O.E. hy^e. But 
hye is not exactly the M.Kt. equivalent of O.E. hy^e ; nor is it the hy^e 
that has the ministry in the mystic temple, but the inwyt. The usual 
signification of inwyt is * conscience' ; so also in Shoreham, 92/ 188. But 
sometimes it renders Latin " animus " (see N. E. D.) ; and in this sense, 
I believe, it was meant here. We may perhaps translate it by 'wit': 
inwytj the minister in the mystic house of God, reminds one of loib (in 
the Latin original *' animus"), the master of the house, which is 8e6lf\>e 
mon intviiSj in ' Sawles Warde.' — The original reading of 1 1504 I sup- 
pose to have been : Nou lest ( = listen, from hlystan), ich 'schel ordouke 
\>ys. If so, we shall have to alter hye into hwo. It may be observed 
that the same error hye for hwo seems to have been made by the scribe 
on 86/13 * ^y^ \^^ mysdo\>j ham wyle mysdo = * those who wrong thee, he 
will wrong them.' The sense then of our passage is : ' The Christian 

Notes. Pages 54-56, Lines 1505-1563. 203 

is a liouse of God : who is to offi(Matc in it, now listen, I shall unlock 
tliis.' — vjyke^ O.E. wlce^ office. 

54/1505. 3yite [: inne] makes no ryme ; but I am unable to guess 
what the original ryme-word may have been. Perhaps the fault is the 
poet's own, not the scribe's. 

54/1510. no lykynge J>at ste'nche]f, no sensual pleasure tliat fills the 
temple with stench. 

54/1517. to helcy in order to heal. 

54/1528. silakep can hardly be right, but no plausible emendation 
occurs to me at the moment WtLlker s conjecture, — ine ]>e hertes lakef, 
is objectionable on the ground that O.E. Idcan, Orrm's Idken, quite apart 
from its signification, would have appeared in Shoreham's dialect in the 
form loken, 

55/1540. stent from stentenj O.E. styntan, to stint (intrans.). — euere 
cannot possibly be Mn.K ever, O.E. cefre, as ryme and accent show. I 
take it to be an error for hiere {in fire). The sense is : * This (t. e. the 
rnystical) temple is stinted, too, if there is no such minister as the inwyt 
In it.' 

55/1551. I have substituted the reading Myd ivil do dmesse large for 
"fclie meaningless wd to of the MS. The reviser of the text has evidently 
overlooked here the faulty to, which in the two preceding cases he has 
oorrected into do. 

56/1557. ]>e admynystrdcioun here means *the dispensation of the 
sacrament,' which is done by the bishop at tlie ordination. It is accom- 
;panied by prayers, adhortations, handing over to the ordinands the attri- 
iDutes of their offices, as lectionary, candle, cruet, chalice with the paten, 
«tc. These are perceptible outward signs, and therefore tlie admynys- 
^raciotmy together with the bishop's blessing, are rightly called ]>e signe 
("signum") of J>y« sacrement, us opposed to 'pet pi/ng ("res sucra- 
menti "). 

56/1561. ine pe placey a mere tag, as on 11 5/ 144. See *Eng. Stud.' 
»ii. 367. 

56/1563. spoitsynge has two meanings. Its proper signification is 
**desponsatio, betrothing; and in this sense, as opposed to weddynge^ it 
is used by Shoreham, 6I/1727 : Spousynge At «ei*6 jer me maky may, Ac 
•^lone ry^t weddynge. It is much more common, however, in the sense of 
* marriage, matrimony,' in which it is used here and in many other passages. 
Hn this sense spotisynge comprises both hytreu]yynge and weddynge at ckerche, 
«,s we learn from 6/1 52-54. Spoushod is another term for matrimony. It is 
xiever used by Shoreham in the sense of * betrothal.' The simple spouse, on 
"the other hand, apart from its figurative use, e. g. when the Holy Church 
is called the spouse of God, occurs both in the original signification of * a 
betrothed person,' and in the developed sense of * a married person of 
either sex.' 153/683 it is applied to Adam as the husband of Eve. That 
a betrothed couple were, in a sense, regarded as husband and wife is in 
accordance with old Jewish views, as appears from the language of the 
Bible. Cf. Gratian, c. 39, § 2, c. 40-45, C. 27, quaest. 2, where the scrip- 
tural evidence and patristic authorities are cited and discussed. The 
statement of Isidore of Seville, Etymol. IX. c. 7, — ** Coniuges verius 
appellantur a prima desponsationis fide, quamvis adhuc inter eos ignoretur 
coniugalis concubitus," is grounded on the same notion, which originated 
also the distinction between " coniugium (matrimonium) initiatum (incho- 
atum)," and "coniugium (matrimonium) ratum (perfectum, consumma- 
turn)." Cf. Gratian, diet, ad c. 34, C. 27, quaest. 2 : — " sciendum est quod 
coniugium desponsatione initiatur, commixtione perficitur. Unde inter 

204 Notes, Pages 5G-57, Lines 15«4-1G08. 

sponsum et sponsam coniugium est, sed initiatuni ; inter copulates est 
coniugium ratum." This distinction was practically of great consequence ; 
see Jos. Freisen, ^Geschichte des canonischen Eherechtes/ Tubingen, 
1888, p. 170 ff. It also explains the change of the primary meaning of 
spmijsynge into that of * marriage,' a change which was possibly favoured 
by the theory that a mutual engagement or betrothment expressed in pre- 
sent terms (** sponsalia, desponsatio, de presenti ") is a good marriage 
without consummation. (See note to 11. 1646-7, below.) 

Ofspousynge for to werche, "agere de matrimonio ;" cp. 76/2137 : }?o 
ich her-an gam, tverche. 

66/1564-5. Cf. Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 481): "Officium 
auteni coniugii in camis commistione proposuit (Deus), ut in eo sacra- 
raentum esset societatis quae in carne futura erat inter Christum et 

66/1572. y I6\>e : y, weakened fonn of in; cp. t]?e ry^t syde, 83/ 1 16. — 
lob = O.E. idj), substantive. Formulas like this: yn toue aiid nau^t y 
lope^ where an idea is emphasized by the negation of its opposite, are 
very common in M.E. poetry. Shoreham has a few more examples: 
Hys vayf and, nau^t hys Jwre, 62/1757 ; lete otis lihhe and nati/^t he dead, 

66/1576. Ephes. V. 22-26. 

66/1579. on-torestnesse (not in Stratm.-Bradley), wickedness. 

66/1 581-2. The text is sadly corrupt. All I can guess is that the poet 
here seems to have a fling at inquisitorial and shrewish wives. 

67/i 588-9. The reference is to Genes, xv. 6 : " Eduxitque eum (Abram) 
foras, et ait illi : Suspice coelum, et numera stellas, si potes : sic erit 
semen tuum." 

67/1590 ff. Gratian, diet, ad c. 2, C. 32, quaest. 2, speaks of a double 
institution of matrimony. The first institution took place in Paradise {are 
adavn, were y-wonne to senne); the second outside Paradise, after the fall 
of Adam. This opinion has been accepted and i-epeatedly expressed by 
subsequent writers : e. g. Hugo de St. Victore (who also refers to the con- 
secration of marriage by Christ in Cana of Galilee), Rolandus, Petr. 
Lombardus. The latter says (Migne, 192, 908), partly using the words of 
Gratian : " Coniugii autem institutio duplex est. Una ante peccatum ad 
officium facta est in paradise, ubi esset thorus immaculatus, et nuptiae 
honorabiles, ex quibus sine ardore conciperent, sine dolord parerent; 
altera post peccatum ad remedium facta extra paradisum, propter illicitum 
motum devitandum. Prima, ut natura multiplicaretur ; secunda, ut natura 
exciperetur, et vitiura cohiberetur." 

67/1600. * without the smack of sin,' *not tainted by sin,* i. e. the sin 
of concupiscence, sexual appetite. Cf. Augustine, * Super Genes.* lib. ix. 
cap. 7 : "Si non peccassent primi homines, sine carnis incentive ac fer- 
vore libidinis ipsi ac successores eorum convenirent." Similarly Hugo de 
St. Victore (Migne, 176, 166) : *' Constat itaque rem bonam esse coniugium. 
Cuius opus, id est sexuum commistio, inter primes homines et eorum suc- 
cessores sine carnis incentive et ardore libidinis omni tempore compleretur, 
si homines in obedientia sui Creatoris permansissent." 

67/1607. o^bette is dative of ahetj fraud, cunning. 

67/1608. wrancheiid is difficult to explain. It should perhaps be 
divided loranch euel, — wranch may possibly stand for wrench (O.E. wrenc, 
wroRiic), showing that peculiar change of original e (or rather oe, see Sievers, 
Ags. Gramm. § 89, Anm. 6) into a before n which is most often met with 
in early Sth-E. texts. Shoreham has hanne [: manne]^ O.E. heonane, 
127/18. In * Ayenbite' we find : pans, patieivorlpeSj dane, plur. danes; in 

Notes. Pages 57-59, Lines 1612-1047. 205 

oem. Mor. — mid hispanie; in the M.Kt. Gospels — campan, dane, panig 
<^IReimann, p. 12; see also Morsbach, M.E. Gramra. § 108, Anm. 1). So 
"^^tyranch extsL, evil trick, might be regarded as a sort of parenthetical 

57/1612. I have restored the original reading of the MS. The later 
substitution of and for he only spoils the context. 

58/1615. Ofheuene is placed in apposition to the preceding hmise; cf. 
* Ayenb.' 100 : Hiuinne J>ou him depesb uader, poi* heknaud ]>et he is Ihord 
0/ house, \et is of heuene cmd of erpe. 

58/1632-38. The Synod of Exeter, a.d. 1287, expresses the same idea 
in the following words (c. VII. De Matrimonio), which are taken from 
Xnnocent III. epist. ad episcop. Brixiens. (a. 1212) in Decret Gregor. 
TX., lib. IV. tit. 1, c. 25 : " Licet per legitimum viri et mulieris consen- 
suin legitima matrimonia contrahantur, quantum ad ecclesiam, necessaria 
sunt verba vel signa consensum exprimentia de praesenti." Mutual agree- 
iTient between two competent persons of different sexes to enter into the 
relation of husband and wife constitutes what is popularly called *a 
imarriage in the sight of God.' The bond thus formed is valid " in foro 
intemo." To establish its validity " in foro ecclesiastico," it is, however, 
necessary that certain forms sanctioned by law or custom should be 
observed in contracting, and the contract openly and distinctly expressed 
eitber in words or by unmistakable signs. 

My punctuation in 1. 1635 shows that I take the words And speche to 
l>e meant as a sort of objection, put in the form of a quer}', to the words 
"unfy-oiite speche in 1. 1634, the answer to it being given by the poet in 
"fche next line. 

58/1639-45. See Decret. Gregor. IX., lib. IV. tit. 1, c. 23, 26 ; Thorn. 
^quin. IV. dist. xxvii., art. 2, sol. 2. 

68/1642. abere, bearing, gesture, sign. 

59/1644. jewgr, young (what else can it mean?), looks rather sus- 
p>icious, as the o^ of the deaf or dumb persons to be wedded is foreign to 
"tbe question here. 

59/1646-7. I fail to see how ])er two in 1. 1647 can be explained. If 
^vre substitute for it per-to, which readily suggests itself as an emenda- 
'tion, we may translate: *Two maner of speeches people are wont ta 
t:ake (use) thereto' {%. e. for the purpose ol contracting). Wei coiipe, 
1. 1660, is best connected with Two manere speches. 

The two manere speches here referred to are: the " verba de presenti " 
<see 11. 1661-2), and the "verba de future'* (see 11. 1653-4). The dis- 
Idnction, unknown to Gratian and his authorities, between ^^sponsalia (per 
"verba) de praesenti," by which two persons declare their present consent 
"to accept each other, and live together, as husband and wife, and " spon- 
i8alia (per verba) de future," that is, the promise of future marriage, can 
fce traced back to Hugo de St. Victore, ' De Sacrament.' lib. II., p. xi. c. 5 
(Migne, 176, 486); *Summa Sentent' Tract.. VII. c. 7 (Migne, 166, 160). 
See Sehling, *Die Unterscheidung der Verlobnisse im canon. Recht,* 
Xeipzig, 1887, p. 60. It was Hugo, too, who assigned to the " sponsalia 
de praesenti " the character of a perfect marriage, to the completion of 
"which nothing could be superadded by subsequent carnal intercourse; 
and who, consequently, maintained that such a contract "per verba de 
praesenti," having the full essence of matrimony, was valid to the extent 
of avoiding a subsequent marriage contracted with another person, even 
"though the latter had been consummated. Hugo's opinions were sup- 
ported and propagated by the school of Paris. Tlie doctrine that free 
consent expressed in words, or by signs, of present mutual acceptance is 
the efficient cause of matrimony, that which makes matrimony perfect. 

200 Notes. Page 59, Liyies 1646-7. 

'* etiamsi non praecessit vel secuta est copula carnalis," was defended with 
particular zeal by Fetrus Lombardus; and it was, no doubt, chiefly owing 
to the influence of the teaching of Fetrus and his disciples that this 
scholastic doctrine was, for a time at least, accepted and put into practice 
by the Church of France (Ecclesia Gallicana), in opposition to the Church 
of Italy (Ecclesia Transalpina). For, the Church of Italy, while adopting 
the distinction between " desponsatio de praesenti " and " desponsatio de 
future,"^ still maintained that other distinction set up by Gratian between 
*' matrimoniura initiatum" and "matrimonium perfectum," holding that 
carnal copulation was requisite for the due completion of marriage. Con- 
summation being thus considered an essential element of marriage, it 
follows that a non-consummated " desponsatio de praesenti " is not a per- 
fect marriage, and therefore dissoluble. The canonists of the school of 
Bologna used to enumerate eight diflTerent causes for which it might be 
dissolved " a vinculo." The first of them was — ** posterior desponsatio 
camis commixtione perfecta." 

The Romish Church, too, recognized tlie liberty of the parties to dis- 
solve an unconsumraated desponsatio by one of them entering into a 
matrimonial contract with another person, and consummating it, up to 
the time of .Fope Alexander III., who held a different view of the subject. 
Already as " Magister Rolandus " he had observed in his * Summa' that he 
did not see on what authorities the practice of the Church could be 
defended. So, when he ascended the papal throne, he issued that famous 
decretal, " lAcet praeter solitum" in answer to an application made to him 
by the bishop of Salerno, in which he determined : " quod si inter virum 
et mulierem legitimus consensus sub ea solemnitate quae fieri solet . . . 
coram idoneis testibus interveniat de praesenti, ita quidem quod unus 
alterum in suo mutuo consensu verbis consuetis expresse recipiat, utroque 
dicente : * ego te accipio in meain,' et — * ego te accipio in meum,* sive sit 
iuramentum interpositum sive non, non licet mulieri alii nubere. Et si 
nupserit, etiamsi carnalis copula sit secuta, ab eo separari debet, et ut ad 
primum redeat ecclesiastica districtione compelli," — adding: "quamvis 
alii aliter sentiant, et aliter etiam a quibusdam praedecessoribus nostris 
sit iudicatum" (c. 3. X., De sponsa duor., IV.-4). A similar answer he 
gave to the bishop of Fadua, who had asked for directions in the case of 
a woman that, having been betrothed to one man, was afterwards espoused 
and known by another ; see c. 4 ; comp. I., IV.-4. 

This is by no means — as it might seem to be — a formal sanction of the 
doctrine of the French school, that a contract " per verba de praesenti" is 
a perfect marriage even without consummation, and as such dissoluble. 
Alexander still clung to the distinction of Gratian between " matrimonium 
initiatum " and ** matrimonium consummatum ; " for instance, when he 
decided (as the canonists of Bologna had done) that, after a lawful con- 
tract " de praesenti " had been made between two parties, either party 
was free to enter religion, even against the will of the other, provided 
only that carnal intercourse had not intervened between them ; and that 
the party remaining in the world might contract another marriage, 
because they were not " una caro simul effect! ; " or that a " desponsatio 
de future " followed by carnal intercourse could not be avoided by a sub- 
sequent "desponsatio de praesenti," whether consummated or not (see 
Shoreham, below). What he really wanted to establish by his decrees 
was the principle that it was not for the contracting parties arbitrarily to 

^ Clear mention of it is made in the Sentences of Magister Rolandus, after- 
wards Pope Alexander III., who evidently had it from Hugo de St. Vietore. 
See A. M. Gietl, * Die Scntenzen Roland's,' Einleitung, Ixiii. 

Notes. Page 59, Lines 1660-GC. 207 

dissolve a " desponsatio de praesenti " not yet consummated by carnal 
knowledge. If a man had "pari voto et consensu'* contracted with a 
woman, and afterwards married another, he must not be separated from 
the first *' sine iudicio ecclesiae." The right to dissolve such a contract 
" de vinculo " was to be taken away from the parties (except only the 
case just mentioned of one of them entering religion), and to be reserved 
to the pope. It is obvious, however, that a contract which can be annul- 
led only by obtaining a dispensation from the pope himself, must have 
come to be regarded as practically indissoluble, and thus to be invested 
with the character of an actual marriage. And though the Church of 
Kome never formally adopted the doctrine of the French school, yet the 
decrees of Alexander III. could not but countenance the opinion, which 
has indeed prevailed ever since, that the " consensus de praesenti " alone 
constitutes marriage, consummation being presumed to follow naturally 
.the acceptance of the relation of husband and wife. 

Shoreham alludes to the indissolubility of " sponsalia de praesenti " in 
11. 1668-9: Ac ]>atferste (i.e. contracting "per verba de praesenti") ne 
fayUef nauxt, 'pat ofer (i. e. contracting " per verba de future ") may fm- 
sleupe. Still, he holds, with the Church of Rome, that sexual intercourse 
is requisite for the completion of marriage (see 11. 1667-71). 

69/ 1 660-66. The clue to the interpretation of this stanza, the intel- 
ligibleness of which suffers from the obscurity of the passage in 11. 1662- 
64, must, I think, be sought for in the last two lines combined with what 
is said in the next stanza. Further attention should be given to the 
words in 11. 1660-61 : And lyf an o\>er treu\)e\> se\>e Wy}p word of \>at hys 
n(m\)ei from which it would appear that \>ai treujyyng mentioned in 1. 1665 
means a previous engagement " per verba de future " (tvy\> vxyt'des of to 
comene). So we are put on the track of the meaning of the whole, which 
I take to be this : An engagement for future marriage is to be considered 
as null and void, if one of the parties enters into a contract with anotlier 
person " per verba de praesenti " (in/]> word of ]>at hys noupe)y provided 
that the previous engagement was not followed by sexual intercourse 
between the parties : * for that completeth the marriage after the betroth- 
ing ' (1. 1667 ff.). This is in accordance with the views of the Church, as 
I have already pointed out. — ]te ferste dede, in 1. 1662, evidently means 
the same thing as Jfat treufyng^ 1. 1666, the former engagement, that is, 
the "desponsatio de futuro," /ers^e being opposed to «e]?e, 1. 1660. But 
as the verb hep stands in the plural (there is no singular form hep in 
Shoreham), pe ferste dede nmst be plural also, which, apart from the 
rareness of the fonn, is hardly consistent with the supposed meaning of 
the passage. — halte^ 1. 1662, too, looks rather dubious. It would indeed 
almost seem to be a literal rendering of the Latin term ** claudicans," 
which was applied by the elder canonists to such contracts as are binding 
only on one of the two parties. For instance, a betrothment or marriage 
into which one of the parties has been constrained, is termed " despon- 
satio," or "matrimonium, claudicans," because it binds only the con- 
straining party, while the one acting under the constraint is free to claim 
disannulment. But this particular sense of lialtej I believe, is out of the 
question in our passage. What else, then, can it mean here? And 
besides, how are we to construe the sentence in 11. 1662-64? I suspect 
some blunder of the scribe's in those lines, which by a slight alteration 
of the text we might perhaps emend thus : 

pe ferste dede yhecdde 6e, 
Ne be hy na se coiilpe., 

Ase nmie ; 


208 Notes. Page 60, Lines 1685-1701. 

that is literally : * Let the first deed (t. e. the former engagement) — be it 
never so known — be considered as null.' The sense is tolerably clear, 
though the manner of expressing it may not be thought very clever. 
60/ 1685. hon-tpyse, the unwise; cf. 18/355. 

