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IlHE text adopted for this edition is that of Bekker, as re- 
printed at the Oxford University Press. Here and there 
I have ventured on changes, the reasons for which I have given 
in each case. They do not profess to rest on the authority of 
manuscripts, but on my own view of their advisability, or on 
the authority of others, whether editors or commentators. In 
editing any Greek or Latin writer, the question of the autho- 
rity of various manuscripts is one which many editors must 
leave unapproached. The sound judgment requisite in such 
matters must be the result of large experience and study of 
that particular branch of editorial work. It seems to me a 
complete specialty, and one who has not been led, either by 
inclination or pursuits, to give it special attention, could not 
hope that any weight should attach to his decisions, and had 
better therefore acquiesce in the conclusions of those who are 
recognised as authority on the point. Unfortunately, in the 
particular case of Aristotle, the silence preserved by the editors 
of the great Berlin edition, the basis, it seems acknowledged, 
of any subsequent editions, as to the value of the manuscripts 
whose various readings they insert, and as to the grounds of 
their preference of the readings they adopt, leaves us in igno- 
rance, so far as their judgment is concerned, of what amount 
of assistance might be derived from manuscripts. But it 
would seem, from the concurrent testimony of those who have 
turned their attention to the Politics of Aristotle, that the 
amount is not large. Not to dwell on the dictum of Niebuhr 
on this point, the German critic who, more than any other of 
those I have met with, urges the expediency of a careful col 
tion of MSS., does so with the avowal that, when all is done, 
the text of Bekker must remain the basis; and Spengel, whose 
labours seem to me in quality the most valuable, not only 
accepts this text, but remarks, that any manuscript assistance 


I have prefixed to each book a short summary. In this I have 
aimed at giving the simple outline of the connexion, and an 
easy means of finding what is the general purport of each 
chapter. I have added also marginal headings to enable the 
reader more easily to catch the main object of the page, or to 
refer to what he has previously read. For the purposes of 
reference I have placed the pages of the Berlin Quarto Edition 
by the side of the text. And in any quotations from other 
works of Aristotle, I have given a double reference, to that 
edition and to the Oxford reprint of it. 

In the notes, when offering translations of my own, I have 
marked them by single, when borrowing the words of others, 
I have used double inverted commas. 

For the matter of the notes, my object has been to make 
them as much of a help as possible to the understanding of 
the text, not as a vehicle for learned discussion. In a work 
like the Politics, more than in some others, it would seem the 
main duty of an editor to facilitate the study of the work 
itself, to place the student in a condition to master it with as 
little difficulty as possible, and so to penetrate himself with its 
spirit and its thought. He should therefore not have his 
attention called off at every turn by the suggestion of diffi- 
culties on questions of alien interest. I have endeavoured to 
carry out this my view of what an editor should do, and if at 
times I have wandered in my notes from the strict interpreta- 
tion of Aristotle, or from the necessary elucidation of his 
statements, and obtruded opinions of my own, I trust I shall 
be thought to have been sparing in such deviations, and to 
have exercised a fair self-command in not interfering with the 
appreciation of the work itself. The greatness of its author 
and the importance of the subject alike acted as a check. And 
it is in furtherance of this view that I have ventured on a 
translation of most of the difficult passages. 

I have given an Index of the proper names that occur in 
the work, as well as one of the words and expressions. This 
latter will, I trust, be found, if far from complete, yet suffi- 
ciently copious to make it a great advance on any existing 
index. Its incompleteness is due to my not having had it in 
my power, at the time I was engaged in it, to give it that 


constant, unintermitting attention which it required. I was 
compelled by circumstances to complete my part of the work 
whilst engaged as tutor in Oxford, and to leave in great 
measure the arrangement of the materials I had collected to 
two of my friends who are in no way responsible for any defect 
in the materials themselves. 

The works I have used in preparing this edition are, 

I. Editions of the whole or parts of it : 

Petri Victorii Commentarii in Aristotelem de Re- 

publicd. Florence, 1576. 

Aristotelis Politico,. Schneider. Frankfort, 1809. 
'AjOiorortAoue Ho\iTtKtov TO. o-ci>o^uva. Corai. Paris, 


Aristotelis de Politicd. Gottling. Jena. 1824. 
Aristoteles. Bekker. Berlin, 1831. 
Politique d'Aristote. St. Hilaire. Paris, 1837. 
Aristotelis Politico,. Stahr. Leipsic, 1839. Greek 

and German. 
Aristoteles de Politid Carthaginiensium. Kluge. 

Wratislavia, 1824. 
rtoXtrawv TO. <7a>o/xva. Neumann. Heidelberg, 1827. 

II. Commentaries : 

Philosophic des Aristoteles. Biese. Berlin, 1842. 

De Aristotelis Politicorum libris. Nickes. Bonn, 

Ueber die Politik des Aristoteles, L. Spengel in the 
Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in 
Miinchen, v Band I Abth. Also, by the same 
writer, Ueber die unter dem Namen des Aristoteles 
erhaltenen Ethischen Schriften. 1841. 

III. Works bearing on Aristotle's life and philosophy 
generally : 

Aristotelia. Stahr. Halle, 1830. 
Aristoteles und seine academischen Zeitgenossen und 
nachsten Nachfolger. C. A. Brandis. Berlin, 1853. 

Other works, both German and French, I have consulted, 

yiii PREFACE. 

but with very little advantage ; and I think it unnecessary to 
add their titles. Works on the subjects treated in the Politics 
I have quoted in the notes, and need not add any distinct 
reference to them here. 

My greatest obligations are, as will be clear from the 
notes, to Mr. Grote, so far as the work is one of historical 
philosophy. In editing a work, which is the resume of Greek 
political experience, the natural source to which to look for 
assistance was the best history of Greece on a large scale. In 
that would of course be found, so far as historical documents 
warranted, the proper accompaniment to the isolated facts 
mentioned or alluded to by Aristotle. And the range of the 
historian of Greece should not be narrower than that of the 
philosopher who drew his lessons not merely from Greek 
political experience, but from the history and circumstances 
of the various nations which had come in contact with Greece. 
On all historical points I have carefully consulted Mr. Grote's 
great work, and have referred to it as the best source for others 
to consult. And I need hardly add that not on mere his- 
torical points, but on all questions of political philosophy, as 
viewed by the light of Greek history, the value of his work can 
hardly be overrated. This is not diminished in any degree by 
the difference of views which at times will be seen to exist. 
I can only add my regret that I have been obliged to forego 
the advantages which the next volume of Mr. Grote's work 
promises to the student of Aristotle and of Greek philosophy 
in general. 

One other acknowledgment I have to make, that of the 
assistance I have received from friends. For no one of the opi- 
nions expressed in any part of the work is any one but myself 
responsible. I have no reason to think that they are shared by 
those who have helped me. For the care bestowed in revis- 
ing and suggesting improvements in my notes, and in correcting 
the proofs, my best thanks are due to Messrs. Harrison and 
Thorley, Fellows of Wadharn College, Oxford, and for the 
arrangement and correction of the Index a similar acknow- 
ledgment is due to Messrs. C. Griffith and Ellaby, of Wadham 
College. Many others have assisted me, both friends and 
pupils, but I must content myself with a general acknowledg- 


ment. This I could not do in the former case, from the 
amount of trouble and attention which has been given. 

My object throughout has been, as far as possible, to 
facilitate the study of the work itself in the original language. 
But in the present state of opinion in England on educational 
questions, I hope I shall not be considered out of place in 
making some additional remarks on this point. He who edits 
a work of classical antiquity may be thought to be working 
in support of the dominant theory, which looks on all really 
high education as having necessarily for its basis the study of 
the languages of Greece and Rome, and, if silent, such a con- 
struction of his purpose would be fair, and one which he 
could hardly object to. Therefore, though aware that my 
opinion is likely to meet with no sympathy, even in quarters 
where I should most wish it, and at the risk of giving great 
offence in others, I cannot consent to remain silent, and even 
in appearance to adopt the theory above given. After a fair 
acquaintance with all the arguments generally adduced in its 
favour in or out of Oxford, with all the weight in its support 
lent by many years passed in the study of the languages in 
question, and as many almost in teaching them, I have been 
led to form an opinion entirely hostile to the prevailing 
practice, and to look with more than distrust on the arguments 
on which it is based. I do not feel disposed here to do much 
more than protest against this theory, the great idol of the 
educated among the upper and middle classes. But I may, 
before passing to my own view of the subject, express my 
hope that, like many other of the fictions on which their 
existence has reposed, this part too and foundation of our 
institutions is crumbling beneath them, that the process may 
be speedy, and the substitution of a sounder system as rapid as 
is consistent with its intelligent adoption. At the general rate 
of our movement in such matters, this rapidity will have 
nothing alarming in it. 

It is not from any intrinsic value in these languages over 
others that I would wish to see their rational study still 
generally prevail. But as essential links in the great chain 
of the historical tradition of the human race, for the informa- 
tion the works written in them contain, lastly for the poets 


whom the just consent of mankind places so high these 
grounds seem to me adequate without having recourse to any 
theory that it is necessary to train the mind hy the study of 
language, or to cultivate the taste hy models of more perfect 
beauty than the languages of modern Europe contain. I 
cannot see the truth of either the one or the other of these 
positions. In proportion as the social science, of which I 
conceive the Politics of Aristotle to be the foundation and 
ancient master-work, assumes more and more its due promi- 
nence, and exercises its legitimate control over all subordinate 
studies, its students, with the increasing value they attach to 
history, will not neglect those two languages, in which, for a 
period of more than a thousand years, most of the philosophy, 
history, and poetry of the race are deposited, nor will such a 
view of them lower them in comparison with the one which is 
now predominant. To read them for what they contain of 
knowledge and of beauty, and from an historical point of 
view, will be at the least as desirable as to read them as the 
majority have hitherto done, and I do but speak of the 
majority, as supplying the means of primary intellectual dis- 
cipline, as supplying the materials for Latin and Greek com- 
position, or, as the most enduring result, as the sources from 
which to draw apt quotation, embodying, in vivid expressions, 
the experience of daily life, a purpose generally satisfied by 
the knowledge of Horace. From the different point of view 
here proposed they will be relieved from their present posi- 
tion, and from the load of odium which now attaches to them 
in the minds of most English gentlemen, save the cultivated 
and successful few, as the instruments of youthful torture, as 
the ungrateful study on which they were made to waste their 
early years and the fresh vigour of their faculties. They feel 
truly that the knowledge they gained of them was worth 
nothing to them at the time, and has since entirely disappeared, 
and there remains with them only the remembrance of the 
disagreeable process by which it was acquired. 

If we could get rid of the half superstitious value we now 
attach to the classical languages, and look on them much in 
the same light as we do on the cultivated languages of modern 
Europe, Italian, ^French, Spanish, and German, they would 


gain by the exchange. They would then be studied more as 
those languages are studied, and probably at a later period of 
life. It is wise to proceed from the easier to the harder, and the 
living languages are easier for many reasons than the dead. 
We should have less of what is called sound scholarship, con- 
siderably more in all probability of true philological attainment. 
And we should gain time in our education for many things 
now neglected. The languages themselves would present 
attractions for the reasons above indicated, which would be 
appreciable by the maturer mind of the student, and are 
wholly unappreciable by the majority of boys. And to these 
their legitimate attractions I should think it better to leave 
them. If less generally studied at first, this would be an evil 
compensated by the more intelligent and willing character of 
the study actually given. And as sounder educational views 
gradually prevail, that which M. Comte selects as the charac- 
teristic of the intellectual movement of this century, the pre- 
valence of the historical point of view, will modify any ten- 
dency to the undue neglect of Greek and Latin, by asserting 
for them their just historical claims to attention and respect. 
Were it then possible, I should be the last to wish the know- 
ledge of such works as the Politics limited to that gained 
from a translation. The great philosophers, the great histo- 
rians, the great poets, should all be studied in their original 
language, though, as it has been well remarked, this is quite 
essential for the poets, not so for the two former classes. 

Wandsworth, Nov. 2, 1855. 



385. Birth of Aristotle. 

371. Leuctra. Period of Theban ascendency. 
367. Aristotle visits Athens, set. 17. This same year Plato 
leaves Athens for Syracuse. 

362. Mantinea. 

359. Accession of Philip. 

357. Beginning of Phocian war. 

353. Death of Dion. 

348. Visit of Aristotle to Hermias, tyrant of Atarneus and 

346. End of Phocian war. 

345. On the death of Hermias Aristotle takes refuge in Mity- 

343. Accepts invitation from Philip of Macedon to take charge 

of Alexander, then thirteen years old. This charge can 

hardly have lasted more than four years. 

338. Chseronea. 
336. Death of Philip. 

334. Aristotle's second visit to Athens. Alexander's first 
campaign in Asia. 

331. Arbela. 

323. Death of Alexander. 

322. Aristotle dies at Chalcis. Demosthenes and Hyperides 
died the same year. 


IT would be a waste of time to prefix a life of Aristotle to 
each separate treatise as it is published. For the purposes 
of this introduction nothing more is needed than a brief refer- 
ence to the facts of his life, so far as they may serve to convey 
an idea of the range of his political experience. There is no 
occasion to do more than recal the facts of: his birth at Stagira, 
and the position of his father as physician at the court of 
Macedon under Amyntas ; his early visit to Athens at the age 
of seventeen ; his stay there of nearly twenty years ; his resi- 
dence with Hermias at Atarneus, on the coast of Asia Minor ; 
his second residence of uncertain length in Macedonia as the 
tutor of Alexander ; his return to Athens, and his second resi- 
dence there of twelve years at the least ; lastly, his retirement, 
a little before his death, to Chalcis in Eubcea. This is a suf- 
ficient notice of his life for an introduction to the Politics. 
For this will enable us to appreciate the opportunities he en- 
joyed, at a very eventful period in the history of Greece and of 
the world, of vivifying his rich knowledge of the past history 
of his country, and the actual condition of its outlying states, 
by his experience of their present circumstances, and his con- 
tact with the states nearer the centre. 

We cannot doubt but that, with his keen observation, he 
would attend closely to the course of political events. And in 
one respect he was very favourably placed. He had all the 
advantages of a spectator ; he could not mix directly in politi- 
cal life, even had he wished to do so. Stagira, even before its 
destruction, offered him no opportunities, and at Athens he 
was a stranger. He could then, with the greater composure, 
make the events he witnessed the subject of his philosophical 
contemplation. And it may be useful very shortly to run 
through these events, and remind ourselves of the changes he 
had seen. 


His earliest recollections would be connected with Mace- 
donian affairs. He could look back on the weakness of Mace- 
don and its political insignificance in relation to the leading 
Greek states. For at the court of Amyntas no hopes could 
have been entertained of the subsequent rapid rise of that king- 
dom to greatness. Aristotle was old enough to remember the 
change introduced into Greek politics by the break up of the 
Spartan supremacy in consequence of the defeat at Leuctra. 
He was at Athens during the closing period of the short 
supremacy of Thebes, and from that centre he witnessed the 
sudden collapse of Theban power on the death of Epaminon- 
das. In the period of his early manhood and ripening judg- 
ment he could watch from Athens the anarchy of Greece, when 
no state seemed able to make an effort after empire, or offer a 
rallying point to her dispersed energies. And during the same 
period he could also watch the commencement of Philip's reign, 
his victorious assertion of his position as king of Macedon 
against rivals at home and foreign enemies, his growth at the 
expense of the neighbouring countries, whether barbarian 
tribes or Greek colonies. And Aristotle, as Demosthenes, 
must have been well aware what the result of such progress 
must be. At the court of Hermias, whilst familiarising him- 
self with the new aspect of Greek life which the coast of Asia 
Minor would present to him, and whilst gaining a more inti- 
mate acquaintance with the power of Persia in that western 
portion of her empire, he would hear of the stride made by 
Philip, which was marked by the destruction of his own birth- 
place, in common with the,. kindred towns in its neighbourhood, 
and by the subsequent interference of that monarch in the 
affairs of Thessaly and northern Greece. Driven from Asia by 
a revolution, which illustrated his theory of the short duration 
of tyrannies, even in good hands, Aristotle seems to have 
remained at Mitylene, till there reached him an invitation from 
Philip to undertake the education of Alexander. It is uncer- 
tain how long this connexion lasted, but probably about four 
years. It seems clear that it must have ended some consider- 
able time before the war which was decided at Cha3ronea. 
Putting aside all reference to the effects of such a connexion 
on Alexander, it was one which gave Aristotle a most com- 


manding view of the actual politics of the day. He was again 
at the very centre of political power, which had finally quitted 
Greece proper. During the war with Athens, Aristotle may 
have thought it unsafe to return there, and he may have 
resided at his native place, which had been rebuilt by Philip 
at his intercession, and which is said to have received a consti- 
tution at his hands. At any rate it is probable that he did not 
return to Athens till Alexander had established his supremacy 
over Greece, and so had removed any danger to which an inti- 
macy such as his with the royal family of Macedon might have 
exposed him at Athens. During the expedition into Asia, and 
the lifetime of Alexander, Aristotle remained at Athens teach- 
ing his numerous disciples, maturing his philosophical views, 
and gradually working out the encyclopedic system which was 
the object of his comprehensive intellect. When the king's 
death made it unsafe for him to continue there, he removed to 
Chalcis, carrying with him, apparently, the seeds of the disease 
which shortly after proved fatal. He died at the age of sixty- 

After this brief retrospect of Aristotle's life, and of the 
events he witnessed, I proceed to consider his political system 
from a more general point of view. And the first question that 
presents itself is What was the starting point he chose ? On 
what basis did he rest his system ? To this the answer is, I 
think, clear. He rested on no ct priori ground, but on the 
experience of the past. And this answer naturally suggests 
the next question : What was the exact value he attached to 
that experience as the basis for future political action. The 
answer in this case also admits of little doubt. It may be dif- 
ficult to say what were his views in the immediate or distant 
future, but for the past we can speak confidently. He offers 
no definite estimate of the length of time during which the race 
had existed and had been gathering experience. But he looks 
back on the period past as a long one (r< 7roAA^> \p6vq, TroA- 
XoTc erecrtv), during which constant discoveries had been made. 
To borrow his own language : Time had been a discoverer in 
these matters, or had rendered good help in the process of dis- 
covering. So that his construction, liko that of Bacon, would 
be partus temporis, the birth of time. What then had time 


accumulated in the shape of materials for the political philoso- 
pher to use in his work of modifying the existing or construct- 
ing the ideal state ? Aristotle found ready to his hands the 
idea of property, both animate and inanimate, the idea of the 
family and the idea of the state. And this last, the state, was 
not the social organisation of Egyptian or barbarian experi- 
ence, but the complex, refined idea, which had been elaborated 
in Greece, and found its most complete expression in Athens. 

On these three ideas, the inheritance of the past, Aristotle 
takes his stand, and evidently thinks them adequate, when pro- 
perly developed and modified. Without any blindness to 
existing evils, whether they arose from the misuse or bad 
arrangement of property ; or, secondly, from the isolating ten- 
dencies which lurked in the institution of the family ; or, 
lastly, from the constant dissensions which seemed almost 
inherent in the actual states, he still, with the master judgment 
which in him was never suffered to relax its vigilance, steadily 
refused to let such evils overpower him, or lead him, as they 
had led his master, Plato, to an insurrection against the 
experience of the past. Right education should form right 
habits, and the sway of those habits should be riveted by right 
social institutions. And the result of such education, habits, 
and institutions should be that the selfish use of property 
should be corrected, but that property should not be threatened ; 
that the citizen should learn that he could not isolate himself 
or his family, that he was a member of a body, but that he 
should keep his full individuality. And if the inequalities 
of property were softened by this moral remedy, and the irrita- 
tion consequent thereon assuaged ; if the efforts of the citizens 
were all made, as the result of a right conviction, to converge 
towards the promotion of the common good, then the third 
class of evils, those of constant dissension, would disappear, 
as being essentially the effect of the other two classes. 

The existing ideas, then, the actual materials, seemed 
adequate to Aristotle. There is no trace of his looking 
forward to any important change, to the introduction of any 
widely different elements into the political problem. The 
definite policy to be adopted in the immediate future cannot 
be gathered from his own words. Whilst full of allusions to 


history, he is very silent on the present and the future. This 
silence was the natural result of his position. It would not 
be unreasonable to conjecture that he looked to the peaceful 
organisation of the several Greek states in themselves, and in 
their mutual relations under the sheltering presidency of 
Macedon. At a later period Polybius accepted this condition 
for his country, under the supremacy of Borne, and did all in 
his power to urge its acceptance by the Greeks. In his time, 
Polybius naturally would feel a keener preference for Eome, 
justified by her superiority in organisation over Macedon, and 
by the fuller sense, which the last two centuries had produced, 
of the hopelessness of any good effects arising from the pro- 
longation of Greek independence. An analogous but more 
hopeful position under Macedon, Aristotle may have accepted 
for the Greece of his time. And in his denunciation of war 
as an end, in his condemnation of all states in which it held 
this place, in his decided preference of the life of repose and 
intellectual activity both for the individual and the state, I 
should read his indirect advice to his countrymen to 
acquiesce in their political inferiority, and to turn themselves 
from any thoughts of empire to the settled and definitive 
organisation of a peaceful existence. It was right, it was 
wise in Demosthenes, his great contemporary, to take a 
different view. An Athenian citizen, the inheritor of the 
traditions of Themistocles and Pericles, Demosthenes was 
justified in trying to rouse his countrymen to resist a semi- 
barbarous power at ChaBronea, as they had resisted that of the 
Persian empire at Marathon. He was justified in wishing to 
retain the leadership of the world in the hands of Greece, and 
in looking on her independence as the first object. And as 
he felt Athens answer to his call, he may have thought suc- 
cessful resistance not impossible, though his heroic spirit 
needed not success to guide his efforts. But Aristotle's posi- 
tion was such as to make a different view both natural and 

It set him free from all the influences that might have 
warped his judgment, and enlightened by a wider experience, 
he cannot have shared any of the deceptive hopes excited by 
the exertions of Athens. He knew the power and resources 


of Macedon, be knew the genius of her rulers better than 
Demosthenes, and he could, if not with greater clear-sighted- 
ness, at least with greater calmness, appreciate the relative 
weakness of Athens. And his position, as I have remarked 
already, enforced inaction. He was strictly without a country 
in the narrower sense. He was awoXig avrj/o. He was a 
citizen of Greece, but not of any Greek state. His sympathies 
were with the Greek world and with the Greek race, and so of 
course most with Athens, as the truest representative of that 
race. But at the same time he had no temptation to feel the 
more special, more local Athenian sympathies. It would not, 
for instance, shock him, as it would Demosthenes, that 
Athens, in common with the rest of Greece, should acknow- 
ledge Macedonian supremacy, whilst still preserving her 
separate city existence. And he would more readily than 
other Greek statesmen sympathize with the conquest of Asia 
by Alexander. Hopeless of Greek independence, and still 
more by experience distrustful of the possibility of any com- 
bination of the Greek states amongst themselves, it was to 
him a great advantage to renew, with the changes time had 
made requisite, the policy of earlier statesmen, and give a 
wise direction to the forces of Greece, by leading them against 
Persia. Such a policy diverted the attention of the different 
states from their own internal quarrels. It strengthened the 
power of him who was named their general- in-chief, the King 
of Macedon, and by strengthening his power, it not only made 
resistance on the part of the Greeks more hopeless, but it 
made also acquiescence less discreditable. Again, it was 
calculated to soothe the feelings of the Greek nation, in that 
it brought within the influence of the civilization peculiarly 
their own, so large a portion of the world. It was not by her 
own efforts, it was true, that Greece conquered Persia, and 
exacted a due atonement for the aggressions of Darius and of 
Xerxes. Yet the impulse which guided the young conqueror 
was of purely Greek origin, and he was politic enough to 
make it clear that he felt it to be so. Nor even at that late 
period of Greek history was it a slight gain to attain the con- 
viction that henceforth all danger from Persia was at an end, 
that the throne of the great king was filled by a Greek. 


Further than this, if Aristotle felt any alarm at the 
growing power of Carthage, the western rival of Greece, he 
must have seen in the immense development of Greek power, 
consequent on Alexander's conquests, a sufficient assurance 
against such danger. Till the king's death, too, it was 
natural to hope that the West, no less than the East, would 
see his victorious arms, and then if Persia and Carthage were 
once removed from the calculations of statesmen, there was no 
other power on the political horizon which could at that par- 
ticular juncture be taken into account. 

With this general view of the position of his country, as 
an aggregate of independent states under the hegemony of 
Macedon, which hegemony should concentrate and direct her 
efforts to the gradual reduction and civilization of the world, 
the main problem for the political philosopher would be, the 
right internal organisation of each of the component parts of 
that aggregate. The solution of this problem required a most 
careful examination of their existing state, and this condition, 
we know, Aristotle amply fulfilled. " Probably," says M. 
Brandis, "Alexander's liberality enabled the Stagirite to acquire 
at a great expense a collection of books which for the times 
was very considerable, and to make inquiries into the consti- 
tutions of so many states, some of them very distant." What- 
ever the means, we are well aware from the testimony of others 
what the result was, though unfortunately it is almost entirely 
lost to us, so far, that is, as the inquiries themselves are 
concerned. The philosophical and general view, based on 
these inquiries, lies before us in the Politics. 

The most remarkable feature in Aristotle's political system 
is this : that he not only accepted the materials bequeathed to 
him by the past as the necessary basis of his construction, 
but that he considered them adequate. The problem he set 
before himself was a definitive organisation of society, and 
for this he thought he had all the data requisite. There is 
nothing to show that he looked on his solution as provisional. 
The Greek state, with its existing elements, was to him the 
ultimate form of society, only these elements must be well 
combined. It is essential not to lose sight of this, his peculiar 
point of view, when we are trying to estimate the value and 


bearing of his work, and to learn its right use as the funda- 
mental treatise in political science. It is strictly political, in 
the narrowest, most definite sense that can be attached to the 
word. It is calculated, that is, for a number of TroAtrcu, of 
free and equal citizens ; it is calculated, that is, primarily and 
essentially for Greek experience. It is the record of that 
experience which, for all historical purposes, ended with 
Aristotle. He had registered the phenomena of Greek 
society, and in this work he draws from that register the 
general inferences it warranted, and builds on this result a 
construction which should adequately embody all that he 
found of value. 

But as Greece, as a nation, dating from that time, lost its 
position, and as the several Greek states became more and 
more decomposed, the construction of Aristotle, so far as his 
own country is concerned, throws light upon the past history, 
but did not serve as a guide or type for the re- organisation of 
any of those dying states. It is invaluable for the first 
object, it had no opportunity of becoming valuable for the 
second. For the philosopher, as for the historian, the real 
life of Greece was ended. 

With this peculiarly Greek stamp, this stamp of the city 
life of a body of independent states indelibly impressed upon 
it, it is needless to add that for many of the subsequent 
periods of history the work presents no direct teaching. It 
allows not in any sense for the great revolutions that have 
occurred since the time when with Aristotle, Demosthenes, 
and Alexander, the history of Greece proper closes. Its 
interest since then has been historical rather than directly 
political. The organisation of a small community, complete 
in itself, has not, since then, been the great question of 
political science. It is a question that has arisen at intervals, 
but it has been, in the main, exceptional. Cicero might turn 
his attention to the internal organisation of Rome, and treat 
of Rome as though it were a Greek city. But the real problem, 
the great interest of Roman history, had escaped Cicero. He 
was blind as the blindest to that transformation of Rome's 
position which had influenced the popular leaders, more or less 
consciously for some time, and of which the dictator Csesar 


and his imperial successors, were the organs and the repre- 
sentatives. Home, as a city governing the world for its own 
narrow interests, was to Cicero as much as to such men as 
Hortensius, the limit of his vision, and hence his failure as a 
statesman. The Roman empire, as an incorporation of the 
civilized world, was not within his ken, and naturally still less 
within that of Aristotle ; nor does it borrow any light directly 
from his speculations. He held views as to the inherent 
superiority of the Greek race, which were incompatible with 
such an incorporation; and these same views, foolishly cherished 
by his countrymen at a time when their ludicrous inappro- 
priateness was conspicuous to all, rendered them, almost more 
than any other nation, incapable of sharing in the benefits of 
the imperial system. 

Nor again are the Politics of Aristotle, if allowed to be in- 
applicable directly to the incorporation of the world by Rome, 
more applicable to the ensuing periods, whether of destruc- 
tion by the barbarians, or reconstruction under the influence 
of feudalism and Catholicism, or, in the last place, to the later 
state system of Europe. I have heard it remarked that the 
book has a parochial character about it, meaning by this that 
its interests and its questions are on so small a scale. And 
the remark is so far just that this is the impression produced 
at first by the comparatively dwarf scale of Greek history on 
the student of the following periods. For he has to deal 
habitually with vast empires, either in their organisation or 
decay, with the combinations of western Europe, united by 
many ties for common defence, or later with the mutual 
action of a system of great kingdoms. And from this point of 
view it may deserve notice that the work has, compared with 
Aristotle's other works, excited but little attention, speaking 
generally. I believe I am right in saying that, till recently, it 
was chiefly in Italy that attention was paid to it ; and this excep- 
tion is easily explained. Eor in the middle ages there recurred 
in the Italian republics many of the phenomena of Greek so- 
ciety. The manner, consequently, in which, in the Politics, poli- 
tical problems are presented and treated, was likely to be ap- 
preciated there, as soon as ever the revival of the knowledge 
of Greek, or the translation of the work into Latin, had ren- 


dered it accessible. It might have had, of course, a similar 
interest for the communes of France, or the commercial towns 
of Flanders and Germany, hut, so far as we know, the literary 
movement was much less active there. 

In our own day, however, after the lapse of more than twenty 
centuries, such is the state of society, that the political philo- 
sopher may turn his attention to the Politics of Aristotle, if 
not for a direct solution of some of the problems which arise, 
yet for much indirect guidance. Over and above their interest, 
that is, from the historical point of view an interest which 
never has been lost, as we may see from the great works of 
historians and political philosophers in all times they may 
now once again have a direct political interest. For if, as M. 
Auguste Comte thinks, the great kingdoms of moctern Europe 
are destined ultimately, and that at no very distant period, to 
break up into smaller wholes, more analogous in size and re- 
quirements to the states of Greek experience, in such case the 
work that embodies that experience will present a new attrac- 
tion, and will be resorted to for the light it sheds on the true 
principles of the strictly political organisation. And even 
leaving out of view this contingency, it is justly remarked by 
the same philosopher, that in the present prevalence of theories 
subversive of property and the family, and through them sub- 
versive of the whole social organisation, men may refresh their 
convictions in favour of these institutions, and gain strength 
against their opponents, from the careful study of Aristotle's 
remarks on the dangerous reveries of Plato, the philosophical 
originator of most of the social errors of our day. 

So far for Aristotle's general treatment of the subject of 
politics, and for the consequent neglect of his work during a 
long period by all but the professed student ; lastly, for the 
marked revival of attention to it in the last half century. Viewed 
philosophically, the object that he set before himself was 
synthetical and constructive. Accepting, that is, the elements 
offered him by the past as adequate, he aimed at such a com- 
bination and modification of them as should be satisfactory for 
the future guidance of the statesman. In this, as in other de- 
partments of human knowledge, it was a systematic construc- 
tion that he wished to leave behind him ; but I speak with 


great hesitation on such a subject in this, more than in the 
other departments, he thought his construction in its leading 
features final. That he was wrong in such an idea need 
scarcely be stated. His attempt at a synthesis was premature, 
but that does not detract from its philosophical value. It was 
an important gain, that in political science an account should 
be taken of the results attained, and that that science should be 
made to take its place in the co-ordination of the sciences in 
other words, in the elaboration of the great system of philo- 
sophy. Aristotle was the first adequately to conceive this elabo- 
ration as the great problem proposed to the intellect of man, 
and it is this conception which constitutes one of his main 
claims to the philosophical pre-eminence which he holds by 
the very general consent of mankind. 

I need not go through the historical argument to show 
that his attempt was premature. I need but point out that 
Macedon failed to offer to the world a sufficient organisation, 
and that though the conquests of Alexander contributed to 
the extension of Greek civilization, the break up of his empire 
after his death, and the terrible struggles consequent there- 
upon, contributed, together with internal decay, to a quite 
proportionate diminution of its internal vigour. We see 
that other powers, then out of the range of observation, had 
to appear on the stage, and that Greece in her exhaustion had 
to repose under the sway of Rome. We can trace in the two 
thousand years that have passed since the great attempt of 
Aristotle at a political construction, the growth of new 
elements which must powerfully modify such a construction 
in all but its fundamental ideas. 

For instance, to take two capital points, first, the 
position of the industrial classes ; secondly, the question of 
religion and the spiritual power. I have no intention of 
entering at present on the question of slavery, but it is clear 
from our after-experience that slavery is not the permanent 
condition of the industrial classes, any more than it was their 
universal condition even in Aristotle's time. The recurrence 
from time to time in the Politics of the problem, What should 
be the place allotted in the state to the free artisan ? is suffi- 
cient to show that the acceptance of slavery as an institution 


did not, even for him, clear the subject of the labourer of all 
difficulties. And we can trace the germ of all subsequent dis- 
cussions on the right social organisation of the proletariat, in 
the brief but repeated remarks of Aristotle on the /3avau<rot, 
or artisan population, which this recurring question drew from 
him. For the second point, that of religion and the spiritual 
power, a distinction must be drawn in limine. Whilst on the 
subject of religion, socially and politically considered, we are 
in possession of Aristotle's views, we have not, on the other 
hand, his treatment of the educational question. We see that 
he acquiesced in the polytheism of his day as the religion of 
the state, and that on various occasions he connects his regu- 
lations with it, by placing them under its sanction. He 
acquiesces, but we do not gather that he goes further. Any 
active influence of the gods in the affairs of man, whether 
viewed socially or individually, he would seem not to allow. 
Such is the natural inference from his statements in the 
Ethics and Politics. Intent on systematizing the concep- 
tions of man relative to the world without, relative to his own 
nature, and to the arrangements of society, the relations of 
man to the gods assume with him a secondary importance, or 
rather are practically ignored. 

But on the subject of the spiritual power the case is 
different. Intimately connected as it is with the question of 
education, it may be that, had we his full treatment of educa- 
tion, we should, either explicitly or implicitly, have at the 
same time a spiritual power constituted. As it is, his con- 
struction remained essentially temporal, and the constitution 
of an independent spiritual power, side by side with the 
temporal, was left for the Catholicism of the middle ages. The 
work then done remains in principle true, though the altered 
conditions of society require its complete modification in all 
but its principle. 

I have treated then of the primary intention and direct 
application of the Politics. I have also touched on their 
historical interest and the degree to which the lessons con- 
tained in the work are now applicable. But I would not rest 
my advocacy of their study on these grounds alone, but 
strictly, on the more definite one, that they are the first great 


systematic work on Political Science, and that that science, as 
every other, requires for its proper study that it should be 
studied historically, and traced from its origin downwards. 
By so doing we see the various problems arise, and are led to 
no fanciful, a priori, reconstruction of society, but to watch 
its actual construction as the records of history reveal it to 
us. The easier problem precedes the harder, the simpler the 
more complex. Of course our first notions of politics will be 
derived from the state of things around us, in the midst of 
which we have grown up ; but the scientific correction of 
these first notions must be looked for elsewhere. It must be 
looked for in the study of the history of man, so far as it pre- 
sents a connected series of events, combined with the study of 
the great works which at different periods have been written 
with the object of eliciting from past history and registering 
for future guidance its lessons on man and on society. Such 
works are but rare. There is no one before our own day com- 
parable to that of Aristotle. In fact, since his time the student 
of political science will find, with very few exceptions, more 
direct instruction in the works of the principal historians 
than in writers who have specifically treated of politics. This 
at least is the conclusion I have been led to form, so far as I 
have studied the works of later writers, and I have found 
nothing to modify it in the criticisms of others. 

There is one point more on which I would touch in the 
most general manner, and with it conclude this introduction. 
In it my only object has been to throw light on Aristotle's 
general view, and the position he holds in the ranks of poli- 
tical philosophers. It is with the same object that I would 
draw attention to the fact that Aristotle is essentially relative 
in his judgments. All institutions are weighed by him with 
reference to the nature of man, and the circumstances in which 
he is placed; not with reference to any absolute standard. 
This is true of both parts of his political treatise of the Ethics 
no less than of the Politics ; and if true of the former, it seems 
to me a natural consequence that it should be true of the latter. 
The domain of morality is generally considered less relative 
than that of political science. It is, in fact, the stronghold of 
the opposite opinion. But this is a consideration for the editor 


of the Ethics. I have drawn attention to the point in conse- 
quence of the very general neglect of this relative point of view 
in all historical questions, a neglect which appears to me to 
make false historical judgments prevalent amongst us, and to 
vitiate, consequently, the reasonings on the science which can 
rest on no other basis than sound historical conclusions. 



THIS first book of the Politics forms the connecting link between 
the Ethics and the Politics, properly so called. It is in reality 
a treatise on (Economics, in the sense Aristotle attached to the 
word. It is introductory and subordinate. It takes the lower and 
more elementary social union as the indispensable preliminary to the 
higher ; the family as opposed to the state. But it is a social union 
that it takes, and not the individual man. We are at once brought 
into contact with an association. As, at the opening of the Ethics, 
every exertion of the individual man was said to aim at some defi- 
nite good, so here every association of man is said to have the same 
character, that largest association under which all others fall more 
distinctly than any other. But to inquire into the organization of 
these various associations of man would be a waste of time, were it 
true that there is but one real difference in governments, that of 
number, the view of some philosophers, to whom a family is but a 
small state, a state but a large family, so that the principles of go- 
vernment are in both the same. This however is an error ; an error 
which will appear to be so in the sequel. Sufficient here to mention 
it ; we may then pass on to shew how that largest and sovereign as- 
sociation had its origin, trace it from its earliest beginnings upwards, 
and examine its component parts. 

The first association is that between male and female, the second 
that between master and servant. Both are based on the natural 
wants of man, and the two together form the family. This increases 
and forms the village. Multiply villages over the face of a district, 
and you have the tribe, an aggregate of equal units capable of in- 
definite extension. Draw the bond of union tighter, concentrate or 
enlarge the village, and you have the state or city, the highest social 
organization which the Greek mind conceived, an organic whole not 
capable of indefinite extension, but in itself satisfying all the wants 
of man in his highest capacity. The union is natural for the na- 
ture of man is man in his highest perfection, and the natural asso- 
ciation will be the highest form of association. It is prior to the 
individual in conception, for it is only in relation to it that the indi- 
vidual can be properly conceived. And yet, though such, it was 
A. P. 1 


necessary that it should have an originator, and he who did originate 
it was the greatest of benefactors. For man may fall lower than the 
beasts by virtue of those very faculties which, if properly employed, 
enable him to rise far above them. And this proper employment is 
only found in the political society, with its restraints of law and 

Such in outline is the origin of society and its justification. Phy- 
sically, the part may be treated prior to the whole, and the unit in 
the social fabric is the family. That, if viewed strictly with relation 
to the state, offers us first the free and equal citizen in the husband 
and father ; secondly, the wife and mother for the continuation of the 
social union ; thirdly, the children, the generation which is to take 
the place of the actual one. But for the man to discharge his duties 
as a citizen, for the woman to be a proper mother of citizens, for the 
children to be trained to be citizens ; the strict family, which these 
constitute, must base itself on certain conditions. It must have the 
means of subsistence, and these in quantity and kind such, as to 
guarantee leisure. It must have the proper instruments for its 
work. These are found in the slave and in property, the living and 
the lifeless instrument. But the instruments so employed by the 
family only touch the state through the family, so they are treated 
of fully in this first book, which treats of the family, whilst the 
women and children, who much more closely and immediately con- 
cern the state, are treated of very slightly. Their relations to one 
another, or to the common head, are given, and the distinction is 
marked between the excellence required in them, and that required 
in the citizens. But the production of this excellence in either is the 
work of education, and that is a state question, and can only be 
satisfactorily treated at a later period, when we have sketched out 
the constitution of the state of which they are to be members as 
all education must bear direct reference to the constitution. 

To return to the point more fully treated, that of the instruments 
or necessary basis of the family life, with its twofold division into 
living and lifeless slave and property. The first is more important 
than the second, and requires more attention. 

Men are not equal in faculties any more than in outward form. 
Some are calculated for rule, others for subjection ; the one guide, 
the other follow ; and the relation between the ruler and the ruled, 
the master and servant is, if there be wisdom applied, a wholesome 
one for both. But a servant to Aristotle, as to the ancients, uni- 
versally, whether oriental, Greek, or Roman, was a slave, and the 


relation therefore between master and slave, if there were goodness 
and wisdom in the master, was a wholesome one for both. That at 
times men were slaves who should have been masters, whether from 
exceptional cases of superiority in the barbarian, or from the acci- 
dents of war, in the case of the Greek, would not in Aristotle's eyes 
vitiate the institution. In the instances supposed there was an evil, 
but on the whole the institution remained good. The slave, if rightly 
a slave, would be unfortunate if not a slave ; so the free artizan was 
really less fortunate than the slave, he had the evil without the good, 
the mental and political inferiority without the care and guidance 
which the relation to a master secured the slave. 

With regard to the second division, that of inanimate property, 
true wealth would consist in that amount of property, that com- 
mand over the means of subsistence which should be strictly subser- 
vient to the purposes of the family. Once let the amount pass that 
limit, and property becomes an end in itself, it ceases to be good, its 
pursuit is to be blamed. In the former case it is natural and laud- 
able, in the latter, contrary to nature, and the object of blame. So 
that the acquisition of property is in the one case natural, oeconomi- 
cal, subservient to the higher wants of the family, and limited by 
those wants ; and the science which treats of it, directs its attention 
to the whole question of the sustenance of the family, whether that 
sustenance be derived from its independent, isolated exertions, or 
require an union with others and is derived from exchange. The 
various modes, therefore, by which man secures his subsistence, and 
the phenomena of exchange are equally in due limits a part of this 
true science. 

In the other case, the acquisition of property, no longer a means 
but an end, is open to objections, and is contrary to nature, though 
not in all its branches equally blameable. It is the natural conse- 
quence of the former, for once extend the relations of man in respect 
of exchange beyond the family or village, and you want a medium. 
This medium is money, which once introduced leads to an immense 
development of commerce, becomes in men's minds not the repre- 
sentative of wealth, but wealth itself, ceases to be a mere means, and 
is pursued indefinitely as an end in itself. All this Aristotle objects 
to, but reserves his highest blame for that part of commerce where 
money itself is the material of the transactions ; all interest is an 
object of his disapprobation. 

From the theory he turns to the practice, but enters into no great 

So that the book falls into the following divisions under these 



four heads: Civil Society, Slavery, Property, and the Family 

Ch. 1 is a simple introduction of the subject. 

2 contains the origin of all society, and the various degrees 

of the social union. 
3 7 inclusive treat of Slavery with his own view put forward 

first, and then the objections. 
8 11 Property treated similarly. 

12 The relation between the members of the family in point of 


13 The various excellencies of the governed, or subject 

A short connecting chapter closes the book. 


TT^IIEIAH Trao'av iroXiv opwjmev Koivwviav Tiva ov<rav KOI 1252 
-* -* KoivcDviav ayaOou 

eveicev arvvecrTt]Kviav 

yap eivai SOKOVVTOS ayaOov ")(apiv TravTa TrpaTTOvcri 
. ^7f\ov a>9 TraVat fjiev ayaOov TIVO? o"TO^a^ovTai,\fjLa 
KCtl TOV KvpiWTaTOv TravTWV, rj Tracreoi/ KvpicoraTrj KOI Tracra? 
irepiexovo-a ra? aXXa?' avrrj S* (rr\v f\ KaXovjuLevrj 7roX(? KO.I 
r] KOivwvla fj irdXiTiKq. "Oaroi IULCV ovv o'tovTai TroXiTiKov /ecu 2 


/caXco? \eyova-Lv TrXyOei yap /ecu oXiydrtjTt vo/u.ifyva-1 ^a- 
(pepeiv, aXX' OVK etfiei TOVTCOV e/cacrroi/, olov av /mev oXiycw, 
SecrTTOTrjv, av $e TrXeidvwv, OIKOVOJULOV, av $ eri TrXeidvwv, TTO- 
\ITIKOV % /BatriXiKov, a>9 ov$ev Sia<pepov(rav fJLeyaXrjv oiKiav q 
fjiiKpav TroXfv, /cat TroXiriKOV $e Kal /BacriXiKov, orav ftev au- 
TO? e(f)<rTr]Kr], /3a<ri\iKov, oTav $e Kara \6yov$ r?9 7Tf- 
frrrjfjit]$ r^9 romi;T^9, /caret ju-epos ap^wv /cat ap^ojuievos, 
TroXm/coV TavTa S' OVK earnv aXrjOq. A^Xov c^' lijTat TO 3 

I. i Comp. Eth. i. i. 4. p. 1094, 
16, for the relation of political science 
to other sciences, and for the relation 
between the different associations of 
men, Eth. vni. ii. 4. p. 1160, 8 : <ri/t- 
TLVL ffVfJ^f>4povri Kal iro- 
TI r&v els rbv filov ' Kal r) 
TToXtri/cr/ 8 KOLVWvla. TOV 

STJ\OV ws, ic.r.X.] 'It is clear that 
whilst all aim at some good, yet in the 
highest degree and at the highest good 
does that aim which includes all the 
others,' /xopiots ^/CCKU T^S TroAtriKT/s. 

2 "Offot jjikv ovv\ The allusion is to 
Plato, Politicus, 258 E, and the opi- 

nion if allowed would, in Aristotle's 
view, at once stop all further discus- 
sion. The body politic with its com- 
plex organization would disappear. 

7rXi7#ei yap] 'They are the same, 
they allege, for it is only in number 
that they differ.' 

dAfyui'] with Schneider make this 
depend on some such word as apxv- 

Kara \6yovs, /c.r.X.] 'in the terms 
of this pretended political science,' a 
sneering expression used by those in 
whose mouth he puts this attempt at 
the simplification of the science of 

Taura t)<:] By altering the stopping 


\eydfJievov eTri<rK07rov(TL KaTa Trjv v(ptjyrjfA.evrjv fteOooov wcr- 
irep yap ev TO?? aXXof? TO crvvOeTOV ft-e^pi TWV a 
avdyKt] diaipeiv (ravTa yap eXa^tcrTa jut-dpia TOV 
OVTW Kal 7rd\iv e!~ cov crvyKetTat (TKOTTOVVTCS o^sdju.eOa Kal 
wepl TOVTWV jmaXXov, TL TC Sia<pepovcriv aXX^Xeoi/, Aca: el TL 
Te^viKov evSe-^erai \a/3eiv irepl eKa&TOv TU>V prjOevTWv. 

Orisrin of er v-y -\ \ / f-\ -\ i & tr 

Society. wcrTrejO ev TO*? aAXof?, Kai ev TOirrof? Ka\\icrT u.v OVTW 

2 Oewprjo'eiev. *AvdyKt] $*] TrpaJTOv crvvSvd^ecrOaL TOU? avev 
a\\y\u>v JUL*] Svvajmevovg etvai, olov Otj\v jmev Kal appev T^? 
yevevea)? eveKcv (iKal TOVTO OVK CK Trpoaipevews, aXX' wcrTrep 
Kal ev TO?? aXXof? yo(? Kal (f)VTOis <pv(riKov TO e(j)i(r6ai, 
olov avTO, TOIOVTOV KaToXiTretv eTepov}, apXv $e (fivcrei 
KOI apxofJLevov SLO. TTJV (TWTtjplav TO jmev yap Swdpevov rrj 

>/a TTpoopav apxov (pvirei Kal SearTrd^ov (pv&et, TO Se 
TO) (raJjuiaTL TavTa TTOLCIV ap^ojuievov /cat (frvcreL 

3 SovXov Sio SevTroTt) Kal Sov\w TavTO (rvjuupepei. Qvcrei fjiev 

I wish to make it clear that this con- 
nects solely with what precedes. 

3 rb \ey6fj,evov] What is this ? I 
consider sect. 2 as a parenthetical re- 
mark, and carry back rb \ey6/J,ei>oj> to 
sect, i, to the statement that the poli- 
tical society comprehends all others, 
and by again changing the stops I 
bring tSffirep ydp into more immediate 
connexion with this first clause. 

rty v(f)rjyr)fji,^i>'r}v fjt0o8ov] "The method 
which has hitherto guided us,' "notre 
me'thode habituelle," St Hal. Etk. n. 
7, 9. p. 1 108, 3. Schneider also com- 
pares de Qen. Anim. in. 9. p. 758, 

Trepl TOVT(J)V~\ i. e. ^ uv ( 
the component elements. 

II. i "To Aristotle and Dicsear- 

chus," says Mr Grote, "it was an in- 
teresting inquiry to trace back all 
political society into certain assumed 

elementary atoms. But the historian 
must accept as an ultimate fact the 
earliest state of things which his wit- 
nesses make known to him." Grote, 
Vol. m. p. 78, ist Edit. Compare 
also Niebuhr, Vol. I. p. 304. 

r& irpdypara 0u6,uej>a] 'things grow- 
ing.' So Plato, Rep. 369 a, speaks of'rjv 7r6\iv. L^gg. VI. 757 0. 

ev rorfrots] in political questions. 

2 avdyKt) 5iJ] I should prefer 8, 
the simple connecting particle. 

OVK K 7iY>ocu/)6rews] " rien d'arbi- 
traire," St Hil. It is in obedience to 
a natural instinct, not a question of 
deliberation or will. 

0vrois] Schneider infers that A. 
was aware of the sexes of plants. 

rb ptv ydp] 'That there is an dpxov 
<f>foei is clear, for that which, &c.' 
ravra is the will of the wiser and 
more farsighted. 

Sea"rr6rr) Kal SotfAy] These are slipped 
in as equivalents to dpxovrt Kal &px- 

I. 2.] nOAITIKftN A. 7 

ovv SiwpKTTat TO 6n\v Kal TO SovXov ovOev yap rj (hvcris Origin of 

* ' A \A ' ' 

Troiec TOIOVTOV oiov ^a\KOTV7rot TY]v &e\(piKr]v fJLa^aipav 

* '-\ -\ > d ^ f/ tf ^ * -\ ~ /* 

Trevixpco?, a\\ ev vrpos ev OVTCO yap av a7TOTe\otTO Ka\- 
\KTTO. TU>V opydvcw eKavTOv, jmrj 7To\\oi$ cpyois aXX' evl 
$ov\evov. cv Se TO?? /3ap/3dpoi$ TO Orj\v Kal <$ov\ov T^V 
avTqv e%ei Tatv. aiTiov <? OTL TO (j)va-ei apyov OVK e^ou- 
(Tiv, aXXa ylveTai rj KOivwvia avTtov <$ov\r]$ Kal $ov\ov. 
$16 (pacriv 01 TroiqTal 


coy rauro (fivcrei fBdpfiapov Kal $ov\ov ov. 'E/c fjLev ovv 5 



Ktt O(O$ 


, but they are not really so, and it 
is in the proper judgment on this tran- 
sition that, as it seems to me, lies 
the solution of the question of slavery. 
The last relation is one which may 
always and will always wholesomely 
exist. The former was a sound one in 
its time has ceased to be so now. 

3 ' Nature has marked the distinc- 
tion between male and female, slave 
and master ;' for on the productions of 
nature there is no stamp of poverty as 
there is on the Delphian knife, made 
to serve several purposes. 

Ae\0t/c77 fj,dxcupa] There seems no- 
thing but the actual context from which 
we can gain any light on the subject 
of this instrument. 

OVTU ydp] 'ita enim,' 'for so only, 
under this condition that it should not 
serve many purposes but one,' &c. 

4 h S rots f3a.pj3dpoi.s~] Though na- 
ture has marked these distinctions, yet 
amongst the barbarians you find them 
obliterated, the woman and the slave 
are there undistinguishable, TTJV O.VTTJV 
#Xei rd^iv rots ciXXotj, rots dp<re<n Kal 
rots 5ecr7r6rais. Comp. Ed. Rev., Oct. 
1853, p. 380. "The East maybe said 

to be the land of equality, for there the 
highest personages are separated from 
the lowest members of society by an 
outward barrier only, and one which 
an unforeseen event may at any mo- 
ment overturn." And again : "The 
feeling of equality between masters and 
servants " " the patriarchal house- 
hold system also extends to the slaves, 
indeed the latter are often the favourite 
children, and their portion that of Ben- 
jamin." This view of the passage dif- 
fers from the ordinary one, which makes 
the remark only apply to the woman 
and the slave, but then the next clause 
loses its significance, as does the quo- 
tation from Euripides, and the infer- 
ence it is made to support. To the 
Greek all non-Hellenes were slaves, 
proper objects for government, and 
finding their true interest in being go- 
verned by them. 

The quotation is from Eur. Iph. 
Aul. 1400. Ed. Dind. 

5 Sects. 3, 4 are parenthetical ; 
the Koivwtcu Svo are given in 2. 

TrpuTrf] 'in its primary and simplest 
form.' Hesiod, Works and Days, 405. 





el? Tracrav r/jULepav <rvve(7Tr]Kvia KOWWVKL Kara (pvirtv oucof 
ecTTiv ovs Xapcov$a<s fJiev KaXei ojULOcriTrvow?, ^TrifJLevi^g 

6 TrpdoTt] xpq&ea)? eveKev M ecfrtj/mepov KOOJULIJ. /ULa\i(TTa $e 


6jmoya\aKTCL9 Tra^a? re KOL TraiScvv Tra^a?* $10 KCU 

WTOV e{3a<Tt\VOVTO CLl 7TO\l$, KOLL VVV Tl TOL 0vr]' 

CK /3a(ri\VOfjiV(*)v yap <rvvf]\0ov. TravcL yap out/a /Bacri- 


7 Tqv arvyyevei av KOL TOUT' ccrTlv o \eyei 




yap' Ka OVTW TO apyaov WKOVV 
Sia TOVTO Trai/Te? (f)aa-l /3a(ri\vea-9ai, OTI 

ovs] ' It is the association of those 
whom/ &c. 

oyLtoo-tTTi^ous] ' ' having a separate meal- 
bin and fireplace," says Mr Grote (ill. 
78), reading b^OKdirvovs, as does St 
Hil., and Vet. Tr. Bekker reads bpOKd- 
TTOUS, 'eating together.' 

opposed to ets iracrav 
that association 
which is formed for meeting our daily 
wants is the family ; that in which 
more than our every day wants are 
supplied is in its primary form the vil- 

6 ous] 'the association of those who, 
in the language of some, are suckled 
by the same milk.' Comp. Nieb. Horn. 
Hist. I. 303, not. 79 c. 

816 Kai\ refers to the aliclas airoiKla., 
the preceding remark being parenthe- 
tical. For the general subject see Mr 
Grote's paraphrase (11. 88). "Aristotle, 
in his general theory of government, 
lays down the position, that the earli- 
est sources of obedience and authority 
among mankind are personal, exhibit- 
ing themselves most perfectly in the 

type of paternal supremacy ; and that 
therefore the kingly government, aa 
most conformable to this stage of social 
sentiment, became probably the first 
established every where." Comp. Eth. 
VIII. xii. 4, 5. p. 1160, b 24. 

rd Zdvri] the non-Hellenic nations, 
whether Persian, Scythian, Phoenician, 
or other. Comp. Thuc. II. 80, where 
some of the Illyrian tribes are men- 
tioned as exceptions. 

(JScrre Kai] This reasoning holds good 
of the civil colonies of Greece, which 
originally were governed from the me- 

7 TOVTO] OTI /3a<nXetfercu birb TOV 
TrpefffivTaTov. The state described by 
Homer, Od. ix. 114, involves the go- 
vernment of the eldest, and a time 
prior to the formation of an association 
of families, prior to the <rvve\0eiv TOVS 

roi)s deovs Sib TOVTO] explained by the 
OTI KO.L Comp. Grote, n. 80, also I. 5, 
"as the gods have houses and wives 
like men, so the present dynasty of 
gods must have a past to repose upon." 

I. 2.] 


avTol ol uev eri KOL vvv* ol Se TO aavaiov e8a(ri\evovTO' Origin of 
' *\ % v *a e -> ~ f * Society. 

oe /ecu ra etc*; eauro?? a<poju.oiovcriv 01 avupooTroi, - 

/cat TCW? /3/ou? TCOJ/ Oewi/. ^ <5' e/c ^^^OVWV^KWJJLWV 8 
7roXf9, *} 

irorrjs eyovcra 

avTapKeta? co? eo? eteu', yivojj.vq ]mev ovv TOV v 

-? ^ '"A <5' V^ A ^ ^ '"\ JL ' ' ' " ' " " >/ 

oe rof ei y/i/. Afo Tracra TroAf? (pvcrei etmv, eurep 
at TTOwrat KOivwvlai" reXo? 'yctO aur^ eK&vtov, % Se 

reXo? ecrrlv olov yap eieacrrov CCTTI r^? yevecrews 

(fiafJLev Trjv <f)v(riv eivai e/cdcrTOi', 
f i7T7rov, otic/a?, ert TO ov eVe/ca /cat TO TeXo? 9 
f3e\TiVTOV fj & avTapKeia Te'Xo? /cat /3e\Tt(TTOV. e/c TOU- 1253 
Tft)i/ o?^ fyavepov OTI TCOV (f)v<rei fj -TroXt? eo-T/, /cat oTt 

avQpWTTOS (plHTCl TToXlTlKOV ^01^, KCll 6 

8 Comp. Grote, n. 341, for the 
Greek view generally of the village and 
the city : "the former social union was 
unsatisfactory;" and again, p. 344, 
"the village was nothing more than a 
fraction and subordinate, appertaining 
as a limb to the organized body called 
the city. But the city and the state 
are in his mind and in his language 
one and the same ; while no organiza- 
tion less than the city can satisfy the 
exigencies of an intelligent freeman, 
the city is itself a perfect and self- 
sufficient whole, admitting no incor- 
poration into any higher political 

Trdcr^s ^xou<ra Tr^pas] 'having attain- 
ed the full limit of complete satisfac- 
tion of all our wants.' Comp. Eth. V. 
X. 4. 1134, 26 : eirl KoivuvCiv (3tov Trpds 
rb elvai avrdpKeiav rb TroKtTtKbv 8i- 

5t6 Tracra 7r6Xts] After defining the 
state he proceeds to establish two pro- 
positions, that it is (frvaei, natural, and 
that it is prior to the family and the 
individual. If the first associations, 
those of the family and village, are 
sanctioned by nature, using the word 
in its truest sense, that association in 

which they find their completion will 
be so too ; it is their natural end ; and 
this natural end of each thing, that 
state in which each thing finds its 
fullest development, this it is which 
he means by the word nature. The 
period of growth must have passed for 
the society as for the individual before 
either one or the other can be said to 
be perfect, to have attained nature. 
olov 7&/> VKCHTTOV, 'that which each 
thing is when its growth is accom- 
plished, that we say it is by nature in 
each case, whether it be man, horse, 
or family.' 

9 rb ov tveKa Ka.1 rb r Aos /3Art<rroi>] 
The object we aim at, the end, is 
higher than the exertions we make to 
attain it, the means. Complete satis- 
faction of our wants is an end we set 
before us, and it is an end secured by 
the state, and secured by the state 
through the instrumentality of those 
lower associations, the family and the 
village, which develope into the state. 

<t>lj(Tei iro\iTiK6v] It is needless to 
multiply quotations to shew that this 
is Aristotle's view throughout. The 
ist chapter of the Ethics is sufficient 
for the purpose. 



are Trep 


, \6yov 

Origin of K al ov $ta TVY*JV rjTOi d>av\O9 evTiv tj KpeiTTtov ij 
Society. , , / > ,~ , T . ^ 

a)(T7rep /cat o v(f> UfJLtjpov Aoioopquets 

a^pjyrajp, adefuvTOS, aveortoy. 

7/> </>wr TOtovTO? Kal TroXe/xov eTTiOvfJLtjT^ 
\iTTt]$ Kal TTCH/To? ayeXaiov 
ovQev yap, cJ? <paju.ev, jmaTrjv q <pv<ri$ 

11 <^e JULOVOV avOpcoTTO? e^ei TWV ^wwv. % JULCV ovv (frcovrj TOV 
\VTrrjpov Kal tjSeos ecrrl (rtjjuieiov, Sio Kal TO?? aXXois vTrap^ei 
^a)'oi?* juexpi yap TOVTOV rj (pv&is avTwv e\r]\vQev, warre 
aicrOdvea-Oai TOV \VTrqpov Kal fjSeos Kal Tavra crrj^alveiv 
aXX^Xof?* o (5e Xoyo? eirl TW Srj\ovv ecrrl TO (TVfJL<ppov 

% \ r\-\ n t tt ^^c>f \ \ t ^ 

Kai TO pXapepov, WCTTC Kai TO oiKaiov KO.L TO aoiKOV. 

12 TOVTO yap TTjOO? raXXa ^wa TO?? avOpcbirois 'idiov, TO 
JULOVOV ayaOov KOI KaKov Kal SiKalov Kal adiKOV Kal TWV 
aXXcov a'ta-Qticrtv e^eiv. % Se TOVTWV KOivwvia TTOICI oiKiav 
Kal TToXiv. Kat irpoTepov $rj Ty (pvaret TroXf? tj oiKia Kal 

13 e/cacrro? JjfjLwv ecrTiv. TO yap o\ov irpoTepov avayKalov 
eivai TOV jmepow avaipov/uievov yap TOV o\ov OVK 

K.T.X.] II. IX. 63. Comp. 
Grote, II. 114, not. 2, for the full 
sense of these words. They denote 
one excluded from, i the phratry, or 
family; -2 the tf^uwres or &yopd ; 3 
the hestia or hearth, the relations of 
guest and suppliant. The first two 
seem more legitimately within Aristo- 
tle's notion of txTroXts. 

10 'He who is an alien to the city 
is by virtue of that in a state of war ; 
his hand is against every man, he 
stands alone like an unguarded piece 
in draughts.' I know of no support 
for this sense, but I have never seen 
any other. 

5i6rt S<T] 'but that.' This is a com- 
mon use of the word Store in A. ; fre- 
quent instances occur in the Politics. 
Compare Bonitz, Metaph. ad 162, a 6. 
Waitz, ad Organ. 58, b 7, gives a 

number of instances. 

\byov\ 'rational speech/ 

1 1 <t>wvfi\ is the inarticulate cry of 
animals ; language, says de Tracy, but 
not developed. 

Htxpt- TOjJrov] 'so far, and so far only, 
has nature reached in their case.' 

rb <rvfj,(ptpov Kal rb pXafiepdv] chosen 
apparently as the widest expression, 
including all others. 

12 roj/rwy] either TOV aya6ov K.T.\.: 
or masculine, TWJ> rty Totai/r^v afo6rj<riv 
txbvTwv, 'the association of those who 
have the perception.' This I prefer. 

irpbrcpov 5iJ] Comp. Eih. vm. xiv. 
7. 1162, 17, for a sense in which the 
family precedes the state. For the 
general language comp. Categ. xn. p. 
14, 26. Spengel, p. 7, note 8, collects 
several parallel passages. 

I. 2.] 




\eyei TVIV Origin of 
' Society. 

3e TW ^ 

TTOU? ove Yp, e fj. 

. a, J > 

\iuivqv oia(puapi(ra yap COTTOU 

eyj-yft) wpHTrai Kal Ty SvvdfJLei, coorre fJLrjKert Toiavra ovra 

OU \KTOV TO, aVTCt ClVat, ClXX' OJULOOVVfJLa. "Ori JU.6V OVV fj 14 

TTo'Xf? /cat (u<rei Kal Trpdrepov tj eKaarro^ $fj\ov el jap 
JJLYI avTapKtj? cKacrTOS ^copicrOei^, ojmoicog TOI$ aXXof? fJLepecriv 
e^ei TTjOo? TO o\ov 6 <$e jmt] fivvdfJLevo? Koivwveiv, rj ju.t]6ev 
fiedfJLevos 3S avTapKeiav, ovOev jmepos TroXea)?, WCTTC rj Orjplov 
rj Oeo?. <&varei IJLGV ovv r\ op/mrj ev Traariv eirl TY\V TOiavTtjv 15 
KOivwviav o Se TrpwTO? o-ucrr^cra? /xey/crTft)^ aya6u>v a'iTio$. 
yap KOI TeXewOev /3e\Ti<TTOv TU>V 


yap dSiKia l^oucra o?rXa* o $ avOpcoTros oVXa 16 

(pverat <ppovy<rei ical apery, 01$ 7rl ravavria ecrrt 

13 6/iwv^ws, K.r.X.] 'equivocally, as 
one might use the term ' hand' of a stone 
hand. For the hand when its natural 
purpose can no longer be served by it, 
when consequently it is destroyed, will 
be on a level with a hand of stone, and 
can only be called a hand improperly,' 

a TTJ 

Compare the definition of &per^ given 
Eth. ii. v. -2. p. 1 1 06, 16; also Elk. 
in. x. 6. p. 1115, b22, and below, IV. 
4, 5 (vii.). 

14 This section seems parenthetical 
and superfluous. The clause d y&p yd] 
8\ov justifies the irpbrepov ; 'for unless 
each one is self complete when separate 
from all others he is but a part, and 
must be judged as a part ; will stand, 
that is, in no different relation to the 
whole of which he is a part, from that 
in which other parts do to their wholes.' 
The next clause, 6 ^ 8vvd/j.i>os, sup- 
ports the 0&r, and is to the same 
effect as 9, very vigorously stated : 
the fj.^] 8vvdfj,ei>os from his nature be- 
ing inadequate, the Sid <f>t<nv of 9, 
being below the social union, as the 

above it ; the former 
clause provided for the case of one 
who was competent to join in this 
union, but was cut off from it, Sect 

15 0&rei p.kv ovv] 'True there is by 
nature in us the impulse to join in a 
society such as I have described, in a 
state ; still he who was the first to 
combine men, to organize this state, 
was the greatest of benefactors.' The 
language implies a time in the concep- 
tion of Aristotle when no state existed. 
Compare the passage quoted above 
from Niebuhr. 

16 Comp. Eth. VII. vii. 7, 1150, I. 
6 5' apfywTros, K.T.X.] 'Man is born 

with arms,' &ir\a. fyuv, equivalent to 
#7rXois ; 'these arms are his intellectual 
faculties, his moral instincts,' which 
A. here calls (ppovjjffei Kal dperij, which 
consistently he should have called 
Seiv6TirjTt Kal (pvffiKy apery. Comp. Eth. 
vi. xiii. p. 1144. Rhet. I. i. 4, 20, 1355, 

in the strictest sense is com- 
plete moral virtue ; <f)p6vi]<ris involves 
the existence of that virtue. 





Sio avoariwTaTOV Kal ayptwTaTOV avev 
\ Trpos a<ppo$i<Tia Kal eScoStjv yeipia-TOv. f) $e 

TToXlTlKOV f] yap SlKt] TToXlTlKrjS KOlVW>Via<S TO.^ 
TOV 1, 


Origin of 

12 53 B - 3 
Slavery. am ry Ka i ov Trcpl QiKOVOfua? eLTreiv TrpoTepov 7ra(ra yap 

7ro\t9 e% OIKIWV (TvyKeiTat. oiKta? $e /mept], e^ wv avOis 
(TvvlarTaraL' oiKia Se reXefO? e/c SovXwv KOL e\ev6epa)v. 
tf ev TO?? eXa^/crrof? Trpwrov eKacrrov ^T^TCOJ/, 
e Kal eXa^o-ra jueptj oiKtag ^(TTTOT^ Kal $ov\o$ 

KOI Troaris Kal aXo^o? Kal iraTrjp Kal re/cj/a, Trepl rptwv av 



l evai. TOUTO, 

(TT\ Sco-TTOTiKrj Kal 

Spos (rvlevi$y Kal Tpirov 

3 e'lTTojuiev. e(m $e TL jmepos o <$OK6i TO?? jmev elvai 

yap yvvaiKos Ka 
Kal yap 


OVK (oj/o/ytacrrat iSi(p ovojmaTi. ecrTUxrav 

TOI? Se jjieyiarrov ftepos aur??* OTTW? 

\eya) Se Trepl r?9 /caXou/jtei/^ 

Trepl Se&TroTOV Kal SovXov efVcD/ief, Iva ra re Trpos TIJV 

avayKalav %peiav ^w/xei/, KOLV el TI irpos TO eiSevai Trepl 

avTcov SvvaijuieOa \a/3eiv /3e\Tiov TWV vvv vTro\aiu./3avoju.evciw. 



St6] ' So armed man is,' &c. 

r) 8 SiKtuocrtfi'T;] Man needs the re- 
straints of law and justice, v6fj.ov Kal 
8lKi)S, in one word, SiKcuoa-foris this is 
emphatically the creature of society, 
of the political union ; for the admi- 
nistration of justice (SlK-r]) is an arrange- 
ment depending on political society, 
and this administration is but the de- 
cision what is just between man and 
man, and the term just implies justice. 
Comp. Eih. v. x. 4. p. 1134, 26. Cic. 
de Nat. Deor. I. xli. 116. 986 b. Ed. 
Nobbe. 'Est enim pietas justitia ad- 
versus Deos cum quibus quid potest 
nobis esse juris, quum homini nulla 
cum Deo sit communitas.' 

III. I irepl okow/Jas] This suffi- 

ciently indicates the purpose of the 
book, trpbrepov, sc. TTJS 7r6\ews. 

wv aftdis] 'of which in its turn the 
house consists.' 

2 This is simply in defence of his 
terminology : the term ya/JUKos is 
wanted in Eih. v. x. 9. p. 1134, 
b 15, where he speaks of rb irpbs 
yvvcuKa dtKaiov, and the same want is 
felt in Eih. vni. xiii. 4. p. 1161, 11. 

3 fj-tyiffrov iitpos\ 'A very large 
part.' He says himself oiKovo/JUKrjs T- 
Xos TrXoOros, Eih. I. i. 3. p. 1094, 9. 

rd irpbs rfy foayKaiav x/ 5C ^ a>/ ] ' The 
practical solution for the wants of ordi- 
nary life.' 7iy>6s rb dStvai, 'with a view 
to the scientific theory of the subject.' 
T<3v vvv UTroXa/x/Savo/A^wv, 'better than 
the present notions on the subject.' 


JULCV 'yap 


re TI$ efvai rj de&TroTeia, Kai Slavery. 


\ avTrj oiKOVO/mia KOI Seo-iroreia KOLL TroXiTiKrj Kai /BaviXtKrj, 4 

e'lTrojmev dp^o/mevoi' TOIS $e Trapa (fivcriv TO ^eo"7ro- 
vo/Jiw yap TOV fJiev o"ov\ov elvai TOV $ eXevOepov, 
& ovOev $ia(f)epeiv SiafJrep ov$e SiKaiov /3iaiov yap. 
ouv tj ACT^OV? /xejOO? T^? olxias ecrri Kai rj KTIJTLKII 4 
r^9 oiKOVojuilas' avev yap TU>V avayKaianv aSvvarov 
V Kal ev tyv cocnrep $e ev ra?? (JjOtcr/xeVai? Te^yaig 
avayicalov av eirj vTrdpyeiv TO. oiiceia opyava, el ju.e\\i 
a7TOTe\ecr6q<T(T6ai TO epyov, OVTW Kai TWV OLKOVOIJ.LKWV. 
T(iov <P opydvwv TO. fJLev a^rvya TO. & ^utfry^a, oiov TW 2 
Kv/3epvrJTy 6 ]u.ev o'la^ a^v^ov, 6 <5e Trpwpevs efA^rvyjov 6 

\f/ ' >f m r / tr 

yap vTrypeTqs ev opyavov etoet Tai<$ Te^vai^ C<TTIV. OVTW 
Kai TO KTrj/ma opyavov TT^OO? fyrjv ecrrf, Kai rj KT*J<TI$ 7r\fj6o$ 
opydvcov e<7T/, Kai 6 ^ouXo? /cr^/xa TL ejUL-^v^ov, Kai ca<T7rep 
opyavov irpo opydvwv, Tra? 6 vTTtjpeTrjs. el yap ijSvvaTO 3 

ydp] This explains the irapa 
<t>t<riv, and is by an alteration in 
the stopping connected more closely 
with it. So also Sibirep ot8 SI/CCUOP 
is brought into close connexion with 

IV. i There is something very 
awkward about this sentence as it 
stands. The simplest way seems to be 
to make Ka.1 mark the apodosis. ' Since 
then property is an element hi the 
family, the art of acquiring property 
will enter into the management of the 
family. That property is such is clear 
from the fact that without food and 
clothing, the necessaries of life, it is 
impossible to live, much less to live 
well ; and as in all the definite arts 
the proper instruments for the work 
must necessarily be ready to the hand 
of the workman, if the work is to be 
accomplished, so it is in the manage- 
ment of the family. ' If with Victorius 
and the Vet. Tr. we adopt the more 

symmetrical reading of 
'so his proper instruments must be 
ready to the hand of the master of the 
family.' If the genitive is kept it 
must be construed with oiKeia, a con- 
struction of which we have an instance 
later, III. iii. 3, olKeTos TTJS airopias 

1 h dpydvov eifSei] 'is in kind but an 
instrument,' 'does not differ in kind 
from the instrument used in the arts.' 
TCUS r^x vai ^> Ta &pi<r(J.frcus of the last 

ou'rw Kai] as the pilot had instru- 
ments of two kinds, so it will be with 
the head of the family. The instru- 
ment in this case, whether animate or 
inanimate, is denoted by the word 
KTTjfj.a, and the aggregate of such in- 
struments by KT7)<ris. Compare Eth. 
v. x. 8. p. 1134, b 10. 

ftpyavov irpb dpydvtav] 'one instru- 
ment in the place of many,' not, as St 
Hil. says, "le premier de tous," agree- 
ing with Viet, as quoted by Schneider 





\eiv TO avTOv epyov, w<T7rep TO. Aat^a'Xov (^acriv tj TOVS 

TOV *H(j)ai<TTOV TplTToSaS) OV$ (f)t]<TlV 6 TTOi^T^? aVTOfJLOLTOVS 

aura Ka 

Oeiov SvevOai aycova, OVTW? at KpKi$e$ eKepKi 
TO, TrXrJKTpa CKiOdpit^ev, ovo'ev av e$ei ovre TO?? a 
1254 4 (riv vTnjperaJv cure TO?? SecnroTais $ov\wv. TO, jmev ovv 
\ey6/u.eva opyava TroitjriKa opyava earn, TO Se KTrjfJLa 
aTTo ju.ev yap r?9 KepKido? cTepov TI yiveTai 

irapa Trjv ^pfjfTLV aur^?, ctTro ^e T^? earQrJTOS Kal T$? K\ivt]$ 

TL & 7TL ^ia(6L f] TTO/^CTf? e'lSei Kal fj 

TTjOa^?, SeovTai o* ajmcfioTepai opydvwv, avdyKtj Kal rai/ra 

5 TYIV avTrjv e%iv Siacf>opdv. 6 Se /8/o? Trpal'is, ov troitftns 
<TTIV $10 Kal 6 3ov\09 vTrypeTW TCOV 7T|OO9 TY\V Trpa^tv. 
TO $e KTtjfta XeyeTai wa-irep Kal TO ftopiov. TO re yap 
IJiopiov ov JULOVOV a\\ov ecrri jULopiov, a\\a Kal oXw? aXXoy 
o/xo/ft)? <5e Kal TO KT*j]u.a. $10 6 /mev ^eo-Tror^? TOV $ov\ov 
^ecTTTOTJy? IJLOVOV, eKeivov & OVK e&Tiv 6 $e SovXos ov JULOVOV 

6 SecnroTOV $ov\o$ <TTLV, aXXa Kal oXw? CKCLVOV. T/? /wei/ 
ovv tj (j)v<ri$ TOV Sov\ov Kal r/9 ^ Suva/jus, CK TOVTCOV SfjXov 

in the passage. The translation given 
refers it more definitely to the superior 
adaptability of the slave. 

3 II. xvm. 376. 

4 T& jj.kv ofiv Aey6,uera] 'Instruments, 
in the sense in which the word is 
generally applied, are for production, 
whereas KT^O. in this comprehensive 
sense is the unproductive part of a 
man's property.' As unproductive it 
is called irpaKTiicbv. Compare Eth. VI. 
ii. 5. p. 1139, bi.5, 4 . 1140, b6. 

dia<f>{p<-i ij wolirifris] Eth. VI. iv. I. 
p. 1140, 4. 

Kal ravra] The instruments of the 
two respectively. 

5 616 Kal 6 SoCXos] as being KT^O. 
2fjL\f/vxoj> irpbs fafy. 

TO 5^ KTTJ/J.O] In the passage referred 
to above on 2, Eth. v. x. 8, he uses 
the same language, wvirep ptpos avrov 


dit> 6 fikv 5e<r7r<$T97s] ' Hence whilst 
the master is only a master in refer- 
ence to his slave, and in no sense be- 
longs to him, but is in the main con- 
sidered quite in a different capacity, 
the slave, on the other hand, is not 
merely to be viewed from this point of 
view amongst others, that he is the 
slave of a master, but he is absolutely 
and entirely that master's, he has no 
other side of his existence distinct from 
his master's.' 

6 It is the essential idea of slavery 
that in it the person becomes a thing, 
and loses all his rights as a person. 
He stands related to human society 
only in and through his master, he 
has no proper life and no proper hap- 

I. 4.] 



6 yap jmrj avTOv (pvcrei aXX' aXXov, av6pa)7ro$ fie, OVTOS <pvvi Slavery. 
<$ov\o$ CCTTIV. aXXov & ecrrli/ avOpWTros, 09 dv KTrfjma rj 
avOpwros wv KTrjiua $e opyavov TrpaKTiKov Kal ^copio-Tov. 
TloTepov $* ea-TL TL$ (pvcrei roiovrog if ov, Kal Trorepov /3eX- 5 
TLOV Kal SiKaidv TIVL SovXeveiv rj ov, aXXa Traora 
Trapa d>v(Tiv etrr/, yttera raura cr/ceTrreoi/. ov 
Kal TO) \dyw Oewprjcrai Kal e/c rwv yivojmevwv 
TO yap apxeiv Kal ap^ea-Oat ov JULOVOV TWV avayKaicov aXXa 2 
Kal TWV crv]UL<pp6i>T(*)v e<TT/, Kal evOv? e/c yeverfj? evia $ie- 

(TTt]K TO, fiJiV CTTt TO apyevQai TO. ^' CTTf TO ap^f-lV. Kal 

etdrj TroXXa Kal a-ovTwv Kal aofjLevMV ea-Tiv, Kal ael 

TICOV *i apX*l V T ^ v /SeXrfoVwj/ ap^o/mei/ow, olov avOpwTrov rj 
Orjplov. TO yap aTTOTeXovjULevov CLTTO TWV ^\TIOVCDV ^\TLOV 3 
epyov OTTOV <^e ro jmev ap^ei TO & ap-^CTai, CCTTL TL TOVTWV 
epyov. o<ra yap e/c TrXeioVwi/ <rvve<TTr]K Kai yiveTai ev TL 


TO ap%ov KOI TO ap^ojULevov. Kai TOVTO CK r?? 4 

V. i But then comes the question : 
Is there such a being ? As a fact it 
was not doubtful that there were such; 
society was based on the existence of 
such. But is there such a being natu- 
rally ? Has nature given her sanction 
to the fact ? Is it for the real interest 
of some, is it just for some, that they 
should be in this state, or is slavery in 
principle a violation of nature ? These 
are the points at issue in the next two 
chapters, and Aristotle's answers are 
in favour of slavery. 

'by theory.' IK T&V yivo- 
'from actual experience.' 

2 'The distinction of ruler and 
ruled appears even at birth, some take 
their stand on one side, some on the 
other.' Inequality and consequent sub- 
ordination are facts which you cannot 
get rid of, and which may be shewn to 
be for the interest of mankind gene- 
rally, ov pbvov T&V dvajKatav dXXct Kal 
TWJ/ avfji.<t>epQVTuv. Nor is this all. 

' There are distinctions in the kind of 
rule depending on the rulers and the 
ruled, and in proportion as these are 
better the rule is in itself nobler.' 

3 6'7rov S^] They come into relation. 
v KOivwvlq. rjSr] 6 dpx^v. Eth. V. iii. 
16. p. 1130, 2. They form a system 
with parts working together for a com- 
mon end. That end is their work, and 
the work will be better done in pro- 
portion as the parts are better. 

foa ydp] 'for wherever you have a 
combination of several parts and some 
one common result, whether those 
parts be continuous, as in the natural 
body, or distinct, as in the body poli- 
tic, there you have evidently the dis- 
tinction between ruler and ruled.' In 
Eth. ii. v. 4. p. 1106, 26, we have the 
terms crvvex^t Kal Siaipery. 

4 K T^S aTrdffijs 0tf<rews] "Bei der ge- 
sammten Natur vorzugs weise. ' ' Stahr . 
Correctly as to the sense. 'This subor- 
dination is found in all nature, but is 



(pvcrecos evvTrap^ei TO?? e 


Slavery. aacr^? (vcrecos evvTrap^ei TO? efAv^oi?' Ka yap ev rots 

opfAOvias' a\\a 

/mev 'Icroos e^wTepiKWTepas etrrl ovce\J/-ea>9. To <^e 
TrpcoTOV orvvearTrjKev e/c ^sv^y? Kal craj/zaro?, wv TO /met/ 

5 ap-^ov ecTTi (pva-ei TO S* ap^ojuievov $ei <$e a-KOTreiv ev TOIS 

^OVO'l fJLO\\OV TO <pv(7l, Kal fJLrj V TOl$ Sl- 

$10 KOI TOV /3e\Ti<TTa $iaKt]u.evov KOL /cara 
Kal Acara -^v^rjv avOpcmrov OecoprjTeov, ev w TOVTO 
12548^X0^* TWV yap fJLO-^Orjpwv rj fJLO-^Otjpwg C^OVTCOV fio^eiev av 
apxeiv 7roXXa/ct? TO cray/ma r?9 \^u^? $ia TO <pav\cos Kal 

6 Trapd (f)v(riv e^eiv. ecrrt <5* ovv, wcnrep XeyofJiev, TrptoTOV ev Twa) 

l (T7roTiKr]V ap^rjv Kal TTO\ITIK^V tj ju.ev yap 
^y aaT ? PX l $ (T ' 7I ' ( >TiKr]V apxyv, 6 $e vov? r^? 
TToXiTiKtjv Kal fiauiKiKrjv ev oT? (fravepov ea-Tlv OTL 
(frixriv Kal (TvjUL(pepov TO ap-^ecrOai TW crwjuLaTi VTTO 
T?? "^^X^ Ka * 1 T< ? TraQlTiKw fjiopiw VTTO TOV vov Kal TOV 

found more particularly, is more truly 
inherent in the things that have life.' 
Kal yap. 'I say in all nature, for even 
in those things which have no life 
there is a certain rule exercised, such 
as the power of harmony.' Compare 
Wordsworth's Ode on the power of 
Sound, xii. 

^wTe/>ucwT^/>as] This word has been 
frequently discussed. The result of 
the discussion seems to be that it often 
means nothing more than 'another,' 
'an inquiry foreign to the present 
inquiry.' In this actual passage this 
meaning is sufficient. The whole sub- 
ject is treated by Eavaisson, Metaphy- 
sique d'Aristot. Part. III. Livre I. 
ch. i. Vol. I. pp. 224 and foil. 

Stahr ends the period at ffictyews, 
and it is I think plainer so. 

TrpujTOJ'] ' To begin with. ' 

5 Set 8 aKoireiv] It might be urged 
that practically this is not always the 
case. But, says Aristotle, you must 
not take a bad instance, but a good. 

To judge any thing truly, you must 
take it at its best, look at it such as it 
is by nature, using nature of course as 
above, I. 2. 8. 

fr $ TOVTO S^Xop] 'and in him this is 
clear,' TOVTO, that the soul rules, the 
body obeys. 

6 & f$<p] 'in any animal.' 

T] fj,ev yap ifsvxtf] Compare Eth. V. - 
15, 9. p. 1138, b 5. 

oeffiroTiK^v] that is, for the good of 
the soul. 

r?}s 6/o^ews] Cicero, de Rep. in. xxv. 
21. p. 1161. b. Ed. Nobbe, takes a 
different view : ' Nam ut animus cor- 
pori dicitur imperare, dicitur etiam 
libidini ; sed corpori, ut Hex civibus 
suis, aut parens liberis ; libidini autem 
ut servis dominus, quod earn coercet 
et frangit.' 6/>eis, in Aristotle, is 
larger, equivalent to the eTrifli^rt- 
KOV of the Ethics, I. xiii. 

fv ofs] 'and in these cases it is quite 

I. 5.] 


juLOplov TOV \oyov e^oj/TO?, TO $ e 'icrov if avairaXiv /3\a- Slavery. 
fiepov Tracriv. TTO\IV ev avOpcoTrw Kal TO?? aXXof? <^'o*9 7 
waravTW TO. jmev yap rj/Jiepa TWV ayplcov /3e\T/ft) Trjv (pvcriv, 
TOVTOIS 06 Tracri {3e\Ttov ap^earOai vir avOpcoTrov Tvy^avei. 
yap vwTripias OI/TW?. eri Se TO appev 7rpo$ TO 6>j\v (pvcrei 
TO fJiev KpeiTTOV TO <^e y^eipov, TO jmev ap-^ov TO <T 
vov. TOV avTov $e Tpoirov avajKalov etvai Kal eTrl 

"Ocrot /uev ovv TOVOVTOV SiearTacriv ocrov 
Kal avOpcoTTos Orjpiov {oiaKeiVTai 


ecTT* CLTT' avTwv fie\Ti<TTOv}, OVTOI JULGV eicri <pv(rei $ov\oi, 
of? /3e\Tlov evTiv ap^e(r6ai TavTrjv Tr\v ap-^v, eiirep Kal 
Tolg eipy/uLevoi?. CCTTI yap (fivarei $ov\o$ 6 $vva[j.vo$ a\\ov 9 
etvai (oio Kal a\\ov <TTLV} Kal 6 KOLVWVWV \6yov TO&OVTOV 
OTOV alcrOdvecrOai aXXa jmt] c^ew TO. yap aXXa (j 
\6yov aivOavojuieva, aXXa TraOyjULacriv vTrrjpeTei. Kal q 




^ tffov] ' To put the two on a level 
in point of government, or to reverse 
the order, is in all cases injurious.' 

7 TrciXu/, K.r.X.] 'Again, the case is 
exactly the same as between man and 
the other animals/ and does not hold 
merely in man's individual nature. 

T<Z fjv yap rj/mepa, Ac.r.X.] Compare 
Bacon on Atheism, Vol. I. p. 53. Ed. 

rvyxdvei yap ffWT'rjptas'] So above, 
II. 2. ia TTJV crurriplav, safety was the 
object of the union, 

rbv avrbv, /c.r.X.J From the indivi- 
dual man he passed to man in relation 
to the animals, then to man in relation 
to woman, now he has reached the last 
stage, the relations of men to each 

8 raisrrjv TTJV d/)%^] TTJV SeoTroTi- 
K-TIV, that of a master over slaves, the 
point he wants to come to. 

rots elpTjfji&ois'] T$ <7CtJywart, rep Tradrj- 

TIK$ fJ.Opi(j), T(p drjply, T<j) 6-fl\l. 

g 5ib Kal aXXou ^ar/j'] This must 

A. P. 

not be pressed too far, but taken as an 
assertion of the general rule, that the 
slave was so by virtue of a natural in- 
feriority. It does not exclude, as is 
clear from the next chapter, the possi- 
bility of an unjust slavery, of an inver- 
sion of the natural order. It does not 
exclude what Cicero speaks of, "genus 
injustae servitutis, quum hi sunt alte- 
rius, qui sui possunt esse." De Rep. 
in. xxv. 22. 1161, 6. 

TOVOVTOV] 'only so far.' Compare I. 
II. 2. rb Swdftevov rep crci/wart ravra 

ra yap $XXa] The construction is 
irregular, but the sense is clear. This 
definition still leaves the slave, as 
man, a higher position than the ani- 
mals ; the TOffovrov is exclusive both 
ways ; the slave shares in reason, but 
only to a certain point. 

Kal i] xP eia >] ' The use to which the 
two are put,' the slave and the animal, 
'varies but little.' 




Slavery. ^ TrapaXXcLTTCi jmiKpov % yap Trpos TavayKala rw 

/BorjOeta yiverai 'Trap ajmtyoiv, Trapd re TWV SovXwv Kal Trapa 

10 TWV f]IJLpWV ju)(lOV. /3oV\TaL JU.V OVV tj (pvCTl$ Kal TO. CTW- 

fjLara Siacfrepovra TTOLGIV ra TWV eXevOepcov Kal TU>V SovXoov, 
TO. imev laryypa. irpo? TY\V avayitaiav xpfjcriv, TO, $ opOa Kal 
a^prjcrra irpo? ra? TOiavra? epyacria?, aXXa xpfatfia irpos 
ITO\LTLKOV /3lov (ouro? ^e Kal yiveTai diyprj/mevos ei$ re TY\V 
TroXeiuLiKqv ^peiav Kal TY\V elprjviKriv}, crv^aLvei Se 
KOI TOvvavTiov, TOU? fJ.ev ra a-wjmaT e^eti/ eXevOepcov 
^e Tag xj^i'^a?* eTrel TOVTO ye (fravepov, w? el TOVOVTOV 
yevoLVTO Sid<popoi TO (rco/ma JULOVOV ocrov at TCOV 6ewv et/coj/e?, 
TOU? uTToXefTTOyueVou? 7rai/T9 (patcv dV a^/ou? elvai TOVTOIS 

11 SovXeveiv. el tf Ctrl TOV o-w/xaro? TOUT' aXtjOe?, TTO\V 
Tepov 7rl T?? "v^u^?? TOVTO SiwpicrOar aXX' 

v TO TC T?? ^^X^ ? KXXo? Ka l T 
Toivvv eicrl (frvcrei Tive$ 01 jui.ev eXevOepoi 
$ov\oi, (pavepov, of? Kal <rvju.(f)epi TO SovXeveiv Kal 



f) ry fftbfji,aTi po^Beia] ( The assistance 
given with the body,' the dative of the 
instrument, "mitihremKb'rper." Stahr. 

10 But an objector might urge : 
The animals differ from man in out- 
ward form, the slave and the freeman 
his master do not so differ. It is the 
tendency of nature, answers Aristotle, 
to do this, to mark a difference, but a 
tendency often defeated ; as a practical 
fact we often see the very reverse the 
case, a-vfjiftalvei 52 TroXXd/cis Kal rotoa.v- 

tpyao-las] ' Such offices, or services.' 

euros 5 Kal, /c.r.X.] One of the 
many places where a remark is intro- 
duced with so little need for it, so 
little 4 propos, that one suspects ano- 
ther hand. 

TOS vTroXeiTTo^ovs] ' those who fall 
short.' Compare Herod. V. 47 for the 
effect in a Greek city of a striking 

superiority in beauty. Compare also 
Grote, vin. pp. 217, 218, on the Athe- 
nian treatment of Dorieus. 

n TroXi) SiKcu6re/30j'] 'with far more 
justice would the distinction hold good 
in the case of the soul.' 

8rt [itv oiV] After weighing the ob- 
jections he comes then decidedly to a 
conclusion in favour of slavery. ' There 
are some by nature free, others by 
nature slaves, and for these their state 
as slaves is both advantageous and 
just,' Kal ffv/j.<J>tyei Kal SlKaiov. The 
mental differences are sufficient, where 
nature has failed to mark the bodily. 

VI. I ol ravavrla ^dtr/coj/res] ' those 
who put forward the exactly opposite 
view, they too in a certain sense are 
right.' There is an ambiguity in the 

yap Xeyerai TO S1 avery. 

Ka Kara 

1. 6.] nOAITIKQN A. 19 

N / * /I '" S * X \ ^ V* <** 

\eyov<riv opucu?) ov ^a\e7rov toetv. i 

SovXeveiv Kal 6 Sov\o$. <TTI yap 

<$ov\o$ Kal SovXevw 6 yap VOJULOS 6fJLo\oyia TIS ea-riv, ev w 

TO. Kara TroXejuiov Kparovpeva TCOV KparovvrcDv eivai (fracriv. 


pyTopa ypd(j)ovTai Trapavojmwv, eo? Setvov el TOV fiidcracrOai 
Kal KaTa ovva^iv KpeiTTOVos e<TTai 3ov\ov Kal 
TO /3ia(T0ev. Kcu TO?? fj.ev OVTW SoKei TO?? o* 

e/ceiVw?, Kal TOOV crocbcov. a'tTiov Se TavTtjs T?? ajucfucr/?^- 3 

Kal /card vbpov] 'by law also' as well 
as 0&m. 

6 701/3 y6/tos] 'The law I mean, 
is a species of recognised agreement.' 
Compare Hermann (C. F.) 9. 4, and 
the references there given, especially 
Xen. Cyr. vn. 5, 73, y<5/*os 7&/> & 
ai5t6s ea-riv, 8rav TroXe- 
TroXts d\(p, TWV f\6vTuv etvcu 
TO. <rc6/*ara TUJJ/ fr rfj ir6\ei Kal ra 

2 roOro STJ r6 SlKatov'] ' It is this 
justice then that many writers on in- 
stitutions indict as unconstitutional.' 

/cara Swafuv KpeLrrovos] 'superior in 
mere strength.' 

OUTW] the last opinion that it is 

^/ceWs] the opposite one that this 
state is the right one, and the wise are 
not agreed on this point. 

3 Before entering on the two next 
sections I would remark, that the 
course of the reasoning would be un- 
interrupted if we at once went on with 
5, "OXws 5' dj'Texfytei'oJ rives, K.T.\. 
The intervening part is a subsidiary 
explanation. ' The origin of this dis- 
pute, that which makes it capable of 
being a dispute, is that in a certain 
sense it is true that virtue, with ade- 
quate means at its disposal, is even 
more than any other power able to 
force its way ; it is true further that 
he who is master is so always by vir- 

tue of a real superiority in some point, 
so that his power of compulsion seems 
not to be separable from virtue, and 
the only discussion that can take place 
is on this point: Is it, or is it not, 
right that such power, partly simple 
power, partly moral superiority, should 
be accepted? Looking at the conse- 
quences that follow if you adopt this 
principle, some have been led to seek 
the only sanction for rule in the mu- 
tual consent of the parties, the ruler 
and subject. Unable to concede this, 
as in fact impracticable, others have ac- 
quiesced in the simple test of superior 
might, without any considerations of 
the moral element, as an adequate de- 
finition of justice. And these are the 
only two admissible opinions, since if 
you distinguish them one from the 
other, and when distinguished put them 
both on one side, the third opinion, 
which with reference to the other two 
is called arepoi \6yoi, is seen to be de- 
void of force or plausibility, the opi- 
nion, namely, that the better ought 
not by virtue of his excellence to rule 
over the inferior, whether that rule be 
such as you may call government in a 
political sense, or the absolute govern- 
ment of a master over slaves, apx^iv 
Kal d<nr6fru>.' Such is the best ren- 
dering I can give of this difficult pas- 
sage. To follow it in detail. 


20 nOAITIKQN A, [Lm. 

Slavery. T ^ (TM ^^ Ka \ iroiei Toy? \dyov$ eTraXXaTTCiv, OTI Tpoirov 
Tiva apeTrj Tvy%dvov<ra %oprjyia$ KOI /Bid^earOai SvvaTai 
jjid\i(rTa, Kal COTTIV aei TO KpaTOvv ev vTrepoyfi ayaOov 
TIVOS, uHTTe Soiceiv ^ OLVcv ttjOGT?? elvai TJV /3lav, aXXa irep\ 
4 TOW $LKaiov JULOVOV eivai Trjv afji(pior/3qTr](riv. $ia yap TOVTO 
TO?? jULev euvoia SOKCI TO SiKaiov e?vai, TO?? c^' ayro ToyTO 
SiKaiov, TO TOV KpetTTOva apxeiv, ejrel SiacrTavTCov ye %WjO:? 
TOVTODV TUIV \6ywv OI/T' l<T^ypov ovOev eyjovcriv OUTC TriOavov 
aTepoi \dyoi, a>? oy Set TO /3e\Tiov /caT 7 apeTrjv ap-^eiv Kal 
'. e/ OXw? c^' avTe^oaevoL Tive$, tJ? o'lovTai, oiKaiov 
o? (6 yap i/o/xo? oiKaiov Tt) Trjv /cotTct TroXe/mov oovXeiav 
TiOeacri SucaLav, a/u.a ^' oy (fiaariv. TVJV Te yap ap-^v evSe- 
\eTai M Sucaiav eivai T(*)i> TroXejuLMv, Kal TOV avd^iov Sov- 
\eveiv ovSafJLws av (pairj Tf? <$ov\ov eivai' ei Se /my, <TVJUL- 
(Bfj<reTai Toy? eyyei/ea-TctToy? eivai SoKovvTas c^oyXoy? elvai 
6 Kal CK fiovXcov, eav (rvjuL/3fj irpaOqvai \rj(f)6evTas. Sioirep 
ov /3ov\ovTai \eyeiv (WXoy?, aXXa Toy? fiapfidpov<$. 
oTav TOVTO Xeycoa-iVy ovOev aXXo ^TOVCTIV tj TO 
vcrei oovXoVy oTrep e}~ cto^^? enrofJ-ev avayKtj yap eivai 

is 'to interchange, to al- 
ternate.' "Ut in utramque partem dis- 
putari et dici possit." Schneider. Stahr 
agrees : " was fur beide Ansichten 
Griinde aufzustellen verstattet." The 
arguments run into one another, and 
the confusion that arises enables both 
sides plausibly to maintain their re- 
spective positions. 

trepl TOV StKatov] ' about the right,' 
whether it is right or no. 

4 5ta TOVTO] 'because of this dis- 

tird diaa-TavTuv'] Stahr differs as to 
this passage, and construes it: "Since 
now of these opposed views, the 
grounds alleged in support of the one, 
viz. that the superior in excellence 
ought not therefore to rule and govern, 
cannot hold, and have no power to con- 
vince in them, therefore &c.," taking 

away the stop at Sevirbfriv and making 
6'Xws 5^ the apodosis. I refer Siaa-Tav- 
TUV to the distinction between the two 
views, x w />'S t the distinction between 
the two together and the third. 

/car' apeTfy] ' By virtue of its excel- 

dpxfw Kal 5e<r7r6few] opposed to 
KpaTovv and /3iafe<r#c, and this oppo- 
sition must be kept in sight carefully. 

5 d'/ui ' o$ (pa<ru>~\ 'But at the 
same time they virtually deny it.' 

el 8 ^-fj] ( if otherwise.' 

6 CLVTOVS (3ov\oi>Tai] ( The Greeks do 
not intend to speak of themselves as 
slaves, they never think of themselves 
in that light, but only the barbarians.' 

avdyK-rj yap (frdvat] ' For they must 
allow that there are some who are 
slaves wherever they are, others just 
the contrary.' 

I. 6.] nOAITIKHN A. 21 

Tivas (bavai TOV$ /u.ev TravTavov oov\ov$ TOVS S* ov<$aju.ov. ^ aver y- 
TOV avTov ^e Tpoirov Kal Trepl evyevelag' avTOv? /men yap 7 
ov IJLOVOV 'Trap avTois evyevei? a\\a iravTayov VOJULI^OVCTIV, 
roy? ^e /3ap/3dpov$ O'IKOL (JLOVOV, w? ov TL TO /xei/ aVXco? 
evyeves Kal eXeuOepov TO o* ov% aVXcos-, wcrTrep ij 0eo^e/croy 

TIS av 

ditoo'ciev \drpiv 5 

orav Se TOVTO \eytoaiv, ovOevl aXX' 1} apeTy KCU fcuda <$io- 8 
p[^ovari TO $ov\ov ical eXeuOepov KCU TOV$ evyeveis KOI roy? 
$v<ryevei<s. a^tovcri yap, &O"JFp e avOpwTrov avOpcoTrov Kal 1255 B 
CK Oqplcov ylvea-Oat Orjplov, OVTW Kal e ayaOcov ayaOov % 
v<ri$ /3ov\Tat ]u.ev TOVTO TTOieiv TToXXa/cf?, ou jmevTOi Sv- 
. "Ori ju.ev ovv e^ei Tiva \6yov rj afJi(pi(T/3^Trjari^ Kal 9 
owe eltrlv ol ju,ev <pv<rei SovXot ol o*' eXevOepoi, SfjXoV Kal OTC 
ev TICTI SitfiplGTCU TO TOIOVTOV, wv <rvjUL<pepei rc5 ju.ev TO (5ou- 
\eveiv TU> Se TO Setrtro^etv, Kal HKCUOV, Kal $ei TO jmev ap- 
TO o 9 ap-^civ, fjv 7re<pvKaariv ap-^v ap%etv 9 coo-re KOI 
tv. TO $6 /ca/cco? acrvjuLfpopcog ecrrlv ajuupotv TO yap 10 

v] = <pv<rei. Comp. Etk. V. 10. 
(7) i. p. 1134. b 19, (pvviKov rb 
Travraxov TT]v avTTjv ?x ov Sfoafuv ; and 
again, a little below in the same chap- 
ter, rb / (fttitrei aKivrjTOv Kal 7ravTa%oO 
TT\V avr^v t-xei ^VVCL^LV, uairep rb irvp 
Ko.1 &6a5e Kal & Htpaais Kalet. 

7 GeoS^/crou] Theodectes of Phaselis, 
a pupil and friend of Aristotle, a rhe- 
torician and dramatic writer. 

8 6rav 8e TOVTO \tyu<riv] ' The use 
of language of this sort does in fact 
make the distinctions between slave 
and free, well born and low born, 
depend on moral differences,' and as- 
sumes that those moral differences are 
hereditary and ineffaceable. There 
may be a tendency to the perpetuation 
of such distinctions in man, says Ari- 
stotle, but it is by no means always a 
tendency that becomes a law. ' ' Fortes 
creantur fortibus etbonis," is anything 

but universally true. 

9 The result then is, that the objec- 
tion to the conclusion of ch. 5 is 
allowed not to be without ground, and 
that it is true that some are not by 
nature slaves, others by nature free, if 
you interpret aright the some and the 
others, ol, ol 5 

& T<n] 'in certain cases the distinc- 
tion is drawn.' 

fy ire<j)VKacriv apxyv] 'with the power 
for which they are naturally qualified, 
consequently with that of a master 
over slaves, if they are qualified for it.' 
As the rest of the sentence stands, 
vtyvK&f would have been more regu- 
lar, or the omission of the last dpxew 
would be desirable ; but in any case the 
sense is clear. 

10 Tb o K-a/ccDs] 'That the power 
should be badly exercised is against 
the interests of both equally, a/j.<poii'.' 




Slavery. a y T Q cru]UL(pepi ru> ftepei KOI roT oXw Koi (rcofMan Kol 
6 $e SovXos juiepos n rov <W7roTOf, ofov ep^vyov 

e ju.epo$. Sio KOI (rvju.(j)epov e 
irpos aXXyXovg TO?? 

TL rov 

(biXta SovXw Kal 





iavOeia-i, TOVVO.VTLOV. 


reia Kal TroXtTiKy, ov$e Tracrai aXX>JXat? at ap^ai, tocnrep 
Tiveg cbacrtv. n M^ T^j cXevOepwv (pvcrei rj $e SovXwv eaniv, 
KOI f) /xei/ OIKOVOJULIK}] {Jiovapyia (ju.ovapxeira.1 yap Tra? of/co?), 
2 fj Se TroXiTiKri eXevOepwv KOI 'icrwv apyfj. A O IJLGV ovv Secnro- 
ov Xeyerai /car' eTncrni/^i', aXXa TW TOIO<T$ 
Se KOI 6 SovXos Kal 6 eXevOepo?. eTTicrTrjM & av 

Sib Kal] 'As there is this relation be- 
tween the slave and master, there is 
also some common interest between 
the two, and good feeling towards one 
another in all cases where nature dic- 
tates this relation, rotfrtoj' 0&ret i^tw^- 
vois ; when this is not the case, but 
they stand related as master and slave 
only by law and force, then there is no 
common interest, no opening for affec- 
tion.' Compare Eth, VIII. xiii. 6, 7. p. 
1 1 6 1, 30 sqq. on the existence of friend- 
ship between master and slave, where 
the relation in itself scarcely receives 
so favourable a judgment. 

VII. He has stated what a slave is 
in his view, and that slavery is an in- 
stitution natural and desirable, without 
denying that there are cases when it is 
not so. He returns in this chapter to 
a point which was touched on in ch. i, 
and again in ch. 3, 4 : Is the govern- 
ment of slaves a science, is it further 
identical with the government of a 
household and a state, are all govern- 
ments in short identical ? The answer 
to this last is, he thinks, evident, from 
what has been said. The government 

differs with the difference of the go- 
verned, ch. 5, 2, etdi) TroXAa. So the 
government of the free will differ from 
that of the slave. And all govern- 
ments are not identical, for whilst a 
family is a monarchy, political govern- 
ment is the rule over free and equal 
men. The former leaves no freedom 
to its subjects, but the will of the head 
is supreme law, the latter allows for 
the idea of freedom. 

i /car' ^Tria-T'fi/ji'rjv'] 'because of any 
knowledge that he has, but simply be- 
cause he is such, a master ;' it is the 
statement of a fact, an actual relation, 
not involving any qualifications. 

^TTKTTT^IT; 5' av Gtrf] ' Still you may 
speak of a science with reference to 
masters and slaves.' The knowledge 
which slaves require to make them 
good servants may be called ^ifiarf]^t] 
SovXiK'/}. The knowledge which a mas- 
ter requires for the right use of slaves 
would be iriVT'f)itf(} Se<nroTiKif). But 
when possible this is transferred to 
subordinates. Distinct from both these 
branches of knowledge stands a third, 
the acquisition of slaves. 

I. 7.] HDAIT1KQN A. 

Kal $e<T7roTiKt] Kal <$ov\iKy, $ov\tKrj iu.ev oiav irep 6 ev 

Kovo-at? eTraidevev eKei yap Xajm/Bdvcov TI<S juuarOov eSl( 

TO, eyKVK\ia $iaKOvy]u.aTa TOV$ 7raiSa$. ir\ $ av Kal eTrl 3 

irXeiov TCOV TOIOVTWV jUidOtjcris, oiov O^SOTTOIIK}] Kal rcfXXa 

TO, TOiavTa yevrj Trjs oiaKOViag. ecm yap eTepa eTepwv TO, 

jmev evTijuiOTepa epya TO, o* avayKaiOTepa, Kal /cara 


8ov\os irpb SouXov, SeoTrdrj/s Trpo 




6 yap 

- 4 

at pev ovv TOiavrai Tracrai 

TLKYj (? eTTHTTq/Uir] <TT\V 

OVK ev T<W KracrOai TOVS Sov\ov$ y aXX' ev TW xpfjcrOai Sou- 
earn $ avrtj % 7rt<TTtjiuui ovfiev jmeya e^oucra ovSe 
a yap rov $ov\ov eTricrracrOaL Set Troielv, eKelvov del 
Tavra eTrla-TacrOat ciriTaTTeiv. Sio ocroi? e^ovcria fJLtj av- 5 
TOV? KaKOTraOeiv, eTT/TjOOTro? \a]UL/3dvei Tavryv TYJV rifJLyv, 
avTol Se TToXiTeuovrai rj (f)i\o<TO<pov<riv. rj Se KTtjTtKt] ere pa 
ajUL(poTep(iw TOVTCW, oiov ^ SiKaia, TroXe/uLiK^ rig ovcra *? 
OqpevriKq. TI.epl JULCV ovv SovXov Kal <^ea"7roTOU TOVTOV SLO)- 

plO-0a) TOV TpOTTOV. 

c/ OXw? <5e Trepl Tracr*!? KTrjcrecos Kal ^prjfjiaTiarTiKtjs Oew- 8 1256 
prjcrovfJLev Kara TOV v<prjyrj/m.evov TpoTrov, eTreiTrep KOI 6 Sov\o$ 


the or- 
dinary services, the common duties of 

3 SoOAos 717)6 SotfXoi'] Philemon the 
elder. Suidas under irpb. Meineke, 
Com. Grcec. iv. p. 16, takes it as avrL 
I should construe it as, ' one slave is 
before anothef better than.' 

5 rift-riv] 'this office.' 

TroXiTevovrai 17 0tXo(ro0oO(rt^] 'mix in 
political life, or cultivate speculative 
studies,' the two alternatives for the 
Greek freeman. 

KTip-LKri} Comp. below, ch. viil. 

TOI/TWJ'] Seo-TTort/cr/ Kal dov\iKri. 

oiov i] SiKala] 'I mean that art of 

acquiring slaves which is just and 

VIII. i The slave was singled out 
from other property as resting on other 
grounds, and requiring quite a sepa- 
rate discussion. He now turns from 
the %fJL\l/vxov to the dtyvxov ftpyavov, 
from the living to the lifeless instru- 
ment, so to complete the subject of 
property, KT^CTIS, which is by I. IV. 3, 
7rA?7#o$ dpydvuv. 

twdTrep] the method he had adopted 
in the treatment of the slave he would 
naturally continue in the treatment of 
the rest of property. 




/u.ev ovv 


Property. Tf? TrOTCpOV *] ^pt]jULaTl(TTlK^ *] aVTrj Ty OlKOVOJULlKfj (TT\V *J 
Tl tj VTTtJpeTlKq, Kal 1 VTTrjpeTlKq, TTOTCpOV ft)? rj K6pKl- 
J T{] V(f)aVTlKfj tf ft)? rj ^a\KOVpyiK^ TJ CtvSpiaVTO- 

ov yap ftxraimo? vTrtjpeTOvcriv, aXX' 37 jmev opyava 
rj &e Tqv v\yv. \cyct) <^e vXqv TO vTrotceljuLevov, e 
ov TI a7roTe\tTai epyov, olov vcfidvTy fJLev epia, av^piavTO- 

fj.ev yap TO 7ropi(ra(r6ai, r^? 
i- r/9 yap eWat rj ^o^o-OyWeV^y TO?? /cara 
Trapa TY\V oiKovojuuKyv ; TroTepov 3e yuejOO? avTrjs 
eTepov ei$o?, e^ei dia/ULfaar/ByTrja-iv. el yap ecrrt 
Occoprjcrai TroOev xpyimaTa Kal KTtjang 
e KTtjcris TroXXa 7repiei\tj<pe jULeprj Kal 6 TrXouro?* 

WCTTC TTpWTOV ff yeUtpyiKr] TTOTCpOV /U.pO$ TL T^9 %pr]jULaTl- 

(TTiKys if eTepov TI yevos, Kal KaOoXov rj Trepl Ttjv Tpo(pt}v 
4 7rijUL6\eia Kal KTtjari? ; aXXa MV elSrj ye TroXXa Tpoffi?, 
$10 Kal (3loi TroXXol KOI TCOV ft>W Kal TWV avOputTTCw eicriv 


3 earr TI 

ov yap olov TG ^rjv avev Tpoffis, wcrre at $ia(popal 

Trorepov T] x/ 3 ' ) 7A taTt < J " ri ' c ^] There are 
three questions : is the art of acquiring 
property identical with the art of ma- 
naging a family ? or, sndly, is it a part 
of it ? or, 3rdly, is it instrumental to it ? 
Adopt this last, and there still remains 
the distinction as to the mode in which 
it is instrumental. The first is an- 
swered in the negative. 

KepKi5otrouicr]~] 'the art of making 

2 Trapa rty olKOvofAUcfiv] ' besides, ' 
or ' if it be not.' 

erepov eTSos] 'distinct in kind,' "une 
science & part." St Hil. 

^X'] ( involves a 
thorough discussion,' to get at the dif- 
ferent senses. 

3 el ydp fori] Grant that it is the 
province of him who has to provide 
wealth to consider from what sources 
he is to acquire money and property, 

(r^s /*& yap TO iroplffa.<r0ai) yet this 
does not clear up the point ; property 
and wealth are terms of wide extent. 
Many branches may come under them 
with which we are not concerned, and 
each branch may require consideration. 
So that some xPW aTI - ffTlK ^ ma y be 
within the province of the otK6vo/Jios, 
whilst the larger part of it is not. And 
the first and most natural branch is 
that of agriculture, as concerned with 
the food of man. In fact it would be 
as well to generalise at once, and con- 
sider all such occupations as concern 
the food of men, Kal Ka66\ou i] irepi rrp 

4 aXXa ft-//?] ( Not however that this 
question of food is simple ; the food of 
men differs widely as does that of ani- 
mals, and according to the difference 
of food is the difference of life.' 

I. 8.] 




Te yap Orjpicov TOL juLev dyeXaia TO. Se crTropaSiKO. ca-nv, 5 
oTTOTepcos <rvjui(pepei irpos Trjv Tpocfirjv avTOis, <$ia TO TO. 
JULCV ^wocpdya TO. $e Kap7ro<pdya 



TOV<S /5/ou? avTcov fiiwpurev. eTrel 





KGL(TTU) *V KCITO. ()V(TlV a Tpa TepOl$, KOt GLVTWV 

^(fxxpdyow KOL TWV Kap7ro(f)dy(ii)v ol /3loi Trpos a\\t]\a 
$ie<TTa<riv. 6/>io/a)9 ^e KOL TOW avOpcoirwv 7ro\v yap $ia(j)- 6 
povo-iv ol TOVTCOV /Blot, ol /Jiev ouv apyoTaTOi 
f] yap OLTTO TCOV qfJLepcov Tpo<prj 
a"^o\d^ov<7LV dvajKaiov $ oi/ro? 

$ia ra? vo^ag KOL avTol avayKaCovTai crvvaKoXovOeiv, 
yccopyiav ^cocraj/ yewpyovvTe?. ol <? CLTTO 6ypa$ ^axri, KOLI 7 
6rjpa<s TepOL Tepa$, olov ol IJLGV aTro X^crre/a?, ol $ d(j) 
aXte/a?, OCTOL X/yui/a? /cat e\rj KOI Trora/xoi'? y OdXaTTav 


TTpocroiKOviriv, ol o* CLTT opviOcov $ Otjptwv dypicov. 

yevos TU>V 


5 pcumij'as] 'facilities.' TOTLTTUV = 
Tpo07}s. The plural pronoun seems to 
me quite in keeping with his usually 
rather lax use of the pronouns, in- 
fluenced here perhaps by the plural 
involved in the terms fyo<f>dya, &c. 

6 TroXi) yap] Aristotle accounts for 
the different modes of life by reference 
to the difference of food ; for that the 
modes of life do differ widely is a simple 

Aristotle seems to put the nomad, 
pastoral life the lowest, on the ground 
that it requires the least exertion. To 
him also the hunter life would rise in 
proportion, as under it is placed the 
catching of slaves, whose importance 
he could not underrate. Later writers 
on the same subject put the hunter low- 

t. I need only refer to M. Dunoyer, 
Liberte du Travail, Vol. I. Compare 
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, In- 

troduction, or Mill's Political Economy, 
Introd. Chapter. The ground is its 
uncertain character and its alternations 
of extreme fatigue and indulgence, 
tending to degrade the man. 

rots KTfyea-i] depends on toayKatov. 
'The cattle require change for their pas- 
ture, the men are compelled to move 
with them, for the field they cultivate 
has, as it were, life and motion,' "un 
champ vivant." 

7 ctTrd Xflcrrei'as] This quiet mention 
of privateering or piracy, the buccaneer 
life, is illustrated by Od. IX. 254, for 
the earlier period of Greece, and by 
Thuc. I. 5 for a later period than 
Homer's and for the continental tribes 
of his own day, of whom he says o?s 
K6o>tos AcaXtDs TOVTO Spav. Compare also 
II. 32, for the Locrians in. 51. 

' Such as suits for fishing.' 



Property. T ^ 


Ol /u.ev ovv /3ioi ToarovTOi 
8 ei(Tiv, ocroi ye avTO(pvTOv e^ova-i Ttjv epyacriav Kal 



1256 B d\\ay>j$ Kal /caTr^Xe/a? Troplfyvrai TV\V Tpocfitjv, 

os, XyarTpiKos, d\ievTtKos 9 OtjpevTiKos* ol 

eK TOVTWV rjfiecos jjwcn, TrpoffavaTrXypovvTe? TOV 
/3lov, y Tvy^dvei eXXeiTrwv 7rpo$ TO avTapKys 
eivai, OLOV ol /mev voimadiKOV apa KOI \ycrTpiKOv, ol $e yecop- 
9 yucov Kal OtjpevTiKov. OJULOIWS $e Kal ^repl TOV? aXXou?, w? 
av r] X/ et/a wvavayKafy, TOVTOV TOV Tpoirov 
'H fj.ev ovv TOiavTt] KTtjan? vir avTtj? (paiveTai r?9 
$iSo/u.6vr) Tracriv, wffTrep /cara TJJV TrpcoTrjv yeveviv ev6v$, OI/TW 
10 Kal Te\t(09ei(riv. Kal yap KUTOL Trjv e >/|0^? yeveariv TO, 

Tpo<prjv a)? iKavyv eivai 
i^eiv TO yevvqOev, olov 

6Va a-KwXrjKOTOKei fj woTOKei' ova oe ^iworo/cef, TO?? 76^0- 
imevois e-^ei Tpocfitjv cv avTOi? ^XP 1 Tiv o$> T n v T v KO\OV- 
JULGVOV yd\aKTO$ (pvariv. coVre OJULOIWS <$tj\ov OTI Kal yevojme- 
oirjTeov TO. re (f)VTa TWV 'Cwwv cvKev elvai, Kal raXXa 
TOJV dvOpcoTrwv "^dpiv, TO, ju.ev qftepa Kal Sia 
iv Kal 3ia Tt]v Tpo<pyv, TWV o* dyptwv, el / 


8 aMtpvrov ^XOUCTI TTJV tpya.(riai>] 
' all, that is, that depend on their own 
unaided labour,' their native industry 
merely, and do not look to barter and 
trade. This is the primitive and lower 
stage of social development, and is re- 
presented by the Arab of the desert, 
the piratical tribes of the Malay Ar- 
chipelago, the Esquimaux, and the 
Bed Indian. For, ai/T6(f>vTov, native, 
self-grown, see Liddell and Scott, Lex. 
where the word avrovpyla, is quoted as 
equivalent to the expression afiro^vrov 

fttyvvi'Tes'] Practically this is the 
general rule ; rarely do we find an 
entire exclusion of barter. And the 
precariousness of the hunter's life ren- 
ders the admixture of tillage almost 

9 ws &v T) xpefa] 'just as their 
wants may compel them, so do they 
frame their life.' 

rotai/r?;] ( property in this sense is 
evidently given to all by Nature her- 
self, not merely at once, at the very 
moment of their birth, but also when 
they are arrived at maturity.' 

10 (rKuXrjKOTOKei 17 ^oro/cei] I have 
no knowledge of natural history, but it 
would seem that the term vermiparous 
is obsolete, that in fact oviparous and 
viviparous are exhaustive. 

^oro/cet] 'all viviparous creatures 
have in themselves a certain supply of 
food for their young in the shape of 
that which is called milk.' 

1 1 yevon&oii\ = Te\eiu6ei(riv, 9. 
Compare v. 5. 5, dj>pd<n 

I. 8.] 



dXXa ra ye TrXelvra rrjs rpoffis. Kal a\\rjg /BotjOeiag 
eveicev, 'iva KCU e<r6r]9 Kal a'XXa opyava yivtjrai cj* avrcov. 
el ovv rj (j)v<ri$ ju.t]0ev jm^re dreXe? Troiet pyre jmaTqv, dvay- 12 
Kalov TOOV dvOpwTTWv evcKcv QVTa TTGLVTa TTeTTOirjKevai Ttjv 
(fivcriv. $10 Kal rj TToXejULiKtj (pvcrei KTrjTiKrj TTW? correct. r\ 
yap OrjpevTiKij ju.epo$ auV/??, y Set xptjvOat irpos re ra 
Orjpia, Kal TWV dvOpunrcov ocroi TrecfrvKores ap^ea-Oat fj,rj 
OeXovcriv, w? cfivcrei SiKatov TOVTOV ovra TOV TroXeyUoi/. rt Ej> 13 
juiev ovv eT^o? KT^-n/cJj? Kara <^V<TIV T^? OLKOVO/ULIKJJS ju.epo$ 
<TTIV o Set %TOI v-jrapyeiv rj TropiQiv avrrjv OTTW? vTrdp^rj, 
wv ecrrl Orja-avpicrjULos ^oy/>taTft)i/ Trpo? Qoyv dvajKaiwv Kal 

el? Koivwviav 7roXea)9 % QtKiOQ. Kal eoiKev o y 14 

yap T? 
OVK aireipos ecmv, 

TrXoUTO? K TOVTdOV etVctf. 

ACT^crew? avTapKeia irpos dyaOyv ^ 
cocrTreo 2oXeoy (brja 

TrXovrov 8* ou^ej/ 

Keirat yap wcnrep Kal ra?? a'XXcu? 
opyavov aTreipov ovfiejuiids ea-rl 
fjieyeOei, 6 <$e 7rXouro9 djoyavwi/ ir\ij06$ evTiv OIKOVOJUUKWV 

ovSev yap 15 



12 dreX^s] 'incomplete.' Compare 
below, xiii. u, 6 TTCUJ dreX-^s. 

5i6 Kal -f] TToXe/ttKT) <f>faei] 'War then, 
so far as it is natural, or an institution 
of nature, will be a certain form of the 
art of acquiring ; for war includes, as a 
branch of it, the hunter's art, which 
you are bound to employ against the 
animals, and also against all men who 
naturally calculated for subjects are in- 
clined to dispute this decree of nature ; 
and you are bound to do this on the 
ground that war for such an object is 
naturally just.' Compare IV. n. 15. 
"La guerre est un moyen naturel 
d'acque'rir," says StHil., construing the 

13 'One form then of the art of ac- 
quiring property is a branch of (Eco- 
nomics.' So far we have got. 

6 5, K.T.X.] Tor there must either 

be already in existence, or it must take 
measures that there exist a supply of 
those things which are necessary for 
life, and useful for the association of 
men either in states or families, and 
which admit of accumulation.' 5, 
'quod,' does not lose its relative 

14 Kal ZoiKev] 'and wealth, so far 
as it is true wealth, or wealth in its 
true sense, is composed of these ob- 

?) ydp] 'I say a\i]6iv6s, for there 
are two kinds, and the adequate sup- 
ply of such property as this is not, in 
the language of Solon, without a 

Solon : ReUiquwe. Fr. XII. ed. Bergk. 
It is also given with a slight variation 
in the fragments of Theognis, 227. 

True wealth is a means to an end, 

28 nOAITIKQN A. [Lis. 

Property. Ka * Tro\iTiKU>v. "Ort fJiev TOivvv (TTi Tf? KTtjTiKr] /caret 
ro?? OIKOVOJULOIS Kal rof? 7ro\iTiKoi9, Kal cV ^ 

qv fj.d\i<TTa 

9 "Ecm Se yevos aXXo 

T/H * 5" >-v 

I2 57 /ecu oiKatov avTO Ka\eiv, 

irepas ctvai TT\OVTOV KOI KTqcreax}' fjv w? fj-iav KOL T^V 

& A fl>* 5 1 > 

oi r\v ovoev oo/ca 



avTtj rr eiptjjuevy ovre Troppw Ktvr]$ 
JULCV (f)v<rei r\ $ ov (pvcrei avrcov, aXXa < 
2 KCU Teyvrjs yiverai ima\\ov. \a/3a)ju.ev $e Trepl 
ap-^rjv evrevOev. eicda-TOV yap KTV/ULCLTOS 
ecrrtj/, dfJ,<poTpat $e Ka&* avro jmev aXX' 
avTo, aXX' *) fjiev oiKeta y & OVK oiKeia TOV Trj 

T VTToSeCTlS KOI Y] jU.eTa/3\r}TlKq. 





\pqcrei$. Kal yap 6 aXXarro/xei/o? 

3 repai yap 
ra? Seojuev 

T(p vTrourKJLoiTi y vTroorjfjLa, aXX' ov TV\V oiKeiav ypfjcriv ov 
yap dX\ayrjs eveKev yeyovev. TOV avrov Se TpOTrov e^ei 

4 Kal irep} TWV aXXwi/ /cr^arwi/. ecrri yap rj jULeTa/BXrjriKtj 

, dp^afJLevrj TO ju-ev 7rpu>TOV e/c TOV /caret (pixriv, TU> 

but it is absurd to suppose a means 
without a limit. 

15 tin Tolvvv] This concluding 
clause, like the similar one at the end 
of Ch. V., gives Aristotle's positive 
conclusion. So far as wealth is looked 
on as the command of the necessary 
instruments for family and political 
life, so far the science that treats of it 
is one in accordance with nature, and 
properly within the province of the 
political writer. 

5t' YIV airLoiv] 'the grounds on which.' 

IX. I 7&os d'XXo] the Zrepov e?5os 
of VIII. 2, Ch. VIII. having given 
us the yic^pos. 

81' 'fjv] ' And it is this species that 
has given rise to the opinion that 
wealth and property have no limit.' 

TT]V yeiTvlaffiv] = yetTwtav, 'neigh- 
bourhood,' 'near connexion of the 

ou <f>6aei] It is not the necessary 
accompaniment of society in any shape; 
it is rather the result of experience, 
the result, in fact, of the sense of need 
and the wish to remedy that need. 
This remedying of a need felt is the 
object of art. Compare Ethics, I. iv. 
15. p. 1097, 5, Trdcrat yd,p TO 

2 i) /ueTa/3X?7Ti/oj] sc. xpT/cris. ' The 
use of it as a shoe, and its use in 

3 ov ydp dXXayijs ZveKtv 7^70^0'] 
True of its ultimate, but not of its 
primary, destination. 

4 ap'^a^vrj, K.T.\.] Aristotle allows 
the natural origin of commerce. It is 




TO. fJLev irXeia) ra Se eXarrw TWV LKOLVU>V e-^eiv TOV<S dv6pu>- Property. 
TTOVS. y Kal $rj\ov OTI OVK (m (pvcrei rrfs xpyimaTitrTiKij? 
r] Ka7rrj\iK^' ocrov yap iKavov auro??, avajKalov yv iroiei- 
crOai Ttjv d\\ayqv. 'El/ ju.v ovv Ty 7rpu>Trj KOIVWVIO. 5 
(rotrro $ earrlv OLKIO) (pavepov on ovSev C<JTLV epyov avTtj9 9 
dXX' fySij irXeiovos Trjs KOivwvias ouarrjs. 01 IULCV yap TU>V 
ov eKOivwvovv TravTGW, OL $e Ke^MpicrjULevoi TroXXcoi/ ira\iv 
erepwv cov /cara ra9 ^e/Jcref? dvajKalov iroietcrOai ra? 
ef?, KaOaTrep CTL TroXXa Troiet Kal TCOV /3ap/3apiK(*)v 
eOvcov, Kara T^V aXKayqv. avra yap ra ^p^a-i/m.a TT^O? 6 
aura AcaraXXaTTO^Taf, eirl ir\eov 8 ovOev, olov olvov irpo? 

(TITOV 8t8oVTf Kttl \a{J.^dvOVT^ KOt TWV aXXft)!/ TtoV TOiOU- 

avTOv. 'H ]u,ev ovv TOiavTt] ywera/3X/T//cJ7 ovre irapa 
ovre 'iiju.aTKTTiKrjs ecrrlv el$o$ ovdev eiy 

a question of degree into which it re- 
solves itself. 

eXdrrw T&V iK.a.vG>v~\ Here is the sense 
of want (rb evdeh), and that want is 
the result of a natural arrangement. 
So man naturally seeks a remedy, and 
art or skill steps in. 

TTJS xpTjyttaTt/TTi/cTjs] in its true sense, 
that of the last chapter, which in 18 
he speaks of as aixtyKalas oiKovofUKrjs 
Kara <pv<riv TT}S irepl TTJV rpofirjv. 

TI KaTrrjKiK-ff] retail trade seems the 
common sense, but it may here well 
stand for trade in general. 

6Voj' ydp~\ ' Had it been so, the ex- 
change would have ceased when it had 
reached the point of supplying the de- 
ficiency felt.' But where is the limit 
to be fixed what is r6 iKa.i>6v ? Look- 
ing at the human race as a whole con- 
nected, amongst other bonds, by this 
powerful one of mutual wants, of need 
of mutual service, any attempt to say 
where the limit of trade shall be seems 
arbitrary, and leads to endless difficul- 
ties. It will be always a question of 
practical sense. 

5 ovdfr tanv tpyov avTTJs] 'There is 
no opening for it.' CU/TTJS = TTJS 

17677 irXdovos, K.T.X.] ' only when the 
intercourse is on a more extended 

ot (Jt.h ydp, K.T.X.] sc. ev rrj olKlg., 
'had all things in common.' 

ol 5^, K.r.X.] The others by virtue 
of their being apart would have, looked 
at as a whole, many things in common 
(eKow&vovv TroXXwi/), but different parts 
of the whole would have different parts 
of that common stock (KO! erfywv). 
These different objects they would 
want, and would necessarily be led to 
exchange one with the other, and 
would adopt the method yet in use 
among many of the barbarous nations, 
namely, actual barter. Such, para- 
phrased, seems the sense of the pas- 
sage. But Aristotle does not seem to 
see with sufficient clearness that this is 
what all commerce ultimately is, and 
ever must be, an exchange of objects of 
use, 'un troc des produits.' It is 
only to facilitate this that the compli- 
cated commercial system of his own or 
of our times has been introduced. 

6 ;xp?7/iaTt(m/c?7$] 'The art of making 
money.' Here used in its bad sense, 







<pv<Tiv avTapKetag ijv. CK 

7 TavTif]<s eyeveT eKeivrj /cara \6yov. ^eviKCOTepa? yap yivo- 
/uievqs TJ;? /3o*]6ela$ TW elcrayeorOai wv evoeeis Kal 
wv 7r\eova^ov 9 e^ dvdyKrjg q TOV vojuLifffJiaTOS 
yjpfj(ris. ov yap ev/Bda-TaKTOv Ka<TTOv TCOV fcara (pv<riv 
dvayKaicov Sio Trpos ra? d\\aya$ TOIOVTOV TI crvveOevTO 
TTjOo? cr(^ag avTOvs oioovai Kal \a[JL/3dveiv, o TCOV 
avTO ov er^e TTJV yjpeiav evjuLeTa^eipicrTov TTjOO? TO 


KOL apyvpos, KCLV el TI TOIOVTOV farepov, 

irpwTOv ct-TrXa)? opi&Oev jmeyedei Kal <rrafta<, TO 
Tatov KOI 

TO jULev 

f iva 

and as equivalent to KaTnj\uc/i, 4, 
and X. 4, and to the yueTajSX^riK^s of 
the same section. 

ei's dvairX'/ipciHrtv] So there was a 
previous want felt ; this appears from 
Eth. X. iii. 6. p. 1173 B 7. 

XT}* /card, 0&rw aurapKefas] 'It is 
needed to enable man to attain his full 
completeness, to gratify all his natural 
wants' a state which though /card 
<j>fow he is conceived not to have at- 
tained. Compare the expression TTJS 
fow ews, Eth. VII. xiii. 3. p. 

7 rai5r'?7s] is the rota^Tt) 
Tc?J ^/ce^ is the 

/card \6yov, by a natural sequence, 'as 
a logical consequence there arose ano- 
ther kind.' Compare Eth. I. xi. 4. p. 
noo, 23. T\evT7jcrai'Ti /caroi X67ov. 

'more widely extended.' 
Some medium became 
absolutely indispensable. 

8 otf ydp, /c.T.X.] ' Something more 
portable was required, the majority of 
commodities being very inconvenient 
in this respect.' 

6 TWV "XprjffiftWt Ac.r.X.] 'which it- 
self was something useful for the daily 
purposes of life, and was in use easily 

'by size and 


XapaKTypa ^7Tij8aXX6vrwv] ' deter- 
mined in value by men putting a 
stamp upon it, in order that it may 
save them from the trouble of weigh- 
ing it.' 

Compare Adam Smith, Bk. I. ch. iv. 
and for this actual definition Michel 
Chevalier, Vol. III. ch. iii. p. 36. It 
is very good as a definition. It takes 
for money something which is an arti- 
cle of commerce, and capable at the 
same time of becoming a medium of 
exchange. "Aristote," says M. Che- 
valier, " dont le nom e'tait entourd 
d'un si grand respect pendant les 
siecles du moyen age, n'avait cepen- 
dant point admis la notion d'apres la- 
quelle la monnaie ne serait qu'un signe. 
II avait au contraire, parfaitement ex- 
posd dans sa Politique, 1'origine de la 
monnaie, et il en avait bien determine' 
les caracteres principaux. On en jugera 
par 1'extrait suivant." He then quotes 
M. St Hilaire's translation of the pas- 
sage, and adds: "En ces termes la 
question est admirablement pose'e et 
re'solue en mme temps. II n'y a de 
signe dans la monnaie que 1'empreinte 
qu'elle porte, et sous ce signe il y a 
inse'parablement la substance." 

I. 90 



/ \ x //\ ^ /v 

avTOvs* o ^ap %apaKTt]p eTeOrj TOU TTOVOV 
0-rjim.eiov. TTOpiarOevTOS ovv vSy yoyCu'cr/xaTOS 1 e/c T?? dva / y/ca/a9 9 1257 B 
d\\ay% OcLTepov ef^o? T$? xpmuLaTiarTiKrj? eyeveTO, TO 
/caTrjyXfKoV, TO yuei/ TrpwTOv aVX<? iVw? yivo/mevov, elra Si 
e/ULTreipia? %$r] Te^viKWTepoV) 7r66ev Kal TTWS fJLeTa/BaXKo/uievov 

7T\l(TTOV 7TOiq<Tl Kp$O$. SlO SoKCl tj ^O^aTt(TT(AC>7 fJLOL- IO 

\iarra irepi TO vojU-ia-juLct eTvaf, Kal epyov avTrjs TO SvvaarOai 
6ea)prj(rai iroQev ecrTai 7T\fj6os xprjjULaTW TroiyTiKrj yap 
TToAAa/a? Ti6ea<ri vofJ.tcrju.aTos 7r\ijOo$, Sia TO Trepl TOVT 
eivai Trjv xptjju.aTKTTiKtjv KOI T*JV Ka7rt]\iKqv. oTe Se TraXiv n 
\tjpos eivai SOKCI TO v6ju.i(7fjt.a Kal i/o/xo9 TravTaTracn, (pvcrei 
& ovOev, OTI fJLeraOefJLGVWv T TWV ^pwjuievcov ovOevos aj~iov 
ovSe xptjcrifjiov TT^oo? ovSev TWV dvayKaiwv eo-W, Kal vojmicr- 
/XGITO? TrXourwi/ -rroXXa/cf? aTroprjo'ei Ttjs dvayKaias Tpo(pijv 


, KaOdirep Kal TOV M/^ai/ CKCIVOV ju.v6o\oyov<ri Sia 
d7r\*]<TTiav Trj'S eu^ft TrdvTtov avTw yiyvopevcov TWV 

9 iroptcrOtvTos o$v, Ac.r.X.] 'When 
then money had been already intro- 
duced on the demand of this neces- 
sary species of exchange.' This is one 
rendering of the IK, or it may be, as a 
second step in the process, ' from this 
necessary exchange there arose the 
second species.' 

rb K(nrri\t.K6v] 'Trade.' 

aTrAcDs !'(rws yiv6/j,evov] 'simple per- 
haps in its forms.' 

rexviKdrepov'] 'more systematic,' or 
' scientific,' I. 3. 

fjiTa(3a\\6/j,evov] sc. rb v6fu<r/ji.a. 

10 Atd 5o/cet, K.r.X.] And this lat- 
ter species absorbs the name, for in 
proportion as x/ 37 7A tart " rt ' f ^ becomes 
more reduced to a system it seems to 
pay more and more attention to money 
as the higher and more difficult part of 
the art. irepl 5 rb "xaXeir&Tepov del Kal 
T^X"? ytverai Kal apery ' Kal yap rb eS 
ptXriov $v rot/ry. Eth. II. ii. 10. p. 

1105, 9. 

tpyov afar}*] Compare Eth. VI. 
iv. 4. p. 1140, II. T^XVIJ irdffa irepl 
yfre<riv Kal rb rexyafciv Kal rb Gewpetv 
tiirus av yfrijrai, K.T.\. Compare also 
Khet. i. ii. i. p. 1355, B 16. 

Troi'TjTLK-r)'] This again brings it under 
r^xytj, whose definition is Eth. VI. iv. 

3. p. II4O, IO, 2lS TTOtrjTlK^. 

Kal ydp, K.T.X.] 'for indeed not un- 
frequently men identify wealth with 
money ;' the thing signified with the 
sign ; the exchangeable property with 
the instrument of exchange. An old 
error of very great tenacity. 

ii v6/Aos] 'merely conventional.' 
'nothing.' The substantival 

tin, K.r.X.] ' both because, if those 
who employ it choose to change it, it 
becomes of no value.' 

airXycrTlav TT)S eux^s] ' The insatiate 
desire of his prayer.' The sentence 



v. $10 ^rjTOvariv eTepov TI TOV TrXov- 


Property. TrapanOejULevcw 

12 TOV Kal TrfV 

eTepa r] ^pr]jULaTL(7TiKtj Kal 6 7rXoim>9 o Kara (pvcriv, Kal 

f <$ Ka7rr\lK1 TTOltTtKr tULaTOW OV 

aXX' if Sia 



TO vojuLKTjma avTtj etvai' TO yap pojuno-jULa arTOiyeiov Kal 

13 Trepas r^9 ciXXayijs ecrTLV. KOL aTreipos $rj oi/ro? 6 TrXouro? 
o a?ro Tavrris r^9 ^o^arfcrTf/c^?. warTrep yap r\ 

TOV vyiatveiv ei 9 ciweipov CCTTI Kal !/cacrT>7 TWV 
reXou? et? aireipov (OTL /uLa\i(rTa yap CKCIVO /3ov\ovTai 
TTOtefi/), TOO// $e TTjOO? TO T\o$ ovK et? ctTreipov (Trepas yap 
TO reXo? Tracrat?), oura) /ca Tavrtjs T?9 'xpriju.aTHTTiKtjs OVK 
<TTI TOV Te\ov? Trepas, reXo9 ^e o TOIOVTOS irXovTOS Kal 

14 yjprUJLaTtoV KTij(Tl$. TtJ? O* OlKOVOIULlKrjS, OV XfitJJULaTlCTTlKrjS 
<TTl TTCpaS' OV yap TOV7O T?9 OlKOVOfJLtKtJ^ epyOV. SlO Tfj 

fijLev (paiveTai avayKalov eivai iravTOS TT\OVTOV irepas, eirl 
Se TU>V yivofJievow opw/nev (rvfufialvov TOvvavTiov 7rai/re9 yap 
ei$ aireipov av^ovcriv ol "^ptjfjLaTi^o/uievoL TO vojuLtarjuia. a'tTtov 

15 $e TO <rvveyyv<$ avTwv. eTraXXarret yap q 

requires &iro\tcr6ai to complete it. 

12 rbv TrXoOrof] 'the real wealth.' 
TT]V xP' r )f J ' aTlcrTtK ' 1 l l '> 'the true science 
of acquiring wealth.' 

auTT; yti^] 'and whilst this (fj icarA 
0i5(riv) the natural one is part of the 
management of the family.' 

ffTOixeiov Kal Trtyas] "The first 
element and the ultimate limit ; ' 
the beginning and the end of the 

13 &Tretpos 54 K.r.X.] Money, the 
means to the ok6vo/ios, becomes the 
end to the Kair'rj\iK6s ; finite there- 
fore to the former, it is infinite to the 
latter. Compare Ch. VIII. 14. 

14 rrjs 5' oiKovofUKfy'] This clause 
is difficult, from its abruptness. The 
thought meant to be conveyed seems 
to be as follows : In the former species, 
the false art of acquiring wealth, mo- 

ney is the avowed object, and is sought 
for without any limit. In the second 
and true species, which is subordinate 
to the higher objects of the family, 
(oiKovofjuKTJs) and is not merely con- 
cerned with making money (xpT^arKT- 
TIKTJS) there is a limit to wealth and to 
the efforts made to secure it ; that 
limit is fixed by those higher objects ; 
irtpas yhp rb r^Xos, ov yap rouro, ' for 
the making of money is not the object 
of the family life.' 

r$ /*&] ' Though in one sense.' 
r6 crvveyyvs airrcDv] 'The nearness 
of the senses of the words.' Compare 
Eih. v. ii. i. p. 1129, 27, d\X<i 8ia rb 
(rfaeyyvs ftvai TTJV ofJ,ui>v/jLtai> ai/rwi' 
\avddvet Kal oi>x dffirep M r&v Tr6pp(t) 

15 eTraXXdrret yap, jc.r.X.] Tor 
the two uses of the same article run 

I. 9-] 



avTOV ovcra eKaTepa T^? -)^pt]fJLaTi(rTiKtj?. Trjs yap avTrjs Property. 

eCTTl }(|OJ7(rea)9 KTrj(Tt$, aXX' OV KCLTO. TaVTOV, dXAct T^9 fJLCV 

eTepov re'Xo?, Trj<s <J* V avfyja-is. WCTTG <We? Ticrl TOVT 
elvai Trj$ oiKOVojuuKrjs epyov, Kal oiaTe\ov<Tiv rj arco^eiv oio- 
jmevoL oeiv rj av^eiv TIJV TOV voju,l(r[JiaTO OIXTLOLV els aTreipov. 
a'lTiov $e TCLVTt]? r>79 <$ia6e(re(ji)$ TO (nrovSa'^eiv Trepl TO ^J/, 16 
aXXa /mi] TO ev ^v ei$ aireipov ovv e/ce/i/^9 T^? eTriOvjmlas 1258 
, KOI TWV TTOitjTiKcov ciTreiptov eTTiOv /mover iv. ocrot Se 

KCU TOV ev ^tjv 7ri/3dX\ovTai, TO Trpo? ra? a7ro\avarei$ 



WCTT eTrel Kal TOVT ev T*J KTrj(rei (pai- 
VGTOLL vTrdp-^eiv, 7racra rj 

' ^^cr -? 


