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All rights reserved 

First Edition 1895 
Second Edition 1898 
Third EdUion 1902 

I (.51- HI I 


v.. C' jl) • cV. 


The following Text and Translation of the Poetics 
form part of the volume entitled Aristotle's Theory 
of Poetry and Fine Art, second edition (Macmillan 
and Co., 1898). In this edition the Critical Notes 
are enlarged, and the Translation has been care- 
fully revised. The improvements in the Translation 
are largely due to the invaluable aid I have received 
from my friend and colleague, Professor W. R. 
Hardie. To him I would express my warmest 
thanks, and also to another friend, Professor 
Tyrrell, who has most kindly read through the 
proof - sheets, and talked over and elucidated 
various questions of interpretation and criticism. 

In making use of the mass of critical material 
which has appeared in recent years, especially in 
Germany, I have found it necessary to observe a 
strict principle of selection, my aim still being 
to keep the notes within limited compass. They 
are not intended to form a complete Apparatus 
Criticus, still less to do duty for a commentary. 
I trust, however, that no variant or conjectural 



emendation of much importance has been over- 

In the first edition I admitted into the text 
conjectural emendations of my own in the following 
passages : — iii. 3 : xix. 3 : xxiii. 1 : xxiv. 10 : 
XXV. 4 : XXV. 14 : xxv. 16. Of these, one or two 
appear to have carried general conviction (in 
particular, xxiii. 1) : two are now withdrawn, — 
iii. 3 and xxv. 14, the latter in favour of <olovovv> 

In the first edition, moreover, I bracketed, in 
a certain number of passages, words which I 
regarded as glosses that had crept into the text, 
viz. : — iii. 1 : vi. 18 : xvii. 1 : xvii. 5. In vi. 18 
I now give Gomperz's correction t&v XeyofiivoDv, for 
the bracketed words r&v fiev Xoyfov of the MSS., 
and in xvii. 5 By water's conjecture ort. avrS^ for 

There remains a conjecture which I previously 
relegated to the notes, but which I now 
take into the text with some confidence. It 
has had the good fortune to win the approval of 
many scholars, including the distinguished names 
of Professor Susemihl and Professor Tyxrell. I 

refer to ov (^ovrco MSS.) tA Tvxpvra dvofjbara in 

ix. 5. 1451 b 13, where the Arabic has * names 
not given at random.' For the copyist's error 
cf. ix. 2. 1451 a 36, where A^ has ovro), though 
ov TO rightly appears in the * apographa ' : and for 


a similar omission of ov in A® cf, vi. 12. 1450 a 29, 
ov iroi,ri<rei, h fjv t^ rpaytpSla^ ^pyov, the indispensable 
negative being added in *apographa' and found 
in the Arabic. The emendation not only gives a 
natural instead of a strained sense to the words 
tA Tvxpina ovofuiTa, but also fits in better with 
the general context, as I have argued in Aristotle s 
Theory of Poetry^ etc. (ed. 3 pp. 375-8). 

Another conjecture of my own I have ventured 
to admit into the text. In the much disputed 
passage, vi. 8. 1450 a 12, 1 read <7ravte9> «&9 eiirelv 
for ovK 6\iyo^ avT&v C09 eiirelv of the MSS., follow- 
ing the guidance of Diels and of the Arabic. I 
regard ovk oTUyoc ain&v as a gloss which displaced 
part of the original phrase (see Critical Notes). As 
a parallel case I have adduced Rhet. i. 1. 1354 a 
12, where ovikv (»9 elirelv, the reading in the 
margin of A°, ought, I think, to be substituted in 
the text for the accepted reading oklyov. The 
word oklyov is a natural gloss on ovSkv c»9 elireiv, 
but not so ovSev 0)9 ehrelv on oXiyov, 

In two other difficult passages the Rhetoric 
may again be summoned to our aid. In xvii. 1. 
1455 a 27 I have (as in the first edition) bracketed 
Tov OearrjVy the object to be supplied with iXdvOavev 
being, as I take it, the poet, not the audience. 
This I have now illustrated by another gloss of 
a precisely similar kind in Rhet. i. 2. 1358 a 8, 
where \av0dvovaiv T€ [tou9 d/cpoaritsi] has long been 


recognised as the true reading, the suppressed 
object being not the audience but the rhetoricians. 
Once more, in xxiv. 9. 1460 a 23, where A*^ 
gives the meaningless aXKov B4, I read (as in the 
first edition) aXV ovS4, following the reviser of A*'. 
This reading, which was accepted long ago by 
Vettori, has been strangely set aside by the chief 
modem editors, who either adopt a variant aWo 
Sk or resort to conjecture, with the result that 
TTpoadelvai at the end of the sentence is forced into 
impossible meanings. A passage in the Rhetoric^ 
i. 2. 1357 a 17 flF., appears to me to determine the 
question conclusively in favour of oKTC oiSe . . . 
avdyKT) . . . irpoadelvai. . The passage runs thus : 

ehv yctp y Tt rovTtov yvtopifiov, ovBe Bei Xiyeiv avTo<; 
yctp TOVTO TrpoarlOrfa-iP 6 aKpoar'q^, olov ore Acopieif^ 
aT€if>avlTrjv arf&va v€PLKrfK€V, Ixavov eiirelv oti, ^OXvfiTria 
yhp V€pl/C7}K€V, TO S* OTL aT€if>avlT7)<: Tct ^OXvfiina, ovBe 
Bet irpoa-deivaf ytyvaxTKOvai yhp irdvTe<;, The general 

idea is closely parallel to our passage of the Poetics^ 
and the expression of it similar even to the word 
ovBi (where the bare ov might have been expected) 
in the duplicated phrase oifBh Bel \Syeiv, oifBk Bel 
irpoaOelvcu. One difficulty still remains. The sub- 
ject to elvai fj yeviaOac is omitted. To supply it 
in thought is not, perhaps, impossible, but it is 
exceedingly harsh, and I have accordingly in this 
edition accepted Professor Tucker's conjecture, 

dvar/Kf) <:KaiC€LVO'> elvac fj yeviaOai. 


The two conjectures of my own above mentioned 
are based on or corroborated by the Arabic. I 
ought to add, that in the Text and Critical Notes 
generally I have made a freer use than before of 
the Arabic version (concerning which see p. 4). 
But it must be remembered that only detached 
passages, literally rendered into Latin in Professor 
MargolioutVs Analecta Orientalia (D. Nutt 1887), 
are as yet accessible to those like myself who are 
not Arabic scholars; and that even if the whole 
were before us in a literal translation, it could not 
safely be used by any one unfamiUar with Syria<5 
and Arabic, save with the utmost caution and 
subject to the advice of experts. Of the precise 
value of this version for the criticism of the 
text, no final estimate can yet be made. But it 
seems clear that in several passages it carries us 
back to a Greek original earlier than any of our 
existing MSS. Two striking instances may here 
be noted : — 

(1) i. 6-7. 1447 a 29 flF., where the Arabic 
confirms Ueberweg's excision of iironrotla and the 
insertion of avd>vvfjLo<: before rvyxdvova-a, accord- 
ing to the brilliant conjecture of Bernays (see 
Margoliouth, Analecta Orientalia^ p. 47). 

(2) xxi. 1. 1457 a 36, where for fjbeyaXccDr&v of 
the MSS. Diels has, by the aid of the Arabic, 
restored the word Ma<ra-a\c(OT&v, and added a most 
ingenious and convincing explanation of 'EpfioKai- 


Ko^avOo^ (see Critical Notes). This emendation 
is introduced for the first time into the present 
edition. Professor Margoliouth tells me that 
Diels' restoration of hrev^dfieva^ in this passage is 
confirmed by the fact that the same word is 
employed in the Arabic of Aristotle's Rhetoric 
to render eija^aOai,. 

Another result of great importance has been 
estabUshed. In some fifty instances where the 
Arabic points to a Greek original diverging from 
the text of A^ it confirms the reading found in 
one or other of the *apographa/ or conjectures 
made either at the time of the Renaissance or in 
a more recent period. It would be too long to 
enumerate the passages here ; they wiU be found 
noted as they occur. In most of these examples 
the reading attested by the Arabic commands our 
undoubting assent. It is, therefore, no longer 
possible to concede to A*' the unique authority 
claimed for it by Vahlen. 

I have consulted by the side of Professor 
Margoliouth's book various criticisms of it, e.g. by 
Susemihl in jBerZ. PM. Wochenschr. 1891, p. 1546, 
and by Diels in Sitzungsher. der Berl. Akad. 
1888, p. 49. But I have also enjoyed the special 
benefit of private communication with Professor 
Margoliouth himself upon a number of diflSiculties 
not dealt with in his Analecta Onentalia. He has 
most generously put his learning at my disposal. 


and furnished me, where it was possible to do so, 
with a literal translation. In some instances the 
Arabic is itself obscure, and throws no light on 
the diflSiculty; frequently, however, I have been 
enabled to indicate in the notes whether the exist- 
ing text is supported by the Arabic or not. 

In the Mowing passages I have in this edition 
adopted emendations which are suggested or con- 
(Jed by the AraMo, but which % not iind a 
place in the first edition : — 

ii. 3. 1448 a 15, wnr^p ol tovs^ 

yi. 7. 1450 a 17, <6 86 pio%'>^ omitting koX eiSai/iovCas 

KOL 1^ evSaifiovia of the MSS. 

XL 6. 1452 b 10, [tovt(i)v Sc . . . ci/w^rat] 

xviii. 6. 1466 a 24, <Kat> cticbs^ 

XX. 5. 1456 b 35, <ov/c> avcv* 

xxi. 1. 1457 a 34, [kol dcrrjfwv]. The literal trans- 
lation of the Arabic is ^and of this some is 
compounded of significant and insignificant, 
only not in so far as it is significant in the 

xxi. 1. 1457 a 36, MaoxraAMurwv (see above, p. ix.) 

XXV. 17. 1461 b 12, <Kai MTWS d8vvaTov> 

I hesitate to add to this list of corroborated 
conjectures that of Dacier, now admitted into the 

text of xxiii. 1. 1459 a 21, koI firf ofwCa^ iaroplai^ 
T^9 avvOiaei^y for koX firj ofioLa^ laTOpia^ t^9 axwrjOeL^ 

1 In ed. 3 I simply give the MSS. reading in the text, &(nr€p 
^ In ed. 3 the words here added are omitted in the text 


of the MSS. The Arabic, as I learn from Professor 
Margoliouth, is literally ' and in so far as he does 
not introduce (or, there do not enter) into these 
compositions stories which resemble.' This version 
appears to deviate both from our text and from 
Dacier's conjecture. There is nothing here to 
correspond to avvrjdeL^ of the MSS. ; on the other 
hand, though awOeaei^ may in some form have 
appeared in the Greek original, it is not easy to 
reconstruct the text which the translation implies. 
Another conjecture, communicated privately to 
me by Mr. T. M*Vey, well deserves mention. It 
involves the simpler change of ofwia^; to 02x9. The 
sense then is, * and must not be like the ordinary 
histories ' ; the demonstr. rcoirov^; being sunk in 

Ota?, SO that olat, laroplai at avvrjOev^ becomes by 
attraction, oSx9 i<TTopia<; tA? a-vvrjBeL^, 

I subjoin a few other notes derived from corre- 
spondence with Professor Margoliouth : — 

(a) Passages where the Arabic confirms the 
reading of the MSS. as against proposed emenda- 
tion : — 

iv. 14. 1449 a 27, €Kj3at vonrcs t^s Xcktik^s apfjjovlas: 
Arabic, *when we depart from dialectic com- 
position.' (The meaning, however, is obviously 

vi. 18. 1450 b 13, tQv pkv Aoycov: Arabic, *of the 
speech.* The i^v is not represented, but, owing 
to the Syriac form of that particle being identical 
with the Syriac for the preposition * of,' it was 


likely to be omitted here by the translator or 

xviii. 1. 1455 b 25. The Arabic agrees with the 
MSS. as to the position of iroAAaicts, 'as for 
things which are from without and certain things 
from within sometimes.' 

xviii. 5. 1456 a 19, icat ev rots airkots vpdyficuri: Arabic, 
<and in the simple matters.' 

xix. 2. 1456 a 38, rot irdOrj irapaxrKevd^^iv : Arabic, 
' to prepare the sufferings.' 

More doubtful is xvii. 2. 1455 a 30, airo rrj^ avTr]<$ 
^v(T€(o^ : Arabic, * in one and the same nature.' 
The Arabic mode of translation is not decisive as 
between the MSS. reading and the conjecture dir* 
avrfj^ T^9 (pvaeoo^y but rather favours the former. 

(6) Passages where the conjectural omission of 
words is apparently supported by the Arabic : — 

ix. 9. 1451 b 31, oTa av cikos ycv&r^at icat Svvara y€V€- 
<T0ai: Arabic, * there is nothing to prevent the 
condition of some things being therein like those 
which are supposed to be.' But we can hardly 
say with certainty which of the two phrases the 
Arabic represents. 

xvi. 4. 1454 b 31, olov 'Op^mjs Iv tq I<l}iy€V€i2' 
dveyviapurev on ^Opcarrjs : Arabic, * as in that 
which is called Iphigenia, and that is whereby 
Iphigenia argued that it was Orestes.' This 
seems to point to the omission of the first 

^ Vahlen (Hermeneutuche Bemerkv/ngen zu ArUtotdes* Podik ii. 
1898, pp. 3-4) maintains that the inference drawn from the Arabic 
is doubtful, and he adds strong objections on other grounds to Diels* 
excision of the first 'Op€(mjs> 


In neither of these passages, however, have I 
altered the MSS. reading. 

(c) Passages on which the Arabic throws no 

i. 9. 1447 b 22. The only point of interest that 
emerges is that in the Arabic rendering (*of all 
the metres we ought to call him poet ') there is 
no trace of Kal, which is found alike in A** and 
the 'apographa.' 

X. 3. 1452 a 20. The words yiyv&rdai ravra are 
simply omitted in the Arabic. 

XXV. 18. 1461 b 18, <5(rT€ Kal avrhv MSS. The line 
containing these words is not represented in the 

XXV. 19. 1461 b 19, orav firf dvdyKrjs oixrrjs /irjSkv . . . 
The words in the Arabic are partly obliterated, 
partly corrupt. 

In conclusion, I desire to acknowledge my 
obligations to friends, such as Mr. B. Bosanquet 
(whose History of Aesthetic ought to be in the hands 
of all students of the subject). Dr. A. W. Verrall, 
Mr. W. J. Courthope, Mr. A. 0. Prickard, and Rev. 
Dr. Lock, who have written me notes on particular 
points, and to many reviewers by whose criticism I 
have profited. In a special sense I am indebted to 
Professor Susemihl for his review of my first edition 
in the Berl. Phil. Wochenschr.y 28 th September 
1895, as well as for the instruction derived from his 
numerous articles on the Poetics, extending over 
many years in Bursian's Jahreshericht and else- 


where. Among other reviewers to whom I feel 
grateful, I would mention Mr. Herbert Richards 
in the Classical Review, May 1895 ; Mr. R. P. 
Hardie in Mind, vol. iv. No. 1 5 ; and the authors 
of the unsigned articles in the Saturday Review, 
2nd March 1895, and the Oxford Magazine, 12th 
June 1895. 

To Messrs. R. & R. Clark's Reader I would once 
again express no merely formal thanks. 

Edinburgh, November 1897. 



In the revision of the Text and the Critical Notes 
I have had the advantage of consulting two new 
editions, based on very different principles, those of 
Professor By water and Professor Tucker, from both 
of which I have derived assistance. In Professor 
Bywater's edition I have noted the following passages 
in which manuscript authority (Parisinus 2038) is 
cited for readings which hitherto have been given 
as conjectural: — i. 4. 1447 a 21 ; xi. 5. 1452 b 3 
and 4 ; xv. 1. 1454 a 19 ; xviii. 1. 1455 b 32 ; 
xxii. 7. 1458 b 20 and 29; xxiv. 8. 1460 a 13; 
XXV. 4. 1460 b 19; xxv. 16. 1461 b 3 and 17, 
1461 b 13 ; xxvi. 3. 1462 a 5 ; xxvi. 6. 1462 b 6. 
I am also indebted to Professor Bywater's text 
for several improvements in punctuation. Most 
of his important emendations had appeared before 
the publication of my earlier editions, and had 
already found a place in the text or in the 

I now append the chief passages in which the 



text of this edition differs from that of the 
last : — 

vii. 6. 1451 a 9. Here I keep the reading of the 
MSS., uxTTTcp TTore Kal akXore (fxicrtv. Schmidt's 
correction eUoOaa-tv for <^>axriv seemed at first 
sight to be confirmed by the Arabic, but, as 
Vahlen argues (Hermeneutische Bemerhmgen zu 
Aristoteles' Foetiky 1897), this is doubtful, and 
— a more fundamental objection — the question 
arises whether the correction can, after all, con- 
vey the sense intended. Can the words as 
emended refer to a known practice in present 
time, ' as is the custom on certain other occasions 
also,' i.e. in certain other contests, the aycoves of 
the law-courts being thus suggested? As to 
this I have always had misgivings. Further 
observation has convinced me that ttotc koI dAAorc 
can only mean 'at some other time also,' 
in an indefinite past or future. With <fKurCv 
(sc. dyiovUraarSaf) the reference must be to the 
past. This lands us in a serious difficulty, for 
the use of the KX€\/rv8pa in regulating dramatic 
representations is otherwise imheard of. Still 
it is conceivable that a report of some such 
old local custom had reached the ears of Aristotle, 
and that he introduces it in a parenthesis with 
the (fxixrlv of mere hearsay. 

ix. 7. 1451 b 21. I accept Welcker's 'Av^ct for 

av0€L. Professor Bywater is, I think, the first 

editor who has admitted this conjecture into 
the text. 

xvii. 5. 1455 b 22. I restore the MSS. reading 
dvayvbiplo-as Tivds, which has been given up by 
almost all editors, even the most conservative. 
Hitherto a parallel was wanting for the required 


meaning, ' having made certain persons acquainted 
with him/ 'having caused them to recognise 
him.' But Vahlen {Henri, JBemerk 1898) has, 
if I am not mistaken, established beyond question 
this rare and idiomatic use of the verb by a 
reference to Diodorus Siculus iv. 59. 6, and by 
the corresponding use of yvtapl^oD in Plut. Fit. 
Thes. ch. xii 

xix. 3. 1456 b 8. For rj^^a of the MSS. I now read 
^ Bidvoia. (Previously I had accepted Tyrwhitt's 
correction rj&q d Set) This conjecture was first 
made by Spengel, and strong arguments in its 
favour have recently been urged by V. Wr6bel 
in a pamphlet in which this passage is discussed 
(LeopoU 1900). 

XXV. 6. 1458 b 12. For lurpov I now read fierptov 
with Spengel. (So also Bywater.) Is it possible 
that in xxvi. 6. 1462 b 7 we should similarly 
read r^ rov fj^erplov {jjkrpov codd.) /zi^icct, 'a fair 
standard of length ' ? 

In xiv. 8-9. 1454 a 2-4 a much vexed question 
is, I am disposed to think, cleared up by a simple 
alteration proposed by Neidhardt, who in a 2 reads 
KpdntTTov for ievrepov, and in a 4 hevrepov for 
/cpdrurrov. This change, however, I have not intro- 
duced into the text. 

The Arabic version once more throws interesting 
Hght on a disputed reading. In xvii. 2. iKorariKoi 
instead of i^eratm/col is a conjecture supported by 
one manuscript. In confirmation of this reading, 
which has always seemed to me correct, I extract 
the following note by Professor Margoliouth {Class. 


Bev. 1901, vol. XV. 54) : — 'Professor Butcher . . . 
informed me that a continental scholar had asserted 
that the Arabic read i/ca-raTi/col for i^eratrrtKol in 
this passage. I had been unable to satisfy myself 
about the Arabic word intended by the writer of 
the Paris MS., and therefore could not conj&rm 
this ; but I must regret my want of perspicacity, 
for I have now no doubt that the word intended is 
'ajahiyylnaj which is vulgar Arabic for ** buflfoons," 
literally " men of wonder." The Syriac translated 
by this word will almost certainly have been 
maihhWdney a literal translation of iKo-rariKoi, 
which the Syriac translator probably thought 
meant "men who produce ecstasies." The verb 
i^LtrraaOac is not unfrequently rendered by the 
Syriac verb whence this word is derived.' 

In a few other passages the Critical Notes or 
Translation contain new matter; e.g. ix. 8. 1451 
b 23; xvi. 7. 1455 a 14; xxiv. 10. 1460 b 1; 
xxvi. 6. 1462 b 7. 

I cannot in concluding omit a word of cordial 
thanks to Messrs. E. & B. Clark's accomplished 

Edinburgh, October 1902. 



Editions, Translations, etc xxiii 

Analysis of Abistotle's Poetics 1 

List of Abbreviations 4 




The following is a list of the chief editions and translations of the Poetics^ 
and of other writings relating to this treatise, arranged in chronologioal 
order : — 

Yalla (G.)} Latin translation. Venice, 1498. 

Aldine text, in lUietores Graed, Venice, AldDS, 1508. 

Latin ti*an8lation, with the summary of Averroes (ob. 1198). Venice, 
Arrivabene, 1515. 

Pazzi (A.) [Paccius], Aristotelis Poetica, per Alexandrum PcLcdum^ pairi- 

Hum Florenbinumy in Laiinwm, conversa, Venice, Aldus, 1536. 
Trincayeli, Greek text. Venice, 1586. 

Bobortelli (Fr.), In librum Aristotelis de Arte Poetica ea^licationes. 
Florence, 1548. 

Segni (B.), Hettorica e Poetica d* AristoteU tradotte di Oreco in lingua 
mUgare, Florence, 1549. 

Maggi (V.) [Madius], In Aristotelis librum de Poetica explaTiationes. 
Venice, 1550. 

Vettori (P.) [Victorius], Commentationes in primum librum Aristotelis de 
Arte Poetarum. Florence, 1560. 

Castelvetro (L.)) Poetica (T AristoteU vulgarizzata, Vienna, 1570 ; Basle, 

Piccolomini (A. ), AnnotaUom nel libro delta Poetica d* AristoteU^ con la 
tradtbttione del medesvmo libro in lingua volgare, Venice, 1575. 

Gasaubon (L), edition of Aristotle. Leyden, 1590. 

Heinsius (D.) recensuit. Leyden, 1610. 

Goulston (T.), Latin translation. London, 1623, and Cambridge, 1696. 

Dacier, La Podtique traduite en Frcm^iSf avec des reTnarques critiques. 
Paris, 1692. 

Batteux, Les quatres Po6tiques d^Aristote^ d^Rorace, de Vida, de Des- 
pr^aux, avec les traductions et des remarques par VAhb4 Battettx. 
Paris, 1771. 



Winstanley (T.)) commentary on Poetics. Oxford, 1780. 
Reiz, De Poetica Liber, Leipzig, 1786. 

Metastasio (P.), EstraUo delT Arte Poetica (2* Aristotele e eonsiderazioni su 
lamedesima, Paris, 1782. 

Twining (T.), AristotU^s Treatise on Poetry, Translated: with n^otes on the 
Translation, and on the original ; and ttvo JDissertcttions on Poetical 
and Musical Imitation, London, 1789. 

Pye (H. J.), A Commentary illustrating the Poetic of Aristotle by examples 
taken chiefly from the m>odem poets. To which is prefixed a new and 
corrected edition of the translation of the Poetic, London, 1792. 

Tyrwhitt (T.), De Poetica Liber. Teoctwm recensuit, versionem reftnxit, et 
ammadversumibus iUustrcmt Thomas Tyrwhitt. Oxford, 1794. 

Bnhle (J. T.), De Poetica Liber. Gottingen, 1794. 

Hermann (Godfrey), Ars Poetica cum commentariis. Leipzig, 1802. 

Grafenham (£. A. W.), De Arte Poetica librum den/uo recensuit, commen- 
tariis tUustravit, etc. Leipzig, 1821. 

Banmer (Fr. v.), Ueber die Poetik des Aristotles und sdn VerhaUniss zu 
den neuem Dramatikem, Berlin, 1829. 

Spengel (L.), Ueber Aristoteles' Poetik in Abhandltmgen der MUnchener 
Akad. philos.-philol. CI. IL Munich, 1887. 

Bitter t^.), Ad codices antiques recognitam, latine conversam, com- 
mentario Ulustratam edidit Frandscus Hitter. Cologne, 1839. 

Egger (M. £.), J3ssai sur Vhistoire de la Critique ehez les Ghrecs, suivi de 
la Poitique d^Aristote et ^extraits de ses PrdbUmeSf avec traduction 
fran^aise et commentaire, Paris, 1849. 

Bernays (Jacob), OruTidzUge der verlorenen Abhandlv/ng des Aristoteles 
aher Wirkung der Tragodie. Breslau, 1857. 

Saint-Hilaire (J. B.), Poitique traduite en frant^ais et accompagnie denotes 
perp6tuelles. Paris, 1858. 

Stahr (Adolf), Aristoteles vmd die Wirkung der Tragodie. Berlin, 1859. 
Stahr (Adolf), German translation, with Introduction and notes. Stutt- 
gart, 1860. 
Liepert (J.), Aristoteles ilber den Zweck der Kunst. Passau, 1862. 

Susemihl (F.), Aristoteles Ueber die Dichtkunst, Oriechisch und Deutsch 
and mit sacherkldrenden Anmierkungen. Leipzig, 1865 and 1874. 

Vahlen (J.), Beitrage zu Aristotele^ Poetik. Vienna, 1865. 

Spengel (L.), Aristotelische Studien IV. Munich, 1866. 

Vahlen (J.) recensuit. Berlin, 1867. 

TeichmtiUer (G.), Aristotelische Forschwngen. I. Beitrage zur Erklarung 

der Poetik des Aristoteles. II. Aristoteles* Philosophic der Kunst. 

Halle, 1869. 

Ueberweg (F.)» German translation and notes. Berlin, 1869. 


Beinkens (J. H.), Aristotelea ilber Kunst, besonders ilber Tragddie, 

Vienna, 1870. 
Doring (A.), Die KunsUehre dee Aristoteles, Jena, 1870. 

Ueberweg (F.), AristoUlis Ars Poetica ad fidem potissimum eodicis anti- 
quissimi A^ (Parisiensis 1741), Berlin, 1870. 

Bywater (I.), AristoUlia in Journal of Philology, v. 117 fll and xiv. 40 fL 
London and Cambridge, 1873 and 1885. 

Yahlen (J.) iterum recensuit et adnotatione oritica auxit. Berlin, 1874. 
Moore (£.), Yahlen's text witli notes. Oxford, 1875. 
Christ (W.) recensuit. Leipzig, 1878 and 1893. 

Bemays (Jacob), ZvoH Ahhavdlungen ilber die AristoUlische Theorie des 
Drama. Berlin, 1880. 

Brandscheid (F.), Text, German translation, critical notes and com- 
mentary. Wiesbaden, 1882. 

Wharton (£. R.), Yahlen's text with English translation. Oxford, 1883. 
Margolioutb (D.), Analecta OrietUalia ad Poetieam Aristoteleam, Lon- 
don, 1887. 
B^nard (C), VEUMiqite d^AristoU. Paris, 1887. 
Gomperz (T.), Zu Aristoteles* Poetik, I. (c. i.-vi.). Vienna, 1888. 

Heidenhain (F.), Averrois Paraphrasis in librwm. Poetieae Aristotelis Jacob 
Mantino interprete. Leipzig, 1889. 

Prickard (A. 0.), Aristotle on the Art of Poetry, A Leetv/re toith two 
Appendices, London, 1891. 

La PoUique d^Aristote, ManuscrU 1741 Ponds Orec de la Bibliothiqtie 
NatvmaZe, Preface de M. Henri Omont. Photolithographic de 
MM. Lumi^re. Paris, 1891. 

Carroll (M.), Aristotle*s Poetics in the Light of the Homeric Scholia, 
Baltimore, 1895. 

Oomperz (T.), Aristoteles* Poetik, Uebersetzt wnd eingeleitet, Leipzig, 

Gomperz (T.), Zu Aristoteles" Poetik, II., III. Vienna, 1896. 

Bywater (I.), Aristotelis de Arte Poetica Liber. Oxford, 1897. 

Vahlen (J.), ffermeneiUische Bemerkungen zu Aristoteles* Poetik : Sitzungs- 
berichte der K, preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Berliny 1897 xxix, 1898 xxi. 

Spingarn (J. E.), A History of Literary Criticism in the Benaissance, 
New York, 1899. 

Tacker (T. G.), Aristotelis Poetica, London, 1899. 

Saintsbury (G.), A History of Criticism, Vol. I. Edinburgh and London, 

Finsler (G.), PkUon und die Aristoteliseh^ Poetik, Leipzig, 1900. 

Courthope (W. J.), Life in Poetry: Law in Taste, London, 1901. 


I. ' Imitation ' {fdfiriais) the common principle of the Arts of Poetry^ 

Music, Dancing, Painting, and Scolptore. These Arts dis- 

tinguished according to the Medium or material Vehicle, the 

Objects, and the Manner of Imitation. The Medium of 

,- — ^- Imitation is Rhythm, Language, and * Harmony * (or Melody), 

' taken singly or combined. 

II. The Objects of Imitation. 

Higher or lower types are represented in all the Imitative 
Arts. In Poetry this is the basis of the distinction between 
Tragedy and Comedy. 

III. The Manner of Imitation. 

Poetry may be in form either dramatic narrative, pure 
narratiye (including lyric poetry), or pure drama. A 
X digression follows on the name and original home of the 
\ Drama. 

IV. ^e Origin and Development of Poetiy. 

Psychologically, Poetry may be traced to two causes, the 
instinct of Imitation, and the instinct of * Harmony' and 

Historically viewed. Poetry diverged early in two directions : 

traces of this twofold tendency are found in the Homeric poems : 

' Tragedy and Comedy exhibit the distinction in a developed 


^\ht successive steps in the history of Tragedy are enumer* 


V. Definition of the Ludicrous (rb yeKotop)^ and a brief sketch of the 
rise of Comedy. Points of comparison between Epic Poetry 
and Tragedy. (The chapter is fragmentary.) 




^ VI.l Definition of Tragedy. Six elements in Tragedy : three external, 
L y " ' / i — namely, Spectacular Presentment (6 t^ tfews kSc/ws or 6ipis), 

Lyrical Song (/ucXoiroiia), Diction (X^is) ; three internal, — 
namely, Plot (jjm$os), Character {^Oos), and Thought (didvoca). 
Plot, or the representation of the action, is of primary importi 
ance ; Character and Thought come next in order. 

\ YII. The Plot must be a Whole, complete in itself, and of adequate 


VIII. The Plot must be a Unity. Unity of Plot consists not in Unity 
of Hero, but in Unity of Action. 

The parts must be organically connected. 

IX. (Plot continued.) Dramatic Unity can be attained only by the 
observance of Poetic as distinct from Historic Truth ; for 
Poetry is an expression of the Universal, History of the Par- 
ticular. The rule of probable or necessary sequence as applied 
to the incidents. Certain plots condemned for want of Unity. 
The best Tragic effects depend on the combination of the 
. Inevitable and the Unexpected. 

X. (Plot continued.) Definitions of Simple (dTrXot) and Complex 
{wcirXeyfUyoi) Plots. 

XI. (Plot continued.) Reversal of Intention (7re/Mir^eia), Recognition 
(dvayvdjf)i(nt)t and Tragic or disastrous Incident (irddos) defined 
and explained. 

XII. The * quantitative parts * (fidjnj Ko^Td t6 irocdp} ol Tragedy de- 
fied : — Prologue, Episode, etc. (Probably an interpolation. ) 


^ XIII. (JPfot continued.) What constitutes Tragic Acti6n. The 
change of fortune and the character of the hero as requisite 
to an ideal Tragedy. The unhappy ending more truly tragic 
than the * poetic justice ' which is in favour with a popular 
audience, and belongs rather to Comedy. 

XIV. (Plot continued.) The tragic emotions of pity and fear should 
spring out of the Plot itself. To produce them by Scenery or 
Spectacular effect is entirely against the spirit of Tragedy. 
Examples of Tragic Incidents designed to heighten the 
emotional effect. 

XV.' The element of Character (as the manifestation of moral purpose) 
in Tragedy. Requisites of ethical portraiture. The rule of 
necessity or probability applicable to Character as to Plot. 
The ' Deus ex Machina ' (a passage out of place here). How! 
Character is idealised. 

f^n XVI. (Plot continued.) Recognition : its various kinds, with examples. 
XVII. Practical rules for the Tragic Poet : 

(1) To place the scene before his eyes, and to act the 


parts himself in order to enter into vivid sympathy with the 
dramatis personae, 

(2) To sketch the bare outline of the action before proceed- 
ing to fill in the episodes. 

The Episodes of Tragedy are here incidentally contrasted 
with those of Epic Poetry. 

XVIII. Further rules for the Tragic Poet : 

(1) To be careful about the Complication {bica) and D^- 
nouemcTU (Xi^is) of the Plot, especially the DinouemetU. 

(2) To unite, if possible, varied forms of poetic excellence. 

(3) Not to overcharge a Tragedy with details appropriate 
to Epic Poetry. 

(4) To make the Choral Odes — like the Dialogue — an organic 
part of the whole. 

XIX. Thought {didvoia), or the Intellectual element, and Diction in 
. Tragedy. 

Thought is revealed in the dramatic speeches composed 
^according to the rules of Rhetoric 

Diction falls largely within the domain of the Art of 
Delivery, rather than of Poetry. 

XX. Diction, or Language in general. An analysis of the parts of 
speech, and other grammatical details. (Probably interpolated.) 

XXI. Poetic Diction. The word8~>nd modes of speech admissible 
in Poetry : including M^tapi^r, in particular. 

A passage — probably interpolated — on the Gender of Nouns. 

XXII. (Poetic Diction continued.) How Poetry combines elevation of 
language with perspicuity. 

XXIII. Epic Poetry. It agrees with Tragedy in Unity of Action : herein 

contrasted with History. 

XXIV. (Epic Poetry continued.) Further points of agreement with 

Tragedy. The points of difference are emunerated and illus- 
trated, — namely, (1) the length of the poem ; (2) the metre ; 
(3) the art of imparting a plausible air to incredible fiction. 

XXY. Critical Objections brought against Poetry, and the principles on 
which they are to be answered. In particular, an elucidation 
of the meaning of Poetic Truth, and its difference from common 
reality. , 

XXYI. A general estimate of the comparative worth of Epic Poetry and 
Tragedy. The alleged defects of Tragedy are not essential to it. 
Its positive merits entitle it to the higher rank of the two. 




A^= the Parisian manuscript (1741) of the 11th 
century : generally, but perhaps too con- 
fidently, supposed to be the archetype from 
which all other extant MSS. directly or in- 
directly are derived. 

i4X>gr. = one or more of the MSS. other than A^. 

Arabs = the Arabic version of the Poetics (Paris 882 A), 
of the middle of the 10th century, a version 
independent of our extant MSS. It is not 
directly taken from the Qreek, but is a trans- 
lation of a Syriac version of the Poetics by an 
unknown author, now lost (The quotations 
in the critical notes are from the literal Latin 
translation of the Arabic, as given in Mar- 
goliouth's Analecta Orientalui,) 

11= the Greek manuscript, far older than A^ and no 
longer extant, which was used by the Syriac 
translator. (This symbol already employed 
by Susemihl I have taken for the sake of 
brevity.) It must be remembered, therefore, 
that the readings ascribed to 2 are those which 
we infer to have existed in the Greek exemplar, 
from which the Syriac translation was made. 

Aid. = the Aldine edition of Rhetores Oraeciy published 
in 1608. 

Vahlen = Vahlen's text of the Poetics Ed. 3. 

Yahlen conL = a conjecture of Vahlen, not admitted by him into 

the text 

[ ]= words with manuscript authority (including A*^)^ 
which should be deleted from the text 

< > = a conjectural supplement to the text. 

* * = a lacuna in the text 

t = words which are corrupt and have not been satis- 
factorily restored. 