60/ 1 692. The most natural construction, it seems to me, is, to connect 
lykyiide with make in 1. 1690. But I do not think that lykxfnde is used 
here in its ordinary sense. Now, one of the senses in which the verbal 
noun lykynge occurs in Shoreham is ^ concupiscence ; ' so, for instance, 
lld/12^ : flesches 2yfcy»i§re = ** concupiscentia camis;" so also 37/1029. 
The corresponding sense of lykynde then would be * concupiscent, having 
sexual appetite ; and this, 1 believe, is the only one that suits the 

The rj'me lykynde [: wepynge] need not be objected to, though it 
would be easy enough to change wepynge into 'tvepynde. It has parallels 
in Netinde [: v^eddynge'] 66/1839, 1841 ; spryngynde [^i chyldynge] 128/28, 
30. This points to a plionetic change of -inde to -ingey the dental nasal 
being replaced by the guttural nasal. Accordingly, we find in Shore- 
ham : vxxkynge, pr. pple., II3/404. Of [here] hUinvdynge facey 91/ 168 ; At 
OTfie-hioimfiige ]?a3 hy were^ 120/ 148. *Ayenbite,' too, has traces of this 
change in the occasional use of tlie form of the participle for the verbal 
noun ; e. g. — he his (hire, ]nne) toytinde, p. 6, 8, 21, 29, 47, 94; — g^io into 
helle ine fme libbi'nde, ]>et ]>(m ne g'iw ine "jphie sterninge, p. 73. But this 
may simply be a literal translation of the French original : be his 
toytinde — a son escient (Evers. p. 31); — ine \>ine libhinde = en ton vivant 
(ib. p. 15), though it is remarkable that Dan Michael did not write ine 
\>ine stei-uinde for the French en ton morant, Cp. also onconnyndehede^ 
* Ayenb/ p. 33 = onconnyngehede, p. 40. 

60/ 1 694. wert — were it. ^5o also ist, yst, hyst = is it ; nyst = nis it ; 
nest = nes it ; ]>i/^ = ]>on (]>e) it. 

6O/1 697-1 701. I connect ere, 1. 1699, with ^ef J>at he hedde y-wedded 
hy, 1. 1700. ]>aty 1. 1699,— /lyi, 1. 1701, may possibly be a compound 
relative, the well-known combination of the uninflected relative \at with 
an inflected personal pronoun. But as the noun vyyfy to which the re- 
lative refers, is evidently treated as a feminine in L 1700, 1 would rather 
suggest that we may consider hyt as merely another spelling for ^. 
The sense then of the stanza, as I understand it, is: 'Yet, he must do 
great penance the days of his life; and the more so, if he has tnade a 
whore of his wife that, had he wedded her before, would still be a 
good woman.' ere I take to mean here 'before he had married another 
woman.* But how can she who has never been wedded to a man be 
called his wife ? Wedding is a public ceremony enjoined to be under- 
gone as a matter of order, to prevent the breaking of clandestine espousals. 
A marriage contracted in the absence of any witness is not on that 
account invalid : paj hyt were her ondo, Hy^t halt wy^ oure dry^te (11. 
1672-3 ; see also 68/1632-3, and the note to that passage). If, therefore, 
a woman has been espoused by a man " per verba de praesenti," or " per 
verba de future," followed by sexual intercourse, which ' corapleteth the 
spoushood after the betrothing' (69/1667-8), she may be justly called his 
wife, although she has not been solemnly wedded to him. See Hugo de 
St. Victore, * De Sacram.' Libr. II. p. xi. cap. 6 : " Quando coniugium 
esse incipiat " (Migne, 176, 488 ff. ). We also learn from another passage, 
11. 1709-1715, that the validity of a clandestine contract made otherwise 
in due form, and not avoided by a subsequent regular marriage, is recog- 
nized by the law as soon as it has been proved by the avowal of the 
parties, and that, in consequence of it, they are obliged to live together 

Notes. Page 61-63, Lines 1713-1778. 209 

ad husband and wife. Such contracts, however, — the poet tells us, — 
though they ought to bind the parties, are only too apt to be broken 
"porwe falsnesK ofpartyCj And for defaiUe of toitnessyng, W'yJ> wrcmg and 
trycherye, — adding that I-lome Me weddep suychey and liggef &o For pan 
ine hordome (11. 1674-80). Accordingly, a man who weds the spouse of 
another man lies in whoredom with her if he does not preserve the 
chastity enjoined upon him in such a case (see preceding stanza, II. 
1688-94); and so may he who refuses to wed the woman he has clandes- 
tinely made his wife abandon her to adultery ; which I believe to be the 
meaning of the lines 1697-1701. The penance mentioned in 1. 1695 is 
enjoined by the Church " pro fide mentita." 

6I/1713-14. Te take to-gidere^ **simul cohabitare." Note that the 
recognition by the law of a clandestine marriage contract depends on the 
avowal of both parties. Cf. Gratian, dist, ad c. 9, C. 30, quaefet. 5 : 
*' Goniugia quae clam contrahuntur non negantur esse coniugia, nee 
iubentur dissolvi, si utriusque confessione probari poterunt.*' See also 
Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 915). 

61/ 1 7 16-22. The question is treated at some length, and the practice 
of the Church justified, by Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 499 ff.). JVe 
hys nauit y-hdde trewe By latoe^ it is not held true by the law. — ^ef hy 
werey 1. 1721, soil, wedded. 

61/i723ff. : "Qua aetate possit fieri coniugium;" see Hugo de St. 
Victore (Migne, 176, 166) ; Gratian, C. 30, quaest. 2 ; pecret Greg. tit. 
*' De desponsatione impuberorum '* (IV-2) ; Fumivall, * Child-Marriages,* 

62/1737-8. The apparent contradiction between the fixing of a certain 
age (adopted from the Roman law) for the completion of marriage, and 
the requirement of puberty, has been pointed out by Freisen, 1. c. p. 323 ff. 

62/1744-5. treu\)ynge wy\> stren\>e ymaked ine mone falls under the 
notion of "raptus,** as defined by Gratian, C. 36, quaest 1. The 
" impedimentum raptus," however, was gradually merged in, and finally 
superseded by, the *' impedimentum coactionis ; '* see Freisen, I. c. §§ 26, 

62/i75a See 59/1667. 

62/1752. I do not understand what \>e \>^'ydde treupe means. The 
following passage from Thom. Aquin. 'Summ.' III. Supplem., quaest 
43, art. 1, will scarcely serve to elucidate the obscure expression : 
^Fit autem Ista promissio dupliciter, soil, absolute, et sub conditione. 
Absolute quatuor modis : prime, nuda promissione, cum dicitur : ' Acci- 
piam te in meam,* et e converse ; secundo, datis arrhis sponsalitiis, ut 
pecunia, vel aliquo huiusmodi; tertio, annuli subarrhatione ; quarto, 
interveniente iuramento." — There is probably a mistake of the scribe's in 
jfrydde^ for which we may perhaps conjecture ryite; cp. ry^t contract^ 
1. 1709 ; ry^t treupyng, 64/1793. So fe ry^te treu\>e oy a^ssenty i. e. the right 
troth plighted by mutual consent, would be opposed to tre^iVyng wyp 
strenpe ymaked ine mone, i. e. an engagement enforced in tne act of 
sexual union. 

62-63/1758-1778. The three stanzas (st 252-254) deal with the "impe- 
dimentum conditionis appositae," for which Freisen, 1. c. § 25, may be 
consulted. The canon law on this subject is found in Decret. Greg. 
IV-S, ^ De conditionibus appositis in desponsatione vel in aliis contrac- 

According to the canon law and the authorities quoted by Freisen, 1. c, 
there is in a conditioned promise of marriage a distinction to be made 
(as is done also by Shoreham) between "conditio honesta" and "inhonesta 


210 Notes. Pages 63-64, Lilies 1779-1811. 

vel turpis." The former keeps the marriage in suspense (hyt lette\> \>e 
v}eddynge^ 1. 17^1) as long as the condition is not fulQlled (orirhecUdey 1. 
1762, = unkept, not fulfilled), unless the betrothment is rollowed by 
sexual intercourse ; for that * completeth the spousehood,' converting it 
into an actual marriage, which cannot be subjected to any condition. — 
(ise ich ear tealde, I. 1764, refers to 69/1667. The "conditio inhonesta 
vel turpis" may, or may not, be "contra naturam matrimonii*' (aieins 
spousho^y 1. 1772). In the former case the engagement is avoided by the 
condition annexed to it {\>at treu\>yng darf nau^t healde, 1. 1778, " tenere 
non debet"). If, however, the condition, though vile in itself, be not 
contrary to the substance and purpose of marriage, it is simply to be 
disregarded ("pro non ad jecta debet haberi*'), and the promised marriage 
is to take place in spite of its non-fulfilment (paj ]>ei coiieriant be nauit 
y-do, Hy schdle hem tveddy nede), 11. 1770-71. 

Page 63-4. Three stanzas (fit 255-257) on the subject : ** Qui clerici 
vel voventes matrimonium contrahere possunt," Decret. Greg. IV-6. 
See also Freisen, 1. c. § § 62-66. 

63/1782. Profes^ "professus," Fr. profis. 

63/1783. To leste, to last, remain (in religion). 

63/1784. The alteration of chaste into ckastete is necessary. The 
meaning of the sentence is : ' Profession of chastity is a solemn vow.* 
As such it is an " impedimentum impediens et dirimens,*' whilst a simple 
vow of chastity ("votum simplex, quod in privato sive publico nulla 
sollempni intercedente obligatione promittitur ") is only an " impedimen- 
tum impediens." 

63/1788. That professioun cannot be right here is evident from 1. 
1792: JJaj he he nau:^tprofe8sed. The conjectured emendation probacimm 
has been suggested by the following passage in Decret. Greg. III-31, c. 
23, of which the tenor of our stanza appearii to be a reminiscence : 
"Stcatuimus novitios in probatione positos ante susceptum religionis 
habitum, qui dari profitentibus consuevit, vel ante professionem emissam, 
ad priorem statum redire posse libere infra annum (the regular time of 
probation ; cp. c. 20 : " infra tempus probationis "), nisi evidenter 
appareat quod tales absolute vohierint vitam mutare, et in religione 
perpetuo Domino deservire, quum quilibet renuntiare valeat ei quod pro 
se noscitur introductum." 

64/1799. The phrase lete to no\e recurs IO9/293, where the same ryme 
no\>e [: soj^e] is found. In both passages the meaning seems to be, * to set 
at naught, neglect; * but what is no]>e*^ Its identification with O.E. nd\> 
seems rather to be discountenanced by the signification of the latter. 

64/1800-3. Cp. Decret. Greg. IV-7 : "De eo qui duxit in matrimonium 
quam poUuit per adulterium " {hy fat ]>e man far-hyen hepe wider hys 
ryit wyfe). It will be observed that the poet, in pursuing his subject, 
follows the arrangement of Decret. Greg. 

64/1804. Bi dome, cp. hy lanve, 6I/1720; hy none ry^t lawe^ 1. 1813; 
hy goae la^e, I46/491 ; hy ry^te, 49/1377, 59/1671, 6I/1734, etc. 

64/ 1 81 1. To slavey to slay (him), epexegetically attached to the pre- 
ceding hote hy hy-spdce his de]>e. For the " machinatio in mortem viri " 
to become an impediment to marriage, it is necessary that the designed 
crime should have been perpetrated (" machinatio in mortem cum effeetu**), 
and that it should have been committed for the express purpose of 
removing the obstacle of a subsequent marriage between the adulterers 
("ideo occidatur, ut post mortem eius adultera ab adultero ducatur;'* 
Freisen, 1. c. p. 631). Note, too, that of the three eases which, 
according to the canon law, render marriage between the adulterers 

Notes. Pages 64-65, Lines 1818-1841. 2U 

impossible, one is not mentioned by Shoreham, namely, if in their 
criminal intercourse they have exchanged a promise "de futuro," to 
marry each other when by the death of their lawful partners they shall 
have become single. For particulars on the subject consult Schulte, 
' Handbuch des kathol. Eherechtes/ p. 310, and Freisen, 1. c. § 56. 

The next three stanzas (st 260-262) deal with the marriage of lepers. 
Cf. Decret. Greg. IV-8, ** De coniugio leprosorum." 

64/i8i8. nomene is the gerundial mfinitive of the verb nomen^ a 
variant of wymen or nemen, not unfrequent in Shoreham. We may 
translate it by — * that is' (to be taken or understood) ; cp. 136/ i8o: By 
latoe hyt nomejf (imperat). 

65/1826. In support of the conjectured reading uohcdd I refer to 59/ 
1667 and 62/1749. The completion of a ** desponsatio de future" by 
sexual intercourse implies also cohabitation. 

65/ 1 83 1 -2. gyfte [lany^t] makes no ryme; so there must be some- 
thing wrong either in the one or in the other or possibly in both words. 
Mn.E. * gift ' is out of the question, for that would appear in Shoreham in 
the corresponding M.Et. form of }efpe or ^efte. Besides, what is the 
meaning of meles ? meals ? There is not much to be gained for the eluci- 
dation of the passage from a reference to the Latin text of the canon law 
as laid down in a decretal epistle of Alexander III. to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Decret Greg., c. 1, IV-8). For it will be seen that Shore- 
ham, in denying the sound party's obligation to follow the sick one into 
a hospital, differs from the tenor of the papal decree that, if a husband 
or wife having incurred the malady of leprosy be separated from the 
communion of men, and removed to an isolated place, as the custom is, 
the sound party shall follow the sick one, and minister to him or her with 
conjugal affection (**ut uxores viros et viri uxores qui leprae morbum 
incurruht sequantur, et eis conjugali affectione ministrent ") ; or else, if 
they cannot be induced to that, they shall either of them, during the 
other's lifetime, preserve continence. — ^The matter, however, was contro- 
versial ; see Freisen, 1. c. p. 837. Can mdes be a clerical error for hdes, 
boils " ulcera " (O.E. h^le) ? In that case one might perhaps think of 
substituting To dy:^te, as a possible ryme-word to ny^tCy for the unin- 
telligible ^e hiJ8 gyfte : — hijs heles To dy^te, to dress, attend to his (t. e. 
the sick one's) boils (*^ conjugali affectione ministrare," as the decretal 
epistle says). But this is only a guess. In 1. 1833 we had perhaps better 
write : Hamfalpe nau^t^ etc., for Falfe ham, naw^ty etc. 

65/1835-41. "Dolus," as an impediment which affects the validity of 
marriage, must be considered in connection with " error." There used to 
be distinguished four kinds of error: *' qualitatis " (i. e. about the bodily, 
mental, or moral state of a person), " fortunae," " conditionis," and " per- 
Bonae. According to the canon law, the first and second errors are of 
no consequence in marriage, and it is, therefore, no use (ne gainet non^t) 
practising any deceit which gives rise to an error of that description. 
The instance adduced by Shoreham in 11. 1837-39 is one of an '* error 
qaalitatis." It is only the " error conditionis," or, properly speaking, the 
" error deterioris conditionis " (as it was limited to the " conditio servilis "), 
and the "error personae," that are impediments capable of invalidating 
and dissolving a marriage already solemnized ; provided that the party in 
error do not afterwards, when the error has been detected, consent to 
ratify the marriage by consummation. This is what stanzas 264, 265 

65/1841. The singular form oundef might perhaps be retained if we 
were to take l^at in the sense of * that which.* For particulars about the 

212 Notes. Pages 65-68, Lines 1847-1918. 

" impedimentum erroris" see Freisen, 1. c. § 27; cp. also Decret Gre^ 
IV-9, " De coniuglo servorum." 

65/1847. sentep, aphet. form of (issente]*. 

66/1856 ff. Here begins a new paragraph, on spiritual affinity {godsi^^ 
brede) as a hindrance to marriage. The canon law to be consulted o 
this subject will be found in Gratian, C. 30, quaest. 1-4, and Deere 
Greg. IV-11, "De cognatione spiritual!." See, too, Sohulte, 'Eherecht. 
p. 188 ff., and especially Freisen, 1. c §| 46-51. 

66/1856. hebbe here answers to Latin ^levare' (de sacro fonte). Cpc^^ 2p 
17/470 and 18/477^ where it is used of the god-parents presenting th 
child at Confirmation. 

66/1857. For the spiritual affinity contracted by a man or woman t 
devolve upon their respective wives or husbands, it is necessary that 
marriage between them should have been consummated with bodily kno 
ledge. The question, " an aliquis duas commatres possit habere qx 
unam post aliam ? " was decided differently before and after the time 
Rolandus. Shoreham, as 1. 1857 shows, has adopted the prevailing opini 
of the later canonists, which is thus expressed by Hugo : " Si compate 
nitas praecedit copnlam, licite potest habere duas commatres^ unam poi 
aliam ; aliter (ttxwie ]>on he hest for-leye) non sequitur." On this subj 
see Freisen, 1. c. § 51. 

66/1876. hiiete, progeny ; see Nj E. D. s. v. heget, sb. 

67/1907. Toe-hebbe {toe ^ to), literally—* lift to ' (the font), I take to hz«^ be 
a compound verb. 

67/1908. 3wc?ie, offend ; cp. y^venne, 32/896. 

67/1909-10. For the phrase — wette schrewede tonge^ cp. Ps. Ixiii. 
"Quia exacuerunt ut gladium linguas suas." Regarding the comm 
sponsorship of husband and wife, Pope Urban II. decreed as foUoi^'-^'^s 
(Gratian, c. 6, 0. 30, quaest. 4): ^'Quod autem uxor cum marito in baj^-^P- 
tismate simul non debeat suscipere puerum, nulla auctoritate reperi t^ ,z:jbi ir 
prohibitum. Sed ut puritas spiritualis patemitatis ab omni labe et infT"^^^'*' 
mia conservetur, dignum esse decemimus ut utrique insimul ad hc^*- -^^ 
aspirare minime praesumant." ^^^ 

The next paragraph treats of the incapacity to contract within t^F^e 
prohibited degrees of consanguinity and amnity. The canon law on th^crriis 
subject is found in Gratian, C. 35, and Decret Greg. IV-14, "De col -^^n- 
sanguinitate et affinitate." See, too, Freisen, 1. c. §§ 32-46. 

67/1913. ]>e foerjte grees wyy-inne, within the fourth degree, grees ^ ~ 
O.Fr. greez. 

The sense of the following lines, 1914-18, is: *Nor shonld o 
count the stock, but (ac^ MS. \at) after it begin to count (the degrees 
and if either (of the parties) reaches the fifth, they may remain togethe 
Shoreham here refers to the canonical computation which, leaving out t 
parent, i. e. the common stock ("stipes, truncus") of the generation, pu 
brothers and sisters in the first degree, and so on. Besides this, me 
were two other computations in early use ; namely, that established t 
the Roman law, and the Germanic computation. The former, in conntin:::^^^ 
the degrees, begins with the parent, the latter with nephew and niec^' *i 
brothers and sisters being considered as " truncus." Marriage was pi^ ^^ 
hibited by the Church within the seventh canonical degree ; that is, C^^ 
sixth by the Germanic, and the eighth by the Romanic computation. ^^ 
does not seem, however, that the prohibition was generally obeyed, ^^ 
even practically enforced to the full extent of it. Gregory I., for examp^^f 
in a letter to Augustine in England, the authenticity of which was no^ 
suspected, at least in the 8th century, is said to have permitted tibe Angle* 

Notes. Page 68, Lines 1922-1946. 213 

to marry " in tertia vel quarta generatione." Opinions differed as to wliicli 
of the seven degrees were to be considered as " impedimenta dirimentiu," 
till Innocent III. at the Lateran Council, 1215, finally settled tlie matter 
by fixing the limit of prohibition to the fourth degree. 

68/1922. Aind host flesches mone is to be connected with 11. 1919-20 : 
2ef Jfou myd word of fet hys novpe Aryjt bi4reu]>est one^ as well as with 
I. 1921 : 0]»er foj fet [f ou] hi-treupy hy nam^t. For affinity, in the 
acceptation of the ecclesiastical law, springs from union of flesh (cp. 1. 
1938), whether legitimate, as in the consummation of a marriage lawfully 
initiated with nuptial consent (11. 1919-20); or illegitimate, as in fornica- 
tion, which, too, makes the parties to it one flesh (according to 1 Corinth. 
vi. 16), though their intercourse lacks the *^ sacramentum Christi et 
Ecclesiae." The Council of Trent afterwards limited the impediment 
arising from illegitimate affinity to the' second degree. For particulars 
see Freisen, 1. c. §§ 39-45. 

68/1937. de\ (lor dop) hy^tj it is true, leaves the rynie [: se hy^t] still 
imperfect. But we may perhaps write sep hy^t in 1. 1939, instances of a 
similar change of mood being found elsewhere in Shoreham. 

68/1938. Inonynge, This is what both Dr. Furnivall and Mr. Bickley, 
of the British Museum, read in the MS. It may seem presumptuous in 
me to question the correctness of the reading of two such experts ; but, 
with all due deference to them, I cannot bring myself to believe that 
Shoreham should have anticipated Fusey in coining a word which, as far 
as literary evidence goes, was used by nobody else (see N. E. D. s. v. 
inone). When I copied the MS. I was not at first quite sure how to read 
the word, so I tried to reproduce the characters as I saw them ; and I 
also noticed that the word was altered by a later hand from what 
originally had probably been nolpynge, or no ynge. The alteration was 
effected by the insertion of an n between no and ynge^ and the addition of 
an initial stroke to the first n. This stroke is protracted downwards, so 
as to resemble a j (without the dot) ; but I am sure that it has not tlie 
usual form of a capital I, In my opinion, it was only meant for the first 
stroke of an m, and the word intended by the corrector was monynge^ 
which is also the reading in Mr. Wright's edition of the text. 

vnomfnge ine flesche may possibly mean the same as mone of fleschey 
flesches {fleschlich) mone, sexual intercourse. But, as far as I can see, 
monynge is not used in the sense of mone, ymone^ anywhere else, and 
I would, therefore, suggest to write ioympigej with reference to 56/1583 : 
Ine tdessche ( = Jlessche) ioyne]> man and wyf» 

68/1940 ff. The publication of bumis by the minister in church, which 
had been a local custom only, was made obligatory by the 51st canon of 
the fourth Lateran Council under Innocent III., who, after having declared 
his adherence to the ordinances of his predecessors concerning clandestine 
marriages, continues as follows : ^* Quare specialem quorundam locorum 
consuetudinem ad alia generaliter propagando statuinius ut, quum matri- 
monia fuerint contrahenda, in ecclesiis per presbyteros publico propo- 
nantur, competenti termino praefinito, ut intra ilium qui voluerit et valuerit 
legitimum impedimentum opponat, et ipsi presbyteri nihiloininus investi- 
gent, utrura aliquod impedimentum obsistat," c. 3 X. (IV-3). Subsequent 
Councils have added special injunctions as to the time and manner of 
proclaiming the banns (*on three several Sundays or Holidays*), the 
interval between the complete publication and the solemnization of 
marriage, etc. See Schulte, * Eherecht,' p. 39 f. 