\vOev. ev V7rep/3o\y yap ov<rt]$ Trj<s aTroXaJcrea)?, Tyv Trjs 17 
V7rep/3o\rjs TroirjTiKtjv ^TOVCTIV KGLV jmrj 810. 
SvvowTai TTopil^eiv, 1* a\\rj$ am ay 
TOVTO TreipcovTai, e/cacrr*/ \ptibfAevoi TOOV SvvdfJiewv ov /cara 
(frvcriv. avSpias yap ov ^v/xara iroieiv e<TT\v aXXa Odp<ro?, 
ovSe <TTpaTt]yiK)j? Kal la.Tpixfj$9 XXa Ttjs jmev viKtjv Trjs <? 
vyleiav. 01 fie Trdcra? TTOIOVO-I ^jO^yuarfo-Tf/ca?, Jy TOVTO 18 
reXoy ov, TTjOo? ^e TO reXo? aTravra Seov airavTav. Tlepl 
juiev ovv r?? re />ti ai/ay/ca/a? 'xjztjiuLaTta'TiKrjs, Kal r/y, Afat &' 
aiTiav TWO, ev \P ^ a ^7 xei/ ^T^?, eiptjrat' Kal Trepl r^y 
af, OTI CTepa /mev aurijy oiKovojuuKt] Se /cara <pvcriv rj 

into one another and become confused, 
and each of the two respectively comes 
under the science that deals with pro- 

Xpri<reus KT?)<m] rather /cr^o-ews XP'?' 
<m, at least this seems much the easier 
form. ' It is the same piece of pro- 
perty that we use, but the use to 
which we put it is not the same.' 
Bekker's text is defended by Klotz, 
(Jahn and Klotz, Ann. Phil, ct Peed. 
vi. xvii. i, p. 20,) who translates it : 
'desselben Gebrauchs ist namlich ein 
Eigenthum.' But I do not see that 
this explains the Greek. Stahr changes 

A. P. 

it as I do, with the remark, 'vulgo 

TOVTO] sc. i] ati7]<ris. 

Trjv TOV vofjiLffnaTos ovfftav'] 'Their 
property in money.' 

1 6 TOV eS r}v tTri(3d\\ovTai] 'grasp 
at, make an effort after living well :' 
the v fijv is ambiguous. 

17 5t' &\\r]s cu'r/as] 'by the instru- 
mentality of something else.' 

eKdo-T-y xpciyuei/ot] Compare Plat. 
Rep. I. 346, on the subject 

1 8 airavTav] ' meet, combine in 





Property. 7^ T }j V Tpocbrjv, ov% ooorTTep avTrj aireipog, XX* 

10 AjJXov <$e Kal TO aTropovjuievov e<~ apxfjs, irorepov TOV 

OlKOVOfJLlKOV KOi 7TO\ITIKOV eCTTLV r} ^prjfJiaTKTTtKr] rj OV, O\\a 

Set TOVTO iu.ev vTrdp^eiv wcnrep yap Kal av6pu>7rov$ ov iroiel 
rj TroXiTiKrj, a\\a \a/3ov<ra irapa rrjs (frvcrecos -^prfrai avroi?, 
OVTW Kal Tpo(f)rjv T*]v (f)vcriv Set 7rapaSovvai yriv rj OaXaTTCLv 
q a\\o TI * CK Se TOVTCOV, o$9 $ei, Tavra SiaOeivai Trpoa-yKei 
2 TOV oiKovofJiOv. ov yap TV? v(pavTiKr]$ epia Troirjcrai, a\\a 
^prjcrao-OaL avTOis, Kal yvwvai Se TO TTOIOV ^O^O-TOI/ Kal 
7riTrj$eiov rj (f)av\ov Kal aveTriTrj^eiov. Kal yap aTroprjveiev 
av Tig $ia TL r} jmev ^o^yuarto-Tf/c^ ftopiov Trfs oiKovoju,ia$, r} 

TL r jmev ^o^yuarto- 
$ laTpiKr] ov fjiopiov KaiTOi Set vyiaiveiv rot's- Kara Trjv 
3 oiKiav, wanrep ^rjv rf a\\o TL TWV avayKaiwv. eTrel ^' CCTTL 
juiev <J? TOU oiKOVofAov Kal TOV apyovTO<s Kal Trepl vyielas 
iSeiv, <TTL <5' w? ov, aXXa TOU iaTpov, OVTCD Kal irepl TU>V 
eWt ju.ev GO? TOV OLKOVOJULOV, CCTTI $ cJ? oi/, aXXa 
vTrrjpeTiKrjv ]md\i<TTa Se, KaOaTrep e'lprjTai irpOTepov, Set 
fj)v(TL TOVTO vTrap^civ. (pvarew yap CCTTLV epyov Tpo(pt]v 
TW yevvrjOevTi Trapeyeiv 7ravT\ yap e ov ylvcTai, Tpo(prj 

justified by the atfr^s in the 
preceding line. 

The conclusion of the chapter distin- 
guishes very clearly the two branches 
of the science, the one not necessary, 
the other indispensable, with its proper 
object, the maintenance of the family, 
and having its due limit set by that 

X. i The distinction drawn in 
Ch. IX. carries with it a clear answer 
to the original question : is the science 
that treats of property the province of 
the father of a family and the states- 
man ? It is not so, it is a subordinate 
science to theirs, but the necessary 
condition of theirs : Set TOVTO nh virdp- 
"Xfiv. It and its results must be pre- 

supposed. For this seems the full 
force of TOVTO. 

K 5 TOVTUV] 'then, as the next 

i Kal yap airopificretei', K.r.A.] 'For 
if we answered the question differently 
then it might become a difficulty,' &c. 

3 TOVTO] sc. Ta xpyfJ-aTa. 

<f>v<rws yap, K.T. X.] Compare above 
Ch. VIII. 9, 10, for the reasoning 
out of what is here concisely stated. 
In itself the passage is obscure, but 
put side by side with the former one 
need present no difficulty. ' For it is 
the business of nature to provide food 
for that which is born ; for everything 
finds its sustenance in what remains 
of that from which it is born.' 

I. 10.] nOAITIKQN A. 

TO \6i7r6juLevov earriv. $10 Kara (f)v(Tiv efrrlv y 





wcnrep erTro/uei/, Kal Trj<s fJiev 
Kal TavTtj? iJ.ev avajKaias KCU 
oe [JLTa/3\r]TiKrjs ^eyojuLevrjs SiKaiu>? (ov 'yap Kara <pv<Tiv 1258 B 
aXV air a\\rj\wv eo-T/y), evKoywrara jULiareirai % o/3o\o- 
crTCLTiKri oia TO OLTT avrov TOV yoyu/cr/xaTO? etvcu rrjv Krrjvtv 
KOL OVK (j) OTrep eTrOjO/cr^^. /ueTa^oX^? 7/o eyevcTO -^apiVj 5 
6 o^e TO/CO? airro Troiei TT\GOV. oOev Kal TOVVO/JLOL TOVT elXrj- 
<f)6V ofJLOia yap TO. TiKTOfAeva TOIS yevvuxriv airra ea-Tiv, 6 <$e 

TOKOS yverai vju.i(T]u.a 


wcrre Ka 


4 /caTTT/Xt/c^s] = T^S ^IT; d^aY/ca/as of 
9, 1 8, and /wera^X^TtK^s just below. 

\f/eyofj,fri)s 5i/caiws] For Aristotle's 
view of interest, compare Mr Grote 
III. 143, and foil. : "We hardly under- 
stand how it can ever have been pro- 
nounced unworthy of an honourable 
citizen to lend money on interest ; yet 
such is the declared opinion of Aris- 
totle and other superior men of anti- 

ou y&p /card, <j>foiv] " unnatural, as 
being made by one man at the expense 
of another," Grote, ibid. In this air' 
d\\7]\wv lies the fallacy. Between the 
parties trading there is no opposition 
of interests, but community. Compare 
M. Bastiat, Harmonies Economiques, p. 
147 : "Que Ton considere les relations 
d'homme a homme, de famille a fa- 
mille, de province a province, de nation 
a nation, d'he'misphere a hemisphere, 
de capitaliste a ouvrier, de proprie'taire 
k proldtaire,ilest Evident, ce me semble, 
qu'on ne peut ni re'soudre, ni m^me 
aborder le probleme social a aucun de 
ses points de vue avant d'avoir choisi 
entre ces deux maximes : Le profit de 
1'un est le dommage de 1'autre. Le profit 
de 1'un est le profit de 1'autre." The 
problem so stated is discussed at great 

length in what follows, and solved, 
differently from Aristotle, in favour of 
the last of the two maxims. 

^ 6o\offTaTLK-fi] 'The trade of a 
petty usurer;' its use here is quite 
general. L. and S. sub voc. On this 
subject compare Boeckh, Publ. Econ. 
of Athens, pp. 170, 171, ist edit. 

5 TOVTO ... 6 r6/c os . . . et\T)(pev ro$vo[Jia\ 
'has got its name.' Compare Grote, 
in. 143, n. 2, "the well-known dic- 
tum of Aristotle, that money being 
naturally barren, to extract offspring 
from it must necessarily be contrary 
to nature" 

Bacon, (Henry VII. Edit. Montagu. 
Vol. ni. p. 227,) calls usury the bas- 
tard use of money. Compare also 
Gibbon, v. 415, 416, and note. On the 
whole subject compare Paley, Moral 
and Political Philosophy, in. Ch. x. 
It has been much discussed of late, 
especially in France. There is a small 
tract containing a discussion of the 
whole subject between MM. Proudhon 
and Bastiat, Gratuite du Credit, also 
another tract by the last-named author, 
Capital et Rente, both of which are 
admirably clear. 

XfWMTiirp&y] 'money-making, busi- 
ness, trade.' 

3 2 


Property. ^EiTrel <$e TO. TTpos Trjv yvuxriv ^ia)pLKa]ULev //cai/co?, ra 

jj TT/oo? Trjv XP'l* 711 ' ^ e * 9t&6tiv* Trdvra $e TO. TOiavra rrjv Oetoplav eXevOepov e^ei, Ttjv $ e^ireipiav dvayicaiav. 
"Ecm $e xpr]/u.aTi<rTiKrj$ jmeptj xp^ <Tl ! ULa TO ^repl TO. KTtjju.aTa 
eivai, Troia XucrfTeXecrrara KOI TTOV KOL TTO)?, olov 

f i7T7roi)V KTrjeri? 7ro/a TIS rj /3oa)v if Trpo/BaTCov, OJULOLCO? $e KCU 

2 TWV \017TCOV ^WGOV. <$l yap efJ.7TlpOV ClVCtl TT^OO? OL\\r]\d T6 

TOVTWV Tiva Xuo-freXeo-Tara, /cat Troia ev Tro/ot? TO 
aXXa yap ev aXXaf? evOrjvei -^copai^' efra 
KOI TavTr]<$ rj^rj \^tX^9 re KCU TrecpvTevfj.evqs, teal 

a(j) ocrcov 

<y/a?, Kal TWV aXXcoi/ ^wwj/ TWV TrXcorwi/ r} 

3 earn rvyyaveiv /3orj6eia$. T^? fj.ev ovv oi 

ravra jmopia KOI TrpwTa, r^9 

fjiev e/XTTOjO/a (ical TavTrjs /meptj Tpia, vavK\rjpia (j)op- 
ia TrapdcTTaaris' Siacfiepei Se TOVTCDV erepa erepcov TW 
TO. jmev aar(pa\(TTpa elvai, ra <5e 7rXe/co Tropi^eiv Trjv eTTt- 
KapTriav), SevTepov $e TOKKTIAOS, TpiTOV Se 

4 ravTtjs $ *i fJ.ev TU>V fiavavcrav TC^WV, tj 
KOL TW crcojuLan /xoVa) ^jO>?(7//>ift)i/. Tpirov 

TCIUTJ?? KOI T*J$ TrpooTtjs. e^ei yap KOC 

XI. I TTJV fj,tv dewplav, K.T. X.] 
'whilst in speculation they are free, 
in practice they are limited.' 

Hty-rj xpfawa] The construction is 
loose. His object is to divide the 
science into its branches. The first 
concerns KT^/j-ara, which word is here 
limited to animals, though it is of 
much larger application by Ch. IV. 4, 
where it is equivalent to ftpyavov irpaK- 
TLKOV, ' one branch of the science con- 
cerns animals, and it is useful to have 
practical acquaintance with the sub- 

i \ia\?7s] tillage ; ire(f>vTev/j,evr)s, 
cultivation of trees. Compare Demosth. 
491, for the same distinction. fj.e\Lr- 
rovpylas. This is of much less import- 
ance since the introduction of sugar. 
No writer on agriculture would now 

give it the prominence that Virgil 

3 oketordrTjs] SC. TTJ oticovofUKfj, 
that which is most strictly within the 
province of the otKot>6/j.os : TTJS avay- 


This has three subdivisions. Its first, 
(^/jLTTOpia) is trade, again open to a 
threefold division, commerce by sea, 
(vavKXypla), by land ((fiopTyyla), and 
selling in shops (irapdffTa<ris). The 
first two are the divisions of that 
which has been called 1'industrie voi- 

'return, profit.' 
The wages of labour.' 
4 rai;T?7s] The labour for which 
wages are paid is either skilled or un- 

1. 11.] 


Kara (pv<riv TL jmepos KOI Trj? ju.eTa/3\tiTiKrj$, oVa airo yrj? Property. 
Kal TWV CLTTO yfjs yivoficv&v, aKapTrwv fJLev xprjcriuwv Se, otov 
vXoTO/mia TC Kal Trdara /meTaXXevTiKr], avTtf oe TroXXa 77077 
TrepielXr](j) yevy TroXXa yap e'tSrj TOOV CK yfj<s yueTaXXevo/xe- 
vcov (TTLV. Trepl Ka(TTOv & TOVTOOV Ka66\ov /ULev e'lprjTat 
Kal vvv, TO o^e Kara /mepo? OLKpi^oXoyeitrOai 
TTjOo? ra? epyacrta?, fyopTiKov $e TO cvfiiaTpi/Beiv. 
$e re-^viKcoTarat fjiev TCOV epyacriwv OTTOV e\d-^ic 
T^iy?, fiavavtroTaTat S* ev ai<s TO, orw/xara Xw/Boovrai 
Xfcrra, ^ouX//ctorarai <^e OTTOU TOV crwyaaro 
crei$, dyevvearTaTat $e OTTOV eXa^o-roy Trpoa-det 
eirel ^' earTiv evioL<s yeypafjL/uLva Trepl TOVTGOV, OLOV 
^17 rw Tlapiw KOI 'A7roXXo^ft)jO< rw A.*j/uLvl(p Trepl yewpyla? 
kal \^fX?9 Kal Tre^fTev/xeV^, o/xo/a)? ^e Kal aXXof? Trepl 
a\\cov, TavTa ]u.ei> e/c TOVTWV Oecopeirco OTW eTTfyOteXe?* en (^e 
/caJ ra \eyojmeva <T7ropd<$rjv 9 Si wv TriTTv^jKa<Tiv evioi 
$ei crvXXeyeiv. TrdvTa yap axpeXtua TavT 8 

ecrr rots TIJULWOTI Trv 


ov Ka TO 


&K&pird)v] ' such as do not bear fruit 
and multiply.' 

5 &Kpipo\oye'i<rOa.i] 'to go into mi- 
nute detail, might be useful for busi- 
ness purposes, but it would be out of 
place to dwell on the subject here.' 

The simplest and truest division of 
the different branches of industry that 
I am acquainted with is that given by 
M. Dunoyer, Liberte du Travail, Vol. 
II. p. 114. It is fourfold, so far as 
man's industry deals with things : L'in- 
dustrie extractive, voituriere, manu- 
facturiere, agricole. These last two 
are treated separately ; as the first 
brings into play for the production of 
its results, powers without life, me- 
chanical, physical, or chemical ; the 
latter calls to its aid the vital powers. 
By the first of the four man appro- 
priates whatever there is in nature 
which is useful to him, by the second 

he transports, by the third and fourth 
he transforms, only by a different 
agency in each case. 

6 This section seems out of place. 
The remarks are true, but interrupt 
the connexion, and are in no way 
needed here. 

tiirov tXdxiffTov TTJS ri^x^s] Compare 
Eth. vi. iv. 5. p. 1140, 1 8. 

7 irepl roirrwi'] This refers to the 
subject that precedes 6, and not to 
that section itself. 

Of Chares and Apollodorus nothing 
seems known. 

r& \y6/ a-iropddijv'] 'scattered 
notices and observations.' 

St' <Sv /c.T.X.] 'as to the means by 
which some have succeeded.' 

8 GdXew] This is mentioned by 
Grote, 11.155, "the first commence- 
ment of scientific prediction amongst 
the Greeks." 


Properly. T o\j- ^ItXqo'iov' TOVTO yap <TTI KaTavorj]u.a TL ^p^/maTLorTi- 
KOV, aXX' eKeLVM JULCV Sia T^V cro(f)iav Trpoa-aTTTOvari, Tvy^aveL 
9 $e KaOoXov TL ov. oveiSi^dvTCW yap avTtp $ia Trjv Treviav 
ft)? dvwcfreXovs Trjs (f)iXoaro<pla$ ova-?]?, KaTavot]<ravTa (fiaviv 
avTOV eXaiwv (fiopav earojmevrjv CK Trjs d<TTpoXoy{a$, ert -)(i- 
OVTOS, cvTroptjcravTa w>^yaaTft)^ oXiyoov dppa(3cova$ 
TCOV eXaiovpylcov TWV T ev MtX>yVft) KOI X/a) Trdv- 
TCOV, oXiyov jULKrOcocrd/uievov aV ovOevos eTTifiaXXovTOS' eirei^r} 
o* 6 Kaipos ?/ce, TroXXwv faTOVimevcov a/ma Kal efa/d)i/w?, e/cuf- 

I o r I 

crOovvTa ov TQOTTOV ij{3ov\TO, TroXXa "^prjjuiaTa crv\Xe<~avTa 
eTTto'ei^ai OTL pafiiov COTTI TrXovTeiv TO?? (^Xocro^of?, dv 

10 /BovXwvTai, aXX' ou TOUT' CCTTI Trepl o <nrov$a(ov(Tiv. 
IULCV ovv \eyerai TOVTOV TOV Tpoirov e7ri$ii 

rfjs cro(pia$ % ecm $\ coarTrep etVo/xei/, Ka66\ov TO TOIOVTOV 
Xprj/uLaTiffTiKov, edv Ti9 SvvriTai juLovo7ru>\iav OLVTW KaTatTKev- 
cu(eLv. $io Kal TWV TroXewv eviai TOVTOV TTOIOVVTCLI TOV iropov, 
oTav aTropwo'i xprj/uLaTcav fAOVOTrcoXiav yap TWV wvlcov TTOI- 

11 ovcriv. 'Ei/ 2f/ceX/a Se Tf? Te9evTO$ Trap avT(*> 
(TvveTrplaTO TrdvTa TOV (riSrjpov e/c TCOV (nStjpelwv, 
TavTa ft)? d(piKOVTO e/c TWV ejuiTropicov ol ejuiTropoi, eVco 

fJLOVO?, OV 7ToX\r]V TTOf^CTa? V7Tp/3o\rjV T^? Tf/X^?' aXX' 

12 ejrl TOI$ irevT^KOVTa ToXavTOi? e7re\a/3ey e/caToV. TOVTO 
fuiev ovv 6 Aiovvcrios ai(T0dju,evo9 TO. JULCV xpy/maTa eKeXevarev 

i, jut,*] {JLGVTOL y ert /meveiv ev ^/vpaKOixrais, cog 

Vpl<TKOVTa TO?? aVTOV TTpdyjULaVlV d<TV]UL(f)6pOVS. TO 

speculation lucrative, " St Hil.; rather, 
' a money-making device.' 

d\X' ^Kelvij} fji^v, ic.T.X.] 'but though 
it is attributed to him on account of 
his philosophical knowledge, yet &c.' 

9 dz/w0eXous] Compare Eth. VI. vii. 
5. p. 1141, b. 5 : QaXrjv Kal rods roiot- 
TOVS (r60ous (Ji-^v, (f>povliiovs 5' 
elvai, &TO.V tdbxriv ayvoovvras rcl 
(f>povd* eavrois, /c.r.X. 

'deposit of money,' 


Acuov/yyi'wj'] = e\aiovpyflw, Liddell 
and Scott, 'oil-presses.' 

^7rt/3cXXoj/Tos] 'raising the price.' 

10 On the subject of monopolies 
compare Boeckh, Vol. I. p. 73, ist 

IT ofl TroXXV 7rotT7<ras, /c.r.X.] 'with- 
out raising the price much.' 

e-rrl rois Trevr^KOVTa] For his 50 
talents he got 150: 200 per cent, 

I. 12.] nOAITIKQN A. . 39 

uevTOi opaua OdXeco Kal TOVTO TavTov ecrTiv au,d)OTepoi Property. 


yap eavTOis eTe-^vacrav yevecrOai jULOVOTrcvXiav. Xpyari/uLov 13 
Se yvcopi^eiv TavTa Kal TO?? iroXi TIKOI 9 TroXXais yap 
TroXecri <$ei %ptiiu.aTicrjuLov Kal TOLOVTWV Tropcvv, wcrTrep ot/c/ot, 
juaXXov Se. dioTrep Tives KOI TroXtTevovTai TCOV iroXiTev- 
ojuievcov TavTa /ULOVOV. 

'ETref <$e Tpia /meprj Ttjs oiKOVOjULiKt]? ijv, ev /aei/ $e<T7ro- 12 
TiKq* irepl ?? e'lprjrai irpoTepov, ev $e TraTpiKn, TOLTOV $e ^eFamil^ 

' ii JXclcitioiis. 

yajuuKq' Kal yap yvvawos ap-^eiv Kal TeKvwv, (09 eXevOepoov 
imev a/u.(f)oiv, ov TOV avTOV Se TpoTrov r^9 jOX^ ? ' aXXa yv- 1259 B 
vaiKos fJLev TroXiTiKO)?, TeKvow $6 /BacrtXiKws' TO TG yap 
appev (fivcrei TOV OyXeo? rjyejuoviKooTepov, el ju.y TTOV crvve- 
(TTt]Ke trapa (fivcriv, Kal TO Trpecr/BvTepov Kal TeXeiov TOV 
vewTepov Kal aTeXov$. 'Ev fjiev ovv Tai$ iroXiTiKais appals 2 
TrXe/crraf? ju.eTa/3dXXei TO ap^ov Kal TO dp^ofJievov e 
yap eivai /BovXeTai Trjv (pvcriv Kal $ia<pepeiv ju.r]0ev. 

b / tf \ \ 3f \ Pl >f <j* ~ C 

'65 OTGLV TO JULCV CtpY^ TO O ap"Yt]Tai y Ct]Tt C 

eivai Kal cr^juiacri Kal Xoyoi? Kal Tijmais, wcnrep KOI 

eiTre TOV Trepl TOV 7roSavi7TT*jpo$ Xoyov. TO o* appev ael 3 

13 ' Some statesmen even limit their 
notion of statesmanship to this point.' 
The importance of correct financial 
arrangements made itself felt even in 
the ancient world. It has come with 
us to be so prominent that financial 
ability is almost the only one popu- 
larly recognised, and has a very undue 
share of honour paid to it. 

XII. i tird 5<f] The apodosis to 
this Schneider finds at the beginning 
of the next chapter, (pavepbv rolvvv, and 

rpta fitpri i}v] Ch. III. i. 

as Klotz 

TToXtri/cws] ws \ev6pas Kal fays. 

r6 re yap] 'There must be some 
rule in both cases, for, &c.' 

d pA) TTOV o-vvecTTtjKei', K.T.X."] 'put- 
ting aside exceptional cases which 


2 tv yv o$v, K. T. X.] This is intro- 
duced to qualify the TroXtrtKcDs. The 
strict idea of such rule would involve 
an interchange of the relation, the 
ruled would in turn take the place of 
ruler. For the citizens of a state are 
on a level, free and equal, and equally 
qualified therefore to exercise power. 
Still during the given period of his 
power the ruler is marked off from the 
ruled. But as between husband and 
wife, the distinction is not temporary 
but perpetual : it is not attained by 
artificial methods, but marked by 

fTjret] Impersonal on cherche. 'It 
is an object that there should be a 

'the insignia of office.' 
Herod. II. 172. 

3 de/] Kal oik K 




TheFamily ^/JQO TO 0n\v TOVTOV evei TOV TQOTTOV. t] $e TCOV TGKVCOV 
Relations. r % % ... ^ ....-.% ^/^>v 

pa(Ti\iKtj' TO yap yevvyarav /cat /caTa (pt\iav a 

KaTa 7rpecr/3eiav earTiv, OTrep ecrrt /3acrtXt/c^? 
o^o /caXfc>9 f 'Oju,r]po$ TOV Ata Trpo<Trjy6pev<TV 

irarrip av$p>v re ^ewi' re, 

TOV /3a<ri\ea TOVTWV aVai/TWi/. (pv<rei yap TOV /3aari\ea 
<$ia<pepeiv /mev Set, T(a yevet o* etvat TOV avTov OTrep Tre- 
TrovOe TO TrpecrfivTepov TT^OO? TO vewTepov Kal 6 


13 Qavepov TOLVVV OTI TrXeicov r\ arTrovSrj 
Trepl TOV$ avOpuiTrovs % Trepl Tqv TWV ct\J/-i 
Trepl Tqv apeTrjv TOVTCDV t] Trepl Trjv rf 

2 JULCV TrXovTOV, Kal TU>v e\evOepO)v yuaXXov 
TOV fJLev ovv Trepl oovXcov aTropycreiev av 

apeTrj Tt? SovXou Trapa Ta9 opyaviKas Kal o^a/coi/t/ca? aXXy 
TifJLicoTepa TOVTWV, olov <r(0(j)pO(rvvt] Kal avSpia KOI <5t/cato- 
crvvrj KOI TU>V a\\cov TU>V TOIOVTGOV e^ecov, i\ OVK earTiv ouoe- 
yuta Trapa Ta9 cra) / aaTt/ca9 vTrrjpecrias. e-^ei yap aTroptav 

3 a]u.<poTepa)$. e'iT6 yap ea-Ti, TL SIOLCTOVCTI TWV eXevOepcov ; 
CLTOTTOV. ar-^eSov fie TavTOV CCTTI TO fyTOv/mevov Kal Trepl 
ywaiKOS Kal 7rat^o9, TroTepa Kal TOVTCOV elcrlv apeTal, KOI 
vet T*\V yvvaiKa eivai craxppova Kal avopeiav Kal ot/catav, /cat 

4 7ra?9 ecrTt /cat a/coXa(7T09 /cat a~w<pp(*)v, fj ov ', Kal Ka66\ou 

KTtcrtv, /cat 
ov /caXov- 
oov\wv. TLpta- 

pa<ri.\iKJi] Elh. vin. xii. 4. p. 1 160. B. 

ira.T'fjp, AC. r. X.] 7^. I. 544. 'After 
calling him war-rip, K.T. X., he added 
the term rbv f3a.(ri\ta.' irpovriybpevtrev, 
laying stress on the preposition. 

0&m 7*^/9] ' For though there must 
be a natural distinction between the 
king and his subjects, he must still in 
kind be the same.' This holds good 
between the elder and the younger, 
the father and child ; they are of the 
same kind, they differ in age. 


Totruv] sc. TU>V 

i The statement that more atten- 
tion is to be paid to the excellence of 
the free man than to that of the slave 
suggests the question : what is this 
excellence of the slave ? 

Trapa rds dpyavutas Kal SiaKon/tcis] 
1 Beside his excellence as an instru- 
ment and a servant.' 

rwv d\\(i}v T&V TOtotiruv e'ewv\ sup- 
ply rts, from ovdefjila. Gottling. 

3 \6yov] 'reason.' TO ^roiJ/tcj/ov, 
'the question.' 

Kal d/c6Xa<rTos] It must be allowed 
that the child is d/f6Xacrros in one 

I. 13.] 



7repl apyofJievov (pvcrei, Kal 

a PX OVTO< *> TOTepov rj avTrj apery if erepa. el JJLGV yap o*ei 
a/m(f)OTepov$ fjLereyeiv Ka\OKaya9ia$, $ia TL TOV fjiev apyeiv 

/ ,\ \ n * */ /\ s\ t V * fl \ v ^ ^x -\ * 

oeoi av TOV oe ap-^earuai KauaTra^ ; ovde yap TW [JLa\\ov Kai 
?JTTOV oiov T6 <$ia(pepeiv TO JULGV yap apyecrQai Kal apyeiv 
e'l^ei diacpepei, TO o^e ju.a\\ov Kal JJTTOV ovfiev. el <$e TOV 5 
fj.ev Set TOV Se M, OavfAacrTOis. eiTe yap 6 ap-^wv ju.r] ecrTat 
crco(j)pwv Kal oV/ccuo?, 7ro)9 ap^ei Ka\u>$ ; e'i6* 6 dp^ojUievos, 1260 
TTOJ? apx6q(TeTat Ka\a>$ ; a/coXacrTO9 yap wv Kal $ei\os 
ovOev Troirjorei TCOV TrpoarrjKOiTwv. (pavepov Tolvvv OTI 
avdyKr] /uiev juLere^etv d]UL(poTepovs apeTtjs, TavTys o* etvat 
<$ia(popds, uxnrep Kal TU>V (pvcrei dp-^o/uLevcDv. Kal TOVTO 6 
evOus v(p^ytjTai irepl T^f ^v^tjv ev TavTij yap ecm (pvcrei 
TO /aej/ ap^ov TO $e dp-xojULevov, wv eTepav (pafJLev etvai dpe- 
olov TOV \6yov I^OJ/TO? Kal TOV aXoyov. <$ij\ov TO/- 

sense. Eth. III. xv. 5. p. 1 1 19. B. 5. Is 
he not only a/c6AaaTos, but also <rc6- 
<f>p wv ? Are we, that is, to determine the 
sense which we attach to the former 
epithet by that which we generally 
attach to the latter, and say that he 
is capable of reaching the lowest and 
highest moral condition ? 

4 ST^J This reading is quite right. 
As we have had mentioned the three 
who are naturally under rule, the slave, 
the wife, and the child, it follows that 
the enquiry extends to the whole class 
which they form. The question is a 
parallel one to that discussed in III. 
4 : Have the citizen and the ruler the 
same excellence ? Here it is not the 
TroXLrrjs but the apx6/J-v>os (pfoec. 

KaddiraQ perpetuo, Victorius, 'once 
for all ;' " a jamais," St Hil. 

ou5 ydp, /c.T.X.] The difference in 
degree implies sameness in kind. But 
here, as so often in the work, it must 
be remembered that the statement is 
aporematic, that is, forms part of a 
discussion, so that it will not warrant 
a direct inference as to Aristotle's 

view on the subject. 

5 rbv pkv Set] sc. fj,er^x tv KO.\OK&~ 
yadtas. T&V <f>tiaei. apxo^vdiv. sc. et<rt 

6 vQrjyrjrai] "C'est ce que nous avons 
deja dit," is St Hilaire's translation. 
Schneider supplies 0&ris. Heinsius, as 
quoted by Schneider, agrees with St Hi- 
laire. "Und darauf wird man gleichvon 
vorn herein bei der Seele hingefuhrt." 
Stahr. No one of these is satisfactory. 
'And this at once suggests to us to look 
at the soul and its constitution, and see 
whether we cannot get some light 
there : Are there not in the soul parts 
with a relation to one another? and 
what is the excellence of these parts? 
is it the same or different ? why there 
we allow it to be different ? ' So I in- 
terpret the passage. Compare (Ec. I. 
iv. I. p. 1344, 10 : rovd' {xfrrrye'iTCK, 
8 Kal 6 Kotvbs vo/u-os. 

olov] used here as Ch. VII. 5, olov 
77 8iKata, simply as explaining TO apxov 
Kal TO apxbp-evov ; and the genitive is 
explained by the (av. 

SrjXov Tolvvv, K,T. X.] guided by this 




The Family vvv % Tl Tov avTOV TQOTrov eyet KOL eirl TWV aXAwi/, wcrre 
Relations. , r , , ^ , 

- (pvcrei TO, 7T\et(t) apyovra Kai ap-oju,eva. a\\ov yap rpo- 

7 TTOV TO eXevOepov TOV $ov\ov apyei Kai TO appev TOV 6rj\eo$ 
Kai avrjp Traioos' Kai iraa-iv evvirapyei ju.ev TO. juopia 

vv7rdp-)(i $ia(pep6vT(09. 6 IJLGV yap 
OVK e^et TO /BovXevTiKov, TO Se 9rj\v e^ei 

8 aKvpov o oe Traf? c^ei JU-CV, aXX aVeXe?. 6/^0/0)9 TOLVVV 
avayicalov e^eiv Kai 'jrepl ra? i}6iKas a^oera?' v7ro\r)7TTeov $eiv 
/ULCV i^eTeyeiv TravTas, aXX' ov TOV avTOV Tpoirov, aXX' ovov 
Ka<TT(p irpos TO avTOV epyov. $10 TOV fj,ev apyovTa reXeaj/ 
%iv dei Tr\v yOiKrjv apeTrjv (TO yap epyov evTiv a 

iTeKTOVo?) 6 $e Xoyo? ap-^iTeKTCov), TCOV o* 
, oorov 7ri/3d\\ei avToi$. wVre (f>avepov OTL <TTIV 
rj apeTtj TWV eipyjuievcw TrdvTWV, Kai ov% fl avTrj croiMppo- 
arvvrj yvvaiKO? KOI avopos, ov& avfipia Kai oiKaioarvvrj, Ka6d- 

10 pCTlKq. jULOlO)$ ^l KO. TTCp 

TOVTO Kai KaTct fjiepos fjioXXov 7ri(rKO7rov<Tiv Ka06\ov yap 
ot \eyovT9 J~a7raTU)(riv eavTOvs, OTI TO eu %eiv T*JV 
^rvxyv dpeTq, tj TO opOoTTpayeiv, rj TI TWV TOIOVTCOV TTO\V 
yap ajmeivov Xeyowiv ol J~apiO/u.ovvT$ ra? dpeTas, 

parallel we may consider clear the 
other case which we were discussing, 
and all similar cases. 

Uffre <f>ti(Tt TCI, ir\el(a] So that we 
may consider nature to sanction, for 
the majority of instances, the distinc- 
tion between ruler and ruled. The 
particular forms that distinction will 
assume are a further question. They 
differ in each case, d\\ov ycip rpbirov, 
K. r. X. 

7 6 fj.v yap SoCXos, K. r.X.] The 
slave can have no will, as he is in no 
sense his own, so he needs no delibera- 
tive faculty to guide him. The woman 
has will and the faculty of deliberation, 
but its decisions wait for sanction, they 
are per se of no force. The child is, 
in this respect as in others, incom- 


8 e/caorqj] supply eTrtjSdXXet, or some 
such word, 'as much as each needs or 
has allotted to him for the discharge of 
his own proper work.' 

The ruler must have tf)p6vr](ris. Com- 
pare below, III. 4. This is yOiKi) aperf 
reX^a, the perfect combination of the 
moral and the intellectual elements of 
virtue. Eih. vi. xiii. 

ctTrXws] ' strictly.' 

9 Sw/cpctT^s] In the 5th book of 
Plato's Republic. 

10 Kara ^pos] ' in detail.' 
naOoXovydp, K.r.X.j Compare Eih. 

II. vii. I. p. 1107, 29: tv TOLS Trepl ret? 
7r/>deis X670ts ot ju,^ nadoXov Kev&repol 
dffu>, oi 5' eiri ptpovs a\r}0ii>uTpot. 

I. 13.] 



, TWV OVTUXS opifoiuLevwv. $10 SeL coanrep 6 


K6 TTCl 




,~ , 


x , . x . , 

yvvaiKi Koay^ov rj criyf) <pepei, 

aXX' dvSpl OVKCTI TOVTO. eirel 8* 6 iral? aYeX^s 1 , $rj\ov 
or i TOVTOV /ui-ev Kal rj dpeTr] OVK avTOv Trios' avTov ecrTiv, 
aXXa TTjOo? TOV TeXeiov KOI TOV riyov/JLevov. 6/u.oiws $e Kal 12 
$ov\ov TTjOO? $e<T7roTrjv. eOe/uiev Se TTjOo? TavayKala XPV~ 
0-iju.ov elvai TOV SovXov, wcrre $fj\ov OTI KOL apery? fieirai 
as, Kal T0<ravrr)$ OTTW? /mqre fit dicoXaariav /uLtjre $ia 

'ATropycreie o* av rig, TO vvv 

el d\t]6e?, apa Kal rovg re^i/lras Setjcrei e^civ 
dpertjv TroXXa/cf? y a p ot aKO\acrlav eXXenrovari rcov epycw. 
rf Sia(f)epi TOVTO Tr\el<TTOV. o ju.ev yap <ov\o<s KOLVCOVOS 13 
0)379, 6 ^e TTOpp&Tepov, Kal TOGTOVTOV 7ri/3d\\ei dpeTrjs 
ovov Trep Kal ^ouXe/a?* 6 yap /3dvav<ro$ Te%vlTtj9 dfficopiar- 12603 
Tiva eyei iov\elav Kal 6 -ftev ^ouXo? TWV (pvcrei, cr/cu- 

M /\ / n^ -v /^ ^ ^ i \ 

o ovueis, ovoe TCOV aXXaw TC^VLTWV. (pavepov 14 
Toivvv OTL r^9 TOiavTrjs dpeTqs aiTiov elvai Set rw $ov\w 
, dXX' ov Trjv Sia<TKa\iKr)v eyjavra TWV epywv 


SC. T&V d\\b)V. 

i KOV[J.OV\ Soph. Aj. 293. 
tirel 5', K.r.X.] Since the child is 
incomplete, his excellence as well as 
himself will be incomplete (Kal ij 
apery) ; both will have reference to 
the perfect, full-grown man, under 
whose guidance he is. 

12 Too-atfrTjs] 'only so much.' 

cE/oa Kat, K.r.X.] 'will it not be 
necessary for the artisans to have 
virtue ?' 

13 97 5ta0^pet TOVTO TrAaaroj'] "1st 
hier nicht etwa ein sehr bedeutender 
Unterschied." Stahr. ' Is not this a 
case which differs most widely from 
the others.' The slave stands nearer 
to the family than the artisan does, 
and is therefore better off. The other 
has a share of virtue proportionate 
only to his participation in the slave's 

condition. He is a slave, but a slave 
without the advantage of slavery, he is 
unattached ; he is dWu otKovoftias, dvev 
TroXirelas, and as being so cannot se- 
cure his own real good. Compare Eth. 
VI. ix. p. 1142, 9. No passage marks 
more distinctly the low estimation in 
which Aristotle held the free artisan, 
the proletaire of his days. No passage 
can give a livelier idea of the wide in- 
terval between his political ideas and 
our own the political ideas of a so- 
ciety based on war and slavery, and 
those of one based on free industry. 

14 Toia^TT;?] Such as it was stated 
in 12 before the question occurred as 
to the artisan. 

dXX' ov TTIV, K. T. X.] More fully this' 
would stand TT\V SeairoTtKrjv TIJV di5a<r- 



[Lie. I. 13. 

The Family 

\eyov<Tiv ov KoXco? ol \6yov TOVS Sov\ov$ 
% ' , , ' ^ 

Kai (pacrKOVTes eTriTa^et ^prjcruai JULOVOV 
vovOeTtjTeov yap fj.a\\ov TOVS Sov\ov$ tj TOVS TraiSag. 

15 'AXXa Trepl jmev TOVTWV ^icDplcrOa) TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV 
Trepl <$e avfipo? Kal yvvaiKo? Kal TCKVMV KOL Trarpos, Ttjv re 
Kepi CKCLCTTOV avTtov aper^y KOI r^? TT^OO? cr(pa$ avrovs OJULI- 
X/a?, Ti TO KaXoos Kal /mrj KaXwg ecrr/, Kal TTW? $ei TO jmev 
ev Siu>Kiv TO oe Aca/ca>9 (peuyeiv, ev TO?? Trepl* 7ro\iTia$ 
avajKalov e7re\6eiv eirel yap otKia fjiev Tracra /mepos Tro'Xew?, 
Tavra $* of/cta?, Ttjv Se TOV /mepovs Trpos Trjv TOV 6\ov Set 
/3\e7reiv aperriv, avayicalov Trpos Trjv TroXiTclav /3\e7rovTa<? 
TraiSeveiv Kal TOVS TracSa? Kal Ta? yvvaiKa?, e'tTrep TI ^a- 
(pepei TTOO? TO TV\V iro\iv elvai (nrovoalav Kal TOU? Traioa? 

16 eivai (nrovSaiovs Kal Tag yvvaiKa? cr-Trov^a/a?. avayKaiov 
$e Stacfrepeiv at jmev yap yvvaiKe? JJJULKTV jmepos TWV e\ev6e- 
pwv, K <$e TWV Tratfidov 01 KOIVWVOL yivovTai TJ/? TroXfTe/a?. 

OCTT' 7rel Trepl ju.ev TOVTWV oiwpio'Tai, Trepi oe TCOV \OITTWV 
ev aXXot? Xe/cWov, a(f)evTe$ w? WXo? r^arra? TOV? vvv Xo- 
yov?, aXXyv ap^v Troirjcra/mevoi Xeyw/xei/, Kal TrpwTOv eTri- 
Trepl TWV a7ro(f)r]vaju.eva)v Trepl T?? TroXfTe/a? 

Bekker r<s. 

8t6] And if they need so much vir- 
tue they will need the right reason of 
their master to guide them to it, and 
in the application of it. The mere or- 
dering will not suffice, there must be 
some reasoning with slaves, nay, more 
even than with children. His lan- 
guage here as elsewhere is very con- 
ciliatory in regard to slaves, and throws 
considerable light on the very great 
difference that exists between the 
slavery of the ancient world and that 
of the modern. 

15 So far then for these points. 
The further treatment of them must 
be postponed. For beyond the point 

at which we have now arrived the 
members of the family assume a poli- 
tical character, and must be viewed no 
longer simply with reference to the 
family, but to the state. 

ri rt> KdXws] sc. o/uXetv. 

ircpl ras TroXtreias] Bekker retains 
the article. Nickes rejects it, and with 
good ground. Compare III. I. Trepl 
ot'/coj'OytUas, and III. i. I. T<p Trepi TroXt- 
retas eiriffKOirovvTi. 

7ry>6s TT]V TroXtTc/av] If so you must 
first decide on this constitution. 

16 d<p&Tes, K.T.X.] 'we turn from 
this present book (the Economics), as 


THE second book of the Politics requires but little introduction. 
It is a simple review of the experience of the past ; a review, on 
the one hand, of the various theories broached by political writers ; on 
the other, of such eminent states as had, by their singularity or suc- 
cess, attracted the attention of the political student. So that a 
simple enumeration of its contents seems sufficient ; no analysis is 
required. Whatever difficulties it presents will find their more 
fitting treatment in the notes. 

The largest portion and most detailed treatment is given to the 
theories of Plato, as set forth in, 1st, the Republic, which is examined 
in Ch. 15 ; 2ndly, the Laws in Ch. 6. 

Ch. 7 The constitution of Phaleas of Chalcedon. 

8 That of Hippodamus of Miletus. 

9 The Spartan Constitution. 

10 The Cretan. 

1 1 The Carthaginian. 

12 Miscellaneous notices of Athens, and of the various law- 
givers of Greece, with their respective peculiarities. 

The justification and ground of this elaborate review of the past, 
whether from the point of view of theory or experience, may be 
found in Aristotle's own words in c. 5, 16: Ac? 3e /mrjle TOVTO 
avro cfyi/oetV, OTI %pi1 trpoffe^eiv Tta TroAAw y^povta KCU TO?? TroAXo?? 
eT<riv, ev 019 OVK av e\adev el TOUTCC K/\CO? eiyev' JTOLVTO. yap cryeBoV 
cvprjrat jueV, a\\d TCI jueV ov <rvvfJKTai y TO?? S' ov %pu)VTai 7/71/0)- 


And for the critical, negative tone in which he passes before him 
the various constitutions, whether theoretic or actual, the ground 
for that is given in Ch. I. 1 . Unless something more were shown 
to be wanting, Aristotle need not have entered on the present 

The insertion of so fragmentary a notice of the Athenian 
constitution is as curious as the omission of a more detailed one. 
For from the remains existing of his work on the Polities, we 
know he had studied it in the greatest detail. What is actually 
given renders the chapter very suspicious. Had we that larger 


work, it is possible the question might have admitted of solution, 
why he has not criticised Athens, as he has Sparta, Crete, and 
Carthage ? Is it that it was superfluous for him to do so, as his 
own ideal constitution, of which we have a large fragment in the 
4th and 5th books (vn. vm. of the old arrangement), is in the main 
a modification of Athens ? He was a true Athenian, says Niebuhr, 
"ein Athener von Herz, wenn auch nicht von Geburt" uber alte 
Geschichte, in. 54. He may have seen in Athens and its con- 
stitution great deficiencies, but he also may have seen in it the 
highest product of Greek political experience; and as such may 
have, in all his treatment of the subject, kept it in sight. If so, 
a detailed criticism would not be required. Adopting very largely 
its elaborate forms and minute details, his own positive creation 
would be to any Athenian a sufficient criticism of the institutions 
of his country. The comparison would be one he could hardly 
avoid. It would be also clearly undesirable for one in Aristotle's 
position, a foreigner at Athens and in no sense mixing in the po- 
litical affairs of his adopted country, to press on the notice of the 
Athenians any unfavourable criticisms. Abstinence from such cri- 
ticism may fairly be required of strangers by the government of 
any country in which they are resident. 

And it is clear, I think, from the whole of the book that 
Aristotle did not conceive himself under the necessity of handing 
down for future times and altered circumstances the political facts 
of his day. On the contrary, he looked on the Greek state, mo- 
difiable and modified in conformity with experience, as the ultimate 
form of human society. So that if he was exempt from the duty 
of criticising, he was under none of the obligations of the historian. 
It was not as an historian, but as a political philosopher, that 
he observed the Hellenic constitutions, and registered the results 
of his observations. 


Se TrpoaiooviueOa Oecopnarat irepl TJ?? KOivwvias TV? Plato's 

\ - * ' r i ' r~- * 

7roAm/c>;9, 17 KpaTia-Tt] Traarcov TOig ovvayievois fyv OTI 
fjLa\i(TTa KCIT ev^^v, Set KOL ra? a\\a<$ eirta-Ke^raarQai 
T9, af? re %pa)VTal Tives TWV TroXecov TCOV 
\eyouevwv, KCLV ei nveg eTepai Twyyavwariv VTTO TIVMV elprj- 
KOL SoKOvarai /caXw? fyeiv, Iva TO T opQu><s e^ov o(p9fi 



/BovXo/uLevwv, aXXa $i 


eyeiv rara? Tag vvv vTrap^ovcras, 
7ri/3a\ecrOat TV\V jueOoSov. 
rfTrep irecfivKev ap^t] TavTqs T?? <T/ce\|^eo?. 
%TOC Tra^Ta? TravTwv KOivwvelv TOU? TroXtVa?, jj 

tf TlVtoV yLtet/ TIVWV ($6 jJirj. TO fJLGV OVV JU,rj$VO$ KOlVO)V6tV (jbtt- 

vepov eJ? aSvvaTOV rj yap TroXnre/a KOivtovia r/? ecrrf, Kal 
avayKtj TOV TOTTOV Kowwvelv o ju.ev yap TOTTOS el? 

I. I Trpoaipoij[J.e6a OewprJGdi, /f.r.X.] 
This, as Spengel remarks, shows that 
Aristotle had the intention of himself 
constructing a constitution, as Plato 
and Phaleas had done. Spengel's rer 
marks on the general object of the 
book are very good, and his short 
essay, Ueber die Politik von Aristoleles, 
published in the Alhandlungen of the 
Munich Academy of Sciences, is 
throughout very valuable. 

<ro0lfe0-0at] 'to refine.' 

St<i rb /j,r) /caXws ?x eLV > f-^.X.] This, 
as Nickes rightly sees, justifies Aris- 
totle in dwelling mainly on the points 
he objects to. And as the works criti- 
cised were then accessible, and the 

constitutions treated of actually in ex- 
istence, there was no need to guard 
statements which may at times appear 

Taisrr/i> TT]I> fitdoSov ^7ri/3aX&r0cu] Ho 
have taken upon us this branch of our 

2 avdyKfj yap] By I. T, &c. the 
city was a Koivuvla. It must be a 
Koivuvla of something. What shall be 
the limit ? What shall its members 
have in common ? 

6 P& yap T6-JTOS els 6 r^s /was 
TroXews] There can be no reasonable 
doubt, I should think, that Bekker is 
right in adopting this reading against 
the MSS. This unity of place is in 





T ~ ? ^as 7ro'X09, 01 <$e iroXiTai KOIVWVO\ T//9 

Xeo)9. aXXa iroTepov ovwv evSe^erai KOivtovfjorai, 

f$e\Tiov Koivwveiv Tt]V /meXXovcrav oiKrjarecrQaL iroXiv 

if Tivwv fjiev TIVWV tf ov fleXriov',, evSe-^erai yap KOI TCKVCOV 


Xo*9, W<T7Tp eV Tfi TToXlTeLOL T^ UXoLTCDVOS' Kt yap O 

(btjarl veiv KOiva Ta TCKVOL Kai Ta? yvvalKas eivai 
ra? KTrjcrei^. TOVTO $rj Trorepov a>? vvv OVTU> /3e\Tiov 
i/, if Kara rov ev rfj TroXfre/a yeypajuifjievov vo^ov \ 
e Svo"%epia? aXXa? re TroXXa? TO Travrtov eivat ra? 
vds, Kal Si *)v alriav (j)r]<rl $eiv vevoju-oOe-rrjo-Oai 
TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV 6 2o)/CjOar^9, ov (palvcTai arvfjiftalvov CK 
Xoywv. CTI $ Trpos TO reXo? o (ptjcri Ttj TroXet oeiv 
, 009 fiev etptpreu vvv, aSvvaTOV, TTW? ^e Set oi\eiv, 
ov$ev SiwpKTrai. \eya) <$e TO /miav elvai Trjv iroXiv Travav 
OTI yuaXiO"ra* \a]m/3dv6i yap TavTtjv vTroOecriv 6 
TJ79. KaiTOi (pavepov C&TIV o>9 Trpoi'ovcra Kai yivo- 
jmia jmaX\ov ov<$e irdXis ecrrar TrXrjOos yap TL Trjv 

a>9 a 

keeping with the whole Greek view 
of a city as given in I. ii. 8 and foil. ; 
and see the notes there. 

3 dXXA 7r6repoi'] Granting then that 
there must be something in common, 
is it better that all things should be 
in common or not ? , 

^S^x^cu yap] 'For it is at any 
rate possible.' 

us vvv ovTO) fi\TLov~\ Is the actual 
practice really better for men, or shall 
we adopt Plato's view ? This is the 

II. i 5t* -fjv cuY/ow] 'The ground 
on which Socrates rests the necessity 
for adopting this legislation does not 
seem to be a legitimate consequence 
from his arguments.' He does not 
seem to attain the result which he 
aims at. This clause has reference to 
the means by which Socrates tries to 

attain his end ; the next to the end 
itself, the unity of the state. 

i Ayw 5^, /C.T.X.] 'I mean the 
statement that it is best that the city 
should in all cases attain unity in the 
highest degree possible. For this is 
the fundamental position taken by So- 
crates.' It is too broad a statement 
in Aristotle's view, and must be 
limited. Mere unity is not the ob- 

7rA?70os ydp TI, K.T.X.] 'For by its 
nature the state involves a certain 
number.' If you try to get rid of 
this condition, you by so doing de- 
stroy the state. It is from the indi- 
vidual you get the clearest notion of 
unity; as you leave the individual you 
recede from unity, and vice versa, as 
you redescend in the scale, and re- 
approach the individual, you get more 

II. 2.] nOAITIKQN B. 49 

euT\v rj TrdXi?, yivouevrj TG jmla ju.aX\ov oiKia /xei/ e/c 
?, avOpwTTOS <5' e oiKias eVrar uaXXoi/ 'yap u/ay 

I ^ * I 

OLKLav T>/9 TroXeco? (pairjuev+av, Kal TOV eva r^9 ot/c/a?* 
' /cat <$vvaTO$ Tf? ei^ TOVTO $pav, ov TroirjTeov avai- 
pr)<TL yap TIJV TrdXiv. ov JULOVOV ^' e/c TrXefoVwy avOpMTrow 3 

9 % f /\ '"\"\^ ^*V>/^ V*JL ' ' ^ 9 

<JTLV rj TToAf?, aAAa /ecu e etoet oiacpepovTWV' ov yap yive- 

Tai TroXt? e^ o/xoiW. eTepov yap arvjULfjia^La Kal TrdXig" TO 

\ \ ~ ~ t * 4 )**'* yt /o 

/xei/ 'yctjO TO) Trocro) ^p^a-i/mov, Kav y TO avTO TU> etoei* porj- 

6ela$ yap yapLV rj oru/x/xa^/a 7re(pvKev uxnrep av el crTaOjuLO? 
TrXeiov eX/cJ(7/7. OLoLarei oe T(*J TOIOVTW Kal TroXig eOvovs, 
OTav fj.r) /cara Kcouas cocri Ke^copKraei^oi TO 7r\rj6os aXX olov 

9^*^ft^ft^.^ / /\ 9f \\ I / A' 

e^ toy oe oei ev yevearvai^ eioei oiafpepei. Ato- 4 
TO fVoy TO avTi7re7rov6o$ crco^ei Ta? TroXef?, uxrirep ev 


3 But it is not merely number 
that is implied in the idea of a state 
(ir\7)dos n, K Tr\ei6i>ut>), but a number 
formed of dissimilar units. An alli- 
ance a tribe both these may be 
formed of similar parts ; they are but 
aggregates. A state is a whole. 

ov yap ybercu TroXts t bpolwv] Com- 
pare Eth. v. viii. 8-9. p. 1133, 16, ov 
yap K Svo larpuv ylverai KOivuvia . . , 
dXV #Xws er^puv Kal OVK tcruv, 

r$ 7ro<T(p -xprifftfj-ov} mere number, 
for the strength which number gives, 
is the object of an alliance, although 
the elements that compose it are the 
same in kind. 

jSoT/^etas] 'support.' This remark 
is parenthetical, and should be marked 
as such by the stopping. 

(jtfffTrep civ eZ] The question with 
regard to an alliance is the same as 
that with regard to a weight. ' Une 
alliance est comme une balance ou 
1'emporte toujours le plateau le plus 
chargeV St Hil. 

sc. T<p eli/cu & el'Set 

OTCLV py, /c.r.X.] The change which 
took place in Arcadia by the founda- 

A. P. 

tion of Megalopolis, and the consequent 
centralisation of the Arcadians, was ii 
effect the change from a tribe into a 
state, an ZOvos into a TroXts. It was 
the latest instance of such an event, 
of a <rvpolKi<ris. 

% wv Sf\ This St answers to the 
p.h> in TO fj.& yap r<$ Troo-y. The 
states of an alliance are not formed or 
blended into one, the members of a 
tribe or race are under no limitation. 
Both, as aggregates, may be indefi- 
nitely extended by the addition of any 
number of similar parts. This is not 
the case with a whole, which is not 
susceptible of indefinite extension, and 
must be composed of dissimilar parts 
all tending to one common end. 

4 Sidirep, K.T.X.] And it is because 
the parts of a state are dissimilar, and 
act and react on one another in their 
common relations to the whole and 
their varied relations one to the other, 
that for the preservation of the social 
system you require reciprocity which 
shall keep them in harmonious action. 
Eth. v. viii. 6. p. 1132, B. 33, T< 
yap avdXoyov 




Plato's TO ig fiQiKols elptjrai irpoTepov eirel KOI ev TOig eXevOepoi? 
Republic. , , r , r ^ ' ,, v . f , i 

- Kai i(roi$ ava f yK*i TOUT eivai* cc/za yap ov% oiov re Traj/Ta? 

apveiv, aXX* n KOLT eviavrfo % Kara Tiva aXXrjv TOL^LV tj 

5 yjpovov. Kai (rvfJi/Baivei Srj TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV WOTTC Trai/Ta? 
ap-^eiv, wa"7rep av ei fULCTe^aXXov 01 (TKVTCIS KOI ol TCKTOVC? 

6 Kai /my OL avTol ael O-WTOTOJULOI KOI TeKTOveg rjvav. etrel 
Se /BeXriov ouTft)9 e-^eiv, KCU TO. Trepl rrjv KOivwviav T^V TTO\I- 

1261 B TiKrjv $rj\ov a>9 TOV? avTOv? act /BeXriov ap^eiv, el 
ev oT? oe IJLYJ Swarov Sia TO Trjv (pvcrtv iVou? etvai 
ajma <$e KOI oY/catoi/, eir ayaOov e'ire tyavXov TO ap-fceiv, 
Trai/Ta? auTOu yueTe^eiv, ev TOVTOIS oe fju/ULeicrOat TO ev /mepei 

7 TOW? fVoU? eiKCLV OJULOICD? TO?? 6^ ^PX^' Ot * ^ eV 7^j "/ ) X OU " 

<7iv 01 ^' ap^ovTCtt Trapa imepos, wvirep av aXXot yevojuievoi. 

TOV avTOV Stj TpoTrov 

eTCpot cTcpa? ap-^ovariv 

& rots ydtKois'] Is not this reference 
doubtful ? Is not the irpbrepov suffi- 
cient exactness for Aristotle ? 

Kal & rots, K.r.X.] 'Since even in 
the free and equal,' who are as much 
alike as possible, 'there must neces- 
sarily be this,' sc. rb avTnreirov66s. 
With such there must be an inter- 
change, and power must be held by 
them in turns on some definite prin- 

5 Kai ffv/ 8ri] This is abrupt. 
The meaning seems to be : ' True, the 
result is then that :' It must be allow- 
ed that. It meets an objection, and 
meets it by accepting it. It is de- 
sirable that the same people should 
continue shoemakers, and not be at 
one time shoemakers, at another car- 
penters. So it is desirable, if attain- 
able, that the holders of power should 
be unchanged. But it is not always 
attainable. When all are in nature 
equal it would not be possible ; besides, 
it is but fair that power, whether it be 
a good or an evil, as it is in Plato's 
view, should be shared equally, &c. 

6 ovrws] sc. ael rota avrofa. 

xeu>~\ I put a comma after this, 
and make the apodosis begin with 
' so too in regard to political society, 
it is clear that it is better,' &c. 

v rotfrois 6^, K.T.X.] This passage 
seems to me hopeless as it stands. 
The best sense I can make of it is as 
follows ; ( h TOI/TOIS 5^, in these cases 
then (the 8^ marking the apodosis) it 
is better (supplying p^Xriov) to imitate, 
or come as near as possible to, the all 
holding power by those who are equal 
yielding in their turn fairly to those 
who originally yielded to them.' This 
rendering reads T< for r6, but the 
same sense may be extracted from the 
r6 by making the whole clause the 
subject of ytuywet<r0cu. 

7 ol ydp, K.T.X.] Tor so the 
one rule, and the others are ruled in 
turn, and for the time they are con- 
sidered to be different.' 

dlXXoi yevd/uevoi] For the expression 
compare Eth. IX. iv. 4. p. 1166, 20. 

TOV airbv ST] rpbirov, K.T.\.] ' Whilst 
then they exercise their power on the 
same principles, the particular offices 
they hold will be different in each 

II. 3.] 



as. <&avepov TO'IVVV e/c TOVTCOV o>? cure 7re(j)VKe jmiav 
efvai Trjv TTO\IV uxnrep Xeyoiwrf Tives, KOI TO \e^0ev 
to? ju.eyi(TTOV ayaOov ev rcu? TroXeovi/ OTI ret? TroXei? ikvaipei' 
KaiTOi TO ye eKaarTOv ayaOov crco^ei eKaarrov. "Ecm <5e KOI 8 


TTO'XM/ OVK e<TTiv afJiCLvov. oiKia juiev yap avTapKe(TTepov 
evo<s, ToXf? 8* otKtaf KOL /3ov\Tai y ySq rore eTvai 
OTCLV avTapKrj a-v]u./3aivr] Trjv KOivvviav ctvcu TOV 
eiirep ovv aipeTWTepov TO avTapKevTepov, KCU TO ?JTTOV eV 


'AXXa yu>yj/ ou^' ei TOVTO SptCTTOV ea-Ti, TO fjiiav OTL /met- 3 

v > T \ / '^^ />if /}_L' 

Xf<7T etp'af r?;^ Koivovviav, ovce TOVT aTrooeiKvva-uai (pacveTai 
KCLTO. TOV \6yoV) eav Trai/re? a/Jia \eycocri TO C/ULOV KCU TO jut} 
efiov TOVTO yap o'teTai 6 SwAfjOar^? <r*]ju.eiov eivai TOV TV\V 

reXeco? eivai /miav. TO yap irdvTes SITTOV. el IJLGV 2 
ovv (109 e/ca<TTO9, Ta^' av eirj p.a\\ov o /3ov\Tai Troieiv 6 
2a)/CjOar>;9 e/cacrro? yap viov eavTOv (j)rj(Ti TOV avTov KOI 
yvvaiKa Srj TJV avrqv, KOI Trepl T*]$ overlap KGU Trepl e/cacrrou 
St) TOOV crvfji/BaivovTwv wcrauTO)?. vvv $ ov-% OVT<D (pqcrovcriv 
01 Koivais ^pwimevoi TOIS yvvai<~i Kal TO?? TCKVOIS, aXXa 

fiev, ou^ cos eAcacrro? S* avTwv. ojmoiax; $e KOI Tr\v 3 

case.' But here again I do not feel 
that I understand the bearing of the 
remark, nor its connexion. 

<f>avepbv rolvvv'] This resumes the 
main thread of the discussion, which 
has been interrupted by the passage 
from Stbirep rb foov to dpj(ovffiv dp%(s. 
Extreme unity is not to be aimed at : 
a state implies a limit to unity and 
diversity in its members, however near 
equality they may approach. So that 
if attained, unity would destroy the 
state, and cannot therefore be its 

8 For this comp. I. n. 5, and foil. 

Kal potXeral y ydy r6re] ' And then 
only in fact does a community claim 
to be a state, when it can be shown by 
the result that the association of the 

given number is complete in itself.' 

III. i So far for the end aimed at. 
Unity, without due qualifications of 
the term, is not that end. But grant- 
ing that it were, are the means adopted 

ot)5 TOVT aTroSdKvvffOai] or as in II. 
I . otf <f>alvTat <yv^aivov\ ' It is evi- 
dent that not even this is proved to 
be the result in theory of all saying, 

2 ws 2/caoros] distributively, 'all and 

vvv d] 'But in the case before us.' 

Trdj/res, o#x ws &cct(TTos 5^] col- 
lectively, 'all but not each.' The 
body of the elder will stand in a given 
relation to the body of the younger, 






Plato's ovarlav travTes uei/, ovy co? evcacrTO? c 
Republic. , 

j/fi/ 7rapa\oyi(TiJ.6<s T/? ecrrt TO Xeyety Trctim*?, (fravepov TO 

yap irdvTes Kal afj,(poTepa Kal TrepiTTa Kal apTia Sia TO 

$10 earTi TO TravTag TO avTO \eyeiv coSl jmev KO\OV, aXX' ov 

4 (WcrroV, (081 8* ovOev ofJiovorjTiKov. Tlpos 8e TOVTOI? eTepav 
e^ei {3\a{3tjv TO \eyojmevov. rjKiarTa yap eTn/xeXe/a? Tvy- 

TO 7r\l(TT(*)V KOIVOV TU)V y<*p IGICOV /ULO\l<TTa (fapOVTl- 
-,ft\ ^ f> i\ ef r t '/D'"\"\ 

rjTTOV, rj o<rov e/cacrTco e7ripa\\ei. 
yap TO?? a'XXo*? w? eTepov (bpovTi?ovTO$ oXiywpovcri 

* J I I I O ' 

oy, winrep ev Tai$ otKeriKais Siqicoviai? 01 7ro\\ol Oepd- 

5 Troi/Te? eviOTe "%eipov vTnjpeTOvcri TWV e\aTTOVcov. ylvovTai 
o eKa<JT(*) "^i\iOi TU>V TTO\ITCOV viol, Kal OVTOI ov^ to? /ca- 

1262 CTTOV, aXXa TOU TV^OVTOS o TV^MV 6fJ.oiu><s ecrTlv u/o?* wcrre 

j/ </ ^ > 

CT OfTft)? 

but there will be no connexion between 
the individual members of the two. 

3 T& y&p irdvres Kal a^Kporepa, 
Af.r.X.] The simplest way of taking 
this seems to be : ' For words like 
'all/ 'both/ 'odd/ 'even/ from their 
ambiguity even in formal treatises 
give rise to fallacious reasoning.' 

tpHTTtKotis <rv\\oyi<Tfji,oiJs] properly 
reasonings, where the object is not to 
establish truth but to gain a victory 
over your opponent, where the sound- 
ness or unsoundness of the reasoning 
is not the main point, but its imme- 
diate effect in silencing the opposite 

5t6] I do not refer this to what im- 
mediately precedes, but rather to the 
whole subject. The result of this am- 
biguity of the word is, that you have 
carefully to distinguish the one sense 
from the other ; and if you do so clear 
up the matter it will be found that 
whilst in the first sense the language, 
if used, would imply a noble state of 
things, but one not attainable, in the 
second sense it does not bear a mean- 

ing which would have any tendency to 
produce harmony. 

4 From this criticism of the lan- 
guage used we pass to real difficulties. 
There will be an absence of the sense 
of property, and a consequent absence 
of interest. Nor merely so, but a 
positive neglect, on the ground that 
others are looking after the matter. 
This is verified by every- day experi- 
ence in the case of servants. 

5 e/ccicrry rCov TroAirwj/] ' Each citizen 
has a thousand children, and no indi- 
vidual connexion to bind him to any 
one of the thousand. They are all 
equally the children of all, and all will 
be equally indifferent to them.' 

rt ourws, K.r.X.] This very hard. 
Is the ovT(as to be taken as referring 
to Plato's system, is it retrospective ? 
or is it prospective, an anticipation in 
fact of the TOVTOV rbv rpbirov ? Per- 
haps this last way is the true one. 
Not only will they all equally neglect 
the children, but there will be this 
further evil. The connexion, such as 
it is, will sit very lightly upon them. 

II. s.] nOAJTIKflN B. 53 

Xeyec TOV ev TrpaTTOVTa TCOV TroXtTcov if /ca/co)?, OTTOCTTO? _ 

* *: A * * , , * - J- Republic. 
Tvy^avei TOV apiujuov cov, oiov e/xo? >/ TOU oeivos, TOVTOV 

TOV Tpoirov Xeycov Ka& CKUCTTOV TCOV -^iXlcoVj if ocrcov rj TroXi? 
ecTTi, Kal TOVTO oi(TTa{cov aoqXov yap w o~vv6/3r] yevecrOai 
TCKVOV Kal crcoOtjvai yevojmevov. KfUTOi TroTepov OVTCO KpeiT- 6 
TOV TO eju,ov Xeyeiv eKacrTov, TO avTO jmev TrpocrayopeuovTas 
Sicr-^iXicov Kal jmvpicov, rj jmaXXov cJ? vvv ev raF? TrdXeari TO 
CJULOV Xeyovariv', 6 ju,ev yap viov avTOv 6 & afieXcpov avTOv 7 
'Trpocrayopevei TOV avTOV, 6 S* ave^idv, rj KOT aXXyv Tiva 
orvyyeveiav, if TT^OO? a f iju.aTOS, ij /car' oiKeioTt]Ta Kal Ktj&eiav 
avTOv TrpcoTOv rj TCOV avTOv, TTjOo? oe TOVTOIS eTepov (ppaTOpa 
if (f)vXeTt]V KpeiTTOv yap 'ISiov ave^iov elvai if TOV Tpovrov 

*** f f /^V 9 ^ 'X"\' '^*^^-JL *"* ^ ^ ^ / r\ 

TOVTOV viov. Uv /uirjv aAA ouoe oiacpvyeiv ovvaTov TO jmrj 8 
Tiva$ V7ro\a]u./3dveiv eavTcov aeX(f)ovs re Kal iraloag KOI Tra- 
Tepas Kal fJLrjTepas* /cara 70:^0 ra? o/xoior^ra? al yivovTai 
TOI$ TKvoi9 TTjOO? TOf? yevvycravTa$, avayKaiov Xajm/Baveiv 
Trepl aXXyXcov ra? TT/crref?. oirep (>ao-l Kal (rvjm/Baiveiv 9 

\ * \ ~ ~ /n /-? 

Tive$ TCOV Tct? Tt]S yqs Trepiooovs TrpayimaTevojuLevcov eivai 
yap THTI TCOV avco Ai/Bvcov KOivas ra? yvvaiKas, TO. JULCVTOI 
yev6fj.eva TeKva oiaipeicrOai KOLTOL Ta? o/xofOT^Ta?. eicrl $e 
Tives Kal yvvaiKe? Kal TCOV aXXcov ^wcov, oiov 'ITTTTOI Kal 

' According as one is prosperous or the 
contrary, each of the citizens will ac- 
cept him as his son or reject him, 
whatever may be the number of which 
he forms one. In the one case he will 
say he is mine, in the other he is so 
and so's (fjt,bs 17 roC Servos) ; and this 
will be his mode of speaking of each 
of the thousand, and yet his language 
will rest on no footing of certainty, 
for no one knows who has had a son, 
or whose son if born has lived.' 

6 /ccu'rot, K. r.X.] ' And yet, allow- 
ing the practicability of the scheme, is 
it better for each one in this sense to 
use the term mine, applying it equally 
to/ &c. ? 

7 6 fj,fr yap . . . <f>v\fTtr)v] is simply 
explanatory of the ws vvv tv rats 7r6Xe- 

(nv. The KpeiTTov yap carries on the 

Tr/ods afyiaros] 'by blood.' 

irpGrrov] ' in the first place O.VTOU 17 
TWV avrov, of oneself, or those inti- 
mately connected with oneself.' 

rbv rpbirov TOVTOV] ' The way Plato 
would have it.' 

8 ov nty dXV ottt, K.T.X.] 'Not 
however but that, do what you will, it 
is impossible to escape this difficulty/ 

r&s Tr&rrets] 'convictions.' 

9 T&V oivu At/3iW] Herod. IV. 180, 
r(p civ ofay T&V dvdp&v TO Traidtov, TOV- 
TOV ircus vofJLlfreTai. Comp. for the 
general subject, IV. 104, the case of 
the Agathyrsi, and I. 216 of the Mas- 






(T(p6Spa 7re(j)vKa(riv o/uLoia cnroSiSovai TO. 


J/ E 


p rj 



/ecu ra? TOiavTag 

- A / 

K\rj6ei(ra A*/ecua 

ov paSiov 

TOIS Tavryv /caracr/ceua^oucri rrjv KOivcovtav, 
oiov alicias Kal (povov? a/eoucr/ov? 8 /ecu [ta^as Kal \oiSopia$* 

* - ^ T / i f\ ^ / ^ / ^ 

a)j/ ovoev OCTLOV ea-Ti r yive<jvai irpos iraTepas KGLL jmrjTepas KCU 
TTOjOjOft) T^? a-vyyeveia<s o^ra?, wcrTrep irpos rou? 
aXXa /ecu TrXefOj/ crvjuL/3aiveiv avajKalov ayvoovvTGW 

*r \ / ^\ (~f / '^/ 

vTWV, /ecu yevojmevcw TU>V jmev yvwpi^ovrwv evoe- 
\GTOLI Tag vofJLi^oiuLeva? yivecrQai AiAref?, TCOI/ c^e jm 
2"Aro7rov c^e /cat TO KOIVOVS 7roiq<ravTa rou? uiov? TO 

fJLOVOV Ct(f)\tV TCOV pU)VT(X)V, TO (P epOLV jJiYf K(JO\V<Tai, fJLJ 

Ta? "pfiarei<s Ta? a\Xa9, a? TrotTpl irpos vlov efj/ai 
eorrlv airpeTrecrTaTOv Kal a$e\(J)(p Trpos a<$e\(f)6v eirel KOI 
3 TO epav JULOVOV. CLTOTTOV c^e Kal TO Tr\v arvvovG-'iav a(pe\eiv 
aiTiav jmrj^ejuiLav, cJ? \iav & la"xypa$ T?? 
' OTI o* 6 jmev iraTrjp q vio$ 9 01 & a$e\(pol 
o'lecrOai $ia(f>epeiv. "Eof/ee Se jmaXXov TO?? 
TO KOI 1/0:9 eivai Tas-yvvaiKas KOI 
v %TTOV yap COTTOU (j)i\ia KOIVGOV 
OVTWV TWV TeKvwv Kal Toov yvvaiKwv, Set Se TOIOVTOVS eivai 
TOV$ ctjO^o/xeVou? Trpos TO 7ri6ap%eiv Kal ju.rj vecoTepijgeiv. 
5 OXco? oe (7VfJi/3alv6iv avayKtj TOvvavTiov Sia TOV TOIOVTOV 
VO/ULOV wv TrpovqKei TOV? op6u>s Keijmevovg VOJULOV? aiTiovs 
KOI Si nv cur/ay 6 Sco/CjoaTiy? OVTWS o'leTai Seiv 

* rots 5 Kov<rlovs Bekker. 

4 aXX?5X<0i/, 
1262 B yewpyois eTvai 

I'TTTTOS] Mentioned again in 
Hist. Anim. vn. vi. p. 586, 13. 

IV. i rods 5 eKov<rlovs] This 
seems to me superfluous, a later addi- 
tion. With one MS. I should omit it. 

TOI;S JUT? Trbppu XT}? o'vyyevetas'] ' not 
distant in relationship.' 

ucrirep 7rp6s rots diruOfv] so. &v e'frj 

dXXi Kal irXeiov] 'But they must 
both happen more frequently.' Com- 
pare on this subject Grote, I. 34, not. 

In the text pp. 33, 34. He considers 
these X&ms post-Homeric, and in their 
origin probably Lydian. 

2 and 3 The reference is to Plato, 
Rep. in. 403. 

4 rots 7ew/>70is] This depends on 
Kowds, not on xp'/io'l/jiov, as it would 
seem to do at first sight. 

roici/rovs] sc. TJTTOV <f)i\ovs. 

5 Si Tr)V alriav] ' and the contrary 
of the ground alleged by Socrates for 
his regulation.' 

II. 4.] nOAITlKQN B. 55 


\ / , ~ , Eepubhc. 

yap oiojUieOa /meyicrTOv elvai TU>V ayaQcov TCU? TroXecrti/ - 

yap av riKiarra (Tracrfa^oiey), KOL TO fjilav eivai 

TroXiv CTraivet //aXi<7$' 6 SawcoaT^?* o KOLL OOKCI KCtKetvos 
clvai <pr)<Ti Trj<s (j)iXia$ epyov, KaOaTrep ev TO?? cpwriKOis 
Xdyois 'lajmev XeyovTa TOV 'Api(7TO(f)dvr}v co? TCOV epwvrwv 
Sia TO cnpoSpa (pi\eiv 7riOvfj.ovvTO)v crvju,(])vvai KOI yevea-6ai 
CK ovo OVTCOV* ei/a* evTavOa ju.ev ovv avayKij afjL(poT6pov$ ^ 
e(f)9dp6ai tj TOV eva.' ev $e Ty iroXei TY\V (piXiav avayicaiov 
vSaprj ylvecrOai Sia Ttjv KOivwvlav Ttjv ToiavTtjv, KOI riKKTTa 
Xeyetv TOV e/mov if viov TraTepa if iraTepa viov. coonrep yap 8 
jmiKpov y\VKv eig 7ro\v vficop fJLi^Oev avaia-OqTOV Troiei 

Kpa(TlV, OVTCD (TVjUL/3aiVl Kttl Tt]V OLKCLOT^Ta Tr\V 7TjOO 

avayKaiov 6v cv Ty TroXiTeia Ty TOiavTrj, r\ TraTepa w? 
vicov rj viov cJ? TraTpos, rj (Jy ao'e\(povs aXX^JXcoj/. Suo yap 9 

<TTIV a fj.d\i(TTa Troiei KrjSearOai TOV? avQpwirovg KOI (piXetv, 

t it N \\ / f> '^' *?' * ' 

TO Te iciov Kai TO ayairt]Tov cov ovdeTepov oiov TC virap- 

yeiv TOIS OVTW 7ro\iTevo]u.voi$. 'AXXa jmrjv Kai Trepl TOV 
ju.Ta(j)epiv TO, yivdfJLeva Teicva, Ta JULCV e/c TMV yewpywv KOI 


6 QCklav] 'affection/ not 'friend- 
ship,' 'caritas/ not 'amicitia.' 

8 ical SoKei] ' which is both generally 
thought to be.' 

tpuTiKois \67ots] The Symposium 
of Plato, 191, 2, and foil. 

d/*0or^/)ous] I prefer leaving this 
out, and reading K 5i5o tvruv &a. 
The afj,(f>oT{povs seems to have crept in 
from the next line, c&rre 5v floras ^a 
yeyov&cu is the language of Plato, 
Symp. 192. D. The attempt at exces- 
sive friendship is destructive. 

8 ourw (TV/m^alvei rJKHTTa 

rty 7r/o6s 

a\\7i\ovs Tyv airb TWV OVO^OLTUV TOI/TOW] 
*' So the result is, that less than in any 
case need we take into account in a 
constitution constructed on these prin- 

ciples the intimacy or kindness which 
these names imply.' By this render- 
ing otKeibrijTa is made the direct ob- 
ject of 8ia<t>povTteu' } in the sense of 
'attending to.' 

77 irar^pa ws oi&v rj vlbv ws iraTp6s, r) 
ws d5e\0oi>s a\\ri\wv'] The construc- 
tion is hard. The simplest way is to 
repeat SiafipovTtfav, and construe it, 
' either that a father should care for 
any as his sons, or a son care for any 
one as his father, or brothers care for 
each other as brothers.' 

9 rb ayair^rbv] 'natural affection.' 
Stahr translates it, "das mit Muhe 
erworbene, that which we have ac- 
quired with effort, and which we value 
accordingly ;" but this does not seem 
required by the passage. 





Ta e/c TOVTOOV es e/cei/ov?, 
, , > 

Tiva ecrrat TpoTrov 


7ro\\t]V e^ei 

avayicaiov rov? SiSovTas /ecu /meTCKpepovras TLOTL 
10 diSoacriv. CTI $e KOI ra TraXat \e^6evTa /xaXAoy e-TTf roJ- 
Tft>y avayKaiov crv/mfiaiveiv., otoy aiKias e/ocoTa? (povovs* ov 
yap CTL Trpocrayopevovcriv a$e\(pov$ KOU TeKva KCU Trarepas 
KOU jULtjTepas TOV9 (pvXciKas oi re a? rou? a\\ovg TroXtra? 
fv o/ Trapa TOL$ (pvXa^iv 3 " rou? aXXou? 
' evXafteicrOai TCOV TOIOVTWV TL TrparTeiv 


crwyyeveiav. TLepl fjiev ovv r^? TrejOf ra TGKVO. KCU ra? 
yvvaticas Koivwvlag $iu>pt(r9(o TOV Tpoirov TOVTOV. 

TOVTMV CCTTLV eTriarKe^aarOai Trepl r^9 

Tia TOOTTOV oec KdTa<TKva 

(?(r6ai TO?? 

api<TTt]V TroXtre/ai/, irorepov KOIVY\V r\ /mtj 
2 KOivrjv eivai Tr\v KTrjcrtv. TOVTO & av TI<S KCU yu>pi.<3 trice* 


1263 T^/xeVft)i/, Xeyw ^e ra Trepl Ttjv KTrjariv, 7r6repov\Kav y e 


[(oToi/ ra /uLev 

eivai /3e\Tiov KOU rag 

TOV$ $6 KapTTOV? i? TO KOIVOV <pGpOVTCl$ ava\L(TKLV 

evia Troiel TMV eOi/wi/),|^ TOVVOLVT'LOV rrjv /u,ev ytjv KOLvrjv eivai 
Kal yewpyeiv KOLV^ rov? o^e Kapirovs fitaipeicrOai Trpos ra? 

a ei's Bekker. 

ol Trapa ro?s 0tfXaw roi>s d'XXous 
So I read it, leaving out the 
preposition ei's. ol Traph TOIS (f>ij\aZu> is 
equivalent to oi e^s roi)s 0i5Xa/cas 80^^- 
res, and the construction then is otf 
TrpocrayopetovffU' TOI>S d\\ovs TroXtras 
dSeX0oi)s /:ai T^KVO,, K. r. X. 

ciW ev\a(3etcrdai] ' So as to be on 
their guard on account of their rela- 
tionship against doing anything of the 
kind.' Did they so address them it 
would lead to caution. 

V. i So far for the community of 
wives and children. The next point 
for consideration in Plato's system is 

his view of property, and the question 
is : ought there to be private property 
or not ? 

2 Kal %wpis ffictyaiTO airb, K.r.X.] 
'This might be treated of quite separate 
and apart from the regulations,' &c. 

&ce?va] sc. ra irepl ret, rtnva. 

y/jweda] The actual plots of ground, 
the land. Three forms of community 
of property given. I The land sepa- 
rate, the produce thrown into a com- 
mon stock. 2 The land common and 
worked in common, the produce di- 
vided to meet the wants of the citizens. 
3 Both land and produce in common. 

II. 5.] 



'V*' ' /"\ ' $' * ** x ' 

*dta? xp*](rei9 (\eyovTai ce rive? Kai TOVTOV rov rpoirov 
KOivcoveiv TCOV /3ap/3dpcov^}jrj KOI ra y^TreSa /cat TOU? Kapirovg 





KOIVOV?. II CTepcov /ULGV ovv OVTCOV TCOV yecopyovvTCov a'XXo? dV 3 
it] TjOO7TO9 /cat pacov, avToov $ avTOis fiiaTrovovvTCov ra Tre^i 
ra? /CTjJcre/? TrXe/ou? aV Trape^oi ^var/coA/a?* /cat 'yajO ei/ ra?? 
a.7ro\av(Te<Ti KOU ev TOL<S epyoi? jut.*] yivojuLevcov 'larwv avayKalov 
yivea-Qai Trpos TOV$ aTroXavovras jm-ev 3 " o\iya ^e 
, TO?? eXarrco yuey \a/m(3avov<ri 7rXe/a> 
/cat jmaXicrTa TCOV TOIOVTCW. ^Xoucrt 

Koivcoviar a-^eSov yap ol 7rXei<TTOt Sicxfrepo- 
K TCOV ev Trove KOI e/c fJiiKpwv TrpoancpovovTes a\\y\oi?. 
CTI $e TCOV OepaTTovTWV TOVTOV jmaXicTTa TTpocrKpovoimev, oT? 
7rXer<Tra Trpoo-^pcoiuieOa 7Tj009. Ta? SiaKovias ra? eyKVK\iovs. 
To /u.ev ovv Koiva$ eivai ra? /cr^cret? raura? re /ecu aXXa? 5 
romura? e'^ei Sva-xepelag, ov Se vvv TpoTrov e^ei KCU 7riKO(T- 
IJLriQev tjOevi KOL Ta^ei VOJULCOV opOcov, ov /miKpov av SieveyKar 
e^ei yap TO e^ a/u.<poTepwv ayaOov. \eyco ^e TO e^ ajui(po- 
Tepcov TO GK TOV KOiva? eivai Tc\9 KTycreis KCU TO e/c Toy iSias* 
$ei yap TTCO? ju.ev GLVCLI /coti/a?, 0X0)9 $ toYa?. at ju,ev yap 6 
Siypijfievai TOL ey/cX}yCiaTa TT^OO? aXX^Xov? ou 


7rpo(T$pevovTO$' Si* apeTrjv ^' GO-TOLL TTpos TO "^prjarO 



* 17 Xa/u/Saj/oj/ras TroXXci Bekker. 

b TTWS Bekker. 

3 trtpuv] not TroXtruiy, a distinct 
body of cultivators. 

d'XXos dV, /f.r.X.] 'It would be a 
different case and easier to deal 

fj Xaftfiavoi'Tas'] I omit this as an 
unnecessary addition suggested by the 
Adrra; \afj,fidvov<ri immediately fol- 

4 (rx^bv ydp, K.r.X.] The sentence 
is not complete. In the place of the 
participle Tr/oocr/c/aoiWres should stand 
the verb TrpoaKpotiovffiv. 'They clash.' 

5 ?/"0e0-{] "les mceurs." We have 

in English no one word sufficiently 
comprehensive ' opinion and the ha- 
bits of the people.' 

ou piKpov &v SievtyKcu] ' would in no 
slight degree be superior.' 

5 TTWS] The indefinite form is the 
one here required by the sense. 

6 diyp'rjiJifra.i, K.T.X.] 'By being 
kept distinct will not give rise to com- 
plaints, and they will be pursued with 
larger results as each man concentrates 
his attention on what is his own/ and 
so feels the stimulus of property. 




a (pi\ 


Plato s Tr , v Trapoiuiav Koiva TO. cpiAwv. euTi tie Kai vvv TOV T/O< 

Republic. , , , , f , , , e 

TOVTOV ev eviai? TroXecnv OfTft)? vTroyeypa^jULevov CD? OVK ov 
afivvaTOV, Kal /mXfcrra ev Ta?? /caXeo? oiKOv/u.evais TO, 

7 e<TTi TO, <^e *yeVotT' av. iSiav yap e/ca<TT09 

Ta juLev xprja-ijuia Troiei TO?? <pi\oi$, TO?? <^e \prJTai KOIVOIS, 
olov Kal ev A.aKe$alju.ovi TO?? Te oWXo*? xpcovTai TO?? aXX}- 
Xwi^ w? eiTreiv tiioi9 9 CTL ^' rTTTrof? Acat /cucr/i/, /cdV SerjOuxriv 

8 e(f)o<$icov ev TO?? aypois KUTO, T^V j^wpav. (^avepov TOLVVV 

? Ta? KTqcreis, Ttj oe "xpyarei Troieiv 
OTTO)? ^e yivcovTai TOIOVTOI, TOV vojmoOeTov TOVT 
epyov 'ISiov ea-Tiv. eTi Se Kal Trpos qfiovrjv aju,v6r]TOV ocrov 
Sia<pepei TO VOJULI^CIV 'ISidv TI* /ULrj yap ov /j.aTt]v T*\V 7rpo$ 
1263 B avTov auTo? e^ei (j)i\iav e/cacrTO?, aXX' G<JTL TOVTO (pvcriKov. 

9 TO $e (p[\avTOV etvai ^reyeTai ^f/ca/w?* OVK CVTI $e TOVTO TO 
(piXeiv eavTOV, aXXa TO /u,a\\ov $ $el (pi\eiv, KaOaTrep Kal 
TOV <pi\o%pqiu.aTOV, eTrel <pi\ov(ri ye 7rai/T? w? eiTreiv e/ca- 
OTTOV TU>V TOIOVTOOV. aXXa /ULrjv Kal TO "^apia-acrOai Kal /3orj- 
6*j(rai (j)l\oi$ ^ l*voi$ rj eTaipoi? ijSiarTOV o yiveTat T^? 

10 /cT^crew? iSia? ova~r]g. TavTa Te $q ov <rvju./3aii>ei TO?? Xlav 
ev TTOIOVCTI Ttjv TrdXiv, Kal TTJOO? TOirrot? avaipov<riv epya 

* * ..i 'N JL' ^^ ^^ 

ovoiv apeTaiv (pavepcos, cruxppocrvvtjg jmev TO Trepi Ta? yvvai- 
Ka? (epyov yap KaXov aXXoTjO/a? 01/0-^9 aTre^earOai Sia <rw- 
(j)po<Tvvt]v^, e\ev6epioTr]TO$ Se TO Trepi Ta? KT^areis* OVTB 

OTI /3e\Ttov eTvai jmev 

Koiva TCI <f>l\<j)v] Compare the quo- 
tation of the same proverb in the Re- 
public, V. 449. 0. 

( sketched out ;' 
i, an outhne, a first sketch. 

Xp-/l<rifji.a Troiet] 'places at the ser- 
vice of his friends.' 

8 This is the exact conclusion of 
Art. XXXVIII. Compare Wilson, 
Bampton Lect. 1851, Lect. vn. p. 231. 

rotoOrot] ' men capable of this state, 
competent so to deal with their pro- 

Kal irpbs i]5ov^v] ' even for the plea- 
sure of the thing.' 

fir) yap ov jj,aTtiv, K.r.X.] For the 

form of the expression compare Etk. 
X. i. 3. p. 1172, 33, p-fi Trore 5 ov 
icaXcDs. And so again, Eth. X. ii. 4, 
p. 1173,22. For the substance, comp. 
Etk. IX. iv. i. p. 1166, i, ra <J>i\iKa 
ra Trpbs roi>s 0/Xous.. .^oi/cej/ K r&v 
irpbs eavrbv iXijXvdfrai. The element 
of self, of the personal, it is impossible 
to eradicate. It is a vain endeavour 
to seek to do so. To control and 
guide and subordinate self-love to be- 
nevolence, the personal to the relative, 
the individual to the society this is 
the true object. 

<j>l\avrov~] This subject is treated 
Etk. ix. viii. Butler's Sermons, XII. 




yap eorrat (pavepos e\ev6epio$ wv, OVTG Trpd^ei Trpd^iv e\ev- 
Oeoiov ovSejuilav ev yap T*J vpna-ei TWV KTriuaTdov TO Ttjs 

I * I * f\4 

eXevOepioTtfTOS epyov CCTTIV. 

EuTTjOocrwTTO? JULCV ovv q TOiavTrj vojuioOea-la Kal <pi\dv- 
6pu>7ro<s dv eivai So^eiev 6 yap aKpowimevos aa-jmevos a 
i, vojml^cDv ecrearOai (pi\lav Tivd OavjULa&Trjv Traori 
?, aXXft)? re Kal oTav KaTrjyoptj Tf? TCOV vvv v 
OVTCOV ev Tai$ iroXiTelai? KUKWV tJ? yivojmevutv Sid TO fJLrj /cot- 
vyv eivai Trjv ova-lav, \eya) Se SiKa? re TT^OO? aXX^Xou? irepl 
arvjULJSoXalwv Kal ^evSojmapTvpiciov Kpiareis Kal TrXovviwv /coXa- 
Kela$. wv ovSev ylveTai Sia TJJV ctKOivcovrjo'lav aXXa Sia TTJV I2 

, 7re Ka TOV$ KOiva 


if rou? 

a- lag 

aXXa OecopovjULev 6\iyov$ TOV$ e/c TWI/ KOIVWVLWV 
Trpos TroXXoi'? cru/>t/3aXXoi/Te9 TOU? /ce/CT^yueVou? 
iSla ra? /cr^o-ei?. IT* ^e fiiKaiov M IJLOVOV \eyeiv ovcov (rre- 13 
ptjcrovTai KaKwv KoivcovyaravTes, aXXa Kal ocrwv ayaOwv. 
o* eivai TrdjuLTrav a$vvaTO<s 6 /3/o?. a'lTiov Se TW 
r^9 TrapaKpovcrecos -^pr] vopl'^eiv Ttjv vTr6Qe<riv OVK 
ovvav opQyv. del fj.ev yap eivai TTW? jmlav Kal Ttjv oiKiav Kal 14 
TYJV TroXiv, aXX' ov Trai^Tco?. GCTTL ju.ev yap cJ? OVK ea-Tat 
7rpoi'ov(ra TroXf?, CCTTI o* eJ? ecrrai yaev, e'yyt'? ^' o^(ra TOU ywiy 
Tro'Xf? ef/at ecTTai -^elpoov TroXf?, wvTrep KCLV e'l rt? T^ cru/x- 
(fiwvlav Troitjveiev 6ju.o<pwvlav tj TOV pvOjmov fidcriv fuav. 
aXXa Set irXtjOo? ov, cocnrep elprjTai irpoTepov, <$ia TJV irai- 15 
Sclav KOivrjv Kal jmlav iroieiv Kal TOV ye /xeXXoi/ra traifielav 
eia-dyeiv, Kal vofJilfyvTa Sid TavTrjs ecrecrOai Ttjv TTO\IV 
laVj aTOTrov TOIS TOIOVTOIS o'lea-Oai SiopOovv, aXXa 

12 &v] 'And yet of these.' 
a.Koivuvrjfflav'] simply negative, ' on 
account of there being no such com- 
munity whether of wives or property.' 
dXXot 6eupovfj,ei>, /c.r.X.] 'But we 
have but few instances of men who 
have this community to compare with 
many who hold their goods as pri- 
vate property.' 

rofts K rdv Kowwnuv] ( Those under 
the conditions of such community.' 

13 atnov 84, K.r.X.] 'The cause of 
Socrates' failure must be considered to 
lie in the idea which was his ground- 
work not being right.' 

15 TrXT/tfos 6v} 'under the condi- 
tion of number.' Ch. II. 2. 






Kal Ty (pi\ocro<pia Kal TO?? VOJULOI?, axnrep ra 
ev A.aKeSai/movi Kal KpyTy TO?? (7U(7<Tmof? 

1264 16 o vojmoOertjg eKoivuxrev. Set 3e jmtjde TOVTO avro dyvoeiv, cm 
yjyr] Trpoare-^etv TW TroXXw ^povw Kal TO?? TroXXo?? erecrf j/, 6j/ 
ol? owe a i/ eXaOev ei ravra /caXw? eT^ev Trcti/ra ya^ 
cvptjrat fAV, aXXa ra /xej/ ou crvvrjKTat, Tol<s $ ou 

17 yivw&KOVTes. /xaXtcrra o^ dV yevoiTO (pavepov, e't TI$ 

3f >rv>* f ~\ t 9^ ' ' 

epyoi? 1001 Ttjv TOiavryv TroXiTeiav KaTaarKeva^Ojmevtjv ov 
yap $vvq(reTai /u.*] /mepl^wv aura KOI -^copi^wv Tcoif\<ja.i TVJV 
/, ra /xei/ ei? a~v(rcrtTia, ra ^e e/? (pparplas Kal (pv\a$. 
u^ei/ aXXo (rv/uL/SqareTai vevo^oQeTrjfJievov TrXyv fJLtj 
yewpyeiv roy? ^)JXa/ca?' oVejO /cat i/uj/ Aa/ce<5a:/>toVfOf Troieiv 

18 eTTi^eipova-iv. Ou fAyv aXX' ouo^e o TJOOTTO? r?? oX?;? TroXi- 
re/a? Tf? ecrrai TO?? KOivwvov<Tiv y OUT etprjicev 6 2a)/CjOaT>?? 
oirre paSiov eiireiv. Kairot cr^e^ov TO ye TrX^o? T?? 7roXea>? 
TO TWV aXXcoi/ 7ro\iTU)v yiveTai TrXtjBo?, Trepl wv ovSev 
pia-Tai, TTorepov Kal TO?? yewpyols KOLVOLS elvai Set Ta? 
<re/? ^ /cat /ca^' e/cauTOi/ lia$ 9 ert ^e /cat 'yut/ar/ca? /cal 

0i\o<ro0^] used in a very general 
'intellectual cultivation.' 0iXo- 
s. Thuc. II. 40. 

1 6 iroLvra y&p <TX ^ V evpyTai ph, 
ic.r.X.] For we may say generally 
that all the requisites for true political 
conclusions have been discovered bythis 
time, but in some cases they have not 
been brought together, and so the fair 
inferences have not been drawn from 
them. In these cases there is a want 
of knowledge on the subject, in other 
cases the knowledge is not wanting, 
but its application. The world's ex- 
perience was in his view sufficient ; in 
political science a synthesis was the 
thing needed. It was early to arrive 
at this conviction. 

17 fj.d\HTTa 8', K.r.X.] This carries 
us back to the irdfAicav adtivaros 6 
/Sto?, 13. Practically (rots l/yyots) it 
would be found so. Form a state, and 
divisions and separations will be found 

absolutely indispensable ; so that the 
unity you aim at will disappear in the 

1 8 Hitherto the whole of his re- 
marks have been concerned with the 
governing body ; but they by the very 
term are but a part of a whole. What 
is to be the system of that whole - 
what the relations of its parts ? On 
this Socrates is silent. Yet it is a 
question which concerns the mass, 
the majority of the population, and 
cannot well be set aside. There should 
be a definite answer given to two 
questions : In what relation is this 
mass of the governed to stand to its 
governors ? and, 2ndly, within itself 
on what principles is it to act and be 
regulated ? 

TTJS 6X175 TroXtretes] of the whole 
formed by the 0tfXa/ces and the go- 

II. 5.] 



iSiovs rj KOIVOV? 



\ \ ^ \ t \ ' ' 9 Plfl+n'<* 

yap TOV avTov TpoTrov KOiva TravTa ^^ 


~ * / \ i \ > 4 / /\ t IQ 

TOL<S V7roju.evovcri Trjv apxyv avTU>v\ tj TL fJLauovTe<s 

TY\V ap"^rjv^ eav /Jirj TL (rofblcwvTai TOLOVTOV olov 
; exeivoi yap raXXa raura TOIS ^ouXot? ec^eVre? JULO- 
vov aTreip^Kacri TO. yvjuvatria Kal Tyv TWV O7r\wv KT^<TIV. el 20 
Se, KaOcnrep ev Tat? aXXaif 7r6\eari, KOI Trap eKeivoig ecrrat 
rot TOtavTa, TIS 6 TjOOTro? (TTai T^? Koivu>VLa$\ ev /Una yap 
TroXei ovo TroXe/? avayKalov etvat, Kal raura? vTrevavTta? 
a\\y\at?. Troiet yap TOV? jmev (j)v\aKa? olov (ppovpov?, TOV? 
$e yewpyov? KOI TOV? Te^viTa? Kal TOV? a\\ov? TroX/ra?. 

Kal SiKCU) Kal ova aXXa Tat? Tr6\e<rtv vTrdp- 21 
cbtjcrl /ca/ca, Travff vTrap^et Kat TOVTOI?. KatTOt \eyet o 
&? ov TTO\\WV SeqcrovTaL yOftt/JL&v $ta Trjv 


Ka ayopavofJUKwv Ka TWV 
TOtovTtov, aTToStSov? fj^ovov T^V iraLoelav TO?? 
e Kvplovg Troiei TU>V KTrjjmaTcov TOV? yecopyov? a7ro(j)opav 22 
aXXa TroXv /xc?XXoi> CIKO? eivai ^aXeTroy? Kal (j)po- 
rXypeis i) Tag Trap evioi<} e/Xwre/a? re Kal Treve- 
crre/a? Kal Sov\eia$. aXXa yap C'IT avayKaia Tav& Oyuo/co? 23 
erre /Jirj, vvv y ovoev oiwpicrTai. j\.at irepi TWV ao^OyUeycoi^, 

T/9 r) TOVTCOV T 7TO\lTia KOI fCuSda Kal VOfJLOl TLV<S. <TTl 

& ov(? evpeiv padiov, OVTC TO $ia(pepov jmiKpov, TO TTOLOVS 
eTvai TOVTOVS irpos TO crcoQcrOai TV\V TWV 0yXa/ca>i/ KOI- 

aXXa (JL^V el ye ra? JULCV yvvaiKas Troiijcrei Kotva? 24 12643 

v Bekker. 


19 rt /ia^ovres, K.T.X.] 'what in- 
ducements could they have to submit 
to the rule ? ' 

rt (rofafavTai] ' invent some device.' 

20 trap' tKeivois] with the mass of 
the citizens in the Platonic state, the 
TWV d'XXwj' TroXtrcDi' irXrjOos of 1 8. 

21 Kal rot/rots] 'To these as well as 
to actually existing states.' 

a7ro5tSoi)s n,6vov\ ' and yet his edu- 
cation is only meant for his rulers.' 

22 d7ro0o/3o>] ' a rent.' 

23 However, be these results neces- 
sary, and all equally necessary or not, 
one thing is clear, no statement is 
made on the subject. 

Looking at the whole context I have 
but little doubt that instead of e%o/^- 
vwv we should read apxo^vwv, which 
lies hidden under the various reading 
In 1 8 we had 7-775 SXr/s 
as previously we have had 
the <J>u\aKas; he comes now to the 
other distinct member of that whole, 






Republic. , , v 
aypwv OL avopes 

TroietcrOaL TY\V Trapa/BoXyv, OTL 

oiKOVojULycret axTTrep TO. CTTI TWV 



TO. aura eTriTtjSeveiv ra? 

25 yvvaiKa? TO?? avopa<riv, ol<s otKOVOfJUGis ov$ev {JLeTetTTLv. 
o~(paXe$ oe Kai TOV? apyovTas ft)? KaOicrTrjTLV 6 

aei yap TTOLCL TOU? avTovg apyovTa$. TOVTO c 
aiTtov yivercu Kal Trapa TO?? ju.t]8ev a^ldojun 

26 TTOV ye Srj Trapd ye 6vjmoeLe(TL KOI TroXejuiiKoi? avSpdcriv. OTL 
o avayKalov avTw TTOLCLV Toy? avTOv$ apyovTa < s^ (pavepov ov 
yap OTC jmev aXXoi? OTC ^e aXXof? fj.eju.iKTaL Ta?? \f^i;^a?? o 
Trapa TOV Oeov %pv<ros, aXX' ael TO?? auTO??. <pij<rl Se TO?? 
ju.ev evOv yivofJievoLs jmi^ai xpvcrov, TO?? $* apyvpov, ^aX/coi/ 
oe (Tiorjpov TO?? TCYVITSUS /meXXovcrLV ecrecrOai Kal yewp- 

2 7 70??. "ETi ^e Kal Tr\v evoaiuioviav a(baipoviu.evo$ TCOV (bvXd- 

If I 

Aco)i/, S\jfy (py(rl <$eiv evSaijUiova Troieiv Tyv TroXiv TOV vojmoOe- 
Ttjv. aSvvaTOv $e evScufiovew oXtjv, /mrj TU>V TrXeicrTCDV if M 
fjiepwv rj TLVCOV C^OVTOOV Trjv evSai/uioviav. ov yap 
TO evSaifJiovetv wvTrep TO SpTiov TOVTO ju.ev yap 


28 evSaifJLoveiv aSvvaTOv. aXXa JULIJV el 01 (pvXaKes /mrj 

TLves eTepoi\ ov yap Stj O'L ye TeyvlTai Kal TO TrX^Oo? TO 
TOOV /Bavavarcov. *H IJLGV ovv TroXiTeia Trepl ^? 6 
v } Tai/Ta? TC Ta? aTropta? e-^ei Kal TOVTWV OVK 


^i^eSov Se TrapaTrXqartoi)? Kal ^repl TOVS VOJULOV? e^ei TOV? 
ixTTepov ypa<pevTa$* $10 Kal Trepl T?? evTavOa TroXtTe/a? 
a Bekker here reads [K&i> d Koival at Kryaeis Kal at r<3v yewpyuv yvvcuice$.~] 

the dpxo/xewt, and very briefly states 
the question about them. 

24 This is a very fragmentary treat- 
ment of the subject. One of several 
possible forms is given, and the objec- 
tion to which it is open stated. Were 
the others not given, or are they lost ? 

oticoj'o/U77<ra] 'shall manage the house- 

K&V el, K.r.X.] This may as well be 

left out. 

TTJV irapafioKfy'] 'To go to the ani- 
mals for your illustration, for they 
have no share of family life.' 

27 ov yap T&V avruv, ic.r.X.] 'For 
happiness does not come under the 
same class,' &c. 

VI. I TrapaTrXirja-las %et] That is 
to say, it is open, as the republic is, to 

II. 6.] 



acrOai [JUKpa fleXnov. Kal yap ev rrj TroXiTeia Plato's 
\ i^ t t $ / < **? t t ~ Laws. 

Trepi o\iyu>v 7raju.7rav oicopiKev o ZjWKparrjs, Trepi re yvvaiKcov 


T?? Tro\iTias rrjv TOL^IV. Siaipeirai yap ei$ $vo juiepr] TO 2 
TrXrjOos TWV OIKOVVTCOV, TO [lev a? Tou? yewpyov?, TO ^e 19 

JULCVOV KOL KVpLOV T/7? TTo'XeW?. TTCpl $ TU)V y(0pyU)V Kttl ^ 

yiTooV) iroTepov ovSe/unag rj fJieTey^ovcri TIVOS apxfjs, 
l Trorepov oVXa $ei KeKTtjcrOai Kal TOVTOVS KOL crv/uL7ro\e- 
if M, Trepi TOVTWV ovSev SiwpiKev 6 2a)/CjOaT^?, aXXa 
/mev yvvaiKas oierai Setv <rv[Ji,7ro\/u,eiv Kal Traifielas ^teTe- 
rrjs avrris Tolg (pvXafyv, ra & a'XXa TO?? e^coOev \6yoi$ 
7r7r\*jp(0K TOV \6yov KOL Trepi T?? 7rat(5e/a?, Troiav Tiva $ei 
yivecrOaL TWV 0uXa/ca)i/. Twv $e VOJULWV TO /mev TrXecarTOV 4 1265 
vofJLOi Tvy^avovariv ovTe<s, dX/ya ^e Trepi T?? TroXtTe/a? 
. Kal ravrrjv /3ov\6]ULevos Koivorepav TTOICIV rat? 
TroXecri, Kara imiKpov Trepiayei iraXiv Trpo$ Tqv eTepav TroXf- 
Teiav. e^ft) yap T^? TU>V yvvaiKwv KOivwvias Kal T?? /CT/- g 
o-eft)?, Ta aXXa TauTa aTro$L$a)(riv ajuL(f)OTepat$ Tal<s 
Te/cu$" Kal yap TraiSelav rrjv avTrjv, Kal TO TCOV epywv 
avayKaiwv aTre^o/xei/ou? ^fjv, Kal Trepi crvo-criTiwv 
TrXrjv ev ravTy (j)t]<rl Seiv etvai crvcrcriTia Kal yvvaiKcov, Kal 
TY\V /mev tXlwv rwv oVXa KeKTtjfJLevwv, Tavrrjv Se 

many grave objections, and those in 
many cases similar ones. For the two 
coincide in a great degree, with this 
difference, that ' the Laws' enter more 
into detail. 

2 els roi)s yeupyots et's TO, K.r.X.] 
These prepositions are superfluous, but 
the sense is clear, and no MS. omits 
them, it seems ; otherwise I should be 
glad to get rid of them. 

K TOI/TWJ/] sc. r6 Trpoiro\e/j,ovv ^os. 

3 rots t&dev \6yois] 'by discus- 
sions foreign to the subject of the con- 

4 KowoTtpav'] 'more generally at- 

5 T&V tpyuv T&V avayKaluv} So 
below, Ch. IX. i, we have rty TUV 
avayKaluv ffxo\^v. In both cases the 
meaning is the same. The great ob- 
ject for the Greek freeman was to have 
leisure. He must therefore be free 
from all the drudgery of life, free from 
the necessity of daily labour for daily 

<rv<r<rlTia yvvaiKwv] This institution 
seems but a fair and logical develop- 
ment of his general view as to the 
position of woman. 

Tro/Ta/ao-xiXW] Kal rerrapcC/covra 
should be added. Plato, Legg. p. 
737- D- 

64 nOAITIKQN B. [Lre. 

Plato's cryiXicov. To fJLev ovv TreptTTov e^ovirt TrdvTe? ot TOV 2w- 

Laws. , . , ^ v > r > t \ \ 

KpaTOv? \oyot /cat TO KOJUL^OV /cat TO KaivoTO/mov Kat TO 

6 faT*]TiKov, /caXft)? $6 TravTa 't<ru>$ ^aXeTroV, eTrel KOI TO vvv 
eiprjjmevov TrX^Oo? Set fjirj \av9dveiv OTI "^copa^ Seycrei TOI? 
TOcrovTOts Ba/^uXftWa? rj TIVO$ a\\t]$ aTrepavTOV TO TrX^oo?, 
e^ fa apyol TrevTaKiar^lXioi Ope^ovTai, KOI Trepl TOVTOV? 

7 yvvaucwv /cat OepaTrovTWv eTepos 0^X09 7roXXa7rXa<TiO?. Aet 
jmev ovv vTrOTtOearOai KaT ev-^v, fjLrjSev /mevTOi aSvvaTOV 
\eyeTai ^' w? Set TOV vofJLoOeTrjv Trpos Svo /3\e7rovTa TtOevai 


<$e /caXw9 e^ei Trpoa-Oeivat /cat 7TjOO9 TOV? yetTVicovTa? TOTTOVS, 
el Set Ttjv TroXiv tyv /3iov TroXiTiKov ov yap JULOVOV avay- 
Katov ecrTLv avTyv TOIOVTOIS y^prjcrOai Trpo? TOV TroXeftov 
a xpycri/uLa /caTa Trjv oiKeiav ^copav CCTTIV, aXXa /cat 

8 TTjOO? TOW? e^co roVou?. el $e TIS M TOIOVTOV a 

ni t ^/c^ t ^ ^ ^ t~\ 


YITTOV Set (f)o/3epov$ etvai TO?? TroXe/i/o*?, /mrj JULOVOV e\0ovcriv 
et? Ttjv ywaav, aXXa KOI aireXOovcriv. KOL TO 

6 This just and high compliment 
to his master's writings is not easy to 
translate. It bears "witness, if such 
were needed, to Aristotle's careful 
study and correct appreciation of their 
beauties, as well as their more solid 
merits. I venture the following transla- 
tion : ' All the dialogues of Plato alike 
are characterised by brilliancy, grace, 
originality, and profound enquiry.' 

TrepiTTov] seems to be the negative 
of ' commonplace/ * dull.' 

/caXws S Trco/ra] supply ^x eiv - 

tirei Ka.1, K. T.X.] This is one of those 
passages which bear so distinctly the 
stamp of Greek thought and Greek 
experience. To appreciate it we are 
obliged to recall as well as we can the 
narrow limits of space and number 
within which the independent commu- 
nities, the TroXets of Greece, were con- 
fined. The large and populous Athens 
drew its supplies from all quarters ; 

but both Plato and Aristotle would 
wish their state to be more complete in 

irepl roi/rous] Comp. Herodt. IX. 1$, 
Trepl ZKCLGTOV ^irra, for the number of 
attendants as well as for the expres- 

7 Set nh oft>] This is repeated IV. 
iv. i. *You are free, it is true, to form 
your hypothesis according to your 
wishes, on the condition, however, 
that you do not presuppose an impos- 

^v filov TToXtriKov'] The state as 
well as the individual may have a 
social existence. These are "interpo- 
litical" relations. 

8 d7ro5<?xercu] ' accept,' 'allow/ 
' acquiesce in this social existence 
either for the individual or for the 
state.' A state may refuse, as Corcyra 
did, to mix itself up with other states, 
but it must be prepared for self-defence. 

II. 6.] 



/CTjJcrecoy opav fiei, jmyTrore /3e\Tiov erejoco? Stopiarai TW 

~ ~-v^ / \ ?> i i * </~ 

cDS fjia\\ov TOcravTrji/ yap eivai (prjcri dew wcrre fyjv 

<nrep dv el TI$ elTrev ware ^rjv ev' TOVTO yap 



OVK <rrtv 9 

<TTI KaOdXov /xaXXov. eri o* CCTTI crotxppdvcos IULGV raXat- 9 
7ru>p(0s $e jjji/. aXXa /3e\Ti(*)v OjOO? TO craxfipdvcos KCU eXeu- 
Oepicog (x 60 / ^ T a j ^ KaT p ov TO jmev TW Tpvcfiav aKoXovOrjcrei, 

7rel juLovai y el<r\v ej~tg atperal irepl 

avrai, (oiov ovcrla Trpdcos rj a 

Wfppovwg $e /cat eXevOepitos 

avayicalov Trepl avTrjv eivai 

e /cai TO Ta? KTyarei? iardfyvra TO Trepl TO 7r\rj6o$ 10 
TroXiTGov fjirj /caTacTAceua^efi/, aXX' afalvai Trjv TCKVO- 
irodav adpi<TTOv coy tKavuw av 6jm.a\icr6tjarojJLi/r]v ei$ TO avTO 
TrX^Oo? ^a Ta? areicvias ocrcwovv yevvwjuLevow, OTI SOKCI 
TOVTO Kal vvv (rv/uL/Baiveiv irepl TG\? TroXet?. Set Se TOVT n 12653 

WC7T6 /ecu ras* 


irepl Ta? TroXet? ToVe 



o" a 




iaipeTwv ovcrwv avyKrj TOV$ 
T eXctTTOU? wcrt TO 

Comp. note on Ch. V. 8. 
Plato, Xgpgr. V. 737. D. 

ry o-a0ws /iaXXoi'] 'by defining it 
more clearly.' 

TOVTO yap, K. T. X.] sc. (rw0/>6i'ws. 
* For this term, soberly or moderately, 
is too general.' 

9 xwpis 70/3 eK&Tepov, K. r. X.] ' For 
when separate the two will be severally 
consequents of different kinds of life, 
the one of a life of luxury, the other of 
a life of hardship.' 

&ri7r6j'ws] sc. ffiv. 

i-irel fji/>vat] Strictly speaking, <ro>- 
(frpdvus does not concern property. By 
Eth. in. xiii. 14. pp. 1117, 1118, it is 
limited to quite a different sphere ; but 
it is capable of extension. If the only 
virtues or habits, 2s, that are con- 
cerned with property are these two of 
fvdepidr^, then they 

A. P. 

will be the only two that can be put in 
practice with regard to it, xpi^ets. 
Comp. Eth. i. ix. 9. p. 1098, b. 31 : 
8ia<ptpec 52 ftrws ov piKpbv & KTr/ffei 77 
Xpr)<rei rb dpurTOv viroXa^dvetv Kal kv 
2ei 17 frepydq. ; and again, v. iii. 15. 
p. 1 1 20, b. 30: Kal Te\da fj,d\i<TTa 
STI TTJS reXe/as apexes xprjffls 
, K. T. X. To make the reasoning 
clearer I have enclosed in brackets 
from olov ofola to <TTIV. 

10 TO atrrb TrX^^os] 'The original 

offuvovv yewuiJ'tvtov] ' however large 
the number of children born. 1 Comp. 
IV. xvi. 4 : Ta (rc6/xara TU>V yevvtofj-tvuv. 

11 TOTe] 'In Plato's state' far 
greater exactness will be required than 
is required in existing states. 

roi>s irapafryas] 'the supernume- 



Plato's av Te Tj-Xe/oy?. ua\\ov $e Seiv V7ro\a8oi TI$ av wpicrOai 

Laws - , , ^ , & ~ ^ ^ \ ' 

- - T*79 ovarias Trjv TeKVOTrouav, oxrre apiujmov TIVOS M 7r\ei- 

[2 ova yevvav TOVTO Se TiOevai TO 7r\fj6o$ cnro/3\7rovTa 
7T009 ra9 Tii^as, av vvfjifiaivri TeXevrav Tivas TWV yevvrjOev- 

13 TWV, Kttl 7TD09 T*)V TWV a\\0)V OLTCKViaV. TO 0* CL(f)iCr9ai, 

KttOaTrep ev Tats Tr\ei<TTaig Tro'Aeov, Trevla? avajKalov aiTiov 
ylvecrOai TOIS TroX/rat?, ^ 

Trevla crTacriv e/uLTroiei 

ovv 6 


, TOV$ O'LKOVS 'lo-ovs 


deiv SiajuLeveiv Kal 

TCOV TToXlTWV, Kal 1 TO TTpWTOV TOl/? K\rjpOV<? 

avi<rov$ cT^ov TrdvTes Acara fteyeOo?* ev Se TOI$ VOJULOIS TOV- 

14 TO(? TOVvavTiOV ea-Tiv. a\\a Trepl jmev TOVTGW TTW? olo^eQa 
/3e\Tiov av e-^eiV) \CKTCOV v<TTpov e\\e\enrTai $e TO?? 
v6fJLOi$ TOVTOLS Kal TO. Trepl TOV? ap-)(ovTa$, OTTWS e(rovTai 

j/ *s / |^^*^tf v f / 

oia(pepovT$ TCOV ap^ojuLevcov (prjari yap oeiv, a)(T7rep e^ ere- 
pov TO crTr]fjt.6viov epiov ylveTai r?? KpoKtj?, ovra) Kai rou? 

15 apxpvTas e-^eiv oelv irpos TOVS apxoju.evov$. eirel 
Tracrav ovcrlav edition ylveor6ai jmei^ova M^ 

TL TOVT* OVK av e'tij eTrl r^ 


TWV oiKOTreoov e Sialpecriv <$ei (TKOTTCIV, JULTJ TTOT ov crv/u.- 
<j)eprj Trpos oiKOVOjmiav Svo yap oiKOTre^a e/cacrra) evi]u.e 
16 Sie\u)v x^P^) xa\e7rov Se oiKiag <$vo OIKCIV. f H <^e (rvvTafys 
o\fj /BovXerai /JLCV eivai /UL^TC StjfJLOKpaTia yu^re oXiyapyia, 

fJL(7tJ Se TOVTOW, f]V Ka\OV<Tl TToXfTe/ai/* K yap TCOV O7T\l- 



13 KaKovpylav] ' crime.' 
Pheidon. Comp. Grote, n. 396, 42 1, 

note. Date uncertain. His object is 
stated to be : "An unchangeable num- 
ber both of citizens and of lots of land, 
without any attempt to alter the un- 
equal ratio of the lots, one to the 
other." Mr Grote thinks that he is 
different from Pheidon of Argos. 

14 ffTijiMVLov] 'the warp.' Kpticr), 
'the woof.' 

15 TroraTrXao-fas] From Plato, Legg. 
V. 744. B. this appears inaccurate ; 

TeTpaTr\a<rias therefore has been sug- 
gested, but a careful consideration jus- 
tifies Aristotle, for Plato allows for the 
case of a man's acquiring more than 
four times the minimum. 

Plat. Legg. 745. E. : 

&yyi>s TOV [tfoov Kal rty rdv 

16 IK y&p r&v 6ir\iTv6j>rw~\ Comp. 
III. vii. 4: 5i6irep KCLTCL ra^Ttjv rfy 
TroXiTelav (rty iroKirdav TTJV T& Kowbv 
Ka\ovfJLfrr)i>) Kvpuararov rb irpo- 

II. 6.] 


'fei rai$ Tro'Aeov TCOV aXXoov TroAfre/ay, /caAo)? ei 

\ . e , / * , , V I 

et o o>9 apta-Trjv fJLera TJJV TrpcoTtjv iroXireiav, ov K 
TOLUOL yap Trjv TCOV AaKcbvcov av TI$ eiraivecreie /xaAAoy, */ 
Kav aXXrjv TLVOL apicTTOKpaTiKCOTepav. evioi /mev ovv \eyov- 17 
<riv o>9 Set rrjv dpi<rrtjv ToXirelav e aTravwv eTvai rwv 

JLfU f yiUifV>Jl', $IO Kdl TrjV TU)V A^aKeSttLJULOvicOV 

eivcu yap avrrjv ol ju.ev e]~ oXiyapxias /cat /xo- 
Kal SijfJLOKpaTias (pacrlv, Ae'yoi/re? Trjv fjiev 
aV) Triv $e TCOV yepovTcov &px*l v oXtyap-^iav, 
Qai tie Kara T^V TCOV ecfiopwv apfflv <$ia TO e/c TOV 
eTvai rou9 e<pdpov$- ol 3e T^V fj.ev etpopetav civai TV- 
pavvi$a> ^rjfjLOKpaTeicrOai <$e Kara re ra crv<T<TLTia Kal TOV 1266 
a\\ov /3lov TOV Ka$ rjfMepav. ev <$e TO?? VOJULOI? eipqTai 18 
TOVTOI? 0)9 Seov crvyKei(r6ai r^v apitrnjv 7ro\tTiav e/c 
Ka\ Tvpavvl$o$, a? rj TO TrapaTrav OVK av Tf? 

Traa-av. /3e\Tiov ovv \eyovcriv ol 
TrAe/ou? fJLiyvvvTey fi yap e/c TrXeiovcov arvyKeijuevtj TroAtre/a 
fte\Tio)v. GTreiT ovo e^ovcra (paiverat fiovap^iKov ovfiev, 
aAA' o\iyapxiKa Kal o^oKpaTLKa.' jmaXXov S* eyK\iveiv 
/3ov\6Tai TTjOo? Ttjv oXiyap^iav. SrjXov S* e/c T?9 TOOV dp- 19 
XOVTCDV /caraa-Taoreft)? TO IJ.GV yap e^ alpeTwv /cA^jOcoroy? 
KOIVOV djuicpoiV) TO <$e TO?? fjiev evTroptoTepois 7rdvayKeg 
KK\tj(rid^iv eivai KOI (fiepeiv apyovTa? r\ TL iroteiv aAAo 
TU>V 7ro\iTiKU)v, Tov$ <? dfaicrOat, TOVTO $ oXiyapxiKov, Kal 
TO TreipacrOai TrAetou? e/c TOOV evTropcov elvai roy? ap^ovTas, 
Kal ra? /xe^iVra? e/c TWV jmeylarToov Tiju.t]]ULaT(*)v. 6\iyap- 20 

aZp&riv alpovvTai JULGV 

Troiei Ka Trv 

1 7 5rjfjLOKpaTeicr0ai] Comp. for this 
subject VI. ix. 7, 8, and Grote, n. 539. 

1 8 Stov] Comp. for this use of the 
word, Eih. n. vii. j. 

pfrriov ofo] 'Better than Plato.' 
Or it may be quite general. In pro- 
portion as there is a greater admix- 
ture of elements, is the result likely to 
be a good one. Comp. for the general 
subject Guizot's Civilisation en Europe, 

Le9on II e . pp. 34-44- 

19 d/^otp] to oligarchy and demo- 

<f>^peiv a/9X<wras] simply 'to elect or 
create magistrates.' 

20 On this passage compare Plato, 
Legg. vi. 756. B-E. Ah 1 are compelled 
under penalty to elect out of the first 
and second classes. When it comes to 
the third class, the first three are com- 




, etra 


Plato's y^p IJraVT g eirdvayKes, dXX' e/c TOV TTQWTOV 
Laws - f f' , / , , , r . 

f(TOf? e/c TOU oevTepov, CIT CK TOOV Tf 

7ravayK$ rjv TO19 CK TWV TpiTWV r\ TeTa/OTft)i/, e/c oe 
rou TCTapTOV TCOV TeTTapwv* fjiovois eTravayKes TOIS 7rpu>TOi$ 

21 KOI TO19 



o-i Seiv dpi6fj.ov. ecroj/rat $rj TrXe/ou? ot 


22 aipeicrOat TWV $t]iuLOTiKa)v $ia TO jmrj eiravayKeg. eJ? p.ev ovv 
OVK CK $t]iu.OKpaTias ACCU juiovap^iag <$ei arvvio-Tavai T*JV TOIO.V- 
TY\V 7TO\iTelav, CK TOVTWV (pavepov Kal TWV va-Tepov prjOrjcro- 
fjLevwv, OTOLV 7ri/3d\\y 7repl Ttjs TOiavTrjs TroXfre/a? rj a-Ke^ty 
c%i Se KCU Trepl TTJV aipecriv TU>V dpyovTtov TO e aipeTwv 
aipeTOv? CTTIKIVO'VVOV el yap Tive<s erwrriyvai OeXovvi Kal yue- 
Tpioi TO 7r\rj6o9, del KaTO. Tqv TOVTWV aipeOqcrovTai /3ov\rj- 
(riv. Ta jmev ovv Trepl T^V TroXiTeiav Ttjv ev Tol<s VO/ULOI? 


7 EtVf $e Tiveg r 7ro\iTelai Kal aXXaf, at /mev I^LWTWV ai Se 
Kal TroXiTiKtov, Tracrai <$e TWV KaOearTrjKviwv Kal 

* Bekker Terapruv. 

pelled to elect, the fourth may decline. 
So again when it comes to the fourth 
class, all may elect, but the third and 
fourth may decline, the first two can- 
not with impunity. 

TUIV rerdprwv'] Stahr changes this 
into T&V rerrdpuv, as do others ; and 
the change seems required. 

11 foovTai 5iJ, K.T.X.] This is to 
me difficult, and the commentators 
give but little help. As far as I can 
see, the only way is, with Stahr, to 
limit the meaning to the electors. The 
rest of his translation I cannot agree 
with. /SeXr/ous, which he makes part 
of the predicate, I think should be 
part of the subject, ol K rdv fieyLffruv 
Tifj.i}fj.dTuv Kal peXrtovs foovrai TrXefous. 

r&v ST)/J.OTIK&V~\ 'the democratical 

'comes on.' 

&X.ei tirncivSwov] tiriKivStvus would 
be more regular ; but such inaccura- 
cies are not unfrequent in Aristotle. 

At the close of this review of Plato's 
Laws, I may remark that I have con- 
fined myself to the throwing what 
light I could on Aristotle's text and 
meaning. More general questions, as 
to the relation between his views and 
those of Plato on political subjects, I 
have kept clear of. In a short Ap- 
pendix I hope to add some remarks on 
these points. 

VII. i tfiwrwv] The sense of this 
word is always determined by the con- 
text. It means here 'men who have 
not scientifically studied the subject, 
and men who have not mixed in pub- 
lic affairs.' 

II. 70 




KOL& a? 7ro\iTevovTGLi vvv eyyvTepov el<ri TOVTWV aju.<poTepcov 
ovfiels yap OVTC Ttjv Trepl TO. TGKVO. KoivoTtjTa KCU rag yvvac- 
/ca? aXXo? KeKaivoTOjurjicev, OVTC Trepl ra (Tvcro'iTta TWV yv- 
vaticwv, aXX' CCTTO TOOV avayKaiwv apvovTai //.aXXoi/. Ao/ceF 2 
ya^o rfcrt TO Trepl ra? ov<ria$ elvai fj.eyi<TTOV Terd^Oai /caXw?* 
TrejOd 'yajO TOUTWI/ TroieiaOai (pacri Ta? crrceiref? Trai/ra?. Sio 
^aXea? o XaX/c^^oV^o? royr' eiarqveyKe TrpcaTOV (prjarl yap 
Seiv iVa? efj/at ra? KTrjveis TWV TTO\ITMV. TOUTO <$e /carot- 3 12663 

v<? OU ^oXeTTOV O)6TO TTOteiJ/, Ttt? (5* ?^ 

cpyco^ecTTepov fjLev, o/xw? ^e 

\i<rQrjvcu TW ras* TrpoiKas TOV$ jmev TrXofcr/ou? 
oe /my, TOV$ oe 7re^?7T9 yit^ oioovat 

e roy? vofMVS ypa^wv jm-e-^pt jmev TIVOS wero 4 
7r\eiov $e TOV TrevraTrXacriav eli/ai TJ?? eXa^iVr^? 
jmr]$vl T&V TToXtTcov e^ovcriav etvai KTrjcraarBai, KaOdirep el- 
ptjrai KGU Trporepov. <$i <5e jULtjSe TOVTO \avQdveiv TOV$ 5 
OVTCD vojuioOeTOvvTas, o \avQavei vvv, cm TO T?? overlap TOT- 


eav yap vTrepaipy T^? oucr/a? TO jmeyeOos 6 TWV TCKVWV api- 
$/xo?, avdyKt] TOV ye VOJULOV \vecrOai, Kal )((*)pl$ r?9 X^creco? 
<pav\ov TO TroXXoiy? e/c TrXova-tcov yivecrOai irevrira^' epyov 


vea)TpoTroiovs eivai TOV? TOIOVTOV$. 

fJiev ovv 6 

] sc. The two constitutions 
of Plato. 

2 doKe? yap, K.T.X.] Comp. Arnold's 
Lect. on Mod. Hist. p. 23, ist Ed. : 
"No man who thinks seriously about 
it can doubt the vast moral importance 
of institutions and laws relating to pro- 
perty," &c. &c. 

Phaleas of Chalcedon, not known 
from other sources. 

Trp&ros] Looking at the 816 it seems 
that Trp&Tov would be the better read- 
ing, and so some read. ' Primus' how- 
ever is given by Vet. Tr., and ac- 
quiesced in by the best authorities. 
Comp. Grote, n. 523: "Phaleas of 
Chalcedon is expressly mentioned as 
the first author." 

facts] Equality of possessions is the 
doctrine under discussion, a different 
dream from that of Plato, but one 
equally erroneous, and perhaps more 
calculated to excite and mislead the 
mass of a suffering population, if at 
the same time it be very ignorant. 
For it is easier to grasp than the com- 
plex arrangements community of wives 
and property involves. 

3 T&S TJ'STJ KaroiKOV/jitvas] sc. troieiv. 
'That states already actually settled 
and organized should do it.' 

5 Trpoa-r]Kt] ' it is incumbent on 

vTrepaLprf] f rise above.' 

6 Stori] = on. Comp. note on I. 

II. 10. 





Phaleas. ^ 6f Tiva Svva/ULlv 19 Ttjv TToXlTlKtjv KOlVMViav rj T>7? OV(Tia? 
ojuLaXoTW, Kal TWV TToXai Tive? (j)aivovTai SieyvwKOTes, olov 
Kal SoXftjy evojuLoOeTqcrev, Kal Trap* aXXo*? earr\ VOJULOS o? /co>- 
\vei KTacrOai ytjv O7r6(rr)v av /BovX^rai TJ?. o/xo/co? $e Kal 
TTJV ovcriav TrwXetv ol VOJULOI KcoXvovariv, cocrTrep ev Ao/CjOoF? 

VOfJLO? <TT\ M TTUlXeiV, CLV fJirj (paVCpClV GLTV^iaV SeL^t] (TV/UL- 

7 /3e/3rjKViav. erf Se rou? 7ra\aiov$ K\ypovs diacrwl^eiv. TOVTO 
$ \vOev Kal Trepl AevKaSa St]juLoriKrjv eTrolrjcre \iav 
\iTeiav avTMV ov yap CTI (rvve/3aivev CLTTO TWV copter /me 

maTCiyv et? ra? />X^? flaSlQiv. aXX' ecm TY\V f 
virapyeiv Trjs oucr/a?, TavTtjv $ tf \iav eivai 

? \iav oXiyyv, wcrre *(*)v yX/cr^oft)?. $rj\ov 
licavov TO ra? ovo*/a? fVa? Troitjarai TOV vojmoOeTtjv, 

8 aXXa TOV fJLecrov crTO^aarTeov. CTI S* el TI? Kal Trjv fJLCTpiav 

' y* ' ' " '^^-"JL"\ *""\ ~\ ^ 5* % 

ra^eiev ovoriav Tracriv, ovoev ocpeAo?* fj.a\\ov yap oet ra? 
7ri6v/uLias 6fJLo\i^iv if ra? ova-las, TOVTO $ OVK ecm /w^ TTCU- 
ws VTTO TWV VOJULWV. 'AXX' iVw? eiVot a^ 6 
ori raura rvy^ai/ei \eyiov avros' o'teTai yap Svolv 
TOVTOIV la-OTtjTa Setv vTrdp-^eiv Tats TroXeariv, KTycrew Kal 

9 iraiSelas. aXXa Trjv re Traifielav IJTIS eorrai Sec \eyetv, Kal 
TO jmiav eivai Kal Ttjv avTtjv ovfiev o<pe\o$ f ecm yap 
avTrjv IULGV eivai Kal fuav, aXXa TavTrjv e^vai TOiavTtjv e 
earovTai TrpoaipeTiKol TOV 7r\eoveKTeiv ij yjpruj.aTU>v if 

10 (rvvaiu.<poTepa)v. "Ert (TTaa-id^ovcnv ov JULOVOV Sia Trjv aviaro- 

ovv a)? 

This allusion to Solon does 
not seem to imply any thing more 
specific than that Solon recognised the 
important bearing on the political so- 
ciety of the arrangements with regard 
to property. 

6 AOK/XHS] The Epizephyrian Lo- 
crians for whom Zaleucus legislated. 
n. xii. 6. 

dtcurcSfeo'] ' To keep unaltered 
throughout.' The infinitive depends 
on VO/JLOS tart. This provision existed 
in the Jewish law. Comp. Lev. xxv. 

7 AevudSa] Comp. Grote, III. 539, 
543, for a notice of the early history 

of Leucas. The details of its consti- 
tutional history are very scanty. 

oti yap TI, K. T. X.] 'For the result 
was that the appointed qualification 
was no longer required before entrance 
into office.' 

8 A due equality might be esta- 
blished, and yet there would be no 
guarantee for its existence. The ar- 
rangement would be open to imme- 
diate disturbance ; for a disturbing 
cause is ever at hand in the passions 
of men. 

Srt ravra, K. r. X.] ' That he will be 
found himself to allow this.' 

II. 7.] 



"> / ' "\ "\ ^ ^?S^> " " f 

r>/9 /cr^crew?, aAAa /ca* ma T^ TOOJ/ TIJULCOV. TOVVO.VTLOV 
|CU eKarepov ot JULCV yap TroAAot ma TO 
avKrov, OL fie 

ray /cr/- 
'Trepl TCOV TI/ULWV, av 'icrai* o9ev 1267 



ev Se Ifj ypw KCLKOS qfte Kal <rff\6s. 

ov povov 8 ol avOpwTroi Sia TavajKala afiiKOvcrti/, u>v &KOS J i 

TV\V fVor^ra r?9 oven a?, cocrre ft?] XODTTO^VTCII/ 
TO piyovv y Treivrjv, aX\a /cat OTTW? ^aipwcri Kal ju.rj eiri- 
eav yap /ue/^iw e^coariv 7riOvju.iai> TWV avayKaicw, 
$ia TY\V TavTtjs laTpelav a<$iKycrov<Tiv. ov TO'IVVV Sia TavTtjv 12 
JULOVOV, aAAa Kal av eTriOvjuioiev, f lva ^alpMcri Tal<s avev \virwv 


Kal epyacria, TOI? $e (rw(f)po(Tvvf]' Tpirov (5", e't Tive$ 
1 avTwv yaipeiv, OVK av eTTi^roiev el jmrj irapa 
<pi\o(ro(pia$ aKor at yap aAAat av6pu>7rcov Seovrai. eirel 13 

10 Tovva.vrtov~\ 'But the case is re- 
versed with regard to each of the two.' 

eav foai] Comp. Plato, Legg. VI. 
757. a.: oik &v ytvoutTO <f>l\ot ev foais 
Tineas 5iayopv6/jt,voi 0aOXot Kcd <rirov- 
Scuof rots y&p dvlffois rd Iff a aviaa 
ylyvotr* av. II. IX. 319. 

11 wv </cos] &v aSiK'rjfji.dTuv, 'when 
he thinks the remedy lies in equality 
of property.' Men commit injustice, 
violate their social duty, not merely 
to satisfy the cravings of hunger or 
to ward off cold, but also to gratify 
their passions and desires, and that on 
a far greater scale than can be called 
necessary, ov Stot raz/try/ccua dAXoi Kal 
dia rds v-jreppoXds ; their desires for 
wealth, honour, and other external 

TavT-rjs] sc. TTJS fj,eifovos. 

1 2 ' Nor, again, is this second enough ; 
the statement is not yet complete. 
Men will even form desires for external 
goods in order to secure the enjoyment 
of the pleasures which are unaccom- 
panied with pain ; those, namely, 
which do not involve any previous 

sense of want. With these three evils 
to meet what are the remedies avail- 
able ? Against the first the remedy 
lies in a small property and labour. 
To meet the second, the virtue of self- 
control is required. For the third, 
granting that there are men who would 
command the pleasures which depend 
on themselves alone, the pleasures 
which are free from pain, they should 
not look for a remedy to any quarter 
but intellectual cultivation. All other 
pleasures require the aid of others, are 
not complete in themselves.' Such is 
the meaning of this section, I believe. 
TCUS dvev Xi'TTtSi' ijdovais is equivalent 
to 56* avr&v %a//?e'. 

TWV rpiuv Totruv] sc. aStKtjfJuiTUv. 

Comp. for the distinction between 
ra avayKata r&v Troi-oijvTUV ydovfy and 
ra alpera Ka6' avra ex VTa $' VTrepfto- 
\fy, Eth. vii. vi. 2. p. 1147, b. 24, and 
xni. 2. bis. p. 1154, 15. 

ai yap d'XXai avdp&irwv Stovrai] 
Comp. Eth. X. vii. 4. p. 1177, 27. 

13 Comp. Eur. Phcen. 534, and 
Milton, Par. Lost, iv. 60. 


Phaleas. aoiKOvcri ye TO, jmeyicTTa $ia TCI? vTrepfioXd?, ctXX' ov Sia TO. 
avayKaia, OLOV TVpavvovcriv ovy^ f iva /mt] piyuxriv. $10 Kal 
at Ti/mal jmeyaXai, av aTTOKTeivrj Ti? ov K\e7rTrjv a\\a Tvpav- 

VOV. UHTT6 TTjOO? TCt? yWf/CjOCt? a^f/C/tt? /3or]6rjTlKOS JULOVOV 6 

14 T/ooTTO? T^? ^aXeou TroXiTe/a?. ^Eri Ta TroXXa /BovXeTai 
KaTaarKevd^eiv ej* cov TO. Trpos avTOvq TroXiTeixrovTai 

Set $e Kal TTjOo? TOU? yeiTViwvTas Kal TOL*? e^coOev 
avayKaiov apa Trjv Tro\iTeiav a-vvTeTa-^Oai TT^OO? T*]V ?roXe- 

15 /uiiKrjv icr'xyv, Trepl ?? e/ce?i/o? ovo'ev e'lptjKev. o/xo/co? ^e Kal 
Trepl T^? /CTJ/o'eco?* vet yap ov JULOVOV TTjOO? Ta? 7roXfTf/ca? 

LKavrjv virap^eiVy aXXct Kai TTOO? TOf? e^wOev KIVOU- 






ov SvvrjvovTai TOV<S eTTfoi/ra?, ou$' ourw? 

TWV 'ivco 
i <5e TOVTO jmr] \av0dveiv, 

TroXefJiov vTreveyKeiv /mtjSe TWV 'ivcov Kal TWV O/ULOLCW. 


16 cKeivos IJLGV ovv ov$ev 

OTI (rvjui(j)epi TrX^Oo? overap, fcrw? ovv api<TTO$ po<s TO 
\vcriTe\eiv TO?? KpeiTTOtri Sia TY\V V7rep/3o\r]i> TroXejmetv, aXX' 

17 oi/Tft>? co? aV /cat yu^ eyovTav TOcravTyv ovcriav. OLOV Eu/3ou- 
Xo? AvTO<ppa$aTOV /xeXXoi/TO? 'ATttjOJ/ea TroXiopKeiv e/ccXeu- 
crev auTOi/, (r/ce^aytie^oi/ ei/ TTOCTW "Xpovu) X^^erai TO ^piov, 
\oyi<ra(r6ai TOV xpovov TOVTOV TY\V Sairdvtjv e6e\eiv yap 
eXaTTOv TOVTOV \a/3wv K\t7reiv rfori TOV *A.Tapvea. TavTa 
o* eiTTcov eTTolrjcre TOV AvTO<ppa($a.Tt]v (rvvvovv yevopevov 

18 iravcraa-Oai T?? 7ro\iopKia$. e&Ti ju.ev ovv TL TWV CTVJUL- 
(pepovTwv TO Ta? oucr/a? eivai tcra? TO?? TroXtVaf? 7jy>o? TO 

Sib Kal] For his crimes are the 
greatest. Comp. Grote, in. 57, note. 
This passage is quoted with others in 
illustration of the view taken of the 
despot by philosophers. 

15 A 1 ^] 'not even.' 

1 6 6'rt <rv/x.0^oot 7rXi}0os o&r/as] Po- 
verty then is not in itself a good. 
Wealth is desirable as enabling man to 
attain his full liberty, the complete 
exercise of all his faculties up to their 
natural limit. 

d\X' ovrws ws &v, K. r. X.] ' but only 
in cases in which they would do so had 
the party assailed not so much pro- 
perty in its possession.' The wealth 
should never be the temptation to an 

j 7 For Autophradates, see Smith, 
Biog. Diet. 

1 8 Kal yap, K. r.X.] In fact, this 
very equality contains in it an element 
of discord. 

II. 7.] 



rj cTTacrid^eiv Trpos aXX^Xov?, ov 



Kal yap av o ^apievTeg ayavaKTOiev av w? owe 'KTWV OVTC? 

TOUT* fj ird- 

, Sio KOI (palvovTai TroXXa/a? e7rtTi6eju.evoi KOI 
. CTI $ y Trovrjpia TCOV avOpwTrwv aTrX^crTOf, Kal TO 19 12673 

fj.ev iKCtvotr $i<D/3o\ia JULOVOV, orav $ 
Tpiov, ael SeovTOii TOV TrXe/oz/o?, ew? ef? aireipov 
aireipos yap rj r^S 1 eTriOvjuLia? <pv<ri$, %<s TTjOo? Trjv 
criv 01 TToXXol ^axriv. TWV ovv TOIOVTWV ap^y, ju.aX\ov TOV 20 
ra? oucr/a? 6f/La\fieiv 9 TO rov? /mev etrieiKeis TJJ (pvaret rotoy- 
Tou? Trapao-KevdQiv fcxrre ju.r] /3ov\ear0at f 7r\eoveKTiv, TOV$ Se 
(j)av\ov? wcrre jmrj SvvacrOar TOVTO tf ecrTtv, av tfTTOVS re 

. Ov /caXco? ^ ovSe Ttjv IcroTtjTa T?? 21 

wan KOL 

ov(ria$ eiprjKev Trep yap Tr\v 

ecTTi Se Kal $ov\cov Kal /BocrKrjfjLaTWV TrXowro? Kal 

TO?, KOI KaTaa-Kevrj 7ro\\r] TWV /caXou/xei/wi/ eTriTrXcw. Jj 

TravTwv ovv TOVTCW IcroTrjTa fyTtjTeov y TGL^IV Ttva jmeTpiav, 

rj TrdvTa eaTeov. <&aivTai $ e/c r>/9 vofJLoOevtas KaTacrKev- 22 


ccrovTat Kal fj.rj TrXypw/uid TI Trape^ovTai T?? TroXew?. aXX' 23 
eiTrep Set Srju.o(Tiov<f elvai roy? ra KOIVOL epya^ojmevovs, Set 
KaOdirep ev 'JStTTifidfJivw re, Kal a)? Aio(pavTO9 TTOTC /care- 
o-KevaQv 'A^^j/iya-f, TOVTOV e-^eiv TOV TpoTrov. Tlepl ju.ev ovv 
Trj<s <&a\eov TroXfre/a? cr^eSov e/c TOVTODV av rt? Oewpycreiev, 
el TL Tvy^dvei /caXco? eiprjKw? *j jULrj /caXa)?. 

