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SOMK fmm— Of»INION«* 

*Aa Aricwright oo iIm Poiiic«r lOBiids u good u a WMtiwood oo 
odidoiis oTWaltOR or a Hawker oa tko Gnat awl, indood. Mr. Aikwrickt 
famem with looMChiaff oT Um Utcruy tarta oT Wortwood tka hard^^tvoo know* 
Mgeofallairkar.'^Satarday Roviaw. • 

* As a Bunofnph oo a varioiy of Dog Um work it oidQiM, and Cbc oon* 
pIctaneM and axlont of dia Aotbor't raieardMt diiana critfciau' 

The Fiald. 

* Mr. Aricwright Mens tar jaart to haira davolid a labour of lore to its 
oompQiftioo . . . • and be bas traced in a very pleasant fiuUon tba biitory 
not only of the particialar kiad of dog, bat of the sport with wbicb it bas 
been asMciated/— Morning Poat. 

* Mr. William Ackwight is an entfawiast, otherwise It wooU have been 
intpoisihle Cor him to write this book abost tba Pointer and its ancestors. 
.... It is a thoRMgh work well worthy of Che nfaie years tba aatbor has 
spent upon it.'— Tha Tlraaa. 

* The chaplBES oo shows and woriong trials, on alien croiBes, on bnaUflf, 
and kennel managsment, are eahaastive and piactical.' 

Connty Oontlaman* 

' Mr* Arltavight s book • • • wHl be asenu not only to pointer breeders, 
bat to every gon^un and creiy lover of a g«a-dog of any sort.' 

Land and Wator. 

' He hss fbUowad the proper hbtoric method, first testing, and genendly 
r^ecting, traditional stones about the origin of pointers, and then aocnmn* 
latmg a qnaatity of fi«ih material at first hand.'---8pectator. 

* Mr. William Arkwright has added a dassic to the books oo sport in 
Us r*g P0tmi»r and kit Prtd$c§$$9rt .... Mr. Arkwright's chapter on 
shooting over pointers does even this difficult subject justice? 

C. J. Comlah (in Country Ufa). 

'Cesc, sans oootredit, la plus remarquable oeuvre d'art vonte k la 
descripcioa d'una seole race de chiens.' 

Henry 8odankarap (in Chaaac el Pecha). 

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From an etching of an oil painting, both by Tillc- 
mans (born 1684, died ^734)- The original, a large 
picture, is a portrait of the Duke of Kingston among 
his pointers, with a view of his home, Thoresby, in the 
background. It is dated 1725 (Redgrave's Z)/V//<?»tfry 
of Painters). 

The colouring of the picture is very beautiful ; and 
all the pointers are liver-and-whites of a uniform type^ 
the type of the royal pointing-dogs of France, from 
which I have shown elsewhere that the Duke, being so 
much at the French Court, had every opportunity of 
deriving them. This is, as fiar as I know, the earliest 
picture of pointers in England, and .in date is probably 
intermediate between the two examples from the Louvre 
(Plates v., VI.). 

In the Possesfion of Earl Mattvers, Thoresby Park. 



An Illustrated History of the 

Pointing Dog from the 

Earliest Times 







? a 






'Hnk par capiendi quaerendique rador, (ummnsque 
et idem gndtrimuf labor invenire.' 

PMtgjriegs TraJ4U» dittus, ucxxi. 




C INCE the publication of The Pointer and his Pre-- 
^ decessors in its original form, a demand appears 
to have arisen for a cheaper, more portable edition, 
which shall be suitable for everyday use. 

To meet tlus demand the present volume has been 
designed, to synchronise if possible with a similar edition 
in French. It has been carefully revised throughout 
and a few additions have been made chiefly to the 
chapter on kennel management : otherwise it remains 
unaltered. The general arrangement is identical, with 
the exception that the descriptions of the illustrations, 
formerly in a separate chapter, have been distributed, 
so that each may be opposite the picture of which it 
treats ; and the forty original plates have been reduced 
to twenty-two of the most apposite in order to make 
the book as compact as possible. After consideration, 
the chapter that deals with Shows and Working Trials 
has beoi left untouched because since 1901, 3ie year 
when it was written, there has been no appreciable 
change in the policy of the various canine Soaeties. 

One fresh subject alone seems to me to require con* 
sideration. The late Mr. G. J. Cornish, in the course 
of a most thoughtful criticism of this book for * Country 
Life,' remarked, * There is only one bed-rock subject 
whidi Mr. Arkwright does not discuss, and that is the 
history of the growth and transmission of the ^ or 
habit of pointing.' This omission not having been due 
to any cloudiness in my own mind as to the derivation 
of the phenomenon, I am now presenting my view of the 
subject without dunung for it any special originality. 



The pointing habit is an artificial prolongation of the 
insdnctive pause of a carnivorous anrnial on first becom- 
ing aware of the proximity of prey — a pause for the 
purpose of devising a stratagem. Indeed it is a quality 
so readily intensifi^ by selection that in specialised breeds 
of dogs there is constant danger of its exaggeration, 
evidenced in false-pointing and in unwillingness to road 
up the game, both of which habits may be reckoned 
among the mortal sins for a gundog. 

To show that pointing is a trick easily taught there 
is the well-known case of the New Forest pig, which 
was taught ' to find and point partridges within a fort- 
night ;' and, without descending so far as the fium-yard, 
I myself once broke a fox-terrier to stand partridges 
perfectly, after she had been accustomed to run them up. 

The unflagging range of the Pointer where there 
may be no game, his statuesque attitude when on point, 
the presentation of his nostrils to the wind while 
galloping across it — all these seem to me to separate 
him from other d(^ far more widely than the actual 
pointing, because they are qualities impossible to teach, 
the developments of centuries of careful breeding. 



A BOUT nine years ago I said in my haste, * I will 
-^^^ write a complete record of the Pointer/ Ever 
nnce I have been hunting up the materials at home 
and abroad, and to aid the pursuit I have been obliged 
to learn from its commencement the language of one of 
the countries involved in my research. 

I do not make mention of these labours in a 
grumbling spirit, but simply to prove that I have 
worked l^d at the historical part of my subject ; and, 
partly to substantiate my claim, partly to help others 
bent on kindred studies, I have added, in an appendix, 
a complete list of all the books that I have consulted. 
In this list I cannot, of course, guarantee that, despite 
diligent endeavour, my dates are in all cases those <^ 
the first editions ; but I have myself verified all my 
references and have made all the translations except the 
German ones, which are the work of my friend, Miss 
L. Smythe, a lady in whose accuracy I have every 
confidence. I believe these selections to be undistorted 
by any bias, and not plucked unduly from their con- 
texts; while in the renderings of forden passages, 
fidelity rather than el^ance has been aimed at. It was 
my wish to place the original texts in an appendix, but 
I have been dissuaded on the ground of cumbrousness. 

I trust that my rdterated mtroduction of dates and 
names of reference will not irritate the hyper-sensitive 
reader ; but I myself have sufiFered so grievously by 
the absence of such details f]x>m the pages of others, 
that I resolved at any risk to be guiltless of similar sins 
of omis^on. 

I fear that the matters treated of in my chapters are 
not all so clearly separated as may be wished, and that 



they often invade each other's territory, in consequence 
of the quoted passages with which this book abounds. 
For whenever I have been able to find my opinion 
antidpated by an old-time author, I have given it in 
his words in preference to my own : this method cer* 
tainly entails extra work, and possibly some self-denial, 
but on the other hand it authoritatively settles all 
contentious subjects. 

I have excluded, as far as pos^ble, comparisons 
between pointer and setter, because there is a great 
conflict of opinion about their relative merits, and 
because, though personally I prefer the former, I have 
nothing but admiration for excellence in a setter, and, 
indeed, in all the other gundogs. 

My fitness for writing the practical part of tlus 
book m^nly depends on my having been reared literally 
from earliest infancy among pure pointers, though 
afterwards I experimented, on my own account, with 
the houndy ones. For my father, dying when I was 
but a few weeks old, left instructions that his pointers 
were to be preserved for me, instructing Charles Ecob 
his favourite keeper, to look after my sporting educa- 
tion. His wishes were carried out to the letter, and no 
child could have had a kinder or more competent tutor. 
We commenced our studies before my third birthday ; 
and it is owing to those early years of training that I 
have a working experience of kennel-management. 

In conclusion, let me express my gratitude for the 
help given me by many kind persons, among whom I 
must spedally mention Madame Riano, Miss L. Smythe, 
Senor Alvarez, M. Bouchot, M. de Chennevieres, Mr. 
Charles Cockburn, Mr. Sidney Colvin, Mr. J. B. Muir, 
and Senor Vignau. 

I must also cordially thank Mr. Craig Annan, who 
has executed the photc^ravures that so embellish this 
volume, for his patient, discerning assistance. 
















L— From an Etching after Tillbmans FrwHs^$ 
II. — From a Pbncil-skbtch by Pisanbllo Tifaa Pogi i 

III. — From a Painting by Titian 
IV. — From a Painting by Vblazqubz 
V. — From a Painting by Dbsportes 
VI. — From a Painting by Oudry 
VII. — From a Painting by Wootton . 
VIII. — From an Engraving after Stubbs 
I}^^From an Engraving after Gilpin 
X. — Prom an Engraving after Rbinagle 
XI. — From a Painting by Jackson 
XII. — From a Painting by Nbwton . 
XIII. — From an Engraving after Lbwis 
XIV. — From an Engraving aftbr Laporte 
XV. — From a Painting by Alkbn 
XVI.— From a Painting by Shaybr. . 
XVII. — From a Painting by G. Earl . 
XVIII. — From a Painting by G. Earl . 
XIX. — From a Painting by G. Earl . 
XX.— From a Painting by M. Earl . 
XXL— From a Painting by G. Earl 
XXII. — From a Painting by M. Earl . 




















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I V. 

I^LATE ti. 

Prom a pencil sketch, of the Veronese School, ty 
Vittore Pisano, called Pisanello (bom 1380, died 
1446). It is of the head of a pointing-dog, whose eye, 
nostril, and curl of lip have been touched in with {Hg- 
ment. The model was evidently of high quality, 
though an unfortunate blur on the muzzle rather 
detracts from its shapeliness : observe, however, the 
beautiful profile of the skull. The dog was evidently 
light-coloured, as the nostril is flesh-coloured and the 
eye orange. 

The original sketch is so faint and rubbed that, 
although indications of lines appeared on the negative 
that are to the naked eye invisible on the drawing, I 
was obliged to have some of them slightly emphasized 
for the sake of a satisfactory reproduction. 

In the Receuil f^aHardi^ Museum of the Louvre^ 



TT is necessary to know something about the pointing 
-■- and setting-dogs of antiquity — how, when, and 
where they arose — before attempting to solve the 
origin of the English pointer. The subject is some- 
what complex, embracing, as it does, not only the Laws 
that dealt with these dogs and the weapons with which 
they were associated, but also the esteem in which they 
were held during the centuries : there is, moreover, at 
the very outset a certain amount of rubbish to be 
cleared out of their history. 

Law Court proof for my theories will not be 
always av^able, but in most cases there will be some- 
thing a great d^ more tangible than mere i>robability. 
I a& my readers to set out with the feelings of an 
Alpine party— earnest, patient, and equipped with a 
coil of sympathetic imagination to keep us in touch. 
There will be both Statement and Silence — opposites, 
but almost equally luminous — ^to irradiate our passage 
through the mists of antiquity ; with Etymology as a 
torch-light, when the others are obscured. 

In the absence of any proof to the contrary, it 
may be assiuned that the pointing and setting dogs 
originated in Europe ; as, though the Bible has a 
reference to 'hunting a partridge in the mountains' 

I B 


(i Samuel xxvi. 20), and though to the Western 
mind this may seem rather difficult of accomplishment 
without a dog, the contempt of the Asiatic for this 
animal could scarcely have been maintained had they 
ever been associated in the fellowship of sport. It is 
noteworthy that in the whole Bible there is not a single 
mention of a dog used for hunting ; which certainly 
tends to confirm the view of John P. Robinson that 
* they didn't know everythin' down in Judee.' Egypt 
appears to have left no foreshadowings of a pointing- 
dog in her records, and the treatise on Venery by Sid 
Mohammed el Mangali (the tenth century), translated 
by M. Pharaon (1880), is taken up with hunting 
and hawking, without even a prophetic hint of 
the * partridge-dog ' — though this author's range is 
so wide as to embrace both ants and elephants ! M. 
Pharaon intimates that this treatise is a standard one 
in Algeria ; and its methods still prevail in Upper 

As Europe, then, seemed to be the continent 
where this dog might be said to be indigenous, to its 
literature did I turn in search of the signs of his birth. 
In the first place, I thoroughly ransacked the classical 
writers on sport, both Latin and Greek ; but these 
writers (see list in the Appendix) told me nothing, 
absolutely nothing about the sport of hunting part- 
ridges or quails with dogs. So when after many a 
futile quest, one day I came across the following 
passage in a modern Spanish book, I was naturally 
somewhat excited by it : — * Alreadv in far antiquity, 
treating of this subject Pliny and Sallust, Romans, 
state tlmt their compatriots had taken from Spain, and 
introduced into France and Italy, the dogs odled 
*^aviarii/' mentioned in the following passage of their 
works : — " When the sagacious animal approaches the 
quail or other sluggish bird, he appears to fiiscinate it 



by his flashing glance ; meanwhile the fowler, now 
with a kind of cage, now by spreading a net over, gets 
possession of his prize"' {Paginas de Caza^ p. 15, by 
*Evero/ i888), 

I wrote at once to the author, who published under 
such an inspiriting pseudonym, to ask for ^ chapter and 
verse' of this remarkable excerpt. His reply was 
indefinite : he had lost the reference, though he assured 
me on his honour that his quotation was genuine. I 
then searched through the works of the two Plinys 
and Sallust — but in vain. Sallust was a historian of 
wars and conspiracies, and I could not find even the 
word dog in his writings ! The elder Pliny in the 
eighth book of his natural history gives a bare mention 
of hounds, but not a sign of a dog for tdkins birds : 
the younger Pliny is still more barren of canine 
lore. Finally, in the Lexicon jEgidii Forcellini^ that 
wonderful concordance of the Latin classics, there is no 
mention of a dog having been ever termed ^ an)iarius^ 
So I dismissed this incident, with the conviction that 
no mention of pointing or setting-d(^ had been made 
by the Ancients, either Greek or Roman. I, therefore^ 
left behind the classical times (which, for my purpose, 
extended to the end of the fourth century), to glance at 
the Origines (early seventh century) of St. Isidore, 
Bishop of Seville — ^in them, however, finding d(^s only 
as guards and for hunting. I read also Geoponica, com- 
piled in the tenth century by Emperor Constantine IV., 
but here again was I disappointed of anything to do 
with my subject — ^the dc^ mentioned were solely to 
protect the flocks ; and partridges were to be taken by 
the administration of barley-m^ macerated in wine, or 
by wine and water as a drink (xiv. 21). 

Thus working by the process of exhaustion, I 
decided that the pointing-dog must be a product of 
the Middle Ages, when owing to the spread of 



agriculture partridges had become comparatively nume- 
rous ; so towards die literature I next turned my atten- 
tion. At this point a statement concerning the htx 
SiUica^ in a German book, seemed of the highest promise, 
as this law of the Saltan Franks is computed by Grimm 
to date in written form from the fifth century. 

' From earliest history, dog% were used tor catching 
game. According to the laws the following dogs were 
distinguished: blood- hounds (leithunde), boarhounds 
(batzbunde), and partridge-dogs (bUnerhunde). The 
last referred to as agutarito and bUnerbund in Lex 
Salica, and as spuribunt in Ltx Boioar. IW {In Forst 
und Jagd-^wesen^ by H. G. Francken, 1754, p. 270). 
' Also in the Bojoarisch laws reference is made to dogs 
for driving (Jreibbunde)^ used for catching game and 
also for duck-shooting ; also dogs with hawks {habuch-^ 
hunt^ i.e., habicht-hund) ; but not before the reign of 
Friedrich I.' {id. page 273). But, alas, Frandcen's 
statements would not bear investigation ! In the Ltx 
Salica, the ten texts with the glosses by J. H. Hessels 
and H. Kern (1880), a synoptic edition of all the texts, 
the law about thefts of dogs (Titulus vi.) which is 
the only one relating to them, contdns in Codices 6 
and 5 the words *canem aciaarium^* and Gxlices 7, 
8, and 9 vary the word to ^agutaris^ while Codex 10 
has * agutarito.' None of them, however, gives any 
description of the dog, until the Lex Emendata 
(dating from Charlemagne) promulgates the same law 
as the other Codices, but with such an important addi- 
tion that I will quote it: ' Si quis vera canem seusium 
reliquum^ out veltrem porcarium sive vtttrem Uporarium^ 
qui et agutarius dicitur^ furatus fueritvel ccciderit, &c. 
('But itfrom henceforward any one shall have stolen 
or killed a Segusian hound or a boar-hound or a hare- 
hound, which is also called agutarius j' &c.) Thus the 
only explanation in Z^x Salica of the term effectually 



(Usposes of Herr Francken's theory that ^agutarito 
meant game-bird dog {hiinerhundy The only excuse 
for such an error must lie in his having misread the 
glossarium of Lindebrc^ of the seventeenth century, 
whOj although he wrote about the argutarius ' this is 
a hu«-hound * {yeltris lepwarius), quotes a line about 
hounds from the poet Gratius, ^ which may push up 
{ciat) the hidden game and point it out by signs (signis 
arguat) ! ' This, if Francken had not read the Codices 
fx himself, might cause him to think that Lindebrog's 

* argutarito * was derived from arguere (to point out) 
instead of having its origin in acutus (clever). As 
r^ards the ^spurihunt^' which this author translates 
also by *hunerhundy I need only cite, to prove his 
absurdity. Lex Baiwariorum, Titulus xix.^ Leg. Hi.: 

* Si auiem seucem qui in ligamine vestigium tenet, quern 
spurihunt dicunt, furaverit^ &c. (' But if any one 
have stolen the hound that is held in a leash, which 
they call trail-hound,' &c.) 

But if ' Evero ' were led astray by carelessness and 
Francken by credulity, their sins pale before the con- 
duct of the last of those authors whose misdeeds I am 
forced to expose. One M. Casdllon (d'Aspet), in 1874, 
published a tiny pamphlet with the magniloquent title 
of Los Paramientos de la Caza, ou Riglements sur la 
Chasse en general par Don Sancbo le Sage, roi de Navarre, 
publies en fannee 1 180. I had heard of this translation 
as an important document, and not being able to find it 
in England, I had to go to Paris after it. In the dedi- 
cation it was picturesquely stated to have been ' buried 
in the provincial archives of Pamplona since the end 
of the twelfth century/ and again ' copied from the 
original and translated into French, thus, by my exer- 
tions, will it have been published for the first time.' 
On reading it I was delighted at finding a mention, 
though only an inddental one, of the pointing-dog 



(p. 48, chap. iii.). This occurred in a protest against 
coupling together such uncongenial mates as a ^favar- 
rese dog and a harbourer, or a hound and a pointing-^ 
dogf on starting for a day's sport. I was, however, so 

!>uzzled as to the word in old Spanish that the trans- 
ator could render by cAien d'arrit, which is very 
modem French, that I resolved to see for myself the 
original MS. at Pamplona. But before I left France 
a friend of mine wrote to the Mayor of Aspet for 
information of M. Castillon's whereabouts, and learned 
in reply that our author had disappeared from there 
many years before. When I, still unsuspicious of 
fraud, arrived at Madrid, and b^ged some very kind 
and influential fi-iends to get me permission to explore 
the archives at Pamplona, they themselves preferred to 
make preliminary inquiries from the official custodians 
of the library there. The result of these was a long 
letter written by one of these gentlemen ; extracts from 
which, sufficient to show tlmt the Paramientos are 
nothing but clever fakes, I here reproduce. 

* Sr. Gutierrez de la Vega, if I remember his name 
correctly, who had edited certain ancient books on the 
chase, spoke to me of Los Paramientos^ and when I 
returned to Pamplona I searched the archives with the 
greatest care. My dear friend, Don Juan Iturralde y 
Suit, Vice-President of the Commission of the Monu- 
ments of Navarre, also interested himself in the search. 
Los Paramientos^ according to M. Gistillon, formed 
part of a copy of the Fuero General. We pressed him 
with questions in order to verify the references after 
ascertaining that no known copy of the Fuero contained 
the said Paramientos. At first he returned a few 
evasive answers, but in the end took refuge in absolute 
silence. If I remember rightly, in speaking of the 
hunter's dress, '^coinas^* are mentioned. These were 
not used in Navarre until the b^inning of last century^ 



and their use became popular during the first Civil 
War. Until then the Navarrese wore ^^ monteras** 
*^zorongos^' Arragonese hats, &c., according to the 
various parts of the kingdom. The ^Uoina^' is of 
Beamese origin, and pa^ed from Beam to Lower 
Navarre, and from thence its use spread to Higher 
Navarre. I know a bas-relief of Roncal, the sixteenth 
century sculptures of which have a kind of " coina " on 
the heady but if they are really such they represent a 
local fashion. To speak of them in the time of King 
Sancho the Wise is absiu-d. The suspicious details of 
the ParamientoSy the silence of M. Castillon, and the 
n^ative results of the search among the archives of the 
province of Navarre, are sufficient to allow of the 
assertion being made, without rashness, that the Paror- 
mientos are spurious * (Eictracts fi-om letter of Arturo 
Campion, January 17th, 1901). 

Having cleared away all this rubbish, I first secured 
a firm footing in the thirteenth century on the almost 
synchronous references to partridge-dogs made by two 
authors of ctifFerent nationality. 

One of these is Brunetto Latini, an Italian and the 
master of Dante, who, during his exile in France 
(fi-om 1260 to 1267), wrote Li livres dou Tresor. 
Among its descriptions of dogs, this encyclopaedic 
book contains the following passage : — ' Others are 
brachs (bracket) with fidling ears, which know of beasts 
and birds (des testes et des oisiaus) by the scent, there- 
fore they are useful for sporting (ions i la chace) ' 
(chap, clxxxxvi.y part i., liv. i.). 

The other is Albertus Magnus (i 193-1280), 
Bishop of Ratisbon in Germany, who in De Anifna- 
libus has this interesting account, which is probably 
the earliest ever written. 

* The dogs, however, that are used for birds seem 
to have these [powers] more from training than firom 



sense of smell, though they derive them from both. 
They are taught in this manner : they are first led 
round some caught partridges pretty often, and at 
length by threats learn to go round and round them ; 
but they get to find the partridge by scent, and thus at 
the b^mning they set {ptmunt) pretty often at the indi- 
cations of the captive birds' (book xxii., p. 175). 

As we shall see further on the Itadian writer was 
soon supported by Dante and by the pictures of 
eminent masters. But the German account is isolated, 
so we must not infer from it that Germany possessed 
these dogs at that period, especially as Albertus was 
educated at Padua, and lived for many years after in 
Italy — in the heart of the pointing- dog district. 
While on the other hand Das Buck der Natur^ a 
fourteenth century book by R. A. von Meyenburg, the 
earliest German authority on dogs, does not record 
their being used for sport, but only for guarding ; it is 
three centuries later oefore we find the Germans em- 
ploying foreign dogs for small game. 'Spanish dogs, 
zealous for their masters and of commendable sagacity, 
are chiefly used for finding partridges and hares. In 
the quest of bigger game they are not so much 
approved of, as they for the most part range widely, 
nor do they keep as near as genuine hunting-dogs' 
{Rii Rustics Libri ^atuor^ by Conrad Heresbach, 

1570, p.. 353): 

But if as is possible the smooth-haired brach, or 
pointing^c^, originated in Italy, the unanimity of the 
nations in procuring long-haired spaniels, or setting- 
dogs, from Spain seems to fix their birthplace with 
some certainty. Gaston Phebus, the famous Comte 
de Foix, who himself owned ' from 1500 to 1600 dogs, 
brought from all the countries of Europe' {La Chasse^ 
p. 368, by M. L. Cimber, 1837), bears witness in 1387 
to their introduction into France. 



Krom a painting, of the Venetian School, by Titian 
(bwn *477j died 157^.-- H«fe are rtprcactrtcd two 
dogs of pointer character. The standing dog is liver- 
roan in colour, with touches of tan about his face and 
feet ; the one lying down is orange and white, with a 
black nose. The colouring of the whole picture is 
brilliant, but the lifted leg of one dog seems somewhat 
out of drawing. 

This picture was engraved in 1792 by George 
Townly Stubbs, with the following dedication : * The 
original picture, now in the possession of the Duke of 
Bedford, was brought to England by Wm. Beckford, 
Esq., to whom this print is dedicated by his most 
humble servant, G. T. S.' This is of interest ; as it 
not only ^ows that Mr. Beckford parted with the 
picture in his lifetime, but it also establishes its identity 
with the * drawing ' described by Sydenham Edwards in 
his article on The Pointer : — 

* In the possession of the late Mr. Beckford was a beautiful 
drawing, after Titian, of two pointers, which according to 
Mr. Beckford, were the same as those used in France : narrow 
head, fine muzzle, and light limbs, are very staunch and fleet ; 
but frona Scotland, where the French dog is not at all un- 
common, I am assured he is a perfect model of the Spanish, 
only smadler and firmer in his make ' {Cynographia Britannicay 

Mr. Fairfax Murray has lately called into question 
the authorship of this picture, and calls it * certainly an 
early example of Jacopo Bassano, the Elder.' It may 
not be by Titian, but I feel convinced it is not by 
Bassano, of whose paintings I have made a special study ; 
I, therefore, shall follow Mr. Beckfcx'd and shall leave 
it as a Titian. 

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. .fiBii^iT B «B 11 


* There is a kind of dog that is called falcon-dog 
(chUn ifoisfl), or spaniel {espaignolz) because it comes 
from Spain, however many there may be of them in 
other countries. And these dogs have many good 

Sualities, and bad ones also. A handsome falcon-d(^ 
[lould have a massive head, and large well-made body, 
his coat being white or cinnamon colour {canele), 
because these are the most beautiful and of this colour 
there are many excellent; they should not be too 
hairy, and the end of the tail should be tufted (espiee). 
The good qualities of these dogs are that they are very 
faithful to their masters, and follow them anywhere 
without bdng lost. They go also in front of birds 
willingly, ranging and making play with their tails, 
and find all birds and all beasts, but their proper 
business is at the partridge and the quail. For the 
man who has a good goshawk or falcon, lanner or 
tassel-hawk, and a good sparrow-hawk, they are very 
useful, and also when one teaches them to set their 
gsime they are good for taking partridges and quail 
with the net ; they are also good, when oroken to the 
river, for a bird that is diving. . • . And as one talks 
of a greyhound of Britsun, the boarhounds and bird- 
dogs come from Spsun' {Des Deduiz de la Chasse^ 
chap. XX.). 

In 1 551, Pierre de Quinqueran de Beaujeu (Bishop 
of Senes), writing of * setting-dogs,' says : * Spain has in 
common with us another kind of 6og of middle size 
that the other countries have no idea of (La nouvflU 
Agriculture^ cap. xvi., p. 242); and, in the British 
Museum, an Italian early fourteenth century MS. of 
book V. of the * decretals ' of Gr^ory IX. contains an 
illimimation representing a spaniel pointing at a hare. 

After all these proora of the estimation in which the 
Spanish setting-d(^s were formerly held, I turned to 
Spsun itself, confi^nt of finding there records of the 



spaniel at least coeval with the Deduiz de la Chasse. 
But, alas! the early Spaniards must have been a 
leisurely race, and their sportsmen not addicted to pen 
or pencil, unless there be inaccessible MSS. mouldering 
in the recesses of old-world libraries ; for until the 
fifteenth century all is silence, and the only picture I 
can find of a long-4uured setting-d(^ is in the Madrid 
Gallery. It is by Ribera ^1583-1656), and represents 
a most typical dog certainly, but — engaged in carrying 
a piece of^ bread to San Roque. 

Now, to revert to the account of Phebus in 
which there are several points of high importance! 
It definitely decides the derivation of the name 
^espaignolzy whence spring the modern French word 
^epagneul' and the Engli^ word 'spaniel/ It estab- 
lishes the identity in blood of the falcon-dog and the 
setting-dog, for the falcon was styled ' the bird ' by the 
old writers in all languages. It also shows that this 
falcon-dog from Spain, with his tufted tail and his 
moderate feather, was a long-coated dog. Espee de 
Selincourt (1683), who makes early use of the generic 
title gundogs {chiens de Varquehu5e\ sharply divides 
the spaniels from the braques^ though both varieties 
were evidently being imported then mto France from 
Spain, by defining setting-dogs (chiens couchans) as 
* braques that stop at the scent {arretent tout) and nunt 
with the nose high; the best are from Sjmin. The 
spaniels (espagnols) are for the falcons (cyseaux)^ hunting 
with the nose low and following by the track ' {TabU 
des Chasses). 

Having ascertained that the spaniels passed from 
Spain to France, and having seen them established 
there, I shall further trace them to England before 
attempting the pedigree of the short-haired pointing- 
dog or brach. 

Etymology inclines me to believe that England got 



her spaniels through France, and not from Spain direct; 
for it would certainly be a strange coincidence if two 
nations were independently to invent names so similar : 
1)esides, dogs in those days could have been imported 
with much more ease from France than from Spain. I 
have found but one pronouncement in favour of the 
Spain-direct theory, which is that of *A Quarto- 
genarian ' in the Sporting Magazine (2nd sen, vol. v., 
1832): — ^'Vespasian introduced dogs (probably spaniels) 
from Spsun into this island to help hawking.' I have 
in vain tried to find any reference to this in the 
histories of Tacitus and the biography of Suetonius. 
So, as there is no evidence that Vespasian ever visited 
Spain, as the elder Pliny who published his Natural 
History during this reign never alludes to Spanish 
dogs, and as British hawking would have been de- 
cidedly rudimentary in the first century, I think that 
this Vespasian idea may be pitched on to the rubbish 
heap with the other exposed fallacies. 

There is another explanation, however, of this 
hallucination about Vespasian, which may very well 
be the true one. The Cotton collection of manuscripts 
was acquired by the British Museum in 1757, and the 
library in which it had lain, at Dean*s Yard, chanced to 
have its book-cases surmounted by busts of the Roman 
Emperors. During the removal of the collection, each 
section was for convenience catalogued after the august 
head under which it happened to repose. These nick- 
names were left unaltered at the M useiun, and now to 
demand Nero D. 10, or Galba A. 6, is a matter of 
course. There is one of these Cottonian MSS., without 
any title readily visible, which contains a mention of 
spaniels, and as it happens to be labelled ' Vespasianus 
B. 12,' a superficial reader might have mistaken the 
press-mark for the author's name. 

And oddly enough, this identical MS., which in- 



dudes two separate treatises of different date though 
copied by the same hand, has also caused Blsune, another 
of the casuals, in his Encyclopedia of Rural Sports (1839) 
to make a mistake, which, if less absurd than the other, 
is infinitely more misleading. 

He makes Twety and Gifiarde, * who were wythe 
Edward the secunde,' to be the authors of the entire 
volume, quotes their supposed remarks on spaniels, and 
thus antedates the mention of this dog by about eighty 
years ; whereas, in reality, they are only responsible for 
the first nine pages, which are devoted entirely to big 
game, while the rest, including the index and the 
passage on ^ Saynolfes ' (so misspelt), is simply an early 
transcription of de Langley's Majster of the Game. 

But there are many other arguments, besides the 
etymolc^ical clues, to induce the adoption of the 
through-France alternative. The first mention of a 
spaniel in English occurs in the Mayster of the Game^ 
by Edmund de Langley, Duke of York (1341-1402), 
or according to modern authorities by Edward — his 
son — who fell at i^tncourt, 141 5; and the author 
frankly enough acknowledges his indebtedness to 'the 
Erl of Foix Phebus in his booke/ Indeed, so far as 
his whole description of * spanyels ' is concerned, it is 
nothing more than a word-for-word rendering of the 
Deduiz de la Chasse; so much so that I was glad to 
compare my translation with his to be sure of the 
meaning of certsun difficult words. That the English- 
man copied slavishly, without having seen a spaniel at 
all (let alone a setting spaniel), I feel pretty certain, 
both from the absence of any original matter of his 
own on the subject and from the silence of other suc- 
ceeding English writers ; for even Dame Juliana Bernes, 
in her Mayster of the Game (i486), beyond mentioning 
that there were certain dogs called * spanyels,' leaves the 
subject severely alone, and the very existence of such 



dogs had probably been revealed to her also by the 
perusal of a Maystcr of the Game earlier than her 

The story of Robert Dudley, Duke of Northiunber* 
land, being the first English trainer of a setting-dog, 
has probability on its side; as he lived at the period 
most likely for such an introduction. 'This Robert 
Dudley, born 1504, Duke of Northumberland, was a 
compleat Gent, in all suitable employments, an exact 
seaman, a good navigator, an excellent architect, mathe- 
matician, physician, chymist, and what not, and, above 
all, noted for riding the great horse, for tilting, and for 
his being the first of all that taught a dog to sit in 
order to catch partridges' {jttbena Oxanienses^ p. 127, 
vol. ii., by Anthony a Wood, 1721). Robert Dudley 
was first Earl of Warwick, and was made Duke of 
Northumberland by Edward VI. in 1551 (Humes 
History of England^ p. 280). 

There appears to be a rival claimant in an Earl of 
Surrey, but he has no better case than the generality 
of such. ' We are vaeuely informed that an Earl of 
Surrey was the first who taught the doff to stand at 
game ; but which of these noblemen the writer has 
omitted to state' {The Shooter's Preceptor^ by T. B. 
Johnson, p. 3). 

In 1 55 1 was published a natural lustory, De Diffe^ 
rentiis Animalium^ by an Englishman, Edward Wotton; 
but though he treated fully of dogs of various sorts, he 
did not know of spaniels, setting or otherwise. In fact. 
Dr. John Cdus of Cambridge was the first to describe 
them in his Englische Dogges (1576). He tells of 
their method of working, and among the dogs that 
' serve for fowling ' recounts that < there is also at this 
date among us a new kinde of dc^ge brought out of 
Fraunce, and they bee speckled all over with white and 
black, which mingled colours incline to a marble blewe. 



These are called French dogs, as is above declared 
already' (p. 15). 

Then, later, Louis XIIL sent over to James L some 
setting-dogs as a present. For Chamberlain wrote to 
Carleton (1624): *A French baron, a good falconer, 
has brought him [the King] 16 casts of Hawks from 
the French Kins, with horses and setting dc^s ; he 
made a splendid entry with his train by torch-light, 
and -mil stay till he has instructed some of our people 
in his kind of falconry, though it costs his Majesty 25/. 
or 30/. a day' (State Papers of James I., Domestic 
Series, vol. clviii., p. 149). 

So, as our word spaniel is most probably of French 
origin, and our earliest treatise on setting-spaniels is 
borrowed in its entirety from the French ; as the 
English author, who was the first to give his own ideas 
about them, avows that * marble blewes * [nowadays 
called blue beltons] came from France ; as afterwards all 
recorded importations were from France ; and as there 
is no shadow of proof that any came from elsewhere, it 
seems pretty sure that the setting-spaniels, though origi- 
nating in Spain, were from an early period naturalised 
in France, and conferred on us by the latter country. 

In the preceding pages it has not been my object to 
trace to its remotest limits the history of die falcon- 
dogs, although that task would be an interesting one, 
as before the awakening of their pointing and setting 
instincts they do not concern the present investigation. 

Now to revert to my main theme — the smooth- 
haired pointing-dog. But before I marshal all my 
evidence concerning him, I must remark that as regards 
his pedigree I have come to a conclusion similar to that 
of BufFon, who, in his Quadrupides (1777), has declared 
that the ' braques ' (pointing-dc^) and * chiens courants * 
(hounds) have descended from one and the same stock 

(P- 23). 



The first likeness of a pointing-doe that I have 
found is a pencil sketch of a head (Plate 11.) by an 
Italian, Pisanello (i38o~i456)» which is supported by 
a painting (Plate III.) attributed to Titian (1477-1576), 
and by a picture by Bassano (15 10-1592), at Mackid. 
The scene of this last is l^d in the Garden of Eden ; 
and here in a corner is a bracco staunchly pointing 
partridges, which, painted in all seriousness, shows that 
Bassano (an enthusiastic dog-lover) had never heard of 
a period without its partridge-dogs ! 

Spain as well as Italy gives indications of the 
antiquity of the pointing-dog, as the oldest writers 
advise crosses between him and the hound to improve 
the latter. From a fifteenth century MS. in the British 
Museum : ' I also had another dog, bred from a hound 
and a partridge-bitch {ferdiguera), excellent on the 
leash and in following any kind of deer. He worked 
well in the sun, which I believe he got fi^om the part- 
ridge-bitch, for these work hard in the heat, better than 
other dogs, and have very fine noses, for it takes a fine 
nose to find a partridge, especially in the woods' 
(jTratado de Caza y Otros^ p. 12). 

Again, fi^om a sixteenth century MS. at Madrid : — 

* Silvano. If any time we cannot find very pure- 
bred hounds, with what dc^s can one cross them to 
have a good breed? 

^Montano. From a pure-bred hound Isabueso) and 
a pointing-bitch {perra de muestra), each the purest of 
its race, light in body and wiry, and with a good nose ' 
(Dialogos de Monteriay p. 472). 

From these extracts it is clear that the partridge- 
dc^ of Spain must have been an old-established, se{)a- 
rate breed long before the fifteenth centurv, otherwise 
they could not have implanted in the hounds their own 
definite characteristics. 

A study of those words that were used to de- 



note both hounds and pointing-dogs will now be 

The title of ^braque* (spelt in a dozen different 
ways in French, * bracco * in Italian, * braco ' in Spanish, 
and * brack * in English) is a word of high antiquity, 
used in olden times exclusively for hounds, tlien for 
both hounds and pointing-dogs, and finally, in those 
countries where it has survived, to describe the point* 
ing-dog alone. Much the same tnumtions have also 
been passed through by the terms ' ventar^ * cams sagaxl 
* cams odorus^* &c. 

I find the first occurrence of the word < brach ' in an 
account of a mission from the Normans to William 
Rufus of England, by Robert Wace — a Norman poet of 
the twelfth century. 

* In England was the King who had many Nor- 
mans, many English ; 
He had called for his hounds {brachez) he would 
go hunting in the woods.* 

{Roman de RoUy line 14,908.) 

And again in an English romance-poem of the 
fourteenth century : — 

< Braches bayed therfore, and breme noyse maked.' 
{Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight^ line 1142.) 

I quote these two instances of this term as the 
earliest in French and English respectively ; but later 
it is very frequently found m the romances and works 
on sport of both languages. Shakespeare himself uses 
it several times in its primitive sense, e.g. *the deep 
mouth'd brach' {learning the Shrew j Indue). 

But the Italian * bracco' can call, besides Brunetto 
I^tini, no less a witness than Dante (thirteenth century^, 
and that in a passage of which the context makes it 
most probable that he referred to the pointing bracco — 




From a painting by Velazquez (horn 1599, died 
1660). This picture, charming though it is, does not 
do justice to the parEridge dog, which is too much 
subordinated — besides being choked » like a masher 
nowadays^ by his great white collar. One must be 
thankful, however, that he has not been treated with 
the same scant courtesy as the little greyhound in the 
picture, for early Spanish portraits of pointing-dogs are 
as rare as butterflies in winter, 

A picture by Espinosa {i6cx>i67o) was shown in 
London last winter (1901), It is the property of Mr. 
Ralph Bankes, and is a portrait of Don Alonzo de 
Canamas, a Valencian nobleman, with his right hand 
resting on the head of a sitting Navarrese partridge- 
dog, which is large^ typical, and very dark liver ^and- 
\vhite ; but in his pendant ears and sombre expression 
he shows more of the hound than does the dog of 

Of this Plate 'Evero' gives a capital descriptioji, 
^vhich I append ;— 

*Thc palming is a portrait of the Prince Bahasar, a child 
of six, in the pose and garb of a sponsman ; on his right, lying 
dtiwn in an atcitudp common for !iporting dogs when old, 
reata a fat Navarrese partridge-dog, which, had he been stand- 
ing up, would have dwarfed the principal figure. His car is 
thick^ fallings and not very large i his skull broad and well- 
developed, showing his great intelligence: of his docility one 
can judge by his submissive attitude. Hie colour is like the 
reddiih-ydlow of thi: natural wax, '^ eHarado'' as E^pinar call- 
it, with pure white * {Pag'tnas de (Ja%^, 1888, p* 14;, 

His nostrils are black, and in England we should 
call the c«lour of his body^ orange. 

jL J^ ^he Prado Museum at Madrid. 

.VI 3TAJ4 

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nl nworie 8bw (o\'di-oodi) moniqzSL yd aiuJofq A 
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,noijqm29b iBtrqBO b aavig * oiavH • 3tBl^ eiilj tO 

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.^^i .q e888i ^Mii^ «Vi itkrn^*^) ' sjfifcr aiwq Htiw ^i 
bluoriz tjw bfiBigrt^L ni bite ,3lDBld stB rffijion eiH 

agnrro »^bod wrilb tnol#t) arif Kbd 

Plate 4. 


not to the hound. 'And here you must know that 
every quality characteristic of anything is admirable in 
that thing : for instance, in mankind to be well bearded, 
and in womankind to have the face quite smooth ; in 
the bracco to have a good nose, and in the greyhound 
to run well. As a quality is the more charac- 
teristic, so is it the more admirable ' (* Convito* in 
the Frost di DantCy edited by G. Boccacci, 1723, 
p. 12). 

England alone did not transform either * brach or 
lym ' {King Lear) into partridge-dogs ; because once 
upon a time she lagged somewhat l>ehind in sporting 
matters, and when she was ready for them there were 
the Continental breeds already started for her : thus 
the terms * brach * and * lym ' faded out of the vernacular 
when the use of such old-fashioned hounds became 

Gesner (1516-1587) says of them : *Some use the 
common name of brach {bracchum) to signify the wise 
and scenting dog Uanem sagacem et odorem)^ others in 
other manners, as I have stated above, and shall relate 
further on about the swift dog (cane velociV &oc. {His- 
toria AninuUiumy p. 228). * The kind of clog which in 
most places to-day is called brach {braccbam)^ with long 
ears, blunt fact {crasso ore)^ &c., about which I have 
written above among the wise and also swift (sagaces 
simul ac celeres)^ is useful for putting up birds ' {id. 

Aldrovandi (i 522-1 607) is even more explicit as 
to the confusion caused by this word's general use : — 
* Some call him canis sagaXy canis odorus ; Oppianus 
distinguishes him as canis agaiaus. He is commonly 
called brachuSy as if from brochus, meaning with pro- 
jecting teeth ; because he has a blunt and prominent 
muzzle. These dogs are of many varieties : as some 
are for badgers, others for hares, others for birds, and 

17 c 


for water-fowl; but all are said to be sagiues* (De 
Qjuadrupedihus^ lib. iii., cap. vi., p. 551). 

Giterina Sfbrza (148 1) uses the term ^ bracco da 
astore ' (brach for the falcon), and Sforzino da Carcano 
(1547) writes of * hracco ' in the same sense, in his book 
on Falconry {Cili Uccelli da Rapina). 

Agsun, Biondo remarks * concerning the species of 
the hunting-dog' that * every dog that pursues wild 
animals is called a hunting-dog {venaticus)^ either a 
sagax or an odorus. But the dog is odorus or rather 
odorificus^ that follows the scent of wild aninuds ; on 
the other hand the cants sagax is the quester of them 
and of other animals ' {l)e Canibus^ p. xxvi.). * Hunting 
(venatioS differs from fowling, as the latter is concerned 
vnth birds, and the former with woodland beasts' 
{id. p. XXV.). But in spite of these precise definitions, 
< De Cane Odoro ' heads his chapter on the pointing- 
doe, which is styled throughout by the same title 
{id. p. viii.). 

In Spain even, the nomenclature of the sporting- 
dogs was no clearer, no less confiised, than in the other 
countries. At much the same period wrote Argote de 
Molina (1532), Lope the poet (1562-1635), Juan 
Mateos (1634), and Espinar (1644); and yet how 
differently they define the Venior ! 

* Ventor is the name of the hound of the leash, for 
finding by the tnul. And he^ having beaten the wood, 
finds die roused quarry, the huntsman having gone in 
by the marks of the track at the same time as the 
hound ; then they loose a number of veniores^ which 
follow the game, giving tongue. And another set of 
ventares is placed as a relay to help the first lot that 
are running the quarry, in order to relieve them. 
And those that enter afresh follow until they force 
the stag into the net, or to the spot where the grey- 
hounds are waiting, or they kill their quarry in the 



uroods* {Ubro de la Monteria^ cap. xv., by Argote 
de Molina). 

• Meeting of Panfilo and Finea.' • There they stood, 
the two of them motionless, Just like the foolish part- 
ridge and the clever ventor ' ( £/ peregrino en su patria, 
by Lope Felix de Vega Carpio, book v., p. 246). 

•Those dogs are called ventares that are let loose, 
before the commencement of the himt, that they may 
find the game and make known where it lies, before it 
is roused * {Origin y Dignidad de la Caza^ by Juan 
Mateos, p. 120). 

In his Arte de Ballesteriay Espinar writes of a 
•hound ventor* (un sabneso vent or) (vol. ii. p. 152), to 
be used when hunting the wild boar, while pointing- 
dogs he also styles ventores (vol. iii., p. 242), in agree- 
ment with Lope. 

Even the word ' navarro^ applied in modem times 
only to a partridge-dog of Navarre, was first of all the 
title of a breed of hound. Espinar says in his book 
(p. 58^: — •There are others [varieties of the dog] that 
are called hounds, and of them there are two kinds ; 
some of less activity than the others, because they are 
much heavier. These are called Navarrese or French, 
because the breed is fi-om France, as it is of the Frisons; 
they have the head large, the muzzle blunt, the ears 
very long and broad, and are very heavy everywhere ; 
they are by nature headstrong, and easily tired, although 
of excellent nose and scenting powers.' He goes on 
to contrast them with the Spanish hounds, which were 
much lighter and more active, were very persistent and 
untiring at their work, and had fair noses. Thus there 
were two types of hound in Spain, from which appa- 
rently sprang two types of pointing-dog. The one the 
heavy, • oarrel-shaped ' Navarrese partridge-dog, painted 
by Velazquez (Plate IV.), and bv Espinosa ; the other, 
as described by Espinar, • so swift that they seem to fly 



over the ground/ and, as in Dialogos de la Monteria, 
*very fast so that they cover much ground/ It was 
evidently the navarro that first found his way to 
England ; and, according to the old accounts, his 
powers, both for good and evil, were not impaired by 
the journey. 

1 have now sufficiently exemplified how in the days 
of their infancy the pointing-dogs were spoken of every- 
where by the name of some hound or other, and how 
the same author would frequently call hounds and 
pointing-dogs by the same title — almost on the same 
page. It remans to show how little would have been 
required to change the French ^ limier^' which in English 
would be called * lymer ' or ' leash-hound/ into a point- 
ing-dog. To avoid prolixity, I will take the French 
descriptions as typical : they are perhaps the clearest, 
but similar definitions occur also in the books of other 

^Limiers — dogs that are mute' (La Venerie^ by 
Jaccjues du Fouilloux, 1561, ^ Recueil des Mots* in the 
edition of 1888). • It is better that he carry his head 
high than low, because he will judge his wolf more 
correctly' {id. p. 91). 

Jean de Glamorgan (1570) confirms Du Fouillousc's 
pronouncements, almost word for word. 

* The Hmier is a questing dog {querant ou quitant) ' 
(Traine fort curieux de la Veneriey by Antoine Pomcy, 
1676, p. 30). 

• The limier must work to the hand, and must be 
perfectly mute' (TraitS de Vinerie et de Chasse^ by 
M. d'Yanville, 1788, p. 213). 

From this catalogue of the lymer's qualities it would 
seem almost a matter of indifference whether he were 
broken for the wolf, the stag, or the partridge ! 

Now having sufficiently treated the etymolc^cal 
side of the subject to show the filial relationship of the 



pointing-dc^ to the hound, we will leave it to du 
Fouilloux picturesquely to taper off their ancestry into 
those far-away times when prose blends with poetry, 
and reality pales into romance. He cites, from Joannes 
Monutnentensis^ that ^neas after the destruction of 
Troy iKrandered to Italy with his son Ascanius, who 
b^ot Silvius, who begot Brutus, who killed his fether 
out hunting and had to fly to Greece. Thence with 
companions and a great number of hounds and grey- 
hounds (cbiens courants et levriers) he sailed away 
through the straits of Gibraltar, and landed at the 
Isles Armoriaues, to-day called Brittany ; and here 
Brutus and his son Turnus, after seizing the country 
without resistance, hunted in the great forests that 
extended from Tifiauge to Poictiers : from Turnus did 
the town of Tours derive its name. Our author con- 
tinues : — * I have been anxious to tell this story that it 
may be understood for how long a time hounds have 
been used in Brittany, and I positively believe that 
these Trojans were the first to bring the breed of them 
into this country, because I do not find any history 
that pretends to an earlier knowledge of them. And it 
is a thing assured that most of the hounds that are in 
France and the surrounding countries are derived from 
Brittany, excepting the white dogs {chiens ilancs\ the 
ancestors of which I fancy came from Barbary ; Pnebus 
agrees with this opinion * {La VineriCy p. i). Ah, well ! 
^neas — Troy ! *Tis far enough ! So now, having 
firmly rooted him in antiquity, the after-career of the 
pointing-dog as he drew nearer England must be 
studied, until his subsequent evolution into the 

In the fifteenth century the Italian pointing-dc^s 
were not only highly esteemed in their own country, 
but were also famous abroad. 

Caterina Sforza, writing on August i6th, 148 1, to 



the Duchess of Ferrara a letter entirely taken up with 
sporting-dc^Sy specimens of which ^e craved as a 
present, desired among others ' a pair of good hounds 
{scgus£)y and a pair of good brachsforthe f^con Ibracchi 
da astore)* — Modena^ Archivio di Siato. And about 
the same time the French were importing braques from 
Italy, as we find in the Trai^ de Venerie (1783) by 
M. d' Yanville, that * Louis XII. had an Italian brack 
bitch covered by one of these latter [white dogs of St. 
Hubert] ; these newly invented dogs were called chiens 
greffiers (clerks' dogs), because the bitch belonged to 
one of the secretaries of the King, who then were called 
greffiers^ (p. 205^. Evidently the same bitch is referred 
to more explicitly in the following passage : — * The 
earliest mention of this race [the braque] that we find is 
that of the Italian bitch, Baude; which about 1480 
was crossed with a white St. Hubert Dog' {Traite 
pratique du Cbien^ by A. Gobin, 1867, p. 96). •The 
braque of Italy was white — Baude was of this colour ' 
{ib.). I have heard too that after his captivity 
Francois I. took back with him from Lombardy eighty 
sporting-do|;s ; but as I have not been lucky enough 
to verity this, I only give it as rumour. 

About this time, moreover, even Sp^n herself did 
not disdain to borrow from Italy, as witness the 
following concerning the renowned partridge-dogs of 
Gorga : — 

' In this part of Sp^n (Valencia) there are no pure- 
bred sporting native dogs of any kind. The famous 
breed that existed here for three centuries — the Gorgas 
— so called from the little coast town of that name 
near Denia, where they were raised — ^are now extinct 
or so crossed by inferior breeds as to be indistinguish- 
able. They were nearly pure white, and much lighter 
than the old cylindrical Navarrese dc^. They were 
noted for their gentleness, and fineness of nose, but 



wanting in backbone for rough work. Tradition 
says they were of foreign origin, the first pair being 
presented by an Italian prince, a Count of Gorga. 
HThe fact that they first came into notice in an un- 
important coast town gives colour to the tradition that 
they were not of Spanish orig^in ' (Extract from letter 
of J. L. Byrne, U.S.A, Vice-Consul at Valencia, 
October 28th, 1900). 

But doubtless the French were the chief admirers 
of the Italian braaue^ called in the sixteenth century 
cane da rete^ dog of the net (/ quattro libri della Caccia^ 
foy Giovanni Scandianese, 1556, p. 69), and his popu- 
larity with them is evidenced by their having adopted 
his name, which was easily recast and converted into 
their idiom as chien d^arrit (literally, stop-dog), which 
term assuredly did not exist in France bdTore the 
seventeenth century. And after a time, though the 
heavier type of their own and the Navarrese bradi still 
survived, it was quite eclipsed by the beautiful and 
racing-like Italian dogs with which Louis XIV. and 
Louis XV. filled their kennels, and that Desportes and 
Oudry vied with each other in painting with such truth 
and skill. 'The braques that Desportes and Oudry 
have handed down to posterity in their paintings, ana 
that belonged to the Kings of France, were probably 
descended from the fr.wnrand-white brach of Italy ' (Les 
cbiem d^arrit franfais et anglais^ by MM. De la Rue 
and De Cherville, 1881, p. 15). The old French 
braque of native origin did not achieve popularity till 
considerably later ; for I gather from l^es Races de 
Chiens^ by M. Megnin, that this dog is called the 
Braque of Charles X. ; and I have no evidence to 
show that he had any ancestral share in producing the 
English pointer. 

Of the pictures by Desportes and Oudry in the 
Louvre I had to limit my selection to two, one by each 



artist (Plates V. and VI.), which, where so maiiy 
were typical, was an ungratefiil task. Among those I 
especially regret is a portrait of Tane, a practically 
white bitch, black-nos^ — and of the highest quality. 
But Plate V. has an interest quite apart from its 
external charm, because it is dated 1720, according to 
the Louvre Official Catalogue. Now this is just five 
years before the date on the Thoresby picture by 
Tillemans (see Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists). This 
last (Frontispiece) is of the Duke of Kingston and his 
pointers, and is, I believe, the earliest record of the 
Race that has ever existed in England. All of these 
pointers are pronouncedly of the elegant Franco-Italian 
type, which is not remarkable considering the Duke 
was constantly in France, lived with a French mistress, 
and had for his intimate friend the Comte de BuiFon, 
the eminent naturalist. But it must not be assumed 
that the first importation of pointing-dc^ into England 
was from France, for etymology cries aloud against 
this. It reveals that the word pointer is a corruption 
of the Spanish de punta^ and that our new word was to 
us as easy and appropriate as even their witty chien 
d^arrit to our neighbours. It also insists that the 
Spanish partridge-dog, unlike the spaniel, was not 
introduced to us vid France, because the name pointer 
belongs only to Spain and England. And there is 
additional proof of this successful ^ Spanish Invasion ' in 
the favourite old names of English dogs — in the 
numberless Dons, Sanchos, &c., and more especially in 
Pero, an evident derivative from Perro, the Spanish 
for dog. 

Again, at first the Pointer was called in England 
the Spanish Pointer; for instance, in the earliest notice 
of him that I have found : — 

' The Spanish Pointer is esteemed the incomparable, 
and even without teaching will point naturally at a 



FrcMn an oil painting by Desportcs (born 1661, 
died 1743). This picture is dated 1720, and is of a 
superb wfajte bitch, slightly ticked with black, looking 
at a brace of French partridges. She is one of the 
royal breed of France, from which our English pointer 
seems to have derived his quality. Her shortened rail 
cannot rob her of her air of distinction. 

^ Francois Desportes was the first to priiiu, in France, 
sporting subjects and animals, and those of his pictures that we 
have preserved, besides their very great artistic quality, are 
witnesses to his perfect knowledge of his subject. Louis XIV. 
made him painter of his sporting establishment, and gave him a 
salary, with apartments in the Louvre. We have sdfl at the 
Museum his nne portraits of the dogs (chiens cmtchanti) so much 
loved by the great king, with their names written on the canvas 
in letters of gold.'— From M. Ch. Blanc's Fit da Fantn^ 
{HistHn di la Chasse^ by Dunoyer de Noirmoiu, 1867, torn, i, 
P- 254). 

Jn the Museum of the Louvre^ Parts, 

-iTtm^ .i 

.7 3TAJ4 
,iddi mod) 83tioqK)Q yd ynrtnifiq lio ftM monH 

gnblool ,^DijId riiiw te^Di^ ^(hflgila cHD^id sJirfw diaqiii 

i^jnioq ffeilgnH luo rioiriw moil ,^0iusvl \o b^lrid Uyoi 

Ubi bsfi^tioxte isH .yiiluup aid b9vhd> »v«fi ad ilpi^t 

.notJonilRih io iijj •!t>d lo ia4 dot *>#iN» 

9W )i>rh 8Tiu)Diq aid io opod) bn^ ^Hlfimini^ bfts «|39(dw^ g9U!KM|a 

.VIX fiiuoj Jj^[6u^ aid io agbDlwun^ J-^^ii^q <!id oJ 838^3n}iw 
£ mid t)V£tj bfiB ^Jfiamdiiild/iJ^M jjninoqg gid 1o i9)n!£q raid obBftf 
dri) Jfi |[i}8 oved jW .317IJ0.1 jdj ni 8in9ninsciiit tftm ,^bIj» 
thum o8 (i\nviA:ittCi'i i«VtA^) 2§ob adt ^o atisiHoq 5iin «rf tHu^wM 
ecvnfio ddt non9))hw ^^msn ibdj dsiw rSfli^t ]fl9ig*5dri(d1>Mil 
iH-^\«\^^ i^ Vi^ t'onsia .dD .M moil— '.Uflg \o fMl^f nf 
«i jno) f^dSi ^inoraiioVI ab idyonuQ yd f%ii%iO ^ >>^ Wk|Xi\H} 

. -^-i I. .1' 

- ( 


partridge ; and, as he is large, will range well and 
stand high enough to appear above any hi^h stubble ; 
and yet one may breed him to stand till a net be 
drawn over him ; but 'tis hard to do. However, when 
he points, you may be sure of birds ^thin gun-shot ' 
(fA^ Gentleman Farrier^ I73^» p- 105), 

The above is the only sentence in the book relating 
to the pointer ; and I think it shows, from its scantiness 
and caution, how new and unfamiliar the d(^ was to 
the writer. But it is not on style I shall rely to show 
the date of the p<Mnter's introduction, so much as on 
hard facts. And first I will cite some apposite state- 
ments: — 

* The pcnnter was not known until after the intro- 
duction of shooting flying, somewhere about the 
beginning of the last century. They first began to be 
generally known in England about the period of the 
celebrated M ordaunt Earl of Peterborough's campaigns 
in Spain. This is certain * {Sporting Magazine, second 
series, vol. v., 1832). These campaigns continued 
from 1705 to 1707, but not till the Peace of Utrecht, 
in 1 7 13, was the war brought to a termination. 

*The Spanish pointer was introduced into this 
country by a Portugal merchant at a very modern 
period, and was first used by an old reduced baron of 
the name of Bichell, who lived in Norfolk and could 
shoot flying ; indeed, he seems to have lived by his 
gun, as the game he killed was sold in the London 
market. This valuable acqui^tion from the Continent 
was wholly unknown to our ancestors, together with 
the art of shooting flying' {Cynographia Britannicay by 
Sydenham Edwards, 1800, p. i). It is noteworthy 
that Mr. Edwards connects the introduction of the 
pointer with that of shooting flying. 

' Pointers. — As nothing has yet been published on 
these dogs (at least that I have met with), I am inclined 



to think that they were originally brou^t from other 
countries, thoueh now very common in England. 
Their great utility and excellence in shooting part- 
ridges, moor or heath-game, which make them worthy 
of our regard, are wefl known * {The Art of Shooting 
Flyings by T. Page, 1767, p. 80). Mr. Page was a 
very well-known sunniaker, and his statement, made 
when the middle o? the century was long past, that he 
had not met with any work dealing wtth pointers, is 
interesting as evidence of the barrenness of the eigh* 
teenth century as regards books on this kind of sport. 

* The Pointer. — This kind of dog was introduced 
here in the beginning of the present century ; and is 
acknowledged to be a native of Spun or Portugal ; as 
many were, and yet are, brought to us from both 
kingdoms. The first I remember to have seen was 
about forty years back' (A Treatise on Field Diver- 
sionsj by H. Symonds, 1776, p. 14). This is the 
direct statement of an educated gentleman and noted 
sportsman ; and so it is of great value, when taken in 
connection with the other proofs. 

Thomas Pennant, the naturalist, writisMZ in 1766, 
was evidently himself unfamiliar with the Spaniard^ as 
he sums him up in the folk)wif% fourteen words : — 
^ The Pointer, which is a dog of foreign extraction, was 
unknown to our ancestors ' {British Zoology^ p. a6). 

I will give one mc»« quotation on this theme, 
because in spite of its vagueness and pessimism it 
conuins a slighdy divereent view. 

* No traces remain of the date of such importation 
from Spain, or of how long pointing-dogs, as dis- 
tingmshed from setters, have been used by English 
gunners. Two centuries have been nominated as this 
period, the accuracy of which we much doubt, having 
been informed, or having read somewhere, ^t the 
pointer cannot be traced in England beyond the Revo- 



lution in 1688. Perhaps Spanish pointers may have 
formerly been imported into this country, although no 
man, nor any book, can furnish us with the /ww, the 
when^ or the where* {The Sportsman* s ReposiJory^ by 
R. Lawrence, V. S., 1820, p. 115). 

Now, the School of Recreation^ by Robert Howlitt 
(1684^ ; The GentlenMfis Recreation^ by Nicholas G)x 
(1686) ; Gentleman*! Recreation^ by Richard Biome 
(1686); Synopsis Animaliumy by John Ray (1693); 
and The Compleat Sportsman^ by Giles Jacob (1718)— 
are all silent about the pointer, though many of them 
treat exhaustively of the other sporting dogs, and 
shooting. And it is a remarkable fact that The Sports- 
mans Dictionary (1735)9 which Osbaldiston, years 
afterwards, thought worthv to crib from, does not 
mention the pointer, though a dictionary most fidl in 
its definitions of all other sporting dogs. It gives a 
plate of a setter setting some partridges, ami two 
sportsmen about to have a shot at them on the ground ; 
but it does not in the letterpress name such a sport as 
shooting partridges over a doe, although there are 
elaborate instructions as to netting these birds with a 
setter, and shooting wild-duck widi guns. So I judge 
that the plates must have been introduced after the 
book was written ; and in that case, they only testify 
to a desire on the part of an energetic publisher to 
keep up-to-date. 