68/1945-6. destorher answers to O.Fr. desto{u)rbier, desto(u)rbery used 
M a subst. in the sense of * disturbance, impediment.' See Godefroy, s. v. 

214 Nates. Pages 69-71, Lines 1951-2009. 

auaye, inform of, bring forward, allege (an impediment to such a 

69/1951. iei/ig]>, reckons (by tally), calculates, makes estimates. 

The subject of stanzas 280-282 is the " impedimentum impotentiae." 
Cp. Gratian, C. 33, quaest. 1 ; Decret. Greg. IV-15. For particulars see 
Freisen, 1. c. § 30 ; Schulte, * Eherecht,' p. 81 ff. 

Impotence, in the canonical sense, means inability for sexual union 
(" impotentia coeundi "), as distinguished from the incapacity of procreat- 
ing children ("impotentia generandi"). It is an "impedimentum dirimens " 
if it can be proved to have existed in either of the parties already before 
marriage ("impotentia antecedens "). In this case the marriage, being 
vitiated by the impossibility of fulfilling its end, may be dissolved, unless 
the parties consent to live together like brother and sister. But impot- 
ence is not a cause of divorce if it happens after marriage (" impotentia 
subsequens"). See 11. 1961-67.—2e^, 1. 1962, letti'ng, 1. 1966, = hindrance 
(soil, to do ]>e flesches seruysef or dette). There is a natural and absolute 
impotence, caused by some constitutional defect (" impotentia naturalis, 
absoluta ;" cp. 11. 1963-65: ilet . . By kende, naturally prevented); and 
an accidental impotence ("impotentia accidentalis "), wliich may also 
be relative (" relativa " or "respectiva "), in that it renders sexual inter- 
course impossible only with a certain person. This was generally ascribed 
to maleficiation, and persons thus * bewitched* were required to cohabit 
with their partners for the space of three years, according to the Roman 
law (Justin., Nov. 22, c. 6 ; see Shoreham, 11. 1968-74). If, however, after 
the lapse of that time they could prove their impotence by the help o^ 
seven compurgators (which is not mentioned by Shoreham), they mights 
claim separation. 

70/1980. stren, O.E. (:^e-)8treon, procreation, progeny. 

70/ 1 98 1, loste makes no ryme with cryste, 1. 1979. We might per- 
haps write leste (cp. plur. leste»^ 22/588) for loste, thus getting an « : c 
ryme, of which there are only few unquestionable instances in Shoreham, 
though the spelling e for i, even in ryme, is not unfrequently found in the 
MS.— flesches lost, " concupiscentia camis" ("sine qua nequeunt vir et 
mulier comraisceri ; ** Hugo de St. Victore, Migne, 176, 155). 

70/1985. destrayned, constrained, compelled; cp. destresse, L 1990„^Br ' 
constraint, compulsion. 

70/1989. hysemeTy O.E. Hsmor, shame, disgrace. . 

70/1996 ff. The doctrine of a threefold good in marriage originatedl^^^ 
with S. Augustine, and has ever since been repeated by ecclesiastical^^ — * 
writers on the subject of marriage. Hugo de St. Victore, for instance, 
says (Migne, 176, 157), referring to Augustine: "Sunt igitur tria bom 
coniugii . . de quibus sic dicit Augustinus : Bonum nuptiarum trii>artitu] 
est: fides, proles, sacramentum. In fide attenditur ne post vincului 
coniugale cum altero vel altera concumbatur ; in prole, ut amanter susci- 
piatur, religiose educetur; in sacramento, ut coniugium non Beparetnr, 
et dimissus aut dimissa nee causa prolis ulteri coniugatur. Et attende 
quod tertium bonum ideo vocatur sacramentum, (^uia signnm est 
sacrae rei, hoc est inseparabilis coniunctionis quae est mter Christum et 

70/1997. We may note here the exceptional use of signe to render thi 
Latin " sacramentum," that is, ofholyhmge signe. 

70/2005. wame]>f refuses, from O.Kt. weman, W.S. wieman, 

70/2006. strene, procreate. 

70/2007. en-neite, adv. uselessly (O.E. unmftt). 

71/2009. in lette (subst.), in suspension. 

Notes. Pages 71-73, Lines 2021-2072. 215 

71/2021. hare ofer (O.E. d(io)J)er), either of them. 

71/2024. Orcomey come to, attain. 

71/2031 ff. Husband and wife were obliged to abstain from sexual 
intercourse on holy days, as well as in sacred places ; though the obliga- 
tion was, at least in later times, what it still is, a moral rather than a 
legal one as regards holy days. See Gratian, C. 33, quaest. 4: Petr. 
Lombard. (Migne, 192, 923); Freisen, 1. c. p. 850 ff. 

71/2035. ^yy/felfe ! Spy 1 take to be imperat of spiwenj O.E. smwauj 
O.N. spyja. In Stratm.-Bradley the imperat 9pi is quoted from A. K. 310. 
fdpe IS of course Mn.E. filth. The whole seems to be an exclamatory 
utterance of disgust at the foulness of the crime mentioned in tlie next 
two lines. 

71/2037. * unnatural is their unhappy doing, their wickedness.' Cf. 
unhappiness, unhappy in Shakespeare; and in Shoreham, 99/40: fat 
(aore And) on-yselyfer, 

72/2041. In nare flesche toerche, to work in their (own) flesh, to have 
sexual intercourse. 

72/2042. By-fdde^ O.E. 6c^an, Kt -fUan^ to befoul. It is the inflected 
pa. pple. in the plural, referring to hy. The nature of the union between 
Mary and Joseph has been made the subject of many a subtle disquisi- 
tion, from the earliest times up to the present day. S. Augustine attempted 
to prove that it was a real marriage, possessing as it did all the essential 
elements of such, especially the threefold good of " fides," " proles," and 
** sacrameiitum." See Gratian, C. 27, quaest. 2. Augustine's argumenta- 
tion is highly artificial, but his opinion has become prevalent ; see Freisen, 
§ 11. I remember having heard the designation of '^Joseph's Ehe'^ 
(Joseph's marriage) applied to marriages in which the parties were 
known to have bound themselves to strict continence, as Mary and 
Joseph were supposed to have done by mutual consent Mutual consent 
is necessary for ^at purpose, because either party has a right to demand 
of the other the rendering of the conjugal debt (" debitum coniugale ") ; 
see 1. 2051. This is also the reason why in a consummated marriage the 
separation of husband and wife for the purpose of entering religion 
requires that both of them should consent to take the vows ; see 1. 2059 ff., 
and Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 912). 

72/2057. yys holy soiden, the consecrated virgins (and widows) bound 
by vows of chastity, who have chosen Christ for their heavenly bride- 
groom : "quae Christo spiritualiter nubunt" (Innocent I.). 

72/2061. to take to religion, " se convertere ad religionem," to enter 

73/2070. In the footnote I have proposed to write To sauue instead of 
No 8awt£, for which we may compare * Amis and Amiloun,' ed. Kolbing, 
1. 1624 : (Inal fe court was ]>er no vn^t }>at wold seriie hvm fare). To saue 
a gentil child. 

73/2071-2. Leaving the case of "conversion" apart (see 11. 2059-65), 
adultery is the only cause for which a separation of husband and wife has 
been granted by the Church. This is in accordance with the words of 
Clirist in the Bible. The Bomish Church has always treated the marriage 
bond as indissoluble, acting on the principle that " quod Deus coniunxit 
homo non separet." Married persons cannot, therefore, be divorced, only 
separated "a mensa et thoro." Even in such cases as constitutional 
impotence, constraint, error, in which a sentence of divorce may be pro- 
nounced, it is not, properly speaking, ^* a vinculo matrimonii," because 
the contract made under any such impediment cannot, from the very 
nature of the cases, be considered a real marriage. In consequence of the 

216 Notes. Pages 73-74, Lities 2077-2100. 

indissolnbility of marriage, the parties separated " a mensa et thoro " are 
bound to live chastely and continently, being prohibited during each 
other's life from contracting matrimony vrith other persons. See Shoreham, 
11. 2073-75. It was, however, a considerable time before this prohibition 
could be generally enforced, as it interfered with the practice sanctioned 
by the existing secular laws and customs. See on the subject Freisen, 
§§ 67-70. 

73/2077. Nygt = nys it ; gahbe (O.N. gahh), idle talk, lie. 

73/2078-9. " Matrimonium separatur propter adulterium mulieris, et, si 
vir postea fomicetur, redintegratur," c. 5 X (IV-19) ; see, too, c. 7 X. 
(V-16); Gratian, C. 32, quaest. 6.— a, 1. 2079, = he; fcya, accus. sing, 

73/2081. The object of the verb craue is hijs tvyfy 1. 2083. According 
to Jewish notions, it was the husband's duty to*put away his wife for the 
cause of fornication : " qui tenet adulteram, stultus est et impius " (Prov. 
xviii. 22). This view was adopted by the Church, with the qualification 
necessary to conform it to the existing rules of penance. Adultery was a 
crime for which public penance had to be done. The term varied between 
two and seven years. During this time of penance, all sexual intercourse 
with the adulterous party was prohibited. If a husband refused to dis- 
miss his adulterous wife, and continued to have sexual intercourse with 
her, he made himself guilty of the same crime, and was to suffer the same 
penance for it Adultery thus being an impediment which made the 
continuation of marriage unlawful, it was not till the crime had been 
expiated by the performance of the prescribed penance that reconciliation 
was granted, and even desired, though not exacted, by the Church. The 
whole question is treated by Gratian in C. 32, quaest. 1. When public 
penance came into disuse, repudiation likewise ceased to be obligatory. 
See Petr. Lombard., Distinct, xxxv. 5: "Quod possunt reconciliari qui 
separantur causa fornicationis " (Migne, 192, 928 f.). 

73/2092. so I refer to the contents of the following stanzas (st. 300 f.). 
But then, by-suoykep is not, perhaps, the right expression ; for the cases 
of violation of the marriage-bed mentioned in the following paragraph 
are characterized by the very absence of any wilful treachery or intention- 
al fraud, and do not, therefore, fall under the notion of adultery. So it 
is just because there is no *byswykyng* of each other implied in the 
offence, that the parties mo^e nou^t owmvestne (unfasten, separate). The 
cases in which a husband forgoes the right of action for adultery against 
his wife are enumerated by Tancredus in his *Summa de Matrimonio' 
(quoted by Freisen, p. 846) : '* primus est, si ipse convincitur fornicari " 
(Shoreham, 11. 2078-9); "secundus est, si ipse prostituit earn" (Shorehara, 
74/2101-2) ; "tertius est, cum ipsa credebat virum defunctum, et nupsit 
alii, quia maritus rediens tenetur eam recipere, non obstante tali adulterio, 
nisi steterit scienter cum secundo marito postquam primus venit " (Shoreh. 
11. 2103-7) ; " quartus est, si cognita fuit latenter ah alio quem credebat 
esse proprium virum" (Shoreh. 73/2094-97); **quintus est, si fuit vi 
oppressa" (Shoreh. 74/2099-2100); "sextus est, si eam reconciliavit 
sibi post adulterium commissum, vel eam adulterantem scienter retinet" 
(Shoreh. 74/21 15-21). Tancred's seventh case is not mentioned by 

74/2100. houre = hore, whore, adulteress. — For the peculiar sense of 
lore we may compare v. 67 of * The Nut-Brown Maid ' in Skeat's Speci- 
mens of Engli^ Literature : I thinke not nay, hut as ye saye, it is noo 
maydens lore, — where maydens lore is equivalent to maydens lawe in v. 
61: I councd yow, remember how it is noo maydens lawe Nothing to 

Notes. Pages 74-75, Lines 2103-2143. 217 

dotoUy etOw latoe is explained by Skeat to mean ' custom or rule.* Cp. also 
* Le regret de Maximian ' (MS. Digby 86), v. 22-23 :— 

po gon him rewe sore 

Al nis wUde lore, 
i, e. * his wild habits, ways of life ; ' and see Vamhagen's note upon this 
passage in * Anglia,' iii. 282, where he quotes another M.E. example of 
the use of lore in the sense of * manner, way ' (** Art und Weise ") from 
E. E. A. P. i. 236 : Endynande lotoe in toommon lore, Cp., too, la^Bj 33/ 


74/2103. I have restored the original reading of the MS., rejecting the 

senseless alterations of the reviser which Wright has put in the text. 

74/2104. weddy (subjunct) for weddep is demanded by the ryme. 
For the change of mood, which is not uncommon iu Shoreham, cp. stanza 
300 (he 1. 2094,— ii«nef 1. 2096) ; also 33/930-31, 94/251-2, I3I/31-4, 

74/2105-7. Contrary to the provisions of secular legislation, the Church 
of Rome maintained that a marriage contracted by a person already 
married before, on the supposition of the former partner's death, was 
to be dissolved, and the first redintegrated, if the supposition proved 
erroneous. See Gratian, c. 1-2, C. 34, quaest. 1 ; also Lucius in c. 3 X. 
(IV-21), and the third case of Tancredus quoted above. The party, how- 
ever, thus acting in good faith, cannot be repudiated on tlio ground of 
adultery committed by the 'subsequent marriage (" nisi steterit scienter 
cum secundo marito postquam primus venit'') ; and this, I believe, is the 
sense of the lines in question. 

74/2108-14. The partner's long absence, eg. on a pilgrimage, does 
not warrant the other party to dissolve the marriage-bond, unless there 
be reliable evidence of his or her death. 

74/2110 appears to have been altered in the MS. From the traces 
left of the original reading, I conjecture that the poet himself wrote : 

On-wedded ^on abyde schel 
Wet [p]o}>er jpdsse^ a^e 

By kende ; 
i. e. 'unwedded the one shall abide till the other passes the natural limits 
of man's age.' The emendation onrwedded is suggested by a cor- 
responding expression in the following canon, Gratian, c. 4, C. 34, quaest. 
1: "Si quis necessitate inevitabili cogente in alium ducatum sen 
provinciam fugerit, et eius uxor . . . eum sequi noluerit, ipsa omni 
tempore, quamdiu vir eius quem secuta non fuit vivit, semper inrwipta 

74/21 15-21. Tancred's sixth case ; see note to 73/2092. 

74/2116. J>e gdt^ the guilt, i. e. the committed adultery. 

74/2119. In tome, — tome means * leisure;' but in the bob- verse here, 
as also in 1. 2140, where the same ryme occurs, it is used as a mere 
expletive with probably no great force of meaning. 

74/2125. For the insertion of o/cp. 69/i66i. 

76/2131. If Wat is not a scribal error for ])a*, this is the only instance 
in Shoreham of vxnt as a relative referring to an antecedent. 

75/21^7, The reference is to 66/1562-65. werche^ to treat of, occurs 
in the same passage. 

76/2141. aueyementj 0. Fr. aveiement, instruction, information. 

lb/2142. Louke\ is merely another spelling for I6ke\. The contextual 
meaning seems to be * guards.' I have, therefore, proposed to change for 
into frara, 

Ibl2i4'ift, See Apocalypse v. 1-6. 

218 Notes. Pages 76-79, Lines 2157-2239. 

76/2157 ff. Cp. Albertus Magnus, * Compendium Theologicae Veritatis,' 
Lib. VI. cap. 4 : *^ Sacramenta figurata sunt in septem signaculis qaibus 
fait veteris testamenti pagina sigillata ; quae agnus, qui habet clavem 
David quae claudit et nemo aperit, reseravit." 

76/2 16 1. To tounne probably means no more here than in the well- 
known phrase come to toune, A similar expletive is in toune; see 
Zupitza's note to 1. 5841 of the * Bomance of Guy of Warwick* (15th cent, 

77/2214. ome [:yomes]? O.E. ome means 'unhealthy, harmful,' 
which will hardly suit the context here. May we, perhaps, write : no 
'pyng un- {on')orne, no mean thing ? — pornes might be altered into fame 
(for ^omen^ dat. plur.) to make it ryme with orne. 

78/222o£E. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 92): "Sicut enim 
muiier de latere viri dormientis facta est, sic Ecclesia de sacramentis 
quae de latere Christi dormientis in cruce profluxerunt, scilicet sanguis et 

78/2227 ff. These lines evidently contain a paraphrase of the words of 
the Apocalyse, iii. 7 ; " qui aperit, et nemo claudit ; claudit, et nemo 
aperit. ' — derte^ 78/2230, [: schette] is doubtless miswritten for dette (O.E. 
dyttan). So the emendation I have put in the text, — Jfat none ofer can 
(MS. man) dette, readily suggests itself. 

78/2231-33. *Lord, grant us that we may so hope (for) thy sacra- 
ments, that no error may elude our notice,' — or, * issue unawares from our 
lips ' — ]>at non errour ne ous a-scapye (see N. E. D. s. v. escape). This, it 
seems to me, is hardly consonant with the tenor of the preceding address 
to our Lord, * who could open what no man could unshut,' etc., from 
which we should rather have expected that the poet was going to pray 
for the right way to be shown by the Lord of openivig or disclosing the 
mysteries of the sacraments, so that no error concerning them might 
escape us. I suspect here some blunder of the scribe's, which is also 
suggested by the imperfectness of the ryme hopye [: ascapye"], 

78/2239. for ]>e tokene ]fat we neme, for the sign (or signs) which we 
have received, pe tokene means ^ the 8acrament(s)' : '* sacramentum est 
sacrae rei signum." A similar prayer is offered up by the priest at the 
conclusion of the mass : '^ Perficiant in nobis, Domine, quaesumus, 
sacramenta tua quod continent, ut quod nunc specie gerimus, rerum 
veritate capiamus." nevne is a possible form of the preterite ; the usual 
form in Shoreham is noms. 

Page 79. Poem No. II. presents itself as a combination of the " Horae 
Passionis Domini" with the "Horae Compassionis B. Virginis Mariae." 
In medieval Hours this combination is not quite uncommon. The late 
Canon Simmons, in his edition of the * Lay Folks' Mass Book ' (E. E. T. S. 
1879), p. 349, notices that in the MS. (xvi. K, 6) in the York Minster 
Library, from which he has printed his Hours of the Cross, these hours 
are inserted in the hours of the Virgin. By the kind help of Mr. A. E. 
Yinter I got from Canon Kaine some extracts from the MS. of those 
hours of the Virgin ; it appears, however, that they bear no resemblance 
whatever to the text of Shoreham. 

For his version of the " Horae Passionis," or " Horae Crucis," as they 
are also called, Shoreham made use of the well-known Latin Horae which 
begin : 

" Patris sapientia, 
Veritas divina" etc., 
and of which there are other metrical versions in M.E. : one in ' Legends 
of the Holy Rood,' ed. Morris (E. E. T. a 1871, p. 222) ; another in ' Minor 

Notes, Pages 79-81, Lines 1-60. 219 

Poems of the Vernon MS.,' ed. Ilorstraann (E. E. T. S. 1892, p. 37) ; a third 
in the * Lay Folks' Mass Book,' p. 82. The Latin text lias often been 
printed ; for particulars see 'Lay Folks' Mass Book,' p. 347, and 'Analecta 
Hymnica Medii Aevi,' ed. Clemens Blume and Guido M. Dreves, vol. xxx. 
p. 33. 

It is by no means unlikely that the stanzas on the compassion of the 
Virgin, too, which Shoreham has inserted in the hours of the passion, 
may have been composed from some Latin original. Similarities of 
thought and expression are, indeed, not unfreqaently met with in Latin 
poems on the subject. But the Reverend Father C. Blume, S.J., co- 
editor of the * Analecta Hymnica,' assures me that neither in the printed 
** Compassiones," nor in the numerous MS. texts that are still waiting for 
publication, is there anything exactly corresponding to the verses of 
Shoreham. Nevertheless, an immediate Latin source for the stanzas in 
question may have existed in Shoreham's time ; for we ought to consider 
that more than half of the hymnic poetry of the Middle Ages has been 
lost for ever. 

79/1-4 contain a paraphrase of the Latin words : " Domine, labia 
mea aperies : Et os meum annunciabit laudem tuam." — In 1. 2 and 1. 4, 
where the ryme-words are written in a later hand on an erasure, the 
original reading seems to have been altered ; but I am unable to restore it. 

