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/ A." • \ 

\ # ^ '- 7 

» «. > . # J* 

4 » • . •■^ 




[Is " 






S^e MoBt dxaluh (S>thtt of ti|e Star ofSniia . 






In the following Poem I have sought, by the medium 
of an imaginary Buddhist votary, to depict the life and 
character and indicate the philosophy of that noble hero 
and reformer, Piince Gautama of India, the founder of 

A generation ago little or nothing was known in Europe 
of this great faith of Asia, which had nevertheless existed 
during twenty-four centuries, and at this day surpasses, in 
the number of its followers and the area of its prevalence, 
any other form of creed. Four hundred and seventy mil- 
lions of our race live and die in the tenets of Gautama ; 
and the spiritual dominions of this ancient teacher extend, 
at the present time, from Nepaul and Ceylon over the 
whole Eastern Peninsula to China, Japan, Thibet, Central 
Asia, Siberia, and even Swedish Lapland. India itself 
might fairly be included in this magnificent empire of be- 
lief, for though the profession of Buddhism has for the 
most part passed away from the land of its birth, the 
mark of Gautama's sublime teaching is stamped inefface- 
' )ly upon modern; Brahmanism, and the most characteris- 
c habits and convictions of the Hindus are clearly due 
> the benign influence of Buddha's precepts. More than 
third of mankind, therefore, owe their moral and relig- 


ustrious prince, whose personaJity, 
sealed in the existing sources of in- 
appear the highest, gentlest, holiest, 
rith one exception, in the history of 
t in frequent particulars, and sorely 
IS, inventions, and misconceptions, 
:s yet agree in the one point of re- 
single act or word — which mars the 
demess of this Indian teacher, who 
cely qualities with the intellect of a 
te devotion of a martyr. Even M, 
re, totally misjudging, as he does, 
lism, is well cited by Professor Max 
ince Siddirtha, " Sa vie n'a point de 
hiroisme ^gale sa conviction ; et si 
ise est fausse, les exemples person- 

in^prochables. II est le module 
ertus qu'il pr6che ; son abnegation, 
ible douceur ne se d^menlent point 

II prepare silenciecsement sa doc- 
; retraite et de meditation ; il la pjro- 
lance de la parole et de la persua- 
in demi-si^cle, et quand il meurt 
isciples, c'est avec la s^r^nit^ d'un 
bien toute sa vie, et qui est assuri 
" To Gautama has consequently 
dous conquest of humanity ; and— 
anced ritual, and declared himself, 
sshold of Nirvana, to be only what 
become — the love and gratitude of 
mandate, have given him fervent 

[owers are daily laid upon his stain- 
less millions of lips daily repeat the 
;e in 'Buddha ! " 

poem — if, as need not be doubted, 
; bom OD the borders of Nepaul, 
;<1 about 543 b.c. at Kusinagara in 
ge, therefore, most other creeds are 
h this venerable religion, which has 
iniversal hope, the immortality of a 
estnictible element of faith in final 
ist assertion ever made of human 
^ances which disfigure the record 
ism are to be referred to that in- 
liich priesthoods always inflict upon 
I to their charge. The power and - 
s original doctrines should be es- 
nce, not by their interpreters ; nor 
azy and ceremonious church which 
idations of the Buddhistic Brother- 

i into a Buddhist's mouth, because, 
t of Asiatic thoughts, they should 
Oriental point of view ; and neither 
nsecrate this record, nor the phi- 
idies, could have been otherwise so 
The doctrine of Transmigration, 
to modern minds — was established 
ed by the Hindus of Buddha's time ; 
usalem was being taken by Nebu- 
eveh was falling to the Medes, and 
;d by the Phocsans. The exposi- 





viii PREFACE. 

tion here offered of so antique a system is of necessity 
incomplete, and-— in obedience to the laws of poetic art — 
passes rapidly by many matters philosophically most im- 
portant, as well as over the long ministry of Gautama. 
But my purpose has been obtained if any just conception 
be here conveyed of the lofty character of this noble 
prince, and of the general purport of his doctrines. As to 
these there has arisen prodigious controversy among the 
erudite, who will be aware that I have taken the imper- 
fect Buddhistic citations much as they stand in Spence 
Hardy's work, and have also modified more than one 
passage in the received narratives. The views, however, 
here indicated of " Nirvana," " Dharma," " Karma," and. 
the other chief features of Buddhism, are at least the 
^ fruits of considerable study, and also of a firm conviction 
that a third of mankind would never have been brought to 
believe in blank abstractions, or in Nothingness as the 
issue and crown of Being. 

JFinally, in reverence to the illustrious Promulgator of 
this " Light of Asia," and in homage to the many eminent 
scholars who have devoted noble labors to his memory, 
for which both repose and ability are wanting- to me, I 
beg that the shortcomings of my too hurried study may 
be forgiven. It has been composed in the brief intervals 
of days without leisure, but is inspired by an abiding 
desire to aid in the better mutual knowledge of East and 
West. The time may come, I hope, when this book and 
my "Indian Song of Songs" will preserve the memory 
of one who loved India and the Indian peoples. 

hOSDOV, JiUjf, 1879. 

.^> ■ 










I90ok tl)e ifiret. 

7%^ Scripture of the Saviour of the Worlds 
Lord Buddh€^~Prince Sidddrtha^ styled on earth — 
In Earth and Heavens and Hells Incomparable^ 
All'honoredy Wisest y Best, most Pitiful ; 
The Teacher of Nirvdna and the Law, 

Thus came he to be born again for men. 

Below the highest sphere four Regents sit* 
Who rule our world, and under them are zones 
Nearer, but high, where saintliest spirits dead 
Wait thrice ten thousand years,* then live again ; 
\nd on Lord Buddha, waiting in that sky, 
Jame for otii: sakes the five sure signs of birth* 
) that the Devas* knew the signs, and said 
• Buddha will go again to help the World." 
' Yea ! " spake He, " now I go to help the World 


. •. • ./TgE." LIGHT OF ASIA. 

pl'mfihy tiit]<e5 ; 3Eor birth and death 

:e for mc and those who learn my Law. 

down among the Sdkyas,' 

e southward snows of Himalay, 

ous people live and a just King." ■ 

ight the wife of King Suddhodana,* 

Queen,' asleep beside her Lord, 

a strange dream; dreamed that a star from 
en — 

six-rayed, in color rosy-pearl, 
the' token was an Elephant" 
d and whiter than Vahuka's" milk— 
ugh the void and, shining into her, 
ier womb upon the right. Awaked, 
and mortal mother's filled her breast, 

half the earth a lovely light 

the mom. The strong hills shook ; the waves 
id ; all flowers thlt blow by day came forth 

high noon ; down to the farthest hells 
le Queen's joy, as when warm sunshine thrills 
loms to gold, and into all the deeps 
whisper pierced." "Oh ye," it said, 
id that are to live, the live who die, 
nd hear, and hope ! Buddha is come ! " 
in Limbos numberless much peace 
nd the world's heart throbbed, and a wind blew 
nown freshness over lands and seas.' 
Q the morning dawned, and this was told, 

dream- readers" said " The dream is good ! 
I is in conjunction with the Sun ;" 



The Queen shall bear a boy, a holy child 

Of wondrous wisdom, profiting all flesh, 
Who shall deliver men from ignorance, 
Or rule the world, if he will deign to rule." 

In this wise was the holy Buddha bom. 

f Queen Maya stood at noon, her days fulfilled. 

Under a Palsa" in the Palace-grounds, 
; A stately trunk, straight as a temple-shaft, 

With crown of glossy leaves and fragrant blooms : 
And, knowing the time come — for all things knew — 
Th« conscious tree bent down its boughs to make 
A bower about Queen Maya's majesty. 
And Earth put forth a thousand sudden flowers 
,*ro spread a couch, while, ready for the bath. 
The rock hard by gave out a limpid stream 
Of crystal flow. So brought she- forth her child 
Pangless — ^he having on his perfect form 
The marks, thirty and two, of blessed birth ; 
Of which the great news to the Palace came. 
But when they brought the painted palanquin" 
To fetch him home, the bearers of the poles 
.r Were the four Regents of the Earth, come down 

(From Mount Sumeru" — they who write men's deeds 
On brazen plates — the Angel of the East, 
Whose hosts are clad in silver robes, and bear 
Targets of pearl : the Angel of the South, 
Whose horsemen, the Kumbhandas," ride blue steeds. 
With sapphire shields : the Angel of the West, 
By Ndgas followed, riding steeds blood-red, 


il shields : the Angel of the North, 

d by his Yakshas," all in gold, 

V horses, bearing shields of gold. 

ith their pomp invisible, came down 

. the poles, in caste and outward garb 

:ers, yet most mighty gods ; and gods 

rce with men that day, though men knew not . 

'en was filled with gladness for Earth's sake," 

Lord Buddha thus was come again. 

ng Suddhddana wist not of this ; 

;nts troubled, till his dream-readers 
a Prince of earthly dominance, 

.vartln," such as rise to rule 

^ach thousand years ; seven gifts he has — 

ira-ratna," disc divine ; the gem ; 

;,'the Aswa-ratna," that proud steed 

imps the clouds ; a snow-white elephant, 

i-ratna," bom to bear his King ; 

y Minister, the General 

ered, and the wife of peerless grace, 

■ratna," lovelier than the Dawn, 

li gifts looking with this wondrous boy, 

; gave order that his town should keep 

ival ; therefore the ways were swept," 

rs sprinkled in the street, the trees 

ig with lamps and flags," while merry crowds 

1 the sword-players" and posturers, 

lers," charmers, swingers, rope-walkers, 

ch-girls in their spangled skirts and bells" 


That chime light laughter round their restless feet ; 
The masquers wrapped in skins of bear and deer. 
The tiger-tamers, wrestlers, quail-fighters, 
Beaters of drum and twangle^s of the wire, 
Who made the people happy by command. 
Moreover from afar came merchant-men, . 
Bringing, on tidings of this birth, rich gifts 
In golden trays ;" goat-shawls," and nard" and jade, 
Turkises,** " evening sky " tint, woven webs — 
So fine twelve folds hide not a modest face — 
Waist-cloths sewn thick with pearls, and sandal- wood ; 
Homage from tribute cities ; so they called 
Their Prince Savirthasiddh, " All-Prospering," 
Briefer, Sidddrtha. 

'Mongst the strangers came 
A gray-haired saint, Asita," one whose ears. 
Long closed to earthly things, caught heavenly sounds, 
And heard at prayer beneath his peepul-tree 
The Devas singing songs at Buddha's birth. 
Wondrous in lore he was by age and fasts ; 
Him, drawing nigh, seeming so reverend. 
The King saluted, and Queen Maya made 
To lay her babe before such holy feet ; 
But when he saw the Prince th^ old man cried ^ 

" Ah, Queen, not so ! " and thereupon he touched 
Eight times the dust,** laid his waste visage there, 
^^ying, " O Babe ! I worship ! Thou art He ! 
see the rosy light,*' the foot-sole marks," 
The soft-curled tendril of the Swastika,** 
The sacred primal signs thirty and two. 
The eighty lesser tokens.** Thou art Buddh, 



3u wilt preach the Law and save all flesh 
im the Law, though I shall never hear, 
oo sooi;, who lately longed to die ; 
1 1 have seen Thee. Know, O King ! 
that Blossom on our human tree 
ipens 6nce in many myriad years*' — 
ncd, fills the world with Wisdom's scent 
ve's dropped honey ; from thy royal toot 
enly Lotus springs : Ah, happy House ! 

all-happy, for a sword must pierce 

»cls for this boy " — whilst thou, sweet Queen ! 

all gods and men for this great birth, 
srth art grown too sacred for more woe, 
; is woe, therefore in seven days 
: thou shalt attain the close of pain." " 

h fell : for on the seventh evening 
Maya smiling slept, and waked no more, 
content to Trdyastrinshas- Heaven,** 
:ountles3 Devas worship her and wait 
,nt on that radiant Motherhead. 
the Babe they found a foster-nurse, 
i Mahiprajdpati ** — her breast 
ed with noble milk the lips of Him 
ips comfort the Worlds. 

When th' eighth year passed** 
eful King bethought to teach his son 

a Prince should learn, for still he shunned 

vast presage of those miracles, 
ries and the sufferings of a Buddli. 
ill council of his Ministers, 


o . ^■ 




"Who is the wisest man, great sirs," he asked, 

" To teach my Prince that which a Prince should knour ? " 

Whereto gave answer each with instant voice 

1^ " King ! Viswamitra*^ is the wisest one,- 

The farthest-seen in Scriptures, and the best 

In learning, and the manual arts^ and all." 

Thus Viswamitra came and heard commands ; 

And, on a day found fortunate, the Prince 

Took up his slate of ox-red sandal-wood, 

All-beautified by gems around the rim, 

And sprinkled smooth with dust of emery. 

These took he, and his writing-stick, ^d stood ^" 

With eyes bent down before the Sage, who said, 

"Child, write this Scripture," speaking slow the verse 

" Gdyatr{" ^ named, which only High-bom hear: — 

w Om, tcUsaviiurvarenyam 

jf Bhargo devasya dhimahi 

Dhiyo yo na prachoddydt 
" Acharya,^ I write," meekly replied 
The Prince, and quickly on the dust he drew — 
Not in one script, but many characters — 
The sacred verse ; Nagri " and Dakshin," Nf," 
Mangal," Parusha,** Yava," Tirthi," Uk," 
Darad,"* Sikhyani,''* Mana,*^ Madhyachar," 
The pictured writings and the speech of signs. 
Tokens of cave-men and the sea-peoples, 
Of those who worship snakes beneath the earth, 
And those who flame adore and the sun's orb,** 
The Magians and the dwellers on the mounds ; 
Of all the nations all strange scripts he traced 
One after other with his writing-stick, 


Reading the master's verse in every tongue ; 
And Viswamitra said, " It is enough. 
Let us to numbers. 

I After me repeat 

Your numeration till we reach the Lakh.** . 
One, two, three, four, to ten, and then by tens 
To hundreds, thousands." After him the child 
Named digits, decads, centuries ; nor paused, 
The round lakh reached, but softly murmured on 
" Then comes the k6ti; nahut, ninnahut, 
Khamba, viskhamba, abab, attata, 
To kumuds, gundhilias, and utpalas, 
By pundarfkas unto padumas. 
Which last is how you count the utmost grains 
Of Hastagiri ground to finest dust ; 
But beyond that a numeration is, 
The.Kdtha, used to count the stars of night ; 
The K6ti-Kdtha, for the ocean drops ;' 
Ingga, the caculus of circulars ; 
Sarvanikchepa, by the which you deal 
With all the sands of Gunga, till we come 
To Antah-Kalpas,** where the unit is 
The sands of ten crore " Gungas. If one seeks 
More comprehensive scale, th' arithmic mounts 
By the Asankya, which is the tale 
Of all the drops that in ten thousand years 
Would fall on all the worlds by daily rain ; 
Thence unto Maha Kalpas, by the which 
The Gods compute their future and their past.'* 

" 'Tis good," the Sage rejoined, " Most noble Prince, \ 

tf these thou know'st, needs it that I should teach 


The mensuration of the lineal ? ** 
Humbly the boy replied, " Acharya ! ** 
" Be pleased to hear me. Paraminus** ten 
A parasukshma*' m^e ; ten of those build . 
The trasarene,** imd seven trasarenes 
One mote's-length floating in the beam, seven motes 
. The whisker-point of mouse, and ten of these 
One likhya ;* likhyas ten a yuka, ten 
Yukas^ a heart of barley, which is held 
Seven times a wasp-waist ; so unto the grain 
Of mung" and mustard and the barley-corn, 
Whereof ten give the finger- joint, twelve joints 
The span, wherefrom we reach the cubit, staff, 
Bow-length, lance-length ; while twenty lengths of lance 
Mete what is named a 'breath,'^* which is to say 

[ Such space as man may stride with lungs once filled, 

I Whereof a gow" is forty, four times that 

* A y6jana ;" and. Master ! if it please, 

' I shall recite how many sun-motes lie 

From end to end within a ydjana." 
Thereat, with instant skill, the little Prince 
Pronounced the total of the atoms true. 
But Viswamitra heard it on his face 
Prostrate before the boy ; " For thou," he cried, 
" Art Teacher of thy teachers — thou, not I, 
Art Giini." Oh, I worship thee, sweet Prince ! 
That comest to my school only to show 
rhou knowest all without the books, and know'st 
"air reverence besides." 

i Which reverence 

>ord Bttddha kept to all his schoolmasters. 


tr learning taught ; in speech 

o wise ; princely of mien, 

id ; modest, deferent, 

d, though of fearless blood ; 

an in the youthful band 

liase of the shy gazelles ; 

3f the chariot 

icoured the Palace-courts ; 

le boy would ofttimes pause, 

ass free ; would ofttimes yield 

because the laboring steeds 

reath ; or if his princely mates 

or if some wistful dream 

lights. And ever with the years 

ssionatqness of our Lord, 

se grows from two soft leaves 

e afar ; but hardly yet 

hild of sorrow, pain, or tears, 

mes for things not felt by kings, 

t. But it befell 

en on a day of spring, 

rans passed, voyaging north 

es on Himdia's breast 

.es down their snowy line 

lew, by fond love piloted ; 

:ousin of the Prince, 

ind loosed a willful shaft 

ivide wing of the foremost swiui ' 

lide upon the free blue road, 

bitter arrow fixed, 

id-gouts staining the pure plumes. 


Which seeing, Prince Siddirtha took the bird 
Tenderly up, rested it in his lap — 
Sitting with knees crossed, as Lord Buddha sits — 
And, soothing with a touch the wild thing's fright. 
Composed its ruffled vans, calmed its quick heart. 
Caressed it into peace with light kind palms 
As soft as plantain-leaves an hour unrolled ; 
And while the left hand held, the right hand drew 
The cruel steel forth from the wound and laid 
Cool leaves and healing honey on the smart. 
** Yet all so little knew the boy of pain 
That curiously into his wrist he pressed 
The arrow's barb, and winced to feel it sting, 
And turned with tears to soothe his bird again. * 

Then some one came who said, " My Prince hath shot 
A swan, which fell among the roses here. 
He bids me pray you send it. Will you send ? * 
** Nay," quoth Sidddrtha, " if the bird were dead 
To send it to the slayer might be well. 
But the swan lives ; my cousin hath but killed 
The god-like speed which throbbed in this white wing." 
And Devadatta answered, "The wild thing, 
Living or dead, is his who fetched it down ; 
Twas no man's in the clouds, but fall'n 'tis mine. 
Give me my prize, fair Cousin." Then our Lord 
Laid the swan's neck beside his own smooth cheek 
And gravely spake, " Say no ! the bird is mine, 
f The first of myriad things which shall be mine 

By right of mercy and love's lordliness. , 
For now I know, by what within me stirs, 
That I shall teach compassion unto men 



And be a speechless world's interpreter, 
Abating this accursed flood of woe, 
Not man's alone ; but, if the Prince disputes. 
Let him submit this matter to the wise 
And we will wait their word." So was it done ; 
In full divan " the business had debate, 
And many thought this thing and many that, » 
Till there arose an unknown priest who said, 
^"If life be aught, the savior of a life 
Owns more the living thing than he can own 
Who sought to slay — the slayer spoils and wastes, 
The cherisher sustains, give him the bird : " 
Which judgment all found just ; but when the King 
Sought out the sage for honor, he was gone ; 
And some one saw a hooded snake '* glide forth, — 
The gods come ofttimes thus ! So our Lord Buddh 
Began his works of mercy. 

Yet not more 
Knew he as yet of grief than that one bird's. 
Which, being healed, went joyous to its kind. 
But on another day the King said, " Come, 
Sweet son ! and see the pleasaunce of the spring, 
And how the fruitful earth is wooed to yield 
Its riches to the reaper ; how my realm — 
Which shall be thine when the pile flames for me^' — 
Feeds all its mouths and keeps the King s chest filled. 
Fair is the season with new leaves, bright blooms. 
Green grass, and cries' of plough-time." So they rode 
Into a land of wells and gardens, where. 
All up and down the rich red loam, the steers 
Strained their strong shoulders in the creaking yoke 


Dragging the ploughs ; the fat soil rose and rolled 
In smooth dark waves back from the plough ; who drove 
Planted both feet upon the leaping share 
To make the furrow deep ; among the palms 
The tinkle of the rippling water rang, 
And where it ran the glad earth 'broidered it 
With balsams and the spears of lemon-grass. 
Elsewhere were sowers who went forth to sow ; 
And allthe jungle laughed with nesting-songs, 
And all the thickets rustled with small life 
Of lizard, bee, beetle, and creeping things 
Pleased at the spring-time. In the mango- sprays** 
The sun-birds®' flashed ; alone at his green forge 
Toiled the loud coppersmith ; bee-eaters hawked 
Chasing the purple butterflies ; beneath, 
f Striped squirrels raced, the mynas®* perked and picked, , 

i The nine brown sisters chattered in the thorn, 

• The pied fish-tiger hung above the pool, 
, The egrets^ stalked among the buffaloes. 
The kites sailed circles in the golden air ; 
About the painted temple peacocks flew," 
The blu« doves cooed from every well, far off" 
The village drums^ beat for some marriage-feast ; 
All things spoke peace and plenty, and the Prince 
Saw and rejoiced. -But, looking deep, he saw • 
iThe thorns which gro^ upon this rose of life : • 
How the swart peasant sweated for his wage, 
oiling for leave to live ; and how he urged 
\ lie great-eyed oxen through the flaming hours, 

oading their velvet flanks : then marked he, too, 
ow lizard fed on ant, and snake on him, 



And kite on both ; and how the fish-hawk robbed 
The fish-tiger of that which it had seized ; 
The shrike chasing the bulbul," which did chase 
The jeweled butterflies ; till everywhere 
Each slew a slayer and in turn was slain, 

^ Life living upon death. So the fair show 
Veiled one vast, savage, grim conspiracy 
Of mutual murder, from the worm to man, 

y/ho himself kills his fellow ; seeing which — 
The hungry ploughman and his laboring kine, 
Their dewlaps blistered with the bitter yoke, 
The rage to live which makes all living strife — 
The Prince Sidddrtha sighed. " Is this," he said, 
" That happy earth they brought me forth to see ? 
How salt with sweat the peasant's bread ! how hard 

,The oxen's service ! in the brake how fierce 
The war of weak and strong ! i* th' air what plots ! 
No refuge e'en in water. Go aside 
A space, and let me muse on what ye show/* 
So saying, the good Lord Buddha seated him 
Under a jambu-tree,^ with ankles crossed— 

. As holy statues sit — and first began 

.To meditate this deep disease of life, 
What its far source and whence its remedy. 
So vast a phy filled him, such wide love 
For living things, such passion to lieal pain. 
That by their stress his princely spirit passed 
To ecstasy, and, purged from mortal taint 
Of sense and self, the boy attained thereat' 
Dhydna,®* first step of "the path." 

There flew 




High overhead that hour five holy ones, 
Whose free wings faltered as they passed the tree. 
"What power superior draws us from our flight? " 
They asked, for spirits feel all force divine, 
And know the sacred presence of the pure. 
Then, looking downward, they beheld the Buddh 
Crowned with a rose-hued aureole, intent 
On thoughts to save ; while from the grove a voice 
Cried, ** Rishis l^ this is He shall help the world, 
Descend and worship." So the Bright Ones came 
And sang a song of praise, folding their wings, 
Then journeyed on, taking good news to Gods. 

But certain from the King seeking the Prince 
Found him still musing, though the noon was past, 
And the sun hastened to the western hills : 
Yet, while all shadows moved, the jambu-tree's 
Stayed in one quarter, overspreading him. 
Lest the sloped rays should strike that sacred head ; 
And he who saw this sight heard a voice say. 
Amid the blossoms of the rose-apple, 
" Let be the King's son ! till the shadow goes 
Forth from his heart my shadow will not shift.'* 



3o0k iift 0ecDtU>. 

or Lord was come to eighteen years, 
mmanded that there should be built 
bouses, one of hewn square beams 
ning, warm for winter days ; 
i marbles, cool for summer heat ; 
urned bricks, with blue tiles bedecked, 
;ed-time, when the champaks' bud — 
nma,' Ramma,* were their names. 
dens round about them bloomed, 
lered wild and musky thickets stretched, 
bright pavilion and fair lawn 
'hich Sidd&rtha strayed at will, 
light provided every hour ; 
ours he knew, for life was rich, 
1 blood at quickest ; yet still came 
of his meditation back, 
silver dulls with driving clouds. 

King marking, called his Ministers : 
sirs ! how the old Rishi spake," 
d what my dream-readers foretold. 
re dear to me than mine heart's blood, 


Shall be of universal dominance. 

Trampling the neck of all his enemies, 

A King of kings — ^and this is in my heart ; — 

' Or he shall tread the sad and lowly path 

• Of self;denial and of pious pains, 
Gaining who knows what good, when all is lost 
Worth keeping ; and to this his wistful eyes 
Do still incline amid my palaces. 
But ye are sage, and ye will counsel me ; 
How may his feet be turned to that proud road 
Where they should walk, and all fair signs come true 
Which gave him Earth to rule, if he would rule ? 


The eldest answered, " Maharaja ! * love 
Will cure theSe thin distempers ; weave the spell 
Of woman's wiles about his idle heart. 
What knows this noble boy of beauty yet, 
Eyes that make heaven forgot, and lips of balm? 
Find him soft wives and pretty playfellows ; 
The thoughts ye cannot stay with brazen chains 
A girl's hair lightly binds." 

And all thought good. 
But the King answered, " If we seek him wives. 
Love chooseth ofttimes with another eye ; 
And if we bid range Beauty's garden round. 
To pluck what blossom pleases, he will smile 
And sweetly shun the joy he knows not of." 
Then said another, ''Roams the barasingh* 
^Jntil the fated arrow flies ; for him, 
Ls for less lordly spirits, some one charms, 
^ome face will seem a Paradise, some form 
^airer than pale Dawn when she wakes the world. 


King ! Command a festival 
calm's maids shall be competitors 
d grace,' and sports that Sikyas use. 
ice give the prizes to the fair, 
;hc lovely victors pass his seat, 
be those who mark if one or two 
fixed sadness of his tender cheek ; 
:hoose for Love with Love's own eyes, 
lis Highness into happiness." 
eemed good ; wherefore upon a day 
ade the young and beautiful 
palace, for 'twas in command 
3urt of pleasure, and the Prince 
the prizes, something rich for all, 
for the fairest judged. So flocked 
s' maidens to the gate, 
er dark hair newly smoothed and bound, 
stred with the soorma-stick,' 
1 and scented ; all in shawls and cloths 
slender hands and feet new-stained 
n,'° and the tilka-spots" stamped bright, 
was of all those Indian girls 
past the throne with large black eyes 
; ground, for when they saw the Prince 
lie awe of Majesty made beat 
ing hearts, he sate so passionless, 
io beyond them. Each maid took 
iropped lids her gift, afraid to gaze ; 
)eople hailed some lovelier one 
rivals worthy royal smiles, 
ce a scared antelope to touch 


The gracious hand, then fled to join her mates 

Trembling at favor, so divine he seemed, 

So high and saint-like and above her world. ^ 

Thus filed they, one bright maid after another, 

The city's flowers, and all this beauteous march 

Was ending and the prizes spent, when last 

Came young Yasddhara," and they that stood j 

Nearest Siddirtha saw the princely boy 

Start, as the radiant girl approached. A form 

Of heavenly mold ; a gait like Parvati's ;" 

Eyes like a hind's in love-time, face so fair 

Words cannot paint its spell ; and she alone 

Gazed full — ^folding her palms across her breasts — 

On, the boy's gaze, her stately neck unbent. 

" Is there a gift for me ? " she asked, and smiled. 

"The gifts are gone," the Prince replied, "yet take 

This for amends, dear sister, of whose grace 

Our happy city boasts ; " therewith he loosed 

The emerald necklet from his throat, and clasped 

Its green beads round her dark and silk-soft waist ; 

And their eyes mixed, and from the look sprang love. 

Long after — ^when enlightenment was full — 
Lord Buddha — ^being prayed why thus his heart 
Took fire at first glance of the Sdkya girl, 
Answered, " We were not strangers, as to us 
And all it seemed ; in ages long gone by 
A hunter's son, playing with forest girls 
By Yamun's" springs, where Nandadevi" stands. 
Sate umpire while they raced beneath the firs 
Like hares at eve that run their playful rings ; 


One with flower-stars crowned he, one with long plumes 

Plucked from eyed pheasant and the jungle-cock, 

One with fir-apples ; but who ran the last 

Came first for him, and unto her the toy 

Gave a tame fawn and his heart's love beside. 

And in the wood they lived many glad years, 

And in the wood they undivided died. 

Lo ! as hid seed shoots after rainless years, 

So good and evil, pains and pleasures, hates 

And loves, and all dead deeds, come forth again 

Bearing bright leaves or dark, sweet fruit or sour. 

Thus I was he and she Yas6dhara ; 

And while the wheel of birth and death turns round. 

That which hath been must be between us two." 

But they who watched the Prince at prize-giving 
Saw and heard all, and told the careful King 
How sate Sidd^rtha heedless, till there passed 
Great Suprabuddha's child, Yasfidhara ; 
And how — at sudden sight of her — he changed. 
And bow she gazed on him and he on her, 
And of the jewel-gift, and what beside 
Passed in their speaking glance. 

The fond King smiled : 
"Look ! we have found* a lure ; take counsel now 
To fetch therewith our falcon from the clouds. 
Let messengers be sent to ask the maid 
In marriage for my son." But it was law 
With Sikyas, when any asked a maid 
Of noble house, fair and desirable. 
He must make good his skill in martial arts 


Against all suitors who should challenge it ; 

Nor might this custom break itself for kings. 

Therefore her father spake : " Say to the King, 

The child is sought by princes far and near ; 

If thy most gentle son can bend the bow, 

Sway sword, and back a horse better than they, 

Best would he be in all and best to us : 

But how shall this be, with his cloistered ways ? " 

Then the King's heart was sore, for now the Prince 

Begged sweet Yas6dhara for wife — ^in vain, 

With Devadatta foremost at the bow, 

Ardjuna" master of all fiery steeds, 

And Nanda" chief in sword-play ; but the Prince 

Lailghed low and said, " These things, too, I have learned ; 

Make proclamation that thy son will meet 

All comers at their chosen games. I think 

I shall not lose my love for such as these." 

So 'twas given forth that on the seventh day 

The Prince Sidddrtha summoned whoso would 

To match with him in feats of manliness, 

The victor's crown to be Yasddhara. ' 

Therefore, upon the seventh day, there went 
The Sdkya lords and town and country round 
Unto the maiddn ;^ and the maid went too 
Amid her kinsfolk, carried as a bride, 
With music," arid with litters gayly dight, 
\nd gold-homed oxen, flower-caparisoned.* 
Vhom Devadatta claimed, of royal line, 
id Nanda and Ardjuna, noble both, 
be flower of all youths there, till the Prince came 


se Kautaka, Vhich neighed, 
eat strange world without : 
I with wondering eyes 
)om beneath the throne, 
in kings, otherwise fed, 
chance — in joys and griefs, 
saw sweet Yasddhara, 
ad drew his silken rein, 
Tom Kantaka's broad Back, 
)t worthy of this pearl 
; let my rivals prove 
nuch in seeking her." 
;ed for the arrow-test 
m six gows away, 
adatta eight ; 
bade them set his drum 
the line, until it seemed 
rget. Then they loosed, 
lis drum, Ardjuna his, 
: a well-aimed shaft 
if his mark, so that the crowd 
and sweet Yasddhara 
i" o'er her fearful eyes, 
er Prince's arrow fail, 
low of lacquered cane, 
nd strong with silver wire, 
art arms could draw ^ span, 
.ughing — drew the twisted string 
and the thick belly snapped : 
t love," he said ; "hath none 
ikya lords to use ? " 


And one said, " There is Sinhahdnu's bow," 

Kept in the temple since we know not when, 

Which none can string, nor draw if it be strung." 

" Fetch me," he cried, " that weapon of a man ! " 

They brought the ancient bow, wrought of black steel 

Laid with gold tendrils on its branching curves 

Like bison-horns ; and twice Sidddrtha tried 

Its strength across his knee, then spake — " Shoot now 

With this, my cousins ! " but they could not bring 

The stubborn arms a hand's-breadth nigher use ; 

Then the Prince, lightly leaning, bept the bow,** 

Slipped home the eye upon the notch, and twanged 

Sharply the cord, which, like an eagle's wing 

Thrilling the air, sang forth so clear and loud 

That feeble folk at home that day inquired 

'* What is this sound ? " and people answered them, 

'' It is the sound of Sinhahdnu's bow. 

Which the King's son has strung and goes to shoot ; " 

Then fitting fair a shaft, he drew and loosed, 

And the keen arrow clove the sky, and drave 

Right through that farthest drum, nor stayed its flight 

But skimmed the plain beyond, past reach oi eye. 

Then Devadatta challen.^ed with the sword, 
And clove a Talas-tree^ six fingers thick ;" 
Ardjuna seven ; and Nanda cut through nine ; 
But two such stems together grew, and both 
Sidddrtha's blade shred at one flashing stroke, 
Keen, but so smooth that the straight trunks upstood, 
Vnd Nanda cried, " His edge turned ! " and the maid 
Trembled anew seeing the trees erect, 


18 of the air, who watched, 

tths from the south, and both green c 

sand, clean>felled. 

Then brought they steeds 
nobly-bred, and three times scoured 
idAn, but white Kantaka 
lee test far behind— so swift, 
lam fell from his mouth to earth 
eEgths he flew ; but Nanda saic^ 

win with such as Kantaka ; 
ken hprse, and let men see 
ack him." So the syces" brought 
as night, led by three chains, 
th nostrils wide and tossing mane, 
iled, for no rider yet 
m. Three times each young Sikya 
lighty back, but the hot steed 
d, and flung them to the plain 
me ; only Ardjuna held 

and, bidding loose the chains, 

:k flank, and shook the bit, and held 

fast with grasp of master-hand, 
IS of wrath and rage and fear 
lion circled once the plain 
it sudden turned with naked teeth, 
foot Ardjuna, tore him down, 
; slain him, but the grooms ran in 
iddened beast. Then all men cried, 
rtha meddle with this Bhtit," 

tempest, and his blood 

t the Prince said, "Let ko the chains, 


Give me his forelock only/* which he held 
With quiet grasp, and, speaking some low word, 
Laid his right palm across the stallion's eyes, 
And drew it gently down the angry face, 
And all along the neck and panting flanks, 
Till men astonished saw the night-black horse 
Sink his fierce crest and stand subdued and meek, 
As though he knew our Lord and worshiped him. 
Nor stirred he while Siddirtha mounted, then 
Went soberly to touch of knee and rein 
Before all eyes, so that the people said, 
"Strive no more, for Siddirtha is the best." 

And all the suitors answered " He is best ! " 
And Suprabuddha, father of the maid, 
Said, " It was in our hearts to find thee best, 
Being dearest, yet what magic taught thee more 
Of manhood *mid thy rose-bowers and thy dreams 
Than war and chase and world's work bring to these r 
But wear, fair Prince, the treasure thou hast won." 
Then at a word the lovely Indian girl 
Rose from her place above the throng, and took 
A crown of m6gra-flowers** and lightly drew 
The veil of black and gold across her brow. 
Proud pacing past the youths, until she came 
To where Siddirtha stood in grace divine. 
New lighted from the night-dark steed, which bent 
Its strong neck meekly underneath his arm. 
Before the Prince lowly she bowed, and bared ), 

Her face celestial beaming with glad love ; i 

Then on his neck she hung the fragrant wreath, 


ireast she laid her perfect head, 
to touch his feet with proud glad eyes, 
%r Prince, behold me, who am thine ! " 
hrong rejoiced, seeing them pass 
han(l, and heart beating with heart, 
>l3ck and gold drawn close again. 

— when enlightenment was come — 
Lord Buddha touching all, and why 
i black and gold, and stepped so proud. 
■Id-honored answered, "Unto me 
:nown, albeit it seemed half known ; 
i wheel of birth and death turns round, 
nd thoughts, and buried lives come back, 
iber, myriad rains ago, 
roamed Himdla's hanging woods, 
my striped and hungry kind ; 
iddh, couched in the kusa grass" 
green blinked eyes upon the herds 
ed near and nearer to their death- 
ly-lair ; or underneath the stars 
prey, savage, insatiable, 
aths for track of man and deer. 
Lsts that were my fellows then, 
jungle or by reedy jheel," 
neliest of the forest, set 
war ; her hide was lit with gold, 
red like the veil Yasddhara 
; hot the strife waxed in that wood 
nd claw, while underneath a neem" 
it watched us bleed, thus fiercely wooed. 


And I remembefy^ at the end she came 
Snarling past this and that torn forest-lord 
Which I had conquered, and with fawning jaws 
Licked my quick-heaving flank, and with me went 
Into the wild with proud steps, amorously. 
The wheel of birth and death turns low and higlv** 

Therefore the maid was given unto the Prince 
A willing spoil ; and when the stars were good — 
Mesha,"* the Red Ram, being Lord of heaven — 
The marriage feast was kept, as Sdkyas use, 
The golden gadi** set, the carpet spread, 
• The wedding garlands hung, the arm-threads tied * 
The sweet cake broke, the rice and attar thrown," 
The two straws floated on the reddened milk, 
Which, coming close, betokened " love till death ; "• 
The seven steps taken thrice around the fire, 
The gifts bestowed on holy men, the alms 
And temple offerings made, the mantras" sung, 
The garments of the bride and bridegroom tied. 
Then the gray father spake : " Worshipful Prince, 
She that was ours henceforth is only thine ; 
Be good to her, who hath her life in thee." 
Wheref^ith they brought home sweet Yas<5dhara, 
With songs and trumpets, to the Prince's arms, 
And love was all in all. 

Yet not to love 
Alone trusted the King ; love's prison-house 
Stately and beautiful he bade them build, 
So that in all the earth no marvel was 
Like Vishramvan, the Prince's pleasure-place; 


n those wide palace-grounds there rose 
t hill whose base Rohini" bathed, 
ng adown from Himalay's broad feet, 
ts tribute into Gunga's" waves, 
d a growth of tamarind trees and sil," 
; with pale sky-colored ganthi flowers " 
the world, save if the city's hum 
the wind no harsher than when bees 
of sight in thickets. Northwards soared 
less ramps of huge Himdla's wall," 
a white ranks against the blue — untrod, 
wonderful — whose uplands vast, 
d universe of crest and crag, 
and shelf, green slope and icy horn, 
'ine, and splintered precipice' 
t)ing thought higher and higher, until 
I to stand in heaven and speak with'gods. 
he snows dark forests spread, sharp laced 
ling cataracts and veiled with clouds : 
ew rosfi-oaks and the great fir groves 
hoed pheasant's call and panther's cry, 
wild sheep on the stones, and scream 
ig eagles : under these the plain 
like a praying-carpet at the foot 
divinest altars. Fronting this 
iers set the bright pavilion up, 
ted on the terraced hill, with towers 
: flank and pillared cloisters rOund. 
i were carved with stories of old time — 
id Krishna and the sylvan girls — ** 
I Hanuman and Draupadi ;" 



And on the middle porchr God Ganesha, 

With disc and hook — to bring wisdom and wealth — 

Propitious sate, wreathing his sidelong trunk.*'^ 

By winding ways of garden and of court 

The inner gate was reached, of marble wrought, 

White with pink veins ; the lintel lazuli. 

The threshold alabaster, and the doors 

Sandal- wood, cut in pictured paneling ; 

Whereby to lofty halls and shadowy bowers 

Passed the delighted foot, on stately stairs. 

Through latticed galleries, 'neath painted roofs 

And clustering columns, where cool fountains — fringed 

With lotus and nelumbo^ — danced, and fish 

Gleamed through their crystal, scarlet, gold, and blue. 

Great-eyed gazelles in sunny alcoves browsed 

The blown red roses ; birds of rainbow wing 

Fluttered among the palms ; doves, green and gray, 

Built their safe nests on gilded cornices ; 

Over the shining pavements peacocks drew 

The splendors of their trains, sedately watched 

By milk-white herons and the small house-owls. 

The plum-necked parrots swung from fruit to fruit ; 

The yellow sun-birds whirred from bloom to bloom, 

The. timid lizards on the lattice basked 

Fearless, the squirrels ran to feed from hand, 

For all was peace : the shy black snake, that gives 

Fortune to households, sunned his sleepy coils 

Under the moon-flowers, where the musk-deer played, 

And brown-eyed monkeys chattered to the crows. 

And all this 'house of love was peopled fair 

With sweet attendance, so that in each part 


ly sights were gentle faces found, 
h and willing service, each one glad 
;n, pleased at pleasure, proud to obey ; 
Ided beguiled, tike a smooth stream 
f perpetual flow'rs, Yasbdhara 
the enchanting Court, , 

But innennoBt, 
le richness of those hundred halls, 
ihamber lurked, where skill had spent 
fantasies to lull the mind, 
nee of it was a cloistered square — 
J the sky, and in the midst a tank — 
marble built, and laid with slabs 
irhite marble ; bordered round the tank 
le steps, and all along the frieze 
ler inlaid work of agate-stones. 
I tread in summer-time on snows 
loiter there ; the sunbeams dropped 
j, and, passing into porch and niche, 
to shadows, silvery, pale, and dim, 
very Day paused and grew Eve 
id silence at that bower's gate ; 
beyond the gate the chamber was, 
sweet ; a wonder of the world ! 
from perfumed lamps through windows fell' 
" and stained stars of lucent film 
n cloth^ outspread, and silken beds, 
y splendor of the purdah's" fringe, 
take only the loveliest in. 
ether it was night or day none knew, 
rs, streamed that softened light, more bright 




Than sunrise, but as tender as the eve's ; 
And always breathed sweet airs, » more joy-giving 
Than morning's, but as cool as midnight's breath ; 
And night and day lutes sighed, and night and day 
Delicious foods were spread, and dewy fruits, 

. Sherbets new chilled with snows of Himalay, 
And sweetmeats made of subtle daintiness, 
With sweet tree-milk in its own ivory cup. 
And night and day served there a chosen band 
Of nautch girls, cup-bearers, and cymbalers, 
Delicate, dark-browed ministers of love, 
Who fanned the sleeping eyes of the happy Prince, 
And when he waked, led back his thoughts to bliss 
With music whispering through the blooms, and charm 
Of amorous songs and dreamy dances, linked 
By chime of ankle-bells and wave of arms 
And silver vina-strings ;" while essences 
Of musk and champak and the blue haze spread 
From burning spices soothed his soul again 
To drowse by sweet Yasbdhara ; and thus 

s Siddirtha lived forgetting. 

The King commanded that within those walls 
No mention should be made of death or age. 
Sorrow, or pain, or sickness. If one drooped 
In the lovely Court — ^her dark glance dim, her feet 
Faint in the dance — the guiltless criminal 
Passed forth an exile from that Paradise, 
Lest he should see and suffer at her woe. 
Bright-eyed intendants watched to execute 
Sentepce on such as spake of the harsh world 

?f. ^ 




Without, wnere aches and plagues were, tears and fears, 

And wail of mourners, and grim fume of pyres. 

'Twas treason if a thread of silver strayed 

In tress of singing-girl or nautch-dancer ; 

And every dawn the dying rose was plucked, 

The dead leaves hid, all evil sights removed : 

For said the King, " If he shall pass his youth 

Far from such things as move to wistfulness. 

And brooding on the empty eggs of thought, 

The shactow of this fate, too vast for man. 

May fade, belike, and I shall see him grow 

To that great stature gf fair sovereignty'* 

When he shall rule all lands — if he will rule — 

Thfe King of kings and glory of his time." 

Wherefore, around that pleasant prison-house — 
Where love was jailer and delights its bars, 
But far removed from sight — the King bade build 
A massive wall, and in the wall a gate 
With brazen folding-doors, which but to roll 
Back on their hinges asked a hundred arms ; 
Also the noise of that prodigious gate 
Opening, was heard full half a yojana. 
And inside this another gate he made. 
And yet within another — through the three 
Must one pass if he quit that Pleasure-house. 
Three mighty gates there were, bolted and barred. 
And over each was set a faithful watch ; 
And the King's order said, " Suffer no man 
To pass the gates, though he should be the Prince : 
This on your lives — even though it be my son." 


Boohtiic <Shivi. 

In which calm home of happy life and love 

Ligged our Lord Buddha, knowing not of woe, 

Nor want, nor pain, nor plague, nor age, nor death, 

Save^as when sleepers roam dim seas in dreams. 

And land awearied on the shores of day. 

Bringing strange merchandise from that black voyage. 

Thus ofttimes when he lay with gentle head 

Lulled on the dark breasts of Yasbdbara, 

Her fond hands fanning slow his sleeping lids. 

He would start up and cry, " My world ! Oh, world ! 

I hear ! I know ! I come ! " And she would ask, 

" What ails my Lord ? " with large eyes terror-struck • 

For at such times the pity in his look 

Was awful, and his visage like a god's. 

Then would he smile again to stay her tears. 

And bid the vinas sound ; but once they set 

A stringed gourd on the sill, there where the wind 

Could linger o'er its notes and play at will — 

Wild music makes the wind on silver strings — 

And those who lay around heard only that ; 

But Prince Siddirtha heard the Devas play. 

And to his ears they sang such words as these : — 


THE lilGHT or ASIA, 

! the voices of the wandering wind, 
moan for rest and rest can never find; 
the wind is so is mortal life, 

■t, a sigh, a sob, a storm, a strife. 

fore and whence ■we are ye cannot know, 
here life springs nor whither life doth go ; 
r as ye are, ghosts from the inane, 
')leasure have we of our changeful pain I 

yleasure hast thou of thy changeless Miss t 
' love lasted, there were joy in this ; 
t's way is the wind's way, all these things 
f brief voices breathed on shifting strings. 

<£s son ! because we roam the earth 

tie upon these strings j we make no mirth, 

y woes we see in many lands, 

y streaming eyes and wringing hands. 

■.h we while we wail, for, could they know, 
'if they cling to is but empty show ; 
all as well to bid a cloud to stand, 
f a running river with the hand. 

w that art to save, thine hour is nigh ! 
I world waitelh tn its misery, 
nd world stumMeth on its round of pain ; 
fayd's child! wake! slumber not again I 

• the voices of the wandering wind : 
r thou, too, O Prince, thy rest to find; 



Leave Uyoe far love of lovers^ for woe*s sake 
Quit state for sorrow ^ and deliverance make. 

So sigh we, passing o'er the silver strings. 

To thee who know'st not yet of earthly things ; 

So say we ; mocking, as we pass away. 

These lovely shadows wherewith thou dost play. ^ 

- Thereafter it befell he sate at eve 
Amid his beauteous Court, holding the hand 
Of sweet Yasbdhara, and some maid told — 
With breaks of music when her rich voice dropped — 
An ancient tale to speed the hour of dusk, 
Of love, and of a magic horse, and lands 
Wonderful, distant, where pale peoples dwelled. 
And where the sun at night sank into seas. 
Then spake he, sighing, " Chitra* brings me back 
The wind's song in the strings with that fair tale. 
Give her, Yas6dhara, thy pearl for thanks. 
But thou, my pearl ! is there so wide a world ? 
Is there a land which sees the great sun roll 
Into the waves, and are there hearts like ours. 
Countless, unknown, not happy — it may be — 
Whom we might succor if we knew of them ? 
Ofttimes I marvel, as the Lord of day 
Treads from the east his kingly road of gold. 
Who first on the world*s edge hath hailed his beam. 
The children of the morning ; oftentimes, 
liven in thine arms and on thy breasts, bright wife, 
5ore have I panted, at the sun's decline, 
pass with him into that crimson west 

! peoples of the evening. 

be many we should love — ^how else ? 

in this hour an ache, at last, 
s cannot kiss away : oh, girl ! 
fou that know of fairyland ! 
;r they that swift steed of the tale ? 
or one day upon his back, 

ride and see the spread of the earth ! 
d yon callow vulture's plumes — 
I heir of wider realms than mine — 

I stretch for topmost Himalay, 
: the rose-gleam lingers on those snows, 
ny gaze with searching what is round ! 

never seen and never sought ? 
it lies beyond our brazen gates." 

; replied, " The city first, fair Prince ( 
5, and the gardens, and the groves, 
le fields, and afterwards fresh fields, 
S,' maidins,' jungle, koss on koss ;* 
Ling Bimbsdra's realm, and then 
,t world, with ciores on crores' of folk." 
id Sidd4rtha, " let the word be sent 
la yoke my chariot — at noon 
I shall ride and see beyond." 

they told the King : " Our Lord, thy son, 

is chariot be yoked at noon, 

y ride abroad and see mankind." 

spake the careful King, " 'tis time he see .' 




But let the criers go about and bid 

My city deck itself, so there be met 

No noisome sight ; and let none blind or maimed, 

None that is sick or stricken deep in years, 

No leper, and no feeble folk come forth." 

Therefore the stones were swept, and up and down 

The water-carriers sprinkled all the streets 

From spirting skins,* the housewives scattered fresh 

Red powder on their thresholds, stnmg new wreaths. 

And trimmed the tulsf-bush^ before their doors. 

The paintings on the walls were heightened up 

With liberal brush, the trees set thick with flags, 

The idols gilded ; in the four-went ways 

Suryadeva® and the great gods shone 

*Mid shrines of leaves ; so that the city seemed 

A capital of some enchanted land. 

Also the criers passe^, with drum and gong, 

Proclaiming loudly, " Ho ! all citizens, 

The King commands that there be seen to-day 

No evil sight : let no one blind or maimed, 

None that is sick or stricken deep in years, 

No leper, and no feeble folk go forth. 

Let none, too, burn his dead nor bring them out 

Till nightfall. Thus Suddhddana commands." 

So all was comely and the houses trim 
Throughout Kapilavastu, while the Prince 
Came forth in pslinted car, which two steers drew,* 
Snow-white, with swinging dewlaps and huge humps 
Wrinkled against the carved and lacquered yoke. 
Goodly it was to mark the people's joy 


ir Prince ; and glad Sidd&rtha waxed 
11 those liege and friendly folk 
and laughing as if life were good, 
world," he said, " it likes me well I 
d kind these men that are not klngB, 
y sisters here, who toil and tend ; 
done for these to make them thus? 
e them, should those children know ? 
p yon pretty Sikya boy 
i flowers, and let him ride with me. 
is to reign in realms like this ! 
pleasure is, if these be pleased 
me abroad ! How many things 
such little households hold 
ake our city full of smiles ! 
a ! through the gates, and let me see 
gracious world I have not known." 

they through the gates, a joyous crowd 
)Out the wheels, whereof some ran 
:en, throwing wreaths, some stroked 
flanks, some brought them rice and cakei 
Jail jai P^ for our noble Prince ! " 
path was kept with gladsome looks 
th fair sights — for the King's word was 
ould be — when midway in the road, 
% from the hovel where he hid, 
wretch in rags, haggard and foul, 
lan, whose shriveled skin, sun-tanned, 
beast's hide to his flesh less bones. 
back with load of many days, 


His eyepits red with rust of ancient tears, 

His dim orbs blear with rheum, his toothless jaws 

Wagging with palsy and the fright to* see 

So many and such joy. One skinny hand 

Clutched a worn staff to prop his quavering limbs, 

And one was pressed upon the ridge of ribs 

Whence came in gasps the heavy painful breath. 

" Alms ! " moaned he, " give, good people ! for I die 

To-morrow or the itext day ! " then the cough 

Choked him, but still he stretched his palm, and stood 

Blinking, and groaning 'mid his spasms, " Alms ! " 

Then those around had wrenched his feeble feet 

Aside, and thrust him from the road again, 

Saying, " The Prince ! dost see ? get to thy lair t ** 

But that Siddartha cried, " Let be ! let be ! 

Channa ! what thing is this who seems a man, 

Yet surely only seems, being so bowed. 

So miserable, so horrible, so sad ? 

Are men bom sometimes thus ? What meaneth he 

Moaning ' to-morrow or next day I die ? ' 

Finds he no food that so his bones jut forth ? 

What woe hath happened to this piteous one ? " 

Then answer made the charioteer, " Sweet Prince ! 

This is no other than an aged man. 

Some fourscore years ago his back was straight, 

His eye bright, and his body goodly : now 

The thievish years have sucked his sap away. 

Pillaged his strength and filched his will and wit ; 

His lamp has lost its oil, the wick bums black ; 

What life he keeps is one poor; lingering spark 

Which flickers for the finish : such is Age ; 



[ighness heed?" Then spake 

to others, or to all, 

should be as he ?" 
Ted Channa, " even as he, 

they shall live so long." 
ince, " if I shall live as long 

if Yas6dhara 

is this old age for her, 
' Gautami," 

e others ? " " Yea, great Sir I " 
■4. Then spake the Prince : 
ve me to my house ^ain I 
d not think to see." 

to his beauteous Court returned 

d of mien and mood ; 

lite cakes noi the fruits 

ig feast, nor once looked up 

;-dancers strove to charm : 

; sad thing — when wofuUy 

is feet and wept, 

my Lord comfort in me ? " 

lid, " such comfort that my soul 

ust end, for it will end,** 

row old, Yasbdhara ! 

reak, and old, and bowed. 

ed up love and life with lips 

nd day our breaths grew one, 

1 between to filch away 

grace, as black Night steals 



The rose-gleams from yon peak, which fade to gray 
And are not seen to fade. This have I found, 
And all my heart is darkened with its dread, 
And all my heart is fixed to think how Love 
Might save its sweetness from the slayer, Time, 
Who makes men old." So through that night he sate 
Sleepless, uncomforted. , • 

And all that night 
The King Suddhodana dreamed troublous dreams. 
The first fear of his vision was a flag 
Broad, glorious, glistening with a golden sun, 
The mark of Indrd ;" but a strong wind blew, 
Rending its folds divine, and dashing it 
Into the dust ; whereat a concourse came 
Of shadowy Ones, who took the spoiled silk up 
And bore it eastward from the city gates. 
The second fear was ten huge elephants. 
With silver tusks and feet that shook the earth. 
Trampling the southern road in mighty march ; 
And he who sate upon the foremost beast 
Was the King's son — the others followed him. 
The third fear of the vision was a car, 
Shining with blinding light, which four steeds drew, 
Snorting white smoke and champing fiery foam ; 
And in the car the Prince Sidddrtha sate. 
The fourth fear was a wheel which turned and turned. 
With nave of burning gold and jeweled spokes. 
And strange things written on the binding tire. 
Which seemed both fire and music as it whirled. 
The fifth fear was a mighty drum, set down 
Midway between the city and the hills, 

1 1 


le Prince beat with an iron mace, 

sound peaJed like a thunder-stonn, 

ind the sky and far away. 

;ar was a tower, which rose and rose 

le city til! its stately head 

ned with clouds, and on the top the Prince 

ering from both hands, this way and that, 

ist lovely light, as if it rained 

1 rubies ; and the whole world came, 

leize those treasures as they fell 

; four quarters. But the seventh fear was 

railing, and behold six men 

nd gnashed their teeth, and laid dieir paiias 

mouths, walking disconsolate, 

en fears made the vision of his slMp, 

all his wisest dream-readers 

leir meaning. Then the King wai wroth, 

lere cometh evil to my house, 

; ye have wit to help me know 

sat gods portend sending me this." 

y men went sorrowful 

King had dreamed seven signs of fear 

could read ; but to the gate there came 

I), in robe of deer-skin clad, 

ermit, known to none ; he cried, 

)efore the King, for I can read 

if his sleep ; " who, when he heard 

Id mysteries of the midnight dream, 

'ent and said, " O Mahar^j ! 

vored House, whence shall arise 



A wider-reaching splendor than the sun's ! 
Lo ! all these seven fears are seven joys, 
Whereof the first, where thou didst see a flag — 
Broad, glorious, gilt with Indrd's badge — cast down 
And carried out, did signify the end * 
Of old faiths and beginning of the new, " 
For there is change with gods not less than men, 
And as the days pass kalpas pass at length. 
The ten great elephants that shook the earth 
The ten great gifts of wisdom signify,*® *' 
In strength whereof the Prince shall quit his state 
And shake the world with passage of the Truth. 
The four flame-breathing horses of the car. 
Are those four fearless virtues** which shall bring ^ 
Thy son from doubt and gloom to gladsome light ; 
The wheel that turned with nave of burning gold 
Was that most precious Wheel of perfect Law ». 
Which he shall turn in sight of all the world. 
The mighty drum whereon the Prince did beat, 
Till the sound filled all lands, doth signify 
The thunder of the preaching of the Word ^ 
Which he shall preach ; the tower that grew to heaven- 
The growing of the Gospel of this Buddh * 
Sets forth ; and those rare jewels scattered thence 
The untold treasures are of that good Law • 
To gods and men dear and desirable, 
Such is the interpretation of the tower ; 
ut for those six men weeping with shut mouths, 
hey are the six chief teachers whom thy son 
ball, with bright truth and speech unanswerable, 
onvince of foolishness. O King ! rejoice ; 
le fortune of my Lord the Prince is more 


;, and hia hermit-rags will be 

ths of gold. This was th3r dream ! 

ights and days these things shall fall" 

>ly man, and lowly made 

rations, touching thrice the ground ; 

d passed ; but when the King bade send 

: him, the messengers 

"We came to where he entered in 

mple," but within was none 

which fluttered from the shrine." 

sometimes thus. 

But the sad King 
^ve command that new delights 

in thrall Siddirtha's heart 
cersof his pleasure-house, 

1 the brazen doors 

Yet who shall shut out Fate ? 

n the spirit of the Prince 
ee this world beyond his gates, 
1, so pleasant if its waves 
e and woful finishing 
inds. " I pray you let me view 
," such was his prayer 
ildana. " Your Majesty 
lath warned the folk before 
things and common sights, 
faces glad to gladden me, 
:eways gay ; yet have I learned 
life, and if I stand 






Nearest, my father, to the realm and thee, 
Fain would I know the people and the streets. 
Their simple usual ways, and work-day deeds, 
And lives which those men live who are not kings. 
Give me good leave, dear Lord ! to pass unknown 
Beyond my happy gardens ; I shall come 
The more contented to their peace again. 
Or wiser, father, if not well content- 
Therefore, I pray thee, let me go at will 
To-morrow, with my servants, through the streets." 
And the King said, among his Ministers, 
" Belike this second flight may mend the first. 
Note how the falcon starts at every sight ' 
New from his hood, but what a quiet eye 
Cometh of freedom ; let my son see all, 
And bid them bring me tidings of his mind." 


Thus on the morrow, when the noon was come, 
The Prince and Channa passed beyond the gates, 
Which opened to the signet of the King ; 
Yet knew not they who rolled the great doors back 
It was the King's son in that merchant's robe," 
And in the clerkly dress" his charioteer. 
Forth fared they by the common way afoot, 
Mingling with all the Sdkya citizens, • 

Seeing the glad and sad things of the town : 
The painted streets alive with hum of noon, , 

The traders cross-legged 'mid their spice and grain," 
The buyers with their money in the cloth,** 
The war of words to cheapen this or that," 
The shout to clear the road, " the huge stone wheels, 
The strong slow oxen and their rustling loads. 


ith the palanquins," 
(lals" sweating in the aun, 
ig water from the well 
t, and athwart their hips 
es ; " the fly-swarmed sw 

n," the cotton-bow 
mes grinding meal, the dog: 
skillful armorer 
r linking shirts of mail, 
I mattock and a spear 
his coals, the school 
rd, in a grave half -moon, 
.ng the mantras through, 
er and the lesser gods ; " 
vaistcloths in the sun " 
ange, and rose, and green ; 
past with swords and shield 
king on the humps, 
the martial Kshatriya," 
idra ; " here a throng 
Qe chattering snake- tamer 
the living jewelry 
harm the hooded death 
Irene of beaded gourd ; " 
Irums and boms, which wen 
;d and silk canopies, 
ide home ; and here a. wife 
d garlands to the god 
j safe return from trade, 
th ;*° hard by the booths 



Where the swart potters beat the noisy brass 
For lamps and lotds ; *^ thence, by temple walls 
And gateways, to the river and the bridge 
Under the city walls. 

These had they passed 
When from the roadside moaned a mournful voice, 
** Help, masters ! lift me to my feet ; oh, help ! 
Or I shall die before I reach my house ! " 
A stricken wretch it was, whose quivering frame, 
Caught by some deadly plague, lay in the dust 
Writhing, with fiery putple blotches specked ; 
The chill sweat beaded on his brow, his mouth 
Was dragged awry with twitchings of sore pain, 
The wild eyes swam with inward agony. 
Gasping, he clutched the grass to rise, and rose 
Half-way, then sank, with quaking feeble limbs 
And scream of terror, crying, *' Ah, the pain ! 
Good people, help ! " whereon Siddartha ran, 
Lifted the woful man with tender hands. 
With sweet looks laid the sick head on his knee, 
And while his soft touch comforted the wretch, 
Asked, " Brother, what is ill with thee ? what harm 
Hath fallen ? wherefore canst thou not arise ? 
Why is it, Channa, that he pants and moans. 
And gasps to speak and sighs so pitiful ? " 
Then spake the charioteer : " Great Prince ! this man 
Is smitten with some pest ; his elements 
Are all confounded ; in his veins the blood. 
Which ran a wholesome river, leaps and boils 
A fiery flood ; his heart, which kept good time. 
Beats like an ill-played drum-skin, quick and slow ; 


n like a bow-string slipped ; 
me from ham, and loin, and neck, 
and joy of manhood fled : 
1 with the fit upon him. 

s and plucks to seize his grief, 
idshot orbs, and grinds his teeth, 
eath as if 'twere choking smoke. 
Id be dead, but shall not die 
fiath had its work in him, 
i which die before the life ; 
trings have cracked with agony 
. "are empty of the sense 
;ue will quit and light elsewhere. 

good to hold him so ' 
tss, and strike thee, even thee." 
nee, still comforting the man^ 
ithers, are there many thus ? 

me as now with him ? " 
answered the charioteer, " this comes 
> all men ; griefs and wounds, 
ers, palsies, leprosies, 
y was tings, issues, blains 
d enter everywhere." 
unobserved?" the Prince inquired. 
,, " Like the sly snake they come 
:n ; like the striped murderer," 
ing from the Karunda bush," 'y 
e jungle path ; or like / 

riking these and sparing those, 

e in fear ? " 


" So live they, Prince ! " 

" And none can say, * I sleep 
Happy and whole to-night, and so shall wake ? * " 
" None say it" 

" And the end of many aches, 
Which come unseen, and will come when they come, 
Is this, a broken body and sad mind, 
And so old age ? " 

" Yea, if men last as long." 
" But if they cannot bear their agonies, 
Or if they will not bear, and seek a term ; ' 

Or if they bear, and be, as this man is. 
Too weak except for groans, and so still live. 
And growing old, grow older, then what end ? " 
" They die, Prince." 

" Die ? " 

" Yea, at the last comes" death, 
In whatsoever way, whatever hour. 
Some few grow old, most suffer and fall sick, 
But all must die — behold, where comes the Dead !" 

Then did Siddirtha raise his eyes, and see 
Fast pacing towards the river brink a band 
Of wailing people, foremost one who swung 
An earthen bowl with lighted coals,** behind 
The kinsmen shom,*^ with mourning marks, ungirt, 
Crying aloud, " O Rama,** Rama, hear ! 
Call upon Rama, brothers ; " next the bier, 
Knit of four poles with bamboos interlaced, 
Whereon lay, stark and stiff, feet foremost, lean, 
Chapfallen, sightless, hollow-flanked, a-grin^ 


pith red and yellow dust — the Dead, 
he four-went ways they turned head first, 
; " Rama, Rama ! " carried on 

I pile was reared beside the stream ;" . 
,ey laid him, building fuel up — 

hath one that slumbers on that bed ! 
)t wakefor cold albeit he lies 

II the airs — for soon they set 

me to the comers four, which crept, 
, and flickered, finding out his flesh 
g on it with swift hissihg tongues, 
e of parched skin, and snap of joint ; 

smoke thinned and the ashes sank 

gray, with here and there a bone 
t the gray — the total of the man. 

ike the Prince : "Is this the end which comes 
live ? " 

" This is the end that comes 
oth Channa ; "he upon the pyre — 
nants are so petty that the crows 
ly, then quit the fruitless feast — 
laughed, loved, and lived, and liked life well. 
— who knows ? — some gust of jungle wind, 
m the path, a taint in the tank, 
ip, half a span of angry steel, ■ 

shbone, or a falling tile, 
s over and the man is dead ; 
s, no pleasures, and no pains 
; the kiss upon his lips is nought, 
irch nought ; he smelleth not his flesh 



A-roast, nor yet the sandal and the spice 

They bum ; the taste is emptied from his mouth, 

The hearing of his ears is clogged, the sight 

Is blinded in his eyes ; those whom he loved 

Wail desolate, for even that must go, 

The body, which was lamp unto the life, 

Or worms will have a horrid feast of it. 

Here is the common destiny of flesh : 

The high and low, the good and bad, must die, 

And then, 'tis taught, begin anew and live 

Somewhere, somehow, — who knows ? — and so again 

The pangs, the parting, and the lighted pile : — 

Such is man's round." ** 

But lo ! Siddirtha turned 
Eyes gleaming with divine tears to the sky, 
Eyes lit with heavenly pity to the earth ; 
From sky to earth he looked, from earth to sky. 
As if his spirit sought in lonely flight 
Some far-off vision, linking this and that. 
Lost — ^past — ^but searchable, but seen, but known. 
Then cried he, while his lifted countenance 
Glowed with the burning passion of a love 
Unspeakable, the ardor of a hope 
Boundless, insatiate : " Oh ! suffering world, 
Oh ! known and unknown of my common flesh. 
Caught in this common net of death and woe. 
And life which binds to both ! I see, I feel 
The vastness of the agony of earth. 
The vainness of its joys, the mockery 
Of all its best, the anguish of its worst ; 
Since pleasures end in pain, and youth in age, 

;T of ASIA, 

. hateful death, 

5, which will but yoke 

whirr the round 
hat are not fals& 
:d, so it seemed 
nlit stream 
iless peace ; 
}f the flood 
iloom and lawn 

veil is rent 
IS all these men 
id are not heard 
re must be aid ! 
ere must be help ' 
ed of help themselves 
ad lips cry 
,d not let one cry 
r can it be that Brahm * 
eep it miserable, 
Lves it so, 

lead home again ! 
ve seen enough ! " 

ard, at the gates he set 
I man should pass 
entering in, 
red of that dream. 



B00k tl)e Sontilf. 

But when the days were numbered, then befell 

The parting of our Lord — which was to be — 

Whereby came wailing in the Golden Home, 

Woe to the King and sorrow o'er the land. 

But for all flesh deliverance, and that Law 

Which^ — whpso hears — the same shall make him free. 

Softly the Indian night sinks on the plains 

At full moon in the month of Chaitra shud,' 

When mangoes redden and the as6ka buds' 

Sweeten the breeze, and Rama's birthday comes,' 

And all the fields are glad and all the towns. 

Softly that night fell over Vishramvan, 

Fragrant with blooms and jeweled thick with stars, 

And cool with mountain airs sighing adown 

From snow-flats on Himala high-outspread ; 

For the moon swung above the eastern peaks, 

Climbing the spangled vault, and lighting clear 

Rohinl's ripples and the hills and plains. 

And all the sleeping land, and near at hand 

Silvering those roof-tops of the pleasure-house, 

Where nothing stirred nor sign of watching was, 

Save at the outer gates whose warders cried 








Mtidra* the watchword, and the countersign 
Angaria^ and the watch-drums beat a round ; 
Whereat the earth lay still, except for call 
Of prowling jackals, and the ceaseless'trill 
Of crickets on the garden grounds. 

Where the moon glittered through the lace-worked stone, 
Lighting the walls of pearl-shell and the floors 
Paved with veined marble — softly fell her beams 
On such rare company of Indian girls, 
It seemed some chamber sweet in Paradise 
Where Devas* rested. All the chosen ones 
Of Prince Siddirtha's pleasure-home were there, 
The brightest and most faithful of the Court, 
Each form so lovely in the peace of sleep. 
That you had said " This is the pearl of all \ "j 
Save that beside her or beyond her lay 
Fairer and fairer, till the pleasured gaze 
Roamed o'er that feast of beauty as it roams 
From gem to gem in some great goldsmith- work. 
Caught by each color till the next is seen. 
With careless grace they lay. their soft brown limbs 
Part hidden, part revealed ; their glossy hair 
Bound back with gold or flowers, or flowing loose 
In black waves down the shapely nape and neck. 
Lulled into pleasant dreams by happy toils. 
They slept, no wearier than jeweled birds 
Which sing and love all day, then under wing 
Fold head till morn bids sing and love again. 
Lamps of chased silver swinging from the roof 



In silver chains, and fed with perfiyned oils. 