, 09 Kal Trjv TWV 8 

19 5iW|3oXk] The pay of dicasts 
and members of the assembly. 

20 TUV oCv TOLOTJTWV d.px'n] ' In such 
matters the real principle is.' 

TOI)S ^Triei/cets] = xap^o/res, cf. 18. 
The respectable part the upper 
classes. The word is used, that is, in 
a political sense, as is <f>ati\ovs just 

21 From objections to the great 
principle of Phaleas' constitution, he 
conies now to one or two objections on 
points of detail. 

c7r/7rX wv] ' mo veables . ' 

22 ol Te-xyiTO.1, K. T. X.] The arti- 
sans and tradesmen considered in the 
light of slaves belonging to the public. 

23 The cases which he quotes as 
different from the arrangements of 
Phaleas are, from our want of know- 
ledge on the subject, useless as illus- 
trations. Comp. Grote, in. 542. 

Ka.TeffKeta.frv~] 'wished to establish.' 

VIII. i For Hippodamus, see 
Smith, Diet. Biog., and Grote, vi. 27. 

74 nOAITIKttN B. [LiB. 

Hippoda- TfoXewv (haipe(rt4> evpe Kal TOP Tleipaia KaTerejULev, yevojut-evog 
KOI Trepl TOV a\\ov /Blov TrepiTTOTepo? <$ta (piXoTi/mlav OUTW? 
SoKeiv eviois tyv TreptepyoTepov Tpiywv re Tr\y6ei Kal 
TroXvTeXei, en <5e e<r6f]TO$ evTe\ov$ jmev aXeeivrjs Se 
OVK ev TW ^eijULwvi JULOVOV a\\a Kal Trepl TOV$ Oeptvovg X/'~ 
vows, \6yios $e Kal Trepl ~rr\v o\rjv (fivariv eivat 
TTOWTO? TWV fJt.rj TTO\iTevoju.ev(ii)v eveyeiprive TL Trepl 

2 eiTretv T?? apicrTrjs. Karea'/ceJa^e $e Ttjv TTO\IV TW 

fjiev jUivpiavSpov, el? Tpia $e /u.eprj dirjptjfjLevrjv CTTOICI yap ei/ 
/u.ev fjiepos re^wra?, ev $e yeoopyovs, Tpirov Se TO TrpoTro- 

3 \eju.ovv Kal ra oVXa %ov. Siypei o* et? Tpia jmept] Trjv ^w- 

ra vo/mi^o/meva Troitjcrovart Trpos TOV$ Oeovs, iepdv, acf) u>v o* 
ol 7rpO7ro\e]ULOvvTe$ /SiuxrovTai, Koivyv, TY\V $e TCOV yecopycov 

1 Qif >t Cffl / ft \ .**' t f f / * 

4 idiav. WCTO o eiorj Kac TWV VOJULWV avai Tpia /ULOVOV Trepi 
wv yap at Swat ylvovTai, Tpia TavT eivat TOV apiOjuiov, 
v/3piv /3\a/3r]v OdvaTov. evojmoOeTei $e Kal SiKavTrjoiov ev 
TO Kvptov, ei? o Trdcra? avdye(T0ai Seiv ra? jmrj /caX<0? K&epiv 
(rOai <$OKOv<ra$ Slxaf TOVTO Se KaTevKevaQv CK TLVWV yepov- 
1268 5 TCOV aipeTcov. ra? ^e Kpicreis ev TO?? SiKaarTypiois ov Sta 
^srj<po(bopia$ weTO ylvearOai Seiv] aXXa (frepeiv eKaarTov Trivd- 
KIOV, ev fa ypd(peiv, el icaTaducdfyi d7rXa>9 T*JV SIKTJV, el S* 
ctTToXvoi aVXco?, KCVOV el $e TO /u,ev TO <$e JULJ, TOVTO fiiopl- 
Yeiv. vvv yap OVK WCTO vevojuLoOeTytrOat /caXajp* a 

7reptrr6re/)os 5ii (fxXoTL^lav] ' rather 
eccentric from ostentation.' 

irepiepybrepov, /c.r.X.] 'somewhat 
extravagantly, both from the quantity 
and expensive ornaments of his hair.' 

X67tos 5^, K. r. X.] and wishing to be 
well-informed on all subjects of natural 
science, "a man of considerable attain- 
ments in the physical philosophy of 
the age." The word X67H occurs 
later, iv. (vn.) x. 3. Comp. Herod. I. 
i. n. 3. 

I cannot but think this whole de- j cused.' 
scription of Hippodamus very suspi- ! avayKafeiv yap] The subject is r 

cious, not as to the truth of it in it- 
self, but as to its being Aristotle's. It 
would be more consistent with Theo- 
phrastus. It seems to me one of the 
many places in which you may rea- 
sonably suspect a later hand. 

3 d<' t5i/] used without any regard 
to the number, as the equivalent of Wtv. 

4 5iKacrT-/}piov, K.T.X.] a supreme 
court of appeal. 

5 el KaradiKafoi ctTrXcDs] ' If he 
simply gave sentence against the ac- 

II. 8.] 



yap 7riopK6iv rj ravra w ravra SiKaFovTa?. criOei $e vo- Hippoda- 

* - < ' ~ ^ ^' * mUS> 

TCOV Vpl(TKOVTCt)V Tt Tf] 7TO\l (TVJULCpepOV, OTTO)? TVy -- 

ijmfj?, Kal TOI? 7rai(ri TCOV ev TW 7ro\eju.(> Te\evTcovT(ov 
e/c $ijfJLO<riov ylvearOai Trjv Tpocpyv, oo? OVTTW TOVTO Trap a\- 
\oi? vevojuLoOeTrj/uLevov e'ffTi <$e Kal ev 'A&Ji/a*? oyro? 6 v6fj.og 
vvv Kal ev erepais TWV 7ro\ea)v. rot'? $* apyovTas aiperov? j 
VTTO TOV fy/mov eivai TraVra?* ^rj/Jiov $ eTroiei ra rpla 
T^? TToXew?* TOV? ^ aipeOevTa? 7rt/uL\eiar9ai KOIVCOV Kal 
Kal opfyaviKwv. Ta IJ.GV ovv TrXeia-ra Kal TO, 

v ra^ew? raur' e<7TfV, a7ropy(rie tf 

av TI? irpwTOV jmev Tr\v iiaip&riv TOV 7r\y6ov$ TU>V TroKiTwv. 
o'i TC yap Te^yiTai Kal ol yecopyol Kal ot Ta o^rXa l^o^re? 8 
KOIVW>VOV<TI T?? TroX^re/a? Trai^re?, ot jmev yewpyoi OVK e^oi^re? 
oVXa, 01 $e Te^viTat oi/re yfjv cure oVXa, eoVre yivovTai 
cryeSov $ov\oi TCOV TO, oVXa KeKTtjjmevwv. /meTe^eiv JULCV ovv 9 
Tracrcov TU)V TIJULWV aSvvaTOV avdyKtj yap CK TCOV TO, oirXa 
eyovTWv KaOiarTaa-Oat Kat arTpaTtjyovs Kai 7ro\iTO(f)v\aKa$ 
Kal ra? Kvpiu>TaTa$ ap^as co? eiTreiv fjirj ^tere^oi/ra? $e T?? 

-\/ <p / j. - \* v '/ ^^ -\ / 

7roAfTia9 TTft)? Oioi/ re <pi\iKco$ e%eiv 7rpo$ TJJV 7ro\iTtav' 9 
aXXa ^e? KpeiTTOv? elvai TOV? TO. oVXa 'ye KeKTtjimevov? aju.- 

(f)OTpWV TU)V fJLepWV TOVTO S* OV paSlOV fJirj TToXXou? OVTtt?. 

el $e TOUT' earTai, TI Set TOV? aXXou? fJiCTe^eiv Trj? TTO\I- 10 
Kal Kvpiov? clvai T?? TCOV ap^ovTCov KaTaarTaffect)? ; ert 
y TroXei ', Te^viTa? ju,ev yap avay- 


vvv rdiv, or some similar expression. 
' The present arrangement.' 

6 ws O^'TTW, K. r. X.] ' as though this 
bad not yet been enacted by law in 
other cases.' 

7 dtropr)(reie . ..ryv StaLpecriv^ 'would 
find a difficulty in his division of the 
whole body of his citizens.' 

9 jtter^%etj/ fjt,kv oiV, K. r. X.] 'with- 
out going so far as this, it is clear that 
for them to share in all the offices is 

7roXtTo0i;Xa:as] a magistracy men- 
tioned vin. (v.) vi. 6, as existing at 

Larissa, but one on which there seems 
no information. 

fiT] {jLeTfyovTas, K.r.X.] 'If not ad- 
mitted to a share in the government, 
how can they feel friendly to that 
government ?' And if not friendly they 
will want coercion. 'That must be 
allowed for, and the armed class must 
be stronger than both the others to- 
gether. But it is not easy for them 
to be so unless they are numerous ; 
and if numerous, and so the stronger, 
then why admit the others at all ?' 


76 nOAITIKfiN B. [LiB. 

Ka tov etvat" Tracra yap fieirat TroXf? re^irM, Kal Svvavrat 
SiayiyvecrOai KaOonrep ev ra?9 aXXc9 7rd\ecriv OLTTO r^9 re- 

01 <$e yeoopyol iropifyvTes ju.ev TOI$ TO, oVXa 
TY\V Tpo<ptjv evXdycos aV rjcrdv TI r?? TroXew? juepos, 
yovviv, Kal TavTrjv i$ia yewpyoveriv. CTI <$e 
a(p* ^9 ol TT^ooTroXeyUo^re? e^ovcri TY\V rpocpyv, et ju,ev 
yetopyycroviTiv, OVK av e'lrj TO jma-^ijuLOV erepov KCU TO 
yecopyovv, fiovXerai S* 6 voju.o9eTW cl $ erepol Tive$ earov- 

TOLL TCOJ/ T6 TO. 'lOlCt yeCOpyovVTOOV Kdl TCOV /Xa^/yUCOl/, TTdpTOV 

av fjiopiov ecTTai TOVTO Ttjs 7roXew9, ovSevos yuere^o^, aXX' 

12 a\\oTpiov r^9 7roXtre/a9. aXXa 

f\ r 

1268 B re 


TOV$ avTov$ 

f \ i r \ \ \ \ -> / 

TOf9 re Trjv iQLav Kai roi/9 Ttjv Koivyv yeoopyovvTas, TO 
aTropov ecrTai TCOV Kapirwv e u>v e/ca(7TO9 yecop- 


Svo QMC/apj KOI TLVOS eveicev OVK evOvs OLTTO T^9 7^9 
K\rjpu>v avTol<s Te Trjv Tpoffirjv \J]^rovTai Kal 
rape^ovtriv't ravra S*j Trai/ra TroXXrjv e^ei Tapa- 
13 xyv. Ov Ka\co$ o* ovtf 6 Trepl r^9 Kpicretos e^ei vo/JiOV, TO 
Kpiveiv GL^LOVV SiaipovvTa r^9 K pi erect)? aVXwy 

10 diaytyi>e<rdai] 'support them- 

ISlq. yewpyovo-iv] ' Not merely is the 
land they cultivate their own, but they 
cultivate it entirely for themselves ;' 
the produce is not any of it thrown 
into a common stock, or made avail- 
able for the others. 

1 1 frepot rives ^ffovrat] sc. ol yewp- 
yovvres rty KOivr/v. 

12 diropov] 'will be a difficulty.' 
yeupyyirei 5i5o ok/as] ' maintain by 


e0i5s] 'at once,' without any divi- 
sion taking place. There need be no 
distinction between common and pri- 
vate land. 

OTTO XT}? 7775, K. T.X.] This would 
seem to be nothing more than 'from 
the same lots of land.' So it is taken 
by Schneider and Stahr : "aus ein 
und denselben ihnen durchs Loos 
ertheilten Grundstiicken . ' ' 

13 SiaipovvTa] 'distinguishing.' 
TTJS Kptffeus ctTrAws yeypa/A/oA'^j] I 
understand this to be a concentrated 
expression. In full it would be : 
When the issue taken is simple, and 
therefore the verdict to be given should 
be simple. Kplcris, 'the decision,' pro- 
perly is made to do double duty, to 
represent both the form of the indict- 
ment and the form of the decision. 

Kal ir\elo<nv\ In all cases of arbitra- 
tion there is necessarily more than 
one party, and their respective claims 
admit of discussion and distinctions. 
The arbitrator therefore, or arbitrators, 
may discuss these claims with one ano- 
ther, and draw distinctions as to their 
amount. In a court of justice this is 
not so. The defendant as a single 
party stands before the court for a 
decision simply. Is he or is he not 
guilty on the point raised ? There is no 
need of distinctions as to amount ; 




II. 8.] 

Kal yivetrOai TOV oiKa(TTtjv oiaiTtfTyv. TOVTO o ev jmev Tfj 
SiaiTy Kal TrXeioariv ev^e^eTai ^KoivoXoyovvTai yap aXXyXois 
irepl TJ?? Kpicrecos), ev $e Tol<s SiKacrTtjplois OVK CCTTIV, aXXa 
Kal TOvvavTiov TOVTW TCOV vo/moOeToov 01 iroXXol TrapaarKeva- 
fyvo-iv OTTO)? ol <$iKa<TTal /uLt] KOivoXoywvTai TT^oo? aXX^Xov?. 
eireiTa TTCO? OVK ecrrat Tapa^wSrjs fj Kpians., oTav ocpelXeiv 14 
JJLCV 6 <$iKacrTr]9 o'lrjTai, fjiij TOOTOVTOV & ocrov 6 ^iKa^6jmevo^' 9 
6 fj.ev yap e'iKO(7i jmvas, 6 oe ot/cacrT^? Kpivei oe/ca /$, f] 6 
irXeov, 6 o* eXavcrov, aXXo? Se TrevTe, 6 $e TeTTapas' 


i/, ol & ovOev. r/9 ovv 6 Tpoiros <TTai T^? ^5 
TWV ^rrjd)U)v j eTi o ovoel? eTriopKeiv avayKOjCei 
aTToSiKacravTa rj KaTafiiKaaravTa, e'lTrep aVXco? TO 

yeyoaTTTai of/catft)?* ov yap uLrioev ocbeiXeiv 6 OLTTO- 
I I ' I 

Kpivei, aXXa Ta? C'IKOCTI ]$' aXX' eKeivo? tjSrj eiriop- 
Kei 6 KaTaSiKacras /mtj VOJULI^MV 6(peiXeiv T? e'lKoari fjiva$. Tlepl l & 
Se TOV TOI$ evpi(rKov(Ti TI Trj TroXei crvfjLcfiepov cJ? Sei yivecrOal 
Tiva TifJLrjv., OVK ecTTiv acr(paXe$ TO vojmoOeTeiv, aXX' ev6(pOaX- 
fjiov ctKovarai IJLOVOV eyei yap <rvKo<pavTia$ Kal Kivy<rei$, av 
Tv^y, iroXiTeias. e/XTT/TTTet o^ ef? aXXo Trpo/SXrjjma Kal <TKe- 
^riv eTepav airopovcri yap Tive? TroTepov /3Xa/3epov fj arvjut.- 
cfiepov Tal<5 TroXecri TO Kiveiv TOV$ iraTplov? VOJULOV?, av TI$ 
aXXo? (3eXTi(i)v. oioirep ov paoiov TW Xe^OevTi Ta^y (rvy- I> J 
Xwpeiv, e'lTrep ju,rj crvjm(j)epei Kiveiv. evSe^eTai o* elvrjyelarQal 
Tivas VO/ULODV Xvariv % TroXiTeia? 009 KOIVOV ayaOov. 7rel Se 
a fjiveiav, eTi jmiKpa Trepl avTOv SiacrTeiXaarOai /3e\- 


there is no need for discussion among 
the judges. It were better that each 
gave his unbiassed opinion. I offer 
this view with hesitation on a subject 
which I am not familiar with. 

14 6 5i/ca6yU'os] 'the plaintiff.' 

1 5 rys StaXoyrjs r&v \J/ifi<j>(i)j>~\ c The 
counting of the votes.' 

' on good grounds.' r6 
the indictment.' 

1 6 eM(f>Oa\/j,ov dKou<rcu] an odd use 

of the word in which the specific sense 
is to be dropped as much as possible, 
'fair to the ear.' 

tyei y&p <rvKO<f>avTlas] ' for it opens 
a door to vexatious cavillings against 
the old law.' Again, in vvKotyavTlas 
the most general sense is all that can 
be retained, as far as I see. 

17 8ia(TTeL\a<T0ai] 'set out,' 'state 
at length.' Comp. Plato, Rep. vn. 
535- B - 

Hippoda- TloVt g- l ydp, warTrep e'lTrofAev, aTroplav Kal So^eiev av /3e\- 

TLOV eivai TO Kiveiv eTrl yovv TCOV a\\wv eTrio-Ttjjmwv TOVTO 

(rvvevrjvoyev, olov taTpiKtj KivrjOeiva Trapa ret TraTpia Kal Kal oXco? al Te^vai Tracrcu Kal al fivvdjuiei?, W<TT' 


19 Trepl TavTtjv avayKalov OJULOIO)? e^eiv. o-rjfjieiov o* av yeyove- 
vai <paitj Tf? CTT* avTu>v TCOV epycov TOV$ y&p apvaiovs vo- 
]mov$ \iav aVXcu? eTvai Kal /3ap/3apiKov$. ecriSrjpo^ 
T yap ol "EXX^i/e?, Kal ra? yvvaiKas CGWOVVTO Trap a/ 

20 Aa>j/. oar a re \onra TWV apyaiwv ecrrl TTOV VOJULI/ULCOV, 

1269 TrajuLTrav CCTTIV, oToi/ ev Kvju.y Trepl TOL (poviKa vo^og ecrTiv, av 
7r\tj66$ TL Trapda-^tjTaL jmapTvpow 6 SICOKCW TOV <f)6vov TMV 

21 avrov crvyyevcov, evo^ov eivai TW (pdvw TOV (pevyovTa. fy- 


TC TOVS 7rpu>TOVs, iT6 yrjycveis rja-av C'LT eye (p6opa$ r^o? 
ecrwOtjarav, OJULOIOVS elvai Kal TOV$ Tf^oVra? Kal TOU? avor\- 

TOVS) axTirep /ecu Xe^erai /cara TMV yqyevwv, WCTT OLTOTTOV 

\ t ~ / w/ \R\ / ^^ 

TO ju-eveiv ev TOIS TOVTWV doyjuLaoriv. Trpog ce TOVTOIS ovde 

22 TOV? yeypajULju-evov? eav aKivyTOv? /3e\Tiov. wanrep yap KOI 
Trepl ret? aXXa? re^vap, Kal Tr\v TroXiTiKtjv Tafyv aSvvaTOv 
aKpi/3co$ TravTa ypaffivaf KaOoXov yap avayKalov ypaffi- 


Tre TU>V Ka eKaarTov ecriv. 


//,ei/ ovv 

1 8 fyeiydp, /c.r.X.] He first gives 
the reasons iri favour of change to the 
middle of 22. 

19 apxaiovs v6/Ji,ovs] rather 'customs' 
than laws, 'institida.' Comparing 76- 
in 21, here we have 

tffiST)po<popovi>To] Thuc. I. 5, 6. 

tuvowrd] Comp. Grote, II. 112, 

20 & Kifytfl] Grote, n. 126, not. : 
" If the accuser produced in support 
of his charge a certain number of wit- 
nesses from his own kindred, the per- 
son was held peremptorily guilty." 

6 SubKwv rbv Qhvov] Comp. Eurip. 
0** I 534'- Tdv'EX&^/s <f>t>vov dubKw. 

21 ^ffrovffi 8t, Af.r.X.] 'In fact what 
men look for in all cases is not the old 
but the good.' 

K <f>6opas rivbs cfftoQrjcrai'] Compare 
a passage in Plato, Legg. in. 6 7 7. a.: 
rb TroXXas dvOpuTraiv <f)6opas yeyov&ai 
KaraK\v<rfji.ois re Kal t>6<rois Kal aXXots 
TroXXoiS, ei> oh fipaxt TL r&v avdp&iruv 
\dire(r0ai yevos. Compare also Poli- 
ticus, 270. 

oftolovs etvai Kal] The construction 
is the same as &ra Kal, 'on a level with 
quite ordinary men in intelligence, or 
even simply below the ordinary stand- 

22 IK /mfr oftv Toirrdiv, K. r. X.] 'On 
these grounds then it is evident that 

II. 8.] nOAITIKON B. 79 

TOVTWV cbavepov OTL KivtjTeoi Kal Ttve$ Kal TTOTC TWV VOJULWV Hl PP da - 

I i 1TVU.S. 

eiarlv, a\\ov $e TpOTrov eTrtorKOTrovcriv ev\a/3eia$ av $6(~iev 

eTvai TroXX^s 1 . OTav yap y TO jmev j3e\Tiov fJLiKpov, TO $ 2 3 
eOlfeiv ev-%epw$ \veiv TOVS VO/ULOVS <pav\ov, (pavepov ws eaTeov 
evia? dftaprrias Kal TWV vo/moOeTwv KOI TWV ap-^ovTWV ov 
yap TOCTOVTOV wcpeXycreTat Kivycras, oarov /3\a/3ycreTai TOI$ 
ap^ovcriv aTretOetv eOi(rOeig. v^et'^o? $e Kal TO Trapdo'eiyjuLa 24 
TO Trepl TWV Te^vwv ov yap O/J.OLOV TO Kiveiv Te^vtjv Kal 
VOJULOV. 6 yap VOJULOS Icryyv ovSe/miav e^ei Trpo? TO TretOe- 
crOat 7T\rjv irapa TO e'Oos, TOVTO $ ov yiveTai el /mrj Sia 
vpovov TrX^Oo?, WCTTC TO paoiw /u.eTa{3a\\eiv e/c TWV vTrap- 
yovTWv VOJULWV ei$ eTepovs vojmovg Kaivovs aarOevtj TTOICLV <TTL 
Trjv TOV VOIJLOV 8vvaju.iv. Ti o* el Kal KivtjTeot, TTOTepov 25 

Kttl TTCLVTeS KOI V TTGKTJy TToXfTe/tt, *] Ol>' 9 Kttl TTOTepOV TW 

TvyovTi t] Ti<Tiv' 9 TavTa yap e^ei fjt,eyd\tjv $ta<popdv. Sio 
vvv fJLev a<pwfjiei> TavTtjv TVJV crKe^iv a\\wv yap e<TTi Kaipwv. 
Tlepl Se T?? A.aK$aiju.ovtwv TroXtTe/a? Kal T?? KjO^/Tf/c?9, 9 

KOI Trepl TWV a\\wv 7ro\iTeiwv, <$vo elcrlv al OTKC- parta " 
?, [Aia /j,ev e'l TL Ka\w$ rj ju,*j KO\W? irpog TY\V aplcrTtjv ve- 
Ta^iv, eTepa <? e't TL irpo? Trjv vwdOecriv Kal TOV 
TpOTrov vTrevavTiws Trj<$ TrpOKeifJLevrjs avTOts TTO\LTeia<s. "OTi 2 

there must be a change in some laws, 
and at certain times ; but looking at it 
from a different point of view, it would 
seem that great caution is required.' 

23 rtDv vo/j-oderuv Kal TU>I> apybv- 
rwv] 'both in the legislator and the 
executive magistrates.' 

Kivf)<rai\ is the citizen under the 

24 6 yoLp j'o/ios] 'Whatever force the 
law has to secure obedience is entirely 
dependent on habit.' Comp. Arnold's 
Rome, Vol. n. p. 55 : " The ancient 
heathen world craved, what all men 
must crave, an authoritative rule of 
conduct ; and not finding it elsewhere, 
they imagined it to exist in the funda- 
mental and original laws of each par- 
ticular race or people. To destroy this 

sanction without having any thing 
to substitute in its place, was deeply 
perilous ; and reason has been but too 
seldom possessed of power sufficient to 
recommend its truths to the mass of 
mankind by their own sole authority." 
25 T$ TVXOVTL rj Tt<rif> ;] ' Is it open 
to any given person to propose the 
change, or to some definite number ?' 

IX. I 860 eiclv 
'There are two points for considera- 
tion ; the one, is any given part of 
their legislation right or wrong when 
viewed with reference to the best pos- 
sible arrangement ? the other, is it 
contrary to the idea and general sys- 
tem of the constitution actually esta- 
blished V 






- T fj ju, e \\ovcrr] AcctXo)? 7TO\iTevear9ai TVJV TWV avay- 
a"xo\rjv, o[JLO\oyoviJLev6v ecrTiv rlva <$e rpo- 
) ov paSiov \afielv. YI re yap QerraXwv Tre- 
7roXXa/a? eTreOero TO?? GeTTaXo??, o^ao/co? <$e /ecu TO?? 
ol Et'Xavre?* wvTrep yap e(f)eSpevovTe$ TO?? arv^fj- 
$iaTe\ovcriv. ^repl $e TOV$ KjO^ra? ou^eV TTW TOIOVTOV 

1269 B arvju,/3e/3t]KV a'tTiov tf fVft)? TO Ta? 'yeiT^iwcras' TroXef?, 

TroXe/xoJcra? aXX?}Xaf9, juujSefjilav elvai trvfJLfji.a^ov rots a(j)i<TTa- 
juivoi$ Sia TO /x^ a-viuL(pepiv Kal avTals KKT*]iu.ei>at$ Trepioi- 
Kovg' TOI? <$e A.aKW<riv ol yeiTViu>VTe e^Opol Trdvre? fjarav, 
'Apyeioi Kal Mecrcrqvtoi KOI 'ApcaoW, eTrel KOI TO?? 06TTa- 
Xo?? Kar apx a ? a<pia"TavTO Sta TO TroXejmeiv ert TO?? Trpocr- 

4 xutpois, 'A^aio?? Kal Heppai/3ois Kal Mayi/^o-ii/. eoiKe Se 
KOI el fjLrjfiev erepov, aXXa TO' ye T?? eTr^eXe/a? epyu>$es elvai, 
Tiva Sec TTjOO? auToy? 6ju.i\f]crai TpOTrov avieju,evoi TG yap 
v/3pilov<ri Kal TWV '{crew a^iovcriv eauTOu? TO?? Kvplois, Kal 
KaKOTraOu*? ^coj/Te? 7ri/3ov\evov(n Kal jULi<rovcriv. ^Xoi/ ovv 
cJ? OVK ej^evpioTKOvari rov /BeXricrTOV Tpoirov, oT? TOUTO o*u/x- 

5 /Balvei Trepl TY\V ctXcoreiav. "]TI & fj Trepl Ta? ywa?/ca? 
avecris Kal irpos Ttjv Trpoaipecriv T?? TroXtTeta? (3\a/3epa KOI 
7Tpo$ evSaifJLOviav TroXeco?. Sxnrep yap oliclas /xepo? av^jO 

2 T^y TOJJ/ avayKaluv <rx<>\ir}v] ' lei- 
sure, freedom from attention to the 
first necessities of life.' This is allowed 
by all to be the basis of existence for 
the Greek freeman. To secure it slaves 
were necessary, and in the case of 
Sparta these were the Helots. In 
principle this body of men was neces- 
sary, and yet practically the relations 
between them and their masters were 
very unsatisfactory. Nor was this the 
case only in Lacedsemon. Thessaly 
was an instance of the same thing. 
Crete was free from the evils under 
which the others suffered, but this 
might be traced to peculiar causes. 

7] . . . GeTraXwj/ ire veffrda] Compare 

G-rote, II. 369 and foil. 

^>e5peiWres] 'watching for.' 

3 It was the common interest of 
the cities of Crete to make common 
cause against the serf population. 

'Axcuots, K. T.X.] These then were 
not Penestae, but tribes more in the 
position of the Laconian Periceci. 

4 dvitfievoi] ' If left unchecked.' 
KO-KOTradds ffivres, ' if harshly treated. ' 

oZs roOro ffVfJL^alvfi] 'When this is 
the actual result they arrive at in re- 
gard to their Helots.' 

5 Tty irpoaLpecrtv TT?S TroXtre/as] = 
rty 'utrbdea'iv of I. and 7ry>6s et)5cu//.o- 
vlav = rty aplffTi 




Kal yvvrj, SrjXov OTI Kal iroXiv eyyv? TOV $i%a SiyprjcrOai Set Sparta. 

VOfJLl^eiV e'l? Te TO TCOV OLvSpWV 7rXrj6o$ Kal TO TUIV ywaiKWV, 

WCTT ev oorais 7ro\iTiai$ (pavXcos e-^ei TO irepl ra? yvvaiKas, 
TO tjjuLicrv Trj<s TToXew? elvai $ei vojULi^eiv avofJLoOeTtjTOV. oTrep 6 
Ki (rvfJL/3e/3r]KV oXrjv yap Tt]v TroXtv 6 vo/u,o6eTr]$ etvai /5ou- 
\6juevos KapTepiKyv, /cara /wei/ roy? av$pa<s (pavepo? e&Ti TOI- 
OVTOS wv, 7rl $e TWV yvvaiKwv efy/uieXrjKev ^wcrt yap a/co- 
Xacrrft)? TTjOo? aTracrai/ aKoXacrtav Kal Tpv(pepu)$. COOT' avay- 7 
Kalov ev Ty TOiavTy TroXiTeia TifJLaarOai TOV TrXovTOV, aXXa>? 
re Kav Tvyuxri yvvaiKOKpaTOVfJievoi, KaOaTrep TO, TroXXa TU>V 
arTpaTLCDTiKwv Kal TTO\fjiiKU)v yevwv, c^o) KeXrcoj/ rj KUV el 
Tive$ eTepoi (pavepwg TeTijuL^Kacri TY\V Trpos roi/9 appevas crvv- 
ovcrlav. eoiKe yap o /mv6o\oyq<ra$ 7rpa)TO$ OVK aXoyws crv- 8 
^ev^ai TOV "Aprj Trpo? T^V ' A<ppo$iTr]v tj yap irpos Trjv 
TCOV appevoDv 6/uu\lav q Trpos Trjv TCOV yvvaiKwv (patvovTai 
KaTaKco^i/uLOt TTCLVTCS 01 TOIOVTOI. Sio Trapa TO?? AaKCoori 
TOV$ vTrrjp^eVy Kal TroXXa diWKeiTO UTTO TCOV yvvaiKCov eTrl 
Trjg ap^9 avTWV. KaiTOt TL $ia(pepei yvvalitag ap-^eiv rj 9 
TOV? apyj)VTa<s VTTO TU>V yvvatKcov ap^earOaiy TavTO yap 
crvfJiflatvei. xptja-ljuLov & ovarrj$ r^9 OpacrvTtjTOS Trpos ovdev 
TMV eyKVKXiwv, aXX' e'tirep irpos TOV iroXejULOV, /3Xa/3epu>TaTai 
Kal TT^OO? TavO* ai TWV A.aKcova)v rjcrav. eorjXwarav o* CTrl 10 

5lxa SirjpTJcrdat] 'divided into two 
equal parts.' 

u>Vr' fr 6Vats, K.T.\.] We have the 
same language in I. XIII. 15, 16. 

6 8-rrep Acet] 'This actually was 
the result at Sparta.' 

7 To gratify this unbridled luxury 
money will be wanted, especially if 
the men are inclined to submit to the 
government of the women. A high 
value therefore will be set on wealth. 
Comp. Grote, n. 513. 

8 &u/ce ydp] The ydp refers to the 
words rot, TroXXd rcDp TroXe^ui/cwj' yevCbv. 

KCiraK^xifJ-ot] Eth. X. x. 3. p. 1179, 
b. 9, the same word occurs but spelt 
differently, fcaro/ccixt/ios, 'easily led,' 

A. P. 

'inclined to.' 

TOU0'] SC. 

tiri r^s d/)X7}s avr&v] 'during the 
period of the Spartan Empire.' 

9 fryKVK\lwv~\ I. VII. 2, the word 
occurs with a substantive, 5ta/c<y4uara. 

10 &T]\(i)ffav, K. T. X.] Mr Grote, in 
his notice of this passage, II. 507, note 
3, thinks that Aristotle is hard on 
the Spartan women, that "he pro- 
bably had formed to himself exagge- 
rated notions of what their courage 
under such circumstances ought to 
have been, as the result of their pecu- 
liar training. We may add that their 
violent demonstrations on that trying 
occasion may well have arisen quite 



Sparta. T fc Qrjflaicov ejUi/BoXfjs' -^p^crijuioi fjiev yap ovSev ij<Tav, wenrep 
ev eTepais iroXea-iv, 6opv/3ov <$e Trapei^ov TrXe/co TCOV TroXe- 

1270 ii evXoyw r\ TU)V yvvaiKwv avevig. <~w yap T>J<? 

rct9 (TTjOare/a? OLTT^CVOVVTO TroXvv %povov, TroXe/movvTeg TOV 
Te Trpos 'A.pyeiov$ TroXe/mov /cat iraXtv TOV irpos 'AjO/ca^a? 


* or^oXct(ra^Te9 


ai;roi'9 /xev irape-^ov 


o7re7roir]/u,evov$ <ia TOV VTpaTiwTiKOv fiiov 
yap e^ei /u.eprj r^? ajOer^?), ra? ^e 'ywaF/ca? ^)acr 
/xev ayeiv eTri^eiprjcrai TOV Avicovpyov 7rl TOV$ VOJULOVS, J? 

12 ^* avTCKpovov, cnro<TT*]vai TraXiv. atTiai yuei/ 
TU>V yevojuievwv, wVre ^Xoi/ ort /car raur^? 

aXX' ^yue?? ou TOUTO <TKO7rov]u.ev, T'LVL $ei (rvyyvcoju.r)v 

T/> >> \v ' ~\ ~\ ^ ^ ^'/i^ x * i A 1 "* nn v ^ * r 

1 3 jj fj,rj X ell/ > a XAa irepi TOV opucos /ecu JULJJ opuoog. 1 a oe TreyOf 

ra? 7uj/a?/ca? e^ovTa M /caXco? eoiKev, w&irep eXe-^Or] /cat 
trpOTepov, ov /ULOVOV a7rp7reiav Tiva Trotetv r^? TroXire/a? ai)- 
' avTyv, aXXa crv/JipdXXea-Oai TL 7rpo$ Tr\v 

as much from the agony of wounded 
honour as from fear, when we consider 
what an event the appearance of a con- 
quering army in Sparta was." Com- 
pare also, Vol. x. 304, the account of 
the Theban Invasion alluded to by Ari- 

6^X670??] The lax discipline of the 
Spartan women can be accounted for 
without difficulty. 

1 1 dwe^ovvTo] ' They li ved away 

iro\fj.ovvTC5, K.T. X.] On these early 
wars of Sparta with its neighbours, see 
Grote, Vol. ii. 555, and foil, chapters 
VII. Vin. 

airrods /*&, K.T. X.] 'So far as they 
themselves went they presented them- 
selves to their legislator ready pre- 
pared for his operations.' Does not 
the whole passage seem to imply that 
Aristotle placed Lycurgus much later 
than he is usually placed, after these 
wars in fact ; whereas the general view 

is that the Spartan successes in these 
wars were in a great degree attribut- 
able to his measures of reform. 

TroXXd yap tyei /m^pr) TTJS dper^s] 
Compare on this subject Arnold's Lec- 
tures on Modern History, Lect. I. pp. 
10, ii. 

cos 5' avr^Kpovov, K.T.X.] ' but as they 
resisted, he desisted.' Grote, II. 508. 

12 airrat] The women. 

13 oti fJiAvov, K. r. X.] 'not only to 
introduce a certain disorder and inde- 
corum into the social relations within 
its own natural sphere, but to contri- 
bute considerably to the tendency to 

atirty Kad' aurijv] airr^s nad' avr^v 
would seem more natural, connecting 
it with TroXiretas ; or the neuter plural, 
if it is connected with TO, -jrepl rois 
7wcu/cas. As it stands it must be 
connected grammatically with brpt- 
Treia.v, and ^irpiirfLav TWO, Troieiv T?}S 
must be looked on as equi- 

II. 9-] 


JULCTCL yap TO. vvv prjQevTa TOI? irepl rrjv 

- Sparta. 

\iav T/?? KTI?<T(JO$ eTriTi/uL^creiev av 779. TO?? jmev yap avTwv 14 
<Tvju,{36{3r]K6 KKTq<r6ai TToXX^i/ \lav overlay, TOI$ oe TrajULTrav 

fJLLKpOLV ^LOTTCp 6i? 6\iyOV$ J]KV rj \<Mpa. TOVTO $ KOL <$IGL 

VO/JLCOV TeTaKTat (bavX(i)$' covei<r6ai JULCV yap rj TrooXeiv Tqv 
yjovarav 7rotr]<Tev ov /caXoV, opQwg Troiycra?, SiSovai $e 
i KaTaXeiTreiv ej^ovanav eocotce TO?? {3ov\oju.evoi$' KaiTOt 

arvfjL/Baivetv avajKalov e/ce/i/w? re KOL oi/ra)?. <TTI 15 
oe Kai TWV yvvaiKMV cr^eoov T^? 7ra<r^9 yj>pa<s TU>V irevTe 
jmepwv TO, o^Jo, TWV T 7riK\rlpa)v TroXXwv yivofJLevwv, KOI Sia 
TO TrpoiKa? $i$ovai ju.eya\a$. KaiTOi /3e\Tiov r^v juit]SejuLiav 
rj oKiyrjv if Kai jmeTptav TTa^Oai. vvv o > a'Tt Sovvai TG 
TY\V eiTLKXripov OTO) av /3ov\r]Tar KOLV OLTToQavri fj.rj $ia6eju.e- 
1/09, ov av KaTaXiTry K:\rjpov6juLOv, euro? aT av OeXy SiSaxriv. 
TOiyapovv Svvajmevtjs r^? ^wpa^ ^fX/ou? iTTTreis Tpe<peiv Kai 16 

Kai oTrX/ra? TpKr/mvpiovs, ov$e ^iXioi TO TrX?- 
yeyove ^e $ia TOOV epywv avTcov $tj\ov OTI <pav\w$ 
ef^e ra Trepl Trjv TOL^IV TavTqv jmiav yap TrXrjyyv 
ov% virrjveyKev rj TroXf?, aXX' aTrwXero $ia T^V oXiyavOpca- 
iriav. \eyovvi $ cJ? 7rl jmev TCOV TrpOTepcov /3aari\ea)v JULCTC- 17 
o"i<$o<rav T^? TroXire/a?, toarr' ov ylvearOai Tore 6\iyav6pw- 
a TOVTO Bekker. 

valent to cnrpe-rrrj iroieiv T^V iro\t.Tela.v. 
My construction is meant to express 
what I consider to be the meaning of 
the passage, rather than to keep close 
to the Greek words. 

/zeroi yap] This mention of avarice 
leads me to speak of property. 

14 ly/rev] why rJKev, not rJKei ? 
TOVTO avufialveui] If TOVTO is kept, 

then it must be referred to ds 6\lyovs 
fJKfLv ; but with Stahr I read rai)r6, as 
giving by far the best sense: 'You 
have the same result either way.' 

15 Kai T&V yvvaiK&v~\ The Kai seems 
superfluous : if kept it must be ' even. ' 

KO.V airoOdv-Q, K. T.X.] ' And if a man 
has died intestate, then his heir, who- 
ever he may be, has the disposal of 

the heiress.' 

16 Sta T(JOV pyw aurtDv] 'By facts' 
the actual course of events. 

fjilav TT\ 77717 v~\ Leuctra. Grote, x. 
263. It was fatal to Sparta, both on 
account of the large relative loss sus- 
tained, and also on account of her 
diminished prestige. 

17 ^TrJ T&V irpbTepuv, K. T. \.] It 
would appear (Grote, II. 549) that 
Aristotle is the only authority for this 
fact, which is said to imply the acqui- 
sition of additional lots of land. On 
the other hand, Herodotus, IX. 35, is 
very positive in his assertion that Tisa- 
menus and Hegias fiovvot 
avdp&TTUv tytvovro 






Sparta, ^[av 7roXeju.ovvTWv iroXvv y^povov Kai <pa<riv elval TTOTC roF? 
irapTiarais Kal fJLVpiov$. ov JJLYJV aXX' err' ecrrlv aXrjOij 
TGLVTCI e'lTe jmq, /BeXriov TO $ta r?9 ACT^crew? a)]ULaXia-/uLvr]$ 

18 TrXrjOveiv avSpwv TYJV iroXiv. virevavTios $e Kal 6 Trepl 


yap 6 vofJLoOeTqs co? TrXe/crroi'? elvai TOV$ 

dyeTai TOU? TroX/ra? on TrXe/crrou? 7roiei(r8ai 

yap avrois VOJULOS TOV /mev yevvyvavTa Tpei? vlov? a<ppovpov 

19 efvcw, rov $e TTTapa$ areX? TTCLVTWV. KaiTOi (pavepov OTI 
TToXXwi/ yivo/Jievwv, T?? ^e X^P a ^ VTO) SiyprifJLevii^ avajKalov 
TroXXot'9 ylvecrOai Trej/^ra?. 'AXXa jjJr\v KCL\ TO. Trepl T*\V 
e(popeiav e-^ci <pav\w ft yap ap-^j Kvpia ju.ev avTrj* TWV jme- 
yi<TTCW avTOi? e<TT/^, ytvovTai o* CK TOV Sy/mov xa^re?, WOTTC 
TroXXa/cf? ejuLTriTTTOvcrtv avOpcoTrot crffiofipa Tre^re? ei$ TO ap- 

20 lov OL Sia T*]V airopiav wvioi rjarav. efyXuxrav $e ?roX- 

KOI irpoTepov, Kal vvv Se ev TO?? avSploif Sia<p6a- 


yap apyvpia) Tives, oarov ecj) eayro??, oXyv TY\V iroXiv 


Kal Sta TO Trjv 

iGOTvpavvov rjjmaywyeiv avTOvs 


KOL o 

Kal fj,vplovs] In Herod, vil. 234. 
Demaratus estimates them at 8000. 

18 v-jrevavrlos, KJT.\.~\ 'Contrary to 
what is right when looked at in refer- 
ence to this reform.' 

dQpovpov] 'free from military service, ' 
as, I think, Victorius and Schneider 
rightly interpret it; not "free from 
garrison duty," as Liddell and Scott 
translate it. 

19 atfrr}] rather avrrj. 

tfffav] why this tense ? Is it that 
in Aristotle's time it mattered little 
whether they were so or not, but 
that he is stating the result of histori- 
cal experience during the period when 
the Spartan Ephors were the most im- 
portant body in Greece. 

20 dvdplois] The Oxford text reads 

but it is better to keep the 

reading of the Berlin Edition, p. 1270. 
B. 12, and suppose that it refers to 
some misconduct of the Ephors in re- 
ference to the public mess, which, from 
X. 5, bore anciently the name of dv- 
8pia. I cannot agree with Schneider, 
who thinks that misconduct relating 
to the syssitia could not be important. 
They were one of the most important 
features of the whole system, admission 
to them was the test of citizenship ; 
and we can quite as easily conceive 
that their mismanagement threatened 
the safety of the state, as some miscon- 
duct that concerned the small island of 

Sffov e(p' eaurots] ' as far as depended 
on them.' 

to court them.' 


WCTTC Kal Tainrri crvveTri/BXaTrTecrOai 
paTia yap e api(7TOKpaTia$ crvve/Baivev. 



ju.ev 21 


W<TT ere 



ovv Ti]V TToXiTelav TO ap-^lov TOVTO 
$ia TO juLeTe^eiv r^? /xe'y/crT^? apyfjs, 
voju.o6eTt]V e'iT $ta Tvyjiv TOVTO 
TrpdyiJia<Tiv. <$el yap 

TraVra /3ov\ea-0ai TO, jueprj T?? TroXew? eivat KOI 
rau-ra* OL IJLGV ovv /3a<riXei$ $10, TY\V avTWV TI^V 
, ol $e KaXol KayaOol Sia Trjv yepovarlav (a^- 
\ov yap f] ap-^r] avTtj r^9 aperf? ecrr/j'), 6 $e ^yao? ^a TV\V 
ecfiopelav KaQitjTaTai yap e aTrdvTuiv. aXX' cupcr^v e^e 23 
TV\V ap-^rfv eivai Tavrtjv e dirdvTWV /mev, /ui,r] TOV Tpoirov oe 
TOVTOV bv vvv Traioapicoor]? yap effTi \iav. CTI oe Kal Kpl- 
<rewv eicri ju,eyd\<*)v Kvpioi, o^re? ol Tf^oVre?, Sioirep OVK 
avToyvooiJ.ova<$ /3e\Tiov Kpiveiv a\\d /caret ra ypdjuimaTa /cat 
TOI;;? i/Oyaoi/?. ecrrf (5e Kal rj oiaiTa TMV e(popa)i^ o^ OJULO\O- 24 
yov/mevt] TW fiovXyfjiaTi Ttjs TToXea)?* avTrj fjiev ydp dveijmevti 
X/ai/ eVr/y, ev Se TOI$ aXXo9 /xaXXoy virep/BaXXei eTrl TO 
<TK\rip6v, u><TTe jutrj ovvaarOai KapTepelv aXXa \dOpa 

i ^ ^ t "> ^ r ~ 

aTrootOjOacr/coi/ra? aTroXaveiv TCOV 
^e Kal ra 7rep\ Trjv TWV yepovTwv a 

* 5> ^ 


ov /ca 



0-vvTTi[3\<i7rTecr0ai] through the dis- 
turbance of the kingly functions over 
and above the flaws in the Ephoralty. 

22 Ti]v Tro\iTeiav rrjv /j.tXXovffav, 
K.T. X.] rip TroXtreiW is the accusa- 
tive before po6\e<r6ai, the subject of 
the verb, not its object. The only 
difficulty lies in TO.VTO,, which I cannot 
but consider an inaccuracy, introduced 
by a species of attraction to ra pepy. 
Schneider agrees., as does Corai, but 
Stahr dissents, and construes the pas- 
sage so as to keep ravrd ; but surely 
the context is against this ; the oi/rws 
ol ]3acrtXes is equivalent to 
u ol j3a.(rt\is TTJP TroXirelav 
dvai Kal 8ia/j.eveiv. 

ol Ka\ol K&yadot] in the political 

sense the upper classes, not without 
some admixture of the moral sense. 

23 7rat5a/3tc68->7s] This leaves it quite 
uncertain what the method was, Grote, 
II. 463. 

avToyvuftovas] ( merely on their own 

24 ou% 6^0X0701/^^7;] 'not in ac- 
cordance with, not consistent with,' 
Grote, n. 468. 

auTT;] better avrij. 

fjt.7) Sfoqadat Kaprepeif] Comp. Nieb. 
Pref. Vol. I. xxvii. : "Theirs was no 
state of unnatural constraint, such as 
under the laws of Sparta, where in the 
opinion of other Greeks the contempt 
of death was natural, because death 
burst an intolerable yoke." 




Sparta. TO ^. eTTieiKuiv fJiev yap OVTMV KOI TreTraiSev/JLevwv 

25 TT/oo? avSpayaOiav Ta% dv etTreie rf? (rv/j,<pepeiv Trj iroXet. 

TO ye Sid /5/ou Kvplov? efvat Kpicrecov /meydXwv djm,(pi<T- 
<TTI yap, wcrTrep Kal o-co/xaro?, Kal Siavolaf 
1271 ytjpas. TOV Tpdirov $e TOVTOV TreTraiSevjuLevwv COCTTC Kal TOV 
vojULoOeTyv avTov aTria-'reiv u>$ OVK aya6oi$ avSpaviv, OVK 

26 acr(pa\es. (fraivovTat $e Kal KaTaScvpofioKovjuLevoi Kal Acara- 
yapi(o[JLVOL TroXXa TWV KOIVWV oi Ace/cotj/a)i/^/coVe9 

TavTr]?. SioTrep fie\Tiov avrovs /x^ avev6vvov$ etvai' vvv 

1(TIV. OO(*l O OLV Y\ TCOV (hop(*)V Up")(JI TTaCTOt? l)QvVlV T 

ap^as* TOVTO $e ry e(popeia /meya \tav TO Scopov, Kal TOV 

27 TjOoVoJ/ ov TOVTOV \eyojuLcv Sifiovai $eiv T-a? evOvva$. CTI 3e 
KOI Ttjv appear iv i}v TroiovvTai TCOV yepovTcov, /cara re 
Kpicriv <TT\ TraidaptwSqs, Kal TO avTov aiTet(r6ai TOV a 
6t]arojuLVOV r^9 apX*1S ^ K opOw? ifycr $ei yap Kal 

28 vov KOI fJLtj /3ov\6]u.evov ap^eiv TOV a^iov r^9 />X^ w v ^ 
oirep Kal Trepl Ttjv a\\ijv TroXiTGiav o vo/u.o9eTrj$ (paiveTai 
TTOLWV (J)I\OTIJU.OV$ yap Acaracr/cefa^W TOU? TroX/ra? TOVTOLS 
KexptjTai TTpos Ttjv a f lpe<riv TWV yepdvTwv ov$el$ yap av 
ap%6iv aiTrjcraiTO ^ (piXoTijUios wv KaiTOi TCOV y aiKt]/u.d- 
TWV eKOvcricov TO, 7T\ei(TTa crvfA/Baivei a-^eSov $ia <pi\OTijUiiav 

29 Kal $id (piXoxpti/maTiav Tots av9pco7roi$. Tlepl $e /SacrfXe/a?, 
ei ju.ev jm.rj /3e\Tidv CCTTIV vTrap-^eiv ra?? TrdXeariv tf /3e\Tiov, 

25 KaLroi] 'and yet even then it 
would be questionable policy.' Grote, 
ii. 475- 

TOV rpb-rrov 8 TOVTOV, *c.r.X.] 'But 
when so educated that even their law- 
giver himself distrusts them.' 

26 Grote, v. 483, quotes this judg- 
ment as the basis for an inference as 
to the effect at Athens of the Elders 
sitting for life. 

&vevd{ivovi\ 'irresponsible,' 'without 

fvdfoeiv] ' check, or control. ' Grote, 
IT. 472. 

27 afrrbv alreia-Oai] ' to canvass per- 

28 oirep KO.L, K.r.X.] Compare be- 
low, 37, a7ro^/3?7/ce Totivavriov. So 
here, the legislator has completely 
failed in attaining a correct view of 
what is required. 

(f)i\OTiiuovs ydp, /c.r.X.] 'For it is 
from his wish to make his citizens am- 
bitious that he adopts these means in 
the election of the Senate.' rot/rots, 
not roi)s TroXtras, but the sanction 
given to personal canvassing. 

otfSets yap] refers to the Kctraovceca- 
fav, I attribute this object to him, 
'for evidently no one would ask for 
office unless he were ambitious.' 

29 d fikv n^ /SArt6v iffrw] The 

II. 9l nOAITIKftN B. 87 

aXXo? ecrTft) Xdyos. aXXa /mrjv /Be\Ttdi> ye M KaOaTrep vvv, s P art3 " 
aXXa KaTa TOV avTOv /3lov eKa<TTOv KpLvccrOai TWV /BacriXecov. 

tf toi t f\ > r \ / $1 / s\ ~ -\< 

oTi o o vojULOueTrjs ovo avTos oteTai ovvacruai iroieiv /caAof? 3 
KayaOovs, 8fj\ov airia-Tel yovv co? OVK ovuiv tKavwg ayaOois 
avopacriv* oiOTrep efceTrejULTrov crvjuLTrpecrfievTas TOVS e^jdpov^ 
Kal (TWTrjpiav evo^i^ov T^ TroXet elvai TO (TTaariaCeiv TOV<S 
{3a<ri\eis. Ou /caXco? o oJoe irepl Ta <TVcra'iTia TO. KoXov/meva 
(pi^iTia vevojUioOeTrjTai Tip KaTa(TT^(ravTL 7rpu>TOV. eSei yap 31 
CLTTO KOIVOV ju.aX\ov eivai Trjv (rvvooov, KaOaTrep ev 
Trapa $e TO*? Aa/ccocrfi/ eKa&TOV $i (pepeiv, Kal 


ov vvafj.ei/a)v 

oairavav, COCTTC (rvim{3aiviv TOvvavTLOV T(S 

/3ov\eTai yctej/ yap $rjju.oKpaTiKov elvai TO /caTa- 32 

TWV <TV(T(TITIWV, yiveTai $ ijKtarTa 

OVTO) vevojULoOeTrjjuievov jmeTe^eiv ju.ev yap ov paoiov 
X/aj/ 7TVij<rtV) O|OO? ^e T?9 TroXiTe/a? OUTO? earTiv avTols o 

TTOLTplO?, TOV /ULr] C$VVafJL6VOV TOVTO TO TeXo? <pepll> jULr] fJLTG- 

yeiv avTrjs. Tw ^e Trepl TOVS vavdp^ovs vofJiw Kal eTepoi 33 
TriTeTifJLqKao-iv, opOcos cTriTijUiwvTey (TTacrea)? yap y[- 
a'tTios. 7rl yap TO?? (BacriXevcrtv OIKTI 

order should rather be el t*.tv (3t\Ti6v 
fort n.-i}. 

dfXXos \6yos] Below, III. XIV. and 

/caret rbv avrov fiiov Kpiveada.i\ ( be 
selected with reference to his own life 
and conduct.' 

30 diTT-torei 7oCc] Is not this a 
later stage of feeling, and scarcely to 
be supposed existing in the mind of 
Lycurgus ? 

Qt-jre^Trov] ' They were in the habit 
of sending out.' Instances will occur 
to every one. Grote, n. 469. 

(TTaa-idfeiv] On the perpetual dis- 
sensions of the Spartan kings, see 
Grote, II. 464. 

31 efoodov] This word seems here 
to mean not so much a ' meeting' as 
a 'contribution.' The passage quoted 

from L. and S., Herodotus, I. 64, \p-rf 
HdTwv crwbSoKrt, gives the nearest ap- 
proach to its meaning here. 

dairavdv rb dvdXufJia] ' To meet this 

32 8pos 5<?, K.T.X.] 'The right of 
citizenship has this limit fixed.' From 
this arose the body called ol v-rro^dove^, 
the Inferiors, Spartans disfranchised, 
but with the power of recovering their 
franchise. Grote, II. 482, and 525, not. 

33 Zrepot Tu/es] Who are meant ? 
(rrdcrews y&p ytverai a'irioi\ This is 

a statement of which we have hardly 
adequate justification. Mr Grote, IX. 
327, thinks it founded on the case of 
Lysander. Comp. also p. 376, where 
the king and admiral are united jn 



at Slots* r\ vavap"^la 


ov ere pa /BacriXeta 


avTtj yap 

34 toSt $e rf] vTroOevei TOV vojmoOeTOV eTriTtjmqareiev uv ri?, oirep 
1271 B /ecu IlXcmt))' ev TOIS vojmois eTrtTeTiV^/ceir TTjOo? yap 

vraara criWa^t? TWV VOJULUW ecrr/, TV\V 
TO Kpareiv. TOiyapovv 

e apl~avTe$ o\a TO ju.rj CTTI- 
ij<TKt)Kvai /JLrjSejUiiav a<TKY\<ji,v erepav 

35 KVpiWTepav T^? TroXejULiKrjs. TOVTOV $e ajmapT^fjia OVK eXar- 
TOV vo]u.iova-i /u.ev yap yivecrOat Taya6a ra 7TpijuLa^t]Ta Si 
aperris /u.a\\ov $ /ca/c/a?" Kal TOVTO /uei/ /caXw?, OTI /ULCVTOL 

36 ravTa KpeiTTco Ttjs apeTrjs vTroXajuL/Savova-iv, ov /caXw?. 

^' l^et /cat 7T6jO/ rce KOIVO, ^^ara TO?? 

\ /^^ f-v/1 9tt\ -v/ 

yap ev TU> KOIVW T^? TroAeo)? <TTIV ovoev TTOACJULOVS 
TroXe/uieiv, iar<pepov(7i Te /ca/cw?* 
yap TO T&V ^/TrapTiaTwv etvai T^V TrXeia-Triv yfjv OVK 

37 'Cpvviv a\\ri\u>v Ta? ei(7<popds. a7ro/3e/3t]Ke Te TOvvavTiov 

TU) VOJULoOeTf] TOV <TVJUL(j)epOVTO$' T*\V jUieV yap 7TO\IV TreTTOltJKeV 

iXo^prjjmaTOv^. Tlepl jmev ovv 

dtStos] d't'5/ots seems the true read- 
ing, and the weight of authority is in 
favour of it. Vet. Tr., Stahr, Schn., 
and others, adopt it. In fact, Bekker's 
reading gives a sense contrary to very 
plain statements. Xenophon, Hett. I. 
vi. 4. and n. i. 7- 

34 TT; viro6(TeC\ ' The prevailing 
idea.' Compare the language of Bra- 
sidas, Thuc. iv. 126. Plato, Legg. I. 
628. E. foil. 

35 rotfroi'] This mistake of direct- 
ing all their energies towards excel- 
lence in war. 

r& Trepi/j,dxr)Ta (ryafld] Eth. IX. viii. 
4, 9. p. 1168. B. 19 ; 1169. 21, the same 
expression occurs. 

36 T& KOIJS& x/^juara] Compare the 
language of King Archidamus, Thuc. 
I. 80 ; also Grrote, ix. 322, 323, for the 
two periods at which the language was 


elar<f)4pov(n Ka/c<s] On this see Grote, 

II. 493, and his note. T^V 

yfy, ( ' the country eastward of Tayge- 

tus, since the foundation of Messene 

by Epaminondas had been consum- 


37 TOV <rv/jt,(f)tpovTos] 'of what is 
really the interest of the state.' 

^tAoxp^drovs] For this tendency, 
with instances of it before Lysander, 
and the stimulus applied by Lysander, 
Grote, ix. 321, i, 

It seemed needless in the case of 
Sparta to do more than refer to Mr 
Grote. Any one who wishes to go 
further will find all necessary references 
there given. Nor is it necessary to 
dwell on the unfavourable judgment of 
Aristotle on the Spartan institutions. 
They are not likely to be overvalued 

II. 10.] nOAITIKQN B. 89 

Ttjs A.aKaijULOVLO)v TroXfre/a? 7rl TOOTOVTOV eiprjvOw TGLVTO, Sparta. 
yap e<TTiv a fiaKuTT av Tf9 eTriTifJuia-eiev. 

TI Se KprjTiKt] TroXiTeta irapeyyv? JJLGV ecrTt TavTt]$, 10 

if <\\ \ \ i \ ft\ -V . <?. *\ j. ^ 

eyei oe juiicpa fjiev ov -^eipov, TO oe irheiov TJTTOV y\a<pvpu>$. 
Kal yap eoiKe Kal \eyeTat $e TO. TrXeiarra jmefjujuLtjo-Oai Trjv 
KprjTiKtjv TToXiTeiav rj TWV Aa/caWy, TO. $e TrAe^crra TCOV 
ap^aicov YJTTQV SiypOpWTai TCOV vewTepwv. (fiacrl yap TOV 2 
AvKOvpyov, ore rrjv eiriTpOTretav rrjv Xa^o/XXou TOV /Sacrt- 
KaTO\i7ru>v aTret^u^crei/, rore TOV 7r\cicrTOV 

y^povov Trep Ttjv pTriv ia Ttjv crvyyeveiav OLTTOLKOI yap 
ol A.VKTIOI TCOV A.aK(Jovcov q<jav, KaTe\afiov $ 01 TTjOO? 
e\Q6vTe<s TIJV TCL^IV TCOV VOJULWV vTrdp^ova-av ev 

now. Aristotle's long criticism was 
partly due to the prominent position 
Sparta had held in earlier Greek his- 
tory, partly also to the fact that Plato, 
in his Laws, had criticised them. So 
that the chapter of Aristotle is a con- 
tinuation of the criticism of that work 
given in ch. VI. That had touched 
the speculative or ideal part of Plato's 
work, this touches one point in the 
practical. For the Laws are a discus- 
sion between an Athenian, Lacedae- 
monian, and Cretan, of their respec- 
tive constitutions, and on the princi- 
ples on which a new state, if founded, 
should be based. 

X. I Unlike Sparta, there is in the 
case of Crete no historical importance 
to justify much attention to it. A 
fragmentary sketch is all that is now 
possible. And it is to be remembered 
that Crete was not one state but an 
aggregate of states, so far as we know. 
Hoeck seems to think that Lyctos 
(which C. F. Hermann speaks of as 
"considered a daughter state of Lace- 
daemon") was the one most present to 
the mind of Aristotle. I pass to the 
consideration of the text of the chap- 

ter, referring any who would inquire 
further, to the article on Crete in 
Smith's Geogr. Diet., where the sources 
of information are indicated. 

Trdpeyyvs ptv, /c.r. X.] * Though it 
borders very closely on the Lacedae- 
monian, and though it is in some few 
points quite as well arranged, yet for 
the most part it is less finished.' 

Kal yap &>i/ce, K.T.\.] Scarcely any 
recent writers accept the view con- 
tained in this sentence. Comp. the 
article above quoted, p. 704, a. 

drfpOpwrai] Eik. I. vii. 17. diapdpu- 
0-cu, ' are less articulate, distinct.' 
Comp. Bonitz, ad Metaph. 986. B. 5 : 
" StapOpovv est rem aliquam quasi per 
membra et artus distinguere et certum 
in ordinem redigere, ut unius corporis 
referant similitudinem." 

2 On the various accounts of Ly- 
curgus, comp. Grote, II. 452. 

^TnrpoTreLav~\ ' the guardianship.' 

On Charillus, or Charilaus, more 
will be said later, VIII. (V.) xn. 12. 

Kar<;\a(3ov V7rdpxov<rav'] ' found exist- 
ing.' This surely is the fair and 
natural way of translating it, and, if 
allowed, points to the previous exist- 
ence of Dorian institutions in Crete. 

90 nOAITIKQN B. [Liu. 


3 TTOV -^j)U)VTai avTOts, cJ? /caracr/cevaVai/TO? M/j/a> TrpwTOV 
a^iv TWV vofjicov. SOKCI ^ r\ vrjcros teal Trp? 
Ttjv *J?i\\t]viKr]v 7T<pvKevai Kal KeicrOai /caXa)? 1 
yap eTTLKCLTai TY\ 6a\darcrr], cr^eSov TWV 'J^tXXyvtov iSf. 
Trepl Trjv OaXacrcrav iravTcov aTre^ei yap Ty /mev Ttjs IleXo- 

^79 'A 

cra? TOV Trep 

l T 



OLO KOI TY\v Trj? 6a\a(T(rr)$ ap-*]v /care- 

6 MiVa)?, KCLI ra? yijcrov? ra? JULCV eyeipwaraTO ra? 
reXo? ^ eTrtOe/mevos TJJ 2//ceX/a TOV /3tov e 

5 ra^9 TT^OO? T^J/ AaAro)^/cj;j/. yewpyovori re 'yap TO?? (Uei/ 
1272 e c /Xft)T? rof? <^e KjO^crli/ ot TrepioiKOi, KO\ (rvarcriTia 'Trap 

ajuid)OTpoi$ e(TTiv' Kai TO ye apyjuov eica\ovv ol A 
GV (fyiQiTia aXX* avfipia, KaOaTrep ol Kp^re?, ^ KOI 

6 ort KGi9ev e\y\v9ev. CTI $e r^? TroXtre/a? ^ ra^?. ot 
/uei/ yap e<popoi Trjv avT^v eyov<rt SvvaiAiv TOI$ ev Ty KpyTy 
KoXovjuevois /cocr/xoi?, 7r\rjv ol jmev e<popoi TreVre TOV apiOjmov 
ol Se KOOTJULOL deica elariv ol $e yepovTe? TOI$ yepovariv, ou? 
KoXovariv ol KjO^re? /BovXyv, 'i(roi. /3a<r/Xe/a <^e TrpoTepov 
jj.ev yv, etra KaTeXwav ol Kp^re?, Kal Trjv yyefjioviav ol 

3 oi Tre/Hot/coi] to be taken l< in its 
simple natural sense." Grote, II. 484, 
note c. ' The neighbouring states.' 

On Minos, compare Grote, I. 301, 
and foil. ; in p. 310 is pointed out the 
distinction between the Minos of the 
poets and logographers, and the Minos 
of Thucydides and Aristotle. 

?rp6s 7T]v apxV Tre<f>vK&ai] 'To be 
naturally qualified for holding the em- 
pire of Greece.' 

It commands.' 
refers to eirlKfirai. 

4 tTeXcvT-qcrev] Herodotus, vil. 170. 

^%ei S' dvdXo7oi'] ' There is a cor- 
respondence between the Cretan order 
and that of Lacedaemon.' 

5 ol Tre/Hoi/coi] This is quite a dif- 
ferent sense from that given 3. The 

sense here is the more technical one of 
the dependent population, lower in 
position than the Laconian periceci. 

6 In 5<*, K.T.A.] Not only did so- 
ciety in Crete as at Sparta rest on the 
basis of a large serf population, but 
also there is a correspondence between 
the two states distinctly traceable, 
when you come to consider the rela- 
tions of the citizens, the civil society 
in each case. 

foot TOIS ytpovviv] Does this neces- 
sarily imply that they were equal in 
number ? 

rrjv ijyefJiovLav'] That the Cosmi should 
exercise this power would be the natu- 
ral course when the kingly power had 

II. 10.] FIOAITIKQN B. 91 

> * '"X V t % . -|. .*. A1 / 

Ttjv Kara TroAe/xoi/ eyovviv. eKK\rj<ria$ oe jmeTe- _ 
TrdvTe?' Kvpla $ ovSevog ecrTiv ctAA' r] <rvv7ri^r]<pla-ai 7 
TOIS yepovcri Kal TO?? Ko'cr/>to*9. Ta JULGV ovv 

l (3e\TlOV TO?? KjO^CTfl/ if TOt? Aa/CWOTf I/. 

ev JULGV yap A.aK$aifjiovt Kara KecjyaXrjv e/ca<rro? el<r(j)epi 






KaOaTrep etprjTai KOL irporepov. ev $e KpqTy KOIVO- 8 

al K TCOV ^tJ/ULO(Tl(ll)V Kttl (f)Op(Jt)l> OV$ (pe 

, TeTaKTai ju.epo$ TO /mev 7rpo$ TOWS 6eov$ KOI 
KOiva? XeiTOvpylas, TO Se TOI$ crucrcrfT/of?, W<JT CK KOIVOV 
TpecfrecrOai Trai/ra?, Kal yvvaiKa? Kal Traf^a? Kal avSpa$. 
TTjOo? Se Trjv oXtyoariTiav cJ? uxpeXijmov TroXXa 7r<pi\o<r6- 9 

o vojULo6eTt]9, Kal Trpos TTJV Sia^ev^iv TCOV yvvai- 
\va ]u.r] TroXvTeKVuxri, Tyv TTjOO? rof? appevas iroLrj- 
6[JLi\tav, Trepl q$ el (fiavXcos if /mrj (pavXax?, ere^oo? ecrrcti 
TOU ciao-Ke^raarQai Kaipos. OTI fie TO. Trepl TO. <JV<J<T[TIO. 
fieXTiov rera/crai TO?? T^prjarlv rj TO?? Aa/ca)crf, (^avepov. 

TO. o"e 7T6jOf TOl/9 /COO^/XOU? Tl ^EtpOV TU)V e(p6pO)V. O fJLCV IO 

yap e^ei KaKov TO TCOV e<pdpcov ap-^eio^ vTrap-^ei Kal TOVTOOV 
ytvovTai yap ol Ti^oWe?' o ^' eKei <TV/j.(f)pei TT^OO? TJV TTO- 
XiTelav, evTavff OVK eariv, eKei ju.ev yap, o\a TO TIJV a'lpe- 

7 (TvveTrt.\l/f](f)i(Ta.C\ ' to join in rati- 
fying.' Compare xi. 6. A simple 
assent alone was allowed them. 

irpdrepov] Ch. IX. 32. 

8 xrotz'OT^ows] ' on fairer terms.' 
d?r6 TrdvTwv, /c.r.X.] If Bekker's 

reading is kept, what sense are we to 
attach to the words Kal K r&v S-TJ/J-O- 
<riuvl Are we with Hoeck to inter- 
pret it of " the Dorian common land, 
the state domains," or with Stahr, <( of 
the public revenues," "reditus pub- 
lici," Schneider? We know so little 
of the facts that it is difficult to deter- 
mine which is the right interpretation. 
I have felt inclined to change the text 
and read : &irb irdi>r<i)v y&p T&V yivo- 

v Kapir<v re 
Kal K r(av 

al /3o<r/c?7/iarci' 

r(av <t>6p(ai> ovs 

This would point to two 
sources from which the public tables 
were maintained, the produce of the 
public lands whether tillage or pasture, 
and the tribute or rents paid by the 
subject population. It seems to me 
the easiest and simplest way, but it is 
not necessary. 

9 7rp6s TTJJ/ 6\tyoaiTlav\ ' To secure 
a sparing diet the lawgiver has taken 
many wise measures.' Sidfeytp, 'se- 

10 rb apxeiov'] ' The board.' 
t at Lacedaemon. 




Grete - ariv GK TTCLVTOW ivai, /mere-^cDv 6 $tjju,o<? rrj? 

/SovXerat /sevens Ttjv TToXiTeiav evTavOa $ OVK 

aipovvTai TOV$ KoarjuLov? aXX' e/c TLVUIV yevwv, KOI TOV? yepov- 

11 ra? e/c TWV KeKoar/jirjKOTwv. Trepl wv TOV? avrovs av TI? 
e'lTreie \oyov$ KOI Trepl TCOV ev Aa/ce^a//xo^t yepovrwiP TO 
yap avvirevQvvov KOL TO $ia /3lov /uei^ov ecrrt yepa? r^"? 
a^/a? avTOi?, KOI TO w K.OLTO. ypajmimaTa ap-^eiv aXX' CLVTO- 

12 yvwjuLovas 7ricr(pa\e9. TO S* r)(rv^a^eiv M yaere^oi/ra TOV 
StJimov ovfiev (rrj/uLciov TOV TTa^6at KaXws* ov$e yap Xyju.- 
/xaro? Tt ro?9 Kocrjuiois cacrTrep TO?? e(j)opoi$, Troppa) y axot- 

12723 13 KOVCTIV ev vq<ra) TWV 8ta(p6epovvTcov. rjv <$e irotovvTai T?? 
TavT*]$ taTpetav, aroTro? Kal ov iroXiTLKrj a\\a 
Xa/ci? yap K/3d\\ov(ri <rv<TTai/Te? 


KOI i^eTa^u TO?? KOO-JULOI^ aTrenreiv T^V 
irdvTa /3e\Tiov yivecrOai /cara VO/JLOV tj /car' 
avOpwiTtov fiovXtjariv ov yap ao"(^)aX^9 6 KOLVWV. TravTCOv 
ije d)auXoVaroi/ TO r?9 a/cotr/x/a? TW^ ^vj/arcoj/, ijv Ka6i<TTa<n 

Bekker. b 5^ Bekker. 

/3oi5\erai /a^eiv] This supports the 
view given above of the construction 
of Ch. ix. 22. 

K/co(r//,i7/c6ra'] Their office then was 
not for life. 

11 Trepl &v\ sc. TW>> yepovTuv. 
yivon&uv] will make sense, but I 

am in favour of substituting r&v ye- 

rb yap avviretidwov, /c.r.X.] This 
shews that the relative at the begin- 
ning of the section refers to roi)s yepov- 
ras of the preceding one. These are 
prerogatives of the Spartan Gerusia. 

/tetfoj' yepas] ' Is a privilege greater 
than they have a fair claim to." 

12 ijcrvxa.fc"'] opposed to /SotfXereu 
fieveiv. In Crete the people submits 
to, in Sparta it positively favours, the 
existing order. 

ovSt y&p X^/tetTos] And as they 

have no opportunity of getting money, 
their office is no temptation. 

13 TT}S djCtapr/as rai/r^s] Their re- 
medy for this error with reference to 
the powers and choice of the Cosmi. 

ov TroXcri/c^] ' not such as a proper 
7roXire/a allows, but rather one that 
would suit a Swaorete,' the closest and 
worst form of oligarchy. VI. (IV.) v. 2. 

r&v (rvvap-xbvTWv, Ac.r.X.] depend of 
course on rivh. 

in the midst of their office. ' 
( to renounce.' 

ravra STJ] I do not see the force of 
81]. I should prefer Se. 

14 aKooTu'a] 'The absence of cosmi.' 
The interregnum brought about by 
the powerful, similar to the Roman 
interregnum, by which the Patricians 
sought to elude the necessity of con- 

II. ii.] nOAITIKQN B. 93 

OTav /my SiKag /BovXcovTai Sovvai y Kal SrjXov co? 
TL TToXiTeia? fj Ta^i$, aXX' ov TroXiTeia (TT\V aXXa 
/maXXov. eiwOavi Se SiaXajm/SdvovTeg TOV dfjfjiov 
Kal TOVS (piXovs fjiovap-^iav Trotetv Kal (TTaartd^eiv Kal /md- 
%e<r9ai irpos aXXyXov?. KatTOi TL Siacpepei TO TOIOVTOV r? 

XvCr9ai T*]V TToXlTlKrjV KOlVU)ViaV\ <TTl O 7riKlVOVVO$ OVTd)9 

eyowa TroXis TU>V /3ovXojuLeva)if 7riTi9ear9ai Kal 
aXXa Ka9a7rep e'lprjTai, crco^eraf Sia TOV TOTTOV 
yap TO TTOppco TreTroiyKev. Sio Kal TO TWV TrepioiKcov jmevei 16 
01 S* et'Xcore? a<pi<TTavTai TroXXa/cf?* ovTe yap 
>X^? Koivcovova-iv 01 K^o^re?, veuxrTi re 
Sia/3e/3r]KV ei$ TTJV vqcrov, o? TreTro/^/ce (pavepov 
a<r9eviav TU>V CKCL VO/ULCOV. Llepi /JLCV ovv TCLVT^JS elptjarOw 
Toaravff rj/juv r^? TroXiTeiag. 

HoXiTV(r9ai Se SOKOV&I Kal KapvnSovioi KaXcog Kal II 

77 Kal 677X0?] 'And this makes it clear 
if any thing were wanted, that though 
the Cretan order of things may have 
some points which seem to mark it as 
a legitimate constitution, it is not one 
in reality, but rather an oligarchy.' 

6taAct/i/3ctvo'Tes] So below, VII. (VI.) 
v. 10, where the word occurs in a 
somewhat different sense. Here it is 
' dividing so as to form parties.' 

15 TWV f3ov\o/a&uv, K.T.X.] 'grant- 
ing that those who wish to attack it 
have it also in their power to do so.' 

ZevyXacrlas'] plural. Comp. Thuc. II. 
39, &vrj\acrl<us. For the effect pro- 
duced at Sparta by their institution of 
Xenelasy, the prohibiting the resi- 
dence of foreigners is produced at 
Crete by the isolation their insular 
position brings with it. 'Their dis- 
tance is equivalent to xenelasy.' 

16 5td Kai\ 'on this ground also.' 
Comp. Ch. ix. 3. 

t-()TepiKrjs dpx^s] ' external domi- 
nion.' In the historical period Crete 


stands perfectly isolated. 

7r6\eyttoj ei/i/c6s] The date is said to 
be B. o. 344. Phalaecus, the Phocian 
leader, crossed into Crete. Thirl wall, 
v. 368. Grote, XI. 582, 599. Pausan. 
Phoc. II. 5. ew*6s probably means 'a 
war conducted with mercenaries. ' Such 
were the 8000 men with whom Pha- 
Isecus retired, [toipft TOV ei/iKou, says 
Pausanias. Diod. Sic. xvi. 62, 63, also 
speaks of /uuffdofapovs. From the ac- 
counts the Cretans seem to have had 
no power to resist in themselves, but at 
once to have sought aid from Sparta. 
This justifies the language of Aristotle 

XI. Before entering on the details 
of this chapter on Carthage, I quote 
Mr Grote's judgment on the historical 
value of the materials we possess : 
"These statements, though coming 
from valuable authors, convey so little 
information, and are withal so difficult 
to reconcile, that both the structure 




Carthage. TroXXa TTepiTTtos TTjOo? TOVS ocXXov?, /maXtcTTa $ evia Trapa- 
77X7707 a)? TO?? AOLKCOCTLV. avTai yap at TroXireiai 
CO? elcri Kal TWV aXXtov TTO\V 
r] Kal rj Aa/ccow/c^ Kal Tplrt] TOVTWV % 

pova-iv, i Te 

Jap"vti$ovi(ioi>, Kal TroXXa TCOV TCTay/mevco^ e^ei Trap avTOt? 

2 /caXa>9. crrjjuieiov <$e TrdXireias arvvTeTay/uievrjs TO TOV 
eyovcrav 8iafJLVW ev Trj Ta^ei r/y? TroXfre/a?, Kal 
(rTacriv, o TI Kal afyov eiTreiv, yeyevtjorOai fj.rjre rvpavvov. 

3 e^et ^e 7rapa7r\y(ria rj? A.aK(*)viKy TroXiTeia TO. JJLCV <TvcrcrtTia 
TCOV eraipiwv rots <pt$iTioi$, rt]v $e TCOV eKarov Kal Terra- 
pwv ap-^rjv TOIS e<p6pot$ (7r\t]v ov ^eipov 01 fJiev CK TWV 
TVXprrw ei(rl, TavTrfv $ alpovvTai Trjv ap-^v apKTTLV^rjv^ 
rot'? $e /3a<Ti\ei$ Kal rrjv yepowlav avaXoyov TOIS Ket 

4 /3a<ri\evari Kal yepovutv. Kal /3e\Tiov $e roy? /3aa-i\et$ 

Kara TO avTO elvai yevo?, imrjde TOVTO TO ru^oV, erra a 



vs ju.a\\ov if 

a efre Bekker. 

and working of the political machine 
at Carthage may be said to be un- 
known." He adds in a note : "Hee- 
ren and Kluge have discussed all these 
passages with ability. But their ma- 
terials do not enable them to reach 
any certainty." 

1 Tre/HT-rws] 'remarkably,' deviat- 
ing widely from the more usual type. 

2 ffWTeTay^vrjs] Stress must be 
laid on the word ' ordered' in the sense 
of well ordered ; ' disciplined' with us 
has this force. 

rbv dy/mov] The article seems not re- 
quired ; if kept the translation is : 
' we find an argument in favour of the 
skilful arrangements of Carthage in the 
fact that whilst it keeps its democratical 
element it yet preserves unchanged 
the system of its constitution.' 

&TI Kal d^iov elireiv] ' worth speak- 
ing of.' 

3 TCL ffvaffirta r&v ercuptwi'] Mo- 
vers, Gwhichfe der Phonizer, II. 492, 

thinks these were yfrfi, houses of 
the aristocracy, political divisions, not 
mere clubs, but much more closely 
analogous to Spartan and Cretan sys- 
sitia. Grote, x. 551, speaks of "col- 
lective banquets of the curise, or the 
political associations." But he thinks 
the comparison not a happy one. 

ir\}]v oi> "Xfipov, /c.r.X.] 'with this 
advantage however on the part of Car- 
thage,' &c. 

4 efre 5ta0^poi'] I prefer reading 
etra ; ' then there is a difference, and 
a difference which is a superiority, in 
the having them elected from these 
families rather than hereditary.' Grote, 
IX. 330, note, considers this Cartha- 
ginian system substantially the one 
wished by Lysander at Sparta ; " not 
confined to members of the same 
family or Gens, but chosen out of the 
principal families or Gentes." The 
change of elra for efre is advocated by 
Nickes, de Ariftotele* Politicorum U- 

II. 11.] nOMTIK^N B. 95 

Xcoy yap Kvpioi KaOecTTtoTes, dv evTe\i$ ooa-i, fjieydXa /3\a.7r- Carthage. 
TOVCTI Kal e/3\a^sav t/Sij Trjv TTO\LV Ttjv TCOV Aa/ce^cu/xomoi'. 1273 
Ta fJLev ovv 7r\ei(TTa TCOV 7riTiju.r]6evT(*)v av via Tag Trane/c- 5 
/Sdcrets KOLVOL Tvyyavei Trdtraig OVTOL Taig eiptjuevais TTO\I- 
Tiai$ m TCOV oe TTOO? TV\V vTToOeeriv T?i<s apiarTOKpaTias Kai 
T>7? TroXfTe/a? TO. jmev eiy drjfJLOV exicXivet jma\\ov, ra ^' e/V 
o\tyapyiav. TOV juLev yap TO ju.ev irpocrayeiv TO Se M 
Trpocrd'yeiv Trpo? TOV Stjfiov 01 /3a<ri\L$ Kvptoi JULCTO. TWV 
v, av ojULoyvcojULovuxri Tra^Te?* el oe fjirj, KO.I TOVTGW 6 
a <f aj^ ticrff&pwriv OVTOI, ov StOKOVcrai /ULOVOV airo- 6 
o'to'oaa-i TW orjfjup TO. OO^CLVTGL TOL<S ap^oviTlv, a\\a Kvpiot 
el<r\ KOL TM /3ov\o]u.vq) TOI$ ei(T<ppO]ULevoi$ avTeiTreiv 
) oTrep ev raf? eTcpats TroXtre/af? OVK etrrtv. TO $e 7 
ra? TrevTap-^LW? Kvpia? oi/cra? TroXXwi/ Kal jmeyaXdov v(j) av- 
TU>V alpcTas eivai, Kal T^V TU)V CKUTOV TavTag alpeivOai 
fjLeylarTtjv apyyv, CTI <$e Tai/ra? irXciovct apyeiv yjpovov 
aXXeoi/ (Kal yap e^eXfjXvOoTeg ap^overi KOI jUe'XXoi/Te?) dXf- 
TO <T ajuilorOovs Kal ju.rj /cX^jOWTa? apia-TOKpaTiKov 

Iris, p. 54. Ann. I. porro illud differt 
(et ita quidem, item ut prcestet) &c. 
Stahr reads efre with Bekker, but in- 
terprets it " und hier ist es besser." 

eiyreXels] 'ordinary.' Rhet. II. 15, 3. 
p. 1390. B. 24. 

5 'The greatest part of the ob- 
jections that would naturally be raised 
against Carthage on account of its 
deviations from the best form of 
government, are common to it with 
all the constitutions we have men- 
tioned. Those, on the other hand, 
which would be urged on the ground 
of its not fulfilling its own idea of an 
aristocracy or a Politeia, fall under 
two heads. Some of them point to 
its leaning too much towards demo- 
cracy, others to its leaning too much 
towards oligarchy.' After T&V St I 
supply tTr(.Tifj,r)6tvTwi> dv. I consider 
dpc<rroK/mr/as not as his ideal state, 

but in the more practical sense of 
aristocracy, as in 8. 

TOV nkv ydp, /c.r.X.] "The Kings 
and Gerontes, if agreed, need not bring 
a matter before the people, if not 
agreed they must. In this latter case, 
the matters so brought before it were 
entirely within the competence of the 
people to discuss as well as to de- 
cide." Grote, X. 551. 

TOIJTCOV] sc. T&V irpoa-ayofifrw. 

6 rats er^pats'] 'The two others,' 
Sparta and Crete. 

7 rairras] sc. rets irevrap-xtas, 'that 
the pentarchies should choose the su- 
preme authority, that of the Hundred.' 

Kal yctp e\r)\v66Te$, /c.r.X.] "in- 
asmuch as they exercised an autho- 
rity both before and after their regu- 
lar term of magistracy." Arnold, Rom, 
Hist. Vol. IT. 550. 






Tl TOIOVTOV TpOV Ka TO TO.g lKa$ V7TO Tft)l> 

apyelwv diKat^ecrOai Traaras, Kal jmt] aXXa? VTT* aXXoov, KaOa- 

8 Trep ev A.aK$ai]ULOvi. TlapeK/3alvei Se T>/? apiorTOKpaTias rj 
TCL^I? TWV Kapx*]$ovia)v /zaXfcrra Trpov TY\V oXiyapyiav 
/cara TWO. Sidvoiav fj crvvSoKei TO?? 7roX\oi$ l ov yap JS.QVOV 
apia'TLVo'rjv aXXa Kal 7r\ovTiv$t]v o'tovTai $eiv aipeio-Oai TOV$ 
ap"XOVTOL<s' aovvaTOv yap TOV aTropovvTa KaXws ap^eiv Kai 

9 (r%o\d^eiv. e'lTrep ovv TO jmev aipeicrOat 7r\ovTiv8*jv 6\iyap- 
\IKOV, TO $e KaT apeTyv apicrTOKpaTiKov, avrij TI$ av eirj 
rce^f? TpiTrj, Ka$ tjvjrep vvvTeTaKTai Kal TOI$ J^apy^S 

TO. irepl Tyv TroXiTeiav aipovvrai yap ei$ $vo ravra j 
TrovTe?, Kal juidXiarTa ra? /we^/crra?, TOV? re /3a<Ti\eis 

10 TOV$ crTpaTrjyovs. Set Se vojmi^eiv djmdpT^jULa vojuLoOeTOV 
7rapeK/3acriv elvai r?? apicrTOKpaTias TavTqv e^ a/>X^ ? T'V 
TOV&* opav e<JT\ TWV avayKaiOTaTGDV, OTTCOS oi /3e\Ti<rTOt Su- 
vwvTai ar%o\d^iv Kal ju.rjo'ev aa"^ij/ULoviv, /mrj ^ovov dp-^ovT? 
aXXa juirjo* l$iw>Ti>ovTe<s. ei $e Set fSXeireiv Kal TT^OO? einropiav 
j^dpiv or^oX^?, (pavXov TO Ta? jULeyi<TTa$ wvtjTas elvai TCOJ/ 

11 ap-%u>v, T*IV re j3a(ri\etav Kal Trjv (TTpaTtjyiav. VTi{Jt.ov yap 

O VOJU.OS Ol/TO? TTOtei TOV 7T\OVTOV ]U.dX\OV T>J9 ttOeT? Kal 

birb rCiv ap-xelwv] 'by the boards of 
magistrates.' This passage is discuss- 
ed by Arnold, Rom. Hist. n. 553, note 
10. But I do not see that his sugges- 
tion clears up the difficulty. The pas- 
sage in the third book, Ch. I. 10, u, 
only draws attention to the point the 
two governments have in common, 
the exclusion of the popular element 
from the administration of justice, 
leaving quite room for the difference 
indicated in the text. The tcadd-rrep 
kv AaKeSal[j,ovi must, I think, refer to 
the #XXas vir' &\\wv. There remains 
the question, why one practice should 
be more aristocratical than the other. 

8 TrapeKf3aivi S^, K.r.X.] 'The 
most decided deviation in the constitu- 
tion of Carthage from aristocracy to- 
wards oligarchy, is in the adoption of 

a view, which gains the assent of most 

9 (TWT^ra/eTcu KaC] It would seem 
better to read Kal crvvT^raKrcu : where 
it stands, the Kai is not wanted. 

TOI)S /3a<riXeZs Kal roi)s (TrpaTrjyovs] 
These then were distinct. The suffetes 
were not the commanders in war, the 

10 wSfr affxyfjioveii'] 'not lower 
themselves in any way.' 

li^rcis] "whether this is to be un- 
derstood of paying money to obtain 
votes, or, as is much more probable, 
that the fees or expenses of entering 
on an office were purposely made very 
heavy, to render it inaccessible to any 
but the rich." Arnold, Rom. Hist. II.' 
548, 9- 

II. 11.] 




Trjv TroXiv o\rjv (piXo^p^jmaTOV. OTI <5* av vTroXd/Btj TIJUUOV Cartli age. 
etvac TO Kvpiov, avdyKtj Kal Trjv TWV aXXcov iroXiTcov oo^av 

aKO\OvOetV TOVTOIS. O7TOV $6 fJLt] fJ.OL\L(TTa CLpCTr] TljmaTGtl, I2 73 B 

TavTtjv ov% olov T elvai /5e/5a/o)? apia-TOKpariKrjv 7ro\iTeiav. 

$ euXoyov KepSalveiv TOV$ wvovjuievovs, OTOLV Sajra- 12 
ap^wariv CLTOTTOV yap el Trevrj? IJ.GV w 
/3ov\y(reTai Kepfiaiveiv, (pavXoTepo? c? cov ov 

Sio Set Toy? ^vva^evovs apHTrapyelv, roJrou? 
fieXnov ^', ei KO.I Trpoeiro TY\V aTroplav rtov eTrt- 
6 vojuioOeTrj?, aXX' apyovTUiv ye 7riju.e\ei<T0ai 
<pav\ov $ av do^eiev etvai teal TO TrXe/ou? a 
TOV avTOv apyeiv oTrep ev^oKifAei irapa TOIS 
ev yap v(f) evo$ epyov apicrT aTTOTcXetTai. 

Tov9* opav TOV voju.o6eT*]v, KOL /mrj TrpocrTaTTetv TOV 
avXeiv Ka\ o-KVTOTOju.eiv. uxrff OTTOV JUL*] fjLiKpa Tro'X*?, 14 

7T\lOVa$ fAT\lV TCOV ap^COVy KO.\ SrjJULOTlKU)- 

Tepov KOivoTepov TG yap, KaOa 


TOVTO eTrl TWV 7ro\fjLiKU)v Kal TCOV vavTiKwv ev TovTOis yap 
a/xc^oWjOOf? ^a TTCLVTCDV w? etTreiv Sie\y\v06 TO ap^eiv Kal 
TO ap-^ecrOai. 'OXiyapxiKrjs S" 1 ovart)$ Ttjs TroXtre/a? apicrTa 15 
K<peuyov(ri TW irXovreiv, ael TI TOV Sfoov jmepos K7rejJL7rov- 

Set o* 


ajrep e'tTTOimev, Ka\ KO\\IOV 

Kal OcLTTOV. Srj\OV Se 

ir rb ictpiov] "The government.' 
This view of Aristotle that the govern- 
ment can absolutely direct opinion, is a 
remarkable one. It does not seem to 
hold good of modern times, when, with 
rare exceptions, governments are behin d 
opinion, if, fortunately, not directly ad- 
verse to it. It is a view, however, 
which was naturally held by those who, 
like the political philosophers of anti- 
quity and even of later times, held that 
governments could be arbitrarily im- 
posed on a people, not that they were 
the expressions, or should be, of the 

12 tdlfrffdai, K.T. X.] Compare in 
Michelet, Hist, de France, Vol. iv. 
265, a quotation from the pamphlet 
of Ctemengis : " Que si, dit-il, on leur 

A. P. 

rappelle le pre"cepte de 1'Evangile, Don- 
nez gratuitement, ainsi que vous avez 
refu, ils re*pondent sans sourciller : 
' Nous n'avons pas regu gratis, nous 
avons achete", nous pouvons revendre.'" 
el irpoeiTO, K. r.X.] 'If he gave up 
the question of the wealth or poverty 
of his governing classes.' 

13 <t>av\ov 8t] Arnold, Rom. Hist. 
n. 550, i. 

I? ybp top ev6s] Comp. I. XI. 3. 

14 iro\iTiK(i)repov] 'It is more in 
accordance with sound policy.' 

5tct trdvTwv d>s direiv] Compare Thuc. 
V. 66, ffx e ^ v y&P Tt "" 
r6 <rrpaT6iredov ru>v 

15 ^/c0ci/7oucrt] 'They escape the 
evils incident to an oligarchy.' 






TOVTw yap wvTai Ka Troioveri /ULOVIJULOV 

TToXiTeiav. aXXa TOUT/ ecm Tv^y? epyov, &el $e acrra- 
16 cridcTTOVS eTvai $id TOP voju-oOeTyv. vvv S\ av aTvyia yevrjTai 
TI$ KOI TO TrXrjOos aTTOCTTrj Tcov ap^o/uievcov, ovfiev eo-Ti (pap- 
/ui.aKov Sid TWV VOJULWV T*j$ fjcrvyias. TLepl ju,ev ovv r^V Aa/ce- 
Saijuiovicov TroXtre/a? Kal K^o^rt/c?? KOI T^9 Kayo^^owoot/, 
ciiTrep SiKaiays evSoKijmovari, TOVTOV e^ei TOV TpOTrov. 
12, Ta)j/ ^e a.7ro(pr]va]u.ev(*)v TL irepl TroXire/a? evioi p.ev OUK 
KOivu>vtj<rav Trpd^ewv TroXiTiKutv ovtf WVTIVGOVOVV, aXXa St- 
TeXecrav i$i(0TvovT$ TOV {Mov Trepi wv ei TL afyoXoyov, 
eiptjTai a"xe$oi> Trepi TTCIVTW cviot Se vojmoOeTat yeydvacriv 
OL JULCV TGUS oiKelais TToXeoriv, ol fie Kal TWV oQveiwv Tiarl, TTO- 
\tTev6evT? avTOi* Kal TOVTWV ol fjiev vojuicov eyevovTO $r]- 
juiiovpyol imovov, ol Se Kal TroXfre/a?, olov Kal AvKovpyos Kal 
2oX&>y OVTOI yap Kal VOJULOV? Kal TroXtre/a? 
2 TLepl jmev ovv TTJ<S A.aKe$aiju.ovi(*)V e'tprjTai, SoXcwa 
fJLev o'lovTai voju.oOeTtjv yeve&Oai cnrov^alov 6\iyap%iav re 
yap KaTaXvcrai Xiav uKpaTOV ovcrav, Kal SovXevovTa TOV 


M rAs 7r6Xets] Comp. VII. (VI.) 
V. 9, irpbs T^J TrepioiKtSas. Arn. II. 
554, where the different views on the 
subject are given. Grote, Vol. X. 545, 
"This provision for poor citizens as 
emigrants (mainly analogous to the 
Roman colonies), was a standing fea- 
ture in the Carthaginian political sys- 
tem, serving the double purpose of 
obviating discontent among their town 
population at home, and of keeping 
watch over their dependencies abroad." 

rtixrjs Zfrfov] ( Is the result of a happy 
accident in their position.' 

1 6 TTJS Tjffvxla-*] This is not easy. 
Is it 'The laws offer no remedy to se- 
cure quiet,' making the genitive de- 
pend on <j>dp/j,aKov 1 "in den Gesetzen 
kein Mittel zur Herstellung der Euhe 
gegeben ist" ? Stahr. 

XII. i oik lK.o(.v&vr]Ga.v, K.r.X.J 
'never took any part in political af- 

fairs, but were in a private station 
throughout life.' 

vbfjiuv Srifjuovpyoi] ' framers of laws. ' 

1 dXiyapxlw re y&p, K.T.\.] This 
is the language, not of Aristotle, but 
of those who support Solon. 

&Kparov] ' untempered.' 

The grounds on which Solon was 
spoken of by some as having first con- 
stituted the Areopagus, are given, 
Grote, III. 98. In p. 167 of the same 
volume, Mr Grote has a note on this 
whole passage about Solon. In it he 
considers that Aristotle's own judg- 
ment does not begin till 5, (paiverai 
5^, K.T.X. I cannot but think that 
the passage should be more broken up. 
In 2, we have the view favourable 
to Solon. In the first sentence of 3, 
we have a criticism of Aristotle on that 
view. Then from 5i6 Kal ^^ovraL 
down to d-rj/moKparlav the opposite view, 
unfavourable to Solon. And this again 

II. 12.] 



Trava-ai, Ka rjjuLOKpaTiav Karaarrtjcrai TYJV Trdrpiov, Solon - 

/caXft)? T^V TroXiTciav eivai yap T*\V /mev ev 'AjOe/a> 
Trdyw (BovXyv ofayapxiKpv, TO Se ra? ap^as alperas api- 

(TTOKpaTlKOV, TO, $6 o'lKaCTTqpia fitJfAOTtKOV. OIK6 $6 2oXfc)J/ 3 

CKeiva ju,ev vTrdp^ovTa TrpoTepov ov /caraXucraf, Tyv re /3ou- 1274 
\t]v Kal Trjv TU)V ap^oov a'lpecriv, TOV $ Stjjm.ov /caraa-r^crat, 
TO. diKaarrqpia Troirjcras e/c irdvTWV. oio Kal fjie[JL<povTaL 
aurav \v<rai yap OaTepov, Kvpiov iroirja-avTa TO 

TrvTcov K 

yap TOVT 

to<T- 4 


\t]pu>TOV ov. 

aptl6jULVOl Tt]V 7TO\lTiaV 64? Tt]V VVV 

KaTevTrjerav, Kal TVJV jmev ev 'A^oe/co irdyu) /3ov- 
\tjv 'E^)mXr?9 eKoXovare Kal Ilepf/cX^?, Ta 

is followed by a criticism of Aristotle's, 
just as the other had been. 

3 r<i SiKCUTT-rjpia Troi^cras K TT&VTUV] 
If the arrangement of the passage just 
given is correct, it would follow that 
Aristotle allowed Solon's claim to the 
origination of the dikasteries. On this 
more below. 

XC(rcu 701/3 darepov} ' The other ele- 
ment in the state,' the tKeiva of the 
previous sentence. 

4 TTJV vvv Stj/j-oKpaTiav] 'The demo- 
cracy of our days,' in no favourable 
sense. The language of strong conser- 
vatives enumerating with disgust the 
various changes by which the present 
odious state of things had been brought 

&co\ou<re] 'cut down the powers of.' 
rd S diKO.a'T'/jpia fj.iffdo<p6pa KO,T- 
(TT-rja-ev] The opinion I have expressed 
above, that Aristotle allowed Solon's 
claims to the origination of the dikas- 
teries, I give with very great hesita- 
tion, for it differs from that of Mr 
Grote. But I cannot but think that 
Aristotle (if the chapter be really Ari- 
stotle's, of which I have strong doubts, 
in any case, that the writer of the 
chapter) thought the institution of the 
older than Pericles, and 

changed by him so far, that the mem- 
bers of them received pay thencefor- 
ward. That the writer was wrong in 
this supposition, I am quite ready to 
allow, for I accept fully Mr Grote's 
view of the series of constitutional 
changes at Athens. But from the whole 
arrangement of the passage, as given 
in the note on i, I think it is clear 
that this was the writer's view. Mi- 
nute accuracy does not seem to have 
been his object, if one is to judge by 
the language in 6 ; and I cannot but 
doubt Aristotle's using, as applied to 
Pericles, the language of 8r)fj.aywyote 
0atfXous. This I rest not merely on 
general grounds, but on a passage in 
the Ethics, vi. v. 5. p. 1140, B. 8, 
where Pericles is quoted as the best 
known instance of the (frpbvtfJi.os or wise 
man. And over and above all points 
of detail, I find it difficult to see why 
Aristotle, intimately acquainted as he 
was with the Athenian constitution, 
master of it by the most careful study, 
(this is seen by his fragments), should 
have abstained from an elaborate cri- 
ticism on it, and yet thought it worth 
while to throw in these few incom- 
plete, and, in one point at least, inac- 
curate remarks. Still we can only 




juucr6o(p6pa KaTecTTqcre TLepiKXrjs, Kal TOVTOV $tj TOV Tpoirov 
e/cacrro? TWV StffJLaywywv irporjyayev av^wv e:? rqv vvv <^7/xo- 
5 KpaTiav. (paiveTai o ov KOLTOL Tt]v 2oXcoyo9 ycvecrOdi TOVTO 
TTpoalpecriv, a\\a jmaXXov CLTTO cru/xTrTw/aaTO?* r^9 vavap- 
yap ev TO!<S M^&jcofr 6 SfjfJLO? aiTio<$ yevdju-evos e(ppo- 


TO ra? 



a7ro$i$ovai T 

evOvveiv /mrjSe yap TOVTOV Kvpios wv 6 Sfj/mo$ <$ov\o$ 
6 Kai TroXe/ifo?. T? o ap^as e/c TWV yvwpi/uLtov Kal TCOV ev- 


Kal TpiTOv reXou? T^? KaXovjuLevtj? /TTTra^o?" TO 

av eltj 


v ariou i 

TTa p TOV QqTiKov, Of? ovo/uLia$ ct/o^? juLT>jv. No/xoOeTCti o 
eyevovTO ZaXeu/co? re AoKpois TO?? eTrtl^ecfivpiots, Kal Xa- 
pwvoas o KaTai/aFo? TOI<J avTOv TroX/rat? Kal TCU? a\\ai? 
ra?? XaX/cf^i/ca?? TroXecri Taig Trepi 'IraX/av Kal 2*/ceX/ay. 
7 yreipwvTai $e rt^e? ACCU crui/a'yeft/ to? 'Ovo/maKpLTOv JULCV yevo- 
JULGVOV 7rpu>TOV fieivov Trepl vo/u,o6e(Tiav, yvfJivaa-Qrivai o* avTOV 
ev KpqTy AoKpov ovTa Kal eTTiStjjULOvvTa /cara Texyrjv jmav- 
TLKrjv TOVTOV oe yevecrOai GaX^ra eraFjOoi/, GaX^ro? o* 
ctKpoaTrjv A^vKOvpyov Kal ZaXevKOv, ZiaXevKov <$e 

state doubts, and not solve them. The 
arguments in favour of the chapter are 
given, Nickes, 55, Ann. .2 ; Spengel, 
IT, note 13, who is very strong in his 
attack on Gottling for rejecting it. 
Mr Grote also does not hint the slight- 
est doubt of its genuineness. Spen- 
gel's argument drawn from TTJJ/ vvv 
SrjfjLOKpaTlav seems to me to fail, if that 
part is allowed to be, as I think it 
should be, the language of an objector. 

5 d?r6 (rvyttTrrci/Aaros] 'from an ac- 
cidental coincidence of circumstances.' 

TT}V ava.yKai.oTa.T'riv] "as much power 
as was strictly needful, and no more." 
Grote, in. 1 68. 

6 Kal rptrov T\OI>J, K.T. X.] Spengel 
proposes to read Kal TOV. 

this change, the orde 

incorrectly given, " anderes," he says, 
"est bei dem Zustande unseres Textes 
unbedenklich als corrupt anzunehmen 
wie die Worte ras 5' dpxcis, /c. r.X. wo 
wahrscheinlich Kal TOV stand ; sind 
doch in diesem Kapitel weit argere 

dTfjTLKov] on the distinction between 
theThetic census and theThetes, comp. 
Grote, in. 158. 

For Zaleucus and Charondas, comp. 
Grote, in. 505 ; iv. 560-2. 

7 vvvdyetv] 'To form a catena.' 

' Qvojj.aKplTov] From Smith, Biogr. 
Diet., this would seem the only men- 
tion of this personage. 

lying there for the purpose of ac- 
prophetic art.' 

II. 12.] 



aXXa TavTa jmev \eyov<riv acrKeTTTOTepov TO> yjpovw ^7 OJ/ ~ Vai ? ous 
re?. 'EyeVero <$e KOU <fei\6\ao<s 6 Kopiv6io$ voju.o9eTt]$ 
Qt]/3aioif. ?jv $ 6 Qi\6\ao<s TO /u.ev yevof TCOV 
epa<TTr]9 $e yevojuevos Afo/cXeoy? TOV viKycravTO? ' 
criv, a>? Keivo$ Trjv TroXtv eXiTre o^aytucnjara? TOV epo)Ta TOV 
os 'AX/cfoV>79, CLTrrjXOev cig O^as 1 , KCLKCI TOV ftiov 

a/mfhoTcpoi. KOLI vvv CTL oeiKVvovcri TOV$ Tad)oy? 9 
aXX^Xof? jmev evervvoTTTOV? OVTCIS, Trpos <$e Trjv TWV 
/u.v6o\o f yov<Ti yap CIVTOV? OVTCO Ta^aarOai Tt]v Tctcbrjv, TOV 
jjiev AtoK\ea fita Trjv ctTre-^Oeiav TOV TrdOovs, OTTCOS fjirj aTTOTT- 
TO? eVrcu rj KopivOla airo TOV ^w/xaro?, TOV ^e <&i\6\aov, 


TrajOa TOI$ Qrj/3aloi<?, vo[J.o9T*]$ <$' avTOt? eyeveTO ^/XoXao? 
irepi T aXXeoj/ TIVWV KOI Trepl r^? TratfioTroua?, ov? KO.\OV<TIV 


OTTCO? 6 aptO/mo? crco^rat TWV K\qpa)v. 
Xapwvo'ov tf 'IStov jmev ovSev CCTTI TrXrjv at OLKOLI TCOV -^evoo- n 
juLapTvpiwv (7Tpa)TO$ yap eTroirjffe Tyv e7r/cr/c^\^i/), Ty & 
aKpifiela TCOV VOIULWV ecrTi y\a<pvpu>Tepo$ Kal TCOV vvv VOJULO- 
OCTCOV. ^aXeou o* 'IStov rj TCOV OLHTIWV avojuLaXwcris, TLXaTCO- 12 


8 &<TKeirTOTepov r<p xp6i>({)] l without 
due regard to chronology. ' After X^- 
70JTes I put a full stop, so connecting 
the remark entirely with what pre- 
cedes it. 

Ba/cxtaSwj/] The Bacchiad oligarchy 
was subverted by Cypselus about B. c. 
655. Grote, in. 53-55. On Philolaus 
and his history, comp. Grote, II. 394 
foil., who places him between 3.0.728 
and 700. 

9 eiycr^Trrovs] 'easily seen.' 

8tci TT\v air -)$ 'eictp TOV TTCI^OUS] 'from 
his "hatred and horror" of the pas- 

10 v6(jiov$ QeriKofa] 'laws respect- 
ing the adoption of children.' Comp. 
Herod. VI. 57, rjv rts derbv iraiSa 

6 apidfjAs, Ac.r.X.] 'That the ori- 
ginal number of lots of land might 
be preserved.' Comp. Grote, II. 525, 
note 2, where the passage is quoted as 
shewing that Aiistotle did not suppose 
Lycurgus to have intended this. 

11 rty iirlffKT]\l/t.v] "the solemn in- 
dictment against perjured witnesses 
before justice." Grote, iv. 561. Plato, 
de Legg. xi. 937, B. Demosthenes, Or. 

47. P- 1139- 

TT? 5' aKpifieiq., K. r.X.] ' In the ex- 
actness of his laws he is more finished 
even than lawgivers of the present 
day.' yXafivpuis, II. x. I. 

12 QaXtov] Mr Grote acquiesces, 
II. 395, note, in the substitution of 
this name for that of Philolaus, on the 
condition of dpo^cCXuxm meaning "a 



Kal Tralo'cov Kal 

[LiB. II. 12. 

Various j, os> ^ Te T v ywaiKwv Kal TratocDv Kai T>7? ovcria? 

/cat Ta (TV(T(TLTLa Tcov yvvaiKcov, CTL o 6 Trepi Ttjv 

vdju.O9, TO TOVS vy(j)ovTas (rvjULTrocriapxeiv, Kal T^V ev T0t9 
a<TKr]<nv OTTO)? aju.(f)io'ei~toi yivcovTai /cara T*JV 
/, co? oeov jmtj Ttjv fj.ev y^p^criiuLOV elvai TOLV "^epotv Ttjv 
'. Ajoa/covTO? ^e VOJULOI /mev eicri, TToXiTeia ^' 
very roy? VOJULOV? e'OrjKev 'ioiov <? ev TO?? i/o/xot? ov$ev 
evTiv o TL Kal ftveia? a^iov, Tr\yv % ^aXeTTOT?;? ia TO T?? 
tyfjilas /meyeOos. eyeveTO $e Kal IlfTTa/co? VOJJLWV $r]/ui.iovpyo$ 
aXX' ov TroXfTaa?" vo/xo? tf 'to'ios avTOv TO Tovg jmeOvovTa?, 

av TVTTTq(T(*)(Tl ) TT\eiCi) {^r\JS.LO.V aTTOTiVeiV TCOV Vt]d)6vTCOV' Ota 

yap TO 7rXe/ou? v/3pi^eiv jmeOvovTas rj vrjcpovTas ov TT^OO? Trjv 
orvyyvcojmrjv aTre/3\e\lsev, OTI $ei jueOuovcriv ej 

14 aXXa TTjOO? TO o-vju,(j)pov. eyeveTO Se Kal 'AvSp 

'P^y^i/o? vo/moOeT)]? XaX/a$evcrt rof? eTrl QpaKtjs, ov Trepi re 

^i ^ N \ -\ r > t * ^ ' "x "\ ' ' ^ ' 

ra (povLKa /ecu ra? eTriKAtjpovg <TTIV ov jmtjv aAA idtov ye 
ovSev avTOv \eyeiv fyot TIS av. Ta JULCV ovv Trepi ra? TroX*- 
re/a?, ra? re Kvplas Kal ra? UTTO TIVWV elptj/uieva?, 
Te6e(t)pr]fj.eva TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV. 

fresh equalization." The simple sense 
of ' equalization' seems the best, and 
is warranted by a passage in the Rhe- 
toric, III. xi. 5. pp. 1412, 1 6, Kal rb 
&vwfj.a.\i<rdai rets ?r6\ets v TTO\I) 5t^- 
Xowi Tavr6, v eirKpaveiq, Kal SvvdfAecri, 
rb 'Lvov. 

Kou>6Tif]$] occurs before, II. vil. I. 

6 wepl TTJV ^Qt]v, /c.r.X.] This and 
the other point of detail are here men- 
tioned for the first time. The first is 
given de Lqgg. I. 640, D. OVKOVV v-}}- 
(j)ovrd re Kal (ro<f)bv dpxovra fjt,edv6vr(i}v 
Set KaOio-Tavai. The second, ibid. Vil. 
794, D. &c. 

13 On Draco's legislation, Grote, 
III. 100 fol., <f not more rigorous than 
the sentiments of the age." He is the 

first strictly vofjutiv 8i)fjuovpy6s. 

6'rt Kal iJivelo.3 a&ov] Comp. XI. 1, 
6ri Kal ai-iov etireiv. 

Pittacus. Grote, ill. 268. The par- 
ticular law here quoted is mentioned 
again, though without its author's 
name, Eth. in. vii. 8. p. 1113, b. 31, 
and Rhet. n. 25, 7. p. 1402, b. n, 
where Pittacus is mentioned. This 
last passage makes the suggestion of 
Muretus, that for av rvTrr^awai, we 
should read av n irTaidxri, very plau- 
sible. Mur. Var. Led. xiv. 21. 

14 Androdamas of Khegium seems 
quite unknown. 

ras Kvplas] "existantes," St Hil. : 
"wirklich bestehenden, " Stahr : 'ac- 
tually in force.' 


WITH this third book begins a new division of the work. His 
predecessors in political science, whether theoretic enquirers, 
or statesmen who had put their ideas in practice, have been reviewed 
and criticised. The results of that criticism have been partly nega- 
tive, that is, have proved that there is yet work left for the political 
philosopher partly positive, for the rejection of erroneous theories 
on the extent of association required by union in a state, necessarily 
marks out the due limits of that association. Whilst vindicating 
the family and private property against the theories of Plato, whilst 
supporting inequality against the theory of Phaleas, Aristotle is 
strengthening the assumption of the ] st book, that the family and 
property are the necessary conditions of the state, and that there are 
and ever will be differences among men. Still the constructive part 
of his work has not yet been entered upon. He too, like some of 
his predecessors, must sketch out an ideal state, a type to which 
others may approach, and by their deviation fr&m which others may 
be judged. This is done in the three following books. But unfor- 
tunately it either was never fully done, or has not survived to our 
times. The work, as it stands, is broken off in the midst of his 
theory of education ; and on many of the most important questions, 
some suggested in his own words, some suggested naturally by the 
subject, we are left without Aristotle's answers. 

The opening chapters of this third book itself are devoted to the 
solution of some simple and fundamental questions. 

1st. The question, "What is the State? receives as its first 
answer : a given number of citizens. This answer raises the ques- 
tion, "Who is the citizen ? answered in Ch. I. Some more popular 
notions on the subject in Ch. II. lead him to the question, In what 
consists the identity of a State? This is made to depend on the 
identity of its constitution (Ch. III.). 

2ndly. As constitutions differ, the requirements of the citizen 
will differ also. The good citizen will always be so called with 
reference to the constitution of which he is a member. If that be 
imperfect, he, if perfect as a citizen, will be faulty as a man. In 
Aristotle's language the question takes this shape : Is the excellence 


of the man identical with that of the good citizen ? The answer 
must be negative except in the ideal state, and even in that ideal 
state strict theory compels us to say that it is only in its magistrates 
that we find the two absolutely coincident. But as in that state the 
citizens are in turn citizens and magistrates, in all alike the two will 
coincide, but it will be a question of time, it will be only, that is, 
when in power, that there will be scope for the full exercise of perfect 
virtue. These alternations of perfect and imperfect excellence are the 
necessary consequences of the conditions of Aristotle's ideal state, 
which is formed of a number of citizens equally good, who must 
therefore be in turn rulers and ruled. (Ch. IV.). 

3rdly. In such a state the qualifications of the citizens must be 
high, and for the attainment of these long training and high educa- 
tion are indispensable. But these require leisure. The class then to 
which leisure is denied by its circumstances must be excluded. This 
is the ground for his answer to the question, Are the artizans, @dvav- 
<roi, citizens ? They cannot be in the ideal state, such as Aristotle 
conceived it. (Ch. V.). 

So far by way of preamble. The general test of a good govern- 
ment, varieties being granted, is, that it is for the good of the 
governed, not that of the governing body. (Ch. VI.). That body 
may be one man or more than one. If more than one, it may be a 
small minority of the whole or a large majority. In other words, it 
may be a monarch an aristocracy or a politeia. Such are the 
divisions of governments, based on the principle of the number of the 
governing body, when the end aimed at by the government is the 
right one. But make the interest of the governing body its para- 
mount consideration, and still adhere to the same principle of divi- 
sion, and your names change ; and the new names are tyranny 
oligarchy democracy. These three are called deviations from the 
right forms. The members of the two series are looked on as 
theoretically on a level, but practically in both there is a difference 
in Aristotle's view, a difference even more strongly marked in the 
last than in the first. (Ch. VII.). Oligarchy and democracy are 
examined at somewhat greater length. The characteristic of the first 
is found in wealth that of the second in poverty. Accidentally 
wealth resides in the few poverty in the many. (Ch. VIII.). 

All governments are based on some claim of right. The true 
ground of discussion, when examining the several claims, is this: 
You who claim more, do you contribute more, not as rich men, nor 
as artists, but as citizens ? If so, your claim is just ; if not, your 
claim is unjust. (Ch. IX.). 


Where shall the sovereign power reside? Shall it be in the 
many or the few ? This is discussed with a leaning to the many. 
(Ch. X. XL). 

The state is based on justice, and justice is equality. The ques- 
tion is : Equality in what ? A series of difficulties are started, and 
the most definite result is this : that legislation involves the idea that 
those legislated for are equal in race and in powers. If the fair 
limits of this equality are overstepped, those who overstep it are 
practically liable to ostracism, theoretically they are the natural 
governors of their state. (Ch. XII. XIII.). 

The remainder of the book i on Monarchy, the various forms of 
the government of one ; and is mainly descriptive, partly specula- 
tive. (Compare Mr Cornewall Lewis, On Methods of Observation and 
Reasoning on Politics, Vol. I. ch. in.). Five forms are given : the 
Spartan barbaric sesymnete, or elective heroic absolute, either 
tyranny or ideal monarchy. (Chaps. XIV. XVI.). Hereditary 
monarchy is not favoured ; nor, speaking generally, monarchy : but 
the judgment on it must depend on the state in which we find it 
existing. (Ch. XVII.). He adopts as his own ideal state evidently 
not monarchy, but the second form, aristocracy in its ideal sense, 
the government of a certain number, which number under the con- 
ditions of human nature can hardly be very large, of citizens well 
qualified by moral discipline and intellectual training for a wise 
exercise of the functions they are called on to discharge. 

The opening of the book at once carries us back to the end of the 
first book : W<TT' ewe! Trep\ jueV TOUTWI/ (T^S otjcoi/o/xtas) Biw'jOio-Tai, >jrep\ 
Be T<OV AotTreoj/ ei/ aAAotc AeKreoi/, a^eWe? cos reAo? e^oi/rac TOI/S vvv 
Ao'7ou?, a\\tjv dp-%rjv Troirja-a/jLevoi Aeyco/jci/, KOI irpwrov eVi<TKe\|/a>fie0a 
Trep\ Ttav dirocprjva/jievtav irep\ -rfj^ TroAtretae rfc dp'urTr}*:. (Book II.). 
Compare also I. in. 1. 



The Citizen 

l TToXire/a? etricTKOTrovvTi, /cat r/9 eKacrrtj 
Tf?) (T^eSov TTpwrrj ovce\f/-f9 
TTOT' earrlv rj TroXf?* vvv yap a/xc^)f(7 
Trjv iroXiv TreTrpa-^evai Tr\v 



ol /ULCV (pa- 
OL $ ov TY\V 
rov <$e TTO\I- 



ovcrav Trepl 7ro\iv n $e TroXtre/a TCOV 
2 ecrrf ra^f? Tf9. 'ETreJ <5' ^ TroXf? 
aXXo rf TO)// 6'Xfc>y 


v tj TOV Tvpavvov 
ira<rav 6pcoju.ev 

e/c TroXXwy 
Srj\ov on TrpoTepov 6 7roX/T*79 ^T/Teo9* ^ "yajO 7roXf9 

XfTWl/ Ti 7T\fj66$ (TTIV, WCTTC TLVa "^ptj Ka\lV TToX/T 

r/9 o 7roX/T>79 ecrr/, (TKeTTTcov. Kal yap 6 7roX/T*79 aju 

roi/ ai)roi/ 6ju.o\oyovari 

eVri yctjO Tf9 09 ev StjfiOKpaTiqL 7roXtT>/9 ft?i/ 
7roXXa/c9 ou/c eVrt 7ro\iTt]<?. TOL9 /aei/ oyj/ 
U7^ct^o^ra9 raur>/9 T^9 Trpocrrjyopias, olov 
7roX/ra9, cKpereov. 6 <5e 7roX/r^9 ou ra> 


4 vtovovari Tn<s oiKrj<T(0s. ovtf OL TCOV SiKalcw /meTe^o^Teg 

vireyeiv Kal SiKa^eo-OaL (TOVTO yap 

3 ev 

OUTW9 wcrre /cat 

I. i irepl TToAtTefas] genitive sin- 
gular, as opposed to otKovo/jdas. See 
note on I. xm. 15. 

vvv yap, K.r. X.] That the idea is 
not clear, is evident from the fact, 
that at present men are at issue, &c. 

?) 5 TroAirefa] The constitution is 
an arrangement of a state ; a state is 
a whole made up of parts, those parts 
are citizens. Who then is the citizen ? 
How shall he be defined ? 

i Comp. I. i. 3. 

Kal ydp, K.r.X.] 'For the idea of 
the citizen, like that of the state, is by 
no means clear.' 

3 raiJTr)s TT}S Trpoo-yyoplas] 'This 
name of citizen.' 

T$ olKelv TTOU] 'by the simple fact 
of residence in a given place.' 

4 OU'TUS] 'only so far.' 

ware Kal SiKrjv, K. T.X.] ' as to be 
parties in suits, defendants and plain- 

TOUTO yap virdpxei, K. T.X.] 'for this 

III. 1.] 



KCU TOIS a.7ro (rvfji/3o\a)v Koivwvov<riv} KOI yap 
TroXXa^ov fjiev ovv ovoe TOUTCDV 
aXXa vepeiv avdyKij 7rpo<r- 
Trj'S TOiavTt]? KOivowlav 5 

Si tfXtKiav eyyeypafj.- 
acpeifjievovs, cpctTeov elvai 
\lctv aXXa T 

TOVTOIS virapyei 

Tarrjv $10 areXa>9 
aXXa KaOciTrep KCU 

KCU TOWS yepovTCt? 


TOU? /mev areXe?? rot'? $e 7rapt]KfjLaKOTa? % TI TOIOVTOV ere- 
pov ovSev yap Siacpepei* <$fj\ov yap TO \eydjmevov ^/rou- 
fjiev yap TOV aTrXa)? 7ro\iTt]v Kal fj.^ev eyovTa TOIOVTOV 
eyK\t]/ma fiiopOuHrea)? ieoftevov, eTrel Kal Trepl TWV ctTifJicov Kal 
dcov earTt TO. ToiavTa KOI oiairopeiv Kal \veiv. IIoX/- 6 
3' aVXa)? ovSevl TWV a\\aw oiCTai /ULO\\OV $ TW 

would apply to those who are associat- 
ed by commercial treaties.' " In law- 
suits between citizens of different states 
there existed, by virtue of a particular 
agreement, an appeal from one state 
to the other." These appeals were 
the SIKCU airb ffvfj,pb\wv, covenants or 
treaties for mutual protection, as op- 
posed to the system of simple reprisals. 
Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, I. 69. 

der, with Vet. Int. and others, leave 
this out : Stahr retains it, but puts it 
in brackets as suspicious. St Hilaire 
retains it, but his translation scarcely 
meets the difficulty. I think it may 
be defended. In fact, though the pas- 
sage is confused, I am inclined to look 
on it as hardly clear without these 
words. I should include in a paren- 
thesis the words TOVTO yap - KOI- 

The rotirots I should refer 
to /ierokou, the ravra to r&v 5u<atui> 
/uer^xoi/Tes, K.T.\. 'Mere residence 
does not make a citizen ; if it did, 
slaves and metics would be citizens. 
Nor again, does a certain community 
of rights, that, viz. of appearing in 
the courts of justice. Again the me- 

tics would be citizens if it did. Though 
it is true they do not always possess 
the right in its full integrity, they can 
only appear by representation.' 

vtpeiv Trpoffrdr'rjv] Comp. Isocra- 
tes, Or. VIII. p. 1 70 : roi>s perol- 
KOVS rototfrovs vo/Jilfr/j.ej', otovs irep av 
roi>s irpoa-Taras V[J,W<TLV, 'to provide 
themselves with a patron.' 

5 tyyeypafi/jitvovs] 'enrolled in the 
list of citizens, ' els rk \i)%iapxiKbj> ypap- 
/jLareiov, the book in which the mem- 
bers of the demus were enrolled. 
Grote, rv. 178, note. 

TOI>S dt^etju&'ovs] past the age of 60. 

oi>x ctTrXtDs 8^, K. r-3^.] 'But yet not 
quite without a qualification ; we must 
add to the statement in the one case 
that they are not full citizens, in the 
other that they are past the age.' 

2yK\r)/j.a'] 'open to no objection of 
this kind requiring correction.' 

aTL^ftiv Kal (f>vyabwv~\ These two are 
/cara Trp6<rde<riv TroXZrat, not aTrXcDs. 

6 TroX^s 5^, K. r. X.] 'a citizen in 
the strict sense is defined by no one 
other thing so properly as by his sharing 
in the administration of justice and in 
the government.' 




wv a i 



$ia raur' a 

The Citizen pg^^eij, Kpicrew Kai ap^t]?. TWV d a^ 

defined. ^ , ^ , , , t 

primeval KOLTOL yoovov, COCTT evias jmev oAco? ot 

ou/c ee<TTiv apxeiv, n did TIVWV aopia-fjievcov y 

aOpl(TTO9 9 OlOV 6 SlKCHTTtlS KOI KK\t)<ria(rTq$. 

ovv av (palrj TI$ ovo apyjovTOLs elvai TOV$ TOIOVTOVS, 


aXXct oiaffiepeTW jmrjoev irepi 
yctp o Xo'yo9' avcovv/uLov yap TO KOLVOV 7rl OIKCKTTOV KO.I 

CtOjOf(7TO9 OLp^Tj. T10/ULV Srj < 7ToX/Ta9 TOV9 OUTft) 

6 jjiev ovv juLa\i(TT dv ed)a/0ywocra9 7roX/T?79 iri 
7rai/ra9 TOU9 Xe < yo/xei/ou9 7roX/ra9 o-^e^ov TOIOVTOS <TTIV. 
Set $e fjLt] \av6dveiv em TWV Trpay/maTCOv ev 01$ TO. vTTOKei- 
jmeva Siacfrepei TU> e'lfiei, KOI TO fJLev avToov eorrf irpwTOV TO 
<$e SevTepov TO o* e^Oyae^oj/, y TO TrapaTrav ovfiev CCTTIV, rj 
9 TOiavTd) TO Koivov, i] / yXtcrx/oft)9. Ta9 oe 7roXiT6ia9 6pu>ju.ev 

KOI TCt9 M^ vvTepas T9 <$e 
KCU 7rapeK/3e/3rjKvias 
wv Tc\9 c^e 7rapeK~ 

8 arfjLov 

1275 B TrpOTepas ovcras' ra? 

avajKalov v<TTepa$ elvai 

6 S' ao/Hcrros] The change to the 
masculine is abrupt, but caused by 
what follows. This makes it clear that 
by apxW) he means legislative power, 
the power of the ^/fKXiyo-iaorr^s. 

7 dvwvvfjiov y&p] 'for we have no 
name to express that which the two, 
the member of 5*he judicial and the 
member of the legislative body, have 
in common. Let it be then, for dis- 
tinction's sake, called "an indefinite 
magistracy." We consider then as 
citizens, those who in this sense are 
members of theassociation.V er ^Xovras, 
sc. TT}S Koivwvtas. 

8 6 pfr o$v, K.T.X.] 'The sense of 
the word citizen then, which would 
best suit all that are called citizens, 
may be said to be this.' 

T&V -irpay/LL&Twv, K.T.X.] 'in the 
case of general names which stand for 

individuals differing in kind ;' or, 
wherever the things that correspond 
to the name differ in kind,' ("die 
einzeln zum Grunde liegenden Theile 
der Art nach verschieden sind, " Stahr,) 
'and one sense is the primary, the 
other secondary, &c. : either there is 
absolutely no common element, or 
one which is very difficult to trace.' 
7\i0-Xpws, ' scantily.' It is the case of 
analogous words, or equivocals. 6/xc- 
vv/jia, Categ. I. i. p. I. i. 

9. TroXire/a] is the generic term, 
the various species differ very widely. 

uoT^as] ambiguous, and if order of 
time is meant by the word, then the 
statement is not correct. 

avayKcuov Zrepov] If the whole dif- 
fer, it cannot but be that the parts 
differ ; the iroXlrrjs is but part of the 

III. 1.] 



/3e/3rjKvia? TTCOS \eyojmev, vvrepov earrai (pavepdv. WCTTC Kal TheCitizen 


& eKa 


TOV 7TO\lTt]V GTepO 

TiaV. $t07Tp 6 ^eg V fJLV 

, ev $e Tai$ a\\ai$ ev^e^erai yuei>, ov jmtjv avayKaiov 
yap OVK <TTI (^uo?, ovtf e/ocX^or/ay vojmi^ova-iv aXXa 
, KOI ra? ^//ca? $IKOJ(OV<TI KO.TOL jmepos, oiov ev 
ra? TMV arvjuL/3o\aicov SLKOL^CI TWV e(p6p(*)v 
aXXo? a'XXa?, ol $e yepovres ra? fyoviKas, eTepa ^' iVw? 
apyj] TIS erepa$. TOV GLVTQV Se Tpoirov Kal irepl Ka^o^- n 
oova* Tracra? y a p ^PX ai ' TIV $ Kpivov(rt Ta? ot/cay. aXX' 
yap SiopBaxrtv 6 TOV TTO\LTOV diopiarjuio?. ev yap ra?? 
TroXtre/af? ou^ o a6pi(TTO$ ap^wv eKK\Jj(7iacrT^ 
l SiKaa-Trjs, dXX' 6 /cara TV\V ap-^rjv wpHTfMVW TOV- 
TCOV yap $ iracnv i] Tiariv a7ro$e$OTai TO /3ov\evecrOai Kal 

y Trepl TTO.VTWV rj irepl TIVMV. r/9 jmev ovv <TT\V o 12 
/77/r, K TOVTWV (pavepov a) yap c^ovcria KOIVWVGIV a 
/3ov\WTiK}]$ fj KpiTiKris, TToXiTrjv rj$r] \eyoimev elvcu 


avTapKeiav ^a)??, cJ? aVXco? eiTreiv. opi^ovTai Se Trpos T*]V 

a 8j Bekker. 

10 AioTre/), K.r.X.] ' looking at this 
distinction, we must remember that 
the above definition of the citizen will 
apply with most propriety in a demo- 
cracy.' Stahr puts a full stop ?.t TTO- 
Xr?7s, I prefer altering that after 01/07- 

5?7/*o$] ' democratical element.' 
au7/c\T7Toi;s] 'assemblies summoned 
as occasion required.' At Athens they 
would be extraordinary, as opposed to 
the regular assemblies. In the case 
supposed by Aristotle they are the 
only ones. 

/cara /4^>os] "verscheidene Behor- 
den." Stahr. 'The administration of 
justice is conducted by different parts 
of the state.' 

1 1 Kapx^Swa] II. II. 7. See note. 
The general object is the same, at 

Sparta and at Carthage ; the admi- 
nistration of justice is entrusted to the 
few, the magistrates ; not to the peo- 
ple, assembled in large numbers, as at 
Athens. The &pxo-L Twes=u7rd ruiv 

d\\' $x ei y&P> K.T.X."] ' However 
the definition of the citizen admits of 

TCUS dfXXcus] as opposed to h Sr]/j,o- 

12 $ yap ^ovffia] 'He who is ad- 
missible,' to whom the right of access 
to office is not closed. 

TCLVTIJS TT}S 7r6Xews] ' of the state in 
which he has this right.' 

II. i bplfrvrcu -fi] 84 should be 
read, ' Now for practical purposes the 
citizen is defined to be.' This is sup- 




The Citizen \/on(Tiv TroA/TWV TOV e> ajULcboTepcov 7TO\iT(Jov KOI fj.r\ OaTepov 

j r* j /Vr^ ' f ' J J 

denned. ' -, \,\ / <$* > ^\> v / 
JULOVOV, OlOV TTttTpOS rj /Jit]TpOS' OL 06 Kai TOVT 7Tl 7T\6OV 

/, olov eirl TTaTTTrovs <$vo rj Tpei$ rj TrAe/ou?. OVTCO 

St] opi^ojuLevwv TroAm/cco? /ecu Ta^eft)?, aTropovari Tive<s TOV 

2 TplTOV KIVOV % TCTCtpTOV, 7TO)? eCTTOtt TToA/T*??. 

JULCV ovv 6 Aeovrivos, TO, jmev tVw? aTropcov TO. & 

vo$, <p*1> Ka.0a.7rep oAyaou? elvai TOV$ VTTO TOOV 6\/u.O7roiu)V 

OVTOO KOL A.apicra-aiov$ TOV$ VTTO 

3 ywv TTeTroitjiuievovv etvai yap Tiva? \apier<TO7roiov$. earn 
& aVAovi/* el jap jmerei^ov Kara TOV pqQeyTa oiopKr^ov 
Ttjs TroAtre/a?, ?orav a 7ro\iTai' KOI yap ov SvvaTov e(f)ap- 


oiKtjtravTdov tf KTKTOLVTWV. aAA' fcrw? eiceivoi ju,a\\ov e^oi/- 
criv airopiav, oaroi fJ^recr^ov yuera^oA^y yevojULevys TroAfre/a?, 
olov *A.Qr]vri<Tiv eTroirjve KAetcr^ej/^? fjLCTa Ttjv TCOV TVpavvcov 
cKJBoXrjv TroAAof? yap <pv\TV(r cevovs Kal ooi/Aou? JULCTOL- 

4 KOV$. TO o* a/UL(picr/3^TrjjUia TTjOo? TOVTOV? <TTLV ov T/? TroA/- 

* dV Bekker. 

ported by Vet. Int., who translates it 
' autem.' 

TToXiri/cws] 'practically,' 'popularly.' 
Comp. Poetics, VI. 23, 1450, b.8. ra- 
X^ws, 'hastily,' 'superficially.' 

i eip(i)vev6/j,evos] "sichlustigmachte." 
Stahr. I prefer the sense of ' speaking 
cautiously, ' ' not wishing to speak out.' 

dijfuovpywv'] The word stands both 
for 'artificers' and 'magistrates.' 

Aapi<r<ralovs'] Liddell and Scott give 
the word 6 A.api<rcuos from this passage 
as a kind of kettle made at Larissa. 
We do not know enough of Gorgias 
at Larissa, where he is said to have 
spent a considerable time, to make the 
anecdote clear. 

3 &rrt 5' ctTrXow] 'But the ques- 
tion is really simple.' 

-new dV] 'erant,' Vet. Int. I omit 
the dV, ' If they came up to the defi- 
nition, they were citizens.' 
retv, active. 

' another class involve really 
a greater difficulty.' 

fjLT^(rx ov ) *c. r.X.] 'have been ad- 
mitted to citizenship after a revolution.' 

7roXXoi)s yap <pv\tTv<re, K.T.\.~\ In 
this passage BpThirlwall, n. 74, wishes 
to insert Kal before perotKovs, making 
the new citizens to be taken from 
these classes. Niebuhr, on the other 
hand, Rom. Hist. n. 305, note 702, 
wishes to change the order, iro\\of>s 
tyvXtrevffe %&ovs /ierokous Kal SotfXous. 
Mr Grote, iv. 170, note i, prefers to 
take it as it stands, and construes the 
HeToiKovs with both &vovs and SotfXous. 
A comparison of two other passages, 
IV. (VII.) IV. 6, 8ov\ui> apidnbv Kal 
/jLeTotKuv Kal %vi3)v, and again in the 
same chapter, 14, %&ois Kal [teroLKois 
would lead, I think, to the insertion 
of Kal as the simplest way. 

4 TO d/A0i(r/397T77/ia] The question is 
not de facto, but dejure. 

III. 2.] 



aXXa TTOTCOOV a$iK(*)$ % 

>;.*' ^ 

erf TTpoo-aTroprjareiev, ap ei JJ.Y\ diKatcos TTOAITJIS, ov 

co9 TCWTO SvvajuLevov TOV T afiiKOV Kal TOV 




a'XX' ov (/caa>9, 
(o 'yctjO KOLVWVWV r^? roiaa-Se 
, $rj\ov on TToX/TCt? /Aei/ 
rou &jca/a>? 

OTCpOV djUL(f)lCr/3qTr]<TlV 

al TTOTC ov 


v ju.ev <pjjaroju.ev 

I2 ' 



ecrrtV, <J? e<i)a- 
(pareov Kal TOVTOV?, Trepl 3 
orvvcnrTei Trpos rr)v 

ap TIV? 7TO& 

orai/ e o\iyapyia<$ 
y TvpavvlSos yevt]Tai Sr]/uLOKparta. Tore yap ovre ra CTVJUL- 2 
fioXaia evioi /3ov\ovTai SiaXvetv, to? ou r?? TroXeco? aXXa 
TOV Tvpavvov Xa/3o^T09, OI/T' aXXa TroXXa TCOV TOLOVTWV, 
tJ? evias TCOV TroXireitov rw Kpareiv oi/cra?, aXX' ov ^a TO 
Koivfj <TV]m<pepov. eiTrep ovv Kal SrjjULOKpaTOvvTal rives 

TOV TpOTTOV TOVTOV, 6/XO/ft)? T^9 TToXeft)? (paTOV Civ 

ra? T^? TToXtre/a? TavTtjs Trpd^eis KOI ra? e/c r^? o\iyap- 
teal T^? TvpavviSos. eouce S* oiKetos o Xo'yo? efi/at r?? 3 




evat TY\V 

avTtjv t} fJLtj T*]v avTyv aXX' eTepav. tj />tei/ o^ 7ri7ro\aio- 

dp' d, /c.T.X.] 'Must it not follow, 
if you allow that a man is a citizen 
on wrong grounds, that he is not a 
citizen at all ?' 

5 TO^TOUS] sc. rods 

III. i (TvvdTrret 7rp6s] ' connects 
with,' Trpdrepov, I. I. 

i StaXiW] 'meet/ 'discharge.' 

d'XXa TroXXct rcDy roio^rwi/] such for 
instance as the laws of the fallen go- 

tos &tas, K. T. X.] ' on the ground 
that there are some constitutions which 
exist simply by virtue of superior 
force, and not for the common good.' 

The reasoning must hold good for 
the three forms of government equally, 
says Aristotle. ' If then in any case 

you have a democracy resting on mere 
force, you must allow that its acts 
(T&S rrjs TroXire/as ratfr^s irpd%eis), are 
the acts of the state in which it exists 
(n}? TroXews TCU/TTJS), as much as (bpoL- 
ws Kal, comp. II. VIII. 21) the acts of 
an oligarchy or tyranny are the acts 
of their respective states.' They are 
all 7ra/>eK|3c<rs, they must all be 
judged on the same principles. 

3 goiKe 8' oketos 6 Xo7os] 6 X67os 
is what follows, TTWS TTOT . . . ertpav. 
' The difficulty we have been discuss- 
ing seems to have an intimate con- 
nexion with the question, how can you 
ever say that the state is the same or 
not the same but different ?' 

r? fjv oSv, K. T. X.] 'The most ob- 
vious solution of the difficulty.' Such 
seems to be the meaning of 




Identity of TaTtJ 
the State. ' 


, r , *, N * y &- ^ 

<TTIV evoe^eTat yap oia^ev^urjvaL TOV TOTTOV 


4 oiKya-ai TOTTOV TavTqv /jiev ovv TrpaoTepav OeTeov Trjv OLTTO- 
piav TroXXa^ft)? yap T>?? Tro'Xefcj? Xeyo/mevrjs ecrr/ TTO)? ef/xa- 
neta r^9 TOfai;r^9 ^r^creft)?. ojmoiws ^e /cat TCOV TOV airrov 
TOTTOV KaroiKovvTWv av9pu>7T(x)i> Trore Set vofiil^eiv /miav elvai 

5 rrjv TroXiv. ov yap <5^ TO?? Teiyeviv elt] yap av IleAoTrov- 

TrepiftaXeiv ev Te^o?. Totai/ny ^' tVa>? ecrTf /cat Ba- 
Tracra ?Ti? e^ei 7repiypa(f)r]V /xaXXov e'Ovovs fj 
^e (pacriv eaXft)/cu/a? TpiTtjv qjuiepav OVK aivOe- 

6 crOai TI fJiepos T^? -Tro'Xea)?. aXXa Tre^ot /Aej/ TaiyV>?? T^? 
cnropias et? aXXov Kaipov )(j)q(TijULOs y (TKe^ig* Trept yap 
jmeyeOov? T?? TroXea)?, TO TC TroVoi/ /ecu Trdrepov e'Ovos ev rj 

orvjmcbepei, Set yu^ Xa^Oai/eti' TOV TroXiTiKov aXXa TOJJ/ 
KaTOiKOvvTWv TOV avTOV TOTTOV, TTOTepov ea>? av y TO 
yevos TavTO TU>V KaTOiicovvTOOv, Ttjv avTrjv elvai (paTeov 
KaiTrep ael TUIV imev (pOeipofJievcav TCOV 8e yivojmevwv, 

though it is forcing the word to make 
it stand for the result of inquiry, in- 
stead of inquiry. Compare his use of 
Kploreus in II. vm. 13. Stahr takes 
the same view, "Die zunachst liegende 
Losung dieser Schwierigkeit." 

4 ra^Tfjv /jv ofiv, K.r.X.] 'The dif- 
ficulty when it takes this form, is by 
no means hard.' irpaorfyav, 'milder,' 
'gentler.' For as the name of the 
city may apply to several, to the in- 
habitants of several places, the in- 
quiry as to the identity of the different 
places meant by the name presents no 
difficulty. So I paraphrase the TTO\- 

8t, K.r.X.] The first ques- 
tion arose when the place of residence 
was not the same. ' Similarly when 
the place is the same.' 'There is 
equally also a question,' &c. 

5 ' It cannot surely be that the en- 

closure within given walls constitutes 

Ba/SiAco?'] Compare Herod. I. 178, 
191, 'which includes within its circum- 
ference a space adapted rather for a 
tribe than for a city.' 

6 ds d\\ov Kaipbv'] IV. (VII.) 4. 

tdvos &/] Compare on this subject 
Arnold, Thucydides, Preface to Vol. 


dXXA rCbv afiruiv, K.T.\.] 'But throw- 
ing aside the question of size, and as- 
suming that you have men of the same 
race inhabiting the same place, then, 

rb yfros] Is the identity of the 
state dependent on the identity of the 
race, which is not impaired by the suc- 
cession of generations ? or does it de- 
pend on the identity of constitution ? 
On this last, says Aristotle. 

III. 4. 



wonrep Kal TrorajULOv? elwQa/Jiev \eyeiv TOU? O.VTOVS Kal 
T9 aura?, KttLTrep del TOV /u.ev eiriyivoiJievov yayuaro9 TOU 5' 
) rj TOV$ JULGV dvOpcoTrovs (paTeov eivat TOVS CtVTOVfi 
aiTiav, TIJV $e 7ro\iv eTepav', e'tirep yap 
oe KOlV&vlct TTO\IT(JOV TTO\L- 


re/a a , 



dV /cai 

TroXiv eivai jmrj 

/cat yopov ore /xep' KCOJULIKOV ore ^e Tpayncov 
CTCpOV eivai (pa/mev, TU>V avToov 7roXXa/cf? dvOpcoTrcov OVTWV. 
5e /cai Tracrai/ aXXrjv KOitr&viav Kal crvvQecriv eTepav, 
erepov y T^9 (rvvOdcrecos, oiov dp/noviav TU>V CIVTCOV 

? ore 

(pOoyycov erepav eivai Xe*yo/uev, dV ore 

e^ei TOV 








/3\e7TOVTas* ovo^a <5e 
TWV avrcov KaTOiKOvvTMV avTtjv Kal TrdjuLTrav eTepcov dvOpw- 
TTWV. el <$e SiKaiov SiaXveiv rj /my SiaXveiv, orav els erepav 
ju.eTa/3d\\r] TroXirelav rj 7roXi9, Xo ( yo9 eTepos. 

<$e vvv elprjimevcov eyjofjievov e<TTiv 7ricrKe^lsa(r6ai 

\ i \ > '5 | ^'/"i' N ^ ~\' 

Tr\v avT^v apeTtjv avopo? ayauov Kai TTOAITOV 

?> / f\ f *\\ > r * "\ ~\ ^ \ }f *+ 

(TTrovoaiov uereov, n un rnv QLVTIIV. a\\a u.riv et ye TOVTO 

- y > -''-I' ' ' " 


^, TroXtretas Bekker. 


Are the 
^ man 

j i.\, a 

ancl tne 

g d dt " 
zen identi- 


on these 

7 eiVep 7a/>, /c. r.X.] 'For if we 
allow that the state is an association, 
and an association of citizens is a con- 
stitution, then when the constitution 
becomes in kind other than it was, 
and different, it would seem to follow 
that the state is no longer the same.' 
I read Koivwvia TroXtrw^ TroXtreta. If 
Bekker's reading is kept, you have 
one of the two ' iroXiretas' superfluous. 
And the next chapter, 3, shews that 
the expression is legitimate, 
5' karlv r\ TroXireta. 


