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Full text of "The poetical decameron, or ten conversations on English poets and poetry, particularly of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I"

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N. Breton's poem in John Hind's very rare novel of 
l/ih'nlinoxti, HHM5 How far it is tit to examine UK- interior 
productions of good writers Breton's " Fancy," and a poem 

by him among the Royal MSS " Elumtox Roundelay," by 

Robert Greene, extracted and observed upon The title of Hind's 
production imitated from R. fircone's " Carde of Fancy" Pla- 
giarism from Hamlet in " Dolamy's Primrose," UHMJ Quotation 
from the same The explanation of u Dolarny's Primrose-" 
J)inhin, one of the persons in Kltusto [Mridlnoso, meant for the 
author Extract from Hind's prose and poetry How far the 
progress of Satire in English should be further traced Character 
of George Wither His " Abuses stript and whipt," lf13 His 
voluminousness as an author proved by himself in his Fides An- 
gliciinti, 1WJO His imprisonment and release on account of his 
Satire to the King, with specimens Anecdote of Wither in Hugh 
Peters' Jests, 1WJO Wither's unpublished MS His character as 
a politician and poet Dedication of his "Abuses stript & whipt" 
to himself His fearlessness in attacking the great, &c. Quota- 
tion from his first Satire " Of the passion of Love" His unknown 
poem of " Aretephils Complaint" confounded with his " Mistress 
of Philarete" Specimen of the fourth Satire "On Envy" 
Gower's Confessw Anunitis quoted WTietstone's character of 
Envy in his " English Myrror," 158G The nature of that book, 
with a specimen of the poetry Tale of the Vicar of Croydon 
Physicians and the Gout Massinger's " Emperor of the 
East" cited Whetstone's " Mirour for Magistrates of Cyties," 
liH4, with quotations from it regarding himself and Judge 
Chomley The same work published as " The Enemie of Vn- 



thryftinesse," in 1586, with a new tide A list given by the 
printer of 10 works published by Whetstone before 1586, and of 
three others then in hand Another extract from Wither's fourth 
Satire The follies and vices of Kings from Sat. 1. Book II 
Quotation from Sat. II., " Inconstancy" Observations A. 
Stafford's " Niobe," and " Niobe dissolu'd into a Nilus," 1611 
Character of him, and quotation from his book on the degeneracy 
of nobility His vision of Sir P. Sidney Wither on Sir P. Sidney, 
Drayton, Ben Jonson, &c. in Sat 3. Book II Wither's dif- 
fidence of his own poetical powers, and the boldness of his political 
tracts John Phillips's excessively rare poem on the death and 
funeral of Sir P. Sidney, 1587 Specimen and remarks Sir 
P. Sidney's panegyric on himself from the same Absurdity of 
the whole construction of the poem Richard Brathwayte, a 
satirist, and an imitator of Wither His " Times Curtaine drawne 
or the Anatomie of Vanitie," &c. 1621 His admiration of Wither 
His coarseness of attack, with quotations from his satires On 
'the poverty of poets, with an extract Brathwayte on his own 
drunken habits from his " Health from Helicon " On translated 
satires George Chapman's translation of the fifth Satire of Juve- 
nal, 1629 The author's age at that day Quotation from the 
dedication His projected translation of the whole of Juvenal and 
Persius His contempt of vulgar applause from his " Memorable 
Masque," 1613 His " funeral Oration" on burying one of 
Poppsea's hairs Specimen of his translation from Juv. Sat. 5. 
.Remarks upon it, and conclusion of the subject. 




BOURNE. The last work which occupied us yesterday 
was a tract by Nicholas Breton. The pamphlet I now 
present contains a poem by him not found elsewhere, 
and not noticed by bibliographers. 

ELLIOT. I shall be glad to see it, because I have 
since taken the opportunity of reading some pastoral 
pieces by him in the reprint of " England's Helicon," 
and they give me a favourable opinion of his poetical 
talents. What title has the work in which the poem 
you refer to is inserted ? 

BOURNE. It is a novel, or rather one of those 
early romances which are seldom met with, and are 
never to be purchased but at a very high price : this 
is of peculiar rarity : it is called " Eliosto Libidinoso : 
Described in two Bookes," &c. " Written by lohn 
Hynd. At London, Printed by Valentine Simmes," 
&c. 1606. If I tell you what a copy sold for at the 
Roxburgh sale, it will give you a notion of its value. 


ELLIOT. Of its price it may, but not of its value. 
MORTON. Your distinctions are very hair-breadth, 
but among the collectors of old books the words are 
synonymous. What did it sell for ? 

BOURNE. Only nine guineas, and if it were put up 
to auction now I dare say it would produce not far 
short of double that amount. I doubt whether the 
poem it contains by Breton will increase your respect 
for his talents. 

ELLIOT. Then perhaps it would be as well to 
omit it. 

MORTON. I beg that we may hear it. Whatever 
you may wish, I would rather form a correct than 
too favourable an opinion of an author. 

ELLIOT. But would it enable us to form a correct 
opinion > We might, perhaps, if we could see all he 

BOURNE. How often have I heard you quote that 
line of Boileau, Notre siecle est fertile en sots ad- 
mirateurs, yet now you wish to enlist yourself in the 

ELLIOT. To reply in another line of the same 
satirist, I do not wish to be Plus enclin a blamer 
que savant ft bien faire. At least, as I have before 
remarked, there is no more reason for reviving the 
bad productions of dead authors than for raking up 
the bad actions of dead men. 

MORTON. Your motto is Si malus est nequeo 
Inudare et poscere ; but if we cannot arrive at a per- 


fectly just conclusion as to a writer's merits and de- 
fects, let us do the best we can to form a correct 

BOURNE. Mere impartiality requires that we should 
not pass the poem over without notice. This is indeed 
turning the tables upon us. 

ELLIOT. Well, I am content ; let us hear it : the 
reading will be the least evil of the two : malum 
quod minimum est, id minimum est malum. A short 
bad poem is better than a long bad argument. 

BOURNE. After all it may not be the work of 
Breton : Hind introduces it as " a fancie which that 
learned author N. B. hath dignified with respect." 
Now in the first place, the initials may be those of 
some other writer than Nicholas Breton, and in the 
next, it is not said that he was the author of it, but 
that he " dignified it with respect." 

MORTON. But can the letters N. B. apply to any 
other author than Breton ? 

BOURNE. No, not that I know of ; but still there 
remains the second doubt. 

ELLIOT. It is not of much consequence whether 
it be or be not Breton's, for the best poets have 
written badly: indeed it would be difficult to find 
any poet, however good, who has at all times written 


BOURNE. A great deal more has been already said 
about the poem than it is worth, as you will find 
when it is finished. 


" Among the groues the woods & thicks 

The bushes, brambles, and the briers, 

The shrubbes, the stubbes, the thornes & prickes, 

The ditches, plashes lakes and miers : 

Where fish nor fowle, nor bird nor beast 
Nor liuing thing may take delight ; 
Nor reasons rage may looke for rest 
Till heart be dead of hateful spight : 

Within the caue of cares vnknowne, 
Where hope of comfort all decayes, 
Let me with sorrow sit alone, 
In dolefull thoughts to end my dayes. 

And when I heare the stormes arise, 
That troubled Ghosts doe leaue the graue, 
With hellish sounds of horrors cries, 
Let me goe looke out of my caue. 

And when I see what paines they bide 
That doe the greatest torments proue, 
Then let not me the sorrow hide, 
That I haue sufferd by my loue. 

Where losses, crosses, care and griefe, 
With ruthfull, spitefull, hatefuU hate, 
Without all hope of haps reliefe 
Doe tugge and teare the heart to naught : 

But sigh and say and sing and sweare 

It is too much for one to beare." 


And so it ends, with a sufficient accumulation of 
words, and more than a sufficient paucity of ideas. 

MORTON. " It is too much for one to bear," 
indeed : when you came to the fourth stanza, be- 
ginning " And when I hear the storms arise," I was 
in hopes it was improving. 

BOURNE. You cannot expect a despairing but 
doating lady to be much more than passionate in her 

MORTON. And her sex may hfive induced the poet, 
for the sake of consistency of character, to heap 
together such a mass of reduplicated words without 
much meaning. 

ELLIOT. I thought your originality would have 
been above such a reduplicated and threadbare ob- 
servation, even putting gallantry out of the ques- 
tion. As to the merits of the poem, I think the in- 
ternal much outweighs the external evidence, con- 
sisting, as it does, only of two initial letters : the 
name is as likely to have been Nathan Benjamin, or 
any other N. B. as Nicholas Breton. 

BOURNE. I am sure I have no interest in attri- 
buting the trifle to the poet for whom you have 
taken such a strong partiality. 

ELLIOT. But you ought to have an interest the 
other way, and that is what I feel. I am anxious 
that what is wholly unworthy of him should not 
needlessly be charged against him. 

BOURNE. In that view of it the poem from which 


I will now show you a brief extract would bear your 
examination. It was never printed, and is among 
the royal MSS. having been dedicated to King 
James : it is rather of a pious and didactic turn, but 
parts of it are eloquent. 

ELLIOT. If it do the writer credit I shall be happy 
to look at it : what is it called ? 

BOURNE. It consists of eight parts : it is the praise 
of Virtue, Wisdom, Love, Constancy, Patience, Hu- 
mility and the goodness of God, with a conclusion 
entitled Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

MORTON. One part, and one only, is mentioned 
by Ritson: you say you have a specimen of this 
curiosity j let us hear it. 

BOURNE. A disconnected quotation will not give 
you a fair notion of the whole. In describing Virtue 
he says she is 

" The soyle wherin all sweetnes ever groweth, 

the Fountaine whence all Wisedome ever springeth, 

the winde that never but all blessing blowcth, 

the Aier that all comfort ever bringeth j 

the fire that ever life and love inflameth, 

the Figure that all true perfection frameth." 

And " Vpon the praise of Wisedome" he has the 
following stanza : 

" Shee feeds no fancy with an idle fashion, 
yitt fashions all things in a comely frame j 


shee never knew Repentance wofull Passion, 
nor ever fear'd the blot of wicked blame ; 
but even and true what ever she intended 
wrought all so well, that none could be amended." 

ELLIOT. As you say, two stanzas can give us no 
correct idea of a long poem : the verse runs very 
smoothly, with the exception of the line in the first 
quotation, where you were obliged to read Air as 
two syllables. 

BOURNE. That is a trifling defect, and warranted 
by the practice of the time. I am sorry I made no 
further extracts when the MS. poem was before me. 
But leaving Breton now, and his " fancy" in Elitmtn 
LUndrndtOf if you take that novel into your hand you 
will find on the next page another poem ; read that, 
and tell me whom you think that worthy of. 

ELLIOT. I do not see even initials inserted here, 
so that the guess is still wider. You mean the 
piece entitled " Eliostoes Roundelay" 

BOURNE. I do, and which, it is stated, is borrowed 
from " a worthy writer." Who was that worthy 

ELLIOT. According to your account nearly all the 
poets of Elizabeth's reign were worthy writers, so 
that I shall be as wide of the mark as ever. 

MORTON. Perhaps there is something said in tin- 
poem to let us into the secret. 

BOURNE. No, but it is by a man of the highest 


eminence and notoriety of that time no less than 
Robert Greene, of whom we have heard so much, 
and who was unquestionably a first- rate poet. Read 
the Roundelay, and I will give you very satisfactory 
proof afterwards why I say it is his. 

ELLIOT. It is somewhat of the longest, but if it 
indeed be Greene's I dare say I shall not regret it. 

" Eliostoes Roundelay. 

" Sitting and sighing in my secret muse j 
As once Apollo did, surprised with Loue, 
Noting the slipperie waies young yeares doe vse, 
What fond affects the prime of youth doth moue : 
With bitter teares despairing I doe crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

When wanton age, the blossome of my time, 
Drew me to gaze vpon the gorgeous sight, 
That Beautie pompous in her highest prime 
Presents to tangle men with sweet delight : 

Then with despairing teares my thoughts doe crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie." 

This is very different sort of stuff to that which you 
wished to palm just now on Breton : at least, here 
we have beautiful versification. It proceeds, 

" When I suruaid the riches of her lookes, 
Where-out flew flames of neuer quencht desire, 
Wherein lay baites that Venus snares with hookes, 
Or where prowd Cupid sate, all arm'd with fire ; 


Then toucht with Loue my inward soule did crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

The milke-white Galaxia of her browe, 
Where Loue doth daunce Lauoltaes of his skill, 
Like to the Temple where true Louers vow 
To follow what shall please their mistresse will : 
Noting her luorie front, now doe I crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

Her face like siluer Luna in her shine, 
All tainted through with bright vermillian straines, 
Like Lillies dipt in Bacchus choicest wine, 
Powdred and inter-seam'd with azur'd vaines j 
Delighting in their pride now may I crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

The golden wyers that checker in the day 
Inferiour to the tresses of her haire -, 
Her Amber trammels did my heart dismay, 
That when I lookt, I durst not ouer-dare : 
Prowd of her pride, now I am forc't to crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

These fading Beauties drew me on to sin 
Natures great riches frain'd my bitter ruthj 
These were the traps that Loue did snare me in ; 
Oh these and none but these haue wrackt my youth ! 
Mis-led by them, I may despairing crie, 
Woe worth the faults and follies of mine eie. 

!.\ those I -lipt from Vertues holy tracke, 
That leads into the highest chrystall spheare 


By these 1 fell to vanitie and wracke ; 

And as a man forlorne with sinne and feare, 
Despaire and sorrow doth constraine me crie, 
Woe worth the faults & follies of mine eie ! " 

MORTON. Though there is some tautology in it, 
the Roundelay is obviously the work of no mean 

ELLIOT. There is a great deal of passion and feel- 
ing in the stanzas, and even the repetitions, such for 
instance as the last few lines, are very natural to u 
man under strong excitement, dwelling on what is 
most deeply impressed upon his mind. 

MORTON. The recurrence of the same two lines 
at the end of every stanza is, I ^hink, too artificial 
for very strong feeling, and but for this I should 
agree entirely with you. But how does it appear 
that Greene was the author of it ? 

BOURNE. Simply by being found in one of his ac- 
knowledged productions, of which there must have 
been several earlier editions, though that in my hand 
is dated only in 1621. It is called " Greene's never 
too late," and elsewhere Greene's Nunquam sera est ; 
a pamphlet, in which, conscience-struck, he laments, 
under a feigned name, "the faults and follies" of his 
own ungoverned youth. 

MORTON. Perhaps Hind, the author of Eliosto 
Libidinoso, was a friend of Greene. 

BOURNE. Possibly, though there is no proof of the 
fact : there is proof that he was an admirer and an 


imitator of Greene in this very pamphlet, for the 
whole is an exaggeration of his worst style and most 
obvious faults. Even the title-page is an imitation 
of Greene, or more properly, a copy from him. The 
full title to Greene's " Carde of Fancie" runs thus, 
" Wherein the follie of those carpet Knights is de- 
ciphered, which guiding their course by the com- 
pass of Cupid, either dash their ship against most 
dangerous Rockes, or else attaine the hauen with 
paine and perill." Now read Hind's title. 

MORTON. The resemblance is exact: " Wherein 
their imminent dangers are declared, who guiding 
the course of their life by the compasse of Affection, 
either dash their ship against most dangerous shelues, 
or else attaine the Hauen with extreme prejudice.'* 

ELLIOT. But I should like a specimen from Hind's 
share of the performance ; I do not care much about 
the resemblance of the titles. 

BOURNE. I can have no objection, as we shall 
have time enough to-day to finish the English sa- 
tirists : you shall hear both Hind's prose and poetry, 
for he was a versifier also : the prose is introductory 
of what is called " Dinohins Sonnet" which Dinohin 
is, in fact, no other than John Hind, the same letters 
being used in both names. 

MORTON. In the same way as " Dolarny's Prim- 
rose" is, in fact, Raynold's Primrose, though the 
writer in the British Bibliographer (I. 153), and Dr. 
Drake, in his " Shakespeare and his Times," \\erc 
unable to " unriddle the conceit." 


BOURNE. That conceit being merely the trans- 
position of the letters. Dr. Drake, in the very im- 
perfect and injudicious catalogue he has furnished 
of the poets contemporary with Shakespeare, has 
ventured to rank Raynold above mediocrity, and 
George Peele below it: yet the former was one of 
the most puling writers that ever put pen to paper, 
and the latter one of the most manly and vigorous. 
Observe too the following plagiarism from Hamlet 
in " Dolarny's Primrose," (1606) : a Hermit is mo- 
ralising upon a skull : 

" Why might not this haue beene some lawiers pate, 
The which sometimes brib'd, brawl'd, and tooke a 


And law exacted to the highest rate ? 
Why might not this be such a one as he ? 

Your quirks and quillets now, Sir, where be they ? 

Now he is mute and not a word can say." 

ELLIOT. The writer had Hamlet in his memory, 
no doubt, and plagiarism is not too hard a word. 

BOURNE. I only mentioned it incidentally, because 
it has not been previously noticed. I am sure the 
originality of such a milk-sop poet as Raynolds is 
not worth vindicating or disputing. Yet in order to 
enable you to decide upon the rank he ought really 
to take, and to ascertain whether there is a pretence 
for placing him before Peele, of whom you already 
know something, I cannot resist availing myself of 


this opportunity of quoting two stanzas from t Do- 
larny's Primrose:" he is describing a fair May day. 

" In garments green the meadowes fayre did ranck it 
The vallies lowe of garments greene were glad; 
In garments greene the pastures proud did pranck it, 
The daly grounds in garments greene were clad : 
Each hill and dale, each bush and brier were scene 
Then for to florish in their garments greene. 

" Thus as the medowes, forests and the fields 
In sumptuous tires had deckt their daynty slades, 
The florishing trees wanton pleasure yeelds, 
Keeping the sunne from out their shadie shades : 
On whose greene leaues vpon each calinie day 
The gentle wind with dallying breath did play." 

ELLIOT. It is very poor certainly, but the lines are 
not altogether deficient in harmony. 

BOURNE. Perhaps not, with the assistance of " gar- 
ments green" five times affectedly repeated, and such 
combinations as " daly grounds," " shady shades," 
and " calmy days," besides " grovy shades," no less 
than thrice employed in the course of six stanzas. 

MORTON. Let us leave him for Dinohin, alias John 
Hind. By the by, Golde, in the " Fig for Momus" 
of Lodge, in the same way may be meant for the 

BOURNE. No doubt that is the true explanation, 
which never occurred to me before. Dinohin is an 
important personage in the second book of this 



pamphlet, and the author, without doubt, meant to 
shadow himself under the name this makes it the 
more curious.. The extract I am about to read is from 
p. 77 of Eliosta Libidinoso. 

"When Titan, hasting to plunge his fierie chariot 
in 27^Ywlappe,had gladded Oceanus with his returne." 

ELLIOT. A man who could put together such a 
sentence as that, could not have an atom of taste, or 
any notion of propriety " plunging his fiery chariot 
in Thetis's lap," is a most extravagant absurdity. 

MORTON. Let us defer our criticisms until the 

BOURNE. Yet the observation is perfectly well 
founded. " When Titan hasting to plunge his fierie 
chariot in Thetis lappe, had gladded Oceanus with 
his returne, the tormented Louer taking a Lute in 
his hand, went to the place which so late he found, 
and there did in sad melodic sound foorth his sor- 
rowes. Gatesinea wondring to heare musicke at 
her windowe looked out and discerned her beloued 
Dinohin, whose affections when shee sawe like her 
owne, shee was rauished with incredible ioyes, and 
had presently vttered some signe of her content, had 
not maidenly modestie, and the presence of her nurce 
staid her : who perswaded her, that hauing Dinohin 
at the aduantage, shee should not so easily offer her 
loue, lest hee might little esteeme it, hauing so 
lightly got it. The perplexed Louer repairing oft to 
his accustomed place with more pleasure to Gate- 


sinea than content to himselfe, resolued in the ende 
to make a full triall of his good or badde fortune, 
and no more to vse such dumbe demonstrations. 
Comming therefore late, as he was wont, to the 
window, he tarried till he perceiued by some signes, 
that his mistresse was come into her chamber, ac- 
companied only with her nurce : then fingring his 
Lute, and framing his voice, he vttered this passionate 
Dittie, making euery rest a deepe-fetched sigh. 

Dinohins Sonnet. 

" I rashly vow'd (fond wretch why did I so ?) 
When I was free that Loue should not inthrall me: 
Ah foolish boast, the cause of all my woe, 
And this misfortune that doth now befall me. 

Loues God incens'd did sweare that I should smart, 
That done, he shot and strooke me to the heart'! 

" Sweet was the wound, but bitter was the paine j 
Sweet is the bondage to so faire a creature, 
If coie thoughts do not Beuties brightnesse staine, 
Nor crueltie wrong so diuine a feature. 
Loue pittie mee, and let it quite my cost, 
By Loue to finde what I by Loue haue lost ! 

" Heau'ns pride, Earths wonder, Natures peerelesse 


Faire harbour of my soules decaying gladnesse ! 
Yield him some ease, whose faint and trembling voice 
Doth sue for pittie ouerwhelm'd with sadnesse. 


In thee it rests, faire Saint, to saue or spill 
His life, whose loue is ledde by Reasons will!" 

ELLIOT. There is not much to be said against the 
prose, excepting where the author attempts to set 
out with a flourish about Titan and Thetis. 

BOURNE. And the poetry is so good, that I am not 
at all sure that it is Hind's own composition : the 
two last lines I cannot help fancying that I have 
read somewhere else. 

MORTON. I do not see why you should strip every 
feather from the wings of Hind's Pegasus j where 
he has availed himself of the labours of other men, 
he seems to have acknowledged the obligation. 

BOURNE. In one respect he was very original, for 
to use a phrase of Shakespeare's, he was " a man of 
fire-new words," though a great imitator of the then 
discredited Eupheuistic style. Having seen all that 
is necessary of his production, I suppose there is no 
objection to our completing what we left unfinished 
at our last meeting. 

ELLIOT. I do not imagine that much remains for 
us to notice in the class of writers who have pro- 
duced satirical poetry. 

BOURNE. If I were to go through those who wrote 
after 1600, as minutely as I have done those who 
wrote before that date, we should not only have a 
long, but a tedious task yet to execute. 


MORTON. We want to be amused and informed, 
not lo be wearied and stupefied. 

BOURNE. You need be under no alarm j I should 
be quite as reluctant to enter upon that task as 
yourself ; but in quoting a few specimens from two 
very celebrated authors, I apprehend we shall be 
rendering our subject sufficiently complete, be em- 
ploying our time profitably, and obtaining as much 
amusement as the nature of the inquiry will allow. 

ELLIOT. I leave it to your discretion, putting in 
my protest by the way against any thing tedious. 
In this respect you are quite free to be dives tibi, 
pauper am ids: you may keep your knowledge of 
those numerous authors you hint at to yourself : to 
the select few I have no objection. 

BOURXK. I have no wish to revive forgotten and 
neglected trash. Specimens from two writers will 
conclude our inquiry respecting the origin and pro- 
gress of satire in English. 

ELLIOT And who is the first author, or rather the 
first satirist, you are about to notice to-day? 

BOURNE. George Wither. 

ELLIOT. A name I have often heard, though I 
have never had an opportunity of seeing more than 
a few extracts from some of his productions. 

BOURNE. The ridicule of Butler, Pope, and Swift, 
has contributed to keep him in the back ground 
longer than many other authors of far less merit : in 
fact he has oeen improperly and unfairly estimated, 
both by his friends and enemies ; the latter heaping 


upon him undeserved censure, and the former un- _ 
deserved praise. He was unquestionably a very 
eminent and notorious, as well as a very caustic 

MORTON. Of course you refer to his " Abuses 
stript and whipt." An immense number of pages 
of the British Bibliographer, or Restiluta, I forget 
which, are occupied by a list of his productions. 

BOURNE. They were excessively ; numerous: in 
1660, at the end of his Fides Anglicana, a prose 
tract, he himself furnishes a catalogue of no less 
than eighty-two pieces in prose and verse that had 
flowed from his pen ; the list you speak of far ex- 
ceeds that number. He states that his catalogue 
is incomplete, as his memory could not retain all 
the titles : besides, he published several other tracts 
after that date, as he continued to scribble on down 
nearly to the day of his death in 1667. According to 
Wood he was then seventy-nine years old, having been 
born in the memorable year of the Spanish Armada. 

MORTON. For his satires he was imprisoned in the 
Marshalsea, and afterwards, as is stated, liberated in 
consequence of publishing another satire to the king, 
justifying his first production. 

BOURNE. So it is said, but I never could learn on 
what authority the assertion rested. I believe it is a 
fact, that the satire to the king was written while he 
was in confinement, and that he was released soon 


ELLIOT. Most likely, then, it depends merely upon 

BOURNE. You may judge from the following lines 
in that satire to the king, that the author was not 
very humble or contrite for his past offences. 

" But know I'me he that entred once the list 
Gainst all the world to play the Satyrist: 
Twas I that made my measures rough and rudo, 
Dance arm'd with whips amidst the multitude, 
And vnappalled with my charmed Scrowles 
Teaz'd angry Monsters in their lurking holes. 
Fue plaid with Wasps and Hornets -without feares, 
Till they grew mad and swarmd about my eares. 
I'ue done it, and me thinkes tis such braue sport, 
I may be stung, but nere be sorry for't ; 
For all my grief is, that I was so sparing 
And had no more in't worth the name of daring." 

ELLIOT. Those lines are very fearless and spirited, 
but I do not think King James, notwithstanding Mr. 
Disraeli's vindication of him, was quite the man to 
liberate the poet who justified instead of apologizing 
for his crime. 

BOURNE. Some lines rather of a petitioning cha- 
racter are inserted ; but still even there the author 
maintains that he was in the right. He says, 

" But why should I thy fauour here distrust 

That haue a cause so knowne, and knowne so just ? 

Which not alone my inward comfort doubles 

But all suppose me wrong'd that heare my troubles. 


Nay, though my fault were Reall, I beleiue 
Thou art so Royall, that thou wouldst forgiue ; 
For well I know thy sacred Maiesty 
Hath euer been admir'd for Clemencie, 
And at thy gentlenesse the world hath wondred, 
For making sunshine where thou mightst haue 

MORTON. That savours a little of flattery, does it 

BOURNE. Were it written by any man but Wither, 
I should think so too, perhaps ; but being from his 
free pen, I take it as a testimony of some value in 
behalf of the character of James I. 

MORTON. Wither was imprisoned more than once : 
according to the sketch of his life in the British 
Bibliographer, he was sent to the Tower. 

BOURNE. Yes, many years afterwards : he was 
confined there for three years, and was forbidden 
the use of pen, ink, and paper. Regarding one of 
his political tracts, called " the Perpetual Parlia- 
ment," I found the following story in the " Tales 
and Jests of Mr. Hugh Peters," 16GO, which I have 
not any where seen extracted, and which serves to 
show, among many other testimonies, that poor 
Wither, from his political principles more than from 
any other cause, was not very highly esteemed by 
his contemporaries. 

Mr. Peters jeered the Poet Withers. 
ff George Withers hauing wrote a poem in which 


he predicted the continuance of a free state, called it 
the Perpetual Parliament ; a little after the Parlia- 
ment was dissolued, and Mr. Peters meeting: the said 
Mr. Withers told him he was a pitifull Prophet and 
a pitifull Poet, otherwise he had not wrote such pre- 
dictions for a pitifull Parliament." 

MORTON. Which story, I feel little doubt, is a 
mere malignant fabrication) for Peters would not 
have dared to say, nor Wither endured to hear what 
is there stated. 

BOURNE. I am of your opinion. I forgot to men- 
tion, that among the eighty-two pieces Wither 
enumerates as his in 1660, are many in MS. which 
are stated to have been lost : one of them must have 
been very curious, " The pursuit of Happiness, being 
a character of the extravagancy of the Authors Af- 
fections and Passions in his youth." He was a very 
bold man in politics, and did not scruple to put into 
Oliver Cromwell's own hands four addresses or re- 
monstrances on his " duties and failings." 

MORTON. His excellence as a poet, and especially 
as a pastoral poet, is now, I believe, admitted. 

BOURNE. By all who know any thing about him j 
but there is still a great number who, when his name 
is mentioned, cover their ignorance of his merit under 
the cloak with which the authors of Hudibras, the 
Dunciad, and the Battle of the Books, have fur- 
nished them. 

ELLIOT. He seems to be a man about whom, and 


whose writings, a strong and peculiar interest may 
be felt. 

BOURNE. As a poet, using the word in its latitude, 
he wants fancy and imagination, though his versi- 
fication is usually uncommonly easy, and his thoughts 
just and natural : his chief talent was for satire and 
moral instruction, and of this you will be able to 
judge by a few short specimens from his " Abuses 
stript and whipt," the first edition of which, dated in 
1C13, is here. 

ELLIOT. I hope you do not intend to abridge your 
extracts too much. 

BOURNE. You shall regulate their length yourself: 
Wither's Pastorals, his " Mistress of Philarete" and 
many other pieces, have been often criticised, but 
the satires before us have been comparatively little 
quoted, though, in my opinion, deserving quite as 
much, if not more, attention. The first thing to be 
remarked is the curious dedication of the book (per- 
haps in imitation of Marston), to himself, " whom 
(he says) next God, my Prince and Country I am 
most engaged vnto." 

MORTON. Not being able, I suppose, to gain a 
patron for his severity. 

BOURNE. That is one of the reasons he assigns : 
among some epigrams that precede the satires, is 
one " to the Satyromastix," which shows the fear- 
lessness with which he undertook and completed his 
labours. It contains the following lines: 


" What? you would faine haue all the great ones 

freed ? 

They must not for their vices be controld : 
Beware! that were a saucinesse indeed; 
But if the great ones to offend be bold 
I see no reason but they should be told." 

MORTON. The Frenchman made an empty boast 
of his courage when he said, 

Je ne puis rien nommer si ce nest pas son nom, 

J'appelle un chat un chat, et Rolct unfripon, 
but he took special care to name nobody whose 
anger could do him injury in the quarter which he 
most aimed to please. 

BOURNE. Wither says elsewhere, that he only 
names the vices, not those who flourished in them, 
and he makes no vain pretensions to individual de- 
signation : yet the result showed the truth of what 
Lod. Barry excellently says in his Ram Alley, in 
Dodsley's Collection, 

" All great mens sins must still be humoured, 
And poor mens vices largely punished : 
The privilege that great men have in evil 
Is this they go unpunish'd to the Devil." 

ELLIOT. Exceedingly well; but I am longing to 
see something more by the satirist in your hand. 

BOURNE. The following quotation is from the first 
satire of the first book " Of the passion of Love.'* 


Counsels in vaine, cause when the fit doth take 


Reason and understanding doth forsake them 5 
It makes them som-time merry, som-time sad, 
' Vntamd men mild, and many a mild man mad.* 
That one to gold compares his Mistris haire 
When tis likefoxfar; and doth thinke shees faire, 
Though she in beauty be not far before 
The Swart West Indian, or the tawny Moore. 
Oh those faire star-like eyes of thine, one sayes, 
When to my thinking she hath lookt nine waies : 
And that sweet breath, when I thinke (out vpon't) 
Twould blast a flower if she breathed on't. * * * 
Then there is one who hauing found a peere, 
In all things worthy to be counted deere, 
Wanting both Art and heart his mind to breake, 
Sets sighing (ijooe is me) and will not speake j 
All company he hates is oft alone, 
Crowes Melancholy, weepes, respecteth none, 
And in dispaire seekes out a way to dye, 
When he might liue and find a remedy. 
But how now ? Wast not you, saies one, that late 
So humbly beg'd a boone at beauties gate ? 
Was it not you that to a female Saint 
Indited your Aretophils complaint }*** 
To him I answere that indeed en'e I 
Was lately subiect to this malady ; 
Like 't what I now dislike, emploi'd good times 
In the composing of such idle Runes 


As are obiected : From my heart I sent 

Full many a heauy sigh and oft-times spent 

Vnmanly teares : I haue I must confesse. * * * 

In many a foolish humor I haue beene, 

As well as others ; looke, where I haue scene 

Her (whom I loud) to walke, when she was gone 

Thither I often haue repair'd alone j 

As if I thought the places did containe 

Something to ease me (oh exceeding vaine! ) 

Yet what if I haue beene thus idly bent, 

Shall I be now asham'd for to repent ? 

Moreouer, I was in my child-hood than 

And am scarce yet reputed for a Man; 

And therefore neither cold, nor old, nor dry, 

Nor cloi'd with any foule desease am 1 : 

Tis no such cause that made me change my minde; 

But my affection that before was blind, 

Rash and vnruly, now begins to find, 

That it hath run a large and fruitlesse race 

And thereupon hath giuen Reason place. * 

Yet for all this, looke, where I lou'd of late 

I haue not turn'd it in a spleene to hate : 

No, for 'twas first her Vertue and her Wit, 

Taught me to see how much I wanted it j 

Then as for Loue, I doe allow it still 

I neuer did dislik't, nor neuer will, 

So it be vertuous, and contein'd within 

The bounds of Reason ; but when t'will begin 

To run at randome and her limits breake, 

I must, because I cannot chuse but speake. 


ELLIOT. There is not only uncommon ease in the 
running of the lines, but frequently great force in 
the very familiarity of the expressions. We have 
no right to complain that he is not very original on 
such a theme. 

BOURNE. The number and variety of his works 
prove, that he must have composed with very great 
rapidity. These satires were written in 1611, when 
the author was only 23 years old, and for that age 
they show great acuteness and extent of observation. 

MORTON. In the beginning of the extract Wither 
seems to allude to some work of his own, under the 
title of " Aretophils Complaint." Is that extant ? 

BOURNE. It is not, though some have confounded 
it with his poem of " the Mistress of Philarete." 
"Aretophils Complaint" (which he afterwards called 
" Philaretes Complaint") is mentioned by Wither 
as one of his earliest pieces in the catalogue I before 
spoke of, and he there states that it was lost in 
manuscript. It was most likely addressed to the lady 
he alludes to in what I just read, and who rejected 
him. We will proceed to the fourth Satire on Envy, 
where the passion is thus happily described : 

" But what is this, that men are so inclind 
And subiect to it > How may't be defin'd ? 
Sure, if the same be rightly vnderstood, 
It is a griefe that springs from others good, 
And vexes them if they doe but heare tell 
That other mens endeauors prosper well : 


It makes them grieue when any man is friended, 
Or in their hearing praised or commended. 
Contrariwise againe, such is their spight, 
In other mens misfortunes they delight j 
Yea, notwithstanding it be not a whit 
Vnto their profit, nor their benefit. 
Others prosperitie doth make them leane j 
Yea it deuoureth and consumes them cleane : 
But if they see them in much griefe, why that 
Doth onely make them iocund, full & fat. 
Of Kingdomes mine they best loue to heare 
And tragicall reports doth onely cheere 
Their hellish thoughts ; and then their bleared eies 
Can looke on nothing but blacke infamies, 
Heprochfull actions, and the fowlest deeds 
Of shame that mans corrupted nature breeds : 
For they must wink when Vertue shineth bright 
For feare her lustre mar their weakned sight." 

In the last line her is misprinted their: it is an 
obvious error, which I corrected. 

MORTON. And makes nonsense of the conclusion 
of a fine passage. 

ELLIOT. It is a fine passage upon the whole, 
though there are weak lines in it. The qualities of 
Envy have seldom been better described by any of 
the thousand writers that have touched it. The 
finest character that Churchill ever wrote, I mean 
that in the beginning of his Rosciad, is not much 
better than part of what you have just read. 


MORTON. I remember reading in old Gower's 
Confessio Amantis, where he introduces the well 
known fable of ^sop, the following lines regarding 
Envy, which remind one of Wither. 

" Where I my selfe may not auaile 
To sene another mans trauaile, 
I am right glad if he be lette, 
And though I fare not the bet, 
His sorrow is to myn herte a gaine." 

BOURNE. And in another place he describes the 
envious as " sicke of another mans hele," which is 
just the same as Wither's line " It is a grief that 
springs from other's good." 

ELLIOT. That of course has been its chief cha- 
racteristic from the earliest times, without it it is not 
Envy j tristitia de bonis alienis. Churchill, whom I 
before mentioned, carries it one degree further ; 

tf With that malignant envy which turns pale 

And sickens even if a friend prevail/' 
which is a fine addition, and constitutes his su- 

BOURNE. Whetstone, who is not generally a fa- 
vourite with me, in his " English Myrror," 1586, has 
rather a good saying on the subject of Envy : if a 
man " be enuious, (says he) he dare not recyte so 
much as the name of enuie 5 the reason is, this pas- 
sion is so fowle and infamous, as it stinketh in the 
opinion of him that is infected therewith." 


MORTON. Is not that " English Myrror" one of 
the books you promised to show us, but have not 
yet performed your promise ? 

BOURNE. Not that I remember, but here it is if 
you wish to see it. 

ELLIOT. Does it contain any thing worth seeing? 

BOURNE. Many things, but principally in a histo- 
rical point of view, as it refers to various events in 
the reign of Elizabeth previous to its date (1586), 
and more especially to the conspiracies against the 
Queen. It is called, " The English Myrror. A Re- 
gard, wherein all estates may behold the Conquests 
of Enuy." This is the subject of the first book ; the 
second is called " Enuy conquered by Vertue," mean- 
ing the virtue of the Queen, and the third, " A for- 
tresse against Enuy." 

MORTON. Is any poetry interspersed in the vo- 

BOURNE. Yesj but not much, and that bad, as 
you can judge from the subsequent specimen, which 
you may take my word for it is the best: he has 
been referring to Dionysius and Damocles in Book IL 

" There is no fort that seemeth safe or strong, 
There is no fooc}e, that yeeldes a sauery tast j 
The sweetest Lute and best composed song, 
The chirping byrds that in the woods are plast 
Sound no delight, but as a man forlorne, 
The silent night dotli sceme an vgly hell, 



The softest bedde a thycket full of thorne, 
Vnto the heart where tyranny doth dwell : 
Whose mind presents, through horror and through 

A naked sword still falling on his head." 

ELLIOT. Those lines certainly justify the opinion 
you have given. 

BOURNE. He was but an indifferent poet, though 
he wrote much, and particularly elegiac or funeral 
poems, one of which, on Sir P. Sidney, I formerly 
noticed ; he refers to some of these in the dedication 
to the third book of his English Myrror, where he 
says that several " worthy personages, which in my 
time are deceased, haue had the second life of their 
vertues bruted by my Muse." 

MORTON. Can you refer us to any particular part 
worth reading ? 

BOURNE. The whole is well worth reading as a 
work of much study and learning, now and then 
diversified with a humorous tale or anecdote j as 
the following of a Vicar of Croydon before the re- 
formation, who kept a " daughter of the game" in his 
vicarage, being of course forbidden to marry. < < As 
(says Whetstone) hee thought to take away all suspi- 
tion of his misbehauiour, made a vehement Sermon 
against Lecherie, and agravated the vengeaunces 
of that sinne, with all the authorities which he 
could recite in the Scripture 5 earnestlie exhorting 


his Parishioners, to cleanse the towne of that damna- 
ble & filthie iniquitie : whereuppon one of the 
( hurch-wardens (that knew the Viccar had violated 
his vowe) cryed out, Master Viccar if you will giue 
vs example, by purging the Church-yarde, wee will 
bee careful to cleanse the rest of the Parish. The 
Viccar smelling the meaning of the Church-warden, 
pleasantlie to huddle vp the matter, replied that the 
Church-warden spake without reason j for, quoth 
he, the Church-yarde is the appointed place to re- 
ceiue the most filthie Carrion of the worlde j and 
withall wished the people not to mistake him, for he 
onely spake of the sinne, but meddled not with the 

ELLIOT. That is fair enough. 

BOURNE. And the author's application of the jest is 
better : I could point out other amusing extracts, but 
it is scarcely worth while now to go out of our way 
for them. Speaking of Physicians in the first book 
he states that " a gentleman of Vennis" (for Whet- 
stone had travelled in Italy, as he mentions else- 
where) " one a time supping with a Phisition in 
Padua, marueiled that the Phisitions, who in shorte 
space finde a remedie for the most violent newe 
disease that raigneth, can not cure as well as giue 
ease to the Gowt, an auncicnt maladie. Which 
doubt, the Doctor thus pleasauntly resolued. O Sir, 
(quoth hee) the Gowte is the proper disease of the 
riche, and wee liue not by the poore ; it may suffice 


that they finde ease; but to prescribe a cure, to 
beggar our facultye, were a great follye." 

MORTON. And to the present day they have kept 
up the artifice ; only with this difference, that now 
they seem to find it their interest not even to 
give the sufferer any ease under his torments from 
" arthritic tyranny," as Dr. Johnson calls it in one 
of his minor poems. 

ELLIOT. Massinger, in his " Emperor of the East," 
has a passage somewhat similar, where Paulinus is 
discovered with the gout, attended by a surgeon, 
who for a time has lessened the acuteness of his 
pain ; Paulinus says that he would give the moiety 
of his fortune to ensure a continuance of his respite, 
and the surgeon answers, 

" If I could cure / 

The gout, my Lord, without the Philosopher's stone 
I should soon purchase -, it being a disease 
In poor men very rare, and in the rich 
The cure impossible." 

BOURNE. He means impossible from the habitual 
luxuriousness of their habits : Whetstone's Physician 
said a cure was impossible from a very different and 
politic cause. 

MORTON. It would not have done for the surgeon 
to have actually told Paulinus, suffering under the 
disease, that it was against the interest of the faculty 
to discover and introduce a cure. 


BOURNE. We will now close Whetstone's "English 
Myrror," and before we leave him just look at his 
" Mirour for Magestrates of Cyties," 1584, whjch is 
a rarer work, and is directed against the practices at 
Dicing Houses, Taverns, Ordinaries, Stews, &c. in 
the city. The latter part of this pamphlet, called 
" An Addition : or Touchstone for the Time," is the 
most curious, though perhaps not so much so, as 
the title would lead one to expect. He inveighs 
with great zeal against the corruptions of his day, 
but in terms rather too general, and he had reason 
to abuse them, for at the end he states that he had 
been a great sufferer. " No man (he observes) was 
euer assaulted with a more daungerous strategeme 
of cosonage than my selfe with which my life and 
liuing was hardly beset. No man hath more cause 
to thanke God for a free deliuery than my selfe, nor 
anie man euer sawe more suddaine vengeance in- 
flicted vpon his aduersaries, than I my selfe of mine." 

MORTON. He gives no particulars, does he, of his 
narrow escape and signal revenge ? 

BOURNE. None, but he refers to his " Rocke 
of Regarde." I will not go through his violent 
abuse of gaming houses, ordinaries, &c. but merely 
(as we shall have occasion to look at the tract again) 
read the following singular anecdote, told of one of 
the judges of his time. " Olde Judge Chomley 
euennore aunswered naughtie liuers that sued for 
mercie desiring him to regard the frailtie of young 


men by the bolde and unlawful actions of his owne 
youth, and by the testimonie of his grace, good for- 
tune^ and present authorise, to conceiue hope of 
their amendment : O my friendes, quoth the Judge, 
I tel you plainly that of twentie that in those dayes 
were my companions, I onely escaped hanging 5 and 
it is very like that some one of your fellowship is by 
Gods goodnesse reserued to be an honest man j but 
you are found offenders by the Lawe, and truely Jus- 
tice (whose sentence I am sworne to pronounce) com- 
maundeth me to commend your soules to Almightie 
God, and your bodies to the Gallowse." 

ELLIOT. He was determined, at all events, that 
none of those before him should have a chance of 
reforming, and becoming an honest man. 

BOURNE. Although Whetstone was rather a vo- 
luminous author, there are circumstances to show 
that he was not popular, and among them the fact 
that as his printer, Richard Jones, could not sell his 
" Mirour for, Magestrates of Cyties" under that title 
(though sufficiently taking one would have imagined, 
recollecting the great popularity of a work well 
known, and with nearly a similar name) he re- 
published it in 1586 under the new title of " The 
Enemie of Vnthryftinesse, &c. discouering the vn- 
sufferable Abuses raigning in our happie English 
comon wealth:" the title-page is the only dif- 
ference, as all the body of the work is the identical 
impression of 1584, a number of copies remaining 


on hand, notwithstanding a sort of advertisement by 
the author at the end of his " English Myrror." 

MORTON. Then it contains no alterations or ad- 
ditions of any kind. 

BOURNE. I was in error when I said that the title 
only was new, because at the back of it there is 
another novelty of some interest I mean a list of 
the works which Whetstone had published up to 
1586 : they are arranged as follows, but not chrono- 
logically, as you will see in a moment. 

" I The Enemie of Vnthryftinesse 

2 The Rocke of Regarde 

3 The honourable Reputation and Morall Ver- 

tues of a Souldier 

4 The Heptameron of Cyuill Discourses 

5 The Tragicall Gomedie of Promos & Cassandra 

6 The lyfe and death of M. G. Gascoyne 

7 The lyfe and death of the graue & honorable 

Maiestrat Sir Nicholas Bacon, late L. keeper 

8 The lyfe and death of the good L. Dyer 

9 The lyfe and death of the noble Earle of Sussex 
10 A Mirrour of true Honor shewinge the lyfe, 

death and Vertues of Frauncis Earle of Bed- 

To these are added, " Bookes ready to be printed" 

" 1 1 A Panoplie of deuises 

12 The English Mirour 

13 The Image of Christian lustice." 


This list, not hitherto mentioned, I apprehend will 
settle some doubtful points, as to the works of 

ELLIOT. But are they worth settling ? 

BOURNE. Perhaps not, or not worth much labour 
in settling. In the last page but one of his " Touch- 
stone for the Time " the author speaks of a forth- 
coming work called " The Blessings of Peace," but 
I fancy that this was included in the " English 
Myrror," as much of the third book is devoted to 
that subject. 

ELLIOT. I think you have now had scope enough 
for your antiquarian mania, which has been attended, 
that I can perceive, with no material advantage, 
unless it be one to divert us from the course we 
were pursuing. How we travelled backwards from 
Wither to Whetstone I know not. 

MORTON. And I very little care, as long as we 
gain the object we have in view. 

BOURNE. Well, I have done. We will now return 
to Wither's " Abuses stript & whipt." I must say, 
however, that you have had your share of entertain- 
ment out of the jokes I read, both of the Vicar of 
Croydon, and of the Physician and the Gout. 

MORTON. He is only in the ordinary case j affect- 
ing a little to despise what he does not understand. 
But let us go on with Wither. 

BOURNE. What I am now going to read is in the 
same satire as our last extract : he is touching upon 
the manner in which envy affected even him : 


" So I haue found 

The blast of enuy flies as low's the ground, 
And though it hath already brought a man 
Euen vnto the meanest state it can 
Yet tis not satisfi'd, but still diuising 
Which way it also may disturbe his rising : 
This I know true, or else it could not be 
That any man should hate or enuy me, 
Being a creature (one would thinke) that's plast 
Too low for to be toucht with cniucs blast : 
And yet 1 am 5 I see men haae espi'd 
Some-thing in me too that may be enui'd 5 
But I haue found it now, and know the matter j 
By reason they are rich, and lie not flatter: 
Yes 3 and because they see that I doe scorne 
To be their slaue whose equall I am borne." 

ELLIOT. That is closed in a fearless spirit of in- 
dependence : the whole extract is eloquent. 

MORTON. It is a touch of the levelling republican 
which Wither afterwards turned out to be. 

BOURNE. I think you mistake ; he is there speak- 
ing only of his equality with the rich in being the 
work of God, with the same faculties and under- 
standing. There is no more republicanism there 
than some of the most loyal, not to say the most 
flattering, poets have at times expressed. Skelton, 
who cannot be charged with too much independence 
of mind, even in the reign of Henry VIII., speaks 


quite as freely in his interlude of " Magnificence," 
printed by Rastell. 

" Or how can you proue that there is felycyte 
And you haue not your owne fre lyberte ; 
To sporte at your pleasure to ryn and to ryde ? 
Where lyberte is absent set welthe aside." 

MORTON. He is alluding, I fancy, to mere personal 
freedom from restraint, which is quite a different 
thing. He might state that without any chance of 
giving offence. 

BOURNE. What you say is true : I allow too, that 
throughout Wither speaks with the utmost plain- 
ness, and gives more than glimpses of the part he 
was afterwards to take as a supporter of a republican 
government : for instance, the following lines upon 
the follies and vices of Kings are very strikingly in 
point, and rendered more emphatic by Italics. 

" Princes haue these they uery basely can 

Suffer themselues that haue the rule of man, 

To be oreborne by Villaines ; so in steed 

Of kings they stand, when they are slaues indeed. 

By bloud & wrong a heauenly Crowne thei'l danger, 

T'assure their state heere (Often to a stranger.) 

They quickly yeeld vnto the Batteries 

Of sly insinuating flatteries : 

Most bountifull to fooles to full of feare, 

And far to credulous of that they heare : 


So giuen to pleasure, as if in that thing 
Consisted all the Office of a King !" 

(Book II. Sat. I.) 

MORTON. Yet we have seen that h$ thought well 
of King James. 

BOURNE. And spoke well of him too, as he does 
only a few lines afterwards : he says that he cannot 
" but speak well" of him, and that no sovereign had 
ever less vanity about the last weakness, in our 
sense of the word, from which we should have been 
inclined to exempt him : however, the poet applies it 
in a much more extended way. 

ELLIOT. As empty ostentation, vanity, or pride in 
equipages, apparel, and so on. 

BOURNE. Exactly. As we have seen how he treats 
Princes, we will now read a very spirited passage 
about nobles, from the second satire of the second 
book, entitled Inconstancy. 


That comes by birth hath most antiquity, 

Some thinke ; and tother (if at all 

They yeeld as noble) they an vpstart call : 

But I say rather no his Noblenessc 

Thats rais'd by Vertue hath most ivorthincsse, 

And is most ancient, for it is the same 

By which all Great men first obtaind their Fame. 

So then I hope 'twill not offend the Court, 

That I count some there with the I'ulgar sort, 


And outset others : yet some thinke me bold, 
Because there's few that these opinions hold j 
But shall I care what others thinke or say? 
There is a path besides the beaten way !" 

ELLIOT. Admirable ! I know of nothing finer in 
its way, either ancient or modern. 

MORTON. I was afraid when we came to the 

" But I say rather no his nobleness 

That's rais'd by virtue hath most worthiness," 

that he was going to end the sentence as he had 
begun it; but what a striking and noble close is 
formed by the couplet 

" And is most ancient for it is the same 

By which all great men first obtain'd their fame." 

ELLIOT. It goes far beyond the common-place of 
antiquity Animus facit nobilem, cui ex quacunque 
conditione, &c. 

BOURNE. It is a very noble thought, and produces 
the better effect from its being, as they say, prater 
expectatum. The last two lines of the quotation do 
not fall short of the rest. 

ELLIOT. In Ascham's " Schoolmaster" I remember 
a very eloquent censure of mere nobility transmitted 
with the blood, ending with these words, " Nobility 
without virtue and wisdom is blood indeed, but blood 
truly without bones & sinews." 


BOURNE. Anthony Stafford, a writer I have often 
quoted, is not behindhand when he says, in his Niobe 
dessolud into a Nilus (1G11), "I can brooke better 
a fellow that hath bought his new-found nobility 
with nobles, than another of an high birth and of a 
low stooping spirit, who can iustly brag of nothing of 
his owne, but liues upon the supererrogative deeds of 
his ancestors." 

MORTON. I dare say one might collect as many 
excellent sayings upon this stale theme, as upon any 
that has been dwelt upon either in the old time or in 
the nc\\ . 

ELLIOT. That Stafford seems to have been an 
eloquent fellow : I should like to be better acquainted 
with him. I remember you, in a manner, proved that 
Milton was well acquainted with his writings. 

BOURNE. He seems to have been a strange wild 
enthusiast, upon religious topics especially: as a 
puritan he was very much like what Robert Southwell 
was as a Jesuit. 

ELLIOT. What is the object of his book ? 

BOURNE. It is in two divisions, one called "Niobe," 
and the other " Niobe dissolu'd into a Nilus;" and it 
is a general but vigorous declamation against the 
vices and profaneness of the age. In his " Niobe" 
(p. 1 12), he has the subsequent passage on the subject 
to which we have been referring, which will give you 
some notion of his style. " O! but Gentry now 
degenerates ! Nobilitie is now come to be nuda re- 


latio, a meere bare relation and nothing else. How 
manie Players haue I scene vpon a stage, fit indeede 
to be Noblemen ! how many that be Noblemen, fit 
onely to represent them. Why, this can Fortune 
do, who makes some companions of her Chariot, 
who for desert should be lackies to her Ladiship. 
Let me want pittie if I dissolue not into pittie when 
I see such poore stuffe vnder rich stuffe j that is a 
bodie richlie clad, whose mind is capable of nothing 
but a hunting match, a racket-court, or a cock-pit, 
or at most the story of Susanna in an ale-house. 
Rise, Sidney, rise ! thou Englands eternall honour ! 
Reuiue and lead the reuolting spirits of thy countrey- 
men, against the basest foe, Ignorance. But what 
talke I of thee ? Heauen hath not left earth thy 
equall: neither do I thinke that ab orbe condito, 
since Nature first was, any man hath beene in whom 
Genus and Genius met so right. Thou Atlas to all 
vertues ! Thou Hercules to the Muses ! Thou patron 
to the poor! Thou deservst a Quire of ancient Bardi 
to sing thy praises, who with their musickes melody 
might expresse thy soules harmonic. Were the 
transmigration of soules certaine I would thy soule 
had flitted into my bodie or wold thou wert aliue 
again, that we might lead an indiuiduall life together ! 
Thou wast not more admired at home then famous 
abroad ; thy penne and thy sword being the Heraldes 
of thy Heroicke deedes." And in this strain he pro- 
ceeds for several pages more. 


MORTON. The style is very peculiar, and though 
pedantic and affected, there is much force about it. 

BOURNE. He is full of rhapsodies, but they are 
eloquent j and he was evidently both a very pious 
and a very learned man. There were two editions 
of his work, which is now rarely to be met with ; and 
it seems that after the first was published (to which 
the " Niobe Dissolu'd into a Nilus" was not added), 
he was not a little ridiculed for the passage I have 
just read, where he appears to put himself in com- 
parison with Sir Philip Sidney. This angered him 
not a little, and accordingly to the second edition he 
prefixed an address " to the long-ear'd Reader,'' in 
which he repels the charge, maintaining, at the same 
time, that Sir P. Sidney had actually shown himself 
to him in a vision. 

ELLIOT. This was only rendering it still more 

BOURNE. Certainly, but he relates it with the most 
simple seriousness, and adds, that the " miracU* of 
nature" addressed him in these terms : " Generous 
Gentleman, whose neuer-glozing spirit this fawning 
age will neuer reward, my soule bowes herselfe to 
thee, and breathes her loue vpon thee, for making 
her immortall to all mortalitie : a benefit for the 
which Ingratitude herselfe would yeeld thanks." 

ELLIOT. He was very likely a man of strong feel- 
ings, but he must have had a weak judgment to 
suppose that he would be believed in this strange 
story, even at that credulous day. 


BOURNE. He expressly says that it will be attri- 
buted to his wild and fervid imagination, but he 
nevertheless insists upon the perfect truth of what 
he relates. 

MORTON. In turning over Wither, I have stumbled 
upon a passage that refers to Sir Philip Sidney. 

BOURNE. It is one which I had intended to show 
you, as it mentions not only Sidney but Drayton, 
Ben Jonson, and several other poets. Read it. 