Made with the moonbeams tender lights and shades, 

Wliereby were seen the perfect lines of grace. 

The bosom's placid heave, the soft stained palms 

Drooping or clasped, the faces fair and dark. 

The great arched brows, the parted lips, the teeth 

Like pearls a merchant picks to make a string, 

The satin-lidded eyes, with lashes dropped 

Sweeping the delicate cheeks, the rounded wrists, 

The smooth small feet with bells and bangles decked, 

Tinkling low music where some sleeper moved. 

Breaking her smiling dream of some new dance 

Praised by the Prince, some magic ring to find, 

Some fairy love- gift. Here one lay full-length, 

Her vina by her cheek, and in its strings 

The little fingers still all interlaced 

As when the last notes of her light song played 

Those radiant eyes to sleep and sealed her own. 

Another slumbered folding in her arms 

A desert-antelope, its slender head 

Buried with back-sloped horns between her breasts. 

Soft nestling ; it was eating — when both drowsed — 

Red ro^es, and her loosening hand still held 

A rose half -mumbled, while a rose-leaf curled 

Between the deer's lips. Here two friends had dozed 

Together, weaving m6gra-buds, which bound 

Their sister-sweetness in a starry chain, 

'' inking them limb to limb and heart to heart 

le pillowed on the blossoms, one on her. 

uother, ere she slept, was stringing stones 

make a necklet — agate, onyx, sard. 




Sweeter than shed from those fair pi^esences 
Within the place — the beauteous Sikya Prince, 
And hersy the stately, bright Yas6dhara. 


Half risen from her soft nest at his side, 
The chuddah* fallen to her waist, her brow 
Laid in both palms, the lovely Princess leaned 
With heaving bosom and fast falling tears. 
Thrice with her lips she touched Siddartha's hand, 
And at the third kiss moaned, " Awake, my Lord ! 
Give me the comfort of thy speech ! " Then he — 
" What is it with thee, O ray life ? " but still 
She moaned anew before the word^ would come ; 
Then spake, " Alas, my Prince ! I sank to sleep 
Most happy,' for the babe I bear of thee 
Quickened this eve, and at my heart there beat 
That double pulse of life and joy and love 
Whose happy music lulled me, but — aho ! — 
In slumber I beheld thr ee, sights cff Hr^aHj 

With thought whereof my heart is throbbing yet 

I saw a white bull wi»i wi'ri^ branching ho^"s 

A lord of pastures, pacing through the streets. 

Be aring upo n his front a gem whi ch shone 

As if some star had dropped to glitter there. 

Or like the kantha-stone' the great Snake keeps 

To make bright daylight underneath the earth. 

Slow through the streets towards the gates he paced, 

nd none could stay him, though there came a voice ■ 

from Indri's temple, * If ye stay him not. 

The glory of the city goeth forth.* 

et none could stay him. Then I wept aloud, 

ay c 

of c 

i ea 


An unpressed pillow and an empty rol 
Nothing of thee but those ! — nothing of thee, 
Who art my life and light, my king, my world ! 
And sleeping still I rose, and sleeping saw 
Thy belt of pearls,- tied here below my breasts, 
Change to a stinging snake ; my ankle-rings 
Fall off, my golden bangles part and fall • 
The jasmines in my hair wither to dust ; 
While this our bridal-couch sank to the ground, 
And something rent the crimson purddh down ; 
Then far away I heard the white bull low. 
And far away the embroidered banner flap, 
And once again that cry, ' The time is come ! * 
But with that cry — which shakes my spirit still-r— 
I woke ! O Prince ! what may such visions meap 
Except I die, or — worse than any death — 

Thou shouldst forsake me or be taken ? " 

As the last smile of sunset was the look 
Siddartha bent upon his weeping wife. 
" Comfort thee, dear ! " he said, " if comfort lives 
In changeless love ; for though thy dreams may be 
Shadows of things to come, and though the gods 
Are shaken in their seats, and though the world 
Stands nigh, perchance, to know some way of help. 
Yet, whatsoever fall to thee and me. 
Be sure I loved and love Yasbdhara. 
Thou knowest how I muse these many moons, 
Seeking to save the sad earth I have seen ; 
A.nd when the time comes, that which will be will 
$ut if my »»oul yearns sore for souls unknown, 


Then in her tears she slept, but sleeping sighed — 
As if that vision passed again — " The time ! 
The time is come ! '' Whereat Siddartha .turned, 
And, lo ! the moon shone by the Crab ! the stars 
In that same silver order long foretold 
Stood ranged to say, " This is the night ! — choose thou 
The way of greatness or the way of good : 
To reign a King of kings, or wander lone, 
iCrownless and' homeless, that the world be helped." 
Moreover, with the whispers of the gloom 
Came to his ears again that warning song, 
As when the Devas spoke upon the wind : 
And surely Gods were round about the place 
Watching our Lord, who watched the shining stars. 

" I will depart," he spake ; " the hour is come ! 
Thy tender lips, dear sleeper, summon me 
To that which saves the earth but sunders us ; 
And in the silence of yon sky I read 
My fated message flashing. Unto this 
Came I, and unto this all nights and days 
Have led me ; for I will not have that crown 
Which may be mine : I lay aside those realms 
Which wait the gleaming of my naked sword : 
My chariot shall not roll with bloody wheels 
From victory to victory, till earth 
Wears the red record' of my name. I choose * ^ 
To tread its paths with patient, stainless feet, 
Making its dust my bed, its loneliest wastes 
Vf y dwelling, and its meanest things my mates : 
lad in no prouder garb than outcasts wear, , 


Fed with no meats save what the charitable 
Give of their will, sheltered by no more pomp 
Than the dim cave lends or the jungle-liush. 
This will I do because the woful cry 
Of life and all flesh living cometh up 
Into roy eai^ and all my soul is full 
Of pity for the sickness of this worid ; 
)Which I will heal, if healing may be found 
(By uttermost renouncing and strong strife. 
For which of all the great and lesser Gods 
Have power or pity ? Who hath seen them — who ? . 
What have they wrought to help their worshipers ? 
How hath it steaded man to pray, and pay 
Tithes of' the com and oil, to chant the charms. 
To slay the shrieking sacrifice, to rear 
The stately fane, to feed the priests, and call 
On Vishnu,'" Shiva," Surya," who save 
None — not the worthiest — from the griefs that teach 
Those litanies of flattery and fear 
Ascending day by day, like wasted smoke ? 
Hath any of my brothers 'scaped thereby 
The aches of life, the stings of love and loss, 
The fiery fever and the ague-shake. 
The slow, dull sinking into withered age. 
The horrible dark death — and what beyond 
Waits — till the whirling wheel comes up again, 
And new lives bring new sorrows to be borne, 
New generations for the new desires 
Which have their end in the old mockeries? 
Hath any of my tender sisters found 
Fruit of the fast or harvest of the' hymn. 


Oi- bought one pang the less at bearing-time 
For white curds offered and trim tulsi-leaves ? 
Nay ; it may be some of the Gods are good 
And evil some, but all in action weak ; 
Both pitiful and pitiless, and both — 
As men are — ^bound upon this wheel of change, 
^Elnowing the former and the after lives. 
For so our scriptures truly seem to teach, 
That — once, and wheresoe'cr, and whence begun — 
Life runs its rounds of living, climbing up 
From mote, and gnat, and worm, re]f)tile, and fish. 
Bird and shagged beast, man, demon, deva, God, 
To clod and mote again ; so are we kii) 
To all that is ; and thus, if one might save 
Man from his curse, the whole wide world should share 
The lightened horror, of this ignorance 
Whose shadow is chill fear, and cruelty 
Its bitter pastime. Yea, if one might save ! 
And means must be ! There must be refuge ! Men 
Perished in winter-winds till one smote fire 
From flint-stones coldly hiding what they held, 
The red spark treasured from the kindling sun. 
They gorged on flesh like wolves, till one sowed corn, 
Which gfew a weed, yet makes the life of man ; 
They mowed and babbled till some tongue struck speech - 
And patient fingers framed the lettered sound. 
What good gift have my brothers, but it came 
Vom' search and strife and loving sacrifice ? 
one, then, being great and fortunate, 
h, dowered with health and ease, from birth designed 
rule — if he would rule — a King of kings ; 



ot tired with life's long day but glad ' 

ishness of its morning, one not cloyed 

e's delicious feasts, but hungry still ; 

)t worn and wrinkled, sadly sage, 

ns in the glory and the grace 

t with evils here, and free to choose 

aveliest at his will : one even as I, 

e not, lack not, grieve not, save with griefs 

:e not mine, except as I am man ; — 

. one, having so much to give, 

laying it down for love of men, 
kceforth spent himself to search for truth, 
; the secret of deliverance forth, 
it lurk in hells or hide in heavens, 
, unrevealed, nigh unto all : 

last, far off, sometime, somewhere, 
would lift for his deep- searching eyes, 
1 would open for his painful feet, 
uld be won for which he lost the world, 
th might find him conqueror of death. 

I do, who have a realm to lose, 
I love my realm,, because my heart 
h each throb of all the hearts that ache, 
nd unknown, these that are mine and those 
lall be mine, a thousand million more 

this sacrifice I offer now. 

noning stars ! I come ! Oh, mournful eartn . 

and, thine I lay aside my youth, 

le, my joys, my golden days, my nights, 

y palace — and thine arms, sweet Queen ! 

put aside than all the rest ! 

BOOK THE ^'^sgMS^ r0 \ ^y 73 

Yet thee, too, I shall save, saving this earth ; 
• And that which stirs within. thy tender womb, 
My child, the hidden blossom of our loves, 
Whom if I wait to bless my mind will iail. 
Wife ! child ! father ! and people ! ye must share 
A little while the anguish of this hour * 

That light may break and all flesh learn the Law. \ 
Now am I fixed, and now I will depart, 
Never to come again till what I seek 
Be found — if fervent search and strife avail." 

So with his brow he touched her feet, and bent 
The farewell of fond eyes, unutterable. 
Upon her sleeping face," still wet with tears ; 
And thrice around the bed in reverence, 
As though it were an altar, softly stuped 
With clasped hands laid upon his beating heart, 
" For never," spake he, ** lie I there again ! " 
And thrice he made to go, but thrice came back. 
So strong her beauty was, so large his love : 
Then, o'er his head drawing his cloth, he turned 
And raised the purddh's edge : • 

There drooped, close-husheJ 
In such sealed' sleep as water-lilies know, 
The lovely garden of his Indian girls ; 
That twin dark-petaled lotus-buds of all — 
Gunga and Gautami — on either side, 
\nd those, their silk-leaved sisterhood, beyond. 

Pleasant ye are to me, sweet friends ! " he said, 

And dear to leave ; yet if I leave ye not 

/hat else will come to all of us save eld 



From hosts on hosts of shining ones, who thronged 

Eastward and westward, making bright the night — 

Northward and southwar(j, making glad the ground. 

Also those four dread Regents of the Earth, 

Descending at the doorway, two by two, — 

With their bright legions of Invisibles 

In arms of sapphire, silver, gold, and pearl — 

Watched with joined hands the Indian Prince, 4vho stood 

His tearful eyes raised to the stars, and lips 

Close-set with purpose of prodigious love. 

Then strode he forth into the gloom and cried, 
^ Channa, awake ! and bring out Kantaka ! " 

" What would my Lord ? " the charioteer replied — 
Slow-rising from his place beside the gate — 
" To ride at night when all the ways are dark ? " 

" Speak low," Siddalrtha said, " and bring my horse, 
For now the hour is come when I should quit 
This golden prison where my heart lives caged 
To find the truth ; which henceforth I will seek, 
For all men's sake, until the truth be found" 

" Alas ! dear Prince," answered the charioteer, 
" Spake then for nought those wise and holy men 
V^ho cast the stars and bade us wait the time 
^hen King Suddhddana's great son should rule 
R.ealms upon realms, and be a Lord of lords ? 
'^ilt thou ride hence and let the rich world slip 

ut of thy grasp, to hold a beggar's bowl ? 


Buckled the breech-bands and the* martingale, 
And made fall both the stirrups of worked gold. 
Then over all he cast a golden net, 
With tassels of seed-pearl and silken strings, 
And led the great horse to the palace door, 
Where stood the Prince ; but when he saw his Lord, 
Right glad he waxed and joyously he neighed, 
Spreading his scarlet nostrils ; and the books 
Write, " Surely all had heard Kantaka's neigh, 
And that strong trampling of his iron heels. 
Save that the Devas laid their unseen wings 
Over their ears and kept the sleepers deaf." 

Fondly Sidddrtha drew the proud head down. 
Patted the shining neck, and said, " Be still, 
White Kantaka ! be still, and bear me now 
The farthest journey ever rider rode ; 
For this night take I horse to find the truth. 
And where my quest will end yet know I not. 
Save that it shall not end until I find. 
Therefore to-night, good steed, be fierce and bold ! 
Let nothing stay thee, though a thousand blades 
Deny the road ! let neither wall nor moat 
Forbid our* flight ! Look ! if I touch thy flank 
And cry, * Oh,. Kantaka 1 ' let whirlwinds lag 
Behind thy course ! Be fire and air, my horse ! 
To stead thy Lord, so shalt thou share with him 
'T'he greatness of this deed which helps the world ; 

or therefore ride I, not for men alone, 

ut for all things which, speechless, share our pain 

md have no hope, nor wit to ask for hope. 

''ow, therefore, bear thy master valorously ' " 



When the morning star 
Stood half ^ spear's length from the eastern rim, 
And o'er the earth the breath of morning sighed 
Rippling Anoma's wave," the border-stream. 
Then drew he rein, and leaped to earth and kissed 
White Kantaka betwixt the ears, and spake 
Full sweet to Channa:** "This which thou hast done 
Shall bring thee good and bring all creatures good. 
Be sure I love thee always for thy love. 
Lead back my horse and take my crest-pearl here, 
My princely robes, which henceforth stead me not, 
My jeweled sword-belt and my sword, and these 
The long locks by its bright edge severed thus 
From off my brows. Give the King all, and say 
Sidddrtha prays forget him till he come 
Ten times a Prince, with royal wisdom won 
From lonely searchings and the strife for light ; 
Where, if I conquer, lo ! all earth is mine — 
Mine by chief service ! — tell him — mine by love ! 

^ince there is hope for man only in man, 
And none hath sought for this. as I will seek, 

>Who cast away my world to save my world." 




Round Kij&griha' five fa 
Guarding King BfmbsAra 
Baibhira,' green with lera 
Bipulla, at whose foot thi 
Steals with warm ripple; 
Whose steaming pools mi 
Sovereign earth-butter* fr 
South-east the vulture-pe 
And eastward Ratnagiri, 
A winding track, paven v 
Leads thee by safBower t 
Under dark mangoes and 
Past milk-white veins of 
Low cliff and flats of jut 
The shoulder of that mo 
O'erhangs a cave with wi 
Lo ! thou who comest thi 
And bow thy head ! for i 
Hath not a spot more da 
Lord Buddha sate^ the sc 
The driving rains, the ch: 
Wearing for all men's sat 


Eating in beggar's guise the scanty meal 

Chance-gathered from the charitable ; at night 

Couched on the grass, homeless, alone ; while yelped 

The sleepless jackals round his cave, or coughs 

Of famished tiger from the thicket broke. 

By day and niglit here dwelt the World-honored, 

Subduing that fair body born for bliss 

With fast and frequent watch and search intense 

Of silent meditation, so prolonged 

That ofttimes while he mused — as motionless 

As the fixed rock his seat — the squirrel leaped 

Upon his knee, the timid quail led forth 

Her brood between his feet, and blue doves pecked 

The rice-grains from the bowl beside his hand. 

Thus would Jie nmse from noontide* — when the land 
Shimmered with heat, and walls and temples danced 
In the reeking ai;r — till sunset, notiQg not 
The blazing globe roll down, nor evening glide, 
Purple and swift, across the softened fields ; 
Nor the still coming of the stars, nor throb 
Of drum-skins in the busy town, nor screech 
Of owl and night- jar ; wholly wrapt from self ^ 
In keen unraveling of the threads of thought ^ 
And steadfast pacing of life's labyrinths. 
Thus would he sit till midnight hushed the world, 
Save where the beasts of darkness in the brake 
Crept and cried out, as fear and hatred cry, 

.s lust and avarice and anger creep 

n the black jungles of man's ignorance* 

^hen slept he for what space the fleet moon asks 


Would bid their children fall to kiss his feet, 

And lift his robe's hem to their brows, or run 

To fill his jar, and fetch him milk and cakes. 

And ofttimes as he paced, gentle and slow. 

Radiant with heavenly pity, lost in care 

For those he knew not, save as fellow-lives, 

The dark surprised eyes of some Indian maid 

Would dwell in sudden love and worship deep 

On that majestic form, as if she saw 

Her dreams of tenderes^ thought made true, and grace 

Fairer than mortal fire her breast. But he 

Passed onward with the bowl and yellow robe, 

By mild speech paying all those gifts of hearts, 

Wending his way back to the solitudes 

To sit upon his hill with holy men, 

And hear and ask of wisdom and its roads. 

Midway on Ratnagiri's groves of calm, 
Beyond the city, but below the caves. 
Lodged such as hold the body foe to soul. 
And flesh a beast which men must chain and tame 
With bitter pains, till sense of pain is killed. 
And tortured nerves vex torturer no more — 
Yogis" and Brahmdchdris," Bhikshus," all 
A gaunt and. mournful band," dwelling apart 
Some day and night had stood with lifted arms, 
Till — drained of blood and withered by disease — 
eir slowly-wasting joints and stiffened limbs 
tted from sapljess shoulders like dead forks 
Dm forest trunks. Others had clinched their hands ' 
long and with so fierce a fortitude. 




miserable saint self- maimed, 
tongueless, sexless, crippled, deaf ; 

the mind being thus stripped 

much suffering, and the bliss 

shall win — say holy books — whose woe 

that send us woe, and makes men gods 
uffei than Hell is to bamu 


Whom sadly eying spake our Lord to one, 
Chief of the woe-begones : " Much-suffering sir ! 
These many moons I dwell upon the hill — 
Who am a seeker of the Truth — and see 
My brothers here, and thee, so piteously 
Self-anguished ; wherefore add ye ills to life 
Which is so evil ? " 

Answer made the sage : 
" * Tis written if a man shall mortify 
His flesh, till pain be grown the life he lives 
And death voluptuous rest, such woes shall purge 
Sin's dross away, and the soul, purified. 
Soar from the furnace of its sorrow, winged 
For glorious spheres and splendor past all thought." 

" Yon cloud which floats in heairen,** the Prince replied, 
" Wreathed like gold cloth around your Indri's throne, 
Rose thither from the tempest-driven sea ; 
But it must fall again in tearful drops. 
Trickling through rough and painful water-ways 
By cleft and nullah and the muddy flood. 
To Gunga and the sea, wherefrom it sprang. 
Know'st thou, my brother, if it be not thus, 
After their many pains, with saints in bliss ? 
Since that which rises falls, and that which buys 
Is spent ; and if ye buy heav'n with your blood 
^1 hell's hard market, when the bargain's through 
he toil begins again ! " 

" It may begin," 
He hermit moaned. *' Alas ! we know not this^ 


Then cried they, " We have chosen this for road 
And tread it, Kljiputra," till the close — 
Though all its stones were fire — in trust of death. 
Speak, if thou know'st a way more excellent ; 
If not, peace go with thee ! " 

Onward he passed,- 
1 Exceeding sorrowful, seeing how men 
Fear so to die they are afraid to fear, 
I.ust so to live they dare not love their life, 
^ut plague it with fierce penances, belike 
To please the GoJis who grudge pleasure to man ; 
Belike to balk hell by self-kindled hells : 
Belike in holy madness, hoping soul 
May break the better through their wasted flesh. 
" Oh, florets of the field ! " Siddartha said, 
" Who turn your tender faces to the sun — 
Glad of the light, and grateful with sweet breath 
Of fragrance and these robes of reverence donned 
Silver and gold and purple — none of ye 
Miss perfect living, none of ye despoil 
Your happy beauty. Oh, ye palms ! which rise 
Eager to pierce the sky and drink the wind 
Blown from Malaya** and the cool blue seas. 
What secret know ye that ye grow content. 
From time of tender shoot to time of fruit, 
Murmuring such sun-songs from your feathered crowns / 
iTe, too, who dwell so merry in the trees — 
Juick-darting parrots, bee-birds, bulbuls, doves — 
!»fone of ye hate your life, none of ye deem 
"^0 strain to better by foregoing needs ! 


1, who slays ye — being lord — js wise, 
dom, nuned on blood, cometh thus forth 
onnen tings ! " 

While the' Master spake 
wn the mount the dust of pattering feet, 
aats and black sheep winding slow their way, 
iny a lingering nibble at the tufts, 
nderings fron( the path, where water gleamed 
figs hung. But always as they strayed 
dsman cried, or slung his sling, and kept 
f crowd still moving to the plain. 
rith couplets in the flock there Vas, 
irt had lamed one lamb, which toiled behind 
;, while in the front its. fellow skipped, 
: vexed dam hither and thither ran, 
to lose this little one or that ; 
vhen our Lord did mark, full tenderly 
: the limping lamb upon his neck, 
" Poor woolly mother, be at peace ! 
' thou goest I will bear thy care ; 
all as good tp ease one beast of grief 
nd watch the sorrows of the world 

s with the priests who pray." 

," spake he to the herdsmen, " wherefore, friends 
e the flocks adown under high noon, 
is at evening that men fold their sheep ? " 

answer gave the peasants : " We are sent 
h a sacrifice of goats five-score, 
e-score sheep, the which our Lord the King 
this night in worship of his gods." 


Then said the Master : " I will also go ! " 
So paced he patiently, bearing the lamb 
Beside the herdsmen in the dust and sun, 
The wistful ewe low bleating at his feet. 

Whom, when they came unto the river-side, 
A woman — dove-eyed, young, with tearful face 
And lifted hands — saluted, bending low : 
"Lord ! thou art he," she said, " who yesterday 
Had pity on me in the fig-grove here, 
Where I live lone and reared my child ; but he 
Straying amid the blossoms found a snake, 
Which twined about his wrist, whilst he did laugh 
And tease the quick forked tongue and opened mouth 
Of that cold playmate. But, alas ! ere long 
He turned so pale and still, I could not think 
Why he should cease to play, and let my breast 
Fall from fiis lips. And one said, * He is sick 
Of poison ; * and another, * He will die.' 
But I, who could not. lose my precious boy. 
Prayed of them physic, which might bring the light 
, Back to his eyes ; it was so very small 
That kiss-mark of the serpent, and I think 
It could not hate him, gracious as he was, 
Nor hurt him in his sport. And some one said, 
* There is a holy man upon the hill—; 
Lo ! now he passeth in the yellow robe — 
sk of the Rishi if there be a cure 
or that which ails thy son.' Whereon I came 
'rembling to thee, whose brow is like a god's, 
nd wept and.drew the face-cloth from my babe, 


' Here is the seed, but our gdod man is dead I ' 
* Here is some seed, but he that sowed it died 
Between the rain-time and the harvesting ! ' 
Ah, sir ! I could not find a single house 
Where there was mustard-seed and none had died ! 
Therefore I left my child — who would not suck 
Nor smile — ^beneath the wild-vines by the stream, 
To seek thy face and kiss thy feet, and pray 
Where I might find this seed and find no death, 
If now, indeed, my baby be not dead, 
As I do fear, and as they said to me." 

" My sister ! thou hast found," the Master said, 
" Searching for what none finds — that bitter balm 
I had to give thee. He thou lovedst slept 
Dead on thy bosom yesterday : to-day 
Thou know'st the whole wide world weeps with thy woe : 
\Thc grief which all hearts share grows less for one. > 
Ia} ! I would pour my blood if it could stay 
Thy tears and win the secret of that curse 
Which makes sweet love our anguish, and which drives 
O'er flowers and pastures to the sacrifice — 
As these dumb beasts are driven — men their lords. 
I seek that secret : bury thou thy child ! " 

So entered they the city side by side. 
The herdsman and the Prince, what time the sun 
Gilded slow Sona's distant stream,** and threw 
Long shadows down the street and through the gate 
W^herc the King's men kept watch. But when these saw 
)ur Lord bearing the lamb, the guards stood back, 



Which roared upon the midmost altar. There 

From scented woods flickered bright tongues of flame, 

Hissing and curling as they licked the gifts 

Of ghee*® and spices and the Soma juice," 

The joy of Indrd. Round about the pile 

A slow, thick, scarlet streamlet smoked and ran, 

Sucked by the sand, but ever rolling down. 

The blood of bleating victims. One such lay, 

A spotted goat, long-hotned, its head bound back 

With muhjd grass ; ^ at its stretched throat the knife 

Pressed by a priest, who murmured, " This, dread gods, 

Of many yajnas** cometh as the crown 

From Bimbsdra intake ye joy to see 

The spirted blood, and pleasure in the scent 

Of rich flesh roasting 'mid the fragrant flames ; 

Let the King's sins be laid upon this goat. 

And let the Are consume them burning it, 

For now I strike." 

But Buddha softly said," 
" Let him not strike, great King ! " and therewith loosed 
The victim's bonds, none staying him, so great 
His presence was. Then, craving leave, he spake 
VjDf life, which all can take but none can give. 
Life, which all creatures love and strive to Iceep, 
Wonderful, dear and pleasant unto each. 
Even to the meanest ; yea, a boon to all 
Where pity is, for pity makes the world 

oft to the weak and noble for the strong, 
nto the dumb lips of his flock he lent 

ad pleading words, showing how man, who prays 

'3r mercy to the gods, is merciless^ 

• I 




Being as god to those ; albeit all life 
/ Is linked arid kin, and what we slay have given 
Meek tribute of the milk and wool, and set 
Fast trust upon the hands which murder them. 
Also he spake of what the holy books 
/Do surely teach, how that at death some sink 
To bird and beast, and tliese rise up to man 
In wanderings of the spark which grows purged flame. 
So were the sacrifice new sin, if so 
Th6 fated passage of a soul be stayed. 
Nor, spake he, shall one wash his spirit clean 
By blood ; nor gladden gods, being ^ood, with blood ; 
Nor bribe them, being evil ; nay, nor lay 
Upon the brow of innocent bound beasts 
One hair's weight of that answer all must give 
For all things done amiss or wrongfully, 
Alone, each for himself, reckoning with that 
The fixed arithmic of the universe. 
Which meteth good for good and ill for ill, 
Measure for measure, unto deeds, words, thoughts ; 
Watchful, aware, implacable, unmoved ; 
Making all futures fruits of all the pasts. 
Thus spake he, breathing words so piteous 
With such high lordliness of ruth and right. 
The priests drew back their garments o'er the hands 
Crimsoned with slaughter, and the King came near, 
Standing with clasped palms reverencing Buddh ; 
While still our Lord went on, teaching how fair 
This earth were if all living things be linked 
In friendliness and common use of foods, 
Bloodless and pure ; the golden grain, bright fruity 


Sweet herbs which grow for all, the waters wan, 
Sufficient drinks and meats. Which when these heard, 
The might of gentleness so conquered them. 
The priests themselves scattered their altar flames 
And flung away the steel of sacrifice ; 
And through the land next day passed a decree 
Proclaimed by criers, and in this wise graved 
On rock and column : " Thus the King's will is :— 
There hath been slaughter for the sacrifice 
And slaying for the meat, but henceforth none 
Shall spill the blood of life nor taste of flesh, 
Seeing that knowledge grows, and life is one, 
A^d mercy cometh to the merciful." 
So ran the edict, and from those days forth 
^Sweet peace hath spread between all living kind, 
Man and the beasts which serve him, and the bitvis, 
On all those banks of Gunga where our Lord 
vTaught with his saintly pity and soft speech. 

I For aye so piteous was the Master's heart 
To all that breathe this breath of fleeting life, 
Yoked in one fellowship of joys and pains. 
That it is written in the holy books 
How, in an ancient age — when Buddha wore 
A Brdhmin's form, dwelling upon the rock 
Named Munda, by -the village of Ddlidd — 
Drought withered all the^land : the young rice died 
J it could hide 4 quail ; in forest glades 
[ierce sUn sucked the pools ; grasses and herbs 
kened, and all the woodland creatures fled 
altering for sustenance. At such a time. 



Sprang from her cubs, and, hurling to the earth 
That willing victim, had her feast of him 
With all the crooked daggers of her claws 
Rending his flesh, and all her yellow fangs 
Bathed in his blood : the great cat's burning breath 
Mixed with the last sigh of such fearless love. 

Thus large the Master's heart was long ago, 
Not only now, when with his gracious ruth 
He bade cease cruel worship of the Gods. 
And much King Bimbsdra prayed our Lord — 
Learning his royal birth and holy search — 
To tarry in that city, saying oft, 
" Thy princely state may not abide such fasts ; 
Thy hands were made for scepters, not for alms. 
Sojourn with me, who have no son to rule, 
And teach my kingdom wisdom, till I die, 
Lodged in my palace with a beauteous bride." 
But ever spake Siddartha, of set mind, 
"These things I had, most noble King, and left. 
Seeking the Truth ; which still I seek, and shall ; 
Not to be stayed though Sakra's" palace ope'd 
Its doors of pearl and Devis*" wooed me in. 
I go to build the Kingdom of the Law, ** 
Journeying to Gdya and the forest shades. 
Where, as I think, the light will come to me ; 
""or nowise here among the Rishls comes 
'hat light, nor from the Shasters," nor from fasts 
Jome till the body faints, starved by the soul. 

et there is light to reach and truth to win ; 

d, if I attain 
' love." 

King Bimbsdra paced, 

le Master's feet, 
o passed our Lord away 
^et comforted, 
ak with six years' quest. 
id in the grove — 
etics five — 
dl was written clear 
.t none might win 
than Smriti* — nay, 
}r how' should mortal man 
Kind,*' which tells 
nd actionless, 
lified, unchanged, 
>ure joy ? Or how should n 
ma- Kind,*' which shows 
a and action off, 
lelf, and so, unsphered, 
e vast divine, 
from wars of sense 
Jie silence lives ? 

leni, not yet comforted. 

BooktM 0Ucti). 

Thou who wouldst see where dawned the light at last, 

North-westwards from the " Thousand Gardens " * go 

By Gunga's valley till thy steps be set 

On the green hills where those twin streamlets spring 

Nildjan and Mohdna ; follow them, 

Winding beneath broad-leaved mahda-trees,' 

'Mid thickets of the sansdr* and the blr,* 

Till on the plain the shining sisters meet 

In Phalgtl's bed, flowing by rocky banks 

To Gdya and the red Barabar hills.* 

Hard by that river spreads a thorny waste, 

Uxuwela named in ancient days. 

With sandhills broken ; on its verge a wood 

Waves sea-green plumes and tassels 'thwart the sky. 

With undergrowth wherethrough a still flood steals, 

Dappled with lotus-blossoms, blue and white, 

And peopled with quick fish and tortoises. 

Near it the village of Sendni* reared 

Its roofs of grass, nestled amid the palms. 

Peaceful with simple folk and pastoral toils. 

There in the sylvan solitudes once more 
Lord Buddha lived, musing the woes of men, 



With lids fast-closed, and lines of nameless pain 

Fixed on his lips — the fiery noonday sun 

Beating upon his head — who, plucking boughs 

From wild rose-apple trees, knitted thern. thick , , ; 

Into a bower to shade the sacred f^c^. : .. 

Also he poured upon the Master'^ lips , . - - , ^ - 

Drops of warm milk, pressed from his: she-goat's bag. 

Lest, being of low caste, he do wrong to one 

So high and holy seeming. But the books 

Tell how the jambu-branches,' planted thus, 

Shot with quick life in wealth of leaf and flower 

And gloi^ing fi^iitage interlaced and close, 

So that the bower grew like a tent of silk 

Pitched for a king at hunting, decked with studs 

Of silver-work and bosses of red gold 

And the boy worshiped, deeming him some God ; 

But our Lord gaining breath, arose and asked 

Milk in the shepherd's loti.'° " Ah, my Lord, 

I cannot give thee," quoth the lad ; " thou seest 

I am a Sudra, and my touch defiles ! " " 

Then the World-honored spake : " Pity and need 

Make all flesh kin. There is no caste in blood, / 

Which runneth of one hue, nor caste in tears, ' 

Which trickle salt with all ; neither comes man 

To birth with tilka-mark" stamped on the brow, 

Nor sacred thread on neck. Who doth right deeds 

Is twice-born, and who doeth ill deeds vile. 

Give me to drink, my brother ; when I come 

Unto ray quest it shall be good for thee." 

Thereat the peasant's heart was glad, and gave. 


lay there passed that road 
firls, the nautch-dancers 
in the town, with those 
sic — one that beat a drum 
©ck-feathers, one that blew 
'.and one that twitched 
' '• Tjightly tripped they down 
and through the chequered pat)^ 
1, the silver bells 
bout the small brown feet, 
ngs tattling answer shrill ; 
[le sitflr thrummed and twanged 
, and she besidehim sang — 

•^ when the sitdr'i tuned j 
Hther low nor high, 
away the hearts cf men. 

iked breaks, and tke music flies j 
is dumb, and music dies J 
either lew nor high," 

rirl to the pipe and wires, 

vain, painted butterfly 

along the forest path, 

ht words echoed on the ear 

.n, who sate so rapt 

f the path. But Buddh 

1 as the wantons passed, 

oolisH ofttimes teach the wise ; "^ 

is string of life, belike, 



Meaning to make such music as shall save. 
Mine eyes are dim now that they see the truth. 
My strength is waned now that my need is most ; 
Would that I had such help as man must have, 
For I shall die, whose life was all men's hope." 

Now, by that river dwelt a landholder 
Pious and rich, master of many herds, 
A goodly chief, the friend of all the poor ; 
And from his house the village drew its name — 
" Sendni."" Pleasant and in peace he lived, 
Having for wife Sujdta," loveliest 
Of all the dark-eyed daughters of the plain ; 
Gentle and true, simple and kind was she, 
Noble of mien, with gracious speech to all 
And gladsome looks — a pearl of womanhood — 
Passing calm years of household happiness 
Beside her lord in that still Indian home. 
Save that no male child blessed their wedded love. 
Wherelore with many prayers she had besought** 
Lakshml ;*• and many nights at full-moon gone 
Round the great Lingam,** nine times nine, with gifts 
Of rice and jasmine wreaths and sandal oil, 
Praying a boy ; also Sujita vowed — 
If this should be — an offering of food 
Unto the Wood-God, plenteous, delicate, 
Set in a bowl of gold under his tree. 
Such as the lips of Devs** may taste and take. 
And this had been : for there was born to her 
A beauteous boy, now three months old, who lay 
Between Sujdta's breasts, while she did pace 


So wondrous was the virtue that our Lord 
Felt strength and life return as though the nights 
Of watching and the days of fast had passed 
In dream, as though the spirit with the flesh 
Shared that fine meat and plumed its wings anew, 
Like some delighted bird at sudden streams 
Weary with flight o'er endless wastes of sand, 
Which laves the desert dust from neck and crest 
And more Sujdta worshiped, seeing our Lord 
Grow fairer and his countenance more bright ; 
" Art thou indeed the God ? " she lowly asked, 
" And hath my gift found favor ? " 

But Buddh said, 
" What is it thou dost brhig me ? " 

" Holy one ! " 
Answered Sujdta, *' from our droves I took 
Milk of a hundred mothers, newly-calved. 
And with that milk I fed fifty white cows, 
And with their milk twenty and five, and then 
With theirs twelve more, and yet again with theirs 
The six noblest and best of all our herds. 
That yield I boiled with sandal and fine spice 
In silver lotds,** adding rice, well grown 
From chosen seed, set in new-broken ground, 
So picked that every grain was like a pearl. 
This did I of true heart, because I vowed 
Under thy tree, if I should bear a boy 
I would make offering for my joy, and now 
I have my son and all my life is bliss ! " , 

Softly our Lord drew down the crimson fold, 
And, laying on the little head those hands 



After the temple and the talk with friends. 
How should I not be happy, blest so much, 
And bearing him this boy whose tiny hand 
Shall lead his soul to Swerga,^ if it need ? 
For holy books teach when a man shall plant ^ 
Trees for the travelers' shade, and dig a well 
For the folks' comfort, and beget a son. 
It shall be good for such after their death ; 
And what the books say that I humbly take, 
Being not wiser than those great of old 
Who spake with gods, and knew the hymns and charms, 
And all the ways of virtue and of peace. 
Also I think that good must come of good 
And ill of evil — surely — ^unto all — 
In every place and time — seeing sweet fruit 
Groweth from wholesome roots, and bitter things 
From poison-stocks ; yea, seeing, too, how spite 
/ Breeds hate, and kindness friends, and patience peace 

Even while we live ; and when 'tis willed we die 
Shall there not be as good a * Then ' as * Now ? 't^ 
1 Haply much better ; since one grain of rice 
' Shoots a green feather gemmed with fifty pearls, 
And all the starry champak's^ white and gold 
Lurks in those little, naked, gray spring-buds. 
Ah, Sir ! I know there might be woes to bear 
Would lay fond Patience with her face in dust ; 
If this my babe pass first I think my heart 
Would break — almost I hope my heart would break ! 
That I might clasp him dead and wait my Lord — 
In whatsoever world holds faithful wives — 
Duteous, attending till his hour should come. 


" May'st thou achieve," she said, with earnest eyes 
Bent on her babe, who reached its tender hands 
To Buddh — knowing, belike, as children know. 
More than we deem, and reverencing our Lord ; 
But he arose — made strong with that pure meat: — 
And bent his footsteps where a great Tree grew, 
The B6dhi-tree" (thenceforward in all years 
Never to fade, and ever to be kept 
In homage of the world), beneath whose leaves 
It was ordained that Truth should come to Buddh : 
Which now the Master knew ; wherefore he went 
With measured pace, steadfast, majestical, 
Unto the Tree of Wisdom. Oh, ye Worlds ! 
Rejoice ! our Lord wended unto the Tree ! 

Whom — as he passed into its ample shade, 
Cloistered with columned dropping stems, and, roofed 
With vaults of glistening green — the conscious earth 
Worshiped with waving grass and sudden flush 
Of flowers about his feet. The forest-boughs 
Bent down to shade him ; .from the river sighed 
Cool wafts of wind laden with lotus-scents 
Breathed by the water-gods. Large wondering eyes 
Of woodland creatures — panther^ boar, and deer — 
At peace that eve, gazed on his face benign 
From cave and thicket. Fronj its cold cleft wound 
The mottled deadly snake, dancing its hood 
In honor of our Lord ; bright butterflies 
Fluttered their vans, azure and green and gold. 
To be his fan-bearers ; the fierce kite dropped 
[ts prey and screamed ; the striped palm-squirrel raced 


I to Stem to see ; the weaver-bird 
rom her swinging nest ; the lizard ran ; 
sang her hymn ; the doves flocked round ; 
creeping things were 'ware and glad, 
earth and air joined in one song," 

:o ears that hear said, " Lord and Friend ! 

Savior ! Thou who hast subdued 
d prides, desires and fears and doubts, 

for each and all hast given thyself, 
E Tree ! The sad world blesseth thee 
le Buddh that shall assuage her woes, 
ed and Honored ! strive thy last for us, 
high Conqueror ! thine hour is come ; 
: Night the ages waited for ! " 

II the night even as our Master sate 
t Tree. But he who is the Prince 
^ss, Mara" — ^knowing this was Buddh 
Id deliver men, and now the hour 

ihould find the Truth and save the worlds — 

all his evil powers command. 

there trooped from every deepest pit 
i who war with Wisdom and the Light, 
ishnd," Raga," and their crew 
IS, horrors, ignorances, lusts, 
I of gloom and dread ; all hating Buddh, 
I shake his mind ; nor knoweth one, 
the wisest, how those fiends of Hell 
at night to keep the Truth from Buddh : 
i with terrors of the tempest, blasts 
■armies clouding all the wind. 


With thunder, and wkh blinding lightning flung 
In jagged javelins of purple wrath 
From splitting skies ; sometimes with wiles and '(^ords 
Fair-sounding, 'mid hushed leaves and softened airs 
From shapes of witching beauty; wanton songs, 
Whispers of love ; sometimes with royal allures 
Of proffered rule ; sometimes with mocking doubts. 
Making truth vain. But whether these befell 
Without and visible, or whether Buddh 
Strove with fell spirits in his inmost heart, 
Judge ye : — I write what ancient books have writ 

The ten chief Sins came — Mara's mighty ones. 
Angels of evil — Attavdda first, 
^he Si n of Self, who in the Universe 
As m a mirror sees her fond face shown, 
And crying " I " would have the world say " I," 
And all things perish so if she endure. 
" If thou be'st Buddh," she said, " let others grope 
Lightless ; it is enough that thou art Thou 
Changelessly ; rise and take the bliss of gods 
Who change not, heed not, strive not." But Buddh spake. 
" The right in thee is base, the wrong a curse ; - 

Cheat such as love themselves." Then came wan Doubr^ ■ 

He that denies — the mocking Sin — and this 
Hissed in the Master's ear, " All things are shows, 
And vain the knowledge of their vanity ; 
Thou dost but chase the shadow of thyself } 
Rise and go hence, there is no better way 
Than patient scorn, nor any help for man, 
Nor any staying of his whirling wheel." { 


ur Lord, " Thou hast no part with m 

tcha, subtlest of man's foes." 

ame she who gives dark creeds their 

am&sa, sorceress, 

in m any lands as lowly Faitht ^ 

ggWg souls with ntes and prayers ; 

of those keys which lock up Hells 

leavens. " Wilt thou dare," she said 

r sacred books, dethrone our gods, 

U the temples, shaking down 

iiich feeds the priests and props the i 

I answered, " What thou bidd'st me k 

ch passes, but the free Truth stands : 

to thy darkness." Next there drew 

gh a braver Tempter, he, 

jCing of passions, who hath sway 

idsthemseTves, Lord of all loves, 

easure's realm. Laughing he came 

ree, bearing his bow of gold 

rith red blooms, and arrows of desire 

h five-tongued delicate flame which ! 

t smites sharper than poisoned barb : 

him came into that lonely place 

ight shapes with heavenly eyes and 1 

ovely words the praise of Love 

f invisible sweet cords, 

;, that it seemed the night stood still 

;m, and the listening stars and moon 

heir orbits while these hymned to Bu 

ghts, and how a mortal man 

ught dearer in the three wide worlds 


Than are the yielded loving fragrant breasts 
Of Beauty and the rosy .breast-blossoms, 
Love's rubies ; nay, and toucheth nought more high 
Than is that dulcet harmony of form 
Seen in the lines and charms of loveliness 
Unspeakable, yet speaking, soul to soul, 
Owned by the bounding blood, worshiped by will 
Which leaps to seize it, knowing this is best, 
This the true heaven where mortals are like gods, 
Makers and Masters, this the gift of gifts 
Ever renewed and worth a thousand woes. 
For who hath grieved when soft arms shut him safe, , 
And all life melted to a happy sigh. 
And all the world was given in one warm kiss ? 
So sang they with soft float of beckoning hands. 
Eyes lighted with loxe-flanies, alluring smiles ; 
In dainty dance theh* supple sides and limbs 
Revealing and concealing like burst buds 
Which tell their color, but hide yet their hearts. 
Never so matchless grace delighted eye 
As troop by troop these midnight-dancers swept 
Nearer the Tree, each daintier than the last, 
Murmuring " O great Sidddrtha ! I am thine, 
Taste of my mouth and see if youth is sweet ! " 
Also, when nothing moved our Master's mind, 
Lo ! Kdma waved his magic bow, and lo ! 
The band of dancers opened, and a shape 
"Fairest and stateliest of the throng came forth 
iTearing the guise of sweet Yas6dhara. 
'ender the passion of those dark eyes seemed 
irimping with tears ; yearning those outspread arms 


/a.TAs him ; musical that moan 

the beauteous shadow namecl his name, 

ly Prince ! I die for lack of thee ! 

in hfist thou found like that we knew 

Lohini in the Pleasure -house, 

[lese weary years I weep Tor thee ? 

ddrtha ! ah [ return. But touch 

in, but let me to thy breast 

hese fruitless dreams will end ! Ah, took ! 

le thou lovedst ? " But Buddh said, 

weet sake of her thou playest thus, 

Ise Shadow ! is thy playing vain ; 

: not who wear'st a form bo dear, 

art so are all earthly shows. 

void again ! " Thereat a cry 
rough the grove, and all that comely rout 

flickering wafts of flame, and trail 
3 robes. 

Next under darkening skies 
if rising storm came fiercer Sins, 
st of the Ten ; Patigha— Hate^— 
its coiled about her waist, which suck 
nilk from both her hanging dugs, 
;r curses mix their angry hiss. 
;ht she upon that Holy One 
is calm eyes dumbed her bitter lips 
ler black snakes writhe to hide their fangs, 
'ed Ruparaga — l^jist. of days — 
1 Sin which out of greed for life 
ive ; and next him Lust of Fame, 
paraga, she whose spell 


Begailes the wise, mother of daring deeds, 

Battles and toils. And haughty Mano came. 

The Fiend_o£Prijie ; and smooth Self -Righ teousness, 

Uddhachcha ; and — with many a hideous band 

Of vile and formless things, which crept and flapped 

Toad-like and bat-like — Ignorance, the Dam 

Of Fear and Wrong, AvidyaTWdeous hag, 

Whose footsteps left the midnight darker, while 

The rooted mountains shook, the wild winds howled, 

The broken clouds shed from their caverns streams 

Of levin-lighted rain ; stars shot from heaven. 

The solid eaxth shuddered as if one laid 

Flame to her gaping wounds ; the torn black air 

Was full of whistling winds, of sereams and yells, 

Of evil faces peering, of vast fronts 

Terrible and majestic, Lords of Hell 

Who from a thousand Limbos led their troops 

To tempt the Master. 

But Buddh heeded not. 
Sitting serene, with perfect virtue walled 
As is a stronghold by its gates and ramps ; 
Also the Sacred Tree — ^the B6dhl-tree — 
Amid that t^umult stirred not, but each leaf 
Glistened as still as when on moonlit eves 
No zephyr spills the glittering gems of dew ; 
For all this clamor raged outside the shade 
Spread by those cloistered stems : 

In the third watch, 
he earth being still, the hellish legions fled, 
soft air breathing from the sinking moon, 
ir Lord attained Samma Sambuddh; ^ he saw 


h shines beyond our mortal ken 
I his lives in all the worlds, 

farther back and farthest yet, 

lives and fifty. Even as one, 
a mountain -summit, marks 
i up by precipice and crag, 

woods shrunk to a patcty ; through bogs 

e-green ; down hollows where he toiled 

n dizzy ridges where his ^ect 

1 slipped ; beyond the sunny lawns, 

and the cavern and the pool, 

those dim flats wherefrom he sprang 

blue ; thus Buddha did behold 

steps ,long-linked, from levels low 

is base, to higher slopes and higher 
ten great Virtues" wait to lead 
ikyward. Also, Buddha saw 

reaps what the old life did sow : 

s march breaks o& its march begins ; 

;ain and answering for the loss ; 

ach life good begets more good, 

1 ; Death but casting up 

it, whereupon th' account 

lemerits stamps itself 

nic — where no tittle drops — 

list, on some new-springing life ; 

racked and scored past thoughts and deeds, 

triumphs, memories and marks 

And in the middle watch 
lined AbMdjn^^ — insight vast 


Ranging beyond this sphere to spheres unnamed,^ 
System on system, countless worlds and suns 
Moving in splendid measures, band by band 
Linked in division, one yet separate, 
The silver islands of a sapphire sea 
Shoreless, unfathomed, undiminished, stirred 
With waves which roll in restless tides of chknge^ 
He saw those Lords of Light who hold their worlds 
By honds invisible, how they themselves / 
Circle obedient round mightier orbs ^ 
Which serve profounder splendors, star to star 
Flashing the ceaseless radiance of life 
From centers ever shifting unto cirques ' 
Knowing no uttermost. These he beheld 

I With unsealed vision, and of all those worlds, 

\ Cycle on epicycle, all their tale ^ / ' , 
Of Kalpas, Maha-kalpas** — terms of time . 
Which no man grasps, yea, though he knew to count' 
The drops in Gunga from her springs to the sea, 

; Measureless unto speech — ^whereby these wax 

I And wane ; whereby each of this heavenly host, 

\ Fulfills its shining life and darkling dies. 

I Sakwal by Sakwal,* depths and heights he passed 
/Transported through the blue infinitudes, 

i 'Marking — ^behind all modes, above all spheres, 

I Beyond the burning impulse of each orb — 
That fixed decree at silent work which wills 

I Evolve the dark to light, the dead to life, 

I ''o fullness void, to form the yet unformed, 
ood unto better, better unto best, 
' wordless edict ; having none to bid, 


id ; for this is past all gods 

nspeakable, supreme, 

ch builds, unbuilds, and builds again, 

ings accordant to the rule 

ich is beauty, truth, and use, 

ings do well which serve the Power, 

1 hinder ; nay, the ^onn does well 

ts kind ; the hawk does well 

i bleeding quarries to its young ; 

< and the star shine sisterly, 

ther in the common work ; 

3 lives to die, dies to live well 

: his ways by blamelessness 

will to hinder no^but help 

th great and small which suffer life. 

r Lord see in the middle watch. 

he fourth watch came the secret came 
hich with evil mars the law, 
dross hold back the goldsmith's fire. 
! Dukha-satya ** opened him 
Noble Truths ; "" how Sorrow is 
e, moving where life doth move ; 
d aside until one lays 
with all its changing states, 
, decay, love, hatred, pleasure, pain, 
ing. How that none strips off 
lights and pleasant griefs who lacks 
) know them snares ; but he who knows 
Lision — sets those snares, 
longer but ensues escape. 


The eyes of such a one are wide, he sees 
Delusion breeds Sankhdra, Tendency 
Perverse : Tendency Energy — Vidnndn — 
Whereby comes NamariSpa, local form. 
And name and bodiment, bringing the man 
With senses naked to the sensible, 
A helpless mirror of all shows which pass. 
Across his heart ; and so Vedand grows-y 
" Sense-life " — ^false in its gladness, fell in sadness, ^ 
But sad or glad, the Mother of Desire, 
.Trishnd, that thirst which makes the living drink ^ 
Deeper .and deeper of the false salt waves . 
Whereon they float, pleasures, ambitions, wealth,. 
Praise, fame, or domination, conquest, love ; . 
Rich meats and robes, and fair abodes, and pride. 
Of ancient lines, and lust of days, and strife . 
To live, and sins that flow from strife, some sweet; 
Some bitter. Thus Life's thirst quenches itself^ 
With draughts which double thirst, but who is wise. 
Tears from his soul this Trishnd, feeds his sense 
No longer on false shows, files his firm mind . 
To seek not, strive not, 'wrong not ; bearing. meek 
All ills which flow from foregone wrongfulness. 
And so constraining passions that they die^ 
Famished ; till all the sum of ended life-r 
The Karmd^ — all that total of a soul . 
Which is the things it did, the thoughts it had, 
he " Self " it wove — with woof of viewless time, 
rossed on the warp invisible of acts — ^ 
"le outcome of him on the Universe, 
'ows pure and sinless ; either never more 


d a body and a place, 
ig what fresh frame it takes 
ce that the new toils prove 
;hter not to be at all, 
Ig the Path ; " free from Earth's cheats ; 
all the skandhas " of the flesh ; 
ies — from Upadans" — saved 
on the wheel ; aroused and sane 
ikened from hateful dreams. 
than Kings, than Gods more glad .' — 
ize to live ends, and life glides — 
meless quiet, nameless joy, 
^a" — sinless, stirless rest — 
hich never changes ! 

Lo ; the Dawn 
iddh's Victory 1 lo ! in the East 
t fires of beauteous day, poured forth 
Lg folds of Night's black drapery. 
iening blue the herald-star 
silver as there shot 
tightest bars of rosy gleam 
'. Far off the shadowy hills 
lun, before the world was 'ware, 
sir crowns of crimson ; flower by flower 
ireath of Mom and 'gan t' unfold 
Is. Over the spangled grass 
footsteps of the lovely Light, 
,rs of Night to joyous gems, 
rth with radiance, "broidering 
rm-clouds with a golden fringe. 


Gilding the feathers of the palms, which waved 
' Glad salutation ; darting beams of gold 
Into the glades ; touching with magic wand 
The streanr to rippled ruby ; in the brake T 
Finding the mild eyes of the antelopes . 
And saying " it is day ; " in nested sleep . 
Touching the small heads under many a wing ^ 
And whispering, '^Children, praise the light of day.! " 
Whereat there piped anthems of all the birds, . 
The Koil's" fluted song, the Bulbul's" hymn,. 
The " morning, morning " of the painted thrush. 
The twitter of the sun-birds starting forth 
To find the honey ere the bees be out, 
The gray crow's caw, the parrot's scream, the strokes 
Of the green hammersmith, the myna's*' chirp, 
The never finished love-talk of the doves : 
Yea ! and so holy was the influence 
Of that high Dawn which came with victory 
That, far and near, in homes of men there spread 
An unknown peace. The slayer hid his knife ; 
The robber laid his plunder back ; the shroff 
Counted full tale of coins ; all evil hearts 
Grew gentle, kind hearts gentler, as the balm 
Of that divinest Daybreak lightened Earth. 
Kings at fierce war called truce ; the sick men leaped 
Laughing from beds of pain ; the dying smiled 
As though they knew that happy Morn was sprung j 

rom fountains farther than the utmost East ; \ 

nd o'er the heart of sad Yas6dhara, 

tting forlorn at Prince Siddirtha's bed, 

me sudden bliss, as if love should not fail 


orrow miss to end in joy. 

rid was — though it wist not why — 

ate wastes went swooning songs 

)ice of bodiless Prets" and Bhiits" 

dh ; and Devas in the air 

ished, finished ! " and the priests 

wondering people in the streets 

golden splendors flood the sky 

tiere hath happed some mighty thing." 

id Jungle" grew that day 

ngst the creatures ; spotted deer 

s where the tigress fed her cubs, 

lapped the pool beside the buckr ' . 

•'s rock the brown hares scoured 

beak but preened an idle wing ; 

ed all his jewels in the beam 

igs in sheath ; the shrike let pass 

ch ; the emerald halcyons 

/hile the fishes played beneath, 

: merops, though the butterflies— 

le and amber — flitted thick 

;h ; the Spirit of our Lord. 

1 man and bird and beast, 

nused under that B6dh(-tree," 

le Conquest gained for all 

ly a Light greater than Day's, 

;— radiant, rejoicing, strong — 
«, and lifting high his voice 
paring of all Times and Worlds : — 


Sandhdwissang atdbkisang 

Gahakdrakadithdsi ; 
Punagehang nakdhast j 
GahakUtangwisang khitang ; 
Wisangkhdragatang chittang ; 

Many a House of Life 
Hath held me — seeking ever him who wrought 
\ These prisons of the senses, sorrow fraught ; 

Sore was my ceaseless strife ! 

But now, 
Thou Builder of this Tabernacle — ^Thou ! 
I know Thee ! Never shalt thou build again 

These walls of pain, 
Nor raise the roof-tree of deceits, nor lay 

Fresh rafters on the clay ; 
Broken thy house is, and the ridge-pole split ! 

Delusion fashioned it ! 
Safe pass I thence — ^deliverance to obtain." 

Sook tl)e ! 

t the King S 
rs among thi 
;h and presei 
i sweet Yasb 
ITS, knowing 
her living Li 
news of som 

pasturing ca 
ig devious p 
the King ha< 

of many a b 
s home ; but 
ite Kapilava! 
monarch an( 
nt of sweet ' 
w, forgetful, 

n the WasanI 
^s swing on t 
is clad with 
: by that brij 
ass, bordercc 


Mirrored so often in the bliss gone by 

Their clinging hands and meeting lips. Her lids 

Were wan with tears, her tender cheeks had thinned ; 

Her lips' delicious curves were drawn with grief ; 

The lustrous glory of her hair was hid — 

Close-bound as widows use ; no ornament 

She wore, nor any jewel clasped the cloth — 

Coarse, and of mourning-white — crossed on her breast. 

Slow moved and painfully those small fine feet 

Which had the roe's^ gait and the rose-leaf's fall 

In old years at the loving voice of him. 

Her eyes, those lamps of love, — ^which were as if 

Sunlight should shine from out the deepest dark. 

Illumining Night*s peace with Daytime's glow — 

Unlighted now,' and roving aimlessly. 

Scarce marked the clustering signs of coming Spring 

So the silk lashes drooped over their orbs. 

In one hand was a girdle thick with pearls, 

Siddllrtha's — treasured since that night he fled — 

(Ah, bitter Night ! mother of weeping days ! 

When was fond Love so pitiless to love 

Save that this scorned to limit love by life ?) 

The other led her little son, a boy 

Divinely fair, the pledge Siddirtha left — 

Named Rahula — now seven years old, who tripped 

Gladsome beside his mother, light of heart 

To see the spring-blooms burgeon o'er the world. 

So while they lingered*by the lotus-pools 
^nd, lightly laughing, Rahula flung rice 
o feed the blue and purple flsh ; and she 

lad eyes watched the swiftly-flying cranes, 

g, " Oh ! creatures of the wandering wing, 

shall light where my dear Lord is hid, 

at Yasbdhara lives nigh to death 

le word of his mouth, one touch of him • " — 

they played and sighed — mother and child- 
some among the damsels of the Court 
[, " Great Princess ! there have entered in 

south gate merchants of Hastinpiir' 
iha called and Bhalluk, men of worth, 
traveled from the loud sea's edge, who bring 
ous lovely webs pictured with gold, 
1 blades of gilded steel, wrought bowls in brass, 
ories, spice, simples, and unknown birds, 
ires of far-off peoples ; but they bring 
rhich doth beggar these, for He is seen ! 
ord, — our Lord, — the hope of all the land— 
tha ! they have seen him face to face, 
nd have worshiped him with knees and brows, 
ffered offerings ; for he is become 
ich was shown, a teacher of the wise, 
■honored, holy, wonderful ; a Buddh 
■oth deliver men and save all flesh 
:etest speech and pity vast as Heaven : 
! he jouraeyeth hither these do say." 

n — while the glad blood bounded in her veins 

nga leaps when first the mountain snows 

t her springs— uprose Ya^bdhara 

lapped her palms, and laughed, with brimming 


Beading her lashes. "Oh! call quick/* she cried, 
"These merchants to my purddh,' for mine ears . ^' 

Thirst like parched throats to drink their blessed news. 
Go bring them in, — ^but if their tale be true, 
Say I will fill their girdles with much gold, 
With gems that Kings shall envy : come ye too, 
My girls, for ye shall have guerdon of this 
If there be gifts to speak my grateful heart." 

So went those merchants to the Pleasure-House, 
Full softly pacing through its golden ways 
With naked feet,* amid the peering maids. 
Much wondering at the glories of the Court. 
Whom, when they came without the purdih's folds,' 
A voice, tender and eager, filled and charmed 
With trembling music, saying, " Ye are come 
From far, fair Sirs ! and ye have seen my Lord—- 
Yea, worshiped — for he is become a Buddh, 
World-honored, holy, and delivers men. 
And joumeyeth hither. Speak ! for, if this be, 
Friends are ye of my House, welcome and dear.' 


Then answer made Tripusha, " We have seen 
That sacred Master, Princess ! we have bowed 
Before his feet ; for who was lost a Prince 
Is found a greater than the King of kings. 
Under the B6dhf-tree * by Phalgft's bank 
bat which shall save the world hath late been wrought 
him — ^the Friend of all, the Prince of all — 
ine most. High Lady ! from whose tears men win 
e comfort of this Word the Master speaks. 

1, as one beyond all ills, 

jod from earthly woes, 

isen Truth, golden and clear. 

,e entereth town by town, 

se noble ways which lead to peace, 

men follow his path as leaves 

1 or sheep draw after one 

e pastures. We ourselves have heard 

e green Tchtrnikd' grove 

>u5 lips and done them reverence : 

thet ere the first rains fall." 

he, and Yasbdhara, for joy, 
;d breath to answer, " Be it well 
1 times with ye, worthy friends ! 
ad tidings ; but of this great thing 
, befell ? ■■ 

Then Bhalluk told* 
;ople of the valleys knew 
night of conflict, when the air 
L Aendish shadows, and the earth 
he waters swelled with Mara's wrath."^ 
ously that morning broke 
rising hopes for man, and how 
found rejoicing 'neath his Tree. 
i the burden of release — 
beyond all storms of doubt, 
's shore — lay, spake he, on that heart 
; for how shall men — Buddh mused— 
r sins and cleave to cheats of sense, 
;rror from a thousand springs—^ 


Having no mind to see, nor strength to break 

The fleshly snare which binds them — how should such 

' Receive the Twelve Niddnas* and the Law 
Redeeming all, yet strange to profit by, 
'As the caged bird oft shuns its opened door ? 
So had we missed the helpful victory 
If, in this earth without a refuge, Buddh 
Winning the way, had deemed it all too hard 
For mortal feet, and passed, none following him. 
Yet pondered the compassion of our Lord, 
But in that hour there rang a voice as sharp 

! As cry of travail, so as if the earth 

Moaned in birth-throe ** Nasyami aham bhU 

Nasyati Idka / " Surely I am lost, 

I AND MY CREATURES : then fi pausc, and next, 

A pleading sigh borne on the western wind, 

*^ Sruyatdm dhartna^ Bhagwatr* Oh, Supreme ! ♦ 

Let thy great Law be uttered ! Whereupon 

The Master cast his vision forth on flesh, 

Saw who should hear and who must wait to hear, 

As the keen Sun gilding the lotus-lakes 

' Seeth which buds will open to his beams 

And which are not yet risen from their roots ; 
Then spake, divinely smiling, " Yea ! I preach ! 
Whoso will listen let him learn the Law." 

Afterwards passed he, said they, by the hills 
nto Benires, where he taught the Five,*** 
•lowing how birth and death should be destroyed, 
id how man hath no fate except past deeds, 

nakes, i 
}se pasE 
day of 
,t night 

first Ki 
is" and 
ka, Asv 
ilso the: 
at the : 
h noblt 
ord our 
«i; for 
ew timi 
-ring tji 

ey — di( 
int and 
ark an< 
aught ; 
i folk b 
ve and 
er, of fi 
1 the ha 
nd cave 
)ne thei 


Yi dharma heiuppdbhawa 

Yesan hitun Tathdgato ; 
Ahayesan chayo nirodhd 
Ewan wadi Maha samano, 

" What life's course and cause sustain 
These Tathdgato made plain ; 
What delivers from life's woe 
That our Lord hath made us know. 


Andy in that Garden — said they — there was held 
A high Assembly, where the Teacher spake 
Wisdom and power, winning all souls which heard. 
So that nine hundred took the yellow robe — 
Such as the Master wears, — and spread his Law ; 
And this the gdthd" was wherewith he closed : — 

Sabba pdpassa akaranan; 
Kusalassa upasatnpadd ; 
Sa chitta pariyodapanan ; 
Eian Budhdnusdsanaiu 

** Evil swells the debts to pay, 
Good delivers and acquits ; 
Shun evil, follow good ; hold sway 
Over thyself. This is the Way." 

Whom, when they ended, speaking so of him. 
With gifts, and thanks which made the jewels dull. 
The Princess recompensed. " But by what road 
Wcndeth my Lord ? " she asked : the merchants said, 
"Ydjans"* three-score stretch from the city-walls 


lence the easy path 
' hither and the hills. 
\g eight slow kos * a day, 

Then the King hearing word, 
le Court — weir-mounted lords — 
issengers, each embassy 
The King Suddhddana— 
by seven long years of lack, 
; hath not ceased to seek for thee — 
to come unto his own, 

people of this longing Realm, 

and see thy face no more." 
len sent Yasbdhara 

Tlie Princess of thy House — 
" — craves to see thy face . 
wing moon-fiower's swelling heart " 
on, as pale as6ka-buds " 
n's foot : if thou hast found 
3st, she prays her part in this, 
It most of all thyself." 
^a Lords, but it befell 
nth the message in his mouth, 
iboo- Garden in that hour 
lught his Law ; and — hearing— each 

lost thought of King and quest, 
less even ; only gazed 
ie Master ; only hung 
on the speech, compassionate, 
iifect, pure, enlightening all, 
ise sacred lips. Look ! like a bee 


Winged for the hive, who sees the mogrds** spread 

And scents their utter sweetness on the air, 

If he be honey-filled, it matters not ; 

If night be nigh, or rain, he will not heed ; 

Needs must he light on those delicious blooms 

And drain their nectar ; so these messengers 

One with another, hearing Buddha's words, 

Let go the purpose of their speed, and, mixed, 

Heedless of all, amid the Master's train, 

Wherefore the King bade that Udayi ^ go — 

Chiefest in all the Court, and faithfulest, 

Siddirtha's playmate in the happier days — 

Who, as he drew anear the garden, plucked 

Blown tufts of tree-wool ^ from the grove and sealed 

!The entrance of his hearing ; thus he came 

Safe through the lofty peril of the place 

And told the message of the King, and her's. 

Then meekly bowed his head and spake our Lord 
Before the people, " Surely I shall go ! 
It is my duty as it was my will; 
Let no man miss to render reverence 
To those who lend him life, whereby come means 
To live and die no more, but safe attain 
Blissful Nirvdna,*' if ye keep the Law, 
Purging past wrongs and adding nought thereto, 
Complete in love and lovely charities. 
Let the King know and let the Princess hear 
I take the way forthwith." This told, the folk 
Of white Kapilavastu and its fields 
riade ready for the entrance of their Prince. 



ate a bright pavilion r 
eathed pillars and the 
eir red and green with 

were laid with scente< 
mango," and full masi 
mine on the dust, and 
1 on the day when he 
d hpw many elephants 
nrdahs" and their tusk; 
70nd the ford, and wl 
' SiddSrtha cometh ! " 
id worship, and the di 
)uld strew their flowers 
ed he rode might tram 
Isam, and the ways be 
1 rang with music and 
ned, and all men's ear 
nm to catch the first d 

Now he cometh ! " 

:f o re — Yasbdh ara 
;ter to the city-walls 
the bright pavilion, j 
arden smiled — Nigrqd 
el-trees" and the greer 
and gay with winding 
flowers ; for the south. 
ns, on this hand leaf ] 
burb-huts where base- 
tes, a patient folk and 
or Kshatriya" and prii 


Were sore defilement. Yet those, too, were quick 
With expectation, rising ere the dawn 
To peer along the joad, to climb the trees 
At far-off trumpet of some elephant, ^ 

Or fetir of temple-drum ; and when none came. 
Busied with lowly chares** to please the Prince ; 
, Sweeping their door-stones, setting forth their flags, 
Stringing the fluted fig-leaves into chains, 
New furbishing the Lingam,** decking new 
Yesterday's faded arch of boughs, but aye 
Questioning wayfarers if any noise 
Be on the road of great Siddirtha. These 
The Princess marked with lovely languid eyes, 
Watching, as they, the southward plain, and bent 
Like them to listen if the passers gave 
News of the path. So fell it she beheld 
One slow approaching with his head close shorn, 
A yellow cloth over his shoulder cast, 
Girt as the hermits are, and in his hand 
An earthen bowl, shaped melonwise, the which 
Meekly at each hut-door he held a space. 
Taking the granted dole with gentle thanks 
And all as gently passing where none gave. 
Two followed him wearing the yellow robe, 
But he who bore the bowl so lordly ^emed, 
So reverend, and witl\ such a passage moved. 
With so commanding presence filled the air, 
With such sweet eyes of holiness smote all. 
That as they reached him alms the givers gazed 
Awestruck upon his face, and some bent down 
In worship, and some ran to fetch fresh gifts, 


So many rains it is since I was Ram, 

A merchant of the codst which looketh south 

To Lankd" and the hiding place of pearls. 