8 er^pav"] is the predicate. 

g \6yos ^repos] The point, as far 
as I know, is not discussed in the 
books we have. 

IV. I After settling who is the 
citizen of his state, he proceeds to dis- 
cuss a question analogous to that dis- 
cussed in I. XIII., and first mooted Etli. 
V. v. n. p. 1130, B. 29, ftrws yap ou 
ravrbv dvdpt T ' aya6<$ elvai Kal TroXirrj 
Travrt, a statement which anticipates 
the conclusion of this chapter. 

TT)v TOV ird\Lrov] That of the man 
has been given in the Ethics. 





Are the XwTTTeW. wffTrep ovv 6 TrXwrqp ei$ ri? rwv KOIVCDVWV ecrriv, 
good man k % N JL ' ' " 1* * ' I 

and the OVTW Kai TOV 7TO\irrjV CpajULeV. rCOV Oe TTAdOrrjpCOV 

good citi- . 3f \ fl / /f^ t / * vn 

zeniden- aVOfJLOlWV OVTOW Tr)V CvvafJ.IV (o /X61/ ^CCp (7TIV eper^j O Oe 
tical 2 n t ' ^ / e w VN -v v / 

Kvpepvrjrrjs, o oe irpoopevs, o o a\\r]v TIV e^oiv roiavrrjv 
$fj\ov o5? 6 /wei/ aKpi/3eo-raro? e/caVroy Xoyo? 
T^9 apery?, Ofioi&t .<$ Kal KOLVO<S ri? e(pap]u.o(rei 
Tra<Tiv. r] yap o-wrtjpia rtjs vavri\ia<s epjov ecrrlv avrcov 
iravrw rovrov yap eicao-ros opeyerai ru>v 


3 o/ULoicog TO'LVVV Kal rcov TroXirwv, KaiTrep avoftoicw ovrtov, y 
(Toorripla rt]<$ KOivwvia? epyov etrri, Koivtovla <? ccrrlv rj TroXt- 
Tcta* $10 rrjv aperyv avayKalov eivai rov irdXlrov Tr^oo? rrjv 
TToXireiav e'lTrep ovv ecrrl TrXe/w TroXfre/a? etStj, Sff\QV to? 
OVK evSe^erai rov (TTTovSaiov TrdXirov fuav apertjv eivai rrjv 
re\eiav rov S' ayaOov avfipa (f>aju.ev eivai Kar aperrjv re- 

4 \eiav. ori /u.ev ovv evSe^erai 7ro\lrr]v ovra cnrovSaiov jmrj 
KeKrycrOai rrjv aperrjv KaO* rjv crTrovdaio? avrjp, (pavepov. 
Ou /mrjv aXXa Kal Kar a\\ov rpoTrov ecrri $ia7ropovvra$ 
eTreXOeiv rov avrov \6yov Trepi r^? apiarrrjs 7ro\ireia$. el 

Compare Eth. vni. xi. 5. 
p. 1 1 60, 14, on the subject of Kotvuviai, 
where 7rXwr%>es are cited as examples. 

2 6 fih d/c/ot^crraros, K.T.\.] 'That 
whilst the most exact definition of 
each will express properly the pecu- 
liar excellence of each, there will be 
none the less some common one which 
will be adapted to all.' Viet, wishes 
to read S/AWS, and is followed by Schnei- 
der, but it is not necessary. 

-7-775 vavriKlas] 'For safety in their 
navigation is the object they all have 
in common ;' and if they have in com- 
mon some one object (fyyov), then they 
will have in common some excellence, 
i) y&p dperT) irpbs TO Zpyov TO oi/cetw, 
Eth. vi. ii. 7. p. 1139, 1 6. 

3 Koivuvia 5' iarlv 7? TroXire/a] 'and 
the association of citizens is their con- 

7r/)6s TTJV TroXiTetav] f must necessa- 
rily be referred to the constitution of 

which he is a member/ comp. I. xm. 
15. He is but a pai-t, and like other 
parts, can only be viewed properly in 
relation to the whole. If so, and if 
there are several forms of constitu- 
tion, it will follow that the citizens 
in the different forms will differ, so 
that it is impossible for all citizens to 
secure the perfect virtue, in other 
words, to be perfectly good men. 

4 ov pry dXXct] A second argu- 
ment. ' We may from another point of 
view discuss the best constitution, and 
arrive at the same conclusion.' diairo- 
povvTas irepl TTJS api&TTjs TroXiret'as, 
"indem man Zweifel und Bedenken 
iiber die Moglichkeit der apicrT-rj TroXi- 
reia vorbringe." Spengel, p. 30. 

5 This clause is rather loosely ex- 
pressed ; I consider it to mean : It is 
impossible that a state should have 
none but thoroughly good men for its 
citizens, yet each citizen must do his 

III. 4.] 



yap aovvaTOv e aTravTwv (nrovoaiuiv OVTWV eivai TroXiv, Set Ar f tlie 

X " * t* ' * V ' g ^ T n 


<..*/ < f * / * N i good citi- 

apeTW eTrei o aovvaTOv OJULOIOV? eivai TravTas TGI/? TroAira?, zen iden- 

' & v /^ \ -x / \*r>>/^r> > \ tical ^ 

ou/c av eiri juia aperrj TroXiTOV /ecu avopos ayaOov. rrjv pev _ 

yap TOV CTTrovSalov TroXirov Set Traviv vTrapyeiv (ovTOl yap 1277 
api(TTt]v avayKalov 'elvat TV\V iro\iv\ T^V oe TOV avopos TOU 

9/j^^n/ ^\ / i * /\ \ f 

ayavov aovi/aTOv, ei jmrj Trai/ra? avayicaiov ayauov? aval 
TOVS ev Ty a-Trovoaia 7r6\ei woXiTaf. "EtTi eTrel e^ avojuoicov 6 

rj 7ToXf9, WVTTCp ^WOV V&V$ K 

^rv^rj CK Xoyov Kal opei 

KOL KT*j(Tl$ K 


avojULolcov crvvecTTtjKev cl<$ow, avayKrj ^ fjilav eivai T*JV TCOV 

~\ ^ > >/..# ^'^ <% 

7roA.iTcov iravTwv apeTrjV) (aoTTrep ouoe TCOV vopevToov Kopv- 
(fiatov Kai TrapacrTaTOv. Atort ju.ev TOLVVV aVXa)? ov% *j 7 
avTrj, (pavepov e/c TOVTWV d\X' apa ecrTai TIVO? rj avTtj 
apeTrj TroXiTov re cnrovfiatov Kal avfipos <TJroU&l/ot/$ <pauev 
otj TOV apxpVTq TOV <T7rovSaiov ayaOov etyat KOI (ppovtuov, 
TOV c^e TroXiTtjv OVK* avayKaiov eivai <pp6viju.ov. Kal TV\V 8 

3 rbv 5 TTO\I.TLKOV Bekker. 



avpo$ /ecu 


own proper work ; this involves some 
excellence, that of the citizen, so that 
they will all be good citizens. But 
then, as they cannot be all quite alike, 
though excellent as citizens, they will 
not be all equally excellent as men. 

dduvarof 6fJ.otovs eZi/cu] II. II. 3, o 
yap yiverat TroXts $f ofjioiojv. 

6 tt; avofJioLwv = e% e'ldei dia.<pep6vT(i)v. 
A third argument. The mere fact of 
the citizens being dissimilar, involves 
dissimilar excellence. You would as 
little look for its being one and the 
same in all, as you would require one 
and the same excellence in the front 
and rear ranks of a chorus. Muller, 
Eumenides, 63, 64. 

7 Ai6rt] 'That then,' I. n. 10. 
dXX' dpa &TTCU] ' But will there not 

be some case in which we shall find 

coincident the excellence of the good 
citizen and the good man V 

<f>a/j,ev 5ri~\ 'We say then that the 
good magistrate must combine moral 
goodness and intellectual excellence, 
whereas the citizen need not have this 
latter in its highest form.' rbv 5 TTO- 
\irijv OVK is the reading I adopt on con- 
jecture. We do not require (f>p6i>rj(ris for 
the simple citizen. See below 18. 

8 Kal T7]v TreuSefa*'] ' So clear is it 
that we draw this distinction, that at 
the very outset, the education of the 
ruler, it is said, should be different 
from that of the ruled. As in fact is 
seen to be the case with the sons of 
kings, who are taught riding and the 
art of war.' For TroXe^LK^v, Gb'ttling 
reads TroXtrt/c^z/, which I should not 
have mentioned, but that Mr Lewis 




Are the 
good man 

and the 
good citi- 
zen iden- 
tical ? 

TraiSelav o* ev6v$ erepav eivai \eyovcri riveg rov a( 
wcTTrep Kal (paivovrai 01 rcov /3aa-i\ecov vieis iinriKijv Kal 
7ro\fAiKr]v TraiSevojuievoi, Kal JJjvprTTiSrjs (prjarl 



p.r) fJLOL TO. KO/M 1 

dXX' toj/ TroXei Set, 

a)? ov<rdv Tiva apyovros TraiSeiav. el fie rj avrrj apery 
apyjovros Te ayaOov Kal avSpos ayaOov, TroXirrjs <5' etrrl Kal 
6 apxofJLevos, ou^ rj avrtj aVXo>9 av e'lrj TTO\ITOV Kal avSpos, 
rivos jmevroi TroXlrow ov yap f] avTy ap-^ovTOS Kal TTO\L- 
TOU, Kal Sia TOUT fVco? 'IdarcDV e(pr) Treivfjv, ore jmr] Tvpavvol, 
cJ? OVK eTTKTr 'a fJLevo$ iSi(*)Tr]$ eivai. aXXa juirjv eTTaiveiTai ye 
TO $vvacr6ai apyeiv KOI ap-^ecrOai, Kal TTO\ITOV SOKIJULOV fj 
apery eivai TO SuvacrOai Kal apyeiv Kal ap-^ecrOai KO\W$. el 
ovv ryv juiev rov ayaOov avfipos riQefj-ev apyjLKrjv, rrjv $e rov 
TToX/roy aju.(p(*), OVK av e'ly a/x^)ft) eTratvera o/xo/w?. eirel 

adopts it (On Autlwrtiy, &c., p. 256, 
note.) It is surely not necessary. 
Evpiiridw] Fr. ^Eol. VII. 

9 In the good ruler then we must 
look for the perfect virtue of the per- 
fect man. But those whom he rules 
are, not less than he, citizens of the 
state. There is a wide interval be- 
tween their functions, there will be 
therefore a difference in their respec- 
tive excellences. So in a given citizen 
the good man and the good ruler coin- 
cide, not in all citizens. It was a 
strong expression of Jason's sense of 
this difference between ruler and sub- 
ject, when he said he felt hungry when 
not despot. Grote, in. 36, note, 'in- 
cessant hunger till he became despot.' 

10 a\\a jj.-f]v, K. r.X.] 'It must not 
be forgotten, however, allowing all this, 
that by the common voice of men, 
praise is attached to the capacity for 
filling both positions, that of ruler and 
ruled, and the general idea of the ex- 
cellence of a citizen, is that he pos- 
sesses this capacity, that he can both 
rule and submit to rule.' 

TToXirou doKi/uiov'] we must supply 
5o/c, or some similar word. 

el o$v, K. T. X., ' The good man must 
have the virtue of the ruler, the good 
citizen must have both ; but both are 
not equally objects of praise.' 

ir tird oft/ 7ror<?, K.T.X.] This is 
variously taken. Stahr supplies ITT UL- 
verb. elvat after &jji<j>oTepa., as does 
Schneider. Victorius makes d//,05re/)a 
depend on /mavOdveiv. Agreeing with 
him, I construe the passage as follows : 
' Since then it seems that the ruler 
must some time or other learn both 
(dpxeo-Qai Kal apxeii'), and yet that 
the ruler and the ruled are not bound 
to know the same things, whilst the 
citizen must know both and fully shai'e 
in both, what follows from these posi- 
tions may be seen.' The simple an- 
swer as to what is required relatively 
of the two, the ruler and the ruled, is 
that in the best state it is a question 
of time. And as far as I can under- 
stand the passage, the line of argu- 
ment is not continued in the next 
sentence, but in 14, ravrtji' yap Xe- 

Are the 
good man 

and the 
good citi- 
zen iden- 
tical ? 


III. 4.] nOAITIKQN F. 117 

ovv TTOTe <$OKi ajui(poTpa KOI ov TavTO. $eiv TOV ap^ovTa 
jmavOaveiv Kal TOV ap^d/mei/ov, TOV oe TroXiTtjv ajULcpoTep' 
i Kal jmeTe^eiv a/uL(potv, TOvvTevOev av KCLT'IOOI TI<$. 
yap apyfi SecrTTOTiK^' TavTqv $e TY\V Trepl TavayKaia 
\eyo/u,ev y a Troieiv 7rl<TTacr6ai TOV ap"^ovT > OVK avayKaiov, 
a\\a ^prjcrOai /maXXov OaTepov $e Kal avfipaTroSwSe?. 
^e OaTCpov TO 3vva<rOai Ka\ vTrrjpeTeiv ra9 SiaicoviKa? Tr 
SovXov & e'lSrj TrXet'w Xeyo/xei/' at yap epyaariai 
a>y ev fJLepo? KaTe-fcovcriv ol ^epvtJTe^' OVTOL o* i<rlv, <a-7rep 
crt]jULaivi Kal TOVVOJLL avTOvs, ol IfwvTes airo TCOV "veipwv, ev I2 77 B 
of? o /3dvav(ro$ TeyviTrjg <TTIV. $10 Trap eviois ov /meTec^ov 
OL 3r]ju.iovpyol TO 7ra\aLov ap^cov, irplv SrjjuLov yevecrOai TOV 
ecr^aTOV. TO. jmev ovv epya TCOV ap-^ofJLevwv OVTCOS ov Set 13 
TOV ayaOov ov$e TOV TroXm/coi/ ovSe TOV TroXiTtjv TOV aya- 
6ov /mavOdveiv, el M TTOTC ^(jpeias \apiv avTw Trpos avTov ov 
yap CTI crv/uL/Baivet yivecrOai TOV JULCV dearTroTrjv TOV <$e $ov\ov. 
aXX' evTi Tf? ap-^ij Ka& rjv ap-^ei TU>V OJULOICVV TW yevei Kal 
TCOV eXevOepwv.^ TavTtjv yap \eyoju.ev eivat Trjv TTO\ITIK^V 14 
apxyv, fjv Set TOV apyovTa ap^ojuLevov jmaOeiv, olov tTnrap- 
%eiv L7nrap-)(tiOevTa, o-Tpa^rjyeiv (rTpaTyytjOevTa Kal Tafyap- 
Kal \o^ay^(ravTa. $to Kal \eyeTat Kal TOVTO 

v, K. T. X. All between these two 
points seems to me out of place. It 
interrupts the reasoning, and is in 
itself superfluous, as it is in fact a re- 
petition of points already adequately 
treated in the First Book. Without 
presuming to say that it is not Aris- 
totle's, I have therefore inclosed it in 
brackets simply to mark what I con- 
sider the sense of the passage. It has 
the air of being put in to explain the 
connexion of ra^Tfjv ycip \tyo/j.ei> TTJV 

la-ri y&p d/3%77] The doctrine is the 
same as that of I. vn. 

12 AotfXou 8' ctdrf] From this to 
the end of the section is to me even 

more suspicious than the rest. It is 
most unnecessary detail. 

13 ou 7ot/) ?ri] 'For the result is 
that the distinction is effaced.' 

.14 ra^rijv y&p] ( For the very no- 
tion we attach to the power exercised 
in a free state is, that it is that which 
the ruler learns to exercise by himself 
obeying.' Compare Grote, on the 
character of Epaminondas, X. 487, 
"An illustrious specimen of that capa- 
city and goodwill, both to command 
and to be commanded, which Aris- 
totle pronounces to form in their com- 
bination the characteristic feature of 
the worthy citizen." 




Are the 
good man 

and the 
good citi- 
zen iden- 
tical ? 



Are ol 
citizens ? 

, cos OVK ecrriv ev ap^ai /my apyQevra. 
apery ]u.ev erepa, Set Se rov TroXiryv rov ayaOov eTTicrra- 
crOai Kal SvvacrOai Kal ap-^ecrOai Kal apyeiv, Kai avry apery 
TroXirov, TO ryv ru>v eXevOepcov apyyv eTTicrracrOai CTT' a/x- 
(porepa. Kal avSpos $y ayaOov ajUL<poo, Kal el erepov elSo? 
arcod>po(Tvvr}9 Kal SiKaiocrvvtjg apyiKris* KOI yap apyo^evov ^ev 
eXevOepov $e $tj\ov ori ov jmia av e'lrj rov ayaOou apery, olov 
diKatocrvvr], aXX' e'ISy eyovtra KaO' a ap^ei Kal apteral, wV- 
wep avfipos Kal yvvaiKos erepa <rco(ppo(Tvvr) KOI avopla. oo^ai 
yap av etvai $ei\o$ avyp, el ovrw avfipeios e'ly oxrTrep yvvy 
avdpeia, KOI yvvy XaXo?, el ovra) KcxrfJLia e'ly wcrTrep 6 avyp 
6 ayaOos, eTrel Kal oiKOVOfAia erepa avfipos Kal yvvaiKO'S* rov 
imev yap KraarOai, rfjs <$e <pv\arretv epyov ecrriv. y oe 
(ppovyvis apyovro? '{$10$ apery fJLovy ra? yap a'XXa? eoiKev 
avayKatov elvai Koiva? Kal rcov ap^o/uievcov Kai ru>v apyov- 
rwv. apyofJievov $e ye OVK ecrriv apery (ppovyari?, aXXa 
^a aXyOys' wcnrep avXoTroios yap 6 apyop.evo<s, o o' ap- 
avXyry? 6 xpcojuLevo?. Tlorepov /mev ovv y avry apery 
avfipos ayaOov Kal TroX/rou (TTrovSaiov y erepa, KOI TTW? y 
avry Kal TTW? erepa, (pavepov e/c rovrwv. 

TLepl Se rov iroXiryv eri XeiTreral Tf? roov aTropicov. to? 
a\yO(*)$ yap trorepov iroXiry? ecrriv w KOivwvetv e^ecrriv ap- 

15 Toi^rwv] sc. of the two posi- 

eir' dfj,(f>oTpa] 'in both directions/ 
'dans les deux sens.' 

1 6 'It follows then that both are 
parts of the character of a good man, 
even though we allow that the virtues 
as they appear in the ruler, wear a 
different face from that which they do 
in the ruled ; I say virtues, for evi- 
dently in the good man, when though 
free he is yet bound by position to 
obey, there will not be merely one 
virtue, say justice, but there will 
be different kinds of virtue, one kind 
by which he shall be qualified to rule, 
the other qualified to obey.' 

17 olKOvofjda] 'Their function in 
the family management.' 

i] 8 (ppbvrjffis, Af.r.X.] one virtue 
there is, and only one, peculiar to the 
ruler, 0p6^<riS, the highest union of 
moral virtue with the practical reason. 
This is in agreement with his language 
in the Ethics, VI. xi. 2. p. 1143, 8, 
r/ (JL^v yap (ppovycris tirtraKTiicifi. 

1 8 56cc d\i7^s] This is equivalent 
to the (r^ecris of the Ethics in the pas- 
sage I have just quoted, which is said 
to be KpiTiK'fj, 

V. j rbv Tro\lT7]v\ ' Our citizen.' 
Trorepov TroXtTT/s <ST[V\ ' Is he only 
a citizen ? ' 


X^9> n KCU TOV9 fiavav<rov<s iroXiTag Oereov', el 
TOUTOU9 Oereov oT9 M^ fterctrriv ap-^wv, < 

TroXiTOV Trjv Toiavrrjv apeTrjv ouTO9 yap 


Are ni 

~? x * 

^ (Wwtwrot 
OlOV T TTCIVTOS citizens? 



V TlVl /ULpL 

crro?; oie yap /ULGTOIKOS oi^e eVo9. 77 <W ye TOVTOV TOV 2 

-v > '^^ j / O ' " ' ^*^ % _o 

Aoyoi/ ofoe^ (pT/cro/aei/ <TVfj.paivs.iv aroTro^; ofoe yap 041270 

^ * / '^*' ' 7* < ' A '/^ ^ ^ 

T0)i/ eiprjjuievcw Ofdei/, oi/o Oi ajreXevuepoi. TOVTO yap 
es, to$ ou Trai/ra? Oereov TroX/ra? ft>y ai/eu ou/c ceV e'/>; 
o/ Traffe coVaJrw? TroXtTai Kal ol a^^pe?, 
aXX' ot /xei/ a?rXco? ot* <T e^ ^Tro^ecreft)?* TroXtrai fj(.ei> yap 
aXX' areXe??. ei/ /xej/ ow TO?? ap^a/of? yjpovois Trap* 3 
%v 3ov\ov TO fldvavcrov *j ^evucov Sioirep ol TroXXot 

TOIOVTOL Kttl VVV. $ $6 fie\TL<JTt] TToXf? OU 7TOl^(7l /3dl>aV- 

rjov 7ro\iTr]V' ei $e Kal OVTO? TroXiTtj?, aXXa iroXiTOv aperrjv 

A if -\ / r V '-\ /\ ' ' 'N'v' 

>yy enrouev XCKTCOV ou Traj/ro?, ouo eXevOepov p.ovov, aXX 
oaroi TWV epycov cia-lv a<piju.evoi TWV avayKaiwv. TWV $ 4 
avayKaiwv ol jmev evl Xeirovpyovvres TOL roiavra SovXoi, OL 
Se Koivol /3di/avarot Kal 6*]Te$. fyavepov o* evrevOev 

Compare on this sub- 
ject, Herod. 11. 167. 

rty roiatrrjv dper*f)v\ Such as we 
have given him. OUTOJ, sc. 6 pdvav<ros. 

ovSt yap ft^roi/coy] Here again, 
we have these two classes marked as 
distinct, III. II. 3. 

2 17 Sid ye, /c.T.X.] So far as that 
point is concerned, we are not involved 
in any difficulty. There are other 
classes in the same state. 


' simply,' 'without any 

$f i>7ro0&rews] l on a given supposi- 
tion,' the term must be qualified when 
applied to them. 

3 rb fiavavcrov rjv 5ov\ot> TJ ^CVLKOV} 
'The industrial population consisted 
entirely either of slaves or aliens.' 

ei S Kal oirros] Rejected from the 
ideal state, the artisan may yet prac- 

tically be a member of the state such 
as it exists. If so, his admission ne- 
cessitates a qualification with regard 
to the excellence we require in a citi- 
zen. Such a standard as we set be- 
comes now one by which all citizens 
are not to be tried, nor all free men, 
but only such as are free from the 
necessity of working to support them- 

4 T&V 5' dvayKalwv] If this read- 
ing is kept, which perhaps is the best 
way, short as it is : ' With regard to 
such occupations, those who serve one 
man in such points are slaves, whilst 
those who serve the public are artisans 
and Thetes.' Looking at the whole 
expression I had thought that avay- 
Kaluv was corrupt, and that the true 
reading was ^ ct^a^&wj'. But it is 
as well to acquiesce in the present 




Are ol eiria-Ke^lsauevoi? TTW? evei Trepl avTwv avTo yap (bavev TO 

/9&WOTM ^ , ^ v , , , v < . ~ 

citizens? \e^6ev TTOfei oqXov. eTra "ya^o 7r\eiov$ eicriv ai 7ro\iTtat, 

* Kal e'lSrj TTO\LTOV avayKatov elvai TrXe/w, /ecu ^aXiura TOV 

ap-^ojULevov TroX/rou, wVr' ey /xeV rm TroXfre/a TOJ/ fidvavarov 

avayKaiov eTvai Kal TOV OfJTa 7roX/ra9, ey Tf(Tf (5' a^waroi/, 

oToi^ 1 T/ff e(TTlV YIV KO\OV<TIV aplOrTOKpaTlKtJV Kal V y KttT 

apeTrjv at Ttjual SiSovTai Kal /car a^iav ov yap olov T 

e7riTrjOv<rai TO. Trj<? apeTrjs <^a)j/Ta fiiov /3dvav<rov rj Q^TLKOV. 

6 ev $e Tats o\iyap-^Lat^ OtJTa /mev OVK ev^e^eTai elvai TroXi- 








tf evoe^eTai* TT\OVTOIJ<TL yap Kal OL TroXXof TU>V 
ev Qq/3ai$ $e VO/ULOS yv TOV ^e/ca CTWV /u.rj aTre- 
^9 ayopa$ JUL*] jmeTe^eiv apxfjs. ev TroXXa?? <$e 
TTjOOcre^eX/ceraf Kal TU>V ^evwv 6 vojmos' 6 yap eic 
ev TICTI orjjULOKpaTLai? 7ro\LTrj<s ecrTiv. TOV avTOV 
KOI TO. 'Trepl TOV$ v66ov$ Trapa 7ro\\oi$. ov 

aXX* eTrel ^i' evoeiav TWV yvrjvlwv TTO\ITU>V 
TroX/ra? Tovg TOIOVTOV? (Sia yap oXiyavOpooTriav ourco \pwv~ 
Tai TOIS ^o/xoi?), ev7TopovvTe$ & o^Xov Acara jmiKpov irapai- 
povvTai TOV$ CK SovXov TTpcoTOv tj ^oJX^?, efra TOV$ GLTTO yv- 

avrb yhp Qavlv rb \exQtv] "Die 
nahere Beleuchtung des Gesagten." 
Stahr. ' What we have already said, 
of itself, if explained, clears up the 

5 ou yhp olov\ Here we have defi- 
nitely the reason why Aristotle ex- 
cludes the industrial population. If 
by the arrangement of society the rea- 
son ceases to hold good, the exclusion 
would cease to be required. It is a 
problem which seems in a fair way of 
solution, in favour of the industrial 
population, owing to their numbers, 
their organization, and the ultimate 
influence on the question of leisure for 
education and self-cultivation which 
machinery will have. 

7 S^/ca ^rcDv] 'for a space often years.' 
That interval must elapse between his 
mixing in business and his admission 
to office. 

7r/>o<re0<ftKeTcu] Middle. 'The law 
draws in some of the aliens also,' 
"zieht sogar manche Freunde zum 
Biirgerrecht. " Stahr. Eurip. Med. 46 1 . 

8 ou pty ctXXd, K.r,A.] 'not how- 
ever but that, when from want of ge- 
nuine citizens they introduce such as 
these, when they have numbers suffi- 
cient,' &c. evTTopovvres 5' 8%\ov. Comp. 
Thirlwall, ill. 61, for Pericles' clearing 
the Athenian register. 

OTTO 7wcu/cwj'] = ^K TroX^rtSos, where 
the mother only was citizen. 

III. 6.] 



Tt'Xo? oe JJLOVOV TOV<$ 


e a/u,(poiv CLVTCOV* TroXrra? _, e 
TrXe/eo TroX/TOU, (pavepov eK citizens? 
TOVTCOV, Kal OTL \ejeTaL fJia\i(TTa 7ro\iTr]$ 6 
, a)O"7rep Kai O/x^no? eTroirjcrev 



OTTOV TO TOIOVTOV eTTiKeKpvju/uLevov earTiv, aTrarr)? \apiv TCOV 
CTVVOIKOVVTWV e(TTiv. TLorepov IJLGV ovv eTepav tj rtjv avTrjv I0 
6erov KGL$ qv avrjp aya^o? etrrt KCU TroX/riy? crTrovfiaio?, 

<$tj\OV K TU>V lpt]/ULV(*)V, OTI TIVO$ yttei/ TToXcft)? O ttUTO? Tfl/O? 

eivai Kvpio?, % raO' OLVTOV tf fJLT aXXwi/, r^ 


fjiiav OCTGOV 7ro\LTeiav % TrXe/ou?, KOLV el TrXe/ou?, 
KCU Trotrai, KOL Siacpopal TtVe? CIVTU>V etcriv. "Ecrrf $e state. 

Ct^f? TU>V T 

a do-rwv Bekker. 


O.VTV~\ affr&v, adopted by Bekker 
and others in place of avrwv, the 
reading of the MSS., is rejected by 
Stahr. Nickes agrees with him, Excur. 
VI. He refers to (Ec. n. iv. 3, where 
Bekker has made the same change, and 
supports his view by the argument that 
acrTu>v is very rare in Aristotle. avru>i> 
certainly seems to make good sense, 
referred to the subject of iroiovcriv. 
They make citizens those only who 
have a father and mother both of 
themselves, of the body to which those 
who make them belong,' "aus ihrer 
Mitte." Stahr. 
9 II. ix. 648. 

iriKeKpvfjL[j.&ov] "Dies Verhaltniss 
verdeckt ist." Stahr. " Ou Ton a soin 
de dissimuler ces differences." St Hil. 
Does it mean : where this exclusion, 
though not expressed openly in the 
laws, is yet tacitly acted on, it is with 
a view to deceive those, whether set- 

tlers from abroad, or born in the coun- 
try, who are merely living with them, 
not really admitted into the state ? 
And the object of deceiving them would 
be of course to keep them quiet. 

10 rivfa ^v ir6\ews] 'That in a 
given state they are identical, in others 
not so, and he in whom they are iden- 
tical, is not any citizen of that state 
indifferently, but the statesman and 
the man who, either singly or with 
others, is or can be at the head of the 
administration. Spengel proposes to 
read /fd/ce^s (p. 29, note 30), but the 
change is not necessary. 

VI. i After settling these preli- 
minary points, we now come to the 
main object of the work. 

r&v re &\\ti)v dpx&v] 'Both gene- 
rally, as to magistracies, and especially 
the sovereign one. 





The object T>79 KVpia? TravTWV* Kvpiov ju.ev yap iravTayjov TO 

f9 7roXeco9, Tro\tTvju.a o ecTTLV rj Tro\iTeia. \eya) o" otov 

2 ev fJLev Tats ^rjfjLOKpaTtKai^ Kvpios 6 ^/xo9, o: ^ oXiyoi TOV- 
vavTiov ev Tals oKiyapyiais' (pajmev Se Kal Tro\iTelav eTepav 
elvai TOVTCOV. TOV avTOV oe TOVTOV epovjmev \6yov Kal Trepl 
TCOV aX\oov. jLTroOeTeov oe TrpwTOV TIVOS "vapiv 

7roX(9, Kai Ttj9 a pxf)$ elorj Trova T?/9 Trepi avOpwrrov Kal 

3 KOivwvlav T9J<f riw^9. elprjTai ot] /cat /caxa T( 

\6yov?, ev OLS Trepl oiKOVo/mias ^iwplcrOtj Kal Sea-TTOTeia?, OTI 

$e6ju.evot r?9 Trap a\\rj\wv /3orjOeiaf OVK eXaTTOv ope e 

TOV o-v^v ov fJLrjv aXXa Kal TO Koivy (rvjuicpepov crvvdyei, 

4 Ka& oarov Tri{3a\\ei /mepos e/ca<TTft) TOV /Crjv /caXa)9. /ua- 
Xtcrra IULCV ovv TOUT' ecrTt TeXo9, Kal Koivfj Train. Kal 

Kal TOV ^rjv eveKev avTOv (^larws yap 

rb TroXlrevfjia] 'the government,' 
and the constitution of the state, or 
more shortly, the state is its govern- 
ment ; L'dtat, c'est moi, is the language 
of all governments, monarchical or 
republican. Compare Eth. IX. viii. 6. 
p. 1168, b. 29, <3(rirep dt Kal TroXts rb 
Kvpiurarov /idXto-ra 5o/ce? elvai Kal irav 
aXXo <7iATT?7/ia. 

2 0ayn^ 5^ Kaf] The sovereign in 
each differs, therefore the constitution 
differs, and our common language 
allows that it does. 

viroOertov] 'We must first take as 
a basis for subsequent reasonings, an- 
swers to the two questions : What is 
the object of the formation of a state ? 
sndly, How many kinds of govern- 
ment are there ?' 

3 If of?, K. T. X.] marks very clearly 
the scope of the First Book. 

Kal /j,7)8& SeSjmevoi] 'even if in no 
degree in need of mutual assistance.' 
Compare Eth. ix. 9. p. 1169, 6, for 
the full discussion of this question. 

ofl nty a\\a, K. T. X.] Still it is not 
possible to exclude from the bonds of 

union the element of personal advan- 
tage which each member of the state 
derives from the union, in proportion 
to the degree in which each by it is 
enabled to live nobly. 

4 TOUTO] sc. rb tfiv /caXws. 'But 
still men do form the social union 
for life itself, and not for social life, 
and when formed men keep it together 
solely with reference to life and to se- 
cure that, unless the hardships which 
their life brings with it become past en- 
durance.' Comp. Arnold, 
167, "Nations, like individuals, cheer- 
fully acquiesce in their actual condi- 
tion, when it appears to be in any 
degree natural or even endurable ; and 
their desire of change, whenever they 
do feel it, is less the wish of advanc- 
ing from good to better, or a fond 
craving after novelty, than an irre- 
sistible instinct to escape from what 
is clearly and intolerably bad, even 
though they have no definite prospect 
of arriving at good." Also, p. 554. 

ftrws yap ^vecrrl rt TOV /caXoO fjApiov] 
There is a question as to the place 



III. ().] 

\ \ \ cx^ \ / ,\\ m -v % ^^ 

Kai KaTa TO (riv avTO JULOVOV. av JU.T] TO*? ^aAeTro*? KaTa TOV 
/3iov virep/BaXXr] Xiav. SrjXov $ a)? KapTepov<ri iroXXrjv 
KaKOtraOeiav 01 iroXXol TWV avOpcoirwv yXi^ojULevoi TOV ^rjv, 
a)? evovcrr)? TIVO$ evt]u.epia$ ev avT< Kai yXvKvTrjTO? <pv(riKr]$. 
'AXXa /uLtjv Kal Trjs ap"Xn <s T0v $ Xeyo/mevovs Tpoirovs paStov 
SieXeiv Kal yap ev TO?? e^wTeptKOis Xoyois fiiopt'^oju.eOa Trepl 
avTwv 7roXXa/ef?. ^ /mev yap c^ecrTTOTe/a, KaiTrep OVTO? KUT 
TW Te (pvarei c^oJXa) Kal TaT (pu<rei <$e<T7roTr] TavTOv 








fj c^e TCKVCOV ap"^tj Kal yvvatKos Kal T?? Oi/e/a? 
c^7 KaXovjmev OIKOVOJULIK^V, rjTOL TCOV a 

,> \ ^ ^ ff r x < 

t] KOtVOV TLVO<S a/Ui<pOlV, Kau aVTO JU.CV 

jmevwv, wcTTrep opwjmev Kal T? aXXa? Te^a?, olov 

\ f ^ /OyO^^^* 1 ^ 9*^^ '^*^ 

Kai yvjUivatTTiKtjV) KaTa (TvjmpeprjKog oe Kav avTcov eiev ovoev 
yap KwXvei TOV Trai$OTpl/3t]v eva TCOV yvfjLva^ofJLevcDv evioT 
elvai Kal avTOV, wcrTrep 6 KV/3epvrjTr]$ els e(TT\v ae\ TWV TrXw- 
Typwv. 6 jmev ovv 7rai$OTpi/3r]9 rj Kv(BepvrjTri$ (TKOTrec TO TCOV 

aya96v oTav Se TOVTWV eT? yevrjTai Kal 




these words should hold. Some, as 
Schneider with Coray, resting on the 
Vet. Int., wish to place them after 
Ti)i> iro\iTiKT]v Koivuviav. If I under- 
stand them rightly, it is no matter 
where they stand. In either case I 
refer them to the social union express- 
ed if their present place is kept, by 
the o-vvtyxovTcu, if their place is al- 
tered, by TroAmfcrjv Kowuvlav. Rest 
society and the objects of society on 
the simple basis of mutual wants, a 
lower one than Aristotle would wish 
to take, still there results from it, 
there is implied in it inherently some- 
thing noble, some higher element. 
Men cannot unite without eliciting, as 

the fruits of their union, something 
good. There is honour among thieves, 
is an illustration of this statement. 

5 dXXii fjLrjv] Here begins the an- 
swer to the and question, irbffa eidrj 
&PXW> here called TOI)S Tp6irovs. 

^wre/HKois] This term may here in- 
clude, and probably does, the First 
Book. Compare I. v. 4, and note. 

6 01) 7<fy) evdexerai] It does not 
answer absolutely to neglect the slave, 
any more than any other part of pro- 

7 -f\v 5^] ' and it is this, not SecrTro- 
nKfy, that we emphatically call oko- 






The differ- KGLTa (rvjuifte/3tjK09 ju.Te%i Trjs uxpeXetas' 6 imev yap 

of govern- o Se T&v yv/^oiJLev(t)v eT? yiverou iraiSoTpifiris 

^^ -x \ * / </ ^ */ * \' > 

i Tag TroAfTf/ca? ap%a$, orav y /car tcror^ra TCOV TTO\ITCOV 

9 a-vv<TTt]Kvia Kal Ka$ OyUOfoV^Ta, /cara fJiepos a^iova-iv apx* 
eiv, irpoTepov fJLev, fj 7re<pvKev, a^Lovvreg ev jmepei \eiTOvpyetv, 
KOI CTKOireiv Tiva TTO\IV TO avTOv ayaOov, wcnrep irpoTepov 
10 avTOS ap^cov ea-KOTret TO CKGLVOV orvjUL(ppov vvv <$e $ia ra? 
w<he\ia? Tot? CLTTO TCOV KOLVWV Kai TCI? e/c TJ/? cto^9 {3ov\ov- 
Tai vvveyws ap-)(iv, oiov el crvve/Baivev vyiaiveiv ael 
apy^ovcri voaraKepois ovcnv KOI yap av OUTW? 

11 TO? ap^a?* (pavepov TOIVVV w? o<rai fj.ev 7ro\iTiai TO 

(TV]u.(f)pov (TKOTrovcnv, avTai fJLev op6ol Tvyyavovviv ovtrai 


TO aTrXco? 
W, rjiJLap 
cov fiecnroTiKal yap, rj $e TroXf? KOivcwia TCOV \ev9e- 

TO <r<pTepov IJLOVOV 
Tracrat KOU TrapeK/Bacreis TWV opO 


TOVTCOV e^ofievov CCTTI Ta? 

' ' ( f\ ' ^ ' /^ ^ 

e7rfcr/ce y" a<T " ai ' 7rocraf TOl/ apiu/ULov 


f overn- 
ments. T ? opOas avTwv Kal yap at 7rapeK/3d(reis evovTai (pavepal 

2 TOVTWV $topi<r6i<ru)v. 'ETreJ ^e TroXiTela /u.ev Kal 7roX/Teu/xa 
vqjjiaivei TavTOv, 7ro\iTevju.a $ <TTC TO Kvpiov TCOV TroXecw, 
avdyKt] S* eivai Kvpiov $ eva rj o\iyov<s tj Toy? TroXXow, oTav 
fj.ev 6 ef? ^ 01 6\lyoi rj OL TroXXoJ TTjOO? TO KOIVOV crvju,(pepov 
apxaxTi, TavTas fjiev 6p6a$ avayKalov eivai TGI? 7roX(Te/a?, 

8 6 fikv y&p trKw-fip] for complete- 
ness there is required Kvpepv/iTys t3v. 

9 Aid Kal, K.r.X.] Because they 
look to the common good. 

ftrav 77] supply as nominative r) irtt- 
Xis, from irdXiTiKas. 

/car' IffbrtiTO. Kal Kad' o/ioi^T^ra] 
on these two principles. The expres- 
sion is equivalent to a more common 
one, t fawv Kal o/JLotwi/. 

d^iovffiv, 'they think it but right.' 
77 ir<t>vKv] ( as is the natural course.' 
tv futpei \eiTovpyeiv] 'That all should 

serve in turn, and that each, after 
holding his office, should again attend 
to his own interests.' 

10 vw 5e] answering to the 717)6- 
repov IJL&. 

11 &rcu 7ro\tre?ai] 'all govern- 
ments that.' Comp. Isoc. Panath. 
pp. 259, 260, where the same conclu- 
sion is come to as to the principles of 
governments and their divisions. 

VII. 2 crr)/J,aivi ravrbv] for our 
present purpose. 

III. 7-] 

TCt? Se TTpO? TO 


^ t * >> * '-\ I i\ ^ 

TOU evos r\ TCOV o\iywv rj TOV 


6ov$ 7rapeK/3a<rei<i' n y a p ov TroX/ra? (pareov elvai Tovg meats. 
jmeTG-^ovTa?, rj $ei KOtvooveiv TOV orvjmcpepovTO?. KO\CIV $ ~ 
eicoOafjLev TCOV jutev /uLovap^icov TY\V Tnoo? TO KOIVOV airo{3\e- 
Trovarav <TVju.(pepov /3a<ri\etav, Trjv $e TCOV o\iyu>v fJLev TrXeto- 
vwv <? evo$ apiorTOKpaTiav, rj $ia TO TOV$ apicrTOvs ap^eiv, 

Tf $ta TO 7TjOO9 TO apHTTOV Tfj 7TO\l Kdl TO?? KOlVOOVOVCTtV 

auT>79' OTCLV $e TO TrX^o? TT^OO? TO KOIVOV TroXiTevijTai 


7roXiTe/a* cru]Ui/3aLvei o* evXoyw eva jmev yap fiicupepeiv 4 
KGLT apTt]V rj oXiyov? ev^e-^eTai, TrXe/ou? & %Stj "^oXeTrov 
yKpijScocrOai TT^OO? iraarav apCTtjv, a'XXa juLaXiorTO. Trjv TroXe- 12793 
jULiKyv avTtj yap ev TrXrjQei yiyveTai. StoTrep KaTa TavTrjv 


01 KKTrjju.Voi TU, O7r\a. 7rapeK/3a(Ti$ TG TWV elprj- 5 
TV pawl? fJ-ev /SacrtXe/a?, 6\iyap-^ia $e apUTTOKpaTia?, 
ia Se 7ro\iTelas. rj jmev yap Tvpavvl? <TTI jmovap-^ia 
irpos TO (rvjuLcfiepov TO TOV jULOvap^ovvTos, r} o* o\iyap-^ia 


rj yap ov TroXiras, K. r.X.] For TJ wo- 
Xts is Koivuvia TTO\ITUV, i] 8 TroXirt/fJj 
Kcivwvia TOV <TVfj,</>povTos %vKa <rvv- 
ffTTjKe. Comp. I. I. and note. 

3 rQiv fj,ev fjiovapxiuv] ' In the case 
of the monarchies we usually call the 
constitution which looks to the com- 
mon interest.' With TTJV a.irofi\irov- 
GO.V, I understand TroXtrei'ai'. 

4 av[jt,paivei d' ei)X67ws] "Ces dif- 
f^rences de denomination sont fort 
justes," says St Hilaire. I refer it 
strictly to the last form of govern- 
ment, and translate the passage : ' The 
result is such as you might reasonably 
expect ; for whilst it is possible to find 
one man or a few of eminent virtue, 
in proportion as you increase the num- 
ber, it becomes difficult to find them 
trained and finished generally; if to any 

excellence, it will be warlike excellence 
that will be developed in them. It is 
one of which large numbers are sus- 
ceptible, and so we find that in this form 
of government the supreme power re- 
sides in the military class, and it is 
open to those who have got full ar- 
mour.' Comp. III. xvii. 4. The pas- 
sage is an avowal, that though in 
strict theory he places the three forms 
on a level, all equally right, practically 
there is an intei-val, and the third form 
is, from the nature of the case, not 
susceptible of such perfection as the 
first and second. It is the same con- 
clusion as that of Eih. vm. xii. 2. p. 
1160, 36, xf.t.plaTt] i] TLfJLOKparLa. This 
will come more prominently forward 
later, VI. (IV.) vm. 

of govern- 


The cor- 
rupt forms. 



> ^ 


e TO TW KOIVM \vcriTe\ovv ov( 

Aei $e jmiKpw Sia fj.aKpOTepa)v eiTretv T/9 eKacrTtj TOVTCOV 

TCOV 7TO\lTeiU)V eCTTiV KOL yap e'-fcei TlVa$ CtTTOjO/a?, TO) $6 

Trepl eKavTnv fJLeOofiov <pi\o<ro(povvTi KOL ju.r] /ULOVOV ct7ro/3\e- 


TL KaToXeiTreiv, a\\a $r]\ouv TVJV Trepl CKCKTTOV a\i]6eiav. 

T?? Tro^iTiKtjs KOivcovias, oXiyap^ia (T OTOLV cocri Kvpioi 
T>j$ TroXfTe/a? o/ Ta? overlap e^oi/Te?, SyiuLOKpaTta $6 TOVVCLV- 

TLOV OTCLV ol JULt] KCKTtJfJLeVOl 7T\}j9o$ OVOTltt^ O\\ dTTOpOL. 

TIpwTt] * aTropia 7rpo9 TOV <$iopi<rju.dv earTtv. el yap elev 
OL TrXeiovs oj/Te? ev7ropot Kvpioi T^? 7r6\e<x)<f, ^tjjuiOKpaTia S* 

<JT\V OTCLV tj KVptOV TO 7T\*j6o$, OfJLOlWS O6 TTdXlV KCLV *l 7TOV 

lvy TOV? inropovs e\a.TTOv<s /xet/ elvat TMV evTropwv, 
' ovTa? Kvpiovs eivai T^? TroXfTe/a?, oVof o* 6\i- 
yov Kvpiov 7r\rjOo$, oXiyoLpyiav eivai (paartv, OVK av 

VIII. i TOIJTW~\ ' these last.' For 
it seems clear from what follows, that 
it is not the whole number that he is 
intending to consider. His attention 
is for some time concentrated on oli- 
garchy and democracy. These seem 
rather out of place, and ought to have 
their treatment in Books VI. VII. = 
(IV. VI.) Is it that their immense 
practical importance, for they were 
really the only free forms actually in 
work, induces him to deviate from the 
more strict logical sequence of his 

T$ 8 TTfpt, K. T.A.] 'It is strictly 
the business of the philosophical in- 
quirer in each department, not to over- 

' It is the rule of a master over 
slaves where there had been a free 
political society.' It is superinduced 
on such a society previously existing. 

"The tyrant," to quote from a passage 
which fairly represents the character 
of the later tyrants of Greece (Arnold, 
Rom. Hist. I. p. 474), "had broken 
into the field of civilized society, he 
had seated himself on the necks of his 
countrymen, to gorge each prevailing 
passion of his nature at their cost, 
with no principle but the interest of 
his own power." The later tyrants 
and the earlier despots must be kept 

3 irpurf] e] 'at the outset there 
arises a difficulty, suggested by the 
definition given.' The many might 
be wealthy and sovereign ; or again, 
the few might be poor and sovereign : 
what shall we call such governments ? 
The answer Aristotle gives is, that it 
is in the wealth and the poverty that 
lies the real distinction, the number is 
an accident. 

K&V d TTOV] ( even if anywhere.' 

III. 8.] 




9ai Trepl TWV TroXiTeiwv. dXXa ur]V Kav Tig &&***&& 


(rvvOeig Ty /u.ev evTropia Trjv oXiyoTtjTa Ty $ aTropia TO oligarchy 

v ~s\ tf '/^ -\ r ' > \ anc ^ d em O- 

TrXyuog OUTCD 7rpo<rayopevy Tag TroXiTeiag, oXiyap^iav juiev cracy. 
ev y Tag ap-^ag e^ov<riv ol euTropoi oXiyoi TO TrXrjOog ovTeg, 
ie ev y ol aTropoi TroXXol TO TrXrjOog ovTeg, 

aXXt]v ciTropiav e-^ei. Tivas yap epovfjiev Tag apTi Ae^e/cra? 5 
7roXiT6iot?, Trjv ev y TrXetof? ot evTropoi Kal ev rj eXaTTOvg ol 
aTropoi, Kvpioi o* eKCLTepoi T(JOV TroXiTeiwv, e'lTrep fJLrjSejmia 
a\\rj TroXiTe/a Trapa Tag eiprjfjievag ecrTiv', eouce TOLVVV o 6 
Xoyo? Troietv <$ij\ov OTL TO jmev 6\iyov$ rj TTO\\OVS eivai KV- 
piovg orvjui/3e/3r]Ko$ e&Tiv, TO ju.ev Tai$ oXtyap^lats TO $e Tai$ 
Sr]juiOKpaTiai9, Si a TO TOV$ /u.ei> evTropovg oXlyovs, 7ro\\ov$ o* 
etvat TOVS aTTOpovs TravTa^ov' $10 Kal ov arvfjifiaivei Tag prj- 
Oeicrag aiTiag yivevQai $ia<popas" w <$e <$ia(pepovcriv % TG 7 
drjuoKpaTia Kal rj oXiyapyia aXXyXwi, Trevia Kal TrXouro? 
ea-Tiv. Kal dvayKaiov ju.ev, OTTOV av ap^w(TL $ia TT\OVTOV av 1280 
T' eXaTTOvg av re 7rXe/ou?, eTvai TavTrjv oXiyap^lay, OTTOV 
<T ol aTropoi, St]/uLOKpaTiav dXXa crv/m/Saivei, KaOaTrep e'l- 8 
TTo/aci/, Tovg /mev oXiyovg elvai Tovg oe TroXXovg' evTropovcrt, 
fj.ev yap oXiyoi, Trjg o* eXevOeplag jmeTe^ovcri irdvTeg' oC ag 
djm(j)io-/3>iTOvcriv ducpoTepoi Trjg 

4 ovrui] 'under these conditions/ 
'from this point of view.' 

5 TWV TroXtretcDj'] 'of their respec- 
tive states.' 

6 6 Xo7os] ' The course of the ar- 
gument.' In this and the following 
sections, I have altered Bekker's stop- 
ping. Both after 5ta0o/9as, 6, and 
5r)fj.oKpaTiaj>, 7, I substitute a colon 
for a full stop. 

TO] In 7, y 5^, we have the 
particle that answers to the /*& here, 
' whilst the being few or many in the 
governing body is an accident, &c., 
that by which really the two differ,' 

7razTa%ou] emphatic, 'everywhere, 
without exception.' So that he might 

on his own principles, I. VI. 6, look 
on it as a fact of nature. 

Sto Kal ov <rvfjipalvei] 'So that as 
a fact we do not find that the cases 
supposed above occur, that the alleged 
causes of difference really exist.' The 
stress lies on crv/jifiatvet and yiveffQat, 
the genitive ia<t>opas depends on al- 
Tias, ras atrlas 5ta0o/aas ytveadai. 

7 Kal avayKaiov /mfr . . . aXX<i vvfj,- 
jSa^ei] More regularly it would be 
(rv^aivet 5^, VII. (VI.) VIII. 6. Com- 
pare Waitz, ad Org. ix. vi. 5, " Sae- 
pius etiam ponitur ciXXd ubi 5^ magis 
convenire videtur." He gives many 

8 St' as cuV/as] 'and wealth in the 
one case, numbers in the other, make 

128 nOAITIKQN T. [LiB. 

Their re- AwTTTeW fie TrpwTov Tiva<s o/oof? Xeyovcn TV? oXiyap- 

spective , , \ t \ *t / \ 

notions of y/a? Kal orj/jLOKpaTiav, Kai TI TO oiKaiov TO TC oXiyap^iKov 

justice. ^ * , , \ f f ? ' ' >\\ * 

Kai drjfjLOKpaTiKOV. TravTes yap aTTTOVTai otKaLOV TIVOS, aAAa 

9 /uevm TIVOS Trpoep^ovTai, Kai Xeyovcriv ov Trav TO Kvpiw? 
OiKaiov. olov SoKet 'Icrov TO OLKaiov e?vai, Kal ecrnv, aXX* 

2 ov Tracriv aXXa TO?? 'Icroi?. Kal TO avicrov $OKei OiKaiov 
elvai' Kal yap CCTTIV, aXX' ov Tracriv aXXa TOI? avicrois. ol 
$e TOI/T' a(paipovcri, TO 019, Kal Kpivovcri /ca/cto?. TO <5* 
a'lTiov OTI Trepl avTU>v % Kpicrw ar^eoov o ol TrXeicrTOi <pav- 

3 Xoi KpiTal Trepl TWV oiKeiwv. WCTT' eTrel TO oiKaiov TICTLV, 

\ t ^^^ tit * r ^ 

Kai oiyptjTai TOV avTOV TQOTTOV eiri Te TCOV Trpayju-aTCov Kai 
oT?, KaOaTrep e'lprjTai TrpoTepov, [ev TO?? ijdwco?9,j Trjv /mev 
TOV Trpayiu.aTO$ IcroTfjTa ojmoXoyovcri, T^V oe of? ajm<picrpr]- 
Tovcri, fjLaXicrTa /mev $ia TO Xe^Oev apTi, SIOTI Kpivovcri Ta 
Trepl avTOv$ /ca/cw?, eTreiTa fie Kal oia TO Xeyeiv /me^pi TIVOS 

4 eKaTcpovs OiKaiov TI vofJuYovcri oiKaiov Xeyeiv a'TrXco?. 01 
jmev yap av KaTa TI avicroi wcriv, olov xprjjmaariv, oXco? olov- 
Tai avicroi elvai, 01 o* av KaTa TI 'icroi, olov eXevOepla, oXa>? 

5 'icroi. TO <$e KvpicoTaTOv ov Xeyovcriv. el /mev yap TCOV 

each party equally claim the state as 
its own.' 

IX. i rtVas tipovs \tyovffi] * what 
are the limits and definitions usually 
adopted ?' And in these governments 
it is peculiarly a question of limits, as 
their boundaries are ill-defined. 

fj.tXP l rt - v bs irpopxwT<u, K. T. X.] 
'They advance only a certain way, 
and they fall short of the full state- 
ment of strict justice.' 

i rb ols] 'the question of the per- 
sons to whom.' They omit the relation. 

3 Twiv] This agrees with his lan- 
guage in the Eth. v. vi. 4. p. 1131, 18 : 
TJ 5 5'iKaiov, TLtrlv. The whole of the 
chapter quoted, which investigates rb 
diave /j,7)Ti.Kbv ft'iKaiov, ' distributive jus- 
tice,' should be compared. 

Tri re r&v 7rpayfj.d,Tuv Kal os] ols re 

yap SiKaiov rvyxavei. &v, 5ivo eerl, Kal tv 
ols ra TrpdyfJiara, 5vo. Kal 7} avrr) ^arai 
IcroTrjs ols Kal kv ols ' (dLfiprjTai rbv 
avrbv rpoirov) 'and the division will 
be made on the same principles in re- 
spect of the things divided, and of the 
persons to whom they are divided.' It 
must necessarily be a relative division. 

kv rots rjdiKo'is] I doubt this refer- 
ence. Trpbrepov I imagine was enough 
to Aristotle, who did not wish to sepa- 
rate these two works of his by any very 
marked distinction. They were to him 
integral parts of one whole, and they 
have been too little viewed in that 
light. They are in fact two books on 
political science. 

5i6rt] Here again it is clearly for 

4 TO Kvpiwrarov'] 'The capital point.' 

III. 9.] 



Kal crvvrjXOov., TO&OVTOV 

TToXewg ovovTrep Kal Ttj<s KTycrecos, axr$' 6 TWV oXiyap^i- 
~ -y / />- * * / \ -5. ft/ ,/ 

KCW \oyo<s oo^eiev av ivxyeiv ov yap eivaL oiKaiov LVOV 

/u.T%iv TWV CKOLTOV fjivwv TOV i(TveyKavTa jUiiav /uivav TW 

_J ' ^ "\ * ^ J>/ <*. "V ".%*. ."ji ,-v j 

OOVTl TO /\Ot7TOV TTaV, OVT6 TO)V e &p'Xtf$ OVT TCOV eTTiyiVO- 

fj.evw>v. el oe JUL^TC TOV fay /ULOVOV cveicev aXXa fjia\\ov TOV 
(/cat yap av <$ov\wv Kal TWJ/ aXXcoi/ "C^ 
u/c eVrt ^fa TO /w^ /meTe^eiv evSaijuiovia? /mrjSe TOV 
Trpoaipe&tv), JUL^TC (ru/A/zay/ag eVe/cei/, OTTW? UTTO 

notions of 

fj.r]T. Sia rag aXXa^yay 

vpjcriv Trjv Tr/oog 
Kal irav- 

aXX^Xoug* /cat 70^0 ai/ Tvpptjvol Kal 

reg ofg ecrrt <rvju./3o\a Tr^oog aXX^Xoug, wg /xtag oV TroXiTai 

TroXewg yvav eicrl yovv aurofg crvvOtJKai Trepl TWV eicrayw- 

^'/O"\ * > \ .\ \ 

Kai crvjuLpoXa Trepi TOV jmr] adiKeiv Kat ypa(pai Trepi 
aXX' OVT dp-^ou Traa-iv ewl rourotg Koival KaOe- 
, aXX eTepai Trap e/carejOOtg, OVTC TOV Tro/oug Tivas 
Set (ftpovTi^ovanv aTepoi roug eWjOoug, ou^ oTrwg ju,t]$el? 
ea-Tai TU>V VTTO rag (rvvOyKas /ULtjSe jULO^Orjpiav e^et 
aXXa IJLOVOV oVcog /mtjSev aSiKrja-ovcriv aXX^Xoi/g. 
apery? Kal ica/c/ag TroXtTiKrjs ($ia<TKO7rov(riv oaroi 

1280 B 

5 o^ 701/0 cTvat] ' For they say it is 
not fair.' 

rCov a/>X^s afire T&V eTriyivofifrtov] 
' either of the principal or of the profits 
accruing.' This is perhaps the sim- 
plest. It might, I think, be mascu- 
line : ' either of those who originally 
contributed, or of subsequent genera- 
tions of shareholders. 

6 Wealth or property is but the 
basis of the social life : a Set virdpx^v. 
Hence the oligarchical claim becomes 
unsound as soon as you rise higher and 
state the real object of the social union. 
Compare Mr Cornewall Lewis, on Opi- 
nion, ch. vii. xvii. p. 232, &c. 

Hf)8 rov 9fv /caret irpoaipe<TLV\ Comp. 
EtJi. x. vi. 8. p. 1177. 8 : evSaiftovlas 
ovSfls &i>8 pair b8( /meraSLSwffw, el firj Kal 
fiiov, the equivalent of ffv Kara Trpoai- 

A. P. 


(rvfjL/j.axlas] Compare II. n. 3. 

5ia ras &\\ayds~\ Ch. I. 3-5. 

<nfyt/:?oXa] For a particular instance 
of the union of these two nations com- 
pare Grote, iv. 275, 6. 

The sentence terminates abruptly at 
the end of this section, and, gramma- 
tically, there is no apodosis. The real 
apodosis, in point of sense, begins with 
8 : wepl 8' apery? ; and were it not 
for the 77 Kal of the next clause, the 
whole might be ordered, even as it is, 
pretty regularly : el 8e p-fire rov ^v 

a\\ayds irepl 5' dperijs (pavepov. 

7 Trda-iv Koivat] ' common to all the 
contracting parties for those objects.' 

r<2v virb ras <rw6^Kas] 'of those who 
come under the treaties.' 




What (hoovTL^ovtrLV evvouiia$. n Kal (bavepov OTI $ei Trepl a 

na+.ifilfpa I r ' I I ' 


icai 6 

constitutes ^ , f , f 

the social eTTi/meXes aval Ty y w? aXrjUco? ovo/mafyuevy TroAef, 

union. r t ^ f ' 

_ <yov X a P lVm yiwrai yap i] KQivwvia 
TOTTW <$ia(j)epov<Ta /ULOVOV TCOV aTroOev 
crvvQrjKr), KOI KaOairep e(j>r] AvKO<j>p(*)v 6 
d\\rj\oi<? TWV fiiKGLicw, ttAA' ou^ oto? TTOielv dyaOovs Kai 
9 SiKaiovg TOV? TroX/ra?. ort ^e TOVTOV e-^et TOV TpoTrov, 
(bavepov. el yap TI? KOL crvvdyoi TOV? TOTTOU? et? eV, wcrre 
aTrrevOai Tqv Meyapewv iroXiv KOI KopivOiwv ro?9 TeL^e<Tiv^ 
o/uL(*>$ ov fjiia 7To\f?. ou^' TTjOo? dXX^Xou? cTTiyajULias Troirj- 


10 ecrTiv. 6/>to/a>9 ^' ou^' eT Tt^e? olxotev ")(t0pi$ juev, ^ 


TOV juitj ord>d$ GLVTOV<S doiKeiv Trepi Ta? //eTaoo<ref?, otoi/ 
ej/ e^ TCKT&V 6 fie yewpyos 6 $e arKVTOTOfJLOs 6 (F aXXo 

Tf TOIOVTOV, KOI TO 7r\rj9o$ lV flVplOl, M fJiVTOL 

a\\ov fjirjSevos % TCOV TOIOVTWV, olov d\\ayfj$ Kal 

ci o 


X ta? ' 




arvveyyvg Trfs K0ivu>va<s. e 


yap KOI 

yap Srj Sia TO 
(Tvve\6oiev OVTU> 
oiKia tocnrep TroXet KOI cr(pi(riv avTols w? cTri/ma^ias ovcry? 

* '^ \<r^ f JMP' <s <? 

vTes 7TL TOV? aoiKOWTa? jULovov, ovo OVTO&9 O.V eivai 
TroXi? TO?? CLKpi/Bws Qewpovviv, e'lTrep 6/xo/w? 

8 fir) \6yov xd/stf] ' and not merely 
in name.' 

ylverai ydp] ' For otherwise.' 

ruv oXXwi'] so. trv/a/iaxiwj'. TWV d'?ro- 

is redundant really. 
' a mere treaty ;' a merely 
negative thing. 

Au/c60/)wi'] St Hilaire quotes other 
passages where he is mentioned by 
Aristotle, but it would seem that be- 
yond this nothing is known. 

6rt 5e TOVTOV, K.T.\.] 'But that this 
last is the true light in which to regard 
law, as being oTos TrotetV ayaOobs Kal 
s, is clear.' 

9 Kal crwdyoi] ( were even to bring 
them together so that.' 

tTriyafJt.las'] ' Intermarriages ;' ' and 
yet,' says Aristotle, * this is one of the 
social acts which more particularly 
characterise the union of the citizens 
of the same state.' Grote, II. 340. 

10 ov5' ou'rw TTW TroXts] ' Not even 
so would it attain to the idea of a 

11 e7rt/Aax/as] 'a defensive alli- 
ance.' The passage reads oddly, not in 
the way of contrast, but of illustration 
of the common language of our day. 

III. 10.] 



<rvve\6ovTc Kal Yto/o/9. (baveaov TOLVVV on n TroXf? OVK eo~Ti 

/v ' I . - constitutes 

KOlVODVia TO7TOV KOL TOV JU,}] a$lKlV (TOOL'S ttVTOVS KOI T?9 the social 

c\ / "~""7 N N * " ~ * ' ^ IT" t union. 

juL6Taooo~e(*)$ xapiv "XXa TavTa jmev avayKaiov vjrap^eiv, _ 

e'lTrep carrac iro\ts 9 ov /mrjv ovo* vwap^ovTOov TOVTWV aTravrwv I2 
s, aXX' rj TOV ev 

Koivwvia KOI raft oiKtais 

ro?9 yeveari, ?a>fj$ reXe/a9 yaptv Kal avTapKOvg. OVK ea~Tai 13 

, -^ , <i T~T \ nr / f \ The real 

TOVTO fJirj TOV avTov Kai eva KaTOiKovvTWV TOTTOV Kai c i a im to 

' ' ? ^ ftr?/ ^^ cower in a 

7riyaju.iai$. oio Kijoeiai T eyevovTO /cara ra9 F tate 

Kal (ppaTpiai Kai Ovcriai, Kai oiaycayai TOV crvfav' 
TO fie TOIOVTOV (f)i\ia$ epyov r\ yap TOV o-vl^fiv Trpoaipearis 
cf)i\ia. TeXo9 JULCV ovv TroXews TO ev jfjv 9 TavTa Se TOV 
TeXov9 X/ M * r * Troh-tS $e q yevwv Kal K(0ju.>v Koivcwla tyoys 14 1281 

TeXe/9 KOI avTapKOVs* TOVTO o* CCTTIV, coy (pajuiev, TO *(fiv 

?/ % < % * *> -\ ** # t % f 

cvoaijjiovdd^ Kai Ka\co$. TCOV /caAcoi/ apa Trpaqewv ^.apiv 

OCTCOV eivai TTJV 7ro\iTiKrjv Koww>viav, aXX' ov TOV <rv(nv. 

ocroi <TVim/3d\\ovTai TXa'flTTOV e?9 TV TOiavrrjv KOI- X 5 
7ro'Xeft)9 fJieTea-Ti irXeiov $ TOIS KaTa /u.ev 
jmei^oori KaTa $e TY\V TroXiTiKrjv 

rjv avwroff, ^ TO?? AcaTa TrXovrov vTre^oe^ovo-t ICOT otjoe- 
(5* vTrepexoiJiGVOis. "OT ^tei/ ovi/ 7raj/T9 ot Tre^ot TWJ/ 
iro\iTeiwv ajuL(bia~/3r]TOvvTes jmepo? TI TOV Stxaiav \eyovari, 
(bavepov CK TU*V ipti/u.evwv. 

aTTOpiav, TI <$ei TO Kvpiov eivai T^9 7roXeft)9. 17 10 


Kal yevos 'larois rj 

1 1 TUVTO. fj(.h> avayKOLOv\ ' Security 
of rights and property must exist, if 
there is to be a state ; but it may 
exist, and there need not by virtue of 
its existence (rjSrj) be a state, that will 
be, &c.' 

rats oiKlais Kal rots yi>e<ri] 'Fami- 
lies and aggregates of families.' KU>/US 
in the place of yfrecrt would have been 
more consistent with his general lan- 

13 5i6] This refers to KoivwvLa TOV 
eu .^i/, K.T.X., in 12 : 'To secure 
this/ &c. Comp. Eth. vin. xi. 5. p. 
1 1 6 1, 1 8 : Trcurcu 8* airrat virb rrjv iroXt- 

TO TOIOVTOV] sc. TO ffvffiv, Eth. IX. 
ix. p. 1169, b. 

15 TT}V TOiavryv KOivuviav] sc. T&V 
Ka\Qiv irpdeuv. It is to those who 
contribute most to forward the true 
objects of the society, that the larger 
share in the government of the society 
properly belongs. 

ptyos TI] Some part, and some part 

X XIV. It must be remembered 
that these chapters are quite apore- 


132 nOAITlKQN F. [LiB. 

Where is y^p T0l T Q TrXJjOo?, if TOV? TrXoucr/ov?, r\ TOV? eTTieiKei?, rj 
thesu- v /v/x </ / *- '/ 'AX^ ~ ' 


power to , f , t -v r t t ' * t 5> ^ ^ 

reside? X ll/ ( f >aiVTal ov<TKO\iav. TL yap, av 01 irevrjTe? dia TO 

irXeiov? ivai SiavejucvvTai TO, TCOV TrXowiwv, TOUT' OVK aSi- 

2 KOV <TTLV\ efio^e yap vrj Aia TOJ Kvpiw SiKatcos. Ttjv ovv 
aSucia*' TI yjpri \eyeiv Trjv ear^aTrjv, TLaXiv re TravTcw 
\t](j)VTCov, ol TrXe/of? ra TWV eXaTTOvtov av <$iavefj.a)VTai, 
fyavepov on (pOeipovtri Trjv TroXiv. aXXa ftijv ov% r\ y apery 
(pOeipi TO c^ov avrqv, ov$e TO SiKaiov TroXew? (pOaprtKOV 


3 Siicaiov. "EiTi Kal Ta? Trpd^eis oara? 6 Tvpavvo? eirpa^ev, 
avayKaiov eivai Trao-a? <^/ea/a?* /Bid^eTai yap o*v KpeiTTCov, 

Kal TO TrXtjOo? Tov$ 7rXovcriov$. \ 'AXX* apa TOV? 
iKaiov apyeiv Kal TOV? TrXovariov?', av ovv KaKeivoi 
TTOICOVI Kal diapTrd^cDari KOL TO. KT^jmaTa a(j)aipu)VTat 

4 TOV TrX^ou?, TOUT' e<rrf SiKaiov ; Kal OaTepov apa.\ TavTa 

TOivvv OTI TrdvTa (fiavXa Kal ov SiKaia, (pavepov. 'AXXa 
eis ap-^etv Set Kal Kvpiovs eivai TTOLVTODV^ OVKOVV 
avdyKtj TOV? aXXov? OLTIJULOV? eivai Trai/Ta?, jULtj 
Tai? TToXtriKai? ap-^ai?' Tijma? yap Xeyo/mev eivai Ta? a 
ap-^ovTcov o* alel TU>V avTwv avayKaiov eivai TOV? aXXov? 

5 aTifJiov?. 'AXX' eva TOV vn-ovfiaioTaTOv ap-^eiv /3eXTiov' 9 
aXX' eri TOVTO oXiyap^iKWTepov ol yap aTi/moi TrXe/oy?. 
'AXX' 'l<rw? <pairj TI? av TO Kvpiov oXco? avOpcoirov eivai 

X. i &x.eiv 5vffKo\tcu>] 'to involve rb SiKaiov] ij 8iKaio<r6vr} irdXtTticbj', I. 

unpleasant consequences.' n. 16. 

tdoeydp'] 'It can hardly be so, is ; 3 d\V ctpa] 'But does it then fol- 

the answer, for it was the will of that < low ?' 

part of the state which is rightly sove- 

2 ird\iv re TT&VTUV XdfrTuv * A- 

gain, take all together/ sink the ele- 
ment of wealth and poverty, and look 
merely to number. 

17 7 dper^] By its definition in Efh. 
II. v. c. p. 1106, 15, the very contrary 

Bdrepov] 'The other case supposed 

4 pi) TifjLw/j.frovs] if not invested 
with political offices, ri^fa : compare 
the Latin 'honores.' 

5 rb Ktipiov etvat, K.T.X.] 'That the 
sovereign power should reside in a 
man and not in the law is bad, liable 

is the case : ov av rj dperij, af>r6 re eu as man is to the incidents of passion.' 

III. 11.] 

ctXXa you 



(fiavXov, fyovrti ye TO, (7V/m/3aivovTa Tra6tj 

av ovv 

TL Sioio-ei Trepl TWV 
yap o/xo/co? TO. Xe-^OevTa TrpOTepov. TLepl jmev ovv TCOV aX- 
Xcov <TT(I) TI$ eTcpo? Xoyos* OTL $e $i Kvpiov eivat ftaXXov 
TO TrXrjOog j TOV? apiarTOv? fJLev cXiyov? Se, So^eiev av \v- 
earOai KGLL TIV e-^eiv aTropiav, rcr^a <5e KCLV a\rj6eiav. TOV<S 
yap TToAAow, wv e/cacrro? ecrriv ov (nrovdaio? dvyp, OJULWS 
evSe^erai <rvve\6ovTa$ etvai jSeXr/ou? CKelvcw, ov% w? e/ca- 
CTTOV aXX' cJ? <Tv/m7ravTa$, olov TO. crufJL(f)optiTa SeiTrva TWV 
K /xm? fiaTrdvtjs -^oprjyrjOevTcov 7roX\>v yap OVTWV eKacrTOV 
jmopiov e^eiv apery? Ka\ (ppovrjorew?, Kal yivecr&ai <rvve\66v- 
ra? wcrTrep eva avQpcaTrov TO 7r\rj6o<? 7ro\v7ro($a Kal 
X t P a Ka ^ ^oXXa? ixprr a!ar6y(rei$. OUTW Kal Trepl 
Kal Trjv Siavoiav. <$io Kal Kplvovariv ajmeivov of Tro\\ol Kal TO, 
epya Kal TO. TWV TroirjTcov aXXot yap aXXo TI 
TravTa $ 7ravTe<s. aXXa TOVTW $ia(j)pov(7iv ol 
<TTTOvSaioi TWV avSpwv e/cacrrou TWV TroXXwj/, w&Trep Kal 
M KaXwv TOU? KO\OVS (pacri Kal TO. yeypa^jmeva $ia T 
TCOV dXqOivwv, TO) a-vv^OaL TO. Siea-TrapjUieva ")((0pls 
l Ke^copio-/ULVcov ye KaXXiov e^eiv TOV yeypaft/ULevov 
TOV o(pOaXjm6v, eTepov <$e TIVOS eTepov jmopiov. el 

Where is 
the su- 

power to 
reside ? 


Ought the 
many to be 
or the few 
best men ? 
128l B 

<TV/j.(3ri<rTai 6/xoiws] Only it will now 
happen in virtue of the law. 

XI. i XiW0cu] difficult ; can it be 
' would seem to require a solution,' or 
' to admit a solution' ? I do not see 
what else to make of it, and of the 
two I prefer the first. St Hil. gives : 
" peut sembler une solution Equitable 
et vraie de la question, quoiqu'elle ne 
tranche pas encore toutes les diffi- 

'just as.' 

Kal 0/)OP7j(rews] Compare, for 
the use of these words, I. II. 16. 

The ' Bellua multorum 
capitum' of Horace, Ep. I. i. 76. 

3 Plato, Rep. iv. 420, c. 

4 roirry} sc. rep' <rvvTfx.da.i. 

5 'It is not clear that this Ian*- 
guage can be always applicable, and 
that in any people and any large num- 
ber there will be this superiority of the 
many to the few. Nay, possibly it is 
clear that in the case of some it is not 
conceivable that it should be applica- 
ble. For if carried to its utmost length 
it might be applicable to the inferior 
animals.' In the last case he means 
that the combination of the several 
points in which the animals are supe- 
rior to man, might be considered to 




Ought the o $ v Kepi TrdvTa SrjfJLOV Kal Trepl TTOLV Tro? eveverat TCLV- 
many to be * < * j, * - ^~ * * \ < 

sovereign, T*JV ClVOLl TtJV Oiafbopav TtoV TTOAACOJ/ TTjOO? TOf9 OAiyov? 

or the few ^' -V^A */ ^ * A ' ^^\ <' \ * r 

best men? 0"7rovoatov9, aorj\ov *cra>9 oe y*/ Ilia orj\ov OTL Kept evtcov 

~ aSvvarov. o yap auro? KO.V eirl TWV Orjpiwv dpju.6(reie \6yos. 
KCtiTOt Tt <$ia<pepovortv evioi TW>V Qrjplwv w? eVo? eiTreiv', a\\a 

6 Trepl Tt irXyOos ovfiev elvai KcoXvei TO \e^0ev a\r]6e$. $10 
Kal Ti]V TrpOTepov eiprj/mevyv aTropiav \vareiev av Tt? ^a 
TOVTCOV KOI TTJV %o]u,evr]v avTtj?, TIVMV $et Kvpiovs etva.L TOVS 
\ev9epov$ Kal TO TrXfjOos TWV troXiToov TOLOVTOI ^ elcrlv 

7 ocroi fJLrjTe TT\OV<TIOI jm^re a^lwjma eyowiv apeTtjs /uuiSev TO 
(JLGV yap ju.eTe%iv avTOvs TU>V ap-^iov TCOV jmeyL<TTWV OVK aar- 

I-V//W' * 1f ^ ^ ' ' J. ' ^ * ' ^ " 

(pa\e$ {oia TG yap aoiKiav Kai 01 acppoaruvrjv Ta IJLGV aoiKeiv 
av TO. &* ajmapTaveiv avTOvs"), TO Se jmri fjiTa^i^6vai 
cj)o/3ep6v oTav yap OLTL/JLOL TroXXof KOI 
y 7ro\efj,L(iov avayicaiov elvai TrXrjptj Ttjv TTO\IV Tav- 

8 TJJV. \ei7reTat $r] TOV /3ov\ev(r6aL Kal Kplveiv jmeTe^eiv 
avTOv$. SioTrep Kal SoXwv KOI TWV a\\(0v Tive$ vojULoOeTutv 
TaTTOVcriv eni TC Ta? ap^aipearias Kal Ta? evOvva? TWV 

9 ap^ovTcov, ap^etv $e KUTO. yuoVa? OVK euxriv. Trai/Te? fjiev yap 
e^owi orvve\6ovT$ iKavtjv a'lcrOqa-iv, Kal ju.iyvviut.evoL TO?? 
/3e\TiO(ri Ta? TroXef? cocpeXovcriv, KaOaTrep tj M KaOapa 
Tpocprj fjLGTa T?? KaOapas Tr\v Tracrav Troiet 

prove that a given number of animals 
collected would be superior to a given 
number of men. This is an absurdity ; 
but scarcely less absurd would it be 
to collect a given number of savages, 
and say they were superior to a given 
number of educated and civilised 

TrepL TL TrAv^os] Rejecting the ex- 
treme conclusion, Aristotle thinks that 
there may well be cases in which the 
position taken in 2 may hold good, 
in which the majority outweighs the 
minority. Of course the majority must 
be to a certain extent cultivated, and 
their political intelligence developed. 

They must be above the animals con- 
siderably ; and for this good laws are 
required. See below, 19. 

6 Ti)v irpbrepov eip'rj/^^vrjv] sc. rl rd 

sc. rivuv xtipiov. 

roiovroi] sc. rb ir\rj6os : f The majo- 
rity is composed of such as are not 
wealthy and have nothing beyond the 
average merit ;' 'no claim to any emi- 
nence or distinction.' 

8 This conclusion is in perfect keep- 
ing with his definition of his citizen, 
as given in Ch. I. 

Compare II. xn. 5. 

III. u.] 



rJ9 6\lyr]S' 
6i 8 rj 


Trep TO Kpveiv ecrTiv. 

avTtj T*J? TroXirelas aTroptav TrpcoTyv 

OTL oo^eiev av TOV avTOv elvai TO Kpivai T/? op6co$ iaTpevKev, 
ovTrep Kal TO laTpeva-ai KOI Troirja-ai vyia TOV KajuLvovTa r^? 

vocrov T>/9 Trapovcrrjs' OUTO? o CCTTIV taToo?. o/xo/ct)? oe TOVTO 
KOI Trepl Tag aXXag eju.Treipia? Kal Tenets, wcnrep ovv laTpov 
<$ei Sdovai ra? euOvvas ev iciTpoi?, OVTW KCU TOVS a'AAov? ev 
o/xo/of?. taTjOo? (T o re <$rj/j.iovpyo$ KOL o ap^iTeKTO- 
KCU TjO/ro? o TreTraio'evfJievos Trepl TY\V Te^vrjv eivl yap 
TOIOVTOI Kat Trepl Tracra? to? ettflv Tag re^i/a?, a-Tro^/- 

TO Kpiveiv ov$ev %TTOV TO?? Tre7ratSevju.evoi$ 
elSocrtv. GTreiTa KO.\ Trepl Tr\v a'tpecriv TOV avTov av 
e^eiv TpoTrov KOL yap TO e\e(r9ai 6p6u>$ TU>V eiSoToov epyov 
<TT'LV, olov yewfJLeTptjv re TCOV yeoojmeTpuccov Kal Kv/3epvyTrjv 
vqTiKoov. el yap Kai Trepl evlow epywv Kal Te^vwv 

\^$ *> /1-v-vlJ/ ** '5*' 

Kai TCOV IOKDTCW Tive?, aAA ov TL TWV eiooTcov ye 
ju,a\\ov. cocrre /cara jmev TOUTOV TOV \6yov OVK dv e'ttj TO 
Tr\rj6os TroirjTeov Kvpiov OVTC TCOV ap"^aipe(Ticov OUTC TCOV 
evOvvcov. aX\* 'tarcos ov TrdvTa TauTa XeycTOL KO\CO$ Sid re 

Ought the 
many to be 
or the few 
best men ? 





9 r^s dXtyrjs] sc. Kal nadapas. 
dreX^s] 'Incomplete.' I. Jan. n : 

OTTCUS dreXr/s. 

10 But then comes an objection. 
The election and control of magistrates 
implies the power of judging whether 
their office has been well performed. 
Can any be competent to judge but 
those who have had actual experience 
by the possession of office of the manner 
in which its duties should be performed ? 
A physician would claim to be judged 
by physicians. Why should a magis- 
trate bo judged by those who are them- 
selves not thought competent to be 
magistrates ? 

u It is to be remembered that un- 
der the term physician we include three 
different classes. The man who merely 
practises (6 dypiovpyos) ; the man who 
combines with practice the true know- 

ledge of the principles of the science 
(6 apxiTKTot>iK6s) and, thirdly, the 
man who has simply made himself 
master of the principles (6 TreTrouSev/^- 
vos irepl Tty T^x v 'n v )) an( l w ^ nas n t 
gone further. Comp. Eth. I. i. 5. 3. 
p. 1094, b. 27, for this sense of ireTrcu- 

dTToSiSofj-ev 5^] ' and we are in the 
habit of trusting for judgment the edu- 
cated in this sense, those who know 
the theory, as much as those who 
know both practice and theory.' rots 
dSbffiv : ' those who have complete 
knowledge,' who are apxireKToviKoi. 

12 rb c\t<rdai 6p6us] Compare his 
language, Eth. x. x. 20. p. 1181, 17: 

Kal rb 
valent to 

The term is here equi^ 




Ought the 

many to be 


or the few 
best men? 

TOJ , 


Xoyov, av $ TO TrXtjOo? jmrj Xiav 

* ^' , ~ ^/ * 

e/ca<rro? fJLev ^eipa)v KpiTrj<i TWV eiooTcw, a 

* /D ~\ ' * / \ \ tf ^ / 

77 pe\TlOVf rj ov ^BlpOV9), /ecu OTi Trepi evi 



1 6 

Ka OL juLrf e-^ovreg Ttjv Teyyr\V) oov oiKiav ov 
JJ.QVOV e<TTL yvwvai TOV TroiyaravTOS, a\\a Kal /3e\nov 6 
'Xpcbjuiei'os avrri Kpivei (x/^ Tat & 6 OIKOVOJULO^, KOL 
KV/3epvqTt]$ Te/cro^o?, KOL 9oivqv 6 fiairvjuitDV a\X' 
fj.dyeipo$. TavTyv jmev ovv TV\V aTropiav ra^a So^eie Tf? av 
ourft) Xi/eii/ ucatwr aXXfl ^ ecrr^ e^ojuLevtj Tavrrj?. OOKCI 
yap OLTOTTOV elvai TO yuef^ovwt/ ef^af KVplovs TOU? <pav\ov$ 
TU>V jhrieucwv, al 8 evOvvat KOL at TWV apywv aip6<rei$ ei<rl 
9 ei/ evicuf TroXirWat?, wcnrep eiprjTCU, TO?? o^/xoi? 
tcaiTOi rrjs ju.ev e/c/cX^cr/a? fj.6Te-^ov<TL Kal /SovXevovori 


TafjLievov<ri Se Kal crTparriyovcri Kal Ta? 
apxpwrw aTro /uLeyaXwv. ofioi&ts $q TIS av \vo-eie 
Ttjv aTropiav fltreo; *ya^o e^ei /cat Tairr' 6p6u)$. 
o SiKacrrw ov& 6 ftovXevrw ovtf 6 
ea-Tiv, aXXa TO SiKaarTrjpiov KOI q /3ouX^ /ecu o 

fJiOptov e&n TOVTCOV Aeycv $e JULO- 


14 TrciXat] 'some time back.' XI. 2. 

aj> $ rd TrX^^os] This is the assump- 
tion necessary for his argument in 
XL 5. 

Kal STI irepl &>l<av, /c.r.X.] If we 
allow that there is force in the objec- 
tion in many cases, it does not follow 
that it holds in all. There are cases in 
which the producer of a result and his 
peers are not the only judges nor even 
the best the cases in which the re- 
sults have to be used by others, and 
when consequently those others are the 
best judges. It is not the architect, 
but the occupier, who knows the good 
and bad points in the house he occupies. 

15 Passing then from this objection 

he turns to another closely connected 
with it, in fact, almost another form 
of the same. The inferior part of your 
state has greater powers vested in it 
than the higher. You trust more to 
those from whom you exact no gua- 
rantee, than to those from whom you 
require strong ones, such as wealth 

1 6 raura] 'the present state.' The 
answer is, that singly the many are 
inferior, say in property for instance, 
but then they are not trusted singly. 
It is the collective body on which the 
trust is reposed, and the collective 
body is wealthier than the few wealthy 
who are eligible to the offices singly. 

III. 11.] 



piov TOV /3ovXevTr]v Kal TOV eKKXrjaria<TTrjv Kal TOV o'lKacrTtjv 
w<TTe of/ca/co? KVQIOV juLei^ovcov TO 7rX7$o$" CK yap TroXXwv o 

I o I 

$r}fj,o$ Kal % /BovXr) Kal TO SiKacrT^piov. Kal TO Tijuirj/ma Se 
TrXeiov TO irdvTcov TOVTWV t] TO TWV /caO' eva Kal KaT 0X1- 
yov<s iJieydXag dp%a$ dp-^ovTcov. Taura JULCV ouv ^icopicrOco 

TOVTOV TOV TpoTrov rj $e TrpwTt] Xe^Oeicra diropia Troiei 

I \ t b\ & ff t ff w \ / ^ 

(pavepov ovoev OUTCO? CTepov co? OTI oei TOV<$ VOJULOVS eivai 

Kvpiovs Ki/u.evov? opOws, TOV ap^ovTa $e, av re eT? av re 

xf <y \ r -? t \ f/ >*'^ 

TrAeiou? (joariy Trepi TOVTWV eivai Kvpiovs Trepi ocrcov e^aovva- 
Tovcriv ol VOJULOI Xeyeiv aKpi/Bw? Sia TO /my pa^iov eivai 
KaOoXov SrjXaxrai Trepl TrdvTGov. OTTOIOVS JULGVTOI Tiva? elvai 
$ei TOVS opOo)? Keijmevovf i/oyuoi/?, ovSev TTW orjXov, aXX' CTI 
TO TrdXai SiairopyOev. TrXtjv TOVTO ye (pavepov, OTI 

Ought the 
many to be 
or the few 
best men ? 


19 12823 

19 r/ 7r/)c6r77 diropia] That started in 
Ch. X. 

Trepl Toi/rco?] 'on those points, and 
those only.' 

^a.bvvaLTOv<TLv\ 'are absolutely in- 
competent.' Comp. Eth. v. xiv. 4. p. 

1137, t>. 13- 

20 /x^et] 'remains unsolved.' rb 

TraXcu. Ch. X. 5. 

I invert the order of the two next 
sentences. It is much clearer so to 
my mind. The passage then runs as 
follows : 'The question started above 
remains still unanswered. Only so far 
at least is clear, that the laws must 
have reference to the constitution. In 
that case it must needs be that the 
laws will be good or bad just as the 
constitution to which they are adapted 
is good or bad. The two will vary to- 
gether ; and if so, it is clear that the 
laws answering to the right constitu- 
tions will be just ; those answering to 
the forms which are deviations from 
the true type, will be unjust.' The 
passage cannot, I think, be cleared of 
virtual tautology. 

The whole chapter leans towards the 
conclusion, that the majority should 
be in possession of the supreme power. 

It is in favour of the democratical 
rather than the oligarchical principle ; 
but of course it cannot be made to 
shew more than this, that of these two 
imperfect forms Aristotle preferred de- 
mocracy, the conclusion to which he 
came, Eth. vnr. xii. p. 1160. The 
chapter then does not interfere with 
his own theory of true government ; 
and therefore I cannot agree with 
Spengel's language, p. 15, note 18 : 
" Dieses ist gegen Platen's Ansicht, 
der uberall den einzelnen Kundigen 
gegeniiber dem ganzen unwissenden 
Volke hervorhebt ; ahnlich hatte 
Sieyes seinen Antrag, man solle das 
ausfiihren was die Minoritat, nicht 
was die Majoritat wahle, motivirt : car 
la majority est toujours be~te. Gegen 
diesen Satz kampft Aristoteles unmit- 
telbar, wenn anders das Volk zu ein- 
zigem Bewusstseyn gekommen ist." 
I suspect that Aristotle with Plato 
and with Sieyes would look, in strict 
political theory, to the few wise and not 
to the popular element. At the same 
time, in the corrupt governments of 
Greece, as in that of our own country 
or others of the present day, it might 
be necessaiy for a time to redress the 

Ought the 
many to be 
or the few 
best men? 

Some equa- 
lity neces- 
in what ? 





TroXiTeiav KeiarOaL TOV$ VOJAOV?. aXXa yap Kal 
r? 7ro\iTelai$ avayKq Kal Tov$ v6juLOv$ (pavXov? if 

/ -y ^^ ' * ' ^ ' '"\"\ v * ' ^ 

(TTrovoatovs eivai Kai oiKaiovs rj aoiKOV?. aAAa jmrjv ei TOVTO, 
$tj\ov OTI TOVS jmev Kara rag opOas TroXtre/a? avayKaiov 
eivai SiKaiovs, TOV? Se Kara ra? 7rapeK/3e/3t)Kvia$ ov 
'ETrei $ ev Tracraf? jmev rais e7ri<TTyjULais KOI 
ayaOov TO reXo9, jULeyicrrov Se KOI yaceXf^ra ev Ty K 
traorcov, avrt] $ co-rlv J] TroXiTiKtj ^wa/xi?, ecm $e TTO\LTIKOV 
ayaOov TO SIKCUOV, TOVTO o* CUT) TO KOIVJ) orvjuLffrepov, SoKei 
"LVOV TL TO SiKaiov eivai, Kal lu-e 1 7^ TIVOS O/JLO- 

\oyovan TO!? /cara (j)i\ocro(f)Lav Xoyois, ev oT? SicopicrTat irepl 
T&V tjOiKoov T\ yap KOL Ticrl TO SiKaiov, Kal Seiv ro?9 'icrois 
'i(rov elvai (paariv TTOLWV o* iaroTrj? ecrri Kal TTOLWV aviaroTr]?, 
Set jmr] \avOdveiv e^ei yap TOVT aTropiav Kal <pi\o<ro(j)iav 
f jro\LTLKr)v. 'larcvs yap av (paitj n? /cara iravTos vTrepo^v 
ayaOov Seiv awcra)? vevejmfja-Oai ra? ap^a?, el TravTa ra 
XoiTra jutjo'ev <$ia<pepoiev aXX' o/xoto: Tvy^avoiev ovTes* TO?? 
yap $ia(pepov(nv eTepov eivai TO SiKaiov KOI TO /car' a^lav. 

balance by calling in numbers to over- 
power the opposition to wholesome 
changes on the part of small but 
strongly organized classes. 

XII. I eird 8f] The question is 
where to make the apodosis of the sen- 
tence begin. I think Stahr is right in 
placing it at irotwv 5' toxSr^s. The rea- 
soning then shortly stated is : All look 
on rb Tro\LTiKbv ayadov as 'icrov TI ; but 
equality in what? for evidently it is 
not every superiority that constitutes 
a claim to a larger share of the benefits 
of the association. 

dfo a/s] His language here is very 
similar to that in Eth. I. ii. 3, 4, 5. p. 
1094, 25 : rlvos rwv iirwrrmuv rj Swd- 
fAewv. 86ete S' dV TTJS /cu/wwrdrT/s /cat 
/idXtcrra apxiTeKTOViKys. rotavrf] 5' i} 

' men in general agree 

with the conclusions of philosophical 
reasoners, ' or better perhaps, ' with our 
philosophical arguments in which we 
discussed the subject of the moral vir- 
tue.' "In welchen liber die Ethik 
Gehandelt worden ist." Stahr. 

TI yap Kal Tifft] ' For they allow that 
justice concerns things and persons.' 

2 iroiwv df\ Yet though they go so 
far with us, there is a point where the 
union is interrupted, and therefore the 
question must be investigated, ( in 
gard to what things there is to 
equality, in what inequality ?' 

%ei yap TOVTO] * For this is a poh 
not without difficulty, and one fairlj 
reqifting political science to 
light on it.' 

rotj yap diafitpovcrut'] They pi 
their language to its strict logical 
elusion, and say, those who differ ha^ 
different rights and different claims. 

III. 12.] nOAITIKfiN T. 

'AXXa ju-qv el TOVT* dXi]Oe9, ecrTai Kal /cara 


ica Kara 

Kal /ca$' OTIOVV TWV dyaOfJov TrXeove&a TIS TWV TTO- sar y- 
~ * i , ~ , ^ % Equality 

wv oiKaiwv Tot? vTrepe^ovtTiv. rj TOVTO eTTiTTOAaiov TO in what? 

xp-eu^offj (pavepov o 7rl TCOV dXXcov e7Ti<TTtj/ui.(Jov Kat ovvaju.e(x)v 

TCOV yap OJULOLCOV avXrjTcov T^V Teyyr\v ov SOTGOV TrXeove^iav 4 

TWV avXwv Tols evyevevTepois' ov$ev yap avXyvovcri /3e 

$ei $e TW Kara TO epyov vTrepe-^ovTi difi 

vu*v Tr\v v'jrepo^fjv. el $e /X^TTCO SrjXov TO Xeyd/mevov, CTL 

KOI TGOV opyd- 

/uLa\\ov avTo Trpoayayovcriv ecrTat (pavepov. el yap elrj rt? 5 
vTrepe^cov JULCV /cara Tt]V avXqTiKyv, iroXv o* eXXeiTrcov /car' 
evyeveiav tf AcaXXo?, el Kal juLtlov eKaarTOv eKelvcov ayaOdv 
earTL Ttjs avXrjTLKrj? (Xeyw Se Trjv T evyeveiav Kal TO /caXXo?) 
Kal /cara TIJV avaXoyiav vTrepe^ovari TrXeov T^? avXrjTiKrjs vj 
eKelvos Acara Trjv avXrjTtKqv, ojuLax? TOVTW SoTeov rot'? &a- 
(pepovTa$ TCOV avXcov Set yap el$ TO epyov o~v]m/3dXXearOai 1283 
Trjv virepoyriv Kal TOV TT\OVTOV Kal T^? evyevelas, crvjui/BaX- 
XovTat $ ovSev. GTL K.O.TQL ye TOVTOV TOV Xoyov irav aya- 6 
6ov TTpo? Trav av e'lrj crvjj,/3Xr]Tdv. el yap /maXXov TO T\ 
fjieyeOos, Kal oXco? av TO jmeyeOos evdjuuXXov e'lrj ical Trpo? 
irXovTov Kal Trpos eXevOepiav. OOCTT el TrXetov 6$l ^ia(pepei 
/cara peyeOo? tj 6SI KaT dpeTrjv, Kal TrXetov vTrepe^ec oXw? 
dpeTtjs imeyeOos, e'lrj av o-f/x^X^Ta TrdvTa* TOcrdvSe yap juLeye- 
609 el KpeiTTOv TOvovSe, Tocrdv^e StjXov w? 'torov. eTrel $e 7 
TOI/T' dfivvaTOV, StjXov cJ? Kal eirl TU>V TroXtTiKcov evXdycos ov 
/caret Trdcrav dvi<roTijT > djuKpiar/BrjTOva'i TOOV dp-^wv. el yap 

* /9 * ^>^ '^^^^ ^ ^>~ ^ ^ 

01 ju.ev ppaoeis 01 oe Ta^eis, ovoev oia TOVTO oei Toy? ju.ev 

3 7rAeopea] ' a larger share, an ad- 
vantage in respect of, &c.' The term does 
not imply any disposition of the mind. 

4 irpoayayovcrtv] ' having carried it 
still further.' Eth. I. vii. 17. p. 1098, 
il : TravTbs elvat Trpoayayew. He does 
not seem to have made his meaning 
clearer by the next section. 

6 There must be some common 
measure of the various things we call 
good. This is not the case. 

d yap /j.a\\oi> rb rl ptyedos] ' If a 

given degree of greatness is better than 
a given degree of wealth, it would fol- 
low,' he argues, 'that greatness in 
itself might come into comparison with 
wealth in itself.' But many of these 
ideas are incommensurable, they do 
not come within the scope of the poli- 
tical philosopher. They are disparates 
to him. 

7 ev\6yu$] ' There is good ground 
for men's not claiming offices on the 
score of every inequality.' 




Some equa- 
lity neces- 
in what ? 

The re- 
claims to 


7T\IOV TOV? eXaTTOV e^etV, CtXX' V Tol<$ yVjUVlKOl? dyw 

*l TOVTWV oicKpopa \ajm/3avei T^V TI/ULTJV. aXX' e^ 
a-vve<TTt]Kev, ev TOVTOis dvayicaiov Troiei<rOat Trjv djui(picr/3r]Tr]- 
ariv. diOTrep evXdycos dvTiTroiovvTai Trj? Ti^f]? ol evyevet? 

Kal eXevOepOl KOLL 7T\OV(TIOI' 0l yap \v6epOV9 T 

Kal TijmrjjULa (pepovTW ov yap av e'lrj TroXf? e ajropav 

TCOV, coa-wep ovS" 1 CK SovXwv. 'AXXa JULIJV el Set TOVTWV, 

OTC KOU oiKaio<rvvr]$ Kai T>79 7rd\e/uLiKrj$ a/oeT^5* ovoe yap avev 


Tepwv diwaTOV eivcu iroXiv, avev Se TOVTWV oiKeitrOai /caXto?. 

\ \ f \ f^ ? fr * A t * }/ r 

Trpo^ i&ev ovv TO TroAfv eivai oo^etev av rj iravra rj evia ye 
TOVTWV 6p9u>$ diu.<picr/3r]Tetv, trpo? jjievroi ^cutjv dyaOtjv f] 
TraiSeia ical r/ dpeTtj /xaXfcrra ^f/ca/co? av diu.(pi<T/3r)TOir)(rav, 
KaOaTrep e'lprjrai Kal irpdrepov. CTTC} ^' OVTC Trdvrwv 'icrov 



TOV$ 'icrov? ev TI /mdvov ovrag ouTe dvtcrov 

ev, vyKtj Tracra? evai ra? rotaura? 
e'lpyTai jmev ovv KOI Trporepov OTI 

<pl<T/3r]TOV<Tl TpOTTOV TIVCL StKaiCO$ TTOLVTe^ aVXft)? (5' OV 

/ a KOWQir eri TT^OO? ra <TVju./3d\aia 7ri<TTol 
fjid\\ov a)? eTrl TO 7r\eov ol o* eXevOepoi Kal evyeveis w? 

avrois, rj fie 

T7)i> TLfji-ffv] ( finds its appre- 

8 ^ uv TroXts a-wto-TyKeis] 'Taking 
the elements that compose a state, it is 
only within the limits of these that 
there can "be any discussion of the re- 
spective claims of the parties.' 

Set yap] ' There must be free men, 
and there must be a class paying 
taxes ;' not merely capitecensi. " Cen- 
sum ferentes," Victorius translates it. 
That the meaning is as I have given 
it, I feel sure, but I am not sure as to 
the expression. 

9 ciXXd fj.rjv'] ' These classes may be 
necessary, but it is clear that not less 
necessary are justice and bravery.' 

XIII. i ' For the mere existence 

of a state some of these at least, if not 
all, would seem justly to put in their 
claim to consideration.' 

rotairrcts 7roAireas] ' all states based 
on such equality and inequality.' 

-2 irpbrepov] at the end of Ch. X. 

TT\LOV /^rerrrt TT}S X^/scts] ' They 
have a larger share of the land of the 
country, and the land is emphatically 
a national interest.' As then, to use 
familiar words, they had a greater 
stake in the country, they claimed 
more power. 

Irt ?r/)6s rd crvfji^6\aia] Their second 
claim is their greater trustworthiness, 
as a general rule, in the common deal- 
ings between man and man. 

ol tXetidepoi. Kal etiyeveis ws tyyvs 
] The reasoning here is not 

III. 13.] 



eyyvs d\\q\(*)v TroXfrcu yap jmaXXov ot yevvatorepoi TWV The f e- 

> ~ < $ / i f f >f t v 

ayevvoov, rj o evyeveia 'Trap Ka<TTOi$ OIKOI TIJULIOS. CTI claims to 
SIOTI /3e\Tiov$ eiKO$ TOV$ CK /3e\Ttovcov evyeveia yap eamv 
dperr] yevovs. 6/xo/co? Sq (frya-ojuLev Sixaiats Kal T*IV dperyv 3 
d[A(piar/3r]Teiv KOLvcwiKtjv yap dperyv elvai (frajULev rrjv SiKaio- 
crvvrjv, y Tracra? dvayKalov aKoXovOciv ra? aXXa?. d\Xa 4 
fJLrjv Kal ol TrXe/ou? 7rpo$ rov? eXdrrour Kal yap 
Kal '7r\ovariu)T6pot Kal /SeXr/oi;? Vtv, cJ? \afjL/3avofj,eva)v 

O? Toy? eXotTTOf9. dp ovv el iravTes elev ev 1283 B 
/um Tro'Xa, \eya) $ oiov OL T' aya^ot /cat o/ TrXouarioi KOI 
evyeveis, GTL $e TrXtjOos aXXo T TroXfrf/coV, TTOTepov a/ot- 
(f)tcr/3^r)](Ti9 ecrTai TiVa? apyeiv Set, tj OVK eVrat; /caO' e/ca- 5 
<JTY\V fjLev ovv TroXiTciav TWV eiptijuievtov dvajUL<picrl3ijTr]TO$ *] 
KpiGi? Tiva$ ap^etv Set* TOI$ yap Kvpioig fiiacfrepovcriv d\\y- 

\(t)V, OLOV r] fJLGV TO) SlCL 7T\OV(Tl(*)V fj $6 TM $ia TWV <T7TOV- 

(Weoi/ avdpcov eivai, Kal TOOV aXXcoi/ e/cacrT>7 TOV avTOV Tpowov. 

very easy. Is it that the free and 
the well-born claim on somewhat simi- 
lar grounds, that their claim is similar, 
as they themselves stand at no great 
distance from one another 1 The free 
claim as genuine citizens the well- 
born claim as citizens also, and a for- 
twri as compared with the simply free. 
For they urge that the nobler are truer 
citizens of the state than the meaner 
sort. They slip in the words yevvai6- 
repoi, with its moral sense, for evyevt- 
ffrepot., and ayevv&v for t\evdtpuv. 
Compare, for the difference of the two 
words, Rhet. n. xv. 3. p. 1390, b. 22 : 
ei>yej/s KO.TCL rty rov yfrovs Aperriv, yev- 
vatov d Karen, rb fj.7] e^icrraaOai TTJS 
(^tiered)?' oirep cbs tiri rb TTO\I) ov <rv[j,[3a.i- 
vei rot's etiyevtaw, d\X' elclv ol iro\\ol 

i) 5' evy&eia] ' Besides, practically 
in every nation high birth, according 
to the standard adopted, is honoured.' 
Comp. 1. VI. 7. 

3 ri, K.T.X.] < Secondly, the well- 
born urge that there is a reasonable 
probability of their being better from 
their fathers having been better ; for 
good birth implies distinction or merit 
in the family.' 

Quotas 5-rf] 'With not less justice surely 
then than we allow hereditary merit 
shall we allow personal merit to put in 
its claim ; for justice in our view is 
the virtue essential to every associa- 
tion, and justice involves all other 
moral virtues ; it is, aperr)* xp^ ffl ^ 
apery irp&s d\\ov.' Eth. V. iii. p. 1129, 
b. 25, and foil. 

4 ws \a/j.pavofj,frb)i>] Compare X. 2, 
the expression. TT&VTWV \ii<f>64vT(}v : 'If, 
that is, the many are taken in a body 
and compared with the few in a body.' 

7ro\tTiK6v] ' Simply citizens, and no 

5 rocs yap Kvplots] 'For it is by 
the difference in their sovereign power 
that they differ from one another.' 



T^ 6 re " aXX' oimcof cTKOTrovaev, orav Trepl TOV avTOV TOLV& 


r * f i $\ \ i s\ \ v ^ t 

claims to y^povov, Trcos oiopitTTeov. ei orj TOV apiu/mov eiev o\iyoi 

power. r t \ > \ if i * ~ * ^ ~ \ f 

_ _ TrafJiTrav 01 Ttjv apeTJjv eyovres, TLVOL dei oieXeiv TOV rpo- 

" TTOV'., rj TO oXiyoi Trpo<s TO epyov <$el (TKOTreiv, el SvvaTol 

iV Tr]V TToXlV tj TOVOVTOl TO TrXtjOo? O>0"T LVai TToXlV J~ 


aTropia T*? TT/OO? aTTOLVTOLS TOU? oiajuLcicr- 

7 /3rjTOvvTa$ Trepl TU>V 7ro\iTiKwv TIJULOOV. So^aiev yap ovSev 
\eyeiv SIKOLIOV 01 did TOV TT\OVTOV a^iovvTes ap-^eiv, OJULOLW? 
$e KGU 01 KaTa 'yeVo?* SrjXov yap cJ? el TI$ TraXiv eT? 
<rio)Tepo$ aTrdvTWv ecrr/, $rj\ov OTI KaTa TO avTO 
TOVTOV apyeiv TOV eva aTrdvTWv oeqarei, OJULOLCO? $e KOL TOV 
evyeveta $ia<pepovTa TCOV aju.(j)i(7/3}]TOvvT(i)V $i eXevOepiav. 

8 TavTO $e TOUT 'ivuxi (rv/uL/Bqa-erai ical Trepl ra? apicrTOKpa- 
T/a9 CTTL T?? apeTtjg' el yap TJ? eT? ajmeivwv avrjp e'lrj TWV 
a\\a)v TU>V ev TW TroXiTevjuLaTi <TTrov$alcov OVTCDV, TOVTOV 
eTvai $ei icvpiov KaTa rauro oiKaiov. OVKOVV el KOI TO Tr\tj- 
60$ elvat ye oei Kvpiov OIOTI KpeiTTOV? eicrl TCOV oXiycov, Kav 
eT? rj Tr\elov<s ju-ev TOV ei/o? eXarrou? ^e TCOV TTO\\WV KpeiT- 

d\X' fl/iws tr/coTTouyuej'] Still, whilst we 
allow that each constitution, such as 
oligarchy and democracy, carries with 
it its own answer to the question, who 
are to govern ? there remains to con- 
sider, supposing all the elements given 
above to co-exist, and so the state not 
to come very decidedly under one or 
other, or to be as yet not decided, how 
are the claims of all to be settled ? So 
I paraphrase the passage. 

6 d 8-/i, K.T.X.] He takes one case, 
that of the virtuous : Suppose that they 
are but very few in number, then what 
is the arrangement we must adopt ? 
The mere fact of their being few is 
nothing. The question should be, are 
they few for the work required of 
them, could they manage the state ? or 
are we to require them to be in num- 
ber sufficient to constitute a state by 
themselves ? If the good are rejected 

because they are in a minority, then 
what becomes of the claim of the rich ? 
If against this it is urged that the rich 
claim by virtue of their great supe- 
riority in wealth, which compensates 
for their inferior numbers, this line of 
argument suggests a difficulty which 
in fact is general, and meets all the 
claimants alike. If the aggregate of 
rich men claims on the ground of supe- 
rior wealth, it would follow that a single 
enormously wealthy individual would 
be justified in claiming against that- 
aggregate, if his individual wealth were 
greater than that of the body. And a 
similar objection may be taken against 
all equally : Trpbs dVavras roi)s Stayu,- 

7 TOVTOV Tbv >a] ' This one though 
but one.' 

8 KpdTTovi] ' stronger.' 

III. 13.] 



TOV<S UXTL TWV a\\(DV, TOVTOV$ CIV oVo* KVptOV? elvdl ]ULaX\OV Jtive 

$ TO 7r\rj9o$. YlavTO. Stj TCLVT COIKC (pavepov Troieiv OTI claims to 

r * rf t \ * /tV * /v i ' v > .1 power. 


juiev apyeiv TOV$ & aXXovj VTTO <r(pu>v ap-^ecrOai Trdvras. KOI 9 
yap $rj Kctl TTpo? TOV? KCLT apeTr]v aj~iovvTas Kvpiovs elvai 

TOV 7ToXfT6U/XaTO9, O/XO/CO? 06 Kdt TOl/9 KGLTCL TrXoVTOV., ^OlV 

av \eyeLV TO. 7r\q0r) Xoyoi/ TLVOL SIKCUOV ovSev yap Kco\vei 
Trore TO 7r\fj9o$ elvai /3e\Tiov TWV oXiywv KOI 7r\ovariu>- 

Tepov, ov% w? Ka6' eKavTOV aXX' w? aOpoovs. Afo Kal Trpos n 
Tt]v aTToplav, fjv QjTOvcri Kal 7rpo/3d\\ovtrt 
TOVTOV TOV TpOTrov aTravTav. aTTOpovcrt yap 

y vojmoOeTtjTeov, 6ov\ojmei'0) TiOevOai TOL? op6o- 


TCOV 7r\ei6va)v, QTOLV <rvjUL/3alvr] TO \e^0ev. TO ^ opOov X^TT- 12 

TCGy fVft)?* TO <? f'<Tft>? 6p00V TTjOO? TO T^9 TToXeft)? 6'X^? 

(TVfJifhepov KOI TT/OO? TO KOLVOV TO TW>V r jro\LTwv. TroXtTJ/s oe 

6 jULTXWi> TOV ap"^Lv KOI ap-^(r9ai e&Ti, KOL& 1284 
$e 7roXfTe/ai/ eTepos, y/>o? o^e T^ apicrTrjv 6 ovva^e- 
Kal Trpoaipov/Aevos ap^ecrOat Kal ap-^eiv Trpo? TOV /3iov 

TOV KaT a 

peTt]V. el oV T/? <TTIV el? TOVOVTOV Siacfiepoov 13 
apeTrjs V7rep/3o\r]v, tj TrXe/ou? fmev evos /ULJJ JULCVTOI $vvaTol 
X^pw/ma Trapaar-^ecrOai TroXea)?, WCTTC jut] (rv[ji./3\t]Tt]v elvai 
rjv TU>V aX\(*)v apT*]V TrdvTtov jmrjfie Trjv fivvajmiv avTWV Trjv 

g TOVTWV T&V 8p wv~\ ' of the exist- 
ing statements of the claims no one is 
completely correct.' 

10 oi>x ws Ka.6' 'eKOffTov] resumes 
the subject of, XI. 18. 

11 frrovcri] 'inquire into as a diffi- 

rb AexflA'] The case supposed above, 
viz. that in which the people was 
superior as a whole to the upper 

12 rb 5' bpdbv \-rjirTlov ftrws] 'We 
must get at what is right in this case 
by striking an average and taking 
what is fair to both ; and this will be 

found by looking to the interest of the 
whole state, and the common element 
which runs through the whole mass 
of citizens.' iWs: " sequaliter," Viet. 
" gleichmassig, " Stahr. 

TroX/r^s 5 KOLvfi] ' Now a citizen in 
the general.' 

Trpbs rbv piov~] ' with a view to secure 
the life according to virtue.' 

13 7rX^/)w/x,a 7r6Xeajs] 'The full com- 
plement of a state.' Compare 6. 

u><7Te] depends on TOVOVTOV. 

TT!]V 5lWyU.lI/ TT]V TToXtTtKT^I'] in Other 

words, TT]V 86va/j,iv irpbs rb fyyov. 



The re- 
claims to 





el?, Tr]V CK61VOV 


7TO\lTlKr]V 7Tpd? T*}V CKei 

f , , ' , f , t 

jmovov, OVKTI ucTeov TOVTOV? /mpo$ 7roAeft)9* aoiKt](TOVTai jap 

>- / - / * ~ * x v x 

a^iovjmevoi TCDV ICTCDV, avicroi TOCTOVTOV KGIT aperrjv ovTe? KCLI 

TrjV 7TO\lTlKr]V SwajULlV CO<T7Tp yap OeOV V dvOpCOTTOl? CIKO? 

civai TOV TOIOVTOV oOev $q\ov OTI KOI TY\V 
avayKaiov etvat irepl TOV$ 'I<TOV<S Kal TW yevei KCU T 


Kai yap yc\oio$ dv e'ltj vo/moOeTeiv TI? Treipw/mevos KaT 
avrwv \eyoiev yap av 'icrcos aTrep 'AvrivQevris e<ptj TOVS 
Xeoj/ra? SrjjuiqyopovvTWV TMV daa-VTrdSoov Kal TO "icrov afyovv- 
TO&V Trdvrag e^etv. $10 Kal TtOevTai TOV oa-TpaKHrjuiov at 
$t]/u,OKpaTOvjULevai TToXef?, $ia Ttjv ToiavTtjv aiTiav avTai yap 
St] SOKOVCTI iu)Kiv Trjv iVoTifra ju.d\i(TTa irdvTtov, WCTTC Tovg 
$OKOvvTa<s virepeyeiv $vvdfj.ei Sid TT\OVTOV tj 7ro\v(j)i\iav rj 
Tiva a\\t)v 7ro\iTiKr]v la"Xyv warTpaKi^ov Kal jmeOlcrTacrav etc 

'ApyovavTas TOV 'U.paK\ea KaTaXnrelv Sid TOiavTrjv 
ov yap eOeXeiv avTov dyeiv TTJV 'Apya) jmerd TWV d\\(jv o5? 
vTrepfldXXovTa TTO\V TCOV 7r\(*)Tqpcov. Sio Kal TOV? \J/-e i yov- 
ra9 Tr\v Tvpavvioa Kal TY\V TlepidvSpov Qpavv/BovXw cry/x- 
17 fiovXlav ou^ aVXft)? olrfTeov opOuxf e7riTiju.dv. <pa<rl yap TOV 

14 8dev 5Tj\ov, K.r.X.] Such a man, 
as a god amongst men, will be alien to 
human legislation. The highest form 
of human wisdom, ij iroXiriKr) <f>pbvr)- 
<ris apxireKTOViK-r), Eth. VI. viii. finds 
its expression in legislation for men, 
vofjio6e<rta, but does not attempt to rise 
above man. It assumes as the mate- 
rials it has to deal with, a body of 
citizens within certain limits equal in 
their powers, moral and intellectual, as 
they are equal in their race. 

rwv TOIOVTWV] ' men so far superior 
as in the case supposed.' They cannot 
be bound by human law, they are 
themselves a law, a standard to others 
the ideal, which others may aim at 

Antisthenes, one of the school of 

Socrates. Smith, Biogr. Diet. "Where 
are your claws ?" 

Aid Kai] The case of great relative 
superiority of any kind, and the diffi- 
culty of providing for its due position, 
leads naturally to the means adopted 
by some states to meet the difficulty 
the celebrated ostracism. This is a 
democratical invention. But the prin- 
ciple is more general, of which he gives 

1 6 'A/ryti] Comp. Grote, I. 320, 
note. He considers this legend very 
old, as "it ascribes to the ship sen- 
tient powers." 

IIe/Hci>5/>oi; G/raoru/SotfXy] Herod. V. 
xcii. 6, reverses the parts. Compare 
Botta, Storia d'ltalia, Vol. I. p. 43. ed. 
5, on the method adopted at Lucca. 

Trepl T>/ 

III. 13.] nOAITIKQN F. 145 

TleptavSpov eiTreiv ju.ev ovSev Trpos TOV Treju.<p6evTa KypVKa Ostracism. 
(rvjuL/BovXias, d(paipovvTa $e TOV$ vTrepe^ovTas TCOV 
ojmaXvvai TV\V dpovpav o6ev dyvoovvTO? jmev TOV 
TOV yivojuLevov Trjv aiTiav, aTrayyeiXavTO? $e TO 
crvjuiTrecrov, arvvvorj(rai TOV Qpacrv{3ovXov OTL oel TOVS vTrepe- 
%ovTa? at/Spa? dvaipelv. TOVTO yap ov JULOVOV (rv/m(pep6i TOI$ 18 

' 1 \ f / ** l-v -v / J/ 

Tvpavvots, ovde JULOVOV 01 Tvpavvoi Troiovariv, aAA o/uotco? e^ei 
Kal Trepl ra? o\iyapxia$ Kal ra? ^rj/moKpaTiag' 6 yap ocrTpa- 

KKTfJLO^ TV\V aVTt]V ^X. l ^ va f j - iv TQOTTOV TlVa TO? KO\OVLV 

TOV$ vTrepe-^ovTa^ Kal <pvya$eveiv. TO o* avTO Kal Trepl ra? 19 
Kal TO. e'Ovtj TTOLOVG-LV ol Kvptoi T^? ^yj/ayaea)?, olov 
oi jmev Trepl ^ajutov? Kal X/oy? Kal Aecr^/ou? (eTrei 
yap QOLTTOV eyKpaToo? eo"%ov T*\V dp-^v, eTaTrelvwcrav avTOvs 
Trapa ra? a-wO^Ka?), 6 $e TLepa-wv /3acri\ev? M^ou? Kal 
Ba/3iAcoy/of9 Kal TWV a\\(*)v TOV$ Tre(ppovt]iuLaTi(rjui.ei>ov9 Sta 
TO yevevQai TTOT 67r' dp"X*j? cTreKOTTTe 7roXXa/cf9. To ^e 20 
Trp6/3\r)]u,a Ka06\ou Trepl Trdcras ecrTi ret? TroXtre/a?, Kal ra? 
6p6dv at fJLev yap TrapeK/3e/3rjKviai Trpo$ TO "L&IOV a7rocr/co- 
Trovcrai TOVTO Spuxriv, ov jmrjv aXXa Trepl ra? TO KOLVOV dya- 
Oov eTTia-KOTrovcra? TOV avTOV e^ei TpOTrov. StjXov fie TOVTO 21 
Kal eTrl TWV dXXcvv Te^i/cov Kal eTTicrTtjimoov OVTC yap ypa- 
(pev? edcreiev av TOV vTrepftaXXovTa TroSa T^? <TVju.fJLeTpla$ 
e-^eiv TO ^<pov, ovo* el Siacfiepoi TO /caXXo?, OVTC vavTryyos 
Trpv/jLvav r} TWV dXXwv TI /mopicov TU>V T^? vea>' ovoe ot] 
Xopo$i$dcrKaXo$ TOV /mei^ov Kal KaXXiov TOV TravTos yopov 
(j)0eyy6ju.evov ed<rei crvy^opeveiv. w&Te Sta TOVTO ju.ev ovfiev 22 
KooXvei TOVS jULOvdp-^ov? (TViuL(pu>veiv Taig TroXea-iv, el 

19 r6 5' ai/ro] The same method is 
adopted as between states, and not 
merely within the limits of a single 
state. It was on this principle Athens 
dealt with her subjects (irbXeis) ; Persia 
with hers (tdvrj). 

tird yap O&TTOV tyKparus] ' For as 
soon as ever they held their empire 
with a firm grasp.' 

' used to cut them short, 

A. P. 

keep them down.' 

ao rb 8 Trp6f3\r}fJia Ka06\ov] 'The 
question is one that concerns all the 
forms of government without excep- 
tion, even the right ones.' 

21 For Aristotle's view on this 
particular point of symmetry, comp. 
Grote, rv. 212, note, and for the gene- 
ral subject of ostracism, the same vo- 
lume, pp. 200, and foil. 




Ostracism. Qiicdag apY^9 w(be\iju.ov TOLLS TToXeariv ou&qs TOVTO opaxrtv. 
Sio Kara Tag 6ju,o\oyov/mva$ vTreoag eet TL SIKOLLOV TroXt- 

23 TIKOV 6 \6yog 6 Trepl TOV oa-TpaKicrjuLov. /3e\Tiov jttey ovv 
TOV vojmoOeTtjv e dp%fj$ OVTCD a-vcrTrjarat rrjv r jro\Lreiav coVre 
M SeicrOai TOiavTtjs tW/Wa?' Sevrepos Se TT\OV$, av orv/uL/3y, 
7reipa<r6ai TOIOVTM Tivl $iop9(joju.aTi SiopOovv. oirep OVK eyl- 
VCTO Trepl ra? TroXeig* ov yap epXewov Trpos TO TtJ9 
re/a? T?? oiKeiag orv/Jifyepov, aXXa crTCuriaarTiKU)? e 

24 TO?? o(TTpaKL(JiJLol<s. ev fJLev ovv Ta?9 TrapeK/3e/3t]Kvicu$ 
Teiaig OTL /xei/ t^/ct (rv/ui(f)epei KCL\ SIKGUOV ecrTi, (pavepov 

^e KOI OTL ov% a7rXft)9 SiKCiiov, Kal TOVTO (pavepov. dXX' 
7rl Trjs dpicrTrjs -TroXtre/a? e^ei TroXX^i/ atropiav, ov 
rwi' aXXcoy ctyaOa)^ T^v vTrepo^Vy oiov tV^Jo? /c 
icaf 7roXu^)fX/a9, dXX' ai/ Tf? yevtjTai Sicxfiepwv /car' d 

25 T/ Y/o^l 7TOfe?i/5 ou *y^p ^^ (baiev dv oelv K{3a\\iv KOLL 
a-Tavai TOV TOLOVTOV. aXXa /mtjv ovtf ap^etv ye TOV TOIOVTOV 
7rapa7r\y<riov yap KCLV el TOV Afo? ap-^eiv dfyoiev, jULepit^ovTes 
rd? ap^as. Xe/Trerai TO'LVVV, oTrep eouce TrecfivKevai, irei- 
Oe&Oai TO? TOIOVTW Trdj/ra? aVyaeVw?, coVre /3a<ri\eag elvai 
TOV$ TOIOVTOVS aioTivs ev TCU? 7roXeo*w. 

22 ^x et rt SlKaiov TroXiTt^] 'is not 
without a ground of political right.' 

23 (TTa(riO(rrtKws] in VIII. (V.) 
VI, 15, occurs another form of this 
word trrao-iwrt/cws, 'for factious pur- 

24 I5ig.~\ 'in particular cases.' 

25 fj,ptfrvTes r&s apxfa] " m the 
division of offices," Stahr. 

#7re/> ^ot/ce ire<t>vKtva.i\ 'and this 
seems the natural course.' 

/3a<TiX^as di'S/ous] ' kings for their 
life,' the hero-kings of Mr Carlyle, the 
great men whom all should obey and 
find their true glory in obeying. So 
that the whole discussion has in its 
singularly discursive form yet never 
lost sight of the one question that 
runs through it, beginning with Ch. 
IX., and ending here, the question of 

the relative claims to a share in the 
government of different members of 
the state. From the absolute equality 
of a democracy, Aristotle has arrived 
at absolute inequality, necessitated 
in the ideal state by the existence 
of some one man of supereminent 
virtue the only conceivable justifi- 
cation of monarchy in its strict sense 
the only case in which it was to him 
reconcileable with justice, with due 
regard, that is, for the relative claims 
of his citizens. And without this jus- 
tice he thought the social union could 
never be secure. But, as he allows 
for the case of there being one man 
competent to fill the station of king 
by force of superior merit, one who in 
the language of the Eihic.s, vin. xii. 
2. p. 1160, 64, should be at>rct/>/c7?s Kal 

III. 14.] 



a TOV$ elprj/mevovg \6yovg 
/3%vai Kal <TKe^a<rOai Trepl /3a<Ti\eias' (pajmev yap TCOV j 
opOwv 7TO\iTetu>v fjiiav eTvai TCLVT^V. (TKeiTTeov $e Trorepov 
<Tvju,<pepei TJ? /meXXovcry KaXcog oiKyareerOai Kal iroXei KOI 
Xwpa /BacriXevecrOai, % ov aXX' aXX*; TI$ TroXfre/a /mXXoy, 
i] Tia-l /mev crvjuL^epei Ticrl o* ov crvju.<pepei. $ei $e Trp&TOV 2 
TTOTeov eV TO evo$ <TT\V avTtjs tj TrXe/ou? eei 

pov e TO yevo$ <TTV av 
$ia(popa$. paSiov Srj TOVTO ye KaTa/maOeiv, OTL TrXe/w re 1285 
yevrj Trepie-^eL Kal Ttj<s ap-^jg 6 TpoTros ecrrlv ov% el$ 7ra<ru)v. 
'H yap cv Ttj AaKcwiKw TroXirela fioKei ju.ev etvai /3aa-i\eta 3 
/xaXfcrra TWV Kara VOIAOV, OVK <TTI Se Kvpla Travrcov, aXX' 

rjyejULwv CCTTI TCOV irpos TOV TTO- 
6eov$ aTroSeSorai TO?? /3aa-i- 
/BacrtXeia oiov arTpaTtjyia TI$ avTO- 4 
Kparopwv Kal ai'$i6$ <TTIV KTeivai yap ov Kvpios, el ju.r] ev 
TIVI /3acnXe/a, KaOaTrep ewl TCOV ap^aicoi/ ev Talg TroXe/xi/car? 
ev \&pot VOJULW. SrjXoi ^'"O/x^o?* 6 yap 'Aya- 
KaKwg jmev CLKOVOOV JJJ//^CTO ev rai$ e/c/cXjycr/GU?, e^eX- 
OOVTCDV $e KOI KTeivai Kvpio? ijv. \eyei yovv 5 

orav ej~e\6>j Tr\v 
\ejuiov CTI $e ra 
\evcriv. avrtj /mev ovv 


Trcurt rots &ya0ois virept-xuv, and in the 
language of the Politics, VIII. (V.) 
x. 38, should rule over willing sub- 
jects as he allows for this case, he is 
not unnaturally led to treat of the 
whole subject of the rule of one, and 
enumerate the various forms of mon- 
archical government. 

XIV. I fJieTapfyai] 'to pass to 
another point.' The word occurs, Eth. 
VI. xiii. 5 2 . p. 1 144, b. -26, and in the 
participle ^era^atvdjv, Eth. I. v. i. p. 
1097, 24. 

i 7re/n^x et ] sc - T? /ScunXeta. 'The 
word monarchy comprises several 
forms under it, and the system adopted 
in those forms is not one and the same 
in all.' 

3 "For the royal power as it exists 
in the Lacedaemonian constitution, is 

thought to answer better to the idea 
of monarchy, than any other of the 
constitutional forms, and yet it is not 
supreme." This is Stahr's view. For 
the powers of the Spartan kings, comp. 
Herod. VI. 56. 

4 avTOKparbpiav} Vet. Int. 'impe- 
rialis.' Hence Victorius wishes to read 
avTotcpdrup. Stahr condemns it as un- 
necessary. It will certainly construe 
as it stands, 'a generalship in the hands 
of men invested with full powers, and 
that for life.' 'And it is not more 
than this, for the power of life and 
death is not his, except in reference to 
part of his office.' & TIVI [3a<ri\elq,. The 
meaning I have given to these words is 
favoured by the context, and is the one 
adopted by the best commentators. 
tv x ei pfa v6fjL({}'] 'martial law.' 
tv rats ^cKXyjcr/cus] This is an odd 





Monarchy. ov ft* K eyatv airavevOc 

- ov ol 

apKiov e<r<relrat <f>vyeew Kvvas 7/5' 
Trap yap ep,ol 

ev juiev ovv TOVT i$o$ /3acri\eia$, GTTpaTrjyia Sia /3/ou TOU- 

6 TCOV 8 al fJLev Kara yevos ei&lv, al 8* aipcrai. TLapa TCLV- 
Trjv $ a\\o povapylas elSos, otai 'Trap evlois eiarl /3a<ri\Lai 
TCOV fBapftapwv. e^ov<ri o avTai TJJV ouvajuuv iracrai Tra- 
pa.7r\r]<Tiav TvpavviKrj, elarl $ o/xw? /cara vo^ov Kal Trarpi- 
/cat* Sia yap TO SovXiKaJrepoi eivai ra IjOr] <pv(rei ol /aei/ 
/3dpf3apoi TWV f EXX^ft)i/, ol <5e Trepl TIJV 'Acr/aj/ TCOV Trea\ 

\ Tn f f \ ^ \% n< n 

TYIV JiiVpovTryv, vTrojuievova-i TV\V oe<T7roTiKt]v apyyv ovoev over- 

7 yepaivovres. TVpavviKal IJLGV ovv Sia 
acr(pa\ei$ $e $ia TO TraTpiai Kal /cara VOJULOV eivat. 
<f)v\aKrj $e /3a<ri\iKrj Kal ov Tvpavviicr] Sia Tr\v avTtjv aiTiav 
01 yap TToXiTai (pvXaTT OVCTIV oVXot? TOV$ /Baa-iXcis, TOV? 
Se Tvpdvvovs evuc6v. 01 fjiev yap Acara vopov Kal KOVTWV, 
ol & GLKOVTWV apyovcriv, eo'cr$' ol JULCV Trapa TMV TroXiTcov OL 

8 o* ir\ TOV$ TroX/ra? eyovcri Ttjv <pv\aKyv. Svo fJiev ovv eiorj 
TavTa ju-ovapxias, eTepov o* oirep ijv ev TO?? ap^atoig P EX- 
\tjar iv j oy? KaXovcriv ai<TVfJLvqTas. e&Tt Se Tov6* aJ? 

TOLOVTOV ecrii> 


word for the Homeric times, as ap- 
plied to the /3ou\iJ of the chiefs. But 
did Aristotle recognise, as clearly as 
modern writers do, the difference be- 
tween the political system of his day 
and that of earlier times ? Did he not 
suffer the language of his own times 
to colour that which he applied to 
earlier times ? 

5 7Z.ii. 391. 

ir&p y&p fyol BdvaTos] This, as Mr 
Grote remarks, II. 86, is not in our 
present copies. "The Alexandrian 
critics, "he adds, "effaced many traces 
of old manners." 

/card 76/05] 'hereditary.' 

6 irap' frlois TUV fiapfidpw] is the 

$Xov<ri 8' avrai] 'In all of these 
the power is very similar to that in a 

tyranny.' On this language, as ap- 
plicable to the Oriental empires, whe- 
ther ancient or modern, see Mr Corne- 
wall Lewis' remarks, On Authority in 
Matters of Opinion, pp. 192, 3. 

SovXiKtbrepoi TCI, Trjdr)] Comp. below, 
IV. (VII.) 7, on this distinction of 

ofl5&> dva-xfpaiyovTes] 'sequo animo,' 
' cheerfully.' 

7 T) 0vAa/o7] 'The guards they em- 
ploy :' compare, for the prominent po- 
sition given to this subject, the expres- 
sion, Khet. I. viii. 5, TvpavvlSos rAos 

8 a&ru/w^Tas] On this officer, ana- 
logous to the Eoman dictator, comp. 
Grote, m. 86; Thirlw. I. 401, "At 
Cuma and in other cities, this was the 
title of an ordinary magistracy, pro- 

III. 14.] 



eiireiv aipeTtj TVpavvis, <$ia<pepov<ra Se TW /Bap/BapiKrjs ov 
TW fjLrj Kara VOJULOV aXXa TW fj.rj irarptos etvai povov. *ip")(ov 9 
$' ol jmev $ia fttov Tr\v ap-^rjv TavTtjv, ol $e JU-G 


VOLOL TIiTTaKOV TTjOo? TOV$ (j)vyd$a$ wv TrpoeicrTyKecrav ' 
TifteviSw KOL 'AX/ca^o? o TTOIIJT^. $tj\oi $ 'AA/ccuo? OTL 10 


7rtTi/ma yap OTL 

TToXecos TOS a^dXco KOI f3apvaip,ovos 1285 B 

Tvpavvov pey cTraweovrfs aoXXeey. 

avTai IJLGV ovv elari re KOI ycrav Sia /u.ev TO TvpavviKal civai n 

:/, &a ^e TO aipeTal Kal CKOVTWV /BaariXiKai. Te- 
5* e/oo? juLovap^ias j3a(ri\iKrj^ ai KOLTOL TOV ^ocoi/cof? 
eKovcriai T Kal iraTpiai yiyvojuevai KaTa v6{j.ov. 
Sia yap TO TOU? TrpwTOV? yevecrOai TOV 7r\q6ovg VpyeTa$ 12 
a Te^i/a? $ TrdXejmov, tj Sia TO (rvvayayeiv tj Tropicrai 
v t eyiyvovTO /BaariXeis KOVTU>V Kal TO?? TrapaXa/ui/Bd- 

T KaTa 7rd\ejuLov fiye- 

vovcri TraTpioi. Kvpioi y 
fjiovia<s Kal TU>V Ovcriuiv, o<rai 
ra? <^//ca? eKpivov. 
? O/JLV Joi/re? o 

T(v p^aicoi/ 


rj tepaTiKa, KOI irpo? TOVTOIS 
eirolovv ol [Aev OVK OJULVVOVTCS, 


ol JU.GV ovv 


TOV a-KTTTpov 

Kal ra /cara TroXti/ 13 

bably of that which succeeded the 
hereditary monarchy ; but, when ap- 
plied to an extraordinary office, it was 
equivalent to the title of protector or 

9 fJiexpl TIV&V, K.T. X.] 'for some 
definite time named, or for some spe- 
cified objects.' "Pittacus of Mitylene 
is the prominent instance." Grote, III. 
27, and later, pp. 267, 8. 

10 eiXovro] The stress lies on this 

(T/coXtwj/] cr/coXtW, see L. and S. 

Alcaeus, Fragm. 37, Bergk, ist Ed. 
p. 579. The readings there are, TTO- 
Xtos for 7r6Xews ; fcx^Xw for 

etralvevres for eircuvtovTW ; d%6Xw, 'lack- 
ing gall, ' ^ax6Xw is the contrary. 

1 1 They were for the good of those 
who submitted to them, and conse- 
quently not tyrannical. 

12 /caret T^XJ/CIS] ' in teaching them 

Sarai ni] lepaTiKaL] ( with the excep- 
tion of those that required a priest.' 
TOV ffKrjTTTpov ^TTcwciTcuris] 7Z.X. 321. 

13 The first ical I should leave out 
with St Hilaire. If kept : 'They ad- 
ministered without exception the af- 
fairs of the state, whether in the city 
itself, or in the country, or abroad. 
If left out, then it is : ' They admi- 

ov vcrreov 

150 nOAITIKfiN P. [LiB. 

Monarchy. \\>/ \ \ * / ^ /^ 
J KO.L TO. evorjima KCLI TO. vrrepopia (Twe^us *]px c 

Se TO, jmev avTU)V irapievTCOV TU>V fiacnXewv, TO. & 
o"x\<v Trapaipov/mevwv, ev ju.ev rats aAAcu? 7r6\e<ri 
KaTe\eid)6r]<Tav TOIS (BaoriXeva'i JULOVOV, OTTOV o a<~iov elirelv 
etvai /3a<Ti\eiav, ev TO?? virepopiois TWV TroXejuuKcov rqv rjye- 
/ULOviav /ULOVOV efyov. 

14 BacrfAe/a? jmev ouv e'tSr) raura, rerrapa TOV cif 
f/x,/a fjiev rj Trepl TOU? fipwl'Kov's xpovovs (avT*i $ rjv 

fir ft ' \ \ ? \ 

jULev, CTTL Ticri o wpKTiuLevois' GrT/oaT>?'yo9 yap yv Kai (. 
6 /3a(ri\ev?, KCU TWV 7rpo$ rou? Oeovg Kvpios), Sevrepa S* fj 
fj (avT*i <? (TTLV K yevov? ap^r] SecrTTOTiKr] /cara 
" nv aicrvuvrjTetav Trpocrayopevovariv (avTrj <5* 

1*1 \ 

~vpavvi$}, rerapTrj $ rj A.aK(ioviKr] TOVTWV 
avrrj S' earriv eo? etTreiv aVAw? orTpar^yla KCLTO. yevos a'/$to?. 
J 5 Aurat IJLGV ovv TOVTOV TOV Tpoirov oiacbepovcriv aAA^Acoj/, I 
; irejuLTTTOV & ef^o? /3a<7iAe/a9, Srav y TTOLVTCDV Kvpiog ef? wv, 


Kara rt]v OIKOVO/JLIKTJV wa-trep yap rj oiKOvoimiKr] /3a- 
(TiAe/a rt? oitclas ecrrtV, ourft)? rj /3a<rt\eia TroAew? KCU 

15 evo$ i 


ia. \ 


nistered the affairs of the state, both 
at home and abroad.' 

Ova-Lai gttreXd^&pnar] as at Athens, 
Gyrene, Borne. Compare also the case 
of Mseandrius, at Samos. Herod. Hi. 

& rots virepoploi.s\ ' in foreign affairs 
they had no more than the command 
of the army,' as distinct from the ge- 
neral foreign policy. 

14 From to a\\^\uv in 15, I 
have enclosed in brackets, not mean- 
ing to say it is not genuine, not in fact 
attaching any importance to it, but 
simply to clear it out as unnecessary. 

M ria-i 5' w/9i0>t6'ots] This recalls 
the expression of Thucydides, I. 13, 
eirl pr)TOis ytpacrt irarpiKai f3a.(Tt\eicu. 

IK ytvovs~\ = Kara 76/05. 

roirrwi/] sc. TUV Kara vb^ov. Is the 

enumeration Aristotle's, with the ex- 
planations added in later ? 

15 8rav y irdvruv, K. r.X.] 'When 
the sovereignty, with all that it im- 
plies, resides in one, and he has at his 
disposal all that is national, just as 
each tribe or each state is supreme in 
regard to its national property/ 

rer ay^vrf] to justify this feminine 
we must consider eldos /SatuAefas as 
equivalent to (3a.(ri\eia, 'standing over 
against, corresponding in the political 
world, to the rule of the master of a 
household in the family life. 

XV. r o-xeSoj/ Sift It may be said 
then that there are really but two 
species of kingly government. In 
putting the Laconian so low, Mr 
Grote, II. 104, note, thinks that An- 

III. 15.] 




/3acrfXe/a? Trepl cov crKeTTTeov, avrt] re Kal rj Aajccwwici;. Monarchy. 
yap aX\cov at TroXXcu jmera^v TOVTCDV eia-lv e\aTTovwv 
yap Kvpiot Trjs 7rajm/3acri\eia$, TrXeiovtov $ eicrl Ttj? Aa- 
w>(TTe TO (TKejuifJia cr^eSov Trepl fivoiv ecTTiv, ev IULCV 2 

/ if ~ r\ > i .r.Vi ?> \ 

TroTepov crvjuKpepei rats 7ro\ea-i VTpaTrjyov aidiov eivai, Kai 
TOVTOV tf Kara yevos tf Kara /mepos, q ov <rviu,<pepei ey <^e 
TTorepov eva a-vjuiffiepei Kvpiov eivai TrdvTWv, $ ov a-vjmcfiepei. 
TO juiev ovv Trepl Trj<s TOiavTrjs <TTpaT*iyia$ eTricrKOTreiv 
e^ei jmaXXov eTSos tj TroXtrc/a?* ev aVacraf? yap e 
ylyvearQai TOVTO Tai$ 7ro\iTelai$' tocrr cKp 
Tr\v. o $e XofTro? Tpoiro? T/7? /BaariXelag 
ecrTiv, eocrre Trepl TOVTOV Set Oecvprjcrai Kal ra? aTropias 

$pa/u.eii> ra? eVoJcra?. 'A^j) & e(TT ^ T ?? 

' JL ' ^"\ ~\ f ^ f+ i t 9 a % v of absolut 

TTOTepov <rvjUL(pepeL ywaXXoi/ UTTO TOU api&TOV avopos apx e ~ monarch 

<r9ai rj VTTO TCOV api<TT(iov v6[JL(AV. OOKOVCTI otj TO?? vojmilfovGri 4 
crv/uL<pepeiv /3a(Ti\evea-6ai TO Ka6o\ov JJLOVOV ol voptoi \eyeiv, 
aXX' ov Trpos TO, Trpoa-TriTTTOVTa eTriTaTTeiv, GOGTT ev oTroia- 
ovv T"xyy ro KaTa ypafjt.iJ.aT apX&v j\iQiW Kal ev Ai- 
yvTTTw juLeTa Trjv TTprj/u.epov Kiveiv e^eaTi TO?? laTpois, eav 
$e TrpOTepov, eTrl rw avTOv KivSvvw. (pavepov TOIVVV d)? 
Ov* ecrriv *) /cara ypa^/j-aTa Kal KO/XOUJ aplcrri} TroXtre/a 
Sia Ttjv avT^v aiTiav. 'AXXa ju.rjv KaKetvov Set vTrapyeiv ^ 

of absolute 

stotle underrates the estimation in 
which the regal dignity was held at 

2 /caret, //,^/>os] This is confessedly 
difficult. Stahr does not change the 
reading, but construes it as if it were 
aiperbv, which, looking at Ch. XIV. 
5, I confess, appears to me the best 
reading, better than /car' aper-ffv. St 
Hilaire, 'electif/ but without changing 
the text. 

v6fju>jv %x.ei /j.a\\ov eZSos] f is rather 
a question of institutions than of a 

Tty Trp&T-riv] "fiirerst," Stahr ; 'at 
once/ 'at first,' 'in the beginning," 
Matthiw, Gr. Gr. 425, 5. Xen. Mem. 

in. vi. io> 

4 oKov<ri 617] 'It is the opinion 
then of those who,' &c. 

irpbs T& irpoa-irlTTTovTa] 'with refer- 
ence to circumstances as they arise.' 

/card ypd/Mfjiara &pxt.v] 'to be bound 
by the strict letter of the rule.' 

AlytirTv'] Herod. II. 84. 

/xera TTJV reTp'rjiJ.epov] 'After the 
fourth day to change the treatment.' 

5 dXXd MI''] ' But, ' says Aristotle 
in reply, ' in any case the ruler must 
be supposed to have that universal 
principle, which finds its expression 
in law.' He cannot be governing, 
merely guided by circumstances as 
they change. 




Discussion Tov \oyov TOV KdOo\ov TOi$ apvovcriv KpetTTOv S* <*> /my 
of absolute r r ^ r ,' , 

monarchy. 7rpO(TCTTl TO TTdUrjTlKOV oAto? rj ip (TVjUL(pves. TW fJLGV OVV 

VOJULW TOVTO ov% VTrdp^eiy \J/-inJi/ 3' dvOpa)7rivr]v dvdyKrj 
TOVT' e^eiv Traarav. 'AXX' 'Icrcos dv <palt] Tig o>? avri TOV- 

6 TOV /3ov\evcreTdi Trepl TCOV KCL& eKaarTd KOL\\IOV. OTL ^ev 
TOLVVV avajKri vojmoOeTtjv CLVTOV eivai, $rj\ov, KOL KeicrOai 
VOJULOV?, a\\a JULIJ Kvpiovg y irapeK/Baivova-iv, ejrel Trepl TU>V 
<y' aXXwv elvai Set Kvpiovs. ocra $e JJLYI SvvaTOV TOV vopov 
Kpiveiv y o\(o$ *f u, TTOTepov eva TOV apiffTOV <$ei apyeiv tf 

7 TrdvTdS) KOU yap vvv <rvvi6vTe$ oiKa<fov<rt KO.I (BovXevovTCti 

KOI Kpivovariv, avTai ai Kp*<ret$ ear Tracrai irep TWV 
KaO 1 eva ju.ev ovv arvju,/3aX\6iu.evo$ OCTTKTOVV 
aXX' (TT\V % TroXt? e/c TroXXwK, wnrep etrriouris 
os KaX\itoV /uua? KOI aVX^?. Sia TOVTO KOI K pi vet 

8f V-\ -\ -\ ^ <* *? * *> / ^"X "\ '?' 

djULetvov o^Ao? TroAAa i] ei$ O<TTHTOVV. GTI /m,aAA.ov aoia- 

(pOopov TO TTO\V' KaOciTrep vooop TO irXeiov, OVTW KO.I TO 
TWV oXlyoov a$ia(p6opa)Tpov TOV $ evo$ VTT o 

r\ TLVO<$ CTepOV TTdOoV? 