I TLepl irottynicri^ avTTj^ re icaX r&v elS&p avrrj^ rjv riva 

Svvafiip €Ka<TTov €^€i, Kal TTci? Set <Tvvi<TTa<TdaL rov<i fJLvOov^ 

10 el fiiWet iea\&^ i^etv t] TToirfai^, en he ex iroccov Kal 
TTouov ecTl fwpiwv, ofiOLQ}^ Be Kal irepl r&v oKKcov oaa rrj^ 
avrfjf; earrt fieOoSov, Xeycofiev dp^dfievoc Korh ^v<tlv' TrpA- 
TOP diro T&v TrptoTcov. eiroiroUa hrj Ka\ 17 rrf^ rpaytpSla^ 2 
irolfja-i^ en Be KODfi^Sia Kal rj ScOvpafifioTroirjrtK^ Kal rrj^ 

15 aif\7)TiK7J^ 17 irXeLtrTT) Kal KvOapi^artKrj^ iraaai Tvy)(^dvovacv 
oio'av fiLiJLri<reL^ to crivoKov^ Bia^epovGi Sk dXX/qXoDv TptcLv, 3 
fj ydp T^ iv erepoi^ fiifieladaL rj t& erepa fj t^ ere- 
pto^ Kal firj TOP avTOP rpoirov, &(rn'ep yctp Kal '^(Ofiaa-i 4 
Kal (ry^'qfiaaL iroXKa fiifjuovvraL rtpe^ direvKa^opre^ {pi fjuev 

20 Sta Ti')(pri^ oi he hcd (rvpTjOeia^), erepot hk hut rrj^ <l>(Oprj<;, 
ovTOD KCLP rai^ elpi]fjL€pai^ Te')(yai^' dnraaai fiep irotovprac 
Ttfp fUfirjacp ep pvdfjm Kal Xoytp Kal dpfiopla, tovtol^ h* 
ff X^pl^ V fJ^efiiyfjLepoif;' olop dpfiovia fiep Kal pvOfJum XP^' 

12. X^tf/u€v apogr. : Xiyofxev A^: (habuit iam Z var. lect., 'et dicamos et 
dioimuB' Arabs) 17. iv Forchhammer ('imitatur rebus diversis' 

Arabs) : y^pci A^ 20. rijs (pcjviis codd. (* per sonos * Arabs) : Trjt ^tretn 

Maggi : aiV^s rrfs 4>(nr€tas Spengel 21. k&¥ Parisinus 2038 : koI iv 

apogr. alia : koX A^ 



I I propcNse to treat of Poetry in itself and of its various 

* kinds, noting the essential quality of each ;( to inquire 
into the structure of the plot as requisite to a good poem ; 
into the number and nature of the parts of which a 
poem is composed ; and similarly into whatever else falls 
within the same inquiry. Following, then, the order of 
nature,* let us begin with the principles which come 

Epic poetry and Tragedy, Comedy also and Dithyrambic 2 
poetry, and the music of the flute and of the lyre in 
most of their forms, are all in their general conception 
, ^ modes of imitation. ( They differ, however, from one 3 • ^ 
another in three respects, — the_medijiin, the objects, the i 
manner or mode of imitation, being in each case - 
distinct. ) 

For as there are persons who, by conscious art or 4 
mere habit, imitate and represent various objects through 
the medium of colour and fomi, or again by the voice ; 
so in the[ arts above mentioned, taken as a whole, the 
imitation is produced by rhstto^ language, or * harmony/ 

either singly or combined. ' 




,;,^,.,. **.{T' 

8 I. 4 — 9. 1447 a 24 — 1447 b 22 

/cACi'ai fiovov fi T€ avXiyriKif zeal rj /aOapiari/etf k&v et rtve^ 
25 ^€pai rvyjfavova-iv oiaai rotavrav rifv Svvafuv, otov 17 r&v 
avplrfY&v * avT^ Se r^ pvOfi^ \juiJLOvvTai\ %a)/>t9 apfiovla^ 5 
17 TcSv op')(r)aT&v, Kai yhp oinoi StA r&v a-j(fjpMTC^Ofi€va>v 
pvOp&v fiifiovvrai zeal rjOrj zeal irdOrj k<u irpd^ec^' 17 Se 6 
[hroirotia] pJivov rot^ Xo70t9 '^CKol^ fj roi^ fiirpoc^ fcal roxh 
1447 b Tot9 eXre fii^/vwra /ler aWifKoDv elO* kvL rivt yivec ^m/ia/rf 
r&v iiirpfoVi <ai'<»i/v/A09> Tt^j(ap€i, oiaa fi^XP*' '^^^ ^^' ovBkv 7 
10 yhp &p €')(pifiev ovoficurat koivov tov^ '%ci<f>popo^ /cal S€vdpj(pv 
fdfiov<; zeal rou9 Sto/epariKov^ Xoyov^i^ oifSk et r^9 Stit rpifjU" 
Tpav fj ikeyeitov fj r&v olKKodv tiv&v t&v tovovtov iroiolro rifv 
filp/rfaiv TrkffP oi apOpmiroi ye avpairropre^ r^ /icrpfp to 
TTOieip ikeyeioirovov^, tov9 Sk hroiroLov<; opo/jbd^ovaip, ov^ 0)9 

15 KOTCb T^P pi/J/TfO'lP TTOLrjTtt^ oXKa KOLPy KaTCt TO /JL€TpOP TTpoa- 

arfopevopre^, koX yap &p laTpiKOP fj i^vcLKOp tl hi^ t&p 8 
fi^Tpayp iK<f>ip<o(ri,p, ovTa> xaXeiP euoOaaiP' ovBep Sk kovpop 
ioTip 'OfjLi^ptp Kol 'E/ATreSo^Xe* ttX^j/ to fieTpop' Slo top fiep 
TTOiTjTtip Si/caiop /caXeip, top Be <f)v<rt,o'Xjoyop fiaXKop fj irotTf- 
20 T'^p, 6fju)i(0^ Be K&p et Tt9 airapTa ra pMrpa ptV^pvtop 9 
itoloIto TTfP fUfirjatp Kaddirep ^Xxup'^fioDP iwoiijae KipTav- 
pop fiiKTrfp pa'^tpBiap ef dirdpTtop t&p fiCTpoDp, xal tovtop 

25. T\rfx<&»owrt.v apogr. : rvyxjiviaaiv K^ rotadrat add. apogr. ('aliae 

artes similes vi ' Arabs) : om. A^' 26. tQ airrt} Bk 2) male (Margoliouth) 

fufAothrrou del. Spengel (confirm. Arabs) 27. if apogr. ( * ars instnimenti 

saltationis' Arabs): ol A« : ol <xapt^<rr€pot> Gomperz : ol <xaptA^€j> 
Zeller 6pxv<^'^P^^ ^ male (Margoliouth) 29. HroiroUa secL IJeber- 

weg : om. 2) yf/iKoTs Ij rocs] ^ rocs ^cXocs sive fj ^iXoTs rocs coni Yahlen 

1M7 b 9. ipiipvfios add. Bemays (confirmante Arabe 'quae sine nomine 
est adhuc *) rvyxd^ci odaa Suckow : rvyx^f^ovca A® 15. icard 

r^F Gnelferbytanus : rijp icard A^ iroti^ A^ 16. 4^v<fik6v Heinsios 

(*re physica* Arabs: confirm. Ayerroes): fwwnKdp codd. 22. iukt^p 

om. 2 fUKT^ ^\f/(fidLav del. Tyrwhitt xal rovrw apogr. : icai 

A^ (om. 2) : KoXrw. Bassow : oitK ijSrf Kcd Aid. verba 20-22 6/jloUos d^ 

. . . tQv fjJrpiov post 12 roio&ruy transtnlit Snsemihl, commate post roioi^cuy 
posito, deletis 12 voioiro lijv fUfiijaiv et 22 Kal ToirjTT/jv : sic efficitur ut 


Thus in the music of the flute and of the lyre, 
'harmony' and rhythm alone are employed; also in 
other arts, such as that of the shepherd's pipe, which 
are essentially similar to these. In dancing, rhythm 5 
alone is used without 'harmony'; for even dancing 
imitates character, emotion, and action, by rhythmical 

There is another art which imitates by means of 6^ 
language alone, and^that either in prose or verse — which 
1447 b verse, again, may either combine different metres or con- 
sist of but one kind — but this has hitherto been without 
a name. For there is no common term we could apply to 7 
the mimes of Sophron and Xenarchus and the Socratic ^ 
dialogues on the one hand; and, on the other, to 
poetic imitations in iambic, elegiac, or any similar 
metre. People do, indeed, add the word * maker ' or 
' poet ' to the name of the metre, and speak of elegiac .^ 
poets, or epic (that is, hexameter) poets, as if it were not 
the imitation that makes the poet, but the verse that 
entitles them all indiscriminately to the name. Even 8 
when a treatise on medicine or natural science is brought 
out in verse, the name of poet is by custom given to the 
author ; and yet Homer and Empedocles have nothing in 
common but the metre, so that it would be right to 
call the one poet, the other physicist rather than poet. 
On the same principle, even if a writer in his poetic 9 
imitation were to combine all metres, as Chaeremon did 
in his Centaur, which is a medley composed of metres 

10 I. 9 — II. 4. 1447 b 23 — 1448 a 15 

7roifjT7)v irpoaar/opevreop. irepX fi€v oiv tovtodp Buopi(r0a> 
TovTov TOP Tpoirov clal Be rive^ at iraac jfp&vrai rol^ eiprf- 10 
25 /jL€POi^, Xeya Sk olop pvOfiA teal p^ekei xal fierptp, &<T7r€p 
fj re T&p Bi0vpafifitK&p 'rroirjari^ koI t) t&p pofuop xal ij 
T€ rpay^Bla leal 17 K(Ofi(pBia' Sui<f>€pov<n Sk ort ai fiep 
afia iraavp ai Be Karh fiipo^. ravra^ fikp oip Xerfto ra^ 
Bia<f>opitf; T&p Te^P&P, ep 0Z9 iroiovprai rrjp pip/qaip, 
II 'EttcI Be fiLfiovprai oi fufiovfiepoi, irpdrropra^, apa^Kt) Be 

2448 ft 

TOVTOV^ fj (nrovBaiov^ ff <f>av\ov^ elpai (rib y^p rjOt) (rj(€B6p 
ael rovT069 a/eoXovOei fiopoi^, Kaxia yhp ical apery ra rjOrj 
Buuf)€pov(ri irdpre^), tjtoc fieXriopa^ fj /eaO* fjfia^ fj j(eLpopa^ 
5 fj icaX TotovTOV^, Zairep oi ypa^el^* JloXvypoDTOf; fikp ycLp 
KpeiTTov^, Havatop Be '^eipov^, Atopva-io^; Be ofioLoxn elxa^ep' 
BrjXop Be OTi Kov t&p Xe^deia&p eKoa-Trf /ufjujaewp e^ei 2 
ravra^ tA? Bia<f>opa^ xal ea-rai erepa T<p erepa fiifjLelaOai 
TOVTOP TOP TpoTTOP, Kal jctp ip op^'qaei Kal avXi^aei, xal 3 

10 KcOapLcei, e<TTL yepeaOat Tainan tcl^ apofiotoTfjTa^* teal [to^ 
irepl Toit^i \6yov^ Be Kal ttjp yjnXo/jLeTplap, olop ''O/Aiy/jov 
ft€i/ fie\Tiov^, K.\€o<f>S)p Be 6fiOLOv<i, 'HyijfKDP Be 6 &da'co^ 6 
Ta^ TraptpBia^ iron^o'a^ irp&TO^ Kal ^CKo^dprj^; 6 tt^p AeiXv- 
dBa yelpov^i' o/jLoico^ Be teal irepl rov9 Bidvpdfifiov^ Kal irepl 4 

15 T0U9 p6fiov<;, &<nrep '\'ya<if Kv/cXwTra? T^/io^eo? Kal ^CXo- 

verbis tpwioKbyov iiaKKov ij iroirfrijv frpocrayopevriov conoludatur locus 2 
24. at Aid. 1536 : al Biccardianus 16 : ot A^ 26. diOvpdfiptap apogr. 

28. irSurai apogr. 0^ apogr. : od A^ 29. dts Yettori : aXi codd. 

1448 a 3. Kaxlq. . . . dper^ apogr. 2 : KaxLa . . . dpeHi A^ 7. Bij Morel 

8. T^J apogr. : t6 A® 10. rb om. Aid. : secL Susemihl : ry Bywater 

12. 6 ante rds add. apogr. 13. rpaytfiSLai ut videtur Z ('qui primus 

faciebat tragoediam' Arabs) AeiKidSa A^ pr. m. (recte, ut in Iliadis 

parodia, Tyrrell : cf. Castelvetro) : ArjXidSa apogr. A® corr. (i; supr. « m. rec.) 
15. ibtrirep 7af codd.: &(nrep <*A^aj> Castelvetro: a>$ Hiptras <ical> 
F. Medici : Sxrvep ydp eoni. Yahlen : &air€p oUtujs fort. 2 (^ sicut imitatnr 
quis, sic Gyclopas etc.' Arabs) : &(rv€p oi rot)s coni. Margoliouth 
Ki^KXtaras:'] KVKXwrai A'' 



of all kinds, we should bring him too under the general 
term poet. So much then for these distinctions. 

( There are, again, some arts which employ all the 10 
means above mentioned, — namely, rhythm, time and 

metre. I Such are Dithyrambic and Nomic poetry, and 

also Tragedy and Comedy ; but between them the 
difference is, that in the first two cases these means 
are all employed in combination, in the latter, now one 
means is employed, now another. 

Such, then, are the differences of the arts with respect 
to the medium of imitation. a^? ^lu'^-^ jr 

II Since the objects^ f imitation are men^ action, and ^ — ^ ,^ 

these men must be either of a higher or a lower type iv ,> 
(for moMil character mainly answers to these divisions, 
goodness and Tadness being the distinguishing marks 
of moral differences), it follows that we must represent j 
men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or I ^ ^ 
as they^re. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus ! 
depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less ' 
noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. --^ 7 

Now it is evident that each of the modes of imitation 2 
above mentioned will exhibit these differences, and be- 
come a distinct kind in imitating objects that are thus 
distinct. Such diversities may be found even in dancing, 3 
flute-playing, and lyre-playing. So again in language, 
whether prose or verse unaccompanied by music. Homer, 
for example, makes men better than they are ; Cleophon 
as they are; Hegemon the Thasian, the inventor of 
parodies, and Nicochares, the author of the Deiliad, worse 
than they are. The same thing holds good of Dithyrambs 4 
and Nomes ; here too one may portray different types, as 

12 11. 4 — ni. 3. 1448 a 16—37 

^€z/09* \jicfiii<raiTO av ti^*] iv ry avT'p Bk Bia<f>op^ teal 17 
rpaytpSia irpo^ rrjv /ea>fiq>Siav SieanjKev ij /ikv yhp ^€t- 
pov^ 17 S^ fieXrlov^ fii/jL€ur0ai fiovXerai r&v vvp, 
III "TSnri Sk TOVTODP Tpirrj Bui(f)opct to C09 Sxaara tovtodv fUfjufj- 

20 aaiTO OP Tt9« zeal yhp iv roi^ aifToi^ /eaX rh ainh /u- 
pslaOai S(mv ore p^v airayyiXXovra (7) Srepov ri ytyvo^ 
fjLCVov, &<TW€p "OfiTfpo^ woiel, fj C09 TOP ovTov Kol pjf jiera- 
jSdWovTo), fj iravra^ co? Trpdrrovra^ xal ivepyovvra^ [rov^ 
fjLip4)vp^vov<i], iv Tpial Bif ravrcu^ BuKf)opal^ 17 p^lfirjak io'rtv, 2 

25 <09 eXirop^ev kot ap^d^, iv oU re kov & xdi w. &aT€ ry 
fi€V 6 aifT09 &v elf) fup/qrrjf; 'Ofii]p<p So<f>oK\rj^, p,ifiovjnai 
yetp ap/fxn) aTrovBaiov^, rf} Be Api<rTO<f>dv€t, irpdrrovra^ ya p 
fU/iovvTai KCLL Bp^ *7"r^su^^f*^'^ odcv Kttl Bpdp4iTa KoKei' 8 
adai TLve^ avrd <f>aa'tv, on fiifiovvTai. Bp&vra^, Bbo KaX 

30 dvTLiroiovvrai rrj^ re TparfipBLa<; Kal rfj^ /etop^tpBia^ oi Acd- 
piei^ (t^9 p^v yhp Kmp^Bia^ oi Meyapel^ oi re ivravOa 
<»9 iirl T^9 'Trap avroc^ Brfp^OfcpaTia^ yevopAvrj^, Kal oi ix 
Xife€\ia<;, ixeWev yhp Jjv ^^irL')(app,o^ 6 iroirfTtj^ ttoXXcS 
irporepo^ &v ^looviBov /cal ^dyvrfT0<:' Kal rrj^ rpa/ytpBia^ 

35 evLoi T&v iv TleKoirovvrjO'tp) iroiovp^evoi rit ovop/ira a^qpslov 
avrol p^v yhp Ka>p/i^ rh^ irepiOLKiBa^ Ka\uv <f>a(n,v, ^AOrj- 
vaiov^ Bk Brip^ov^, a>9 KtopxpBov^ ovk diro rov KoapA^etv \6- 

16. [/a/i^(rcuro (iv ns] secludendum coni. Vahlen ri airri bk Vettori 

(* in eadem discrepantia ' Arabs) : toOtxi bk r^ M. Casaubon : oAt^ hk tq codd. 
18. rG>v vvv om. ut videtur 2 21. ink pi^p . . . yiyp6fi€voy] <^)> ork 

fiiv dwayyiXKovra < ork 8' > ^repdp ri yiyv6fJtsvov Zeller, recte, ut opinor : 
eodem fere pervenit Arabem secntus Margoliouth n seol. Zeller, Spengel 

22. r^ seel. Bywater 23. Trdi^as] Trdrra I. Casaubon to^ fufiov- 

fUvom seclusi (olim seel. Vahlen): tuetur Z: [roi)s] /ufMi&fieyov Friedriohs, 
Schmidt 25. Kal d Kal &i] dvayKaluti ut videtur Z koX d om. A^ : 

add. apogr. (confirm. Arabs) 32. drjfioKpaTelas A^ 34. XkopISov 

Robortello (confirm. Arabs) : x<("'^^ot^ -^^ 3^* fort. < 5' > ^un Bywater 

36. ai>ro2 Spengel: oSrot codd. 'AOiffvaiovs edit. Oxon. 1760 et Spengel: 

ddrfvaioi codd. (cf. 1460 b 35), tuetur Wilamowitz 



Timotheus and Philoxenus differed in representing their 
Cyclopes. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from f — 

Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, \ 

Tragedy as better than in actual ITfeT — 

III There is still a third diff erence — the manner in which i 

each of these objects, may be imitated. For the me<^uggL 
being the same, and the objects the same, the poet may 
imitate by narration — ^in which case he can either take r'^^^^ *"^ 
another personality as Homer does, or speak in his own 
person, unchanged — or he may present all his characters 
as living and moving before us. 

^ These, then, as we said at the beginning, are the 2 
three differences which distinguish artistic imitation, — 
uhe medium, the objects, and the manner i) So that from * 

one point of view, Sophocles is an imitator of the same 
kind as Homer — for both imitate higher types of • 
character; from another point of view, of the same kind r' 
as Aristophanes — for both imitate persons acting and 
doing. Hence, some say, the name of ' drama ' is given 3 
to such voev^^_Mr^j^v^ntin§^B^tion. For the same -{ 
reason the Dorians claim the invention both of Tragedy f>-^ 
and Comedy. The claim to Comedy is put forward by 
the Megarja ns, — not only by those of Greece proper, who - 
allege that it originated under their democracy, but also by 
the Megar ians of Sicily, for the poet Epicharmus, who is 
much earlier than Chionides and Magnes, belonged to that 
country. Tragedy too is claimed by certain Dorians of — • 
the Peloponnese. In each case they appeal to the 
. evidence of language. Villages, they say, are by them 
called K&^ac, by the Athenians Srjfioi : and they assume — 
that Comedians were so named not from Kto/ui^eiv, ' to ^ 

V  -■ 

U III. 3— IV. 6. 1448 a 38—1448 b 23 

'XOkvra^ oKKa rrj Karh Konfia^ irkavrj arifjua^ofievov^ ix rov 
1448 b aareoi^. xal to iroislv airroi ficv Spav, 'A0ffvalov^ Be 
irparreLV irpoaa/yopevevv, irepl fUv oiv r&v Sui<f>op&i/ 4 
Kol iroaaL koI rvpe^ t^9 fiifn^ceo)^ elpi^cOfo ravra. 
ly ^Koixcun Be jeinnjaai fiev oXco? t^p woiffTiKrfV cdriai, hvo 

5 TLve<; KaX avrai (f)v<rt/c€U. to re yap fiifieiaOac avp^vrov 2 
T0C9 avOpayjroi^ ix 7raiS(ov earl, xal rovrtp BuKJyepovcc 
T&v dXKcov ^cptov on fup/qri^icdinaTov iari ical ra^ futOrj' 
(Tei^ iroLelrai Btk fjufju^ceo)^ ra^ irporras, KaX to ^aipeiv 
Tot^ fjLifjLi]fuuTc irdma^. afffieiov Bk tovtov to avfju/Salvov 3 

10 eVl T&v ^pyoiv a yhp aink Xtnrrjpw op&fiev, tovtodv tA? 
elxova^ Ta^ fjuaXto'Ta '^/cptjSwfieva^ '^a^pofiev OeajpovvTe^, olou 
0r)pi(ov Te /MOp(f>a^ t&v dTifLOTaTcov xal vexp&v, oXtlov Be 4 
teal tovtov, otl fiavddveiv ov fiovov toI^ <f>i\oa'6<f>oi^ rjBiaTov 
dWa Kol TOi^ aWot9 ofxoUi)^, dW* eirl ^pa'^v koivodvov- 

15 (Tcv avTov, Bid yap tovto j(aLpovai Ta^ eixova^ op&vTe^, otl 5 
cvfi^aivei ^i^topppvTa^ fiav0dvetv xal avWoyi^ecdai tl Ixa- 
OTOV, otov OTL oJno^ exelvo^' eTrei idv /mt) Tvj(y irpoeaypatcco^, 
ov^ y fiifirffia iron^aec ttjv '^Bovrjv dWd Bid Ttfv direp- 
ya^iav fj Ttjv ^otdv fj Bid TOiaxmiv Tcvd dWrjv alTiav, 

20 /caTd (l>va'iv Bif ovto^ fjiilv tov fjuifieiaOac xal ttj^ dpfiovia^ 6 
Kal TOV pvOfiov (rd ydp p^Tpa otl fiopLa t&v pvdfi&v eoTL 
<f)avep6v) ef dpj(rj<; ire^VKOTe^ xal axnd frnKLora kotu 
fiLKpbv irpoarfovTe^ eyiwrjaav Ttfv TroLtfCLv ex t&v avToajfe- 

1448 b 1. KoX rb voiciv . . . vpoffayopcikiv om. Arabs 4. S\(as om. 

Arabs 5. adrcu Aid. : airal A^ 13. koX to&tov apogr. (confirm. 

Arabs) : xal tovto k^ : [koI toi5tov] Zeller : koX [Toirovl Spengel : koX < X670S > 
To&rov Bonitz 18. oi^ J Hermann, et 2, ut videtnr : otxl codd. 

T^y ^ov^v om. Arabs 20. 5^ coni. Vahlen : ^k codd. 22. koI aiJrd] 

irpbi a-irrb. Aid. : <€l%> aWb. koX Gomperz: Koi ainb, post fuiXurra traiciendum 
esse coni. Susemibl 


revel/ but because they wandered from village to village ^ ^ 
(fcara Kwfias;), being excluded contemptuously from the '^ 
1448b city. They add also that the Dorian word for 'doing' 

is hpav, and the Athenian, irpdrrecv. ^^ 

This may suffice as to the number and nature of the 4 
various modes of imitation. 
IV '^ Poetry in general seems to have sprung from two. 7 
causes^ ,each of them lying deep in our nature. First, the 2 
instinct of imitajtion is implanted in man from childhood, "" 
one difference between him and other animals being that 
he is the most imitative of living creatures u a^d through ^^ 
imitation he learns his earliest lessons ; and no less 
uiHi^fiilTr^lKe "pleas^^^ felt in things imitated. We 8 
Tiave evidence of this in the facts of experience. 
Objects which in themselves we )^view with pain, we p/^(M*f^' 

j! '. 

delight to contemplate when reproduced with minute 
fidelity : such as the forms of the most ignoble animals 
and of dead bodies. The cause of this again is, that to 4 
learn give s the liveliest pleasure, ng.LonlyJa.philQaQphePS 
but to men in general; whose capacity, however, of 
learning is more limited. Thus the reason why men 6 \^ 
enjoy seeing a likeness is, that in contemplating it they 
find themselves learning or inferring, and saying perhaps, 
'Ah, thatis^^e/ For if you happen not to have seen ^^ 
the original, the pleasure will be due not to the imitation _^ 
as such, but to the execution, the colouring, or some such 
other cause. 

Imitation, then, is one instinct* of our nature. Next, 6Y • 
there is the instinct for 'harmony 'and rhythm, metres , «, iv 

being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, 
starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their 

\ ;^^ ''1 - 

16 IV. 7 — II. 144^ b 24 — 1449 a 7 

Buurfidrmv, hietnTaaOri hk tearct ret plKcia ijOrf rf irolffa-i^' 7 
25 01 fi€V yap ccfivorepoL rh^ koXA^ ifivfiovvro irpd^ei^ teal 
Ta9 T&p TOiovTfov, 01 Se eifreKearrepov rh^ r&v (f>av\(iop, 
irpSnov '^oyov^ iroiovvref;, &aw€p irepot vfivov<: koX iyKci/j,ia> 
T&p p^p oSp irpo *Ofii]pov ovBepo^ €j(p/jL€P elTreiP toiovtop 8 
TroCvffJui, etfcb^ Se eipai iroWov^, diro Se ^Oiirfpov ap^apApoL^ 
30 ioTLP, olop ixeipov 6 Mapyiri]^ koI ra roiavra. iv ol^ xal 
TO dpp^oTTOP [lap,^€iop^ ^\0€ p^Tpop, Sto Koi lap^fielop, xa- 
XetTac pvp, OTi, ip r^ p4Tpq> tovt^ tdp^^v^op oKKrjkov^, #eal 9 
iyipoPTO T&p iraXai&p oi phf rfptoLK&p oi ik idp,PfOP iroirj- 
TaL &<nr€p Sk xal to, CTTOvBaia pAXcara TroirjTrf^ "'O/itiypo? 
35 ^^ (p^po^ ykp ou^ oti, ei dXK<.a> [pTi\ xai p,i,p/ri<reL^ Spapba- 
TVKct^ iiroirjo'ep), ovtod^ koX Th tt)? Kotp^tpSia^ ^^(ripuiTa 
irp&TO^ vTriSei^ep, ov '^oyop dXKd to yekolop SpapuaTO- 
iroiri<ra^* 6 yhp Ma/yytT?;? dpaXoyop e)(€c, Acirep 'I\^9 
1449 a /cal rj ^OBvaaeca 7rpo<; Tct<i Tpay^Sia^, ovtco /cat OVT09 tt/oo? 
T^9 Kwpitpiia^, irapaif>ap€iari<: hk t^9 Tpar/(pSia<i fcal kw- 10 
putphLa^ oi 6^' exaTepap TtfP 7rolr)<np oppb&PTe^ Kord Ttfp 
olKciap <f>v(rtp oi pkp optX t&p idpifitop KdopL^SoTroiol iyi- 
5 popTOy oi ik dpTX T&p hr&p TptiyipBoStSda'/caXoi, Std to 
p^i^opa Kal iin-cpLOTcpa tcl a-')(rip,aTa elpcu TavTa eKelpoDp, 
TO pbkp oZv hno'KOiretp el dp e^ei ijSrf 17 TpaytpBia to?9 11 

27. drepw, Spengel : erepot codd. 30. koX (post ofs) Aid. : Kard A^ 

81. lafi^iov (bis) A^ lafipeiov ante ^\^e seel. Stahr 35. dXXA Bonitz 

(confirm. Arabs) : dXX* 3rt codd. : d\X iri Tucker dpafMTuciis A^ et S : 

dpafiariKQs apogr. 38. 6 apogr. : rb A^ 1449 a 6. /lel^ova apogr. : 

/jLcTi^ov Ac 7. €l AfM lx« apogr. : irapix^i Ac : dip* lx« Vahlen 


special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth 
to Poetry. 

Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to 7 
the individual character of the writers. The grav er ^ 

spirits imitated nnhlp. ft/>t.inng^ AnH f.hft fmfmna nf _. f^C^"^^' " 

good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions 

of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as — 

the former did hynms to the gods and the praises of 

famous men. A poem of the satirical kind cannot s 

indeed be put down to any author earlier than Homer ; 

though many such writers probably there were. But 

from Homer onward, instances can be cited,— his own 

Margites, for example, and other similar compositions. 

The ajpj^opyiate-^-me^ W6is also here introduced ; hence ^ 

the measure is still called the iambic or lampooning I -' 

measure, being that in which people lampooned one 

another. Thus the older poets were distinguished as 9 

writers of heroic or of lampooning verse. 

As, in the serious style. Homer is pre-eminent among 

poets, for he alone combined dramatic form with 

excellence of imitation, so he too first laid down the 

main lines of Comedy, by dramatising the ludicrous 

instead of writing personal satire. His Mai^tes bears 

1440 a the same relation to Comedy that the Iliad and Odyssey 

do to Tragedy. But when Tragedy and Comedy came lo 

to light, the two classes of poets still followed their 

natural bent : the lampooners became writers of Comedy, 

and ^the Epic poets were_ succeeded by Tragedians, 

since Jbhe_ drama was a larger and higher form of 


Whether Tragedy has as yet perfected its proper li 


18 IV. II— IS- 1449 a 8— 28 

elSeaiv tKavm ^ ov, avro re Koff avro i'Kpiverac 17 vaff 
ical irpo^Tct 0eaTpa,aKKo^\o^o^. yepofievrj <S'> oiv dirap'^rj^: 12 

10 avToo'jfeSuicm/ci], koI avrtf xal 17 KayfitpSla, xai 17 fih/ airo 
r&v i^ap^opTODv rov SiOvpafi/Sop, 17 Se dirb r&v rh ^^- 
\iKh h en Koi vvv iv iroSXal^ r&v iroKetov htafieveu vo- 
fii^ofieva, Karct fiixpov rjv^0r} irpoa/yovrtov ocov iyiyvero 
<f>av€pbv avrfjf;, teal iroXkh^ fiera^dXAf; fieTa^dKovca 17 

15 rptvytpSla cTravcaro, i^rel Icrj^e rrjv avrrj^ <f>v(rtv, koX to 13 

T€ T&V VTTOKpiT&V TtXtJOo^ 6^ €1/09 6t9 BvO ITp&TO^ Alo^V- 

\o9 ijyarfe koX rd rov %o/5oi; ^XdrTtoae koX tov \oyov 
Trp(OTar/(ovi,crTffv irapeaKevaaevy rpel^ hi koI <rfCffvoypa<f>lav 
So(f>OK\rjf;, iItl hk to fieyeOo^; ck fii/cp&v fivd(ov xal \e- 14 

20 f 6a>9 7€Xota9 Sid to ix trarvpiKov /JLerajSaXeZv oyfrk dire- 
aefivvvOrj, to t€ pATpov iic rerpapATpov iap^^eiov iyiveTO' 
TO fiev yap irp&TOv T€Tpafi€Tp(p iyp&vTO hid to aaTVpi/crfv 
Koi 6p')(rjaTi/c(0T€pav elvai ttjv irol/qaiv, Xef 6G)9 he yei/ofiivrj^ 
avTT) 17 <f>v<n^ TO oIkeIov ficTpov €ifp€' fidkuTTa ydp Xckti- 

25 Kov T&V pArptov TO lap^/Selov ioTiv a'qpslov hk tovtov 
TrkeloTa ydp iafijSela Xiyop^v iv t^ hiaXeKT^ Ty irpo^ 
aXKrjXjov^f e^dp^Tpa hk oXiyaKt^ /cat ifcfiaivovTe^ t^9 Xe- 
KTiKTjf; dpp,ovia^. en he eireia-ohiayv irKriOrj koX tA oXX* 15 

8. Kplperou ij pal • Kcd A^ : pcU seel. Bursian : KplveTcu. ehou, xal apogr. : KpTvcu 
Kal Forchhammer : fort. Kplverai eXvou ^ koI : airrtb re Kar* aihrb ehrai 
KpeiTTov ij rpbs Bdrepa S ut videtur (MargoHoath) 9. yevofihti 8* odv 

Bekker : yevofuhti odv apogr. : yevofUyrji odp A^ 10. a^oaxeSiaaruc'ij 

apogr.: aOroffX^SiaaTiKiis A^ 11. 0a\Xiicd apogr.: 0ai;XX(icd A<^ : <pav\iKit 

vel 0auXa 2 12. Suifiivci apogr. : Siafi^pciv A<^ 15. airr^ Bekker : 

iavTTJs apogr.: a&rijs A® 19. X^|ewj] X^|etf 2 (* orationes ' Arabs) : <:^ 

X^|cf iK> \4^€<as Christ. Omissum vocabulum coUato Arabe id esse Mar> 
goliouth suspicatur cuius vice Graeculi vrjnfyopla usurpant 20. aarvpiaKoO 

A® 21 et 25. lafi^lov A^ 27. i^dfierpa] Terpd/urpa Winstanley 

els Xe/tnicV apfiovLav Wecklein (cf. Rbet. ill. 8. 1408 b 82): codicum 
lect. tutatur Arabs verba 25 cripuHov — 28 dpfiwlas suadente Usener 

seel. Susemihl 28. post irXi^^i; punctum del. Gomperz AXXa ws 

apogr. : dWtas A^ : dXXa ofs Hennann 


I types or not ; and whether it is to be judged in itself, or 
'P^ in relation also to the audience, — this raises another 
question. Be that as it may, T raged y — as also Comedy 12 
— was at fir st mere improvisation. The one originated 


with the leader of the Dithyramb, the other with those 
of the p hallic songs, which are still in use in many of 1 h^^ ' *^ 
our cities. Tragedy advanced by slow degrees; each 
new element that showed itself was in turn developed. 
Having passed through many changes, it found its natural 
form, and there it stopped. 

Aeschylus first introduced a second actor ; he dimin- is — ~ 



ished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the 1 ^ 

leading part to the dialogue. /Sophocles raised the number 1 - 

of actors to three, and added scene-painting.) Moreover. 14 

it was not till late that the short plot was discarded for \ 

one of greater compass, and the grotesque diction of the ^^^'^''^ZT 

earlier satyric form for the stately manner of Tragedy. O^ts' , ^ 

The iambic measure then replaced the trochaic tetra meter , 

which was originally employed when the poetry was of ^ "— . 

the satyric order, and had greater affinities with dancing, ^ 

Once dialogue had come in. Nature herself discovered the 
appropriate measure. For the iambic is, of all measures, 
the most colloquial: we see it in the fact that con- 
versational speech runs into iambic form more frequently 
than into any other kind of verse; rarely into hexa- 
meters, and only when we drop the colloquial in- 
tonation. The additions to the number of * episodes ' or ^^ 
acts, and the other improvements of which tradition 
tells, must be taken as already described ; for to discuss 


20 IV. IS — ^V. 4. 1449 a 29 — 1449 b II 

©9 eKocra Kocfj/rjOrjvai Xeyera* ecrro) rjiuv eiprffMeva' iro- 
3oXtr yetp &v ?(ro>9 efyyov etrf Sie^Upac Ka0* IxaoTOv. 

V ^H $6 K€Ofi(pSia iarlv mtrrrep etirofiev fiifirjo'i^ <f)av\oT€p<ov 

/JL€V, ov fiePTOC xarcL ircUrav Kaxiav, aXKct rod alaj(pov 
iarv TO yekoiov fioptov. to ykp yeXxuov ianv dfidpTij- 
fid TL KaX alayp^ dv(oSvvov Kal ov <f>0apTCK6v, olov ev- 

35 Oif^ TO yeXotov irpoamirov ala'^pov tc xal SceoTpafifiipov 
avev dSvw^. ai pJev oiv 7^9 TpaytphLa^ p^Tafidaet^ Kal 2 
it &v iyevovTO ov XeXi^Oaaiv, jn Se icwpx^hia SicL to fir) 
(nrovSd^eaOac ef dp^rj^ e\ad€v\ KaX yap xo/ooi/ K0i>/jup8&v ' 
1449 h oy^e iroTe 6 dp^ayv eScoKev, a\X' ideXovTal fjaav. i^Srj Be 
ay^^fjMTd TLva avTrj^ i'^ovarf^ oi \ey6fi€V0i, avTrj^ iroirfTal 
jj^vfffiovevojnai, Tt9 Be irpoacnTra diriBooKev ^ irpoXoyow; fj 3 
ifKridr) tnroKpiT&v Kal oaa TOtatha, fjyvoriTai. to Bi julv- 
5 0ov<: TTOtelv ['E7r/;^a/3/LM)9 Kal <I>o/o/Lct9] to fiev ef dp^f; 
€K ^CKckla^ ^\0€, T&v Be *A0i]V7)(riv KpaTi;9 irp&To^i fjp^ev 
d^ejievo^ 7^9 lafi^cKrj^ IBea^; Ka06\ov iroielv X070U9 Kal 
fiv0ov<;. 17 fiev oiv eiroiroda ttj Tpar/epBia p^XP'' f^^ '^^^ fierd 4 
jj,€Tpov \jjb€yd\ov^ p»ip/qaLf; elvac (nrovBai(ov riKo\ov07iaev' to3 

10 S^ TO iierpov difKjovv e'xeiv Kal dirayyeXlav elvai, TavTjj 

29. v€pl fjuhf ohf To&ruv TOffaOra add. Aid. ante iar<a 32. dXX' J tov 

alffxpoO Friedreich : dXXd <icard t6 yeXotop, > tov <8*> aUrxpou Christ : *sed 
tantum res ridicula est de genere foedi quae est portio et ridicula ' Arabs, i. e. 
dXXd fx&vov t6 ycXdidp i<m tov oUaxpov 6 fjJipibv itrri Kal t6 yeXoiov 2, quod ex 
duabus lectionibus conflatum esse censet Susemihl (1) dXXd /idpiov ithvonf t6 
yekoUv i<m tov aiaxpov, (2) dXXd tov alaxpov fi6pi6» i<m Kal rd yeXoiop 
33. yiXoiop (bis) A<^ 1449 b 3. o2 Xeydfiepoi] dXlyoi fukp oi Oastelvetro : 

dXlyoi fUp [oZ] Usener 4. vpoXiyovs A^ : vp6Xoyop Christ : Xiyovs Her- 

mann 6. *ETrl)(apiMS koI ^6pfui seel. Susemihl : <:iKci$€P yhp •fyrnip^ 

*Evlx<ipp^oi Kal ^pfus post ^X$€ By water, coUato Themistio, Or. xzvii p. 337 A, 
recte, ut opinor 8. eld^as A^ 9-10. /x^xp* /^ """o^ /*€rd fUTpov Thurot 

(cf. Arab.) : /a^xP* m^pov /jLiTpov /x€7dXov codd. : fiixpt'/J^y rovfj^Tpip <ip fi'/JKei>- 
fjkeydXtp coni. Susemihl : m^xP^ m^v tov fUTptp Tyrwhitt : a^^x/^ fji^pov <roO dtb. 
Xhyov iti.>fUTpov /teydXov Ueberweg 10. fxeydXov codd. : secL Bursian: 

/Acrd Xbyov Aid. et, ut videtur, S ry Aid.: r6 A^ 11. ratJr?; A« 


them in detail would, doubtless, be a large under- 15 

V ^ Comedy is, as we have said, an imitation of characters ^ ^^ ti y 
of a lower type,^ — not, however, in the full sense of the 
word bad, the Ludicrous being merely a subdivision of --,. 
the ugly. It consists in some defect or ugliness which 
is not painful or destructive. To take an obvious » - ,v/ 
example, the comic mask is ugly and distorted, but does «-— 
not imply pain. 

The successive changes through which Tragedy passed, 2 
and the authors of these changes, are well known, whereas ' 
^ Comedy has had no history, because it was not at first 
1449 b treated seriousl^. It was late before the Archon granted ^ riU"' ' 
a comic chorus to a poet ; the performers were till then 
voluntary. Comedy had already taken definite shape 
when comic poets, distinctively so called, are heard of. 
Who introduced masks, or prologues, or increased the 3 
number of actors,— these and other similar details re- 
main unknown. As for the plot, it came originally from — ^ I *■ ''^ 
Sicily ; but of Athenian writers Crates was the first who, r i 
.■Sfdadng the . i«nbic • or la^poTmng fo™,^«d - ' 
his themes and plots. 
^ Epic poetry agrees with Tragedy in so far as it is an 4 
imitation in verse of characters of a higher type. They 
differ , in that( Epic poetry admits but one kind of 
metre, and is narrative in fprnt They differ, again, 

V ' "" ' " 

22 V. 4 — VL 4. 1449 b 12 — 34 

Sia(f>€pova'iv' en Sk r^ fii]K€c, <e7r€l> 17 /i€i' on fiaXioTa 
ireiparat inro fiiav irepioSov fjXiov elvai rj juKpov i^aXKarrecv, 
fi he iTTOTToiCa dopicTo^ tcS XP^^^* '^^^ roirnp Sunpepei* KairoL 
15 TO irp&Tov ofioUo^ iv Tal^: Tpayq>Sicu^ tovto iTToiow icav ev 
Tol^ eiretrtv. fJ^cprj 8* iarl ret pjkv ravrd, ra Se IBva rrj^ 5 
Tparf^hia^* Scoirep oari^ irepl rpaytpSia^ olSe (nrovoaia^ 
Kol (f>av\rf^, olSe koX irepl iir&v h fikv yap hrowovui 
ej^et, inrdp^ev ry rpar/tpSia, a Sk avrrj, ov irdvra ev rrj 

20 eirty/roda. 