I have now stated all my evidence about the advent 
of the pointer, and will proceed to sum it up. The 
•entire silence of all authors up to the close of the 
seventeenth century would alone be enough to justify 
the hypothesis that the pointer was unknown in 
England before the eighteenth century, but when this 
silence is corroborated by the opinion of eighteenth 
century sporting writers in general, by Mr. Sjrmonds* 
direct statement in particular^ and by the inherent 



testimony of the Spcrtsmaris Dictionary that even in 1 73 j 
this dog was not widely known, supposition hardens 
into cert^nty. The assertion, therefore, seems justified 
that 1700 is the earliest possible date for the introduc- 
tion into England of the pointing-dog ; while 1725, 
the date of the Duke of Kingston's picture of French 
pointing-dogs, of course determines the latest : there 
is also etymological proof that the pointers were not 
imported first from France, so that epoch clearly lies 
between 1725 and 1700. A lucky clue is Quarto- 
eenarian's * certain ' declaration that pointer-dogs were 
heard of first in England about the time of Lord 
Peterborough's campaigns in Spain. The English 
commenced the War of the Spanish Succession in 1704, 
but Lord Peterborough was recalled in 1706. It is 
not likely that he himself took any dogs back with 
him, because he was not a sportsman, because he went 
home by way of Italy, Austria, and Germany, taking a 
year over the journey, and because he left in disgrace. 
But by the Peace of Utrecht the war was terminated in 
1 7 13, and the British army returned to England. 
Now, nothing could be more natural than for the 
British ofiicers to carry away with them specimens of 
the wonderful pointing-dogs from the country in which 
they had spent nearly nine years. It is also intelligible 
enough how this importation should have escaped the 
notice of the chroniclers, amid the stir and bustle caused 
by the return of an entire army. 

If they carefully consider the evidence, I believe 
my readers will be of one opinion with me as to the 
pointing-dog having first arrived in England with the 
returning soldiers after the Peace of Utrecht ; for, 
though many of the arguments are inductive, and much 
of the evidence is circimistantial, they are none the less 
irresistible, so neatly do the parts of the puzzle dovetail 
into one another. 



By the establishment of the setting-dogs and 
pointing-dogs in the British Isles, after their slow drift 
thither, much has been accomplished ; but before the 
present chapter can be deemed in any way exhaustive, 
the salient points concerning the sport with which 
these d(^ were associated, their characteristics, and 
their status in their native countries before this event 
must have been at least indicated. 

I have found in many languages treatises on the 
working of pointing-dogs, all interesting, some excel- 
lent; space alone forbids me from transcribing them 
all. But in Spain there are two masterpieces of fowling 
lore, aglow with the eternal youth of genius, as fresh 
and instructive to-day as on the day they were written : 
these I make no apology for presenting at fullest length 
in this book. I found them quite easy to translate 
literally, as in the majority of cases the old Spanish 
sporting idioms are identical with our own ; but it 
must be borne in mind that the cross-bow was the 
weapon employed, so that the partridge had not only 
to be seen on the ground, but also shot there. 

Dialogoj de la Monteriaj anonymous MS., sixteenth 
century : — 

' The most noble way, and the best sport that 
exists, is to kill them [partridges] over pointing-dogs 
(perros de muestrd)^ which is done in the following 
manner :— As the partridges have to be found by the 
powers of the dc^, which cannot come across them so 
well by sight or hearing as by smelling, the first thing 
the sportsman must do, on reaching the shooting- 
ground, is to note the direction of^the wind, and, 
having got it in his &ce, seek the birds thus from 
haimt to haunt. On reaching the first haunt he should 
look for the highest point, and may make a start there, 
holding up the dog and making him keep on crossing 
the wind ; and the common terms for telling him what 



he has to do arc — ^try here ! back here ! go there ! try 
up! try down! calling him by his name. After having 
beaten that haunt, he must move on to another, always 
seizing on the highest point, so that he will be better 
able to see the partridges drop, or fold the wing in 
settling. He should hunt his dog by whistling to him 
whenever he is among game, rather than by calling to 
him, and so avoid the noise that always disturbs it 
mudi. When the dog comes upon the partridges on 
the feed, that is befc»^ they have been flushed, as soon 
as the dog finds them and is on the point the sports- 
man must walk quickly to make his round of scrutiny, 
with the curve rather wide at its commencement, but 
gradually narrowing until he reaches the *^ circle" or 
point {vaelta 6 punta) of the dog ; that is to say, the 
sportsman must get cHrectly opposite the place to 
which the head of the dog is turned in pointing, for 
this is where the game generally is found, and in this 
manner he will lull the game so that he could shoot at 
it many times if he wanted to ; and going on he will 
all the while diminish his circles, watching the spot to 
which the dog's head is turned, ready to get a shot at 
the game, for there it will most likely be. And always 
when rounding them on the feed, the closer he keeps 
to where the 6og is standing the less likely he will be 
to stimible upon a bird that has separated from the 
rest ; and, if such a one flies away, the rest are wont to 
follow. So to have no fear of this mishap, it will be 
necessary for him to light upon them ^diin shot of 
the spot where he faces the point of the dog, as if he 

fo on further he will probably flush me covey. 
Inally, let him by all means make his shot before he 
completes the whole circle, for on the feed before being 
flushed they lie badly. 

* Sil: VLow is one to know, after having killed the 
partridge, if it be a single bird ? 



*Mm: By the way In which the dog holds his 
head — ^if drawn in and sharply inclined, his partridge 
is dose by, but if outstretched, the contrary. If this 
is a chance point, by which is meant that the dog stops 
himself suddenly when he is going fast and hunting 
freely without hairing a notion of a partridge nor of its 
scent, but all carele^y as he is going gets a whifF and 
becomes rigid, the spcntsman must not only scrutinise 
that place at which the dog is pointing, but also all 
round about him, if he does not see the partridge 
where the dog first points. The usual reason for tne 
dog pointing with so little certainty is that he stops at 
the warmth of the partridge, by which is meant the 
scent that reaches him from the place where the part- 
ridge was sitting, and, as it has shifted though it may 
still be near by, he does not point where it now is, but 
where it was at first, — and this is why he does not 
point with certainty, why it is so difficult for the sports- 
man to see the bird. Note also that if the day be still 
and fine the birds will usually be in the shade of thick 
cover, thinking to be better hidden ; and if the ground 
be wet, especially if the day be threatening, they are 
usually to be found in very thin cover half-squatting, 
neither nestling down nor quite standing, to avoid the 
cold of the damp ground. If it rain ever so little, they 
seek open ground, but near some cover ; and very often 
though they may be on foot, on that account they 
will wait longer on such days, although they are easy 
to see. 

*Sil: And when they are flushed, what should the 
sportsman do ? 

' Man : The first thing is to count them mentally 
as they fly, for they seldom go so fast or so close 
together that this cannot be done ; and, as they fly, if 
the ground be not open enough to see them settle, he 
must watch and carefully notice the direction of their 



flight, and then he will see them fold up the wins on 
one side of their line of flight, where they intend to 
settle. By this sign, and the distance of the place from 
where they rose to where they folded the wing, and the 
lie of the country, he will easily perceive where they 
have dropped within fifty paces more or less, taking 
into consideration whether they are youn^, when 
they fly but little, or old, when they fly a long 
way. When he starts to find them, he should 
always hunt the dog up wind, making him quarter 
to the leeward of them ; and if, as may happen, 
the wind blow unfortunately for where the birds flew, 
let him go round on one side, so that when he enters 
the place where they dropped, it may be nose towards 
the wind. Then let him stand quiet at the spot where 
he can best see to shoot, until it have been well tried 
and every bird accounted for according to the number 
he counted when they rose. If he have a comrade, it 
is very important to place him to mark where the 
partridges fly and drop, for it will make it much easier 
for him to find them, and he will bag much more 
game. If ever the dog disappear and do not return 
quickly at call, let the sportsman follow in the track of 
the dog so as not to stumble on the partridges and 
flush them, and let him not take one step in the place 
where they dropped, unless the d<^ have first been over 
it. And if the game be not lying well, it is the proper 
thing not to speak to the dog, but only to give him a 
whistle, at which he will turn his head and look to see 
what is wanted, and let the sportsman sign with his hand 
to that part he wants beaten, and if the dog be what he 
ought, with that he will obey him. Again, when the dog 
is pointing partridges alresuly flushed, which are those 
that lie best though they are the most diflicult to see, 
it is necessary, in order to see them sooner and to have 
a better hope of them, not to w^t to make the first 



From an oil panting by Oudry (born 1686, died 
1755). This represents Blanche, a French bitch from 
the royal kennels, a lemon-and-white of the highest 
class, differing but little from the best of our English 
dogs, except in the length of her ears. This bitch pre- 
sents one of the earliest examples of the liver-coloured 

* Oudry, younger by twenty-five years, was the rival and 
successor of Desportes. He was also salaried by the king, with 
apartments in the Tuilertes. Louis XV., mcinated by his 
talent and the fidelity with which he represented his sport, was 
passionately fond of the work of this great artist He passed 
long hours in his studio to watch him painting his hunting 
pictures, and had them reproduced in Gobelin tapestry, to be 
hung in his bed-chamber at the Castle of Compiegne, and in 
the Council Chamber. Oudry was invited to the royal hunts ; 
the chief episodes of which he reproduced in a series of pictures 
as interesting to sportsmen as to lovers of painting. The dogs 
and horses of the king are there drawn with a truthfulness so 
striking, that Louis XV. used to amuse himself by recognising 
one after another, and calling them by name. Oudry also 
painted separate portraits of the fiivourite dogs of the royal 
establishment.' — From M. Ch, Blanc's Hi dis Pnmtres {His- 
toire de la Chassi^ by Dunoyer de Noirmont, 1867, torn. I, 
p. 254)- 

In the Museum of the Louvre^ Paris, 

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half-circle broad, as we enjoined in rounding them on 
the feed, but to come straight up to that place where 
the dog is standing. But it goes without saying that 
one must find the partridge according to the nature of 
the cover in which the dog stands at point; and as 
he generally points in such thick stuff that the part- 
ridge cannot be seen except through some tiny hole, 
it is well, before getting alongside of him, to take 
short steps, because the sportsman may not happen to 
see the bird before he already approaches the end of 
the path (rencera) where he ought to have discovered 
and shot at it. As this cannot sometimes be avoided, 
let him not turn back, for this repetition would put 
up the partridge ; but let him go forward and complete 
his round, returning quickly, and before he comes to 
the opening where he saw the bird, let him have his 
crossbow ready (vueha emballestando) and shoot at it ; 
and, when he may have to stop to shoot it, let him 
take short, quiet steps, for if he go fast the noise that 
he is making will flush the. partridge when he stops to 
shoot at it. 

^ Sil: If in thin cover he see the game disturbed 
and about to jise, what must the sportsman do to 
quiet it down? 

^Mon: He must disguise his head in some sort 
with a piece of the cover itself that the partridge may 
not see him making ready the crossbow and stopping 
to shoot it ; for with this precaution he will be able 
with certainty to get a shot, and it will not rise, 
because it thinks he is continuing his walk and does 
not wish to molest it. 

^Sil: And if he be in some leafless (Jamarosa) 
place, where he can find nothing to cover his head 

*Mon: Let him make his round well away firom the 
part towards which the bird is facing, and approach in 

33 » 


the direction of its tail until he finds himself within 
range, and thus the partridge will lie for him. 

*Sil: What must the sportsman do to see the 
game more easily, as well on open ground as in 

*Mon: He must take care when he makes his 
round in search, not to spoil his sight by spreading 
it over the whole of the cover, but to keep it always 
concentrated and fixed upon one spot, for so his sight 
will have more strength ; and when he has scrutinised 
that spot let htm pass on to another, and so on as he 
makes his round, and in this way he will see the game 
more certunly and quickly ; for there are two drawbacks 
in glancing here and there : — one is that he will often 
see the game without recognising it, and the other is 
that his eyes will fill with water, what with the wind, 
and his anxiety, and the annoyance at not seeing the 
game quickly enough. 

*Sil: If the point be made on a rather steep hill- 
side, what must be done that the game may lie better ? 

'Mon : Carefully avoid facing the dog at the highest 
point on your round; because, as you approach, the 
bird will rise to a certainty, as it greatly dr^s any one 
being on higher ground, although from below it may 
be approached quite near enough to see and shoot it. 

*SiI: All this that you have said seems to be con- 
cerning the d<^ that points (perro de punta). But if 
it be the sign {muestra) of the dog that circles {perro de 
vuelta\ what method should we follow to perceive it 
at once? For it is usually very difilicult to sec, and I 
should like to know the reason why. 

* Mon : The reason of it is that, as you have heard, 
the dog generally points with his nose to the wind, 
and, if he be a " circler," when his nose tells him that 
the bird is disturbed, he fears that it will run up-wind 
to escape from him, so he leaves his point and makes a 



detour^ and when he gets to windward he points it 
again to baulk it of the tendency it had shown of 
escajnng in that direction ; and as he stands pointing 
down-wind at the partridge, he does it with great 
difficulty and uncertainty because he is without the 
sense of smell, which he has need of to point with 
certsunty. Therefore, in order to see the bird quickly, 
one should not take heed of the direction in which the 
d(^ at first pointed, unless, when he goes rounding it 
and is right for the scent of the partridge, he indicates 
it with his eye, and continues his round ; and then the 
sportsman must note the spot at which the dog glanced, 
for there without doubt will it be. And if this be a 
district where partridges are hawked, you should put 
on the dog a Httle bell which will soimd like that of 
the hawks, for, fearing that it may be one, the game 
will as a rule lie better; and if it be not such, but a 
land of herds, a small bell, such as the cattle wear, is 

^Sil: Is there anything ftirther to say concerning 
this kind of sport ? 

' Mon : Nothing, except that you may know that if 
the partridges or other game be very wild and the day 
very boisterous, with rain and a south-west wind 
blowing, no hawk-bell or cattle-bell should be put on 
the dog ; nor can you do more than hunt with all 
possible silence, whistling, and beckoning, and thinking, 
if you possess mind enough, of every stratagem' (p. 
366, ef seq.). 

^Mon: He [the pointing-dog] must be so keen- 
scented that he can make many points with little 
trouble to himself and the sportsman ; for, if his nose 
be short, he will make but few, and of those he does 
make most will be face to face, and therefore the game 
will lie badly — a great drawback, especially during 
summer, when the scent of the partridge is less, because 



those three months the various odours of the woods are 
so penetrating that they overwhelm it He must be 
very fast, so that with little trouble to the sportsman 
he may get over much ground, and find the game that 
he would not have found had he been slow, as then the 
sportsman would have had double labour, for he would 
have been obliged to accompany the dog in his casts 
up and down. But if the dog be such as I have 
approved, all this will be avoided, for the sportsman 
may stand still and hold up the dog, who will range 
over much ground. He must be well broken for this 
purpose, as otherwise he will not properly understand 
the ground, nor will he find much game ; and what he 
does find will not lie, for the sportsman will be obliged 
to shout to him so often to make him beat the haimts 
that it will fiighten and disturb the game. He must 
be a " circler * {de vuelta) if the ground be open, so 
that his going round may make the game lie better, 
but if it be wooded he should be a pointer {perro de 
punta). For there are two drawbacli^ to his being a 
circler : one is that it is very diflicult to sec the game, 
the dog's point beino; so uncertain, and the other is 
that very often in gomg round one bird he stumbles 
over others, especially if they are in coveys. He must 
have hard feet, that he may not get footsore, and he 
must be very wise in making out {sacar) the partridge 
after coming upon the line of one. 

* Sil : What do you mean by making out the part- 
ridge .? 

*Mon: The do^ do this in three different ways. 
One is by never raising their noses fi'om the foot-scent 
until they find the bird, and it is pretty sure to be 
flushed by this manner of making it out, especially if it 
has run down-wind, for then the dog, having to follow 
it with the wind at his back, cannot go with certainty, 
and runs it up. Another way of making out the 



partridge is sometimes to follow the foot-scent and 
sometimes to raise the nose, and this is a better and 
safer way of finding it with certainty. The last of 
the three ways is for the dog, as soon as he touches on 
the foot-scent, to go rieht away and make a wide circle, 
breaking away from toot-scents, until he gets round 
the partridge ; then he goes in, with his nose to the 
wind, until he finds and points it, and this is the best 
and surest way of all. He must be also an insatiable 
glutton for work, for if he be lacking in this he lacks 
everything, as a good one is of all sporting dogs the 
hardest worker^ so much so that he will sometimes 
pass blood. He must be in good condition to endure 
hard work, because he never says " no," however tired 
he may be, but the sportsman must not for that reason 
be sparing of punishment, so that he may not disobey. 
He must likewise carry his head high and freely, that 
he may the more be lord of the air, and the less a 
flusher of game. He must be light and sinewy in order 
to feel the heat less, and have strong bone to stand the 
work. His feet should be greyhound-like (^algarenas) 
and sinewy, so that he will not get footsore. If she be 
a female, the nose will last longer in good order, for in 
littering she will be pureed and cleared of all bad 
humours ; but for the males, who lack this remedy, we 
use an artificial purge that serves for all sporting-dogs 
alike. . . . 

*Si/: In what kind of dogs will be found those 
points that you say they must have ? 

' Mon : In dogs of medium size, for the large ones 
are lazy and the small ones weak ; and they are difficult 
to see in the fields unless they are white, which is the 
useful colour ; moreover, the dogs of Gothic blood 
{agoscados) have more genius {instinto) than those of 
Navarre {navarros)^ but they have more vices and are 
more ill-conditioned, though they do more work, but 



the nofoarros have the better noses and better tempera. 
If a navarro dog be put to an agozcada bitch, a won- 
derfully good breed of dogs is the result, for they have 
the good qualities of both parents. But you must not 
put your dog to a bitch of a bad stock on either side, 
nor brother to sister, nor mother to son. These dogs 
are reared tractable, domesticated, and obedient from 
pups, and the owner or sportsman must not correct 
their faults, but some other members of the household^ 
so that they may love and obey him. From the time 
they are six months old they are taught to find bread, 
and that they may learn better they are to be turned 
out of the house, and, when not being taught, kept 
chained up, that they may be more eager to go out ; 
and let them be rather hungry, that necessity may urge 
them to find the bread. Throw the bread without 
letting the Aos see where, then set him with his nose 
up-wind, talkmg to him and teaching him to xmder- 
stand by : Come here ! try again ! go there ! cast about ! 
come and seek and take ! The first day let him eat the 
bread without punishing him, and afterwards repeat to 
him the aforesaid words, and if he go into the bread let 
the punishment be very slight, for if it be severe he 
will be so fi-ightened that he will never obey afterwards. 
In this way you may teach him to point, and in accus- 
toming him to that, make him take a circle as he must 
do later for the partridge, then stop him and snap your 
fingers, at which sign let him go in and take the bread. 
When the dog is nine months old and upwards, take 
lum into the field and try him at partridges in the same 
manner as at the bread ; and if he be so unruly that, in 
spite of punishment, he flushes the partridge without 
pointing, then fasten a long cord round his neck, and 
try him with a tame partridge, first tying it in a thicket 
where he cannot see it. Then give him the wind, and 
let him go, warning him in the words aforesaid until 



you have made him point it. But this partridge must 
be kept in a cage, and placed by itself in the dew at 
night, that the n'eshness may remove any scent of the 
sportsman having approached it ; and afterwards, when 
you tie it in the thicket, do not touch it with your 
hands, for if you handle it the dog will not care about 
going near it, or take any notice of it till you make 
him point it. Give him the intestines of the bird, and 
for any faults he may commit do not flog him to excess, 
especially about the ears, for it sometimes makes them 
grow deaf, and instruct him by this method until he 
understands. If you wish him to be a circler, in teach- 
ing Wm when young with the bread, you should tie 
round his neck a cord two lines in length, fastening the 
other end to a stake, then place the bread where he can- 
not reach it though it is near, then speak to him, saying 
Go seek ! and he will go round and round in a wide 
circle, and will get the habit of doing so, and will do it 
in the case of partridges. If when you make him find 
the bread you place it in the niches of the walls, about 
half way up, he will get the habit of raising his head 
more freely at work later on, and if you br^k him on 
yoimg partridges you will tnun him sooner, because 
they Tie better ; but do not break him on quails, for 
that will teach him to point very near. When the 
partridge-dog is hunting for partridges he is wont to 
keep on always wagging his tsul with the pleasure and 
gladness that he feels, and if he has not got a tail he 
makes this movement with his haunches^ and thus 
becomes sooner tired. To avoid this, therefore, it is 
well to leave it long enough for lum not to lack means 
of showing his content ' (id. p. 467, ef sea.). 

And of an importance equal to the foregoing Dia- 
logos is the Arte de Ballesteriay Monieria^ by Alonzo 
Martinez de Espinar, 1644 : — 

' They [partridges] are shot on the wing with an 



arquebuse, and for that reason they do not exist in such 
numbers as formerly, nor are there any longer such 
pointing-dogs {perros de muestra) to find them and point 
them with cleverness so great that large quantities of 
them could be killed with a crossbow. In those days the 
sportsmen were most dexterous, now such are wanting ; 
for, as the game is killed more easily, nobody wishes to 
waste Us time in training dogs, as the man has not to shoot 
the partridges on the ground ; and the only use he has 
for dogs is to flush the game, and that takes no train- 
ing, as the dog does it naturally. However, that this 
sport, which was so much practised in old times, may 
not be altogether forgotten, and as it has some ex* 
cellencies that the curious will take pleasure in knowing, 
the following chapter will treat of it. 

* Among the numerous methods for killing part- 
ridges, that which seems as a rule most congenial to the 
sportsman is to watch the efforts of a dog to find them, 
for this animal is the hardest of workers, and so good 
are his wind and activity that from morning to night 
he will not cease galloping, and there are some so swift 
that they seem to fly over the ground : and when the 
dog is lucky in coming across the scent of these birds, 
he redoubles his eflForts till he points them, which is 
what his master desires. Of old it was by the instru- 
mentality of the pointing-dog that most of the part- 
ridges were killed : in those days the sport was 
practised with the address that it demands, which 
cannot be acquired thoroughly without continual prac- 
tice, but, without that trouble, the information in this 
chapter will be of advantage to any one interested. 
One cannot be too attentive to the education of 
pointing-dogs from the beginning of their breakinK. 
because, as they have to work independently, it is 
necessary to train them while they are young. 

* The first thing that they must be taught, is to be 




From an oil painting by J. Wootton (born about 
1690, died 1765). This is a Hfe-sizc portrait of a 
liver-and-whitc dog. He has a splendid neck, a good 
eye a fine tail (probably shortened), hare feet, and 
much quality all over. His hind-quarters appear too 
short and straight, and his flank too tucked up, but his 
colouring emphasizes these defects. 

In my own Postession. 

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.nQ'ui^>i^^ liW^ ^» 111 


under such ccHnmand that they will come as readily to 
their, master for punishment as for caresses, for when 
they have leamecl obedience any faults they may have 
can be easily corrected ; and much will depend on a. 
knowledge of their natural dispositions, as some will 
obey with only chiding them, while others not even 
punishment will improve; and^ therefore, it is necessary 
to know how it has to be given, much or little, and at 
what time. This groundwork should be taught them 
before taking them out to the field ; and at home da 
not punish the d(M? severely for a trifling fault, for fear 
of cowing him for the future; and, granted the 
necessity, it must be first tried if he will obey orders 
by scolding him, but if that be not enough, he must be 
chastised into obedience. 

* On taking them to the fields one gets to know 
what they are, and whether they tend to seek the 
partridges by the foot-scent or by the body-scent {por 
el rastro, 6 par el viento),. I do not recommend taking 
the trouble to teach those that have little pace and 
nose ; because, even if the sportsman be very clever, he 
will not get much good from a dog that fails in these 
two important qualities. Above all it must be insisted 
that they quest the partridges more by the body-scent 
than by the foot-scent, hunting them at first up-wind 
{pico a viento) that they may become body-scenters- 
(ventores) and not trackers (rastreros) : for there is a 
great difference between these two ways of seeking the 

* The slow d(^ with a bad nose can only hunt by 
the track, and when he loses the track he has not nose 
enough to find the game in the other way, and, again^ 
lus usefulness is much lessened by his want of speed. 
The dogs that have these so necessary and excellent 
qualities work much better in every way ; if they chance 
on the line of a partridge down-wind (raio a viento)^ 



they leave it at once, and, beating for the wind 
{abarcando) and circling up and down in all directions, 
try from different places if the trail goes on or stops, 
until they succeed in finding what they seek. But for 
this a good sportsman is necessary, as young dogs are 
always more inclined for foot than body-scent, and if 
they were allowed they would follow that inclination. 
But if, when the sportsman sees that the Aor is touch- 
ing on a line down-wind and is following it, he order 
him to leave it and come away, on foiu* successive 
occasions, and the dog recognise that he can find by 
the body-scent the partridge that he was tracking, he 
will make use of that power for the future without his 
master's command, and will evermore remsun with that 
method of questing : but if there be no one to teach 
him, up-wind and down-wind alike he will follow the 
partridge by the foot-scent. 

^The sportsman should also know when the dog 
makes a fault, when he must be punished, and of what 
degree this punishment must be, so as not to punish 
him in the same degree for all his errors ; as on one 
occasion he deserves much for flushing the partridge ; 
and at others, though having flushed it, one must not 
punish him with full severity. When the dog, going 
up-wind, does not attack the partridge, but it rises 
because it will not lie to Um, the dog may be to 
blame for getting too near it ; for this he must be 
corrected, but it is enough to pull him by the ears, 
saying to him : Have a care ! for the dog*s intention 
was to point the partridge, but by inclining to go too 
close, he flushed it ; still, in order that another time he 
may not approach too close, he must be corrected. 
But when the dog, going up-wind and knowing where 
the game is, unceremoniously springs it by running it 
up, he must be severely punished, as that is the worst 
fault he can be guilty of, and proportionate must be the 



punishment. But if the sportsman do not know how 
or when to administer it judiciously there will result a 
thousand vices, for which he himself will be to blame ; 
and there are some so wanting in intelligence that when 
the dog is going down-wind, and, without having the 
scent of the partridge, suddenly comes across and 
flushes the bird, they will almost beat lum to death, 
though it was not the fault of the dog ; and as this 
injustice is done to him and he does not know why, 
he will have no confidence in hunting either up-wind or 
down, not knowing the wrong from the right, often 
running away from his master, being unwilling to range 
when he is told, and only doing so when he chooses ; 
and having arrived at pointing the partridges, when he 
sees the footing approaching, he comes to heel from 
fear, leaving his point, which is as if it had never been 
made. That these animals may not contract this vice, 
the sportsman has need of wisdom in punishing his dogs 
according to their dispositions rather than according to 
the fault they committed, and in the beginning he must 
always be sparing of punishment ; as it is well to 
accustom them beforehand to kindness, not severity, 
that they may not behave as I have described. For it 
is much better in ridding the dog of a fault to correct 
him thrice than to frighten him once. 

* Partridges lie much better to the dog that finds 
them not by foot-scent but by body-scent, and measures 
his distance by their tameness or \rildness, for he can 
tell by the body-scent if they are restless or tranquil, 
and even if he get among them, they are not sure that 
he is after them. When, however, he goes by foot- 
scent, what terrifies them is to see the dog following 
the track by which they have cone to hide, and if he 
do this down-wind, very probably he will stumble on 
them. And even if sometimes he point the partridges, 
there is no certainty in it ; because the dog, not working 



up-wind, is forced to point where he is sure of the scent, 
and as a rule that is very dose, and therefore they do 
not wait for him. 

* Formerly when this sport was practised, the dogs 
were very clever and the men very scientific about it, 
and he who prided himself on being a sportsman shot 
over a dog so well trained that, as the saying is, he 
could do everything but speak ; and those that kept 
their docs in food by the crossbow were always the 
most emment, as the skill of the sportsman and his dog 
had to make up for the defidencies of the weapon. 
For in order to shoot the partridge when pointed, it 
had to be in a place where it could be seen and no 
rough stuff interfered with the aim : so, when the d(^ 
pointed where there were not these advantages, if skill 
in any way could help the attainment of his wish, it was 
certain that the sportsman would not fail, but he who 
was not skilful would be unsuccessful Three requisites 
there were, all bdng essential and of the highest utility : 
a good sight ; when the dog was pointing game, a quiet 
foot to steal round it ; and knowledge from the sur- 
roundings how to stalk it successfully. These things 
smoothed the difficulties that presented themselves in 
this sport ; and those who went out shooting and 

rr^ them, would return home with more hunger 
partridges. Good sportsmen observed careftJly 
the habits of these birds, which is very necessary, as on 
knowledge of them depends the killing or not of your 

* To-day, when one has no longer to shoot with a 
crossbow, no one remembers the craft the sportsman 
formerly possessed. He had to consider, when he saw 
the dog on point, before going up to find the partridge, 
where its haunt was and whither it would probably 
fly ; then the first thing to be done was to dose that 
exit» because, if left free and the approach made from 


the other side, the bird would not wait. Experience in 
this sport taught a man that by such-like knowledge 
was the game killed, and that he must try to get Us 
shot on the half round that faces the haunt, as without 
this precaution the birds very rarely waited ; if, there- 
fore, it were not possible to sight from that direction, 
he must gradually withdraw, so that the bird seeing 
him go away might stop there itself. But when he 
returned again, knowing the position of the haunt, he 
went much nearer than before, until he succeeded in his 
purpose ; for as this could not be done by force he had 
recourse to cunning, knowing the danger that there was 
in going far round the game. 

*The dogs trained for this sport understood their 
master's wishes without a word, going where he wanted 
at a low whistle and a sign of the hand, and so clever 
were they in these things that, after a covey of partridges 
had taken a flight, there were dogs which would make 
ten points at them, a bird at a time. Before attaining 
to this the training of these animals cost the man 
labour, but once got to that condition they developed 
wiliness as game was shot to them, and each day by 
working became more clever. 

'Once the dog has pointed the partridge he has 
done his work, and there remans that of the sportsman, 
which is to kill it ; and to accomplish this he must do 
as he has been advised above, and that is not diflicult, 
for the very birds teach him by hardly ever flyii^ to 
any place but their home, with the idea of taking refuge 
there. In order to sight the birds that your dog is 
pointing, you must observe his posture as to how he is 
holding his head — ^high or low ; if high, he has them 
far ofl^; if low, they are near to him. Besides the 
asdom as to watching the haunt, when you are making 
your round you must go very quietly, taking care, by 
looking where you place them and walking very slowly, 



not to make a noise with your feet, for when you are 
making your round of the game, the snapping of a 
twig, or the trampling of a thistle, is all that is needed 
to flush it ; and you must go slowly the better to 
examine the tussocks, as the partridge is a bird that 
hides itself well and requires some finding, and bv 
walking at fiill speed that will rarely be accomplishea. 
At the same time when you are niaking your roimd, 
you must not stand still, nor take a step backwards, 
nor move your head from side to side, as all these things 
hinder the game from lying. 

' Furthermore, the sportsman must understand that 
the partridge is not always in front of the dog's nose 
when he points ; for when he is going down-wind he 
points not at the partridge but at its scent blown about, 
as he being to windward cannot of course smell the 
bird'. The cause of this is that, over uneven ground, 
the wind does not blow evenly, and sometimes the 
scent of the partridge is caught up by it, and carried 
now in one direction, now in another, but the dog, 
wherever he chance on it, stops on point. If the 
sportsman lack experience, he wUl see nothing out of 
the common in the attitude of the dog, and will expect 
to find the partridge by looking in the place towards 
which the dog is facing ; but he will not be successful, 
because it is not there. He must look where the blow- 
back (revoco) is likely to come from, and there he will 
see the partridee. There is a chapter in this book that 
treats solely of the blow-backs of the wind, though as 
applied to hunting and the larger game ; the same, 
however, applies to the pointing--dog and smaller 

' Dogs have three methods of pointing : some simply 
point, others only circle the game, and others again do 
both. The dog that points {de pun$a\ on finding the 
partridges, stands stiff in that direction whence he 



obtains their scent ; and as a rule they do not lie to 
him very well» as they are frightened at the sight of 
him pointing so near them, and therefore take flight. 
The dog that drdes {de vueUa) is much more certain, 
for two reasons : because, as ne knows how to move 
from where he is, if he find out from the scent that the 
partridge is very close to him, he draws away as far as 
he thin^ necessary not to disturb it ; and, again, as he 
circles it, it crouches closer, thinking that he does not 
know where it is ; and these dogs are not deceived by 
the blow-back (revoco) as are the dogs that point, for as 
they go roimd they come across both the scent of the 
partridge and of the blow-back. Among these circling 
dogs there are two ways of showing the game : one by 
going round it and never standing on point, but, when 
Siey come to where they can smdl the partridge, turn- 
ing their heads towards it as a signal where it is without 
ever stopping ; and some do this with such subtlety 
that, if die sportsman do not understand them, it will 
be a marvel if he see the game, where there is any scrub 
or rough ground in which it can conceal itself. There 
are others that go round and then point with the wind, 
indicating the game, and these are the best, as they 
plainly show the sportsman where the game is. Others 
again there are that make half the circle and point 
without the wind, but these generally do not know 
what they are about, and if they attempt the whole 
circle, lose themselves, and stumble on the partridges, 
and run them up« 

* In all these ways do dogs hunt : but the best are 
those that point and drde as well, and those that simply 
circle. Where all are imperfect, the best is the dog 
that points ; because, when he does get a point, he is 
quiet, and does not disturb the game ; but where all 
are good, the dog that both circles and points is worth 
far more than the others. The qualities that a good 



<iog should have are nose and speed to excess, obedience, 
and a good colour. To the white and wax-coloured 
dogs the partridges as a rule lie much better, for there 
is no white animal resembling the wolf, the fox, or the 
wild cat, of which they are afmd ; while the dark- 
-coloured dogs are frequently lost sight of by their 
masters in woody ground, and often much time is 
wasted in seeking for them* (p. 240, et seq.). 

That poaching was not unknown to the Spaniards 
-at a very early date is proved by a sentence from the 
Laws and Ordinances of Navarre {Fueros y Observancias 
de Navarra) in 1556. 

* For it has been and is proved by experience that 
many persons of this said kingdom, both noblemen and 
peasants, in their unrestrained ardour, busy themselves 
in killing partridges and hares with snares, nets, and 
the stalking-ox by day, and with lights at night, 
and decoy-birds, and pointing-dogs, and by many 
•other contrivances during the breeding season as well 
as at any other time ' {De la Caza y Pesca^ ley i., 
tit. vii.). 

And the following passage, which I found in a 
manuscript at the Madrid National Library, tends to 
show that * ^ing ' is not necessarily begotten of ^ the 
Fancy' of to-day. 

* If you wish the dog to have a long tsul, leave it 
^o ; and if you Mdsh it to be short, like that of a 
pointingKic^ {perro de fnuestra\ cut it to what len^ 
you please. If you wish him to have long ears, prick 
the tips thereof with a pin until blood be drawn, and 
work them well with the fingers until no blood be left 
in them, and this will make them grow very long. 
You may also hang small weights to the ears, for, in 
truth, these partridge-dogs look much handsomer when 
their ears hang very much * {Tratado de Monteria y 
Cetreria, by Mossen Juan Valles, 1556, cap. xxvi.). 



From an engraving, 1768, by N. Woollett, after G. 
Jitubbs, R.A. (born 1724, died 1806). This is entitled 
'The Spanish Pointer;' and the original painting is 
stated to be * in the possession of Mr, Bradford/ but I 
lave heard that this noble pHCture has since passed into 
the collection of the King of Bavaria. The muscular 
development of this Spaniard is v^ fine, but it is a pity 
nis ears have been either rounded or else badly torn, as 
\t destroys the character of his head. 

I In my own Possession. 


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To counterbalance the last two quotations, I will 
add two more that bear pleasant testimony to the high 
esteem in which these pointing-dogs were held, and the 
scientific care that was lavished in picking the pups. 
The first is from a seventeenth century manuscript 
formerly belonging to the Duke of Osuna, but now in 
the National Library at Madrid. 

*The points by which they should be chosen at 
birth are as follows : — 

^ The dog when born should have the following 
points, which are desirable. In the first place, the head 
should be large, and the nose large, with very open 
nostrils, mde and blunt ; the ears long, broad, and 
very soft ; the forelegs short, and the paws broad ; the 
coat white, or with very few markings, and these in the 
right place, such as on the ears or back. It is im- 
portant that he have a few small spots on the forelegs, 
and between the nails, which is b^t, and also that the 
nails be black. The reason is that when they have 
these points they are not so often headstrong, and those 
that have white paws are more tractable, and are 
employed more easily. It is also well that the body 
should be small, as they are more industrious, more 
obedient, and have more endurance. The reason is 
plain : a bigger dog has more trouble in moving, is very 
slow, feels hard work very much, generally has some 
vice, and is always tardy in obeying. Therefore, I say, 
let them be white, for they are seen more plainly in the 
field and are more clever. They are handsomer and 
always look better, and the points that they make are 
more beautifiil. On the other hand, a dark dog is not 
seen and, though he may do wonders, does not look so 
well ; and they are' hotter, more impatient, and not so 
easily handled as the white ones and are behind them 
in all good qualities' (De las Propriedades del Perro 
Perdiguero^ cap. i.). 

49 2 


The follomng passage, though of a comparatively 
recent date, I cannot help reproducing : — 

'A lover of them [pointing-dc^] will know the 
oest dc^ he has, those truit quest with the heads high, 
both dog and bitch, and will be careful in mating, so 
that the bitch pup to a good dre, and will endeavour 
that both be excellent of their kind. The pups must 
have great heads, vrith good occipital-bone, ears large 
and soft, a square muzzle vnth much lip, a fine coat, 
strength in the fore feet, nails black, a very thin tail, 
and, if possible, let them be white. If, on lifting them 
by the ears and swinging them round twice or thrice, 
they do not yelp and cry out, it is a good sign, as by 
that you can be sure of them. The black nail is a sign 
of vigour — no skulking or becoming lame. The being 
white is to be seen from afar when out shooting. The 
lifting by the ears is to prove their courage. The 
occipital-bone well developed denotes excellent scenting 
powers. The large head, the ample ear, the squareness 
of muzzle with much lip, the fine coat, the thin tail, 
are the signs of high birth ' (Arte de Cazar^ by Juan 
Manuel de Arelanno, 1745, p. 96). 

The most noteworthy tacts in the books of the 
old Italian sporting writers seem to be the descriptions 
of the characteristics of the pointing-dog, though their 
scrupulous care of their kennels and minute instructions 
as to breaking must evoke our admiration. I append 
some typical examples of the former : — 

* About the scenting-dog {de cane odoro). Some 
declare that this dog is the most eminent of all. Briefly, 
we prefer him witn a muzzle rather turned up than 
down {simo poHusquam adunco rostro)^ and a pleasing 
head. Let not the forepart of his body seem greater 
than, but in exact proportion with, his hind 1^, nor 
his breast too large for his belly, and his back and croup 
lengthy and level even to the tail. Restlessness (agililas), 



^th repeated movements of the eye, a prickine of the 
pendant ears, and a frequent wagging of the shortened 
tail, are faults in the scenting-dog. The one that seeks 
his game by sniffing a long time at the brambles and 
thorn-^ckets is a good dog, it is said ; but the one 
which stops for his master as soon as he may have found 
game, is tiie most excellent scenting-<ioe. Concerning 
colours^ a parti-coloured one is preferred, very like the 
spotted lynx ; still, a black dog is not to be despised. 
White, also, and a tawny colour look well on this dog ' 
{De Canihu^ by Biondo, 1544, p. 8). 

* The more the scenting-dog is necessary for the 
fincUng of game, the more is valued one that keeps his 
find undisturbed till his master comes up ' {id. p. 12). 

' When the cams sagax that is trained for the taking 
of qusuls, partridges, and pheasants, in ranging over the 
fields sees the above-mentioned birds, he looks back at 
the fowler and moves his tdl. By which the fowler 
knows that there are birds near the dog, and so covers 
over both doe and birds with his net. Therefore the 
Italians call these dogs net-dogs {retiarios)^ as they are 
used with the nets and allow themselves to be enveloped 
in them' {De ^uadrupedibus^ byAldrovandi, 1 522-1607, 
lib. iii., cap vi., p. 552). 

* For this sport two things are necessary, the dog 
and the nets. The dog is called by many the brach of 
the net {bracco da rete\ by others stopping-dog {can da 
fermo\ because on seeing die game he stops, and tkereby 
causes it to stop. The indications of the best are that 
they have a lar^e head; a large, broad, moderately 
thick, and dropping ear ; the nostrils well opened and 
always moist ; uie mouth chopped, and spotted within 
on the palate with black ; a capadous chest, which is 
covered with hw- thick and hai^ on the breast-bone, 
and the same under the belly ; 1^ rather thick than 
otherwise; a large foot, with pads well formed, and 



lean rather than fleshy; the coat on the rest of the body 
fine and glossy, ticked or dappled with tawny (lionafo) 
or other colours. You must never let him hunt when 
it is cold» especially after medicine, nor until the sun 
has dried up the dew, because otherwise he loses the 
scent and hurts his feet. You must also take care, 
when you have arrived at the place you are to hunt, to 
commence to leeward, so that the brach Mrill get the 
wind of the game' (Ucceliera^ by Olina, 1622, p. 51). 

*How the sportsman should break his brach for 
shooting flying, and what the qualities of the said brach 
should be : — 

^ Endeavour to obtsun a quite young brach of about 
four months old that comes of a good breed. This 
puppy should have a large square head, the muzzle 
large and sense of smelling keen, the chest capacious, 
the body short, the paws large, with sharp claws to the 
feet. And let him be white and dappled with chest- 
nut, more inclining to the white than the red. The 
best breed of all is that of the Marchese Fortunato 
Rongoni, of which I have had one called Pastizzo, who 
did everything a dog could do, both in roading up and 
finding birds alive or dead, and in catching them in 
the water very quickly with wonderful dash and spirit ; 
and at the present time I have another of them called 
Falcone, which is not at all inferior to him. A breed 
of these same is now established at Bologna, where 
many gentlemen who have had them, have bred them 
up to the same type. They are excellent for the stubbles 
in the open, but thty are also excellent in cover and in 
marshy places' (La Caccia deW Arcobugio^ by Bonfadini, 

i652t>p. 73)- 

The preceding quotation marks the commencement 
of the era of shooting - flying with the arquebuse in 
Italy, and the following shows a slight development of 



* The bracks that point {hracchi da ferma) should 
be spotted and dappled with bright tawny, and have 
large ears, long muzzle, black nose, feet spurred 
(spronatiY hind 1^ well bent, and tail fine. To make 
use of tnem with the gun, it is necessary that these 
dogs be steady on point, nor ever flush the game that 
they have found ; so that the sportsman, by carefully 
circling round his dog with the arquebuse before the 
game is sprung, may obtain a shot' (La Caccia dello 
SchioppOy by Spadoni, 1673, P- 75)- 

Dogs have always been held in h^h esteem in 
France, and from the days of Gaston Phdbus setting- 
dogs have been prized. Their value in 1492 is em- 
phasised qusdntly by Tardif, who seriously makes this 
suggestion : — 

* To relieve great thirst in a dog working, when 
there is no water, break two or three %gs, and put 
them into his mouth, which will assuage great thirst ' 
(Des Chiens de Chasse^ p. 17), A sentence precursory 
of the question of the Duchesse de Polignac, during the 
bread riots in 1789, as to why the people clamoured 
for bread when they could buy such nice cakes ! 

One of the earliest contributions to our knowledge 
of shooting with dogs is from the pen of the Bishop of 
Senes, who writes as follows of ^chiens couchans' 

* Having by ranging found the game, partridges, 
qusdls, woodcocks, hares, rabbits, and the like, which is 
indeed their nature, they stop quite short, and bowing 
their knee, bend (bandeni) their nose ; and by their 
gestures, substitutes for words, point out the game. 
Others, glued to the groimd, await the hunter, who, 
putting into position {couchant au joue) his crossbow or 
harquebuse, ranges {raude) three or four times round 
his dog, not daring to stop walking nor measure his 
shot, until he can spy his quarry cowering under a tuft, 
that so he may get an open shot at it wim his arrow or 



bullet, and hitting with the prenaeditated shot, may 
rejoice and be happy over it' {La Nouvelle Agriculture y 
by Beaujea, 1551, cap. xvi., p. 241). With the 
gradual improvement of the arquebuse, and its more 
general use, the setting-dog became more and more im- 
portant amonff sportsmen. Jean de Glamorgan (1576), 
in the middle of his wolf-hunting, mentions rather 
gratuitously that there are spaniels for springing and 
finding partridges and quails, called setting-dogs (chiens 
couchans) {Chasse du Loupy chap, viii.); and D Arcussia 
(1605), an enthusiastic falconer, to prevent boredom 
when the fidcons are in moult and the corn puts a stop 
to hawking, recommends, among other diversions, 
* shooting over the setting-dog with the arquebuse' 
(La FauconneriCy p. 19). He also describes ' ^ni^icrj,' 
but by no means favourably, as ^ soft, sensitive to cold, 
timid, gluttons, eaters of game, and robbers of the 
falcon.' I presume he referred to the native braque. 

D'Aubi|;ne, in 1573, relates how a setting-dog was 
indirectly instrument in capturing the town of 
Menerbe for the Protestants. For the Catholic 'Curate 
of Vous (who had for long wished to change his religion; 
and had access to the place on account of a setting-dog 
that was the cause of many a dinner of partridge to the 
Governor) ' was the inventor of a stratagem that re- 
sulted in a party of Vaudois breaking open a gate, 
forcing an entrance, and surprising the town. * I will 
only add,' grimly remarks the historian, * that the cure, 
being captured in some fight, drowned himself in the 
Darance as they were taking him to Avignon' 
(Hisloire Universelky tom. ii., p. 144). 

After a lapse of about seventy years, our subject may 
be found filling the position of exemplar to man himself 
in the work of the moralist, Descartes. ' When a dog 
sees a partridge, he is naturally inclined to run after it, 
and when he hears a gun fired, the noise naturally 



inclines him to escape ; but, nevertheless, setting-dap;s 
are commonly trained in such a way that the aignt of a 
partri(k;e makes them stop still, and the noise that they 
near afterwards, when they are shot over, makes them 
approach.' He deduces from the above the possibility 
of ' changing the movements of the brain,' and an 
encouragement for men desirous of gdning an * absolute 
empire over all their passions' {Passions de VAtne^ 

1649, ^o"^- ^M P- 50). 

The pointing and setting-dogs are very interesting 
as Court favountes under Louis XIV., but the strange 
glimpses that we get of them now and then, only whet 
our appetite. From the A^moires of the Due de St. 
Simon we gain most of our scanty knowledge. 

' The King amused himself by feeding his setting- 
dog&, then asked for his wardrobe,' &c. (Oeuvres com- 
pUnes de Louis de St. Simon^ p. 171 ). 

' The King, wishing to go to bed, went to feed his 
dogs, then said good-night,' &c. {id. p. 176). 

'He (Louis XIV.) wished to have his setting- 
bitches excellent. He always had seven or eight of 
them in his apartments, and found pleasure in feeding 
them himself, to make them know him ' {Metnoires de 
M. k Due de Sains Simon, tom. i., p. 1 16, 1778 Edition). 

Here is another basket-full, collected by M . Dunoyer 
de Noirmont ! 

* Loms XIII. slept with his dogs. The Due de 
Vendome, the conqueror of Villa Viciosa, pushed still 
further his toleration for them. A crowd of dogs slept 
in his bed^ his bitches littered there, says St. Simon. 
His brother, the Grand Prior, had the same customs. 
When M« de Contades was made Major of the regiment 
of Guards, it was said that he owed his advancement to 
the present of some very well-broken setting-bitches 
which his father had sent to the King' {Histoire de la 
Chasse^ tom. ii., p. 286). 



^ Louis XIV. did not allow himself this excess of 
** cynisme,'' but he was very fond of dogs. He was par- 
ticularly fond of his spaniels, among which he was 
pleased to distribute every day with his own royal hand 
seven biscuits, which the court-baker was expected to 
make for them ' (ii.). 

But it is instructive to contrast the public Acts of 
these Kings with their private demonstrations of affec- 
tion; and for this the Code des Chasses^ by M. Saugrain, 
1765, is very useful, as it contains ail their Sporting 
Ordinances, from wluch I will cull a few extracts. 

Henri III, (1578), Art. 11. — *And as there are 
several nobles and others who have setting-dogs, which 
are the destruction of all the game, we wish to make it 
forbidden to all persons of whatever rank and con- 
dition^ either to own or make use of setting-dogs, under 
penalty of, for the non-nobles corporal punishment, 
and for the aforesaid nobles of displeasing us and in- 
curring our anger,' &c. (tom. i., p. 171). 

Henri III., Art. II. — ^*And in order to make the 
keepers of our forests and warrens, archers, &c., more 
careful about doing their duty in this respect, chiefly 
for the prohibition of the aforesaid setting-dogs, we 
promise to give and accord to the aforesaid archers, for 
each of these setting-<logs that they will take and bring 
to us, four crowns, that we wish to be paid to them 
promptly by our treasurer, whom we command to do so 
without question * (Jb.). 

Henri IV. (1596), Art. III. — * We forbid very ex- 
pressly the use of setting-dogs, which are very destruc- 
tive, under the penalties carried by our aforesaid 
ordinances, and, besides these, a fine of a hundred 
pounds {cent livres) for the first time, and to be kept in 
prison till its payment in full ; for the second time to 
be flogged, and banished for three years from the pro- 
vince where the destruction has been done ; and for 



From an engraving, 1802, by J. Scott, after S. 
Gilpin, R.A. (born 1733, died 1807). The sketch was 
made in 1 772 ; and later it was used as an illustration 
for Rural Sports^ where it is entitled * Pluto and Juno/ 
Juno, the white bitch, is an almost perfect pointer, 
thoitt^h she may perhaps fiul a little in neck and shoulder, 
and her ears, like her companion's, have been rounded 
foAound bullion, which detracts from her appearance. 
Hr tail is quite correct in shape and size, and her 
mtEzle and lip are models. Pluto, the black dog, has 

S[udity and substance wonderfully combined. The 
olWiitt is the description given by the Rev. W. B. 
Daaicl :— 

'The dw and bitch represented in the engraving were the 
propirty of Colonel Thornton. Pluto, although a very capital 
pointer^ was celebrated ibr his pursuk of deer when encouraged 
to Mow them. Many outlying deer were taken ftwn this 
dog's hunting them, after very long chases. As a proof of 
bodi kis and the bitch's steadiness as pointers, they kept their 
point irhen Mr. Gibin took the sketch from which the picture 
was panted, upwards of one hour and a quarter ' {Rural Sports^ 
1881, »ol. iii., p. 338). 

Pierce Egan relates how Juno was ^ a remarkable 
bitch, which was matched with a pointer of Lord 
Grantlty's for ten thousand guineas, who paid forfeit ' 
{Book $f Sports, 183a, p. 133). 

In my own Possession. 

• .XI 3tAJ^ 

.8 i^i\B ,l1ooZ ,\ yd ,co8i egnfvjn^gns n* movi 

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.a .W .v^H srii yd nwig MtfiKfrcKib irit ci goiwolk)! 

— : idiftcQ 
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the third time, to find no mercy in Us' (torn, i., p. 

Henri IV. (1600), Art. XX. — * Those who sport 
with setting-dogs and the arquebuse, otherwise than we 
have declared above, and are caught in the act, will be 
fined thirty-three crowns, a third of the penalty, twice 
as much for the second ofilence, and thrice for the third, 
if they have the money ; and in defiiult to be, the first 
time beaten with rods in private, the second time in a 
public place, and the third time banished for life from 
their home ; and in each of the aforesaid cases the dogs 
will be hamstrung, and the arquebuses confiscated ' (tom. 
i., p. 203). 

Henn IV. (1607), Art. VI. — * And inasmuch as the 
use of setting-dogs is the cause that hardly any part- 
ridges and qusuls are to be found, we hgve, conformably 
wth the former ordinances of the Kings Our Predeces- 
sors and of Ourselves, totally forbidden this same usage 
to all men, of whatever rank or condition they may be, 
either to keep, or to feed, or to educate setting-dogs, 
&c/ (tom. i., p. 267). 

Louis XIV. (1669), Art. XVI.— * The use of 
setting-dogs is strictly forbidden by all the ordinances 
following, because it is a pot-hunting sport {chasse 
cuisiniere). But because it gives much pleasure, it pro- 
duces also many law-breakers, who are to be punished 
with the penalties contained in the present and following 
sections. We have forbidden and do now forbid our 
officials and others, whoever they may be, to take to 
our said forests, plantations, and warrens, any dogs, 
unless they have them tied, and lead them ; and if it be 
found that it be done otherwise, for the first ofFence, 
the dogs shall be hamstrung ; for the second,, they shall 
be destroyed ; for the third, those with them shall be 
punished by a penalty dependent on Our Will ' (tom. i., 
p. 384). 



In the face of ferocious edicts like these, aggravated^ 
in the case of Louis XIV. ^ by their transparent hypo* 
crisy, it is not wonderful that witty Elzear Blaze re- 
taliates with sarcasms on the sport of IQngs : — 

' Charles X. was a great sportsman, he kdlled from 
seven to ^ht hundred head a day ; in front of him 
passed unendingly partridges and rabbits, hsves and 
pheasants ; there was only the trouble of choice. In 
my opinion it was a very dull amusement. The plea- 
sure of the true sportsman commences when his dog 
meets him ; Kings have no dogs, or rather no pointing- 
dogs, and if they have, they don't use them — two 
hundred beaters take thdu: place. The pleasure increases 
when the animal makes a good point; Kings have 
never seen a dog on point, — an unceasing stream of game 
flows before them. The sportsman delights in gather- 
ing his bird, in handling it, &c. ; IQngs do not see the 
dead game nearer than twenty paces, — touch it never. 
Their business is to fire a thousand shots; a steam 
engine could do it as weir {Le Chasseur au chien 
d arret, 1846, p. 256). 

'You must seardi for the game! If it come to 
you, the pleasure is diminished. A pretty woman who 
oilers herself, loses three-quarters of her attractions. 
What do I say ? She loses them all ' {id. p. 258). 

' I put the sport over pointing-dogs before other 
sport ' {ib.) 

Besides the two foregoing aphorisms, which I feel 
bound to include, I will quote his perfect summing-up 
of the English pointer : only two or three words, and 
— Hey, Presto — behold the genuine article ! 

' The best are commonly whites and blacks, high 
on the 1^, with long narrow feet, the coat so short and 
smooth that one sees their muscles as in thorough- 
bred horses. Their eye is prominent and lively ' {id. 
p. 282). 



I must now devote a little space to the development 
of the arquebuse and the art of shooting flying, as» 
from their influence on the evolution of the pointing 
and setting-dogs, such study is necessary for the proper 
comprehension of the ancestry of the gundogs. 

In epitominng this interesting subject I am fortunate 
in having the help of three authors, all of the first 
magnitude, MM. Magne de MaroUes, Baudrillart, and 

* ' It was in the opening years of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, a little before the accession of Fran9ois L, who 
became King in 1515, that small arms mounted on a 
stock (and adapted tor taking aim with) called then 
hacquebuteSy and later harquebuses and arquebuses^ b^an 
to come into use ' {La Chasse au fusily by Magne de 
Marolles, 1788, p. 38). 

' The Hunting Ordinances of Francois L, in the 
year 1515, ah-eady makes mention of hacquebutes and 
£choppetteSy as sporting weapons. This is the earliest 
mention of them ' {id. p. 48). 

*I have found in a little book entitled Eccelenza 
delta caccia de Cesare SolaAo Romano^ printed at Rome 
in 1669, that at the time when the author wrote the 
method of shooting flying had been known at Rome 
about eighty years. In Italy therefore they conunenced 
to shoot flying about 1590; and it is reasonable to 
suppose that at the same epoch this method became 
pretty general in the other countries of Europe. I 
think then I can state that until 1580 they never shot 
flying. I rely also on the sporting plates of Stradanus, 
who lived at this period, as among them is not to be 
seen one nngle gunner who shot flying or even running; 
and in the poem entitled Le Plaisir des ChampSy by 
Claud Gaudiet, first printed in 1583, although the 
author, a thorough sportsman, describes several forms 
of sport with the arquebuse, and recounts his exploits 



and those of some brother sportsmen with it, he does 
not make any mention of shooting flying ' {id. p. 50). 

^ Arquebuse — ^this firearm, which is now obsolete, 
was first used in the early years of the sixteenth century, 
a little before Francois I. came to the throne in 15 15. 
It was then fitted vdth a stock, and meant to be put to 
the cheek, and was called at first hacquebutCy afterwards 
harquebuse or arquebuse. Of this hand-arquebuse, there 
were two kinds ; one called the match-lock {V arquebuse i 
meche)y the other the wheel-lock ( harquebuse h rouei^ ' 
{Traite des eaux et forits^ by Baudrillart, 1821, part iii., 
Dictionnaire des Chasses^ p. 126). 

* It appears that the flint-lock {flatine i rouet) was 
invented in Germany about the year 1 540, For a long 
time the match, the wheel, and the flint-lock as it is 
to-day, were used concurrently for game-shooting; but, 
finally, the last bdng most simple and expeditious, has 
banished the others. The cross-bow was not disused 
for sport, till the handling of the arquebuse was suffi- 
ciently perfected to admit of shooting flying ; this was 
about 1590' {id. p. 127). 

* Before the invention of the flint-lock, it is certain 
that one could not shoot but fi-om a rest ' {Le Chasseur 
au chien d'arrety Blaze, 1846, p. 24). 

* The gun was not a convenient weapon, and easy 
to handle, till about the year 1620. It was not till 
1750 that the first double guns, with two barrels 
parallel, appeared' (iV/. p. 25). 

* This prince (Louis XIII.) was a very good shot ; 
among his titles to distinction can be counted that of 
having been the first to shoot flying ' {id. p. 255). 

But it is evident fi-om the computation of De 
MaroUes that Louis XIII., as he was not bom till 
1 601, could not be the inventor of shooting flying; 
though he may have been the first to introduce it into 
France, — ^and this, a parallel story to our own Robert 



Dudley and the setting-dog. Be that as it may, he was 
undoubtedly a keen good shot, and so was his son, 
Louis XIV., as the following extract from the Journal 
o( the Marquis de Dangeau tends to prove : — 

' Fontainebleau. — The King on rising from his meal 
went out to shoot flying (Hrer en volant) ; he found on 
his beat, while seeking partridges, a large wild boar. 
He put a ball into his gun, and killed him ' (October 
30th, 1686). 

It appears that on the Continent in 1789 some 
modem methods of shooting were practised, as De 
Marolles accurately treats of shooting in line, adding 
that dogs were almost unnecessary in this sport — at 
least, that only one, on a lead, should be used for 
wounded game. Posting the guns round a cover, he 
describes aUso, with the dry comment : — * This method 
is much practised in Italy ; it is in general a very 
murderous sport * {La Chasse au fusil, p. 1 74). 

In like manner the old sporting literature of Ger- 
many is very interesting, but the greater part of it lies 
beyond the boundaries of this book ; as the German 
pointing -dogs, though probably ofF-shoots from the 
same tree, were in no way concerned in the birth of the 
pointer. I shall quote, however, a few passages mainly 
connected with methods of work, which distinctly assist 
my history of sport. An early specimen of these is 
found, in a curious rhythmical form, on the title-page 
of Ein neuw Thierbuchy published anonymously m 

* When he perceives game. 
He holds himself still before approaching it, 
And indicates its presence with his tail 
To the hunter, who follows carefully 
Whither the scenting-dog (spurhund) guides. 
To where the game sits in secure comfort.' 



And Gesner wrote about 1 551 : ' We Germans and 
the French call these dogs quail-dogs {coturnicos)^ be- 
cause their work is princi^ly concerned with this class 
of bird. The Italians call them net-dogs {canes retis)^ 
for they help them with the nets, in which they will 
even allow themselves to be enveloped, whence they 
derive another name with us, vorstehhund^ {Historic 
Anifnaliumy 1620 Ed., lib. i., p. 255). 

The folloMang are the remarks of J. C. Aitinger 
(1653), an enthusiastic netter : — 

* Shooting is a very vulgar method ' {VogelsUlUnj 

^ When the pointing-dog gives signs [of game] he 
should be called back and ti^ up, and the place marked 
for netting * {id. p. 20). 

* To catch partridges by the aid of the " cow " is 
the most artistic method of all. When the dog points, 
lay the draw-net swiftly as is proper, and so that the 
birds run up wind and do not get their tails disturbed 
by it [the wind]. Then make a wide flanking move- 
ment, get behind a mound so that the birds do not see 
you, then pull on the *' cow," and go slowly up to the 
place where the dog is pointing ' {id. p. 23)* 

* In France they use the draw-iiets so large that they 
must be carried between two riders on horseback. In 
England this form of sport is considered vulgar and the 
worst taste, and they use hawks or falcons. When the 
dog points, they let the bird fly ' {id. p. 32). 

* The best way to take partridges, as is done by 
princes and nobles, is to shoot the birds neatly, with a 
pointing-dog ; or to take them by means of a pointing- 
dog and nets. Before I continue, it is necessary to 
describe the pointing-dog, which is used with the hawk, 
for shooting or hawking. This sort of dog is usually 
white and brown marked, or white and speckled, or 
brown spotted, and the taller and stronger the better the 



dog, so that he can take the scent high : for pointing- 
dogs shoiild always hunt with noses high in the air' 
(Der Dianen Hohe und Niedere Jagd-geheimnissey by 
Tantzer, 1734, p. 96). 

* When the doe points he should not be called to» 
but encouraged with ** gently!*' so that he may stand 
still, until such time as the fowling-net can be got ready. 
Then run rapidly on to the game and the dog, so that 
the net cover both, and having strangled the birds give 
the dog some bread. At first the dog will hate the net, 
but must be well trained to endure it patiently, and as it 
is rare to find a dog combine both qualities (pointing, 
and standing to the net), it is wise for the sportsman to 
have two dogs, one for each purpose. And as the 
partridges will not often stay quiet a conveniently long 
time before the dog, not to mention the net, but scatter 
themselves away, the hunter must have with him his 
hawk, which the game will recognise as their enemy, and 
will crouch upon the ground and hide from it, lying 
motionless before the pointing-dog until the net covers 
both them and him ' (id. p. 98). 

