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Full text of "Poetry out loud national recitation contest : teacher's guide, 2006-2007"

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downloaded at www.poetryoutloud.org 

This publication is published by: 

National Endowment for the Arts 

1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 
Washington, DC 20506-0001 
202-682-5400/www.arts.gov 

The Poetry Foundation 

444 North Michigan Avenue 

Suite 1850 

Chicago, IL 60611-4034 

312-787-7070/www.poetryfoundation.org 



Massachus 
2006 State Champion 

Vinh Hua •* 



Edna St. Vincent Millay 



AT I O N A L 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 



The National Endowment for the Arts is a 
public agency dedicated to supporting 
excellence in the arts—both new and 
established—bringing the arts to all Americans, 
and providing leadership in arts education. 
Established by Congress in 1965 as an 
independent agency of the federal govennent, 
the Endowment is the nation's largest annual 
fonder of the arts, bringing great art to all 50 
states, including rural areas, inner cities, and 
military bases. 



New Jersey 

2006 State Champion 

Teika Chapman 




FOUNDATION 



The Poetry Foundation, publisher of Poetry 
magazine, is an independent literary 
organization committed to a vigorous presence 
for poetry in our culture. It has embarked on an 
ambitious plan to bring the best poetry before 
the largest possible audience. 

Poetry Out Loud is a partnership with the State 
Arts Agencies of all fifty states and the District 
of Columbia. 



Poet Dylan Thomas 



All 2006 State Champion photos by James Kegley. 

Edna St. Vincent Millay photo from The Granger Collection, New York; Dylan Thomas photo from CORBIS; Robert 
Frost photo from CORBIS; Langston Hughes photo from The Granger Collection, New York; Emily Dickinson 
photo from The Granger Collection, New York; Donald Hall photo courtesy of the Poetry Foundation; Gwendolyn 
Brooks photo courtesy of the Poetry Foundation; Robinson Jeffers photo courtesy of Occidental College Library, 
Robinson Jeffers Collection; Alice Fulton photo by Hank De Leo; Countee Cullen photo from CORBIS 



Hawaii 

2006 State Champion 

KellieAnae 



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Poet Robert Frost 



Rhode Island 

2006 State Champion 

KrisAponte 




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NATIONAL RECITATION CONTEST 



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Poet Langston Hughes 



Vermont 

2006 State Champion 

Anna Svagzdys 



Contents 



Letters of Welcome 2 



Program Overview 4 

Organizing the Contest Events 6 

Teacher Preparation 9 

Suggested Class Schedule 1 

Judging the Contest 1 2 

Contest Evaluation Sheet 14 

Evaluation Criteria and Tips for Performers 1 5 



Lesson Plan: Poems Put to Use 20 



Lesson Plan: The Tabloid Ballad 24 



Lesson Plan: The Tone Map 30 

NCTE English Language Arts Standards 36 



Poet Emily Dickinson 






Letters of Welcome 




The memorization and recitation of poetry have been central 
elements of education since ancient times. Recitation is also a major new trend in 
poetry. This recent resurgence of poetry as an oral art form can be seen in the slam 
poetry movement and in the immense popularity of rap music. 

The National Endowment for the Arts and the Poetry Foundation have partnered with 
the State Arts Agencies on an exciting program, Poetry Out Loud: National Recitation 
Contest, which invites the dynamic aspects of slam poetry, spoken word, and theater 
into the English class. Poetry Out Loud helps students master public speaking skills, 
build self-confidence, and learn about their literary heritage. 



Learning great poetry by heart develops the mind and the imagination. By 
encouraging your students to study, memorize, and perform some of the most 
influential and timeless poems of the English language, you immerse them in 
powerful language and provocative ideas. 

Although many students may initially be nervous about reciting in front of their 
teenage peers, the experience will prove valuable — not only in school, but also in 
life. Much of the future success of students will depend on how well they present 
themselves in public. Whether talking to one person or many, public speaking is a 
skill people use every day in both the workplace and the community. 

Poetry recitation as a competitive event is as old as the Olympic Games. Along with 
wrestling, long-distance running, and the javelin toss, the ancient Olympics included 
contests in music and poetry. Performers trained for years and traveled great distances 
to the games. Please join us in restoring the energy and esprit of poetry recitation 
nationwide as Poetry Out Loud. 



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Dana Gioia 

Chairman 

National Endowment for the Arts 



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Can there be any Subject more difficult to teach in the classroom than 
poetry? Students who take their culture at the speed of the Internet may not easily 
find it in a measured, majestic poem that comes down to us from the past. But a great 
poem has much to tell if we can find a way to listen. It will speak to us and for us, giving 
voice to times of great joy or great loss. As we grow older it will grow with us, waiting 
to give new meaning to our deepening experience. "Why should I study this poem," 
the Internet-sawy student may ask, "let alone try to learn it by heart?" And we may 
answer, "Because it is a chance to make a friend for life." 

Poetry Out Loud: National Recitation Contest brings new energy to an ancient art 
by returning it to the classrooms of America. The public recitation of great poetry 
is a way to honor the speaker, the poem, and the audience all at once. Hearing a 
poem spoken aloud, we discover that a poem is before anything else an event of 
the ear. In the hands of the poet our everyday speech becomes a musical instrument. 
The meaning of the poem, we find, lies as much in the sound of its words as in their 
sense. 

Hearing the spoken words of the ancient poets we learn that we are not alone, that men 
and women always have felt as we feel, that the human spirit has been the unchanging 
constant in the history of our kind. Hearing the voices of our contemporary poets we 
learn again that we are not alone, that in our individuality we are a community. In this 
way the recitation of poetry brings history to life; in this way it creates community. 

The Poetry Foundation is committed to a vigorous presence for poetry in our culture. 
Through its programs the Foundation seeks to make poetry direcdy relevant to the 
American public. We are excited to join with the National Endowment for the Arts in 
Poetry Out Loud: National Recitation Contest. 




John Ban- 
President 
The Poetry Foundation 



POETRY 



OUT LOUD 



Program Overview 



HISTORY OF PROGRAM 

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the Poetry Foundation joined together to create Poetry Out 
Loud, a program that encourages the nation's youth to learn about great poetry through memorization and 
performance. 

The NEA and the Poetry Foundation have partnered with State Arts Agencies in every state and the District of 
Columbia to support an expansion of Poetry Out Loud. After successful pilot programs in Washington, DC, and 
Chicago, the second phase of Poetry Out Loud was launched in high schools across America in the winter of 
2006. Tens of thousands of students participated, culminating in the inaugural National Finals on May 16, 
2006, which brought all 51 State Champions to the nation's capital. 



CONTEST STRUCTURE 

Poetry Out Loud uses a pyramid structure that begins at the classroom level. Winners advance to a school-wide 
competition, then to a regional or state competition, and ultimately to the National Finals. 