79/5-10. " Deus, in adiutorium meum intende : Domine, ad adiuvan- 
dum me festina. Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui sancto: Sicut erat in 
principio et nunc et semper in saecula saeculorum. Amen." 

79/1 1-18. The Latin runs : 

" Patris sapientia, Veritas divina, 
Deus homo captus est hora matutina. 
A notis discipulis cito derelictus, 
ludaeis est venditus, traditus, afflictus." 

79/19-22. "Adoramus te, Christe, et benedicimus tibi : Quia per 
sanctam crucem tuam redimisti mundum." — 8O/23 ff. " Oremus. Domine 
lesu Christe, fill Dei vivi, pone passionem, crucem et mortem tuam inter 
indicium tuum et animas nostras, nunc et in hora mortis nostrae ; et 
largire digneris vivis misericordiam et gratiam, defimctis veniam et 
requiem, ecclesiae [regnoque] pacem et concordiam, [infirmis sanitatem] 
et nobis peccatoribus vitam et gloriam sempiternam. Qui vivis es regnas 
cum Deo Patre in unitate Spiritus sancti per omnia saecula saeculorum. 

80 /26. ryue^ said of Christ's satisfactory death, seems to be used 
here in a specij&c sense : * abundant in merits, of superabundant meri- 
toriousness.' On IO9/307 ryf occurs in its usual sense : ]>a* semie hys 
ryf in londe, 

80 /3 1. ]>e lyiies translates Latin "vivis." For this use of the genit. 
lyues see Matzner, Sppr. II. under lify and Einenkel, * Streifziige,' p. 175 ; 
though the instance here is somewhat different from those collected by 

8O/40. momej sad, mournful ; cp. O.E. unmum. 

8I/51-58. " Hora prima ductus est lesus ad Pilatum, 

Falsis testimoniis multum accusatum 
In coUo percutiunt, manibus ligatum, 
Vultum Dei conspuunt, lumen caeli gratum." 

81 /60. There can be no doubt that morwe is the right word here. But 
I am not quite certain that what I take to be the old runic character for 
w was not, after all, meant by the blundering scribe for a ]). That he 
should have found the runic w in his original is not very likely, Shoreham 

220 Notes. Paffes 81-85, Lines 71-170. 

himself having probably written mor^e [: aor^e"]. Still, there is another 
trace of the runic letter in the MS. ; see 30/84 1, footnote. 
81/7 1-78. "Crucifigel clamitant hora tertiarum, 

Illusus induitur veste purpurarum, 
Caput eins pungitur corona spinarum, 
Crucem portat humeris ad iocum poenarum." 
81 /72. ondre, like O.B. undem, here denotes the third hour of the 
day, nine in the morning. 

8 1/74. to wondre^ wondrous, prodigious; see Matzner, Sppr. I. 2, 
p. 18, 4. 

82/82. semde, from semen^ O.W.S. stemomy to load. 
82/8 5. to-bonedy for to-botined ? cp. tobunefj 0. & N. 1 1 66. The meaning 
is — * beaten severely.' Cf. M.B. haunsen, (Mn.B. bouiwe\ to beat, knock, 
from *bunsiani frequent, of a primit *huniom? (Kluge, * English Ety- 
mology,' 8. V. homwe). 

82/90. jewysBf O.Fr.jttise, judgment, jurisdiction, dominion. 
82/91-98. "Hora sexta Jesus est cruci conclavatus, 

£t est cum latronibus pendens deputatus ; 
Prae tormentis sitiens felle saturatus, 
Agnus crimen diluit sic ludificatus.'' 
83/104. tuat y (— hy) mende, what they meant. 
83/105. l^owi = yer-a/ii (on\ on the cross. 
83/i I i-i 18. '' Hora nona Dominus lesus exspiravit, 

Heli damans animam patri commendavit ; 
Latus eius lancea miles perforavit, 
Terra tunc contremuit, et sol obscuravit." 
83/128. for mire mende^ for our reparation. Cp. 168/831 : To mannes 
rnende. These are two unquestionable examples of Shorehani's use of the 
aphetic form mende. The first of them is quoted in Matzner's Sppr. 
II. 422. We may also mention that ** reparatio '* is a theological term 
used by ecclesiastical writers to denote the restoration of man after the 
lapse of Adam ; his redemption by Christ's incarnation, passion and deatli. 
Thus, Hugo de St. Victore inscribes the chapter in which he treats of 
the subject (De Sacramentis, 1. I. p. viii. cap. 1) : " De Heparatione 

84/131--138 : "De cruce depouitur hora vespertina, 

Fortitude latuit in mente divina ; 
Talem mortem subiit vitae medicina, 
Heu, corona gloriae iacuit supina." 
84/133. lotede, lay hid, "latuit"; O.E. lutian (u or t^? the M.E. 
spelling with o would sug/2:est O.E. u), 

84/141. as a mesel. The same comparison occurs in Rich. Rolle's 
*Meditations on the Passion' ('Library of E.E. Writers,' ed. Horstmann,vol. 
1. p. 85) : 80 lothly and so vylatsome he Iius han ]>e mad, ]>at a mysel art 
you lyckere ]>an a dene man. It is also met with in Latin poems, for 
instance, in ^Analecta Hymnica,* vol. xxxi. p. 66: "Ibi pendet ut 
leprosus Hie forma speciosus," etc. Ibid. p. 68 : " Ego tamquam vir 
leprosus. Pauper, inops, dolorosus, Morte mortem supero." 

84/142. in spote — from *spdt, spittle? Cp. *Castel of Love,' 1. 1147 : 
And al vxis his face hi-f&idet wi\) spot [: smot, pret]. 
84/i 5 1-58. " Hora completorii datur sepulturae 

Corpus Christi nobile, spes vitae futurae ; 
Conditur aromate, complentur scripturae, 
lugis sit memoriae mors haec mihi curae." >» 

86/170. mytte = mid \>e, . 

Notes. Pages 85-89, LiTies 171-104. 221 

85/171-78. "Has boras canonicas cum devotione 

Tibi, Cbriste, recolo pia ratione, 
Ut, qui pro me passus es amoris ardore, 
Sis mihi solacium mortis in agone." 

86/4. lovde and stylle; see Skeat's note to 'P. Plowman/ B. ix. 105. 
Cp. also Shoreham, 32/891 : Wei stylle, a/iid noVyng lovde, 

86/6. nordiylle = ne adryUe ; — adrylle, to slide or slip away (see N. E. 
D. 8. v.), 

86/11. Ezod. xziii. 22 ; ''Quod si audieris vocem eius, et feceris 
omnia quae loquor, inimicus ero inimicis tuis, et affligam affligentes te.'' 

86/15-16. Exod. xxiii. 20: "Ecce ego mittam angelum meum, qui 
praecedat te, et custodiat in via, et introducat in locum quem paravi.'' 

86/23-24 seem to contain a reference to Ecclesiustes vii. 2 : 
" Melius est nomen bonum quam unguenta pretiosa." 

87/38. ine many a felde {=fecMe\ in many a leaf (of the holy book) ; 
see N. E. D. s. v. fold, sb.^, 2. 

87/39, 47* P«^' chatytey see Kolbing, * Amis and Amiloun/ xlvii. 

87/54. ine nolle is a mere expletive here. . 

88/57-60. Matth. xxii. 40: "In his duobus mandatis universa lex 
pendet, et prophetae." — gestes is here used in the sense of ' sayings,* as in 
* P. Plowman,* C. xii. 23 : lob, the gentU and vrys, in /mw gestes wytnesseth 
What shal ivixrthe of suche whenne thei lyf leten . . . The sauter seith tJie 
same. . . 

88/63. y-schodred, pa. pple., according to Stratm.-Bradley (where, 
by the way, ischodred Ven is falsely quoted from Shoreham instead of 
yschodred hen, and the lorm mistaken for the preterite), belongs to M.E. 
schiuieren, to shudder. This is doubtful, schfideren is not a transitive 
verb, and one cannot, therefore, say that * many are shuddered from the 
feasts of the heavenly kingdom (for want of love).' I suspect that the 
re visor of the text, who found in the copy the unintelligible yschoded 
(or yscheded?), has put the r in the wrong place, meaning to write 
yschroded (or yschreded) = O.E. ^escreadod. As to yschoded, may it not, 
perhaps, have been a clerical error for yschoven (or yschoved), owing to 
the copyist's confounding the letters v and d ? The pret. schoimed occurs 
in * Library of E. E. Writers,* ed. Horstmann, vol.Ui. p. 58, 1. 1, MS. Reg, 17, 
B. xvii. We certainly expect a verb signifying * to separate, exclude,' or 
' push, drive away from.' Note also the Midland form ben for the Kentish 
form 6eJ>. 

89/87. ««*«> tJi© Jofin. without' to, as on 96/295. See Matzner, * Gramm.' 
ii. 24. 

89/95, 96. The reading I have adopted in 1. 95 is Dr. Fumivall's 
conjecture. It leaves seive, 1. 96, unexplained, and the faulty rymes 
uncorrected. I propose the following emendation of the two lines : 

In 'pese ]>re J>c loue of god 
ScJiewyj) were hyt hys \\f''\sowe, 
Schewyp, intrans., shows itself ; were = hwere, where ; [i/-]50i(?e, sown. 
For y-sowe cp. * Rob. of Cisyle,' ed. Nuck, v. 458 : 

And ftts is Godes mi^t ysowe, 
pat hey^e he Imve, fctj hit ben iUe, 
And lowe hei^e, at Godes wiUe. 
The ryme-word reioe, 1. 94, has accordingly to be altered into rowe, 

89/ 102. O/fe/'pc "jpon ne schryne, *do not care for theft,' is rather an 
awkward expression, no doubt due to the exigence of ryroe. pmi ]>c 
schiyue would sound equally strange in the Decalogue. 

89/104. for-stryue, strive for : not recorded elsewhere ; see N. E. D. 

222 Notes. Pages 89-92, Lines 107-204. 

89/107. /ay^^fj breaks, or leaves undone : aH earlier instance of the 
transitive use of the verb in this sense than those given in the N. E. D. 
under fati, v. 9^ and 10. 

89/ 1 1 8. healde can hardly be anything here but another spelling of 
ealde : * God's old commandments.' For the position of the adjective, cp. 
88/70 : by dales ealde, 

90/122. If by the boke ofwysdome referred to by the poet the biblical 
"Liber Sapientiae" is meant, his memory must have failed him. That 
book contains nothing about the necessity of knowing and rehearsing the 
commandments. In 1. 127 there is a quotation from Proverbs vii. 3 : 
" Liga earn (scil. legem meam) in digitis tuis ; " but cf. also Deuteron. 
vi. 7-9 ; xi. 18-20. 

90/i29ff. I have not been able to trace the peculiar idea expressed 
here of a relation between the ten commandments and the ten fingers and 
toes to its source. It almost reminds one of the * ten commandments ' 
{L e, the ten fingers or finger-nails) in Shakspere's 2 Henry VI., I. iii. 146, 
and elsewhere. 

90/136. for-broude=for-brode, pa. pple., corrupt, perverted ; cp. 96/310. 
^/i37' passioun-lyche^ passionately? (Fr. passionn^ment ?) It is 
perhaps mis written for pa^sdnglychCf passingly. 

91/150. tidper rawe ne y-sponne^ neither raw nor spun : a proverbial 
saying, as it seems, meaning something quite useless. 

91/154. a rowe, cp. in fe rcywe (MS. rewe), 89/94; see also Zupitza's 
note to Athelston, 571, * Engl. Stud.' xiii. 400. 

91/160. a knotoe, on (thy) knees ; cp. a fc[n]oi-e?es yfalle, I22/230. 
91/166. oroce, tear; hyt refers to here lyknges lace. Shoreham has 
also the form arache, pa. pple. arached, I49/584. 

91/167. 'That thou mightst hold . . . of no worth, think nothing of.' 
91/172. brouches, ryngesj see Skeat's note to * P. Plowman.' I. 73. 
92/178. tdiinge^ practice of magic. 

92/180. botninge here means 'help,' not 'amendment,' as Stratm.- 
Bradley, referring to this passage in Shoreham, has it. The sense is : 
* Do not even believe in images ( as if they possessed in themselves any 
miraculous power) ; although they may be a great help ' (especially to 
the unlearned : '* What writing is for the reader," says St. Gregory, " the 
image is for those who cannot read "). 

92/192. si^st is the scribe's spelling for si{t)st ; cp. 51/3*, 3rd pers., 42 
1 191, 107/244, 249, 139/287. The scribe is particularly fond of putting 
in a meaningless 3 before t. The sense of the passage, as I understand 
it, is : 'If thou findest that thou doest not honour God aright, amend, 
I beseech thee : thou art a fool (if thou doest not), and mightst do 
better, and so sittest in the smoke — i.e. thy eyes are bleared, so that 
thou doest not see thy own foolishness.' Cp. 'P. Plowman,' C. xx. 305 : 
For thorw smoke and smorthre smerteth hiis syghte, 
Tyl he be bler-eyed other blynde. 
92/196. kebbyng, bragging. — What is caiite? The ryme-words in 
11. 197-200, I fear, are hopelessly corrupt Kolbing thinks that some 
lines may be missing ; but there seems to be no gap in the sense : ' He 
that swears idly every day shall have much to answer for hereafter, when 
he shall give his accounts for every idle word.' See Matth, xii. 36 : 
"Dico autem vobis quoniam omne verbum otiosum quod locuti fuerint 
homines, reddent rationem de eo in die iudicii." 

92/204. aiiditour^ auditor, who receives and examines the accounts, 
and has power to ^fm-give the averages ' (arrearages! The N. E. D, gives 
the earliest instance of the noun in this sense from 'P. Plowman.' 

Notes. Pages 92-94, Lines 208-257. 223 

92/208. * Or I will come out very bitterly.* 

93/210. rote, rote, way, habit, practice. The necessity of changing 
wy)p into fy is obvious. 

93/2 1 8 ff. The exact signification of the phrase In pleye of 
'pretynge is not clear. The meaning of the whole passage, however, 
seems to be that gluttonous debauchery in private, or idle merry- 
making with other folk on mass-days, is even worse than working. 
Ought we, perhaps, to read prifue for fyne (MS. pyne)^ and in [m\eny 

93/236. te^t occurs once more on 95/285. The signification is in 
both passages the same : * to draw to oneself, to take.* In Stratm.- 
Bradley it is entered under tukten^ O.E. tyhtan, on the supposition, it 
seems, that O.E. i/yhtan gives M.Et. te:^ten^ 3rd sing. ind. pres. teit. But 
that is not the case. O.E. y before hb is raised to i in M.Rt., as is shown 
by drirte, flinty etc. ; and O.E. tyhtan would, accordingly, be represented 
by ti^ien, 3rd sing. ind. ores. tixt. Besides, the meaning of te^t wliich 
the context requires can hardly have been developed out of that of O.E. 
tyhtan. There is, however, a possibility of connecting te^t with- an infin. 
te, O.E. teon. te does occur in Shoreham, 124/266, ryming with he. The 
genuine M.Kt. forms, it is true, are ty [: by'\ ; and the 3rd sing. ind. pies, 
of ty is ti^f Cti\t)y or tik]>, or tip ; cp. zi^p, zy^t^ zik]), zyp, he^dy^p, heuhnt, 
etc., in * Ayenbite.* But Shoreham, or the scribe of the MS., has also In- 
vlekp (36/994) from hitde ; so he may as well have formed te^t (for te^p) 
from te. For the signification *to draw to oneself, to take,' see Bosw. 
Toller, s. v. teon^ 3, 

94/237-8. In baptism, man is made the child of God and Holy 
Church. But the Church cannot possibly be called his (ghostly) mother 
and father at the same time, as the MS. has it. I have not, therefore, 
hesitated to write : In fader cristes rrwne for the MS. reading — And fader 
in cristes mone. Cp. Optatus (Migne, 11, 963) : " ut, dum Trinitas 
cum fide concordat, qui natus fuerat saccule, renascatur spiritualiter Deo. 
Sic fit hominum pater Deus, sancta fit mater Ecclesia." Also Begino 
(Migne, 132, 338) : ** Pater noster sine dubio Deus est, qui nos creavit ; 
mater vero nostra Ecclesia, quae nos in baptismo spiritualiter genuit." 
The Church is frequently called "coniux Christi," with reference to 
Ephes. V. 25. Her union with Christ is also alluded to on 56/1564 and 

94/245. mannes de^te (Wright, «igfe), a man's slaughter, death. So also 
rrumsle^pe, 1. 249, manslaughter. But in 1. 261 it means *manslayer.* 
In * Ayenbite,* manda^pe, mansla^te is frequent in this sense. 

94/252. for-soke, pret. subjunct For the change of mood cp. note to 

94/255-6. fele pat god and orpe touke I take to mean * many who have 
got wealth on earth ' (" substantiam huius mundi," 1 John iii. 17). — 
orpe is a form used by the copyist for erpe ; and stands for an {on), as at 
107/258,124/291 (and erpe); I9/507 (and honde). But what is dere 
3er? * Dear year (or years), years of dearth * ? If so, the passage seems 
to mean that * suffering the poor to starve is purely homicide. And here it 
is especially years of dearth that accuse many a rich man (as murderer 
of his fellow-creatures).' But the expression is a little awkward. — ^The 
holy hoke mentioned in 1. 250 refers to 1 John iii. 17 : '* Qui habuerit 
substantiam huius mundi, et viderit fratrem suum necessitatem habere, 
et clauserit viscera ab eo : quomodo caritas Dei manet in eo ? ** 

94/257. 1 John iii. 15 : "Omnis qui odit fratrem suum homicida est." 

224 Notes. Pages 94-9G, Lines 260-295. 

94/260. The line is corrupt; 8la:^e ought to be daiey [idra^e^ 
: gnay^W I suggest that we may read : 

He fai hatyep eny man 

His seche (stich) as ]>at hym dayi\> ; or 

His eke he Vat hym da^ef, 

95/274-5. Cp. 112/381-84. See also *Ayenbite/ p. 204-205: Vor 
huo \et wile quenchs l^et iier of lecherie : he m^ot do away he alutynges ]>et 
myrisse]) zuych ver. \>et hie]> ]>e lostes and \e eyses of ]>e herte^ yet beme]> 
a/nd ali^te^ \>et tier of lecherie . . . And \>eniore, huo \>et wyle him loki 
uram beminge : he ssel do away \>e Uk hrondesy he wy\>dra^inges of mete, 
and of drinhe, and he ssai'pnesses of his bodie . . . Ac\>e greate myites, and 
\>et stronge wyn, ali^te\> a/nd norisse]> lecherie, ase oyle o\>er grese alixtei) and 
8treng\>e\> \>et uer. — Ibid. p. 240 : uor huo \>et wyle qu&nche \>ev uer of 
lecherie ine him-zelue : he ssel wy]>dra^e \>e brondes, \>et bye\> \>e lostes of \>e^ 
vlesse ... 

95/277. lovMpryn/ge may possibly be referred to lomper, which is 
recorded in HalliwelPs Diction, in the sense of (1) to iale; ^2) to 
walk heavily. Now, * idleness,' I believe, would suit here very well. It 
is often mentioned as an incentive to lechery, as are also gluttony, and 
luxuries of every kind. See, for instance, * Ayenbite,* p. 47-48 : To \>o 
zenne (i. e. lecherie of bodie) helonge\> aUe \>e \nnges huer-by \>et uless him 
a/inst, cmd wylne\> zuiche dede, ase bye\> \>e mochde drinkeres, and eteres, \>e 
zofte bed, do\>es likerouses, and alle manyere eyse of bodye, out of n/yede. 
and spectalliche : yddnesse. See also * Ayenbite,' p. 206-207. 

95/279. One might perhaps be tempted to write chastite for charyte. 
But we must not forget that charity, man's love of God and his neighbour, 
is the sum and substance of God's commandments ; and that any con- 
travention of His precepts, involving, as it does, negation of charity, 
may, therefore, be rightly said to annihilate or destroy charity. Cp. also 


95/280. \>rete spoils the ryme, though it yields as tolerable sense as 

could be demanded in a line that hardly serves for anything but a mere 

tag. I cannot think of any suitable ryme-word to be substituted for 

95/284. ]>efte is genitive, governed by vyydke rede, wicked course (of 
action), scheme. 

95/285. teity see note to 93/236. It is resumed in 1. 290 by take\>, 

95/286. The MS. has urymynghede, which is obviously an error of the 
scribe. But I am by no means sure that it was meant for wynnynghede, 
which I have put in the text as the nearest graphic approximation to it. 
Wynnynghede would, at any rate, be a somewhat strange new-formation, 
to which such compounds as tomochelhede, blyssedhede, onconnyng-ipncon- 
nynd-yhede in *Ayenbite* are no exact parallels. The meaning of the 
word must clearly be * appropriation ' ; for the passage runs : * All is 
theft that one takes with the intention of appropriating it to oneself 
against the right owner's will.* 

96/295. chere may possibly be miswritten for cliere ( = clere), a form 
very frequent in *Ayenbite.* — by diere of, to be clear of. Cp. *Septem 
Miracula de Corpore Christi' (from Rob. of Brunne's *Handlyng Synne') 
in * Minor Poems of the Vernon MS.,' P. i, p. 209, v. 421-424 : 

No \>ing mm) so muchel avayle 
Of heore peynes and heore trauayle 
As \>e sacrament of \>e Auter, 
Hit make]) hem of peynes deer. 
The instances given in the N. E. D, of the use of clear in the sense of 

Notes, Pages 96-99, Lines 324-344, 3-32. 225 

* quit, rid, free * are all of a later date. — Or is chere a corrupt spelling for 
schere (skere) ? See 105/ 183, and the note on that passage. 