MORTON. It is in the third satire of the second 
book. He has been speaking of King James's works, 
and of the general value of poetry j that though the 
inspiration is only partially given to some few in 
this life, " All shall have't perfect in the World to- 
come," and then he proceeds. 

" This in defence of Poesie to say 

I am compel'd, because that at this day 

JVecikenesse and Ignorance hath wrong'd it sore : 

But what neede any man therein speake more 

Then Diuine Sidney hath already done ? 

From whom (though he deceas'd e're I begun) 

I haue oft sighed, and bewail'd my Fate 

That brought me foorth so many yeeres too late 

To view that worthy: And now, thinke not you, 

Oh Daniel, Draiton, lonson, Chapman, how 

I long to see you with your fellow Peeres ; 

Diuine Siluester, glory of these yeeres ! 

I hitherto haue onely heard your fames 

And know you yet but by your workes and names. 


The little time I on the earth haue spent, 
Would not allow me any more content : 
I long to know you better that's the truth j 
I am in hope youl not disdaine my Youth" 

ELLIOT. A very amiable, diffident young man, and 
a very laudable wish. 

BOURNE. I do not think that in any thing I have 
read by Wither, he can be fairly accused of arrogance, 
though he takes upon himself to lash the vices of 
his age: he knew that he loved honesty and in- 
genuousness, and hated fraud and artifice, and as 
he could not be mistaken in them, he speaks plainly 
and fearlessly. His political tracts, in which he at- 
tempts to produce certain changes and reforms in the 
state, were written at a much more advanced period 
of his life. But we have now seen as much of his 
satires as perhaps is necessary : before, however, we 
leave Sir P. Sidney, introduced by Wither, let me 
show you a very great literary curiosity. 

MORTON. By all means : what is it ? 

BOURNE. I wish it were a work of more intrinsic 
merit j but, I assure you, it is of the rarest occur- 

ELLIOT. It generally happens that the greatest 
rarities are of least actual value, or why, as a living 
critic has asked, have they become such rarities? 

BOURNE. That rule will by no means apply in all 



MORTON. Do not argue the point, but produce 
the book : my curiosity of one kind is as great as 
the book's of another. 

BOURNE. You remember the funeral poem I brought 
before you by Whetstone on the death of Sir P. 
Sidney ; this, in my, hand, is a production of the 
same kind on the same subject. 

MORTON. By whom ? 

BOURNE. John Phillip or Phillips. Ritson intro- 
duces him into his catalogue as the author of Cleo- 
menes and Sophonisba, 1577 3 but the bibliographer 
had never seen nor heard of this tract, nor of another 
on the death of the Countess of Lenox, which is 
almost of equal rarity. 

MORTON. Read the title, if you please. 

BOURNE. I will, at length, for you may never hear 
it again. It is this : " The Life and Death of Sir 
Phillip Sidney, late Lord Gouernour of Flushing: 
His funerals Solemnized in Paules Churche where he 
lyeth interred j with the whole order of the mourn- 
full shewe as they marched thorowe the citie of 
London on Thursday the 16 of February, 1587. At 
London. Printed by Robert Waldegraue," &c. 1587. 

MORTON. And now allow me to take your relic 
into my own hands. 

BOURNE. The dedication, you will see, is to the 
Earl of Essex, and signed by the author, but it is 
not worth reading. 


ELLIOT. Tell us what part of it is worth reading, 
if you please, and if you can. 

BOURNE. The poem is in the fashionable style of 
the Mirror for Magistrates, Sir P. Sidney's ghost 
very awkwardly relating his own story. I say 
awkwardly, because he is made, not like the ghosts 
in the Mirror for Magistrates, to warn their hearers 
by the story of their failings, vices, and consequent 
misfortunes, but to recount his own deeds, and to 
belaud his own virtues most liberally. 

MORTON. That is very absurd and injudicious. It 
opens, I observe, rather singularly -, 

" You noble Brutes bedeckt with rich renowne." 

ELLIOT. Upon my word, Phillips did not care 
much to conciliate his hearers, when he calls them 
brutes : however they are " noble brutes" and " be- 
deck'd with rich renown." 

MORTON. That makes some amends. Phillips 
ought to have been the author of the tract you 
showed us on " the Nobleness of the Ass." 

BOURNE. Of course he means by Brutes Britons, 
the descendants of Brute, only two syllables did not 
suit his line. 

MORTON. I perceive that we shall stop, or be 
stopped, very soon in our reading of this production. 

" You noble Brutes bedeckt with rich renowne, 

That in this world haue worldly wealth at will, 
Muse not at me, though death haue cut me downe, 



For from my graue I speake vnto you still. 
Whilst life I had I neuer meant you ill j 

Then thinke on me that close am coucht in clay 
And know I Hue though death wrought my decay. 

" I neede not I record my bloud ne birth, 
For why? to you my parentage is knowne; 

My mould was clay, my substance was but earth 
And now the earth enioyes againe her owne : 

My race is runne, my daies are ouerthrowne. 
Yet Lordings list, your patience here I craue, 
Heare Sidneis plea discussed- from the graue." 

ELLIOT. So that the " noble brutes? after all, are 
Lordings. Upon my word it is wretched stuff. 

BOURNE. " Quanta io posso dar tutto m dono." I 
suppose he could write nothing better. 

ELLIOT. Then first, why write at all ; and secondly, 
if he wrote, why should we read ? 

MORTON. It was worth thus much time, if only 
for the amusement Mr. John Phillips has afforded us. 

BOURNE. You must hear two more stanzas, and 
I have done : it is from one of the most ridiculous 
parts of the piece, where Sidney " rings out a pane- 
gyric on himself," after applauding Queen Elizabeth 
to the seventh heavens. 

" In martiall feates I settled my delight ; 

The stately steede I did bestride with ioy : 
At tilt and turney oft I tride my might, 

In these exployts I neuer felt annoy. 
My worthie friends in armes did oft imploy 


Themselues with me to breake the shiuring speare j 
But new my want they wail with many a teare. 

" My spoused wife, my Lady and my loue 
whilst life I had did know my tender hart, 

But God that rules the rowling skies aboue 
Did thincke it meete we should againe depart. 

His will is done, death is my dew desart ! 

She wants her make, I fro my deare am gon j 
She liues behind her louer true to morne." 

MORTON. That is not quite such extravagant 
eulogy as I expected. 

BOURNE. It is only the fag-end of it, if I may so 
say : Sidney is very warm in his admiration of him- 
self in some places. 

ELLIOT. Or rather his spirit is very warm in its 
admiration of his body : recollect they are now di- 
stinct and separate, and one may praise the other 
without any charge of egotism. 

BOURNE. But perhaps the greatest absurdity of 
all is the minute detail the spirit gives of the whole 
solemnity and procession at the funeral of the body. 
At length the line, " Thus from my grave I bid you 
all adieu," winds up the poem. 

ELLIOT. Was it worth while to interrupt our course 
through the satirists for such a production? 

BOURNE. " Since it is past, all argument is vain." 
Now then for Richard Brathwayte, a name with 
which you are not unacquainted, but whose volume 


of satires and other poems, I fancy, you have never 
seen, for they are much more scarce than any of his 
prose pieces. It will not be necessary, however, to 
read more than one or two extracts, as he was an 
imitator of George Wither, and by no means equal 
to his prototype. His title is this: "Times Cur- 
taine drawne or the Anatomic of Vanitie with other 
choice Poems, entituled Health from Helicon ; by 
Richard Brathwayte Oxonian," 1621. 

MORTON. I have seen the title before, but in what 
way do you trace the imitation of Wither ? 

BOURNE. In the general style of the satires, and in 
the manner in which the work is disposed. Wither's 
" Abuses stript and whipt," had attracted much 
notice, and Brathwayte, early in his production, pro- 
fesses great admiration for him. In one place he says, 
in allusion to the punishment Wither had met with, 

" Tutch not Abuses but with modest lipp 

For some I know were whipt that thought to whip," 

adding in the margin this note, " One whom I ad- 
mire, being no lesse happie for his natiue inuention 
than excellent for his proper and elegant dimension." 
The latter part of the compliment refers to Wither's 
finely proportioned figure. 

ELLIOT. Does Brathwayte take warning by the 
sufferings of Wither, and " touch abuses but with 
modest lip ?" 

BOURNE. I think not j but Wither had been libe- 


rated, as some suppose, almost on a repetition of his 
offence his satire to the king; and this, if true, 
perhaps made his follower more bold: he is even 
coarser than Wither in some places. In his first 
satire on Riches, he says of the wealthy, for instance, 

" For who are wise but Rich-men, or who can 
Find the golden meane but the golden man ? 
He is Earth's darling, and in time will be 
Hell's darling too; for who's so fit as he?" 

MORTON. He takes care, I dare say, to make his 
satire general ? 

ELLIOT. Yet Pope observes, 

" The fewer still you name, you wound the more ; 
Bond is but one, while Ilarpax is a score." 

BOURNE. Or in the words of that satirical song in 
" the Beggar's Opera," 

" Each cries, that was levell'd at me." 

The subsequent extract on the subject of dress, will 
show that Brathwayte was a writer of some power. 
" For who (remebring the cause why cloths were 


Even then when Adam fled vnto the shade 
For couert of his Nakednesse, will not blame 
Himself to glorie in his Parents shame? 
Weepe, weepe, ( Phantasticke Minion) for to thee 
My grieued passion turnes : O may I be 
Cause of conuersion to thy selfe, that art 
Compos'd of man, and therefore I beare part 


In thy distracted habit: ougly peece 

(For so I tearme thee) Woman-monster cease 5 

Cease to corrupt the excellence of minde, 

By soiling it with such an odious rinde, 

Or shamelesse Couer ! Warning wauering Moone, 

That spends the morne in decking thee till noone! 

Hast thou no other ornaments to weare 

But such wherein thy lightest thoughts appeare? 

Hast thou no other honour, other Fame, 

Saue roabes which make thee glory in thy shame ?" 

ELLIOT. That is strenuous enough, and the allu- 
sion to Adam, with its application, happy. 

MORTON. He seems rougher than Wither : if he 
do not jerk so keenly, he appears to lay on his 
scourge more heavily. 

BOURNE. One more specimen from his satires shall 
suffice for the present, at least. It is from the second, 
where he is adverting to the usual concomitant of 
poetry poverty. 

ELLIOT. There is no class of men who complain 
so bitterly of ppverty as poets, who are always, at 
the same time, boasting that they are above the sordid 
love of money ; yet they are always making them- 
selves the objects of ridicule by their murmurs. 

BOURNE. They complain most because, probably, 
they feel most} and their complaints are oftenest 
remembered because they perpetuate them by put- 
ting them in black and white : but hear Brathwayte 
on this point. 


<f Take comfort then, for thou shalt see on earth 

Most of thy coate to be of greatest worth ; 

Though not in state, for who ere saw but merit 

Was rather borne to begge than to inherit ? 

Yet in the gifts of nature we shall finde 

A ragged coate oft haue a Royall minde : 

For to descend to each distinct degree 

By due experience we the same shall see. 

If to Parnassus where the Muses are, 

There shall we finde their Dyet very bare ; 

Their houses ruind and their well-springs dry, 

Admir'd for nought so much as Pouertie. 

Here shall we see poore JEschylus maintaine 

His nighterne studies with his daily paine, 

Pulling up Buckets but twas neuer knowne 

That filling others he could fill his owne. 

Here many more discerne we may of these, 

As Lamachus, and poore Antisthenes, 

Both which the sweetes of Poesie did sipp 

Yet were rewarded with a staff and scrippj 

For I nere knew nor (much I feare) shall know it, 

Any die rich that liu'd to die a Poet." 

MORTON. It would have been more curious if he 
had made some allusions to those of his own time 
who were sufferers. 

BOURNE. It would, but he does not hint at any of 
them. He writes always in a bold and often in an 
energetic strain : the following six lines commence 
a poem, in the second division of " Times Curtaine 
drawne," called " The Great-mans Alphabet." 


" Come hither Great-man, that triumphs to see 
So many men of lower ranke to thee j 
That swells with honours, and erects thy state 
As high as if thou wer't Earths Potentate! 
Thou whose aspiring buildings raise thy name, 
As if thou wer't the sonne and heyre of fame." 

This, you will admit, is very spirited j and most of 
the piece is not inferior, though of a grave, moral 
cast. This is all I think necessary to read from 

MORTON. If I do not mistake, the title-page men- 
tions " other choice poems, entitled Health from 
Helicon," what are they ? 

BOURNE. Chiefly miscellaneous subjects, and not 
very good. 

MORTON. Nor curious ? 

BOURNE. Unless we except the following passage 
from one of the pieces, called Ebrius Experiens" 
in which the author attempts to vindicate his easily 
besetting sin, drunkenness. 

ELLIOT. Let us hear that, for as the first Spectator 
says, we are always deeply interested about the per- 
sonal appearance, peculiarities, and habits of authors : 
Montaigne too remarks, though with a different ap- 
plication, Je ne voisjamais Auteur queje ne recherche 
curieusement quelque il a ete. 

BOURNE. The lines, then, are these, 

" Some say I drinke too much to write good lines j 
Indeed, I drinke more to obserue the Times, 


And for the loue I bear vnto my friend, 
To hold him chat than any other end. 
Yea, my obseruance tells me I haue got 
More by discoursing sometimes o're the pot, 
Than if I had good fellowship forsooke, 
And spent that houre in poring on a booke." 

ELLIOT. There seems nothing very new in his 
arguments, at least in what you have read. 

BOURNE. Nor in any of them. It is only doing 
exactly what Sir T. Wyatt censures in some lines 
quoted on a former day, viz. giving to every vice the 
name of the nearest virtue, " as drunkenness good 
fellowship to call." 

ELLIOT. Brathwayte then concludes the series of 
the English satirists you intend to bring before us ? 

BOURNE. He does; but it cannot, with any pro- 
priety, be called a series, for some omissions have 
been made by design, and a few because the books 
were of such extreme rarity that I could not procure 
the use of them. 

MORTON. You have purposely refrained from 
touching upon translations from the classic satirists, 
yet, with a view to this subject, I borrowed a very 
small tract, which my friend assured me was seldom 
to be met with, though only a translation : it is by 
an author I have frequently heard you praise Chap- 

BOURNE. Satires translated by Chapman ? I have 
never seen any. 


MORTON. Here is the tract, and the following is 
its title, " A lustification of a strange action of Nero 5 
in burying with a Solemne Fvnerall one of the cast 
Hayres of his Mistresse Poppseia. Also a iust re- 
proofe of a Romane smell-Feast, being the fifth 
Satire of Ivvenall. Translated by George Chap- 
man," 1629. 

BOURNE. I remember it now, but I have never 
seen the tract, and Ritson mentions it as two works, 
when in truth it is only one, which proves that he 
was in the same condition. It is a very curious piece 

ELLIOT. From that author we have surely a right 
to expect something more than curious. 

MORTON. I skimmed it over hastily last night, 
and I am sorry to say that I saw but little in it to 

BOURNE. Perhaps not : we are to recollect that at 
the time it was printed the author was not less than 
72 years old, and that during the whole of his long 
life he had been a laborious writer, living probably 
entirely by his pen. 

MORTON. Yet at the very time when he published 
it, he tells us, in the dedication to Richard Hubert 
Esq., that he has " some worthier work" in hand : 
the whole passage is a singular one with reference to 
himself and his labours. He first complains, that 
*' greate'workes get little regard," adding, " as it is 
now the fashion to iustifie Strange Actions, I (vtterly 


against mine owne fashion) followed the vulgar, & 
assaid what might be said for iustification of a 
Strange Action of Nero:" he observes next, in 
terms, that he throws out this piece as a tub to the 
whale, " hauing yet once more some worthier 
worke then this Oration, & following Translation, to 
passe the sea of the land, exposed to the land and 

vulgar Leuiathan." " The rather because the 

Translation containing in two or three instances, a 
preparation to the iustification of my ensuing in-, 
tended Translations, lest some should account them, 
as they haue my former conuersions, in some places 
licences, bold ones, and vtterly redundant." 

BOURNE. His " ensuing intended Translation," 
I conjecture, must have been of the whole of the 
satires of Juvenal and Persius, of which this was a 
foretaste, and which he did not live to complete. 

ELLIOT. This tract before us then, was his last 
production. When did he die, do you recollect ? 

BOURNE, Ritson says, in 1634, but he refers to no 
authority. Chapman always, as he has done above, 
expressed a great disgust at, and contempt for, the 
applause of the vulgar : particularly in the prefatory 
matter to his " Memorable Masque" of the Middle 
Temple and Lincolns Inn (1613), where he is speak- 
ing of true poets and true poetry. " Euery vulgarly- 
esteemed vpstart dares breake the dreadfull dignity 
of antient and authenticall Poesie, and presume 
Luciferously to proclame in place thereof, repugnant 


precepts of their owne spaune. Truth & Worth 
haue no faces to enamour the Lycentious, but vaine- 
glory and humor : the same body, the same beauty, 
a thousand men seeing, onely the man whose bloud 
is fitted, hath that which he calls his soule ena- 

ELLIOT. Yet I dare say he had not half as much 
reason for his anger as Ben Jonson, when in the 
" apologetical dialogue" subjoined to his " Poet- 
aster/' in a rage almost sublime, he exclaims, 

" Oh, this would make a learn'd & liberal soul 

To rive his stained quill up to the back, 

And damn his long-watch'd labours to the fire !" 

But I did not intend to interrupt you in what you 
were readingfrom the pamphlet you brought with you. 

MORTON. In the address " to the Reader," Chap- 
man vindicates what he supposes some will consider 
liberties taken with, and enlargements of, his original, 
observing that it is " a most asinine error" to sup- 
pose that translations to be good must be " in as 
few words and in like order" as the original author 
employed, and upon one passage in particular he re- 
marks with some apparent arrogance, " but the sense 
I might wish my betters could render no worse." 

BOURNE. Arrogance ! surely self-confidence would 
have been a much more applicable word. 

ELLIOT. Either, I think, would there be inappli- 
cable, for Chapman is not talking of his own capa- 


bility as a poet, but merely of " the sense," as a 
faithful Tenderer of the work on which he was en- 
gaged : he claims to himself no more merit than we 
might give to a schoolboy. 

MORTON. On reading it again I find I did him in- 
justice. The t( Funerall Oration" is in fact a prose 
satire, or burlesque, upon treating trifles as matters 
of serious importance, and it contains, in my opinion, 
nothing very well worth reading : the translation 
from Juvenal, I fear, is not much better. 

BOURNE. We must have a quotation from that, 
although it is merely a translation, and not precisely 
within our limits, and although it may not be a first 
rate performance of the kind. 

MORTON. I think the following lines some of the 

" First take it for a Rule, that if my Lord 
Shall once be pleas'd to grace thee with his bord, 
The whole reuenues that thy hopes inherit, 
Rising from seruices of ancient merit, 
In this requital amply paid will prooue. 
O 'tis the fruit of a transcendent loue 
To giue one victuals ! That thy Table-King 
Layes in thy dish, though nere so thinne a thing, 
Yet that reproch still in thine eares shall ring. 
If therefore after two moneths due neglect 
He deignes his poore dependent to respect, 
And lest the third bench faile to fill the ranck 
He shall take the vp to supply the blanck : 


Lets sit together Trebius (sales my Lord) 
See all thy wishes sum'd vp in a word ! 
What canst thou aske at loues hand after this ? 
This grace to Trebius enough ample is, 
To make him start from sleepe before the Larke 
Poasting abroad vntms'd, & in the darke, 
Perplext with feare, lest all the seruile-rout 
Of his saluters haue the round run out 
Before he come, whiles yet the fixed Starre 
Shewes his ambiguous head, & heauens cold Car 
The slow Bootes wheeles about the Beare. 
And yet, for all this, what may be the cheare ? 
To such vile wine thy throat is made the sinck 
As greasie woll would not endure to drink ; 
And we must shortly looke to see our guest 
Transform'd into a Berecynthian Priest." 

ELLIOT. The principal fault of that translation is, 
that it seems to be, if any thing, too literal : the 
writer cramps himself miserably in some of the lines 
on this account. 

BOURNE. Yet a few of them flow with sufficient 
ease, and the quotation just read opens very well. 

MORTON. The whole is pointed, and more vigor- 
ous in some of the expressions than might be ex- 
pected from the age of the author. 

BOURNE. Then here we close for to-day. To- 
morrow we will enter upon an examination of a 
variety of pieces of a miscellaneous kind. 







Rarities provided for the day Wynkyn de Worde's " Boke of 
keruynge," and Mrs. Glass's Cookery " Epularlo or the Italian 
Banquet," 1598, quoted in reference to Shakespeare, &c. 
Thomas Churchyard, and Mr. G. Chalmers's Life of him Ex- 
cessive rarity of Churchyard's u Miserie of Flaunders, Calamitie of 
Fraunce, &c. Troubles of Scotland," \c. ir7!), omitted by War- 
ton, Chalmers, Ritson, and all other bibliographers Dedication 
to the Queen Extracts regarding the " Calamitie of Fraunce" 
Injustice done to Churchyard Edward Lewicke's " History of 
Titus and Gisippus," 15C2, and its story told by Boccacio, Day X, 
Nov. 8 Curious specimens of Lewicke's poetry Proof, contrary 
to Warton's assertion, that Lewicke did not translate from Boccacio, 
but copied Sir T. Elliot's " Governor," 1534 Quotation from 
Churchyard regarding the " Troubles of Scotlande" On " the 
blessed state of England," from the same Churchyard's concern 
in the Flemish wars detailed in one of his tracts printed in 1578 
Spenser's allusion to him in " Colin Clout's come home again," 
and Churchyard's appropriation of it in his " Pleasaunt Discourse 
of Court and Warres," 1596, with his applause of Spenser His 
" Tragedy of Shore's Wife," and the word tragedy, so used, ex- 
plained Jervis Markham's " Most Honorable Tragedy of Sir 
Richard Grinuile Knight," 1595: only one copy of it existing, and 
its enormous price Description of it Address " to the Fayrest" 
Extract from the body of the poem The manner of Sir R. 
Grenville's death disputed Quotations from a prose tract, dated 
in 1591, relating to the conflict in which he fell, and especially to 
his death Robert Markham's " Description of that euer to be 
famed Knight, Sir John Burgh," 1C28: its absurdity A MS. 

F 2 


poem by Sir R. Grenville, In praise of Seafaringe Men," dis- 
covered and quoted-Henry Constable's four un-repnnted Sonnets 
to Sir Philip Sidney's soule," before the " Apologie of Poetne 
of 1595 Omission of them in Lord Thurlow's recent republica- 
tion-Edward Wootton-Sir Henry Wootton's earliest produc- 
tionBastard's Chrestokros, 1598, cited, regarding him and nsh- 
ing-Dr. Donne's " Progresse of the Soule," and Rabelais- 
Trajan a fisherman-Izaac Walton and an unknown poem called 
" The Love of Amos and Laura," 1C19, dedicated to himThe 
dedication extracted Second edition of Marston's " Pigmalions 
Image," 1619 Opening lines of " The Love of Amos and Laura," 
with observations-Further extract-" Alcilia: Philoparthens 
louing Folly," of the same date, and in the same volume On 
love-poems R. Wilmot's " Tancred and Gismunda," 1592, and 
Spenser referred to Philoparthen on the inconsistency of lovers 
Who was Philoparthen? Division of his work Specimen from 
it: further quotation Description of his mistress, from the same, 
with criticisms Dr. Edes, Dean of Worcester, an epigrammatist 
according to Bastard Minor poets of Elizabeth's reign Barnabe 
Googe; his translation of" the Zodiac of Life," and " the Popish 
Kingdom," 1570" A new yeares gifte," attributed to him by 
Ritson, not his His " Prouerbes of Sir James Lopez de Men- 
doza, Marquis of Santillana," &c. 1579 Its existence doubted- 
Quotations from it in praise of women, and on Cato and Mni'ius 
Sccevola Rowland Broughton's poem on the death of the Mar- 
quis of Winchester, 1572, noticed by Beloe Character of Queen 
Elizabeth by John Phillips, in his poetical tract on the death of 
the Countess of Lenox in 1577. 




ELLIOT. Having gone through all the English sa- 
tirists, as far as you thought necessary, what is our 
bill of fare to-day ? 

BOURNE. If you were that which you are not, an 
absolute helluo librorum, your phrase from the table 
d'hote might be perfectly in character : to follow it 
up, as I am to be caterer, I have provided a variety 
of dishes. 

MORTON. Rare and highly seasoned, I hope. 

ELLIOT. We need not fear that, they will be savoury 
enough. The fault of these musty, greasy, worm- 
eaten relics generally is, that they are a little too high. 

MORTON. Yet you seem to have learnt to relish 
them much better than when first we began our con- 

BOURNE. To drop the figure, here is a small pile 
of books of a miscellaneous character that I have 
looked out for our amusement, which contains no- 


thing but literary curiosities : I mean that their 
extreme rarity is even more distinguishing than the 
positive and intrinsic value of several of them. 

ELLIOT. Then in what order are we to take them, 
or are we to proceed for the present without system ? 

BOURNE. I apprehend that you will find in our 
progress something of the " order in confusion" of 
the poet, for most of the tracts are connected in one 
way or another. 

MORTON. If they were not, it would not much 
signify j therefore let us enter upon the examination 
of this small pile of books, as you call it, without 
loss of time. Who is the first author? " Tho. 
Churchyard, Gent." 

BOURNE. Stay : if I am to be at the head of the 
table, you must allow me to carve, or, at least, to 
direct the order of the feast. You must be content 
to take them as the several dishes are placed before 
you, and not according to your own fancy. 

MORTON. I presume that you will be the last to 
abandon ancient usages in this respect, and that all 
your operations will be governed by Wynkyn de 
Worde's " Boke of keruynge." 

BOURNE. Of course, and I shall follow his sage 
recommendation under the head " seruice," that 
before you begin to carve, you should " Take your 
knyfe in your hade." 

ELLIOT. In the very spirit of the celebrated Mrs. 
Glasse, " Take an old hare that is good for nothing 
else," or Swift's 


" Take a knuckle of veal, 
You may buy it or steal." 

BOURNE. With Wynkyn de Worde's directions on 
carving, and the instruction of " Epulario or the 
Italian Banquet," (1589) as to the preparation and 
arrangement of my banquet, I shall now order the 
covers to be removed. 

MORTON. First letting us a little more into the 
secret about that book you call Epulario. 

BOURNE. Here it is, at your service, and you will 
find it nothing more than an old cookery book, afford- 
ing a little amusement on account of the strangeness 
of some of the dishes : for instance the following, 
" To make Pies so that the Birds may be aliue in 
them and flie out when it is cut vp." 

ELLIOT. That is certainly of the utmost value, 
being, no doubt, the origin of that famous old ballad, 
the delight alike of babies and bibliographers -, 

" Sing a song of sixpence, a pocket full of rye, 
Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie -, 
When the pie was open'd the birds began to sing, 
Was not that a dainty dish to set before the king?" 

Read it by all means. 

BOURNE. I will, a part of it j not to gratify your 
love of ridicule, but because it affords a happy note of 
illustration to Shakespeare's expression, " a custard 
coffin" in his " Taming of the Shrew." " Make (says 
the translator of Epulario, for it is from the Italian), 


the coffin of a great Pie or pasty, in the bottome 
whereof make a hole as big as your fist, or bigger if 
you will j let the sides of the coffin be somewhat 
higher then ordinary Pies, which done put it full of 
flower and bake it, and being baked open the hole 
in the bottome and take out the flower." 

MORTON. And put the living birds in its place, 
that, I take it, is the great secret. 

BOURNE. You have guessed it exactly, and we 
need read no more of it. 

MORTON. While on the " antiquities of nursery 
literature" (a subject rendered important by the 
Quarterly Reviewers), let me ask, if you know with 
what veneration you ought to look upon some noted 
lines in " Mother Goose's Melodies." 

ELLIOT. What edition? A most interesting in- 
quiry ! What lines do you allude to in that splendid 
and delightful work splendid from its Dutch-gold 
binding, and delightful from its classical subjects. 
What are they? 

MORTON. Those pathetic elegiac verses, 

" Three children sliding on the ice 

All on a summer's day, 
It so fell out, they all fell in, 

The rest they ran away," &c. 

They are nearly 200 years old, and are to be found, 
with some variations, at the end of a travestie of 
the story of Hero and Leander which I met with the 


other day. It was published between 1640 and 1650, 
but I forget the precise date. 

BOURNE. If it be no older than that, it is not 
of much consequence, though the various readings 
perhaps might still be worth noting. As I suppose 
we have now done with these interesting matters, 
we may proceed to the order of the day. 

MORTON. Your " order in confusion" the feast 
you have provided for us j only I hope it will not be 
like the " Roman smell-feast," of which we read in 
Chapman's translation from Juvenal. Do not tanta- 
lize us with the mere odour of your cates, without 
allowing us to taste them. 

BOURNE. You need be under no apprehensions of 
that kind. As yo*u took up Thos. Churchyard's tract 
first, we may begin with him. 

ELLIOT. And begin with him by telling us who he 
was. His name is not at all familiar to my ears. 

BOURNE. Perhaps not, for though he was a very 
voluminous author, he has been very much neglected 
until of late, when Mr. G. Chalmers took him under 
his patronage, and reprinted most of his pieces re- 
lating to Scotland. 

MORTON. And prefixed his life, as far as the par- 
ticulars could be ascertained, did he not ? 

BOURNE. Yes, collecting them with much industry 
and accuracy. Churchyard began writing in the 
reign of Edward VI., but 1559 is the earliest date of 
any extant and known performance by him, and he 
did not cease to publish until after the death of 


Elizabeth. Here is Mr. Chalmers's production, and 
at the end of the biographical sketch you will find a 
long list of Churchyard's pieces, which, generally 
speaking, is accurate, with however one very im- 
portant omission. 

MORTON. That is singular, for I suppose there are 
few men of more knowledge or research upon these 
subjects than Mr. Chalmers. 

BOURNE. Unquestionably : the omission was of 
the more consequence to him, because the work of 
Churchyard he has not included, and had of course 
not seen (but which is now before us) contains a 
tolerably long poem on the " Troubles of Scotland," 
which Mr. Chalmers would not have failed to quote 
in his book had he been aware of -its existence. It 
is also omitted by Warton and Ritson, and after 
them by all writers on our old poets. 

ELLIOT. That sufficiently proves its great rarity. 
What do you call it ? 

BOURNE. " The Miserie of Flavnders, Calamitie 
of Fraunce, Misfortune of Portugall, Vnquietnes of 
Jrelande, Troubles of Scotlande : And the blessed 
State of Englande. Written by Tho. Churchyarde, 
Gent. 1579." Imprinted at London for Andrewe 
Maunsell. The size, you see, is the old small quarto, 
and it consists of only 20 leaves. 

MORTON. If all those subjects are treated it must 
be very compendious, or contain a great deal in a 
little compass. 

BOURNE. They are treated separately but sumina- 


rily. The dedication is " To the Queenes most ex- 
cellent IMaiestie, Thomas Churchyard wisheth all 
heauenly blessednesse, worldly felicitie and vnre- 
mouuble good Fortune." The first sentence is worth 
reading, as it refers to the object of the writer's un- 
wearied literary labours : " Hauing" (says he) " a 
duetifull desire, moste redoubted soueraigne, to be 
daily exercised in some seruisable deuice and action 
(that maie please my Prince and countrey) I neither 
spare paines nor season to purchase through practise 
of pen, and studie of heade my desired hope," and 
in the end he states this tract to be one of several 
new years' gifts of the same kind he had made to 

ELLIOT. The topics adverted to in the title-puge 
seem interesting : are they well handled ? 

BOURNE. Some of them are, making allowances 
for the early date of the performance : Churchyard, 
generally, has had injustice dene to him, because his 
readers compared his works with those of Daniel 
or Drayton, when in fact he began to write nearly 
half a century before them, and had formed his 
style upon older and less improved models. 

MORTON. He himself claims the authorship of 
some of the poems by " uncertain authors/' in, Tot- 
tel's Miscellany of 1557- 

BOURNE. He does, though they cannot now be 
separated: he was for some time in the service of 
Lord Surrey. He should be estimated, therefore, 


by a comparison with writers about that date, and 
not with later poets, because it was his misfortune 
not to die until 1604. You must not fail to bear 
this in mind while I read the following quotation 
from that part of the tract before us that relates to 
the " Calamitie of Fraunce." 

" Thei lost in feeld two hundreth thousande men, 
Yet still their mindes on murther ran so faste 
Thei went about nothying but bloodshed then 
To fight it out, as long as life might laste 5 
Revenge did woorke & weaue an endlesse webbe 
Desire of will, a wofull threede did spinne, 
The floode of hate, that neuer thinks of ebbe, 
A swellyng Sea of strife brought gushing in. 
The rooted wrathe had spred such braunches out, 
That leaues "of loue were blasted on the bowe, 
Yet spitfull twiggs began so faste to sprout 
That from the harte the tree was rotten throwe. 
No kindly sappe did comforte any spraie, 
Both barke & stocke and bodye did decaie : 
So that it seemde the soile infected was 
With malice moods that smells of mischief greate. 
Their golden lande, was tournde to rustic Bras, 
And eche thyng wrought, as God had curst the seate : 
The groud thought scorne to bryng forth frute in 


The Vines did rotte, the blade would beare no come, 
Like Winter foule became the Sommers Prime, 
The pleasant plotts brought forth wilde brier & thorn 


With Raine & storme the lande was vexed still : 
The ire of God the people could not shunne, 
Great grewe the greef that came by headstrong will, 
And all these plagues by proude conceit begonne, 
That thought to rule perhapps past reasons lore 5 
Threate that who please, my muse not framde there- 
ELLIOT. It begins better than it concludes : 

" The flood of hate that never thinks of ebb, 
A swellyng Sea of strife brought gushing in," 

is very good, as well as the introductory lines 3 but 
Churchyard afterwards runs his figure of the tree off 
its legs. 

MORTON. He carries it out injudiciously into the 
minutitz; neither does it seem very clear-why because 
" spiteful twigs began so fast to sprout" it should 
follow, that " from the heart the tree was rotten 

BOURNE. It certainly looks like a non sequitur, 
unless we reflect that we often see shoots and twigs 
more flourishing upon a tree whos*e heart is rotten, 
than on another that is sound ; and for this reason, 
that the " kindly sap" ascending up the bark has 
only to nourish those shoots and twigs and not the 
main trunk, which is decayed. 

ELLIOT. At any rate you have made an ingenious 
reconcilement of the matter. 

BOURNE. The following additional extract, from 


the same division of the poem, is remarkable for its 
applicability to transactions within our own memory 
during the French Revolution. 

" O Frounce, who lookes vpon thy bloodie waies, 

And notes but halfe the pageant thou hast plaied, 

Will be therefore the wiser all their daies, 

Or at the least, will howrely bee afraied 

To plaie suche pranks as thou poore Fraunce hast 


Thou hadst a tyme and wretched race to run 
For others weale, that can good warnyng take 5 
Thy neighbours have had laisure to regarde 
The harms of thee, and so a mirrour make 
Of thy greate doole and dulfull destinie hard. 
Can greater plagues bee seen in any soile 
Then reuell rage and hauocke euery waie ? 
A ciuille warre, with wicked waiste & spoile $ 
A deadlie botche that striks stoute harte by daie 
And kills by night the harmles in his bedde : 
O ciuill warre, thou hast a Hidras hedde ; 
A Vipers kinde, a Serpentes nature throwe, 
A Spider's shape, a forme of vglie Tode, 
A Deulishe face, a shamelesse blotted browe, 
A bloodie hande at home & eke abrode." 

ELLIOT. The greater portion of that extract is 
singularly applicable to events almost of our own 
day j for the poetry much cannot be said j there is 
little choice or originality in the epithets. 


MORTON. The description of civil war is a curious 
compound : it begins with a horse's head and ends 
in a fish's tail with a vengeance. 

BOURNE. But risum teneatis principally for 'the 
reason I have already stated : many of the lines are 
by no means deficient in spirit j indeed what relates 
to France is the best part of the whole pamphlet. 
In some degree to show in what way, and how far 
old Churchyard has had injustice done him, I will 
refer you to the work of an actual contemporary, 
which will illustrate the point, and is, at the samt 
time, a most singular curiosity : a production of 
greater rarity cannot easily be mentioned, and it re- 
cently sold for a sum very little short of the price 
obtained for Micro-cynicon, the unique volume of 
satires I showed you the other day. 

ELLIOT. I hope it was better worth the money 
I mean intrinsically, for I allow the value of Micro- 
cynicon as one link in the chain of satirists. 

BOURNE. I would not have you expect too much 
from the tract in my hand, although the story to 
which it refers has been excellently told by Boccacio 
(Gior. X. Nov. 8.) You remember it, I dare say : 
it is that of Titus and Gisippus. Warton (H. E. 
P. III. 4C8.) asserts that this author translated from 
Boccacio, but this is not the fact, as I will convince 
you presently. 

ELLIOT. But who is the author of your English 
version of the tale ? he showed some judgment in 
selecting an interesting fable. 


BOURNE. His name is Edward Lewicke, and I am 
afraid that what you have mentioned is the principal 
merit that critical charity can allow him. The title 
of his book is the following : " The most wonderful 
and pleasaunt History of Titus andGisippus, whereby 
is fully declared the figure of perfect frendshyp : 
drawen into English metre By Edwarde Lewicke. 
Anno 1562." 

MORTON. He seems very modest he only pre- 
tends to have " drawn it into English metre," he 
sets up no claim on the score of poetry. According 
to Ritson, I perceive, a considerably elder poet, of 
the name of William Walter, had translated the 
story into verse. 

BOURNE. And some specimens may be found in 
Dibdin's Ames, (II. 338.) Notwithstanding the 
better models that Lewicke possessed, and the ad- 
vance poetry had made under the authors of Tottel's 
Miscellany, his translation is not much better than 
the version by Walter. Lewicke's opening stanza is 
this : 

" There was in the city of Rome 
A noble man hight Fuluius ; 
A Senatour of great wisdome 
One of the chiefest, the truth is thus, 
He had a sonne named Titus, 
An apter child could not be found 
(As witty men did there discus) 
For learning going on the ground/ 


MORTON. The form of the stanza seems by no 
means happily chosen, requiring four similar rhymes, 
especially when we recollect that our language was 
not at that time so pliable as to be easily wrought 
into strange shapes. 

ELLIOT. However, let us hear a little more of it : 
one stanza will not enable us to form a judgment 
even of the versification. 

MORTON. I have but an indistinct recollection of 
the story. Titus and Gisippus were, I know, two 
friends, the first a Roman and the last a Greek, who 
studied under the same master at Athens, and be- 
came enamoured of the same lady. 

BOURNE. Yesj and Gisippus was about to be mar- 
ried when Titus fell in love with his intended bride, 
and Gisippus, who seems to have preferred his friend 
to his wife, resigned his claim. Titus returns to 
Italy, leaving Gisippus in Athens, who soon afterwards 
becomes a poor wanderer and reaches Rome : there he 
sees Titus, who is living in great splendor, and ima- 
gines that he will not condescend to recognize him, 
or in the modern phrase, that Titus cut him. Gisip- 
pus first resolves to destroy himself, but abandoning 
that purpose, falls into a sort of trance in a barn. 
At night a robber, who had committed a murder, 
takes the knife of the sleeping Gisippus, and dipping 
it in the blood, returns the instrument to the hand 
of the owner, who is soon afterwards charged with 
the crime. On his trial, Titus, for the first time, 

VOL. ii. <; 


recollects Gisippus, and to save his friend accuses 
himself as the guilty man : the real murderer, who 
was in the crowd, conscience-struck, avows his 
offence j he is pardoned, and of course the two 
friends end their days in the utmost happiness. This 
is the outline of the story, which has been very 
similarly worked up by different authors. Goldsmith 
has told it very elegantly under different names in 
his Bee. 

ELLIOT. It is by no means one of the best even of 
the serious tales of Boccacio, and he introduces a 
tremendously long harangue into the middle of it. 

BOURNE. So does your name-sake, Sir Thomas 
Elliot, from whose prose narrative Lewicke almost 
copied, as I will prove after you have heard the 
following stanzas from one of the most interesting 
parts : what I have said of the story will make them 

" There in a sorie simple state, 
Gisippus thence away did trudge, 
Cursing his chance infortunate. 
Oh lord, thought he, what man wold iudge 
Titus to haue bene such a snudge, 
From whom I suffer all this smart ? 
Gisippus thus at him did grudge 
Thinking for euer to depart," 

MORTON. The wretched rhyme of snudge shows to 
what shifts the author was driven by his stanza. 
What is the meaning of that word ? 


BOURNE. Lewicke might have supplied Mr. Todd 
with an authority for it, who truly explains it to be 
a " sneaking fellow/' but he furnishes no quotation : 
you interposed in the middle of a sentence ; the tale 
proceeds, Gisippus being determined te for ever to 

" From Rome and wander the desert 
As a beast with madnes possest : 
But yet he was well faine to start 
(Being with werines opprest) 
Into an old barne to take rest, 
Where he falling flat on the ground 
Drew out his knife, & thought it best 
To geue himself a deadly wounde. 

But wisdome did his wil so drounde 
That from that act it did him kepe, 
Until he fell into a sounde 
Or (as god would as he did slepe) 
Into a sad and slumbring slepe : 
His knife, wherwith he would haue slain 
himself, downe by his side did stepe. 
In the meanetime a thefe certaine, 
Which was a commen ruffian playne, 
And had both robbed and slaine a man, 
Thought in that barne for to remaine, 
To hide him selfe that night j but whan 
He sawe a wretch, bewept and wan, 
On slep and a knife by his side, 

G '2 


He toke the knife and quietly than 
Towardes the dead man he did glide. 

Into his wound both depe and wide 
(Which at that time did freshlye blede) 
He put the knife, thinkinge to hide 
His owne vile acte and mischeuous dede ; 
And brought it all blodie with spede 
To poore Gysippus where he laye 
Aslepe and put it (without drede) 
Into his hand and went his way." 

ELLIOT, That is mere narration : it is perspicuous, 
and it aims at nothing more. 

BOURNE. For that perspicuity, and even for some 
of his very words and phrases, Lewicke was in- 
debted, not to Boccacio (we cannot allow him that 
credit), but merely to Sir T. Elliot's " Governor," 
which was first published, I believe, in 1534, and 
between that date and 1580 went through 8 or 10 
editions. A few sentences will enable you to make 
a sufficient comparison. " And therwith drew his 
knife, purposing to haue slain him selfe. But euer 
wisedome (whiche he by the study of Philosophy 
had attaied) withdrew him frome that desperate 
acte. And in this contencion &c. or as god wolde 
haue it, he fell into a depe slepe. His knife 
(wherwith he woulde haue slaine him self) falling 
down by him. In the meane time a commune 
and notable rufia or thefe whiche had robbed 


and slaine a man, was entred into the barne, where 
Gisippus laie j the entente to soiorne there all that 
nyghte. And seeing Gisippus bewept, and his 
visage replenished with sorrowe, and also the naked 
knife by him, perceiued well, that he was a man 
desperate, & surprised with heauinesse of herte was 
werye of his life : which the saied rufyan takyng for 
a good occasion to escape, toke the knife of Gisippus 
and putting it in the wound of him that was slain, 
put it all bloody in the hand of Gisippus, beyng faste 
a slepe, and so departed." 

ELLIOT. There is not only a strong resemblance 
throughout, but a perfect identity in some passages. 
Warton was certainly in an error. 

BOURNE. It is not worth while to read any more 
from Lewicke's production j what we have seen will 
fully answer the purpose for which I brought it for- 
ward. At the end is the following colophon : " Im- 
printed at London by Thomas Hacket, and are to be 
solde at hys shop in Lumbarde Streete." Mr. Dibdin 
(Ames IV. 581.) had never seen the book, and calls 
it a 4to., when, in fact, it is only an 8vo. We may 
now return to Churchyard : the following lines are 
from that part of his tract which treats of the 
" Troubles of Scotlande," and are part of what Mr. 
Chalmers would have inserted in his reprint had he 
known of the existence of such a poem. 

" Shall man that hath the reason to forbeare 
Be worse then beast ? O God that fault forbid ! 


Shall malice find a place and succour there, 
Where Gods greate gifts ought lie like treasure hid ? 
Shall harts of men (the temple of the Lorde) 
Lodge murther vile, & nourish foule discorde ? 
Shall those that knowes what lawe & peace is worth 
Breake Lawe & Peace, and breede dessention still ? 
The tree is bad that bryngs suche braunches forth, 
The hedds are vaine, that showes no deeper skill j 
The ground is nought that breeds such scratting 

And soile not good where murther still appers." 

ELLIOT. That is not exactly quasi divino quodam 
spiritu inflatum. 

BOURNE. I do not pretend that it is 5 Chnrchyard 
is there, grave and didactic, and you must not expect 
him at any time to write in the florid and ambitious 
style of the " towering falcon," Fitzgeffrey : he was 
a poet of quite another class, as well as of a dif- 
ferent age. 

ELLIOT. What does he say of the blessed state 
of England ?" That will of course be interesting. 

BOURNE. I am afraid that it will not exactly suit 
your taste. 

" Here haue we scope to skippe or walke, 

to ronne & plaie at base ; 
Still voide of feare, and free of minde, 

in euery poincte and cace. 
Here freends maie meete and talke at will, 

the Prince & Lawe obaied j 


And neether strange nor home borne childe, 

of Fortune stands afraied. 
Here hands doe reape the seeds thei sowe, 

and heads haue quiet sleeps ; 
And wisedome gouerns so the worlde, 

that reason order keeps. 
Here mercie rules, and mildnesse raigns 

and peace greate plentie bryngs j 
And solace in his sweetest voice 

the Christmas carrowle syngs. 
Here freends maie feast, and triumphe too, 

in suertie voide of ill ; 
And one the other welcome make 

with mirthe and warme good will. 
The ground it bryngs suche blessyng forthe, 

that glad are forraigns all, 
Amid their want and hard extreems 

in favour here to faull : 
Here wounded staets doe heale their harms 

and straungers still repaire j 
When mischief makes them marche abroad, 

and driue them in dispaire. 
Here thousands haunt and finde releef, 

that are in heauie cace, 
And friendly folke with open armes 

doeth sillie soules embrace. 
Here thyngs are cheape, and easly had, 

no soile the like can showe 5 
No state nor Kyngdome at this daic 

doeth in such plentie flowe. 


The trau'lar that hath paste the worlde, 
and gone through many a lande : 

When he comes home, and noets these thyngs 
to heauen holds vp hande j 

And museth how this little plotte 

can yeeld suche pleasures greate : 

It argues where suche graces growe, 
that God hath blest the seate." 

ELLIOT. I like that better than you seem to do ; 
there is a great air of cheerfulness and contentment 
about it : the quotation affords a very lively arid plea- 
sant picture of the condition of the kingdom under 
Queen Elizabeth. 

BOURNE. I am inclined to think that this pro- 
duction, on the whole, is one of the best that has 
proceeded from Churchyard's pen. However, we 
have now gone through all that it is worth our 
while to read from it. 

MORTON. It appears from his " True Discourse 
historical of the succeeding Governors in the Nether- 
lands" of 1G02, that he was most importantly con- 
cerned in the wars of the Low Countries : does he 
say nothing material regarding them in that part of 
the tract before you, referring to " the Misery of 
Flanders ?" 

BOURNE. Nothing worth reading, I assure you : 
in another work by him, printed in 1578, and called 
" a Lamentable and pitifull Description of the wofull 
warres in Flanders," he enters into more details than 
in 1602, and in the dedication of it to Sir F. Wai- 


singham, he mentions his design to publish the 
tract on which we are now engaged. Ifr shows that 
some of the most learned men who write about 
books never read them, or Mr. Chalmers from hence 
would have been put upon the scent for " the 
Miserie of Flavnders," &c. 

ELLIOT. That is not a matter of great conse- 
quence. Was Churchyard in much repute with his 
contemporaries ? 

BOURNE. That point is treated in Chalmers's Life, 
and you will find that while Gabriel Harvey abuses 
him, Thomas Nash greatly applauds his " Tragedy 
of Shores Wife." There is, however, one poet of 
the highest rank, I mean Spenser, who bestows a 
few compassionate lines upon him in his " Colin 
Clouts come home again :" this is not mentioned by 

MORTON. Lord Buckhurst, Drayton, Alabaster, 
Daniel, and others, are there alluded to, but I do not 
recollect Churchyard. 

BOURNE. The following four lines refer to him : 

" And there is old Palemon free from spight 
Whose carefull pipe may make the hearer rew j 
Yet he himselfe may rewed be more right, 
W T ho sung so long until quite hoarse he grew." 

ELLIOT. As Churchyard is not named, how do you 
prove that the allusion is to him by inference ? 

BOURNE. The description is almost sufficient, 
though it docs not seem to have occurred to Mr. 


Todd when he published his edition of Spenser. 
But it is put beyond a doubt by the following stanza 
in Churchyard's " Pleasaunt Discourse of Court & 
Wars," 1596, which I found on looking over a 
variety of his productions. He is speaking of the 
Court, which he says is 

" The platform where all Poets thriue, 
Saue one whose voice is hoarse they say; 
The stage where time away we driue, 
As children in a pageant play j 
To please the lookers on sometime 
With words, with bookes, in prose or rime/' 

ELLIOT. That fixes the description upon him very 
satisfactorily. " Colin Clouts come home again," 
was published in 1595. 

. BOURNE. In his " Challenge," 1 593, Churchyard 
had praised Spenser ' ' in a new kind of Sonnet," the 
novelty of which consists in all the lines but the 
two last (twenty-two in number) rhyming to the 
words war and show. He drearily laments, at the 
same time, his own incompetence, and the folly of 
his young overweening ambition. It is scarcely 
worth the trouble of reading, but you may find it in 
Cens. Lit. II. p. 309. 

ELLIOT. You mentioned just now " the Tragedy 
of Shore's Wife" by Churchyard. Did it come upon 
the stage, or has Howe availed himself of it in his 
"Jane Shore?" 

BOURNE. You mistake ; the word tragedy there 


does not mean a dramatic composition : it refers to 
his Legend of Jane Shore, in the Mirror for Magi- 
strates ; many poems of a tragical nature, but not 
at all in the form of plays, were at that time called 
Tragedies : Dante (Inf. XX. 113), in the same way, 
makes Virgil speak of his Mneid as, 

L'alta mia Tragedia in alcun loco, &c. 
and he further explains the application of the word 
in his work Delia volgare Eloquenza Per tragccdiam 
super iorem stilum induimus, per comccdiam inferiorem, 
per elegiam stilum intelligimus meserorum. 

MORTON. Jervis Markham's Tragedy of Sir R. 
Grenville is precisely in point j and some account of 
the contents of that poem (which, indeed, you pro- 
mised us), will better illustrate the matter than any 
quotation you can make. 

ELLIOT. I am rather curious to see that produc- 
tion, from the lavish praise Fitzgeffrey bestows upon 
it in the quotation we read from his " Drake*' in our 
first conversation. 

BOURNE. I remember I told you at the time, that 
the applause was far beyond what Markham's poem 
deserved, and I have no objection now to establish 
my assertion by a few quotations. As to your see- 
ing the book itself, that is out of the question, as 
but one copy of it is known, and that, if I mistake 
not, is now in the possession of the Hon. T. Gren- 
ville, whose family is descended from the hero of 
the poem. 


MORTON. In what way did he obtain it? 

BOURNE. As you might have done, if you would 
have bid high enough at an auction. It was sold 
among the books of the late Mr. Bindley, and came 
previously out of the collection of Major Pearson. 
Mr. Grenville gave no less a sum for it than 40/. 19s. 
though only the size of a very small modern 18mo. 

ELLIOT. How extravagantly dear ! 

BOURNE. On the contrary, bibliomaniacs thought 
it shamefully cheap, and the purchaser would have 
given much more for it rather than not have secured 
it. The title runs thus, " The Most Honorable 
Tragedie of Sir Richard Grinuile [Knight. Brarno 
assai, poco spero, nulla chieggio. Printed by J. 
Roberts for Richard Smith 1595." 

MORTON. Then Markham's name does not appear. 

BOURNE. Not upon the title-page, but the de- 
dication to et Lord Montioy," which immediately 
follows, is signed " leruis Markham:" it is suc- 
ceeded by three sonnets, the first to the Earl of 
Sussex, the second to the Earl of Southampton (in- 
serted in Rest. III. 414), and the third to Sir Edward 
Wingfield. Next we have " the argument of the 
whole Tragedie," to which are subjoined " faults 
escaped in printing." 

ELLIOT. How minute you are in your description ; 
as if the ( ' faults escaped in printing" would give us 
a better idea of the merit of the poem. 

BOURNE. I should not be so particular if the poem 


had ever been described before j but, excepting the 
sonnet to Lord Southampton, no part of it has ever 
been reprinted or quoted. A new leaf is headed, 
" The most honorable Tragedie of Sir Richard 
Grinuile Knight," and under it an address " To the 
Fayrest," which, I suppose, means the poet's mistress. 

MORTON. Not " to the fairest" Elizabeth, the 
queen ; the subject (according to Mr. Chalmers, in 
his " Supplemental Apology") of the Sonnets of 
Spenser and Shakespeare. 

BOURNE. Noj it is certain that Markham means 
some other female, to the full as beautiful, by the 
following stanza in the address : 

" To thee fyire Nymph, my life, my loue, my gaze, 
My soules first mouer, essence of my blisse, 
Thought-chast Dictinna, Natures only maze, 
Heauen of all whatever heauenlie is ; 
More white than Atlas browe or Pelops blaze, 
Compleat perfection which all creatures misse : 
More louelie than was bright Astioche 
Or Ivnos hand-mayd sacred Diope" 

This is the more clear, because in the last stanza but 
one of this part of the poem, he expressly turns to 

" And with her thou great Souereigne of the earth, 
Onelie immatchlesse monarchesse of harts !" 

MORTON. I suppose you can afford us some quota- 
tion from the body of Markham's work ? 

BOURNE. Yes ; in the following stanzas the poet 


is describing Sir R. Grenville's eagerness to enter 
into the engagement with the Spaniards. 

" Looke how a wanton bridegroome in the morne 
Busilie labours to make glad the day, 
And at the noone, with wings of courage borne 
Recourts his bride with dauncing and with play, 
Vntill the night, which holds meane blisse in scorne, 
By action kills imaginations swayj 

And then, euen then, gluts and confounds his 

With all the sweets, conceit or Nature wrought. 

" Even so our Knight, the bridegroome vnto Fame, 

Toil'd in this battailes morning with unrest 

At noone triumph'd, and daunst and made his game, 

That vertue by no death could be deprest $ 

But when the night of his loues longings came, 

Euen then his intellectual soule confest 

All other ioyes imaginarie were 

Honour vnconquer'd, heauen and earth held deare. 

" The bellowing shotte which wakened dead mens 


As Dorian musick sweetened in his eares : 
Ryuers of blood, issuing from fountaine wounds, 
He pytties but augments not with his teares. 
The flaming fier which mercilesse abounds, 
Hee not so much as masking torches feares; 
The dolefull Eccho of the soules half dying 
Quicken his courage, in their banefull crying." 


ELLIOT. It seems, as well as we can judge, much 
in the same puffed-up and heightened strain as Fitz- 
geffrey, only the latter exceeded his prototype. 