. \^^. 

VI Hepl fiev oiv t^9 iv e^afierpoi^; fiifirjTi,K7J<; ical irepl kw- 

fjupSia^ varepov ipovfiev, irepl Sk rparftpSia^ Xeymfiev dva- 

^t^*^ T ^ "KajSoirrc^ avT^9 iic r&v elprjfievmv top yivoiievov opov t^9 

f ovaia^i. earvv ovv rpaytpSla fjulfjurfo-i*: Trpafeo)? avrovBaia^ 2 

25 ical reXeia^i fieyeOo^ ijfpvo'ff^, mSvafih/tp Xo7"gj X®/^^^ e/cd- 

n OTtp r&v elS&v ij^ TW^^ooioi^, Bpcoprtov xal ov Be* diray 

yeXla^, BC i\iov koX <f>6fiov irepaivovaa rrfv r&v roiovrcov 
"^ iraOfffidrtov KdOapaiv, Xeyo} Be riBvapAvov /lev \6yov rov 3 

\:. 0^ \ e'xpina pvdfiov /cal dpfioviav koI fieXo^, ro Be x^P^^ '^^^^ 

ii^^ 30 etBeai to Bia fMerpayv epia fjuovop irepaiveaOai kol irdXiv erepa 
Biib fieXov^. €7rel Be irpdrrovre^ iroiovprai rrjv fiifirfo'cv, 4 
irp&Tov fikv ef dvdrfKTi^ civ elrf ri fiopiov rpaytpBia^ 
T^9 8y^ea><: Koaixo^f elra fieXoTrovia xal Xe^t?* iv rovroi^i yap 
iroLovvrav rrjv plp/qcLv. \ey<o Be \i^iv fiev airijv rrjv r&v 

X ' '■ 


12. Sia<f>ip€i Hermann (confinn. Arabs) <iir€l> ij /ih Gomperz: <{> 

ij fUv coni. Vahlen : <ei> ^ fih Tucker : ij fUv yiip apogr. 14. ra&ru) 

(? TOVTO pr. m.) A° 8ia<f>ipov(nv Christ 16. iveaiv et Airaa-i var. lect. 

2 (Diels), 'in omnibus epesi' Arabs rai5r4 apogr.: raOra A^ 19. 

aMji A« : aMj apogr. : aUrrj Reiz : 4p airrS Richards 21. fiiv add. apogr. : 

om. A° 22. dva\a^6vT€s Bemays : dvoXa^dyTcs codd. 25. eKdart^ 

Tyrwhitt : iKdoTov codd. 28. To.6rjfu6i.Toav corr. apogr. , 2 : fiaBrjfjLdTogy 

A® 29. KoX juAos] Kal fiiTpov Vettori: seel. Tyrwhitt 30. fj.6uov'\ 

At6pia S ('partes* Arabs) 34. aMjv] Ta&njp BywAter 

J ■:'.>' 


in their length: for ^Tragedy endeavours, as far as 
possible, to confine itself to a single revolutionj of the -T^ME 
sun, or but slightly to exceed this limit ; whereas the <i \j^ 
I^i^€U3tipn, has no limits of time. This, then, is a 
second point of difference; though at first the same 
freedom was admitted in Tragedy as in Epic poetry. 

Of their constituent parts some are common to both, 5 
some peculiar to Tragedy. Whoever, therefore, knows 
what is good or bad Tragedy, knows also about Epic 
poetry :( for all the elements of an Epic poem are found ■> 
in Tragedy, but the elements of a Tragedy are not all i-^- 
found in the Epic poem.) 
VI Of the poetry which imitates in hexameter verse, and I 

of Comedy, we will speak hereafter. Let us now discus* ' Y^ 

Tragedy, resuming its formal definition, as resulting from 
what has been already said. 
y Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is 2 <#-~ 

seri^, complete, and of a certain magnitude fin language 
embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the 
several kinds being found in separate parts of the play ; ? 

in the form of action, not of narrative ; through pity and 
fear effecting the pro per p urgation of th ese emotionsyBy 8 
'language embellished,' I mean language'lnto which 
rhythm, 'harmony,' and song enter. By * the several kinds 
in separate parts,' I mean, that some parts are rendered 
through the medium of verse alone, others again with 
the aid of song. ^ 

Now as tragic imitation implies persons acting, it neces- 4^ 
sarily follows, in the first place, that Spectacular equip- 
ment will be a part of Tragedy. Next, Song and Diction, 
for these are the medium of imitation. By ' Diction '^s> 


24 VI. 4—9- 1449 t> 35—145© a 15 

35 fjUrpoiv avvOea-LVy fiekoiroilav Bk o rrjv Svvafiiv (f>av€p^v 
<ilO .^ ^X^^ irao'Lv. iirel Se TrpdPeo)^ iarc fiifitfat^, Trpdrrerai Se 5 
V inro TLv&v irparrovrtov, 0&9 dvarfKt) ttoiov^ nva^ elvai Kara 

T€ TO fjOo^; xal TTfv Stdvoiav (^Btct yhp tovtwv koX Ta<i 
itfo a 7rga^i<; elval <f)afi€P iroid^ riva^, *rr€<f>vtC€V Be oXtul Bvo t&v 
wpd^ ewv elvav, Bidvoiav KaX fj6o^, teal /caret ravra^ koI 
rvy^dvovac xal d'7rorvyj(dvovac wdvres;), eartv Srf 7^9 fJi^v 6 
^ irpd^eoD^ 6 fivdo^ f) filfir}(n^* Xeyo) yhp fivOov rovrov, rrjv 
5 avvOea-LV r&v irpa/yijArcDv, ra he fjOrf, xad* h ttoiov^ rtva^ 
elvai <f)afi€V rov^ irpdrrovra^, Bidvoiav Be, iv oaoc^ Xeyov- 
Te9 drroBeiicvvaa-iv re fj KaX d'iro<f>aivovraL yitwyi/riv. avd^KT) 7 
oJfv irdcrj^ rpar/tpBia^ f^^pV ^Ivai ef, Kad* h irotd Tt9 ioTlv 
fl rpaytpBia* ravra S' ia-rl fivOo^ KaX tjOtj KaX X^ft9 KaX 
10 Bidvota KaX 6yjn^ KaX fieXowoiia. oU p^v yap fiip^vvrac, 
Bvo fiiprj iariv, 0)9 Bk fiifiovvrai, €v, & Be fitfiovvrat, rpCa, 
KaX irapa ravra ovBev, rovroi^ fiev oiv <rrdvre^'> [ovk oKir/ot 8 
avr&v]d)^ elirelv Ke'xprjvrat to?9 elBeatv* KaX ykpo'^ei^ ^ei irav 
KaX ffOo^ KaX fivOov koI Xe^cv koI fiiXo^ koX Bedvotav axrav- 
15 Tft)9. fieyecTov Be rovroov iarXv rj r&v rrpayfidroov avtrraai^' 9 


85. ^p<ap] dvoyuiruw Hermann, collato 1460 b 15 36. ira/nv Maggi : 

TToxrav codd. 38. did dk Zeller 8idL yd.p To&ruty , . . Trdyres in 

parenthesi Thurot 1450 a 1. iri<t>VK€v ^ apogr. : vi<l>vK€v A^ ahia 

codd. : alriai Christ 3. d^ Eucken : 8k codd. 4. toOtov] tovto 

Maggi: seel. Christ (cf. Arab.) 5. Ka06 A<^: Ka0* A apogr. 8. 

KOfS* A TTotd apogr. : KaOoirola A^ 12. o{fK 6\Lyoi ttdrCop us elvew codd. : 

6\lyov ain-uv < Airavres > «s cl'n-eiy coni. By water : o&k dXLyoi airuv < dXXd 
x(£i'Tey> ws elTctv Bnrsian : oiiK d^dyoi ain-wv om. 2, sed vdvrwi {}=^v6.VT€t) 
add. (yid. Margoliouth). Secluso igitur tanquam glossemate oifK 6\iyot 
ain-iavj scripsi <irdi^ej> «f elveiv : cf. Rhet. j. 1, 1364 a 12, 6X/7oi' codd.: 
o^dh ws elireTv A^ marg., ubi SKlyov glossema esse suspicor, veram lect. oifdkv 
u>s elireip : Dem. or. xxxviii. 6 irdvTtav tCjv vXcUttuv u)s elircip, ubi r&v 
vXeiffTcay secluserim. Viam monstravit Diels, qui tamen irdyres quoque 
omisso, To&rois fikv odv ws el-n-eiv scripsit : o^k dXlyoi airuv < dXX* iy Tcurt 
'irdvr€i> Gomperz : o^k 6\lyoi airrQy <:d\\d irdyrci 7ra<ri> Zeller: <irdyrej 
iy wvLaiy a{fTi)s> Susemihl 18. tf^ets 7el trj/iv apogr. : ^^is A<^ vw 

iure suspezeris 


I mean the mere metrical arraiigement of the words : 
as for ' Song/ it is a term whose sense every one under- 
I /Again, Tragedy is the imitatioii of an action! and an 5 
•paction implies personal agents, who necessarily possess 
certain distinctive qualities both of character and thought; 
1460 a for it is by these that we qualify actions themselves, 
and these — thought and character — are the two natural 
causes from which actions spring, and on actions again 
all success or failure depends. Hence, the Plot is the 6 
imitation of the action: — for by plot I here. mean the ^ 
arrangement of the incidents. By Character I mean 
that in virtue of which we ascribe certain qualities to 
the agents. Thought is required wherever a statement 
is proved, or, it may be, a general truth enunciated. 
Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which 7 

parts determine its quality — namely. Plot, ^^^yacter. ^ 

D iction , Thoifeht , S pectacl e, Sopg . f Two of the parts con- 
stitute the medium of imitation, one the manner, and three 
the objects of imitation.] And these complete the list. 
These elements have been employed, we may say, by the 8 
poets to a man; in fact, every play contains Spectacular 
elements as well as 'Character, Plot, Diction, Song, and 

( But most important of all is the structure of the 9 


26 VI. 9 — 14- 145° a i6 — 37 

17 ^kp TpayqySia fUfirjaif; iartv ovk avOpdaircov aXKk irpd- 
^۩9 KoX fiiov <6 Se fiio^> iv irpd^ et iarlv xal to reXo^ 
7f/ga^9 Tt9 iariv, ov Trotoriy?' elalv Sk Kara psv rh ijOtf iroiol 10 
T*i/69, tcarh Se Ta<; *n-pd^€t^ evSaifiove^ rj jovvavriov, ovkoup 

20 07ra>9 Tct fjdr) fiifi'^cfovrac irpdrTovaiv, oKKk rk ffOrf av/i- 
TrapaXafifidvova-i^v Sia tA? 7r£af€t9' wore ra irpdrfiuna koX 
o fw0o^ T€\o9 T^9 TpoytpSia^, TO Sk T€\o9 fJieyiCTOv airdmaov. 
€Tt av€v fjbkv irpd^eco^ ovk &v yivoiTO TptvytpBia, avev 8^ 11 
TjO&v yevoLT dv. ai yap t&v vemv t&v irkeioTdDV drjOei^ 

25 TpaytpSiat eialv ical oXa>9 TroirjTal iroWol tovovtoc, olov Koi 
T&v ypa(f>4oi)v Zevft9 7rpo9 TloXvyveoTov TriirovOev 6 psv yap 
TloXvyvtoTo^ dyado^ rj0oypd<f>o^, 17 Se ZeuftSo9 ypo^<f>V ovBkv 
i'^CL fjdo^. €TL idv TA9 6^6f^ 9 6^ p'qaeL'i ^0iKd<i Kol Xe^ec 12 
ical Stavoia ei ireiroi^rjiievas, ov Troiijaei o rjv t^9 Tparft^- 

30 Swt9 €pyov, d\\d TToXu fiaWov rj KaraheeoTepoi,^ tovtoc^ 
/e€y(p7jfiivr) Tpar/tpBia, 6')(pv<Ta Be fjLv0ov xal avaraariv Trpa- 
yfiaTODV. TTpo^ Be tovtoi^ Th pJer^KTTa 0I9 ylrv^xwytayeZ fj 13 
Tpa/ytpBia, tov fivOov fieprj ioTiv, aX re irepmrereiai Kal dva- 
yjmpla-ei^. cTt a-rjfielov oTt Kal oi iyxeipovvTe^ iroieiv irpo- 14 

35 Tepov BvvavTav ttj Xe^ei Kal Tot9 "qOeaiv aKpt^ovv rj tA 
TrpdrffiaTa a-wLoTaaOai,, olov Kal oi irp&Toi iroLrjTal (Tj^eSoi/ 
airavTe^. dp'^rj fjukv oiv Kal olov '^^vyr) 6 fivdo^rrj^ Tpa- 

16. dXXd vpd^eui Kal piov Kal eiStufjMvias ical ij KaKoSaifJLovla iv irpd^ei codd., 
sed alio spectat Arabs (*sed in operibus et vita. £t <yita> est in opere ') ; 
unde Margoliouth dXXd Trpd^cws Kal plov, <6 pk pio5> 4v ir/xl^et, quod pro- 
bant Diels, Zeller, Sosemihl. Codicum lectionem ita supplet Yahlen, Kal 
eddaifJLOPlas <.Kal KOJcodaLfiovlaSf ij di €65aiuovla>' Kal ij KaKO$aifiovia 
20. irpdTTOVffip'i TTpdrroirras Troiovaiv coni. Yahlen (Tv/JLirapaKafipdifovcrL 

Guelferbytanus pr. m., Spengel : a-vfxirepikafjLpdpovffiw A^ 26 et 27. 

IIoXjJtvwotoi' et HdK&YPbxrros A^ 28. \4^ei Kal Siavolq. Yahlen (confirm. 

Arabs): X^^eis Kal Siavolas codd. 29. ov add. apogr. ('nequaquam' 

Arabs) : om. A^ : fort. oifdafjiQs Margoliouth 30. ij apogr. : ij A^ 36. 

(Twla'TaffBai codd. : awurrdvai Thurot 



(/.^c^t-«~^ -/»"■-> , <,-<*. ^i t,-<^ *^'«r,- tc. . -f:;.*- '■#-'•^3,^ 



incidents, j For Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but 
of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and 
its end is a mode jiL«iUitiQju not a quality. Now 
character determines men's qualities, but it is by their 
actions that they are happy or the reverse. Dramatic 
action, therefore, is not with a view to the representation 
of character: character comes in as subsidiary to the 
actions. Hence the incidents and the plot are the end of 
^^teagedy ; and the end is the chief thing of all. Again, 
without action there cannot be a tragedy;* there may be 
without character. / The tragedies of most of our modem 
poets fail in the rendering of character ; and of poets in 
general this is often true. It is the same in painting ; 
and here lies the difference between Zeuxis and Polygnotus. 
Polygnotus delineates character well : the style of Zeuxis 
is devoid of ethical quality. Again, if you string 
together a set of speeches expressive of character, and 
well finished in point of diction and thought, you will 
not prodlice the essential tragic effect nearly so well as 
with a play which, however deficient in these respects, 
yet has a plot and artistically constructed incidents. 
( Besides which, the most powerful elements of enK)tional 
interest in Tragedy — Peripeteia ov\ Eevers&.l of Intention; 






and Eecognition scenes — are parts of the plot. ) A further 
proof is, that novices in the art attain to finish of diction 
and precision of portraiture before they can construct 
the plot. It is the same with almost all the early 

The Plot, then, is the first principle, and, as it were, 



• ^«T-:. 



28 VI. 15 — 19. 1450 a 38 — 1450 b 19 

j€pSla^, ievrepov ik rib 7)671' irapairXriatov yap iariv xal 15 
1450 b €7ri T^^ ypa(f>iK7J^ • ev yap Tt9 ivakei'^ete roh /caWio'TOi^ 
apfi d/co^ X^^^t oif/c &v ofioUo^ €v<l>pdv€i€v Koi "Kevieo- 
ypa^Tjaa^ elxova' eariv t€ fiifi'^ai^ ^£££?®^ '^^^ ^^ TavT7)v 
fidkicrra t&v TrparroproDv, rpirov he ii Sidvoia' toOto Se 16 
5 ioTLv TO Xeyevv hivaadai, rh ivovra xal ret apfAorrovra, 
oirep hrl r&v Xoyoav ttj^ itoXitiktj^ koI p7jTopi,/crj^ epyov 
iariv oi phf yctp ap^aioi 'rroKi/TLK&^ iiroiow Xiyopra^, oi 
Be vvv p7jT0pLKW. ear IV Sk fjdo^ fiev to tolovtov h St/Koc rifv 17 
TTpoaLpea-Lv OTTold t^9 [irpolai^pelraL fj ^euyev Btoirep ovk 
10 e^pva-Lv fjdo^ T&v Xoytov iv oh ovk lart S^Xov tj ev 
0I9 fi7iK oK(o^ eartv o rt, [Trpo^atpetrai, 'fj if>€vyet 6 X^ycdv 
Btdvoui Be, iv oh diroBeLicvvova'L tl (09 eartv tj &f;ovKesxtv 
ij /caOoXov TL d'7ro<f>alvovTat, reraprov Bk r&v Xeyofievcjv 17 18 
\€ft9* Xeyco Be, &airep irporepov eXprirai, TU^iv elvai t^i/ 
15 Bu T7J<; evofiaaiaf; €pfi7jveLav, h xal iTrl r&v ifi/Merptov teal 
iirl T&v \6ya>v €j(€C rifv airr^v Bvvafjuiv. r&v Be Xotir&v 19 
[irevTe] r/ /jLeXoTTOiia fieytarov r&v r/BvafidrcDV, 17 Be o^jn^ 
'^vxar/coytKov fiev, drexyoTarov Be /cal ijxiara oi/ceiov t^9 Trotiy- 
TiKrj^' -claxo^ yap t§9 rpa/yipBia^ Bvvafii^ teal avev drf&vo^ 

38. TrapaTrMiaiov , . . eUhva supra post ir pay iiiTtav v. 31 collocavit Castel- 
vetro. 1460 b 1. &a Xe/^e^e A^' 3. re codd. : yh,p Hermann 6. 

iirl tQv \&y<av seel. M. Schmidt 9-11. oTrdid rtj . . . <p€&f€f, 6 \4y(av 

Gomperz, alios secutus : 6iro(d ns (6 troia ris) iv oTs oi^k (cti driXov ^ 
TTpocupeTrai ij ^peiyet,' didirep oix ^x^*'*^*" ^^^^ "^^^ X67WV iv dts firjd* SKofS i<mv 
6 rts {6 Tl apogr.) vpocupevrai ij tf^eiyei b \iytav A®: itwola rts* di&irep oIk 
iXo^<^^v • • • i>^^€i 6 \4y(av (verbis iv oTs o^k i<m brfKov if irpoaipeiTcu 1j 
it>c&y€i omissis cum Arabe) Margoliouth. Suspicatur Susemihl iv oU oix 
i(m . . . ^ (p€&Y€i et iv dts ixtiV SKujs eariv . . . ^ tpe&yei duplicem lectionem 
fuisse 11. Tt apogr. : rts A** 13. XeyofUvuv Gomperz : fikv \6y(av 

codd. : iv \6y(p Bywater 17. vivre A« : seel. Spengel (confirm. Arabs) : 

vifivrov apogr. 18. dircxviiyraTov A° 19. fcrws Meiser: ws A°: rj 

apogr. : S\(as Gomperz 


the soul of a tragedy : Character holds the second place. — ^ 
1460 b A similar fact is seen in painting. The^iiost be«iutif^ 15 
colours, laid on confusedly, wiU not give as muchj)leasure 
as the chalk outline of a portrait. Thus Tragedy is the 
iinitation of an action, and of the agents, mainly with a r 

view to the action. ^'V^"'^ 

3 Third in order is Thought, — that is, the faculty of 16 ^^^ '^' 
saying what is possible and pertinent in given circum- 
stances. In the case of oratory, this is the function of 
the political art and of the art of rhetoric : and so indeed 
the older poets make their characters speak the language 
of civic life ; the poets of our time, the language of the 
rhetoricians. Character is that which reveals moralliT 
purpose, showing what kind of things a man chooses or | 
avoids. Speeches, therefore, which do not make this" 
manifest, or in which the speaker does not choose or 
avoid anything whatever, are not expressive of character. . — - 
Thought, on the other hand, is found where something is >--^r^ ^^"^ - 
proved to be or not to be, or a general maxim is ^ _ 

&j Fourth among the elements enumerated comes is t\ - 
Diction ; by which I mean, as has been already said, the c^ -> ^ ^ \ 
-^ expression of the meaning in words ; and its essence is 
the same both in verse and prose. 7 

(^ Of the remaining elements Song holds the chief place 19 
among the emj^ellishments. 

Q The Spectacle has, indeed, an emotional attraction of 
its own, but, of all the parts, it is the least artistic, and 
connected least with the art of poetry. For the power 
of Tragedy, we may be sure, is felt even apart from 
representation and actors. Besides, the production of 

30 VL 19 — VII. 5. 1450 b 20 — 145 1 a 5 

• 20 KaX inroKpcT&v eariv, ere Be /evpKoripa irepl r^v wrrepyaaiav 
. T&v 6'^€(ov f] Tov a-teevoTTOtov ri^vT) ttJ? t&v woirjr&v iariv, 

^'j'- ' VII Aicopia-fiivcov Bk tovtcov, Xiyonfiev fiera ravra iroLav 

^.::::^<^ TLvk Bel rijv avoTaaiv elvat r&v irparjiiaTto Vy hreiBri rovro 
KCbi TTpSnov KoX fjAyiOTOv TTj^ Tpo/y^Bui^ iariv. KCCTac S^ 2 
25 '^fiZv rrjv rpar^tpBLav reKeia^ koX 0X179 i rpa^eco^ elva i,,,,^' 
p^rjacv iyovari^ ri fiiyedo^;' eariv yctp oKov koX firfBev (h(pv 
fiiyeOo^. o\ov Be iartv to e'^pv ap')(r)v xal fieaov koX t€- 3 
XeuTi^v, cLp^ri Be ia-rvv h avro fih/ fiif Hq avarficT^^ fier 
clKKo eo'TLv, fi€T i/celvo S* ^epov 'n'e<f>VKev elvai fj yivecOac 
30 reXevT^ Be rovvavriov o avro fier* aWo 7r€<f>VKev elvav fj 
^ >' \\ ^f dvar/K7j^ fj (09 errl to iroXvy fieTcu Be tovto aWo ovBev 

fs" , /, fieaov be o Kal axno fieT cCKKo icai fieT exetvo erepov, 
^ (\ ■i^^^ Bel dpa T0U9 <nn/e<rT&Ta^ ei fivdov*; firiff* oiroOev eVvj^ei/ 
^^ ' dpX^^^^^ M^^ OTTOV €Tuj(€ TeXevT&v, aWci, Ke^rja-Oav Tai<; 

35 etprjfiivaL^ IBeai^. ctc S* iirel to koKov koX ^^ov KaX airav 4 
irpayfia h axJveaTrjKev €K tiv&v ov fwvov TavTa TeTcuyfieva 
Bei e'xeiv dWa Kal fieyedo^ virdp'^eiv pj) to tv^ov to^ 

ykp ic^Xn y ivt^y ^^^^e ^'^al r d ^ei ea'TLVj ^ BlO OUT6 irdp^fliKpOV 

av TL yevovTO KoShv t,&ov {a-vyyelTat yctp rj detopla iyyif^ 
40 TOV dvataOriTov 'xpovov yLvofiivrf), oiJre irafip^eyeffe^; (ov ykp 
1461 a afia 17 detopia yiveTac dW ot')(eTac toI^ deoDpovai to Si/ 
Koi TO oXov €K T7J9 OeoDpiasi), olov el pAjpUov oTaZicDV etrj 
figSoi/* W0T6 Bel KaOdirep hrl t&v aoDfiaTODv Kal €7rl t&v 6 
^a>(ov €j(€iv fiev fieyedo^, tovto Be evavvoirrov elvav, ovtg) 

24. d^ Bywater : 5' A^^ 28. /i^ 4^ ijfdyKyjs codd. : ^^ dpdyiajs fi^ Pazzi 

35. ^$^cu9 apogr. : elSiais A^ 38. Trd/AfUKpop Riccardianus 16 : Trav fiucpby 

A^ : irdyv fiiKp6v Laurentianus Ix. 16 40. xp^vov seel. Bonitz : tutatur 

Arabs^edes Riccardianus 16 : irav fx^edos'A^ : vdvv fUya Lauren- 

tianus Ix. 16 1461 a 3. ffwfji^Tiau] avarrifidTtav Bywater 








spectacnlax effects depends more on the art of the stage 

machinist than on that of the poet 

VII These principles being established, let us now discuss Cv6^C^^\} 

the proper structure of the Plot, since this is the first ^ .**;.» 

^ ^ — ^ .„,» - - ... I rCf ^/ M-^ ^^^' *' 

and most important part of Tragedy. ' ' 

Now, according to Our definition. Tragedy is an '2 
imitation of an action that is complete, and whole, and 
of a certain magnitude ; for there may be a whole that 
is wanting in magnitude. A, whole is that which has 3 
a beginning, a middle, and an end. A beginning is that 
which does not itself follow anything by causal necessityv 
but after which something naturally is or comes to be^ 
:'An end, on the contrary, is that which itself naturally 
/ follows some other thing,_either by necessity, or^s a rule, 
but has nothing following it^ A middle is that which 
follows something as some otner thing follows it. A well 
constructed plot, therefore, must neither begin nor end 
at haphazard, but conform to these principles. 

Again, a beautiful object, whether it be a picture of 4 
a living organism or any whole composed of parts, must 
not only have an orderly arrangement of parts, but must 
also be of a certain magnitude ; for beauty depends on - 
magnitude and order. Hence an exceedingly small ^ 
picture cannot be beautiful ; for the view of it is con- 
fused, the object being seen in an ^almost imperceptible 
moment of tiiijp. Nor, again, "can one of vast size be 
1451 a beautiful ; for as the eye cannot take it all in at once, 
the unity and sense of the whole is lost for the spectator ; 
as tor instance if there were a picture a thousand miles 
lr^~ * ~, therefore, in the case of animate bodies and 6 
certain magnitude is necessary, and a magni- 




32 VIL 5— VIII. 3. 1451 a 5—26 

5 KoL €7rl T&v iiid(ov e)(€tv fikv firjfco<;, tovto Sk €VfiVfjfi6v€v- 
Tovelvai. Tov firjKov^ opo^ <o> fih^ irpo<s tou9 a/y&va^ xal 6 
rijv aXadriaiv ov rrj^ T€)(yrf^ iariv* el yap eSei eKarbv 
rparftpiia^ arftovi^eadai, irpo^ Kke^vhpa^ civ rjyayvi^ovro, 
&aTrep irork koX SXKore (fxuriv. 6 Sk xar airrrjv rtfv (f)va-iv 7 

10 Tov TTparffiaTO^ opo^, aeX fikv o fiei^oDV fieXP'' '^^^ (rvv- 
SrfXo^ €ivai KaWioDv iarl Karh to fieyeBo'i* C09 S^ a- 
•7rXo>9 Siopiaavra^; elTrelv, evoatp fieyiOei Karb, to cIko^ fj 
TO avarfKoiov i<f>€^^ ytyvofievtov avfi^aivei, eU evTV')(Lav 

14 e/c SvaTv^la^ ff ef evTv^ia^ eh ivaT\r)(iav fACTafidWetp, 
VIII Ifcavo^ opo^ ioTlv tov ^eyeOov^, MO^o? S' ia-Tiv eh 
oif^, &(nrep Tivh olovTav iav irepl eva ^* iroXKb, ybp 
Kot aireipa tq) ivl avfi^aivei, i^ &v [evLcov] ovBiv iarcv 
ev ovTcof; Se xal Trpd^ec^ €vo<: TroKKaL ei<Tvv, i^ &v 
fda ovZefiia yivcTai 7rpd^L<i, Slo TrdvTe^ iolKoaiv afiap- 2 

20 Taveiv oaoL t&v irovrjT&v ^VLpa/c\r)lBa ^rjcrjlSa xal tA 
ToiavTa iroLrjpxLTa ireTroirjKaaLV otovTUL yap, iirel eh fjv 
'Hpa/c\^9, eva icaX tov fivdov elvav irpoarjKeLv. S' ''O- 3 
fiVpo<; aairep xal Ta aWa Bia<l>epeL xal tovt eoixev xa- 
\w9 lBe2v rfTOL hta Te'XJVTjv fi Bict (fyva-tv ^OSvaa-etav yhp 

25 iroi&v ov/c eirolriaev airavTa oaa ainm avvelStf, otov ifKr)- 
yrjvai fikv iv t£ liapvaa^, fuijnjvat, Be Trpoairovija-aa-Oat ev 

6. 6 add. Bursian fj^v trpbs A^ : irpbs fih apogr. 8. K\€\//08pav 

apogr. 9. dWore (paclv codd. : dWor* €ld>$a<nv M, Schmidt ; quod olim 

recepi, sed iror^ /cal &\\ore vix aliud significare potest quam *olim 
aliquando.' Quae in Arabe leguntur ('sicut solemus dicere etiam aliquo 
tempore et aliquando '), alterutri lectioni subsidio esse possunt . 17. 

ivl Guelferbytanus : 7^1'ei A^ (cf. 1447 a 17) : ry 7* ivl Vettori ivluv 

seel. Spengel 18. al ante iroXKal add. apogr. 



e which may be easily embraced in one view ; so in 
^tbe plot, a certain length is necessary, and a length 
which can be easily embraced by the memory. The « 
limit of length in relation to dramatic competition tuid 
sensuous presentment, is no part of artistic theory. For 
had it been the rule for a hundred tragedies to compete 
together, the performance would have been regulated by 
the water-clock, — as indeed we are told was formerly 
done. But the limit as fixed by the nature of the 7 
drama itself is this: — the greater the length, the 
more beautiful will the piece be by reason of its 
size, provided that the whole be perspicuous. And 
to define the matter roughly, we may say that the 
proper magnitud e is comprised within such limits, that ^ 
the sequence of events, according to the law of probability 
or necessity, will admit of a change from bad fortune to 
good, or from good fortune to bad. 
VIII Unity of plot does not, as some persons think, consist •'^^ 

^C3 in the unity of the hero. For infinitely various are the 
incidents in one man's life, which cannot be reduced to 
unity ; and so, too, there are many actions of one man 
out of which we cannot make ^one, action.. Hence then 
error, as it appears, of all poets who have composed a 
Heracleid, a Theseid, or other poems of the kind. They 
imagine that as Heracles was one man, the story of 
Heracles must also be a unity. But Homer, as in all 3 
else he is of surpassing merit, here too — whether from 
art or natural genius — seems to have happily discerned 
tlie truth. In composing the Odyssey he did not include 
* all the adventures of Odysseus — such as his wound on 
Parnassus, or his feigned madness at the mustering of 


34 VIII. 3 — IX. 5. 1451 a 27 — 1451 b 12 

TcS ar^epfi^i &v ovhhf Oarepov yevofievov avay/caiov f/ 
ei/co^i Oarepov yeveadai, oKKa irepl fiiav irpa^v i 
Xiyofiev t7)v OSva-aeiav avveaTqaeVy 6fioio)<; ik koX 

30 ^Widia, 'xprj oZv Kaddirep kol iv Tai<$ aX\4U<: fiifirjTLKai^ fj ^ 
fu/j/rja-c^ €1/09 ioTiv ovro) xal top /jlvOov, errel irpd^ea )^ plfirj<rL^ 
€<m, fiva<; t€ elvai zeal ravTTjf; 0X179 xal ret pApr} avveard' 
vac T&v 'W'pajj^TO)!/ ovrm^ &<rTe fierartOepAvov ri/vo^ pApov^ 
rj d<f>aipovp4vov Sca^epeaOai xal Ktveladai to o\ov* h yctp 

35 irpoabv rj p^rj wpoaov p^rjiev iroiel iTTvBrjXov, ovSev p^opiov rod 
oXov iariv. 
IX ^avepov Se i/c r&v etprjpAvcov xal on ov to rh 

y€v6p,€va Xiyetv, tovto irocTfrov epyov iariv, dW ola hv 
yevoLTO Kal ret Bvvara Kara to €t/co9 rj to dvayxatov, 6 yap 2 
1461 b iaTopiKo^ Kal 6 7roir}Tr)(; ov Tip fj ep^psTpa Xiyecv fj ap^erpa 
Sia<l>epova-Lv (elrj yap av tcl ^HpoSoTOv €i9 psTpa T€0rjvai, 
/cal ovBev ffrrov hv etrj laTopia ri^ p^erh p^eTpov rj dvev p^pcov)* 
dWct TOVT(p Sia(l>ep€L, T<p tov p^v tA yev6p,eva Xeyecv, 
5 TOV Be ola av yivocTO. Sto kol <f>L\oa'0(l>a)Tepov Kal 3 
arrovBaioTepov 7rolrf(Tc<; laTopLa<$ iaTiv fi pJkv yctp Troirjai^ 
puWov tA KaOoXov, rj S* icTopia tA Ka0* eKaaTov Xeyet. 
eiTTLV Be KadoXov p»ev, T<p iroitp tA irola aTTa avp,/3aXv€c 4 
Xeyecv rj irpdTTeiv KaTct to €t/co9 ^ to dvayKacov, o5 aTo- 

10 ^d^eTai 17 iroLrjaL^ ovopMTa eiriTidepAvT)' to Be KaG" eKa- 
oTov, TL ^AXKtfitdBfj^ eirpa^v ^ tl eiradev. eirl p,ev oJrv Trj^ 5 
K(op<pBLa<; rjBrj tovto BrjXov yeyovev avaTrjaavTe^i yctp tov 

27. ^ add. apogr. 29. \kyoiuv apogr. : X^oifiev A® : Slv \4yoifji^v Yahlen 

32. Kal ra&rris] ra&nijs Kal Susemihl 34. 8ia</>ip€ff0ai] dia<p6€ipea6ai 

Twining (*corrumpatur et oonfandatur' Arabs): haboit fort, ntramqae 
lect S (Margoliouth) : fort, diatpopeiaeai (cf. de Div. 2. 464 b 13) 35. 

iroict, iirldTjXop wj apogr. 37. 01) rb apogr. (confirm. Arabs): oirrb} A« 

38. y€v6fi€pa Riccardianus 16 : yivbfjxva cett. 39. Kal tA. Swardi ^cl. 

Maggi 1451 b 4. roiJrv . . . ry apogr. : tovto . . . tw A° : tovto . . L t6 

Spengel 10. t6 apogr. : t6v A^ ^ 


. host— incidents between which there was no necessary 
. probable connexion : but he made the Odyssey, and 
likewise the Iliad, to centre round an action that in our <^ 
sense of the word is one. As therefore, in the other 4 
imitative arts, the imitation is one when the object imitated 
is on^, so the plot, being an imitation of an action, must 
imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union 
of the parts being such that, if any one of them is 
displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed and 
disturbed. For a thing whose presence or absence makes^ ^ 
no visible difference, is not an organic part of the 
IX It is, moreover, evident from what has been said, 

that it is not^ the function of the poet to relate what 
has happened, but what-may happen,-what is possible \ 
according to the law of probability or necessity. The 2y 
1461 b poet and the historian differ not by writing in verse or 
in prose. The work of Herodotus might be put into 
verse, and it would still be a species of history, with 
metre no less than without it. The true difference is 
that one relates what has happened, the other what may 
happen. Poetry, therefore, is a more phiiosfiEhical and 3 , 
a higher thing than history : f or poetry tends to express 
the uni ver gal. history the p articul ar. By the universal 4 ^^ 

I mean how a person of a certain type will on occasion a^ ^ M 
speak or act, according to the law of probability or 
necessity; and it is this universality at which poetry 
aims in the names she attaches to the personages. The 
particular is — for example — what Alcibiades did or 
suffered. In Comedy this is already apparent : for here 6 
the poet first constructs the plot on the lines of prob- 

36 IX 5— lo. 1451 b 13—33 ^ 

fjLvdov hih T&v cIkotodv ov tA TVj(pvTa ovo/JLara ''-v 
Oiaaiv, Koi ov;^ &air€p oi lafifioirocol irepi top Koff \eKOJ9^rmf 

15 TTOiovaiv. iirl Se rrj^ Tpay(pS(a<; t&v yevofUvayv opoftdr^p 6 
ajrrc'x^opTac, alrvov S* on Trcdapop itm to BvpaTOP, tol fiep 
oip fiTf yepofiepa ovtto) ttcotcvo^p elpat SvpaTci, tA Be ye- 
pofiepa (f)ap€pop otl Si/paTa, ov yhp ap iyipeTO, el fjp aSv- 
paTa. ov firjp aXXa xal ep Toi^ Tpcuy^Suu^ epiai^ fikp h/ 7 

20^ Svo T&p ypoapLfjLfOP earlp opofiariop, tA Sk aXXa Treiroir)' 
fiepa, ep eplai^ Bk ovS* ep, otop ip t& Ay dOaypo^ 'Apdel' o/bu>ta>9 
yap ip TOVTtp Ta re irparffiaTa koL tA opofMiTa irerrolrfTai, teal 
ovBkp fJTTOP ev<f>paip€i„ &aT ov irdpTco^ eipai ^rjTtjTeop t&p 8 
TrapaSeSo/JLepcop fivdcop, irepl 0^9 al Tpa/ycpSiac eicip, olpt- 

25 €j(€adaL. Koi yctp yeXoiop tovto ^rjTetp, iirel xal Tct ypco- 
pifia 6\pyoi^ ypcopcfid eaTLP aW' o/luo? ev<f>paipec irdpTa^. 


etpai, Set irotrjTrjp rj t&p fieTpcop, oatp TroirfTt}^ xaTct Ttfp /u- 
fj/rjaip ea-Tip, fiifielTav hk t^9 irpd^ev^, k&p dpa avfi^y yepo- 
$0 fiepa iroteip, ovdkp ^ttop iroir^Trj^ iaTi* t&p yap yepofiiptop 
epuL ovBkp KdoXvei ToiavTa elpai ola &p elxo^ yepeaOac Kal 
SvpaTct yepeadav, xaO h ixelpo^ avT&p 7roiriTi]<; ecrTtp. 