Also in that far time Yasbdhara 

Dwelt with jne in our village by the sea, 

Tender as now, and Lakshmi was her name. 

And I remember how I journeyed thence 

Seeking our gain, for poor the household was 

And lowly. "Not the less with wistful tears 

She prayed me that I should not part, nor tempt 

Perils by land and water. * How could love 

Leave what it loved ? ' she wailed ; yet, venturing, I 

Passed to the Straits, and after storm and toil ' 

And deadly strife with creatures of the deep. 

And woes beneath the midnight and the noon. 

Searching the wave I won therefrom a pearl 

Moonlike and glorious, such as Kings might buy 

Emptying their treasury. Then came I glad 

Unto mine hills, but over ^1 that land 

Famine spread sore ; ill wa^s I stead to live 

In journey home, and hardly reached my door — . 

Aching for food — with that -white wealth of the sea 

Tied in my girdle. Yet no food was there ; 

And on the threshold she for whom I toiled — 

More than myself — ^lay with her speechless lips 

Nigh unto death for one small gift of grain. 

Then cried I, * If there be who hath of grain, 

Here is a kingdom's ransom for one life : 

Give Lakshmi bread and take my moonlight pearL 

Whereat one brought the last of all his hoard, 

Millet — three seers ^ — ^and clutched the beauteous thing. 



A mighty crowd ; to every edge of it 
Poured fast more people, till the roads were lost, 
Blotted by that huge company which thronged 
And grew, close following him whose lo6k serene 
Met the old King's. Nor lived the father's wrath 
Longer than while the gentle eyes of Buddh 
angered in worship on his troubled brows, 
*hen downcast sank, with lis true knee, to earth 
[n proud humility. So dear it seemed 
To see the Prince, to know him whole, to mark 
That glory greater than of earthly state 
Crowning his head, that majesty which brought 
All men, so awed and silent, in his steps. 
Nathless the King broke forth, " Ends it in this 
That great Siddartha steals into kis realm, 
Wrapped in a clout, shorn, sandaled, craving food 
Of low-boms, he whose life was as a God's ? 
My son f heir of this spacious power, and heir 
Of Kings who did but clap their palms to have 
What earth could give or eager service bring ? 
Thou should'st have come appareled in thy rank. 
With shining spears and tramp of horse and foot. 
Lo ! all my soldiers camped upon the road. 
And ail my city waited at the gates ; 
Where hast thou sojourned through these evil years 
Whilst thy crowned father mourned ? and she, too, there 
Lived as the widows use, foregoing joys ; 
Never once hearing sound of song or string, 
Nor wearing once the festal robe, till now 
When fin her cloth of gold she welcomes home 
A beggar spouse in yellow remnants clad. 

lis ? " 

am of my lac 

ECing, "count 
nmat," but m 

lortal line," t 
at descent in 
who have bee 
and what the 
1 now befalls 
e a King in ' 
is son, a Frin 
lye and jself-t 
t Kings in all 

Helper of tl 
and with all 
it is owed fo 

of the trcas 

tat treasure ? 
ral palm, and 
diping stieetE 
—he told the 

pureness, th 
I wisdom as s 
>ht Rules" w 
ive — upon th 
Stages Four" 



Whereby whoso will live — mighty or mean, 
Wise or jinleamed, man, woman, young or old — 
Shall soon or late break from the wheels of life 
'Attaining blest Nirvina. So they came 
Into the Palace-porch, Suddhddana 
With brows unknit drinking the mighty words, 
And in his own hand carrying Buddha's bowl. 
Whilst a new light brightened the lovely eyes 
Of sweet Yas6dhara and sunned her tears ; 
And that uight entered they the Way of Peace; 


lD n>ead spreads I 
:ara ;' five days sh 
rain' thither from 
rd and northward 
:e Himala look up 
all the year is gla( 
'es made green fr( 
: its slopes and co 
ly all the spirit of 
lis time : the brea 
le tangled thicket! 
ed red stones cloi 
ping fig, and clad 
and grass. The : 
rumbled work of 1 
his folds there or 
ud dwells and da 
kings have paced 
the broken throne 
earn, and sloping 
inchanged. All e 
arc fled — for this 


BOOK Twa EiGH-ni. 143 


The city of Suddh6dana, the hill 
Whereon, upon an eve of gold and blue 
At sinking sun Lord Buddha set himself 
To teach the Law in hearing of his owp. 

Lo ! ye shall read it in the Sacred Books 
How, being met in that glad pleasaunce-place— 
A garden in old days with hanging walks, 
Fountains, and tanks, and rose-banked terraces 
Girdled by gay pavilions and the sweep 
Of §tately palace-fronts — the Master sate 
Eminent, worshiped, all the earnest throng 
Catching the opening of his lips to learn 
That wisdom which hath made our Asia mild ; 
Whereto four hundred crors' of living souls 
Witness this day. Upon the King's right hand 
He sate, and round were ranged the Sdkya Lords 
Ananda, Devadatta — all the Court. 
Behind stood Seriyut and Mugallan, chiefs 
Of the calm brethren in the yellow garb, 
A goodly company. Between his knees 
Rahula smiled with wondering childish eyes 
Bent on the awful face, while at his feet 
Sate sweet Yas6dhara, her heartaches gone, 
.Foreseeing that fair love which doth not feed 
On fleeting sense, that life which knows no age, 
That blessed last of deaths when Death is dead, 
His victory and hers. Wherefore she laid 
Her hand upon his hands, folding around 
Her silver shoulder-cloth his yellow robe, 
Nearest in all the world to him whose words 



»■»'. •■■■■'■' 


The Three Worlds waited for. I cannot tell 

A small part of the splendid lore which broke 

From Buddha's lips: I am a late-come scribe 

Who love the Master and his love of men, 

And tell this legend, knowing he was wise. 

But have not wit to speak beyond the books ; 

And time hath blurred their script and ancient sense, 

Which once was new and mighty, moving alL | 

A little of that large discourse I know 

Which Buddha spake on the soft Indian eve. 

Also 1 know it writ that they who heard 

Were more — ^lakhs* more — crors more — ^than could be 

For all the Devas and the Dead thronged there, 
Till Heaven was emptied to the seventh zone j 

And uttermost dark Hells opened their bars ; i 

Also the daylight lingered past its time 

In rose-leaf radiance on the watching peaks, 1 

So that it seemed Night listened in the glens 
And Noon upon the mountains ; yea, they write, i 

The evening stood between them like some maid 
Celestial, love-struck, rapt ; the smooth-rolled clouds . 
Her braided hair ; the studded stars the pearls . ! 

And diamonds of her coronal ; the moon 
Her forehead-jewel, and the deepening dark 
Her woven garments. *Twas her close-held breath 
Which came in scented sighs across the lawns 
While our Lord taught, and, while he taught, who heard—. 
Though he were stranger in the land, or slave, 
High caste or low, come of the Aryan blood, 
Or Mlech* or Jungle-dweller — seemed to hear 


What tongue his fellows talked. Nay, outside those 
Who crowded by the river, great and small, 
friiQ birds and beasts and creeping things' — 'tis writ — 
Had sense of Buddha's vast embracing love 
And took the promise of his piteous speech ; 
So that their lives — ^prisoned in shape of ape, 
Tiger, or deer, shagged bear, jackal, or wolf, ' 
Foul-feeding kite, pearled dove, or peacock gemmed, 
Squat toad, or speckled serpent, lizard, bat ; 
Yea, or of fish fanning the rivei-'Waves — 
Touched meekly at the skirts of brotherhood 
With man who hath less innocence than these ; 
And in mute gladness knew their bondage broke 
Whilst Buddha spake these things before the King : — 


Om,' amit aya ! • measure not with words 
Th' Immeasurable : nor sink the string of thought ) 

Into the Fathomless. Who asks doth err, 
Who answers, errs. Say nought ! 

The Books teach Darkness was, at first of all, 
And Brahm, sole meditating in that night : 

Look not for Brahm* and the Beginning there ! 
Nor him, nor any light 


Shall any gazer see with morjtal eyes, . . 

Or any searcher know by mortal mind ; 
Veil after veil will lift — ^but there must be 

Veil upon veil behind. 


Kavli hath such lordship as the loftiest ones ; 

Nay, for with Powers above, around, below, 
As with all flesh and whatsoever lives. 

Act maketh joy and woe. 

What^ath been bringeth wlvit shall be, and is, 

Worse — ^better — ^last for first and first for last ; 
The Angels in the Heavens of Gladness reap 

Fruits of a holy past. 

The devils in the underworlds wear out 

Deeds that were wicked in an age gone by. 
'^^TsTrifriiiTiyr ^||^|ig#><j : fair virtues waste with time. 

Foul sins grow purged thereby. 

Who toiled a slave may come anew a Prince 

For gentle worthiness and merit won ; 
Who ruled a King may wander earth in rags 

For things done and undone. 

Higher than Indri's " ye may lift your lot. 

And sink it lower than the worm or gnat ; 
The end of many myriad lives is this, 

The end of myriads that. 

Only, while turns this wheel invisible. 

No pause, no peace, no staying-place can be ; 
Who mounts will fall, who falls may mount ; the spokes 

Go round unceasingly ! J 


the wheel of change, 
C breaking from the chain, 
!ss Being is a curse, 
i fell Pain. 

le Soul of Things is sweel 

g is celestial rest ; 

will : that which was Goo 

^^st. - - ■ ■ -■■ -' 

'ith all my brothers' tears, 
oken by a whole world's ^ 
or there is Liberty ! 
! know 

Ives. None else compels, 
ou that ye live and die, 
'heel, and hug and kiss 

ive of nothingness. 
Truth ! Lower than hell, 
lUtside the utmost stars, 
1 doth dwell, 

1 without an end, 
id as surety sure, 

1 the blossomed rose, 
land^haped lotus-leaves; 




In dark soil and the silence of the seeds 
The robe of Spring it weaves ; 

That is its painting on the glorious clouds. 
And these its emeralds on the peacock's train ; 

It hath its stations in the stars ; its slaves 
In lightning, wind, and rain. 

Out of the dark it wrought the heart of man, 
Out of dull shells the pheasant's penciled neck { 

Ever at toil, it brings to loveliness 
All ancient wrath and wreck. 

The gray eggs in the golden sun-bird's nest 

Its treasures are, the bees' six-sided cell 
Its honey-pot ; the ant wots of its ways. 

The white doves know them well. 

It spreadeth forth for flight the eagle's wings 
What time she beareth home her prey ; it sends 

The she-wolf to her cubs ; for unloved things 
It iindeth food and friends. 

It is not marred nor stayed in any use. 

All liketh it ; the sweet white milk it brings 

To mothers* breasts ; it brings the white drops, too, 

Wherewith the young snake stings. 
^ • 

ie ordered music of the marching orbs 

;t makes in viewless canopy of sky ; 

deep abyss of earth it hides up gold, 

ards, sapphires, lazuli. 

ir bring! 
1 the gn 
ige seed 
:aves, bl 

j it save 
to the w 
re Love 

es of itg 

d unmai 
th vrou 
he splen 
hands b 

)rk upoi 
n things 
> of peo 
, the gr< 

Ipeth ye 
t speake 
■e are m 
ind masi 

! conten 
:ts it los 
>ood it I 
a ill witl 

?■ where i 
■it recoil 



The equal retribution must be made, 
Though Dharma " tarry long. ' 

It knows not wrath nor pardon ; utter-true 
Its measures mete, its faultless balance weighs ; 

Times are as nought, to-morrow it will judge. 
Or after many days. 

By this the slayer's knife did stab himself ; 

The unjust judge hath lost his own defender ; 
The false tongue dooms its lie ; the creeping thief 

And spoiler rob> to render. 

Such is the Law which moves to righteousness, 
Which none at last can turn aside or stay ; 

The heart of it is Love, the end of it ^ 

Is Peace and Consummation sweet. Obey ! } 

* ♦ 'JI ♦ « 

^'he Books say well, my Brothers ! each man's life 

The outcome of his former living is ; 
The bygone wrongs bring forth sorrows and woes. 

The bygone right breeds bliss. 

That which ye sow ye reap. See yonder fields ! 

The sesamum was sesamum,'* the corn 
Was com. The Silence and the Darkness knew ! 

So is a man's fate born. 

Cometh, reaper of the things he sowed, ' 
ssamum, com, so much cast in past birth ; 





[h s 



Never shall yearnings torture him, nor sins 
Stain him, nor ache of earthly joys and woes 

Invade his safe eternal peace ; nor deaths 
And lives recur. He goes 

Unto Nirvana.** He is one with Life 
Yet lives not. He is blest, ceasing to be. 

Om," mani" padme," cm ! the Dewdrop slips 
Into the shining sea ! " 

This is the doctrine of the Karma." Learn ! 

Only when all the dross of sin is quit, 
Only when life dies like a white flame spent 

Death dies along with it. 

Say not " I am," " I was," or " I shall be," 
Think not ye pass from house to house of flesh 

Like travelers who remember and forget, 
Hi-lodged or well-lodged. Fresh 

Issues upon the Universe that sum 
Which is the lattermost of lives. It makes 

Its habitation as the worm spins silk 
^nd dwells therein. It takes 

Function and substance as the snake's egg hatched 
sikes scale and fang ; as feathered reed -seeds fly 
rock and loam and sand, until they find 
ieir marsh and multiply. 


les forth to help or hurt, 
cath the bitter murderer dotl 
the unpuTged fragment of h 

* of plague and blight 

.he mild and just die, sweet i 
Id grows richer, as if desert-s 
k away to sparkle up again 
ith broader gleam, 

on winneth the happier age 
y demerit hafteth short of en 
his Law of Love reign King i 
le Kalpas" end. 

— Brothers ! the Darkness le 
;e, mazed whereby ye take tl 
nd thirst to have, and, havin; 
which work you woes, 

I tread the Middle Road, wh 
eason traces and soft Quiet i 

II take the high Nirvana-way 
Four Noble Truths. 

Truth is of Sorrow, Be not 
:h ye prize is long-drawn ag< 
ins abide ; its pleasures are 
which light and Ay. 

; birth, ache of the helpless c 

hot youth and ache of manhi 



Ache of the chill gray years and choking death, 
These fill your piteous time. 

Sweet is fond Love, but funeral-flames must kiss 
The breasts which pillow and the lips which" cling 

Gallant is warlike Might, but vultures pick 
The joints of chief and King. 

Beauteous is Earth, but all its forest-broods 
. Plot mutual slaughter, hungering to live ; 
Of sapphire are the skies, but when men cry 
Famished, no drops they give. 


Ask of the sick, the mourners, ask of him 

Whotottereth on his staff, lone and forlorn, 
"Liketh thee life ?" — ^these say the babe is wise 

That weepcth, being bora. 

'" The Second Truth is Sorrow^ s Cause, What grief 

Springs of itself and springs not of Desire ? 
Senses and things perceived miiigle'aiKriight 
Passion's quick spark of fire : 

So flameth Trishnd, luct and thirst of things. 

Eager .ye cleave to shadows, dote on dreams ; ^ 

A false Self in the midst ye plant, and make 

A world around which seems f 

B^""i to the height beyond, deaf to the sound 
> sweet airs breathed from far past Indra's sky ; 

^ ^b tb the summons of the true life kept 
r him who false puts by. 


So grow the strifes and lusts which 
So grieve poor cheated hearts an 

So wax the passions, en"ies, angers 
So years chase blood-stained yea 

With wild red feet So, where the 
Spreads the birin-weed" with its 

And poisonous blossoms ; hardly g 
Soil where to fall and shoot ; 

And drugged with poisonous drink 
And fierce with thirst to drink K 

Sense-struck again the sodden self 
And new deceits it earns. 

The Third is Sorrow's Ceasing. Tl 
To conquer love of self and lust 

To tear deep-rooted passion from t 
To still the inward strife ; 

For love to clasp Eternal Beauty cl 
For glory to be Lord of self, for 

To live beyond the gods ; for count 
To lay up lasting treasure 

Of perfect service rendered, duties > 
In charity, soft speech, and stainl 

These riches shall not fade away in 
Nor any death dispraise. 

Then Sorrow ends, for Life and Dei 
How should lamps flicker when tl 



The old sad count is clear, the new is clean ; 
Thus hath a man content. 

The Fourth Truth is The Way, It openeth wide, 
Plain for all feet to tread, easy and near, 

The NobU Eightfold Path ; it goeth straight 
To peace and refuge. Hear ! 

Manifold tracks lead to yon sister-peaks 
Around whose snows the gilded clouds are curled ; 

By steep or gentle slopes the climber comes 
Where breaks that other world. 

Strong, limbs may dare the rugged road which storms, 
Soaring and perilous, the mountain's breast ; 

The weak must wind from slower ledge to ledge 
With many a place of rest. 

So is the Eightfold Path which brings to peace ; 

By lower or by upper heights it goes. 
*The firm soul hastes, the feeble tarries. All 
Will reach the sunlit snows. 

The First good Level is Right Doctrine. Walk 
In Fear of Dharma, shunning all ofEense ; 

^" heed of Karmd, which doth make man's fate % 
In lordship over sense. 

le Second is Right Purpose, Hav^e good-will 
To all that lives, letting unkindness die 



So shall ye pass to clearer heights and find 
Easier ascents and lighter loads of sins, 

And larger will to burst the bonds of sense. 
Entering the Path. Who wins 

To such commencement hath the First Stage touched : 
He knows the Noble Truths, the Eightfold Road ; 

By few or many steps such shall attain 
Nirvana's blest abode. 

Who standeth at the Second Stage^ made free 
From doubts, delusions, and the inward strife, 

Lord of all lusts, quit of the priests and books, 
Shall live but one more life. 

Yet onward lies the Third Stage : purged and pure 
Hath grown the stately spirit here, hath risen 

To love all living things in perfect peace. 
His life at end, life's prison 

Is broken. Nay, there are who surely pass 

Living and visible to utmost goal 
By Fourth Stage of the Holy ones — the Buddhs — 

And they of stainless soul. 

^ Lo ! like fierce foes slain by some warrior, 
Xea^iis along these Stages lie in dust, 
The Love of Self, False Faith, and Doubt arc ihree^ 
Two more, Hatred and Lust. 

ho of these Five is conqueror hath trod 
Three stages out of Four : yet there abide 


The Love of Life on Earth, Desire for Hea 
Sclf-Praise, Error, and Pride. 

As one who stands on yonder snowy horn 
Having nought o'er him but the boundles 

So, these sins being slain, the man is come 
Nirvana's verge unto. 

Him the Gods envy from their lower seats ; 

Him the Three Worlds in ruin should noi 
All life is lived for him, alt deaths are dead 

Karmd will no more make 

New houses. Seeking nothing, he gains all 
Foregoing self, the Universe grows " I : " 

If any teach NIRVAnA is to cease, 
Say unto such they lie. 

If any teach NIRVANA is to live, 

Say unto such they err ;" not knowing th 

Nor what light shines beyond their broken 
Nor lifeless, timeless bliss. 

Enter the Path ! There is no grief like Hi 
No pains like passions, no deceit like sen 

Enter the Path ! far hath he gone whose fo 
Treads down one fond offense. 

Enter the Path ! There spring the healing 
Quenching all thirst ! there bloom th' im 

Carpeting all the way with joy ! there thro 
Swiftest and sweetest hours ! 

.aOeiC THE EIGHTH. t6t 


More is the treasure of the Law than gems ; 

Sweeter) than comb its sweetness ; its delights 
Delightful past compare. Thereby to live 

Hear the FivexRules aright : — 

Kill not — for Pity's sake — and lest ye slay 
The meanest thing upon its upwsurd way. 

Give freely and receive, but take from none 
By greedy or force or fraud, what is his own. 

Bear not false witness, slander not, nor lie ; 
•Truth is. the speech of inward purity. 

Shun drugs and drinks which work the wit abuse ; 
Clear minds, clean bodies, need no Soma juicd** 

:Touch not thy neighbor's wife, neither commit 
Sins of &e flesh unlawful and unfit 


These words the Master spake of- duties due 

To father, mother, children, fellows, friends ; 

Teaching how such as may not swiftly break 

The clinging chains of sense-^whose feet are weak 

To tread the higher road — should order so 

This life of flesh ithat all their hither days 

Pass blameless in discharge of charities 

A.nd first true footfalls in the Eightfold Path ; 

Living pure, reverent, patient, pitiful, 

Loving all things which live even as themselves ; 
6 _ - 


dls for ill is fruit of ill 
past, and what falls n 
wsomuch the househo 
i of self and helps the 
ppier conies he to nex 
tered being. This he 
fore, when our Lord 
I the bamboo-grove : 
he walked there and 1 
tT Singula, newly bath 
' with bare head to the 
d all four quarters ; v 
fhite, from both hand: 
rother ? " said the Loi 
Great Sir ! our fathei 
before the toil begin: 
1 from the sky above 
;ath, and all the winds 
d-honored spake : " S 
I thoughts and acts to 
he Eajit where rises li 
the South whence rid 
lildren as the West wl; 
ind calm, and all dayE 
kinsmen and all men 
ving things beneath, t 
d the blessed Dead ab 
1 be shut off, and so 
[uarters will be safely 
<m, them of the yellow 
rakened eagles, soar v 



From life*s low Vale, and wing towards the Sun- 
To these he taught the Ten Observances, 
The DcLsa sil^ and how a mendicant 
Must know the Three Doors^ and the Triple Thoughts;'" 
The Sixfold States of Mind j ^ the Fivefold Powers ; ^ 
The Eight High Gates of FuHty ;^ the Modes 
Of Understanding ; " Jddhi ; »* Upeksha ; " 
The Five great Meditations^ which are food 

Sweeter than Amrit " for the holy soul ; ^f^rS^-^ 

The Jhdnas^ and the Three Chief RpfugesP 
Also he taught his own how they should dwell ; 
How live, free from the snares of love and wealth ; 
What eat and drink and carry — three plain cloths, — 
Yellow, of stitched stuff, worn with shoulder ban 
A girdle, almsbowl, strainer.*® Thus he laid 
The great foundations of our Sangha** well. 
That noble Order of the Yellow Robe 
Which to this day standeth to help the World. 

So all that night he spake, teaching the Law : 
And on no eyes fell sleep — ^for they who heard 
Rejoiced with tireless joy. Also the King, 
When this was finished, rose upon his throne 
And with bared feet bowed low before his Son 
Kissing his hem ; and said, '^ Take me, O Son ! 
Lowest and least of all thy Company." 
And sweet Yasbdhara, all happy now — 
Cried " Give to Rahula — thou Blessed One ! 
The Treasure of the Kingdom of thy Word 
For his inheritance." Thus passed these Three 
^nto the Path. 



Here endcth what I write 
re the Master for his love of us. 
knowing little have I told 
ig the Teacher and the Ways of Peace. 
ve rains thereafter showed he those 
' lands and many tongues and gave 
a light, that still is beautiful, 
ring the world with spirit of strong grace : 
;h is written in the holy Books, 
ere he- passed and what prond Emperors 
his sweet words upon the rocks mid caves : 
w—ia fullness (rf the times — it fell 
ddha died, the'great Tathdgato,* 
a roan 'mongst men, fulfilling all : 
V a thousand thousand crors since then 
od the path which leads whither he went 
iRVANA where the Silence lives. 

Blessed Lord ! Oh, High Deliterek ! 

e this feeble script, which doth thee wrong, 

uno with little wit thy lofty love. 

QVER ! Brother ! Guide ! Lamp (w the Law ! 








QifUv Weaili in ^tahia. 


He who'died at Azaa seuda 
This to comfort all his friends.: 

Faithful friends ! It ILss, I know. 
Pale and; white and cold as snow.; 
And- ye say^ " Abdallah's. dead .! " 
Weeping at, the ieet and .head, 
I can see your falling tears, 
I can hear your sighs and prayefs; , 
Yet I smile and whisper this,'— 
** I am not the thing you kiss ; 
Cease your tears, and let it lie ; 
It was mine, it is not I." 

Sweet friends:! What the women lave 

For its last bed o£: the grave, 

Is but a hut which I am quitting, . 

Is a garment no more fitting. 

Is a cage, from which, at last, 

Like a hawk my ^oul hath passed; 

Love the inmate, not the room, — 

The wearer, not the garb, — the plium^ 



md I 

is b 
tit I 

11 de 




I am gone before your face, 
A moment's time, a little space. 
When ye come where I have stepped 
Ye will wonder why ye wept ; 
Ye will know, by wise love taught, 
That here is all, and there is naught 
Weep awhile, if ye are fain, — 
Sunshine still must follow rain ; 
Only not at death, — for death, 
Now I know, is that first breath 
Which our souls draw when we enter 
Life, which is of all life center. 

Be ye certain all seems love, 
Viewed from Allah's throne above , 
Be ye stout of heart, and come 
Bravely onward to your home ! 
La Allah ilia Allah ! yea ! 
Thou love divine ! Thou love alway ! 

He that died at Azan gave 

This to those who made his grave.. 

*B& AND SHE. ** 169 

And jasmine, and roses, .and rosanazy*;, 

And they said, ''As a lady should, lie, liessshei'* 

And they held .their .breath till they leftitberooov 
With a shudder^.to glaixce at its stillness, and glooBw. 

But he who loved her.toi> well ta4read> 
The sweet,, the stately, the beautiful dead,, 

He lit his lamp and took the: key, 

And turned it — alone again — ^he and she. 

He and she ; but she. would not speak, 

Thpugh he. kissed, in the old place, ,the quiet cheek 

He and she ; yet she would not smile, . 

Though he called her the name she loved,^ewhile» 

He and she ; still she did not move 
To any one passionate whisper of love* 

Then he ssld : ** Cold lips. aiKl breasts without hieath, 
. Is there no .voice, no language of death? 

'^ Dumb to the ear and still to ther sense, . 
But to heart and to soul distinct, intense? 

" See now ; I will listen with soul, not ear ; 
What was the secret of dying, dear? 

'' Was it the infinite wonder of all 

That you ever could let life's flower fall?- 



"he and shb." 

' marvel to feel 
T the agony steal f 

vater to find haw dee] 
ank downward that th 

ts records dear, 

ly it does, past things 

ermost heart of the b1 
a wisdom love is i 

t dead most dear, 
my soul to hear I 

to horrible hell, 

I, and you do not telt 

isure in dyings sweet, 
:id from head to feet I 

ariing, if I were dead, 
tears upon my brow f 

h the Angel of Death 
>s to keep it unsaid. 

k vainly, with streamit 
was the chiefest surpi 

and suddenest thing 
hat dying must brin^' 


It kind dead ! 

vilt believe it was said ? 

le&rd her say, 

, in the dear old way : 

lis, — I hear 

I, and kiss you, dear ; 

I was your bride, 

sad, I have never died." 




A VEW summer afternoon ''Conversations" on the " Light of 
AeoA,** at the earnest request of the company who listened, are at 
last condensed Into these notes. Interpretation rather than criti- 
cism has been my aim, neither have I thou^t it best to enter into 
any extended discussion of the merits of Buddhist doctrine pre- 
sented or incidentally mentioned. A separate volume would be 
needed for that. Of necessity Mr. Arnold has been obliged to use 
Christian phraseology, and as a powerful artist, without being a 
Buddhist or any other sort of a heathen, he has made the most of 
his picture. 

We find it as difficult to becloud Christian words with heathen 
ideas as the heathen find it difficult to attach to their theological 
terms, when used to explain Christianity, the truth, purity and 
deamess of Christian doctrine. 

If the corresponding legends introduced in these notes shall give 
to any one a juster idea of the place Baddhist history holds in 
Oriental literature ; if the translation of Hindu words and descrip- 
tions of Hindu customs shall add to the pleasure of any as they 
strive to comprehend Mr. Arnold's picture ; if the fuller details of 
Brahminical and Buddhist beliefs shall give to any a clearer view 
of the darkness which Buddha with his candle of truth bravely 
strove to illumine ; if any, reading tliese notes, shall love mankind 
more and Christianity not less, my aim is fulfilled. 

Mrs. L L. HAUSER. 
Evanston, 111., April 18, 188a 



Edwih Abnold was the second son of Robert Coles Arnold, a 
magistrate in Sussex ; he was born June 10, 1831, and was educa- 
ted at King's School, Rochester, and King's College, London ; and 
was elected tea scholarship at University College, Oxford, in 
1852 he obtained the Newdigate prize for his English poem on the 
Feast of Belshazzar. In 1853 he was elected to address the Earl of 
Derby on his installation as Chancellor of the University, ^e 
CTadoated with honor in 1854, and became second master in King 
Ejdward the Sixth's school in Birmingham, and subsequently was 
appointed principal of the Government Sanskrit College at Poena, 
in Western India. He held the position until 1860, when he was 
compelled to leave his much-loved India, by the death of a child, 
and the illness of his young wife. For nearly twenty years since 
he has held the position of sub-editor, or editor-in-chief, of the 
LoThdon DaUy Idegraph, where he has become greatly distin- 
guished as a writer of powerful " leaders." Mr. Arnold has con- 
tributed largely to critical and literary journals, and is the author 
of "Griselda, a Drama;" "Poems Narrative and Lyrical," 
" Education in India," " The Euterpe of Herodotus," a translation 
with notes ; a translation of the '*Hitopodesh," or "Book of Gk)od 
Counsels," a Sanskrit work ; *' The History of Lord Dalhousie's 
Administration," ''■ The Indian Song of Songs," and the " Light of 
A^a." This last work he began in September of 1878, and though - 
his duties as editor of the Daily Telegraph were unremitting, he 
was able, within a year, to have it published on both sides the 
Atlantic. Later, Mr. Arnold has translated into verse two books 
from the 2£ah&bh&rata, " The Iliad of India." 



Of the real history of Buddha comparatiyely little was known 
in the Western world until within the present century. Whether 
he ever existed at all was a g^at question among the l^st scholars, 
but recent research and comparison of Buddhist works from Cey- 
lon, Burmah, Slam, Thibet, China and Sanskrit works in India 
seems to establish the fact beyond further question. As scholars 
In each of the countries where Buddhism prevails read the works, 
ancient or modem, that proclaimed the greatness and doctrines of 
Buddha, they found them so overgrown with legends and absurdi- 
ties that it was Impossible for them to decide which was truth and 
which falsehood ; but when these works were brought together in 
European studies, and a few earnest scholars set themselves to 
the task of comparison, it was found that on certain points of 
Buddha's life and doctrine there was practical agreement These 
being gathered out of the mass of nonsense, we now have an in- 
telligible history of Buddha. It should be remembered that com- 
merce, or other intercourse between China, Thibet and India had 
been almost entirely suspended for nearly a thousand years, and 
the thought and traditions of one country had not been affected 
by that of the other ; hence it seems evident that a common 
origin in the spread of Buddhism, some fifteen or twenty centuries 
since, must account for the agreement of the Buddhist books of 
those countries on history and doctrine. 

Nothing has been more uncertain about Buddha than the time 
of liis li&. Professor Wilson enumerates over twenty different 
dates given in Buddhist books, each as reliable as the other, and 
ranging over a thousand years previous to 453 B.C. ; but the most 
careful research, and the balance of Oriental authorities, places 
his birth about 620 bo. 

The story of Buddha's ante-natal existence is as firmly believed 
in by his followers as that of the recorded eighty years of his last 
appearance. He is said to have passed through an infinitude of 
births, in various characters, during ten millions of million and 
one hundred thousand millions of kslpas, or eternities. Appear- 
ing as a prince fifty-one times m the Hue of Mah&sammata, he 
was thererore fifty-one times his own ancestor. In every birth he 


^- . 




",■ • . f 

1 80 BUDDHA. 

is represented as being possessed of rare moral excellence and 
^reat beneyolenoe. It is said that when he was living as King 
Kanakavamil he gave to a Bodhisattwar— or candidate for Buddha- 
hood — ^the last morsel of food which long famine had left for his 
sustenance. This act of charitv was followed by rain and plenty. 
Again Buddha bom as a Brdhmin gave his own body to feed a 
famished tigress and her cubs. After this marvel of charity he 
attained the rank of Bodhisattwa, which is only inferior to that 
of Buddha, and lived in the Tushita heaven, where he taught 
his doctrine to innumerable millions of Bodhisattwas, or future 
Buddhas, and was glorified by many strange creatures of Hindu 
mythology. Another account places Buddha as one of the seven 
holy Rlshfs — saints-— each one of whom awaits, in one of the 
seven stars of the Great Bear, final birth or Incarceration. In 
other works the occasion of Buddha's birth is differently told. 
Vishnu, one of. the Hindu trinity, saw that men, by their extraor- 
dinary strict practice of the doctrines and rites of the Vedas, 
threatened to prove rivals to the gods themselves. In order to 
destroy this power of men, or rather to rob them of it, Vishnu 
became incarnate as Buddha, that he might preach skepticism and 
heterodox doctrines, as atheism, and to destroy hope of im- 
mortality, tliat men might be reduced to their original weakness, 
and the fears and jealousy of the gods be removed. 

The facts of his mortal life may be briefly told. His father had 
married sisters, Mahdm&va and Mahi.praj6pati. MahiLmdya, hav- 
ing come to her forty-fifth year, was about to be delivered of her 
first child, and, in accordance with Hindu custom, had started for 
her father's home. On the way she rested under a satin tree, and 
there gave birth to her Jx)y. Here legend steps in with marvels. 
Buddha at his birth was received by Mahd Br&hm& in a golden 
net, from which he was transferred to the guardians of the four 
quarters, who received him on a tiger's skin ; from these he was 
received by the nobles, who wrapped him in ^folds of the finest 
and softest cloth ; but at once Bodhisat descended from their 
hands to the ground, and looked to the four points, and the four 
half points ; when he looked toward the north he proceeded seven 
steps in that direction, and exclaimed : "I am the most exalted 
in the world. I am chief in the world. I am the most excellent 
in the world. Hereafter there is to me no other birth 1 " Upon 
the death of his mother, seven days after, his aunt adopted him 
and nourished him. The story of the trial of his pro^ivess and 
learning at the time of , or lust after, his marriage, is probably 
the only authentic bit of his history, as a youth, that remains, and 
that is exaggerated beyond all belief. As a prince of the waxrior, 
or Elshatriyl caste, his training had been in that direction, though 
he must have been a much more tiian ordinarily meditative 

. BVBBHA. l3l 

jonth. The impressions made upon his mind by^^e sight of 
extreme age, suffering and death/do not seem at all improbable or 
« unnataraL How often have similar sights made impressions on 
oar hearts and lives that we shidl never lose I It is not wonder- 
ful that a man of such remarkably thoughtful and benevolent 
characteristics as Buddha possessed should have had the whole 
course of his life influenced bf them. After Buddha's renuncia- 
tion of earthly honors and family ties and love, he spent seven 
days in a mango grove, after which he spent some time at R4j4- 
griha; from thence he went to the jungle near Uruwela, on a 
spur of the Vindhya range, where he spent six years in severe 
penances, until his fame spread, as the Burmese chronicle says, 
"like the sound of a great bell hung in the canopy of the skies." 
Here he found his long-sought quest, that peace of mind that 
comes from absolute surrender of selfish desires, after brave re- 
sistance of the powers of evil. His contest had been long and 
severe. He had much to lose, the way was dark, and the gain 
must have oft^n seemed doubtful. Every earnest soul at some 
time in life, in a greater or less degree, is assailed by like tempta- 
tions and doubts. The greater the man, the greater the conflict. Car- 
lyle's description of his season of temptation when he was obliged 
to decide finally whether he should enter the ministry reads 
wonderfully like Buddha's struggle. 

** I entered into my chamber, and closed the door. And around 
about me there came a trooping throng of phantasms dire, from 
the abysmal depths of nethermost perdition. Doubt, Fear, Un- 
belief, Mockexy and Scoffing were there, and I wrestled with them 
in travail and agony of spirit. Thus it was, sir, for weeks. 
Whether I ate I Imow not, whether I drank I know not, whether 
I slept I know not. But I only know that when I came forth 
again beneath the glimpses of the moon it was with the direful 
persuasion that I was ^e miserable owner of a diabolical appa- 
ratus called a stomach." 
Carlyle came forth to write, Buddha began to preach. 
He went to the deer forest near Ben&res, and before the rainy 
season closed had sixty converts. These he sent out two by two 
to propagate his doctrines. He now went to his old home, and 
after banging over to his views his half brother, his son and ' 
others, he zetuaied to Raj^riha, where the King Bimbs£ii gave 
him a bamboo grove and monastery. He spent the rainy seasons 
ire, teaching those who gathered about him, and during ^he dry 
asox)s itinerated within a radius of a hundred and fifty miles 
x)nt Benares. For forty-five years he taught and sent forth his 
issionaries. Death came at last to the old man of blameless life 
id foimd him tranquil, and looking peacefully forward to Nir- 
'iia. Carefully had he followed in his own life the best light he 

ittratl^ lie tangbt otliora tmtli, pnritj and homility, And 
lall ny that his eamestaoid.psaBiiiKfnnii the Impiisonment 
body, avokecot to thoae things wMoh " Eye hath not seea,* 
; hMrd, neither have entered into the heart of man T " 
Iha lived in an era of groat inoral reforms. Throughout the 

world rttoalism had anpeneded the old and pnre faith of 
scarcely more than the ancient traditions remained. Men 
reary of forms. Within the two centuries which Buddha's 
rtly spanned, Confucius, with his wonderful code, appeared 
la ; in Peista, Zoroaster arose with reforms ; at the court of 
iros, Esther and Mordecai plead for justice, and their cry 
lard from India to Ethiopia ; in Babylon Daniel thmughout 
life npheld in brilliant example the grandeur of righteous 
; in Greece the Delphian temple ennk in ashes, and just 
npplauted the tripod ; and in Palestine, Isaiah, Ezehiel, 
ah and most of tne leeser prophets declared against new 
, feasts and fasts, and foretold certain destruction for those 
a ceremonials, should forget equity and ju^ice. The Great 

of all, who has not created any sonl and left It in utter 
as, He who in tender compassion sent Jonah to preach 
ace to the people of Nineveh who wer^at enmity witb Him 
a chosen people, cared also for the milliona of India who 
not their right hand from their left, and sent Buddha to 

a parity and morally that should save the nation from 
stiou. Bnddh selected oat from the old fidth that which 
iblest and beat, and presented it with rare power to such as 
hear. But the lights of thpse times, brilliant as they shone 
BQTTonnding darkness, paled before a later Light that leads 
ertect day. The burden of Buddha's doctrine ia not to, 

not to. Positive, heroic, stalwart righteousness he dared 
ch. A hero himself, be found the battle harder thKn any 
e spirits bear, and he could oSet men no help ontaide of 
Jves. Of a highly poetic and speculative nature, he looked 
' Into the future for thqse who should fnlfill the law. Con- 
more practical and wanting in imasiinition, answered no 
inaasto the future. In the old faith Bnddha found Nir* 
ibsorptlon into Brahm, but his soul shrunk from contact with 
boly divinities of the Br&hmins. In accordance with that 

the mind that causes the Mohammedan t-o. look for heaven 
:hes the Oreenlander to 
it led the Jew. itith hi 

costly things, to picture lieavenas built of gold^d^j^feclouF 
; that gives to the American Indian a hope of huppy hnnt- 
>iindB, Nirv&na, under Buddha's teaching, bec^e • state 
mi irritation, action or even consciousness, a meVe >tetrac 
The East Indian, under an enervating climate, where exer 

BUDDHA. 183 

ther for good or ill, la a burden, can 
ise nndistnrbed selfishneBB has great 
ill religionists, he seekH to hegia Iiis 
s loose from familj ties tliat hemajbe 
e beggar's bowl and robe, tliat he may 
fort of providing even for himself ; lin 
} of his nose, and in utter disregard <>t 

pose, bat long since its vitality sn 
was exhausted. In his own worilz? 
lut flltikennat,' 





1. Buddha : — He by whom the truth is known. In India Wed- 
nesday is cfdled Buddh-ka-din — ^the day of Buddh. Buddha lived 
to great age, hence his name is commonly used as an adjective 
noun in India, and applied to old people. 

2. BiddSMva : — He b/whom the end is accomplished, is the 
translation usually given of this name. Tumour translates it, 
the establisher. The occasion of BuddhVs reception of this name 
occurred many ages before his birth as a Buddh. When sitting 
in his palace as a prince, in that far-off age, ** having seen Dipan- 
kara Bodhisat carrying the almsbowl, he sent an attendant to in- 
quire what was his business, when he was informed that he was 
seeking olL On hearing this the prince called him to his palace, 
and filling a golden vessel with oil of white mustard seed, Sid- 
h&rttha put it upon his head, saying at the same time, ' By vir- 
tue of tms act may I hereafter become a Buddh ; and as this is 
sidhfirttha oil, may my name in that birth be Sidhlirttha. ' " * The 
Brahmins collected at the festival upon his birth said : " This 
priniee will hereafter be a blessing to the world — sidhatta ; to him- 
selt also will be great prosperity ;" In consequence of which he 
was called Sidh^rtta. 

8. Bdow the highest sphere four Begents sit : — The following 
description of these spheres and their inhabitants, from Wilson's 
Vishnu Purina, vol. ii, 261, gives the best idea of the Hindu 
heavens : "On the Lok&loka mountain reside the four holy pro- 
tectors of the world, or Sudhiman and Sankhap&d (the two sons 
of Eardama), and Hir&nyaroman, and Ketumat. Unaffected by 
the contrasts of existence, void of selfishness, active and unen- 
'^umbered by dependents, they take charge of the spheres, them- 

ilves abiding on the four* cardinal points of the Lok&loka 


** On the south of Agastya, and south of the line of the Goat, 

cterior to the Vaiswanara path, lies the road of the Pitris. There 

* Manual of Bnddhism, page M. 

great Rishfs— In Ursa Major— the offloora of oblations 
MTeKUcilig tliB Vedss, after whose injunctioiui creation 
d, and who were diecharglug the duties of ministrant 
?'or as the worlds are deetrojed and renewed the? insti- 
'ales of conduct and re-eBtabllsh the interrupted ritual 
]as, Mutaall? descending from each other, progenitor 
from descendant, and descendant from progenitor, in 
ating succession of births, tkej repeatedlj appear in 
lOuses and races — along with poateritj, derout practices 
it«d observances — residing to the Boath of the solar orb. 
the moon and stars endure. 

lath of the gods Ilea to the north of the solar epber^ 
l4&gaTftb{ — Ariea and Taurus — and south of the seven 
raa Major. There dwell Siddhas, of subdued aenses. 
and pure, undesirous of progeny, and, therefore. 

; they enjoy immortality, for they are holy, 
om covetonsntes and concapiscence, love and hatred ; 
part in the procreation of living beings ; and detecting 
ity of the properties of elementary matter. By Immoi^ 
eant eiistsnce to the end of the kalpa. Life as long 
me regions — earth, sky and heaven—last is called es- 
'om reiterated death. 

Eace between the seven EisMs and Dhrnva— from Ursa 
a polar star — the third region of the sky, is the splen- 
lal path of Vishnu, and tue abode of those sanctiBed 
lio are cleansed from every evil, and in wliom virtue 
re annihilated. This is that excellent place of Tishnu 
hose repair in whom all sources of pain are extinct. In 
ce of the ceasation of — the conaequenoes of — piety or 
md where thi^y never sorrow any more. There abide 
>hruva and other spectators of the world, radiant with 
luman faculties of Vishnu acquired througli religious 
. ; and tliere are fastened and inwoven, too, all that is, 
it ever shaU be, animate or inanimate." 
« ten thouiand yeavt: — A year of the seven Blshls is 

The sacred books do not agree in givi 
" aclid 

The Mahfibiifirata has three lists, eacli diifering. Mr. 
intlona seven other authorities, each of which gives dif- 
nes. Ootam^ name appears la some, but is omitted 

The Vishnu Purina mentions three kinds of lUslifs, 
bts — or sages who are demi-gods also, as N4rada — Brfih- 
I — or sages wlio are sons of Br&hm4 or Brilimins, aa 

and others — and roysl Rishla. or princes who have 
Ife of devotion, as Viswaiuitra and Buddha, or Uotamk 

NOTES. 187 

6. Fhe mvre dgns of Urth ;— Mr. Spence Hardy mentions but 
foar. ''1. His garments lose their appearance of parity. 2. 
The garlands and ornaments on his body begin to fade. 8. The 
body emits a kind of perspiration, like a tree covered with dew. 
4. The mansion in which he resided loses its attractiveness and 
beanty." The same sifrna, as distinguishing gods from men, are 
spoken of in the Mah&bh^jrata that was composed many centuries 
biefore the Buddhist era. At the Swayamvara, or tournament of 
the beautiful Damayanti, " she glanced around her at the glitter- 
inff crowd of suitors, and saw in her dismay that there were five 
Nalas in the hall, for each of the four bright gods had taken 
upon himself the form of N41a. And Damayanti trembled with 
fear, and after a while slie folded her hands in reverence to the 
gods, and said in sad and humble tones : ' Since I heard the lan- 
guage of the swan I have chosen N41a for my lord, and have thought 
of no other husband. Therefore, gods, I pray you that you re- 
sume your own immortal shapes and reveal N&la to me, that I may 
choose him for my lord in the presence of all.' And the gods 
heard the piteous prayer of Damayanti, and they wondered at her 
steadfast truth and fervent love ; and straightway they revealed 
the tokens of their godhead. Then Damayanti ' saw the four 
bright gods, and knew that they were not mortal heroes, for their 
feet touched not the earth, and their eyes winked not ; and no 
perspiration hung upon their brows, nor dust upon their raiment, 
and their garlands were as fresh as if the flowers were just gath- 
ered. And Damayanti also saw the true N&la, for he stood before 
her with shadow falling to the ground, and twinkling eyes, and 
drooping garland ; and moisture was on his brow, and dust upon 
his raiment ; and she knew that he was N&la. Then she went in 
all maidenly modesty to N41a, and took the hem of his garment, 
and threw a wreath of radiant flowers round his neck, and thus 
chose him for her lord.'' * 

6. Dewu ;-^ods, or bright ones. 

7. Sdkycba : — This name has no place in Hindu mythology or 
geography ; they are supposed to have been a people living on the 
border of Nep41, and formerly called Okkaka. 

8. BuddMdana : — He whose food is pure. 

9. Maydt the Queen : — Illusion, sometimes called Mah& M&ya — 
great illusion, or Deve M6ya — Divine illusion. 

10. An eU/phatU ;— In Burmah it is believed that Buddha, in his 
nifold transmigrations, must necessarily delight to abide for 
me time in that grand incarnation of purity which they consider 
presented by the white elephant. While the bonzes teach that 
»re is no spot in the heavens above, or the earth below, or the 

• Wlweler*8 History of India, voL i, 484. 

f ■■ 

1 88 NOTES. 

waters under the earth, wliicli is not yis;tted in the peregrin, 
ations of Buddha — ^whose every step or «tage is towardpari- 
fication — they hold that his tarrring may be longer in the white 
elephant thiui in any other abode, and that in possession of the 
sacred animal they may possess the presence of Buddha him 

11. Vahuka : — The cow on whose horn the earth rests ; when 
tired she tosses her burden to the other horn, hence earth- 
quakes. Hindu geography states that this cow stands on an 
elephant, the elephant on a tortoise, the tortoise on — '*who 

12. And owrhaff the earth a Uyody light 

Forewent ths fnorn. The st/rong hiUe shook ; the waves 
j8ank luUed ; aU ftimere that blow by day tame forth 
As *twere high noon ; down to thsfaHhegt heUs 
y Passed the Queen's joy, as when warm sunshine thriUe 

Wood-glooms to gold, and into aU the deeps 
"* A tender whisper pierced, 

Mr. Hardy, in the Manual of Buddhism, enumerates thirty- 
two jrreat wonders that occurred at the time of conception. " The 
10,000 sakwalas — systems of worlds — ^trembled at once ; there 
was in each a preternatural light, so that they were all equally 
illuminated at the same moment ; the blind from their birth re- 
ceived power to see ; the deaf heard the joyful noise ; the dumb 
burst forth into songfis ; the lame danced ; the crooked became 
straight ; those in confinement were released from bonds ; the fires 
of all the hells were extinguished, so that they became coo} as 
water, and the bodies of all therein were as pillars of ice ; the 
thirst of pretas — famished spirits — and the hunger of all other 
beings was appeased ; the fears of the terrified fled away ; the dis- 
eases of the sick were cured ; all beings forgot their enmity to 
each other ; bulls and buffaloes roared in triumph ; horses, asses 
and elephants joined in the acclidm ; lions sent forth the thunder 
of their voices ; instruments of music spontaneously uttered 
sounds ; the devas put on their most splendid ornaments ; in all 
countries lamps were lighted of themselves ; the winds were 
loaded with perfumes ; cToads arose though it was. not the season 
of rain, and the whole of the 10,000 ss^walas were watered at 
once ; the earth opened, and fountains of water sprang up in 
various places * the flight of the birds was arrested as they passed 
through the air ; the stream of the rivers was stopped, as if to look 
at Bodhisat ; the waves of the sea became placid, and its waters 
sweet ; the whole surface of the ocean was covered with flowers ; 
the buds upon the land and the water became fully expanded ; 
every creeper and tree was covered with flowers from the root to 
the top ; the rocks abounded with the seven species of water 

NOTES. 189 

lilies ; even beams of dry wood put forth flowers, so that the 
earth resembled one extensive garden ; the sky was covered as with 
a floral canopy, and flowers were showered from the heavens ; the 
10,000 ss^walas were all thus covered alike ; and great favors were 
everywhere received.*' 

Similar manifestations are frequently recorded in Hindu writ- 
ings, with this difference, however : they are seldom narrated at 
such length as in Buddhist writings, and lack the all-pervading 
element of peace and happy accord. In either Vedic or Brdhmin- 
ical traditions, some enemy almost invariably appears to mar the 

13. The gray d/ream-readers : — Br&hmins who make the inter- 
pretation of dreams and the understanding of the mysteries of 
astrology specialties. 

14. The Grab is in conjunction with the Sun : — ^The event occurred 
on the day of the full moon of the month JEs&la. — July, August. 

15. Paisa : — Satin tree. 

The marks, thirty and two, of blessed Hrth : — ^Marks of Vishnu, 
some of them as follows : *' The feet of Buddha were like two 
golden sandals. There was a chakra, or wheel, in the center of 
the sole. The palms and soles appeared like richly ornamented 
windows. BLis body did not collect dust or dirt, as the lotus is 
not defiled by the mud in the midst of which it grows. His teeth 
shone like the stars of a constellation. His tongue was so long 
that by putting it out he could touch his forehead, or the orifices 
of his ears. His eyes were biue, and sparkled like sapphires. 
Upon his forehead was a lock of haijr curling toward the right." 

16. Palanquin : — See illustration in Webster's Unabridged. 

17. Were the four Begents of the Earth, come down 
Prom Mount Sumeru. 

The Vedas name the following as regents of the four quarters : 
Kuvera, the regent of the ^rth, and god of riohes ; -»Yama, 
regent of the South, and judge of the dead ; Indr&, regent 
of the East, and god of the cfouds or heaven ; Varuna, regent of the 
West, and god of the ocean or waters. In Buddhist writings their 
names are Dhratar&shtra, Wirudha, Wirupaksha andjWaisrawana. 
The attendants of each number a hundred thousand times ten 
millions. Mount Sumeru is described in Hindu geography as a 
sacred mountain composed of gold and gems, situated somewhere in 
the center of the earth, whicli they suppose to be flat like a round 
table. Sumeru is the residence of the gods, is broader at the top 
than at the base, and is yet undiscovered by man. Around this 
mount is our earth, surrounded by an ocean of saJt water of the 
same diameter as the earth. Surrounding this, in regular suc- 
ceasion, always doubling the diameter, are seven circular islands 
lad ooeans: 1st ooean, salt water, HA milk, 8d curds, 4th melted 




190 NOTES. 

butter, 5t1i sugar-cane juice, 6tli honey, 7tli fresh water. 
Hindu authorities differ greatly in descriptions of Mount Sumeru ; 
no two agree as to its shape and dimensions. The Buddhists of 
Ceylon claim that Sumeru is of the same diameter throughout. 
Those of Nep&l conceive it to be shaped like an Indian drum. 

18. Kunibhandaa: — One of the signs of the Indian Zodiac is 
Kuqibh&, a white man holding a water jar. These are of 
immense size and disgusting form. 

NdgoB : — are serpent deities. The upper half of their bodies 
is of human form, the lower serpent. They dwell in Pat&la, 
below the earth, a place of sens.ual pleasures, and lighted by 
resplendent gems. The origin of the mythological N&gas is 
shrouded in much mystery. A powerful Scythian race in ancient 
times lived in the mountainous regions, and worshiped the snake 
as a national deity, adopting it as a national emblem ; and from 
these circumstances seems to have been derived the name of 
N&gas or serpents. These N&gas made constant raids upon the 
Brahminical nations, inspiring them with terror and an abject 
fear, that led them to worship, in hope of appeasing, the god of 
their enemies. The N&gas as a people have almost entirely dis- 
appeared from India, but the myth and the old fear remain. In 
the latter part of August a day is held sacred to snakes and 
numerous religious fairs are held for their special worship. On 
that day the women pour milk into snake holes, the doors of 
houses are smeared with cow-dung and neem leaves as a preserva- 
tive against poisonous snakes ; and in Ben&res is a well, called a 
snake well, where people bathe. 

19. TaJcshas : — ^Br&hm&, in one stage of the creation, produced 
beings hunger bitten, hideous and long-bearded. Some of these 
cried out, " Oh, preserve us \" and hence were called Bal^has, 
from rakh to preserve ; others cried, '' Let us eat I " and hence 
were termed Yakshas, from yaksh to eat. They are demi-gods 
with few peculiar attributes, and are regarded only as the compan- 
ions or attendants of Kuver&, the god of wealth. Occasionally 
they appear as the imps of evil, but in general their character is 

20. For Rewom toaaflUed with gladness for Ea/cth's sake. The 
legend says that the Mah& Br&m^ls— chief divinities— of the 
10,000 sakwalas — system of worlds — brought umbrellas twelve 
miles high, to be held over the infant's head as a'^anopy, tind the 

fods and men of each of these systems brought flowers, golden cas- 
ets, tiaras, frontlets, perfumes, red sandal- wood, and other gifts, 
while they acknowledged Buddha's supremacy. The thirty-two 
wonders seen at the time of his conception were also repeated. 

21. GJiakramartin : — A wheel king, one of the twelve universal 
monarchs who arise at long distant periods to rule the. eutiie 



NOTES. 191 


world. Professor Wilson translates it, ** He wlio abides in, or 
rules over, an extensive territory called a chakra." 

23. The chcLhror-ratna : — ^A chakra is a radiated Qietallic ring 
nsed as a missile weapon ; it was thrown while revolving rapidly 
on a rod, and was a most dangerous weapon in ancient warfare, as 
its sharp edge cut in pieces anything with which it came in con- 
tact. The chakra is the discus of Vishnu, his distinguishing 
weapon. Batna signifies a gem, and is used adjectively, or as we 
sometimes say, " a gem of a horse," or ** a gem of a wife." The 
chakravariin, having arrived at a suitable a^e, reflects upon the 
merit he has gained in former existences, wnen the ^ven gifts 
appear, one after another in the air, and having performed 
marvels, take up their abode in his palace. The chakra was 
ultimately converted into the prayer wheel of the Buddhists. 

28. Aswa: — Horse. 

24. JScuti: — Elephant. 
26. J«<rC;— Wife. 

26. the isays were swept :— In the larger cities of India, 

gangs of men are constantly employed to sweep the principal 
streets daily, which they do for their entire length and breadth, 
with brooms about two feet long, made of bamboo splints and 
without handles. On the occasion of the advent of a prince or 
other notable, his route is ascertained beforehand and carefully 
swept. When the Governor General, Sir John Lawrence, entered 
Lucknow in 1867, the road for three miles between the depot and 
the Besidency, the place of reception, was swept on the morning 
of his arrival, and sprinkled by men who carried the water in 
great skins on their backs. That rose odors were not added to the 
water, the natives would set down to what they consider the parsi- 
mony of the English, in making arrangements for display on court 

27. lamps and flags : — ^The lamps are usually tiny earthen 

saucers filled with oil and a lighted wick set in one side, or on 
^rand occasions, talq bowls are half filled with water, on which 
floats oil and a lighted wick. Hundreds and thousands of the lights 
are used with wonderful effect. The flags are generally of gold or 
silver tinseL 

28. w7i^ merry erotods 

Gaped on the sword-players. 

The itinerant tricksters who appear on such occasions f>erf orm in 
»he open air, without screens or admission fee, hence all may wit- 
ness the sports. Persons of wealth or rank frequently make it a 
point to fee. the x)erformer, while the poorer spectators exclaim at 
their greatness and benevolence. The sword-players are simply 
narvelous in their dexterous use of sharp weapons. While per- 
forming, they wear only a turban, and a piece of cloth about the 


) of their prindpftl feats 1b to keep ffraT or five luge 
Dives spinning' In the air for Ave minutes or more 

is cauglit ia its descent and tossed witli such accaracj 
listance between the fljinj knives differs searcelj t, 

fugglwt : — seldom have more than two or three men In 
The; curiy a couple of njond shallow covered baskets 

a pole. Their dress is scant; and without sleevea. 

neither curtains, nor tents, nor closets for, retirement, 
til their simple outfits the; are able to peifonn wondera 

TiaiUch-girla in their gpangled alarU and Mil. Danring 
lir skirts are often broidered or sewn thick with gold 
angles, and their veils are trequentl; set close round 
with mirrors, each about an inch in diameter. Tin; 
hape of fruits or blossoms are strung around their 
worn on their toe rings. 

Bringing, im tidaig» of tMt Mrth, rich g\fU 
In golden tray a. 
Stom lu India that none dare neglect to send presents to 
len aim; is first born. These are alwa;B carried on sbal 
nsuall; of brass, but. if possible, of richer metaL 
-ihaaii : — These sbawls are made of the soft hair of 
are goat, and are often of such fine and delicate texture 
wl two ;ardB Square can I>e drawn through a finger 

I : — Spikenard, being a native of India, is mnob used as 

;wM ." — Tnrquots. 

I .- — is a name not common In Hindu mjrtholog; or hia- 
ems to have alwajs been borne b; men of iaon thaa 
it; and understanding. In the Vishnu Pai&na, Aslta la 
re commnnicated to Janaka the following stanzas that 
»d b; the earth. " How great is the foil; of pilnees, 
dowed with the facult; of reason, to cherish the con- 
hmbitiou, when the; themselves are but foam upon the 
tore the; subdue themsulves the; seek to reduce their 
their servants, their subjects, nnder their authorit; ; 
endeavor to overcome tlieir foes. ' Thus,' sa; the;, 
conquer the ocean-encircled earth;' and intent upon 
lA, behold not death, which is not far oft. But what 
tter is the subjugation of the sea-girt earth to one who 
• himself 1 Emancipation from existence is the fruit of 
L It is through infatuation that kings desire to poaseas 
their predecessors have been forced to leave, wl>om 
ffi have not retained. Beguiled bj the aeUsh lore of 

NOTES. 193 

swEy, fathers contend with sons, and brothers with brothers, for 
mj possession. Foolishness has been the character of every king 
who has boasted, * All this earth is mine— everything is mine — ^it 
wiU be my home forever ; * for he is dead. How is it possible that 
such vain desires should survive in the hearts of his descendants, 
who have seen their progenitor, absorbed in the thirst of domin- 
ion, compelled to relinquish me, whom he called his own, and 
tread the path of dissolution ? When I hear a king sending word 
to another, by his ambassador, * This earth is mine ; immediately 
i*esign your pretensions to it,' T am moved to violent laughter, at 
first, but it subsides in pity for the infatuated fool." 

This wisdom, in truth, can scarcely be accredited to the Asita of 
the poem, but is certainly worthy of the man who, without fault, 
was prime minister to the king of one generation, the trusted 
adviser of the second, and saint, in the time of Buddha, of the 
^ird generation. If the legend were true, there would be small 
wonder that Asita heard Devas singing, deaf as he was ; for it is 
said that at the time of Buddha's birth the Sekras brought conches 
one hundred and twenty cubits long, the blast of which rolled on 
without ceasing during four and a half months, and the Pan- 
diasikas brought harps twelve miles long. 

36. — « thereupon he touched 

Eight times me dust. 

Before the supreme teachers obeisance must be made by the 
prostration of the body, with the application of eight parts: the 
forehead, eyes, breast, hands, knees and insteps of the feet, words 
and mind to the ground. 

37. — the rosy light : — Aureole. 

38. — the foot-sole marks: — The telling of fortimes in India 
by the lines upon the soles of the feet corresponds to 
palmistry in Europe and America ; the fortunate signs are, a 
wheel with many spokes, an umbrella, an elephant s trunk, a 
lotus. Mount Meru, the sun, the moon, a tiger, mystic crosses and 
many other imaginary representations. 

39. 2he Swastika : — ^Mystical figure, the inscription of which 
on any person or thing is generally considered to be lucky. 
Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary. In the Vishnu Pur&na it is de- 
scribed as "a particular diagram used in mystical ceremonies." 
" This figure is found in many magical diagrams, and in Run/'c 

scriptions and amulets ; it is the hammer of Thor ; it is seen m 
ne ancient Etruscan vases that were dug up at Rome in 1817. It is 
K) very commonly seen on the ancient coins that were struck 
the Buddhist monarchs of India."* 

* Kanoal of Buddhism, page 881. 


JJie aaered mimal rigns tMrtg tmd too. 
The eighig tetter tokens. 
.Hardy enumemtes all these Btgns and tskaus, abo 
krger part ot two hundred and sliteeu inferior muks. 'Tbe 
ition of theee would be tedious and profitlees. The f<Jlow- 
lescription of a Jain saint adequateW conveys tlie idaa: 
,ttty of form, fragrance of his body, the white color of his 
, curling hair, and its non-increase, also that of the beard 
itdls, his ezemptioD from all natural iafirmitiea and decay; 

qualities a>« bom with him. He can collect around him 
>DB of beings — gods, men and animals— in a oompafattvely 

space ; his voice is audible to a great distance, and his 
lage. which is Arddlia, M&gadhA, is intelligible to. animals, 
md gods. The back of his head is surrounded by a halo of 
brighter than the disk of the sun. For an immense distance 
id Mm, wherever he moves, aeither sickness, stonus. war, 
roubles of any sort occur. Other attributes, or maAs of 
lu, are of a celeetial oriKin, as the rftiniug' of flowers, 
mes, the sound of heaven^ drums, and the menial offices 
red by Indrfi, and the gods. " * 

This ii that Bioemrm on our human tree 
Wh^h opens once in manj/ myriad years. 
idhists and Hmdus both believe that our earth has been 
id and d^troyed many times. In the process of creation 

part where the sacred tree of Buddha is to appear is the 
ipot of earth that is found, as it is the last spot destroytMl 
e end of a kalpa. To point out this place a lotus appears ; 
f a Buddha is to be bom in that kalpa a flower will be 
ided; but if there is to be no Buddha there wUL 

:- a »ieord mw«( pieree 

Thy hmedi for thi» boy, 
a ts addressed to the father, and signifies that he must 
bitter disappointment in not seeing his son become a 
avartin, or universal monarch. 

wAifef (Sow, Koeet Queen t 

Sear to all god» a/nd men. for thit great Mrtk, 
Menc^orih art groum, too taered for more vim. 
And life i» woe, tlier^ore in tenen dayt 
Painlegg Gum ahaU attain the dose of pain. 
I reward of becoming the mother of a Buddha is to he trans. 
In seven days thereafter to a liighest heaven. The mothers 
;h of the thousands of Buddhas that are supposed. lO'.have 
red have all died on the seventh day after the birth. 

>, vol. i, 089. 

notes;': 195 < 

44^ TWlSfasMntikag^ Eemmi-^The nitimftte abodes whose 
dveUers are Hberated and escaped from all daQgeTa:of';eartli.i 

40. MdhdprafSpaiti : — This princess and MahSmd^ia were sisters, 
and bolh queens of Saddbodana^ On the daj «he was named, the 
diviners saw thai she would be the mother or mother-m*law of .a. 
chakravartin, so called her Praj&pati — lord of the world. As 
children > the sisters were of remarkable merit . No intozdcating . 
liquor touched their lips ; even in play they never told an untruth > 
or killed fevenan insect ; as queens /'they lived together like two 
* Biikant&was in one lotus flower.r This, princess was the first wo- 
man admitted to holy orders, and the first of • Buddha's diadples to 
enter Nirvana. The legend tells of a hundred royal wet*nurses, 
all without blemish and of perfect form; aBda hundred and sixt^ 
thousand attendadit princes. 

46. When tK eighth year passed ;^^The sons of Brdhmins and the 
ruling classes are invested, withthe sacred cord, and taught for the 
first certain sacred syllables and: prayers when about, nine years 
of age. 

47. Visioa/mitTa : — The ^nanoie of the author of the hymns in the 
third Rig Veda, composed aboat 1500 b. G> Another Viswamitra 
was an ancient pHnev: of 'the warrior caste who opposed Br&h- 

48. Odyatri : — Sacred meter, peculiar to certain of the Vedas, 
or a verse from the Vedas. Williams' Sanskrit <3h»mmar defines 
it "as consisting of a triplet of three divisions of eight syllables 
each, or six feet of four syllables each, and generally printed in 
one line ; the quantity of each syllable is very irregular. The fol- 
lowing verse exhibits the most usual quantities : 

.... |u—u. I |u— u. I ....u— u.r* 

The giyatrf in the poem for three thousand years has held its 

place as the most sacred sentence in Hindu literature/ and is the 

prayer recited' daily by thousands of. devout Hindus. The most 

iLSTial translation is the following: "Om,. earth, sky, heavens. 

We meditate on that adoraUe light of the resplendent sun, may it 

direct our intellects." It .occurs in. the third book of the Rig 

Veda. The last hymn in. this book.consists'of six prayers; the 

one containing the gayatri is as follows : ** This new and excellent 

praise of thee, O splendid, playful .sun,, is offered by us to thee. 

Be gratified by this my speech. Approach this craving mind as a 

''^nd man* seeks a woman. May that sun. who contemplates and 

>ks into all worlds be our protection. Let us meditate on the 

arable' light of the divine ruler ; may it guide our intellects. 

sirous of food, we solicit the gift of . the splendid sun, who 

3uld be studiously worshiped. . Venerable men, guided by un- 

stsnding, salute the divine sun with oblations a,nd praise/' * 

* Hand-book of Sanskrit Idterature. 


a gSjatrl Is personlflsd aa the wife of Brihm&. The Br&li- 
rho pronoances the giyatrf is absolved from all slu. " By 
lie repetition of theg&yatrl, a priest may indabitablj attaiiii 
nde, let him perform or not perform anyother religious act."" 
■ronun, Budra — low caste person or barbarian — who should 
prtwoiince the sacred words of the gfiyatrf, it is bellsTed 
1 bring upon herself the most si^oal punishment from 

Aehdrya : — A reli^ons teacher, " That priest who girds his 

with the sacrifidal cord, and afterwards instructs hUn in the ■ 
I Yeda, with the law of sacrifice, uid the sacred Upanishads, 
lafes <»11 an Aah&Tja, " | 

Ifdgri : — Language of the northern Hindus. 

Sakthwi : — Language of the soutbem Hindno. 

JW .■— Language of the Porta. 

Mongol : — Language of the Tartars. 

Panaha : — language of the Ailcieata. ' 

Ytyiia .'—Language of Moderns. 

TirtM : — language of the Pilgrims. 

JTk .'^Language of the Herons. 

Barad : — Language of modem Qnnehar. 

Bikhydiii : — Language of the Teachers. 

Mana : — Language of the Sages. 

MadhmteAdr : — Intelligible to men and anlnuls. 

And tho»e wAo fiame adore and the «un'» orb : — Perdans. 

ZaAA.-— 100,000. 

7 earthly method of computation would fail entirely to 
y in figures the sums of the boy's numeration. All the 
r of all the worlds counted in molecules could not express 
inkya. The reader may obtain some idea of its magnitude 
i following table : 

isa or dec«nninmB make . . .1 saa or hundred 

ins or hnndreds " 1 haz&r or thousand 

kzflrsor thousands " 1 lakh 

hks " 1 koti or kela 

khs of kotls " 1 prakoti 

iti of prakotis " 1 kotiprakotl 

itl of kotiprakotls " 1 nahnta 

>tiof nahntas " 1 ninnahnta 

>tl of ninnahutas " I hutauahuta 

HI of hutanahntas " 1 khamba 

)tl of khambas ■* 1 wiekhamba 

jti of wiskhombas " 1 abada 

>tlot abadas " lattata 

•LawB ot Mbdd, No. ST. 
1 Laos of Uanu, No. 140. 