' Take a pointine-dog, a hooded hawk, and a living 
fngeon on a long string in the game-bag, and start early. 
When the dog finds and points, hastily unhood the 
hawk, call warningly to the dog, and as soon as con- 
veniently near to him (holding the hawk with its breast 
to the partridges and the dog), call out to him : " Berr ! " 
On which, the dog springs into the middle of the part- 
ridges. They scatter off like dust, and the hawk after 
them. Then the hunter rides till the hawk strikes, and 
falls with his quarry to the ground ' (id. p. 103). 

' The greater number of sportsmen, or bird-netters, 
accustom themselves diligently to speak French to their 
dogs» such as '^ AUons diercher, mon Amy ! " " Garde 
bien!" **Venesicy!" or "Retires vous!" and such 
foreign phrases, in order that the dog, if lost, shall not 



be so easily made use of, as if addressed in the Muscovite 
or Polish speech' {Der Volkommene Teutshe Jdger^ by 
L. F. von Fleming, 1749, p. 178). 

< These " barbetSy^ as the French call them, are also 
to be accustomed to the French language, and a sports- 
man will find them useful to work with the partridge- 
dog upon all conceivable occasions' {id. p. 181). 

The above extracts shows the workings of the 
Teutonic mind on the problems of dog-breaking, and 
Herr Tantzer's grip of the subject seems remarkable, 
while Herr von Fleming is the first, I believe, to re- 
commend working a spaniel with a pointing-dog. 

In Great Britain the history of the work of setting- 
dc^ b^ins with Dr. Caius*s racy account of them. 

* These [setters] attend diligently upon theyre 
Master and frame their condition to such beckes, 
motions, and gestures as it shall please him to exhibite 
and make, either going forward, drawing backwarde, in- 
clining to the right hand, or yealding towards the left, 
(In making mencion of fowles my meaning is of the 
Partridge and the QuaileV When he hath found the 
byrde, he keepeth sure ana fast silence, he stayeth his 
steppes and wil proceede no further, and with a dose, 
covert, watching, eye, layeth his belly to the grounde, 
and so creepeth forwarde like a worme. When he 
approacheth neare to the place where the birde is, he 
layes him downe, and with a marcke of his pawes, 
bctrayeth the place of the byrde's last abode, whereby it 
is supposed that this kinde of dogge is cdled Index, 
Setter, being in deede a name most consonant and agre- 
able to his quality. The place being knowne by the 
meanes of the dogge, the fowler immediatly openeth and 
spreedeth his net, intending to take them, which being 
done the dogge, at the accustomed becke or usuall signe 
of his Master, ryseth up by and by, and draweth nearer 
to the fowle that by his presence they might be the 



From an engrtving, 1823, by Thomas Landseer, 
after P. Reinagle, R.A., who exhibited from 1773 to 
1832. The original picture belongs to Lord Wenlock, 
and it gives portraits of pointers belonging to a former 
Lord Middleton. 

A scene on the Yorkshire moors, in which the bitchy 
pointing in the foreground, appears to be ideal in neckj 
shoulders, girth, hind-quarters, and tail. Her head and 
eye are very good, but her ear does not seem natural. 
The backing dog is not a happy conception. 

In my own Possession, 


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ol j;vVi '"OT^ bsJidirixa oriw ,.A.H .^l^nbH .T i^dfi 
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,?lD3n ni lj53bf sd ol eiisaqqa (bnooig^iol adl oi ]|ahf)kx|. 
bn£ bfidri isH .IIbi bn£ ,si9li£up-bnfd ,dl'H;g^ei|>b.luQr{£ 
Jfiiulfifi fnase Jon ^^ob 1&9 isri lud eboog yj^v ?ii5»jiY5. 
.noilqdDnoD yqqsd £ ion ei S^b srH^9|;d,s^X: 

1 , 




authors of their own insnaring, and be ready intangled 
in the prepared net* (0/ Englishe DoggeSy 1576, p. 16). 

Now about forty years before the publication of 
Englisbe Dogges there had been issued, the first of its 
kind, a Statute of Henry VIIL, an act against * Cros- 
bowes and Handguns/ which regulated the length of 
guns, and forbade one to order lus servant to shoot at 
• any deare, fowle, or other thinge except it be only at 
a Butt or Banck of earth in place convenient, or in 
defence of person or house/ Licenses also were autho- 
rized to be granted and sold, but the buyer had to 
particularize the kinds of * beasts, fowles, or other 
thinges ' he desired to kill. In fact it was the dawn of 
small game preserving (23 Hen. VIIL, c. 17). 

Another Statute, of Edward VI., on the same sub- 
ject, is so interesting that I am printing the full text : it 
is entitled ^ An Acte againste the shootinge of Hayle 

^ Whereas an Acte was made in the XXIIIth yere 
of the late Kinge of famous memorie Henrie the Eig^te, 
for some libertye to shoote in Handegonnes hakes and 
hacquebutes, by which Acte nevertheles it was pvided 
that noe psone shoulde shote in anye of the abovesaide 
peeces but at a banke of earthe, and not to any deare or 
fowle, unless the partie might dispende one hundreth 
poundes by the yere : Foreasmuche as the saide Acte 
havinge byne devised as it was then thought for ne- 
cessane excise tending to the defence of the Reahne, ys 
growen sythen to the mayntenance of muche ydleness 
and to such a libertye as not onelye dwellinge houses 
dovecotes and Churches daylye damaged by the abuse 
thereof by men of light conversacion, but that also there 
ys growen a customable manner of shotinge of hayle- 
shott, wherby an infynite sort of fowle ys killed, and 
muche Game therby destroyed to the benefytt of no 
man, wherby also the meaninge of the ssude Statute ys 

65 F 


defrauded, for that the saide use of hayleshott utterly 
destroyeth the certentye of shotinge, whiche in Warrea 
is much requisite ; Be it therefore enacted that no pson 
under the degree of a Lorde of the Parliament shall 
from hensfordie shote in anye handegonne within anye 
Cittie or Towne at any fowle or other marke, upon any 
Churche house or dovecote ; ndther that any pson shall 
shote in anye place any hayleshott or any more Pellottes 
then one at one tyme, upon payne to forfayte, for everie 
tyme that he or they shall soe offende contrarye to this 
Acte, tenne poundes and emprisonement of his bodye 
during three monethes. Provided alwayes, and be it 
enactra by thauctoritie aforesaide, that this Acte, nor 
anye thinge therein conteyned, shall extend or be pre- 
judicyall to any pson or psons auctorized by value of 
lande to shote in any handegonne or crosbowe, but that 
they maye so doe in suche fourme and order as they 
sholde do and myght have done, before the makinge of 
this Acte, (hayleshott excepted as indeede that kynde of 
shott in the saide Acte was not ment)/ &c. (2 & 3 
Edward VL, c, 14), 

This Statute passed in 1548. The mention of 
* hayleshott, wherby an infynite sorte of fowle ys killed ' 
at so early a date on such good authority makes one 
wonder if the English, instead of the Italians, were not, 
after all, the inventors of small shot. 

In 1603, James I. made the first statutory mention 
of the setting-doff as follows :— ^ 

' That all and everie person and persons which from 
and after the first day of Auguste next following, shall 
shoote or destroy or kill with any Gunne Crossebow 
Stonebow or Longbow any Phesant Partridge House 
Dove or I^eon Heame Mallarde Duck Teale Wigeon 
Grouse Heathcocke Moregame or any such Fowle, or 
any Hare ; or after the saide firste day of Auguste shall 
take kill or destroy any Phesant Partridge House Dove 



or Hgeon, -with aettinge Dogges or Nets, or with any 
manner of Nettes Snares Engines or Instruments what- 
soever, shall be committed to the Common Goale, there 
to remune for Three Moneths/ &c. (1603-4, i Jac. I., 
c. 27). 

Unlike the French Kings, however, James was sin- 
cere in his dislike for setting-dogs. * We have from 
that Monarch's own hand, without presuming to make 
any alteration in the diction of the royal author : " I 
cannot omit here the hunting, namely, ^dth running 
houndes, which is the most honourable and noblest sort 
thereof ; for it is a theivish forme of hunting to shoote 
with gunnes and bowes " ' (Sports and Pastimes ^ by 
Joseph Strutt, 1801, p. xiv.), 

Robert Burton mentions fowling as a sport carried 
on with ' guns, nets, and setting-dogs/ and adds inimit- 
ably that * Fowling is more troublesome [than hawking], 
but all out as delightsome' {Anatomy of Melancholy^ 
162 1, part 2, sect. 2, mem. 4, p. 339). 

Oddly enough, Gervase Markham, who the same 
year (1621) published * Hunger's Prevention; con- 
taining the whole Art of Fowling by Water and Land/ 
evidently knew nothing of shooting birds, as he ex- 
pressly states that • the art of taking fowle ' must be 

* applyed or used two several wayes, that is to say, either 
by enchantment or enticement, by winning or wooing 
the Fowles unto you ^dth Pipe, Whistle, or Call ; or 
else by Engine, which unawares surpriseth and en- 
tangleth them.' 

Robert Howlitt and Nicholas Cox, writers at the 
end of the seventeenth century, had never heard of 
shooting flying, but Richard Blome in The Gentle- 
marCs Recreation (1686) has (p. 125) a plate, entitled 

• Shooting Flying,* of two sportsmen firing from horse- 
back at some partridges flying past them, with several 
spaniels rushing about and yelping excitedly. In the 



directions for practising this art you are advised, * whether 
the Game be flying or on the ground/ not to shoot ' at 
a single Fowl, if you can compass more within your 
level (it.). This book, however, deals almost exclu- 
sively with netting, and apparently the union of gim 
with setting-dog had not yet taken place : another of 
its plates represents a setter on game, but having a net 
drawn over nim. Although it seems incredible that new 
ideas should have spread so slowly, it took over thirty 
years after the publication of Blome's book for others to 
follow up his discovery. In 171 8, Giles Jacob, in The 
Compleal Sportsman^ cert^nly mentions shooting wild 
ducks flying — but not a word of thus killing partridges. 
Then later still, in 1732, The Gentleman Farrier^ who 
first mentions the pointer, detailing the business of a 
settinff-dog in the taking of partric^es, only gives in- 
structions how to ^ learn him to let a net be drawn over 
him without stirring ' (p. 104) ; while the Sportsman^ s 
Dictionary (1735) ignores shooting on the wing any 
birds but water-fowl. 

Thomas Oakleigh gives an instructive epitome of 
sport of the eighteenth century in England : — 

^ Falconry fell into desuetude in the days of the 
Geoi^es. As falconry fell into disuse another kind of 
sport, which is now considered as disreputable, and 
practised only by poachers, was pursued by the country 

fentlemen ; the capturing of birds of the game species 
y means of nets and setting-d(^s. Netting was con- 
sidered as a fair mode of taking game, until the fowling- 
piece came into general use ' (The Shooter's Handbook^ 
1842, p. 21). 

*At the time of the accession of the House of 
Hanover, falconry, netting, and shooting were contem- 
x>rary amusements. The number of shooters were very 
imitcd, the inferiority of the guns, and ammunition, 
3eing such as not to induce their general adoption ; 



hawking was going out of favour, and, of the three 
sports, netting was the most conunonly practised, until 
the banning of the reign of Geoi^e IIL, after which it 
was no longer deemed the sport of gentlemen. At what 
time the fowling-mece first came into use is uncertain. 
We learn from Pope that pheasant -shooting was in 
vogue in Windsor Forest, during the reign of Anne : — 

* See fi'om the brake the whirring pheasant springs. 
And mounts exulting on triumphant wings ; 
Short in his joy, he ireels the fiery wound, ' 
Flutters in blood, and panting beats the ground ! ' 

(id. p. 22). 

The German writer, Aitinger (1653), states that the 
English at that time used the ralcon in connection with 
the setting-dog, but I have been unable to find any evi- 
dence of this. In fact, the following is the only instance, 
except at the present day, that I have met with : — 

•The subject of the plate (No. XXX.) is taken at 
the most interesting time, when the d(^s are setting, 
and the falconer is unhooding the birds, previous to the 
game being roused ' {The Costumes ofTorkshirey in 1 8 14, 
by G. Walker, 1885, P- 77)- 

This description answers well, barring that the dogs 
are pointers and stan^ng at point. But the article also 
relates that tlus was hawking only as revived by Colonel 
Thornton, and, therefore, was probably carried on under 
novel conditions. Anyhow, it is the first example I 
have found of the use of pointing-dogs with the hawk 
in England. 

And now I have shown my readers all that I know 
concerning the pointing and setting-dogs previous to 
their arrival in Great Britain, and previous to their 
wonderful improvement and development with us. 
Other nations have always recc^nised our skill as 
breeders of dogs. In the classical days, Gratius and 



Nemesian, whom Gesner the Gentian naturaltst quotes 
{Historic Ammalium^ p. 249), pnifled British dogs in 
their verse. Gaston Phebus said that the British had 
made greyhounds their own {Deduiz de la Chssse^ chap. 
XX.). Argote de Molina extols our hounds for their 
qualities in followi^ deer by scent {Libn> de la Mon^ 
teria^ cap. xviii.). The Bishop of Senes pays us a frank 
tribute : — * Let us admit that we do not take enough 
trouble in the choice of the sires and dams to supply 
ourselves with good strains of dogs, as the English do ' 
(Ltf Nouvelle Agriculture^ p. 233). La Blandiere re- 
counts that * it is not to-day that the presiunption of 
the English dog having a better nose than our dog^ has 
arisen in the land. Under Louis XIV., when La Fon- 
tsune published his Fables^ 1668, it was believed ; since 
the poet could say, while giving flatteries to Elizabeth 
Montague, widow of Mr. Harvey, ** Tour folk excel 
the rest in penetration ; even the dogs derive from their 
abode a better nose than dogs of our poor nation '' ' 
{Les Chiensde Cbasse^ p. 147). 

Britannia's work in the construction of the pointer 
has been done by adaptation, and by blending materials 
ready to hand, rather than by any heroic creation of the 
Genesis order. She has created no doubt, but, like 
Shelley's poet, she has created ' by combination.' Still, 
although in the case of the Aog himself Englishmen 
may have but moulded the clay, they can look with 
pride upon having actually invented * backine,' which is 
the key to the harmonious co-operation m wcvk of 
two or more dogs ; and by that achievement have 
transmuted the chasse cuisiniire of King Louis into a 
noble and delightful science. 



I HAVE shown how the English pointer originated 
about the commengement of the dghteenth cen- 
tury, and have given an occasional glimpse of him for 
the oghty years or so succeeding. I have now to 
concern myself with the second phase of his existence, 
which also covers a period clearly defined and of about 
the same length, — ^from the time of Colonel Thornton 
to the establishment of dog shows. 

This era, notwithstanding its high importance, is 
unfortunately difficult to write about. For though, 
before its commencement, pointers had become an old- 
established breed of fixed type and exceeding repute, and 
early in it reached their zenith, the hopes ot getting 
much intimate knowledge of either its dogs or its 
sportsmen are alike disappointed. Possibly, from the 
inherent exdusiveness of the sport, there has never been 
a shooting Pepys! Of course, there is much to be 
thankful for in the books of such practical pointer- 
owners as Taplin, Lascelles, Johnson, Oakleigh, Craven, 
Lacy, and St. John, but most of them are strictly im- 
personal in their writings, and have abstained from 
those gossiping anecdotes which would have taught us 
so much of^their canine environment. 

As, during this period, nearly every family of posi- 
tion had its own breed of pointers, it is obviously 
impossible to enumerate them all ; but I will make 
mention of some of the most eminent breeders, breakers, 
and kennels of pdnters that then existed, and will try 



to give, at all events, a list of those races that have 
appreciably bequeathed their blood to later times. I 
have found it impracticable to arrange these references 
chronologically, but I have preserved a sort of rough 
sequence subservient to district. 

Colonel Thornton (born 1757, died 1823), though 
he wrote several books of travels, &c., tells but little 
of pointers, and, I believe, nothing of his own kennel. 
It IS clear, however, from contemporary writers, from 
the Gilpin picture (Plate IX.), and from the high 
orices that tJiey commanded, that his dogs must have 
been first rate. 

In his Sporting Tour through the North of England 
and Scotland^ published in 1804, the following passage 
is worth attention : — 

• The Duke of Hamilton, when we arrived, was 
not returned from shooting, in which he excels, being 
one of the best shots in Scotland. He is also a keen 
sportsman at every other amusement, but this country 
not being well adapted to fox-hunting, he has given up 
his hounds, and has paid great attention to his pointers 
and greyhounds, both of which are excellent. I found 
his grace agreed with me in opinion that, after moor- 
shooting, partridge has not the same charms ' (p. 260). 
Occurring on the same page, the remark that ^ no 
man can have any species of dog clever without some 
sort of pains, and in general they n^lect them in 
Scotland,' unfortunately might be written in a book of 
to-day. The Colonel adds that * his grace ' had every 
reason to be a sportsman, as he posseted the Island of 
Arran, ' probably the best shooting place in the world.' 
This Arran has for over a hundred years been the 
favourite shooting ground of the Dukes of Hamilton ; 
and their pointers, isolated there, were of the best, — 
their purity of blood being most jealously guarded. 
The late Duke (the twelfth), grandson of Colonel 



by J, 

^ . . Jackson. R.A. (born 
■1778, died 1831), This is the corner of a large land- 
scape ; it is not the work of an animal painter, and yet 
how charming are the brace of pointers he has painted. 
"^he muzzle of the standing dog is too short, but other- 
wise he is quite a model, his feet and pasterns being 
jespecially typical ; of the dog sitting down only suffi- 
fcient is visible to bespeak quality and high-breeding. 
^ In my own Possession. 

.IX ai Ajq 

mod) .A.H ,no8^D£|^ .[ yd gnilniijq llo nj5 mtn^ * 
-bnul tjgifil Ji'io namoo arii ai eIriT (it^i baib ,8^^! 
i^Y bfiis ei^^nlfiq li5rnin£ hj^ lo iliow ^(\l ton gf lr : ^qwe 
.b^tnieq aisd ^ri aiatnioq lo 'jDjnd i>dl t>ii5 gnrrmirdD woH 
-isdto jnd ,nori8 ool ai gob gnibriBta artt lo al^.vunf ^HT 
gniad arnatajsq bnc j3t!t zid Joborn £ 35fup 2i 5ff s^iw 
-rftij2 ^Ino nwob gniitiz gob sHt lo : hjtq^/1 yllj?B3^e!3 
.gfiib3:jnd-dgiri bni: yjilfiup ^B^qesd oi sicfiaiv '^1 In^b 

1 - 


Thornton's host, was also fond of his pointers, but 
insisted upon introducing some violent out-crosses,, 
notably one with a lemon-and-white dog, which he 
brought from France. For the appearance of his d(^s 
this proved a disastrous alliance, as I can testify per- 
sonally. While Mr. John Mackenzie (keeper on the 
island since 1857) writes, *the Duke was very keen for 
the breed of the French pointer, of which I never 
thought much, and I am quite sure he in a measure 
spoilt our kennel of pointers.' He also states that 
Brodick Gistle Sandy, an eminent stud-dog that I 
bought at the death of the Duke, had * none of the 
blood of the French pointer,' though he thought very 
little of Sandy compared with his father, Dan, which 
he thus describes: 'Dan was, without exception, one 
of the best d<^ I ever saw on the hill, full of quality, 
could work every day in the week ; and he ran at such 
a rate that the ground almost shook under him.' 

The breed of pointers at Cannon Hall, Yorkshire^ 
was one of the oldest and most renowned ; it still 
figures in some old pedigrees. Here is an extract from 
a letter (dated November 23rd, 1894) of Colonel 
Spencer Stanhope : — 

' I believe the (Cannon Hall) breed was here at the 
time my grand&ther succeeded his uncle, Mr. Spencer, 
in 1783. They were celebrated in the time of my 
grandfktiier, Walter Spencer Stanhope, for their steadi* 
ness and general good qualities. His keeper, George 
Fisher, who was still alive when I was a boy, was well 
known as a trainer of pointers. They were livcr-and- 
white, not large in size, but very shapely. My grand- 
father kept diem up well under his keeper, George 
Whitfield ; but, in the year 1 842, hydrophobia occurred 
in the kennel, and, I think, only one bitch survived. 
Since that time we have gradually given up keeping 
pointers, and now they are not used on the South 



Yorkshire moor$. Some of tbc old breed, more or leis 
pure, were kept up in the neighbourhood, hujt I hi^ve 
not seen any tor some ten yeajrs past, and suppose they 
are now practically extinct.* 

T. B. Johnson, in the Spartsmads Q^lap^di4 
(1831), remarks that ^there are many good pointers in 
various parts of England, and particularly in York- 
shire' (p. 652); and no doubt it has been the in- 
fluence of such strains as the Cannon Hall, Colonel 
Thornton's, and Sir Tatton Sykes's (stud^ Plate XVI. )^ 
that has engraved quality in the pomters of this 

Here is some account, by a friend of his, of Mr. 
Johnson's treatment of his pointers, which ' were allowed 
to follow their master into the field as soon as their 
strength would enable them, before they could manage 
to surmount the ditches, over which they had m- 
quently to be lifted. They taught or broke themselves 
into the business they were intended to pursue, and 
were never terrified by the whip of the professed dog- 
breaker. The author of the Sportsman* s Cyclop^dia^ 
&c., generally contrived to have his whelps brought 
forth in the latter end of February or the early part of 
March ; and, as soon as the hay was cleared off the 
ground, he allowed them to follow him into the fields, 
where they immediately hegAxi to hunt, and very soon 
to set young partridges, which might be found running 
in the after-grass towards evening, very steadily. This 
was adopting the admirable maxim, Train up a child, 
&c., and thus, without trouble, his young pcnnters 
might be said to educate themselves; and it may be 
justly observed that self-acquirement, or self-acquired 
education, uniformly makes the most lasting and the 
most perfect impression on the mind. Towards the 
latter end of the month of September they were shot 
over, and taken out regularly during the remainder of 



the season' {^he SpartsmoHy i8j6, vcd. SL, No. 4, 
p. 185). 

' Mr. Danid Lambert wm bom on die i jth Mardi, 
1770. He was extremely active in all the sports of 
the field till he was prevented by his corpulence from 
partaking in them, when he bred cocks, sett er s , and 
pointers, which he brought to as great, or perhiq>a 
greater, perfection than any other sorting character of 
die present day' (Anecdotes^ by Egan, 1827, p. 137). 

Shordy after Daniel Lsunbert, was born die femous 
Sir John Shelley (1783). Says Egan (p. 218), his 
'^ celebrity as a first-rate shot and breeder of sporting 
<logs (in which he is wholly unrivalled) is aheady well 
established ; ' while Lacy vouches for the breaking of 
his pointers : — 

* Many years ago Sir John Shelley hunted two brace 
at once, which were in the h^hest state of disdpfine. 
At the report of his gun the whole four dropped 
instantaneously as though they had been shot; and 
when two brace of birds, in a turnip-field, were brought 
to the ground, each of these accomplished and sym- 
metricalTy formed animab was called by name, and was 
told to '* bring that bird,'' the one nearest to him ; 
when each in his turn retrieved his proper bird, brought 
it to the hand of his master, and laid himself down 
until all received the signal to rise' (The Modem 
Shooier^ p. 144). 

This incident shows wonderful breaking, but not 
more so than Richard Lawrence tells us of. *A gende- 
man in the county of Stirling, lately kept a greyhound 
tuid a pointer, and, being fond of coursing, the pointer 
was accustomed to find the hares, and the greyhound to 
catch them' {Sportsman's Repository^ 1820, p. 120). 
But my friend. Dr. Court, caps this story by averring 
that he himself, about thirty-five years ago, went out 
ahoodng with the Duke of Portland's keeper, who had 



with him a brace of roan pointers and two greyhounds. 
The pointers found the hare, pointed, backed, and 
remained down while the greyhounds coursed her. A 
jfeat of steadiness (as an Irishman might say) still more 
singular in the plural. 

A story of a famous south-country dog is given by 
Lawrence on the same page as the one just cited : — 

* There is a very good likeness, by Cooper, in our 
Sporting Reference Book, Wheeble and Pitman s Maga- 
zine for October, 1815, of Don, the then reputed best 
pointer in the county of Sussex, the property of Jasper 
Bates, Esq., of Pamshurst, in that county, and perhaps 
afterwards a stallion of high repute. He appears by 
his portrait to have been of the light breed, and his 
characteristics, most valuable indeed, were first-rate 
speed, a nose nearly Spanish, &c. He exhibited twice 
the following extraordinary proof of superior nose and 
ability as a pointer : whilst in the act or returning with 
a cock pheasant in his mouth, which his master had 
shot to him, he found and stood a hen pheasant.' 

The following information from the same work 
showing that the price of a thoroughly reliable brace 
was, in 1820, much the same as it is to-day, is also 
interesting : — 

* With regard to the average run of the times, for 
the price of a good, fair, marketable dog the following 
advertisement from Herts in the early part of this 
season is given as a specimen : ** Superior pointers. To 
be sold, a brace of black pointers, now in the hands of 
the breeder, a gentleman who has declined shooting. 
They are of the first-rate description, ranc^e high, find 
their game in fine style, particularly staunch, never tire, 
and, in fact, possess all the qualifications of pointers, 
without a blemish. They have been shot over two 
seasons. Price fifty guineas " * (p. 1 17). 

At the end of the eighteenth and the banning of 



the nineteenth centuries flourished Messrs. W. A. 
Osbaldiston, R. B. Thomhill, and R. Lascelles, all 
sporting authors, rich men^ and reputed to have owned 
pointers of excellence ; but, except from some casual 
references to his dc^s in the writings of the last named 
(of which I have fiilly avsuled myself in subsequent 
chapters), there seems nothing to be gleaned, — no 
records kept. 

Mr. Philip Gell, of Hopton Hall, Derbyshire, bom 
1773, owned a famous kennel. He used to take his 
pointers regularly every year to Scotland, and was a 
thorough enthusiast. At his death, in 1841, he left his 
kennel to Mr. Tom Taylor, who had entered his 
service in 1820, when eleven years old, and had become 
his favourite keeper and breaker. The following year 
(1842) a draft of about ten pointers and six setters 
was sold from this legacy. Messrs. Brearey & Co. of 
Derby were the auctioneers, and the total realised was 
upwards of 700 guineas, one brace alone making 130 
guineas. After this Mr. Taylor went in for pointer 
breeding extensively and with great success. He fre- 
quently had in his possession over a hundred pointers 
at a time, and once sold as many as seventy at one of 
his periodical sales. He was a judge, in 1866, at the 
Cannock Chase field-trials, which were held the first 
day on partridges and the second on grouse ; and he 
died at Hopton in 1891. For these particulars of a 
remarkable career I am indebted to Mr. Chandos Pole 
Gell and to Mr. Walter Taylor. 

Mr. Taylor's first sale at auction is the earliest of 
which I can get any details, as, although we are told 
that at the death of the second Duke of Kingston 
(1773) his 'celebrated breed of black pointers, con- 
sidered superior to all in the kingdom,' were ' sold for 
inunense sums' (The Complex Farrier, by Lawrence, 
1 816, p. 400), unfortunately there seem not to be any 



records either of these dogs or of their ultimate dis- 
persal, although the Duke was so fond of them that he 
actually constructed an underground passage from his 
house to his kennels ! 

On October ist, 1844, there was another epoch- 
making sale at the death of Mr. Thomas Webb Edge 
(b. 1788) of Strellcy Hall near Nottingham, the 

Sinters being of nearly identical blood with the 
opton breed. Mr. Edge was closely connected with 
Mr. Gell, was cousin to Mr. Hurt of Alderwasley, 
Derbyshire, and uncle to Mr. James Holden of Rud- 
dington, Nottinghamshire, and to Mr. George Moore 
of Appleby, Leicestershire. All of these were pointer- 
lovers, whose dogs figure largely in many pedigrees. 
Mr. Moore bought several pomters at his uncle's sale, 
and at Appleby the prestige of the race was nudntained 
well into the show-period. Among other purchasers 
was the fourth Duke of Portland, who at the advice of 
his sons. Lords Henry and George Bentinck, refreshed 
his kennel by the acquisition of the famous five-year- 
old stud-dog Rake, and two brace of puppies. With 
these Lord Henry achieved remarkable results, culmi- 
nating perhaps in Mr. Price's Belle, a great trial- 
winner about 1872. Mr. T. Statter also established a 
valuable kennel with his selections from the nineteen 
pointers offered. 

The Alderwasley strjun was shortly after this 
nearly escterminated by rabies, and finally, in 1863, 
was dispersed by the sale of four brace and a half at 
Tattersall's for 141 guineas. 

There resided for very many years (till his death, 
about i860) in Derwent Street, Derby, Mr. W. 
Statham, a veterinary surgeon, conmionly known as the 
Old Doctor. He was a wonderful judge of a pointer, 
owned and bred them in great numbers, and used to 
deal in them. He had dogs out at walk all over the 



neighbourhoocL His stnun was chiefly derived from 
Hopton, Strelley, Alderwasley, — and Shipley, where 
the Mundys had always some good dogs. 

Mr. W. Sheild, or Whitdngham, in sending me a 
typical photograph of an old Staffordshire pointer, 
described him as follows : — 

* I enclose a photo of the picture of the old pointer 
belonging to my uncle, Wm. Princep of Newton near 
Tamwoi^. I can remember the dog and horse being 
punted about the year 1848, when I was about twelve 
years old. Major was one of a strain which my grand- 
father had kept up. The colour was liver, with small 
white ticks all over the body. Major had, as you will 
see, a little more white on him. The dog was very 
fast, as were they all— could beat any field of reason- 
able size while one walked across it. The outline of 
the dog is correct I have no doubt, though the ears 
have been lifted ; feet were large, as used to be the case 
with all pointers. I shot over the last of the breed in 
1858, as good a bitch as one could wish for. She was 
stolen, and we could never trace her. They all had 
the clean-cut head and fine stern* (November 12th, 

Then, at Renton Abbey near Stafford, Lord Lich- 
field had an excellent kennel of working dogs, and he 
was one of the prime movers in the establishment of 
Field Trials, most of the very early meetings being 
held on his property. 

In Yorkshire, besides those I have already men- 
tioned. Lord Mexborough, the Blands of Kippax, and 
Sir Harry Goodricke, all had famous breeds ckting 
from early in the century. 

Northumberland is represented by the wonderful 
black pointers belonging to Admiral Mitford (b. 1781, 
d. 1870), and Cumberland by the liver-and-white Eden- 
hall strain, which survived till recently, but now 



^1902), Sir R. G. Musgrave writes, is unfortunately 

In Lancashire, the pointers at Knowslev were 
bred most studiously by the thirteenth Earl of Derby 
{b. 1775, d. 1851). I have in my possession a portnut 
of one of his dogs, Quiz, named and dated 18 12, by 
Barenger, who was himself a sportsman. The dog is a 
much-nuu-ked black and white ; he is lightly made, and 
has great quality, with a beautiful eye, perfect legs and 
feet for a pointer, and a very fine but half^iocked tail. 

Of the same county was the Croxteth race, which 
belonged to Lord Sefton (the third Earl, b. 1796, 
d. 1855), and no blood fi*om any kennel has been of 
more service to posterity. Though the breed at its 
fountain-head became degenerate before it was finally 
<iispersed in the seventies, yet most kennels where there 
was an admixture of its blood were found to have also 
valuable pointer-like characteristics. 

In Shropshire there never was a more noted sort 
than that kept at Woodcote, about which Colonel 
Cotes has sent me the following interesting account : — 

* My father was born at Woodcote near Newport, 
Shropshire, in 1799, and had a good kennel of pointers. 
I have often heard him say that, when he was a boy, 
they had a capital breed of pointers there, worked by 
the old keeper, Andrew Penson, and that they were 
supposed to be as good as any in the county. The 
kennel book begins in 18 17, but only gives a list of 
the dogs as they were entered. In 1825 there is a 
note of a bitch named Venus that came from G. J. 
5erjeantson of Hanlith Hall, Yorkshire, and, in the 
same year, Sylvia, from Sir E. Dodsworth, who had a 
.celebrated breed of pointers at Newland Park in the 
same county. I can remember my father saying that 
he offered Sir E. Dodsworth 100/. for three pointers 
that he had in 1826, but he would not sell them. My 



From an oil painting, dated 1827, by C. F. New- 
ton. The black pointers, the subjects of this picture, 
are beauties. Especially admirable is the pointing 
bitch, although the artist has somewhat failed in his 
foreshortening of the other's head. The two, however, 
are models of quality, and they possess the dished 
muzzles, the curl of the lip, the full eyes, the high-set 
cars, and the fine tails, that denote purely bred pointers. 

In my own Possession, 

.II X axAjq 

-wal^ A ,0 yd ,V^8' balfib ^jniinicq Ifo tiB rn6i'3 
,yiij)3iq eidl "io ^1:)^\du^ t)Hl ,2i:iJniQq 3l:)^lff ^HT .not 
^ihfiioq tjriir 21 ^Idfiiimb* ylliuDaqeH .e^iWad 3i£ 
aid ni bslifii jfidw^rnoa e^d ieilifi adl dguodllfi ^d^Jid 
,i3V3wod ,owj adT .b^ad a'l^dio ^djlo gnin^tiod^wiol 
baxkib :?d:t ^^'J^^oq \^di b(\& ,\iil£up lo ebbpiri* sib 
:t38-d§id adl ,2t)y3 llu\ ^dl ,qil ^diT ")o liuo ^dl ,83tsxum 
,8n9:>ntoq bt»nd ybiuq aionsb IrAi ,2lijiJ anft ^dl l^fiB ^zib^ 



father, however^ got another pointer from him in 1832, 
and in 1838 a bitch, Qusul, and she was put to Lord 
Mexborough's Flint. He also got bitches from Lord 
Stamford, Lord Henry Bentinck, and others, to breed 
with his Woodcote strain. He was a very good shot, 
and used to take up his team of dogs (five or six brace) 
every year, for about thirty years, to High Force, to 
shoot with the Duke of Cleveland. I can quite well 
remember his team of pointers forty-five years ago. 
They were all lemon-and-white, long, low, medium- 
sized dogs, with lots of quality and plenty of bone ; I 
have never seen a more even lot. My brother, after 
my father's death in 1874, kept them on till 1885, 
when they were all sold at Aldridge's, and I r^ret to 
say that I did not buy any of them. They averaged a 
good price : about twenty guineas each.' 

Colonel Cotes has a picture of two of these pointers, 
painted in 1833 ^Y ^' Smith; it represents them, as 
described above, of the finest quality, with typical 
head, ears, tails, and bone ; but whether Providence or 
the artist be responsible for the pattern, they are dis- 
tinctly ill-favoured in their hind-quarters. 

Sir Vincent Corbet, Mr. H. Powys, and Mr. Noel 
Hill of Berrington, had also some excellent pointers in 
this county about the middle of last century. 

It is improbable that the Woodcote records were 
known to *Stonehenge' when he wrote the following 
passage: — 

^The pedigrees of our pointers seldom extend 
beyond two or three generations, and even Mr. Edge 
in his day could hardly have gone farther, nor could 
the breeders of the present time trace their pointers 
sufficiently far back to settle the question of their 
origin. The pedigrees of those bred by Lord Sefton 
are probably as well made out as any in the kingdom, 
but even they are far from leading to what is desired. 

81 G 


If a dog is traced up to any one of Mr. Edge's kennel, 
all is done which is now necessary, and, indeed, all that 
can be useful to the sportsman, however interesting a 
further investigation might be to the naturalist' {The 
J^og, 1859, p. 89^. 

It is impossible, however, that he can have seen the 

pedigree-books of Mr. George John L^h (b. 1768) 

.and his son^ Mr. George Cornwall L^h of High 

' Legh, Cheshire^ as these books are kept from 1828 

with perfect accuracy and method. 

In the same county there were the pointers of the 
Marquis of Westminster, an early competitor at the 
trials ; of Mr. J. C. Antrobus of Eaton Hall, who 
also ran dogs at the first meetings ; and of Lord 
Combermere, who frequently judged thereat. 

Mr. Antrobus, describing the establishment of the 
breed formerly at Eaton Hall, writes that they sprang 
* first from a brace of pointers given by Sir Charles 
Shakerley (b. 1792) of Somerforf Park, Cheshire, to 
my father. I have a hazy notion that they were said 
to be Edge's breed. Then came an infusion of the 
Cornwall Legh stock, and later on we passed into the 
lemon-and-white, mostly descendants of a bitch of that 
colour given me by Mr. Thomycroft, the sculptor, 
father of Hamo Thornycroft. I do not know whence 
she came, but she was certainly well-bred.' 

The best known of the old Welsh breeds was the 
Wynnstay, Sir Watkin Wynn's ; but for many years 
the breeding and management of the pointers was left 
in the hands of a trusted keeper, Mr. W. Leighton, 
who in 1895 ^rote to me that, *at the time I left 
Wynnstay and sold part of the kennels to the present 
Sir Watkin, I destroyed all my pedigree books, &c.' 

Sir Watkin had till quite recently a beautiful d<^ of 
the old Wynnstay blood, called Banjo O'Gymru, and 
still possesses his descendants. Indeed, as fiu- as I 



know, he is the only man in England or Wales who 
can boast pcnnter blood that has been in the ifamily for 
fifty years ! 

It is sad to think that not a single one of the 
kennels that were famous at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century should have survived till the 
opening of the twentieth, for Colonel Cotes and 
Colonel Legh, though they may still own pointers, 
have entirely lost their old strains. 

Among notable gundog-lovers we now come to 
Sir Richard Garth, who during all his long life has 
been enthusiastic about shooting over dogs, was one of 
the most successful competitors at the beginning of 
pointer and setter Trials, and was the breeder of the 
renowned Drake (Plate XVIIL). When he left as 
Chief Justice for Calcutta in 1875, he sold his d<^s 
at Tattersall's. A passage from a letter to me 
^February 26th, 1902) gives proof both of his own 
former prowess and the excellence of his pointers : — 
* I wonder whether my best day has ever been beaten : 
one brace of dogs, one gun, one gillie, one pony, from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m., eighty-eight and a half brace grouse, 
sundry hares, snipe, &c.' 

Mr. Whitehouse of Ipsley Court, Redditch, was in 
his day an equally eminent pointer-breeder. In his 
strain of lemon-and- whites he contrived to concentrate 
by far the purest blood that remains nowadays in 
this country. He bred Hamlet (Plate XVII.), a dog 
equally remarkable in the field and at stud, and about 
him he writes to me : * My old bitch Jimo I exhibited 
at the second exhibition held at the Repository, Bir- 
mingham (i860), and won fifth prize. She was bred 
by a Mr. Tomes, of Cleeve Prior, Worcestershire, and 
was by a dog called Frank ; I believe he was bred by 
Lord Coventry. Juno was a wonderfully good bitch 
in the field. I do not know anything more about her 



pedigree. Mr. Bird's Bob took first prize at the same 
show, and I put Juno to him ; she had eight puppies. 
I kept Hamlet, Carlo, and Mona. Mr. Biid's Bob 
was a dog very wide across the nose : I dare say you 
have noticed that most dogs with a broad nose carry 
their heads high. All my lemon-and-whites were very 
hardy; they would stand any amount of work. I 
have shot over them in September from as soon as you 
could see in the morning till dark, and worked them 
day after day. I used to let Hamlet retrieve, and he 
was a very fair retriever, a good deal better than many 
retrievers I have seen. Just before I won the sweep- 
stakes at Bala with Hamlet he was badly shot, and I 
was doubtful if I should be able to take hinu I 
mention this to show you what a game old dog he was, 
and if you ask any one who was there, they will tell 
you that the longer he worked the better he behaved.' 
Now, Bird's Bob, which was the sire of Hamlet, was 
bred by Mr. J. Lang, the well-known gim-maker of 
Cockspur Street, London, — ^and Mr. Lang was as 
renowned for his pointers as for his guns, and used to 
command top prices for both. In this double calling, 
formerly not at all uncommon, his most eminent proto- 
type was Mr. Page of Norwich, who wrote The Art 
of Shooting Flying (1767). Another of Mr. Page's 
followers is Mr. W. R. Pape of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
and I fear he will prove the last. His breed of black 
pointers is celebrated, but he is chary of distributing 
it. The story of this kennel from his own pen 
(February 12th, 1894) is of great value : — 

* It is now about forty years since I started to breed 
my black pointers, and have had them ever since. I 
got a black pointer bitch from Admiral Mitford, who 
had then a kennel of those pointers, which had a great 
name in this county. She was a perfect wonder in the 
field, so that I at last wished to get some pups to 



oblige my sporting friends. I 'w;is told that in Spun 
they had the black breed, and a friend of mine was 
going out to Spain to look for ironstone and coal. I 
got him to get a d<^ for me. He was most fortunate 
in going to a large estate, where the owner had a 
kennel of pure black pointers, and gave my friend one, 
a fine dog. He had one of the most efficient heads I 
ever saw on a dog. He was powerful and heavy, very 
strong and healthy, and one of the most wise dogs I 
ever saw. I had him fourteen or fifteen years. His 
son, a dog from this pair, was a grand dog. I shot 
over him for thirteen or fourteen years, and gave him 
to General York, America, who shot over him three 
years longer, and his letters all say that he never saw 
such a dog on any game, and the General was a great 
dogman. I sent three young dogs out to America a 
few years ago. They were broken there, and all three 
took first prize at field trials. Those are the last I 
bred. I was once going to get a cross from Mr. 
Usher, but I was informed they had all white between 
forel^s, so I did not care about them. I only used 
them for my own shooting. Although I had many 
most handsome-looking dogs, I did not bother to send 
to shows. There was a show in Scotland that gave a 
prize to black pointers two years ago. This I was told 
by a gentleman to whom I had given a pdr of pups. 
I had a lot of pointers before I got the black breed, 
but have never had any other sort since I got them. 
Those that went to America gave great satisfaction. I 
got up the first dog show that was held in Newcastle, 
1859. Mr. Angus, a friend of mine, had a young 
black dog at the show, one of my breed, and, although 
the judges gave the prize to a liver-and-white dog, 
Mr. Walsh, the Editor of the Field, said in the Field, 
on reporting the show, that this dog, to his &ncy, was 
the finest pointer dog there.' 



There is very little mention of English keepers 
and breakers before the establishment of Trials, pos- 
sibly because, in those leisure days, the masters them- 
selves found time to finish their pup|nes as well as to 
work them when actually out shooting, only intrusting 
to the servants the removal of the rough edge. Still, 
such gamekeepers as John Mayer, who wrote the 
Sportsman s Directory (i 8 1 5), and William Floyd, in the 
employ of Sir J. Sebright and author of Observations on 
Dog-breaking (1821), must have been worthy of all 
respect and attention. Pierce Egan (in his Anecdotes^ 
1827) gives a slight sketch of John Harris, a dog- 
breaker of his day : — 

* Not that he thought a stubborn dog irreclaim- 
able ; these, when once broken, were often the best of 
dogs in his opinion, and of his own opinion in these 
respects he was rather tenacious. To any one who 
seemed to question the making of an untractable animal 
about to be committed to his care, his constant reply 
was, ** show me the dog with anything whatsomever of 
the breed of the pointer about him thkt I cannot break, 
and I will show you a man who has a lock of hair 
growing on the palm of his hand " ' (p. 229). 

Captain Lacy also, in The Modern Shooter^ 1842, 
refers to two renowned breakers. * I have seen Mr. 
Odlin, gamekeeper to — Turner, Esq., of Panton, in 
Lincolnshire, and one of the best dog-breakers in 
Great Britain, hunt five pointers at once, evidently in 
a state of complete subjection to the breaker's will. 
Mr. Brailsford, too, keeper to the Earl of Chesterfield, 
in Nottinghamshire, is a very superior artist in the nice 
science of reducing dogs to a perfect state of discipline 
in the shooting-field' (p. 145). 

Of these two, the former is only recalled to us 
nowadays by the occurrence of his name in some old 
pedigree ; but the son of the latter, Mr. W. Brailsfbrd, 



was himself a breaker of high repute, and before his 
recent death sent me (May nth, 1900) the following 
biography of his father : — 

' Captain Lacy's reference applies to my father, and 
I may mention a few facts in relation to my father's 
progress through life which may be of interest to you. 
My fether chaxtgedy at advanced salary, to take charge 
of a large- tract of shooting at Morley, Stanley, and 
West Hallam, held by gocS old Mr. Jeffrey Lockett 
of Derby, and where for many years he had a very 
superior kennel of setters. From Mr. Lockett he 
moved, about 1833, to take charge of Lord Chester- 
field's large shootings at Gedling and Bingham, and 
here he took some of his black setters from Mr. 
Lockett's, and with some black-and-white pointers 
which he found at Gedling, he now formed the best 
mixed kennel of working dogs I have known in my 
large experience. Hares were so numerous at Gedling 
then that from 200 to 400 were killed in a day's 
partridge-shooting, and one day, which I can well 
remember, Count d'Orsay and Colonel Anson killed, in 
Stocksfield (?), fifty brace of partridges and 150 hares ; 
and I have actually seen hares jump over the dogs' 
backs when in work.' t 

Another famous dog-breaker, Mr. John Armstrong, 
was born about 1800 at Bew Castle, in Cumberland. 
He was of Scottish descent, and his £ither was a well- 
known farmer, who employed him first as shepherd and 
afterwards as topsman. When he was in his twentieth 
year, his fame as a dog-breaker reached the ears of 
Sir James Graham of Netherby, who sent for him. 
The result of their first interview was decisive, as, 
according to his son, when Sir James had catechised 
him thoroughly, he wished to see him working his 
brace of setters, * after which he said, "Johif Arm- 
strong, I am quite delighted with both your d%s and 



yourself. I will rive you forty guineas for your dogs, 
and, with your rather's consent, I depute you from 
to-day as my head keeper and lands bailiff." An 
appointment he held, with honour and distinction, for 
forty-five years, nor ever changed, nor wished to 
change, his place.' Mr. Edward Annstrong, the son, 
worthily sustains the traditional tastes of his sire, even 
to the present day. 

Then there was Mr. Elias Bishop (b. 1809, 
d. 1882), another of the celebrities of the golden age 
of pointers, who commenced at the age of fifteen to 
shoot over his father's d<^s. He was bailiff and 
steward to Mr. Geoige Morgan, Biddlesdon Park, 
Bucks ; but he was not a game-keeper, though he ran 
a setter at some Trials in 1869, and won with it. He 
possessed a first-rate strain of pointers, which he had 
mherited from his father, who was a tenant-farmer ; 
and this breed he duly passed to his children, who, 
like so many others, improved it away and lost it. 
Four of his sons, Elias, James, Charles, and Edwin^ 
are eminent in the Trial world, and there are still 
Bishops of the fourth generation coming on as breakers. 
The first named of the sons writes : — * I can well 
remember my father when he shot over as many as 
three brace of pointers at one time ; those were the 
days of stubbles up to your knees, and mowing 
machines not thought of.' 

Last, but not least, among the notable breakers, I 
must mention Mr. Ecob, my fether's old keeper. His 
methods of training I used to watch and wonder at. 
He had a mysterious, innate power over his pupils, 
such as I have never seen in any one else. All dogs 
loved him instinctively — but they had to obey, though 
his magnetism prevented their ever being cowed by 
him. He was so busy with his other duties, for he was 
my Mother's fectotum, that his breaking had to be 



done at lightning speed, and he always schooled his 
puppies two together. In consequence, though there 
was not always time to teach beautiful quartering, all 
his dogs backed in a fashion unknown nowadays. To 
exemplify the man's extraordinary breaking, I re-* 
member that once he prociu-ed a brace of wild Irish 
setters, perfectly ignorant and unbroken. He com- 
menced vnxh them one Monday, and eight days after- 
wards some one came down to buy a brace of well- 
broken dc^, tried these setters all day, carried them off 
with him, and wrote, after the season, to say how 
delighted he still was with them. 

I have now followed the fortimes of the pointer 
down to i860, to the end of the second period, and 
have even traced the history of some femilies a few 
steps further, into the reign of Dog-show and Field 
trial. In my next chapter, as I pursue his after* 
career, an ungrateful task to any one who loves a real 
pointer, I shall not interfere with particular dogs or 
their owners, but shall confine myself to general criti- 
dsms of Shows and Trials, with their effects on the 
modern pointer, and shall show that d^eneration in 
him was a necessary consequence of the methods of the 
Kennel Club. The interests of this body, ranging 
from lap-dogs to life-savers, were far too wide to 
permit of its ever being a satisfactory legislator for the 
gundogs ; and the votaries of no other branch of sport 
have been so insane as to submit to its Jurisdiction, or 
to get their dogs mixed up in such an oUa-podrida. 
For, in a club like this, the shooting men must be in 
a minority, and laws will be passed that may be good 
for barzois or bulldogs, but will spell ruin for sporting- 
dogs. The Jockey Club is entirely distinct from the 
Slure-horse Society; though thoroughbreds and cart- 
horses, both being working varieties of the same 
animal, have more affinity than exists between sporting 



and fancy dc^. It, therefore, follows that when a 
^Hybrid Committee/ in 1874, met to design a stud- 
book for the Kennel Club, they should have hit upon a 
scheme that, while advantageous to the ^ idle ' breeds, 
was fatal to the well-being of the pointer. For — all 
show-winners, without any guarantee of their working 
qualities, were admitted free of chaise into this precious 
publication, and thus were given, even fi-om the first, a 
numerical majority of twenty-to-one over the trial- 
dogs : but not long afterwards, work was thrust still 
further in the background by the revocation of the 
early stud-book rule of free-entry for every dog that 
had competed at a Trial. 

A stud-book for a working breed based on looks 
alone must always be a stumbling-block to the unwary 
and a laughing-stock to the knowing ones, who remark 
sneeringly that, for true working quality, you must 
avoid a pointer with a number to his name. 

By placing the description of the black pointers of 
Scotland in this chapter, I do not wish to infer that 
there is any very old Scottish breed of that colour, nor 
that the race was originally in any way distinct from 
strains of the same colour in other parts of Great 
Britain. Their importance for us lies m the fact that 
they were established long before the commencement of 
the show period, and are to the present day unaffected 
by the demoralising influence of the Stud-book — in 
short, are still quite behind the times. They have ever 
been bred for a pointer's legitimate purpose ; and, 
therefore, I think that in this division is found the 
proper context wherewith to associate even their recent 

In Scotland the keepers were always greater person- 
ages than in England, as Colonel Thornton found to 
his annoyance at the Duke of Hamilton's, and they 
really owned the dogs in nine-tenths of the cases. This 



state of things, though to the historian disastrous from 
the consequent contempt of written pedigrees, no doubt 
tended to preserve the practical qualities of the race. 
And as these keepers were, like the poet, born not 
made, they received their pointers from their forebears, 
only to hand them on eventually to their sons. 

Mr. John Bishop (head-keeper to Mr. Pollock of 
Auchineden near Glasgow), who has since 1895 been 
keenly interested in my work, and whose invaluable 
assistance I here gratefully acknowledge, writes in 
February of that year : — 

* I have been to see three kennels of pointers. First, 
a kennel of liver and whites, that I heard was a grand 
lot ; they were just Devonshire houndy dogs not worth 
any comment. Second, a kennel at the Trossachs, 
Perthshire. This is the kennel of the old black strain 
I wrote you about. One keeper tells me this kennel of 
dogs has been bred from the best working black dogs 
for years. The present keeper has had charge of them 
for two years only. He has had a lot of experience in 
other laige kennels, where he was kennel-boy and 
under-keeper. He says he never saw game-finders like 
them, or better at backing and going down-wind. He 
says he has seen them throw themselves on their side in 
stopping. They are all black in colour, most of them 
have a heavy dewlap. The best in the ten is very 
throaty or dewlapped — her breast or brisket projects 
about four inches from her forelegs, giving her the 
appearance of being loaded at the front, not loaded at 
the shoulder, feet and lc«s fair, tail not very well carried. 
This bitch has a beautiful expression of eye. Ears too 
large for what is wanted now — they nearly meet under 
her neck. Third, I went to Kirriemuir in Forfarshire, 
and saw a kennel of ten black pointers at Cortachy 
Castle. They are bred from the dogs the Black Prince 
shot so many birds over in a short time. They are 



d<^s of a light build, rather fine in bone and snipy in 
muzzle, tails badly carried and not well set on, light in 
eye and flat-sided — ^still they look like work. One bitch I 
liked : she had a fine coat and ear, good feet, but her eye 
was a shade light, and her tail was a bit ring-shaped. 
I expected to see something good at Cortachy, as I knew 
he got two black pointers from Mr. Gordon of Aiken- 
head about twenty-eight years ago, and I sent him a 
dog of Mr. Lindsay's about twelve years since. He 
told me he had the finest dogs ever he owned, by that 
dog of Mr. Lindsay's. He regrets now he parted 
with them. He got big prices for them, and they 
all went.' 

Now this letter having been the starting-point of my 
investigations, I cannot do better than analyse and 
expand its information. 

Its * kennel at the Trossachs' belongs to Mr. 
James Graham of Auchray Lodge, and the purity of 
the breed is most carefidly preserved ; in fact the * pro- 
jecting brisket' — a malformation which, though un-- 
sightly, in no way impedes them at their work — only 
occurs among purely-bred pointers. This breed, says 
Mr. J. H. M. Graham, was originally an offshoot from 
Mr. Gordon's of Aikenhead. Mr. Gordon's kennel 
enjoyed in the North much the same reputation as Mr. 
Edge's in England — his dogs were the ne plus ultra of 
pointers. And when Mr. Bishop, as a mere lad, en- 
tered his service in 1869, he found 'fourteen brace of 
black pointers, almost without a white hair on them.' 
Here is his further description : 

* Mr. Thomas Gaunt, head-keeper to that eminent 
sportsman, John Gordon, Esq. of Aikenhead, Cathcart, 
near Glasgow, had the largest kennel of black pointers 
in Scotland, and it was considered by far the best. I 
was second keeper, and had all to do Mrith the dogs, so 
I can remember all about them. Mr. Gaunt brought 



the breed from South Wales : they were all black> and 
bred from blacks for many a year before. He was then, 
in 1839, with a gentleman named Summers Harford, 
Esq., who had a shooting near Merthyr Tydvil. He 
came, in 1842, with the same gentleman to one of Lord 
Eglinton's shootings (Cloughern, East Kilbride). When 
there, he bred with an old pointer-dog, which Mr. 
White, head-keeper at Douglas Castle, owned. This 
dog was black just by chance, his strain was black and 
white; and Mr. Gaunt always said when a black-and-white 
pup came that it was Mr. White's sort He afterwards 
brought the breed to Aikenhead, in 1 846, and bred black 
ones only, as Mr. Gordon liked them best. The Aiken- 
head black pointers soon became famous, and bitches 
came ft-om all parts. Mr. Gaunt just took a pup, which 
he went and picked, from bitches he approved of, so he 
soon had the best of all. The kennel that he thought 
most of was the Earl of Wemyss's at Gosford. They 
had also a breed of black double-nosed pointers, but 
he only bred from them once, as they were clumsy 
and soft. Mr. Lloyd, head-keeper to the Duke of 
Hamilton, had a large kennel of black pointers about 
thirty-seven years ago, but the most of them came ft*om 
Aikenhead. Mr. Kirke, head-keeper to John Graham, 
Esq. (father of Mr. James Graham) of Skelmorlie, had 
a large kennel of blacks about 1850, and I fancy long 
before that ; he also brought his bitches to Aikenhead. 
When taking the pointers fi-om Aikenhead to Riemore 
(Mr. Gordon's Highland shooting), I walked them 
through Dunkeld, and it took me hours, fi*om English 
sportsmen, who were staying there, examining them, 
and asking all about their work. They said they had 
many a time heard of the black pointers, but never 
before had the chance of seeing such beauties. 

The Cortachy Castle breed belonged to Mr. Car- 
negie, the head-keeper to Lord Airlie, and * the Black 



Prince/ mentioned by Mr. Bishop, was the Maharajah 
Dhuleep Singh. 

Lord nome possessed two separate stocks of 
pointers, the one at Douglas Castle, Lanark, the other 
at the Hirsel, Coldstream ; the former of which, Mr. 
Gaunt says, was not entirely black in 1 842, but became 
so afterwards. For the late Mr. Amos, head-keeper at 
Douglas, in writing to me about Sweep, a first-rate dog 
that Lord Home lent to me in 1895, g*^^ ^^^ pedigree 
as by Lord Lothian's Sancho out of a bitch of their own, 
whose ancestors were * all jet blacky very handsome, 
and good ones.' And Mr. James White, present head- 
keeper at the Hirsel, writes (December 1901) that 
* James Craw, who succeeded his father as keeper here, 
and left nearly fifty years ago, kept black pointers, and 
was a great authority. His successor, William Reid, 
also kept them.' 

Mr. W. McCall of Femiehurst, Jedburgh, head- 
keeper of Lord Lothian, writes (January 1902) that he 
first got his noted strain * from a keeper on the neigh- 
bouring estate of Hartrigg (Lord Stratheden and Camp- 
bell's), 1864.' He says that he has had the breed in his 
own possession for thirty-six years, and that his son 
William, keeper at Glen of Rothes, is also possessed of 
it ; that he has at different times used dogs of Lord 
Home's at the Hirsel, of Sir William Elliot's at Stobs 
Castle, Hawick, of the late Lord John Scott's, 
Spottiswood, Lauder, of Sheriff Rutherford's, Edgerston, 
Jedburgh ; that latterly for many years he has bred with 
the Douglas Castle dogs ; and that he first saw black 
pointers in 1852, when he went as under-keeper to 
Drumlanrig Castle, which belongs to the Duke of 

At three places belonging to the Duke were kennels 
of black pointers maintained : at Dnunlanrig, Dum- 
friesshire, at Bowhill, Selkirk, and at Dalkeith near 



Edinburgh, where Mr. Lindsay, the head-keeper, took 
a special pride in them. 

The late Mr. Usher, who had the handsomest 
black pointers that I ever saw, attributed much of their 
excellence to the Bowhill dogs. In a letter to me about 
them, written in January 1894, he said : — 

* I have had these dogs for fifteen years and have 
got a reputation for them. My first was a bitch, called 
Ruby, which I got at a sale, and which got a first prize 
at a show. She was very handsome and very good. I 
have been careful in breeding, by sending my bitches 
to be served by good dogs. There are several noble- 
men who use these pointers — ^the Duke of Buccleugh 
and the Earl of Wemyss, I know, do ; and Rap VI. 
was out of a bitch called Kate, by the Duke of 
Bucdeuch's best dog. Rap was very handsome, and 
was the best dog I ever had on the hill ; on a beautifiil 
day, it was a fine sight to see him at his work. It was 
the Duke's dogs at Bowhill, Selkirkshire, that served 
my bitches.' 

The Stobo Castle breed was also remarkable for its 
beauty, but some years ago Sir Graham Montgomery 
informed me that it was extinct. 

Mr. D. M. Forbes, of Riemore Lodge, Dunkeld, 
whose dogs are famous for splendid h^s and fine 
quality (Plate XXII.), gives the following account of 
them, dated September 1 899 : — 

* I got the first of my black pointers fi*om James 
Craw about sixteen years ago. Craw was for about 
forty years head-keeper at Netherby, and he told me 
that these pointers were descended from two that were 

fot more than fifty years ago, one from the Earl of 
lome's and the other from the Marquis of Lothian's 
kennels. It is but right to tell you that, though I 
have kept black pointers as a rule, one of the two 
progenitors named was black and the other liver or 



liver-and-white, and occasionally a liver or brown pup 
still appears in a litter of pups, though the parents may 
be quite black. They have always, however, been 
most excellent dogs, and I have never found an in* 
different worker in a litter. Every pup 1 have reared 
has invariably turned out a good one.' 

This James Craw may very likely have been the 
man of the same name mentioned by Mr. White as 
having left the keeper's situation at the Hirsel, ^ nearly 
fifty years ago.' 

Mr. John Millar, of Whitehill Kennels, Aberdour, 
whose father kept a public kennel there and was keeper 
when a young man to Lord Wemyss, writes (January 
1902) very explicitly. His father kept, as far back as 
1 83 1, a rough pedigree-book in which he recorded the 
names and full particulars of the dogs that he bred 
with. * I do not know where my uncle, who was so 
long keeper at Gosford, got these pointers to begin 
with, whether they were there when he went, or whether 
he took them with him. But as he was associated with 
the black pointer before going there, it is very likely 
that he took them with him ; for the Millars took 
them with them to any new place they went, as a thing 
connected with themselves. I never saw anywhere such 
models as they, and oh ! such wisdom they had. If I 
was an .artist I could yet paint from memory a perfect 
likeness of some of the model bitches we had ; and as 
for true incidents, I believe I could give you matter to 
fill a whole volume itself, and such that would make 
you cry and laugh in succession.' 

Mr. John Simpson, head-keeper to Lord Overtoun, 
Overtoun Moor, Dumbartonshire, procured a black 
bitch in 1858 from W. Millar, the father of Mr. John 
Millar, and from her * bred the best kennel of pointers 
in Argyllshire.' He thus describes its foundation : — 

'At that time I was young and anxious to dis- 



t^rom a SpartiHg M^igazines engraving, 1831, by 
J. Scott, jun., after J. F. Lewis, R.A., who exhibited 
firom 1820 to 1877. A brace of handsome bitches are 
represented in this soene ; but the better of the two is 
without doubt the nearer ow, aa she has the more 
pleasing head : hbrii fppear to have had the tips of 
their tails removtd. ^^ 

In fny 9Wtt Possession. 

.illX aTAJ4 
yd ,i£gi .^ithrtfi^ ^wkmjfSA ^mttt^.n ffi99^ 

91B 89fbtid MieebfNkri %5 9Mnd A .^Bi<« cMtti iHQii 
?f owl 9iff \o i99l9ff 9ib md ; Msst mI), ni fatf f i^ p f t fn 
9iom 9ih esri 9ffe es ^sno *mMa 9flt . )rfiP9i) W^liw 
"io eqh ^dl bsri ^^sd o1 isaqtfK rilod : bmd ttHM^kl : 

imrp«l9«i 8li#l Italic 

^ -T • ■ 

^ ): .. t 


tinguish myself, and I took the bitch to Eglinton 
Castle and got her warded by a son of Lord Eghnton*s 
famous Grouse, the finest dog of his time. I was not 
very sure about her holding to that dog, as the heat 
did not leave her quickly, and I gave her one of my 
own dogs. However, to make sure, I wrote to Mr. 
Kirkland, the keeper/ telling him about it, and he wrote 
back to say that, if there was a black-and-white pup in 
the litter, they were got by his dog, and so it turned 

I myself can testify to the excellence of the work of 
these Scottish pointers — indeed I have never seen an 
out-and-out wonder that had not got some black blood 
in his veins ; and though I^do not like their colour on 
the moor, I tolerate it because of their extraordinary 

If science and good luck brought gifts to the 
wedding, a blending of these blacl^ with the pied 
breeds of England might be followed by a r^eneration 
all round ; as, for want of an outcross, the Northerners 
are dwindling in size and constitution, while the 
Southerners are lacking in distinctive character. And 
there need be no fear of the cross proving too drastic, 
as the Scottish race is already full of English blood, 
absorbed at the best period. 