96/324. glye. In Stratm.-Bradley there is a reference to our passage 
under alien, v. to squint, which yields no sense here. I take glye to be 
the M.Kt. equivalent of O.E. 3^10 ^li^y Mn.E. glee, pat so meche hys to 
glye may be rendered : *that gives so much delight.' Cp. 99/41 tf. : 

Ac Kwo sej eiter eny 
\>at hedde of senne glye, 
For pond o\)er for peny 
pat he ne changede hys blye, 
Shoreham also uses the form gle [: he], 98/20. Ought we perhaps to write 
vlye for glye ? 

97/339. pys two might seem to refer to the last two commandments, 
or else, to the two commandments of love. In the concluding lines of a 
didactic treatise, however, which contain the usual exhortation, we should 
rather expect to be entreated by the poet to take to heart all that has 
been urged in the foregoing discourse. This suggests the omission of txix), 
for which there are also metrical reasons. 

tdke\>, as well asfol^e]) in 1. 341, must be imperative. Here, then, we 
Lave an instance of direct speech being introduced by the conjunction ]>at. 

97/344. top (Job) ]>e gode. I have not been able to detect in the Book 
of Job any saying of the kind. 

98/3. fol [ijyi'al], formally considered, seems to represent O.E. (^e)feall, 
fall, ruin. O.Kt.f cell, fell, W.S.JieU, would be represented in M.Kt. hyfel{l). 
For \>ral, O.E. jprcell (from O.N. i>roell), we lind in * Ayenbite ' regularly 
\>relf plur. ]>7'elles; and it is not quite impossible that Shoreham, too, may 
have written \yrd [:fel], supposing that the O.Kt. fodl,fdl survived into 
M.Kt. li fal (or /eZ) is really the substant. meaning *fall, ruin,* he in the 
next line must be taken in the sense of the indefinite ' one.'— senne make\> 
many fal would then have to be translated : * sin makes (causes, brings 
about) many a fall.* But looking at the construction of make]> in 1. 1, 
which is — verb + direct object {many, used substantively, * many a one ') 
+ object-complement {yral), we might perhaps have expected a parallel 
construction here, that is, in place of the abstract fal, either a concrete 
common noun, or an adjective, or an infinitive as object-complement, 
with hem\, 4t referring to ma/ny. Can fal be any of these ? 

98/6. sitte a deys, sit on the dais or raised platform where the seats of 
honour are. For other instances of this coramom phrase see N.E.D. 
under dais, 2. 

98/7. storbyloun, not recorded in Stratm.-Bradley, is O.Fr. estoi'- 
heilion, estorhilon (see Godefroy), and- means * whirlwind, commotion, 
turbulence, tumult.' 

98/15. f>ryke\> ['-lyke])]. There is no other instance of the occurrence 
of a verb hyke than this single one in Shoreham. Its derivation is 
uncertain. The signification tentatively given to it in the N.E.D. is *to 
taste, or rise in the stomach.' 

98/20. game and glee, see Matzner, Sppr. II. and N. E .D. under game. 

99/30. Ase he hijs here ateynt, according as he is here attainted, 

99/31-2. If we retain dereynt in 1. 32, the reading of the MS. yields 
no sense. Kolbing suggests that we may perhaps write : 

And \>er (MS. her) nysfer namore \>er'to 
pa/ntie hys her (MS. fer) dereynt, 
which he translates: "Und dort (soil, im Purgatorium) ist des Feuers 
nicht mehr, als hier bewiesen ist, namlich in Bezug auf seine Siinden?' 


226 Notes. Pages 99-100, Lines 43-54. 

This means that man shall have to suffer in Purgatory for no more than 
he has been found guilty of here (on earth) — a rather flat and, at the 
least, superfluous remark, which we can hardly impute to the poet. I 
think we can get a perfectly satisfactory sense out of the two lines as 
they stand in the MS., if only we adopt the reading depeyfd for dereynt^ 
which the MS. itself seems to permit. We may then translate: *And 
fire here (earthly fire), as compared to it Qper-tOy i. e. to purgatories fere, 
1. 28), is no more than painted fire.* This suits tiie context, and is, more- 
over, corroborated by the following verses of a poem on * Hell, Purgatory, 
etc' (* Library of E. E. Writers," ed. Horstmann, vol. ii. p. 37, 11. 
97-100) ; 

F(yr as fire is haUer everywhere 

pen is afire paynted mi a wowe^ 

Right so pofire is hatter \)ore 

pen is ]>ofire here \>at we Icnoxve. 
The poet is speaking here of the fire of Hell. But a similar idea concern- 
ing the fire of Purgatory is expressed by Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 
893) thus : '^ Hie autem ignis, etsi aetemus non sit, miro tamen modo 
gravis est : excellit enim omnem poenam quam unquam passus sit aliquis 
in hac vita.** Cp. also v. 161 ff. of the said poem on *Hell, Purgatory, etc' 
— For ifo in the sense of * compared to, in comparison with/ see Matzner^ 
*Gramm.'IT.311; Einenkel,*Streifzuge,'p.213. I add a few more examples. 
* Ayenbite,' p. 162 : JELi yze\> of o\>er half \>et \>er ne is no tresor );>et mo^e 
hy wor\> to godes loue . . . , no blisse of j^e foordle \>et hy worp to \>e hlisse 
of Mene inwyt. Ibid. p. 179 : uorzo\)e hit ne is bote ssed, al \>et me do of 
penonce ine \>isse wordle, to \>e zi^\)e of \>e pine of heUe, o\>er of purgatorie 
(Note here the resemblance to what Petr. Lombard, says in the passage 
quoted above)^ * Library of E. E. Writers,' ed. Horstmann, vol. i. p. 33 : 
Wha so has it (viz. \>is maner cf soAig,) hym thynk al \>e sang <md J»e 
mynstrcdcy of erth noght biit sorow and waa \>ar-til. Two other examples 
occur in vol. ii. p. 38, v. 167, and p. 39, v. 260. 

99/43. For pond o]>er for pe^iy (MS. peyne), cp. * Poema morale' (MS. 
T.) 300 : 

^e svllen \hie'\ nafre cumen Htfor peni nefor punde. 
Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Prologue, v. 153-4 : 

For neuer her-after ivol I with him mete 
For peny ne for pound, I yow hi-hete, 
* Ayenbite,' p. 1 : Ne ssolle by dra^e to \>e grond : Vov peny, uor Mark, 
ne for pond, 

99/44. changede hys hlye, changed colour, hlye is, of course, the same 
word as Mn.E. 6iee. It is the regular M.Kt. representative of O.E. bllo. 
The N. E. D. seems to treat bly as a separate word (earliest quotation a. 
1615) : * perh. a variant of blee, though the phonetic relation is not clear.' 
But the relation of bly(e) to blee is exactly the same as that of gly(e) to 
glee ; iiry to free, zy to see, etc. 

100/50. «preJ3 [rdej?]. No other instance is known of the occurrence 
of spre\>. The form spre\>e given in Kluge's *Etymol. Worterbuch der 
deutschen Sprache,' and in Stratm. -Brad ley, where it is connected with 
Germ, sprode, is unauthorized ; though spre\>e [: after \>y depe] would be a 
possible ryme, if any alteration of the reading of the MS. were necessary. 
The meaning of spre\> here may really be * fragile,' in its figurative sense 
of * liable to err, or fall into sin.' 

100/51-54. wondy (imperat. 'ivonde, 1. 53) is O.E. wondian, here used 
as a transit, verb. Another instance of the same construction is found 
34/939: wonde none schame, where loonde means *fear, shun, shrink 

Notes. Pages 100-101, LiTies 59-94. 227 

from.* The usual construction with for occurs I4/364 ; for de\>e \he\ nde 
natizt vxynde. 

The passage here, literally translated, runs : ' Unless thou wilt shun, 
man, the torment after tliy death, shun (or shriuk from) the sorrov/ that 
is here following after thy sin.' This is a curious advice, if it is meant 
seriously. Moreover, it seems to me contradictory to what follows im- 
mediately in 11. 65-6 : 

And let \>e tyt \>e lassefer^ 

Whanne \>efal\> to he dead. 
\}e lassefer means * the j&re of Purgatory,* destined for him who does not 
shrink from the sorrow, that is, the remorse or repentance which wo 
feel when we realize the consequences of our wrong-doing (see 98/13-16, 
99/41-46), and which may be sufficient to save man from hell (see 99) 
25-28). The advice which the poet intended to give may, therefore, b6 
supposed to have been this — that we shall not be loatii to taste the 
sorrow for our sins here, unless we choose to experience the torments of 
hell after death ; and this sense, I think, is easily obtained by substituting 
tumdy, uonde (O.E. fondian) for toondy, wonde, as I have suggested in the 
footnote to the text. Cp. the spelling tdessche for vlessche^ 66/1583. 
100/59. wicnejy, O.E. myne^ian (remind), urge, prompt, incite. 
101/75. hy-lyme\^, entangles (as with bird-lime), ensnares. The earliest 
instance of hdvme given in the N. E. D. is of date 1656. 

101/78. hou ])e senne syb, what the state or condition of sin is. Gp 
133/91 flf.: 

Nou \ou sixte wd hmi hyt syt, 

]>ys ylke my^te atid eke 'pys tuyt, 

In aure hoke : 

]>e mytte hys fader of owe crede^ etc. 
I subjoin a few other examples of a particular use of the verb titte in 
Sboreham : — 42/i 191-94: pe lecherye amt (sit) in lenden of pe manne . . . 
inne naiide of }>c wymantie ; IO7/249 • P'r^ «V3* wkier ragye ; 77/220I-2 : 
fer a (Christ) set Ry^t atte hys pynyng-stake ; 1 37/204 • 9^ • • • V^^ ^ ^ 
he^e ; I39/286-7 : Ine ]>e gynnynge of holy wryt, Hou he hyt made^ ryyt ]>er 
hyt sy^t; 122/21 5: Ine ry^te so]>e hyt moste sitte ]>et, etc. — Al^ in the 
combination Al hou^ is probably a mere emphasizing adjunct to the 
particle /urn, though it might be regarded as a complement of the preceding 
36. Another instance occurs 84/143-4; 

For-bere vjepyng ne my^t hy 

'pat seye al hou \o\i weptyst. 

Of similar combinations, where al is joined to particles or prepositions, 

Shoreham uses : Al so, al to, al ase (I39/284, 150/6oo, I6O/884, 887) ; al 

Iwtj, al what = till (76/2171, I24/293, 166/739) ; oi /or foti (I3I/38, 161/ 

632); alfor ]>at (I53/698); alfram (I24/292); al ine (I2I/201) \ al into 


101/85-88. The first two lines present no difficulty, swelp may be 
3. sing. ind. pres. either of swde (O.E. stoelan, to inflame), or of sweUe 
(O.E. swellan, to swell), steng cannot be anything but Mn.E. O.E. stiivg. 
Tho spelling is probably due to the scribe. We may then translate : * The 
wound inflames (or swells) and aches as does the serpent's sting.' The 
sense of the following lines, 87-8, is obscure. They seem to be hopelessly 
corrupt, and I see no way of restoring the original reading. 

101/92. \>ori-sou:^t, searched through. Cp. Rob. Glouc. 161, 11: \>e 
poyson \>e veynes so ]^orwsourte. * Pety Job ' (* Library of E. E. Writers,' 
ed. Horstmann, vol. ii.), v. 30 : For synne hath so o^ire sovle thrn'ouy-sotight. 

101/94. dak\> I take to be 3. sing. ind. pres. of da^e, to slay. Cp. 

228 Notes. Pages 101-105, Lines 100-183. 

* Ayenb.' p. 61 : an \>et Menim sZa^j? ]>ri in one sti'oke. For the parallel 
forins dak\)y sla^jf^ cp. zyk\>, zy2\> ; wrik\>, lori:^. 

lOl/ioo. Literally: *As kind runs off in man.' Tiiis means: * As the 
human race is propagated in every single man.' 

102/103. I'^* ^8* to ^® supplied from the preceding line. 
102/104. * Baptism breaks, puts an end to, that strife.' The sinful man 
is at strife with God. But we must not, perhaps, stretch the sense of sbryf 
here too far. 

102/110. \>e route of fenym^ the course, the way which the poison 

102/115. ^J-Qf^^t brought into existence, created. 
102/116. coiU = cd, cold, comfortless ; see N. E. D. s. v. cool, a. 3 b, 
102/117. let has probably to be altered into ledde, pret, to make it 
agree with the other preterites in the sentence. 

102/121. vel\>e seems to be the mutated 3. sing. ind. pres. of falle, 
impers., to be fitting, proper, right. Shoreham has a few instances of 
mutated forms : fleup, kneujjj stent But the regular form of falle (ualle) 
in Shoreham, as well as in * Ayenbite,' is fdl\) (lioZj?). Is vel]>e perhaps an 
error for help\j? See 103/ 129, 139. — to clypye a^en must mean here *to 
call or cry out against, to remonstrate.' 

102/123. 1° order to get a ryme with a^en we shall have to alter won 
into iven. But what is wen ? O.E. toen ? We should then have to translate: 
'To reproach to God our weening belongs nowise to us,' which seems to 
mean that it is not for us to reproach God with having created us, and then 
coolly led us into mischief, as we foolishly think (see the two preceding 
stanzas). Supposing onre wen to imply so much, the expression, Ood ^ 
atwyte oure wen is still very awkward. Or can wen here mean *woe, 
misery ' ? Cp. IO4/158 : ^e at-wyt hym nau^t ]>y who ( = too). It is pos- 
sible, indeed, that in our passage we may have to start from the MS. 
reading toon, which may be miswritten for wo (the scribe having antici- 
pated the following n) ; in this case the corruption lies in the ryme-word 
a^en, 1. 121. 

102/125 ff. See Rom. ix. 20; Isaiah xlv. 9. — hrohhe^ IO3/131, speak 
querulously, murmur; see N, E. D. — lompety IO3/134, loam-pit. — ne^t, 1. 
136, = net, O.E. nyti. 

103/145. Observe here the different constructions of Wei and ivo. It 
should be remarked, however, that j^e may as well be a weakened form of 
\>on, instances of which are found in Shoreham, and very frequently in 
* Ayenbite.' 

103/146. tel nau^t lyite 0/, esteem not lightly ; cp. 9I/167. 
103/149. scheatve}), snows itself. 

104/165-6. See James iv. 6: " Dens superbis resistit, humilibus autem 
dat gratiam." 

104/167. I do not know what to lihhe amang ]>e lotiden means. If we 
adopt the emendation I have proposed in the footnote, amang \>e aloudea 
(from O.Fr. alouer), * among the approved,' we get the required contrast 
to 1. 168 : * when others are disgraced (or confounded).' 

104/172. \>or^ hys o^ene gale is quoted in the N. E. D. under gale, sb. 2, 
'singing, a song, merriment, mirth.' But I doubt if this is the sense 
which the context would lead us to expect. Should gale be miswritten for 
wale, choice, option ? 

104/177. ones seems to stand for onnesse, oneness, as we may infer 
from the following line: Ac hys ischyt (for hi-schyt? included) in \>ry. 
Or ought we to read : \)ys rruinere senne nan^t one nys ? 

IO6/183. sckere, O.N. skoer, clear, pure. Cp. 'Castel of Love' ('Minor 

Notes, Pages 105-107, Lines 18G-248. 229 

Poems of tlie Vernon MS.' I. p. 384), 1. 1 142 : To maken vs of sunne al quit 
a/nd skere. For the spelling cp. sckele^ 130/2o; sckyle^ 105/ 197. 

IO6/186. \>e \>o]tes \>at he kak\>e, the thoughts that he * catches,' con- 
ceives. kak\>, or kak\>e, in the spelling of the scribe, I take to be 3. sing, 
indie, pres. of cacche. Rob. Glouc. (Cotton MS.) has cacj?, v. 664. kekjj, 
as I have proposed to write in order to get a tolerable ryme with speke\> 
(phonet. spekp), stands in the same relation to kak\j as kecche stands to 
cacche. The iBfin. does not occur in Shoreham, but the other verbal forms 
used by him presuppose the infin. cacche. 

105/193. So as = so \>at. There is no other instance of the consecutive 
use of the particle as to be found in Shoreham. Besides, viien looks like a 
repetition from the preceding line. Ought we perhaps to read : So \>at hy 
hep, ase we y'see]>, etc. ? 

In the following stanzas the poet touches upon a topic familiar with 
ecclesiastical writers of the Middle Ages, viz. the " Conflictus virtutum et 
vitiorum,*^ the spiritual warfare between the virtues and vices. 

IO6/207. \^^ schreaiveSf the vices, opposed to jyeatoes, virtues, schreawes 
is here used as an abstract noun ; cp. kneades in * Ayenb.' 17, 26, 52, 152. 

IO6/213-14. Cp. * Library of E. E. Writers,' ed. Horstmann, vol. i. 
p. 122 : ffor als veHus ar of god, right sa are vices of \>e feendct and \>arfor 
if vices festyne rotes in our hertisy sothly whilke tyme \>e feend commes \>at 
es \>aire prince, \>ai gyf sted to hym as to \>aire aghen lordcy dh ledis hym to 
\>e sauLe as to his a^hene possessione. 

IO6/215-16. For wyse =for toysse, for certain, certainly. — alle kenne I 
take to represent O.E. ealra cynna, and amys to be plur. of amy, O.Fr. 
ami, friend. The fiend is chieftain of sin, and arrays his friends of all 
sorts (cp. 11. 201-2). 

IO6/218. bee^, O.E. beai, diadem, crown. 

IO6/220. em-he:^, even-high, of equal rank. 

IO6/223. whewden, wheels, O.E. hweovuolf htoeo^ol, M.Kt. *Ayenb.' 
hue^el. — linses, linchpins. 

IO6/225-6. * All that is here goes by heptads ' (this is why there are 
seven deadly sins). A similar notioa with regard to the seven command- 
ments of the second table is expressed by Hugo de S. Victore (Migne, 175, 
660): "In secunda tabula septem sunt praecepta, quia in praesenti vita 
tantum (quae septem dierum circulo volvitur) officia humanitatis proximo 
exhibentur." Cp. also Wulfstan, ed. Napier, p. 214 : alces maniies tim>a 
hiiS geendod binnan seofan dagafyrste, 

IO6/229. \}at seuene cannot possibly mean * those seven * ; the use of 
the sing, demonstr. with plur. numerals cannot be proved for Shoreham. 
The casting out of seven devils from Mary Magdalene is related in 
Luke viii. 2. 

107/232. weyjf need not be altered ; it answers to O.E. vxe^an, Kt. Gl. 
we^an, mentiri, fallere. 

107/235. ordede is entered in Stratmann-Bradley under urdeod^ foreign 
people, which it cannot possibly mean. I connect it with O.E. unlcede, 
poor, miserable, wretched (in a moral sense); cp. lestes o^i-lede, 22/588. 
Here it means the vices. 

107/239. The sense of the phrase is : * the foulest thing of all that is 
foul.' myx is O.E. mix, muck, dung. 

107/243. *** boures, see Zupitza's note to * Guy of Warw.' (2nd version), 
V. 2674. 

107/248. What is suyy\> [: lylje, lies] ? O.E. swl\>cm is out of the question 
here. Is it perhaps an error for scry\>, from O.N. ski-t^a, to glide, creep, 
crawl ? 

230 Notes. Pages 107-109, Lines 249-303. 

107/249-52. Here is another puzzle. The ryme-words are sadly 
corrupt. What I have got to offer in the way of emendation are only 
guesses. Starting from ^f, wliich in the spelling of the scribe means 
syty sits ; and supposing h(ug\> to be a blunder for hold, we are reminded 
of a similar connection of sitte with the predicat. complement haXd, 120/ 
169-70 : 

po he was bote twdf vyynter aid, 
And he^ ine \>e temple he seat lod hold. 
The unintelligible cobel may possibly be miswritten for nMe. 1. 251 is all 
right. In L 252 we shall have to substitute for ydde\> another word rym- 
ing with hold. There is no great choice, aid, which might be 8u<2:ge8ted 
by yildejy, would hardly do. Perhaps chald? *cold, chilling looks or 
demeanour,* makes good sense here. The whole passage thus conjectur- 
ally emended runs : 

Prede sy^t vnder ragge 
Wd noble and weL bald ; 
pat he\>e\> wordes bragge 
And anmtenaunces chald. 

IO8/263-64.. The sense of these lines is obscure. I should propose to 
read : 

Wo ist \>at be [to»|>-]nome schd. 
And gcifbe (or dappe) namt a^eyn? 
This may be translated : ' Who is that shall be reproved, and not prate 
(rattle, clamour) against ? ' clappe ayn occurs, 131/22 : Ayen hy dappe\> 
Yys aiid \>at In support of the proposed emendation we may quote the 
following passage from * Ayenb.' p. 22 : Vor \>e provide oxterwenerej yef me 
him wi\ynim]fj he him defende\> ; yef me him chaste\>, he is wro\>. 