BOURNE. Markham goes on in a similar style for 
a few more stanzas, and then he represents Mis- 
fortune (who is personified) descending to destroy Sir 
Richard Grenville : the poet exclaims 5 

" O why should such immortall enuie dwell 
In the inclosures of eternall mould ? 
Let Gods with Gods, and men with men rebell 
Vnequall warres, vnequall shame is soul'd j 
But for this damned deede came shee from Hell 
And loue is sworne, to doe what dest'nie would : 
Weepe then my pen, the tell-tale of our woe, 
And curse the fount from whence our sorrowes 

ELLIOT. Most assuredly nothing you have read 
warrants the extravagant eulogium by Fitzgeffrey. 

" Quaintly he hath eternized his acts 
In lasting registers of memory 
Even co-eternall with eternity ; 
So that the world envies his happy state 
That he should live when it .is ruinate." 

MORTON. Markham's last stanza ends with a very 
paltry conceit. In what way does Misfortune execute 
her fearful mission ? 

BOURNE. Not very poetically by taking a musket 
and mortally wounding Sir It. Grenville. 


ELLIOT. Writing, as he did, so soon after the 
event, Markham was probably confined too much by 
the truth of history to be able to terminate his poem 

MORTON. You remember, perhaps, what Racine 
says in the preface to his Bajazet, that to a poet the 
distance of the country where his scene is laid, is of 
much the same use as the lapse of time, car le peuple 
ne met guere de difference entre ce qui est & mille ans 
de lui, et ce qui est a mille lieues. According to this 
rule, Markham might fairly have availed himself of 
some poetical licence in describing the death of his 

ELLIOT. That of course must depend upon the 
notoriety of the facts. Racine's remark applies 
merely to dramatic poetry, and to the respect enter- 
tained by audiences for the heroes of tragedies 
major e longinquo reverentia. 

BOURNE. It seems agreed on all hands, that Sir R. 
Grenville was shot, but the time and mode of his 
death are disputable. Camden, in his Annals, touches 
the matter very briefly j but here is a scarce con- 
temporary pamphlet relating to this very conflict : it 
purports to be " A Report of the Truth of the Fight 
about the lies of the Azores this last Summer Be- 
twixt the Revenge, one of her Maiesties Shippes, 
and the Armada of the King of Spaine." It was 
printed in 1591, and in it the manner of the death 
of Sir R. Grenville is differently related. I do not 


think that the poet does justice to his subject : you 
will find by the extracts I am going to read, that 
ample room was afforded him. The fleet was under 
the conduct of Lord T. Howard, Sir R. Grenville 
being vice-admiral in the Revenge. Camden charges 
him with fool-hardy bravery j and certain it is, that 
while Lord T. Howard was enabled to escape from 
the very superior force of the enemy, consisting of 
nearly sixty ships of various sizes, Sir R. Grenville, 
according to the pamphlet, was obliged to sustain 
the brunt of the battle, and fell foul of the San Philip, 
an enormous vessel of 15OO tons, with " three tire 
of ordinance on a side, and eleven pieces in euerie 
tire/' and shooting " eight forth-right out of her 
chase, besides those of her sterne ports." 

MORTON. What was the size and force of the 
Revenge ? 

BOURNE. That does not appear, but it seems that 
the odds were fearful, as the English crews were 
sick, and many on shore : this is a part of the rela- 
tion. " After the Revenge was entangled with this 
Philip, foure other boorded her; two on her larboord 
and two on her starboord. The fight thus beginning 
at three of the clocke in the after noone, continued 
verie terrible all that evening. But the great San 
Philip hauing receyued the lower tire of the Revenge 
discharged with crossbarshot, shifted her selfe with 
all diligence from her sides, vtterly misliking her 
first entertainment After many interchanged 



volleies of great ordinance and small shot, the Spani- 
ards deliberated to enter the Revenge, and made 
divers attempts, hoping to force her by the multitudes 
of their armed Souldiers and Musketiers, but were 
still repulsed againe and againe, and at all times 
beaten backe into their own shippes, or into the 
seas. . . . After the fight had thus without intermis- 
sion cotinued while the day lasted, and some houres 
of the night, many of our men were slaine and hurt, 
and one of the great Gallions of the Armada, and the 
Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in many 
other of the Spanish ships great slaughter was made. 
Some write that sir Richard was verie dangerouslie 
hurt almost in the beginning of the fight, and laie 
speechlesse for a time ere he recouered. But two of 
the Reuenges owne companie, brought home in a 
ship of Lime from the Ilandes, examined by some 
of the Lords and others, affirmed that he was neuer 
so wounded as that hee forsooke the vpper decke, 
til an houre before midnight} and then being shot 
into the bodie with a Musket as he was a dressing, 
was againe shot into the head, and withall his Chirur- 
gion wounded to death." 

MORTON. I see, by reference, that that statement 
agrees with what Camden relates, but he adds some- 
thing about sinking the Revenge. 

BOURNE. He seems to have confounded the two 
accounts of the death of Sir R. Grenville : this pam- 
phlet asserts that there was a second statement of 


that catastrophe, viz. that Sir Richard, in despair of 
escaping or defeating the enemy, prevailed upon the 
master gunner to split and sink the ship with all the 
crew, they having consented j but terms being sent 
from the Spaniards, the men were induced to change 
their resolution, and they and their commander were 
conveyed on board the enemy. On the second or 
third day Sir Richard died of his wounds ; and the 
pamphlet adds, " the comfort that remaineth to his 
friendes is, that he hath ended his life honourably in 
respect of the reputation wonne to his nation and 
country, and of the same to his posteritie, and that 
being dead, he hath not outliued his owne honour." 

ELLIOT. The prose tract ends more poetically than 
Markham's poem, and the whole narrative of the 
unequal contest seems distinct and striking. 

BOURNE. It is : there are parts of the " Tragedy 
of Sir R. Grenville" that are really very poor, but as 
a whole, I think, it is better than the same author's 
" Devoreux or Virtues Tears for the loss of the most 
Christian King Henry/' &c. 1597, from which I had 
intended to show you some specimens, had I not 
found that the poem has already been analyzed and 
criticised elsewhere. 

MORTON. Did not Markham write a poem of the 
same elegiac kind on one Sir John Burgh ? I think I 
have seen the title in some catalogue. 

BOURNE. I know what you allude to : that was 
by Robert Markham, and it was not printed until 



1628. I do not know that this author was any relation 
to Jervis Markhamj there is an apparent relation- 
ship in their styles, with this difference, that Robert 
exaggerates to the utmost extravagance of absurdity 
all the worst faults of Jervis. I am sure that the 
subsequent lines from the opening of the " De- 
scription of that euer to be famed Knight Sir John 
Burgh/' will be all the specimen of his talents you 
will ever wish to see. 

" If teares could tell the story of my woe, 
How I with sorrow pine away for thee, 
My spungie eyes their bankes should ouerflow 
And make a very Moore or Mire of me j 
I would out weepe a thousand Nyobyes, 
For I would weepe till I wept out my eyes. 

" My heart should drop such teares as did thy wound, 
And my wound should keepe consort with my heart j 
In a red Sea my body should be drown'd, 
My gall should breake and beare a bitter part, 
Such crimson Rue as I would weepe should make 
Democrates himselfe, a wormewood Lake." 

ELLIOT. That is incomparably absurd, to be sure. 
The excess of his grief makes one's sides ache with 
laughing at it. This is a special instance of the 
t( faulty sublime," of which Upton speaks, and 
which he says is so much better than " a faultless 

BOURNE. It would not improve your opinion of 


the taste of bibliomaniacs, if I were to tell you what 
this trash sold for, not a year ago, among the curiosi- 
ties of an eminent collector. 

MORTON. It is worth something to have such an 
unfailing source of merriment always at hand : the 
owner may set the blue devils at defiance. 

BOURNE. As we are not at present in want of its 
assistance, and as we have other and better things to 
attend to, we may close Robt. Markham's " Lament- 
able Tragedy full of pleasant mirth," (as Preston 
entitles his " Cambises,") until we have more need 
of it. 

ELLIOT. To come back for a minute or two to 

BOURNE. We will do so directly j but before we 
dismiss Sir R. Grenville from our minds, I wish to 
show you a curiosity I discovered not long since 
among the MSS. of the British Museum, (Bibl. Sloan, 
Plut. XVIII. F.) which shows that Sir R. Grenville 
is probably entitled to a place among the poets, as 
well as among the heroes of his country. 

MORTON. Your position will at least have novelty 
to recommend it. 

BOURNE. It will: the poem is entitled " In praise 
of Seafaringe Men in hope of good fortune :" it has 
no date, but it is in a hand writing of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, and the following are the two last 


" Whoe list at whome at cart to drudge 
And cark and care for worldlie trashe, 
With buckled sheues let him goe trudge 
In stead of Launce A whip to lashe : 
A minde that base his kind will show 
of caronn sweete to feede a crowe. 

" If lasonn of that mynd had bine, 
the grecions when they cam to troye 
Had neuer so the Trogians foylde, 
Nor neuer put them to such Anoye : 
Wherefore who lust to Hue at whome, 
To purchas fame I will go Rome. 
Finis Sur Richard 
Grinfilldes Farwell." 

There are about five or six other stanzas which 
precede what I have read, and in an opposite column, 
by a different hand, is inserted an answer to them. 
In the first line of the last stanza, bine is most likely 
a mistake of the transcriber's for toylde, to rhyme 
Mvithjbylde in the next line but one. 

ELLIOT. It does not seem to merit much critical 
comment, and the author is called Grinfillde not 

BOURNE. The variation of the name is no disproof 
of the authorship : we have already seen it spelt four 
different ways Grinuile by Jervis Markham, Green- 
mil by Camden, Grinml by Fitzgeffrey, and Grenuile 


by the author of the prose pamphlet ; and there 
were at that time no fixed rules of orthography, 
especially in names. I interrupted you when you 
were going to ask a question about old Churchyard. 

ELLIOT. It regarded a work, attributed to him by 
Mr. Chalmers, which I apprehend must be very in- 
teresting. I mean " A praise of poetry, some notes 
thereof drawn out of the Apologie the noble-minded 
knight, Sir Philip Sidney wrote." The date given 
is 1596. 

BOURNE. It would not by any means come up to 
your expectations, as there is little or nothing in it 
original : but you may satisfy your curiosity by re- 
ferring to Censura Literaria, where the tract is re- 
viewed. Your mention of Sir P. Sidney here brings 
us to something I had intended to postpone, but 
which cannot perhaps be mofe properly introduced 
than here j I allude to four sonnets by Henry Con- 
stable (a poet of very considerable note, author of 
" Diana," 1594), prefixed to the very rare edition of 
Sidney's " Apologie of Poetrie," 4to. 1595. They 
have never been reprinted. 

MORTON. Few of the minor poets of that day seem 
to have enjoyed a higher reputation. 

BOURNE. He may fairly be ranked with Watson, 
whose sonnets Mr. Steevens contended were equal to 
those of Shakespeare : as I told you, I cannot agree 
with him, nor do I believe that any man who knows 
the one and the other, and has a particle of taste, will 


concur. Constable's Sonnets are the following, and 
are thus rather singularly entitled : 

" Foure Sonnets Written by Henrie 
Constable to Sir Phillip Sidneys soule. 

Giue pardon (blessed Soule) to my bold cryes 
If they (importund) interrupt thy Song, 
Which now with ioyfull notes thou sing'st among 
The Angel-Quiristers of heau'nly skyes : 
Giue pardon eake (sweete Soule) to my slow cries, 
That since I saw thee now it is so long, 
And yet the teares that vnto thee belong 
To thee as yet they did not sacrifice : 
I did not know that thou wert dead before, 
I did not feele the griefe I did susteine, 
" The greater stroke astonisheth the more, 
" Astonishment takes from vs sence of paine ; 
I stood amaz'd when others teares begun, 
And now begin to weepe, when they haue doone. 

Sweet Soule which now with heau'nly songs doost tel 
Thy deare Redeemers glory and his prayse, 
No meruaile though thy skilful! Muse assayes 
The Songs of other soules there to excell j 

For thou didst learne to sing diuinely well, 

Long time before thy fayre and glittering rayes 
Encreas'd the light of heau'n, for euen thy layes 
Most heauenly were when thou on earth didst 
dwel : 


When thou didst on the earth sing Poet-wise, 
Angels in heau'n pray'd for thy company 
And now thou sing'st with Angels in the skies 
Shall not all Poets praise thy memory ? 
And to thy name shall not their works giue fame, 
When as their works be sweetned by thy name ? 

Even as when great mens heires cannot agree, 
So eu'ry vertue now for part of thee doth sue, 
Courage prooues by thy death thy hart to be his 


Eloquence claimes thy tongue, and so doth cour- 
tesy j 

Inuention knowledge sues, ludgment sues memory, 
Each saith thy head' is his, and what end shall 


Of this strife know I not, but this I know for true, 

That whosoeuer gaines the sute the losse haue wee j 

Wee (I meane all the world) the losse to all pertaineth, 

Yea they which gaine doe loose and onely thy 

soule gaineth, 

For loosing of one life, two liues are gained then : 
Honor thy courage mou'd, courage thy death did 


Death, courage, honor makes thy soule to liue, 
Thy soule to liue in heau'n, thy name in tongues of 

Great Alexander then did well declare 

How great was his united Kingdomes might, 


When eu'ry Captaine of his Army might 
After his death with mighty Kings compare : 

So now we see after thy death, how far 
Thou dost in worth surpasse each other Knight, 
When we admire him as no mortal wight, 
In whom the least of all thy vertues are : 

One did of Macedon the King become, 
Another sat on the Egiptian throne, 
But onely Alexanders selfe had all : 
So curteous some, and some be liberall, 

Some witty, wise, valiant, and learned some 

But King of all the vertues thou alone. 

Henry Constable." 

ELLIOT. The thought in the last of these sonnets 
is happy, and happily applied. 

MORTON. And the lines run with much harmony 
and facility. 

BOURNE. If they do not add to, they at least do 
not detract from the fame of their author, 

MORTON. They are undoubtedly well worthy of 
revival, not merely as curious relics. But did not 
Lord Thurlow, a few years since, publish a reprint 
of Sidney's " Apology of Poetry?" If so, I should 
have taken it for granted that he did not omit these 

BOURNE. He would not have omitted them had 
he been aware of their existence, but his reprint is 
made from an edition comparatively modern, and 


even in the folio of 1598 the sonnets are unac- 
countably excluded. 

ELLIOT. I suppose there are no important omis- 
sions in the body of the " Apology." 

BOURNE. No ; but you will see that the edition of 
1598 (which is called " The Defence of Poesie") 
commences thus j " When the right vertuous E. W. 
and I were at the Emperours Court together." Now 
the edition of 1595 gives the whole name instead of 
the initials, viz. " Edwarde Wootton." 

ELLIOT. Who was Edward Wootton ? If Fulke 
Greville thought it worthy of mention in his Epitaph 
that he was the friend of Sir P. Sidney, his other 
friends deserve to be inquired after. 

BOURNE. No doubt he was brother to Sir Henry 
Wootton. Edward Wootton was Comptroller of 
the Queen's Household, and, according to Camden, 
" was remarkable for many high employments :" he 
was sent several times Ambassador to foreign Courts, 
and on one of these occasions he was accompanied 
by Sidney. 

MORTON. How deeply it is to be lamented that 
a few days before his death Sir H. Wootton should 
have burnt many of the productions of his youth. 
What is the date of his earliest piece now extant ? 

BOURNE. It is difficult to decide, but the events 
referred to fix the dates of a few: the earliest I 
immediately recollect is inserted in Davison's " Poeti- 
cal Ilapsody," 1602, but that he had written poems 


before that is very clear. Thomas Bastard, the 
author of " Chrestoleros," published in 1598, ad- 
dresses two epigrams ad Henricum Wottonum, in one 
of which he says, 

" Wotton, the country and the country swayne, 
How can they yield a poet any sense ? 
How can they stirre him up, or heate his braine ? 
How can they feede him with intelligence ?" 

And he recommends him, therefore, to come to 
"London, Englands fayrest eye." It is not Tery 
unlikely that their friendship was occasioned or con- 
firmed by their mutual love of fishing, for in another 
Epigram, De piscatione, Bastard observes, 

" Fishing, if I a fisher may protest, 

Of pleasures is the sweet' st, of sports the best, 

Of exercises the most excellent -, 

Of recreations the most innocent. 

But now the sport is marde, and wott ye why ! 

Fishes decrease, and fishers multiply." 

MORTON. All Sir Henry's friends, however, were 
not fishermen : one of his most intimate companions, 
Dr. Donne, has this stanza in his " Progresse of the 


" Is any kind subject to rape like fish ? 
Ill unto men, they neither doe nor wish 3 
Fishers they kill not. nor with noise awake j 
They doe not hunt, nor strive to make a prey 


Of beasts, nor their yong sonnes to beare away 5 

Foules they pursue not, nor do undertake 

To spoile the nests industruous birds do make j 

Yet them all these unkinde kinds feed upon, 

To kill them is an occupation, 

And lawes make fasts, & lents for their destruction." 

ELLIOT. If we may believe Rabelais, among the 
Roman Emperors is to be found a great example in 
favour of fishing: in B. II. c. 30. (Edit. 1553) he 
asserts that Trajan estoit pescheur de Grenouilles. 

MORTON. I doubt the correctness of your autho- 
rity : besides, at best Trajan was only a French 
fisherman a fisher of frogs. 

ELLIOT. I assure you Rabelais makes the assertion 
in the same chapter, where he represents Lancelot 
du Lac as escorcheur de chevaulx mors, and all the 
Knights of the Round Table aspouvresgaingnedeniers 
tirans la rame pour passer les rivieres de Coccyte, 
Phlegeton, Styx, Acheron, fy Lethe. 

BOURNE. One is quite as true as the other: Wal- 
ton's work is quite enough to make me a fisherman. 
You know that he was the first to collect and publish 
the scattered remains of Sir H. Wootton, and their, 
friendship, I believe, originated in their mutual par- 
tiality to angling. Here we may introduce very 
fitly the treat I promised you some days ago, in the 
examination of a poem dedicated to Walton, but not 
noticed by any one of his biographers. 


ELLIOT. That is rather strange, recollecting the 
unremitting pains taken within the last twenty or 
thirty years to collect the minutest facts regarding 
Walton. It is remarkable, too, that he, only a small 
tradesman, should be fixed upon by an author to 
patronize his poem. 

MORTON. We have very often seen that an author 
dedicates his work to an obscure friend merely as a 
token of regard, and there was no man more likely 
to produce such a feeling than " honest Izaac :*' 
S. P., the writer in question, like the author of the 
" Metamorphosis of Tobacco" (a poem dedicated 
to Drayton, which we so much admired a few days 
ago), might say that his pen 

" Loath'd to adorn the triumphs of those men 

Which hold the reins of fortune and the times," 
and might, therefore, prefer his obscure friend, so 
that I do not see much in your last observation. 
What is the title of the poem ? 

BOURNE. It is called " The Love of Amos and 
Laura. Written by S. P. London : printed for 
Richard Hawkins, dwelling in Chancery Lane, neere 
Serieants Inrie. 1619." Walton was born in 1593, 
so that in 1619 he was in his twenty-sixth year. 

MORTON. The author only gives his initials on the 
title. Does he insert Walton's name at full length 
before the dedication 1 

BOURNE. He is addressed, not by his name at 
length, but by an abbreviation always employed by 


Walton, and with his noted peculiarity of using a z 
instead of an s in the word Izaac it is " To my 
approved and much respected friend, Iz. Wa. :" the 
epithets " approved and much respected" are ap- 
propriate to the station in life Walton filled. 

MORTON. Nearly all his letters and poems are 
subscribed Iz. Wa. 

BOURNE. But none are so early as 1619 : it is pro- 
bable, however, that he began to write before 16'31, 
the date of his poem on the death of his friend Dr. 
Donne : it is a propensity generally peculiar to 
youth, and subsiding witli age j in this way I ac- 
count for what S. P., in the dedication, says of his 
friend's skill in verse. It is in these terms : 

" To thee thou more then thrice beloued friend, 

I, too vnworthy of so great a blisse, 

These harsh-tun'd lines I here to thee commend 5 

Thou being cause it is now as it is : 

For hadst thou held thy tongue, by silence might 
These haue been buried in obliuions night. 

" If they were pleasing I would call them thine, 

And disauow my title to the verse ; 

But being bad I needes must call them mine, 

No ill thing can be clothed in thy verse. 

Accept them then, and where I have offended, 
Rase thou it out and let it be amended. 

S. P." 
ELLIOT. It was somewhat late to amend after it 

was printed, but the compliment is not ill paid. 


MORTON. But granting that Iz. Wa. is Izaac 
Walton, there is still an important question to be 
settled who was S. P. ? 

BOURNE. Which must probably remain undecided, 
unless it were Samuel Purchas, a well known author 
about that time, yet that is not very probable. In 
fact, in my view, it is not a question of any great 
moment, for the production is not by any means 
first rate, though not devoid of merit : the same 
small volume, in which " Amos and Laura" is found, 
contains two other poems, and particularly one of 
considerably greater talent. 

MORTON. What are they ? are they also unknown ? 

BOURNE. One of them is, I apprehend, quite a 
new discovery in the history of our poetry, the other 
is nearly as much known as the other is little known. 
The volume has this general title, " Alcilia : Philo- 
parthens louing folly. Wherevnto is added Pigma- 
lions Image : With the Loue of Amos and Laura. 
London, Printed for Richard Hawkins," &c. 1619. 

MORTON. " Pigmalions Image," I suppose, is John 
Marston's poem, first printed in 1598. 

BOURNE. It is, but this edition is not common. 
" Alcilia,, Philoparthens louing Folly" is a produc- 
tion hitherto unseen, and displays very considerable 
poetical talent. We will come to that presently ; 
first, I will read you a quotation or two from " The 
Loue of Amos and Laura," which, if not the most 
valuable, is, from the circumstance of its dedication, 
the most curious. 


ELLIOT. What is the story of " Amos and Laura," 
if it have any ? 

BOURNE. It has little or none : it opens in these 
lines, not very promisingly : 

" In the large confines of renowned France 
There liud a Lord, whom Fortune did aduance, 
Who had a Daughter, Laura call'd the faire j 
So sweete, so proper, and so debonaire, 
That strangers tooke her for to be none other 
Then Venus selfe, the god of Loues owne Mother. 
Not farre from thence was situate a Towne, 
The Lord thereof a man of good renowne, 
Whom likewise Fortune blessed with a Sonne, 
Amos by name, so modest, ciuill, young, 
And yet in fight so wondrous and so bold 
As that therein he passed vncontrouTd : 
So kinde to strangers, and so meeke to all, 
Of comely grace, and stature somewhat tall ; 
As the wide world not two such Imps affords 
As were the off-springs of these happy Lords." 

MORTON. The lines are mawkish 5 but perhaps 
the author warms and strengthens as he proceeds. 

BOURNE. He does improve, though not as much 
as could be wished: nearly the whole poem is a 
dialogue between these two lovers. Amos, when 
going out to hunt, meets Laura near her father's 
castle : the conversation then begins, in the middle 

VOL. ii. , 


of wjiich the lady runs away, is pursued and over- 
taken by her admirer : the courtship is then renewed 
and concluded to the satisfaction of both parties. 
The following extract begins better than it ends. 

" Or were thy loue but equal vnto mine, 
Then wouldst thou seeke his fauor who seeks thine ! 
Methinkes unkindnesse cannot come from thence, 
Where beauty raignes with such magnificence: 
I mean from thee whom nature hath endow'd, 
With more then Art would willingly allow'd : 
And though by nature you are borne most faire 
Yet Art would adde a beauty to your share ; 
But it being spotlesse doth disdaine receit 
Of all vnpolish'd painting counterfeit. 
Your beauty is a snare vnto our wayes 
Wherein once caught, we cannot brooke delayes j 
Which makes us oft through griefe of minde grow sad, 
Griefe follows grief, thert malcontent -and mad. 
Thus by denyall doe you cause our woe 
And then do triumph in our overthrow." 

ELLIOT. That is quite sufficient : we should only 
waste time if we were to read more of such in- 

BOURNE. I anticipated your opinion j indeed there 
could hardly be much difference about it : nor will 
I ask you to listen to two short passages more, the 
one referring, in general terms, to Marlow's and 

I 0)\VK1JS \TION. 115 

Chapman's celebrated translation of " Hero and 
Leander/' and the other, even more generally, to 
Shakespeare's " Tarquin and Lucrece." 

MORTON. Then having now done with S. P. and 
his Amos and Laura, we may look upon " Alcilia," 
whom I am a little anxious to behold, after the 
praise you have bestowed upon her beauty. 

BOURNE. I warn you against inconsiderate ex- 
pectation : though it is better than what we have 
just seen, I do not pretend that it is first rate, even 
in the department to which it belongs. 

ELLIOT. What department is that ? 

BOURNE. Love poems of various descriptions. 

ELLIOT. Of which passion, you may remember, 
Cicero speaks thus slightingly, Totus vero iste qui 
vulgo appellatur Amor (nee hercule invenio quo nomine 
aliopossit appellari) tantce levitatis est, ut nihil videam, 
quod putem conferendum. 

BOURNE. Instead of such a quotation, with such a 
tendency, I should rather have cited R. Wilmot's 
dedication to " Tancred and Gismunda," 1592, where 
he asserts that love being as it were " the finest 
metal, the freshest wits have in all ages shewn their 
best workmanship" upon it. 

MORTON. On the other hand, we ought to recollect 
Spenser's lines in " Mother Hubbard's Talej" 

" Thereto he could fine loving verses frame 
And play the poet oft. But Ah ! for shame j 

i 2 


Let not sweet poets praise, whose only pride 
Is virtue to advance and vice deride, 
Be with the work of losels wit defamed, 
Ne let such verses poetry be named." 

BOURNE. He there supposes them to be written 
by Malfont, that " poet bad," or by one like him, de- 
scribed in the 5th Book of the F. Q. Do not let it be 
forgotten, however he abuses it for particular pur- 
poses, that some of the very best parts of Spenser's 
works are devoted to love and its praise. 

MORTON. Lovers and poets are allowed to be the 
most inconsistent creatures in nature. 

BOURNE. The author of " Alcilia: Philoparthens 
loving Folly," justifies your remark j for he says, in 
introducing the best part of his work to the reader, 
"These Sonnets following were written by the Author 
(who giueth himselfe this feigned name of Philo- 
parthen as his accidental attribute) at diuers times 
and vpon diuers occasions, and therefore in the forme 
and matter they differ, and sometimes are quite con- 
trary one to another considering the nature and 
quality of LOVE, which is a passion full of variety 
and contrariety in it selfe." 

ELLIOT. That is not less true than in point. Have 
you any conjecture who is meant by Philoparthen, 
whose " accidental attribute" this " feigned name" 
expressed ? 

BOURNE. I have not, nor do I find any clue in the 


MORTON. I think Barnabe Barnes, whom you men- 
tioned on a former day as the friend of William Percy, 
used that signature. 

BOURNE. Not exactly, though it is different only 
by transposition : he signed himself by the name of 

ELLIOT. As we are not likely to arrive at any 
satisfaction on the point, let us open the book. 

BOURNE. The titles to the several divisions of his 
poems are in Latin, " Author ipse Philopartheos ad 
libellum suum" and " Amoris Pr&ludium, vel Epistola 
ad Amicam," although the stanzas to which they 
apply are all English. 

ELLIOT. The author seems to have been one of 
those who wrote because they repented of their 
folly : a principal part of his production, I perceive, 
is headed " Sic incipit Stultorum Tragicomedia." 

BOURNE. That precedes the quotation I read about 
the variety and contrariety of love -, an excuse for 
the wavering nature of the " Sonnets," as the author 
calls them, that succeed. 

ELLIOT. Yet sonnets they are not, for they are 
sometimes only stanzas of six lines each. 

MORTON. The word sonnet, as we have seen, had 
a very indefinite application among our elder poets, 
and it often does not mean at all what the Italians 
seem to have understood by it. 

BOURNE. If you wifl give me the book, I will 
point out to you some of the best of these sonnets ; 


for they are by no means all worth reading, sup- 
posing we had time to go through them. 

ELLIOT. With all my heart. 

BOURNE. The following is a pretty allegorical de- 
scription, rather ingenious, and elegantly worded. 

" To seeke aduentures as Fate hath assignde, 
My slender Barke new flotes vpon the Maine j 
Each troubled thought an Oare, each sigh a winde, 
Whose often puffes haue rent my Sayles in twaine. 
Loue steeres the Boat, which for that sight he lacks, 
Is still in danger of tenne thousand wracks." 

MORTON. It is pretty, certainly j and the author 
has given a new turn in the two last lines, which is 
very happy. 

BOURNE. His talent is more fully exemplified in 
another portion of the volume, called " Love de- 
cyphered," where, having been rejected by Alcilia, 
he triumphs in his regained freedom. 

" Loue and Youth are now asunder, 

Reasons glory, Natures wonder j 

My thoughts long bound are now inlarg'd, 

My follies penance is discharg'd, 

Thus time hath altered my state ; 

Repentance neuer comes too late ! 

Ah well I finde that Loue is naught, 

But folly and an idle thought ; 

The difference is twixt Loue and me, 

That Loue is blinde and I can see." 


ELLIOT. That is exceedingly pleasant and playful 
in its way : it aims at nothing more than it accom- 
plishes, and the form and facility of the versification 
are well suited to the author's supposed state of 

BOURNE. I do not think you will like less the 
description of his mistress, in the three following 
stanzas, from a different part of the volume. 

" Faire is my Loue whose parts are so well framed 
By Natures special order and direction, 
That she her selfe is more then halfe ashamed 
In hauing made a worke of such perfection : 
And well may Nature blush at such a feature, 
Seeing her selfe excelled by her creature 

Her body is straight, slender and vpright, 
Her visage comely and her lookes demure, 
Mixt with a chearfull grace that yeelds delight : 
Her eyes like starres, bright shining, cleare and pure, 
Which I describing Loue bids stay my pen, 
And says it's not a worke for mortall men. 

The ancient Poets write of Graces three, 
Which meeting altogether in one creature, 
In all points perfect make the same to bee, 
For inward vertues and 1 for outward feature : 
But smile Alcilia and the world shall see, 
That in thine eyes a hundred graces bee!" 

MORTON. We are much obliged to you for intro- 
ducing us to a poet who can write with so much ease 
and delicacy. 


ELLIOT. The first stanza is a little faulty; for if 
Nature might be envious of the beauty of her work, 
it is the very reason why she should not be ashamed 
of its perfectness. 

MORTON. Ah /' quittez d'un censeur la triste diligence, 
to borrow a line from Racine. Do not blame where 
there is really so much to commend ; besides a little 
ought to be allowed for the necessity of the rhyme. 

ELLIOT. Perhaps I was somewhat hypercritical. 
If the next quotation be as good, I will find no fault 
with it. 

BOURNE. I am afraid we can afford no more time 
at present to " Alcilia." Before we finally dismiss 
Bastard's Chrestoleros, so frequently mentioned, I 
wish to show you an epigram in it which renders it 
valuable, not merely as containing notices of poets 
whose works have come down to us, but of some 
regarding whom we have hitherto only heard the 
names; such, for instance, as Dr. Eeds, Dean of 
Worcester. At least we learn from Bastard for what 
species of composition Dr. Eedes was celebrated, 
which we did not know before. 

MORTON. Wood, I perceive, only asserts that he 
wrote various MS. poems in Latin and English. 

BOURNE. And Ritson and the rest re-echo him : 
from the following lines in the Chrestoleros we find 
that he was ari author of epigrams. 

" Ad Richardum Eeds. 
" Eeds onely thou an Epigram dost season, 
With thy sweete tast and relish of enditing, 


With sharpes of sense, and delicates of reason, 
With salt of witt and wonderfull delighting. 
For in my Judgement him thou hast exprest 
In whose sweet mouth hony did build her nest." 

ELLIOT. I do not suppose you quote that for its 
own merit, but merely as a matter of biography. 

BOURNE. Precisely soj and it too frequently hap- 
pens, as I have once before remarked, that such is 
the chief value of the productions of our old English 

ELLIOT. It is to be lamented, then, that not a few 
of those who are called ports of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth did not write epigrams : their works would 
then, at least, have been endurable. 

BOURXE. I am not such a bigot to old versifica- 
tion (not to dignify it by the name of poetry), as to 
dispute the truth of your remark in some particular 
instances : one of them, indeed, is an author I in- 
tended to bring before you to-day, I mean Barnabe 
Googe, who, though a voluminous writer, and espe- 
cially translator, has produced nothing original that 
I have ever seen worth preserving. 

ELLIOT. An additional confirmation of Sir John 
Denham's celebrated couplet, 

" Such is our pride, our folly, or our fate, 
That few but such as cannot write translate !" 

MORTON. Googe was the translator of Pallin- 
genius's " Zodiac of Life." 

BOURNE. The same? yet I cannot deny that by 


practice he acquired some facility in the use of the 
English language : this is more evident in his version 
of Naorgorgeus's " Popish Kingdom," 1570, which 
contains an account of some curious and amusing 
customs, although the title is unpromising : a piece 
Ritson assigns to him, called " A new yeares gifte, 
dedicated to the Popes Holinesse," 15/9, is certainly 
not his, but probably Bernard Garter's, as any body 
who reads it will see. 

MORTON. In what way was Googe to be brought 
before us 1 

ELLIOT. I am afraid we are now about to be treated 
with one of your absolute bibliomaniac curiosities. 

BOURNE. Your sufferings will not be of long 
duration, if you are patient under the infliction. 
The existence of this small volume by Googe has 
been doubted by some, and it is clear that Ritson 
had never heard of it. The title is this, " The 
Prouerbes of the noble and woorthy souldier Sir 
James Lopez de Mendoza, Marques of Santillana, 
with the paraphrase of D. Peter Diaz of Toledo," 
&c. " Translated out of Spanishe by Barnabe Googe. 
Imprinted at London by Richarde Watkins, 1579." 
It is dedicated to Cecill " Baron of Burghley," and 
the translator complains that he had found some 
difficulty in making out the meaning of his author. 

MORTON. Is it in verse or prose ? 

BOURNE. In both : the proverbs (though why so 
called cannot very easily be guessed), are in Googe's 
favourite measure of fourteen syllables, divided into 


two lines, for the purpose of coming conveniently into 
an 8vo. page, and the paraphrase or commentary is 
in prose. 

ELLIOT. The prose can be dispensed with, at all 

BOURNE. I did not intend to read it : the follow- 
ing are numbered 47, 48, and 49, but only form one 
Proverb, and are in praise of women. 

" For setting here aside that sweete 

and blessed worthic rose, 
That ouer all the rest doth shine, 

and far beyond them goes, 
The daughter of the thundring God, 

and spouse vnto the hiest j 
The light and lampc of women all 

who bare our sauiour Christ. 

" Manie ladies of renowne 

and beautifull there bee, 
That are both chast and vertuous 

and famous for degree : 
Amongst the blessed saintes 

full many a one we finde, 
That in this copasse may be brought 

for liues that brightly shinde. 

" What should I of Saint Katheren 

that blessed martyr tell, 
Among the rest of Virgins all 

a flowre of precious smell ? 


Well worthy of remembrance is 

her beauty and her youth, 
And eke no lesse deserueth praise 

her knowledge in the trueth." 

EixLioT. I should be surprised if, with all your 
love of old poetry, you could say any thing in praise 
of those lines. 

BOURNE. I do not affect it; nor indeed, as I ob- 
served, in praise of any thing Googe ever wrote, 
excepting so far as he was able to gain the name of 
a poet by the smoothness of his versification. 

MORTON. The lines you have read have that re- 
commendation, though with some want of judg- 
ment you have brought him after the author of 
" Alcilia." 

BOURNE. The following stanza from the same 
volume, referring to Cato and Mutius Scaevola, is 
unquestionably the best in it. 

" Oh, what a death had Cato dyed 

if it had lawfull beene, 
And had not by the iust decrees 

of God beene made a sinne ! 
No lesse doe I the worthy fact 

of Mucius commend, 
That Lyuie in his story hath 

so eloquently pende." 

ELLIOT. I do not find that that has much more 
merit than the rest. 


BOURNE. The degree of difference is rather minute, 
and we may pass the book over without further 
quotation or remark. 

MORTON. I see that two other tracts still remain 
to be noticed : what are they ? 

BOURNE. I had looked them out for examination, 
but since I did so, I have discovered that they have 
both been mentioned in Beloe's " Anecdotes of Li- 
terature and scarce Books :" as it is not necessary 
that we should travel over ground that has been 
trodden by any precursors, I have determined to omit 
them, and to leave them to your separate examina- 
tion : the first is by Rowland Broughton, a new 
name in the history of our poetry, and is a funeral 
poem on the death of the Marquis of Winchester 
(1572)j and the second, a production of a similar 
kind on the Countess of Lenox (1577), by John 
Phillip or Phillips, whose production on Sir P. Sidney 
you cannot have forgotten. 

ELLIOT. Certainly not : I remember so much of it 
that even if this " excessive rarity," (for such I take 
it for granted it is), had not been mentioned by 
Beloe, I should not have wished to have heard a 
single line from it. 

BOURNE. Rowland Broughton is quite as bad, if 
not worse ; but then his performance is such a sin- 
gular curiosity. Phillip's tract contains a fulsome 
and rather curious character of Elizabeth: it is better 
than his poem on the death of Sir P. Sidney, though 
the last was a much Liter production. 


MORTON. Is that character of Elizabeth given in 
Beloe? I should like to hear it: the subject is in- 
viting, though it may not be well treated. 

BOURNE. It has not been quoted, and certainly 
deserves extracting f and I would read it, if I could 
prevail upon this objector " to shut his ears like 
adder to the sound." 

ELLIOT. If it be short, I shall not attempt to resist 
your wishes on the subject. 

BOURNE. It is not long; and even you, I think, 
will find something amusing in it. It is as follows : 

" With in her brest lustice a place hath pyght, 
And in her mercy welds the supreme sway : 

The poore opprest to helpe she doth delight, 
Her hand is prest to shield them from decay : 

To all the fruites of loue she doth display j 
Her eares attend to hear each subiects wrong, 
Like Saba she her subiects rules among. 

The sacred Nimph that noble Vesta night 
Within her bower accompanies the Queene. 

Like Phaebus rayes her glorye glisters bright, 
Adornde she sits with Lawrell lasting greene. 

Pernassus mount to scale this Prince is scene ; 
Of Helicon, that Riuer running cleere, 
To taste her fill our Pandra hath desyre. 

The scepter she like sad Cassandra swaies ; 
Corinna like augmentes her learned skill. 
Then Triton see in haste thou take thy wayes 


To spred her fame with taunting trumpet shrill ! 
Extoll our Queene of God be loued still ; 

Whose word and will, dispight of Chacus yre 
She to defende hath settled true desyre. 

Her countryes weale to worke her heart is bent j 

Haut Hi/drain head she hath cut off indeede : 
Each Minotaure by skill she doth preuent 

That in her soyle of strife would sow the seede. 
The woolfe she quailes, the lambe she seekes to feede, 

With pleasant mylke and honey passing pure. 

God graunt on earth her grace may long endure !" 

MORTON. The lines are not inharmonious, but the 
allusions are affected and pedantic. 

BOURNE. Of course that was in the spirit of the 
age. Nash, in his most humorous and clever piece 
of exaggeration, called " Lenten Stuff," and printed 
in 1599, mentions three dramatic productions in terms 
of no great praise : one of them he calls " Phillips 
Venus;" and this may be the Phillips we are now 
speaking of, or it may be Phillips the actor. 

ELLIOT. I have read some very amusing quotations 
from that pamphlet of Nash's. 

BOURNE. Very likely: you may see the whole of 
it reprinted in the " Harleian Miscellany," and it 
will well repay the time spent in going through it. 
Nash tells us in it of the troubles he had to pass 
through, in consequence of his unrecovered play of 
the " Isle of Dogs." 


MORTON. I have never met with a tract that con- 
tained more curious matter, both relating to himself 
and his contemporaries. It is there that he bestows 
such applause on " Kit Marlow" for his " Hero and 
Leander," praised, as you noticed, in the poem dedi- 
cated to Walton. He likewise speaks of a play 
called " The Case is altered," which was probably 
not Ben Jonson's. 

BOURNE. Your patience in listening to the quota- 
tion from Phillips shall be well rewarded to-mor- 
row, by the examination of a greater and more in- 
disputably valuable curiosity than I have yet shown 
you j I mean the novel on which Shakespeare founded 
his Twelfth Night." 







The promise performed A novel hitherto undiscovered, from 
which Shakespeare took the plot of his " Twelfth Night," to be 
found in " Rich his Farewell to Militarie profession," by Barnabe 
Rich, 1606 The date when " Twelfth Night" was written 
Rich's collection of novels originally printed between 1578, and 
1581 Proofs of this fact Doubt whether additions were made in 
the reprint of 1606 Sir Christopher Hatton, the patron of Rich 
Tancred and Gismunda, 1592 PoUmantfia, 1595, quoted re- 
garding Sir C. Hatton and his poems Rich's account of his 
" vpholder's" house and state at Holdenby, from the prefatory 
matter to his " Farewell" His name and productions omitted 
by Ritson, &c. but the defect partially supplied His numerous 
publications Rich's concern in the Netherland wars with Gascoyne, 
Churchyard, Whetstone, and other poets Whetstone's account 
of the death of Sir P. Sidney, from Churchyard's " True Dis- 
course Historical!," &c. 1602 Epitaph from the same Sir W. 
Raleigh's epitaph on Sir P. Sidney Milton's quotation from 
Sir John Harington's translation of Ariosto " Rich his Farewell 
to Militarie profession" not known to any bibliographical anti- 
quaries Plan of the work Anticipation of the Commentators on 
Shakespeare fulfilled Argument to the second novel in Rich's 
work, called " Apolonius and Silla" Its commencement and 
incidents previous to the opening to Shakespeare's " Twelfth 
Night," with their use Dr. Johnson's censure of the sudden pro- 
ject of Viola Resemblance between Rich and Shakespeare 
Correspondence of the characters Description of Julina, a widow, 
and the mode of conducting the Duke's amour, by the intervention 
of Silla in male attire, and under the name of her brother Silvio 


Julina's love for Silvio, and her mistake of the brother for 
the disguised sister Likeness between the brother and sister 
The consequences of Julina's love and her perilous distress Silla 

accused Her speech, and her mode of clearing herself from the 

charge Shakespeare's improvements on his original The Duke's 

declaration and marriage to Silla Re-appearance of the real 
Silvio His attachment to Julina, and their final and happy union 
Remarks on Shakespeare's deviations, &c Of the other seven 
histories in Rich's work Specimen of his poetry from the first 
novel in the same One original of Romeo and Juliet in Painter's 
" Palace of Pleasure" A poem, by one William Painter, called 
" Chaucer painted" Scarcity and curiosity of the novels Shake- 
speare employed, particularly early editions Thomas Lodge's 
" Rosalynde: Euphues golden Legacie," 1590, the original of 
" As you like it" Alteration of Lodge's title John Lilly's 
rustication from Oxford Specimens of Lodge's " Rosalynde," to 
show how far and in what way Shakespeare was indebted to it 
Description of Rosalind, and quotation from James Shirley's 
" Sisters" on hyperboles Resemblance between Shakespeare and 
Lodge Further extract from Lodge Robert Greene's " Dorastus 
and Fawnia," 1588, the foundation of " The Winter's Tale" 
Deviations of Shakespeare from it Greene's very rare tract, called 
"A Mirror of Modesty," 1584, quoted Different editions of 
"Dorastus and Fawnia," with their variations Poem by Greene 
His motto, and curious quotation regarding it from his " Perimedes 
the Black-Smith," 1588 On blank verse poets, &c. from the 
same Extracts from " Dorastus and Fawnia" Character of Bel- 
laria The fate of Fawnia, and her first interview with Dorastus, 
compared with Shakespeare Quotations from Epistles by Romeo 
and Juliet in " Aurorata" and " Loves Looking-glasse," 1644, 
by Thomas Prujean Incident in Fortescue's " Foreste," 1571, 
similar to the contrivance in " All's Well that ends Well." 




MORTON. Now, then, to claim the execution of your 
promise : do not let it be like those of princes, which, 
as Beaumont and Fletcher say in " Philaster," find 
" both birth and burial in one breath." 

BOURNE. And very properly, according to Chapman 
in his " Alphonsus," 1654 5 

" A prince above all things must seem devout ; 
But nothing is so dangerous to his state 
As to regard his promise or his oath." 

ELLIOT. That sentiment, I suppose, proceeds from 
the mouth of some parasite : however it cannot be 
applicable to yourself until you become a prince : 
therefore, without further postponement, produce 
the much talked of treasure the novel from which 
Shakespeare took the plot of his " Twelfth Night." 
Quanta la speranza diventa minore, tanto I'amore 
maggiorfarsi, is a sentiment from Boccacio (G. III. 


N. 2.) in which you seem fully to concur ; for as 
book-hunters have often been compared to lovers, 
you think that delay will increase desire. 

BOURNE. To which delay you are yourself con- 
tributing j the book containing what you so much 
wish to see, was in my hand even before you began 
your speech. 

MORTON. And you might, by reading the title, at 
least have saved yourself the trouble of a reply. 

BOURNE. Having endured the speech, justice re- 
quired the reply $ but as she is now satisfied, I will 
read the title : 

" Rich his Farewell to Militarie Profession : Con- 
teining very pleasant discourses fit for a peaceable 
time. Gathered together for the onely delight of 
the courteous Gentlewomen both of England and 
Ireland, for whose onely pleasure they were collected 
together, and vnto whom they are directed and de- 
dicated. Newly augmented. By Barnabe Riche, 
Gentleman. Malui me diuitem esse quam vocari. 
Imprinted at London by G. E. for Thomas Adams. 

ELLIOT. There, the date is enough : what do we 
want to know about G. E. or Thomas Adams ? You 
are as particular about printers as if you were the 
editor of the new edition of Ames. 

MORTON. Was not Twelfth Night written before 
1606, the date of Rich's book, where you say the 
original novel is inserted ? 


BOURNE. No j but if it were, I could still satisfy 
you that the novel in this volume was employed by 
Shakespeare. However, it seems agreed by the 
commentators, who have taken some pains upon 
the subject, that Twelfth Night was not written 
until after 1612. Mr. Chalmers says in 1613, and 
Mr. Tyrwhit, and after him Malone, in 1614. Dr. 
Drake, with every desire to strike out something 
new if there be the least pretence for it, fixes it be- 
tween the two, in 1613; so that 6, 7> or 8 years 
most likely elapsed between the publication of Rich's 
work, in 1606, and the writing of Twelfth Night 

ELLIOT. I do not understand the first part of your 
observation. If Twelfth Night had been written, 
we will say, in 1605, how can you prove that 
Shakespeare availed himself of Rich's novel, unless 
he saw it in MS. ? It was not printed until 16O6. 

MORTON. I suppose that the words on the title- 
page " newly augmented" have something to do 
with answering that question. 

BOURNE. They have. I have never seen any other 
edition of Rich's Farewel but this of 1606, but in- 
dependently of those words " newly augmented," I 
can decisively establish from the prefatory matter, 
that it must have been originally written and printed 
between 1578 and 1581 : if, therefore, Twelfth Night 
had been our great dramatic poet's first, instead of 
being his last play, he might still have been indebted 
to this source. 


ELLIOT. What does the prefatory matter con- 
sist of? 

BOURNE. The point I refer to is established by 
the epistle " To the noble Souldiours both of Eng- 
land and Ireland/' for the author says in it, " I re- 
member that in my last ivork, intituled the Alarum 
to England, I promised to take in hand some other 
thing." Therefore the " Alarum to England" im- 
mediately preceded what is before us, and that 
Alarum bears date in 1578. 

MORTON. But there might be an interval of 
many years between the two, notwithstanding : the 
"Alarum to England" might be printed in 1578, 
and be the author's last work, though the Farewel 
might not appear for 20 or 30 years afterwards. 

BOURNE. That is possible, though not probable ; 
and it is, besides, contradicted by positive fact. In 
1581 Rich published the first volume of his " Straunge 
and wonderfull aduentures of Do Simonides," so that 
the " Farewel" must have appeared between 1578 
and 1581, or Rich could not have mentioned his 
(< Alarum to England" as his last work. 

ELLIOT. A very clear argument, and a very safe 
conclusion : the words " newly augmented," indeed, 
prove that it had been printed before, though in a 
shorter form. It might be curious to ascertain of 
what the augmentations consisted. 

BOURNE. I much doubt if, in fact, there were any : 
perhaps " newly augmented" at that day meant no- 


thing more than the common words " with ad- 
ditions" upon the republication of a modern work, 
where the principal, if not the only, addition is a 
new title-page. 

MORTON. Very likely. Is there any thing else in 
the volume to confirm the opinion that " Rich his 
Farewel" was first printed much earlier than 1606? 

BOURNE. There is ; and the proof is remarkable 
on another account, from its reference to Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton, who is spoken of as alive, and who 
died in 1591. He appears to have been the 
" Maister & vpholder" of Barnabe Rich, and was 
himself a poet. In all probability he penned the 
fourth act of " Tancred and Gismunda," in Dodsley's 
Collection, and if we may rely upon the authority of 
the writer of Polimanteia (who not publishing until 
four years after Sir C. Hatton's death, seems to have 
had no motive to flatter) , he must have been a con- 
siderable poet. " Then (says he) name but Hatton, 
the Muses fauorite, the Churches musick, Learn- 
ings Patron, my once poore Hands ornament ; the 
Courtiers grace, the Schollars countenance and the 
Guardes Captaine." 

ELLIOT. A fine specimen of the art of sinking in 
prose, for the ridicule of a new Martinis. 

BOURNE. I quote it for the inference, not for the 
style : " Sir Christopher Hatton, L. Chancelor of 
England," is inserted in the margin, and from hence 
it would seem that he had written much more than 
lias come down to our time. 


MORTON. Ritson only mentions an acrostic by 
him, and there is some doubt about that : " the 
Church's music," in what you read from Polimanteia, 
would imply that he had translated Psalms, or at 
least, written some sacred poems. Horace Walpole, 
if I recollect rightly, attributes to a kinsman of 
Sir Christopher's a translation of the Psalms, not 
printed till 1644, and Wood assigns them to Jeremy 
Taylor. It is not impossible that they were in fact 
the work of Lord Chancellor Hatton. But what 
says Rich regarding him in his " Farewel ?" any 
thing relating to his works ? 

BOURNE. I wish he did ; but still what he tells us 
is interesting : it principally refers to the magni- 
ficent house Hatton built at his birth-place, Hol- 
denby, in Northamptonshire, and the state and hos- 
pitality there observed, which gives one a good 
notion of the housekeeping of the great men of that 
day. He says : " And here I cannot but speake of 
the bounty of that noble gentleman Sir Christopher 
Hatton , my very good Maister and vpholder ; who 
hauing builded a house in Northamtonshire, called 
by the name of Holdenby, which house for the 
brauery of the buildings, for the statelinesse of the 
chambers, for the rich furniture of the lodgings, for 
the conueyance of the offices, and for all other ne- 
cessaries appertenent to a Pallace of pleasure, is 
thought by those that have iudgement, to be incom- 
parable, and to haue no fellowe in England that is 
out of her Maiesties hands : and although this house 


is not yet fully finished, and is but a newe erection, 
yet it differeth farre from the workesthat are vsed now 
a daies in many places. I meane where the houses 
are built with a great nuber of chimnies, and yet the 
smoke comes forth but at one tunnel. This house 
is not built on that manner, for as it hath sundry 
Chimnies, so they cast forth seuerall smoakes 5 and 
such worthy port and daily hospitality kept, that 
although the owner himselfe vseth not to come there 
once in two yeares, yet I dare vndertake, there is 
daily prouision to be found conuenient to intertaine 
any noble man with his whole traine, that should hap 
to call in of a sodaine. And how many gentlemen 
and strangers, that comes but to see the house are 
there dayly welcommed, feasted, and well lodged, 
from whence he shold come, be he rich, be he poore, 
that should not there be entertained, if it please him 
to call in. To bee short, Holdenby giueth daily re- 
liefe to such as be in want, for the space of sixe or 
seauen miles compasse." 

ELLIOT. I should not complain of your reading 
that extract, or of your dwelling so long on the pre- 
fatory matter of almost any other book j but when 
we have so important and so interesting an object in 
view, I can hardly spare time even to inquire who 
and what was the author of the tale which Shake- 
speare condescended to adapt to the stage. However, 
as I know nothing about Barnabe Rich, I must first 
beg you to take my ignorance into consideration. 


MORTON. Did Rich write nothing but prose ? for 
his name, I see, is not even mentioned by Ritson. 

BOURNE. It is an unaccountable omission, and 
the same strange error is committed by Sir E. 
Brydges, in his new edition of the Theatrum Poeta- 
rum. Mr. Haslewood, however, has, in a great de- 
gree, supplied the deficiency in the late reprint of 
" the Paradise of Dainty Devises," but he neglects 
some particulars of Rich's biography that might 
have been gleaned from his pamphlets : indeed he 
does not notice the titles of several ; one of them is 
called " A short Suruey of Ireland," bearing date at 
London, in the reign of William the Conqueror. 

ELLIOT. Explain what you mean. 

BOURNE. Why, if printed dates would decide the 
point, there would here be an end of the mighty 
dispute about the Oxford St. Jerome, for this tract 
by Rich purports to have been printed 399 years 
before it, viz. in 1069. 

MORTON. An obvious misprint for 1609, by the 
transposition of the figures. 

ELLIOT. Can we not defer such trifles, that we 
may the sooner arrive at the point to which we are 
directing our course ? 

BOURNE. You must not be quite so free in the use 
of your whip, or your horses may grow restive. I 
will not delay you by reading the titles of the several 
tracts omitted by Mr. Haslewood, and they are of 
less interest, because they relate chiefly to Ireland : 


they, however, contain some biographical particu- 
lars j for instance, in the dedication of his " Short 
Suruey of Ireland" to the Earl of Saresbury, he speaks 
of himself as a mere Souldier, in which capacity old 
Churchyard saw him acting in the Netherlands about 
1572. " I am no diuine (says llich) and it is truth j 
I am no scholler and that is true too : what am I 
then ? I am a Souldier, a professed Souldier, better 
practised in my pike than in my penne." In his 
" New Description of Ireland," 1G10, after abusing 
" idle Poets, Bardes, and Rythmers" who have 
written falsehoods upon the subject, he talks of his 
service in the army for 40 years ; and two years after- 
wards, in his " Excuse" for the above work, he 
adds that it was then 40 years or thereabouts since 
he first came into Ireland. 

ELLIOT. What is your authority for saying that 
Churchyard saw Rich acting as a soldier in the 
Netherlands about 1 572 ? 

BOURNE. He was one of the phalanx of poets who 
united their endeavours under Elizabeth to free the 
Low Countries from the weight of the Spanish yoke. 
At the head of them, you know, was Sir Philip 
Sidney, and the names of Gascoyne, Churchyard, 
Whetstone, Rich, and others, are to be included in 
the muster-roll. 

MORTON. Churchyard, in his " Trve Discovrse 
historicall of the succeeding Governovrs in the 
Netherlands," 160*2, a tract we have before noticed, 


states several facts, quoting in the margin (p. 19),' 
" Captaine Barnabey Rich his notes." George Gas- 
coyne, in the same passage, is called a captain. 

BOURNE. That piece by Churchyard is one of his 
latest, and one of his commonest ; but it contains 
some important historical facts, and among them a, 
very interesting account, which I have not seen 
quoted, of the manner of the death of Sir P. Sidney 
before Zuphen, on the 22d of September 1586. 
Churchyard gives the relation on the authority of 
Whetstone, who, as you have seen, wrote a funeral 
poem on the fate of this worthy. 