No doubt, at present, the future looks rather 
gloomy for the pointer, but as *'tis darkest before 
dawn,' the present century may accentuate some streaks 
of light faintly wavering on his horizon. 

He is not yet half-way through the third stage of 
his existence, and if there were a sudden reaction — 
his would not be the only case on record of re- 
establishment after forty years' wanderings. 

97 H 


SHOWS and working trials for pointers are both the 
products of the last half-centxiry ; the former, open 
at fii^t to pointers and setters alone, were instituted in 
1859 at Newcastle-on-Tyne, while the first of the 
latter was held near Bedford in 1 865. The shows were 
received with much enthusiasm, and at the outset, no 
doubt, did good. No one at that time had dreamed of 
keeping a pointer unfit for work or even unbroken^ 
and the periodical exhibition of the handsomest working 
dogs or the diflFerent strains, collected together for 
comparison, should have tended without doubt to the 
perfection of the race. But the late Mr. W. Bnulsford, 
in a letter to me about the starting of the Stafford trials 
in 1 866, writes as follows : — * Another object was to 
bring to the fi"ont the best working strains of pointers 
and setters, as several dogs that had carried off prizes 
at dog-shows, after their introduction by my father, 
were worthless as field-dogs, and it seemed to me that 
a working test was the only reliable one to breed do^s 
of high character.' * Stonehenge ' corroborates this m 
1877 with: — *From their institution at Newcastle in 
1858 there has been a growing feeling of dissatisfaction 
with the awards of the judges' {Dogs of the Briiish 
Islands^ book iv., chap. i.). So, apparently, the idyllic 
state of afiFairs did not last very long ! 

Clever people soon fancied there was * money in' 
the showing of so-called sporting-dogs ; and the show 
type stray^ farther and ferther from the lines of the 



old working pointer^ until it touched the bottom about 
1880, when the show-men, ignorant of the first prin- 
ciples of the pointer, could actually believe and applaud 
a writer who dared to sum him up thus : — * How can 
I better describe him than by saying he should be 
formed to a great extent on the model of the fox- 
hound' {The Dogy Idstone, p. 118). But by this time 
Shows had multiplied like fever-rash — dog-showing 
had become a commercial profession — and doubtless 
the admixture of alien blood, alloying the gold, was 
found necessary to a dog that had to bear the constant 
stnun of the show-bench. 

But what was the Kennel Club doing all that time, 
may be asked ! Nothing, absolutely nothing. A nine- 
teenth-century Gallio, it * cared for none of those 
things.' As long as the pointer classes at its numerous 
shows were well filled, it was content. It still held 
Trials once a year, under the most cumbrous, ill- 
adapted rules that could be conceived ; but, as the 
entries kept on dwindling, the question of abandoning 
even these was mooted. From that catastrophe, how- 
ever, I myself who was at that time a member was 
instrumental in saving it. 

To give an instance of the apathy of the Kennel 
Club as regards pointer matters : it is not more than 
a couple of years since it first allowed the title of 
champion to be gained at Trials, though some of us 
had been clamouring for it long enough. It oflFered 
the title of champion as a reward for winners at Dog- 
shows, but there was no championship allowed for 
work even at its own Trials ! On the same principle, 
I suppose, we should give our servants wages not for 
their skill, but for their looks ! If the Kennel Club 
had demanded any proof of the working capacity of 
the show-ring winner before he assumed the title of 
champion, their custom would not have been so de- 




moralising ; but, even if the conditions of its champion- 
ships had themselves been sound, its method of granting 
them would have been absurd. 

At the present time (1901) secretaries of Shows 
are invited to apply to the Kennel Club by a certain 
date, asking for these championships to be allotted to 
them. Then, however poor the entry, the judge is 
expected to award them, unless he withhold all first 
and second prizes- from the classes. My suggestion 
was that a two-year average of the individual entries 
at the big shows, in each particular breed, should be 
taken ; that on these averages should be based the 
minimum number of dogs for the future award of 
championships, as by this method the rule would work 
automatically ; and that no pointer should be dubbed 
a champion until he had guned a championship both at 
a Trial and a Show. To give a casual example of the 
working of the present plan: — at Preston (1895), 
where there were thirty-three pointers, no champion- 
ship ; at Edinburgh (1895)9 twenty-^ight pointers, one 
championship; at Darlington (1896), eleven pointers, 
two championships ! 

No doubt the sins of the Kennel Club against the 
pointer have been less of commission than of omission ; 
but, as if to emphasize its contempt for work^ it ex- 
cludes from its stud-book any mention of the field-trial 
classes at its shows. It is odd that a club founded 
more or less in the interests of the English sporting 
breeds should so soon have forsaken them to run after 
foreign dogs that are useless in England ; but, as Dr. 
Cuus remarked over three hundred years ago, * We 
English men are marvellous greedy gaping gluttons 
after novelties, and covetous cormorants of things that 
be seldom, rare, straunge and hard to get.' He knew 
his fellow-countrymen then — and now ! 

I do not wish to suggest for a moment that as a 


dog-show club pure and simple the Kennel Club has 
done amiss, for (agdn like Gallio) it appears to police 
its kingdom effectually enough, and its registration of 
dogs' names and pedigrees is emphatically a benefit to 
all. It is as a guardian of the English working-dc^s, 
and as a bulwark against the seething whirlpools of 
* fancy,' that it has proved such a failure. 

To turn to the other Societies connected with the 
pointer, there is the National Pointer and Setter 
Society (often called the Shrewsbury Society), the 
oldest of all, which has, I believe, held Trials r^ularly 
since 1866. It has had little to do with the retro- 
gression of the pointer, except in so far as its Trials, 
m common with those of the other Societies, have been 
tainted by the omnipresent spirit of fancy. Indeed, it 
has always held itself superior to the dog-show element, 
and it was the inventor of the sportsmanlike ^ spotting 
system,' now adopted by all the other Societies at 
their Meetings. 

The Pointer Club was another Trial society, but 
solely for pointers. It held its first Meeting in 1889 
and after that date held them annually, until, Mrs. 
Dombey-like, it finally flickered out at the birth of 
the International Shooting-dog Club in 1895. ^^^ 
Pointer Club was never a very vertebrate afi^ir, and 
one of its definitions, *that the type of pointer as 
described by '* Stonehenge " be adopted,' is as am- 
biguous as anything fi-om Delphi! I have three 
editions of *Stonehenge' now before me, 1858, 1867, 
and 1882 : the pointer described is different in them 
all, and the illustrations make the confusion worse 

The International Shooting-dog Club, springing 
as a phoenix from the ashes of the Pointer Club in 
1895, ^ certainly shown itself more anxious fbr the 
well-being of the gundogs than its older relatives. It 



has brought out an excellent set of Trial rules (grafted 
on those of the National Society), has regularly held 
autumn Trials on grouse, and from the first has 
encouraged brace-stakes. 

It soon changed its rather truculent title into the 
International Pomter and Setter Society, and more 
recently has united with the Sporting Spaniel Society 
and the Retriever Society as a section of the Inter- 
national Gundog League. The League has started a 
yearly dinner where all gundog-lovers may meet, and 
has also instituted a badge for its members as a pledge 
of unity of object. But these things, though very 
well, are not enough. The League must hold an 
annual dog-show for gundogs, it must establish a 
stud-book open to trial-winners and certificated dogs 
alone, it must support local Trials, and it must see 
that the judges carry out its excellent rules. It might 
also with advantage establish certificated stud-dogs in 
dififerent localities at a reduced fee. Captain Lacy, 
about 1840, foreshadowed in a remarkable manner the 
actual establishment of the Societies : — * The grand 
cause of the continued superabundance of ill-bred dogs, 
and the difliculty of procuring good-bred and first-rate 
ones, is the want — as far as I know, the entire want — 
of the establishment of societies professedly for the 
purpose of promoting improvement in the breed and 
training of pointers and setters!' (Lacy*s Modem 
Shooter J p. 145). Let us hope he will prove an equally 
true prophet of the benefits that he does imply are to 
follow — in spite of that qualifying * professedly.* Of 
one thing, however, I am certain, — that, if these good 
times ever do come, to the League will belong the 
credit. But it must press forward, as the other 
Societies will have to try to keep pace with it ; and 
glorious will it be if the gundc^, after receiving for 
long enough nothing but harm from Shows, and very 



mixed blessings from Trials, at last begin to reap real 
benefits from them both ! The title of International, 
which seemed a few years ago happily chosen on 
account of the League's membership of all nations, its 
Continental Trials, Officers, and Committees, is now 
alas ! rendered practically meaningless through the six 
months' quarantine imposed by the Board of Agri- 
culture, which, while granting exemptions to the 
performing d(^s of the music-hall, has refused so far 
any privU^e to gundo^ entered for Trials, though 
from the very nature of their calling they have to be 
not only under close supervision, but also in perfect 

Nevertheless, its fiill title is retsdned by the Society 
in the hope that some day the official eyes may be 
opened, and that the liberties of the pointer may not 
remain entangled in bureaucratic red-tape. 

The * fancier' at the shows has long been recog- 
nised, and sportsmen have always deplored his influence 
among the gundogs. By the name of fancier they 
define a hammil person whose mania it is to be unable 
to see any useful or beautiful point in an animal 
without longing to develop it abnormally to the ruin 
of all symmetry : such a being would be safe nowhere 
but in a dove-cot, where his efforts might at least be 
buried under piecrust. Sometimes he exaggerates 
useful qualities till they become useless: his hobby 
otherwhile is to engraft foreign characteristics on his 

The seed of the * pointer-fancy ' was sown at the 
first dog-show ; it was germinating when pointers were 
forced to do the double duty of tie show-ring and the 
field ; and it was in full bloom in the days when men 
regardless of the proper use of gundogs, and lusting 
after Show-prizes, bred pointers as like foxhoimds as 
they could get them. The designs of fanciers are also 



furthered by those who after buying a d<^ or two at 
high prices have been pitchforked into the office of 
judge by some astute show-secretary, alive to the fact 
that a novice in the judging list and a large entry 
frequently form a sequence. But such a man seldom 
has a knowledge of dogs, perhaps he has never even 
seen them at work, and has no notion of the exquisite 
balance that makes perfection of form in the working 
breeds. So when actually in the ring he is panic- 
stricken by a sudden sense of his own ignorance, and 
clings in his alarm to any featxu'e prominent enough 
to catch his eye. 

The press also is not guiltless in this matter. Very 
often unfortunate reporters are sent down to write 
essays on gund(^ without even knowing the sporting 
A, B, C, so they fall a prey to the smooth-tongued 
fancier, who is ever ready to hymn the particular fad 
of the moment. Even their inept criticisms fade, 
however, when compared with the doings of the 
anonymous reporter-cum-cxhibitor-cum-juc^e, a mon- 
strous trinity that is a perpetual scandal, be the conduct 
of this composite person ever so pure. All honour, 
then, to those editors who order the reports of Shows 
and Trials to be signed, and to those reporters who 

So much for * fancy ' at the Shows : but, though it 
may appear still more out of place at the Trials, it is 
there too ! At their commencement Trials for pointers 
and setters were started unfortunately, because un- 
naturally, with the so-called single stakes, i>. stakes in 
which two dogs, strangers to each other and handled 
by different men, work in direct competition. Thus 
there soon arose among the breakers such keen rivalry 
to secxu-e points at any cost that quartering, backing, 
roading the game, style, and obedience to signal were 
sacrificed. The judges of the period joined in this 



rabid point-worship, some no doubt because it simpli- 
fied their duties, others from the flashiness of this kind 
of work ; until the ideal * trialer ' came by breeding 
and breaking to be a sort of machine with a good nose, 
very fast, and immovable on the point till the birds 
were flushed for him. He dashed into the wind 
str^ght down the middle of his ground, showing what 
his admirers were pleased to call his * bird-sense,' which 
meant finding those birds lying in his course and 
Ignoring all the rest. Thus was bird-sense substituted 
for common-sense ; and though the hare -foot was 
condemned, the hare-brain was in the ascendant. Such 
d(^s were, of course, quite useless on the grouse-moor, 
as I found out by bitter experience ; and I fear that 
the uselessness of costly trial-winners has turned many 
a promising 'dog-msui* into a 'driver/ That dogs 
no good to shoot over can win at Trials is proof 
positive of rottenness in the system, and even * Stone- 
iienge ' himself had to own : — * In any case, to count 
up the number of times each competitor finds a brace 
of birds, and decide by that alone in a trial limited to 
jninutes, is, in my opinion, to give chance too great a 
*' pull "' {Dogs of the British Islands, 1883 ed., p. 89). 
And as evidence that ' fancy ' had not altogether ceased 
from troubling even in 1901 : — a setter in one of the 
Stakes was awarded a first prize at a moment when she 
liad galloped far out of sight both of judges and 

I fear that nothing now will put a check on the 
popularity of the single-stake. Its element of luck, its 
excitement, and its standard of partial breaking are 
very attractive to most ; although nearly all the in- 
and-out runnings at Trials, and the dissatisfaction 
arising therefrom, are attributable to this form of 
trying dogs. The brace-stake^ in which the two dogs 
that work together belong to the same owner and are 



worked by one man, was started later. It demands 
work identical with the work done out shooting, but it 
has never yet created enthu^asm among the many. If 
brace-stakes were judged carefully, there would be the 
same continuity in the awards as is found at spaniel 
trials : a greater gain, perhaps, to the breeds of 
pointers than to the coflb^ of the trial-giving Societies. 
Anyhow, the brace-stake is treated as a rule with 
scant courtesy, sandwiched in anywhere, and the braces 
are given but one trial each. For it is subordinated 
completely to the racing single-stakes; and actually 
the National Society goes out of its way to bar 
expressly a win in a brace-stake from qualifying a dog 
to compete in its champion stake ! 

I have often heard it said that if there were less 
chance and uncertainty in the running of the dogs it 
would affect trials injuriously. My own opinion is 
entirely against this ; though no doubt the scale of 
prizes would have to be remodelled, the offered money 
cut down somewhat, and the immense first prizes 
abolished by utilising the surplus among the other 
prizes to make them more proportionate. For, as 
long as competitors look on a stake as a kind of 
lottery, they may be attracted by a lump sum ; but if 
the best dogs were generally in the money, they would 
require that money to be more widely distributed* 
To make it clearer, if the breed is to be encouraged^ 
and the production of good shooting-dc^s adequately 
rewarded, when A, B, and C, all good dogs and about 
equal in merit, are left in at the end of a stake, A 
ought not to win more than double what B does^ 
because of the judges' (often vacillating) decision. I 
dare say I shall be blamed for telling unpleasant truths^ 
but I see no other way of getting justice for pointer 
and setter, and nothing is to be gained by paltering 
any longer with matters so vital to them. The time- 

1 06 


honoured way to rouse sleepers is by ^shouts and 

At length I can turn to a task more congenial, that 
of criticising and discussing the methods of judging at 
Trials, taking as my model the admirable rules of the 
Pointer and Setter Society (I.G.L.). A judge at a 
Meeting, if he conscientiously do his duty, has no 
sinecure ; and especially on a grouse-moor he must 
be both mentally and bodily an exceptionally endowed 
person. If wind or limb give out and he lag behind, 
or if he relax his attention for one moment during the 
day when dogs are running, in that moment a flush 
may pass for a point or a cast may become a chase, and 
vitiate the equity of a whole stake. And in addition 
to his physical qualifications, he must be right-minded 
enough to recognise that by accepting this office he 
becomes the servant of the competitors as a whole, 
bound to give his own ripe judgment ; and that if he 
hil to do so through idleness, fear, or favouritism, he 
fails also in common honesty. 

Of course there are still extant undesirable types of 
the judge, but they are certainly becoming rarer. I 
will only mention three of these, which may be dis- 
tinguished as * feudalist,' ' foretelling,' and * faddish/ 
Of the first of these is he who apparently considers 
that the prizes are to be presented^ not awarded, by 
him, and that his beneficence, not his judgment, is to 
be called into action. He will complacently put 
forward that he * does not care for that colour in a 
pointer,' and that he * never fancied Irish setters,' as 
reasons for excluding them from the prize-list. Of 
the second is he who will say openly at lunch-time, 
when the dogs have run once, that such-and-such a dog 
must win, that he knew as much the moment he 
clapped eyes on it, &c. And after this pronouncement 
let that dog commit the gravest faults, let another 



perform never so well, the judicial prophecy will be 
fulfilled. Of the third is he who analyses the motives 
of the dogs in their work, and arrc^ates for the poor 
beasts brains as complex as his own. Such analysis 
may be interesting in one's own kennel, with unlimited 
time at one's disposal and cumulative experience of 
each dog's individual record ; but at a trial it is quite 
out of place, and in a public money-stake manifestly 
unfair. The best judging is of the plun, straight- 
forward, ^ under your nose ' sort, taking care that all 
the decisions can be proved by rule of gun! 

It was, I suppose, in the expectation of getting 
judging of this kind at the Trials that the * spotting 
system' was first invented. It derives its name from 
the judges being allowed a practically free hand, being 
allowed to * spot ' the winners how they like. If the 
judges are strong and thoroughly capable, I think it 
the best of the three systems, but if they arc not first- 
rate — infinitely the worst. It throws all responsibility 
on them — they can retain, they can dismiss the dogs as 
they choose ; and until the announcement of the prizes 
at the finish the spectators can but guess at the pro- 
gress of the stake. I consider the secrecy of this 
system, and its consequent dullness to the lookers-on, 
its chief defects. 

The ' heat system ' was undisguisedly a gamble. 
It did not pretend to discover any but the best dc^ ; 
and it magnified the element of luck even as regarded 
him. Still it was much more interesting, and much 
more likely to captivate and educate the casual visitor 
to the Trials. The method of conducting this system 
is, or rather was, to draw by lot into pairs, and so 
run, all the competing dogs, in order to pick out the 
better one fi"om each pair. These selected dc^ were 
then drawn together, and again chosen from. And 
similar procedure was continued, until only one dog 



remained in the stake. This one of course tobk first 
prize, while the one last put out by him had the 
second, and so on. 

But no community with any lingering respect for 
the traditional uses of gundogs wodd have tolerated 
this system for long ; so the Kennel Club eventually 
replaced it by the * modified heat system,' which 
allowed the dogs that had been beaten in any of the 
heats by the absolute winner to compete afterwards 
for the other prizes, and authorized the judges to 
pronounce at pleasure ^any particular trial to be * un- 
decided,' admitting both competitors into the next 
round. But before that time most trial-men had 
become so impatient of the jfarcical results of the crude 
* heat system ' that they would not give these modifica- 
tions a chance. 

Myself I believe that, granting the necessity for 
holding single stakes at all, the modified heat system 
could be made, with a few improvements, the most 
satisfactory of all ; it is so much more lively, and much 
more helpful to any ordinary judge. If, for instance, 
to its existii^ regulations power were added to dismiss 
both dogs a^er a trial, and if when ties were over dc^s 
that had not met before in any heats might be run to- 
gether, this system would I ^cy come again into vogue. 

Having now explained the earlier systems, I will 
proceed to review the Trial laws of the I. P. S. S. ; 
of which code Rules i and 2, embodying adequate 
formulas for the organization of single and brace stakes, 
do not call for any comment. 

Rule 3 dictates a minimum time for the duration of 
each trial in the first round, ensures that the prize- 
winners shall have run together, and insists that no 
brace-stake shall be decided before all meritorious 
braces have been tested twice. This last is a most 
necessary addition of the present year (1901), to guard 



the braces a little against the chances of imequal con- 
ditions. But it is a significant fact that as yet no 
other Society has accord^ them even this elementary 
courtesy ! 

Rule 4 forbids any prize to a dog that will not 
back of his own accord. As a rider to this, the judges 
might well be requested to call up the backing dog 
after a point, and let the two start level for the fresh 
cast : otherwise a willing backer is so heavily handi- 
capped. I remember a notable instance of this ; when 
a pottering little bitch, running with an admirable 
setter, got a point at once and was backed, then a 
^cond and a third in rapid succession, going straight 
up the field, while the dog got further and further 
behind. The bitch won on this, though she was not 
worth the dog's shadow ! 

Rule 5, 1 really must quote in full : — 'The Judges 
will, in making their awards, give fiill consideration to 
the manner in which the ground is quartered and 
beaten, and are requested not to award a prize to the 
dog of any owner or handler, who does not beat his 
ground and work exactly as he would do were he actually 
out shooting.' O admirable rule, — more honoured, 
alas, in the breach than in the observance ! 

Rule 6 is to protect a dog from the evil conse- 
quences of detention on point by the judges as a pro- 
vocative of non-backing in his rival. 

Rule 7 also deserves to be printed in full : — * The 
judges shall not decide the merit of a dog's running 
from the number of times he points game, backs, &c., 
but from the style and quality of his performance as a 
whole. Dogs are required to maintain a fast and killing 
range, wide or narrow as the necessity of the case de- 
mands ; to quarter the ground with judgment and 
regularity, to leave no game behind them, and to be 
obedient, cheerfiil, and easily handled.' Here is a 



spirited demand for a perfect judge and a perfect trial 
dog ! In * the style and quality of his performance ' is 
included the style of galloping, style on point, and the 
very beauty of the dc^ ; and that these traits are most 
desirable is easily proved. We go- shooting with dogs 
to enjoy ourselves, and their * gallant * ranging with 
high head and wanton tail will charm away fatigue from 
many a barren stretch of moorland, while their grace 
and beauty on point will add that zest to the occasion 
which begets straightness in the powder. I know that 
some sportsmen nowadays affect total indifference about 
their dogs' appearance, but if they appreciate the good 
looks of their wives and their horses, why, in the name 
of consistency, not of their pointers ! It is probable 
that if dogs are * quartering ' well, * they will leave no 
game behind them.' Still this reiteration is good 
if it check that fatally common want of breaking, of 
which leaving game behind is one of the most tell-tale 

Rule 8 : — in this the Judges are given plenary 
powers over the breakers, with a clause permitting the 
latter in certain cases to invoke judicial protection from 
their opponents. Now the * not keeping together ' of 
the actual competitors is one of the offences specified 
by the rule, and yet judges are for ever complaining 
that these two will wander apart. But that they might 
be easily checked is certain, if they were subjected to 
firm discipline and the rule for their guidance acted 
upon. The breakers themselves would respect the 
judge who enforced it, provided that all were treated 
alike ; for to succeed as a breaker, a man must be 
sensible and well aware of the value of discipline. And, 
after all, these men are not always the ones to blame, 
for I have seen them worried without reason by a 
bullying judge, and even told to drag their dogs off 
points that were perfectly in bounds. 



Rule 9» ordaining that a gun shall be fired over the 
aged dogs as well as over the puppies before awarding 
them recognition in any stake, is timely and excellent. 
Formerly, only the puppies had to be * tried by fire ; ' 
though the reason of this I could never discover ! 

Rule lo, granting certificates of merit to dogs out- 
side the prize-list, furthers the scheme for doing good 
to pointers and setters, as the trial classes at the shows 
are recruited largely fi-om certificated animals, and the 
number of * hall-marked ' dc^s in the country is thus 
materially increased. 

Rule 1 1 is simply to protect the Society, as also are 
Nos. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 ; for this reason, there- 
fore, though sound and necessary, they do not enter 
into the scope of this chapter. 

Rule 12 that enjoins, when the first round is finished, 
the hoisting of a red or a white flag * at the end of each 
individual contest, to indicate which of the two com- 
petitors has shown the greater merit in that particular 
trial,' has now unfortunately become almost a dead- 
letter. It is a pity, as it would so much illumine the 
dark places of the spotting system ; and if systematic- 
ally employed, it would help to sustain that interest in 
the actual trials which has drooped since the abolition 
of the heat system. But judges, like setters, are apt to 
keep their flags down when nervous : though, protected 
by the sentence * the hoisting of the colour of a dog 
whose performance on that one occasion has been the 
more meritorious will not necessarily imply that his 
opponent is debarred fi*om winning in the stake,' — ^there 
seems small cause for alarm. Besides, they seem to 
forget that by not hoisting a flag at all they are really 
declaring, according to the Rule, that * there is a total 
lack of good work.' 

Before closing this chapter I will add my own 
method of avoiding the dangers that beset the judge 



From a Sporting Magazine's engraving, 1834, by 
Richd. Parr, after G. H. Laporte, who exhibited from 
i84t to 187J, 

The bitch here portrayed was called * Juno/ and her 
colour was a pale fawn. She was bred by H,M. 
George IV,, and was owned by Thos, Scotland, Esq. 
She was *a very remarkable worker' (voL Ixjcxiv.), 

She was also, as this picture testifies^ a very remark - 
.able bitch to look at ! If there arc faults in her, they 
lie in her rather low-set ear, and her tail being too thin 

at the root. 


In my own Possession, 


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lad bnB \oftu^ • b9lls3 ejsw bayBiJioq aiarl riDtid 3dT 
.M.H yd batd «bw ad* .hwkI atsq b kbw iijoIod 
.pea .brfsllODS .aodT ^ banwo 2jiw bnu ,,V1 agioaO 
.(.vixxxl .lov) * Tdahow dldii^-ifimTr yi^v b* wsw adS 
-jliBmyi yiav b e^aftba^J rrulDiq gidi «b .obIb e*w adr? 
y^ri:^ fisd ni gjluB*^ sib aisdj "^I ! 1b jIooI 05 dotid sIHb 
nidi ooJ gniad WbI isd brtB ,ib3 j38-wol *n^5Bi isd iii yil 

n \ ' .1001 3dl :ȣ 



at a dog-show ; as I know several eminently qualified 
pointer-men who have declined to officiate, in their 
bewilderment at those Limit, Novice, Maiden, Junior, 
&c., classes, thick as leaves of autumn, and scared by 
presentiments of weary exhibits recurring less like dogs 
than decimals. Happily, however, there are certain 
* tricks of the trade,* which easily enable a man to give 
his decisions according to his mind and keep him out of 
the various pitfalls. 

When the steward first of all announces to you, the 
judge, that the competitors are in the ring, ask for the 
numbers of any absentees and note them, both on your 
own part of the page and on the detachable slip, which will 
have to be sent to the secretary's office as soon as your 
awards are made. Then order the dogs to walk in 
single file round the ring, the man being on the further 
side of each d(^, while you take a bird*s eye view from 
the centre. Halt them, and make a dog-to-dc^ in- 
spection, straightway collecting into a given comer all 
dogs that are good enough to be certain of a * Very 
Highly Commended ' at least, and sending back to their 
bench the hopelessly bad ones ; but be sure to take the 
numbers of these latter and to mark a cross against 
them in your own portion of the book. Try to * corner' 
at least two more than are wanted for the prize-list ; 
and then proceed to judge the moderate dogs remaining 
in the ring, doling out to each a * Highly Conunended ' 
or a * Commended ' according to his deserts, before you 
consign him to his bench. When the last one is dis- 
posed of, marshal your selected dogs ; and, after making 
them again circle round you, thoroughly examine them 
and try their paces one by one. Next mark and send out 
the * V.H.C division, and finally the prize-winners in 
reverse order, so that * the last shall be first.* In any 
case, whatever order you may adopt, always stick to 
the same one in dismissing exhibits, as to try to mystify 

113 I 


exhibitors and spectators is both childish and dis- 
courteous. Employ the interval between the classes in 
making up your book, i.e. in finding out which dogs 
that you have judged are to come agam in future classes, 
and making notes of their previous positions opposite 
their numbers in the fi-esh class. Thus you will never 
reverse your decisions unwittingly, and will not 6tigue 
yourself needlessly by judging dogs more than once at 
the same Show ; for one thorough examination will give 
more satisfactory results in every way. To save time 
and space it is a good plan to make notes, while you 
judge, in the body of your judging book. There is as 
a rule but one line available for each entry, but this is 
sufficient if you make use of the ^gns plus and minus 
to express your likes and dislikes. For examples, * + ' 
head, coat, tail, would mean that those parts were good, 
while * — ' before them would reverse that opinion. The 
following axiomatic remarks may also be usefiil when 
judging pointers in the ring : — 

Do not look too long at the bad dogs — they 
will spoil your eye. 

Do not needlessly keep a fiill ring — it will 
muddle your brain. 

If you do not like a dog, pick two definite 
faults in him — and * out ' him. 

If a dc^ puzzle you, take him (and his man) 
unawares ; and if he still puzzle you, take his 
chain in your own hand. 

Till you have tried his paces, pronounce no 
dog a * flyer.' 

Remember that the tail^ though it afifect not 
his quarterings, is the pointer's family tree ; but 
the head is the pointer himself 



FROM the first chapter there will have been gained 
a sufficient knowledge of the materials that were 
blended together to compose the English pointer, the 
present chapter is concerned solely with his attributes. 

The Sportsman^ in 1836, remarks of this dog that 
* like the Arabian horse, he may be regarded as an exotic, 
which, in the hands of the English sportsman, has attained 
a d^ree of perfection which will be vainly sought in those 
countries of which he was originally a native' (No. 4, 
vol. iii., p. 131). It is just this 'perfection' that I 
have now to describe and consider — a perfection that 
required a hundred years of practical work, attention, 
and combination to mature. For though the pointing- 
dog first touched the shores of England m the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, the pointer did not, to judge 
from the average excellence of type in contemporaneous 
pictures, reach his zenith till the opening years of the 
nineteenth. In describing this precious heritage from 
our forefathers, I glory that his worth is to-day acclaimed 
by the whole sporting world ; even Italy, France and 
Spain, the very countries that have contributed to his 
manufacture, vying with each other in the cult of the 
British pointer. 

I am about to establish his characteristics as far as 
possible by quotations from old English writers, so as 
to leave for the future no shadow of doubt about the 
type always admired by the most prominent sportsmen. 
This type is now rare : because fine old races of animals, 



unlike old wines and furniture, do not placidly await the 
re-awakening of good taste, but during periods of 
n^lect tend to disappear and die out. Fortunately, how- 
ever, the true pointer is not yet extinct, though he is now- 
adays to be found more often in the highways and byways 
than with number and pedigree attached to his name. 

For the sake of brevity I will quote in full only 
those descriptions which seem specially interesting either 
from the personality of the author or the individuality 
of his style, while the others I will cite as occasion may 
require to give evidence on controverted points {i.e. 
head, tail, feet, coat, &c.), about which a consensus of 
opinion is necessary; but in my abridgments I shall 
never withhold any passages that may appear to run 
counter to my own theories. As a rule the ancient 
cynography is wonderfiilly in accord with the old Eng- 
lish writings that came afterwards. For instance, the 
Spaniard who wrote the Dialogos (sixteenth century), 
though hardly mentioning the looks of pointing-dc^s, 
insists on the necessity of the greyhound foot ; while 
the Italian, Biondi, also of the sixteenth century, em- 
phasises the fact that their muzzles must be concave 
rather than convex. Perhaps this unanimity arises 
from the fact that the English have cherished the lore of 
the Continental nations from the time that Edmund de 
Langley, Duke of York, translated the work of Gaston de 
Foix in the fourteenth century, till the times when La 
Chasse au fusil was embodied in an Essi^ on Shooting 
(1789), and Colonel Thornton made the generous ad- 
mission that the * sportsmen of France in pomt of science 
far surpass us ' {y1 Sporting Tour in France^ 1 806, p. 32). 

The characteristics of the pointer may be divided 
for convenience into two parts, those always patent to 
the eye, and those revealed at intervals by his actions ; 
though except to simplify description such a distinction 
cannot be sustained, so constant is the action and re- 
action of body and mind where true symmetry is found. 



By symmetry in a pointer, I mean a condition of 
perfect development : the harmonious growth and cor- 
relation of brain with body and scenting power, of part 
with part, of limb with limb, there being no deficiency 
— no excess. Perfection is found in the very centre of 
his potentialities ; and beauties in the abstract, if dis- 
proportionate to him, must be reckoned blemishes. 
Vii^il's medio tutissimus ibis applies even to pointers ! 
The form and proportion that are most d^ant in the 
pointer are also the most useful ; for where each bone, 
each muscle, each fibre — in short, the entire machinery 
— is most nicely adjusted, perfect motivity and highest 
beauty will also reign. Every part of his anatomy has 
some meaning, some use, which should be learned by 
man before he ventures to meddle : the head contains 
the intellect and scenting power ; the body and limbs 
form the galloping apparatus ; and the tail denotes 
purity of race. It has become a sort of catchword to 
say a pointer must be made like a foxhound or a hunter. 
But he cannot be compared properly with either fox- 
hound or hunter, as his duties are the very opposite of 
theirs. Some points of resemblance there doubtless are ; 
but for all that a symmetrical pointer must be made 
like a pointer, and like nothing else in the world. 

The Sportsman (1836), in an article on sport gene- 
rally, treats of him thus : * A dc^ for the purpose in 
questipn (the pursuit of the grouse, &c.) should have 
an elegant lofty range, should possess considerable speed, 
as well as strength and spirit to endure long and fatigu- 
ing exertion. For such a combination the well-bred 
pointer is well, we may say pre-eminently, calculated ; 
for, although there are sportsman to be met with who 
prefer the setter to the pointer on account of his 
superior strength and hardihood, yet we cannot give in 
to such an opinion, sinpe, as these qualities, the capacity 
of enduring exertion or fatigue, are the result of animal 
organization, so, when the pointer is bred as he ought 



to be, he will be found equal to the setter in strength 
and endurance, superior in the acuteness of his olfactory 
organs, and steadier also ' (No. 4, vol. iii., p. 184). 

But to abandon generalities, here is the figured out- 
line of a dog's proffle ; by no means put forward as a 
model of form, but intended to enable my readers to 
recognise readily the part under examination. 








Nose or Nostrili. 


Lip or Flew. 




Occiput or Poll. 








Index to Figure. 

14. Girth. 

15. Elbow. 

16. Foreleg. 

17. Back-sinews. 

18. Knee-joint. 

19. Pastern. 

20. Forefoot 

21. Ribs. 

22. Back. 

23. Loin or Fillet 

24. Flank. 

25. Floating or Back- 



26. Chine or Back- 


27. Hip or Haunch- 


28. Croup. 

29. Tail or Stern. 

30. Thigh. 

31. Stifle-joint 

32. Stifle. 

33. Gaskin or Second- 


34. Hock. 

35. Hindfoot 


I will next reproduce, in chronological order, some 
tyjAcsd descriptions of the make and shape of the 
pointer for the last two centuries, until the establishment 
of dog-shows. 

* The pointers I best approve are not small nor very 
large; but such as are well made, light, and strong, 
and will naturally stand. A small pointer, though ever 
so good in his kind, can be of but little service, par- 
ticularly through a strong piece of turnips, broom, or 
heath ; and the feet of a large, heavy dog will soon be 
tired by his own weight ' {^ri of Shooting Flyings by 
T. Page, 1 767, p. 80). Mr. Page was a gun-maker ; 
and the insistence with which this extremelv simple 
little sentence was copied, even by Squire Osoaldiston 
and Mr. ThomhiU, shows in what repute his authority 
was held. 

* The most proper dog, and what is generally used 
for partridge shooting, is the pointer, a dog extremely 
well calculated for the sport. If the pointer be staunch, 
and have a good nose, he will seldom pass in common 
fields within forty yards of a covey without intimating 
by a point pretty near the exact line they be in. The 
small light dogs are, for many reasons, to be preferred 
to the large, heavy Spanish breed, as they hunt the 
ground over quicker, quarter it better, and will go over 
two or three times as much as the heavy sort without 
being tired or losing the skin off their feet ' (ji Treatise 
on English Shootings by George Edie, 1772, p. 1 1). 

[Written of a setter.] * He should be rather tall 
than otherwise, flat ribbed, and longish in the back; 
for a dog, where speed is a principal requisite, must, as 
well as a horse, in the language of the turf, *' stand 
upon ground." The short back, home coupled, is 
much admired by many. " Do but observe how close 
he is put together, all of a piece throughout. That is 
the mould tor a long day," Sec. But this is a vulgar 



error, exposed from daily experience ; the quickness of 
his stroke, with a wanton stern, gives the appearance of 
speed indeed, but if we note the space described in a 
given time, we shall correct our first opinion imme- 
diately. The same will hold good of the pointer' 
(j4 Treatise on Field Diversions^ R. Symonds, 1776, 
p. 12). 

* The properties I expect him to possess are, a roimd 
but not large head ; wide open nostrils ; full staring 
eyes ; thin long ears ; stern very fine and thin and as 
smooth as silk* {Anglings Shootings and Coursing^ by 
R. Lascelles, 181 1, p. 137). 

* Let his muzzle be open, flew jawed, rather short, 
full hazel eyes, called hare's eyes; his poll rising to a 
point, his ears long and falling down between the neck 
and the jaw-bone, which is called being well hung; 
neck and head set on straight, so that when he points 
his nose turns up rather above the horizontal line ; 
deep in the shoulder and well let down; elbows well 
in ; straight and large legs ; small feet, a little pointed, 
standing true, and the balls small and open ; narrow 
withers ; back a little hooped, broad loins, deep in the 
fillets and gaskins ; short from the hock to the pastern 
joint, flat sides, fine floating veins, stnught croup, stern 
set on high and stnught, being very fine. Ul-bred dogs 
you may know by their being fox-muzzled, small eyes, 
fan-eared, bat-eared, short necked, head set on like a 
pickaxe, broad withers, round shoulders, elbows out ; 
small legs, feet out, called cat-footed, thick balls ; round 
barrel, round croup ; clumsy stern, set on low, sickle- 
hammed,' &c. (The Sportsman's Directory^ by John 
Mayer, game-keeper, 1815, p. 23). 

* They [pointers] should be remarkable for the ex- 
quisite sensibility of their olfactory organs (or what a 
sportsman would call the goodness of their nose), as 
well as for the gallant style of their range ; not the 



speed with which they run, but their mode of running, 
that is with their heads well up and their sterns con- 
stantly moving, since nothing looks worse than to see a 
dog run with his nose to the ground and his tail carried 
between his hind legs. They should have well-formed 
straight legs and a small close foot, deep chest, full 
blood eyes, fine stern, round back, thin long ears, hang- 
ing loosely from the head, altc^ether the middle size ' 
{Dictionary of Sports, by H. Harewood, 1835, ?• 

' The pointer should present a round, well-marked 
head, neither small nor large. His face should be open, 
his nostrils large, and his eyes full ; his ears should be 
thin, and of a due length, but they should in every case 
hang close to the head; for if they fall back we should 
suspe^ the get. His coat we would have very fine. 
The thighs should be full without being coarse, and 
they should be surmounted by a fine taper stern ' 
{Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, by D. P. Blaine, 1852, 
p. 300). 

* First, the form of the head, which should be wide, 
yet flat and square, with a broad nose, a pendulous lip, 
and a square tip. . . Fourthly, a fine stern, small in the 
bone and sharp at the point, like the sting of a wasp, 
and not curved upwards. The form of the stern, with 
a vigorous lashing of it from side to side, marks the 
true-bred pointer as much as any sign can do so ; and 
its absence distinguishes the foxhound cross, which gives 
a very heavy stern, with a strong curve upwards, and 
carried over the back; or the too great amount of 
greyhound blood, marked by a small stern also, but by 
one whose diminution commences from the root, whilst 
the genuine pointer's is nearly of the same size till 
within a few inches of the point, when it suddenly 
tapers oflF' {Manual of British Rural Sports, by 'Stone- 
henge,' 1856, p. 567). 



I will now proceed to give a detailed description of 
the form of a perfect pointer, illustrated with excerpts, 
where necessary, from the old writers. 

The Head. 

' A narrow-headed d(^ cannot possess a good nose, 
because, owing to the compression of his cranium, the 
requisite quantity and due expansion of the olfactory 
nerves, to constitute acuteness of smell, are rendered 
impossible. The sense of smell arises from small white 
cords, which are called the olfactory nerves^ and with- 
out resorting to anatomical technicality, it may be 
stated that these little white cords form a sort of bunch 
at the upper part of the nose, and spread thence over the 
brain, and descend to the nose and ^e lips in proportion 
as the head is capacious or otherwise' {The Shooter's 
Preceptor, by T. B. Johnson, 1842, p. 5). 

* Above all, look to the head, " the knowledge-box," 
as it is vulgarly but most aptly called. It ought to be 
broad between the ears, which should hang down close, 
with a fall or dent under the eyes; the nose long and 
not broad ; the nostrils very soft and moist * {Recreations 
in Shooting, by Craven, 1846, p. 27 J. 

The Head is the nucleus of tne pointer; and the 
Skull is his nucleolus, the very centre of his being. It 
is spheroidal in form and, whether looked at from the 
front or from the side, presents a rough semblance to a 
Norman or round arch; in full face the spring of this 
arch commences behind and just below the temples, in 
profile— at the base of the stop and the back of the 
occiput, which must be high and developed. Of great 
importance is the chiselling of all the purposeful ele- 
vations and depressions on the surface of the skull, for 
these may be valued as nature's hall-marks. As regards 
its proportions, I need add little to the descriptions of 
the pre-show writers, except that in a symmetrical 



head the eye is placed halfway between the nostrils 
and the occiput ; and that the term ' broad head ' refers 
to breadth of forehead, and does not include the broad 
cheeks that rather betoken pugnacity than intellect. 
Skulls that I find typical are one on the bitch in Plate 
XIV., and two more at the top and the left-hand of 
Plate XXIL 

A * dished ' face, i.e. the Muzzle concave in form, 
is a sign of facility in scenting. The reason may be 
easily seen. A pointer carries head and neck out- 
stretched in his ^adlop, and the higher the nose is pre- 
sented to the wind the farther off it will perceive the 
body-scent that is gradually rising ftom any neighbour- 
ing birds. If he have a houndy or even a straight 
face, in order to raise his nose sufficiently he will have 
to constrict his windpipe, and he will thus be in dis- 
comfort : the most frequent cause of a pointer flushing, 
when he is going fast, is a badly formed muzzle. It 
should spring from the skull at a slight angle, and though 
fine at base it must not taper, the jaws ending level and 
square with the nostrils^ which are spongy and spreading. 

The Lip or Flew though amply developed appears 
as thin as paper. It is beautifully shaped in the best 
dogs, with a graceful curl at the corner of the mouth* 
Muzzles enveloped in much coarse flew, giving the 
effect of a bread poultice, are to be avoided. For an 
example of a periFect lip I will refer to a white bitch 
(Plate IX.); and, indeed, her muzzle is a perfect 
model, which redeems the ugly eflFect of ears that have 
been ' rounded ' like those of^ foxhound. 

The Eyes are to be bright, full, and gentle in ex- 
pression; they vary in tint from the lightest hazel to 
the darkest brown, according to the colour of the coat. 
The test of their being correct lies in their looking 
rich, soft, and harmonious. Black, yellow, green, and 
white are not desirable colours for die iris. 



^he Ears must be attached high up on the head, 
and lie closely to it without folding ; but, when on 
point or otherwise excited, the dog will lift and advance 
them somewhat. They must be rather pointed at the 
tip, of fair length, very soft and thin in leather, and 
have their veins visible. It is somewhat diffioilt to 
find a satisfactory illustration of the correct ear, not so 
much from the scarcity of dogs as of draughtsmen, 
pointers' ears being proverbially hard to portray. My 
selections are Titian's standing dog (Plate III.); Oudry's 
bitch (Plate VI.), perfect in the quality and carriage 
of ears which are, however, too long; and Miss Maud 
Earl's pointer's head on the left (Plate XXIL). 

The Trunk. 

* If lumber be, as it is, odious, weediness is even 
worse' {Modern Shooter, by Captain Lacy, 1842, p. 


a pointer, the Neck is long, rounded, and mus* 
cular, springing gracefully from his shoulders, and 
attached to the heaid in such fashion that it is easier for 
him to carry himself in one continuous curve from 
shoulder to nose, than in the right-angled position 
natural to most other breeds. It must also be free 
from those superfluous folds of skin underneath, the 
presence of which constitutes * throatiness.* The 
Shoulders are long and sloping, running smoothly into 
the back, with the two blades convergent at the 
withers ; they must work quite freely and flexibly as 
in galloping down hill, or in scrambling about rough 
places, supple shoulders are indispensable. 

The Breastbone is bold without being unduly pro- 
minent, and the width of the Chest is sufficient for 
stability without hindering speed. The Girth must be 
ample, the ribs descending as low as the elbow-point 
and being rather convex in form. The outline of the 



Back inclines to undulate from the withers till it joins 
the loins. The Ribs themselves are strong and elastic, 
and gradually taper away towards the loin and flank, 
where they become the Back or Floating Ribs^ ceasing 
about half-way between the withers and the root of the 
tail. The Loin or Fillet must be lengthy, powerful, 
and decidedly arched, for this is one of ue most potent 
factors in the speed and endurance of the dog. The 
Chine or Backbone must be strongly jointed, as it is the 
axis of the whole body. The Hips or Haunch-hones^ at 
the junction of the thigh with the body, must be well 
formed and nearly on a level with the chine, placed wide 
apart and standing out distinctly, with a tendency to be 
* ragged; * as on tieir position and prominence much of 
the power and leverage of the hind-quarters depends. 
The Croup must be long and level, modifying the curve 
of the loin. 

The Limbs. 

The Elbows of the pointer must be strong, muscular, 
and truly parallel, so as to work just clear of the body. 
If the shoulders be long enough, the elbows will be 
^ well let down,' and the back of them will be in place 
directly under the withers. The ForelegSy extending 
from the elbow to the knee-joint, must be straight, and 
consist of an ample — not excessive — ^amount of flat 
bone of close quality, far removed from the round bone 
of the foxhound : indeed, if a transverse section be 
made, it will be found to be rather oval in shape. The 
Back-sinews must be strong, wiry, and clearly defined, 
and the Knee-joint must not project in front and only a 
little on the inside of the leg, as undue prominence 
reveals weakness and ill-rearing. The Pasterns are 
lengthy and perceptibly finer in bone than the leg, and 
must slant somewhat. This is to give such a buflfer- 
like spring and elasticity to leg and foot as not to tire 



and shake the dc^ over hard and uneven ground, when 
he pulls up suddenly on scent, or when he doubles at 
full gallop. Short, thick pasterns on a pointer are an 
absurdity, meaning, as they must do, defective agility. 

The Feet are oval, with long, narrow, arched toes, 
and the cushion underneath but slightly developed. 

*Such a formation of the feet [the "round cat- 
foot "1 is perfectly in unison with the mechanical or 
animal organization of the cat kind, but when the 
structure of the dog is considered, and the strongly 
marked difference of the progressive motion of the two 
species taken into account, the admirable adaptation in 
the one case, and the glaring incongruity in the other, 
cannot fail to be impressed on the mind with the most 
unqualified conviction. The cat (and so of all animals 
of the cat kind] is, like the rest of creation, formed for 
its mode of lire. The round foot and well-developed 
toes of the cat enable it to creep stealthily upon its 
prey, while by this peculiarity of formation it retracts 
or draws in the instruments (the talons or claws) by 
which it is to seize and secure it. When within reach, 
the cat springs upon its victim, the propulsive force of 
which results fi"om the form and extraordinary power of 
the hind 1^ or quarters. In this operation, or rather 
combination of operations, the cat is assisted by that 
flexibility of body, particularly of the backbone, that 
contraction and tension, which will be vainly sought in 
the canine tribe. In fact, the two animals are so dis- 
tinctly marked in form, manner, and motion that the 
peculiarity of the one, the round foot for instance, be- 
comes preposterous, if not monstrous, in the other. 
For a correct idea of the perfection of the foot of the 
pointer, we should steadily keep in the view the long, 
wiry, narrow toe, and, indeed, the altogether exquisite 

formation of the foot of the hare The hare has 

no ball to her foot; the dc^ cannot be divested of this 



cushion-like appendage; but, in breeding, nothing 
should be neglected that will be likely to reduce its 
size and softness (so conspicuous in the Spanish pointer) 
as well as to lengthen and harden the toes. When the 
foot of the pointer is formed so as to approach as nearly 
as possible that of the hare, his limbs strong and 
straight, his chest ''low dropping," loins broad, &c., 
he will go through a lengthened degree of exertion 
which would be regarded as impossible by those who 
have paid but slight attention to the subject' {The 
Sportsman, No. 4, vol. iii., p. 184). 

* In breeding pointers, the foot of the hare should 
be imitated as far as the limits of nature will admit ; 
the ball of the pointer's foot should be as small as pos- 
sible ; his toes long, narrow, and wiry. Very short 
bulky toes (which constitute ** the round cat-foot ") in 
the dog may be compared to very short upright pasterns 
in the horse, and are equally contrary to the true 
principles of speed ' {^he Shooter^ s Preceptor , by T. B. 
Johnson, 1842, p. 149). 

* The toes should be close to each other, long, wiry- 
looking, and, if I may so speak, well gathered up or 
arched ; the balls or soles of the foot should be small, 
hard, tough, and not too fleshy. The foot altogether, 
in form, should not be (and, indeed, cannot be) round, 
like that of a cat, but will be longer in front,* &c. 
(^he Modern Shooter^ by Captain Lacy, 1846, p. 170). 

* My purpose is to protest strongly against the hound- 
foot in a pointer, which seems, from a jumble of judges 
at many recent dog-shows, to have found favour with 
pointer exhibitors. If we take fairly into consideration 
the momentarily quick turns a fast pointer has to nudce 
in working at great speed a moderately sized stubble 
or other field, and his pulling up suddenly on point, the 
common-sense view of^ the case would decide upon an 
expanding foot as a necessity, and for both pointer and 



greyhound, nature has given the strength of claw and 
grasp of foot suited to their work. Hound-work, as 
we all know, is so different, and the round, close foot, 
with strong muscular formation, is admirably suited for 
hound endurance; but where is the expansion for quick 
and sudden turns at great speed ? And I wonder how 
Mr. Garth's Drake, the fastest pointer in his field-trial 
work we have ever seen, would have fared in his sudden 
points when going at sixty miles an hour ? Why, he 
would have been head over heels time after time, and 
could not have made the grand displays in instantaneous 
pointing which delighted all who witnessed his work ' 
(W. Brailsford's letter to the Stock-keeper, March ist, 

And even ' Idstone,' of all writers on pointers the 
most extreme in his worship and advocacy of the hound 
type, had to admit that he was * almost a convert to the 
hare-foot' {*Tke Dog; l%i^, p. 118). 

The hare's foot is obviously, therefore, the model 
for the pointer's foot, and is allied and correlated with 
a long sickled stifle and great propelling power — all 
three contributing to twisting and turning, speed and 
stamina. A cat-foot is more adapted for straight- 
forward running, and is generally allied to a straight 

The Stifles, extending from the stifle-joint to the 
hock, must be well bent, since on the length of the out- 
line of his hind-quarters, between the hip-bones and 
the hocks, will depend the endurance of the dog, as 
this formation, in conjunction with an arched loin, gives 
the maximum of speed with the minimum of labour : 
to suit such a scheme, the Hock — ^bony, flat, and clean- 
cut — must be * well let down.' The Thighs are well de- 
veloped, rich in muscle, and of large surface ; and the 
Gaskins, the under-thighs, which extend from the stifle- 
joint downwards, must also be muscular and deep. 



Prom an ml painting by Henry Aiken, jun. (borri 
1809, died 1892). A black-nosed orange-and-whitc 
bitch, having made a point, sees the partridges begin to 
run, and, if tempted, she is steady. To be ideal, this 
symmetrical bitch only needs a skull more arched ; but 
the backing liver-and-white is merety a rough indication 
of % pointer. 

In my awn Possession. 

mofi) .nuf .n9:rflA vin^H \d gnhnifiq lio fijs m<rvi 
atiriw-bnjs-agnfiio b^^on-^lDUld A .(sqSi b^Jb c^oSl 
oj nigdcl zagbhlnsq aHl ease ,jiiioq s bbsm gntTSff ,i!Ditd 
eiHj ,L69bt ad oT .^bAO^a ei drie ,b9)am9t li cbnfi ,nui 
^ud ; bsrioifi aiom Ilujla s ebddrt ^Irto ilMtd hafftMrfftn^e 
noilBDibni Hguoi £ Ylaiam «i Miriw-tinJs-^avrf ^tibjK) aril 

i hdlflioq A "^o 

^ I 


The Tail, the Coat, and the Colour. 

The Tail of the pmntcr must be moderately short, 
with thick bone at the root, very gradually tapering to 
a fine point. It must be covered thickly with smooth, 
glossy hair, and must be carried straight, on a level 
with the back, the * pot-hook' curve being very ob- 
jectionable. When questing it is wantoned and lashed 
without ceasing, but when pointing it is held rigid, 
either quite straight or with a slight ' pimip-handle ' 

There is nothing for a pointer more necessary than 
a tail of the right shape, of the right length, of the 
right carriage, and of the right covering.- It is more 
convincing warranty of pure blood and high breeding 
than reams of written pedigree. There is a saying 
about the pedigree being carried on the back, but in 
this case it is told by the tail. The head is invaluable 
for showing the character of a d<^, but for a certificate 
of blue-blood apply at the other end ! 

The Coat is dense, and hard, and as smooth as glass, 
with a sheen on it. It is of the same length on the 
white as on the coloured places ; and if you run your 
fingers the wrong way through it, it must instantly 
resume its former appearance, and must by no means 
hide the wonderful development of sinews and muscle 
that distinguishes the well-bred pointer. One some- 
times hears persons complaining that he is too fine- 
bred, or that he has not a coat to suit all weathers, 
&c.: they might just as sensibly find fault with the 
thoroughbred horse. A ploughboy cannot do the 
work of a philosopher, though he may have a 
harder constitution. What is not worth taking care 
of, is not worth having; besides, the pointer is by 
nature a rich man's possession, a luxury like the grouse- 
moor itself. 

129 K 


There is a very wide latitude allowed in the Colour 
of pointers ; white, black, liver, fawn, lemon, orange, 
red, and virtually almost any colour with or without 
white. In fact, John Mayer (1815) includes even 
brindle in his list as follows : — * Whole colours are 
black, white, lemon, yellow, whey-coloured, dark 
brindle, brown, &c/ (Sportsman* s Directory, p. 112). 
For my own part I venture to doubt the orthodoxy of 
the brindle ; but still more do I * suspect the get * of 
liver or black-and-white dogs with tan markings about 
them, because there is no mention of them in the old 
books, because I have never seen a typical pointer of 
this motley, and because, though I have repeatedly 
crossed yellows with liver and Mack-and-whites, and 
lemon-and- whites with blacks, I have never bred one 
single tricoloured puppy. I well remember to have 
seen, when a child, some beautiful mouse-grey-and- 
whites of Lord Sefton's breed, but at present they, 
like the pure whites, seem in abeyance. 

The nose of the lemon-and-whites may be either 
black or liver-coloured : these colours are equally 
correct. Just now there seems a prejudice against 
the former. But why } The earliest pictures show 
these dc^s to be black-nosed — for instance, the paint- 
ing by Titian, fifteenth century ^Plate III.), and the 
Velazquez, seventeenth century (Plate IV.). Again, 
in an example of Stubbs, eighteenth century, and in a 
painting by Seymour, eighteenth century, which belong 
to me though not included in the present book, the noses 
of lemon-and- white dogs are also dusky. Besides, on 
the other hand, the earliest liver-coloured nose that I 
have found on a lemon-and-white is in the eighteenth 
century picture by Oudry (Plate VI.), while I have 
seen no specimen of it in British art earlier than 1 840, 
the date of a painting by Thomson of Nottingham. 
I must, therefore, from the evidence before me, find for 



the superior antiquity of the black nose, though per- 
sonally I prefer liver-coloured nostrils, as they seem 
more harmonious. But when it comes to a matter of 
penalising a pointer at a dog-show because his nose is 
black, the height of absurdity is reached ! 

Lastly, I must touch on the effects of Instinct and 
Nose on the character of a pointer, as these, with the 
Body and Limbs, complete the handmaidens of the 

His instinctive ideas are concentrated on the one 
idea of sport, and to keep him in proper bodily and 
mental condition sport he must have, or failing that, 
its best substitute — ^hard exercise. It is almost piteous 
to watch him diligently working bare ground, even 
gravelled or paved spaces in de&ult of other, to make 
assurance doubly sure, and deeming it better worth to 
quest hopelessly than not to quest at all. It is this 
obsession by the one idea that makes him so poor a 
* pal to knock about with,' and so impatient of lolling 
in his master*s rooms ; for he does not thrive as a 
house-dc^, nor anywhere else without constant move- 
ment. The pointer differs essentially in his tempera- 
ment from the spaniel, or even from the setter, which 
can be contented anywhere as long as he is basking in 
the master's smile ; and to a disposition like his it must 
be torture to be chained, Ixion-like, to the eternal 
round of the shows — to a life of enforced inactivity in 
a tainted atmosphere ! 

He is by nature one of the most nervous and sen- 
sitive of all dogs. For instance, any sudden noise, 
such as the banging of a door, will make him jump for 
yards; but I think this is due to his day-dreaming 
propensities when at leisure, as it is only the unexpected 
that frightens him, and he will face composedly enough 
whatever he may be prepared for. The sound of^a 
gun, if he have been thoughtfully initiated, never 


cows him at all, nor does a severe flogging properly 
administered ; but a stone thrown at him wilt 
terrify, and the flicking of a whip-lash will drive him 
to frenzy. 

Many a pointer, in his passion for sport, is quite 
oblivious of feminine charms, like the ^Venator^ tenera 
conjugis immemor ' of Horace. Indeed to such lengths 
is this coldness sometimes carried that I have known 
excellent dogs that have absolutely refused to pro- 
create; and, similarly, many bitches are very unwilling to 
yield to the periodical demands of sex. I worked my 
own spaniel, though she was in season, among my 
pointers during August, 1900, without one of them 
finding out her condition, or taking the slightest notice 
of her. 

Having thus shown that the pointer exists simply 
for sport, those natural qualities have to be considered 
that caused him to become the chosen assistant of 
man in one of its branches. To commence with, 
a fine passage from Captain Lacy illumines the 

• The two symptoms of most felicitous augury in a 
young dog are decision, depending upon superior nose, 
in going straight up to his game, with his head erect, 
the moment he catches the scent ; and his backing 
another d<^ instinctively from the first. Again, if 
when he come to a decided point, he, what is called, 
* chap his point,' and never stir till the birds rise, so 
much the better ; but if he dash in immediately after- 
wards, no matter, as he may soon be cured of that. I 
by no means deny that dogs which do not display 
these early and marked indications of future excellence 
may ultimately turn out well, or even first-rate ; but 
this is the best sort of stuff to go to work upon, and 
these are the dogs to be selected from a litter where the 
shooter breeds his own, and keeps the whole to choose 



from. The best temper for a doe to have, is the mean 
between the extremes of the timid and the resolute ; in 
fact, he should be high-couraged without being sulky, 
vicious, or shrinkingly timid. A sulky dog is not 
worth a halter, and a very shy one I should always 
be shy of accepting' (The Modem Shooter, 1842, 
p. 168). 

Now, some wonder if a ' superior nose ' be really 
separable from a superior intelligence ; but if Youatt, 
a professional man, confirming the opinions of many 
eminent laymen, can be credited in his anatomy and 
deductions, the matter is settled by the following as 
being primarily one of nerve : — *The olfactory nerve in 
the dog is the largest of all the cerebral nerves. The 
relative size of the nerve bears an invariable proportion 
to the necessity of an acute sense of smell" {The Dog, 
1845, p. 107). 

* There are many dogs that will point the first day 
that they are taken out, and there arc others which will 
both point and back the first time by natural instinct ' 
{Essay on Shootings 1789, p. 256). 

'It has been supposed by some that dc^s which 
slip so naturally into the method of pointing acquire 
afterwards too much set ; this, however, is quite a 
mistaken notion : ill-bred dogs will freauently be 
guilty of the incurable fault just mentionea; in fact, 
an ill-bred d<^ is very seldom worth keeping* {The 
Sportsman^ No. 4, vol. iii., 1836, p. 185). 

With the above remarks about natural pointing and 
backing, I entirely agree ; the best pointers that I have 
known started, without exception, by doing these 
duties of their own accord. 

* Chapping the point,* or *chemng the scent,* is 
another infallible proof of the inheritance of old pointer 
blood. It is so called because the dog when on the 
point has the appearance of munching something, and 



this movement is accompanied by slaver from the 
mouth, a sign of his actiially enjoying the taste of the 
scent on his palate. For this diagnosis I am indebted 
to a medical friend of mine ; and I must say that the 
possession of this power is most denrable, as it enables 
virtue to be its own reward. 

^ A pointer or setter, to deserve the name, should 
hunt high but steadily ; quarter his ground with truth 
and judgment ; turn to hand or whistle ; drop to hand, 
bird, and shot ; back at all distances ; be steady from 
hare, yet follow a wounded one if necessary; and re* 
cover a dead or wounded bird well ' {Sporting Magazine^ 
September 2nd, vol. v., by * A Quartogenarian,' 1832, 
p. 9). 

One is inclined to comment on the above that 
evidently * there were giants in the earth in those days,' 
and that, though of value as a ^ counsel of perfection,' 
one may with profit omit the sending of one's pointer 
after a wounded hare ! Nevertheless, I myself had a 
pointer — only one though — ^that might have been so 
sent with safety. Because, in addition to ordinary 
duties, he r^ularly acted as retriever both from land 
and water, and as spaniel too, for he was an expert at 
springing 'flappers' from the rushes; and despite these 
irregularities at home he continued year after year to 
win at the field-trials. He was by an old black pointer, 
also father to another whose case is even more remark- 
able. He, by some curious trick of heredity, was a 
self-taught and perfect 'circler' as described in the 
Dialogos and jirie de Ballesteria. He would point 
staunchly enough when the birds lay well, but when 
they were at all * jumpy ' he would never stop still for 
a moment, and actually would give you with his head 
the sign of their whereabouts as he passed. These 
traits must have descended to the brothers from their 
black blood, as the mothers' families showed no traces 



of such genius. But a dog known by the author of 
Kunopitdia seems to have possessed a tithe of the same 
gifts. He writes of * an old dog who, as the associate 
of a keen and practised poacher on the moors whom I 
once knew, had acquired a deal of self-taught sagacity ; 
and I have seen him, when baffled upon a haunt, and 
unable to make out an absolute find, nay, I have seen him 
almost on the first touch of haunt, take a sweep ofiF, in 
sometlung between a crouch and a run, as hard as he 
could go, deaf to every call, as though he were mad, 
two hundred yards or more directly down the windy in 
which quarter it is evident that experience had taught 
him to look with more of certainty to find, or towards 
which he had, in any dubious case, been immediately 
led ofiT by his knowing director, and then come crouch- 
ing up, with no part of him but his head visible, in a 
right line to meet you ' {Kunopadia^ by W. Dobson, 
1 8 14, p. 105). 