CLASSROOM TIME AND SCHEDULE 

The curriculum for Poetry Out Loud has been designed intentionally to fit into a teacher's busy schedule without 
much disruption. The program takes place over the span of two to three weeks, according to each teacher's 
interest and schedule, and it will not require full class periods during that time. To accommodate schools' testing 
demands and vacation calendars, Poetry Out Loud can be implemented at the school level any time during the 
fall and through early winter, with slight variations by state. Please check with your State Coordinator for your 
state's specific calendar. (Search "State Contacts" on the website, www.poetryoutloud.org, to identify your State 
Coordinator.) 



NCTE STANDARDS 

Poetry Out Loud satisfies most of the NCTE English Language Arts Standards (detailed information on page 
36). In addition to memorizing and performing great poems, students will have the opportunity to discuss 
poetry and — if the teacher wishes to use the optional lesson plans — to write poetry of their own. 



POETRY 



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PRIZES 

The following prizes are offered for the official contests identified and conducted by the government State Arts 
Agencies and the National Endowment for the Arts during the spring of 2007. The prizes do not apply to other 
unofficial contests. 



State Prizes: Each winner at the state level wall receive $200 and an all-expenses-paid trip to Washington (with an 
adult chaperone) to compete for the national championship. The state winner's school will receive a $500 
stipend for the purchase of poetry books. One runner-up in each state will receive $100; his or her school will 
receive $200 for the purchase of poetry books. 

National Prizes: A total of $50,000 in scholarship awards and school stipends will be awarded to the winners at 
the Poetry Out Loud National Finals, with a $20,000 college scholarship award for the National Champion. 



OPTIONAL SCHOOL PRIZES 

Some schools have given their finalists extra prizes, ranging from anthologies to gift certificates. It may be 
appropriate to ask a local business (bookstore, cafe, record store, etc.) or a parent-teacher organization to donate 
those additional prizes. 



LEGAL PARTICIPATION REQUIREMENTS 

No student may be excluded from participation in this program on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, 
disability, or national origin. Schools may determine eligibility for classroom- and school-level Poetry Out Loud 
programs, pursuant to local and state law. Under federal law, participation in state finals and the National Finals 
is restricted to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. 



Tennessee 

2006 State Champion 

Leo Moucka 




POETRY 



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Organizing the Contest Events 



LEAD TEACHER(S) 

We recommend that each school identify one or two teachers to serve as the coordinators of Poetry Out Loud. 
Duties for Lead Teachers will include enlisting fellow teachers to participate, distributing materials, organizing 
the school events, and keeping in touch with the State Coordinator. 

We recommend that you organize your school event as soon as possible, in order to ensure greater attendance by 
the school community. The Poetry Out Loud website includes tips on promoting the event within your school 
and community. 



LENGTH OF CONTEST - LARGE AND SMALL SCHOOLS 

Classroom contests can be held during class periods. A school final or state final contest should run less than 
two hours; any longer than that can be difficult for the audience. Ideally, 6 to 15 students should compete in each 
school's final contest. If your school has 6 to 15 classes participating in the program, send one winner from each 
class to the school finals. If fewer than six classes are participating, two students from each class may advance to 
the school finals. If more than 15 classes are participating, you might consider holding grade-level competitions 
first, allowing two or three students from each grade to advance to the school finals. 

NUMBER OF POEMS AT EACH CONTEST LEVEL 

For the classroom contest, students must prepare one poem to recite. Participants in the school finals must 
prepare two poems for recitation. For the students who advance to the state and national levels, three poems 
must be prepared for recitation. 

It is strongly recommended that students who compete beyond the classroom level select poems of various style, 
time period, and voice. That diversity of selection will offer a richer and more complete performance. 

POEM SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE TIME 

Students must select poems from the official Poetry Out Loud print or online anthologies. The maximum 
recitation time per poem should be about three or four minutes. (Not all poems on the audio CD are eligible for 
recitation in Poetry Out Loud.) 



MUSIC AND COSTUMES 

No music, costumes, or props may be used. 



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Kentucky 

2006 State Champion 

Kendra Ho Ho way 



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INTRODUCING THE POEM 

At the competition, students should stand before the audience, introduce themselves, and identify the poem they 
will perform by announcing both the title and the author of the poem. (For example, "This is 'The Lake Isle of 
Innisfree,' by William Buder Yeats," or "I will be reciting 'The New Colossus,' by Emma Lazarus") The poem 
must be recited from memory. 

DRAMATIZATION 

While some element of performance is appropriate, the recitation of poetry, in this context, is a bit different from 
theatrical acting. Overdone, highly dramatic performances will often distract the audience and the judges from 
understanding and enjoying the poem. For example, character voices and exaggerated gestures are usually not 
appropriate. 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES 

All judging criteria can be adjusted to accommodate students with disabilities. If an element of evaluation cannot 
apply to a contestant, you may remove it from the score sheet and average the applicable scores rather than add 
them. Additional guidance on implementing Poetry Out Loud for students with disabilities is available on the 
website, www.poetryoudoud.org. 

We recommend that you provide a sign language interpreter at your school finals if you expect to have audience 
members who would benefit from that service. Signing students may perform with a voice interpreter, and you 
may enlist judges who know sign language. 



POETRY 



OUT LOUD 



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Jackson Wile (OH), 2006 Poetry Out Loud National Champion 



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Teacher Preparation 



1 . Have students browse the poems. We have provided classroom poetry anthologies and an extensive 
online anthology that includes several browsing options. Allow time for the students to browse the 
selection, either as homework or a classroom activity, and have the students select some poems they may 
memorize. 

2. Begin class with a poem a day. Another way to expose students to poetry that they might not 
discover on their own is to read or recite a poem to them at the start of each class period. The website, 
www.poetryoutloud.org, includes poet biographies that may be read aloud, as well. 

3. Ask each student to select a poem to memorize. At the classroom level, each student must 
choose one of the eligible poems to memorize and prepare for performance. Participants in the school-wide 
competitions will prepare two poems to recite. Students who advance to the regional, state-wide, or national 
levels will prepare three poems. 

4. Discuss the poems in class. Understanding the text is the most important preparation for reading 
poetry aloud. If a performer doesn't understand the text, neither will the audience. Lead class discussions 
about the students' selected poems. 

5. Have students memorize the poems. Share these memorization tips with your students: 1. Rewrite 
your poem by hand several times. Each time, try to write more and more of it from memory. 2. Read your 
poem aloud before going to sleep at night, and repeat it when you wake up. 3. Carry around a copy of 
your poem in your pocket or bag. You'll find several moments throughout the day to reread or recite it. 

4. Practice your poem by saying it to family and friends. 

6. Model recitation skills in the classroom. The teacher should model both effective and ineffective 
recitation practices, asking students to point out which elements of the performance are successful and 
which are not. On the board, develop a list of bad habits that distract the audience or take away from the 
performance, such as inaudible volume, speaking too quickly, monotone voice, fidgeting, overacting, and 
mispronunciations. Then develop a list of elements that a successful recitation performance should contain, 
such as sufficient volume, an appropriate speed with the proper pauses, voice inflection, evidence of 
understanding, pronunciation, and eye contact with the audience. The teacher may also play portions of the 
audio CD or the video on the website, as further examples of recitation practices. 