Ket S* epyov 

^] 'and there is an ad- 
vantage in having that which is abso- 
lutely exempt from passion, rather 
than that in which passion is inhe- 
rent.' Compare the language of the 
young patricians in Livy, II. 3, "Re- 
gem hominem esse . . . Leges rem sur- 
dam, inexorabilem," &c. 

TOVTO] sc. T& Tra6r)TiK6v. 

dvTl Tofrrov] 'To compensate for 
this objection.' 

6 vofiod^Ttjv] equivalent to rbv X6- 
701* TOV KadoXov vTrdpxeus, above. 

Kvplovs y jrapeKJSaLvovo-u''] "wo sie 
vom Rechten abirren," Stahr. "Lk 
ou elles se taisent," St "Qua 
parte recta via migrant," Viet. 'In 
exceptional cases,' is the meaning I 
attach to the expression, but it is dif- 
ficult. So far forth as there naturally 
occur cases in which men's conduct 

cannot be brought under the general 
statement. The undeviating language 
of the law cannot accommodate itself 
to the infinite variety of human ac- 

7 Kal yap vvv, K. T. X.] "Experience 
is in favour of the latter, for, &c." 

8 teei S<f[ ' But with the many, it 
is difficult for all at once to be angry, 
and form an erroneous judgment.' On 
this passage, compare Mr Grote's re- 
marks, IV. 505, on the effect of large 
assemblies, "which is, to inflame 
sentiment in every man's bosom by 
mere contact with a sympathising 
circle of neighbours." He adds in a 
note, "It is remarkable that Aris- 
totle, in his Politico,, takes little or no 
notice of this attribute belonging to 
every numerous assembly. He seems 

6 ef? 


III. 15.] nOAITIKfiN T. 153 

vai Kal dimapTeiv eVreo Se TO TrA/jflo? ol eXevOepoi, /mrjSev Absolute 
irapa TOV VO/ULOV TTpaTTOVTC?, aAA' rj Trepl wv K\ei7reiv avay- 

> r i *\ fl ^ "> \ t r $ -\ N ~ '^ -\ 9 

Kaiov avTov ei oe orj TOVTO jmrj paotov ev TroAAo*?, aAA ei 
TrAe/of? elev ayaOol Kal dvSpes Kal TroXiTai, TTOTepov 6 ef? 
dSia<p9op(*)Tepo$ dp^cov, y /xaAAov ol TrAe/ou? JULCV TOV api6- 
fjiov ayaOol fie Trai/Te?; jy <$q\ov to? o/ TrAe/ou?; 'AAA' 0/12868 
', 6 (5' ei? acTTacr/acTTO?. aAAa 7TjOO9 TOUT' 10 

OTf (TTTOVOaiOl TtJV \|^U^1/, O)0"7reO KCLKeiVOS 

fjiev TCOV 7r\ei6va)v o:p"v^v dyaOu>v o* avSpcov 
ICTCOV, TY\V $e TOV evo? /Saa-iXelav, 
av eirj Tai$ iroXeanv dpi(TTOKpaTta fiaariXeia?, 

KOI /ULCTOL $VvdjU.(D$ Kal X^P^ ^Wa/*WS OUC7^9 T^9 />X^?J ^ 

^ \a/3eiv TrAe/of? o/xo/ou?. /caJ ^a TOUT' '/era)? e(3a(ri\evovTO LI 

f ft ' -?*VO ^\ 

irpOTepov, OTL (TiravLov rjv evpeiv avopa$ TTOA.V < 
ACQT' dpeTrjV, aAAw? Te /cat TOTC juuKpas oiKOvvTas 
CTI o* air evepyea-ias KaOiarTaffav TOU? /3acri\ei$, oirep (. 
epyov TWV dyaOcov dvfipcov. CTrel $e <rvve/3aive 


KOLVOV TI Kal 7ro\iTiav KaOivTaorav. eTrel $e x^/oou? yiyvd- 12 
aVo TWI/ KOLVWV, evTevOev TroOev euAo- 

rather to reason as if the aggregate 
intelligence of the multitude was re- 
presented by the sum total of each 
man's separate intelligence in all the 
individuals composing it, just as the 
property of the multitude, taken col- 
lectively, would be greater than that 
of the few rich. " 

9 &rrw 5<f, K.T.X.] 'But let us as- 
sume that our people is composed of 
the free citizens, and that they never 
act in violation of the law, and only 
act without it when it, from its nature, 
must fail them as a guide.' 

10 dXXot 7r/)ds TOVTO] You state that 
the one man is not liable to the evil 
the many are liable to, that of dissen- 
sion. True, but for the argument's 
sake, you must assume the many to 
be good, as good as the one. 

1 1 Kal fji.T& Swayuews] ( whether it 
be provided or not with a force to 
compel obedience.' 

ffirdvLov -rjv] "He suspects that in 
such small communities great merit 
was very rare, so that the chief had 
few competitors." Grote, n. 89. 

oirep~\ sc. evepyecrla dperri is Sfoa- 
[us etiepyeTiicfi TropicrTiKT) ayad&v Kal 
<f)v\aKTiK-f). Khet. i. ix. 4. p. 1366, 36. 

^Trel 5^] " i. e. after the early kings 
had had their day." Grote, in. 23, 

KOIVOV TI\ 'a commune.' The ob- 
ject of the European towns in the I2th 

ii This passage valuable as to the 
order of succession of governments in 
the Greek states, oligarchy, tyranny, 
democracy. Comp. Grote, in. 22, 23. 




Tag 6\iyap^ia<s' CVTIJULOV yap eiroLtja-av TOV 

CK de TWV TvpavviScov etV fitjjuoKpaTiav del yap '? eXdr- 
TOf? ayovre<s Si aio-%pOKepSeiav la"^ypoTepov TO 7r\rj6os 
KaTea-Tt]<Tav, tocrr' eTTiOecrOai KOL yevecrOai 

13 eirel Se KCU ju,eilov? elvai o-vjm/3e^t]Ke Tag TroXa?, "areas ovSe 
paSiov eTi ylyvecrOai 7ro\iTeiav eTepav trapa <^uo/c parlay. 
el $e Sy Ti9 api(TTOV Oeitj TO ftao-i\euecrOai TCU? TroXeo-fi/, 
Trwg e^ei TO. Trepl TWV TCKVWV^ TroTepov KOI TO yevos Set 
fia(Ti\eveiv\ aXXa yiyvofjusvwv OTTOIOL Tiveg CTV^OV, /3Xa/3e- 

14 pov. 'AXX' ov Trapaficocret Kvpios wv TO?? re/cj/of?. dXX' 

13 TrcDs ^ei T& Trepl rCov TKVWV] 
This is the great question of hereditary 
monarchy. It is the difficulty in mon- 
archical government, wherever the 
word is used properly, where the king 
governs, and does not merely reign. 
In a system of constitutional fictions 
like our own, an aristocratical repub- 
lic, presenting, for certain undefined 
objects, a monarchical front to the 
world, the question is not so import- 
ant. Its importance in this latter case 
varies with the varying ideas of so- 
ciety, which will increase or limit the 
influence of the sovereign. 

But in the case of monarchy proper, 
the difficulty is so great as to render 
it necessary to get rid of the form al- 
together, as soon as the political ex- 
perience of the nation rejecting it, is 
sufficient for the change. The vicious 
element in the system is incurable. 
For it is, as it were, bound up with 
the idea of monarchy, that it should 
be hereditary. Elective monarchies 
are practically an idea of the past, 
though the experience of that past is 
not so wholly unfavourable to them as 
is generally supposed. Compare Sis- 
mondi, Etudes Societies sur les Consti- 
tutions des Peuples libres, p. 149, and 
foil. Ed. 1836, Brussels. 

In the Roman empire, in certain 

cases, the danger with regard to the 
successor was met by adoption, as in 
the case of Trajan adopted by Nerva. 
But though not singular, it was a rare 
piece of good fortune, and the philo- 
sophic Marcus Antoninus himself left 
Commodus as his successor. But to 
us as to Aristotle the question is in 
the main, one of theoretic and past 
interest. It is not probable that the 
Russian type will spread over West- 
ern Europe, or at any rate that it 
could be durable, if for argument's 
sake we allowed that its success for a 
time was not beyond reasonable pro- 
bability. The more interesting ques- 
tion is, how long the various forms in 
Western Europe that affect a monarch- 
ical exterior, an Empire in France, 
a constitutional monarchy in England, 
Holland, Belgium and Piedmont, with 
the other powers of Western Germany, 
Scandinavia and the Spanish penin- 
sula, most of them, to say the least, 
in a very critical position, how long 
they will hold their present position, 
what elements of strength they have, 
what powers dormant to remedy the 
apparent weakness of their position. 
But to state the question, is all that I 
wish to do here. 

14 dXX' ov 7rapa5c6(T6t] But, says 
the assertor of monarchy, though he 

III. 16.] 



OVK6TL TOVTO paSiOV TTKTTevorai' J^oXeTTOV jap, Kal fJLL^OVO9 Hereditary 

KQLT dv6pa)7Tivr)v (bv(riv. 'E^et o CLTroplav KOLI 

Trepl TJy? ^vvd/meco?, irorepov eyeiv Set TOV /meXXovra /3a<ri- 
\eveiv iar'Xyv Tiva Trepl avTov, y SvvqcreTat /Bid^ea-Oai TOVS 
jJLrj /^oiAojUei/ou? TreiOap-^etv } rj TTCOS evSeyeTai T^V dpxyv 
SioiKiv' 9 el yap Kal Kara VO/ULOV e'lrj Kvpios, ]u.r)$ev TrpdrTWV 15 
rtjv avTOv /3ov\rj<rii> Trapa TOV vo/mov, OJULW? avayicaiov 

avT(S SVVOLIJLIV, y (>v\dei TOV? VOJULOV?. ra^a IJLGV 16 
ovv TO. Trepl TOV /3a(ri\ea TOV TOIOVTOV ov "^aXeTrov diopicrai' 
Set yap avTov ju,ev e^eiv Icr^yv^ elvai oe TOcravTyv Trjv i 

/ULV Kal eVO$ Kai (TV/UL7T\eidv(Jl)V 



o e l 

ore Kaia-Tatev Ttva r9 Troew? ov eKa\ovv ai<TVju,vqTt]v 2) 
Tvpavvov, Kal Atovvcriw rf?, 6V yTei TOVS (^JXa/ca?, (rvve/3ov- 
\eve TOIS ^/vpaKOva-loiv SiSdvai TOCTOUTOU? TOV? (fivXaicas. 

TLepl $e TOV /5a<TfXeft)? TOV Acara Trjv avTov /3ov\*]<nv 16 1287 
iravTa 7rpaTTOVTO$ o re \dyo$ e(pe<TTt]K vvv Kal TroirjTeov 
Trjv <TK^iv ^O JULCV yap /cara VOJULOV \eyoju.evo$ /BacriXevs 
OVK earTLV ef^o?, KaOaTrep e'lTrojuev, TroXire/a?' ev Tracrat? yap 
vTrdp^eiv evSe-^eTai (TTpaTrjyiav a't'Siov, otov ev 
Kat ajOfcrroACjOar/rt, Kal TroXXot TTOLOvcriv eva Kvpiov 

might, he will not hand his power over 
to his children. That, says Aristo- 
tle, can hardly be entrusted to him. 
It assumes a virtue beyond man's. 
Domitian and Commodus are the suc- 
cessors of Vespasian and Marcus An- 
toninus. f Les interests dynastiques' 
are extremely strong, as was clear in 
Louis Philippe's case, and like true 
parasites, endanger the real interest 
of the monarch, which must be iden- 
tical with that of his nation, or mon- 
archy is absolutely indefensible. 

TTJS 5wa/xews] The power to be 
placed in his hands, 'la force mate'- 

15 Kal Kara i>6fj.ov] 'was perfectly 
constitutional. ' 

1 6 rbv TOIOVTOV'] sc. TOV /caroi v6fAov. 

<rvfj,Tr\ei6vd)v'] ' more than one toge- 

roi)s 0tf\a/cas] 'his guards.' rocrotf- 
rous, only a sufficient number to pro- 
tect him against any personal enemies, 
not against the people. Grote, x. 613, 

XVI. I 6X6705 e^ea-TrjKe vvv] 'The 
discussion naturally follows now.' 

6 [j,tv yap . . . /3a<ri\ei5s] This passage, 
for clearness' sake, I inclose in brack- 
ets. By so doing I wish to shew that 
the sense is not worse without it ; the 
repetition is avoided, and the 
8t of 2 becomes clearer. 

TT)S 5toi/oj<reo>s] 'of the executive.' 




Absolute K fa ea) $- rotavTtj yap ap-^ ri$ e<TTi Kal Trepl ^TriSa/mvov, 

- Kal Trepl 'QirovvTa $e Kara TI jmepos eXaTTOv. Trepl $e Ttjs 

TrayU/^acnXe/a? KaXovjmevtj?) avrrj $ e<TTL KO.& fjv ap-^et Trdv- 

TCOV Kara Trjv eavTOv /BovXrjcriv 6 /3a<TfXeJ?,l SOKCI $e TKTIV 

* * i t f * / ef t ? * -\ 

ovoe Kara (pvoriv eivai TO Kvpiov eva TravTtov eivai TOW TTO\I- 




TO avTO StKCUOV avajKalov KCU Trjv avTriv a^iav /caret 
<pv<riv etvai, WCTT c'tTrep Kal TO unjv e^eiv TOV<S avivows TJOO- 
<pr]v rj ecrOtJTa /3\a/3epov TO?? crco/xacr^, OVTCO$ e^ei KOL TO 
3 Trepi ra? rt/xa?. oyuo/w? TO'IVVV Kal TO avicrov TOV$ 'l<rov$' 

SioTrep ovfiev ju.a\\ov ap^eiv tj ap^ecrOai SiKaiov. Kal TO 
ava fJLGpos TO'LVVV eocraiyra)?* TOVTO o* rj$t] vofjios' y yap 
ra^i? vofjios. TOV apa vo^ov ap-%eiv aipcTWTepov ju.a\\ov % 

4 TMV iroXiTwv eva TLVOL. /caret TOV avTov Se \oyov TOVTOV, 
KO.V c'l Tivas apyeiv fie\Tiov, TOVTOV? /caracrrareo^ vojmo(f)v- 
Xa/ca? KCU vinipeTas TOL<S VOJULOIS* avayKaiov yap eivai Tiva? 
a/o^a?, aXX' ovy^ eva TOVTOV eivai <pa(7i oiKaiov OJULOLCOV ye 
OVTGQV "wavTwv. AXXa fM\v oo~a ye fJLrj SOKCI fivvaarOai oto- 

5 pityw o VOIULOS, ovo* avOpGOTTO? av SvvaiTO yvoopi^eiv. aXX' 
eTr/r^c^e? Tratdevcras 6 yq/UOff e^/crr^crf ra XotTra Ty SiKaio- 
rar/7 yvwjurj Kpiveiv Kal SIOIKCCV TOV? ap^ovTas. CTI 8* 

the dp^uv 
6 els of VIII. (V.) i. ii. At Opus 
the title was Cosmopolis. Smith, 
Geogr. Diet. 796, A. 

2 SoKei 5^] From this to the end 
of the chapter is a discussion of the 
question aporematically. 

3 Kal rb &vb ptyos djo-atfrws] Is it : 
' It is just that if the government is 
taken in turns, it should be provided 
that all have their turn fairly, not one 
more than another' ? 

4 c<tyAo0i;Xa/cas] 'mere guardians 
and servants of the laws.' 

oi>x 2va TOVTOV] 'not this one man 
that you speak of.' 

dXXA fjfiiv off a ye, K.T.\.~\ The law, 
it is urged, cannot go into all possible 

detail, but neither can a man grasp 
all possible details an objection. 

5 "True. This is allowed for and 
the law expressly trains its rulers, and 
then sets them to judge to the best of 
their judgment.' 

6 fjiev ovv Tbv vovv, K.T.X.] I feel little 
doubt that the true reading is vopov ; 
and for rod's p6/xovs, Tbv vovv nbvovs. 
' He who would have law rule, wishes 
for the rule of God and reason only ; 
whereas he who would have a man 
supreme, brings in the element of the 
animal.' The correction is sanctioned 
by several editors, and by Spengel, 
p. 44, note 39. 

'when in power.' 

III. 16.] 



cTravopOova-Oai SiS&iriv, o TL av y TreipiD/mevois apeivov 
cTvai TCOV Kifj,va)v. 6 fj.ev ovv TOV VOJULOV KeXevcov ap^eiv - 
$OKei KeXeveiv ap^eiv TOV 6eov KCU TOV vovv JULOVOVS*, 6 <T 
avOpajTrov KeXevcov TrpocTTiOrja-i KCU Orjpiov tj T6 yap 7riOv- 
juila TOIOVTOV, /ecu 6 OVJULOS ap-fcovTas $ia<TTpe(pei KOI TOV$ 
apia-TOV? av$pa$. dioirep avev ope^ews vov$ 6 VOJULOS CTTIV. 
To oe TCOV Tc^vcov elvai OOKI TrapaoeiyjULa x^euoo?, OTI TO 6 
ypajuLjuLciTa laTpevearOai (fiavXov, a\\a KCU aipCTWTepov 

TOIS e^ovfri ra? Teyvas. ot jmev yap ovSev $ia 7 
(piXtav Trapa TOV \oyov TTOIQVCTLV, aXX' apvvvTai TOV 
TOU? KcijuLvovTas vyidaravTes' ol ^ cv Tai<s 7TO\iTiKai$ a 
TToAAa TTjOO? eirrjpeiav KOI yap iv e ^$ acri irpaTTeiv, eirel KOI 
TOV$ laTpovs oTav vTroTTTevajcrt TricrTevOevTas TO?? c^Opot^ 
Sia<p6elpetv Sia KepSos, Tore Trjv e/c TWV ypafAjuLCLTCOv Oepa- 
irelav fyTytraiev civ jmaXXov. aXXa jmyv eicrdyovTai y ecfi 8 1287 B 
eavTOv? OL iaTpol KajmvovTes aXXovs laTpovs KO.L ot TraiooTpi- 
/3ai yvfjiva^ojuievoL Trai^OTpl/Sa^ cos ov $vvdju.evoi Kpiveiv TO 

pi re oiKeicov Kal ev irdOei oi/re?. 


CTI KVpi(*)Tpoi K.CLL Trepi KvptcoTepo&v 9 
TU>V KaTa ypaju.ju.aTa vojmcov ol /caret ra eQrj ei&iv, axrre TWV 
/caret ypaju.ju.aTa avOpwiros ap-^cov dcripaXecrTepos, aXX' , ov 

>* \ \ tf/\ "> ~\*\ * * * ^ ^ ' ' S 'JL ^ "\"\ x 

TOOV KaTa TO euog. aAAa jmrjv ovoe paoiov ecpopav TroXXa 
TOV eVcr fieqarei apa TrXelovas elvai TOV$ VTT avTOv 
a vofo T01 > s votous Bekker. 

es fiia TO Kpi 


yap VO/ULOS TO fjiecrov 

] The term includes 0iy*6s , 
and tiridvfjila dpeKTUcbv (jityos. 

7 Trpbs eV^petcw] 'for the annoy- 
ance of others.' 

8 dXX& fj,-f)v~\ ' Nor is it to be for- 
gotten, that in point of fact physicians 
call in other physicians.' 

irepl olKdwv} above, IX. II. 

wVre STjXoj/] 'So that it is clear that 
when men are seeking for what is just 
they look for that which is in the 

9 ol Acard rot td-rj] The written laws 

of a nation are never more than the 
imperfect transcript of the unwritten 
laws, its manners, its customs, its 
modes of social existence. And they 
are only powerful in proportion as 
they are the transcript of these. Com- 
pare Ch. Comte, Traile de Legislation, 
Liv. n. Tom. I. p. 289. 

dXXa fify] Another objection. Prac- 
tically the power cannot be in one 
man, it is as well to recognise this at 
once. Again, two good men are bet- 
ter than one. 






aayovTas, wVre TL Siachepei TOVTO e apv^? evOv? 
rA, ^ ^ Tf \ < , , v 

v t] TOV eva KaTavTqcrai TOVTOV TOV Tpoirov, CTI, o 

Kal TrpOTepov elprj/mevov ecrTLV, e'tTrep 6 avrjp 6 crTroi^aFo?, 
&IOTI /3e\TLcov, ap^eiv Siieaiof, TOV $e evo$ 01 Suo ayaOol 
/3e\Tiovs' TOVTO yap effTi TO 




poi o-vp,(j)pa8p.ovfs. 

Ka vvv Trep evwv a ap^a Kvpiai Kpiveiv, wa-Trep 
rel u>v o 

V$els CLJUL(pl(T/3t]Tt 7Tpl TOVTWV ft)? OVK OLV apKTTGL 

11 6 vofJLO9 ap^eie Kal Kpiveiev. aXX' eTreiSt] TO, fj.ev evSe^Tai 
7repi\t}(p6fjvai TO?? VOJJLOIS TOL 8 a^wara, TavT <TT\V a TTOICL 

n \cx/ ^v / i 

OlaTropeiv Kai tyTeiv iroTepov TOV apiorTOv vopov ap^eiv ai- 
pTu>T6pov tj TOV avSpa TOV apicTTOv. Trepi oov yap /3ov\ev- 


y avTiXeyovcriv, eJ? OVK avayKaiov avOpwTrov etvai TOV Kpi- 
vovvTa Trepl TWV TOLOVTWV, aXX' OTI ov% eva juiovov aXXa 

12 TroXXoi/?. Kpivei yap e/cacrro? ap-^cov TreTraiSevjuLevos VTTO 
TOV VOJULOV /caXw?, CLTOTTOV $ fVw? OLV elvai o*6l~eiev el /3e\Tiov 
'loot Tf? ovotv ofJL/maG'i Kal ovartv aKoais Kpivwv, Kal TrpaTTcav 
Sverl TToarl Kal -^epcriv, rj TroX\ol TroXXo??, eTrel KOI vvv 
o(p6a\iu.ov$ TroXXoi'? 01 /movap-^OL TTOIOVITIV avTcov Kal cora 
Kal -^eipag Kal TroSa?. TOV? yap TJJ ap%fi Kal avTOv (f)i\ov9 

13 TfOlOVVTai (TWap^OVS. fJLt] <pl\OL fJLV OVV OVT$ OV TrOlrj<TOV<TL 

Tt]v TOV fjiovap"^ov Trpoaipecriv el oe (piXoi KOLKCLVOV Kal 


o ye 

'icrog Kal o/xoto?* WCTT' el TOUTOU? 

10 ToG 5^ ev6s] The 5^ marks the 
apodosis, ' then than the one two are 
better.' II. X. 224. n. 372. 

1 1 TrepiX-rj^dijvat] ' can be embraced 
by the law.' 

n-fpl &v 701/3 (3ov\eijoj>Tai] Eik. III. 5. 
p. 1 1 11, 18. 

12 KaXcos] to be taken with Kplvet. 
ai/rou] The Scholiast on the expres- 
sion in Aristophanes, Ackarn. 92, rbv 

6(f)0a\/j,6v, reads ctirots when 
quoting this passage; but looking at 
the ^Ketvov in the next line but one, it 
seems unnecessary to make any change. 
ai/roO must mean the monarch him- 

13 /U.TJ tf>l\oi] 'If not friends, they 
are not safe ; if friends, they are equal 
and like.' 6' ye ^Xos, 'The friend, it 
must be allowed, is equal and like.' 

III. 17.] 






TOV$ iVou? Kal o^oiovg ap-^eiv o'terai Seiv 
ol $ia,jUL(j)i<T/3r]TOvvTS 7TjOO9 T*\V /3a<ri- 
i/ TavT ea-Tiv. 'AXX' Tcrco? TQ.VT eVJ 17 


\elav Xeyovcri, 

fjiev TIVGOV eyei TOV Tpojrov TOVTOV, Ctrl $e TIVODV 

yap TI (pvcrei oe(Tiro<JTOV KOU aXXo {3acri\evTov /ecu 


<TTI Kara (pvcnv, ov$e TCOV a'XXeov iroXiTeiwv o<rai Trape/c/^a- 
crets elirlv ravTa yap ylyverai irapa (pvcriv. aXX' e/c TWV 2 
elptjiuLevcvv ye tyavepov a5? ev fjiev TOI$ OJULOIOIS Kal 'tcrois ovre 1288 
crviuL<pepov <TT\V ovT SiKaiov cva Kvpiov eivai TrdvTOov, ovre 
fjirj v6ju.(*)v OVTWV, ctXX' avTOv co? ovra VOJULOV, ovre VO/JLOOV 
OVTWV, ovre ayaOov ayaOcov ot/re jmrj ayaOwv /my ayaOdv, 
ovS' av KaT apertjv ajULeivwv ft, el jmrj TpoTrov TLVOL. T/? S 1 3 
6 TjOoVo?, Xe/creoi/* eiptjrcu Se TTW? %St] Kal irporepov. Trpw- 
TOV ^e SiopivTeov TI TO fiaa-iXevTov Kal TI TO apicrTOKpaTi- 


b 7T(pvK (pepciv yevo$ VTrepe^ov /car' apeTrjv 
TTO\ITIK^V, apicrTOKpaTiKOV $e irXijOos o TTC- 
(pvKe (pepeiv ir\r]0o9 ap-^e(rOai ^vva^evov Ttjv TU>V eXevOepcov 
TU>V KaT apeTtjv Jjye/u,oviKwv irpos TroXiTiKrjv ap- 


^equally with himself.' 
a oSv] Here end the d-rroplai or 
discussions, which began in 2, and 
Aristotle speaks in his own person in 
the next chapter throughout. 

XVII. i Kal SiKaiov Kal 
The simplest way of taking this pas- 
sage is, with Stahr, to supply ir\TJ6os 
with TI. 'There are men who pro- 
perly are to be governed as slaves, 
others who require kingly govern- 
ment, others a free constitution ; and 
in each of these cases the relation is 
just and for the interest of both par- 
ties. There are none who are properly 
the subjects of a tyrant, or members 
of the other constitutions in these 
cases the relation is not just, nor for 
the interest of both.' 

2 dXX' IK T&V, K. T. X.] 'Allowing 
for the fact of this difference, it seems 
at any rate clearly proved from what 
we have said.' 

avrbv cos 8vra vbjjiov] Compare III. 
XIII. 14. 

cl ytt^j Tpbirov TWO] ( except in one 
certain case,' the case provided for 
XIII. 25, and below, 5, the case in 
which the virtue of the individual is 
equal to the virtue of the collective 
body of citizens. 

4 fiaviXevrbv fj-ev o$v, K. r.X.] This 
passage, though apparently redundant 
and susceptible of improvement by 
pruning, may yet be construed, as it 
is, and though Stahr omits parts, I 
am inclined to retain it entire. 

vos] ' To bear or produce a 




Absolute y ' 
monarchy. *' 

e 7r\t]6o$ ev co 7red)VK6v* eyyivecrOat Tr\tj6og 

, , & \ * , 

V, ovva/mevov apx<ruai Kai ap-^eiv Kara VO/ULOV TOV 

5 KCIT aj*iav ^lavejmovTa TO?? evTrdpois ra? ap-fcas. orav ovv 
tj yevos oXov rj Kai TWV aX\(0v cva Tiva crv]UL/3ri Siad>epovTCl 
yevea-Qai KCIT aperijv TO&OVTOV wcrff vTrepe-^eiv Ttjv CKCIVOV 
Trjs TWV a\\(*)V TravTdov, TOTC OIKOLIOV TO yevos elvai TOVTO 


6 KaOcLTrep yap eiptjrai TrpoTepov, ov JULOVOV ovrco? e^ei K.O.TGL 
TO SiKCUOV, o Trpocfrepeiv iw9a(Tiv 01 ra? TroXfre/a? 
o-TctVTe?, 01 TC ra? apia-TOKpciTiKa? Kai oi ray 

KOI 7ra\iv oi ra? ^/xo/CjOari/ca?* Tra^re? yap Ka& v 
aj-iovcriv, aXX' VTrepo^v ov Ttjv avrfv aXXa /cara TO irpd- 

7 Tepov \e^6ev. OVTC yap KTeiveiv i] (f)vya$eveiv ovo* o 


apxcvOai KaTO, fiepor ov yap 7re<pvKe TO imepos v 

TOV Trai/ro?, TO) ^e TijXiKavTrjv V7rep/3o\r]v e^ovri TOVTO 

8 crvjUi/3e/3r]Kev. Strre XaVerat povov TO 7rei6e<r9ai raT TOIOV- 
TW, Kai Kvpiov eivai M /cara jmepos TOVTOV aXX' aVXa)?. 
Tlcpl fjiev ovv /3acnXe/a9, Tiva? e^ei oiafyopds, KOI TTOTepov 

Bekker reads Kai fr. 

rots eu?r6/)ots] Stahr suggests that 
rots d7r6pois should be inserted. In 
sense it seems needed at first sight. 
And yet if we recollect the language 
of Eih. vm. xii. i. p. 1160, 33, where 
the third form of constitution is said 
to be r) airb TLWIJL&TUV, rjv 
K7)v \eyeiv otKeiov <j>ati>Tcu, 
5' afrrty dtidaffw ol TrXeto-rot 
and compare the rest of the same chap- 
ter, we shall not be surprised at Ari- 
stotle, in this passage, putting very 
prominently forward the holders of 
property, the rb efliropov: cf. IV. (VII.) 


6 irpo(f)epeu>] 'to put forward, prae 
se ferre.' 

irdvres yap. . . oti TTJV a^Trjv] This re- 
mark is parenthetical, and in dXXd 
Kara rb irporepov \e^d'fv, we have the 

clause answering to Kara rb 

7 TOVTO o"Vfj.p^r}Kfv, sc. Tb elvai ws 
Tb TTO.V irpbs Tb ptpos. He stands in the 
relation of the part to the whole. 

8 /card ntpos] ' in turn.' 

Trepl /*& odi> jSao-tXetas] Kings were 
for Aristotle an institution of the past, 
or a characteristic in the present of a 
lower stage of social development. So, 
I believe, they were for Plato too. 
His treating of the monarchical form 
then, is a complement of his theory; 
it was not to be dwelt on at length, 
but still necessarily to be dwelt on to 
make his ground quite clear. With 
chapter XVIII. he enters on the 
treatment of his own ideal form, his 
apiGTOKpaTla or dplcrTTj iro\iTela. Com- 
pare Spengel, pp. 16, 17. 

III. 18.] 




ei Tai$ troKeo-iv rj a~v/UL<pepi, Kal Ttcri, Kal TTO)?, 
copiarOa) TOV TOOTTOV TOVTOV. 'Evret oe Tpel$ (pajmev elvai 5 - 
? op9a? 7roXfTe/a?, TOVTWV o avayKaiov aplcrTtjv elvai 
T*]V VTTO TMV apicrToov oiKOVOjmovju.evr)v, TOiavTrj <T ecTTlv ev fj 
<rv[Ji./3e(3rjKev rj eva Tiva crvjULTravTcov rj yevos o\ov *] 7r\f]9o$ 
epe-^ov elvcu /car' apeT^v 9 TWV /mev ap-^eo-Oai Swajmevcov 
OV o ap^eiv TT/OO? T^V aipeTWTaTqv FcorjV) ev oe TO?? Trpoo- 
eSei\Oij \oyoi$ OTL T*]V avrrjv avayKaiov avSpos apeTrjv 
elvai Kal TTO\LTOV r^? vroXea)? T^? apicrT^, (pavepov OTL TOV 
avTov TpoTrov Kal Sia TCOV avTcov avrjp re yiveTai <T7rov$alos 
Kal TroXiv a-va-Tqareiev av TI$ apKTTOKpaTOVfjLevrjv rj /3aari\evo- 

COCTT ecrTai Kal TratSela Kal e'Orj raura a"^eSov TO, 1288 B 

crTTOvoaiov avopa Kai Ta TTOIOVVTU TTO\ITIKOV KO\ 
(3a<Ti\iKov. S LCD pur /mevtov $e TOVTCOV Trepl r^? TroXfre/a? %Sr} a 
TreipaTeov \eyetv r^? apt(TTr]<s 9 Tiva 7re(pvK6 ylvecrOcn TOOTTOV 
Kal K 

XVIII. i TOIJTUV] This, I sup- 
pose, is only clear by considering that 
in the next line he means to refer to 
only two constitutions, the monarchi- 
cal and aristocratical, that, in fact, 
here as elsewhere, whilst he allows 
that in theory the three are equal 
(r/>eis 6pdal), he practically puts the 
third lower than the other two. 

<kva. TWO, av^TravTuv $ 7^05 tfXov] 
These two expressions are both meant 
for the monarchical form, and Tr\i)6os 
is a certain number, 7rXetois ^.kv evos 
oXiyovs 54, see Ch. VII. 

T&V fikv apxecrdai] Spengel, p. 17, 
note 19, wishes to insert /cat &px LV > 
but I do not see that it is necessary. 
I should rather refer this whole clause 
simply to the 7rA??0os virepe-xov, and 
not take into account the monarchical 
form at all. 

TOIS -rrpcorois \6yots] Ch. IV. of this 

7roAtrt/c6?>] A true statesman in the 
ideal form, the ruler, for the time, of 
free and equal citizens, among whom 
he is in turn to take his place. Com- 
pare Ch. V. 10, 6 7roAm/c6s Kal /ctf/nos 
^ dwd/Aevos elvai. Ktipios. Spengel 
condemns /3a<ri\iK6i>, note 20, and 
suggests ayadbv or cnrovda'iov, but 
looking at the context, I do not feel 
inclined to change the reading. The 
man must be trained for his post of 
King. Pericles or Alexander both 
equally require the true education 
which shall make them good men and 
good rulers. 

2 dvdyK-rj 81}] With the altered ar- 
rangement of the books these words 
may be left out. 

A. P. 



THE book opens with three introductory chapters, a prelude as 
he calls it. They are by no means very clear, and in great 
part might have been dispensed with, as they are the reassertions of 
principles already established in the tenth book of the Ethics. 

Two questions are started, What is the best life ? and is it the 
same for the state and for the individual ? 

The happiness of the individual depends on moral and intellectual 
excellence. The happiness of the state will depend on the same. 
And with his master Plato he asserts that there is a correspondence 
between the moral virtues as they exist in the individual, and as 
they exist in the state. It would follow from this, naturally, that 
the state and the individual stand on the same ground; the 
qualifications for the best life in each are analogous, the best life of 
each will also be analogous. 

Is the life of action, that of the citizen mixing with his fellow- 
citizens, and discharging his share of the public duties, the better 
life ? or are we to prefer that of the man who stands aloof, who 
lives as a stranger and alien, so far as political life goes, and devotes 
himself to pure speculation ? And if we solve this question for the 
individual, shall we adopt that solution for the state ? The very 
name of the science we are studying assumes that the individual 
must live as a citizen, and not stand apart from the political society. 
It implies an affirmative answer to the first question. But it is not 
at the same time quite clear, that the state must equally with the 
individual, live a social life, and be brought into intimate connection 
with other states. For the citizen, whether he choose the life of 
action or of contemplation, lives yet on equal terms with his fellow- 
citizens, he may avoid actual office and power, the whirl of political 
life, as interfering with truer objects ; but he may still take his 
share in the real duties of a citizen, and guide by the results of his 
intellectual exertion the more busy and practical mass around him. 
But it is not so with the states. Intercourse between states is even 
now mainly reducible to two heads, war and commerce. In the 
ancient world commerce was not a bond on the same scale as at 
present, in the theories of Aristotle and other philosophers it could 


not constitute a bond at all. There was left war, or its result, 
empire. The connection of states was not that of equals, but of 
ruler and subject. Hence the immense importance attached to war 
by the legislations and customs of different states. But war for the 
state was the same obstacle to the real furtherance of the true 
interest of the social union, that political struggles were for the 
individual. And neither for the one nor the other are they essential 
to action. Standing alone, a state, as an organic whole, finds 
sufficient action in the healthy working of its different parts in 
their relations to one another. The single citizen, as we said above, 
may, with the quiet exercise of the philosophic intellect, combine a 
most real influence on the welfare of his country. He may be the 
architect of the political system, whilst his plans are carried out by 
others. The edifice is his building, though others reduce his plan 
into action and find the labour necessary for its completion 
(Ch. I III.). 

The prelude over, Aristotle passes to the consideration of 
the state that he intends to sketch. Certain points must be 
granted, the conditions under which it must be formed. First of 
all there must be citizens, next there must be a place for them to 
inhabit. What is to be the number of those citizens ? Mere 
largeness of number does not make a state great. In fact, the limit 
is very easily reached in point of number, and is fixed by the 
difficulty of managing large numbers. Vividly embodying the 
Greek notion of a state, Aristotle says, its army must be under one 
general, its people capable of hearing one herald, its citizens must 
know one another to secure good elections to offices, for the only 
guarantee of such good elections lies in real personal knowledge, in 
short, the limit of number must be fixed at the point when, com- 
plete satisfaction of all the wants of man being attained, the body 
passes out of the range of the eye, as it were, and ceases to be 
manageable (Ch. IV.). 

The country these citizens are to inhabit must be as complete 
in itself as possible. It must be favourable to all military operations, 
it must be convenient for the transport of commodities. Its capital, 
the city, must be well situated for intercourse, both with the sea 
and land (Ch. V.). 

Some would exclude the former, and urge the dangers of 
maritime intercourse. Care may remedy what dangers exist, and 
the advantages are, in Aristotle's opinion, very considerable 
(Ch. VI.). 

For the character of the citizens, its type must be the Greek 


type in its best form, combining high spirit and energy with quick 
intellectual powers. Such are the most favourable material for the 
lawgiver to mould (Ch. VII.). 

But in any city there will be a distinction between the in- 
habitants. They will not all be citizens in the true sense, even 
though necessary adjuncts to the state. It is necessary for every 
state to be supplied with food, with the conveniences of life and 
with labour. But the classes which respectively supply it with 
these are not, therefore, members of the state. They cannot be so. 
We find the true members of the state in those who defend it in 
arms, who deliberate on its policy, who administer justice. The 
first function naturally falls to the younger, the two others to the 
older, and the care of religious worship shall be entrusted to the 
members of this elder body who have retired from more active duties 
on the ground of age (Ch. VIII. IX.). 

Such is our body politic. It will need, as it has ever needed, 
some articulation and organization. This, from the earliest recorded 
times has been the characteristic of civilized man, witness the caste 
system in Egypt, the public mess of Crete and Italy. Such 
institutions so far as they are useful, must be adopted, and Aristotle 
formally adopts the syssitia. To these all citizens must be admitted, 
but the poor cannot be so without some assistance ; the service of 
the gods, too, requires some property for its maintenance. For both 
these objects there must be public land set apart to be cultivated by 
public slaves, as the best course, if not, by a dependent population, 
as submissive and unconnected in itself as possible (Ch. X.). 

For the actual city. It must occupy a position favourable to 
health, with good air and water. It must have good street 
arrangements, and walls well built and carefully maintained by 
proper officers. In these walls and in the towers the syssitia may 
be held for the majority. Those of the magistrates must be in a 
conspicuous place, and near the temple of the gods. Two large 
public places will be necessary, the Agora for freemen, and the 
ordinary market-place (Ch. XI. XII.). 

All such points are within the province of fortune. He then 
passes to the strict province of the legislator. What we have gone 
through are the basis for the social fabric, on it may be raised a 
good or a bad state. A state is good by its citizens being good, and 
men are good by a combination of three causes, nature, discipline, 
and instruction. The nature is given, it is beyond man's control. 
The other two are within his control. In the Ethics we have had 
the theory for the individual man elaborately sketched out. Educa- 

IV.] SUMMARY. 165 

tion is what is wanted (Ch. XIII.). And here the first question is, 
shall the education given be one and uniform for the governed and 
for the governor, or, in the form the question takes in Aristotle^ 
shall the two be distinct for life? If we accept our previous 
position, and make the distinction one of age merely, then, under its 
guidance, the education presents no difficulty. Man is a complex 
being, made up of body and soul, this last divisible again into 
affections and reason. Reason, again, is either practical or specu- 
lative, and according as we follow one or the other, we lean to action 
or to contemplation. All these distinctions must be carefully kept 
in view, in our discussion of education as a state question ; and the 
one principle that must guide us is, that the lower end must always 
be in due subordination to the higher. It is open to question, of 
course, which is the lower and which is the higher ; and in discussing 
this, Aristotle is led to a criticism on Sparta, and a statement of the 
legitimate objects of war : self-defence, power for the good of the 
subject, rule over those who naturally require it (Ch. XIV.). 

But it is always war for the sake of peace exertion for the sake 
of leisure, and all that leisure enables man to accomplish the active 
virtues for the sake of the contemplative the political life for the 
sake of the theoretic. Some of the virtues may be neglected, all 
are wanted to guarantee the possession of leisure and the right use 
of it. 

Shall we train first by habits, by discipline, or by reason ? The 
answer is, by discipline. And the true order in education is, first, 
the body, then the instincts, then the intellect (Ch. XV.). 

The first step in the bodily training, is to make proper regu- 
lations as to the marriage of the parents. The age of the parties, 
the time of the marriage, the bodily conditions, the care during 
pregnancy: all that may be said to be prior to the birth must be 
attended to. No deformed children must be allowed to live, and 
there must be no children born after the parents have reached a 
certain age (Ch. XVI.). 

When born there must be a careful attention paid to diet and 
health. Till two the children are merely cared for in this matter ; 
from two to five their amusements must be carefully studied. From 
five to seven they may look on, as spectators, at that which they 
are subsequently to learn. The subsequent period till twenty-one, 
with its natural division into the time before the age of puberty and 
that after it, requires all attention. And this forms the subject of 
the fragmentary book which follows (Ch. XVII.). 


the best A NAFKH $}j T Q V /meXXovTa Trepl 


Trpoa-qKova-av (ncet* ioperaerai Trpwrov r? 
/3/o?. a$y\ov yap oVro? TOVTOV Kal Tr\v 
avayKotov aorjXov elvai TroXiTetav' api<rTa yup 
TrpovqKei TOV$ apHTTa TrdXiTevo/Jievovs K TU>V virap- 
avrois, eav jj,r\ TL yiyvrjrai irapaXoyov. $10 Set 
ojULoXoyelcrOai r/? 6 Traariv ai? eiTreiv 

{3lO$ 9 JULTCL 

Tcpo$. No/xia^Ta? ouv 

ev TO?? e^()TepiKOig \6yois Trepl r^9 ajO/crT)/? ^w^?> KCU vvv 

3 xptjcrTeov avToi?. 0)9 a\r]9a)$ yap TTjOO? *ye /i/cw Siaipeo-iv 
ovSels ajuL(pi(rftt]T^(Tiei/ av w? ou, Tpiwv OIHTWV jmeplficw, TWV 


4 rai/ra vTrap^eiv TO?? juaKaplois Set. 

TOVTO TTOTCpOV KOlVfl Ktt ^ft)/0f? ttUTO? I/ 

TroXXa \eyea~9ai KO.I TGOV 


I. i The alteration of the arrange- 
ment leaves it optional which of the 
two sentences shall be adopted, that 
at the end of Book III. or beginning 
of Book IV. I prefer the former, as 
more immediately connecting with the 
preceding remarks. 

K T&V virapx&vTwv aurots] These 
words may be taken either with &pi<TTa 
irparrfiv, or with TroXtTevo^vovs. 
With Stahr I take them with irpdr- 
reiv, " in Folge der ihnen daraus ent- 
springenden Vortheile," 'as a conse- 
quence of the advantages they derive 
from it.' In this case the sense of 
the expression is not the same as that 
which it bears, Eth. I. xi. 13. pp. 
no i, i : K r&v virapx^vruv dei T& 
KaXXiffTa Trpdrreiv. But the context 
here seems to require a different sense. 

irapd\oyov] here as Etli. v. x. 73. 
p. 1135, b. 17, where its adverb 
jrapa\6y(ii)s means, ' contrary to what 
you have a fair right to expect.' 

2 Koivr) Kal x_d)pLs] 'For the state 
and for the individual.' 

vo/Jilvaj'Tas'] This accusative con- 
struction not uncommon. Compare 
III. III. 9, \KTOV /SX^ropras. 

^wrcptKoZs] Comp. note on I. V. 4. 

3 fj,lav SiaLpeffiv] This division is 
given, Eth. i. viii. 2. p. 1098, b. 12, 
and is there spoken of as 56c' waXa-iav 
o&ffav Kal 6/j.6\oyovfj,frr]v virb r&v <pt,\o- 


u)s otf] With Stahr I place a comma 
after these words. 

4 Avoiding all unnecessary detail 
he takes the four great cardinal vir- 
tues, the virtues of Plato in his Re- 

IV. (VII.) 1.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 



v$ piety fAtjSe a-oMppoa-vvw What is 

mrjoe (hpovii<T(ii)$, ccXXcc oeoiOTa /mev Tag 
/u.vla$ 9 aTre^o/xcj/oi^ fie jmrjOevcs, aV 
trieiv 9 TWV ecr^aTaw, eW/ca $e TerapTrj/mopiov 



TOV <payeiv 

$ia<p0lpOVTa TOV? (pl\TaTOVS 

Trepl Ttjv Siavoiav oi/ra>9 a(f)pova KOL\ ieevcr/mevov wanrep TI 
TraiSiov rj jULCuvo/uLevov. 'AXXa TavTct [lev Xeyojmeva wcrTrep 5 
av <Tvy)(0)pr]criav 9 oia(j)cpovTai o' ev TW TTOCTW KOL 
^aig. r?? /xei/ yap apTrj<s fyew iKavov elvai 
OTTOCTOI/OW, TrXoiyrou <5e Kal -^prj/ULaTCOv Kal fivvd- 
Kal 6l~w Kal 7ravTU>v TCOV TOIOVTODV et? aTreipov 

Tt]v v7rep/3o\rjv. q/meis ^e ai>TOi$ epov/jiev OTI paSiov /mev 6 
irepl TOVTWV Kai oia TWV epycov oiaXa/mfiaveiv TY\V TTKTTLV^ 
6pu>VTa$ OTI KTWVTai Kai (pv\aTTOV(Tiv ov Tag aperag Tol<s 
KTO<S aXX' CKeiva raJraf?, Kal TO tyv evSaiimovGos, C'IT ev rw 1323 B 
y^aipeiv e<TT\v C'LT ev apeTy TOIS avOpcotroi? C'IT tv a/ui(j)oiv 9 

OTI /ma\\ov v 

TOI$ TO y 

TY\V oiavotav KCKO 

LCV KKTr]/ULVOtS 7T\el(jO 

(7//>tft)i/, ev <$e TOVTOIS eXXe/Troucni/' ov /mrjv aXXa Kal KUTCL TOV 

\6yOV (TKO7rOV/ULVOl$ eVO-VVOTTTOV <TTLV. TO. /X6i/ yap 6/CTO? 7 

public, Cicero in his Offices, and with 
the same names as Plato. 

TeTapTrjpoploi''} The fourth of an 

5ie\l/evff/Ji.{j>ov'] ' False in his judg- 
ments/ "verwirrt," Stahr. 

5 wffirep irrfjres] ' But although 
this, when stated, is language which 
nearly all would allow, yet they differ 
as to degree and the relative supe- 
riority,' viz., of virtue and the other ad- 
vantages. This is one way of taking 
the w'enre/3, and so taken, it qualifies 
the irdvres. In the other way, 
Stahr' s, the passage runs, 'as all agree, 
so they differ.' Compare, in support 
of this last, Ch. VII. 3, w<rire/> 
(j-tfftvei OU'TWS 

K. r. X.] The order is, 



6 diaXafAfidveiif rr)v irl(rTiv] ( To at- 
tain complete conviction.' 

tv T$ xaipeiv] ' in enjoyment.' 
rty Qu KTTJO-LV T&V dyaduv] 'The 
outward acquisition of the goods of 
life,' or is the 0; displaced, and the 
meaning ' the acquisition of the ex- 
ternal goods ?' 

ov nty d\Xe, K. T. X.] 'Not but that 
when we also consider the question on 
grounds of strict reason, it is an easy 
one to decide.' 

7 T& fttv yap, K. r. X. T&V 5/J Such 
is the connection, the sentence irav 5 
rb xp^^^ov ^xoi/crw is parenthetical. 




What is evet Trepas, cocnrep opyavov Ti' TTVLV oe TO ^p^<Ti]UL6v ecrTtv, 

the best ^ \ t o \ * * G\ r ' * * " j. -\ 

life? WJ/ T^ V7reppo\rjV rj p\a7TTiv avayitaiov *] /u.r]uev ocpeAo? 

elvai avrcov ro?9 e^ovcriv' TCOV $e irepl -^rvyjiv eKauTOV aya- 
6ui)v 9 ocru) Trep av V7rep/3a\\r] 9 TOOTOVTO) jmaXXov xprja-ijULov 
eivai, el Set Kal TOVTOIS e7ri\eyeiv ^ IULOVOV TO KO\OV a\\a 

8 Kal TO ^o^crf/xov. oXco? re $rj\ov co? ctKoXovOeiv (p^croimcv 
Tqv oia9e(Tiv TY\V api&Ttjv CKacrTOV Trpay/uLciTos TT/OO? a\\r]\a 
KOLTGL TY\V VTrepo^v, t]V7Tp e'i\r)(he oia(TTacriv cov 

eivai &tttQe<ret? raura?. COCTT e'lTrep <TT\V y \j 

Kal TOV a-e^uaTO? Ti/micoTepov Kal aTrXw? Kal r/jUiiv 9 
KOI Ti]\> SidOecriv Trjv apiVTrjv eKacrTOV avaXoyov 

9 TOVTCW e^eiv. CTL oe T^? "Y^X^ ^vcKev TOLVTCL 7re(bvKv 
aipera Kal Set iravTas alpeio-Oat rot'? eu (f)povowTag, aXX' 



' For whilst external goods have a 
limit those which depend on the 

uffirep 6pyav6v rC\ oiiftkv 8pyavov 
tiireipov Compare I. VIII. 14, 15. 

irav 5^ rb xptf<r<-f*-oj>, or irtivra. 8pyava] 
' all good things which are useful, as 
instrumental, are such that in excess 
they must either do harm, or there 
can be no advantage from them to 
their possessors.' Nickes, p. 14, note 
4, dwells on this passage as marking 
the strong distinction that exists be- 
tween xp-faifjia. and <rv/j,<ptpoi>Ta. 

Xp-fiffijAOV etvai] depends on avay- 

eTTiMyeiv] Eth. II. ix. 6. p. 1 109, 
b. ii. 

8 6'Xws re SrjXov'] 'And. generally 
it is clear that we shall allow that 
the difference between two things in 
their highest perfection will depend 
on, and be in exact proportion to, the 
difference that exists between them 
in their ordinary state.' The interval 
between the two superlatives will be 
the same as that between the two 
positives. Compare his language in 


the Rhetoric, I. vii. 4. p. 1363, b. 21, 
Kal av rb fityurTOv TOV /Jieyiarov 
O.VTO, avr&v . . . olov el 6 
JP yvvaiicbs T 
Xws ol &v8pes 
K&V pelfovs. 

From this it follows that mental ex- 
cellence, when compared with bodily 
excellence and all external advan- 
tages, such as wealth, will be in the 
same relation of superiority to them, 
as the mind is with regard to the 
body and property. If we allow the 
mind's superiority, we must allow 
the superiority of virtue and wisdom. 

eKdffTov Totrwv avdXoyoit 2x Ll '] Such 
is the order. 

9 TTJS ^VXTJ* %veKv\ ' It is only for 
the sake of the soul that these, ra w 
dyadci Kal ra crwfJiaTiKd, &c. 

10 dperijs Kal <f>povricrews] The re- 
spective excellencies of the 1j0os and 
didvoia, 'moral and intellectual virtue.' 

cwTepiK&i>] here evidently this word 
is equivalent to the simpler w, ' out- 

T7)i> eijTvxiav] The state of the man 
who is in all points well endowed, 

IV. (VII.) 1.] EOAITIK&N A. (H.) 169 

evSaiimovias 67ri{3d\\ei TOVOVTOV o<rov Trep apeTtjs Kai (ppovij- 
(76C09 Kal TOV irpaTTeiv /caret Tcu/rct?, ecrra) arvvco/uioXoyq/uLevov 
/mdprvpi TOO Oew xpco/mevois, 05 ev8at/ /xeV earn Kal 

, c^t' ovOev Se TU*V e^ayTepiKcov ayaOoov a\\a cV avTOV 
\^ / -? *JL' i \ \ \ i r 

I TOt) TTOfO? Tf? CiJ/Cti T^P' (pVCTlV' CTTCl /CCU T^/t 

evSaijULOvtas via T&VT avayKalov eTepav eivai' 
yap GKTOS ayaOcov rrjs "vf^f^? CIITIOV Tavro^arov Kal y Tv^rj 9 
SiKaios c^' ouc^el? ouc^e <rw(pp(*)v euro Tv^rj^ ovSe Sia Tt]v TV^V 
ecrTiV. 'E^cWyoy S* ecrrl Kal TWV avTwv \6ywv Seo/mevov 
Kal TroXiv evSai/mova T*]V apia~Ttjv elvai Kai TrpaTTOwav /cctXco?. 
'.Aivvarov Se /caXco? TrpdrTeiv TO?? M TO. KO\a irpaTTOvcriv. 
ovOev fie KO\OV epyov o&T avopos OUTC TroXeco? ^wpi^ ct/oeT^? 
Kal (bpovr]<Te(j!)$. avopia, oe 7roXeo)9 Kai oiKaiocrvvrj Kai (ppo- 

e/caarTO? TCOV avOpcoTrcov \eyeTai OIKCUOS Kai d)povi[j.os Kai 
(Tcotppwv. aXXa yap ravra JULCV CTTI TOCTOVTOV lirrw Trecppoi- 
yumo-yaeva TW \dyw (ovTe yap JUL^ Qiyydveiv avrwv Svvardv, 
OUTC Trdvras TOV$ oiKiov$ eTre^eXOeiv evSe-^eTai \oyow erepces 

What 13 
the best 

yap evTiv epyov <r^oX^9 TCWTay vvv o VTroKelcrOa) 
OTI /3io$ fmev api<rTO$, Kal X&ptS e/cacrra) Kal Koivfj ra?? TroXe- 
<riv 9 o JULCTU apertfy Ke-xopiytl/u-evrjs ejrl TOCTOVTOV coarre /xere- 
^eiv TWV /car' aperyv Trpa^ecov. TT^OO? c^e rou? afjL<picr/3r]- 

J 3 2 4 

so far as outward advantages are con- 

TT?S i/'i'X^s] depends on e/cr6s. 

ra.vrbfia.rov Kal i) rtixv] They come 
to a man without any efforts of his 
own, spontaneously and from fortune. 

a.irb Ti5%77s] 'as a gift of fortune.' 
dia rty rvx'nv, l on the ground of his 
fortune.' The former excludes rir^?; as 
the giving power, the latter excludes 
it as the constituent of happiness. 

1 1 lx^f j - vov ^] ' Closely connected 
with this, and requiring no other ar- 
guments, is the statement/ &c. 

TrpdrTovffav /caXcDs] is a simple am- 

12 dvdpia, K. r. X.] ' Courage in a 

state and justice and wisdom are, in 
their force and form, the same as in 
the individual, when, by virtue of his 
participation in them, he is called 
just, wise, and temperate.' 

1 3 roi)s oticelovs] ' proper to the 

erepas (T^oA???] t( un autre ouvrage," 
St. Hil. : " einen andern Vortrag," 
Stahr: "discussion:" but it may be 
simply 'leisure,' as he says 

dper^s] Compare Etli. X. ix. 
p. 1178, b. 33. 

14 Trpbs 5 rot)s d / u0t<r/3?7ToOi>7:as] 
Spengel, p. 46, says, " So redet Aris- 
toteles sorist nicht." The expression 




What is 

the best 



e* rt? TO*9 eiprjjULevois 

same for 
the man 

and for the 

, $ia<TK7rTeov v<TTepov 9 

t] 7riuo]u.vos. 

ev^aL/JLOviav rt]v avTrjv elvai (fiareov 




ecrTLV eiTrelv. (bavepov Se KOI TOVTO' TTOLVTCS yap 
' ^ ' ^ ^ % $ , \ 

elvai TY\V avTtfV. ocroi yap ev TrXofTft) TO 
r^ e^ TiOevTai e(f) ei/O9> ourof /cal T^J/ TroXfV o\rjv, eav y 
TrXoucr/a, jULCtKapi^ovariv ovoi re TOI/ rvpavviKOv /3iov fj.a\t<TTa 

, ovTOt KO.I TToXiv Ttjv 7rXe/<TTft)^ ap^ovcrav evSaiimove- 
av etvai (fiaiev e'l re Tf? TOJ^ eva &C aperqv a-Trooe'- 

KOI 7ro\iv ev^aL^ovecrTepav (prjarei Tr\v (nrovoaiOTepav. 
'AXXa TCLVT %<$*} Svo <TT\V a $eiTai (TKc^ews, ^v yuei/ TTO- 
re^oo? alpeTWTepog /S/o?, o ^(a TOU crv/u,7ro\iTev(r6ai Kal KOI- 
vwvelv -TroXeo)? 'i /maXXov 6 J~VIKOS Kal r^? 7roXfT(:^9 KOIVW- 
via? aTroXeXf/xeVo?, ert ^e rtVa TrdXireiav OCTCOV Kal Troiav 
SiaOeoriv TroXew? apltTT^, eiTe Traariv OVTOS aipeTOv Koivaovetv 
TToXeco? e'/re /ca/ riarl yuei/ yu^f TO?? ^e TrXe/crro*?. eTrei oe 

is quite singular in his works. Spen- 
gel, not doubting the genuineness of 
these introductory chapters, thinks 
that the different parts are probably 
not of the same date, pp. 47, 48. 

tirl XT)? vvv fj.d68ov~\ ' in our present 

II. i It is difficult certainly to see 
how these two first sections are to be 
distinguished from the last chapter. 
If a distinction is drawn it must be 
in this, that in Ch. I. he has been 
directing attention mainly to virtue, 
and has decided that in the individual 
and the state it is analogous. Here, 
on the other hand, he more especially 
dwells on happiness, which, by general 
consent, he says, is clearly the same 
for both ; or they may be treated 
simply as an introductory re'sume'. 

2 rbv %va aTroS^eTcu] ' allows the 
individual to be happy, on the ground 
of his being virtuous.' 

3 6 %eviK&s, K. r. X.] 'The life of an 
alien and of one who stands aloof from 
all interference in the political asso- 
ciation/ &VOL Kal TrapeTrtdrjuoi eirl TTJS 
7775, Heb. xi. 13. 

ctre iraffiv, K. T. X. ] ' in either sup- 
position, be it that for all equally it 
is desirable, or, though for some par- 
ticular cases not, yet for the ma- 

4 TOVTO] might be taken as equiva- 
lent to TO TOIS ir\i<TTOis alpeTov, but it 
seems better to take it as ' this second 
question,' viz. : what constitution is 
to be formed? The stress in the sen- 
tence lies on TroXtrt/c^s. ' But since 
this second question is the proper 
object of political reflexion and politi- 
cal science, and it is this political in- 
quiry (TO.VTIIJV rr\v <TK\J/IV) that I have 
now chosen, the first is superfluous,' 
&c. This I believe to be the render- 
ing of the passage, and yet it is quite 
true that Aristotle at once goes on to 

IV. (VII.) 2.] nOAlTIKON A. (H.) 


r>79 7TO\iTiKrjs Siavolag Kal Oecapiag TOVT <TT\V epyov, ctXX' j^esTthe 
ov TO Trepl GKaarTOv atpcrav, rj/mets Se TavTrjv 7rpor)prjiu.e6a vvv same for 

, , i . \ * * ~ the man 

T*]V CTKe^iV, CKCIVO JU(.V Trapepyov civ eir] TOVTO o epyov TA;? and for the 

jmeOoSov TavTtjg. on imev ovv avayKatov elvai 7ro\iTeiav __!_ a 


Kal Qfirj fJMKaplt*?9 (pavepov <TTLV ajUL(picr/3rjTeiTai fie Trap 
avrcov TWV ojULoXoyovvTCOv TOV [ACT ctjOer^9 elvai fiiov alpe- 


r] /uia\\ov 6 iravTWV TWV e/cro? aTroXeXu/xei/o?, olov OecoprjTiKos 
Tf?, ov fjiovov Tiveg (paviv elvai (pi\6cro(j)ov. cr^eSov yap 5 


apeTtjv (patvovrai TrpoaipovfJievoi,, Kal TU>V Trporepcov KOI TWV 
vvv \eyco $e $vo TOV TG TTO\ITIKOV Kai TOV (pi\o(ro<pov. oia- 
(pepei $e ov jmiKpov 7roTepw<s e^ei TO aX^Oe?* avayKrj yap TOV 
TreT ev (ppovovvTa 7rpo$ TOV /3e\Ti<0 (TKOTTOV arvvTaTTevQai 


Ifovori ^ ot /mev TO TWV TreXa? ap-^eiv SecrTroTiKWs /mev yiyvo- 

) 1 ft t \ f ~ t -^ ** ^\ \ 

yuer adiKiag TIVO? eivai T^9 jmeyia-Tr]?, TroXiTiKws de TO 

ft /ft ft^J/ \> 

oe eeiv 

Trei avTOV 

oocnrep e^ evavTLa$ cTepot 

aoiKov OVK e^eiv, CJULTTOOIOV 

' ILJLOVOV yap avfipos TOV TTpaKTiKOv civai /3iov Kal 

deis /xaX- 

7ro\iTiKov e(f) e/cacrr^9 yap apeTtjs OVK eivai 
* Bekker does not bracket this. 

consider the question of the relative 
value, both for the state and for the 
individual, of the two kinds of life, 
the philosophic or contemplative, and 
the political or practical, a question 
fully discussed and settled by him, 
Eth. x. vii. 8. pp. 1177, 8. 

5 T&V 6/J,0\Oyotil>T(i}V, K. T. X.] T&V 

rbv &a di' a.peTT]v aTroSexofAfrw from 

olov Oeojp-rjTiKos'] ' I mean, a life of 
contemplation,' I. vii. 5, olov 77 SIKCU'CI. 

6 ot 0iXort/x6rarot irpbs aperriv] 
"die am meisten nach Tugend stre- 
benden," Stahr. 'Those who are 
most keen in the pursuit of virtue. ' 

TOV re] This re seems meaningless. 
Stahr keeps it, but does not translate 

o-vvrdTTeo-dai] f arrange himself for, 
discipline himself for.' 

7 SetrTTOTiKcDs yiyv6/JiVov^ ' If it 
wear the character of a despotism or 

tuirbSiov 8 x eo/ ] Compare II. VI. 
22, ?x ei tirucivSwov, and note. Here 
/j,Tr68iov elvai would be more natural. 

ai)r6v] se ipsum, Vet. Tr. Several 
editors change the aMv, though dis- 
agreeing as to its substitute. There 
is no necessity for the change, looking 
at the general use of the word. 




Is hap- ^ OJ/ T0 f ? ifiiwrais r] TOig TO, KOIVO. TrparTovcri Kal TroXirevo- 
pinessthe , ^ fl ( \ t , 

same for ju.evoi$. Ui [JLV ovi' OfTOJ? VTroAajULpavovfTiv, 01 oe TOV oecrTro- 
the man ^ \ \ / ,> x /. r 

and for the TiKOV Kai TVpaVVlKOV TpOTTOV T>/? TTOAfTeta? LVCLl JULOVOV 
state ? ' ^ ' ' j. f M \ /-N > 

evoaifJiova (patriv. Trap eviois oe /cat T*;? TroAireia? ouro? 

O OyOO? ACaf TWl/ VOfJLGOV, OTTO)? OeCTTTOrftXTf TO)1/ TTeXa?. OfO /Cat 

rwi/ TrXeio-TCov vojmi/mcov ^ySr]v a>? eiTreiv KeifjLevcov Trapa TO?? 
TrXe/crroi?, o/xw? e? TTOU T* TTjOO? ei/ ot VO/ULOI /3\7rovcri 9 TOV 
KpaTelv (TTO-^aCovraL Trai/re?, wcnrep ev AaKeSaijULovi Kal 

rjTt] TTjOO? TOL*? TToXe/XOU? VVVTeTOLKTOLl (T^e^OV ij T TTttlSeia 
TO TO)V VOfJiWV 7T\r]6og. Tl (T 6l/ TO?9 e'OveCTl TTaOTl TO?? 

6TL/ULr]Tai o'wa/xf?, oToi/ i/ 
a^J /cad KeXTO??. cv eviois yap 

r /^ V / ^^^^ 

j/o/xot Tfye? eto"t irapocvvovTes TT^OO? T^J^ apeTyv 
6vL (paarl 

KaOaTrep ev K.ap^rjSvL (aar TOV etc TU>V KpiKWv KO<TJULOV 
\a/uL/3dveiv 6Va? aV (TTpaTevcrcovTai (TTpaTeiag. r^v o^e TTOTC 
/ecu TrejOf MctA:e^owct^ v6[J,o<$ TOV /ULt]Oeva air eKTay KOTO. TroXe- 
JULIOV avSpa Trepie^cocrOai Trjv (pop/3eidv. ev o"e 
e^i/ Triveiv ev eopTy TLVL o~KV(pov TrepKpepojmevov TO> 
CLTreKTayKOTi 7ro\e/uLiov. ev oe Toi?{3r]pcriv 9 eOvei 
Tocroi/rou? TOV apiOfJiov o/3e\icrKOV$ KaTaTrtiyvvova-t irepl TOV 
TCHpov ocrof? av oia<p6eipri TWV TroXe/micov. Kal eTepa Srj 
Trap Tepoi$ ecrTi TOLCLVTO. TroXXa, Ta [Mev VOJULOIS K(tTei\r]/ji,- 

* I have inserted /ecu. 

OVK elvai Trpd&is, K. r. X.] "The man 
who keeps aloof from political life has 
not so much scope for practising them 
as they have who mix in it.' 

8 ot fttv ofiv oirrws] The meaning 
must be carried back past the last 
sentence, and the OV'TWS must be the 
view taken in 7, the view adverse to 
the political life. 

oSros #/>os T&V vbpuv] Vet. Tr. 
reads Kal before vbpwv. Stahr ap- 
proves of this change, and the context 
requires it. 'This is the sole end 
both of the constitution and the se- 

parate laws.' I have therefore in- 
serted Kal. 

g X^STJV^ ( promiscuously' ' without 
order/ the Latin 'temere.' 

10 ev rots Qveffi\ as distinct from 
the 7r6\as. They had no TroXtre/a. 

Z/ctf0cus, K. r. X.] The great divi- 
sions of the non- Hellenic world to 

11 TreptMa/ceooi'i'ai'] Compare Grote, 
IV. II ; XI. 397. 

TT?J> 0op/3ctcij'] a "mouthband of 
leather/' L. and S. 

ev 2Ki>6ais~\ Herod. IV. 66. 

12 KdTeiX?7 / u,/i6'a ' established.' 

IV. (VII.) 2.] 



I s na P- 

piness the 
same for 

the man 
n( j for t jj e 

T 3 


/Uieva TO. <$e eOecriv. KULTOI So^eiev av ayav OLTOTTOV 
etvai TO*? ^ovXojmevoif eTricrKOTreiv, el TOVT ecrTlv epyov TOV 
TroXiTiKoV) TO ovvacrOai Oecopeiv OTTO)? a P")(JI Kai oe<T7ro\ri TWV 
7r\r](Tiov Kai (3ovXo/mevwv Kal fj.rj (SovXo/mevcov. TTCO? yap uv 

e'lrj TOVTO TToXlTlKOV r] VO/UioOeTlKOV, O ye /ULrjO*e VOfJLljULOV e<JTLV\ 

ov VOJU.IJULOV fie TO ju.rj jULovov fiiKaio)? aXXa Kal aoY/ca)? ap^eiv 9 
KpaTelv S"* ecrTL Kal /uLrj ^f/ca/a)?. aXXa jm.tjv ovS" 1 ev Tai$ 
aXXaf? eTTfCTT^yaaf? TOVTO opco/mev ovTe yap TOV taTpov OVTG 
TOV Kv/3epvyTOV epyov e<TT\ TO r) Tre~<rai q /3ia<ra<rOai TOV jmev 
TOV$ 6epa7revoju.evov$ TOV $e TOV$ TrXcoT^a?. aXX' eoLKatriv 
ol TroXXol Trjv ^earTTOTiKtjv TroXiTiKtjv o'lecrOaL elvai, Kal OTrep 
avTolg eKacTTOL ov (fiaariv eTvai SiKaiov ov$e w/uLcfrepov., TOVT 
OVK aio"xyvovTai 7rpo$ TOf? aXXou? a&KovvTes' avTOi /u.ev yap 
Trap' avTOi? TO SiKaicos apveiv FrjTOvcri, Trpo? <$e TOV<S aXXof? 

I /V O I 

ovSev /ULeXei TCOV o'iKaicov. CLTOTTOV $e el fjir) (pvcrei TO /mev 
oecTTTO^ov ecrTi TO $e ov Se(T7ro^ov 9 WCTTC e'lTrep e^ei TOV Tpo- 
irov TOVTOV, ov $ei TravTWV TreipacrOai Seonrofyiv, aXXa TOJV 
Se<T7ro<TTCiJv, wcnrep ov$e Orjpeveiv eTrl Ooivqv rj Ova-lav avOpco- 


av aypiov y eoecrTov (jpov. aXXa jULrjv e'trj y* av Kal Kaff 16 1325 
TroXf? evSaijuLCDV) 5; TroXiTeveTai StjXovoTi KaXco? 9 


13 TroXiTiKbv r) vo^oOerLK6v~\ 'within 
the scope of the statesman or the law- 

Kpareiv] ' The mere assertion of su- 
perior strength involves no considera- 
tion of justice.' 

otfre ydp, K. r.X.] The patient sub- 
mits to the physician, the crew to the 
pilot, the citizen must submit to the 
lawgiver. This must be taken for 

14 dXX' olKa<riv] ' Still, strange 
though it be, it would seem that the 

6Ve/> O.VTOIS, K. T. X.] Eth. V. iii. 15, 
p. 1129, b. 32 ; compare also Thuc. 
V. 105, Aa/ce5at/x,6i'tot yap irpbs <r<pas 

fJL^V O.VTOVS, K. T. X. 


rb fj,v ddffTrofov r6 5^ oft 
Stahr reads Sea-iroaTdv in both places, 
and refers to III. XVII. i. But there 
does not seem any necessity for the 
change, the required distinction may 
be elicited from the present reading, 
though it certainly would be simpler 
the other way. 

Totfrcw] ' as the majority think. ' 

1 6 Again there might be no oppor- 
tunity for a state to exercise this power 
of conquering and ruling over others 
as a despot state, for it might stand 
alone. Such a state would be allowed 
to be happy. 

f) TroXtretfercu] ' granting of course 
that it be well governed.' 




Is hap- clirep ev$-veTai iroXiv oiKeicrOai TTOV /*$' eavTriv VOULOIS 
pmessthe r A , , f - *'<',>- 

same for ^pa)JULevt]V CTTTOf OttiOf?, >/9 T*79 -TTOAfTeta? ^ CTfl/ra^9 OU TTjOO? 
the man , , , ^ ^ 3 , , 

and for the TToXejUiov ovoe irpo? TO KpaTeiv e(TTai TOOV TroXe/x/ow 

state ^ * * ' ~ 5>^"\ >f ^ t \ 

TOIOVTOV. orj\ov apa OTI Tracrct? ra? 



aKpoTdTOv, aXX' CKCLVOV ^aptv TdVTag. TOV $e 
vofJLoOeTOV TOV (TTTOvSaLov eoTTi TO OeacracrOai 7r6\iv KCU 
yevos avQpwTTMV KOL Traerav aXXrjv KOLVtoviav, ^0)^9 aya9q<? 
18 TTft)? juLeOe^ovcri /ecu r^? evSe^o/uLevijg avTois ev$ai/uiovia$. Sioto-ei 


/^<->\1ft/*f */ * 

ueTiKtjs ecTTiv ideiv, eav Ttve? vTrap^wcri yeiTviwvTes, Troia 

TTjOO? TTO/OU? 0.(TKt]TOV *J TTcC? TO?? KCtOqKOVtTl TTjOO? 6/Ca<7TOV? 

Xprja-Teov. 'AXXa TOVTO jmev KO.V vcrTepov TV^OI T^? Trpoar- 
yKOvcrris a-/ce\|reft)?, TT^OO? Tt TeXo? $eF T^ api(TTt]v 
3 a-vvTeiveiv irpos fie TOW? 6/uLo\oyovvTa$ jj.ev TOV 
elvai fitov alpeTcoTCLTOv, Sia<ppoiu.evovs Se Trepl 


a-L Ta? TroXiTtAca? ap^as, i/o/x 

eXevOepov fiiov eTepov TIVCL elvai TOV iroXtTiKov Kal 
TOV imrjOev TrpaTTOVTa TrpaTreiv ev, T*]V S* evirpaylav Kal TTJV 
evoai/Jioviav elvai TavTOv) OTI TO. fjiev a^^oTepoL Xeyovariv 

6p9wf TO. <5' OVK 6p9u)$ 9 01 JU.CV OTI 6 TOV eXevOepov ]8/O? TOU 

SCCTTTOTIKOV ajuielvcov. TOVTO yap aXr]6e$' ovOev yap TO ye 
$ovX(f>, y SovXos, xpfjarOai a-ejmvov % yap eTriTafys *l Trepl TU>V 


17 7^05 fodpuiruv] seems an equi- 
valent expression to tdvos. 

frSexofAtvrjs a^ro?s] 'open to them.' 
1 8 ro?s Ka0r]Kov<ri] St. Hil. and 
Stahr agree in translating this " du- 
ties," Viet, "quae ad officia perti- 
nent." I rather take it in the sense 
of what is 'fitting,' 'appropriate,' 
and not in a technical sense. 

direct all its efforts.' 

III. i 01 ptv yap] ' I say both, for 
he one,' &c. 
IXrvftpov] equivalent to the 

Kal TTJS 1TO\lTlKf)$ KOLVUvlaS a7TO\6\V(J,{- 

vos of 2, 3. -The words dirpdy/jiuv, 
tditbTrjs would also express the same 

aSvvarov ydp~\ ' For they urge that 
it is impossible. ' 

5e<nroTt/cou] This word is emphatic. 
If the rule over slaves is all that is 
open to a man, to keep clear of all 
power is the wiser course. 

2 otiQtv ydp] Compare I. vn. 4, as 
also for what follows the earlier part 
of the same chapter. 

IV. (VII.) 3.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 175 

avayKaiwv ovo'evos /merevei TCOV Ka\a>v. TO uevroi vou.i'feiv Is 

~ ? t % * n 

wcurav dpxyv eivai oecrTroTeiav OVK opOov ov yap eXarrov same for 

nr r *. *\ n > , \ ~ ~ ^ ,\ > N x the man 

TWV e\VUeO)V ayrj T*)<S TWV OOV\(*)V Y\ aVTO TO an( j f or tn 


i / 'x / /\ *" J ' ^ '~\ ^ / ^^ ^ Qf",afrp2 

<pv<rei e\evvepov TOV (pvcrei oovXov. oiwpiVTai oe irepi _ 
iKavu>$ ev TO/? irpcoTois \dyoi$. TO oe jmaXXov 3 

TO airpaKTeiv TOV irpaTTeiv OVK aXrjOe^ tj yap 
evoaifjiovia TT petals ecrTiv. CTI $e iroXXwv Kal Ka\u>v TeXo<f 
e^ovcriv ai TCOV oiKalcov KOI (raxbpovwv Trpa^ei^. Ka/TOt 
Ta'fc av V7ro\a(3oi Tf9 TOVTWV OUTCO OKapKTfJLevwv OTI TO 
Kvpiov eivai TTUVTWV apiarTOV OUTCO yap av 7r\ei(TT(jov Kal 
Ka\\i(TTWV Kvpios eitj Trpd^ewv. oxrTe ov o*ei TOV ovvd/Jievov 4 
apyeiv jrapievai TO) 7r\r]criov 9 aXXa jmdXXov d(paipeicr6ai 9 Kal 
fjujTe iraTepa iraioajv /UL^TC Traioas iraTpog jJLrjff 6X0)9 <pi\ov 
(piXov fJirjQeva V7ro\oyeiv jULtjoe TTOO? TOVTO (ppovTilfeiv' TO 
yap apicrTOV aipeTurraTOv, TO o > ' ev TrpaTTeiv aptcrTOV. 
TOVTO ju.ev ovv d\t]6a)$ iVft>9 \eyovariv, e'tTrep virdp^ei TO?9 
a7ro<TTepovcri Kai j3ia{o/uLevoi$ TO TWV OVTCOV atpeTWTaTOV. 1325 B 
aXX' fVa)9 ov-% olov TC vTrdp^eiv, aXX' VTTOTiOevTai TOVTO 5 
^sevSos" ov yap CTI Ka\d$ Ta? Trpd^eis evoeyeTai eivai TW 
/mr] Sia(pepovTi TOCTOVTOV oarov avrjp yvvaiKog rj iraTtjp TCKVOOV 
ft oearTTOTris oovXwv. COCTTC o 7rapa/3alvcov ovOev av Trj\iKOVTOV 
KaTopOcocreiev vcrTepov otrov rjorj 7rapeK{3e(3r]K T^9 apeT^jf. TO?? 
yap o/xo/of? TO /caXoi/ Kal TO SiKaiov ev TW fj.epei' TOVTO yap 

?<TOV Kal OfJLOlOV. TO $e /Jirj '[(TOV TOl<$ '1<TOIS Kal TO fJLrj OJULOtOV g 
*^ff ^JL' 9^^w^/^ ^ p _L ' *\ 

TO/9 o/xoto*9 Trapa (pvcriv' ovoev oe TOOV irapa (putriv Ka\ov. 
Sto KOLV aXXo9 Tf9 J KpeiTTOOv KaT apeTrfv Kal KaTa ovvajjuv 

3 rAos ^x ovffiv ] ' involve the ac- 
complishment of.' 

4 irapifrai] ' to give way to.' 
viroXoyew] ' take account of, nor, 

as compared with this, bestow a 
thought upon them.' The kindred 
form i>Tro\oyifeo-6at, with a similar 
sense, is not uncommon in Plato. 

5 vTTOTidevTai TOVTO ^eOSos] ' here 
lies the fallacy of their assumption.' 

Sffov av/ip, K. T. X. ] The cases given 
are instances of great natural differ- 
ences, and in them there is no opening 

for that dpx^l TTO\ITIK^, that rule over 
equal and free citizens, which, in the 
reasoning, the objector is supposed to 
aim at destroying. 

wVre 6 Trapapaltsuv] ' He then, who, 
by nature on a level with others, 
endeavours to place himself above 
them as their master, commits an 
error which no subsequent success can 
redeem. If men are equal, right and 
justice for them consist in their being 
governors and governed in turn.' 

6 5*6 K &v &\\os, K. T. X. ] Indeed, 




and for the 
state ? 

\ / 


Is hap- irpaKTiKvv TWV apiarrcov, TOVTO) KaXov aKoXovOeiv Kal TOVTW 
pmessthe f f , , , ' , , , , , , ,, 

same for Treiuea-uat oiKaiov. oei o ov jmovov apeTrjv a\\a Kai ovva- 

the man , , &-*-'* f > \ A ^ -> 

Kau rjv ecrTai TrpaKTiKos. J\\\ ei raura 

^^^ r '/"' ^ 

Kai Tt]v evocufiovtav evjrpayiav ueTeov, Kai 
Xeco? av eltj Kai KaO* eKacrTov apicrTos /3/O? o 

8 TrpaKTiKos* aXXa TOV irpaKTiKOV OVK avayKaiov eivai 7rpo$ 

^, KaOaTrep o'lovTai Tive<s 9 ovSe ra? diavoias elvai 

TrpaKTiKas ra? TWV a7ro/3aiv6vTtov \apiv 
CK TOV TrpaTTGiv, a\\a TTO\V ]u.aX\ov ra< 
ra? avTwv eveKev Oewpias Kal Siavorjcreis' rj yap 
WXo?, wcrre KOI Trpaj^is TI$' /xaXfcrra Se Kal TrpaTTeiv \eyo- 
{Jiev Kvplcos Kal TCOV e^wTepiKcoi/ Trpa^ecov TOV<? Tal<$ oiavolai? 

9 apxiTKTOva$. aXXa ^v ov^ aTrpaKTeiv avayKaiov ra? 
Ka9' aura? TroXet? i$pvfteva$ Kal ^rjv OUTGO Trpoyprj/uLevav 
ev^e-^eTai yap /cara jmeprj Kal TOVTO crvjuifiaivciv iroXXal yap 

10 Koivcovlai TTjOO? aXX^Xa TO?? /m.epea-1 r^? TroXeco? eiviv. 

so far is it from being true that each 
man should grasp at power, on any 
ground, even on this, that he will 
make a good use of it, that he ought 
to see that it is the right thing and 
the noble for him to retire before any 
one who is his superior, and yield 
him obedience. 

7 Set 5' ov nbvov, K. r. X.] 'I use 
both terms, virtue and ability (5iW- 
fuv), for both are necessary. Virtue 
alone does not guarantee the skill to 
use it rightly.' 

8 dXXd rbv TrpaKTiKbv] But in taking 
up this position we must attend to the 
sense of the word irpaKTiic6s. 

rds TWV airofiaivbvTUv] The order is, 

K TOV irpdrrew. 

atfroreXeiy] f sui juris,' 'independ- 
ent,' 'self-complete,' the opposite of 

i) yap] ' That there are such is 
clear, for,' &c. 

' external actions. ' 

TOI)S d/>%iT^/croi>as] Compare Metaph. 
I. v. p. 981, dio Kai roi)s 
irepl ^KaffTov rt/uwre'/ooi'S Kal 
voiJ.ltop.ev T 

9 dXXd ^v~\ ( Nor again, putting 
aside these considerations and taking 
action in the common sense, is it ne- 
cessary to condemn to inaction the 
states which are placed alone, and 
which choose a life answering to this 
their isolation.' 

Kal TOVTO] This Kal seems out of 
place. Its more natural position is 
before the /rarci. ' For it is possible 
even within themselves and with 
reference to their several parts, that 
there should be action,' TOVTO sc. TO 

10 vTrapxet] ' is true of.' 

^XoXfl ydp] 'else hardly.' 

ofs OVK eifftv] For this language, as 
far as it applies to the gods, compare 
Eih. x. viii. 7, 8, p. 1178, b. 8. 

rois di>6p67rois] seems equivalent to 

IV. (VII.) 4.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


Se TOVTO vTrdpxei Kal /ca$' evo$ OTOVOVV TCOV av 
o-^oX^ yap av o 6eo$ e^ot /eaXco? Kal TTW? o KOCT/XO?, of? OVK 
eia-lv e^wTepiKal Trpd^eis Trapa ret? oiiceias ra? OLVTWV. 'On 
fjiev ovv TOV avTOV fiiov avayKaiov elvat TOV apurrov e/ca<TT<w 


(bavepov CCTTLV. 

'E?rei ^e Tr<ppoi[jiLacrTai TO. vvv eiprj/meva Trepl avrwv 9 KOLI 
wepl ra? aXXa? TroXire/a? TeOecoprjTai irporepov, cip^rj 
TWV \OITTWV eiTreiv irpwTOV Tro/a? rivag Set ret? V7ro6ea-eis 
etvai Trepl T?? /ULeXXovcrrjs KCLT ev-^v crvvearrdvai TroXea)?. ov 
yap olov T 7ro\LTelav yevecrOai Trjv apKTTrjv avev <ruyu/xe- 
Tpov ^oprjyia^. $10 oei TroXXa TrpouTTOTeOeicrOai Ka.6a.7rep 
ev'fcojuievovs, etvai JULCVTOI /mrjOev TOVTGOV aovvaTOV. \eyay oe 
olov Trepi re TrXqOovs TroXiTwv Kal yu>pa<s. axTTrep yap Kal 
TO?? aXXof? $t]imiovpyoi$ 9 olov ixpavTy Kal vavirriyu), <$ei rrjv 
vXrjv VTrap^eiv CTriTrjoeiav ovarav TTOO? TY\V epyaanav (oartp 
yap av avrrj Tvy^avr] Trapea-Kevav/uievr] /3e\riov 9 avayKtj Kal 
TO yiyvo/mevov VTTO T?? Te^i/^y? elvai /caXXfoy), OUTOJ Kal TW 
TroXtTf/ccu KOI TO) vo/JioOeTy Set Ttjv oiKclav v\rjv virap-^eiv 
7riTt]ui(t)$ e^ovcrav. <TTI oe TroXtTf/c^? "^opriyla^ T 

TO T TrX^O? TWV avOpWTTWV,, TToVof? T Kal TTO/Of? 

eiv Set (pva-ei, Kal KaTa T^V -^wpav axraurco?, ocrtjv TC 

Is hap- 
piness the 
same for 
the man 
and for the 
state ? 


number of 


the 7^09 at>6pwir(i)v of II. 1 7, and I 
see no reason for omitting them, as 
Spengel wishes to do, XLVII. note 

IV. i So far by way of prelude 
or introduction. He proceeds more 
directly to his task of forming a con- 
stitution, and to the conditions, first 
of all, which he requires. He must 
have a certain number of citizens, and 
a country in which to place them. 

Kal irepl ras #XXas] This is one of 
the passages which is necessarily omit- 
ted if the order of the books is changed, 
as I have changed it. 

'the primary assump- 

A. P. 

tions,' the conditions under which we 
can form our state. 

2 ffufj-fji^Tpov xopfjyia.^~\ 'adequate 
appliances. ' 

irpovTroTtdeiadai] ' we must pre- 
suppose many things.' I take th 
verb in an active sense, looking at 
the accusative ei/xofi-frovs. We have 
virorideffdai in the parallel passage, 
II. 6, 7. 

3 tiriT'r)8ela,j> oftaav] ( in a right 
state for their work.' 

rtjv oiKelav v\f]v] 'Their peculia 

4 TToXmKT/s xP r TY^ as ] ' The first 
point in the statesman's arguments.' 

depends on TTOIOVS rivds. 





T . he , eivai Kal Troiav TIVU Tavrr,v. O'IOVTCU uey ovv ol 
number of 


juLeyaXyv elvai T^V evSai/mova TroXiv el fie TOVT 

5 aXrjOe?, ayvoova-i TTOIO. /meydXtj Kal Troia /miKpa Tro'Xf?. /car' 
apiO/JLOv yap TrXfjOo? TU>V CVOIKOVVTCDV Kplvova-i Trjv /meydXyv, 
oei oe /maXXov jmrj $ TO 7r\r}6o$ el? c)e ^vva/miv aTrofiXeireiv. 
ecTTi yap TI Kai TroXeco? epyov? cocrxe T^V fivvajULevrjv TOVTO 
IJioXio-T ctTroreXeiv, ravT^v oiyreov elvai fj.eyi<TTriv 9 olov 'Ix- 
'TTOKparrjv OVK avOpcoTrov aXX' larpov elvai /mei^co fyJjoreiev av 

6 rf? TOV <$ia<pepovTO<s Kara TO /meyeOos TOV orco/xaro?. ov 
priv aXXa KO.V el Sei Kpivew TTjOO? TO TrXrjOos aTTOjSXeVo^Ta?, 
ov /CCCTCI TO TV^OV TrXqOos TOVTO olrjTeov (avayKoiov yap ev 
TOLLS iroXeiTLv fVa)9 virap^eiv KOL oovXcov apiO/mov TroXXwv 
KOL [jLeTOiKcov teal eVa>i>,) aXX' ocrof TroXea;? el(Ti fj.epo<$ KCU 
el* wv <TvviarTaTai TroXiv oiKeiwv /uioplow' *] yap TOVTCOV 
vTrepo^r] TOV TrXrjQovg imeyaXtjg TroXew? o-tjjmetov, e^ ?? o'e 
fiavavvoi /mev ezepyjovTai TroXXoJ TOV apiOjULOV o7r\iTai oe 
o\iyoi 9 TavTtfv aovvaTQv elvai ju.eyaXqv' ov yap TavTOv /me- 

7 yaXq Te 7roXt$ Kal 7roXvavOpa)Tro$. aXXa ^v KCU TOVTO 
ye eic Ttov epycov (pavepov OTL ^aXeTroV, fVa)? S" aovvaTOV, 
evvojULei<r9ai T*\V \iav TroXvdvOpcoTrov. TU>V yovv SOKOVITWV 
iroXiTevea-Qai KaXoog ovSe/miav opw^ev ovarav avet[jievr]v Trpo? 

TO 7T\r)9oS. TOVTO O6 OrjXoV Kal OICL T>7? T(JbV 

o Te yap i/oyuo? 

f? T9 ecrTi, Ka Ttjv evvo/miav avayKaiov 
evraj~iav elvai, 6 $e Xiav vTrep/SdXXtov api6ju.o? ov ovvarctt 
' 6eia<s yap Srj TOVTO fivvd/mecos epyov, 

el 5t TOVT' d\ij0&] ' This may be 
true, but they do not know. ' 

5 IcrTt ydp, K. r. X. ] ' For the state, 
the collective personality as well as 
the individual artificer, has its work. ' 

6 01) jj,ty dXXd, K. r. X. ] ' or change 
the view and take number also into ac- 
count, yet quality must be con- 

&piO/j.6i>, K. T. X.] This pas- 
sage gives three classes distinctly, 
Compare III. 2, 3, note. 

OLKelwv /xopi'ow] ' parts proper to it. 
This is dwelt on later, Oh. VIII. i. 
TovTdiv] depends on Tr\ri8ovs. 

7 K TUV fyywv'] ' from practical ex- 

dveifji^vrjv trpbs TO TrX^^os] 'with- 
out any check on the increase in 
point of number. ' 

8 These next two sections are not 
easy to arrange. The sense seems to 
require us to look on the words 6eias 

yap avayKaiov as a parenthesis. 

' Law is an arrangement, good law a 



\ r w / % '-> ^^n^ ^ -\\ -\ ' s\ * TVi p> 

KCLI Tooe crvveyei TO TTUV ejrei oe TO Ka\ov ev 7T\tjuei KCLI 
fAeyeOei e'laoOe yivecrOai., Kal TrdXiv 5? /tzera fieyeOov? 6 \e^6e}s citizens. 
GOO? vTrap^ei) TauT^v eivai /caXX/crTJ/y avayKalov. aXX' 9 


(pvToov opydvwv. KCU yap TOVTWV nrdcrrov I0 
\lav jjuKpov OUTC /cara fj&yeOo? inrep/3d\\ov el*ei Tip 
O.VTOV ^vva/JLtv^ aXX' ore jmev oXco? e(TTptj^evov carat T?? 
<pv(T(i)<} 9 OTC oe (bav\w$ eyov 9 oiov TT\OIOV <T7n6a/uiiaiov /u*.ev 
OVK etTTat irXolov oXa)?, ovSe Svotv crTaoioiv, els oe TL imeye- 
60$ eXOov ore /mev $ia (TjULLKpoTtjTa (pavXrjv Trotrjcrei Tr\v vav- 
TiXlav, ore de $ia T^V vTrep/BoXyv. 6/u.oi<w $e KOL TroXi? 
rj JULGV e^ o\iywv \iav OVK avTapKrj^ (f) oe iro\is auTapKes), rj 
oe CK TToXXwi/ ayav ev TO!<S iu.ev avayKaioLS aurotjO/c*;?, wcnrep 
&0VOS, aXX' ov Tro'XfS" TToXtre/ai/ yap ov paoiov VTrdp^eiv' 
r/9 yap <TTpaTr)yo<s farrtu TOV \lav v7rep/3d\\ovTO$ TrXrjOov?, 
rj T/9 Krjpv^ /uir] ZjTVTOpeio$\ oio TrpcoTrjv fjiev elvat iroXiv 
avayKalov Ttjv e/c TOCTOVTOV TrXrjOovs o Trpu>Tov 7X960$ at/r- 
apKe? TTjOo? TO ev jrjv evTi KaTa T*JV TroXiTiKrjv 

good arrangement, but a very exces- 
sive number is not susceptible of ar- 
rangement, but there must be for 
states as for everything else some 
limit of size, so that they may be 
susceptible of arrangement." This 
seems the course of the argument. 
But, granting this, there still remains 
the intermediate passage, of which, 
as it stands, I do not see the meaning 
clearly. I should put a colon at rb 
TTO.V. 'For this, the ordering of a 
very large number, is a task above the 
strength of man, it requires a divine 
power, a power like that which keeps 
together the whole universe of things.' 
&rei 8 TO Ka\bv ev TrAijtfei K 
etude yfreffdat, /cat T^At^ iys fj-frci, 
0ous Ae%0eis 6'pos virdpxei, ravryv etvai 
Ka.\\La'T'r]t> avayKcuov. ' Since beauty 
requires size as one of its conditions 
(w^0ei Ko.1 [jieyedei, not meant to con- 
vey more than simply peytOet), so in 

states also, that which combines with 
a certain size good order (6 Xe^^eis 
tipos etfra^ta) , must necessarily be 
the most beautiful.' Compare Poet. 
VII. viii. p. 1450, b. 37:* TO yap Ka\bv 
ev /jLeytOet Kal rdi-ei eari.. Eth. IV. vii. 
5, p. 1123, b. 8: rb itd\\os 

10 TTJS 0i5<rews] nature, in the sense 
given, I. ii. 8. 

et's S^ TL neyedos, K. r. X.] ( It may 
attain a certain size, and yet, at one 
time, impair its sailing power by its 
smallness, at another by its excessive 

11 ev TOIS fj.ev avayKatois] 'Though 
in all mere necessaries it be complete, 
yet it is not a state : ov ^er^%ei renews, 
wants, therefore, the Ka\6v. 

irp&Tfjv /j.ev elvai] 'Then, first, is 
there a state, where you have arrived, 
in reference to number, exactly at the 
12- 2 


nOAITIK&N A. (H.) 





eivcu fieiftta TroXiv' aXXa TOUT' OVK ecrTLV, oocrTrep e^ 

aopKTTOV. T9 





epyov. TTjOO? 

elcrl yap at 

Trpd^eis rfjs TroXeco? TWV /xei/ 
ap-^ovrog $' eTTiTafys Kal Kpi<ri$ 
TO Kplv&v Trepl TWV SiKaioov Kal TT^OO? TO 
T? ctjO^a? Siavefjiciv KOLT alav avayKaiov yvcopi^eiv aXXy- 

Xof?, TTOlOl TlVe$ 1<TI, TOU? TToXtTCC?, CO? OTTOf TOVTO /U.t] (TV/U. 

fiaivei yiyvearOai, (pavXcos avayKrf ylyvearOai TO, Trept TOC? 
? Kal Ta? Kpioreis' Trepl a/m(f)6Tpa yap ov Sucaiov avTO- 
, oTrep ev Ty 7ro\vav9pa)7ria Ty \iav VTrap-^ei (fiave- 
$e ^eVoi? Kal /ULCTOIKOIS pafiiov /ULeTaXa/m/Baveiv T*js 
ov yap ^a\e7rov TO \avQaveiv Sid T*\V vTrepfioXrjv 

TOV 7T\rj9oV?. Qtj\OV TOLVVV ft>9 OVTQS CO'Tl TToXea?? O/QO? 

apL(7TO<s 9 n fJjeyi&Tn TOV TrXyOov? V7re{3o\r] Trpo? avTapKeiav 



TOV JULCV ovv /uieye6ov$ 

e Ka TO, Trep 

t *~^. & 

Tiva, ori\ov OTI 

av eTraiveo-eiev ToiavT^v 

avayKalov eivai 
v Kal SeicrOai 


Toopov TO yap irvTa 

apK?. TrXrjOei <$e Kal jmeyeOei TOuavTyv STTC SvvacrOai 



epico? a/aa 


point where first completeness is se- 

T2 TU>V ntv\ It would be better if it 
were at uv T&V apybvTuv ai 8 T&V 

^7ri'rats] in their political and ex- 
ecutive capacity. Kpiais in their ju- 
dicial; otherwise Kpio-is is more pro- 
perly the function r&v 

13 The magistrates, then, are very 
important, but how can they be 
rightly elected, if those who elect 
them cannot judge of them ; and the 
requisite knowledge is difficult when 
the numbers are very large. The 

choice of the governor is always the 
great difficulty of government. 

yvuptfav dXX^Xous] ' mutual know- 
ledge is requisite.' 

Time. I. 138. 

0a^e/x2s] ' evidently cannot 
be escaped.' 

etfo-tfvoTrros] ' easily seen as a whole,' 
' not too large for the eye to compre- 

V. ] TJI> a-%oXdbj>ras, K. T. X.] 
Compare II. VI. 9. He gives shortly 
all the requirements of the Greek free- 

IV. (VII.) 5.] 



ws. TOVTOV $e TOV opov ei KO\O)$ ri uw /caXo)9 Xe'yo- The 
* > f , f , country. 


Kai TS Trepi Trjv ovtriav evTroplas a~v /x/3 aivy TroieicrOai 
TTW? oei /ecu T/ya TpoTrov e^eiv TT/OO? T^ 'vprja'iv 
avTqv 7TO\\al yap Trepi Ttjv CTKG^IV TavTrjv elariv OLIJL^)L(T- 
/3r)Tr}<Ti<; $ia rou? eX/cop'ra? e(f) Ka,Tepav TOV /3/ou rrjv ujrep 

f$O\r}V, TOV<5 /X6I/ 67Tf T^ yXtCT^OOT/yTa TOJ/? ^6 67T( T^i/ TjOU- 

^)^. To o elSos r?9 ^(Jopa? ov -^aXeTrov eiTrelv, Sei <$' evict. 3 
TreiOetrOai KOI rof? Tre^of T^V <TTparri<yiav e/uLTreipois,, OTI ^rj 
/u.ev rots TToXejULioig etvai Sv<TefJL^o\ov 9 avTOt? ^ evefcoSov. 

TL ^ (JOVTrep TO 7T\f]6oS TO TCOV avOpCOTTCOV eiKTVVOTTTOV <pa- 1327 

$eiv, OVTCO Kal Tr\v ^wpav. TO ^' evcrvvoTTTOV TO ev- 
etvat Tr\v ywpav ecrTiv. r^? o^e 7roXea)9 Trjv Qe&iv 
] Troieiv /car' eir^y, 7TjOO9 re T*\V QaXaTTav Trpoo-rjKei 

/caXa)9 7T|OO9 TC Trjv yjMaav. el<s jmev 6 Xe^$ef9 0009* 4 
Set yap Trpos ra9 eK/3or)6eias KOLvrjv elvai TOJV TOTTGOV aTrav- 
TWV 6 <5e Xo7ro9 7r^oo9 T9 TWV yiyvofJLGvwv KapTToov Trapa- 

TL ^ 




epyacriav rj p(copa Tvyyavoi KeKTy/uievr] TOiavTrjv, evTrapa- 


Tlepl <$e r^9 7Tj009 Tr\v QaXaTTav KOLvw>via<$i TroTepov 6 

co(f)<l\ijULOS Tat? evvojULOv/mevais TroXecriv rj (3\a/3epa, TroXXa the state be 

maritime ? 

2 riv S/JDV ToOroi'] must be referred, 
not to avTa.pK.ea'TaTriv, but to what im- 
mediately precedes. 

va-repov] Spengel, p. 10, note, thinks 
this is done in this same Book, Chs. 
VII. (VIII. rather) and XV. It 
seems to me one of the portions that 
are lost. From the point of view of 
the family it has been treated in the 
first book, but it yet remains to be 
considered as a political question. 

aur^i/] to be taken with ^x LJ/ - 

Sia roi)s \KOVTOLS, K. T. X.] 'because 
of those who, in the conduct of life, 
pull different ways, the one towards 
the one extreme, the other towards 
the other.' 

3 TO 5' e?8os] 'But as for the form.' 
The answers to the ptv in irepl fjv 

4 6 Xe%0ek] sc. that it should be 
evj3or)drjTov or eva^ivoTTTov. The second 
is, that it should be 

I place only a comma at 
Tras, and consider the genitive v'Xrjs to 
depend on it, just as much as Kapir&v 
does. ' The other requirement left is, 
that the country should be easy of 
access, for the conveyance of the pro- 
duce generally, and also of its material 
in timber or any other similar object 
that it may possess.' 

VI. i TTJS TT/JOS 6d\a.TT(tv] This 



illter " ' >^ ^ 
course. ev aAAOf? 

nOAITIKON A. (H.) [Lin. 

ajui<pior/3tiTOvvTe$. TO re *yct|0 eTri^evovcrOai 

acrv/uLcpopov eivai (f)a<ri 7rpo$ 
jv evvo/miav, Kal TY\V 7ro\vavOpa)7riav yivecrOai /xey yap e/c 
TOV 'vptjo'Oai Ty OaXacrcrr) oiaTrefJiTrovTas Kai oe^o/xeyou? 
vTrcvavTiav o eivai 7rpo$ TO TroXiTevecrOai 

2 /caXcoc. OTI ju.ev ovv, el raura /mrj a-v/uL/Baivei, (3e\Tiov 
TTpos aar(paXeiav Kal Trpos eviropiav TCOV avayKaicov 

3 Trjv 7r6\Lv Kal Trjv -^wpav T^? 0aXarr>79, OVK a$>j\ov. Kal yap 

o? TO paov (pepetv TOV? TroXeVou? ev/3otj6qTOV$ etvai Set 
ffroTepa TOVS crcoO/7O-o/xeVou?, Kal /caret yrjv Kal /caret 
$ctXaTTai>' Kal TT^OO? ro /3Xa\f^at roi;? 7riTi6ejuiei>ov$ 9 el jmrj 
KaT ajuL(poi) SvvaTov, aXXa /caret OaTepov inrap^ei jULa\\ov 

4 afJL(poTepwv lULere^ovani'. ocra T av /mr] Tvy^avri 'Trap av- 

ovTa, Se^acrOai raura Kal TO. TrXeovdfyvTa TWV yiyvo- 
/cTTCyaxJAacrOat TWV avayKaiwv ecmV ai^r^ yap efJLTro- 
r}v 9 aXX' ov TOIS aXXof? fiei eivai Trjv TroXiv. 01 Se Trape- 
"YovT$ <r(ba<s avTOvs iracriv ayopav Trpocrooov yapiv raura 

point suggested by his statement in 
the last chapter, KeiffOai /caXws Trpbs TTJV 

irievov<r6at ri^as] " Die fortwahr- 
ende Anwesenheit der Fremden," 
Stahr. ' That there should be resident 
a body of foreigners brought up in 
other laws and customs.' 

& ttXXois v6fj,ois] In III. III. 6, 
the same point was mooted, the 
same in principle, that is, irbrepov $dvos 

(popov elvcu. 

iro\vavdp(j}irLa.v~\ sc. 

rX^^os] depend on the par- 


2 el ravra ^ <rv/j,paivei] ' If these 
results do not arise.' 

eviropiav TUV avayKalwv] 'a ready and 
large supply of all the necessaries of life.' 

4 TO. TrXeovafovra T&V yiyvofjt,frb)i>] 
' Their surplus produce. ' 

avrfi yap efj,TropiK-?)v] A singular 

statement. He was led into it by his 
dislike of commerce, which he would 
restrict, therefore, within as narrow 
limits as possible, and make as selfish 
as possible for each state. This is a 
conclusion quite alien to the genuine 
spirit of commerce, which is, in the 
largest and freest sense, the connection 
for mutual support and for the supply 
of mutual wants, of the whole human 
family. And any theory like this of 
Aristotle's such as the mercantile 
and protective system of later times, 
which aims at exclusiveness, is to be 
condemned as a direct attack on the 
real interests of mankind, a substi- 
tution of the provisional and fictitious 
virtue of patriotism or national selfish- 
ness, for the true idea of a common 
union between all the members of the 
great family which mankind forms. 

ravra Trpdrrovcriv] 
sake of revenue. ' 

do so for the 

IV. (VII.) 6.] nOAITIKON A. (H.) 183 

TrpaTTOVcriv' V\v oe jmr] oei TroXiv TOiavTt]<s /ULere^e^v TrXeov- Maritime 

"ft 1^.1 > t fl ~ ~ f\ ~ T7' * ^ * 

e^ta?, ovo e/uLTropiov oei KCKT^cruai TOIOVTOV. fjTrei oe Kai course. 
vvv opw/mev TroXXcu? vTrap^ovTa ywpai<s Kal TroXecriv eiriveia 5 
Kal Xi/mevas ev<pvw$ Kei/meva Trpo? Trjv TroXiv, cocrre JUL^TC TO 
avTO ve/meiv OLCTTV juujTe Troppw Xiav, aXXa KpaTeicrOai Tei^ecri 
Kal TOIOVTOIS aXXof? epvju.acri, (havepov co? ei /mev dyaOov TL 
ivei ylyvecrOai Sia Ttj? Koivcovlas avTwv, vtrdp^ei Trj 
TOVTO TO ayaOoV) ei $e TL /3Xa/3epov, (pvXd^acrOai 
paoiov TOI$ vo/Jioi<s (ppafovTas Kai oiopiovTa<i TLva<s ov oei 
Kal Tiva$ eirijULicryecrOai oei Trpos dXXyXovs. Trepl oe T^? 6 
vaUTlKtJQ Svva/uieais, OTI jmev (BeXTicrTOv vTrap^eiv /me^pi TIVOS 
TrXrjOov?, OVK ao'rjXov' ov yap JJLOVOV avTols aXXa Kal TWV 1327 B 
lov Ticrl $i Kal (po/Bepovs elvai Kal ovvaarQaL fioyOeiv, 

/caret yrjv, Kal /cara 6dXaTTav. Trepl <$e TrXyOovs 7 
Kal ju,eye6ov$ T>7? owa/mews TtivTJjf Tnoo? TOV (3iov 

r ~ r\ ^^^^ ^^ 

'KeTTTeov Tri$ 7roAeft)9' ei /mev yap yye/moviKov Kai TTO- 
XITIKOV tycreTai /Biov, avayKalov Kal TavTijv Trjv ovvafjuv 
VTrdp-^eiv Trpos ra? Trpaj^eis crvjuifjLeTpov. TY\V <$e TroXvav- 
OpwTriav TtfV yiyvo/uevrjv Trepi TOV vavTiKOV o^Xov OVK 
avayKalov vTrdp-^eiv Taig TroXecriv ov6ev yap aurou? /mepos 
elvai Sei r?? TroXeco?. TO /mev yap eTrifiaTiKOv eXevOepov Kal 8 

* virapxov Kal Bekker. 

TrXeove^'as] ' such a desire 
of gain.' This would be true if one 
nation's gain were another's loss, but 
this has already been stated to be in- 

5 i/Trdpxov] If kept, must be 
made to agree with fyirbpiov, supplied. 
But the sentence seems faulty. 
Schneider, with Coray, wishes to read 
virapxew. I should prefer virdp^ovra, 
leaving out the KO.L 

eu0ucDs /cetera] ' advantageously 
situated as regards the city.' 

vtfj.ei.v~] 'inhabit.' Sopovs v^ot/mi 
(rovs, Soph. Aj. 1016. 

8ta TTJS KouHiivias avruv] ' by the in- 

tercourse with them,' the tirlvfia. 

, K. r.X.] 'stating and de- 
fining. ' 

6 ai/rots] 'with regard to them- 
selves only.' 

7 yyeiAoviKov Kal TroAiTt/oh'] ' an im- 

perial and social life,' mixed up with 
other states that is. The opposite to 
7ro\LTiK6v here would be ^eviKov, Ch. 


TTJV yiyvo^vfjv Trepi] 'Involved by.' 
ovdtv yap, /c.r.X.] 'For they ought 

not to be any part of the state.' 

8 TTJS vavTL\lai\ "im Seewesen," 

Stahr; 'directs the navigation,' III. 

IV. 2. 


t A f f 

O KVpl 

KVlOV 6(7Tl Kdl KpCtTCl 

TreioiKtov Kal 

184 IIOAITIKQN A. CH/) [Liu. 

course. vavTi\ia<$' Tr\y0ov$ $e vTrap^ovTO? TrepioiKtov Kal TWV T*\V 

^copav yecopyovvTwv, a(f)0oviav avayKalov eivai KOI VUVTCJOV. 

o^ r n \ ^ r r >? ~ ,^. 

opi*)ju.ev oe I KaL \ TOUTO Kat vvv virap"^ov TKTLV^ OLOV Ty TTOA.CI 

TCOV 'HpaK\ea)T(av' TroXXa? y<*p eKTrXypovari Tptypeis KCKT*]- 
/JLGVOL TO? jmeyeOet TroXiv eTepcov e/j.iJ.e\e<jTepav. 
9 lilepl fjiev ovv ^u>pa9 Kal Xi/m-evcov Kal TroXecov Kat 

Oa\aTT*]$ Kat Trept T*]9 vavTiKrj? of^a/xea)? ecrTO) Siwpicr/uieva 


7 o^oov VTrap-^eiv xpt, TrpoTepov 6fVo/xei/, TTO/OU? Se Tivag TY\V 

ClVia r?jfit,PF J-' ^ ^^ *^ *\ ' ^^ ^ ^ ^^ / v 

of the ( r v<TLV LVa - L 0l ) vvv heycvfjiev. Zyeoov orj KaTavoqcreiev av TIS 

people. TOUTO *ye, /3Xe\J/-a? CTTL TG Ta? TroXet? TCC? evooKi/uLovcras TCOV 

JitXXqvcov Kai TTjOO? Tracrav Trjv OIKOVIULCV^V) to? o^e/X^TTTCu TO?? 

2 eOvea-iv. Ta /mev yap ev TOI$ *^rvy^ool<s TOTTOIS eOvt] Kal TO, 

Trepl Trjv lEvpwTniv OVJULOV jmev CCTTI TrX^prj, Siavolag <$e 

evSeecrTepa Kal Teyyw SioTrep e\eu6epa /u.ev SiaTe\ei 

v] The Laconian perioaci 
manned the fleet, and we find in- 
stances of their holding the command, 
Thuc. VIII. vi. 22. 

Kal TOUTO Kctl vvv\ The first Kal seems 

'H/oaKXeuTUH'] Heraclea on the Pon- 
tus. Compare Schneider's note on 
the passage. He quotes Xenoph. 
Anab. v. vi. 10. 

'smaller,' ' of very 
moderate size as compared with 
others.' This last is Stahr's view ; 
"fort petite," St. Hil. In Plato, 
Legg. VI. 760 a, ^u/ieX^oraTa occurs in 
the sense of * smallest :' rpeis et's T& 
/A^ytOTa lepd, 5i/o S' ds ra (rpucpbTepa, 
?r/)6s S^ TCI e/i/AeX^(TTaTa %va. This 
seems sufficient warrant for the sense 

9 7r6Xewp] Some editors doubt this 
word. I prefer TroXews. His object 
has not been to treat of cities, but of 
one city. 

TOU TroXm AcoO TrX^flous] ' The citizens 
in point of mere number.' 

VII. i SxeSop foj, K.T.X.] 'It 
would scarcely then be diflicult to 
form a clear judgment on this point 
at least.' 

SieiXrjTTTai TOIS tdveffiv] " distincta 
gentibus," Viet. ; " vertheilt unter die 
verschiedenen Volkerschaften," Stahr, 
' divided out into the different nations.' 

i T& irepl r}]v T&vpwTrrjv] What ex- 
tent did Aristotle assign to Europe ? 
Is it the narrow one given by Her- 
mann (Smith, Geog. Diet.} of the 
country between Thrace and Pelopon- 
nesus ? If so, then Ta irepl TTJV T&tip&ir'riv 
would be the Thracians, Scythians, 
Illyrians, and apparently these are the 
nations meant; but the language is 
vague, and x. 3 seems to show that 
Aristotle's sense of the word is larger. 

ffvfjiov] 'spirit;' Siavoias Kal rixyn^t 
'intelligence and skill.' 

e\et0epa SiaTeXet, K. T. X.] ' They 




TO 3 

IV. (VII.) 7.] 

GLTroXiTevTa Se Kal TCOV TrXrja-iov apyeiv ov ^vva^eva. 
$6 Trepl Tt]v 'Acr/av SiavoqTiKa yuey Kal Te^yiKa TIJV 
aOvjma Se' Sidirep ap^djULeva Kal SovXevovTa SiaTeXei. 
fie TCOV 'EXX^o)^ ^6^09 So-Trep /meo-evei KaTa TOi/9 
afjicpoiv /otere^er Kal yap evOv/jLov Kal 
StOTrep eXevOepdv re SiaTeXei Kal fte\Ti<TTa 
Kal ^vvajjievov ap^eiv TravTcw, /J.ia<s Tvyyjzvov 
Tt]v avTrjv <T e-^ei $ia<popav Kal TO, TCOV 'EXX^coi/ e'Ovt] Kal 4 
7TjOO9 aXXrjXa' TO. /xei/ yap e^ei TY\V (pv<riv /movoKcoXov, TO. <$e 
ev Te KCKpaTai 7T|009 ajUL<poTepas ra9 ^vva^en. 
(pavepov TOLVVV OTL Set SiavorjTiKovs re eivat Kal 
Tr\v (pucriv TQV$ jmeXXovTas evayooyovg ecreo-Oai TW 
7Tj009 TV\V apeTrjV. e 'O7rep yap (pavi Tiveg eiv virapyeiv 5 
To?9 (bvXa^t, TO (biXrjTiKovs JULCV eivai TWV yvu>pi^wv 9 7rpo$ 
Se TOVS ayvooTa? aypiovs, o 6v/u.6<s ecrTiv 6 TTOIWV TO 
TIKOV avTtj yap <TTIV r\ r?9 ^v^rj^ $vva/u.i$ fj 

of the 

preserve their freedom, but they re- 
main without social organization.' 

diavorjTiKa, K. T.X.] ' Though intelli- 
gent and crafty, are yet without 
spirit. ' 

3 r6 5 T&V 'EXX^w^J Compare 
Grote, n. 98, "The feeling of per- 
sonal dignity, of which philosophic 
observers in Greece Herodotus, Xen- 
ophon, Hippocrates, and Aristotle 
boasted, as distinguishing the free 
Greek citizen from the slavish 
Asiatic." Compare also the same 
volume, p. 305, on the question of the 
Greek climate. 

fj.e<reiji] ' holds a middle position.' 

)Utas Tv^y&vov TroXtrei'as] What is 
the force to be given to these words ? 
Was the conception of Aristotle that 
of a federative union, guaranteeing in- 
ternal peace and empire abroad, but 
allowing each separate state to be 
autonomous, only bound to the others 
by the strong ties of a common inte- 
rest, a common nationality, and simi- 
lar institutions, not torn, that is, by 

the quarrels between oligarchical and 
democratical principles? This seems 
the probable case. The word <5tpx 6tl/ 
prevents our considering him to have 
aimed at a merely defensive organiza- 
tion, such as that suggested by Bp. 
Thirlwall, v. 154 ; and the general 
tendency of his views is against the 
other alternative, in the same passage, 
that of "the supremacy of some 
Grecian state, powerful enough to 
enforce peace, but not to crush 
liberty." However this may be, it is 
the want which is here indicated that 
caused the failure of Greece to secure 
empire and organize, as Home did, 
the nations of the world. 

4 Mni] 'The different HeUenic 

/woi'OArwXoj'] 'onesided.' Comp. Rhet., 
in. ix. 5, p. 1409, b. 17, where the 
word is applied to style. 

5 rives] Plato, Rep. II. 243. 
TTOIWV rb <J)i\r)TiK6i>] 'produces the 

tendency to affection.' Comp. Topic 
n. vii. p. 113 b, i. iv. 5, p. 126, 12. 




Character Q-rjjmeiov $e' 7rpo$ y a p TOV$ vvvrjQeis KOI d)i\ov<s o OVJULOS 
people. alpeTai /uaXXov rj 7rpo$ TOVS ayvwTas, oXiywpeitrOat 
1328 6 Sio KGL\ 'A^o^/Xo^o? TrpocrrjKovTiDg TOL$ (j)i\oi$ 
SiaXeyeTai Trpos TOV OVJULOV 

ov yap Sr) Trept (pi'Xa>z> drrdy^fo. 

Ka\ TO apyov $e KOL TO e\ev6epov CLTTO Ttjg ^u^a/xea) 

7 virap^ei Traoriv' ap^LKOV yap KOL arjTTrjTov o OVJULOS. ov 

\eyeiv ^aXeTrou? elvai TTjOO? TOU? ayvwTas' 

> s\ / v T \ - ?rns -v/ 

ovueva yap eivai %pr] TOIOVTOV, ovo euriv 01 jmeyaXoi 
tfV (pvcriv aypioi, 7r\rjv Trpos TOU? aoiKovvTa$. TOVTO 
$e jma\\ov ert TT^OO? roi'? (rvvrjOeis Traoryovcriv., OTrep e'tpyTai 

8 TrpOTepov, av aSiKeicrOai vo/miarwcriv. KOL TOVTO crv/ui/3aivei 
/cara \6yov Trap oT? yap o(pei\e(r6ai deiv T?]V evepyecriav 
v7ro\a]UL/3avov(Ti, TTpos TW /3\a/3ei K 

oOev etptjTai 

i yap TroXe/AOi d$eX(p)V 

ot rot Trepa (rrep^avTes, ol Se Kat Tre 

9 TlejOf fJ.ev ovv TU)V 7roXtT6i'0/xeVft)^, TTOOTOVS re vTrap^etv Set 

Kal TTO/OU? Tfya? r^ (pvtriv, GTI $e TVJV ^copav Troa-tjv TC Tiva 
fcal Trolav Tiva 9 ^icopicrTat vyeoov. ov yap Tr\v a\rrr\v aKpi- 
fieiav Set QiTelv OLOL re TCOI^ \6ywv KOI TU>V yiyvo(J.evnov <$ia 

8 r>79 ala-Orjcrcws. 'ETret fr cotTTrep TWV aXXwv TWV Acara (pvcriv 

The parts (TW ecrTaJTWi' ov Taura 91 eo-Ti iJLOpia r^? oXw? o-fcrracreft)?, wi/ 
01 a state. 


afpercu] 'rises.' 

6Xt7w/)ef(r^oi] so. v<f>' w 
irpo<r-/iKei, Rhet. n. 2, 15, p. I379,b. 2-4. 

6 ou yap 5r; 7re/)i 0i\wf a7ra7%eo] 
Arch. Frag. 61, Bergk, ist Ed. The 
reading Bergk gives is ov yap 8i] rrapa 
<f)i\wt> a-Trdyxeo. Stahr makes it in- 

8 Kara \6yov~\ 'as might be ex- 
pected. ' 

trap' ofs] ' Those with whom,' apud 

Xa\7rol ydp, K.r.X.] Eurip. Fr. Inc. 
57, Ed. Dind. 

ol rot Trtpa, /c.r.X.] Eurip. Fr. 

9 oi> ydp, K. T. X. ] ' For we must not 
seek the same exactness when theory 
is concerned as we require when actual 
sensible results are in question.' So 
Stahr and St. Hilaire. 

VIII. i ravra] This is Bekker's 
reading, and it is retained by Stahr. 
I should prefer either raura 

IV. (VII.) 8.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 

avev TO o\ov OVK av e/fw, Sn\ov o>9 ovfie 


v e/w, nov o>9 ove Troew? fteptl OGTCOV T - he P arts 

or a state. 

ocra Tctf? iroXetriv avayKalov vTrapyeiv, owo' aXXf/9 Koivu>via<$ 
ov&[JUa$ 9 e 279 eV Tt TO 70/09. ei/ 'yctjo T /ecu KOLVOV 2 
/ecu TCCUTO TO?9 KOIVWVOIS, av TC 'LVOV av TG avicrov 
olov eire Tpocj)*] TOVTO e&Tiv eire yu>pa<s 
7r\fj9o$ eiT aXXo TI T>V TOIOVTCOV GCTTLV. orav 5' J TO /xei/ 3 
TOIVTOU ei/e/cei/ TO ^' oS eveicev, ov6ev ev ye TOVTOIS KOIVOV aXX' 
37 TW /xej^ Trof^craf TW oe \aj3eiv Xe-ya) o' otoi^ opyavip TC 

iravri 7T|009 TO ytyvof/Levw epyov Kal rots firjjuuovpyois* OIKLO. 

\ i * t /\ ' ' i. / ' ' \ \ " 

7Tjf)09 OIKOOO/ULOV ovUev euTiv o yiverai KOIVOV, aXX ecrri 

oiKO($oju.(*)V Te-^yr). $10 KTtjcreo)^ ju.ev 4 

ft\f^ / ~ / A 

o e<mv n KT*I<TIS /xepo9 T//9 7roXeco9* 
TroXXa <5' /m^v^a pepl T^9 KTrj<reu><s e<TTiv. rj &e TroXis 
KOivcovla T/9 eo"Tt TiSv O/ULOLCW, cveKev oe (^ft)^ T^9 ev 
api(TTr]$. 7rel <T ecrT/i/ evSai/movia TO apicrTOV, 
apeTt]<s evepyeia /ecu ^o^cr/5 TI? TeXefO9? trvft/Sefiqice 
ft)CTTe TOV? /xe/ evSe-^earOai /meTe^eiv avTtjs, Tovg fie /miKpov 
<$*j\ov w? TOUT a'lTiov TOV yiyvecrOai 7roXeco9 ei'oN; /c 


It is difficult to say what Tatfrd means. 
The reading raOra seems to be sup- 
ported by 6, 7r6<ra TO.VTI tanv $>v 
&vev ir6\is ofiK &v et-rj. Retaining 
ravroi, I construe : ' Now, since in 
the case of all other things which are 
in their nature compound, we do not 
in the same degree consider as parts 
of the whole that is formed, all the 
parts which are necessary to its for- 
mation, so is it clear that neither in 
the case of a state must we treat as 
essential parts of a state all those 
which are indispensably necessary to 
its existence, nor in the case of any 
other association, which forms a unity 
in kind, a homogeneous whole. For 
there must be,' he continues, 'some 
one thing, and that common and the 
same, to all who share in the associa- 

3 The simply rninisterialsubordinate 
functions must be distinguished from 

the higher and political ones the basis 
of the state from that which rests on it 
the means from the end the TOVTOV 
freKev from the o5 ZvfKev. They have 
nothing in common ; the one produces, 
the other accepts the result : ovdepla 
'y^veo'ts ffvyyevrfs ro?s T\e<rw, JEth. VII. 
xii. 4, p. 1152, b. T 4 . 

4 16 KTvycrews, K. r. X.] Therefore, 
though property is absolutely essential 
to a state, yet it is in no sense a part 
of the state ; it is tv dpydvov etdei. 

TroXXA 8'] I do not see the object of 
this remark. 

?5s] This is the v rt Kal 

KOiVOV Kttl TO.VT&. 

5 avTf] 5t, K. r. X.] 'This consists 
in the practice of virtue, both personal 
and relative ;' aperr) Kal dperTjs ^/j^cris 
r^Xetos, which last is Sucaiofffoij. 

&5^xe<r0cu] ' have it in their power 
to attain it.' 




The parts $ ia( t) O pas Kal 7ro\iTia$ 7r\elovg' a\\ov yap Tpoirov Kal $i 
of a state. T V f ' < ' f / 

aXXtov Ka<TTOL TOVTO urjpcvovres rof? re piov$ eTepovg TTOI- 

1328 B 6 OVVTCU Kal TCC9 TroXtre/a?. 7ri(TK7rTeov <$e Kal Trocra TO.VTI 
CCTTIV cov avev 7ro\ig OVK av e/V /cat ^ajO a \eyoimev eivai /u-epq 
7ro'Xeo)9, ev TovroKf oiv eltj avajKalov vTrdp^eiv. \rj7TTeov 
TOLVVV T(JOV epywv TOV apiO/mov' CK TOVTGOV y a p e&TCu orjXov. 

7 TLpcorov /Jiv ovv V7rdp-)(6iv Set Tpofflv, eTTeiTO. Te%yas (?roX- 

yap opyavutv fieirai TO ^^)? TpiTOV <$e oVXa (rou? yap 
avayKalov /ecu ev avrois e^eiv oVXa irpo<s re rt]v 
iretQovvTUiv yapiv, Kal TT^OO? roi'? e^wOev afiiKeiv 
GTI ^prjjULaTWV nva cvTropiav, OTTO)? eyuxri Kal 
TTjOO? ra? /caO' avTov$ -^peiag KOI Trpos TroXeyitf/ca?, TTG/ULTTTOV 
Se Kal 7rp)TOV T^V Trepl TO Oeiov e7ri/u.\iav 9 yv KaXovariv 
iepareiav,) CKTOV $e TOV apiO/uov Kal TravTUtv avayKaiOTaTov 
Kpicriv Trepl TU>V orvimcbepovTCOv Kai TCOV oiKaicov TWV 7rpo$ a\- 

8 X^Xof?. ra JULCV ovv epya TavT CCTTLV wv SeiTai Traara 

0)9 eiTreiv. rj yap TroXi? 7rX^0o9 <TTIV ov TO TV^OV, aXXa 
TTjOO? l^coqv avTapKes, a)? (pa/mev' eav Se TI Tvy^avt] TOVTCOV 
eK\i7rov, a^vvaTOV ct7rXo)9 avTapKr] Ttjv KOivwviav elvai Tav- 
9 Ttjv. avdyKt] TOIVVV /cara rc\9 epyaerlas TavTa<s crvvecrTdvai 
iroXiv. Set apa yeutpywv T elvai 7rX^09, o\ TrapacrKev'ao'ova'i 
Tr\v Tpocprjv, Kal Te^vLTa^ Kal TO /ma^i/mov, Kal TO eviropov, 
KOI iepei$ 9 Kal KpiTas TWV avayKalwv Kal <rv/tA(pp6vTO)v. 

9 AfoyH<rjuei'o>i' ^e TOVTCDV \OITTOV o-Ke^savOai iroTepov Tracri 
Division of / r f / A / \ \ , \ # 

the func- KOivcovrjTeov iravTwv TOVTCDV ^evoe^eraL yap rou9 aurof9 airav- 

' the r9 eivai Kal yecopyovs Kal TeyyiTas Kal TOV? /3ov\evojmevov^ 

roOro] This variety of position. 
BypevovTes] ( as they pursue it. ' 

6 fJ^pyf] 'parts of the state in a 
strict sense.' 

v Toi/rots] not identical with, but 
lying amongst them, and capable of 
being detached. 

7 Kal wp&Tov] ' First in impor- 
tance.' This is odd, as Aristotle does 
not elsewhere, either in theory or 
in his practical arrangements, lay 

much stress on the worship of the 

Kplffiv irepl r&v ff\jfj,c(>pbvT(>}v\ ( deci- 
sion on the policy to be adopted, and 
the administration of justice as be- 
tween man and man.' Below, rcDv 
avayKaiuv Kal crvfji<f>ep6i'TUv. 

8 ov rb rv%bv] ' not any chance 

IX. i vTrodertov] ' we must pre- 

IY. (VII.) 9.] 




vj KaO' eiccta-rov epyov TCOV eipwevwv a'XXou? 




r] TO. /ULV 

, , , V ~ , , a , r 

OVK ev Trao-rj ce TOVTO TroAtrem. KauaTrep yap 

evSeveTai Kal TravTas Koivcovetv TravTcov, Kat /ULIJ 
TTOLVTCDV ctXXa TLvas TIVCOV. TavTa yap Kal Troiei ret? 
TroXtre/a? erepa?* ev /xei/ yap raZ? $r}/moKpaTiai$ 

tions of the 

iravTwv, ev $e raF? o\iyap^iai^ Tovvavrlov. eirel 3 

$e Tvy^avofJLev cr/coTrou^re? Trepi r^? apcrr*?? TroXfre/a?, avrrj 

> > \ /\i * f\ * it '\ ->">( \ i > 

o ecm Kau rjv tj TTOAIS av eirj /xaAfcrr evdai/mwv, ryv o ev- 

SaijULovtav OTL X M P^ j eT 5s > a/twarw vTrdp-^eiv e'lpt]Tai irpo- 
Tepov, (fiavepov e/c TOVTCDV cog ev ry Ka\\L<rra TroXirevoimevr] 
TroXei Kal T>; KKTti/mevr] SiKaiovs av$pa? dxXa)?, aXXa /ULtj 7rpo$ 
T?]v i/TToOecriv, OUTC (Bavavcrov jBtov OUT ayopalov oet (j^v TOV$ 
TroX/ra?' ayevvtjs yap 6 TOIOVTO? j8/o? Kal irpo? apeTyv VTTC- 
vavrios. ovSe $rj yewpyovs elvai TOV$ jmeXXovTa? eaearOar 4 J 3 2 9 
Set yap 0-^0X^9 Kal 7rpo$ Trjv yevecnv TV? apery? Kal 7rpo$ 
ra? Trpd^eis ra? 7ro\iTiKa$. 'ETrel ^e KOI TO TroXejuiiKOv Kal 
TO fiovXevojmevov Trepi TOOV crv/ULCJ)ep6vT(*)v Kai Kptvov Trepi TCOV 
SiKaicov evvTrapxeL Kal pepy (paiveTai r?9 TroXea)? /xaXfcrra 
ovra, TroTepov eTepa Kal TavTa OeTeov rj rof? avTOts CLTTO^O- 
Teov aV</)w; (pavepov Se Kal TOVTO, SLOTL TpoTrov JULCV Tiva 5 

) / b f \ t f f> \ \ r f 

TO*? airrcH?, TpoTrov ce Tiva Kai eTepois. f] fJLev yap Tepa$ 
eKOLTepov TU>V epycov 9 Kal TO JULCV oeiTai (fipovqcrecos 
, eTepois' y ^e TWV ao'vvaTCOV ecrrJ rot'? Svva- 
Kal Kco\veiv 9 TOVTOVS vTrofjieveiv 


i OVK ev irdcrr], K. r. X.] ' This is 
not an open question in every state.' 
That is, some states have decided it, 
and differ from others, and are what 
they are by that decision. But for 
the ideal state it is an inquiry that 
may be entered upon. 

3 <t>avepbv CK TOVTWV] ' admit these 
premises, and it is clear. ' 

fj,T] irpbs TTJV virt>6evi.v\ ' not with 
reference to the idea of the given 
state.' Comp. II. IX. I. 

ayevv/js, or dryers] See L. and S., 

4 //.AAovrcts &re<r#cu] sc. 

Kal irpbs TT\V ylvecnv] Both for edu- 
cation and for political life. 

trvwdp'xei] ' are not only found ex- 
isting amongst the other parts (tv 
Toi^rots, VITI. 6), but are evidently 
most strictly members of the state.' 

5 5i6rt] 'that.' 

er^pas d/CyUTjs] ' of a different prime,' 
or ' perfection.' The same distinction 
is observed in Plato's tiriKovpoi and 

it is simply one of age. 
KuXtetv] This, as well as |8ic- 
depends on 5vi>a/j.ti>ovs. 




Division of 
the func- 
tions of the Kal /meveiv 


vvv TO? 

oe TOi$ ai/Toi$' 01 yap TCOV OTT\U>V Kvpioi 
t] /ULeveiv Kvpioi Tt]V 7ro\iTiav. Xe/Trercu TOI- 
P.GV ajUL<poTepoi$ ctTroSifiovai T*\V 7ro\iTiav 
oV, aXX' uxrTrep 7re(pvKev rj /mev Suva/mi? ev 
rj $e (ppovrjvis ev 7Tpea-/3vTepoi<s ivai a , OVKOVV 
ctfjicboiv veve/ui,r](TOai (TVjUicpepei Kal oiKaiov ecrTiv ")(L 

7 yap avTtj rj oiaipecri? TO /car' a^iav. d\\a ^v KCJU Tag 
KTrjveig $ei eivat Trepl TOVTOV$' dvayKalov yap eviropiav 
virapxeiv TOIS TroX/raf?, 7ro\iTai <$e OVTOI. TO yap /Bavav- 
crov ov fjLT-^ei T?? TToXco)?, ovS' aXXo ovQlv yevo<$ o /mr] T?? 
doeT^9 orj/ULiovpyov evTLV. TOVTO oe orjXov CK T>/9 V7ro9ea~eco$' 
TO IULCV yap evSai/uioveiv dvayicalov vTrap^eiv /meTa T^? ape- 
T??, cvSai/uLOva Se iroXiv OVK et? yue^oo? TL ^Xe-vj^a^ra? Set 

8 \eyeiv aur??? a XX' et? iravTas TOV<S TroX/ra?. (pavepov <$e 
KOI OTI Sec ra? KTytreis elvai TOVTOW, e'lTrep dvayKaiov elvai 
TOV^ yccopyous oov\ov$ rj /3ap(3apov$ r] TrepiotKov?. \OITTOV 
<5' eK TWV KaTapiOjULtjOevTCov TO TGOV lepeoov yevo$. (pavepa 

9 fie Kal rj TOVTOOV ra^?. OVTC yap yecopyov OVTC /Bdvava-ov 
iepea /caracrrareo^* VTTO yap TWV TTO\ITU)V TrpeTrei TijULacrOai 
Tovg Oeovg' eTrel Se SiyprjTai TO TroXiTiKOV c!$ Svo jmeptj, TOVT 

CTT\ TO T6 OTrXtTlKOV Kal TO {3oV\VTlKOV, TTjOCTTei 06 TtfV T 
a t<Trlv elvai Bekker. 

Tdtfrfl S^J 'this S^ marks the apodosis. 

Kal fjiveiv\ ' are, by virtue of their 
possession of arms, the arbiters of 
the existence or non-existence of the 
constitution. ' 

6 TT^V iro\iTeiav TCH/T^J'] 'These 
functions of government.' 

dXX' taatrep, K.T. X.] The simplest 
way of remedying the difficulty in this 
sentence is to adopt the suggestion of 
Bekker, and transpose the two verbs 
flva.1 and t<rrlv, with a change in the 
stops. 'As strength naturally is in 
the younger, wisdom in the elder, this 
surely is the true principle on which 
the division should be made, and it is 
the just one.' 

7 ras KT-/i<rei5, K. T. X.] 'The ele- 
ment of wealth (r6 etiiropov) ought to 
reside in these.' 

TTJS TroXews] ' our state. ' 

Stjfjuovpybv] 'which does not culti- 
vate and produce virtue.' 

virapxeiv fJ.erd] ' can only exist with 
virtue. ' 

8 SovXovs] See below, Ch. X. 13. 

9 ford TUV TToXtruii'] ' By none but 
citizens. ' 

irptirei. 5t, K. r. X. ] I incline to make 
the words roi)s 5ta rov xpbvov aTreipy- 
/c6ros the subject of curodidovat, as 
well as of ^%f iv : ' and it is fitting that 
those who, from their time of life, are 
past the age for the more strictly poli- 

IV. (VII.) 10.] nOAiTIKQN A. (H.) 


ou vvv ovoe VCCOCTTI TOUT' elvai yvcopijmov To?9 

OepaTTCiav dTTOoioovai TO*? 0eoi$ Kai TY\V dvaTravcriv e^eiv 
Trepl avTovs TOV$ id TOV -%povov aTreiprjKOTas, TOVTOVS av 
e'lrj TGU9 lepuxrvvais diro^OTeov. wv imev TOLVVV avev TTO\I<$ 
ov <TVVi<TTaTai 9 Kal ocra /meprj TroXew?, e'lp^Tai. yewpyol jmev 
yap KOI Te^viTai Kai TTO.V TO OrjTiKOV dvayKaiov vTrap^civ 
Tai? TroXecriv, /u-epy oe TIJS TroXeo)? TO Te oTrXiTiKOV Kal (3ov- 
\evTiKOV Kal Ke^wpiarTai $rj TOVTCOV eKaa-TOV., TO jmev dei 9 
TO o^e KaTa jmepo?. 

^Eof/ce o' 

Trepl TroXiTcias (pi\oa'o(bovo'iv 9 OTL oei ciy 
yevrj T?]V TroXiv Kai TO TC /uLa^i/uov eTepov elvai Kai TO yewp- 
yovv ev AiyvirTU) Te yap eyei TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV CTI Kal 
vvv, TO. Te Trepl TJJV KprjTrjv 9 TO, /mev ovv Trepl A^iyvTrTov 
IZecrwcrTpios, w? (pacriv, OVTCO vofJLo6eT^aravTO^ 9 MiVw o^e TO. 
Trepl KO^T^^. 'Ao^a/a o' eoiKev elvai Kai TCOV crvcrcriTiGov 
rj Ta^iSy Ta ]mev Trepl KpyTyv yevojueva Trepl Trjv MtVco /3a- 
(Ti\eiav 9 Ta oe Trepl TV\V 'iTaXiav TroXXw TraXaioTcpa TOV- 
TWV. (haarl yap oi \6yioi TCOV CKCI KaTOiKovvTcov 'iTaXoV 
Tiva yevecrOai /3acri\ea T^? OtVcoT/o/a?, ad) ov TO Te ovojua 

Division of 

the func- 
tions of the 



The caste- 
system and 


tical functions, whether of action or 
deliberation, should both perform the 
worship of the gods and have the rest 
which their service requires; this is 
the class which may be set apart for 
the priesthood.' 

TO <jov /mv roivvv\ This expression 
throws light on the more obscure 
statement of VIII. i. 

yeupyoi] Spengel, p. 25, note 27, 
wishes to read yewpyoti s, but it is not 
necessary. ' For though,' &c. 

Kal Kexupurrai 5??] A very concise 
expression. He means, that the sepa- 
ration between the two divisions of 
the citizens and the non-citizen class 
is ineffaceable, whilst that between 
the two divisions of the citizens is 
simply a question of time. In the 
first case, he takes the two bodies, and 
contrasts them ; in the second, the 

divisions of one of them. ' And, con- 
sequently, there is a separation in 
each of these cases, in the one case 
a total and perpetual separation, in 
the other a partial one.' 

X. i He has got the citizens oi 
his state, he turns to their arrange- 

TO?S irepl TToXiretas, K. r. X.] Compare 
III. I. i. 

dirjpTJffdai Kara y^vrf\ The caste 

iv Aiy^iTTif)] Herod. II. 164. 

i Trepl TT]I> M.lvu (SaffiXeiav] Grote, 
I. 312. 

3 ol \6yioi] Herod. I. 2, Hepcruv 
oi X67tot. Niebuhr, Rom. Hist.'Vol. I. 
1 6, considers that it is Antiochus of 
Syracuse from whom Aristotle is here 

192 I10AITIKQN A. (H.) [LiB. 

The caste- ju,eTa(3a\ovTa$ 'l/raXou? avT OLVCDTOCOV K\rj6rjvai Kal Trjv 
system and , , , - T? / >T ^ ' " ^ a - 

syssitia. aKTrjv TavTrjv Tr]$ j^ivpcaTrrj? LTa\iav Tovvojma \apeiv 9 ocrrj 


AajULrjTiKov' aTre^ei yap TavTa air aXXrjXcov ooov >;//fcre/a9 

4 qjULepas. TOVTOV or] Xeyovcri TOV 'iTaXoy vo/xaoa? TOV? Ol- 
vcoTpovs ovTas 7roirj<Tai yewpyov?, Kal VOJULOV? aXXov$ TG 
avTolg Oeo-Oai KOI TO, <rv(r<TiTia KaTa<TTrj<rai 7rpa)Tov. 3 to 



n KOL TrpoTepov Kal vvv KaXovjuLevoi Trjv 

TO oe 7rpo$ Trjv 'laTrvyiav KOI TOV *I.oviov 
Trjv KaXovfjLevrjv ^ipiTiv* rjcrav $e Kal 01 Xwt/e? OlvcoTpol 

6 TO yevos- n V<ev ovv TMV crva-criTicov TGL^LS evTevOev yeyove 
TrpwTov, 6 o^e ^WjOfcr/xo? 6 KaTa yevog TOV TroXiTiKOv TrX^JOou? 
1^ AiyvTTTOV TroXv yap VTTpTivei TOI$ ")(p6voi$ Trjv Ma/a> 

7 (3a<TiXeiav r] sLecra><TTpio$. a")(oov fJLev ovv Kal Ta aXXa Set 

evprjuQai TroXXa/cf? ev TO> TroXXa) yjpovw, jmaXXov S* 
r Ta /mev yap avayKaia Trjv xpelav SiSdcrKeiv CIKOS 
TO. 3" ei$ cvcrYrjiuLoarvvnv Kal Trepiovtriav vwapvovTcov 

f\ It /V 

fjSq TOVTWV evXoyov Xajm/Bdveiv Trjv av^rjcrtv. toVre Kal 
Ta Trepl Ta<s TroXfTcta? o'le<r6ai oei TOV avTOV e^eiv Tpowov. 
TrdvTa ap^aia, crrjfjLeiov TO, irepl AHywirTov ecrTtv 
a Bekker 


To.{)Tt]v\ ( This promontory/ 
in the sense in which the word occurs, 
Herod. IV. 38. 

^JTOS oi5(ra] running southwards into 
the Ionian Sea, 'on the hither side' of 
the boundary given. The distance 
between the two gulfs is twenty miles, 
and is so small as to justify Aristotle's 
looking on the two as forming the 
boundary. So I explain the y&p in 

4 Oivwrpovs] On this see Niebuhr, 
Vol. I. 14, 16, and pp. 55, 56, note 
165. On Kal vvv rt, Grote in. 497. 

itKovv] On this compare Grote in. 
466, and note r, and for the Chao- 
nians, in. 463. 

Sip?r>] Heyne's conjecture 2tpiv, 
for Sijprov, is better than Stfyorw, and 
is adopted by Mr. Grote, in. 463, note 
3. 2ipiTiv is here adopted from Nie- 
buhr. Rom. Hist. Vol. i. 18. "The 
Siritis so renowned among the 

6 TToAi) ydp] ' I say Egypt, for, 

7 T< 7ro\\<f XP V V] Compare II. v. 
1 6. 

irepiovvlav'] as opposed to avaytfcua 
Totiruv sc. T&V toayicaluv. 