* A pointer cannot be too fast, if his nose is good ; 
but many of the very swift dogs are sometimes apt to 
run over the game' (^The Shooting Directory y by R. B. 
Thomhill, 1 806, p. 63). This is very true, as far as 
it goes. But the pointer that hunts faster than his 
nose lacks instinct and intelligence, and, in short, is a 
second-rater. A good dog regulates his pace day by 
day according to the quality of the scent, and it is 
curious to see mere puppies doing the same thing. 
They instinctively carry their heads to the wind also, 
and nothing disquiets a good puppy more than to find 
himself in such relation to the wmd that his nose will 
not serve him. Of course, an old do^ that adds craft 
to instinct will quite enjoy a cast down-wind; and 
wonderful is the manner in which he feels for the scent 
as he goes along like Agag — delicately, stopping at 
the slightest whiff for the assistance of his master. In 
fact, so subtle does he become in the use of his nose, 



and so little chance has grouse or partridge against him, 
that one feels that there was not extravagance, but 
inspiration, in that sixteenth-century Spaniard who, 
when he saw how the very winds seemed to serve the 
clever pointing-dog, proclaimed him ^Lxml of the 



WORKING dogs are of all the domestic animals 
the most interesting to breed, as they alone, in 
addition to the physical, have mental qualities that 
require solicitude. The voices of the ancients are on 
this subject as suggestive as usual, and pre-eminent 
among them are some sayings of Sir John Sebright, 
the dean of scientific breeders : — 

* Were I to define what is called the art of breeding, 
I should say that it consisted in the selection of males 
and females, intended to breed tc^ether, in reference to 
each other *s merits and defects * {jirt of Improving the 
Breeds, &c., by Sebright, 1 809, p. 5). 

•We must observe the smallest tendency to im- 
perfection in our stock, the moment it appears, so as 
to be able to counteract it, before it becomes a defect ' 
(id. p. 6). 

' Animals must degenerate by being long bred from 
the same family without the intermixture of any other 
blood, or fi-om being what is technically called ired 
in-and-in * {id. p. 8). 

*I do not by any means approve of mixing two 
distinct breeds, with the view or uniting the vduable 
properties of both. This experiment has been fre- 
quently tried by others, as well as by myself, but has, I 
believe, never succeeded. The first cross fi-equently 
produces a tolerable animal, but it is a breed that 
cannot be continued' {id. p. 17). 

The above are fimaamental axioms for the breeding 



of live stock in general, and, as far as they go, are 
thoroughly pertinent to the production of the pointer. 

Next in point of antic^uity comes Colonel Thorn- 
ton's method ; but in practice I hardly think that even 
he could have been so reckless and haphazard : — 

* I scarcely ever found one pointer in fifty answer 
my expectations, either for shape, bone, or action ; and 
the different modes of breaking, if they are not whelps^ 
make them irreclaimable; but it only costs a li^e 
time and a little money, at least to see such as are well 
recommended, and the greater opportunity the greater 
chance of success; ifweU-shaped dogs or bitches, they 
can be bred soon, and they may make gamekeepers' 
dogs ' {Sporting TouTj &c, by Colonel Thornton, 1 804, 
p. 279I 

When we seek the keynote to Mr. Lascelles's 
breeding operations, we learn that this was nose: — 

*As a fine nose is the first thine I look to in a 
pointer, I am always particularly careful that both sire 
and dam are thus gifted. I think it one of the greatest 
proofs of bad blood for a dog to take much breaking; 
mine all stand naturally, and they are not only the 
highest-CQuraKed, but the fastest rangers. This 1 at- 
tribute to noming so much as to their having the finest 
noses, which gives them a confidence beyond the 
possibility of wuse * {Anglings Shooting, and Coursing^ 
by Lascdles, 181 1, p. 136). 

Of »Mr. T. B. Johnson's precepts and practice we 
possess two accounts: one written by a fi-iend, one 
from his own pen. Both are important, and interesting 
enough for insertion : — 

' At the period of which we are speaking, it was 
the custom or fiishion, or both, to r^ard a laige, ex- 
pansive head as not merely the reverse of beauty, but 
a sort of blemish ; and, inconsiderately adopting this 
monstrously ridiculous idea, he [T. B. Johnson, about 



1 815] found himself, after several years' experimental 
crossing, in possession of a set of dogs with compressed 
heads, conudered handsome forsooth! giddy and un- 
certain to a most vexatious extent ; because being thus 
deprived of a sufficient breadth and expansion of the 
requisite organs (of smell) the operative functions were 
inadequate to the due and satisfactory performance of 
that duty which they thus vainly essayed to perform ; 
in the language of the school, their noses were bad. 
However, reflection induced him to bark back ; he was 
convinced there could be no effect without a cause: what, 
therefore, was the source whence the Spanish pointer 
derived his unequivocally acknowledged superior powers 
of smell ? To use the words of the would-be-thought 
genius, whose spurious inventions, however, vrill not 
give to his memory an enviable immortality, it "struck 
us like lightning," that the large expansive head of the 
surly Spaniard would afford him the desired informa- 
tion. Therefore Chance, five years old, a genuine 
Spanish pointer, was immediately condemned. Dis- 
section exhibited the small white cords which con- 
stitute the olfactory nerves or organs, or rather perhaps 
which receive and convey the impression of scent to 
the brain, in vast numbers; hence the superiority 
already noticed. However, for satisfactory elucidation 
more sacrifices were rendered indispensable; in short, 
after the examination of a variety of heads, it was 
found the olfactory nerves or organs were numerous 
precisely in proportion to the expansion of the head, 
and therefore, as the heads narrowed, the cords in 
question diminished, and consequently the powers of 
smell became inferior in the same degree; the Spanish 
pointer and the narrow-headed high-bred greyhound 
may be regarded as the two extremes : the experiments 
were delightfully satisfactory ! 

^ The diflkulty which presented itself was to unite 



a head sufficiently expansive with a form calculated for 
celerity and endurance. In the course of lus experi- 
ment, the writer to whom we have alluded, procured 
pointers from various parts of Europe, particularly from 
France, Spain, and Portugal; he had recourse to his 
sporting friends in this country, and introduced the 
Yorkshire and Leicestershire blood into his kennel: 
and after sixteen years of crossing and recrossing he 
produced pointers from whose peiltormances he experi- 
enced the utmost satisfaction. He happened accidentally 
to meet with a pointer on board a Spanish vessel in the 
harbour of Liverpool, whom the captain represented 
as the best blood in Spsun. It was the most shapely 
Spanish pointer which he had seen, and he therefore 
procured it' {The Sportsman, 1836, vol. iii.. No. 4, 
p. 182). 

^ Having seen pointers much superior to my own, 
particularly in Yorkshire, I set about the business of 
improvement — of possessing pointers equal, if not 
superior, to any in the world. The head of the 
Spaniard was alone denrable from him, which it was 
requisite to attach to a strong, wiry, well-formed body, 
supported by straight, clean, bony legs ; and feet, the 
toes of whidh should be hard, close, and narrow, the 
ball as small as possible. No very great time elapsed 
before I procured a Spanish pointer of great repute in 
regard to breed, and which I was credibly informed 
came from the favourite strain of the late Kins Fer- 
dinand. The appeuance of the dog was nothing in 
his favour ; I entertained not the least doubt that, from 
family repute, he had not been bred out, had been pro- 
duced on the in-and-in system, which I am well aware 
frcmi experience is a very inadvisable plan. A dip of 
relationship, when judiciously managed, will conduce to 
the beauty and mild temper of die animal, without 
deteriorating the sagacity, the sense of smell, or any of 



the essential qualities ; while a continuance of the same 
strdn produces semi-idiocy and disease ; ultimately 
barrenness' {Shooter* s Preceptor^ by Johnson, 1842, 
p. 6). 

* I proceeded in my experiments, keeping in view the 
qualities already pointed out ; after a number of crosses 
with selected individuals and an occasional conjunction 
of first cousins, I became possessed of pointers which 
gave me unqualified satisfaction, either as r^arded 
nose, fleetness, powers of endurance, steadiness, obedi- 
ence, good temper, beauty, and indeed in whatever can 
be desired in such an animal ' {id. p. 8). 

•My pointers were of middle size (in respect to 
height), presenting the capacious, low-dropping chest,, 
wickly-spread thighs, strong loins ; legs straight, bony, 
and clean ; toes narrow and hard, rather long than 
short ; ball of the foot small ; head as large as possible, 
broad and well formed, with plenty of lip. The best 
bitch I ever possessed was inclined to the roach back ; 
her powers of endurance, particularly on the grouse 
mountsuns, were superior to what I ever witne^ed in 
any other dog — pointer or setter. 

•During the process of my experiments, amongst 
other foreign dogs which I procured was one from 
Portugal, which, like his Spanish relation, was ill- 
tempered, unwieldy, &c., and, like him also, possessed 
a most acute sense of smell. Further, several " double- 
nosed pointers'* came into my possesion during this 
period. This grotesque ramification of the pointer was 
originally (I believe) from France ' {id. p. 9^. 

The vulgar idea of the * double-nose ' is that it is 
distinctive of the Spanish pointer, instead of being an 
unsightly malformation peculiar to no country — no 
breed, but most commonly found in the south of 
France. I know a family of Irish red setters similarly 
distinguished, to the evident satisfaction of their owner. 



Of course the nostrils are not really double, not 
even more expanded owing to this freak of nature ; 
they are merely split in half by a deep fiirrow. Equally 
of course, dogs with this formation have got no keener 
scent than their normal relatives. In the standard 
Spanish Dictionary {Madridy Real jicademia, 1727), 
under the word * Braco^ is found the following pas- 
sage : — * Properly this is the name of dogs and bitches 
that have the nostrils split and somewhat elevated, the 
muzzle blunt, and the ears large and falling over the 
face. Some say they come originally from the French 
braque; others think they may be from the bracco of 
Tuscany/ This does not prove much, but it seems 
effectually to disprove their Spanish origin, though a 
Frenchman, M . Baudriilart (Traite des eaux et faritSj 
1820, pt. iii., p. 294), has it that * there is still another 
variety of brach from Spain, which is most improperly 
styled douhU-nosedy because this dog has his nostrils 
separated by a groove. It seems that this variety, 
though it has been much cried up, has nevertheless a 
nose less sensitive than the French, or the English dog/ 

^ A young dog that carries his head well up when 
beating should be chosen in preference to one that 
hunts with his nose on the ground. It is not only the 
best dog that carries his head up, but game will suffer 
him to approach nearer than one that tracks them. The 
handsomest dog is that which shows the most breed, 
the most valuable that which affords the sportsman the 
greatest niunber of shots ' {^he Shooter^ s Handbook^ by 
Oakleigh, 1842, p. 97). 

' One great cause of the scarcity of well-bred, docile, 
and natui^ly steady pointers has been the fashionable 
rage for speed, to secure which, regardless of more 
valuable properties, the fastest pointers, setters, and 
foxhounds have been sought as stallions ; while the old, 
naturally staunch, large-headed, fine-nosed breed, to 



which the true-bred pointer belongs, has been propor- 
tionately n^lected. The latter are fast enough in any 
sort of country, are incomparably the best for finding 
game, and for behaving over it with that steady caution 
which ensures the sportsman by far the greatest number 
of fine shots. I do not, however, allude to that heavy, 
clumsy, dead-slow species of dog which once prevailed, 
but to the improved sort, of a medium size and of 
good shape, bred from these, such as the black-and- 
white breed of the late Sir Harry Goodrick' (The 
Modern Shooter ^ by Giptain Lacy, 1842, p. 169). 

The following advice on choosing a pointer seems 
excellent when you can find such dc^s to select fi-om : 
* Mark if he be a gallant beater, ranging high, going 
within himself, his head well up and to the wind, as 
endeavouring to catch a flying scent ; making his casts, 
turns, and ofiFers, dashingly ; neither hanging on the 
haunt nor puzzling for a ground scent. See that he 
quarters his ground regularly, and independently of 
any other dog hunting in company, without leaving 
the corners of his fields untried. He must neither 
skulk, shirk, break field, follow, watch, blink, nor 
point at sight. He shall not be hard-nosed nor near- 
scented, but wind his birds at long distances ; keep his 
point staunchly ; back without jealousy ; crouch to 
bird, dog, or gun at a signal fi'om the hand, or the 
word Tohoy without caprice, or standing when you call ' 
{Recreations in Shootings by Craven, 1846, p. 141). 

I cordially agree with nearly all of the foregoing 
maxims, but I must add to them a few supplementary 
remarks. As regards nuting vour dogs, it is quite 
straightforward work to breed for the phy^cal points, 
though you have, of course, as a preliminary to form in 
your mind the ideal up to which you intend to raise 
your stock. Let all your bitches be first-rate according 
to your own standard, or, if this seem a hard saying, 



only breed from the first-raters. It is indeed a waste 
of time and place to trust to lucky nicks in breedings 
they are so rare ; and even if you do fluke a wonder 
from a poorish dam, he will not be the sort of dog to 
benefit your kennel permanently. Not that I would 
pay too much attention to the shape of the grand- 
parents, for the appearance of the couple concerned is 
the main con^deration. I will give an illustration of 
this, which concerned my own dc^s — ^not, indeed, the 
pointers, but some dachshunds. 1 bred two brothers 
of one litter, and two sisters of another litter, the two 
lots being first cousins to each other. The brothers 
were of opposite types, one inclined to be heavy-boned 
and houndy, the other somewhat elegant, arch-loined, 
and light ; the same variation occurred in the two 
bitches : all four were prize-winners. In due course I 
sold them. And it happened that the coarse, houndy 
couple were mated together, as also were the elegant, 
light-boned ones. The result was that the entire litter 
from the former had an intensification of the heavy 
characteristics, while the pups from the latter pur 
were quite as exaggerated in the opposite direction — 
so much so that a casual beholder would have guessed 
them to be not only of a difiFerent family, but almost 
of a difiFerent variety. 

You must judge your brood-bitch dispassionately, 
to make quite sure of those points in which she is not 
perfect, and mate her with a dog of the same type, but 
excelling where she is moderate ; and, if you wish to 
establish eventually a true-breeding race, you must 
abst^n from using sires, faulty in themselves, but 
famous because they have b^otten a good pup or two. 

In pointers, beware also of paper pedigrees, unless 
the dogs concerned carry confirmatory credentials in 
their work and appearance. 

It is necessary to in-breed your dogs to a moderate 


l^rom an oil painting by W, Shayer, who exhibited 
from 1829 to 1885. 

This notable portrait, signed but unfortunately not 
dated, is of * Tasso/ a liver-and-white dog belonging to 
Sir Tatton Sykes. He must have been a superb 
pointer in all but his muzzle, which is not enough 
dished ; but though his plainness of face may arise from 
a mistake of the artist, he is certainly rather wanting 
in lip. 

In my own Possession. 


bajidirfxa oriw .id^fiH^ .W yd gntlfifsq fio nfi moi**! 

Jon ybJ«numWiir 4ud bsn^re .Jisitioq ^Icfsjon ?rtfT 
oJ gnignolad gob 9tiriw-bnB-i3Vf! s ",o»5T * "te jfi (barf^lb 
diaqug B irwd svjsri ueum sH .^y2' notifiT iE8 
riguon^ Jon et AoiAw ,3lssum «tiT Ji;d ffs nf/ndnrbq 
mo-ft 3cnK YRfn 33*^ lo zeanntulq ?M rfgporfj irud ; Iwrtefb 
gnilnaw larijBi ylnifiJ-t^D ei ^d 4?trtB irtrlo. 33l«:f2im «• 

. ■ .qH; nf 

\ ' . 



extent to gain uniformity of type, but avoid excess^ 
and be careful to employ for such a purpose only 
animals that are sound m mind and body. Concerning 
this, let your motto be : In-breeding for out-shining, 
but in-and-in breeding for out-and-out folly! 

Breeding from unbroken parents is, of course, 
trusting to chance, as no man can tell the undeveloped 
potentialities of a dog, and the further into the pedigree 
you have to dive to reach the working element, the 
more uncertain the result. Some dogs require breaking 
to develop their brain-power, while others are born 
essentially ready-made; and, though breaking is not 
necessary for the breeding animals themselves — ^because, 
if once the sporting instinct be there, it will remain 
latent for generations — yet a knowledge of individual 
character, only to be gleaned from their actual work, is 
indispensable to the man who is attempting to mate 
them advantageously. 

Minute analyses of the work of each of his pointers 
should be from time to time entered in a book by the 
scientific breeder. For him the most fascinating pro- 
blem to solve is how nearly he can breed his aogs 
ready-broken by nature, and only needing the finishing 
touches superadded. But this is a somewhat compli- 
cated matter, and demands critical attention at all 
times. The triumphs in this breeding for mind are 
not showy — you cannot parade them before a gaping 
crowd ; and, with the limited choice of blood now open 
to a pointer man, they are difficult to win, for there are 
so many qualities in a perfect pointer, that you must be 
careful not to let one drop while picking up another. 
Among those attributes that I have found innate in 
certain cases are the pointing, backing, and quartering 
instincts ; nose, obedience, initiative, indifference to 
fur, pace, dash, endurance, carriage of head, with style 
on point and in questing. 

145 L 


To select youngsters from a litter, take them when 
about six months old into a big field with their feeder, 
and walk along, allowing the pups to gallop how and 
where they please. Those of them that do not care to 
play with their brethren, preferring to hunt about by 
themselves, never following another, will make the 
best dogs. Tlus test I have found infidlible. 

Sportsmen who are worthy of the name will never 
withhold fi-om each other their particular strains of 
blood, they will try to keep their supremacy by superior 
skill in their blends, and by their nurture and educa* 
tion of the pups. 

When you are forced to send your bitch on a visit 
to a doe out^de your own kennel, let her be accom- 
panied by a trustworthy attendant. It may cost a 
pound or two more, but the money is well spent in 
obtaining certainty^ for strangers are sometimes care- 
less, and the bitch may be shy and restless among 
them. The chief objection to breeding from outside 
d(^s is that your knowledge of them can be but super- 
ficial ; when, therefore, you can arrange either for a 
loan of them or for their purchase outright, it will be 
found more satis^tory. 



SOME persons cannot leave well alone; and the 
world of the pointer, ever since the dawn of the 
nineteenth century, seems to have been troubled with 
more than its share of novelty hunters. 

The hybridising of the pointer was started, no 
doubt, from some misty hope of bettering his work, 
though, up to the end of the eighteenth century, it 
seems to have been very little practised. In fact, the 
only reference of this date to it that I can discover is 
from the pen of Mr. Page : — 

• The breed of pointers which has been mixed with 
English spaniels, such as are for setting dogs (in order 
to nave such as will run fast and hunt briskly), are, 
according to the degree of spaniel in them, difficult to 
be made staunch, and many of them never will stand 
well in company * {^rf of Shooting Flyings i767> P- 85). 

Now, as this sentence is distinctly un&vourable to 
the cross, and as Pye (1790) and Osbaldiston (1792) 
both become plagiarists for its precious sake, we can 
infer that the miscluef done by crossing up to that time 
was infinitesimal. In fact, setter blood can never have 
been introduced into the pointer to a large extent, and 
I find so few mentions of it in sporting literature that 
I will deal summarily with the subject of this cross by 
quoting the two following passages : — 

* A species of dog generally nominated the pointer, 
and Spain may be said to have originally sent forth a 
breed of these which, at the time, were superior to 



every other. By a careful and judicious management^ 
the union of tins with the English setter has produced 
a kind, in my opinion, infinitely surpassing either' 
{Anglings Shootings and Coursing^ by Lascelles, 1811, 
p. 128). 

^We have heard inconsiderate sportsmen recom*- 
mend a cross with the setter. We have witnessed the 
experiment of this incongruous conjunction repeatedly : 
one good dog in five hundred may be thus obtained ; 
but in general the offspring of the pointer and setter 
are very unruly, very obstinate, and very rarely indeed 
worth the trouble of rearing' {The Sportsman^ 1836, 
vol. iii. p. 185). 

At first sight this difference of opinion seems re- 
markable. I gather from it that Mr. Lascelles, an 
exceptionally clever sportsman-breeder-breaker, as is 
proved by his book, had sufficient patience and ability 
to force a success,' denied to most others. For my own 

5rt, if I were obliged to cross my pointers (which 
eaven forfend!) with any outside blood, I should 
certainly select the setter, as the only breed that would 
not diminish the pointing instinct in the puppies by 
one half. A prospect, one would have imagm^, suffi- 
ciently daunting to the thoughtful in any age ! 

How far more rational than the advocacy of any 
alien cross is the following passage : — 

•With respect to the Spanish pointer, he is of 
foreign origin, as his name seems to imply, but is now 
natuiulised in this country, which has long been famous 
for dogs of this description ; the greatest attention beine 
paid to preserve the breed by many sportsmen, and 
those who have paid due attention to it have been 
recompensed by preserving the breed in the utmost 
purity. This dog is remarkable for the aptness and 
facility with which it receives instruction; indeed, it 
may be said to be self-taught. The English pointer, 



on the contrary, is very difficult to be broke in, the 
greatest attention being necessary to complete his edu- 
cation. A cross between these produces capital dogs, 
which are much esteemed for their goodness. The 
Spanish pointer cannot undergo the fatigues of an 
extensive range, nor is he so durable and hardy as the 
English ' {Shooting Directory^ by Thomhill, 1 804, p. 5 1 ). 

Evidently the hom(^eneous cross has always pos- 
sessed the virtues here claimed for it, as it was the 
blending of two strains — ^the one from Navarre, the 
other originally from Italy — that produced the English 

But it was in the last years of the eighteenth century 
that the crying sin against the pointer was committed, 
by mating him with the foxhound. Had he been 
crossed once again with the tender-nosed, sagacious, 
southern hound, the effect would not have been 
disastrous; but the dashing, harum-scarum foxhound 
was an exemplarily mischievous selection. I suppose 
that the idea of this cross originated from a superstition, 
indulged in by the many, that the foxhound was a sort 
of • chosen ' d<^ ; and that it culminated in our oWn 
day with the efforts of fanciers to engraft an untypical 
appearance on the pointer for show-ring purposes. In 
the beginning there was no concealment about the 
matter, the cross was discussed with perfect fi*ankness, 
though, of course, the hound-like appearances were 
obliterated as soon as possible. Latterly, however, the 
process was reversed, for great reticence was displayed 
in acknowledging hound-blood, though hound-type was 
openly advocated. Colonel Thornton, who kept both 
foxhounds and pointers, was the first to intermix the 
two breeds. I select quotations from Sydenham Edwards, 
his contemporary, on the subject : — 

* The sportsman has improved the breed by selecting 
the lightest and gayest individuals, and, by judicious 



crosses with the foxhound, to procure courage and 
fleetness' (Cynographia Britannica^ i8oo, p. 2). 

* His high spirit and eagerness for the sport render 
him intractable and esctremely difficult of education ; 
his impatience in company subjects him to a desire to 
be foremost in the points, and not give the sportsman 
time to come up, to run in upon the game, particularly 
down-wind * (1^.). 

* The most judicious cross appears to have been 
with the foxhound, as by this has been acquired speed 
and courage, power and perseverance ; and its dis* 
advantage, difficulty of training them to be staunch. 
I believe the celebrated Colonel Thornton first made 
this cross, and, from his producing excellent dc^, has 
been very generally followed ' {id. p. 10). 

But, as we have Lascelles's exhaustive book on 
pointers, written ten years later, with no mention of a 
cross between the pointer and the foxhound, though he 
mentions the setter cross and was himself in addition 
a hunting-man, the cross at that time cannot have been 
so • very generally followed/ 

It was very unfortimate that Colonel Thornton 
should have succeeded so soon in producing such an 
eminent doe ^ his Dash. This was an extraordinary 
worker, and was sold for a sensational price — enough to 
set half the breeders in England crazy to try the same 
experiment in breeding. 

* Dash in his day was held to be the Eclipse of 
pointers, a character sanctioned by his high ranging 
over the moors, the vast expedition with which he 
cleared his ground, and the intuitive, heaven-born 
method, said to be almost incredible, in which he hunted 
enclosures for birds, which was by at once scenting and 
advancing upon them without the previous labour 
imposed upon other pointers of quartenng his ground : 
add to this, he was a most staunch and steady backer^ 



or seconder, of other dogs* {Sportsman* s Repository^ 
Lawrence, 1828, p. 121). 

' What are well understood amongst sportsmen by 
the term, " cross-bred dogs,*' we r^ard with contempt, 
though an extraordinary animal (one in ten thousand 
perhaps) has been occasionally produced. The late 
Colonel Thornton's Dash is the most celebrated of these 
semi-mongrels. Dash was produced by a cross of the 
foxhound with a highly bred pointer bitch. He was 
remarkable for his style of ranging upon the moors, as 
well as for his superior method of finding game ; he 
was equally excellent in partridge-shooting, and backed 
other dogs as steadily as possible. This dog was sold 
to the late Sir Richard Symons for one hundred and 
sixty pounds' worth of champagne and burgundy (which 
had been purchased at the French Ambas^or's sale), a 
hogshead of claret, an elegant gun, and a pointer, with 
the stipulation that if any accident befell him, as might 
render him unfit to hunt, he was to be returned to the 
Colonel for fifty guineas. Dash had the misfortune to 
break his leg; he was therefore sent to Colonel 
Thornton, who paid the fifty guineas and kept the dog 
as a stallion, from whom, however, a single whelp 
worth keeping was never procured. Nor was such a 
circumstance very likely : the stock of these cross-bred 
dogs is uniformly good for nothing ' (The Sportsman^ 
1836, vol. iii.. No. 4, p. 185). 

* Colonel Thornton's celebrated pointer. Dash, was 
bred ftom a rather small pointer bitch and a shallow- 
fiewed (^fleet) foxhound, and his appearance indicated 
his relationship to the latter in a very preponderating 
manner — ^the lofty foxhound, not the low-stooping 
pointer. Yet he was acknowledged as a pointer of 
surpassing excellence both on the moors and in the 
endosures, but as a stallion proved worthless, as might 
reasonably be expected (at least by those who have duly 


studied the subject) from that almost indescribable 
inharmoniousness which seemed to breathe around him, 
I have used this mode of expression as the best calculated 
to convey my meaning, which may be more clearly 
understood, perhaps, by further stating that there are 
homogeneous crosses and heterogeneous crosses, the 
former desirable, the latter rarely answering the intended 

Eurpose. When, for instance, the English pointer (after 
reeding in the same family too long) becomes too light 
and his head too narrow, a dip of Spanish blood is 
advisable, or the heavier dog of this country may be 
employed for the requisite purpose, which I call a 
homogeneous cross ; while a cross with the setter and 
pointer I deem heterogeneous, and when a capital dog 
happens to be thus obtained he is not calciilated for 
pro-generation ' {Shooter* s Preceptor^ by Johnson, 1842, 

P- 147)- 

For my own part I often used to wish that the 
Colonel (good sportsman as he undoubtedly was) could 
look down — or up— to see what a mess this parlous 
invention of a foxhound cross had vdtimately made of 
the pointer, since the fancy had taken to wallowing in 
that blood which he had used homeopathically. I 
wished him no further punishment than one good look 
round the pointer classes at a principal show ! But the 
type is better now than it was ten years ago, when the 
pointer ring reminded one of a schoolboy s misapplied 
slate — overspread with naughts and crosses ! Last 
Birmingham Show (1901) I spied a bitch of really 
distinguished appearance, and, as she hailed from an 
unexpected quarter, the pleasure was doubled. I have 
lately seen one or two others of the right sort also 
cropping up. So let us hope that they, like the snowdrops^ 
herald a happy reawakening, when the pointer shall be^ 
to use a Shakespearean expression, * fancy free.* 

Of course, as in the case of Dash, a violent out- 


cro8$ may produce a good, even an eminent animal ; 
but it destroys all continuity in breeding, and is re- 
sponsible for a large proportion of mongrels. One 
swallow does not make summer, nor one dog a team ! 

About crosses for the pointer I must add the fol- 
lowing opinions, taken from the books of two of the 
most famous nineteenth century writers on Sport : — 

* The further any dog is removed from the original 
Spanish pointer, the worse the dog is, and consequently 
all attempts to cross the pointer with any other breed 
must necessarily deteriorate the breed. Why, then, 
should the pointer be crossed with dogs which, in so 
far as the sports of the field are concerned, scarcely 
inherit one quality in common with him ? Attempts, 
however, are constantly made to improve the pointer 
by a cross with the bloodhound, foxhound. Newfound- 
land dog, or mastiiF, sometimes with a view of improving 
his appearance and bringing him to some fancied 
standani of perfection, but in reality inducing a 
deformity. One of these imaginary standards of per- 
fection is, that to one part thorough Spanish blood the 
pointer should have in him an eighth of the foxhound 
and a sixteenth of the bloodhound. A cross will some- 
times produce dogs which are, in some eyes, the teau 
ideal of beauty ; but, however handsome such dogs 
may be, they will necessarily possess some quality not 
belon^ng to the pointer. For instance, a cross with 
the hound gives the propensity to trace hares, if not to 
give tongue. A thoroughbred pointer carries his head 
well up when ranging ; he will not give tongue, nor 
has he much desire to chase footed game. The hound- 
pointer may sometimes be detected by his coarse ears, 
by his tail being curled upwards and being carried high^ 
or by his rough coat. An occasional cross with the 
mastiff or Newfoundland dc^ is said to increase the 
fineness of nose, but it is converting the pointer into a 



mere retriever. Another, and the mun source of the 
often unsightliness of sporting d(^s, is the allowing an 
indiscriminate intercourse between pointers and setters. 
Good dogs may be thus obtained sometimes, but they 
are invariably mis-shapen ; they have generally the 
head and brush tail of the setter with the body of the 
pointer, and their coats are not sleek, and instead of 
standing at their point they will crouch. We are 
not willing to allow that the pointer is improved in any 
quality that renders him valuable to the sportsman by 
a cross with the hound or any other sort of d(^ ; 
though we cannot deny that the setter is materially 
improved in appearance by a cross with " The New- 
foundland/' but what it gains in appearance it loses in 
other respects. Breeding mongrels, especially crossing 
with hounds, has given the game-keepers and dog- 
breakers an infinity of trouble which might have been 
avoided by keeping the race pure. The best pointer 
is the ofBpring of a pointer bitch by a pointer dog. 
Such a one is nearly broken by nature. The Spanish 
pointer seldom requires the whip, the hound-pointer 
has never enough of it. One or the main sources of 
the sportsman's pleasure is to see the dogs point well, 
&c.' {The Shooter's Handbook, by Oakleigh, 1842, 

P- 90- 

' Pointing is hereditary in pointers and setters ; and 

puppies of a good breed and of a well-educated ancestry 

take to pointmg at game as naturally as to eating their 

food, and not only do they, of their own accord, point 

steadily, but also back each other, quarter their ground 

r^ularly, and, in fact, instinctively follow the example 

ottheir high-bred and well-brought-up ancestors. For 

my part, I think it quite a superfluous trouble crossing 

a good breed of pointers with foxhound, or any other 

kind of dog, by way of adding speed and strength ; you 

lose more than you gain, by giving at the same time 


hard-headedness and obstinacy. It is much better, if 
you fancy your breed of pointers or setters to be grow- 
ing small or d^enerate, to cross them with some 
different family of pointers or setters of stronger or 
faster make, of which you will be sure to find plenty 
with very little trouble ' (ff^ild Sports of the Highlands^ 
by St. John, 1846, p. 116). 

' Dogs which bear too close an alliance to the hound 
or other varieties are very difficult to break, and when 
broken, though you certsunly may shoot game to them, 
are, comparatively speaking, not worth having, for 
unless you at all times keep up the most rigidly strict 
and painfully exact discipline, their dormant mongrel 
propensities, " bred in the bone," will soon be^n to 
show themselves' (Modern S hooter ^ by Lacy, 1842, 
p. 168). 

No doubt there has been, throughout the last 
century, a certain amount of commerce with the hound, 
though chiefly confined to the kennels of those who 
owned both varieties. Of this the following are cases 
in point. 

The Duke of Portland states that he has always 
heard that Lord Henry Bentinck crossed some of his 
pointers with a foxhound. 

Again, that well-known sportsman, Colonel Welfitt, 
who owned both foxhounds and pointers, told me that 
he had put his pointer bitches to a foxhound, and while 
showing me the oflfspring remarked that they were 
' handsome but very headstrong.' He bred these with 
two of my mother's pointers, Don (811) and General 
(4970), of Mr. Whitehouse s strain, and finally he pre- 
«nted us with a puppy, Don Jose (9019). This was 
a handsome sort of dog, and won several prizes, but he 
was impossible to break properly, and his puppies out 
of six of our bitches were not much better. 

Mr. C. M. P. Burn, in a letter to me, says : — * Skirk- 



ing) of Gkn Rinnes, told me that a cousin of his, the 
late Mr. G. Ashton (Stormer Hill, Bury), who hunted 
a pack of lus own in Lancashire, and had a moor in 
Glen Lyon, r^ularly crossed his pointers with his own 
foxhounds. He never found them really good workers 
until the fourth cross. His object was to get dura- 

As long, however, as pointers were kept for work 
alone, the hound-cross was comparatively harmless to 
the breed ; for when a dog was a failure at his business, 
he was, of course, not bred from. But when the Shows 
set up an artificial standard of looks, when the Kennel 
Club did not require any certificate of« work from a 
prize-winner, when wide was the gate and broad was 
the way into its stud-book, pointers received a blow 
from which they may never more recover — ^they lost 
their prestige. For when many sportsmen found that 
they could only get unruly hound-pointers, they dis- 
carded dogs altogether, took to other methods of 
shooting, and now their desire for even good ones is 
practically extinct. 

Observe this suggestive sequence of events ! First, 
the stud-book is established for purposes of ' blood and 
pedigree.' Secondly, eight years afterwards, Idstone, 
having announced that the hound should be the model 
for a pointer, proceeds with cautious innocence : — * I 
have a suspicion that we shall have to go to a distinct 
cross, probably that of the foxhound " diluted," if I 
may use such an expression, to the fifth or sixth genera- 
tion, to obtain that courage and verve which are 
essential in an animal bred for field sports, nor can I 
see my way to any other remedy ' (The Dog, p. 119). 
Thirdly, Mr. Lort, the celebrated Judge, openly recom- 
mends the cross to old Mr. Bulled, whose signed state- 
ment I hold : — 

* At the Birmingham Show, in the year 1886, after 



the judging of the pointers, the late Mr. W. Lort went 
round their benches with me. He then advised me to 
cross a foxhound with one of my pointer bitches, and 
said that he [Mr. Lort] had done so some years before, 
and by crossing the produce back to the pointer he had 
obtained hardiness, more bone, better legs and feet, &c. 
I, for my part, did not follow this advice, but I have 
always believed that Mr. Lort's Old Naso had a cross 
of foxhound in him. Mr. Lort, on the same occasion, 
instanced the name of one dog he had that was bred 
from the ofispring of the foxhound and pointer cross, 
but I cannot remember the dog's name. Directly after 
that Show I told my son, John Lee Bulled, of Mr. 
Lort*s talk with me, and my son distinctly remembers 
the fact.' 

At a time when pointers were growing houndier 
and houndier, in the beginning of 1895, I wrote this 
sentence in a letter to the Siock-keeper : — * From many 
of his descendants I should imagine that Old Bang had 
some alien blood to counterbalance Hamlet's excellent 
strain in him, and his son, Bang II., had still more of 
the hound cross.* For this supposition I was ruthlessly 
attacked, ordered to produce my proofs, accused of 
libel, and what not ! I had to wait three years, till 
January 29th, 1898, for my vindication, but it came at 
last in a letter to the paper. Our Dogs^ from Major 
Lodwick (Queen's Park, Chester), of which, on my 
application, he afterwards gave private confirmation. I 
now give extracts from the original letter, which, it will 
be seen, was written by a stranger to me, and by one 
who somewhat dissents from my views on the crossing 
of pointers : — 

* In your ** Spaniel Sparks" for January 22nd, apropos 
pointers, where Mr. Arkwright is stated to have 
expressed his opinions concerning the crossing of 
pointers in Devonslure with foxhounds, perhaps it 



may be interesting to some of your readers to know 
that I can corroborate what Mr. Arkwright states. I 
knew Mr. Sam Price, of Bow, Devon, intimately from 
1880 up to the time of his death. I have shot times 
out of number with him over his prize dogs, and he 
told me more than once, I remember well, that a few 
years back he had obtained the services of the late Lord 
Portsmouth's staunchest foxhounds, and had introduced 
the stnun into his kennel of pointers. Up to 1880, I 
think, Mr. Sam Price was recc^nised as the pointer man 
throughout England. He owned Ch. Bang, and got 
some huge figures for his dogs. I think I am right in 
saying that all the best pointers, in the South of England 
at any rate, are sprung from Ch. Bang. So Mr. Ark- 
wright is quite correct, you see : but why should he be 
so severe now upon pointers that show this strain of 
foxhounds ? Mr. Price gave me one of his pups, and 
two more my father bought, and since 1880 we have 
had this particular breed of pointer, and have bred very 
carefully from them, and for staunchness I have never 
met their equal.' 

Mr. Price, therefore, with commendable candour, 
did not make any very great secret of the foxhound 
element in his pointers — an element that no one who 
knows anything of hounds could fail to observe in the 
demeanour as well as in the appearance of his dogs. 

I once had a bitch of Mr. Price's breeding, called 
Sella Price, which was much inbred to Old Bang. She 
was a handsome bitch, and a prize-winner, but she had 
the fuzzy tail, the coat of two lengths, and the cat feet 
of her race. Sella was a good single bitch to shoot 
over, though rather soft, but she would never attempt 
to back. Usually she was perfectly steady, yet one day 
in her fifth season I sent her out with two of my friends 
and her usual handler, when she, for no apparent 
reason, ran up the first brood of grouse, and chased it 



out of sight, loudly giving tongue. I never knew her 
guilty ofthis either before or merwards. I kept four 
of her puppies, of which Tap and his brother were 
excellent) but the two bitches, though they would gallop 
about, were not possessed of the slightest sporting 
instinct. Tap himself was a wonderful dog, ana being 
by a very purely-bred black pointer, was another 
instance of a violent out*cross and its results ; for he, 
like Colonel Thornton's Dash, was not a success at the 

Let me repeat that to cross a pointing breed with a 
non-pointing breed, is to reduce in the offspring the 
pointing instinct by one half, and^ therefore, very often 
in breaking these mongrels, the pointing that should 
come naturally, has to be taught by severe and laborious 
lessons. The same remark applies still more forcibly 
to backing, which is simple pointing on trust — without 
verification. The reason why the black breed of 
pointers at the present day surpasses the pied breeds in 
its instinctive knowledge of its work, is because it has 
not been crossed : fortimately its habitat was not in the 
shires, nor would a dash of tricolour have improved its 
complexion. Had all the breeds of pointers been kept 
equdly pure, there would be fifty per cent, more 
pointers used in Britain to-day, but those wild, dis- 
obedient half>hounds are a * vexation of spirit.' 

Far be it from me to depreciate the foxhound, a 
perfect doe for his own work, and I should consider a 
fresh infusion of pointer blood into him just as objec- 
tionable as the converse ; but I maintain that the pointer 
ought to be the more courageous and delicate-nosed 
of the two, considering the nature of his duties. For 
a pointer has to gallop for a longer time than a hound, 
and, on the moors, over much rougher ground ; while 
this continuous galloping has to be done in cold blood 
before finding his game, not in hot pursuit of it. Then 



as to nose, the pointer in his work has to, and does, 
catch the scent at a far longer distance than a hound ; 
for often have I seen the pack in cover, nearly sur- 
rounding some bush, in happy ignorance that a fox was 
there till he jumped up * rignt among 'em/ 

To compare the two breeds, I must borrow an illus- 
tration from the army. The foxhound is like a private 
soldier, well-made, active, str6ng, courageous, and by 
training obedient — ^but there it ends. He has no scope 
for intellect ; he will be soon drafted as a * skirter * if 
he do not keep with the pack. On the other hand, 
the pointer, with all the talents of the hound and many 
superadded, resembles a scout. He works singly ; re- 
ceiving orders, it is true, but depending on his own wits 
for the mode of carrying them out. In short, he has to 
persevere by himself in his quest, to act on his own 
initiative, and to use much craft that he may find with- 
out disturbing. And this, forsooth, is the animal, the 
product of generations of high-breeding, to be improved 
by a cross of the foxhound ! 

I am convinced from my own experience that the 
foxhound cross has proved disastrous to the sporting 
value of those families of pointers into which it has been 
introduced, as might indeed be expected when one con- 
siders the very different branches of sport in which the 
two breeds are used. I myself have tried many of these 
dogs, * with a dash of the hound in them,' and have 
found, when they work, that they take much more break- 
\ng than pure pointers, being unruly, uncertain, jealous 
ofHiacking, hare-chasers, and seekers after foot-scent in 
preference to body-scent. And I have also found a good 
many that are non-workers, being almost devoid of 
bird-hunting ambition, and so slack-mettled as to be 
practically useless. Of course there are brilliant ex- 
ceptions, but they are exceptions, and even from such 
there is no certainty in breeding. 



From an oil paintings dated 1868, by George EarL 
This is a portrait of Champion Hamlet, a renowned 
pointer, that was bred and owned by Mr, J- H- White- 
house, with whom the artist had the advantage of 
shooting over him several times. He is proved to have 
been a highly-bred pointer by his work, by his appear^ 
ancc, and by his success at the stud. 

In my own Possession. 

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PJate J? 



As regards the external signs of hound-blood in a 
pointer, in order that such a dog may be avoided for 
the stud, beware of the following — a narrow skull — 
an absence of * stop ' — a small, sunken, or oblique eye 
— a muzzle inclining downwards — a grave, sombre ex- 
pression — coarse flews — low-set ears — z coat long, 
coarse, and, on parti-coloured dogs, the colours of 
different lengths — stern fuzzy-haired and gaily carried 
— round bone in the forelegs — short stiff pasterns — 
straight stifles — and cat-feet, Le.j short toes and round 
full pads. For I believe that only when all these 
characteristics are absent from the parents, can one 
look forward with confidence to a litter level and 

As I have said before, some breeders, since the com- 
mencement of the show period, have been ashamed to 
confess to the cross with the hound ; this is to be 
deplored because it prevents any accurate estimate being 
formed of the amount of hound-blood lurking in the 
pointers. The following story will illustrate the ease 
with which this fraud can be perpetrated, when a fox- 
hound appearance is necessary to win in the ring. A 
certain breeder wished to try the effect of this cross, 
so accordingly he put his bitch to a hound, and three 
days afterwards sent her to a noted pointer sire. The 
pups were to the first service, but the pedigree was 

There are very few references to the cross with the 
greyhound, and no mention of bulldc^, or bull-terrier, 
influence. The last-named dc^ was not developed in 
his present form till the ' secresy ' period was in full 
force, so I can get no definite confirmation of my belief 
that the dog Don IX. had some of that blood. Both 
he and his descendants were prone to wide chests, 
ridiculously small tails, wedgy heads, small eyes, and 
vile tempers. The temper was the most difficult 

i6i M 


to breed out ; but if there were such a stnun in them^ 
its effects were far more easily eradicated than are the 
traces of the hound. 

* Not only the various classes of hounds were used, 
but the assistance of the highly-bred greyhounds was 
deemed requisite ; and though it was evidently found 
necessary to wash out much of his blood, yet the strain 
frequently manifested itself in the long rat-like tail, and 
other indications which cannot be mistaken' (T'A^ 
SportsmaHj 1836, vol. iii., No. 4, p. 182). 

The preceding is the most direct mention I can find 
of the greyhound cross, which, considering the nume- 
rous traces of it to be found in the modern dog, is 
remarkable, as I presume they are only present in him 
now through atavism : one cannot imagine any one 
resorting to this cross for show-ring purposes. Pro- 
bably it would have an effect less permanent than that 
of the hound cross in modifying the character of the 
pointer ; as the greyhound, though physically an entity 
imposing enough, in mind is but a cipher. 

* Stonehenge,' in the 1856 edition, reconunends, if a 
cross be necessary for the pdnter^ the use of a stout 
greyhound of a breed crossed with bull in preference to 
the foxhound, but I hardly think that many have 
adopted his suggestion ; though, as far as concerns the 
bulldog blood, I have certainly seen suspicious ^ kinks * 
in the tails of some pointers. 



I DO not expect to convert many unbelievers by this 
chapter on shooting over dogs, and I am not sure 
whether, in the present plethora of shooters, it would 
be even desirable to open the eyes of the multitude to 
its attraction. I believe that fondness for this style of 
sport must be innate ; for there is a mysterious attrac- 
tion in the sport, though it does not appeal to every 
constitution and is hardly to be defined in workii^-day 
prose. Where the soil is congenial this grace of per- 
ception bursts into flower sometimes early, sometimes 
late — ^now in the kennel-yard, now on the mountain- 
side. When was it implanted? None can tell that ; 
but once established in a man's heart it can nevermore 
be uprooted. 

But though it is hard to say who will become enthu- 
siasts, it is pretty safe to prophesy that those who do 
not care for dogs, are not mterested in nature, and dis- 
like hard exercise, will never see where the fun comes in. 

Probably the genuine gundog-lover has always been 
a rather rare personage. I suppose that in old times, 
when men had to use d(^ in onler to get any shooting 
at all, many employed them under unconscious protest 
as a necessary evil, taking no interest in the work or in 
the habits of the game, and, as now, being very im- 
patient of anything that did not seem directly to pro- 
mote slaughter. The legitimate descendants of these 
form the present noble army of shooters. But nowa- 
days there must be many men with the temperament of 



the true sportsman, who really have not had a chance of 
shooting over dogs, except perhaps at a pot-hunt over 
one slow, old animal. Of course there are a great many 
single dogs used about the country, but I am referring 
to the sport Un excelsis * — shooting over a fast brace on 
a grouse-moor. 

By the way, this word sportsman has somehow got 
mixed up in a curious manner with the term sporting^ 
man. The latter is applied by the comparatively modem 
Webster to * a horseracer, pugilist, and the like/ whilst 
* sportsman ' is reserved for * one who pursues, and is 
skdled in, the sports of the field ; one who hunts, fishes, 
and fowls.' But despite these definitions we are con- 
fiised at present by hearing the title of sportsman 
bestowed mdiscriminately on persons who bet at races 
without troubling themselves about the horses, who 
shoot pigeons out of traps for money, or who from 
behind butts assassinate grouse by the bushel, although 
one not on the wing they would hardly recognise, ex- 
cept in the tell-tale company of the bread-crumb. I 
think many middle-aged men are conscious of all this, as 
they generally tell me that they prefer shooting over 
dogs, and so perhaps they do — ^in the abstract! But 
very few of the younger generation can have ever seen 
the genuine thing, so when it is explained to them a few 
of the right sort may be fired to try it for themselves. 
There would be difficulties at first in the way of getting 
good dogs, good breakers, and good moors — but the 
sport is worth taking some trouble over. 

Shooting over dogs is, I dare say, a bit selfish, un- 
sociable, and unbusinesslike ; but how about salmon- 
fishing and stalking ! Mercifully, no ingenious person 
has yet invented a plan by which the individual prowess 
of the netters can be conspicuously illumined, or the rod 
might be put on the shelf as slow and too much trouble. 
Shooting driven birds is, I suppose, the glorification of 



marksmansUp, one of the component parts of shooting, 
at the expense of all the others ; but even if it be the 
cream of the sport, imagine a diet of cream ! Person*, 
ally I regard driving as suitable enough for some places 
and for some men not adapted to the rigours of dog- 
work, but I shudder to hear of good dc^-moors being 
perverted into driving-moors, as the grouse only too 
readily change their habit of seeking concealment when 
disturbed, for that of at once taking to the wing ; and 
then the moor is ruined. I feci sure that if sheep and 
peat-cutters were kept off moors, the birds would, in 
most places, lie sufficiently well till the end of the 
season ; and though no doubt it would be expensive to 
exclude these undesirables, it would not be nearly so 
costly as preserving a deer-forest. 

Some writers, who fiivour driving, have tried to 
draw comparisons between that pastime and shooting 
over dogs, as if they saw some similarity between the 
two. There is none, unless indeed a community of 
grouse, gun, and such-like, is regarded as sufficient to 
establish the relationship : but one might as well com- 
pare the sayings of Shakespeare and the Sporting Times I 
The spirit — ^the essence — is quite different. I have 
been amused by writers with smug relish contending 
that because you can increase the stock of grouse by 
driving, this proves it to be the right way to shoot 
them. An argument conmiercially sound without 
doubt ; but they forget that similarly you can kill more 
fish with a net than with a rod, and can be surer of a 
gallop, and lots of jumping, with the drag ! 

Quantity before quality is no sportsman's proverb, 
and the condensation of four weeks' sport into four 
days' slaughter ought not to be desirable, unless there 
be cause wr violent hurry : and hurry brushes the deli- 
cate bloom off all pleasiire. Such an achievement may 
be useful to business men who snatch a fortnight's 



holiday during the season, but surely sport in general 
may be A*ee from the domination of the Stock Kx* 
change. No! no! We will grant you, O gunners, 
the advantage in your bags, in your picnics, m your 
hospitalities, in your cheapening the food markets, in 
fact in everything — except the enjoyment of Sport with 
a capital S ! 

but as to the actual marksmanship over dogs, is it, 
as some pretend, too simple for experts ? In no cir- 
cimistances can it be so easy as that of shooting in line, 
though it may not present much difficulty, eady in the 
season, to the gunner who steals ahead at the point, 
regardless of the feelings of dogs and men, and downs 
the first of the brood that may show a wing above the 
heather. But that is no more the true sport over does, 
than when a wretched pointer is worked in front of a 
line of guns and beaters. I am, however, inclined to 
doubt the transparent ease of shooting in good form to 
dogs, because, though I have seen manv brilliant shots 
essay it, I have only known two men m twenty years 
who shot well enough over dogs, when the grouse were 
strong, regularly to take the foremost birds on their 
own side, without mangling them and without inter- 
fering with the other gun, and fine enough judges of 
pace to ensure there being a minimum of pricked birds. 

To kill a brace of strong grouse rising wildly and 
going away from you, is a feat that requires great quick- 
ness of hand and eye ; and nerves of iron are necessary 
for the strain of walking alongside the dog, watching 
his roading from the tail of your eye, and ignorant how« 
when, and where the birds will start up ; you must also 
possess intuitive nimbleness in surmounting the in- 
equalities of the ground, and you have to decide in- 
stantaneously on the birds that are yours. But let us 
turn from polemics to consider the infinite variety 
and delight of shooting over dogs. 

1 66 


In the early season, when the grouse are lying well, 
how pleasant are the strolls with your friend, in cheery 
rivalry picking ofF the old birds at the rises, and dis- 
cussing the work of the puppies as they fly over the 
heather buds that glint at the golden sunshine. I used 
the word friend advisedly, as unless you can lay hands 
on some one you know well, cot^enial, observant, and 
with his heart in it, you will do rar better by yourself. 
I am now writing frx>m the standpoint of a non-handler 
of the dogs, which personally I find more agreeable 
when shooting grouse, as I can see the work better so 
and can judge it more truly ; but working one's dogs 
has many di^ms, and breaking them, if one have the 
time, is even more fascinating. 

After the first fortnight the co-operation of another 
ffun becomes almost a necessity, when the season for 
hard walking and strict silence is developing, and when 
you have a bare margin to get there before the brood 
takes French leave of the most perfect dog ; but you 
can still approach from behind, getting plenty of glorious 
shots, and by this time, being in hard condition, you 
enjoy to the full the crispness of it all. 

Then the last phase of the sport is also truly ex- 
citing ; but it must be entered into by only one gun, in 
company with one man to work the dog, and a gillie on 
the horizon to carry the game. Now is the time for 
the wiliest and wariest in your kennel, in this encounter 
to the death with the old cocks. When all goes well, 
you must not expect more than five brace in the day, 
but this compared to the meed of the deer-stalker is 
opulence. And, when you do get him, what a picture 
each one is — his legs muffled in white to the very toe- 
nails, his plumage a marbled harmony of all the browns 
and reds in nature's paint-box. Your dc^, too, how he 
enjoys the sport ! To him up-wind and down- wind are 
alike, old tnmip that he is ! When he gets his steady 



pcnnt, with nostrils on the stretch he is juds^ing all the 
time of the quietude or uneasiness of his bird. He will 
guard it as does a collie his flock, rising to full height 
when escape is meditated in his direction, sinking to 
earth when the danger is past, sometimes even jesuiti- 
cally blinkit^ his point. Meanwhile you have to esti- 
mate, from your knowledge of your dog and his attitude, 
the distance of the game m front of him ; and from that 
and the lie of the ground, you must forthwith form 
your plan of campaign. Anyhow, you must skulk off, 
and, if there be a convenient peat-hag, you will probably 
crawl down it until by peeping you know you arc right 
opposite the dog : then make steadily tor his h^. 
Many a bird is up and off without giving a chance, but 
none of you is discouraged, you simply try again. Some 
of these single old cocks prefer not to fly, they run 
instead ; and then such a search has frequently to com- 
mence as taxes all the qualities of both man and beast. 
Because this branch of the sport is often left to the 
keepers and is not well understood, I have tried to call 
due attention to it, but in this mere outline I have 
naturally been unable to do it justice — it would require 
a chapter to itself. 

Still, of course, the chief glory of the sport is to 
shoot over a brace of rakit^ pointers, matched for speed 
and style, sweeping over the rough places like swallows, 
and passing each other as if they were fine ladies not in- 
troduced. Let one of them get a point and the other 
will, as if connected by invisible wire, instantly point at 
him (i.e. back him) ; and as the pointit^ dog advances 
to make sure of the birds, the backer will do the same — 
often with an absolute mimicry of his leader's move- 
ments. When his master has come to the spot, how 
proudly will the first dog march him up to the game 
with outstretched neck, name in his eye, and foam at 
his lip, while his companion watches from a distance with 



perfect self-control ; and, when the birds rise, both dogs 
instantly drop to the ground, not to move till the game 
is gathered, and they are bidden to resume their search. 

Then there is the chase of a runnit^ grouse across 
a bit of flow (marshy land), which for pure fim beats 
everything. The face of the flow is powdered with 
little lichen-covered hillocks, of the size and consistency 
of a bath-6ponge ; and among these the birds thread 
their way with such ease that they often run for a quarter 
of a mile or so. When your d(^ gets a point here, 
he trots on a bit, and you go floundering after him. 
Then he stands still, turns his head with an imploring 
glance, which expresses unmistakably 'I say, please 
come on.' You make a spurt. He runs forward only 
to wuit for you again as you shuflie after him, and so 
on till up, with a chuckle, jumps the old bird about 
thirty yards behind you, having executed a well-con- 
ceived double, and you, quite out of pufF, have a wild 
shot at him. And if he tumble, the dog and you wor- 
ship each other in complete contentment, while you 
feel — ^there never was such a dog, there never was such 
a shot, and never such a sport as grousing hi Caithness. 
But hit or miss, the sordidness of^life is far from you ; 
and you are free, and muddy, and happy ! 

The great beauty of a day's shooting is that a thou- 
sand unexpected events may occur, and variations in- 
numerable. But I would not hint at them, even if I 
could, for I want my sympathetic readers to find them 
for themselves. 

If I had my way, every twelfth of August, the day 
of the big bag, should fall on a Friday. Next day 
should be examination day for the puppies, shooting 
over them all »ngly : a day bright with anticipations 
and prophecies. Then Sunday to rest, to sort the 
young ones into future braces, and thoroughly to in- 
spect them on the flags. 



I will now subjoin some esctracts from the sportsmen 
of the earlier half of last century, to show their tem- 
perament and feelings on these matters : — 

* The grand ana magnificent style of sporting, by 
which such slaughter is to be effected, is not such as 
could gratify the feelings and satisfaction of a keen and 
experienced sportsman. These kinds of gunners are 
well suited to the old saying, '* never make a toil of 
pleasure;" from this language we may describe two 
kinds of shooters. The first is a man of fortune, sur- 
rounded with game-keepers (let us suppose the scene 
for the present in Norfolk), pointers, setters, &c, 
without number, Manton guns, and all in complete 
retinue, going out at perhap twelve o'clock (the hour 
of indolent and feather-bed gunners) into the highest 
preserved covers in that county, where the game is so 
very tame that twenty birds may be killed in a few 
hours; their servants with clean guns ready, and, if 
necessary, loaded by them ; and probably, if the dog of 
one of these elegant sportsmen is admired, or gains credit, 
if his master is askcMl his name, he makes for answer, 
^* he really cannot tell you, but will ask his game-keeper/' 
The second sportsman is that who rises early, and 
attends to his own appointments, guns, &c. Where is 
the sportsman that does not like a little pains or diffi- 
culty in finding game ? A keen sportsman would as 
soon fire at crows, or barn-door fowl, as at game so 
plenty as on Mr. Coke's manors in Norfolk ; besides 
this shootit^ is not the perfection that such a sportsman 
requires, that perfection exists, only in seeing the dogs 
perform, and do their duty; and not in slaughtering of 
game, but in seeing them draw^ back^ and standi and 
above all, steady on the shot' {The Shooting Directory^ 
by Thomhill, 1 804, p. 399). ' In my opinion there is 
no pleasure in shooting of any kind, but where the 
faithful dog is a necessary attendant' {id. p. 411). 



* We do not admire that gi'ound which resembles a 
poultry-yard. Grouse and barn-door fowls are con- 
structed on dilFerent principles ; the former being wild, 
the latter tame creatures, when in their respective per- 
fection. Of all dull pastimes the dullest seems to us 
sportit^ in a preserve; and we believe that we share 
that feelingr with the Grand Signior. The sign of a 
lonely inn m the Highlands ought not to be the Hen 
and Chickens. Some shooters, we know, sick of com- 
mon sport, love slaughter. From sunrise to sunset of 
the first day of the moors, they must bag their hundred 
brace. That can only be done where pouts prevail, 
and cheepers keep chiding ; and where you have half a 
dozen attendants to load your double barrels sans inter- 
mission, for a round dozen of hours spent in a perpetual 
fire. Commend us to a plentiful sprinkling of game ; 
to ground which seems occasionally barren, and which 
it needs a fine instructed eye to traverse scientifically 
and thereof to detect the latent riches. Fear and hope 
are the deities of the moors, else would they lose their 
witchcraft. In short, we shoot like gentlemen, scholars, 
poets, philosophers, as we are; and looking at us vou have 
a sight " of him who walks in glory and in joy, ix>llowing 
his dog upon the mountain*side ; " a man evidently not 
shooting for a wager, nor performing a match from the 
mean motives of avarice or ambition ; but blazing away 
at his own sweet will* (Quotation from Christopher 
North: Recreations in Shootings by Craven, 1846, p. 28). 

* Grouse-shooting to the gunner is what the chase 
of the fox is to the zealous hunter of beasts. It is cer- 
tainly attended with less danger, but it is infinitely more 
fatiguing, which, again, is compensated for to the lover 
of nature by the endless variety it presents, and to the 
sportsman by furnishing him with the objects he is in 
pursuit of {EncyclapJdia of Rural Sports, by Blaine, 



'In compariaon with grouse-shooting and deer- 
stalking, all the other sports of this country are mere 
play. Grouse-shooting is the sport of all others ex* 
clusively British ' {The Shooter* s Handbook^ by Oakleigh, 
1842, p. 133). *To the shooter in training, full of 
health and strength and well appointed, it is of little 
consequence whether game be abundant or not. The 
inspiriting character of the pursuit, and the wild beauty 
of the scenery, so dilFerent from what he is elsewhere 
in the habit of contemplating, hold out a charm that 
dispels fatigue. He feels not me drudgery ! To him the 
hills are lovely under every aspect, whether beneath a 
hot autumnal sun or beneath the dark canopy of 
thunder-clouds ; whether in the frosty mom or m the 
dewy eve ; whether when, through the clear atmo- 
sphere, he surveys, as it were in a map, the counties 
that lie stretched around and beneath him, or when he 
wanders darkly on amidst the gloomy vapour that 
rolls continuously past him. The very sterility pleases. 
Scarcely is there a change of scene ; silence and solitude 
— hill and ravine — sky and heather universally pre- 
vail. He beholds an unbounded expanse of heathery 
hills, by no means monotonous if he looks at it with 
the eye of a painter, for there is every shade of yellow, 
green, brown, and purple. The last is the prevailing 
colour at this season, the heather being in bloom. The 
invigorating influence of the bracing wind on the 
heights lends him additional strength; he puts forth 
every effort, every nerve is strained ; he feels an artificial 
glow after nature is exhausted, and returns to the cot, 
to enjoy his glass of grog and such a snooze as the toil- 
worn citizen never knew* {id. p. 141). 

* I cannot say that my taste leads me to rejoice in 
the slaughter of a large bag of grouse on one day. I 
have no ambition to see my name in the county news- 
papers as having bagged my seventy brace of grouse 



in a cettain number of hours on such-^nd-such a hill. 
I have much more satisfaction in killing a moderate 
number of birds, in a wild and varied range of hill, 
with my single brace of dogs, and wandering in any 
direction that fancy leads me, than in having my day's 
beat laid out for me, with relays of dc^ and keepers, 
and all the means of killing the grouse on easy walking 
ground, where they are so numerous that one has only 
to load and fire. In the latter case I generally find 
myself straying off in pursuit of some teal or snipe, to 
the n^lect of the grouse and the disgust of the keeper, 
who may think his dignity compromised by attending 
a sportsman who returns with less than fifty brace. 
Nothing is so easy to shoot as a grouse when they are 
tolerably tame, and with a little choice of his shots 
a moderate marksman ought to kill nearly every bird 
that he shoots at early in the season, when the birds sit 
close, fiy slowly, and are easily found. At the end of 
the season, when the coveys are scattered far and wide, 
and the grouse rise and fly wildly, it requires quick 
shooting and good walking to make up a handsome 
bag ; but how much better worth killing are the birds 
at this time of the year than in August ' {JVild Sports of 
the Highlands^ by St. John, 1 846, p. 26). 