IO8/265. goUich (MS. godlich)y wanton, proud, O.E. gallic, 

IO8/268. at he^ hyt nome, took it (at) high, took pride in it. The 
phrase is not recorded elsewhere. 

IO8/273-4. The contextual meaning of the phrase he^\>e dra^e toward . . . 
appears to be : * to assume (an air of) haughtiness, insolence towards * . . . 
This is an earlier instance of the use of he^\>e in the sense of * haughti- 
ness, insolence, overweening ' tlian those recorded in the N. E. D. under 
Height, 9. — Toward hys \>at wes, towards him that was his. Cp. \>e disciples 
\>at Ulcere his, 79/ 15 ; 7vy\j hym al-so \>at be\f hys, 148/5 30 > No\>er adam ne 
non of hifs, 157/8q2. For the position of the relative see 25/676-7, 134/ 
113, 143/400. See also Matzner, Gr. III.^ 699. 

IO8/286. wole is probably miswritten for iioide Q>e fo^de prede, 107/ 
244, 246). Ought we not to read \)e uoule prede for He wole prede ? 

109/289. a-fayty (hym of), restrain himself from ; cf. * P. Plowm.' B. 
xiv. 296. 

109/293. For the phrase Ute to no\>e, see note to 64/1799. 

109/297 ff. Cp. Chaucer, * The Persones Tale ' (Skeat, 593, § 26) : Now 
been ther tioo maners of Prydey that oon of hem is wibhinne the herte of 
man, and that other is withoute . . . B\d natheles, that oon of thise speces 
ofpryde is signe of that other . . . And this is in rrvanye thinges : as in speche 
and contenaunce^ and in o\drageo\is array of dothing. — kebbynges, 1. 299, 
braggings ; the verb occurs IO8/287. — aperte, pert, bold, insolent. — wed- 
dynge, IO9/300, 1 take to be meant for wedynge^ which I connect with O.E. 
getocedian, to dress. — The reading mxinyable of the MS. I have unhesitat- 
ingly altered into many a bly, many a colour or aspect ; see note to 99/44. 

109/303. stent (for ste7id) 1 take to be pa. ppl. of stene, O.E. stcenan, in 
the sense of * to adorn with precious stones ' ; cp. dstatned in Bosworth- 
ToUer. The alteration of say into gay is perhaps not absolutely neces- 

Notes, Pages 109-111, Lines 308-357. 231 

snry, thot^ aay is a fit attribute to atyr. The parson in Chaucer's tale 
(Skeat, 593) has a good deal to say about the Hnfid codle%(>e amiy of 
clothinge ; and so has the author of the dispitison httittne a god man atul 
\>e deud (* Minor Poems of Vernon MS.,' I. p. 335, v. 265 flE.). 

109/308. wayn, gain. 

110/323. herUj to hurt 

110/327. plecches, spots, stains? Cp. pUUch (Dialect of Banffshire; 
see Skeat, * EtymoL Diet' s. v. Patch), from O.E. plcecce, variant of pUetse 
(L. platea)? 

110/33a Uelde, from O.E. ialan, to censure, accuse. It rymes with 
aneldf from O.E. oncUaiiy to inflame. — breihej 1. 331, O.N. brceiSi, ire, rage. 

110/336. denche a^eny " obgarrire" ; see N. E. D. s. v. clench, v.* 

110/338. There can be no doubt, I think, that the unintelligible megrete 
of the MS. was meant for in egrettj though egrete is not recorded in the 
dictionaries. It answers, however, to O.Fr. aigreU, and signifies * acerbity, 
irritability, fierceness.* 

111/345-48. Ckmeytysey which is but another side of avaricey is often 
compared to dropsy. I quote only the following passage from Rhabanus 
Maurus (Migne, 112, 1245) : '* Avaritia enim, quam Graeci philargyriam 
vocant nimia est cupiditas divitiarum acquirendi vel tenendi. Quae 
pestis inexplebilis est, et hydropi morbo simulatur et comparatur. Sicut 
enim hydropicus, quanto plus bibit, tanto plus sitit, sic et avarus, quanto 
majorem pecuniam acquirit, tanto majorem habere appetit, et dum modus 
ei non est in habendo, modus illi non desiderando. See also p. 1365, 
1375, et passim. 

Sboreham does not seem to have worked out the comparison. But the 
sense of the next two lines is not quite clear. If hesy^ 1. 348, means '• busy, 
eager, anxious,' and hys stands for hy (i. e. cwteybyse) is, the question is, 
* eager for what, or what to do ? ' We expect something like * eager to 
acquire or hoard up al \xU hys wn er]>eJ May we write To horde (hordy) 
instead of To hyre f Or is the error rather to be sought for in hesy ? 

111/349-52. Here is another nut to crack. What I guess to be the 
meaning of the stanza is this : ' Covetousness drives those who have it 
away from God, and besets man*s heart, and so it gets the name of 
Idolatry.' This, I think, can be made out from the words of the scribe, 
corrupted as they are. — hoUj 1. 349, might be miswritten for hxio, who. — 
uerk\> I should take to be an error for wrekp, rather than 3rd sing. ind. 
pres. of uerke (t««rfcy), O.E. fercian, which in M.Kt. would regularly appear 
m the uncontracted form iierkep. — %vrek\> I take to mean here * drives 
away (estranges).' For the survival of this older sense in M.E. see the 
instances from *Ayenb.' and *Greg.' in Stratmann-Bradley. — The ryme- 
word to wr€k\> might originally have been kek}), from kecche (see note to 
105/186), as suggested by the writing ke^t of the MS. y^hy^ referring to 
coueytyse. For the phrase * to catch a name ' see N. E. D. under catchy v. 
29. The words fram gode are evidently misplaced here. They belong 
to torek\>, and ought probably to be put in before hy in 1. 349, thus : 

Atid htio hy habhe}i> fram gode hy twe/c)>. 
But then there would be a stress syllable wanting in the corresponding 
line which I do not know how to supply. Seruiae of mametiet, 1. 352, is 
idol-worship, idolatry. Cp. Chaucer, * Pers. T.' (Skeat, 618, § 64) : What 
difference is hitwixe an ydolastre and an avaricioiis man, bid that an 
ydolastre peradv&iiture hath hut o mavmiet or tux), and the avaricious mxin 
hath manye? for certes, every florin in his cofre is his mawmet. 

111/357. ^eskynge is probably misspelt from ^escyngef i.e. ^essynye, 
^issyngej ptsynge, O.E. ^itsnng. 

232 ''jfotes. Pages 112-115, Lines 381-404, 1-21. 

112/381-84. Cp. 95/273-76 : 

Her hys for-hode glotenyey 
So ich \>e by-hote ; 
For hyt norysse\> lecherye, 
Ase fer \>e brondes hote. 
This supports the emendation of 11. 383-4 suggested in the footnote. 
112/385. glotonyesfourey cp. * Cursor Mundi/ 1. 27900 fE. 

And men ma/y Jmd ftd rdy 
Fowrkins maners of glotony^ 
Ane es byfortimefor to ettey 
Ano\>er to sit ouerlang at mete, 
pe third to ^eme m^etes dayntyuely<, 
\>e firth to ette oxter gredyly. 
* Ayenb.', p. 51, mentions five kinds of gluttony ; so does the ' Tractatus 
de Ordine Vitae' (Migne, 184, 578). Hugo de St Victore (Migne, 176, 
893) speaks of three kinds. 

113/401. By-fM, befouled.— I have thought it necessary to change 
the reading deau\>e of the MS. into depe. The emendation has been 
suggested by the ryme as well as by the sense of the passage, which 
evidently contains an allusion to pollution in sleep as caused by gluttony. 
See Chaucer, 'Pers. T.' (Skeat, 630/9 13 ff.) : Another dnne cupperteneth to 
leccherie, that comth in depinge — and this sinne men depen poUiiciouny 
that comth in fov/re maners — som-tyme for snrfeet of mete and drinke. 
And somtyme of vUeyiM ihoughtes that been enclosed in m>annes minde 
whan he goth to depe, lohich may not been withoute sinne. 

113/403-4. The sense seems to be that gluttony often makes man 
retain (kepe) in sleep what he thinks when he is awake, — viz. those 
vileyns thoughtes that been enclosed in m/xnnes mii\de whan he goth to depe^ 
which, as Chaucer's parson says, are among the causes of pollution. — 
Instead of tmmt kepe we should probably write m^n i-kepe, or omit 
wwxn altogether. 

Stanza 102 is hopelessly corrupt What the poet may possibly have 
meant to say we can only guess from the remark of Chaucer's parson, 
that pollution caused by surfeit and foul thoughts enclosed in man's 
mind when he goes to sleep m^y nat been withoxite sinne. For which 
msn moste kepen hem, wysdy, or dies may msn sirmenfid grevoudy. 

115/1. synge\> and rede\>. That rede^ especially when connected with 
singe, may mean *to teir has been shown by Zupitza, note to 1. 313 of 
the Romance of *Guy of Warwick,' 15th century version. Cf. O.E. 
sin^an ond secykn (Sievers, * Altenglische Metrik,' § 5, 3). Still I believe 
that even in connection with sin^e it may be understood in its usual 
sense of * to read ; ' cp., for instance, the following passage from Hugo de 
St. Victore's *Sermo in Assumptione B. Mariae Virginis* (Migne, 177, 
1024) : — *' Inter caetera, dilectissimi, gloriosa miracula quae in Assump- 
tione beatissimae virginis Mariae legendo vel capiendo ad ipsius laudem 
saeculis omnibus attoUendam et recolendam recitamus, purpuream ut 
violam ipsam esse cantare solemus." 

115/4. speke]> wyd, tonge; cp. Zupitza, note to 1. 367 of 'Guy of 
Warw/ 15th cent. vers. 

115/12. Cp. * Minor Poems of the Vernon MS.,' I. p. 125 : 

Is mony an hundred ^er a-gone 
pon hast ben, lady, qiieen pyn one 
Of heuene, erjje and hdle. 
115/21. m,ede here means the Virgin's glory in heaven, her heavenly 
reward ; see Matzner's note to the passage, Spp. I. 260. 

Notes. Pages 115-119, Lines 23-115. 233 

115/23. V'Mde = y-healde, holden, bound to ; not, as Miitzner explains 
it, ' inclined * (from O.E. hyldaUf hddan), 

11 6/3 1, dygne of take yields no sense. Matzner's conjecture of lake 
(from O.E. Idc, gift, offering) is impossible in Slioreham's dialect. As to 
ray own guess, I feel by no means confident that op-take, assumed (into 
heaven), is the true original reading. What might seem questionable, 
however, is rather the fitness of the sense than the form of the word. 
For similar verbal compounds with unstressed up we may compare : op- 
hdde, 24/665 J ^ xelde, 83/114; cp. also out-crdude^ otti-dn}we, ord-sende. 

II6/47. won^ I'.sone] is O.E. -umuio, habit, custom, usage. See also 
134/126, 137, 157/798, I6O/890, where the same ryme occurs; and cp. 

* Minor Poems of the Vernon MS.,' I. p. 50 : 

Heil douhtitr of \>e sone, 
Modur of \>e getere, 
Hanyng child a^eynes old tvone 
0\>nr elles comuyn manerej — 
which translates the Latin verses : 

" Ave nati filia, parens genitoris, 
Praeter modum generans consueti moris." 
Shakespere employs the noun use in exactly the same sense; see 
Schmidt's Glossary. 

11 6/48. Supply pas«e|7 from the preceding line. The meaning is: — 

* it goes beyond man's report, exceeds all speech.' 

117/53. 'ioy\>'(yi*'te mysse, an expletive phrase of assertion = * without 
failure (cp. ivy\>oute faile)^ unquestionably, certainly.' It occurs also 
130/10 ; 148/554. See also Glossary to Kolbing's edition of * Arthur and 
Merlin' (Altengl. Biblioth. IV.) s.v. mys. 

117/56. pys a/iiysy this view, opinion, notion. 

1 17/60. of pe stoure, of the four main streams, stanr = O.N. stdrr, 

117/63. *^^ itoitr maner(e) refers to 1. 49 : Four manere ioyen hy hedde 
here. Matzner's emendation rwnte, new, of the MS. reading lumtt is incon- 
sistent with Shoreham's dialect. 

117/77. ageet is derived in N.E.D. from O.E. a^etan, pa. pple. ageted 
(f. a + get\ to get hold of, seize. But there is no O.E. verb getan^ gette, 
geted ; the root vowel must be long (getan), as Sievers has shown, Beitr. 
X. 313, and the meaning in all the passages where it occurs seems to be, 

* to hurt, kill ; ' so also in the quotation from the O.E. Chron. in the Diet. 
— Matzner's conjecture wdeget is equally untenable. I should suggest 
that we may read areet, from 0. E. aretan, * to comfort, cheer, delight,* if 
it could be proved that the O.E. verb survived anywhere in M.E. 

119/112. Apart from the necessity of correcting the defective metre of 
the line, a word is wanted here to which the following \>er-inne relates ; and 
as the passage contains a reference to the legend of the unicorn, I believe 
that the word to be supplied can only be harme. In the * Appendix ad 
Hugonis Opera dogmatica' (Migne, 177, 59) the legend, after the Physio- 
logus, is told thus: "Puellam virginemque speciosam ducunt in locum 
ilium ubi moratur, et dimittunt cam solam. Cam autem viderit illud, 
aperit sinum suum ; quo viso, omni ferocitate deposita, caput suum in 
gremium eius deponit, et sic dormiens deprehenditur ab insidiatoribus 
(Of hyre harme hyt was god game), et exhibetur in palatio regis." — 
Another version says that the virgin is to be placed in the wood where 
the unicorn lives, with her breasts denuded, which the animal kisses 
before it falls asleep in her lap. This is referred to by Shoreham on 

liy/115. ycore, chosen, elect. It is perhaps better connected with 

234 Notes. Pages 119-122, Lines 120-223. 

hyi*e than with ioi/e. Elsewhere Shoreham has only the form ychose, 
which is also the usual one in *Ayenbite.' 

119/I20. dy^te is generally a transitive or reflexive verb. The re- 
flexive pronoun may be omitted ; see Zupitza's note to 1. 4350 of the 
Romance of *Guy of Warwick/ 15th cent. vers. But I do not think 
that *to prepare or make herself ready' suits the context. Matzner 
proposes schal . . . he dy^te^ which he translates : ' shall be treated, 
honoured.* His emendation, however, seems to me objectionable. If we 
were to adopt it we should get a quite unusual form of the pa. pple., 
with a sounded final e in the singul., the tail- verses in this poem having, 
as a rule, feminine rymes. I have, therefore, suggested that we may 
supply hyt as object of the infin. dy^te. The meaning then is ; — ' And so 
shall there never more woman with child manage (or do) it' — i. e, 
manage to bear her child wy\>-oute wwje, tvyp-ottte sore. 

119/125. Cf. also p. 129/73-76. For this favourite comparison of the 
immaculate conception and birth of Christ with the sunbeam passing 
through the glass, see the instances collected by Napier in the * History of 
the Holy Rood-tree,' etc. (E. E. T. S. 1894), p. 82-83. 

119/126. Instead of omitting on, as Matzner proposed, we might also 
read : — Wy)>-(mben on openynge^ without a single opening. 

119/138. verden belongs of course to O.E.Jierd iferd), not, as Matzner 
thinks it possible, to O.E. weorod. 

120/142. ghrye ofhyre isfol a-hmie seems to mean : *the glory of her 
is full (complete, perfect) above (in heaven).' But there is probably 
something wrong here. From what is said in 1. 143 we may guess that 
the poet meant to paraphrase the angels' song : " Gloria in altissimis Deo, 
et in terra pax hominibus." 

120/144. ^^ pl(ice, a mere expletive ; see Zupitza's note to 1. 174 of 
the Romance of ' Athelston,' in Eng. Stud. xiii. 367. 

120/159. The reading werre of the MS. had perhaps better be altered 
into a verre. 

121/196. isi^e is of course infin. ; it stands for isy. 

121/197. If we retain and we must take it in an amplificative sense ; 
see N. E. 1). s. v. And^ conj. 9. 

121/200. For this redundant use of and see Matzner's note to the 
passage, Sppr. I. 263. 

122/202. The MS. has Al i>af which Matzner takes to be the tempor. 
part. \>a combined with emphasizing aU. erthe shok he considers to be a 
compound, meaning * earthquake.' But schok I'.toke'] has a long 5, and 
can therefore only be the pret. of schaken. 

122/214. The line evidently contains a parenthetical interpretation of 
the foregoing words " Dormnus tecumJ^ The emendation god ea ( = is) 
my^tte (i. e. myd \>e) of the MS. reading godes myrtte is therefore obvious. 

In the next line Matzner, who seems to take myrtte for the subst. 
* might,' alters aitte into JlUey i. e. Jlzte, fight ; but he does not say how 
we are to translate the passage. — sitte ine ry^te sojfe means, * to rest, he 
grounded, on perfect truth.' For the different meanings of the verb sitte 
in Shoreham see note to 101 /78. 

122/223. Y^^ % ''^^^^ ^hlHi cf. Horstmann, * Library of Early 
English Writers,' vol. i. 345 : whan Adam sau^ hym comen^ lordy \>at he 
was glade ! ; vol. ii. 360 : lord^ \)at \>e was wo bigon in "pat ilke tyde ! See 
also Matzner, * Gramm.' II. 430. 

here^ unless it be Mn.E. 'here,' has to be omitted, the object of the 
verb se^en being the relative clause in 1. 225, \et hy yseye er in paygne 
(in pain), t. e. Christ. 

Notes. Pages 122-125, Lines 229-315. 235 

122/229. *And so (as Mary had seen him) saw him Peter, and after- 
wards they (the disciples) aU.' Matzner's conjecture hygede (properly 
hyi^ede) hyne, *hied him, ran/ would imply an allusion to the running of 
Peter and John to the sepulchre (John xx. 3, 4). But there can he no 
such allusion here, as 8e\>enes hy aUe shows. 

123/235. '^^ M c<^) used as an expletive; see Zupitza, *Athelston/ 
note to 1. 432, 'Eng. Stud/ xiii. 389. 

123/236. Ought we not to omit me ? 

123/242-3. * AH the joys, sensual or mental, that can be named/ 

123/245. ^^'^i ^^^^i generally combined with al (al toat^ al huet\ is not 
unfrequent in Shdreham and in ' Ayenbite.* 

123/257. agredy, according to Matzner and the N.E.D. (s. v. agraith), 
is here used intransitively, ' to prepare, make herself ready.' But then 
we should rather expect For instead of At in 1. 258. Ought we not, 
perhaps, to read: to agredy \>at scholde vx)r\>y hy, or toorlnf (infin., O.E. 
weorjyian) hy? Of. 1. 260, to agredy hyre I002, 

124/266. te (O.E. teon), go. 

124/274-76. For te trye manne dede, to try men's deeds. Matzner's 
interpretation rests on the reading crye for trye. 

124/284. tov^, above ; it occurs in * Ayenb.' in the form toppe {to + 
oppe, O.E. uppan). — ^The subject nominative hy can be supplied from the 
oblique case hyre in 1. 283, or hys = hy ys. 

124/289. lok-sounday^ Whitsunday. The plur. lokes is found in three 
passages of the 'Ayenbite' (p. 143, 163, 213), where it renders O.Pr. 
Penthecouste. An explanation of this peculiar expression is given by J. 
M. Manly in 'Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature,* published 
under the direction of the Modern Language Departments of Harvard 
University, Boston, 1892, pp. 88-108. He shows that med.L. dausivm 
Paschae (O.Fr. la close pasque, plur. pasques doses), and da^isum Pente- 
costes were common designations of the respective rcstivals, and considers 
lok, plur. lokes (from O.E. loc), as literal translations of O.Fr. dose, plur. 
doses. — Concerning Mary's joys on Whitsunday, there is a tradition, to 
which the poet here refers, that she was among the apostles at the 
effusion of the Holy Ghost According to Acts i. 12-14, they all 
returned to Jerusalem after the ascension of Christ, and continued with 
one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the 
mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. 

125/298. heerde, bride, O.E. bryd. 

125/301. It would perhaps be better to omit \>e. — Does figure here 
mean ' mode, fashion,' corresponding to Lat. fi^ura, which occurs in the 
sense of modits ? Or is it = * mental image, conception ' ? 

125/311. |?rote?e, MS. \>ro:^e, a reversed spelling, due to the scribe who 
was accustomed to substitute w for 3, the regular M.Kt. representative of 
O.E. guttural 3 ; as, for instance, in tawe, sawe, draive, etc. 

125/312. lowe\>, Kt. lo^e]>, lowers, lessens. The MS. has lo^oer (ytiih a 
long r), which Matzner alters into loiuerth. But is that a M.E. word? 
lo^y (infin.), lo2e\>, ylo^ed are found in * Ayenb.' Shoreham has lo^e J?c, 
humble thyself, 103/ 154. 