NOTES. 197 

1 koU of attatas make 1 alialia 

I koti of ahahas.. " 1 kumuda 

1 koti of komudas '' 1 gandliika 

1 koti of gandhikas. . . ., ** 1 utpala 

1 koti of utpalas " 1 puudarika 

1 koti of pundarikas ** 1 paduma 

1 koti of padmnas ** 1 katlia 

1 koti of kathas '* 1 malia katM 

llLoti of maha katMs " 1 asankya^ 

An asankja -could be represented by one hundred and twenty- 
nine figures. 

64. Antah-Kalpas : — A kalpa is a measure of time indicating 
eternity. A kalpa represents a day and a night of the god 
Brahm, or the time of the creation of the world, and the time of 
its extinction until the creation of another world. The length of 
a kalpa is thus described : '' Take a rock forming a cube of about 
sixteen miles, touch it once in a hundred years with the finest 
piece of cloth, and the rock will sooner be reduced to dust than a 
kalpa shall end." Another definition is : "A palya or kalpa is a 
period measured by the time in which a vast well, eight hundred 
miles every way, filled witli minute hairs so closely packed that a 
river hurried over them without penetrating the interstices could 
be emptied at the rate of one hair a century, f Were the earth to 
increase in elevation one inch in a century, the elevation would 
extend to twenty-eight miles before an antah-kalpa would be 
concluded." " Twenty antah-kalpas make an asankya-kalpa ; four 
asankya-kalpas make a maha-kalpa." 

65. 0<>r ;— 10,000,000. 

66. Paramanus : — The invisible base of all aggregate bodies. 

67. Parcuukshma : — Fairy atom. 

68. 7}ra9arene : — Ten trasarenes make one particle of dust. 

69. LUchya : — A stroke of the pen. 

70. FwAja ;~A louse. 

71. JfttTigr ;— Pulse. 

72. A breath : — The distance to which a cooly can carry the 
native yoke, with « load attached at either end, without putting 
down the burden. 

73. Gaw : — ^Two to two and a half miles. 

74. T^ana : — The length of a yojana varies greatly — from four 
d a half miles to sixteen miles. 

rs. G^irti .—-Master. 

76. DevadaMa : — Signifies god-given, a common name in India. 

is Devadatta is one of the five persons of whom it is recorded 

* Mannal of Buddhism, p. 6. 

t Wilson's Bellgions of the Hindus, vol. i, 808. 

mt to nUBft&^heU; HIsoffflnM waHtttatli64enpted'Bome 

loUowers of Bnddha to foisake him, and f^U into b«nKj. 

Hoan: — Court. 

L hooded tnake : — Cobn. 

— tht pUe pimet for me :-—Gt%rMt\(m, 

n the mansotprayi ; — The mango ia a sproadlDg tree of 

rowth, thirtT to forty feet in height, the Btem oAy rising 

r ten feet before it divides into brtuichefl. The Aitk glossy 

aboDt eight inches in length, have a Bw«et reatnons smell. 

so denselj set as to be impenetiable to the sun^ bumio); 

id form a most gratefnl shade. The f rnit is abundant and 

■anJtird» : — Paroquets; 
fyticu : — Indian robin. 

'grtt : — A dark, plain pi nmagod bird, that isacoaataBtcom- 
at the black, luurlees, domestic buifaio. 
]}Myut tA« pa^tted templt peaiMckt fiev> : — The Hindu temples 
ttof brick and stnoooed over with a' white cement. Its 
Wtitaoo ia gMlf omamonted with outlined paintlugB of 
lots, eaerod Miiin«h and geometrio desiifn?. PsacecEs are 
red samed, and often belong to temples. 
7ubittedoi)6»eoofdfi-07n m>ery uM: — Tliewel]»u« 'built ap 
de miaonry ourbs, on the top of which are little ehallows 
ng the roand water jars. The water gathers in .these shal- 
id from thorn the birds drink, in the temporar; wells, 
he sand, doves build their nesta in the holes m the aides. 
'UU^B drums : — are the constant attendants of feasts, and 
ten almost without cesaation, night and day, doriiig tbe 
'ee or four days of feasting. 
WfriiJ -■ — Nightingale. 

W)Ait-tree .* — In Jambudwipa, s fabnlons ooontry supposed 
mth of Mount Sumeni, is a wonderful tree called the 
ree. It is one thousand miles Iilgh, covers a space three 
d miles in circumference, and b^ra continually a golden 
large as a water vessel capable of holding siiteeti gallons. 
ible probably arises in an exageperated account of a pine 
e deodar, god wood— found in the Him&laya mountains. 
I to great size, and bears catkins of a bright yellow color in 
trfuwon. The wind shakes from these a golden dust that 
lly sheets the ground with gold forsome distance about the 
The deodar pine, however, grows only on the mountains 
evation of seven thousand feet or higiier, and could not 
at EapOavastu on the hot, d^ plain. The introdnotian of 
bu-tiee in the poem, though allowed by poetic license, 

liardlyiaoeaids with fact. A inlmbu, - ot lemon: trQe^^more: probably 
shaded the ytf ung philosopher. 

89. Dhyana : — Contemplation, the first of the four stages to- 
ward Baddhihood . 
/90. BiM% :^^u3xXa. 


1. (7^ampaiE» /—Trees bearing gold colored flowers so exoeeding- 
I7 fragrant that the bees seldom alight on them. The .timber is 
used in ship building. The tree is sacred to Vishnu. MicheUa 

2. 8uhha : — Pleasant or spring palace. 

3. Bwramma : — ^Winter palace. 

4. Ramma : — Summer palace. 
6. Mahdraja : — Great prince. 

6. Ba/ratingh : — Great-homed deer. 

7, Command afesHval 

Where the realm* a maids shall be competitors 
In youth and grace. 

In Vedic times the daughters of princes had the choice of a hus- 
band from a crowd of candidates for her hand, or was given. as a 
prize to that warrior who proved most skillful in the use of the 
bow. In Buddha's case he seems to have been given the choice 
first, and showed his prowess afterward. This day of ch<Hce by 
a maiden was called her Swayamvara. The description of the 
young R&jas — princes — as they appeared at the Swayamvara of 
Damayanti, is a fine companion picture to Mr. Arnold's picture of 
the Kapilavastu maidens. 

•* At length the day of happy omen, the great day of the Sway- 
amvara of Damayanti, dawned upon the city of Vidharba. And all 
the Rajas, sick with love, passed through the glittering portals, 
and the court of great columns, and entered the Hall of State, like 
lions entering their mountain lairs. And all the Rajas were 
adorned with fragrant garlands, and rich earrings of costly gems 
were hanging from their ears. And some had long arms, ro- 
bust and vigorous as the ponderous battle-mace; whilst others 
were soft and delicately rounded as a smooth serpent. With 
"'right and flowing hair, and arched eyebrows, their faces were* as 
ftdiant as the stars ; and they filled the Hall of ■ State, as the ser- 
ents fill the under world, or as tigers fill the caves an the moun- 
dns. But when Damayanti entered the hall, every eye was fixed, 
id every soul entranced, at her dazzling loveliness ; and all the 
ijas gazed upon her beauty and were stricken with deep and 

200 NOTES. 

passionftte derire. Then the name of every R&ja was proclaimed 
aloud, and Damajanti glanced Around at the glittering crowd of 

8. KapUofoastu : — ^Buddha's birthplace, situated a little north of 
Goruckp^, in the eastern part of the province of Kos41a. It was 
on the Rohini river, that empties into the Raptl. 

9. Soorma-stick : — Pencil of lead used to darken the eyelashes. 

10. Slender hands and feet new-stained 
With crimson. 

The women of India still follow the fashion of coloring the 
palms of their hands and soles of their feet with henna. 

11. TUka-spots : — A bit of gold tinsel, or a stamp of colored 
powder, worn between the eyebrows. 

liL Tasddhara : — was born on the same day -as Buddha, and 
fore-ordained to be his queen. The horse Kantaka, the nobleman 
Ghanna, the personal attendant Ananda, and the messenger Udayi, 
were all bom at the time of Buddha's birth. 

13. Pan'wti : — was the wife of Shiv, one of the Hindu trinity. 
Her gait was like that of an elephant, gently swaying from side to 
side, a style that is greatly admired in India. 

14. Tamun : — The river Jumna that flows past Agra and Delhi. 

15. NandadefGi : — A sacred peak of the Hiimllayas. 

16. Arcana : — ^Named for one of India's great warriors. 

17. Nanda : — ^Named for a god. 

18. Maiddn : — Plain, or park. 

19. With music : — The instruments accompanying wedding pro- 
cessions are mostly drums and horns. Of a list of thirty-five 
musical i(istruments given in an Indian hand-book, ten are varie- 
ties of drums, eleven are stringed instruments, mostly stringed 
gourds, and eight are horns or pipes ; the remaining six are cym- 
bals and smaller instruments. The singers all sing one part, as 
harmony is unknown to the Hindus ; many of their melodies, 
however, are pleasing, and if introduced to the Western world, 
Avould become popular. 

20. and with Utters gaily dighi. 

And gold-homed oxen, flower-capoHsoned. 

The wedding color is red, usually that known as " Turkey red." 
The bride is, if possible, dressed in red silk ; the palanquins are 
hung around with red, also the carriages. The horns of the 
oxen are gilded or colored with red ; also their tails and hoofs ; 
also the manes, tails and hoof s of horses that may be in the pro- 
cession ; bells are hung upon the carriage- wheels, and garlands of 
strung jasmine blossoms are put about the necks of the oxen. 

31. Ten gows : — Twenty miles. 

* Wheeler^s History of India, toI. i, 483. 


NOTES. 20 1 

23. A eowry-sheU : — ^is about two-tHrds of an incn in length. 

23. Gold M/ri: — A large veil nearly enwrapping the whole 

24. 8inhahd/mu*B how : — The bow of his grandfather. 

25. Then the Prince, lightly leaning, herd the how : — The legend, 
with usual extravagance of description, says that SiddhSrtha took 
'' this bow that required the strength of a thousand men to bend 
it, and placing the lower end on the nail of the great toe of his 
right foot, without standing up, thrummed the string of the bow 
with lus finger nail as easily as if it were merely the bow by 
which cotton is cleaned." The vibration rolled ten thousand 
miles. Then he placed four plantain trees at the comers of a 
square, and by one flight of the arrow pierced them all. Marvel- 
ous archery is a favorite theme in the mythology, history and 
poetry of India. In the Ramdyan, the great epic poem of 
India, an archery feat even greater than this of Siddharta's is 
described. Rdma, the hero of the poem, at the winning of his 
wife Sita, used a bow which had required the combined strength 
of five thousand youths to fetch in its casket. R&ma 

" Before the thonsands of the coiurt. 
The weapon by the middle raised, 
That all the crowd in wonder gazed. 
With steadir arm the string he drew. 
Till bnrst the mighty bow in two. 
As snapped the bow in awful clang. 
Loud as the shriek of tempests rang. 
The earth affrighted shook amain, 
As when a hill is rent in twain ; 
Then senseless at the fearful sound. 
The people fell upon the ground ; 
Kone save the king, the princely pair. 
And the great saint the snock comd bear.'* 

In the Mah&bhArata several* wonderful feats of archery are 
described, but none can be more appropriately given in this con- 
nection than some extracts from the Sway am vara of Draupadi. 

" And when they reached that city they found a vast number of 
Rajas encamped, with a great host of troops and elephants, and 
multitudes of Br&hmins, Kshatriyas, traveling merchants, show- 
men and spectators. And there was set apart without the city a 
large plain inclosed by barriers, in which the R&jas were to ex- 
hibit their skill in archery ; and around the plain were many glit- 
t Ing pavilions for the lodging of the more distinguished guests, 
a I 5so raised galleries from which to behold the performances, 
i d at one end of the plain was a tall pole, and on the top of this 
p 9 was a golden fish, and below the fish was a chakra ever 
V irling round ; and the rule of the Swayamvara was, that who- 

* Methodist Qnarterly Beview, Jan. 1880. 

fc^^;:f i^^ 




ever discharged aa arrow through the chakxa at>the fiist shot, aad 
struck the eye of the c^olden fish, that maa should be thethusbaad 
of the daughter of R^a Draupada.*' 

After sixteen days of feasting, * ' the moment arrired when the 
young Princess was to exhibit herself in all her loveliness to those 
who hoped to gain her for a bride, and the beautiful damsel was 
dressed in elegant array, and adorned with radiant gems, and led 
into the arena> carrying in her hand the garland which she was 
to throw over the neck of that fortunate hero who might have the 
fortune to win her to be his wife. Then the different choirs of 
Brdhmins chanted Vedlc hynms to the glory and praise of the 
gods, and filled the heavens and the earth with the music of their 
prayers. After this, and amidst a universal silence, the Prince 
Dhrishta-dynmna, who was the brother of Draupadi, stood by the 
side of his resplendent sister, and proclaimed that whosoever shot 
the arrow through the chakra in the first attempt and struck the 
eye of the golden fish should have the Princess for his wife. 
Then the Prince told into the ears of Draupadi the name and 
lineage of every one of her suitors ; and he also told her, in the 
hearing of all, that she must place the garland round the neck of 
the man who struck the fish, and accept him for her husband from 
that day. Dhrishta-dyumna then turned to the Rajas and chief- 
tains and said, * Here stands this lady, my sister ; whoever feels 
confident in his skill and strength that he can hit the mark in a 
single trial, let him arise and fulfill the conditions of the Sway- 
am vara.' 

" At these words the Rajas arose from their seats and approached 
the pole on which the golden fish was fixed, and the chakra below 
it ever turning round, and they viewed the strong and heavy bow 
from which the arrow was to be discharged. Now every man was 
jealous of the other, and yet for a long while no chieftain would 
take up the bow, lest he should fail to bend it, and thus excite the 
laughter of the multitude. Presently a Raja stepped before his 
fellows and tried to bend the bow, but could not, and another and 
yet another essayed in like manner to string the bow, but all were 
alike nnable to do so because of its great size and strength. Then 
many of the R&jas made the attempt, and they strained themselves 
to the very uttermost, casting aside their robes and collars, and 
putting forth their whole strength, but not one amongst them, 
could bend the bow. 

**A11 this time the Pandavas — five brother princes — ^had beei 
standing amongst the crowd disguised as Brdhmins, but suddenly 
Arjuna, one of the brothers, advanced and lifted the bow, and i 
cry of astonishment ran through the assembly at seeing a Brdh 
min attempt to compete at a Swayamvara. Some there were wh 
jeered at Ajrjuna, and said, ' Shall a Br&hmin do this great thin 

^<> . ". 

NOTES. ,9Q3 

.-wliJtfliBll. ther^vAghf;^ B&ita have faifed ^:do?' *: 0^3»MrS':<ene^, 
^ XJnleBS the Br&lmiin knew his own skill and straigth^ he- w<eald 
iaot mike the essay. And all the real Br^lhmina tluittwefe pres- 
ent were fearfullest the attempt sheuld oSend the B4jas^ so that 
the H4j«s shonld give them no gifts, and they entreated Arjuna 
to withdraw ; but Arjona was heedless alike of words of blame or 
words of encourafi^iMnent/and he offered up amenta! prayer to. his 
tator Drona, and then bent the bow and drew the cord, and fitting 
the arrow to the string, he discharged it through the center of the 
ehakra, and struck the eye of the golden fish. Then a roar 
of aocliLmations arose from the vast assembly like the crash and 
roll of distant thunder, and the Br&hmins waved their scarfs in 
the greatness of their delight, and the drums imd trumpets 
filled the air with joyous music. And the beautiful Draupadi 
was filled with joy and wonder at the youth and grace of 
the hero who struck the golden fish, and she came forward as 
she had been commanded by her brother* and threw the garland 
round the neck of Arjuna and permitted him to lead her away, 
according to the rule of the Swayamvara." * 

. To the single arrow test of the earlier centuries, other feats of 
strength and skill were subsequently added ; but ultimately the 
Swayamvara was abandoned on account of the feuds and wars that 
arose from the jealousies and hatreds that these assemblies excited, 
and the custom of infant marriages was intioduced, thus preclud- 
ing such occasions of war. 

26. And eiove a Tolas-tree : — ^Palm-tree. 

27. Six Jhiffera thick: — This must be understood as the toidth of 
six fingers laid one against another, not as six fingers' length, 

28. Syces: — Grooms. 
29- Bh<U ;-^£vil spirit. 

•80. Mogra :— ^Double Arabian jasmine. 

31. Kvsd grass : — ** Every law book and almost evray poem in 
Sanskrit contains frequent allusion to the holiness of this plant, 
and in the fourth veda we have the following address to it at the 
close of a terrible incantation : ' Thee, O Dharba, the learned pro- 
claim a 'divinity not subject to age or death ; thee they call the 
armor of Indri,, the preserver of reUgions, the destroyer of enemies, 
a gem that giveth increase to the fields. At the time when the 
ocean resou^ed, when the clouds murmured, and the lightnings 
flashed, then was Dharba produced, pure as a drop of fine gold 1 ' 
Some of the leaves taper to a most acute evanescent pointy whence 
the Pandits often say of a very sharp-minded man, that his intel- 
lects are as acute as the point of a kus&leaf."f < Pandits— Hindu 
teachers— say that the kus& grass is equal in sanctity to gold, as botlr 

• Wheeler's History of India, vol. i, 119. 

t Sir Wm. Jones^ vol, ii. Essay on Plants of In^ 

Ineedfromtlieeftrth, and as gold is the chief of nwtals.Bola 

eraasss. It la especially lioly, and ie in great demand in al- 
ii tbe native offerings and religions ceremonies of the Hln- 
irticularlj in presenting nater to the tniuieB of their ancee. 
The reason of selecting it is, that the mouths of these ghosts 
mall at first that the libation offered them can onl]' ent«r by 
cured along one of these fine sharp roots. It is ooDsidered 
eirable that a man should die npon a bed of lius&. and it is 
lently the dutj of attendant relations to spread the grass on 

'hed :—lS&TBh. 

Veem : — Margosa, or bitter tree, — Melia azadirachta — or aah 
bead tree ; considered sacred, as it once had the honor of 
Jng the sun. An eminent saintTisited another saint named 
TA Achiir^a, who was supposed to have been an incarnation 
un. The two Bcunts were engaged in discussion until Eunset, 
thjakara ofFered his guest food. Neither of them could eat 
irk, so Bh£skara stopped the further descent of tbe sun, and 
him to talie up his abode in a neighboring neem tree outU 
1 should be cooked and eaten, and the sun obeTed. 
'ieiha : — The sign of Aries. 
}adi : — Cushion, throne or exalted seat. 
^ arm-thTeadi tied : — This ceremonj is conducted with 
ate and snlemnity than an; other during the marrla^ feeti- 
t consists in fastening on the right wiist of the younf^ 
3d on the left of the girl, a bit of saffron, called the kau- 

lift rie^ and attar thiwen : — During the wedding cereroo- 
hlch usually last about five dajs, two baskets, made of 
>, are placed close together ; the biide steps Into one, the 
oom Into the other. Two other baskets are brought filled 
■onnd rice ; the husband emptlfis one over the hwd of the 
ind she pours the other over him ; this they repeat nnUl 
a weary or are admonislied that It is enough. In the mar- 
t piincefl pearls and perfumes are sometimes used in placa 

seven, steps taken thriee around the fire ; — The sacred 
1 the three circuits which the young couple make aronnd 
, indicate the ratification of a mutual agreement between 
LB there is notliiag more solemn than wliat is transacted 
is element, which, among the Hindus, is the most pure of 

• HiBIto*' Misrionaiy Vai 
tAbbeltaboli' Woika.^ 


NOTES. 205 

the deities, and therefore fitter than all others to ratify the solemn 
oaths of which it is the most faithful memorial." * 

88. Mcmtras: — are variously hymns, incantations, prayers or 
ascriptions of praise to the gods. It is with great reluctance 
that the Hindus communicate these to any other than those of 
their own caste. Mr. Wilson fully understood the dislike Hindus 
have ofimparting these sacred words, and seriously doubted 
if they could be trusted even when they professed to impart 

39. Bohini : — ^A river in the eastern part of Oude. 

40. Chmga: — Ganges. 

41. Sdl : — A common timber tree, Shorea robusta. 

42. QarUM fiot/oers ;— Clusters of. 

43. Northwards soa/red 
The sUdrdesB rampg tfhuge Him(MswaU» 

This is a beautiful and most accurate description of the Him- 
alaya mountains. The closing lines 

under these the plain 

Gleamed like a praying-carpet ai the foot 

Of those dimnest altars 
are unsurpassed for truth and beauty. The combined views of the 
snowy range and the plains from the lower ranges — seven to ten 
thousand feet — are magnifioent beyond description. The specta- 
tor, looking away to the snows a hundred miles distant on the one 
hand, and over the plains for thirty or forty miles on the other, 
with hill, mountain and valley rising and falling far away to 
the east and west, has such a view as no other place on earth 

44. Badhdand Krishna and the syVoan girls: — Krishna was 
one of the nine incarnations of Vishnu, and is one of the most 
worshiped gods of India. His life was so foul that no literal 
translation of his history could be published in this country, and 
yet the story is read to persons of all ages and both sexes in 
India. Many fine sayings are attributed to Krishna, and these 
Sanskrit scholars have ^ven to the Western world ; but the parts 
most attractive to uncultivated and carnal minds are necessarily 
suppressed. Radha was the chief of his thirty thousand mis- 
tresses, and she, not his lawful wife, is always pictured and 
worshiped with him. 

45. Sita: — ^was the beautiful wife that lUlma won when he 
broke the bow that five thousand youths could scarcely carry. 
Later, when B&ma's father would have placed this, his eldest son, 
on the throne, a second wife steps in and claims the fulfillment of 
a long-forgotten promise that her son should be heir to the throne. 
B&ma, to avoid discord, and upon the advice of his father, becomes 
a hermit. 81ta insists on accompanying him, though he in the 

* Abbe Dubois* Works. ~- ' 

to6 NOTES. 

atost tender language beseeches her not to. undertake aaebtkAtd- 
ships and diBcomforts for his sake. Sita insists that ** 'where^rer 
the -husband may be, the wife must dw«ll in .the^8had\>w d£ his 
foot," and for ten years they wander in the jungie. They? visit 
the dwellings of the ntost celebrated hermits ; a femalei hermit 
named Anasuya, talks to Sita, who tells Anasuya- of heihirth^. and 
says : 

" My preceptor taught me ever to re^reMace^my mother earth, 
and to strive to be as pure and true and brave as she, and he called 
me Sita because I sprang out of a iitrrow of the- g;roaiixl." Ana- 
Buyasays: ''Thou hast indeed the courage bf- the brave earth 
mother, for thou hast not feared to £ace the seoitohin^ heat ^v and 
the biting winds, and the angry storm ; and^thouartso nAble^too, 
Sita, for thou hast lavished thy beauty on the sorrowful, and; hast 
sought to make even the pathpf exile sweet, to .thy. beloved." 
B&wan, the monstrous king of Ceylon, one.^yiinthe- absence of 
R&ma made the beautiful Sita his most. un willing -;Qaptiv.e,>imd 
carried her through the air to his capital. Sita has naught but 
bitterness for her captor, and tells him that Eama will deliver her 
and destroy him. Bdma instituted a search for her, and with the 
assistance of Hanum&n — ^the monkey god, — who took a flying leap 
of sixty miles from the mainland to Ceylon — found Sita. A 
mighty war ensued, the giant was slain, aiid Sita recovered. To 
prove her purity to R&ma, she passed through a iire ordeal,, and 
ever since her name has been the synonym for wifely constancy 
and noble devotion. 

46. Draupadi : — was the mtuden won by Arjuna^' who shot the 
fish through the whirling chakra. By the unfortunate exehmia- 
tion of his mother, who, on being told by the. brothers that ^they 
had made a fine acquisition, said, ''Go «Lnd- share it, you five 
brothers, aanongst yourselves and eat it," «h& was compelled to-be 
a wife for all of them. Her difficult place she filled ^with rare 
credit and honor. 

47. God'&cmesha 
With disc and hook, tohring wisdom and toeiiUh — 
FTopUiou% 8ate, wreathinff Mb sidelonsi tnmk, 

Ganesh is the god of wisdom, eloquence and obsta^es. The 
Abbe Dubois gives the following account of the cause of the re- 
markable elephant head which Ganesh bears: '■ Th<^god Kumaira, 
who had long entertained a trudge against Ganesh, finding^:him 
alone one day, cut off his head. Shiv, his father ^>was:m<ttch 
grieved when he heard of the misfortune, and being, desirous to 
repair it, he made a vow that he would cut off the head of the 
first living creature he should find with his head lying toward the 
north>^ and unite to the trunk of Ganesh. In acting on this design, 
the first azUmal he met with lying in this position was an elephant, 


NOTES. 207 

the head of iivliich lie cat off/ and set on the neck^f GttBesh, and thus 
restored him to life. The mother of Ganesh was terrified and ago- 
nized to find her son with sach a deformity, but was pacified on be- 
ing assured by Briihrnk that Ganesh should be the most worshiped of 
all gods. Ganesh, as the god of obstacles, though he has no temples , 
is more frequently invoked than any other God in India, as every 
I undertaking, even the worship of the gods, must be prefaced with 

1 prayer to him. Every book in the Hindi and Sanskrit languages 

i opens with an invocation to Ganesh, usually Bri Ganesha n^ma^^ 

I . to the honorable Ganesh respect. " The following is an introduction 

! to a treatise on 'geometry: "Having bowed to Ganesh, whose 

head is like an elephant, whose feet are adored by the gods, who, 
L when called to mind, restores his votaries from embarrassment, 

I and bestows happiness on his worshipers, I propound this easy 

I method of computation." 

I 48. I^ehi7rib&: — Dark blue flowers. 

j. 49. Ofntikre : — Silvery whiteness, or panes of mica. 

i 60. Purddh: — Curtain, 

I 51. And giher x/ina-Btrings : — ^The vina is cme of the most an<^ent 

of the musical instruments of India. A hollow gourd is fastened 
near either end of a bar that is strung with three steel and four 
t brass or silver wires ; these are played with plectrums, usually 

' fish scales fastened with springs or tied with thread to the little 
fin£^r and two first fingers of the right band. An English writer 
claims that "it is an instrument of the greatest capacity and 
power ; and a really superior vlna, in the hands of an expert per- 
former, is perhaps little inferior to a fine-toned piano." 

52r. T& that ffreat stature [of fair sovereignty: — ^To bea chakra- 


1. Ghitra :— The TMme of the 14th mansion of the moon. 
3. Nullahs: — Ravines. 

3. Maiiddn: — Plain. j 

4 Kos : — ^About two miles. ^ 

/ 5 0^<?r« ;-*-Ten millions. 

6 . The water-earriers spinHed aU the streets 
From spirting skins, ' 

The wster caTriers of India bear water in goat-skins on the back. 
The ne<^- of' the skin is left open ; this the carriers grasp with the 
left hand, and by a little dexterous movement, are able to throw 
the water in small streams quite a distance. 

7. 2\^/«i-l*wA^;— Ocymum sanctum, Sweet basil. The basil is 
considered sacred by the Hindus, and is constantly used in re- 
ligious services. One tradition says that Tulsi was a nym;^ be- 


2o8 NOTES. 

loved hy Erislina and by bim metamorpliosed into this plant. A 
more commonly leceived tradition is tbat Talsi wished to become 
the wife of Visbna, but was turned by the curse of Laksbml, 
Vishnu's wife, into the basil or tulsi plant. Vishnu, not pleased 
with this, promised Tulsi that he would always continue with her 
in the form of the Salagram, or Ammonite stone, found in the 
rivers of Nep41. 'For this reason the Hindus who worship Vishnu 
keep leaves of the basil above and below a salagram in the tem- 
ples, and adorn their temples and houses with pictures of the sala- 
gram and basil, the women paying particular attention to the cul- 
tivation of the latter. " By Tulsi's leaf the truth I speak" is a 
favorite mode of affirmation. 

8. Suryadeva : — The sun god, who is represented in statuary as 
seated on a chariot drawn by seven horses. 

9 Came forth in painted ear, which two steers drew: — ^The 
pleasure carriages of the Hindus usually have two, sometimes 
four, heavy untired wheels. The floor of the carriage is made of 
interlaced bamboos, and is without springs or seats. On this the 
rider sits tailor fasbion, or for a change with feet hanging in some 
convenient place among the wheels. The driver sits in front astride 
the cumberous and ornamented tongue. The top of the carriage is 
dome-like in shape, and hung with fringed curtains of wliite cot- 
ton, or red silk, as the owner can afford. The oxen used for these 
carriages are as much objects of pride and care as carriage horses in 
the West. They are never used for labor, and are beauti f ul animals. 
They trot with considerable speed, and, on the ordinary country 
roadis, are not excelled by the European horse and buggy. 

10. Bright-dad ;— Probably no people present a brighter appear- 
ance on a gala day than do the Hindus, of the north country par- 
ticularly. The great majority of the men dress in white muslin 
coats and trousers, that, on such occasions, are marvelously white 
and clean. The turbans are of white, rose pink, pale green, lav- 
ender or other delicate shade, or often of turkey red with red kam- 
marband, or waist-scarf. Prieste and religious mendicants wear 
ocher colored garments ; the native police have uniforms of rifle 
green with red turbans and kammarbands ; the women generally 
wear skirts of dark blue or red, with large veils of white or bright 
colored muslin spangled or gayly border^ ; and among the crowd 
is sure to be a sprinkling of grandees in silks, cashmere shawls, 
cloth of gold, or brilliant array of some sort, attended by white- 
robed servants, wearing scarlet sashes, swords and gay tomauk 

11. Jai / jaif -^B»il, hail! 

12. JdUm: Feminine for Galen. 

13. Hdstd : — ^Named for the 14th mansion of the mooil 

14. Vatitami : — ^Feminine for Gotama. 
16. Chmga : — Named for the Ganges. 



NOTES. 209 

16. ** Ah, Bufesi," he said, " mth comfort that my mvI 
Aches, thinking it must end, for it wUl end. " 

Gomi>are this mournful, hopeless fear of love's decay, as seen 
from a heathen stand-point, with dear old ''John Anderson, my 
Joe, John,*' the song of Christian lovers. 

17. Ind/rd : — was one of the original deities of India, and before 
the introduction of Br&hminism, held in the Indian pantheon about 
the same relation as Jupiter in the Grecian. 

18. Hie ten great gifts of wisdom signify : — Mr. Hardy enumer- 
ates these gifts as follows: ''1. The wisdom that understands 
what knowledge is necessary for the right fulfillment of any par- 
ticular duty, in whatsoever situation. 2. That which knows the re- 
sult or consequence of karmd. 3. That which knows the way to the 
attainment of Nirvana. 4. That which sees the various sakwalas. 
5. That which knows the thoughts of other beings. 6. That 
which knows that the organs of sense are not the self. 7. That 
which knows the purity produced by the exercise of the dhyanas. 
8. That which knows where any one was bom in all his former 
births. 9, That which knows where any one will be born in all 
future births. 10. That which knows how the results proceeding 
from karm& — action — ^may be overcome." 

19. Are those four fearless tyirtues : — The first path or virtue is 
the awakening of the heart when it is perceived that pain is in- 
separable from existence, that all earthly good leads to sorrow; 
then he is awake and has entered upon the first stage. In the sec- 
ond he loses all impure desires, and all revengeful feelings; in the 
third he becomes free from evil desires, ignorance, doubt, heresy 
and unkindness and vexation ; universal charity follows opening 

20. At Chand/ra*s temple : — The temple oi the moon. 

21. Merchant's robe : — ^The shop-keepers of India generally wear 
turbans of white, or pale colored muslin, that are made on light 
frames, in a very set fashion of many tiny folds, one over the 
other ; the coat is a short waist jacket ; about the loins is wrapped 
the dhoti (three or four yards of cloth that is folded to assume a 
trowsers-like appearance, each leg being covered to below the 
knee), and about the shoulders an ample sheet is loosely thrown. 

22. Clerkly dress : — The trousers for this dress are white, long 
and close-fitting ; the white coat is long and narrow, surmounted 
by a short waist jacket, frequently made of colored muslin ; the 
turban is of loose and ample folds of white muslin. 

28. The traders cross-legged 'mid tJieir spice and grain : — Native 
stores in India have neither shelves, counters, chairs, stools, nor 
boxes or bins. Six or eight feet square of a verandah floor with 
a closet or two, is quite an establishment. The merchant spreads 
a few goods on the open side of his shop and sits on his heels in 


the midst. The gram merchants spread their shbtilder icloths on 
the groand, in the bazar square, and dump the grain upon them ; 
from these thej sell hj weight, using balanced baskets. Large 
numbers of regular traders in spices, pottery; jewelry, toys and 
other wares simply spread a cloth on the ground, display the goods 
and sit cross-legged beside them. 

24. The buyers wUh their money in thedcfth: — ^A Hindu's gar- 
ments lare made without pockets; pocket-books are unknown, so k 
bit of cloth carried in the hand, or. tucked in the waist-band, 
serves both purposes. 

25. The toa/r of words to cheapen this or that : — ^The seller always 
asks three or four times the sum he expects to receive for any 
article ; the buyer understands this, and offers what he thinira 
right, what he can afford, or as small a sum as he thinks may be 
received. * ' The war of words " is indefinitely continued, and to 
a foreigner, when not exasperating, is extremely amusing. 

26. The ^hout to dear the road: — As there are no sidewalks, and the 
hucksters lay their goods as near the road as possible when the 
trade and war over prices is fairly begun, every passing wagon 
must send forward some one to shout and shove, to make a pass- 
age and prevent injury. Persons of rank always send on a fore- 
runner on any road. 

27. The singing bearers vrith the paktnmiins : — ^Four men bear a 
palanquin, and three or four run alongside for relief. It is neces- 
sary that the men carrying should keep step, both for their own 
ease, and the comfort of the person in the palanquin. To aid 
themselves they call back and forth, ''Hu, hu, ho, ho," in a sub- 
dued tone. This call they vary, by chanting in measure, and in 
the same tone, remark^ about the person they are carrying. 
Except as regards weight, these sentences are usually highly com- 
plimentary, and calcuhited to induce a larger gift of DQckhsheesh. 

28. Mamals : — Associate cattle. 

29. The hottsemves bearing water from the weU 
With balanced chatties, and cUhwart thevrTdps 
The black-eyed babes. 

A chattie is a globular water jar, with a short neck on one side. 
The poorer women who go to tne wells will carry two or three 
such jars, each holding from two to four gallons, one above the 
other, on their heads; ateo a jar in one arm resting on one hip, and 
a baby astride the other hip. 

30. The fly-swa/rmed stoeetmecU shops : — Candy stores are in about 
the same proportion to other stores in India as are liquor saloons 
to our stores in American cities. The sweetmeats are not adul- 
terated with as hurtful materials as Western confectioners use, 
and they are seldom colored. Ghee, or clarified butter, is largely 
used in candies, making them distasteful to most Europeans^ 

-NOTfiS. 211 

'<M. ' 17is^mm9er'(U his horn : — The loomET' axcMfroiked by kadd, 
and are most primitive, bat by careful skill, fine'textares and rich 
watenala arcFprodaced from them. 

S2. Theeottan-bow twanging: — The cotton-bow is a 4Stou1?^w 
five or six feet in length, with a strong rawhide string. This is 
twanged sharply upon the heap of cotton, and by its vibration 
causes the dust and dirt to fly off, leaving the cotton clean and 
wliite. By striking the bow at different points a kind of music is 

33. Thesdhod 
Where round thevr CHir&f in a grofioehalf'moon. 
The Bdkkya children sang the mavitras thresh. 
And learned the greater and the lesser gods. 

In ihe school the teacher and scholars, bojs only, sit cvoes- 
legged upon the floor, without desks or other school apparatus 
tlum a book, reed pens, ink and coarse paper. The instruc- 
tion, until tiie introduction of English methods of instruction by 
that government, was almost entirely confined to religious pfe- 
oeptsand stanzas, and histories of the g^s and their worship. 

34. The dyers stretching waistdoths in the sun: — These cloths 
add greatly to the picturesqueness of the scene in the Indian 
basar, as they hang and wave like great ribbons in the still air 
from floor to housetop, on horizontol poles set in gables, loofs, 
balconied' windows or towers. 

35. The BrdhnUn proud: — The Br&hmins are usually taller 
and lairer than other castes. For thousands of years their pro- 

fBuitcNTS have been the best fed and most comfortably housed class, 
he result is everywhere apparent. 

36. Ths martial Kshatriya; — Sohiier caste. 

37. 8udra ;-^The lower casteaand laborers. 
88. \Ndg ;— Serpent. 

t89. — -c^ oharm the hooded death 

To angry dance with drone of headed gourd. 

The snake charmers capture the most fatally venomous of all 
snakes, the cobra, and carry them about in baskets for exhibition. 
The charmers seat themselves beside the baskets, in which the 
snakes lie apparratly asleep, and begin to blow upon their gourds 
and pipes, that sound not unlike a So^tch bagpipe. Presently the 
snakes b^gin to stir, then to arise until they stand upon their 
bellies to a height of eighteen inches or more, when they expand 
their hoods, tlmist out their tongues, and sway back and forth, as 
long as the music lasts. 

^. Or beg a hoy next hvrth : — A man's funeral ceremonies cannot 
be properly performed by any but a son, hence the great anxiety 
of parents for sons. A woman may be lawfully divorced if she 
have no sons, or her husbaad is expected to take a second wife. 

7 Bt the reqtiMrt of the first nif e, that th« name and honor 

use may be euatained. 

tdt .' — Globalat water t-eBaels, asually abont a q^oart 

■y>ed murderer : — Tiger. 

runda twgA;— Corinda, or carissa caTandaa. 

tarthen boal teUh lighted coaU : — In ancient times when 
1 god of fire, was worshiped, every householder wta the 
rieet, and the eocred or Bacrificial fire was hept con- 
jurning on the hearth-stone. This has passed away, but 
if the old Gre worship are still seen in many religious 
BB among the Hindna. Carrying lighted coals In a bowl 
e dead sitcnifiea that that on the family hearth-stone is 
Its rerouns ar^ to' be nsed in performing the last cere- 
'. bnming, 

kCrum^nihom: — Upon the death of ason.Cather or hrothei; 
at male relatives are reqoired to shave every part of the 

na : — A leading divinity; the hero of the epic poem, the 

'jiJtere a pile vxu reared beside the ttream : — Those who have 
dead and lighted the funeral pile cannot Tetnm to their 
ir eat until they have bathed in flowing water, hence the 
[enerally burned beside straama. Not antrequently when 
vea cannot afford sufficient fuel to entirely conanme the 
thrust half burned into the stream, to become food for 
and alligators. The funeral ceremonies are many, and 
iSerent parts of the country. Frequently years elapse 
i last can be performed. 
h it man's round ; — Tranamigratlon of aool. 
[Am ; — The divine essence, the original Creator; he from 
ling the three principal gods, Br&Em&, Shiv oi^ Vidknu. 


tra Skud : — The full moon of March and AprU. 
a }md»: — The vegetable world scarce exhibits a richer 
1 on As6ka tree In full bloom ; It is abont as high as an 
cherry tree. The flowers grow in dense clusters, beautl- 
traifled with tints of orange scarlet, of pale yellow and of 
uige, which growa deeper every day, and forms a variety 
according to the age of each blOBSOm that opens In the 

a't hirSiday comet: — The birthday of R£ma Is celebrated 

• Blr WllUtun Jonea' WoAa. 


NOTE& 213 

with great oeremonies and festivities. Near the larger towns open 
air theatricals are held representing the hermitage of R&ma, the 
theft of his wife Sita by Rawan, the King of Ceylon, the war that 
followed, the retaking of Sfta, and the triumphal return of R&ma. 
The play lasts two or three days, and is witnessed by thousands of 
eager spectators. 

4. Mudra ; — ^A seal, a signet. 

5. Angana : — A court. 

6. Devis : — ^Feminine for Devas, bright ones, or lesser gods. 

7. Lankd : — Ceylon. 

8. The chttddah : — ^A veil worn over the head and nearly enwrap- 
ping the whole person. 

9. Kcmthd-^one : — ^Precious stones, worn in A necklace are called 

10. VUhnu : — ^The second deity of the Hindu triad is variously 
represented in paintings and sculpture, but is most commonly 
figured as a black or deep blue man, with four arms in which he 
holds a discus, a conch, a mace and an Egyptian lotus flower, em- 
blematic of his attrioutes or power. He is the source of the greater 
part of Hindu incarnations. Nine of Vishnu have already appeared. 
The tenth, that is to bring in the golden age, is expected to appear 
in a temple in Sembh&l, a town near Moradabad. A few years 
since a long lease of this temple was for sale, and if the mission- 
aries resident in the place had had money enough, they could have 
bought it for a preaching place. 

11. Shiva : — The third of the Hindu trinity. In appearance he 
is alwajTS disgusting or frightful. In one form he appears as a 
white man, with three eyes (one in his forehead), a tiger skin 
barely covering his loins, and three snakes curled about his head 
and Moulders. From his miserable wickedness the famous Ling 
had its origin. 

13. /Swjya;— The sun. 

13. 80 with his brow he touched her feet, cmd bent 

The fa/reweU of fond eyes, umUterable, 
Upon her deeping face. 

Wherever, and in whatever form, this legend of the renunciation 
is found, it always betokens deepest, truest love yielding only to 
stem duty and greater benevolence. The legend of the Southern 
Buddhists says that the son was already born. " The Prince, in 
order that he might see his son, went to the apartment of 
Yasodhara, and on opening the door he saw the Princess upon a 
couch, surrounded by flowers ; but she was asleep, her hand em- 
bracing the infant, which was also asleep, and laid upon her 
bosom. SiddlLrtha perceived that in order to take up his son 
Rahula he must remove the mother's arm, which would probably 
cause her to awake, and as he knew that if she awoke she. would 

214 NOTES. 

speak to him, which might shake his. nScdutton,^ her^ienaaified 
upon the threshold, holding the door-post with hisi hand 4> but not 
proceeding any further. He thought, ' I can Beemj lehiid after I 
become Buddha ; were I, from parental, affection; to enidangenthe 
reception of the Buddhaship, how could the.various orders of •being 
be released from the sorrows of existence ? ' Then resolutely, like 
a man attempting to root up Mount Sumeru, he withdrew his foot 
from the doorway, and descended to the court-yard."* This de- 
cisive step taken, the legend again narrates the marvels that oc- 
curred at the time of Buddha's birth, wherein all nature puts forth 
freshness and beauty in honor of the great event. 

14. Numdah : — ^Felt, or coarse woolen cloth formed without 
weaving, and used as a covering for horses, or to keep off Tain. 

15. Buddah Dexxia : — ^Demi-gods from Indrd's heaven. 

16. Mohra-flowera: — ^Themohra tree bears sweet-scented flowers, 
from whose petals a spirituous liquor is distilled; from the nuts an 
oil is extracted, Bassia latifolia. 

17. But when thty reached the gate ; — The Bang, who had fore- 
seen that his son would attempt to escape by stealth, had placed a 
thousand men as wardens. This marvelous horse Kantaka, eigh- 
teen cubits in length and of proportionate height, proud to assist 
his master at this time, to which the horse had so long looked for- 
ward, resolved that if the gate were not open he would leap the 
ramparts of the city with the Prince on his back, and Channa hang- 
ing to his tail. Channa, equally as loyal, resolved to leap the bar- 
rier with the horse on one shoulder and the Prince on the other ; 
but the devas, knowing that through Buddha they too -cdiould ob- 
tain entrance to the city of peace — Nirv&na— noiselessly opened 
the gate. 

18. McUwa : — A province of India where .fields of pop^es are 
grown for opium. 

19. Anoma*8 wcm •' — ^This name has two significations — ^illustrious 
and saltless. 

I 20. (md spake 

\ FuU sweet to (jhanvia. 

In India it is the custom for the grooms to run beside, or at 
least in full sight of, master and horse when on a journey. These 
men become remarkable for speed and endurance. Channa was 
evidently well trained, hence stood ready to take Siddartha's horse 
at the dose of the wonderful ride. Channa requested that he- nught 
be his master's companion in his asceticism, but SiddSrtha be- 
sought him to return, that his father and wife might know 
whither he. had gone. The horse, knowing that his service for 
his master was ended, became greatly distressed and fell dead. 
A temple wsa afterward erected to his memory on that spot. 


* SiMHUltf fioddhism. 161. 




NOTES. 215 


1; Bd^dgriha ;— A Prince's house. Tlie town Tras formerly fa- 
mous for beauty and wealth. It was the capital of Magadha. The 
place has been in ruins for centuries. 

2. Badbhd/ra; — Distant gardens, the cultivated lands near a 

B. SarmH : — ^Thread of the gods, a little stream. 

4. Tapovan : — Place of devotees. 

5. Sovereign eoHh-butter : — ^liquid bitumen. 

6. Saildgiri .•— CJool hill. 

7. Jujube trees : — Native of Arabia. 

8. Tiere 

Lord BuddTia sate. 

This place of meditation was chosen with strict regard to the 
rules laid down in the sacred books that say : ** Curbing the 
senses and appetites, and breathing gently through the nostrils, 
while meditating the scholar should concentrate his thoughts. 
On a clean smooth spot, free from pebbles, from gravel, or from 
scorching sand, where the mind is tranquillized by pleasant 
sounds, by running water and grateful shade, with naught to 
offend the eye, let him apply himself to his task." Though 
Buddha sat " motionless as the fixed rock his seat," the old saint 
of the Mah&bh&rata beat him all hollow. ** And the old Rishi had 
sat in one place so many years that a tree had grown up between 
his legs, and birds had built their nests upon the tree, and serpents 
had made their holes all round him. And the Rishi said that he 
had remained there during twenty Br&hm&s, and had frequently 
seen the world come to a close and begin again." A day of 
B'r&hm& is more than 4,000 millions of years. 

In the effect of meditation the infant of the Vishnu Pur&na 
excels both Buddha and the Rishi. "Dhruva, aged five years, 
performed a penance as enjoined by Marichi and the sages. He 
contemplated Vishnu, the sovereign of all gods, seated in himself. 
Whilst his mind was wholly absorbed in meditation, the mighty 
Hari, identical wltli all beings and with all natures, took posses- 
sion of his heart. Vishnu being thus present in his mind, the 
earth, the supporter of elemental life, could not sustain the weight 
of the ascetic. As he stood upon his left foot one hemisphere 
b^it beneath him, and when he stood upon his right foot, the 
other half of the earth sunk down. When he touched it with his 
toes it shook with all its mountains and rivers, and the seas were 
troubled and the gods partook of the universal agitation. " The 
c^estials interfered with many strategems, but could not induce 
him to forego his penances, until Hari himself came to him and 
granted his wish that he should be above all worlds and creations. 


2l6 NOTES. 

9. Thin ioould Tie muse from noontide :^^ThtLt a deep reli^ous 
life was attained chiefly through contemplation seems to have 
been a ruling idea since very early times in India. The most 
ancient histories tell of devotees seeking union with Deity by con- 
templation. The sacred books prescribe various methods and atti' 
tudes to assist the mind in concentrating thought. " The devotee 
must attend to the gradual suppression of breathing, since the 
animal soul and the mind act in conjunction. In this work he must 
first endeavor to fix the understanding by some act of the senses ; 
for example, he must place his sight and thoughts on the tip of 
his nose, by which he will perceive smell ; then bring his mind to 
the tip of kis tongue, when taste will be realized ; and afterward 
fix his thoughts on the root of his tongue, by which sound will be 
suggested. After this, if the mind be full of the principle of 
grandness, and free from passion and ignorance, it will escape the 
waves of passion and become truly fixed. He who meditates on 
God, placing his mind on the sun, moon, fire, or any other lumi- 
nous body, or within liis heart, or at the bottom of his throat-, or 
in the center of his skull, will, by afterward ascending from these 
gross images of the Deity to the glorious original, secure fixed- 
ness of thought." * 

The experience of an ex-devotee, as given by the Abbe Dubois, 
is not only curious but amusing. *'i was a novice," said the 
devotee, ** under a celebrated Suny4sis, who had fixed his her- 
mitage in a remote situation near Bellaburdm. As he prescribed, 
I devoted the great part of the night to watchfulness, and to en- 
deavors to expel from my mind every thought whatever. Agree- 
ably to other instructions daily repeated to me by my master, I 
exerted all my might to restrain my breathing as long as it could 
be possibly endured. I persisted in thus containing myself, con- 
tinually, till I was nearly ready to faint away. Such violent 
efforts brought on the most profuse perspiration from all parts of 
my body. At length, one day while I was practicing as usual, I 
imagined I saw before me the full moon, very bright, but tremu- 
lous. At another time I was led to fancy, in broad day, that I 
was plunged into thick darkness. My spiritual guide, who had 
often predicted to me that the practice of penitence and contem- 
plation would disclose to me very wonderful appearances, was 
quite delighted with my spiritual progress when I related to him 
wiiat I had experienced. He then set me some new tasks. Wearied 
out at last with these tiresome follies, I gave them up, fearing 
they would altogether discompose my brain ; and I again betook 
myself to my old employment of a laborer." 

10. False-daton .'—The slight stir and awakening that occurs 

■ - 

* Small^s Sanskrit Literatuie. 



NOTES. 217 

about two o'clock in the morning. The only pure diTinity in the 
whole Hindu pantheon is Ushas, or the dawn, represented as a 
beautiful maiden. The sun and the moon both wished to woo 
her, but she turned them into calves for their audacity, and only 
released them at the earnest request of their wives 

11. the King 

Of Hfe and Qlory cometh ! 
People brought up in the Christian faith, when reading of Buddha 
and his teachings, should constantly bear in mind the caution of 
W. Rhys Davids in his article on Buddhism in the Cyclopedia 
Brittanica. He says, *' Christian ideas must not be put into Budd- 
hist expressions." Li reading the above quotation our minds at 
once revert to God as the " King of Life and Glory," but the 
king intended is Surya, the Sun. 

12. ^^ ^^ manner of a Bishf, hailed 
The rising orb, 

*' Before the rising of the sun the devout Hindu must hQ,ve rinsed 
his mouth, cleaned his teeth with a particular twig, in a particular 
attitude, and bathed in a stream or body of water, with repeated 
dippings, gesticulations and prayers. The G&yatl, held to be the 
most sacred verse in the Vedas — ' Let us meditate on the sacred 
light of that divine sun, that it may illuminate our minds,' — 
must be repeated ** mentally, as often as the worshiper can do 
it while he closes his mouth and nostrils, effecting the latter by 
rule. It is the most orthodox of gesticulations,- and is performed 
by placing the two longest fingers of the right hand on the left 
nostril, inhaling through the right, closing the right with the 
thumb, and when tlie breathing can be no longer suspended rais- 
ing the fingers and exhaling by the left nostril.' * After many 
prayers, addressed with proper gestures to the ten minds lodged 
in various parts of the body, to the four cardinal points of heaven ; 
heaven, earth, himself, the elements, his prayer and the whole of 
the gods in a body, he addresses the following to the sun : ' Thou 
ai*t Br&hm& when thou risest ; Siva in thy middle course ; Vishnu 
at thy setting : Thou art the precious stone of the air ; king of 
day ; observer of our deeds ; the eye of the world ; the measure 
of time ; Lord of the nine planets ; he that blotteth out the sins 
of those who honor him, and expels darkness on the return of the 
twenty-four hours ; he who, in his chariot, bounds over the 
mountains of the north, which stretches ninety millions five hun- 
dred and ten y6janas ; Thee will I praise with my utmost strength ; 
and do thou, in thy mercy, forgive all iniquities.' This prayer is 
closed with twelve, twenty-four or forty-eight obeisances to the 

• Wilflon'8 BelJgion of Hindus. 

2l8 KOTSS. 

8an."* These fleemingly senseless gesticulations And attitudes 
• are followed with the thought that they assist in fixing the mind 
upon the object to be venerated, and drawing it awaj fronx ^e 
distractions of material life. 

18. Yogis : — The term Yogi is applied to the followers of the 
Yoga school of philosophy, whose chief tenet is that it is possible, 
even in this life, to acquire entire command over elementary 
matter by means of certain ascetic practices. Their principal 
methods are, long-continued suppressions of the breath, of in- 
' haling and exhaling in a particular manner, of sitting in eighty- 
four different attitudes, and of fixing tHe eyes on the top of the 
nose. They profess to be able to attain the power of performiajr 
miracles, which leads them into the cultiyation of the arts of 
necromancy, until at present they are little better than traveling 
mountebanks. They carry with them trained goats, monkeys, or 
animals with some sort of lapsus naturcB, as a fifth leg, ana beg 
and perform various tricks. 

14. Brahmdehdris : — A student class of mendicants. 

15. Bhdkshus: — ^A higher order of Buddlust ascetics. 

16. A gaunt and mournful band : — "So nation has devised so 
many painful methods of seeking final salvation as have the Hin- 
dus; the religious orders and sects are numerous, and are followed by 
men of all ^positions ; the truly religious, who in darkness feel 
after God if haply they may find Him ; the lazy, who had rather 
beg than- work ; the vain, who love to attract attention by their 
seeming holiness ; and the vicious, who in a saint's robe find larger 
liberty for passion. A few of these sects as at present existing in 
India may be noticed. The Kh&kis are so called on account of their 
rubbing their bodies all over with ashes. They go about almost 
naked, and lead a wandering life. The Yisaktas go bare-headed, 
and must have but one garment and one water pot. The SakLi 
Bharas worship Badh&, the mistress of Krishna, so exclusively that 
they even dothe themselves as women, and follow their occupa- 
tions. The Suny&sis are sturdy beggars bedaubed with ashes to 
make themselves hideous. The N&gas go entirely naked, and of 
all classes are the most worthless and profligate. They carry arms, 
imd are a dangerous people. The Akalis go fully armed; they 
carry the chakra or discus, and are very expert in its use. They 
can throw it a hundred feet and cut off a man's head with unerring 
certainty. The Mahansas go naked in all weathers, and never 
speak or beg. They are almost entirely helpless; the people think 
it a merit to care for them. The Aghoris, a sect nearly rooted out 
by the English government, required human victims tot their sac- 
rifices. They carry a pole with a shoe, a water pot, a skull and 
— ^-^— — .— ^^^— ^.^— ^— ^ ■^^■^~^— ^■— ^^'^^■^^"^— ^— "^^ 

- ^Abbe Dubois^vol. ii. 

N^TSS, 219- 

hnman bones fastened on tlie top. They e&t earrion and filtb, and 
rub themselves with it to ma^e themselves disgusting, thus com- 
pelling decent people to comply with their requests, that they 
may iS rid of them. The Vakis believe in the great merit of per-- 
eonal torture; they distort their limbs, cause the nails to grow 
through the hand, or hold their hands above the head for years. 
The Vamacharis require flesh, fish, wine and women in their wor- 
ship, that is conducted with great secrecy. Everywhere in India 
these mendicants may be seen wandering about in their filth or yel- 
low robes colored with red ocher. They are at once objects of ter- 
ror and veneration to the common people, who give of their hard-' 
earned and scanty -store to support these miserable creatures. 

17. Ordy great BtaJtm endures : the Qods but live: — The great 
aim of Hindu devotees who enter upon their painful life from 
religious conviction is to obtain liberation from future terres- 
trial existence, and speedy absorption into great Brahm, the 
creative spirit. That this union will eventually occur is to them 
a settled matter, but as the time is tolerably far removed, they 
seek to hasten the event. ** The elements of form developed from 
primary matter remain unaltered for a day of -Brahm, an interval 
of 2,160,000,000 years. At the end of this period, Brahm sleeps. 
The material forms which then occupy the world and the lower 
spheres of the universe are then consumed by fire ; the fire is ex- 
tinguished by mighty rains, and the globe becomes a shoreless 
ocean. The sages, the gods, the elements survive, and when 
Brahm awakes and finds what mischief his slumbers have gene- 
rated, he sets to work to repair it. With the materials ready to his 
hands he remanufactures the earth and its inhabitants, and this 
is what is intended by a secondary creation. This creation is re- 
peated daily during the one hundred years of Brahm*s existence. 
At the end of this term Brdhma himself expires, and with him die 
all the gods and holy sages, and all forms whatever retrograde 
successively into their constituent elements, until the whole is 
finally merged into tiie single or double rudiment of being, uni- 
versal spirit, or primary matter and primary spirit, according to 
the theories of the dualistic or non-dualistic philosophers. After 
a considerable Interval, similar causes produce similar effects ; 
nature and spirit are again in movement, the creation is renewed, 
and the universe thus eternally fluctuates between existence and 
non-existence, without any motive, without any end." * This 
universal, unconscious spirit is known to most of the Hindu sects 
as Brahm, the creator of Brdhmd, who in turn creates the universe. 

18. Bdfdputra ;— Prince's son. 

19. 2dial€^a ;--^The islands of the Indian Archipelago. 

• Wflson^s Religions of Hlnidtus. 

220 NOTES. 

20. 2r0&» ;— Two onnceff. 

21. S(ma*8 distant stream : — ^The rivter Golden. 

22. Calories /—Small shells ; from one hundred to one hnndred 
and twenty make the value of a cent. 

23. —^ from theunwatched rice 
Shwa's white bull fed free. 

In the temples of Shiv white bulls are kept as emblems of the 
god ; these are frequently turned loose in the streets, and none 
dare abuse them whatever they may do. The erain merchants 
have their stores dumped on cloths on the ground in a most con- 
venient manner, as the bulls soon learn. The merchants, to save 
themselves from loss, when they see a bull approaching, meet him 
with handfuls of grain and entice him beyond their stalls. 

24. Lotd .—See note 41, Book the Third 

25. Bdkra :-—lndr§k. 

26. D&Dwrdj : — The prince god. • 

27. Mcmtras : — See note 38, Book the First. 

28. Of ghee : — Clarified butter ; milky juice of the moon plant ; 
acid ascelpias. 

29. Boma juice : — This drink was very much used in ancient 
worship, but at present is almost unknown, and it is with difficulty 
that a priest can be found who understands its preparation. It is 
supposed to give health, wisdom, inspiration, even immortality, 
when received from the hands of a twice-born priest. Dr. Haug, 
an eminent Sanskrit scholar who resided some years in Western 
India, fonnd a priest who, for a very mercenary consideration, 
consented to reproduce the ceremonies of the ancient sacrifices. 
He brewed Soma juice, of which Dr. Haug says : " The sap of the 
plant now used at Poona appears whitish, has a very stringent 
taste, is bitter, but not sour ; it is a very nasty drink, and has 
some intoxicating effect. I tasted it several times, but it was im- 
possible for me to drink more than some spoonfuls." 

30. Munja grass : — ^A grass of which roofs are made, also ropes 
a{id girdles. The laws or Mana require that a priest's girdle shall 
be made of Munja grass. 

31. Tajnas: — Sacrifices. 

32. Bimbsdra: — The prince who became one of Buddha's 
earliest disciples, and who gave to him the Bamboo gparden where 
he spent a large part of his life. 

33. But Buddha sofUy said : — Though Buddhism as a religion 
has long since departed from India, the effects of Buddha's teach- 
ings renudn in a most marked degree. Through his teachings sacri- 
fices of blood and animals, that previously were considered in- 
dispensable, were almost entirely abandoned. The killing of 
animals, eating flesh and drinking intoxicants were generally dis- 
continued save by the lowest of the people. Buddhism left the 


fOTES. ' 221 

people of India vegetaiians and total abstainers from spirituous 


34 Ets sacred thread ;— Wlien young, boys of the Brahmin, and 
some of the princes at nine years of age, are invested with the 
triple cord. It consists of coarse cotton threads, that when a man 
marries is increased to nine. 

The ceremonies of investiture last four days and are full of 
trifling detail, and very expensive. Hindus of every caste believe 
it to be a meritorious act to contribute to the necessary expenses. 
The cotton of which the cord is made is sown, watered, gathered 
and spun by Br&hmins. The instant it is touched in any stage by a 
person of another caste it loses its sacredness and must be re- 
placed. It is worn over the left shoulder, and bangs down to the 
right hip. 

86. mhra:—lndtL 

86. Devis : — ^Bright ones, goddesses. 

37. Shdsters ;— Scriptural writings of the Brdhmins. 

38. Ura/aiha ;— is situated on the northernmost s-^ur of the 
Vindhya range. 

39. Bruti : — ^Revealed Scriptures. 

40. Bmriti .'—Traditional Scriptuxes. 

41. Jncma-Kdnd ;— Theological portion of the Vedas. 
43, £^r7nma'Kdnd : — ^Ritim portion of the Vedas. 


1. ThoiLBand Gardens:— ^e on the map of India in Colton's 
large Atlaa-Hazareebagh. 

2. Mahua : — Same as mohra ; see Note 16, Book the Fourth. 

3. Sarisd/r: — Hemp. 
4 ^^;— Fig trees. 

6. Barabar kills: — The eastern portion of the Vindhya range. 
The origin of this range is given by the Hindus as follows ; When 
Handman, the monkey god, and liis hosts were assisting Bdma to 
regain his wife Sita from the King of Ceylon, they were obliged 
to build a bridge from the main-land to Ceylon ; for this purpose 
they brought rocks from the Himalaya mountains, nearly 1,500 
miles distant. When the bridge was completed word was sent 
back to the monkeys still coming with rocks that no more were 
needed, whereupon they cast down their loads, hence these hills. 
Between the main-land and Ceylon a rocky causeway still makes it 
necessary for ships to circumnavigate the island, instead of pass- 
ing the channel. 

6. VUlage of Sendni .'—Named for the army general, who was 
at that time tne peaceful head man of the place, 

7, 2 he nuvrks, thirty and two : — See note 40, Book the First. 

222 < NOfTES, 

8. SSlhranch ! — ^See note 41, Book tlie Seeond* 

9. Jambu-hranches : — See note 88, Book tlie First. 

10. MUk in tJieshepherd^s lota: — In his drinking cup. 

11. * 'lam a 8udrai and my totbch defiles: " — Caste causes strange 
contradictions. Brahmin and Sudra will take milk from one goat 
or cow, bat not from the same cup, nor water from the same well 
or spring. The Br&hmin will take from the Sudra uncooked 
food, and fruity but not cooked food. When I was traveling in the 
Himalayas our coolies, dirty, lousy, ill-smelling fellows, would not 
take water from a spring in which any of our company had 
dipped our cups, or from the stream unless they could go s<»xie 
distance above and get the water higher up. Tuey would travel 
thirsty for miles, ratner than defiie themselves. 

12. TUka-mark : — The tilka-mark and sacred thread are never 
given to any one of low birth. The tilka-mark varies in different 
castes and sects. One sect, the Kim&nujas, have two perpendicu- 
lar white lines drawn from the root of the hair to the commence* 
ment of each eyebrow , and a transverse streak connecting them 
across the root of the nose ; in the center is a perpendicular streak 
of red, made with a preparation of rice, turmeric, and lime with 
acid. They also have streaks on the breast and each upper vltbdl. 
The marks areisupposed to represent the shell, discus, club and 
lotus which Vishnu bears in his four hands, while the central 
streak is Lakshmi. Some have the objects carved on wooden 
stamps with which they impress the emblems on their bodies, and 
some even cicatrize themselves with heated metallic representa- 
tions. Another sect wear two red perpendicular lines, meeting in 
a semicircle on the top of the nose, with a round spot of red be< 
tween them ; others mark .the forehead with transverse- lines of 
ashes, and others put the sign of worship and caste i>n the temples 
and ears. 

13. ■ the natUchndaneers, 

Oflndrd's temple^ 

In families where there is a surplus of girls, one is frequently 
dedicated or married to the god of a temple. The girl has no 
choice whatever in the matter, and is usually very young ivhen 
placed in the temple service. Her life is one of the lowest prosti- 
tution. They are taught to dance, a performance which in itself 
is not so indecent as the dances of Western nations^ but the object 
is frankly admitted. They are also taught to read and several 
accomplishments to make them attractive — a fact that has stood 
greatly in the way when respectable women desired education, 
le?t they should be set down in the same class. 

14. The piping hdnsuLi : — A hollow bamboo played as a flute. 
15.' A three-string sitda* : — The introduction of the 8it4r in this 

poem is something of a.n anachronism, as the sit4r wafikinvented by 



'MQTKS. r'223 

a MaInBMdan>over a thousand years later. ^Sit&r is deidved from 
the Pea»ian si, three, and td, string. It resembles a gaitar with 
a hollow gourd for a body. 

16. Sendni: — ^An army general. 

17. Stijd4a: — ^Noblyborn. 

18. Wherefore with many prayers fM had besought 
Lakshmi; and many nights atfuU-moon gone 
Bound the great Lingamy nine times nine, mthgffts 
Of rice and jasmine wreathes and sandal cit. 

On a certain moonlight night in mid winter, Shiv, or his emblem, 
the Lingam or Ling, is to be worshiped with jasmine flowers, and 
particular offerings are made to his bride by the women, of flowers, 
incense, lights and condiments, in hope of securing children. At 
this season, also, * ' women walk in the forests with a fan in one 
hand, and«at certain vegetables in hope of beautiful children." 

Mr. Ward gives a fuller account of these observances : " The 
worship is performed by a Brahmin, under the vata tree — ^Fiscus 
Indica — or under a branch of this tree planted in the house. At 
the time of this worship every woman of the village, dressed in 
her best clothes, with her face painted, her ornaments on, and her 
body, anointed with oil, goes to the place of worship under the tree, 
taking in her hand an offering, over each of which the offidating 
Brahmin performs the usual sacrifices. The offerings are sent to 
the house of the Br&hmin, or distributed to the eager bystanders. 
Among others who are eager to obtain some of these offerings are 
childless women, each of whom sits down pensively among the 
crowd, and opens the end of her garment to receive what the 
mothers are glad to bestow, when the giver says, 'May the bless- 
ing of Shasti be upon you, and next year may you bring offeringtf 
with a child, in your arms.' " 

19. Lakshmi : — Goddess of fortune and prosperity. 

20. Lingam : — Carved representation of the male organs. 

21. J)e^s .'-^ods, 

22. 8dri : — Skirt and veil in one piece. 

23. ATidtie t?ie scarlet threads around the tree : — ** On a day dur- 
ing a most popular festival held in March, the women worship the 
Anola tree— ^Phyllanthus Emblica — a kind of myrobalan. On this 
occasion libations are poured at the foot of the tree, a red or yel- 
low thread is bound round the trunk, prayers are offered up for 
its fruitf ulness, and the ceremony is concluded by a reverential 
incliaation of the head to the ancient tree, whose branches bear 
the nuurks of village reverence and care." * 

24. In silver lotds ;— See 41, Book the Third. 

25. TiOs^^nt .^See 7, Book the Third. 

* HiBsioDBiy^s Yade Mecnm. 

NOTES. 225 

anas tiiere proceed a great many yonng sprents ; these, however, 
are prevented from ever becoming larger by the niunber of pil- 
grims visiting this holv spot, who each carry away a leaf or twig. 
The leaves are perfectly white. It is a wonderful thing, this tree, 
thus living and growing for hundreds of years, under ground, 
and in utter darkness. 
83. The kail sang her hymn .'-—The cuckoo. 

83. VoUe8 of eartfi and airjomed in one song: — Oriental writers 
with glowing descriptions always represent all nature, celestial 
and terrestriid, as cognizant of, and acting in accord with, spiritual 
manifestations. When the Hindu King Bij&la, in a moment of 
wickedness, oommaaded the eyes of two holy pien to be put out, 
his fortune left him, and g^evous signs followed: the crows 
crowedln the night, jackals howled by day, the sun was eclipsed, 
storms of wind and rain came on, the earth shook, darkness over- 
spread the heavens, and the inhabitants of the city were filled 
with terror. In Persian writings the idea that nature is ' ' 'ware and 
glad " tiiough men, by the har&ess of their hearts, may not per- 
ceive it, is constantly presented. The following is from the 
Gulist&n, by Sheikh S&di in the 13th century. 