7. Practice the poems. Allow class time for students to practice their poems. Break the class into pairs of 
students (rotating each session), and have each student practice with a partner. Partners should offer 
constructive criticism, using the Evaluation Sheet and Criteria as a guide. 

8. Include creative writing exercises. Creative writing is a natural complement to Poetry Out Loud. For 
that reason, we have included a number of optional writing exercises and lesson plans for teachers at the 
back of this Teachers Guide and on the website, www.poetryoutloud.org. 



POETRY 



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Suggested Class Schedule 



WEE K * Have students browse the anthologies and choose poems to memorize. 

(1 full class session) 

• Read and discuss some of the poems in class. 

(2-3 full class sessions) 

• Model effective and ineffective recitation practices for the students. 

(1 full class session) 

• Have students practice their poems with partners. 

(1 5 minutes per day; several class sessions) 



WEEK 2 • Have students practice their poems with different partners each day. They 
should also work on their memorization and performance outside of school. Students 
should have their poems completely memorized and be able to recite without using a 
printed copy by the end of the week. 
(1 5 minutes per day) 

• Implement the writing exercises and lesson plans. While reserving a portion of 
each class period for recitation practice, you may offer a more complete poetry unit that 
includes creative writing elements, using the provided lessons. 

(1 -5 full class sessions, optional) 

• Hold the classroom recitation contests at the end of the week. 

(1 -2 full class sessions) 



WEEK 3 * Hold the school-wide recitation contest at the end of the week. 

Winners of the classroom contests will prepare two poems for recitation, and will compete 
in the school-wide competition at the end of this week. 
(1 hour; school assembly) 



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Pennsylvania 

2006 State Champion 

Chris Estevez 



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Judging the Contest 



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JUDGING THE CLASSROOM AND SCHOOL CONTESTS 

The classroom teacher can serve as the sole judge for the classroom contests. At the school finals, three to five 
judges should be sufficient — a group of teachers may serve as judges, or you may invite some community 
members to judge the contest. Appropriate judges to invite could be local poets, actors, politicians, professors, 
arts reporters, or members of the school board. In order to eliminate any appearance of conflict of interest, 
judges should not judge recitations of their own poems. 

We recommend that you print the Evaluation Scoresheets before the school contest, and fill out the names of the 
participants and the tides of the poems they wall recite. This will save time for the judges during the contest and 
will allow them to focus their full attention on the performers. 



PROMPTER 

Even the most experienced actors can forget their lines. It is very helpful to have a teacher or student sit in front 
of the performers with copies of the poems to read along with the recitations, ready to prompt a student who 
may get stuck on a fine. Show the performers where the Prompter is sitting before the contest begins, so they 
know where to look if they get lost during their recitation. If a performer is stuck for several seconds and looks to 
the Prompter for help, the Prompter may whisper the first words of the next fine to get the performer back on 
track. The Prompter may double as the Accuracy Judge. 

ACCURACY JUDGE 

We advise you to assign a separate judge or a diligent student to serve as an Accuracy Judge. The Accuracy 
Judge should mark missed or incorrect words made during the recitation. The teacher or lead judge should 
decide on a consistent point scale for evaluating accuracy. This is an admittedly subjective element, but works 
well if the formula used to evaluate accuracy remains consistent throughout the contest. 

If a performer makes no mistakes and does not need help from the Prompter, the accuracy addition should be 
the full eight points. If the performer makes a couple of minor mistakes (i.e. "a" instead of "the") or inverts a pair 
of words, the accuracy addition should be seven of the full eight points. If the performer relies too heavily on the 
Prompter, misses lines or stanzas, reverses the order of sections in the poem, etc., add fewer points for accuracy 
depending on the severity of the errors. 

Note that a recitation with a single mistake in a long poem should receive a higher score than a recitation with a 
single mistake in a short poem. 



12 



CONTEST SCORING ADVICE 

While the review criteria may be subjective to some degree, each judge should remain consistent throughout the 
contest. (For example, the judge should assign a poem the same score for "level of difficulty" when it is recited 
by different students.) 

The judges usually need several seconds between recitations to score the previous performance. Make sure the 
host waits for the judges' acknowledgment before the next performer begins. It is also helpful to have a couple of 
people tallying scores during the contest, so the winners may be announced prompdy at the end of the event. 

Two ways you can fill downtime while the judges are scoring each recitation: enlist an emcee who can keep the 
crowd entertained and interested, or engage musicians to perform between recitations. 

Recommend to the judges that they aim to keep most scores in the middle range, so there is room to reward an 
outstanding performance. This allows more opportunity for subdety and differentiation between recitations, 
which is helpful when you have many to evaluate. When judges award fives and sixes from the start, most of the 
students will end up with very similar final scores. 




From left, Poetry 
Foundation 
President John Ban, 
Second Place 
winner Teal Van 
Dyck (NH), National 
Champion Jackson 
Hille (OH), Third 
Place winner Kellie 
Anae (HI), and NEA 
Chairman Dana 
Gioia at the 2006 
National Finals. 



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Contest Evaluation Sheet 



NAME OF PERFORMER: 



TITLE OF POEM: 



weak ► average ► excellent ► outstanding 



Physical Presence 
and Posture 



Voice Projection 
and Articulation 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Appropriateness of 
Dramatization 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Level of 
Difficulty 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Evidence of 
Understanding 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Overall 
Performance 


2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 



TOTAL: 



(maximum of 42 points) 



ACCURACY ADDITION: 



(maximum of 8 points) 



FINAL SCORE: 



(MAXIMUM OF 50 POINTS) 



POETRY 



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[NATIONAL RECITATION CONTEST 



14 



Evaluation Criteria and Tips for Performers 



All evaluation criteria can be adjusted to accommodate students with disabilities. Additional 
guidance on implementing Poetry Out Louder students with disabilities is available on the 
website, www.poetryoutloud.org. 

PHYSICAL PRESENCE AND POSTURE 

This category is to evaluate the physical nature of the recitation. Consider the performer's posture, use of eye 
contact, and body language. 

Advice for the student: 

• Use good posture and be attentive. Look confident. 

• Engage your audience. Look them in the eye. If you have trouble with that, focus past them to the far 
wall and keep your head up. 

VOICE PROJECTION AND ARTICULATION 

This category is to evaluate the auditory nature of the recitation. Consider the performer's volume, speed, use of 
voice inflection, and proper pronunciation. 

Advice for the student: 

• Project to the audience. You want to capture the attention of everyone, including the people in the 
back row. 

• Perform at a natural pace. People may speak or express themselves too quickly when they are 
nervous, which can make a performance difficult to understand. Speak slowly, but not so slowly that 
the language sounds unnatural or awkward. 

• Be careful with rhymed poems not to recite in a sing-song manner. 

• Make sure you know how to pronounce or sign every word in your poem. Articulate. 