' It is time that the vulgar notion was e3q>loded that 
to slaughter grouse alone constitutes a sportsman. If 
he has no other qualification than that, he must indeed 
be one of the very smallest calibre. A sportsman of 
the right stamp must also have an eye for all that is 
interesting and beautifiil in nature, which adds to his 
pursuits their greatest zest ' {Remarks on the Decrease of 
Grouse^ Colquhoun, 1858, p. 6). 

* The whole affair is a matter of display from be- 
ginning to end. Cram the bag as fast as you can, by 
every means, despite the sport, is the order of the day ' 
{id. p. 13). 



' Several relays of dogs are worldng, with their re- 
spective attendants, on difFerent parts of the moor. 
Mounted on a strong hill-pony, the performer rides 
from one point to another; a loaided gun is put into his 
hands ; every cheeper that can top the heather is made 
to count, and thus the hero of a bird a minute accom- 
plishes his unparalleled exploit. A fair illustration of 
the love of notoriety more than the love of sport, which 
characterises the sons of the trigger in the present day. 
Newspaper shots are too rife amongst us. A large bag 
must be made by all means. Mr. This or Lord That has 
shot such a number, we must not be behind him. Just 
set nine-tenths of such show-ofF performers adrift on 
a strange moor, not overstocked with grouse, with a 
brace of dogs and an inexperienced gilly to carry the 
bag, and — excellent shots as I allow most of them to 
be — still see what a sorry picture they would cut in 
manoeuvring their game' {id. p. 14). 

I will now turn to the behaviour and treatment of 
the dogs on the moor, concerning which I have been 
fortunate enough to find most of the salient points in 
the writings of my predecessors. 

* To ensure good sport the shooter must be pro- 
vided with good dogs. However abundant game may 
be, there can be no real sport without good dogs ; and, 
however scarce game may be, a good day's sport is 
attainable with good dogs by a person who feels what 
sport is, and who does not look upon filling the game- 
bKEig and loading the keepers with game as the sole end 
and aim of the sportsman's occupation. The mere act 
of killing game no more constitutes sport than the 
jingling of rhyme constitutes poetry ' {Shooter^ s Hand-- 
took, by Oakleigh, 1 842, p. 94). 

* No species of shooting requires the aid of good 
dogs more than grouse-shooting, and in no sport does 
so much annoyance result from the use of bad ones. 



The best dog, perhaps, for the moors is a well-bred 
pointer, not more than five years old, which has been 
well tutored — young in years, but a veteran in ex- 
perience' {id. p. 143). 

' Grouse-shooters should separate and range singly : 
they should have no noisy attendants, nor any dogs 
that require rating. The sport cannot be carried on 
too quietly. Only one dog as long as the heather is wety 
afterwards two, and in the afternoon three d<^. In 
wet weather one dog is quite sufficient' {id. p. 

* The very swift certainly miss some that a moderate 
galloper will pick up. But then the attitudes struck in 
a moment^ with such infinite diversification, in the stabs 
of a fast dog, are more than a compensation for some 
casual unavoidable transits^ and give a glow to the 
true, keen sportsman that the sight of 100 points 
made by a dull, trotting, slovenly brute in the common 
form cannot call up' {Treatise on Field Diversions^ 
Symonds, 1776, p. i6). 

'Have a horror of near rangers; they are the 
worst of all for moor-shooting. Of these — that is, 
pointers — ^hunt a brace at a time, it will be quite enough ' 
(Recreations in Shootings by Craven, 1846, p. 27). 

At the same time beware of the opposite extreme, say 
I ! On a well-stocked grouse moor, with defined beat^ 
it is not only important to find game, but also to find it 
in propo* sequence. I do not know of anything more 
prejudicial to both temper and bag than to find oneself 
saddled with one of those so-called * natural game- 
finders,' which is, as a rule, a euphemism for a head- 
strong, sky-ranging brute, with nose and pace, but 
lacldng intelligence. 

* I like to see blood, bone, and beauty combined in 
all the works of animated nature. Without the accom- 
paniment of well-bred and well-broken dogs, shooting 



is not sport; it is merely gun-firing" {Ttie Modem 
Shooter^ by CapUun Lacy, 1842, p. 146). 

* As nothing tends to beguile the fatigue of the 
shooter or keep up the life of a day's sport more than 
a change of dogs in the field, so is nothing more con- 
ducive to the preservation of the dogs themselves. 
How many dogs, fi-om having been overworked, are 
done up in their prime! The best plan in chan^ng 
dogs is to have a person meet you with them at an 
appointed time and place, and to send the dc^s you 
have been working home again immediately m the 
same sheets which you strip off the fresh dogs, to be 
kennelled, groomed, and fed ; because by this means the 
fresh dogs will be quite fresh, whereas, if kept in 
couples, following a party the whole morning, they will 
have been all alot^ more or less on the £ret from the 
report of the guns, &c. ; and the dogs taken up in 
couples from work, and not sent home at once, are apt 
to chill, stiffen, and become stale and jaded ; and, in 
fact, in bad weather, are more injured than if they had 
been kept at work the day through. Where the shooter 
goes out daily and stays out all day long, three 
changes of dogs will not be found too many to keep 
his kennel fresh ; and some change there must be, or 
the appearance of his dogs, however r^ularly groomed, 
or nutritiously and bountifiilly fed, will soon prove 
him a bad kennel economist. It is absolute ruin to 
young dogs to keep them out too long a time ' ^/^.p. 148). 

More than one-half of the beauty of shootmg, in my 
opinion, consists in the gallant style of ranging and in 
the beautiful attitude of the aninmis on point. I know 
full well that a dog may be a very good and handy one, 
with but small pretensions to appearance ; but he who is 
ambitious of shooting in first-rate style must especially 
look to symmetry of form in his dogs. '* Let them be 
handsome as pictures'' ' {id. p. 170). 




From an oil painting, dated 1875, by George Earl 
This is a portrait of Champion Drake. He was 
bred and owned by Sir R Garth, Q^C, and was one 
of the most sesisational winners of Trials that has ever 
lived, Drake's legs and feet are here made too 
wooden ; but his head, despite an injury to the picture 
spoiling one car, is nice, though both skulJ and stop 
are rather Jacking. I fancy that the artist must have 
tried to idealist: the dog ; as I am told that he possessed 
an ampJe head, but that it was not famous for beauty. 
/« my own Possession. 

V' C 


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. ; ." ''^t ^w . Kir !iJ w'..*» ' ; 

Plate 18. 


^All dogs for grouse-shooting should at all times 
be particularly steady ; not a syllable should require to 
be spoken to them, but all done by hand-work, unless 
the whistle be occasionally used as a signal for them to 
turn, grouse bdng the most sensitive and the soonest 
disturbed of all game {id. p. 199V 

• A little departure " in bold disorder '* from rigid 
or formal rules, a little roaming on the moors, adds 
zest to the sport, albeit, at times, the bag may be 
somewhat the lighter for it. That man who, enjoying 
the cool elasticity of the mountain breeze, and walking 
on a carpet of purple heather, is yet withal bent on 
slaughter only, may be a good s^ot, but he is a tasteless 
sportsman ' {id. p. 203). 

* I frequently range down-wind for grouse, and in- 
variably so in boisterous weather, for then the birds 
often lie closer and keep their heads down, and can 
therefore neither see nor hear you so well ; you also 
have a much more distinct sight of them with the 
wind at your back than when it is blowit^ a moorland 
blast full in your face and eyes. Many sportsmen 
never think of going on the moors after August, or 
September at the latest ; whereas, if the birds have had 
a tolerable respite, as frequently is the case, they are 
much more easily found by the dogs in October than 
during dry, sultry weather; will often lie on a fine 
day, especially one succeeding a black frost; and in 
point of size, ftiUness and beauty of plumage, and ex- 
cellence of flavour, are incomparably superior to the 
birds of earHer date ' {ii.). 

To the remarks of Captain Lacy on the advantage 
of down-wind questing, I can only add that you should 
accustom your dogs, almost from the banning, to 
work down- wind when necessary ; as in beatmg a moor, 
nothing is more tiresome than fiddling about for the 
wind, m place of steadily going on trying for grouse. 

177 N 


Besides, the dogs very soon take to it, and it materially 
develops their intelligence ; but on running into a brood 
they should always be scolded, even when you do not 
think them culpable. 

* The best way [when a bird fidls] is not to allow 
the pointer to move, but to have a dog of the proper 
kind for the sole purpose of retrieving the game; a d(^ 
for this purpose should bring well, have a good nose, 
and very little disposition to hunt' {Observations an 
Dog-breakings by Floyd, 182 1, p. 20). 

This advice by Floyd (the game-keeper of Sir J. 
Sebright), to have some other dog to retrieve the game, 
is, I think, indisputable nowadays if really high-class 
work be desired ; as the pointer, lying dropped during 
the process of picking the game, gains that pause for 
cool reflection which he enjoyed formerly during the 
re-charging of the muzzle-loaders: he is also freed from 
the temptation to unsteadiness engendered of actual 
contact with the game. For this office, I myself use 
small spaniels, which sit back while I go up to a point, 
and, at a whistle, hasten up to collect the fallen. I had 
believed this plan an invention of my own before I 
read the above passage and later still found the recom- 
mendation of the German, Von Fleming (1749). (See 
Chapter I. of this book.) 

^ When a dog stands (and it is seen by the point 
that he is sure o7 his game), the master should stand 
still also ; the general stillness settles the dog more 
firmly to his point, and the birds are always the more 
likely to lie. If the gunner is young and impatient, 
hurrying up, as many of that description frequently do, 
it hurries the dc^ also, and not only makes him eagerly 
impatient, but the game in the contusion probably rises 
out of shot ; or, what is equally productive of mortifi- 
cation, he gets up to the point so flurried and out of 
breath that he finds it impracticable to take regular 



^m ; and when he erroneously conceives he does, the 
bodily tremor he is in renders the shot in nine times 
out of ten ineffectual * {Sportman's Cabinet^ by Taplin, 
1803-4, p. 98). 

Some breakers have an irritating and game-scaring 
way of speaking or of making encouraging sounds to 
the diog when he is roading his birds. This should 
never be allowed by the master ; nor should the heather 
round a dog be stirred with stick, foot, or other weapon. 
The man must not do the dog's work, or it will soon 
spoil the dog. The stickiest puppy can be easily taught 
to walk on boldly by keeping an old dog on a lead, 
and when the youngster gets a point, coupling them 
together. And as a free style of roading is necessary 
both for the success of the sport and the nerves of the 
sportsmen, every pointer while quite young should be 
perfected in this accomplishment. 

* I caution gentlemen always to keep their own dogs 
scrupulously to themselves, and to have a set allotted 
to strangers ; for many good sportsmen differ in their 
manner of treating their dogs ; some care not how their 
dc^s behave, provided they can get shots. I conceive 
the great pleasure and elegance of shooting depends on 
the good order in which the dogs are kept * {Sporting 
Tour, by Colonel Thornton, 1804, p. 163). An excel- 
lent counsel never to be departed from ! 

And now a few words about the sportsmen them- 
selves, as we are on the subject of behaviour. 

In the first place, never have more than two guns 
in one party when shooting grouse over dogs, or the 
pleasure will be spoiled and the pointers demoralised. 
* Three in a party are dangerous, besides being too 
many for sport,' says, in 1832, the author of Hints to 
Grown Sportsmen (p. 20). 

As a jealous shot is a curse at this kind of sport, 
promoting ill-feeling and retaliation, besides hindering 



the bi^, the Rules for this kind of shooting ought to 
be strictly observed : — 

* The prudent and the patient who shoot in com- 
pany will be found circumspect and consistent in every 
motion ; they will ndther of them take aim at the first 
bird which happens to rise (to be confused by those 
who follow), nor fix upon a bird upon the left-hand 
when his companion is on that side; the right-hand 
man and the left should invariably adhere to birds 
going ofF on their own sides, but when their flight is 
made in a direct line forward, circumstances must regu- 
late and justify proceedings accordingly ' (Sportsmam*s 
Cabinet^ by Taplin, 1803-4, p. 28). 

*• If two gentlemen shoot tc^ether, each should wait 
patiently till a bird rises on his own side ; if it does not 
rise on his side, he should never fire, or at least not 
until his friend has fired and missed. Should only one 
bird rise, the shot belongs to the person on whose side 
it rose' {Shooter's Guide^ by Thomas, 18 19, p. 254). 

* Let your first barrel be placed upon any bind on 
your own side, that is within a fair distance, reserving 
a near bird for the second shot' (Hints to Grown 
Sportsmen^ 1832, p. 22). 

Before you commence the day's shooting agree with 
your friend whether you are to be the right or the left- 
hand gim, and then stick religiously to that c»tler : it 
will save much confusion. 

If the birds are at all tickle, and you have to wait 
during the roading of the d(^, be sure that you never 
stand still, but keep on marking time with your 1^ 
as if still walking. Nothing frightens birds more than 
to see a man standing about — to them it »gnifies dis- 
covery. When walking by the side of your roading 
dc^, keep level with his tail, about five yards to your 
own side of him. Watch him that you may not walk 
on to ground towards which he is bearing, and when 



he does turn your way, stop walking at once, and 
steadily mark time. Keep with him during his entire 
march, never abandoning a point as barren, before the 
dog has given it up ; and do not cut comers from 
lazmess, but only when such a process is unavoidable. 
Of course all these remarks have double force when 
you are working puppies, in which case you ought 
neither to shoot a hare, nor at any bird that has not 
been pointed. 

* There are shooters who acquire an imsportsman- 
like habit of firing at a covey immediately as it rises, 
before the birds are furly on the wing, and thus, with- 
out aiming at any individual bird, bring down two or 
three. And sometimes they will make a foul shot by 
flanking a covey ; the birds being upon the wing, come 
upon them suddenly, and make a simultaneous wheel ; 
they take them on the turn, when, for a moment — and 
but for a moment — ^half the covey are in a line, and 
floor them rank and file. These are tricks allied to 
poaching, and almost as reprehensible as shooting at 
birds on the ground ' {Shooter* s Handbook^ by Oakleigh, 
1842, p. 112). 

I -mix quote some additional passages of importance, 
germane to the foregoing : — 

* But it may not be amiss to remark, in this place, 
that to beat a country properly the sportsman should 
not go straight forward, but should form a zig-zag 
figure in traversing the ground, taking care to give the 
dog the wind as much as possible ; nor should he be 
afraid of beating the groimd over twice, where he has 
reason to believe there is game' {Shooter* s Guide^ by 
Thomas, 18 19, p. 254). 

* In pursuing this game [grouse] if, when the dc^s 
are set, the shooter perceives the birds to erect their 
heads and run, he may be pretty certain that they will 
not lie very well during the course of that day ; and 



the only mode by which he will be able to get at them 
is to make a circle of about sixty or seventy yards 
round them, with a careless eye, and the dogs standing 
staunch at the time, till you get ahead of the birds ; 
when they percdve you before them and the dogs 
behind them, they will sauat to the ground and lie 
close ; when you observe tnis, step gently towards the 
dogs and the birds in a straight line ; between you and 
the dogs they will lie till you get within twenty-five or 
thirty yards of them, by which means you are certun 
of a shot ; when, by following them up with the dogs, 
and running, not once in ten times do you get witmn 
shot, and at the same time make the birds much wilder 
the remainder of the day' {The Driffield Angler^ by 
Mackintosh, 1821, p. 196). 

* The grouse-footer should be long in training 
before the season, so as to be able to master his ground, 
and carry his gun, without much personal inconve- 
nience. He should ride or drive to and from the 
shooting-ground, for, if he is unable to undei^o the 
labour comfortably, he will by no means feel at home 
on the moors * {The Shooter* s Handbook^ by Oakldgh, 
1842, p. 134). 

I do not think that this subject of shooting grouse 
over dogs would be adequately treated without some 
mention of the every-day habits of grouse, ignorance 
of which would place one very much at the mercy of 

* To find the birds when, satisfied with food, they 
leave the moor to bask in some fevourite haunt, re- 
quires both patience and experience, and here the 
mountain-bred sportsman proves his superiority over 
the less-practised shooter. The packs, then, lie closely 
and occupy a small surface on some sunny brow or 
sheltered hollow. The best-nosed does will pass within 
a few yards and not acknowledge them ; and patient 



hunting, with every advantage of the wind, must be 
employed to enable the sportsman to find grouse at 
this dull hour. But if close and judicious himting be 
necessary^ the places to be beaten are comparatively 
few, and the sportsman's eye readily detects the spot 
where the pack is sure to be discovered. He leaves 
the open feeding ground, for heathering knowes and 
sheltered valleys ; while the uninitiated wearies his dog 
in vain over the hill-side ' {The Shooter^ s Handbook, by 
Oakleigh, 1842, p. 139). 

' Grouse do not fly with the wind on all occasions, 
but whenever they happen to do so, their flights are 
longer than when they face it ; and, when going 
across wind, their flight has ever a tendency to the 
lee side. Whatsoever species of game he is in pursuit 
of, the shooter will do well to keep on that side of the 
hill which is protected from the wind. The favourite 
haunts of grouse, when undisturbed, are those patches 
of ground where the young heather is most luxuriant. 
They avoid rocks and bare places, where the heather 
has been recently burnt. It is in young heather where 
grouse most frequently feed. They are seldom found 
in the very long, thick heather that clothes some part 
of the hills, untU driven there for shelter by shooters 
and others. It is early in the morning, and towards 
evening, that grouse are to be found in young heather. 
During the middle of the day the shooter should 
range the sunny side of the hill, and avoid plains' 
{id. p. 146). 

' As a rule it may be observed that all game, when 
raised, are apt to settle on lower ground ' (Recreations 
in Shootings by Craven, 1846, p- 25). * Storms or high 
winds make them very wild ; the best way to approach 
them then is from below ; they cannot see you so 
plainly as when descending from ground above them ' 
{id. p. 26). ' You must not beat over the same line 



too often ; if constrained ever so much for want of 
room, not more than twice a week ' (ii.) 

I have noticed that grouse, as a rule, feed down- 
wind, i.e. keep on moving in the same direction as the 
wind, while partridges feed in the opposite direction. 
So while the latter are always easy to deal -mih^ grouse 
may be sometimes exceedingly difficult for an inex- 
perienced dog. He may likely get into the middle of 
a brood and point at the hindmost members of it (or 
even at their fresh scent) ; while the leaders, having 
moved on beforehand, are unsuspected by him at his 
back and, if he fidget at all, are in great danger of 
being flushed. In the morning and evening, therefore, 
be on the look-out, as you approach, for birds to rise 
from behind your dog. 

Concerning partridge-shooting, I almost agree with 
Oakleigh {Shooter^ s Handbook^ p. 134), that it is, * com- 
pared with grouse-shooting, a comparatively tame and 
uninteresting amusement.' But in spite of this opinion, 
he has left us the following most accurate and valuable 
account of the habits of the bird. 

* The habits of the partridge should be studied by 
the shooter. In the early part of the season, partridges 
will be found, just before sunrise, running to a brook, 
a spring, or marsh, to drink ; from which place they 
almost immediately fly to some field where they can 
find abundance of insects, or else to the nearest corn- 
field or stubble-field, where they will remain, according 
to the state of the weather, or other circumstances, 
until nine or ten o'clock, when they go back. About 
four or five o'clock they return to the stubbles to feed, 
and about six o'clock they go to their jacking-place — a 
place of rest for the night, which is mostly in after- 
math, or in a rough pasture-field — ^where they remain 
huddled together till morning. While the corn i 
standing, unless the weather be very fine or very wet» 



partridges will often remain in it all day. When fine, 
they bask on the outskirts; when wet, they run to 
some bare place in a sheltered situation, where they 
will be found crowded together as if basking, for they 
-seldom remain long in com or grass when it is wet. 
Birds lie best on a hot day. They are wildest on a 
damp or boisterous day. The usual way of proceeding 
in search of partridges in September, is to try the 
-stubbles first, and next the potato and turnip -fields. 
Birds frequently bask among potatoes or turnips, espe- 
<:ially when those fields are contiguous to a stubble- 
field' {Shooter* s Handbook^ by Oakleigh, 1842, p. 104). 
* When a covey separates, the shooters will generally 
be able to kill many birds, but late in the season it is 
^Idom that the covey can be broken. In the early 
part of the season, when the shooter breaks a covey, 
he should proceed without loss of time in search of 
the dispersed birds, for the parent bird begins to call 
almost immediately on their alighting ; the young ones 
answer^ and in less than half an hour, unless prevented 
by the presence of the shooter and his dogs, the whole 
covey will be reassembled, probably in security, in some 
snug corner where the shooter least thinks of looking 
for them. As the season advances, birds are longer in 
reassembling after being dispersed. It is necessary to 
beat very close for dispersed birds, as they do not stir 
for some time after alighting, on which accoimt dogs 
cannot wind them till close upon them. When a bird 
has been running about some time, dogs easily come 
upon the scent of it, but when it has not stirred since 
alighting, no dc^ can wind it until close upon it, and 
the very best dc^s will sometimes flush a single bird. 
The length of time that will transpire before a dis- 
persed covey will reassemble, depends too on the time 
of the day and state of the weather. In hot weather 
they will lie still for several hours. A covey dispersed 



early in the morning or late at night, will soon re- 
assemble. A covey dispersed between the hours of ten 
and two, will be some time in reassembling. A covey 
found in the morning in a stubble-field and dispersed,, 
will next assemble near the basldng-place. A covey 
dispersed after two o'clock, will next assemble in the 
stubble-field at feeding-time. A covey disturbed and 
dispersed late in the afternoon or evening, will next 
reassemble near the jacking-place ' {id. p. io6). By 
attention to the above maxims I have many a time 
prophesied the whereabouts of birds, to the confusion 
of the keepers. 

It is evident that the etiquette of partridge-shooting 
was settled very early, as we have Mr. Page writing on 
it in 1767 : — 

' Two persons in the field with guns are better than 
more at partridge-shooting, who should with patience 
pay due attention to each other. When your dog 
points, walk up without any hurry, separating a few 
yards, one to the right and the other to the left of 
your dog. If a covey springs, never shoot into the 
midst of them, but let him on the left ^ngle out a bird 
which flieth to the left, and him on the right a bird to- 
the right, that you may not interrupt each other, nor 
both siioot at the same bird and readily let fly at the 
first aim. If a single bird is sprung, let him take the 
shot to whose side it flies* {Art of Shooting Flyings 
p. 87). 

And Mr. Howlitt testifies to the existence of bril-^ 
liant shots, despite all disadvantages in those days, for 
he writes : — 

* There are, however, some few sportsmen in Eng- 
land of such keen eyes that they can distinguish the 
cocks [partridges] from the hens when the covey rises 
from the ground, and so expert as to make it the pride 
of their dexterity to kill not more than a brace of hens. 



in one day's sport' (Essay on Shootings by Howlitt, 
1789, p. 288). 

Of course in the twentieth century, in an England 
so highly farmed, with its pastures drained, cornfields 
shaven, and turnips planted m drills, we cannot expect 
the same sport over dogs as our ancestors enjoyed in 
their rushy meadows, knee-deep stubbles, ancl turnips 
sown broadcast. One can have, however, even in the 
present day, a very good time among the partridges by 
the exercise of a little intelligent strategy. 

Two shooters are better than one in most countries, 
because of the hedges ; and yoiu- retinue may well con- 
sist of your keeper, of a marker, and of a man to carry 
game, cartridges, &c. Oakleigh says of markers : — 

* When birds are abundant, markers are a nuisance ; 
when scarce, a marker may be serviceable. When birds 
are scarce it is no loss of time to follow a marked bird, 
but when plentiful the shooter should not deviate from 
the line he has chosen' (p. 150). But I venture to 
believe that our author rather xmderrates such an 
assistant, whom as a rule I have found useful, except 
where there are too many birds to work dogs 
at all. 

In the fields, it is easy to combine the working of 
one's own dogs with the shooting over them, since the 
grey partridge from its habit of moving up-wind when 
on the feed, from its indisposition to nm far unless 
wounded, and even from the nature of the cover in 
which it is found, is a much more obvious bird than 
the grouse. 

There are, no doubt, many wonderfiil moments 
in partridge-shooting. For instance, when the covey 
spnngs up all round you, as if by magic, in a whirling, 
chattering hurry-skurry ; or when, in a redolent clover- 
field, a brace of^pups, at the very prime of their powers, 
will strike point after point on the stragglers of a 



scattered covey, while you respond by accounting for 
every fugitive. 

In the present days of sowing in drills, to beat a 
turnip-field is the hardest task that you can set a 
naturally fast dog, and if he acquit himself with credit, 
you can be sure of possessing an animal of high intelli- 
gence and sporting value, for the birds are inclined to 
run down the drills, and if the dog be noisy in striding 
over the turnips, they will frequently take wing : in 
fact, to get points at them requires a combination of 
tact with brilliant nose, which but few dc^s possess. 

Colonel Hawker, in 1814, explains how, in an open 
country where the partridges were deemed unapproach- 
able, he chartered a pony, and as soon as birds rose he 
galloped after them : he was thus upon them before 
they had recovered breath for a second flight (Ins true- 
/ions to Toung Sportmen^ ninth edition, p. 165). And, 
similarly, xmder almost every condition, it is possible to 
dodge the partridges or to prevent them from dodging 
you, if you only take the trouble. It would be both 
tedious and useless to detail any local methods for 
circumventing partridges, as successful tactics must 
vary so much in different districts. But there is one 
plan that is applicable in most cases, i.e. before beating 
a good-sized turnip-field, to send some one to the wind- 
ward end of the field with instructions to keep on 
making a clapping noise, as this will cause the birds to 
run up into the roots, to separate, and, of course, being 
between two dangers, to lie better. 

A word about artificial kites. These may be, I 
dare say, sometimes necessary when grouse are packed ; 
but partridges, I find, instantly take to the fences, and 
so the shooting of them over dc^s is spoiled. Again, 
their terror is so extreme that it is sickening to 
witness ; though grouse, from being accustomed to 
the occasional sight of a falcon, are not so alarmed. 



Birds emit very little scent under the kite, for they 
tuck their feathers round them as tightly as possible 
and so prevent the emanation. I do not believe that 
the moderate use of a kite drives the birds off a beat, 
but personally I do not care for this style of shooting, 
and I would only adopt it as a last resource. On a 
windy day I have found it rather useful to show a kite 
along a boundary, to prevent the grouse from flying in 
that direction. 



'T^HERE is such a wealth of wisdom glittering 
^ among the pages of so many early writers on 
the breaking of dogs that, even by rigorous limitation 
of quotations, it is difficult to keep this chapter within 
reasonable bounds. For, of course, it is necessary to 
quote the most important sayings of the old Masters, 
since only by a careful study of their methods can we 
hope to emulate their results. 

To facilitate the comparative reading of these 
maxims, I have arranged them chronologically without 
any interpolated comments : — 

* You shall b^inne to handle and instruct your 
dogge at foure monthes olde, or at six monthes at the 
uttermost, for to deferre longer time is hurtfuU, and 
will make the labour greater and more difficult to 
compasse. Make him most loving and familiar with 
you, so that hee will not onely know you from any 
other person, but also fawne upon you and follow you 
wheresoever you goe, taking his onely delight to be in 
your company. You shall not suffer him to receive 
either foode or cherishing from any man's hands but 
your owne onely ; and as thus you grow familiar with 
the whelpe, and make him loving and fond of you, so 
you shall also mixe with this familiarity a kinde of awe 
and obedience in the whelpe, so as he may as well 
feare you as love you ; and this awe or feare you shall 
procure rather with your coimtenance, frowne, or 
sharpe words, than with blowes or any other actuell 



crucltye, for these whelpes are quickly tcrryfied, and 
the vyolcnce of torment not onely deprives them of 
courage, but also makes them dull and dead-spirited ; 
whereas, on the contrary part, you are to strive to 
keepe your dogge (which is for this purpose) as wanton 
as possible. When, therefore, you have made your 
whelpe thus familiar and loving unto you, you shall 
b^in to teach him to coutch and lye downe close, 
terrifying him with rough language when he doth 
anything against your meaning, and giving him not 
onely cherishings but foode (as a piece of bread or the 
like, which it is intended you must ever carry about 
you) when he doth anything according to your will ' 
{Hunger's Prevention^ by G. Markham, 1621, p. 268). 

* When all these things aforesaid are perfectly 
learned, it is to be imagined by this time the whelpe 
will be by this time at least twelve monthes of age, at 
which time (the season of the yeare being fit) you may 
very well adventure to goe into the field and suffer him 
to raunge and hunt therein ' {id. p. 273). 

* And see that he [the pupp/] beat his ground 
justly and even, without casting about, or flying now 
here, now there, which the mettle of some will do, ir 
not corrected and reproved ' {The Gentleman's Recreation^ 
by N. Cox, 1686, p. 44). 

* You must be very constant to the words of Direc- 
tion by which you teach him, chusing such as are most 
pertinent to the purpose, and those words that you first 
use do not alter, for dogs take notice of the sounds not 
of the Englishy so that the least alteration puts him to 
a stand. For example, if you teach him to couch at 
the word " couch," and afterwards will have him couch 
at the word " down," this will be an unknown word to 
him ; and I am of opinion that to use more words than 
what is necessary for one and the same thing is to 
overload his memory and cause forgetfulness in him' 



(jThe Gentleman s Recreation^ by R. Blome, 1686, 
p. 169). 

^ Quartering the ground and dropping are the pure 
efiect of art in repeated lessons from the teacher. But 
when we see a dog (by some accident betrayed beyond 
his common sett) slip back to his usual distance ; that 
must be all sagacity — ^all Self {A Treatise on Field 
Diversions J by R. Symonds, 1776, p. 11). 

* There is great beauty in quartering the ground 
well' {id. p. 80). 

* A breaker ought to be half way before the dog is 
arrived at the extremity of his beat, and should always 
keep in the centre of his hunt, to make him describe 

3ual distances on either hand. Being in the middle 
the spot intended to be beaten, the master should 
walk briskly forward (as soon as the dog has passed 
him) some fifteen or twenty yards, according to the 
strength of the breeze more or less, and be ready, when 
he has reached his ne plus^ to call him over fresh 
ground ; otherwise, should he keep his stand, the dog 
will be apt to beat up too close to him, and return 
almost in his own tract, or clear but little ground. 
Some dogs I have remarked that would lead out one 
way and turn in the other. This arises from the 
breaker's keeping at one end of the work, where only 
he can give a true direction ; whilst at the other the 
dog is by himself, entirely at liberty to do as he likes. 
I have taken notice of others that would make their 
turns right, yet when they came near, on their passage^ 
would sink and get behind, not choosing to pass in 
front. This arises from fear, by whatever way occa- 
sioned, to remedy which, when you perceive him 
banning to swerve, face about upon him directly, and 
speak to him in friendly voice, " Hey on, good lad !" 
&c., and when he finds he cannot get out of your eye, 
and that no danger or displeasure is incurred by a 


'^^^^ -^ PUITE XIX 

From an oil painting, dated 1897, by George Earl. 

It was reproduced on October 22nd, 1899, in Land 
und fVakr, with the following description appended ;— 
^The Icmon-and^white dog, on game m the foreground. Is 
champm Aldm Fluke, the winner of mo pHzcj^ at triaJs, although 
he ran only on three ocmion& : he has also obuined the highest 
honours on the ehowbencK, He h in appearance a gre^t skshing 
dog, without a suspicion of lumber, although he measures twenty- 
seven inchet at the iKouMers and weighs siitj^-seven pounds. Hii 
Jong sictlcd stjfles, his fine wiry pasterns, his tapering prehensile 
toes, guaramee hia ftculty of traversing the roughest ground with 
speed and safety, whtle his shoulders, heart^roora, loin, and muscle, 
ensure his extraordinary powers of enduraricc His head is xuy 
poimer-hke, without any appearance of the hound in it : the eyes are 
large and round ; the skull well developed, with pronounced ** stop j *' 
the muzzle squarely finished, slighily inclined upwards, and furnished 
with wide nostrils ; and the ears, full of quality, placed high on the 
heaa Nor docs he belie his appearance, for in sagacity and keenness 
of nose he has few equals, while his long, easy stride is pracficiilly 
umiring; and he is stjll, though in his tenth year, a prime favourite 
ot his master. He is a litter- brother of champion Belle Chance, a 
bitch similar in colour, and relatively of equal beauty* The liver- 
and-whke bitch, which is backing in the picture, is Bride If, of 
^'iicroy, bred by Mr. Pelham Burn, and bought by Mr, Afkwright 
from him. She has in her veins a combination of several old Scottish 
srrams and of the Rev. W. Shield's o\A sort. She was a good and 
rclmble worker, a prize-winner wherever shown, and a successful 
brood bitch. With its mellow colouring and soft, h^zy atmosphere, 
this picture is a most poelic example of contcmporarv British art j 
but, as a representation of a ihooung scene, tt becomes a real master- 
piece. It is the production of a painter who is himself a sportsman 
and a dog-lover, who is permeated by the fascination of shooting over 
dogs who has studied the pointer at work with keen appreciation, 
and who has here reproduced with fidelity a familiar incident of a 
day's sport. What a contrast to the TfrcU-intentloned, and often 
well^paintcd, s^xaning pictures by fireside artists, who huddle together 
the pomting dog, the backing dog, and the game in a proximity that, 
if true^ would only show such want of nose atid breaking in their 
favourites, as owners should be ashamed to commemorate I ' 

In m^ own Possession 

.XIX aTAjq 

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.-■'' \ 


direct passage, his fears will cease, and his beats be 
made with propriety and freedom' {id. p. 8i). 

* Correcting falsely is doing what we cannot easily 
undo, and encouraging a fault is undoing all we had 
done before. By watching him so strictly, we may 
discover even his Intention from certain gestures, and 
by an instantaneous crack of displeasure frequently 
suppress it' {id. p. 93). 

* It is very idle to be in a hurry with young folks ; 
give time to. see if they will fix themselves ; the breaker 
may fix them improperly ; a dog does no hurt, unless 
he springs ; then is the time to rebuke, and not 
before. The dog only must be the judge of his own 
distances ; to check, therefore, while he is &irly and 
cautiously drawing is driving him from himself; and 
giving (Erections to the creature you should expect to 
receive them from ' {id. p. 96). 

* A dog once well broke is always broke in the hands 
and under the eye of Judgment. To aim at taking 

fame whilst the 6iOg is imperfect is the way to have 
im ever be so ' {id. p. 99). 

* In training, both [whip and words] are absolutely 
necessary, the first yielding gradually to the latter; 
but I can never allow that dog to be perfect that 
requireth either. The whistle only is requisite, and 
the waft of the hand' {id. p. 104). 

^Many will back at the second or third time of 
going out ; but they are of a flat nature, and generally 
turn out mere watchers^ that never strive to stretch 
ahead, as the sailors say, but content themselves with a 
negative goodness. Such are of no kind of service in 
company, only thickening the porridge and adding to 
the parade. Singly they may be useful dogs' {id. 
p. 112). 

* He [the tutoring dog] should be of two or three 
years' hunt, tender-nosed, bold in point, without the 

193 o 


least motion. That is, in short, he should be as 
compleat as we can find one. His name should be as 
(Ustant in sound as may be from the other's. You 
can encourage the old dog and rebuke the young ' {id. 


'A dog that will draw up to his fellow, or near 

enough to catch the effluvia and no further, does not 
incommode or disappoint of a shot : but there is not 
that grace — that bwiuty — ^that el^ance — ^that "je ne 
sais quoi," in a group of pointers packed together 
vrithin a rod of groimd, as in the same attitudes seve- 
rally dispersed, sympathising from different quarters. 
The dog that ^nds is affected into attitude by his 
nose; the leader by his eye* {id. p. 114). 

' If he is stubborn and unruly, it will be necessary 
to make use of the trash ccrd^ fastening to the collar 
of the dog a rope or cord of about twenty or twenty- 
five fathoms in length, and then letting him range 
about with this dragging on the ground* {Essay on 
Shootings by R. Howlitt, 1789, p. 252). 

^ In order to accustom him to cross and range 
before you, turn your back to him, and walk on the 
opposite side ; when he loses sight of you, he will 
come to find you, he will be agitated and afiiud of 
losing you, and will, in ranging, turn his head from 
time to time to observe whereabouts you are. The 
next step will be to throw down a piece of bread on 
the ground, at the same moment taking hold of the 
dcg l)y the collar, calling out to him, " Take heed." 
After having held him in this manner for some space 
of time, say to him, " Seize ! " or ** Lay hold !** Repeat 
this lesson until he ^^ takes heed " well, and no longer 
requires to be held fast to prevent him from laying 
hold of the bread. Never suffer the dog to eat either 
in the house or field without having first made him 
^< take heed ** in this manner. At the next lesson, take 



your gun, charged only with powder, walk gently 
round the piece of bread once or twice, and fire instead 
of crying " Seize." The next time of practising this 
lesson, walk round the bread four or five times, but in 
a greater circle than before, and continue to do this 
until the dog is conquered of his impatience, and will 
stand without moving imtil the signal is given him. 
When he keeps his point well, and stands steady 
in his lesson, you may carry him to the birds' 
{id. p. 253). 

*The best way is to study the temper and dis- 
position of the dog, and to conduct yourself accord- 
ingly in the application of correction ' {id. p. 260). 

' It is common not to begin to enter pointers till 
near a year old, because using them very young 
shortens their speed. Suppose there is truth in this 
maxim, and your dog should not hunt altogether so 
fast, a sufficient amends will be made for his want of 
swiftness, by himting more carefully, nor will he run 
upon birds nor pass them unnoticed, as dogs which run 
very fast are apt to do * {The Sportsmatfs Dictionary ^ 
H. Pye, 1790, p. 360). 

'Pointers, however well they may have been bred, 
are never considered complete unless they are perfectly 
staunch, as it is termed, to ^'bird, dog, and gun," 
which uniformly implies, first, standing singly to a 
bird or covey ; secondly, backing, or pointing instantly 
likewise, the moment one perceives another dog to 
stand ; and lastly not to stir from his own point at the 
rising of any bird or the firing of any gun in the field, 
provided the game is neither sprung nor started, at 
which he made his original point' {The Sportsman's 
Cabinet^ by W. Taplin, 1803-4, p. 91). 

* A tolerably well-bred pointer puppy may have the 
groundwork of^ all his future perfections theoretically 
implanted in the parlour or kitchen of the dwelling- 



house before he once makes his appearance in the field ' 
{id. p. 92.) 

' When first entered it should be alone, and with a 
sportsman whose experience has convinced him young 
do^ should, from the earliest moment of their initia- 
tion, be taught to traverse every yard of the ground 
in proper lengths and at equal distances, so that no 
part Should be left unbeaten ; and this should be 
eSkcXtA with as few words and as little noise as 
possible. Short, verbal, but expressive signals; low, 
vibrative, encouraging whistles ; and the occasional 
waving of one hand or the other to the right or left 
are all that's necessary or useful ; more does mischief 
{id. p. 03). 

*When a brace of pointers or more are hunted, 
they should alternately cross the same beat by meeting 
and passing each other, taking additional ground at 
each turn, but should not beat the same ground in a 
parallel direction. 

^ When a young dc^ is once made steady to bird 
and gun, broke from the natural desire to chase his 
game, and rendered obedient to every signal it is 
necessary for him to know and observe, then is the 
proper time to entertain him in company ; that he may 
avail himself of advantages to be derived from hunting 
with older and more staunch or experienced d(^ than 
himself. Previous to this introduction (when hunted 
alone), so soon as he knows his game, and is energetic- 
ally anxious in the pursuit of it, feel for the wind, and 
let him have as much in his favour as the form of the 
field and circumstances will permit. So soon as he 
comes to a point a pause should ensue, and he should 
be permitted to enjoy it ; not a buz, a word, an 
exclamation should escape by which he might be 
agitated to action ; the necessary injunctions to caution 
should be tremulously vibrated upon the ear till the 



fire of his eye, the distention of the nostril, the elated 
loftiness of the aspect, and the seeming spasmodic 
affection of his whole frame (produced by the effect of 
the ol&ctory irritability), afford ample proof that the 
game is indisputably before him. This is the critical 
and awfully affecting moment, when the feelings of 
both are worked upon, and it is also the very moment 
when the most philosophic patience is necessary to be 
observed* Now is the time, if the game luckily lies, 
to advance nearer by degrees, but with all possible 
precaution of silence and deliberation. When time 
sufficient has been employed to confirm his steadiness, 
the game may then be walked up, and whether fired at 
or not, the first consideration is to prevent his chasing * 
{id. p. 94). 

^It is most advisable that a pistol or gun should 
frequently be fired over him in order to make him 
know the shot, for many young dogs, on the report of 
a gun, are so alarmed that they run away, and with 
the greatest difficulty, only after a length of time, are 
brought to be reconciled to it ' {Shooting Directory^ by 
R. Thomhill, 1804, p. 56). 

^ Care must be taken not to stop them too soon, as 
it will be necessary to allow them for some time to 
chase the game previous to stopping them, particularly 
if it were long before they began to notice them * {id. 

P- 57); 

^You will find by expenence that when a young 

one chases his game, and b^ins to know what he is 

about, he will sometimes, on coming up to it, make a 

sudden stop, and then run in on the birds. At this 

time, therefore, it will be the most proper to b^in to 

stop him, and you must not only exert yourself, but 

take every advantage you can in favour of the dog, 

such as taking the wind and hunting him against it. 

* When you cast him off to hunt either to the 



right or left as your judgment and experience will 
decide, walk slowly, making the dog cross you back- 
wards and forwards, hunting across the neld from 
hedge to hedge, every now and then advancing yourself 
sixty or a hundred yards, always keeping the wind in 
his favour, and when you wish to cross make use of 
your hand — the less noise you make, the steadier he 
will hunt, and will consequently look for the signal ; 
whereas, if you hunt him with your voice, he will hear 
you and scarcely ever turn to look for you or at you ' 


* A dog that does not bear the whip is easily cowed^ 
and this often makes young ones blink their game, and 
a dog that blinks his game can be of little use to any 
sportsman. This is most frequently caused by beating 
dogs severely, who become so frightened at the very 
sound of your voice as to make them lie down. What 
we call blinking amongst sportsmen is when a dog finds 
his game and is spoken to, he draws off and runs 
behind you, and often without being spoken to, on 
finding the game, comes in close to your heels. Gentle 
means will be found always to have better tUkct than 
harsh. A sportsman should be very cool, especially 
in breaking young dogs ; he will find himself always 
more successful in being so ; and let every sportsman 
be cautious not to throw a stone at his dog ' {id. p. 59). 

* When your dog finds game, which you will easily 
perceive, go up to him, walking slowly, but never run, 
for if he sees you run, it is natural for him to follow 
the example, and then he will spring the birds' {id. 
p. 60). 

* Young dogs are apt to rake^ that is, to keep their 
noses too long on the ground, scenting, puzzling, wluch 
is a very bad custom and injurious to them, when you 
must have recourse to a puzzle-pin or peg ' {id, p. 6i). 

• ^ In breaking young dogs the compiler recommends 



making them always clap^ or stand their ground, on 
first finding their game. It is not right, if the birds 
move, that the dog should attempt to do so until his 
master comes, or desires him, for if he does, if the birds 
do not lie well on that day, when they see the dog 
following them they will run until at last they are 
forced to take wing ; and, on the contrary, if a dog 
stops or claps^ supposing the birds are disturbed and 
run, they will soon stop again, not finding themselves 
pursued, for it may be remarked, and it is an incontro- 
vertible fact, that if a dog rakes and follows the birds, 
with his nose close to the ground, they will instantly 
take wing. However, to conclude this subject, a well- 
bred pointer will point naturally, and will only require 
practice and attention from his master in his first 
season ' {id. p. 64). 

^ Eight young dogs are as many as one man can 
ssibly manage, or should encounter at a time, and if 
le does his duty he will have but very few moments 
unoccupied. In the spring of the year he may continue 
out the whole day, but, as the weather becomes warmer, 
his excursions should be confined to morning and 
evening, and for the month of June and the first three 
weeks of July gentle exercise should be the chief objects 
of his attention ' {Anglings Shootings and Coursing^ by 
R. Lascelles, 181 1, p. 145^. 

* Words should at all times be used with the greatest 
caution, and a real good dog ought never to require 
them ; your hand must direct all his movements, and 
in every situation be the only interpreter ; I expect my 
dogs will always drop when I hold it up, and take 
whatever course it may otherwise direct them ; for 
this reason no dog should ever be allowed to go 
out of sight, and a young one never out of hearing. 
In whatever situation a dog sees a bird — ^running, 
il]dng or dead — he should instantly drop, and not move 




an inch, till you have gone to the spot yourself {id. 
p. 146). 

* As soon as a dog points steady and true, the next 
thing you require of hun is to back well ; and if he is 
taken out in company with others, this, in its first 
stage, he will soon learn. That is, he will stop when 
he sees another do the same, and move on again accord- 
ingly : such, in the conunon acceptation of the term,, 
is called backing ; but much more is required to render 
it perfect. If I have four dogs out, and one of them 
makes a point, two others, we will say, are in a ntua- 
tion to see and back him instantly, which the third is 
prevented doing, from some intervening obstacle ; in 
this case stop, and do not move until all are steady ; 
either let him range until he backs to the point, or> 
if more convenient, drops to your hand. As you 
approach the doe first mentioned, all the others should 
very cautiously do the same, though many people would 
have them still keep their places till callea to. In my 
opinion the beauty of a pomter is in being steady, and 
yet with all his natural spirit ; to be as gallant as a 
foxhound, and as docile as a child ; to know what he 
ought not to do, and never refuse doing what he may 
be ordered. 

* It should be an invariable rule in breaking, and at 
the beginning of the season when birds lie well, to allow 
young does to lead up to their game ; but as they 
become wilder, and in more critical situations, it is more 
prudent, perhaps, to give the reins to an old dog. 
There is something so beautifully characteristic in the 
sight of four steady pointers going well up to their 
game, that it is impossible, either on canvas or paper, 
to give a just delineation of it. And here I cannot too 
severely reprobate that restless anxiety of some sports- 
men, which induces them to think that their sagacity, 
in this respect, is more penetrating than their com- 



panions' ; and that the retreat of a bird is more likeljr 
to be discovered with the point of a gun, than the 
natural instinct of sense. It is from such bad and 
stubborn habits that ail dogs are ruined, and in the end 
appear to have completely changed their condition ; 
you must expect that, if a pointer is not allowed to* 
exercise his right of search, he will very soon become 
indifferent to it, and after making his point leave the 
remainder entirely to his master {id. p. 147). 

* At the end of May I leave off taking out my d(^s 
till the middle of July, except for occasional exercise,, 
when I enter upon the more serious process of moor- 
breaking. To a certain extent my young ones are all 
steady, at least so far as pointing or backing, and being 
free from chasing ; all the higher qualifications they 
have got to learn, but more particularly that of footing. 
A partridge, except wounded, and this we have not had 
yet to deal with, seldom runs a great distance, and 
usually up-wind, so that a Aog rardy finds any great 
difficulty m accomplishing his purpose : on this account 
it is that pointers are so strangely puzzled when they 
are first brought upon the moors. A grouse, and par- 
ticularly the male, will frequently run down-wind, 
amidst the strongest heath and over the wettest bogs, 
for nearly half a mile ; so that it not only requires 
sagacity, but the most steady perseverance to make him 
out well. A dog that has been broke upon the moors 
is as different from another as one aninuU can possibly 
be. You there see the nature of a pointer in all its 
best excellence ; with a range of ground which his 
utmost wishes can scarcely occupy, and with an oppor* 
tunity of taking advantage of the wind, at every turn 
and in every situation, he freely confides in the superiority 
cf his own powers, unfettered by the constant inter- 
ruption of a fence on the one side, or a dry unprofitable 
fallow on the other. Nothing will sooner induce a do^ 



to forget, or rather to break through, the rules of 
discipline he has already been taught, than his first 
«ssay upon the moors ; and although he may previously 
have been as steady as a rock, yet when he suddenly 
finds himself in the midst of a brood of grouse, the 
cock cackling and running one way, the hen another, 
and the young ones getting up in every direction, it is 
generally fear, if he does keep true to his point, which 
predominates over inclination. You cannot then en- 
courage him too much ; language, properly used, is 
worth all the whipcord in £e world; it ynU both 
encourage and correct, and will sooner bring an animal 
under the proper degree of subordination than the most 
severe fledging. You should endeavour to prevent a 
young dog (basing on the moors, by every means 
possible ; for if he once begins, there are so many 
temptations for him to continue it, especially in a back- 
ward season, when birds are small and their flight slow 
and short, that all your previous labour mil be thrown 
away' (U. p. 149). 

^ My plan is, always to hunt those parts first where 
I am pretty certain of finding no game ; this will give 
a dc^ an idea of his ground, and also, in some degree, 
cool that high metal with which he first sets out. I 
then change my beat, let go an old dog, and take up 
the others. The first point is generally decisive ; and 
if it be at a brood, will materidly assist you ; let your 
dog go very cautiously ; and, to prevent any bad con* 
sequences, each should have a collar on, with a piece of 
strong cord attached to it of about two yards in length, 
with a loop at the end to lay hold of ; sive them the 
wind as much as you can, and be certain that they know 
what they are about before you disturb the brood. 
When the old birds begin running and calling, let them 
then have as fiiU a view as possible, but without stirring 
an inch ; and when the yoimg ones get up, the same, 



but not, by any means, to allow them to observe where 
they afterwards drop. If the old cock should run to 
any distance, which he generally does, let your do^s 
foot him to the extremity of it, stopping them at the 
end of every ten or fifteen yards, to make them more 
cautious hereafter. Should you have no one with you, 
yourself must endeavour to mark down one or two of 
the broody which is easily done, as they seldom fly 
above two hundred yards, before they have been much 
disturbed. In this case, let go your young dogs, and 
hunt them round the spot till they come upon the 
scent, and there allow them to stand for the space of 
five minutes ; then follow them slowly up, and as you 
can guess almost to a certainty where the bird lies, if 
possible, take it under their noses, but having them so 
secure that you can let it go again without risk of being 
hurt. Should either make a snatch at it, correct him 
moderately ; words, and a few gentle blows about the 
mouth, will probably quiet him ; at any rate, first try 
the effect of lenient measures, and at all times propor- 
tion the degree of punishment to the excess or crime. 
After a few such precautionary measures you may loose 
your young dogs entirely ; but I would not have you 
give them immediately too great a liberty to range, for 
tear they abuse the indulgence, and it is a dangerous 
maxim to trust too much to inexperience : in four or 
five days this forbearance will gradually cease ; and at 
the termination of three weeks each will have acquired 
an instinctive confidence to qualify him for more useful 
purposes' {id. p. 151). 

' The gentleman in the South imdoubtedly has many 
advantages in the variety of game which in the course 
of the season is presented to mm ; but of the grandeur 
and style in which the diversion of shooting admits of 
being prosecuted amongst the hills of the north, for the 
somewhat too brief period during which, for a variety 



of reasons, the pursuit is at all practicable, he can have 
but a very humble conception ; and for the means of 
creating perfection in the dog, the advantages ar& 
altogether on the side of the former [the sportsman in 
the North]. Let me add that, with a somewhat various 
acquaintance with ctiiFsrent counties in the south of this 
island, although I have seen many dogs, to whom, 
without having had their noses elevated above the level 
of a partridge, it would be un&ir to refuse the epithet 
of good, I have never witnessed one whom I could 
consider entitled to any very eminent distinction who 
had not in early life the good fortune to have his legs 
stretched, and his faculties expanded, on the moors' 
{Kunopadiay by W. Dobson, 1814, p. xxxi.). 

^ Endeavour to keep up the nose to pointer pitch ; 
for which purpose, where this grovelling propen^ty isr 
too prevalent, it is not unusual to see recourse had to 
the " marvellous device " of the puzzle-peg ; but I 
must confess I never saw any good done by it ; on 
the contrary, the perpetual fretful interruptions to beat 
which it occasions, operate agunst the very principles 
of a radical cure. Where the circumstance arises, as is 
frequently the case, from a dulness of nose, which is 
obliged to seek for information downwards, or perhaps 
from some bastardising touch of derivation from a dog 
of an inferior trade, the proper employment of whose 
nose is on the ground, these are defects which will 
never be cured by splicing a bit of stick to the under- 
jaw, and you may as well let the half-bred creature 
grub on untormented in his own way ' {id. p. 11). 

^ The rarest accomplishment of a dog, and not less 
valuable than rare, i^Jine quartering. You will observe^ 
the great project is to procure a r^ular advance into the 
wind, at each end of his line of range, abreast of your line 
of march in the centre, and rather ahead of you, and 
then to cross direct to the call or whistle ' {id. p. 1 7). 



* Nature and experience will instruct him in the 
performance of some of his other duties ; but the 
habitual establishment of regulated range, the due per- 
formance of his evolutions, the quartering of his ground 
to all advantage, is the work of art, and must come 
from yourself alone ' {id. p. 26). 

'The dog who hunts his ground the truest will 
always find the most game * {id. p. 27). 

' The great secret of making a dog stand is to stop 
yourself {id. p. 35). 

^ Never pass a blunder unnoticed, nor a fault un- 
punished' {id. p. 78). 

* Never avenge upon your dog your own errors in 
shooting. Neither let the giddy triumph of some 
fortunate shot atone for the heedless rattle by which 
he may have driven the bird within your reach, nor for 
any lawless violence by which he may further assist you 
in layiMf hold of it' {id. p. 79). 

* Of necessity, there is a great deal of trouble, and 
of time lost, in working up a tender temper into a due 
consistency of conduct, and it seldom repays the toil 
bestowed in the attempt. I have already premised 
that, in the idea of establishing a kennel, I would have 
nothing to do with such a subject ' {id. p. 93). 

From the intricate business of tracking out an old 
grouse-cock among the broken hags, down to the still 
more equivocal chance for a second find of the little 
delicate land-rail, — it is of the last importance that a 
perfection in this lesson of "footing-out the game" 
should be solicitously taught and steadily adhered to ' 
{id. p. 104). 

' It cannot be denied, however beautifully perfect a 
dog may be made up as a single dog alone, that his 
education must be considered as only half completed, 
until he is rendered equally perfect in company * {id. 
p. 122). 



* Our object is to call forth intellect, and to establish 
obedience upon principle' {id. p. 128). 

^ Now, my notions of education extend in the first 
instance to the dc^'s knowing what he is to stand for, 
and to bring him forward early in the more profitable 
business of independent inquiry. The stop which he 
has firom instinct, more or less improved into a de- 
termined self<ollected stand, makes the great character- 
istic difference between the animal whose superior talents 
we are endeavouring to cultivate into excellence, and 
the whole of the omer inferior orders of the species ; 
but although in itself indispensable, it is among the 
very least of the qualifications which go to the formation 
of a finished pdnter' {id. p. 132). 

^ The few gmneas that are usually given for what is 
termed *^ breaking in," would not pay for the shoe- 
leather worn out in doing justice to a dog of high 
courage and powers' {id. p. 139). 

* Show me a d<^ perfect at the down^harge^ and I 
will engage, in a very few days, to exhibit him to you 
equally finn, at the challenge of " take heed," to the 
point of another d<^ ; and with all that cautious delicacy 
of approach, which constitutes good manners in society ' 
{id. p, 150). 

' The grand point is to teach him the method of 
finding his game by r^ularly and patiently quartering 
his ground. It may well be conceived a matter of no 
small difiiculty to teach a young dog, first, how to 
comprehend, and afterwards to execute with punctuality 
and precision, the lesson of these various and regular 
crossings. And the reader is not to take it for granted 
that every pointer, however well spoken of, is an exact 
and able performer at this game ; but whenever such is 
the case, the dog is of the highest character as a pointer ; 
and the sight of two or three brace of pointers, regiilarly 
quartering their ground and backing each other, may be 



reckoned amongst the most interesting^ gf&nd, and 
wonderful' {Sportsman's Repository ^ by R. Lawrence^ 
1820, p. 118). 

* We find twenty fine scenting dogs for one really 
fine quarterer' {British Field Sports, by W. Scott, 
i8ao, p. 203). 

' Much time will be gained, and a dog will be made 
much more perfect, by being kept for some time to the 
practice of quartering, lying down at the word, and 
turning to the whistle, without finding game, than by 
seeing partridges at first, without previous education,, 
as is the usual practice ' (Observations on Dog-breakings 
by W. Floyd, 1821, p. 12). 

* He will quarter better, because there will be na 
scent to induce him to deviate from his regular course, 
and he will not connect the dread of punishment with 
the scent of the partridges, which is in general the 
cause of blinking. All tins, which is the principal part 
of breaking, may be done at any season, provided the 
weather be fine, for it is very injurious to young d<^ 
to hunt them in the rain or during a high wind ' {id. 

p. 13). 

* When two or more dogs are at exercise and one 
dog is made to lie down, it should be a signal to all the 
others to do the same' {id. p. 18). 

* D<^s may be daunted by the use of the whip, but 
it cannot explain to them (if I may be allowed the 
expres^on) what it is they are expected to do' {id. p. 2 1). 

* All dogs are made shy by the use of the whip, 
but all dogs may be broken by the cord ; it will never 
fiiil to daunt the most resolute, but may be so gently 
used as not to overawe the most timid ' {id. p. 22). 

* If it suit his convenience the shooter should fre- 
quently accompany the breakers when practi^ng his 
dc^s, he should direct them to make use of fisw words, 
and those words should be the same that he is in the 



habit of using. A multiplicity of directions only serves 
to puzzle the d(^, as a person speaking Irish, Scotch, 
and Welsh alternately would perplex a Spaniard!' 
{Shooter's Handbook, by T. Oakleigh, 1 843, p. 94). 

* To'ho^ spoken in an undertone, when the dog is 
ranging, is a warning to him that he is close upon 
game, and is a direction for him to stand. There is no 
necessity for using it to a dog that knows his business. 
Spoken in a peremptory manner, it is used to make the 
dog crouch when he has run up game, or been otherwise 
in fault. Down-Charge^ is to make the dog crouch 
while the shooter charges. Back^ is used to make a 
dog follow at heel. ^ Ware fence ^ is used to prevent 
the dog passing a fence before the gun. 'Ware^ is used 
to rate a dog for giving chase to a hare, birds, or 
-cattle, or for pointing Wks, or approaching too near 
the heels of a horse. Seek^ is a direction to the dog to 
look for a wounded or dead bird, hare, or rabbit. Deady 
is to make a dog relinquish lus hold of dead or wounded 
game' {id. p. 95). 

* Whenever speaking to a dog, whether en- 
couragingly or reprovingly, the sportsman should 
endeavour to look what he means, and the dog will 
understand him. The dog has not the gift of tongues, 
but he is a Lavater in physiognomy ' {id. p. 96). 

*A well-bred dog will invariably baclcset in- 
stinctively. To backset instinctively is the distinctive 
characteristic of a promising young dog ; indeed it is 
the only safe standanl by which the shooter may venture 
to prc^nosticate future excellence. A dog's pointing 
game, and larks, the first time he is taken out is no 
•certain criterion of his merit : but there is no decep- 
tion in a dog's backing the first time he sees another 
d<^ make a point. It is a proof that he is a scion firom 
the right stock ' {id. p. 98/ 

^ When punishing a dog, it is better to beat him 


From an ml patnting, dated 1899, by Miss Maud 

The picture contains portraits of two of my 
pointers, champions Sandbank and Seabreeze. I will 
not describe them, beyond saying that Seabreeze, in 
the foreground, is pale iemon-and-white, while bright 
orange-and-white is Sandbank's colour. The picture is 
entitled *The Promised Land/ and it represents the 
brace waiting for their turn, and watching with envious 
eyes the shooting in the distance. 

In my $wn PosHSsion. 

r ■ ■ — 1 ♦ 

buuM taiM j4 ,(^9t "iMib i^hbhhq Ho rm tnotA 

ym V) owl \o glijni KX f cnrslnbo iwto«j mIT 
Ilrw I .M3yidjw2 bnii 3(n«tfbhi^ ertotqmjiHd eC^^oioq 
ni e3M3idB38 Jifft gnf^Be bno^^S \m^Aj ddmwb ion 
irighd aliriw ^^jiriw-bms-nom^l dlsq «i efanub-igMtt ^ib 
•f diuloiq dHT .woIoD 8*j|nfidbhJ^ ei Miiiw^bciii-dgfUno 
dHj elndwiqai li bns \bnjLl b^iiiwrfl ^HT * bbbHib 
euoivn? ii)iw ^iridlsw bn« ,inui ibri) lo*) ^xthisw 93nd 

.s^ftjKief b ^sifB nf ' ^nhooilr 9& td^ 


with a slender switch than with a d<^-whip. But 
whether a switch or d<^-whip be used, the dog should 
be struck across, not along the ribs; or, in other 
words, the switch or lash should not be made to lap 
round his body, but the blow should fall on the whole 
length of his side. A dog should never be kicked, or 
shaken by the ears. When the shooter is unprovided 
with a switch or dog-whip, he should make the dog lie 
at his foot for several minutes, which the dog, eager 
for sport, will consider a severe punishment, and it is a 
sort of punishment not soon forgotten' {iJ. p. 98). 

' The routine of dog-breaking is well explained below. 
We very much approve of the system there l^d down: — 

*"The first lesson, and the one on which the 
breaker's success chiefly depends, is that of teaching 
the dog to drop at the word ^down;^ this must b^ 
done before he is taken into the field. Tie a strong 
cord to his neck, about eighteen yards lone, and peg 
one end into the ground. Then make the dog crouch 
down, with his nose between his frpnt het^ calling out 
in a loud voice, ' down* As often as he attempts to 
rise, pull him to the ground, and repeat the word 
* down ' each time. When he lies perfectly quiet while 
you are standing by him, walk away, and if he attempt 
to follow you, walk back, and make him ^ down ' again, 
giving him a cut or two with the whip. This lesson 
must be repeated very often, and will take some trouble 
before it is properly inculcated. When once learned it 
is never forgotten, and if properly taught in the be- 

g'nning, will save an infinity of trouble in the end. 
!e ought never to be suflFered to rise until touched by 
the hand. This lesson should be practised before his 
meals, and he will perform it much better as he expects 
his food, and never feed him until you are perfectly 
satisfied with his performance." Extract from New 
Sporting Magazine^ vol. v.. No. 28, p. 256 (id. p. 99). 