" Once I traveled to Hejaz along with some young men of virtuous 
disposition, who had been my intimate friends and constant com- 
panions. Frequently, in their mirth, they recited spiritual verses. 
There happened to be in the party an Abid, who thought un- 
fi&vorafoly of the morals of Durweshes, being ignorant of their 
sufferings. At length we arrived at the grove of paJm trees of 
Beni Hidlal, when a boy of a dark complexion came out of one of 
the Arab families, and sung in such a strain as arrested the birds 
in their flight through the air. I beheld the Abid's camel danc- 
ing, and after flinging his rider, he took the road of the desert. I 
said : ' O Sheilch, those strains delighted the brutes, but made no 
impression on you ; kn6west thou what the nightingale of the 
morning said to me? What kind of a man art thou, who art 
ignorant of love ? The camel is thrown into ecstasy by the Arabic 
verses, for which, if thou hast no relish, thou art a cross-grained 
brute. When the camel is captivated with ecstatic frenzy, that 
man who can be insensible is an ass. The wind blowing over the 
phdns causes the tender branches of the fan-tree to bend before it, 
but affects not the hard stone. Everything that you behold is ex- 
clainung the praises of Qod, as is well known to the understand- 
ing heart ; notr <mly the nightingale and the rose bush are chant- 
ing praiaeB to Ood, bat every thorn is a tongue to extol him.' " 

84. But hs who is the Prince 

Of Darkness, Mara. 

The legend says that Mara came to Sidd^ha as he was leaving 
Ids boane and beecmght him to remain and enjoy life as a chakravar- 

1826 NbTEa' "" 

tin, bat the Prince answered in a mighty voice T^** A thoiuniid or 
a hundred thousand honors snch as these to which 70a refer would 
have no power to charm me to-day. I seek the Bnddhaship. I want 
not the seven treasures of the chakravartin ; theref ore, begone, 
hinder me not. " Mara, perceiving that his kingdom woidd eventual - 
lybeoome plepopulated through Buddha's merit, left him, angrily de- 
claring that he should not cease to tempt him by every device in 
bis power. He kept his word, but on the day when the Prince 
should become Buddha, he assembled his hosts for the final battle. 
This is described in the curious, but tedious, extravagance of 
Buddhist writers in the legends, of which but a hint can be given. 
It is said that Mara mounted on an elephant one thousand miles 
high, and marched to the assault with an attendant army one hun- 
dred and sixty-four miles long, each warrior in the shape of some 
horrid monstrosity. He sent a mighty wind against Buddha, which 
hurled rocks thirty miles high, but it could not lift a hair of his 
head. He poured a rain whose drops were as big as palm trees, 
but their scattering spray could not touch Buddha. One hundred 
thousand burning mountains were transformed by the gentleness 
of the Buddhist spirit into flowers that fell at his roet. The 
result of the temptation was that one hundred and thbrty-six 
burning hells opened, scattering the hosts of evil, when the ele- 
phant, with his trunk in his mouth and his tail between his legs, 
ran away. All this extravagant story was probably first given as 
an allegorical description of an enlightened mind s&aggling with 
the power of evil. 
86. Arati : — ^Pain. 

36. Trishnd : — ^Avarice, desire, or thirst 

37. Baga : — Passion. 

38. Kdma : — The Indian Cupid, whose history bean ttinch ie« 
semblance to the Cupid of Grecian m3rthology. In Shakespeare's 
"Hindustani Dictionary " the stoiy is given as follows: K&ma 
was consumed by the fiery rage of Mah&deva for interrupting hinx 
in his devotions, and Batf, KKm&*s wife and Venus of the Hindus, 
being disconsolate for the loss of her husband, was informed by 
Parvati, the wife of the enraged Mah&deva, that he would be 
born in the house of Krishna, and would have the name of Prady- 
umna ; but that R4ia Sambara would steal him aWay and cast him 
into the sea ; that tnence he would be taken in the belly of a fish 
to the kitchen of ISambara, and she must go and wait for him 
there. Following this advice, she remained in the kitchen of the 
B^ja till it happened that a large fish, on being opened by the 
cook, was found to contain another fish, and when this was opened 
a child issued from its belly. Rati, by command of the K&ja, 
reared this child. When K^ma was grown she made him ac- 
quainted with what Parvati had told her, and advised him to kill 


NOTES. 227 

Sambara and retnni with her to tlie house of Erislina wliere lie 
was born. This was accomplished, and R^ti was married to him 
on his return to his parents. Hence Bati is considered as both 
wife and mother of K^ma. 

39. 8amma Sombvddfi: — To perceive thoroughly, with calm 
peace of mind. 

40. Ten great Virtues :^-ot Dasa sil, are ten obligations bind- 
ing upon a priest They forbid : 1. The taJdng of life. 2. The 
taking of that which is not given. 3. Sexual intercourse. 4. The 
saying of that which is not true. 5. The use of intoxicatlDg 
drinks. 6. The eating of solid food after midday. 7. Attendance 
upon dancing, singing, music and masks. 8. The adorning of the 
body with flowers and the use of perfumes and unguents. 9. The 
nse of seats or couches above the prescribed height. 10. The re- 
ceiving of gold and silver. 

41. Abhuijna : — ^The line of all his lives in all the worlds. 
Many volumes of Buddhist literature are given to the ante-natal 
life of Buddha. According to one author his retrospect of past 
lives extended through ten millions of millions and one thousand 
kalpas, the shortest of which was sixteen millions of years, the 
longest thirty-two millions. 

42. KcUpas — MaJiakcUpas : — See Note 64, Book the First. 

43. Sahwal : — ** There are innumerable systems of worlds, each 
system having its own earth, sun, moon, etc. The space to which 
the light of the sun or moon extends is called a sakwala. Each 
sakwala includes an earth, with its continents, islands and oceans, 
and a mountain in the center called Mah4 Meru, as well as a series 
of hells and heavens. The sakwalas are scattered throughout 
space, in sections of three and three. All the sakwalas in one 
section touch each other, and in the space between is the Lokanta- 
rika hell. Each sakwala is surrounded by a wall of rock called a 
sakwala-gala." * These sakwalas are innumerable, but were all 
visible to Buddha and under the power of his teaching. 

44. Dnkhya-satya : — The power of sorrow. 

45. Noble Truths : — Mr, Qogerly gives one of the most intelli- 
gible translations of these truths. They are : " 1. That every ex- 
istent thing is a source of sorrow. 2. That continued sorrow re- 
sults from a continued attachment to existing objects. 8. That a 
freedom from this attachment liberates from existence. 4. The 
path leading to this state containing eight sections." 

46. Ka/rmd : — is that which controls the destiny of all things, 
and includes both merit and demerit. This doctrine of Karm^ 
constantly appears in both Buddhist and Br^hminical writings, 
with many shades of meaning and endless explanation. Buddl]^'s 

*JBianual of Buddhism. 

r V ' • 

li^V 228 NOTES. 




*" . 


V. '.'..■ • 

i: ^ ■ 

.■ . » 

^i.;- own definition is : " All sentient beings have tbeir own individual 

Pf^C Kann£, or the most essential property of all beings is karrn^ : 

p:-J karm£ comes by inheritance, or that which is inherited — ^not from 

!■> parentage, but from previous births, is karm& ; ^mn& is the 

cause of ail'good and evil, or they come by means of karm&, or on 
account of £irml> ; karmd. is a kUisman ; karma is an assistant, or 
that which promotes the prosperity of any one is his good karma ; 
it is the difference in the karmH, as to whether it be good or evil, 
that causes the difference in the lot of men, so that some are mean, 
and others are exalted, some are miserable and others happy/' 
The listening disciple still found himself like a man with a ban- 
di^e over his eyes, and unable to see the point, so he asked expla- 
nation at length ; after which he perceived that the differences in 
the lot of men, as at present seen, are produced by the karm& of 
different births. 

47. Skandhas : — ^Elements of sentient existence. 

48. Upadanas : — Subordinate duties, or the deaving to existing 

49. Ifirvdna : — ^Buddhism, in common with all other religions, is 
divided into many sects, each holding their peculiar shades of doc- 
trine and belief. The great subject with them for debate and 
speculation is Nirv&na. Not more continuous or prolix are our 
disquisitions, or wordy and heated are our debates on the subject 
of future punishment, than are the treatises and discussions in 
bazar aud temple, by Br&hmins as well as Buddhists, on Nirvana. 

Thft mnat. ( renerallv ac ^^ptft^ idft«. nmc^n^ J^r&h■m^T^^ ^g fW nf re- 

nninn wit.i| or|grinal fipiiit.^ T^rftliTn, The Vedas Say of the soul : 
" The soul is a portion of the Supreme Ruler, as a spark is of fire. 
The relation between them is not that of master and servant, ruler 
and subject, but both that of whole and part." Among some this 
idea prevails : ** The living soul, at the death of the body, attended 
with all its faculties, retires within a rudiment body composed of 
light, with the rest of the five elements in a subtile state. In that 
condition the soul, united to a subtile elementary frame, conjoined 
with the vital faculties, remains till the dissolution of the world, 
when it merges in the Supreme Deity. That frame is impercep- 
tible to those who see the death of the body. It is not injured by 
the burning of the body or anything else. It can be known by its 
heat as long as it remains in tlie gross body." The following ex- 
tracts represent a few shades of opinion respecting Nirvana among 

** Spence Hardy and Bigandet find in the modem Singhalese 
and Burmese books the same opinion concerning Nirv&na as Alvis 
Goeerly, and especially Childers, have found in the more ancient 
autliorities ; and though the modern books of the Northern Bud- 
dhists are doubtful, Eugene Bumouf has clearly proved that their 


NOTES. 229 

older texts contain only the same doctrines as tliat held in the 
south. BaddhiSDi Hnftw nnt a/»TrTinw1 edge the existence of a soolaA 

the going out in the heart of the three fires of lost, anger and de- 
lusion, and the craving from which they come." f 

The Buddhists of Burmah define Nirv&na or Nigban as freedom 
from old age, disease and death. 

Professor Max Mtlller says : " According to the metaphysical 
tenets, if not of Buddha himself, at least of his sect, there is no 
reality anywhere, neither in the past nor in the future. True wis- 
dom consists in perceiving the nothingness of all things, and in a 
desire to became nothing, to be blown out, to enter into I^irvdna.- 
Emancipation is obtained by total extinction, not by absorption 
into Brahm, or by a recovery of the soul's true state. If to be is 
misery, not to be must be felicity ; and this felicity is the highest 
reward which Buddha promised his disciples. 

" One school believes that Nirvritti or Nirv4na is nature or sub- 
stance in repose, another claims that it is annihilation. The earli- 
est written works which we possess on Buddhism were composed 
by Buddha's pupils and friends; these teach that Nirvana is anni- 
hilation, not absorption." ^ 

Professor Wilson says that in the Saddharma Lank&vatarva, 
S&kya is represented as confuting all the Brihminical notions of 
Nlrv&na, and concludes by expounding it to be the complete anni- 
hilation of the thinking principle, illustrating his doctrine by the 
comparison generally employed, of the exhaustion of the light of 
a lamp which goes out of itself. In the Brahmdj&la, or Pili Sutra, 
where again Sikya is made to confute sixty-two Br&hminical here- 
sies, he winds up by saying : " Existence is a tree; the merit or 
demerit of the actions of men is the fruit of that tree, and the seed 
of future trees ; death is the withering away of the old tree from 
which others have sprung ; wisdom and virtue take away the ger- 
minating principle, so that when the tree dies there is no repro- 
duction. This is Nirv&na." 

60. -Kbt? ;— Cuckoo. 

51. BtUbid: — IHightingale. 

52. Myna: — ^Indian robin. . 

53. Prets .-—Evil spirits. 

54. j!?A^:— Ghosts. 

55. Ban: — ^Wilderness. 

56. Jungle : — Wild country. 

* Cyclopedia Brittanica. 

t T. W. Bhys Davids, in Fortnightly Beview. 

X Chips from a Gennan Wozkshop. 


57. C^^to^ >^mall Iianting leopards. 

58. B6dhirtree ;— See Note 81, Book the Sixth. 

59. Many a House of Life, etc, : — These stanzas are thus trans- 
lated by Tarnour : ** Performing my pilgrimage through the 
eternity of countless existence, in sorrow have I unremittingly 
sought in vain the abode of the passions (tLd., the human frame). 
Now, O, artificer t art thou found. Henceforth no receptacle of 
sinshalt thou form, thy frames broken; thy ridge-pole shattered; 
thy soul— or mind — emancipated from liability to regeneration — ^by 
transmigration — ^has annihilated the dominion of the passions,'' 

Mr. Gogerly translates thus: 

.'* Through Turioiu transmimtions 
I must tiavel if I do not UBCOver 
The builder whom I seek;— 
Painful are repeated transmlffrationfl. 
I have seen the architect— and said— 
*Thoa Shalt not bnild me another honae ; 
Thy rafters are broken, 
Thy roof timbers scattered. 
My mind is detached from all existing objects; 
I have attained to the extinction of desire.' *' 

Mr. Hardy gives still another translation : 

** Throngh many different births 
I have ran (to me not having f onnd) 
Seeking the architect of the desire resembling house. 
Painfoi are repeated births I 

honse-bnilder 1 I have seen thee— 
Again a honse thon canst not bnild for me. 

1 have broken thy rafters, 

Thj central support is destroyed ; 

To Nirv&na my mind is gone. 

I have arrive i at the extinction of evil-desire.** 

Our minds, trained to the idea of a creating Deity, and the need 
of a knowledge of Him, naturally suppose tmit this architect, this 
** Builder of this Tabernacle," must refer to some divine person ; 
but in so doing we make the mistake of putting " Christian ideas 
into Buddhist expressions." Mr. Gogerly's and Mr. Hardy's 
translations indicate that desire is the occasion of recreation, and 
in overcoming this, in blotting out desires, good or evil, the end 
is attained. Mr. Arnold in his translation says : '* Delusion 
fashioned it." This interpretation would bring Buddha's mean- 
ing of architect in accord with the doctrine of Mayd, Illusion, or 
Delusion, one of the most ancient and popular doctrines of India. 
May& is i>ersonified in Hindu scriptures as the wife of Brahm. 
Brahm, after seventy-two ages of silence, desired to renew the 
world ; his desire became manifest in a female form — ^May&, 
from whom all the mistaken notions current among mankind 
originate. The Hindu triad — Br&hm&, Vishnu and Shiv— were the 
ofispring of Brahm and May& ; Bi^ahm disappears, and May6, de- 

herself at Jw&l& maklii, leaves the three wedded pajis 
Ae nulvene and give cnirency to the errora of practice a 
she baa taught them. In the acbcxils of phUosophy it la 
that " the illusive power of ignorance produces the 
from the eg^ of Brahm." It ia also affirmed that matt 
not Independent of perception, and that Hubstances are 
for their seeming reality to the ideas of the mind. Onr 
are purified hj abstraction, and antil we have attained a 
preciation of our own nature, and of that of oniverBiil b] 
ideas are all wrong. UntU the da; of true knowledg 
upon us we are asleep — -in a dream ; we misconceive i 
perceive, we take a rope for a snake : an ojBter'Shell foi 
of -pearl, ii{irage for real water. All that we see In our > 
sated condition is May£, deception, illusion. There an 
things in existence ; there is but one in all. There is n. 
no matter ; there ia spirit alone. The world is not Qod ; 
QOtbing but Ood in the world. Nature is compelled i 
the corporeal form that the ends of Spirit ma; be fulfilled 
that it ma; be embodied, until b; a series of transmigi 
has no longer need of such a Btal« ; It has attiined ku< 
which is the cause of its liberation, and Its connection wit 

" The union of spirit and matter, as the receiver and 
Is without beginning. The origin of this union Is Ma; 
perfection of spirit is to be attriboted to liberation f 
nulon, and this is sought In the acquisition of diacrimina 
dom. Actions performed under the influence of May£ 
lowed by eight millions of births in connection with ru) 
with an ^pointed period of life, and subjection to thi 
actions. This illusion, from whence arise the effects of 
is to be destroyed by discriminating wisdom in refereni 
Divine nature, leading to the reception of truth — God- 
livenmee from the sorrows of transmigration." Another 
Hindu philoeophets, in their subdivision of Saktl, or M 
four qiulities — knowledge, desire, energy and deceptio 
even more plainl; what we are to understand b; "the 
of the denre resembling house." They olaim that the fii 
or knowledge, by its partial extension, produces pain ar 
but the Sokti of Desire unfortunately obscures that of km 

of the Hindu. 

2^2 NOTES. 

and Undeni It from pereeivinff that theTe is no other deity but the 
material body, propa^tion, life and death. From this ignorant 
deviation, occasioned by Desire, the inclinations of men are de- 
rived. The truly wise man, who would acquire knowledge of 
truth and nature, must therefore renounce desire. 

*' But,'' asks a new proselyte of a sage, '' as all individuals ore so 
many deities, or rather modifications of the same god, why are 
they not all endowed with the same talents and equal penetration; 
why are the greater part devoid of sublime intelligence?'' The 
sage answered, ''The evil proceeds entirely from the fourth Sakti 
May&, or Illusion. It is the cause of all deception, and makes men 
take what is false for what is true. It has misled men into the 
belief that there are gods; that there are such vicissitudes as living^ 
and dying pollution and purification. The only means of shunning 
the errors of May& is to cling to the doctrine of Buddhism." 


1. WoBantct-tme : — A festival held in the spring in honor of 
K&madeva, the god of love. 

2. HasUnp^: — Ancient Delhi, the remains of which still exist 
about fiftv-seven miles north-east of the modem city, on liie banks 
of the old channel of the Ganges. 

8 . Purddh ; — Curtain. 

4. With naked feet; — The people of India never wear shoes in 
the house. They always slip them off on the verandah. 

5. When they came withoiU the purddh'a fold-e: — ^The women of 
India who are of high rank and caste are not allowed to go outside 
of their own apartments except they are closely veiled and attended, 
neither may any man save husband, father or brothers, go behind 
the curtains separating the women's rooms from the rest of the 
house. The curtains are made of long, fine splmts of bamboo, and 
lined with gauze. The women can look through these into the 
lighter outer apartments, but those outside cannot look within. 
These merchants standing outside the curtain displayed their goods 
and told their news, but saw not Yasddhara. 

6. B^dhi-tree.'^&Qe Note 31, Book the Sixth. 

7. TcMHka; — A tree, Pinus Lon^folia. 

8. Ma/ra*8 wraih: — See Note 34, Book the Sixth. 

9. ISxi^e Niddv4i8: — ^Twelve treasures, or the eleven degrees of 
contemplation that lead to Nirv&na the last and twelfth degree. 

10. He taught the Mve: — The five ascetics who were Buddha's 
companions during the six years he sought the truth. 

11. VaUhya: — This month correspond to half of April and May 

12. 2hs JK%8hi8;^mm-xefei3 to the five ascetics, Buddha's former 

NOTES 233 

18. Fimr Tnt^ ;-^See Kote 45, Book tlie Sixth. 

14 Tamd the Prince: — ^was the son of Sul&ta, who gave to Bnd- 
dha the food that refreshed him for his mighty conflict with Mara. 
Yasad went to Buddha hy night to inquire the way ; he became a 
priest and entered the first path. His fifty-four companions went to 
the monastery to induce him to return and play with them as usual, 
but when they saw his changed appearance they resolved to be- 
come priests also, and shortly entered the paths. 

15. GdtM : — A hymn not from the Vedak 

16. Tqjana : — ^About ten miles. 

17. Sana: — River Golden. 

18. Kos : — A kos is two miles. 

19. Bahyla*8 mother : — ^A Hindu never calls his wife by name : 
before she becomes a mother she is known as "that one/' or 
" &dmi/' a pefson ; afterward the husband always speaks of his 
wife as such a boy's mother. The woman also speaks of her hus- 
band as the son's father. 

20. As the nighi-Uovmg Tnoon- flower^ a ewelUng heart :-—Th.Q 
moon-plant is a climber. The leaves, in shape, are like 
those of the convolvulus major, but much ^^^^t cmd on the 
under side are covered with a silvery down. The flowers are 
white and like huge morning-glories, each one measuring from 
four to five inches across. They open only by moonlight. 

21. as pale aedka buds 

TT*** /w ^ VH)man*8foot, 

The blossoms of the as6ka tree (see Isote 2, Book the Fourth^ 
emit a delightful fragrance when wet with the dew just after sun- 
set and before sunrise, or at the time when women step forth for 
fur and exercise. 

22. Mogrde' : — ^Double Arabian jasmine. 

23. JIdayij — Named for the great Eastern mountain behind 
which the sun is supposed first to rise. Udajrl was bom at the 
same time as Buddha, and his part in the renunciation was fore- 

24 Tree-wool : — ^The cotton from the sembhal, or cotton tree. 
Not all men were so profoundly impressed with Buddha's teach- 
ing. An old hymn of the Northern Buddhists tells how Buddha 
met, full of his newly-discovered mission, an acquaintance on the 
way as lie was going to the Deer Forest the day after his attain- 
ment of Buddhah<xKi to preach his doctrine to his old friends. 
He was struck with Buddha's appearance, and asked him what 
religion made him so glad and yet so ca^jn, Buddha told him that 
he had now become free from all desires. His acquaintance appar- 
ently cared little for this, and asked him where he was going. 
The reply is striking. Buddha said : ''I am now going to the 
city oL^nilres, to establish there a kingdom of righteousness, to 

234 NOTBS. 

pfive light to those enshrouded in darkness, to open the gate 6f 
immortality to men." His aoqnaintanoe sneered at his high-flown 
pretensions, and asked what he meant. Buddha replied : '' I have 
completely conquered all evil passions, and am not tied down to 
material existence. I only live to be the prophet of perfect truth." 
"In that case/' answered the man, "venerable Gotama, your 
way lies yonder, mine opposite," and left him. Probably most of 
us would have had the same feeling, if not the same words. 

25. Mrf>dna:^See Note 49, Book the Sixth. 

26. 2^eem :—&ee Note 38, Book the Second. 

27. Mango ;— See Note 80, Book the First. 

28. Masakhs ;— Qoat-skins in which Muhamedan water-carriers 
bear water. 

29. WUh vSlnw hawdahi : — Chairs of state, made porpoeely to 
strap on the elephimt's back. 

80. Nigrodha : — Landscape garden. 

81. Bel-trees : — ^Thorny Bengal quince. 

82. JSshairiga: — Soldier caste. 

88. Chares: — ^A nearly obsolete English word, ognifyin^ 
labors. The same word in India, used adjectively, has nearly the 
same meaning. 

84. Lingam :— See Note 20, Book the Sixth. 

85. i2Mi;— Saint. 

86. Noble Paths : — See page 227 of the poem. 

87. Bodhisats ;--<7andidates for the Buddahood. 

88. XariM ;— Ceylon. 

89. Three seers : — Six pounds. 

40. Tioelve Mddnas ;— -See Note 9, Book the Seventh. 

41. Mem: — Same as Mount Sumeru. See Note 17, Book the 

42. And so the feet of sweet Tasodha/ra 
Passed into peace and bliss, being softty led. 

The story of Yasodhara's attainment of Nirv&na is very beauti- 
ful, as a few outlines will indicate. " When Sidd&rtha became an 
ascetic the Princess resolved upon following his example, but 
Saddh6dana, in order to prevent it, placed guaSds arotmd the city, 
declaring to her that the Prince would return ; he was also fearful 
that, as she was so extremely beautiful, unless she was well pro- 
tected the Princes of other countries might, hear of her iSituation 
and come and take her away by force. But although she was 
thus prevented from goin^ to the forest, she resolved to keep the 
ordinances of the recluse pi the palace ; and for this purpose she 
had her head shaved, put on a yellow robe, and ate her food out 
of an earthen bowl. When Buddha visited Elapilavastu, after the 
attainment of his office, and on the second day after his ar- 
rival, she requested permission to become a priestess, but it 

NOTES. 235 

was not gfaated^ as Buddha saw tliat the right of entrance 
into the order of the f emide priesthood belonged to the queen- 
mother Mah&praj&pati. ... In due time Yasodhara be- 
came the rightful Inheritor of all that had belonged to Suddbo- 
dana« Mah^mdja, Mah&praj&pati, Siddartha, Nanda, Rahula, 
Deyaidatta, and Suprabudha, but she regarded the whole with 
aversion, even as if it had been a dead snake tied round her neck. 
She walked with her attendant princesses nearly five hundred 
miles to reside near Buddha, refusing all offers of assistance on the 
journey, as all the luxuries of the world had been renounced. 
While at Sewet, she sometimes went to hear Buddha preach, and 
sometimes to inquire after the health of Bahula. On the evening 
of a certain day, as Tasodhara was sitting alone, she thought of aU 
her friends who had already entered Nirvana. ' I was born on the 
same day as Buddha, and in regular order ought to enter the city 
of peace upon the same day ; but this would not be decorous to the 
great teacher. I am now seventy-eight years of age. In two 
years from this time Buddha will attain Nirvana. I will there- 
fore request permission to obtain this privilege from Buddha.' 
Accompanied by her attendants, she went to the monastery of 
Buddha, and asked forgiveness for the faults she might at any 
time have committed, and then presented her request. Buddha 
said, ' Ton are the most virtuous of women ; but from the time 
you became an ascetic you have not performed any miracle, so that 
some persons have doubted whether you are a rahat or not' A 
great company assembled, but the Princess thought that on account 
of the extreme beauty of her person it would not be proper to per- 
form a miracle in the same way as others, lest evil should arise in 
the minds of such of the faithful as were not yet free from evil desire. 
She therefore related the history of her former births, then rose in 
the air and worshiped Buddha. The discourse that she delivered 
was upon the seven kinds of wives there are in the world of men. 
When all this was concluded, she retired to her own residence, 
and in the same night, while passing from contemplation to con- 
templation, saw the city of peace." 

43. MoMsammoEt : — the first monarch of the world, of the race 
of the sun, received existence by the apparitional birth. The ances- 
try of Buddha is traced through individuals all of royal dignity, 
by Buddhist historians back to this monarch ; these have evident- 
ly borrowed names or invented them, determined to shed all honor 
possible upon his name. 

44. FmLT no6le Truths ;— See Note 45, Book the Sixth. 

45. ITiose eight right jRwfo* ;— Jlight views, high aims, kindly 
speech, upright conduct, harmless livelihood, perseverance in 
well-doing, intellectual activity, earnest thought. 

40. 8tag69 #(wr .'—Professor Max Mtlller thus describeB the 

23^ NOTES 

effects of eaeb stage : " Entering the first ensnieg freedom from 
sin, a knowledge of the nature of things, and leaves no desire ex- 
cept for Nirvana. Pleasurable feelings and reasoning and dis- 
criminating powers remain. In the second stage these cease, leav- 
ing satisfaction arising from intellectual perfection, which is lost 
in the third stage ; but self -consciousness remidns. In the fourth 
stage this also vanishes, and Nirvana is open. The Buddha now 
enters the infinity of space, then into the infinity of intelligence, 
and thence into the region of nothing. But even here there is no 
rest. There is still something left, the idea of nothing in which 
he rejoices. That also must be destroyed, and it is destroyed in 
the fourth and last region, where there is complete rest undis- 
turbed hy nothing, or what is not nothing." 

47. Precepts MgM : — These precepts are most clearly expressed 
in the Buddhist Beatitudes. "Not to serve the foolish, but to 
serve the wise, to honor those worthy of love, this is the greatest 
blessing. To dwell in a pleasant land, good works done in a for- 
mer birth, right desires in the heart, this is the greatest blessing. 
Much insight and education, self-control and pleasant speech,, 
and whatever word be well-spoken, this is the greatest blessingi 
To bestow alms and live righteously, to give help to kindred, 
deeds which cannot be blamed, this is the greatest blessing. To 
support father and mother, and to cherish wife and child ; to fol- 
low a peaceful calling, this is the greatest blessing. To abhor and 
cease from sin, abstinence from strong drink, not to be weary iu 
well-doing, this is the greatest blessing. Reverence, lowliness, 
contentment and gratitude, the hearing of the Law at due seasons, 
this is the greatest blessing. Beneath the stroke of life's changes, 
the mind that shaketh not, without grief and passion. On every 
side are invincible those who do acts like these, on every side they 
walk in safety, and this is the greatest blessing." 


1. At Naga/ra ;— A town lying about eighty miles almost direct- 
ly north of Ben&res. 

2. In ox-wain .'—Sixteen miles is an average day's journey for an 

3. Fourhund/redcTors: — According to all authorities a cror is 
ten millions ; this would bring the number of living Buddhists to 
forty billions, an evident mistake. The values of ^weights, meas- 
ures and stated quantities differs so greatly in different parts of 
India that it is possible that cror may have been used, where 
Mr. Arnold resided, to indicate a million, making his calculation of 
four hundred million living Buddhists corrrect. 

4. LakhA: — One hundred thousand. 

NOTES. 257 

5. Mlech .*— A barbarian, not speaking Sanskrit, nor subject to 
Hindu institutions. 

6. The birds and heasU and creeping things : — ^In ibll tliese listen- , 
ing animals were ftaman souls in the progress of transmigration, ' 
awaiting the death of the animal, when possibly they mififht again 
be bom in human form, and therein find Nirv&na attainaoie. One 
of the principal reasons the Hindus give, for not killing any crea- 
ture, however dangerous or loathsome, is that possibly the soul ot 
some deceased friend or relative may be in the creature's body. 

7. Om : — ^This sacred syllable occupies a distinguished place 
among the objects of careful and special meditation. The student 
must devoutly repeat it again and again, and fix his mind in in- 
tensest degree npon its several meaning. The Mandukya Upan- 
ishad de<dare8 them to be four in number. The A in it denotes 
Br6hm6 in the form of Vaishwanar, the human soul in its waking 
state. The U refers to him as Taijasa, in the state of dreaming: 
The M represents him as Prajna, in the state of deep sleep. The 
combined syllable Om, i.e,, AUM, denotes him at once as the Su- 
preme invisible, blissful, without a second. The Sutras attribute 
to the syllable three elements of meaning, and declare the efficacy 
of its repetition to depend upon the sense in which it is viewed by 
the devotee. ** He who meditates on all three, like a serpent 
which casts its skin, ascends at ence to Br&hm&. After sharpening 
the arrow by devotion, fix to it that great weapon, the bow fotmd 
in the Upanishad, and after drawing it, and carefully aiming at 
thy mark, pierce him, oh beloved, who is the imperishable." It is 
said that Om is the bow, the soul the arrow, and Br&lun& the 

8. Amitaya: — ^Immeasurable. 

9. Brahm ;— See Note 17, Book, the I^^ifth. 

10. Pr(w not ! the Da/rhneee wiU not brighten/ Aek 
Isimghtfram the SUence.for it cannot epeaki 
Vex not your mournful minds with pious pains I 
Ah! Brothers. Sisters! seek 

If aught from the helpless gods by gift and hymn^ 

2for bribe wUh blood, nor feed thUh fruit and cakes; 
Within yourseVoes deH/oerance must he sought ; 
Each man his prison makes. 
These stanzas against prayer are the saddest of all Buddha's 
teachings, and that virith which his followers are the least able to 
comply. All passions, all desires they may subdue, but ever and 
ever the heart seeks in prayer some light, some release. No reli- 
giimists pray do much, with so many repetitions, or by so many de- 
vices of rosaries, bells, wheels, madiinery, or substitutes, as the 


11. Indrd.'^-Bee Note 17, Book tlie Third. 

13. Dha/rma : — Law, the '* Power divine." 

18. Besamvm : — was created on the 11th of February by Yama.. 
the god of the lower regions, hence the day and plant are oonsid* 
ered sacred. The oil of the sesamum seeds is very largely used in 
India for religious service, cooking and lights. 

14. Mrvdna :See Note 49, Book the Sixth. 
16. Om ;— See Note 7, Book the Eighth. 

16. Mani: — Sage. 

17. Padme : — Ix>tus or Golden Lotus. 

18. the Dewdrop dips 

ItUo the shining sea. 

This is a Br&hminical, not a Buddhist, idea of Nirv&na, and is a 
favorite form of expression among them. The Buddhist phrase- 
ology is, that the soul is blown out like a lamp, or as blowing out 
is applied to a fire, or to a sa^." * 

10. Karmdc—See Note 46, Book the Sixth. 

20. KcUpasc-'-^ee Note 64, Book the First. 

21. Birdn-weed: — Foreign weed. 

22. ff any teach Nirodna is to cease. 

Say unto such they lie. 
If any teach Ni/rvdna is to Ivoe, 
Say unto such they err^ 

If anyone hopes to arrive at a full understanding of this subject, 
let them be well forewarned of its impossibility. Mr. Hardy states 
that there are forty-four Buddhist sects, each holding different 
views of the future. 1 — 16. Those who hold a future state of con- 
scious existence, and that it is either material, immaterial, a mixed 
state, or neither material or immaterial ; that it is either finite, in- 
definitely extended, a mixture of both states, or neither one nor the 
other; or that its perceptions are either simple, discursive, limit- 
ed, unlimited, happy, miserable, mixed or insensible. 17 — 24. Those 
who hold a future state of unconscious existence. 25 — 32. Those 
who hold a state between consciousness and unconsciousness. 38 — 
39. Those who hold that death, at once, or ultimately, is annihilation. 
40 — 44. Those who reason on the mode in which perfect happiness 
is to be obtained. ' 

According to Buddha, the pure unmixed truth is not to be found 
anywhere but in his own preaching. To other teachers the truth 
may appear partially; but to him alone does it appear in unshroud- 
ed clearness and in its utmost amplitude. In him it is not acqui- 
sition gained by means of some mental process, nor is it a lesson 
taught by another. It is an intuitive underived power; a self -gen- 
erated effulgence. By this unerring sage it is declared that none 

* Chipe from a German Workflhop. 

NOTES. 239 

»f the above opinions are consistent with the truth . And yet death 
is not annihilation. We exist, and we do not exist. We die and 
we do not die. There will be a future state of existence, but not 
of the indiyidnalitj thbt now exists; and though death is the dis- 
solution of that which now exists, it is not annihilation of a poten- 
tiiditj inherent in that existence. * 

23. Scmajtdce .-—See Note 29, Book tl^e Fifth. 

24 while he threw 

Bice, red and white, from both hands. 

It is the duty of every Hindu householder to offer certain prayers 
with food and water each morning. Having bathed and put on 
clean clothes, he must devoutly offer libations, scattering water 
thrice for gods, also thrice for rishis, progenitors, friends and rel- 
atives and many others, accompanied by a lengthy prayer address- 
ed to all manner of gods, men, animals, plants ''and all creatures." 
After this, having rinsed his mouth, he makes offerings to the sun, 
household gods, residents of earth, air, heaven and hell, to parents, 
teachers, family, kinsmen near and remote, to the cardinal points, 
atmosphere, twilight etc., etc. Then taking other rice, let the 
householder at pleasure cast it upon a clean spot of ground, as 
an offering to all beings, repeating with collected mind this prayer: 
'' May gods, men, animals, birds, saints, yakshas, serpents, demons, 
ghosts, goblins, trees, all that desire food given by me; may ants, 
worms, moths and other insects, hungered and bound in the bonds 
of acts, may all obtain satisfaction from the food left them by me, 
and enjoy happiness; may they who have neither father nor mother, 
nor relations, nor food, nor means of preparing it, be satisfied and « 
pleased with the food presented for their conientment; may all 
beings that are comprehended in the fourteen orders of existent 
things be satisfied with the food bestowed by me for their gratifi- 
cation, and be delighted.'' Having uttered this prayer, let the de- 
vout believer cast uie food upon The- ground for the nourishment 
of all kinds of beings, for the householder is thus the supporter of 
them all. Let him scatter food upon the ground for dogs, outcasts, 
birds and all f aUen and degraded persons. 

25. Dam ml ;— See Note 40, Book the Sixth. 

26. Three Doors : — There are tliree entrances, whence proceed 
that wbdch isgood, and that which is evil : 1. The body. 2. The 
speech. 8. The mind. 

27. Triple Thotights : — ^There are three subjects upon which the 
mind of the ascetic ought constantly to dwell : 1. Impermanency. 
2. Sorrow. 8. Unreality. 

28. The Svxfold States of Mind ;— 1. Evil desire. 2. Anger. 
8. Ignorance. 4. Purity. 5. Budhi. 6. Attention. 

^ ■ ■ - ■ — — -» 

* Hannal of Baddhifln^. 

340 NOT£& 

29. JHe^fiiH Fomri .-^1. Pnriiy. 3. PBMeverii 
ABoertftinmont of truth. 4 TnaiqnlUity, 6. Wisd 

30. MgAiS^kOategofPwiiff:—!. Correct ideas 
Bubjects. a. Correct thonghts. 8. Corrnct word 
works. S. Correct life. 6. Correct endeavors. 7. 

8. Correct tranquillity, 

_ .. Modes of Underitandi 

in ita separate divieiona.' 
power of the Baddhaa to perceive all truth Intnll 
stadf and without the teoatung of another. 4. Th< 
ascetics to haow the roots and the propertied of thli 

82. Id^i .'—'The power of worhhiff miracles. 

83. Vjaekaha : — is freedom from all kinds of deidi 

84. Fir>eOreatMedUaii<m9;—l. Purity, 2. Pers 
8. The Bsgertunment of truth. 4. Tranquillity. { 

36. AmrU .'—The food of the gods that gives imn 
lower people sometimes drink the water in which 
mins have bathed their feet, calling it amrit. 

36. Jbdnat : Wisdom, 

ST. The Three OkUf Befagei .-—1, The benefits i 
men. 2. The enjoyment ot the dewa and br&hma- 

88. StraiTwr : — A thin piece of cloth for strainin 
it is draiik. Some sects in India, rartieularly the ' 
a strainer, lest unknowingly they should swallow s( 
thus take life. The mysteries revealed to them by 

,ainaze and perplex them greatly. 

89. Bangka: — i^ociety oroommnnlty. 
40. ToWf^a^o .'—Teacher. 

41.. Om mani padme hum : — Is generally tran 
to the Lotns bearer, Emn." Hum is not here osed 
nal Sanskrit meaning, bnt has come to be used i 
praise. Among some of ths BaddhistB, the asorl] 
stood as "Om praise to the Golden Lotos Saint." 



:i • 



■ \ 


BBAtmFUL flowers please, whatever fth^ name aad 
country; and so far as any brightness or fragrance nay 
have been, preserved from the Aryan original m this 
paraphrase, it will no doubt be recognized by the reader 
of intelHgence. Tet being so exotic, the poem demands 
a word or two of introduction. 

The «*Glta Qovinda," then, or "Song of Govind,"i8 
a Sanskrit idyl, or little pastoral drama, in wlu<di — 
under the form of Ebishna, an incarnation of the 
god Yishnoo — the human soul is displayed in its re- 
lations alternately with earthly and celestial beauty. 
Krishna — at once human and divine*-is first sear at- 
tracted by the pleasures of the senses (personified by 
the shepherdesses in the wood), and wasting his affec- 
tions upon the delights of their illusory world. Radha, 
the spirit of i ntellect ual and moral beauty, comes to free 
him from this error by enkindling in his heart a desire 
for her own surpassing loveliness of form and dukracter ; 
and under the parable of a human passion—- too glow- 
ingly depicted by the Indian poet for exact transcription 
— ^the gradual emancipation of Krishna from sensuous 
distractions, and his union with Radha in a high and 
spiritualized happiness, are portrayed. This general in- 
terpretation, at any rate, though disputed by certaia au- 



, is maintiUQed by Jones, Lassen, and others; 

been followed, not without occauonal diffl- 

the subjoined vereioQ. 

1 tbns writes In bis Latin proltgomma : "To 
ij opinion in one word, Erialm& is lieie tlie 
■given Bool manisested in humanity. . . . The 
Ion at tills celestial oii^ abides deep in the 
id even when it seems to slumber — drugged as 
ff the f^ shows of the woild, the pleasures of 
lings, and tlie intoxication of the senses— it now 
n awakes, . . . fall of yearning to recover the 
renity of its pristine condition. Then the soul be- 
[iscriminate and to perceive that the love, which 
inmost principle, has lieen lavished on empty 
le objects; it grows a- wearied of things sensual, 
d unenduring; it longs to fix its affection on 
ch sliall be stable, and the source of true and 
lelighL Eriatina — to use the imagery of tbis 
hvones Radba in Iiis lieart, as the sole and only 
' can really satisfy his aspirations. . . . 
ba is supreme in beauty, with a loveliness which 
e celestial, and yet enshrined in earthly mould, 
nns lift the mind to heavenly contemplations, 
God of Love, Kama, Ixirrows his best weapons 
im. She is forgiving and pitiful even towards 
ig and lingering lover; she would meet bim in 
g if she could; she grieves more than she blames; 
) reconciled, is beyond measure tender. . . . The 
For the illusions of sense— ian«dra — is placed by 
loo philosophers in the understanding of true 
i, and Itadha. in my judgment, represents tliia 
— bring the pei;^nified contemplation of the 
eauty and goodness. . . . Such contemplation 
m and disowns tite mind possessed bj sensual 

^ V 




objects, but goes to meet and gladly inhabit that which 
consecrates itself, as Krishna's does, to the higher love. 
... It bewails its separation from the soul, as that ^ 
which was its natural dwelling-place before the change- 
ful shows of sdortal life banished it; and this is the mys- 
tery of mutual attraction between the mind and mental ! 
beauty, that the memory of the divine happiness does 
not die, but is revived by the recognition of truth, and 
returns to the perception of what things in love are 
worthless, and what are real and worthy. The affec- 
tion of Radha is jealous, and grants not the full sight 
of her charms, until the soul of its own accord abandons 
its prepccupations, and becomes filled with the desire of 
the true love. But upon the soul thus returning she 
lavishes her utmost tenderness; whereof to be the re- 
cipient is to have all wishes fulfilled and nothing lack- 
ing — ^to be tripta — * well-contented.' Such, in my opin- 
ion, is the recondite significance of this poem, hidden 
under imagery but too luxuriant. The Indian poet 
seems, indeed, to have spent rather more labor in de- 
picting the phases of earthly passion than of that intel- 
lectual yearning by which the mind is lifted to the con- 
templation of divine .things; . . . but the fable of the 
loves of Govinda and Kadha existing from antiquity, 
and being universally accepted, philosophy had to affix 
its doctrines to the story in such a way as that the vul- 
gar amours of tho^e popular deities might present them- 
selves in a nobler aspect." 

Nothing in the way of exposition needs to be added 
to these words. 

The great variety of measure in the original has been 
indicated by frequently varying the metre of this para- 
phrase, without meanwhile attempting to imitate the 
many very fanciful alliterations, assonances, and recur- 


ring choruses; of which last, however, two examples 
have been introduced. The * * Glta Govinda, " with these 
refrains and the musical accompaniments named and 
prescribed by the directions embodied in the lezt, must 
have been a species of Oriental opera. This raises the 
difficult and little-studied subject of ancient Hindoo 
music, upon which a passing word or two may not ap«> 
pear impertinent Sir William Jones says, "When I 
first read the *songs of ^ayadeva, who has prefixed to 
each the name of the mode in which it was to be sung, 
I had hopes of procuring the original music; but the 
Pundits of the South referred me to those of the West, 
and the Brahmans of the West would have sent me to 
those of the North, while they of Nepal and Cashmere 
declared that they had no. ancient music, but imagined 
that the notes of the ' Glta Govinda ' must exist, if any- 
where, where the poet was born " (Sir W. Jones, vol. i. 
p. 440). 

Now the reason why this illustrious scholar could not 
find the score of the " Gtta/' was that music was always 
taught orally by the Hindoos, and therefore did not pass 
down from the old minstrels in any noted form. Yet 
there existed an elaborate science* of melody among the 
ancient Indians; although, like the Greeks, they under- 
! stood little or nothing of harmony. The distinguishing 
feature of Hindoo airs was, and still is, an extremely 
fine gradation of notes; the semitone'could be accurately 
divided into demi-semitones by the ear and voice of a 
practised **Gundharb" or '*Goonee." This even now 
imparts a delicacy to tiie otherwise monotonous temple- 
singing, which all musicians would recognize; and they 
might find in such treatises as the ** Sungeet Durpun," 
" Ragavibodha," and " Mg mala," or ** Chaplet of Mel- 
odies,*' complete and curious explanations of the Hindoo 


orchestia. In that fantastic syBtem the old Aryan CMn. 
posers established six r<iga8,*0T divine fundamental airs, 
having each five wives or rizgineea, and each of these 
producing eight melodious children; so that the ortho- 
dox repertory contained two hundred and forty separate 
songs. These songs had their fixed occasion, subject, 
and season; all to be reverently observed; otherwise the 
deity presiding over each was not thought likely to at- 
tend and give perfect effect to the music. These lyric 
divinities are personified and describe4 in such works 
as the '*Ratnamala:" thus " Gurj jarl ''— a melody fre- 
quently indicated here by Jayadeva— is represented as 
a feminine minstrel of engaging mien, dressed in yellow 
bodice and red sa/ree, richly bedecked with jewels and 
enthroned in a golden swing, as the third wife of the 
BagaJtfygh. Musical science was divided into seven 
hrBoehe&^Burudhyaya or sol-fa-ing, r<ig or melody, tal 
or time, nri^ or rhythmical dancing, aurih or poetry, 
bhcvo or expression, and Msi, answering to method, 
"^udu" The gamut contained seven notes singularly 
named — Su was suruj, the scream of the peacock; ri 
was r^ehftdf, the cry of the parrot; ffu was gundhur, the 
bleat of the sheep; mu was muddhun, the call of the 
crane; pu stood for punchum, and the note of the Kotl; 
dhu for dhyvut, the neigh of the horse; and m for ni- 
hkad, the trumpeting of the elephant. Endless subtle- 
ties characterized their musical terms — thus tal or 
"time," is a word made up of the first letters from 
iandy the dance of Mahadeo, and kta, the dance of Par- 
vati, his consort; out these are mere etymological nice- 
ties, characteristic of the hard language in which one 
single word may be written in a hundred and eight 
ways. Enough has been said to show, from sources 
which are perhaps somewhat out of general reach, that 


da! accompauiment of music was prescribed for 

Olta GoTinda" when composed, which, could it 
covered, would add immensely to~ the interest of 
inskrit C&nticle; and indeed, even at preseut, any 
eteut inquirer iuto the esistlng melodies of India, 
ar and sacred, nuglit be rewarded bj mitny ex- 
6 airs worth the ear of European mae*tri them- 
I. The IndiftDB of to-day have still their dAoorpudt, 
iroic ballads; tlieir kha^, ghuevii, and rekktaht, 
onga of Mogul derivatiou; ItKiTdadrtu and nvkta*, 
ides of Hindoo origiii; the tuppah, hummed by 
I and Punjabi camel-drlvcTs; the t&riMta, or "song' 
ut words;" Qiepalna, or cradle-soug; Qietohia, or 
age-strain; the ttooU, or eulogistic chants; and the 
which are hymns of morality. Protmbly smong 
some echoes of the antique melodies of Jayadeva 
}e preserved; at any rate, such a list — and it might 
gely extended — shows that Indian music well mer- 
ofesslona) study. 

sdeva, a native of Einduvilva or EendOli, iii 
Iran or Tirhoot (for the locality Is doubtful), 
:, according to Lassen, alrout 1160 a.i>. The 
i of the Indian poet's musical mystery-play ia 
[ In the tenth section of the Bbfigavata, but Hin- 
terature and daily talk are full of this half -divine, 
luman Krishna; and in turning into a reli^ous 
;le the loves of "Qovinda" sud Radha, Jayadeva 
; Ije sure that every native audience, present and 
ne, vTOuId understand his matteTj The "Gita"ie 
s hour very popular in India; but more so, doubt- 
wcause of its melodious versification and its ardent 
lietures than the profound and earnest meanings, 
le sake of which this imperfect attempt has been 
ded. Extremely imperfect it is, and for exact 

bte number i 
) of no iicccii 

hb J perhaps 
if England a 
sent writer— 
udian clasfii 
ire and erud 
Dt U here di 
ost part, f ai 
ilthDugh mu 
iga omitted, 
Item proprie 
destroy SOB 
in her own s 
^med to tea 
lis imitation 



OM! , 


" The sky is clouded; and the wood resembles \ 

The sky, thick-arched with black TamlUa boughs; ' 

O Radha, Radha! take this soul that trembles \ 

In life's deep midnight, to Thy golden house.** j 

So Nanda spoke, — and, led by Radha*s spirit, j 

The feet of Krishna found the road aright; 
Wherefore in bliss which all high hearts inherit 

Together taste they Love*8 divine delight. 

He who wrote these things far thee. 

Of the Son of Wassoodee, 

Was the poet Jayadeva; , 

Him Saraswati gave ever 

Fancies fair his mind to throng. 

Like pictv/res palace-walls along; 

Ever to his notes of love , 

Lakshmi*s mystic dancers move. 

If thy spirit seeks to brood 

On Hart glorious, Hari good; 

If it feeds on solemn numbers 

Dim as d/rea/ms and soft as slumbers, i 

Lend thine ea/r to Jayadev, 

Lord of all the speUs that save \ 



• > 

UmapaHdhara^B girain 
GlotM like ro9B8 after ram; 
Sharan*s etream-Uke song is grand, 
If its tide ye understand; 
Bard more wise beneath the sun, 
Is notfmind than Govardhun; 
Dhoyi holds the listener stiU 
With his shlokes of subUe skid; 
But for sweet ioords suited mil 
Jayadeva doth excel. 

(What follows is to the Music MiutiYA and the Mode 



O THOU that lield'st the blessed Veda diy 
When all things else beneath the floods were hurled; 

Strong Fish-God I Ark of Men I Jail Ban, jail 
Hail, Eeshav, hail I thou Master of the world! 

The round world rested on thy spacious nape; 

Upon thy neck, like a mere mole, it stood: 
O thou that took'st for us the Tortoise-shape, 

Hail, Keshav, hail I Ruler of wave and wood! 

The world upon thy curving tusk sate sure. 
Like the Moon's dark disc in her crescent pale j^ 

O thou who did'st for us assume the Boar, 
Immortal Conqueror! hail, Keshav, hail I 

Wlien thou thy Giant-Foe didst seize and rend. 
Fierce, fearful, long, and sharp were fang and nail; 

Thou who the Lion and the Man didst blend, 
Lord of the Universe! hail, Narsingh, hail! 


Wonderful Dwarf! — ^who with a threefold stride 
Cheated King Bali — ^where tiiy footsteps fall 

Men's sins, O Wamunal are set aside. 
O EeshaV) hail I thou Help and Hope of all I 

The sins of this sad earth thou didst assoil, 
The anguish of its creatures thou didst heal; 

Freed are we from all terrors by thy toil: 
Hail, Purshuram, hail I Lord of the biting steel! 

To thee the fell Ten-Headed yielded life, 
Thou in dread battle laid'st the monster low I 

Ah, Ramat dear to Gods and men that strife; 
We praise thee. Master of the matchless bowl 

With clouds. for garments glorious thou dost fare, 
Veiling thy dazzling majesty and might. 

As when Yamuna saw thee with the share, 
A peasant — ^yet the King of Day and Night. 

Merciful-hearted! when thou camest as Boodh— 
Albeit 'twas written in the Scriptures so— 

Thou bad'st our altars be no more imbrued 
With blood of victims:" Keshavl bending low 

We praise thee, WiBlder of the sweeping sword. 
Brilliant as curving comets in the gloom. 

Whose edge shall smite the fierce barbarian horde; 
Hail to thee« Keshav! hail, and hear, and come, 

And fill this song of Jayadev with thee. 
And make it wise to teach, strong to redeem. 

And sweet to living souls. Thou Mystery! 
Thou Light of Life! Thou Dawn beyond the dream 1 

Fish! that didst outswim the flood; 
Tortoise! whereon earth hath stood; 


nho with tby tueh held'st hj^ 
irld, that mbrtalB might not die; 
nho hsqt giants torn; 
! who lavgh'det a king to sconi; 
ibduer of the Breadedt 
of the many-headed I 
Plongbmanl Teacher teudet) 
le own the sure Defender I 
all thy ten disguises 
9 praise to thee arisea. 

's lo the Mutie QcBjjAot and tht 1 

ess pr^ae arlaee, 
3U Qod that liest 
, oa Eumla'a brettbt, 
Diest, holiest, lughestl 
ets ate tiiy jewels. 
I thy foTchead-geniB, 
ike sapphires gleaming 
ugliest anadems; 
I the great gold Sun-God, 
ng through the sky, 
38 Ihee but for crest-stone, 
'm! Sjoi.jai/ 
ULt Lord of day 
r night brings morrow, 
I dost charm away 
i long dream of somrin 
a Mansa's water "^ 

d the Bwans at rest, 
ly laws sit stately 
holy hreast. 


O, Dtinker of the poison 
Ah, high Delight of eartl 
What light is to the lotui 
What Hnging b to mirth 
Art thou — art thou that ( 
Madhou and Narak grim 
That ridest on the King i 
Uaking all glories dim. 
With eyes like open lotui 
Bright In the mondDg n 
Preeing by one swift pit( 
The spirit from Life's pa 
Of all the three Worids 1 
Of ^ the Putter-byl 
Of the Ten-Headed Yict< 
iftM'Haril HariljiHV 
Thou Shaker of the Mou 
Hum Bhadow of the Stoi 
Thou Cloud that imto Ls 
Comes welcome, white, t 
O thou, — who to great Li 
Art like (he silveiy beam 
Which roooo-gick chalcor 
By Jumna's silent stream 
To thee this h jmn ascem 
That Jay adey doth sing, 
Of worship, love, and m; 
High Lord and heavenly 
And unto whoso hears it 
Do thou a blessing bring- 
Whose neck is gilt with ] 
From lilies that did cling 
Beneath the breasts of la 
A girdle soft and swee^ 


When in diyine embracuig\ 
The liiM of Gods did meet;/ 
And the beating heart above * 

Of thee—Dread Lord of Heaveni— > 
She left that stamp of love- 
By such deep sign be given 
Prays Jayadev, the glory 
And the secret and the spells 
Which close-hid in this stofy 
Unto wise ears he tells. 

End of Imtboduchon. 




^ BsAunFUL Radha, jasmine-bosomed Radha, 
AU in the Spring-time waited by the wood 
For ErishDa fair, Ejishna the all-forgetful,— 
Krishna with earthly love's false fire consuming— 
And some one of her maidens si^ig this song: — 

{WhatfoUow iiiathe Mtme Vabahta and tksJM^ 


I know where Krishna tarries in these early days of 

When every wind from warm Malay brings fragnno* 

on its wing; 


Briogi fragrance alolen far sway f. 

In jungles where the beea hum and 

He dancea with the dancers, of a mi 
All in the budding Spring-time, foi 

. I know how Erishua passes these 

Whea parted lovers sigh to meet ai 

Hand fast in hand; and every brani 

Ptoops downward with a handro 

bloom a bee; 
He is dancing with the dancers to 

In the soft awakening SpTiag-time 
live alone. 

Where Kroona-flowers, that open ; 

Break, and, for shame at what thcj ^.», ....^ ..^^ 

blush modest red; 
And all the spears on all the boughs of all the Ketuk- 

Seem ready darts to pierce the hearts of wandering 

youths and maids; 
"Tis there thy EJiahna dances till the meny drum is 

All in the sunny Spring-time, when who can live aloneT 

Where the breakiug-forth of blossom on the yellow 

Dazzles like Kama's sceptre, whom all the wts'ld obeyi; 


r hnniMi 

la think- 
wUl Jive 

iiS, thioel 

in about, 
It Jumna 


Lurketh in it» linai a wmd 
'^kieh thft ieite alone leiUp 
Though it, aeemeth ofiheea 
Eeatenlg m Hie mttiie't Mrt 
TMng dwMg of delighU 
tn the wood, ofwaa^ nigh 
ttfvdSeu day», andfndtle 
Andfaise pleattirea of the i 
And ragh pa»gione of (hap. 
And Viote danee* of Spring 
Timt, nkiek leemt go tubtU 
Time, whiehpipet to danetj 
Ah! to»ofSj/—ah/ totviei 
Kri^TM cannot ehoose /ml < 
Letttng poM Uf^t greater a 

Yet the winds that sigh k 

Ab they stir the rose, 
Wake a sigli from Kriahit 

WistfuUer than those; 
All their faint breaths swi 

The creepers to and fro 
Pass like matting arrows 

Shot from Kama's bow; 
Thus among the dancers 

What thiae zephyrs brii 
Strikes to Krishna's spirit 

Like a darted sting. 

And all as if— far wanden 
The traveller should hei 

The bird of home, the Kol 
Witb nestnotes rich an< 


And there shoiald come one moment 

A blessed fleeting dreamt 
. Of the bees among the mangoes 

Beside his native stream; 
So flash those sudden yearnings, . 

That sinse of a dearer thing, 
I'he love and lack of Radha 

Upon his soul in Spring. 

Then she, thft Tn|^i<l nf "Ra^hn. spake again; 
And pointing far away between the leaves 
Guided her lovely Mistress where to look, 
And note how Krishna wantoned in the wood 
Now with this one, now that; his heart, her prize, 
Panting with foolish passions, and his eyes 
Beaming with too much love for those fair girls — 
Fair, but not so as Radha; and she sang • 

(What foUows as to the Music HiMAGiBt and the Mode 


See, Lady! how thy EIrishnat passes these idle hours 
Decked forth in fold of woven gold, and crowned with 

And scented with the sandal, and gay with gems of 

price — 
Rubies to mate hfe laughfng lips, and diamonds like his 

eyes;— ^ ^MnaJw 

In the company of damsels,* who dance and sing and 

Lies Erishna laughing, toying, dreaming his Spring 


* It will be observed that the " Gopis^* here personify the five 
senses. Lassen sajrs, " Manifestum est puelUs Uiis nil cUiud 
fignifieari quam res sentiles," 


And one with arch smile beckons him away from Jumna's 

Where the tall bamboos bristle like spears in battle- 

And plucks his cloth to make him coroe into the mango, 

Where the fruit is ripe and golden, and the milk and 
cakes are laid: 

Oh! golden-red the mangoes, and glad the feasts of 

And fair the flowers to lie upon, and sweet the dancers 

Sweetest of all that Temptress who dances for him now 

With subtle feet which part and meet in the Rds-meas- 

ure slow. 
To the chime of silver bangles and the beat of rose-leaf 

And pipe and lute and cymbal played by the woodland 

So that wholly passion-laden — eye, ear, sense, soul o'e» 

come — 
Krishna is theirs in the forest; his heart forgets its home. 

Krishna, made far ThM/omly things, 
*Mid those tDoodland singers sings; 
With those dancers dances featly, 
Gives back soft embraces sweetly; 
Smiles on that one, toys toith this. 
Glance for glance and kiss for kiss; 
Meets the merry damsels fairly. 
Plays ^ round offoUy rarely. 
Lapped in milk-wai'm spring-time weat7iei\ 
EJe and those brown girls together. 



Mow — as (f tJte sunshine drew 

AU Us being to the Hue — 

It takes JUgfU, and seeks to rise 

High into the purer skies^ 

High into the snow and frost. 

On the Mmng summits lost ! 4 

Ah / and how the Ktnls' strain 

Smites the iraveUer vnth pain, — 

When the mango blooms in spring. 

And **Koo?ioo,'* ** KooTioo,** they sing — 

Pain of pleasures not yet won, 

Pain of journeys not yet done. 

Pain of toiling without gaining. 

Pain, 'mid gladness, of sUU paining. 

But may He guide us all to glory high 
Who laughed when Radha glided, hidden, by, 
And all among those damsels free and bold 
Touched Krishna with a soft mouth, kind and cold; 
And like the others, leaning on his breast, 
Unlike the others, left there Love's unrestjj 
And like tfie others, joining in his song, 
Unlike the others, made him silent long\ 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Gita Govinda entitled 







igered Krishna in the deep, green wood, 
re himself, too prodigal, to those; 
Iha, heaiVsick at bis falling-off, 
ter heavenly beauty slighted so, 
!W; and, in a bower of Paradifle — 
lectaroiis blossoms wove a shrine of shade, 
I by birds and bees of unknown skies— >■ 
deep-soirowf ol, and sang tbia strain, 

awa it to the tauiie GxnujAxf ajtd the M>de 

Beloved! taken with those glanc^. 
Beloved I dancing those rash dances, 
strell playing wrongful strains so welt; 
lal Krisbna, with the honeyed lip I 
erer into foolish fellowship! 
oer, my Delight! — I love thee still. J 

strip thy peacock-crown away, 
whose forehead is the star of day, 

iuty for its silver halo set; 

u whose greatness gleams beneath its shrood 

i'a rainbow sbinlng through the cloud — 

Tc I love tboe, my Beloved I yet 


Must love thee~€aimot choose but love thee ever, 
My best Beloved— set on this endeavor. 

To win thy tender heart and earnest eye 
From lips but sadly sweet, from restless i)osoms, 
To mine, O Krishna vrith. the mouth of blossoms I 

To mine, thou soul of Krishna! yet I sigh 

Half hopeless, thinking of myself forsaken, 
And thee, dear Loiterer, in the wood overtaken 

With passion for those bold and wanton oneSv 
Who knit thine arms as poison-plants gripe trees^ 
With twining cords — their flowers the braveriea-/ 

That flash in the green gloom, sparkling gauds and 

My Prince! my Lotus-faced! my: wo e! my love! , 
YHiose broad brow, with the tilka-spot above, 

Shames the bright moon at full with fleck of cloud; 
Thou to mistake so little for so much! ' 
Thou, Krishna, to be palm to palm with such! 

O Soul made for my joy s^ pure, perfect, proud! ^ 

Ah, my Beloved! in thy darkness dear; 
Ah, Dancer! with the jewels in thine ear, 
Swinging to music of a loveless love; 

my Beloved! in thy fall so high 
That angels, sages, spirits of the sky 

Linger about thee, watching in the grove. 

1 will be patient still, and draw thee ever,* 
My one Beloved, sitting by the river 

Under the thick Kadambas with that throng: 
Will there not come an end to earthly madnesg^ 
Shall I not, past the sorrow, have the gladness? 

Must not the love-light shine for him ere long? 


For (saog on tl 
Hy soul for tei 

Mine eyea la 
My beart coina 
PrevQnts vbat 

And that wli 

Then epake i 

Go to him,— w 
How be ma; 

Say, if he will- 

Where Badha: 

Tea, go! say, i 
Hay come, i 

May come forj 

To uplift Itedt 



Lead him; say softly I shall chide his blindness, 
And vex him with my angers; yet add this, 

He shall not vainly sue for loving-kindness, 
Nor miss to see me close, nor lose the bliss 

That lives u^^n my lip, nor be denied 

The rose-throne at my side. 

Say that I— Radha— in my bower langaish 
All widowed, till he find the way to me; 

Say that mine eyes are dim, my breast all anguish. 
Until with gentle murmured shame I see 

His steps "Come near, his anxious pleading face 

Bend for my pardoning grace. 

While I — ^what, did he deem light love so tender, 
To tajrry for them when the vow was made 

To yield him up my bosom's maiden splendor^ 
And fold him in my fragrance, and unbraid 

My shining hair for him, and clasp him close 

To the gold heart of his Rose, 

And sing him strains which only spirits know, 
And make him captive with the silk-soft chain 

Of twinned- wi^gs brooding round him, and bestow 
Kisses of Paradise, as pure as rain ; 

My gems, my moonlight-pearls, my girdle-gold, 

Cymbaling music bold? 

While gained for ever, I shall dare to grow 
Life to life with him, in the realms divine; 

And— Love's large cup at happy overflow. 
Yet ever to be filled — ^his eyes and mine 

Shall meet in that glad look, wh4n Time's great gate 

Closes and shuts out Fate. 









More sweet, with unspeakable longings. 
Than the best of the pleasures we had: 

I am not now the Krishna who kissed you; 
That exquisite dream, — 

The Vision I saw in my dancing 
Has spoiled what you seem. 

" Ah ! delicate phantoms tj^aX cheated 

With eyes that looked lasting and true, 
I awake, — I have seen her, — ^my angel — 

Farewell to the wood and to you I 
Oh, whisper of wonderful pity I 

Oh, fair face that shone! 
Though thou be a vision, DivinestI 

This vision is done." 

(Here ends that Sarga of the Qita Govinda entitled Exesh- 





Thbbbat, — as one who welcomes to her throne 
A new-made Queen, and brings before it bound 
Her enemies, — so Krishna in his heart 
Throned Radha; and — ^all treasonous follies chained- 
He played no more with those first play-fellows: 
But, searching through the shadows of the grove 
For loveliest Radha, — when he found her not 





Faint with the quest, despairing, lonely, lorn, 
And pierced with shame for wasted love and days, 
He sate by Jumna, where the canes are thick, 
And sang to the wood-echoes words like these: 

{WhatfoUows 18 to the Mum GmuJAnt atu? the Mode 


Radha, Enchantress ! Haoha, queen of all! 

€k)ne — lost, because she found me sinning here; 
And I so stricken with my fooljsh fall, 

I could not stay her out of shame and fear; 

8he will not hear:- 
In her disdain and grief vainly I call. 

And if she heard, what would she do? what say ? 

How could I make it good that I forgot? 
What profit was it to me, night and day, 

To live, love, dance, and dream, having her not 

Soul without spotl^ 
I wronged thy patience, till it sighed ann^^ 

Sadly I see the truth. Ah I even now 
Remembering that one look beside the river. 

Softer the vexpd eyes seem, and the proud brow 
Than lotus-leaves when the bees make them quiver. 

My love forever! 

Too late is Krishna wise^too far art thou! 

Yet all day long in my deep heart I woo thee, 
And all night long with thee my dreams are sweet;* 

Why, then, so vainly must my steps pursue thee? 
Why can I never reach thee to entreat, 

Low at thy feet, 

Dear vanished Splendor! till my tears subdue thee? 

» \ 


Surpassing Quel I knew thou didst not In^ok 
Half-hearted worship, and a love that wavers; 

Haho I there is the wisdom I mistook, 
Therefore I seek with dei^erate endeavors; 

That faylt dissevers 

Me from my heaven, astray— condemned— forsook! 

And yet I seem to feel, to know, thee near me; 

Thy steps make music, measured music, near; 
Radhal my Radha! will not sorrow clear me? 

Shine once! speak one word pitiful and dear! 

Wilt thou not hear? 
Canst thou — because I did forget— forsake me? 

Forgive! the sin is sinned, is past, is over; 

Ko thought I think shall do thee wrong again ; 
Turn thy dark eyes again upon thy lover. 

Bright Spirit 1 or I perish of this pain. 

Loving again! 
In dread of doom to love, but not recover. 

80 did Krishna sing and sigh 
By the river-bank; and J, 
Jayadev of KinduvUva, 
Besting — as the moon of sH/oer 
Sits upon the solemn ocean — 
OnfuUfaiih, in deep devoti<m; 
TeU it that ye may perceive 
How the hea/rt must fret and grieve; 
How the soul doth tire ofea/rth. 
When the love from Hea/D*n ha;th Urth' 

For (sang he on) I am no foe of thine, 
There is no black snake, Kama! in my hair: 


Blue lotHs-leftves, and not Q 

Shadow my neck; what ai 


Is sandaf-dust, not ashea; n< 

Uakes me Uke Shlra lliat th 

Sbouldst strain thy string 
This world is tbine— let me • 

WMcli bleeds already, woi 


Shot from those biOwa ^t i 

Tbon gavest her those black 

. Arcbed Uke thine own, wl 

Her glances, and the underli 

So Arm and 0ne— its strin; 

Small need of Kama's help h 

To smile me to the soul witl 

Those arrows to their silkc 
My thoughts in that loose hs 

With dew of heayen as bl: 


Of Icmging In my heart; and 

"^pJieaTing of Qiy lovely, s 

Baa Lto igr ^* thing s u 
But iftby t4»ich; tby tones, 

Of thy dear face, tby Jasm 

If these be all with me, cans 

Bo mmg At, and I prog 

Tht muMe tff hit burning hoptt andfeart. 


That wTioso sees this vision by the Biter 

Cf Krishrui, Ha/riy {can we name him everT) 

And marks his ea/r-ring rubies stdinging slow, 

As he sits stiUf unheedful, bending law 

To play this tuns upon his lute, while aS 

Listen to catch the sddn^ss musicoCl; 

And Krishna wotteih naught, but, with set face 

Tamed full tatoard Badha*s, plays on in that place; 

May an such souls— prays Jwyad&m — be wise 

To leam ihe wisdom which hereunder lies, 


(Here ends that Sarga of the GSta Govinda entiOed 





Then she whom Radha sent came to the canes — 
The canes beside the river where he lay 
With listless limbs and spirit weak from love; — 
And she sang this to Krishna wistfully. 