APPROPRIATENESS OF DRAMATIZATION 

This category is to evaluate the level of dramatization in the recitation. Overly theatrical performances will often 
distract the audience and the judges from understanding and enjoying the poem. On the other hand, the 
performer should infuse the recitation with an appropriate level of dramatization, depending on the poem. 

Advice for the student: 

• Don't overdo it. Over-dramatization can distract your audience from experiencing the language of 
the poem. Your goal should be to help the audience understand the poem more deeply than they 
had before hearing your recitation. 



POETRY 



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15 



• You are the voice and the vessel of your poem. Have confidence that your poem is strong enough to 
communicate its sounds and messages without over-dramatizing. In other words, let the words of 
the poem do the work. 

• Depending on the poem, gestures and some amount of movement may be appropriate, as long as 
they are not overdone. 

• Avoid monotone recitation. If you sound bored, you will project that boredom onto the audience. 
However, too much enthusiasm can make your performance seem insincere. 

LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY 

This category is to evaluate the difficulty of the poem, taking into account length, diction, and density of 
language. 

Advice for the student: 

• It is strongly recommended that students who compete beyond the classroom level select poems 
of various style, time period, and voice. That diversity of selection will offer a richer and more 
complete performance. 

EVIDENCE OF UNDERSTANDING 

This category is to evaluate whether the performer exhibits an understanding of the poem in his or her 
recitation. 

Advice for the student: 

• Be sure you know the meaning and correct pronunciation of every word and line in your poem. If 
you are unsure about something, it will be apparent to the audience. Don't hesitate to ask your 
teacher for help. 

• In order for the audience to fully understand the poem, the performer must fully understand the 
poem. Be attentive to the messages, meanings, allusions, irony, tones of voice, and other nuances in 
your poem. 

• Listen to track 4 on the audio CD (or on the website, www.poetryoudoud.org) in which poet David 
Mason introduces Yeats' "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." In his comments, he advises you to think 
about how you should interpret the tone and volume and voice of your poem. Is it a quiet poem? Is 
it a boisterous poem? Should it be read more quickly or slowly, with a happy or mournful tone? 
Your interpretation will be different for each poem, and it is a crucial element of your performance. 



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OVERALL PERFORMANCE 

This category is to evaluate the overall success of the performance. Note that points in this category are doubled 
in weight. 

ACCURACY 

A separate judge will mark missed or incorrect words made during the recitation. If the performer relies on the 
Prompter too much, points may be subtracted from the accuracy score. Eight points should be added for a 
perfect recitation. (See above under "Judging the Contest: Accuracyjudge" for additional guidance.) 











POETRY FOUNDATION 











South Dakota 

2006 State Champion 

Kayla Jackmon 



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Lesson Plan: Poems Put to Use 



Periods: 1 , with an optional take-home project 
NCTE standards: 1,2, 3, 6, 8, 12 



INTRODUCTION 

In track 2 of the Poetry Out Loud CD ("The Power of Poetry"), NEA Chairman Dana Gioia spells out four 
practical advantages to be found in studying and reciting poetry: 

• Poetry offers mastery of language, and stocks the mind with images and ideas in unforgettable words and 
phrases 

• Poetry trains and develops our emotional intelligence 

• Poetry reminds us that language is holistic — that how something is said is part of what is being said, with the 
literal meaning of words only part of their whole meaning, which is also carried by tone of voice, inflection, 
rhythm 

• Poetry lets us see the world through other eyes, and equips us imaginatively and spiritually to face the joys 
and challenges of our lives 

Later, on track 17, poet Kay Ryan concurs. "Poetry is for desperate occasions," she says. By memorizing a 
poem, you have it to pull out when you need it — not necessarily the whole poem, but the scrap of it that comes to 
mind in a difficult time. 

Because students may not have scraps of poetry memorized already, and may never have called one to mind, it 
may be hard for them to believe Gioia and Ryan. This lesson will help them do so, by getting them to imagine 
situations in which a scrap or two of poetry — whether recited or simply thought of— can be put to use. Using 
fiction, letters, or political speech, students will write about poems being put to use and, in the process, imagine 
the practical advantages that having poems memorized can bring. 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

In this lesson, students will have opportunities to: 

• Listen to poems being recited, and to the commentaries of the performers 

• Find passages in poems which they find striking or memorable 

• Imagine situations in which those passages may be put to use, whether to console, encourage, taunt, flatter, or 
otherwise make an impact on a listener 

• Write short stories, letters, or speeches in which at least three passages could be quoted effectively to move 
another character or the listener / recipient 



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MATERIALS AND RESOURCES 

To teach this lesson you will need: 

• The Poetry Out Loud CD or access to the online Poetry Out Loud Audio Guide 

• A CD player or computer 

• The Poetry Out Loud anthology in its print or online version 



ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION 

1. Introduce students to the idea that poems can be useful to recite— the whole poem or just part of it— in a 
variety of real life situations. Brainstorm with them what some of those situations might be, for example: 

When faced with bad news or difficult times 

At a wedding, funeral, or other life-cycle event 

As a toast or grace before meals 

In a romantic relationship or during a marriage proposal 

During a speech or other effort to move an audience, whether it be voters, colleagues, teammates, or others 

you wish to lead 

To illustrate such moments, you might cite historical examples, such as Winston Churchill's recitation of the 
Claude McKay sonnet "If We Must Die. . ." to rally resistance to the Nazis during World War II. Or you might 
turn to fiction and movies. Many children's books and adult novels have scenes where a scrap of poetry is 
deployed to good effect. 

In each book of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, poems are recited by characters; for example, in The 
Fellowship of the Ring, there are poems prominendy featured in the chapters "The Shadow of the Past," "The 
Old Forest," "Strider," "A Knife in the Dark," and elsewhere. In the film of The Return of the King, meanwhile, 
Theoden cries out a short poem to the Rohirrim as they ready their cavalry charge to break the siege of Gondor. 

Contemporary films featuring poetry include Spiderman 2 (Dr. Octavius advises Peter Parker to recite poetry to 
attract women), Poetic Justice (with poems by Maya Angelou), Four Weddings and a Funeral (W. H. Auden's 
"Funeral Blues"), II Postino (various love poems by Pablo Neruda), Slam (poems by Saul Williams), Sylvia (Ted 
Hughes and Sylvia Plath recite Chaucer and Shakespeare to one another), and In Her Shoes (Elizabeth Bishop's 
"One Art" and "I carry your heart with me" by e. e. cummings). The Academy of American Poets has a useful, 
annotated list of "Poetry in Film, Radio, and TV" at http://www.poets.org/page.php/prmID/195. 



FOETRY 



21 



Lesson Plan: Poems Put to Use 

continued 



2. Play tracks 7 and 17 of the CD to illuminate contexts in which poems— whole poems and scraps of them — 
were recited: by David Mason to his girlfriends, and bv Kav Rvan"s grandmother to her. as she grew up. Pose 
questions to your students about diese uses of poetry; for example: 

• 'Why might Mason have wanted to recite Donne bo Ins girlfriends? 