ELLIOT. It is impossible for the name of Sidney 
to be mentioned without feeling a deep interest to 
know all that can be said regarding him j therefore 
let us hear the passage. 

BOURNE. A small' part of it is sufficient. " This 
noble Knight (says Churchyard, citing Whetstone, 
with whom he was no doubt personally intimate) 
like Ccesar, charged the enemie so sore, that first an 
enuious Musquetier from the spightfull Spaniards 
espying his oportunitie slew his horse vnder him ; 
who getting to horse again was with a poysoned 
bullet from the enemie shot in the thigh, wanting 
his Cuisses, which might have defended him. The 
wound being deepe and shiuering the bone, yet his 
heart was good, and his courage little abated, one 
Vdal, a gentleman, alighted and led his horse softly, 
to whom he thus spake : Let goe, let goe till I Jail 


to the ground, The foe shall miss the glory of my 
wound. And so riding out of the field with a rare & 
constant courage, his wound was searched, no salue 
too deare but was sought, no skill so curious but 
was tried to cure ease & recover this noble souldier 
languishing in paine, all remediles." 

ELLIOT. Churchyard there quotes two lines from 
Whetstone's funeral poem. 

MORTON. He does, and what you have read, I 
think, is followed by an epitaph by Whetstone upon 

BOURNE. Churchyard inserts two epitaphs j but 
one of them has been reprinted : that by Whetstone 
is but just worth preserving. 

" Here vnder lyes Phillip Sydney Knight, 
True to his Prince, learned, staid and wise j 
Who lost his life in honourable fight, 
Who vanquisht death, in that he did despise 
To liue in pompe, by others brought to passe ; 
Which oft he tearm'd a Dyamond set in Brasse." 

MORTON. This puts me in mind of a question I had 
to ask, and which I forgot until now. You remem- 
ber, perhaps, that Sir John Harington, in the notes 
to the 16th book of his Orlando Furioso, mentions Sir 
P. Sidney, and an epitaph written upon him by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, in which, according to Harington, 
he is called " the Scipio and the Petrarke of our 
time :" where is that epitaph to be found ? 


BOURNE. That is a question I should be glad to 
be able to answer, as I never could discover any such 
epitaph : yet I cannot help being persuaded that it 
once existed though now lost, and that Sir John 
Harington is not mistaken. 

MORTON. That translation of Ariosto, much as it 
has been abused, has had the honour of being em- 
ployed by Milton in the first book of his treatise " Of 
Reformation touching Church Discipline." 

BOURNE. He quotes, with verbal accuracy, the 
four last lines of the 72d stanza of B. 34, but he 
disapproves entirely of the mode in which Harington 
rendered the four last lines of the 79th stanza of the 
same book, and accordingly wholly alters it ; so that 
Milton's testimony is both for and against the 

MORTON. I only noticed it by the way, and not 
with any view to draw on a discussion now about 
Sir John Harington's merits. Do not let us wander 
farther from Rich and his " Farewell to Militarie 
Profession." Our preface has already been suf- 
ficiently long and excursive. 

ELLIOT. You mentioned Mr. Haslewood's list of 
Rich's productions, and certain omissions he had 
made. Is the " Farewel" now under our considera- 
tion, mentioned by him ? 

BOURNE. It is not, and there are few who pos- 
sess more knowledge on the subject of old poetry 
than the gentleman you have named. This error he 


commits in common with all bibliographers, nor 
have I seen the " Farewell to Militarie profession" 
included in any catalogue that has come under my 

MORTON. It is as important a discovery, recol- 
lecting its contents, as could be well made : a first 
edition would of course be still more valuable. 

BOURNE. I dare say a copy of it exists, if one 
knew where to lay one's hands upon it. 

ELLIOT. What is the general plan of the work ? 
the title-page only mentions " pleasant discourses :" 
what is to be understood by those words ? 

BOURNE. The word Discourse had a very un- 
defined meaning at that time : Rich uses it to ex- 
press what we now call novels or tales, and of these 
there are eight in this small 4to. volume, so that they 
are not of very considerable length. In an address 
" to the Readers in generall," Rich observes : " The 
Histories (altogeather) are eight in number, whereof, 
the first, the second, the fift, the seuenth, and eight 
are tales that are but forged onely for delight ; 
neither credible to be beleeued, nor hurtfull to be 
perused. The third, the fourth, and the sixt are 
Italian Histories written likewise for pleasure by 
maister L. B." 

ELLIOT. And which of these is the foundation of 
Shakespeare's play ? 

BOURNE. The second. The commentators an- 
ticipated what has now fortunately occurred, that 



the original novel of Twelfth Night might, at some 
future time, be discovered. The likeness in parts is 
extremely strong, and indeed there will be no room 
for any doubt, whether Shakespeare did or did not 
employ it. 

MORTON. But we have not yet heard the title of 
the novel ; as it is the second it comes among those 
which the author states " are but forged only for 

BOURNE. The history is entitled " OF APOLONIUS 
AND SILLA," and you will find that throughout 
Shakespeare has changed all the names, as indeed 
in such cases he frequently did. The argument of 
the story is thus given after the title. 

" The argument of the second Historic. 

^f Apolonius, Duke, hauing spent a yeares seruice 
in the warres against the Turke, returning home- 
ward with his companie by sea was driuen by force 
of weather to the He of Cypres, where he was well 
receiued by Pontus gouernour of the same He, with 
whom Silla, daughter to Pontus, fell so stratigely in 
Ipue that after Apolonius was departed to Constan- 
tinople, Silla with one man followed and comming 
to Constantinople she senied Apolonius in the habite 
of a man, and after many pretie accidents falling 
out, she was knowne to Apolonius, who in requitall 
of her loue married her." 

MORTON. Excepting the circumstance of Silla 


serving the duke in man's attire, and their subsequent 
marriage, the argument does not indicate any other 
resemblance to Shakespeare's play: Rich lays his 
scene in Constantinople, but Shakespeare in Illyria. 

ELLIOT. Sebastian and Olivia, or any persons an- 
swering to them, seem entirely omitted by Rich. 

BOURNE. In the argument, not in the story: you 
would not wish to have the argument as long and 
as particular as the narrative : it cannot include 
every thing ; notwithstanding, it was merely casting 
my eye over the argument that first led me to sus- 
pect a resemblance, which I afterwards found most 
satisfactorily confirmed. The body of the history 
opens with various reflections on the influence of 
"Dame Errour" in human affairs, and especially in 
those of love, after which it relates that Apolonius, 
" a worthy Duke," a very young man, who had 
levied an army and served against the Turk, while 
Constantinople was yet in the hands of the Christians, 
returning home after one year's victories, was com- 
pelled, by stress of weather, to seek shelter in Cyprus 
(or Cypres, as Rich calls it) : he was here entertained 
very courteously by Pontus, the governor, who had 
a son named Silvio and a daughter named Silla : the 
latter soon fell desperately in love with Duke Apolo- 
nius, and " vsed so great familiarity with him, as her 
honour might well permitte, and fed him with such 
amorous baites as the modesty of a maide eould 
reasonably afforde." 



ELLIOT. Then does Silvio, brother to Silla, cor- 
respond with Shakespeare's Sebastian, brother to 

BOURNE. Throughout. Apolonius makes no re- 
turn, and indeed scarcely seems to notice the at- 
tentions of the young lady, but with the first fair 
wind sails home to Constantinople. Thither Silla 
resolves to follow him, and is aided in her design by 
Pedro, a faithful servant, in whose company, and as 
whose sister, she embarks in a galley that happened 
to be preparing to quit the port. On the voyage 
the captain falls in love with the beautiful damsel, 
makes amorous advances, and at last offers her 
violence : she is obliged by his threats to appear 
consenting, and having obtained a short respite, she 
is about to destroy herself with a knife, to prevent 
the completion of the wicked purposes of her boister- 
ous lover, when a dreadful storm opportunely rises 
to divert her from her purpose, and the vessel being 
wrecked, all are drowned excepting Silla, who escapes 
by clinging to a chest belonging to the captain. 

MORTON. To all this there is nothing parallel in 
Shakespeare. We hear nothing of any previous 
love, or even acquaintance, between Duke Orsino 
and Viola. 

ELLIOT. All we have been told is antecedent, I 
suppose : Shakespeare begins after the storm, and 
of course omits what occurred during the voyage. 

BOURNE. It has always struck me as a defect in 


Shakespeare's highly finished play, that the motive 
for the voyage of Viola is not sufficiently explained : 
she tells the captain only that she had heard her 
father name Duke Orsino 5 but in the first instance 
she seems desirous rather to be taken into the service 
of Olivia than of the Duke : 

" O that I serv'd that Lady, 
And might not be deliver'd to the world, 
Till I had made mine own occasion mellow, 
What my estate is," 

are her words. 

MORTON. She did not then perhaps contemplate 
her disguise. While serving Olivia she might have 
an opportunity of seeing the JXike. 

BOURNE. Dr. Johnson remarks upon this part of 
the play : " Viola seems to have formed a very deep 
design with very little premeditation : she is thrown 
by shipwreck on an unknown coast : hears that the 
Prince is a bachelor, and resolves to supplant the 
lady whom he courts." This objection is well- 
founded, as it applies to readers of the present 
day, but I apprehend it is not so well-founded with 
reference to Shakespeare's audiences. It is an ac- 
knowledged fact, that the stories he availed him- 
self of were popular, the incidents were generally 
well known, and the hearers could therefore supply 
certain omissions from their memories. When Viola 


" I have heard my father name him : 

He was a bachelor then," 

she tells no more, in order not to disclose her design 
to the captain of the ship, but intends to say just 
enough to draw from him the facts, that he yet re- 
mained single, and that he was engaged in courtship 
to Olivia. 

ELLIOT. If Shakespeare had used the same names 
for his characters as Rich gives them, your argument 
would have been more conclusive 5 as it is, I have 
some doubts upon the point: but let us proceed 
with the novel. 

BOURNE. Silla breaks open the chest that had 
been the means of her preservation during the 
storm, and finding it filled with men's apparel, she 
clothes herself in one of the suits : thus attired, she 
travels to Constantinople, and there presents herself 
to the Duke, who, " perceiuing him to be a proper 
smogue young man, gaue him entertainment." Silla 
at this time took upon herself her brother's name. 
We now come to Olivia, or the lady who in Rich's 
novel answers to her : she is called Julina, and is 
represented as a young beautiful widow, whose 
husband had died lately, and left her extremely rich. 
Shakespeare thought it would have a better effect to 
describe her as a virgin whose brother was recently 

MOBTON. It has been objected that there is some 
impropriety in Olivia having her house filled by such 


persons as Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew Ague- 
cheek : the impropriety might have been less striking 
had Shakespeare followed Rich's story in this respect 
more exactly. 

BOURNE. In Shakespeare's age I do not know 
that such a circumstance would have made any 
very material difference. Rich thus speaks of Ju- 
lina : " At this very instaunt there was remainyng 
in the Cittie a noble Dame, a widdowe, whose hus- 
band was but lately deceased, one of the noblest 
men that were in the partes of Grecia, who left his 
Lady and wife large possessions and great liuings. 
This ladyes name was called lulina, who besides the 
aboundance of her wealth and the greatnesse of her 
reuenues, had likewise the soueraigntie of all the 
Dames of Constantinople for her beautie." 

MORTON. Rich does not scruple to be guilty of 

BOURNE. He proceeds in these terms : " To this 
Lady lulina Apolonius became an earnest suter, and 
according to the manner of woers, besides faire 
wordes, sorrowfull sighes and piteous countenaunces, 
there must be sending of louing letters, Chaines, 
Braceletes, Brouches, Ringes, Tablets, Gemmes, 
luels and presents, I know not what. So my Duke 
who in the time that he remained in the He of Cypres, 
had no skill at all in the arte of Loue, although it 
were more then half proffered vnto him, was now 
become a scholler in Loues Schoole and had alreadie 


learned his first lesson j that is, to speake pittifully, 
to looke ruthfully, to promise largely, to serue dili- 
gently and to speake carefully : Now he was learn- 
ing his second lesson, that is, to reward liberally, to 
giue bountifully, to present willingly and to write 
louingly. Thus Apolonius was so busied in his new 
study that, I warrant you, there was no man that 
could chalenge him for plaiyng the truant, he fol- 
lowed his profession with so good will : And who 
must be the messenger to carrie the tokens and loue 
letters to the Lady lulina but Siluio his man : in 
him the Duke reposed his onely cofidence to goe 
between him and his Lady." 

ELLIOT. Now the resemblance begins to open 
upon us. 

BOURNE. And it will grow more and more striking 
every minute. After some reflections on the cruel 
situation in which Silla, alias Silvio, was placed, 
Rich <goes on thus: "lulina now hauing many 
times taken the gaze of this yong youth Siluio, per- 
ceiuing him to bee of such excellent perfect grace, 
was so intangeled with the often sight of this sweete 
temptation that she fell into as great a liking with 
the man, as the maister was with her selfe : And on 
a time Siluio beyng sent from his maister with a 
message to the Lady lulina, as he beganne very 
earnestly to solicite in his maisters behalfe, lulina 
interrupting him in his tale saied: Siluio t it is 
enough that you haue saied for your maister ; from 


henceforth either speake for your self or say nothing 
at all. Silla, abashed to iieare these words, bega in 
her mind to accuse the blindnes of loue, that lulina, 
neglecting the good of so noble a Duke, wold pre- 
ferre her loue vnto such a one as nature it selfe had 
denied to recopence her liking." 

ELLIOT. Ay, now we enter into the very heart of 
Shakespeare's play: Le vrai pent quelquefois rfetre 
pas vraisemblable, and this was an instance, for your 
assertion did not at first seem borne out. 

BOURNE. I thought you were at first a little 
incredulous : you seemed afraid of coming under 
the ironical censure of our friend Rabelais, " Un 
komme de bons sens croit toujours ce quon luy 
diet fy qu'il trouve par escript" We now come to 
Silla's brother, Silvio, the Sebastian of Shakespeare: 
Silvio at the time of these transactions was in the 
interior of Africa, and was not like Sebastian wrecked 
in the same ship with Viola. Returning to Cyprus, 
he vows to discover Silla, and after various travels 
he arrives at Constantinople, " where as he was 
walking in an euening for his owne recreation on 
a pleasante grene yarde without the walles of the 
Cittie, he fortuned to meet with the Lady lulina, 
who likewise had been abroad to take the aire$ 
and as she sodainly cast her eyes vpon Siluio, 
thinking him to be her olde acquaintance, by reason 
they were so like one another, as you have heard 
before, said vnto him, sir, Siluio t if your hast be not 
the greater, I pray you let me haue a little talke with 


you, seeing I haue so luckily met you in this place." 
At first the young man appears somewhat astonished 
and shy, but noting the lady's beauty, he affects to 
have forgotten himself, and to be what Julina sup- 
poses him. Julina, as a widow, may be excused 
for being something bolder than a virgin, and she 
actually invites Silvio not only to her house, but to 
her bed, and he consents without reluctance. 

MORTON. Something more must be said about the 
resemblance of the brother and sister, to account for 
the mistake, than what you read just now: you 
probably omitted to mention it. 

BOURNE. I forgot it in the proper place ; for it is 
stated that Silvio loved his sister Silla " as dearly as 
his own life, and the rather for that as she was his 
naturall sister both by the Father and Mother, so the 
one of them was so like the other in countenance 
and fauour, that there was no man able to descerne 
the one from the other by their faces." 

ELLIOT. That was a very important circumstance. 
If Shakespeare were wrong in making Olivia not a 
widow, he was right in not carrying her love to 
Cesario or to the man she fancied was he, to such an 
extreme as Rich represents it. 

BOURNE. Of course; but Rich, as you will find, 
has no scruple of that sort, for Julina afterwards 
proves to be in the family way : but we shall see 
more of that presently. Duke Apolonius is informed 
by his domestics, that the widow preferred his ser- 
vant to himself, and that she had given most un- 


equivocal proofs of it : he consequently throws the 
unfortunate Silla into a dungeon, and refuses to 
listen to her entreaties. Julina, in the mean time, 
finding the consequences of her intercourse with the 
brother but too apparent, is in a state of great alarm, 
" fearing to become banckrout of her honour," and 
appealing to Apolonius, Silla is brought from her 
prison into their presence : she requires Julina to 
contradict the charge that she, Silla, had made love 
to her, Julina, for herself instead of her master. 
Julina, on the other hand, still mistaking the sister 
for the brother, calls upon Silla first to admit their 
mutual love, and that failing, to avow the criminal 
intercourse that had passed between them. The 
speeches in this interview run to a considerable 
length, Julina repeating to Silla the vows her brother 
Silvio had, in fact, made of love and constancy, and 
asserting that she had received him " for her loyal 
husband." The duke is convinced that his page has 
wronged the lady most grossly, and drawing his 
rapier, insists that Silla shall make all possible 
amends. This forms a very interesting scene, and 
our compassion is much divided between the duke, 
who saw the lady of his love thus degraded, Julina, 
who complains of the ingratitude of one whom she 
so dearly valued, and Silla, who is the innocent 
victim of mistake and accident. 

ELLIOT. Shakespeare has made no use of it, and 
could not in the structure of his play; but he has 
turned the resemblance between the brother and sister 


to a comic account, if I may so say, and has made it 
the source of several most ludicrous scenes. Are 
any of these touched upon or related in Rich's 
story ? 

BOURNE. They are not : the irresistibly comic part 
of Twelfth Night appears to be wholly Shakespeare's. 
In Rich's novel there is not any ludicrous character, 
or, indeed, any person whose name has not been 
already mentioned. You may wish to hear a few 
sentences from the reply of Silla to Julina's accusa- 
tion before the duke. " Ah, Madame lulina, I 
desire no other testimonie, then your owne honestie 
and vertue, thinking that you wil not so much blemish 
the brightnesse of your honour, knowing that a wo- 
man is, or should be, the Image of curtesie, con- 
tinencie and shamefastnesse, from the which so soone 
as she stoopeth, and leaueth the office of her duetie 
and modesty, besides the degradation of her honour she 
thrusteth her selfe into the pit of perpetuall infamy : 
and as I cannot think you would so forget your selfe, 
by the refusal of a noble Duke to dimme the light of 
your renowne and glorie, which hetherto you haue 
maintained amongest the best and noblest Ladies, 
by such a one as I knowe my selfe to be, too farre 
vnworthie your degree and calling, so most humbly 
I beseech you to confesse a troth, whereto tendeth 
those vowes and promises you speake of, which 
speeches bee so obscure vnto me, as I know not for 
my life how I might vnderstand them." 

MORTON. The sentence of the duke, commanding 


Silla to make amends, is, of course, delivered after 
what you have read : how does Silla receive it ? 

BOURNE. The narrative is continued in the follow- 
ing terms : " Siluio hauing heard this sharpe seu- 
tence fell downe on his knees before the Duke crau- 
ing for mercie, desiring that he might be suffered to 
speake with the Lady lulina apart, promising to 
satisfie her according to her owne contentation Well 
(quoth the Duke) I take thy worde, and therewithall 
I aduise thee that thou performe thy promise, or 
otherwise, I protest before God, I will make thee 
such an example to the world that all traitours shall 
tremble for feare how they doe seeke the dishonour- 
ing of Ladies But now lulina had conceiued so 
great griefe against Siluio, that there was much adoe 
to persuade her to talk with him ; but remembring 
her owne case, desirous to heare what excuse he 
could make, in the end she agreed, and being brought 
into a place seuerally by themselues, Siluio began 
with a piteous face to say as followeth. I know not, 
Madam, of whom I might make complaint, whether 
of you or of my selfe, which hath conducted and 
brought vs both into so great aduersitie. I see 
that you receiue great wrong, and I am condemned 
against all right j you in perill to abide the bruite 
of spightfull tongues, and I in danger to loose the 
thing that I most desire: and although I could 
alledge many reasons to proue my sayings true, yet 
I referre my selfe to the experience and bountie of 
your minde. And here with all loosing his garments 


downe to his stomacke and shewed lulina his breasts 
and prety teates surmounting farre the whitnesse of 
snow it selfe, saying: Loe, Madam, beholde here 
the party whom you haue chalenged to be the father 
of your childe ! See I am a woman, the daughter of 
a noble Duke, who onely for the loue of him, whom 
you so lightly haue shaken of, haue forsaken my 
father, abandoned my countrie, and in manner, as 
you see, am become a seruing man, satisfying my- 
selfe but with the onely sight of my Apolonius: and 
now, Madam, if my passion were not vehement and 
my tormentes without comparison, I would wish 
that my fained griefes might be laughed to scorne, 
and my dissembled paines to bee rewarded with 
floutes. But my loue beeing pure, my trauaile con- 
tinuall, and my griefes endlesse, I trust, Madam, 
you will not onely excuse me of crime, but also 
pitty my distresse, the which I protest I would stil 
haue kept secret if my fortune would so haue per- 

ELLIOT. All this could but increase the miser- 
able perplexity of poor Julina. Such an eclaircisse- 
ment could scarcely take place on the stage, and this 
might be one reason why Shakespeare omitted the 

BOURNE. Besides, it would not perhaps have done, 
even at that day, to have brought on the stage a lady 
openly making such a complaint as that of Julina, 
founded upon her own confession of criminality. 

MORTON. I have not patience just now to argue 


any such point, though in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
" Maids Tragedy," there is even a stranger inter- 
view : let it suffice, that Shakespeare has so far de- 
viated from his original. What becomes of the un- 
happy widow ? 

BOURNE. Rich says, with much simplicity, she 
" did now thinke her selfe to be in a worse case 
then euer she was before, for now she knew not 
whom to challenge to be the father of her child j 
wherefore when she had told the Duke the verye 
certainty of the discourse which Siluio had made 
vnto her, shee departed to her owne house with such 
griefe and sorrowe, that she purposed neuer to come 
out of her owne dores again aliue, to be a wonder 
and mocking stocke to the world." 

ELLIOT. What says the duke to Silvio, or rather 
to Silla, now he learns her disguise and the object of 
it ? is it any thing like 

" And since you call'd me master for so long, 
Here is my hand j you shall from this time be 
Your master's mistress ?" 

BOURNE. The same in effect, but he is a little 
more high-flown in his phrases, and rapturous in his 
love : " Oh the branche of al vertue (he exclaims) 
and the flowre of courtesie it selfe, pardon me I 
beseech you of all such discourtesies as I ignorantly 
committed towards you ! Desiring you that without 
farther memorie of auncient griefes you will accept 


of me, who is more ioyfull and better contented with 
your presence then if the whole world were at 
my commaundement." Their happy nuptials are 
accordingly celebrated at Constantinople with the 
utmost pomp and solemnity. 

MORTON. But what had become of the brother, the 
real Silvio, all this time? These events must have 
made much noise in Constantinople, and one would 
think he must have heard of them. 

BOURNE. Shakespeare manages this part of the 
story differently. Sebastian only arrives once in 
Illyria, and that, as it were, by accident, while in 
order to confirm the claim of Olivia upon Sebastian, 
he introduces a contract of marriage before a priest. 
Now Rich, after Silvio's first visit to Constantinople, 
and after he had left Julina in what family men call 
*' a hopefull condition," makes him pursue his travels 
in search of his lost sister into the interior of Greece, 
where the report of these strange occurrences reaches 
him. Returning to Constantinople, he was received 
by his sister and the duke with the utmost joy. In 
two or three days, Apolonius informed him of what 
had passed regarding the Lady Julina; and Silvio, 
well knowing how the error had arisen, "was stricken 
with great remorse to make Julina amends, vnder- 
standing her to be a noble lady," and " left der 
famed to the world through his default." He ac- 
cordingly " bewrayed the whole circumstances" to 
Apolonius, who breaks the matter to the widow, 


and introduces the repentant lover to her as " the 
sonne and heyre of a noble Duke, worthy of her 
estate and dignity." The novel is wound up in the 
following manner : " lulina seeing Siluio in place did 
know very well that he was the father of her childe, 
and was so rauished with ioy, that she knew not 
whether she were awake or in some dreame. Siluio 
imbracing her in his armes, crauing forgiuenesse of 
all that was past, concluded with her the marriage 
day, which was presently accomplished with great 
ioy and contentation to all parties. And then Siluio 
hauing attained a noble wife, and Silla his sister her 
desired husband, they passed the residue of their 
daies with such delight as those that haue accom- 
plished the perfection of their felicities." 

ELLIOT. And a very pleasant story it is, and judg- 
ing from such parts as you have read, pleasantly 

BOURNE. The narrative is conducted with regu- 
larity and clearness, and the language generally easy 
and fluent, though disfigured now and then by need- 
less repetitions. 

MORTON. It is indisputable that Shakespeare was 
indebted to it for his plot of Twelfth Night. 

BOURNE. Though he has not followed it very 
closely : indeed, as we have seen, he was in a manner 
obliged to vary it, in order to render it dramatic ; he 
has not made his incidents quite so consequential 
upon each other as Rich, and with great art he has 



contrived to arrive at the denouement of both plots, 
at the same time. This was not at all necessary in 
the narrative, and, in my opinion, as far as veri- 
similitude is concerned, it was more natural to at- 
tribute the arrival of Silvio at Constantinople to 
design, in the course of his search for his sister, than 
to mere accident, which seems to be the case with 

MORTON. Had Shakespeare adopted this expedient, 
it would have too much resembled an incident in a 
former play of his, I mean " The Comedy of Errors," 
where Antipholis of Syracuse travels in search of his 
twin brother. 

ELLIOT. True, and as it was, Shakespeare could 
not avoid some similarity in the incidents, though he 
contrived to introduce every dissimilarity in the si- 
tuations. Have either of the other seven histories or 
discourses in Rich's book any connexion with Shake- 
speare's plays ? 

BOURNE. No 5 excepting that in the sixth novel 
there is an incident of the effects of a sleeping draught 
upon a young lady that reminds us of Romeo and 
Julietj and the first scene of the same tragedy is 
brought to our memories in another story, by the 
employment of the familiar proverb " o' my word 
we'll not carry coals," in the same way as Shakespeare 
uses it. 

MORTON. All which confirms the belief, that 
" Rich his Farewel to Military profession" was one 
of the books in Shakespeare's library, and that he 


was well acquainted with its contents. You said 
that Rich was a poet, but the " discourse" we have 
just finished is wholly prose: can you give us a 
specimen of his verse ? 

BOURNE. I can, and you will not read it with the 
less interest, because it is found in the same curious 
volume, where several other pieces of poetry are 
interspersed. What I am about to read is from the 
first novel, relating the adventures of a banished 
duke, called " Sappho Duke of Mantona." 

ELLIOT. Shakespeare is charged by the com- 
mentators with the heinous offence of confounding 
the sex which ought to belong to the name of 
Baptista. Rich seems to have been guilty of the 
same error in the name of Sappho. 

BOURNE. So it appears, but it may be easily for- 
given. His lines are these : 

" No shame, I trust, to cease from former ill, 
Nor to revert the lewdnesse of the minde, 

Which hath bin trainde, and so misled by will, 
To breake the bounds which reason had assignde : 

I now forsake the former time I spent, 
And sorie am for that I once miswent. 

" But blinde forecast was he that made me swarue, 

Affection fond was lurer of my lust ; 
My fancie fixt desire did make me seme, 

Vaine hope was he that trained all my trust : 



Good liking then so daseled hard my sight, 

And dimnde mine eies, that reason gaue no light. 

" O sugred sweet that trainde me to this trap ! 

I saw the bait where hooke lay hidden fast j 
I well perceiud the drift of my mishap j 

I knew the bit would breed my bane at last : 
But what for this, for sweete I swallowed all, 

Whose tast I find more bitter now than Gall. 

" But loe the fruites that grewe by fond desire ! 

I seeke to shun that pleased best my minde j 
I sterue for cold, yet faine would quench the fire, 

And glad to loose that fairest I would finde. 
In one self thing I find both bane and blisse j 

But this is straunge, I like no life but this." 

The VIQY& fairest, in the last line but two, is probably 
a misprint forfainest. 

ELLIOT. Rich probably is to be placed in the class 
of smooth versifiers, but, according to this specimen, 
he has no claim to any rank among original poets. 

BOURNE. You have correctly ascertained and stated 
his merits in a sentence. This volume has been long 
enough open, we may now close it. 

MORTON. In alluding to a proverb used by Rich, 
you just now mentioned Romeo and Juliet j the 
original of it is in Painter's " Palace of Pleasure." 

BOURNE. That was probably the immediate ori- 
ginal, but there were other versions of the Italian 


tale : you will find it on fo. 179, b. of " The second 
Tome of the Palace of Pleasure," printed by Thomas 
Marshe. Did you ever hear of a separate printed 
poem by William Painter ; I mean unconnected with 
" the Palace of Pleasure?" 

MORTON. Certainly never. 

BOURNE. Yet such a poem, or rather collection of 
poems, was shown me not long since. 

MORTON. Indeed. Was it not a most valuable 
relic ? The editor of the new edition of " the Palace 
of Pleasure" mentions nothing about it. 

BOURNE. It is a relic of considerable rarity, but 
you mistake if you suppose it was by William Painter, 
the compiler and translator of the Palace of Pleasure, 
although by a person of the same names. However, 
no other copy is known of it, and as it was without 
beginning or end, the date cannot precisely be ascer- 
tained : the dedication to Sir Paul Pinder, ambassador 
at Constantinople, signed William Painter, is, how- 
ever, still preserved : Sir Paul died before the- year 
1650 j the type, as I should guess, was after 1630. 

MORTON. Perhaps it was by some descendant: 
what is the subject? Had it any merit? 

BOURNE. None that I could discover j but the 

ELLIOT. Here is a poem, the date of which you 
do not know, the author of which you do not knowj 
which has neither beginning nor end, and which is 
actually worth nothing, and yet we are to waste our 


time upon it. Have we not already heard too much 
about it? 

BOURNE. I apprehend not. You cannot wonder 
that some curiosity should be felt about the title. 

ELLIOT. Why, when the body of the work is not 
worth reading, what signifies the title ? Yet I am 
not surprised j Quod crebro vidit non miratur, etiam 
si curjiat, nescit. 

BOURNE. But I contend that the name of the 
poem is curious and worth knowing: the title- 
page is wanting, but the running- title is " Chaucer 
painted :" why it is so called I cannot guess, as in 
the cursory view I had of the book I saw nothing 
that had any relation to Chaucer : the greater por- 
tion was proverbs strung together in four-line 
stanzas. Towards the end was a poem lamenting 
the degeneracy of shepherds, and an anagram on 
the mother of the author, Jone Clark. 

MORTON. The word painted in the running- title, I 
dare say, had some connexion with the author's 
name. Did you extract any part of it ? 

BOURNE. I did not. 

ELLIOT. Then we are more fortunate than usual. 

MORTON. Still uncis naribus indulgis, but not at 
our expense. 

BOURNE. He will not have that gratification long, 
for about William Painter I have nothing more to 

ELLIOT. Why, seriously, if I did not keep some 


kind of check upon you, there is no knowing what 
paltry matters you two might not wander into. 
Let us dwell upon something worth attention, and I 
will not complain. I never dreamt of objecting to 
the detail you entered into of Rich's novel, because 
that was not only a new but a very interesting sub- 
ject, and if you had continued the same course, and 
given us some account of other histories of which 
Shakespeare availed himself, it would have been 
adding importantly to our stock of knowledge. 

BOURNE. I would have done so willingly had I 
been sufficiently prepared for the purpose j but some 
of the stories which Shakespeare employed are 
really so rare, and are consequently so' difficult to be 
procured, that before I can enter into the question 
satisfactorily, I must lay all my friends under con- 
tribution for books. 

MORTON. I have seen Lodge's " Rosalind," the 
" worthless original" (as Mr. Steevens is pleased to 
call it) of " As you Like it" in your collection. 

ELLIOT. And Robt. Greene's " Dorastus & Faw- 
nia," on which the " Winter's Tale" is founded, you 
told me you had. 

MORTON. Besides, " the Palace of Pleasure," 
which stands conspicuous on your shelves, and these 
three, with Sir Thomas North's translation of Plu- 
tarch's Lives, will go a good way in, at least., 
illustrating a subject that, as far as I know, has not 
yet been by any means adequately investigated. 


BOURNE. You mistake when you say that you 
have seen Lodge's " Rosalind " among my books : 
you have seen " Euphues Golden Legacie : Found 
after his death in his Cell at Silexedra. Bequeathed 
to Philautus Sonnes, nursed vp with their Father in 
England/' 1623, and it is very true that this work, 
excepting the title and the different orthography of 
some of the words, is the same as Lodge's " Rosa- 
lind," of 1590, but I could wish, were it in my power, 
to show you, and to read from, the original edition. 

ELLIOT. What trifles you convert into matters of 
consequence : this is not only nugis addere pondus, 
but giving the nugte themselves an artificial weight. 
We shall be afale to judge of the similarity between 
Shakespeare's play and Lodge's novel as well by an 
edition of yesterday, if it be correctly reprinted, as 
by one published in the life-time of the author. 

BOURNE. Certainly, but independent of the satis- 
faction of comparing Shakespeare's play with an 
original edition, such as he probably employed, there 
is surely some pleasure in looking at literary curiosi- 
ties, like the first edition of " Rosalynde," for so the 
author spelt it, in 1590, though why that graceful 
name was afterwards erased from the title, and all 
the rest left, it is impossible for us to ascertain. 

ELLIOT. Nor is it worth ascertaining if we had all 
the means before us. 

MORTON. I do not know that, provided it had any 
thing to do with Spenser's Rosalind, or with Shake- 


speare's adoption of the name in his " As you Like 
it," or any other circumstance of that kind. 

BOURNE. Mr. Singer, in a late reprint (which, by 
the by, might have been more correct) has extracted 
all the poetry from Lodge's " Rosalynde," and, as 
Shakespeare was much less indebted to the verse 
than to the prose, and, as no specimens have been 
given from the last, I will read two or three passages 
which will enable you to form an opinion of Lodge's 
style, and of the manner in which he treats a story, 
of which there is every reason to believe that he was 
the original inventor. 

ELLIOT. This is just as it ought to be ; now we 
are coming to the point : Lodge was unquestionably 
a man of considerable talent as a poet, if we looked 
only at the pieces inserted in his " Fig for Mo- 
mus." What you are about to extract from then, is 
his " Rosalynde," republished in 1 623 under the title 
of " Euphues Golden Legacy." 

BOURNE. It is: he took the name of Euphues 
from John Lilly, who published his well-known 
" Euphues, the Anatomic of Wit," at least as early 
as 158O, and in the prefatory matter to which I find 
that he was rusticated from Oxford. I just notice 
this circumstance, because his biographers seem to 
have overlooked it. 

MORTON. That is curious : what does he say of 

BOURNE. It is in an address " To my good Friends, 


the Gentlemen Schollers of Oxford :" he observes, 
" Yet may I of all the rest most condemne Oxford 
of vnkindnesse, of vice I cannot, \vho seemed to 
weane me before shee brought me forth and to giue 
me bones to gnaw, before I could get the teat to 
suck. Wherein she played the nice mother, in 
sending me into the country to nurse, where I tyred 
at a dry breast three yeares, and was at last enforced 
to weane my selfe." He accordingly went to Cam- 
bridge. One of Robert Greene's tracts is called 
" Euphues Censure to Philantus," so that it should 
seem that Lilly's example had rendered those names 
very popular. 

ELLIOT. Do not let us wander unnecessarily. I 
am anxious to hear something from Lodge's novel. 

BOURNE. Your anxiety shall be relieved. You 
will observe, in the first place, that Shakespeare's 
Orlando is here called Rosader, and his severe elder 
brother Saladine : the names of Rosalind and Aliena 
(the assumed name of Alinda) Shakespeare adopts. 
The following is the description of the heroine : 
" As euery mans eye had his seurall suruey, and 
fancie was partiall in their lookes, yet all in generall 
applauded the admirable riches that Nature bestowed 
on the face of Rosalind; for vpon her cheekes there 
seemed a battell betweene the Graces, who should 
bestow most fauours to make her excellent. The 
blush that gloried Luna when she kist the Shepheard 
of the hills of Latmos, was not tainted with such a 


pleasant dye as the vermilion florish on the siluer 
hue of Rosalinds countenance : her eyes were like 
those Lampes that make the wealthie couert for the 
heauens more glorious, sparkling fauour and dis- 
daine, curteous and yet coy, as if in them Venus had 
placed al her amorets, and Diana all her chastitie. 
The trammels of her haire, folded in a caule of gold, 
so farre surpast the burnisht glister of mettall, as 
the Sunne doth the meanest Starre in brightnesse : 
the tresses that folds in the brows of Apollo, were 
not halfe so rich to the sight, for in her haires it 
seemed loue had laid himselfe in ambush, to entrap 
the proudest eye that durst gaze vpon their excel- 
lence : what should I need to decipher her particular 
beauties, when by the censure of all, she was the 
paragon of all earthly perfection." 

MORTON. That puts one a little in mind of James 
Shirley's excellent ridicule of overstrained hyper- 
bolical compliments, and unnatural resemblances, in 
his play of " The Sisters" (1652), where he makes 
Angelina reprove a pedantic Scholar, who had 
smeared her beauty with all sorts of artificial co- 
lours : she says, 

" I am 

A stranger to you, Sir, and to your language ; 
These words have no relation to me. 
I pity men of your high fancy, should 
Dishonour their own names by forming such 


Prodigious shapes of beauty in our sex. 

If I were really what you would commend, 

Mankind would fly me. Get a painter, Sir, 

And when he has wrought a woman by your fancy, 

See if you know her again. Were it not fine 

If you should see your mistress without haire, 

Drest only with those glittering beams you talk of? 

Two suns instead of eyes, and they not melt 

The forehead made of snow ? No cheeks, but two 

Roses inoculated on a lily ; 

Between, a pendant alabaster nose : 

Her lips cut out of corall, and no teeth 

But strings of pearl : her tongue a nightingales ! 

Would not this strange chimaera fright yourself?" 

ELLIOT. Your quotation is in point, though rather 
long. You might have found a shorter one, and quite 
as apposite, I think, in the very play of Shakespeare 
under consideration. The ridicule of Shirley is ex- 
ceedingly well expressed, as might indeed be ex- 
pected from his pen, as far as I have heard any thing 
about him. 

BOURNE. It is to be regretted that Mr. Gifford's 
edition of his plays is so long postponed. Shirley, 
as has been remarked, was the last of the old 
English school of dramatists, and both his Tragedies 
and Comedies will bear comparison with those of 
any of Shakespeare's contemporaries. But to pro- 
ceed with Lodge : the following will strongly re- 


mind you of Shakespeare. It is before Rosalind and 
her friend Alinda, afterwards called Aliena, make 
their escape to the forest of Arden : " At this Rosalind 
began to comfort her, and after shee had wept a few 
kinde teares, in the bosome of her Alinda, shee gaue 
her hearty thankes, and then they sate them downe 
to consult how they should trauell. Alinda grieued 
at nothing but that they might haue no man in their 
company, saying : it would bee their greatest pre- 
iudice, in that two women went wandring about 
without either guide or attendant. Tush (quoth 
Rosalind ) art thou a woman and hast not a sodaine 
shift to preuent a misfortune r I (thou seest) am of a 
tall stature, and would very well become the person 
and apparell of Page, thou shalt be my Mistris, and 
I will play the man so properly, that (trust mee) in 
what company soeuer I come, I will not be dis- 
couered : I will buy mee a sute, and haue a Rapier 
very handsomely at my side, and if any knaue offer 
wrong, your Page will shew him the point of his 
weapon. At this Alinda smiled, and vpon this they 
agreed, and presently gathered vp all their jewels, 
which they trussed vp in a casket, and Rosalind in 
all haste prouided her of robes, and Alinda being 
called Aliena, and Rosalind, Ganimede." 

ELLIOT. The sentence " I will buy me a suit, and 
have a rapier very handsomely at my side," brings 
to memory Shakespeare's line, " We'll have a 
swashing and a martial outside ;" but a preceding 


sentiment of Lodge, on the quickness of woman's 
wit and her readiness on sudden emergencies, is 
copied from Ariosto, c. xxvii. 

Molti constgli delle donne sono 
Meglio impromso, che a pensarm usciti; 
Che questo especiale, e proprio dono 
Tra tanti e tanti lor dal del largiti 

and then he goes on to contrast this excellence 
with the slowness and heaviness of men in similar 

BOURNE. On the whole, Ariosto has done the 
female sex more than justice, though you remember 
some parts of his Orlando sufficiently libellous. The 
first encounter of Rosader with the Duke (whom 
Lodge calls King Gerismond) is thus described by 
Lodge : " It hapned that day that Gerismond, the 
lawfull king of France banished by Torismond, 
who with a lustie crew of outlawes liued in that 
Forrest, that day in honour of his birth, made a 
feast to all his bolde yeomen, and frolickt it with 
store of wine and venison, sitting all at a long table 
vnder the shadow of Limon trees : to that place by 
chance fortune conducted Rosader, who seeing such 
a crew of braue men, hauing store of that for want of 
which hee and Adam perished, hee stept boldly to the 
boords end, and saluted the Company thus. What- 
soeuer thou be that art maister of these lustie squires, 
I salute thee as graciously as a man in extreame dis- 


tresse may : knowe that I and a fellow friend of 
mine, are here famished in the forrest for want of 
foode : perish we must, vnlesse relieued by thy fa- 
uours. Therfore if thou be a Gentleman, giue meate 
to men, and such as are euery way worthie of life : 
let the proudest Squire that sits at thy table rise and 
encounter with me in any honorable point of ac- 
tivitie whatsoeuer, and if he and thou proue me 
not a man, send mee away comfortlesse : if thou 
refuse this, as a niggard of thy cates, I will haue 
amongst you with my sword, for rather wil I die 
valiantly, then perish with so cowardly an extreame. 
Gerismond looking him earnestly in the face, and 
seeing so proper a Gentleman in so bitter a passion, 
was moued with so great pitie, that rising from the 
table nee tooke him by the hande, and bade him 
welcome, willing him to sitte downe in his place, 
and in his roome, not onely to eate his fill, but as 
Lord of the feast. Gramercy Sir (quoth Rosader) 
but I haue a feeble friend that lies hereby famished 
almost for food, aged, and therefore lesse able to 
abide the extremitie of hunger then my selfe, and 
dishonour it were for mee to taste one crum, before 
I made him partner of my fortunes : therefore will 
I run and fetch him and then I will gratefully accept 
of your proffer." 

MORTON. That is very like Shakespeare also : the 
description is lively and picturesque, and the af- 
fectionate considerateness of Rosader for his old and 


faithful servant quite as strongly pourtrayed as in 
" As you Like it." 

BOURNE. I will not quote the narrative of the 
mode in which Rosader discovers and preserves his 
brother Saladine from the lion, because that passage, 
and almost that only, has been produced by the com- 
mentators to establish the resemblance. In Shake- 
speare's play it is certainly a little revolting to find 
Celia so suddenly in love with the repentant Oliver : 
this incident is better managed by Lodge, than 
Shakespeare had the means of doing within the nar- 
row limits of a theatrical performance. I do not 
think it worth while to read more from Lodge's 
" Rosalynde:" what you have now seen will answer 
the purpose we had in view, and will show that 
Shakespeare followed his original, in this instance 
with an admiring closeness. 

MORTON. The extracts prove likewise that the 
original was not quite so worthless as Mr. Steevens 
maintained it to be. 

ELLIOT. Steevens was a tasteless pedant, and no- 
thing better could be expected from him. His sen- 
tences have been reversed over and over again ; I 
mean not merely with respect to the particular tract 
before us, but on other matters on which he has 
chosen to be equally dogmatical. 

BOURNE. Do not let us renew that subject : we 
know that you and the annotators are at daggers 
drawing, and most frequently I should be inclined to 


fight on your side j but this is not the fittest time, 
however just the quarrel. Besides the resemblances 
we have noticed, it is to be observed that Shakespeare 
has also adopted Lodge's under-plot in the loves of 
Sylvius and Phoebe, but the comic incidents and per- 
sons are his own invention and introduction. 

MORTON. The remark, you may remember, also 
applies to his adaptation of Rich's novel to the stage. 
May the same be said of the " Winter's Tale," or 
does Greene, in his " Dorastus and Fawnia," bring 
forward any such character as Autolicus ? 

BOURNE. He does not; but the greatest difference 
between Shakespeare and Greene, in regard to that 
story, is, that the latter makes Bellaria, who corre- 
sponds to Hermione, actually die in consequence of 
the shock of the unjust accusation, of the cruel treat- 
ment she receives during her trial, and of the un- 
expected intelligence of the death of her young son 
Garinter, who is Shakespeare's Prince Mamillius. 
The annotators have done still less to enable the 
reader of " the Winter's Tale" to compare it with 
" Dorastus and Fawnia." 

ELLIOT. How long before Shakespeare is supposed 
to have written his " Winter's Tale" did Robert 
Greene produce his " Dorastus and Fawnia?" 

BOURNE. The earliest date hitherto assigned to 
the Winter's Tale is 1594, and there is a copy of 
Greene's " Dorastus and Fawnia" printed as early as 
1 588 : perhaps there might be others even still earlier, 



but Greene's first extant performance is dated 1584, 
and is called " A Myrrour of Modestie:" it is the 
story of Susanna and the Elders, told at considerable 
length, and with some eloquence. This shows that 
he began his literary career with a production calcu- 
lated to allay rather than excite the passions. 

MORTON. That would depend much on the mode 
in which it was handled : it is not difficult to imagine 
that the descriptions in the history of Susanna might 
be so highly wrought as to afford very strong in- 

BOURNE. As you have doubts about it, and as it is 
a tract of the very rarest occurrence, never quoted 
that I am aware of, you may like to hear a short 
specimen of it : we will then proceed to his " Do- 
rastus and Fawnia." The title speaks pretty un- 
equivocally as to the nature and object of the per- 
formance : " The Myrrour of Modestie, wherein ap- 
peareth as in a perfect Glasse how the Lorde de- 
liuereth the innocent from all imminent perils, and 
plagueth the bloudthirstie hypocrites with deserued 
punishments," &c. "By R. G. Maister of Artes. Im- 
printed at London by Roger Warde,'.' &c. 1584. 

MORTON. Was that his first work ? It does not 
seem very probable that it should be, recollecting 
that he died of a surfeit of red herrings and Rhenish 
in 1592. 

BOURNE. I only said it was his first extant produc- 
tion, but the prefatory matter to it does not enable 


us to form an opinion one way or the other: the 
following is from the body of the tract. " These 
two cursed caitifes of the seede of Chanaan southing 
one another in this deuilish imagination, concluded 
when they might finde hir alone to sucke the bloude 
of this innocent lambe, and with most detestable 
villanie to assaile the simple minde of this sillie 
Susanna. Persisting therefore in this hellish pur- 
pose, manie daies were not passed ere they spied fit 
oportunitie (as they thought) to obtaine their desire, 
for the season being very hot and the tender bodie 
of Susanna being sore parched with heate, she sup- 
posing that none of hir housholde, much lesse anie 
stranger had bin in the garden, went in as hir vse 
was with two maidens, onlie thinking there secretlie 
to washe hirselfe, and seing the coast cleere and 
hirself solitarily said thus vnto them : bring me 
quoth she oyle and sope wherewith to washe, and 
see that you shut the doores surelie. The maidens, 
carefullie obaieng their mistresse commande, shut 
the garden gates and went out themselues at a 
backe doore to fet what their mistresse had willed 
them, not seeing the elders because they were hid, 
who no sooner sawe the maidens gone, and Susanna 
a fit pray for their filthy purpose, but they rose vp 
and run vnto hir." My design in reading this pass- 
age, is only to show that Greene purposely let slip 
the opportunity of giving a luxurious or exciting 
description of Susanna, and that this tract is very 


far from what you hinted it might be. However ill- 
governed Greene might be in his life and manners, 
most of his writings are calculated to warn others of 
the dangers he had not been able to shun. 

ELLIOT. As you have finished your quotation, we 
may proceed with " Dorastus and Fawnia." 

MORTON. Have you ever seen a copy of it printed 
in 1588? 

BOURNE. Never j those dated before 1600 are all 
very difficult to be procured : indeed I never saw a 
copy of it sold, let the date be what it would, under 
several guineas. I have fortunately two, one of them 
dated in 1636, and the other as late as 1694, and I 
have seen a third printed as recently, I think, as 
1724. Observe on the title-page of this edition of 
1694 there is a curious wood-cut, containing a 
summary of the history, like the plates to Orlando 
Furioso. In the distance, as far as distance is pre- 
served in so rude a representation, is the sea, with 
a boat and child upon it ; on one side, but more in 
front, is a shepherdess tending her flock ; and in the 
fore-ground the hero in armour, and heroine in a 
court dress, holding each other by the hand. The 
edition of 1636, which is the most valuable, has no 
such ornament, and bears the following title : " The 
Pleasant Historic of Dorastus and Fawnia. Wherein 
is discovered, that although by the meanes of sinister 
Fortune, Truth may be concealed, yet by Time, in 
spight of Fortune, it is manifestly revealed. Pleasant 


for age to avoyd drowsie thoughts, Profitable for 
Youth to avoyd other wanton Pastimes, And bring- 
ing to both a desired Content. Temporisjilia Veritas. 
By Robert Greene, Master of Arts in Cambridge. 
Omne tulit piuictum qid miscuit ntile dulci." London, 
&c. 1636. 

MORTON. The edition of 1694, I observe, omits a 
part of that title, in order to make room for the 
barbarous wood-cut. I also perceive at the back of 
the title-page of 1694, a poem which is not in the 
copy of 1636. 

BOURNE. It is not, and you will find that the lines 
are not contemptible. I suppose the printer in 1636 
did not think it worth while to insert them, though 
it is unquestionably an important omission. 

MORTON. I will read them : they are called, 

" Dorastus in Loue-passion, Writes these few lines 
in praise of his louing and best-beloued Fawnia? 

" Ah, were she pitifull as she is fair, 

or but as mild as she is seeming so, 
Then were my hopes greater than my despair, 

then all the World were Heauen, nothing Woe. 
Ah, were her Heart relenting as her Hand, 

that seems to melt euen with the mildest touch, 
Then knew I where to seat me in a Land, 

under wide Heauens j but yet not such, 
So as she shows : she seems the budding Rose 

yet sweeter far than is an Earthly flower : 


Souereign of Beauty! like the Spray she grows 

compass'd she is with Thorns and cankered flower. 
Yet were she willing to be pluck'd and worn 
She would be gathered though she grew on Thorn. 

'' Ah when she sings, all Musick else be still, 

for none must be compared to her Note : 
Ne'er breath'd such Glee from Philomelas Bill, 

nor from the Morning-singers swelling Throat : 
Ah, when she riseth from her blissfull Bed 

she comforts all the World as doth the Sun, 
And at her sight the Nights foul Vapours fled; 

when she is set the gladsome day is done. 
O glorious Sun ! imagine me the West, 
Shine in my arms and set thou in my Breast !" 

MORTON. You said the lines were not contemptible j 
the last stanza is very rich and harmonious, and the 
whole is an elegant composition, with some very 
graceful turns. 

ELLIOT. You over-rate it: it is good, but not 
quite so transcendent as you seem to think it. The 
two last lines are somewhat in Sir Richard Black- 
more's vein. 

MORTON. You may be right, but whether right or 
wrong, I should not be inclined just now to contest 
the matter. I perceive that Greene gives us two 
mottos on the title-page of 1636 : which did he usually 
adopt ? Gascoigne, we know, had Tarn Marti tarn 
Mercurio, and Whetstone Malgre la Fortune. 


BOURNE. Omne tulit punctum, &c. was Greene's 
ordinary motto to his early publications ; but upon 
this point there is a singular letter by him prefixed to 
his " Perimedes the Black-Smith," 1588, from which 
you will not have forgotten that I formerly quoted 
two specimens of blank verse : it is a very curious 
epistle, as it relates to Greene's publications, friends 
and enemies : I will read it before I make a few 
quotations from " Dorastus and Fawnia." It is ad- 
dressed " to the Gentlemen Readers Health," and is 
in these terms : " Gentlemen I dare not step awrye 
from my wonted method, first to appeale to your 
fauorable courtesies, which euer I haue found (how- 
soeuer plawsible) yet smothered with a milde silence : 
the small pamphlets that I haue thrust forth how you 
haue regarded them I know not, but that they haue 
been badly rewarded with any ill tearmes I neuer 
found, which makes me the more bold to trouble 
you and the more bound to rest yours euerye waie, 
as euer I haue done : I keepe my old course to palter 
vp something in Prose vsing mine old poesie still 
Omne tulit punctum, although lately two Gentlemen 
Poets made two mad men of Rome beate it out of 
their paper bucklers, and had it in derision, for that 
I could not make my verses iet vpon the stage in 
tragicall buskins, euerie worde filling the mouth like 
the faburden of Bo -Bell, daring God out of heauen 
with that Atheist Tamburlan, or blaspheming with 
the mad preest of the sonne." 


MORTON. That is very remarkable. Tamberlaine, 
I suppose, is the notorious tragedy by Marlow, and 
one would suppose, from what is said, that Greene 
was at this time upon bad terms with him. 

BOURNE. Had it been otherwise he would hardly 
have spoken as he has done of that " Atheist Tain- 
burlann." Greene, a few lines afterwards, complains 
that it was said of him that he could not write 
blank verse, on which Marlow seems to have prided 
himself, for in the prologue to his " Tamberlaine" 
he notes the distinction in this respect between his 
tragedy and the productions of " rhyming mother- 

ELLIOT. Greene's address really seems a very in- 
teresting one : let us hear the rest of it. 

BOURNE. He continues, " But let me rather 
openly pocket vp the Asse at Diogenes hand, then 
wantonlye set out such impious instances of intol- 
lerable poetrie; such mad and scoffing poets that 
haue propheticall spirits, as bred of Merlins race : 
if there be anye in England that set the end of 
scollarisme in an Englishe blank verse, I thinke 
either it is the humor of a nouice that tickles them 
with self-loue, or to much frequenting the hot house 
(to vse a Germaine prouerbe) hath swet out all the 
greatest part of their wits, which wasts Gradatim, 
as the Italians say Poco a poco. If I speake darkely, 
Gentlemen, and offende with this digression, I craue 
pardon in that I but answere in print what they haue 


offered on the Stage." Then he proceeds to speak 
merely of the particular work he is presenting to the 

ELLIOT. It is not very easy to ascertain from the 
last sentence whether Greene had not been brought 
in some way or other upon the stage, or at least his 
productions ridiculed there. 

BOURNE. I do not draw either of these conclusions ; 
I apprehend he alludes only to the bringing of blank 
verse upon the stage, to the writing of which '" two 
Gentlemen Poets," it seems, had declared him in- 
competent. To contradict this opinion is probably 
the object of his blank verse poems inserted in his 
" Perimedes." 

MORTON. What does he mean when he says that 
the same " two Gentlemen Poets" made two " mad 
men of Rome" beat his motto " out of their paper 
bucklers r" 

BOURNE. Who the " two mad men of Rome" 
were, I know not, but by beating it " out of their 
paper bucklers," I understand, erasing it from their 
title-pages. These are questions which it is now 
very difficult to settle, and as I do not apprehend we 
should be at all the nearer by dwelling longer upon 
them, we will proceed to " Dorastus and Fawnia," in 
which you will not fail to bear in mind that 

Egistus is the same as Shakespeare's Polixenes. 

Pandosto as Leontes. 

Bellaria . . as Hermione. 


Garinter is the same as Shakespeare's Mamillius. 

Dorastus as Florizel. 

Fawnia as Perdita. 

This, with the general resemblance between the play 
and the story, will enable you to understand the re- 
lation of the extracts. 