8 vbuwv 5^] a von jeher." Stahr 
inserts omni hominum memoriS. ; there 
is no record of the time when they 

IV. (VII.) 10.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


rpvrtpo,, T h r % s r 

OVTOI yap ap\aioTaTOi u.ev OOKOV<TIV elvat 9 VOJULCOV oe Te- The caste- 
^ ,v , I %'---" /- . i ' systemand 

Tv^Kacri Kai Ta^ecos TTO\ITIK^^. oio oei TOI$ /mev eiprj/mevois syssitia. 

iKavws xptja-Oai, TO. $e TrapaXeXeijuLjuieva TreipaarOai ^tjTeiv. 
' QTI fjiev ovv oei T^V y^copav elvai TWV OTrXa KeKTtj/mevwv g 

Kai TCOV T>/9 7ToXiT6ia9 fA.eTe^OVTCi)V, e'lpt]" 

C)IOTI TOU9 yewpyovvTa? avTcov eTepovg eivai Sei 9 Kal irocrriv PP ula - 

, \ , %":-.;/ , %, - tion - 

Tfj^a ^(/o>7 /ca* Troiav eivai Trjv ^copav Trepi oe 
Kal TWV yecopyovvTcov, Tiva<$ Kal TTOIOVS elvai 

tot] OVT Koivrjv (bajmev elvai oeiv TIJV KTrj(riv 9 1330 
T*ye9 elprjKaariv, aXXa Ty -^prjorei (piXiKWs yivojmevrj & 
OI/T' ctTTopeiv ovOeva TMV TroXiTcov Tpo<pr]$. Trepl T 
Te (TvvooKel Train yjpri<riit.ov elvai TGU9 ev KaT- 
TroXeariv VTrapxeiv Si"* rjv ^' aiTiav crvvSoKei Kal 
: ^e TOVTCOV Koivwveiv TrdvTas TOU? 
ou paOiov Oe TOf9 aTropovs GLTTO TWV io'iwv Te elar- 
TO crvvTCTay/uLevov KOI SioiKeiv T*]V aXXrjv oiKiav. CTI 
TO, 7TjOO9 TOi/9 ^601*9 SaTTav^/maTa KOIVO. Trd<rr]$ Ttjs 
avayKaiov TOIWV etg <$vo /u.eprj SiypijcrOai Trjv 
Kal Ttjv /uev eivai Koivyv T^V $e TCOV IC'ICDTCOV, Kal TOVTUIV 
CKaTepav oiyprfcrQai oi-^a TraXiv 9 T?9 juev KOivtjs TO juev eTepov 
ei<f Ta9 7T/OO9 TOf9 6eov$ XeiTOvpy Ia<s 9 TO oe eTepov ei$ 

* "" > " "^ R f ' A 1 " M "^' ", x 1 "^ ^^"S^ *"^** r 

varepov epovjmev. 

f/w ^^ 


TOOV <rvar<j-iTi(*)v 

9 e T>V o*ia)Tc)V TO 

were without laws and political ar- 

elpv)iJ.voL<i\ Several editors wish to 
read eu/^/^ots, nor is Stahr averse to 
the change, which seems favoured by 
II. v. 1 6. Still it is not necessary. 
The sense is very good with elpyfj.ti'ois. 
Eih. x. x. 23, p. 1181. b. 16. et n 
Kara, fjt.4pos etp^rai /caAcDs. 

9 8i6ri] ' that ;' avr&v ertpovs, 'dis- 
tinct from the citizens themselves.' 

dXXd T?7 xpfa ci <f>t-\iKCos yivopfrg 
Koivfjv] I prefer the dative participle 
to the accusative. ' But common by 
the use made of it in a friendly spirit.' 
Compare IT. v. 6. 

A. P. 

10 Trepl <ru(r<7iTiwj'] And not only 
must each citizen be adequately sup- 
plied both for his own wants and the 
fair demands of liberality, ' but also 
I,' says Aristotle, 'in common with 
the general view, allow that a public 
mess is required,' &c. 

vffTfpov tpovfiev] As Spengel says, 
p. 10, note n, it may be that Ch. 
XII. is the treatment of the subject 
here referred to, but that is hardly 

ou P^LOV} And as the poor cannot 
meet this demand, as well as their 
other wants, there must be some com- 
mon stock. 


The slave 


194 . IIOAITIKON A. (H.) 

TO irpos Tag < 


?, erepov $e TO trpo? Tt]V iroXtv, 
ajuL<poTepa)v TWV TOTTCOV 

vo K\ripu> 

'> TO TG yap 'LITOV oi>TO>9 e^ei KOI TO oY/ccuov 

Kat TO 7T/OO9 TOU9 a(TTV yeiTOVa? 7TO\ejUiOV$ OjULOVOt]TlK(Jt)TpOV. 

12 OTTOU yap /u.rj TOVTOV e^ei TOV Tpowov, ol /mev oXiycopovtri 

<> ^ ^ f / sr /\ <^^~\' ^L. '*** * 

T*79 7TOO9 TOf9 OJULOOOV^ 6YC7/OCl9j Ol 06 AiCtl/ (DQOVTl 

Trapa TO /caXoV. ^o ?rajo' eviois VOJULOS e<TTl TOV$ 

~f/ \ / n -\ * ~ 

Ta9 TO/9 O/ULOpOlS 

7ro\eju.cov, 0)9 ^(a TO 'idiov OVK av Svva/mevovs /3ov\V(rauOai 

13 KaXwg. Tt]V jmev ovv ^UDpav avdyKt] fiiyprja-Oai TOV TpoTrov 
TOVTOV fiia TC\9 Trpoeiprj/mevas aiTias' TOV$ 

EV, ei Set 



<pv\(jOV TTCLVTMV JULJJT6 6v/UiOl()WV (oVTto yap CLV TT^OO? T Tr)V 

epya&lav elev ^/o^cn/xot Kai TTOO? TO jut-qoev veooTepiifeiv acr<pa- 
Xef?), SevTepov $e /3ap/3apov$ TrepioiKOv? 7rapa7r\r)criov$ TO?? 
eiprjfjLevoi? Trjv (pvcriv. TOVTWV <$e TOU? /mev i^/ou? ev TOI<? 

e?rf T>7 KOivrj 

101019 elvai TOOV KeKTrj/aevcov TOC? oucr/a?, TOU? 

1 1 ?rp6s rds ^(rxaricCs] ' on the bor- 

OVTWS ?x 6t ] ' ^ or so ^ e division has 
fairness in it and justice; and with 
reference to the wars with neighbour- 
ing tribes, it has a very considerable 
tendency to produce unity of feeling.' 
I supply, it will be seen, the nomi- 
native to %et. 

12 Compare Thuc. IT. 21, the case 
of the Acharnians ; also Numbers 
xxxn. that of the tribes beyond 

Trap' evtois] The reference is un- 

13 ourw 7<i/> &v] For if neither of 

fiapftdpovs irepLoiKovs] Schneider in- 
serts ij, and with some reason, look- 
ing at ix. 8, where, as here, the slaves 
are marked off first, and then two 
other classes are given, either bar- 
barian periceci, or periceci of the same 

race as the ruling body. But, on the 
whole, it is as well to keep the reading 
in the text. In the former passage 
Aristotle was merely enumerating the 
kinds that might, in fact, constitute 
the dependent population ; here he is 
speaking of what is desirable, /car 
e$xr)v, and if he could not have slaves, 
he would wish that the perioeci should, 
as the next best thing, be of a stock 
alien to the Greeks, and not dependent 
Greeks; and both as a matter of 
Greek feeling and from the lessons of 
Greek experience, he was justified in 
this his view. 

14 roi>s nlv, K. T. X.] 'And these 
should be divided into classes ; the 
one employed on the private estates of 
those who have the property should 
be themselves the private property of 
the owners, the other employed on 
the public land should be public.' 


IV. (VII.) 10.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


yrj KOIVOV?. TLva oe $ei Tpoirov %pijcr6ai SovXot?., KOL &IOTL 

/3e\Tiov Tracri rcF? dovXoi? dOXov TrpoKeicrOai T*}V c\v6eptav, 
ff , ~ 

vcrTepov epovpev. 

Lrjv oe TroXiv OTI /mev oei KOiviyv elvai TJ?? tjirelpov TC 
KCti T?? OaXaa-crrjs /ecu r?9 X^P a ^ 7rao " ; ?S > OJULOICOS e/c TOJJ/ 
ej^^e^o/xeVct)^, e'lp^Tai TrpoTepov avTt]? <$e TT^OO? avrrjv elvai. 
Ttjv 9e<riv eu-^eo-Oai Set KaTarvy-^aveiv Trpog Terrapa /3\e- 
Troi/ra?, TrpwTOv yueV, ft>y avayKalov 9 TT^OO? vyieiav. ai re 
yctn TT/OO? eco T>/J^ e-y/cXfcrfi/ e^ovcrat /ecu Trpos TCL 

TO. TTVeOVTOL CL7TO T?9 aj/ClToX?? V^ilVOTpat 9 

Kara fBopeav ev-^eifjiepoi yap avrai jua\\ov. TOJI/ ^e \oi- 
Trpos T ra? TroAfn/ca? 7rpa^ei$ KCU TroXe/xf/ca? /caXtoy 

The slave 




evetv. TTOO? yu,ev oi)i> T? TroXe/otf/ca? auTO?? 


1330 B 

re KOU va/maTow /maXtfTTa /mev 

ei $e /my, TOVTO y* evprjrai $ia TOV 

'/O' f '? ' J. /I ' ^ f ~\ ' 

ojuppiois voacriv acpuovovs Kai /ze-yaXa?, cocrre 
TroXetTretv eipyo/mevovs r?? ^u>pas $ia TroXe/jiov. 
e Set 'Trepl vyieias (ppovTiQiv TWV evoiKovvTutv, TOVTO 4 

&0\ov irpoKe'iada.i] 'Liberty should 
be held out to all of them as a reward 
to be attained by exertion.' 

vffrepov epovjj,ev\ This is certainly 
not given in what we have of Aris- 
totle's work. It is one of the clearest 
passages in favour of its being a frag- 

XI. I KOlvty K T 

' so far as circumstances will permit, 
equally open to,' &c. 

avrrjs 5 trpbs avrT]v TT)V 6<TLV\ ' For 
the position of the city itself, and 
without reference to anything but 

KUTaTirxxctpeii'] 'That it may be 
fortunate in its position in four points.' 
^ap &pa /ATJ avfjifir) Kararvx^ is the 
passage quoted by L. and S. from 

Demosthenes, Or. xviu. 288. The 
difficulty in Aristotle is to make out 
clearly the four points. 

2 Trpbs Zw TT}v ZyK\i<nv 2xov<rai] 
'Those which slope towards the east.' 
Compare Arnold's note on Thuc. 
in. 23, for the difference of the east 
wind in Greece and England. 

euxet'/te/jot] ' For they have a milder 

3 oi/cetcw] 'of their own/ "within 
the town itself," Stahr. 

viro8oxds~\ 'recevoirs,' 'tanks.' 
t'TroXetTreii'] ' so that the supply may 
never fail them when shut in.' This 
must be the sense, but it seems an 
uncommon one for viroKdirew. 

4 v re TOLOVT^ sc. tv vyieivQ, ' in 
a place favourable to health.' 





, SevTepov Se 
eiri/JieXeiav eeiv 

vyicivois ^ptja-6ai f Kal 
/my Trapepycas. ol<s yap 7r\ei- 

l 7r\l(TTaKl$., TCWTO. 7T\l- 

Trjv vyieiav rj $e TCOV 

The city. ToiovTOV 

<TTOl$ "XJ3U)fJca TTjOO? TO 

<TTOV <rv]Ui/3aX\eTai TTjOO 
5 TOV Trvev/maTOS ovva/mi^ TOiavTyv e^ei Tyv (pvcriv. oiOTrep cv 
TOLLS eu (f)povovcrai$ $ei SicopicrOai TroXecnv, eav /mrj TrdvO* 
ojmoia JU.IIT' ct(pOovia TOVTCOV y vajmaTcov, 'X^p'ts ra re ei? 
Tpo<pt]v vdaTCt Kal TO. 7rpo$ T^V aXXtjv ^peiav. Trepl Se 
TOTTWV Tdov epvjuvooy, ov Tratrafg^ o/xotfa)g c X f TO wju-fapov 


TToXtTe/atg' oiov a/cpoTroXfg o\Ljyap\LKOV Kal 

KOV, rj/JLOKpaTiKOv 

v (T o 

apiarTOKpaTiKOv S* ovSeTepov, 

aXXa yuaXXo^ l<T\vpo\ TOTTOI TrXe/oug. rj $e TU>V iSi 
arecov $ia6e<Ti<s tj&MV fj.ev vo/uLi^erai Kal - 
ra? a'XXa? Trpa^?, av CUTOJULOS t] Kal /cara TOV 


TOvvavTiov, co? efyov /caret TOV ap-^aiov ^povov 
yap eKeivrj TOI$ ^CVIKOIS Kal Svcre^epevvr]TO<? TO?? 
7 7TiTi@eiu.evoi$. uio oi TOVTCOV a/ULcboTepcov 

jji,7) iraptpyws'] 'as a principal, not 
as a subordinate point.' The simple 
common sense of this passage requires 
no comments, and in the social ar- 
rangements of the ancient world this 
important point was not neglected. In 
more recent times it has been strangely 
overlooked, and in England, even now 
that its importance is being recog- 
nised by all, it is far from being prac- 
tically attended to ; partly from the 
indisposition to meet everything but the 
most crying evils, which is character- 
istic of the national mind ; partly from 
the deficiency not pressing so much on 
any classes as on the poor, and the 
poor in all such matters are sacrificed 
to the ratepayers ; partly from the op- 
position of vested interests, which pre- 
vent vestries as the local power, and 
parliament as the central, from acting 
with vigour in any great sanitary 

questions when the lives and interests 
of the millions are at stake. This is 
the case to an extent singularly dis- 
creditable to our boasted municipal 
and parliamentary institutions, whose 
power to impede progress is as visible 
as their power to forward it, and it is 
the former that at present seems in the 

5 Trepl rbirwv ^pv/j.v(Jov~\ On this re- 
mark, as illustrated by the history of 
Greek and Italian republics or feudal 
Europe, I need not dwell. All stu- 
dents of history or politics will find it 
easy to illustrate. 

6 rjdiuv /xeV] ' Though it is thought 

' straight and well cut.' 

II. 8. 

Tovvavriov'} ' the contrary system, as 
it was.' 

' that older plan.' 

IV. (VII.) 11.] JIOAITIKON A. (H.) 


Tai yap, &v TI$ OVTCO KaTaa-Kevdfy KaOairep eV T0t$ yecop- The city. 
yoi$ 9 KoXova-i Tive$ rcvv afjnreXcav <Tv<TTd<$a<s) Kal T*\V ju.ev 
oXtjv /JLYJ Troieiv TroXiv euTo^ov, Kara fJLeprj $e Kal roVoi/?* 
OVTCO yap Kal Trpo? d<r(pdXeiav Kal KOG-JULOV e^ec /caXco?. Trepl 8 
ol mr (dcrKOVT$ $etv eeiv rct9 r? aerts GLVTI- 

epyw ra? e'/caW? Ka\\a)7riarafJLeva$. 
ju.ev TOVS o/xotoy? Kal jmtj TroXv TO) TrXyOei g 
$ia<pepovra$ ov KaXov TO TrcipaarOai crwQa-Oai $ia r^9 TCOV 
Tcl $e Kal (TVju./3aivi Kal ev^e^eTaL 
T*IV vTrepo'^qv yiyvetrOai TCOV CTTIOVTOOV Kal T/?9 avOpc*)- 
Kal r^9 cv TO!? oXiyois aperrj?) el Set a-oo^eerOai Kal /mrj 
l^eo-Oai, TY\V acr^xxXecrTaT^i/ epvju.vo- 

TWV ret^coj/ otfJTCOV elvai TroXe/uLiKGOTaTrjv, aXXco? re 
Kal v\Jv evprj/ULGVow TU>V Trepl ra /3eXrj Kal ra9 fjirj-^ava^ 6/9 
aKpifieiav irpos Tag TroXiopKias. o/moiov yap TO Teiffl jmt] 
7repi/3aXXeiv Taf$ TroXecrf^ a^iovv Kal TO Trjv ^copav eve/m- 
/3oXov fyTetv Kal Trepiaipeiv TOV$ opeivovs TOTTOV?' OJULOIOO? 
$e Kal ra?9 oiK^o-etri Tai$ iiiats /mr] trepi/BaXXeiv TOL^OV^ ft>? 
avdi>$pu)v ea-ojuievoov TMV KaTOiKovvTcov. aXXa jmrjv ov$e TOVTO i 
ye Set XavOdveiv, OTI TOI$ ju-ev 7rpi/3e/3Xt]/uLevoi$ Tei-^rj Trepl 
Tr\v TroXiv e^ecrTLV aju.(poTepct)<s xp*j<r6ai TCU9 TroXeariv, Kal 0)9 
yov<rai<s Tei^tj Kal 0)9 arj e^ovcraf9> ra?9 ^e !&*] KKTrj/uLevai$ OVK 

(~e<TTlV. ei fit] TOVTOV e-^ei TOV TpOTTOV, OV% OTL TL^ri JULOVOV 

Trepi{3Xt]Teov 9 aXXa Kai TOVTCOV eTTi/xeXj/Teoy, O7rco9 Kat irpo? 

KOCTJU.OV -^Tj Tfj TToXei TTpeTTOVTMS Kal 7T|009 T9 

7 <Tva-Td5as] ' vines planted closely 
and irregularly,' say L. and S. ; but 
this does not seem to be the meaning 
here. It is rather vines planted in the 
quincunx. So in the arrangement of 
the town, the streets would not, like 
those of Philadelphia, run parallel and 
at right angles, but the blocks of 
houses would be so arranged as to 
front the openings of the streets. 

8 \iav d/>xaws] ' are extremely an- 
tiquated in their jdeas.' 

Kal ravd'] 'and that too though they 
see that the cities which prided them- 
selves on that, are, when tested, found 
wanting.' Mr. Grote, X. 304, note 2, 
commenting on this passage, thinks it 
difficult to admit of Sparta. 

9 evprj^vov eis a,Kpl(3eiav] Philip of 
Macedon gave an immense develop- 
ment to the artillery. 

1 1 ovx 6Vt] ' not merely. ' 





01 y ' yct|0 TO?? eTTiTiOe/mevoi? eTn/xeXe? ecrrt Jf* cSi/ TpoTrwv TrXeov- 
etcTrjcrovo-iv, OVTW TO. (J.W evprjTOLi ra $e Set fyrelv /ecu <pi\o- 

/ ~ N ^ / x ' . t ^ ?R *> 

(TO(peiv /ecu TOf? (pvAaTTO/mevovs' apyjiv yup ovo 



TO jmev 
TO. $e 


(pv\aKTtipioi$ Kal 

The magis- 

trates. The , , , , , , f , , 

agora. TTvpyois Kara TOTTOf? eTUKaipovs, or)\ov co? aura 7rpOKa\et- 

TOLI Trapaa-Kevd^eiv evia TWV arvGrviTiuiv ev TOVTOIS roig (f)v- 

KOI ravra JULCV $rj TOVTOV av r/9 

oiK^crei<} /ecu ra 

TOV TpOTrov, ra? (5e TOig Oeiois 

KvpicoTara TWV ap-^eicov <rv(rcriTia ap/moTrei TOTTOV 

oeiov Te e^etv KCLI TOV CLVTOV, ova ^ TWV tepwv o VOJULOS a(po- 

3 jO/^et X W P^ % Ti ! JLaVTe ^ ov XXo TTvOoxptjo'TOV. e'lrj o av 

TOIOVTOS 6 TO7TO? OCTTi? eTTKpaveiCLV T ^ei TTjOO? T*]V T^? 

apertjs Oecriv iKavux} KOI TTjOo? ra yeiTViwvTa pepr] T^? TTO- 
Xeco? epv]ULVOTp(*)$. Trpejrei o VTTO /mev TOVTOV TOV TOTTOV 
ayopas elvai KaTacrKevrjv oiav KOI Trepl GerraX/ai/ 

ras vvv tTre&vpyntvas] ' the recent 
inventions.' " ceux de la tactique 
moderne." St. Hil. 

12 rd, /i^v] means of defence. 

rjTeiv Kal (f>i\oo-o<j>eiv] ' seek by 
scientific methods.' 

&pxr]v ydp] This is equivalent to 
the Latin maxim, Si bellum vitare 
vis, bellum para. 

XII. I afira] sc. ri re^i?, 'the 
walls of themselves invite us. ' 

2 T& Kvpiibrara, K. r. X. ] ' and the 
syssitia of the most important boards 
of magistrates.' 

jrv66xp'>i<rTov] In this he agrees with 
Plato, Rep. iv. 427 B. 

3 TTl(f)dvldf T %X l > K ' T ' ^-] A 

close translation would hardly give 
what I conceive to be the meaning of 
this passage: 'which is both con- 
spicuous enough to qualify it for an 
appropriate site for the men of eminent 

merit whom the state may possess, 
and is not without considerable 
strength as regards the neighbouring 
parts of the city.' e-n-i^dfetav #x ei = 
^TTKpav^ GTL. Comp. Thuc. vi. 96. 
TO &\\o %c6/HOj/ . . . ^XP 1 T W 7r6Xews 
TriK\ivts T' &m Kal ]ft0aps irav eftrw. 
Stahr's translation of Trpbs rty rrjs 
aperrjs Qiaw is, " der geistigen Erha- 
benheit seiner Bestimmung wtirdig 
entsprache." St. Hil. translates it 
more nearly as I do. "Tel que 
1'exige la dignitd des personnes qu'il 

TrpeTrei 8e] Comp. Grote, II. 371. 
" In the Thessalian cities, though in- 
habited in common by Thessalian pro- 
prietors and their Penestae, the quar- 
ters assigned to each were to a great 
degree separated : what was called the 
Free Agora could not be trodden by 
any Penest except when specially 

IV. (VII.) 12.] IIOAITIK&N A. (H.) 199 

ovouaCowiv, nv eXcvOepav Ka\ov<Tiv. avrn <T <TT\V wi/ Set Themagis- 
\ ^ ^ , , / N / f trates. The 

KaOapav etvai TU>V wvicov TTGLVTCOV, Kal /mrjTe fiavavarov /UL^TC agora. 

yecopyov jmrjT d\\ov /mrjSeva TOIOVTOV 7rapa/3d\\eiv ^rj KCL- 
Xoujmevov V7TO TCOV ap^ovTcov. e'lrj o dv eu^apif 6 TOTTO?, 
el Kal TO. yv/jLvdcria TCOV Trpea-pvTeptov %pi rtjv rdfyv ei/- 
TavOa. TrpeTrei yap SiyptjarOai Kara ra? rf\iKLa<s xal TOVTOV 5 
TOV KOO-JULOV, KOL TTapa jULGv TO?? vecoTepoL? a/^ovra? TLvag 

eiv, TOV? $e 7rpea-/3vTepov$ irapa TOI$ apxovortv rj yap The double 

i A * * / r-v > \ agora 

ev cxpuaA/UiOi? T(*)v ap'XjovTGov Trapovtria /xaAtcrTa efjLTroiet TVJV 6 

l$u) KOI TOV TWV e\ev9epow <po/3ov. Ttjv fie 
ayopav eTepav re Set TabTtj? eTvai KOI 
TOTTOV evcrvvaycoyov TOI$ TC OLTTO T^? Qa\aTTt]<s 
/ecu Toig awo T^? ^cOjOa? Traariv. eirel Se TO 7r\fj6o$ Siai- 

peiTGLl Trj<S TTOXCCO? 1? EpBt? 1$ OtjO^O^Ta?, TTpeTTCL KO.I TCOV 

epewv crva-criTia irep T*]V TWV epwv otKooo/uLtjjULaTWv eyeiv 
TOL^IV. TWV fr apyelwv oara Trepl TO. o-y/x/SoXaia 7roiiTai ^ 
Ttjv 7riju.e\eiav 9 irepl re ypa(j)a$ OIKCOV Kal ra? K\ya-eis Kai 
Trjv aXXrjv TV]V ToiavT^v ^loiKrjcrLV) ert ^e Trepl Tqv ayopavo- 
IJ.LO.V Kat TY\V Ka\oviuLvr)v acTTWo/uLiav, 7T/OO9 ayopa /x,ei/ eel KCLL 

TLVL KOLVy KaT<TKvda-6ai 9 TOIOVTOS (T 6 7Tpl TrjV 

ayopav CUTL TOTTO?* ei/cr^oXa^eti/ /mev yap TY\V ava) 
, TavTrjv $e TTjOO? ra? avayKatas 7rpd^i$. vevefj-fjcrOai 8 
Trjv eiprjiu.vr]v Ta^iv Kal TO. Trepl Trjv -^copav KOI yap 
TOIS ap^ovcrtVy ob? KaXovcriv ol JULCV vXoopovs ol oe aypo- 
VO/ULOVS, Kal (f)v\aKTr}pia Kal <Tvcr<riTia irpo<s (pvXaKrjv avayKaiov 
CTI $e lepa /cara Ttjv "^wpav elvai vevefj.riiJ.ev a, TO. 

] This word occurs, Etli. 
vn. xiv. 6, p. 1154, in the sense of 
' passing into.' Here it means ' to 
approach,' 'come near to.' 

5 rbv T&V \evdpwv Qbfiov] ' Such 
fear as freemen may feel.' 

6 evcrvvdyuyov] ' where may easily 

rb TrX-^^os This is an odd statement. 

so limited, the statement will hold ; but 
even then the disjointed way in which 
he throws out ei's iepels, els &PXOVTO.S, 
is remarkable. 

Trepl TV Ta^iv] is supplied, as 
Schneider says, harshly ; but it is the 
simplest word. 

7 T&S /cXTjcreis] ' the summons.' 

nvl Koivfj] ' in some public 

There must be some mistake, for it is 
inconsistent with Ch. IX. If he 
means TO TrXrjdos rdv 

place of meeting. ' 

dyopdv'] equivalent to 

TTJZ> ru)f wft'wj' dyopdv, 5 




The double yuev 6eoi$ TO. fie %pa)(Tiv. a\\a TO SiaTpifl&v vvv aKpi/3o\oyov- 

agora. , \ > / \^ / > / 

/zevof? Kai \eyovTas Trepi TCOV TOIOVTWV apyov earTiv. ov 

9 yap yaXeirov ecm TO. TOiavra vo?crcu, a\\a Trot^crcu /u.aX\ov 
TO jmev yap \eyeiv eu^? epyov ecrTi, TO Se (rvjuL/3fjvai Tv^g' 
Sio Trepl /zev TCOV TOIOVTCOV TO ye eVf TrXetov cKpeicrOco TO, 

i? IlejOf ^e r^9 TroXtre/a? aur^?, e/c TIVGOV Kal e/c TTOLCOV Set 

Theconsti- arvvevTavai TY\V fj.e\\ov(rav ea-ecrOai TTO\LV /maKapiav Kal TTO\I- 

tution. r /\ * * > f F'TT 1 \ <H '> * % t f r 

2 Teve(Tuai KaAa)?, XCKTCOV. I J^TTCI oe ov evTiv ev of? yiyveTai 
TO ev 7ra<Ti, TOVTOIV 5' <TTiv ei/ /xei/ ei/ TO) TOI^ CTKOTTOV KeivOai 
Kal TO reXo? TCOV 7rpdj*ecov opOoos, ev ^e a ev TW ra? TTjOO? TO 
TeXo? (pepovcrag Trpd^eis evploicctv evSe^eTat yap TavTa Kal 
oia<pa)veiv aXX^Xot? /ecu (rv/JL<pcoviv evtoTe yap 6 JULCV GTKOTTOS 
CKKeiTai /caXa)9, ev $e TU> TrpaTTeiv TOV TV^CIV avTov <$ia/ji.ap- 


Tvy%dvovcriv, a\\a TO TeXo? e'OevTO (j>av\ov OTC <$e e/ca- 
Tepov diajULapTavova-iv, olov Trepl iaTpuufjtr OVTC yap TTOIOV 
TL Set TO vyialvov etvai crco/xa Kpivovcriv ew'ore /caXco?, 
TTjOo? TOV UTTo/cei/zevov auTo?9 o^oov Tf-y^avofcrt TCOV 
/ccov oe? o' ev Ta?9 Te^vat? /cal eTrtcrT^yuat? TavTa a]u.(hoTpa 

3 KpaTei(rOai 9 TO TeXo? /cat Ta? e:? TO Te'Xo? 7rpdei$. OTI 
fjLev ovv TOV T ev ^tjv Kal T>/9 evSaiimovias efyiev 
(pavepov. aXXa TO^TCOV TO?? /xev e^ovcrla Tvy)(aveiv 9 

1332 ^ e ^ ^ tc ^ Tti/a TV-^V rf (pvcriv SeiTai yap Kal 

TfVO? TO ^V /CaXc09, TOVTOW 0^6 eXttTTOVO? />teV TO?? a/JLLVOV 
a ;/ 5^ rcs Bekker. 

9 etfxfa ^701'] 'is a question of 
wishing.' Compare IV. i. He turns 
now from the V7ro6t<reis, the necessary 
conditions of his state, which he must 
have allowed him, to the constitution 
itself, to that which depends on man's 
exertion and skill and not on fortune. 

XIII. 2 From this point down to 
the end of 8, or very nearly, I have 
enclosed in brackets, as an unneces- 
sary interruption of the reasoning. 

fr 5 rcis] To make the sentence 
complete there should be inserted 

ydp] Comp. JSth. VI. x. 
p. 1142-31. 

&c/ceiTcu] ' stands out well and dis- 
tinctly. ' Set 5^. The apodosis. 

Kpareiffdai] 'both must be mastered.' 
3 tov(rla] ' have the opportunity. ' 

would be more regularly 
, agreeing as it does in sense 

IV. (VII.) 13.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


Vof?, TrXe/oyo? oe TOI? yecpov ol o ev9v$ OVK opOws The con- 

orjXov OTL Ttjv evo 
$e KOL ev Tol<s 

^ '^ / '>* t t f 5 \ ^^ ^ 

TJJV evoaifJiovLav, e^oucria? VTrapyovo-qs. eirei oe TO 

v ecrTi T^V ap[<TTijv TroXiTelav ideiv, avTrj o <TTL * 
/ca(9' v\v apHTT av TroXiTevoiTO 7r6\i$, apicrra ^ av TTO\I- 
TCVOLTO /ca$' r}v ev$ai[JLoveiv jmaXicrTa ei^e^erai Tt]V 7ro\iv 9 
Lav oei 9 TI eo"Tt, /my \avQaveiv. (pa/mev 5 
e'l TI TCOV Xoyaov CKCLVCOV o(pe\os, evep- 
yeiav etvai Kal -^prjcrLv ctjOer?? Te\eiav, Kal TavTtjv OVK e 
VTroOe&ecos aXX* a?rXa)?. \eyct) $' e^ uTroOecrea)? rai/a-y/cam, 6 
TO (5' aTrXw? TO /caXa)?* oiov TO. Trepl Ta? o'lKalag Trpa^eis al Kal KO\acrei$ air apeTrjs JULGV elo-iv, avay- 
e, Kal TO /caXw9 avayKatcos eyjdvtriv (alpeTWTepov /mev 
yap /u-rjOevos SeiarOai TCOV TOIOVTWV JULJ^TC TOV avSpa JUL^TC T*IV 
TroXfy), al S* 7rl Ta? Ti/aa? Kal T9 evwopias air\u>^ eicrl /caX- 
XtcrTat TTjOa^ei?. TO JULCV yap eTepov KaKov TIVO<S a f lpeari$ 7 
e<TTiv 9 al ToiavTai e jrpa^is Tovvavriov KaTaarKeval yap 
ayaOwv elar\ Kal yevvyffei?. xpycratTO o" av 6 <T7rovoaio$ 
avrjp Kal Trevia Kal vocrw Kal TCU? aXXat? Tv%ai$ Tats (pav\aL$ 
/caXco?* aXXa TO /maKapiov ev Tol<s evavTiois e&Tiv. Kai yap 


o"ia TY\V apeTt]V TO, ayaOd ecrTi Ta aTrXco? 
ayaOd. ^rjXov S* OTI Kal Tag xpycreis avayKaiov orTrofo^a/a? 8 
Kal /caXa? elvai TavTas aTrXwg. fito Kal VOJULL^OWIV avOpWTroi 
TTJS evSai/ULOvlas (UTia TO. e/cTO? eivaL TU>V ayaOwv, a)<T7rep ei 
TOV KiOapifytv \ajUL7rpov Kal /caXw? aiTitfTO Trjv \vpav 


4 ev66s] ' from the commencement.' 

5 ^ vwoOtcreus = ?rp6s vTrbdeaiv] See 
ix. 3. 

6 air' apeT??s}This expression occurs 
in III. iv. 5. 'Though they are the 
results of a virtue, yet they are not 
more than is necessary ; what noble 
element they have is not satisfactory ;' 
they are right, but they are not more 
than right, there is a meagreness 
about them. They are of the charac- 
ter of a necessary evil. 

CTTI ras Tt/u,cis] sc. <p'epov<ra.i. 

7 %p?7<rcuTO 5e] Comp. Eih* I. xi. 1 3, 
p. iroi. i. 

/card rod's ^0ucoi5s] The reference is 
Eth. iv. vi., p. 1113. 15. 

8 TOLS xpfa 61 -*] Comp. II. VI. 9. 
' The use of the goods of fortune T&V 
e/cr6s dyaduv.' 

810 Arai] Men have not seen that it 
is in their use and not in themselves 
that happiness consists, and not seeing 
this, have thought them, by a confu- 
sion, the causes of happiness. 





vayKaiov TOivuv e/c TGOV eipt]ij.evw>v TO, /mev 

> > 

io /car ev- 

The con- \ ov T ^ T"vvr]$. 1 " A 

^ ^ ' ^ /j, 

y TO. oe TrapacrKevaffai TOV VOJULOUGT^V. 

a Tqv T?79 TToAeco? crvcrTacriv., cov rj 
Kvpiav yap avT^v VTrdpyeiv TiOejmev TO $e (TTrovSaiav eivai 

TV]V 7r6\lV OVKCTl TV^]<S CpJOV, aAA' eTTKTTj}/^? KOI TTpOaipG- 

crew<$. 'AAAa iJ.rjv crTrovdaia TTO\I$ ecrri T<W Tot9 TroA/ra? 
rot'? /uLeT"xovTa$ r^? TToAtTG/a? eivai (TTTOvSaiovs' rj/jilv fie nrav- 

10 re? oi TroArrcu /uere^ouirt T^? TroAtre/a?. TOVT apa (TKC- 
TTTCOV, TTO)? avrjp yiverai (TTrovSaios. KOLI yap el Trayra? 
ev^e-^eTai <r7rov<$aiov$ eivai, /u.rj /ca$' eKaarrov ^e TCOV TroAirw^, 

alpeTcorepov ctKoXovOei yap rw KaO* eKaarrov Kal TO 
aAAa /mrjv ayaOoi ye Kal cnrovSaioi yiyvovTai 

11 fiia Tpiwv. TO. Tpia 3e raura <TTI (pvcris eOo? \oyos. Kal 
yap (fivvai del TrpwTov, olov avQpwjrov aAAa /my T&V a\\wv 
TI ^a5a)^, efra Kal TTOIOV Tiva TO crw/xa Kal T*\V 

1332 B via (^e a ovOev 6<pe\og <pvvai' TO. yap eOr] /uLeTa/3a\eiv 

evia yap ecrri <$ia r^? (frvcrews 7ra/ui(poTepL^ovTa Sia TWV e 

12 eTrl TO yeipov Kal TO fie\Tiov. TO, /mev ovv aAAa TWV '( 
fjLa\i(TTa (j.ev Ty (pv&ei 1Q, fj-iKpa & evia Kal TO?? e6e<riv 9 av- 

fie Kal \oyw' /ULOVOV yap e^ei \6yov. eoVre <$ei 
crv/uL<p(*)veiv aAAjjAot?' TroAAa yap irapa TOVS eOicrjuiov? 
Kal Trjv (fivariv irpaTTOvcri Sia TOV \6yov 9 eav 7rei<r6u)<Tiv aA- 

a re Bekker. 

rolvvv] The sense would 
be quite clear if this were brought into 
immediate connexion with the first 
sentence of the chapter. ' From all 
that we have said, it follows as a ne- 
cessary consequence that of the requi- 
sites for a state some must be assumed, 
they are the gift of fortune, others 
must be provided by the legislator ; 
and, therefore, so far as the points are 
concerned which depend on fortune, 
the constitution of our state is a mere 
question of wishing.' 

Kvpiav yap, K. r. X.] 'for, that for- 
tune is supreme, we assume.' 

^Tricmy/w/tys Kal 7r/9ocu/)^0 - ews] Know- 
ledge and will, the two conditions of 

all right action ; the ei'Sws Kal 
fjievos of Eth. II. iii. 3, p. 1105, 31. 
Tjfuv 5^] ' and in our view.' 

10 d Trdvras, /c.r.X.] ' granting that 
it is possible.' 

ou'rws] ' this latter way.' 

11 ra TpLa\ Comp. Eth. x. x. 6, 
p. i r 79, 6, 20, where 5ta%^ takes the 
place of \67os here. 

evia re] better 5<?. 

Sta rijs 0tf<reo>j, /c.r.X.J ' By nature 
uncertain, capable of either turn ; 
fixed by habits for evil or for good.' 

12 rfj <f>v(rei] 'instinct,' 'natural 

fj,6vov yap (T&V fouv) ef^ei \6yov] 
Comp. I. II. 10. 

IV. (VII.) 14.] nOAITIKGN A. (H.) 203 


* t \ \ \ 

7 Traioeias' TO. jmev yap 


,, . , , * . A 

ime\\ovTa<s ev^eipciOTOV? <re<ruai 

TrpoTepov, TO oe \OLTTOV epyov rjorj 
/uiavOavovari, TOL o O,KOVOVT$ 

lV o1oV<S 

Ol The con- 



<-N^I\ / i < f ^ - 

TOVTO or] (TK7rTeov, ei ere/oof? etval oei TOU? . ^ . 
rou? apyOyaeVou9 ?f TOV$ CIVTOVS Sia /Biov 

> . /, , rx / v , / for all the 

a.Ko\ovueiv oe^crei /caf T^V Traioeiav KCITO. TY\V otat- citizens? 

peviv TavT^v. el /JLGV TOLVVV eiq&a* TOCTOVTOV Sia(pepovTe<s 2 
aTepoi TWV a\\u>v O(TOV TOV<S Qeovs KGU TOU9 rjpcoas qyovfJieOa 
TWV avOpwTTCov $ta<ppew, evOv? TrpwTOV /cara TO crw/xa TroX- 
\tjv ej^cwras Bircpj&oXiJv, efra /cara r^ ^frv^v, coo-re ai/a/x- 
<pi<T/3iiTr]Tov eTvai Kal (fiavepav Tr\v virepo^rjv TOig ap^ojuevois 


/jtei/ ap-^eiv TOVS $"* ap-^earOat KaOaTraj". eTrel ^e TOUT ov 3 

r/^ A/D'* C* V f ''T^~_L ^ 'V 'N ^* ^ 

paoiov \apetv ovo GCTTIV axTTre/o e^ Ivoof? (prjcri ZjKv\aq > Lvai 
Tovg /5a<rfXea9 TO&OVTOV o~ia(pepovTa$ TWV ap-^ 9 <pa- 
vepov OTL OLCL 7roXXa9 aiTia$ avayKalov iravTas 6/xo/a)9 /cof- 
vwveiv TOV KOLTCL ftcpos apyeLV Ka\ ap^eorOai. TO Te yap 
"LGTOV TCLVTOV Tol<s O/ULOLOIS, Kal ^aXeTrov fuemn TY\V TroXiTeiav 
Trjv (rvvearTrjKviav Trapa TO QLKaiov. /meTa yap TWV ap-^o- 4 
fjilvcov VTrdpxovcri vecoTepil^eiv /3ov\ojuLevoi TravTeg ol /cara 

av TocrouTou9 re evai rou9 * 
WOT 1 efi/at KpeLTTOv? TravTcov TOVTCW, ev TL TWV a 

ort ye 


TO 7rXy- 



13 euxei/Diiroiys] 'manageable.' 
Ch. VII. 

in the widest sense, taking 
the child at the earliest stage. ' For 
men learn partly by practice, partly 
by precept. ' 

XIV. i TOVTO dy <TKeTTT<!oi>] This 
point was virtually settled in III. IV. 

i ei ntv Tolvvv] Compare I. v. 8. 

Qavepav roTs apxo^voii\ ' evident to 
the ruled.' 

3 2/cu\a] of Caryanda, Smith, 
Biogr. Diet., where it is mentioned, 
759 a, that Aristotle is the first writer 
who refers to him. 

depends on XajSetv. 
o^otas] 'on equal terms,' III. XVI. 
3, and note on r6 dva [j.pos wcratfrws. 

4 01 /card TTJV xwpaj'J ( all who, resi- 
dent in the country, are not citizens.' 
dXXA \ii\v\ ( on the other hand. ' 




Is the edu- {jLeOe^ovvi,, $ei crKe^racrOai TOV vojmoOeTyv. e'lpyrai o"e Trpo- 

cation to \i~t\,fKn\ f ?/ / 

bethesame Tepov Trepi avTOV. rj yap (pvans CedcoKe T*JV aipecriv, Troiy- 

ciiizensT (Taara aVT V T< ? yevei TavTOV TO fJLev vecoTepov TO $e 7rpea-/3v- 
' - Tepov, wv TO?? /mev ap^ecrOai TrpeTrei, TOI$ o apyeiv. ayav- 
i oe ovel$ /ca(9' rjXiKiav ap^o/uievos, ov8e vojmi^ei efvai 
aXXa)? re KOU /me\\u>v avTi\a.ju./3dveiv TOVTOV TOV 
6 epavov, OTO.V Tvyj) T^? iKvovju.evrj$ rj\iKia$. G<JTI jmev apa 
0)9 TOW? auTOf? ap^eiv Kal ap^ea-Oai (paTeov, e&Ti oe co? erc- 
1333 povs. w<TTe Koi Tt]v 7raiiav euTiv a>9 TTJV avTrjv avayicaiov, 
a)? eTepav eivai. TOV TC yap /uLe\\ovTa /caXw9 ap^eiv 
i (pacri $eiv 7rpu>TOV. COTTL ^ />X^' 
TOI$ TTjOcorof? eiprjTcu Xoyois, q jmev TOV apyovTO<$ -^a 

7 oe TOV ap^o/uLevov. TOVTGOV oe TY\V /mev oe<T7roTiKrjv eivai 
(pajmev, Trjv Se TU>V eXevOepaov. StcKpepei S' evia TOOV ein- 
TaTTO/mevcov ov Tol<$ epyoi$ aXXa TOO TLVO? eVe/ca. Sio TroXXa 
TWV eivai OOKOVVTWV oiaKoviKcov epycov KOI TCOV vecov TOI$ 
eXevOepoi? KaXov SiaKoveiv 7rpo$ yap TO KO\OV Kal TO jur] 
KaXov ou^ ovTO) $ia<pepovcriv al Trpa^eis Ka6' avTa$ w? ev rw 

8 TeXei Kal TW TIVO<S eveKev. eirel o^e TroXiTOv KOI apyovTOS 
- \ ^ \ -51 / ^ ^ t t > <\ / \ 

jects of TJ ?v avTrjv apeTrjv eivai (pa^ev Kai TOV api<rTov avopo$, TOV 

education w^^'/r - r s\ / \v 

' o avTOV ap^ojuLevov re oetv yiyvetruat TrpoTepov Kai ap- 

rj 7rpayju.aTevTeov 9 
TIVCDV eTriTtj^ev- 

9 juaTdov, Kal TI TO TeXo$ r^? apiiTTrjs ^ft)??. SifipriTai oe Svo 


The ob- 

v<TTepov 9 TOVT av e'i?) Tft) 
avSpes ayaOol yiyvovTai* Kal 

5 O,VT$ ry 7^61 TOLVTOV] ' that which 
is in kind the same. ' 

Ka.6' yXiKlav'] 'on the ground of age.' 
avTiXa/mpdveiv] ' to have this privi- 
lege in his turn, when he shall have 
reached the proper age.' gpavov is 
used in a very general sense. 

7 ov rois fyyois, /c.r.X. ] 'not in what 
is done, but in the object for which it 
is clone.' 

Kal TWV viuv, K.r.X.] 'even to the 
young freeman.' 

ev T r^Xet] opt^erctL T$ rtXei yap 
gicacrTov, Eih. in. 10, 6, p. 1 115, 6, 22. 

8 e7rd 5, /c.r.X. ] This is discussed 

at considerable length in III. IV. 
TToXtrou /cai apxovros must, in accord- 
ance with that chapter, be taken very 
closely together. ' The virtue of the 
citizen, if that citizen be also a ruler, 
and that of the best man, are identi- 
cal. ' TroXirov Kal apxovros answers to 
the TWOS TToXtrou of III. IV. 9. 

STTOJS ylyvovTai\ I adopt this reading 
in preference to Bekker' s 'how good 
citizens are formed,.' with an interro- 
gative sense, that is, and not a final one. 

9 StfljOTjrcu] Etli. I. xiii. p. 1102; vi. 
ii, p. 1139 A. 

IV. (VII.) 14.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 



T>79 "*1 /V X'1 < *> ^ v TO l* ev ^X. ei ^-dyov Ka6' avTO, TO o OVK Theobjects 

^ of educa- 
fjiev KaO* avTO) Xdyca o VTraKoveiv ovvajmevov u>v (pajuev tion. 

aoeTcc9 elvai /ca(9' a$ avrjp aya6o$ XeyeTai TTCOS. TOV- 
TWV (T ev TTOTepa) /maXXov TO TeXo9? TOig imev OVTCD iaipov<riv 
0)9 r][Jiei<$ (pajuLev OVK aoqXov 7TW9 XCKTGOV. alel yap TO ^et- 10 
pov TOV f$e\TLOv6<$ ecTTiv eveKev, Kai TOVTO (pavepov OJULOLMS ev 
Te TOig KaTa Tey^vrjv Kal TOI<? /cara (pvcriv, /SeXrfoi/ ^e TO 
Xo'yoi^ 'evov ouiptfTai Te oty>7, KaO ovirep eiwOajmev TQOTTOV 
Siaipeiv 6 /mev yap TrpaKTiKos <TTI \6yos 6 fie OecoprjTiKos' 

ovv avdyKr] $typq<r6ai Kal TOVTO TO p.epo<s SrjXov n 
Kal Ta9 Trpd^eis $' avdXoyov epovjmev e^eiV) Kal Set T<*9 
(pvcrei /3eXTiovo$ aipeTWTepas elvat TO?9 Swa/mevoi? Tvy- 
"vdveiv "rj Traarwv 5/ TOIV ovoiv aiei yap eKaerTW TovO* aipe- 
TcoTaTOV, 01 Tv^eiv ecrTiv aKpoTaTOv. SiypqTai $e Kal 7r9 12 
6 /3i'o9 et9 aa"^o\iav Kal el$ cr^oXrjv Kai 7r6Xeju.ov Kai eiprjvrjv, 
Kal T<av TrpaKTWV TO. fjiev el? Ta avayKaia Kal %p*i <Ti l Uia Ta $ e 
el$ TO, KaXa. Trepl wv avdyKr] T^V avTrjv a'lpea-iv elvai Kal 13 

-^i^ \ r v ^ / A 

TO*9 Tt]$ "v|/fY^9 ^.epecri Kai Tais Trpa^ecriv avTCOv, TTO\/ULOV 
imev elprjvris -^dpiv., aa-^oXiav fie <r^oXtJ5 9 TOL ^ avayKaia Kal 
vp^cTi/xa TU)V KaXcov eveKev. 7T/OO9 TravTa jmev TOIVVV TOO 
TToXiTiKW fiXeTTOVTi vo/uoOeTrjTeov, Kal KaTa TO. fmepr] T^9 

i * \ ^^ t y* ?^ ^-v -v 51 < \ v 

\|/i/^9 Kai KaTa T9 Trpa^eis avTU>v 9 jmaAA-ov oe irpo$ Ta 
/3e\Tid) Kal Ta TeXtj. TOV avTOV $e TpoTrov Kal Trepl TOV$ 14 

yap ' 

8vvdfj,evov'] should be Swarai. There 
is a similar inaccuracy in I. v. 9. 

10 SifipyTai] sc. 6 X670S. 'The reason,' 
not 'the rational part,' rb \6yov &x v ' 

11 w<rai5rws] 'To correspond with 
this division then must the part evi- 
dently be divided, and the actions of 
either division will admit of a cor- 
responding division again. ' 

J) TTO.CT&V T) TOLV Svolv] Is the mean- 
ing : ' The actions of the higher part 
are more to be chosen by those who 
have it in their power to do so, than 
the actions of all the parts of our na- 

ture, or of the two parts concerned in 
moral action, ' the (rvvderbv of Efh. x. 
7, 8, p. 1177, b. 28? Does he mean 
that we ought, if we can, exclusively 
to cultivate the highest part, to the 
entire exclusion, that is, of the lower. 
It is very difficult; yet this would 
give a sense. 

12 Kal Tras] 'a further division is 
that of all life, &c.' 

Kal T&V TT/oa/crcDv] carelessly stated. 
TO, Trpa/cra, rd fj.ev avayKaia Kal XP 1 !' 
, TO, 5 Ka\d. 

1 3 a'lpeffiv] equivalent to Sialpe(ru>. 



Theobjects Xeiv ^vvacrOai Kal 7roXe/uLeiv 9 /maXXov $' eiprjvrjv ayeiv Kal 

ofeduca- , v , , ^ ^ , ', , ^ 

tion. <r^oXa(e'y* Kai TavayKaia Kai Ta "^pijcrifjia oe 7rpaTTiv 9 TO. 

fie /caXa oe? jaaXXov. OXTTC ?noo? TOI/TGU? Toy? CTKOTTOV? Kal 
1333 B Trcu^a? eri oVra? TraifievTeov Kal T? aXXa? ^Xf/c/a?, ocraf 

15 SeovTai 7rai$eia$. ol o^e /ui; apKTTa QOKOVVTCS TroXiTevecrOai 


TroXfTe/a?, ovT6 Trpos TO (3e\Tiov WXo? (paivovTai <rvv- 
Ta(~avTes Ta Trepl Ta? 7ro\iTia$ OVT TT^OO? Traaa? TCI? ape- 
Tot? TOf? vo/uiovg Kai Ttfv Traioeiav, aXXa (bopTiKWS a7reK\ivav 
TTjOO? T? ^jO>ycr//xof9 efi/at oWoucra? /cctf 7r\eovKTiK(x)Tepa$. 

16 Tra/oaTrX^cr/a)? oe TOVTOLS Kai TCOV vaTepov TIVC<$ ypa^avTcov 
ctTrefbyvavTO Ttjv avT^v oo^av 7raivovvT$ yap Ttjv Aa/ce- 
Satpovtrnv 7ro\iTeiav ayavTai TOV vo/u-oOeTOv TOV O-KOTTOV, OTL 
TrdvTa TTjOO? TO KpaTeiv Kal TT^OO? TroXe^ov eVo/xoOeV^crey a 
Kal KaTa TOV \6yov ctrrtv eveXeyKTa Kal TO?? epyoi? e^e- 

17 \y\eyKTai vvv. uxnrep yap OL irXeiorTOi TOOV avOpcoTrcov 
^rjTovcri To a TroXXtoj/ o^ecrTro^efi/, OTL TroXX^ ^opijyla yiyve- 
Tai TU>V VTV^rj/uLaTCt)v 9 OVTCO Kai 0f/5jOft)j^ aya/mevo^ (baiveTai 
TOV TU)V AaKcovcov vo/moOeTtjVy Kai TCOV a\\to)v e/cao"To? TU>V 
ypacpovTwv Trepl 7roXfTe/a? avTutv, OTL Sia TO yeyv/mvaa-Oai 

j8 7TOO? TOU? KLVOVVOVS 7roX\U)V *lp\OV. KaiTOl Of]\OV fo)? CTTeiOrj 

vvv ye OVKCTL VTrap^ei TO?? AMKOXTI TO ap^eiV) OVK evoal- 
luioves, ou<T o vofj-oQeTys ayaOos. fcri* o^e TOVTO ye\oiov 9 el 
IU,VOVT$ ev TO?? vo/uiois avTOv 9 Kai /u^oei/o? e/UTro 
TT/OO? TO xpyjcrOaL TO?? vo/u.oi$ 9 aTrofiejBXqKacri TO C^ 
19 owe opOcas ^ vTroXajUL/Bdvovcriv ovSe Trepl T^? c 

a rcDv Bekker. b ^Ti Bekker. 

1 5 0opTi/cws] ' assez peu noblement, ' 
St. Hil. ' in a low and vulgar spirit.' 

irXeoveKTiKUTtpas] ' the more grasp- 

1 6 ee\i7\e7/cTcu] 'have been tho- 
roughly convicted now by experience. ' 

17 TWV TTO\\UV] I incline to the 
reading of one MS., rb TTO\\UV. 

TroXX-fj xop^T^l ' a large supply of 
the goods of fortune.' 

Qlfipwv] unknown. 

1 8 '<rrt 5^J seems a better reading 
than TI. There is no new argument 

/Afrovres, K.T.A.] 'though they re- 
main constant to his laws, and though 
there is no hindrance to their obeying 

1 9 T > 5> 

IV. (VII.) 14.] nOAITIKON A. (H.) 


Set Ti/uiMVTa d)aive<r6at TOV vouoOeTyv TOV yap Sea-TroTiK&s The objects 

,-,,/>' ' < ^ ' ^ ^ ( ' f educa ' 

ap-^eiv r] TU>V eXevuepwv ap^r] Ka\\iwv Kai /u.a\\ov /xer ape- tion. 
r>79. erf <T 01) $ia TOVTO Set TY\V TTO\IV vai,u.ova VOJULI- ~" 
j'efy /ecu TOV vou.o9eTrjv eTraiveiv, OTI KapTepelv & qcncrj&ev ejrl 
TO TWV TreXa? ap^eiv TavTa yap /meyaXrjv e~^GL (3\a(3r]v. 
orj\ov yap OTI ical TOOV troXtTWv TW Svvafjievu) TOVTO Trei- 20 
paTeov SidoKeiv, OTTW? ovvrjTai r>7? oiKela? TroXeco? ap^eiv 
OTrep eyKa\ov<Tiv 01 Aa/co)^e? Haucrai'/a TO) ftacriXei, Kaitrcp 
Xoywv KU\ VO/ULCOV ovOels OVTC K><pe\tfJiO3 oi/re a\r)6y$ <TTLV. 
TavTO. yap api(rTa KOL iota Kai Koivy TOV voimoOeTrjv e/u.- 21 
iroieiv oei TavTa TCLIS ^vyals TCOV avOpcoTrow. TJJV re TU>V War. 
TToXe/xfAcwj/ afKtjcriv ov TOVTOV ")(apiv oet /u.e\eTav, f iva 
cov\(jcxTU>VTai Toil's ctvULj^iovf, aXX' f iva TrpwTov /mev avTOt 
Sov\V(T(*)criv eTepois, eTreiTa OTTCO? ^rjTcocri T*IV 
Tri<s u><p\ias evcKd TWV ap-^o^evcov., aXXa /my TTCLVTCOV $e- 1334 
CTTTOTe/a?* TpiTov $ TO oedTTO^eiv TWV a<~i(*)v SovXeveiv. OTI 22 
$e Set TOV vo/moOeTqv /maXXov (nrovSdQiv OTTW? Kai Tt]v Trepl 
TO. 7ro\iULiKa Kai Tqv a\\r]v vo/uioOeariav TOV o-^oXa^eiv eveicev 
Taj-rj Kai r^? eipqwif, /mapTvpei ra yiyvo^eva TOI? \oyot?' 


KaTaKTtj(Ta/m.vai oe Ttjv ap^rjv a7r6X\vvTai. T^V yap 
* Kpareiv Bekker. 

I read, instead of Kpa- 
reb, which Eeiske saw the diffi- 
culty of, and wished to leave it out. 
Kaprepeiv agrees well with II. IX. 6, 
/3oiA6yitei'OS rrjv TTO\LV elvai KaprepiK^v, 
whereas Kparetv jars with Apxew- 
' He trained them to endurance, with 
a view to their getting sway over their 

20 ST)\O}> ydp~\ ' For it is clear that 
if this end is a right one, it will hold 
good for the individual citizen.' 

Sirep ^yKa\ov(nv] 'The very thing 
which the Lacedaemonians blame in 
Pausanias.' He was not king, but 
regent; but, as Mr. Grote says, with 

" all the power of a Sparian king, 
and seemingly more," Vol. V. 362, 
note 2. 

7roAtrtK<5s] 'consistent with a free 

21 ravrd] is superfluous, or Kai 
should be inserted after KOivr}. 

War, to be justifiable, must be 
either defensive, or with beneficial 
purposes, such as it answered in the 
ancient civilization ; or, thirdly, to 
carry out the intentions of nature, I. 
VIII. 12. T) 7ro\e/j.iKTi (pticrei KT^TIKT] TTWS 
Icrrai, K. r. \. 

22 KdTaKT'rjardfjt.evac] Comp. II. ix. 
34. Grote, u. 550. 




Theobjects Sacbrjv a(biaa~iv 9 wcnrep 6 crLorjpog,, elprjvrjv ayovTeg. 
of educa- \ T , ' ' ' ' 

tion. o o vo/JLOueT^g of Traioevcras ovvacruai o"^o\aieiv. 

" ^Trel $e TO CLVTO re'Xo? elvai (paiveTai Kal Koivtj Kal i$la 

The true TO?? av9pu>7roi$, Kal TOP avTOv opov avoLjKalov eivai TO) re 

end of life. > t - * ^ \ \ ^ i i -\ t / ^p/ \ 

api<TT(*) avopi Kai T?J apicrTy TroAfrem, (pavepov OTL oei Tag 

eh Trjv cr^oX^ apeTag vTrap-^eiv reXo? yap, WTCjb etprjTai 

2 7roXXa/cf9, elprivr) JULCV TroXeyUOU, cr^oXr] ^ acr^oX/a?. X) ^"" 
CTIJULOI oe TCOV apcTcov elan Trpog Ttjv o")(o\r]i> Kal oiaycoyrjv, 
wv re ev TY\ er^oX^ TO epyov KOL wv ev Ty acr^oX/a. Set 
yap TroXXa TWV avayKalwv VTrap'^eiv,, OTTCO? ej~y a"^o\al^iv. 
Sio <TU>(bpova TV\V 7ro\iv elvai Trpocr^Kei Kai avopeiav Kal 
KapTepiKrjv KaTa yap Tr\v 7rapoiju.iav, ov ar-^oXt] $ov\oi$, ol 
Se /my Swa/Jievoi KivSvveveiv av$pelu><s SovXoi TWV CTTIOVTODV 

3 eicrlv. avSplas ]mev ovv Kal KapTepiag Set irpog 

$iKaio(Tvvrj$ ev a/ui<poTepoig TOI$ xpovws, Kal /zaXXoy eipyvrp 
ayovcri Kal ar-^oXa^ovo'iv 6 ju.ev yap Tro'Xe/xo? avayKa'^ei 
SiKaiovs elvat Kal craMppoveiv, rj Se r^? evTv^lag a7ro\avcri$ 

4 KOI TO o-^oXa^eiv JULCT eipyvqs v(3pio~Tas Troiet /maXXov. TroX- 
X^9 ovv Set $iKaio<rvvr]S Kal TroXX^? (ra)(ppoo-vvr]s TOV$ apicrTa 
$OKovvTa$ irpaTTeiv Kal TravTwv TWV /maKapi('o/u.evct)v GLTTO- 
XavovTas, olov e'i Tives eio-iv, co<T7rep ol Troitjral (paanv, ev 
jULaKapwv vrjcroig* juLaXicrTa yap o TOI oerjcrovTCLL d)i\ocrod)ia$ 
Kal <T(0(ppoa-vvris Kal SiKaiovvvris, ocra) /maXXov o"^o\a^ovcriv ev 

5 a(pOovla TWV TOIOVTCOV ayaOwv. $IOTI juLev ovv Tt]v /xe'X- 
\ovcrav evSaijmovrjo-eiv Kal (nrovfiaiav ecrecrOai TTO\IV TOVTWV 

^a(f}-f)v] ( They lose their temper.' 
otf TrcuSe&ras] 'because he never 
trained them.' 

XV. i rbv avrbv fyov] 'The same 

virdpxeiv] sc. rfj 7r6\ei. 

i 'None of the virtues are use- 
less. Some may be more especially 
those of the active life ; others, those 
of the contemplative, but all are 

needed. For, to enjoy leisure, you 
must secure certain requisites.' 

3 0iAo<ro0i'as] 'intellectual culti- 
vation/ The cro^i'a of Aristotle, <]>p6- 
vr)<ri$ of Plato ; both are included 
under the term. 

4 irdvTUv rdjv /ia/capifou.&'wp] ' all 
things that in the judgment of men 
are the constituents of happiness. ' 

5 Store, K. T. X. ] This and the next 
section, as far as aperi)?, are paren- 

IV. (VII.) 15.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


oei TCOV apeTwv /meTe^eiv, (bavepov. aicr^pov yap oVro? , 
ouvacrOai ^p^crOai TO?? aya9oi$ 9 GTL /u.a\\ov /x^ ovvacrQai ev 
TO> a-^o\d^eiv -^prjcrOai) a\\' acr^oXoiVra? fjLev Kal TroXe/uLovv- 
Ta? (paivecrOai ayaOov$, elp^vrjv (T ayovTas Kal cr^oXa^oj/ra? 
avc)pa7roc$<jo$ei$. $10 Set /UL*] KaOaTrep rj AaKeSai/movicov Tro'Xf? 
apeTrjv aa-Keiv. CKeivoi /mev yap ov TOLVTy Sia<pepov<ri 
aXXcoi^, TO) fjitj vojuLi^eiv raura TO?? aXXof? /meyiarra TWV 
aya6u)v 9 aXXa TW yeve&Oai TavTa fjLo\\ov Sid TWOS ape- 
J ^e /xe/^w re crya$a rat/ra, /cat r^ a7r6\av<riv 

The true 

end of 


TOVTCOV rj T*]V TCOV apeTcov, Kal OTL oY avT^v, tpavepov 

K TOVTCOV, TTto? <$ Kal StO. TIVCOV e<TTai 9 TOVTO Srj OeCOpr]TOV. 

Tvy^dvojmev Srj SiyptjfAevoi irpoTepov OTL (pva-ews Kal e'Oov? 
Kal \oyov Set. TOVTGW $e TTO/OU? JULCV Tiva$ etvaL -^prj TY\V 
(pvcriVy oicopUTTai 7rpOTepov 9 \OITTOV oe Oecoptja'ai TTOTepov 
TraioevTeoi TU> \oytp TrpoTepov rj TO?? eOecriv. TavTOt, yap 
oei TTOO? aXX^Xa (rv/mcbcoveiv <rv/UL(pwviav Ttjv apiarTyv evSe've- 
Tai yap $i*]/uLapTr]Kevai Kal TOV \oyov T?? /3eXT/(7T^? VTTO- 
6e<reco9 9 Kal $ia TCOV eOcov o/xo/co? ^Oai. (pavepov $r] TOVTO 
ye TrpcoTov fj.ev 9 KaOaTrep ev TO?? aXXof?, co? rj yevecris air 

The order 
to be ob- 
served in 


thetical. 8t6ri may be either ' why' or 
' that, ' the latter more probably. 

rO)v dpertiv] sc. T&V rfdiKuv. 

di'5pa7ro5c68es] In illustration of 
this compare Eth. I. 3. 3, p. 1095, b. 
19, ot iroXXol Trai'TeXtDs avSpaTroS&Seis 
oo'Kii/jt.dTUv filov Trpoaipoti- 
like slaves brutish in their 

6 r(p /jiTj voiJilfeiv} ( by their having 
a different standard from others.' 
yevfoOai depends on j>o/j.leiv. 

Sid TWOS dper^s] 'by a definite 
virtue.' Their error is as to the 

/tet'^co re aya6ci raura] sc. elvat 0a- 
vep6v. By raOra are meant T& 
pi6/j.eva, of 4. T] aTr6\av<ri$ 
s, Kal rb ffxo\dfriv fj-er' 

A. P. 

T&V apfr&v] again rcov 7]6iKu>v f or 
r&v irpbs dffxoMa.v Kal Tr6\fj.ov. 

di ai>Tif]v] better than avr-fiv, 'and 
that it is self-dependent.' 

TTWS 5^] the apodosis. 

7 roiJTuv] ' With regard to these.' 
irpfrrepov] It is only a question of 

priority, not of the exclusion of either. 
yap] ' for they must harmonise, &c.' 
&5^ercu ydp] ' for it is possible 
that even the reason may have gone 
wrong, and not formed a right con- 
ception of the true primary idea of 
life, and yet that the man may have 
been trained by habits as well as if 
the reason had not so erred.' This is 
one sense, but I am not sure that it 
is the right one. Stahr thinks it 
means, that man may be led astray 
by his reason as well as by his train- 

8 if yfrcffu, K. T. X.] 'The birth of 





The order a/oY*?? ecrrl Kal TO Te'Xo? GLTTO TIVOS apX.W XXou reXov?. 
tobeob- r .^ , f x f ^ , , , P , > 

served in O O6 AoyO$ rjJU.IV KCLI O VOV$ Tr)<S (pv<TU>g T6AO9. CO(TT TTpO? 

education. / \. t ^ ^ -> '/j^ 5 1 ~ 

i TOVTOV? TIJV yeveiriv KO.I Trjv TCOV eucov oei Tr 



TO re aXoyov Kal TO \oyov 

Ka Tag eei? ra? TOUTWJ/ ^Jo TW (LjxfytQV, cov TO JULGV 
opej~i$ TO oe vov$. axTTrep oe TO crcojuia irpOTepov Ty 
yevecrei T^? "vj^^Y^?? OUTCO KOI TO ci\oyov TOV \oyov e^jovTog. 
10 (pavepov Se Kal TOVTO' OV/ULOS yap Kal /3ov\r]cri$ 9 CTI Se CTTI- 
ia Kal yevopevois evOvg vTrap-^ei TOI? Trat^/o/9, o $e Xo- 
o? Kal 6 vov$ Trpoi'ovcriv eyyivecrOai 7re<pvKv. oio Trpco- 
TOV pelt TOV crco/xaro? T*IV 7rijUL\eiav avayKalov elvai Trpo- 
Tepav rj Tt]V T^9Y"f^9, eireiTa T*]V T^g ope^ewg, et/e/ca 



1 6 EfVejO ovv CLTT apx*]? TOV vojmoOeTrjv opav Set OTTW? j8e\- 
Marriage. TL(TTa ra Q-co/xara yev*]Tai TCOV Tpe<po/mV(*)v 9 irpoJTOV /u,ev 


i XP*1 TfoieicrOai rrrpos aXX^Xou? T^V yajuuKyv 6/mi\iav. Set ^' 
a7ro/3\e7rovTa vojmoOcTeiv TavTtjv Tqv KOivcoviav 7rpo$ avTOvg 
Te Kal TOV TOV ^rjv YjOo^o^, i/a <TvyKaTa/3aivcocri Tai$ *j/\i- 
Kiais e'TTL TOV avTOV Kaipov Kal JUL*J Sia<p(*)v<*)(Tiv at 
TOV /mev Tt Swajuicvov yevvav T^? ^e /mrj Swa/mevrj^ rj 
ju.ev TOV S" 1 av$po$ {my' TavTa yap TTOICI Kal crTacreis 7rpo$ 

the child is not the first step in the 
process.' air' apxrjs fort, ' It is the 
end from a given beginning, and is 
itself the beginning of another end.' 
But the language is obscure. 

6 Ik Xifyos] ' Now in the nature of 
man the ultimate end of all is his 
reason and his intellect. As these 
then are the ultimate end, all must be 
subservient to them, the mere natural 
birth itself and the moral discipline/ 


, K.T.\.~\Eth. vi. 2. i 2 , p. 

rb &\oyot>] = TJ 8pej-is. 
= TOV vov. 

10 Kal yevopfrois evBvs] 
diately after their birth.' 


XYI. I air' apxfy] 'From the 
beginning,' as alluded to in XV. 8. 
It is the marriage of the parents. 

2 avyKaTafialvucri] 'may come 
down together,' 'in their ages there 
may be no disproportion,' "dans un 
rapport convenable," St. Hil. 

iv. (vn.) 16.] 

aXX^Xou? Kai < 




Ka irpos TV\V TWV 
del yap OVTG \lav vTroXeLTrecrOat rats f/\iKiai9 3 

TCOV TTdTepCOV (aVOVtJTO? yap TO?? fJ.eV 7Tpe<TpVTepOt$ 

tj \apL<s Trapa TCOV TCKVCW, rj fie wapa TCOV TraTepoov /BoyOeia T 335 
TO?? TCKVOIS), OUT \iav 7rdpeyyv$ eivai. 7ro\\rjv yap e^ei 
rj re yap ai^o)? J$TTOV VTrap-^et TO?? TOIOVTOI? 
, Kal Trepl T*)V otKovo^lav yK\qiJ.aTiKov TO 
Trapeyyvg. ert ^', 60ev ap^ofjiei'oi devpo /meTe/Bij/mev, OTTCO? 4 
Ta crw/JiaTOL TWV yevvoo/uLevwv vTrap^y TTjOO? TY\V TOV vofJLoOeTOV 
{3ov\?}<Tiv. (Tveooj/ o^ TravTO, TGLVTOL <rviu,(3aivi KaTa imiav 
7rijULe\eiav. 7rel yap wpia-rai reXo? rrj? yevvrjcreoos ft)? eirl 5 

\-v to M *. f \f t r\ ^ r > ^ 

TO 7T\l<TTOV eiTTClV aVOpaVl fJLGV O TCOV epOO/X^/COl'Ta T(*)V 

aptOjuiOs ecr^aTO?, TrevryKovTa o^e yvvai(~tv 9 Set Tyv ap-^tjv rtjs 
vvl^ev^ecos Kara Tqv rjXiKiav elf TOU? xpovovs KaTa/3alvetv 

TOVTOV$. eCTTt > ' O TWV VGWV (TVvSvaa-fJLOS <f)av\O$ TTjOO? 6 

TCKvoTrouav ev yap TTOLCTL ^o)Of? aTeX^ Ta TWV vecov eyyova 
Kal Ot]\vroKa jULaXXov Kal jmiKpa Ttjv fjiopiprjv, OMTT avay- 
Kalov TavTO TOVTO <TVjUL/3alveiv Kal eTrl TWV av6pu>7rcov. 
TK/uLypiov <$ ev ovais yap TOOV TroXecw eTri^copia^eTaL TO 
i/eou? (Tv^evyvvvat Kal ye'a?, aTeXe?? Kal jmiKpol TO. (rco/xaTa 
etcriv. TL oe ev TO?? TOKOIS al veai TTOVOV&I T ju.a\\ov 7 
Kal $ia(p0eipovTai TrXe/of?' $10 Kal TOV %pt]<Tiu.ov yevecrOai 
Tives (paan $ia TOtavTyv aiTiav TOIS Tpoifyvlois, ft)? TroXXftV 
Sia(J)0ipo/ULV<ji)v fiia TO ya/micrKecrOai Ta? vecoTepas, aXX' ov 

the succession of the 

3 7) xapts 7ra/)A rdv TKVWV] ( The 
natural pleasure which children give.' 

Trepi rty oiKOvo^lav] f ln the ma- 
nagement of the family very great 
nearness in point of age gives a great 
opening for disputes.' 

4 UTrdpxfl] 'may be ready for,' 
Ch. IV. m.' 

ffxeSbv Srj] ' It is quite possible then 
to secure all these objects by one and 
the same care.' 

5 wpurrcu] ' is limited.' 

KaTaj3ati>eiv] 'to be regulated upon, 
to be made to adapt itself to. ' 

6 Eyyova] This is Bekker's read- 
ing, yet in 1 6 it is ^Kyova. "The 
fruit of the womb." 

OJO-T' dvayKcuov] He rests very con- 
fidently on the argument from other 
animals. The question is one which 
entirely concerns us as animals. 

^Trixwpia^ercu] ' it is a prevailing 

7 rbv %/)770"/i6j'] fj,rj r^ve ve&v 
&\oKa. So St. Hilaire gives it in his 
note. Comp. Grote n. 510. 





Marriage, ^p^ T y V r )v KapTrwv KOjuufyv. Ti ()e Ka\ irpo? crco(ppo- 

8 crvvqv (rv[A(f)epei ra? e/c^ocref? TroieitrOai Trpe&fivTepais' OLKO- 
\a<TTOTepai yap eivai SOKOVO-I veai xptja-djuievai rctF? vvvov- 
<r/a<9. Kal TO. TCOV appevcov Se <rco/xara /3\a7TTearOai SoKei 
irpos TVJV avfycriv, eav CTL TOV crco / aaro9 av^avo/mevov 


9 }(jOOfO9, ov ov% V7rep/3aivei irXtjOvov ert. ^to ra? JULCV 
apfijLOTTei irepl T*IV TCOV d/crco/ca/^e/ca ercov rjXiKiav <ry?evy- 
vvvai, TOV<S & 7TTa Kal TptaKovra, y /uuKpov' ev TOO-OVTM 
yap aK/uLa^ovcri re TOI$ o-co/xacrz crv^ev^i^ eVraf, Kal 

Tqv TravXav r^? TeKVOiroiias (rvyKaTa/Brjcrerai TOI$ 
J0 eu/ca/jOft)?. eri Se rj SiaSoyri TWV TCKVOW TOI$ ftev 

ecrrai r^? a/c/x^, eav yiyvrjrai Kara \oyov ev9v$ rj yevecri?, 

TOIS ^e rjSr] /caraXeXu/xet/^? r^? yXiKtas Trpos TOV rwv e/33o- 


crOai Ttjv crv^ev^iv, eiprjTai, rof? ^e Trepl 

a)? ol TTO\\OI xpcovTai /caXto? Kal vvv, oaivavTes 

ii Trjv <Tvvav\iav TroieicrOai TavTtjv. Set Srj Kal avTovs %Sr] 

Qewpelv TTjOo? T^J/ TCKVOTroitav TO. T6 Trapa TU>V laTpwv Ae- 

yd/meva Kal ra Trapa TWV (pvcriKcov' ot re yap laTpol rot'? 

1335 B Kaipovs TCOV <TWju.aTCi)v iKavcos \yov<ri 9 Kal Trepl TCOV TTVCV- 

fJLO.T(JW 01 (f)V(TlKOl 9 TO, /Bdpeia TCOV VOTICOV e7TaiVOVVT$ 

Tlepl /mev ovv TOV TTOTC Set iroiet- 


8 T&S ^/c56crets iroieiadai] Plato de 
Legg. 924, D. TTJV %Ko<nv Troi^rat. 

(3\dTTTe(rdcu irpbs TTJV a.ti-r)<riv\ ' in- 
jured for growth.' 

TOI/TOU] sc. TOV av^dveffdai. 

&v oi>x, K- T.X. ] ' beyond which the 
body does not continue to grow.' 

9 Plato de Rep. v. 460, E, names 20 as 
the woman's prime, 30 as the man's. 

eTTTci] Spengel wishes to read 
irtvTe, p. 9, note 1 1 . The reason 
is that 35 is 7 x 5. But if Aristotle 
married himself at 37 (and it could 
not have been earlier), it might ac- 
count for this slight deviation. In 
any case, the interval is greater than 
quite accords with the prevalent 

notions in our own time. Even 
Plato's interval would be thought too 
great by many. 

10 rots /*&>] sc. rots T^KVOIS. 
dpxo^vrjs TTJS d/c/i^s] ' at the begin- 
ning of their prime,' set. 30. 

rots 8^] rots yovewi, ( when their 
age is now already in its decline,' 
"stricken in years." 

cvva.v\lav~\ An odd use of the word, 
though the connection of this mean- 
ing with its commoner one of 'duet,' 
'concert,' may be traced easily. 

1 1 These minute regulations point 
to the much greater attention paid to 
the sound bodily condition by the 
Greeks than by modern nations. 

IY. (VII.) 16.] nOAITIKON A. (H.) 213 

Aoy. TLoltav $e TIVWV TU)V <TCDJUidT(Ji)V VTTap'XpVTWV /JLoXlCTTa Marriage. 

o(pe\o$ eirj TOI$ yevva)fj.evoi$ f eTricrT^cracri /mev /m.a\\ov \CKTCOV 11 
ev TOI<S Trepl T*]$ TraioovojULias, TVTTW $e iKavov eiTreiv Kai vvv. 
ovTe yap rj TWV aO\r]TU)v Xpq<riju.o$ efys Trpos Tro\iTiKrjv 
eveQav ov^e irpos vyleiav Kal TeKvoirouav, oure y OepaTrev- 
rj KOI KaKO7Tovr)TiKri \lav 9 o\\' rj jnecrrj TOVTWV. TreTrovq- 13 

el TVJV GQV) "TrcTrovrjfjievrjv oe TTOVOIS /mtj 
]U-*]$e 7rpo$ eva JULOVOV, wcrTrep rj TWV aOXtjrwv efys, 
a\\a Trpo? ra? TWV eXevOeplcov Trpdj^eis. O/ULOIWS $e Set 

vTrdp-^eiv dv<$pd<ri Kal yvvai^Lv. -^rj <$e Kal ray e<y- 14 
eTTi/ULeXeicrOai TU>V o-cofJLaTCOv, fJLrj paOvjmoveras 
apaia Tpo(J)tj ^ocoyaeVa?. TOVTO SG paSiov rw 

* rj/^epav Tiva 7rotei(r9ai Tropciav 


IJLCV ovv e 

trpo<s Oewv aTToOepaTreiav TWV elXtj^oTCOv Ttjv Trepl 
o-eo)? TifJLqv. TTJV fJievTOi Sidvoiav Tovvavrlov TWV 
paOv /more puts apfjiOTTei Sidyeiv airoXavovTa yap 
ra yevo/meva r^? e-^ovcrrj^ wcnrep Kal ra (pvojut-eva r/y? 
Tlepl oe aTToOeeredos Kal Tpo<br)<s TWV ytyvo/mevcov, COTTW 15 
VOJULOS /uirjoev ireTrrjpui/u.evov Tped)eiv 9 oia oe TrX^Oo? TeKvoov, 
a^/9 TMV e6(Jov /ccoXJ/y, fjLr]^ev aTroTiOecrOai TCOV yiyvo- 
wpicrrai yap Srj TV? re/cyoTrot/a? TO 7r\fjOo$. eai/ $e 

eav rj 

12 #0e\os et-r)] &v is required. 
^TrtcTTTjo-ao-t] Eih. VI. 13. 8, p. 1144, 

22, XCKT^OV 8' ^7rttrr^<racri aa.$iaTepov 
Trepl avr&v, 'we must concentrate 
more attention on the subject.' 

eveiai> TroXm/o^J ' in good state of 
body, such as the citizen requires it,' 

depaTrevTiK-r}] ' requiring constant 
attention, and always suffering,' the 
invalid state. 

13 K^Trovf]^vf\v\ 'strong by exer- 
tion. ' 

717)6$ &/a] sc. irbvov. 
eXevdeptwv] We should have ex- 
pected tXevdtpuv. 

14 d/9cu] 'scanty food.' 

Ka.0' ri^paf, K.T.X.] 'daily to take 

a certain walk in discharge of the 
service due to the gods whose province 
it is to preside over birth. ' 

&Tro6epairetav] "a regular service," 
L. & S. I prefer the meaning given 
above. " Zur Vollziehung einer 
Gottesverehrung," Stahr. 

dTToXatfoj/ra] ' affected by.' 

15 Sta irXrjdos 8t rtKvwv] ' But not 
on account of the number of children, 
supposing that the arrangements of 
the social state forbid beyond a certain 
number, must it be allowed to aban- 
don any child born.' 

&pi(TTai ydp] This is in explanation 
of /twXufl. Tor in our own state 
there is fixed a limit to the production 
of children.' For the matter in ques- 




cocrre TCTTapa-iv n 

Set r*? 

Marriage. TL(Ti yiyvrjTai Trapa TavTd (TVvSva<r9evTWV 9 Trplv 

eyyevecrOat Kal ^wyv, e/uLTroieitrOai Set Ttjv ajUL/SXwariv TO yap 
otriov Kal TO /xy OLWpia-fJiGvov Ty aiarOrjaret Kal TW 

16 'ETret <T v /*ei/ apxf] T*js fi\iKia$ avfipl Kal yvvaiKl 

TTOTG ap^eo-Oat %pr] TW cru^eJ^ea)?, KCU TTOOTOV ^povov \ei- 
Tovpyeiv apjmoTTei TTOO? TCKVOTroiiav topiorOo)' TO. yap TWV 
eKyova, KaOaTrep TO. TCOV veu>Tepwv 9 aT\*j 
Kal TOI? frcbjmaan Kal ra?? Siavoiais, ra ^e TU>V yeyr]- 

17 paKOTWV acrOevrj. $16 /cara TV\V r^? o"iavoia$ CLK/UL^V avTrj 
(T evTiv ev TOi<s TrXefVrof? tfvjrep TWV TroiyTwv Tives eipr/Ka- 

<TIV Ol fJLTpOVVT$ Tttl$ kfioOfJuiffl TtfV q\lKiaV 9 7Tpl TOV 

Xpovov TOV TWV TrevTrjKovTa ercoj/. 
eT(7iv V7rep/3ct\\ovTa TY\V y\iKiav 

ci$ TO (bavepov yevvrja'ew TO oe \onrov vyieia? ^apiv Jj 
TIVOS aX\ij$ ToiavTtjs a.iTLa<s (baivetrOai oei 7roiovfji.evov$ 
1 8 oftiXiav. irepl $e T^? irpos aXXtjv rj Trpos aXXoi/, eo-rco 

(j.r) Ka\6v aTTTOfJievov 
y Kal TrpocrayopevOrj TroVf?, 'Trepl $e TOV yjpovov TOV 


1336 fy/uu ovarOco TrpeTrovcrr) Trpos Tyv ajmapTiav. 

YevojuLevwv Se TWV TCKVOW o'learOai ju.eyd\tjv eivai Siacbopav 
N , , . , , , e , , x 

TTjOO? Tt]v TCOV (ru>ju.aT(*)v ovva/uLiv Tr\v Tpocptjv, OTTOia rt? av 

y. <j)aiveTai Se Sid re TWV aXXcov ^(ptov eTTicrKOTrovari, Kal 
oia TWV eOvoov 0/9 eTrtyueXe? efTTiv elcrayeiv TY\V 7ro\/uiiKr}v 
efyv, % TOV yd\aKTO$ 7r\rj6vov<ra Tpo<pr] /xaXfcrr' oiKeia 



TOI$ crw/ULacriV aoivoTepa Se Sia TO, voar^/maTa. 

ocrag evoe^eTai TroieiarOai Trj\tKOVT(iov 



Sia(TTpe(pecr0ai TO, /me\tj Si 
Kal vvv evia TWV eOvwv opyavoig TKTL 

tion compare Plato, De Rep. \. 460, 
c. who agrees with Aristotle. 

1 7 rbv -xpbvQV rbv TWV irevT^KOvra] 
Compare Khet. n. 14, p. 1390, b. n, 
where forty- nine is the age fixed on. 7 

x 7. 

18 Trepl SI 7-775] sc. 6/x.tXt'as. 

XVII. i oteffOat] sc. Set. 

o?s ^TTi/^eX^s] ' to whom it is a great 

dowor^/oa] 'the less wine the better/ 
a precept far too much neglected at 

2 T^Xt/coi/rwp] ' when quite young. ' 

IV. (VII.) 17.] nOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


TO crw/ma TTviei TWV TQIOVTWV a<TTpa/3e$. crvjuicbepei <T evOv? Early 

^ ^ v / *,<,, ~ , ~ % education. 

Aca* TTjOO? ra \frf^ a-vvevi^eiv CK /uiLKpwv Traiocov TOVTO yap - . 

/cat TT^OO? vyieiav Kal 7rpo$ TroXeyUf/ca? 7rpdei$ ev^ptjcrro- 
TQLTOV. $to Trapa TroXXo?? ecrrl TCOV j3ap/3dpwv e9o$ rots 3 
IJLGV el? TroTa/mov a.7ro/3d7rTiv ra yiyvojmeva ^v^pov, Tot$ 
Se crK7racr/u.a fJLiKpov a/uTr/cr^efi/, olov KeXrof?. Trat/ra 
ocra &VVO.TOV eOi^eiv, evOvs apyo/ji.evc& 

K Trpocraywyrj? o e^/^eii/. evfbvtjg o *j TWV Tralocov e^ity 
^fa OepfjLOTrjTa Trpo? T^I/ rco^ \^u^oa)j/ a(TKr\(7iv. Trepl yuei/ 4 
O(5/ r^ irpwrrfv o-v/ui(j)pei TroieicrOcu rrjv eirifj-eKeiav Toiavrrjv 
Te Kal Tqv TavTy TrapcnrXiicriav TV\V 

rj\LKLaV f**%pt 7TGVTC TU>V 9 V)V OVTC 7TW 

f f 5W/.V \ r / 

")(ei Trpoa-ayeiv ovde/uuav OVT TT^OO? avayKaiovs -TTOJ/OU?, 
OTTO)? /A^ Tijv au^rjcriv e/X7ro^/^cocrfv, ^cf TO&avTti? 
Kivr)<reu>$ wffT Stacfievyeiv TV\V apylav TWV crcD/uLCLTCo 

/V ^ ^ ^-\ -v '>* rwv^ 

TrapCKTKeva^etv Kai 01 aXXcoj/ Trpa^eutv Kai oia Ti/9 

^ef <^e Kal ra? Trai^ta? efi/at /x^re aveXevOepovs 

TTOVOVS /ULrjTe avei/Uieva$. Kal irepl Xoycoi/ oe 

TTO/OU? Tiya? a/coueft/ ^e? TOV? T;Xt/couTOV?, 

To^? apxov<riv ov$ KaXovcri TCUJOVOfJLOVV. Trdvra yap dec 

Ta Toiavra 7rpoo$O7roieiv irpos ra? vo-Tfpov SiaTpi/3d$. $10 

ra? Trat^ta? en/at ^e? ra? TroXXa? /mi/uiqcreis TWV vcrTepov 

ra? ^e SiaTacreis TO>V Tratfi&v KOI /cXauO- 6 
u? ou/c op0u>$ aTrayopevovo'iv ot Kw\vovTe$ ev TO?? VO/JLOLV 
aru/ui.(f>povari yap 7rpo$ avfyviv. yiverai yap rpoirov riva 
rot? aru>jma(nv Jj yap TOV irvevimaTos KaOefys irotei 
i&yyv TO?? TTOVOV&IV, o crvfjifiatvei Kal TO?? 



CTTI- 5 

3 apxofJL&uv] Stahr adopts this 
reading, and it seems an improvement 
on Bekker' s dpxofj-tvy. 

ey^uijs] 'is naturally adapted for 
this training.' 

4 TT]V irpi!rrir)v] sc. ^XtKtaf. 

dj/a7/caioi;s] ' compulsory. ' 

Tyjv dpyiav T&V crwftarwf] ' a lazy 

habit of body.' 
ijv] sc. KivyaLV. 

5 &veifjt,fras] 'uncontrolled.' 
7r/)oo5o7roteti'] 'prepare the way for,' 

II. ix. ii. 

6 5iaT<<rets] ' stretchings,' ' exer- 

fr rots v&fJLOti] de Legg. VII. 792, 




Early $iaTlVOIU.VOlS. 



*? TY\V 

TOVTCOV oiaycoyrjv Trjv T 
^ oovXcov ecrTai. TavTijv yp 

N ,, 

aXXrjv, /ecu OTTO)? OTI rjKKTTa 


V y\iKtav 9 Kal 

CTCCIV, avayKaiov O'IKOL T*]V Tpofbrjv t^eiv. evXoyov ovv 
aTreXavveiv OTTO TCOV a/covayxaTcoi' /ecu TWV opa/maTcov ave- 

8 \ev6epias KO.} T*]\IKOVTOV? oWa?. oXco? JULCV ovv al<r^po\o- 

ylav K T^9 TToXeCt)?, UKTTTCp GL\\O Tl, $l TOV VOjU.()6eTr]V ^O- 

pfiew CK TOV yap ev^pws \eyeiv OTIOVV TWV alcr^pujv yi- 
verai KOL TO TTOICIV (rvveyyvs. /maXicrTa jmev ovv e/c TWV 


oe Tt? (baivrjTai TI \eycov rj irpaTTWV TCOV aTrrjyopev/uievwv, 
TOV /ULGV eXevOepov /UL^TTCO $e AcaTa/cA/<reft>? Jj^ito/mevov ev TO?? 
crvo-(TtTLOi9 aTijUiiais KO\d^eiv Kal TrXrjyais, TOV $e Trpecr/Sv- 
Tepov T^? ^Xt/c/a? raJr^y? aTi/miais av\ev6epoi$ avSpaTro- 
yapiv. eTrel Se TO \eyetv TI TCOV TOIOVTCOV e^opi- 
9 (pavepov OTI Kal TO Oecopeiv 3y ypa(pa$ rj \6yov<s 
10 aa"xy/uiova$. CTri/ULeXe? /mev ovv eVrft) TOI$ ap^ova-i 
lUi^Te ayaXjma /mtjTe ypacfiyv elvai TOIOVTGOV Trpd^ecov lULt 
el imrj Trapd TLCTL Oeoi? TOIOVTOI? of? Kal TOV T0)6aa-/ui6v 


rfKiKiav TrXeoj^ TrpoyKOVcrav /ecu vTrep avTcov KQLI 

7 rr)i> Totiruv ^laywyfjv] ' both the 
way in which they pass their time in 

raiJT-rjv 701/9] 'They must be with 
slaves in some degree, for at this age 
they must be at home.' 

xal rrjXiKoijTovs] ' even at this tender 

8 tio-jrep ctXXo TI] the same ex- 
pression occurs, VIII. (V.) vni. 2. 

K T&V vtwv] 'away from the young,' 
he had said K TTJS 7r6Xews, and repeats 
the same proposition. 

9 /cctTctKXkrews] ' a seat at the 
public mess.' 

dewpeiv ^ ypa<f>as T) \6yovs affx^ovasi] 
Eur. Hipp. 1004, 5, Bind., quoted in 
illustration of this by Raoul Eochette, 
quoted in Stahr, 


Toi/rots] It is desired by 

some editors to change this dative for 
the accusative. Compare Stahr on 
the passage who retains the dative, 
and translates it with reference to the 
Gods, "an diesen erlaubt," u. s. w. 
This seems to me difficult with the 
dative. I think it is good sense if 
construed in its most natural sense, 
with an adverbial modification, 'in 
addition to this,' 'besides.' 'Be- 
sides there is no reason for bringing 
the young into contact with such 
things at all, as the law permits those 
of a more suitable age to honour the 

IV. (VII.) 17.] IIOAITIKQN A. (H.) 


Kal yvvaiKcov TifJLaXdjeiv TOU? 6eov<?. TOI/? oe veiaTe- Early 

" " Q <?' a 4 ' ' education. 

OUT iot/xpo)!/ ofre /cw/xoodta? (7eara? vojULoueTyTeov., Trpiv - , 

37 T^y qXiKLav Xd(3w<riv ev rj Kal /cara/cX/crea)? virdp^ei KOIVCO- IJ 
i/e*"V ijSrj Kal fJLeOrj? Kal r/7? ctTro TWV TOIOVTODV yi 
(3\a(3r]$ o.7raOei<f r\ TraiSela iroirj<Tei Trat/ra?. vvv 
TOVTWV ei> TrapaSpofj.*] TreTroi^eOa rov \6yov vcrrepov 
eTTHTTqaravTas vet oiopiarai /xaXXov, e'lTe /mrj Set TTQWTOV ' 
Set SictTroprja-avTas, KCLI TTW? $er /cara $e rov Trapovra Kaipov 

a)? avayKalov. fVft)? yap ou /ca/cw? eXeye TO 13 

ovv 12 



jOO? o 

v7TOKpiTrj<s' ov 




iraprjKcv eavTov Trpoeurayeiv, ovde TCW 

a>? oiKCiovjUievcov TWV OeaTwv Tcu? 
orvju/3aivei $e Tavro TOVTO Kal Trpos ra? TCOV 
o/>tfX/a? /cal 7T|OO? ray TO>I/ TrpayjuaTCjov Trdvra yap 
Ta TrpwTa jmaXXov. vio oei TO?? veois TravTCL TTOICIV j^eva Ta 14 
<pav\a, jmdXicTTa (T avTciov ova e-^ei rj imo^Orjpiav rj 
SieXOovTCOv fie T(Jov TreVre CTWV ra Svo M e/ X/ f T ^ 
Oecopovs t]$rj yiyve&Oai TCOV paOria-ecov, a? Serjcrei jmavOdveiv 
avTov$. ouo <5' el<T\v qXiKiat TTjOO? a? ai/cfy/caroi/ SiypfjcrOai 15 
T^J/ TraiSeiav, /xera T^I/ a?ro ra)^ CTrra f^G-^pi %/3r]$ KOI 
TraXiv /mTa T*)v ad) yfi'ns /xew)i TWV ei/o? Kal C'IKOVIV CTWV. 

7rJ TO 

01 yap rctf? ojm(ri iaipovvrey ra? 

ov /ca/cft)?, 

^ Siaipe 



Gods on behalf of themselves, their 
wives, and children.' 

Ti/^aX0av] L. and S. on this word 
quote it from Pindar and ^Eschylus, 
but state that it is rare in prose. 

II idfA/Suv] an iambic poem, a 
lampoon, in this sense usually plural. 
L. and S. on this passage. Spengel, 
p. 9, note 1 1, remarks that somewhere 
or other in his work Aristotle must 
have expressed himself on the ques- 
tion, whether Homer and the trage- 
dians should, as Plato wished, be 
banished from the state. 

i ^ tiriffT'/iffavTas] above, Ch. XVI. 


13 Theodoras, mentioned Demosth. 
Fals. Leg 418. 

ws olKeiovptvuv, K.T.\.] 'on the 
ground that the spectators adapted 
themselves,' &c. Compare Plato, 
Protagoras, 326, B. 

14 fjioxd-npiav % Svff^eveiav'] ' vice or 
ill will.' 

15 ou Ka/r<2s] Such I agree with 
Spengel, p. 8, note u, and with 
Muretns, Vol. in. 76, ed. Buhn- 
ken and Met, n. 14, p. 1390, b, 10, 



Early cTraKoXovOeiv iratra yap 

KCU TraiSela TO 7rpoa-\ei7rov 


TCOV ei TroitjTeov TOLV TLVO. irepl TOV? 7rai$as 9 eTreira TTOTC- 
pov crvju.(pepei KOivy Troieia-Ocu ryv eTrijmeXeiav avTcov rj KCLT 
iotov Tpoirov (o yiveTai KCLI vvv ev TOLLS 7rXe/o"Taf? TCOV 
TpiTOV $e iroiav TLVOL del TOLVT*)V. \ 

should be the reading, not 
' For they who divide the ages of 
man's life by periods of seven years as 
a general rule are tolerably right, only 
it must not be pressed too strictly, but 
the division of nature herself must be 
followed,' and she draws no rigid line 
in this case. The age of puberty is 
variable within certain limits, Car- 
penter, Manual of Physiology, 788. 
Tra<ra y&p Tex vr )> K. r. X. ] Compare 
EtJi. i. iv. 15, p. 1097, 5, rb tvdets 
tirifrTovaai. ' For it is the object of 
all man's art, and that particular 

branch of it which is directed to the 
fashioning of men, education, to 
supply that which nature leaves want- 
ing.' Compare Plato, I. 341, II. E. 

1 6 Three questions started. Is 
there to be a system of education ? 
Is it to be public or private ? What 
is it to be ? The first two are an- 
swered perfectly, as, in fact, they 
admit of a ready answer. The second 
is only partially answered, many of 
its most important elements either re- 
ceived no treatment or it has been lost. 


TT is not denied that education is one of the highest objects of 
-*- the legislator's attention. It is not to be denied, secondly, that 
it should be one and uniform public, and not left to individual 
caprice. What the education shall be, and the system adopted ? 
this, the third question, is not so easily answered. It suggests 
many others. Is it intellect or the moral nature that you want to 
train more especially ? Then, in the things taught, shall they be 
those which are practically useful, or those which conduce to excel- 
lence, or shall they be the higher subjects of speculation ? Just 
touching on the evident limits, that all useful things cannot be dis- 
carded, and that no illiberal study is to be pursued, Aristotle pro- 
ceeds to consider the actually existing system. There are in this 
system four branches. Beading, with its accompaniments ; gym- 
nastics, or bodily training ; music and design. The first and fourth 
are taught as useful, the second as tending to form brave men. It 
is on the question of music that the issue may be taken. The dis- 
cussion that immediately follows we need not dwell on, as it is only 
a statement of the various difficulties and the subject is resumed 
later. The only result definitely is, that he sees good reason for 
refusing to submit, in all cases, to the test of mere utility in the 
ordinary sense of the term. Remembering his order of education 
given in the last book, he turns to that which comes first, the bodily 
training, gymnastics (Ch. I III). 

In regard to this, we must beware of two evils into which others 
have fallen, some have aimed too much at forming an athletic habit 
of body, others have aimed at too fierce a character. In both the 
type is too low, and in the last case, that of the Lacedaemonians, the 
education given has been proved a failure by experience. His regu- 
lations are light and easy training till the age of puberty, so as to 
favour the growth. The three years after this age are to be devoted 
to acquiring the rudiments of knowledge. Then severe bodily 
training and hard diet may be introduced. In no case are body 
and mind to be worked hard at the same time (Ch. IV.). 

Passing to the question of music : Is it taught as an amuse- 


ment, a recreation ? or as a training, an educational accomplish- 
ment, a means to an end, which end secured, the means may be 
thrown aside ? or is it taught as something additional, an ornament 
of life in its highest form, when the man has passed the restlessness 
of childhood, ever in want of amusement ; has passed the struggles 
of youth and earlier manhood, the period of learning, of discipline, 
of formation of character ; and has reached the settled state of life 
and mature manhood, to be spent not in business or in war, but as 
a period of rest and peaceful contemplation? Music is for all of 
these, is the answer. It amuses it influences the character it is 
a high intellectual pleasure. Has not the soul itself been said to 
be a harmony ? (Ch. V.). 

There remains for consideration the question, How is it to be 
taught ? By actual practice, is the answer, stopping short of course 
of professional skill, and therefore discarding all that tends to form 
that, both as to the music learnt and the instruments on which it 
is learnt. No kind of music is to be rejected absolutely, it will find 
its place and audience somewhere, but different music is of course 
used in education from that which would be allowed on other occa- 
sions. The Dorian music is especially favoured from the educa- 
tional point of view (Ch. VI. VII.). 

The question whether Aristotle left the book in the state in 
which we have it, whether he ever developed more fully his treatise 
on education, is one we have no means of answering. But it seems 
difficult to dispute the conclusion that the treatment of the subject 
is incomplete, and that this book contains but a fragment of it. If 
we turn to the conclusion of the first book (I. 13, 15, 16.) we shall, 
I think, be inclined to suspect that a very large portion of his work 
has been lost to us, as much as two or three books very probably. 
For even granting that the subject of music, in Aristotle's sense of 
the term, is complete, there remains the kindred subject of poetry, 
its influence and its proper place in education. In itself this must 
have attracted his attention, and its full treatment by Plato in the 
second and third books of his Republic, is enough, for any one who 
estimates duly the close connexion between Aristotle's moral and 
political theories and those of Plato, to convince him that, either in 
intention or in fact, Aristotle also treated it systematically. The 
same consideration also applies to the question of the family. In 
respect to that, we may be quite sure that Aristotle was not con- 
tent with the negative view of the second book, but that the 
criticism there given was meant to be but the clearing of the 
ground for the erection of his own positive views, a dogmatical con- 

Y.] SUMMARY. 221 

struction antagonistic to that of Plato. I might take other points 
and argue in the same way. But the two mentioned are sufficient. 
Other omissions will be most clearly appreciated by any reader of 
the Republic who will thoughtfully compare the points treated in 
it with those treated by Aristotle. My conclusion would be that 
not only is this fifth book a fragment, but that we have between it 
and the sixth a gap of considerable extent which nothing now can 
supply. And I should conjecture that it was the sense of this that 
led the earliest arrangers of the work to place the fifth book last. 
They argued that a work would be unfinished at the end, not in the 
middle, so when they met evident traces of incompleteness, there 
they concluded was the point where the author had broken off his 
labours. Be this conjecture erroneous or not, the common arrange- 
ment stands so much in the way of a right understanding of the 
work, that I have not hesitated to change it. 

nOAITIKilN E. (0.) 


a state 


OTI fjt.ev ovv TW vojULoOeTt) fJia\i<TTa 7rpayjm.aTVTeop 
\ \ <-> / ft f w % * i /~k / 

Trepi Tr]v TOOV veav Traioeiav, ovoet? av 

KOI yap ev TO.I<S TroXecriv ov yiyvojmevov TOVTO {3\a7TTi 

i 7roXfTe/a9. oei yap irpos eKauT^v TroXiTevecrOai. TO 

'yap nOos r^9 7roXfre/a9 e/ca(7T79 TO OIKCIOV Kal (bvXaTTeiv 

* I I 

e'looOe Trjv r 7ro\LTeiav Kal Ka6l(TTr]<riv ej apxys 
orj/jiOKpaTLKOV o>;/>to/c/oaT/av ? TO o' oXiyap'xjLKov 
ael $e TO /3e\THTTOV ?0o9 /3e\Tiovos a'iTiov 7ro\iTeia$. 
CTI Se 7T/009 7ra<ra9 ovvaju.ei$ Kal Te^9 <TTIV a Set TTOO- 
TraiSevecrOai Kal TrpoeOilfeaOai 7rpo$ Ta9 KacrT(*)v cpya(ria$ 9 
3 ootTTe 

olov TO 

Of the three questions started at the 
end of the last book, the first, el iroirj- 
reov rdl-iv nva irepl TOI>S TraiSas, is 
answered in the first two sections of 
this book, and answered affirma- 
tively. Each constitution requires 
for its establishment and maintenance 
a certain character in its citizens. 
This must be formed in them. Be- 
sides this reason, in our ideal state, in 
which the aim is, to have all the citi- 
zens virtuous, certain previous instruc- 
tion and training will be necessary, 
for virtue requires this for its practice 
as much as any other faculty or act 
in man. The necessity of this pre- 
vious training for virtuous action was 
pointed out EtTi. II. i. p. 1103, b. 21 ; 
and that this training is best given in 
the state is made clear in Eth. x. 
x. p. ir 79. So that a lengthened dis- 
cussion of the point here would have 
been superfluous. 

I. I /utXtora irpayiLarevTeov] 'must 
of absolute necessity direct his atten- 

ov yiyvbfjievov TOVTO] ' The omission 
of this, ' ev TOIS irb\f<nv, 'in existing 
states. ' 

2 TO y&p ^0os] And this cannot be 
without education, for education alone 
can form the character which is re- 
quired in its citizens by each consti- 

pt\Ti<TTov~\ Spengel proposes /3A- 
riov, but the change is unnecessary ; 
' the best character in each case will 
have the effect in each case of amelio- 
rating the constitution. ' 

Trpbs Tas fKdffTuv pya.o~las] f for the 
performance of each/ & 701/5 Set /j,a06t'- 
TO.S iroieiv TavTO. TTOIOVVTCS p.av9dvo[j.ev, 
Eth. II. i. 4. p. 1 103, 32. 

3 In sections 3 and 4, we have the 
answer to the second question, 
<rvfji,<t>e'pei KOIVJJ 7roier<r0cu ; K. T. \ 

Y. (VIII.) 1.] nOAITIKON E. (0.) 


Kai TY\V a<TKr)(riv. 
avTov TLVOL elvai TWJ/ 

A ev T-O reXoc rw 7r6\ei iraa-ri* (bavepov OTI Kal TWV TraiSelav Education 

% % , * ~ > ^ / * a St * te 

/ecu rrjv avrrjv avayKaiov eivai Travrcov Kat TOLVT*I<S T*]V question. 

eivai Koivtjv KCU /mr] /car' liiav t ov TpoTrov vvv 
e/cacrros 1 eTrifJieXeiTai TWV avrou TGKVOOV l^ia re KOI /maOqa-iv 
rjv av $6j~rj, SiSaa-Kdov. Set Se TCOV KOIVOOV KOivrjv 

rf5>\5R\ > t<s 

a/ma oe ovoe -^prj vofju^eiv 4 
ToXirwi/, aXXa Travras T^? 
4 fjiopiov yap e/cao"TO? T^? TroXeco?. ^ o eTTi/meXeia 


jmeXeiav. eTraiveveie S* civ r:? /cara a TOVTO 

KCU yap TrXe/crT^J' Troiovvrai (TTrovSrjv Trepl rou? T 

KOivy TGLVTYIV. "Ori /jtej/ o)i/ voju.o6eTt]T6ov Trepi 

/cat ravTrjv KOivrjv TroiyTeov, fyavepov T/9 ^' e(7Ttv ?} iraiSeia, 2 

Kal TTW? ^jO?7 Traf^eJecr^af, Set fjLrj XavQavew. vvv yap 

afJL(pi(r/3r}TiTai Trepl ru>v epycov ov yap ravra Travres 'WteA is to 
t ^ n t * ~ r\ ' -,* v v ^ "6 taught. 

VTroXajmpavovari deiv [JLavuaveiv rof? ^eou? ot/re TT^OO? apeTrjv 

* /cat Bekker. 

<f>avep6v, K.T. X.] 'The education 
must be one aiid the same, public, 
and not left, as it is now left, to indi- 
viduals ;' dv rpbirov connects closely 
with /car' ISiav. Compare Eth. X. x. 
p. 1179. By changing the stopping 
at SiSdo-Kwv, the next remark is 
brought into as close a connexion as 
possible with what precedes. Educa- 
tion is now private, but it is a na- 
tional interest, and should not be 
treated as a private one. 

4 &^a d, K. T, X. ] this is the true 
form of Socialism, or rather it is the 
truth which that word might express, 
had not all kinds of errors grouped 
themselves around it, so as to make 
it almost hopeless to use it, from the 
misconceptions on the one side of its 
advocates or disciples, from the pas- 
sionate and unreasoning horror of 
many of its opponents on the other. 
I will content myself here with stating 
that I think there is a true Socialism, 

and that even in its erroneous inter- 
pretations of that truth, what is called 
Socialism is nobler than that which 
greets it with such hatred, the domi- 
nant selfishness of the majority. 

ij ^Tri/^Xeia] Compare I. XIII. 15. 

Kal TOVTO] It is better to read KO.TCL 
TOVTO, Sylburg's correction. The Kal 
makes no sense. 

AaKeSaifj.ovlovs] ' The Lacedaemo- 
nian system,' says Mr. Lewis (Autho- 
rity, &c. p. 320), 'was too extensive 
an interference with parental autho- 
rity and natural affection for imitation, 
even by the most military republics of 
antiquity, such as the Roman ; and 
in modern times no such entire substi- 
tution of the political for domestic 
control over children is likely to be 
seriously entertained.' 

II. I irepl TU>I> fyywv] ' the things 
to be taught.' So Stahr, "die Gegen- 


, nOAITIKON E. (9.) 


tainty as to 
be taught 
and why. 

1337 B 

OUTS 7rpo<? TOV /3lov TOV apicTTOV ovSe ipavepov iroTepov 
TTjOO? Ttjv oiavoiav TrpeTrei jmaXXov rj Trpos TO T^? ^v^rj^ 
j$9o$. CK re r>79 ejULTToStcv 7rai$eia$ rapa^w^rjg rj cr/ce'\J/-f9, KCU 

fl->-\ ^^ f M n <* \ / \ ^ /^/ 

CrjXov ovoev TroTepov acTKeiv oei TO. -^prjo-ijuia 7rpo$ TOV piov 

H \ t \ "> \ ,\ \ ft \ 


e'lXrj(p TdVTCL KptTClS TIVOLS. TTCpl T TU)V 7TOO? apeT^V 

ov' Kal yap T*]V apeTrjv ov TV\V 
TIJULCOCTIV, UHTT ev\oya)$ 3ia<pepovTai KOI 

TTjOO? Tt]V OL<TK.Y]<JIV ttUT^?. OTL fJLCV OVV TO. OLVajKala $l 

$i<$a<TK(r6ai TUIV xpyori/uLcoit, OVK arj\ov OTI fie ov TravTa, 
Siyptj/meixav TCOV TG eXevOepcov cpycvv Kal TCOV avcXevOepcov, 
(pavepov OTL TWV TOIOVTOOV Set fj.Te^eiv ova TWV ^prjcri/uiCDv 
7roirj<Ti TOV juLCTe-^ovTa /uirj /3dvav<TOv. fiavavvov o^ epyov 

ovOev e<TTiv 

irbrepov irpbs TTJV Sidvoiav] ' ought 
education to aim at the cultivation of 
the intellect, or rather at the forma- 
tion of the moral character?' The 
opposition between didvoia and ^0os is 
the same as that Eth. I. xiii. p. 1 103, 
5, and the question was discussed IV. 
xv. 9, 10. 

2 ^/X7ro5c6v] 'actual/ 'in the way.' 
There is an ambiguity in the word, 
which perhaps did not escape Aristotle, 
though it may be safest to take it as a 
simply neutral term, 'the education 
which meets us when we begin our 
inquiries on the subject. ' In his day, 
as in ours, the question of education 
was not to be solved by an appeal to 
practical experience. The only an- 
swer returned was a confused one, 
and must be so, as the actual educa- 
tion was not based on any well deter- 
mined, well understood principles. In 
fact, the object to be aimed at was yet 
entirely a matter under discussion, 
and some would have nothing taught 
but merely that which in the most 
ordinary sense was useful for life. 

TCH TrepiTrd] Eth. VI. vii. 5, p. 1141, 
b. 6, Tre/otrrot ^kv /cot 0au//,a0"Ta Kal 
Kal Scu^ta 'res divinae ac 

naturales,' Viet. ; 'die hoheren spe- 
cula tivenWissenschaf ten,' Stahr. This 
seems the meaning ultimately, but the 
translation is not easy, for ' the higher 
branches of science' seems to lose the 
proper sense of the word, which, in 
the mouths of those who use it with 
reference to education, has some- 
what of a sneer in it, 'out-of-the-way 
knowledge, ' the ' ideology' of the elder 
Napoleon, the 'theory' or 'philosophy' 
of men of ordinary education amongst 

Kpiras eX?70e] MetapTi. I. viii. 89, 
a. 7. ed. Bonitz. 'auctores,' 'judg- 
ments in their favour.' 

irepi re, K. r. X.] 'and if we adopt 
the second object, and say that our 
education should tend to virtue, still 
there is no agreement.' 

et>dfa~\ 'for at the outset it is not 
the same virtue that all value. ' 

3 Compare I. vn. The clause &TI 
8 of> irdvTa. is not quite regular, but 
there is no difficulty in the meaning. 
' It is clear that we must not have all 
useful things taught; it is clear, in 
fact, that we must have them taught 
only so far as, &c.' Compare, for 
the question of f3dvav<roi, III. V. 

Y. (VIII.) 2.] 




OVK ave- 

eivai $ei TOVTO vou.ieiv KOI T&yvnv TCLVTM Kal ima6r]<Tiv 9 

f \ ~ -> 

oarai TT/OO? Tag Y09<rt$ Kai T? Trpa^eis TCt? T^9 apeTrjs 

cLTrepyd^ovTat TO crco/xa TCOJ/ eXevOepcov *] Ttjv 
"*] Ttjv oidvoiav. ito ret? re Tomirray re^i/ay oa*a< 
TrapaarKevd^ovcri -^eipov StcacetarOat fiavav<jov<s 
, Kal rag imi(r6apviKa$ epyaonas' ao"^o\ov yap 
rt]v Sidvoiav Kal rcnretvyv. ecrri Se Kal rcov \ev- 
Qeplwv 7n<JT*iiJ.(jov M^Xj 06 ^ v TLVO< > 
\ev0epovy 7rpO(Topeviv oe \tctv TT/OOJ TO e 
Ta?9 e!pt][jLvai$ /B\d/3ais. e^ei <$e TroXX^ $ia(popav Kal TO 
TIVO<S \dpiv TTpoLTTei Tf? rj /uLaiOdvcf avTov jmev yap \apiv 
$] (hi\wv rj vC apeTtjv OVK ave\evQepov 9 o oe avTO TOVTO 
TrpaTTtov <^f' aXXou? TroXXa/a? OtjTiKov Kal $OV\IKOV 
av TTpaTTeiv. A/ /xei/ ovi/ KaTa/BefiXrj/mevai vvv 
KaOd-n-ep e\e-)(6r] irpoTepov, eTra/ULfjioTepifyva-iv. C&TI o*e 
a Trato'eveiv eicoOacri, ypd/jL/maTa Kal yv/m- 
Kal Teraprov GVLOL ypa(piKyv, T*\V 
Kal ypa(piKtjv cog cr/uof? f TOV 


taintyas to 

should be 

TTTapa cr-fce 
va<rrtK9jV Kal 


The four 

of ordinary 


5 /JUffBapviKas epyaaias] 'occupa- 
tions a gages.' Compare I. xi. 3, 
4, for [Uffdapvla.. The comparison of 
the two passages would seem to limit 
the expression here, as the French 
translation limits it, to the exclusion 
of the artizan class. 

Tatreiv-^v] 'abject, servile.' 

Z<TTI 82 Kal, K. T.\.] ( and even in 
some of the sciences which freemen 
may know. ' 

ytt^x/H fitv TWOS'] 'though up to a 
certain point.' 

irpocreSpefaiv 5^] 'Yet to devote 
oneself too assiduously to them, with a 
view to attain perfection in them.' 

6 Compare V. (VII.) xiv. 7. TroX- 
Xci/cts 6r)TiK6v~\ ' might well be thought 
to be doing a menial and servile 
thing. ' 

/cara/Se/SX^^j/ai] 'in vogue, in use,' 
ElTi. I. iii. 8, p. 1096, 9, Kalroi TroXXot 
X67ot irpbs avra 

A. P. 

{'jra(ji,<poTepiovcru>] 'are susceptible 
of more than one interpretation,' IV. 
(VII.) Xin. n. 

III. i The fourfold division of 
Greek education. In the Republic, 
Book II., Plato gives only the twofold 
division with yv^vaa-riKifi and (jLovaiK-fj. 
In the first both agree. It is the 
second which Aristotle takes in a 
more restricted sense than Plato, and 
limits it to music in the modern sense; 
whereas in Plato it stands for the 
whole mental training, as distinct 
from the bodily. 

ypafi/nara] ' reading and writing,' 
the elements of letters. 

7pa<i/c??j'] 'the arts of design draw- 

Xpfjo't/J.ovs Trpbs rbv /3/ov] ' as practi- 
cally useful for the ordinary purposes 
of daily life, and available at every 





The four 


of ordinary 


\Vhv i<a 



piv Ol 


ev Traioeia oia TO 

K a 7rofYm<7TOU9j T*]v e < Yf / uyaem/o;y co? wv- 

, , ' , , _, , 

ret.vov(Tav TT^OO? avopiCLV Tt]v oe /u.ov<TiKr]v tjdt] 
>r ~ \ \ r < <\ 

av Ti $' vvv 1^^ 7 a P ^ J/O 

5 " iy* ** 

Yovcrfj/ avT*]S' 01 o e^ apvy]$ 

(pixnv avTyv QjTeiv, OTrep 7roXXa/cf9 eiptrrat, /mrj 
a(T^o\etv opOcos aXXa Kal cr^oXa^ctv ^vvacrOai /caXa)?' 
yap o-p^j] iravTWV., iVCL KO.I 7ra\iv eurw/JLev Trepi auT^?. ei 
yap a/uLfpw /mev Set, ju.a\\ov $e aiperov TO 
acrv^oX/a?, Kal 0X0)9 QjTijreov TL TTOIOVVTCIS Set 
ov yap otj TraiYovTOLS' TeXo? y a p avayKaiov eivai TOV (3iov 
Ti]v TraiStav y/uLtv. el Se TOVTO aSvvaTOv 9 Kal /xaXXov ev 
Tai? au^oX/cu? -^p^crTeov Tal<s 7rai$iai$ (6 yap TTOVWV SeiTai 
T^? ava7rav<Tco$, y oe iraioia "^apiv ava7ravcreu>$ e<jTiv TO 
& aa-yoXeiv crv/u./3aivt JULCTCL irovov teal avvTovia<s) 9 via 
TOVTO Set TraiStas eicrayecrOai Kaipo(^v\aKTOvvTa<s 

tos <rvvTeivov(ra.v] ' as an element in 
the formation of courage,' so neces- 
sary for the Greek citizen. 

Tyv 5 /j,ovaiKrii>] The defence on 
the score of utility, mere usefulness, 
is least clear in the case of music. So 
music, in its limited sense, is taken as 
the battle-ground for this question of 
utility in the general, and .it is his so 
taking it that sufficiently explains the 
limited sense he chooses to attach to 
the word. 

2 vvv /j.v ydp] l For although at 
the present day most learn it as for 
the sake of the pleasure, yet origi- 
nally, those who made it a branch of 
education did not adopt this defence.' 

avT-rj 7fy> apxt] This avrrj might be 
referred to $i5cris, but it is better to 
take it as referring to o-%oXi7, con- 
tained in ffxo\d^i.v, or perhaps, with- 
out any definite reference to either of 
the two terms, it may be translated, 
'for here, in the position just laid down, 
that the nature of man looks not 
merely to exertion, but also to the 
right management of leisure, we have 

the principle of all things, the funda- 
mental position from which we start.' 
Stahr's translation is, 'denn diese 
Miisse, um es noch einmal zu sagen, 
ist Grund und Ziel aller Geschaftig- 

3 et yap &/*<}><*) p,h del, K. r. X. ] ' For 
if whilst both, activity and leisure, 
must be attended to, leisure is yet the 
preferable object of attention, it fol- 
lows that we cannot possibly escape 
the inquiry in what we are to employ 
our leisure. ' 

yap avayKouov] ' For in that 
case amusement were the end of life. ' 
In JEth. x. vi. p. 1176, we have the 
same point discussed. 

4 ev TCUS dcrxoXfats, K.T. X.] amuse- 
ments, games, &c., are but the re- 
creations of one immersed in business, 
their object being to enable him to 
exert himself the more. 

6 yap irov&v, K.T. X.] Herod, n. 173. 

' watching the proper occasions for its 
use/ Dem. 678. 17. KaipotyvXaKew is 

V. (VIII.) 3.] nOAITIKON E. (9.) 

v, ft>? TrpocrayovTa? d>apju.aKeia$ 



ave(n<s yap tj Why is 
* . * music 

ja TY\V qdovyv av air averts' learnt? 

^ \ 

e f 




TY\V r 


i g 
ou TO?? 5 



TO ^yv /maKapicos. 
yet aXXa 
eVe/ea TIVO<$ acr^oXei Te'Xou? 


OVKCTI Ti]v avTtjv TiOeacriv, aXXa 
Trjv efyv TY\V avTwv, o 3e apicrTOS TY\V apicrTijv Kal TV\V CLTTO 

TCOV Ka\\l(TT(*)V. O)CTT6 (havepOV OTL OL Kttl TTjOO? TY\V V 6 

Ttj Siayapyy cr^oX^i/ jmavOdveiv O.TTOL Kal TraiSevecrOai,, Kal 
TavTa /u.ev TO. 7rai<$evju.aTa Kal TauTa? Tag /xaO^cra? eavTwv 
elvai %apiv 9 Ta? o"e TTjOo? Trjv a<jyo\iav (09 avayKalas Kal 

eavrovs e/cacrTO? 

a/oy a\\a)v. oio Kal TIJV /ULOVCTLK^V 01 TrpoTepov ei$ 7 

the form preferred by Lobeck ad 
Phryn. 575. 

ij TOicujT-r) Klvqo-is] 'The movement 
or excitement of the mind in games. ' 

8iA T7)v Tjdov^v] from the pleasure it 
brings with it we work easily, and so 
it acts as a relief. 

aur6] ' in itself.' It is opposed to 
the l<rdye<r6ai, 

5 TOVTO] sc. r6 

6 fj.v yap dcr%oXa)j'] In his own lan- 
guage, then, d(r%oAa is a y&<rts, aims 
at producing some result, and ovde/jita 
yfrfcris ffvyyevys ro?s T^Xecriv, Etli. VII. 
xii. 3, p. 1152, 13. The aiming at a 
result implies its non-attainment 

cos oi>x inrdpxorros] ' Happiness is a 
result,, an end, and all think it is ac- 
companied, not by pain, but by plea- 
sure. ' 

Tai/r^p /mevTOi] ' Here, however, the 
agreement stops. The kind of pleasure 
is not agreed upon.' Comp. Eth. I. 
x. 10, p. 1099, 8 e/cdfrrv ydp 

7/5l) 7T/OOS 


(rxo\fj diaywy/iv] The question is, 
what is 01070)717 1 Compare Bonitz on 
the word, in a note, ad Metapli. 81, 
b. 1 8 ; and my remarks in the sum- 
mary of this book. I may add, that 
the word seems to mark the time 
when life is lived for its own sake, 
and not for the sake of some object to 
be attained, be it the formation of our 
characters or the attainment of suc- 
cess in war or political power. It is 
the filos dewprjTLKds of Ethics X. vii. 
p. 1177, 6 /cara crotylav, or /card vovv 
fitos, its object the contemplation of 
truth. It is the life of the 0tfXa>ces of 
Plato, after their education is com- 
pleted, and also after they have dis- 
charged their duty to their country 
and their fellow- citizens by mixing for 
a time in political affairs. 

TavTanlv TO, TrcuSeifyicmi] ' and whilst 
the branches of education which have 
reference to this period should be pur- 
sued for their own sakes. 



nOAITlKON E. (9.) 


Why is Traifieiav eraPav ovv w? avayKatov (ovo'ev yap eva TOIOVTOV) 

music ,*, , , f \ / 

learnt? OVO O>9 %*] <T I JU.OV, (DCTTTCp TO. ypajULJULttTa 7TpO$ 

~" /ecu TTjOo? oiKovo/Jiiav Kai Trpos fjiaOrjcriv /ecu irpo? 

7rpaj~ei$ TroXXa?' cWa c^e /ecu ypa<piKt] yjprj&iiJios eivai irpog 
TO Kpiveiv ra rwt/ TeyviTwv epya KO\\IOV ou^' ay KaOairep 
rj yv/uLvaarTiKtj Trpos vyieiav /ecu a\KrjV ov^eTepov yap TOVTCOV 
8 6pa)jULev yiyvo/uLevov e/c r^9 /xoucrfAc^?. \ei7reTai TOLVVV TTjOo? 
ey r^ or-^oXfj $iayu>yr]v, ei$ OTrep Kal fyalvovTai Trapa- 
rjv yap o'lovTai oiaywyyv elvai TCOV e\ev- 


pwv, ev Tavrrj TGLTTOVG-LV. 


a oloV fJ,V f(TTL KaXflv TT\ &CUTa BaXfLTjV. 

9 Kal OVTCO TrpoeiTTcov erepovs Tivag 

01 KoXeova-iv doiSdv (prjiriv, o Kfv Tepiryaiv arravras. 

KOI ev aXXof? Se (f)t](riv 'OSvara-evs TavTtjv apiarTtjv eivai 
yv 9 OTUV ev(ppatvo/jt.ev(*)v TWV avO pwTrcov 

8aiTV[j.ov$ 8' dva a>/iar' aKovafavrai a'otSoG 





TI<S rjv oir^ a)? ^jprj(Ti/J.ov a 

ere r> r \ ~ ??if > r '\ - \' f *'\/ r i' ^ 

utility re- oevTeov roy? vieis ovo a>? avayitaiav XX cog eXevuepiov Kai 

KaXrjv, (pavepov e&Tiv TTOTepov &e JULIO. TOV apiOjmov rj TrXe/ou?, 
Kal Tive? avTai Kal TTW?, v&Tepov \CKTGOV irepl ai/Tcov. vvv 

^\ /- f^ \rft^f f/ \ \/-v 

oe TOOTOVTOV IJJULIV aval Trpo ooou yeyovev, OTL Kai irapa TCOV 
fyojiev Tiva jmapTvpiav e/c TWV 

7 SOKCL S^ Kal ypafaK-rj] Why should 
not music be useful in the same sense 
in which he here says the art of design 

8 et's 6'7rep, K. T. X.] 'And this is 
evidently the object for which men do 
introduce music. ' 

dXX' ofoi'] not found in our existing 
Homer. Comp. III. xiv. 

9 oi Ka\tov<Tu>~\ Od. XVII. 385. 
Sairv yu.6i>es] Od. IX. 7. 

10 X/O^CTI/AOJ'] Spengel prefers this 

to Bekker's reading, xp7)<rl/j,7)v. It is 
more in keeping with 7, as also with 
s, in III. i. 

ov' us avayKalav] 'much less on 
the ground of absolute necessity.' 
vvrepov] This is lost. 

T i Trpb odov] ' we have got so far on 
our way. ' 

/cara/3e/3X?7 / u^j'6i>j'] above, II. 6, 
{ drawn from the branches of educa- 
tion actually taught. ' 

V. (VIII.) 4.] nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 


CTL oe Mere 
cta? objected as a 


rj yap jmovcriKr] TOVTO Troiet otjXov. 
Kal TCOV "^pt](TL]ULCov oTi Set TLVOL TTCtt^eiW^cu TOVS 

/ <\ \ \ t <? ^ ~ t 

[Jiovov oia TO -^prjarLfJiov., oiov Trjv TCOV ypafJL/maTdDV 

** -V X N \ ft N \ "\ "\ ^ ' ^ ' S\ ' f\ ^ ' 1 ""* 

aAAct /ecu om TO TroAAa? evoe^ecruai yiyvecrtjai OL OLVTWV 

l Ttjv ypa<piKtjv ov^ f iva ev 12 
Siaiardvaxriv aXX* to<riv av 

TO?? 181019 utviois 

r] Siafiap 



Troiei OecoprjTLKOv TOU Trepl ra orco/^ara /caXXou9. TO ^e 
' v TO ^pta-i/mov ^/aerra apjmoTTei TO?? /meya- 

Kal TO?? eXevOepois. 'Exei o^e (pavepov irpoTepov 13 

v/i ,1 - -v f $ ' f * % . \ .- - Bodily 

(9 euecriv rj TO) \oyw TraioevTeov eivat, Kat Trepi TO crco/xa education 

TrpoTepov rj Trjv Sidvoiav, SrjXov e/c TOiyTft)^ 6Vi irapafioTeov mi | s M )re ' 
[? yvjuva<TTiKfj Kal TraifioTptftiKfi' TOVTWV yap y tal. 




ej/ ow at* fJioXiarTa SoKoucrai TWV TroXewv TTIJUL- 4 
Xel&Oai TU>V 7rai$a)v al JULCV aOXrjTiKtjv e^iv ejuLTroiovcri, Xco- 
/3u)/ULvai TOL T6 elSrj Kal Trjv aufya-LV TUIV a-cojULaTdov, ol $e 
Aa/ccoi/e? TavTtjv //ei/ 01)^ %/u.apTov T*JV ajmapTiav, Orjpiwfiei? 
^ aTrepyd^ovTai ToF? TroVot?, w? TOVTO Trpog avSolav /xa- 

^ri 5^] <j)ai>ep&i> to be supplied, and 
for the subject we must go back to 

dia rb xp r h ffi l j - ov ] ' mere use in the 
lowest sense.' 

12 tv rots I8lois uviots] 'in their 
private purchases.' 

d\X' &<nv] must be connected as 
closely as possible with 5ta / u.a/)rdi'wcrtj'. 
I have therefore taken away Bekker's 
comma. For all this language com- 
pare the Republic, with the positions 
in which on this point Aristotle argues, 
whilst he does not so absolutely as 
Plato reject the element of utility. 

rots fj,ya\o^/uxois] In Etli. IV. viii. 
33, p. 1125, ll > the /j.eya\6ij/vxos is 
said to be ofos KeKTrjaOai fj,a\\ov rb. 
/caXa /cat tiKapira r&v KO.piriiJ.wv /cat 

13 Compare IV. (VII.) xv. 10. 

yv/j.vao'TiKfj KO.L TratSor/H/St/qy] Compare 
Galen, De Val. Tu. II. 9, 1 1, which, 
with this passage, is quoted by Smith 
(Diet. Ant.) as the basis of his distinc- 
tion between these two branches of 
bodily training, which with the an- 
cients was partly medical, partly what 
we should mean by gymnastics. 

TOL fyya] ' its actions' in the various 
exercises and games. 

IV. I Xw/Suyxevat] 'injuring.' 
rwurT\v fj.^v OVK\ ' Though they have 
not committed this error, yet they 
render their citizens savage,' Grote, n. 
507, 517, where the Lacedaemonian cha- 
racter is spoken of as being of a low 
type in comparison with that of 
Plato's <pv\a,Kes. 


nOAITIK&N E. (6.) 



\HTTa crv/ui(pepov. KaiToi, KaOaTrep eiprjrai 7roXXa/a?, OVTC 

\ f v \ t^. ' O^ ' t 


^ r\ >r \ \ t ****} 

T *1 V 7Tl]UL6\iaV. 1 Te KCU TTjOO? TClfT>/l', OVO TOVTO ^UpL- 

OVT yap ev Tol<s aXXois V Of ? OUT ewl TWV eOvcov 
opto/mev Tqv avfipiav aKoXovQovvav TO?? aypicoTaTOis, dXXa 
]u.aX\ov Tol<s rjimeptoTepois /ecu Xeoi/T 'too ecriv qOecriv. TroXXa 
<^' ecrrJ TWV eQvwv a irpos TO KTeiveiv KCU Trpos T^V avOpcoTro- 
(payiav ev-^epM^ e^e:, KaOaTrep TWV irepl TOV IloVroj/ 
'Ap^atot T6 Kal 'H^/o^ot Kai TU>V yTreipcoTiKcov eOvcov eTepa, 

TO, JULGV O/XO/ft)? TOl^TOt? TO. $6 [JLaXXoV., O, \r]<TTlKa /JLGV <TTIV 9 

& ov fjLerei\^<pa(7iv. eri O N ' avrovs TOV$ Aa/ccoya? 
eco$ /ULev avTol Trpoanjdpevov Tai$ (j)i\O7roviai9 9 
TWV aXXcov, vvv <$e Kal TO?? yvjmvacriois Kal TO?? 
aycocri \ei7r O/ULCVOVS eTeputv ov yap TO) TOf? vecu? 
TOV Tpojrov TOVTOV Siefapov, aXXce TO) JJLOVOV /mt] 
a<TKiv. "Qcrre TO KaXov aXX' ov TO 
0rjpi(Jeo$ oei TrptoTaywvKTTeiv ov yap \VKO$ ovoe TCOV aXXcov 

1 otire irpbs p.lav'] ' no one single 
virtue should be chosen. ' 

otfre ?r/o6s /x,dXia-ra ra^T^v] f nor, if 
one, should this virtue be the one se- 
lected as especially to be attended to.' 

ei' re Kal irpbs raijT^v] ' and if even 
this is the one to be cultivated, they 
do not hit the point right; they are 
wrong in their method of cultivation.' 

\eovr (t)e<nv\ This based on a mis- 
conception of the lion almost univer- 
sally prevalent. 

3 'Axcuoi . . . 'H^oxoi] I have not 
been at the pains to collect any scat- 
tered notices of these and other ob- 
scure tribes. They show the extent 
and minuteness of Aristotle's informa- 
tion, but politically they are of no 
general interest, and in the common 
books of reference sufficient will be 

TjTreLpwTiK&v] Epirotic, not general, 
in the sense of continental, but limited 
to Epirus, properly so called ; at least 

this seems to me the most natural way 
to take it. 

Xlja-riKd] not TOV KO\OV 'tween, ' Pira- 
tical,' Brave that is, under the im- 
pulse of desire of gain. 

dvSptas] 'courage,' properly so 
called, 'deliberate valour,' Par. Lost, 
I- 554- 

4 afrroi] 'They alone.' 

Trpo<rr)dpevoi>] for this word compare 
Ch. II. v. 

rats ^tAoTTcWcus] Thuc. n. 39. 

vvv 5<f] Grote, II. 60 r. 

01) y&p T$ Tof/s vtovs, K. r.X.] ' For 
it was not by their training their 
youth in this particular system that 
they surpassed others, but by their 
training them whilst others did not.' 

fj-7] Trpos do-Kovvras = -n-pbs /j.7) da-Kovv- 
ras] Compare the expression, ^ Trpds 
Oytioicw dvTnrapacrKevrjv, Thuc. I. 141. 

5 n-pwTayuvHrTe'iv] 'must take the 
first place,' 'play the first part.' 

Y. (VHI.) 4.] nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 




TL aycovicraiTO av ovOeva KCL\OV KivovvoV) a\\a Bodily 

~>> ^ > \ > /} / f a\ -x i , ~ > / > training, 

/uia\\ov avrjp ayauo$. 01 oe \iav ? TCLVTCI avevres rof? 

Kal TWV avayxaiwv aTraiSayayy^Tov^ 7roi*i(ravTe<s 

KaTepyafyvTai Kara ye TO a\ijOe$, 7rpo$ ev re 
IJLOVOV epyov ry TTO\ITIK^ ^prja-Ljuiovg 7roir]<javTe<$, Kal trpos 
TOVTO -^elpoVy a)? (prja-lv 6 Xo-yo?, erepwv. $ei $e OVK e/c 7 
TWV TrpoTepcw epywv Kpiveiv, aXX' e/c TUIV vvv a 
yap rfjs Traf^cta? vvv e^ovan, jrporepov <T oi^/c et 
/xei/ ot)r xpwrrvov Ty yv/ULvao-TtKfi, Kal TTCO? 
6fJio\oyov/uLevov &TTt. ^XP 1 ^ ev 7^/ ?/W 
yv/<jia TrpotroicrTeov, Ttjv fiiaiov Tpo<pr]v Kal TOV$ Trpos 
avayKrjv TTOVOVS aireipyovTas., "iva /mrjOev ejULTrooiov ?j TTOO? 
Ttjv avfy&iv. or^/meiov yap ov /miKpov OTI SvvaTai TOVTO 8 
7rapao-Kva^iv ev yap TO?? oXv/uLTrioviKai? Svo r<? av rj 1339 
TjOef? evpot TOVS avTovs vevtKT)KOTa$ avipGf re /cat TraF^a?, 
^ia TO i/eov? acr/co^ra? cKpaipei&Oai Ttjv ^vvafjiiv VTTO TCOV 
yvp,va<ritt)V. oTav $' a(fi y 

eTtj Tpia Trpos 9 

6 ets TaOra] sc. ra 
' bodily exercises.' 

avajKalwv a7rai5a7W7^roi;s] ' whilst 
they left them untaught in all the 
points essential to man, the most ne- 
cessary rudiments of intellectual train- 
ing.' They had no music below v, 
7 probably no drawing; and the 
passage seems in favour of Mr. Grote's 
view, which has been disputed by 
Col. Mure, that they had no 
fj.a.Ta in the most elementary form. 

fiavavcrovs] Compare II. IV. 
ffrov rb (TcD/ta ^ TTJV if/vxty T) TTJV Sid- 


cbs (f>7](rlv 6 \6yos\ ' as reason teaches 
us.' So Stahr and St. Hil. 

7 di'Ttryujj'icrTcis] These ' rivals' the 
Spartans found in the Thebans. Com- 
pare Grote, X. 252. 

6'rt otV] ' still whatever errors 
may have been committed on the sub- 
ject, bodily training is not to be 
neglected. ' 

T7]v plaiov Tpo<j>-f)v] ' The compulsory 
sustenance of a regular athlete. ' 

rot)s irpbs dvdyKfjv irbvovs] TOI)S 
dvajKaiovs irbvovs of IV. (VII.) 
xvii. 4. 

8 o"rjfj,e'iov y&p ov fj,ucp6v, K. T. \. ] 
'For we are not without sufficient 
argument to show that it can produce 
this result.' 

TOVTO] sc. fyir68tov eft/cu] and the it 
is, from the last sentence, the train- 
ing, both as to food and exercises, of 
the athlete. 

oXiv/.TTioj't'/ccus] Aristotle is said to 
have made a collection of these victors 
in the Olympic games. 

5ta r6 vtovs dcr/coupras dfiaipe'icrdai] 
' because by their training whilst 
young, they deprived themselves of 
their strength. ' 

9 ^TTJ Tpta, K. r. X. ] ' They have been 
engaged for three years in their other 


nOAITIKQN E. (6.) 



Its object, 

Bodily TO?? aXXoi? fJLa0^ima(Ti yeva)VTai 9 Tore apfj-OTTei Kai TOI$ 
training, , \ ~ -> , t -\ o ' * 

TTOVOIS Kai TOLLS avayKO(payiai$ KaTa\afj,paveiv Tr]v e-^ojmevrjv 

f "\ ' ff \ -* ' to t ' \ ' ^ ' * ^ " 

rj\LKLav. a/ma yap ry re oiavoia Kai TCD o-wjmari oiaTroveiv 
ov Set' TovvavTiov yap cKOLTepos aTrepydl^ecrOai Tre<pvKe TU>V 

($6 TaVT*l<S TO <Tft)/xa. 

IlepJ ^e /uLovariKrjs evia ^ev SitjTropija-ajULev TW Xoycp Kai 

TTjOOTe/ooy, /caXtoc o' evet Kai vvv ava\a&6vTa<s avTa jrpoa- 
r / ^ , ^ , ^ A / 

yayeiv, iva wcnrep evdocri/mov yevijTai TOLS Aoyois ot'9 av TI? 
aTrcxpaivdjUievos Trepl avTtjs. OUTG yap TIVCL e^et 
pa^iov Trepl aur^? Ste\iv 9 OVTG TWOS Set yapiv 
aur/7?, TroTepov iraioias eveica Kai avaTrav&euxs, 
KaOajrep VTTVOV KOI jmeOrj^' TavTa yap Ka9* avTa IJLGV OVTG 
TCOV (TTrovoaicov, aXX' ^oea, Kai aua Travel /mepiju-vav, a)? 
3 (fottcrlv Eu^oiTT/^9* $10 Kai TCLTTOVO-LV avTriv KOI yjpwvTai 
Tracri TOVTOIS O/JLot(6?> vTrvq)* 1 Kai /meO*] Kai ftoveriicrj. TiOeacri 
oe Kai Trfv opyjj<riv ev TOVTOIS* fj ju.aX\ov oitjreov TTOO? 
TI Teiveiv TY\V JULOVCTIKIJV, a)? SvvajULevrjv, KaOaTrep rj 
TO crco/xa iroiov TI Trapaa-Keval^ei, Kai 
* oivi Bekker. 

avayKO(f>aylais]=T'fj irpbs dvdyKfjv, or 
fiialq. Tpotfrfj. 

KaTa\a,[j,[3dveiv] ( to seize firmly,' 
'establish/ 'place in high condition.' 

a/ma ydp~\ ' I leave this period of 
three years, for the two trainings 
must not be simultaneous ; the body 
and the mind ought not to be worked 
together.' So I interpret the ydp. It 
is a remark, the truth of which is far 
too much lost sight of in our present 

V. i So far for yv(JLvaffTi.K7i, which 
must precede ; now for the other divi- 
sions of education, the fjLovaiK^ of 
Plato's Republic, and its first branch, 
the more limited f^owuc/i of Aristotle. 

Kai Trpbrepov] Ch. III. 

ava\afibvTa.s irpoayayeiv] 'To re- 

turn on what we said, and carry our 
observations further, that they may 
be, as it were, a prelude, or overture, 
to the full discussion of the subject by 
others.' For irpoayayeiv, Eth. I. vii. 
17, p. 1098, 22. He has no intention, 
therefore, of exhausting the subject, 
says Victorius. 

2 otireyap, K. r.X.] 'It is desirable 
to say more, for the subject is difli- 

Ei)/)t7r^77s] Bacch. 378 384. 

3 rdTTOvcrcv ai/r^p] sc. ev 7rcu5i, or 
tv avairavvei, or supply ds ravrb, a 
phrase not uncommon in Aristotle. 

otv<#] This would seem to be a mis- 
take for virvqi. Stahr changes it, and 
so do others. 

TO 3j6os iroLbv TI Troi.ftv] ' To affect 
the moral character. ' 

nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 



V. (VIII.) 5.] 

fjiOv<TiKr]v TO yOog TTOLOV TL TToieiv, eOi^ov<Tav cvvacrOai Music. 

, /-v ^ \ ft / /o 'A > \ \ Its object. 
^aipeiv opuaxs. *] Trpos diaycoyqv TL crv/uipa\\eTai Kai 7rpo$ 

rjcriv Kal yap TOVTO TpiTOV OeTeov TWV elprjjULevtov. 4 
fj.ev ovv Sel TOU? veovg jULrj Traioias eveKa Traioeveiv, OVK 
ov ov yap Trai^ovtri /mavOdvovTe^' /xera XVTTJJS yap % 
a\\a IUL^V ovoe S lay toy ^v re Traifrlv ap/uLOTTei Kal 
airooioovai TdtT? TOiavTais' ovOevl yap aTe\ei 
re'Xo?. aXX' 'icrcos av So^eiev rj TWV TraiSwv 5 
:i$iag etvai yap iv av ^pdo~i yevojuevois Kal reXeta)- 
aXX' el TOUT e<TT\ TOIOVTOV., TLVOS av eveKa oeoi 
imavOdveiv avTOV$, aXXa JUL*I KaOaTrep 01 TU>V TLepcrwv Kal 
/SacrfXeF?, a\\a)v avTO TTOLOVVTCOV jmeToXafJi/Baveiv r/y? 
Kal TiJ9 ju.a6jj(Te(jo? ; Kal yap avayKaiov /3e\Tiov 6 
aTrepyd^ecrOai TOV$ avTO TOVTO TreTroiq/uLevovs epyov Kal 


/ULOVOV. el oe oei Ta TOiavTa oia'jroveiv avTOv?, Kai 
Trjv TWV O^ISCDV TTpayfJiaTeiav avTOv$ av Seoi irapa- 
^eiv aXX' CLTOTTOV. TY\V 5' avTrjv aTropiav e^ei Kal el 7 
Ta i'jQvj {3e\Ti(*) Troieiv TavTa yap TL oei /mavOaveiv J 339 B 
aXX' ov\ eTeptov aKovovTas opOcof re ^aipciv Kal 

' By training and accus- 
toming men.' 