T&p Be aWoDP fivOayp xal irpd^ewp al eTreiaoSimBei^ 10 

13. 06 scripsi ('nequaquam' Arabs): o&na codd. (cf. 1461 a 37) in- 

Tid^cri apogr. 14. t6v A°: rwv apogr. 16. vciOaySif A° 19. 4^ 

ante ivLous add. apogr. (ceterum cf. Dem. or. ill. 11, zviiL 12) 21. od8* &] 

0^6' iv Ap : aliOiv apogr. oXov . . . 'Av^et] *quemadmodtmi si quis unum esse 

bonum statuit ' Arabs ; male Syms legisse videtur ^v rb dya0bv 9; Air ^ 
(Margoliouth) 'AvdeT Welcker: dtfOei codd. 23. &<rr* oi>] ixr rod 

A^ oi trdm-ws eXvcUf si Sana sunt, arete cohaerent (cf. oi)^ ^k^v etpoi, 

Kwrh d}6vafup ctvcuy Kard tovto «Ii^ac, similia) : eh^ai seel. Spengel 24. ai 

<.€ihoKifMv<raA> Tpay(pdUu coni. Yahlen 31. Kal Swarik ywiaOai, seel. 

Vorlander : om. Arabs 33. rwy 5^ AXXa;i' Tyrwbitt : Tiav 8k &t\Qp codd. : 

dirXwj 8k tQv Castelvetro 


ability, and then inserts characteristic names; — unlike 
the lampooners who write about particular individuals^ 
But tragedians still keep to real names, the reason being « 
that what is possible is credible : what has not happened 
we do not at once feel sure to be possible; but what has 
happened is manifestly possible : otherwise it would not 
have happened. Still there are some t^gedies in which 7 
there are only one or two well known names, the rest 
being fictitious. In others, none are well known, — as 
in Agathon's^j^^theus, where incidents and names alike 
are fictitious, and yet they give none the less pleasure. 
We must not, therefore, at all costs keep to the received 8 - 
legends, which are the usual subjects of Tragedy. Indeed, 
it would be absurd to attempt it ; for even subjects that 
are known are known only to a few, and yet give pleasure 
to all. It clearly follows that the poet or ' maker ' 9 
should be the maker of plots rather than of verses; — 
since he is a poet because he imitates, and what he 
imitates are actions. And even if he chances to take 
an historical subject, he is none the less a poet; for 
there is no reason why some events that have actually 
happened should not conform to the law of the probable 
and possible, and in virtue of that quality in them he is 
their poet or maker. 

Of all plots and actions the epeisodic are the worst. 10 

. -*.^>-*'VL;*»,^»<»«*r""**"*v»-«-'. » "^*'^''.■sf^.-;.»f.»-«.,^-v^.^-, ^r* r., ^. , .-..^ ».i..<.- 

^, r-. tt l^ m ■>■— ^ 1 '■■■»»■•« 

38 IX. lo — X. 3. 1451 b 34 — 1452 a 19 

elalv 'XjeLptarraf Xey® S iireiaoBtcoSr) fivdov iv & ra iTreia-' 

35 oBta fi€T aWrjKa ovr cIko^ ovt avdyKt} elvai, roiavrai 
Se TTOLOvvrai viro fiev r&v <f>av\a)v ttoltjt&v Si avrov^y inro 
Se T&v a/yaO&v Sia roif^ vTroKpird^' arfcovurfiaTa yap 
iroLovvTe^ koX irapct rrjv hvvap»iv irapareivovre^ fwOov irdK- 
I462a\a#(£9 Siao-Tp€(f>€LP dvayKo^ovTac to e^ef?)?. cTrel Se ou 11 
fiovov reXeia^ iarl irpd^o)^ 17 filfirfo'i^ aXXd xal <f>o^€p& v 
-^ Kol iXeeoL& v, ravra Be yiverac [xat] fidXiara orav yivrjrac 

irapd rrjv Bo^av, Kot fiaXKov <orav> Be dWrjXxf to yap Oav 12 
5 fuuTTOv ovTco^ €^€L fwXKov fj €1 diTO Tov aifTOfidTOV /cal 
T^9 Tuj^i79, iirel koX t&v diro tv^7)<; Tavra BavfiaaiwTaTa 
BoKel oaa &air€p iirvTriBe^; <f>aiv€TaL yeyovivat, olov &^ 6 
dvBpiet^ 6 TOV McTvo^ iv "Apyet direKTetvev tov aiTcov tov 
OavaTov ToS MItvi, OetopovvTt ifi'irea'a>v • eoiKe yap Tct TovavTa 

10 ovK cIkt} yeviaSaL* &aTe dvdr^Ki) tov^ toiovtov^; elvac koX- 
\tov9 fiv6ov<;. 

X Et<rt Bk T&v fivdaov oi fiev aTrXot ol Be ireTrXeyfiivoi, 

Kol yap ai irpd^ei^ &v fufirfo-ei^ ol_,jiydol elaiv inrdp^ov- 
aiv €v0if^ oiaav Totathat, Xeyo) Be dirXrjv fiev '^aj^iv fj^ 2 

15 yivopAvT^^ &aTrep &pcaTac awe^pv^ xal fiia^ avev ^CgAtfCf' 
Xi|^ rj dva^copta-fiov 97 fieTd^a^t^ ylvcTac, ireirXeypbevrj 
B* ia-Tlv 9J9 fieTa dvarfvoDpca-fjLov rj ire ptireT ela^ fj dp,<\>olv r\ 
fieTd^aai^; ia-Ttv, Tarha Bk Bel yiveaOai ef auT^9 ttj^ crv- 3 
<rrao-€G>9 tov fiv0ov, &<rT€ ix t&v Trpoyeyevrjfievcov avfi^aLveiv 

37. i^ttoic/mtAj Ac (cf. Rhet. iii. 11. 1403 b 33): xpirds apogr. 38. iraparel- 

vopres apogr. : irapaTelvavTes A° 1452 0,2. ij seel. Gomperz 3. 

KoX seel. Susemihl 4. xal imXKov post Kal fid\i,(rra codd. : post d^^op 

Reiz (cf. Rhet. iii. 9. 1410 a 21) : Kal k£KKlov Tucker : koX /mlKKov siye Kal 
fidXurra seel. Spengel : Kal fxaXXov ante Kal fidXurra Riehards dray 

add. Reiz 9. a*i^w A^ 1^ 5* iarlv ^ Susemihl : di \4^is A« : 5^ ^ 

^s Riccardianus 16 : 5^ Tpci^is apogr. : 5^ itrriv 4^ ^s (h. e. 64 '/t * e^i;j) Vahlen 


^I^catLa pint ' p.pp.isfKtip. ' in which the, ppiflndes av anta h\w.- x^ >7 !^ ^ 
ceed one another without probable or necessary sequence. 
Bad poete compose such pieces" TiytTeir own fauRrgooS^ ^ 
poets, to please the players; for, as they write show 
pieces for competition, Jjhfiy . Strp.t.fih thfi ptotJ^eyiMMLi.ts 
1462 a capafl^^-Trnd^ a r e o f t en fe g eed ^ bre a k ' the nftt malcQii- 

But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a 11..^ .^ 
-completa afitinn>.but-Ql,eveBts terrible and pitif ul. " Such Jl i. /t 
^ijd^: effect is best produced when the events come on us 

'  g^jl^'^^^'^**, ^^f^j firiUnw fiff p ^use and e ffect. The tragic 12 
wonder will then be greater than if they happened of 

Q themselves or by accident ; for even coincidences are most 
striking when they have an air of design. We may 
instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his 
murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed 

^ him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. 
Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are 
necessarily the best. 
X ^^JPHrff^flTP pJthf^r ^^*^p1p pr fjnjpijftj, fnr the actions 
in real life, of which the plots are an imitation, obviously 
show a similar distinction. An actJoii which is one and 2 
continuous in the sense above defined, I call Simplfi»jg jien 
the change of fortune takes .pteQe Fltbout Eeversal of 
Intention and without Eecognition. 

A. Complex action is one in which the change is 1, . [r/ 
accompanied by suoU Reversal,— or by Reeogniti^i^ or 
by both. These last should arise from the internals 
structure of the plot, so that what follows should be the 







40 X. 3 — XL 4. 1452 a 20 — 1452 b 2 

20 ^ if avarficri^ rj Karct to ei/co^ ylr/pea-dai ravra' hui^pev 

yhp iroXu to yiyveadcu TciSe Sut ToSe fj fi€Ta ToBe, 

XI "EoTt S^ ir^Q^jTgjj^ fiev 17 €t9 to ivamlov t&v irpaTTo- 

pMvtov fi€Tafio\i], [tcadaTrep etprjTai,^ ical tovto Se &awep 

"kiyofiev KaTh to ei/co^ fj ava/^Kalov &(rn'ep iv tw OliiirohL 

25 ikdoav C&9 €v<l>pav&v tov OlSiTrovv xal aircLhXd^oDV tov irpo<; 
Ttjv p/qTepa <f >6l3o v, Sr/kaxra^ S9 Ijv, TovvavTiov iirolvjcrev' 
Kol iv T^) AvyK€L 6 piv arf6p>€Vo^ (09 airodavovp^vo^, 6 Se 
Aai/ao9 d/co\ovd&v C09 airoKTev&v, tov pkv avvejSf) ix t&v 
ireirparffieviov diroOavelv, tov Be atoOrjvai. avayvwpiai^ 2 

30 Si, &<nr€p KoX Tovvopxi (rrjp/iivei, i^ drfvoia^ eh yv&aiv 
p,€Tafio\}) ^ €^9 <f>iXuiv ^ €69 l^^tf/ww/ T&V irpb<; evTu^Cav fj 
BvaT\r)(iav &piapIvtov' KaXKiarr) Be dvar/v(opt(nf;, OTav apu 
'^Sfi^Trereuit yivcovTac, olov €')(€i rj iv tc5 OIBLttoBl. elcXv p»ev 3 
otrv KOL dXKat dvayvcopLaei^' /cat yap irpo^ a'^v')(a xal Tct 

35 Ti^oin-a eaTW c»9 <o>'n'ep elprjTaL avp^^aivei, KaX el iri- 
irpaye T49 fj p,r) irerrpayev ecTtv dvarfvcopiaai. aW* fj /ia- 

T'^" XtaTa TOV jivdov koI f) /JbdXiaTa t^9 irpd^eo)^ f} eiprjiievrf 

"*' ioTLV fj ydp ToiavTfj dvar/vfopta-i^ koI irepLTreje^) fj JKeov^A: 

14521) e^ei fj <<b6Bov, olW irpd^etov 17 TparftpBia pXprjai^ irjroKecTat' 
€Ti Be xal TO dTx^eiv xal to evTV)(elv iirl t&v tocovtcov 

20. raOra] rdyaifTla Bonitz : rd ((trrepa Gomperz 23. KaOdirep etfnjrcu. seel. 

Zeller: <:^> Ka$* & irpo^fnjrcu, {deleto com mate post fiera/SoXi^) Essen 
31. Post Hx^pav add. ^ &\Ko tl Gomperz 32. &fM TCfMrerelq, Gomperz 

33. yivoyrai A° oXav Bywater 36. <bf 6irep Spengel : &aircp A® : 

6$* '<6>Tep Gomperz avfipalvcL A<^: cvfifialveiv apogr. 36. ^ 

apogr. : el A^ 38. koI vcpnrireta seel. Sosemihl koX <.fjLdXi(rr* ^dv 

Ka2> irepiT^eia 17 fKcotf coni. Yahlen 1462 b 1. otcuv apogr.: otoi' A<s 

2. ^( 5^] ^eid'^ Susemihl (commate post ifvdKciToi posito) 




necessary or probable result of the preceding action. It 
makes all the difference whether any given event is a 
case ot propter hoc or post hoc. 
XI Reversal of Intention is a change by w hich the 

action veers round to its opnosite^ -sulMeet •alwjaxa. 
to_our rule of probability or necessity. Thus in the 
Ogjdgu8a,j thr T no ftflengc f eumua tu tsfaeer^ Oe^ttaL.,.and J Q(1^ 
free him from his alarms about his mother, but by 
revealing who he is, he produces the opposite effect. \ 
Agamln the Lynceus, Lynceus is being led away to ..>«,..■ O 

his death, and Dtmaus goes with him, meaning to slay \ 
him; but the outcome of the action is, that Danaus is / 
killed and Lynceus saved. 

Recognition, as the name indicates, is a change from 2 
ignorance to knowledge, producing love or hate between 5^^ .. 
the persons destined by the poet for good or bad fortune. 
The best form of recognition is coincidoott with a Reversal 
of Intention, as in the Qedinua^, There are indeed other 3 
forms. Even inanimate things of the most trivial kind 
may sometimes be objects of recognition. Again, we may 
recognise or discover whether a person has done a thing 
or not. But the recognition which is most intimately 
connected With the plot and action is. 33 we have said^ j ; 

the recognition of persons. This recognition, combined V ..: ' 

1462 b with Reversal, will produce either pity or^fear; and actions \ 

V « - I • 

i i 

producing these effects are those which, by our definition, 
Tragedy represents. Moreover, it is upon such situations 
that the issues ^ of good or bad fortune will depend. 

i / 

I '%.., 

42 XL 5— XII. 3. 1452 b 3—25 

aufifiijaeTai, errel S^ 17 avajptopiai^ riv&v itmv avcvyvtopiai^, 5 
ai fjuev Oarepov irpo^ rov erepov fiovov, orav ^ SiJXo9 arepo^ 
5 rk i^mv, ore Be dfi<f>OT€pov^ Bei avarpfmpiarai, olov ri 
fiep l<f}i/Y€V€ui tS *Op€<rrij aveyvrnpiadrf e/c rfj^ irep/^eio^ 
Trj<i i7naTo\rj<:, ixeivov Be irpi^ tt^v ^I^iyepeuiv aWrj^ eSet 

/" 'F, 

avcuyvtopurea)^, .,. , (^ 1 - 1 

Avo fiev oJhf Tov p»v0ov fieprfTtiepl ravr earLy irepiirereia 6 

10 icaX avar/vwpurc^, rplrov Be iraOo^, [tovtcov Se irepiireTeia fiev 

§caX avaffv^puri,^ etpfyrcu,^ irado^ Be iart irDci ^i ^ ^OaprtKri fi 

oBinnjpd, olov oX re ev t£ <f>avepw ddvaroc xal ai irepi- 

wBwUll koX rpaxrei^ xal oaa roiavra. 

XII [Meprj Bk Tpar/<pBia<: 0I9 p>ev c»9 etBeai Be2 j^prjaOcu 

15 irporepov ecfrofiev, xard Be to iroaov koX eh h Buupelrat 
Ke)(Q)purfieva rdBe iariv, 'rrpoKo^^ hreicoBiov e^oBo^ ;^o- 
pcKov, KoX TovTov TO fikv TTapoBo^i TO Be OToaip^v KOLvk fjkev 
dirdvTfov TavTa, iBia Be tA diro 7779 a-Kfjvrj^ xal Kop»fjboi. 
eoTtv Bk irp6\oyo<i fiev fi€po<: o\ov Tpayt^Bia^ to irpo 'xppov 2 

20 irapoBov, erreKToBtov Be fiepo<i o\ov TpaytpBia^ to fiera^if 
oKoav ')(ppiKS)v fie\&v, 6^0809 Be fiepo^ o\ov TparftpBla^ 
fieO h ovK eoTi 'xppov fieXo^;* )(ppiK0v Be TrdpoBo^ fiev rj 
TTpcoTrj \€^t9 SXrj '^opovy airda-Lfiov Be fi€\o<; X^P^^ "^^ dvev 
dvairaLoTov koX Tpo'^aiov, xo/Mfio^ Be 0prjvo<: tcotvb^ XO/oov xal 

25 <T&v> diro <TKrjvri<i, fi^pv Be Tpaya)Bia<i 0I9 fiev C09 eiBeai Bei 3 

3. iirel 6^ Parisinns 2038 : iiretdij codd. cett. 4. l^repov] iraXpov 2, at 

videtur drcpos Parisinns 2038: ?rcpos codd. cett. 7. iK^lvov 

By water : iKch^o) ASi ^ice^^) apogr. 9. 7r6/>2secl. Maggi: om., at videtur, 

S Tai?r*] rairrh. Twining 10. To&ruw 5^ . . . ctfyrfrai seel. Snsemihl : 

om. Arabs 12. cH re apogr. : Sre A^ 14. totum hoc cap. seel. 

Ritter, recte, at opinor 17. Koivb. fjukv . . . K6/xfioi deL Sasemihl 

19. irpvxupov Ac 23. 5Xiy Westphal : SKov A^ 26. rGtv add. Christ 

praeeante Ritter in etSeffi add. apogr. 



Becognition, then, being between per sons , it may happen 5 
that one person only is recognised by the other — when 
the latter is already known — or it may be necessary that 

the recognition should be on both sides. Thus Iphigenial y 

is revealed to Orestes by the sending of the letter; but* •«». 

another act of recognition is required to make Orestes 

known to Iphigenia. t7'^C >< 

Two parts, then, of the Plot — Ee versal of Intention (j , -^ 
and Eecognition — turn upon surprises. A third part is \ 

-:».^«.  ff  tmw i 


the Tji^gjfi TnyjHpTtt Th e Tragic Incident is a d estrocti ve 
or painfiiLaction, such as death on the stage, bodily agony, 
wounds and the like. 
XII [The parts oiF Tragedy which must be treated as 

elements of the whole, have been already mentioned. 
^ We- WW come ta the, quaiititofci¥e pftits--*-*b^ -g^paiats q^ ^ ^ / 
jiarts into which Tragedy is divided — ^namely. Prologue, r i 

^Episode^ Exodos, Choric song; this last being divided 5 
into Parodos and Stasimon. These are common to alU"" 
plays : peculiar to some are the songs of actors from the^ 
stage and the Commoi. 

The Prologos is that entire part of a tragedy which 2 
precedes the Parodos of the Chorus. The Episode is /tA, 
that entire part of a tragedy which is between complete 
choric songs. The Exodos is that entire part of a tragedy *" 
which has no choric song after it. Of the Choric part - 
the Parodos is the first undivided utterance of the 
Chorus : the Stasimon is a Choric ode without anapaests 
or trochaic tetrameters : the JbomjCLOs is a joint lamenta- - 
tion of Chorus and actors. The parts of Tragedy which 3^ 
must be treated as elements of the whole have been 


44 XIL 3 — ^XIIL 3. 1452 b 26 — 1453 a 10 

j(pfja0ai TTpirrepav elvafiev, Kara he to iroaop koL eh a 
SuupeiTOi Ke)(apurfjLeva ravr etrrufJ] 

XIII *ilv ie BeZ aTOj(a^eaOai teal a Sei evXafielaOai aw- 

unama/^ rov^ fiv0ov^ teal voOep eanu to T179 rparftpSiiK ep- 

SO yov, e^^rjfi av elfi Xe/creov rok vup elprj/ihfoi^. eweiB^ ow 2 

Set rrp; avvOecw elvai t% tcaXXLarrf^ rpay^Bia^ /i^ airXfjv 

/ / t dXXa ireirXejfieprjv koX rairrjv ^fiep&v ical ikeeiv&v elvac 



fUfMjT^Kijv {tovto yap iZiov rij^ roiavrtf^ fufii^aeof^ eariv), 
Trp&TOV fiev Srjkov ort ovre roifs eirieiKels avSpa^ Bel fuera- 

35 ^aXXovra^ ^xiiveaOtu i^ €inxr)(ia^ W Swrrv^iav, ov yhp 
<f>o^epov ovBe iKeeivov tovto aXXa fuapov eoTiv oirre Toif^ 
fioj(0i]povs €^ oTV^La^ €t9 euTV^Lav, aTparfwioTarov yap 
TOUT ccttI TrdvTtov, ovZev yap e^et &v Bel, ovTe ydp ^^i\dp0pto - 
1468 A TToy ovT€ ikecivov ovT€ <\>oPep6v ioTiv oifS* av Tov aif>6Spa 
irovffpov i^ evTxy)(La^ eh BvaTv^iav jieTairCirTeLV \ to fiev yhp 
if>c\av0poyn'ov e^ot av 17 TOiavrrj avaraai^ oKK ovt€ eKeov 
ovT€ <f>6^ov, 6 phf yap irepl top dvd^iov iaTvv BvaTvyovvTa, 
5 S€ irepl TOV op^iov, eKeo^ pkv irepl tov avd^MV, <f>6^of^ Be 
ire pi TOV ofiot^ov, &ot€ oirre ekeeivov oirre ^o^epov ear-ai to 
avfifialvov. 6 fieTa^v dpa tovtwv Xot7ro9. eaTt Be tolovto^ 3 
6 /L697T6 dpcTp Bui^€pa>v /coi BLKaLocvvr), p^TfTe Bid icaKlav 
Kol fjLoj(0i]piav fjLeTafidWfov eh ttjv BvoTv^iav dXKd BC 

10 dfrnprlav Ttvd^ t&v ev fieydXr) Bo^rj ovtwv teal evrv^ia. 

28. &v apogr. : un A^ 1463 a 1. a9 rbv apogr. : airrb A^ 5. ^eos 

fih . . . rbp tffUKov seel. Ritter (non confirm. Arabs) 

K; .. ,-, 




already mentioned The quantitative parts — the separate 
- parts into which it is divided — are here enumerated.] 

XIII ^ As what has abeady been said, we must 
proceed to consider vhat the poet should aim.Jkt, and 
what he should avoid, in constructing his plots ; and by 
what means the spec i^c e ffect of TragpHy will hft prnHiipp|fl < 

^ ri^fifif' ^^^P^ should, aa we have aeen- Jbe.Arrai:]f gjed 2 — 
not on the simple but^ o n the complex plan. It jihould. 
^9rfiff?<^r, imitfltrf>. actinna w hich excit^ii ^ and^arJ this_ ..^ Qp -^ 

b^ing the fliHtiinf>t.ivP Tna.rV nf trflfflV. Aiynt-gjjnn It followS_ "^ 

plainly, in the first place^that the change of fortune 
presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man 
brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves 
neither pity nor fear ; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, *•— ^t ' ^ 
that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity : 
for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it 
1463 a possesses no single tragic quaHfy^lT^fiSttber-^tjatisfies 

the moral sense, nor calls forth ^TtVi of* Tear^ Nor, -^^ 

again, should the downfall of the utter villain be ex- . 
hibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy / -r -• 
the moral sens^^„but it would inspire neither pity nor, / n . 
Jaw? ; fo r pit y is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fearN 7 ^" 
by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. \ iSuch an 
^^VOTt, therefore, win"'1)e"^^ terrible. 

\ I There remains, then, the character between these two s 
h^ ^ extremes, — ffhat of a ma^ who ^«jT2!i ^Tninfint^y gftftll '^'^'^ \ 
M just, yet whosemisfortunaJia. brous^ht about no tJ^^yic^ \ 

^_^Tn'^fjt '^"t by a<r^TPf ^^^t- or, frailty. JQe must 

be one^-jwho- -is- highly -MttOwned-«id._Bi^^ 

46 XIII. 3—8. 1453 a 11—35 

otov OlSiirov^ Kal ©vecm;? koX 01 i/c r&v roiovrtov yev&v 
hn<f>av€l^ avSpe^. apa/yKff apa rov kclKw €j(pvTa fivOov 4 
aifkovv elvat fiaXKov fj BiirXovv, &<nr€p rive^ <f>aa'i, koI fura- 
fidWeiv ovK ei<; evrv^iav ck hvarv^La^; oKKcl rovvavriov 

15 ef €xrnr)(ia^ eh Svan^lav, fit) Sul fioj^Offpiav aXXit S^* 
afjuipriav p^ydXffv fj oiov etpr/rai fj fieXriovo^ fi&Wov rj 
'X^ipovof;, arffieiov Se koX to yufvofievov irp&rov p^ev yap 5 
ol iroLTjraX tov^ rv^ovra^ p^vffov^ dirffpiOp^ovp, vvv Sk irepl 
6\iya<; oIkUl^ ai KaXKurraL Tpay<pSiac awridevTOA^j olov 

20 irepl *KKKpA(ova §cal Oihiirow Kal ^Opearrjv xal ^eXiar/pov 
/cat SvioTfjv Kal T!i]X€(l>ov kol ocol^ aXXoi^ avfjufiifirfKCv 
fj iraOelv heivh ff iroirjaat, fi p^v oiv Karcb rrfv revyriv 
KaXXLari] rpa/ytpSia i/c ravrri^ T179 a-vtrTdaed)^ ecrri, Sto icaX 6 
oi Evpi/rriSr) iyKaXovvT€<: tovt avrb dpupravovaiv, on tovto 

25 Bpa iv Tat9 Tparf<piiaL<i koX iroXKaX avrov et9 hvaTv^iav 
TeXevT&a-Lv. tovto yap e<mv &<nr€p etprjTai 6p66v • crfp^elov 
Se p&yca'Tov iirl yap t&v o-ktjv&v xal t&v dycovtav Tparfv- 
KayraTat ai TOtavTac <f>aivovTaL, av xaTopdcoO&acv, Kal 6 
^vpLTriSr)*; el Kal Ta aXXa p>rj ei olKovop^l aXKk Tpa- 

30 yiKiinaTO^ ye t&v ttoitjt&v <f>€dveTau SevTepa S* 17 irpcoTf) 7 
Xeyop£vrj inrb tlv&v iaTiv [avaTaai^;^ 17 S^ttX^i; t€ t^v aioTa- 
atv ej^pvaa, KaOdirep ri OBvaaeta, Kal TeXevTOxra ef ivav- 
Tta9 T0Z9 /SeXTLOcri Kal ^eLpoacv. BoKel Be elvat irprnTTj Bia 
Tf)v T(ov OeaT^wv daOepetav aKoXovOovai yhp oi irocffTal 

35 KaT ev^r)v iroLOVVTe^ T0t9 0eaTatf;» eaTiv Be ouj^ avTr) 8 

11. OlUvovi apogr. : S^ttow A^ 16. ^ peXrloyoi A^ 19. KdXKurrcu 

seel. Christ : om. Arabs 20. 'AXx/o^uwo By water (cf. Meisterhans Gramm. 

Att. Inschr. p. 35) : *A\KfMi(aya codd. 24. tovt* airb Thurot : t6 twJrd 

codd. : airrb Bywater : adrol Reiz : seel. Margoliouth collato Arabe 25. 

<aZ> iroXXal Knebel : fort. iroXXai <aX> Tyrrell 31. (nJoraais seel. 

Twining ^] ij A^ 33. peXHtaffi A° 34. OedrfHay A® et S, ut 

videtur (cf. 1449 a 9, Herod, vi. 21 ii Sdxpva ftrccre rb Ohirpov, Aristoph. 
Eq. 233 rb ydp Oiarpov de^ibv) : BearQv Riccardianus 16 . 



personage like Oedipus, Thyestes. or other illus trious HI 0,^- 
men of such families. 

A well constructed plot should, therefore, be single 4 
^ Jin its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The 

e of fortup ft phnnlH hft not fr om bad to g^nH, hnf., — - 

reversely, fr om good to bad. It should come about as 
xJgie result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty. 


^ \in a character either such as we ha ve described, or better 
rather than wors e. The practice of the stage bears out 5 
our view. At first the poets recounted any legend that v^<cs c v 
came in their way. Now, the best tragedies are founded — ' 7j j. 
on the story of a few houses, — on the fortunes of Alcmaeon, 
Oedipus, Orestes, Meleager, Thyestes, Telephus, and those ^ 

others who have dnnft ny snfiferfifjl Rnrnpthing tprTJVJP! A ^ 

tragedy, then, to be perfect according to the rules of art 
should be of this construction. Hence they are in error 6 
who censure Euripides just because he follows this 
principle in his plays, many of which end unhappily. 
It is, as we have said, the right ending. ' JQie_bfi§.t proof ^ 
is that pxiLJtJxa .dtag&.4U^ such 

i\ P'^^ys, if well worked out, are the most tragic in effect ; 
V ^>^' V and Euripides, faulty though he maybe in the general 
\ mang^e ment of his subject, yet is felt to be the most ^ ^ i/(c 

tragic of the poets. 

In the secoiiidr'rank comes the kind of tragedy which 7 
some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double 
thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the — 
good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because 
of the weakness of the spectators ; for the poet is guided <^=r' 
in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The 8 
pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic 



48 XIII. 8— XIV. 4. 1453 a 36—1453 b 19 

<i7> airb rpa/>/<phia^ riZovri aSXk fiaXKov rrjf; Ka>/MpSUt^ oiKeia* 

iicei yhp ot &v €')(jSurToi &ai,v iv rt^ fivdip, oXov *Op€<mf^ 

teal AtyurOo^, if>CkoL yevofiepo^ eni reKevrrj^ i^ep^ovrai 

ical a'rroOvpa'KeL ovSel^ inr oifSevo^, 

XrV "Eto-TLV pkv oiv TO if>ofi€pov Kol i\€€ivov itc rrj^ 6'^€(0<$ 7t- 

1468 b ""^-^T ^^ 

yveaOai, iartv Sk xal i^avrfj^ t^9 avairdo'ea)^ r&v T rpayfid rcov, 
u oirep iarl irparepov teal TTOirfTov dfieivovo^. Set ykp koI avev 

' ' Tov opav ovTto aweardvtu rov fivdov, e5oT€ rov dicovovra tA 
^ \ j 5 irpdr/fuiTa yvvop^va koX <^DtTT€ty ical iKeelv €k r&v avfi$€uv6v ' 
T(ov* awep civ irdOoi n^ aKOvtov rov rov OlSlwou fivdov. 
TO Sk Sta T§9 8'^€€o^ TOVTO 7rapoLaK€vdl^ei,v aT^yyo- 2 
T^pov KaX X^PVy^^ Beofievov i<mv. oi Be p,i) to ^o/S e- 
pbv Std TTJ^ 8ylr€(0^ dWd to TcpaT&Se^ fjLOvov TrapaaKevd- 
10 fovT€9 ovBev TpaytpSia KOLVfovowLV ov ykp iracrav Bet 
^TfTclv '^Bovfjv dirb TpcuytpBla^ dWd tt/v oiiceiav, iirel Bkz 
TTfv diro iXe ov teal <l)ofiov But fiifn^aeto^ Bet fiBovrjv irapa- 
a/cevd^etv tov 7rotrjTi]v, ^vepov co? tovto iv TOA9 irfiff^fia- 
(Tvv ifJLiroi/rfTeov. irota oiv \^i,vd rj irota ol/crpd (ii^>cUveTat) 
15 T&v {avfiinTrTOVTayv,^ \dfi(o/Mev. dvd/yKtj Brj ^ <f>Cka}v elvac 4 





TTpo^ dWi^Xov^ tA? TOcavTa^ irpd^ei^ fi i^Op&v fj p/qBe- 
TepoDV. civ fikv oiv e^Opb^ ej(0pov, ovBev ^iX eetvov ] ovTe 
TTOi&v ovT€ p^KKoav, TrXtfv /cut avTo to irdOo^' ovS* &v 
fM7]BeTipa)<; Ij^oj/t€9' OTav S' iv Ta?9 ^Ckla^ iyyevrjTcu tcl 

36. <i}>- conL Yahlen 37. ot Slp Bonitz : Ay oi codd. : kSlv ol Spengel 

1463 b 4. awetrrapai A^ 7. &T€xvhrepov apogr. : irexyfirrepw A° 15. 

dif Spengel : di codd. 17. post ix^pbv add. dvoKreUrQ Pazzi < <t>o^pbv > 

0^9' ^eeivbv Ueberweg 


pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where thi 
who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies — like Orestes •■-" 
and Aegisthas— quit the stage aa frieods at the close, 
and no one slays or is slain. T^ 

XrV Teai and pity may he aroused hy spectacular means ; — \( ;~ 

hut they may also reauTl from theTnner structure of the '■ "^ 
piece, which is Ihe better way, and indicates a superior "" 
poet. ^OT tTiQ pTnf :  ; ii i [ ^h t t - ^ h n n ft "rn n trn pfif^ d tTi n t. (rTn n 
without the aid of the eye, he who hearp thfl t'il''''*^i'l ^■''^ ^ 
will thrill with horror and melt to ^ pl ^ at what takes I' -—v" 
place. This is the impression we should receive fix)m ' ' 

hearing the'^slOrydT'lIie Oedipus. But to'produce this 2 
effect hj the mere spectacle is a less artistic method, 
and dependent on extraneous aids. Those who employ i 
spectacular means to create a sense not of the terrihlel' — 
hut only of the monstrous, are strangers to the purpose^ 
of Tragedy ; for we must not demand of Tragedy any and 
every kind of pleasure, but only that which is proper U. 
to it. And since the pleasure which the poet should 3 
afford is that which comes from pity, and fear through • ■; ' 
imitation, it is evident that this quan^ must be impressed « 

upon the incidents. 

Let us then determine what are the circumstances 
which strike us as' terrible or pitiful. , f 7 ;-^ 

Actions capable of this effect must happen between t 

persons who are either friends or enemies or indifferent \ 
uother. If an enemy kills an enemy, there is 
o excite pity either in the act or the intention, 
so far as the suffering' in itself is pitiful. So 
th indifferent persons. But when the tragic 
occurs between those who are near or dear to — 

BO XIV. 4 — 8. 1453 b 20 — 1454 a a 

20 T T^t], otov et a£€\ij>o<! aSeX^oi* ^ vioi iraripa f) /i^Tpp 
vlov ij vw? fnfripa airoKreivei ^ /tiXXei rj ri aKKo routvrav 
Spa, ravra ^ip~i}Teov. tow? fUv oZv vapetXtifi/Uvoui /ivdov^ 5 
\iieiv oiiK i<mv, TJyto Bi otov rijv KXvrai/iijaTpav a>tro0a- 
pova-av WTTO tov 'Opetnov leai rijv 'Ept^uXijii inro tov 'AXk/i4- 

xS lopov, avrov Si evplvKetv Set Kal roX^ trapaSeSo/jtevoK XP^ 
aBtu KoXw. TO Si xoXw? t/ Xeyofiev, et-?ra>fisv ertufsStrrepov. 
SiTTi fikv 'jh.p ovra fLve<T8ai Trpi Trpa^iv, &trirep ai irakaiol 6 
imtlow etSora^ koI r^iyvaxntovrai;, KaBdirep koI Eu^iit^? 
iiroi'ti<rev airoKTeivowrav tov^ iratScK tt/v MiJScmw'" ^<mv hi 

30 vpa^at pAv, aiyvoovvToit Sk wggfat to Seivov, elff Strrepop 
avtVYVfopiiriu rijv i^i\iav, Sxnrep 2.o^K\eav^ OtSttrov^' tov- 
To /Mv oSy l^to TOV SpaftaTOi, iv S' avrtj t^ rparft^ia oXov 
6 'AXxfUav o 'AffTvBdfiavTot ^ 6 Tt]\Syovoi 6 iv t^U rpav- 
p/iria 'OSvairei. 'hi Si rpCrov irapa ravra m * ro p-eKKov- 7 

35 TO rroieiv ri rSm'avifKearoyv Si Srf/otav avarfvapUrat irplv 
votfja-iu. ical irapk ravra ovk ?oth' oXVds- ^ yhp vpaPat 
avofjicrf ^ fiif xai etSora^ ^ p,^ elSora^. rovrwv hi to pxv 
fOiaxTKOvra peSXijiTai koX /li} irpa^ai ■^eipiarov ro re yap 
fuaphv ex^''' "'"''' "^ rparfiKov airaSi^ yap. Sioirep ovSe)s 
tutwoiet 6ftoUi)<;, tl pii oKiydicK, otov iv ^Avri/yovp tov "K-piovra 
Atpap. ro Si TTpaPat Sevrepov. ^iXriov Si to ofvoovv^ 8 

20. oIm' cl Sjlbui); : ottp 1) codd. 22. Spf apogr. : Spar A° 

WiuTaiii^ffTfarS: EXoTtuiu-irTparaoiA, 24. 'AXxttaUimCodd. 

tCriii/iir ifogr. : tlroiur A' 33. 'AXunalui' i 6rypbiua : 'AXcfwJb . 

34. rapi toDto, -e tJ /ttWijaai yiriiaKovTii koI jti) roiijiiai, *al Ttra/rror 
VohUn Ti Bonitz : rby c«dd. IIH & 2. St&repw'] K/xtTcoro 

h«rdt, note, nt opinot 





one another — ;if^for example, a brother kills, or intends to 
kill, a brother, a son his father, a mother her son^ a son 
his mother, or any other deed of t he kind is do ne — these 
"are the siiuauons 10 be looked for by the poet. He may not 
indeed destroy the framework of the received legends — the 6 
fact, for instance, that Clytemnestra was slain by Orestes — 

andEriphyle by Alcmaeon — but he ought to showinvention 

of his own, and skilfully handle the traditional material Let 
us explain more clearly what is meant by skilful handling. 
The action may be done consciously and with know- 6 
^ ledge of the persons, in the manner of the older poets. 

It is thus too that Euripides makes Medea slay her ^ 
children. Or, again^...tiba .daedr^^^Jboj^^ dtme, "^ 

^ but done in ignorance, and the tie of Jfe^t^hm 

ship be discovered,afteiH^ds. The Oedi2usj)f Sophocles — QQ^ , 

is an example. Qere, indeed, the incident is outside 

the drama proper ; but cases occur where it falls within 

the action of the play : one may cite the Alcmaeon of — 

Astydamas,or Telegonus in the Woimded Odysseus. Again, 7 -^ p O 


there is a third case, — <to be about to act with knowledge 


. of the persons and then not to act. The fourth case is> 
when some one is about to do an* irreparable deecl through 
ignorance, and makes the discovery before it is dona These 
lare the only possible ways. For the deed must either be 


.done or not done, — and that wittingly or unwittingly. 
But of aU these ways, to be about to act knowing the 
persons, and then not to act, is the worst. It is shocking 
without being tragic, for no disaster follows. It is, there- 
1454 a fore, never, or very rarely, found in poetry. One instance, 
however, is in the Antigone, where Haemon threatens to 
kill Creoa. The next and better way i« ^\}At tho. HAftHa 

52 XIV. 8— XV. 3. 1454 a 3—24 

ov irpoaeariv Kal 17 apa/yvtopva-i^ i/nrkTjKTCKov. Kparttrrov Be 9 
5 TO reKevToiov, Xeyco Bk otov iv toJ Kpea^ovrp 17 Mepoiri] 
fiiWei Tov vlov aTTOKTeiveiv, airo/cTeivet Be ov, aW* dv- 
^ erfVfopLae, xal ep t^ *I<l>iyeveLa 17 aSeX^^ roy dBeX^ov, koI 

iv Tp '^EXXrj 6 vlo<: TTjv fJLTjrepa iKBcBovat fieWaov dveyvd- 
piaev. Btk ycip tovto, oirep iroiXav elprfrai, ov irepX iroXKa 

10 yevri ai rpa^tpBiac elcriv, ^rjTovvre^ yhp ov/c diro re'^inj^ 
dXX* aTTO Tv^ri^ evpov to tolovtov Trapaaxevd^eiv iv TOi<i 
fivOoi^' dvarfKa^ovTav oiv €7rl Tainan tcl<; olxia^ dirairrav 
ocrat^ tA TovavTa (TVfifie/SijKe irddrj, irepl fikv oiv t^9 
T&v TTparfjidTtov avcTTdaeo)^ Kal ttolov^ tcvcl^ elvac Bel tov^ 

15 fivdov^ eipffTav i/cavw. 