209 p 


'The fact is, most shooters are content with a 
limited perfection in their dc^s; and, acain, so ex- 
ceedingly scarce are d(^s of pure breed — tor it is not 
every high-bred dc^ that is a pure-bred dog — and 
superior training, that many who are fidly persuaded 
within themselves that '^the best d(^ in England" 
sleeps on their own premises, in reality, never so much 
as even saw a properly, so called, high-trained and 
thorough-bred dog in their lives ' {The Modern Shooter^ 
by Captain Lacy, 1842, p. 143). 

* Indeed the art of real good d(^-breaking appears 
to be one in which we modems have retrograded (id. 
p. 144). 

*It is highly essential that young dogs especially 
should quarter their ground r^ularly to windward; 
they should, therefore, always be thrown off right and 
left up-wind, and be made to cross each other in- 

* Dogs, however well broken by a scientific trainer, 
when they get into a young shooter's hands will, for 
certsun, take liberties with him, in a greater or less 
d^ree, unless he know how to manage them and to 

? govern himself, and be a strict disciplinarian withal — 
irom the very first never allowing a fxolt to pass with- 
out notice, reprehension, or punishment, according as it 
may deserve the one or the other — and never chastising 
them in anger, or with too great severity' {id. p. 151). 
' If a young shooter commence his career with the 
best broke dog% — and it is his best plan — he never can 
endure to look at bad ones afterwards. But if, on the 
other hand, he commence with tolerable dogs, such as 
one generally sees, he will become reconciled to im- 
perfection, will likely enough — for it's a monstrous 
contagious vice — ^turn as great a sloven as the animals 
themselves, become a sort of anyhow-shooter, and 
possibly, at last, d^enerate into an arrant pot-hunter. 



Such a one, to be sure, may call himself, and think 
himself, a sportsman, but in reality has no more claim 
to that title than his erratic dc^ ; and, moreover, has 
as much conception of the genuine relish of shoodns in 
first-class style, as a clod has of the genuine relish of 
real turtle soup. Nothing can be more delightful than 
sporting with good dogs, nor more discouraging and 
disgusting than having ill-bred or badly trained ones to 
accompany you ' ( id. p. 1 54). 

' Command of temper is one of those virtues which 
is absolutely a sine qud non in a dog-breaker' {id. 

P- 157). 

* But little, if any, of the voice, and a very sparing 
use of the whistle ; for there is nothing like shooting in 
silence' {id. p. 159). 

' All the best breakers with whom I am acquainted 
use the long cord at first, and in some instances, where 
the animal is very refractory, the spiked collar. But 
unless a dog be exceedingly headstrong — and if he be, 
keep him not — ^the check-cord alone will be found 
sufficiently coercive ' {ib.). 

^ Never beat a dog after he has done wrong, but 
as nearly in the act as possible. When you punish, 
have him upon a tr^ning-cord, and do not loose him 
till he has become reconciled to you. Should you let 
him go before, he will very likely skulk. Coil the 
line round your hand, and keep him at heel for some 
time, and give him his liberty by degrees. If you 
observe any signs of skulking, fasten the line to a stake 
and leave him behind you for a field or two. Then 
return, and if he seem cheerful, give him a piece of 
biscuit and caress him. Let him then oflF, but still fi»t 
to a cord; as soon as he beats freely you may remove 
it altc^ether' {Recreations in Shootings by Craven, 1846, 
p. 142). 

From the forgoing passages alone, an excellent 



theory of breaking is to be constructed; though the 
works of so many different brains, during a period 
extending over two centuries, demand thoughtful 
assimilation, after flavouring them with practic^ ex- 
perience of the conditions of to-day. 

How wise, for example, are the remarks of kindly 
Gervase Markham on the relations to be cultivated 
between the dog and his master! And a mine of 
wisdom for breakers is Symonds's book, from which I 
have loaded myself with many a nugget 

Symonds much prefers the dog, when backing, to 
remain motionless when he first catches sight of the 
point; while Lascelles, another of the giants, makes 
his dogs (working four of them tc^ether) assemble with 
him at the point, and together march on to the grouse. 
Personally, I consider Symonds's method, which is 
followed nowadays at the Trials, to be much more 
beautiful, less likely to engender riot, and undoubtedly 
the right one for partric&es; but on the moors the 
Lascelles system certainly has its advantages, when the 
grouse separate as they run on, or an old cock 
dopes off for a half-mile excursion. When, however, 
Symonds writes of quartering as 'the effect of pure 
art ' and sets up a violent contrast between docility and 
sagacity, his conclusions do not seem to me quite 
soundly based. For even if quartering, when acquired^ 
be solely mechanical, the will and the power to learn 
it — ^in a word, the docility — must proceed directly firom 
sagacity. I will give an illustration of this. I had a 
pointer, an almost perfect quarterer by nature, which I 
ran at the Trials about ten years ago. Now, the Trials 
were at that period much debased, and Judges pre- 
ferred a few slap-dash, far-ahead points to many 
homely ones by the systematic exploring of sides and 
comers. So my dog did not win much. One day my 
old breaker asked me, though with tears in his eyes, if 



he might * spoil Tap's quartering, as he can't win 
without it.' I, rashly enough, gave him leave: the 
^spoiling' was duly carried out, and afterwards Tap 
won many big prizes. But, wonderful to relate, 
though at Trials he would evermore flash about in the 
admired eccentric, when out shooting he would revert 
instantly to the fine quartering that was his birthright. 
In his case, at any rate, quartering was the offspring of 

Lascelles, who was the first to write exhaustively on 
^ouse-shooting, and whose knowledge can only have 
been equalled by his originality and power of expres- 
sion, becomes very sarcastic over those men who 
themselves, by springing the birds, are apt to usurp the 
prerogative of their dog. Taplin and Dobson con- 
tribute much that is of interest, but they have not the 
linguistic command of a Lascelles, and are apt to be 
flatulent. Dobson's remark, however, about the ten- 
dency to praise your dog when you kill, for the same 
conduct that you would punish if you had missed, is as 
keen as it is true. 

Lacy, the prophet of working trials, also fore- 
shadows the Kennel Club Stud Book in his exhortation 
to discriminate between * high-bred' and 'pure-bred' 
pointers. And he draws attention to the action and 
reaction of slovenliness in work, interchanged between 
dog and man, when the latter has no idea of the * relish' 
{excellent word !) of shooting in proper style. 

I will now give a few plain, general directions of 
my own to enable any novice himself to break his 
pointer puppies, provided he have patience and a love 
of dogs. They are, of course, only intended to start 
him in this fascinating pastime, and are supplementary 
to the rest of this chapter; but, as far as they go, they 
are practical, for they are finits of my actual ex- 



First of all, it is important that you select your 
pups according to the principles of my fourth and fifth 
chapters. In which case you will have to deal with 
some purely bred pointers of intelligence and here- 
ditary experience, which will respond to your efforts 
and will be endowed with an easy gallop, wanton tuls, 
and highly carried heads. All this is very important, 
as it is * a weariness of the flesh ' to attempt the edu- 
cation of a cross-bred, which means, in its most literal 
sense, hreaking him. So if your pups do not soon show 
some signs of awakening instinct, or if, unbidden, you 
find them frequently at your heel, by all means get rid 
of them — ^you have got hold of ' wrong uns.' 

The elementary instruction of pointers, equivalent 
to the ABC, is shared by them with many others of 
the canine race that are required to be useful, or even 
agreeable, companions ; and it is out of their love of 
his society that man is able to teach them the three 
rudimentary principles of obedience — to come when 
called, to walk at heel when told, and to lie down at 

The education of a pointer is divided into two 
stages — ^the preliminary or mechanical, and the final 
or instinctive, the former being without, the latter 
with, game. 

You will easily teach a four-months-old puppy to 
answer when called by name or whistle, and it is a 
good plan to associate such early lessons with his meals. 
As soon as he has mastered this, teach him to ' heel^' 
which also presents no difficulty. Commence the pro- 
cess by walking down a narrow pathway with a switch 
in your hand. Say * heer to the puppy, and whenever 
you can see his nose flick it, repeating the word. At 
the conclusion cry ^ hold up^ and encourage him to 
gallop away from you. Biscuits are an appropriate 
reward all through the mechanical course. 



Teaching the youngster to drop is a more difficult 
matter, and it takes time and patience; for nothing 
short of perfection will suffice in this, the keystone of 
the puppy's future development. You must not think 
his dropping is complete, till he will throw himself 
instantly to the ground, when going fast, on hearing the 
word * dowHj or on seeing your hand raised above your 
head,Hand till, at command, he will remain couched 
while you go out of sight. For the attainment of 
which the method of Oakleigh, already placed in this 
chapter, is suitable; and be especially careful that, 
during the early lessons, the pup be fastened with a 
long cord, as if he once escape you it will cause him 
unrortunate doubts of your omnipotence. 

His training will next embrace backings for which 
you will loose in a field two or more puppies together, 
aUowing them to range, and dropping one when the 
others have their backs turned. By shouting at these 
if they turn without taking notice, you can soon induce 
them to drop like stones on catching sight of a dog 
that is ' down.' This accomplishment, though a very 
easy one for a puppy that drops smartly, is of great 
importance as, taught thus, the dog later on will feel no 
jealousy in backing points on game; and even con- 
tinued false-points will not annoy him. 

You must now proceed to nmke each puppy quarter 
his ground, which is the last subject in his preliminary 
course; but before this, you must have begun to make 
him watch, and obey, the signs of your hand. It is a 
good plan, whenever you thmk he has for the moment 
Forgotten you, to change your direction, to get nimbly 
out of sight, and if possible to hide yourself; as the 

Jmppy, on missing you, will be in despair till he has 
bund you, and this manoeuvre repeated once or twice 
will keep him always watchfiil and attentive. 

Choose an oblong field, where there is no likelihood 


of game, and walk up the centre of it. Hold the dog 
up, and every time he reaches either fence, whistle to 
him, and beckoning with your hand run a little way 
towards the other side, encouraging him by your voice 
When he has passed you, push forward yourself tHI 
he turns at the fence, and then you must repe a t your 
previous behaviour. At first you will have to strive 
hard to prevent his tumine inwards at the extre n cj g y of 
his cast, and thus coming back over ground that hus has 
previously beaten ; so, when he makes a wrong ti:m or 
is about to pass behind you, you ought at once to face 
about, that you may transpose his futile cast into a 
correct one, and not to resume your advance till he has 
gone by you. Gradually you must accustom him to 
turn without the whistle, to be guided by your hand 

In beating a field the best * pattern ' to aspire after, 
with a view to future brace-work, is as below. The 
plain black line marks the range of one dog, the dotted 
line that of the other; this pattern is to be repeated 
until the whole of the ground is beaten: — 

?s^j^'5J?:S ^ 



At this point the mechanical training concludes; 
and, even in the for^oing^ exercises, much will have 
to be regulated and modified to suit the individual 
character of the pupil. But when he is properly 
grounded in the nve preliminaries, there need ht no 
delay before commencing his instinctive development 
on game, and the unfolding of his powers will take 
place smoothly and gradually : he may become a 
great genius, and he cannot ^1 to be an honest, 
useful worker. 

Any one, wiiii patience, ought to be able to teach 
an intelligent puppy the rudiments, but let us halt on 
the threshold or the second part of his education, to 
consider the kind of human influence that is likely to 
conduce to the production of an eminent dog. 

A good pup is very spirited, very sensitive, very 
innocent; and it is necessary to make him obedient 
under any temptation, without crushing his common 
sense or damaging his sense of responsibility — ^to break 
his wilfulness without breaking his spirit. You must 
handle him firmly but tenderly to avoid knocking off 
the bloom, you must guide so imperceptibly that he will 
iancy that in obeying you he is pleasing himself. To 
accomplish this requires, of course, much sympathetic 
feeling with dogs, which is probably a natural gift; 
but it is at the root of all fine breaking, and possession 
of this gift distinguishes the artist from the mere 

A yearling pointer, especially when a tip-topper, is 
very h%h-strung, so he must not be needle^y startled 
or irritated. Never throw a stone at him, nor shout 
suddenly when near him, nor crack a whip, nor hurry 
him back into kennel with your foot. 

Never use the whip when the dog is already 
ashamed of himself — but rate him soundly, and shake 
Jiim if necessary. 



Never let a fault go unrebuked, even when it is 
extenuated by circumstances — such as a flush down- 
wind, or the being led away by bad example : a dog is 
no casuist, and lus mind fails to understand nice dis- 

Never use the whip when you have lost your 
temper, and, when you Jo flog, mind you have hold of 
the dog, and make it up with him before you re- 
lease him. 

But there is another mode of punishment more 
generally useful than the whip. For a serious £iult, 
you can peg the puppy firmly to the ground and then 
go out of sight for a while. The great advantage of 
this plan is that while the culprit will cry piteously 
during his desertion, instead of being cowed at your 
return he will be oveijoyed to welcome you. 

Then there is the trash-^ordy which is, however, 
more of a preventive than a punishment. With this- 
blessed invention, which is worth more than all the rest 
of the breaking dodges put together, you can equally 
well school natures shy and self-willed. It is simply a 
cord fastened to the collar of a dog, and trailed after 
him ; but its virtues are infinite. It need only be ten 
feet long, or you can make it fifty with a furze bush 
at its end: used as a leading-string it will bring con- 
fidence to the backward puppy at his point, and it will 
sober the most harum-scarum by the indefiniteness of 
its * sphere of influence.' 

The final stage of a puppy's education has now ta 
be considered, and in superintending this you must re- 
member all the time that you are trying to develop his 
instinct, not to impart to him some brand-new know- 
ledge : in fact you are in command only to foster and 
bring to light his latent talents. For instance, when, 
at his first introduction to game, he seems for the 
nonce to forget his preliminary education, let him have 



his fling, let him skim about everywhere, chasing all 
that flies. Do not check him, only keep him hard at 
it, till his own sense rescues him. Do not try to force 
him to point or drop, till at last, when he is tired, you 
see him making a hesitating sort of point. Then is 
your chance ! Get up to lum as quickly as you can 
without running, and when once you manage to get 
hold of the end of the cord, and by his side you march 
up to the birds, you have done with your nondescript 
puppy, and another Pointer is bom ! 

Be sure, after he has steadied to his points, that 
you never try to help him at them by whistling, or by 
otherwise cautioning him. He must learn from ex- 
perience how near he may go ; and even from the first 
he must obviously know more about it than the 
officious breaker. Your duty is to scold him when he 
has flushed birds, and to drag him roughly back to the 
spot, where, after the event, you know he should have 

At this stage your anxieties will practically cease, 
for the previous training of your pupil will make what 
remains quite simple for him. 

His practice of dropping to hand, you must now 
extend to wing, fvu*, and shot; to accomplish which 
you will have, for a few times, to cry * clown * at the 
sound of a shot and at the appearance of hare and par- 
tridge, but he will soon acknowledge them of himself. 

Purely bred pointers are not addicted to chasing 
hares. Of course most pups will at first have a gallop 
or two after them, but these are not serious chases with 
nose to the ground and musical accompaniment. Such 
ebullitions of youthful gaiety need not be severely 
punished, they will soon die out : but avoid hares until 
your pup is staimch on partridges. * Raking^ or snuffling 
about with the nose on the ground, is very offensive 
when a habit: it is a result of either bad breeding or 



bad breaking. Never allow a puppy to begin snuffling. 
When he wul not judge game with his head high, force 
him to leave its vicinity : this will quickly teach him 
to make up his mind. Puzzle-p^ I have found quite 
useless ; a lofty carriage of his head at the gallop, like 
turning the nose to the wind, must be innate, and can- 
not be taught. There is no doubt that a dog that 
rakes frightens the birds far more than a * high-flier,' 
because, I suppose, they are certjun that the former is 
after them, while they fancy that the other one has 
not discovered their proximity. A dog of this high 
principle will soon get to know by the scent when the 
partridges are tickle, and he will become cautious in 
due proportion. 

Always, if pos^ble, commence your pointers on 
partridges, as, if^ broken on the stronger-scented grouse, 
they will never take kindly to other game: rimilarly 
you must b^in with snipe, if you want your dog to 
be fond of them. Spring is as a breaking time preferable 
to autumn, for, if broken on coveys, the nose <^ the 
puppy will not become so acute, and he may n^lect angle 
birds. His scenting-powers will constantly improve 
with practice and, under skilled direction, are capable 
of much development. I have known dogs, as they 
lost their eyesight, to attain an almost miraculous fine- 
ness of nose. 

Do not let your scholar sniff about the hedges; and 
make him from the beginning understand that, if there 
are treasures therein, they are not for him. But it is 
absolutely right for a dog to run close along a line of 
fence when he is to windward'of it, as by this move he 
secures the entire field for his operations. No dog 
should be allowed to break fence, to precede his master 
into another field ; and when you are getting over an 
obstacle, he must wait and follow. In his preliminary 
lessons he will have been taught the secret of single 



quartering, and a brdny pointer will soon teach himself 
how to vary his pace and proportion his parallels, ac* 
cording to the scent of the moment 

It IS necessary for grouse-shooting that a pointer 
be free and devoid of sticldness in roading birds, not 
needing further encouragement than the close com- 
panionship of the shooter. When, at first, a puppy 
shows reluctance to advance on his game, slip a band 
round his neck, and gently pull him along. If, how- 
ever, he do not gsun confidence, take with you an old 
dog on a lead, and at the youngster's points, yoke the 
two together, and thus, with the brace, make out the 
birds. But do not be satisfied till the puppy will, 
without assistance, work out and spring the game. 
Neither speak nor chirrup, nor pat him during the 
whole process, much less stir with your foot the cover 
in front of him, as such behaviovu* will foster in him a 
fatal laziness. All sensitive puppies dislike the shock 
of springing their birds ; but if indulged in this weak- 
ness, farewell to those golden watchwords of the sports- 
man — Swiftness and Stlence. 

A similar mistake to the last mentioned is to en- 
courage with flatteries a puppy whenever he happens to 
point ; as, if this appeal to his vanity do not establish 
m him the vice of false-pointing, he will be satisfied to 
stand, as soon as he smells tluit game is somewhere 
about, without troubling to locate his birds — ^a dis- 
agreeable habit at all times, but in brace work in- 

Do not treat high-couraged dogs to a sniff at the 
game when killed, as a rule it unsettles them: the taste 
of the scent, or the knowledge that birds have fallen, 
is sufficient reward. But, of^course, when a puppy is 
nervous, it is well to let him mouth a bird once or twice. 

In working two pointers as a brace, make them 
quarter their ground independently (see diagram, p. 



216), never allowing them to follow one another or to 
be near together, for much evil-doing may result from 
their juxtaposition ; and they will be inclined to forget 
their duty in rivalry, if they do not wittingly lead each 
other astray. If, in their work, one of mem stop to 
relieve himself, insist on the other dog couching until 
the brace can start again with equal chances; and 
when one makes a point, the other also must at once 
stiffen in acknowledgment and must immovably await 
the moment to couch, when the birds rise from the 
point of his companion. In breaking a brace, when 
you are going up to a point, lend three-fourths of your 
attention to the backing dog, to see that he do not 
leave his place ; and in startmg the brace again after 
the point, always give the precedence to the backing 
dog. One reason for this is that it will put him agun 
on an equality with the pointing dog ; another is that 
he may learn never to draw on, nor to move without 
leave : it is neglect of this observance on the part of 
the breaker that often makes old dogs creep on so 
disagreeably, when at the back. 

When the game has been sprung, do not permit 
the pointing dog to nose about the haunt,^or the back- 
ing d(^ ever to approach it. But, after keeping them 
at the down-charge for two minutes, hold them up, 
and let them quest afresh. 

If necessary, in the beginning of your lessons, you 
may peg down the backing pup, or you can cause a lad 
to stand near him, to preclude the possibility of his 
approach towards the pointing pup ; for you must not 
alarm the one on his point by rating the other. If, 
however, you have been careful in your preliminary 
lessons, you will not have to resort to such expedients : 
much less, as some persons do in their endeavours after 
steadiness behind, will you have to keep your pupils 
alternately at heel. 



IF it be worth while to own pointers at all, the master 
ought to make himself thoroughly acquainted with 
their management in kennel ; for that establishment must 
be in a precarious state where he is not familiar iiidth 
at least as much canine lore as his servants. And this 
knowledge is so easy to acquire ! A little observation, 
a little thought, a little reading, and a little common 
sense will soon make any man conversant with the 
essential treatment of gundc^s, from which most perils 
can be averted by scrupidous attention to elementary 
rules of health in their housing, their diet, and their 
exercise. And though in surgical cases and accidents he 
will be wise to summon a certified veterinary surgeon, he 
will himself be the best of consulting physicians for his 
own kennel, as the doctoring of dogs certainly needs 
specialised attention, for it is quite distinct from the 
treatment of horses and cows. 

In the first place I will tackle the housing question, 
which deals with the actual structure of permanent 
kennels. These should occupy a sheltered site with a 
southern aspect, the floors of both houses and yards 
being placed on sealed arches, to ensure perfect freedom 
from damp. I find that the most commodious forma- 
tion is that in which the main kennels are in a long 
row, while, behind them, a passage runs their whole 
length and is covered by the same pitched roof as the 
sleeping chambers. This passage is useful for the 
exercise of sick dogs, &c., and the walls can be gar- 



nished with storage cupboards and kennel apparatus. 
In front of each kennel there must be a yard of corre- 
sponding breadth and about twenty-four feet long, to 
which the dogs have access at pleasure. These yards 
are to be inclosed by high iron fencing, with the bars 
bare to the ground in the front, but protected from the 
neighbouring yards by corrugated sheeting on the sides, 
to die height of four feet : tne whole to be surrounded 
by a paddock of about one acre, inclosed by some outer 
fence too hieh to be scaled. 

In addition to the ordinary kennel buildings, there 
must be a store-room for provisions, bedding, travelling- 
hampers, &c. ; a boiling-house, detached from the main 
block, containing two iron coppers for the cooking of 
food ; the hospital, joined on to the boiling-house, so 
as to receive warmth from the proximity of the caldrons; 
a range of miniature kennels and yards for the bitches 
to pup in ; two bitch-houses and yards, isolated by a 
high wall, for bitches in season ; and a house with play- 
ground (not less than thirty yards square) for the 
puppies in late autumn and winter, to be placed between 
the bitch-houses and the rest of the buildings. 

If is a good plan to have your kennelman's house 
among the kennels ; and necessary that it should be at 
farthest within earshot. Let all the drains be surface 
ones, then there will be no possibility of evil accumu- 
lations ; and if possible, have a supply of water running 
through the kennels, the water troughs being placed 
as high above the level of the floor as compatible with 
the comfort of the dop;s. As to the fittings, let every 
bit of woodwork within reach of the dogs be from the 
first edged with zinc. This, in the long run, will save 
expense, and the dogs will never acquire the habit of 
gnawing. The sleeping-benches had better be of sea- 
soned Mk, rsused about sixteen inches from the ground, 
and not in actual contact with any wall ; their four- 



From an oil pamting, dated 1898, by George Earl, 

This is the portrait of the liver and-white pointer. 

Seashore^ a litter-brother of Seabreeze {Plate XX.), 

It is a most forceful presentment of a wonderful head 

and ncck< /^ ^^ q^,i Possession, 


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inch sides must be detachable, so that the whole bed 
may be taken to pieces, to admit of periodical cleanings 
and dryings in the sun. If the dc^s get into bad 
habits and pollute their bed, a rooflet of wire-netting 
is useful to prevent them from standing upright there. 

There should be two ventilators of a foot square, 
with shutters, placed high up on the wall and opposite 
to each other, one opening into the outside air, the 
other into the passage; tins will ensure a thorough 
draught above the dogs' level in hot weather, and the 
power of regulating the temperature at all times. Be- 
sides these there must be, of course, a glazed window 
for light, and low down in the door leading from the 
yard to the dormitory an egress hole, of about twelve 
inches by fifteen, which must be kept open except in 
illness or in very severe weather. It is also a good plan 
to support, on iron pillars one foot in height, the 
greater part of that wall of the dormitory which adjoins 
the yard, and to fit the space below with^ wooden 
shutters, which can be tvu'ned back during extreme 
heat and for the r^ular swillings out. 

I think that concrete makes the best floor both for 
the buildings and the yards, for though large slabs of 
slate are warmer, there are necessarily interstices, which 
after a time become insanitary ; tiles share this dis- 
advantage, with the addition of^ being cold and slippery. 
But, whatever the flooring, fi-om the back of the dor- 
mitories to the front of the yards, let there be one 
very gentle and continuous slope. 

Cbiite as important as the housing of your dogs is 
their feeding, for anything amiss in the food itself, or in 
the manner of administering it, ^11 soon produce skin 
diseases and all kinds of ills. 

The adults should be fed only once a day, pre- 
ferably in the late afternoon, which is conducive to 
their resting quietly during the night and to preparing 

22S Q 


them for the season in Scotland, where they cannot 
have their food till even later. Young dogs, if thin 
and of light build, should have in addition a light 
breakfast, and so, also, should all bitches in pup. It is 
better at mealtime for the dogs to assemble outside the 
gate leading to the boiling-house yard, so that when 
the food has been poured into the long troughs there, 
they can be called m one by one ; the preference being 
given to those that are delicate feeders, while those that 
are greedy and of gross habit are left till the last. 

To keep a kennel of dogs in level condition, con- 
stant Vigilance is necessary ; but, because this uniformity 
is within the power of any kennelman, there can be no 
safer criterion of his trustworthiness. 

The principal ingredients in the food for sporting 
dogs are flesh, cer^s, and v^etables. Flesh, both 
raw and cooked, is good for dc^s, but in the former 
state it must not be employed so often as in the latter. 
In cool weather, or when dogs are working hard, a 
liberal allowance of meat will benefit them, as it is their 
natural food. There is a superstition that flesh will en- 
gender the mange ; but, as a matter of fact, it is not half 
so causative as the farinaceous stufls. Horseflesh, if 
boiled, Will do very well for dogs, as also will the cows 
or sheep that may die in the neighbourhood, provided 
they are not victims of any noxious disease. My 
private opinion is that unless actual poison be the cause 
of death in cattle, any carcase while fresh may be used 
in the kennel with impunity, but in this matter it is 
better to err on the side of caution. The refuse of the 
slaughter-house, also, forms a condiment wholesome 
and convenient for kennels situated near a town. 

As regards the cereals, which form the staple of a dog's 
diet, the changes must be often rung on wheat-me^, 
oat-meal, and rice. Barley-meal and Indian-meal I do 
not like. The former is too heating ; while the latter, 



besides possessing the same fault, causes accumulations 
of fat in the inside. I will back a course of feeding on 
Indian*meal to infect any kennel with the mange, unless 
strong corrective treatment be simultaneously employed: 
it is false economy to make use of it for dogs. 

Wheat-meal and oat-meal are very wholesome, but 
care must be taken that they be sufficiently cooked. 
They should be boiled for about an hour, being stirred 
frequently all the time, and afterwards they should be 
poured into large shallow pans to cool. When the 
pudding is properly made, it will stiffen as it becomes 
cool, so that you can cut it with a knife, and none of it 
will stick to the sides of the pan. 

Rice, also, should be boiled for an hour, as it is 
very hurtful unless thoroughly softened. It is a capital 
change during the summer, but it had better not be 
given to young puppies, as it is traditionally supposed 
to produce rickets in them. The pudding, in cool 
weather, need only be boiled twice a week, but during 
summer it must be fi-eshly made every other day, or it 
will turn sour. 

Then there are the various kinds of manufactured 
biscuits — Liverine, Carta Carna, Spratt*s, &c. — each one 
of them valuable for a change, but more expensive and 
less nutritious than plain home-made food. I am well 
aware that many servants nowadays favour these artificial 
foods, as a saving of trouble to themselves ; but neither 
man nor dog can be well nourished on the products of 
a factory alone, although the mischievous system of 
percentage may blind the eyes of some kennelmen to 
the fact. 

Tallow-greaves, well boiled, are useful for giving 
savoiu- to the pudding when the meat supply is short, 
as dc^s are fond of them. 

Vegetables in some form are necessary for the 
health of the domestic dog, and nearly all of them 



agree with him. Gibbage, spnach, nettles, onions, 
beetroot, carrots, Jerusalem artichokes, mangel-wurzels, 
and potatoes are excellent for the purpose, and doubt- 
less be^des these many others that I have not tried. 
The mangel, however, excels all others in usefulness, 
being in season at a time (after Christmas) when garden 
stufFis scarce ; it is a famous purifier of the blood, and 
dogs eat it with gusto. Roots and tubers should be 
thoroughly wash^ and trimmed before being intro- 
duced into the meat-caldron, where all kinds of 
v^etables should be boiled until soft enough to be 
pulped and mixed with the other food. 

Let your dogs dine every day off a compound of 
the following ingredients : — One-half of cold pudding, 
made as I have just described ; one-quarter of hot 
meat, with its broth, cooked till it leaves the bones 
readily ; one-quarter of vegetables, boiled and pulped. 
But, of course, the proportions must be varied accord- 
ing to the season of the year, the amount of work 
being done, and the appetite and general condition of 
the animals themselves. And you can with advantage 
add occasionally one or other of such appetizers as 
greaves, Iritchen scraps, skim-milk, treacle, and salt 
herrings. And writing of these last reminds me that, 
though most of the authorities have denoimced salt as 
injurious to dogs and all flesh-eating animals, I have 
never found anything but good result in my kennel 
from its moderate use, both as a seasoning and a 

I cannot conclude this dissertation on the feeding 
of pointers without introducing some very apposite 
remarks on the subject by Oakleigh, who seems to 
have been master of the minutest details in all that 
concerns the world of sport. 

' The best r^ular food for the sporting dog is 
oatmeal, well boiled, and flesh, which may be either 



boiled with the meal or given raw. In hot weather, 
dogs should not have either oatmeal or flesh in a raw 
state, as they are heating. Potatoes, boiled, are a good 
summer food, and an excellent occasional variety in 
winter, but they should be cleaned before being boiled 
and well dried after, or they will produce disease. 
Roasted potatoes are equally good, if not better. The 
best food to bring dogs into condition, and to preserve 
their wind in hot weather, is sago, boiled to a jelly, 
half a pound of which may be given to each dog daily, 
in addition to potatoes or other light food, a little 
flesh meat or a few bones being allowed every alternate 
day. Dogs should have whey or butter-milk two or 
three times a week, during summer, when it can be 
procured, or, in lieu thereof, should have a table- 
spoonful of flower-of-sulphur once a fortnight. To 
bring a dog into condition for the season, we would 
give him a very large tablespoonful of sulphur about a 
fortnight before the I2th August, and two days after 
giving him that, a full tablespoonful of syrup of buck- 
thorn should be administered, and afterwards twice 
repeated at intervals of three days, the dog being fed 
on the sago diet the while. There should always 
be fresh water within reach' {Shooter* s Handbook^ 
p. 102). 

These hints for bringing a dog into working con- 
dition are simple to follow and very valuable, either as 
they stand, or modified according to each one's notions. 

It must not be inferred from the rarity of quota- 
tions in this chapter, that in my researches I have 
found no valuable works on the housing and feeding 
of dogs. For, from the earliest times and in all 
languages, such treatises abound ; in fact, they really 
take up an almost disproportionate space in canine 
literature. But, undiluted, they seem a wee bit out of 
date, not exactly suitable to the present day; so I 



think that it is better on such subjects to give my own 
experience in my own language. 

Having finished my description of suitable housing 
and feeding, I will consider the rest of the treatment 
requisite for the preservation of pointers in perfect 
health and condition, a state that is always denoted by 
the peculiar mellowness of their coats — z sort of 
creamy gloss — ^which is unmistakable. 

Ptoper food and proper acconunodation will not 
give the desired results without being supplemented by 
cleanliness^ exercise^ and attention. 

The inner suiface of the entire kennels must be 
whitewashed with lime and water, as a matter of 
routine, every August when the dogs are away, with, 
of course, additional lime-washings after any outbreak 
of disease. 

Beds should be scrubbed once a week in summer, 
although once a month will suffice in winter, for fear of 
damp. Fine wheat straw is the best bedding for 
winter and at most seasons : it should be changed 
every three days. In the height of simuner, however, 
the bare boards are more comfortable. A supply of 
sawdust is very useful about a kennel ; but peat-moss I 
do not like, as it stdns the coats and soon becomes 
verminous. Condy*s Fluid, Sanitas, or some similar 
disinfectant, should be freely sprinkled, especially in 
hot weather. 

The iron caldrons, the food-troughs, and the water- 
vessels should be thoroughly cleaned twice a week in 
winter, and every other day in summer. 

The floors of the kennels should be swilled down 
every day, and at all times the kennelman should keep 
a spade and bucket handy, to remove any excrement 
he may see in the yards. 

Perfect dryness and freedom from draughts, with a 
fair amount of warmth, are essential to the well-being 



of pointers. But let this warmth result from sub- 
stantially-built kennels and dry bedding, rather than 
from artificial heat. In England, stoves and hot-pipes 
are unnecessary, and even injurious, as indeed are all 
coddling contrivances for healthy dogs; though the 
small portable stoves of the Atmospheric Churn Com- 
pany, 119 New Bond Street, and some large oil-lamps, 
are useful in kennels for heating purposes, when there 
are invalids, or bitches pupping in winter. 

The kennelman should commence operations at six 
o'clock in the summer and at seven in winter, and he 
should get his kennels clean and in order before break- 
fast. While he works, he should let all the dogs into 
the paddock, but at no time should he go away, even 
for a moment, leaving the dogs by themselves, loose in 
the paddock. 

After his breakfast he should take his charges for 
the daily run, which should be, as a rule, two hours 
with the bicycle at a rate not exceeding eight miles an 
hour. When the weather is unfit for this form of 
exercise, the Aog& should be walked, in coupling-chains 
to check their getting into mischief at the slower pace. 
About four o'clock they should have dinner, and, 
immediately after this, half an hour's saunter about the 
paddock. And if, the last thing at night, they are again 
let into the paddock for ten minutes, no doubt the man 
will find his labours lightened in the morning. 

A fortnight before going to Scotland the daily 
exercise should become rather more rigorous — ^longer 
hours, longer distances, at a slightly increased pace. 
On their return from a day's work on the moor, after 
a brisk rub-down and a foot-bath of salt and water, the 
dogs should be promptly served with a supper both 
hot and tempting. Be sure also to exercise them well 
the day after hard or wet work, otherwise their limbs 
will stiffen. Even at your shooting-lodge, do not put 



more than five in one kennel ; and at home, when 
comparatively idle, the number ought never to exceed 
four, otherwise casual disputes may easily have a tragic 

There is nothing more crippling to the suppleness 
of a pointer, or more detrimental to his temper, than to 
chain him up ; and you will promote his hedth if you 
can prevent his requiring much washing. By your 
strict attention to the cleanliness of his surroundings, 
he will, as a rule, keep himself all right, and the 
pointer in a state of nature is the most holthy, as well 
as the most beautiful. The latter is a reason for not 
washing him before a show, as in the ablucionary 

Erocess he is robbed of his glossy bloom, and a dead 
luish-white is substituted. But, though washings is 
obviously unavoidable sometimes, the chalking or his 
coat for the show-ring is downright faking — it ought 
to be punished accordingly. Indeed, healthy beings, 
whether ladies or d<^s, require no powdering ; and so 
if you bestow on a hearty dog two or three rubbings 
with the bare hand, to bring up his muscle and remove 
any dead hairs that may be clinging to him, he will be 
at his best. 

If vermin, such as fleas, lice, ticks, &c., have to be 
got rid of, plunge the dog into some sheep-dipping 
compound ^Cooper's will do or Jeyes* Fluid diluted)^ 
but be careful to keep his mouth and nose out of the 
liquid, as it is poisonous. 

The intimate connection of nose and ear makes it 
imperative that the latter be kept clean, and free from 
wax and oflTensive matter, if only for the preservation 
of the scenting powers. Once a week all pointers 
should have their ears sponged out with tepid water, 
carefully dried, and a little canker-lotion introduced 
as a preventive : at the same time, they should also 
have their nails trimmed and examined. 



In your kennel passage you can keep the necessary 
appliances, such as chains, couples, collars, leads, and 
muzzles. Of these last, besides the ordinary stock, 
you should have a surgical one to prevent a dog from 
biting at a sore : it is something like a horse's muzzle, 
being a rigid, leathern cylinder with air-holes. Others 
that are useful are to prevent the puppies, when led by 
a boy and wudng their turn at breaking-time, from 
snuffling on the ground out of pure impatience and so 
laying the foundations of a fatal trick. These must 
be spoon-shaped, of very stiff, zinc-bound leather, 
projecting about two inches beyond the nose, and well 
turned up at the end. They lie under the jaws, are 
kept there by straps above the ' spoon/ and are con- 
nected with the neck in the ordinary manner. There 
must also be a supply of sheets, which are light, 
waterproof rugs to protect the body, when the d(^ 
are waiting about in rough weather ; a measuring stick 
for ascertaining heights at shoulder; a weighing 
machine ; and half-a-dozen kennel coats for visitors. 
The travelling hampers of various sizes had better be 
made with gabled tops, so that during journeys other 
boxes cannot be piled on the top of them ; and instead 
of willow, which is to dogs a palatable dainty, they 
should be made of bamboo, which is by no means so 
inviting for a nibble. 

And now for a few words about a very important 
operation in most kennels — ^the production and rearing 
of the puppies. 

I have found that old sires beget just as vigorous 
stock as young ones, though it is preferable tor the 
dam to be in her prime. But do not suffer any bitch 
to have pups until she has been shot over for one 
season, not only because of the fsLtmty of blindfold 
breeding, but also because, until habits of work become 
fixed in her, motherhood will generally leave her lazy 



and soft for evermore. I am supported in this by 
Columella who wrote, nearly 2000 years ago, that if 
you allow doss to breed before they are a year old, * it 
eats away their bodily vigour, and causes their mind to 
degenerate ' (De Re Rustled^ book vii. chap. xii.). 

Mate your breeding animals any time when the 
female is thoroughly in earnest. But if she be a 
doubtful breeder, or if the dog be old, keep the pair of 
them without food for twelve hours, and let each have 
a run for a quarter of an hour, before the union takes 
place. Tardif, also, counsels that * both dog and bitch 
be made to fast the day before' {Chiens de Chasse^ 
1492, p. 8). 

Bitches often fail to breed from an acidity of the 
uterine membranes, which is fatal to the spermatozoa 
of the male. It is advisable, therefore, to give the 
doubtful breeders a vaginal injection of one-quarter 
ounce bicarbonate of potash in half a pint of warm 
water, half an hour before coition. 

When the impregnated bitch is fit to be released 
f]-om her necessary seclusion, she may be exercised 
with the others as usual, till half her sixty-three days 
of gestation are accomplished ; after which she must 
be gradually restricted to a slower pace, and finally to 
wanderings about at her own will. She ought not to 
be exposed to the chance of shocks and collisions with 
the flying yearlings, and on the fiftieth day, at the very 
latest, she must move into her pupping quarters. For 
the rest of her pregnancy, she is to be given a tea- 
spoonful of castor oil twice a week ; and she is to be 
allowed to pup on a wooden bed with sides of at least 
four inches. The pupping bed should be prepared as 
follows : first a layer of carefully spread hay, then a 
piece of sacking or old carpet, nailed to the wooden 
sides, then more hay. This is the only occasion on 
which I advocate the use of hay, as it is apt to breed 



vermin ; but it is necessary for new-born pups, as straw 
is much too hard and rough, and peat-moss gets into 
their throats and lungs. 

If there be no sign of the bitch pupping on the 
proper day, do not be disturbed; for as long as she 
seem tranquil, all is well — even for a week. Avoid 

g'ving either sedatives on the one hand, or aborti* 
cients on the other ; but if any abnormal symptoms 
appear, at once send for the Vet., unless you have 
some trustworthy surgical talent nearer home. 

Let some one watch over the pupping bitch, and 
sit up with her for the two succeeding nights, till the 
youngsters grow strong, as, if they are worth breeding 
at all, they are worth taking pains about. Hundrec^ 
of puppies are sacrificed yearly — ^some frozen, others 
flattened to death — during those two momentous 

If the blood be very precious, you will try to 
arrange for a foster-mother to be in readiness for any 
superniuneraries ; but, for different reasons, you may 
find yourself obliged to select from the new-bom litter,. 
as it is fatal to the well-being of the pups to leave 
more than six of them on the mother. In such a case,. 
I preserve those with the longest necks, the biggest 
heads, and the finest tails. The methods that have 
come down from classical times, of choosing the 
heaviest and, when a little older, the last to commence 
to see, are quite intelligible, as these are, of course, the 
best nourished and strongest of the new-bom ^miily ; 
but it is more difficult to accept as an axiom that the 
mother will carry the best one back to her bed before 
the others, since the owner and she may look at her 
ofifspring from an entirely different point of view ! 
There is, however, another old-fashioned plan for 
which I have a great respect, though I have never yet 
absolutely verified it fi-om experience : it is to hold up 



the new-born pointer puppy by the tail, and the fkrthcr 
back he stretches his forel^ behind his ears, the better 
shoulders he will have by-and-by. Ccrt^nly puppies 
under this treatment differ considerably in their powers. 

Remember that any medicine given to the bitch 
while suckling will also affect her family, and that if 
one of them have a sore navel, you can cure it by 
rubbing on a little turpentine twice daily. 

When the whelps commence to run about, they 
should have their noses dipped daily into a saucer of 
warm milk thickened with 'plasmon/ as, if their mother 
cannot give them a bellvful, they will soon commence 
to lap. The addition of * plasmon ' to the milk enables 
them to receive sufficient nourishment without undue 
distension — ^recent analysis having shown that the milk 
of the bitch is about three times richer than that of 
the cow. This enrichment of the milk should be 
continued for a fiill fortnight after weaning-time. Dose 
them with small pills of worm powder at weaning-time 
(about six weeks after birth), and continue this treat- 
ment regularly once a fortnight, whether they appear 
to want it or not. If the bitch when weaned have her 
milk still upon her, it must be drawn from her by 
hand once a day, and her udder must be rubbed after- 
wards with vinegar (or brandy) and sweet oil in equal 
proportions. A teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda in 
a wineglass of water is another excellent lotion with 
which to bathe swollen and tender udders. 

I cannot do better than reproduce the following 
useful remarks on feeding : — 

' Puppies should be fed at regular hours four times 
a day, with the same food (milk or broth, thickened 
with flour or fine meal) as was given them before 
weaning, gradually adding a little cooked meat as they 
grow. In three or four months they will eat the same 
food as grown dogs, but they require to be fed three 



times a day till they are six months old, and twice a 
day until they are a year old ' (House Bogs and Sporting 
Dogs^ by Mcyrick, 1861, p. 130). 

If the weather be mild and bright, the bitch, when 
her whelps are a fortnight old» can be promoted to a 
wooden kennel on wheels, with one side detachable, 
placed on some sunny grass-plot. This position is of 
the utmost importance, because the younger the puppy 
the more gristly the limbs, and the more incapable of 
supporting much weight ; and if this immature bone 
have to stand as a pillar between a heavy body and a 
hard, unyielding floor, it will very soon become twisted 
and warped. As Lascelles says : — ^ His feet pressing 
nothing but turf will more efl^ectually assist his growth, 
and remove the apprehension of disproportioned or 
distorted limbs' {Anglings Shootings &c.^ 181 1, p. 142). 

To assist in keeping the legs of the puppies straight 
be sure at first to put a hassock of turf at the entrance 
of the kennel, so that they can trot out and in again 
without any climbing ; and instead of their being lifted 
up by their forelegs, insist on the skin at the back of 
the neck being muKie use of for this purpose. But 
frequently the puppies are born too early in the year 
to admit of their being planted out immediately ; for 
the benefit of such, therefore, cover the floors of some 
of the bitch-kennels with what is known as cork carpet, 
which, when cemented down and given three coats of 
paint and varnish, makes a tolerable substitute for the 
springiness of turf, and can be swilled down in the 
same manner as the concrete. Treading on this, with 
an occasional snifiF of fresh air at mid-day, when the 
upper half of their door is thrown open, the early pups 
contrive to escape malformations till they are liberated 
by the arrival of spring weather. 

At one time I used to put my pointer puppies out 
to walk at the neighbouring fiumhouses, but 1 found 


that their health often, and their behaviour always, 
suffered for it. So I constructed some snudl paddocks 
at a distance from the kennels, and since then I have 
had all my young ones brought up at home. I find 
that, so reared, they are bolder and more obedient, and 
that, when breaking-time comes round, one has to deal 
with minds unversed in iniquity. 

In their play-grounds it is beneficial to put some 
lumps of old building-lime that have been tempered 
by time and weather. The puppies in crunching them 
eat a good deal of the lime, which promotes bone. 

In treating of diseases, the last branch of this 
subject, I dare say I shall shock many readers by my 
Spartan point of view ; but if by constant ransackings 
of the Pharmacopoeia, you do manage to prolong the 
life of some weakling, building up for him a sham con- 
stitution with tonics and what not, you are really doing 
a disservice to the breed in general. You may have 
succeeded in a clever bit of doctoring, you may even 
have saved a star for the show-ring, but at the same 
time you have added one more to the radically unfit, 
and you have provided another agent for the multipli- 
cation of tainted stock. In breeding dogs we must 
learn of Nature, accept her law of the survival of the 
fittest, and not try to upset her order with our drugs ; 
thus the clever breeder will succeed, not by flying in 
her face, but by quietly following in her footsteps ; 
for he knows that a sure way to rum his kennel will be 
to introduce the blood of these fascinating wastrels. 
If, after having been reared with all care, a dog remain 
sickly, by all means destroy him, he is a danger to the 
breed. I have been often amazed, in glancing at the 
agony columns of the doggy papers, to read anxious 
inquiries how, for instance, to prolong the pains of 
chronic disorders of the stomach, or how to keep life 
flickering in hydrocephalous monsters. 



But though I have neither the power nor the wish 
to prescribe for inveterate maladies, I will try to re- 
count those acute disorders that are curable, together 
with remedial treatments that I have myself tested. 
In this veterinary essay, I do not attempt to be scien- 
tific — only practical and helpful. 

The Distemper^ although the most common, is also 
the most mysterious of diseases. Though highly in- 
fectious, it is thought to be incapable of spontaneous 
generation. It attacks head, lungs, bowels, and nerves, 
but it seldom assails two of these simultaneously with 
equal violence. Its very name is generic aud vague, 
simply meaning the cUsease, while in French, similarly, 
it is called ^ la maladie^ and so far it has practically 
evaded the diagnosis of the Faculty. 

Concerning its origin, T. Watson, writing in 1785, 
says : * The Distemper. — This has not been known in 
England above twenty-six years* (Instructions^ <Sfc.^ 
p. 116), which is confirmed by Colonel Thornton's 
'The distemper in dogs has not been known much 
more than forty years. It appeared in France for the 
first time in 1763 ; it began in England and spread all 
over Europe ' (Sporting four in France^ 1 806, p. 244). 

And yet in nearly 140 years no one has found a 
specific for this scourge, though I, among many others, 
have tried every well-attested ancient recipe, and every 
well-advertised modern nostrum (including inoculation 
threads) in the hope of discovering one. 

At length, however, I have learned that the best 
way to fight it is by discarding all quackeries and 
by relying msunly on an even temperature and good 
nursing. The distemper must be taken at its com- 
mencement to make sure of saving the d<^, which 
must be shut into a room free from draught and of an 
absolutely even temperature day and night. The 
temperature had better be about 60** Fahrenheit, but 



whether hotter (in summer) or a little cooler^ it must 
not vary in the least. Dogs kept in cottages generally 
succumb, from lying by day close to the fire and 
getting chilled at night without it. 

As a rule the first symptom of distemper in a dog 
is a cough, attended by running at eyes or nose ; there 
is also a characteristic smell about the sufferer. On 
the first suspicion, give the dog a pill of one grain of 
Gdomel and two of Tartar Emetic, which you may 
afterwards continue every other morning ; and at once 
relegate him to the hospital. If his nostrils be much 
afiected, sponge them occasionally with vinegar or any 
antiseptic, diluted with warm water. The hospital, 
too, must be dusted constantly with disinfectants, and, 
of course, must be kept as clean as practicable without 
the use of water. The patient, as long as there is 
much fever, must be fed principally on milk, to be 
advanced to broth, and eventually to solids as soon 
as his temperature will allow. If he will not take 
nourishment, he must be promptly drenched with it 
before he loses his strength. If he be weak, he must 
have eggs beaten up ; if very weak, some brandy or 
port must be added to them. If the bowels be too 
loose, arrowroot boiled in milk is usefiil, but if bad 
diarrhoea have to be stopped, give twenty drops of 
Chlorodyne in a teaspoonful of brandy and water, the 
dose to be repeated and increased if necessary. 

The patient must not be let out of hospital on any 
pretence, till he have entirely lost his cough and his 
temperature be normal. A dog*s blood is normal at 
from 100** to loi*' Fahrenheit, and it can be tested by 
the insertion of a clinical thermometer in his rectum, 
for four minutes. These veterinary thermometers are 
bought from Arnold & G>., 26 Smithfield West, 
London, E.C. 

When the distemper has reached the head, as evi* 


From studies in oih, painted Tgoi^ by Misa Maud 

, These arc the portrait ^hcads of a brace of first-rate 
black pointers belonging to Mr. D. M< Forbes ; and, 
alas! pointcfs of this beautiful type are now very 
rare. What I may term the easttf^n and western 
heads are likenesses of a dog called Lome, and, I think, 
his profile at all events approximates to my idea of 
perfection. The northern and southern heads repre- 
sent his daughter, Kate^^maybe rather too long in the 
ear and too fine in the skull, but very lovely. These 
dogs, like Sandbank and Seabreeze (Plate XX.), 
have had the advantage of the portraiture of Miss 
Earl — a lady who, in addition to her other qualifica- 
tions, combines enthusiasm for the pointer with an 
intimate knowledge of his anatomy. 
in my o^n Pojiesshn^ 



buMi etiM y(6 «i09i baliMMi ji^Q. m mban norii 

9fnrink ^Q M«id a 'fo abn^ ^irypg adtaw m9i1T 
fiicM ; Mdio<l .M .Q .iM <^ jut^Qolxi nainioq jbaM 
Y19V von 9V aqyi {iiluuMd .«tri). lo ci9}oioc[ !ttU 
ummm bn ai»lM> ^ iiHti^ yarn I )«Hy/ ,.9vi 
fifiifii I ,bnM «mioJ b9lU> ^o^ n llo gH P Hoqjiil rui ebfisii 
\o Bdbi ym oi eslsmizDiffia eimva iU ^ sUtovq aixl 

9ib fii ^ol ooi ladin od^am — »9M^ «i9)4SM^ ^ ^'^^ 
MMiT .ybvol \t9f Ifid ,i(ui« 9^ li^i ttA o<^ boa lad 
,(.XX ^bH) n$mdmZ bw iMibn^ ^1 je^b 
•mM 'Id orwsiaitioq t(l). 'ta ayjimybs- ^rit ImuI 9V£ii 
-^laAifauff) loriio «H ^ Aoiiibfct m ^dw xM J — hjs3 

r M.IL 


denced by the dog having fits, there is but little chance 
of saving him ; still, 1 should try a blister at the back 
of the head, or a leech inside the ear as a forlorn hope. 
This terrible development, however, is fortunately rare, 
except in cases of the virulent distemper contracted at 
Shows ; and a rule should be made never to exhibit 
dogs till they have had this disease normally at home. 
If chorcea, or St. Vitus's dance, supervene to the dis- 
temper, the dog will never become quite sound again ; 
but as it is not hereditary, if reasons be sufficiently 
cedent, a twitching dc^ can be kept to breed from, 
though he will be a perpetual eyesore among your 

The TellowSj or Jaundice^ is usually caused by a 
chill on the liver, often caught during an attack of 
distemper that from its mildness is unsuspected, 
though sometimes it is induced by eating tainted flesh : 
it is one of the most dangerous of canine complaints. 
Its first symptoms are the listle^^iess of the dog, com- 
bined with an oflFensive breath, atid a buflF tinge on the 
inside of the lips, which quickly intensifies into a vivid 
yellow and spreads to the palate, eyes, and external 
skin. It is a rare disease among well-cared-for dogs, 
and I cannot lay claim to much experience as regards 
the efficacy of the following recipes, though the only 
severe case that I did cure was treated with the first of 
them. The second and third I have not yet had 
opportunity to try : they are variants of the same idea, 
and come with first-rate credentials from sources dis- 
tinct and trustworthy. 

No. I. — Put one good handfiil of Barberry Bark 
into a quart of strong ale, boiling. Administer three 
tablespoonfuls three times a day, adding a teaspoonful 
of Sweet Nitre to each dose. 

No. 2. — Castile Soap, 2 drachms ; Oil of Turpen- 
tine, 30 drops ; Oil of Carraway, 20 drops ; Calomel, 

241 R 


1 5 mins ; Powdered Rhubarb, 40 grains ; Aromatic 
Confection, i drachm. 

No. 3. — Gistile Soap, 6 drachms ; Oil of Juniper, 
20 drops ; Prepared Calomel, 12 grains ; Powdered 
Rhubaro, 2 scruples ; Aromatic Powder, i drachm. 

Both the above prescriptions enjoin a thorough 
miidng of the ingredients, and then ultimate divi^on 
into ^x pills, one of which is to be given for six 
mornings, followed at an interval of two hours by a 
teaspoonful of Castor Oil. 

The general nursing for the yellows should be the 
same as ror the distemper. 

Pneumonia^ or Inflammation of the Lungs^ may be 
detected from the rapid and difficult breathing, which 
sounds rough and harsh to your ear placed agunst the 
side of the patient. It is always accompanied by a 
high temperature. This attack is brought on by 
taking cold ; but the dog may generally be saved by 
rubbing well into the chest, and behind the shoulder, a 
strong mixture of turpentine and mustard, and by, 
every hour, administering in a little water alternate 
doses of four drops of Aconite, of the ordinary or 
second strength (if of the * mother tincture,* only two 
drops), and a blend of ten drops of Ipecacuanha Wine 
and ten drops of Paregoric. It is imperative that not 
a single dose shall be missed until the breatlung is 
easier and the temperature on the decline. The 

?reneral nursing for pneumonia must be the same as 
or the distemper. 

Influenza^ which is indicated by drowsiness with a 
very high temperature, attended by a cough, must be 
nursed with every precaution, as the least chill will 
induce pneumonia itself. It can be treated, while 
acute, with ten-grain doses of Salicine every three 
hours, preceded by a dessertspoonful of Castor Oil at 
the commencement of the attack. The dog must be 



kept in hospital till his temperature has subsided, and 
all his morbid symptoms have disappeared. 

Kennel-lamenesSy a distressing complaint analc^ous 
to rheumatism, cripples and stiffens all the limbs, and 
renders the body tender to the touch. People say that 
it is promoted by the nature of some soils ; but I think 
that dry kennels, attention on their return from work, 
and plenty of regular exercise, will prevent d(^s, in 
most places, from becoming its victims. 

Give the sufferer, before food in the morning, a 
red-herring with two drachms of Nitre rubbed into it, 
and feed him two hours afterwards. In the evening, 
give him one drachm of Gmiphor, made into a ball. 
This treatment, repeated every three days and com- 
bined with plenty of slow exercise (enforced, if neces- 
sary), will restore any ordinary case to comparative 
soundness, but I have never yet seen a dog recover 
altogether his suppleness and dash. 

IVorms. — These mischievous parasites are the bane 
of a sporting dog's existence, and there is no method 
of preventing them, except by the periodical adminis- 
tration of a vermiflige. Their presence is suggested 
by a great variety of signs — thinness, want of appetite, 
voracity, fits, lassitude, a dazed expression, a rough 
coat with no nature in it, scraping the hindquarters 
along the ground, and many others. In fact, when 
you are puzzled by strange symptoms in a dog, if you 
give him a smart dose of worm medicine, ten to one 
the mystery will be solved. 

These parasitic worms are of several kinds, but I 
need hardly enumerate them, as the old-fashioned 
medicines — areca nut and turpentine — will usually expel 
them all, without exception. I have heard it said that 
these remedies are hurtfiil to the dog, but they have 
never harmed any of mine, though all take them 
regularly ; and they are the most efficient vermifuges 



to my thinking, though variety is beneficial to dogs — 
in drugs as in everything. If you are giving the 
former, have the nuts freshly grated, and use a little 
water to knead the powder into a big bolus. Then 
push down the throat of the full-grown pointers, which 
have fasted for twenty-four hours, a piece the size of a 
sparrow's egg ; while a morsel of the size of a pea, 
and a fast of four hours, will be enough for newly- 
weaned puppies. Give them a little G^stor Oil about 
two hours afterwards, and, as long as may be necessary, 
repeat the treatment every five days. If turpentine 
be employed, a dessertspoonful is the full dose with a 
i^^ %g s^erwards : be sure to administer turpentine 
in capsules, as otherwise it is apt to choke a dog. It 
is a good plan to alternate the two medicines. 

While on the subject of giving medicine to a dog, 
let me suggest that, to gain safety and efficiency, you 
should, while opening his mouth, insert a portion of his 
lip between his upper teeth and your fingers, so that if 
he closed his jaws, or indeed struggled, he would be 
paining himself. 

Fits sometimes proceed from over-exertion in an 
unprepared state. In this case you must give a tea- 
spoonful of Epsom Salts every other day, with 
gradually increasing exercise and a sparing diet. Read 
the remarks on parasitic worms and distemper, in order 
to doctor fits that occur in connection with those causes. 

Diarrbaa it is unadvisable to check, unless it is 
symptomatic of other and more grave disorders, as it is 
generally an effort of nature to throw off something 
injurious. Still if it persist and weaken the dog, 
a thirty-drop dose of Essence of Ginger or a like 
amount of Chlorodyne, in a little water, will usually 
give immediate relief; the dose to be repeated, if neces- 
sary, at three-hour intervals. Feed on arrowroot with 
boUed milk. 



Mange. — Skin-diseases, like worms, are of several 
varieties. But as, with the exception of the follicular 
variety which is regarded as practically incurable, all 
the skin-diseases, like all the worms, can be conquered 
by the same remedies, I shall, to be strictly practical, 
lump them all together under the term Mange. I am 
told that some breeds suffer from congenital eczema, 
but pointers are happily exempt from such a scourge ; 
and they will continue so, as long as incurably mangy 
specimens, when such occur, are put out of their 

I believe this formula for the extermination of 
mange to be almost a specific : it was one of my 
father's-— old-fashioned, but deadly to all kinds of skin 
troubles. In its preparation, care should be taken 
to observe the proportions exactly, as Hellebore is not 
a drug to be measured by rule of thumb. 

Mix together thoroughly one point of Train-oil, 
two ounces of Black Sulphur, and half an ounce of 
Hellebore ; to these add two tablespoonfuls of Tur- 
pentine. Shake this dressing before use, and rub it 
well into the skin of the dogs all over, while they are 
fasting. Wash it off at the end of diree days, and 
repeat the treatment, if necessary, once a week. The 
above amount of the dressing is sufficient for three 
applications. The evening before give each dog a pill 
containing two grains of Calomel and two grains of 
Jalap. A variant of the foregoing, perhaps preferable 
as never staining the coat, is to mix Turpentine and 
Train-oil in equal parts, thickening with Yellow-sulphur 
to the consistency of thick gruel. Virulent mange is 
benefited by a varied treatment, so that an occasional 
rubbing with such excellent dressings as Mr. Peter 
Return's and Mr. Gimpkin's will accelerate the cure. 

But as mange, in bad cases, is often connected with 
disordered blood, it should be attacked simultaneously 



from the inside, with such alteratives and purgatives as 
Flowers of Sulphur, Sarsaparilla, Epsom Salts, or the 
blood mixture supplied by Messrs. Freeman (City 
Road, Birmingham) ; and during this treatment, the 
food of the d(^ must consist mainly of v^etables and 
such-like cooling fare. 

The Yellow-sulphur preparation, in addition to its 
therapeutic qualities, is also invaluable as a preventive. 
For when a dog's coat is out of bloom, when he 
scratches a little, when he has fiery stains at the 
armpits, on the belly, or between the toes, you must, 
according to the gravity of the signs, either dress him 
all over or touch up the suspicious places with the 
mixture. And, clean or foul, it will be well to dress 
and purge him completely, at least twice a year, in the 
spring and again on his return from the moors. 

Canker of the Ear is another effect arising from 
over-heated blood : its two varieties, internal and 
external, require different treatments. 

Internal canker is shown by the dog shaking his 
head slightly, holding his head on one side, and 
scratching the root or his ear ; while a closer inspec- 
tion reveals an offensive smell from the ear, and a dark- 
coloured deposit therdn. After having thoroughly 
cleansed the ear from this with warm water, thoroughly 
dry it, and then work well into the head some canker 
lotion, to be procured from Mr. Campkin, chemist, 
II Rose Crescent, Cambridge. This will infallibly 
cure the dog in a few days, if you continue to wash, 
and afterwards to saturate, the root of the ear daily. 
Medicine and diet must be similar to those prescribed 
in the cure of the mange. 

But though internal canker yields so readily to 
treatment, the external variety is much more difficult ; 
in fact, where the disease is of old standing, it is almost 
incurable. Usually it first attacks the ear-tips, which 



become very hot and sore, lose their hair, and are 
shaken by the d(^ so violently that they bleed. The 
canker, if unchecked, soon eats away parts of the edge, 
giving it a tattered appearance, and finally the whole 
ear will become swollen and infected. Taken in an 
early stage, it can be cured by clearing off the scabs and 
applying bluestone, and afterwards anointing several 
times with Green Iodide of Mercury. Later on, when 
there is much shaking of the head, the ears will have to 
be confined in a cap, in addition to the forgoing treat- 
ment. If the ear be much swollen, setons of tow, fresh 
every day, will give relief. 

Affections of the Eyes. — In cases of weakness, when 
there is a collection of mucus in the corners of the eye, 
with or without soreness of the lids externally^ apply 
several times a day the following lotion : half-an-ounce 
of Goulard's Extract, eight ounces of distilled water. 
Boracic Acid lotion also is excellent to apply to suchlike 
inflammations. This weakness is often found after 

When a film spreads over the eye, apply twice duly, 
with a camelVhair brush, an ointment composed of one 
grain of yellow Oxide of Mercury and one drachm of 
Lanoline. If the case be obstinate, place once a week, 
in the outside corner of the eye, a few drops of a lotion 
made up of a quarter of a grain of Nitrate of Silver and 
one ounce of distilled water, and anoint as before with 
the ointment on the intermediate days. 