4 (t>p6i>ij(riv] 'intellectual cultiva- 
tion/ not in the more ethical sense of 
the term, but rather using it as Plato 
uses it in the Republic, and its con- 
nexion in this sense with diayuyri 
supports my remarks on that word, 
III. vi. 


sc. rv /j,ovcriK'v, on 
the contrary, it costs a painful effort. ' 

76^0/^^015 Kal Te\eiw6eivi.v] For 
these two words, see I. vni. 9, n, 
where they are used separately and as 

rvos dv &>e/ca] The question asked 
here is similar to that which is asked 
with regard to <f>p6vrjcn5, at the open- 
ing of Etli. vi. xiii. p. 1143, b. 18. 

T&V Hep(r&v Kal M^Sw?'] is not this 
last a later addition? Is there any 
other instance in Aristotle of the two 
being used? 

6 roi)s avrb TOVTO Tretroiri/uifrovs 
2pyov~] 'those who have made this 
very thing by itself their business and 
profession, rather than those who at- 
tend to it only so long as to enable 
them to learn it.' 

may be accusative after 
either 5toi or Trapao-Kevdfav. The 
latter seems the better ' to make them 
qualified for.' 

7 Kal el] ' even if it makes the cha- 
racter better, and this it can do.' 

TavTa ydp] sc. rd TO fjdos P\TIOV 



flOAITIK&N E. (0.) 


Music. iwaorfftu Kplveiv ; ^a-irep ol Aa/cwj/e?* eiceivoi yap ov 

Its obiect f\ > p ' .? ' i ' /^ ^ f JL ' x 

J t/ai/ovre? o/xco? owaiTBf Kpiveiv OjOaw?, a>? (pavi, ra 

8 /ecu rd jUJ? ^prja-Ta TU>V /meXwv. 6 <T airro? Xo'yo? /caV ei 
TT^O? evr]/j.piav Kal Siaywyrjv eXevOepiov xprjcrTeov avTtj" TL 
vet fjiavQaveiv avTovs, aXX' ou^ eTepwv "^p(o/j.V(iQV airo\aveLV\ 
avcoTreJV o C^CCTTI T^V viroX^^nv t]v evofAv Trepl TU>V Oewv 
ov jap o Zey? ai>TOg aSei Ka\ KtOapi^ei rof? TrotrjTai?. aXXa 
Kal fiavavcrovs KaXoujmev roy? TOIOVTOV? Kal TO 
Q OVK ayooo? /u,*] /j.eQuovTO'S *] Tra/roj^TO?. aXX' 'torco? Trepl 
TOVTCOV varTepov eTTKTKeTTTeov,, 

TTorepov ov Oereov et? Traifieiav T^V /ULovviKrjv rj Oereov, K 
Tt SvvaTai T(JOV otaTropyOevTwv T/otco^, TTOTepov iraiSeiav 
iraioiav r) Siayutyrjv. evXoycas ^ 
I0 (paiverai flGre%civ. % re yap 

<TTI, Trjv S* avoLTravcriv avayicalov ^oelav elvai (T^? yap $id 
TMV TTOVODV \v7rris laTpeia r/9 ecrnv)' Kal TY\V oiay&yrjv 
6{JLO\oyov/ui.V(*)$ $ei /my JJLOVOV eyeiv TO KO\OV aXXa Kal 
Ttjv rjoovrjv TO yap evdaifjioveiv e ajJifyoTepwv TOVTWV 

a? Travra TaTTeTai Ka 

ol ActAcw^es] Music not taught the 
Spartan citizen. Grote, IV. 114. 

/u.eXtDv] * words and music. ' /x^Xos 
ffwiffTarai K Tpi&v, \6yov, ap/Aovias, 

8 ?r/)6s evrj/j-eplav] as opposed to 
ffWTovlav, Tr6vov, do'xoXiaj'. ' For the 
calm, undisturbed enjoyment of the 
life of the citizen, and that citizen 
trained in all liberal cultivation, not 
fitivavaov in any sense.' 

TTJV vTr6\7)\{/it>] ' the conception which 
we have of the gods, for in the poets, 
Zeus is not introduced as himself 
singing and playing.' By a rather 
abrupt transition, which, however, 
Bekker's stopping makes more abrupt 
than it need be, he turns from the 
gods, and appeals to the common lan- 
guage of men on the point. 

roi>j TOIOUTOUJ] ' such as make it a 

TO Trpdrretv] Compare Herod. VI. 

128 130. rb rrpdrreLv as distinct 
from /Jt,d0T)<ns. 

9 Stahr puts a full stop at tiruTKeir- 
rtov, but it is not necessary to do so. 

TUV Siairop-riOfrTUV rpiwv] ' of the 
three objects which, as the result of 
our discussion, we find that it may 
have. ' 

evXoyus 5^] ' on good grounds it is 
ranged under them all.' The pleasure 
which it affords adapts it for two of 
the three, for amusement and for the 
enjoyment of life. Its adaptation to 
the purposes of .education is discussed 
later, 15 and foil. 

10 X^TTT/S IdTpeia] Compare Eth. 
Vii. xv. p. 1 154, 27; and there is no 
other remedy for pain but pleasure. 
eKKpotiei TTJV Xtiinqv. ai iarpelai Std T&V 
ivavriuv 7re0ikacrt ylveffdai, Eth. II. ii. 
4 2 , p. 1104, b. 17. 

sc. roD /caXoi) Kal TOV 

V. (VIII.) 5.] nOAITIKON E. (0.) 





i ^ 


ovcrav Kai 

ofcrao? eivat 



TJ$L<TTOV det' 

i (f)ajULV TU)V qOL<TT(*)V 9 Music. 
> i * * % Its obiect. 

na?' (pqcri 

ovv KCLI 

$10 Kai 6i? ra? arvvovarlag Kai Siaycoyas evXoyws 7rapa\a/uL- 
fiavovcnv avTtfv &)? ovvajuieytjv ev<^>paiv6LV OJCTTG Kai evTevOev 
av Ti9 v7TO\d/3oi 7rai$eve(r6ai Seiv avTrjv rot'? veu>repov<s. 
oara yap a/SXa^^ TWV ySeo&v, ov JULOVOV ap^oTTei TT^OO? TO 12 
reXo? aXXa Kai irpo<s TifV avaTrava-tv. CTrel <5' ev ju.ev rw 
reXei arv^^aivei TOI$ av9pa)7roi$ dXfya/ct? yiyvecrQai, TroXXa/a? 
$e avairavovrai Kai ^pwvTaL ral<s Traioiais ou 
7r\ov aXXa /ecu Sia TY\V JjSovyv, %P*l <TL f JLOV av e " Lr t 
ev TciT? aTro TavT?]$ r]oovai$. crfya/3e/3?//ce oe TO?? avOpooTroi? 13 
TroieicrOai ra? Traifiias reXo?* e^ei yap f<r(0$ jooV^v Tti/a /cat 
TO Tfc'Xo?, aXX' ou T^ Tf^ouo-a^* ^TOWTe? o'e Ta?;T^i/, Xa/>t- 
/3avov(riv d)? TauT^i^ CKeivijv, $ta TO TW TeXei TCOJ^ 7rpd<~ea)v 
ri' TO re yap TeXo9 ovOevos TCOV ecro/aeVcoj/ 


Compare III. IV. r6 
^et^ /c. r. X. 

1 1 \f/i\^v, K. r. X.] ' both merely in- 
strumental and vocal.' Eur. RJies. 923, 
fAeyiffTTjv els '4piv ^icXyStas, ( of song.' 

8to /ca^, K. T.X.] 'Hence, also, it is 
not without good reason that it is in- 
troduced into social intercourse, where 
men wish to pass their time with en- 
joyment' a lighter sense of the word 

els rots crwoucrias Kai 
should be taken as closely as possible 
together, almost as equivalent to ' the 
enjoyment of social intercourse.' 

ev<f>paivetv] so III. 9. 

evrevdev] ' from this simple consi- 
deration, that it affords pleasure.' 

1 2 7r/)6s rb rA.os] ' The perfect and 
complete state, ' r 

Tlie comparative fre- 

quency of recreation is a reason for 
learning that which is so useful for it. 

oi>x ovov eirl TrX&w] 'not merely as 
far as some advantage may be got.' 
Compare Eih. x. vi. 3, p. 1 1 76, b. 6, 
ai i]e?a.i r&v Troudiwv, are one of the 
two things, &(f> &v fj,r}dv cTTi^retrai 
irapa TT^V frtpyeiav. 

5iava.iratieu>] middle, 'for them to 
rest at times;' with Stahr, '' sich seine 
Erholung daraus zu such en." 

5<?, /c.T.X.] 'Eest is 
the point in common, the cause of 
the confusion in men's minds. ' 

01) TTf]v Tvxov<ra.v~\ 'It has its own 
appropriate pleasure, not any given 
one at random.' 

' this appropriate pleasure. ' 
the pleasure derived from 
amusement and recreation. Compare 
Eth. x. vi. p. 1 1 76. 

oyuota/zd rt] 'a point of resemblance. ' 
K<x0' cords alperai ai rj8e?ai TUV iraidiuv. 


nOAITIKQN E. (9.) 


Music, \apiv aiperov, Kal ai TOIO.VTO.I TWV rjSovwv ovQevos ei<rt 

J ea-ojULevtov eveicev, aX\a TU>V yeyovoTcov, oiov TTOVWV Kal \v- 

14 7TV9. At' rjv IJLGV ovv aiTiav fyrov<ri Tyv evSai^oviav yiyve- 
crOai $ia TOVTWV TWV rjSovwv, TavTrjv av 

\afioi Trjv aiTiav Trepl <5e TOV KOIVCOVCIV 
<$ia TavTtjv /uLovyv, a\\a Kal tia TO 

15 avaTravcreis, ft>? eoiKev. ov fj.r]v a\\a 

The effect TO {} TO 
of music r ^ 

on the /cara T^J/ 
character. , 

e/oro)? VTTO- 
? /wofcrt/c>79, ov 
elvai irpos ra? 


x c, 
i oei 



] d>v(Ti$ e<TTtv t] 

fj.ovov r^? KOIVIJS ydo- 

/ /\ / 

TUVTCS aicrurjariv {ex et 

io 7rd<rai9 rj\iKiai$ Kal 
poo-(pi\^)> XX' opav 

ei Try Ka irpos TO yos crvvTeivei Kal Trpog T*]V ^rv^fjv. 
16 TOVTO <T av eirj Srj\ov 9 el TTOIOI Tive<$ rd %0*j yiyvojmeOa $1 
a\\a jmyv OTI yiyvo/meOa TTOIOI Tive?, (pavepov $ia 
IJ.GV Kal eTepwv, ov% tjKicrTa Se Kal <$ia TCOV 
]UL\u)v TavTa yap 6[Jio\oyoviu,evw<i Troiei ra? 
evOovcriacTTiKas.) 6 <5' evOova-iaa-imos TOV irepl Tr\v 
rjQovs Tra^o? ea-TiV. CTI $e aKpowfJievoi TWV 


The point of resemblance is in their 
being both sought for their own sakes, 
the one purely, the other as a refresh- 
ment after labour. 

14 OV 5ia TaVTIJV /J,6VT]V] SC. TT^V 

aiTiav frTova-iv. 

15 ov ftrjv d\\d, K. T.X.] 'not but 
that we must enquire whether, whilst 
we allow this to be an incidental result 
of music, it is not in its nature higher 
than to be merely adapted to supply 
the want indicated, ' i. e. Trpos rds dva- 

(pvffiK^v] 'Its pleasure 
given by nature.' 

TTpbs rb 3)6os Kal irpbs rty ^v^fjv 
7rp6s rb rrjs ^vxfjs fjOos] II. I. 

16 TOVTO 5' a^ di] 8rj\ov] 'There 
would be no uncertainty on this point, 
if, as is the case, we are affected in 
our characters by it.' 

Oovs irdOos] not 
irdOos TTJS ^VXTJS, but TOV wepl TTJV 
tyvxhv tfOovs. It presupposes a cha- 
racter, and it is a state of that charac- 
ter. If we adopt this definition of 
enthusiasm, a difficult term, and as 
often, in the common language of 
men, a ground of blame as of praise, 
it would seem to follow that the praise 
or blame in each case would be pro- 
perly determined by the character 
placed in this emotional state ; that 
the good man, with high objects, gains 
greatly by this intensifying of his 
energy; the weak man, with trivial 
objects, becomes ridiculous an enthu- 
siast ; a word which, I believe, has 
always a bad sense attached to it. 

1 7 T&V /u/rTjcrtwi'] ' nachahmenden 
Darstellungen ;' ' imitations, ' ' repre- 
sentations,' the sense in which Ari- 

V. (VIII.) 5.] nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 


yiyvovTai TravTes crf/x TraOeis, KCLI ^0)0*9 TCOV pvOjmcov KCII TCOV 

x -^ > ^ 5\cn /D'/o f * * ** 

fjL\(jv avTcov. eirei oe crvjuLpeprjKev eivai TV\V fJLovcriKtjv TWV 

t ^ / < R * * \ r ' /"i -^ x JL ~\ ~ r 

rjoewv, Trjv 6 apeTqv Trepi TO ^aipeiv opuws Kai (pi\eiv Kai 
JULIO-CIV, Set orjXov OTI /mavOaveiv Kal <rvve6iea'6ai jj.r)0ev 
OVTCO? w? TO Kpivctv op6oo$ KCLI TO yaipGLv Toi9 
tjOecri Kal Tal<s Ka\ai? Trpa^ecriv. G<TTI <F 
fjLa\iarTa Trapa Ta$ a\tiOiva$ (pvcreis ev TOI$ 
TO?? fji\c(rtv opyfjs Kal TrpaoTrjTos, CTI 5' avdplas Kal 
a-<*)(ppoaruvtj$ Kal travTCOv TU>V evavTiwv TOVTOI? Kal TWV 
o^e e/c TWV epyw juLTa/3d\\ofj.v yap 


eOi<T[jios TOV \v7reia-6ai Kai ^aipetv eyyvg CCTTL TO) irpos T*]V 
TOV avTov e%tv TpoTrov olov ei TI$ "^alpet Ttjv 
OS 6eu>jmevo$ pr] Si a\\tjv aiTiav d\\a $ia Trjv 
juiop<J)r]v avTtjv, dvajKaiov TOVTW Kai avTrjv fKeivtjf T*\V 
Oecopiav, ov Trjv eiKova Oewpei, qSetav elvai. (rvfjL/3e/3r]K Se 
aicrQijTtoV ev /JLCV TO?? aXXofj /mrjSev vTrap-^eiv o/xo/coyaa 
yOeoriv, olov ev Toig atrrots Kal TO?? yev<TTol<s 9 aXX' ev 
opaTois ype/uLa- o^fMaTa yap ea-Ti TOiavTa, aXX' 7rl 


stotle seems to use the term in the 
Poetics. In the Republic, Plato seems 
to attach to it too exclusively the 
sense of mere copying, imitation in a 
lower sense. 

tTrel 8t ffvuptpifKcv, K.T.X.] Moral 
virtue is intimately connected with 
pleasure and pain, and right education 
consists in training men to feel plea- 
sure in right objects (a point dwelt on 
in EiJi. II.), to love and hate aright, 
to judge rightly what is good and 
noble in characters and actions, and 
to take pleasure in it. It is well to 
feel this towards the reality, but it is 
well also to exercise these sentiments 
even when the reality is not present. 
This opportunity of exercising them is 
given by representations of them, and 
by music more than by any other re- 
presentation that appeals to our senses. 

And the pleasure accompanying it 
makes it peculiarly valuable. 

1 8 OyttotcojUara yU.c{Xt0Ta, K. r. X.] 'the 
most vivid representations after the 

roioi/rwj'] sc. o/JioiufjidTUv, or it may 
be fjt.\u>v Kal pvd/jL&v, ' such music as 
answer to those various feelings.' For 
instance, we change from depression 
to bravery by hearing warlike and in- 
spiriting music. 

19 afrrty tttdwriv TTJV dewplav] 'That 
the actual sight of the object.' 

20 ^/9^/ia] 'slightly.' 

rotairra] ' such as to be capable of 
representing character, but it is only 
to a small extent, and it is not all 
people that are competent to ap- 
preciate this influence.' This is the 
meaning, if, with Stahr and others, 
justified, it would appear by the con- 




The effect 

of music 

on the 



jmiKpov, /ecu 7ravT$ T>7? TOiavT?]? acrcrea)^ KOivcovoveriv. 

v A* , f , ,^^ , v 

TL v e OVK e< 3"7~* TavTd o/xofco/xaTa Ttoy rjucov a\\a orrj/uLcia 

/ULO.\\OV TO. yiyvojueva arjtfparrn Kal ^pcjo/mara T&V yOcov. 
JCGU TCLVT e<TTiv 7rl TOV crco/mro? i/ TO?? TrdOecriv, ov /mrjv 
aXX O<TOV oiacptpci Kal ire pi TTJV TOVTCOV Occopiav oei juirj TO, 
Tlavcrajvos Oecopeiv rov$ veovs, a\\a TO. T[o\wyvu)TOv KOLV 
e'l Tf? aXXo? ro)^ ypa<pewv rj TCOV ayaX/maTOTroicov ecrr^j/ 
$. ev oe TOIS juLeXecriv avTois e<jTi /ULijULrj/uiaTa TCOV 

VCpOV l>6v$ yap f] TWV OLpjULOVlCOV 

WCTTC GLKOVOVTCI? aXXeo? SiaTiOecrOai Kal p.*] 
TOV GLVTOV ey^Eiv Tpoirov TT/OO? e/caa"T>?^ CLVTWV, aXXa TT/OO? 
yue^ evtas oSvpriKWTepcos Kal crvvea-TyKOTCos /maXXov, oiov 

TTpO? Tt]V jULl^O\V$l(TTl KO\OV/ULeV^V 9 TTjOO? ^6 TO,<S fJLa\aKO)Tpa)S 

Trjv oiavoiaV) oiov TTOO? xa? aveifjievas' /uecro)? oe /ecu KaOe- 

(TTr]KOT(Jti$ /ULa\l(TTa TTjOO? CTCpaV, OIOV SoKl 7TOICIV rj <$U)pl<TTl 

juLovtj TWV ap/u.ovia)v 9 ev9ov<ria<TTtKOv$ <T YI <ppvyt(TTi. 
TavTa yap /caXcD? \eyova~iv ol irepi TIJV Traioeiav TavTtjv 
7re(i)fXo(Tod)^/coTe9* \ajUi(3avov(Ti yap TO. imapTvpia TWV \6ywv 
e avTcov TWV epywv. TOV avTOV yap TpOTrov e%i Kal Ta 

text, we insert the negative otf. Above, 
15, he remarked of music, that 

Here, where he is distinguishing other 
appeals to our senses from that which 
music makes, it would seem natural to 
expect the contrary. It will, how- 
ever, be sense without the negative. 
The extent to which objects of sight 
affect people is slight, and all equally 
experience it in that extent. The 
slightness and universality of the effect 
diminish its importance, and make it 
unnecessary to take it into account as 
an influence upon character. 

2 1 ov ^v dXXci] ' Still in proportion 
as there is a difference,' &c. Com- 
pare Poet. II. ii. p. 1448, 5. 

Pauson, of Ephesus, and Polygno- 
tus, of Thasos. 

22 ev 5 rots /j.t\e<ru> avrdis earl 

r&v ijQuv] ' we have the cha- 
racters imitated.' fj,tfji.rjfji.a } "illudipsum 
quod imitando efficitur." Bitter ad 
Poet. i. iv. p. 78, 1447, 1 8. "Opera 
imitatione expressa." Ibid. p. 102. 
avrols, as opposed to <r??yu.e?a, 20. 

ev6tis 7<x/>] for the expression, com- 
pare I. V. 2. 

odvpTiKVTtpws, K. r.X.] ' we have a 
feeling of sadness and compression.' 

/z,ctAa/cu>T^>ws] the opposite of crvve- 
(rT7j/c6rws, "the soul-dissolving me- 
lody, " Tennyson, Vision of Sin. ' We 
have a softer feeling. ' 

/ca#e<rT?7/c6Ttos] ev rrj 
lq., Thuc. II. ' ' Firm and 
unmoved," Par. Lost, I. 554, 555. 
'The Dorian mood.' 

23 ol irepi TTJV, K. r.X.] 'who have 
treated this branch of education philo- 
sophically.' 'They get the evidence 

V. (VIII.) 6.] nOAITIKQN E. (9.) 


Trep\ TOVS pvO/ULOv?' ol imev jap ?$o? 

ol 06 KlVqTlKOV, KOLl TOVTCOV Ol ^GV d)OpTLK(tiTpa$ e^OV<TL Ttt? 

Kivyo-eis ol Se \ev6epia)Tepas. e/c /xei/ ovv TOVTCOV (pavepov 
OTL ovvaTaL TTOLOV ri TO r^? "vf/f^? tj9o$ // jULowiKrj Trapa- 
<TKeva\iv. el oe TOVTO ovvaTai Troieiv, o*j\ov OTL Tnoocra/c- 
Teov Kai TraioevTeov ev avTy TOU? i/eof?. CCTTL 
Tovcra TTjOO? T^V (pvcriv T^ Ty\iKavTr]v r\ <$i$ao-Ka\i 
/uof(Jf/c^9* ol /uiev yap veoi oia TY\V r)\iKiav avr/ovvTov 


Kai TI<S eouce crvyyeveia Tats ap/moviais KOI 
civar oio TTO\\OI (pacri TWV orocbcov ol /uev ap^oviav 
TT/]V "^rvyjjv, ol o G^GLV ap/moviav. 
HoTepov fie <$ei fjiavQaveiv avTov? a$ovTa$ TC Kai ^a- 
povpyovvTas rj jmq, KaOawep jjirop^Orj irpoTepov, vvv \CKTGOV. 
OVK aor]\ov oe OTL 7ro\\r]i> e^ei oiad>opav TTOO? TO yiyve- 
crOai TTOtou? Tt^a?, eav TL$ airro? KOivcovy TWV epycov ej/ yap 
TL TCOV aovvaTdov // ^aXeTTwv <TTL ju.r] Koivcovyo'avTas TWV ep- 
ryuiv KpLTa$ yeve&Oai VTrovo'aiovs. a/ma fie Kai Sei TOV$ TTGU- 
^a? eyeiv Tiva SiaTpifiriv, Kai Trjv ' 
o'lecrOai yeve&Qai /cctXco?, r t v oiooacri TOI$ 7raioioL$ 

r / ^ / ~ \ /, , 

TavTt] /mtjoev KaTayvvcocri TU>V KaTa Tt]v OLKiav ov 

The effect 

of music 

on the 




Is actual 


necessary ? 

in support of their arguments from 
facts. ' 

pvOfAotis] See Classical Museum, 1. 
555. pv6/j,&s means time, and nothing 
else, when applied to music ; pvBfjiot, 
in the plural, means musical bars 
played in time. 

a-racrifJidiTepov] Rhet. II. 15, p. 1390, 
b. 30, TO, ardai/Jia yfrvj, 'stable.' 


e\ev6epiUTtpas, ' more refined.' 

24 tern 8^ appt)TTOvaa\ ' There is 
an appropriateness in teaching the 
young music from their age.' 

a.vr)vvTov] ' without some admixture 
of sweetness ;' ' unsweetened.' 

Kai ns e'ot/ce ffvyyfrtui] ' and there 
seems to be some intimate connexion 

between the soul and harmonies and 
time a connexion which has led some 
philosophers to say that the soul is a 
harmony ; others, that it has harmony 
in it.' These opinions are discussed 
in the Phcedon of Plato, and Cicero, 
Tusc, Qucest. i. 

VI. I xetpovpyovvras^ ' themselves 
both singing and playing.' 

7r/o6repoi'] V. V. 6. 

jro\\r)i> fyei ia(f>opdi>'] ' It is a very 
different thing,' and that in the sense 
of its being far better. Etk. VI. ix. 4, 
p. 1141, b. 34. 

fjiT] KocvuviricrafTas'] ' without actual 
practice. ' 

2 TrXa.Tayt'jj'] the 'rattle' of Ar- 




Is actual 



yap ivvarrcu TO veov rj 


OVV e<TT\ TO/"? 


The ques- 
tion of 

s on 
the music 
the instru- 


vrjTrioi? ap/moTTOVcra TU>V TraiouDV, *} oe Trai 

rof? yue/^o<7 TWV vewv. OTI fj.ev ovv Traifievreov TY\ 

CUTCO? WCTTG teat KOIVCOVCIV TWV epywv, (bavepov e/c TWV 


"^aXeTTOv Siopi<rai 9 KOI \vcrai 7rpo$ TOV$ (^aovcoi'Ta? fiavavvov 
eivai T*IV eTrf/xeXemv. irpcoTov fj.ev yap) eirei TOV 

fJ.T-^eiv Set TWV epycov, Sia TOVTO yjprj veovs 
prjcrOai Tol$ epyois, TrpeufivTepovs oe yivo/JiVOV$ 
ev epytov cKpeio-Oai, SuvacrOai <$e TO. /caXa Kpiveiv KOLL yaipeiv 

op6w$ Sia Tfjv jUidOtio-iv Trjv yevojULevtjv ev Ty veoTyTi. irepl 

^^ ^ , , rf , ^ ', / 

oe Trj$ eTTtrf/x^crea)? rjv TtV$ eTTiTi/mcocriv 009 7roiov(r>i$ Trj<s 

f JLOV(TiK ^ fiavaixrov?., ov -^oXeTTOV Xvcrai cr/cexf/a/xeVou? l^e- 

Te TroVou TWV epywv KOivcovrjTeov TOI$ TTOO? apeTrjv 

f ' f ' , , , f ^ 


/j/^\? / > t ^ t /\ / 

KoivtovriTeov,, Tt oe ei/ Troiot? opyavoL? T^V /maurjcriv TroirjTeov 

KCU yap TOVTO oia<pepeiv et/co?. eV rouroi? 
<TT\ T^? eTTfTfyU^crea)?* ouOej/ *yctp /ccoXuei TpoTrovs TIVOLS 
jULOVcriKrj? aTrepyd^ecrOai TO \e^9ev. (pavepov TOLVVV OTI 
Set T*\V jmdOtjariv avTys /x^re cjULTroSil^eiv Trpog ra? v&Tcpov 
TTyoa^e*?, /x;re TO <ra)/xa TTOICIV fidvavcrov KCU. a-^prjcrTov TT^OO? 
ra9 TroXe/uf/ca? /cat 7roX(Tf/ca9 acr/c?icre/9, TTOO? /xey ra? 

^ 8^ 7rat5e/a] ' and their education 
should be to the elder children an 
amusement, a rattle.' Music is a 
healthy pastime for the young, and 
there should be no strain of the intel- 
lect early. 

3 Kal Koivaiveiv] as well as Kplvew. 
Kol XC<rcu] 'nor is it difficult to 

meet the objections of those who pre- 
tend that attention to music is not a 
proper part of a liberal education.' 

4 If to judge rightly be the object, 
that is best attained by actual prac- 
tice when young ; there is a time when 
the power so acquired must be exer- 
cised; this time is later in life. So 
the right use of music depends on a 

question of age. It is to be learnt 
when young ; the knowledge so gained 
is to be used when older. 

5 crKe\^a^vovi\ 'when we have 
considered the limit of practical ac- 
quaintance with it which is to be fixed 
for those who are being trained to ex- 
cellence as citizens.' 

Kal yap TOVTO] ' for it is reasonable 
to suppose that even this last makes a 

6 ev rotf-rots] ' For here, in these 
points, lies the answer to the objec- 

Tpdirovs Tivds] 'certain methods of 
teaching and learning music.' 

irpbs /iev rds xpfa 61 -* "^77] ' for the 

V. (VIII.) 6.] nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 

e rot? jmacreis vcrrepov. vv/jiftaLvoL <T 
av Trept Trjv fj.aOrj<riv, ei junjre TO, Trpos TOV? aywvas TOV$ 
cruvTelvovTa diaTrovoiev, /myTe ra OavjULacria Kal 
a TCOV epyct)v 9 a vvv e\rj\vOev ei$ TOV$ ayu>va$ 9 CK oe 
TU>V aycovcov el$ T%V TraiSelav. aXXa Kal TO. Toiaura ^\P l 
Trep av SVVWVTOLI -^alpeiv TOI? KO\OI$ /ueXecri Kal pvOjULOi9 9 Kal 
M IAOVOV TO) KOLVW rr]9 [Jiova-iKqs, uxjirep Kal TCOV aXXcov evia 
<w(jov 9 CTL Se Kal 7r\rj6o9 avfipaTroScov Kal TraiSicov. Srj\ov 
^e CK TOVTCOV Kal Tro/of? opyoLvois ^o^crreo^. ovre yap 
av\ov$ ei$ Traioeiav OLKTGOV OVT a\\o TCYVIKOV opyavov, 
oiov KiOapav KO.V e'l TI TOIOVTOV erepov ecmv, aXX' ocra 
TrotrjcreL avrwv a/CjOoara? ayaOovs rj r^? JULOVO-IKW iraiSelas 
*] TV? a\\ri$. en (T OVK <TTIV o av\o<s yQiKOV aXXa 
fj.a\\ov opyiacrriKov, OXTTC irpos TOV$ TotovTovg avrw 
Kaipovs xprjVTeov ev oi<s rj Oecopla KaOapcriv /xaXXoi/ Svvarai 
r] /uLaOfjo'iv. TrpocrOco/uiei/ oe OTL w/jifiefiriKev evavTiov avTW 
7Tj009 Traioelav Kal TO Kd)\veiv TW \oyw xprjcrOai rrjv aij\r)<riv 
oto /caXw? aTreSoKi/macrav avToO 01 TrpoTepov Trjv xpfjcriv e/c 
TCOI/ vecov Kal TU>V eXevOepcw, Kaltrep ^prjcrdfj.evoi TO TrpcoTov 
aura). a"xo\a<TTiKu>Tpoi yap yiyvo^evoL $ia ra? eviroplag 

The ques- 
tion of 
on the 
and the 


practice in the present, for the theory 
later.' TroioOvrej y&p or 

7 <rvfj,/3a[voi 5' &v] 'and the proper 
results would follow.' Compare the 
use of <rv /m[3alv ei in III. VII. 4, ffvfj,- 
(3aivei 5' eu\6y(i)S. 

roi)s dyu>v as TOI)S Te~xyiKotii\ ( The 
contests of professional players.' 

ra 8av/jt.d<Tia, K.T. X.] ' Striking and 
extraoj-dinary pieces. ' 

8 d\\a /cat] ' But even such they 
may practise till such time as they 
shall be able.' 

T< KOiVtp T^S fJLOVO-lKT)*'] AboVC, V. 

15, rfjs Koivvjs rjSovrjs. 

9 Tx^iK6v] as opposed to simple, 
' requiring professional skill.' 

8<ra atr&v] 'all instruments.' 
6pyia<rTiK6v~] ' exciting,' in an active 

A. P. 

sense. Compare Herm. ad Soph. Track. 
216, and the Scholiast, tpeQlfa yap o 
ad\bs irpbs ryv x6pciav rds irapQtvovs. 
Kddapa-iv] Compare Poet. vi. 2, 
p. 1449, b. 2 ^, where this word occurs 
in the definition of tragedy: rrjv r&v 
ToiotiTuv TradrjfJidTcjv Kd6ap<ru>. Ritter, 
on the word, p. 132, says, "eaconfor- 
matio affectuum ut omne nimium, 
omnis perturbatio removeatur." ' Has 
for its object, not so much instruction, 
as regulation of the feelings. ' 

10 Kal r6 /cwXiW] ' Its preventing 
the use of the voice.' 

a.Tre5oKlfj.a(rav] ' disapproved of its 
use by the young on trial ;' ' rejected 
or removed it from the young, ' K r&v 

1 1 5ta ras efnropia^ ( from the in- 
crease of wealth.' 



E. (0.) 


The instni- Kal jULcyaXo^v^oTepoi Trpos aperyv, en re irpoTepov Kal 

' V^ ? 





K TCOV epycov 9 Tracn?? 

' V^ ? f ' \ "\ * 

, ovoev otaKpivovTes aAA 
avXrjTiKtjv tjyayov irpos rd? fjLa6q<rei$. 
yap ev AaKeSai/movi rt? \opriy o<$ auro? yuXtjcre TW 
Kal Trepl 'A$jji/a? OI/TCD? eTreywpiacTev wcrre tr^e^ 
TroXXoi TCOJ/ eXevOepcov (jLerelyo 
oi/ aveOtjKe GjOacrtTTTro? 

^^'^ '/^^^^ ' '^>O'-\ 

o aTrecoKijULacrurj dia rns Treipag avrqg, peXriov 
Swa/mevcov Kpiveiv TO TTjOO? apeTqv Kal TO jULrj irpo? aperriv 
13 crvvreivov. o^cotw? ^e /cat TroXXc TWV opyavcov TWV ap^alwi'y 
olov Trr)KTL$e<s Kal /BdpfiiToi Kal ra Trpos qSovrjv arvvrelvovTa 
TO?? CLKOVOVOTI TWV ^oco^aej/wj/, CTTTaytova Kal rpiycwa Kal 
1341 B &CLft$VKa*i Kal Travra TO. Seofieva 

evXoycD? <T &)(&> Kal TO Trepl TWV avXwv VTTO TCOV a 
juLe/LAvOoXoyrj/mevov (pao~l yap $rj T^V 'AOyvav evpovvav OLTTO- 
iv TOV$ avXov$. ov /ca/cw? imev ovv cei (dvai Kal Sid 

TOV Trpo&WTrov TOVTO 7roiq(rai 
crav Ttjv Oeov ov jULrjv aXXa jmaXXov CIKO$ OTL TT/OO? 
ovOev CCTTI rj Traifiela r^? avXyarew TY\ 

15 T*]V 

T opyavcov /ecu 

Ka Tt]v 
epyacrias aTroooKi/maFofJiev 



' having formed 
loftier conceptions/ 'become more 

<f>povr)[j.aTi(rdfrTes K, K.T.\.~\ ( inspi- 
rited by their achievements.' 

d(.aKplj>ovTes~] ' making no dis- 
tinctions, but constantly seeking new 
additions.' It is an interesting notice, 
by Aristotle, of the effect of the suc- 
cessful struggle with Persia in deve- 
loping the life of Greece. 

12 cTrexwpJao-o'] ' It became so po- 
pular.' Compare the expression in 

T^S Tre/pas aur^s] ' on experience 

of it ;' avTT)$ sc. TT}S avXrjriKijs depends 
on Treipas. 

13 TTi/KTi'Ses] Plato, Rep. ill. 398 c. 

TOIS d/CO^OU(Tt TU)V %/)WyU^^a>J'] ' tO 

those who heard players on them.' 

XeipovpyiKrjs ^TTIO-TI^S] ' scientific 
execution,' 'manual dexterity;' x ci P- 
ovpyovvTas, vi. i. 

14 od i^v dXXci, ir. T. X.] . ' Still it is 
more reasonable.' 

rj iraiSela rrjs auX^aews] ' the educa- 
tion derived from flute playing.' 

we attribute science 
and art' the diavoijTiKai dperal. 

15 eirel 84, K. T. X.] ' But since both 
as to instruments and execution.' 

V. (VIII.) 7.] 

nOAITIKQN E. (9.) 
^e TiOejULev rrjv TTOOS 


TOV$ aywvas' ev The instru- 

f \ t f > -x f '9* ' ments 

Ty yap o TfpaTTcw ov Tti<$ avrov juLTa^ipi^Tai X. a P LV used. 
tj<s 9 a\\a 

CLKOVOVTWV tjfiovys, Kal TavTr]$ (pop- 
Sioirep ov TWV eXcvOepcov Kpivojuev eivai rqv epya- 
criav 9 a\\a OtjTLKcorepav. Kal /3avavcrov$ Srj crv/uL/3alvei yi- 
yvecrOar Trov*]po<$ yap 6 OVCOTTO? TT^OO? ov troiovvTai TO re'Ao?. 
6 yap Gearys (popriKOs <Jov imeTa(3dX\iv e'lwOe TiJV JULOV- 

<TLKrjV 9 ft)(TTe Kai TOf? TCY^tTa? TOf? TT/OO? aVTOV fJL\eTU>VTa$ 

avrovs T TTOIOVS Tiva<s Troiei Ka TO. 



2/ceTrreoj/ ^' eTL Trepi re ra? apfM)via^ Kal rou? pvOjmovs, 7 

^^ &' f ' .J f f 

Kai TTjOO? Traioei av Trorepov Tracrai 9 "^pt](7Teov rai$ 
/caJ Tracri TO?? pvO/moig rj SiaipeTeoV) eVetra TO?? 
Sclav SiaTrovovcri Trorepov TOV avTOV fiiopicrfJLOV Orjcroimev i] 
TP'LTOV Set Tiva erepov, eireiSr] T*)V /ULCV fj.ov(TLKrjv opco/mev $ia 
imeXoTroiia? Kal pvOjULwv ov<rav 9 TOVTOOV <T eKarepov ov $ei 
\e\rj0evai T'LVOL e^ei ^vva/ULLV TT^OO? 7rai<$eiav 9 Kal TTOTepov 
TrpoaipeTeov jma\\ov Ttjv evjULeXrj /mova'iKtjv ?] Ttjv eupvO/mov. 
No/x/crai/re? ovv TroXXa AcaXco? \eyeiv Trepl TOVTCOV TCOV re 


^ o 
irai- taught. 

] The 5^ marks the apo- 
dosis, 'professional.' 

ov TTJS O.VTO& "x.a,pt.v dper^s] ' It is 
not in subservience to his own excel- 
lence that he follows the pursuit.' 

TTJV tpyaatai>] 'His skill in exe- 

1 6 Kal pavafoovs 817] and the result 
is, that they do indeed become (Bdvavcroi. 

TTovypb? y&p 6 avco7r6s] 'For the 
point of view to which they bring 
their end is bad.' 

Beards 0o/m/cos] 5td rty 0oprt/c6r^Ta 
TUV aKpoaruv, Rhet. II. 21, ad fin, p. 
1395, b. i. 

TOI)S 7rp6s avrbv /ieXercoi'Tas] ' Those 
who practise with a view to him,' 'to 
succeed with him.' 

5id rds /aj'Tjo-eis] ' immutationes 
artis/ Viet. ; the changes implied in 
the y u,era/3ciXXe'. But it seems more 
natural to take it as referring to the 

bodily exertions required of profes- 
sional players. 

VII. r In two points the limits 
have been traced viz. the degree in 
which skill is desirable, and the instru- 
ments which may be used, where the 
object is educational and liberal. There 
remain the points of harmony and 

Tots 7r/)6s iraideiav Siairovovo-i] I am 
not sure that I know what class he 
means here. Is it 'those who are 
studying very deeply the subject (5ta- 
iroi>ov<n) with a view to education,' 
actively, to the education of others^ 
not as a matter of self-cultivation 
merely ? 

eu/ieA?}] ' melodious,' musical in that 

'in good time.' 

16 i 


nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 


The music vvv JULOVCTIKCOV eviov$ Kai TU)V eK <pi\o(To<pias ocroi Tvy^avovcriv 

to be 9 f sf ~ \ * ^ <\ f \ \ 

taught. e/ULTreiptvs e^ovTes T?)$ Trepi Trjv jULOV<riKr]v Trcuoefa?, Ttjv fJiev 

~* KaO' eKaarrov ctKpi/3o\oyiav aTrodwa-o/mev Qfretv roi$ /3ov\o- 
jmevois Trap eKeivwv, vvv $e yo/>u/ca>9 oVXco/uey, TOU? TVTTOVS 
2 IULOVOV eiTrovTeg Trepi CLVTCOV. CTTCI oe Tt]v oialpeo'iv ctTrooe- 
^o/ULeOa TWV fjieXcov a)? Stcupoval rives TCOV ev 
ra fjiev ijOiKa TO. $e TrpaKTiKa ra <5' evOovcnao-TiKa 
Kal TCOV apimovioov TTJV fyvGiv Trpo$ e/cacrra TOVTCOV oiKeiav 
a\\t]V TTjOo? aXXo /mepos Ti6eacri 9 (fiafjLev ^' ov juiag eW/cei/ 
w(f)e\ia$ Ty fjLovcriKfj -^prja-Oai $eiv aXXa Kal TrXeiovwv ^a- 

piv (/cat yap Trai$ela$ eveicev Kal KaOdporecos T/ $e Xe- 

KaOap<riv 9 vvv JULCV aTrXw?, Tra\iv o ev TO?? Trepi 

epoujmev cracpearrepov , TpiTOV $e Trpo$ Siaycoyyv, 

T34 2 TTjOO? avecriv re Kal Trpo? TY\V r^? crvvTOvias avaTravcriv), (pa- 


$e TpOTrov Trdcrais ^pr]<Treov 9 aXXa Trpo$ jmev Tt]v Traideiav 
Tat? tj6iK(*)TaTai$, Trpo$ $e aKpoao-iv erepwv ^eipovpyovvTCuv 
4 Kal Taig TrpaKTiKais Kal rai$ evOovcriacrriKaig. o yap Trepi 
eviag <TVjui/3aivei TrdOos \|^f^a? ia"xypu)9 9 TOVTO ev Travai^ 
vTrap^ei, TOO oe TJTTOV oiacbepei Kai TW /uaXXov, OfOJ^ eXeo? 
Kal (^>o/3o9, eri <T ev0ov(ria(rju.6$. Kal yap VTTO TavT*i<s T^? 
Tives clcriv CK $e TWV lewv 

i rCov K $iXo0-o0/as] 'Those who 
with philosophical cultivation combine 
practical acquaintance with musical 
education ;' 3, TWV ev <j>i\o<ro<f>iq.. 

'exact detail.' 

yo/xi/ccus] ' tracing the general laws. ' 
" au point de vue du legislateur, " St. 

3 fj.eXwv] fjitXos seems here used for 
' the words of the song, ' the X67os. V. 
v. 7. 

^diKa] 'forming the character.' 

'leading to action.' 
( part of our nature. ' 

vvv fjL^v cbrAws] f Though now quite 
in the general.' 

Iv rois irepl iroiyTiKrjs] I have given 
the reference at V. vi. g. 

r^s (rvvTOvlas'] ' of the tension the 

4 6' 701/9 irepl tvlas] Compare on this 
subject one of the prefaces to Words- 
worth's poems, where the sensibility 
of the poet is distinguished from that 
of other men. The distinction that is 
there drawn is one of degree, as here, 
not of kind. The poet is but more 
largely endowed with faculties which 
all have in a degree. 

v6ov<ria<rfji,6s} All men, then, are 
susceptible of enthusiasm ; it is, as 
with other sensibility, a question of 

'are under the sway 

y. (vni.) 7.] 

nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 


TOVTOVS, OTO.V ^pij(T(i)VTai TO19 eopyiaovvi Trjv The music 
r^ s\ r tt it / \ to be 

M e/ ^- ecrf 5 Kauio'Taju.evovv cocnrep iaTpeia$ TV^ovTa? Kai taught. 


TOVTO avayKalov 

Ka rov? 


Kal TOV$ <po/3r)TiKov$ KCU Toy? 0X0)9 TraOrjTiKov?, 
a'XXou? KaO^ ocrov e7ri(3aX\ei TWV TOIOVTOVV e/cacrrw, 
Traeri yiyvecrOai TIVO, KaOaperiv Kal Kovd)i^erOai 
6/uLoi(*)<? $e Kal TO. jme\rj TO. KaOapriKO. Tra 
\apav a/3\a(3tj Tolg av9pu)7rois. $10 TCLIS 

KOI rof? TOIOVTOLS /meXecri OeTeov TOVS Trjv 6ea- 
jmovcriKrjv fJLTa-^eipi^ofjiVovg aycovi<TTd$. eTrel ^ 6 
LTTO9 9 6 jmev eXevOepos Kal TreTraiSev/ULevos, 6 <$e (pop- 
TIKO$ CK {3avav<T(iov Kai OtjTcov Kai a\\a)v TOLOVTWV trvyicei- 
aTToooTeov a'yw^a? Kai Oecopias Kai TO?? TOIOVTOI? 
cnv. ei<rl ^ w(77rep avrciov ai -^-v^al irape- 7 
Tr]<s Kara (pvcriv e^ea)?, OVTCD Kal TU>V apimovicov 
7rapK(3a<Ti$ elcrl Kal TCOJ/ /ULeXwv TO, arvvTOva Kal TrapaKe- 
)^pco<TjuLeva. TTOICI $e T*\V rjdovtjV e/cacrroi? TO Kara 
oiKeiov. Sio-irep aTToSoTeov e^ovcriav TO?? a 
yevei T^? /JLOVCTIK^- IT^oo? o"e TraiSeiav, uxnrep etprjTai, TOI 8 
/u.\wv xptjcTTeov Kal Tat? ap/^oviaig 


of.' Compare Eth. x. x. 3, p. 1179, so, derov governs both the accusa- 
b. 9, Troifj(rai &v Acaro/cw^i/xov ^/c rijs tives, and the datives depend on 

3, K. T.X.] 'settling, as 
having found a remedy for their ex- 
citement, and a clearing of their dis- 

5 Trader LKOVS] 'impressionable.' 
Kov<pi^(rdai] ' a sense of lightening, 

not unaccompanied with pleasure.' 
Wordsworth, Tintern Abbey. 

6 dertov] " Weiseman auf," Stahr. 
The word is hard. Is the meaning, 
'Therefore it is with harmonies and 
songs that produce this effect, that we 
should induce those who practise 
music for the theatre to contend.' ? If 

Kal rots roioirrots] ' To suit this 
latter class of spectators as well as the 
former. ' 

7 TT}S /cara (f>6<nv ews] Compare 
Eth. vii. xiii. 2, p. 115-2, b. 34, and 
1153, 14; ' the true state in accordance 
with nature.' ryv virdp-xovvav <f)6criv f 
Rhet. I. xi. I, p. 1369, b. 34. 

a-iJvTova] 'strained/ 'high.' 

Trapa,Kexpu(rfJ.J>a.~] ' corrupted by in- 
troducing the ap/movla xP w / JiaTtK tf-' 
Liddell and Scott. 

rb Kara (pvaiv olKetov] ' That which 
is cognate to his nature.' Compare 
above, ill. 5. 




The music TOiavTdi$ 
taught. Tepov 

TOiavTrj & vj SwpKTTi, KaOa-rrep el'wofj.ev Trpo- 
Oai $e Set KGLV Tiva aXXyv yfj.iv 
Koivwvol T//9 ev <pi\o<TO(pia SiaTpifirjs KOI 
9 jmov(TiKr)v Traio'eias. 6 (T ev Ty TrdXiTeia ^co 


Trep T^V 
ov /caXa>9 

(ppvyiCTTl /LLovqv KaToXeiTrei jmeTa T^? cco/Kcrn', KOLL 
aTroo'oKiiuidcras TCOV opydvcov TOV av\6v. e-^ei 'yap 
avTrjv $vva/ULiv fj (ppvyiVTl TWV dpimoviwv fjvTrep ai'Xo? ev 

10 TOL<S opyavoi$' afj.d)w yap opyiacrTiKa KOLL TraOyTiKa. ot]\oi 
& ri 7roir](Ti$' Tracra yap /3aK%eia KOI Traora *) ToiavTt) Kivtjcrif 
IJ.a\i<TTa TU>V opyavcov CCTT'IV ev TO?? av\oi$, TCOV <T ap/uLovioiv 
ev TO?? (bpvyiarTl /meXecri \a/uL(3avei TavTCt TO TrpeTrov, olov 6 

11 ^f0JjOa/Xj8o? 6/mo\oyov/uLva)$ elvai SoKei <&pvyi ov. Kal TOVTOV 
TroXXa Trapao'eiyju.a.Ta \eyov(riv ol Trepl Ttjv (rvvecriv 

aXXa re, /cat SIOTI ^tXo^ei/o? ey^eip^a-a^ ev Ty 

SiOvpajUifiov TOV$ [jivOovs ov% oios T tjv 9 aXX* VTTO 
(pvorecos avTtjs e^eTrearev elf rtjv <ppvyi<rTl T*]V Trpocr^Kov- 

12 crav apjuioviav TraXiv. 7rep\ $e T^? ScaptcrTl TravTes 6/xoXo- 

* t t s/ ^. > '-\ i f-si r 

yovariv 019 <rracrf/xfc>TaT>79 Ofcr^9 >cf fJia\i<TT yuo$ e^ovo-rjg 
avfipetov. en $e eirel TO /mecrov " ^ev TOOV i>7rep/3o\a)v' 
eTraivovjmev KOL xprjvai SicoKetv <paju.ev 9 fj "fie J$(0pi(rTl TavTtjv 
e^ei Tr]v (pvcriv 7rpo$ ra9 aXXa9 ap/uiovias, (frqvepov OTL TO. 
HJLeXrj TrpeTrec Traifievea-Oai /maXXov Toi$'*<veooTefl/bi$. 
e Svo (TKOTTOI, TO T SwctTOv Kal TO TTpeTTOv Kal yap 
TO. SvvaTa Set ^eTa-^eipi^ecrOai /maXXov Kal TO. TrpeTrovTa 
Ka(rToi$' ea-Ti $e Kal TavTa wKr/meva ra?9 ^Xf/c/at9, olov 

TCM9 aTreiprjKOfTi oia "^povov ov paoiov aoetv Tct9 crvvTovovg 

8 T?}S Iv <f)i\o<ro<f>Lq, 

K <j)i\o<TO<f>tas of 2, and rCov v 0iXo- 
(rcxfiiq, of 3. ' Those who are accus- 
tomed at once to the philosophical 
treatment of the subject,' &c. 

9 ev rrj TroXire^] In the republic of 

IO iraffo, yap /Sa/fx'eta.] Grote, I. 32, 
text and note; " violent ecstasies and 
manifestations of temporary frenzy, 

and that clashing of noisy instru- 
ments. " 

1 1 ol Trepl T7]v (riveffiv ra^Tt]V^ 'Those 
competent to judge in this point.' 

Kal SIOTI $i\6f e^os] ' and that Phi- 
loxenus,' of Cythera. 

virb TT)S 0i5(rewj, K. T. X.] 'found him- 
self compelled by the nature of the 
case to give up his attempt, and pass 
into the Phrygian mood.' 

13 rots'i. 8ia 

Y. (VIII.) 7.] nOAITIKQN E. (0.) 



yap tj 

apfJiovias, aXXa ra? aveifjievas n <pv(ns V7ro/3a\\ei TOIS The music 

T*)\lKOVTOl?. <$IO KaXwS eTriTl/ULUXTl Kal TOVTO 2ft)/CjOCtTf taught. 

ova-iKyv rives, on rag avei/uLevas ap^ovtas ~ 
i/ULacreiev ei? T*jv Traio'eiav, cos [JLeOvcrTiKas 
ov Kara T*IV T^? /xeO^? SvvafJLiv (^aK-^e 

ye iJieOtj TTOICI /xaXXov) aXX' a7Tipr]Kvia$. wcrre ical TTpo? 
Trjv ecrofJievriv ri\iKiav 9 rrjv TU)V 7rpe<T/3vTpcov 9 Sec Kal TWV 
Ti 5' e'l r/9 ecrrt Toiavrt] TWV apfJioviwv rj TrpeTrei Ty TWV r 5 
r)\LKia <$ia TO SuvacrOai KO<TIJLOV T i%etv apa Kal 
, oiov rj \V^KTT\ (paiverai TreTrovOevai /xaXtcrra TCOV 
ap/J.ovicov 9 SqXov OTI TOVTOVS opovg Tpei$ TroitjTeov et9 T*JV 
TO re jmecrov Kal TO SvvaTov Kal TO TrpeTrov. 


1 Those who, from their time of life, 
have lost their powers.' 

' requiring a great strain/ 

14 ws fJ.9v<rTi.K&.s \a^avd}v auras] 
' looking on them as partaking of the 
character of intoxication, not intoxi- 
cation in its strictest form as an active 
power (for drunkenness has a tendency 
to excite a man), but with reference 
to fete exhaustion consequent on in- 
toxication. ' 

Nickes thinks this discussion on 
music complete. I have no know- 
ledge as to what would be a complete 
discussion of the subject, but the end 
seems so abrupt, that I can hardly 
accept his view. If we look on the 
book as a whole as fragmentary in its 
present shape, there would be no ob- 
ject in trying to make out the actual 
fragment preserved as complete in 
itself. That the book is to be so con- 
sidered, I have argued in the Preface. 


THE three last books, III. IV. V. (VII. VIII.), have been 
devoted to the consideration of Aristotle's ideal state, his 
apiffTOKparia. That they are fragmentary is, I think, clear. No 
connection can be traced between the end of V. (VIII.) and the 
beginning of the present book. It is a gap which no art can fill 
up, however much we may regret the loss. Aristotle's educational 
system is a hopeless blank from a certain point, and so is a detailed 
statement of his views on the great question of the fifth book of 
the Republic, the position of women in his state. That he either 
did treat it or meant to treat it, is certain from 1. 13. 15, and that 
directly and dogmatically, not negatively, as in his review of Plato's 
system. To resume then, he has reviewed the past ; he has sifted 
the experience of the long time that has elapsed ; and enlightened 
by that experience, with the results of that past and its errors before 
him, he set himself to build up a state which should avoid those 
errors, and combine harmoniously whatever had been proved in 
result to be good. His state so formed would have been to him a 
type to which others might gradually conform themselves, a Greek 
Ti-oXie with all its complex organization, to which the statesmen 
of the actual TroXeie might look as their model, either in re-consti- 
tuting or reforming their own states, or in forming new ones, an 
idea which the Greek system of colonization made by no means an 
unpractical one. But such results of his political wisdom were 
distant and very contingent. A nearer question might be ad- 
dressed to the political philosopher. The actual state of things is 
very imperfect. The body politic, as much as the body natural, 
requires constant attention when sound, careful remedies when un- 
sound. Is political science capable of dealing with these evils, this 
unsoundness, whether of recent origin or of long standing ? Is the 
science of politics practical in the ordinary sense ? Can there be 
drawn from it rules applicable to daily arising contingencies ? In 
other words, can there be based on it an art which may guide the 
actual statesman ? The answer is, that the theory of the ideal 
state is by no means the whole of political philosophy. He who 
studies that philosophy must be like the true physician. Both 


must know the normal state of their respective patients. Both 
must also be able to apply their knowledge to existing circum- 
stances. Guided by the light of political theory, based on a wide 
experience, the political philosopher must be able to say what is 
the best state generally attainable ; what, under certain conditions 
purely arbitrary, would be the result ; what is the method by which 
actual evils may be remedied, and the members of a given state may 
be placed in possession of the best government now open to them. 
Such questions as these occupy the three remaining books of 
Aristotle's politics, VI. VII. VIII. (IV. VI. V.) In them he 
speaks less as the political philosopher, more as the philosophical 
statesman. He addresses himself to the actual political world of 
Greece, and to its governments, tyrannical, oligarchical, demo- 
cratical. And as these two last were the commonest, the most 
susceptible of permanence, the most capable of being modified into 
tolerable constitutions, as they were, in fact, to the exclusion of 
tyranny, constitutions ; though in a degraded form, yet still in 
some sense constitutions allowing the free play of the political life 
of a Greek freeman ; it is on oligarchy and democracy that he 
chiefly dwells. And again of these two last he treats at greatest 
length of democracy. It was longer-lived, it was safer, it was freer 
from political dissensions, araaiQ. It was more adapted to large 
and populous states ; and with the growth of such, implying, as 
that growth did, the formation of a large class of free and equal 
citizens, it was juster. Corrupt and bad as judged by the ideal 
standard, it was practically of the corrupt forms the best one 

The evils inherent in all the forms with which he has to deal in 
these books, might proceed to such a length as materially to inter- 
fere with the quiet working of the constitution. The state might 
find its various parts ranged in constant opposition to one another, 
it might be in a permanent state of faction or rrrdtng. Such was, 
in fact, the actual experience of Greece. Its political life in all 
historical times had been a conflict of discordant elements and inte- 
rests. And in most cases this permanent state of opposition had its 
periods of crisis, of jutra/GoX??. The hitherto dominant element 
became weakened by its own misconduct, or the growth of its 
antagonist, or pressure from without, and the constitution was 
changed by its fall and the triumph of its antagonist. An analysis 
which should throw light both on this permanent state and on 
these periods of revolution, such is the object of the closing book. 
VIII. (V.) 

250 SUMMAEY. [Boos 

Without trenching on the details of either of the three books 
now before us, I wished to give a succinct idea of their general 
bearing. I resume the more immediate object, the summary of 
Book VI. (IV.) Its opening chapter is quite general, its subject 
concerns the past as much as the future portion of his work. It 
is a statement of the province of political science, on which I have 
said enough above. 

The second chapter is a sketch of the divisions of the work that 
lies before him ; it is a chapter on his arrangement. 

The next portion (Chaps. III. X.) is an analysis of the 
existing governments of Greece, democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, 
politeia, tyranny, apparently treated in the order of their political 
importance, and in the main this must be judged by the compara- 
tive frequency of their occurrence. The difficulties are in the main 
difficulties of the text. There is an appearance of repetition, and a 
want of clearness resulting from this apparent repetition which 
makes one suspect that they are hardly in the state in which 
Aristotle left them. This is more especially the case with the 
chapters that analyse democracy and oligarchy (III. VI.) When 
clear of these, the book becomes, if not easier, at least much 
more straightforward, and so far, more satisfactory to grapple 

In Chap. III. we have the reason assigned for there being 
several varieties of democracy and oligarchy. It is found in the 
variety of elements of which each state may be composed. Still, 
various as they are, they may be brought under these two heads, 
and are so generally. Indeed, in the popular opinion, these are the 
only two forms recognised; they are considered an exhaustive 
division of Greek states. In the earlier part of Chap. IV. the 
characteristics of these two forms are given, and then to the end 
of that chapter we have an analysis of the democratical varieties, 
five in number. 

Ch. V. A similar enumeration of oligarchies. 

Ch. VI. Repeats in a shorter form for democracy, in more detail 
for oligarchy, the two preceding chapters. If both are to be con- 
sidered integral portions of the work, it would seem that this second 
enumeration is meant to base on grounds of reasoning the necessity 
of there being such a number of varieties of either form. Common 
as the two forms were, almost exclusively prevalent, so much so 
that Greek statesmen and parties had come to aim at nothing more 
than the peaceable establishment of one or the other, still the 
elements of the state might be combined differently, and other 

VI.] SUMMAEY. 251 

powers capable of modifying the constitution might be called into 
more active exertion. Wealth and numbers might be allowed for, 
without excluding the more eminent citizens from the first place. 
In such cases an aristocracy might be established, where all three, 
wealth, number, and merit, should have due consideration. So also 
there would be an aristocracy, when, putting aside the element of 
wealth, those of merit and number were combined. These are the 
two forms given of this practical aristocracy (Ch. VII.). 

Another combination still remained. In existing states, as an 
average, one of two opposing elements was dominant, wealth or 
numbers, and whichever was dominant, excluded its rival from all 
participation in political power. The government was a simple 
one ; in the first case an oligarchy, in the second a democracy. But 
there is no necessary, irreconcileable antagonism between the two 
politically, though there is a strong tendency to it. They may be 
combined ; a government might be formed in which both should 
find their expression, a mixed government standing half-way between 
oligarchy and democracy. Such would be the so-called TroXire/a, 
a constitution requiring great moderation and care to preserve the 
nice adjustment of its balance, and very closely connected with the 
two forms of aristocracy just given, gliding by imperceptible shades 
into one of them, or passing by very gradual transitions, by a slight 
inclination of the scale one way or the other, into one of the two 
opposing deviations, between which it was the mean term. The 
characteristic of the Politeia as distinct from either of those aris- 
tocracies, is that it attempts only the combination of wealth and 
numbers, the elements of the two simpler forms. Introduce any 
question of personal merit, and you have one or other of those 
forms (Ch. VIII.). 

To establish these mixed forms with their combination of 
elements, the great requisite is a very clear perception of the nature 
of the simpler forms. To combine oligarchy and democracy in 
harmonious proportions, must demand a thorough knowledge of 
them when out of composition. Hence another reason for their 
fuller treatment prior to these higher forms. The test of a right 
mixture will be the existence of both elements, side by side, in such 
vigour that from one point of view the government might be con- 
sidered the expression of one of the two, from the opposite point it 
might be taken as the expression of the other (Ch. IX.). 

Tyranny requires but a short notice. It is introduced for com- 
pleteness' sake. In its strict and proper sense, it is an inversion of 
all right principles of government ; the rule of the better by the 

252 SUMMAKY. [Boos: 

worse ; government for the sake of the governor, not of the 
governed ; a government by force, which no man endures longer 
than he is constrained to do (Ch. X.). 

Such is the analysis of Greek governments, the statics of Greek 
political society. It was an analysis required for the proper 
handling of the questions that are now to be discussed. The first 
of these is : What is the best average constitution, not one which 
should be an ideal standard, or require in its citizens high quali- 
fications and fortunate circumstances, but one which should take 
the existing facts, the Greek character and opinions and political 
ideas, and on them work out a safe and practicable order in which, 
as much as possible, all the elements enumerated should find a 
place. Such a constitution is found in that which should be ad- 
ministered by the middle class, those removed from the extremes 
either of wealth or poverty ; who are as much as possible equal and 
alike ; who by their numbers can impose silence and moderation on 
the two extremes ; who can, in other words, keep down the great 
evil dreaded, orao-te, and secure the great good aimed at, perma- 
nence and security. In the larger states of Greece, this form was 
quite practicable, from the numbers of the middle class. Hitherto 
Greek experience had been against it, for the middle class had been 
small, and the imperial states of Greece had exercised during the 
period of their domination a hostile influence. But one man had 
been found to wish it. So adverse had experience been, that there 
was a rooted feeling in favour not of a balance of parties, but of the 
triumph of one or the other principle (Ch. XI.). 

If asked, what is the constitution to be adopted in any par- 
ticular case, the first answer must be one common to all cases 
equally ; the one adopted must be such as the majority approves, 
meaning by majority equally a numerical majority, and one which, 
though weaker in numbers, was superior in power. Then the ques- 
tion again throws us back on a careful analysis of the elements of 
the given state. And the constitution should be framed with 
reference to the predominant element. To secure its permanent 
preponderance, it should conciliate the middle class, and it should 
aim at tempering so far as possible, by a judicious selection of 
means, the exclusiveness of the predominant element. It should 
be afraid of carrying out its principle too far. In all cases alike, 
the constitution must be administered by those who have the arms, 
and in point of numbers, there must be more within its pale than 
outside. Practically, and with some modifications, this has been 
the rule in Greece, and the historical development of Greek 

VI.] SUMMARY. 253 

governments has borne a constant relation to the changes in 
the system of military tactics adopted in the several states (Chaps. 

From this point forwards to the end of the book, and through 
the whole of the next, VI. (IV.) 1416, VII. (VI.), the subject 
treated of is the method to be adopted in forming a constitution, 
oligarchical or democratical. In the three remaining chapters of this 
book we have the appropriate basis laid for the work in the dis- 
cussion of the three powers, which must exist in each of the two 
forms equally, democracy and oligarchy, and in all their varieties. 
Their forms will differ, but in principle they must all three be 
found; there must be an executive, deliberative, and judicial 
organ. In Ch. XIV. we have the deliberative both for democracy 
and oligarchy, in this order, with the modifications that Aristotle 
deemed advisable. In Ch. XV. we have the executive, with the 
various questions on* its numbers and organization and mode of 
election, and the distinctions in it as required by the different forms 
of the government. 

In Ch. XVI. we have the judicial, an enumeration of its several 
functions, and the mode of its election. 




The ques- Ij^N aTrdffctig Tat? Teyyais KOI rais 
tions which. I'J * r / ' -\ ~\ v \' - t ft -\ ' 

political "^ Kara /mopiov yivo/mevais, oX\a Trepi yevos ev ri reXeiai? 

ovcrais, jULiag e<7T* Oewptjcrai TO Trepi eKacrTov yevos ap/moTTov, 
oiov acrKqcrt? orcofAaTi Troia T TTOIW <rv/UL(pepei Kal T/? 
apta-Trj (TO? yap Ka\\i(TTa TTC^VKOTI Kal Ke^opriyri^evfjp Trjv 
apia-Trjv avayKaiov dp/moTTiv) 9 Kal r/? TO*? TrXelcrTOis ju.ia 
Tracriv Kal yap TOVTO TJ?? yv/mvaarTiKrjf ecrTiv. GTI 


TWV Trepi Trjv aycwlav, jULqfiev ?JTTOV TOV 7rai$OTpi/3ov 
TOV yvjuLvavTiKov Trapaa-Kevdcrai re Kal TavTtjv ecrT\ 

vaju.iv. jULoico$ 


TOVTO KOI Trepi aTpiKrjv Ka Trep 

I. I rats fJi^j KO.T& fj,6piov 
yais] ' ' Qui ne restent pas trop par- 
tielles," St. Hil. ; 'which are not 
confined entirely to some one branch 
of a subject, but which embrace com- 
pletely some one whole subject. ' For 
the subordination of the various arts 
and sciences, see Eih. I. i. 3, 4, p. 
1094, 9. 

/was tffrl, K. r. X.] 'It is the province 
of one and the same science to con- 
sider all that is appropriate to that 
subject in each case. ' 

d<r/CT7<rts] yv/j-vaffTiicf), in the widest 
sense, is the science that treats of this 
bodily discipline, and which is here 
chosen for illustration. It could not 
be separated from the medical science. 
Comp. note on V. (VIII.) in. 13; 
Plato, Rep. m. 406; Grote, iv. 538. 

rls rois ir\ela-Tois pta iraaiv] 'and 
what is the training that suits the 

great majority of men, all of them' ? 
what is the average training? 

2 T^S iKvov/J.vr)s] ( That which suits 
him,' 'is appropriate to his case;' in 
other words, the best that he might 
have. Supposing a man not to be 
desirous of attaining the best state of 
body of which he is susceptible, or the 
highest degree of skill in the various 
exercises which he might attain, but 
to acquiesce in a lower state of body 
and lower degree of skill, not the less 
would it be the part of those in whose 
care he was, to see that he attained 
the particular state and degree of skill 
which he desired. 

rcDv Trepi rty aywvlav] practically 
equivalent to r&v Zpyuv, V. Hi. T 3 : 
' knowledge of that which regards the 
active exertion, the struggle,' which 
knowledge it was the part of yv/j,i>a- 
aTiicf) proper to give, whilst TratSorpi- 
PIKJI dealt with the state of the body. 

VI. (IV.) 1.] 



ap(mj$ 3 

nas to 

answer - 

vavTrtjyiav Kal ea-OnTa Kal Treat Tracrav aXXnv Teyvnv opwuev Tne <l ues - 
fl- ^ " \ , , ~, ~ " < tions which 

CTV /m. pa LVOV. WCTTC o?]\ov OTL Kai 7ro\iTiav T>79 avTr)<s CCTTIV political 

/ < - i /\ ^ f % j . . * 

eTTiarTqfJLW Tiyv apta-rrjv uewprjcrai TI$ ecm, /ecu Trend 

ot)cra /u.d\i(TT e'lrj /car' eO^j/, fjLrjfievo 
e/cro?, /cat ny run? apjuLOTrovcra' TroXXo?? 

trft)9 a^Jj/aro^, wore T^I/ Kpariorrnv re 
e/c TOJJ/ VTTOKeijuLevcov apivTrjv ov <$ei \e\rjOevai TOV 
Kal TOV 0)9 aXyOws TTO\LTLKOV. CTI <$e Tplryv 4 
oOearew <$ei yap Kal TY\V SoOeicrav $vvaa-0ai 
Oewpeiv, e^ apX*l$ Te ^^ <* v yevoiTO, Kal yevojmevr] Tiva 
TpOTrov av arw^oLTO TrXeicrTOV ^povov \eycv <T oiov e[ TIVL 
TroXei <rviuL/3e/3riKe yu^re Trjv aplcrnp 7ro\iTevear6ai 7ro\iTelav 
re elvai Kal TWV avayKaio)v 9 yu^re TIJV evo*e-%o- 
GK TCOV VTrap-^ovTcov, a\Xa Tiva (fiavXorepav. Trapa 5 
Trai/ra $e ravra Tr\v juid\i(TTa Trdorais Tai$ 7r6\e<riv 
apuoTTOva-av Set yvcoplQiv, 059 ol TrXeio-TOi TCOV airotyai- 
vo/mevcov Trepi 7ro\iTia<? 9 Kat cl raXXa Xeyovcri /caXa)9, TWV 
ye ^pr]crijuL(ji)v OLa^aprdvova-LV. ov yap /ULOVOV Trjv apia-Trjv 6 
Set Oewpiv 9 aXXa Kal T^V SvvaTJv, OJULOLCOS <$e Kal Ttjv 

Schneider proposes ivrovp- 
yiav, but it is not necessary to make a 
change, though the word comes in 
very oddly when he is dealing with 
processes or acts. 

3 c&crre 5^Xo^] The same reasoning 
will hold good for the political science. 
It, as well as other sciences, will have 
a fourfold application. It should be 
able to say what is the ideal constitu- 
tion ; 2ndly, what is the best average 
one ( 5) ; 3rdly, what is the best 
under existing circumstances (rty e/c 
,frb)j>, or e/c r&v virapxdvTwv 
4thly, how should be 
formed, and, when formed, preserved, 
one which is neither the best, nor the 
best under the circumstances, but 
still one which is wished and ac- 
quiesced in (TTJV 

rtpav TIVO), a worse than need be ac- 
quiesced in, and the conditions of 
which are self-imposed. 

4 e apxw re X/*W] Spengel, 

p. 21, note 23, would change the place 
of these words, and put them directly 
after rbv u>s dX?70cDs iro\iTiK6i>. In 
either position, it seems to me, they 
give a good sense, so that it does not 
seem worth while to make the change. 

dxop^yr)T6v re eTvai, K. r. X.] 'and 
to be unprovided even with those 
things that are essentially requisite 
for the best state ;' so that not only is 
it actually not the best, but it is in- 
capable of being made into the best. 
Supply T7J dpiffTr} after avayKaiuv. 

5 T&V ye xp->7<r//Awi> Siafiaprdvovffiv'] 
' are yet thoroughly devoid of all use- 
ful suggestions.' 

The ques- 



256 nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 

, i \ t %* 

Kai KoivoTepav aTracrais 




vvv o yuei/ 

/ . . , ~ , < $* 

Kai ceoju.evr]v 7roAA^9 ^oprjyia^ ^rovcri [JLOVOV OL oe 

KOivrjv Tiva XeyovTe?, ra? vTrap^ovcrag avaipovvTes 
T ^ Aa/cow/c^i/ % nva aXXrjv eiraLvovcriv. xpt $ 
eia-rjyeiarOai Taj~iv r\v paStws e/c row VTra plover cov Kal 
7rei<T0y<TOVTai Kal dvvrjcrovTai Koivutvelv, co? ecmv OVK 
eXciTTOV epyov TO eTravopQwarcu TroXiTetav rj KaTacrKevd^eiv 
9 Ainrep KOI TO jmeTajuLavOdveiv TOV /mavOdveiv c 
Sio TTjOO? TO?? eiptitJ.evoi$ Kal rctF? VTrap^ova-ais 
TroXi re/at? ^e? ovvauQai /3ot]0eiv TOV TTO\ITIKOV, KaOcnrep e\e- 
^07 /cat TrpoTepov. TOVTO $e aovvaTov dyvoovvTa TroVa 
TToXiTeiaif earTlv e'lotj. vvv oe fjiiav orjfJLOKpaTiav olovTai 
Tive$ eivai Kal fjilav oXiyapxiav OVK ecrrt $e TOVT 
coo-re Set ra? ($ia(popa$ /mrj XavOdveiv ra? TWV 
Trdcrai, Kal crvvTtOevTai Trocra^ft)?. Mera Se 

t \/ \/ *w ^^ 

TavTtjs Kai j/o/uou? Toy? api(TTOV$ toeiv Kai TOV$ 
TU>V TroXiTeiwv apjuLOTTOVTas' 7Tpo$ yap Tag 
TroXtre/a? TOV$ vo/u.ov$ Set Ti9ea-0ai KOI Ti6evTai TrdvT<j 9 
a\X' ov ra? TroXfre/a? TT^OO? roy? j/o/xou?. TroXiTela IJLCV 
yap ecrrt ra^t? ra?? TroXeviv % irepl ra? dp^ds, Tiva 
Tpo7rov vevejuLtjvTai) Kal TI TO Kvpiov T^? TroXfre/a? /ca/ Tf 

6 pq.(n) Kal Koivortpav] ( That which 
is more easily established and more 
accessible, more generally attainable, ' 
II. vi. 4. 

deo/j.frr}v TroXX^s xopr)ylai\ 'requir- 
ing large appliances.' 

ras virapxoiJffas dvcupovvres'] ' put- 
ting aside, taking no account of, the 
existing forms.' 

7 ty paSlus, K.T.X.] 'which they 
shall without difficulty be both per- 
suaded and able to adopt as an ex- 
change for the actual forms.' f)v>6aveiv~\ 'to unlearn, and 
learn something instead.' Herod. I. 


rats vTrapxofoais fioydeiv] ' io aid 
the existing constitutions;' make the 

best of the materials actually in hand. 
The work of reform. 

Kal irp()Tpov\ I am. not sure of the 
exact reference meant. 

8 vvvrWevTai Trocraxws] ' The num- 
ber of their combinations.' 

9 TTJS a$TT)s ^povijcrews] ' This same 
science.' The highest form of <f>p&- 
rtjcris is TroXm/oJ. Comp. Eth. vi. viii. 
3, p. 1141, b. 23, i] 7roXtTi/oJ Kal TJ 
<j>p6vr)<ri$ rj O.VTTI IAV e^t s, K. T. X. So 
that the generic term <f>p6vrj<ris is here 
used for the specific TTO\ITIK^ and the 
highest form of this latter is stated, in 
the same passage of the Ethics, to be 

irpbs yap rds TroXireJas] Compare 

III. XI. 20, 21. 

VI. (IV.) 2.] 





e/conv/? r>/9 KoivcovLas CCTTLV vojmot 




TOVS 7rapa/3aivovTa$ airrou?. 

OTI rd? $ia(f)opa$ dvayKaiov KOI TOV api6ju.ov 
7roXfre/a9 e/cacm?? Kal Trpo? ra? TCOV 
6ea-ei$' ov yap oloV re TOV$ avrovs VOJULOV? (rvjuL<pepetv 

i ^ ~ i ' >f ^^ 

ovoe Tat? orjiJLOKpaTiais Tracraf?, enrep drj 
KCLI JULIJ /mia orjju.oKpa.TLa yu^oe 6\iy applet JULOVOV 

The ques- 
tions which 
has to 

' ei/ Trj Trpwry ju.e66<$<p Trepl TCOV 
Tpei$ fjiev ra? opQas TroXire/a?, /3a<ri\eiav 
apicTTOKpaTiav TroXire/ar/, Tpei$ $e Tag TOVTCOV 
TvpawtSa /mew /5acr/Xe/a?, oXiyap^av $e 
$i]jULOKpaTiav Se 7ro\iTeia<i 9 Kal Trepl /mev dpicrTOKpaTtas KOI 
(3a<Ti\eia$ elprjTai (TO yap irepl r^? dpl<TTt]$ TroXtre/a? 
Occoprjcrat TavTO Kal Trepi TOVTCOV <TTLV eiTrelv TCOV ovo/maTcov 
(3ov\Tai yap cKaTepa /car' dpeTtjv (rvvearTavat Ke^optjyt]- 
, CTI Se Tt <$ia(f)epov(riv d\\y\cov dpiorTOKpaTia Kal 


The ar- 
of his 

10 e/cctaTTjs] Schneider and Coray 
are for reading e/cdcrrots. Vet. Tr. 
has 'singulis.' There is, however, no 
absolute necessity for the change. The 
general sense is the same: 'What is 
the end of the association in each par- 
ticular case?' 

v6/Aoi 5<f, K.T.X.] 'Whilst laws, as 
distinct from those things that mark 
and determine the constitution, are 
those according to which the magis- 
trates must rule and check those who 
would transgress them.' Laws then 
presuppose magistrates, and the dis- 
tribution of power amongst those ma- 
gistrates, and it is this distribution of 
power that makes a constitution. 

it Kal irpbs ras 0&rets] 'even for 
the making of laws.' 

II. I This chapter, on the arrange- 
ment of the work, is very valuable, 
and very strongly in favour of the 

A. P. 

arrangement I have adopted. It pre- 
supposes the treatment of the two 
more perfect forms, /JacriXe/a and 
d-piffTOKparta; it states that the third 
form yet remains, as do also the three 
imperfect ones or deviations. And 
after giving the order in which the 
various questions connected with them 
are to be treated, it warrants the 
change of order of Books V. VI. of 
the old, VIII. VII. respectively of the 
new arrangement. 

TTj TrpuTri /j.e665<{)] 'The first part 
of our treatise irepl iroXtTelas.' III. 7. 

irepl rotiruv r&v 6vop.a.T<i)v.] Com- 
pare III. xvni. i, and notes, on the 
close connection between these two 
forms; the first not practical, the 
other, in Aristotle's views, susceptible 
of an approximate realisation. 

/SotfXercu yap eKar^pa] ' for the idea 
of either is that it be formed.' 






The ar- /3a<nXe/a, Kal Trore Set fiaviXeiav vojULi^eiv, 

TTporepov, \Oi7rov Trepl TToXiTe/a? SieXOeiv r^9 ra> KOIVW 
TrpocrayopevofJievr]? ovojuaTf, KOI Trepl TU>V aXXcov TroXireiwv, 
i o\iyap"%ia$ Te Kal ^^/xo/CjOar/a? Kal TVpavviSos. (pavepov 
fj.ev ovv Kal TOVTCDV TU>V TrapeK/Sdcrecov r/9 
devrepa r/9. avayKrj yap Trjv /u.ev 
OeioTaTqs TrapeK/Bacriv eivai 
1289 B avajKalov rj TOvvofAa povov 


OVK ovcrav, $i 

ia 7ro 


elvai rrjv TOV fiacriXevovTos, WCTTC T*]V 
ovcrav 7r\el<rTOV aTre-^eiv TroXtre/a?, SevTepov 
oXiyap^av (% yap apicrTOKpaTia ^ICTT^KV CLTTO 

imev ovv Ti? aTre^varo Kal TWV TTpdrepov QVTW$ 9 ov 

et? ravTO 

ov<TU)V eTTieiKcov, oov 

CKCIVOS f*>ev yap eKpive 




e apcrrriv' 

*? f i ^/D"\' 

eivai (pajULev, Kai peXriw 



< ef-\ / }>* 

de oXeo? raura? efy/uLaprtJiuL 
oXiyap^iav a\\t]v aXX^? ov /caXtoy 
4 (pav\rjv. 'AXXa Trepi /mev Ttjs TOiavTqs Kpicrews a 
ra vvv Se Trpwrov imev Siaipereov Trocrai Sia(f)opal TO>V 
e'lTrep ecrriv etSrj TrXelova r^9 re Sy/uLOK parias Kal 

o\iyap%ia$ 9 eireiTa Tig KoivoTart] Kal r/? 
/xera Tt]V apitTTrjv 7ro\iTiav 9 KOLV e't Tf? aXX>? TeTv^rjKev api- 
crroKpaTiKrj Kal (rvveo-Tcocra /caXw?* aXXa Tal<$ TrXefVrai? ap- 
S jjiOTTOwa TToXeari r/9 COTTIV. circiTa Kal TOO*/ a\\cov r/9 

TIJS T<J) KoivQ 6v6/j,aTi] III. VII. 3, 
KaXetrcu rb Koivbv 8vofj,a, TroXtre^a. 

2 So J5M. Vm. xii. 2, p. 1160, b. 9, 
KdKiffTov rb evavrlov ry ^eXr^ory. 

^ 70/3 dpio-TOKparia, K. r. X.] for this 
is the form to which aristocracy, in 
Aristotle's peculiar sense, the second 
of the perfect forms, is most opposed, 
and consequently it is the second 

fJ.fTplWTdTTJv] iJKKTTO. ^Q-)(Qt]pbv IS 

his language, Eik. vm. xii. 3, p. 1160, 
b. 19. 

3 rts] Plato, in the Politicus. 

ov /j.T)i> els ravrb /SX^^as TtfMv] 'not, 
however, from the same point of view 
as ours.' 

4 Trp&Tov] In Chapters III. X. of 
this Book. 

Ch. XI. 

K&V d rts dXX?;, K.T.X.] 'and after 
any other constitution there may be 
of an aristocratical character and well 
formed. ' 

5 *irTa] Chaps. XII. XIII. 

VI. (IV.) 3.] 



TICTIV aipeTJ' Taya yap ro?9 /u-ev avayicaia Srj/moKpaTia 
\ov oXiyap^iaS) TO?? (T avTt) jmaXXov eiceivrjs. juerd Se 
TavTO. Tiva Tpoirov Set KaOia-Tavai TOV /3ovX6fJievov raurot? 
ra? 7roXfTe/a?, Xeyco $ firj/uLOKpaTias re /ca$' e/cacrroi/ eT^o? 
/ecu TraXty 6Xiyap%ia?. re'Xo? <5e, Trat/rooi/ roimoj/ 6'ray 
TroiqcrcojULeOa O-VVTOJULCO^ T*JV evSe^ofJievrjv /mveiav, Treipareov 
CTreXOeiv Tiveg (pOopal /cat TtW? <TdOTt]piai TMV TroXireicov KOL 
Koivy KO.} X M P^ K<*<rTt]s, K.OLL Sio. Tiva<s afV/a? raura 
yivea-Oai irecpv/cev. 

Tov yaei/ ow eivai TrXe/of? TroXtre/a? GLLTLOV on 
ea-Tf /ae|0; 7rXe/a> TroXeco? TOI/ apiOjmov. irpwTOV /mev yap e 


TOVTOV TOV TrX^Oof? rot'? /xei/ evTTOpovs avayKotov eivai rou? 
^' aTTOjOOU? Toy? ^e ^tearof?, /cat TOOJ/ evTropwv <5e /cat TOOI/ 


yewpyiKOv Stjjmov opwfjiev ovTa, TOV ^ ayopaiov, TOV Se 

(Bavavcrov. Kal TOOV yvcopijuicov eicri oia(bopal Kai /caxa TOV 

7r\ovTov KOI TO. juLcyeOij T^? oiVfa?, olov i7T7TOTpo(f)ia$' 

TOVTO yap ov paSiov fjLt] TrXourou^ra? TTOICIV. 

TWV ap^aiwv xpovow ocraig TroXecriv ev rcf? fVT 

yv, oXiyap^iai Trapa TOVTOIS ya-av. e^poovTO Se irpos TOV$ 

The ar- 
of his 


The num- 
ber of the 
forms of 

perk te raOra] Chaps. XIV. 
XVI. and VII. (VI.) 

6 rAos 5<T] With Nickes, p. 112, 
note 2, I put a comma after 5^, and 
make rAos adverbial : ' and at last, ' 

TT&VTWV Totiruv] By this change in 
the stopping, these words are made to 
depend on rr)i> ^v^"xo^virjv /j,velav. 
' When I shall have briefly made such 
mention, as was admissible, of all 
these points already mentioned, then 
I shall, &c.' 

tireXdeiv, K. r. X.] The subject of 
Book VIII. (V.), which is here clearly 
stated to be later than Book VII. 
(VI.), and so even Woltmann allows, 
who is the stanchest supporter of the 
old order that I have met with. 

III. i TrXei'ous] This resumes the 
subject with which Ch. I. closed, 
Sr; TrAefovs Kal ^ fjiia Stj/^OKparia 
[ibvov tariv. The reason 
why there is this larger number of 
forms is found in the number of ele- 
ments of which every state, without 
exception, is composed. 

TOIJTOV TOV ir\-f)dovi\ ' of the number 
of citizens so formed. ' 

2 ayopcuov] 'commercial.' 

Kal Kara rbv TT\OVTOV] Wealth is not 
merely a ground of distinction as be- 
tween rich and poor, 'but amongst 
the higher classes also there are dis- 
tinctions based on wealth and the 
amount of the property they possess.' 

3 iv TOIS I'TTTTOIS] this was a sign of 
great wealth, and the distinctive cha- 
racteristic of oligarchy is wealth. 





'ITTTTOIS Trpog TOVS acrTfyerrwa?, olov ' 

The num- 

forms of Kal XaX/a$eF? Kal Mayi/^rc? ot Girl Maiavfipa) Kal TWV 




O9 TGU9 KaTa 

i I 

TT\OVTOV Siacpopais <TT\V % /mev KaTa yevos q $e /car' 

1200 cipeT^v., Kav e'l TL or] TOIOVTOV eTepov e'iprjTai 7rd\ew$ elvai 
jmepos ev TOI? Trepl T*]V apia-TOKpaTiav e/ceZ yap $tei\dju.e6a 
K TTOCTWV fjiepwv avayKaiwv CCTTL Tracra TroXt?' TOVTWV yap 
TWV /ULepwv ore jmev irdvTa /xere^et r^9 TroXtre/a?, ore ^ 

5 eXaTTft), ore Se 7r\eiw. (pavepov TOLVVV OTI TrXe/ou? avayKaiov 

- N r v^'^i ' -\ -\ 'x vr ^ 

ei/at TToAiTetafj e^oet oi.acpepovG'as a\\r}\wv' Kat yap TavT 

c'tSei Siad)eoei Ta imepii (T(bwv avTwv. TroXfTeta uev yap ri 
II 'ii 'i 

TCOJ/ apYwv TO.(~IS e(TTi) TavTtjv oe oiavejULOVTai 7ravT$ r\ KaTa 


KOivyv, \eyw S* olov TWV aTrdpwv r) TWV eviropwv, rj KQivrjv 

6 TLV aju.<poiv. avayKaiov apa 7roXfTe/a9 elvai 

o<rai irep ra^et? Acara ra? vTreod^ elan Kal /cara 

Sia<popd$ TWV /ULOpiwv. /Jid\i<TTa <5e SOKOVCTIV eTvai o*vo, 
KaOaTrep ewl TWV TrvevfJLaTWv \eyeTai TO. JULCV /Sdpeia Ta 
Se voTia 9 TO. <$' aXXa TOVTWV TrapeK/Sdcreis' OVTW Kal TWV 

v Sv 


yap apiGTOKpa- 




This reading, adopted by 
Coray, and supported by Vet. Tr., 
seems best suited to the passage. Mr. 
Grote, in. 42, speaks of cavalry "as 
the primitive oligarchical militia." 
XctX/ci5ei$] in Eubcea. 

4 v rots irepl TTJV &pi<rTOKpa.Tlaj>] 
Compare for the expression, I. xm. 
15, ev rois irepl TroXiretas. For the 
sense, the reference is to IV. (VII.) 
vni. 7, 8, 9; so that this passage 
again is in favour of the change in the 
order of the Books. 

5 // r&v dp%wj> TCIIS] = T<ty ^ Trtpl 
ras dpxas. I. 10. 

olov TWV airbpwv, K.T. X.] This 
explains ryv ovvapiv rCov fAerexbv- 
TWV, as the next words, KOIV-^V TIJ>' 

explain KO.T& riv* 
Compare VIII. (V.) i. 14. 

6 ATOTOL rds v-rrepoxds] ' according to 
the superiority now of one part, now 
of another.' 

)UcXtcrTa Se doicovcriv] There must, 
strictly speaking, be as many forms 
as there are distinct combinations 
of the various elements, ' still popu- 
larly there are conceived to be two 
forms/ for the numerous varieties are 
ultimately reducible to these two. 

CTTI T&V irvevfji-druv] Compare Soph. 
Track. 113. 

$1 v6rov, % (3opea rts. 

7 6\iyapxtav rivd] 'in a certain 
sense an oligarchy.' 

VI. (IY.) 4.] 



Tivd 9 Kal TtJV KaXoVfJLGVtJl' TroXlTCiaV Stl/ULOKpCLTiaV, OXTTT^O V 

TOIS TTvevjULacri TOV ju.ev ^(pvpov TOV /3opeov 9 TOV Se VOTOV 
TOV evpov. ojuLoicos <T e-^ei Kal irepl TO? dpju.ovia$ 9 cos <paa-{ 
Tivey Kal yap Kt TiOevTai ei^rj ovo 9 Trjv $CDpio-Tl Kal T*JV 
<ppvyi<TTi 9 TO. Se aXXa a-vvrdy/uLara ra Awpia ra $e 
3>pvyia KoXovcriv. paXta-TO, /xei/ ovv eicoOaariv oi/Va)? vTroXa/ui 
fiaveiv Trepl TWV TroXireicov aXrjOecrTepov $e ical f3e\Tiov a) 
^er? $ieiXojULev 9 Svoiv rj JULIUS ovary? r^? /caXco? 
ra? a\\a<s elvai 7rapK/3do-i$, ra? /xei/ r^9 ev 
apv.ovla$ 9 ra? Se r?? apicrrrj? TroXire/a?, oXtyap-^LKa? JULCV 
rag (TvvTovtorepa? KOL $e<nroTiK(DTepa$ 9 ra? <T a^ef/xeVa? Kal 
ywaXa/ca? o^/xoTf/ca?. 

OJ dec Se riOevai Srjju.OKpaTiav 9 KaQdirep eicoOaa-t Tive? 
vvv a7rXft)9 oi/ra)?, OTTOU Kvpiov TO TrX^o?* /ca: ya^o ei/ raf? 
6Xiyap-iais KOI iravTayov TO TrXeov /xe^oo? Kvpiov ovS' 0X1- 
yap-^iav, OTTOV Kvpioi oXlyoi r^? TroXtre/a?. et yap e'trjo-av 
ot 7rat/T9 %lXioi KOI TpiaKoo-ioi, Kal TOVTOW 01 ^iXioi TrXov- 
(Tioi 9 Kal jULrj /j.TaSt$oiev ap^y? TO?? TpiaKO<rioi$ Kal Trevrjcriv 
eXevOepoi? overt Kal raXXa 6/u.oloi$ 9 ovOels av (fialrj StjfiQKpa* 
TeccrOai TOVTOV?. 6/j.oi(a$ <$e Kal el TreV^re? jmev dXiyoi eiev 9 

Two forms 
most pro- 

- 8 


The dis- 



ffwrdyfiara] ' combinations.' 

8 Svoitv f) /itas] Ch. II. I. /3a<ri\efaj 
Kal apHTTOKparLas. He mentions the 
first for the sake of strict accuracy; 
they are the two forms of the apL<mj 

ffwrovurtpas] 'The stricter, more 
rigid, and more arbitrary.' 

Compare Thuc. II. 39. 
air^/jievoi, 'easy.' 

"The distinction between aristo- 
cracy and democracy, as commonly 
conceived, is not a logical distinction 
of kind, founded on a precise line of 
separation, but merely a distinction of 
degree, and so our propositions about 
them must be limited to tendencies." 
Lewis, on Opinion, 405, and note. 

IV. i cbrXws otfrws] 'without 

qualification so.' For the subject of 
this Chapter, compare III. 8. 

iravraxov] Compare later, at VIII. 
7, r6 5' firt civ S6|77 rots ir\do<rtv tv 

3 In III. 8, poverty and wealth 
are made the characteristics respec- 
tively of the two forms, democracy 
and oligarchy. Nor does the state- 
ment here made, 8rav ol tXevdepoi 
ictpioi &<TIV, clash with that former 
one, as may be seen from a considera- 
tion of the words in the last section of 
III. 8, cinropovffi fit> yap dXtyoi, TTJS 
8 \v6epta$ /ier^ofo't Trcu'res. Com- 
pare also the end of this Chapter, tirav 
ol eXevdepoi Kal &Tropoi. The word 
\evdepoi must be taken in an exclu- 
sive sense, the citizens who have no- 
thing but their citizenship to ground 


nOAITIKflN Z. (A.) 


The dis- KpeiTTOVS $e TCOV eviropcov TrXeiovwv ovTCOV 9 ov<$e\<$ av oXiyap- 

tinction i f i $\ * / i/ v^ -x 

between X tav ^ r pO (J ' af Y o P V(J ' lV ou ^ e Tr l v TOiavTqv, ei TOI$ a\\Oi$ 

democracy o ^ (ri ^Xovcrtoig fJirj fAeTeit] TCOV TijULWv. jmaXXov TO'LVVV 

oligarchy. XeKTeov OTl ^rj/ULOg fJ.ev ecTTiv OTGLV ol eXevOepoi KVpioi cocrti/, 

J2 o B dXiyap-^ia $' orav ol TrXoJcrtot. aXXa arvjui/Baivei TOV? /mev 

4 TToAAot^ elvai TOV$ ^' oX/yot/?- e\ev6epai /u.ev yap TroXXo/, 
'7r\ov<Tioi S* 6\iyoi. Kctl yap av el Kara jueyeOos StevefuHT* 
TCI? apyas, warTrep ev AlQiOTria <pa(Ti Tive?, rj /card /caXXo?, 
o\iyapyia rjv av 6\iyov yap TO TrXtjOos Kal TO TWV KO\WV 

5 KOI TO TCOV imeyaXwv. ov (JL^V ctXX' ovSe TOVTOIS JULOVOV 
iKavcos e^ei Sicopia-Oai ret? TroXtre/a? raura?' aXX' eTrel 
irXeiova jmopia KOL TOV Sy/ULov KOI T?9 6\tyapxia$ eicriv, ert 
SiaXrjTTTeov w? OUT av ol eXevOepoi 6\iyoi ovte<s irXeiovcov 
KOI fjirj eXevOepwv ap^cocri Stjjmos, oiov cv 'ATToXXcoj^/a rj ev 
TO) 'lovlw Kal ev Qypa (ev TOVTGOV yap eKaTepa TCOV 
TroXewv ev Talg$ Jjffav ol Sia(f>epovTe$ /car* evyeveiav 
Kal irpWTOi KaTavyovTeg Tag aTroiKiag, 6\iyoi 

, OVT av ol TrXovcriot did TO KaTO, 7r\r]6o$ V 
, olov ev K.o\o(pcovi TO TraXaiov CKCI yap CKCKT^VTO 
v ova-lav ol TrXe/ou? Trplv yevecrOai TOV TTO\/ULOV TOV 

6 TTjOO? A.v$ov$. dXX' e<TTi SrjjmoKpaTia fjiev oTav ol eXevOepoi 

any claim on, excluding especially of 
course, from the general context, any 
claim based on property. 

4 <rvp.palvei\ compare again III. 
vin. 8 ; number is but an accident. 

AlQioirlg.'] Herod, in. 20. 

5 TOi/rots] sc. eXevOeplq. Kal TrXoOry. 
SiaXijTTT^oj'] ' we must draw further 

distinctions, and say.' 

yu,rj IXev^/wy] This negative is 
curious, and in no way required by 
the sense. We can hardly suppose 
that either at Apollonia or Thera, 
though we know but little of either, 
the mass, over whom the original 
colonists ruled, were not free; nor 
would Aristotle in any case have been 

likely to touch on the question of a 
small dominant population ruling over 
a large slave one, in a part of his work 
where he has solely to treat of the rela- 
tions of the citizens to one another. In 
fact, if the negative is kept, I see but 
one resource : that is, to make e\ev0t- 
pd)v virtually evyevecs. This is borne 
out by the context, ol SiaQepovres KO.T' 
evyfreiav, and the affixing this sense 
to the word would make the passage 
a forcible illustration of an earlier one, 
III. XIII. 13, ot 8' focMepoi Kal evye- 
veis ws yyi>s dXX^Xw?'. It does not 
seem, however, easy to adopt this, 
and yet it is better, perhaps, than to 
discard the ^, which has no objection 
urged against it but its difficulty. 

VI. (IV.) 4.] 



(T OTCtV Oi TrXoVCTLOL Kal VyVe<JTpOl O\lyOl OVT$. 

*OTI fJLev ovv TroXireiai TrXe/of?, Kal $i rjv atTiav, eiprj- 
r & f \ *>. r ~ / \ , \ & \ / 

Tar \_oioTi 06 7r\iov? TCOV eipii/mevcov, KO.I Tives /ecu oia Ti 9 

\eycofjiev ap^rjv \a/36vTe$ Tr\v ttfujfatvtpf trpoTepov. 

yovju-ev yap ouv ej/ /xepo? aXXa TrXelco 7ra<rav even/ 

<? , Ix ' / /i N Q - v - 

ovv ei {(pov TrpoypovjUieua \apeiv etot], irpcoTOV av 

</ ~ ~ 3/ v* -?v^ 

ev OTrep avayicaiov TTO.V e^eiv L(pov, oiov evia TC 

aLo-OtjTrjpiwv Kal TO T^S Tpo(prjs epyavTiKOv Kal 
KOV, olov (TTO/ma Kal KOiXiav, 7rpo$ $e TOVTOLS, o 
fAopiois cKa&Tov avTcov ei drj TOcravTa e'ldrj fjuovov, TOVTCW 
^' eiev $ia(f)opai, \eyco <5' olov cirrro0urr<fc Tiva 
/caf KotXta? Kal TCOV fUfffafrqfHW, CTL Se Kal TCOV 
/uiopicov, 6 r>7? o-L'^eJ^eft)? r^? ToiyTft)j/ api0ju.o$ e 

7r\LCD yevtj ^wcov (ou yap olov re TavTov t^c 

~\' f ^j.'*' Oi*5v \ 

TrAaov? crroyaaro? oia<popa$ 9 o/u.oia)$ oe ovo COTCDV), 
wcrO' oTav \rj(j)0co<ri TOVTCDV Trdt/re? o ev^e^ofJLevoi a-vvo'va- 


ocranrep al arvi^evqeig TCVV avayKaicov /moplcov dcriv. TOV 
avTOv $e TpOTrov Kal TCOV elpr]fj.evcov 7ro\iTicov Kal yap at 
OVK e ei/o? aXX' e/c iroXXcov (TvyKeivTai jmepcov, 
eiprjTai. TroXXa/c^?. *Ei/ JULCV ovv (7T\ TO Trepl Ttjv 
Tpo<pr]v Tr\fjQo$f 01 Ka\ovjuivoi yecopyoi) SevTepov Se TO 
KaXovjuLevov (3dvav<rov <TTI Se TOVTO Trepl ra? 

The variety 
men ^ s d 

the variety 


merits of 


12 9 r 

7 5i6n] 'That they are.' "Because 
these are, let us say what they are/' 

r&v tlpvftfwap] the two generally 
spoken of, democracy and oligarchy. 
I should, I confess, wish to throw out 
the whole of what follows, to the end 
of 19, or rather to irpbrepov, -20, as 
a mere repetition, rendered entirely 
unnecessary by Aristotle's appealing, 
in Ch. III. 4, to his enumeration of 
the various parts of a state. As it is, 
it is better to keep it, and, as in other 
cases, I inclose it in brackets to show 

that I think it superfluous. It seems 
difficult to imagine that Aristotle 
would, so soon after declining the 
enumeration on the specific ground 
that it had been made, enter into it, 
and in such detail. It constitutes the 
difficulty of this part of the Book, 
Chaps. III. VI., that there is so 
much that looks like repetition ; but I 
think any other of the seeming repe- 
titions easier to defend than the one 
actually under consideration. 

8 tpya<rTiK6i>] 'That works up.' 

9 This is a repetition of II. 3. 





The vari- avev iroXiv afivvarov oiKeicrOai' TOVTWV oe TWV 
ous ele- \ t^ t r * t ft ~ &* i ,\ ,\ \ < 

ments of a M ei/ e a vaf Y Kr l$ VTrap^eiv oei, TU? Oe et? Tpvcpyv rj TO /caAa)? 
state V~ ' ^' ' " ~\ f w ' ' " * ^ 

tc ' o ayopaiov \eyco o ayopaiov TO irepi 


10 7rpa(7i$ KOLI Ta? o)^a? /cat Ta? e/UTro/ota? /cat 
$ia.Tpi/3ov. T&raprov Se TO Qvpriicov. Tre/mTrTov <$e 


11 \nrap-^LV 9 ei /xeXXoucrt fJLf] SovXevcreiv TO?? eTTiovcrt v. /mrj jap 
ev TMV a&vvcLTtov y TTO\IV afyov eivai KciXeiv TY\V (pvcrei 

avTapKris yap rj TroXt?, TO oe $ov\ov OVK avT 
ev Ttj TroXiTela /co/xxj^w? TOUTO, ov-% iKavco? Se ei 
j o 2ft)/CjOar>79 CK TeTTapwv TWV 

iroXiv orvyKei&Oai, \eyei $e TOUTOVS ixpavTyv /ecu yecopyov 
\ r *' 9 ' 9J ^JJ 1 * 'a f 

Kai (TKVTOTO^OV Kai OLKOOOfJLOV 7Ta\lV O6 7TpO(TTlUrj(nV 9 ft)? 

OVK avTapKtov TOVTWV, ^aX/cea Kai rot'? eTrl TO?? a 

/3o<TKqjUia<TlV 9 TL O^ l/XTTOjOOIV T Kai Ka7Tt]\OV 9 

TravTa yiveTCti TrX^jOw^ta r^? irp<*T*ft TroXett)?, to? T<OJ/ a 
Kaiwv ye \apiv Travav TTO\IV <TVV<TTvjKvlav 9 aXX' ov TOV 
KaXov /xaXXoi/, tcroi/ re StiofLevyv CTKVTGWV re /cat yecopycov. 
13 To ^e TTpOTroXe/ULovv ov irpOTepov aTroSiooMTi jmepos irplv rj 
av^o/ULevrjs Kai T^? TaV TrXrjcriov ctTTTO/xeV^? eiy 
KaTaerTwcriv. aXXa /u^i/ /cat ei/ TO?? TGTTapcri Kai 

to tyiroplas Kai jcaTTTjXeias] The 
former more wholesale, the latter 
more retail, the Tra/ado-ratm of I. II. 
3, as efATTOplas represents the <poprr}yia 
and vavK\T)pla of the same passage. 

r6 ^7;ri/c6v is 

TOIJTWV ot>6v fjTrbv] Compare III. 
XII. 9, &vev pv T&V Trpor^puv OL^VOLTOV 
eTvai irb\iv, vev 5^ TOIJTUV 

dov\cfou>] Compare IV. (VII.) xv. 
701/9 Tr;^ Tra.poifj.Lav, ov 

11 r6 5 SoOXov ou/c a^rap/ces] Com- 
pare I. iv. 6, the definition of a slave, 
6s av &\\ov r) avdp(t)7Tos UP. 

12 Terrdpuv] as representing the 
primary wants of man food, shelter, 

tirl rots avayicalois 
'those who are to take care of the 
cattle necessary for the subsistence of 
the population.' 

Tr\-fjp(ap.a\ 'the complement,' III. 
xm. 13. 

T^S irp&rrjs ir6\ews] not of the ideal 
state, but ' of the state in its simplest 
and most elementary form.' Compare 
IV. (VII.) IV. II, irp^T-rjv Trb\iv rty 
K TOffotrov irX-rjdovs 6 irpurov ir\ijdos 

tffov re Seo/j.tvrjv'] ( and as though it 
stood in equal need of.' 

r 3 TTJS x^P as att-ofAtvvjs'] 'inconse- 
quence of the increase of territory 
and its contact with its neighbours. ' 

iv rots r^TTapcri] ' In his four pri- 
mary ones.' 

VI. (IV.) 4.] 



enrep ovv Kai ments of 

TOI$ oTrofTOKTOvv Koivwvoi$ avayKaiov elvai Tiva TOV The vari 

> ft / \ ~ \ v 

aTrooaxTOVTa Kai KpivovvTa TO oiKaiov. 

t \ ff s\ t <s r / "> x .<'** ' 

ysv^tjv av Tig ueir) tyov jmopiov ]ma\\ov r] crto/xa, Kai 

TO. ToiavTa fAoXXov OeTeov TWV et? TYJV avayKalav xprjcriv 14 

, TTjOO? ^6 TOVTOIS TO ^OV\ev6fJ.eVOV 9 OTTCp <TTl 

7ro\iTiKr]? epyov. Kai TO.VT e'tTe Ke-^wpicrjULevcos 15 
Tiariv C'ITC TO?? O.VTOIS, ovOev oiacbepei TT/OO? TOV 
\oyov Kai yap oTr\iTeveiv Kai yecopyeiv o-v/m/3aivei TO?? 
r? 7roXXa/cf?. cocrre etirep Kai TavTa Kai eKelva 6eTea 
TToXew?, <pavepov OTL TO ye OTrXiTtKOv avajKalov 

COTTl /ULOptOV T^9 TToXeft)?. C^OOfJiOV <$ TO Ttt?? OVCTiai? \l- 

O KO\OVjULV eVTTOpOV?. oyOOOV ^ TO SrjfJUOVp- 1 6 

Kai TO Trepl TO? a/ox a? ^etTovpyovv, e'lwep avcv 

WV aSvvaTOV eivai TTO\IV. avayKatov ovv elval 
TLva<s TOV? ovva/uLevovs ap^eiv Kai \CITOV pyovvTas rj o-vveYU)? 
r] KaTa [Jiepos Trj TroXei TavTyv Ttjv \eiTOVpyiav. XotTra J 7 
^e Trepl wv Tvy^avoimev SitopiKOTes apTioas, TO /BovXevo- 

Kai Kpivov Trepl TWV SlKGLitov TOI$ afj.(j)i(7/3r]Tov(riv. 

ovv TavTa oei yevea-Qai Tal<s TroXeari Kai /caXco? I2 9 J B 
yivearOai Kai $iKai<6$ 9 avayKaiov Kai juLCTe^ovTa^ elval 

14 Sirep] rb /3ouXei/e(r^at. 

ffvvta-ews iroXiTiKijs] 'the judgment 
applied to political matters/ Efk. VI. 
xi. p. 1143, 10. 

1 5 wcrre eiirep KO.I raura, K. r. X. ] 
' So that if, as in fact we do, we make 
both the class of cultivators and that 
which judges and deliberates, essen- 
tial parts of our state, it is an evident 
consequence that the military class, 
at least, which is conjoined with both, 
or capable of being so, is necessarily a 
part of our state. ' The military class 
is not conceived of as wholly distinct, 
but identified with one or the other of 
two classes ; if both are comprehended, 
evidently it must be so too, with 
whichever it may be combined. This 

seems the reasoning of the passage. 
It is not, however, clear. 

2f35ofj.ov] Nickes proposes ZKTOV, 
but I find the sixth class in 14, 
r6 fter^xov SiKaioffvvijs SiKacmKTjs. 

TOUS overlain \eirovpyovv] ' serving 
the state with its property,' IV. (VII.) 
vin. 7, 9. 

1 6 rb SyfuovpyiKov] 'The body of 
magistrates.' The word 5f]fjt,iovpy6s in 
this sense is well known. 

17 raura] sc. rb 

TWV iro\iTiKwv] depends on rivas. 
There must be among the citizens 
some not without virtue, moral, for 
the decision of causes; intellectual, 
for deliberation. 




The vari- 
ous ele- 

V 7ro\iTiKO)V. Ta? fu.ev ovv a\\a<s $vva/J.i$ TO?? 




- , f , ' JJ ' S ^ ~ ? ' 

inents of a CLVTOiS VTrap^eiv evoe^ecruaL OOKCI TTOAAo*?, oiov TOI/? 

* x ** * ^ N 

TOt9 TrpoiroXeiAovvTas /cat 'yefty> i yof)/Ta9 /cat 

$e TOV? /3ov\evojuLevov$ re Kal Kpivovras" 

O Kdl TiJ<f apeTtfS TTaVTG^, KOI TO-9 7T\ei<TTaS 

ap^eiv OIOVTCLI ovvaorOai. a\\a TrevetrOai /cat 


eLvai ooKct TroXeft)?, ot evTropol Kal oi aTropoi. CTI oe oia 
TO a)? CTrl TO TroXu TOI'? yuej/ o'X/'you? eZVat TOV? <^e TroXXou?, 

TCLVTa evaVTLGL JULGpt] (patVCTat TU>V T>/9 TToXeft)? JULOpLCDV. 

/cat Ta? 7roXtTe/a9 /caTa Ta? vTrcpo^as TOVTWV 
, Kal <$vo TroXiTCiai SOKOVCTIV eTvat, 

10 OTI /JLCV ovv elcrl 7ro\iTeiai 7rXe/oi/9, Kal Sia TiVa? 

The differ- ^ r / ~l"? x ^? ' "^ 

ent forms CMTia?, CtprjTai TTpOTCpOV^ OTt O (TTL Kai OrjfJiOKpaTiaS ClOrj 

of demo- ^^fa Ka \ o\iyapyia 9 Xeyw/mev. ^(pavepov Se TOVTO Kal 

1 8 5i6 raura, /c. r.X.] as wealth and 
poverty cannot meet in the same 
people, and the wealthy and the 
poor consequently must always be 
distinct one from the other, whilst 
all other distinctions are less appre- 
ciable, this is the one fixed on, and the 
state is commonly divided into these 
two parts, and from the accident of 
their differing in number, these two 
stand in the most marked opposition 
to one another. In Greece and Rome, 
as in modern Europe, the problem of 
the opposition between the Have-alls 
and the Have-nothings, to borrow Mr. 
Carlyle's language (Sartor Resartus), 
was one which could not escape the 
philosophic statesman, modified as it 
was, and in some sense rendered easy 
by the existence of slavery. 

20 If this section followed imme- 
diately after 6, no one would, I 
think, miss the intervening part. 
From the consideration of the variety 
of forms of government generally, 

Aristotle passes to the varieties of the 
two forms that, with the exception of 
interludes of tyrants, monopolized the 
Greek political world, democracy and 
oligarchy. That there were such va- 
rieties was clear to him from the same 
premises as before. If the variety of 
elements of a state accounted for the 
variety of TroXtreicu, the variety in the 
democratical elements would account 
for a variety of democratical TroXtreiot. 
Here, again, from Qwepbv 5^ ... to 
5ia.(j)opdt>, I suspect an interpolation. 
It is an evident repetition of Ch. III., 
not without its value in point of infor- 
mation, but still needlessly burdening 
the book, and faulty in point of divi- 
sion, as it is not easy to say why 
Trop6/j.evTiK6t> and the rest are not in- 
cluded under xpr)/j.a,Ti(rTiK6v, and evi- 
dently rb fJUKpav 2x ov > K - T - ^- > i s a P~ 
plicable to most of the others, as is rb 
p-r) dfji(poT^puv, K. T. X. For these 
reasons I have inclosed it in brack- 

VI. (IV.) 4.] 



K T(*)V elpt]fjiev(jov. e'lfir] yap TrXeia) TOV re ^rj/mov KOI TWV The differ- 
x / t > t t <\ t * IP* d < * . ent forms 

Xeyo^evwv yvwpiimtov evTiv, oiov OIJJULOV jmev eiot] ev jmev ot O fdemo- 

r ft R \ \ \> / v-y -v \ \ cracv 

yeoi)pyoL 9 eTepov oe TO Trepi Tag re^i/a?, aAAo oe TO 
ayopaiov TO Trepi wvrjv Kal Trpaariv SiaTpifiov, aAAo o"e TO 2I 
Trepi QdXaTTav, Kal TOVTOV TO /ULCV TroXefJUKOV, TO $e 


yap eKauTa TOVTWV TroAJo^Aa, oiov d\iel<s IJLGV ev TdpavTi 
Ttw, TpiypiKOV oe 'AOyvqariv, efjiTropiKOV $e ev 
Kal X/a>, TTOpOjU-evTiKov ev Tei/e^w), TTJOO? o"e To^TOf? 
TO "^epvrjTLKOv Kal TO /ULiKpav e^ov ovcriav COOTTC ^rj SvvacrOai 
or^o\a^eiv 9 CTL TO jmrj e^ a/Ji(poTepa)v TTO\ITU>V eXeuOepov, 
KO.V e'l Ti TOIOVTOV CTcpov TrXrjOov$ elo$. TCOV $e yvwpi/uicov 
TrAotrros 1 , evyeveia, apT^ 9 7rai^e/a, Kal Ta TOVTOI? Xeyd/meva 
KaTO. Ttjv avTtjv <$ta(popdv.^ ArtfAOKpaTia /mev ovv ecrTi 
Trpu)Trj jmev y Xeyojmevrj juLaXicrTa KCiTa TO 'icrov. tffOV ydp 
(prjcriv 6 VO/JLOS 6 T^? ToiavTqs S^juLOKpaTia^ TO /mrjoev /maXXov 

apyeiv TOV<S airopovs rj TOV$ euTTOjOou?, fJLrjoe Kvpiov? elvai 


21 fdpavTi] Grote, m. 516. " Shell- 

Bufavr/y] Id. IV. 36. "Thunny 

Atylvri] The commerce of .^Egina, 
in very early times, is quite historical. 

XtV] Grote, vn. 531. 

rb p.1) t d/i0or^/ow^ TroXtrcDj/] for this, 
compare III. v. 8. 

22 Toi/rois] depends on TTJV (turfy. 
But what the exact meaning of the 
words is, it is not easy to say. " Sur 
d'autres avantages analogues," is St. 
Hilaire's translation, and I believe 
that is the sense, a kind of et caetera 
without any very definite meaning in 
the writer's mind, as he has certainly 
enumerated the main distinctions : 
Wealth, Birth, Merit, Education, are 
nearly, if not quite, exhaustive. 

A-rj/jiOKparLa fttv o$v, K.T.\.]' The first 
form of democracy ia that which is, in 

the strictest sense so called, based on 
equality,' in its simplest and purest 
form. Compare VII. (VI.) n. 9, -fj 
/j-dXicrr' elvai SOKOVPO. dtjuoKparla. Kal 

This reading, in place of 
is proposed by Stahr. I 
have adopted it, justified, I think, by 
words from the passage I have just 
quoted VII. (VI.) n. 9, foot> yap 
rb ii.t\Qtv fjt,a\\ov apx^iv roi)y 
TOVS evirbpovs [tyS^ Kvplovs elvai 
dXXot Trdvras taov /car' apid/mov. 
These last words are an useful com- 
ment on fj,r)8 Kvplovs elvai oTrorepova'- 
ovv, d\\' dfAolovs dyu,0or^/3ous. In the 
first part it is true that tiirdpxeu' can 
be construed, though perhaps not 
easily, 'that the wealthy should not 
be anything more, of greater import- 
ance, than the poor.' Yet the change 
is simple, and appears to rest on ade- 
quate grounds. 




The differ- oTTOTepovcrovv, aXX' ofJiotov? afj.(f)OTepov$. e'lTrep yap 
ent forms **. /\ r / A \ c i s\ r < -* 

of demo- eXevUepia /xaXtcTT e&TiV v dr}fj.oKpaTia 9 KaVaTrep V7ro\a/u.- 

acv> (Bdvovcri Tive$, Kal i<roTij$ 9 OVTCOS av e'lr} ju.d\i<TTa 9 KOIVCDVOVV- 
23 TWV airavTwv jmdXicrTa TW TroXire/a? o/xo/ft)?. eirei Se 

Tr\eiwv 6 o^/zo?, Kvpiov $ TO $0(~av TO?? TrXeiocriv, a 
74 StjfJ-OKpaTiav etvai TavTyv. ei/ /u.ev ovv eZ$o? 

TOVTO, aXXo $e TO Ta? /oX" ? " 7ro T/*i^taTwy elvai, 
^pa-^ecDV $e TOVTWV OVTCOV Set Se TW KTCOJULGVO) e^ova-iav etvai 
HiTe^LV 9 KOI Tov a7TO/3d\\ovTa jmrj fj.T^iv. eTepov ef^o? 
1292 $WOKpaTta$ TO (JLere-^eiv airavTO.<s TOV? TroXtVa? ocrot 
25 avyTreJOi/vof, a/ovefi/ oe TOV VOJULOV. ' eTepov oe e/oo? orj/jio- 
TO Tracrt /jLeretvat TWV ap^cov 9 eav jmovov y 7ro\iTi]$ 9 
Se TOV vojmov. eTepov ef^o? Srjju.oKpaTia$ T^XXa /aej/ 
a, Kvpiov $' elvai TO -TrX^Oo? /cat yu^f TOV vojuov 
TOUTO o^e yiveTat, OTCIV TO. \f/7<^)iV/xaTa Kupia y aXXa /x?7 
o j/Oyito?. <Tv/u./3aivet $e TOUTO $ia TOV? ^tjjULaywyovg. ev 
fj.ev yap TCU? /caTa vojmov SrjaoKpaTovjuLevais ov 

23 e?7rep 7c/>, K.T.X.] Compare VII. 
(VI.) n. i. 

OUTUS Af ef?7, ic. r. X.] ' In this way 
it would be most likely to exist, by 
all participating as much as possible 
in the government on equal terms.' 

^Tret 8 Tr\eiwv~\ If all are equal, 
mere number will tefl, and * the people 
is the larger number. The will of the 
numerical majority will then be the 
will of the state, and such a state is 
of necessity a democracy.' 

24 fovTretdwoi] "quicunque ma- 
culae alicui obnoxii non fuerunt, " Viet. ; 
"die kein Makel anhaftet," Stahr. 
This sense of 'men of unblemished 
character' is a good one, if the word 
will bear it * whose claim is not open 
to question,' 'who are not liable at any 
moment to be called to give an ac- 
count of themselves and justify their 
claim.' This is the translation I 
prefer. And the passage in VI. 3 
would seem to point the ground of ob- 

jection that might be taken to the 
question of birth, rots dwirevOtivois 
Kara rb -y&'os, and so to exclude the 
two meanings I have quoted above. 

25 tav fibvov -fj iro\LT-rji\ 'admitting 
no question, but accepting the fact of 
his exercise of citizenship. ' 

26 ev fdv ydp, AC. r. X.] This seems 
an odd remark, with the history of 
Greece such as we have it. It seems 
to require the attaching a rather limited 
sense to the word 5^a7W76s, not such 
as would have been attached to it in 
any Greek state by the party which 
would have claimed to be oi /3^\Trrot 
T&V iroXiT&v. We require a more ex- 
tended acquaintance with the internal 
workings of other Greek democracies 
to estimate the remark. Athens is, 
in fact, the only one which we can 
fairly judge of, and it is not true of 
Athens. The Athenian democracy 
was eminently legal and constitutional, 
and yet there were demagogues in the 

VI. (IV.) 4.] 



aXV ol fieXTivTOi TWV TroXfTaw eicrlv ev The differ- 

i </ * t / / > r ~/j t ent forms 

Tnooeoma* OTTOV o ot vo/ut-oi /my eicri Kvpioi, evTavua yivovTai of demo- 
jf> t t \ * $~ i i s\ f cracy. 

orjjuLaydoyot. /uLOvap^o? yap o 0*7^x09 yiveTai, <rvv(jeTO<s etg J 

K 7ro\\a)V ol yap TroXXol Kvpioi cicriv ou^ to? eKacrros a\\a 

"OfjLijpo? $e irolav \eyei OVK dyaOov elvai TroXu- 27 
TTorepov TavTtjv rj OTO.V 7r\elovg w(7LV ot apyovTCs 
e/cacrro?, a$r)\ov. o S J ovv TOIOVTOS (5^/xo?, are /movap- 
fjiovap^eiv $ia TO /mrj apyevQai. VTTO VO/ULOV, Kal 
yiverai SecnroTiKos, uxrre ol /coXa/ce? eWt/xor Kal <TTIV 6 
TOIOVTOS ofjjuios ava\oyov TCOI/ fj.ovapyj.iav Ty Tvpavvioi. oio 28 
Kal TO i]0o$ TO avTO, Kal a/uLcpaj oecrTTOTiKa TCOV fie\Tiovwv 9 
Kal TO. "^sqcbiG'ju.aTa wtnrep CKCI Ta 67riTay/ULaTa 9 Kal 6 orjfj(,a- 
y coy o$ Kal 6 Ko\a ol avTol Kal avaXoyov Kal /maXtarTa <5* 
CKaTepoi Trap eKaTepois ia"xyovcriv 9 ol /mev /coXa/cc? Trapa 
Tvpavvois, ol $e SyfJLaywyol Trapa rof? ^v/xoi? TO?? TOIOV- 
TOI$. atTioi <T eitrl TOV elvat TO, "vf/^^uV/uaTa Kvpia aXXa 29 

fJirj TOl'? VO/ULOV? OVTO1 9 TTOiVTOL avayOVT<5 V TOV firj/ULOV 

crv/UL(3aivt yap avTois yivecrOai fmeyaXoif oia TO TOV JULCV 


7rvT(t)v cvai Kupiov, T? e TOV /JLOV 

yap TO TrX^o? TOVTOI?. CTI S* ol Tai? apycus 30 
eyKoXovvTe? TOV 8rjfj.6v (paari Seiv Kpiveiv 6 Se a 

ordinary sense, and there, as every- 
where else, in fact, it is a necessity 
of government, ^7?0/<r / uara were fre- 
quent, without superseding the real 
efficacy of law. 

ou% ws frfacrroj aXXcb TT^JTCS] 
Compare II. in. 2-4. 

"O/miipos] II. n. 204. The language 
of Homer cannot well bear any but 
the second sense, for, as Mr. Lewis 
remarks (Opinion, 243, note B), 
" Homer's poems contain no traces of a 
political body, nor do they mention 

fj.ova,p-%eiv] In the sense of nJpowos 
efrcu, the Latin ' dominari. ' 

28 (?7rtTct7/xaTa] It is difficult to 
give the distinction in English, the 
word 'decree' expresses both. In 

the finely shaded political language of 
the present French Emperor, 'plebi- 
scite' would express ^??0t<r/ia, r de*cret' 
^irlTayfj,a. The celebrated 'ordon- 
nances ' of Charles X. would be a 
still better rendering of ^trirdy^aTa. 
29 86^t] s] ' of the opinions of the 

30 en 5<f] Not merely do the de- 
magogues increase the power of the 
people, ' but also all those who have 
any fault to find with the existing 
magistrates.' Compare Grote, v. 493, 
where this language is considered in- 
applicable to the change made by 
Pericles. Thus the popular assembly 
grasps the administrative and judicial 
power, as it had before absorbed the 




The differ- 
ent forms 
of demo- 

3 1 

T*]V 7rpoK\tj<Tiv 9 w'crre KaraXvovTai Tracrai al apyai. 
evXoytos fie av dd^eiev 7riTifj.av 6 (paa-Kcov Tt]v TOiavnjv 
etvai Srj/uLOKpaTiav ov TroXiTeiav OTTOV yap /mt] VO/JLOI ap- 
yovariv, OVK earn TroXfre/a. Set yap TOV /mev vo/mov ap^eiv 
TTCLVTOOV, TCOV $e AcaO' e/cacrra rct9 a^as /ecu Trjv iroXiTeiav 


The differ- 
ent forms 
of oli- 

1292 B 

Kpveiv. WCTT eirep eerr rj/moKpaTia jma TWV 

<pavepov co? r\ TOtavTrj KaTa<TTaart$ 9 ev 

'c>^^ ' i ' ^ \ 

, ovoe oqfJLOKpaTta Kvpiw ovoev yap 

eivai KaOoXov. Ta ju.ev ovv 


fyojO^/a? ^e e'tfirj, ev /j.ev TO OLTTO 
TrjXiKovTWv wcrre TOV$ cnropovs JUL*] 

evai Tag 



\ aXXo 
/ULaicpcov (JCXTLV al apyai Kai aipwv- 



eav $e e/c TIVCOV a<pcopiO'fJiV(i)v 9 oXtyap^iKov. \ eTepov e/oo? 
oTav Trai? O.VTL TraTjOO? ela-ly. J TCTapTOV ^', 
y TO Te vvv Xe^jdev Kal apyri ir\ 6 VO/ULOS aXX' 
Kal CCTTIV avTio-Tpo(f)o$ avTt] cv ra?9 oXiyap- 
wcTTrep tj Tvpavvl? cv Tal<s fJLovap^cus Kai Trept ?? 



etXbyus tTriTtfj,aj>~\ ' to urge a reason- 
able objection.' 

31 rrjv iroXiTeiav Kplvetv] "die Ver- 
fassung die Entscheidung haben," 
Stahr. TroXireiav would then mean 
* the government.' That it may have 
this meaning is clear from III. VI. i, 
TroXlrev/Jia, forlv 77 TroXirete, and III. VII. 
2, iroXirela Kal TroXlrevfJia cryfAaivet 
Ta.brbv. Nor do I see any other 
meaning to prefer. ' The law is to be 
supreme, but in particular cases, if 
judicial or administrative, the magis- 
trates are to decide on what is right ; 
if deliberative, the government. ' So I 
paraphrase it." 

Aristotle's general preference of 
democracy to oligarchy makes this 

long attack on one form of democracy 
rather remarkable. It is so also from 
its length, in contrast with the short 
treatment of the other forms, and the 
very small space allotted to the 
varieties of oligarchy, the last of which 
is open to precisely the same objec- 
tions as the last form of democracy. 
See VI. xi. 

V. i aipwj/rcu atfroi] They form, in 
fact, a self-electing body. The prin- 
ciple is that of co-optation. 

TOVTUV] Is this 'all who have the 
required qualifications ? ' 

ij Tvpa.vvli\ = 

ai>Ti<rTpo<j>os rfj TvpavviSi 'corresponds 

VI. (IV.) 5.] 



T\VTalag e'lTra/ULev ^jmoKpaTiag ev TOLI? Srj/u.oKpaTLai$* KOI 
tcaXovcri <$*] rrjv ToiavTtjv oXiyap-^iav 

p.ev ovv e'lfirj Toaravra KOI SrjfjLOK par/a?. 

J * J \ .d ' * \\ ~ O'O * 

dei oe \avuaveiv OTL TroAAaYjw crvjULpepyKev cocrre 

^v ' * ^ A > A ^ 

iroXireiav ryv Kara rou? VOJULOVS fit] drjjuLortKriv etvai, 

\ci o^e TO $$09 /cat 

oe TraAfy Trap' aAAoi? 


/ixei/ KO.TO. TOU? 


the form 

an( i spirit 

oXiyap^eicrOaL ju.a\\ov. (TVjUifialvei Se TOVTO /ma- 
IULCTO. Ta? /xeTa/^oAa? TOJJ/ TroAfTetroi'* ou *yayO eu^uy 
/u.Ta/3aLvovariv, a A A' ayaTroocrt Ta Trpcora jmiKpa TrXeove- 
KTOvvT<s Trap* aAA^Awi/, tocr^' o yuej/ vojuioi 
ot TrpovTrap-^ovTeg 9 KpaToOcri o^' o/ /ueTa/SctAAoi/Te? 

(TT Tocravra etStj 8t]]u.oKpaTia$ KOL 6\iyap- 

to,' 'is the counterpart of.' Khet. I. 
i. i, p. 1354. i. 

Ka\ov<7t Sri] In fact, they give this 
last form of oligarchy a peculiar name, 
thus distinguishing it, as its counter- 
parts are distinguished from their 
kindred forms. It is called Swao-rela. 
' The rule of a few powerful families. ' 

3 rrjv Kara TOUS v6fj.ovs] ' such as it 
is expressed in the laws.' 

rb tfjBos] 'from the character of 
those who administer it.' 

TTJV aycjy^v] ' the spirit in which it 
is administered,' ' the tendency im- 
pressed upon it. ' 

rots %6e<nv~\ = T< ijdet. For ^0os is in 
fact the sum and expression of a man's 

4 roOro] This contrast between the 
existing constitution and the spirit in 
which it is administered. 

/u,era rds /iera/SoXcis] This expression 
is not quite easy. Is the case Aris- 
totle is contemplating that of a counter- 
revolution, such as was of frequent 
occurrence in Greek states, and has 
been not uncommon in modern history, 

a case especially familiar to us of late 
years ? The revolution has been suc- 
cessful. The constitution sprung from 
it has been accepted, but the adminis- 
tration of that constitution has been 
conducted in an entirely alien spirit. 
The constitution remains, but by 
small encroachments is rendered 
nugatory, till the time comes when it 
may be set aside in form, as well as in 
spirit ol fJL^v VO/JLOI Sia/x&'oueriJ' of 
TrpoiJTrdpxovTes, Kparouffi 5' ol 
/3aAAo'Tes TTJV iroXiTeLav. 

are content at first. ' 

VI. I The connection of this chap- 
ter with what precedes is difficult to 
trace. The statements point to its 
being a justification of the enumera- 
tions given in iv. and v. See 
especially 7, roffavra K<ti roiavra Sta 
rai^ras rds avdyKas, but it really does 
rather give an account of the working 
of the several forms there enumerated, 
explaining why in some law is, in 
others is not powerful. But whatever 
may be the connection or general 









The rea- v/ce?, e avTcov TCOV eiprjfjLevcov (bavepov etTTiv. avdyKt] 
sons for ^ * -t \ > / / ~ ^/ 

there being yap Jj TravTa Ta eipyjueva ftepr] TOV ot/juov KOivcoveiv T*)<S 
so many -v r ->\ \ * \ * t !'; </ \ ^ \ \ 

forms of 7ro\iTeia$ 9 r\ Ta juiev Ta oe JULIJ. jloTa^ /mev ovv TO yecopyiKov 

ie two m, ,m vcvn-ntic-unt, ucn-niQy QVCTiaV KVOLOV fj T^9 TToXf TC^Otfj 

KaTa vdfjiovs' eypv&i yap epya^d/mevoi tfjv 9 ov 
wcrTe TOV VOJULOV e7n<TTrj<javTe<s e'/c/cX*/- 
Ta? avayicaias e/c/cX^cr/a?' TO?? o^e aXXof? 

OTav KTycrwvTat TO Tijuunua TO 

/ ff^ * \ \ \ 

VOJU.GOV. oAft)? jmev yap TO juev / 

'/, TO oe o^ e^eivat o"^o\a^eiv aovvaTov /mrj TTOOCT- 
TOVTO imev ovv e/oo? ev or]ju.OKpaTia$ 9 $ta 

^ i V </ ri< -y \ < r c/ 

Ta? atTia?, eTepov oe etoo? ota TY\V e^o/mevrjv aipeariv 
COTTL yap Kal Tracriv e^eivai TO?? avvrrevOvvois KaTa TO 

4 yevo$ 9 /uLCTe-^eiv JULCVTOL ovva^evois o-^oXa^eti 
TOiavTYi ornJLOKpaTia ol vdjmoi ap^ov<ri 9 
Trpdorooov. TOLTOV o etoo? TO Traffiv e^eivai 9 b<roi 
eXevOepoi (Scri 9 fjieTeyeiv T^? TroXfTe/a?, /my jmevTOi 

Sia TIJV 7rpoeipr)ju.evt]v atTiav 9 COCTT^ avayKaiov Kal ev 

5 ap^eiv TOV VOJULOV. \ TeTapTOV oe e/oo? o^/xo/c/oaT/a? rj TeXeu- 
1293 Ta/a TO?? xpdvoi? ev Tai$ 7rd\e<ri yeyevrjjuievt]. $ia yap TO 

yue/^ou? yeyovevai TroXu Ta? Tro'Xe^ TCOV e VTrapxys Kal 
vTrdp-^eiv ev7ropia$ 9 fULeTe-^ovcn juev irdvTes T^9 
^d Triv virepoym TOV r jr\riSov^ 9 KOIVWVOV<TL o"e Kal 

i /V 

* [Ato 7ra<7t ro?s Krwfi&ois %<m fcer^ew] Bekker. 


oioifep ev 
TO e 


bearing of the chapter, its statements 
are such as to redeem it from the 
charge of mere repetition. 

2 ^ou<rt 7<z/> epya^6/JLVot tfv] ' They 
can live if they work.' 

^TTKmJcraj'Tes] ' They set the law 
over them as supreme, and only attend 
such assemblies as are indispensable.' 

3 %eii>ai] If this second t%ivai be 
kept, it must be translated : ' But it 
is impossible they should have it in 
their power to have leisure unless 
there are revenues sufficient to secure 
it them.' 

5ti TT)t> lyo^vyv a'ipeffLv] This is 
hard unless we consider a'tpe(rii> as 
equivalent to Sialpefftv, and translate 
' dependent on the distinction which 
follows.' If so, the distinction must 
mean that between this form and the 
next. But I do not feel clear as to 
the passage. 

&v\jirevd'uvoii\ see note on IV. -24. 
Sfj'a/u.&'ots] ' only if they are able.' 
5 rots xp6vois] 'in point of time.' 
TUV e uTrapxTjs] 'than they were 
when originally constituted.' 

dta TT)v virepoxyv TOV 7rX?j0oi>s] ' be- 

VI. (IV.) 6.] 



o\a TO SvvatrOai a-voXd'feiv Kal rot'? CLTTOQOV? The rea- 

a ' * /. X ' ".' 1 -\ 'Y ^ - SOI1S f r 

JULICTUOV. teat /maAHTTa oe o"^oAaCei TO TOLOV- there being 

\ ~/j \ ty > \ /)< r ^ i$f so many 

TOV TTArjVo?" ov yap ejULTTodi^ei avTovs ovuev t] TCOV idicov f orms O f 

TOf? oe TrXouir/ou? ei*'jroo/Ce< WOTTC TroXXa/a? ou 


*^ e two 

KOIVU>VOV<TI r^? KK\r}<ria<s ovSe TOV fiiKa^eiv. $10 ytveTai TO ments. 

aTTOpCDV 7T\tj6o$ KVplOV 

TToXfTe/a?, aXX' 

rri \ 

1 a fj.ev ovv Trjg dyjULOKpaTias eiorj TocravTa tcai TOICLVTO. 
raJra? ra? aj/a ( y/ca9 <TTIV ra <^e r^? dXfya^o^/a?, orai^ 

O VOfJLOl. 6 


ia 7 


e^cocriv overlay, eXaTTCO oe Kal imr] 7ro\\rjv \lav 9 TO 
Xiyap-^ias ef^o? ecrrii/' TTOIOVO-L yap e^ov<riav 

TO) KT(t)/U,V(p. Kal OlO. TO 7T\f]Oo$ CtVai TU)V /XGT6- 8 

v TOV TToXiTevjULaTO? avayKrj juiri TOV$ avOpcoirovs aXXa 
elvai Kvpiov ocrw yap av 7r\eiov aTre-^cocrL 
Kal ^TC TO<ravTt]v e^jcrtv ova-lav 

ctfjieXovvTa?, jm^O' OI/TCD? oXiytjv uxJTe Tpe(f)ear9at CLTTO 
TroXeo)?, avdyKt] TOV VO/ULOV afyovv avToi? ap-^eiv 9 aXXa 
M avTovs. eav $e o^Py eXaTTOf? SXTIV 01 Ta? oucr/a? 
rj oi TO TTpoTepov, TrXelo) <^e, TO T^? <$evTepa$ oXi 
yiveTai e/oo?* imaXXov yap ICT^VOVTCS TrXeoveKT-eiv a 
oio auToJ /u.ev aipovvTat CK TCOV aXXwv TOV$ ei? TO 

Q ^'Y * \ ^ ^ r / ' \ ^ c/v 

paoi^ovTa?, ota oe TO /UL^TTCD OVTCOS icr^ypoi eivai OXTT avev 
VOJULOV ap-^etv, TOV VOJULOV TiOevTai TOLOVTOV. eav ^ eiri- 10 

cause of the supremacy vested in the 

6 Kal fj-dXiffTa 8 <rxoXct^"ei] Not 
only has it the opportunity ' but more 
than any other body does it avail itself 
of that opportunity of leisure. ' 

^u,7ro5^et avrots] 'It is tinfettered 
by the attention to their private in- 
terests which embarrasses the rich, 
to such an extent that often they abstain 
from the public assembly and much 
more from the administration of 
justice. ' 

7 5td ra^ras ras avdyKas] ( on these 
strong and compulsory grounds.' 

iroiovcri 7p] From their "number 
already, they are not averse to ad- 

A. P. 

mitting more, they do not feel a jealous, 
exclusive spirit. 

8 elvai] If not superfluous, it must 
be translated : ' and because they are 
a large number between whom the 
government is shared. ' 

aurots] may depend on dvdyKtj. 
'They are compelled/ or, 'it is ne- 
cessary for them to wish the law to 
rule for them and not themselves,' 

g fj,a\\ov yap Iff-^ovr^, K. r. X.] 
power begets in them the desire of 
increased power. 

jSaStfoiras] Compare VIII. (V.) i 

TOLOVTOV} ( in accordance with their 





The rea- 

sons for 

there bein 

so many 


the two 



T6/I/OMTI TU) eXaTTOves ovre? yue/^oya? oucr/a? fyeiv, rj 
' ' 5> ' " *\ ' \ \ \ 

e7rt O(TL S yiveTai r>79 oXiyap^ias, TO oi avTcov fjiev ra? 

apy9 \tv 9 /caret VOULOV Se TOV KeXevovTa TCOV reXeu- 

r* A ^ , '.. % v , , , 

TdDVTCov oiaoe-^ecruaL rou? vi ei 9. oray oe ^0*7 TroXi' virep- 

t ~ > r \ -\ j. ~\ ' >^r 

TeivwGL Tai? ov(riai<s KCLI TOLL? 7ro\v(pi\iai$, eyyvs rj 

TOiaiiTrj SvvacrTeia fJLovap^la<s ea-Tiv, Kal Kvpioi yivovTai 
oi av9p(*)7TOi, aXX^ ou^ o vojmos' Kal TO TGTapTov elo$ 
TOVT ecrr/v, avTi<TTpo(f)ov rw reXeura/w 

the TroXi- 


<T eiVi ^Jo 7ro\iT6iai irapa SrjjmoKpaTiav re /cat 

oXfyapv/a^, <i/ r^/i/ /uei/ eTepav Xeyovtri re Trarre? /cat 
, '^ ' ^ , , 

eiprjTai TCOV TeTTapcov TTOAITCICDV eido? ei/' \eyov<ri oe rer- 

Tapa$ juLovap^iaV) oXiyap-^tav, $r]iui.oK:paTiav 9 TeTapTOV Se 
TV\V KaXovfJievrfv apiGTOKpaTLav Tre/ULTrTrj S' e(TT\v Trpocr- 
ayopeveTai TO KOIVOV OVOJULGL iraa-cov (iroXiTeiav yap 
Ka\ov(Tiv) 9 aXXa Sia TO ^ TroXXct/cf? yiveo-Oai \av6avei 
TOV? Treipoojmevovs apiOjmeiv TO, TWV 

TCU? TTTapa-i 
?' ApufTOKp 

ircpl ?9 $iJ]\QoiJ.ev ev TO?? TrpcoTOis \6yoi$' T^V yap e/c 


ev Ta$ 


10 eTr^Socrts] ' the third stage in the 
growth or increase. ' a! ^7rt56(rets r&v 
Tex v ">v Efh. I. vii. i, p. 1098, 24 ; 
Ibid. n. viii, p. 1109, 17. 

1 1 rat's 7roXu0tXiats] ( large num- 
bers of friends,' comp. EtJi. ix. x. 6, p. 

II7I, 17, TToXlTl/CUJS /i^ OlV ?CTTl TToX- 

Xols elvat (f>i\ov Kal ^ apeffKov 8t>Ta, 
dXX' ws aXtidus e?rtet/c^. 

YII. I efy>77Tcu rcDj/ Terrdpwv} Aris- 
totle, in the -Rhetoric, I. viii., p. 1365, 
b. 29, gives the four here mentioned. 

Tty Ka\ovntvr)v\ ' the so-called aris- 
tocracy,' not his own ideal state, as 
sketched in the 4th and 5th books 
(VII. VIII.), but aristocracy in the 
popular sense, answering to the timo- 
cracy of Plato's Republic. The divi- 

sion in the Rhetoric, like the one here 
given, is popular, and lays no claim to 
the scientific accuracy of the divisions 
given in Eth. VIII. xii., and Politics, 
in. 7. 

vtlixmi 8<J 'there is a fifth.' 

5t& rb /u.77 7roXXct/as yiveadai] Though 
considered more attainable than the 
other two ideal forms, it yet is far 
above the average of governments, it 
remains practically an ideal and of 
rare occurrence. 

iv rats TroXtre/ats] 'in his treatises 
on Politics.' 

2 ev rocs 7r/>c6rois X670ts] Books 
III-V (III. VII. VIII.). Here 
again the language is in favour of a 
change of arrangement, assuming his 
own state to have been described. 

VI. (IV.) 7.] 



TO)V apLCTTOOV OL7T\(JOg KCLT* apTr]V TToXlTCiaV, Kdl /ULrj TTOO? Aristo- 
t t f\ I > f\~ ft - / v cracy and 

vTroOecriv TIVOL ayaucov avopu>v 9 [Aovyv oiKatov Trpovayo- the iro\i- 

f i i i / \ < -x ~ 5 \ > \ rela. 

peveiv apicrroKpaTiav. ev i^ovy yap aTrXco? o avros avrjp _ 
Kal 7roX/T>79 ayaOos ea-Ttv ol & ev TCLIS a\\ai$ ayaOol 

TTjOO? TYIV 7rO\lTeLCLV 1<TL Tt]V CLVTWV. OV fLt]V ttXX' ttffi 3 

Tives ai irpog TG TOC? oXiyap^ov/meva^ eyj3v<ri $iad)opa$ 9 
Kat KaXovvrai apKTTOKpaTiai, Kal TTjOO? Trjv Ka\ov/u.ei>r]v 
iro\iTLav 9 OTTOV ye fj.rj /ULOVOV TrXovTiv^v aXXa /cat api- 
O-TLV^V atpovvrai ra? apyas. avTrj rj TroXtreta $ia<pepet re 
a]UL(poiv Kal apKTTOKpaTiKrj Ka\eirai. Kal yap ev raF? fji^ 4 
7roiov[j.evai$ Koivyv eTrt/meXeiav apeTqs elcrlv oyuco? Tive$ OL 
evooKi/u,ovvT$ Kat SoKovvTe? elvai eTTieiKeis*, \OTTOV ouv r\ 

{BXeirei e'l$ Te TT\OVTOV KOI apeTyv KOI orj/ULOV, olov 
vi, avrrj apKTTOKpariK^ earTivy\Kal ev alg eis 

JULOVOV, olov *} A.aKe$aiju,ovi(*)v ei? aperrjv re Kal 

l eCTTf ^t/^f? TGOV SvO TOVT(i)V 9 St]jUiOKpaTia$ T 

l apery^ \\ apiffTOK parlay fjiev ovv irapa Trjv Trpwrijv 5 
TV\V aplcTTtjv I yroXtTe/ay TCLVTOL ovo e'lotj' Kai TOLTOV o<rai 
T^9 KaXov/uLevq? TroXtre/a? peTrovart TTJOO? ryv o\iyap-^iav 





AOITTOV S* ea-rlv yfjLiv Trepi 

eiTretv Kal Trepi Tvpavvioos' Ta^afj.ev o' 

TT)i> y&p K T&V aplffruv, K. r. X.] 
"The government of the best men 
absolutely, tried by the standard of 
moral virtue, and not by some arbi- 
trary standard of excellence," ' this is 
the only one which we are justified in 
calling aristocracy.' The first part of 
the translation I quote from Mr. 
Lewis on Opinion, p. 252. 