• -Are diere different lines or phrases from die poem diat would have been better to recite in different contexts? 
(Some might work better as a '"pick-up line." perhaps, while others might be better for an apologv or an 
excuse.) 

• Why might Kav R\-an"s grandmother have treasured diose lines from Longfellow? 

• Why might she have wanted her granddaughter to hear them, growing up? 



3. Now it's rime to get your students searching for then own striking hues and phrases. Send students to 
die Poetry Out Loud anthology in search of memorable passages. They should gather at least three passages 
from different poems. The meaning of die passage in its original context is less important than the power the 

student finds in it. and die student's abilitv to imagine each passage being put to use in some siniation. 

If vou wish, you can make this a "Treasure Hunt" assignme nt. Go back to die list of situations you brainstormed 
in step one of the assignment, situations such as: 

"When faced widi bad news or difficult times 

At a wedding, funeral, or other life-cycle event 

As a toast or grace before meals 

hi a romantic relationship or during a marriage proposal 

During a speech or odier effort to move an audience, whether it be voters, colleagues, teammates, or others 

vou wish to lead 



Give each student a simation. and ask him or her to find diree appropriate lines or phrases: or. give the whole list 
to each student, and tell each to look for one line or phrase diat could be of use in that context. 

• If students are using the online anthologv. vou can keep diem from being overwhelmed by telling them to 
look first at poems whose tides begin with a particular letter. Or. if vou prefer, suggest diey use the "Keyword 
Search" feature on die website. 

• Try not to steer diem to partictdar poems or poets, as one goal here is simply to encourage exploration, 
helping students discover poems, poets, and lines diey might not otherwise have encountered. 

To keep students from grabbing lines at random, tell diem to justify the choice — either orally or in writing — by 
brieflv imagining a moment when diat line or phrase would come in handy. A few sentences will usually do. 



POETRY 



22 



4. To make this a full-fledged creative writing assignment, ask each student to bring his or her chosen lines 
and phrases home and write a short piece of prose— two to three pages, or longer if you prefer— in which the 
lines or phrases are used. Make sure that students realize that people often quote scraps of poetry totally out 
of context: they don't need to know the whole poem, or keep the whole poem in mind. The prose they write 
can take several forms, for example: 

• A story, in which one or more characters recite lines of poetry 

- The recitation may be external or internal, as the line or phrase comes to a characters mind 

- The lines or phrases need not and. in fact, should not be the only things that the characters say: rather, 
they should be used sparingly, and their effect on the main character or on others should somehow be 
shown 

• A letter, in which the author quotes striking lines or phrases from poems in order to move or convince the 
recipient in some way 

• A speech, in which the quotations are used to rally, exhort, encourage, or otherwise persuade listeners 
to act 

In every case, the context can be historical, as in a letter home by a soldier during the Civil War, or contemporary, 
set in the United States or anywhere in the world. The important goal of this lesson is for students to imagine 
situations where it can make a difference to know a poem — or even part of a poem — by heart. 



California 

2006 State Champion 

Ken Huffman 



POETRY 



i 



23 



Lesson Plan: The Tabloid Ballad 



Periods: 1 ; an optional second, if you want to separate the writing and performance of the ballads into 
two separate days 

NCTE standards: 1,2, 3, 6, 8, 12 



INTRODUCTION 

To many students, the word "ballad" will call to mind a slow, probably sentimental song: anything from Mariah 
Carey's "We Belong Together" to Green Day's "Boulevard of Broken Dreams" or Garth Brooks' "If Tomorrow 
Never Comes." In the world of poetry, however, a ballad is a lively storytelling poem written in what is called the 
ballad stanza. 

The ballad stanza is simple to illustrate and recognize, and not very hard to describe. In its most familiar version, 
the ballad stanza is four lines of alternating four-beat (tetrameter) and three-beat (trimeter) verse, with the second 
line rhyming with the fourth. Students may recognize this form from the theme song to "Gilligan's Island," 
written out here with the accented syllables (the "beats") in capital letters: 

Just SIT right BACK and you'U HEAR a TALE, 

A TALE of a FATEful TRIP 
That STARted FROM this TROpic PORT 

A-BOARD this Tiny SHIP. 

Or they may remember it from "The Owl and the Pussy-Cat," by Edward Lear: 

They dined on mince, and slices of quince, 

Which they ate with a runcible spoon; 
And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand, 

They danced by the light of the moon. . . 

And although the four-beat and three-beat lines have been combined into one long 7-beat line — a change in the 
layout, but not in the sound— they will hear it in Robert W Service's "The Shooting of Dan McGrew": 

A bunch of the boys were whooping it up in the Malamute saloon; 

The kid that handles the music-box was hitting a jag-time tune; 

Back of the bar, in a solo game, sat Dangerous Dan McGrew, 

And watching his luck was his light-o'-love, the lady that's known as Lou. 



POETRY 



i nun 



N«llON»lRlCI!«TIONCOMttS! 



24 



This might just as well be written out as: 

A bunch of the boys were whooping it up 

In the Malamute saloon; 
The kid that handles the music-box 

was hitting a jag-time tune; 
Back of the bar, in a solo game, 

sat Dangerous Dan McGrew, 
And watching his luck was his light-o'-love, 

the lady that's known as Lou. 

Now it looks like the ballad it is. 

This lesson will teach your students about the typical metrical forms of the ballad (how they sound), and the 
typical narrative moves of the ballad (how they tell their stories), by having them write ballads based on comic, 
even outrageous source material. In doing this, they will join a long tradition of sensationalist journalism written 
in ballad form: the tradition of "broadside ballads," like the one that Shakespeare mocks in The Winter's Tale — 

Here's another ballad of a fish that appeared upon the coast on Wednesday the fourscore of April, forty 
thousand fathom above water, and sung this ballad against the hard hearts of maids. It was thought she 
was a woman and was turned into a cold fish for she would not exchange flesh with the one that loved 
her. This ballad is very pitiful and true. 

— or like this one, whose description appears in Robert Graves' English and Scottish Ballads: 

A most miraculous strange and trewe ballad of a maid now dwelling at the town of Meurs in Dutchland, 
that hath not taken any food this 1 6 years and is not yet neither hungry nor thirsty: the which maid hath 
lately been presented to the Lady Elizabeth the King's daughter of England. This song was made by 
the maid herself and now translated into English. 