XV TLepl Be tA r}0i] Terrapd icTiv &v Bet trTO'^d^eadai, ev 

fiev ical irp&Tov oirto^ ^rjaTct y. e^et Be ^0o<: fiev ictv 

Aairep eXej^^iy iroiy ^avepov 6 "Koyo^ fj ri irpa^L^ irpoaLpeaiv 

Tiva, "XprjoTOv Be idv j^/w/o'TTyi/. eariv Bk iv eKdarq) 

20 yevec* Kal yhp yvvij ia-Tcv XPV^'^V "^^^ BovXo^, KaiToi 
ye tao}^ tovtodv to fiev '^elpov, to Bk 0X6)9 <l>av\6v 
iaTLv. BevTepov Be to dpfioTTOVTa • eaTcv yhp dvBpelov 2 
fiev TV ^00^, aXX* ovj^ dpfiOTTOv yvvatxl to dvBpelav fj 
BeiVTjv elvac, TptTOv Be to ofiocov. tovto yap h'epov tov 3 

4. Kp6.Ti<rTov\ Se&rcpov Neidhardt, recte, ut opinor 8. "EXX^;] *AvTt6irp 

Yalokenaer 18. (popepdiv Aid., Bekker 19. rufa Parisinus 2038 : 

Tivd 5 A«: TUfa <f| rij &v>- J coni. Vahlen (? cf. Arab.) : <.^v>rLva <5>ij 
By water: nva ij <0vyjjv> Diintzer: nva <^oj^a, oirola rty &!»> y 
Gomperz: riva, ijMvkop fihf idiv (ftadkii J apogr. 22. rb Vahlen (ed. 1) : 

tA codd. 23. ri fi0o% Hennann : rb fjOos codd. rb apogr. : »  r(ai 

A9: oCrtos Vahlen coUato Pol. ilL 4. 1277 b 20. Pesunt in Arabe verba 
rf dvdpelav . . . ehou,, quorum vicem supplet haec clausula, * ne ut appareat 
quidem in ea omnino ' (Margoliouth) ; unde Diels rf dvdpeiav . . . elvat 
glossema esse arbitratus quod veram lectionem eiecerit, scribendum esse coni. 






fihmild hft pftrpfttrfttfftH. Still hf^tt^r that it flhon ld be 

^ perpetrated JD ignoranc e, and the ^scojery made after- ._ 
wards . There is then nothing to '-^hock ns, while the •-r 
discovery produces a startling effect The last case is the 9 
best, as when in the Cresphontes Merope is about to slay ^^' 
her son, but, recognising who he is, spares his life. So 
in the Iphigenia, the sister recognises the brother just in ^o 
time. Again in the Helle, the son recognises the mother _^ ; 
when on the point of giving her up. This, then, is why 
a few families only, as has been already observed, furnish 
the subjects of tragedy. It was not art, but happy 
chance, that led poets to look for such situations and so 
impress the tragic quality upon their plots. They are 
compelled, therefore, to have recourse to those houses 
whose history contains moving incidents like these. 

Enough has now been said concerning the structure 
of the incidents, and the proper constitution of the plot. 

X'\5^ In respect of Charanter they p qj<;^ f^nr thinga l^n be -^is' -' *" 
aimed^ t. First,_a nd most important, it must be g ood. |# 
Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose 
of any kind will be expressive of character : the character 
Will hp. gnnr^ jf thft pirpoRp. ia gnn^, This rule is relative 
to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a 
slave ; though the woman may be said to be an inferior 
being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing 2 2 
to ai m at is propri ety. TherQ is a type of manly valour ; 
but valour in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness, is in- 
appropriate. Thirdly, character must be true to life : for 3 i. 



54 XV. 3—7- 1454 a 25—1454 b 5 

25 '^f\<TTov TO fiQo^ Kol apfioTTOv TTOirjfTat &<rrr€p ecprjTac. 
rerapTov he to o/iaXdv. kolv yap av(Ofia\6^ tl<; t} Trjv 4 
fiifirjaiv irapeytov koX toiovtov ^0o^ inroTiOei^, ofioD^ ofia- 
\&^ ava)fia\ov Bel eXvai, eaTcv Sk irapdSeiyfia irovTjpia^ fjuev 5 
fjOov^ jxq dvar/Kaiov olov Mei/eXoo? o ev t^ ^Opearrf, tov 

30 8^ dirperrov^ koX firj dpfioTTovTO^ 6 re Oprjpo^ ^OBvaaeoD^ ev 
Ty '^KvWff KaX ri T^9 MeXartTTTTT;? prja-v^, tov Se avoofiaXov 
17 ev AvXlBi ^I<f>iy€veta' ovBev yap eoL/cev 17 IxeTevovaa ttj 
voTepa, j(p7j Be koI ev toU T^Oeaiv &<nrep Kal ev Ty t&v 6 
irpa^ficLTfov o-vaToaei del ^rjTeiv fj to dva/^Kalov 17 to elxo^, 

35 e5oT€ TOV TotovTov Ta ToiavTa \eyecv fj irpaTTeiv ^ dva/yfcaiov 
7j elKo^, Kal TovTO fjbera tovto ylvecOai rj dvayKoiov ^ et/cof;, 
<f>av€pbv ovv OTL /cal tA? Xvaet^ t&v fivOtov ef avTov Bet tov 7 
1464 b fivOov avfifiaiveiv, Kal firj Sxrirep ev Trj MyBeia aTTO p/q- 
'Xfivrj^ Kal ev Tff 'IXtaSe tA irepl tov aTTOTrXovv dXKct firj- 
Xavy 'XprjOTeov iirl Ta e^co tov BpdfiaTO^, rj o<ra irpo tov 
yeyovev h ovj^ olov Te avOpanrov elBevac, tf ocra va-Tepov, a 
5 BecTai irpoa^opevaeto^ Kal dyyekia^^ airavTa yap diroBC- 

&ar€ fjLTfd^ 4)cUF€<r$aL KaOdXov : * The manly character is indeed sometimes 
found even in a woman (lariv yhp dvdpeioy fiev t6 ^Oos), but it is not 
appropriate to her, so that it never appears as a general characteristic 
of the sex.' Sed hoc aliter dicendum fuisse suspicari licet ; itaque Susemihl 
huiusmodi aliquid tentavit, Cxn-e firfS^ tpalveaSai iv atV^ uk ivlvav, vel Ck 
ivixav clwetv : * There is indeed a character (rt 9j6os) of manly courage, but it 
is not appropriate to a woman, and as a rule is not found in her at all' 
25. lacunam ante &{nr€p statuit Spengel Cxnrep etpv/rai fort, secluden- 

dam : dwcp etprfrai Hermann 29. dvayKalov Marcianus 215, Bywater : 

dvayKcuov A° : duayKalas Thnrot otov seel. E. Miiller 30. <6> 

'OSvo-cr^ws Tucker : <Tod> 'Odvffffitas Bywater 31. S/ci5\X^ rJ OaXaTrlqL 

2, ut videtur post fiijais exemplum toG dpofwlov intercidisse coui. 

Vettori 35 et 36. j Hermann : ij codd. 36. <d>s> Kal tovto 

Bjrwater, fort, recte 37. tQv ijAdtav] tuv iiB(av S, ut videtur 1464 

b 2. dir&icKow Riccardianus 16 : dvijcKow Parisinus 2038, 2, ut videtur : 
dTKovv A^ 3. iirl rd apogr. : ^irctra A^ 4. 6t6u re apogr. : 

ot&PTou A^ commate post HaTcpov distinguit W. R. Hardie, qui di.yye\ioi.i 

ad 6<ra. vpb tov refert, vpoayopetifaewi ad 6<ra Varepov 



this is a distinct thing from goodness and propriety, as here f 


deseribed*,. T he fourth point is consistenc y : for though 4 j (^ . 
the subject of the imitation, who suggested the type, 
be inconsistent, still he must be consistently inconsistent. 
As an example of motiveless degradation of character, we 5 
have Menelaus in the Orestes : of character indecorous ~ p 
.„. i..pp„pri..e, .h. U„ent of <M,«e„. h *, So,.K ^ 
and the speech of Melanippe: of inconsistency, the ^q 
Iphigenia at Aulis, — ^for Iphigenia the suppliant in no ^p 
way resembles her later self. 

As in the structure of the plot, so too in the por- 6 ^^^ 
traiture of character, the poet should always aim either 
at the necessary or the probable. Thus a person of a 
given character should speak or act in a given way, by |', 
the rule either of necessity or of probability; just as 
this event should follow that by necessary or probable 
sequence. It is therefore evident that the unravelling 7 
of the plot, no less than the complication, must arise out 
i4(»4b of the plot itself, it must not be brought about by the 

Deus ex Machina — as in the Medea, or in the Eetum of -^ 
the Greeks in the Iliad. The Deus ex Machina should ^o 
be employed only for events external to the drama, — 
for antecedent or subsequent events, which lie beyond 
the range of human knowledge, and which require to be 

56 XV. 7— XVI. 3- 1454 b 6—27 

r^ Bofiev Tot^ 0€OK opav. aXoyov Bk fi/rfiev elvai, iv rok TTpd- 

yfUKTiv, el S^ yi»r\f 6^a> 7179 rparffpZLa^, otov to iv roS 
OloLVoSi TfiS Xo<f>OK\iov^, iirel Se pifirjak ioTiv fi rpar^fp- 8 
hla ffeXrtovtov <fj Kaff> rjfiSs, i^i fHfieiaOat rov^ cuyaOoif^ 

10 €l/covaypa4l>ov^' xalyhp iKelvoi, aTroBiBovre^ rrjv IBiav fju}pif>^v 
OfiOLOV^ irounhrre^ /caWlov^ ypcuf^ovtnv * ovra fcal top iroi/rirriv 
fUfiovfievov KoX opyCXjov^ xal paOvfiov^ /cat rSXKa rh roiavra 
e^ovTO^ iirl r&v rid&v, tocovrov^ ovra^ hrtei^icel^ iroteiv 
\7rapaZeirffMi <r«Xi7/»OTi7T09], olov top 'Aj^tWea ^AydOtov koX 

^S^'Op/qpo^, Taxna Brj <S€t> StaTrfpeLv xal 7rpo9 T0UT0t9 Ta9 9 
^j^" iraph Th ef dva^Kf}^ aKoXovOovtra^ altrOriaeL^ t^ ttoitjti/c^ • 

teal yhp KaT avTCL^ Iotlp dfutpTdpetp 7roWa#cA9' etptfTaL 
Sk irepX avT&p ip toi^ eKBeBofiepoi^ "koyoc^ iKapw. 

XVI ^Apaypcopiaif; Sk tL fUp iarip, elpTjToi, irpoTepop* eXhri 

20 8^ dpayv(oplaea>^, irpdnr) p^p fi aTeyyoTdTTi KctL fj irkeiarri 
^&PTat Sl diropiap, rj BicL t&p ar^p^Uop, tovtwp Be Th phf 2 
avp^vTa, otop " Xoy^rfp fjp <f>opovai, X^?^!^!^ ** ^ daTepa^ 
oXov^ €V tg5 ^veoTfj 'K.apKipoSi tcl Bi iiri/CTrjTa, icaX tovtodp 
tA P^p ip tS ad>paTi, olop ovKai, tcL Be i/cTO^, Td irepi- 
25 Bepava koI oIop ip t^ Tvpoi Bed 7^9 aKaffyrj^. eaTCp Be xal 
TovTot^ ^(prja'Oac ij ^iXTcop rj ^etpop, olop OBvaaeif^ Bid 3 
T^9 oifXrj^ aWa)9 dpeyptopiaOrj inro 7^9 Tpoif>ov kclL aXXa>9 

7. t6 Ac (? rw pr. AC) : rh vel rw apogr. : rd Aid. 9. ^ Kaff add. Stahr 

(confirm. Arabs) 14. vapddciyfia ffKXrjp&niTos seel. Bywater : dtoy ante 

TrapddeiyfM ponit Tucker drydOuy apogr. : dyaOQp A^ 15. d^ Set Aid. : 

Sij Ac : del apogr. tAj vapd. tA vel rA vapd, rds apogr. : rds vapd, rds 

Ac 20. i ir\€i<rrQ9,pogt, : 1)ir\el<n'7i Ac 21. ^ apogr.: ^ Ac 22. 

iaripei Richards 24. irepidipata apogr. pauca : irepid^ppea Ac 25. otov 

apogr. : ol Ac cKd^prfs] cirderjs S, nt videtur, * ensis * Arabs : (R. Ellis) 

26. <6> 'Offvo-o-ci^s Bywater 


reported or foretold ; for to the gods we ascribe the power 
of seeing all things. Within the actio n there must b e 
nothing irrational. IT the irrational cannot be excluded, *^ 
it should be outs ide~tEe scope of ihe trage dy . Such"j s 
^^firftfiny^a] <jlgmentjnjbhe^gddp]^^ ,.^ p OQ 

Again, since Tragedy is an imitation of persons whg 8 
:abb^e;ii^4;0fl^pn^jj^^ the example of good portrait- 
painters should be followed. They, while reproducing 
the distinctive form of the original, make a likeness 
which is true to life and yet more beautiful So too 
the poet, in representing men who are irascible or 
indolent, or have other defects of character, should 
preserve the type and yet ennoble it/TLn this way 
Achilles is portrayed by Agathon and Homer. fj 

* These then are rules the poet should observe. Nor 9 ^ 
should he neglect those appeals to the senses, which, 
though not among the essentials, are the concomitants of 
poetry ; for here too there is much room for eiTor. But 
of this enough has been said in the published treatises. 

What Eecognition is has been already explained. ^ f 
We will now enumerate its kinds. 



Eij ^st, the least artistic form, which, from poverty of 
wit, is most commonly employed — recognition by signs. 

Of these some are congenital, — such as ' the spear which 2 
the earth-born race bear on their bodies,' or the stars 
introduced by Carcinus in his Thyestes. Others are -- P 
acquired after birth ; and of these some are bodily marks, 
as scars ; some external tokens, as necklaces, or the little 
ark in the Tyro by which the discovery is efifected. Even 3 ^ f 
these admit of more or less skilful treatment. Thus in 
the recognition of Odysseus by his scar, the discovery is — y 

58 XVI. 3 — 6. I4S4 b 28 — 1455 a 11 

inrb T&v avfioT&v elal yhp at fiev 7rt<rr۩9 evexa drexvo- 
y^'T^ '^^P^''* ^^^ ®* Toi^vrai, TTcUraL, ai Bk i/c irefyiirerela ^, ft)<r- 

30 Trep 17 ip To2^ NtTrrpot?, /SeXrtou?. hevrepat Se ai ireTrocrj- 4 
fievcu inro rod 'rroi^rjrov. Bio are^i/ot,. olov ^Ope<rrq^ iv rp 
*Iif>i,y€V€ia dveyvdpiaev on 'Op€<rT^9' i/ceimj fiev yhp SeA t^9 
iircaToXrj^, ckcIvo^ Be avro^ Xeyet h fiovKerac 6 iroi/rjrri^ aXK 

35 oxf^ 6 fjLvdo^' Bib e77i;9 ri Trj<; etprjfievrff; aftapria^; ioTiv, i^v 
yap &v ivia Koi iver^Kelv, /cal iv r^ Xo^kXcov^ Trfpei 17 
T^9 tcepKiBo^ ifxovTj, fi rpirrj Bicb fivi^/irj^, r^ aiadetrdav 5 
1466 a Ti IBovra, &cr'!rep 17 iv ^mrpioi^ toI^ Aifcaioy€vov<;, lB<ov yctp 
T7JV ypa<l>rjv e/cXavaeVs Koi 17 iv *A\klvov diroXoytp, dtcovcov 
stP'^ y^P '''^^ KidapioTOv Kal jujnj ^OeU iSaKpyaev, odev avtsyvto- 

pUrOrja-av. Terdprrj Bk rj i/c <TvXXoyL(rfiov, olov iv ^ofppop&l^, e 
5 on ofJLOio^ T49 iXtjXvOev, ofiovo<; Bk ovdeX^ a\X' ^ o 'O/06<m79, 
ovTo^ apa IXrjXvOev, xal 17 HoXviSov rod ao^icrrov irepl T779 
I<f>ify€V€la^' elxof; yap rov ^Opea-TTjv avXXoyiaacrOat on fj r 
dB€Xif>i) irvOrj Kal avr^ avfifiaivec dveaOai. Kal iv to! 
^eoBcKTOv TvBeiy on iX6a)v a><; evprjaayv viov avTo<i diroX- 

10 XvraL, Kal 17 iv T049 ^ivelBai^. IBovcac ydp rov roirov aw- 

eXoyio'avTO rrjv eifjiapfievrjv on iv tovto) etfjbapro diroOavelv 

31. olov <o> By water ^Opitrrn^ prius seel. Diels (confirmante fort. 

Arabe) 32. dvcyvtaplffdri Spengel 34. Sib iy^M rt Vahlen : dC 6ti 

iyyds Ac : 5t6 rt iyyds Bywater 36. alia S legisse videtur, * haec sunt 

in eo qaod dixit Sophocles se audiisse vocom radii contempti ' (Arabs) ; unde 
W. R. Hardie coni. roia&nj d* ij iv rf [Zo^o/cX^oi;; ?] Tijpei "t^s di^at^Sov, " 
^(Tf, ** K€pKi8os 4>mv^v kMu" 37. ii Tplmj Spengel : ^ot riyt A<* : rpLrri 17 

apogr. atfrSeaeal AP 1465 a 1. rots apogr. : riys A^ 2. diroXbyi^ 

apogr. : dirb Xbytav A^ 4. Xorj^6pois Vettori : x^ori<p6f>oi,s A^ 6. 

llo\vl8ov Tyrwhitt : woXvcldov apogr. : woXveldovs A^ 10. ^iveldan Reiz : 

<pivl8fus codd. 










made in one way by the nurse, in another by the herds- 
men. The use of tokens for the express purpose of proof 
— and, indeed, any formal proof with or without tokens 
— ^is a less artistic mode of recognition. A better kind 
is that which comes about by a turn of incident^ as in — 
the Bath Scene in the Odyssey. — >V 

Next come the recognitions invented at will by the 4 ^ 

poet, and on that account wanting in art. For example, 
Orestes in the Iphigenia reveals the fact that he is *— 
Orestes. She, indeed, makes herself known by the letter; 
but he, by speaking himself, and saying what the poet, 
not what the plot requires. This, therefore, is nearly 
j allied to the fault above mentioned: — for Orestes might 
as well have brought tokens with him. Another similait 
instance is the ' voice of the shuttle ' in the Tereus of ^ 
Sophocles. ^ 

1466 a _Thft thi^^ k?"^ depends on memory wh en the sight of 5 ^7 

some object awakens a feeling :_ as in the Cyprians of v^ p 
Dicaeogenes, where the hero breaks into tears on seeing 
the picture ; or again in the ' Lay of Alcinous,' where - p 
Odysseus, hearing the minstrel play the lyre, recalls the 
past and weeps ; and hence the recognition. 

The fourth kind is by process of reasoning. Thus in 6 {| 

the CEoiphori :- — 'Some one resembling me has comet 
no one resembles me but Orestes : therefore Orestes has » > 
come.' Such too is the discovery made by Iphigenia 
in the play of Polyidus the Sophist. It was a natural --\ 
reflexion for Orestes to make, 'So I too must die at the 
altar like my sister.' So, again, in the Tydeus of s-^ 
Theodectes, the father says, * I came to find my son, and 
I lose my own life.' So too in the Phineidae: the 

60 XVI. 6— XVII. 2. I45S a 12—30 

airaS^, icaX yhp i^ereOfjaav hrravOa. €<mv hi Tt9 icaX aw- 7 
Oerrj i/c irapaXoyicfiov rov Oaripov, olov iv r^ 'OSi/crcreZ rcS 
'^vScifyyikqi' 6 /lev yiip to to^ov e^ *   ywoaecOai o 

15 ov^ €(t)paK€i, TO Sk ii^ hi) iicelvov avcuyvcopiovvTO^ Sut tovtov 

iroLrjaai,, irapdKoyurpLo^. ircLa&v hk /SeXrtcrri; av€Vfimpi,ai^ V^^ ^ 

O avT&v T&v irparf/jATOfv t^9 c/CTrXiyfew^ yufuopAvTi^ hi eiKo- 

T09V, otov [o] iv t5 %o<f>oKXiov<; Olhliroht xal t§ ^l<f>iy€P€la' 

eiKO^ yhp /Sovkeo'dai imOeivcu ypdfipMTa. al yhp TouivTac 

20 fwvat dvev t&v ireiroiriiiivcav arffieiayv xal hepalwv. hev- 

T€pac he al itc avXKoyurfiov, 

XVII Ael he tov9 fivffov^ awicrrdvai, Koi T17 Xi^ei avpair- 

epyd^eaOai otl fiaKioTa irpo ofifiaTeov Tidifievov* ovt<o yap 

&v ivapyioTaTa [o] op&v &a'irep trap avTov; yiyvofievo^ T0J9 

2S'7rpaTTOfiipoLf; evplaKOC to irpiirov Koi ijKia'Ta av XavOdvoc 
Ta vTrevavTia. arjfielov he tovtov o iireTifuiTO T^apKiytp" 
o yctp *AfjL(l>tdpao^ i^ lepov dvpei, h firj op&ina \tov 
6eaTriv\ iXdvOavev, iirl he t^9 a'Kr)V7J<; i^iireaev hva-^epa- 
vdvTKOV TOVTO T&V OeaT&v. oca he hwaTov xal tol<$ ctj^i;- 

30 fiaaiv awairepya^ofievov, inOavwTaTOL yhp diro t^9 avTrj<; 2 

13. 0ar4pov Barsian, praeeunte Hermann : Bedrpov codd. 14-16. fikv 

ykp . . . TapaXoyifffiis] multo plura Mc legisse videtur Arabs (Margoliouth) ; 
post (<fyff lacunam indicavi ; vide quae supra in versione addidi, Arabem 
quoad potui secutus 14. 6 fih apogr. : rb fUv A^ t6 ante t^ov 

om. apogr. 15. 5^ Tyrwhitt : Si* codd. 16. voL^aau. codd. : iroiTjae 

Aid. wapaXoyuTfiSs Vahlen (confirm. Arabs) : irapdXoyLafidp codd. 17. 

iicirXifl^ecos apogr. : xXiJf 6wj A° ttjs ixTcXif^etas . . . clK&rtav om. Arabs 

€iK6vnav A^ 18. o seel. Vahlen : rd Bywater : 6 Tucker : 17 

apogr. *pauca 19-20. aX yiip rotavTou . . . irepidepaluv seel. Gomperz 

20. depalwv apogr. corr. : Sipcwv A^: irepidepalbw apogr. pauca annjueltav 

KoX bepaUav secl. Tucker, fort, recte 24. iyapyiarara apogr. : ivepy^ffrara A« 

d om. Aid. 26. rb ante rd add. A^: om. apogr. iveTifmro 

marg. Riccardiani 16 : imrifia rSti. A^ (cf. 1462 a 10) 27. di^ifct Guelferby- 
tanus : Av e/17 A.^ opCjvra codd. : opwvr* Av Vahlen 27-28. rbv Oeariiv 
seclusi (simili errore Rhet. i. 2, 1358 a 8 rot>s ixpoarhs in textum irrepsit) : 
rbv TToiTiT^v Dacier fi^ opQvr* airrbv [Oear^v] Gomperz, emendationis 

meae, credo, inscius 30. dirb ttjs avrijs codd. (confirmare videtur Arabs) : 

dir' ajJxT^f TTJS Tyrwhitt 



women, on seeing the place, inferred their fate ; — * Here 
we are doomed to die, for here we were cast forth.* 
Again, there is a composite kind of recognition involving 7 
false inference on the part of one of the characters, as in 
the Odysseus Disguised as a Messenger. A said <that \ 
no one else was able to bend the bow; . . . hence B 
(the disguised Odysseus) imagined that A would > 
recognise the bow which, in fact, he had not seen ; and 
to bring about a recognition by this means — t he expecta-, 
tion that A would recogni se the bow — ^is false inferenc e. . 

Butjj)t-ril*xegognitions, the best is that which aris es I 
from t he incidents^HlBmselveSt^'V fEJ^^ startling dis- 

y^^very isjpfldpi l^yjatural meang. jtSiir.H is^that .m the 

^ uedipus of Sophocles, and in the Iphigenia ; for it was - 
Ir ttturftl ■liiar'T^higenia si&ould wish to dispatch a letter. 
These recognitions alone dispense with the artificial aid 
of tokens or amulets. Next come the recognitions by 
process of reasoning. 
XVII In constructing the plot and working it out with ^ 

the proper diction, the poet should place the scene, 
as far as possible, before his eyes. In this way, seeing 
everything with the utmost vividness, as if he were a 
spectato r of the action, he will discover what is in keeping 
with it, and be most unlikely to overlook inconsistencies. 
The need of such a rule is shown by the fault found in 
Carcinus. Amphiaraus was on his way from the temple. 
This fact escaped the observation of one who did not see 
the situation. On the stage, however, the piece failed, 
the audience being offended at the oversight. 

Again, the poet should work out his play, to the 
best of his power, with appropriate gestures ; for 2 




62 XVII. 2—5. I4SS a Z^—iASS t> i^ 

^i;<r€a>9 o/ ei' Tot9 irdOeaLv eiaiv xal 'xjeifiaivec 6 j(^6i,fia^6/i€P(><: 
Kal j(a\€7raiv€C 6 6fyyc^6fi£vo^ aXrjOivdrara. Blo €U(f>vov^ 17 
7roif)TCKi] ioTvv fj fiaviKov' Tovrmv yhp ol fikv exnfKaoTOL oi hk 
i/ccrraTLKoi elaiv. rov^ re \6yov<; /cat Toif<; ir&iroi/qfievov^ 3 
1466 b Bel /cal avTov iroiovvra iKridetrOai xaOokov, elff* ovro)? iireia- 
oStovv Kol irapareivetv, X€7a> Se ot;ra>9 av OempeiaOcu to xaO- 
6\ov, olov Ttj^ ^I<f>iy€V€ia<;' rvdeiar)*; rivo^ /c6p7f<; /cal ai^a- 
viadeiari^ aZrj\(o<i to?9 Ovaaaiv, iZpvvdeiari^ Se €69 aXKriv 

5 ywpav, iv y vojio^ fjv roi)^ ^evov^ Oveiv ry OeS ravrqv €aj(€ 
Tffv iepcDaifvrjv' XP^^^ ^^ voTepov ToJ'aSeX^ft) awefirf ikOetv 
T179 i€p€Ui<i (to 0€ otl aveiKev u€o^ oui ripa atruiv, e^<o rov 
icadokov \iKdelv e/ceZ], koX e^' o tl Si, ef o) rov fivOov), iKOwv 
Be Kol \rf<l>0€l^ OveaOai pAXSxov aveyvdpiaev, etff C09 ^vpc- 

10 iriSt)^ elB* a>9 TiokviZo<; iiroLrja-ev, xarcL to el/co^ eiiroDV otc 
ovK dpa fiovov T7JV aB€\xl>^v aX\a /cal axnov eSei Tvdfjvai, 
/cal ivTcvOev 17 cfOTrjpia, fjucTct Taxha he ffiri {nroOhna tol 4 
ovofiaTa iTreiaoSiovv 07ro)9 Se ecTai, oiKela Ta eireLaohta, 
olov iv To3 ^OpiaTrj 17 fjuavLa 81* ^9 iXi](f>dr) xal 17 iro)- 

15 Tf) pia 8tA T^9 /caOapaeo)^. iv fiev oJrv TO69 Spafjuiaiv tA 6 
iireiaohva avvTOfia, ri S' iiroiroiia tovtoi<; p/q/cvveTai. t^9 

33. duplicem lect. eUTrhtcToi et HvKaaroi habuisse videtur 2 (Diels) . 34. 
iKoraTiKoL O^ (confirm. Arabs, vid. Margoliouth, Classical Review xv. 64) : 
i^eroffTiKol codd. cett. rods re vel to&tovs re rods apogr. : ro&rovi re 

Ac, sed ne Graece quidein dicitur vapeiXifififiivovs coni Vahlen 

1465 b 2. iireuro8lov A° vapareiveiv Vettori : vepireiveiv codd. 7-8. 

secludendnm videtur aut i\6etv iKct (Bekker ed. 3) aut i^ta rod xaO^Xov 
(Diintzer) 8. Ka66\ov] fort. fiijOov Vahlen /ti^ov] fort. KaddXov 

Yalilen 9. dveyviapUrdrj M. Schmidt 10. Uo\i^ci8os codd. (cf. 1465 a 

C) 15. dpdfMffi (vel Aa/Mffi) apogr. : &pfiAffip A^ 


tho» who feel emotioraStSi'Lvineing through - )^ 

natural sympathy with the characters they represent; ,,^ 

and one who is agitated storms, one who is angry rages, 

with the most life-like reality. Hence poetry implies I ^_^ 

either a happy gift of nature or a strain of madness.* In 

the one case a man can take the mould of any character; 

in the other, he is lifted out of his proper self. 

As for the story, whether the poet takes it ready ^3 
i4fi6i> made or constructs it for himself, he should first sketch 
its general outline, and then fill in the episodes and 
amplify in detail. The general plan may be illustrated by 
the Ipi^nia. A young girl is sacrificed ; she disappears — f 
mysteriously from the eyes of those who sacrificed her ; 
she is transported to another country, where the custom is 
to offer up all strangers to the goddess. To this ministry 
she is appointed. Some time later her own brother 
chances to arrive. The fact that the oracle for some reason 
ordered him to go there, is outside the general plan of 
the play. The purpose, again, of his coming is outside the 
action proper. However, he comes, he is seized, and, when 
on the point of being sacrificed, reveals who he is. The 
mode of recognition may be either that of Euripides or of \_ ^ 
Polyidus, in whose play he exclaims very naturally : — 
' So it was not my sister only, but I too, who was doomed 
to be sacrificed ' ; and by that remark he is saved. 

After this, the names being once given, it remains 4 
to fill in the episodes. We must see that they are 
relevant to the action. In the case of Orestes, for ^ r 
example, there is the madness which led to his capture, 
and his deliverance by means of the purifica tory r ite. 
In the drama, the episodes are short, but it is these that 5 

64 XVIL 5— XVIIL 2. 1455 b 17—34 

TUfOi errf voXXa koI Trapa/^vXarrroiJuepov inro rou Hoaeih&vo^ 
KoX fAOPOU ovTo^, m Be tAp alscoi ovrm^ €j(Otrrmv iare ra XPV' 

20 para inro fiVff<rr^pc9v atfoXUrKeaBai xai tov vihm em/Sov- 

XeveaOai, avro^ Se at^uafeirai j(&fiaaOw koX avayv^piaa^ 

Tivk^ auTo^ CTTiOefietfo^ auro^ pev iamOtf tov9 S* e)(dpov^ 

iU^€^>€. TO pip oup l&iop TovTO, TO S* oXXa iweiaoSia. 

XYIII "Eitm Se ircurtf^ TparyaSioi to pep Seo'i^ to Si Xvai^, ra 

25 pip e^o^Oep KoX €Pia tS»p ecraOep tfoXXojm? 17 Sea^^, to 

B Kovwop Tf Xuai^. Xeya oe oeaip pip euHU rrpf air op- 

JCh M^XP^ Tovrov TOV pepov^ o eayarop eanv e^ ov perafiai- 

petp el^ exTTvyiav ^ ei^ arvylav «rvpfiaip€i>, XwriP Se rrip 

airo TTf^ ^HOC^ '^^ pera/Saaem^ f^XP^ tcXow &<nrep ep 

30 T& AvyKel TftJ SeoBcKTOv Setrt^ pep ra re irpcnteTrparfpepa 
seal fi rod iraiBiov X^^£9 fcal irdXaf 'f^ ain&p hi} * *'\' 
XucTA? S* fj airo t^ airiaa'eai^ rov Oapdrov p^XP^ ^®^ 
riXov^. *  r pa/i&iZ ig^ he elStf eial reaaapa, {roaavra yap 2 
Kol ra peprj c\€;^5i7,] 17 pep TreirXeypeprj, ^ to SXop ioTtv 

17. oO add. Valcanins (confirm. Arabs) iiAKpin AP : luxpibi apogr. 19. 

h-i Riccardianns 16, Z : iv€l A^ 21. di codd. : Sii com. Yahlen 22. 
rcvdf airbt codd. : Hn airbi coni. Bywater : rcydf ai>r^ olim seclusi : airin 
secL SpengeL Codicmn lectionem stabilivit Yahlen (1898) citato Diodoro 
Sicnlo iy. 59. 6 rbp Aly4a did tQv avfiP6\ta¥ Aweywdpurew : simili sensa, ut 
videtur, Plutarch. Tit, Thes, eh. xii, robi voKLras iywthpij^cw 26. xoXXdicts 

post i^€P collocavit Ueberweg: codd. lect. confirm. Arabs 28. els 

einvxiav'li els drvxUiy O^ : els eimrxlav codd. cett. : els evrvxiav <.iK ^v<mjxio.s 
av/ifiodpei ^ i^ e^rvxlo-s els dvarvxloM > com. Vahlen : < els bwmrxfav avft^alvei 
ij> els c^n/x^ Cromperz 30. Xiryice* apogr. : XucetAc 31. 5i) A^ : 

^ <&vay(ayii,> conL Vahlen: 5^<X<«Hrt$, > Christ (*et ea qnae patefecit' 
Arabs) 32. Xi^ts ^k ij Parisinus 2038: om. cett. ('solatio autem est 

quod fiebat ' Arabs) rod davdrov : fort, tov Aomoov (Yahlen et Spengel) 

rod T^ovs} hue transferenda quae leguntnr 1456 a 7-10 dUctuov — 
Kpareurdou (Susemihl) TocaOra ydp — iXixOrj seel. Susemihl ed. 1 34. 

Kol rd fUpTj A^ : Kard fUfnj Heine : xal rd fiJ^Ouv Tyrwhitt : Kcd rd fi6dov 
Susemihl ij lUv <dirX^ i} hk> Zeller (Vahlen post dvayvthpiais 35 <^ 

8i dxX^> cum definitione deesse suspicatur) 


give extension to Epic poetry. Thus the story of the 
Odyssey can be stated briefly. A certain man is absent — \ 
from home for many years ; he is jealously watched by 
Poseidon, and left desolate. Meanwhile his home is in 
a wretched plight — suitors are wasting his substance and 
plotting against his son. At length, tempest-tost, he him- 
self arrives ; he makes certain persons acquainted with 
him ; he attacks the suitors with his own hand, and is 
himself preserved while he destroys them. This is the 
essence of the plot ; the rest is episode. /^ -^ 

VIII >-. -■.Evarv tmffpdr Jalla Jnta^ two, parts^ — Complication 

and-^-CnrayelliiifiL . or DinouerrierJ, Incidents extraneous ^_ ^ 
to the action are frequently combined with a portion of 
the action proper, to form the Complication ; the rest is 

the Unravelling. By tWrrArympUAoiinn, T TTf^AftT] ^J] \}nat ^sr- 

jextends from the beginning of the action and the part 
v^hich marks the turning-point to good or bad fortune. 
The Unravelling is that which extends from the 
.boginning of the change to the end. Thus, in the 
Lynceus of Theodectes, the Complication consists of the -^^ 
incidents presupposed in the drama, the seizure of the 
child, and then again * * <The Unravelling > extends 
from the accusation of murder to the end. 

There are four kinds of Tragedy, the Complex, 2 Ij 
pending entirely on Eeversal and Eecognition; the 

.66 XVIIL 2— s 1455 b 35— US^ a i8 

<3 35 'irepuirereuL koX avarfvwptai^y 17 Sc iraOvfriicriy olov oX re Atav- 

1466 a T€9 /cal ol 'I^/oi/69> 17 Sk fjOiKi^, otov al ^OuotlBc^ Kot 6 

Hfjkeu^, TO Sk rirapTOv <i7 a'7rX^> *  "f 01791" olov ol re 

^PopxiBe^ xal Jlpop/qOev^ icai oca iv SZov. fioKLara phf ow 3 

airavra Set ireipSurdai l^etv, el Be fitj, ra pJb^itrra koI ttXcZ- 

5 Gray a\X6>9 re Koi c»9 vvv avKo<l>avrovaiv tou9 iroi^rjra^' ye- 
yovoroiv ykp Kaff ticaarov pApo% arfa0&v Troitjr&v, eKoarpv rov 
IBiov cuyaOov a^iovci rov Sva inrepfidWeiv, Bixatov Be xai 
rparftpBiav aXXf)v /cat rrjv avrr)v Xiyeiv ovBev^l^ icro)^ <(»9> 
Tc5 fivd^' rovro Bi, &v 17 avr^ irKoKr) xal Xvai^;, irokXol Be 

10 irXi^avre^ ei \vovat KaxA^ ' Bet Be afi^xo ael KpareiaOcu, 
')(pri Be Sirep etptfrai iroWdKi^ fiefivrjaOat koX firj irotelv eiro- 4 
wouKov avarrjfui rpayq>Biav. eiroirouKOV Be Xeyto ro iroXu- 
fivOov, otov ei T^9 rov t^9 ^IXidBo^ oXx>v ttocol fivOov* exei 
fiev yibp Bi,h ro fifj/co^ "Kafi/Sdvet ret fiepij ro irpeirov fieyeOo^, 

1$ iv Be Tot9 BpdfiaaL woXif irapa rrjv inroXrp^iv diro^aivei,. or)- 5 
fieiov Be, oaoc irepaiv 'IX/oi; 0X171/ eiroirjaav koI firj KarcL pApo^ 
Aairep ^vpiiriBrj^, <^> ^lo^ijv xal p,r) &<nrep Alaj(v\o^, 
rj eKiritrrovaLV fj /caxm drfayvl^ovrav, iirel icaX ^AydOtov ef- 

1466 a 2. ^ iiirMj add. Susemihl post ij d^X^ nonnulla intercidisse puto 

rd di T^raproy 617$ A^ : r6 5^ riraprov 6^ts (cf. ad 1468 a 6) By water, recte, 
nisi fallor, quod ad ^^(s attinet, sed rd et^ri in hoc loco eadem utiqae esse 
debent quae in xxiv. 1 : r6 5^ rh-aprrov reparCades Schrader : t6 d^ repariaSes 
<d,XK&rpio»> Wecklein 5. dXXa^s re apogr. : dXX* &s y€ A^ 6. 