ELLIOT. You have remarked upon one principal 
discordance between " the Winter's Tale" and 
" Dorastus and Fawnia 3" do they run parallel in 
most other particulars r 

BOURNE. They do, excepting in one offensive in- 
cident, and that is, that Dorastus flying with his 
Fawnia, and arriving by accident at the Court of 
Pandosto, the father falls in love with his own 
daughter, and endeavours to seduce her : there was 
no necessity for this circumstance, and the conse- 
quence of it is, in addition to the destruction of his 
wife, that Pandosto is rendered unfit to enjoy the 
happiness of the young Prince and Princess when 
the ultimate discovery of Fawnia's birth is made, 
and he destroys himself. We have already seen that 
Francis Sabie turned the fable into blank verse, 
under the title of the " Fisherman's Tale," and 
" Flora's Fortune," in 1595. In the subsequent 
quotation Greene speaks of the innocent intimacy 
between Bellaria and Egistus, which led to the 
jealousy of Pandosto. {< Bellaria (who in her time 
was the flowre of courtesie) willing to show how 
vnfainedly she loued her husband by her friends en- 


tertainemet, vsed him likewise so familiarly that her 
countenance bewraied how her heart was affected 
toward him j oftentimes comming her selfe into his 
bed-chamber, to see if nothing should be amisse to 
dislike him. This honest familiarity increased daily 
more and more betwixt them, for Bellaria noting in 
Egistus a Princely and bountifull mind, adorned with 
sundry and excellent qualities, and Egistus finding in 
her a vertuous and curteous disposition, there grew 
such a secret vniting of their affections, that the one 
could not well be without the company of the other : 
insomuch, that when Pandosto was busied with such 
urgent affaires that he could not be present with his 
friend Egistus, Bellaria would walk with him into 
the garden, and there they two in priuate pleasant 
deuices, would passe away their time to both their 

MORTON. Hennione tells Leontes, in Shakespeare, 

" If you will seek us, 

We are yours i'the garden," &c. 

ELLIOT. If the reality had come up to the de- 
scription Greene has given of their " honest fami- 
liarity," I think I should almost have been led 
myself to suspect the lady. 

BOURNE. He carries it a little too far further than 
Shakespeare, who well knew out of what a mere 
mustard-seed the huge tree of jealousy grows : like 
the poison-tree of the East, it flings its arms far and 
wide, throwing down fresh roots at a distance from 


the original trunk, until it covers and blasts the whole 
soil. The description of the embarkation of the infant 
on its hopeless voyage is very pretty and affecting. 
" The Guard left her (Bellaria) in this perplexity, 
and carried the childe to the king, who quite devoid 
of pity commanded that without delay it should be 
put into the Boat, hauing neither Saile nor Rudder 
to guide it, and so to be carried into the midst of 
the Sea, and there left to the windes and the waues, 
as the Destinies please to appoint. The very Ship- 
men seeing the sweete countenance of the young 
Babe, began to accuse the King of rigour, and to 
pity the childs hard Fortune : but feare constrained 
them to that which their nature did abhorre, so 
that they placed it in one of the ends of the Boat, 
and with a few green boughes made a homely Cabbin 
to shroud it, as well as they could, from wind and 
weather. Hauing thus trimmed a Boat, they tyed 
it to a Ship, and so haled it into the maine Sea, and 
then cut in sunder the Cord; which they had no 
sooner done, but there arose a mighty Tempest, 
which tossed the little Boat so vehemently in the 
waues, that the Ship-men thought it could not con- 
tinue long without sincking : yet the storme grew so 
great, that with great labour and perill they got to 
the shore." 

MORTON. The introduction of the storm not only 
creates a strong interest for the fate of the infant, 
but accounts in some degree for the space of sea it 
passed over to reach Bohemia. 


BOURNE. It is observable that Shakespeare re- 
verses the scene : Greene's story begins in Bohemia, 
the kingdom of Pandosto j and the ioves of Dorastus 
and Fawnia, the Florizel and Perdita of the play, 
commence in Sicily. 

MORTON. I do not think Shakespeare's alteration 
in this respect so judicious as usual, because the 
climate of Sicily is much better adapted to the 
pastoral scenes that are represented there, than 

ELLIOT. Perhaps so : Shakespeare has been charged 
with ignorance in making Bohemia a country on the 

BOURNE. He had it from Greene: he took the 
popular story with the popular prejudices, and did 
not think it worth while, for the sake of mere 
geographical accuracy, to make any change. Our 
time is now so far exhausted that we shall not be 
able to do more than read one other quotation from 
Greene's tract : it relates to the first interview of 
Dorastus and Fawnia. " It hapned not long after 
this, that there was a meeting of all the Farmors 
daughters in Sicilia, whither Fawnia was also bidden 
as the mistresse of the feast : who hauing attired her 
selfe in her best garments, went amongst the rest of 
her companions to a merry meeting, there spending 
the day in such homely pastimes as Shepheards vse. 
As the Euening grew on, and their sport ceased, 
each taking their leaue of other, Faivnia desiring 
one of her companions to beare her company, went 


home by the flocke to see if they were well fowlded. 
And as they returned, it fortuned that Dorastus (who 
all that day had beene hawking, and killed store of 
game) incountred by the way these two maides, 
fearing that with Acteon he had seen Diana; for 
he thought such exquisite perfection could not be 
found in any mortall creature. As thus he stood in 
a maze, one of his Pages told him that the maid 
with the garland on her head was Fawnia, that faire 
Shepheardesse, whose beauty was so much talked of 
in the Court. Dorastus, desirous to see if nature 
had adorned her mind with any inward qualities, as 
she had decked her body with outward shape, began 
to question with her whose daughter she was, of 
what age, and how shee had beene trained vp? 
Who answered him with such modest reuerence and 
sharpnesse of wit, that Dorastus thought her out- 
ward beauty was but a counterfeit to darken her in- 
ward qualities : wondring how so courtly behauiour 
could be found in so simple a Cottage, and cursing 
Fortune, that had shaddowed wit and beauty with 
such hard Fortune. As thus he held her a long 
time with chat, beauty seeing him at discouert 
thought not to loose the vantage, but strucke him 
so deepely with an inuenomed shafte, as he wholly 
lost his liberty, and became a slaue to Loue, which 
before contemned Loue j glad to gaze vpon a poore 
shepheardesse, who before refused the offer of a rich 

ELLIOT. All that you have read is very prettily 


told, and though the characters are more strongly 
drawn and more minutely filled up by our dramatic 
poet, the outline, and that a graceful one, is to be 
found in Greene. I should like in the same way 
to go through some of the other plays of Shake- 
speare that are founded upon novels in " the Palace 
of Pleasure." 

BOURNE. Our time will not allow us to begin 
them now, but my copy of that entertaining work 
you may have the use of at any time. It is the less 
necessary to go through them, as " the Palace of 
Pleasure" has been recently pretty correctly reprinted. 
If I lend you my edition you will be careful of it, for 
original copies are of very rare occurrence. 

MORTON. Nearly the same may be said of North's 
Plutarch, for it has been many times republished 
since the first edition, I think about 1579> and the coin- 
cidences are by no means so curious or so important. 

BOURNE. Before we conclude for the day, I wish 
to bring under your notice a curiosity that has 
hitherto escaped the vigilance of the dust-raking 
commentators, or they would not have omitted some 
notice of it. I call it a curiosity, because, although 
it relates to Shakespeare, it does not possess much 
intrinsic value. It is contained in a volume of poems 
by Thomas Prujean, who calls himself " Student of 
Caius and Gonvile Colledge in Cambridge." 

ELLIOT. What does it consist of? 

BOURNE. Two metrical epistles in imitation of 


Ovid, one from Juliet to Romeo, and the other from 
Romeo to Juliet. 

MORTON. What is the date and the title of Pru- 
jean's volume? I never heard his strange name 

BOURNE. Very likely not, as his " Aurorata," 
printed in 1644, is very often not found even in cu- 
rious collections, and it is the more valuable, be- 
cause in the second part, called " Loves Looking- 
glasse, divine and humane," are contained the 
epistles to which I have referred. 

MORTON. I suppose Prujean means the Romeo and 
Juliet of Shakespeare, and not Arthur Brooke's 
performance, or Painter's novel ? 

BOURNE. He does, and it serves to show how 
long that play continued popular. Each epistle 
occupies about four pages, and what I now read is 
from that of Juliet to Romeo, for the lady opens the 
correspondence. I ought to mention that the sub- 
ject is introduced by the following " Argument :" 
" Romeo and luliet, issues of two enemies, Mounte- 
gue and Capulet, Citizens of Verona, fell in love one 
with the other : he going to give her a visit meetes 
Tybalt her kinsman, who urging a fight was slaine 
by him: for this Romeo was banished and resided 
at Mantua^ where he receiued an Epistle from 

ELLIOT. Is the lady very passionate in her epistle > 

BOURNE. You will see : she thus writes 


" For health and happinesse doth luliet pray 

To come to Romeo and his Mantua. 

His Mantua ! O, in that title blest ! 

Would my poore fame could have such happy rest ! 

Once it was so j once could this poore breast boast, 

(Rich only then) of being Romeos hoast. 

No sooner doe sleepes charmes upon me cease, 

But fancie straight disturbes me of my ease. 

Her troopes she brings, in which, me thinkes, I see 

Most of the horrour call its subject thee. * 

But then I gan to cry, why should these eyes 

Pay to a griefe imlawfull sacrifice ? 

Why should I weepe, because my enemy 

Became Fates slave and Romeo from it free ? 

Is he a friend that would deny to give, 

But rather take away by what I live, 

My life, my dearest ioy, my Romeo ? 

Yet are my roses overcome by woe. 

From thee they had their name, and sure thy love 

Their planter, nourisher, blossomer did prove. 

From thy sweet lips (when thou didst first salute 

Me at the Maske) my cheekes did steale thy sute 

Of crimson, and since thou didst kisse more free, 

They got what made up their maturitie. * * * 

How long of Romeo must I dreame, and when 

I thinke I have thee catch the ayre againe 

Once thou vow'dst by thy selfe, which I did take 

To be a greater then thou e'ere couldst make 



By heaven it selfe, so that my vow did tend, 
As in it thou thy love didst then commend j 
Yet keepe it as thou wilt, all luliets cry 
Will be with Romeo to live and dye." 

ELLIOT. Upon my word it is poor stuff, and hardly 
readable but for the names of the correspondents. 

MORTON. Perhaps Romeo's epistle is better than 
Juliet's, though in general, in letter writing, the 
ladies have the advantage over the gentlemen. 

BOURNE. It would not be easy for the gentleman 
to be more ardent than the lady in this instance : a 
shorter quotation will suffice from his reply : 

" Jhe greet thou sent'st no more belongs to mee 

Then when I am sweetly embrac't by thee : 

Only to that place is ascrib'd all blisse 

Where Romeo with his faire luliet is. 

Mantua's nothing but a cage of woe 3 

Where thou art not all countryes will prove so. * * * 

Yet when I name thy cousin, griefe does view 

Some blood of thine in him, & that will sue 

To have a tributary brine. The muse 

That sings his death may out of th' Laurel chuse 

As faire a branch as any. It is thee 

(When he sings him) shall blesse his poetry. 

The Destinies grew proud when as they had 

Got so much luliet within their shade. * * * 

And let not feare wither that rosie bed 

Upon thy cheekes, nor make the Lilly dead. 


Know I am Romeo still, know I am he 
Who vow'd what never shall be broke to thee. 
My selfe shall be my selfe ; who dares, who will 
Forsake life for to runne to deadly ill ? 
When I name luliet, and voyce shee is mine, 
I make a boast I equall powres divine. 
I'm banish't faire Verona* and will be 
Banisht life, yet never untrue to thee." 

MORTON. Prujean does not even make Romeo and 
Juliet write tolerable verse : this is the least that one 
would have expected. Here then we end for to-day. 

BOURNE. I would only remark, in conclusion, that 
in Thomas Fortescue's translation, called " The 
Foreste, or Collection of Histories no lesse profitable 
then pleasant," 1571> (fo. 138, b.) is a story "of a 
pretie guile practised by a vertuous and good Quene 
towardes her houseband, by means whereof lames, 
Kyng of Arragon, was begotten," which much re- 
sembles a main incident in " All's Well that ends 
Well." I do not mean that Shakespeare used it, be- 
cause it is notorious that he followed the novel in 
" the Palace of Pleasure." 

ELLIOT. The original is in Italian, and is told by 
Boccacio in his Decameron, Gior. III. Nov. 9. 

BOURNE. It is, and from thence Painter translated 
his somewhat formal narrative. As he relates it, it 
is by no means one of the pleasantest stories in the 


MORTON. How long was it before any complete 
translation of Boccacio's Decameron appeared in 

BOURNE. The Rev. Mr. Todd, in his Dictionary, 
under the word " Cheer," quotes " Translation of 
Boccacio, 1587," but I have never seen any such 
work : it may perhaps not mean a translation of the 
Decameron, but of some other production by the same 
author. The first complete edition of Boccacio's 
Decameron I have seen is called " The Modell of 
Wit, Mirth, Eloquence, and Conversation," &c. : the 
first volume is printed by J. Jaggard, in 1625, and 
what is singular is, that the second part, named ex- 
pressly " The Decameron, containing an hundred 
pleasant Novels," bears date in 1620, unless there 
be some defect in my copy. By the Register of the 
Stationers' Company we find, that in 1619 Abbot, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, prohibited the publication 
of " The Decameron of Mr. John Boccace Flo- 

MORTON. Is that translation a good one ? I do not 
think that Painter is usually very happy in his version. 
BOURNE. It is very unequal : some of the stories 
are much better told than others. The translator, 
whoever he might be, sometimes took considerable 
liberties with his original : for instance, in Day IX. 
Nov. 9. he makes Solomon King of Great Britain, 
and sometimes introduces even more considerable 






Tracts on the subject of theatrical performances previous to the 
restoration Works where they are touched upon incidentally 
" The Fardle of facions," 1555 Plays among the Chinese noticed 
in Parke's " Historic of China," 1588 Argument of a Chinese 
play Plays of the Bramins or Abrahmanes Attack on the 
Puritans by William Warner " The Chirche of euyl men and 
women," printed by Pynson, 1509 Price of tracts on the stage 
in 1781 Gascoyne's " Wy}l of the Deuyll" Stephen Gossan, a 
play-poet, author of three pamphlets against the stage His 
" Schoole of Abuse," 1579, dedicated to Sir P. Sidney, and its 
reception by him Extract on the degeneracy of the age Ac- 
count of Gosson, and his own praise of his plays: also a pastoral 
poet But two relics by Gosson existing Stanza from his com- 
mendatory verses to Nicholas's " Historic of the Weast India," 
1578 His poem called Spec id urn limnannm at the end of Kirton's 
" Mirror of Mans life," 1580, extracted Remarks Gosson's 
" Ephemerides of Phialo," and " Short Apologie," &c. 1579 and 
158G His reply to the Excusers of stage-plays quoted His 
" Playes confuted in fiue actions," &c. 1581, and its application 
Thomas Lodge's " Play of Playes" His very scarce and 
curious tract called " An Alarum against Vsurers," &c. 1584, 
containing a reply to Gosson's attack upon him in his " Playes 
confuted" Dedication by Lodge to Sir P. Sidney, and his address 
to the " Gentlemen of the Innes of Court," comprising his reply 
to Gosson Extracts Lodge's " Play of Playes," never published 
His good humour under Gosson's most gross attack His birth 
and family, and T. Sailer's " Mirror of Modesty," dedicated to 
Sir Thomas Lodge, referred to Lodge's candour towards, and 


praise of Gosson Complimentary stanzas on Lodge by Bamabe 
Rich, extracted Gosson a writer of blank verse Queen Eliza- 
beth's chorus to one of Seneca's tragedies John iS'orthbrooke's 
" Treatise against Dicing, Dauncing, Vaine playes," &c. im- 
printed by H. Bynneman Quotations on the manners of the 
time, on the plays then represented, and against theatres and actors 

The Anatomic of Abuses," 1585, by Philip Stubbes Its 

popularity and number of editions Thomas Nash's attack on 
Stubbes in his " Almond for a Parrat" Extract from Stubbes's 
work, and his denunciation of plays, players, play-writers, and 
play-goers G. Whetstone's " Addition or Touchstone for the 
Time," 1584, quoted on the abuse of theatrical performances 
John Field's " Godly exhortation by occasion of the late Judge- 
ment of God shewed at Paris-garden," 1583 Bear-baiting and 
stage-plays coupled by the puritans Quotation on the abolition of 
plays on Sunday Uncertainty on this point in our histories of the 
stage Arthur Golding's " Discourse vpon the Earthquake" of 
April 6, 1580, adduced to prove that plays were usually then re- 
presented on Sunday W. Rankin's " Mirour of Monsters," 1587 
Its rarity A mask described in it, and quotation against actors 
Speech of Luxuria from the same Dr. Rainoldes " Overthrow 
of Stage-Playes," 1599: its object Epigram by Thomas Bastard 
on Dr. Rainoldes Oaths on the stage Dr. Gager's academic play 
called Ulysses redux Dr. Rainoldes on the crimes of players, 
especially deer-stealingShakespeare and the charge against him 
by Sir T. Lucy On men dressing themselves as women on the 




BOURNE. The task you propose is not an easy one, 
whether we consider the number of books we shall 
have to examine, or the attention they will require. 
We must not lose time if we are to complete it to- 
day and to-morrow. 

ELLIOT. We must avoid digressions then as much 
as possible, keeping as strictly as we can to the tracts 
that have been written for and against theatrical per- 

BOUBNE. And touching only upon those that are 
of the greatest rarity, and, of course, not bringing it 
down lower than the protectorate the triumph of 
William Prynne, and the puritans. We must also 
limit ourselves in another respect ; not to notice 
pieces that only introduce the subject of stage plays 
and actors incidentally, unless for some special pur- 
pose : our inquiry would otherwise be almost endless. 

MORTON. Explain what you mean a little more 


fully. I should feel very reluctant to omit any thing 
important or curious. 

BOURNE. I can do so best, perhaps, by an example. 
Here, for instance, is a work which might easily 
draw us out of our course 5 as, besides being one of 
the earliest incidental censures of the stage, it con- 
tains a great deal of amusing matter : the title of it 
is, " The Fardle of facions, conteining the aunciente 
maners, customes, and Lawes of the peoples inhabit- 
ing the two partes of the earth, called AfFrike and 
Asie. Printed at London by Ihon Kingstone,"'l555. 
It is a production of great rarity. 

ELLIOT. One does not readily see how in a treatise 
upon Africa and Asia, the author can introduce any 
thing about theatrical performances in England. 

MORTON. I think he might do it very easily j 
when speaking of Asia, he would perhaps notice the 
plays of the Chinese, who are known to have had 
them represented some hundreds of years, at least, 
before they found their way into Europe. 

ELLIOT. Very true: Voltaire's Orphan of China 
is founded upon an old Chinese play, a translation 
of which was published by Bishop Percy j and very 
lately a gentleman of the name of Davis (I think 
that was his name), put one of them into an English 
dress, called " An Heir in his old Age." 

MORTON. In Parke's " Historic of the great and 
mightie kingdome of China," 1588, which has been 
before mentioned, there is a good deal regarding the 
theatrical representations of the Chinese. 


BOURNE. I have not on my memory any thing of 
that kind : it must be curious. Here is the book ; 
perhaps you will point it out. 

MORTON. On p. 106, where it is said, " At these 
bankettes and feastes, there are present alwayes 
women gesters, who doo play and sing, vsing manie 
prettie gestes to cause delight, and make mirth to 
the guestes : besides these they haue diuerse sortes 
of men with other instruments, as tomblers and 
players, who do represent their Comedies very per- 
fectly and naturally." 

BOURNE. " Women jesters" I never heard of be- 
fore, but it does not seem that they were actresses. 

MORTON. Further on, on p. 207 and p. 221, the 
" arguments," as they are called, of two of the plays 
represented, are inserted as from the mouth of an 
interpreter: there appears to be great simplicity 
about them, as you may judge from the following, 
which is one of them : " In times past there was in 
that countrie manie mightie and valiant men j but 
amongest them all, there was in particular three 
brethren that did exceede all the rest that euer were 
in mightinesse and valiantnesse. The one of them 
was a white man, the other was ruddish or hie 
coloured and the thirde blacke. The ruddish being 
more ingenious and of better Industrie, did procure 
to make his white brother king, the which iudgement 
was agreeable vnto the rest. Then they altogether 
did take away the kingdome from him that did at 


that time raigne, who was called Laupicono, an 
effeminate man and verie vicious. This they did 
represent verie gallantly with garmentes verie meete 
for those personages." 

ELLIOT. This is enough to show, according to the 
account of travellers in China nearly two centuries 
and a half ago, that the dramatic exhibitions of the 
Chinese were in a very advanced state, both as to 
subject and what are now called properties. 

MORTON. The story of the play is capable of con- 
siderable variety, but whether female characters were 
introduced into it we are not informed. The plot of 
the piece spoken of on p. 221, is somewhat more 
complicated. However, to go further into this sub- 
ject, would be to commit the very error which it is 
our business to avoid. I interrupted you in your 
observations upon the " Fardle of Fashions." 

BOURNE. The passage I had to produce from it 
does not deserve extracting so much as what you 
have just concluded j but it perhaps still merits 
notice, as connected in subject, and as containing an 
incidental blow at the theatrical amusements in Eng- 
land as they existed about the year 1555. The author, 
or rather translator, who inserts much original matter, 
is speaking of the Bramins and their employments, 
and it is observable that he calls them Abrahmanes, 
which affords a third and a plausible etymology to 
the two already conjectured, for the word Bramin 
or Brachman. " Thei couette no sightes, nor shewes 


of misrule : no disguisinges nor entreludes ; but 
when thei be disposed to haue the pleasure of the 
stage thei entre into the regestre of their stories, and 
what thei finde there most fit to be laughed at, that 
do thei lamente and bewaile." 

ELLIOT. That seems rather contradictory : I sup- 
pose it means that these Bramins, like very wise 
men, lament and bewail the follies of their ancestors : 
others may say, 

Felices proavorum atavos,felicia dicas 
ScBcula ; 

but they were above the vulgar prejudice. 

BOURNE. Like Bottom, they " will condole in 
some measure," and congratulate themselves how 
much wiser they were than their predecessors. 
Watreman (the translator) goes on : " Thei delighte 
not, as many do, to heare olde wiues tales and fantasies 
of Robin hoode, but in studious consideration of the 
wondrefull workemanship of the world and the per- 
fect disposinge of thinges in suche ordre of course 
and degree. Thei crosse no sease for merchaundise, 
ne learne no colours of Rhetoricque." The whole of 
the passage of which what I have read is the begin- 
ning, is aimed against the manners of the age, and 
particularly against " sightes, shewes of misrule, dis- 
guisinges and entreludes." 

MORTON. Yet, not long afterwards, what he com- 
plains of was partially remedied - } our dramatic poets 
" entered into the register of their stories" in hi- 


storical plays, and thus gave the audiences " the 
pleasure of the stage" which the Bramins enjoyed. 

BOURNE. But they did not " lament and bewail" 
what " they found there most fit to be laughed at." 
In that respect our forefathers were not so sagacious 
as the Bramins, and if they had been, perhaps we 
might have now been neither wiser nor happier than 
the Indians. But not to pursue this further, I only 
introduced that quotation as one among many of the 
incidental attacks upon stage-plays. 

MORTON. William Warner, the author of that 
popular poem of " Albion's England," which went 
through so many editions between 1586 and 1612, 
and contains so much good poetry and curious in- 
formation, has made a heavy hit at the puritans, as the 
enemies of" meet sports," and among them theatrical 
representations, which he says they had " well near 

" These Hypocrites for these three Gifts to their 

Lauerna pray, 
Just to be thoght, Al to beguile, That none their 

guiles bewray: 
Their art is fayning good they want, and hiding bad 

they haue : 
Their Practise is selfe-praise, of praise all others to 

On Loue, say some, waites lelosie, but lelosie wants 

When curiously it ouer-plus doth idle Quarrels moue: 


Best Puritaines are so ore-zeal'd, but should I terme 

the rest, 

Inhospitalous, Mutinous, and Hypocrites the bestj 
Insociable, Maleparte, foxing their priuate good, 
Exiling hence wel-neere all Troth, meet Sports and 

Neighbourhood ; 
Learnings foes, contemptuously by them be Lawes 

Selfe-pleasers, Skorners, Harlots, Crones, against the 

Haire in all: 
Of their extreme, whence Atheisme breeds, bee 

warning Hackets fall ! 
If euer England will in aught preuent her owne 


Against these skorns (no terme too grosse) let Eng- 
land shut the gap." 

ELLIOT. You did right to call it a heavy hit, for 
the lines are monstrously lumbering. The censure 
they contain is, notwithstanding, severe, and, I dare 
say, generally true. Well then, if we are to hear no 
more of attacks on the stage by the way, in works 
not professing to treat of that subject, with what 
tract especially devoted to plays and amusements of 
the same class will you commence your examination? 

BOURNE. That question is certainly not so easily 
answered. I might, perhaps, begin with the most rare 
tract, printed, as is supposed, by Pynson, in 1509, 
and called " The chirche of euyl men and women, 


wherof Lucyfer is the head, and the members is 
all players dyssolute and synners reproued." Mr. 
Dibdin, in his edition of Ames, does not profess to 
have seen a copy of it, and gives merely the account 
he found in Herbert's Appendix, and an extract from 
the Bodleian catalogue. It was valued in the library 
of Bryan Fairfax, in 1756, at 2 8s., but the sum 
cannot be named that a copy would now produce if 
brought to the hammer. 

MORTON. I was the other day looking over a 
priced catalogue of the books belonging to Topham 
Beauclerc, which were sold in 1781, and I found the 
subsequent article connected with our present in- 
quiry, and showing the astonishingly low price at 
which some, I believe, of the most valuable tracts 
on the stage sold at that date. 
BOURNE. Read it by all means. 
MORTON. The following were knocked down in 
one lot for only of 3 6s. 

" Gosson (Steph.) Playes confuted in five actions 
proving that they are not to be suffred in a 
Christian common weale, b. 1. dedicated to 
Sir Fr. Walsingham. No date. 
A second and third blast of Retreate from 
Plaies and Theatres, showing the filthiness of 
Plaies in Times past and the abomination of 
them in the time present. Set forth by 
Anglo-phile Eutheo impr. by Hen. Den- 
ham, 1580. 


A manifest detection of the most vyle and de- 
testable use of dyce-play by Gilb. Walker, 
b. 1. impr. by Abr. Vele : no date. 
A dialogue between custome and Veritie con- 
cerning dauncing and minstrelsie. b. 1. impr. 
by lo. Aide. No date. 
Maister Tho. Lodge his reply to Steph. Gosson 

touching Playes. b. 1. no title. 
The wyll of the Deuyll with his ten detestable 
commandments, by Geo. Gascoyne : impr. 
by Rich. Jones, no date. 

Tho. Salter his contention between three bre- 
theren, that is to say the Whoremonger, the 
Dronkard and the Dyce player, b. 1. impr. for 
Tho. Gosson, 1580." 

BOURNE. A most rare assemblage of tracts, any 
one of which would probably now sell for twice the 
sum that was then given for the whole, and several 
of them for much more. Gosson's and Lodge's 
pieces are among the most rare. Of Gascoyne's 
production what you have read is the only existing 
register, and from that it does not appear whether 
it did or did not include stage plays. 

MORTON. He was himself a writer of plays : it 
would rather therefore be directed against some other 
horrible vice than that of visiting theatres. 

BOURNE. Such literary tergiversation would by no 
means be without a parallel, and that in the instance 
of a writer just enumerated. 

VOL. II. p 


ELLIOT. Which of them ? 

BOURNE. Stephen Gosson, who, according to hi* 
own confession as I will show you presently, wrote 
several plays, and afterwards in the most violent 
terms abused theatrical representations. 

ELLIOT. What were the names of the plays he 
wrote ? Have any of them reached our time ? 

BOURNE. Nothing but their titles; it is stated 
that they were never printed : he wrote " Catilines 
Conspiracies," a Tragedy, " Captain Mario," a Co- 
medy, and " Praise at parting," a Morality. 

MORTON. And what were the titles of the pieces 
he published afterwards against stage-plays ? 

BOURNE. They were three ; but the first, and the 
most notorious, is his " Schoale of Abuse containing 
a pleasant Inuectiue against Poets, Pipers, Players, 
Testers, and such like Caterpillers of the Common- 

ELLIOT. When did that " pleasant invective," if it 
be so, make its appearance ? 

BOURNE. The earliest edition I have seen is dated 
in 1579, but I am not sure that it was not before 
printed. Prynne, who is generally tolerably accu- 
rate as to dates, says in his Histriomastix, that it 
was printed " by allowance" in 1578, and this is 
rendered the more probable because it is certain 
that in 1579 " a short Apologie of the Schoole of 
Abuse" was written by the same pen : to this we 
shall advert presently, and in the mean time I will 


read you a brief passage or two from the " Schoole 
of Abuse" itself, that you may see how " pleasant" 
this " Invective" is. I advise you not to promise 
yourselves too much entertainment. The tract 
opens by adverting at some length to the estimation 
of poets in former ages. 

MORTON-. Has it no dedication, or did the author 
think the protection of a patron unnecessary to so 
laudable an undertaking ? 

BOURNE. I am obliged to you for reminding me 
of a circumstance I should otherwise have omitted. 
He ventured to dedicate it to Sir Philip Sidney, but 
Spenser, in one of his letters to his friend Gabriel 
Harvey, under date of 1580, tells him how it \\&s 
received by " the president of nobleness and chi- 
valry ;'" " New bookes (he says) I heare of none, 
but onely of one that writing a certaine booke called 
the Schoole of Abuse, and dedicating it to Maister 
Sidney was for his labour scorned ; if at leaste it be 
in the goodnesse of that nature to scorne. Suche 
follie is it not to regarde aforehande the inclination 
and qualitie of him to whom we dedicate our 

ELLIOT. That is just as it should have been j 

" Poor Curio runs his labours to inscribe 
To one who scorns the low detracting tribe," 

are lines very applicable to Gosson's predicament. 
BOURNE. Yet notwithstanding he was " scorned," 

p <2 


(whether it was that the nature" of Sidney would 
not allow him to express it with severity) Gosson 
persisted in dedicating to him the " short Apologie 
of the Schoole of Abuse," of which I have spoken. 
The first thing we have to do is to examine briefly 
the " Schoole of Abuse" itself. The subsequent 
quotation refers to the old theme of degeneracy of 
the age, the comparison being made between the 
condition of society in Gosson's time, and in the first 
state of barbarism of the people of England. " Oh 
what a wonderfull chaunge is this ! Our wreastling 
at armes is turned to wallowing in ladies laps, our 
courage to cowardice, our running to ryot, our 
bowes into bolles, and our darts into dishes. We 
have robbed Greece of gluttonie, Italy of wanton- 
nesse, Spaine of pride, Fraunce of deceite and 
Duchland of quaffing. Compare London to Rome, 
and England to Italy, you shall finde the theaters of 
the one, the abuses of the other to be rife among vs : 
experto crede, I haue scene somewhat and therefore, 
I think, I may say the more." 

ELLIOT. Does he mean by " experto crede" that 
he has <f seen somewhat" of the foreign countries he 
names, or that he has had experience of the vices of 
his own ? 

BOURNE. I apprehend the last, for we do not 
know that he travelled : he was born in 1554, was 
entered at Oxford in 15/2, and probably soon after- 
wards commenced poet and play-wright. What gave 


him his disgust, whether the hisses of his audience 
or otherwise, there is no account, but returning to 
his university (from whence he dates his dedication 
to his " short Apologie" in 1579) ne to k orders and 
died in 1629. The most curious part of his " Schoole 
of Abuse" relates to himself and one of his own 
plays : it is this. He is speaking of some plays 
that may be endured, after having abused all plays, 
players, and poets, in general. " And as some of the 
players are farre from abuse, so some of their playes 
are without rebuke which are as easily remembred as 
quickly reckoned. The two prose bookes plaied at 
the Belsauage where you shall finde neuer a woorde 
without wite, neuer a line without pith, neuer a 
letter placed in vaine. The lew and Ptolome showne 
at the Bull, the one representing the greedinesse of 
worldly chusers, and bloody mindes of vsurers, the 
other very liuely describing how seditious estates 
with their owne deuices, false friends with their 
own swoordes, and rebellious commons in their 
own snares, are ouerthrowne : neither with amorous 
gesture wounding the eye, nor with slouenly talke 
hurting the eares of the chast hearers. The Blacke 
Smiths daughter and Catilins conspiracies vsually 
brought in to the theater j the firste contayning the 
trechary of Turkes, the honourable bountye of a 
noble minde, and the shining of vertue in distresse ; 
the last, because it was knowne to be a pig of mine 
owne sowe, I will speake the Icsse of it, onely piuing 


you to vnderstand that the whole marke which I 
shot at in that woorke was to showe the rewarde of 
traytors in Catilin, and the necessary gouernment of 
learned men in the person of Cicero, which foresees 
euery danger that is likely to happen and forstalles 
it continually ere it take effect." 

MORTON. He only mentions here " Catiline's Con- 
spiracies" as " a pig of his own sow" (most elegant 
phraseology to be sure), but he says nothing of his 
Comedy nor of his Morality. 

BOURNE. They have been assigned to Gosson on 
other authorities, which it might be tedious to 
enumerate. He was also a pastoral poet, according 
to the account of Francis Meres, who mentions 
Gosson's name in conjunction with that of Spenser. 
Wood also bears testimony that he was celebrated 
" for his admirable penning of pastorals " there are 
but two poems by Gosson now known, and only one 
of them is noticed by Ritson. 

MORTON. Can you show us either of them ? We 
might thus perhaps form some notion of his talents 
as a poet. 

BOURNE. I can show you both, but one of them 
consists merely of commendatory stanzas prefixed 
to " The pleasant Historic of the conquest of the 
Weast India," by Thos. Nicholas, printed in 1 578 : 
the first stanza of it is very curious, as it plainly has 
an allusion to what you called Gosson's tergiversa- 
tion, for here he laments " the follies of his youth," 


when he devoted his time to the idleness of poetry. 
The rest, though easily written, as if by a pen of 
some practice, is little more than an enlargement of 
the thought contained in the first six lines. 

" The Poet which sometimes hath trod awry, 
And sung in verse the force of firie loue, 

When he beholds his lute with carefull eye, 

Thinks on the dumps that he was wont to proue : 

His groning sprite yprickt with tender ruth 

Calls then to mind the follies of his youth." 

MORTON. These lines were printed, you say, in 
1578, probably then shortly before Gosson published 
his " Schoole of Abuse." 

BOURNE. Most likely, and after he had again 
taken up his residence at Oxford to prepare himself 
for the church. 

ELLIOT. The lines are not amiss, and the allusion 
to the sight of his lute bringing his youthful follies 
to his recollection is rather pretty. From whence 
do you take the other specimen of Gosson's skill in 
poetry > 

BOURNE. From a translation by a person of the 
name of H. Kirton, called " The Mirror of Mans 
life," dedicated to Anne, Countess of Pembroke, and 
published in 1580. The book is rarely to be met with. 
If Gosson wrote no better when he was younger, 
it is strange how he acquired the reputation he un- 
doubtedly obtained. But you shall hear the poem, 


which is original, is not very long, and has not any 
where been extracted. It is called, 

" Speculum humanum ; 
Made by Ste. Gosson. 

O what is man ? or whereof might he vaunt > 
From earth and aire, and ashes first he came : 
His tickle state, his courage ought to daunt : 
His life shall flit, when most he trusts the same. 
Then keepe in minde thy moolde and fickle stamej 
Thyself a naked Adam shalt thou finde : 
A babe by birth both borne and brought forth blind : 

A drie and withered reede, that wanteth sap, 
Whose rotten roote is refte, euen at a clap : 

A signe, a shew of greene and pleasant grasse 
Whose glyding glorie sodeinlie doth passe. 

A lame and lothsome limping legged wight 
That daily doth Gods frowne and furie feele, 
A crooked cripple, voide of all delight, 
That haleth after him an haulting heele, 
And from Hierusalem on stilts doth reele : 
A wretch of wrath, a sop in sorrow sowst, 
A brused barke with billowes all bedowst, 

A filthie cloth, a stinking clod of clay, 
A sacke of sinne that shall be swallowed aye 

Of thousand hels, except the Lord do lend 
His helping hand, and lowring browes vnbend. 
The prime of youth, whose greene vnmellowd yeres 
With hoised head doth check the loftie Skies, 


And set vp saile, and sternlesse ships ysteares, 
With wind and wave at pleasure sure he flies : 
On euery side then glance his rolling eies : 
Yet hoary haires do cause them downe to drowp, 
And stealing steps of age do make him stoup. 

Our health that doth the web of wo begin, 
And pricketh forth our pampred flesh to sin, 

By sicknesse soakt in many maladies, 
Shall turne our mirthe to mone, and howling cries. 

The wreathed haire of perfect golden wire, 
The christall eies, the shining Angels face 
That kindles coales to set the heart on fire, 
When we doe thinke to runne a royall race, 
Shall sodeinlie be gauled with disgrace ; 
Our goods, our beautie, and our braue araie, 
That seemes to set our hearts on hoigh for aie, 

Much like the tender floure in fragrant fields, 
Whose sugred sap sweet smelling sauour yeelds, 

Though we therein doe dailie laie our lust, 
By dint of death shall vanish vnto dust. 

Why seeke ye then this lingring life to saue, 
A hugie heape of bale and miserie ? 
Why loue we longer daies on earth to craue, 
Where carke, and care, and all calamitie, 
Where nought we finde but bitter ioylitie ? 
The longer that we Hue, the more we fall, 
The more we fall, the greater is our thrall, 


The shorter life doth make the lesse account, 
To lesse account the reckning soone doth mount, 

And then the reckning brought to quiet end, 
A ioyfull state of better life doth lend. 

Thou God therefore that rules the rolling Skie, 
Thou Lord that lends the props whereon we stale, 
And turnes the spheares, and tempers all on hie, 
Come, come in hast, to take vs hence awaie ! 
Thy goodnesse shall we then engraue for aie, 
And sing a song of endlesse thankes to thee, 
That deignest so from death to set vs free : 

Redeeming vs from depth of dark decaie, 
With foure and twentie Elders shall we saie, 

To him be glorie, power, and praise alone, 
That with the lambe doth sit in loftie throne. 


ELLIOT. I have had something to do to keep my 
patience till you arrived at the word Finis. I began to 
be tired of such stale sermonizing when you had read 
two stanzas -, but the opening of the third pleased 
me, and certainly it is not so bad as what precedes it. 

MORTON. I confess I wondered how you restrained 
your impetuosity, but I suppose the recollection that 
this is the only original poem known (with the ex- 
ception of the commendatory verses before noticed), 
by a man of Gosson's celebrity, restrained you. 

ELLIOT. Not at all : if an author write dull non- 


sense, the more rare it is the better, nor do I feel 
myself at all more bound to hear it merely because 
it is rare. 

BOURNE. It cannot be said that Gosson's lines are 
not generally flowing and harmonious, and if the 
morality be stale, we ought to recollect that it is 
now nearly 250 years old. In that time it might 
well become so. 

ELLIOT. Now it is done, I do not mean to say 
that I regret having heard it ; some of the lines run 
well enough, but 

" A filthie cloth, a stinking clod of clay, 
A sack of sin that shall be swallow'd aye," 

are absurd enough, and those lines are not without 
" companions vile to keep them countenance." 

BOURNE. It does not merit very minute criticism, 
and having read all that is necessary from " the 
Schoole of Abuse," we will now look at the " short 
Apologie" for it, (as far as it really deserves the term) 
which is contained in a work by Gosson of severe 
puritanism, called " The Ephemerides of Phialo de- 
luded into three books." The last book only con- 
cerns our inquiry, which contains " the Defence of 
a Courtezan ouerthrowen : and a short Apologie of 
the Schoole of Abuse against Poets, Pipers, Players 
and their excusers." It was first printed in 1579, 
and again in 1586'; in both cases, as I have said, 
with a dedication to Sir P. Sidney. 


MORTON. Who had become the excusers of the 
players, &c. as he mentions r 

BOURNE. Gosson says that the players had en- 
deavoured to find a vindicator in one of the uni- 
versities, and he had heard that they had at last 
actually employed some person in London to write 
" Honest Excuses" for them. This alludes to a tract 
by Thomas Lodge, of which I will speak presently. 
A few sentences from this " Apologie" by Gosson 
will satisfy all reasonable curiosity. He says in one 
place, " A theefe is a shrewde member in a Com- 
mon wealth ', he empties our bagges by force, these" 
(meaning players) " ransacke our purses by per- 
mission ; he spoileth vs secretly, these rifle vs openly j 
hee getts the vpperhand by blowes, these by merry 
iestes ; he suckes our blood, these our manners j he 
woundes our bodie, these our soule." Aud thus 
having wound himself up to an antithetical climax, he 
exclaims, with all the affected and furious zeal of a 
Puritan, " O God, O men, O heauen, O earth, O 
tymes, O manners, O miserable daies !" 

ELLIOT. All this must seem to us nothing short 
of absolute madness j with our present notions we 
cannot form an idea why the unhappy players should 
excite such deadly animosity, and call down such 
terrific anathemas. 

BOURNE. It is astonishing; but nothing better than 
such publications as these let us into a knowledge 
of the religious spirit of the times. Pursuing hia 


contrast between a thief and a player, Gosson adds, 
with much solemnity, " He suffereth for his offence ; 
these stroute without punishment vnder our noses, 
and lyke vnto a consuming fire are nourished stil 
with our decay." This pretended " Apologie" is, in 
truth, nothing but a reiteration of the first attack, 
and it ends in these words ; " Wishing to my schoole 
some thriftier scholers, to players an honester oc- 
cupation, and their excuser a better minde, I take 
my leave." 

ELLIOT. And we have had enough of his company 
not to regret his departure. You said, I think, that 
Gosson wrote three pieces against the stage, and 
you have noticed two : what is the third ? 

BOURNE. It is called " Playes confuted in five 
actions, prouing that they are not to be suffred in a 
Christian Commonweale." This is a sermonizing 
production, and is divided like a play, into five acts 
or actions, and dedicated to Sir F. Walsingham. It 
has no date upon the title, but Prynne fixes it about 
1581, and from what I am going next to offer it 
should seem that he is correct. I should observe, 
that in Reed's Shakespeare you will find sufficient 
quotations from this last tract by Gosson. 

MORTON. What next then are you going to offer ? 

BOURNE. A book to which you must allow me to 
make a preface of my own, to render its application 
clear. In 1579 Gosson printed his " School of 
Abuse," and in the same year his f( Ephemerides of 
Phialo," containing the " short Apology," and hinting 


that an answer to the " School of Abuse" had been 
written by some person in London. This answer 
was in fact written by Thomas Lodge, and is the 
tract which is called, in Beauclerc's Catalogue, 
" Maister Tho. Lodge his reply to Steph. Gosson 
touching playes." That copy was without a title, 
and the tract is perhaps the very rarest of the rare 
pieces relating to the stage : Mr. Malone could never 
obtain a sight of it. You will presently learn the 
reason why it is so : a more perfect copy, however, 
does, they say, exist, and it is called " The Play of 
Playes," but the date has not been hitherto ascer- 

MORTON. And it contains the " honest excuses," 
spoken of by Gosson in his " Ephemerides of Phialo r" 

BOURNE. It does, and that mention of it seems to 
fix the date, supported as it is by the most curious 
and important tract I now hold in my hand. You 
will not forget that Gosson's " Plays confuted in 
five actions," came out probably in 1581, dedicated 
to Sir F. Walsingham, and that it contained a severe 
and abusive attack upon Lodge. 

ELLIOT. You excite one's curiosity : what is the 
tract in your hand ? 

BOURNE. I owe the use of it to the same liberal 
professor to whom I was indebted for Micro-cynicon, 
and I do not over-rate it when I say that it is, on 
every account, one of the most valuable tracts exist- 
ing. One peculiar source of its curiosity does not 
appear on the title-page, which is thus worded:, 


" An Alarum against Vsurers. Containing tryed ex- 
periences against worldly abuses. Wherein gentle- 
men may finde good counsells to confirme them, 
and pleasant Histories to delight them : and euery 
thing interlaced with varietie, as the curious may 
be satisfied with the rarenesse, and the curteous 
with the pleasure. Hereunto are annexed the. de- 
lectable historic of Forbonius and Prisceria: with 
the lamentable Complaint of Truth ouer England. 
Written by Thomas Lodge, of Lincolnes Inne, Gen- 
tleman. Ovita! misero longa, fcclici breuis. Im- 
printed at London by T. Este, for Sampson Clarke," 
&c. 1584, 

MORTON. The title is sufficiently particular. I dare 
say the work is very rare, but now let us into the 
secret of the extraordinary emphasis you laid upon 
its especial value. 

BOURNE. Its especial value, as connected with the 
immediate subject of our inquiry, is confined to the 
preliminary matter 5 but the nature and variety of 
the body of this hitherto unseen pamphlet, consist- 
ing of prose and poetry (the latter I think of great 
merit), form most important recommendations. The 
dedication is to Sir Philip Sidney, " indued with 
all perfections of learning and titles of Nobilitie," 
who refused to accept the dedication of Gosson, 
and whom Lodge solicits to protect him " in 
these Primordia of my studies," so that perhaps this 
" Alarum against Usurers" was only the second 


time Lodge had appeared in print, his answer to 
Gosson being his first essay. 

ELLIOT. At all events, it was one of his very early 
productions. Does the dedication comprize any 
thing else remarkable ? 

BOURNE. No, excepting that in the conclusion he 
again speaks of the hoped for " successe of this my 
firstlings." What I particularly call your attention 
to is an address, following the dedication, " To The 
Right worshipfull, my curteous friends, the Gen- 
tlemen of the Innes of Court, Thomas Lodge of 
Lincolnes Inne Gentleman, wisheth prosperous suc- 
cesse in their studies, and happie euent in their tra- 
uailes." I will omit a preliminary sentence or two, 
and you will soon see why this epistle is important : 
he says, " Led then by these perswasions, I doubt 
not but as I haue alwayes found you fauourable, so 
now you will not cease to be friendly, both in pro- 
tecting of this iust cause from uniust slander, and my 
person from that reproch which, about two yeares 
since, an iniurious cauiller obiected against me. 
You that know me, Gentlemen, can testifie that 
neyther my life hath bene so lewd as y l my companie 
was odious, nor my behauiour so light as that it 
shuld passe the limits of modestie : this notwith- 
standing, a licentious Hipponax, neither regarding 
the asperitie of the lawes touching slaunderous Li- 
bellers, nor the offspring from whence I came, which 
is not contemptible, attempted not only in publike 


and reprochfull terms to condemn me in his writings, 
but also so to slander me as neither iustice shuld 
wink at so hainous an offece, nor I pretermit a com- 
modious reply." 

ELLIOT. You infer then that Lodge there alludes 
to Gosson > It is certainly curious. 

BOURNE. I do not infer it, because the very next sen- 
tence states it most distinctly. " About three yeres 
ago (continues Lodge) one Stephen Gosson published 
a booke, intituled The Schoole of Abuse, in which 
hauing escaped in many and sundry exclusions, I, 
as the occasion the fitted me, shapt him such an 
answere as beseemed his discourse, which by reason 
of the slendernes of y e subiect (because it was in 
defece of plaies and play makers) y e godly and re- 
uerent, y l . had to deale in the cause, misliking it 
forbad the publishing : notwithstanding he comming 
by a priuate vnperfect coppye, about two yeres since, 
made a reply, diuiding it into fiue sectios." 

MORTON. That is very clear indeed, and satis- 
factorily accounts for the extreme scarcity of Lodge's 
" Play of Plays 5" he says it was not published, but 
it must have been printed, or a copy would not have 
come down to us, or got into Gosson's hands : after 
it had gone through the press, I suppose it was 
called in by order of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and the Bishop of London ? 

ELLIOT. They had jurisdiction in these matters, 



and ordered the burning of Marston's satires, and 
that no others should be printed. 

BOURNE. They exercised the same power in several 
other well known cases. Gosson's reply, divided " into 
fiue sections," is indisputably his " Plays confuted 
in fiue actions," dedicated to Sir F. Walsingham; 
indeed Lodge goes on himself to particularise it, for 
he says immediately after what I last read j " and 
in his Epistle dedicatory, to y c right honorable sir 
Frances Walsingham, he impugneth me with these 
reproches, y l I am become a vagarat person, visited 
by y e heuy hand of God, lighter then libertie, and 
looser the vanitie. At such time as I first came to 
y e sight heerof (iudge you, gentlemen, how hardly 
I could disgest it) I bethought my selfe to frame an 
answere, but considering y l . the labour was but lost, 
I gaue way to my misfortune, contenting iny selfe to 
wait y e opportunitie wherein I might, not according 
to the impertinacie of the iniurye, but as equitye 
might countenance mee, cast a raine ouer the vn- 
tamed curtailes chaps, and wiping out the suspition 
of this slander from the remebrance of those y l knew 
me, not counsell this iniurious Asinius to become 
more conformable in his reportes." After adding 
that such an opportunity now offers itself, he goes 
on thus pleasantly and easily : ' ' And now, Stephen 
Gosson, let me but familiarly reason with thee thus. 
Thinkest thou y l in handling a good cause it is re- 


quisite to induce a fals propositio: although thou 
wilt say it is a part of Rethorike to argue A Persona, 
yet is it a practise of small honestie to conclude 
without occasion: if thy cause wer good, I doubt 
not but in so large & ample a discourse as thou hadst 
to handle, thou mightst had left the honor of a 
gentleman inuiolate. But thy base degree, subiect 
to seruile attempts, measureth all things according 
to cauelling capacitie, thinking because nature hath 
bestowed vpo thee a plausible discourse, thou maist 
in thy sweet termes present the sowrest & falsest 
reportes y u canst imagine." 

MORTON. Lodge does not seem disposed to retort 
upon Gosson much of the abuse he had not scrupled 
to heap upon Lodge. 

BOURNE. He deals with Gosson very good hu- 
mouredly, telling a story (and citing Petrarch as his 
authority), of a nobleman who went into a gentle- 
man's stable, and was struck by the servant, who did 
not know his rank on account of " his plaine coat," 
but who afterwards most humbly apologized when 
he saw the gentleman, to his great astonishment, 
dining with his master : Lodge applies it thus. " So at 
this instant esteeme I, M. Gosson hath dealt with me, 
who not mesuring me by my birth, but by y e subiect 
I hadled, like Will Summer striking him y' stood 
next him, hath vpbraided me in person whe he had 
no quarrell but to my cause, & therein pleaded his 
owne indiscretio, & loded me with intolerable in- 


iurie." All this you will not deny is very remarkable, 
and well worth reading, more particularly as the 
tract was scarcely ever heard of before. 

MORTON. Most assuredly in a biographical point 
of view, and as connected with the history of the 
stage, it is highly interesting. But what does Lodge 
mean by talking so much about his " birth," and 
the " offspring from whence he came?" 

ELLIOT. It is clear enough j he claims to be de- 
scended of a good family. 

BOURNE. Certainly, yet nothing of his family is 
known -, but it is said that he came out of Lincoln- 
shire. There is a small 12mo tract, called " The 
Mirror of Modesty" (different from Robert Greene's, 
and probably published soon afterwards in imitation 
of his title), by T. Salter, which is dedicated to 
Sir Thomas Lodge j and it is not impossible that 
Thomas Lodge the poet was of that family : but this 
is mere vague conjecture, and I have nothing at all 
to confirm it. 

MORTON. Does Lodge say no more about Gosson 
than what you have read ? 

BOURNE. Yes 5 after two or three classical al- 
lusions, rather in the pedantic style of the times, 
comparing him to Nicanor, he concludes by again 
complimenting Gosson on his facility in composition. 
" Whose actions, my reprouer, I will now fit to thee, 
who hauing slandered me without cause, I will no 
otherwise reuenge it but by this meanes ; that now 


in publike I confesse thou hast a good pen, and if 
thou keepe thy Methode in discourse, and leaue thy 
slandering without cause, there is no doubt but thou 
shalt bee commended for thy coppye, and praised 
for thy stile." Now I have a right to say, that this 
is an important tract, and not the less so because its 
peculiar value was, not known before. 

ELLIOT. The whole of the address places Lodge's 
character in a very candid and amiable point of view. 

MORTON. And making a few allowances, it is 
written in a very unpretending and pleasing vein. 
It makes one long to look at the body of the tract 
such an epistle introduces. 

BOURNE. If you please, we will not do so now, as 
it would throw 'us completely out of our course: 
suppose we reserve it as the first subject of examina- 
tion to-morrow. 

MORTON. Following it up by a conclusion of our 
inquiries regarding the stage with all my heart. 

ELLIOT. And mine ; but just this moment, on the 
page opposite to that where Lodge's address con- 
cludes, my eye caught the name of Barnabe Rich, hi 
large characters what is that ? 

BOURNE. He has two stanzas " in praise of the 
author." They were friends, and Lodge in the same 
way praises Rich's " Don Simonides," 1581. The 
lines before us purport to be written by " Barnabe 
Rich, Gentleman Souldier," a character of which he 
was not a little proud : they are not good, but as 


they relate to Gosson, and, in fact, contain a pun on 

his name, we may very fitly read them now. 

" If that which warnes the young beware of vice, 

And schooles the olde to shunne vnlawfull gaine j 
If pleasant stile and method may suffice, 

I thinke thy trauaile merits thanks for paine : 
My simple doome is thus in tearmes as plaine j 
That both the subiect and thy stile is good, 
Thou needs not feare the scoflfes of Momus brood. 

" If thus it be, good Lodge, continue still ; 

Thou needst not feare Goose sonne or Ganders 

Whose rude reportes past from a slaundrous quill, 
Will be determind but in reading this, 
Of whom the wiser sort will thinke amis, 

To slaunder him whose birth and life is such 

As false report his fame can neuer tuch." 

ELLIOT. Much cannot be said in favour of Rich's 
pun, yet I dare say it answered the purpose. 

BOURNE. It might turn the laugh against Gosson 
for a time, though not quite so good as Tom Nash's 
pun, when in his " Lenten Stuff," 1599, he dignifies 
a red herring with the name of Scali-ger. Five 
other stanzas, prefixed by " John Jones Gentleman," 
are not worth reading: he was a physician, and 
wrote several medical tracts, and calls Lodge, in 
1584, " a youth." We will now close the " Alarum 
against Usurers" until to morrow. 


MORTON. On turning over the leaves of the two 
first books of Gosson's " Ephemerides of Phialo," 
1579, 1 have found a short metrical translation from 
Ovid without rhyme. He has therefore some claim 
to be noticed among the earliest writers of blank 

BOURNE. lie has, but that is a mere scrap, which 
I certainly forgot when we were upon that subject. 
I, however, made a more important omission of 
Queen Elizabeth, who has translated a chorus of one 
of Seneca's tragedies into blank verse, though it 
hardly comes within the class of undramatic blank 
verse. You will find it inserted in Park's " Royal 
and Noble Authors/' 1. 102, so that the circumstance 
was of the less consequence. 

ELLIOT. Dismissing that, what tract respecting 
stage plays are we next to see ? 

BOURNE. One which is interspersed with more 
poetical scraps than are usually found in works of 
the kind, though no blank verse. Chaucer and 
Brandt's " Stultifera Navis in English," are cited in 
it as authorities. The title is sufficiently explanatory, 
" A Treatise wherein Dicing, Dauncing, Vaine playes 
or Enterluds with other idle pastimes &c. commonly 
vsed on the Sabboth day are reproued," &c. " Made 
Dialogue wise by John Northbrooke," &c. 4to. 