{What follows is to the Music KabnIta amd the Made 


Art thou sick for Radha? she is sad in turn. 
Heaven foregoes its blessings, if it holds not thee; 

All the cooling fragrance of sandal she doth spurn, 
Moonlight makes her mournful with radiance silvery; 


Softly now she sayeth, 

** Krishna, Krishna, come!" 
Lovingly she prayeth, 

*' Fair moon, light him home/' 
' Yet if Hari helps not, 

Moonlight cannot aid; 
Ah! the woeful Eadha! 

Ah! the forest shade I 

Ah! if Hari guide not. 

Moonlight is as gloom; 
Ah! if moonlight help not. 

How shall Krishna come? 
Sad for Krishna grieving 

-In: the da^ened ^ove ; ' 
Sad for Radha weaving -w. 
' Dreams of fruitless love!\ 

Strike soft strings to thds soft measure. 
If thine ear would catch its treasure; 
Slowly dance to this deep song, 
Let its meaning Jhat along 
With grave paces, since it t^ 
Of a love that sweeUy dwem^ 
In a tender distant glory, V 
BMt dRfandts of mortal 9toryf\ 

( What foUows is to the Music DeshIga and theModi 


Ejishna, till thou come unto her, faint she lies with lov» 

and fear! 
Even the jewels of her necklet seem a load too great t* 


aly t 





Krishna, while thou didst forget her—- her, thy fife, thy 

gontle fate — • 

Wonderful her waiting was, her pity sweet, her patience 


Krishna, comet 'tis grief untold to gribve her — shame to i] 
let her sigh ; ^ 

CovoB, for she is sick with love, and thoii her only 

So she 9ang, and Jayadeva 

Prays for aU, cmd prays for ever, 

That Great HaH may bestow 

Utmost bliss cf loving so 

On us dU; — ^lat one who wore 

Ihe Tierdsman'sfonn, and Tieretofore, 

Ta sam the shepherd^ s threaten^ flock, 

Up from ihe ea/rth rea/red ihe hv/ge rock — 

BefikfW it with a gracious hand, 

AJbeU, amid the woodland ba/nd, 

(Minging close in fond caresses , 

Krishna gave them ardent kisses^ 

TiMng on his lips divine 

Ea/rtKly stamp and woodland sign, ' 

(Here ends that Sarga of ihe Oita Govinda entiUed 






Low wbigpera the wind from Hftlaya 

Overladen with love; 
On the hills all the grass Is burned yellow; 

And the trees in ihe grove 
Droop with tendrils that mock by their dining 

The thooghle o[ the parted; 
And there lies, sore-sighing for tliee. 

Thy love, altered-heaited. 

To Mni the moon's icy-chill sQver 

Is B BUD at midday; 
The fever he bums wiUi is deeper 

Than starlight can stay: 
Like one who falls stricken by arrows, 

W^ith the color departed 
From all but hia red wounds, so lias 

Thy love, bleeding-hearled. 



To the music the banded bees make hhn 

He closeth his ear; 
In the blossoms their small horns are blowing 

The honey-song clear; 
But as if every sting jto his bosom 

Its smart had imparted, 
Low lies by the edge of the river. 

Thy love, aching-hearted. 

By the edge of the river, far wandered 

From his once beloved borers, 
And the haunts of his beautiful playmates, 

And the beds strewn with flowers; 
Now thy name is his playmate— that only!-— 

And the hard rocks upstarted 
From the sand make the couch where he lies, 

Thy Krishna, sad-hearted. 

Oh may HwrifiU each mnd^ 
A* these gende wnes roU 
TeOmg of the angmth borne 
By kindred ones cuunder torn! 
Oh may Edri unto each 
All ihe lore of loving teach, 
AU the pain and aU the hUes; 
Jayad&oa prayeth 1M$ ! 

Tea, Lady I in the self-same spot he waits 
Where with thy kiss thou taughVst him utmost love, 
And drew him, as none else draws, with thy look; 
And all day long, and all night long, his cry 
Is "Eadha, Badha," like a spell said o'er; 
And in his heart there lives no wish nor hope 
Save only this, to slake his spirit's thirst 
For Radha's love on Radha's lips; and find 
Peace in the immortal beauty of thy brow. 


Bow* it to th» Mutie GuiMjABl an^ 

■tress, eweet wid bright and holy! 

feet bim in that place ; 

ange bis ctaeerleas meloncholj > 

!nto joy and grace; 

tbou bast forgiven, vex not; 

i tbou lovest, go; 

ttching ever by the river, 

Irishna listeoa low: 

itcns low, and on his leed there 

k>ftly Boands by name, 

LkiDg even mate tMngs plead there 

fot his hope: 'tis shame 

at, while winds aZe-welcmme to him 

[f from thee they blow, 

lurnful ever by the river 

Krishna waits thee sol 

tten a bird'a wing stirs the roeee, 
mien a leaf falls dead, 
renty times he recomposes 
rhe flower-seat he has spread: 
renty times, with anxious glances 
Peeking thee in v^n, 
;hing ever by the river, 
SJishna droops ^aio, 

osen from thy foot the bangle, 
[jest its golden bell, 
Ith a Uny, tattling jangle, 
i.ay false tale tell: 


. the moonlight 

Will thy glad toce know, 
Dtsw those dark braide lower, Ladyt 

Bat to Kriebna go. 

Swift and still as lightning's splendor 

Let thy beauty come. 
Sudden, gracious, daziJiog, tender. 

To his anus — its home: 
Swift aa Indra's yellow lightning. 

Shining through the ui^t. 
Glide to Krishna's lonely bosOm, 

Take him love and light 

Grant, at last, lore's utmost measure. 

Giving, give the whole; 
Keep back nothing of the treaaureA 

Of thy priceless soul; -J 

Hold with both bauds out unto niia 

Thy chalice, let him drain 
The nectar of ils dearest draught. 

Till not a wish remtun. 

Only go — the stars are setting, 

And thy Kriahca grieves; 
Doubt and anger quite forgetting, 

Hasten through the leaves; — . 

Whererore didst thou lead him heav'nwardX 
But for this thing's salts? "^ 

Comfort him with pity, Badhal 
Or liis heart must break. 

Bat vMe Jayadeea writfi 
TMs rare UUe of deep Mights— 
Jayaden, afioie heart i» giiieti 
Unto Sari, Lord in Bamm— 


See thai ye too. a» ye read. 
With a glad and huinbU hatd. 
Band j/ew browi b^ore Mi fact. 
That ye may haee dfite and grate. 

And then the Hald,,compassioiiate, sang on- 

Ladj, moBt sweet! 

For tbj coniiDg feet 
He listens in the wood, with love soro-tiisdi 

F&intly sighiag, 

Like one a^jing. 
He sends lila thoughla afoot to meet his &ide. 

Ah, silent onet 
Sunk is tlie sun, 
The darkoeBfi falls as deep aa Krishna's khtow; 
The chahor'fi strain 

Tlun mine, and soon gray dawn will bring white 

And thine own bliaa ' 

Delays by this; 
The utmost of thy heaven comes only so 

When, with hearts beating 

And passionate greeting, 
Parting is over, and the parted grow 

One— one for over! 

And the old endeavor 
To be so blended is assuaged at last; 

And the glad tears raining 

Have nought remaining 
Of doubt or 'plaining; and tlie dread has passed 



Oat of each face. 

In the close embrace, 
lliat by-and-by embracing will be over; 

The ache that causes 

Those mournful pauses 
In bowers of earth between lover and lover: 

To be no more felt. 

To fade, to melt 
In the strong certainty of joys immortal; 

In the glad meeting, 

And quick sweet greeting 
Of lips that dose beyond Time's shadowy portal. 

And to thee is given. 

Angel of Heaven I 
This glory and this joy with Krishna. Go! 

Let him attain. 

For his long pain. 
The prize it promised, — see thee coming slow. 

A vision first, but then*- 

By glade and gl«n — 
A lovely, loving soul, true to its home; 

His Queen — ^his Crown—- his All, 

Hast'ning at last to fall 
Upon his breast, and live there. Badha, comel 

CoTne! and come ihou, Lord ofaU^ 
XTtUo whom the Three Worlds eaU; 
Thou, ihat didst tn arigry migM, 
Kansa, Uke a comet,, smite; 
Thou, ^iot in thy passion tender. 
An ineofmaU sped and rplendor. 
Hung on Badha* s glorious face — 
In the ga/rb of Kruhna*s graeo-^ 






a, Oun 



. MAI 







All the wood over her deep eyes roam, 

Marvelling sore where tarries the bee, 
Who leaves such lips of nectar unsought 

As those that blossom for thee. 

Her stex)s would fail if she tried to come. 
Would falter and fail, with yearning weak; 

At the first of/ the road they would falter and pause. 
And the way is strange to. seek.' 

Find her where she is sitting, then, 

With lotus-blossom on ankle and arm 
Wearing thine emblems, and musing of nought 

But the meeting to be — ^glad, warm. 

To be—" but wherefore tarrieth he?" 

** What can stay or delay him? — ^gol 
See if the soul of Krishna comes," 

Ten times she sayeth to me so; 

Ten times lost in a languorous swoon, 
** Now he Cometh— he cometh," she cries; 

And a love-look lights her eyes in the gloom, 
And the darkness is sweet with her sighs. 

Till, watching in vain, she sinks again 
Under the shade of the whispering leaves. 

With a heart too full of its love at last 
To heed how her bosom heaves. 

8kaM not themfcm wr^es moeU 
The nuTTiber of the wise who dweU 
In the realm of JSixma*s dto/j 
Jayadev pra^eth this, 
Jayadev, the bard of Love, 
Servant of the Gods adove. 


Words that JSadha*» mess&Tiger 

Unto KrMna took from her, 

Slowly guiding kim toeome 

Through tha forest to his home, 

Guiding him to find the road 

Which ledr-^Gumgh long — to Love's abode. 

{Hefre ends that 8a/rga cf the GUa Govinda enUUed 
Dhrxshtataikunto.) "^ 




Mi&AirrDm the moon, the rolling moon, domb high, 
And over all YrindHyana it shone; 
The moon which on the front of gentle night 
Gleams like the chundun-mark on beauty's brow; 
Th^ conscious moon which hath its silver face 
Marred with the shame of lighting earthly loves: 

And while the round white lamp of earth rose higher. 
And still he tarried, Badha, petulant, 
Sang soft impatience and half -earnest fears. 

( What follows istoihe Music MiiiAVA and the Mode Yah.) 

'Tis time!— he comes not 1— will he come? 

Can he leave me thus to pine? 
Tami hi kam sharanam / 

Ahl what refuge then is mine? 


bis sake I sought the 
breaded duk and dc 
u M kam thttranam! 
ui it be Kristma betn 

me die'tben, and for{ 
nguish, patience, -boi 
n JlS kam tharanam/ 
b, whf Jiave 1 held h 

tbie soft nigbt tormt 
binUng that his taitt 
ti hi kam iharanam f 
lasp some shadow of 

>1 shadow — foolish m 
^hen the great love si 

H hS kam iharanam/ 
rialma's lotua loads n 

too heavy, lacking h 
ike a broken flower I 
fcleta. jeweb, what ai 
ami M kam tharanam 

u M kam tluvranam I 
tie sky is still, the foi 
ihna forgets — he love 
e fails \a faith, and I 

uf the poet Jayaden — 
e who ii great Barft i 
e whofiadt atylum He 
nly at great Earftfet 
s who for yoar cov\for 
ath*»tothe FuM'i Hi 


lPra/y» tkat Badha*9 tender moaiK 
lln your hearts be thought upon, | 
^ And Ihoit aU her holy griiee 
(Zive there Wee the loved on^efa^ 

Yet, if I wrong him (sang she) — can he fail? 

Could any in the wood win back his kisses? 
Could any softest lips of earth prevail . 

To hold him from my arms? any love-blisses 

Blind him once more to mine? O Soul, my prize! 

Art thou not merely hindered at this hour? 
Sore-wearied, wandering, lost? how otherwise 

Shouldst thou not hasten to the bridal-bower? 

But seeing far away that Maiden come 

Alone, with eyes cast down and lingering steps, 

Again a little while she feared to hear 

Of Krishna false; and her quick thoughts took shape 

In a fine jealousy, with words like thes#— 

Something then of earth has held him 

From his home above. 
Some one of those slight deceivers — 

Ah, my foolish lovel 

Some new face, some winsome playmate, 

With her hair untied. 
And the blossoms tangled in it, 

Woos him to her side. 

On the dark orbs of her bosom — 

Passionately heaved — 
Sink and rise the warm, white pearl-strings. 

Oh, my love deceived I 


Fair? yes, yesl the rippled shadow 

Of that midnight hair 
ShSws above her brow — ^as clouds do 

O'er the moon — ^most fair: 

And she knows, with wilful paces. 

How to make her zone 
Gleam and please him; and her ear-rings 

Tinkle love; and grown 

Coy as he grows fond, she meets him 

With a modest show; 
Shaming truth with truthful seeming. 

While her laugh— light, low — 

And her subtle mouth that murmurs, 

And her silken cheek, 
And her eyes, say she dissembles 

Plain as speech could speak. 

Till St length, a fatal victress, 

Of her triumph vain. 
On his neck she lies and smiles there: — 

Ah, my Joyl — my Pain! 

But may Badha'afand a/nw>y. 
And may Krishna^a datimingjay, 
Wa/rm amd waken lave moreftt — 
Jayadeva prayeth it — 
And the griefs and sins assuage 
, ^ Of this bUnd a/nd evil age, 

O Moon! (she sang) that art so pure and pale, 
Is Krishna wan like thee with lonely waiting? 

O lamp of love! art thou the lover's friend. 
And wilt not bring him, my long pain abating? 




SI fandeB sad, Bhe moaned— 

\e MuHe GuiuJABt and tin Mode 


I mourn more tban I blame; 

be would not sit and paint 
looth black brow, nor claim 
1 ber yielded lipe— f&lse, f^nt— 
lit Erishna'B quett is o'er 
la's alioret 

woa Tainl 

too near, the he&T'ii too tar; 

icause be sits and ties 
rers for ber loosened haii^ 
shadow veila his eyes 
I face. Yet I forgaTe 
la'B wavel 

all vain I 

t of that whereto thon'rt ^ven, 

fadise — thy Love of loves; 
e stars, ber face the heaven, 
wo worlds, with aandal-grovea 
^e kiss-uiatkB — ah, Uiy droam 
la's stream I 


ihe emeralds on ber aim 

ky pearls upon ber neck, 


Saying they are not jewels, but a swarm 

Of crowded, glossy bees, come there to sack 
The rosebuds of her breast, the sweetest flowers 
Of Jumna's bowers. 

That shall be vain I 
Nor wilt thou so believe thine own blind wooing. 

Nor slake thy heart's thirst even with the cup 
Which at the last she brims for thee, undoing 
Her girdle of carved gold, and yielding up, 
Love's uttermost: brief the poor gain and pride \ 
By Jumna's tide ''^^ 

Because still vain 
Is love that feeds on shadow; vain, as thou dost, 

To look so deep into the phantom eyes 
For that which lives' not there; and vain, asjttiou must. 

To marvel why tjiy painted pleasure flies, ^ 
When the fair, false wings seemed folded f<S ever 
By Junma's river. 

And vain! yes, vain I 
For me too is it, having so much striven. 

To see this fine snare take thee, and thy soul 
Which should have climbed to mine, and shared my 
Spent on a lower loveliness, whose whole 
Passion of love were but a parody 

Of that kept here for thee, 

Ahahal vainl 
For on some isle of Jumna's silver stream 

He gives all that they ask to those dull eyes, 
While mine which are his angel's, mine which gleam • 

With light that might have led him to the skiea^ 
That almost led him — are eclipsed with team 
Wailing my fruitless prayers. 


■I ^ '*,V 
; '. .! 


But thou, good Friend, 
Hang not thy head for shame, nor come so slowly, 

As one whose message is too hard to tell; 
If thou must say Krishna is forfeit wholly — 

Wholly forsworn and lost— let the grief dwell 
Where the sin doth, except in this sad heart. 
Which- cannot shun its part, 

great HaH ! purge from wr<mg 
The 9<ntl of him who writes this song; 
' Purge the souls of those that read 
From tfseryfomU of thought and deed; 
With Ihy blessed light assuage 
The darkness of this evU age / 
Jayadev the hard of love. 
Servant of the Gods above, 
Prays it for himself arid you — 
Gentle hea/rts who Usten ! — ioo. 

Then in this other strain she wailed his loss — 
{yfhatfoUffws is to the MusicDESBAYABlDi and the Mode 


She, not Radha, wins the crown 

Whose false lips were dearest; 
What was distant gain to him 

When sweet loss stood nearest? 
Love her, therefore, lulled to loss 

On her fatal bosom ; 
Love her with such love as she 

Can give back in the blossom. 

Love her, O thou rash lost soull 

*With thy thousand graces; 
Coin rare thoughts into fair words 

For her face of faces; 




Praise it, fling away for it 

Life's purpose in a sigh, 
All for those lips like flower-leaves, 

And lotus-dark deep eye. 

Kay, and thou shalt be happy too 

Till the fond dream is over; - 
And she shall taste delight to hear 

The wooing of her lover; 
The breeze that brings the sandal up 

From distant green IM^lay, 
Shall seem all fragrance in the night, 

All coolness in the day. 

The crescent moon shall seem to swim 

Only that she may see 
The glad eyes of my Krishna gleam, 

And her soft glances he; 
It shall be as a silver lamp 

Set in the sky to show 
The rose-leaf palms that clin^ and clasp. 

And the breast that beats below. 

The thought of parting shall not lie 

Cold on their throbbing lives, 
The dread of ending shall not chiU 

The glow beginning gives; 
She in her beauty dark shall look — 

As long as clouds can be — 
As gracious as the rain-time cloud 

Kissing the shining sea. 

And he, amid his playmates old, 
At least a little while, ' * 

Shall not breathe forth again the sig^ 
That spoils the song and smile; 




Shall be left wnolly to his choiceX 

Free for his pleasant sin, 1 

'With the golden-girdled damsels \ 

Of the bowers I found him in. J 

For me, his Angel, only 

lihe sorrow and the smart, 
The pale grief sitting on the brow 

The dead hope in the heart; 
For me the loss of losing, 

For me the ache and dearth; 
My king crowned with the wood-flowers! 
' My fairest upon earth! 

Sari, Lord and King jffUnef 
From thy throne of light above 
Stoop to help us^ deign to take 
Owr spirits to iheefor thesake 
Of this song, which speaks the fears 
Of aU who weep with Eadha*s tears. 


But love is strong to pardon, slow to part. 
And still the Lady, in her fancies, sang — 

Wind of the Indian stream! 
A little — oh! a little — breathe once more 
The fragrance like^is mouth's! blow from thy shore 
^ last word as he fades into a dream; 

Bodiless Lord of lovet 
Show him once more to me a minute's space, 
My Krishna, with the love-look in his face, 
And then I come to my own place above; 

I will depart and give 
All back to Fate and her : I will submit 
To thy stem will, and bow myself to it, 
Bnduring still, though desolate, to live : 


If it Indeed be life, 
Even BO Teslgning, to sit patience-mad, 
To feet the zephyrs burn, the sunlight sad, 
The peace ot holy heaven, a. restless stri 

Hahol what words are theset 

How can I live and lose him? how not go 

Whither love draws me for a soul 4oved si 

How jet endure such sorrow! — or how < 

Wind of the Indian wave! 
If that thou canst, blow poison here, not : 
God of the five ahaftal shoot thy sharpest 
And kill me, Radha,— Radha who f orga 

Or, bitter River, 
TamQnl be Tama's siatert be Death's kin' 
Swell thy wave up to me and gulf me in. 
Cooling this cruel, burning pain forevei 

Ah I ifOTily viiioni ttir 

Qri^ to pattionate in her. 

What divitit gr^f mm Hot take, 

Bpiriti in htaeenfor the lake 

Of thote xeho miae Ictxf <3h,i>ev)Uei 

Mark Ihie itory of the ekiei; 

Meditate Govinda ever, 

BitUng hy the taered rveer, 

The mj/itie itream, which o'er hit feet 

OUdes ilo*B, with murmurs tiw and i 

T^ none can tell whether Ihois be 

Bhis lotut-Uoomt, seen veSedly ' 

Under the uom, <»■ mirroredgemt 

S^fleeted from the diademt 


Bound <m ihs hrowB efimgkby Oods^ 
Who'lean from out their pure abodes, 
And lecme their bright fdUxHee 
To guide great Krishna to his skies, 

{Here ends ffiat Sarga of the Qiat Govinda etititied 





Fob when the weaiy night had worn away 
In these Yain fears, and the clear morning broke, 
Lo, Krishna! lo, the longed-for of her soul 
Came tool — in the glad light he came, and bent 
Hii^ knees, and clasped his hands; on his dumb lips 
Fear, wonder, joy, passion, and reYerenoe 
StroYe for the trembling words, and Radha knew 
Joy won for him and her; yet none the less 
A little time she chided him, and sang, 

(WhatfoUows tsto^ Music BhairayI wnd the Mode 


Krishna! — then thou hast found me! — and thine eyes 
HeaYy and sad and stained, as if with weeping! 

Ah! is it not that those which were thy prize 
So radiant seemed that all night thou lyrt keeping 


VigilH of tender woolngi— have thy Level 
Here ts no place for vows broken in maUng; 

rtiou Lotus-Bjedt thou soul for wlwm I atrovet 
Ool ere I listen, my just mind forsaking. 

Erishn&l my Eriahna witb the woodlaml-^neathl 

Etetum, or I shall Boften as I blame; 
ITOTwhile thy very lips are dark to the teeth 

With dye that from her llda and lashes came, ' 

Left on the mouth I touched. Fair traitor I go I 

Say not they darkened, lacking food and sleep 
^ong waiting for my face; I turn it — so — 

Gol ere I half believe thee, pleading deep; 

Bat wilt tliou plead, when, like a love-Terse printed 

On the smooth polish of an emerald, 
[ see the mariiB she stamped, the kisses dinted 

Large lettered, by her lipsJ thy speech withheld 
Speaks all too plainly; go, — abide thy choice! 

II thou dost stay, I shall more greatly grieve (hee; 
Not records of her victory? — peace, dear voice! 

Hence with that godlike biow, lest I believe thee. 

Foi dai'st thou feign the saffron on Oiy bosom ' 
Was not implanted in disloyal .ombraceT 

Or that this numy-colorad love-tree blossom 
Shone not, but yesternight, above her facef ' 

Comest thou here, so late, to be for^ven, 
O thou, in whose eyes Truth was made to live? 

thou, so worthy else of grace and heaven? 

thou, BO nearly wont Erelforgive, 

Gh), Krishna! go! — lest I should think, unwise, 

Thy heart not false, as thy long lingering seems. 
Lest, seeing myself so imaged in thine eyes, 

1 ahanu the name of Pity— -turn to dreams 


The saciM sound of tows; make Virtue gradge 
Her praise to Mercy, calling thy sins light; 

Go therefore, dear offender! gol thy Judge 
Had best not see thee to give sentence right.* 

But may he grant us peace at kut and him 
Who hea/rd, — and smiled to hea/r, — ddays like this. 
Delays that dalMed with a dream come true. 
Fond wilful angers; for the maid laughed too 
2b see, as Badha ended, her Jiand take 
Ms dark robe for her wU, and Krishna make 
The wofd she spoke for pcvrUng kindliest sign 
He should not go, but stay, grace dvoine. 
Be ours tod ! Jayadeo, the Poet of low 
^Prays it from HaH, lordUest dbove. 

{Eere ends thai 8(vrga of the Gita Govinda entitled 
Khanditayabnanb Yilakshal akshmtpati. ) 




Tbt not quite did the doubts t>f Radha die, 

Nor her sweet brows unbend; but she, the Maid— 

IB^nowing her heart so tender, her soft arms 

Aching to take him in, her rich mouth sad 

For the coming of his kiss, and these fears false — 

Si>ake yet a little in fair words like these, 

* Th6 text here is not closely f olloifBd. 



{What folkwB is to (ha Music GuiurjABi emd the Mode 


The lesson that thy faithful love has taught film 

He has heard; 
The wind of spring, obeying thee, hath brought him 

At thy word; 
What Joy in all the three worlds was so predons 

To thy mind? 
Md kooToo mdmni mdnamap},* 

Ah, be kind! 

Ko longer from his earnest eyes conceal 

Thy delights; 
Lift thy face, and let the jealous veil reveal 

AU his rights; 
The glory of thy beauty was but given 

For content; 
Md kooroo mdnim mdnamay}^ 

Oh, relent I 

Bememt)er, being distant, how he bore thee 

In his heart; 
Look on him sadly turning from before thee 

To depart; 
Is he not the soul thou lovedst, sitting lonely 

In the wood? 
Md kooroo mdnini mdnamay}, 

'Tis not goodi 

He who grants thee high delight in bridal-bower 

Pardons long; 
What the gods do love may do at such an hour 

Without wrong; 

* Mj proud one I do not indulge in 000m. 


Why weepest thoti? wliy keepest thou in anger 

Thy lashes down? 
Md kooTOO mdnini mdnamayk. 

Do not frown I 

Lift thine eyes now, and look on him, bestowing, 

Without speech ; 
Let him pluck at last the flower so sweetly growing 

In his reach; > 
The fruit of lips, of loving tones; of glances 

That forgive; 
Md kooroo n^mni mdnamay^, 

Let him live I 

Let him speak with thee, and pray to thee, and prove 

All his truth; 
Let his silent loving lamentation move thee 

Asking ruth ; 
How knowest thou? Ah, listen, dearest Lady, * 

He is there; 
Mdhooroo mdnim mdnamayky 

Thou must hear! 

ra/re wice, which is a speU 
Unto €tll on earth who dwell ! 
rich voice of ro/pturous love^ 
Making melody above / 
Krishna's,' Sarins — one in two, 
Sound these mortal verses th/rough I 
Sound like ihat softfiute wMch made 
Such a magic in the shade — 
(JaUUng deer-eyed maidens nigh, 
Waking wish and stirring sigh. 


TkrUUng UooAartd meUfng breattt, 
Wiiipering kme'i dMfie unretU, 
Winning ilesain^a to detomd, 
Bringiag earthly iO* to end; — 
' Bt Hum hear A in eong now 
Thoia, the great EneTutniment, tAou / 

I end! that Sarga of the Oiia OoeiTida mUS. 




:t she, abasmg still her glorious ejes, 
id atill not yielding all her face to him, 
leuted, till with Bof tet upturned look 
e smiled, while the Maid pleaded; &a tliereat 
me Ejiahna nearer, and his eager lips 
zed sighs with words in this fond song he sang, 

\t foUooi is fo the Music DESHfrATARiDt and tl 

Mods AbhtatalI.) 
gel of raj hope I O my heut's homel 
' f eai is lost in lore, my loTe in fear ; 
bids me trust my burning wish, and come, 
at checks me with its memories, drawing near: 
up thy look, and let the thing it saith 
few with gnux, or daiten lev* to death. 




Or only &peak once more, for though thou slay me, 
Thy heavenly mouth must move, and I shajl hear 

Dulcet delights of perfect music sway me 
Again — again that voice so blest and dear; 

Sweet Judge! the prisoner prayeth for his doom 

That he may hear his fate divinely come. 

Speak once more! then thou canst not choose but show 
Thy mouth's unparalleled and honeyed wonder 

Where, like pearls hid in red- lipped shells, the row 
Of pearly teeth thy rose-red lips lie under; 

Ah me ! I am that bird that woos the moon, 

And pipes^poor fool! to make it glitter soon. 

Tet hear me on — ^because I cannot stay 
The passion of my soul, because my gladness 

Will pour forth from my heart, — ^since that far day 
Wliron through the mist of all my sin and sadness 

Thou didst vouchsafe— 'Surpassing One! — ^to break, 

All else I slighted for thy noblest sake. 

Thou, thou hast been my blood, my breath, my being; 

The pearl to plunge for in the sea of life; 
The sight to strain for, past the bounds of seeing; 

The victory to win through longest strife; 
My Queen!' my crowned Mistress! my sphered bride 1 
Take this for truth, that what I say beside 

Of bold love— grown full-orbed at sight of thee — 

May be forgiven with a quick remission; 
» For, thou divine fulfilment of all hope! 

Thou all-undreamed completion of the vision! 
I gaze upon thy beauty, and my fear 
P&sses as clouds do, when the moon shines clear. 


t it thou'rt angry Btill, this aball aTsil, 

Look Btrai^t at me, and let thy blight glance wonnd 

itter me t gyre met lock me in the gaol 
Of thy delicious anns; make fast around me 
tie Bilk-Boft manacles of vrista and haude, 
lien kill me I I shall never break those bands. 

le starlight jewels flasbiug on thy breast 
Have not my rtgbt to hear thy beating heart; 
ie happy Jasmine-buds that clftSp thy waist 
Are soft usurpers of my place and part; 
that fair girdle only there must sliine, 
ive me the girdle's life— the girdle minet 

ly long-lashed Lotus eyes, lustrous and meek; 
Thy nose a Tila-bud; thy teeth like rows 
I Eunda-petalsl he who pierceth hearts 
lints with thy loveliness all five darts. 

lit Radiant, Perfect, Sweet, Supreme, forgivel 
My heart is wise — my tongue is foolish still: 
know where I am come — I know I live— 
I kaow that thou art Radha— that this will 
at and be heaven: that I have leave to rise 
p from thy feet, and look into thine eyest 
And, nearer coming, I ask for grace 

Now that the blest eyes turn to mine; 
Futhful I stand in this sacred place 

Since first I s?w them shine: 
Dearest glory that stills my voice. 

Beauty unseen, untcnown, unthoug^tl 
Splendor of love, in whose sweet light 

y BONO OF 80N&B. 65 

St «nd nought; 
la that sound on earth, 
of the garden of heaven I 
Bssi Kadha, the queeni 
s forpven— 
itb courage too mucU 
raid,— so bold il b grown— 
[ with a bridegtoom'B touch, 
for minai mine own.* 
t and to they eruUd 
partiag, being Uendtd 
ife — made <mefor ma- 
te; aJid Jc^adma 
on to doK the etory 
idol ffraee and glory.' 
I (f Gu ffUa Oimnda enHOoi 



Thus followed soft and lasting peace, and griefs 
pied while she listened to his tender tongue, 
Her ejes of antelope alight with love; 
And while he led the way to tlie bride-bower 
The maidens of her train adorned her fair 
With golden warriage-cloths, and sang this song, 
* Uuch here also Is ueceBsuUr poiaphntssd. 


'oBotn it ta tAt Matie Tasahta and (heMoi* 

Follow, happy Radhat follow,— 

In the quiet falling twilight — 
Tho Btepa of him who followed thee 

So steadfastly and far; 
Let us bring thee where the Banjulas 

Hare apread a roof (jf ciimBon, 
Lit up by many a marriage- lamp 

Of planet, snn, and star: 
For tho hours of doubt are over, 

And thy glad and faithful lover ' , 

Hath found the road by tears and prayers 

To- thy dlTlnest side -, 
And thou wilt not now deny hliit^ 

One delight of all thy beauty, ) 
But yield up open-hearted f 

His pearl, bia prize, his bride. ) 

Oh. foltowl while we fill the ui 

With songs and softest music; 
Laodiug thy wedded lovellnesB, 

Dear Mistress past compare! 
For there is not any splendor 

Of Apsarasas immortal — 
Ho j^ory of their beauty rich— * 

But Badha baa a share; 
Oh, follow \ while we sing the soi^ 

That fills the worlds with longings 
The music of the Lord of love 

Who melts all hearts with bliss; 


For DOW ia bora the gladnms 
That springe from mortal sadneas, 

And all soft tboo^to and things and hopes 
Wtn presages of this. 

Then, follow, happiest Lady 1 

Polio w him thoa lovest wholly; 
The houi is come to follow now 

The soul thy spells have led; 
His are thy breasts like Jasper-cnps, 

Aod his thine eyes like planets; 
Thy fragrant hair, thy stately neck. 

Thy queenly sumptuous head; 
Thy soft amaU feet, thy perfect lips, 
. Thy teeth like Jasmine petals. 
Thy gleaming rounded shouldeis. 

And long caresEdng arms, 
Bting thine to ^re, are his; and his 

The twia strings of thy girdle. 
And his the priceless treasure 

Of thine utter-sweetest charms. 

So follow! while the flowers break forth 

In white and amber clusters. 
At the breath of thy pure presence. 

And the radiance on thy brow; 
Oh, follow where the Asokas wave 

Thdr sprays of gold and purple. 
As if to beckon thee the way 

That Eriahna passed but now; 
He is gone a little forward I 

Though thy steps are funt tor pleasure. 
Let him hear the tattling ripple 


Of the bangles roond thy feet; 
Hoving Blow) J o'er the bloBsams 

On the path which he has shown tbee. 
That when he toiDS to listen 

It may make his fond heart beat 
And loose Ih; jewelled girdle 

A little, that its rubies 
May tinkle softest music too, 

And whisper thou art near; 
Though now, if in the forest 

Thou should'Bt bend one blade of Eusha 
With silken touch of passing foot, , 

His heart would know and hear; 
Would hear the wood-buda saying, 

" It is Radba's foot that passes;" 
Would hear the wind eigh love-sick, 

"It is Radha'a fragrance, this;" 
Would hear thine own heart beating 

Within thy panting bosom. 
And know thee coming, coming, 

His — ever, — ever — hisl 
' Jfiw /" — hark I vf e are near enough for hearing— 

" Boon the wiH eome — she vtJU smiU — ahe wiS tay 
^oney-tteeet wardt of JteaxieTily endearing ; 
Oioul! listen; my Brids k on her way !" 
Hear'sC him not, mj Radha? 

Lo, night bendeth o'er thee — 
Darker than dark Tamfila-leaves — 

To list thy marriage-song; 
Dark as the touchstone that tries gold. 

And see now— on before thee— 
Those lines of tender light that creep 

The clouded sky along: 


njgfatt that trietb gold of lov«. 

"This loTB U proven perfect! ' 
O lines tiiat streak the touchstone eky, 
» Flash forth true ahiniug gold t 

O rose-leaf feet, go boldlyl 

O nightl— that lovest loven— 
Tbj softest robe of ^eace 

About these bridals fold! 

See'st thou not, my Badha? 

Lo, the night, thy bridesmaid, 
Oomesl— her eyes thick-painted 

With Boorma of the gloom— 
The night that binds the planet-worida 

For jewels on her forehead. 
And for emblem and for garland 

Loves the blue-black lotus-bloom; 
The night that acenta her breath so sweet 

With cool and musky odors, 
I ■ That joys to spread her veil of shade 

Over the limbs of love ; 
And when, with loving weary, 

Tet dreaming love, they slumber. 
Sets the far stars for silver lamps 

To light them from above. 

Bo came she where he stood, awaiting her 

At the bower's entry, like a god to see, 

With marriage-gladness and the grace of heaven. 

The great pearl set upon his glorious head 

Shone like a moon among the leaves, and shone 

Like stars the gems that kept her gold gown close: 

But still a little while she paiised — abashed 

At her delight, of her deep Joy afraid — 

And they that tended her sang once more this. 


( jnatfiOoiM Utolht XuMe VakSdi and ihe Mods 


Enter, thrlce-b^pyl enter, tbrice^e^iedt 
lad let tbe gal«s of Har[ shut tbee in 
^ith the soul deBtioed to thee from of old. 

rremble noti lay tbj lovely shame aside; 

[aj it aside vith thine unfastened sotie, 

\.Dd love him with the love that knowa not fear; 

Tot ever to grow bright, for ever new; 

E!nter beneath the flowers, O flower-fair! 
Seneatb these tendrils, Loveliest I thU entwine 
\M cisep, and wreathe and cling, with kissing st 

Snler, with tender-blowing aire of heaven 
ioft as love'a breath and gentle as the tones 
)f lover's whispera, when the lips come close : 

Snter the house of Love, loveliest! 
Snter the marriage-bower, most beautiful! 
Lnd take and give the joy tltat Had granU. 

Hive htm the drink of amrit from thy lips. 

Then ehe, no more delaying, entered atraigbt; 

ler step a little faltered, but ber face 

DioDe with unutterable quick lovei and— while 



The music of her bangles passed the porch — 
Shame, which had lingere d in her dow jp^»^t ^^y**". 
Departed siiamed f . . . /^d like the mighty deep, 
Which sees the moon and rises, all his life 
Uprose to drink her beams. 


(Here ends that 8a/rga of the Gita Govinda enUUed 


Hari keep youl He whosb might, 

On the King of Serpents seated, 
> Flashes forth in dazzling light 

From the Great Snake's gems repeated: 
Hari keep you! He whose graces. 

Manifold in majesty, — 
Multiplied in heavenly places — 

Multiply on earth — to see 
Better with a hundred eyes 

Her bright charms who by him lies. 

What skill may be in singing. 

What worship sound in song, 
What lore be taught in Umng, 

What right divined from vyrorhg : 
Such things hath Jayadeoa — 

In this his Hymn of Love, 
Which loads Govinda ener, — 

Disijfiayed; may cUl approve/ 

* This complete anticipation (aalajjd ladjdpi) of tbe line— 

** Upon whose brow shame is ashamed to sit " 

— oocnrs at the close of the Sarga, parief which is here perforce 
omitted, alone with the whole of the last one. 







With Odmments in Verse from variouB Oriental Sooroea 




BONG OF songs"; BTC. 

•I — - — 

Allah hath pj^ia^ ^oellent names, therefore ci^ upon Him bj 

■ :> ■ ^ • . • / 







It is a cuBtom of many pious Muslims to employ in 
their devotions a three-stringed chaplet, each string con- 
taining tiiirty-three beads, and ea6h' bead representing 
one of the "ninety-nine beautiful names of Allah," 
-whenever this--among many other religious u8es-*-i8 
made of it The Eor&n bids them ''celebrate Allah 
with an abundant celebration," and on certain occasions 
— such as during the intervals of the Tardwih night 
service in Bamadlifin — the Faithful pass these ninety- 
nine beads of the rosary through their fingers, repeating 
with each " Name of Qod " an ejaculation of praise and 
worship. Such an exercise is called ZiQcr, or ** remem- 
brance," and the rosary M<uiKt*hah, 

In the following pages of varied verse I have enumer- 
ated these ninety-nine '* beautiful names," and appended 
to each — ^from Uie point of view of an Indian Moham- 
medan-HM)me illustrative legend, tradition, record, or 
comment, drawn from diverse Oriental sources; occa- 
rionally iwraphrasing (as closely as posidble) from the 
text of the Eor&n itself, any particular passage contain- 
ing the sacred Title, or casting light upon it. In this 
way it seemed p^ossible to present the general spirit of 
Islfin under a new and not imacceptable form; since 
almost every religious idea of the Eorfin comes up in 



the long catalogue of attiibatives. Tendtr, as well as 
terrible; lofty in morality, albeit grim and stem in 
dogma, the "Perspicuous Book" is still, and must al- 
ways be, replete with interest for Christendom, since, if 
IsUm was bom in the Desert, with Arab Sabseanism for 
its mother and Judaism for its father, its foster-nurse 
was Eastem Christianity, and Muhammad's attitude to- 
wards Christ, and towards the religion which beared His 
name, is ever one of profound reverence and grateful 
recognition. Nor are the differences between the older 
and younger creed really so great as their simUitudes in 
certain aspects. The soul of IsUtm is its declaration of 
the unity of God: its heart is the inculcation of an ab- 
solute resignation to His wUl. Not more sublime, there- 
fore, in religious history appears the figure of Paul the 
tent^maker, proclaiming the ' ' Unknown God " at Athens, 
than that of the camel-drirer Muhammad, son of Abdal- 
lah and Aminah, abolishing all th^ idols of the Arabian 
Pantheon, except their chief — Allah Ta'Alah, ''God 
the Most High" — and under that ancient and well- 
receiyed appellation establishing the oneness of the 
origin, govemment, and life of the uniyerse. Thereby 
that maryellous and gifted Teacher created a.yast 
empire of new belief and new ciyilization, and prepared 
a sixth part of humanity for the deyelopments and rec- 
onciliations which later times will bring. For Islftm 
must be conciliated; it cannot be thrust scornfully aside 
or rooted out. It shares the task of the education of 
the world with its sister religions, and it wUl. contribute 
its eventual portion to 

"that ftuM>fl divine eyent. 
Towards which the whole creation moves." 

Ck)mpo8ed amid Scotch mountains during a brief 


• ) 


suminer-rest from politics, and with no library near at 
hand for references, my book has need to ask indul- 
genoB from the learned. It does but aim, however, to 
suggest (in poetic form) juster thoughts than, sometimes 
prevail of Isl&m, of its founder, and of its votaries; em- 
ploying the language of one among them, and thinking. 
vwiUi his thoughts, since this alone permits the neoessajy 

I have thus at length finished the Oriental Trilogy 
which I designed. In my " Indian Song of Songs " I 
sought to transfer to English poetry a subtle and lovely 
Sanskrit idyll of the Hindoo theology. In my "Light 
of Ada" I related the story and displayed the gentle and 
far-reaching doctrines of that great Hindoo prince who 
founded Buddhism. I have tried to present here, in the 
simple, familiar, and credulous* but earnest spirit and 
manner of Isl^ — and from its own points of view — 
some of the thoughts and beliefs of the followers of the 
noble Prophet of Arabia. 

Edwin Arnold, C.SJ. 



2. ^r-BoADultt. . . 

B. Ar-Rdlteem . . 

i. At-UdUk.... 
i. Ai-KaddOi.... 

(Th« Sinful Ansela.) 

'Tbe CompMBloiwle". 

(SolomoD and tbe Ant.) 

CTbe Sultan uid (he Potter.) 

f. At-Uavmttt — 

(Ood's Name In HeaveiL} 
."The Peace" 

(The Peace at Faradlae.) 
."The Faithful" 

a. Al-Mvlialmin "The HalplnPerQ" 

Cnie Spider and the Dove.) 
». Al-Bathln. "TheMf^ty" 

<The Tlu'raie-Tene.) 
1. Al^abbir. "The AlKIoinpelUng*' 


(Azatand Ahraham.) 

." nie CrealOT" 

(Slsna ot the Lord.) 

Al-Bart "The ArUflcer" 

(Augeli- mnga.) 
.iHfuarawrfr. . . ~ " "" 

I. JI-MitlaJcabbtr. 


(Sura " Of the Cattle.") 

■a. Al-Walihdb " The Bestoirar" 

(AU and the AdbsIo.) 

]&. Ji-BattSk " The Prorider" 

(Suia "Of the FMeaaoi 
19. Al-FMta'h " The Openei"' 

(Huhammad's Joutnef 
X. AWAOm "TheAU-Enoirer" 

(The MoakklbU.) 
a. Al-Kohi)i "The Closer" 

(Evil Deeds.) 
n. Al-BAtit <"nie Uucloaer" 

(Good De«da,) ' 
3S. AirKhS^ "TheAboser" 

(NimrQd and the Qnat.] 
U. Ar-Bafi "TheEialter" , 

(Allah's PFophets.) 
ae. Al-Muluxx .'"TheHonourer" 

(Sura " Of Imran'B Fan 
Se. Al-UiaSl "The Leader Aatray" 

(Qod'B Will and Free-w 

27. At-Bam/i'A "nie All;Eearfiig" 

(A Shepherd's Prajer.) 

28. Al-Bodr "The AU-Seelne" 

(Azntel and the Indfaui 
M. AlrBSkim "The Judge of All" 

{The Last Daj.) 
89. M-BSda '...."nie Equitable" 75 

(Sura " Of Jonaa.") 
«l. Al-La^f. " Hie Gracious One" 7S 

(Sura " Of Counsel.") 
as. At-KiuaAT "HewholsAware" 77 

(Muhammad In the OmeleiT.) 
BS. Al-nmm "Thoaement" 78 

(The Dharra and the Dale-stone.) 
34. AUAxU "The Strong" 79 

(Sura " Of Al-AfchM.") 
V^ Al-QhSfir "ThoPardoner" 80 

(Hassan's Slave.) 
aa. AthrSMMr "The Thankful" SI 

(Sura "Of Al-Kftutfaar.") 


wx vJLom 

87. ASr*Ai€e **TlieBnltod" M 

(Sura** Of the Bee.") 

88. Al-KaMr «* The Very Great " 86 

(The seven Heavens.) 

89. Al-H6fiat ** The Preeerver" Wt 

(Sura ** Of the Night Star.") 
40. jlMfiiHt "TheMatntainer" 88 

(Sura ** Of the Inevitable.") 
^l.JO'BatXb ** The Reckoner" 90 

(Sura *' Of Women.") 
m. AWamtl ** The Beneficent" 91 

(The Bose-Garden.) 
4Z. JJrKarim " The Bountiful " 98 

(Sura *' Of Cleaving Asunder.**) 
4A.Al-BakXb ** The Watchful " 94 

(The Books of Good and Evil.) 
45. AJrMvS^.,,: "The Hearer of Prayer" 9S 

(A]i and the Jew.) 

iR. AJrWoB^Hi ** The All-Comprehending" 100 

f (Turning to Mecca.) 
4^ ^2-H<^malJrtitiaA;.. "The Judge of Judges" 101 

(The Angels of the Scales.) 
4B,AlrWadood "The Loving" 106 

(Tasmtn and Salsabil.) • 
4».Al-Ma^id *' The All-Glorious" 106 

(Sura** Of the Cow.") 

60. Al-Bdhith "The Raiser from Death" 107 

(Iblis and Abraham.) 

61. Ash^ahaMd ♦•The Witness" yo 

(Poets and Prophets.) 
60. Al-Hakk **The Truth" Ill 

(The Sin of Sins.) 
68. At-WdkU **The Guardian" 112 

(Sura** Of the Cow.") 
54. AUKdvfi ** The Almighty" 118 

(The Fly and the False Gods.) 
f^Al^^€aeen **TheFirm" 114 

(The Tent-Pole.) 

50. Al-Wdli ** The Nearest Friend" 116 

* (Abraham's Bread.) 
67. AUHamtd **The AU-Praiseworthy" 119 

(The Garden and the Bock.) 

aa. M-BaurOf "Tbe Bver-Iudulgent"... 

(Sura •' Of the Slw,") 

BS. MSlOMil'ifuSH "KlngottheElDgdom".. 

S4. IXku'IJoldliMi Jlrdm." Lord of Splendid Poww".. 

(Sura " Of the HerdtnL") 
es. M-SRilalt " Tbe Equitable" 

Cllie Lost Sermon tf tto Pro 
88. ^J-Jomfh; "TheGMberer" 

(Bun "Of Women.") 
87. .Jl-<aanl "The AJl-Suffldng" 

(Sura " Ot Troopa.") 
S8. /U-Viiglmt " The 8ii<Bcer" 

(Bark " Of the AAernoon.") 

e». M-Mv-hti I ..."TboProTider" ( 

BO. AI-M&neh i " The Wlthholder" f 

(The Tvo aatewora.) 
91. An-lfifl'h \"TliePropiaou8" 

(The Dqre.) 
9S. AM-Zarr. "The Humful" 

(King Bheddfid's Paradise.) 
91 .i*-W09r "The Light" 

(Bura " Of LlghL") 
H MHdM.. ., "TheSnldo" 

(The Four TravellclB.) 

K. AlrAxaHi "EtonuJlntheFut" I 

te. M-BSlttf "BtenuliutheFutute"! 

(Snra " Of Y» Bin.") 
n. Al-Warm '....."The Inheritor" 

(Tha Boae and the Dewdrop 
IB. At-RateMd ...'. " nie Unerrlns" 

CHie Fropbet'8 OaUi.) 
"The Patient" 



Say Ar-RaJmAn! " The Merei;ful" Bin a 
For He isfuU i^f mercy unto aU. 

OsQit on a day, ia Paradise, 
DiscoiiTBe indignant did arise 

, AmoDgBt the Angels, seeiog liow 
The BotiB of Adam sinned below; 
Albeit Allah's grace had sent 
Frophete with much admouisluneDt. 
" Heedless and guilty race," they ciled, 

■ " Whose penitence ia set aside 
At each temptation 1 Truth and Itight 
Te Icnow noti" Then a wondroDs light 
Fell on their brows — a mighty word 
Sounded — the Presence of the Lord 
Spake: " Of your number choose ye two 
To go among mankind and do 
'JnsticeaHdBlght,' teaching them these." 
Therewith, from those bright companies, 
Har&t west and MarQt went down 
On earth, laying aside their crown 
Of rays, and plumes of rainbow feaOieri 
And on the judgment-scat together 
Many long years they sate, and wrought 
Just judgment upon each cause brought. 


Baf Ar-SahtemI eaU Eim "ODmpaabmale," 
War Be it pitffiil Ut tntdO, and great. 

' Tib 'written that the serring-aogels Btoncl 
Beaids God's throne, ten to jrriflda on each hand, 
. Waiting.witlk'wiDgBoutstretchedandwBtchfule 
To do their Haster's heavenly embaaales. 
Quicker than thought Hia high commandB thej r 
Swifter than light to execute them speed; 
Bearing the word of power from star to slat 
Some hither and some tlutber, near and far. 
And unto these nought is too high or low. 
To mean or mighty, if He wills it so;- 
Neither is any creatare, 'great or small. 
Beyond His pity; which embraceth all, 
Because His eye beholdeth all which are; 
Sees wltiiout search, and counteth without can 
Nor liee the babe nearer the nursing-place 
Than Allah's smallest child to Allah's grace; 
Nor any ocean roll so rast that He 
Foi^ta one wave of all that reetleaa sea. 

Thus it is written; and moreover told 
How Gabriel, watching by the Gates ot gold, 
, Heard from the Voice Ineffable this word 
Of two-fold mandate uttered by the Lord: 
"Go earthwardl pass where Solomon batb tna< 
His pleasQre-house, and aitteth there arrayed. 


Ooodlf and splendid— 'whom I crowned the 1 
For at thla hoar Mj servant doth a thing' 
Unflttiifg; out of Niribla there came 
A thousand steeds with nostrila all a-flame 
' And limbs of swiftness, piizes of the flgfat; 
Lot these are led, for Solomon's delight. 
Before the palace, where he gazeth now- 
falling hlB heart with pride at that bmro aho' 
So taken with the snorting and the tramp 
Of his war-horses, that Oar silver lamp 
Of eve is swung ii^ Tsdn, Our warning Sun 
Will sinlc before his sunset prayer's begun; 
So shall the people say, ' This king, our lord 
Loves more the long-maned trophies of hia ai 
Tlian the remembrance of hia Qod?' Qo in! 
Save thou Hy faithful servant from such sin. 

" Also, upon the slope of Arafat, 
Beneath a lote-tree which is fallen flat, 
Toileth a yellow ant who carrieth borne 
Food for her nest, but so far hath she come 
Her worn feet f^, and she will perl&b, cangi 
In the falling run ; but thou, make tlie way ni 
And help her to her people in the cleft 
Of the black rook." 

Silently Gabrid left 
The Presence, and prevented the king's sin. 
And bolp the little ant at entering in. 

O ^TwK whoM love ti leide and great, 
Weprade Thee, " The QmpoMitniaU." 


CaS Sm "AlrMSlik," King ofaatht Mngt, 
Malcm- and Maitm- of created thingi. 

The Sultan of DunascuB found asleep 

The potter £ba Sol&l,. 
And bora him to the paUce, wtawe he waked 
s beautifuL 

CoD^derl if a king should call thee "frieod," 
And lead thee to his court,^ . . 

Boofed large with lazulite, and pavemenled 
With flow'rg, on green floors wrought; 

If he should bid thee sit at meat; and spread 

A table, served so flue 
There lacked not anj pleasant food i^ fruit' 

But came at call of thine; 

If he hung high a glorious golden lamp- 
To shine where thy feet tread; 
And stretched black "broidered hangings, sown w 

For curtains to thy bed; 

It for thy heals he bade soft zephjis blow; 

Sent, at thj thirst, sweet raica; - 
And filled the groves with minstrels, gayiy garbed. 
To charm thee with their strains; 

^ -UJ^. 



If, past the confines of his palace-ground8» 

He showed thee spacious seas, 
Where, wafted o'er the dancing foam, might sail 

Thou and thine argosies; 

If, for society in that fair place, 

He gave glad companies. 
Kinsmen and friends and helpmates, and the bliss 

Of beauty's lips and eyes; 

With wisdom's scroll to study, %a^ the ways 

Of wondrous living thingM^^ 
And lovely pleasure of all onfftments 

That Nature's treasure brings, 

Coral and pearl; turkis, and agate stones 

Milk-white or rosy-veined; 
Amber and ivbry; jade; shawls wove with gold, 

Scarves with sea-purple stained; 

If the king gave thee these, and only wrote 

Upon his inner door: 
** Serve me and honor me and keep my laws. 

And thus live evermore , 

In better bliss, when ye shall pass hereby, — 

As surely pass ye must:-=r^ 
Who is there would not praise that monarch's name 

With forehead in the dust? 

Lo! but He doeth this— Allah our King, 

His sky is lazulite; 
His earth is paved with emerald-work; its stores 

Are spread for man's delight; 




His sun by day, His silver stars by night. 

Shine for our sakes. His breeze 
Cools us and wafts bur ships; His pleasant lands 

Are girdled with the seas * 

Which send the rain, and make the crystal bridge 

Whereby man roams at will 
From court to , court of Allah's pleasure-house; 

Seeing that writing still n 

Upon the inner gate— which all must passp 

''Love me and keep my laws 
That ye may live, since liiere is greater life 

Beyond these darkened doors." 

If Ebn Soltll, the potter, loved Him not 
Whose kindness was so strong; 

If Ebn Soim kept not the palace laws, 
Had* not that Shltan wrong? 

Sowreign Qiver cfgood tkings, 

We praise Thee, '* MMik," King qflange. 


AUah^Kuddda^tha ** Holy Om" He is; 
But puHfy thy speech, pronouncing this; 

For even Israfil, 

Who waits in Heaven still 
Nearest the Throne, and hath the voice of sweetness, 

Before his face doth fold 
' The wings of feathered gold, 

Baying '' Al-Kudd^s;*' and in supreme completeness 

Of lowly reverence stands, 

Laying his angel-hands 
Over Im lips, lest Allah's holiest nama , 

Be lightly breathed on high; 

And that white mystery 
Pass, as if that and others were the same. 

* Iblts — 'tis written — when 

He heareth among men 
The name of ** Allah" spoken, shrinks and flies; 

But at the sound of this, 

Uttered in realms of bliss. 
The Djins and Angels, in their ranks, arise. 

And what believer dares 
Begin his morning prayers 

*0f. Kor&n, cziv. chapter " Of men. 


sbludon? who is Been 

mind ita vewe, 

'0 euch as ue made clean I" 

atreama or sanda 

eaniest hands 

re wash the mouth 

t the sacred scrall, 

1 sullied soul 

, that shrines the truth 

uritj? * 
s great eyes see 
lieir inmost core! 
Make clean your hearts within; 
Cast forth each inmost sin; 
Then 'willi bowed brows, say this name, and adore. 

fbrgive. Thou Pare 0ns.'— Whom IMJU eu 
Qfoar good deedi the tir^'iilnttt. 


Of IhoM mdda of Heayen, the Houria: lo 

gave a birth 
Spectallj creating, lot tbef are not as 

Ever Tirginai and BtainleBS, hoir so often t 

Always young and loved and loving tlieM 
. iarthere grace 

Like tbe grace and bliss the Black-eyed ke 

O Companions of the right handl ye ott 

Gk«rofpeac6 1 when eomti thai d 
Sa V* within Thy tiffht, tM prag. 

• Ct Korftn, Ivi. chapter " 01 the Inerit 


Al-MauminI " TaUhful," fatt, andjiutit St, 
And JmwlA «ueA a* Uve^ ia mrity. 

Ibn SlWA, Lord of Bahrein, in the field 
Cttptured a Sheikh, an Arab or the hiUa, 
BaTid-bia-Tayf 1 and the king's oath was paMed 
That each tenth man of all the captives die 
Together with their chieftains, for the war 
Waied fierce, and hearts of men were turned to fla> 
So led they Ssyid forth before the camp 
At Azan; and a eunuch of the goard, 
Savage and black, stood with his hsick uprolled 
Back to the armpit, and the scimetar'g edge 
Naked to strike. 

But suddenly the king 
Inquired, "Art thou not be gave me to drink, 
Hunting gazelles, before the war began!" 
" Yea, I am he!" etid Sayid. 

Quoth the tdng, 
" Ask not thy lii'e, but ask some oQier boon. 
That I may pay my debt" 

Saytd replied, 
" Death is not terrible to me who die 
Red with this unbelieving blood of thine; 
But there bath come a first-botn in my teat; 


Fain would I see m; boq'e fac« for a da^. 
Before mine ejea are sealed. Lend me my life. 
To hold OS BomelhlDg borrowed from thy tumd. 
Which I will bring again." 

" Ayl" laughed the king, 
" If one should answer for it with hk own. 
Show me thy bostagel" 

."Iiet me stand his bond," 
BpBt:e one ou whom the lot of mercy fell— 
lahftk of Tayf , a gallant youth and Fair — 
" I am hia sister's son; bind ye myarma, 
And set free Sayid, that he ride at speed. 
And see Us first-born's face, and come again." 

So Bayid went free again, seeking bis home. 
But in the camp they mocked that faithful friend, , 
Baying, " Lol as afool thou dlest now. 
Staking thy life upon an Arab's word. 
Why should be haste, to abide the bitter bladeT 
Will the scared Jackal try the trap again; 
The hawk once limed return unto the snare? 
Cry lo tbe desert-wind to turn and come. 
But call not Sayid." 

And said, ' 

The days passed, Sayid came not, anQ they led 
The hostage forth, tor IsbSk now must die ; 
But still he smiled, saying, "Till sunset's hour 
Blay me not, for at sunset he will come. " 

So fell it, for the sun had touched tbe palm: 
And that black swordsman stood again in act \ 


K'- «{ 

* Cf. Korfin, xvi chapter " Of the Bee. 




To strike, when Sayid's white mare» galloping in. 
Drew steaming breath before the royal tenf; 
And Sayid, leaping from the saddle, kissed 
His kinsman's eyes, and gently spake to all, 
"Labbaykif I am here/' 

Then said the king, 
" Never before was known a deed like this 
That one should stake his life upon a word; 
The other ride to death as to a bride. 
Live, and be friends of Ibn S&wa, but speak I 
Whence learned ye these high lessons?" 

Ishftk spake, 
** We are belieyers in the book which saith, 
'Fulfil your covenants, if ye covenant; 
For God is witness 1 break no word with men 
Which God hath heard*; and surely he hears all.' "* 

That verse the king bade write in golden script 
Over the palace gate; and he and his 
Followed the Faith. 








Taf AUah-aZ-Mdumin ! 
In truihfulTieM of act be (mr faith seen. 




sh cried, 


But when they drew unto the cavern's mouth, 

Lol at its eatermg-in, 
A ring-necked desert dove sate on her eggs; 

The mate cooed soft within. 

And Tight athwart the shadow of the cave 

A spider's web was spread; 
The creature hong upon ber n«t at watah; 
' Unbroksi wm each thread. 

"By Thammnz' blood," the unbelievers otied, 

" Otir toil and time are lost; 
Where doves hatch and the fpidei spina her snara 

Ko foot of man hath ciossedl" 

Thus did a deseit bird and spider guard 

The blessed Prophet then ; 
For all things serve their Maker and their God 

Better than thankless men. 

JI*,Sofhi» taki viitMti iAat eate. 


The "AU-Gmvp^ng!" gold&nii that mtm, 
WMehdothSu HtU—At-Jaibdr—rOiMim. 

SuKA the nine asd fiftieth: "FeatyeOod, 
O trne 'believers t and let eyeij aoul ' 
Heed irhot it doth, to-day, because to-morroT 
The same thing it ah^l find gone forward there 
To meet and mate and judge it. Fear ye Ood, 
For He knowa whatsoever deeds ye do. 
Be not as those who Itave forgotten Him, 
For ttiey are those who have forgot themselves; 
Thf? are the evil-doers; not for such, 
And for the heritora of Paradise, 

Shall it be equal; Paradise is kept 

For those thiice blessed who have ears to hear. 

Lo] had we sent "the Book" unto Our hills, 
Our hills had bowed their crests in reverence. 
And opened to the heart their breasts of rock 
To take Heaven's mess^e. Fear ye Him who knows 
Present, and Past, and Future : fear ye Him 
Who is the Only, Holy, Faithful Lord, 
Glorious and good, compelling to His will 
AH things, for all things He hath made and roles. 

B> ruU, Al-Jabbd/r; make our wOii 
Bmd, though more ttvibom than (A« hilU. 


At-MutaJeaiiir / aU Hu Juawna deekare 
B(* mt^tttg. Who matlet Ihem what they ora. 

IzAR, of Abrahun the fatlier, spake 

Jnto his son, "Come! and thine offeiingniuks 

Jefore the gods whose images divine 

D Nimrfld's carved and paiiit«d temple aJiim. 

i'ay worship ta the eun's great orb of gold; 

Ldore the quera-moon'B silver state; behold 

)tAred, Hoshlari, Sohayl, in their might, 

Chose stars of glory, those high lords of light. 

Phese have we wrought, as fltteth gods alone, 

ii bronze and ivory and chiselled stoae. 

)be7, as did thy sireB, these powers of Heaven 

Vbicb rule the world, throned in the circles seven." 

But Abraham said, "Did they not see the aim 
Unk and grow darkened, when the days were done ', 
>id not the moon for them, too, wax and wane. 
That they should pay her worsliip, false and vainT 
jot all these stars have laws to rise and set — 
>tSred, Moshtari, Sohayl — wilt thou yet 
)id me praise gods who humbly come and go, 
jights that a Greater Light hath kindled? Not 
. dare not bow the knee to one of these; 
ify Lord is He who (past the aky man sees) 
iVazeth and waneth not. Unchanged of all, 
^'"1 only ' Qod,' Him only ' Qreat,' I call." 

W^ »pdli»t thou, Frimd of Allah ! turn* 
b "grtai" exee^tht Greatat Oiu. 

' Be isKo modi «« K», 
M can give. 

ave Mntl do they wonder a 

', this hai>e Is a bope far 

But wii&t the grave shall coasume, and what of the 
mail it shall leave, 
We kncttf,' for a roll is with Us where each scHil's 
order is set 
Will thej call the truth a lie when it cometh to them, 
and dwell 
WrangliDg and foolish and fearful, confounding the 
matter? But yet 

The heaven is aboTe them to see how fair We have . 
builded its arch. 
Fainted it golden and blue, finish^ It perfect and 

And the earth how We spread it forth, and planted the 
mountuDS thereon; 
And mads all the manifold trees and the beautiful 
hlossoms appear. 


oilak are theu to the wise, iwd a mMsaee h) him 

wbo repents 1 
>reoTer We dtop from the clouds the bleeung of 

water, the nuu, 
rebf the cool gardens do grow, and the palms 

soaring up to the sky 
ith their dat«-laden branches and houghs, one over 

the other; and grain 

ourish the children of men. Lol thus We have 
quickened dead clay 

the bosom of earth, and beneath her so, too, shall 
a quickening be. 

t! deem they it wearied Ood to create!— that His 

power was spent? 
sy are tools, and they darken their eyes to that 

which He willeth ihem see. 

lave faahiooed man, and we know the thoughts of 

his innermost heart; 
I are closer to him than his blood, more near than 

the vein of iiia throat; 
le right of ye all aits a watcher, a watcher sits at 

your left; 
d whatso each speaketh or thinketh, those two 

have known it and note. 

Ai-JShdUk ! FashtoMT Divme I 
FMA Thg work and Tnake in Thine! 


Al-B&ri! Mtudder of taehfortAand framt. 
Pott pram the Pott«r, wihtn we ipeak thii naiM. 

7aBbioi]6fi His Angela Wa hath^ makinff Uiem nu 

seugera BtUl; 
Two wiDga to Bome and four wings to some, and 

some He hath given 
Bix and eight silver wings, making what nurrc 


Verily mighty Is He, and what He bestoweth. < 
None can withhold; and none what He withholds 
can send; 
Children of men I lemember the merciea of Allah t 
wards ye, 
Is there a Haker saTe thin, is thrae another sui 

Nowhere OTiothar one, we tee, 
Wimanim "Artffic^l" Uke Tim. 



Ai-Mtizmofcir / the *'Ffauhi(merf* My thus; 
Still lavding Him uiho hath compounded ua. 

When the Lord would fashion men, 
Spake He in the Angels' hearing, 

'* Lol Our will is there shall be 
On the earth a creature bearing 

Rule and royalty. To-day 

We will shape a man from clay.' 


Spake the Angels, *' Wilt Thou make 
Man who must forget his Maker, 

Working evil, shedding blood, 
Of Thy precepts the forsakerf 

But Thou knowest all, and we 

Celebrate Thy majesty." 

Answered Allah, "Yea! I know 
What ye know not of this making; 

Gabriel ! Michael 1 Israfil I 
Go down to the earth, and taking 

Seven clods of colors seven, 

Bring them unto Me in Heaven." 

Then those holy Angels three 
Spread their pinions and descended; 

Seeking clods of diverse clay. 
That all colors might be blended; 



Yellow, tawny, dun, black, brown, 
White and red, as men are known. 

But the earth spake, sore afraid, 
"Angels I oX my substance take not; 

Give nie back my dust, and pray 
That the dread Creator make not 

Man, for he will sin, and bring 

Wrath on me and suffering/' 

Therefore empty-handed came 

Gabriel, Michael, Israfil, 
Saying, ''Lord I Thy earth imploreth 

Man may never on her dwell; 
' He will sin and anger thee, 
Give me back my clay I ' cried she.*' 

Spake the Lord to Azrael, 
** Go thou, who of wing art surest 

Tell my earth this shall be well; 
Bring those clods, which thou procurest 

From her bosom, unto Me; 

Shape them as I order thee." 

Thus 'tis written how the Lord 

Fashioned Adam for His glory, 
Whom the Angels worshipped, 

All save Iblls; and this story 
Teacheth wherefore Azrael saith, 
** Come thou I" at man's hour of death. 

AUahf i/)A0n he doth caU U9, tak$! 
WecvreiitckdayoB Thou di(p9$ nmkfd 


AlfQhaffS/r, fhs " Forgivtr," praUe tha 
Thp Lord wlut it to fiiB of eUmeneif. 

OncK. it Is written, Abraham, ' ' God's Friend 
Angered bis Ivord; for tliere liad ridden in 
Across tbe bumiog yellow deserUflats 
Ad aged man, haggard with two days' drouti 
The water-skin swung from hla saddle-fork 
Wrinkled and dry; the dust clove to his lids. 
And clogged ttis beard; his parched tongue 

Moved to say, " Give me drink," yet uttered ; 
And Uiat gaunt camel which he rode upon. 
Sank to the earth at entering of the camp. 
Too spent except to lay ils neck along 
The sand, and moan. 

To whom when they Iiad ^ven 
The cool wet Jar, asweat with diamond-drops 
Of sparkling life, that way-worn Arab laved 
The muzzle of his beast, and filled her mouth; 
Then westward turned with blood-shot, worshipping 

Pouring forth water to the setting orb: 
Next, would have drunk, but Abraham saw, and said, 
" Let not this unbeliever drink, who pours 
God's gift of ^ater forth unto the sun, 
Wluch is but creature of the living Lord." 



But while the man dtill clutched the precious jar. 
Striving to quaff, a form of grace drew nigh, 
Beauteous, majestic. If he came afoot. 
None knew, or if he glided from the sky. 
With gentle air he filled a gourd and gave 
The man to drink, and Abraham— in wrath . 
That one should disobey him in his tents — 
Made to forbid; when full upon him smote 
Eyes of divine light, eyes of high f ebuke— 
For this was Michael, Allah's messenger — 
"Lo I €k>d reproveth thee, thou Friend of €k)dl 
Forbiddest thou gift of the common stream 
To this idolater, spent with the heat, 
Who, in his utmost need, watered his beast. 
And bowed the knee in r^erence, ere he drank? 
Allah hath borne with him these threescore years. 
Bestowed upon him corn and wine, and made 
His household fruitful and his herds increase; 
And find'st thou not patience to pity him 
Whom God hath pitied, waiting for the end, 
Since none save He wotteth what end will come, 
Or who sh^U find the light. Thou art rebuked I 
Seek pardon I for thou hast much need to seek." 