^icdoTou Marcianus 216, Parisinus 2038: iKocrov A® 7-10. Ukomv — 

KpareiffOcLi Y. ad 1466 b 32 8. oideyi tfftas C)s Bonitz : o^cpI ihi Tyrwhitt : 

oddhf tffcjs Tip codd. 9. ToOro] raArb Teichmiiller : ro^tp Bursian 10. 

KpaTeurdai (cf. Polit. iv. (vii.) 13, 1331 b 38) Vahlen et S (*prensarunt 
utrumque ' Arabs) : Kporeiadai codd. 12. di ante t6 add. A<» : om. apogr. 

17. ^ add. Vahlen Ni^jSiyy] 'Exd/Siyv Valla, unde 'E/cd/Siyv [/ca2 . . . 

A^<rxi^Xos,] Reinach 


1466 a Pathetic (where the motive is passion), — such as the ^ 

tragedies on Ajax and Ixion; the Ethical (where the '?" 

motives are ethical), — such as the Phthiotides and the 

Peleus. The fourth kind is the Sjnjple. <We here S \ sjqs, 

exclude the purely spectacular element >, exemplified by 

the Phorcides, the Prometheus, and scenes laid in Hades. -- ? (^ 

The poet should endeavour, if possible, to combine all 8 

poetic merits ; or failing that, the greatest number and 

those the most important; the more so, in face of the 

cavilling criticism of the day. For whereas there have 

hitherto been good poets, each in his own branch, the 

critics now expect one man to surpass all others in their 

several lines of excellence. 

In speaking of a tragedy as the same or different, the 
best test to take is the plot. Identity exists where the — 
Complication and Unravelling are the same. Many poets 
tie the knot well, but imravel it ill. Both arts, how- 
ever, should always be mastered. 

Again, the poet should remember what has been often 4 
said, and not make a Tragedy into an Epic structure. "— '^ 
By an Epic structure I mean one with a multiplicity of -^^ 
plots: as if, for instance, you were to make a tragedy 
out of the entire story of the Iliad. In the Epic poem, 
owing to its length, each part assumes its proper 
magnitude. In the drama the residt is far from 
answering to the poet's expectation. The proof is that 5 
the poets who have dramatised the whole story of the 

, ' Fall of Troy, instead of selecting portions, like Euripides; .. " 

■• ', 

or who have taken the whole tale of Niobe, and not a 
part of her story, like Aeschylus, either fail utterly or «^ 
meet with poor success on the stage. Even Agathon 

I <:'S . ■■■' 


68 XVIII. 5— XIX. 2. i4S6 a 19—1456 b i 

iiretrev iv rovrip fjLovtp' ev he rai^ wepiirereiai,^ [koI €V tov: 

20 aifko'h 'n'pamjo^i] crroyaXereu &v /SovXoirrai OavfuaarSyi' 

O rpayiKov yi^p tovto koI <b iXfafdp cairov, etmv §€ tovto, orav 6 

o ao<f>b^ [m^] psra irovrjpia^ i^airarrfO^, &<nr€p Xltrv- 

^ <l>o^, KoX o avhpelty; phf aS^/co^ Be rjrrriOrj, eariv Se tovto 

elico^ mawep *Ayd0{DV Xeyei, cIko^ yhp yiveadai iroXKa 
25 icai irapk to el/c6^. xal top xopov he eva hel inroXa- 7 

fietv T&V VTTOKptT&V, KoX fJLOpiOV €lVaC TOV SXoV Kul fTWO^W- 

vl^eaOat fitf &qirep IStvpi/rriZri d\V wairep Xo<I>ok\€i. toU 

S^ XoiTTol^ TcL a^ofieva ^ovSkv^- fiaWov tov fiv0ov r) aXKfj<; 

Tpa/^(phia^ iariv Sio ififioXcfia ahovauv irpmrov ap^aarro^ 

30 *Ayd0a)vo^ tov toiovtov. /calTOt tv SuKf>€p€i fj ip,fi6\^ia 

aSeiv fj el prjaiv i^ aWov eh aXXo apfiOTToi fj eTreto'oStov 

okov ; 

XIX Ilepl fJLev ovv t&v aWxov rjSrj elpryrai,, Xolttov Se irepl 

\€^€0)9 KoX Svdvola^ elirelv. Tct fiev oiv irepl ttjv Svdvocav iv 

35 T0t9 irepl prjTopiKrj<; KeiaOva, tovto ykp tScov fwXKov eKeivt)^ 

tt}? fieOoSov, etTTL Bk xaTct, Trjv Sidvoiav TavTa, oaa xnro 

TOV \6yov Set TrapaaKevaadrjvai. fJ^pv ^^ tovtcov to t€ diro- 2 

"^ C SecKVVvai koI to \vevv teal to irdOri irapcur/cevd^eiv, olov 

^ \ 1466 b eXeov fj ^ofiov fj opyfjv kol oaa TovavTa, xal eTi fieyedo^ 

19-20. Kal iy . , . vpdyfiaffL seel. Sosemihl : tuetor Arabs iv ralis dxXots] 
ip rots 8nr\oU Twining : &v\tai iv rots Gomperz 20. ffroxdj^erat Heinsios : 

arox^to^Tox codd. 21. rpayiKbv — <fH\dv$p(avov infra post ifrrqOi collocat 

Susemihl 22. aut secludendum yuiv (Margoliouth cum Arabe) aut Bi 

post vovrjplas legendum (add. Riccardianus 16) 23. ijrHiBri A<^ 24. 

Kal ante ekds add. Susemihl (confinn. Arabs) 27. &airep irap* — Unnrcp irapd 

Aid., ceterum of. Pol. 1339 b 8 28. Xotn-ots] ^oXXots Margoliouth cum 

Arabe 4^6fi€va Maggi {* quae canuntur ' Arabs) : di86fA€va A^ oidiv 

add. Yahlen, et 2 ('nihil . . . aliud amplius' Arabs): 06 add. Maggi 
30. Toio^ov] voiTjToO S, ut videtur 83. ijSrj apogr. : ^5* A° : elScwv S, 

ut videtur 34. Kal Hermann : 1j codd. 38. vdSrj seol. Bemays, 

tuetur Arabs 




has been known to fail from this one defect. In his 
Beversals of Intention, however, he shows a marvellous 
skill in the effort to hit the popular taste, — to produce a 
tragic effect that satisfies the moral sense. This effect is 6 
produced when the clever rogue, like Sisyphus, is out- - P 
witted, or the brave villain defeated. Such an event is 
probable in Agathon's sense of the word : ' it is probable,' \ 
he says, * that many things should happen contrary to \ 

^>.tJPi^...Cbj^^ afl .jona^of  thai 

t^gtom J it should be-aiiriiitegralpaiHi^'^^tiiac^wJby^e^^^^^ ^ \ 

•rfiajae. in the action, in the manner not of Euripides but 
^..SQphocles. As for the later poets, their choral songs ^ 
pertain as httle to the subject of the piece as to that of 
any other tragedy. They are, therefore, sung as mere 
interludes, — a practice first begim by Agathon. Yet ^ ,> 


what difference is there between introducing such choral 
interludes, and transferring a speech, or even a whole act, 
from one play to another ? 

XIX It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the -~ 

other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. 
Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in 
the Ehetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly 
belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which 
has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being, — 2 
proof and refutation ; the excitation of the feelings, such ^ 

14661) as pity; fear^ atiger;:. and the like; the suggestion of 




70 XIX. 3— XX. 2. 1456 b 2—21 

^ ical /utcpOTfjra^. BrjKov Se on /cal \iv] roi^ irp ar^fjia atv airo 3 

T&v avT&v ISc&v Set j(prjadac, orav fj eXegtgg y jSetyA ^ 
fieydXa fj ei/cora Siij irapcuTxevd^eiv irXijv roaovrov Sta- 
5 <f>ep€L, OTL ra fikv hel <f>aive<T0aL avev StSa(r/ca\ia<;, r^ Sk 
iv Tft) Xoyijp {rrro rov Xeyovro^ irapaaKevd^eo'Oac xal irapib 
Tov Xoyov yirfv€(r0ai. ri ykp &v etrf rov Xiyovro^ epyop, el 
<f>aivoi,TO 17 Bidvoia xal fiif Siii rov Xoyov ; r&v Sk irepl rrjv 4 
Xi^ip §1/ pAp ioTip elSo? deoapia^ rh a-y(i]fiaTa 7779 Xefe©?, 

10 a ioTiP clSipai rrj^ vTroKpiriKrj^ Kal tov rrjp roiavrrjp €j(pP' 
T09 ap^LreKTOPLKTip, otop tI ipToXrj xal ri eif^V ^^^ S^^- 
7170*69 /cal direCKri icaX ipa>Trjai<$ icaX diroKpuri,^ koX el ti aXKo 
TOiovrop. iraph yhp rrfp tovtodp yp&aip 'fj aypouip oviep 5 
669 T^P irotrfTtKTjp hnrlp/qpM ^eperac o re xal a^vop (rrrov^ 

15 8^9. TV yttp ap T69 inro\dfioc fipupTrjaOai h TlpcoToyopa^ 

imTvp^a, OTV ev^eadtu oi6p,epo^ iiriTaTTei ehrwp " p^rjptp aevSe 

Oed^ TO yhp iceXeva-tu <fyqa\p iroielp ti, fj p,rf iirLra^i^ i<rTiP. 

Sio Trapeiada} (09 dXXrf^ koX ov t^9 iroirjTtfcr]^ op demprjtia. 

XX [T779 S^ Xe^em^ dirdarj^ toB* eo-rl ra P'€pr), aToc- 

20 'yelop auXXa/Sif avpSecrp^^ opop^i prj/jua [apOpop] ttt&o'i^ 
\0709. <rToc')(€lop p^p oHv ioTiP (fxoPTf dhiaipero^, ov iraaa 2 

1456b 2. fUKp&njras A^: fffwcp&niTa apogr. iv secL Ueberweg: <:Tdcs> 

i¥ Wrobel 8. Ibcwv apogr. : elbeiap A^ 4. diy apogr. pauca : d* ^ 

A*' 8. (/mIvmto scrips! : <l>avotTo codd. ij didpoia Margoliouth, Wrobel 

(praeeunte Spengel) : ijdia codd. (' voluptates ' Arabs) : iidij Castelvetro : i dioc 
VaUen (ed. 2) : iiStj d dcT Tyrwhitt : ifdrj ry Oiq. Gomperz 20. ipepow seel. 

Hartung (quern dubitantios secutus sum) : post <riv^€<rfMs transtulit Spengel 
(confirm. Arabs) : aivbevfion <^> Updpov Steinthal 


importance or its opposite. / Now, it is evident that 3 
the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same 
points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object 
is to evoke the sense of pity , fear, importance, or prob- -jL^ (O-^C 
ability. The only difference is, that the incidents \ 

should speak for themselves without verbal exposition ; 
while the effects aimed at in speech should be pro- 
duced by the speaker, and as a result of the speech. 
For what were the business of a speaker, if the Thought 
were revealed quite apart from what he says ? 

Next, as regards Diction. One branch of the inquiry 4 | ^ <-^ '^ ^' ' 
treats of the Modes of Expression. But this province 
of knowledge belongs to the art of Delivery, and to 
the masters of that science. It includes, for instance, 
— what is a command, a prayer, a narrative, a thregrt, ^, 
a question, an answer, and so forth. To know or not 5 
to know these things involves no serious censure upon 
the poet's art. For who can admit the fault imputed 
to Homer by Protagoras, — that in the words, ' Sing, " '^ 

goddess, of the wrath,' he gives a command under the 
idea that he utters a prayer ? For to tell some one to 
do a thing or not to do' it is, he says, a command. We 
may, therefore, pass this over as an inquiry that belongs 
to another art, not to poetry. 
XX pianguage in general includes the following parts : 

Letter, Syllable, Connecting word, Noun, Verb, Inflexion 
or Case, Sentence or Phrase. 

A Letter is an indivisible sound, yet not every such 2 
sound, but only one which can form part of a group of 


72 XX. 2 — 6. 1456 b 22 — 1457 a 2 

ik aXX cf ^ ir^^vKe ai/pdertf yufpeaOtu ifxovii' fcaX yi^ t&v 
dvipUov eiaXv dBuUperoi ^^vaL, &v oviefiiav Xe/co aroi- 
ytiov. ravTff^ Bk fiifyrf to re ^XDvfjev xal to '^fiUfxovov icaX 
25 a4^vov. eoTiv Be ifxavfjev fikv <:to> avev irpoafioX^ ^ov <f>a)- 3 
vifv aKO%HTTr\Vy '^fiUfxavov Sk to fiCTa Trpoa^oXrj^ ^ov ifxa- 

vifV OKOVOTIJV, olov TO 2 KoX TO P, a^fxOVOV &k TO fJL€TCt 

irpoaffoXr}^ Koff avro fiev ovBefuav expv tfxovi^v, fierk Be 
» T&v e^ovTtov TOfh (fHOjnjv yivofievov axovarov, otov to T Kal 
30 TO A. TavTa Bk BiCL^peL ayrniaaiv Te tov OTop/iTO^ Kal 4 
T07ro^9 /cal BaavTriTi, koX yjriXoTffTi Kal p^rjKei, Kal fipayy- 
TfjTi, iri, Bk o^vTTfTi, Kal fiapinryn Kal t^ fiea-q)* irepl &v 
Ka0* iKG^TTOv {ev\ T0t9 fieTpiKol^ irpoariKeL Oecopelv, avKKafirj 5 
Be e<mv (fxovi} aoff/juo^ cwOeTrj i^ a(f>a)vov Kal <l>a>vrfv e^ov- 
35 T09* Kal yhp to FP avev tov A avXKafiif Kal fierh tov 
A, olov TO FPA. aXKib kclI tovtwv BeoDprja-ai Tct^ Bia<l>opct^ 
T7J^ fieTpiKTJ^ earvv. avvBeafJM^ Be icTiv <f>a)vij aarjfio^ fj ov- 6 
1467 a T6 K(o\vei ovTe TTOtel ^(ovifv fiiav arjfiavTtK^v ex irkeiovcov 
^mv&v, 7r€(f>VKvla [awyriffeaOat Kal iirl t&v aKpa>v Kal errl 

22. (TvvOerij apogr. ( ' compositae voci* Arabs): avuer^ A« 25. rb add. 

Christ 38. iv seel. Spengel 34. post x/xavriv txpvro^ coni Christ 

<^ xXec^yw difxiivbtv Kal ifnav^v f^xoifrot^ 35-36. koX ydip t6 FP Awev 

rod A ffvWap^ Kal fterit, rod A A<: : ' nam F et P sine A non faciunt syllabam, 
quoniam tantum fiunt syllaba cum A' Arabs, unde Kal yh.p rb FP <oi}«c> 
(kvev TOV P ffvWa^iif dXXd /terd roO A Margoliouth (similia Susemihl ed. 1) : 
KoX yh.p rb FA &v€v tov P avWaft^ Kal fierb. rod P Tyrwhitt : Kal yb.p rb A dyev 
rod FP ffvWap^ Kal puerb. rov FP M. Schmidt 1467 a 1-8. fi oUre K(a\6ci 

— ifroiy 5^. Hartung, Susemihl. Codicum fide ita vulgo legitur: ^ oih-e 
Ku\tf€i oifre voiei <p(av^v piav ffTjfMvriKi^f iK Tr\€i6p<ay <piav(av Tr€<f>VKviau awrL- 
0€<r$ai, Kod iirl r(av dKpwy koI iirl rod fiiaov, f^v /lii) b.ppJyrreL {^v fiij cLpfi&rry 
apogr.) iy dpxS "rt-Oivai. Kad* airrbv {avripf Tyrwhitt), olov fUv {jlev. A<*), ifroi 
(17x01. A°), 54 (Se A^), ^ <f><ay^ dcn^/tos ^ iK irXeibycjv putv (jxavQty puas <n}iJuayri.K(av 
(Robortelli : arifiayTLKby A°) 34 voieTy Tr4<l>vK€y pUav aripuavriK^v tfxav^v, Apdpov 
8* iffrl ^iov^ AffTjiwit ^ \byov dpx^v ^ riXos ^ diopurfiby driXoi, olov rb dfi</>l 
(Hartung: #. /Z. I. A®: 4njfU Aid., Bekker) Kal rb vepl (t. ?. /5. i. A°) koX rb. dWa, 


sounds. For even brutes utter indivisible sounds, none 
of which I call a letter. The sound I mean may be 3 
either a vowel, a semi-vowel, or a mute. A vowel is 
that which without impact of tongue or lip has an 
audible sound. A semi-vowel, that which with such 
impact has an audible sound, as S and R A mute, 
that which with such impact has by itself no sound, 
but joined to a vowel sound becomes audible, as G and 
D. These are distinguished according to the form 4 
assumed by the mouth, and the place where they are 
produced; according as they are aspirated or smooth, 
long or short ; as they are acute, grave, or of an inter- 
mediate tone ; which inquiry belongs in detail to a 
treatise on metre. 

A Syllable is a non-significant sound, composed of a 5 
mute and a vowel : for GE without A is a syllable, as 
also with A, — GEA But the investigation of these 
differences belongs also to metrical science. 

A Connecting word is a non-significant sound, which 6 
1467 a neither causes nor hinders the union of many sounds 
into one significant sound ; it may be placed at either 

Sed nescio an Doring vero propins accesserit qui locum sic restituit: 
OT^SeafiOS 84 iariv ifxay^ darifios fj ix irXeiSviov fjthf <p(ayQVf fuas (nifiayTiKuip 
d^ irocetv v^^vkcv /dav arnjunvriK^v ifxaviiv, Ijy fiij ap/xSTrei iv dpxv X^ov 
Tidivtu Ka$* aMjv, ohv rb dfu/>i xal rb irepl koI rd AXXa. ApOpoy 8' 4{rrl 
<tMV^ dfffjfJLOs, ^) oUre KuiXi^ei oUre voiu tptap^y fdav arifAavTiKijv ix vXeiSvtav 
ifwvSfv \v€<f>vKviav] ffvyrlOeaScu, < d\X* > ^ \6yov dpxh^ ^ tAos ij 8iopurfi6v 
Brikoif T60v/cutd Tl$€(r0(u koI ivl tQv AKptav koX ivl rov fiinov, oXov fUv, ffroc, 
84, NuUaxn tamen Arabis rationem Doring habuit, et Arabs quidem cum 
nostris codicibus parum congruit. Ipse ut in re nondum satis ezplicata 
iTT^xciv me fateor 2. veipvKvTa rlBtaOat. Winstanley : vetftvKvuuf aw- 

Tld€ff0€u codd. 

74 XX. 6 — II. I4S7 a 3 — 26 

Tov fieaov fj (fxDvt} a<rrjfio<; ^ €K irXeiovcov fikv <f>c9' 
v&v fua^9 arffiavTiK&p Si, iromv 7r€(f>VK€v fuav aTjfiavTVK^v 
5 <l>CDj^p, otop TO afjL^i zeal to irepl fcal t^ aWa* <^> <f>o>prf 7 
aofj/jbo^ fj Xoyov ap^r)P fj t^Ko^ fj Stopta-fiop Srjkoi, fjp fiif 
dpfioTTei ip apj(^ \oyov TiOepat KaO* avTi]P, otop flip, ijTOh 
Si. \ff ^(oprj aarjfio^ fj ovre /ccoXvei ovre irotel <f>a>prfp 
fiiap (rrifiaPTiKrjp i/e irXecopoDP (fxop&p nre^vKvla TiBeaOai, koX 

10 iirl T&p a/epoop zeal iirl tov fjuiaovJ] opo/jui Si ioTi ^(oprj 8 
avpdeTt) arjfiapTitcrf apev j(p6pov ^9 fiipo^ ovSip iaTt Koff 
avTo (prjfiaPTtKOP' ip yap Tot^ ScTrXot^ ov j(p{Ofieda (09 /cal 
avTo Koff avTo ar)fmipop, otop ip r^ SeoScop^ to S&pop 
ov <n]fjuup€t. p^fui Se <l>o>pij avpOcTrj trrjfiapTiKrf fierh xpo- 9 

15 pov fj^ ovSep fUpo^ arjfjLalpei, KCiff avTO, Aairep koI iirl t&p 
opofiaTtop* TO fjbkp yhp apQpaoiro^ fj \evKOP ov a-rffuilpei to 
7roT€, TO Sk fiaSi^ec fj ^efidStKCP Trpocarffiaipec to fikp top 
irapopTa j^opop to Sk top TrapeXrjXvOoTa, ttt&o**? S* iarlp 10 
opofJMTo^ fj prjfiaTO^i fj fikp to fcaTtt to tovtov fj tovt^ afj- 

20 fiaipop zeal oaa TOuivTa, r/ Sk KaTct to epl fj iroXKol^, otop 
apdpoDiroi, fj ap0p<oiro^, fj Sk KoriL Th viroKptTCKci, otop kot 
ipcoTrjaip, eiTLTa^iP* to yhp i/SaSicep; fj fidSc^e itt&o'l^ 
pTjiiaTO^ KaTd TavTa Tct etSrj ioTiP. \0709 Se (fxopij avpOerrj 11 
cfjfJLapTiKrj ^ epUL fiipv xaO* aind (rrjfjbaipei r«* ov ydp 

25 aira^ X0709 ix prjfiaTmp zeal opofiaTtop (rvy/ceiTac, otop " o 
TOV dp0p(i>7rov opitrfio^^*' dW ipSi')(eTav <KaX> apev prjfiaTtop 

7. iJTMl 5iJ roi Bywater 8-10. fj . . , fUaov seclus. Reiz 17. iror^ 

Spengel padlj^ti apogr. : ^adil^eip A^ irpoa-ffTjfjLalpei Parisinus 2038 : 

Tfxxni/Milvet A^ 19. rb /card rd Riccardianus 16 : rb icard A° : /card rb 

Reiz 22. ipddiffctf ; (nota interrogationis addita) Tyrwhitt: <2p*> 

ipddLO-ev ; Yahlen jSadf^e Riccardianus 16 : ipddij^ev A<^ 26. koX 

add. Gomperz, quern secutus sum etiam in loci interpunctione 


end or in the middle of a sentence. Or, a non-significant 
sound, which out of several sounds, each of them signi- 
ficant, is capable of forming one significant sound, — as 
d/jt(f>i, irept, and the like. Or, a non-significant sound, 7 
which marks the beginning, end, or division of a sentence; 
such, however, that it cannot correctly stand by itself at 
the beginning of a sentence, — as fUv, tjtoc, Se. 

A Noun is a composite significant sound, not marking 8 C: 
time, of which no part is in itself significant: for in 
double or compound words we do not employ the 
separate parts as if each were in itself significant. Thus 
in Theodoras, ' god-given,' the 8&pov or * gift ' is not in 
itself significant. 

A Verb is a composite significant sound, marking 9 
time, in which, as in the noun, no part is in itself signi- 
ficant. For ' man,' or * white * does not express the idea 
of 'when'; but 'he walks,' or *he has walked' does 
connote time, present or past. 

Inflexion belongs both to the noun and verb, and lO 
expresses either the relation 'of,' 'to,' or the like; or 
that of number, whether one or many, as 'man' or 
'men'; or the modes pi tones in actual delivery, e.g. a 
question or a command. 'Did he go?' and 'go' are 
verbal inflexions of this kind. 

A Sentence or Phrase is a composite significant il£ 
sound, some at least of whose parts are in themselves 
significant; for not every such group of words consists 
of verbs and nouns — ' the definition of man,' for example 
— ^but it may dispense even with the verb. Still it will 

76 XX. II — XXI. 4. 1457 a a; — 1457 b 9 

€ivcu \oyov, fiepo^ fiiirroi ael tl arffuupov e^ei, otov "iv r^ 

o li/ a'f}fuuv<ov, fj o eK irXeUvtov awSeafi^, olov ^ 'lXt^9 /^ 
yy axwieafjup el?* o S^ tov avdpayrrov rc5 ^ o'i7/iati'6ti'.] 
XXI 'Ovo/MiT09 S^ €?Sfl7 TO /ihf dirXovv, aifKovv Se Xcyo) o 

/Lt^ €#c arjiuuvovTwv avyKeirai, otop yrj, to Se StTrXoOi'* tovtov 
B^ TO /lev 6/c arj/ialpoPTO^ /cal aarffiov (ifKr^p ovk cp t^ 
ovofiari arjfjuiivovTO^ [koI aa"^fiovJ), to Be ix crrj/jbaLvoPTODP 
35 avyKeirac. etrj B &p /cat rpiirXoup koI rerpaifKovp opo/jua xal 
voXKaTrXovp, olop Th iroXKa t&p ^aaaakKOT&p* ^^p/iOKCU- 
i4ff! h /co^apOo^ ^iirev^dfiepo^ Au irarpi^, airap Be opofid earip 2 
fj icvpiop ^ yX&rra rj fUTa<f>opiL fi Koafio^ fj 7re7roc7)fi€POP 
fj eTre/cTerafiepop fj vfjyjjprffiepop fj e^War/^iepov. 'keyo} 3 
Be Kvpiop fikp w j(p&PTat exatrroi, yXArrap Be w 
5 erepoL* &are if>apepop ort xal yk&rrap k<u /cvpiop elpcu 
Bwarop TO avTo, fjbij to*? aifTol^ Be* to ydp aiyvvop 
KvTrploL^ fikv Kvpiop, fifuv Be yKSyrrcu fiera^opcL Be 4 
iarcv opofuiTo^ dWorplov hn,<f>oph fj diro tov yevov^ iirl 
€4009 rj airo tov eioov^ eiri, to yevo^ rj airo tov €6- 

28. ^abl^€iv A^ : paSli^ci apogr. KXiuv 6 KKiuwos M. Schmidt (K\4upoi 

habuit 2): KKiutp 6 Kkicjp eodd, iv ry '' paditei KX<?w»'" 6 (rd 

Bigg) K\4(av edd. plerique 29. awdiafjup Riccardianus 16 : awSifffuav 

Ac 30. Ttf apogr. : rb A° 38. 4v ry dvSjxaTi Vahlen, et S, ut 

yidetor : iv rf dvdfmros codd. : ivrbi rod 6v6fiaTos Tucker 34. koX duHffiov 

om. Z, ut videtur (*non tamen indicans in nomine' Arabs). Idem effecit 
Ussing deleto Kal da-rffMv in v. 33 et mutata interpunctione, iK (nfimtvoyros, 
tXV oiK iv T$ 6v6fMTL ffrjfjLcUvovToSf Kal dir^fioVf ktX. 36. /xcTaXiwrwy 

codd.: MourffoKuiiTiav Diels, qui coUato Arabe ('sicut multa de Massiliotis 
Hermocaioozanthus qui supplicabatur dominum caelorum') totum versnm 
'EpfioK. — varpl tanquam epici carminis, cornice scripti, ex coniectura 
restituit. 'EpfAox, ad Phocaeam spectat, Massiliae firp-pSroKiv, urbem inter 
Hermum et Caicum sitam. Geteras emendationes licet iam missas fiLcere, 
e.g. fieyoKcLtov u>s Winstanley: fieyaXeitav oCov Bekker ed. 3: ti^oKdwf &v 
Vahlen 1467 b 3. i<prip7ifiivov Spengel (cf. 1458 a 1) 9. t& om. apogr. 


always have some significant part, as 'in walking/ or 
' Cleon son of Gleon.' A sentence or phrase may form 12 
a unity in two ways, — either as signifying one thing, or 
as consisting of several parts linked together. Thus the 
Iliad is one by the linking together of parts, the definition 
of man by the unity of the thing signified.] 
XXI Words are of two kinds, simple and double. By 

simple I mean those composed of non-significant elements, 
such as yrj. By double or compound, those composed 
either of a significant and non- significant element 
(though within the whole word no element is significant), 
or of elements that are both significant. A word may 
likewise be triple, quadruple, or multiple in form, like 
1467 b so many Massilian expressions, e.g. ' Hermo-caico-xanthus 
<who prayed to Father Zeus.>' 

Every word is either current, or strange, or meta- 2 
phorical, or ornamental, or newly-coined, or lengthened, 
or contracted, or altered. 

By a current or proper word I mean one which is a 
in general use among a people ; by a strange word, one 
which is in use in another country. Plainly, therefore, 
the same word may be at once strange and current, but 
not in relation to the same people. The word aiyvvov, 
' lance,' is to the Cyprians a current term but to us a 
strange one. - V t C^'^- '4 f { 

Metaphor is the application of an alien name by 4 
transference either from genus to species, or from species 
to genus, or from species to species, or by analogy, that is, 

78 XXI. 4—3. I4S7 b i© — 3^ 

lo Sov^ eiri elSo^ fj Kara to avaXo^ov. Xeyo) Se airo yepov^ fiep 5 
eirl elBo^ otov "vrjv^ Se fJLOV ff^ Itmf/cep'^ to yap opfielv iariv 
earavtu Ti, air eihov^ Se iirl yevo^ *'^ ^ fivpC 'OSwrcrev? 
iaffXa €Opy€V^* to yap fivptov iroXv <.tI> cotlv, o5 vvv olvtX 
Tov iroXKov K€j(pfiT€U. air elBov^ Se iwl €ZSo9 olov "jfoXjc^ 

15 OTTO '^vj(tgv apwrasT tcai ^^Tapmf areLpei j^aXic^*** hrravda 
yhp TO p£v apvaai TafJbelv, to Sk Tafiea/ apvaai elprjKev 
afjufxn) yhp a^Xecv rt icTiP. to Se avdXoyop Xeya, otop 6 
ofioio^ exjf TO BevTcpop nrpo^ to irp&TOP /cal to T^rapTOP 
irpo^ TO Tpirop* ipel ykp optX tov teurepov to T&rapTOP fj 

20 optI tov TcrdpTov to Beirrepop, /cal ipCoTC irpooTiOea^atp avO* 
ov Xeyei irpo^ o ioTi. Xeyw Bk otop ofioiw^ ep^et <f>ui\ff wpo^ 
Aiopvaop Kal dairl^ irpo^ "^(^V* ^P^^ toLpvp ttjp <l>iaX/rjp aairiZa 
^lopvcov /cal Tr)p aairlZa <l>idKrfP "Apea^^, fj h yrjpa^ irpo^ 
/Slop, /cal iairipa irpo^ 'qfiepap' ipel toIpvp ttjp iairipap yrj- 

25 pP*^ rjfiepa^ /cal to yrjpa^ eawepap fiiov iff, &air€p ^Eip/ireSoKkrj^, 
Bva-fia^ ^iov. ipioi^ S* ov/c eartp Spofui xeifiepop t&p apd- 7 
Xoyop, dW ovSep fJTTOp o/jLoia>^ Xe)(j9i](r€Taf otop to top 
Kapirop fi€P d^t,€Pa^ oireLpei/p, to he Trjp (f>\6ya dirb tov 
TfXiov dp(opvfiop' a\X OfioLo^ Sj(€i tovto irpo^ top ^Xvop /caX 

30 TO airelpeip irpb<; top /capirop, Bcb etpryrai "(nreiptop Oeo/crioTap 
<^Xo7a." eoTt, Be t£ Tpoirtp TOVT<p 7^9 fiera^pa^ j(pffa0ai 8 
Kal aWo>99 irpoaayopevaapra to dWoTpiop d7ro<f>i]0'(u t&p 

11. opfuv A® 12. iffTdpoi (a ut videtur ex d) A« ^ 8ij apogr. : 

lidrj A^ 13. fujfHov A^ rl add. Twining 15. dpdiras koX 

Tyrwhitt (dpi^as Leidensis, corr. Yaticanns 1400, koX Laurentianus Ix. 21) : 
dep^affKC AC rafidjv Bekker (ed. 3): repuay A« arripet A* 25-26. 

iffiipas — dwrfidi Riccardianns 16, Parisinus 2038 : ijfiipas Ij Cxrirep 'EpkxeScKknt 
Kcd rb yhpat icvipav plov If dvapiAs A^ 28. drb] irl M. Schmidt 30. 

< rbp dffMjivra > rbv Kapwiof Castelvetro 


proportion. Thus from genus to species, as : * There lies 6 
my ship'; for lying at anchor is a species of lying. 
From species to genus, as : ' Verily ten thousand noble 
deeds hath Odysseus wrought'; for ten thousand is a 
species of large number, and is here used for a large 
number generally. From species to species, as : ' With 
blade of bronze drew away the life,' and ' Cleft the water 
with the vessel of unyielding bronze.' Here apvaai, ' to 
draw away,' is used for rafielv, ' to cleave,' and rafielv 
again for dpiJo-a^,— each being a species of taking away. 
Analogy or proportion is when the second term is to the 
first as the fourth to the third. We may then use the 
fourth for the second, or the second for the fourth. 
Sometimes too we qualify the metaphor by adding the 
term to which the proper word is relativa Thus the 
cup is to Dionysus as the shield to Ares. The cup may, 
therefore, be called 'the shield of Dionysus,' and the 
shield ' the cup of Ares.' Or, again, as old age is to life, 
so is evening to day. Evening may therefore be called 
* the old age of the day,' and old age, * the evening of 
life,' or, in the phrase of Empedocles, * life's setting sun.' <; 
For some of the terms of the proportion there is at times 7 
no word in existence ; still the metaphor may be used. 
For instance, to scatter seed is called sowing : but the 
action of the sun in scattering his rays is nameless. Still 
this process bears to the sun the same relation as sowing 
to the seed. Hence the expression of the poet ' sowing . 
the god-created light.' There is another way in which 8 
this kind of metaphor may be employed. We may apply 
an alien term, and then deny of that term one of its 

80 XXI. 8— XXII. I. 1457 b 33—1458 a 20 

olKeUov Ti, olov el rrjv aawlSa ctiroi <f>id\i]v fjutf ^'Apeto^ dW* 
aoipop. ^/eoafio^ Se . . . >. Treiroirffievov S' iarlv o o\a>9 9 

35 /^V icaXovfievov viro riv&v avT09 riderav 6 iroirfTi]^, (SoKci ydp 
evut elvai roiavra) olov rk xepara ipvuya^ koI top Upia 
1458 a dprfTfjpa. hreKTerafjbevov Si iariv ^ dffyrjprffjiAvov to fj£v icLP 10 
ifxov^evTV p^iKporeptp KC^xprffievov ^ rod oIkclov rj ovXKafifj 
ifjbfiepXfjfJLevrj, to Sk &v cuf>riprifUvov tc y avTOv, iireKTerafievov 
fikv olov TO 7ro\€a>9 TTokffo^ zeal to HrfKeiSov HrjXrfvdBeo), 
5 cUfypprjfievov Sk olov to fcpl koX to h& /cat ^' fiia yiveTai dfi- 
if>oTep(ov o-^." i^Way/jbivov S' iaTiv OTav tov ovofia^ofievov 11 
TO phf KaTaXeiiTT) to Be iroL'p, olov to " Be^iTcpov Kara fia^ov^* 
dirrl TOV Se^iov. 

[avT&v Se T&v ovofjbaTfov Tct /ikv appeva tA Be BrfKea tA 12 

10 B\ fieTa^v, appeva fiev oaa TeXevTa ei<; to N xaX P xal % 
Koi oaa ex tovtov avyKevTac (TavTa B' iaTlv Svo, "^ teal S), 
OrfKea Bk oaa ix t&v (fxovrjevTODV €?9 re Ta del fia/cpd, olov eh H 
Kal il, Kal T&v hreKTeivofievtov eh A* &a'Te tea trvfi/SaXvec 
irXrjdr) eh oaa tcl appeva Kal Tct OrfKea' to yap "^ Kal to H 

15 <T^ S> TavTa iaTiv, eh Bk aKfxovov ovBev ovofia TeXevTa, oifBe 

eh (fxovrjev fipa'^y* eh Bh to I Tpla fwvov, fii\(, xofifjuc ireirept, 

eh Bk TO T irevTe. Td Be fieTa^v eh TavTa Kal N Kal 2.] 

XXII Aefeo)? Be dpeTtj aa(l)r] Kal fjurj Tairetvrjv elvat, aa- 

(jyeaTaTTj pJev oZv iaTiv 17 eic t&v Kvpitov ovofiaTtov, dWd 

20 Taireivri* TrapdBeijfia Be rj TSXeo<f>&VTo^ irovqat^ Kal f) 

33. dXX' &0LV0V Yettori : AXXa olvov (vel dXX' otvov) codd. 84. <K6<riuK 

$^ . . . > Maggi 1458 a 2. KexprjfJi^vos Hermann y] ^ A<^ 

(ruXXa/S-J) i/j,p€p\r)fjLivTi A^ 3. dtfyi^prj fj^v tvn ij A° 4. w6Xeos A° 

irriXeLdov Parisinns 2038 : myX^os A° : IlrjXioi <ni7X^oy Kcdrb IliyXcWov^ M. 
Schmidt 6. «^ Vettori ; &n^ A^ (i.e. OHS vel 04^X2) 10. Kal S 

Riccardianus 16 (confirm. Arabs) : om. A<^ 14. irXiJ^ A^ : trXiJ^ci apogr. 

15. ry 2 add. anon. ap. Tyrwhitt 17. post v^tn-e add. rb vQv t6 

vairv t6 ydvv rb d6pv rb Aarv Riccardianus 16 ravra </cal A> Kal N 

< icai P > Kal 2 Morel 


proper attributes ; as if we were to call the shield, not 
* the cup of Ares/ but ' the wineless cup/ 

<An ornamental word . . .> 

A newly-coined word is one which has never been 9 
even in local use, but is adopted by the poet himself. 
Some such words there appear to be: as ipvvye^, 
' sprouters/ for Kepara, ' horns/ and aprjTrip, * supplicator/ 
for iepevs;, ' priest/ 
1458 a A word is lengthened when its own vowel is exchanged lo 
for a longer one, or when a syllable is inserted. A 
word is contracted when some part of it is removed. 
Instances of lengthing are,— ttoXt/o? for woXem, and 
HrjkijcdSefo" for TlrfKeiSov : of contraction, — Kpt, B&, and 
Syfr, as in fjuia yiverac dfjL^oripoDV oyfr. 

An altered word is one in which part of the ordinary ii 
form is left unchanged, and part is re-cast ; as in Se^i- 
repov KUTct fui^ov, Be^crepov is for ie^iov. 