125/315. leye is pret. plur. of Hggen, answering to O.E. laegon, Kt. 
legon. Matzner takes it as a variant of the adj. lo^, low (from ♦ Icear, for 
Idgr). For metrical reasons I have supplied the wanting relat. J>et, though 
it is by no means indispensable. There are unsuspicious instances of a 
line beginning with a stressed syllable ; and there are also instances of 
the omission of the rel. pronoun; I2I/184 : Fram \>a/n, tyme he vxxs ybme; 
128/27-8 : pou ert \>e ^erd al of aa/ron Me dreye ise^ spryiigynde. 

236 Notes, Pages 125-128, Lines 316-349, 5-42. 

125/316. tnom€, assumed. Matzner refers to the use of Lat. "sumere/* 
and to the passage in Shoreham, 133/ 103 ; use hyt hys by-fore y-nomej cf. 
also 136/i8o ; By lawe hyt nome]>j- and 64/i8i8 : To nomene, 

125/320. of is to be connected with the foregoing ]jer; see Matzner, 
<Gramm.' II. 522. 

125/322. ferede [: lede], company ; O.E. (jfe/err^cfen, fellowship. 

126/325. Note here the nse of the common phrase my leue hrojper as a 
mere expletive, the poem being addressed to a soster, 

126/349. It is not necessary to alter Of into 0; see Zupitza*s note to 
§ 123 of Koch's ^Gramm.', and to 'Guy of Warwick' (15th cent, vers.), 
1. 1961. 

Page 127. For the figures and epithets of the Virgin employed in the 
following song (VI.) I refer to Dr. Anselm Salzer, * Die Sinnbilder und 
Beiworte Mariens in der deutschen Literatur und lateinischen Hyranen- 
poesie des Mittelalters, mit Bervicksichtigung der patristischen Literatur.' 
Der XLII. Versammlnng deutscher Philologen und Schulmanner gewid- 
met von dem k. k. Ober-Gymnasium der Benedictiner zu Seitenstetten 
in Nieder-C^teneich. — We may also compare : A salutacioMn to vre lady, 
in ' Minor Poems of the Vernon MS.,' vol. i. p. 134. 

127/5. fity vat, vessel. 

127/6. mes (O.Fr. mes), mess, dish. 

127/22. calengey Northern Fr. form corresponding to central Fr. chalenge. 
The N. E.D. quotes this passage from Shoreham under ctwZlengey sb. 1. 
*An accusation, charge, reproach, objection.* But it seems to me that 
the context rather requires for ddenge the sense of * claim ' : after the 
lapse of Adam, the Devil laid his claim upon sinful mankind, from which 
Mary released us by giving birth to our redeemer. 

128/27-8. Cf. Numbers xvii. 8. — Note the omission of the relat. pron. 
in 1. 28. 

128/32. Mary is often compared to Gideon's fleece wetted with dew 
from heaven ; see Judges vi. 37, 38 ; Salzer, p. 41 ; p. 120, 2. • Cp. also 
*Analecta Hymnica,' xxxi. No. 134, 4 (p. 135) : 

" Frondescit Aaron virgula 
Omni carens humore, 
Et vellus madet rore, 
Nee terram tangit still ul a, 
Dum virgo sine macula 
Meretur mater fore." 
Ibid. No. 139, 1 (p. 139) : 

" Virgo, thronus Salomonis, 
Virgo, velhis Gedeonis," etc. 
* Sal lit. vre lady,' 1. 100 : HeUftdfles of Gedeon. 

128/38. Cp. ' Salut. vre lady,' 1. 77 : Heil stiidefast stuntere of eii^ri strif. 

128/39. Olofernes is dative. It is resumed by the pronoun hym in 
1. 40. 

128/40-42. by-nome is 2 sing, indie, pret. (phonetically hynome). It 
rymes with come, 1. 42, which must therefore be come, pret. plur. Hence 
it follows that wylle cannot be the verb. The subst wylle, O.E. wiUaj 
will, is likewise out of the question. So there remains only wylle, O.E. 
wiella-e^ ivylla-e, well, fountain (the non-Kt. forms unjlle, vndle^ by the 
side of Kt. welle, occur on p. 117). And this puts us in mind of a very 
common typical appellation of Mary, who is often called "fons" : "fons 
misericordiae, fons vitae, fons salutis, fons aquarum viventium," etc., with 
many variations. See Salzer, p. 9, 516, 521 ; also 'Salut vre lady,' 1. 73 : 
He'd welle of merci, tvatitr of lyf, — Looking, however, at the context in 

Notes. Pages 128-130, Liries 49-76, 1-19. 237 

which the two lines occur, we might rather expect them to have some 
relation to the story of Judith. Now we read in the Book of Judith, cap. 
vii., that the inhabitants of the besieged town of Bethulia, after the destruc- 
tion of the aqueduct, resorted to the fountains which were at no great 
distance from the walls, " ex quibus furtim videbantur haurire aquam, ad 
refocillandum potius quam ad potandura.'' Whereupon Holofernes set 
watches over those fountains, so that the Bethulians for lack of water 
were driven to the alternative of either perishing with thirst, or surrender- 
ing the town and thus being slain by the sword of the enemy. It was 
by the valiant deed of Judith that their lives were saved. — May not, then, 
the passage here contain a reference to this biblical report, probably with 
an implied allusion to Mary as the well of mercy and salvation, the 
" fons redundans, reos mundans, aqiiarum viventium, quem qui bibunt 
non peribunt, sed habent remedium" (St. Anselm, quoted by Salzer, 
p. 521)? 

128/49-52. Ezekiel xliv. 2. 

129/55-6. Daniel ii. 34, 35, 45. 

129/63-66. See note to 119/ii2. In addition to the passage quoted 
there from Hugo de St. Victore, I refer to Salzer, p. 44, p. 524. 

129/64. Aleyd (O.E. alec:^an), assuaged, appeased, a cheaste [:hreste] 
can hardly mean anything but * a chaste one.' The usual form of the 
word in Shoreham is chaste; also chastete^ chastite. The e-sound is 
peculiar. The N.E. D. gives cheste from ' Mirr. Our Lady,' 188 ; chestete 
occurs in 'Ayenb.'235. See also D. Behrens, * Beitrage zur Geschichte 
der franz. Sprache in England ' (Franz. Studien, v.), p. 75 f. 

129/67 ff. Apocalypse, cap. xii. 1. 

129/73 ff*. See note to II9/125. Cp. also Salzer, p. 71 ff., where 
numerous references to M.H.G. and Latin authors are given ; and * Ana- 
lecta Hymnica,' xxxi. No. 143^ 5 (p. 142); ibid. No. 146, 31-32 (p. 145). 

129/76. here? The signification * bearing, birth,* in certain, but the 
form is doubtful ; cf., however, bear, sb. 3, in N.E.D. Perhaps we ought 
to write : — 

For heryng of \yy chylde. 

130/1. Ps. xiii. 1; Hi. 1; ** Dixit insipiens in corde suo : Non est 

130/2. sede, repeated in 1. 4. Kolbing thinks that the repetition can 
hardly be due to the poet. Perhaps, he says, the first sede is to be 
replaced by did g^-ede = ' liess proclamiren ' (caused to be proclaimed). 
But the inappropriateness of such a notion here is obvious. Besides, no 
emendation is needed. The poet is by no means quite averse to the repeti- 
tion of the same or a paronymous word, even in ryme ; cf. 1 7/464, 466 : 
toke [itoke]; 23/6 18, 620: take\> [:tnke];>] 29/8oo-8o2: loyne [iivyne]; 83/ 
108-1 10 : helle [: Jielle'] ; I2I/175-6 : childehode [: manhode] ; 134/i 11,114: 
syfufej} [: singep\; I47/499, 5^^ • %5 [• %^]j ^^^' 

130/8. rmite, rout, company? The verb wooce would suggest rote, 
root; but that makes no ryme with dmvte. 

1.30/14. nau^t for |?an, notwithstanding, nevertheless. *Ayenb.' na^t 
ii(yr\>an, p. 81, 90, 92. It is a literal translation of O.Fr. neparqitant ; see 
Evers, ' Beitrage zur Erklarung und Textkritik von Dan Micliel's Ayenbite 
of Inwyt,' p. 20, 28, 29. — nought for\n = nevertheless, is recorded in 
Stratm.-Bradley ; cf. also * Library of Early English Writers,* ed. Horst- 
mann, vol. i. p. 44, p. 66 (MS. Cumbr. ; the Rawl. MS. has netier \>e 

130/19. fi^^ ['.telle] is an imperfect ryme. Shoreham generally 
rymes fele with skele^ and 143/ 399 with wele^ O.E. icela, weal, which 

238 Notes. Pages 130-135, Lims 21-147. 

shows that the vowel was lengthened. The context, too, seems to me 
to require some other word than fele to which the following consecutive 
clause can be attached. The reading /eMe, I think, will meet the 
demands of both the ryme and the sense. We may translate : * And 
many of them, they are so savage, that though one tell them good reason, 
it avails nothing : they will chatter back this and that,' etc. 

manye . . . \>at he\> sofdU contains a reduplication of the subject. The 
use of the sing, neuter ]>at referring to a noun in the plur. is well known 
in O.E. and M.E. ; cf. also I8/486. 

130/21. gan\>, avails. There can be no doubt about the meaning. It 
stands for gainjj, gein\> ; cf. 40/ 1 134 : JB[y:^t gayne\> ham wd lyte; 66/1835 : 
And ine \>e weddynge ne gayiiet nouit^ Jja^, etc. The spelling a for ai is 
rare in Shoreham, though not unfrequent in * Ayenb.* ; see note to 34/ 
961. But what we want here is a form gen\>, ryming with mem]>. The 
Kentish dialect has such forms as sede (by the side of seyde), ren, rine 
(= O.E. rg^n, reuj riynauy rinan). May we then suppose a similar 
development of O.N. gegna into gene (perhaps under the influence of 
O.E. -363*1, -^enj cf. ^ene, Owl & Night. 845, quoted in Stratm.-Bradley, 
s. V. geinen, ^einen) ? 

131/36. wy\>-o\de stryf, without dispute. 

131/38. al for JHin, for all that, notwithstanding ; so also I5I/632. 
Cf. namtfor jtan. 

131/44. by al = O.E. be eaUum (Bosw. -Toller, s. v. 6e), withal, alto- 
gether. As far as I can see, the phrase is not recorded in the dictionaries. 
— stylle, at rest, without motion, so that we may walk upon it (to gonne 
l>rop, 1. 45). 

132/63. Ase ham y-worjie, as becomes, falls to, them. 

132/64. grende\>y set, go down (O.E. gryndan), 

132/66. wider /orjje, out from beneath; cf. beneath-forth in N.E.D. 

132/71. be-goy pa. pple., encompassed. 

132/75. ^^* (from O.E. hentan), takes. The meaning is: * every 
man that listens to reason.' 

132/78. Abo^ite itrenty circumvolved. 

133/90. /orjjc ara^t (from areche^ O.E. a/rmcan), issued, brought forth. 

J33/91. syt^ see note to IOI/78. 

133/98. %oor\>y shall be; cf. I4I/339. 

133/103. y-nome; of. I25/316. 

134/113. Quicunque uuLt is the beginning of the Athanasian Creed : 
^' Quicunque vult esse salvus, ante onmia opus est ut teneat catholicam 

134/114. Eblbing's conjecture H^h ^or singep, is unnecessary; see 
note to 130/2. 

134/116. ley\> here, like sey\> in the preceding line, seems to be used 

The following passage, 11. 118-20, is a free rendering of the words of 
the Athanasian Creed : *' Filius a Patre solo est, non factus, nee creatus, 
sed genitus." 

134/122. adrenchey drown, used figuratively and, if we adopt the 
reading jyrynnej intransitively. 

134/126. twme, see note to II6/23. 

134/134. endeles: '^mmensus Pater, immensus Filius. . ." (Athan. Cr.). 

135/147. ^vyue is evidently an error of the scribe. But it is difficult 
to find a suitable word in --1^, with a short i, to make it ryme with 
dryive, which is subjunct. pret. — Would 311*6 do? although, it should be 
remembered, the true M.Kt. form of the pa. pple. is yyeue. 

Notes, Pages 135-139, Lines 152-276. 239 

135/152. ^re — \>a are the correeponding fein. and masc. forms of the 
pronoun. Cf. 26/718 : By \>a weye; but 83/ii8 : in \>a/re tyde; 160/6 15 : 
Inne ]>are crybhe. 

136/172. ]^t ich was embe, that I was about, dealing with. The 
reference is to 134/io9fE,, where the Athanasian Creed was mentioned. 
Cp. also 167/81 5. 

136/173. ^ dxiye here seems to mean * on each day, daily ;' cf. 134/ 
109 f. : mvre fay^ \>at holy cherche ne^ eche day Wd merye synge\>. The 
N. E. D. quotes from the * Romans of Partenay' (c. 1600): ^Fidl moch 
haue I Kurd spokyn of the adciyJ 

136/175 ft. : '* Spiritus sanctus a Patre et Filio non factus, nee creatus 
nee genitus, sed procedens, Patri et Filio coaetemus est " (Athan. Cr.). 

136/187. onder-gouy understand ; see Zupitza's note to 1. 8231 of the 
Romance of * Guy of Warwick,' 15th cent, version. 

136/190. The conjectured reading persons, for reyson^ is confirmed by 
the reference to the Athanasian Creed : " Alia est enim persona Patris, 
alia persona Filii, alia persona Spiritus sancti. Sed Patris et Filii et 
Spiritus sancti una est divinitas . . ." 

137/202. hyty pleonastically repeating the subject wyt. 

137/206. Kolbing's emendation god is convincing. 

137/207. Wy\>-oute crye, beyond dispute, certainly. The N.E.D. has 
only later instances of the phrase. But on 81/68 it means ; * without 

137/216. Jjc, weak form of ]>mi, 

138/229. Wader, whether ; of. iva\>€r, I5I/617 ; hnader, * Ayenbite.' 

138/232. Enerte = etier-to (cf. I35/157; Stratni.-Bradley, s. v. defre), 
Germ. *immerzu.' te is the weak form of to. — euerte occurs also *Ayenb.,* 
96 ; neuerte, ibid., 99. 

138/236. to soffry hy:^t (=it). We may ask, — To suffer what? In 
the preceding stanza the poet promised to tell the reason why the eternal 
existence of the world is to be denied. But he goes on to show that the 
creation of the world was only a corollary of the qualities of supreme 
might and wisdom and goodness attributed to God, in consequence of 
which he could not have suffered the world to be left uncreated (cf. 138/ 
241 ff.). Is this what to soffry hy^t implies ? But then, there would seem 
to be a slight gap in the context. 

138/239. ^^^^^ expression and wyl ine godhede reminds us of a similar 
one in Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 210, cap. 10) : ** Duo itaque 
haec in Creatore pariter erant, bonitas et sapientia, et haec aetema erant ; 
et aderat simul potestas coaet^ma ; et homtoate voluitj sapientia disposuit, 
potestate fecit." It is possible that the poet may have had this passage 
in mind when he wrote and (soil, he) wyl[e'] ine godhede^ by wnich he 
may have meant to translate *' et bonitate vult." 

138/245. «^-w^ is a conjecture for the MS. reading at mytty, which I 
have not hesitated to put in the text. The sense certainly requires a 
word that means * omniscience.' al-wyt, it is true, is not recorded any- 
where else, as far as I know ; but the adj. alim/tty, omniscient, is found 
in M.E. (see N.E.D.), and aZ'tvys is used by Shoreham. 

138/253. ^^1/ m^' cmc?) w^.* see *Anglia,' xxii. 493. 

139/268. aposed, confronted with objections, questioned. 

139/269-70. Cf. Isidorus Hispal. (Migne, 83, 541) : — *'Non ideo coe- 
lum et terram implet Deus, ut contineant eum ; sed ut ipsa potius con- 
tineantur ab eo." 

139/271-76. Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 624): — "Cumque divina 
natura veraciter et cssentialiter sit in onmi loco et in omni tempore, non 

240 Notes. Pages 139-141, Lines 273-338. 

tamen movetur per loca vel per tempora, nee localis nee temporalis est. 
Localis non est quia penitus non circuniscribitur loco, quia nee ita est in 
uno loco quod non sit in alio. Neque dimensionem babet, sicut corpus, 
cui secundum locum assignatur principium, medium et finis . . ." The 
change of %, 1. 271, to he is indispensable, he refers to God, hy (fem.) 
to the world, which cannot be said to be infinite ; cf. 132/70 : ^e vfiay 
hy nauTjb \>anne he enddes, etc. 

139/273. Wy}p-(ynte drede, without doubt 

140/291. te-dy^tf divided: *'Et fecit Deus firmamentum, divisitque 
aquas quae erant sub firmamento ab Ids quae erant super firmamentum " 
(Genes, i, 7). 

140/298 tf. : — " Viditque Deus cuncta quae fecerat, et erant valde 
bona" (Genes, i. 31). 

140/310. do wro\>e, do, act wrathf ully. wrope is adverb. The sense is : 
* God's creature must needs be all sinless by nature. If God himself were 
the cause of evil, he might justly be blamed (wy\>-nome) for a bad one, 
and might not, therefore, wreuk his wrath upon sinners. But (such is not 
the case; on the contrary) he loathes evil-doings (schretoadtiessef for 
schreawednessej 1. 311, is plur.), and has forbidden them.' 

141/316. apayne]>, take pains. In 1. 317 it is used reflexively : hyrn 
apayne\>f troubles himsel£ 

Now follows an ingenious disquisition on the origin and final cause of 
evil, and the reason why God suflEers it. The poet's handling of a subject 
so difficult is very skilful, and well calculated to bring it home to the 
understanding of simple-minded readers. For many particulars he bus 
drawn on the common stock of arguments. But his conception of the 
necessity of evil for the perfection of heavenly bliss is quite singular, so 
far as I have been able to discover. . It seems, however, to be traceable 
to Origenes, who in several passages of his works exhibits a similar 
view; e.g. * In Genesim Homilia' i. 10 (Migne, *Patre8 Graeci,* 12, 
153) : " Ipsis Sanctis bona sunt ea quae illis adversantur, quia vincere ea 
possunt, et cum ea vicerint, majoris gloriae efiSciuntur apud Deum. — Et 
Apostolus dicit (2 Tim. ii. 5), quia nemo coronatur, nisi qui legitime 
certaverit Et revera quomodo erit certamen, si no fuerit qui resistat ? " 
But see especially * In Numeros Homilia ' xiv. 2 (Migne, P. Q. 12, 677 ff.) : 
"Malitiam Deus non fecit; tamen cum aliis inventam possit prohibere, 
non prohibet, sed cum ipsis a quibus habetur utitur ea ad necessarias 
causas. Per ipsos enim in quibus est malitia claros et probates efficit 
eos qui ad virtutum gloriain tendunt. Nam si perimeretur malitia, non 
esset utique qui contrairet virtutibus. Virtus autem non habens aliquid 
contrarium, non claresceret, nee splendidior et examinatior fieret. Non 
probata vero nee examinata virtus nee virtus est." He then goes on to 
show by examples from the Old and New Testsment how evil may by 
God's disposition be productive of good, and continues thus : " Simili 
ergo modo et de ipso diabolo ponamus, verbi gratia, necessitate aliqua 
constrictum fuisse ne peccaret, vel post peccatum ablatam fuisse ab 
eo malitiae voluntatem : simul utique ablatum fuisset nobis certamen 
adversum insidias diaboli, nee exspectaretur corona victoriae ei qui 
legitime certasset. Si non haberemus qui adversum nos obsisterent, 
agones non essent, nee victoribus munera ponerentur, nee regnum coe- 
lorum vincentibus pararetur ... Ex quibus omnibus colligitur quia 
Deus non solum bonis utatur ad opus bonuni, sed et malis." 

141/337. The subject hlysse is common to both verbs (oonstructio 


141/338. hexiene hys cd ydiield. Matzner, Spp. II., quotes the passage 

Notes. Pages 141-144, lAiies 343-428. 241 

under i-dioeUen, " in errorem ducere, decipere, taaschen, triigen/' which 
cannot possibly be the meaning of the verb here. Stratm.-Bradley refers 
to it 8. V. le-dwdlen, dwell upon, delay. The sense of the passage, as 
determined^ by the context, seems to be this : entrance into heaven is 
delayed, heaven is barred, till the bliss of heaven is made complete by 
the joy of conquest, t. e. triumph over evil, than which none is greater 

(142/349 tf.). 

141/343. atuincement^ advancement, enhancement. 

142/364-66. The sense is : There is no wrong in God's sufiEering of 
evil among the good, for the purpose of enhancing the good (by contrast). 
Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 236) : " Bona enim fecit et bene- 
fecit, et mala permisit et non fecit" (cap. 6) . . . ** Et vidit mala quae 
erant procul futura cum bonis priusquam erant, et consideravit quod his 
malis adjunctis bona commend arentur, et pulchriora fierent comparatione 
malorum . . . quoniam ex eis ornarentur bona et commendarentur, et am- 
plius bonum acciperent ad decorem et pulchritudinem universorum " 
(cap. 6). See also St. Augustine, * Enchiridion/ cap. xi. (Migne, 40, 236). 