Stories like this now find themselves told in The Weekly World News and other outrageous supermarket tabloids. 
Your students will turn the clock back, and rewrite them as ballads. 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

In this lesson, students will have opportunities to: 

• Listen to the sounds of several ballads being spoken 

• Listen to how ballads tell stories 

• Learn to hear, and to write, the typical rhythms of the four-line ballad stanza, with optional variations 

• Write a comic ballad themselves, using those rhythms and narrative structures 



POETRY 



OUT LOUD 



25 



Lesson Plan: The Tabloid Ballad 

continued 



MATERIALS AND RESOURCES 

To teach this lesson you will need: 

• The Poetry Out Loud CD or access to the online Poetry Out Loud Audio Guide 

• A CD player or computer 

• Copies of supermarket tabloid articles, either in the newspapers themselves [The Weekly World News, The 
Star, The National Enquirer, and so on) or clipped selectively from the papers by you, or in an anthology of 
such stories like Bat Boy Lives! The WEEKLY WORLD NEWS Guide to Politics, Culture, Celebrities, Alien 
Abductions, and the Mutant Freaks that Shape Our World, available in the Humor section of many 
bookstores 

• Optional: computer access, so that students can read ballads from the Poetry Out Loud online anthology 

ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION 

1 . Introduce students to the term "ballad," and explain the difference between what this term means when 
describing popular music — a slow, usually sentimental song — and the more technical meanings it has when 
describing a poem. 

You will want them to know that the ballad is a livery storytelling form of poetry, and that this story typically gets 
told in a particular way: 

• Ballads start quickly, without much introduction or narration, as in the famous opening of "Sir Patrick 
Spens": 

The king sits in Dumferling town 
Drinking the blude-reid wine: 
'O whar will I get a guid sailor 
To sail this ship of mine? 
Why is the king in Dumferling town? What sort of party is this? Why does he need a good sailor? The 
ballad plunges into its subject, and leaves us with questions. 

• Ballads often jump from scene to scene as they move from stanza to stanza, without much exposition or 
narrative to connect the events. 

• Often, ballads use dialogue, rather than narration, to advance the plot. 

• Ballads often feature repeated refrain-lines, which may be nonsense ("fol-de-rol-de-rolly-o") or details that 
the poem returns to obsessively ("in this kingdom by the sea," or "of the beautiful Annabel Lee"). 

• The narrator generally remains anonymous and unidentified, so that our focus stays on the story, rather than 
on the storyteller. 

You will want them to know the most basic ballad stanza: alternating 4-beat and 3-beat lines, widi the second 
line rhyming with the fourth, as in the examples in the Introduction. 



I'l'iH'l'l'] 



26 



You may want to show them a few common variations on the basic ballad stanza. 

• In "Jabberwocky," Lewis Carroll writes stanzas of 4-beat lines with alternating rhymes, so that line 1 rhymes 
with line 3, and line 2 with line 4, like this: 

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves 

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: 
All mimsy were the borogoves, 

And the mome raths outgrabe. 

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son! 

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! 
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun 

The frumious Bandersnatch!" 



In "La Belle Dame Sans Merci,"John Keats writes ballad stanzas made of three 4-beat lines, and then a 2- 
beat closing line, like this: 

I met a lady in the meads 

Full beautiful, a fairy's child; 
Her hair was long, her foot was light, 

And her EYES were WILD. 

I made a garland for her head, 

And bracelets too, and fragrant zone; 
She looked at me as she did love, 

And MADE sweet MOAN. 



Edwin Arlington Robinson uses the same ballad stanza as Keats in "Miniver Cheevy": 

Miniver loved the days of old 

When swords were bright and steeds were prancing; 
The vision of a warrior bold 

Would SET him DANcing. 

Miniver sighed for what was not, 

And dreamed, and rested from his labors; 
He dreamed of Thebes and Camelot, 

And PRIam's NEIGHbors. 



POETRY 



HUE 



i;MJHi»inx«m 
27 



MM 

[•HiiliHii] 



Lesson Plan: The Tabloid Ballad 

continued 



• Edgar Allan Poe adds an extra pair of lines to the ballad stanzas of "Annabel Lee," mostiy continuing the 
rhythmic alternation of 4- and 3-beat lines: 

It was many and many a year ago, 

In a kingdom by the sea, 
That a maiden there lived whom you may know 

By the name of Annabel Lee; 
And this maiden she lived with no other thought 

Than to love and be loved by me. 

What's most important is for students to get the sound of the ballad in their ears, and to learn diat ballads tell 
stories in a particularly lively, scene-by-scene style. 



2. To help students hear the sound of the ballad, play "Jabberwocky" (track 8 on the CD), and the selections 
from "Annabel Lee" (track 30). To help students hear the sound of the ballad when they read it from a page, 
you may wish to have them look at some ballads on the Poetry Out Loud website as well. The following 
poems are in ballad stanzas, with some variation: 

"Miniver Cheevy" by Edwin Arlington Robinson 

"Annabel Lee," by Edgar Allan Poe 

"The Owl and the Pussy-Cat," by Edward Lear 

"The Shooting of Dan McGrew," by Robert W. Service 

"A Red, Red Rose," by Robert Burns 

"It Couldn't Be Done," by Edgar Albert Guest 

"La Belle Dame Sans Merci," by John Keats 

"Sir Gawaine and the Green Knight," by A. Yvor Winters 

"The Birth of John Henry," by Melvin B. Tolson 

"The Listeners," by Walter de la Mare 



3. Set out the supermarket tabloids or tabloid articles that you have gathered, and let students cut out or 
photocopy the articles they wish to write about. If several students wish to write about the same article, let 
them. It will be fun for them to compare their ballads when they are through. Now have the students write a 
ballad about the event or the person in the tabloid article, using either the standard ballad stanza (alternating 
4-beat and 3-beat lines, rhyming ABCB) or some variation. If they choose a variation, they should stick with 
the same pattern throughout the ballad. Be sure to tell the students that the poem can and probably should be 
funny, and give them a minimum length— probably four or five stanzas — for the ballad. Make sure they know 
the ways a ballad usually tells its story, and encourage them to use these techniques as often as they can. 



28 



4. After the students have drafted their ballads, you can let them take the drafts home to be polished and 
revised before performing them in class. Or, if you prefer, you can ask students to share their "tabloid 
ballads" right away with the class. 

5. Since this is a fun, informal lesson, you may not want to evaluate student ballads in any formal way. If you 
want to respond to them, however, or have fellow students respond, you will probably want to use questions 
like these: 

• Did the ballad use some version of the traditional ballad stanza? 

• Did it tell its story quickly, moving scene by scene and using dialogue to move the plot forward? 

• Did it use typical ballad tools, like repeated lines or phrases? 

• Was it memorable? 

No matter how rough or polished their efforts, students will come away from this lesson with a lively, hands-on 
appreciation of the form — and the pleasures — of the ballad. 




Maine 

2006 State Champion 

Riva Dumont 



POETRY 



NATIONAL RECITATION CONTEST 



29 



Lesson Plan: The Tone Map 



Periods: 1 to 3, depending on the final project chosen 
NCTE standards: 1,2, 3, 6, 12 

INTRODUCTION 

In his introduction to the Poetry Out Loud CD (track 2, "The Power of Poetry"), NEA Chairman Dana Gioia 
says that reciting poetry, and listening to others recite it, can train our "emotional intelligence." Later, in track 30, 
Gioia points out that most poems tell a "narrative of emotions": that is, they move through a series of moods and 
tones of voice, arranged in a particular order to tell a particular emotional story Even when the poem seems like 
a simple series of images, and even when we can't say exactly what events took place in the poem, there is usually 
an emotional drama playing out from the beginning of the poem, through the middle, and into the end, as the 
poem tries to arrive at some emotional resolution. 