Sprains^ canine as well as human, must be reduced 
by fomentations, by cold-water bandaging, and by 
rubbing-in an embrocation like Elliman's or Veterinary 

Wounds should be at once washed with a lotion 
composed of one teaspoonful of Carbolic Acid and one 
pint of boi],ed water, and afterwards they should be 
covered by a piece of lint, thickly spread with Boracic 



Acid ointment and secured in place by a bandage. It 
is well to keep a supply of flesh-needles and nlk, 
suitable for putting in a stitch or two, if necessary. 

Pointer puppies, especially if very purely bred, arc 
rather subject to a swelling and inflammation of the 
occipital bone. It is often sore to the touch, and I have 
even known it to gather. It must not be interfered 
with, and it will gradually disappear, or be absorbed, as 
the head grows larger. I do not know the cause of it ; 
but only the intelligent ones are so aflFected. 

When it is necessary to disinfect in your kennels, 
the following will be found an efllectual mode : — 

Wash the floors, walls, and especially wooden beds, 
with a solution of Corrosive Sublimate (one in two 
thousand). After this washing has been completed, 
close up every nook and crevice in the place : paste 
paper over the cracks in the door, or stuflF cotton-wool 
tightly into them. Then take a quarter pound of 
Flowers of Sulphur, put it, all of a heap, into an iron 
pan, and set fire to it by putting live coals on the pan. 
Keep the doors tightly closed for twelve hours, and 
afterwards whitewash or limewash the place. 

When a dc^ is convalescent after an illness, a capital 
tonic for him is formed by one ounce of Phosphate of 
Iron, three ounces of Phosphate of Lime, four ounces 
of Glycerine, one quart of water. Dose : One table- 
spoonful, with one dessertspoonfixl of Cod-liver Oil, 
twice daily. 

Cod-liver Oil is always useftil amongst the puppies, 
and Parrish's Chemical Food can be given in conjunction 
with it to the delicate ; Benbow's Mixture, also^ is a 
good tonic. But the quickest of all pick-me-ups for 
dogs of any age and size, I have found to be ^ Dr. 
Williams's Pink Pills for Pale People,' and tabloids of 
Easton's Syrup. 

As aperients, Castor Oil and Epsom Salts are both 


needed ; the fonner is more mild and suitable to give 
in conjunction with other medicines during illness, but 
it has an ultimate reaction towards constipation ; the 
latter is more irritating and abrupt, but it exercises a 
beneficial action on the blood and is preferable as a 
purgative for a robust dog. A little Salad Oil to 
follow, is very soothing to the bowels. Beecham's 
Pills, also, are efficacious, and from their portability 
they are very convenient in Scotland, the climate of 
which necessitates the frequent use of a medicine of 
this nature. 

Sweet Spirit of Nitre is invaluable in cases of 
suppression of luine, as it immediately increases the 
action of the kidneys. It is a harmless drug, and is 
indeed an active power of good in most other illnesses. 
The dose varies from ten drops for a young puppy to 
one teaspoonful for an adult pointer, and it can be 
administered either by itself in water, or allied with 
similar amounts of Castor Oil and Syrup of Buck- 

Friar's Balsam is useful externally for healing 
wounds, as dogs mil not lick it. Carbolic, Condy, 
Jeyes, Izal, and Sanitas, are all excellent as antiseptics 
and disinfectants. 

Most drugs have a precisely similar effect on dogs 
as on human beings, and this facilitates doctoring in 
the kennel. The only exception that I remember is 
phosphorus, which I have found dangerous to dogs, as 
it produces very bad fits. 

I have only attempted to describe the ordinary 
illnesses of dogs ; but even of these, as I s^d before, 
you can ward off the greater part by promoting healthy 
conditions in your kennels, and by keeping only healthy 





Cynegeiicon, by Xenophon. b.c. 445-360. 

Peri Zoon (J)e Naturd Jnimalium)^ by Aristotle, b.c. 

Cynegeticony de Aucupio Fragmenta duo^ by Marcus Aurelius 

Olympius Nemenanus. About b.c. 283. 
De Re Rusticd^ by Marcus Terentius Varro. b.c. 116-28. 
De Conjuratione Catilinay De Bello Jugurtbino^ by Caius 

Sallustius Crispus. b.c. 86-34. 
Historic Naturalis Libri XXXVIL^ by Caius Secundus 

Plinius. Died a.d. 23. 
Historia^ by Publius Cornelius Tacitus, ist century. 
De Duodecim Casaribus^ by Csuus TranquiUus Suetonius. 

I St century. 
Panegyricus Trajano dictus^ by Oecilius Caius Secundus 

Plinius. 1st century. 
Cynegeiicofij by Gratius Faliscus. 1st century. 
De Re RusHcdj by Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. 

A.D. 50. 
CynegelicuSj by Flavius Arrianus. 2nd century. 
Cynegeiica^ by Oppianus. 2nd century. 
Ontmastikan^ by Julius Pollux. 2nd century. 
De Naturd Jnimalium {Peri Zo(m\ by Claudius ^ianus 

Prenestinus. 3rd century. 
Ars Veterinarian by V^etius Renatus Publius. 4th century. 
De Re Rusticdy by Rutilius Taurus ^milianus Palladius. 

A.D. 371-395- 




Le Art de Veneriey by Guyllame Twid (ex MSS. Phillipps, 

No. 8336. Printed 1840). 1307-1327. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. A Romance Poem. 

1 320-1 340. 
The Maister of the Game (MS.), by Edmund de Langley 

(Duke of York). 1341-1402. 
De proprietatibus rerum^ by Bartholomeus de Glanviila. 

About 1360. 
Boke of St. Albans^ by Dame Juliana Bernes. i486. 
ToxopbiluSj by Roger Ascham. 1545. 
De Differentiis Animalium^ by Edward Wotton. 1551. 
7 be Booke of FaUonrie or Hawking^ by George Turber- 

villc. 1575. 
Englische Dogges^ by Dr. John Caius of Gmibridge. 1576. 
Hawking^ Huntings Fishing. (Anon.) 1586. 
Britannia^ by W. Gimden. 1586. 
Hungers Prevent ion ^ by Gervase Markham. 1620. 
The Anatomy of Melancholy^ by Robert Burton. 1621. 
Field Sports {Pictures). (Anon.) 1650. 
Notes on Gratii Falisci Cynegeticon^ by C. Wase. 1654. 
The Countryman's Treasure^ by Jas. Lambert. 1676. 
ExercitationeSj by Walter Charleton. 1677. 
Ornithology^ by Francis Willughby. 1678. 
The Vermin Killer, by W. W. 1680. 
The Compleat Gentleman, by Henry Peacham. 1682. 
The School of Recreation, by R. H. (Robt. Howlitt). 1684. 
The Gentleman's Recreation, by Nich. Cox. 1686. 
Gentleman's Recreation, by Richard Bloome. 1686. 
A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade, by 

John Houghton. 1691. 
Synopsis Animalium, by John Ray, S.R.S. 1693. 
The Whole Art of Husbandry, by John Mortimer. 1707. 
The Compleat Sportsman, by Giles Jacob. 17 18. 
Athena Oxonienses, by Anthony A' Wood. 1721. 



The Compleai Gamester y by Richard Seymour. 1729. 

The Gentleman Farrier. (Anon.) 1732. 

The Sportsman* s Dictionary. (Anon.) 1735. 

The Complete Family Piece. (Anon.) 1736. 

Field Sports (Poem)y by W. Somerville. 1742. 

The Complete Sportsman^ by Thos. Fairfax. 1760 (?). 

British Zoology^ by Thos. Pennant. 1766. 

The Art of Shooting Flyings by T. Page. 1767. 

Pteryplegia (A Poem\ by — Markland. 1767. 

A Treatise on English Shootings by George Edie. 1772. 

Treatise on Field Diversions^ by R. Symonds. 1776. 

The Sportsman's Dictionary. (Anon.) 1778. 

Instructions for the Management of Horses and Dogs^ by 

Thos. Watson. 1785. 
Letters and Observations written on a short Tour through 

France and Italy ^ by Peter Beckford. 1786. 
Cynegetica^ by W. Blane. 1788. 
Essay on Shooting. (Anon.) 1789. 
The Sportsman* s Dictionary ^ by Henry Jas. Pye. 1790. 
British ^adrupedsy by Thos. Bewick. 1790. 
The Sporting Magazine. 1 792-1 870. 
British Sportsman's Dictionary^ by W. A. Osbaldiston. 

Tran)els in France^ by Arthur Young. 1794^ 
Cynographia Britannica, by Sydenham Edwards. 1 800. 
General Zoology y by Geo. Shaw. 1800. 
Cautions to Toung Sportsmen^ by Sir Thos. Frankland. 

Rural SportSy by Rev. W. B. Daniel. 1801. 
The Sportsman's Cabinet y by W. Taplin. 1803. 
Sporting Dictionary and Rural Repository y by W. Taplin* 

A Sporting Tour through the Northern Parts of England j 

by Col. Thornton. 1 804. 
Shooting Directory, by R. B. Thornhill. 1804. 
A Sporting Tour through France y by CoL Thornton* 1 806. 



Plates, by William Howitt 1806 (?). 

Sports and Pastimes, by Joseph Strutt. 1 807. 

Advice to Sportsmen, by Marmaduke Markwell. 1809. 

^he Art of Imprtruing the Breeds of Domestic Animals, by 
Sir J. Sebright. 1809. 

7be Complete Sport sman^ by George Morgan. 18 10 (?). 

Angling, Shooting, and Coursing, by Robt. Lascelles. 1 8 1 1 • 

The British Sportsman, by Samuel Howitt. 18 12. 

Kunopadia, by William Dobson. 18 14. 

On Shooting, by Col. Peter Hawker. 18 14. 

To All Sportsmen, by Col. Geo. Hanger. 18 14. 

The Sprtsmans Directory, by John Mayer. 181 5. 

Complete Farrier and British Sportsman, by Richard Law- 
rence, V.S. {alias John Scott). 18 16. 

The Complete Sportsman, by T. H. Needham {alias T. B. 
Johnson). 181 7. 

The Shooter's Guide, by R. Thomas. 18 19. 

The Sportsman s Repository, by Richard Lawrence, V.S. 

British Field Sports, by W. H. Scott. 1 820. 

Observations on Dog Breaking, by William Floyd. 1821. 

The Driffield Angler, by Alexander Mackintosh. 1821. 

National Sports of Great Britain, by Thos. McLean. 1 82 1 . 

The Suffolk Sportsman, by B. Symonds. 1825. 

Anecdotes, by Pierce Egan. 1827. 

The Sportsman's Companion. (Anon.) 1827. 

British Animals, by John Fleming, D.D. 1828. 

Sportsman s Cyclopedia and Shooter's Companion, by T. B. 
Johnson. 1831. 

Arrianus {The Tounger Zenophon) on Coursing, translated 
byW. Dansey. 1831. 

Hints to Grown Sportsmen, published by Hatchard. 1832. 

The Field Book, by W. H. MaxweU. 1832. 

Book of Sports, by Pierce Egan. 1832. 

Letters from the Earl of Peterborough to General Stanhope 
in Spain. 1834. 



The Sportsman J vol. i, (Anon.) 1835. 
Dictionary of Sports^ by H. Harewood. 1835. 
British Vertebrates^ by Rev. Leonard Jcnyns. 1835. 
The Sportsman or Veterinary Recorder. (Anon.) 1836. 
Observations on Instinct of Animals y by Sir J. Sebright. 

British QjuadrupedSy by Thos. Bell. 1837. 
The Shooters Manual^ by Jas. Tyler. 1837. 
Encyclopedia of Rural Sports^ by D. P. Blwne. 1839. 
Natural History of the Dog^ by D. P. Blaine. 1840. 
The Rod and the Gun^ by Jas. Wilson. 1840. 
Reliquiae Antiqu^y by T. Wright and W. Halliwell. 

Shooter's Preceptor^ by T. B. Johnson. 1842. 
The Shooter's Handbook, by Thos. Oakleigh. 1842. 
The Natural History of Dogs, by Charles Hamilton Smith. 

The Sportsman's Library , by John Mills. 1845. 
History of the Dog, by W. E. L. Martin. 1845. 
Recreations in Shooting, by Craven. 1845. 
The Dog, by Wm. Youatt. 1845. 
The Modern Shooter, by Captain Lacy. 1846. 
fVild Sports of the Highlands, by Charles St. John. 1846. 
History of the Romans under the Empire^ by Dean Men- 

vale. 1850. 
The Sportsman and his Dog, by H. B. Hall. 1850. 
Scottish Sports and Pastimes, by H. B. Hall. 1850. 
Manual of British Rural Sports, by Stonehenge. 1858. 
The Dog, by Stonehenge. 1 859. 
The Book of Field Sports, by H. D. Miles, i860. 
The Dog Fancier. (Anon. ) 1 86 1 . 
House Dogs and Sporting Dogs, by John Meyrick. 1861. 
The Varieties of Dogs, by Philibert Charles Beijeau. 1 863. 
Researches into the History of the British Dog, by G. R. 

Jesse. 1866. 
An English Garner, by Edward Arber, F.S.A. 1877. 



Early Drawings and Illuminations in the British Museum, 
by W. dc Gray Birch, F.R.S., and H. Jcnner. 1 879. 

British DogSy by Hugh ThlzieX. 1879. 

Lex Salica^ the ten Texts with the Glosses^ by J. H. Hesscls 
and H. Kern. 1880. 

The Bogy by Stonehenge. 1 8 8 1 . 

The Dog, by Idstonc. 1882. 

Dog Breaking, by General Hutchinson. 1 882. 

G. H^alkers Costumes of Yorkshire in 1812, by E. Hail- 
stone, A. R. A. 1885. 

The Earl of Peterborough, by F. S. Russell. 1 887. 

Peterborough, by William Stebbing. 1 890. 

Modern Dogs, by Rawdon Lee. 1896. 

The New English Dictionary, by Murray. Still incompiete. 


Le Roman du Rou, by Robert Wace (Maistre). 12th 

La Chanson d'Antioche {Chroniques des Croisades)^ by 

Richard le Pelerin. 13th century. 
Bibliotheca Mundi, by Vincentius Bellovacensis. 13th 

Phebus des deduiz de la Chasse, by Gaston Phoebus. 1387. 
Les Chiens de Chasse, by Guillaume Tardif. 1492. 
Le Bon Varlet des Chiens, by Gaston Phoebus. Published 

La Chasse de Gaston Phabus. (Anon.) 1507. 
Lettres de Catherine de Medicis {edition de documents in- 

edits). 1533-81. 
La Nouvelle Agriculture, by Pierre de Quinqueran de 

Beaujeu (Bishop of Senes). 1551. 
La Venerie, by Jacques du Fouilloux. 1561. 
La Chasse du Loup, by Jean de Glamorgan. 1576. 
Le Plaisir des Champs, by Claude Gauchet. 1583. 
Charles Estienne's Maison Rustique, 1564, translated by 

Richard Surflet. 1600. 


Hisunre Vniverselle^ by T. A. d'Aubigne. i6th century. 
Liber Legis Salic ^ Glossariumy by F. Lindebrog. 1602. 
La Fauconnerie^ by Charles d'Arcussia. 1605. 
La Addison Champestrij by Antoine Mizauld. 1607. 
Negociation du Marechal de Bassompitrre^ Ambassade en 

AngUterre. 1626. 
Les Passions de VAme^ by Rene Descartes. 1649. 
La Venerie Royale^ by Robt de Salnove. 1655. 
Les Ruses Innocentes^ by Francois Fortin. i66o. 
Traitte fort curieux de la Vinerie^ by Francois Antoine 

Pomey. 1676. 
Le Parfait Chasseur^ by Jacques Espee de Selincourt. 

Compfes des Bdtiments de Roi sous Louis XIV. 
Documents Authentiques et details curieux sur les depenses de 

Louis XIV. 
Journal du Marquis de Dangeau. 1684. 
Melanges historiques et administratifs sous Louis XIV. et 

Louis XV. {Recueil Canje). 
Memoires de L. de Rouvercy, Due de St. Simon. About 

Amusemens de la Campagne^ by Louis Liger. 1709. 
Le Menage de la ville et des champs ^ by Louis Liger. 1 7 1 2. 
Nouveau Traitede Venerie ^ by Antoine GaiFet. 1750. 
Regnum Animale^ by M. J. Brisson. 1756. 
VEcole de la Chasse^ by Verrier de la Conterie. 1763. 
Code des Chasses^ by Saugnun. 1765. 
Traite de Venerie et de Chasse^ by Goury de Champgrand. 

^adrupides, by M. le Comte de BufFon. 1777. 
Mammalogie, by Anselme G. Desmarest 1782. 
EncyclopJdie M£thodique. (Anon.) 1782-1832. 
La Chasse au Fusil, by G. F. Magnc de Marolles. 1788. 
Traite de Venerie, by M. de YanviUe. 1788. 
Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, by Frederic Cuvicr. 


^57 & 


Le Par fait Chasseur^ by Auguste Deseraviers. 1810. 
Traiti General des eaux et des forits^ by J. J. Baudrilkrt. 

Journal des Chasseurs (French Sporting Magazine). 

La Chasse au viel Grognariy by M. L. Cimber. 1837. 
Les Anciennes Tapisseries Historiees by Achille JubinaL 

Essai sur nducation des animauXy by A. D. Leonard. 1 842. 
Histtnre du chien, by Elzear Blaze. 1843. 
Le Chasseur au Cbien d arrets by Elz6ar Blaze. 1846. 
Dictiannaire des forets et des chasses^ by Leon BertrancL 

V Esprit des Betes^ by Adolphe Toussenel. 1 847. 
Captiviie de Franfois ler {p. L sur FHistoire de France)^ 

by M. Aime Champollion- Figeac. 1847. 
Cyclapadie d'Histoire Naturelle, by J. C. Chenu. 1850-60. 
Chasseur Rustique, by C. F. A. d'Houdetot 1850. 
La Chasse i tir en France^ by Joseph La Vallde. 1854. 
Le Chien^ by Charles Dubourdieu. 1855. 
Vie de la reine Anne de Bretagne^ by Le Roux de Lincy. 

La Chasse et les Chasseurs y by Leon Bertrand. 1862. 
Dictimnaire de la Langue franfaise^ by E. Littre. 1863. 
Cbasses et Voyages^ by M. Jules de C. (Gibamis). 

Histoire physiologique et anecdotique des Chiens, by Bene 

Revoil. 1867. 
Du Chien de Chasse^ by Baron de Lage du Chsdllou (M. 

de Cherville). 1867. 
Histoire de la Chasse en France^ by Dunoyer de Noirmont. 

Le Chien f by Eugene Gayot. 1867. 
Traite pratique du chien^ by A. Gobin. 1867. 
Marursy usages^ et costumes au Moyen Age^ by P. Lacroix. 




Los Paramienios de la Caza^ ou reglemenis sur la chasse en 

general^ par Don Sancho le Sage^ Rot de Navarre. 

Published in 1180, translated by H. Castillon 

(d'Aspet). 1874. 
Les Cbiens de Chasse y by H. de la Blanchere. 1875. 
Sid Mohammed el Mangali. Tratte de Venerie^ by F. 

Pharaon. 1880. 
Les Chiens d'arrit Franfais et Anglais^ by A, De la Rue. 

Le Chien, by Alfred Barbou. 1883. 
Ouvrages sur la Chasse, by R. Souhart. 1886. 
L'origine ei revolution intellectuelle du chien d'arrity by 

C. A. Pietremont. 1886. 
Races des chiens, by Pierre Megnin. 1889. 


De AnimalibuSj by Albertus Magnus (Bishop of Ratisbon). 

1 193-1280. 
Das Buch der Natur, by Konrad von Megenberg. i6th 

Historic Animalium, by C. Gesner. 1516-87. 
Ein Neuw Thierbuch. (Anon.) 1569. 
Rei Rustics Libri QLuatuor, by Conrad Heresbach. 1570. 
Venatus et Aucupium, by J. A. Lonicer. 1582. 
Vogelstelleny by Joh. Conrad Aitinger. 1653. 
Plates by John Elias Riedinger. Born 1695. 
Jagd und Weidmantis Anmerkungen, by H. F. von Goch- 

hausen. 17 10. 
Der Dianen Hohe und Niedere Jagd Geheimnisse, by 

Johann Tanzer. 1734. 
Der vollkommene teutsche Jaeger, by Hans F. von Fleming. 

duadrupedum Dispositis, by J. F. Klein. I75i# 
Notabilid Venatoris, by H. F. von Gochhausen. 1751. 
Praktische Abhandlung von dem Leithund, by Carl von 

Heppe. 1751. 



Der sich^selbst raihende JageTy by Carl von Heppe. 1753 
Forst und Jagd Historie der Teutscheny by H. G. Francken. 

Der Jdgerey^ by Joh. Jac. Biichtings. 1768. 

Beytrage zur Geschichte von Baiern^ by J. N. Mederer. 

Thiere zufangen, by C. W. J. Gatterer. 178 1. 
Hohe und niedere Jagdy by Joh. Chr. Heppe. 1783. 
Jdger Practica, by H. W. Dobcl. 1783. 
Der Vogelsieller^ by Joh. Andreas Naumann. 1789. 
Handbucb der Jagd-^issenschafty by F. G. Leonhardi. 1 797. 
Der Vogelfangy by Joh. Christoph Heppe. 1797. 
Der Jagd' u. Huhnerhund^ by K. A, Kupfer. 1822- 
Forst und Jagd Wissenscbaft^ by Dr. T. M. Bechstein. 1 833. 
Lebrbuchfiir Jdger^ by Dr. Theodor Hcrtig. 1845. 
Die Federwild-Jagty by L. Zi^ler. 1847. 
Der Vorstehhundy by Fr. Oswald. 1855. 
Kaiser Maximilian /., Geheimes Jagdhucb^ by Th. G. von 

Karajan. 1858. 
Der Hiihnerhundy by A. Vogel. 1865. 
Der Hiihnerhundy by C. Herstatt. 1868. 
Handbuch des Jagdsport^ by Dr. Oscar Horn. 1882. 
Forst und Jagd Geschichte Deutschlands, by Dr. Adam 

Schwappach. 1883. 
ZUcbtungj Erziehung und Arbeit der Gebrauchhunde^ by 

C G. L. Quensell. 1883. 
Der Schweissbund und seine Arbeit^ by Ernst Dromcr. 

Jagd' Hof- und Schdferhunde, by E. Schlotfcldt. 18 88. 


Li Livres dou Tresor^ by Ser Brunetto Latini. 1 260-1 267. 
// ConvitOy by Dante Alighieri. 13th century. 
Bucolicay by Baptist Sapagnuoli Mantuanus. 1448-1516. 
Aliquot aureoli vere libelli^ by Belisarius Aquaviva (Duke 
ofNardo). 15 19. 



De Giuadrupedihus Digitaiis VivipariSj by Ulysses Aldro- 

vandi. 1 522-1 607. 
Venusini Canes^ by Joannes Darchius. 1543. 
De Canibus et Venaiione, by Mich. Ang. Biondo. 1544. 
De Venaiiom^ by Natalis Comes. 1 5 5 1 • 
/ quattro libri delta Cacciay by Tito Giovanni Scandianese. 

Cynegetica, by Pietro Angelio da Baiga. 1561. 
De jiucupio^ liber primus^ by Pietro Angelio da Barga. 

Gli Uccelli da Rapina^ by M. F. Sfbrzino da Carcano. 

Tractatm de Venatione^ Piscatione et Aucupio^ by Dr. G. 

Mor. 1605. 
Le Caccie delle Fierey by Eugenio Raimondi. 1621. 
Ucceliera^ by G. P. Olina. 1622. 

La Caccia delFjlrcobugio, by Cap. Vita Bonfadini. 1652. 
La Venaria Reale^ by Conte Amedeo di Castellamonte. 

La Caccia dello Schiappo^ by Nicolo Spadoni. 1673. 
La Cacciagione de Volatiliy by Giovanni Pontini. 1758. 
UUccellagione^ by Antonio Tirabosco. 1775- 
Trattate della Caccia^ by Bonaventura Crippa. 1834. 


Eiymologiarum Libri XX.^ by St. Isidore (Bishop of Seville). 

Libro de la Monteria del Rey D. Alfonso XL 1345. 
Libro de Caza^ by Principe Don Juan Manuel. 14th 

El Conde Lucanor^ by Principe Don Juan Manuel. 14th 

Libro de la Caza de las Aves, by Canciller Pero Lopez 

de Ayala. 14th century. 
Traiado de Cazay Otros. Anon. MS. (British Museum). 

15th century. 



Aviso de Caf adores y de Cafa^ by Pedro Nufiez de Aven- 

daflo. 1543. 
Tratado de Monteria y Cetreria (MJ.), by Mossen Juan 

Valles. 1556. 
El Peregrino en su Patria^ by Francisco Lope Felix de 

V^a Carpio. 1562-1635. 
Discurso sobre el Ubro de la Monteria del Rey D. Alfonso JTZ, 

by Gon^alo Argote de Molina. 1 582. 
Fueros y Observancias de Navarra. i6th century. 
Dialogos de la Monteria. Anon. MS. of the Escorial 

Library. 1 6th century. 
Origeny Dignidad de la Cafa^ by Juan Mateos. 1634. 
Exercicios de la Gineta^ by Gregorio de Tapia y Salzedo. 

Arte de Ballesteria y Monteria^ by Alonzo Martinez de 

Espinar. 1644. 
T^ratado de la Caza del BuelOy by F. F. De la Escalera. 

De las Propriedades del Perro Perdiguero. (Anon. 

MS. of Duke of Osuna's Collection.) 17th 

Arte de Cazar^ by Juan Manuel de Areknno. 1745. 
Tratado de la Caza de las PerdiceSy by Ramon Mauri y 

Puig. 1848. 
Investigaciones sobre la Monteria^ by Miguel Lafuente y 

Alcantara. 1 849. 
Tesoro del Cazador. (Anon.) 1858. 
Tesoro de los Perros de Caza. (Anon.) 1858. 
La Aviceptologia^ by Jose Maria Tenorio. 1861. 
Fauna Mastologica de Gallicia, by Victor Lopez Seoane. 

La llustracion Venatoria (Periodical). 1 878-1886. 
Biblioteca Venatoria^ edited by Gutierrez de la Vega. 

From 1879. 
La Caza (work of reference), by Francisco de Uhagon. 




Los Perros de Caza Espanoles^ by Gutierrez de la Vega. 

Paginas de Caza^ by Evero. 1898. 


Geoponicaj edited by Emperor Constantine VII. (Byzantine.) 

Cynosophion, by Demetrius Pepagomenus. (Byzantine.) 

13th century. 
Icones Varia, by Jan van der Straet. (Dutch.) 1600. 
VenaHo Novantiqua^ by Janus Ulitius ( Van Vlict. ) 

(Dutch.) 1645. 
Systema Natura^ by Carl Linnaeus. (Translated by 

Gmelin, 1792). ^wedish.) 1735. 
Historia Naturalis de Ciuadrupedibus, by Johannes John- 

stonus. (Icelandic. ) 1755. 



' AitUariuSt* a hare-honnd. 4, 5 
Aitmger (T. C.) on sport and pointing- 

doRS. 6a, 69 
Albotus Magnus, on partridge-dogs. 7 
Alderwasle^ pointers. 78 
Aldrovandi, on the brach. 17 
on net-dc^. 5' 




Amos (Mr. ) head-keeper at Douglas. 
Angus (Mr.), his blacK pointer. 85 
Anson (Colonel), his large bag over 

dogs. 87 
Antrobus (J. C), his pointers. 82 
Appleby pointers. 78 
Arelumo (Juan Manuel de), on the 

breeding and choosing of pups. 50 
Argote de Molina, on * ventoru,^ 18 
Armstrong (Edward), dog-breaker. 88 

„ (John), dog-breaker. 87 
Arquebose, development of the use of, 

for shooting flying, 59, 60 
Arran, Isle ot, nmous for its shooting. 

Ashton (G.), crossed his pointers with 

foxhounds. 156 
Auction sales of p< 

' Aviariif misuse of the term. 2 

pointers, the earliest. 

Backing. 200, 2X^, 222 

„ iuTented m England. 70 
Bang (a pointer). 157, 158 
Bany II. (a pointer). 157 
Banjo 0*Gymru (a pointer). 82 
Barbets. 64 
Bates (Jasper), owner of a dog called 

Don. 76 
Baude, an Italian biach. 22 
Baudrillart (M.), on doubled - nosed 

braquis. 142 
Beanjeu (P. de Q. de), on setting-dogs. 


Bedford, first working trials for pointera 

near. 99 
Belle (a pomter), Mr. Uoyd Price's. 78 
Bentinck (Lord George). 78 

„ (Lord Henry), pointer-breeder, 
crossed foxhounds with 
pointers. 78, 81, 155 
Bemes (Dame Juliana), on ' spaniels.^ 

Bible, the, and hunting-dogs, i 
Biehcdl (Baron), early use of the Span* 

ish pcunter in England. 2 J 
Bioodo, on hunting-dogs. x8 

„ on the characteristics of point- 
ing-dogs. 51, 116 
Birmingham fixhibition. 83, 156 
Biscuits for dogs. 227 
Bishop (Elias) and his sons — dog- 
breakers. 88 
Bishop (John), head-keeper to Mr. Pol- 
lock. 91 
Bitches in pup, exerdse o£ 234 
Black pointosy historical account of. 

Blaine (D. P.), his misquotation about 
spaniels. 12 
„ „ on the pointer's charac- 
teristics. 121 
., „ on grouse-shooting. 171 
Blands of Kippax, their pointers. 79 
Blase (Ek6ar), quotations irom. 58*60 
Blinking. 198 

Blome (Kichard), on shooting flying. 67 
„ „ on the breaking of 

dogs. 191 
Board of Agriculture and quarantine* 

Bob (a pointer). Mr. Bird's. 84. 
Bon&dmi, on the selection of brachs. 


Bowhill dogs. 94, 95 
Brace-stakes. 10^ 

Brachs (short-haired pointing -dogs)^ 
their origin. 8, it seq. 
n early references to. 8, 15 




Biftchi, origm of the name. 15-18 
y, demiitioii of. 17 
„ the Italian braceki. 22, ittiq* 
„ the French braqms, 23 
„ cfaaracteristici of. 51 
»> lelection of. 51-53 
M double-nosed. 141 
Brailiford (Mr.), gamekeeper to the 
Earl of Chesterfild and to Jeffrey 
Lockett 86»87 
Brailaford (W.), dog-breaker. 86 
„ on working tziali. 98 

„ on the pointer. 127 

Breakeri, some well - known dog - 
breakers. 86, et seq, 
M at dog trials, iii 

Breaking of pointers. 190-222 
Brearey & Co., auctioneers. 77 
Breeding in • and • in, degoienUion 

through. 137 
Breeding, and s election. 137-144 333, 
„ alien crosses. 147- 162 
„ reduction of pointing instinct 
bjr alien crosses, i «9 
Brittany, origin of the hounds of. 21 
Brodidc Castle Sandy (a pointer). 73 
Bnodeuch (Duke of), his fiunous 

pointers. 94 
Bimon, on tlie origin of pointing-dogs. 

Bulled (Mr. ), on the crossing of pointers 

and foxhounds. 157 
Bum (C M. P.), letter from. 155 
Burton (Robert), on fowling. 67 
Byrne (J. L.), on the ' Gorgas,* 23 

Cains (Dr. John), first to describe the 
spaniel. 13 
„ „ onsettingHiogs. 64, 


Cofu da reU, 23 
Cants agautus, 16 

„ odorus, 16 

„ sagas, 16, 51 
Cannon Hall pointers. 74 
Carlo (a pointer), Mr. Whitehouse's. 84 
Castillon (M.), unreliability of his Los 

Faramumias. 5-7 
Cat-foot, in pointers. 126, «^ seg. 
Cereals, for dogs. 226 

Chance, a Spanish pomter. 139 
' Chapping the point' 133 
Characteristics of pointers. 115-136 
Charles X. 58 
Chesterfield (Earl oOf Cunous kenncL 

* Chewing the scent.' 133 
CAiem d*arHt^ origin of term. 23 
Choroea, or St. Vaults dance. 241 
Clamoigan (Jean de), on setting-dog^ 

Codi des Ckassu^ eiEtracts from, on 

sporting laws. 56, €t S4g, 
Comas (hats), their origin. 6, 7 
Colqnhoun, on grouse-shooting. 173 
Columella* on breeding dogs. 234 
Combermere (Lord), pointer-owner and 

judge. 92 
Concrete, for kennel floors. 225 
Constantine IV., Emperor, compiler of 

(^/0M^»— on do^ and partridges. 3 
lent to Louis 

Contades (M. de), his present 

Corbet (Sir Vincent), pointer-owner. 81 


, ;ir Vincent), point! 
Cortachy Castle, black pointers at. 91 

Cotes (Colonel), on the Woodcote 

pointers. 80, 83 
Ccmrt (Dr.), a sporting experience of^ 


Coventiy (Lord), pointer-faieeder. 83 
Cow, tlie, for parmdge-catdiing. 62 
Cox (N.), on tne breaking of dop. 191 
Craven, author of Recnati&ms tn Sk^oi- 
ing. 7i» 175. "83 
„ on a pointer s head. 122 
,9 how to select a pointer. 143 
„ on the breaking of dog& 21 1 
Craw (James), gamekeeper to Lord 

Home. 95, 96 
Crosses, alien. 147-162 
Croxteth pointers. 80 

Dachshunds, instance fitom breeding. 

Dan (a pointer), Duke of Hamilton's. 

D'Arcussia, on bmchs. 54 
Dash (Thflonton's), a cross between a 

pointer and a foxhound— diaxacteris- 

tics o£ 150-152 
D'Aubign^, anecdote firom. 54 



Derbf (13th Earl of), hit funons 

pointen. 80 
Descartes, example from settiog-dogs. 

Dhnleep Singh (Mahaiajah), ' the Black 

Prince.' 91, 94 
Diahgos <U la M&titena^ on the killinff 

of partridges over pointing-dogs ana 

the tmintng of the same. 29, it teq. 
Diarrhoea, treatment for. 244 
Diseases, treatment of. 239, tt S4q» 
* Dished ' hce, in pointers. 123 
Distemper, treatment for. 239-241 
Dobson (W.), on pointers. 135 

„ on the breaking of dogs. 

Dodsworth (Sir K), pointer-breeder. 

Dog clnbs. 99, ei seq. 
Dog shows. Sn shows. 
Dogs, mentioned in early laws. 4 

„ early laws on thefc of. 4, 5 

„ shooting over. 163-189 

„ behaviour and treatment of, on 
the moor. 174, «/ seq, 
Don (a pointer), Arkwrisht's. 155 
Don IX. (a pointer). loi 
Don Jos^ (a ixnnter). 155 
Double-nose in pointers. 141 
Down- wind quoting. 177 
Drake (a pointer), frimoos at fidd-trials. 

Dudley (Robert), Dukt of Nortkumbir- 

land, first tramer of a setter-dog. 13 
Dunqyer de Noirmont (M.), on the 

French kings and their dogs. 55 


Ear, canker of the, treatment for. 246 

Earl (Miss Maud). 124 

Eaton Hall pomters. 82 

Ecob (Mr.), dog-breaker. 88 

Edenhall pointers. 79 

Edse (Thomas Webb), his pointers. 

75, 81, 82, 92 
Edie (George), on the characteristics of 

pointers. 119 
Edward ▼!., statute against <Hayle 

shott.' 65 
Edwards (Sydenham), on the pointer. 


Edwards (Sydenham), on crossing 
pointers and foxhounds. 149, 1 50 

Egan (Pierce) ^MMuiiiikf, quoted. 75,86 
Eglinton (Lord), pointer-owner. 93,97 
Egypt, methods of sport. 2 
Elliott (Sir William), pointer-owner. 94 
England, introduction of spanieb into. 
„ introduction of pointing-dogs. 

„ references to use of pointing- 
dogs and shooting - flying 
in. 65-70 
English dogs, superiority of. 70 
Espinar (Alonzo Martines de), on 
sporting over pointing - dogs. 39, 
it seq. 
Europe, pointing and setting - dogs 

originated in. x 
Evero, unreliability of his Fagi$$as de 

Casta. 3, « 
Exercising of pointers. 231 
Eyes, affections of the, treatment for. 


Faking. 48, 232 
' Fancier,' description of a. 103 
Falcon-dogor spaniel. 9 
Falconry, Thomas Oakleigh on. 68 
Falcons and setting-dogs. 68, 69 
Feeding of pointers. 225, et seq. 
Ferdinald, king, pointing-dog breeder. 

Field trials. See trials 
Fisher (George), trainer of pointers. 73 
Fits, treatment for. 244 
Flag-hoisting at trials. 112 
Fleming (L. F. von), on hunting with 

pointmg-dogs. 64 
Flmt (a pointer), Lord Mexborough's. 


Floyd (William), author of (^servaticm 
en Dog^eaking. 86 
„ „ on retrieving. 178 

„ „ on the breaking of 

dogs. 207 
Foix, Comte de. Su Phebus. 
Forbes (D. M.), his black pointers. 95 
Fouilloux (Jacques de), on '/MfffMrx' 20 
„ on the introduction of hounds 
into France. 20, 2 x 
Fowling, early English writers on. 64* 

Foxhounds, crossing with pointers. 142, 



Foxboundif oonpttriioo with a pointcf • 

If HJMttffoci Cfoiring 01 poai- 
tot with. i6o 
Franee, intiodiictioo of tpanids into. 
9t lo 
,f ipuiidf from* introduced into 

England. 14 
,, the braatus of. 24 
Fnmcken (H. G.), on kw> lekting to 

dogp. 4.5 
Fiancois I. aa, 59 
Fiank (a pointer), anceator of Hamlet 


Garth (Sir Richard), hiB pointen. 83 
Gaunt (Thomaa), gamekeeper, his black 

pointen. 92 
Gedlingpointen. 87 
Gell (Fhilip), of Hopton HaU, his 

pointers. 77 

Geneml (a pointer), Arkwright's. W 

GmtUmam Farritr^ Tki, on the Spanish 

pointer. 25 

M f» .» on shooting- 

flying. 68 

German writers on pointing-dogs. 61, 

et sty. 
Gesner, on pointing-dogs. 63 

„ on the brach. 17 
Goodricke (Sir Harry), his fiunoos 

pointers. 79 
Gordon (John), of Aikenhead, his Uack 

pointers. 93, 93 
(ilMrjpBx(partridge-dogs) introduction into 

Spaioh— their extinction. 23 
Gniiam (James), his kennel at the 

Trossadis. 92 
Graham (Sir James), setter-owner. 87 
Greyhounds and pcnnters used together. 

„ croning with the pointer. 
Grouse, shooting of, over dogs. X64, 
€t seq. 
,f habits of. 182-184 
„ (a pointer). Lord Eglinton's. 97 


Hamilton (Duke of), his breed of poin- 
ters. 72, 73, 90 

Hamlet (a pomter), fiunous winner at 
shows and field-trials. 83, 157 

of Edwa^ VI. 

Hampers, travelling. 233 
Hare-biained trial dogs. 105 
Hare-foot in pointers. 127, 128 
Hares, chasing of, bv pointers. 219 
Haiewood {H\ on the painter's cfaacac- 

teristies. 121 
Haribrd (Summers), his black pointers. 


Harris (John), a dog-bieaker. 86 

Hawker (Colonel), on partrkige shoot- 
ing. 188 

Hawks and pointing-dogs. 

Hayle Shott, statute ' 
against. 65 

Heat system at trials. 108 

Henri III. and IV., ordinances against 
setting-dogs. 56, 57 

HemyvIII., statute apainst 'Cros- 
bowes and Handguns.^ 65 

Hill (Noel), pointer-owner. 81 

Holden (James), pointer-breeder. 78 

Home (Lord), his pointers. 94, 95 

Hopton Hall pointers. 77 

Hound-pointers. 155, ij;6. 

Hounds, original connection with point- 
ing-dogs. 14-20 

Howlitt (R.), on expert shots. 186 
„ on using the trash cord. 

Hunting-dog^ definition o£ 17, 18 
Hurt (Mr.), pointer-breeder. 78 

'Idstooe,' autiior of TTks j^, on a 
model pointer. 99 
„ on crossiog pointers. 156 
„ on pointers feet 128 
In-and-in breeoing. 140, 144 
Indian meal, danger of mange from. 

Influensa, treatment for. 242 
Instmct of pointers. 131-135 
IntematkiiMd Gundog League. X02 
», Pointer and Setter Society. 


„ Pointer and Setter Society, 
its Trial laws. Z09, «r 

International Shoodng-dog Club, xoi 
Ipsley Court pointers 83 
Italy, pointing-dogs ol^ 21, 22 
„ the brachs oL t2,4isif. 



Jacob (Giles), author of CompUat SpartS" 

man. 68 
James I., present of 8ettiDg-d(^ to. 14 
„ statute against setting-dogs. 

{anndice, treatment for. 241, 142 
ohnson (T. B.), on Yorkshire pointers, 
„ methods of training 

young pointers. 74 
„ on the head of the 

pointer. 132, 127 
„ on the selection and 

breeding of pointers. 
,f on cross-breeding. 152 

Judges, at dog^ows and trials. 104, 
€t s$^, 
„ qualities necesmy in. 107 
„ undesirable types. 107 
„ advice to, at dog-shows. 1x3 
Judging at trials, various systems. 107, 

et seq, 
Juno (a pointer), dam of Hamlet. 84 

Kate (a pointer), dam of Rap. VI. 

Keepers, some well - known* 86 , ii 
„ Scottish. 90 
Kennel Club, its demoralising influence 
on gundogs. 89 
„ , , its apathy r^arding poin- 
ters. 99, 100 
„ „ its 'modified heat sys- 
tem' at Trials. 109 
„ „ and the degeneration of 
pointers. 156 
Kennel-lameness, treatment of. 243 
Kennelman's duty. 331, 232 

„ house. 224 

Kennel Management 223-249 
Kennels, fiimous English. 71, ^/ seq. 
„ structure and equipment of 

permanent 223, €t ttq, 
„ cleaning o£ 230 
„ disinfecting. 248 
Kifluraton (Duke of), his pointers. 24, 

Kirke (Mr.), head-keeper to J. Graham. 


Kirkland (Mr.), keeper to Lord Eglin- 

ton. 97 
Kites, artifidaL x88 
Knowsley pointers 80 

La Blanchire, on English dogs. 70 
Lacy (Captain), on Sir John Shelley's 
pointers. 75 

„ „ on dog-breakers. 86 

„ „ on want of pointer so- 

cieties. 102 

,, „ on the shape of the 

pointer. 124, 127 

„ „ on the ideal of a work* 

ing pointer. 132 

„ „ on speed in pointers. 

„ „ on crossing hounds and 

pointers. 155 
„ „ on the treatment of 

dogs on the moor. 

„ „ on the breaking of 

dogs. 210 
Lambert (Daniel), excellence of his 

pomters. 75 
L>i°g (JO* gun-maker and pointer- 
breeder. S(^ 
Langley (Edmund de), author of Mt^- 
ster of the Ganu —on * spaniels.' 12 
Lascelles (R.), author iA Anglings Shoot" 
imgy and Coursing, 

„ on the pointer's charac- 

teristics. 120, 138 
„ on crossing pointers and 

setters. 1^0 
„ on the breaking of dogs. 

199-203 ^ 

„ on the care of pups. 237 

Latini (Brunetto), on brachs. 7 

Lawrence (Richard), on the origin of 

English pointers. 26 

„ „ anecdotes about poin- 

^^^ 7,5 "77. 151 
„ „ on the breaking of dogs. 

Leash-hound. See Lymer. 
Legh (Geone Cornwall), his pedigree- 

Legh ((jeorge John), his pedigree-books. 



Leightoo (W.)» keeper at Wyniutty. 

Lix EnundaiOt on dog-ftealtng, etc 4 
Lex Salua^ on hunting-dqgs. 4 
Lichfield (Lord), pointer-owner. 79 
Litniers. Su Lymer. 
Lindsay (Mr.), head-keeper to Duke of 

Bttcdeach. 9a. 95 
Lloyd (Mr.), head^eeper to Dnke of 

Hamilton. 93 
Lockett ( Jefiey), tetter-owner. 87 
Lodwick (Major), on the pedigree of 

< Old Bang.' 157, 158 
Lort (Mr. W.), adTiied the crossing of 

pointers and foxhounds. 156 
Lothian (Marquis of), pointer-owner. 

94> 95 
Louis XlIL, lore for pointing and set- 
ting-dogs. 55, €t s$q, 
„ the fint in France to shoot 

flying. 60 
Louis XIV., loYC for pointing and set- 
ting-dogs, l^^ et s€q. 
„ ordinance against setting- 

dogs. 57 
„ a good shot. 6x 

Lungs, inflammation of the, treatment. 

Lymer or Leash-hound, aa 


McCall (W.), gamdceeper, his pointers. 

Mackenzie (John), gamekeeper, on the 

Duke of Hamilton's pointers. 73 
Mackintosh, on grouse shooting. 182 
Major (a pointer), Mr. Prince|?s. 79 
Mange, causes o£ 227 

„ treatment for. 245 
Mangel, the, as an artide of diet for 

dogs. 228 
Maroiese Fortunato Rongoni (breed of 

brachs). 52 
Markers, utility of. 187 
Markham (Gervase), on fowling. 67 
„ 9, on the broJdng of 

dogs. 190, 191 
Marolles (Magn^ de), on shooting with 
„ „ arquebuses. «9 

„ „ on shooting inline. 61 

Martinet de l^inar (Alonso), on part- 
ridge shooting. 39, €t uq* 
Mastifis, crossing with pointers. 153 

Mayer (John), gamekeeper and author 
of the Sp&rtstnat^s 
DirtOory, 86 
„ „ on the pointer's cfaaiac- 

teristtcs. 120, 130 
Meat, for dogs. 226 
Medicines, for dogs. 238-249 

„ how to administer. 244 
Menerbe, its capture aided by a setdng- 

Mezborough (Lord), his £unous pointers. 

79f 81 
Meyenburg (R. A. von), on dogs. 8 
Meyrick (John), on feeding pups. 236, 

Millar (John), letter from. 96 
MiUar (W.), of WhitehiU Kenneb-his 

pointers. 96 
Mitford (Admiral), his black pointeis. 

Mohammed el Mangali, his treatise (mi 

hunting. 2 
Molina (Argote de), author of Librp eU 

MomUritu 18, 70 
Mona (a pointer), Mr. Whitehouse's. 

Montgomery (Sir Graham), his pointers. 

Moor, the, behaviour and treatment of 

dogs on. 174, €t seq, 
Moore (Geoige), pointer-breeder. 78 
Mundys' pointers. 79 
Mus^ve (Sir R. G.), his breed of 

pointers. 80 
Muszles. 233 


Natfonal Pointer and Setter Society. 


„ Sodety, and brace-stakes. io<( 

Navarre, Laws of, against poaching. 48 

Navarro^ title for both hounds and 

pointing-dogs. 19, 20, 37 
Net-dogs. 51, 62 
Netting, viossitttdes of. 68 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, first pointer show 

at 85,98 
Newfoundlands, crosdng with pointers. 

North (Christopher), ongame-presenres 

and sport. 171 
Nose, tne, importance of, in pointers. 

138, €t ssq. 

2 JO 



Oakleigh Tho8.),anthorofthe5'^^^f 
Handbook^ on Fal- 
conry. 68 

I, author and pointer- 
owner. 71 

„ on the selection of 
pups. 143^, 

„ on cross-breeding of 
pointers. 153, 154 

„ on grouse shooting. 

„ on sport 174*175 

,y advice to sportsmen. 
i8i» 183 

„ on the habits of the 
grouse. 182, x8< 

M on the halnts of 

partridge. 184* €t 

„ on markers. 187 
„ on the breaking of 
does. 207-209 
„ „ on feeding sporting 
dogs. 328, 229 
Oodmtal bone, inflammation of the. 

Odlin (Mr.), gameheeper and dog- 
breaker. 86 
Old Bang (a pointer). 157* 158 
Old Naso (a pointer). 157 
Olina, author of Ueceliera^ on the cha- 
racteristics of the bmch. 51 
Oppianus, on hunting-dogs. 17 
Orsay (Count d'), his liu^ bag over 

dogs. 87 
OsbJdiston(W. A.), author and pointer- 
owner. 27, 76, 119, 147 
Osuna (Duke of), MS. bdcmging to. 49 
Oudry, pamting by, of pomtuig-dog. 

Our Dogs^ quoted. 157 

Page (T.), on pointers. 26, Z19 

„ gun • maker and pointer- 
breeder. 84, 85 
„ on crossing pointers and 

setters. 147 
„ on the etiquette of partridge- 
shooting. 186 
Paginas de CoMa, on the ' aviariu* 2 

Pape (W. R.), gun-maker and pointer* 
Dreeder~-l]uis famous black pointers. 
ParamienUSt Lot, tis^tioaa work. S-T 
Partridge-4ogs. 15, 17 

„ fiddng of. 48 

Partridges, dialojgue on killing oyer 

pointing-dogs, z^^etseq, 

„ killing over dogs, by Mar-^ 

tines de Espinar. 39-48 

„ to catch with the 'cow.' 62 

„ hunted with pointing-dog 

and hawk. 63 
„ the habits and shooting of. 

Pastisco (a brach). 52 
Pegging down, of the backing pup. 218 
Pennant (Thomas), quotation from. 26 
Penson (Andrew), keeper at Woodcote. 

Phebus (Gaston), C^mtg de Foixy author 
of Dtduiz de la 
Ckassi. 12, 53, 7a 
„ on the spaniel or fal- 

con dog. 9 
Piaanello, sketch by, of pointing-dog. 15. 
Pliny, and hunting dogs. 2 
Pneumonia, treatment for. 242 
Poaching, formerly in Navarre. 48 
Pointer and Setter Society. 107 
Pointer Qub, the. loi 
Pointer-fimgri the. loi 
Pointers. Su also Bracks^ Partridge' 
dof^j VefUares, and Points 
„ Ancestry of. 1-23 
„ Origin of. 23-28 
, , quotations from early English 
writers, showing the use of 
pointers in Eng^md. 64-69 
„ superiority of English dogs. 

„ Latbr History of Point- 

BRS. 71-97 
„ fiimous kennds and breeds. 

71, et seq. 
„ prices ofl 76-78 
„ demoralising mfluence of the 

Kennel Club on. 89 
„ blade pointers of Scotland. 

„ blending of English and 
Scottish. 97 

ay I 


Pointen, bid oatlook for. 97 

„ Shows and working 

Trials. 9ft-xi4 
„ Pointer Clnb. loi 
,, Rules for judging at trimli. 

„ Charactskistics of 

Pointers. 1x5-136 
„ figure and index. 1 18 
,, quotations from early writers 

on the pcMnter's cfaarae- 

teristics. ii9,i/x<f^. 
„ the head. 122-124 
,, the trunk. 124, X2C 
„ the limbs. 125-128 
„ the tul, the coat» and the 

colour. 129-131 
,, instinct for sport 131-136 
„ Brbsoing and Sblrction. 


„ Alibn Crossbs. 147-162 

,, crossing with setters. X47i 

,, English pointer produced 
from pointing-dogs of Na- 
varre and Italy. 149 

„ crossing with foxhounds. 

„ crossing with greyhounds. 

„ BRRAKINa 190-222 

,, Kbnnbl Managbmbnt. 

„ feeding. 225-229 
„ appearance of, when in good 

condition. 230 
„ cleaning. 230-232 
„ exercising. 231 
,, breeding. 233, €t sgq. 
Pointing, natural 133 
Pointing-dogs, Early History OF. x- 
„ a product of the Middle 

„ first likeness of. 15 

„ relationship to the hound. 

„ origm of the name. 24 

„ introduction into Eng- 

land. 24-28 
„ dialogue on the charac- 

teristics and training 
of 60a for partridge- 
shootmg. 2^-39 

Pointing-dogs, Martinet de Espinar on 

the training at 39-48 

„ diooringof pups. 49 

„ characteristics fiivoiired 

by Italian writen. 5CH 

„ French and German 

writers on. 53, it stq. 
Pope, on pheasant-shooting. 69 
Portland (4th Duke of), purchases at 

Edge sale. 78 
Portland (5th Duke of), his pointen. 

Porthnd (6th Duke of). 155 
Potatoes, for sporting-dogs. 228, 229 
Powys (H.) pointer-owner. 81 
Press, in rdation to gun-dogs. X04 
Price (Sam), breeder of pointers. 158 
Prices of pointers. 76-78 
Prinoep ( Wm. ), pointer-breeder. 79 
Pnfrudadu del Ptrro PertUgmiro^ on 

the choosing of pups. 49 
Punishment for dogs. 208. 209, 2x1, 

Puppies, selection o£ 49, 146, 235 
„ breaking in 6L 190-222 
„ production and rearing of. 

„ feeding of. 236-237 
Puzzle-pegs. 198, 204* 220 
Pye(H.), on the breaking of dogs. X95 

(Jnail (a pointer). Sir E. Dodswofth's. 

(Juail-dogs. 62 

Quartering. 192. 204, 206, 207, 210, 
21C, 216 
„ at trials. 212 
' Qnartogenarian,' on potnter-dogs. 28, 

Quinqueran de Beanjen (Pierre de). 9, 

(Juis (a pointer^ Earl of Derby's. 80 


Rake (a pointer), Mr. Edge's. 78 
Raking, or snuffling. 198, 220 
Rap VLja pointer), Mr. Usher's. 95 
Reid (WUluim), gamekeeper at the 

Hirsel. 94 
Renton Abbey Pointers. 79 
RiHarm^ dpgs of the net 51 



Retriever Sodtij. 102 
Rice, cooking of, for dogs. 227 
loading. 179, 20f » 205, 221 
Romano (Cesare Solatio), sporting 

author. 59 
Ruby (a black pointer), Mr. Usher's. 95 


St. ludore, Origines of, mention of 

hunting-dogs 3 
St. John (Charles), author of WUd 
Sports 0/ the Bigh- 
lands. 71 
„ „ on cross-breeding of 

pointers. 155 
„ „ on grouse -shooting 

and large bogs. 

St. Simon (Louis de), quoted on the 

dogs at the French Court. 55 
St. Vitns's dance. 241 
Sallust, and hunting-dogs. 2, 3 
Salt, use of, for dogs. 228 
Sancho (a black pointer). Lord Lo- 

thian*s. 94 
Saugrain (M.), extracts from his Code 

des Chasses^ on sporting laws. 56, et 

Scotland, black pointers o£ 90-^ 
„ the gamekeepers o£ 90 
Scott (Lord John), pointer-owner. 94 
Sebright (Sir John), on the breeding of 

live^ock. 137 
Sefton (Lord), his pointers. 80, 81, 

Sella Price (a pointer). 158 
Sen^ (Bishop oO, on setting-dogs. 9, 

n on English breeders. 70 

Seijeantson (G. J.), pointer-breeder. 80 

Setters, account of, by Dr. Caius. 64 

„ statute of James I. against. 66 

„ characteristics of, b^ R. Sy- 

monds. 119, 120 
„ crossing with pointers. 147, 

I4«.j54 ^ . ^ 
Setting-dogs, originated m Europe, i 
„ early picture of. 10 

„ first training of, in Eng- 

land. 13, 14 
„ early references to. 53-55 

„ love of Louis XIII. and 

XIV. for. 55, et seq. 

Setting-dogs, French laws against. 56, 

Sforsa(Caterina), on brachs and hounds. 

Sforzino da Carcano, on brachs. 18 
Shakerley (Sir Charles), pointer-owner. 

Shelley (Sir John), his famous pointers. 

Shipley pomters. 79 
Shooting flying, development of the art 

of. 59-6i 
Shooting over dogs. 163-189 
Shows, and workwg trials. 98-IZ4 
„ first show for pointers. 98 
„ degeneracy of pointers through. 

„ title of cbam^on for pointers. 99 
„ incompetent judges. 103, 104 
Shrewsbury Society. loi 
Single-stakes. 104, 105 
Simpson (John), head-leeper to Lord 

Overtoun, his black pointers. 96 
SUte, disadvantages of, for kennel 

floors. 225 
Sleeping-benches, structure of. 224 
SolatioJCesare), on shootim^ flying. 50 
Spadoni, author of La Caccia deile 
SchieppOf on the characteristics of the 
brach. 53 
Spain, hunting dogs of. 8, 9 
„ spaniels or £s]con-dogs came 

from. 8>lo 
„ the Gorgas, 22 
Spaniels or falcon -dcjes, description. 9 
„ ori^ of. f-io 
„ denvationofthename. 10,14 
„ introduction in England. 10, 
Spanish pointers, introduction into Eng- 
land. 24-28 
„ „ crossed with English 

breeds. 149^153 
Speed, of pointers. 142 
Sporting Magtudne^ on the pointer. 25 
Sporting-man, and Sportsman. 164 
Sporting Spaniel Soaety. 10a • 
Sportsmaws Dietimuuy^ references to. 

Sportsman^ TMe, quoted on the training 
of pomters. 74, 7^ 
„ „ on Uie characteristics 

of the pointer. 115, 
117, 126, 127, 133 



S/orismmtj Tke, on the idection of 
pointen. 140 
ff f) on crossiiig pointen 

and setters. 148 
,• I* on Colonel Thornton's 

* Dash.* 151 
Sportsmen, etiquette when out shoot- 
ing. 17^182, 186 
Spotting system, at trials. loi, 108 
Sprains, treatment for. 247 
Stafford trials in 1866. 98 
Stamford (Lord), pointer - breeder. 

Stanhope (Colonel Spencer), on the 

Cannon Hall pointers. 73 
Stanhope (Walter Spencer), pointer- 

breecier. 73 
Stmtham (W.), his pointers. 78 
Statter (T ), his pointers. 78 
Stobo Castle, breed of pointers. 95 
Sfock-kuper imoied, 128, 157 
' Stonehenge ' on pedigrees of pointers. 
„ on the judges at dog- 

shows. ^ 
„ on pointers. loi 

„ on trials. 105 

,, on the pointer's charac- 

teristics. 121 
„ on crossing pointers and 

greyhounds. 161, 162 
Strelley Hall pointers. 78, 79 
Stmtt (Joseph), author of Sports ami 

Plastimis, 67 
Stubbs (G.), delineations of pointers. 

Sweep (a bbick pointer), Lord Home's. 

Sykes (Sir Tatton), pointer • breeder. 

Sylvia (a pointer), Sir E. Dodsworth's. 

Symmetry in a pointer. 117 
Symonds (R.), on the origin of the 
pointer. 26 
„ „ on the characteristics 
of setters and poin- 
ters. 119, 120 
„ ,, on swift dogs. I7C 
„ , , on the break ing of (logs. 

„ „ and quartering. 212 
Symons (Sir Richard), purchaser of 
* Dash.' 151 

Tane (a braqm), 24 
Tantser, on pointing-dogs. 62, 63 
Tap (a pointer). 159, 213 
Tkphn (W.), author of The Sportsman' ^ 
Cabinet, 71 
•• „ on hurrying to a point. 

„ „ on sportsmen's etiquette^ 

»» •• on the breaking of dogs. 
Tardif, on relieving a dog's thirst. 53 

„ on breeding. 234. 
Tattersalls, auctioneers of pointers. 78, 

Taylor (Tom), pointer - breeder and 

judge. 77 
Thermometers, clinical, for dogs. 24a 
Thomas (R.), advice to shooters. 180, 

Thomhill (R. B.), author of the Skoot- 
in^ Dirtctory, IJ 
If •• on siMoft pointers. 135 
„ „ on crossing Spanish 

and English poin- 
ters. 148, 149 
ti >i on sportsmen. 170 
•> „ on the breaking of 

dogs. 197-199 
Thornton (Col.). 69, 71-7J 

>f ft on Freof^ sportsmen. 

>i >f on breeding pointers. 

•• ,. first to cross fox-- 

hounds with poin- 
ters. 1510 
„ „ on not lending dogs 

to others. 179 
Thomycroft (Mr.^ the sculptor, poin- 
ter-owner. 82 
Tillemans, painting by, of pointers. 24 
Tomes (Mr.), of Cleeves Prior, pomter- 

breeder. 83 
Tonic, a, for convalescent dogs. 248 
Trash-oord, the, use of in dog-breaking. 

194, 207, 2x8 
Trials.— Trials and Shows. 79, 98- 

. "4 
„ first working trial for pointers. 

„ point-worship at. 105 



Trials, various systems of judging and 

awarding. 107, *t seq, 

„ laws of the International Pointer 

and Setter Society. 109-112 

„ flag-hoisting. 112 

Trojans, introduced hounds into France. 

Trossachs, James GrabaAn's kennel at 
the. 91, 92 


Usher (Mr.), his black pointers. 85, 95 


Valles (Mossen Juan), on faking dogs. 

Vegetables, for dc^. 227-229 
Venddme (Due de), love for dogs. 55 
VimUrst, term for both hounds and 

pointing-dogs. 18 
Venus (a pointer), Mr. Serjeantson's. 80 
Vermin, to get rid of. 232 
Vespasian, whether he introduced 

Spanish dogs into- England. 1 1 
Von Fleming, on using a spaniel with 

pointing-dogs. 63, 64, 178 


Walker (G.), Costumes of Yorkshirt^ 

quoted. 69 
Walsh (Mr.), editor of the Fuld^ and 

first dog-show. 85 

Washing of dogs undesirable. 232 
Watson (T. ), on the origin of distemper. 

Welfitt (Colonel), crossed foxhounds 

with pointers. 155 
Wemyss (Earl of), his black pointers. 

93. 95» 96 
Westminster (Marquis of), dog-owner. 

Wheat -meal, for dogs. 227 
WhubU and Pitman^s Magazitu^ 

quoted. 76 
White (James), head -keeper at Douglas 

Cattle, his pointers. 93, 94, 96 
Wbitehouse (Mr.), of Ipsley Court, his 

pointers. 83 
Whitfield (George), a keeper at Cannon 

Hall. 73 
Woodcote pointers. 80 
Worms, treatment for. 243, 244 
Wotton (Edward), author of De DifftT" 

etttiis AnimaJium. 13 
Wounds, treatment for. 247, 248 
Wynnstay pointers. 82 

Yellows, the, or jaundice, symptoms, 

and treatment for. 241, 242 
York (General), American sportsman. 

Yorkshire pointers. 73 

Youatt (Wm.), on the pointer. 133