142/368. contekyngBj contention ; cf. contekhede, 154/721. 
* 142/369. For no as a strengthened negative see Matzner, Gramm. 
XL 137. 

142/371. Boddeker's conjecture makes the line too short. I have 
supplied fayUyy with regard to I44/407 : EUes hedde y-fo.yUed fijctorye. 
The proposed omission of \>at, though not absolutely necessary, may be 
accepted for metrical reasons. 

143/385-87. If we may take at-am in the sense of 'caused to run' 
(see N. E. D. s. v. atrin, where, it is true, the causal meaning is inferred 
only from this passage in Slioreham), and if we further correct lyrt hanr 
into lyyt-ham (Wright : hy^t ham), Kolbing's incisive alterations, 1 think, 
are unnecessary, ly^t-harn must be an appellation of Lucifer ; not the 
usual one, it is true ; but see * Ganticum de Creatione,' MS. Auchinl. (in 
Horstmann's * Sammlung ae. Legenden,' Heilbronn, 1878), 1. 1 : 

Li:^thertiy \)at aiigel hri^t, 
Aiiswerd mwn ri^t. 

Ibid. 1. 8 : To Li^tbemy \>at is nmo Lucifer, 

Fersty 1. 387, is not, as Kolbing thinks, inconsistent with, and probably 
occasioned by, ferst in 1. 390 : in the former place it answers to Lat. 
** primum," accus. of " primus ; " in the latter it is the adverb = Lat. 
** primo.'' See Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 247) : " Quod in prin- 
cipio creati sunt angeli." For the pleonastic so, 1. 385, see Matzner, 
Gramm. II. 125. 

143/394-5. The lines contain a reference to Isaiah xiv. 13, 14 : " In 
coelum conscendam, super astra Dei exaltabo solium meum, sedebo in 
monte Testamenti, in hiteribus aquilonis. Ascendam super altitudinem 
nubium ; similis ero Altissimo.'' 

143/398. te \>an, in addition to, besides him. \>an is dat sing, of the 
demonstr. pron. Kolbing's conjecture 61/ \>anj by that time, is inadmissible. 

143/403. \>ys is plur. — Byganne, for bygonne; cf. gmine, I53/692. 

144/406. Hyxt stands for Hv hyt (sc. bygyime schrewednesse), 

144/412-14. Cp. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 84) :— " Sciendum 
quoque est quod boni angeli ita sunt confirmati per gratiam, quod peccare 
non possent." 

144/428. I do not know what cheuel is. It cannot possibly have any- 
thing to do with O.E. ceafl. The sense must be * set of followers.* 

For schal the context seems to require the preterite. Ought we perhaps 
to read : \}at he scholde niys-tveiide f 


242 Notes. Pages 144-148, Lines 432-539. 

144/432. hys for Kt. lyas (preter.)? or lyese (infin.), to be connected 
with sckal (scholde ?) in 1. 428 ? 

145/436. cf. 150/586 ff. 

145/442. 8labhe\>, wallow? (Stratm. -Bradley). It seems to be con- 
nected with O.N. dahh, wet, dirty. 

145/445 ff. Cf. Chaucer, 'Pers. Tale' (Skeat 604, 570 ff.) : Man- 
daughtre in dede is in foure rruineres, Tha;t oon is hy lawej right as a 
Iiistice da/mpneih him. that is coupaMe to the deeth. Bid lot the Iiistice be 
war that lie do it rightfxtUyy and that he do it not for ddyt to spUle Uood, 
htU for kepinge of rightvnsenesse, — Cp. also St. Augustine, * Enarratio in 
Psalmum cviii.' (Migne, 37, p. 1435, 8) : ..." revera paucorum est dig- 
noseere quomodo placeat poena iniquorum acciisatori iniraicitias ezsatii- 
rare cupienti, et quam longe alio modo placeat judici recta voluntate 
peccata punienti. llle quippe reddit malum pro malo ; iste autem, etiani 
cum vinaicat, non reddit malum pro malo, quoniam justnm reddit injusto: 
quod autum justum est, utique bonum est. Punit ergo non delectatione 
alienae raiseriae, quod est malum pro malo, sed dilectione justitiae, quod 
est bonum pro malo." 

145/449. for iveynej for gain. 

145/460. he pat mente hyt is the judge who condemns thieves for to 
ai'deyne Peys in londe, namt for weyne, Ne for qneadhede, and who is 
therefore to be praised for his good intention. But can he pat mente hyt 
(mente, from O.E. m,yntan) express thus much ? Or shall we read : he pat 
m^nte hyt for (MS. pat) iiistyse, he that intended it for justice ? 

146/487 ff. Mibycome. This is an early instance of the occurrence of 
the verb *to unbecome.' Here it is pret. subjunct. The word g^'oce 
signifies a free and gratuitous gift : ^' non in voluntate petentis, sed in 
arbitrio dantis debet esse quod datur. An enim dandum sit, dantis debet 
judicio pensari" (Petr. Lombard, in Epist. ad Roman., Migne, 191, 1459). 
" gratia . . . non meritis redditur, sed gratis datur, propter quod et gratia 
nominatur" (St. Augustine, *De natnra et gratia'). See Epist Pauli ad 
Rom. xi. 6. We may, perhaps, translate here : ' It would be unbecoming 
if everything, in every place, were alike privileged to joy and bliss.' 
Note the construction of grace with to, here and on 149/ 569. 

147/501. The line, as it stands, is too long. AVe shall have to omit 
either hyt or vjel, the verb wyle being indispensable as governing the 
infin. hy-come [: some]. 

The following passage (st. 85 ff.) turns on the subject of Predestination 
and Reprobation. 

147/514-16. This seems to be a reminiscence of a passnge in St. 
Augustine, who, with reference to the words of the Apostle, Rom. ix. 18 : 
" cujus vult miseretur, et quem vult indnrat," says : " Eorum antem non 
miseretur, quibus gratiam non praebendam esse aequitate occultissima et 
ab humanis sensibus remotissima judicat" (quoted by Petr. Lombard., 
Migne, 192, 632). Perhaps we should read : Bote pet hyt hys pe prinete 
Of hys domes, in equyte, Wyp ivyl to pan (literally, * with will to it ;' pan 
is dat. sing. neut. of the denionstr. pron.). The emendation wyl, 1. 516, is 
coiToborated by what follows, 1. 517-18 : For per nys noxi^t of pysse wylle 
Her to ingy. 

141 1 $20-22. The allusion is to Psahn xxv. 7 : " iudicia tua abyssus 
multa,— pet = O.E. pytt, 

148/526. pe is a rare variant of Jjo, O.E. pa; it occurs also 95/271, 
124/290. — After nele, we have to supply teche from 1. 524. 

l'48/539. lonyy would be pres. subjunct., for which there is hardly any 
occasion here. Wc shall probably have to alter it into the indie, longep. 

Notes. Pages 148-150, Lines 546-590. 243 

148/546. hy:^t^ sets off. See N. E. D. s. v. hight, v^. 

148/5 5 ^ • *!/^h '3®®'^> 3 s*"§- '"^' pr®^' o^ ^' 'rtie idea that by the juxta- 
position of contrasting objects tlieir different qualities are heightened has 
found a similar expression in Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 179, 998) : 
*^Si adiunxeris similia similibus^ partium aequalitas utriusque partis 
excellentiam perhibet Si vero dissimilia contuleris, magis patet diversitas 
alterius. Sicque coniunotio parium differentiam arcet partium singuhi- 
rum, et diversa qualitas utriusque crescere videtur ex utroque. Confer 
album nigro, sapientem stulto, superbum humili, malum bono, et ex ipsis 
contrariis distantibus argumentum propriae naturae videtur acccdere sin- 
gulis speciebus." Cf. also Origenes (Migne, *Patr. Graeci,' 12, 153): 
^^Quantus decor et splendor sit lucis non dignosceretur, nisi obscuritas 
intercederet noctis . . . Unde viri fortes magnificarentur, nisi existerent 
imbecilles et timidi? ... Si atrum consideraveris, gratiora tibi quae clara 
sunt videbuntur. Et, ut breviter dicam, ex mnlorum consideratione decus 
bonorum lucidius indicatur." — Pandare, in Chaucer's 'Troylus,* i. st 92, 
corroborates his assertion that By his contrarye is every thinge declared by 
similar examples. 

148/553. lykynge, likening, comparison; see *Ayenb.' 81: like\>, is 
like ; lykynge, likeness. 

148/555. euere mo. Germ, immer, to all future time. Cf. For eiiere mo, 
1. 579. Ase, prefixed to the adverb of time, need not be altered. 

149/556. Unless we take merye to be a substant., we shall have to 
change j^or into \>at, 

149/557. ]>e is here causal conjunction = O.B. \>e. For the notion 
expressed in this and the following stanza cp. Hugo de St. Victore 
(Migne, 176, 609) : *' Iniqui ad aliquid ardebunt, scilicet ut iusti omnes et 
in Domino videant gaudia quae percipiunt, et in illis respiciant supplicia 
quae evaserunt, quatenus tanto roagis in aetemum divina gratia ditiores 
se esse cognoscant, quanto apertius in aetemum mala puniri conspiciunt, 
quae eius adiutorio vicerunt." See also Petr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 
962) : " Et licet iustis sua gaudia sufficiant, ad majorem tamen gloriam 
vident poenas malorum, quas per gratiam evaserunt ..." 

149/564. wi\>ere, O.E. wi\>re, resistance, opposition. 

149/575-6. Of the three M.E. verbs hreden : (a) = * to widen ' ; (&) = 
* to roast * ; (c) = * to breed,' the two first are out of the question here. 
But what should * to breed in violence (forse), wrath and envy (ny\>e) * 
mean ? I have, therefore, altered me (or ine) to mo : * Right so shall the 
devils for their wickedness breed ever more violence,* etc. This is what 
we should expect, in opposition to what has been said in the preceding 
lines. Cf. Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 84) : " Sciendum quoque est 
quod boni angeli ita sunt confirmati per gratiam quod peccare non pos- 
sunt; mali autem ita obstinati per malitiam quod bonum facere non 

149/577. ytopped, wrestled? See toppin, v. in Stratm.-Bradley. 

149/584. a/rached, pulled, torn (out of their place); cf. arace, 91/i66. 

150/589. one-hy-comeleche, unbecoming {me = on, un), 

150/590. le\>y, empty, unoccupied. 

The idea that man was destined to fill the place of the fallen angels 
originated with Gregor.; see Moralia, lib. xxxii. 23 ; Hom. xxxiv. Cf. 
also Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 260): "Non enim, ut quidam 
putant, conditio hominis ita ad restaurationem angelorum provisa est, 
quasi homo non fuisset factus, nisi angelus cecidisset; sed idcirco ad 
restaurandum et supplendum lapsorum angelorum numerum factus homo 
dicitur, quia cum homo postmod<um creatus illuc unde illi ceciderunt 

244 Notes. Pages 150-153, Lines 600-696. 

ductus est, illius societatis numerus qui in cadentibus diminutus fuerat, 
per hominem reparatur.'* 

I6O/600. If this line is correct, we shall have to translate : * his festivity 
could not be altogether complete, as another (festivity is)' — which we 
might possibly refer to the festive joy of the good angels in heaven. But 
ouglit we not, perhaps, to write : Ac al afw\>er = * but quite otherwise ' ? 

150/606. take is infin. The verb *to forbid' is sometimes followed in 
M.E., as in O.E., by the simple infin. without to; see * Anglia,' xiii. 91. 

150/613. V-schet, shut (O.E. scyttan). 

150/614. y-det^ locked up (O.E. d]fttan). 

150/615. cryhhe, lock-up house, prison (Halliwell). 

151/622. ffyle onder-goj to undertake, attempt, resort to guile. Cf . 
Hugo de St Victore, ^De Lapsu primi Hominis,* cap. I. II. (Migne, 176, 
287) : " vidit diabolus et invidit quod homo illuc per obedientiam ascend- 
eret unde ipse per superbiam corniisset. Quia vero per violentiam nocere 
non potuit, ad fraudem se convertit, ut dolo hominem supplantaret, queni 
virtute superare non posset." 

\><m^te, intended. In this sense, \>enche may govern an infin. without 
to ; see * Anglia,' xiii, 94. 

151/623. Formerly (her = er)y in his rebellion against God, the devil 
had tried violence. 

151/626. auayd, see note to I9/511. 

151/629. * He thought of what had fallen to him before, when he was 

151/632. alfor \>an, for all that, though he was afraid. 

151/638. sckretthede (= schrewedhede) here seems to approach to the 
sense of Mn.E. * shrewdness.' In Genes, iii. 1, the serpent is called 
*'callidior cunctis animantibus terrae;" and, as St. Augustine says, it is 
so called "propter astutiam diaboH, quae in illo et de illo agebat dolum." 

151/642. 80ch a tempeste: figuratively spoken of the violence of envy 
and malice with which the fiend was agitated (cf. 1. 631-2). 

152/648. waye, O.E. ivSBian (Kt. Gl. we^an), to afflict, frustrate, 
deceive ; cp. toey]>, lies, deceives, IO7/232. 

152/6497-51. The reason why the fiend durst not assail Adam, but 
tempted the woman first, is given by Hugo de St. Victore (Migne, 176, 
25) : " Diabolus, quia vidit mulierem, utpote infirmiorem et minus ratione 
vigentem, facilius fraude circumveniri posse, primum eam aggressus est 
interrogatione, volens animum eius elicere, ut ex responsione eius colli- 
geret qualiter eam de caetero alloqui debuisset." 

The story of the temptation as related by the poet follows the account 
of the Bible (Genes, iii.). 

152/670. ac need not be altered here ; it answers to Mn.E. bxU (see 
N. E. D. s. V. buty III. 27). 

153/682. dame lykeroxise, Cp. ' The Charter of the Abbey of the Holy 
Ghost,' MS. Laud 210 (' Library of Early English Writers,' ed. Horstmann, 
i. 341) : <£• \>at seiy Eii^ \>at sche schtdde he so tvysCj dh was ho]>e coueytous cfc 
lykerouse cw convenliche wymmen hen. 

153/691-2. The reading I have suggested in the footnote meets the 
requirements of both metre and sense. «efce, as Kolbing proposed to 
write for )>refce, is no Kt. form. But \>rekey or rather its Kt. equivalent 
\>recchey in the sense of *to press, rush, force a way,' may possibly be right 
after all, in which case an must of course be preposition. The ryme 
speche [: precche], it is true, would be imperfect as regards the quantity 
of the vowels. — hal is O.E. healh, corner, hiding-place. 

153/696. of jhjTjte for on fly^te ? or should we perhaps write of-fry^te, 

Notes: Pages 153-158, Lines 702-833. 245 

frightened? Cf. Genes, iii. 10: "Vocem tuam audivi in paradiso, et 

153/702. Btinges, It is difficult to make out wlietber tlie first letter 
of the word in MS. is a rounded » or a capital E ox 0. I have settled on 
adopting the reading ^^'n^es with regard to Genes, iii. 11: "Quis enim 
indicavit tibi quod nudus esses, nisi quod ex ligno . . . coniedisti ?" 

154/703. wy\>erlycke^ adv., seems to mean *in opposition, in reply.' 
It is not recorded in Stratm.-Bradley. Halliwell has witherhjy hastily, 
violently, as a Devonshire provincialism. 

154/712. Eve's speech, of course, begins with so wey ]fat wyle. K6I- 
bing*s conjecture se wey \>at wyle, which he translates **wir sehen das 
wohl ein," is unintelligible to me. so wey \>at wyle is of course Mn.E. * (so) 
woe the while I ' 

154/723 pleity^ the Kt. form (cf. * Ayenb.' 99), to plead. 

154/726. waytiy "insidiari." It is construed with the dative; cf. 

* Ayenb.* 263 (Kt. version of * Sawles Warde *) : to eche vertiie ech vice 
ivayte\> = " singulis virtutibus singula vitia insidiantur." 

The insertion of hed, corresponding to " calcaneo '* in the Latin text, 
would make the line too long. 

154/727. lere is the Kt form of O.E. lyre, loss, destruction, here in the 
sense of * condemnation, doom.' 

155/731. ine marines daunger = **sub viri potestate." 

155/754. for\> myt \>an, forthwith. 

156/778. he (MS. je) refers to the devil. Kolbing conjectvres For ^e 
tvete (MS. toeste) }pat god hyt sede, for ye know that, etc. — thinking that 
'^ the poet appeals to the biblical knowledge of his hearers or readers." 

156/779. o,wede^ go mad. 

I6Q/7S7, * For nothing was nor is it called Tree of Life.' 

156/789. Can tvyste be adverb of the pa. pple. ioysty in the sense of 
'wittingly ' ? Anyhow, the line is too short. Kolbing's conjecture, how- 
ever, Ac [god hyt^ ^vyste, does not seem to me to hit the mark. It would 
be, at the least, rather superfluous to expressly observe that God knew 
it ; and besides, it does not seem to form a strong enough opposite to the 
preceding for naujt, — Shall we perhaps write Ac mid lyste, cunningly, 
wisely ? 

157/7^. The poet promises to speak of the Bedemption ; but that 
part of his poem, if ever it was executed, has been lost. 

157/797. \)at is relat. pron., referring to Uode in 1. 794. Kolbing's 
insertion of lyf, or body, is unnecessary. 

157/800. for-hole. The MS. has for-hotite, which might p,erhaps 
suggest for-hote; but this is used by Shoreham in the sense of * for- 
bidden,' 155/735. ^"® might also think of for-hedf with regard to 156/ 
783 : For god hyt hedde, 

157/806. uerry, intrans., remove, depart (OJE. feorrian). 

157/810. For the use of wd];>e in the sense of * (heavenly) glory' see 

* Anglia,' xxii. 388. 

157/811 flf. That the incarnation of Christ, the principal end of which 
was the redemption of mankind (cf. Bonaventura, Sent. 1. III. dist. 1, art. 
2, quaest. 2, Conclusio), was the operation of the Holy Trinity is expressly 
stated by St. Augustine ; cf. also Pctr. Lombard. (Migne, 192, 758). 

157/815. )^^ ^^ ^^'^ embe; see note to I36/172. 

157/817. ytayledj tallied, cut out. 

158/831. To mannes mende, to man's correction, reparation. Cp. 83/ 
128, and note to the passage. 

158/833. forsopie, supposing it to be right, seems to be connected 

246 Notes. Pages 158-159, Litm 836-871. 

with O.E. soppian. Like /or-aef^e in the same line, it must be used 
intransitively, and the signification would seem to be ^to get soaked 
through, or soppy ' (" as when mown grass lies in lumps upon the field," 
Halliwell), — a bold metaphor, but not more so than for-se^ In dea\>es 
bende. We may, however, mention here that in the Bodleian Fragm. of 
* Sir Lamwell,* v. 57, we meet with the phrase forsobhed and forwomf 
where forsobbed seems to mean *• exhausted with sobbing/ So, if we were 
to alter forsopie, we might perhaps write for-sohbie instead of it 

158/836. ouer-jfroiioef overthrown. The MS. has otie \>reawe^ which 
might seem to point to original -\sratve. aw invariably represents O.E. 
dw in ^ Ayenbite ; ' but Shoreham has oto- forms as well, as proved by bis 

158/847. ^ \^^ by-fore, by what has been said before. 

159/862. Tiie insertion of ha\> after hyt, as suggested by Kolbing, is 
impossible, comej 1. 863, is evidently 3rd sing. ind. pret, phonetically 
com; so nome cannot be pa. pple. (=nt(me), but must likewise be 3ra 
sing. ind. pret. (= nom), 

159/865. I have thought it necessary to supply hyt, which refers to 
Ay* n.e. the child), 1.863. 

What the poet means to say here is this : * Man is God's likeness 
(^^Faciamus hominen ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram") also in 
this, that he takes his origin tlirough generation, even as God, the Son, 
was generated (" genitus, non factus") by the Father.* This has been 
made an argument for the congruity of Christ's Incarnation, t. e. his 
assumption of the human, rather than the angelical, form and nature; 
e. g, by Bonaventura, Sent. 1. iii. dist. 2, art. 1, quaest 2: "Secundum 
uanique naturae institutionem maior est coi^uitas in humana natura 
quam in angelica; et hoc triplici de causa . . . Prima est propter 
personalem discretionem, quae quidem in humana reperitur secundum 
originem . . . et ideo magis congruebat quod persona Filii, quae dis- 
tinguitur a persona Patris secundum originem, earn naturam acciperet 
in qua propnetatem filiationis retineret." 

159/871. demeyned, carried on, accomplished; see N. E. D. s. v. 
demean, v.' (where, by the way, in the quotation of our passage fcy, 
fem., referring to engendrure, is unnecessarily altered to /ii/[*]). Regard- 
ing the sense of this and the next stanza we may compare Petr. Lombard., 
wlio follows Augustine (Migne, 192, 724) : " Caro enim propter peccatum 
corrupta fuit in Adam, adeo ut cum ante peccatum vir et mulier sine 
incentive libidinis et concupiscentiae fervore possent con venire, essetque 
thorus imnKiculatus, iam post peccatum non valet fieri camalis copula 
absque libidinosa concupisoentia . . ." 


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SEP II i9;j^G2 81980 

't«'" Stanford University Library 

Stanford, California 

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