As students learn to name the tones of voice that the poem moves through, they will learn to describe mixed 
emotions, such as "sweet sorrow," and to distinguish subtle shifts in tone and mood. They will build their 
vocabulary of feeling, train their emotional intelligence, and prepare themselves to speak more accurately and 
confidently about any piece of writing or work of art. 



LEARNING OBJECTIVES 

In this lesson, students will have opportunities to: 

• Listen to poems being recited, with an ear to how the performer has adopted different tones of voice over the 
course of the performance 

• Mark, visually, where and when those shifts of tone occurred 

• Use a rich and varied tone vocabulary to name each shift in tone, looking up words they do not know 

• Practice "mapping" a poem on their own, in a precise and nuanced way 

• Write instructions to a classmate on how he or she should recite the poem, with evidence to support why this 
series of tones of voice is correct 

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES 

To teach this lesson you will need: 

• The Poetry Out Loud CD or access to the online Poetry Out Loud Audio Guide 

• A CD player or computer 

• Printed copies of the poems you play from the CD, which can be found in the Poetry Out Loud anthology 

• A good dictionary 



POETRY 



NHIJ0N1L RECIT1TI0N C0NTCS1 



30 



ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION 

1. The day before you begin this lesson, hand out a copy of the tone list at the end of this lesson plan. Feel 
free to trim the tone list to suit your students, however, the longer it is, the more varied and subtle your 
students' descriptions of tone will be. Explain that they will be using this list to describe the changing tones 
of voice that an actor uses to convey the emotions in a poem, and ask students to circle any words on the list 
they do not know. Assign students to look up some or all of these words— no more than two or three words 
each, probably— and to bring in the definitions and the full tone fist when they return. 

2. To begin the lesson the next day, introduce the idea that most poems tell a "story of emotions": a series of 
moods that change as the poem moves from start to finish. Whether or not we understand what everything in 
the poem means, we can experience, enjoy, and convey to others the poem's emotional drama. We do this by 
recognizing the changing tones of voice that the speaker of the poem adopts as the poem moves from 
beginning to end. 

On track 32 of the CD, introducing "Miniver Cheevy," Gioia speaks about how recitations must sometimes 
convey mixed emotions. You can also illustrate this point with "Jenny Kissed Me," which is somewhat shorter 
and perhaps therefore easier to work with in class. 

3. Play Kay Ryan's recitation of "Jenny Kissed Me" (track 3). Ask students to listen for the tonal turning 
points which they hear in Kay Ryan's recitation. You will probably want to play it several times. At this 
point, students need only jot down notes about where in the poem — at what words or phrases — they hear the 
poem shift in mood, or the performer shift in her tone of voice. 

4. Now, using the tone list, have the students brainstorm names for each tone they have heard. Encourage 
them to combine terms whenever they need to: for example, "bantering disbelief" is different from "stunned 
disbelief," and both are different from "horrified disbelief." You could explain that emotions don't always 
come in primary colors; often colors blend, and shade into one another. The more accurate their descriptions 
are, the more distinctions they can learn to recognize. 

• Perhaps bring in and hand out some free color samples from a paint store to illustrate this: bright white is 
different from eggshell white is different from cream, etc. 

• If there is a tone word they wish to add to the list, let them. 

• Students do not need to agree on the tones they hear; however, they should be able to support their 
descriptions by reference to the poem, and by reciting the section of the poem at issue, in the tone of voice 
that they hear. Let other students evaluate whether the poem makes emotional sense when said that way. 



POETRY 



:ni[.i:M.aniMiiii:n l i:imi 

31 



Lesson Plan: The Tone Map 

continued 



5. Hand out the "tone map" of "Jenny Kissed Me" printed below. Explain the format: in the left column we 
find the poem, divided into sections according to where the tone might shift. Note that tone shifts may be the 
same as the poem's lines, stanzas, or sentences, but shifts in tone may also take place in shorter units, such as 
phrase by phrase. In the right column are names for the tone of voice one might hear in the poem, and 
therefore try to convey in performance. 



SECTION 


TONE 


Jenny kissed me when we met, 


Fond reminiscence 


Jumping from the chair she sat in; 


Amused, affectionate 


Time, you thief, 
who love to get 
Sweets into your list, 


Still amused (now by Time, rather than by Jenny), 
but growing a little wary, a little scornful 


Put that in! 


Disdainful 


Say I'm weary, 


Shrugging 


Say I'm sad, 


Candid, a litde sad 


Say that health and wealth have missed me, 


Lighdy or playfully regretful 


Say I'm growing old, 


Real regret 


But add, 


Rallying, insistent 


Jenny kissed me. 


Marveling, contented 



Discuss the tones in this "tone map" with the students. Are these the tones they heard in Kay Ryan's reading? 
If not, how would they describe what they heard? Do they think that parts of the poem should be read in a tone 
that is different from both Ryan's recitation and the tone map? What tone seems better in what section, and why? 



POETRY 



out i nun 



i.'iii'iMi.imn'Nu.iiim 

32 



6. To begin the next part of the lesson, remind students that performers will find different emotions in a 
single poem, and will convey these in contrasting tones of voice. Play track 1 1 of the CD, with three 
performances of Hamlet's "To be or not to be" speech, as an example. Have students discuss the contrasting 
tones they hear in these different readings. What different questions do the actors seem to be asking? Which 
performance do they prefer? Why? 

7. Now hand out a copy of William Wordsworth's sonnet "The World Is Too Much With Us." Working in 
pairs, have students mark where the shifts in tone seem to occur, and next to the poem have them draft a 
"tone map" of the poem using the tone list. 

8. From the CD, play Angela Lansbury's reading of "The World Is Too Much With Us" (track 13). In this 
performance, we hear an actress trying to bring out the emotional drama in a poem that may seem merely 
intellectual or abstract. Ask the students whether Lansbury's performance of the poem matches their "tone 
map," either in terms of where she has shifted tones, or in terms of the tones and emotions she brings to the 
poem. Where does Lansbury's differ from theirs? How would they describe her shifts in tone? Which 
choices do they prefer, and why? 

9. As a final project for this lesson, choose one of the following options: 

• Have students write a "Memo to Lansbury," as though they were her director. The memo should go through 
the poem section by section, explaining any problems they find with the tones portrayed in Lansbury's 
performance, and how they think she should perform the poem differendy. Tell students that they must 
justify their recommendations to the actress — who is, after all, a trained professional — in terms of the 
emotions and ideas and motivations they see in each section of the poem. 