[Nouns in themselves are either masculine, feminine, 12 
or neuter. Masculine are such as end in v, p, 9, or in 
some letter compounded with 9, — these being two, yfr 
and f . Feminine, such as end in vowels that are always 
long, namely 17 and ©, and — of vowels that admit of 
lengthening— those in a. Thus the number of letters in 
which nouns masculine and feminine end is the same ; 
for sjr and f are equivalent to endings in 9. No noun ends 
in a mute or vowel short by nature. Three only end in 
L, — fiiXi, KOfifjLi, ireirepi : five end in v. Neuter nouns 
end in these two latter vowels ; also in v and 9.] 
XXII The perfection of style is to be clear without being <y 

mean. The clearest style is that which uses only current 
or proper words ; at the same time it is mean : — witness 
the poetry of Cleophon and of Sthenelus. Th at dictio n, 


'* ^- 

82 XXII. I— 5- 145^ a 21—1458 b 9 

^OeveXov. aefivtj Sk xal i^aXXdrrova'a to IBtwTiKOP 17 to?9 
^evLKoZ^ /cexpVM'^^' ^^vikov Se \iy€o yXArrav xal fiera- 
<f>opitp Kol hreKToatv koX irav to iraph to Kvpiov, aXX* av 2 
TLs cifia airama TOtaxha iroi,i]a"ff, fj aXvi/ifia eoTav rj fiapfia- 

25 piafjM^' av fikv oiv i/c fjL€Tcul>op&v, alvcy/ia, ehv Sk ix 
y\a)TT&v, fiapfiapiafJLO^' aiviyfuiTO^ re yhp lS4a avTff itrrl, 
TO TUyoma xnrdpypma dSvvaTa awdyftai. KaTa ph/ oiv Ttfv 
T&v <aXXa}v> ovopATfov'trivOeaiv ouj^ olov re tovto irotrjaat 
Kara hk Tf)v fi€Ta(f>opiLv ivB€j(€Tai, olov " avSp* eiBov irvpl j^aX- 

30 Kov iir dvipi KoXki^aavTa,** koI tA TotavTa. ex t&v 7X©t- 
T&v l3apfiapLap>6<;. Bel apa Ketcpaa-Bai tt©? tovtoi^' to 3 
p^ev yiup p,^ IScodtl/cov iroLrjtrei pnjSe Taireivov, olov 17 yX&TTa 
Kol 17 p€Ta<l>opet KaX o Koap,o^ koI T&Wa Tct elpijp^va 
etBff, TO Se Kvpiov ttjv aa^rjveuLV. oif/c iXd'^taTov Se p,€po^ 4 
1468 b (TvpfiaKKerai, els to a'aif>i<; t^9 X^f 6©? koI pif ISicotikov 
al hreKTaaeL^; koX diroKoiraX zeal i^aXKayal t&v ovopA- 
T(ov' Sut pev yap to SXKods ^'^eiv fj C09 to xvpcov, irapk 
TO eltoOos yi/yvopevov, to pirj ISkotckov iroLrjcret,, Sect Be to kol- 
5 vfovelv Tov elcodoTos to aa^es etrrat. &aTe ovk op6&s '^eyov- 5 

atV oi eiTLTLpL&VTeS t£ TOlOVTtO TpOTTfp T^9 BixxXeKTOv KaX Bia- 

KfoptpBovvTes TOV TTOiffTT^v, olov lEvKXeiBrj^ 6 dpj(alos, c»9 
paBiov TTOteiv, el ta9 Baxrei i/CTeiveiv €(f>* oiroaov /3ov\eTac, 
iap^OTTOLrjaas ev airry t^ Xefe^ " ^Ewi')(^dp7)v elBov TAapa- 

24. &/JM drayra Riccardianus 16, Parisinus 2038 : Slv Ajravra A<^ : dvam-a al. 

voti/fff'Q apogr. : voLTjaai A" 28. (OCKtav add. Margoliouth, coUato Arabe 

'reliqua nomina': Kvpiuv add. Heinsius a^Ocaiv] a-wi^deiay Tucker 

o^UovTcu A° 29. fort. fieratpopQu Bywater tdov A° wpl 

Xa\Kby Vettori: rvplxa\KOP codd. 30-31. ante vel post ix — /Sop- 

papuTfiM lacunam statuit Gomperz 31. K€Kpaa6<u Maggi e cod. Lam- 

pridii ('si miscentur haec' Arabs): KCKpLaBax codd. cett. 1468 b 1. 

avfi^\€Tai A° : ffvfi^Wovrat apogr. 9. *'^ixdp7p' Bursian : ifrei x^P^-^ -A.® : 

ivl x'^f^'V ^» u^ videtur ('appellatam cum favore' Arabs) ^Uoif apogr. : 

tbov A<> : IbCiv Gomperz 


on the other hand, is lofty and raised above the common- 
place which employs unusual words. By unusual, I 
mean strange (or rare) words, metaphorical, lengthened, — 
anything, in short, that dififers from the normal idiom. 
Yet a style wholly composed of such words is either a 2 
riddle or a jargon ; a riddle, if it consists of metaphors ; If jf OCVt 
a jargon, if it consists of strange (or rare) words. For the 
essence of a riddle is to express true facts under im- _ j^ 
possible combinations. Now this cannot be done by any 
arrangement of ordinary words, but by the use of meta- 
phor it can. Such is the riddle : — * A man I saw who 
on another man had glued the bronze by aid of fire,' and 
others of the same kind. A diction that is made up of 
strange (or rare) terms is a jargon. A certain infusion, 3 
therefore, of these elements is necessary to style ; for the 
strange (or rare) word, the metaphorical, the ornamental, 
and the other kinds above mentioned, will raise it above*^^" 
the commonplace and mean, while the use of proper 
words will make it perspicuous. But nothing contributes 4 
14681) more to produce a clearness of diction that is remote 
from commonness than the lengthening, crat|*aQtion, and 
alteration of words. For by deviating in exceptional 
cases from the normal idiom, the language will gain ^. 
distinction; while, at the same time, the partial con- 
formity with usage will give perspicuity. The critics, 5 
therefore, are in error who censure these licenses of 
speech, and hold the author up to ridicule. Thus 
Eucleides, the elder, declared that it would be an easy 
matter to be a poet if you might lengthen syllables at 
will. He caricatured the practice in the very form of 
his diction, as in the verse : 

84 XXII. 5—7- 145^ *> lo— 27 

10 O&vaBe fiaSi^ovray^* /cal "ovk av y ipdfievo^ top exeipov cX- 
Xifiopov,** TO flip oip ifxdpea-ffal W6>9 ypA^ievov tovt^ t^ 6 
Tpinrtp yeXotov to Sk fierpMP koipov airamtop €otI t&v fie- 
p&p' ical ykp fi€T(uf>opai^ Koi yXayrrai^ xal Tot^ aXKoif; 
etSeai j^a)fi€PO^ d7rp€7r&^ kcu hriTqhe^ iirl tA yeKola to 

15 avTo Ap airepydo'cuTo. to Bk apfjJnTOP oaop hia^peL iirl 7 
T&p hr&p deapeUrOc^ hmOefiepmp t&p -^Kvpuop^- opoiAartop eh 
TO fierpop, Kol irrl Ttj^ yXcoTTtf^ Bi koI irrl t&p inera^p&p 
Kal hrX T&p aXKoiP IBe&p /lerartdel? cip Tt9 r^ Kvput ovofiaTa 
KaTiBoi OTC aKffdrj "Kiyofiep' olop to aino iroirjo'aPTo^ lafir- 

20 fi€lop Aia')(yKov koX IStvpciriBov, iv Bk fiopop opofia p^eraOep- 
To^, optX \jcvpiov\ cIodOoto^ yX&TTap, to phf ^xupeTac tcaXop 
TO S' evT€\€9. At(rj^vXo9 p^p yhp ep t^ ^CKoKTriTrf iiroifiae 

<l>arfeBatpa <B > ij p,ov adpxas iadUi ttoBo^, 
6 Bk optX tov iadiet to 0otpaTav p^TeOrjKep. koX 

25 PVP Be p! €a>p 6\lyo^ t€ /cal oimBapo^ koi deitci]^,^ 

et Tv^ Xeyot Tct Kvpui p^TaTiOel^ 

PVP Be pi! €0)1/ puKpo^ re koX daOepcKo^ xal a€tS^9* 

^ Odyss. ix. 615, vOy Si fi* iCuv 6}dyo/i re koX o&ndapbs Kal Akikvs. 

10. &v y ipdfupos apogr. : 9lp yepd/iepot A^: hv yevffd/ievos Tyrwhitt : Av 
TTpidfAcvot Gomperz 11. rws A«: dirpcxwj Twining: xdrrws Hermann 

12. fiirpioif Spengel: fUrpoy codd. 14. irl rA apogr.: ^T^tra 

A<5 iirl t4 y€\6ia seel. Gomperz 16. kpii&rrov apogr. : kpii&r- 

TOPTos Ac 16. ivQv] iireKTdaeotv Tyrwhitt <Kvpi(ay>' coni. 

Vahlen 19. Idfipiop A" 20. AlffxO\(p Ei/ptirldov Essen : E6piTlSov Kai 

Alax^^ov Richards furaOiproi Parisinus 2038: yxraneiproi A« 

21. aut KvpLov aut elcaS&ros secludendum esse coni. Vahlen <:Kai>' elwB&rot 
Heinsius 23. 4>ay4daipa 6* ^ Ritter : <f>ay4datpa ij apogr. : <l>aydd€Pa Ij AP : 

0aya<ui'ai' ff Hermann : ipayidaiv* del Nauck 26. di fieCi)p A^ deuces 

Castelvetro ('ut non conveniat' Arabs) : deid-^s codd. : dKiKvs (cum var. lect. 
deiKi^s) Od. ix. 615 27. di fieC^p A© /uKpbi 5i Ac 


^TSnn')(ap7iv elBop Mapad&vdSe /SaSl^ovra, 

ovK av 7* ipdfisvo^ top i/eeivov ikXifiopop. 

To employ such license at all obtrusively is, no doubt, 6 
grotesque; but in any mode of poetic diction there 
must be moderation. Even metaphors, strange (or rare) 
words, or any similar forms of speech, would produce 
the like effect if used without propriety, and with the 
express purpose of being ludicrous. How great a differ- 7 
ence is made by the appropriate use of lengthening, may 
be seen in Epic poetry by the insertion of ordinary forms 
in the verse. So, again, if we take a strange (or rare) 
word, a metaphor, or any similar mode of expression, 
and replace it by the current or proper term, the truth 
of our observation will be manifest. For example 
Aeschylus and Euripides each composed the same iambic 
line. But the alteration of a single word by Euripides, 
who employed the rarer term instead of the ordinary 
one, makes one verse appear beautiful and the other 
trivial. Aeschylus in his Philoctetes says : ,,^ 

Euripides substitutes Ooivarau 'feasts on' for iadUt 

* feeds on.' Again, in the line, I 

vvv Be /JL 60)1/ 0X^709 T€ /cal ovTiSavof; /cal dei/c^^, 

the difference will be felt if we substitute the common * 

vvv Bi fi i&>v fiLKpos T€ KoX dadeviKO^ teal deiB'^^, 


86 XXII. 7— lo. 1458 b 28—1459 a 16 


Si^pov aei/ciXcov Karadel^ oXiyrjv re rpdirel^av^ 
30 Sufypov fioj^^ffrfpov /earaffel^ fUKpdv re rpdire^av 

zeal TO "rji6v€^ fiooaxriv,^^^ '^i6v€<; /cpd^ovacv. erv Be ApKJipd- 8 
S179 TotF9 Tpay(pSov^ iKfOfupBet, on h ovSel^ &v eciroc ev rfj Buz- 
Xefcrq) tovtol^ ^Avrai, otov to Btofidrfov airo dXKa fju^ 
diro B(OfxdT(ov, teal to ceOev koX to eyo) Be viv fcal to 
1459 a 'Aj^tXXeco? irepc dXKa firj irepl 'Aj^tWe©?, koI oaa aXKa 
TOiavTa. Bia yap to firj elvac ev T049 KvpioL^; iroiel to firj 
IBifOTiKov ev Ty Xe^ei airavTa Ta TOUivTa* e/celvo^ Be tovto 
rjyvoet. eoriv Be fjb&^a fiev to e/cda-Ttp t&v elprjfievtov irperrov- 9 
5 Ta)9 ')^prja'0at, kol BtifKol^ ovofiaai koX yXtoTTat^, ttoXu Be 
fieyta-Tov to fieTaxf>opcKov elvai, fjLovov yhp tovto oirre irap 
oKKov eoTi Xa^elv ev(f>via<; t€ arj/neLov eaTi,* to yap ev 
/jbeTa(f>€peiv to to Ofiotov 0e<opelv ea-Ttv, t&v S' ovofiaTCDV ra 10 
piv Biirka fidXcara dp/ioTTet toa9 BiOvpdfi^ot^, ai Be yX&TTac 

10 Tot9 rip(OLKol<i, ai Be p^eTacfyopal TO69 lafi^eCot^;. Kal ev 
fikv T0?9 r)ptovKol<; diravTa j(p'qa'i/ia to, elp7)p4va, ev Be toZ^ 
lap,fieloi^ Blcl to otl pMLKurra Xe^iv fii^p^iadat TavTa dp- 
pbOTTeb T&v ovop^TCDv o<roi^ K&v ev \070t9 TA9 XPV- 
aaiTO ' eaTL Be tcl ToiavTa to Kvptov koX p^TaAf>opa Kal Kocrpx}^:. 

15 irepl fikv oiv TpaytpBia^ teal ttj^ ev t& irpdTTecv /x-t/ii;- 
o'66i)9 eaTOD rjpZv Ixavct tcL eipTjfieva, 

^ Odyss, XX. 259, 8l<f>poy deiKiyaou KaraOels dXiyvjv re Tpdire^au. 
2 Iliad xvii. 265. 

29. deiKiXiov Parisinus 2038: r' aciKiKiop A^ : t* aUiXiov Vahlen 31. 

rd tcoves Po(b<nv ij ttapci A° 32. eftrot apogr. : etirrji A<* 1469 a 4. 

t6 apogr. : rwt A^ 10 et 12. lafi^lon A" 13. Khif Harles : Kal codd. 

6<rois post iv add. A^ : om. apogr. : rots Gomperz : odois 2, ut videtur 
(Ellis) Tt$ apogr. : tI A^ 



Or, if for the line, 

iuf>pov a€i,Ki)uov /earaOeU oklyfjv re rpdire^av, 
we read, 

Sl(f>pov /juy^ffrjpov /earaOel^ fiixpap re rpdire^ap. 

Or, for ^toi/69 fiooaxriv, ^toi^69 Kpa^ovat^v. 

Again, Ariphrades ridiculed the tragedians for using g 
phrases which no one would employ in ordinary speech : 
for example, StofioTtov airo instead of airo StofLarcov, 
1469 a a-eOev, iya> Bi viv, 'Aj^tXXe®? irepi instead of Trepi 
'A;j^4\\6©9, and the like. It is precisely because such 
phrases are not part of the current idiom that they 
give distinction to the style. This, however, he failed 
to see. 

It is a great matter to observe propriety in these 9 
several modes of expression— compound words, strange 
(or rare) words, and so forth. But the greatest thing by 
far is to have _a_ command of -metaphor. This alone ^^«^«n^7? 


cannot be imparted by another ; it is the mark of genius, / 
— ^for to make good metaphors implies an eye for | 

Of the various kinds of words, the compound are 10 
best adapted to dithyrambs, rare words to heroic poetry, - 
metaphors to iambic. In heroic poetry, indeed, all 
these varieties are serviceable. But in iambic verse, 
which reproduces, as far as may be, familiar spe,^Qh^ the 
most appropriate words are those which are found even 
in prose. These are, — the current or proper, the meta-f 
phorical, the ornamental. 

Concerning Tragedy and imitation by means of 
action this may suffice. 


88 XXIII. I — 3. 1459 a 17 — 1459 b I 

XXIII Ilepl Sk T^9 BifiyfffiaTi/crj<; kclv 6i/<l> fiirp^ fUfivjTLiCf}^, 

OTV iel Toifs fivdov^ KaOawep ev ral^ rpivytpSiai^: awurrdvai 
BpajMiTifcoif^ Kol irepl fiiav irpa^iv okrfp Kal reXelav, e^ovaav 

20 ap'xijv Kal fAea-a xal riXo^, Xv &<rn'€p ^£ov iv o\ov irovy rrjv 
otKelav fiiovriv, StjXov, koX imtj 6fioia<; iaroplai^ ra^ avv- 
diaei^ elvai, iv ah dvar/Kfj ovj^l /x-ta? irpd^eo)^ iroieto'Oat 
Si]Xaxnv dXk ivb^ j(p6vov, oca iv rovrcp awefivj irepl eva 
fj irKeiov^i &v iKoarov ©9 erv^ev ^et wpb^ aWrfXa. taairep 2 

25 *iap Kard rov^ avrov^ j(p6vov^ fj t iv %a\afuvi ir/ivero 
vavfui'x^La Kal 97 iv XiKekia K,ap^7)Sovla)v fidx'i ovSev 
irpo^ TO avTo awreivovfra^ T€\o9, ovtg) koX iv toI<; €^€^9 
)(p6voc^ ivLore ylverai Odrepov fierd Odrepov, cf &v ^v 
ovBkv yiverai riXo^, ^^(eBov Be oi irdKKoi r&v ttoitjt&v tovto 

30 Bp&iTi. Bco, &(nr€p etirofiev rjBrf, Kal ravrrf OeairicLo^ av 3 
<l)av€i7j "Ofiripo^ irapd rov^ aX\ov9, t& p/qBk rov iroKefiov 
Kaiirep ^ovra dp^rjv Kal riXo^ iirLj^eLpTJa'ai iroielv oKov 
Xiav yap &v fiiya^ Kal ovk evavvoirro^ efieWev eaeaOai, 
fj tS fi€y40€C fierpid^ovra KaTaireifKeypAvov rrj iroiKCkla. 

35 vvv S' tv fiepo^ diroka^oDV iireiaoBixn^ K€'Xpr)Tai avr&v 

iroXKoi^, otov v€&v KaraXoytp Kal oWol^ iweiaoBioi^, ot^ 

Bia\afil3dv€i rrjv Troirjaiv, oi B aWoc irepl Sva iroiovo'c 

1458 b Kal irepl iva j(p6vov Kal filav irpa^iv 7ro\vfjb€p7J, olov 6 

17. K&v hi fUrptp scripsi (cf. 1449 b 11, 1469 b 32) : Kal h pLirptp codd. : koI 
4p i^a/ih-fXfi Heinsius 18. awurrawai A<^ (cf. 1463 b 4, 1467 b 12) : <njv- 

eardvvu coni. Yahlen 20. voieT A^ 21. dfAolas Iffropltus rdi a-vvd^aus 

Dacier (confirmat aliquatenus Arabs) : dfiolat laToplas rds avy^dcis codd. : 
oJfoj Itrroplas tAs aw'fiOcis M*Vey 26. ^Xafilvrf A^ 26. vavftaxlio. apogr. : 
vai6fMX0S A^ 28. fierii Odrepov Parisinus 2088 : fAerd Baripov A^ 31. 

TV Riccardianus 16: t6 A<* 33-34. fUya, (rec. corr. fUyas) — eiai&voirroi 

—puerpLd^ovTo. A^ : lUya. — e^i^fuowrov — pjeTpLn^ov Bursian 35. airriav seel. 

Christ : atrov Heinsius 36. oTs Riccardianus 16 : U's pr. A^ 




XIII As to that poetic imitation which is narrative in -- \ A*fT^Tt:>?> 

form and employs a single metre, the plot manifestly. 
. ought, as in a tragedy, to be constructed on dramatic* — pki3'^^- 
principles. It should have for its subject a single 
action, whole and complete, with a beginning, a middle, 4- 
and an end. It will thus resemble a single and coherent 
picture of a living being, and produce the pleasure 
proper to it. It will differ in structure from historical 
compositions, which of necessity present not a single 
action, but a single period, and all that happened within 
that period to one person or to many, little connected 
together as the events may be. For as the sea-fight at 2 
Salamis and the battle with the Carthaginians in Sicily 
took place at the same time, but did not tend to any one 
result, so in the sequence of events, one thing sometimes 
follows another, and yet no single result is thereby 
produced. Such is the practice, we may say, of 
most poets. Here again, then, as has been already 3 
observed, the transcendant excellence of Homer is ^ /4 
manifest. He never attempts to make the whole war of 
Troy the subject of his poem, though that war had a 
beginning and an end. It would have been too vast a 
thfime, and not easily embraced in a single view. If, 
again, he had kept it within moderate limits, it must 
have been over-complicated by the variety of the in- 
cidents. As it is, he detaches a single portion, and 
admits as episodes many events from the general story 
of the war — such as the Catalogue of the ships and 
others — thus diversifying the poem. All other poets 
1460 b take a single hero, a single period, or an action single 
indeed, but with a multiplicity of parts. Thus did the 

^l i 


90 XXIII. 4— XXIV. 4. 1459 b 2—24 

ra ISjinrpLa iroirja'a^ koX ttjv ficKpav 'IXtaSa. rovyapovv ix 4 
fi€v *IXidSo^ Koi OBvaaela^ fiua rparfcoSia irovelTac ixa- 
T€pa<: ^ Bvo fiovai, ix Se J^wrplcov ttoXKoX xal t^9 fu- 
5 Kpa^ 'I\taSo9 [TrXioi/] o/crd, olov oirXtov Kpia-i,^, ^iXokt^- 
T179, Neo7rTo\€/A09, Ev^vttuXo?, irrto'yeia, Adxaivai, 'IXtov 
Trepan koX diroirKov^ [koX Xiveov xal TptpdSe^], 
XXIV "Et^ Se ra elSr) raifra Set e'yeiv ttjv iiroiroUav Tp rpaytp- 

Sia, rj yap a7r\rjv rj TreTrXeyfievrjv ff rjdiKrjv fj iradrjTiKi^v 

10 Koi ra fieprj e^m fj^eKoiroda^ xal oylteo)^ ravrd' KaX yap 
irepfrreremv Set Kal dvarfPtoplaetov KaX iradrjfidTODv' ere 
Ta9 Scavoia^ Kal rr^v Xe^iv c^^cv KaXw. 0I9 diroATLv 2 
'^O/jLTfpo^ Ke')(pr)TaL Kal irpSrro^ Kal iKav&^, Kal yhp Kal 
Tcjv iroirifJbdTCDv cKdrepov oweaTriKev rj [ikv '1X4^9 airXovv 

15 Kal TradrfTiKov, 17 Be ^OBvaaeca irerrkey^vov {dva^a>pKri^ 
yap BcoXov) Kal fiOiKiff irpo^ yctp tovtol^ Xefet Kal Btavola 
irdvra virepfiejSXrjKev, Bia^epet Bk Kard re ttj^ avtrrdaeo}^ 3 
TO fiYjKO^ 7) iiroiroda Kal to fieTpov, tov fiev oiv firiKOv<; opo<: 
cKavo^ 6 elprjfjLevo^' BivaaOai ycLp Bel avvopdo'Oai ttjv dp^rjv 

20 Kal TO T€Xo9. etfj S' av tovto, el t&v fiev dp'xauov eXdT- 
Toi;9 ai avcTdaet^ elev, 7rpo<; Be to ttXtjOo^ Tpa/ytpBi&v t&v 
€49 fiiav aKpoaaiv TvOefievcov iraprfKoiev. ej^et Be irpo^ to 4 
erreKTeiveaOat to fieyeOo^ ttoXv ti rj eiroiroda iBiov Bia 
TO ev fiev T^ TpaytpBia fifj evBe')(e(rdaL dfia irpaTTo/xeva 

1459 b 2. K&irpia Reiz : KvrrpiKh A^ 4. ij,6vas pr. A^ 5 et 7. ir\4op 

et Kal ZLvcjv Kal Tpifiddes seel. Hermann 7. irpcji'ddcs pr. A^ (r sup. scr. 

m. rec.) 8. in d^ bis A° del apogr. : 5^ A^ 9. ifBiK^ om. 

Z 11. Kal i^diav post dyayv<apl<r€(av add. Susemihl 13. Uavias apogr. : 

Ixaui^ A° 14. fTOvrifidrtav A* 15. dpayv(api<r€is Christ 16. '^Oucbv 

corr. rec. m. A^ yhpA^: 5^ apogr. 17. irdvros apogr. 21. irpbi 

8^ apogr. : irp6<r0€ A« rb ante TpaytfiSiQp add. Tucker 22. fort. 

Ka$i€fi4v<ap Richards 


author of the Cypria and of the Little Iliad. For this 4 "~ P 
reason the Iliad and the Odyssey each furnish the j 
subject of one tragedy, or, at moat, of two ; while the 
Cypria supplies materials for many, and the Little Iliad I 
for eight — the Award of the Arms, the Philoctetes, the | 
Neoptolemns, the Eurypylus, the Mendicant Odysseus, 
the Laconian Women, the Fall of Ilium, the Departure 
of the Fleet. 
lXIV Again, Epic poetry must have as many kinds as 1 f^ PlC 

Tragedy : it must be simple, or complex, or ' ethical,' 1 g\y^ > 
or ' pathetic' The parts also, with the exception of , 

song and scenery, are the same ; for it requires | 

Keversals of Intention, Eecognitions, and Tragic Incidents. ' 
Moreover, the thoughts and the diction must be artistic 2 
In all these respects Homer is our earliest and sufficient 
model. Indeed each of his poems lias_^ twofold character. 
The Iliad is at once simple and ' pathetic,' andthe Odyssey — '\hy:f X 
complex (for Eecc^nition scenes run through it), and 
at the same time 'ethical' Moreover, in diction and 
thought he is supreme. 

Epic poetry differs from Tragedy in the scale on 3 
which it is constructed, and in its metre. As regards 
scale or length, we have already laid down an adequate 
limit : — the beginning and the end must be capable ofjT^^ 
being brought within a single view. This condition 
will be satisfied by poems on a smaller scale than the 
old epics, and answering in length to the group of 
tragedies presented at a single sitting. 

Epic poetry has, however, a great — a special — 4 
capacity for enlarging its dimensions, and we can see the 
reason. In Tn^edy we caimot imitate several lines of 

S2 XXIV. 4—7. 1459 b 25—1460 a 8 

25 iroXKa fiefytf fu/ieiaOai aWa ro iirl TJ79 aicfivffi icai tAv 
vrroKpiT&v fUpa^ fiovov iv Se t§ hrmroiia huL ro Suffffaiv 
eiviu eari iroXKk fiefyrf cifia iroieiv irepaivofLcva, iHf> wv 
olfceiwv Svrav av^enu 6 rod irovfifAaro^ oyica^. SnTre rovr 
e^€^ TO ofyaOov ek fieyaXtyirpeneuiv ical ro fAcrafiaXXea^ rov 

30 oKovovra Kal irreiaoSunjv avofioioi^ eireiaoSloi^' rb yap 
op4>tov rayy TrXrjpovv iKiriirrew iroteZ ra^ rpa/^^ZLa^. ro Sc i^ 
fUrpov ro fipaitcov otto rrj^ ireipa^ fjpfAoscev, el yap Tt9 ev 
oXX^ rwl fierp^ hiriyr)fuiri,Kr)v fufirjo'iv iroioiro y iv 'rroXKoi^, 
awpeire^ &v (fyaivovro* rb yap rjpmtKbv OTcurLfuorarov tcaX 

35 oyKwSiararov r&v fUrpav iariv {iib /cal yXu>rra^ Kai fiera- 

(j>opa^ Bejaera^ fLoXurra* Trepirrtf yap Kal <ravrrj> 17 8*17717- 

fiari/erj fiifirjai^ r&v a\Xa>v). rb Be la/M^etov ical rerpd- 

1480 a psrpov KLvryrtKa, rb phf opjiffcrL/cbv rb Be irpaKriKov. eri Be 5 

aroTrdnepov, el fiuyvvoL Tt9 avrd, &arrep ^aiprfficDV, Bib 

ovBel^ fUiKphv avaraatv iv aWq> TreTToirfKev fj tc5 rfpwa^, dW' 

wairep etrrofiev avrrj rj ^vai^ BiBda-Ket rb dpfiorrov [avry] 

5 [Bi,]aipet(T0ai. '^Op/qpo^ Be aXKa re rroXKa d^to^ eiraiveiaOat 7 

Kal Bi) Kal ort fiovo^ r&v 7rotrjr&v oifK drfvoel h Bel rroieiv 

avrov, avrbv ydp Be2 rbv iroirjrijv eKdyiara Xeyetv ov ydp 

iari Kara ravra fJLtp/qrrj^, ol fjuev ovv dXKoi, avrol fiev Be o\ov 

29. fort, [rb] Ayadbu Bywater 83. diriyiffiaTiKiiv apogr. : StiryiTrtJcV -^^ 

86. post Kal add. Ta&rji Twining: ttjSI Tucker 37. fiifiriais apogr. : 

KipTjais A° lafifilov A° 1460 a 1. KiprjTiKd Aid. : Kipjiriical A® : 

KiyryriKii Kal Vahleii : KivrfriKd, el Gomperz 2. tuyvioi Aid. : fuyp^i 

apogr. : firiyvtnri A^ (fuit /xi), et ri extremum in litura) : /at; yvoiri S (cf. Arab, 
'si quis nesciret') 3. t<?] rb A^ 4. oiJtj apogr. : oi5t^ A®: seel. 

Gomperz 6. alp€tc$ai ^onitz (confirmare videtur Arabs) : Siaipcurdai, A« : 

del alpetffOai Tucker 


actions carried on at one and the same time ; we must 
confine ourselves to the action on the stage and the part 
taken by the players. But in Epic poetry, owing to the 
narrative form, many events simultaneously transacted 
can be presented ; and these, if relevant to the subject, 
add mass and dignity to the poem. The Epic has here 
an advantage, and one that conduces to grandeur of 
effect, to diverting the mind of the hearer, and relieving 
the story with varying episodes. For sameness of 
incident soon produces satiety, and makes tragedies fail ' ^ 

on the stage. 

As for the metre, the heroic measure has proved its 5 
fitness by the test of experience. If a narrative poem 
in any other metre or in many metres were now com- 
posed, it would be found incongruous. For of all 
measures the heroic is the stateliest and the most 
massive ; and hence it most readily admits rare words 
and metaphors, which is another point in which the 
narrative form of imitation stands alone. On the other 
1460 a hand, the iambic and the trochgicjetrameter are stirring - — 
measures, the latter being akin to dancing, the former 
expressive of action. Still more absurd would it be to 6 
mix together different metres, as was done by Chaeremon. .- > 
Hence no one has ever composed a poem on a great scale 
in any other than heroic verse. Nature herself, as we 
have said, teaches the choice of the proper measure. 

Homer, admirable in all respects, has the special merit 7 
of being the only poet who rightly appreciates the part 
he should take himself. The poet should speak as little 
as possible in his own person, for it is not this that makes 
him an imitator. Other poets appear themselves upon 


94 XXIV. 7— lo. 1460 a 9—28 

aryavi^ovrai, fu^LOvvrai S^ oXija xal oXiyaKi^' o Se oXiya 
10 ^poifuaadfieva^ eifdif^ elaarfet avSpa ^ yuvauca fj oKKo tc 
[^^09] /cat ovhev ai^dr) aXX eyfpvra ijOrj. Set phf otn/ iv raZ^ 8 
rparf(piuu^ iroielv to Oavfiacrrqy, fiaXKov S* €vSe)(€Tai iv 
T§ hroiroiUL to aXoyov, Si b (rv/xfiaivei fioKioTa to Oav- 
fiaaTov, Sih to firj opav €A9 top irpoTTOVTa* hreX tcl irepX 
15 Tr)v "^KTOpo^ SLcd^iv hri axrfvrj^ oma yeXoia av <l>av€Lrj, oi 
fi€v eoT&Te^ Kal ov Suokovtc^;, 6 Se avavevtov, iv Bk Toi^ 
eireaiv \av0dvei. to Se davfuurrov rihv' arf/jLCiov Se* iravTe^ 
yhp irpotmdhrre^ aTrar/yiXXovatv w^ 'xapi^ofievoc. SeSiBajfev 9 

Se pAXiOTa Op/qpo<; iccu tou9 akXov^ '^^5V^/^^Zi*?J ^ ^^** 
20 IcTi Se TOVTO irapaXoy^apJi*;, otovTtu yap avdpcoiroi, OTav 
TovBl ovTO^ ToSl ^ fj yivofiivov yivrfTat, el to vaTepov etmv, 
Kal TO irpoTepov elvai fj yiveaOai,' tovto Be iari yftevBo^. Bio 
B'q, av TO TTp&TOv '^frevBo<;, dXX' ovBe, tovtov ovto^, avdyKr) 
<Kafcelvo> elvac fj yeveaOai [^] irpoaOelvaf Bia yap to tovto 
25 elBevai aXrjOe^ ov, irapaKoyi^eTaL fjpMyv tj '^v^^ teal to Trp&Tov 
c!)9 ov. TrapdBei/yfia Bk tovtov ix t&v ^Lirrpcov, irpoatpela-Oai 10 
T€ Bel aZvvaTaelicoTa fjboXKov fj BwaTa diridava' tov<; Te \6yov^ 
fiTj awioTaadaL ix fiep&v aXoycov, aXXa fiaKioTa fiev fjuq- 

11. -j^^oscodd., Z: seel. Reiz: eT5os Bursian oi)$6v' di^^i; Yettori : oit^a-iiB^ 

Urbinas 47: omva ifOrj A© ^^] fort. ^Oos Christ Kdp reus 

Gomperz 13. 4X0701' Vettori: dvdXcyov codd., 2 di* 6 Parisinus 

2038 : 5t6 codd. cett. 14. iirel apogr. : ftretro A®, S 21. rod di6jrros 

pr. A« T08I y ^ apogr. : rb St* ijv pr. A® {t6 dl if con. rec. m.) 22. 

ycv^ffdcu coni. Christ 23. d^] del Bonitz &Wov di A© (dXX* oifSk 

corr. rec. m.) : &\\o 5i codd. Robortelli : dWo 5* 6 Vahlen : AXXo, 6 Christ 
23-24. cum verbis dXX* odSk — dvdyKii — vpoadctvou contulerim Rhet. i. 2. 13, 
1367 a 17, idv ydp 5 Tt, TO&runf yvd)pifioVy oifSk det \4yeiP' aCrrbs ydp tovto 
irpoffTLOriffLV b dicpoan)?, et 18, r6 5* Uti aTctpavlTrjs rd *OXiJfMr«a, oidi del ir/wxr- 
$€ipai 24. KdKctvo add. Tucker ij seel. Bonitz : J Vahlen : ^p 

Tucker 26. to&tov codex Robortelli : tovto A^ : to&tup apogr. : tovto 

<r6> Spengel piirrpta A" 



the scene throughout, and imitate but little and rarely. 
Homer, after a few prefatory words, at once brings in ^ if >lt^ ^ 
a man, or woman, or other personage; none of them 
wanting in characteristic qualities, but each with a 
character of his own. 

The element of the wonderful is admitted in Tragedy. 8 — ^^if . 
The irrational, on which the wonderful depends for its — 
chief effects, has wider scope in Epic poetry, because there 
the person acting is not seen. Thus, the pursuit of 
Hector would be ludicrous if placed upon the stage — the 
Greeks standing still and not joining in the pursuit, and 
Achilles waving them back. But in the Epic poem the -^ 
absurdity passes unnoticed. Now the wonderful is 
pleasing: as may be inferred from the fact that, in 
telling a story, every one adds something startling of his 
own, knowing that his hearers like it. It is Homer who 9 
has chiefly taught other poets the art of telling lies ^— t*^ -' 
skiKully. The secret of it lies in a fallacy. For, 
assuming that if one thing is or becomes, a second is 
or becomes, men imagine that, if the second is, the first 
likewise is or becomes. But this is a false inference. 
Hence, where the first thing is untrue, it is quite un- 
necessary, provided the second be true, to add that the 
first is or has become. For the mind, knowing the ! 
second to be true, falsely infers the truth of the first. 1 
There is an example of this in the Bath Scene of the ' 

Accordingly, the poet should prefer probable im- 10 
possibilities to improbable possibilities. The tragic plot ^^ 

must not be composed of irrational parts. Everything 

XXIV, lo — ^XXV. jL 1460 a 29 — 1460 b i« 

lip e)((UP oKoyam, cf 2c fi^, l^m rai /nitfcv/MrrB9» maw€p 

30 Otiiwov^ TO iiij eHewas vm^ o Aaw^ an0sp^» aXXk /i^ cr 

T^ ZpdfLaris iairep er *HXeMTpa oi ri UvOui aiWWffiX Xom' 

re9f fl hf yivaok o i^mwo^ ec Tejea^ w rijw Mimair ^jnir- 

iar€ TO Xey€ip cm dpffp ^r o op 6 /mvOo^ yekaSap' c^ ^PX^f^ 

yip ov Sei avpiaraaOeu ratavrov^. op ii &j mu ^aiptfrtu 

35 ebXoymrrifKP^f epiixeadai KaX St v wo p <of> * ern^ koL rk ip 

*OtwT<y€Uf SXoya rk irepi rijp exOeaiP i^ avic op f/p ap&crk 

vm^ trjkov &p yepoiTo, el avrk ^aSKo^ Trouj/rii^ 'rotiia&e* pup Sc 

rok oXXoi^ w^aJOok o iraifjrrtj^ a4^pl^€i ^Svpfup to arom-ow, 

T0 Se \i^€i> tel Ziawovelv iv rok apyoi^ fiipea-ip /ml fJtijTe 11 

flB^Kch /^i/Ttf ZuiviyriTiK€h' a7roKpvirT€i ykp ttoXip 17 Xiap 

5 Xafiwpk Xe^i^ rd re ijOfj ical ra^ Siavoia^. 

XXY Uepl Be TrpoffXrjfidrwv iuu Xua€€9v, ex jroamp re /caX 

irouav elSatv i<mv, &S* av Oewpovfrip ykpovr op ^HMvepov. 

hreX yap eari fup/rjrij^ o irotffrrj^ ixnrepapeX ^eoypd^x)^ rj ri^ 

&X\o^ elfcovoTToU^, dvar/KTf fufieurdai rpiAv oirnov rov apt- 

10 Opiiv hf rv del, fj ydp ola fjv 'fj eariv, fj old ifMaiv koI Soxel, 

fj ola elva4 Sei, ravra S* i^ayyiWerai Xe^ei <^ Kvpioi<; 2 

6v6fiaai,v> fj teal yXoorrai^ xal fiera<f>opai^' koX iroXkk irdO'q 

80. <6> Oldlirovt By water: Oldlvov Tocker Adun Riccardianas 16: 

X6\aot A^ : UiXaos cett. 33. dj^'fipeiro A^ 35. iirod^xetrOai apogr. 