MORTON. That, I apprehend, is one of the most 
notorious of the pieces against the stage. 

BOURNE. It has not been unfrequently alluded to, 


but never criticised. It was first printed, I believe, 
in 1579, and was sold by the same bookseller as 
Gosson's tract, Tho. Dawson. The edition I have 
here is of greater rarity, and is " imprinted by H. 
Bynneman for George Byshop." 

ELLIOT. The title states that it is conducted in 
the form of a dialogue : that may give it spirit and 

BOURNE. As the interlocutors are Youth and Age, 
you will not be induced to form a very lively notion 
of their discussion. Youth is represented as a very 
docile, well dispositioned young man, who has got a 
few wrong notions into his head, which Age endea- 
vours to expel. The author was a preacher at Bristol, 
from whence he dates his work, and it is unquestion- 
able that he was a man of very considerable attain- 
ments. In the prefatory matter he draws the follow- 
ing curious but exaggerated picture of the manners 
of his time : " What is a man now a dayes, if he 
know not fashions, and how to weare his apparel 
after the best fashion? to kepe company and to be- 
come Mummers and Diceplayers and to play their 
twentie, forty or 100 li. at Cards, Dice, &c. Post, 
Cente, Gleke, or such other games: if he cannot 
thus do he is called a myser, a wretch, a lobbe, a 
cloune, and one that knoweth no fellowship, nor 
fashions, and lesse honestie." 

ELLIOT. If that be a fair specimen, he deals as 
much as his predecessor Gosson in general invectives. 


BOURNE. Not quite ; he enters more into par- 
ticulars as he proceeds, after the conversation be- 
tween Youth and Age has begun. The first part of 
the pamphlet is principally directed against idleness, 
and the arguments of Age are supported by many 
recondite authorities : at length Youth observes, 
" Seing that we haue somewhat largely talked and 
reasoned togither of ydle playes and vaine pastimes, 
let me craue your further patience to knowe your 
iudgement and opinion as touching Playes and Players 
which are commonly vsed and much frequented in 
most places in these dayes, especiallye here in this 
noble and honourable citie of London." To which 
Age answers, " You demaunde of me a harde ques- 
tion: if I should vtterly deny all kinde of suche 
playes, then shoulde I be thought too Stoicall and 
precise : If I allowe and admit them in generall then 
I shall giue way to a thousande mischiefes and in- 
conueniences which daily happen by occasion of 
beholding and haunting such spectacles. Therfore 
let me vnderstande of what sort and kynde of Playes 
you speake of?" 

MORTON. All these particulars are curious and 
entertaining, and show that at the time Northbrooke 
wrote, theatres were much more frequented than is 
generally supposed. 

BOURNE. This author, in terms, mentions one play- 
house distinguished by the name of " the theatre," 
and another called " the Curtaine." Youth requires 
Age to give his opinion regarding the " playes and 


Enterludes" there performed, and Age replies with 
great warmth, " I am persuaded that Sathan hath not 
a more speedie way and fitter Schoole to work and 
teache his desire, to bring men and women into his 
snare," &c. following it up by an enumeration of the 
many horrible vices he imagines grow out of fre- 
quenting theatres. As to the actors, he insists that 
" they are not tollerable nor sufferable in any comon 
weale." This topic is kept up through many tedious 
pages of reiterated abuse. 

ELLIOT. Neither knowledge nor amusement is to 
be obtained from such senseless ravings. 

BOURNE. Unless we can laugh at the author: Age 
engrosses a great part of the conversation, and after 
a vast number of coarse names and epithets applied 
to unfortunate players, he winds up a detail of mea- 
sures taken against them by the subsequent sentence, 
" Also there is a notable Statute made against Vaga- 
bondes, Roges, &c. wherein is expressed what they 
are, that shall bee taken and accounted for Roges. 
Amongst all the whole rablement, Common players 
in Enterludes are to be taken for Roges and punish- 
ment is appoynted for them to bee burnte through 
the eare with an hote yron of an ynche compasse 
and for the second fault to be hanged as a Felon." 

MORTON. Alluding to the celebrated statute passed 
in the year 1572. 

ELLIOT. Of course. The old zealot seems quite 
to gloat over the account he is giving of the punish- 
ment of a wretched actor, " to be burnt through the 


ear with a hot iron of an inch compass." He attacks 
them all, with a perfect conviction that the whole 
race ought to be exterminated, Parli chi vuulc il con- 
trario, Iddio et la Verita per me I'arme prenderanno. 

MORTON. In this respect he even goes beyond 
Gosson, who allows that some kinds of plays may 
be beneficial, or, at least, not injurious. 

BOURNE. He would not have granted that, in all 
probability, had not Catiline's Conspiracies, and some 
other plays, been " pigs of his own sow." I do not 
think we need go further with Northbrooke : the 
last part of his tract is directed against the " horrible 
abuse of dauncing," but this is not to our purpose. 
We will now inspect one of the most popular, varied, 
and entertaining of all the books of this class, Philip 
Stubbes's " Anatomy of Abuses j" but from which 
so much has been extracted at various times, and in 
various books, that it will not long occupy us. The 
title promises a great deal of singular matter, and 
the body of the work fulfils that promise. It is this : 
" The Anatomic of Abuses : Containing a Discouerie 
or briefe Sunimarie of such Notable Vices and Cor- 
ruptions, as now raigne in many Christian Countreyes 
of the Worlde: but (especially) in the Country of 
AILGNA : Together with most fearefull Examples of 
Gods ludgementes executed vpon the wicked for 
the same, aswell in Ailgna of late as in other places 
elsewhere. Very godly to be read," &c. 

ELLIOT. And among these " notable vices," the 
vice of stage-plays is, I suppose, included. 


BOURNE. The attack upon theatres and actors 
forms a very considerable and important part of 
the work. This edition you see bears date in 1585, 
being " printed at London by Richard Jones 5" 
but it is said, on the title, to be the third, and is 
the most complete, as it was " reuised, recognized 
and augmented" by the author, Philip Stubs or 
Stubbes. I apprehend that this work made it earliest 
appearance in 1583, and it was so popular, so pa- 
tronized by the increasing and intolerant sect of the 
puritans, that, I believe, it went through two editions 
in the same year, and was printed many times (I 
cannot now exactly state how many) before 1595. 

ELLIOT. Who was Stubbes ? Was he a man of 
any note before he wrote this book ? 

BOURNE. No trace of him is to be found: all our 
biographers are nearly silent regarding him. An- 
thony Wood, who claims him for his university, 
states, that he was of genteel parentage, and on the 
title-page to his " Motive to Good Works," 1593, 
Stubbes styles himself " Gentleman." His " Ana- 
tomy of Abuses" produced a strong sensation when 
it was first printed, and Thomas Nash, who wrote 
against the puritans or martinists, did not fail to aim 
one of his satirical shafts at the work in hand. In his 
"Almond for a Parrot or Cuthbert Curry-knaues 
Almes," &c. printed, most likely, soon afterwards, 
he has this passage regarding Stubbes, though he 
did not think it prudent to insert his name at length : 
" I can tell you Phil. Stu. is a tall man also for that 


purpose. What, his Anatomic of Abuses for all that 
will serue very fitly for an antispast before one of 
Egertons Sermons. I would see the best of your 
Trauerses write such a treatise as he hath done against 
short-heeld pantofles. But one thing, it is a great 
pity for him, that being such a good fellow as he is 
he should speake against dice as he doth." He 
here means to ridicule the trifles against which most 
of the puritanical writers and preachers directed their 

MORTON. Nash is the man, who, according to Mr. 
D'Israeli, by his wit and satire wrote down Martin- 
marprelate and his associates, when all their serious 
assailants produced no effect. 

BOURNE. That he silenced them for a time, is, I 
believe, certain, and so far he wrote them down. 
The piece from which I just quoted is dedicated to 
Kempe, a celebrated actor and humorist of that 
time, who is called " Jestmonger and Vice-gerent 
general to the ghost of Dicke Tarlton," also a most 
notorious performer, whose name has previously 
occurred, and will again be mentioned. 

ELLIOT. I see that Stubbes's work is conducted 
in the form of a dialogue between two abstract 
personages, Messrs. Spudeus and Philoponus. He 
touches upon many kind of abuses in Ailgna, or 
Anglia, but mainly, in the commencement, upon 
pride of apparel, the excess of which, both in men 
and women, seems to put him into a violent and un- 
restrainable passion. 


BOURNE. He is so furious in his assault, and so 
coarse in his epithets regarding plays and players, 
that it would not be easy to quote him in all com- 
panies. Referring to the stage, he maintains that 
actors are the authors of sensual vices of all kinds, 
<{ For proofe whereof (he adds) but marke the flock- 
ing and running to Theaters and Curtens daylie and 
hourelie, night and daie, tyme and tide, to see Plaies 
and Enterludes, where suche wanton gestures, suche 
bawdie speeches, such laughing and flearyng, suche 
kissyng and bussyng, suche clippyng and culling, 
such wincking and glauncing of wanton eyes, and 
the like is vsed, as is wonderfull to beholde. Then 
these goodly Pageantes beyng ended, euery mate 
sortes to his mate, euery one bringes an other 
homewarde of their waie very freendly, &c. * * And 
whereas you saie, there are good Examples to be 
learned in them, truely so there are : if you will 
learne falshood j if you will learne cosenage ; if you 
will learne to deceiuej if you will learne to plaie 
the hipocrite, to cogge, to lye, and falsifie -, if you 
will learne to iest laugh and fleere, to grinne to 
nodde and mowe; if you will learne to plaie the 
vice, to sweare, teare and blaspheme both Heauen 
and Earth." 

ELLIOT. A most eloquent and forcible reduplica- 
tion : it must have cost the author not a little trouble 
to collect so many terms of abuse, and to apply them 
as he has done. 


MORTON. One would really suppose, if one took 
these representations for granted, that our ancestors, 
who frequented theatres, were much more immoral 
than ourselves, 

BOURNE. Another short extract will, I dare say, 
satisfy you : it is Stubbes's conclusion, in which 
he formally denounces plays, acting, and actors. 
" Awaie therefore with this so infamous an arte, for 
goe they neuer so braue yet are they couted and 
taken but for beggers. And is it not true ? Liue 
they not vppon begging of euery one that comes ? 
Are they not taken by the Lawes of the Realme for 
roagues and vac-abounds? (I speake of such as 
trauaile the Countries with Plaies and Enterludes, 
making an occupation of it) and ought so to bee 
punished, if they had their deserts.- But hopyng that 
they will be warned now at the last, I will say no 
more of them ; beseeching them to cansider what a 
fearefull thing it is to fall into the handes of God, 
and to prouoke his wrath and heauie displeasure 
against themselues and others. Which the Lorde 
of his mercie tourne from vs." 

ELLIOT. Milton, in the preface to his " Doctrine, 
&c. of Divorces," asserts that " the greatest burden 
in the world is superstition, not only of ceremonies 
in the Church but of imaginary and scare crow sins 
at home." The latter kind seems mightily to have 
troubled the writers against the stage. 

BOURNE. Having bestowed as much time as we 
can afford on Stubbes's " Anatomic of Abuses," we 


will proceed to another production, not so long nor 
so celebrated : I shall be very brief with it, because 
I have mentioned it before. I mean a small tract 
appended by Whetstone to his " Mirror for Ma- 
gistrates of Cities," 1584, and called " An Addition 
or Touchstone for the Time : exposyng the dainger- 
ous Mischiefes that the Dicyng Howses (comonly 
called) Ordinarie Tables, and other (like) Sanctuaries 
of Iniquitie, do dayly breede within the Bowelles of 
the famous Citie of London." 

MORTON. You read from it, I remember, a curious 
anecdote of Judge Chumley. 

BOURNE. I did, and some matter personally re- 
lating to Whetstone. I shall now only quote a very 
short notice by him of theatrical performances : it is 
included in that part of his work which is called 
" A Remembrance of the disordered State of the 
Commonwealth, at the Queenes Maiesties commyng 
to the Crowne," and the passage is as follows : 
st The godly Diuines in publique Sermons, and 
others in printed Bookes haue (of late) uery sharply 
inuayed against Stage -playes (vnproperly called 
Tragedies, Comedies and Moralles) as the Sprynges 
of many vices and the stumblyng-blockes of Godly- 
nesse and Vertue : Truely the vse of them vpon the 
Saboth day, and the abuse of them at all times with 
scurilytie and vnchaste coueiance, ministred matter 
sufficient for them to blame, and the Maiestrate to 

ELLIOT. He seems very measured in his reproba- 


tion of stage-plays : he only censures the " abuse of 

MORTON. He might well be cautious and scru- 
pulous on this point, when we recollect that he had 
himself written two plays, or one play in two parts, 
called " Promos and Cassandra," printed in 1578. 
You do not mean that what you have just read is all 
that Whetstone says upon the subject of Theatres r 

BOURNE. Very nearly: he goes on, however, to 
remark : " But there are within the Bowels of this 
famous Citie farre more daungerous Playes and 
little reprehended j that wicked Playes of the Bice, 
first inuented by the Deuyll (as Cornelius Agrippa 
writeth) and frequented by vnhappy men : the de- 
testable Roote vpon which a thousand villanies 
growe." It is against the last that his enmity is 
directed, and to them all his details relate ; he only 
touches upon theatrical performances by the way. 

ELLIOT. When he speaks of the " printed books" 
in which stage-plays were inveighed against, he re- 
fers of course to Gosson, Northbrooke, and Stubbes : 
to whom does he allude when he says that stage- 
plays had been abused in " public sermons ?" 

BOURNE. You have reminded me of a tract I had 
forgotten to notice in its proper place, and yet it is 
precisely in point here. 

MORTON. Do you mean a Sermon on the subject ? 

BOURNE. A production of that class, and a work, 
I can assure you, that is not often met with. I will 



read the title, and then, if further explanation be 
necessary, I will give it : it is called " A Godly 
exhortation by occasion of the late iudgement of 
God shewed at Paris-garden, the thirteenth day of 
lanvarie : where were assembled by estimation aboue 
a thousand persons, whereof some were slaine and 
of that number at the least, as is credibly reported, 
the thirde person maimed and hurt. Giuen to all 
estates for their instruction concerning the keeping 
of the Sabboth day." It is by " John Field, Minister 
of the Word of God," and was printed in 1583. 
There are many accounts of the catastrophe to which 
the tract relates. Paris Garden, you know, was a 
place where bears were baited, and the greatest num- 
ber of spectators was obtained on Sundays. 

MORTON. The fact is mentioned at some length in 
Pennant's London. 

BOURNE. And elsewhere, so that we need not go 
over the shocking picture this pious preacher draws 
of the calamity. 

ELLIOT. I do not see the pertinency of this " Godly 
exhortation" to our present inquiry, unless some- 
thing be said about theatrical representations. 

BOURNE. Supposing nothing more were said, you 
would not have much right to complain, considering 
that bear-baiting and stage-plays were generally 
coupled by the puritans ; but if you had waited, I 
should have finished by this time the following para- 
graph in the tract, which is curious, as alluding to the 


abolition of theatrical performances on Sunday, pre- 
vious to 1583. Field is exhorting the Lord [Mayor, &c. 
of London to use their influence to abolish bear-bait- 
ing, " And as" (he observes) " they haue with good 
commendation so far preuailed, that vpon Saboath 
dayes these Heathenishe Enterludes and playes are 
banished, so it wyll please them to followe the matter 
still, that they may be vtterly rid and taken away. 
For surely it is to be feared, besides the destruction 
bothe of bodye and soule, that many are brought 
vnto by frequenting the Theater, the Curtin and 
such like, that one day those places will likewise be 
cast downe by God himselfe." That, I fancy, you 
will consider to the point. 

ELLIOT. Certainly ; but I thought, from what you 
read from Whetstone just now under date of 1584, 
that stage-plays on Sundays were then acted. 

BOURNE. If you refer to his words again, you 
will perceive that they are ambiguous, and that he 
is only expressing an opinion in favour of what had 
already been decided by the higher powers. Besides, 
it is clear that they were abolished when Field wrote 
in 1583, and that they were not abolished when the 
tract I have now in my hand was printed, viz. 1580. 
MORTON. So that you fix the period between 
1580 and 1583. This is important, because our 
stage historians have not hitherto settled the date 
with any precision : one of the most learned says, 
with extreme laxity, (< During a great part of 

R 2 


Queen Elizabeth's reign the play-houses were only 
licenced to be opened on that day (i. e. Sunday) ; 
but before the end of her reign, or soon after, this 
abuse was probably removed." 

BOURNE. I am not sure that it would not be pos- 
sible to come even nearer the precise date than we 
have at present arrived. I am not aware, however, 
of any intermediate work, between 1580 and 1583, 
where the fact is noticed. I may add, that Mr. 
Chalmers (Sup. Apol. 185.) states, incorrectly cer- 
tainly, that the exhibition of plays on Sunday was 
not forbidden until 1587- 

ELLIOT. From Field's " Exhortation" you find 
that in 1583 stage-plays were " banished" on the 
Sabbath : where then do you learn that they were not 
banished in 1580? 

BOURNE. From this little piece, by Arthur Golding, 
the translator of Ovid's Metamorphoses, and who, 
you may recollect, was enumerated by Abraham 
Fleming among the writers upon the same earth- 
quake that employed his pen. This is the tract he 
published on that occasion. 

MORTON. The title I see is this : " A discourse 
vpon the Earthquake that happened through this 
realme of Englande and other places of Christendom, 
the sixt of Aprill, 1580," &c. " Written by Arthur 
Golding, Gentleman." It seems wholly religious. 

BOURNE. It is : the date, 1580., and the printer's 
name, Henry Binneman, are to be found at the end ; 


but if you will give me the book, I can save trouble 
by pointing out the particular paragraph that relates 
to this subject : the rest is a mere dull discourse, 
principally to show that earthquakes are to be looked 
upon as the judgments of God, and not as proceeding 
from natural causes. 

MORTON. There is no occasion, as I have it here. 

ELLIOT. Read it, then, but no more than is to our 
purpose : we can very well omit all the rest. 

MORTON. It is not long. " The Saboth dayes and 
holy dayes ordayned for the hearing of Gods word 
to the reformation of our lyues, for the administra- 
tion and receiuing of the Sacramentes to our comfort, 
for the seeking of all things behouefull for bodye or 
soule at Gods hande by prayer, for the mynding of 
his benefites, and to yeelde praise and thankes vnto 
him for the same, and finally for the speciall oc- 
cupying of our selves in all spirituall exercises" 

ELLIOT. I am sure you must be reading more 
than is necessary : Golding is a long time coming 
to the point. 

MORTON. These are only ambages to give the 
more effect to what follows: he adds, that the 
Sabbath, instead of being employed as he has de- 
scribed, " is spent full heathenishly, in tauerning, 
tipling, gaming, playing and beholding of Beare- 
baytings and stage-playes to the vtter dyshonor of 
God, impeachment of all godlynesse and vnneces- 
sarie consuming of mennes substances which ought 
to be better employed." 


BOURNE. That is all we need read ; but I will just 
add, upon this point, that Stephen Gosson, in 1579, 
in his " School of Abuse," bears wrathful testimony 
to the performance of plays on Sunday. 

ELLIOT. The point (an important one, I allow) 
being thus settled by the testimony of Golding, what 
do you next offer us ? 

BOURNE. We will now examine the work of a 
man, whom I mentioned some days ago as a 
satirist, as author of a sonnet before Bodenham's 
Belvedere, 1600, but principally as the writer of the 
tract which now comes under our review, called 
" A Mirour of Monsters : Wherein is plainely de- 
scribed the manifold vices and spotted enormities 
that are caused by the infectious sight of Playes, 
with the description of the subtile slights of Sathan 
making them his instruments." London, 1587. It 
is by Wil. Rankin or Rankins, and is one of the 
pamphlets against the stage that is most rarely met 
with. One singularity in it is a description (though 
not a very intelligible one), of a sort of mask or 
pageant on the marriage of Fastus and Luxuria, two 
of the prime favourites of Sathan, and favourers 
of Actors. The personages who perform are six, 
viz. Idleness, Flattery, Ingratitude, Ugly Dissension, 
Blasphemy, and Impudence. As this description is 
inserted late, I will first read a sentence or two 
against stage-players in Terralbon, to which country 
the author states he had travelled : " When first these 
monsters came into Terralbon such was their proud 


presumption, that they feared not to prophane the 
Sabbaoth, to defile the Lord's daie, to scoffe at his 
word, and to stage his wrath. But when the King 
of kings sawe his scepter broken, his crowne trode 
vnder feete of the vngodlie, his roabes rent, naye 
the glorie of his Sonne darkened with the head of 
this monstrous Beast, he stretched out his mightie 
arme, and with the rod of his lustice brused the 
bones of them that prophaned his Sabbaoth, defiled 
his sacred daye and scoffed at his holie word. Then 
Justice pulled off hir vaile and with a cleare fore- 
sight (beholding the same) so ordained it that these 
monsters dare no longer roare on the Sabaoth of the 

ELLIOT. Here also is evidence of the abolition of 
stage-playes on Sundays, in the year 1587- 

BOURNE. There can be no doubt of that fact: the 
last paragraph, as appears by a marginal note, 
alludes to the melancholy accident that happened at 
Paris Garden in 1583, of which we have spoken 

MORTON. Where is the account of the mask ? 

BOURNE. There is no regular detail of it beyond 
the names of the maskers, nor are any of the 
speeches inserted : the description is only general. 
Two addresses by Fastus and Ltixuria on the arrival 
of the maskers at their palace, KoiAoppsap, from the 
dominion of Belzebub, are given ; but one of them, 
the welcome spoken by the lady, you will find quite 


sufficient, or more than sufficient : she says, " My 
Lorde and espoused husband Fastus (you inhabitants 
of y e infernal world) hath alreadie showne you by 
the zeale of his louing hart, the simpathy of whose 
minde consisteth in my selfe, that whatsoeuer he 
shall seeme to allowe of duety and loue I beare him, 
besides the favor I owe vnto you, confirmeth the 
same in me, so farre then wherein the power or 
duetifull seruice of a sillye woman consisteth or may 
offer requitall, let it be expected ; for duety wylls 
so much, and your curtesie commandes no lesse: 
you are therefore hartily welcome to our Castle of 

ELLIOT. There is certainly nothing at all re- 
markable in that. 

BOURNE. Perhaps not, but in several respects this 
tract differs from the usual strain of laborious and 
dull invective, in which pieces with the same object 
were usually written, overburdened with quotations 
from the Scriptures and the Fathers. Of this the 
work of Dr. Rainoldes, to which we shall come pre- 
sently, is a tedious example. 

ELLIOT. Have you any thing more to offer us from 
Rankin any thing a little better than the last extract, 
I mean ? 

BOURNE. There is a passage regarding the general 
condition of England, and in praise of Queen Eliza- 
beth and her government, that I might read if 
you had patience ; but the author of this " Mirror 


of Monsters" only speaks very generally on these 

MORTON. You mentioned just now the coupling 
of plays and bear-baiting by the puritanical writers, 
but I recollect that they even go further : Stubbes 
especially denounces May-games as one of the same 
" pomps of the Devil." 

BOURNE. And so the puritans continued to do 
even down to the Restoration. This small tract by 
Thomas Hall, " B. D. and Pastor of King's Norton," 
who abused John Webster the player as the writer 
of Academiarum Examen, is a violent and singular 
attack upon May-games in the year 1C60. 

ELLIOT. You cull it violent anJ singular: the 
violence, I suppose, arises out of the author's zeal, 
but in what does the singularity consist? 

BOURNE. In the manner in which the subject is 
handled : the title is not a little remarkable it is 
called " Fvnebria Florae, the downefall of May- 
Games. Wherein is set forth the rudeness, prophane- 
ness, stealing, drinking, fighting, dancing," &c. 
" contempt of God and godly Magistrats, Ministers 
and People, which oppose the Rascality and rout 
in this their open prophaneness and Heathenish 
Customs," and a great deal more of the same kind 
of abuse, some of it much too coarse to be extracted. 

MORTON. That remark applies, more or less, to 
nearly all the publications I have seen against the 
theatre : the authors are never at all scrupulous in 


using the most offensive terms they could discover 
or invent. 

BOURNE. Hall merits the same censure, but we 
will pass over that part of his pamphlet, observing, 
by the way, that he bitterly complains " that even 
in Cheapside it self the rude rabble had set vp this 
Ensign of prophaneness and had put the Lord Mayor 
to the trouble of seeing it pulled down." 

ELLIOT. Cheapside was then little better than an 
open market-place. I suppose the reverend author 
considers a May-game as a sort of idolatrous worship 
of a pole. 

BOURNE. You have guessed rightly; but the most 
ludicrous part of his attack, is a mock trial of the 
heathen patroness of these sports, under the title of 
" the Inditement of Flora," in which this "Floralian 
harlot" is regularly arraigned, and a jury impannelled 
for her trial. 

MORTON. A monstrous absurdity. 

BOURNE. Yet detailed with the utmost gravity 
and solemnity, as if it were the formal proceeding 
of a constituted court. You shall see: it begins 
thus The clerk says, 

" Flora hold vp thy hand : 

" Thou art indited by the name of Flora of the 
City of Rome, in the County of Babylon, for that 
thou contrary to the peace of our Soveraign Lord, 
his Crown and Dignity, hast brought in a pack of 
practical Fanaticks viz, Ignorants, Atheists, Papists, 


Drunkards, Swearers, Swash-bucklers, Maid-mar- 
rions, Morrice-Dancers, Maskers, Mummers, May- 
pole-stealers, Health-drinkers, together with a ras- 
caliau rout of Fidlers, Fools, Fighters, Gamesters, 
Whore-masters, Lewd -men, Light- women, Con- 
temners of Magistracy, Affronters of Ministery, re- 
bellious to Masters, disobedient to Parents, mis- 
spenders of time, abusers of the creature." 

ELLIOT. What says the poor prisoner at the bar 
to this accusation does she plead guilty or not 

BOURNE. The following colloquy occurs between 
Flora and the judge. 

Judge. What sayest thou, guilty or not guilty ? 

Prisoner. Not guilty, My Lord. 

Judg. By whom wilt thou be tried ? 

Pris. By the Popes-Holiness, my Lord. 

Judg. He is thy Patron and Protector, and so 
unfit to be a Judge in this case. 

Pris. Then I appeal to the Prelates, and Lord 
Bishops, my Lord. 

Judg. This is but a tiffany put off, &c. 

Pris. Then I appeal to the rout and rabble of the 

Judg. These are thy followers and thy favourites, 
and so unfit to be Judges in their own case. 

Pris. My Lord if there be no remedy, I am con- 
tent to bee tried by a Jury. 


Judg. Thou hast well said, thou shalt haue a full 
fair and a free hearing." 

MORTON. The English bishops and the Romish 
pope are here considered much upon a par : Hall 
was a furious mar-prelate, I have no doubt. Does 
the unhappy prisoner obtain a full, fair, and free 
hearing ? 

BOURNE. You may judge from this fact, that the 
judge acts as the crown advocate, and the jury are 
both jurymen and witnesses : but we have not arrived 
at the end of the ridiculousness of this mock trial. 
Holy-Scriptures is the first called to come into court. 

" Holy-Scriptures. My Lord, I cannot get in. 

Jud^ Who keeps you out. 

Holy- Scriptures. My Lord here is a company of 
ignorant, rude, prophane, superstitious, Atheistical 
persons that will not suffer me to come in. 

Judg. Over, knock down those prophane persons 
and make room for Holy -Script arcs to come in." 

ELLIOT. He is as summary as Jack Cade with the 
soldier, who omitted to call him Lord Mortimer ; 
" Knock him down there !" 

BOURNE. After the evidence of this juryman is 
received, a little flattery of the newly restored Charles 
II. is inserted, for the prisoner declares, " My Lord, 
I and my retinew are uery much deceived in this 
Charls the Second; we all conceited that he was 
for us: my Drunkards cryed, a Health to the King: 


the Swearers swore a Health to the King so long 
till they swore themselves out of health. The Papist, 
the Atheist, the Roarer and the Ranter, they all 
concluded that now their day was come, but alass 
how are we deceived !" 

MORTON. Or rather how were the puritans de- 
ceived in their hopes of Charles. 

BOURNE. To proceed with the trial: the ordinance 
of parliament of 1644 for keeping holy the Lord's 
day, the Solemn League and Covenant, an order 
from the Council of State, and Ovid, (with a passage 
from his Fasti, lib. 5,) with some others, compose the 
rest of the jury, who find the prisoner guilty ; and 
then follows " the aweful sentence of the law," as it 
is called, which is, perpetual banishment. Such is 
the result of the " full, fair, and free hearing" poor 
Flora obtains. This is really all that is worth read- 
ing in the tract. 

ELLIOT. Then we need not detain ourselves further 
with it. 

BOURNE. If so, we have advanced as far as Dr. 
Rainoldes's " Overthrow of Stage-Plays," 1599. 

MORTON. That is one of the most notorious works 
upon the subject, and I suppose one of the least 
scarce, as there was a second edition of it in 1629, 
which is not unfrequently met with at book sales. 

BOURNE. It is, and while it is one of the longest, 
most learned, and most laboured, it contains even 
less information than others regarding the state of 


the stage j in fact, although the question is handled 
generally in some places, the principal object of the 
author was to abolish the then prevailing custom of 
representing what were called University Plays, per- 
formed by students, and written in Latin. 

ELLIOT. I should have imagined that the severest 
puritan, and the most prejudiced opponent of thea- 
trical performances, would not have carried his an- 
tipathy quite so far. I thought that they were on 
all hands allowed. 

BOURNE. They are by some, but not by all, and 
among the last, Dr. Rainoldes, or Reynolds, of 
Queen's College, who, by the testimony of all wri- 
ters (and by his own, as far as his productions are 
witnesses in his favour), was a man of vast eru- 
dition. Bastard, in his Chrestoleros, 1598, a book I 
have often quoted, and with the best parts of which 
you are by this time acquainted, has the following 
Epigram, addressed to him in L. IV. 

" Ad Johannem Reynolds. 

" Do I call iudgement to my foolish rimes 
And rarest art and reading them to viewe, 
Reynolds, Religions Oracle most true 2 
Mirrour of arte and Austen of our times ! 
For loue of these I call thee, which I pray, 
That thou in reading these wouldst put away." 
ELLIOT. The compliment is rather clumsily paid. 
Your mention of Bastard's book brings to my re- 


collection an epigram I saw in it, connected, in some 
degree, with our immediate subject, I mean on the 
profaneness of the stage. It is L. VI. Epigr. 7> and 
entitled " In prophanationem nominis Dei." 

" Gods name is bare of honour in our hearing, 
And euen worne out with our blasphemous swearing, 
Betweene the infant and the aged both, 
The first and last they vtter is an oath. 
O hellishe manners of our prophane age, 
lehouahs feare is scoft vpon the stage ! 
The Mimicke iester, names it euery day; 
Vnlesse God be blasphem'de it is no play." 

BOURNE. The practice of swearing on the stage 
was not long afterwards reformed under the highest 
authority, and in the editions of plays subsequently 
printed, it is not uncommon to observe variations 
occasioned by it : thus Heaven is generally substi- 
tuted for God, and other similar changes made. 

ELLIOT. I here also find an epigram to Richard 
Tarlton the comedian and jester, whose name we 
saw introduced by Nash into his " Almond for a 
Parrot," in which he is praised for having " made 
folly excellent," and spoken of as being " extoll'd 
for that which all despise." 

BOURNE. Although Bastard entertained, to a cer- 
tain extent, the same opinions as Dr. Rainoldes, he 
nevertheless seems, at least, to tolerate actors, and 
to praise such as were sober and meritorious. When 


upon the learning of the author of the " Overthrow 
of Stage-plays/' I was about to quote from the 
highest authority in his favour, I mean Bishop Hall, 
who has the following sentence in one of the epistles 
of his Decades, addressed to M. Bedell : " He (Dr. 
Rainoldes) alone was a well furnished library, full 
of all faculties, of all studies, of all learning ; the 
memory, the reading of that man went near to a 
miracle." , I will make merely a short extract or two 
from his Overthrow of Stage Plays, observing first, 
that his work consists of two portions, and forms 
part of a contest between him and Doctor Gager on 
the subject of theatrical representations. Dr. Gager 
had written an academic tragedy, under the title of 
Ulysses Redux, Tragcedia nova, in cede Ckristi Oxonicc 
publice recitata, which gave offence to a great body 
of the puritans. 

MORTON. And Dr. Gager, of course, vindicated 

BOURNE. Yes, but only to the extent of academic 
plays : however, the attack of Dr. Rainoldes is ge- 
neral, and it is supported by an amazing number and 
variety of learned quotations : the publisher boasts 
that it had had the effect of first silencing, and then 
converting his antagonist. 

MORTON. I have seen it asserted somewhere, that 
Dr. Gager's reply to Dr. Rainoldes is in the library 
of C. C. college, Cambridge. If this be so, it would- 
mainly disprove that assertion. < . 


BOURNE. Of course. I read the following para- 
graph from Dr. Rainoldes, not because it counte- 
nances the story against Shakespeare, that he had 
been guilty of deer-stealing, but because it is singular 
that that offence should be named as ordinarily com- 
mitted by vagrants, such as itinerant players. 

ELLIOT. Some persons disbelieve it altogether, 
and it is not impossible, that on account of its being 
frequently committed, the charge has been invented 
against our great dramatist. 

BOURNE. I do not think that likely, supported, as 
the story is, by the ballad upon Sir Thomas Lucy. 
Besides, the deer, if stolen at all, was stolen before 
Shakespeare left Stratford. " Time of recreation 
(says Dr. Rainoldes) is necessary, I graunt, and 
think as necessary for schollers that are schollers 
indeed, I meane good students, as it is for any. 
Yet in my opinion it were not fit for them to 
play at Stoole-ball among wenches, nor at Mum- 
chance or Maw with idle loose companions j nor at 
trunkes in Guile-halls, nor to dance about May- 
poles, nor to rufle in alehouses, nor to carowse in 
tauernes, nor to steale deere, nor to rob orchards. 
Though who can deny but they may doe these things, 
yea worse." 

MORTON. Shakespeare's annotators would certainly 
have adduced this quotation, if they had recollected 
it, as an incidental confirmation of the imputation 
upon Shakespeare. 

VOL. II. 5 


BOURNE. I will only read one more extract from 
another part of this volume, because, as I have said, 
the book is not by any means so rare as many others, 
and it is strangely barren of all information regard- 
ing the state of the stage about that date. 

MORTON. Perhaps not very strangely barren, when 
we recollect that a man like Dr. Rainoldes, as Hall 
has described him, could not be much acquainted 
with the nature or condition of the acted drama in 
the metropolis or elsewhere. 

BOURNE. No doubt that is to be taken into view, 
and wherever he enters into particulars., they refer 
to the plays represented at the universities : for in- 
stance, in one place he speaks of the expense of 
getting up a play, " trimming vp a stage and bor- 
rowing robes out of the revils," as thirty pounds, 
but it has no allusion to the public theatres. 

MORTON. There seems to be very little general 
argument in the book ; it is almost entirely contro-, and the author disputes Dr. (lager's positions 
serial hn, citing in the margin a long list of authorities, 
Christian and heathen. 

BOURNE The minuteness of Dr. Rainoldes' know- 
ledge is sometimes astonishing ; he is ostentatiously 
learned upon the merest trifles, and to him, with- 
out derogating from his great erudition, I think we 
may, in some degree, apply the censure of John 
Webster, in his " Duchess of Malfi," (1623): " a 
fantastical Scholar, like such who study to know how 


many knots were in Hercules club j of what colour 
Achilles' beard was, or whether Hector were not' 
troubled with the tooth-ache : he hath studied him- 
self blear-eyed to know the true symmetry of Caesars 
nose by a shoeing horn." 

ELLIOT. A clever and often just piece of ridicule : 
but where is the other extract from the " Overthrow 
of Stage Plays" you recommended to our perusal ? 

BOURNE. It is here; on the subject of the propriety 
of men wearing the apparel of women, and women 
of men. 

ELLIOT. Juvenal asks, you know, 

Quern prastare potest mulier galeata pudorem 
a sejcu? 

BOURNE. Dr. Rainoldes treats the point with more 
lightness than " was his wont." ' Now (says he) 
if this were lawfully done because he did it, then 
Willinm, Bishop of Ely, who to saue his honour and 
wealth, became a greene-sleeues, going in womans 
raiment lesse way then twenty miles, from Dover 
castle to the Sea side, did therein like a man; al- 
though the women of Dover, when they had found it 
out by plucking downe his muffler and seeing his 
new shauen beard, called him a monster for it : then 
with vs a Scholler who thinketh of some man as 
Euclide did of Socrates, and cannot well frequent his 
house in the day time for suspition of lewdnesse with 
his Xanthippe, or of Popery, may come like a maiden 



thither by night: then our Vniuersitie Statute of 
night walkers would be taken away, or qualified at 
least, and if our Proctors meete one like a woman 
at midnight, they must not be suspicious; some 
studious youth it may be, come from Wickham to 
Beacontfield, and daring not to trauaile by day for 
theeues through Shotouer, is going to some learned 
man. In like sort touching Eurphrosyna, a maid of 
Alexandria (of Antiocke you name her by slippe of 
penne or memorie) the storie is that shee, desiring 
much to liue in an Abby like a Monke, forsooke not 
only her father, who had brought her vp to be a stafie 
in his olde age, a comfort in his weakenesse to him, 
but also a worthie, noble, vertuous gentleman to whom 
she was betroathed : clad in mans apparell she came 
vnto the Abbot, and being asked of him who shee 
was, from what place and for what cause she came, 
she answered that her name indeed was Smaragdus, 
and shee was of the Emperours Court and came to 
that Abbey to lead a holy life, if shee might be ad- 
mitted, and so finding fauour to be admitted as a 
man, she liued there eight and thirty yeares in mans 
apparell." I apprehend you would not wish to hear 
much more from a book, of which what I have just 
read is, I believe, the most entertaining passage. 

MORTON. Certainly not : you may close the " Over^ 
throw of Stage Plays" as soon as you please. 

BOURNE. We have not time to go further at pre- 
sent. When next we meet and renew this subject, 


we will enter upon Thos. Heywood's very amusing 
pamphlet, called " An Apology for Actors," 1612, 
and upon the reply to it by I. G. published three 
years afterwards. 

ELLIOT. The further examination of Lodge's tract 
against usurers, we shall be sure to remember. 






The historians of the English stage Lodge's " Alarum against 
Usurers," 1584, again introduced T. Nash on Usurers from his 
" Christs Teares ouer Jerusalem," 1593 His amends to Dr. G. 
Harvey How the lives and characters of Nash, Greene, &c. have 
been blackened by puritanical writers proved from the " French 
Academic," in two parts, 151)4 Epistles prefixed by T. B. the 
translator, and especially that before part II Doubt if T. B. 
were not Thomas Beard, author of the " Theatre of Gods ludge- 
ments" Beard on C. Marlow, an Atheist Probable quotation in 
the " French Academic," from some work by Marlow against 
Christianity Attack by T. B. upon Robert Greene, for his misled 
and irreligious life T. Nash's " Lenten Stuffe," 1599, quoted 
Allusion by T. B. to Lodge's defence of plays, &c. Lodge's 
*' Delectable Historic of Forbonius and Prisceria" Romeo and 
Juliet Outline of Ixxlge's story Specimen of pastoral poetry by 
him " England's Parnassus," 1600 Address of Corulus to Co- 
rinna, &c. Conclusion of the history " Truth's Complaint ouer 
England," by T. Lodge, with quotations Sir J. Harington, 1591 
and 1597, on plays T. Heywood's " Apology for Actors," 1612, 
and its character Quotation from his Troia Britannica, 1609 
Specimens of his u Apology" T. Gainsford's " Glory of Eng- 
land," 1619, cited regarding the amusements of London Hey- 
wood on the actors of his time and earlier Richard Tarlton, the 
jester, &c. and mention of him in P. Bucke's " Three Lordes and 
three Ladies of London," 1590" Tarlton's lests," 1611, quoted 
regarding his flat nose" The Schoolemaster or Teacher of Table 
Philosophic," 1576, with an old joke modernized, respecting a 
physician's pupil The third division of Heywood's " Apology" 


and extract Why the Puritans were such enemies of the stage 
J. Shirley's " Polititian," 1655, and preface to B. Jonson's 
" Volpone" cited " A Refutation of the Apology for Actors," 

1615, by J. G Its style, and extracts from it J. G 's logical 

attempt, and a parallel from " Pap with a Hatchet" " A 
sixe-fold Politician, with a sixe-fold Precept of Policy," 1609, 

by J. M Doubt whether J. M. were Milton's father or an 

inferior author of the name of Melton Character of Milton's 
father, and of his book His chapter on poets, and attack 
upon theatres quoted Bishop Hall on drunken rhymers " Es- 
sayes and Characters, ironical and instructive," 1615, by John 
Stephens His praise of the English drama A common player 
described by him Excursions of London actors into the country 
" Histrio-mastix, or the player whipt," 1610, a play, described 
Allusion in it to John Marston's Satires MS. pageant by Mar- 
ston, in the Royal Library, not known Account of it Sir W. 
Vaughan's " Golden Grove," 1608, and " Golden Fleece," 1626 
Cause of the enmity of the Puritans to the stage " Histrio- 
mastix : the Players Scourge," 1633, by W. Prynne Its contents 
First appearance of women on the stage decided by Thomas 
Jordan's " Rosary of Rarities" Difference between the obscenity 
of plays before and after the Restoration Charge against Prynne 
of retracting his anti-theatrical opinions in " a Defence of Stage- 
plays," and his reply in a posting-bill, dated January 10, 1648 
" The Actor's Remonstrance, or Complaint for the silencing of 
their profession," 1643, a rare tract among the King's pamphlets 
Quotations from it on the reform of Actors, and on their dis- 
tresses and those of their Poets in consequence of the restriction. 




MORTON. We made faster progress in the contro- 
versy regarding the stage yesterday than I expected. 

BOURNE. Yet, I believe, we omitted to notice 
nothing very important, and, as a system and a 
series, the inquiry is entirely new. It is very true 
that the laborious historians of the stage have sifted 
many productions for minute particles of informa- 
tion, yet those particles give no correct notion of 
the works themselves from which they are obtained. 

ELLIOT. If our progress was so rapid yesterday, it 
will give us the more time to-day to dwell upon 
Lodge's " Alarum against Usurers," from the pre- 
fatory address of which you extracted so much 
yesterday, and the body of which you said contained 
some of the best specimens of the author's poetry. 

MORTON. Even you feel an interest about that: 
you begin to find that old poetry, and inquiries con- 


nected with it, have something interesting about 

ELLIOT. My conviction has not been so tardy, nor 
have I been at all backward in admitting it. If I 
had not found that there was something worth 
knowing in the pursuit, do you imagine that I should 
have spent so large a portion of the last nine days 
in receiving information ? 

BOURNE. Of this I am confident, that as far as I 
am concerned, your satisfaction in receiving cannot 
have been greater than mine in giving. Every man 
is happy when he is mounted upon his hobby, and 
mine carries double with the greatest willingness. 
But now for Thomas Lodge and his " Alarum against 
Usurers," 1584, the title of which you heard at length 
yesterday. The first forty pages, exclusive of the 
prefatory matter, with which you are already ac- 
quainted, give some particulars of the history of a 
young man of property, who had been made the 
dupe of money-lenders j and recollecting the claim 
Lodge makes to being by birth a gentleman, and his 
connexion with players before he wrote this tract, it 
is not impossible that he derived his knowledge of 
the artifices of usurers, aided by courtezans, from 
his own experience. 

MORTON. Perhaps so, and that circumstance may 
make the anecdotes curious. 

BOURNE. Nevertheless, I do not apprehend that 
they are personal, for Lodge would not relate of 


himself that after having been gulled and plucked 
by these blood-suckers he became their instrument 
in inveigling others, even if it had been true. As 
this part of the pamphlet refers to matters of mere 
detail, and as the topic is treated at great length, it 
will not be necessary to quote from it. I would 
rather show you a short summary of the practices 
of usurers, from the pen of Xash in his " Christs 
Teares ouer Jerusalem," 1593, an eloquent and re- 
pentant production, in which a very severe censure 
is thrown upon the vicious manners of the age. 

MORTON. Is it not in that tract that he makes 
honourable amends to Dr. Gabriel Harvey, for the 
many scurrilous attacks Nash had made upon him ? 

BOURNE. It is, though it has been said that this 
confession of regret on the part of Nash was purely 
feigned; but I am not aware that this uncharita- 
ble assertion rests upon any sufficient foundation. 
Usurers at that time appear to have been much the 
same as our pawnbrokers, only, if any thing, more 
fraudulent, because not equally restrained by law. 
Nash is speaking of gallants and roysters, who fre- 
quented expensive ordinaries or gaming-houses (in 
the manner described by Massinger, in Act II. of his 
" City Madam") who at last were reduced to the 
necessity of raising money on their chains, bracelets, 
and jewels : " But at the second time of their com- 
ming (he observes) it is doubtfull to say whether 
they shall haue money or no : the worlde growes 


har'd and wee all are mortall; let them make him 
(the Usurer) any assurance before a ludge and they 
shall haue some hundred poundes (per consequence) 
in Silks and Veluets. The third time if they come, 
they shall haue baser commodities ; the fourth time 
Lutestrings and gray Paper, and then, I pray pardon 
mee, I am not for you 5 pay me that you owe mee 
and you shall haue any thing." 

MORTON. And this practice has continued down 
to our own time. In Nichols's Progresses, it ap- 
pears that New-years' gifts to Queen Elizabeth 
sometimes consisted of " boxes of Lute strings :" 
I always thought that it meant a sort of silk 
so called, but Nash particularly distinguishes them 
from " silks and velvets." 

BOURNE. Mr. Douce, in his " Illustrations*' (II. 
235.) has a learned note on usury, but he neither 
refers to the passage which I have read from Nash, 
nor to the tract by Lodge before us : probably he 
had never seen the last, though the other is not by 
any means so uncommon. 

ELLIOT. You said that Nash's " Christs Tears 
ouer Jerusalem" was an arraignment of the vicious 
manners of the age: does he take any notice of 
stage-plays in the course of his pamphlet ? 

BOURNE. He does not: he alludes to a theatre 
only once, and then he uses it figuratively thus : 
" England the Players stage of gorgeous attyre, 
the Ape of all Nations superfluities, the continuall 


Masquer in outlandish habilaments ! great plenty- 
scanting calamity are thou to await for wanton dis- 
guising thy selfe against kind, and digressing from 
the plainnesse of thine Auncestors." 

MORTON. Nash was a play-wright himself, and 
could not very consistently abuse what he had so 
essentially contributed to support. 

ELLIOT. I fancy that Nash was guilty of quite as 
much inconsistency in abusing the vices of the times 
in which he lived, when he and his friends had been 
the partakers -and promoters of all kinds of iniquity. 

BOURNE. That they were very gay, and in some 
respects unprincipled fellows, is probably true, but 
I apprehend that there has been a great deal of 
exaggeration on this subject, and that puritanical 
writers have much contributed to blacken cha- 
racters, which, without their aid, were not the 
whitest in the world. Let me show you, in con- 
nexion with this subject, a book of no great rarity, 
but which contains some very curious particulars 
regarding Nash and his associates, never quoted or 
referred to, because nobody thought of looking for 
such matter in such a situation. 

MORTON. Curiosities are not unfrequently found 
by looking in unlikely places. The volume is thick 
enough : what is it called ? 

BOURNE. " The French Academic, wherin is dis- 
coursed the institution of Maners and whatsoeuer 
els concerneth the good and happie life of all estates 


and callings," &c. : " newly translated into English 
by T. B. The third Edition. Londini Impensis 
Geor. Bishop, 1594." The name of the original 
author was Peter de la Primaudaye, a Frenchman. 

ELLIOT. One would not be inclined to accuse any 
man of carelessness in passing a work from the 
French with that title, without supposing that it 
contained any thing about Nash or Greene. 

BOURNE. And you would be mistaken if you 
thought that what I refer to is to be found in the 
body of the work. It is divided into two parts 
or volumes, to each of which the translator T. B. 
(whose initials I have not been able to apply) pre- 
fixes an Epistle: that entitled "To the Christian 
Reader, Grace and Peace," before the second part, 
contains the curious matter to which I allude. I 
should inform you, however, before I show it to 
you, that the writer has been cautious enough not 
to mention any names, but the inferences are to- 
lerably clear and satisfactory. It also touches upon 
the subject of stage -plays, and notices the very rare 
defence of them by Lodge, of which we have before 

MORTON. Such matters are highly interesting : 
let us look at them immediately, and postpone, for a 
few moments only, Lodge's tract upon usury. 

ELLIOT. With all my heart : I warn you not to 
disappoint us ; that you lead us out of our road for 
something worth seeing. 


BOURNE. I do not think you will complain, or, at 
least, have reason to do so. T. B., the author of 
this epistle, I should tell you, with the usual zeal 
of his sect, has been inveighing against what one of 
his fellows terms " the horrible corruptions" of the 
age; nor can we for a moment blame the vigour 
with which he attacks atheism, which he contends 
was fast growing in this country. 

MORTOX. Thos. Beard, you know, in his " Theatre 
of God's Judgments," first printed, I believe, in 1598, 
mentions Christopher Marlow as a professed atheist 

BOURNE. What you allude to is here, and with a 
view to what T. B. says of atheists, it is material to 
quote Beard's words, for it is quite clear to me, that 
Marlow is alluded to in the remarks of T. B. 

ELLIOT. For aught we know, T. B. the translator 
of " the French Academy," was no other than Thomas 
Beard, author of " the Theatre of God's Judgments." 

BOURNE. That plausible and obvious conjecture 
never occurred to me before. Beard uses these 
remarkable expressions concerning Marlow : " Not 
inferior to any of the former in Atheisme, and im- 
pietie, and equall to all in maner of punishment, 
was one of our own nation, of fresh and late me- 
morie, called Martin* (so spelt, but the name 
" Marlon" is inserted in the margin), " by profession 
a scholler, brought vp from his youth in the vniuer- 
sitie of Cambridge, but by practise a Play-maker, 
and a Poet, of scurrilitie, who by giuing too large a 



swinge to his owne wit, and suffering his lust to 
haue the full reines, fell (not without just desert) to 
that outrage and extremitie, that he denied God 
and his sonne Christ, and not onely in word blas- 
phemed the Trinitie, but also (as is credibly reported) 
wrote bookes against it, affirming our Sauiour to be 
but a deceiuer, and Moses to be but a coniurer and 
seducer of the people, and the holy Bible to be but 
vaine and idle stories, and all religion but a deuice 
of pollicie." 

ELLIOT. The very Tom Paine of the reign of Eli- 
zabeth ; nothing short of it. Are any of the books 
Marlow is " credibly reported" to have so written, 
now extant ? 

BOURNE. None that I have ever heard of 5 but, if 
I am not much mistaken, I can furnish a quotation 
from one of them on the authority of T. B. : he has 
just been speaking of Ligneroles, a French courtier 
and atheist, adding that there was a parallel to him 
in England, and continuing thus : " This bad fellowe 
whose works are no lesse accounted of among his 
followers, than were Apollos Oracles among the 
Heathen, nay then the sacred Scriptures are among 
sound Christians, blusheth not to belch out these 
horrible blasphemies against pure religion, and so 
against God the Author thereof, namely, That the 
religid of the heathen made them stoute and courageous, 
ivhereas Christian religion maketh the professors 
thereof base-minded, timerous and Jitte to become a 


pray 1o euery one : that since men fell from the re- 
ligion of the Heathen, they became so corrupt, that 
they would beleeue neither God nor Deuill: that 
Moses so possessed the land of ludea as the Gothes 
did by strong hand v&urpe part of the Romane Empire. 
These and such like positions are spued out by this 
hel-hound," &c. 

MORTON. That certainly corresponds very much 
with what Beard says of Marlow; besides, if he be 
not alluded to, upon whom can we fix the quotation 
he gives from some work or other, and obviously 
not the offspring of mere invention ? There is only 
one objection to it, though it must be allowed to be 
one of some importance, if it be true that Marlow 
was killed before 1593 (as is asserted), and it is this, 
that T. B. writing in 1594 speaks of him in the pre- 
sent tense as still living. 

BOURNE. Formidable as that remark may seem, it 
is easily answered, for you will observe that this 
edition of the French Academy of 1594, purports to be 
the third: it was first printed some time earlier, 
though I am not now prepared with the precise 
date. What makes it the more likely that Marlow 
is alluded to, is the fact that T. B. almost immediately 
afterwards proceeds to notice Robt. Greene ; at least 
that is the conclusion I draw from what is said, and, 
I believe, you will think it a fair one: he is referring 
to such persons in England " as treade in the steppes 
of Lamech," and " walke in the wayes of Ismael." 



He observes, " That there are such amongst vs, 
euen in these times wherein we Hue, let the testi- 
monie which one of that crew gave lately of him- 
selfe, when the heauy hand of God by sicknesse 
summoned him to giue an accompt of his dissolute 
life. He being one day admonished of his friendes 
to leaue his badde course of life, which otherwise 
woulde bring him to vtter destruction, scoffingly 
returned them this answerer Tush (quoth he) what 
is hee better that dieth in his bedde then he that endeth 
his life at Tiburne? And being further vrged to 
doubt the losse of his soule in Hell fire for euer 
although hee feared not death in this worlde, hee 
replied; Hell? fWiat talk you of Hell to mee? I 
knoiue if I once come there I shall Jiaue the company 
of better then my selfe: I shall also meete tvith some 
knaues in that place, and so long as I shall not sit 
there alone, my care is the lesse. But you are madde 
folkes (quoth hee) for if I feared the Judges of the 
Bench no more then I dread the iudgonenfs of God y 
I ivoulde before I slept dine into one karles bagges or 
other, and make merrie with the shelles I found in 
them so long as they would last. The voyce of a 
meere Atheist, and so afterwardes hee pronounced 
of himselfe when he was checked in conscience by 
the mightie hand of GOD. And yet this fellow in 
his life time and in the middest of his greatest ruffe, 
had the Presse at commaundement to publish his 
lasciuious Pamphlets, whereby hee infected the 


hearts of many yoong Gentlemen and others with his 
poysonfull platforms of loue, and diuellish discourses 
of fancies fittes : so that their mindes were no lesse 
possessed with the toyes of his irreligious braine, 
then their chambers and studies were pestered with 
his lewde and wanton bookes. And if the rest of his 
crew may be permitted so easily as hee did without 
controlment to instill their venimous inuentions into 
the minds of our English youth by meanes of print- 
ing, what other thing can wee looke for, but that 
the whole land should speedily be ouerflowen with 
the deadly waters of all impieties, when as the flood- 
gates of Atheism are thus set wide open." Now all 
that you will allow is exceedingly curious, supposing 
we cannot, with the utmost precision, ascertain that 
it was applicable to Kobt. Greene, though I confess 
myself, from all that is said, I have no doubt that 
he is meant. The greater part of it is unquestionably 
a gross libel, and I bring it forward to show the man- 
ner in which the puritans, for their own purposes, 
slandered those obnoxious to them. 

ELLIOT. All that you have read is very interest- 
ing ; but I have not seen any thing that relates to 
Lodge, and his defence of theatrical performances. 

BOURNE. It follows almost immediately, com- 
mencing with a general allusion to satirists, and the 
authors of apologues, who under the figures of 
beasts, &c. struck at the great. 