• Have students choose a poem they wish to recite from the Poetry Out Loud anthology, and format it as a two- 
column "map" at home. Before they perform their poem, they should tell their classmates the series of tones 
they wish to convey. After the recitation, students should respond by telling the performer whether he or she 
was successful at conveying those tones, and also whether they think that the tone for any section or sections 
was incorrect — and if so, why, and what it ought to be. 

• Have students choose a poem they want to recite from the Poetry Out Loud anthology, and exchange it with a 
classmate. Students will then prepare, at home, a two-column "map" of the poem and write a short 
"Director's Memo" that explains the tones of voice that the performer should convey, with an explanation for 
each. The next day, have students pair up, exchange maps and memos, and recite one another's poems. 
They can then give each other feedback on what seemed right or unsuccessful in both the director's memo 
and in the performances. 



POETRY 



['i'l U' l']' ) 

33 



Lesson Plan: The Tone Map 

continued 



THE TONE LIST 

Here is a list of tones that students may find in poems. It is not comprehensive, and students should be 
encouraged to add to it as needed: as the teacher, you should also feel free to trim it to suit your students and 
class level. Keep in mind that the longer the list is. the more nuanced and powerful your students" emotional 
vocabularv will be. 



TERMS FOR TONES 








abashed 


awe-struck 


cold 


disparaging 


abrasive 


bantering 


complimentary 


disrespectful 


abusive 


begrudging 


condescending 


distracted 


acquiescent 


bemused 


confident 


doubtful 


accepting 


benevolent 


confused 


dramatic 


acerbic 


biting 


coy 


dreamy 


admiring 


bitter 


contemptuous 


dry 


adoring 


blithe 


conversational 


ecstatic 


affectionate 


boastful 


critical 


entranced 


aghast 


bored 


curt 


enthusiastic 


allusive 


brisk 


cutting 


eulogistic 


amused 


bristling 


cynical 


exhilarated 


angry 


brusque 


defamatorv 


exultant 


anxious 


calm 


denunciatory 


facetious 


apologetic 


candid 


desp airing 


fanciful 


apprehensive 


caressing 


detached 


fearful 


approving 


caustic 


devil-may-care 


flippant 


arch 


cavalier 


didactic 


fond 


ardent 


childish 


disbelievuag 


forceful 


argumentative 


child-like 


discouraged 


frightened 


audacious 


clipped 


disdainfiil 


frivolous 



POETRY 



34 



ghoulish 


loving 


reverent 


strident 


giddy 


marveling 


rueful 


stunned 


gleeful 


melancholy 


sad 


subdued 


glum 


mistrustful 


sarcastic 


swaggering 


grim 


mocking 


sardonic 


sweet 


guarded 


mysterious 


satirical 


sympathetic 


guilty 


naive 


satisfied 


taunting 


happy 


neutral 


seductive 


tense 


harsh 


nostalgic 


self-critical 


thoughtful 


haughty 


objective 


self-dramatizing 


threatening 


heavy-hearted 


peaceful 


self-justifying 


tired 


hollow 


pessimistic 


self-mocking 


touchy 


horrified 


pitiful 


self-pitying 


trenchant 


humorous 


playful 


self-satisfied 


uncertain 


hypercritical 


poignant 


sentimental 


understated 


indifferent 


pragmatic 


serious 


upset 


indignant 


proud 


severe 


urgent 


indulgent 


provocative 


sharp 


vexed 


ironic 


questioning 


shocked 


vibrant 


irreverent 


rallying 


silly 


wary 


joking 


reflective 


sly 


whimsical 


joyful 


reminiscing 


smug 


withering 


languorous 


reproachful 


solemn 


wry 


languid 


resigned 


somber 


zealous 


laudatory 


respectful 


stem 




light-hearted 


restrained 


straightforward 




lingering 


reticent 


stentorian 





frfliiifl 



I.n|""l'.'-'|IW IM |.':"MMJ 

35 



NCTE English Language Arts Standards 



New Mexico 

2006 State Champion 

Fantasia Lonjose 



— 
8 



P 



Poetry Out Loud fulfills the following NCTE Standards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 1 1, 12. 
Teachers who make use of the optional writing activities and lesson plans found 
here and at www.poetryoudoud.org will also satisfy Standard #5. 



Students read a wide range of print 
and non-print texts to build an 
understanding of texts, of themselves, 
and of the cultures of the United States 
and the world; to acquire new 
information; to respond to the needs 
and demands of society and the 
workplace; and for personal 
fulfillment. Among these texts are 
fiction and nonfiction, classic and 
contemporary works. 

Students read a wide range of literature 
from many periods in many genres to 
build an understanding of the many 
dimensions (e.g., philosophical, 
ethical, aesthetic) of human 
experience. 

Students apply a wide range of 
strategies to comprehend, interpret, 
evaluate, and appreciate texts. They 
draw on their prior experience, their 
interactions with other readers and 
writers, their knowledge of word 
meaning and of other texts, their word 
identification strategies, and their 
understanding of textual features (e.g., 
sound-letter correspondence, sentence 
structure, context, graphics). 

Students adjust their use of spoken, 
written, and visual language (e.g., 
conventions, style, vocabulary) to 
communicate effectively with a variety 
of audiences and for different 
purposes. 

Students employ a wide range of 
strategies as they write and use 
different writing process elements 
appropriately to communicate with 
different audiences for a variety of 
purposes. 



6. Students apply knowledge of language 
structure, language conventions (e.g., 
spelling and punctuation), media 
techniques, figurative language, and 
genre to create, critique, and discuss 
print and non-print texts. 

7. Students conduct research on issues 
and interests by generating ideas and 
questions, and by posing problems. 
They gather, evaluate, and synthesize 
data from a variety of sources (e.g., 
print and non-print texts, artifacts, 
people) to communicate their 
discoveries in ways that suit their 
purpose and audience. 

8. Students use a variety of technological 

and information resources (e.g., 
libraries, databases, computer 
networks, video) to gather and 
synthesize information and to create 
and communicate knowledge. 

9. Students develop an understanding of 

and respect for diversity in language 
use, patterns, and dialects across 
cultures, ethnic groups, geographic 
regions, and social roles. 

1 0. Students whose first language is not 
English make use of their first language 
to develop competency in the English 
language arts and to develop 
understanding of content across the 
curriculum. 

1 1 . Students participate as knowledgeable, 
reflective, creative, and critical 
members of a variety of literacy 
communities. 

1 2. Students use spoken, written, and 
visual language to accomplish their 
own purposes (e.g., for learning, 
enjoyment, persuasion, and the 
exchange of information). 



Poet Donald Hall 



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Oregon 

2006 State Champion 

Michael Santiago 



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Poet 
Gwendolyn Brooks 



New York 

2006 State Champion 

Danielle Lehman 



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36 



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Poet Robinson Jeffers 






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Nebraska 

2006 State Champion 

Shuqiao Song 



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Poet Alice Fulton 



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Florida 

2006 State Champion 

Craig Williams 



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Poet Countee Cullen 



Iowa 

2006 State Champion 

Ashley Baccam 




A Great Nation Deserves Great Art. 



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www.poetryoutloud. org