Arowoy <bv> scripsi : rb Atotov Par. 2038 : Atotw codd. cett. Arairo^ 

quidom pro droir^ rt nonnunqnam usurpari solet, e.g. Ararw troiei^ (Dem. 
F.L. § 71, 887), drotrov X&yeiy (Plat. Symp. 176 a); sed in hoc loco vix 
oa locutio defend! potest 1460 b 1. rrot-fyrcie Heinsias : Trot-i^ei codd. : 

iirolriirtv Spengel 5. rd t«] rd di A^ 7. voicav apogr. : irolufp dp A« 

9. rdiP dfn$fjLdv (vel r(f dpidfji^) apogr. : ruu dpi0fjuap A^ 11. ^ oZd apogr. : 

ota A° <il Kvplois 6u6fJM<riv>' coni. Vahlen: <^ KvpUf.^ Gomperz 

12. Koi 6ff' dXXa irddr) coni. Vahlen 


irrational should, if possible, be excluded; or, at all 

events, it should lie outside the action of the play (as, /) j. ^/ 

in ttie Oedipus, the hero's ignorance as to the maimer \i ^ 

of Laius' death); not within the drama, — as in the /^ 

Electra, the messenger's account of the Pythian games ; \ 

or, as in the Mysians, the man who comes from Tegea to ^^ 

Mysia without speaking. The plea that otherwise the 

plot would have been ruined, is ridiculous ; such a plot 

should not in the first instance be constructed. But 

once the irrational has been intaroduced and an air of 

likelihood imparted to it, we must accept it in spite of 

the abgsfdity. Take even the irrational incidents in the — -^ 

Odyssey, where Odysseus is left upon the shore of Ithaca. 

How intolerable even these might have been would be 

^parent if an inferior poet were to treat the subject. 

1460 b As it is, the absurdity is veiled by the poetic charm ) 
with which the poet invests it. 

The dicticm should be elaborated in the pauses of 11 
the action, where there is no expression of character^- 
or thought For, conversely, character and thought are 
merely obscured by a diction that is over brilliant. 

LXV With respect to critical difficulties and their solu- 

tions, the number and nature of the sources from which 
they may be drawn may be thus exhibited. 

The poet being an imitator, like a painter or any 
other artist, must of necessity imitate one of three 
objects, — things as they were or are, things as they are 
said or thought to be, or things as they ought to be. 
Th^ .vehicle of expression is language, — either currents 
terms or, it may be, rare words or metaphors. There 
are also many modifications of language, which we 


98 XXV. 3—6. 1460 b 13—34 

T179 Aif €«9 ear/, SlSofiep yi^p ravra T049 irotrfrdi*:. Trpo^ Se 8 
TOVTOi^ ovj^ 17 avTTj opOoTf)^ e<rTlp rij^ irokiritcrj^ koX t^9 

15 iroi/rfTifcrj^ ovBi aWtf^ Tij(yrj^ /cat TroiffTiicfj^, avrrj^ Se t§9 
iroiffTitcrj^ SiTTfi ap/tpria, 17 fiev yhp Kaff avTqv, 17 Sk Karh 
avp^fie/SrfKO^. el pkv yap <Tfc> irpoeCkero p^ip/qaaadaL, <ft^ 4 
op0m Bk ipbipbTjaaro Zi> oBwapiav, aviij^ 17 dp^apria' el Se 
T^ irpoeXiaffa* p,^ opOm, aXX^ rov Xmrov <^api!> apA^xo ret 

20 Be^icL irpo/Se/SXrfKora 'fj to Kaff iKdarfjv T€j(yr)v dpdpTrjp^ 
otov TO Kar larpLKrjv fj aXKrfv ri'^yrfv [^ dBuvara ireiroirjrcu] 
oiroiavovv, oif KaO* iatmjv. &<tt€ Sei tcL eTriTcp/j^para hf rol^ 
irpopKripAiaLv ix tovtcdv iiruTKOirovvra Xvetv. irp&rov piv rd 5 
irpo^ avTTfv Ttjv T€j(yfjv el dBvvara ireTToirfrac, fipApTqTai,* 

25 aXX* 6p0&^ ej(€t, el rvyyavei, rov reKov^ rov avrrj^ (to yap 
T€\o9 etpffrai), el oi;t«9 iKirXfj/crtKtoTepov 'fj airro fj aXKo iroiet 
p4po^. irapdZeiypM ri rov **^KTopo^ SUo^c^. el p4vT0t to TiKo^ 
fj p£KKov fj </A^> fiTTov eveSi'xeTO v'rrdpj(€tv koI Kara ttiv 
irepX TOVTcov re'xyriv, \rjp4ipTriadai\ ovk 6p0&^' Sec yap el iv- 

30 iexerai 0X109 p/qZap»y '^p^pTrjadat. ere irorepav earX to 
dpApTfipji, T&v Kara ttjv Tej(y7jv fj KaT oKSjo avp^efiri' 
KO^ ; eXaTTOv yap el pjf '^hei otl i\a<f>o^ OrjKeLa Kepara 
OVK €')(€i fj el dp^pbrjTdo^ eypay^ev, irpo^ Se tovtov^ edv 6 
eiriTipMTai, otl ovk dXrfOrj, oXX* larcD^ <ci)9> Sei — olop Kal 

17. rt addidi fi^ 6p$Cjs — 81* addidi: <6p0ias, Ijfiafyre d* iv t$ fu/i'/f- 

acurBai 81* > coni. Yahlen 18. el apogr.: ^ A^ 19. rtp corr. Parisinus 

2038 (Bywater): rd A^: <5tA> rb Ueberweg dfi* add. Vahlen 

21. 1j ddi^para TcrolriTax seel. Dimtzer: AS^vara ireiroLrrrtu (deleto ^) post 
6toi(wovv traiecit Christ 22. dTolav 6vv A^ : 67roia»ovv viilg. : 6t6V Ay othf 

Bywater : owoiaoOy Winstanley 23. rd {el sup. scr. m. rec) A^ 24. el add. 
Parisinus 2038 : om. cett. 25. airrijs apogr. : aMji A° 26. etfnjTai] eUpvyrat 
Heinsius: rrjpeTTai M. Schmidt 28. ij <M> ^ov Ueberweg: ^w 

A«: ^ ^oy corr. A^ apogr. 29. i)fjuipT7Jc0ai (fiafyrTjadai pr. A^) seol. 

Bywater, Ussing: ijfidfynjrau Aid, : <.fi^> ^^lapr^dat, Tucker, interpunctione 
rautata 32. etdei {y sup. scr. m. rec.) A^ 33. ^] 17 pr. A® el 

dfufAT/JTwi] n dfufjL'fyrun (corr. KifUfiiJTtas) A° 34. <wj> coni. Vahlen 


concede to the poets. Add to this, that the standard of 3 
correctness is not the same in poetry and politics, any 
more than in poetry and any other art Within the art 
of poetry itself there are two kinds of faults, — ^those 
which touch its essence, and those which are accidental. 
If a poet heis chosen to imitate something, <but has 4 
imitated it incorrectly> through want bf capacity, the 
error is inherent in the poetry. But if the failure is 
due to a wrong choice — ^if he has represented a horse 
as throwing out both his ofif legs at once, or introduced 
technical inaccuracies in medicine, for example, or in 
any other art — the error is not essential to the poetry. 
These are the points of view from which we should 
consider and answer the objections raised by the 

First as to matters which concern the poet's own 6 
art. If he describes the impossible, he is guilty of 
an error; but the error may be justified, if the end 
of the art be thereby attained (the end being that 
already mentioned), — ^if, that is, the effect of this or 
any other part of the poem is thus rendered more 
striking. A case in point is the pursuit of Hector. 
If, however, the end might have been as well, or better, ^ \ 
attained without violating the special rules of the poetic 
art, the error is not justified: for every kind of error 
should, if possible, be avoided. 

Again, does the error touch the essentials of the 
poetic art, or some accident of it ? For example, — not 
to know that a hind has no horns is a less serious matter 
than to paint it inartistically. 

Further, if it be objected that the description is not 6 

i i.- 

100 XXV. 6— lo. 1460 b 35—1461 a 16 

35 So^cX^9 &l>fj avTo^ fihf otov9 id iroielVf ^ifpiiriBi^ Be otot 
eUrlv — TOVTiy Xvreov. el 8k fjurfBerepm^f Sri ovrto ^aaiv olov 7 
ra irepl Oe&v Xaa^ yhp ovre fiikrvov ovra Xeyeof, ovr aXifOrj, 
1461 a aXX* <6^> eTvj(€v &(rrrep Sei^o^wet* oXX* oiv ^xtau ra he 
tca^ ov fieKriov fiei^, aXX* otrm^ clx^v, otov ri^ irepi t&v 
oirXtov, " €yj(ea Se aiJHV Spff eirX aavparijpo^' ^ ovrw yap tot 
evofjki^ov, mairep koX vuv ^IXkupioL irepl Sk tov koKA^ ^ i^h ^ 
5 icoXm ^ etprjTai tlvi fj irhrpoKTOi^ ov fiovov aKeirreow eU 
ainro to ireirpcfrffievov ^ elprf/jUpov fikerrovTa el tnrovBaSov rj 
<l>av\ov, aX\A koI eh tov irpaTToirra ^ Xeyoi^ro, irpo^ hv rf 
0T€ ^ oT^ ^ oif ivexep, otov ^ pLelfyvo^ ar^aSov^ Tva ye- 
vrjTac, fj fieifyvo^ ica/cov, iva aTToyevffTav. tA 8^ irpo^ Tijv 9 

10 Xi^ey op&vra Bel BiaXveiv, otov yXdrrij " oifprja^ phf irpA- 
TOV " ^ ?(r(k>9 7^/5 ov TOV9 17/U01/01/9 \eyei aXXh tou9 ^v- 
\afcaf;, koI top AoXayva " 09 p ^ tov etSo*: fikv erfv Kaico^,* * 
oif TO a&fia aavfifierpov aXKk to irpoacairov alaypovt to 
yhp evetihi oi ^piJTe^ einrpoa-ayjrov /cdKovo'i* koX to " ^wpo- 

15 Tepov Bi Kepaie " * ov to atepaTov c&9 olv6(l>Ku^iv aXKa to 
OSttov, tA Bk KaTh fiera^opiw eXprfrav, otov " irdvTe^ pAv 10 

1 Iliad X. 152. « jj^ j^ 50 

3 lb. X. 316. * Ih, ix. 203. 

35.. l^iffmd^-nv Heinsius: eOpitrihtji codd. (tuetur Goxnperz, cf. 1M8 a 36 
dOrjvtuoi codd.) 37. oOtw Biccardianus 16, oorr. Yaticanus 1400: oiire 

A^i om. Parisinus 2038 1461 a 1. <el> coni. Vahlen ^evwpduei vel 

^a'04fdv7is apogr.: ^evwpdvrf A9: irapA ^epotpiyei Bitter: <oi ir€pi>» ^^o4>dinf 
Tucker o^v Tyrwhitt : oH A^: oCtu Spengel ^acr/. rk di Spengel : 

<pa<ri rdSe, A^ 6. el apogr. i 1j A° 7. commate distinxi post X^oKxa 

<^> irpbs tv Carroll 8. oToi' ^ A°: olov tl apogr. 9. ^ add. 

corr. Ac apogr. 12. 6s j/ ^ rot Vahlen : ds ^m (corr. m. reo. fi*) A« : 

6s ftd Toi apogr. hiv apogr. : ci ^v A° 16. jf^pot ^ou tA pr. A« 

16. rA Spengel : rb A« irdinref Grafenhan : dXKoi Ac et Homenis 


true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, — *But the 
objects are as they ought to be ' : just as Sophocles said q^ 
that U d«w ,.„ „.U,ej o^t .0 be. Euripides. „ "J^ 
they ara In this way the objection may be met If, 7 ""'^ i 
however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet 
may answer,—' This is how men sax thejhingja: This 
applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that 
these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to 
1461 a fact : they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of 
them. But anyhow, 'this is what is said.' Again, a 
description may be no better than the fact : ' still, it was 
the fact'; as in the passage about the arms: 'Upright 
upon their butt-ends stood the spears.' This was the 
custom then, as it now is among the lUyrians. 

Again, in examining whether what has been said or 8 
done by some one is poetically right or not, we must 
not look merely to the particular act or saying, and ask 
whether it is poetically good or bad. We must also con- ^^ 
sider by whom it is said or done, to whom, when, in 
whose interest, or for what end ; whether, for instance, it 
be to secure a greater good, or avert a greater eviL 

Other difficulties may be resolved by due regard to the 9 
usage of language. We may note a rare word, as in ou- 
prja<; fikv Trp&Tov, where the poet perhaps employs 
ovpTja^ not in the sense of mules, but of sentinels. So, 
again, of Dolon : 'ill-favoured indeed he was to look upon.' 
It is not meant that his body was ill-shaped, but that his 
face was ugly; for the Cretans use the word evethhy 
* well-favoured,' to denote a fair face. Again, ^coporepov 
Se Kipai€, ' mix the drink livelier,' does not mean ' mix 
it stronger ' as for hard drinkers, but * mix it quicker.' 

102 XXV. lo— 14- 1461 a 17—27 

pa Oeoi re Kal avipe^ eiSov ircannfyiot*^^ ^ afia he ifn^a-^v "^ 
Toi St €9 irehLov to Tpwucov ddpiiceiev, ai\&p avpiyywv 
6* ofiaSov*^^ TO y^p irdme^ ami tov iroXKoi Kara /JueTa- 

20 if>ophv etpfjTOi, TO yhp irav iroXv ti* teal to " ott) S* a^fjLO- 
po^**^ Korii fiCTa^opdv, to yhp yvapi/uoTaTov fiovov. Korh 11 
8^ irpoatpiiaVf &(nrep 'Ittttmi? eXvev 6 Sdaio^ to " SiSofiep 
Se o"** Kal "to phf ov KUTairvOeTai Sfifip^,^*'^ to, Sk hicupe- 12 
<r€t, olov *^/JL7reBo/c\aj^ '* al'^a Se Ovtit e^vovTO^ to, irpiv /Aa- 

25 0ovd6dvaT <elvai> ^wpd Te irplv iceKpriTO,^^ rA ik dp^ifioXia, 13 
"ira^pfpyriKev hi ifKew viJf •*** to yap irXeio} dfuf>Cfio\6v eoTiv. 
tA Bk Karii ToeOo^Tij^Xi^eto^' t&v KeKpafievfov <oiovovp> otpov 14 

^ Iliad it 1, dXXoi /Up jm 0€ol r€ koI d^ipes iTwoKopvcral 
€^w xarn^cM. 
lb. X. 1, dXXoc /liv Tapd prfwrhf dpurrijts UapaxtuOp 
Mop wopp^ioi, 

* lb, X. 11, ^ TOi 6t* is v€8lop rb TptaiKbp dBpf^eiep, 

dad/ia^ep Tvpd ToXXd rd KcUero *I\i60i irpb, 
aUXQp avplyywp r ipowiip 6fJM86p r* dpOpdnrup. 
^ lb, xriiL 489, otij d* Afifiop&s iart XoerpOp 'QKeavoio, 

* 76. xxi 297, dl8ofi€P 84 ol e^xot dpiffSai, Sed in Iliade ii. 15 (de 
quo hie agitar) Tpc&eero'i di idfie* iifnjirrai, 

^ lb. xxiiL 328, rb fikp 06 Karatr^dercu Sfififxp. 

* lb. X. 251, fuiXa ydp pi>^ Ayerou, iyyijBi S* 1^, 

dffrpa 8i 8ii trpopi^Ke, irafHpxn'^^ ^ irkiup p^ 
tQp 8iJo fJLOipdtap, Tptrdrri 8* (rt /loipa XAccrrcu. 

17. IvK-oKopwrral (Homerus) post dpipes add. Christ, habuit iam S (cf. Arab. 
*ceteri quidem homines et dei qui equis annati insident') ATorres 

post edbop intercidisse snspicatur Bywater 19. $* SpuiSop Sylbnig: re 

6fM86p {8fjLa8op apogr.) A^ tov add. apogr.: om. A« 23. 8i ol 

apogr. : 84oi A« 26. elpcu add. Vettori ex Athenaeo x. 423 j^ufpd 

Athenaeus : itSa codd. re <A> wplp Gomperz secutus Bergkimn xi- 

Kpvfro (t sup. scr. m. rec.) A^: ic^ic/Mro apogr. : dKprtra Karsten(6d. Empedocles) 
26. xX^M AC; wXiop apogr.: xX^wv Aid. xXefw] ir\w>p vel xX^or 

apogr. 27. <5<ro> tQv KCKpafUpup Vahlen : <&ra iro>T(ap xexpa- 

fUputp JJeherweg: top Kexpafiipufp BmsiBLn <61opovp> Tucker: <:frio>. 

olim conieci 


Sometimes an expression is metaphorical, as ' Now all 10 
gods and men were sleeping through the night/ — while at 
the same time the poet says : ' Often indeed as he turned 
his gaze to the Trojan plain, he marvelled at the sound 
of flutes and pipes.' ' All ' is here used metaphoricallj 
for *many/ all being a species of many. So in the 
verse, — ^^ alone she hath no part . . ,' o!li;, 'alone,' is 
metaphorical ; for the best known may be called the 
only one. 

Again, the solution may depend upon accent or 11 <^ 
breathing. Thus Hippias of Thasos solved the difficulties 
in the lines, — SiSofiev {SiSofiev) Be ol, and to /Mev ov (ov) 
/carairvOerac SfijSp^, 

Or again, the question may be solved by punctuation, 12 ^^-^^ 
as in Empedocles,— ' Of a sudden things became mortal \ 
that before had learnt to be immortal, and things un- ^ 
mixed before mixed.' 

Or again, by ambiguity of construction, — as in 13 cf» 
7rap<p')(r)K€v Be irXia) vv^, where the word wXeco is 

Or by the usage of language. Thus any mixed 14 <?- 
drink is called oZi/09, ' wine.* Hence Ganymede is said 

104 XXV. 14 — 17- 14^1 A >S — 1461 b 10 

^aat9 dpa$9 \iO€P irewoitfnu ** anffii^ v€qt€uktov juMririre- 
pMO*^ o0€v elpfp-ai 6 TamffLi^ifj^ '*Ad cMi^oeuei/*' ov ttukhv- 

3Q r€nf olvoVt icaX j(jaXx€iK roif^ top aiSfjpov ipya^ofUpov^. eUf 15 
5* Av TOVTo ye ocol^ tcarh /tera^/Mxy. Set Si tcai orav Svofid 
ri inrevavruiftd ri Sok§ ofifuuvei^p, hrunconrelv vo<rax&^ ov 
afffuUvoi TOVTO hf T^ eifnj/jUva, otop to "t^ p ecr^ero j^aXjceov 
eyj^o^,*** TO TavTi^ tcaXufffjpai 7roaaj(&^ evSi^ertu. &SI <S€> 16 

35 [4 ^] iiakioT iv Tis inroXdfioi, Kara Trpf KaravTucpif 4 ^ 
tm b TXavtcav Xiyei, oti evia aXoyof^ irpoviroKtip,fiavovai,v koX 
avTol KaTa^^<l>urdfi€voi avXKoyi^ovTcu §caX <09 elpfjKOTO^ 6 
Tt ioKeZ hrt^Tifi&aiv, &v {nrepavrlov ^ r^ airr&v oli^ei. tov- 
TO Si ireirovOe Th irepl *Iicdpiov. olovrai ykp axnov Adxtova 
5 elvai' aroirov oiv to fitf ivrv^eiv top T!fj\e/iaj(pp axn^ eh 
AatceSaifiopa ikdoPTo. to S' fo'a>9 ej^ei Amrep oi K.e<l>aXrj- 
pi^ ^aai* trap axn&p ykp yrjfuu Xeyovai top ^OSvaaea 
icaX elpai ^1/eaSiop aXk* ov/c ^I/cdpiop' St afidpTi^fia Brf to 
irpopKrifia el/eo^ e<mp. o\j(o<; hk to aSvvaTOP pip irpo^ ttjp 17 

10 TToifjarip fj irpo^ to fieXnop fj irpo^ TtfP Bo^ap Sei dporfetp. 

1 Iliad xxl 692. « Ih. xx. 234. 

• lb. XX. 272, ry y ^<rxeTo fulTuyoif fyxoJ. 

28. 6Bey — Koorcrtr^poio seel. M. Schmidt 29-30. verba 60€9 €tfnfTai — 
oTpov in codd. post ipyaj^ofUvovs posits hue reyocavit Maggi e cod. Lampridii 

29. olyoxo€^€t A® : olyoxottkaf apogr. xtwlmniav pr. A*' 31. Koi add. 
Heinsius 31-32. dyS/Juiri ifireifavrubfiari A9 doxy apogr. : doKcT A*' 33. 
ffUfMlvm Vahlen (ed. 1) : ffiifioUpoie A^ : crrj/nfipciep Parisiuns 2038 : <rrtfioUp€ic 
alia apographa 33-35. citop rb <ip rtg^ "rf — rh raijrg KwXvBrpfai [iroo-a- 
X<3j] ipSix^f''- 3*irX«f, 1j vCjt fidXurr' dp ris k.t,\, M. Schmidt 34. 8^ 
addidi 35. ij un olim seel. By water ujSI 1j <id)dl>, ujs coni. Yahlen : 
ufdl 8^ t<rm Tucker 1461 b 1. Ihiw. Vettori 2. elfyqK&roi 6 n Castel- 
vetro : tlprfK&ret &ri A® 3. airQp Parisinus 2088 : ah-Qp codd. 7. 
airrQp apogr. : a&rwp codd. 8. 81* ^fidprrffia Maggi : 8ia/jidprrffia codd. 

8ii Gomperz: 8k codd. 9. <6Zr(u> cIkU imp Hermann (fort, recte) : 

€Ik6s icrri <.y€piff0ai> Gomperz <:1j> xp6s Aid. fort, recte 


' to pour the wine to Z&aay tiiough the gods do not 
drink wine. So too workers in iron are called 'xakKia^, 
or workers in bronza This, however, maj also be taken 
as a metaphor. 

Again, when a word seems to involve some incon- 15 
sistency of meanings we should consider how many 
senses it may bear in the particular passage. For I6 
example: 'there was stayed the E^ear of bronze' — we 
should ask in how many ways we may take 'being 
checked there.' The true mode of interpretation is the 
1481 b precise opposite of what Glaucon mentions. Critics, he 
says, jump at certain groundless conclusions ; they pass 
adverse judgment and then proceed to reason on it ; and, 
assuming that the poet has said whatever they happen 
to think, find fault if a thing is inconsistent with their 
own fancy. The question about Icarius has been treated ^ 
in this fashion. The critics imagine^e was a Lacedae- 
monian. They think it strange, therefore, that Tele- 
machus should not have met him when he went to 
Lacedaemon. But the Cephallenian story may perhaps — Q 
be the true one. They allege that Odysseus took a wife 
from among themselves, and that her father was Icadius 
not Icarius. It is merely a mistake, then, that gives 
plausibility to the objection. 

In general, the impossible must be justified by 17 
reference to artistic requirements, or to the higher 


106 XXV. 17— XXVI. I. 1461 b 11—28 

irpo^ re ycbp rr^v iroirforvv aiperwiTepov inOavov aBvvarov ^ 
airlOavov xal hvvarov, </eal Xao>^ aSvvaTov> toiovtov^ elvai, 
otov^ Zev^i^ €ypcuf>€P' aXXct fieKnov to yhp irapaSecy/JUi Sei 
V7r€pi')(€tv. irpo^ <h*-> a <f>a<Ti,v, raXoya* ovTa> t€ koI on ttotc 

15 ovK dXoyov itmir elxb^ yap Kal irapcb to €t#co9 yiveaOait, tA S' 18 
{nr€uavTia><; elptffiiva ovtod a-KOTretv, &aw€p ol iv T0J9 \oyoi^ 
eXeyjfpt, el to airro koI 'rrpb^ to avTO Kal wa-avTO)^, e5<rre 
Kot \xrreov fj irpo^ h aino^ Xeyev '^ h &v if>p6vifio^ inroOrj- 
Tat, opOri 8* €7rmfM7<rA9 ical aXoyia Kal fiojfdrjplq, OTav fii) 19 

20 avdryKTj^ ovartf^ fjurjOev j^i^a-rfTat t^ a\6y^, &(nr€p ^vpiTriSrj^ 
T^ Alyei, ^ T^ irovrjpia, &<nr€p iv ^Opiarrf tov MeveXdov. 
tA fi€v oiv eirtTifirjfjLaTa €K irhne elZ&v ^ipovtriv, fj yhp c&9 20 
aZvvaTa fj &^ aXoya ^ &^ fika^epa fj &^ inrevavTUi ^ <09 
irapct TTjv opOoTtyra ttjv KaTci Tej^i/971/. ai Bk Xvaet^ ck t&v 

25 elprffiivoov aptOpAv CKeTTTeac, elalv Sk Sa^ScKa, 
XXVI HoTcpov hk ^ekTicDv ri hroirouKti pi/irjai^ ^ 17 TpayiKi], 

iunroprjaeiev av tl^, el yhp rj ^ttov <l>opTtKr) /ScXtuov, toulv- 
Tff S' 17 7r/509 /SeXTtov? OeaTa^ iaTiv del, \Lav hrjkov oti rj 

11. x€iOa»by A9 12. dweldapop A^ <Kod Iffus dBi&ifaTOP^' Gomperz, 

seontus Margolioath ('fortasse enim impossibile est' Arabs) : kcU cl dd&yarov 
coniecerat Yahlen 13. dovs Parisinus 2038 : oTov codd. 14. 8* add. 

TJeberweg (auctore Vahleno) 16. {urevavrUas Twining (of. Arab, 'quae 

dicta sant in modnm contrarii ') : inrevavrLa cI;; codd. : (bs inrtvavrla, Heinsius 
18. Cxn'€ Koi Xvriov M. Schmidt: ^re Kal aMv codd. tppbviyuoi 

apogr. : <f>pbviitJLOP (con*, m. reo. 4)p6pifioy) A^ 19. dXoylq. xal fioxBrtplg^ 

Yahlen: dXoyla Kal fMxOripia codd. 20. fort. <ir/)ds> fAr/dhf Gomperz 

21. T(p AlyeT ij ry margo Riccardiani 16: tQ eUyet'fyni A^ <t§> tov conL 

Yahlen 26. peXrltap apogr. : piXriop A^ 28. d* ij apogr. : S^ A^ 

del, \tap Yahlen : SetKLap codd. 


reality, or to received opinion. With respect to the •*■*-- 
requirements of art, a probable impossibility is to be 
preferred to a thing improbable and yet possible. Again, 
it may be impossible that there should be men such as 
Zeuxis painted. 'Yes,' we say, 'but the impossible is 
the higher thing; for the ideal type must surpass the 
reality.' To justify the irrational, we appeal to what is 
commonly said to be. In addition to which, we urge ^"^ 
that the irrational sometimes does not violate reason; 
just as * it is probable that a thing may happen contrary 
to probability.' 

Things that sound contradictory should be examined 18 
by the same rules as in dialectical refutation — whether 
the same thing is meant, in the same relation, and in the 
same sense. We should therefore solve the question by 
reference to what the poet says himself, or to what is 
tacitly assumed by a person of intelligence. 

The ^element of the irrational, and, similarly, depravity 19 
of character, are justly censured when there is no inner 

necessity for introducing them. Such is the irrational ^ 

element in the Aegeus of Euripides, and the badness of \ 
Menelaus in the Orestes. 

Thus, there are five sources from which critical 20 
objections are drawn. Things are censured either as 
impossible, or irrational, or morally hurtful, or contra- 
dictory, or contrary to artistic correctness. The answers 
should be sought under the twelve heads above mentioned. 
XXVI The question may be raised ^whether the Epic or 

Tragic mode of imitation is the higher. If the more 
refined art is the higher, and the more refined in every 
case is that which appeals to the better sort of audience, 


v^ '^ ^ 

I » ^ 

106 XXVI. 1—4. 1461 b 29—1462 a 15 

oftravra fUfiov^vff <l>opTitci^* i»9 71^ oiftc alaOapofievwv tiv 

30 fjtff avrb^ irpoa0^, iroXktfp /civfi^iv Kivovvrai, olcv oi ^avXot 
avXffTal /evXtofievoi &u hlxrtcov hir^ fUfieiaOai, /cal fXjeopre^ 
Tov icopwf>alov &v ^KvXXav avX&anv. 17 /jiv oiv rpay^Sia 2 
ToiavTff iarivi o^ zeal oi irpoTepov tov^ varipov^ avr&v ^ovro 
xnroKpLrd^* co9 \Lav yhp inrep/SdWovra TrlffrjKOv 6 ^vwIcko^ 

35 t6v KaWiTnrlSrjv ixoKeL, rouLvrrj Se So^a xal irepl Tli,V' 
i4e2akSdpov fflf' C&9 S' ovTOt i)(pva-i, irpo^ avrov^, 17 0X17 T€j(yv 
7rp6^ T^p eiroTTouav ^€u rijv fikv oSv irpo^ Oearct,^ iirve^KeU 
(fxuTw elvai '<ot> ovSiv Seovrav t&v a-'^rjfidriov, rifi/ ik rpivyi- 
fcfiv 7r/>09 (f>avXov^' el oSv {f^opriicif, ^Ipav BfpU)v on hv etrj. 3 
5 TTp&Tov fuv oip ov T^ TToiffTi/crf^ ff Karrf^opUi dXKk riy; 
viroKptTiKTJ^, crrel earn irepcepyd^efrffai rot^ orrffieloi^ /cal paylrtp- 
Sovvra, oirep [iarl] XaxrloTparo^, koI StaBovra, oirep hroUi 
^vcurlOeo^ ^Ottovvtio^, etra oifSk KLvrfCL^ diraaa dirotoKL- 
/jbaaria, elirep p/qh^ Spj(ffai^, dXk^ ^ tf>avKa)v, oirep icaX KaXX^TT- 

10 'n'lirj iTTCTifiaTO Kal vvv aXKot^i a>9 oxfK ikevOepa^ yvvauca^ 
fup^ovpAvfov. Stl 17 rpaytpSia xal avev KLvrjceco^ iroiel to avrij^, 
Aairep 17 eiroiroila* hi^ yctp tov dpayivdcKeiv (JMPepa oiroLa 
Tt9 ioTLP' €1 oiv iaTi Td 7' aXXa KpetTTtop, tovto ye oifte dpay- 
fcaiop avT^ vwdp'^etp, etXTi, 8* eireX Tct irdpr eyei oaairep 17 erro- i 

IS iroiia {^icaX yhp t^ fierp^ e^etrTi ^prjardai), /cal cti ov fiiKpop 

30. KUfowrax apogr. : Kivovvra A<^ 1462 a 1. Itxpwri. apogr. : d' Itxpwn 

A® ahroifi Hermann : airroin codd. 3. of add. Yettori : ixtl Ckrist 

9XW^'^^^ f^^ apogr. : oxri/id\Ta aCh-ijv (ra ai m. reo. in litora) A^ 
4. €l apogr. : ij A^ 5. oty add. Parisinas 2038 : oin. oett. 7. 

iffrt seel. Spengel dt^Sorra Maggi : Siddovra apogr. : Staddrra A® 

8. 6 Todtrrios A^ 10. imnfMro pr. Ac 11. airrijs apogr. : a&njs A^ 

12. oTotd A® 14. odr^ apogr.: oMi A^ iffri 8* ivel rd, Gomperz: 

?rr4 y, i^Tt Usencr : itrcira di&ri codd. 


the art which imitates anything and everything is 
manifestly most unrefined. The audience is supposed to 
be too dull to comprehend unless something of their own 
is thrown in by the performers, who therefore indu]ge 

in restless movements. Bad flute-players twist and twirl. %JL 

if they have to represent ' the quoit-throw/ or hustle the ^ 

coryphaeus when they perform the ' Scylla.* Tragedy, 2 
it is said, has this same defect. We may compare the 
opinion that the older actors entertained of their suc- 
cessors. Mynniscus used to call Callippides 'ape' on 
account of the extravagance of his action, and the same 
1462 a view was held of Pindarus. Tra gic a rt, then, as a whole, ^ 
stands to Epic in the same relation as the younger to 
the elder actors. So we are told that Epic poetry is 
addressed to a cultivated audience, who do not need 
gesture ; Tragedy, to an inferior public. Being then 3 
unrefined, it is evidently the lower of the two. 

Kow, in the first place, this censure attaches not to 
the poetic but to the histrionic art; for gesticulation 
may be equally overdone in epic recitation, as by Sosi- 
stratus, or in lyrical competition, as by Mnasitheus the 
Opuntian. Next, all action is not to be condemned — 
any more than all dancing — but only that of bad per- 
formers. Such was the fault found in Callippides, as 
also in others of our own day, who are censured for q 
representing degraded women. Again, Tragedy like Epic y^ 
poetry produces its effect even without action ; it reveals 
its power by mere readings If, then, in all other respects 
it is superior, this fault, we say, is not inherent in it. 

And superior it is, because it has all the epic 4 
elements — it may even use the epic metre — with the 


110 XXVL 4—8. 1462 a 16—1462 b 19 

fUpo^ T7JV fJLOvaLici)v Kal rh^ oy^ei^, Si &9 ai '^SovaX avvloTav- 
TOi ivafyyioTara* elra koI to ivapyh ?X€6 Kal iv vp dvayvco- 
aei KoX iirl r&v ipyoDv* ere to iv IKclttovi, fii^/cec to t€\o^ 5 
1462 b T$9 lUfiTjaefo^ elvat {t6 yhp aOpocoTcpov fjSiov fj ttoWo) Kexpa- 
fievov T^ 'xpovtp' Xejo) S' otov e? ta9 tov Oihiirovv Oelrj 
Tdv 'S,o<l>OK\eov^ iv eireacv oaot^ ij 'IXta?)* €Tt fJTTOv fiia 17 6 
pUp/rjai^ fj T&v irroiroL&v (arjfieiov Se* ix ycLp ottouutovv 
5 [/ufM7<r€a>9] irXeiov^ TpcvyipSiaL ylvovTai), &aTe ihv phf eva 
fivOov iroL&o'iv, fj /3pa')(€a>^ SecKVVfievov fiiovpov ^aiveaOai, fj 
cLKoXovOovvTa r^ avfifi€Tptp p/rjKei vSaprj,  \irfa> Se 
olov iav ix irXeiovtov irpd^etov ^ (rvyKCifievrj, &cnr€p 17 'IX^A? 
€)(€c iroWh TouLVTa fiepr) Kal 17 ^OSvaraeia & Kal Ka6* 

10 kaxnd €j(€L p^eOo^' Kairoc TavTa tcL Troii^fiaTa awe<rT7}Kev 
{09 ivhe)(€Tai, apurra Kal otl pAXia-Ta fiid<; irpd^ea)^ filfir}- 
(TL<;, el ovv TOVTOi^ T€ Sui<f>ip€i, irdacv koX Stv t^ ttj^ Tij^j/179 7 
€py(p (Set ydp oif ttjv Tv^pvaav rihovrjv iroieiv axnd^ dXKd 
Tr)v e lprjfiivT jv), <f>av€pov oti, KpeiTTcav &v elri /mWov tov 

15 TeXov^ Tvyxavova-a Trj^ iiroirotla<;. 

irepl fikv oiv Tpay<phla<; Kal iiroTToda^, Kal avT&v 8 
Kal T&v eiS&v Kal t&v iiep&v, Kal iroaa Kal tL hiaff>ip€L, 
Kal TOV ^ fj fit) TLV€^ alTiai, Kal Trepl iTrcTifn^aeoDv Kal 
Xvaecov, eipTjaOo} ToaavTa,  *  

16. KoX rdt 0^«s secL Spengel : post ivapyiarara coUocavit Gomperz : Kal riiu 
iyj/kv Aid. iC As (vol oTs) coni. Yahlen : dc' ^s codd. 17. ipoyvibaei, 

Maggi : dvayvujpiaei A« 18. Ih-i rb Winstanley : #rt ry codd. 

1462 b 1. ijdwv fj Maggi: iidclop ^ Riccardianus 16: ifdopij A^ 2. rdy 

8Lwow pr. A^ Oclrj bis A^ 3. ij Duds Riccardianus 16 : ij CKLas (fuit 

IdLas) A^ fda if By water : i) jda A*^ :. fUa otokutovv Riccardianus 16 

5. fufi'fiffctas seel. Gomperz 6. fielovpov Parisinus 2038 7. avtiiUrpt^ 

Bemays : rod fUrpov codd. : fort, rod furplov (cf. 1468 b 12) post ifdapij, 

< idv 8k ir\eiovi > Aid. : < \4yu dk otov * * Slv 8k fiii^ oii /da ij fdfirfats > 
conL Yahlen: <^dv 8k irXciovs, oif fda ij ixlfi7j<ns> Teichmiiller : lacunam 
aliter supplevi, vide versionem 9. A add. apogr. 10. Kalroi raOra 

t4 Riccardianus 16 : Kal roiaOr* Arra A° 18. ^ apogr. : cl A^ 

V ~ 


music and scenic effects as important accessories; and 
these produce the most vivid of pleasures. Further, it 
has vividness of impression in reading as well as in 
representation. Moreover, the art attains its end within 5 
1462b narrower limits; for the concentrated effect is more 
pleasurable than one which is spread over a long time 
and so diluted. What, for example, would be the effect 
of the Oedipus of Sophocles, if it were cast into a form 
as long as the Iliad ? Once more, the Epic imitation 6 
has less unity ; as is shown by this, that any Epic poem 
will furnish subjects for several tragedies. Thus if the . 
story adopted by the poet has a strict unity, it must js 
either be concisely told and appear truncated ; or, if it 
conform to the Epic canon of length, it must seem weak 
and watery. <Such length impUes some loss of unity.> 
if, I mean, the poem is constructed out of several actions, ^ 
like the Iliad and the Odyssey, which have many such ^\ 
parts, each with a certain magnitude of its own. Yet 
these poems are as perfect as possible in structure ; each 
is, in the highest degree attainable, an imitation of a 
single action. 

If, then, Tragedy is superior to Epic poetry in all these 7 \ 
respects, and, moreover, fulfils its specific function better / 
as an art-^for each art ought to produce, not any chance 5 
pleasure, but t he p le asure proper to it. a s already stated ] 
— ^it plainly follows that Tragedy is the higher art, as ^ 
attaining its end more perfectly. 

Thus much may suffice concerning Tragic and Epic s 
poetry in general; their several kinds and parts, with 
the number of each and their differences; the causes 
that make a poem good or bad; the objections of the 
critics and the answers to these objections.  « « 

-^ 0^ 











fir iT^^K  - 





TO»^> 202 Moin Library 






4 ' 




'AUG 2 11985 



^ MAY 2 5 1986 


^^f- l/9t^7 



mn mr. .lUN 17 

MfiiEi: ..fijaea 

l^Y 23 19 









APR ^ 1 *^ 09 


FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 1 /83 BERKELEY, CA 94720