MORTON. In his " Lenten Stuffe," 1599, Nash has 
a very apposite passage, which seems to have re- 


ference almost to this very accusation. " Talk I of 
a bear (says he) Oh: it is such a man emblazons 
him in his arms ; or of a wolf, a fox ; or a camelion, 
any lording whom they do not affect, it is meaned 

ELLIOT. Very true ; but let us hear T. B. regard- 
ing Lodge, from whose tract on usury we have 
already made a very long digression. 

BOURNE. The epistle is now almost terminated. 
T. B. continues in these words: "Are they not already 
growen to this boldnes, that they dare to gird at the 
greatest personages of all estates, and callings, vnder 
the fables of sauage beasts, not sparing the very dead 
that lie in their graues ? that the holy Apostles, the 
blessed virgin Mary, the glorious kingdome of heauen 
it selfe must be brought in as it were vpon a stage 
to play their seuerall parts, according as the humor 
of euery irreligious head shal dispose of them ? And 
wheras godly learned men, and some that haue 
spoken of their owne experience, haue in their bookes 
that are allowed by authority, termed Stage-playes 
and Theaters, The schoole of abuse, the schoole of 
bavodery, the nest of the deuil and sinke of all sinne> 
the chaire of pestilence, the pompe of the deuil, tlte 
soueraigne place of Satan, yet this commendation of 
them hath lately passed the Presse, that they are 
rare exercises of vertue. It were too long to set 
downe the Catalogue of those lewde and lasciuious 
bookes, which haue mustered theselues of late yeeres 
in Pauls Churchyard, as chosen souldiers ready to 


fight vnder the deuils banner : of which it may be 
truely said, that they preuaile no lesse (if not more) 
to the vpholding of Atheisme in this light of the 
Gospel, then the Legend of lies, Huon of Burdeaux, 
King Arthur, with the rest of that rabble, were of 
force to mainteine Popery in the dayes of ignorance." 
He concludes, therefore, with a request to those in 
authority, that all such books may be collected in 
the centre of St. Paul's Churchyard and publicly 
burnt, " as a sweete smelling sacrifice vnto the 

MORTON. The " commendation of them" (stage- 
plays) that " hath lately passed the press," you sup- 
pose to be Lodge's " Play of Plays." 

BOURNE. I do not know any other tract of that 
date to which it can very well apply ; the reference 
in what I just read to Gosson, Lodge's antagonist, 
is even more distinct. We may now return to the 
" Alarum against Usurers," and I much fear that the 
best part of it would fall under the burning sentence 
of T. B. : the main subject of it is love, and the 
puritan would, no doubt, have included it among 
those " lewd and lascivious books" tending to the 
support of atheism, although religion is neither di- 
rectly nor indirectly touched upon in it. 

ELLIOT. How do you mean that the main subject 
of it is love ? what connexion have love and usury, 
unless that love and its consequences often bring 
men to want, and so compel them to resort .to all 
kinds of expedients for raising the wind. 


BOURNE. Not exactly so : I have already told you, 
that the first forty pages are employed upon usury j 
the next thirty-two pages are occupied by a novel, 
mentioned on the title-page, called " the delectable 
Historic of Forbonius and Prisceria," consisting of 
prose, interspersed with a good deal of poetry : the 
last seven pages are filled with " Trvths complaint 
ouer England," a poem in twenty-nine seven-line 
stanzas. The first of these two is a novel or history, 
in much the same style as Greene's or Rich's pro- 
ductions of a similar kind. 

ELLIOT. As Shakespeare made use of " Rosalind" 
by the same author, do you find any traces of his 
having seen Lodge's " Forbonius and Prisceria r" 

BOURNE. I do not; yet, when first I began to 
read it, I fancied that it was another of the several 
early versions of Romeo and Juliet, under different 
names : Forbonius and Prisceria are the offspring of 
families that were at enmity with each other. The 
scene, however, lies principally at Memphis, and the 
other incidents, not indeed very complicated, have 
no relation whatever to the misfortunes of the lovers 
of Verona. 

MORTON. This novel you call the best part of the 
small volume : in what does its goodness principally 
consist ? 

BOURNE. Not so much in the interest of the story 
as in the general grace with which it is told, and the 
beauty of some of the poetry inserted in its progress. 
Forbonius, " highly accounted of for his vnreprouable 


prowesse, and among the best sort allowed of for his 
vnspekable vertues," falls in love with Prisceria, the 
beautiful daughter of Solduvius, viceroy of a pro- 
vince adjoining Memphis : the father discovers their 
mutual attachment, and removes Prisceria to his 
country residence. The lover follows her, and con- 
tinues his wooing as a shepherd : in this character he 
sings to her a long eclogue, filling more than six 
pages, but which contains some of the best specimens 
of Lodge's talent for amorous poetry that I have 
seen. It opens with the subsequent flowing lines : 

" Amidst these Mountaines on a time did dwell 
A louely shepheard, who did beare the bell 
For sweete reports and many louing layes : 
Whom, while he fed his flocke in desart wayes, 
A netheards daughter deckt with louely white 
Behelde and loude ; the lasse Corinna hight. 
Him sought she oft with many a sweete regard, 
With sundrie tokens she her sutes preferdj 
Her care to keepe his feeding flocke from stray, 
Whilst carelesse he amidst the lawnes did play. 
Her sweete regards she spent vpon his face, 
Her Countrie cates she sent to gaine his grace, 
Her garlands gaie to decke his temples faire, 
Her doubled sighs bestowd on gliding airej" 

but notwithstanding these advances on the part of 
the young lady, Corulus, for so he is called, treated 
her with disdain, and whenever she drew near he 
drove his flock in a different direction. 


ELLIOT. You remember the stanza in my favourite 
Italian, beginning, 

Ingiustissimo Amor, perche si raro 
Corrispondentijai nostri desiri? 

BOURNE. I do, but it is not so applicable here as 
you imagine ; for Cupid marking the love of the 
shepherdess and the austerity of the swain, makes 
their desires correspond, and wounds the latter, com- 
pelling him to love, even more strongly than he had 
loathed before : he now seeks the object of his af- 
fections, and on his road pours out a most splendid 
picture of her charms : from this part I will make 
no quotation, principally because it is to be found at 
length in " Englands Parnassus," 1600, under the 
crowded head of " Di script ions ofBeautie and per- 
sonage" (p. 400), where it takes up nearly three 
pages. The poet then proceeds ; 

" Her Corulus with warie search at last 

At sodaine found, and as a man agast 

At that he saw, drew back with feare, and than 

Remembring of his woes his sute began. 

O sweete Corinna, blessed be the soyle 

That yeelds thee rest amids thy dayly toyle, 

And happie ground whereon thou satest so ! 

Blest be thy flocke which in these lawnes doo go, 

And happie I but hauing leaue to looke. 

Which said, with feare he pawsd and bloud forsooke 

His palie face, till she that wrought the fire 

Restorde the red, and kindled sweete desire ; 


And with a bashfull looke beholding him, 
Which many months her pleasant foe had bin, 
She cast her armes about his drooping necke." 

MORTON. The lines are as smooth and musical 
as any I remember to have read, even of a much 
later date : the shepherdess might have " a bashful 
look," but her action was not very bashful when she 
threw her arms about the neck of Corulus. 

ELLIOT. Her bashful look was before she had 
recovered the surprise of a declaration, so unex- 
pectedly made by one whom she had hitherto been 
unable to influence. 

BOURNE. Every body knows how much food for 
poetry has been afforded by the disappointments and 
discordances of lovers, and Lodge seems to have set 
himself the task of showing what might be said 
when both hearts were consenting. After Corinna 
has expressed her astonishment, Corulus continues 
his speech. 

O Nimph of beauties traine, 

The onely cause and easer of my paine ! 

Tis not the want of any worldly ioy, 

Nor fruitlesse breed of Lambes procures my noy ; 

Ne sigh I thus for any such mishap, 

For these vaine goods I lull in fortunes lap : 

But other greefes, and greater cause of care 

As now, Corinna, my tonnenters are. 

Thy beautie Goddesse is the onely good ; 

Thy beautie makes mine eyes to streame a flood ; 


Thy beautie breakes my woonted pleasant sleepe, 
Thy beautie causeth Corulus to weepe. 
For other ioyes they now but shadowes be j 
No ioye but sweete Corinnas loue for me. 
Whereon I now beseech thee by that white 
Which staines the lilly and affects my sight j 
By those faire locks whereas the graces rest, 
By those sweete eyes whereas all pleasures nest, 
Doo yeelde me loue, or leaue me for to die!" 

ELLIOT. Unless the shepherdess had changed her 
mind in consequence of the refusal of the youth, in the 
first instance to make any return to her advances, or 
unless that " lob of spirits," Master Puck, had 

tf Streaked her eyes 

And made her full of hateful fantasies," 
there seems no reason for his fears. 

MORTON. What happened in the case before us, 
as related by Lodge, is somewhat out of the usual 
course, if we may believe our own experience, and 
Lod. Barry's authority. 
" When a poor woman lias laid open all 
Her thoughts to you, then you grow proud and coy; 
But when wise maids dissemble and keep close, 
Then you, poor snakes, come creeping on your bellies 
And with all oiled looks prostrate yourselues 
Before our beauty's sun, where once but warm, 
Like hateful snakes you strike us with your stings 
And then forsake us." (Ram Alley, 1611, A. V.) 

BOURNE. Corulus was bound not to take it for 


granted that the lady would fall into his arms with- 
out solicitation, or any expression of contrition 5 and 
I do not know that he says much more than might be 
expected from so passionate an innamorato. Corinmi, 
however, gives no opposition, and " with a kisse 
she sealed vp the deed," and the lovers are united 
and happy. This " delectable Aeglogue," as Lodge 
calls it, being finished, old Solduvius discovers the 
disguise of Forbonius, and being all-powerful, throws 
him into prison and vigorously rates his daughter. 
Both continue resolute, and at last the father is 
obliged to give his consent to their union. This is 
the bare outline of the story., and as you saw the 
day before yesterday sufficient specimens of Lodge's 
prose, we need not enter more into detail regarding 
itj especially as we have yet to examine several 
curious tracts on the protracted contest for and 
against theatrical representations. 

ELLIOT. Then are we to hear nothing from the 
poem at the end, " Truth's complaint over England ?" 

BOURNE. I had forgot that, but a short specimen 
must suffice. The author invokes Melpomene, his 
" mournful Muse," to aid him in relating the com- 
plaint which Truth had made to him, that he might 
put it into verse : a correct notion of its style and 
tendency may be gathered from the three following 
stanzas, which are interesting as they refer to the 
state of the kingdom at the date they were written, 
viz. 1584. Truth addresses the author in these 
terms, as an old acquaintance : 


" Whilome (deere friend) it was my chaunce to dwell 
Within an Hand compast by the wane, 

A safe defence a forren foe to quell : 

Once Albion cald, next Britaine Brutus gaue, 
Now England hight, a plot of beautie braue j 

Which onelie soyle should seerae the seate to bee 

Of Paradise, if it from sinne were free. 

" Within this place, within this sacred plot, 
I first did frame my first contented bowre ; 

There found I peace and plentie for to float, 
There Justice rulde and shinde in euerie stowre j 
There was I loude and sought to euerie howre; 

Their Prince, content with plainnesse, loued Truth) 

And pride by abstinence was kept from youth. 

" Then flew not fashions euerie day from Fraunce t 
Then sought not Nobles nouells from a farre, 

Then land was kept, not hazarded by chaunce, 
Then quiet minde preserud the soile from iarre; 
Cloth kept out cold, the poore releeued werre. 

.This was the state, this was the luckie stowre, 

While Truth in England kept her stately bowre." 

MORTON. The first stanza reminds one of Gaunt's 
fine apostrophe to England in Richard II. 

" This other Eden, demy Paradise j 
This fortress built by nature for herself," &c. 
ELLIOT. It does, but they will not bear comparison. 

The general turn of the poem seems to be objurgatory 

und satirical. 


BOURNE. It is, and it shows the tendency of the 
author's mind, at least, eleven years before he pub- 
lished his " Fig for Momus." 

ELLIOT. Notwithstanding we have much before 
us, I should like to hear another stanza or two. 

BOURNE. As you please: I am not sure whether 
the following are not the best lines in the whole 

" For as the great commaunder of the tides, 
God Neptune, can allay the swelling seas, 

And make the billowes mount on either sides, 
When wandering keeles his cholar would displease : 
So Princes may stirre vp and soon appease 

The commons heart to doe, and to destroy 

That which is good, or this which threates anoy. 

" For common state can neuer sway amisse 
When Princes liues doo leuell all a right, 

Be it for Prince that England happie is j 
Yet haplesse England, if the fortune light, 
That with the Prince the subiects seeke not right : 

Vnhappie state, vnluckie times they bee, 

When Princes liues and subiects disagree." 

ELLIOT. Those stanzas are not ill worded, and 
the simile in the first is apt, but the thought is only 
the old common place of policy, ingenia principnm 
fata tempo rum. 

BOURNE. Nor is there any thing throughout this 


division of the tract very new. When Lodge di- 
rected his satire against private vices and absurdi- 
ties, he was certainly happier. Having gone through 
this very rare volume, we may now lay it aside, and 
resume our inquiries regarding the stage. The last 
pamphlet we looked at yesterday on this subject was 
Dr. Rainolde's " Overthrow," 1599. 

MORTON. In " a Treatise on plays," by Sir John 
Harington, said to be written about 1597* and 
published in Nugee Antiques (I. 190.) is a brief 
defence of Tragedies and Comedies, and a passing 
blow given to the " sour censurers" of them. 

BOURNE. He had previously justified them in his 
" Apology of Poetry," 1591, but we have less time 
now than yesterday to go into these incidental no- 
tices : I will therefore, without preface, lay before 
you Thomas Heywdod's ingenious and amusing per- 
formance, the full title of which is, "An Apology for 
Actors. Containing three briefe Treatises. 1. Their 
Antiquity. 2. Their ancient Dignity. 3. The true 
vse of their quality. Written by Thomas Hey wood. 
Et prodesse solent et delectare" London, 1612, and 
it is dedicated to the Earl of Worcester : he tells 
his patron, " I haue striu'd my Lord to make good 
a subiect which many through ignorance haue sought 
violently (and beyond merit) to oppugne." 

ELLIOT. I hope he severely lashes his abusive 
opponents. The iron flail of Talus would not have 
been misapplied in belabouring them. 


BOURNE. On the contrary, he is temperate and 
argumentative, considering the provocation. 

MORTOX. One can scarcely excuse any degree of 
tameness : it would better become the meekness of 
spirit, to which the Puritans were pretenders, than 
an author and actor, whose works and profession had 
been so repeatedly and so grossly attacked. 

ELLIOT. Mandeville, somewhere in his " Fable of 
the Bees," asserts, and truly, that " of all religious 
vertues nothing is more scarce or more difficult to 
acquire than Christian humility," and of this the 
Puritans had not a particle. 

BOURNE. Heywood is not always equally forbear- 
ing, even in the tract before us, and in his " Troia 
Britannica" 1609, Canto III. he handles a puritan 
very roughly : 

" He can endure no Organs, but is vext 
To hear the Quiristers shrill Anthems sing 1 ; 
He blames degrees in the Academy next, 
And 'gainst the liberall arts can Scripture bring j 
And when his tongue hath run beside the text, 
You may perceiue him his loud clamours ring 
'Gainst honest pastimes, and with piteous phraze 
llaile against hunting, hawking, cocks, and playes." 

There is more of the same kind, but this is the only 
part that relates to our subject. ' 

ELLIOT. Still I could wish that he had hit harder 
and cut deeper, venger la raison des attentats des sots, 



BOURNE. The following is the mode in which 
Heywood opens his argument in favour of thea- 
trical representations, which, though not perhaps 
coming up to your wishes, is tolerably severe. I 
think he pursued a more prudent course in not being 
too violent against so powerful and increasing a 
body; besides his argument appeared with the 
better grace, in contrast to the gross epithets em- 
ployed by Gosson, Stubbes, and others. " Moued 
by the sundry exclamations of many seditious sectists 
in this age, who in the fatnesse and ranknesse of a 
peaceable Common wealth, grow up like unsavoury 
tuffts of grasse, which, though outwardly greene and 
fresh to the eye, yet are they both vnpleasant and 
vnprofitable, being too sower for food, and too rank 
for fodder: these men, like the antient Germans, 
affecting no fashion but their owne, would draw 
other nations to be slouens like them selves j and 
vndertaking to purifie and reforme the sacred bodies 
of the Church and Common-weale, (in the true vse of 
both which they are altogether ignorant,) would but, 
like artlesse phisitians, for experiment sake, rather 
minister pils to poison the whole body, then cordials 
to preserue any or the least part. Amongst many 
other things tolerated in this peaceable and flourish- 
ing state, it hath pleased the high and mighty 
Princes of this Land to limit the vse of certaine 
publicke Theaters, which since many of these ouer- 
curious heads haue lauishly and violently slandered, I 


hold it not amisse to lay open some few antiquities to- 
approue the true vse of them ." And after an apology 
on the ground of his own insufficiency, he enters upon 
his subject. 

MORTON. Have you omitted nothing before you 
came to the opening of the tract ? You turned over 
several leaves. 

BOURNE. Nothing material, I believe j only some 
commendatory poems by Arthur Hopton, John 
Webster, John Taylor, and other actors, not of 
much value. Some lines are added by Heywood, 
that have been quoted as a plagiarism from Shake- 
speare's Seven Ages : the topic totus mundus agit 
histrionem (the motto of the Globe Theatre), is 
almost the only resemblance. 

MORTON. Then let us proceed. Does Heywood 
divide his subject as the title states ? 

BOURNE. Precisely, treating first of the antiquity 
of actors, which he does with considerable learning, 
and he dwells particularly on the influence produced 
on the mind, by seeing the mighty actions of ancient 
heroes brought upon the stage. He next replies to> 
various arguments and authorities advanced by his 
antagonists, asking this question : " And why are 
not play-houses maintained as well in other cities of 
England as London ? My answer is 5 it is not meete 
euery meane Esquire should carry the port belonging 
to one of the nobility, or for a Noble man to usurpe 
the estate of a Prince : Rome was a Metropolis y 

ir SB 


a place whither all the nations knowne vnder the 
Sunne resorted : so is London .... I neuer yet could 
read any History of any Commonweale which did 
not thriue and prosper whilst these publike solemni- 
ties were held in adoration." 

MORTON. I made a few extracts the .other day 
from a voluminous and entertaining work, by a 
person of the name of Thomas Gainsford, one of 
which is not inapplicable, as it relates to the occupa- 
tions and amusements of London before the year 

ELLIOT. Your extract will be very welcome ; but 
first, ought we not to hear the title of the work from 
whence it is copied ? , 

MORTON. I was forgetting that : it is called " The 
Glory of England, or a true Description of the many 
excellent prerogatiues and remarkable blessings 
whereby she triumpheth ouer all the nations of the 
World." To make my extract more intelligible, I 
should mention that the author has been instituting 
a comparison between London and Paris. " With 
vs, our riding of horses, musique, learning of Arts 
and Sciences, dancing, fencing, seeing of comedies or 
enterludes, banquets, masques, mummeries, turna- 
ments, shewes, lotteries, feasts, ordinarie meetings 
and all the particulars of mans inuention to satiate 
delight, are easie expences, and a little Judgement 
with experience will manage a very meane estate 
to wade through the current of pleasure, although it 


runne to voluptuousnesse." His conclusion is, that 
both living and pleasures are much cheaper in 
London than in Paris. 

ELLIOT. The tables are a little turned now, I fear : 
in economy of living, as well as variety and cheap- 
ness of amusements, Paris is admitted to have the 
advantage at present. 

BOURNE. I do not see that we are at all called 
upon either to discuss or decide that point : we will, 
therefore, continue our examination of Heywood, 
and enter upon his second division on the ancient 
dignity of Actors, and here amid a great variety 
of learned matter to support his point, the author 
inserts the following interesting notice of some of 
the principal English actors. " To omit all the 
Doctors, Zawnyes, Pantaloones, Harlakeens, in 
which the French, but especially the Italians, haue 
been excellent, and, according to the occasion of- 
fered, to do some right to our English Actors, as 
Knell, Bentley, Mils, Wilson, Crosse, Lanam, and 
others: these, since I neuer saw them, as being 
before my time, I cannot (as an eye-witness of their 
desert) giue them that applause which, no doubt, 
they worthily merit j yet, by the report of many 
judicial auditors, their performance of many parts 
have been so absolute, that it were a kinde of sin to 
drowne their worths in Lethe, & not commit their 
(almost forgotten) names to eternity. Here I must 
needs remember Tarlton, in his time gracious with 


the Queene, his Soueraigne, and in the peoples ge- 
neral applause ; whom succeeded Wiliam Kempt as 
well in the fauour of her Maiesty, as in the opinion 
and good thoughts of the general audience. Gabriel, 
Singer, Pope, Phillips, Sly, all the right I can do 
them, is but this, that though they be dead, their 
deserts yet liue in the remembrance of many. Among 
so many dead let me not forget one yet aliue in his 
time, the most worthy famous Maister Edward 

MORTON. Edward Allen or Alleyn was the founder 
of Dulwich College. 

B.OURNE. The same : that fact is added in a sub- 
sequent edition of the " Apology for Actors," pub- 
lished after Allen's death. 

ELLIOT. That is a curious quotation as connected 
with the history of the stage. 

BOURNE. It is. I do not delay to speak of the 
persons separately, because not a few of them were 
actors in Shakespeare's plays, and many particulars 
have been collected by Malone, by Chalmers in his 
*' Supplemental Apology," and by other writers. 

ELLIOT. You have mentioned some of them be- 
fore, such as Richard Tarlton and Kemp. 

BOURNE. I have, but I cannot resist here men- 
tioning that in an old play, called "The pleasant 
and Stately Morall of the three Lordes and three 
Ladies of London," 1590, written by one Paul Bucke 
{whose name is subscribed at the end " Finis Paule 


Bucke"), is a curious tribute to the memory of 
Tarlton, who had died only a short time before : 
Simplicity, a clown, a sort of inferior Autolicus, 
enters with a basket singing ballads j afterwards 
a countryman takes what is called " a picture" of 
Tarlton out of the basket and asks who it is : Sim- 
plicity pronounces an eulogium upon him, ending 
thus : 

" But it was the merriest fellow that had such iestes 

in store, 
That if thou hadst seene him thou wouldst haue 

laughed thy hart sore." 

In the course of the scene Wit and Wealth, two 
personages represented, avow their acquaintance 
with Tarlton. 

MORTON. I have read of a book called " Tarltons 
Jests :" no doubt it contains many curious stories 
I suppose it is something like " Peele's Jests." 

BOURNE. The difference is chiefly this, that Tarl- 
ton's Jests consist more of merry sayings, and Peele's 
of merry doings. Here is a copy of " Tarlton's 
lests : Drawn into three Parts. His Court witty 
lests His sound Citty lests His Country pretty 
lests : full of Delight, Wit and honest Mirth," 1C1 1 ; 
and it is not improbable that this wood-cut on the 
title-page, in his fool's dress and playing on his pipe 
and drum, is a copy from the very " picture" carried 
by Simplicity in his basket. The tract contains a 


great many particulars regarding the stage, but it 
has been ransacked by Oldys, Malone, and the rest 
of the annotating tribe. 

ELLIOT. Surely you can find one specimen; the 
annotators would extract the minute particulars 
without the least relish for the jests. 

BOURNE. That is true in some degree : the fol- 
lowing is not only one of the best of the jokes, but 
relates to a personal peculiarity of Tarlton : 

" Tarltons answer in defence of his flat nose. 

" I remember I was once at a play in the Country 
where, as Tarltons vse was, the play being done, 
euery one so pleased to throw vp his Theame, one 
among the rest was read to this effect, word by 
" Tarlton I am one of thy friends and none of thy 

foes j 

Then I prethee tell how camst by thy flat nose ? 
Had I been present at that time on those banks, 
I would haue laid my short sword ouer his long 

shank es." 

" Tarlton, mad at this question, as it was his 
property sooner to take such a matter ill then well, 
very suddenly returned him this answere, 
" Friend or foe, if thou wilt needs know, marke me 

With parting dogs & bears, then by the ears, this 

chance fell} 


But what of that ? though my nose be flat, my credit 

to saue, 
Yet very well I can by the smell, scent an honest 

man from a knaue." 

MORTON. I have seen that retort attributed to some 
one else who happened to have a peculiarity about 
his " nasal promontory." 

BOURNE. Very likely 5 it is astonishing to see 
how long some jokes survive, being transmitted 
from generation to generation, with slight changes. 
Here is a book dated as early as 1576, which con- 
tains a jest current at the present moment in many 
shapes. It is called " The Schoolemaster, or Teacher 
of Table Philosophic," principally translated from 
the Latin, and among the instructions for the con- 
duct of gentlemen when invited out to dinner is a 
whole book of " mery honest lestes, delectable de- 
uises, and pleasant purposes, to be vsed for delight 
and recreation at the boord among company." 

ELLIOT. It promises a great deal of amusement. 

BOURNE. I cannot say that it performs as much as 
it promises : as a specimen you shall hear the story 
I referred to just now. ' ( A certaine Phisicion hauing 
instructed his sonne to discerne by the vrine what 
meate the patient had eaten ; marke diligently also, 
quoth he, if thou canst see any parings of apples, or 
such like, about the bed, and then mayest thou iudge 
that he hath eaten some such thing. Afterward it 


chaunced that when this Scholler went to see his 
pacient, and looking about the chamber, sawe the 
saddle of an asse, and not seeyng the asse there like- 
wise, iudged that the sicke man hadde eaten the 
asse ; whiche they that stoode by, telling his master, 
sayd that he was an asse which iudged of the sick- 
mans disease by an asses saddle." 

ELLIOT. The modern version has some improve- 
ments, both in circumstances and in the point with 
which the jest is t6ld. 

BOURNE. Perhaps soj but the substance is the 
same. However, we have not time to dwell longer 
on the subject, as there yet remains the third divi- 
sion of Heywood's tract, to which we have not ad- 
verted, the true use of the quality of actors. Upon 
that we may be short, because it comprises little 
more than a few stories to show that actors afford 
useful examples to the good, and warnings to the 
vicious, by the lively representations of the reward 
of virtue, and the punishment of crime on the stage. 

MORTON. They may be omitted : particular in- 
stances only weaken the general argument. 

BOURNE. They are inserted as a counterpoise to the 
particular instances in Stubbes, Field, and others, of 
God's judgments upon the frequenters of theatres, &c. 
The subsequent is, however, interesting in another 
point of view, as you will see in a moment. " Now 
to speak of some abuse lately crept into the quality, 
as an inueighing against the State, the Court, the 


Law, the City, and their gouernments, with the par- 
ticularizing of priuate mens humors yet aliue, Noble- 
men and others. I know it distastes many \ neither 
do I any way approue it, nor dare I by any means 
excuse it. The liberty which some arrogate to them- 
selves, committing their bitternesse and liberall in- 
uectives against all estates to the mouths of Chil- 
dren, supposing their iuniority to be a priuilege for 
any rayling, be it neuer so violent : I could aduise 
all such, to curbe and limit this presumed liberty 
within the bands of discretion and gouernment. But 
wise andjudiciall Censurers, before whom such com- 
plaints shall at any time hereafter come, will not (I 
hope) impute these abuses to any transgression in us, 
who haue euer been carefull and prouident to shun 
the like. I surcease to prosecute this any further, 
lest my good meaning be (by some) misconstrued: 
and fearing likewise lest, with tediousness, I tire 
the patience of the fauourable Reader, here (though 
abruptly) I conclude my third and last Treatise." 

ELLIOT. This abuse of their quality in attacking 
private individuals and personal peculiarities, pro- 
bably did them more injury, and more hastened the 
closing of the theatres, than all the vices they brought 
into the state, or were supposed to have brought 
into it from all time. 

BOURNE. This was unquestionably the fact, as far 
as regarded the Puritans. The printer of the second 
edition of Dr. Rainoldes's " Overthrow," in 1629, who 


signs an address to the reader, " Thine in the Lord" 
expressly complains that actors had " not been afraid 
of late dayes to bring vpon the stage the very sober 
countenances, modest and matron -like gestures and 
speeches of men and women to be laughed at, as a 
scorne and reproach to the world, as if the hipocrisie 
of ludas (if it were brought upon the stage), could 
any whitt disgrace the apostles of our Sauiour." 

MORTON. This had been done with great effect in 
" The Puritan, or Widow of Watling Street." 

BOURNE. And in several other plays, both before 
and after it ; rarely with more effect than in Cowley's 
" Guardian" (afterwards called " Cutter of Cole- 
man Street") first acted in 1641, where the charac- 
ter of Tabitha is broadly and ridiculously coloured. 
To this abuse, as far as it was such, James Shirley, 
in the preface to his tragedy of " The Politician," 
1655, seems to allude, when he says, " the severity 
of the times took away those dramatique recreations 
(whose language so much glorified the English 
scene), and perhaps looking at some abuses of the 
common theatres, which were not so happily purged 
from scurrility and vnder-wit (the only entertain- 
ment of vulgar capacities), they have outed the more 
noble and ingenious actions of the eminent stages." 

MORTON. Poor Shirley was a severe sufferer in 
consequence of the abolition of the theatres, by the 
barbarous superstition and intolerant zeal of the 


ELLIOT. That " scurrility and under-wit," as Shir- 
ley terms it, did prevail to a most unlicensed extent, 
is admitted on all hands. Ben Jonson, in the preface 
to his Volpone, bitterly inveighs against those who 
had brought the profession and name of a poet into 
contempt by ribaldry, profanation, and blasphemy, 
adding, like Nash, some severe sentences against a 
busy meddling class of people, who made it a sort of 
trade to give personal and particular application to 
the general satire of writers for the stage. 

BOURNE. Your reference is in point, but I do not 
wish to go more into the general question before we 
have looked at the Answer to Heywood's Apology, 
which was printed in 16*15, three years afterwards, 
and purports to be written by one J. G. It is long 
and laboured, and the writer certainly took time 
enough to compose his reply, though he professes to 
treat Heywood with great contempt, as unworthy the 
notice of " a Senior, or learned Clarke," but who 
might be easily refuted " by some single witted or 
illiterat Pupill." 

ELLIOT. What is the title he gives it ? 

BOURNE. " A Refutation of the Apology for Actors, 
divided into three breefe Treatises, &c. j 1. Their 
Heathenish and Diabolicall institution ; 2. Their an- 
cient and moderne indignitiej 3. The wonderfull 
abuse of their impious qualitie." So that, from the 
very title, you can easily judge of the mode in which 
the subject is discussed by this re-compounder of the 


abusive epithets, and retailer of the anathemas of the 

MORTON. If he only goes over the old grounds in 
the old style, we need not bestow much time upon 

BOURNE. From beginning to end I do not think 
he introduces a single new argument, or one new 
fact -, indeed, all his illustrations are professedly 
taken from Stubbes. 

ELLIOT. And how he, and others like him, got 
their perfect insight into all these horrid vices of 
players and theatres, must remain a secret, unless 
we conclude that their fathers were of Parmeno's 
opinion in Terence's Eunuch. 

MORTON. That is, that frequenting their haunts, 
and joining in all their enormities, was the best mode 
of giving his son a disgust for them. 

BOURNE. J. G. in his prefatory matter, and, indeed, 
throughout, treats Hey wood with infinite hauteur, 
never condescending to name him, but always term- 
ing him Mr. Actor, and telling him, that he means 
" to give his Apologie such a Blurre, that it shall 
not be able, after never so much washing, to show 
a cleane face againe." His first book, if we may so 
call it, opens with an assertion (for mere assertions 
are as useful to J. G. as to his predecessors), that 
God having created certain things for man's delight, 
Sathan stepped in and perverted them to unlawful 
pleasures, one of which was " vngodly and obscrene 


stage-playes, the most impious and most pernitious 
of all other vnlawfull and artificial pleasures." 

ELLIOT. Exactly the old strain : I can see no 
reason why we should trouble ourselves with re- 
digesting these crudities. 

BOURNE. I will not require your patience for 
more than a few sentences from the second division, 
where a reply is attempted to the denial by Heywood 
of the evil manners and vicious habits of all actors. 
"And, therefore, (J. G. says) in vaihe afterwards 
doth M. Actor intreat for excuse, not to misdeeme 
all for the misdeeds of some, seeing it is the generall 
carriage of them all. It is a rule in Diuinity to 
know a man's conditions and what hee is, by the 
company hee doth vsually keepe. Now, if the best 
of them were not licentious, why do they Hue and 
loue, accompany and play together with them 
which are ? Were it not madnesse for a man to be 
his companion which is his daily reproch r But 
Players all of them are licentious, for the proverb is 
Birds of a feather jtye together. And therefore if 
they were not they would not associate them which 
are, whom the Syteresis of their own consciences, 
and the conscience of all men willeth to auoyd." 

ELLIOT. " There is an air of plausibility (says 
Burke in his Vindication of Natural Society) which 
accompanies vulgar reasonings and notions taken 
from the beaten circle of ordinary experience, that ia 


admirably suited to the narrow capacities of some, 
and to the laziness of others." 

BOURNE. In the third part is an attempt at logic 
in a direct syllogism nothing less than a syllogism, 
stated thus. " Whatsoeuer is the Image of truth 
is like vnto truth, for Images are said to be like 
what they represent 

" But a Comedie is not like truth : 
Ergo It is not the Image of truth." 

MORTON. There the whole question is assumed : he 
takes it for granted that a Comedy is not like truth. 

BOURNE. I beg your pardon ; he says, that he 
establishes his assumption that a comedy is not like 
truth, because " it is wholly composed of Fables and 
Vanities and Fables and Vanities are lyes and de- 
ceipts, and lyes and deceipts are cleane contrary to 

ELLIOT. A most sagacious and infallible rea- 
soner! Comedies are like truth precisely for the 
cause he urges against them, for if they were not 
fables, but realities, they would not be like truth, 
but truth itself j nullum simile est idem. You may 
very safely close the book. 

MORTON. J. G.'s syllogism reminds me of a ludi- 
crous one I saw in that tract you showed us called 
" Pap with a Hatchet" against Martin Marprelate 
and his friends. 


" Tiburn stands in the cold, 

But Martins are warm fur ; 

Therefore Tiburn must be furred with Martins." 

BOURNE. One is as incontrovertible as the other 5 
only the last is intended for a joke, and the first for 
a serious argument. As you are tired of J. G.'s an- 
swer already, I may here just refer you, for I will do 
very little more, to two or three books, where indeed 
stage-plays are spoken of incidentally, but which 
ought not to be wholly passed over in silence. I know 
that this is in some degree breaking through our 
rule, but Heywood and his antagonist have occupied 
less time than I expected, and what I am going to 
offer will most likely not require more than a few 

MORTON. At your discretion. 

BOURNE. The first book I shall mention is called 
" A Sixe-fold Politician ; together with a Sixe-fold 
Precept of Policy," 1609, which, perhaps, I should 
have omitted, but that it is attributed by Warton to 
Milton's father 3 but this is denied by Dr. Farmer 
and others. The initials I. M. are subscribed to the 
prefatory matter. 

ELLIOT. There is surely some other ground on 
which to rest so important a conclusion. 

BOURNE. There is, though it has never appeared 
to me very satisfactory, and I apprehend you will 
think the same. The commendatory poems are by 
lo. Dauis, Gent., by I. S. Gent., and by T. P. : now 



the second of these opens with a pun upon the name 

of the author 

" Thy tun (deare friend) of wit & hony nows brok 


meaning Mel-tun or Milton j and if something of the 
kind were not intended by I. S. Gent., it is not easy 
to see why he begins with a line so uncouth. 

MORTON. I think I remember to have seen a 
tract about that date, by a man of the name of Mel- 
ton, which comes nearer the pun of I. S. 

BOURNE. There was a very inferior writer of that 
name, and he was also called John j but he was 
quite incompetent to the work before us, which pos- 
sesses force, originality, and some learning. If it be 
true that Milton's father was really the author of this 
4to volume (the only 4to copy I have seen, though it 
is met with in 8vo.), it gives an additional interest to 
what he says in his third chapter " Of Poets." 

ELLIOT. It seems probable that Milton's father 
was no contemptible scholar, as his son addresses 
him in one of his Latin poems. Does he speak in 
favour of or against poets ? 

BOURNE . Strongly against the lower order of poets 
" who fashion their wits to the pleasing of a vaine 
multitude and rabble of loose liuers," though he 
introduces a salvo, in parenthesis, in favour of 
true " poetry and judicial poets." He is sufficiently 
strenuous in his attack upon theatrical representa- 


tions, which is the only part of the book I will now 
read. " And as the enterludes may be tearmed the 
Schoole-houses of vanitie and wantonnes, so these 
are the Schoolemaisters thereof : and me thinks they 
who have tasted of the sweete fountaine water run- 
ning from their Academick mothers breasts, by 
this, if nothing else, shold be deterred from their 
scribbling profession, that they see their writings 
and conceits sold at a comon doore to euery base 
copanion for a penny. But most of their conceits 
are too deere at that rate, and therefore may well bee 
had in the same request that Tobacco is now, which 
was wont to be taken of great gentlemen and gal- 
lants, now made a frequent and familiar Companion 
of euerye Tapster and Horse-Keeper. And their 
conceits are likest Tobacco of any thing ; for as that 
is quickly kindled, makes a stinking smoake, and 
quickly goes out, but leaves an inhering stinke in the 
nostrils and stomackes of the takers, not to be 
drawne out, but by putting in a worse sauour, as of 
Onions and Garlick, (according to the prouerbe 
the smel of Garlicke takes away the stink of dung 
hils,) so the writing of ordinarye Play-bookes, 
Pamphlets, and such like, may be tearmed the 
mushrum coceptions of idle braines ; most of them 
are begotte ouer night in Tobacco arid muld-sacke, 
and vttered and deliuered to the world's presse 
by the helpe and midwifery of a caudle the next 


MORTON. That is very good, but Bishop Hall 
puts it better in one of his satires, and illustrates it 
by a very apposite simile 

" With some pot-fury, ravisht from their wit 
They sit and muse on some no-vulgar writ : 
As frozen dunghills on a winters morn 
That void of vapours seemed all beforn, 
Soon as the sun sends out his piercing beams 
Exhale out filthy smoke and stinking steams." 

ELLIOT. Yet there is older authority for the con- 
trary opinion, 

" Nulla placere diu, neque vivere carmina possunt, 
Qua scribuntur aquce potoribus" 

BOURNE. Here is a work in some respects of a 
similar character to the last we looked at, and which 
contains a vast variety of entertaining matter : there 
were at least two editions of it, and this is the 
second, which is the fullest and completest. The 
title is this, " Essayes and Characters, ironical and 
instructive, &c. : with a new Satyr in defence of 
Common Law and Lawyers," &c. By John Ste- 
phens the younger, of Lincolnes Inne, Gent. Lon- 
don 1615. It contains a good deal of matter about 
poetry and plays, and among others the following 
sentence in favour of the productions for the stage : 
" And never was in any nation (it may be boldly 
spoken) that elegance and nature obserued in Play- 
composures, which is inherent generally in our En- 


glish Writers at this day. So that we may inuert 
the words of Plautus, 

mine nova qua prodeunt fabula 

multo siuit meliores qua nummi nostri: 

And in Nature most equall to these writings Poetick 
history approaches neerest : consisting in the same 
degree of fancy and an inuention better furnished." I 
did not take Stephens from the shelf, however, for 
this opinion, which I did not recollect till I had opened 
the book, but for two characters, as they are called, 
or descriptions of persons representing a class. 

MORTON. This was a favourite style of writing at 
that time Bishop Hall's " Characterismes" were, I 
believe, the first specimens. 

BOURNE. With this difference, that Bishop Hall's 
are characters of vices and virtues, and these of 
individuals, but the one, unquestionably, grew out of 
the other. You will see what I mean very clearly 
presently. I will pass what Stephens says of " a 
base, mercenary poet," and read a very curious and 
shrewd description given by him of " A common 
Player," observing first, that he draws a clear dis- 
tinction between such a personage and the more 
respectable members of that stigmatised profession. 
He says : " A common Player is a slow Payer, seldom 
a purchaser, neuer a Puritan. The statute hath done 
wisely to acknowledge him a Rogue errant, for his 
chiefe essence is a daily Counterfeit. He hath beene 


familiar so long with out-sides that he professes 
himselfe (being vnknowne) to be an apparant Gentle- 
man. But his thinne Felt, & his silke stockings, or 
his foule Linnen and faire Doublet do (in him) bodily 
reueale the Broker : So being not sutable he proues 
a Motley: his mind, obseruing the same fashion of 
his body, doth consist of parcell and remnants, but 
his minde hath commonly the newer fashion and 
the newer stuffej he would not else hearken so pas- 
sionately after new Tunes, new-Tricks, new Deuises. 
f . , . Hee doth conjecture somewhat strongly, but 
dares not commend a playes goodnes till he hath 
either spoken or heard the Epilogue; neither dares 
he entitle good things good, vnlesse he be heartened 
on by the multitude : till then he saith faintly M'hat 
he thinks, with a willing purpose to recant or per- 
sist. . . . The cautions of his iudging humor (if he 
dares vndertake it) be a certaine number of sawcie 
rude iests against the common lawyer ; handsome 
conceits against fine Courtiers ; delicate quirkes 
against the rich Cuckold, a Citizen; shadowed 
glaunce for good innocent Ladies & Gentlewomen, 
with a nipping skoffe for some honest Justice who 
hath imprisoned him, or some thriftie Trades-man 
who hath allowed him no credit; always remem- 
bered his object is A new play or A play newfy 
reuiued. ... To be a player is to have a mithridate 
against the pestilence; for players cannot tarry 
where the plague raignes & therefore they be seldome 


infected. ... In the prosperous fortune of a play 
frequented, he proues immoderate, and falles into a 
Drunkards paradise, till it be last no longer Other- 
wise when aduersities come they come together, for 
Lent & Shrove tuesday be not far asunder j then he 
is deiected daily and weekly. . . . Reproofe is ill be- 
stowed vpon him j it cannot alter his conditions : he 
hath been so accustomed to the scorne and laughter 
of his audience that he cannot be ashamed of him^ 

ELLIOT. It is a severe and a most illiberal attack: 
it shows the degraded condition of the theatre at the 
time, and that players had no redress against such 

MORTOX. Stephens writes as if he were under the 
feeling of personal enmity : had he any cause of that 

BOURNE. I dare say not, but it is his keen sen- 
tentious way : a little further on he adds, " Hee is 
politick also to perceiue that the common-wealth 
doubts of his licence, and therefore in spite of Parlia- 
ments or Statutes he incorporates himselfe by the 
title of a brotherhood. Painting and fine cloths may 
not for the same reason be called abusiue, that players 
may not be called rogues: For they be chiefe orna- 
ments of his Maiesties Reuells. I need not multiplie 
his character, for boycs and euery one wil no sooner 
see men of this Faculty walke along but they will 
(vnasked) informe you what he is by the vulgar title. 

ELLIOT. That puts one in mind of the anecdote of 


Foote, after whom a chimney-sweeper, in derision, 
cried " Player-man, player-man!" " You see (said 
Foote to a friend), how we are esteemed." 

BOURNE. Very good : Stephens, however, makes 
a distinction in his censure. " Yet (he adds) in the 
generall number of them many may deserue a wise 
mans commendation, and therefore did I prefix an 
Epithite of common, to distinguish the base and artless 
appendants of our citty companies, which oftentimes 
start away into rustical! wanderers and then (like 
Proteus) start backe again into the citty number." 

MORTON. One of which " city number" we may 
recollect Heywood was, for he addresses the city 
actors as his " good friends and fellows." 

BOURNE. Mr. G. Chalmers, in his " Supplemental 
Apology," speaking of the year 1625, states it as a 
curious fact, that at this epoch actors belonging to 
established companies of London often strolled into 
the country 5 but from Stephens it appears that, 
at least, particular members of the " brotherhood" 
made excursions of the kind much earlier. The 
whole character gives one a good deal of insight 
into the management of theatrical concerns, and the 
habits of players at that time, though not very im- 
partially written. The same may be said of a dra- 
matic production, obviously never acted, but printed 
'by Th. Thorp, in 1610, under the title of " Histrio- 
mastix or the Player whiptj" but most of the par- 
ticulars have been gleaned by Malone and his co- 


MORTON. From this play, I suppose, Prynne took 
the title of his massive quarto. 

BOURNE. Most likely. It is observable that the 
drama is divided into six acts, and the principal 
characters consist of Betch, Gutt, and others, com- 
mon players, with the poet belonging to their com- 
pany called Post-hast, who is represented as an ex- 
temporal versifier : these persons betray all kinds of 
vulgarity and resort to the lowest artifices to obtain 
a living j their actions are moralized upon by Chris- 
oganus, a worthy but neglected scholar, in A. III. 
in lines beginning thus : 

" Write on, crie on, yawle to the common sort 
Of thickskind auditours ! such rotten stuffs 
More fit to fill the paunch of Esquiline, 
Then feed the hearings of iudiciall eares. 
Ye shades tryumpe while foggy Ignorance 
Clouds bright Apollos beauty ! Time will cleare 
The misty dullness of Spectators Eeysj 
Then wofull hisses to your fopperies !" 

MORTON. And that time did arrive not very long 
afterwards. What is the result? How does the 
author finish his piece ? 

BOURNE. The object is to expose the national 
miseries and private vices arising out of theatrical 
performances ; and a portion of " Histrio-mastix" 
partakes of the nature of an old morality, Peace and 
Plenty, with Virtue, &c. being, in the opening, exiled 


from the land by Pride, Envy, War, &c. At the end, 
the players are shipped off for some distant country, 
and^then the first and welcome occupants of the soil 
return. A long and fulsome compliment to Eliza- 
beth as Astrcea at the end, shows that the piece 
was written before her death. 

ELLIOT. Does it not contain some allusions to the 
poets of the timer Has Post-hast, the poet, no par- 
ticular reference ? 

BOURSE. I fancy not; at least I can trace none of 
the descriptions given of him to any writer of that 
day. In the early part of the production is the sub- 
sequent passage, which, I take it, refers to an ex- 
pression of Marston : 

" How you translating scholler? You can make 

A stabbing Satir or an Epigram, 

And thinke you carry iust Ramnusias whippe !" 

MORTON. You mean in the Proemium to the first 
book of Marston's satires 5 two lines which I re- 
collect you read j 

" I beare the scourge of just Rhamnusia 
Lashing the lewdness of Britannia." 
BOURNE. I do. I may not improperly introduce 
here a biographical fact, which I omitted when John 
Marston and his satires were particularly under our 

ELLIOT. Is it any additional confirmation of the 
hypothesis, that late in life he went into the church, 
or became a preacher ? 


BOURNE. No : it is the existence of a production 
by him, among the royal MS. (18 A. XXXI.) not 
noticed by any bibliographers, under the following 
title, " The Argument of the Spectacle presented to 
the sacred Maiestys of Great Brittan and Denmark 
as they Passed through London." At the end it is 
subscribed in the hand- writing of the author. 

MORTON. That is a curiosity of great interest, 
especially as it has hitherto remained unknown. I 
suppose it is a kind of pageant written for the city. 

BOURNE. You are right: the following descriptive 
introduction is preceded by a short Latin address to 
the Recorder of London " The Sceane or Pageant 
of triumph presented it selfe in this figure. In the 
middst of a vaste Sea, compassed with rocks, ap- 
peared the Hand of Great Brittaine, Supported on 
the one side by Neptune, w 01 the force of Shippes, 
on the other vulcan with power of lorne, and the 
comoditys of Tinn, Lead, and other Mineralls 
Ouer the Hand Concord, Supported by Piety and 
Pollecy, satt inthroand : the boddy of it thus shappt, 
the life of it thus spake ; whilst the Tritons in the 
sea sounded musique, the Mermaids singing, then in 
a Cloud Concord discending and landing on the 
cragg of a rock spake thus." 

ELLIOT. These city pageants, from the accounts 
we read of them in our historians, were tedious 
mythological exhibitions j worse than the feasts made 
up from Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the time of the 


author of the World, where a gingerbread Poly- 
phemus destroyed a frozen Acis with a sugar-plum 

MORTON. That was a display of the same pedantic 
taste without the same excuses of recently acquired 
knowledge and splendid exhibition. What does 
Concord say ? flattery of course. 

BOURNE. Yes, but I am sorry to say that all the 
speeches are in Latin, and with some propriety when 
we recollect that the show was constructed mainly 
to gratify a foreign King, who did not understand a 
word of English. It has one merit not always be- 
longing to these pageants, viz. that it is short, and 
it concludes exactly in the following manner : 

" Sic o Sic siat l&to exultate triumpho 
Terrajerax, marejluctisonum, resonabilis Eccho, 
Viuant ceternum, viuant pia numinafratres 

Vivant Vivant. 
The vmblest servant 
of yo r sacred majesty 
John Marston." 

MORTON. Being in Latin, it is not of the same 
value to us as if it had been in English ; still it is 
a little surprising that all who of late years have been 
employed in investigating the lives and works of our 
old poets, should have omitted to mention it. 

BOURNE. The fact is worth knowing, though its 
importance may not be very great. The King of 


Denmark visited this country in 1606, and Sir John 
Harington gives some ludicrous details regarding 
his entertainment and conduct at the Court. We 
will now return to our subject. I shall not bring 
before you Sir W. Vaughan, author of the " Golden 
Grove," 1608, and of the " Golden Fleece," 1626, 
because he only refers to stage-plays en passant, and 
is one of the most moderate of their opponents, ob- 
serving that the fault lies as much in the hearers as 
in the thing heard, and lamenting that the spectators 
at a comedy were not endued with discretion to 
discern gold from alchymy. 

ELLIOT. In his Critique de VEcole des Femmes Mo- 
liere very well observes of nice-nosed fault-finders, 
IlJaut done que pour les ordures vous ayez des lumieres 
que les autres n'ont pas : this was precisely the case 
with the Puritans, who, because they had peculiar 
organs that received only what was vicious, and re- 
jected what was good, denounced plays altogether. 

MORTON. The publisher of the old edition of Mas- 
singer's " City Madam," shrewdly says of plays, " in 
a word they are mirrors or glasses, which none but 
deformed faces, and fouler consciences fear to look 
into." This was probably another reason why these 
curvtE animec objected to them. 

BOURNE. Old Burton, Democritus junior, how- 
ever rugged in his life, was not so austere in his 
notions as to object to them : on the contrary, in his 
" Anatomy of Melancholy," first printed, T believe, 


in 1621, he says, that " opportunely and soberly vsed, 
they may be iustly approued," however " heanily 
censured by some seuere Catoes." 

ELLIOT. Alluding probably to Martial's Epigram 
(L. II. E. 1.) 

Cur in Theatrum, Cato severe, venisti ? 
An ideo tantum ut exires. 

BOURNE. We are now at length arrived at what 
has been deemed an epoch in the history of the stage ; 
the publication of that work, which may be con- 
sidered as the more immediate cause of the closing 
of the theatres. I allude to this thick, closely printed, 
and most tedious 4to. Prynne's Histrio-mastix. " The 
Players Scovrge or Actors Tragedie," 1633. 

ELLIOT. So that when writing against the stage 
and all its appurtenances, he is guilty of the absurdity 
of calling his own production a Tragedy. 

MORTON. And what is more, he divides it into acts 
and scenes instead of into chapters and sections. 

BOURNE. You will find it a task completely in 
vain to attempt to enter into the precise contents 
of such a voluminous production, embracing the 
resolutions, as the author says, of 55 Synods ; the 
opinions of 71 Fathers and Christian Writers before 
A. D. 1200; 40 Heathen Philosophers, &c. besides 
English statutes, and the decisions of Magistrates, 
Universities, Writers, Preachers, &c. &c. 

ELLIOT. And all for the purpose, I see, of showing. 


" that popular Stage-plays are sinful, heathenish, 
lewde, vngodly spectacles, and most pernicious cor- 
ruptions." I wonder how many times Prynne went 
to the theatre, or how many plays he read to qualify 
him to judge of their wickedness or excellence. 

MORTON. That is a question which he might find 
some difficulty in deciding himself perhaps very 
few, perhaps none at all ; for with a singular facility 
of conviction he takes all that had been said by earlier 
writers against the stage for granted, proceeding as 
if upon the mere notoriety of the abuse. It is said 
that the work was seven years in hand ; three in 
writing, and four in printing : the author encountered 
many preliminary difficulties, besides the subsequent 
punishment of pillory, loss of ears, imprisonment, 
&c. which to this stanch Puritan in such a cause, 
were " trifles light as air." 

BOURNE. Besides his main point, he touches upon 
a great number of others incidentally ; such as the 
horrible crime of men disguising themselves as wo- 
men to play parts upon the stage. The period when 
women first appeared upon the public boards is one 
of some curiosity. Thomas Jordan, once a player 
at the Red Bull Theatre, published about the date of 
the Restoration, or a little afterwards, a small book 
called " A Rosary of Rarities planted in a garden of 
Poetry," which contains a prologue to introduce the 
first woman that ever came to act on the stage, in 
the tragedy of the Moor of Venice. The epilogue 
is also to be found there, as well as an epilogue 


spoken by a woman in the character of the Tamer, 
a play altered from Fletcher's " Womans Prize." 

MORTON. Among Waller's poems is " a Prologue 
for the Lady Actors/' spoken before Charles II. 

BOURNE. I was going to add, that it is worth 
while to observe how rapidly this most important 
theatrical revolution was effected, because the epi- 
logue spoken by the Tamer was delivered, as Jordan 
expressly says, on June 24, 166O, being within less 
than a month after Charles II. entered London. 

ELLIOT. And this woman in the part of the 
Tamer was not the first who had appeared on the 
stage, because the Jirst had previously come out 
in the Moor of Venice, I conclude in the part of 

MORTON. The precise date of that representation 
is not given. As a mere conjecture one may say, 
perhaps, that much of the coarseness and obscenity 
of our old plays may be attributed to the fact, that as 
there were no women on the stage, the authors and 
actors had only the audience to restrain them in their 

BOURNE. I doubt whether there is any thing in 
that observation, since we all know that after the 
Restoration and after women became players, the 
coarseness of the plays of the old English school 
was exchanged for the most extravagant grossness 
and indelicacy. 

ELLIOT. It has often struck me, as far as my 
knowledge enables me to judge, that there is a clear 


distinction between the offensive parts of the one and 
the other : in the old school, the indelicacy \vas any 
thing but seductive; it was intended merely as a 
joke, and with the joke its effect terminated j in the 
French school of Charles II. on the contrary, the 
object of the indecency was to provoke and incite, 
and vice was rendered amiable by an odious in- 
genuity. It had indeed sometimes a thin semi- 
transparent covering, but it was like the silken robe 
of Akina, the intervention of which between Rug- 
giero and the object of his desires, inflamed his pas- 
sions and animated his efforts. 

Come Ruggiero abbracio lei, gli cesse 
II mantOy e resto il vel sottile e rado. 
Che non copria dinanzi, ne di dietro 
Piu che le rose, o i gigli un chiaro vetro. 

(C. VII.) 

BOURNE. I am inclined to concur in your observa- 
tion. But I must now hasten to a conclusion, as I 
have two pieces yet to show you, well meriting 
notice ; the first is this very large sheet like a post- 
ing-bill, or rather, a posting-bill itself, and signed 
by the author of the ponderous volume before you, 
William Prynne. 

MORTON. He seems to have been anxious that it 
should be seen : what is it ? 