Thereat the Angel vanished, as he came; 
But Abraham, with humbled countenance. 
Kissed reverently the heathen's hand, and spake — 
Leading him to the chief seat in the tent — 
** God pardon me, as He doth pardon thee I" 


I/mg-9ufenng Lord! ah, who should be 
Forgiven t if Thou toert as wet 




AlrKahhAr eaO Elm~" DominatO," tht Sing, 
Who maketh, ftnocMA, nMh. merything. 

I " Chapter of the Oattle:"* Heaven. is -whoM, 
1 whoee is earth r Bay Allah's, That did cImom 
m His own might to Isjr the law of mvctsf. 
at tlie RemirrectkHi, will not toae 

I of Hifl own. What falleth, night or day, 

[eth by HIb Almighty word alway. 

Tilt thou iuTs any oilier Lord thaa Allah, 

is not fed, but feedeth all fleahf Sayl 

if He viMt thee with woe, none makes 

1 woe to ceaae save He; and if He takes 
leasmre to eend thee pleasure. He is Master 
T all gifts; nor dolh His thought forsake 

\ creatures of the field, nor fowls that fly; 

y are " a people" also : ' ' These, too, I 

lave set," the Lotd saith, "in My book of record; 

ee shall be gathered to Me by and by." 

h Him of all things secret are the keys; 

le other bath them, but He hath; and sees 

rhatever is in land, or ^, or water, 

h bloom that blows, each foam-bell on the seas. 

•Of, Koran, ft cbaptAT-'OttbeOMtle." 


"Sot lathere kdj little bidden grain 
Swelliog beneath the lod, uor in tbo main 
Anj small flsh or shell, nor of the earth 
Qnen thinga or dr; thinga upoa hUl or plain. 

But theae are written in th' unerring Book: 
And wbftt ye did by day, and when ye took 

Your alumbetB, and the last sleep; then to Hin 
la your nUuu, and Ute accounl's there 1—lookt 

Ai-KahhStr! AU^mbtating Oml 
Our mtti wjlaad on 7^ oiMA 


And Fatmeh said, " Father of Hassan! here 

Not a dry date is left — not one — ^I swear 

By Him besides Whom is none other God; 

But in the comer of the tomb I laid 

Six silver akchas: take them, if thou wilt, 

And buy thee in the market food, and bring 

Fruits for our boys, Hassan and Hussain.'' Thus 

Ali departed. On his way be spied 

Two Mussulmans, of whom one rudely haled 

The other, crying, " Pay thy debt, or come 

Unto the prison where the smiter waits." 

And be who owed had nought, and wept amain. 

Sighing, " Alas the day!" But Ali asked, 

** What is thy debt, my brother?" Then he moaned, 

** Six akchas, for the lack of which the chains 

Must load me." ** Nay!" spake Ali, ** they are here; 

Take them and pay the man, and go in peace." 

So went that debtor free, but Ali came 

Empty in hand and belly home again 

Unto his door, where Fatmeh and the sons, 

Hassan and Hussain, seeing him approach. 

Ran joyous forth, crying, ** He briugeth us 

Dates now, and honey, and new camels' milk; 

Soon shall we feast." But when they saw his cloth 

Hang void, and troubled eyes, and heard him say, 

** Upon my road I met a poorer man 

Who, for six akchas, should have borne the chains; 

To him I gave them, and I bring ye nought," 

Then the lads wept; but Fatmeh smiled and spake: 

"Well hast thou done, O servant of the Lord! 

Weep not, ye sons of Ali, though we fast; 

Who feedeth Allah's children, feasts His own: 

He, the ' Bestower,' will provide for us." 

-.J. ,*l',! 



tviMd, heart-sore because Ae boys 
Mt, and Fatmeh's lorelj eyei were su 
itli hunger. " I will go," thought he, 
■s bleMod Pn^et, for, if ono 
ed wiih a tboiuiand woes, hia weed 
tiiem atid makm the sorrow joj." 
) moamful et«pe thither, to tell 
Uuhaouuad of this strait, when^-lo] 
n said path encountered him, 
Maring, with a chieftain's mien. 
riding-camel by her atring, 
ih full teeth, the Iwet beast ever fotUei 
irdahl—buy my desert rose," quoth h 
idred akcbas make her thine, so tbou 
I the best in Hedjaz, or at clioic« 
>r double money." Ali said, 
ist te excellent! fain would I buy, 
not in my scrip thy price." '* Go to,' 
Lh replied; " take her and bring thy g 
ah pleaseth, U> the western gate; 
Lit thee." 

Ali nodded; took 
string, turning to the left to seek 
1-merchants that should buy the beast 
the Tery entry of Che Khan 
Lrab in the desert garb, 
id gracious like his fellow, met, 
k saluted, saying, " Peace with theel 
thee favort wilt thou sell me now 
ig-camel with the great stag-eyes! 
bree hundred akchas counied down, 
1 gold, good money! Such an one 


I sought, but found not, till I,»w thee here." 
"If thou wilt buy," quoth Ali, "be it sot" 
And thereupon that Bedawee counted out 
Dinars and dirhems — little aune and moona 
Of glittering gold and silver— in liis cloth, . 
And took the beast; but All, wiui one piece 
Bought food and fruits, and, hasteniog home ag 
Heard his lads laugh with joj to see the store'' 
Poured forth; — white cakes and dates and 

And smiled himself to mark Fatmeh's aoft eyes 
Gladden; then, having eaten, blessed the Lord, 
Giver of gitla, " Bestower." 

Made be to go unto'the western gate 
To pay his seller; but upon the street 
The Piophet met him. Lightly smiled our Lori 
(On whom be comforti) lightly questioned he. 
Saying. " O AUl who was he did sell 
Thy riding-camel, and to whom didst thou 
Bell her again?'' Quoth Ali, "OnlyGod 
Knoweth, except thou knowestl" Bpake our L< 
" Yea, but I knowl that was great Gabriel, 
Chief messenger of Heaven, from whom tbou bo 
And he to whom thou aold'st was larafil. 
His heavenly fellow; and that beast did come 
Forth from the pleasure-fields of Paradise, 
And thither bach is gone; for — look I my eon, 
Allah hatb recompensed thee fifty times 
The goodly deed theu didst, giving thine all 
To free the weeping debtor. Oh. He sees 
And measures and bestows ; bnt what is kept, 


1 gifta here, for kindly hearts that !oi 
ly wotteth, and the Et«nial Peace." 

Bettatoer ! grant tu groM to te» 
Our gam it what vx Imb/ot Thpe. 


rooAer !" ihui again 

mm formed &ee, doOi nutain. 

OY me aiga uawn. 
When the light of the sun is etrongt 

By the thick night, 
When the darknflss is deep and longl 
Behatb not foTsoDkthee, norhaledl 

By bis merciea, I saj, 
The life which will come atiall be better 

Thaa the life of today. 

In the latter days 
Tlie Lord thy " Provider" shall give; 

When thou knowest His gift 
Thou wilt not ask rather to live; 
Iiook backl thou wert friendless and frameleBS, 

He noade thee from nought; 
Look backl thou wert blinded and wandering, 

To the light thou art brought! 
Consider I shall Allah forego thee 

Since thus He hath wrougbtT * 

7^ favor of thy Lord perpejid, 
Aiidpraiu Hi* nwreiet vilfumt ei 

■CK. Korta, zam. duipter ".Of tbeFoteooon." 

Al■Si^Ud'^/ prai 
Ths mantii of th 

!iord MuhAmmftd 
t, whereby the ho 
sleep, wrapped in 
was the night — tb 
ea all the seven s| 
pened uato him, 

abriel, softly ligh 
lag. " KBe, thou . 
he things which t 
, the horse of Bwi 
I- white that steed 
f -pearls and emer 

id like a mule he 
eyes gleamed f roi 
f lucent hyacinth 
voren gold, whici 
I ligbtniog goeth i 
B those broad pin 

eel he smote on Bafft, and one heel 
Sinu — where the dint is to tliis day. 

■ Cf. Koltn, XTlL chqitsr " Of Ibe Nlglit JoaDV." 


Next at Jerasftlem he neiglMMl. Our Loi^ 
Descending with th* Archangel there» did kneel 
Making the midnight prayer; afterwards they 
Tethezed htm to the Temple hy a eovd. 

" Ascend r spake Gabriel; and behold 1 there fell 
Out of the skj a ladder bright and great. 
Whereby, with easy steps, on radiant stales. 
They mounted—past our earth and heaven and heUh- 
To the first sphere, where Adam kept the gate. 
Which was of vaporous gold and silvery squares. 

Here throngjsd the lesser Angels: some took charge 
To fill the clouds with rain and speed them round. 
And some to tend live creatures; for what's born 
Hath guardians there in its own i^ape: a large 
Beauteous white cock crowed matins, at the sound 
CSocks in a thousand planets hailed the mom. 

Unto the second si^ere by that white slope 
Ascended they, whereof Noah held the key; 
And two-fold was the throng of Angels here; 
But all so dazzling glowed its fretted cope, 
Burning with beams, Muhammad could not see 
What manner of celestial folk were there* 

The thkd sphere lay a thousand years beyond 
If thou should'st journey as the sun-ray doth, 
But in one F&tihah clomb they thitherward. 
David and Solomon in union fond 
Ruled at the entrance, keeping Sabaoth 
Of ceaseless joy. The void was paven hard 

With paven work of rubies— if there be 
Jewels on eai?th to liken unto them 


Wliich had such color ns no goldsmith knc 
And here a vast ArcliBDge] they did see, 
" Futhful of Qod " hia name, whose diadem 
Was set with peopled stara; wherefrom art 

Lauds to the glory of Ood, fllttng the blue 
With lovely muaic, as rose-gardens All 
A land with essences; and young stats, aha 
'n^ssea of lovely light, gathered and grew 
Under bis mighty plumes, departing atill , 
Like ships with crews and treasare, voy^S' 

80 cune they to the fourth sphere, where there 

Enoch, who uever tasted death; and there 

Behind ite portal awful Azraei writes; 

The shadow of his brows compassionate 

Hade night across all worlds; our Lord felt \ 

Marking the Stern eyes and the hand whlcl 

For always on a scroll he sets the names 

Of new-born beings, aod from off the scroll 

He blotteth who must die; and holy tears 

Roll down his cheeks, recording all our shamee 

And sins and penalties; while of each soul 

Honker and Nakir reckon the arreats. 

Nest, at the fifth sphere's entry, they were 'wa 

Of a door built in sapphire, having graveu 

Letters of flashing Are, the faith unfolding, 

" Thebb is no God savs Qod-" Aaron sate t 

Guarding the " region of the wrath of Heave 

And Israfll behind, his trumpet holding. 

His trumpet holding— which shall wake the dei 
And slay the living— all his cheek puffed on) 


BuTBtiDg to blow ; for uoue knows Allah's time, 
"Sot when the word of judgment shall be sud; 
And darts, and chains of flame, lay all around, 
Terrible tortures for th' ungodly's crime. 

When to the sixth sphere passed they, Mosea Bped 
Its bars of cbrysoprase, and kissed our Lord, 
And apake full iweet, " Prophet of Allahl then 
Uore souls of Ismael's tribes to trulb hast led. 
Than I of Isaak's." Here the crystal sword 
Of Michael gave the light they journeyed throuf 

But at the aefentli sphere that light which shone 
Hath not an earthly name, nor any voice 
Can tell ita splendor, nay, nor any ear 
Learn, if it listened; only be alone 
Who saw it, knows how there tb' elect rejoice, 
Isa, and Ibrahim, and the souls most dear. 

And he, the glorious regent of that sphere, 
Had seventy thousand heads; and every bead 
As many countenances; and each face 
As many mouths; and m each mouth there were 
Tongues seventy thousand, whereof each tongue ■& 
Ever and ever, "Praise to Allah! pr^sel" 

Here, at the bound, is fixed that lotus tree 
BsDRA, which none among the Angela pass; 
And not great Gabriel's self might farther wend: 
Yet, led by presences loo bright to see. 
Too high to name, on paths like purple glass 
Our Ijord Muliammad journeyed lo the end. 

Alonel alonel tiiiough hosts of Cherubim 
Crowding the infinite void with whispering ■vasa, 


n ^jleodot unto splendor still he sped; 
be " Lake of Gloom" tfaey ferried him, 
tien the ' ' Seft of Qlory :" mortal maa's 
rt cannot hold the wondars witnessed. 

I "Begion of the Veila" lie came, 

I shut all times off fiom eternity, 

bars of being where thought cannot reach: 

uand thousand are they, walls of flame 

mt with lovetiness and mystery, 

ipails of utmost heaTsn, having no breach. 

a&w QoDi our Prophet saw ths ThrohbI — 
ihl let these weak words be forgifecl-- 
u, the Supreme, "the Opener," spake at last; 
one! theThronel heeaw; — our Lord alonel 

and heardi — but the' verse falls from heaven 
I a poised eagle, whom the lightnings hlast. 

iriel wailing by the tree he found; 

iorak, tethered to the Temple porch; 

oosed the horse, and 'twizt its wings ascended. 

t it smofe on Zion's hallowed ground, 

pon Sinai; and the day-star's torch 

I not yet fading when the journey ended. 

Al-Mitd'M " Openerl" vie toy 
Th^ name, and nonhip Thu atony. 


At-'AUmt the '• ABrEnower f" b}/ fhii viord 
AmM Sm W!u> ttei Ih' ujuten, and hearg Ih' un 

If ye keep hidden your mind, it ye decfcre it aloi 
Squally Ood hath perceived, equ^ly knows ii 
If on your housetopH ye aia, if in dark chamb 
Equally Qod hath beheld, equally judgnu 

He, without liBtlng, doth know how many brea 
ye make; 
Numberetli the hairs of your heada, wotteth the 
of your blood; 
Heareth the feet of the ant whea sbe waodera by 
in the brake; 
Countcth the eggs of the snake and the cubs ' 
wolf in the wood. 

Mule the Moakkib&t* ait this side and that side of 

One on the right noting good, aad one on tt 

noting ill; 

Each hath those Angels beside him who write w 

visible pen 

Whatso he doeth, or sayeth, or thiaketb. recort 

Ten Hn 

For o 


Takbtmi wa Tabtatw/ Aeavm and heO 
Bt doMth and iincloieth — anddaihvdl!* 

Ik gold and silk and robee of pride 
' Ad eril-hearted mon&Tcb died; 
Pampered and arrogant hie sonl 
Quitted the gmre. His eyes did roll 
Hither and thither, deeming some 
Id that new world should surely come 
To lead his spirit to a seat 
or state, for liiugly merit meet. 
What saw he! 'twas a bag so foul 
There is no Afrit, DJln, or Qhool 
With coimteDance as vile, or mien 
As fearful, and such terrors seen 
In the flerce voice and hideous ^r. 
Blood- dripping bauds and matted bdr. 
" Allah have mercy!" cried the king, 
" Whence and what art thou, liateful tbiDgT" 
"Doat thou not know — wbogav'st me birthf" 
Replied the form; " thy sins on earth 
In me embodied thus behold. 
I am thy wicked worki unfold 
Thine arms and clasp me, for we two 
In hell must live thy sentence thioogh." 

*Cf. Sorts, fi. ohaptar"Of the Cow," 


Tti & ahe thut* the gait, jv*t wrath to wtmI} 
Uniart it, full of merey, to ihi» meek. 

Thsbb died upon the Hiraj nif^t, 
A man of Mecca, Amm height; 
Faithful and true, patient and pure, 
Had been his years; hedid endure 
In war five spear-wounds, and in peace 
Long journeying for his tribe's lacreaae; 
And ever of hla gidna he gave 
Unto poor hrethren — kind as brave: 
But these forsook, and age and toil 
Drained the strong heart aa flames drink oQ; 
"mi, lone aod friendless, gray and spent— 
A thorn-tree's shadow for his teiU, 
And desert sand for dying-bed — 
A m m the cunel-man lay dead. 

What is it that the 'Hadlth suthT 
Even while the true eyes glazed in death. 
And the warm heart wearied, and beat 
The last drum of its long defeat. 
An Angel, lighting on the sand, 
• 7ook Amru's spirit by the hand. 
And gently npake, " Dear brother, comel 
A sote road tbou didst Journey home; 


■ But life's dry desert thou bast passed, 
And Zem-Zepi sparkles nigh at last." 
"Ilien with swift flight those tnatn did rise 
Unto ttie gates of Pafadise, 
Wbich opened, and the Angel gave 
A golden graoate, saying, ' ' Cleave 
This fruit, my brother!" But its acent 
So beaveolf seemed, and ao intent, 
8a npt was Amia, to behold 
The great fruit's rind of blushing gold 
And emerald leaves — he dared not touch. 
Murmuring. "OUAIikt tiatoomuch 
That I am here, with eyes so dim. 
And gniioa all fled." Tben bade they him 
Qaxe in the stream which glided slllly, 
'Hid water-roses and white lUj, 
Under those lawns and smiling shies 
That make delight in Paradise; 
When, lot the presence imaged tliers 

- Was of such comellneae, no peer 
Among those glorious Angele stood 
To Abkh, H^rrored in the fiood. 

"II Isitir be cried in gladness, 
" Am I BO changed from toil and sadneest" . 
" This was Iby hidden self," replied 
The Angels. " Bo shalt thou abide 
By our bright rivra' evermore ; 
And in that fait fruit's aectet cor»— 
Which on the Tree of Lite hath grown — ' 
Another maj^el shall be shown. 
Ah, h^py Amnil eleavel" He cloven- 
Sweet mincle of Uiss and lovel 


Forth from the pomegranate there grew, 
Ab from its bud a rose breaks through^ 
A lovely, stately, lustrous maid, 
Whose black orbs long silk lashes shade. 
Whose beauty was so rich to see 
No verse can tell it worthily; 
Nor is there found in any place 
One like her for the perfect graee 
Oi soft arms wreathed and ripe lips moving 
In accents musical and loving; 
For tlius she sxmke: " Peace be to thee, 
My Amrul" Then, with quick cry, he: 
" Whx> art thou, blessed one? what name 
Wearest thou? teach my tongue to frame 
This worship of my heart. " Said she, 
" Thy good deeds gave me being: see. 
If in my beauty thou hast pleasure. 
How the Most High doth truly treasure 
Joy for his servants. Murziehl— 
Bhe that doth love and satisfy — 
And I am made by Allah's hand 
Of ambergris and musk, to stand 
B^ide thee, soothing thee, and tending 
In comfort and in peace unending." 

JBo hand in hand, 'tis writ, they went 
To those bdght bowers of high content. 

M-Bdtii/ thus Me opent iM4 
Em merdei to ihejiutffied. 

'■- -- -^™ 



Al-SJidJixf^the "Abaiw /" praiu hereby 
Sim W/u> ditlh mock at eartldy me^ty. 

D ye of Nimrftdf Citiei fell before hUnj 
aar, from Accod to the Indian 8ea, 
irden was; aa Ood, men did adore him;- 
ieoe wen bis alaves, and kings his TaMatty . 

Bnt on his car of carven brass, 

vugb foeman'a blood nave-deep be dtave his wheel; 

lot a lion in the riTer-graas 

lid keep its sha^y fell from Nimi&d's steel. 

e scorned Allah, schemed a towei to invade Him; 
amed to scale Heaven, and measuie might with 

Ml high the foolish claj wberefrom We made him, 
1 built thereon hia aevan-f old bouse of the clod. 

fore, Qie least Our m 
seat; — a gray gnat dancing in the reeds; 
lis ear she crept, buzzing,— and stung. 
peristwd mighty Nimrfld and liia deeds. 

Thou AboKT of lOl pridel 
Mighty Thov. arl, aitd none ieadt. 




AT'Bdfl! ^ ''ExaUerP* taudBimso 
Who 1096$ the humble and lifts up the loto^ 

Whom hath He chosen for His priests and preachers, 
Lords who were eminent, or men of might? 

Kay, but consider how He seeks His teachers, 
Hidden, like rubies unaware of light, 

Ur of the Chaldises! what chance to discover 
Th' elect of Heaven in Azar's leathern tent? 

But Allah saw his child, and friend, and lover. 
And Abraham was born, and sealed, and sent 

The babe committed to th' Egyptian water! 

Knew any that the tide of Nilus laved 
The hope of Israel there? yet Pharaoh's daughter 

Found the frail ark, and so was Moses saved. 

Low lies the Syrian .town behind the mountain 
Where Mary, meek and spotless, knelt that mom, 

And saw the splendid Angel by the fountain, 
And heard his voice, ''Lord Isa shall be bom!" 

Nay, and Muhammad (blessed may he bel)> 

Abdallah's and Aminah's holy son, 
Whom black Halimah nursed, the Bedawee, 

Where lived a lonelier or a humbler one? 


bow A« led the camels of Eh&dljah, 
, but illumined bj the light of Heaven; 
■r thAiL Noah, or Enoch, or Elijah, 
lolf Prophet to Arahia given. 

lew Um not, wrapped in hla cloth, and weeping 

If onHirft all tliat wondrous night; 

lai for his own .our Lord was keeping >— 

le, thou enwrapped onel" Qabriel spake, "and 


Bane Qod tlurM ii mm» hig\ ataO, 
Xor ang law whom Se tMh eoB. 


The " Boncrer" WAMefaew ntalath grtat. 

Say " God." say ■' Lord ol alll 
Kingdoms and kings Thou makest and qiunabMt, 
TUa oa& Tliou takeat, tbai on» Tkou foisakest; 

Alike are great and small; 

Into Thy hand thoy fall." 

" In Thy dread' hand they rtet; 
Their nights and days, their waking and their sleeping. 
Their birth, and life, and death lie in Thy keeping; 

'Be thu&' to each Thou say's^ 

And thus to be ia best, 

"Though It seem good or ilL 
leUml— (o Thee our souls va do rerign. 
Turning our faces to the blessed dirine; 

Seeking no honor still 

Sava f KHft Thy will." • 

Ai-Mvltke ! onl}/ iMt wepray 
To learn Thy wiU. and to ebay. 

• CL Eor&o, IlL chapter " OF Imrau'B Fuuily." 


Bao&ig made man, to ttad him into iUf 

Saith the Fenpictioua Book: " All thiags which ' 
of Ghxi; 
Neither, except by Hia irord, fitUeth & lekf t 
If He will open He openeth, and wttom Ha hath b1 
He blisdeth, 
Iieading, misleading; to none liable, bUt 

Suth the Perspicuoiu Book: "Tied on the necl 

Hangeth the scroll of his fate, not a line to be 

said or grudged; 
When the trumpet of Israfll thunders, the Aiige 

show it and t&y. 
Bead there what thine own deeds hare wi 

thjself bj thyself shall be Judged."-!- 

Wilt thou be wiser than Ood "Wbo knowetb begi 
and end? 
Wilt thou be juster than He whose balance Is t 
by a sigh? 


A»-BamA'K! Then Eeartir I no 
80 far, hi* oryiag doth not tome 

WBTTEfl in his Hesaert, Jelftlu-'d-i 
There came a man of Taman, pooi 
To Mecca, makiag pilgTimage; un 
A. shepherd of the billa. Eumble 
The Bii mikftt, the stages of the H 
Humblf indued the ihrSm, garb ol 
Wltich bath no leam; made due a^ 
The black stone; then three timesi 
Circled the Eaabah, and four time 
With slaekeoed gate the tawSf, as 
(For such observances the Hollab I 
But, when he bowed before the Hi 
Thus brake his soul from him, ku' 
Full of God's love, though ignoraii 
" Master! O my Sheikht where 
Show me Thj face tliat I maj woi 
Haj toil Thy Beirant, which I am 
Ah 1 let me sew Thy shoes, anoiDt 
Wash Thy soiled roties, and seire 
My she-goata' freaheat milk — I lovi 
Where hideet Thou, that I may ki 
Chafe Thy dear feet, and ere Thoi 
In the gold sky, beside Thy sun, t 


Among the solt-spfead fleeces of Thy ckmcb— 
Sweep out Thy chamber, O my joy, my EiagI* 

Which hearing, fhey who kept the shrine, incensed. 
Had haled him to the gatewey^ crying, "D^l 
What blasphemy is this thou utterest, 
Saying such things of Him That hath no needs 
Of nourishment, nor clothing, nor repofie, 
Nor han^s, nor feet, nor any form or frame; 
That thou, base keeper of the silly herd, 
Shouldst proffer service to the All-Powerful? 
Meet were it that we stoned thee dead with stones, 
Who art accursed and injurious. 
Beyond! these holy walls are not for thee." 

So, sore abashed, that shepherd made to go. 
Silent and weeping; but our Prophet marked, 
And with mild eyes smiled on the man ; then spake 
To those that drave him forth: ** Ye, when ye pray 
Outside this holy place, in distant lands. 
Whither turn ye your faces?" Each one said, 
"Unto the Kaabab/* "And when ye pray, 
Within the blessed precincts, pilgrims here. 
Which way lies Mecca?" " All is sacred here,** 
They answered, " and it matters nought which way.** 
"Lo! now ye reason well," replied our Lord; 
" Inside the Kaabah it matters nought 
Whither men turn; and in the secret place 
Of perfect love for God, words are as breath 
And will is all. This simple shepherd's prayer 
Came unto Allah's ears clearer than yours, 
Kathless his ignorance, because his heart — 
Not tongue, not understanding— uttered it. 


At-Sadr ! O TKou Sear I great and tou^ 
lite tn Thy timfitt, mhieh embraeeth aB, 

Wbbb it one wasted eeed of water-grasB, 
Blown by the wind, or buried in the Bimd, 
He seeth and OTdaioeth if it lire; 
Were it a wild bee qQeating honej-buds. 
He seeth if sbe Snd, and how abe cornea 
On busy winglets to ber hollow tree. 
The seeing of His eyea ahoutd not be told, 
Tbougfi all the leeda io all the earth were 'cut 
To writing-aticka, and all the seven aeaa 
Were seTen ttmea mumplied, flowing with ink. 
And aeventj angels wrote. He beholds all 
Wbicb waa, or is. or will be: yea, with Him 
Is present Vision of five secret thinga: 
The day of Judgment] and the times of rain; 
The child hid in the womb — is qidclcenriag, 
And whether male or female; — what will fall 
To-moiTow (as ye know what did befall 
Yesterday); and wbeie every man shall die.* 

" Where every man shall die." Al BeldhSwi 
Fresenletb bow there sate with Sofomon 
A prince of India, and there passed tbem by 
Azniel, Angel of Death, on shadowy plumes; 


With great eyes gazing earnestly, as one 

Who wonders, gazing. And, because the prince 

Sate with the king, he saw what the king saw, 

The Djins and Angels, and saw Azrael 

Fixing on him those awful searching eyes. 

'' What name, I pray thee, Wears yon messenger?*' 

So asked he of the king; and Solomon 

Made answer, ** It is Azrael, who calls 

The souls of men." "He seomed,'* wiiispered the 

• prince, 
" To have an errand unto me;— bid now 
That one among thy demon ministers 
Waft me, upon the swiftest wing that beats. 
To India, for I fear him." Solomon 
Issued command, and a swift DJin sprang forth 
Bearing the prince aloft, so that he came 
To Coromandel, ere the fruit — ^which fell 
Out of the fig— had touched the marble floor. 

Thereupon Azrael said to Solomon, 

*' I looked thus earnestly upon the man 

In wonder, for my Lord spake, * Take his soul 

In India; ' yet behold he talked with thee I 

Here in Judeea! Now, see! he hath gone ' 

There where- it was commanded he should die." 

Then followed Azrael. In that hour the prince 
pied of a hurt, sitting in India^ 

TTiA* Thoe, Lord, be the time a/nd fioM^ 
8o^0UUwe die in Thy dear grace. 




AJrEdkim! think upon the Day <f Doom, 
AnAfear ** the Judge " before Whom aU, mtut come. 

When the sun is withered up, 

And the stars from Heaven roll; 

When the mountains quake, 

And ye let stray your she-camels, gone ten months in foal ; 

When wild heasts flock 

With the people and the cattle 

In terror, in amazement. 

And the seas boil and rattle; 

And the dead souls 

For their bodies seek; 

And the child vilely slain 

Is bid to speak, 

Being asked, •' Who killed thee, little maid? 

Tell us his name r 

While the books are unsealed, * 

And crimson flame 

Flayeth the skin of the skies, 

And Hell brea^ ablaze; 

And Paradise 

Opens her beautiful gates to the gaze; — 

Then shall each soul 

Know the issues of the whole. 

And the balance of its scroll.* 

* Ct Korftn, bcxzi. chapter " Of the Foldinsr Up.'* 


AlEddHf " Juit Lardr w magnify 

Thy righteotu Law, which shaU the whole world try. 

€k>D will roll up, when this world's end approacheth, 
The broad blue spangled hangings of the sky, 

Even as As-8igill * roUeth up his record. 
And seals and binds it when a man doth die. 

Then the false worshippers, and what they follow, 

Will to the pit, like ''stones of hell," descend; 
But true believers shall hear Angels sajring, 
" This is your day; be joyous without end." t 

In that hour dust shall lie on many faces, 
And may faces shall be glad and bright; % 

Ye who believe, trust and be patient always, 
Until God judges, for He judges right § 

Giw us topasabrfare Thy throne 
Among the number of Thine own! 

* A name of the Angel of Registration. 
t Cf. Korftn, xzl. chapter " Of the Prophets.** 
t Ct Kor&n, Ixxx. chapter " Of the Frown.** 
I Gf. KorAn, x. chapter " Of Jona&** 



M-KhMr! Thou Who art **aware^ qfaU, 
By this name ctUofor Thy grace we call. 

One morning in Medina walked our Lord 
Among the tombs: glad was the dawn, and broad 
On headstones and on footstones sunshine lay; 
Earth seemed so fair, 'twas hard to be away. 
'* O people of the graves!" Muhammad said, 
" Peace be with you I Your caravan of dead 
Hath passed the defile, and we living ones 
Forget what men ye were, of whom the sons. 
And what your merchandise ahd where ye went; 
But Allah knows these things I Be ye co'^tent 
Since Allah is * aware.' Ah I God forgive 
Those that are dead, and us who briefly live,*' 

Tea / pardon. Lord, since Thou dost know 
To-morrow, now, and long ago. 


M-'A»kf " &Tong and Soeareigii," Ood, Thy hand 

Jt over all Thy uimfct, holding eommand. | 

Uaekr of All 7e truly call the Strong and Sovereign 

Tet have ye read that vene which B^th wher«to Hii 

work wu doDoT 
Open "the Book," and, heedful, look what weighty 

words are giveu 
{The Chapter of Al-AkhU) concernlDg Earth and 


"The Heavena and earth," Al-AkhSf laith, "and 

whatao is between, 
Think ye that We made these to be, and then— not to 

have beenT 
Think ye We fashioned them in Jest, without theii 

times, and plan, 
And puTposet Nayl accurst are they who Judge of 

God by man."* 

Bigher, WUer, tAan m knew. 
Lit not Ihy ereaturei judge Ihee M 

•CL KortD, xlTi oh^tw "OLAl-Uhtt" 


& M tA« 'f ParSoaet" and Aii Beri^. 
Paraditi itfiftAem that iheek thtir- 
[nd pardon tint; to AUali doth iMiA k 
lelo9el\ bettMmvho huaie^ wntrolt.' 

T jB of Hasaan'B slaret Hassan the 

1. la the camp at Kas-al-hadd 

ade a banquet unto sheikhs and lord„, 

iresaed and joyous; and a slave bore round,. 

ing with new-cooked pillaw, Badhan'a dish 

d from rock-cTyetal, with tbe feet In gold, 

^aets round the rim; but the boy slipped 

.St the tent-rope, and the precious dish 

I into shards of beaulf on the board, 

ing the son of AIL One guest cried, 

:! wert thou mine, for this tiling thou shouldit 


ler, " Wretch! fliou meritest to die." 

ret another, "HassanI give me leave 

lite awaj this swine's head with mj swordt" 

Hassan's self was moved; but the boy fell 

to tiie earth and cried, "My lordl 'tis writ, 

diM it far them that cheek their viratA,' " 

writ so," Hassan sud; "I am not wroth." 

lordl" the boy sobbed on, "also 'tia writ, 

Ian the tre^xuter,'" Hassan replied, 

•Cf^Hwto, IH, chapter "Of ImiBn'aPsinfly." 

I • ■ • .» 

SAaaAirs blate. si 

*• lis written— I remember-— I forgive." 

** Now is.the blessing of the Most High Qod 

Onvthee, dear master!" cried the happy slayoi 

" For Her-tis writr-' Ums the beneficent.*'' 

" Yea I I remember, and I thank thee, slave,** 

Quoth Hassan; — ** better is one noble verse 

Fetched from ' the Book/ than gold and crystal brought 

From Yaman's hills. Lords! he hath marred the dish. 

But mended fault with wisdom. See, my slavel 

I give thee freedom, and this purse to buy 

The robe and turban of a Muslim freed." 

AJUOhSfir! pa/rdon us, us we 
B^rgifos a brather^s i^fury. 


" ffraf^ftd"— jl»A-SM**r— 1» Ea; prm 
Ww thanketh men for that Et did ietti 

So much hut thon of thy hoard 
Ae thou gaveat to tliy Lord; 
Only this will bring thee in 
TJsaDce rich and free from sin: 
Bend thy silver on before, 
Lending to HIb aick and poor. . 
£verj dirfaem dropped in alms 
Touchoa Allah's open palms, 
£tb it fell into the hands 
Of thy brother. Allah stands 
Begging of thee, when thy brother 
Aeketb help. Ahl if another 
Proffered thee, for meat and drink, 
Food upon Al'KSuthar's brink,* 
< Sliiuing Eftuthar which doth flow 
Sweet as honey, cool as snow, 
White as milk, and smooth as cream, 
Underneath Its banks, which gleams- 
Green and golden chrysolite, * 
In Ibe Gardens of delight. 
Whence who drinks never again 
Tasteth sorrow, age, or pain— 


Who would not make mercbsndias, 
Buying bibs in Paradise, 
Lajing up his treasure when 
Stores are safe and profits deart 
Bat ye lend at lover cost, 
Wliilat Ash-ShSkir offers moat. 
Good returning seven times seven, 
Paying gifta of earth with Heaven. 

lie "V*ry Oraat," the Bigh^xatt 

BxTKK Heavens Allah made: 

First " Paradise," the Jetautt^Fh 

The next. Al Euid, " Gate of Et 

. The third, Dar-a»-8aldm, the " Pei 

The fourth; Bar-ai-iir«nir, "Fell 

The fifth was Aidenn, " Ilome of ( 

The sixth, Al Na'hint, " Oardea 

The seventh, ^Mi%l3n, "Pootsto 

And, each and every c 

Sphere above spheio, and treasure ayi 

The great decree of C^od made for rei 

Saith the Perspicuous Bi 

"Look up to Heaveni 1< 

Dost .thou Bee flaw or fai 

In that vast vault, 

Spangled with silvery lamps 

Or gilded with glad light 

. Of sunrise, or of aunset, or v 

Rounded He well the mi 

Kindled He wisely the red L 

Look twice 1 look thrice. 



AJ^EdJkf ** Preaerwrr mceor Ui 
Who humbly trustful, cry unto Thee thus. 

By the Sky and the Night star! 
By Al-Tltrek the white start 

Shining clear — 
When darkness covers man and beast— 

To proclaim dawn near, 
And the gold san hastening froln the east, 
We have set a guard upon you, every one; 

Be ye not afraid! 
Of seed from loins, and milk from bosom-bone. 

Ye were made: 
We are able to remake you, when ye die, 

For cold death 
Cometh forth from Us, as warm life cometh 

And gift of breath. 
B|p the darkness and the terror plot against you? 

We also plan; 
They that love you are stronger than your haters* 

Trust Gk)d, Omanl* 

" Ta Hdfiz ! " on your doors ye ffrave ; 
In your hearts, too,' these scriptures hone! 

* Of. Korialzsrri ohaptor " Of the Night Star.** 


Not now, but when the-soul comes to the neck. 
The meaning of those mercies each shall reck. 
Then are We nearest, though je see it not; 
Can ye that Hiunmoned apirit oidw backT 

Nay. AlrMukU! in Ufe and deaOi 

Tfdnt art w : Truth Tbj/ Scripturt latti. 


Load Bim ai " Beekoner," e/uting 

A7>d makiny litUe merits kfrgeiy mo 

Givsi more ih&a thou takeet 
If one shall salul« thee. 
Saying, " Peace be upoi 

The salute which thou malu 
Speak it friendlier still. 
As beseemeth goodirilli 

Baying, " Peace, too, and lo 

From Allah above 

Be with thee:"— for hea 
Ib each brotherly word; 

And it shall not be lost 

That thou gavest him most. 

TaHaM/ prautto Thee;fc. _ 
Our good detdi iteedt mutl Utau 

* Cf. Eorlu, iT. cbaptw " Of Womeii." 


At-JamS t "ihe Btnign ;" ah, noma mori i2rar, 
Which dub tu ioet and wm-ahip mtlttmtfear. 

Too much je tremble, too much fear to feel 
That yearDlng love nhicli Allah's laws lereal; 
Too oft forget — jour troubled journey througl 
He who ia Power, is Grace and Beauty too. 
And Clemency, and Pity, and Pure Beat, 
The BigheBt and the Uttermost and Best; 
Sweeter than honej, and more dear to see 
ThaD any loTelineas on land or sea 
By bard or lover pruaed, or famed in story; 
For these were shadows of His perfect glory; 
Which is not told, because, who sees God neol 
Loseth the speech to speak, in loving fear, 
' So Joyous is he, so astonished. 

Hatb there come to ye what the Dervish salt 
A* Eaisareya, in the marble shrine. 
Who woke from vision of the love divine? 
" I have seen Allahl" quoth he— all aglow 
"With splendor of the dream which filled him i 
" Ye«t I have paced the Garden of Delight, 
And heard and kaownl" 

" Impart to ns thy li 
His fellows cried. 

He paused, and smiled, and s; 
"Fida would I say it, brothers, for your sake 


e wandored in a sphere so brighi 
rd «iich thlngx, and witnessed sn 

I know whither all nature turoi 
; tbe love celestial is which bun 
tat heart of all the world, ensur 
Fa shall pass and ]07 be all endui 
te Qotl I am as one who came 
noug rosea, one buah, all aflame 
Dt crimson blossoms, charged th 
tllDesB and perfume past compar 

I thought to toad mj skirt witli 
light judge what wealth that !at 
I mj robe, plucking the peerless 
be scent so rich, so heavenly, co 
If senses melted inta bliss 
intoiicatiag breath of this; 
Kirder of my mantle fall — 
. slipped t I bring ye none at aQ, 

'ire^wn! teish other eyes mvtt tot 
WuM the Bom* m that J'nt. 


Kariim ! Bountiful Lord / teeh 
tod name Thy loving kfrtdntsiet, 

I what hath beguiled, 
lAt thou shouldBt stray 
X lom the plain eaay way 
Of Allali's aerrice, being Allah's chili 
Wheu thou wert not, 
And when tbou wast a clot, 
He did foresee thee, and did fashion 
From heel to nape, 
Giving thee this fair shape, 
Composing thee in wondrous syinmet 
Hore than thy mother — in the formthon 
Nearer to tiiee than what on earth is near 
Kinder than kin is He — 
"Wilt tiioa forgetful bet • 

TaKaHml nnee 1%ffu beat Am, 

Quieken, ah, guiektn love in «*. 

* 01. Korfin, IxzzlL cbftpter " OI OeaTliig Ai 


The book of the cricked is in Sijjlii, 

A cloee-writ book: 
A book to ba imfoliled on the Awful D 

The day whereto men wauhl not k 

What Sijjin is 
Who shall make tliee kaowT 
The Black Gaol. Under Jehamaim, 
t7nder Laihd. the " red glow," 
"UuAet Eulamah, " the. fires which i 
Benwith Sa'hir, the " Yellow Hell, 
And scorching Sakar, lieth it, 
And Jahim, where devils dwell: 
Lower irom light and bliss 
Than E&ieiyeh, " the abyss:" 
SiJJIn is this. 

)uC the books of the righteous art in HID 

And what shall make Uim see 
[Tie glory of that region, nigh to God, 

Where those records be? 
Toy ahftll make tlieir portiim: tbey ttM U 

With the light of delight upon their tat 
)n soft Bents reclining 

Id peaceful places; 


le, puie wine, sealed wine, 

1 is mudc and roee; 

le dTStol wavea Uuit BUne 

, which flows 

den throne of God:— &t its 


hit!" grant oar naiAa w 

.H IzxxUl, olwpter " Of SluM Wd 


AmA-dUMu^, Who bidden mm fapnw 
And heartit prayer; Quu praiae ut Tim 

t, Lord the Prophet (peace to him I) doth 
i the seventeenth, intituled " Night;"— 
raj nt the noon, pmy at the siaking aun 
light-time pray; but most irhen eight is 
daybreak's prayer is surely liome on hi 
A^Dgels cliaDgiug guard wittiin the cOcy." 
1 in another veree, " Dawn's prayer is more 
n the wide world with all its treasured store." 

te to the mosque, and, l»iiding Hecca-way , 

ite jlZ-i'JWiftaA wliile 'tis scarce yet day: 

itehtto AUah. Lord of ail that Um. 

eiftd King and Judge, to Thee tM g^ 

•ikip and honor / Succor ui and ffuidt 

ve thoae hone teaSced who reit Thy Throne it^de/ 

may qfptaeo, the aay of iralhful ipeech, 

taay of rightwu$nat. 80 to* beseteh." 

who saith this, before the east is red, 

ondied prayera of Azan hath he said. 

ear now this story of it— told, I ween, 
your soul's comfort by Jeialu-'d-deen 


In the great pagea ot the Mesnevt; 
For therein, plain and certain, shall ye see 
How preciooB is ihe prayer at break of day 
In Allaii'B ears, aad in His Bight alway 
Uov BWeet are reverence and gentleness 
Done to His creatures: — " Ali" (whom I bleasl 
The son of Abu Talib — he, sumamed 
" lion of God," in many battles famed, 
. The couun of our Lord tbs Prophet (grace 
Be his!), uprose betimes one mom, to pace. 
As he WBB wont, unto the mosque, wherein 
Our Lord (bliss live with him 1) watched to beg 
AUFSiUkak. Darkling was the sky, and strait 
The lane between the city and mosque-gate, 
Bj rough atonea broken and deep pools of rain 
And tberetbrough toilfuUy, with steps of pain. 
Leaning upon his staft an old Jew went 
To synagogue, on pious errand bent; 
For those be " People ot the Book," and some 
Are choaeo of Allah's will who have not come 
T7nto full light of knowledge; therefore, he, 
Ali, the Caliph of proud days to be— 
Knowing this good old man, and why he stim 
Thus early, ere the morning mills were heard- 
Out of his nobleness and grace of soul 
Would not thrust past, though the Jew bio 

Breadth of the lane, alow hobbling. So they i 
That ancient first; and, in soft discontent. 
After him Ali, noting how the sun 
Flared near, and fearing pmyer might be begu 
Tet no command upraising, no harah cry 
To stand aside, because the dignity 


Ot dlTer hajrs is mucb, and monlag {tnln 
Was precioiu to Qie Jew, too. Thus tb^ wajni 
Wended the pair; gnat AU, ead nd dow, 
CoUoning the gniybeard, while the east, a-glow. 
Blazed with bright apean of gold athwart tbe blue, 
&.iid the Huezztu'fl call came, "lUahni! 

In the mosque, onr Lord 
On whom be peace) stood bj the mlmbar-bosrd, 
[d act to bow and MUhah forth to sa;. 
But, while hia lips moved, some strong band did la; 
3ver his mouth a palm inTisible, 
k> that no voice on the aseembl; felL 
Ta! Babbi 'lalaadna — thrice he tried 
To read, and thrice the sound at rratdlDg died, 
Stayed by this unseen touch. Thereat amazed, 
Dur Lord Huhammad turned, arose, and gased, 
ind saw — alone of all within the shrine — 
& splendid Presence, with large eyea divine 
Beaming, and golden pinions folded down. 
Their speed atill tokened by the fluttered gown; 
Sabriel he knew, the Spirit who doth Stand 
3htef o( the Bona of HeaT*)!, at Ood's right hand; 
"Qabriell why slay'st thou me?" the Prophet said, 
" Since at this hour tAt Plltituih should be read." 
But the bri^t Presence, smiling, pointed when 
yi towards the outer gate drew near. 
Upon the tlveshold shaking off bla shoes, 
ind giving "alma of entry," as men use. 
" Yeal" spn^ke th' Archangel, "sacred Is the sound 
:>f morning praise, and worth the world's great round, 
rhough earth were pearl and silver; therafora I 
Stayed thee, Uulummad, Id the act to ciy. 


Lest Ali, tarryiiig in the lane, should ml 
For bis good deed, its Messing and its M 

Thereat the Archanget vanished, and ou 
Bead FSHhah forth beneaHi the mimbar- 

JJ», too, Mi^ I in Ken/ring kft 
BeUtr it praytr thaafood or a 



AU-Comprehmding On»," Al-Wiui'hi 
y thit name alto praise and honor Tht 
, wheresoe'er ye be, to Uecca'a stone 
this is Itoly, sud j^>ur Lord doth hec 
srwsrda turni — bo hath all iBJftm oac 
Tt to its thought and harbor of its pt 
ilah's house eastwards and westward 
thwarda and Bouthwarde. He is ere 
lereoever way ye bend your eyes, 
e to face are ye with Al-WasiOi then 
ot ri^teousness to kneel aright 
iting the KiMah; but to rightly hole 
d, and of His judgment, and the bri; 
ds of His Angels; and what truth is 
sure Eorftn by Qod's bolj Prophet; 
inccor orphans, strangeis, suppliants 
jold and worldly treaBUto— to give o 
9om for captives, alma which mercy 
ip your covenants when ye covenant 
r woes. and sufferings patiently to be 
the Yrill of Qod : — this ia to front 
ight for the SSilah : thia is fsitli and 

Abowtding Lord! in ee&ry ploM 
Ii buiU the Meeea of Thy graee. 


AISSUir! Judge t^ aB Oujudga! Aom 
Maroji to ui and make utjwiHee know. 

Om-T one Judge is jiut, for onl; One 
Enowetb the hearts of men; and hearts alons 
Are guilt; or are gulUleas. That which lied 
Waa not the tongue-4e Is a red dog tied. 

Aikd that which slew was not the hand 70 mw 
Qrasplng the knife— she Is a slave whose law 
The master gives, seated within the tent; 
The band was handle to the instrament; 

The dark heart murdered. believersi leave 
Judgment to Heav'n— except ye do receive 
Office and order to accomplish this; 
'Rtea honorable, and terrible, it is. 

The Prophet sud:* "At the great day of doom 
Such fear on the most upri^t Judge shall come 
That he shall moan, ' Abl would to Ood that I 
Had stood for Mai, and not sate to tij I' " 

He said: " The Angels of the Scales will bring 
Just and unjust who judged before Heav'n's Kii 
Qraspiog them by the neck; and, if It be, 
One hath adjudged his fellows wickedly, 

•O. tbe UsbUtol-HtaUth. 

"He shall b 
Tib forty ye 
But If one r\ 
The AjigelB 


" IJie L(mnir--Ai-t^afyod! ah. UOeOe 
TtherOg Thy children prai$e Thee, free i 

SvBBT seem your wedded days; And dear u 
Tout cliUdren's talk; brare 'tis to hear the 

Of pastured liorses; aod to see the eplendor 
Of gold and silver plunder; and to camp 

With goats and camels hj the bubbling fouD 
And to drink fragrance from the deeeii wi 

And to sit silent on the mightj mountAlu; 
And all the joys which make lite "bright an 

But ye have heard of streams more brightly 
Than those whereby ye wander; of a life 

Glorious and glad and pure beyond earth's k 
LoTe without loaa, and wealth irithout the 

Lol we have told you of the golden Qarden 
Kept for the Faithful, where the soil is stL 

Wheat-flour and musk uid camjidilre, and fn 
To what delicious savor each man wiU 

Upon the Tooba tree; which bends Its cluste 
To him tJut doth desire, bearing all meat; 

And of tbe sparkling fountains which out<lu 
Diamonds and emeralds, running clear aoi 


aA Salsabll, whose lucent waters 
Ii, delicious, UDdistractiug wine; 
le HoutU, pleasure's perfect daughters, 
) of Paradise, whose black eyes shine 

> with love and languor, baring tresses 
lark, with Bcenta of the gold-blooming date 

let roses; IsTishing caresses 
itisfy, but never satiate; 

oka refrain from any save their lover, 
peerless limbs and bosoms' ivory swell 
[he oetrich egg which feathers cover 
itain and dust, so while and rounded well: 

in marvellous pavilions, builded 
ow pearls, wherethrough a great light shines — 
f soft breezes and bj glad suns ^ded — 
green pillows where the Blest reclines. 

ward it shall be, a full payment 
i's brief trials and sad virtue's stress, 
ends with friends, clad all in festal r^ment, 
n deep Heaven the Angels' happiness; 

full payment, thougli ye give thcve pleasares 
make life dear, b> flglit and die for faith, 
g to Qod your wives and flocks and treasures, 
[e may pay you tenfold after death. 

le bliss of Paradise, transcending 
ts of eartli, should win ye to be bold, 
r, this glory hath its crown and ending 
Lh's grace, wtiich is the Joy untold. 


The Utmoat Bliss. Beyond the Happy River 
The juBtifled shall see God's face in Heaven, 

Live in His aweet goodwill,* and tasle for ever 
Al-Wadood's \ love, unto His children given. 

Tea! for liigh Heatten'tfOieUg 
AlnUthe sAadow, Lord, of Thee. 



Al-MB0idf Gl0riou$ Lord upon ihs Throm,* 

With dm great name im praiee Thee, Sovereign One ! 

Bt the Heavens, walled with silver signs and towers 1 
By the Promised Day 1 

By the Witness and the Witnessed; and the Way 

Of righteousness 1 — this glorious Book of ours 
lieth treasured up in Heaven^ 
As 'twas given 

On the mighty " Night of Powers;" 
And its easy bond is this, 
The which to keep is bliss: 
*' None save Gloriotis AUah serve; 
Never from His precepts sioerve; 
Honor teacher, father, mother; 
Unto Mm who is thy brother. 
Unto kindred, friends also. 
Orphans, suppliants, sad ones, show 
OenUeness and help; to each 
Speak toith kind and courte<ms speech. 
Give in alms that thou mo/y^st spa/re. 
And he constant in thy prayer" * 

AUah dIrMajid f Thy favor grant, j 

That we may keep this covenant. 

• Cf . Eor&n, Ixxzv. chapter " Of Celestial Signs.,* 
t Cf. Kor&n, ii. chapter ** Of the Heifer." 


Al-Bdhith I Opener of the Tombs I vte praiee 
Thy power, nohixh umto Ufe ^ dead can rake. 

IblIs spake to Abrabfim: 

" What is this thy Lord hath told the&? 

Shall the Jtesurrectioii be 

When the DLouldering clods Milold theef 

Nay t and if a man might rue. 

Buried wlMde, in heedful wise. 

See yon cacease, tempest-beaten^- 

Part the wandering fox hath eaten. 

Part by fishes hath been torn. 

Part the sea-fowl hence have bonie; 

Never back those fragments can 

Come to him who was a man." 

Abraham spake unto his Lord:* 
*' Show me how is wrought this wonder; 
Can Thy resurrection be 
When a man's dust lies asimder?'' 

" Art thou th»efore not believing,** 
Allah said, " because deceivii^ 
Iblts fills wHh lies thy heart?" 
"Nay," he answered, **but impart 
Knowledge, Mightiest One and BestI 
That my heart may be at rest." 

* Ot Korftn, it duster " Of the Heifer.** 


God aaid: " Take, thou doubting one! 
Four birds from among My creatures; 
Sever each bird's head, and so 
Mingle feathers, forms, and features. 
That the fragments eUall not be 
Knowable to such as ye. 
Into four divide the mass, 
Then upon the mountains pass, 
On four peaks a portion lay. 
And, returning homeward, say, 
* By the name and power of God— » 
Who hath made men of the clod. 
And hath said the dead shall rise^ 
Birds t fly hither in such wise 
As ye lived.' And they shall come, 
Perfect, whole, and living, home." 

Thereupon AlKhalil took 
A raven, eagle, dove, and cock; 
From their bodies shore the heads. 
Cut the four fowl into shreds. 
Mingled all their mass together. 
Blood and bone, and flesh and feather; 
Then dividing this four- wise, 
Laid it where four peaks did rise 
Two to south and two to north. 
Then the dove's head held he forth. 
Crying, **Come!" Lo! at the word 
Cooed at his feet the slaughtered bird. 
"Come, raven t" spake he: as he spoke, 
On glossy wing, with eager croak. 
Flew round the raven. Then he said, 
"BetumI thou cock:" the cock obeyed. 


summoaed he, 
came, on pinions free, 
aring U) the sky, 
umea and undlmmed ey& 

''ear to tfidd our brtafh, 



wftmw ThifnamttMoaU, 
> $add, tiA Thau art ail 

He Ul wrre BIm ftlone 
ir by nor neu Hia Throne; 
b'B pwdon gireu 
Him partners m Hekvtn,* 
d, Tnith and Light, 
old thou this aright! 

t God! naver mih ThM 

To be; 






I^^au mighty One! 'Whom m&rey hath upradsed 
Mankind tapraue Thee, be Thau hereby pramd! 

C0N8IDBB them that serve 
The false gods, how they lay in golden dishes 
Honey and fruits and fishes 
Before their idols; and the green fly comes, 
Shoots through the guarded gates, and hums 
Scorn of their offering, stealing what she will; 
And none of these great gods the thief can kill, 

80 swift she is and small: 

And none of all 
Can make one little fly, for all their state; 
So feeble are they, and so falsely great.* 
Ye people of the stocks and stones! herein 
A parable is set against your sin. 
But Allah high doth rule 
Whose hand made all things, being *' Powerful. 


AlKwvtii ! King of power and might! 
Be Thy hand o*er u$ day and night ! 

* Of. Korftii, Txil. chapter " Of BelieTen.** 



AUah^MeOem ! " Fifm'' is tmr lard andfiui; 
mm Who doth uphM Theo to iho lad. 

Bt the Angels Tanged in nuika» 

And the Boin-cloud DriTen, 
And the Reciters of the word, '* Thy God is one/' 

Firm is our Lord 1 

Of the heavens the tent-pole, 

AU Watad; and of earth 

EaU-iU-Mdteen, the sure Gofd:* 

By tliis thy soul 

Holdeth, from birth: 
Fast is the cord, and sure; 
They only shall endure 
Who dwell beneath the mighty teat upholdteii 
By Al- W(Uad,f the Golden. 

Stay of Thy Boroants, AUMateonf 
In Thee is strong deUvoranee seen. 

* Cf. Kor&n, UL chapter " Of the Family of Imran.** 
t Gt Korftn, IxzvliL diapter **Of the Informatioii.** 




Al- WcM / I^earest of aU friends, and Bent, 
80 praise your Lord, WhosehdpismighUeit. 

Closb is He always to His faithful oned. 

But closer dwelt they in the times of old. 

Hath it come to ye what Al-Baidhftwi 

Presenteth of the days of Abraham, 

Whom Allah called His *< Friend," and like a friend 

Softly entreated,* stooping out of Heaven 

To help and comfort him so dear to Gk>df 

Ofttimes the Angels of his Lord would light 

Familiarly, with folded wings, before 

The curtain of his tent, conversing there; « 

Ofttimes, on thorny flats of wilderness. 

Or in the parched pass, or the echoing cave, 

The very voice of God would thrill his ears; 

And he might answer, as a man with man. 

Hearing and speaking things unspeakable. 

Wherefore, no marvel that he gave his son 

At Allah's bidding, and had back his son — 

Patient and safe— -when the wild goat came down 

And hung amid the nebbuk by his horns, 

On Thablr, nigh to Mecca, in the vale 

Of Mina;t and the knife of Abraham 

Reddened with unwept blood. 

♦ Cf. Korfta, iv. chapter " Of Women.'' ;. ; 

t Cf. Knrftn, zzxviL chapter " Of the Banged.** .. 7^ 


There had faU'ii drought 
Upon the land, and all the mouths he fed 
Hungered for meal; therefore Al-Ehalil sent 
MesseDgers unto Egypt — to a lord 
Wealthy and favorable, having store 
Of grain and cattle by the banks of Nile. 
"Give unto Abraham," the message said, 
" A little part for gold, yet more for love — 
(As he had given, if the strait were thine) 
Meal of the millet, lentil, wheat, and bean, 
That he and his may live; for drought hath com^ 
Upon our fields and pastures, and we pine." 
Spake the Egyptian lord, '* Lo! now ye ask 
O'ermuch of me for friendliness, and more 
Than gold can buy, since dearth hath also come 
Over our fields, and nothing is to spare. 
Yet had it been to succor Abraham, 
And them that dwell beneath his tent, the half 
Of all w^ hold had filled your empty sacks. 
But he will feed people we wot not of. 
Poor folk, and hungry wanderers of the waste: 
The which are nought to us, who have of such. 
If there were surplusage. Therefore return; 
Find food elsewhere 1" 

Then said the messengers 
One to another, " If we shall return 
With empty sacks, our master's name, so great 
For worship in the world, will suffer shame. 
And men will say he asked and was denied." 
Therefore they filled their sacks with white sea-sand 
Gathered by Gaza's wave, and sorrowfully 
Journeyed to Kedar, where lay Abraham, 
To whom full privately they told this thing. 


Saying, " We filled the sacfea with Bnow-wbite sand. 

Lest thy great Dame be ieasened 'mongat the folk, 
Seeing ub empty-handed; for the man 
Denied thee com; since thou wouldst give, quoth he 
To poor folk and to wanderers of the vaste, 
And there are hungry mouths enough by Nile," 

Then was the heart of Abraham sore, because 
The people of his tribe drew round to share 
Tiie good food brought, and all the desert trooped 
With large-eyed mothers and their pining babes. 
Certain of succor if the sheikh could help. 
So did the spirit of Al-EhalEl sink 
That into swoon he fell, and lay as one 
Who liath not life. But Barai, bis wife— 
That knew not — bade her maidens bring a sack. 
Open its moulb, and knead some meal for cakes. 
And when the sack was opened, there showed floui. 
Fine, three times bolted, wliiler than sea-sand; 
Which in the trough they kneaded, rolling cakes. 
And baking them over the crackling thorns; 
So that the savor spread throughout the camp 
Of new bread smoking, and the people drew 
Closer and thicker, as ye see the herds 
Throng— horn, and wool, and hoof— at watering.ttta 
When after flery leagues, the wells are reached. 

Bat Abraham, awaking, smelled the bread: 
"Whence." spake he unto Sar^, " hast thou meal. 
Wife of my bosom! for the smell of bread 
Riseth. and 1n1 I see the cakes are baked," 
" By God! Who is the only One," she said, 
"Whence should it come save from thy friend w 

The lord of Egypt?" ■' NnyJ" quoth Abraham, 



Bkh to rewa/rd your Lord is; oh, do ye 
Pram AUHamid, the *' Ever-praiseworOiy T 

Praise him by alms; and when ye help believers. 
Mar not your gifts with grudging word or will; 

Since ye at Allah's hands are free receivers. 
Freely bestow. A garden on a hill 

Is as a likeness of that fair compassion 
Shown for the sake of Gk>d: the heavy rain 

Descendeth, and the dew; and every fashion 
Of good seed springs tenfold in fruit and grain. 

The likeness of the evil heart, bestowing 
That men may praise, is as the thin -clad peak, 

Wherefrom the rain washes all soil for growing, 
Leaving the hard rock naked, fruitless, bleak. 

Say, will ye plant on rock or plenteous garden? 

Grow nought, or grow green vines that shade a£E6rd ?- 
Forgive your bretluren as ye ai^ for pardon; 

Give as ye have received, and praise your Lord I* 

AMh-(U-Ramtd! what tongue ean ttU 
Thy goodness, ever4afidablef 

•Of. Korfta tt. efa«|itor '' 0£ tkfi Htiflnr. 



Al-Ui*hx! The " AteouRtant.'" land Him » 
Who rtekoneth up the deed* men do bdoie. 

"aaatfanjMX, itsaaruL, coupABaioHATEl" 

Of coqiseB; and live men 
Shall ask — with terror ehaklag — 
"What ailoth Earth?" that day 
She shall reply, and say 

That which her Lord CKimmands: 

And men shall come in bands, 
This ^e and that aide, ranged to show 
nieir vrorks, and the account to know. 
And he that wrought of good a red ant's weight 

Shall see it writ: 
And who did evil, aye 1 as the akin of a date, 

Shall witness It 

M-M&hti/ dread Aeeountant/ hxA 

In merey on <mr jadgment-bo<A. 

•CL Kivlli, xolx. chapter " Of the Earthquake." 



AJrMubM ! praise Htm hy this Twly name, 
"Who gave toaUihe spark which lights Hfe^s flame, 

Whencb came ye; and the people of the groyes; 

The streams, the seas, the wilderness, the air; 
Beasts, fishes, fowl; each with their lives and loyes. 

Each glad to be, each in its kind so fair? 

** Begotten of their like?" Yeal but *' their like," 
Who did devise that, and the hidden charm 

Whereby — as flame from torch to torch doth strike — 
The light of life shines on, bright, joyous, warm? 

AlMubdt hath devised it! His decree 
In the beginning shaped and ordered each, 

Saying to all these things foreseen, " So be!" 
And so they were, obeying Allah's speech. 

Al-Mubdi / " Great Beginner P* take 
Our praises, for l^e's pleasant sake ! 

It «M« mine, it is not I. " 

Bweet friends I what the women laT< 
For its last bed in the grave. 
Is a teat which I am quitting, 
Is a gftrmeDt no more fitting, 
Is a cage from wbicb, at last. 
Like a hawk my sonl liath passed. 
Love the inmate, not the room; 
The wearer, not the garb; the plume 
Of the falcon, not the bars 
Which kept him from the splendid stai 


Loving friends I be wise, and dry 
Straightway every weeping eye; 
What ye lift upon the bier 
Is not worth a wistful tear. 
"Tis an empty sea-sbell, one 
Out of which the pearl is gone; 
The shell is broken, it lies there; 
The pearl, and all, the soul, is here. 
'Tis an earthen jar whose lid 
Allah sealed, the while it hid 
That treasure of His treasury, 
A mind which loved Him; let it lie 1 * 

Let the shard be earth's once more. 
Since the gold shines in His store! 

Allah Mulild, Allah most good I 
Now thy grace is understood; 
Now my heart no longer wonders 
What Al-Barsakh * is, which sundera 
Life from death, and death from Heaven; 
Nor the "Paradises Seven" 
Which the happy dead inherit; 
Nor those *' birds" which bear each spirit 
Towards the Throne, " green birds and white," 
Radiant, glorious, swift their flight I 
Now the long, long darkness ends, 
Yet ye wail, my foolish friends. 
While the man whom ye call ** dead" 
Li unbroken bliss instead 
Lives, and loves you; lost, 'tis true 
By any light which shines for you; 
But in light ye cannot see 
OtunfuUilled felicity, 

*Cf. KorUn, xziil. chapter " Of BeUevers.*' 


And enlarging Paradise, 
Lives the life that never dies. 

Farewell, friends I Tet not farewell; 
Where I am, ye too shall dwell. 
I am gone before your face 
A heart-beat's time, a gray ant's pace. 
When ye come where I have stepped, 
Ye will marvel why ye wept. 
Ye will know, by true love taught. 
That here is all, and there is naught. 
m Weep awhile, if ye are fain. 
Sunshine still must follow rainl 
Only not at death, for death — 
Now I see — is that first breath 
Which our souls draw when we enter 
Life, that is of all life centre. 

Know ye Allah's law is love. 
Viewed from Allah's Throne above: 
Be ye firm of trust, and come 
Faithful onward to your home! 
" La AUah ilia Allah / Yea, 
Mu'htdl Restorer I Sovereign!" say 1 

He MoJvo died at Azan gaf36 

This to those that made his groM. 


Mo'hi/ll &a " Quiekm^/" XtfraEy 
lite Bka Whom Aitgeig praite etemaUg. 

Hia signs is this, " * saith the Great Book ; 
Jne angry sun the slain earth — lookl — 
to dust; dies every growing tldng; 
w we breattis of southeni wind which bring 
>ping clouds, and see I the dead earth lives, 
, and swells; and every herb revives, 
he dead be quickeoed by Hia breath, 
l-Ho'hyl's sign," the Qreat Book saith. 

1 aumlOiefier ! thoBttbe 
Bb taeei the green thing, and not tbeet 

•OL KoclB, zU. (duptcr "Of Btgns Explained." 


Those lipe which spake the praise of GK)d all through 

his holy years, 
And murmured now, with faith and hope unchanged, 

the morning prayers. 

Then one who watched beside his bed, heard at the 
inner gate 

A Toice cry, '^Aftahl 'open I' from far I come, and 

To speak my message to Jelfti— a message that will 

Peace and reward to him who lies the MUhah mur- 

Thereat the watcher drew the bar which closed the 

Wondering and 'feared, for ne'er was heard upon this 

earth before 
Accents so sweet and comforting, nor ever eyes of men 
Saw presence so majestical as his who entered then. 

Entered with gliding footsteps a bright celestial youth, 
Splendid and strange in beauty, past words to speak its 

Midnight is not so dark and deep as was his solemn 

By love and pity lighted, as the night with silvery 


"What is thy name?*' the watcher asked, " that I may 

tell my lord, 
Thou fair and dreadful messenger! whose glance is as 

a sword; 


Whose face is like the Heaven unveiled; whose tender 

searching voice 
Maketh the heart cease beating, but bids the soul 


" AzRAWT. ANA," spake the shape, " I am the Spirit of 

And I am sent from Allah's throne to stay tby master's 

''Come in! come in! thou Bird of God," cried Joyously 

" Fold down thy heavenly plumes and speak I — ^IsUiml 

what shall be, shall." 

"Thou blessed one!" the Angel said, "I bring thy 

time of peace; 
When I have touched thee on the eyes, life's latest ache 

will cease; 
God bade me come as I am seen amid the heavenly 

No enemy of awful mould, but he who lovetlrmost." 

"Dear Angel I do what thou art bid," quoth Jelftl, 

** God willing, thou shalt find to-day a patient one in 

Sweet is the cup of bitterness which cometh in such 

. wise!" 
With that he bowed his saintly brow,— and Asrael 

kissed his eyes. 

Al-Mumit / " Slayer /" send Him thas^ 
In love, not anger, unto us. 



ProMe mm, AUHaiy! the *' Efterlmr^* King, 
Who to eternal life Hie own d&th bring. 

Satth the Book: " Count not as dead * 
Such as for the Faith ha7e bled; 
Stark and red their bodies lie, 
But their souls are in the sky. 
Resident with God, who grants 
All for which the spirit pants. 
Joyful are they, resting there 
Free from sorrow, pain, or fear; 
Watching us who, left in life, 
Are not quit, as yet, of strife; 
But shall soon attain, to share 
Allah's mercies, and declare — 
Side by side with those — that He 
Showeth grace eternally. 
And withholdeth not the pay 
At the ending of the day. 

Ta-Eaiyf Thou ever-living Lord, 
Be ours tueh work andeuch reward. 

* Cf. Korftn, iiL chapter " Of Imran's FamOy/* 



Magnify ESm, AlKaiyum; and 90 eaU 
The *< SOf-mbsisting" God Whojudgeth aU. 

When the trumpet shall sound. 

On that day,* 
The wicked, slow-gathering, 

Shall 8ay« 
"Is it long we hare lain in our graves? 

For it seems as an hour !" 
Then will Israfil call them to judgment; 

And none shall have power 
To turn aside, this way or that; 

And their voices will sink 
To silence, except for the sounding 

Of a noise, like the noise on the brink 
Of the sea, when its stones 

Are dragged with a clatter and hiss 
Down the shore, in the wild breakers' roar: 

The sound of their woe shall be this! 

Then they who denied 

That He liveth Eternal, " Self-made," 
Shall call to the mountains to crush them; 

Amazed and affrayed. 

Thou Sdf-mbmtent, U/oing Lord! 
Thy grace against that day afford. 