BOURNE. It is a denial, on his part, that he had 

VOL. ii. y 


recanted any of the opinions there stated : it is but 
short, and we shall best understand it by reading it. 


" of William Prynne, Esquire, from some scandalous 
Papers and imputations newly printed and published 
to traduce and defame him in his reputation. 

" Whereas a scandalous Paper have been newly 
printed and published in my name by some of the 
imprisoned Stage-Players, or agents of the army, in- 
tituled, Mr. William Prynne^ his Defence of Stage- 
Playes, or a retraction of a former booke of his, 
called His TRIOMASTIX, of purpose to traduce and 
defame me, I do hereby publicly declare to all the 
world the same to be a meere Forgery and imposture, 
and that my judgement and opinion concerning Stage- 
Playes, and the Common Actors of them, and their in- 
tollerable mischeivousnesse in every Christian State, 
is still the same as I have more amply manifested it 
to be in my Histriomastix," &c. &c. 

William Prynne." 

From the King's Head in the Strand, 
Jan. 10, 1648." 

MORTON. Have you ever seen that " mere forgery 
and imposture," Prynne's Defence of Stage-plays? 

BOURNE. Never : it would be well worth reading, 
as it would no doubt contain much entertaining mat- 
ter. The important fact communicated in this pub- 


lie notice luis not, that I am aware of, been noticed 
by any of the biographers of Prynne. I have a right, 
therefore, to presume, that the document is a rarity 
of some curiosity. 

ELLIOT. Certainly ; but the series would be com- 
plete, if, by any accident, you could meet with a copy 
of this spurious Defence. 

BOURNE. It would j but I have met with a tract 
of no inconsiderable value on the question we are 
now examining, and which has never been in the 
hands of any of our theatrical historians. 

MORTON. They have been so numerous and so 
industrious a body, that one would think it difficult 
to glean after them with any success. 

BOURNE. We will not discuss their merits, as we 
have not much time to spare, and what I now pre- 
sent to you is longer than Prynne's Proclamation. 
Its date ought to have entitled it to a place before 
what we last read, but it would have been inconve- 
nient to have introduced it there : it was published 
" Januar. 24, 1643" very soon after all the theatres 
were closed by the influence of the puritans. The 
title is this " The Actors Remonstrance, or Com- 
plaint for the silencing of their profession and banish- 
ment from their severall Play-houses. In which is 
fully set downe their grievances for the restraint : 
especially since Stage-Playes only, of all publicke 
recreations, are prohibited $ the exercise at the Beares 
Colledge, and the motions of Puppets, being still in 


force and vigour. As it was presented in the names 
and behalfes of all our London Comedians to the 
great God Phoebus Apollo, and the nine Heliconian 
Sisters on the top of Parnassus, by one of the Mas- 
ters of Requests to the Muses, for this present month. 
And published by their command in print by the 
Typograph Royall of the Castalian Province, 16^3. 
London, printed for Edw. Nickson." 

MOTITON. It seems a sort of serious joke a good- 
natured endeavour to overcome the animosity of the 
enemies of theatrical amusements. 

BOURNE. That is its character, though it com- 
plains of several grave evils and acute sufferings. The 
name of the author or authors is a matter out of the 
question. After setting forth various calamities, the 
petitioners thus address Apollo. " First, it is not 
unknowne to all the audience that have frequented 
the private houses of Black-Friers, the Cock Pit, and 
Salisbury- Court, without austerity, we have purged 
our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests, such 
as might either be guilty of corrupting the manners, 
or defaming the persons of any men of note in the 
City or Kingdome j * * that wee have left off our 
own parts, and so have commanded our servants to 
forget that ancient custome, which formerly rendered 
men of our quality infamous, namely, the inveigling 
in young Gentlemen, Merchants, Factors, and Pren- 
tizes, to spend their patrimonies and Masters estates 
upon us and our Harlots in Tavernes ; we have 


c-lejine and quite given over the borrowing money 
at first sight of punie gallants, or praysing their 
.swords, belts, and beavers, so to invite them to 
bestow them upon us." 

ELLIOT. It admits, in fact, some of the principal 
rharges against those connected with theatrical per- 

BOURNE. They were not to be denied. It after- 
wards complains of the " perpetually at least very 
long temporary silence" imposed upon Actors " to 
the impoverishment and utter undoing of themselves, 
wives, children, and dependants," while the " beast- 
linesse of the Beare-Garden," and senseless puppet- 
plays were continued, instancing a most attractive 
one of Bell and the Dragon, exhibited the preceding 
Christmas at Holborn Bridge. It will only be ne- 
cessary to read one passage more from it, which 
speaks of the unhappy situation of play-poets, in con- 
sequence of the closing of the theatres ; and this 
quotation will conclude our inquiries into this sub- 
ject. " For some of our ablest ordinarie Poets, in- 
stead of their annual stipends and beneficial second- 
dayes, being for meere necessitie compelled to get a 
living by writing contemptible penny pamphlets, in 
which they have not so much as poetical licence to 
use any attribute of their profession, but that of Qiti 
libel audendiy and faining miraculous stories and re- 
lations of unheard-of battels. Nay, it is to be feared, 
that shortly some of them (if they have not been 


forced to do it already), will be incited to enter 
themselves into Martin Parker's Societie, and write 
ballads. And what a shame this is, great Phoebus, 
and you sacred Sisters, for your owne priests thus 
to be degraded of their ancient dignities. Be your- 
selves righteous Judges, when those who formerly 
have sung with such elegance the acts of Kings and 
Potentates, charming, like Orpheus, the dull and 
brutish multitude, scarce a degree above stones and 
forrests, into admiration, though not into under- 
standing with their divine raptures, shall be by that 
tyrant Necessitie reduced to such abject exigents, 
wandring like grand-children of old Erra Paters, 
those learned Almanack-makers, without any Moe- 
cenas to cherish their loftie conceptions, prostituted 
by the mis-fortune of our silence, to inexplicable 
miseries, having no heavenly Castalian Sack to ac- 
tuate and inform their spirits almost confounded with 
stupiditie and coldness, by their frequent drinking, 
(and glad too they can get it) of fulsome Ale, and 
heretical Beere, as their usuall beverage." 

MORTON. Martin Parker, mentioned in the quota- 
tion you just read, was a most notorious ballad scrib- 
bler the Will Elderton of the reign of Charles I. 
and the Protectorate. Having finished this inquiry, 
upon what do we enter to- morrow ? 

BOURNE. This examination of the tracts, for and 
against theatrical representations, will very fitly in- 
troduce the subject, of which we were speaking a 


few days ago -, an investigation of the state of the 
stage before the date when Shakespeare began to 
write for it. 

ELLIOT. A very interesting topic, upon which I 
confess myself almost wholly ignorant. 

Thus terminated the first ten days' conversations 
between the three friends : the discussions were con- 
tinued to the end of the fortnight, to which the visit 
of Morton and Elliot was originally intended to be 
limited, but when the period fixed for departure ar- 
rived, the weather continued so beautiful, the river 
and the country near it so delightful, and the oc- 
cupation in the library so agreeable, that the guests 
were easily prevailed upon to prolong their stay, and 
to continue their inquiries. 


Vol. Page 

Abuses stript and whipt, by George Wither ii. 22 

Specimens., ii. 27, 28, 30, 41, 42, 43 

Actors Remonstrance, the, 1 643 ii. 323 

Actresses, when first allowed, proved from Jordan's 

" Rosary of Rarities" ii. 319 

JEneid of Virgil, translated by Vicars, quoted i. 112 

Affanue, 1 601 , by C Fitzgeffrey, the authors mentioned 

in i. 12 

Alarum against Usurers, by T. Lodge ii. 223 

described ii. 267 

Alcilia, Philoparthen's Loving Folly, 1619 ii. 112 

quotations from ii. 1 18, 1 19 

Allot, Robert, his claim to the compilation of "Englands 

Parnassus," 1600 i. 17 

Amoi and Laura, the Loves of, 1619, dedicated to Iz. 

Walton ii. 110 

Quotations from ii. 1 11, 113, 114 

Ant and the Nightingale of Father Hubberd's Tales 

quoted in reference to Spenser i. 100 

Apology for Actors, by T. Heywood, referred to 5. 125 

quoted ii. 288, 290, 291, 293, 299 

Refutation of the, by J. G. 1615 .. ii. 301 

Apology of Poetry, by Sir P. Sidney, Constable's Son- 
nets before ii. 104 

Edw. Wootton mentioned in ii. 107 

by Sir J. Harington alluded to ii. 288 

Aj)olonius and Silla, a novel, by B. Rich, on which 

Shakespeare founded his Twelfth Night, examined. . ii. 146 

330 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Arcadia, Sir P. Sidney's, mentioned i. 65, 67 

. Sonnet omitted in * 66 

Arraignment of Paris, by G. Peele, song from i. 123 

As you Like it, compared with T. Lodge's "Rosalynde" ii. 170 

Ascham, Roger, cited on the taste for Italian Poetry . . i. 81 

. against rhyme in English i 92 

Aske, James, quotation in blank verse from his Eliza- 

betha Triumphant, \ 588 i- 1 26 

Ass, The Nobleness of the, 1 595, examined i. 168 

the admirable properties of the animal i. 169 

its most melodious voice i. 170 

Authors, self-delusion of, as to their fame i. 46 

Eankes' horse, curious tract relating to, called " Ma- 

roccus Extaticus," 1 595 i. 163 

quotations from it i. 164,165 

fate of Bankes and his horse i. 1 66 

Barkstead, Will, his " Myrrha the Mother of Adonis". .. i. 237 
Barnes, Barnabe, his " Parthenophil and Parthenophe," 

dedicated to Will. Percy, referred to i. 13 

his " Four Books of Offices," 1606, 

noticed, and a question regarding two editions of it i. 1 4 

. Madrigal, by W. Percy. . i. 15 

Barry, Led. his " Ram Alley" quoted ii. '27, 284 

Bastard, Thos. Epigrams from his Chrestoleros, 1598 .. 5. 199 

on Sir H. Wootton ii. 108 

on Fishing ii. ib. 

on Dr. Beds, Dean of Wor- 
cester ii. 120 

on Dr. Reynolds ii. 254 

on Swearing on the Stage .... ii. 255 

Beard, Tho. his Theatre of God's Judgments i. 128 

cited regarding Marlow ii. 273 

doubt if he were not the translator of " the 

French Academy" ii. ib. 

Belvedere, the Garden of the Muses, by Bodenham L 228 

Blank verse, Peele's " Farewell to Norm and Drake," 

a specimen of i . 57 

INDEX. 331 

Vol. Page 

Blank verse, inquiry into the origin of undramatic i 88 

early specimens of i. 94 to 144, ii, 231 

Blenerhasset, Tho. a writer of blank verse in " the 

Mirror for Magistrates" i. 102 

his recommendation to hunt down the Irish 

Kernes i. 105 

Blessed Birth-day, by Fitzgeffrey, specimen of i. 71 

Boccacio, his novel of Titus and Gisippus ii. 79 

early English translations of his Decameron., ii. 196' 
Bodenham, John, mention of his " Belvedere," 1600 . . i. 228 

Bramins, etymology of ii. 204 

their plays ii. 205 

Brathwayte, R. his " Strappado for the Devil," 1615, 

quoted i. 70 

his " Time's Curtain drawn," &c. 1621 , and 

imitations ii. 54 

. quotations from it ii. 54, 55, 57 

his " Health from Helicon," with a specimen ii. 59 

Breton, N. said to have written blank verse i. 118 

" Cornu-copiae, PasquiPs Night-cap," assigned 

to him i. 329 

. his " PasquiPs Pass and Passeth not" quoted . . i. ib. 

" 'Tis merry when Gossips meet," 1 602, perhaps 

his i. 330 

. his " Mad World my Masters," account of and 

extracts from i. 331 , 332, 333, 335 

. poem by him in Hind's " Eliosto Libidinoso" . . ii. 8 

MS. poem by him in praise of Virtue, Wisdom, 

&c ii. 10 

Bright burning Beacon, &c. 1580, by Abr. Fleming . . i. 1 16 
Broughton, Rowland, his poem on the Marq. of Win- 
chester ii. 125 

Brysket, Lod. his claim to the poem of the *' Mourning 

Muse of Thestylis" considered i. 98 

his " Discourse of civil Life" 1 606 i. 99 

Bucke, Paul, his " Three Lords and three Ladies of 

London," 1 590 ii. 294 

Burgh, Sir John, R. Markham's poem on the death of . . H. 100 
Burtons Anatomy of Melancholy" quoted. . ii. 317 

332 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Campion, Tho. " Obs. in the Art of English Poesy" cited i. 118 

Castillo's Courtier, translated by Sir T. Hobby ' '242 

Chalmers, Mr. G. Life of Thomas Churchyard, and 

omission in it ii- 73 

his mistake regarding Sunday plays ii. 244 

point in his Supplemental Apology corrected. . ii. 312 

Chamberlain, Robert, Epitaph on C. Fitxgeffrey from 

his ' Nocturnal Lucubrations," 1638 ' 72 

Chapman, George, his attack in his 2x/avu>f7of upon 

hypercritical readers ' 6 

his dislike of commendatory verses i. tt 

his " Epicede on the Death of Prince Henry," 

1612, observed upon i* 24 

. his praise of the long verse, monosyllables and 

English, in the address before his translation of 

Homer i. 35 

his inconsistency ; his " Seven Books of Ho- 
mer," 1598, and in his " Achilles Shield" i. 38 

. his success in compound epithets i. 39 

. supposed envy of his contemporaries i. ib. 

" Hymn to Hymen," 1613, quoted i. 1 35 

on the word " swagger" i. 29 1 

his " Justification of Nero," and translation 

of Juvenal, Sat. 5. examined ii. 60 

specimen of ii. 63 

Chaucer, Geoffry, his " Man of Law's Tale" quoted ... i. 297 

" Merchant's Tale" . .* i. ib. 

Chinese, plays of the, from Parke's History of China, 

1588 . 202 

- the argument of one ii. 203 

Chrestoleros, by T. Bastard, quoted i. 199, ii. 108, 120,254,255 

.Christ's Tears over Jerusalem, by Tho. Nash ii. 269 

Church of evil Men, &c. 1509, printed by Pynson .... ii. 207 

Churchill, Charles, his " Rosciad" quoted ii. 32 

Churchyard, Thomas, his praise of the English tongue. . i. 37 

account of him by G. Chalmers ii. 73 

7 his " Misery of Flanders, Calamity of 

France," &c. 1579 ii. 74 

... quotations from it ii. 76, 78 

INDEX. 333 

Vol. Page 

Churchyard, Tho. lines by regarding Scotland ii. 85 

on " the Blessed State of England" ii. 86 

his " True Discourse historical," relating 

to the Netherlands ii. 88 

quoted regarding the death of Sir P. Sidney ii. 142 

recognition of Spenser's allusion ii. 89 

his praise of poetry, 1 596 ii. 103 

City Madam, by Massinger, referred to ii. 269 

Commendatory poems censured by G. Chapman i. Q 

Compound epithets of Fitzgeffrey, on the i. 33 

of Chapman 5. 39 

Constable, Henry, his four Sonnets to the Soul of Sir P. 

Sidney before " the Apology of Poetry," 1595 ... ii. 104 

Cookery Book,' old, called " Epulario" ii. 71 

Cornu-copite, Pasquil's night-cap, assigned to N. Breton i. 329 
Country-life praised in 4t The Return of the Knight of 

the Post," 1606 i. 219 

Courtship, the art of, from N. Breton's " Mad World 

my Masters" i. 333 

Cowlfy, Abr. his Naufragium Joculare, perhaps founded 
on a passage in R. Junius's " Drunkard's Cha- 
racter" i. 27 

his " Guardian," afterwards called " Cutter of 

Colman-street," referred to ii. 300 

Curan and Argentile, 1617, by William Webster i. 264 

Daniel, Sam. applauded by Fitzgeffrey in his " Drake" i. 32 

, Drayton, Jonson, Chapman, Sylvester, &c* ii. 48 

Dante, on the word Tragedy ii. 91 

Decker and Middleton's " Roaring Girl" quoted i. 20 

Deer-stealing a crime committed by players, &c ii. 257 

Dibdin, the Rev. T. F. his edition of Ames, mistake in it ii. 85 
, his account of Walter's " Titus 

and Gisippus" ii. 80 

Dolarneys Primrose, 1606, plagiarism from Hamlet in . ii. 16 

quotation from it ii. 17 

Donne, Dr. the oldest English poetical Satirist i. 153 

. Proof that his three first satires were written 

before 1 593 ' 1 55 

334 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Donne, Dr. Doubts as to the printing of his poems .... i. 1 56 

Variations between the MS. and printed copy of 

his satires, 1633 i. 159 

Allusions in the satires to temporary matters ... i. ib. 

his " Progress of the Soul" quoted on Fishing. . ii. 108 

Dorastus and Faiunia, by R. Greene, compared with 

Shakespeare's Winter's Tale ii. 177 

quoted ii. 181,186,188,189 

Donee's Illustrations of Shakespeare, note in, on Usury ii. 270 
Douland, John, quotation from his " Musical Banquet," 

1610 i. 161 

specimen of verse from his " Introduction 

containing the Art of Singing," 1609 i. 163 

Drake, Sir Francis, FitzgefFrey's poem on the death of i. 6 

Drake, Dr. his " Shakespeare and his Times" mentioned ii. l.S 

referred to ii. 135 

Drant, Tho. his " Medicinable Moral," 1 556 i. 197 

Drayton, Mich, applause of, by Fitzgeffrey in his 

"Drake" i. 32 

epistle to, by Tho. Lodge i. 1 85 

a poem called " The Metamorphosis of To- 

bacco," 1602, dedicated to i. 188 

Drinking excused, by R. Brathwayte, in his Health 

from Helicon ii. 58 

Drunkard's Character, by R. Junius, plagiarism in, 

from Feltham's " Resolves" i. 25 

Earthquake of 6th April, 1 580, list of writers upon the i. 1 1 7 

.. Fleming's tract upon the i. 116 

Eeds, Dr. R. Dean of Worcester, an epigrammatist .... ii. 1 20 
Elegiac Poems on the great, why freqently inflated .... i. 24 
Eliosto Libidinoso, 1606, by John Hind, account of ... ii. o 
Elixabetha Triumphant, by J. Aske, quotation from ... i. 126' 
Elizabeth* Queen, her " Entertainment by the Earl of 

Hertford," in 1591, blank verse in i. 133, 134 

a writer of blank verse ii. 23 1 

Elliot, Sir T. quotation from his " Governor" relating 

to Titus and Gisippus ii. 84 

Emperor of the East, Massinger's, quoted ii. 3ti 

INDEX. 335 

VoL Page 

England's Parnassus, by whom compiled i. 17 

lines in, by Sir J. Haringlon, attributed to J. 

Weaver i. 18 

Fitzgeffrey's " Drake" often quoted in i. ib. 

long quotation in, from Lodge's tale of For- 

bonius and Prisceria ii. 282 

English language, Chapman's praise of the i. 35 

Churchyard's praise of the i. 37 

English Mirror, 1 586, by G. Whetstone, quoted ii. 32 

Envy, character of ii. 32 

Ephemerides of Phialo, by Stephen Gosson ii. 219 

Ejtutario, or the Italian Banquet, quoted ii. 71 

Essays and Characters, 1615, by John Stephens ii. 308 

Essex, Lord, specimen of a song by, in Douland's 

" Musical Banquet," 1610 i. 161 

Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit, by J. Lilly ii. 169 

Fairy Queen, speech of, to Queen Elizabeth, in blank 

verse i. 134 

by Edm. Spenser, quoted i. 170 

Warton's opinion regarding the rhyme 

of i. 92 

Fardle of Fashions, 1555, by W. Watreman ii. 202 

on the plays of the Bramins and interludes ii. 204, 205 

Farewell to Sir J. Norris and Sir F. Drake, by G. 

Peele i. 54, 56, 58 

Farewell to Military Profession, by B. Rich, 1606 ii. 134 

first printed between 1578 and 1581 ii. 136 

quotations from it ii. 138, 146, 151, 152, 153, 156, 

157, 158, 161, 163 

omitted in all lists of Rich's productions .... ii. 145 

Feltham, Owen, plagiarism, by R. Junius, from his 

"Resolves" i. 25 

Female Actors, when first allowed ii. 319 

the " Rosary of Rarities," by Jordan, 

quoted, regarding ii. ib. 

Fenner, Dudley, his " Song of Songs," 1587 i. 308 

Field, John, bis " Godly Exhortation" regarding the 

accident at Paris Garden, in 1 583 ii. 242 

on the abolition of plays on Sunday " 243 

336 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Fig for Momus, by Tho. Lodge, examined i. 1 7 1 

Fisherman's Tale y the, &c. by F. Sabie i. 1 36 

Fitzgeffrey, Charles, his poem on the death of Sir 

Francis Drake, 1 596 i. 6 

article in the British Bibliographer re- 
garding i. 7 

quotation from the preface uf it i. 11 

authors mentioned in his Affania, 1601 .. i. 12 

his claim to the compilation of " England's 

Parnassus," 1600 i. 17 

satirical stanza, before Storer's " Life of 

Wolsey," 1599 i. in 

his motive for writing his " Drake" i. 20 

prefatory Sonnet to it quoted i. 21 

his youth and boldness in the undertaking. . i. 21 

specimens from his " Drake" i. 23, 30, 31 

bis address to English Navigators i. 28 

his applause of Spenser, Daniel, and Drayton i. 32 

his praise of writers for the stage i. 41 

his " Blessed Birth-day," quoted i. 71 

sermons by him on Sir A. Rous, &c i. ib. 

Epitaph by R. Chamberlain on the death 

of Fitzgeffrey, in 1636 5. 72 

Fleming, Abr. a writer of blank verse in his Bucolics and 

Georgics of Virgil, 1 589 i. 105 

specimens of his translation i. 106, 108, 109 

his relation of " A strange and terrible 
Wonder, &c. in the parish church of Bongay," &c. 

1577, with extracts i. 114 

his " Bright burning Beacon" on the earth- 
quake of 1 580, and poetical specimen i. 1 16 

mention in it of 8 other writers on the same 

subject i. 117 

his work " of English Dogs," 1576, with a 

" Prosopopoical speech of the Book" i. 194, 195 

Foote, Samuel, the player, anecdote of ii. 311 

Fortescue, Tho. his " Forest, or Collection of Histories," 

1571, quoted i. 171 

incident similar to one in " All's well that 

ends well ii. 195 

INDEX. 337 

Vol. Page 
Four Hooks of Offices, 1 606, by B. Barnes .......... i. 14 

Freeman, Tho. his Epigrams quoted regarding Dr. 

Donne ................................... i. 158 

French Academy, the ....................... ii. 27 1 

- Puritanical libels in .............. ij. jb. 

quotation from, probably regarding 

CMarlow ................................ ii. 274 

- R. Greene ----- ................. ii. 276 

-T. Lodge ...................... ii0 278 


Funebria Flora:, the downfall of, by Tho. 

Hal1 ...................................... ii. 249 

Funeral Poems, the reason for their disuse assigned, by 

R. Brathwayte, in his " Strappado for the, Devil". . i. 70 

Gager, Dr. his University play of Ulysses Redux, &c. . . ii. 256 
Gainsfard, Tho. quotation from his " Glory of Eng- 

land," IG'iy ...................... ". ......... ii. 292 

Gascoyne, George, the fourth writer of blank verse in 

English, in his " Steel Glass, a Satire" .......... i. 94 

concerned in the Netherland wars ......... . ii. 142 

his " Will of the Devil," &c. mentioned ..... ii. 209 
Goddard, William, his " Mastiff-whelp" mentioned ____ i. 304 

his " Satirical Dialogue between Alexander 

and Diogenes" examined .................... i. 305 

- William, his " Satirical Dialogue between. 
Alexander and Diogenes," its date ascertained .... i. 307 

extracts from i. 307, 309, 310, 31 1, 312, 313, 315 

his " Owl's arraignment," a satire .......... i. 3 1 6 

quotations from ...... i. 318, 319, 320, 326, 327 

Golde, a name assumed by Lodge in his " Fig for Momus" i. 181 

ii. 17 

Golden age of English poetry .................... i. 10 

Golden Grove and Golden Fleece, by Sir W. Vaughan, 

mentioned ................................ ii. 317 

Golding, Arthur, concluded Sir P. Sidney's Translation 

of de Mornay on the trueness of Christianity ...... i. 69 

- his Discourse on the Earthquake, 1580 ...... ii. 244 

regarding Sunday plays ............. ii. 245 

VOL. II. 2 

338 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Googe, Barnabe, his character and works ii. 121 

his " Proverbs of Sir J. L. de Mendoza," 1579 ii. 122 

quotations from ii. 1 23, 1 24 

Gossan, Stephen, his " Plays confuted, in five Actions" ii. 208, 

221, 226 

his three dramatic pieces ii. 210 

his " School of Abuse," 1579, quoted ii. 210, 212, 213 

. specimens of his poetry ii. 215,216 

~ his " Ephemerides of Phialo" quoted ii. 219, 220 

"- a writer of blank verse ii. 23 1 

probable allusion to in " the French Academy". . ii. 278 

Governor, the, by Sir T. Elliot, quoted ii. 84 

Gower, John, his '' Confessio Araantis" quoted i. 293 

on Envy. , ii. 32 

Greene, Robert, a writer of blank verse in his " Peri- 

medes, the Black-smith," 1 588 i. 118 

Bradamant's Song, from it i. 119 

Melissa's Song, from the same L 121 

his " Orpharion" in praise of women, quoted ... i. 296 

translation from Anacreon in .... i. 299 

his " Never too Late" referred to i. 298, ii. 14 

Roundelay by him inserted by Hind in his 

Eliosto Libidinoso," 1606 ii. 12 

his " Dorastus and Fawnia" examined ii. 177 

his " Mirror of Modesty," 1584, quoted ii. 179 

the attack made upon his motto, and his defence 

of himself and blank verse ii. 183 

probable allusion to in the " French Academy" ii. 278 

Greepe, Tho. his " True and perfect News" regarding 
the exploits of Sir F. Drake, 1587, and its ab- 
surdity 43 

extracts from it i. 44, 45, 47 

Grenvtile, Sir R. Tragedy of, by Jervis Markham ii. 92 

quotations from ... ii. 93, 94, 95 

prose tract regarding his death ii. 96 

poem by ii. 101 

Grimoald, Nicholas, the second writer of blank verse in 

English i. 94 

ruvoXE, or General History of Women, by T. Heywood i. 322 

INDEX. 339 

Vol. Page 
Gnsman of Alfarache, Life of, similarity between a 

passage in and in Paradise Lost i. 246 

Hall, Bishop, his claim to be the first English satirist., i. 154 

Gray's praise of his satires i. 197 

his congratulatory poem on the accession of James 

1 i. 198 

value of his satires , j. 226 

his Epigram on Marston i. 232 

on drunken poets jj. 399 

Hall, Tho. his " Histrio-mastix, a whip for Webster,"., i. 260 

his " Fuiifbria Flora, the downfall of May- 
games," and quotations from it ii. 249, 250, 251, 252 

Hamlet plagiarised in Dolarney's Primrose," 1606. . . ii. 16 
Haringto*, Sir John, his translation of Orlandn 

Furioso, 1 59 1 i ig 

Sonnet by Sir P. Sidney supplied in it .... i. 66 
his *' Metamorphosis of Ajax," 1596, and 

quotations 5. 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205 

his Epigrams and their merits i. 277 

hi^ " Treatise of Play" and " Apology of 
Poetry" mentioned ii. 288 

Hatton, Sir C. the patron of B Rich ii. 137 

his poetry and productions ii. ib. 

his House at Holdenby described by Rich ii. 138 

Health from Helicon, by R. Brathwayte ii. 58 

Henrii, Prince, G. Chapman's Epicede upon i. 24 

Hero and LeanJer, travestie of ii. 72 

Hertford, Earl of, his entertainment to Queen Elizabeth . i. 132 
Heywood, John, the Epigrammatist, quotation from Sir 

John Harington regarding him i. 198 

and Sir John Davies, with Bastard's epigram 

upon them i. 1 99 

his Spider and Fly, 1 556, noticed i. 200 

Heywood, Tho. his " English Traveller" the origin of 

Cowley's Naufragium Joculare i. 27 

his notice of the change from rhyme to blank- 
verse in theatrical representations i. 89 

on the adoption of classic measures in English L 124 


340 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 
Heywood, his blank verse in his " Pleasant Dialogues 

and Dramas," 1 6'37 i. 125 

his "Trqja Britannica" quoted. . i. 172,321 ii. 289 

his ruva/xe/ov, 1 G'J4, referred to i. 222 

song by, in imitation of Wither i. 325 

his " Apology for Actors" examined ii. 288 

Higgins, John, quoted from " Mirror for Magistrates". . i. 30 

a writer of blank verse in the " Mirror for 

Magistrates," and specimen i. 101 

Hind, John, his " Eliosto Libidinoso" examined ii. 5 

" Fancy" by N. B. in it, quoted ii. 8 

" Roundelay," by Robert Greene, in the same. . ii. 12 

his title copied from Greene's " Card of Fancy" ii. 15 

-Dinohin's, or John Hind's Sonnet ii. 1 5, 19 

Specimen, in prose, from the same ii. 18 

Histriomastix, 1610, a dramatic piece called ii. 312 

extract from ii. 313 

reference to Marston in ii. 314 

by W. Prynne, 1 633, described ii. 3 1 8 

Hobbes, Tho. translation of the Iliad and Odyssey, 1684 i. 1 12 

Hobby. Sir T. his translation of " Castilio's Courtier" ... i. 242 

Hume, Mrs. her translation of Petrarch's Triumphs .... i. 77 

Hutton, Henry, his " Folly's Anatomy" i. 276 

James I. and the King of Denmark, Marston's pageant 

in honour of, ii. 315 

James IV. of Scotland, R. Greene's play of, |r>98, i. 135 

Iceland dogs, described by A. Fleming in his tract " Of 

English Dogs," 1576 i. 195 

Iliad and Odyssey, translated by Hobbes, noticed i. 1 12 

Johnson, Dr. his opinion of detached extracts i. 22 

Jonson, Ben., his Underwoods quoted i. 30 

his Epigram to Lady Bedford, with a copy 

of Dr. Donne's Satires i. 155 

quotation from the Apologetical Dialogue 

annexed to his ' Poetaster" ii. 62 

preface to his " Volpone" mentioned ii. 301 

Jordan, Thomas, his " Rosary of Rarities planted in a 

garden of Poetry" ii. 

INDEX. 341 

Vol. Page 

Jordan, Tho. mention of female actors ii. ib. 

Junius, R. his " Drunkard's Character," 1638, and pla- 
giarism in it from Feltham's " Resolves" i. 25 

the Rev. H. J. Todd's praise of the book i. 26 

passage in, on which Cowley may have founded 

his Xaiifragium Joculare i. 27 

Juvenal, translation of his 5th sat. by George Chapman . . ii. 60 

Kendall, Timothy, his " Flowers of Epigrams" noticed., i. 279 

Keruynge, Wynkyn de Worde's book of ii. 70 

A'irton, H. poem by Gosson at the end of his " Mirror 

of Man's life" ii. 216' 

Knight of the Post, the Return of, 1606', an answer to 

Nash's " Supplication of Pierce Penniless" i. 216 

quotations from the prose and 

poetry in it i. 2 10', 219, 220, 222, 223, 224 

iMmb, Charles, his Specimens of English Dramatic Poets i. 10 

Lewicke, Edward, his history of Titus and Gisippus, 1 5G2 ii. BO 

quotation from his " Titus and Gi- 

seppus" - " ' 

further specimens .............. ii. 82, 83 

Lilly, John, his rustication from Oxford .............. ii. 169 

Lodge, Dr. Tho. , the second English satirist .......... i. 1 55 

__ bis "Fig for Momus," 1595, ...... i. 171 

__ his celebrity and productions i. 172, 173, 174 
___ address before his " Fig for Momus". . i. 175 
___ specimens of his satires ____ i. 177, 179, 180 

- _ . - of his eclogues ............ i. 181 

of his epistles ........ i. 185, 196 

describes himself under the name of 

his Rosalynde; Euphues golden 

Legacy," 1590 16 ' 8 

- his " Play of Plays" ii. 209, 222 

his " Alarum against Usurers," 1584, 

containing a reply to Stephen Gosson ii. 223 

quotations from it regard- 
ing S. Gossoa 224, 225, 286, 227 

34<2 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 

Lodge, Dr. Tho. conjecture regarding his family ii. 228 

allusion to his Defence of Plays in 

" the French Academy" ii. 278 

poetry from his tale of Forbon'us and 

Prisceria . ii. 281, 282, 283 

r Truth's Complaint 

over England". . ii. 286, 287 

Long verse of 14 syllables praised by G. Chapman i. 35 

Love, how far a fit subject for poetry ii- 1 1 5 

Lucan, B. I. of his Pharsalia translated by C. Marlow .. i. 130 

Mad World my Masters, by N. Breton, examined i. 331 

Magnificence, an interlude by John Skelton, quoted .... ii. 42 
Markliam, Jervis, his tragedy of Sir R. Grenville praised 

by Fitzgeffrey i. 59 

his fraud Upon Tofte regarding Ariosto's satires ; 

and upon Barnabe Rich ... ... ib. 

his tragedy of Sir R. Grenville, 1 M)5, account 

of. ii. 92 

quotations from ii. 93, 94, 95 

Markham, Robt his poem on the death of Sir J. Burgh ii. 100 

Marlow, Christ, mode of his death differently told i. 1 28 

his translation of " Lucan's first book," 

&c. 1600 i. ib. 

specimens of it i. 12.9,130,131 

his " Tamberlaine*' mentioned by R. 

Greene ii. 1 K3 

T. Beard's expressions regarding him ii. 273 

probable allusion to, in the " French 

Academy" ii. 274 

Mar-marline, and plagiarism in it from Spenser.... i. !83, 184 

Maroccus Extaticus, Bankes's Horse, tract regarding .. i 163 
Marston, John, incident in his Antonio and Mellida 

founded on a jest of G. Peele i. 52 

on the trade of a rope-maker i. 218 

his " Metamorphosis of Pigmalion's Image and 

certain Satires," 1 598, examined i. 230 

object of his " Pigmalion's Image" ... i. 231 

his quarrel with Joseph Hall, and the cause of it i. 231 

INDEX. 343 

Vol. Page 

Marston, his answer to Hall's epigram i. 232 

- why he wrote under the name of W. Kinsayder i. 233 

his attack upon Hall i. 234 

quotation from " Pigmalion's Image" .... i. 235, 236 

second edition of his Pigmalion's Image in 1619 ii 112 

extracts from his satires i. *40, 242, 243, 248 

his " Scourge of Villany," 1598, second edit. 

1599 i. 249 

dedication of it to himself .... i. 250 

extracts from it i. 251, 252, 256, 257 

his attacks on Shakespeare's Rich. Ill i. 254 

- reference to his own satires in " What you will" i. 255 

doubt if he did not go into the Church late in life i. 260 

sermon by, 1 642 i. 269 

reference to, in Histriomastix. 1610 ii. 314 

MS. pageant by, in honour of James I. and the 

King of Denmark ii. 315 

Massinger, P. his Emperor of the East quoted ii. 36 

City Madam referred to ii. 269 

letter of the publisher of. . ii. 31 7 
May, Tho. quotation from his translation of Lucan's 

Pharsalia i. 130 

Meres, Francis, his " Palladis Tamia," 1598, referred to i. 282 
Micro-cynicon, Six Snarling Satires, 1 599, mentioned . . i. 269 

its scarcity and price i. 28 1 

its title at length , i. 282 

quotations from, i. 283, 288, 290, 295, 300, 301 

its author i. 283 

Middlcton, Tho. his applause of Greek compounds in his 

" Mad World my Masters" i. 34 

and Decker's " Roaring Girl'' quoted i. 20 

Milton, John, his mistake in asserting that his Par. Lost 

was the first specimen in English of undramatic 

blank verse i- 88 

his obligations to Marston, Anth. Stafford, and 

Gusman of Alfarache i. *4S, 244, 246 

quotes Sir J. Harrington's Orl. Fur ii. 144 

senr. his Six-fold Politician quoted ii' 307 

Mirror for Magistrates, blank verse in i. 1 01, 1 03 

Mirror <f Monsters, 1 587, by Rankin i- ^28 

344 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 
Mirror for Magistrates of Cities, by Whetstone, quoted 

ii. 37, 240, 24.1 
published in 1586, as 

" the Enemy of Unthriftiness" ii. 38 

Mirror if Modesty, 1584, by R. Greene, quoted i. 179 

Misery nf Flanders Calamity of France, &c. 1579, a 

tract by T. Churchyard ii. 74 

Monosyllables, in English, praised by G. Chapman i. 35 

Moor nf Venice, first woman actor in the ii. 319 

Morley, Henry Parker, Lord, his translation of the 

" Triumphs of Petrarch," printed by J. Cawood i. 77 

its extreme rarity i. 79 

specimen in Dr. Nott's lives of Wyatt and Surrey ib. 

A. Wood's error regarding Lord Morley's death i. 80 

extract from the dedication of his translation .... i. 81 

extracts from his version i. 8 1, 83, 84 

original poem by Lord Morley at the end of his 

translation of Petrarch i. 86 

his place among English poets ascertained i. 87 

Mornay, de, his work on the trueness of Christianity 

translated by Sir P. Sidney and Arthur Golding .... i. 69 
Mulcaster, R. blank verse translation of his Ncenia Con- 
solans, with specimens i. 141, 142, 143, 144 

Musical Banquet by Douland i. 161 

Mychelborne, Tho. commendatory verses by, before Fitz- 

geflrey's " Drake" i. 8 

Myrrha, the mother of Adonis, by W. Barkstead i. 237 

Nabbes, Tho. his " Scipio and Hannibal," 1637, quoted i. 30 
Nash, Tho. two lines in his " Pierce Pennyless" also 

found in the " Yorkshire Tragedy" i. 53 

his " Pierce Pennyless' Supplication to the Devil", i. 215 

the second part, or answer to it, called " The Return 

o the Knight of the Post from Hell," 1 606 i. 216 

quotation from the anonymous address i. 216 

doubt whether he did not bring the trade of rope- 
making into disrepute i. 218 

specimen of the poetry in " the Return of the 

Knight of the Post," \c i. 219 

- - ihe K'.iight of the Post described i. 220 

INDEX. 345 

Vol. Page 
Nash, extracts from the Devil's " Answer" . . . i. 222, 223, 224 

his praise of Churchyard's " Shore's Wife" \\[ g 9 

his " Lenten Stuff," 1599, spoken of H. 107^ 530 

his " Christ's Tears over Jerusalem," 1593, quoted ii. 269 

his apology in it to Gabriel Harvey ]j_ jj, 

Nero, justification of a strange action by, by G. Chapman ii. 60 
Netherlands, Tho. Churchyard's Discourse regarding ... ii. 88 
Nicholas's History of the West Indies, lines by Gosson 

t** ii. 215 

Nichols's Progresses of Q. Elizabeth cited jj. 270 

Nlabe, 161 1, by A. Stafford, Milton's obligation to j. 244 

and " Niobe dissolved into a Nilus," quoted ii. 45 

Xixn t Anthony, his plagiarism from Lodge i. 302 

his " Strange Foot-post" examined ... 'i. 393 

Nocturnal Lucubrations, by it. Chamberlain, cited .... i. 72 
Ntcniti Consolans translated into blank verse by R. 

Mulcaster ^ j ^j j 

Northbrooke, John, liis " Treatise against Vain Plays," 

'>", &c ii. 231 

quotation from his Treatise. . ii. 23'?, 233, 234 

Nolt, Dr. lives of Lord Surrey and Sir T. Wyat i. 79 

(Enone's Complaint, from Peele's " Arraignment of 

Paris," lf.84 i. 123 

Oltlcastle, Sir John, history of, by Munday, Drayton, &c. 
containing the embryo of a scene in Shakespeare's 

Henry V i. 52 

Old Plays, indecency of, contrasted with those after the 

Restoration ii. 320 

Orjyharion, by Robert Greene, quoted i. 296", 299 

Overthrow of Stage-plays, by Dr. Rainoldes ii. 253 

OwC s Arraignment, by William Goddard i. 3 1 8 

Painter, William, author of a poem called " Chaucer 

painted,'' printed about 1630 ii. 165 

his Palace of Pleasure mentioned ii. 167, 191, 


Pup with a JIalchct, syllogism in ii. 305 

Paris Garden, accident at, and Field's Exhortation .... ii. 242 

346 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 
Parke, R. his History of China, 1588, cited ........... ii. 2O3 

Parrot, Henry, his ' Mastiff or young Whelp" ........ i. '276 

- his plagiarisms ...................... i. ib. 

s pass and passeth not, by N. Breton, quoted ... i. 229 
Peele, George, a poet and sharper, according to his 

" Merry conceited Jests" ...................... i. 48 

the same man as George Pieboard in 

" the Puritan," proved from the jests and the play ib. 

- his ' Farewell to Sir John Norris and 

Sir Francis Drake," 1589, and quotations i. 54, 56, 58 

hi* " Tale of Troy" quoted i. 5tf 

(Enone's Complaint by, in blank verse, 

from his " Arraignment of Paris," 1584 i. 123 

Percy, Will, mention of his ' Sonnets to the fairest 

Caelia," 1594 i. 12 

specimens of, in Censura Literaria i. 13 

dedication to him of B. Barnes's " Par- 

thenophil and Parthenophe" i. 14 

madrigal by, prefixed to B. Barnes's " Four 

Books of Offices," 160G, quoted i. 15 

Percy, Bishop, his work on the writers of blank verse ... i. 91 

Perimedes the Blacksmith, 1588, by R. Greene ii. 118 

quotation regarding the motto, &c. ii. J83 

Peters, Hugh, his jest concerning George Wither ii. 24 

Petrarch 1 Triumphs, translated by Lord Morley i. 77 

by Mrs. Hume i. ib. 

Phillip, John, his " Life and Death of Sir P. Sidney," 

1587 ii. 50 

quotations from ... ii. 51, 52 

his poem on the Countess of Lenox ii. 125 

quotation from, regarding 

Queen Elizabeth ii. 126' 

probably mentioned by Nash ii. ib. 

Play of Plays, a tract in defence of the stage, by T. 

Lodge ii. i.'09, 2*2 

. cause of its excessive scarcity ii. 225 

Player, common, character of ii. 309 

Plays confuted in five actions, by S. Gosson ii. 208, 221 

answered by Tho. Lodge. ii. 225, 226 

INDEX. 347 

Vol. Page 

Poets, sufferings of, after the close of the theatres ii. 325 

Polimanleia quoted regarding Sir C. Hatton's poems.. .. ii. 137 
Primmidnye, Peter de la, his " French Academy'' translated ii. 27 1 
Prujcan, Tho. his " Aurorata and Loves Looking-glass," 

1644 ii. 192 

epistles from Juliet to Romeo, and Romeo 

to Juliet ii. 193,194 

Prynne, William, his " Histriomastix' 5 described ii. 318 

his " Vindication" from the charge of recanting . . ii. 322 

his supposed '' Defence of Stage PJays" ii. ib. 

Puritans, libels of, upon Marlow, Greene, Lodge, &c. .. ii. 271 
Puritan, or Widow of Watling- street, part of a scene 

from i. 51 

mentioned ii. 300 

Puttenham, his M Art of English Poesy," 1589, cited . . i. 65 

Rainoldes, Dr. " Overthrow of Stage-plays" examined. . ii. 253, 

257, 259, 300 

epigram upon, by T. Bastard ii. 254 

Bishop Hall's praise of, in his Epistles. . . ii. 256 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, his History of the World quoted . . i. 166 

his epitaph on Sir P. Sidney re- 
ferred to by Sir John Harington in his Orl. Fur. . . . ii. 143 

Ram Alley by Lod. Barry quoted ii. 27, 284 

Rankin, Will, author of " Seven Satires," printed in 

1596 '. i- 227 

. his " Mirror of Monsters," 1587, against 

stage-plays, mentioned i. 228 

sonnet by him prefixed to Bodenham's 

Belvedere,' 1 1 6i>0, referred to i. 229 

. his " Mirror of Monsters" examined, ii. 246, 248 

Raynold, John, bis Primrose," 1606, quotations 

from " 16,17 

Refutation of the Apology for Actors, 1615, by J. G. . . ii. 301 

. . quoted ii. 303, 304 

R/iyme, abuse of, by Ascham, Hall, Marston, and 

Fleming . i. 92, 93 

Rich, Barnabe, his " Farewel to Military Profession," 
1606, containing a novel on which Shakespeare 
founded his " Twelfth Night" 134 

3-4 H INDEX. 

Vol. Page 
Rich, Barnabc, particulars of his biography, and titles of 

some of his works omitted ii. 1 40 

his concern in the Netherland wars ii. 141 

specimen of his poetry ii. 163 

his lines before Lodge's " Alarum against 

Usurers" ii. 232 

liickard IL by Shakespeare referred to ii. 286' 

Roaring Girl, the, by Decker and Middleton, quoted ... i. 20 

Romeo and Juliet, epistles of, by Tho. Prujean ii. 193, 194 

Rosalynde, Euphues' golden Legacy, by T. Lodge .... ii. 168 
comparison between it and Shake- 
speare's " As you Like it" ii. 1 70 

quotations from it ii. 171, 173, 174 

Rosciad, the. by C. Churchill, quoted ii. 32 

Rons, Richard and Francis, commendatory verses by, 

before Fitzgeffrey's " Drake" i. 8 

Rowlands. Saml. the " Letting of Humours blood," &c. 

1600 i. 328 

Sabie, Francis, notice of his productions i. 136* 

blank verse poems by him, called ' The 

Fisherman's Tale" and " Flora's Fortune," 1595 i. 138, 

139, 140 

Softer, Tho. his Contention between the Whoremonger, &c. ii. 20.9 

his '* Mirror of Modesty" ii. 228 

Satirical dialogue between Alexander and Diogenes, by 

William Goddard i. 307 

Schoolmaster, by R. Ascham, quoted i. 81, 92, ii, 44 

or Teacher of Table Philosophy, quoted ii. 297 

School of Abuse, by Stephen Gosson, 1579 ii. 210 

quotations from it ii. 212, 213 

allusion to it in the French Academy ... ii. 278 

Scourge of Venus, or the wanton Lady, 1614, and speci- 
mens from i. 236, 238, 239 

Self-delusion of authors regarding their fame i. 4G 

Shakespeare, coincidence between a line of his and an 

expression by Fitzgeffrey i. 41 

embryo of a scene in his Henry V. found 

iu " the History of Sir John Oldcastle" i. b'l 

his admirable judgment i. 57 

INDEX. 349 

Vol. Page 

Shakespeare, jest by, on the authority of Dr. Donne i. 258 

- his " Twelfth Night" founded on a novel 

by B. Rich ii. 134 

and deer-stealing ii. 257 

Sliepherd's Calendar, Spenser's, why called by Puttenham 

" the last" i- 68 

Shirley, James, quotation from his " Sisters" ii. 17 1 

his plays by Gifford ii. 172 

. preface to his " Politician" quoted ii. 300 

Shore's H r ifi, tragedy of, by T. Churchyard ii. 90 

Sidney, Sir P. reported by Whetstone to be the author 

of Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar i. 64, 67 

doubt whether the 1 st edit, of his " Arcadia" 

was not before 1590 i. 65 

. sonnet omitted in his " Arcadia" i. 66 

apostrophe to, in Stafford's " Niobe," 1611 ii. 46 

Life and Death of," 1587, by John 

Phillip 50 

H. Constable's four sonnets before his 

Arcadia" ii. 104 

. his friend Edward Wootton ii. 107 

Six-fold Politician, 1609, by John Milton, senr ii. 305 

authority on which it is assigned to 

him H-30G 

extract from " 307 

Skialetheia, a collection of satires mentioned by Meres. . . i. 229 
2x<awx7of, by George Chapman, quotation from it re- 
garding hypercritical readers i- 

Skelton, John, his interlude of " Magnificence," quoted. . ii. 42 

Smythe, Sir John, on the word " beleaguer" i- 29 1 

Song of Songs, the, by Dudley Fenner, 1587, noticed . . . i. 308 
Southey, Robt. his ballads of the ' Old Woman of 
Berkeley" and " Rudiger," founded on stories by 

T. Heywood ' L 323 

Spenser, Edmund, his sonnet before the Life of Scan- 

derbeg," 1596, mentioned ]' 

applauded by Fitzgeffrey in his " Drake i. 32 

p ems on the wife of Sir A. Gorges 

and Sir P. Sidney K 6l 

350 INDEX. 

Vol. Page 
Spenser, Edmund, his " Shepherd's Calendar" attributed 

to Sir P. Sidney i. 64, 67 

specimen of blank verse by him in his 

EcL for August, and its peculiarities i. 96 

" Mother Hubbard's Tale" alluded to 

in " the Ant and the Nightingale, or Father Hub- 
herd's Tales," 1604 i. 100 

his " View of the State of Ireland" re- 

ferred to i. 105 

eclogue by Tho. Lodge addressed to him i. 1 80 

his allusion to Tho. Churchyard ii. 89 

his mention of Gosson's ** School of 

Abuse" ii. 211 

Stafford, Anth. resemblance between a passage in his 

" Niobe," 1611, and in Par. Lost i. 244 

quotations from his " Niobe" and 

" Niobe dissolved into a Nilus" ii. 45 

Stage, Fitzgeffrey's praise of writers for the i. 41 

list of tract* against ii. 280 

Stejihens, John, his " Essays and Characters," 1615. ... ii. 308 
character of a Common 

Player from ii. 309 

Storer's " Life of Cardinal Wolsey," stanza prefixed to, 

by J. Sprint i. 19 

Strange and terrible wonder related by A. Fleming i. 114 

Strapjmdo for the Devil, by R. Brathwayte, quoted i. 70 

Stubbes, Philip, his " Anatomy of Abuses" ii. 235 

popularity of ... ii. 236 

, Nash regarding 

it quoted ii. ib. 

quoted ii. 238, 238 

Stubbes, Philip, his " Motive to good Works" referred to ii. 

Sunday, plays represented upon, censured ii. 240, 246 

- abolition of them between 1580 and 1583 ii. 243, 


Surrey, Lord, his translation from Virgil in blank verse . i. 92 
Swearing on the stage, T. Bastard's epigram upon ii. 255 

Tale of two Swans, 1590, by W. Vallans i. 127 

INDEX. 351 

Vol. Page 
Tamer, the, a play altered from Fletcher's Woman's 

Prize, female actor in i ii. 320 

Taming of the Shrew, note to, on custard-coffin ii. 71 

Tarltoti, Richard, mention of i' 207 

T. Bastard's praise of ii. 255 

tribute to, in P. Bucke's " Three 

Lords and Three Ladies of London," 1590 ii. 295 

his Jests, 161 1, examined ii. ib. 

quoted ii. 296 

Theatre of God's Judgments, by Tho. Beard i. 128 

Thracian Wonder, a play, falsely attributed to John 

Webster and Will. Rowley i- 268 

perhaps by Will. Webster i. ib. 

Time's Curtain drawn, 1621, by R. Brathwayte ii. 54 

Titus and Gisiflrus, History of, 1562, by Edw. Lewicke ii. 80 

abstract of the story of ii. 81 

quotation from Sir T. Elliot's narra- 
tive * 84 

- s tory of, in Boccacio's Decameron ii. 79 

Tobacco, Metamorphosis of, 1602, and extracts i. 189, 190, 191 

praise of, by Spenser in F. Q. i- 188 

Todd, the Rev. H. J. his praise of the " Drunkard's 

Character" *' 26 

remarks on his edit, of Johnson's 

Dictionary L 2fll 

Troja Britannica, 1609, by T. Heywood, quoted . . . ... i. 321 

TurberviUe. said to have translated some of Ovid's 

Epistles into blank verse * 1 17 

Twelfth Night by Shakespeare, founded on a novel by 

BarnabeRich ?.'' J* 

_ when written * ** 

D-. Johnson's objection to its opening. . . u. 1' 

Valiant, W. his Tale of two Swans," 1590, in blaak ^ ^ 


randernoodt, John, the third writer of blank verse in 

i. y^ 


specimen from his " Theatre, &c. 

of voluptuous Worldlings," 1 569 


Vol. Page 
Vaughan, Sir W. his " Golden Grove" and " Golden 

Fleece" ii. 317 

Vicar of Croydon, story of, from Whetstone's " English 

Mirror" ii. 34 

Vicars, John, his translation of Virgil's JEneid, 1632 ... i. 1 12 
lines by W. Sq. in its praise i. 113 

Ulysses Redux, a university play by Dr. Gager ii. 256 

University Plays, expenses of getting them up ii. 258 

Upstarts censured in " The Return of the Knight of 

the Post," 1606 i. 223 

Usurers, Lodge's Alarum against ii. 223, 267 

practices of, displayed by T. Nash ii. 269 

Walker, Gilb. his tract against dice-play ii. 209 

Waller, William, his version of Titus and Gisippus ii. 80 

Walton, Izaac, dedication of "Amos and Laura," 1619, 

to ii. 110 

Warner, Will, his " Albion's England" mentioned i. 265 

his " Albion's England" quoted i. 285 

his attack on the Puritans ii. 206 

Warlon, Thomas, his History of English poetry i. 17, 154, 304 
his mistake regarding E. Lewicke's 

Titus and Gisippus ii. 79 

his error in attributing " the Mourn- 

ing Muse of Thestylis" to Spenser i. 1 1 3 

Watreman, W. his " Fardle of Fashions," 1555, quoted ii. 204, 

Webbe, Will his Discourse of English Poesie," 1586. . i. 64 

Webster, John, turned preacher late in life i. 260 

the fact proved from a comparison of his 

" Academiarum Examen," and " Saints Guide," of 

1 654, with some of his plays i. 26 1 

Webster, William, his " Curan and Argentile," 1617 ... i. 264 

extracts from it. i. 266, 267, 268 

" The Thracian Wonder," perhaps by 

him i. 268 

Whetstone, George, observations on his elegiac poems . . . i. 61 
his poem on the death of Sir P. Sidney i. 6 1 

INDKX. 353 

Vol. Page 
Whetstone, George, bis poem on the death of Sir P. Sidney, 

quotation from it i. 62 

Spenser's " Shepherd's Calendar" 

attributed by him to SirT. Sidney .'. . i. 64, 67, 

his " English Mirror," 1586, quoted ii. 32, 

33, 34, 35 

his " Mirror for Magistrates of 

Cities," 1584, quoted ii. 37, 240, 241 

his " Enemy of Unthriftiness, 

1586, with a list of his productions ii. 38. 

H'i nter's /Tale, the compared with R. Greene's " Do- 

rastus and Fawnia" ii. 177 

ll'itlier, George, his voluminousness as an author ii. 22 

his Satire to the King quoted ii. 23 

Hugh Peters' jest concerning ii. 24 

his " Abuses stript and whipt" quoted . . ii. 22 

- his praise of the poets of his time ii. 48 

ll'oman's Prize, by Fletcher, female actor in ii. 320 

"'-/, Anthony, his account of Fitzgeffrey i. 18 

n'nnttan. Edward, mentioned by Sidney in his " Apology 

of Poetry," 595 ii. 107 

Wootton, Sir Henry, Bastard's epigram to ii. 108 

N'm-de, Wyiikyn de, his * Book of Keruynge" ii. 70 

Ynrkihirc Tragedy, probably by Tho. Nash i. 53 

TIIK K\l>. 





Collier, John Payne 

The poetical decameron