* Cf . Kor&n, xx. chapter " Of T. H. 



auBA '' OF daybreak:' lai 


ASrWdjH! praise herdfy that Waichftd One 
Whose eyes see aU things underneath ^ sun. 

By the Ten holy eves and the Dawns of gold I* 

By the One and the Manifold ! 

By the deepening of the Darkness of the ni|^I 

(And these he oaths of might:) 

Hast thou considered what with Ad God wrought. 

And whereunto He brought 

Proud Iram of the pillared throne. 

Whose like no other land did own; 

And ThamM's race, which hewed houses of rocks; 

And Pharaoh, strong for shocks 

As is a tent with tent-pegs driven deep?t 

Lol these their haughty state did keep, 

And multiply their wickedness; 

Till Allah, who long-suffering hath. 

Laid upon them the scourges of His wrath. 

Verily, as a *' watch-tower" is your Lord. 
Lot if ye knew this, would ye shut your hoard 
When the poor cry; devour the weak; and love 
Tour riches more than treasures stored above? 

* Cf. Eor&n, Ixxxiz. chapter " Of Daybreak.** 
t The Arabic word Watad bears this signiflcatton. 


n the earth'B bones crack. 

It, on rank, the angele gather, 

'a black gates fl; back, 

I each Mj, " Would Ood Id Ufe'i fal 

Jiought me of this atonn of hell!" 

an it shall be well 
thou Boull to-dR7 QQComforted, 
iw'Bt that AUoh sees; 
entlj afraitest till He please 
to comfort, praising Him and praisi 
hou Shalt be t^aed 
lise, hearing His angels aaj, 
and be exceeding glad to-day I" 

At-W4}idf "Witieherr lOMbt/grae 
Who aAoS otfoH) that happj/ptaett 

Wdhid/ The "One /" yefaMfut, tay herein 
Bu/ra Al-rhidi* eUaniing tovlafrom tin. 


Sat: " He is Odd alone, 

Etem&I on the Thrgne. 
Of none begotten, and begetting aone, 
Wbo hath not like unto Him any one I" f 

Ta Wdkidf Bolyl Onli/f « 
Thus do dtelare Thy tinity. 

t CL EoHU, cxU. ch»pt«r ■' 01 UnlQr." 


Of HMTen's prodigious years man wotteth nougbt; 
The "Ererlutingl" — hast thou atrained thy thought 
Searching that depth, which numbs the seeking mind 
As too mucb light the eager gaze doth blindf 
The years of men are measured by the bud. 
And were not, until he liis course begun; 
And will not be, when his gold dial dies: 
But Sod lived while no sun shone in tlie skiea; 
And sbBll be liTing when all worlds are dead: 
Tet hereof, though ye see the truth is said, 
Te take no more the meaning than one takea 
Ueanire of ocean by the cup that slakes 
Bis thirst, from lillet running to the eea. 

Bdilnd— before ye, sMnes Eternity, 
'^slbte as the vault's fathomless blue. 
Which is so deep the glance goes never through, 
Thou^ nothing stays save depth : so is it seen 
That AlUi must be ever, and bath Iwen; 
Been, but not comprehended — for man's vrit 
Euow'a this, yet knows— not underatanding it 

Xete ye not Allah's times by man's: life g^vea 
No meaiuie of the Life Divine which livei 


nnendlDg, uncommeiiced, bATlng no stay 
Of yesterday, to-morrow, or to-day; 
Being forever one unbroken Now 
When put and future come not 

Beard'st thou h 
What time Mr Zion was given to sword and flame, 
Ozair* the Jew upon his camel came 
Over those bills which ring the sea of Lot,t 
So that one footstep and — ye see her not, 
And then another — and the city comes 
Full upon view with all her milk-white domes. 
Bat the Chaldean now had spoiled the place. 
And desolate and waste was Zion's face, 
Her proud abodes unpeopled, and her ways 
. Heaped Willi charred beams and lintels, Oiur My 
" Lordi who promised to Jemsalem 
Comfort and peace; and for her sons, to them 
A glad retorn, how shall Thy word be kept 
When Ore and steel over these roofs have swept. 
And she, that was a qneen, lies dead and Mack, 
A smoking rain, where the jackals paokt 
A hundred years were not enough to give 
Life back te Zionl Can she ever liveT" 

But while he spake, the Angel of the Lord 
L^d on his doubting front a fiery swoid, 
And Ozair in that lonely desert spot 
Fell prone, and lay — breathing and moving not- 
One hundred years, while the great world rolled on, 
And Zion rose, and mighty deeds were done. 

wUb Sam ol Borlplar 


And when the hundred years were flown, Qod said, 

'* Awake, Ozairl how long hast tarried, 

Thinkest thou, here?" Ozair replied, ** A day, 

Perchance, or half." The awful Voice said, "Nay! 

But look upon thy camel." Of that heast 

Nought save white bones was left: no sign, the least. 

Of Qesh, or hair, or hide: the desert grass 

Was matted o'er its shanks, and roots did pass 

From a gnarled fig-tree through the eye-pits twain. 

And in and out its ribs grew Uie vervain. 

But 'mid the moulderings of its saddle-bags 

And crimson carpet, withered into rags, 

A basket, full of new-picked dates, stood there 

Beside a cruise of water, standing where 

He set them fresh, twice fifty years ago; 

And all the dates were golden with the glow 

Of yestreen's sunset, and the cruise's rim 

Sparkled with water to the very brim. 

" Ozair!" the awful Voice spake, " look on these! 

He maketh and unmaketh what shall please; 

Saves or destroys, restores or casts away; 

And centuries to Him are as a day; 

And cities all as easy to revive 

As this thy camel here, which now shall live." 

Thereon the skull and bones together crept 
From tangled weed and sand where they had slept; 
The hide and hair came, and the flesh filled in. 
The ejres returned their hollow pits within. 
The saddle-bags upon its haunches hung, 
The carpet on the saddle-horns was flung, 
The nose-rope from the muzzle fell. The beast 
Rose from its knees, and would have made to feast 


Od the green herbage where ita bonea had lain. 

But that it heard bells of a caraTan 

Coming from Kedron, and with glad cry roared. 

Then Oiair looked, and saw — newl; restored — 

Zion'B fair walls and templeg, and a crowd 

Of cilizeiu; and traffic rich and loud 

In her white streets; and knew time should not he 

Reckoned 'gainst Him who hath eternity. 

A»-Samad! BserlatlKig One! 

Thy Umei are good : T/^ viSt bt done. 



AUKadar! He i» ''Providenes/" hereby 
The Lord, of aU things living magnify, 

Whbn ye say Kievnat, say it wittingly, 
O trae believers 1 under Allah's throne 

Place is not left for those accursed three, 
* • Destiny, " ' ' Fortune, " • ' Chance. " Allah alone 

Ruleth.His children: Kismat ye shall deem 
Each man's '* allotted portion," from of old 

Fixed for his part in the Eternal scheme 
By those great Hands which all the worlds enfold. 

Sayeth ** the Book:" ** There passeth no man's soul 
Except by God's permission, and the Speech 

Writ in the scroll determining the whole, 
The times of all men, and the times for each."* 

Also it sayeth: " If a man shall choose 
This world's reward, to him it shall be given; 

And if a man shall dare his life to lose 
For Paradise, he shall be paid in Heaven." f 

Ta Eadar / ** Buler !" teach us stiU, 
Isldm, submission to Thy unU. 

* Cf. Kor&n, iU. chapter " Of Imran's Family." 
t Of. Korin, ii, chapter " Of the Cow." 

&URA " OF THE MOOHfJ' *89 


Al-Muktadir! the '* PmeTfal r by this 
Praite we the Word, whence eometh woe and buss, 

Vkrilt, all things— saith " the Book'* ♦—We made, 
Decreeing; and Our bidding was one word, 
Quick, as the twinkling of an eye; and all, 
Whatever things men do, stands in the scrolls. 
Where great and small alike are written down; 
And then shall surely come the Hour — the Hour I 
And bitter for the sinners it will be 
When they are dragged, upon their faces, down 
To hell, and taste the touch of fire; but sweet 
Will it be for the pious — these shall sit 
'Mid streams and gardens in the seat of truth, 
H<^PPy* i^ear Huktadir, the Mighty One. 

Cfrant us that seat of truth to see. 
Almighty AUah I mgh to Thee. 

♦ est KorAn, Uv. chapter ** Of the Mo<m.*> 



Mukaddim I MuwaJchir t hy thete namei iHH 
Pram Him Who TuUhfarewamsd, and doth fulJU, 

When the trumpet shall he ringing, 
Then the threatened Day hath come, 
Erery soul to judgment bringing.* 

Each soul shall itself deliver 
With two Angels, unto doom, 
With a Witness and a Driver. 

He that driveth shall say, " Vainly 
Warned we thee, till this upholding 
Of the veil: now thou seest plainly." 

And the Witness by his side. 
He shall say, a scroll unfolding, 
" This is what I testified." 

Loud shall sound th' award eternal: 
" Hurl to hell the misbelievers, 
Sinners, liars; — let infernal 

"Torments seize perverse transgressors l" 
Then will speak the wan deceivers, 
Seeking pleas and intercessors. 

But the awful Voice shall thunder, 
" Wrangle not in Allah's hearing I 
Many a sign and many a wonder 

« Cf. Korftn, L chapter "Of K. 


8UBA " OF K. 

"Did forewarn ye of repentance;* 
Time is past for more forbearing; 
Not with Us is change of sentence." 

Heaven shall say to Hell that morning, 
•* Art thou full?" HeU shall inquire, 
'* Hast thou others?" blackly yawning 

With choked gullet. But believing 
Souls will see, brought nigh and nigher, 
Paradise's gates, receiving 

Those to whom We promised Heaven. 
"Patient ones 1 for ever striving 
Towards the Merciful! forgiven 

Are your falterings; enter ye 
Into .x>eace; now is arriving 
The great Day of eternity." 

Forewamtr cmd FulfiUer! tM 
Oortfess vfUh dread Thine equity. 

* The text Is, **I put forth unto you the menace.*' 


9% 78, 74 TO 

Awfoalf AJkMr! TMMrl BcOin/ thmfaur 
Be **Moiheri of the Homes;" * thy Lord adore, 
Speaking eueh worde 04 do Him truly eaU 
Bssenee and Subekmee, Mrst and Loit in aU, 

SiTBA the soTen and fiftieth: f there is writ 
The holy verse which keeps the charge of it; 

The verse which all the names of Allah holdeth 
Ab in one sky the silver stars all sit 

The chapter " of the Iron I" — ^and this script 
Set on its forefront, as a hilt is tipped 

With four-fold gold; or as a helm of steel 
By some far-sparkling crest-gem is equipped. 

" He is the First and Last" — this scripture shows— 
"Outer and Inner, That which doth disclose, ' 
And That which hides Itself; the Manifest^ 
The Secret; and all things and thoughts He knows." 

" In six days earth and heaven He made alone. 
Then reascended the Eternal Throne; 

What entereth earth and issueth thence He sees, 
And what goes up and down the sky is known" 

« These four divine titles are known by the technical appella- 
tion of " The Mothers of the Names," being regarded as funda' 
mental and all-comprehensiye. 

t Cf. Korftn, Ivii. chapter " Of Iron/* y. 8. 


'■ To Allah, Who ia nigh wh 
jtd whatsoever deeds je do 
Sa is the kii^om of the eai 
Jl things return to Allah fli 

BegiTtning I End I WiOw^ 
Wt celebrate Thypraite lu 


LiKid Him vho gottrru gontmart and Htigt, 
Angdi, and SjiM, and mtn, and living Viingt. 

Wot ya of Solomon's signet, graved of a sappbire in 
Qmved with the great name of Qod, writ on the blue 
of the stone T 
Wisdom and riches and power had he wbo that treasure 
did hold; 
Safe In the strength of the signet he sate on his ivorj 

Only King Botomon knew how the dread letters did 
What was the breathing of Aieph, where came the 
whispering rod; 
When he spake the ineffable Word, the sea-wlads at 
bidding would blow; 
And the hills yield their iron, and jewels, and gold, 
at die naming of Ood. 

And out of the void of the sky, and up from the gulfs 
and the capes, 
And forth from the caverns of eartlt, and down from 
the mountains of flame. 
Flocked Demons with wonderful wings, and Ifreet of 
horrible shape, 
And Djios, with red eyes, made of flie; Dlvs, Peris, 
and Giants, they came. 



They came, at the call of the name, from KMl, that en- 
girdles the seas; 
Prom the glopm of the tombs in the graveyard, from 
ruins on desolate ground; 
From the pool and the marsh |tnd the forest; from poi- 
sonous blossoms and trees; — 
Monstrous or dwarflsh,---constrained, enchained, sub- 
dued, by a sound; 

The sound of the title of Allah, spoken so as the Augels 
speak: — 
Nor spirits uncomely only, and evil; ethereal bands 
Thronged down from their heavenly houses, the Great 
King's service to seek. 
Hearing that nameless Name which all things living 

And the fowl and the beasts were fain to gather, each 
creature by each^ 
When Solomon summoned hereby, pronoimcing the 
mystical words. 
Moreover, their dumb mouths opened, and the fly and 
the bee had a speech; 
And he knew the heart of the lions, and learned the 
mind of the birds. 

Thus is it writ how he marched by Tayf from the Syr- 
ian land 
Through the ** Valley of Ants" and heard the cry of 
that people of clay, 
"Hide ye! hide in the earth 1 for there passeth Solo- 
mon's band; 
We are many and wise, but we die, if the king's foot 
Cometh this way." 


And he laughed, but leaped to the ground, and bowed 
his forehead and said, 
" O Lord God! grant me to learn from the ant the 
wit to be meek. 
I am many^and strong, and a king; yet Thou canst in* 
stantly tread 
The pride of this earth to dust, and the strongest to 
Thee are but weak!" 

Then he viewed the birds, and cried, ''I see not 
amongst ye here 
AUHudhud, the crested lapwing; what doth she to 
linger away? 
Ill shall it fall for her, who seeketh us water clear, 
If she find not a fountain for prayers before the end- 
ing of day! 

But they tarried not long until the whirr of her speckled 
Brought unto Solomon's feet the crested lapwing, 
who spake, 
" I have seen a queen that is greater than any save thee, 
O King! 
In Seba she reigneth majestic, and glorious king^ip 
doth make. 

** There hath she a marvellous throne of silver, figured 
with gold, 
And the head of the throne is a moon in a j&sper and 
emerald curve. 
For her people worship the moon." And Solomon 
answered, ''Behold! 
Little bird! if thou liest not, this queen shall the 
Merciful serve !" 

SOLOMOirS SmifET. 147 

Theresfter the message went from, the aenrant of Qod, 
the kmg: 
"Solomon, son of David, to Balkis, quemi of the 
Peace be to them that follow the Name upon Solomon's 
Yield thee, and worship Allah; cursed is the idola- 
trous mouth.*' 

Then Balkis sent him gifts, of gold bricks, yellow and 

And beautiful slaves five hundred, with amber and 

musk; and a gem 
Drilled with a crooked hole, which never a goldsmith 

could thread; 
And a topaz of price, unpierced, and a diamond 


He bade the sea-worm eat a way through the unpierced 
And the little ant carry a thread through the ruby's 
crooked drill. 
** Doth she offer to Solomon gifts?" quoth he, on his 
ivory throne, 
"We are richer than Seba's kingdom I By Allah!" 
said he, "I will 

"That one of my slaves bring hither Queen Balkis' 
jewelled seat; 
Thereby she shall learn that the glory is ours, and 
the knowledge and might." - 
Then Asaf the wise commanded, and a Djin spread 
his pinions fleet. 
And brought the moon-throne thither, and set it be- 
fore them aright. 


In m guarded house Bhe bod shut it, whidi a t 
bowmen kept. 
But when she was come to Bolem, lol Bolo 
Sate tttere on her own gold Beat, and Balkis tx 
and wept. 
Baying, " I pray thee, teach me the Name 
signet ringl 

"We have sinned against our souls, following lower 

Our kingdom we give, and out goods, and our lives, 
and our spirits to thiae." 

Such worship had he of old who knew Al- WM'i words 
Which rule the rulers, and knew the sound of the 
Name Divine.* 

Ta WdH f Qntdout Lord ! imparl 
Tnte knwledge of Thee, cu Thov. art. 

• Cf. Kortn. zxrll. ohapCer " or Ui« Al 



Praise Him, Al-MuWiM! WTwse decree 
Is wiser than the wit of man can see, 

*Tis written in the chapter " of the Cave," * 
An Angel of the Lord, a miDister, 
Had errands upon earth, and Moses said, 
** Grant me to wend with thee, that I may learn 
God's ways with men." The Angel, answering, said, 
** Thou canst not bear with me; thou wilt not have 
Knowledge to judge; yet if thou foUowest me. 
Question me not, whatever I shall do, 
Until I tell thee." 

Then they found a ship 
On the sea-shore, wheref rom the Angel struck 
Her boards and brake them. Moses said, *' Wilt drown 
The mariners? this is a strange thing wrought?" 
"Did I not say thou couldst not bear with me?" 
The Angel answered — ** be thou silent now!" 

Yet farther, and they met an Arab boy : 
Upon his eyes with mouth invisible 
The Angel breathed ; and all his warm blood froze. 
And, with a moan, he sank to earth and died. 
Then Moses said, ** Slayest thou the innocent 
Who did no wrong? this is a hard thing seen !" 
"Did I not tell thee," said the Minister, 
Thou wouldst not bear with me? question me not!*' 

♦ Cf. Korftn, xviii. 


Then came they to a village, where there stood 
A lowly hut; the garden-fence thereof 1 

Toppled to fall: the Angel thrust it down, 

A ruin of gray stones, and lime, and tiles, | 

Crushing the lentils, melons, saffron, beans. 

The little harvest of the cottage folk. j 

" What hire," asked Moses, " hadst thou for this deed, ! 

Seeming so evil?" i 

Then the Angel said, i 

" This is the parting betwixt me and thee; j 

Yet will I first make manifest the things I 

Thou couldst not bear, not knowing; that my Lord — 1 

* Exalted above all reproach ' — be praised. ' 

The ship I broke serveth poor fisher-folk 
Whose livelihood was lost, because there came 
A king that way seizing all boats found whole; 
Now have they peace. Touching the Arab boy: 
In two moons he had slain his mother's son, 
Being perverse; but now his brother lives, 
Whose life unto his tribe was more, and he 
Dieth blood-guiltless. For the garden wall: 
Two goodly youths dwell there, offspring of one 
That loved his Lord, and underneath the stones 
The father hid a treasure, which is theirs. 
This shall they find, building their ruin up, 
And joy will come upon their house I But thou, 
Journey no more with me, because I do 
Nought of myself, but all by Allah's will. 

AlrMutdMl ! Maker of men. 
Exalted art TTum past our ken. 



Pram Mm, Al-Ba/rr ! WTiase gaodneu is w great; 
Who 18 80 loving and compassionate. 

Prrrl for He is Pitiful;— a king 

Is likest Allali, not in triumphing 

'Mid enemies overthrown, nor seated high 

On stately gold, nor if the echoing sky 

Rings with his name, but when sweet mercy Bwaya 

His words and deeds. The very best man prays 

For Allah's help, since feeble are the best; 

And never shall man reach th* angelic rest 

Save by the vast compassion of Heaven's King. 

Our Prophet once, Ayesha answering. 

Spake this: '' I shall not enter that pure place, 

Even I, except through Allah's covering grace." 

Even our Lord (on him be peace!); oh, see! 

If he besought the Sovereign Clemency, 

How must we supplicate it? Truly thus 

Great need there is of Allah's grace for us, 

And that we live compassionate 1 

Hast seen 
The record written of Salah-ud-Been 
The Sultan? how he met, upon a day. 
In his own city on the public way, 
A woman whom they led to die. The veil 
Was stripped from off her weeping face, and pale 
Her shamed cheeks were, and wild her dark fixed eye. 
And her lips drawn with terror at the cry 


Of the harsh people, and the rugged atones 
Borne io their bands lo break her, flesh and boi 
for the law stood that sinnera such as she 
Perish by stoning, and this doom must be; 
Bo went the nan adulteress to her death. 
High noon it was, and the hot ktiamseen's breat 
Blew from the desert saucl:^ and patched the toy 
Tlie crowa gasped, and the kine went up and d 
With lolling tongues; tlio cameU moaned; a cr 
Presaed with their pitchers, wrangling high and 
AbOQt the tank; and one dog bj a well, 
Nigh dead with thirst, lay where he yelped and 
Glaring upon the water out of reach, 
And praying succor in a silent speech. 
So piteous were its eyes. Which when she saw 
This woman from her foot her shoe did draw. 
Albeit death-sorrowful, aod looping up 
The long silk of her girdle, made a cup 
Of the heel's hollow, and thus let it sink 
Until it touched the cool bUck water's brink; 
So filled th' embroidered shoe, and gave a drani 
To the spent beast, which whined, and fawn 

Her kind gift to the dregs; next licked her hant 
With such glad looks that all might understand 
He held his life from her; then, at her feet 
He followed close, all down the cruel street, 
Her one friend in that dty. 

But the king. 
Riding within his litter, marked this thing, 
And how the w«man, on her way to die. 
Had aiich compassion for the misery 


* Of that parched hound: ''Take oiE her chain, and 
The veil once more above the sinner's face, 
And lead her to her house in peace 1" he said, 
** The law is that the people stone thee dead 
For that which thou hast wrought; but theie is come. 
Fawning around thy feet, a witness dumb, 
Not heard upon thy trial; this brute ))east 
Testifies for thee, sister! whose weak breast 
Death could not make ungentle. I hold rule 
In Allah's stead, who is * the Merciful/ 
And hope for mercy; therefore go thou free — 
I dare not show less pity unto thee I" 

As weforgi'ee — and more than we — 
Ta Barrf good God! show clemency. 



PraiUe Mm, Al-Tawtodb; if a scml repenU, 
8wen t6me$ and seventy times thy Lord relents. 

At tile gates of PunuliBe, 
Whence the angry Angels drave him, 
Adam heaid hi gentle wise 
Allah's whisper, which forgave Mm: 
** Go," it said, " from this fair place, 
Ye that sinned; yet not despairing; 
Haply there shall come a grace 
And a guidance; and in fearing 
Me, and following My will. 
Blessed shall your seed be still." * 

Enow ye not that €k>d receives 
Gladly back the soul which grieves? 
Enow ye not that He relents 
Ere the sinner well repents? 
Terribly His justice bums, 
Easily His anger turns, f 

Spake our Lord: '' If one draw near 
Unto Gk)d — with praise and prayer — 
Half a cubit, God will go 
Twenty leagues to meet him so. 

* Of. Korftn, ii. chapter " Of the Heifer," ▼. 86. 
t Cf. Korin, iz. chapter ''Of Repentance." 


ba walketb nnto God, 
rill run upoo tbe road, 
e quicklier to foi^ve 
rho learna at last to lire." 

wowdb! for thy mtro^t takt, 
tOMt ptaee and ft^ lake. 




"tbrgiverl" and "Avenger/" wonMi 
Bs these tuM names, Qhafovr and Mui 

* Hbk, of dry clay moulded, as the pot 

O DJinB, that We have fashioned from 
fire of stars: 

WJiat terror of Gie Lord viR ye a 

He is Lord of east and west. He is ] 
and north; 

And the seas obey the limits which He set them, pour- 
ing forth : 

What terror of the LordwiBye abide f 

Th^T white pearls, large and small, are the handiwork 

of Him ; 
And the ships, with towering sails, by His winds and 

waters swim: 

Which terror of your Lord leiR ye abidet 

But the earth aud all her creatures sliaU die and l>e de- 
Only the face of Allah will ne--er change nor fade: 
Which terror (^ your Lord wiB ye {Aide? 

}r tha MerclftiL" 


The face of Allah ruling in glorious array; 
For all things look unto Him, and He governs day by 

Which terror of your Lord mil ye abidet 

Yet will He find good leisiure, ye twain 1 ye Djins and 

To judge you at the judgment, O Clay and Flame! what 


Whieh terror of your Lord will ye abide t 

If ye can pass His gateways, east, west, and south and 

Which shut in earth and heaven—- hasten ye I pass yc 

forth : 

Which terror of you/r Lord toiU ye abide f 

But Life and Death enclose ye; by. no way shall ye 

pass; > 

A fence of flame shall stay ye, and a moat of molten 


Which terror of your Lord toiU ye abide? 

And when the sky is rended, red lik« a new-ripped 

There shall be no accusing, admitted or denied: 

Which terror ofyoier Lord toiU ye abidef 

No yea nor nayl no questions I the sinner's brand is 

Thereby shall he be known, and flung Hell's blazing 

walls within : 

Which terror of your Lord will ye abide t 


Flung by the forelock and the feet : " ' This Hell existed 

Ye said. Now broil! and when ye thirst, drink sulphur 

scalding hot:" 

Which terror of pour Lord wiU ye abide t 

But sweet for him who was faithful, and feared the 

face of his God, | 

Are the Gardens of joy preparing, and the gates of the < 

Golden Abode: \ 

Which bounty of Me Lord wiU he denyf 

With leafy branching fruit-trees are set those Gardens 

And softly the streamlets warble, and bright)^ the 

fountains rain: 

Which bounty of his Lord mU' he deny f 

And the fruit of the Golden Gardens swings delicate, 

near to reach. 
Where they rest on their 'broidered couches, hearing 

delightful speech: 

Which bounty of their Lord fDHH they deny f 

Therein are the shy-faced maidens, refndnijag their 
night-black eyes 

From any save that glad lover whose joy is their Para- 
dise: , 
Which bounty of their Lord wtU they denyf 

From any but that glad lover, that happy lord for whom 
Their mouths of pearl rain kisses, their lips of ruby 

Which bounty of their Lord wiU they deny? 




lie wages of righteoua- doing be 1 

imise given? 

at by God, the Qlorious, the debt f 

What bouT^ cf tMr Lord ihaU t 

manf fear Eim, magtiify Mm 
MQhttfoor arid Al-MuTttakim, 


Invite Him, AUBawt^, Jvit and Kind olwoy. 
Who Imoweth how He made ue o/the clay. 

Sat, " Lord of all, to Thee 

Ooetii our road; 
Require not of our bouIi 

Too much, dear OodI 
Thou wilt DotI what was earned 

Thou doBt defraj; 
And what was done amiss 

That we must pay; 
But ah I be not extreme 

With what's forgot. 
With error, or small wa. 

And load U8 not 
With burdens which we cannot cany, Lordl 
But favor, help, forglTeness afford."* 

Tender His answers are: — 

(The " Chapter of the 8tar."t 
.^a( the Thirty- Third): " The heavens and earth 

To tJs pertuD, and We 

Will deal, assuredly, 
Well with the good, but with the ill lu wrath. 

Yet not for each offence, 

Errors of fiesh or sense, 


King qfaU kingdom*! onlf/ Thtm art ervumtd; 

W/iOK throne it heaven, and earth ThyfooMool'* round. 

TaXAiik! TaKvAJ^s! teaj/a Saldm! 
Kingl O Holy Onel O Peace-giver! 
Ta Axiz ! Ya Muhaimin ! Ya M&min ! 
O Mighty! OProteetorl FaiUiful ererl 
Ta JalM,r! O Thou Sovereign, All-compelliDgl 
Ya. Mutakabbir! Thou Lord excellingl 
Exalted art Thou over utmost prs^ise; 
Accurst are those who graven idola raise 
Beside Thee; uoto tbein fall plagues and shameal 
To Thee alone belong " the comely naineB." * 

Eing ofaU kinga 1 vie eel^rate 

With endletg praite Thy glaritni* ttate. 



0**L(n%lqfawfulneM and honor/" fi>e 
^ Lack wit and words in fitly naming Thee, 

All things shall die and decay, but the kingdom of 
Allah endureth, 
Changeless in honor and might, changeless In glory 
^nd grace; 
Blessed be He who is Lord, possessed of all beauty and 
All things die and decay; only endureth His face.* 

'Dhu'ljaldlwaHikrdmf thus ever 
Praise tee Thy Throne which fadeth neoer. 

* Cf. Korftn, It. chapter " Of the Xereiful,** w. 26, 78. 

f ' ( 




AJrMuksU f " Equitable /** make us know, 

Am men TMve wrought, they shaU be wrought with so,' 

Thbbb days before onr Lord Muhammad passed, 
They bore him to the mosque, where he uprose — 
Painfully leaning upon Omar's neck — 
The fever burning in his cheeks, his mouth 
Dry with the wind of death, and that knit brow 
Shadowed with AzraeFs overhanging wings. 
One thin hand on the mimbar.rail he laid. 
Speaking sweet words of guidance, precious words, 
The last which ever fell from those lit lips, 
Teaching his Faithful. 

Then he gazed around, 
And said, ** Ye men of Mecca, where I lived, 
Going and coming, testifying God, 
I shall die soon; I pray ye answer me, 
Is there among ye here one I have wronged ? 
I have borne rule, judging in Allah's name. 
That am a man and sinful; have I judged 
Unrighteously, or wrathfully, or pressed 
Too hard in the amend? Let who saith * Tea/ 
Make his * Yea ' good before my people here, 
And I will bare my back that he may smite. 
I have borne testimony for the truth, 
Not sparing sinners ; speak, if there be here 
One visited unjustly; let him shame 






His Prophet now, telling the sin I wronght 
Before the assembly. I have gathered dues;' 
Declare if I defrauded any here 
Buying or selling." 

And no answer came, 
Except the sound of sobs and falling tears 
From stem breasts and the eyes of bearded men, 
Because our Lord would pass. 

But one arose,- 
A hamal, with his cord across his back 
And porter's knot, who cried, " Abdallah's son! 
Three drachms of silver owest thou to me 
For wood I bore thee after ' Ramadhan ! * " 

" Good friend, I thank thee," softly said our Lord, 
'* Because thou didst demand thy money here. 
And not before the judgment seat of God: 
111 is it if men thither carry debts!" 
Therewith he paid his debt, kissing the hand 
Wherein the dirhems dropped; and so went home 
To die upon the lap of Ayesha, 
With glad face fixed on high, and holy lips 
That murmured, -'Allah ! pardon me my sinsl" 

O ye believers! if our Lord did thus, 
Consider well! leave no unrighted wrongs 
Against the ill time when the Angels come. 
Honker and Naklr, gliding through the dark, 
And set ye up for question in the grave; 
When Israfil his dreadful trumpet blows, 
Summoning to judgment; when the skies roU back 
Like a scorched scroll, and o'er the gulf of hell 
Al-Sirftt stretches, "thinner than a hair 



And Bharper ifaaii a swdrd," and yet to ciobbI 
Ah, thenl wliat good one wrought, he hath of help 
Bren to a date-stone; what of ill he wrought. 
Of hindrance, to a date-stone; for your God 
Li righteous, and the distribution Just * 

OJtut ** DtttrUnUor/" indins 
Our hearti to keep Thy laws divine. 

isfmA ''OF woMmr wr 


Al^ami'h/ praite '* the Gatherw,** Who dMda 
EnL and good unto their proper sides, 

Yb who believe, stand ye steadfast in justice. 
Witnessing true though it be to displease; 

Heed not your patrons, nor parents, nor kinsmen, 
Allah is nearer and richer than these. 

Sit ye not down in the seat of the seorafttl. 
Hear not the tales which the hypocrites teU; 

On the day when His children are folded 'together 
Al-Jami*h shall scatter the sinnersto hell.^ 

We take Thee for our Shepherd; keep 
Safe in the fold ThyfooUeh sheep, 

* Cf. Korftn, It. obaplor «*Of .WomtHi** ir.lW. 

• « 



We praise T%ee; but no need of praise Thou hast, 
AUOhani/ in Thy glory bright and vast. 

Mighty is He and forgiving.* 
One soul did He first create, 
Tlien He made therefrom a mate: 
And to help man in his living, 
Gkive him herds, each with the other, 
Camels, oxen, goats and sheep. 
Think how Allah wakes from sleep 
The babe, dose folded in its mother I 
In three darknesses He shrouds it; 
Wonder upon wonder clouds it. 
He is Maker: can ye see 
All these tokens and still be 
Thankless? Yet, if so ye are, 
Not beholden to your care 
Ifl Al-Gbant: self-sufficing 
Lives high Allah, recognizing 
Gladly all His creatures' love 
In a changeless peace above. 
Judge ye each for each; with God 
No man bears another's load. 
Unto Him is your return, 
Then shall every spirit learn 

* Cf. Kor&n, txtjt. chapter " Of Troops. 




Mu*M and Mdni^h ! Hea'o'n Thou ma^O^ and HeU, 
Pr&viding and mthholdinff^-and didst vmXL 

When Gk>d fashioned Paradise,* 

Spake He unto Gabriel: 
" See this place which We created. 

Where the justified will dwell." 
Gabriel said, "My Lord I I swear 

By Thy glory, none of men 
Ever of its joys shall hear 

But will strive to enter in." 

Bound about His Paradise 

God set sorrows and denials; 
Laid the pathway steep and strait. 

Hard to find and full of trials. 
"Look again!" God said; and he 

Looked, and came, and sadly spake: 
** By Thy glorious majesty, 

Not one man will entrance makel" 

Then the Lord created Hell, 
Set ablaze its ache and grieving; 

Saying unto Gabriel, 
" This is for the unbelieving." 

• Cf . *' The Miakatral-MfisftbSh.** 


Gabriel looked and said, "I swear. 
By Thy splendor, not a mortal. 

When of hell-flre he shall hear, 
Ever will approach its portaL'* 

Round about those awful gates 

Allah set soft sins and pleasures; 
Made the pathway broad and plain, 

Rich with Joys and gifts and treasures. 
" Look again,*' said €k>d; and he 

Saw; and spake, " Save by Thy blessing, 
O my Lordl there will not be 

One that must not love transgressing." 

Lord cf the two-fM roadB, ieepray 
Lead ub upon the HghtfkU way. 




" Propitums** is Be unto those that show 
Compassion to His creatures; praise Him so, 

" No beast of earth, no fowl that flies with wings/' 
Saith the great Book, " but is a people, too; 

From Allah sprang their life, and unto Him 
They shall return: with such heed what ye dol*' 

There came before our Lord a certain one 
Who said, " O Prophet I as I passed the wood, 

I heard the voice of youngling doves which cried. 
While near the nest their pearl-necked mother 

" Then in my cloth I tied those fledglings twain, 
But all the way the mother fluttered nigh; 

See! she hath followed hither I" Spake our Lord: 
" Open thy knotted cloth, and stand thou by." 

But when she spied her nestlings, from the palm 
Down flew the dove, of peril unafeared 

So she might succor these. " Seest thou not," 
Our Lord said, ** how the heart of this poor bird 

" Grows, by her love, greater than his who rides 
Full-face against the spear-blades? thinkest thou 

Such flre divine was kindled to be quenched? . 
I tell ye nay 1 Put back upon the bough 




"The nest she claimeth thus. I tell ye najt 
From Allah's self comeththis wondrous love: 

Tea! and I swear by Him who sent me here, 
He is more tender than a nursing dove, 

" More pitiful to men than she to these. 

Therefore fear God in whatsoe'er ye deal 
With the dumb peoples of the wing and ^oof. 

Yours are they; yet whene'er ye lift the steel 

" To slay for meat, name first the name of God, 
Baying ' Bi 'sm 'illahl Gk>d judge thee and me I 

God give thee patience to endure to-day 
The portion that He hath allotted thee. 

" 80 shall ye eat and sin not; else the blood 
Crieth against you." Thus our Prophet spake. 

And Islltm doeth it, naming God's name 
Before the slaughter,— for that white dove's sake. 




By those dwmb mouths be yefcrgiissn^ 
Ere ye are heard pUadiny with Moanen, 



At-Zarr! " Sarmfid" Ht 
Mocking the hvlh; man 

ShepdId, the son of Ad, of 
Idolater, lord of the land and 
Hath it come to ye how he m 
Saying the idols of tlie coast ' 
SaUa that makes the rain, an 
The Thunderer, Bazek who j 
And Saiema, lad; of life and 
And how he sware an oath b 
Drinking the palm-wine dee^ 
That he would huild a better 
Than Allah's, and be Lord ai 
With eartblj Eouris fairer tt 
Wrought of the rousk and an 
The great immortal breasts a. 
With sweeter streams than & 
Richer in fruit than Tooba:! 
Abiding uotlhe judgment, n 
OF Israfll, nor weighing of tl 
Wherefore he gare commanc 
In Abhaf, on the hills, beyoi 
Within a hollow rale walled 


A pleasure-house— beautiful with white courts 
Of levelled marble, and in every court 
A fountain, sparkling from a tank inlaid 
With amber, nacre, coral; and around. 
In every court, cloisters of columns carved 
With reeded shafts and frontals, wonderful 
For beast and bird and fish and leaf and flower. 
And round about this pleasure-house he bade 
A lovely garden bloom, terraced by lanes 
Bosky with blossoming trees and rose-thickets, 
Where hidden streamlets murmured and gold fruit 
Loaded the boughs, and all the air was balm. 
He gave command, moreover, that there rise 
Hard by, with streets scad markets, a fair town 
Peopled by ministers of pleasure, and walled 
With ramparts of the rose and pomegranate; 
Wherethrough there led a double folding gate, 
Fashioned of fragrant woods, and. set with stars 
Of silver, opening downwards to the vale, 
Inscribed "The Paradise of King Sheddftd." 


And when the house was made, and all the courts 
Were girdled with the carven shafts, and cooled 
With leaping fountains; and the roses, blown. 
Filled the green vale with sweetness; and the town 
Was heaped with grain and wine, and people moved \ 

Busy and glad about its new fair streets, 

Shedd^d set forth. A shining line of spears, \ 

League-long, wound first upon the mountain-path; 
And after them the camel-litters, decked ' 

With silk and gold, and poles of silver, came , 

Bearing the Houris of his Paradise; { 

And next the Prince amid his lords : so clomb ,| 

The gay march iip the sandy steeps, or streamed ' 



Down the gray wadis. At the head of all 
Rode one who held a flag of yellow silk, ' 
Which had for its device, " Amid his ffodi, 
Shedddd, the 8on of Ad, of Hadramaut, 
Unasked ofAUah, wends to Pa/radise.^* 

That night they entered at the silver gate, 
Making bold cheer; and sweet the garden was, 
And green the groves, and bright the pleasure-house 
Lit with a thousand scented lamps, and loud 
With dance and cymbal and the beat of drum. 
But when the golden horse-shoe ff the moon 
Waned in the west, there came into the sky 
Three clouds; and one was while and had the shape 
Of a winged angel ; one was red and burned 
Across the planets like a blazing sword; 
And one, thick black, gathered around the head 
Of a bare hollow mountain, seamed with gaps 
And caverns, wherefrom — full upon their feast — 
Brake, of a sudden, flame and cataracts 
Of blood-red molten rock, with pitchy smoke 
Veiling the heavens, and rain of blinding dust, 
All pierced by livid lightning-spears, and driven 
By fierce winds, hotter than the breath of hell; 
Which sucked the streams, and parched the trees, and 

Life from the body, as a furnace draws 
The moisture from the potter's clay, while earth 
Rocked, quaking; and the thunder's vengeful voice 
Rolled horrible from crag to crag, and mocked 
The death-cry of those choked idolaters; 
Whereof, when the sun rose, there breathed not one; 
Nor any green thing lingered in the vale; 
Nor road nor gate appeared; nor might a man 


IA_ » 



Say where the garden of King Shedddd stood: 
So were the^irays uptorn, and that fair sin 
Blotted from vision by the wrath of God. 
Yet to this day there lurketh-^lost to Tie^ 
Of all men, hardly found by wandering wolf. 
Spied seldom by the vulture's hungry eye — 
The remnant of the garden of Iram. 
Deep in the wilderness of Aden, hid 
Behind wild peaks, and fenced with burning sanda^ 
The perished relics of that pleasaunce lie 
Which Sheddfid made, mocking the power of God: 
And one who tended tamels in the land, 
Abdallah-Ebn-Keldbah) seeking there 
A beast estrayed, followed her footmarks up 
Into a gorge, which split a cliff in twain 
From sky to sand, dark as the heart of night, 
With thickets at its mouth and jutting rocks. 
Therethrough he pushed, and when the light once moire 
Glimmered and grew, he spied a hollow, shut 
In the gaunt barren peaks, with black dust strewn,, 
And piled with cindery crags and bladdered slag. 
In midst of which lay — ^plain to see — the bones 
Of Sheddltd's city and his pleasure- house; 
All with their withered gardens, and the gate 
Rusted and ruined; and the cloistered courts 
Swathed in the death-drift, and the marble tanks 
Choked to their brims; the carven columns fairn 
Or thrust awry; the bright pavilions foul 
With ashes, and with remnants of the dead: 
For Ebn-Keldbah passed into the place, 
And saw the valley thronged with carcases 
Of men and women and the townspeople — 
Not mouldered, as is wont, to whitened bone. 


But dried, by the hot blasts of that dread night. 

Unto a life in death; the skin and flesh 

Yet clinging, and the robes of fe^stiral 

Still gay of color; all those sinful ones 

Slain in their sin even where the whirlwind struck: 

So that he saw the dancers a£ they fell 

With dancing-dress and timbrels; and the ring 

Of watchers round them ; and the slaves who made 

Their music; and the bearers bringing wine. 

Each by his shrivelled wineskin, dead and dry. 

Also within the courts, lay corpses slim, 

Rich-clad and delicate, with jewelled necks, 

.The Houris of that ruined Paradise. 

The sunken eyes stared, and the drawn lips grinned 

Under dead r6se-crowns, and the shapely limbs 

Were grown too lean for the loose tarnished gold 

(ft armlet and of anklet; dusty lay 

Strings of dulled jewels on their shrunken breasts; 

And brimmed with dust the cups were which they clasped 

In stiff discolored fingers. In their midst 

Sate, all agape. King Sheddstd, for a throne 

Propped his dead form, and round the waist of it 

A sword hung, in a belt of gold and silk, 

Hilted with pearls and rubies. This he took — 

The camel-man — and glided, terrified. 

Back from that City of the Dead ; and found 

The night-black gorge, and groped his way, and 

The sword and sword-hilt into Hadramaut, 
Telling the dread things seen of Allah's wrath 
Wrought on the misbelievers; and their streets 
Wrecked, and their painted courts, peopled with dead. 
Such awful end came on the men of Ad, 
Who made the House of Iram; and their lord. 


But no foot Bince hath found that road agt^n, 
Nor shall; till lantfll sets to liis Ups 
The trumpet, and Ai-Zarr will bid him blow. 

Eamnfid wUo movk«n ! wt 
Kwm and adore Thy nu^eilg. 


8UEA '* OF LIGHT." 181 


An-Naor ! '* The Idghf (hat lightens aU who lii)e ! 
By this great name to AUah glory give. 

Of earth and heayen Qod is the Light.* 

As when a lamp upon a height 

Is set within a niche, and gleams 

From forth the glittering glass, and seems 

A star, — wide fall the rays of it : — 

So shines His glory, and 'tis lit 

With holy oil was never pressed 

From olive tree in east or west 

It hurneth without touch of flame, 

A light beyond all light : the same 

Guideth the feet of men, ilnd still 

He leadeth by it whom He will. 

lAght of the toarld! An-Noor! illume 
Our darkling pathioay to the Umib. 

* Of. Eorftn, xxlv. chapter "Of Light 




AUBSdt ! Lord ! the way i» luprd, tmd toe, 

Thy ereaturss, have none other ** Guide" than Thee 

Bt many names and guides doth God 
Lead men along the upward road; 
H«, unto each land under Heaven, 
A prophet of its own hath given: 
Had, Idris, Eyoob, Moses,— all 
Upon the self -same Lord did call; 
Seeing there is no way besides 
His way, the Guider of the guides; 
Nor any light to mortals known 
Except Al-H6dt — His alone. 

'Tis told, nigh to a eity-gate 
Four fellow-travellers hungry sate. 
An Arab, Persian, Turk, and Greek; 
And one was chosen forth, to seek 
Their evening meal, with dirhems thrown 
Lito a common scrip; but none 
Could with his fellows there agree 
What meat therewith should purchased be. 
"Buy tmtm" quoth the Turk, "which food 
Is cheaper, sweeter, or so good?" 
*' Not so," the Arab cried, " I say 
Buy aneb, and the most ye may." 
** Name not thy trash 1" the Persian said, 
'* Who knoweth tmim or aneb t 


Bring anghur, for the Qountry's store 
Is ripe and rich." The Greek, who bore 
Their dirhems, clamored, '* What ill thing 
Is anghwrf Surely I will bring 
StaphyHon green, staphyUon black. 
And a fair meal we shall not lack/' 
Thus wrangled they, and set to try 
With blows what provend he should buy, 
When, lo! befoife their eyes did pass, 
Laden with grapes, a gardener's ass. 
Sprang to his feet each man, and showed 
With eager hand, that purple load. 
'* See mum/" said the Turk; and ** See 
Anghurf" the Persian; *' what should be 
Better r * ' Nay, aneb I aneb 'tis 1" 
The Arab cried. The Greek said, " This 
Is my staphylion r* Then they bought 
Their grapes in peace. 

Hence be ye taught I 

BtU unto us Thy changeless name 
Is AUahr-'praisSd be the same. 



AlAzaM! AUMU ! praise to Thee 
Who wast before Beginning^ and toUl be 
After the Ending, From Thy mercy came 
MarCs breath, and unto Thee returns the same, 

Al AakIp* saith—the seventh of " the Book:** — 

In the Beginning God from Adam took 

All who should be his seed, and bade them bear 

Witness upon themselves, putting His feas 

And knowledge in the hearts of all to be. 

As salt is set in all the waves of the sea. 

A countless, nameless, throng there gathered they. 

That unborn multitude; and God did say, 

" Testify I Am I not your Lord?" And those 

Replied, "Yea, Lord! we testify!" Propose 

Never, then, Man! to say, ** we did not have 

Guidance;" it shall be answered, " Allah gave 

With life that light w^iich leadeth to the grave." 

And in the chapter of " Ya Sin** f i* saith— 
Read in ttie Muslim*s ear at hour of death: X — 
A blast! and then another blast! and, lo! 
At summons of the trumpet, all shall go 

* Cf. Eor&a, chapter vii. verse 172. 

t Eorin, chapter zzxvL 

t This Sura is recited at the death-beds of Muhammedans, 


SUBA " OF YA SnrJ' 185 


Forth from their grave-beds, throngmg once again 
Unto their Lord; and some, in fear and pain, -c:*: 
Shall cry, '* Woe, woe! what waketh us? Is this 
God's word come true?'' and some, in joy and bliss, 
Shall say, " Now, praise t^ God I His prophets spake 
Truth unto us." For all mankind shall wake 
Together, at the trumpet; and shall wend 
Together, to the Judgment, in the end. 

And no soul shall be wronged in that dread place 
For aught not wrought; nor any soul find grace 
^cept for what it wrought; and there shall fall 
Endless delight in Paradise on all 
Who kept that witness! happy they shall be 
Beclining with sweet consorts, 'neath the Tree 
Which bears aU fruits, and groweth by the Throne. 
And they shall hear the Lord say to His own, 
" Pbacb!"— they shall hear the Merciful say so. 

But to the sinners shall be thundered, '' €k>l 
Diyide herefrom! did not ye testify?" 
" Yea, dreadful Lord!"— thus shall they make reply. 
Descending into Hell. 

Thou, the Beginmng and tha End! 

psAjus tar TBB taitb: 

iTAerOorr dS thingi proceed ^flvm TK», 
And rt-ammiaed to 7%y tumOttfuUlbe. 

Thk tibafptet of Al-Hajar : * There is nought 

Bat from the treamuy of Ood was brought ; 

. Buch and so much He lends them ; winds and mters; 

Hare jv the store of these things, or of angbtT 

Did y« sat oi the «kf the stanr kaad. 

Or pile Oe noantun pwks wpoa tbe laodT 

Verily Be <kath made and will mnnake them. 
And all tbeM shall «tam itita His Jund. 

"O Boset"-tbe Dewdrap said, "whence didit tbou 

Thja ait so swaet.Hxl pr<Hid and fair a thlngt" 

" From duBt I sprang," she said, " and <re to^nomnv 
Back to the dust I shall be mouldering." 

"0 Dewdropt" Bud the Bose, " where didet thou gain 
This light, that like afiem on me hath Isint" 

" A. cloud,'' faes^ " npHfted me from ocean. 
And I must trickle to ttie deep again." 

The Bulbul heard; " Allah's rosel" it eald, 
" The air is fragrant witb thee, being dead; 

O Allah's Dewdropl ere the sea did suck thee. 
She was the fairer; be thou comforledl" 

■ Of. Eorio, ohapter xr. *ene IL 

3SB.Mfi9.AJa> 39 

I the earth well, and vith 
Paradise is Mine, and Him 


Barth knam, haaem ift^tu / Ae hdg terifim 
JSote righieottt and " vnenrinff' it 7%y tonjr. 

" Wb seat it down upon the ' Night of P< 
The Book 'prhidt ' doth declaro' 

In all the Tear that olght ia beat: one hou 
^Riereof, in pr^se and pnyer, 

"iBworthathonaanddajaof joy; fortb 
"Rm Angehi bear commanda, 

Brlngiiig the will of Al-Rasclild to men; 
Descending on all hmda. 

" Peace ndeth till the riling of that dawn 

While Allah doth ord^ 
How many aouls those twelve moons fihal 

How many shall att^n. 

" Wb mercy; for the books are brooght o 

And each account la cast; 
And Allah maketh 'the allowancai,' 

Accepting souls at last" 

Tbxa spake onr Lord, ftnd Ayesha replied 
"O Prophet! are there none 
.■ Accepted, save by mercyT" " Hone!" he 
ByOodt I say not one!" 

"Not thou 


Who walks 

Taught u 

He drew hi 

" Except 

ObthgJaai, "Ima.aujfmtitf Zordfaatg 
Wtpmiu Ihte, iROfnifVwW At-Zaiaor. 
Patiknt is Allah, and H« lovetH well 
The poaant, aaitli " the Book," • and auch ai 

In kindnesi, a^og pardon of their sfOB 
Each dawn, and pardoning Hie Wamable. 

Iddm/ thiBiB theFalOi! thriielf resign. 
Soul, mind, and Itody, to the wUl divine: 

The kingdom and the gloij and the powei 
Are Ood'B, and Ood's Uie government,— not i 

ThBBB IB NO flOD BUT GoDi and He is All; 
And wbatso doth befall ye dottk befall 

B7 Bis decree: therefore, with fear and lo 
Upon Hia glorious names devoatly calL 

JSaA/ mtholsfviiSbe dime/ 
idim /—we boa htfore Hi* Oront. 

• Ot EartB. UL T, IE, diavter " Of Imnn'a FunJ 


Page 15, Une 17. — One rersion of this legend Bays that 
Boharah (or Zoharah) herself, the spirit of the planet 
Venus, descended to tempt the two Angels. Hardt and 
Mariit are fabled to be confined still in the vicinity of 
Babel, where a man may go to learn soroery of tbem, 
healing their voices, but aev€r seeing their forms. 

Page 17, Une 20. — Qabriel, or Jibrail* is called in Ara- 
bian theology BH'hrel-Amin, " the Faithful Spirit," or 
M'hret-Kudd&s, " the Holy Spirit.** It was he^wlio de- 
livered the Eorftn to Muhammad. 

Page 18, liTie 3. — A commentator on this legend writes : 
'*Some say that Solomon brought these horses, being 
a thousand in number, from Damascus and Nisibis, 
which cities he had taken ; others say that they were left 
him by his father, who took them from tiie Amalekites; 
while others, who prefer the marvellous, pretend that 
they came up out of the sea, and had wings. However, 
Solomon, having one day a mind to view the horses, 
ordered them to be brought before h!m, and was so 
taken up with them that he spent the remaindfir <^ the 
day, till after tfunset, in looking on than; by which 
means be almost neglected the prayer, which ouglU to 
have been said at that time, till it W48 too late: Iwt 
wtiea be peseeived his ^omiauon, h» was «o groatljr cott- 
cemed at it, that ordering the horses to be biwiglit 'liicb; 

be kUled tbetn all aa ui offering to Qod, excel 
hnndTed of the beet of them. But God made hii 
amende tea the loee, by giviDg bim dominioii i 

Ajw 18, Uiu IT. — Arafat ie a mountain near 1 
named from the tradition Qiat Adam, upon hii 
anc«, was reunited there to Ere, after a sepai 
two hundred years. 

I^e 33, line 1.— iBriffl is one of the Archang 
will sound tbe last trumpet at the resurrectioD. 
it voice of all God's creatures." 

Page 2S, liw 18.— IbllB, " He who deepaira, " is 
or Batan, who fell from Heaven on account 
gantly refusing to paj lererence to Adam at the i 
when all the otber Angels wonhipped the first i 

Page 3S, Um l.— Wtu&'h, or washing (eitti 
actual water, or bj imitating the process wil 
etc.), must precede all those prayers which are 
" incumbent." These are commenced in a stat 
tUude, Siy&m. the thumbs touching the lobe 
ears and the face turning towards Mecca. 

Page 24, line ft. — The ' ' Companions of the rigt 
are so called because they will bare the book 
good deeds put into their right hands in token o 
lion; while evil-doers will have their scroll of i 
nation, at tbe last day, thrust into their left han 

Page 24, line 13.—" Buch, moreover, as of ol 
etc. These are the early prophets and holy tea 
all nations. The text of the Koran calls tht 
leaders, the leadenl" that emphatic repetition ( 
tbeir dignity, and the assuiance of th^ promi 
the final reward. 

NOTES. 193 

Page 35, Ztn« 23.—** Mawz-trees." The original word 
talk' may mean either the plantain, or that acacia which 
has small round golden blossoms. 

Page 26, line 1. — Sale has a citation upon these privi- 
leged attributes of the Houris. **A-llah has created 
them purposely of finer materials than the females of 
this world, and subject to none of those inconveniences 
which are natural to the sex. Some understand this 
passage of the beautiful women; who, though they died 
old and ill-favored, shall yet all be restored to their 
youth and beauty in Paradise." 

Page 27, line 8.— "At Azan." The time of the call 
to prayer, and especially after the sun has begun to 

Page 31, line 13.—'* And spider." One of the Stiras of 
the Eorl^n, the 29th, is named after this insect. 

Page 32.—** The Verse of the Throne." This (which 
is often engraved on seal rings in the East) is so called 
from the word Koordy, the '* chair or throne" of Allah, 
which occurs in the sublime passage cited. In the 
judgment of Muhammedans the "Throne- Verse" is one 
of the noblest portions of the Kordn, surpassing in 
majesty of diction all other human compositions. It is 
taken from the 2d Sfira, verse 256, and is rendered very 
exactly, as below, by Mr. Redhouse (to whose most 
learned and laborious article in the "Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society," January, 1880, my indebtedness 
has been extremely great) : 

" €k>d, save whom there is no God, is the Living, the 
Self-existing One. Drowsiness overcometh Him not, 
nor sleep. Unto Him belongeth whatever is in the 
heavens, and whatever is in the earth. Who is he that 


t ■ 

\ ■' 

sbBll make iDtercession wilb Him. gave by Hia 
miaaion? He knoweth wbatever ia before them, 
vbatever ia bebiod tbem; and tbey comprebeud a 
single matter o( His knowledge, save only tbat w 
He hatb willed. His flrmament spaDS tbe heavens 
the earlli, the preservation whereof doth not dis 
Him. And He is tlie Most High, the Most Supremt 
jr.£.— Each clmpter of tbe Eor&a b called a 8&i 
term signifying a course of bricks in a wall; and 
Sllraa are divided into 'dy&t, verses, or more litei 

Page 33.— This Sflra, 69, is known aa tbe chapter 
tlic Emigration." 

Page 34, Kne 1. — The Muslim doctors call tbe scri 
ral Terah, tbe father of Abraham, by the name of & 
This was also the title of the god of the planet & 
Abraham's father is moreover styled Zarah in tbe 
mud, and AUiar also, by Eusebius. 

PageZi. Jtjw 35.— " Friend of Allah." Tbe Mus 
BO denomii]Bl« Abraham, Al-KhaW,. 

Page 37. — This is suggested from Sftra 35, tbe cba 
" Of tiie Angels," or " Of tbe Originator." The A 
angel Gabriel is said to have appeared to Muhamr 
on the night of his Journey to Heaven, having no 
than three bnndrod pairs of wings t 

Pagem. liM IG.— •■Michael," or MikS'll. The A 
angel here named was especially the guardian of 
Jews. The Israelites of Mecca told Muhammad 
they would have received his KorSn, if Michael Ins 
ot Gabriel had revealed it. 

flifffl 89. line IB.— " Azrfiel." Tbe Archange 

NOTES. 195 

Page 40, line 1. — *' God's Friend." Vide note on page 
85, Une 15. 

Page 44, Une 16. — '* People of the bench." This was 
the name given to the poor persons whom the Prophet 
sustained by alms every day, and who used to wait for 
his gifts, sitting upon the bench outside Muhammad's 
'house at Medina. 

Page 49. — The very remarkable Stira quoted here, en- 
titled sometimes *• The Brightness," came to the prophet 
thus: **It is related that no revelation having been 
vouchsafed to Muhammad for several days, in answer 
to some questions put to him by the Koreish, because he 
had confidently promised to resolve them the next day, 
without adding the exception, if it please Ood, or be- 
cause he had repulsed an importunate beggar, or else 
because a dead puppy lay under his seat, or for some 
other reason; his enemies said that God had left him: 
whereupon this chapter was sent down for his consola- 

Page^.—*'T\xQ Journey of the Night." "It is a 
dispute," writes Sale, "among the Muhammedan di- 
vines, whether their Prophet's night-journey was really 
performed by him corporally, or whether it was only a 
dream or vision. Some think the whole was no more than 
a vision ; and allege an express tradition of Modwiyah, 
one of Muhammad's successors, to that purpose. Others 
suppose he was carried bodily to Jerusalem, but no far- 
ther; and that he ascended thence to Heaven in spirit 
only. But the received opinion is, that it was no vision, 
but that he was actually transported in the body to his 
journey's end; and if any impossibility be objected, 
they think it a sufficient answer to say, that it might 
easily be effected by an omnipotent agent." 

Faff« Gl, Km 26.—" One Mmah." The name of tl 
opeaing prayer of Mubammedaiis. 

I^« 63, line 23.—" Honker and Naklr" are the tv 
Angela who conduct "the ez&minatioa of the Tomb 
They come to a man directly he is l^d in his grave, ai 
catechise him as to his faith. If he repeats quickly ai 
gladly the formula of IsISm, they cause him to repo 
in peace; hut if he is uncertain or heterodos, they l 
' labor him with iron clubE, till his cries are bo bitter th 
they are heard all through the earth, except by mea ai 
Djias. Then the two black Miniatere press the cli 
down upon the corpse, and leave it to he wasted ai 
consumed tilt the time of resuirectioD. 

J%(ffeB9, Krt^lS.— "'Hadlth." The traditional sayin 
which supplement the EorSn. 

Page 60, lins 3-—" Zem-Zem." This Is the holy wi 
at Mecca, within the f acred precincts, believed to 1 
that Tery spring which was revealed to Hagar when si 
fled with Ishmael. 

Page 63.— This legend of Nimrfld is alluded to 
Sdra 31 of the KorSn, entitled the "Chapter i 

Page 63, Kjie 19.—" Black Hallraah." The Proph 
was suckled by a Bedouin foster-nurse. 

Page 68, Kna 5.— " JfifoM." These are the last s 
stages on the journey to Mecca. The i'Ardwi, or "gai 
of sanctity," consists of two wrappers without seam 
one bound round the waist, the other passed over tl 
shODlders. The taiedf ia the seven-fold circuit of tl 

Eoabsb, made three timee quickly, uid four times 
slowly, bj ell pilgrime. 

Page 73, line 4— "Te let Btroy your Bhe-cemele." 
NotMng is held more valuable among tbe goods of an 
Arab than a ehe-camel near to foaling. 

Foga 73, Uju 13.— "Who killed thee, little mudT" 
Thie alludee to the ancient practice of infanticide among 
the Arabs, which Muhammad atrenuoualy denounced. 

Fogf 74, Une 7.—" He saw it and he heard," Allnd- 
Ing to the Prophet and his journej to Heaven. 

Pagi, 79, Km l.—'-ALAkW" is the plural of fiW/, 
and signifies "lands which lie in a winding or narrow 
boundary," specially applied to a district in the province 
of Hadramaut. 

Page 82, Ujie li.—"Al-Kduthar." Tliis word signi- 
fies abundance, especially of good, and thence tAe gift cf 
maSom and prophecy. Or it may mean abwidanee of 
teealth, foUovxri, and the like. It is here used of a river 
in Paradise, whence the water is derived into Uuham. 
mad'a pond, of which the blessed are to drink twfore 
their admission. According to a tradition of tbe 
Prophet, this river, wherein his Lord promised hhn 
abundant good, is sweeter than honey, whiter than 
milk, cooler than snow, and smoother than cream; its 
banks are of chrysolites, and those who drlnh of it shall 
never thirst. 

Page 87, liJie 2.—"Al-Tirek" is the "star that ap- 
pears" by night, i.e. , the morning star. 

Page 80. line 1.— "When the soul comes to the 
neck." A Eorftnic phrase for the last gasp of death. 

Page93. line 20.— "The roses on thU tree." 
mystic language of the Eoat, the rose is the b; 
that Divine beauty wliich is the object of the sol 

BtgeH, lint 16.—"^Uii/&n." TMb inwuiB 
"esalted places." 

page K, Une i.—"Ta*mln." A atteam in F 
so called because it waters the highest regions tl 

Page M, Uite 12.—"Al-Mtihah." This is 
chapter of the Eorfio, which ia also a. prayer, a 
iu great veDeraUon bj the Huhammedans, n 
it man; honorable titles; as the chapter of pT: 
praUe, of thanksgiving, of Ireasare, etc Tbej 
it as the quintessence of the whole Kot&u, and < 
peat it in their devotions both public and pri 
Christians do the Lord's Prayer. 

Page M, line 34. — "The morning mills." 
break in Eastern countries almost the first s< 
awaking domestic life is the noise of the stones 
grind meal. 

Page 98, Une 6. — "The time for prayer," ss 
feasor Palmer, " ia called from the minarets 
taoaquea by Muezzins or criers, in the foUowini 
'God is great'{4 times); 'I bear witness that 
no God but God ' (twice) ; ' I bear wilnesa that 1 
mad ia the apoatle of God' (twice); 'Come h 
prayers' (twice); 'Come hither to salvation' 
' God ia justt ' ' There is no other God than Go 
the early morning the Huezzin adds, 'Prayer i 
than sleep!'" 

Pag» 101 (no(«).— "The MiOMt-al-M&tMh.' 
t>0D)t of the conTersations of the Prophet. 

NOTES, 199 

i^tf 106, few 7,^Laaat-al-Kadr, **The Night of 
Power/' was that on which the Eor&n was declared to 
have been revealed. 

Page 128, line 18.—" Al-Barsakh.'* The KorSn says, 
"Behind them shall be a bar, until the day of resurrec- 
tion." Upon this Sale writes: ** The original word 
barzakh, here translated * bar,' primarily signifies any 
partition, or interstice, which divides one thing from 
another; but is used by the Arabs not always in the 
same, and sometimes in an obscure sense. They seem 
generally to express by it what the Greeks did by the 
word Hades; one while using it for the place of the 
dead, another while for the time of their continuance in 
that state, and another while for the state itself. It is 
defined by their critics to be the interval or space be- 
tween this world and the next, or between death and 
the resurrection; every person who dies being said to 
enter into Al-Barzakh. The commentators on this pas- 
sage expound it as a barrier, or invincible obstacle, cut- 
ting off all possibility of return into the world, after 

Page 123, line 22. — ** Birds." If the departed person 
was a believer, the Muslims say two Angels meet his 
soul, and convey it to Heaven, that its place there may 
be assigned, according to its merit and degree. They 
distinguish the souls of the Faithful into three classes: 
the first of prophets, whose souls are admitted into Par- 
adise immediately; the second of martyrs, whose spirits, 
according to a tradition of Muhammad, rest in the crops 
of green birds which eat of the fruits and drink of the 
rivers of Paradise; and the third of other believers, con- 
cerning the state of whose souls before the resurrection 
there are various opinions. Some say they stay near 

, .'*.i 

the sepulchres, with liberty, however, of going ' 
they please; which they confirm from Jtub 
manlier of saluting the dead, alluded to elsewhi 

Paga 181, Une 1.— The " ten holj eves" are 
tea nights of the sacred month of Dhu'l Bgjeti. 

Page 181, Unt 1. — " Iram" was the name of 
aoe and pleasure-garden built by Bheddftd, soi 
in ihe desert of Aden. The Btoi; le related on 

PoQt 181. «n« B,— The Thamudites of the Ha 

having killed their prophet, were utterly destt 
tempests, and their city depopulated. 

fV148,tfjwll.— "Al-Hudhud." The Aral 
aoiS, Sale says, tell us that 8olomon, having flni 
temple of Jerusalem, went in pilgrimage tc 
where, having stayed as long as he pleased, 
ceeded towards Taman; and leaving Uecc 
morning, he arrived hy noon at Sanaa, and 1: 
tremely delighted with the country, rested th 
wanting water to make the ablution, he lookei 
the birds for the lapwing, called by the Arabs 
'Kv.d. whose business it was to And it; for it is p 
she was sagacious or Bharp'Sighted enough to 
water underground, which the devils used to d 
ter she had marked the place by digging with 
they add, that this bird was then taking a tou 
air, whence, seeing one of ber companions al 
she descended also, and having had a descriptii 
her by the other of the city of Saba, whence 
just arrived, they both went together to take a 
the place, and returned soon after SolomOD n: 
the inquiry which occasioned what follows. 



" It may be proper to mention here what the Eastern 
writers fable of the manner of Solomon's travelling. 
They say that he had a carpet of green silk, on which 
his throne was placed, being of a prodigious length and 
breadth, and sufficient for all his forces to stand on, the 
men placing themselves on his right hand, and the spir- 
its on his left; and that when all were in order, the 
wind, at his command, took up the carpet, and trans- 
ported it, with all that were upon it, wherever he 
pleased; the army of birds at the same time flying over 
their heads, and forming a kind of canopy, to shade 
them from the sun." 

Page 147, Unes 17-20.— •* The sea-worm and the ant" 
The legend is that Solomon used the teredo to bore his 
topaz, and, by filling the winding hole of the ruby with 
sugar and water, tempted an ant to draw a silk thread 
through it. 

Page 165. Une 26.— **Monker and NaMr." These are 
the two Angels who visit the dead immediately after 
burial, and having set them upright in the grave, ques- 
tion them as to their faith and actions, as before de- 

Page 166, U'M 81.— " Al-Sirftt. " The narrow bridge 
which all must cross from this to the next world, " finer 
than a hair and sharper than a razor." 

** This bridge," it is written, "is beset on each side 
with briers and hooked thorns; which will, however 
be no impediment to the good, for they shall pass with 
wonderful ease and swiftness, like lightning or the wind, 
Muhammad and his Muslims leading the way; whereas 
the wicked, what with the slipperiness and extreme 
narrowness of the path, the entangling of the thorns, 
and the extinction of the light, which directed the for- 




302 NOTES. 

mer to Paradise, will soon miss their footing, and fall 
I down headlong into hell, which is gaping beneath 

1 them.** 


** Muhammad seems to have borrowed this from the 
Magians, who teach that on the last day all mankind 
will be obliged to pass a bridge called Vt\ Chlnavad, 
that is, the strait bridge, leading directly into the other 
world ; on the midst of which the Angels appointed by 
God will stand, who will require of every one a strict 
account of his actions. The Jews speak likewise of the 
bridge of hell, which they say is no broader than a 

Page 168, Une 9.—** Three darknesses." The body, 
the womb, and the amnion. 

Page 174, Une 15. — This is the origin of the HaUal^ a 
custom of Muslim-hunters and butchers, who pronounce 
the formula of excuse and pity before slaying any ani- 

Page 184, Urte l.--**Al-Aarfif." The partition be- 
tween Heaven and Hell. The chapter quoted says, 
"And betwixt the two there is a wall, and they shall 
cry out to the companions of Paradise, * Peace be upon 
you,* but they cannot enter it, although they so desire."