6 af>r6s] 'The same person is at 
once a good man and a good citizen. ' 

3 rwes] sc. TroAiracu. 
8-jrov ye] ' Since in them.' 

4 KOivty e-m/j,\etav Troiov/mevais] This 
is the characteristic of his true apt- 
ffTOKparla his ideal state. 

Kapxri86vt~] In the chapter on Car- 

thage, II. n, he gives TrXovrlvS^v Kal 
dpt<rTiv5r)i>, but it is not easy to justify 
the drjfiov. He says, it is true, STJ/JLOV 
exovffav, but the tenor of his remarks 
is against any democratical admixture. 
See the notes on that chapter. 

VIII. I vo/af 0/^175] I should pre- 
fer dvofji.afo/uifr'rjs, but perhaps it is 
safer to leave it as it stands. The 
KaXov/j-dfrjs above is in favour of a 
change, as are one or two other passages 

erd^a/jify 8' oOVcos] 'I have placed 
them here, not that either the TroXtre/a 
or the aristocracies just mentioned are 
really deviations, but for this reason, 
that in strict truth they all fall short 




The TroXi- OVK ovcrav OVTC TavTyv TrapeK/Bacriv ot/re ra? cipTi p*i9eicras 
rela, what , , f , > * > /v ~ ^ ' 

it is. apicrTOKpaTias, OTL TO /mev a\t]ue$ Traarai ditj/mapT^Kacri TW 

~ opOoTaTrjs TroXiTe/a?, eTreiTa KaTapiOjmovvTai yotexa TOVTCOV, 
elari T' avTwv avTai TrapeK/3acrei$ 9 wcrTrep ev TO?? /car' 
2 apx*iv e'LTTOfJ-ev. TeXevTaiov $e Trepl TvpavviSos euXoyov 
TroiqcracrOai /mveiav did TO Tracrwv tjKKTTa TavTrjv etvai 
fi/mtv <$e TV\V /meOoSov etvai Trepl TroXiTela$. $i 
vjv JULCV ovv aiTiav rera/craf TOV TpOTrov TOVTOV 9 e'tptjTai' vvv Trepl TroXire/a?. (paveputTepa yap rj 
ctvrrjs oicopia'ju.evwv TWV Trepl o\iyap"^Lag Kal 

3 earTi yap r] TroXire/a a)? aTrXw? eiTreiv /mifys o\Lyapyia? Kal 

eicoOavt $e KaXeiv ra? JULCV dTroK\ivov<ra<s a>? 
SrjjuiOKpaTiav TToXire/ay, ra? ^e TT^OO? Trjv oXiyap- 
api<TTOKpaTia$ Sia TO /ULO\\OV aKO\ov6eiv 

4 Traioelav Kai evyeveiav Tolg evTropcoTepois. CTI oe OOKOUCTIV 
e^eiv ol euTropOL &V eveicev oi aoiKOvvTes aoiKovcriv oOev Kal 

Kciya6ov$ Kal yvcopljuiovs TOVTOVS Trpoa-ayopevovanv. 

of the ideal form, consequently, they 
are enumerated with these deviations 
from the ideal form. These, the true 
deviations, are themselves, as we said 
at first, deviations in the second de- 
gree, deviations, that is, from the 
iroXiTda and these two kinds of aris- 
tocracy. ' Such I conceive to be the 
meaning of this difficult passage, in 
which he justifies his arrangement. 
I cannot agree with Nickes in his 
view of the passage, pp. 111-112, note 
I. For OVK ofoav, ov SoKovvav has 
been proposed. The STL must be 
brought into close connection with 
= T&V Trape /c/3d<rea'. 


&pn pt]dei<r<J0v 

3 yu/ts, K.T.X.] It combines the 
two forms, is, as it were, a compromise 
between them. 

ws] is superfluous. 

irpbs TT]v df]fjt.oKpaTiay] The two 

elements are difficult to combine on 
exactly equal terms, and their varying 
relation will determine the name to be 

Traidelav Kal evyeveiav'] compare RJtet. 
I. 8, p. 1366, 5- dpicrTOKparias 
T\OS ra irpbs Traideiav Kal ra v6[JU[jia. 
Wealth in the second generation does 
ordinarily involve education. It 
secures leisure, and the wealthy 
cannot without education either en- 
joy or turn to full account their 

4 Education and birth then are 
given, what becomes of dperr/ virtue ? 
It is claimed or assumed. The weal- 
thy have already that which others 
commit injustice to attain, they have 
no temptation to evil, hence it is in- 
ferred that they are good. The stress 
is on the word txcu>. Wealth, then, 
in the popular view, is the guarantee 
for all the other requisites, the wealthy 

VI. (IV.) 8.] 



d ovv rj apicTTOKpaTia BovXerai rw virepoYtiv aTroveueiv The ^ 

~ ~ \ * j Te ^ a ' w ^ 

apHTTOig TU>V TroXiTwv, KCLI ra? oXiyap-^iag elvai (fiao-iv it is. 

/c TWV KaXwv KayaQwv /uaXXoi/. (We* (T eu/cu rwi/ ct(Wa- 5 1294 
TWV TO jULt] evvojueicrOai T*]v apicrTOKpaTOvjuievrjv TroXiv, aXXa 
7rovr]pOKpaTOV/uivr]v 9 ojULOiaos Se KCU apia-TOKpaTeio-Oai TY\V jmt] 
OVK earTt oe ewoftia TO eu Ki(rOai TOV$ 
, /mrj TreiOecrOat <$e. $to ju.lav JULCV edvopiav VTroXrj- 5 
eivai TO TreiOea-Oai TOtg Kei/mevots vofjiois, eTepav $e TO 
/caXco? KeicrOai TOV$ j/Oyaou? oT? ejuLjULevovanv GCTTI yap TTCL- 
Oea-Oai KCU /ca/ca)? KeifJievois' TOVTO ^' eV^e'^ercu 
yap TOIS apicrTois TWV evSeyofJLevwv auro??, rj TO?? ct 

' rj 

are in the judgment of men, ipso facto, 
KaXol KayaOol Kal yv<Jopi/j.oi = evyevels. 
fiovXerai] ' It is its aim and object. ' 
<f>a<nv] and so as far as they can 
identify them with aristocracy. 

5 So/tel] In the popular notions, as 
we have seen, there exists a confusion 
on the subject of wealth. It is made 
to guarantee to its possessor much 
besides itself. Nor is this the only 
confusion traceable. The moral sense 
attached to the words KaXoi icayadoi 
has gradually become inextricably en- 
tangled with the original sense of the 
same words, which was social or 
political, and there may be traced a 
whole series of errors dependent on 
the assumption that apiaTOKparta is the 
government of the best and most 
virtuous citizens, instead of a moderate 
oligarchy, its true political sense in 
common language, implying no moral 
qualifications on the part of those in 
whom it is vested. But the erroneous 
reasoning of the many, combined with 
the interested acceptance of their error 
by the few, has so rooted the error on 
this subject, that it is extremely 
difficult to keep clear of it. It colours 
much of the political language of our 
day, from which the particular form of 
error given in the text might almost 

seem borrowed. ' It is thought com- 
monly to be an impossibility that the 
state, which has an aristocratical 
government should not be well- 
ordered, whilst that which is in the 
hands of the lowest should be well 
governed ; similarly it is urged that a 
state not well-ordered cannot possibly 
be under an aristocratical government.' 

irovrjpoKpaTov/ji^Tjv] Tr6j>r)pos, here 
again the simply political sense is con- 
fused with the moral, a fallacy which 
finds frequent illustration in Aristo- 
phanes. It expresses a democratical 
government from the point of view 
of its aristocratical opponents. 

OVK tan St, K. T. X.] ' But we must 
remember,' says Aristotle, ' that good 
laws, unobeyed, do not constitute 
good order. In one sense it is good 
order to obey the law, be that law 
good or bad ; but it is a different and 
far higher sense of the term, when 
there is not only obedience to law, 
but good law to which that obedience 
may be paid.' 

6 TOVTO] is a short expression for 

VOVVLV, and in the next clause the 
word dpi<rTois is governed by e/*/^- 
vovffw, when for the sense it would be 
better to put it in the accusative, but 




The TroXt- api<TTOi$. SOKCI $e apicrroKpaTia jmev GLVOLL /md\i(7Ta TO 
rela. what \ % ~ r\ > r ' t \ \ 

it is. Ta S" Ti/mag veveurjcruai. /car aperrjv apiorTOKpaTia? /mev yap 

0^009 dpeTrj, 6\Lyap^[ag Se irXovros, Stf/mov <T e\ev9epia' TO 

<T o TI av od(~rj To*9 7r\ioariv, ev Trdcrats vTrdp-^ei" Kal yap 

ev oXiyap^ia KOI ev apierTOKpaTia Kal ev cy/mots, 6 TI av 

rj TO) 7r\6iovi aepei TCOV jULeTe^ovTOOv r^? TroAfre/a?, TOUT' 

8 ecrTi Kvpiov. 'E/ /jtej/ ouf Ta?? TrXe/crTaf? groXein TO T^? TTO\I- 
Telag el3o9 KaXeirar /mdvov yap rj fiij*is <jTo^a(eTaL TWV evTrd- 
po)v KOI TCOV CLTrdpow TT\OVTOV Kal eXevOepla?" o"^eov yap irapa 
TOIS 7r\ei<TTOi9 ol evTTOpoi TWV KoXtav KCtyaOcov OOKOVO-I KaT~ 

9 -^etv -^wpav. eirel $e Tpia evTi TO. aiu.<pia-/3r]TovvTa T^? 

^? TroXiTe/a?, \ev6ep[a TrXouTo? apeTy (TO yap 
, o KoXovariv evyeveiav, aKoXovOei TOIS owiv rj yap 
cvyevetd <TTIV dp-^aio^ TT\OVTO<; Kal dpeTij), (pavepov OTL 
Trjv fjiev TOIV fivoiv fJ-ifyv, TCOV einrdpwv Kal TU>V aTrdpwv, 

7TO\lTiaV \KTOV, Tr]V 0^6 TCOV TplCOV dpKTTOKpaTiaV /U.d\t(TTa 

TO TWV a\\a)V Trapd T^V dXyOivrjv Kal TrpwTqv. OTL jmev ovv 
ecrTL Kal GTepa TroXfTe/a? etStj Trapa /movapy^iav TC Kal $t]/uio- 

it seems attracted by the datives 
/cetytt^ots and ofs e/j,/j.i>ov(riv. 

7 apiffTOKparla iitv, K. T. X. ] ' Aris- 
tocracy is thought especially to consist 
in having the offices distributed ac- 
cording to virtue.' 

fl/oos] ' The peculiar characteristic, ' 
"le caractere special," St. Hil. 

r6 5' Tt, /c.r.X.] See Ch. IV. i. 
As common to all it cannot be the 
distinction of any one. 

8 rb TTJS TroXirefas eTSos KaXeTrai] 
The sense of these words is not very 
certain. Do they mean ' The form of 
government is called TroXtre/a in the 
great majority of the states where any 
mixture of the different elements is 
attempted,' thus limiting the TrXei- 
0-Tcus 1 ' For all that the combination 
aims at is to blend the two elements 
of rich and poor, wealth and freedom ; 
for the great majority hardly inquire 

further, but accept the wealthy as 
competent representatives of the really 
good.' But still there is this third 
element of virtue, and where that is 
taken into account with the two others, 
there we may apply the term aristo- 
cracy, where only the two others, there 
we have TroXireta. 

' to fill the place of.' 
Comp. Grote, in. 62, on the sense of 
these words KaXol Ka.ya.6oi, and similar 

9 rd dfj,(picrp'r)Tovi'Ta] Compare the 
long discussion in Book III. XII. 13, 
for ei/yeveta also, III. XIII. 3. 

yudXto-ra r&v &\\uv~\ ' more than any 
other form of government, with the 
exception of the true and ideal form. ' 
Trpd}TTf)v in the sense of ' perfect. ' Com- 
pare Rhet. I. 2, 13, p. 1356, 17, 6 Trpui- 

VI. (IV.) 9.] 



Kpariav KOI oXiyapvlav, e'lpriTai, Kal Troia ravra, /ecu TL The iro ^ 1 ' 
t i t * > * ' i \ rda, what 

cia(J)epovcriv dXXrjXwv cu T dpi(TTOKpaTiai Kai at TroXi- it is. 

Tciai TW dpia-TOKpaTias, KOI on ov 7ropp(*) avrai aXX^Xaw, 

lYva <$e TpoTTOv yivGTai Trapa Srj/moKpaTiav Kal oXiyap- g 

KaXov/ULevr] TroXfTe/a, KCU TTO)? avTyv oei KaOicrTavai, , e ^ L " 

Tol<s eiprj/mevois. a/ma $e $f]\ov ecrrai KOL it is to be 

T t ** ^ , ^ . ^ > ^ > consti " 

of? opi^ovTai Ttjv orjiuLOKpaTiav KCU T^v oXijapyiav' Arjirreov tuted. 

yap rrjv TovToov $iaipea-iv 9 efra etc TOVTWV acf) eKCtTepas wcr- 
Trep <rvjUL/3o\ov \ajmf3dvovTas crvvOeTeov. EtVi <5e OjOot TjOe?? 2 
T^9 <rvv9e<Te(jt)s Kal /x/^ea)?. T ^f 'yajO d/m(poT6pa XrjTTTeov wv 
eKarepai VOpoQerovcrtv, olov irepl TOV SiKaQiv. ev JULCV yap 
Tats 6\iyap-)(lai? TOIS evjropois fyjULLav TaTTOixriv, av jmrj St- 

Ko(*HTl 9 TO?? (5' aTTOOOf? OVOGVa /ULlCrOo 

T/at? TO?? yu^ cnropois lULierOov, TO?? 

KOIVOV <$e Kal pea-ov TOVTU>V d/ui(f)OTpa ravra' Sto 3 
ToXiTiKov jmejmiKTai yap e d]u,<poiv.\ let? /xey oui/ ouro? I2 94 B 
(rvvSvacrjuiOv T^OOTTO?, eTepos o^e TO /ULGOTOV \a/uL/3dveiv &v 

r ^ -\ 'V ^ i \ ^ 


ovBevo? rj /uiiKpov TrdfATrav, ol ^' avro /maKpov Tt/*^uaToy /cot- 
ye ovoerepov, aXXa TO yaeVov eKarepov Ti/u^/xaTO? 
e/c ^uo?^ TaxaTOf^, Ta xej^ e/c TOU dXi- 4 


V O6 TCt?9 Or]jULOKpa- 

' evTropot? 

.! F 

vojuiov, TOL e/c TOU 

rj/uLOKpaTiKov jmev etvai TO KXypwras eivai rag 
TO (^ atpeTOLs oXiyapx/LKOv, Kal SyjULOKpaTiKov /xet/ TO /x^ OLTTO 

<$e TO diro Tf/x^aTOf.J apivTO- 5 

IX. I ylverat] Having described 
the TroXirda in itself, he proceeds to 
the question of its formation. 

fi/xa S 5?7Xoj>, K.T. X.] ' This will be 
clear by the simple statement of the 
characteristics by which men deter- 
mine democracy and oligarchy.' All 
that is to be done is to state these, 
distinguish them, and then take what 
you want from either, and put the 
parts together as you would the two 

halves of anything cut in two. For 
the (Tifyt/SoXoi' was something cut in 
two, the parts of which fitted exactly 
and served as a ticket for the holder. 
Compare Plato, Symp. 191, D, dvdpti- 
, tire 

i Spot rpets] c three different modes. ' 
3 iro\iTiK6v] It suits the TroXtreta. 
TO n,aov \afj,(3di>eii>] ' to take the 





ret'a. How /T '-.*<* t \\ \ i r 

it is to be pen/, e/c ju.ev T>/9 o\Ljapyj.a<s TO aipeTas TTOICIV ra? a 

consti- ? c\\ ~ ^ ' \\^> / f/^i 

tuted e/c e T> 7 ? v t 1t J ' OK p aTLa S TO /x/y avro Ti/miJiu.aTO$. (J 

~~ TpOTTOS T>/9 jULL^eCOS OVTO9j TOU ^' 6^ jULfJLl^OaL 

KOL oXiyapylav opo<s, QTOLV cvSe^Tai \eyeiv Trjv 
7ro\iTiav SrijULOKpaTiav Kal 6\iyap^iav <$rj\ov jap OTL 
TOVTO 7rdo")^ov(TLV ol \eyovTes Sia TO /me/ui 
ireirovQe $e TOVTO Kal TO /u,e<rov' /u.(f)aLveTai yap eKOL 
ev avTW TWV aKpwv. ff O7rep arv/UL/Baivei Trepl T^V Aa/ce^at- 

7 jULovicov 7roXfT6/a^. TToXXoJ y a P cy^eipovGri Xeyeiv a)? 

s ov<rw $ ia T0 SiHAOKpaTiKa TroXXa Trjv TVLLV 
) olov TrpwTOV TO Trepl TY\V Tpoiprjv TCOV TTCtlSww 0^0/0)9 
yap 01 TOOV TrXovcricov TpecpovTai TOI<? TWV TrevrjTcov., Kal 
TraifievovTai TOV TpOTrov TOVTOV ov av SvvaiVTO Kal TU>V 

8 TrevrjTMV ol TraiSe^. ofJLoiwg Se Kal ejrl r^9 e-^o/uLev^? ^Xf/c/9, 
KOI oTav avSpeg yevwvTai, TOV avTOv Tpoirov ovOev yap 

o 7T\ou(rio<? KOI 6 Trevys. oi/Vft) TOL Trepl T*\V 
TavTa Traartv ev Tol<s CTVCTCTITIOIS, Kal Tr\v e<r6qTa 01 


TCOV 7revr)TU)V 6(TTicrovv 

TY\V imev atpeia-Oai TOV 




ol ^' 

av oia TO TroXXa e^eiv oXtyap^tKa., olov TO 

elvai Kal imrjSe/uLiav K\rjpcoT^v 9 Kdl o\iyovs eivat 

6 8pos TOV eft /te/it%^ai] ' Tlie test or 
characteristic of the combination 
having been successfully performed.' 

TOVTO Trdo'x ova ' iv ] 'feel this.' 

7 ws drjfjLOKpaTias ova-rjs] 'to speak 
of it as a democracy,' as though Trepl 
avTTJs had preceded. 

8 ov8v y&p SidoyXos'] ' There is no 
difference to mark.' 

Tis] is superfluous. There was 
then at Lacedsemon considerable 
social equality side by side with great 
political inequality, and it acted as a 
compensation for this last. Social 
equality is an idea which we in Eng- 

land find it hard to grasp, from the 
deep-rooted hold which social differ- 
ences and class distinctions have got, 
but it is one which it would be most 
desirable to introduce. It is in the 
alienation of the various classes and 
consequent soreness, that lies the sting 
of political inequalities. 

o'iav &v TIS] This TIS with the 6<TTL<rouj> 
at the end of the sentence, is quite 

9 For the matter of this section, 
compare II. ix. 25. 6avaTov, II. ix. 
25, III. T. 10. 

VI. (IV.) 10.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 281 

OavaTov Kai (pvytjs, Kal aXXa TOiavTa TroXXa. oei 
i/ Ty 7ro\iT6ia Ty ju,/uLiy/u.evr] /caX<w9 ajULfboTepa OOKCLV 

\ / \ 'Y r\ '-:** ^^ v >- n 

/ca: /mrjoeTepov, Kac <ra)(e(7uai 01 aur>79 /cat /oc^ e^wu 
Kal cV auT^9 /x^ TO) 7rXe/of9 e^coOev elvai TOV<S 
(eirj yap av Kal Trovqpa TroXtre/a roi/0' vTrapyjav) aXXa 
yu^^' aV /3ov\ecr6ai 7ro\iTiav eTepav [JirjOev TWV T^9 
juiopicov 0X0)9. TiVa yaei/ ow Tpojrov Set KaOicrTavai TTO\I- 
Teiav, o/xo/ft)9 c^e /cat rc\9 oVo/xa^o/xeVa9 apia-TOKpaTias, vvv 

The tests 
of a true 

, I0 


ITe/oJ oe Tvpavvtoos fjv \OLTTOV CITTCIV, ou^ coy 6i/o- 
TroXuXoy/a? Tre^f aur^i/, aXX' OTTO)? \dj3r) r^? jmeOoSov 
TO jULepos, CTreiorj Kal TavTtjv TiOe/mev TCOV TroXiTeicov TI /me- tyranny. 
009. Trepl fj.V ovv /5aa*fXe/a? otcoo/a'a/xet' ev TO?? TrpcoTois 
Xcryo*?, ei/ o 9 TrejOt r/7? /xaXto-ra \eyo/m.vr]g /3aa-i\eia$ eiroiov- 
/meOa Tt]v (TKe^iv, TTorepov a(Tviui(popov tj <TVjUL(pepei ra?9 TTO- 

Xecrf^, Kal Tiva Kal TroOev $ei KaOicrTavai, Kal TTCO?. rvpav- 2 

> ^ ^?j/^^^ < ^'~\ ' *? ^/o ~\' ' 

1/^009 o efd; ofo /xej/ oii\oju.v ev 0*9 Trem pa<Ti\ia$ exe- 

(TKOTTOV/ULeV, Ota TO T*]V OVVa/ULlV 7Ta\\aTTlV 7TO)9 aUTO)^ ACttf 

7TjOO9 Tr)i> /3acri\lav 9 Bio. TO /cara VOJULOV elvai a/m(poTepa? 

10 ei' rrj TroXtrei'p] It would be but 
a very slight change to read the accu- 
sative here, and it is a tempting one, 
but it is not necessary. Looking at 
section 6, the actual reading is safer, 
fj,<f>aLvTai ev ai/rtfi and the sense 
is the same either way. On the other 
hand, it would be simpler in point of 
the construction of e&fradai with the 

r$/A?75' av potXeadai, K.r.X.] For 
this expression compare II. IX. 22, 
which is not so straightforward as this 
and may derive light from it. 

Quotas 8 Kai] These last are so 
closely connected with the TroXtre/a, as 
appears from the last chapter, that it 
is needless to go into details as to the 
method of establishing them. They 
are in fact the TroXirefa with an 
oligarchical tendency impressed upon 

X. I o&x wj evotfcnjs, K.T. X.] 'not 
as though there were much to say 
upon it.' 

TTJS fj,e665ov rb /w^pos. ' Its share of 
our treatise.' 

TTJS fid\i<TTa] ' in the strictest sense 
so called,' the 7ra/xj3a<7iXei'a, III. xiv. 


2 kv ols] Compare III. VI. 3, and 
III. x. 2, 'where.' 

avrCjv] depends on dfoa/MV, the sub- 
ject to ira.\\a.TTeiv TTWS Kal 717)65 rty 
fiaffiXeiav. ' The two forms are such 
that, though strictly tyrannies, yet in 
its real character the power they ex- 
press is closely similar to that of the 
/3acrtXea, so that they and it run into 
one another, as it were, and can 
hardly be kept quite distinct.' The 
Kal may express even more, ' that they 
are closely connected one with another, 
and with the /3aa"iXeici. ' 





TdvTd$ Ta$ apyas' ev Te yap TU>V /Bapfidptov TKT\V aipovvTdi 
di>TOKpdTOpa9 /Jiovapyovs, Kal TO TTdXaiov ev TOI$ apyaiois 
"EXX^crtv eyiyvovTo Tive? /movap-^oi TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV 9 
oi'? eKdXovv 

e^ovcri oV Tiva$ 7rpo$ aXXjjXa? 
dvTdi oia(popa$. tjcrav oe oia /mev TO KdTa VO/ULOV /3a<rtAt- 

Kdl Kdl Old TO JULOVap'XjElV KOVT(*)V, TVpdVVlKdl Sid TO 
>r \ \ t <-* / / ^^'y^ 

apyeiv KdTd TY\V OLVTWV yvw/uujv. TpiTov oe eioo? 
LOOS, tjirep /j.a\icrT elvdi OOKGI TV pawls 9 avTi<JTpo(bo<s 
oucrd TJ/ 7Td/ui{3d<Ti\eia. TOiavTt]v o dvayicaiov elvaL Tvpav- 
vi$a Tnv fj.ovapyj.av, %TI$ avvTrevQvvo? ap^ei TWV OJU.OIGOV teal 

/3e\Tl6v(*)V TTdVTCOV TT^OO? TO (7(j)TepOV dVTtj$ <TVfJ,(j)epOV, d\\d 

/mr) Trpos TO TWV ap-^o/mevo^v. dioircp aKovcrios' ovOels yap 
KU>v VTTOfJLevei TCOV eXevOepcov Ttjv TOidVTqv apyrjv. Tvpav- 

jmev ovv 

raura Ka rocraura 




The best 


the middle 

class go- 


T/? $* apl(TTr] TroXf re/a Kdl T/? api<TTO<j j8/o? ra?? 7r\ei- 

O^TOU? 7rO\6Crt ACaf TO?? TrXe/CTTOf 9 Tft>> dvOpCOTTCOV, fJir]T TTjOO? 
^^ / ^^ \/ > > 

apeTrjv (rvyKpivovari Trjv VTrep TOV$ tdtcora?, /x^re TT^OO? Trai- 
^ ' iav % < ^" ew ? deiTai Kdl -^oprjyid^ Tvyjjpag, 
7ro\iTidv TtJV KdT ev'vrjv yivo/mevtjv, aXXa Biov TC TOV 

~J$|>*> k '** 

ru>v fiappdpwv rurlv] Niebuhr, 
Hist. Vol. i. 558, note 1257, thinks 
this alludes to the Roman Dictators. 
If so, is it not the only allusion we 
have to their political system ? 

3 SecTTroTi/cws] ' quite arbitrarily and 

4 roiaijTTjv 8' dvayKcuov, K. T. X.] 
* Such a tyranny as this we must 
necessarily recognise in the monarchy, 
which, free from all responsibility, 
rules over the equals and superiors of 
the monarch, in the interest of itself 
alone, and with no eye to that of its 
subjects.' Those subjects are in no 
sense <j)6(ri SoDXot, and in this case, 
therefore, it cannot hold that &PXOVTI 

XI. i It must be remembered that 
the question discussed in this chapter 
is the best average form, not the best 
form absolutely. It is quite clear 
that it is so in the text, but the chap- 
ter and its conclusions are sometimes 
quoted as though it were not so. 

(rvyKpivovffi irpbs aper^v, K. r. X.] 
' not bringing it to the standard of a 
virtue above that of ordinary men, nor 
to that of an education which requires 
a nature and appliances eminently 
fortune's gift,' such as in ordinary cir- 
cumstances cannot be calculated on. 

filov re] includes both 7rcu5ea /cat 
ap^Tf}, 'virtue and the training to 
virtue. ' 

VI. (IV.) 11.] nOAITIKON Z. (A,) 


/u.Ta<T%iv. Kal yap 9 Ka\ov<riv api<TTo- 
ias, Trepl &v vvv e'/TTo/uey, ra /ULCV ea)re pa) Triirrovcri rcu? 
TWV TroXecov, ra Se yeiTviwcri T/j KaXov^ev^ TTO\L- 
re/cr oio Trepl a/m<poiv a>9 /mias \CKTGOV. rj $e $rj Kptcri? Trepl 


KaXw? ev TO?? qOlKOts e'tprjTai TO TOV evfiaijULova /Biov elvai TOV 
KCLT apertjv ave/uLTrooiarTov, /uiecroTtjTa $e rrjv aper^v, TOV 
fjietrov avayKalov fiiov elvai ^\TKTTOV, r^? eKaa-Toig ev^e-^o- 
fj.evr]s Tv^eiv /xecror^TO?. TOV$ 3e aurot'? TOUTOU? opov$ 
avayKalov ctvai Kal TroXeco? apeTrj? Kal /ca/c/a? Kal TroXire/a?' 
rj yap TroXiTCia /3/o? T/? GCTTL TroXea)?. 'Ej/ aTracrat? ^rj 
Tais TToXeariV earTi Tpia jULeprj T^g TroXeco?, ol /mev euTropoi 
cr<pd($pa, OL <$e aTropOi or(f)6pa 9 ol Se TpiTOi ol /mecroi TOVTCW. 
eTrel TOLVVV 6/mo\oyeiTai TO fjLCTpiov apicrTov Kal TO /ULevov, 
(pavepov OTI Kal T<av evTV^tjimdTcov rj KTtj<ri$ fj fjiearrj /3e\Tia-Trj 
TravTcov pa<7T*i y a p T( ? Xo'ya) TreiOap^eiv. irrrepKaXov e r] 
VTrepl<ry(ypov r) VTrepevyevrj t] VTrepTrXovcriov, rj TavavTia TOV- 
roi?, VTrepTTTCD^ov r) VTrepacrOevrj Kal or(po$pa aTi/mov, ^aXcTrov 
TIC \6yu> aKo\ov6eiv. yiyvovTai yap ol /mev v/3pi(rTal Kal 
fjLeya\OTrovt]poi /maXXov, ol oe KaKovpyoi KOI imiKpoTrovrjpoi 
\tav TWV ^' aSiKrjjULaTcov TO. /u.ev yiyverai $i v/3ptv 9 TO, <$e 

The best 
tion is that 

in which 
the middle 
class go- 

4 1295 B 

2 TO. fJ.v ^WT^/)W TTtTTTOUO'l] ' ' SOnt 

en dehors des conditions," St. Hil., 
' in some respects stand too far re- 
moved from the generality of states to 
be applicable.' 

0^00?^] means not the two forms of 
aristocracy, but them and the TroXtreta. 

3 r<S] The article should be noticed 
with a view to a subsequent passage, 
VIII. (V.) i. 13. ' If we were right 
in the Ethics in using the language.' 

dve / u,7r65t(TTOj'] the reference is to 
Ethics, vii. xiii. i, p. 1153, 15, and is 
so far in support of the genuineness 
of the chapters in which it occurs. 

TT)S e/ccurroiy, K.T. X.] 'The mean 
open to each to get.' The construc- 
tion is abrupt, ^s e/cd<rrots 

yue<7<5r?7Tos would have been 
more regular. 

T) yap TToXtreta] 'For it is in the 
organisation and development of its 
constitution that a state finds its life.' 

4 T&V ei>Tvxij[jidTW~\ ' of the gifts of 
fortune. ' 

5 5t' Oj8/Kj>] ' From the sense of 
being above law/ 'from insolence.' 

5ia KaKovpylav] expresses quite an 
opposite feeling, viz.: the ill-feeling 
and wish to cause annoyance which is 
engendered by the conviction that 
society and its arrangements are un- 
favourable and depressing. 

oCrot] Are the extremes on either 
side, whether of wealth, c., or 
poverty, &c. 






^ OVTOL (pv\a proven Kal /3ov\- 
a /3\a/3epa rals 7ro\ecrtv. Trpo? 
ODV oVre?, tV^uo? 


(KCLI TGVT ev9u$ 

The best 

^ which* d TOVTOIS OL ^.ev CV virepoxats 
the middle KU \ ^Xovrov Ka l 
class go- 
verns. yecruai o^Te pov\ovTaL OVTG 

$ o'iKoQev V7rapx ei ' 7raL(T ^ v OLKTIV oia yap T^V Tpvcbqv ouo' ev 

oe KaO* 

ro?9 $io'aa-Ka\ioi$ apxearOai 

7 V7rep{3o\t]v ev evoeia TOVTWV TaTreivoi \iav. cot 

ap^eus OVK eTrldTavTaL aXX' apyearQai SovXiKrjv a 




yiveTai ovv Kal SovXaiv Kal 


a TrXeiiTTOV 

, aXX' OVK e\ev- 





(j)i\ia$ Kal KOivwviag TroXiTtKtj?' fi yap 

(piXiKov ovoe yap ooov (3ovXovTai Koivwvelv 
g e^O/oo??. j3ovXeTai oe ye rj TroXis e^ 'L&WV elvai Kal OJULOIWV 
OTL HJLaXio~Ta 9 TOVTO (5' V7rapj(t /maXicrTa TO?? /xecro*?* COCTT' 
avayKaiov api<TTa TroXiTevetrOai TavTyv Ttjv TroXiv ecrTlv eq 
wit (bajm.ei' (bvcrei Ttjv trvo'Tao'iv elvai T^? TroXew?. Kal <rw- 
' ev Ta?? TrdXecriv OVTOL jmaXia-Ta TCOV TroXiTwv. OVTG 

<j>v\apxov(ri Kal (3ov\apxov<ri] ' are 
least competent and willing to hold 
office, whether local or general/ yet 
not supreme, to discharge, in fact, the 
ordinary civil functions ; the extremely 
prosperous despise them, the ex- 
tremely depressed are not elected to 
them. So that both look on them 
with unfavourable eyes and sneer at 
them, though from opposite points, 
and the regular state organisation finds 
no support from either. 

raOra d/x06re/)o] Both the tendency 
to crime, indicated above, and the 
aversion to office. 

6 of/co0ej>] 'at home.' 

ei> TOIS diSaffKoXeiois] Compare Plato, 
RepuU. VIII. 560, e, in the 

7 TWV ^V <f)doVOVVTl>}V T&V 5k KCLTa- 

<j>povovvTUv] Compare the speech of 
Alcibiades, Time. vi. 16. He is the 
Greek statesman who best illustrates 
the evils of excessive prosperity, such 
as Aristotle is here depicting. 

& irXeiffTOv, K.T. X.] 'And this is a 
state of things that is as opposite as 
possible to friendship.' 

<pi\iKot>] is an element of friendship. 

e &v] There seems something 
missing, such a word as ryv avvcarrj- 
Kvtav. 'The state formed of these 
elements which according to me are 
the natural elements from which the 
state is formed.' 

Kal (rwovTai\ Comp. Xenophon, 
Hell. II. 3, 35 sqq., the speech of 
Theramenes in defence of his change 
of tactics, which he justifies by the 
attack made by the Thirty on the 
middle class, ol ^eVot TWI> 

VI. (IY.) 11.] nOAITIKON Z. (A.) 


avTol TCOV aXXoTO/ow cocr-Treo ol 
ovre r>79 TOVTWV eTepoi, KaOaTrep r>79 TCOV TrXovorioov ol 
T69 e7ri9vju.ova-iv Kal ia TO ju.rjT 7ri/3ov\ve(r6ai 
/3ov\eveiv aKiv$vvu>s $idyov<Tiv. oia TOVTO 

The best 
tion is that 

in which 
the middle 
class go- 


apa OTL Kal rj KOLVWVLCL y 7ro\iriKr] apio-rt] y Sia TU>V 
/u.e<T(*)v 9 KOL Tct? TOia.vTa<s Voe^Tai eu TroXiTcuecrOai 
ev ai<$ rj TTO\V TO jmecrov, Kal KOGITTOV /maXicrTa /u.ev 
el tie /UL^ OaTepov ]u.epov?' Trpoa-TiOejULevov yap TTOLCI poTrrj 

Kal KcoXvei yivecrQaL ra? evavTLas V7rep/3o\as. Siojrep 
/meyi(TTt] roy? TroXiTevo/uevovs ova-Lav J?)(eiv /xecr^i/ Kal 
a>9 OTTOV ol fJiev TToAAa ar(p6Spa KCKTrjVTai OL $e juujOev, ^ 
/xo9 ecr^aro? yiyveTai rj oXiyap-^fa a/c^oaro? rj Tvpavvi<s 
a/u.<poTepa$ TCC? v7Tp(3o\a$' Kat yap e/c o^ / ao/c/o 
veaviKU>TaTr]<s Kal ej~ o\iyapyia<s yiveTai Tvpavvi?, e/c ^e TWV 
yitecrco^ Kal TMV vvveyyvs TTO\V ?JTTOV. T*]V ^ aiTiav vvTepov 
ev Tol<s Trepl Tct9 / a6Ta/3oXa9 TO) i/ 7ro\iTia)v epovjmev. "Or* 
o' rj jmecrr] (3c\TL(7Tr] 9 (havepov [Aovr] yap a<TTa(ria<TTO<s' OTTOV 
yap 7ro\u TO oia /ULCCTOV, fjKKTTa crTaoreLs KOI oiaarTaareLS 
ylyvovTai TU>V 7ro\iTi<Jov. Kal at /meyaXai 7ro\i acrra- 
criafTTOTepai fiia T*\V avTriv aiTiav, OTL TroXv TO fMxrtnr ev Se 

. < ^ n ^ ^~\/O^'?' ' ff A' 

ra^9 /miKpaig paOLov re oia\apeiv ei$ duo iravTa?, wcrre fjLijfav 
KaTaXnreiv /mecrov, Kai 7rai/T69 cryeoov ctTropoi rj evTropoi eiVif. 
Kal at SrjfjLOKpaTiai $e a(7(pa\(TTepai TU>V o\iyap-^iu)v eicrl 
Kal TroXvxpovitoTepai 3ia TOV$ /uecrovs' 7rXe/ou9 re yap elarl 

. 1296 

<f>w/ciAt5?7s] of Miletus. Fr. 12. 
Ed. Bergk. 

i o TroXu rb fjitcrov] ' the middle class 
is large.' 

TrpcxTTidfyevov] 'by its joining one 
or the other it sways the scale and 
prevents either of the two opposite 
extremes being dominant.' 

rous iroXiTevofjifrovs] ' the citizens,' 
' those who actually mix in affairs/ les 
citoyens actifs. 

' the most unbridled, ' 


12 d(rracria(rros] Compare III. XV. 
9, where this word occurs. Both 
passages show the great importance 
Aristotle attached to this point. 

5ia<rrd(rets] 'the dividing the state 
into two parts,' 'the setting the two 
sides one against the other.' 5iaXa/3ai/ 
ets Suo. 




The best 

tion is that 
in which 

the middle 

class go- 


/cat /maXXov /uLTe^ov(7i TCOV TifJicov ev Tai<f 

~ 'A ' A # # t ^ \ 'r\ ' 

Tai $ oXtyapXicus, eirei OTCLV avev TOVTCOV TOJ TT \yuei vTrep- 

T l v a)anv ol aTropoi, KaKOTrpayta yiveTai /cat a7r6\\vvTai ra- 

^ ^ % ^ f 

^eo)?. cr^ueto)/ oe 064 vo/ULL^eiv KCLI TO TOV$ pe\Ti(TTOV$ VO/ULO- 

~ , -^ ~ t *\ ^ v '"v v/ ? ' 

C7era? eivai TCOV JULGO-COV 7ro\iTU>v Z/oAo)j/ re yap rjv TOVTCOV 

e/c T^? Trof^creft)?) /cai AvKOvpyos (01) -yajO ?i/ /3aa-i- 
l Xaocoi/oa? /cat cr^eoov ot 7r\ei(TTOi TU>V a\\cov. 
Qaveaov o e/c TOVTCOV Kai OLOTL al 7r\ei<TTai TroXiTeiai at 
JU.GV ^rjjjLOKpaTLKai eiviv al ^' oXtyap^iKai' Sia yap TO ev 
TroXXa/cf? o\lyov eivat TO /xeVoi/, alel oTTOTepoi av 
e'tO' ol Tag oucr/a? e^ovre? et'$' 6 ^yao?, ot TO 
K/3alvovTes Ka9* avTov$ ayovvt Ttjv TroXtre/a^, wcrre 
>? $rj/jio$ yiyveTai rj oXiyap-^La. 7rpo$ Se TOVTOIS o"ta TO 
ylvecrOai Kal /xa^a? Trpog aXX^Xof? T< ^^//ft) ~at 

Ol$. OTTOTepOl? OLV JULO\\OV <TV/Ji{3rj KpaTqcrai TCOV 

ov KaOicrTa(ri Koivqv 7ro\iTiav ovo 'icryv, aXXa 
a6\ov Trjv inrepo^v T^? TroXtTe/a? \a/ui/3dvovariv 9 
/cat ot' jmev S^/uLOKpaTiav ol ^ oXiyap-^lav TTOIOVCTIV. GTL ^e 
/cat Twi/ ev yyejULovia yevoju-evcov T^? 'EXXao'o? Trpo? T^I/ Trap' 
aiyTO?? eKCLTepoi TToXiTetav aTro/^XeVo^Te? ot /xei^ SrjjuLOKpaTias 
ev Tat? TToXecrt KaOio-Tacrav ol (T o\iyap^La<s 9 ov Trpog TO 

14 ica/coirpaY^a] " 111 success," 
"failure," Liddell and Scott. But I 
doubt whether this is the meaning. 
May it not be more active, " there is 
mutual ill treatment of the one party 
by the other." 

15 STjXot K TT)S Troftycrews] The gene- 
ral spirit of Solon's remains warrants 
this, but I do not find any particular 

ov yhp fy |8a<rtXet5s] This seems an 
odd reason. Is it Aristotle's ? 
Xapujj/Sas] Grote, IV. 560. 

1 6 Covert] Compare v. 3, 070)777. 
T 7 Tty virepox^v rrjs TroXireLas] ' The 

supremacy in the government. ' The 
rights or claims of the minority are 
not respected, to use the latest political 
language. And it is a question open 
to much discussion, whether this re- 

finement in political arrangements can 
be introduced, and whether, if in- 
troduced, it would really be an im- 
provement in our institutions. It is 
plainly liable to be the exact contrary, 
by giving greater power to that which 
may well be thought to have too much 
already, the retrograde element, the 
so-called conservative party. Lastly, 
there is the question whether, sup- 
posing the two former questions 
answered, as they might be. under 
certain circumstances, in the affir- 
mative, any such improvement could 
effectually obviate the evils inherent 
in a parliamentary government, such 
as that of England is justly called, 
and stands self- condemned by being 
so called. Mr. Carlyle, Latter-day 

YI. (IV.) 11.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 


<rvjUL<pepov <jKO7TOvvTe<$ a\\a Trpog TO crcpeTepov 
wtTTe o'ta raura? ra? atrta? rj /x^o'eVore T*\V jmearrji/ 
yivecrOai Tro\iTiav rj oXt-ya/ct? /cat Trap 6\iyoi$' et? 'yap ayip 
/xoVo? TWJ/ TrpoTepov ecf) tye/movta yevo/mevcov rau- 

ota TiV atV/av, e/c 

aTrofiovvai T*]V TOL^LV. tjSrj oe Kal rot? ei/ rat? TroXecrti/ 
KaOe(TTr]Ke /mrjSe /3ov\or6ai TO 'icrov., aXX' ?f ap^eiv <^retV 
KpaTOVjULevovs vTTOjUieveiv. Tt? yuei/ ow apL<TTrj TToXtreta, /cat 

TCOI^ (pavepov TWV & aXX 
7 TrXetof? otj/moKpaTtag Kal TrXetou? o 
etVat, TToiav TrpcoTyv OeTeov KOI SevTepav Kal TOVTOV $rj TOV 
^^o/mevriv TW T*IV ju.ev eivai {3e\Tiia Trjv $e yetiOft), Sia)- 
TJ;? ap[erTri$ ov ^a\Trov ioeiv. aei a 'yap avayKaiov 
eyyvTaTa TauT^?, ^eipa) o^e T^ acbeo'Tt]- 
Kviav TOV jmecrov TrXeiov, av /mrj Trpo<s VTroOeo-iv Kpivy rt?. 
Xeya> o^e TO ?rpo? vTr69e<TLV } ort ?roXXa/ct? over*]? a\\r]g TTO- 
Xtreta? atperwrepa? eviois ovOev KwXvcrei crvjULcfjepeiv eTepav 
jmaXXov elvai Tro\iTeiav. 

a AetBekker. 

The best 
tion is that 

in which 
the middle 
class go- 

1296 B 



1 8 Compare Thuc. ni. 82. on this 
point. Tr/ods r6 fffarepov avT&v (T(j>l(riv 

expression of this. 

19 els yap dvrip] It is curious that no 
certain nor even very probable answer 
can be given to the question who the 
person here alluded to is ? I have 
been sometimes tempted to think that 
it is the Spartan King Pausanias 
(Xenophon, Hell. II. 4.), whose position 
at home and policy led him not to sanc- 
tion the Athenian oligarchy, but to 
aim at the restoration of a more mode- 
rate government, to revive the older 
democracy dirodovvai TTJV rd^iv 
which, doubtless, in the eyes of a later 
generation, looking on rr^v vvv d7)/j(,OKpa- 
riav, would be considered as a iroXireia 

T(KS ev TOIS 7r6\ecrii'] simply opposed 
to the TWV iv 

20 apiary] sc. 

TOVTOV ST] TOV Tpoirov ^o/x^i'^v] ' and 
so on in due order.' 

21 Aei yap] This correction of 
Spengel's, xxv, note 27, scarcely 
needs the support of V. (VIII.) I. 2, 
to make us accept it. 

irpos virodevLv] Compare vn. 2. 
and note. 

eTtpay. fJiSXXov elvai] ' that there be 
another constitution.' This remark 
is the connecting link between the 
two chapters. All cannot have the 
best average form their circum- 
stances preclude it and make some 
other form desirable. What are the 
other forms that may be desirable 
under certain circumstances is natu- 
rally the next question, and is an- 
swered, though in a very general and 
vague way, in the two next chapters. 




The consti- TV? $e 7TO\iTia TICTI Kal troia orv]UL<pepei TTOIOIS, e-fcojmevov 

tutions ^ , f ^ -\ n ~ -\ ' ^ ~ * 

suitable in e o"T~i TCOV etprj/uievcov oie\ueiv. A.rj7TTeov orj TrpcoTOV Trepi Tra- 

particular ^ Ka Q o \ ov T avTov Set yap KpeiTTOv etvai TO SovXouevov 
cases. f . r r 

/Xe-OO9 T>79 7ToXeO)9 TOV /Z>7 (3oV\OjULVOV flVtV TtJV 7TO\lTiaV. 

12 earn oe Tracra TroXf? lie re TOV TTOIOV KOI TTOQ-QV. Xeyco $e 
TTOIOV IJ.GV e\evOepiav TT\OVTOV TraiSeiav evyeveiav, TTOCTOV Se 
TOV TrXyQovg VTreoiv. ev^eeTai $e TO JULCV TTOLOV 


T6pU> /ULp 

r] 7ro'Xf9, aXXw Se iuipi TO TTOGTOV, olov TrXe/of? TOV a 
elvai TWV yevvaicov TOV$ ayevveis t] TCOV TrXovtrioov TOV$ CLTTO- 
jOou?, [At] fjievToi TOCTOVTOV vTrcpe^etv TW 7ro<Tt*) berov \enre- 
3 a~0ai TO) TTOfO). $10 TCLVTCI TT^OO? a\\rj\a orvyKpiTeov. OTTOV 
JULGV ouv virepe^eL TO TCOV aTropcov TrX^o? T*\V eipr]ju.evt]v ava- 
\oyiav, evTavOa 7re<pvKev etvai firjjUiOKpaTiav, Kal 
elSos StiiuiOKpaTia? icara Trjv V7repo")(tjv TOV SrjfJLOV e/ca 
olov eav jmev TO TCOV yewpywv vTrepTeivy TrX^o?, Trjv Trpco- 
Tr]v Sy/uLOKpaTiav, eav Se TO TCOV /3avav<rcov Kal fJucrOapvovv- 
TCOV) Trjv TeXevTaiav, OJULOICOS o*e Kal ra? aXXa? rct9 /xera^y 


Te'vei TW TTOtft) rj Xe/Trerai rw 7ro<r 9 evTavOa o^e 6\iyap- 
Kal TJ?? oXiyap^ias TOV avTOV TpOTrov eKa<TTOV 

XII. I Set yap Kpeirrov, /c. r.X.] 
'There must be a preponderance in 
favour of the existing government.' 
But this idea of preponderance in- 
volves conflicting elements, and a 
comparison, a balancing of the powers 
of these elements. 

Tracra 7r6Xts] ' Every state is com- 
posed of quality and number.' It is, 
in other words, a given number of 
citizens^ and in that number of citizens 
there are many different classes. 

TTJV TOV Tr\7]6ovs VTrepoxfy] Such a 
term shows that Aristotle was rather 
thinking of the political element of the 
mass as opposed to that of those who 
are opposed to the mass, either by 
birth, education, or wealth, than 
simply of number. ' The. superiority 

of the large majority,' is spoken of as 
balancing the power attaching to the 
other points above mentioned. 

2 t &v vvvfoTTrjKe, K. r.X.] ' grant- 
ing, of course, that it be one of the 
parts of which a state really consists,' 
the essential elements of a state. 
Compare IV. (VII.) vm. i. 6. 

<rvyKpiTtov'] 'we must compare.' 
On this subject see Arnold, Horn. Hist. 
Vol. I, Ch. xiii, the concluding para- 

3 TT/V elpimirqv ai>a\oyiav] ' In the 
proportion stated,' rather implied. 
Toaovrov r<$ troaQ (bare fj.7) Xei7re<r0cu 
r$ TTOiy. Its superiority in number is 
not overbalanced by its opponent's 
superiority in other points. 
5<] 'Here then.' 

VI. (IV.) 12.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 


Kara Trjv vTrepoyyv TOV oXiyapYiKov TrXyOov?. $ei (T ael Thecon- 
a / * - x ' x > ' '/ stitutions 

TOV vojULOueTrjv ev Ty 7TO\lTia Trpocrha/uipaveiv TOV$ /mevovs' suitable in 

v ^ >\ * t / /\~ 'y A particular 

ay re 'yap oAiyap-^iKov? rows VO/JLOV? Tiuy, (TTO^a^ecruaL cases> 

yjprj TCOV /mea-cov, eav re (^/xo/cjocm/cou?, TT poo-ay ecrOai TO?? " 

VOJU.OIS TOVTOV?. 07TOV $ TO TCOV fJL(7(iOV V7repTlVl 7T\rj6o$ 

rj cruvafjL(poTpa)v TMV aicpwv rj KOI OaTepov ftovov, ei/TCiuS"* 
evoe'fteTai TroXiTeiav elvai JULOVI/ULOV. ovOev yap (bojBepov JULIJ 5 
Trore <TV/uL<p(jovr]cra)ariv 01 TrXoixrioi TOI? Trevqcriv 7rl TOVTOV<S' I2 97 
ovfieTTOTe yap aTepoi /BovXycrovTai SovXeveiv Toig Tepoi<s, 
KoivoTepav S* av '(rfTWGiv, ovkjuucttt evprjcrovcriv aXXqv raur>/?. 
ev jm,epei yap ap^eiv OVK av vTrojmeiveiav oia Ttjv 
TravTa^ov <$e TTfo-Toraro? 6 

6 /mea-os. oarq* S* av a/meivov q TroXtre/a 6 
TOCTOVTW jULOvifJLWTepa. Sia/mapTavovori $e TroXXot Kal 
TCOV ra? apio-TOKpaTiKa$ (3ov\oju.ev(t)v TTOICIV irpXiTe/ay, ov 
HJLOVOV ev TW 7r\eiov ve/meiv TO?? euTro/oof?, aXXa Kal ev TW 
TrapaKpovearOai TOV Srjjmov. avdyKrj yap "xpovfp Trore e/c TWV 
^sevSwv aya6a)V aXrjOeg (rv/UL/3r]vai KaKov at yap TrXeove^iai 
TWV 7T\ovaria)V a7ro\\vov<ri /xaXXoi^ T*]V TroXiTeiav "rj at TOV 

4 h rrf iro\iTdq.~] 'in his constitu- 
tional arrangement.' 

rots v^/iots TOI/TOUS] sc. 
' To interest the middle 
class in favour of his laws/ or should 
it be the dative of the instrument, 
' by his laws to interest the middle 
class in the support of his constitution.' 
Kal dartpov i^6vov~\ ' or even of one 
of the two only.' 

5 h ptpei ydp, K.T. X.] Comp. XI. 
19. ijSrj 8 Kal, K.T. X. 

6 One of the two parties must be 
the stronger, and the constitution 
must, in its arrangements, express 
that fact. Allowing this, Aristotle 
urges upon the statesman the neces- 
sity of tempering the truth ; of, as far 
as possible, introducing the middle 
class, which stands in the position 

A. P. 

of mediator or arbitrator. Secondly, 
of mixing, so far as is possible, the 
various elements, not giving to the 
party which must be essentially domi- 
nant, more uncontrolled, unchecked 
power, than is indispensable. So the 
constitution will be more permanent. 
And this second caution is often 
violated even by those who wish, not 
for an unmitigated oligarchy, but for an 
aristocratical government. dia/uLaprd- 

VOVffl 8 TToXXo/, K. T. X. 

v T<$ ir\tov vfyeiir] This is essen- 
tial. The other (ev rt TrapaKpotieaQai 
rbv dy/uov) ' the deceiving the people' 
is not so. 

Xp6"<i> TOT^] ' that at some time or 
other, if not at once.' 

aTroXXtfoucrt yuaXXop] ' are of a more 
destructive tendency.' 








cal contn- 




o"tav 9 7Tpi 

apya<$ 9 

v , 
* o 

iKa<TTt]pia 9 irepi 


/ \ -^ ^ * \i^~ ^ /9> 

yv/ULvacriav. irepi KK\?](riav jmev TO e^e^^ai KK\r]<Tia(eiv 

oe CTriKeicrOai TO?? evjropois eav /my cKK\t]<ria- 
l imei^ci) TroXXft). TrejOf ^e ra? />X^? T ^ 
/Kfcpia /x^ ej^eivai e^o/uLvvtrOai, TOI$ S* a?ro- 
e^eivai. Kal irepl ra SiKa(mqpia TOIJ jwe 

t.^ f * ^R/cx ^ n , i / V5> 

IrjijLiav av ^rj oiKa(wG'i 9 TOL<S o ajropois aoeiav 9 
(JL e yd\qv TOL<S ^e jUiiKpav, Arwep ev rof? XapwvSov 



The demo- 

VOIJLOI<S. eviayov S* eeiTTi JULCV iraanv 

KK\ri<riaeiv Kal SiKal^eiv, eav <5e aTroypa^sdjmevoi 

K\r)<Tia{(jo<Ti /ot^Te ot/ca^a)(Ttv, CTTiKeivTai [AeyoXai 

TOi<f 9 Iva $ia /xe^ TY\V fy/JLiav (fievycocri TO aTr 

$ia Se TO fjirj a7roypd(pecr9ai fJLrj ^uca^axri )U>?^' o 

cr*y. TOV auroi/ ^e Tpowov Kal irepl TOV 6VXa 

Kal TOV vojmoOeTovcriv TOI$ /mev yap air6poi<5 

e^earTt fJLt] KKT^crOai 9 TO?? o' evTropois eTrityjuuov ju.r] KCKTrj- 

fjievois' Kav ju.r] yvjuLvd^MVTai, TOI$ /xei/ ovSejuila <^u/a, TO?? 

S^ CVTTOpOlS 7Tlty[JUOV 9 OTTO)? Ol fJLV $10. T^V fyfiJiiaV /*6T6^ft)- 

o-fp', o/ $ $ia TO jmrj (popeia-Oai jmrj /ULeTe^ariv. TavTa 

*-?n ^ ^' ~ /3/^^^ 

M ei/ ovv o\iyap%iKa crofyicrjULaTa Trjg vo/ULouea-ias, ev oe Tat? 

iais TTJOO? TOVT' avTiaro<pitovTai' TO?? /xe/ 'yap 
/uiicrOov TTOpifyvariv KK\rjcrid^ov<Ti Kal 
TO?? (5* euTTOjOo*? ovSejJiiav TCLTTOVCTI 

OTI ei Tf? /3ov\Tai jmiyvvvai ^/ca/ft)?, oe TO: Trap 6KaTepoi$ 


wcrre tyavepov 

1297 B 7 

(rvvdyeiv Kal TO?? /xei/ fJLicrOov Troptfaiv TO?? o^e 
*yajO aj^ KOivwvolev 
eTepODv juiovov 



XIII. i &ra o-o^^ovrat] 'The 
devices or artifices they have recourse 
to' irpo<f)d<reus Kaput, ' by way of pre- 

2 e^/uwo-flcu] ' to decline an office 
or oath.' 

Xa/JCiN'Soi; ^6/iots] Grote, iv. 561. 

/uei/ e/c 

3 dTTOYpa^a/i^ots] ' when they have* 

6 rwjf ertpwv n-bvov] ' of one of the 
two parties only.' 

7 Set 5e rr)t> TroXiTdav] ' The govern- 
ment must be in the hands of those 
who have the arms.' 

VI. (IV.) 13.] 

^ </ A 

Ta O7r\a ev( 

nOAITIKON Z. (A.) 291 

' /ULOVOV TOV fie Tiju.q[JiaTo$ TO 7rXtj9o$ 
/uiev opurajuevovs OVK CCTTIV eiireiv TOOTOVTOV vTrap-^CLV, 
aXXa <TKe^a/ULvov$ TO TTOIOV e7ri/3dXXei jmaKpOTaTOV wvTe 
TOV? juLTe^ovTa? Trj<s TToXiTeias eivai 7rXeiov$ TCOV /my /meTe- 
TOVTO TaTTeiv. eOeXov(Ti yap 01 TrevtjTes Kal /x^ 
ru)V TijULcov rjcrv^iav e^eiv, eav /mrj v{3pi{y Ti9 
acpaiprJTai /un^Oev Ttjs ovcria?. aXXa TOVTO ov 
paLov ov yap ael <TVjUi(3alvei yaplevTas elvai TOV? /meTe^ov- 
Ta$ TOV 7roXiTvjuiaTo$. Kal eicoOaeri oe, OTav iroXe/uLo? fi, 
av /mrj XajUL/Bavwcri Tpocpyv, airopoi $e ificriv eav 
Tpo<prjv 9 (3ovXovTat TroXe/ULetv. <TTI $' rj 
7roXfTe/a Trap" 1 evlois ov JULOVOV e/c TWV OTrXtTevovTwv aXXa 
Kal CK TWV toTrXiTevKOTtov ev MaXieucji $e rj /mev TroXiTeia 
ijv CK TOVTWV, Ta<; 06 apyas rjpovvTO eK T(av (. 
Kal % TrpcoTt] $e TroXiTeia ev Toig f 'EXX^(jfj/ eyevero 
/3acriXeia$ e/c Tcav TroXe/movvTOov, rj fjcev e^ a/o^^9 < 

(T^ yap ia"^yv Kal Trjv inrepo^v ev TOI<? iTnrevonv 
elyev avev fjiev yap crvvTa^ecos a^py](TTov TO 
al <$e Trepl TCOV TOIOVTCOV ejULTreipiat Kai Ta^eis ev 
apvaioi? OUY vTrrjpYov, OXTT' ev TOI$ i7r7rev<Ttv elvai TY\V 
Icr-^yv}, av^avo/mevcDV $e TMV TroXecov Kal TCOV ev TOIS oirXot? 
ia"Xy<rdvT(jov /maXXov 7rXe/ov9 /meTei^ov T^9 TroXiTeia?. Siojrep 


The course 
of political 
in Greece. 

^kv bpKra/j.tvovs'] ' We cannot 
absolutely fix its limits, and say it is 
to be so much and no more, but we 
must find out what is the highest 
amount that extends far enough,' 
takes in a sufficient number, 'for 
those who share in the government to 
outnumber those who do not share in 
it, and we must fix it at this amount.' 

8 x a pl VTa *] 'moderate,' 'deco- 
rous,' 'intelligent.' 

e/ieZv] This was the 

feeling of the Roman people at the 
commencement of the first Punic war. 

T] iroXiTela] 'The governing body 
in some cases is not only formed of 
those who bear arms at the time, but 

takes in those who have borne arms 
and are now past the military age.' 

MaAteCcrt] Compare Grote, II. 378. 

TotfTwv] who are meant ? I con- 
ceive both of the classes just men- 
tioned, whilst the executive was chosen 
out of the men of military age. The 
text, of course, will bear quite a dif- 
ferent interpretation. 

10 TJ irpuT-r) TroAireta] ' The first 
constitution of Greek freemen. ' 

fj.era TOLS pao-iXeias] One of the many 
passages which exclude fiaffiXela from 
the list of TroAirercu. 

0-WTaeajs] 'training,' 'discipline,' 
' organisation. ' 

n didirep] This is an interesting 
passage on the progress of political 




The course a $ V v V Ka\ov]ULV TroXiTaa?, 01 TraoTepov CKaXovv $rjju.o- 

of political , ^ .,, f , %*%* 

experience KpaTias. qcrav 06 at apyaiai 7ro\iTeiai ev\oyw$ o\iyap- 

^ XIKCII Kai fia(Ti\ucal' oV oXiyavOpwTriav yap OVK elyov TroXv 
TO fjiecrov, aKTT 1 oXiyoi TC OVTC? TO TrXrjOos Kai KaTa TV\V 

12 orvvTa^iv /maXXov VTre/u-evov TO ap-^ea-Qai. A* a Tiva /mev ovv 
eiarlv aiTiav al TroXiTeiai TrXelov?, Kai $ia TL Trapa Ta? Xeyo- 
jjiva<s eTepai (itjfJLOKpCFrict Te yap ov fiia TOV apiO/mov e<TTi 9 
Kai TWV aXXwv o/xotft)?), Ti oe Tiveg al oia(popai Kai oia 
Tiva aiTiav a-vjuifiaivei., Trpos <$e TOVTOIS T/9 api<TTt] TWV TTO- 
\iTeiwv ft)? eTrl TO TrXeia-TOV eiTrciv, Kai TWV aXXwv Troia 


! A TLaXiv $e Kai Koivrj Kai %wpl$ Trepl e/cacrT>;9 Xeyw/mev 

The three ^QQ} Twv ed)^^, Xa66vTe$ ap-vrjv Trjv TrpocrrJKOVcrav avTWV. 

powers. ^ * ti -/ ~ ^ ^ \^ 

'E<TTi or] Tpia /mopia TWV 'TToXiTeiwv Tracrwv, Trepi wv oei 

Oewpeiv TOV cnrovSaiov vo^oOeTrjv eKac-Ty TO <rv/UL<pepov wv 
KaXwg avdyKtj Ttjv TroXiTeiav eyeiv KO\WS, Kai Ta? 
XXyXwv $ia<pepiv ev TW Sia(pepeiv eKa&TOV TOV- 

1298 2 TWV. eCTTf <^ TWV TplWV TOVTWV V JJLV Tl & TO /3ovXeVOfJL- 

rt Bekker. 

ideas, and the gradual enlargement of 
the social union. 

Kai Kara TTJV <njvTa%u>] This, Stahr 
makes to depend on 6\lyoi, "unbe- 
deutend," and the 6\lyoire Kai seems 
to justify him, ' few in number and 
unimportant in the military arrange- 

12 irapa rots \eyo/j,fras'] So above, 
IV. 7, TrXf/ovs TWV dpyptvuv. On this 
paragraph, as an instance of Aristotle's 
method, at any point where his subject 
changes compare Spengel, pp. 32, 33. 

XIV. i Aristotle enters now on 
the point stated Ch. II. 5, 
raura rLva. rpbirov 8ei 
rai^ras rds TroAire/as, \yw Se 
rlas re KO.6' %KO.VTOV eldos /cat 
6\iyapxia-s. Its discussion occupies 
the closing chapters of Book VI. and 
the whole of Book VII. (VI.). In 

this book he treats of that which con- 
cerns them all alike (Koivfj). We have 
his theory of the three powers, the de- 
liberative, executive, and judicial, 
which must, he says, exist in every 
constitution; as such they may be 
separated off from the detail of the 
various forms of oligarchy and demo- 
cracy ; at least all general statements 
about them may ; and the various 
modifications necessary for these va- 
rious forms may be introduced later. 
This explains his language here, Kai 
Kotvf) Kai x^pls irepl eKdffTrjs. 

rr\v irpoff^KOvaav ai/rcDf] 'The ap- 
propriate basis of the discussion.' 

2 rt rb (3ov\ev6fji.evov] There is an 
inconsistency in this sentence as it 
stands in Bekker's text. The most 
symmetrical arrangement would be 
to throw out the TL in both places. 
But if it is kept in both places, it is 

VI. (IV.) 14.] IIOAITIKGN Z. (A.) 



In demo- 

\ ~* * r ft \ \ ^^ ' / ^ 5" TV. *v> 

vov Trepi TWV KOIVCOV, oevTepov oe TO Trepi Tas apvas (TOUTO o J-" 6 tnree 
i A ."' t ' ' ' * * ~ J powers. 
ecrTiv as oei Kai TIVWV eivai Kvpias, Kai Troiav Tiva oei yiyve- _ 

<r6ai Trjv a f tpe<riv avTwv), TpiTov fie TI TO SIKGL^OV. Kvpiov 3 

<T e<TT\ TO fiovXevofjievov Trepl TroXe/mov Kai elpqi>tjs Kai a-vjULjULa- 

t *^-\' ^ \ t \ \ n ' % The deli- 

X ia $ KaL uta\v(re(*)Sy Kai Trepi VOIAWV, Kai Trepi uavaTov Kai ^ avo ^ va 

Kai orjjULu<T0)S9 Kai TCOV evOvvwv. avayKalov o 
TOIS TroXiTais aTrooeoovQai Tracras TavTas TCLS Kpic 

* t * \ \ i ~ <* ^5l^ / \\ 

eTepaSf n Tivas /xei/ avTdov Tracri Tivas oe TKTIV. TO /J.ev 4 

6 SrifJLOS' 1(71 $e Ol TpOTTOl TOV 

TrXeiovs, els V-ev TO KaTa jmepos aXXa /mr) TravTas a 
cotTTrep ev Ty TroXiTeia Tfj TrjXeKXeovs e<TT\ TOV MiXrjviov 
(Kai ev aXXais fie TroXiTeiais flovXevovTai ai arvvap-^iai 

*+ ' ^^ v ' ^ /O ^ > '9 x ' ^ t 

(rvviowai, eis oe Tas ap^as paoiCovcri TravTes KaTa /mepos 

ews av o~ieX9r] Sia TravT(*)v), arvvievai fie /ULOVOV Trepi re vo- 
JULCOV Oe(rea)s KOI TU>V Trepl T^S TrdXiTCiaSy Kai TO. TrapayyeX- 
Xo/meva aKov<roiu.evovs VTTO TCOV apxovTCOv. aXXos oe TpOTros 5 
TO TravTas aOpoovs, trvvievcu $e JULOVOV Trpos Te TCLS ap^ai- 
pecrias aiprjaro^evovs Kai Trpos TCLS vo/moOecrias Kai Trepl 
TroXejULOV Kai elprjvris Kai Trpos evOvvas, TCL ^ aXXa TCLS 
apX a $ fiovXevecrOai TCLS e^)' eKaarTOis TeTay/mevas, aipeTcis 
oucras e aTrdvTcov rj /cX^jOforct?. aX\os ^e TpoTros TO Trepl 6 
Tas ap^as Kai Tas evOvvas aTravTav TOVS TroX/Ta?, Kai Trepi 
TroXejmov /3ovXev<TO/u.evovs Kai (TVfJLfJLa-yiaSt TO. <5' aXXa 

difficult to see why one should be in- 
definite, the other interrogative. I 
have made them both interrogative. 

3 Ktpiov 8' effrf] ' The sovereign 
power resides in. ' 

5taXi5<rews] ( dissolving an alliance. ' 
5?7/x,ei5o-ews] 'confiscation.' 

4 drj/jLOTiKov^ 'democratical,' 'cha- 
racteristic of a popular government.' 

rb Karci fj-tpos dXXa /AT] Travras 
&0p6ovs~\ The sense would seem to re- 

quire a repetition of the word TrdvTas ; 
'that all should deliberate, but by 
parts, and not in one collective body.' 

Telecles, the Milesian, not known. 

vwapxjhu] The boards of magis- 

rcDv trepl T?}? 7roXtre/as] ' questions 
that concern the constitution.' 

5 TO, 5' &\\a] There are not many 
points left of the list given in 3, 
dav&rov, <t>vyris, 5?7/zei/crews, judicial 



In demo- 

apya$ OIOIKCIV aipeTa? ov<ra$ 9 ocra? 

I /V I 

eitriv ocra? ap^eiv avayKalov TOV? 


' <^e T/OOTTO? TO TravTa? Trepi TravTCOv /3ovXevea'6ai 


TCI? o > ' apx a $ Tepl wOevos Kpiveiv aXXa /ULOVOV TrpoavaKpiveiv 
ovTrep r/ TeXevTaia orjfjiOKpaTia vvv SioiKeiTai TpoTrov, rjv 
avaXoyov <f)a/u.ev etvai oXiyap-^ia TC Svva<TTVTiK^ Kai /u.o- 
vap^la TVpavviKy. OUTOI (JLGV ovv ol TpOTroi < 

r \ ^\ \ \ / ^-v / >r w \ 

8 TravTes, TO oe Tivag Trepi TravTcov o\iyap%iKOv. X, l 

In oligar- w \ A / ?/ < \ > \ i 

chies. TOVTO oiacpopas TrAeiov?. OTav JULCV yap OCTTO 

aipeToi T wcri Kai TrXelovs <$ia T*]V jmeTpiOTrjTa 
Kai Trepi wv o vojmos ajrayopevei /mrj KIVUHTIV 

\ i '^ > ^ t ' '-\ 

imev TroXiTiKr] ^' ecrTlv ri TOiavTtj $ia TO jmeTpia^eiv 
1298 B OTav ^e M TravTes TOV /BovXevevOai jmeTe^woriv aXX* aipeTOi, 
KaTa vojuov (T ap-^wcriv wcnrep Kai TrpoTepov, oXiyap^iKov. 

9 OTav oe Kai aip)VTai avTol avTOV? 01 Kvpioi TOV (3ovXeve(rOai 9 
Kai OTav Trots avTi TraTpo? eiair) Kai Kvpioi TWV VOJULCDV cocriv, 

avayKalov elvai TifB Ta^iv TavTtjv. OTav oe 
olov TToXejuov jmev Kai eiprjvtjs Kai evOvvwv TravTe$ 9 
'e aXXcov apyovTes, Kai OVTOI aipeToi *i KXrjpcoTOi, api- 
crTOKpaTia /mev rj TroXiTeia' eav o' eviwv fj.ev aipeToi eviwv 
Se KXrjpcoToi, Kai KXypcoTol rj axXw? rj K 7rpOKpiT<x)v 9 rj KOivy 
aipeToi Kai KXypcoToi, TO. fj.ev TroXiTeias apitTTOKpaTiKris etTTi 

ii TOVTCOV, TO. Se TToXiTeias avTtjs. AiyprjTai fjiev ovv TO 

Advice as/o^/ \> -v/ ~' \ / > 

povXevofJievov irpo? Ta? TroXiTeia? TOVTOV TOV TpO7rov 9 Kai 

to its or- 


7ro\iTia KaTOL TOV eiprj/mevov 
a Sconce? Bekker. 

questions mainly, concerning of course 
political offenders. 

6 foas v8tx eTa1 -] ' as m any as it is 
possible to have elective.' 

7 irpoavaKplveiv] 'previously exa- 
mine.' This was the function after 
Cleisthenes of the /3oi/X??, or pro- 
bouleutic council, and in the ordinary 
jurisdiction of the archons. 

8 Kivwffiv] 'They do not feel at 
liberty to interfere, but simply obey 

the law.' 

6\iyapxla pkv, K.T.X.] 'It is an oli- 
garchy, it is true, but one that borders 
on the TroAire/a, from its moderation.' 

10 irpoKpiruv] ( a body previously 

11 Sto/cret] So I read, instead of 
Bekker's SioiKei, and the change is 
easier than dtoLKcirai, which several 
editors have adopted. Stahr preserves 
5iot/ce?; but dioicrci. is quite in keeping 

VI. (IV.) 14.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 295 

crv/ui,(j)epei oe otjfjiOKpaTia TC Ty /maXio'T 1 eivat OOKOV<T^ o^/xo- Advice as 
/ - /^ f *\ ,'>?, i * ' ^ to its or- 

KpaTia vvv {\eyw oe TOiavTtjv ev r\ Kvpio? o O^JULO? Kai TWV ganisa- 

VO/ULWV e<TTiv) Trpo? TO (BovXevecrOai (BeXTiov TO avTO Troieiv _ 
OTrep eTrl TWV SiKacrTypiwv ev Tai? oXiyap-^iaig (raTTOVcri I2 
yap /CtjfjiLav TOUTOI? ov$ (3ovXovTai oiKaCeiv, f lva $iKawariv 9 

t $\ $ \ A* i r \ -> n<> \ 

Of Oe Or][A.OTlKOl JU.KTUOV TOl$ ttTTOjOOi?), TOL'TO OC Kai TTCpl 

Ta$ eKKXyvias Troieiv /3ovXev<rovTai yap /3eXTiov Koivfj 
/3ovXev6fjievoi Trai/Te?, o jmev o^^/xo? {JLCTOL TWV yvwpijmwv 9 OVTOI 
<$e /meTa TOV TrXt]Oov$. (rv/uL(j)epei Se Kal TO aipeTovs elvai 13 
TOV<S /BovXevo/mevovs rj KXypWTOvs 'iarw$ e/c TWV fj-opiwv. arvju.- 
(fiepei oe KO.V VTrep/3aXXwcri TroXv /caTa TO TrX^o? ol <$rj/y.o- 
TIKOI TWV TroXiTiKWVy rj jULrj TracrL oioovai fju<r06v 9 aXX' oaroi 

f \ \ * f X "*/fc '.'**. X' 

wjULjuLeTpoi Trpos TO TWV yvwpL/u.wv TrA^ao?, *] aTTOKArjpovv 
TOV? TrXeiov?. ev Se Tai<s oXiyap^iai? r] TrpoaipeicrOai Tiva? 14 
e/c TOV TrXyOov?, rj KaTa<TKevd<ravTa$ ap-^eiov oiov ev 

TroXiTeiai? ecrTiv 01/9 KaXovcri TrpoSovXov? Kal VOIL 

r ' 

Kal Trepl TOVTWV ^pt]juLaTi^eiv Trepl wv av OVTOI Trpo/3ovXev- 
crwariv OVTW yap jmeOe^ei 6 $)J/ULOS TOV (3ovXeve(r9ai 9 Kal Xveiv 
ovOev $vvr](TTai TWV Trepl T*\V TroXiTeiav. Ti rj TavTa 15 
"ysr)(pi{a'6ai TOV O^J/ULOV r] /mtjOev evavTiov TOI? ei<T(pepo]ULevoi$ 9 
jmev jmeTaSiSovai Tra<ri 9 /3ovXeveo-6ai $e TOV? 
Kal TO avTiKeijuievov o^e TOV ev Tai? TroXiTeiai? 
yiyvojmevov oei Troieiv aTro'ysr]<pi{oiu.vov /mev ycip Kvpiov oei 
Troieiv TO TrXrjOo? 9 KaTa*^st](pi6jUiVov $e /mrj Kvpiov 9 aXX' 

with his general language. Compare 
I, ras TroXireias di.a<f>tpeiv. The Vet. 
Tr. read Stot/ceZ; he gives " disponitur" 
as his rendering. It is stated that no 
MS. reads Stot/cetrcu. 

1 3 iVws] ' equally from the different 
parts of the state.' 

avp.<t>cpi 5t K&V] 'It is expedient 
also if.' 

T&V iroKiTiKuv] " politiquement ca- 
pables," says St. Hilaire rightly. 

airoK\r]povv'] ''exclude by lot the num- 
bers in excess of the limit indicated.' 

14 Trpoaipeiadai] 'choose before- 
hand,' not the common Aristotelian 

sense of the word, but the strict lite- 
ral meaning of it, which is the basis 
of the other. 

7rpo/Soi)Xoi's] Comp. Thuc. Vin. I, for 
this magistracy, established in Athens 
after the defeat in Sicily, B.C. 412. 
See VII. (VI.) vm. 17, 24. 

vo,uo0i5Xa/cas] Later VII. (VI.)vill. 

Wr) fj.a.Tie iv irepl roi/rwi'] ' decide on 
these points only.' 

15 r?}s (ru/AjSoi/X?)?] 'Advice.' 

/3ouXet;e<70cu] ' the effective delibe- 

v 'The veto of the 




Advice as ejravayecrOa) TraXiv 7rl TOV$ apyovTag. ev yap Tai$ iroXi- 
to the or- , ', , - i ' " n ' ' I '' A 

gamsa- Tciais avTecrTpaiuLjULevco^ Troiovcriv oi yap oAiyot a7ro^t](pL- 
tion of the t \ , \ A ' *'..> ^A 

.delibera- O~ajUiVOt /ULV KVplOl-, KaTa\lrr](bl<Ta/UiVOl OV Kvpioi, CtAA 

^ 7ravayeTai i<s TOVS TrXe/o-rou? cue/. TJepl jmev ovv TOV 
1299 16 /3ov\evo/u.evov KOL TOV Kvpiov $}j r^9 TroXir 
picrOa) rov Tpoirov. 

15 'Evoue^?? ^e TOUTWI/ <TTLV rj Trepl ra? apva? 

Theexecu- v ^ , ^ v > xx < 

tive. e X a 7 a ^"^ TOVTO TO l&oiov r>79 TTOAireta? TTOAAa? 


Trocrat re ap%a 9 Ka Kvptai TLVWV, Ka Trep 



o/ <T eviavcrias, oi oe 7ro\wpoviw>Tepa<} TTOIOVITI 

/ca Trorepov evai e ra? apX a $ 
TI fjLrjSerepov aXXa TrXeova/ct? 


auroi/ (f? a aa IJLOVOV GTL e Trep Tt]v /caracrra- 
crf^ TWV apywv, eK Tivaov $ei yiveo-Oai Kal VTTO TLVMV KOI TTCO?. 
Trepi iravTwv yap TOVTCOV oei ovvavOai oieXeiv Kara TTOCTOVS 
yevea-Oai Tpo7rov<s 9 KaireiTa TrpocrapjULovai, Troiais 
TroXireiai crv/ui<ppova-iv. ecrrt ^e oi^e TOVTO oiopivai 
f Tro/a? Set KO\iv ap^as' TroXXco^ yap eTriorTaTwv rj 
KOivwvia oeiTai) oioTrep 7ravTa$ OUTC TOf? aipeTov? 
K\t]pooTOv$ a/o^o^T9 OCTGOV, oiov TOU9 lepeig 

TTpCOTOV TOVTO yap TpOV Tl TTOtjOa Ttt9 7ToXiT/Ca9 

3 OCTCOV. CTL $e ^oprjyol Kal KrjpvK$' aipovvTai 
o"pVTa$. el(TL oe at JJLGV 7ro\iTiKai TW 


Tevop.evwv 9 rj Kara jmepos, oiov 6 yvvaiKovofJios rj 
al o oiKOvojuiiKai (?roXXa/cf9 yap alpovvrai 

i Bekker. 


Ka Trpe- 


great majority is to be allowed, its 
assent not to be final. ' 

1 6 TOV Kvpiov 8?;] ' and that which 
consequently is sovereign.' 

XV. i TTJS TroAire/as] ' of the po- 
litical system.' 

a'Ldiovs] 'for life/ as elsewhere. 
2 Trpocrap/j.6aai^ ' to adapt them. ' 

Trolas 5e? KaKeiv d/)%<xs] ' What are 
the functions to which we may give 
this name apxds.' 

3 TrpeapevTai] If this reading is 
kept, aipovvrai must be passive. I 
should prefer using it in its usual 
sense, and reading Trpetr/Seuras. 

aiTo/neTpas] The question submitted 
to these officials would, in Aristotle's 

VI. (IV.) 15.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 



Tnoo? a?, aV 


v, TOLTTOVCTL $o v\ov$. T^ 16 execu- 

t v ~ - r v ^ / / or tivepower. 

o a)? aTrAo)? enretv a^ay Ae/crecy rafra?, ocrcu? . 

{BovXeLHraarOai re Trem TIVGOV Kal Kpivai Kai CTTI- 
, Kal juaAfGrra TOVTO' TO yap eiriTaTTeiv ap-^LKWTepov 
a\\a Tavra Siacfiepei 7rpo$ JULCV rd? "creis ovOev 

eirev ov 



TOV di/o/xaro?* e 

yeyovev a/UL<pia-/3r)TovvT<*)v irepl 
' aXXyv SiavorjTiKtjv irpayimaTelav. 
irolai ^ ap^al KOL Trocrai avayKaiai cl ecrrai TroAf?, Kal 5 
Troiai avayKaiai JJLCV ov %pt (Tl l ULOi $* TTjOO? arTrovSaiav TTO\I- 
Teiav, ju.a\\ov av rt? airop^creie TTjOO? aVaarai/ re ^y ?roXf- 
Teiav Kal Srj Kal ra? ju.iKpa$ TroAef?. ey yuev -ycijO ^i raf? 6 
/meyaXai? evSe^eTal re :aJ <5e? yu/av Terd-^OaL 7rpo$ ev 
epyov TroAAoi/9 Te ycto et? Ta ap^eia evoe^eTai (Baoi^eiv 
Sia TO TroAAou? etvai TOV<S TroA/ra?, COOTTC Ta? ytxei' $ia\ei- 
Treiv TroXvv y^povov Tag S* a7ra ap^civ, Kal /3e\Tiov eVa- 
CTTOJ/ epyov Tvy^dvei r^? eTTfyueAe/a? /u.ovo7rpay[jiaTovarr]$ t] 
7ro\V7rpayjuLaTov<Tr]$. cv $e raf? juuKpais avdyKt] (rvvdyeiv 7 
ef? o\iyov$ TroAAa? ap^as' $ia yap 6\iyav9pco7riav ov 
pao'iov eo-Ti TroAAoi/? et/ ra?9 apyal<$ elvai* rtVe? *yajO ot TOU- 
TOU? ecrovTai Siao'e^diuLevoi 7rd\iv ; SeovTai S* evioTe TWV 
VOJULWV at jmiKpai Tai<s jmeyaXais' Tr\*iv at 
o~eovTai 7roXAa/cf9 TCOV avTcov, Tal<5 & ev TroAAw 

view, more properly concern the inte- 
rests of the citizens as fathers of 
families and possessed of property, 
than as citizens proper. Hence he 
considers their functions as econo- 
mical in a sense quite in accordance 
with his use of the term in the first 

SLV einropuffi] Compare I. VII. 5, 
6<rois tl-ovffla yurj ai)roi)s 

4 rb y&p ^TTirdTTe 
tffriv] 'is more strictly the charac- 
teristic of a magistrate/ the highest 
form of the citizen, to whom the 
highest political virtue belongs pro- 
perly, &PXOVTOS fStos d/aerr; /J.6vr} <pp6- 
vrjcris (III. iv. 17), and <pp6vr)(r<.s is, by 

JEth. VI. xi. 2, p. IT 43, 8, 


ov yap iru Kplffis, K.T.\.~\ 'For there 
has as yet no question arisen for deci- 
sion in consequence of a dispute about 
the name ; still such points have their 
interest for thought.' Such I take to 
be the sense, and I believe Stahr 
agrees with this rendering. 

6 ras ptv SiaXeiireiv] 'so that in 
holding some, they leave long inter- 
vals ; ' or, in other words, ' they hold 
some only at long intervals.' 

TTJS tTrijj,e\elas, /c.r.X.] ' If the at- 
tention is engaged on one point only, 
than if it is distracted by being bent 
on many.' 

1299 B 




The execu- TOVTO arv/uifiaivei. SioTrep ovOev KO)Xvei TroXXa? eTrifj-eXeia? 

tive power. .. t ^^'*'^^'^ v x 

.. a/jta 7rpO(TTaTTeiv' ov yap e/ULTrooiovcriv aAA^Aa*?, Kai 7rpo$ 

8 Ttjv 6Xiyav9pa)7Tiav avayKaiov TO. ap^eia oiov 6/3eXicrKO- 
Troieiv. eav ovv e^wjULev Xeyeiv TroVa? avayKaiov 
'.v Tracrri 7roXei 9 Kal Trovag OVK avayKaiov /mev Sei f 
iv 9 paov av Ti? e/'^a)? raura crvvdyoi 7ro/a? apjuLOTTei 
o (Tvvdyeiv a/oya? et? /x/at^ apyjiv. apimoTTei oe Kai TOVTO 
jULt] \e\rj9evai, Troia Sei /caret TOTTOV apyela TroXXwv eTri^e- 
\eicrOai Kal TTOIWV TravTa^ov /miav ap^v elvai Kvpiav 9 oiov 
evKocrjUiias iroTepov ev ayopa (Jiev ayopavo/mov, a\\ov c^e /car' 
a\\ov TOTTOV, rj iravTa^ov TOV avTOV. Kal TroTepov /cara 
TO TTpay/ma Sei Siaipeiv rj /caret TOI^ av9pco7rov$ 9 X< 
10 eva r^? VKO<r/u.iag 9 rj iraio'cov a\\ov Kal yvvaiKcov. Kal 
Ta? TroXiTeta? c^e, TroTepov Siacfiepei /caO' eKacrTtjv Kal TO 
ap"x<MV yevos % ov9ev 9 oiov ev Stj/moKpaTia Kal oXiyap^ia Kal 
apicrTOKpaTia Kai /movap^ia TroTepov ai avTai JJLGV eicriv ap- 
yat Kvpiai 9 OVK e^ 'icrcov o ovo* e^ ofj.oi(v 9 aXX' eTcpai ev 
Tepaig 9 oiov ev /mev Taf? apiVTOKpaTiais e/c TreTra 
ev $e Tals oXiyap^iai^ e/c TOOV TrXovcricov, ev Se Tai$ 
Tiais e/c TWV eXev9ep(tiv 9 rj Tvy^dvovcri /mev Tives ovcrai Kal 
/COT' auTct? Ta? oiad>opa$ TCOV ap"^cov 9 ecrTi o' OTTOU cru/ixc^e- 

r * \ \ f/ ^_L' *t f\ * X * ' 

oiacpepovtriv evua IULCV yap ap/uioT- 

o oiov 

)OV<TIV ai avTai Kai OTTOV 

8 TroXXas ^TrijUeXefas, /c. r.X.] 'To 
assign many branches of administra- 
tion at the same time to the same 
person. ' 

6j3eXi<rKoXi5x" ta ] ' spits for roasting, 
used as candlesticks.' The general 
meaning is the same as in the case of 
the AeX0tK77 yaa%atpa of I. II. 3. 

ffvvdyoi] ' might infer,' 'collect.' 

g KO.T& r6irov] " Bei ortlicher 
Beschrankung/' Stahr; 'from consi- 
derations of space and distance,' or is 
it simply ' local, ' as opposed to ' gene- 

KO.T& rb irpay/j,a] ' by the subject. ' 

^ KCIT& TOI>S av6pd)irovs] ' or with re- 
ference to the persons.' 

IO TreTrcuSeu/xeVwj'] Rhet. I. 8, p. 

1 366, 5, dpiffTOKparias r Acs TO. 
Traideiav Kal TO, vo/ut-lf^a. 

/car' auras ras 5ta0opas rdv 
If this is genuine it is a very concise 
expression, /car' auras ras 5ta0opds 
dia<f>opal T&V d/o^cDi', or Acara 
ras 8ta^>o/)as 8ia<f>opal T&V 
either of these forms would express 
what I conceive to be the meaning 
of the passage better than the one 
which Bekker has and Stahr keeps, 
thoiagh his translation is in favour of 
a change. ' Corresponding to the 
differences we observe in the con- 
stitutions are these differences in the 
magistracies required. ' 

diafapovvLv] This seems to mean, 
' where different ones are required. ' 

VI. (IV.) 15.] nOAITIKQN Z. (A.) 



aXXa The execu- 
, tivepower. 
ov _ 

TCL /meydXag., ev6a <T elvai imiKpag Tag aura? 
Kal i&tai Tiveg eicriv, olov rj TCOV Trpo/3ovXcov avTrj yap 
orj/uLOKpaTiKy, (BovXq oe otj/JLOTiKov. oei juicv yap elvai TL l 
TOIOVTOV a) eTri/meXeg e&Tai TOV orj/u.ov Trpo/3ovXeveiv 9 OTrcog 
ecrrar TOVTO S\ eav oXiyot TOV apiOjmov UHTIV, o'Xf- 
1^9 Se Trpo/3ovXov$ oXiyov? avayKaiov elvai TO 
TrXrjOos, WCTT oXiyap-^iKov. XX' OTTOV a/m(f)() a\)Tai at 12 
ap^ai, 01 TrpopovXoi KaQe<jTa(Tiv CTTI TOI$ (3ovXevTai<s' 6 /mev 
yap (3ovXevTrjs orj/uLOTiKov, 6 oe Trpo(3ovXo$ oXiyapviKov. 
KaTaXveTai oe Kal T^? fiovXrjs y ovvajuLis ev Tai$ ToiavTais $*]- 

I ? % \ r W^ n*s ^ 

ev ai$ avTO$ crvviwv o oq/uLos ^pq/JiaTitei Trepi 1300 
TOVTO <5e (rvjuL/Baiveiv e'lwOev, OTav evTropia Tig y 13 
TQI$ KKXr](ria<ovo'iv' G"XjoXa<iovTe$ yap crvXXeyovTai. 
re TroXXa/a? Kal aTravTa avTol Kpivovcriv. TraiSovdjULos $e 
Kai yvvaiKovojUios, Kai e'l Tig aXXo? ap^cav Kvpiog earTi Toiav- 
Trjg eTTijuLeXeiag, apiffTOKpaTiKov, SrjfjLOKpaTiKOv S' ov' Trwg yap 
olov re KcoXveiv e^ievai Tag TU*V aTrdpcov, ovo^ oXiyap-^iKov 
Tpv<puxri yap al TWV oXiyap^ovvTCOv. aXXa Trepl /mev TOV- 14 
TCOV eTrl TOCTOVTOV eiprja-Ooo vvv, Trepl $e Tag TCOV ap-^wv KaTa- 
crTacreig TreipaTeov e ap-^rjg SieXOeiv. eicrl S* al fiiatpopal 
ev Tpifflv opoig 9 wv crvvTiOejUievcov avayKaiov TrdvTag eiXtj(j)6ai 
Tovg TpoTrovg. eVrt ^e TCOV TpifJov TOVTCOV ev /uiev Tiveg ol 
KaOicrTavTeg Tag ap^dg, SeuTepov o^' e/c TIVWV, XOITTOV Se 
Tiva Tpdirov. eKacTTOv $e TCOV Tpicov TOVTCOV Sia(j)opal Tpeig 15 
eiariv rj yap TrdvTeg ol TroXiTai Ka6i<TTa(Tiv rj Tiveg,, KOI rj 

11 STTOJS dcrxoXw^ ^<rrat] 'how it 
shall be kept engaged.' 

12 Kadecrraffiv tiri rots fiovXevrais] 
' are established as a check upon the 
members of the senate.' This was the 
case at Athens at the time above 
mentioned when Probuli were ap- 

13 einropia ris fj T) ,utcr06s] Spengel, 
p. 40, wishes to read piadov, relying 
on VII. (VI.) II. 6, fuaOov evwopla. 
But there is no absolute necessity for 
the change, for we may conceive the 

ij fj.i<r86s introduced to make more pre- 
cise the meaning of eviropia, and the 
second passage written at first with 
greater accuracy. 

i T&S TUV b-rropuv] Comp. VII. 
(VI.) vin. 23, Std Tty &5ov\iav. 
There is no possibility of subjecting 
them to regulations as the simplest 
necessity of their state of poverty 
would set any such aside. 

14 ev Tpiffiv 6'/oois] ' under three 
heads,' ' in three points.' 




The execu- K 

r\ CK rivwv a<p(*)pKrjULevc0v 9 oiov r\ rifJirj/ULan *] yevei 
, ^ / '/ f / > -\/r t > 

rj apery *j TIVI roiovrw a\\a) 9 coo-Trep ev Meyapoig e/c rcov 

crvyKareXOovrcov Kal cru/x/xa^ecrayaeVcoi/ Trpog rov ^/ 
16 ravra r) aipecrei q K\rjp(p. 7ra\iv ravra crvvovalfoiuLva 9 \ey 


rag HJLCV riveg ra? Se 
al ra? 

Ka ra? /ULCV CK TravTCOv 

atpecrei ra? 




CK travrwv ap<rei, rj TTCLVTCS e/c 
ej* airavTwv rj to? ara //.ejOO?, oto^ Kara <pv\a$ Kai 

Te(T<rape<s. rj yap 
K\ypw 9 Kal rj 

ot>/oaT/o/a9, eft)? ay oteXOy via iravTinv TOOV TroXiTcov, rj aei e^ 

18 a7rdi>T(*)v 9 Kal ra yuei/ OVTCO ra ^e eKcivtv?. 7ra\iv el Tive$ 

01 KaOia-ravTes, rj e/c TravTOov aipecrei t] e/c irdvTCOv 

rj e/c TLVGOV alpea-ei y CK TIVWV K\*]p<p, 27 ra yuey OI/TCO ra 
e/ceiVtt)?, \eyoo $e ra /mev e/c Tra^rft)!' aipeo-ei ra 
wcrre ocooe/ca o/ rpOTroi ylvovrai ^copi^ rwv ovo (r 
19 ToJrft)!/ ^' a/ yuey <^Jo /caracrrao-ez? Sr]/uioriKal 9 ro TroWa? e/c 



aipe<rei rj K\rjpu> yivecrOai % aju,(f)oiv 9 rag 
aipecrei rcov ap-^MV ro $e /mrj Trdvrag ajma fj.ev Ka6i- 
arrdvai 9 e aTrdvrwv & rj e/c rivc0v 9 rj K\iyp(p % aipecrei rj 
a[j,(poiv 9 i? rag JULCV e/c Travrcov rag o' e/c nvwv ajm<poiv (ro 
Se d/uL(f)oiv \eyci) rag JULCV K\*]pw rag <T aipecrei} 9 7ro\iriKov. 

20 Kaf TO rivdg e/c Trdvrow rag IJLGV aipecrei KaOiarrdvai rag $e 

i] d/ui<poiv 9 rag jmev K\rjpw rag 5' aipecrei 9 oXiyap- 

>* / ?i< ^^'>'J~ ^?^ ^ 

o\iyap^iKcorepov oe Kai ro e ajuLCboiv. ro oe rag 
1300 B fjiev e/c Trdvrtov rag <$' e/c rivtov TroXiriKOv apicrroKpariKU)g 9 rj 

21 rdg ju.ev aipecrei rag $e K\rjp<p. ro $e rivag e/c nvwv o\i- 
yap^iKOVf KOI ro rivag e/c nvwv K\ypq) 9 ^jmrj yevo^evov <T 
6fJioiu>g~] 9 Kal ro rivag e/c nvwv a/ui(poiv 9 ro Se rivag e ctTrdv- 

11 rwv. ro $e e/c rivwv aipecrei Trdvrag apicrroKpariKov. 01 
/mev ovv rpOTroi rcov Trepi rag ap^ag rocrovroi rov dpiO/mov 

15 tv Meydpois] Mr. Grote, III. 60, 
in reference to this allusion speaks of 
its being of no historical value, for 
dates and details escape us. 

1 6 TOIJTWV 8' 

AC. r. X.] On 

this passage see Nickes, Excursus, 
VIIT. p. 145. He practically re-writes it. 
But, allowing that he does this suc- 
cessfully, and I think he does, the 
question occurs, is it worth while ? I 
prefer leaving the text as it stands. 

YI. (IY.) 16.] 
eicri., Kai 



/cara ra? TroXire/a? OVTCOV Tiva $e TI<TI The execu- 
\ ~ ~ i /\ \ t ft tivepower. 

Kai TTCOS oe* yivearVai ra? /caracrrao-ef?, a/ma TGU? 

ovvafjiecri TCOV ajO^coj/, Kai Tives ct&iv, (TTai (havcpov. \eyco 
$e SuvajUiiv apxfjs, ot ' OJ/ T 'V Kvpiav TCOV Trpocroficov Kal 
Kvpiav TJ7? (f)v\aK*]S' a\\o yap ef^o? Swa/mews olov ( 

joJ ryi/ a'yojOai/ <rvjm/3o\aia)v Kvpia?. 

V OC TU)V TplCOV TO OLKaCTTlKOV eiTTeiV. \t)7TTeOV $6 1 6 
\/ ^ t \\i\t f n 31 

Kai TOVTCW rovs TpO7rovs Kara T*JV avrrjv vTroveviv. ecm 
oe oia(popa rwv SiKa<jTripiu>v ev TpL&lv opoi$ 9 ej~ wv re /cat 
TrejOf w^ Kal TTW?. Xry ^e e^ coy /xeV, TOTtpov e/c 7rai/Tft)t/ 

*7 6/C TIVCOV 7T6pl WV <$, 7roVa e^/ $lKaO-Trjp[(*)V TO $ 7TW?, 

TTOTepov K\qp(p tj aipecrei. TrpcoTov ovv oiaipeicrOo) Troara 
e'l^j] fiucamipiatv. ea-Tt $e TOV apiO/mov OACTCO, ci/ /xey evOvv- 

aXXo (^e ei ; r/9 rt TCOJ/ KOLVWV afiiKei, eTepov oo~a 




7ro\iTiav (fiepei, TeTapTov Kal a 
TrejOf ^^icocrecoj/ ajuL(j)ia-/3riTOV(riv 9 
(Tvva\\a f yiJiaTU)v Kai C^OVTCOV /meyeOos, Kal Trapa TavTa TO 

T (poVlKOV Kal TO ^GVIKOV. (poVlKOV fJ.Iv OVV e'tfir], GLV T' 3 

ev Tol<s avTOis SiKacrTais av T' ev aXXoi?, Trepi re TWV CK 
irpovoia? Kal Trepl TCOV aKOVcriwv, Kal ocra 6fJLo\oyeiTai /mev 9 
a[jL<pi(T/3r]TeiTai $e Trepl TOV Sucaiov, TCTapTov $e ocra TOig 
(frevyovan (fiovov eirl Ka06Su> eirKpepeTai, olov 'A.0qvtjcri 
\eyeTai Kal TO ev <&peaTTOi SiKaa-T^piov arvjui/Baivei e TC 
ToiavTa ev TW 7ravT\ "xpovw oXiya Kal tv Tai$ fJLeya\ai$ 

&/J.O. rats 5vvdfj,(ri] in VII. (VI.) 8, 
this point is treated. 

&\\o yap eldos] ' For there is quite 
another kind of power, say in the 
office of general and in that to which 
is entrusted the management of the 
common market transactions.' 

XVI. T Toirrwz/] As if he had 
written ret 5i/cao"T7jpia. 

i Sera eis rty iroXiTetav <t>tpei] 'all 
constitutional questions.' 

TTpl ^utuxrewv] ' appeals against the 
amount of fines.' 

Kal &x<[>vT<ijv pfyedos] 'and on the 
condition that they are of some im- 
portance,' granting that they are not 
merely trivial. 

3 (povtKov etSrj] On this question see 
Hermann, Pol. Antiquities (Eng. Tr.), 
104, p. 203, and the appendices to 
Miiller's Eumenides. 

M /ca065y] Hermann as quoted 
above. " The homicide was still 
obliged to quit the country for a 
season, until he obtained leave of the 
relations of the deceased to return." 

QpearToi] Mr. Grote, III. 103, note, 
speaks of this as " obscure." 



Thejudi- 7r6\e<Tiv. TOV fie ^evtKov 'ev /uev eVo*9 irpog &evov? 9 ctXXo 
cial power. .,, \ <* t * y ^ , ~ x 

- t^evois TTjOO? cco-TOf?. CTL de Trapa TravTa ravra Trepi row 

* /uLtKpcov crvva\\ay/u.aTcov 9 ocra opa^jULtaia Kal TrevTd^pa'vju.a 
Kal jmiKpij) Tr\etovo$' Set /mev yap Kal Trepi TOVTODV yiveirOai 

5 KpicriV) OVK e/ULTriTTTet $e eis SIKCKTTWV TrXrjOos. 'AXXa Trepi 
/mev TOVTMV cKpelcrOco Kal TWV (povLKwv Kal TWV ^eviKwv, Trepi 
Se TWV Tro\iTiKU)v \eywfjiev., Trepi &v /u.rj yivo/uev 
oia<TTa(Tis <yivovTai /ecu TWV TroXiTeioov at Kivqarei$. 
& riroi Travras Trepi TravTUtv Kpiveiv TWV 


1301 17 K\rjpw 9 rj Trdvras Trepi TrdvTCov TO. fJLev K\r)pip TO, ^ alpe- 

6 era, rj Trepi eviaov TU>V avTtov TOV$ /met/ K\r)pu) roi'? ^' alpe- 


OVTOI $"* eTepol Kal ot KaTO. fj.epo<s' TraXiv yap CK TIVCOV Kal 
ol SiKafyvTes Trepi TTCLVTWV atpeoret, rj CK TIVWV Trepi TrdvTcw 
K\r]p(p, 37 ra fj.ev K\rjpu) TO. $e aipecrei, t] evia $iKa<TTypia 

7 Trepi TCOV O.VTU>V CK K\tjpooTu>v Kal atpeTcov. OVTOL /mev ovv, 
wa"7rep e\e^Orj(Tav 9 ot TpOTroi TOIS eiprj/mevots. eTt oe Ta 
avTa (Tf^ouaro/xeya, \eyco o' olov Ta /u.ev CK TravTcov TO. $' 
K TIVWV TO. $' e aiuL(f)oiv 9 olov et TOV avTov SiKatrrtjpiov elev 

g ol /mev CK TrdvTcov ol $' CK Tivcov 9 Kal rj K\yp(p rj atpeo-et rj 
a/ui(f)oiv. ocrou? jmev ovv ev^e-^eTai TpOTrovs elvat TO. StKa- 
o"T^pta 9 e'tptjTaf TOVTCDV $e TO. /mev irpwTa Sr)fjLOTiKa 9 ocra e'/c 
TrdvTcov r] Trepi TrdvTcov 9 TO. Se devTepa 6\tyap^tKa 9 ocra CK 
TIVCOV Trepi TrdvT(av 9 TO. <$e TpiTa apicrTOKpaTiKa Kal TTO\I- 
TiKOL 9 ocra TO, jmev CK TTOLVTCDV TO. 8' e/c TLVWV. 

4 Trapa iravrh. raura] 'cases of 
summary jurisdiction, questions which 
do not require a number of judges.' 

5 T&V Sifl/jTj/^j'wj'] 'The points dis- 
tinguished. ' 

The combinations here are not de- 
fective as they were in Ch. XV., and 
consequently the text does not want 
re-arranging, as Nickes has done in 
the case of that other passage. But 

these minute details of arrangement, 
however necessary for the completeness 
of Aristotle's work, and for its prac- 
tical utility as bearing on the nice 
complications of the Greek constitu- 
tions, are of no value for the modern 
student. It would be a mere useless 
burdening of the memory to attempt 
to master them. 



rpHERE is no break between this book and the last, and its con- 
=* tents have been stated generally in the summary given of the 
last. Its particular object is to investigate the method of consti- 
tuting first democratical, then oligarchical, governments (Ch. I.). 

What are the ideas at the root of democracy ? what are the 
characteristic principles it admits ? what the character it requires 
or tolerates in its citizens ? (II.). How can the element of fair- 
ness and equality on which it prides itself be introduced, and so 
introduced, as that the constitution formed shall not, by its exclu- 
siveness and adaptation to the democratical standard, entirely 
alienate and drive into violent opposition the other parts of the 
state? (III.). 

The various forms of democracy differ in point of excellence in 
proportion to the varying merit of the people which is predominant 
in each. A clear judgment must then be formed on the point, which 
democracy is best, and then the measures necessary for securing it 
must be adopted. If a democracy of free proprietors of land is the 
best, the state must see that its citizens, all of them, have land, 
and so on, as the scale descends, for the various intervening forms. 
The latest in order of time and most prevalent welcomes all alike, 
and aims only at strengthening its numbers, and breaking up the 
organisation of the party opposed to it. It tolerates no powerful 
classes, no union, no distinctions. It has much that is tyrannical 
in it (Ch. IV.). 

To form a constitution is one thing, to keep it, when formed, in 
health, is another. And this is the harder task of the legislator. 
In his laws and constitutions he must aim at this. He must not 
seek the immediate and exclusive triumph of his principle at the 
expense of its permanence. On the contrary, he must, as far as is 
possible, guard against that exclusive triumph, above all things, 
guard against excessive irritation of his opponents, and so he must, 
if possible, preclude excessive poverty in the people, an end in which 
the party who are inferior should zealously co-operate with him. 
It is the common interest of all (Ch. V.). 

So far for democracies. If the method of their formation is 


rightly understood, it involves the right understanding of their 
opposites, the formation of oligarchies. And the cautions in the 
two cases are analogous. The safety of a democracy lies in large 
numbers, they seem to make opposition hopeless. The safety of 
an oligarchy lies in the moderate use of their power by the oli- 
garchs (VI.). This is their real safety. To secure their power, 
whether moderately used or strained to excess, they must carefully 
consider their armed force. And if they aim at a moderate and 
just use of it, then there are certain ' temperamenta imperii,' modifi- 
cations which may make such wise exercise of it something in which 
all acquiesce (VI.). 

There remains a point which was not fully treated in the last 
book, relating to the various magistracies which the state requires, 
whether democratical or oligarchical. These are enumerated at 
considerable length. 


nO2AI JULCV ovv <$ia(popal Kal rives rov re /3ov\evri- 
\ r -v / \ ~ ^^^^ 

KOV Kai Kvpiov rqg TTOAireias KOLI r*i<s Trepi rag apx a $ 

Trepl c)iKacrrr]pta)v 9 

Troia TT/OO? Troiav crvvre- 


\ \ 
ret/era* TToXireiav* e'lptjrai Trpdrepov. eirel <$e 

TrXe/o) $r}jUiOKpaTia$ ovra Kal TWV a\\oov Oywo/ftj? TroXiTeicov, 
,ajuia re Trepl eKeivwv e'l n XotTroV, ou ^eipov eTriarKe^aa-Oai, 
Kal rov OLKCLOV Kal rov arv^^epovra rpOTrov aTroSovvai Trpos 
eKa&rrjv. en <$e Kal TO? o"vvaytoya$ avrwv ra>v etprj/mevGDv 
7ri<TK7rreov Trdvrwv rwv rpoTrcov ravra yap a-vvdva^d/ULeva 
TGI? TroXtre/a? eTraXXdrreiv, wcrre apicrroKparta? re 
pxjLKas elvai Kal 7ro\treta$ ^rjjULOKpari 
e rov$ (rvvovacr/j-ov^y ov? oei fmev eTrio'KO'Treiv, OVK ecrKe 
eicrl vvv, olov av TO jmev /BovXevdjmevov Kal ro Trepl ra? 
y (rvvreray/mevov, ra $e Trepl ra 



tions of 

the ele ~ 
merits of 


ZTI St ?repl <j)0opas re Kal ffUTijpias r&v TroXtretwi' K iroiuv re ylveTai 
5iA rival atrlas Bekker. 

I. i In this first section I omit 
the clause relating to the revolutions 
of states, the subject of Book VIII. 

i tird M, K.T.X.] 'Since we find 
that there is more than one kind of 
democracy, more than one kind also 
of the other constitutions, it will be as 
well to consider them, and at the same 
time if we have left anything unsaid 
on the former points, to consider that 
also, and to give the proper and suit- 
able mode of establishing each consti- 
tution.' So I translate the passage, 
keeping Bekker' s text strictly. Nickes 
wishes to substitute &\\a for &/j.a. 
By tKeivuv I understand the /3ouXeu- 
Tii<6v, 8iKa<TTiK6v, apxaiperiKdv of the 
last Book. 

A. P. 

3 ras (rvvaywyds] 
bringing together, uniting 

s a 
Here ' the 

tira\\dTTu>~\ Here the word is very 
simple, 'to run into one another, to 
interchange. ' 

4 tffKeiintvoi d<rC] The verb seems 
to be used in a passive sense. 

rb fj.v /SovXewd/tow] Spengel would 
read Trepl r6 after ph, as he would 
also substitute rb Se" for ra St. No 
doubt both changes would be improve- 
ments, but they are not very important 

"3 vvvTcrayptvov] 'be 
arranged on oligarchical principles.' 





tions of 
the ele- 
ments of 
cy, oli- 

tical com- 

api(TTOKpaTiKws 9 ) TavTa IJLGV /ecu TO Trcpi TO 
/3ov\v6juievov o\iyap-iK<*>s> apuTTOKpaTiKws $ TO Trepl Tag 
apxaipe(rla$ 9 % /car' a\\ov TLVOL Tpoirov jmrj iravTa crvvTeOfi 
TO. r>79 7roXfT/a? oiKeia, Ilo/a fJLev ovv o'tjiuLOKpaTia 7rpo$ 
TTOiav apjuiOTTci TroXiv, ftxraJrw? $e Kal TTOIOL TWV oXiyapyLwv 

7TO/O) 7T\^Oei 9 KOI TWV \O17TCOV O TToXfTeiO)!/ 77? <TVjUL(ppt 

Tioriv, LOY\TOLi TTpOTepov. o/xo>9 06 oei ycvccrOai orjXov fun? 


aXXa Kal TTW? Set KCLTaarKeva^eiv KOI raura? Kal Tag a'XXa? 
7re\6(*)iuLv crvvTO/uLco?. Kal irpwTOV irepl ^^yao/CjOar/a? eiTrco- 
a/ma yap Kal Trepl TW avTiKeijmevrjs TroXtre/a? (pavepov, 

Xiyaiav. \ijTrTeov oe 




Tats 8r][j(,oKpaTiai$ aKoXovOeiv CK yap TOVTGOV CTVVTI- 
TO, T%S SqjULOKpaTtag e'lSt] ytvetrOai orvfj,/3aivei 9 Kal 
&r]fjLOKpaTia<s fjua$ elvai Kal $ia(f)6pov$. $vo yap 
aiTiai SS aanrep at orjfjLOKpaTLai TrXe/ou? eltri, Trp&Tov 
fjiev % ^e-^Oeiara irpoTepov, OTI $ia(popoi ol Stjjmoi' yiveTat 
yap TO fjiev yecopyiKOv 7r\rjOo$ 9 TO Se fiavavvov KOI OtjTi- 

KOV &V TOV TTpCOTOV TW OVTp(f) 7T/OOO"Xa/X/3ai / OyOtei'Ol', Kai TOU 

7rd\i v TOt$ auifoTeois ov JJLOVOV S 

5 /t-Jj Trdvra <rvvTedrj, K. T. X.] ' The 
combination be not in all points that 
of elements akin to the constitution.' 
" Sed sumpta e diversis et dissimili- 
bus" is part of the comment of Vic- 
torius on the passage. 

6 dpttrrr] rats Tr6\<nv] Spengel would 
read alperTj iroiats (p. 34, note 31), 
but the present reading may be de- 
fended as virtually the equivalent of 
the one proposed. ' But for each of 
the states under their circumstances/ 
or ' for what kind of state each con- 
stitution is eligible.' It does not 
much matter which of these two is 

l rds &\\as eir\6u[Jiev 
Does this last verb govern 

the two accusatives, or do they depend 
on /carctcr/cei'd^ew? Perhaps the best 
way is to make them depend on 
and then let tirtKdwpev 
and not S^Xop, precede the 
interrogative, ' but also let us briefly 
discuss the point how both these 
and the other forms are to be esta- 

7 /uas] is not absolutely necessary. 
It seems put in to draw great atten- 
tion to the statement, and to illustrate 
Aristotle's dislike to any attempt at 
reducing all the various forms too much 
under one head. 

8 TO 5 (Sdvavaov Kal 07771x61*] In 
(IV.) ill. 2, the words are dyopalov 
Kal fidvavvov. 

VII. (VI.) 1.] nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 


Tr\ /uev 


Kal X tp M yivecrOai Tyv Sq/moKpaTiav, aXXa Kal T fAt] TV\V 

fievTepa $e Trepi ?? vvv XeyofJ^ev TO. yap TCU? Sij- 

' "\ /i " \-^ -^ ^ ./ 

a/coAof uouvTa /ecu ooKovvTa eivai T^y? 7ro\iTeia$ 

TTOiet crvvTiOeimeva Ta? orjfJLOKpaTias exe/oa?' 
eXccTTfc), T>y o' GLKoXovOqcrei TrXe/o^a, Trj o 
Tcti/Tct. "vp^](TijULov o KaG"rov avTwv yvu>pi{iv 
Trp6<s re TO KaracrKevd^eiv rjv av TI<S avTwv Tvyy /3ov\6- 
fjievo<s 9 Kal TTjOO? TG\? SiopOuxreis. ^Jfrowrj /xei/ yap ol Ta? 
Ka9i<TTavT$ vnravTa Ta oiKeia crvvayayelv TT/OO? 

i f\ / ^ ^ " a ^ ^> 

VTTOuecriv, a/mapTavovcri oe TOVTO 7roiovvTe$. vvvi oe 
TCC ai~i(Jo/uiaTa Kal Ta i]6r] Kal u>v ecbievTai \eycojmev. 

'YTroOearis fj.ev ouv T^9 orj/uiOKpaTiKrjs TroXiTe/a? eXevOepia' 
TOVTO yap \eyeiv eicoOatriv, a>9 ei^ fJ-ovrj Ty TroXiTeia 

eXevOepias' TOVTOV yap (TTO^a^ecrOa/ <pa<ri 

KaOdirep ev rots Trepi ras (pdopas Kal ras (rwr^o/as rcDv TroXiTeicDv < 

tical com- 


9 7iy>ds ras Siop^wcreis] f For the re- 
form of existing constitutions.' 

10 irpbs T7]v virbdecnv] depends on 
oiKeia, 'all without exception of those 
points which their assumption implies/ 
which are akin, that is, to the demo- 
cratical or oligarchical principle. I 
prefer this way to St. Hilaire's 
"grouper autour de leur principe." 

As to the words Kaddirep, K.r.X., 
which I have omitted from the text 
consistently with I, Spengel would 
retain them, reading e/oou/tev varepov 
for ef/jTjrat Trpbrepov. It seems quite 
the easier plan to get rid of them at 
once, though this leaves, it must be 
confessed, the passage very abrupt. 

TO, d^ici/xara] ' The primary assump- 
tions,' 'the fundamental principles,' 
in this sense, " les bases sur les- 
quelles," St. Hil. 

ra $811] Compare V. (VIII.) I. 2, 
TO yap ^#05 TT)S TroXireias e/ca<TT?7S. 
The different character required by 

each in its citizens to adapt them for 
being good members of the whole, 
depends on the character which is 
impressed on that whole. The plural 
ra rfdi) simply expresses the fact that 
as there are several constitutions, there 
will be several characters. The amplest 
discussion of the character of demo- 
cracy in particular, is that given by 
M. De Tocqueville in his Democratic 
en Amerique. 

II. i V7r66e(ris] I do not think any 
distinction need be drawn between 
this word and ra dttt>yu.ara of the 
last chapter for any practical result. 
'TTr60<Tts is not the 'Idea' in Cole- 
ridge's sense of the word, but 'the 
primary assumption on which the given 
constitution is based. ' 

TOVTO ydp, K. r. X.] ' For this is the 
constant language of men, as though 
this were the only form in which 
liberty was to be enjoyed.' 





Character- crav ^ri/moKpaTtav. } eXevOepiag <$e ei/ u.ev TO ev aepei lip- 
isticsofde- i~ % f\ r v r v 

mocracy. -veoruai KCLI ap^eiv. IVcu yap TO oiKaiov TO orjfijLOTiKOV TO 

'l<TOV eeiV e(TT\ KaT* aplOjULOV a\\a fJLf] /CCCT* Ctj'iaVi \TOVTOV 

S* OVTOS TOV SiKalov TO 7rX>7$o? avayicalov elvai Kvpiov, Kal o 
TI av $oj~r] TO?? TrXe/ocrf, TOUT' eTvat Kal Te'Xo? KOI TOVT eivai 
TO Sitcaiov d)a<rl yap oeiv "KTOV e-yeiv eKavTov TU>V TTO\ITU>V 

I I /V 

WCTTC ev Talg SrnuoKpaTiais (rv/u/Balvei KvpiooTepov? elvai TOV? 

t / i f ^ f ^ > * f ' "VV m \ 

aTTOpov? TCW evTropw TrAe^of? yap ei<ri 9 Kvpiov oe TO TO/? 
3 TrXeiocrt do^av. I *ev [lev ovv T^? \ev6epla$ crrujielov TOVTO, 

ov TiOevTai Tra^Te? ol ^tjjmoTiKol T^? 7roXfTe/a? o^oo^, ei/ ^e TO 
lrjv <w? fiov\Tai Tf?* TOVTO yap T^? e\ev6epia? epyov elvai 

4 (fraariv, e'lirep TOV SovXov oWo? TO '(rjv /mtj w? fioiiXeTai. T^? 
fj,ev ovv orjfjLOKpaTia'S opos OWTO? SevTepos" evTevOev & e\rf\vQe 
TO fjirj ap-^ea-9ai 9 fjioXiarTa jmev VTTO ju.r]9evo$ 9 el $e /ULtj 9 KaTa 
imepo?, Kal (rvjUL/3dX\Tai TavTy Trpog TY\V eXevQepiav Tr\v 

5 AcaTa TO 'ttrov. TOVTMV o vTroKei/mevajv Kai 


TO. TOiavTa 

TO aieicr 




CK TravTWV, TO apyeiv iravTas JULCV e/cacrTOf e/cacrToi/ 


cv juiepei TrvTWV, TO /c^pWTa? evai Ta? ap^ag rj Tracra? 37 
o<rai ju.r] efJLTeipiaf SeovTai Kal Tef^y*/?, TO jmrj CLTTO Tf/xi/xaTO? 
elvai T? ap-^ag *i OTL fJUKpoTaTOv, TO yu^ o\s TOV 

v ILV] ' one characteristic/ ' one 

2 rb Slicaiov rb 57?^iori/c6j'] 'Justice 
in the democratical sense. ' 

TO?? TrXefocrt] ' To the greater num- 

TOVT elvai Kal r^\oi\ Is this : ' this 
should hold good, and be final'? If 
the Kai is kept, I do not well see what 
else to make of it. 

3 TTJS TroAirefas &pov\ 'the proper 
limit or characteristic.' 

Zpyov] "le propre," 'the true ob- 

4 SevTtpos] I place a colon after 
Setfrepos, and take away the full stop 
after ptpos. ' From this last character- 

istic of democracy comes the feeling of 
the citizens in such a state against 
every exercise of authority over them ; 
if they cannot secure this, then they 
accept as the next best theory, an 
authority which they exercise and 
submit to in turns, and herein this 
second characteristic conspires to for- 
ward the other, the liberty based in 

5 vtroKL^v<j3v\ Sc. these vTroOtcreis. 

TTJS apxys'] Is this 'the principle 
from which we start?' or may the 
word not have quite a different 
meaning, ' such being the character of 
the power exercised in a democratical 
government ?' I incline to this latter 

VII. (YI.) 2.] nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 


avTOV p-veiv 

> ^ ' 

TO o\iyo^poviovg ret? ap%a<s 

ri dA/'ya? ea) TWV Kara Character- 

** > *' isticsofde - 
iraaras rf ocra? evoe- mocracy. 

TO Snedfyiv TrdvTag KOI CK TrdvTwv Kal irepl TTOLVTCDV 

TWV Tr\el<TTU>V & Kal TU)V 

Kal 7ro\iTia$ Kal TUIV iSicov 

ariav Kvav e 



TO Trjv KK\rj- 
rj TU>V jmeyicrTcov apxyv $e /u.r]$e- 
v Kvpiav. TU>V fr ap-^wv Stj/mo- 6 
/uucrOov evTTola 7ra<Tiv VTo,v6a 


TLKWTCLTOV /3ov\rj, oTTov 

yap a<paipovvTai KOL 

CLVTOV yap avdyei ra? Kpicreis Tracra? 6 

ju.i(r9ov 9 KaOaTrep e'iptjTai irpoTepov ev Trj 

eTreiTa TO /u.i(r6o(popiv 9 yuaXicrra 

Ty irpo 
Trai/ra?, 7 

ra? p^a? Ka TO. 

KK\t]criav SiKacrTJpta dp-^dsy ei <$e 

Kal Trjv /3ouX^j/ Kal ra? e/c/ctycra? ret? Kvpas, 
dpywv a? dvdyKt] crvo-ffiTeiv JULCT' d\\q\cov. CTI eTrei^rj 
6\iyap%ia Kal yevei Kal TT\OVTO) Kal Traio'eta opi^eTai, ra 
^rj/jLOTiKa SoKel TavavTLa TOVTWV efi/at, dyeveia Trevla fiavav- 
arla. Ti Se TWV dpywv TO fAt]Seju.iav difiiov etvai' edv $e 

* /cat T&V /j.eyt<rT(i)i> Bekker. 

b Bekker's order places ^ T&V peyiffTw after 8n 6\iyl<rTwv. 
c M Bekker. 


Travras Kal K TTOLVTWV] It 
would seem that we ought to substi- 
tute $ for Kal before K iravruv, 

Kal TUV /j.eytcrT<i)v] This is super- 

r6 TT]V tKK\i)<rtav, K. r. X. ] The order 
in the text seems to me better than 
that retained by Bekker, and given 
at the foot. 

6 purdov ev-rropla] Compare VI. (IV.) 
XV. 13, note. 

tvravOa yap] ' Where there is.' 
Trj /j,e865ti) Trj irpb ratfrTjs] The re- 
ference is to VI. (IV.) xv., but no 
inference could well be founded on it 
as to the order of Books VII. VIII. 
(VI. V.). 

7 TTcuSeip] Is not, strictly speaking, 
a characteristic of 6\iyapxia, but of 

comp. VI. (IV.) VIII. 
ix. 3. It is the last-quoted section 
that explains his language here, 5ia rd 
(j.a\\ov aKO\ovdeiv Tratdeiav TOIS evirop- 

Pavavala] The trevla in the one case, 
as the wealth in the other, determines 
the question of education. The wealthy 
have, the poor have not, leisure for 
cultivation, and though the former 
may neglect their opportunities, and 
not educate themselves, whilst the 
latter may secure this in spite of their 
disadvantages, still, on the average, it 
is assumed that the favourable or un- 
favourable outward circumstances will 
determine the result. 

8 rt] irl may stand, but ri is far 
better, I think. 




istics of de- 

TO 'l(Tov 


tical equa- 

Tig KaraXeKpOy e ap-^alag jULTa/3o\rj$ 9 Tore Trepiaipei&Oai 
Trjv ovva/uLiv avTtjs KOLI e^ aipeTwv K\r)pa)TOv$ iroielv. TO. fjiev 
ovv Koiva Tal<s orj/uiOKpaTiais Tairr' eerr/, a"v/JLJ3aivei o e/c TOV 
TOV ojULoXoyov/mevov eivai o^/jiOKpaTiKov (TOVTO a? 
v aVa^Td? /cT* api6ju.6v) % juLa\L(TT^ eivai 
$t]/u.oKpaTia Kal o^/zo?' "KTQV yap TO juyOev jmaXXov 
TOVS ctTTOpovg *] TOVS eviropovs, jULySe Kvpiovs eivai 
a\\a TravTag e^ 'Ivov /caT* apiO/mov OVTCO yap av 
iv vo^i^oiev TY\V T' fVoV^Ta T*J TroXiTcia Kal T*]V 

To oe yiteTa TOI'TO aTropeiTai TTW? e^ovtri TO 'itrov, TTO- 
Tepov Set TO. TiwimaTa SieXetv ^i\ioig TO, TWV TrevTaKocricov 
Kal Tovg ^fX/ou? 'icrov Suvaa-Qai TO?? Tre^Ta/coer/of?, n ov^ OVTOJ 
Sel TiOevai Ttjv KaTa TOVTO i<roTt]Ta 9 aXXa SieXeiv jmev 
eVe/Ta e/c TCOV TrevTaKocrlwv "itrovs \a/3ovTa Kal e/c TWV 


TOVTOVS KVpovs evai TCOV ap^aipecricov 3 ' Kal TMV 

}' Bekker. 

irepicupe'iaOai] 'To strip it of its 
power.' The language almost seems 
an allusion to the case of the Areo- 
pagus and its treatment by Ephialtes 
and Pericles. 

9 ffvfipatvei] ' there results.' 
rb fj-ydfr /iaXXov] This is the passage 
quoted in the note on VI. (IV.) IV. 
22, to which it is sufficient to refer 
the reader. 

III. I rb yuerot TOVTO] 'The 
next point after this presents a diffi- 

iroTepcv Set] Shall there be a property 
element? 'Ought the properties of 
500 rich to be taken and set over 
against those of 1000 poor, and the 
thousand to have equal weight with 
the five hundred, or is this not the 
way in which you ought to establish 
equality in this respect, but rather, 
adopting the division given above, to 
take an equal number out of both 
bodies, the five hundred and the 

thousand, and place in the hands of 
the body so formed the elections and 
the courts of justice.' Such seems to 
me the sense of the passage, but I do 
not feel clear as to the exact meaning 
of the expression SteXeiv x'^ ' 5 T & 
r&v TrevTaKoffluv, ' ' rdpartir de maniere 
que," St. Hil. 

Stcu/^crewi'] This word again is diffi- 
cult. Stahr makes no change, but, 
with Sepulveda, looking more to the 
sense than the word, he translates it 
" consultationem," and so he gets the 
two great functions of the citizen 
given in III. xi. 8, Victorius reads 
in the sense of elections. I 
the reading adopted 
by St. Hilaire and Lambinus. TUV 
T alpeveuv would make a very 
good reading. Of course, if diaipecreuv 
can mean ' decisions on points of 
policy,' then it would be the best 
reading of all, and I should think it 
might bear this meaning rather than 
that of ' deliberation. ' 

VII. (VI.) 3.] nOAITIKON H. (Z.) 


TTOTepov ovv avTt] rj 7ro\iTia oiKaiOTCtTtj KCLTCL TO orjfjLOTiKOV Democra- 

J?' * ~\\ ' * < \~Q rh * Jf tical equa- 

OJ/CCUOl>, *7 /Uia\\OV tj KOLTOL TO 7T\r]UOS , SPotCTt 'yctjO Of OrjjULO- lity. 

Ti/COf TOVTO &iK<LlOV O TL O.V So$~IJ TO?? 7T\eiO<TlV, OL (T O\l- ~ 

yapyjLKol o TL av oofy T/7 TrXelovi ova-la* /cctra 7rX>7$o? 'yctjO 
ovv las (fraarl icplvecrOai Seiv. c^ei 3" 1 a^^oTepa avi<roTr]Ta 3 
Kal aoiKiav ei /ULCV yap o TL av ol oXlyoi, Tvpavvig (/ca^ yap 
eav ei$ "^TI 7rXe/a) TWV a\\wv euTroocoj/, K.OVTOL TO oXiyapviKOV 
ciKaLov ap-^eiv Sucatof /xoVo?), el <T o TL av ol TrXe/ou? /car* 


TOVCOV, KaOaTrep e'lptjTai irpoTepov. r/? av ovv eirj tVor^? yv 4 

ajuLcfioTepoi. \eyovvL yap 0)9 o TL av oofy TO?? Tr\elo<TL 
T(*)v TroXiT'jov, TOUT' e^cw 0^6? Kvpiov. ecrTO) ^^ TOWTO, /a^ 
fJievTOL TravTft)?, aXX' CTreior] ovo /uepy TCTV^KCV e^ wv rj TTO- 
\i<S, TrXovcriOL KOL TreV^Te?, o Tt aV ajuL(poTepoi$ ^o^rj rj Totg 
TrXe/ocrt, TOVTO Kvpiov eVrco, eaj^ o^e TavavTla (5o^, o Tt ai/ 
o/ TrXe/ou? /cat a>i> TO TL/mr/juLa 7r\eiov. OLOV ol /mev (5e/ca o* 5 
^' eiKocriv, efio^e Se TWV fJLev -TrXoucr/coi/ TO?? e^, TCOV o" CLTTO- 
pooTepwv TOI$ TrevTeKaloeKa' 'Trpoo'yeyevrjvTai TO?? /mev 
TTTape$ TU>V 7r\ovcrl(*>v 9 TO?? o^e TrXoixr/ot? TTGVTC TCOV 

2 ^ /caret r6 7rX?)^os] 'That which 
looks to number exclusively.' 

Kpivecrdai] 'Amount of property, 
they say, must be taken as the 

3 aSudav] 'unfairness.' 
rvpavvis] It is in principle a tyranny. 

This point is discussed at greater length, 
III. xin. 7. 

S^eiWres] Compare III. X. I. 

4 ofAoXoyfiffovcriv] ' which both alike 
will acquiesce in, and this must be 
gathered by looking at the definitions 
which both alike give of justice,' or 
' the definition of justice in which both 
alike agree.' 

<TTW Srj TOVTO, K. r. X. ] ' Be it so 
then, only let us limit the mode in 
which it is to be.' 

TI &v afj.<f>OT<:pois~] The stress is, as 
before, on cLfuftoTtpois, 'what both 
together shall determine, or the ma- 
jority of both.' 

01 TrXet'ous, K.T.X.] 'The side on 
which you find number and larger pro- 
perty combined.' Compare Nieb. 
Horn. Hist, i, 434, note 1017. 

5 olov, K.T. X.] I take the following 
explanation in substance from Sir G. 
Cornewall Lewis, On Opinion, 232. 
There are ten rich and twenty poor. 
Six rich vote on one side, fifteen poor 
on the other. Five poor vote with 
the six rich. Four rich with the fif- 
teen poor. Then if the valuations of 
each are added on both sides, that 
side is to prevail whose aggregate 
valuation is highest. 




Democra- Tft) y. oTTOTepcov ovv TO T/unua virepTeivei orvvapiOuovfJLevwv 
tical equa- , , / , r ,^ ,, I, 

lity. ajULCpoTewv KaTepoi<$ TOVTO Kviov. eav oe icrot 

pwv KaTepoi<$, TOVTO Kvpi 

KOivyv elvai Tavrrjv vojUiio-Teov ctTropiav wcrTrep vvv 9 eav 
1318 B oly^a ^ KK\rj<ria yevrjTai r) TO oiKacrT^piov' r] yap aTro/cX^- 
pcoTeov r] aXXo Ti roiouroi/ TTOI^TCOV. aXXa Trepl fj.ev TOV 
'Icrov Kal TOV SiKalov, Kav y TTCLVV ^aXeTroi/ evpecv TY\V 
Oeiav Trepl avToov, ojucos paov TV^EIV rj <Tv/UL7reicrai rot'? 
/xevof? TrXeoveKTeiv ael yap ^TOVCTI TO tcrov /cat TO Si 
ol ?TTOf9, 01 Se KpaTOvvTeg ovSev (ppovTi^ov&iv. 

Arj/uLOKpaTicov ^ ovtrwv TCTTapcov /3e\Ti<TT*] /mev ff 

^v- /\/ > ~ > / \ ' /a -\ ' 3/ ^^ 

T" a ^ e *> KatJaTTCp V TOl<S TTjOO TOVTCOV \e^Ut] \OyOl$' (7Tt 06 

* ' ' ^ <' -\ ' 5 ' ' <' " 

/cat apyaiOTaTri Traarcov avTrj. \eyco oe TrpcoTyv cocnrep av 
jpracy. T f? <$ie\oi Toi>s Srj/uLov$' /Be\TicrTO$ yap ^^/xo? o yecopyitcos 
etTTiv, ($<TT Kal TTOietv ev^e^eTai SijjULOKpaTiav, OTTOV ^ TO 
2 7r\rj9o$ CLTTO yetopyla? rj i/o/x^?. Sia jmev yap TO 
ova-lav e^eiv acr^oXo?, WCTTC imr] 7roXXa/cf9 eK 
Sia Se TO a e^eiv Tavayicaia Trpos TO?? epyois 

a fj.-/, Bekker. 


The forma- 
tion of the 

, K. r. X. ] ' Both rich 
and poor being reckoned in on either 
side respectively.' 

6 ta-oi avfiirtcruo-i] ' If they chance 
to come out equal.' 

aTTo/cXT^wT^ov] must exclude by lot 
as in VI. (IV.) xiv. 13, 

dXXct irepl (j.v TOV foov Kal rod 
diitalov'] ' It may be difficult, very diffi- 
cult, to find in theory what is strictly 
fair and just, but it is a much less 
difficulty than to induce those who are 
the stronger to acquiesce in it when 
found, and abstain from encroachments 
on their neighbours. It is ever the 
weaker who seek for justice, whilst 
the strong wholly neglect it.' Com- 
pare Thucy. V. 89-105. 

IV. I rdet] 'in position.' 
Trpb Toirruv\ See II. 6, rfj 
j irpb TavTfjs. 

' adopting the division of the BTJ/JLOI, 
and making the constitutions in which 
they are supreme correspond in order 
with the order established among 

/3Ari0"ros] and as such Tr/xSros, and 
the drj/jLOKparia in which it is supreme 
will therefore be SeXrJo-r?; and so 

&<TTe Kal Troieiv] 'So that you can 
without difficulty make a democracy, ' 
or 'you can make a democracy which 
shall be worth something. ' 

yofjLTjs] below, II. 

2 rb JIT) ?X l1 '] The editors and com- 
mentators suffer this /ATJ to stand 
quietly, but it seems to me that it 
ought to be omitted, in fact that with 
it the passage is contradictory. In 
the first clause the people are supposed 
to have not much property, in the 
second they are supposed, with the 
existing reading, not to have the 

VII. (VI.) 4.] ITOAITIKGN H. (Z.) 


KCLI TCOV a\\oTpLO)v OVK 7ri6viu.ov(Tiv, aXX' %$iov TO epyd- T . he forma- 

^etruai TOV 7ro\iTV<r9ai Kal ap^eiv, OTTOV dv /JLtj y \yjui jULaTO. best kind 
r^. > \ ~ , ~ < \ . ,. N ^ ' , , of demo- 

fj.eya\a atro TWV apywv. ot yap TTO\\OI /zaXXoy opeyovTai crac y. 



TvpavviSa? inreinevov Kal ra? o\iyapxj[as V7roiu.evovcrii>, 
avTOvs epya^ecrOat imrj KCoXvy ju,rj<$' a(paipfJTai jUL)]9ev 
yap ol /mev 7r\ovTOV(nv avTwv, oi ^ OVK aTropovcriv. 
eTi Se TO Kvpiows etvai TOV eXe&Oat Kal evQvveiv avaTr\rjpol 4 
Tr]v evoeiav, el TL (piXoTijmias e^ovcriv, eirel Trap evtois <%uoi?, 
KO.V fj.rj /xere^o)crf r^? aipeo-ecvs TU>V apyjav a\\d TIVCS atpeTol 
Acara ]u.epo$ e'/c Trai/rcoi/, w&Trep ev Ma^r^e/a, TOV <$e fiovXeve- 
<r6ai Kvpioi wcriv, //cai/w? e^ei TOI$ TroXXo??. Kal $ei vo^i- 5 

-^rj/md TL ^^/xo/c^oaT/a?, wa-Trep ev Mai/- 
OLO $rj Kal <rvjUL(pepov ecrTi T>j irpoTepov 
pt)9ei<Tti Srj/uLOKpaTia Kal vTrdp^eiv e'icoOev, aipeicrOat jmev T9 
apXas Kal evOvveiv Kal SiKa^eiv 7ravTa<s 9 ap^eiv $e TOL<S /meyi- 
crTa? alperov? Kal OLTTO Tf/x>;/x,aTft)i/, Ta? /ze/^ou? airo /mei- 
Kal CLTTO TijULrj/maTCOV pev /mtjo'ejULiav, aXXa TOV$ $vva- 
avdyKrj Se 7ro\iTvojULevov$ OVTU> TroXiTevea-Oai Ka- 6 
(at TC yap ap^al ael $ia TWV (3e\Ti<TT(i)v e&ovTat TOV 
v /3ov\oimevov Kal TOI? eTTieiKeariv ov <p9ovovvTO$) Kal 


necessaries of life. It makes very 
good sense if the /*T? is omitted. ' The 
people has not much property, and 
therefore it cannot command leisure, 
but it has the necessaries of life, as a 
basis to proceed on, and so it spends 
its time on its business and does not 
covet its neighbour's property, but 
finds work pleasanter than mixing in 
politics and holding office.' It has, 
in fact, the two great remedies against 
covetousness and its causes and 
consequences, ov<rla ftpax^o- = rdvay- 
Kcua and epyavia. Compare II. vn. 

3 tdv rts O.VTOIJS, K. T.X.] Compare 
for the same idea nearly VI. (IV.) 

XIII. 8. 

4 avairXripoi, K. r. X.] ' Satisfies their 
want if they feel some ambition.' 

tv Mcwrwe^] Compare Grote x. 54. 
Mantinea, ' ' so moderate in its demo- 
cratical tendencies as to receive a 
favourable judgment. " 

5 robs Swapfrovs'] The capacity 
here indicated is supposed by some to 
be wealth. But it surely is better to 
take the sense of 'ability,' generally. 
" Fahigkeit, " Stahr. Stiva/Mv TU>V 
py(t)v T&V rfjs d/)%?}s. VIII. (V.) 
IX. I. 

6 5id TWV P\TI<TTUV\ ( in the hands 
of the best.' 




The forma- TOLI v apt:ovTai yap ovv vir" 1 aXXtov yetpovwv, Kai 
tionofthe \ PS , ~ VJ ~ ' < ' > ' 

best kind oiKaicDg oia TO TCOV evuuvcov eivai Kupiovg eTepovg. TO yap 
of demo- ' f\ \ \ ^ iy ~ ~ tr * ff 

cracy 7ravaKpeju.a(ruai, Kai /mt] irav e^eivai TTOICIV o TI av oofy, 

' (Tvim<pepov <TTIV y yap e^ovaria TOV TrpaTTeiv 6 TI av eOe\y 

I 3 I 9 7 ^/ JL -\ ' \ > t r * ' /i . / i~ 

Tig ov duvaTai (pvXaTTeiv TO ev e/ca<TTo> TCOV avupaoTrwv (pav- 

\ov. cocrre avayKaiov ervimfialveiv oTrep ecrrli/ uxpeXijuuaTa- 
TOV ev Tais TroXiTeiai?, apyeiv TOVS eTrieiKeis ava/u<.apT^TOV9 

8 ovTa$, fj.rjoev e\aTTOv/u,evov TOV 7r\y6ov$. f/ Ori /mev ovv 
avTtf TU>V orjfJiOKpaTLWv api(TTr] 9 (havepov, Kai oia TIV* aiTiav, 
OTI $ia TO TTOIOV Tiva eivai TOV Srjjuiov 7rpo$ Se TO /cara- 
(TKeud^eiv yewpyov TOV Srj/uLov TOOV re VO/JLWV Tive$ TWV Trapa 
TOIS 7ro\\oig KeijUievcov TO ap^aiov ^p^cri/uioi travTes, r] TO 
o\cog imr] e^eivai KCKTrjarOai 7rXe/co yrjv jmeTpov Tivog rj OLTTO 

9 Tivog TOTTOV Trpog TO OL<JTV Kai Tt]v TroXiv. qv $e TO ye 
apvaiov ev 7ro\\aig TroXecri vevojuLoOeTrjjmevov /mrjde ircoXeiv 

Tdvg TT/OCOTOU? K\rjpovg. CCTTI oe Kai bv \eyovortv 
vofjiov elvai TOIOVTOV TI ovva/mevog, TO yu 

7 tiravaKpt/j-ao-dai] 'to be depen- 
dent/ 'relever de.' To be under con- 
trol and to feel responsibility. 

<f>v\drriv] 'cannot check,' 'com- 
press/ 'guard against/ for the middle 
sense appears. See Lobeck ad Phryn. 

" geschmalert/ Stahr ; " avili et 
comprim^," St. Hil. 'Without any 
loss to the greater number/ is the 
translation I prefer. Or is it more 
subjective, as the two translations I 
have quoted seem to make it? ' With- 
out the majority feeling itself unfairly 
treated and shorn of its full rights/ 
' nimis in ordinem cogi.' 

8 rcDv v6/j,uv'] the re of Bekker's 
text is wholly superfluous with the 
context. The Kai in 9, tan 8 Kai 
8f \tyov(ru>, does not at all seem to re- 
quire it, though it may have led to its 

rt'6s] This is similar to the 

enactments of the Licinian laws. 

cfor6 TIJ/OS r67roi/] The Greek is not 
very easy. The best way, perhaps, 
is to take it just as it stands. ' It was 
a law either that in no case at all 
should it be lawful to possess land 
beyond a certain quantity, or, if not 
so stringent as that, not beyond a cer- 
tain quantity in a given district, that 
district determined by its position re- 
latively to the city.' Why we have 
both rb &<TTV Kai TTJV ir6\iv I do not see. 
I see no ground for any distinction 
being required by the sense. 

9 fJirjdt Truf\eli>~] Comp. II. VII. 6. 7. 

Oxylus. On this law I cannot make 
out more _than what is gained from 
this passage. 

TO /J.T] Saveifciv] ' That it was not law- 
ful to lend money jon some specified 
portion of the original quantity of land 
owned by each.' The proprietor 
might borrow on the security, say, of 

VII. (VI.) 4.] riOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 

SI 5 

e'/? TL uepO9 T*j? VTrapvovcrtlf e/caoro) 7*7?. j/vi/ $e $ei Slop- Theforma- 

\ ~ / > \ \ ti / \ ^ on f " ie 

iccu T<W ' A<pvTaia)v vo/ma)' TT^OO? -ya^o b \eyojmev <TTI best kind 

^ f / v -v x \ , of demo- 


yecopyovcriv TifJLWvrai yap 

0\a$ ra? /cr^cref?, aXXa Acara TtjXiKavTa fJLopia 
COOTT' j(eiv v7Tpj3a\\iv TCU<S Tijut-^tretri Ka 
//era <^e TO yewpyLKov TrXrjOos /3e\Ti(TTO$ $Jfff.Q$ etrnv OTTOV it 
^o/ae?9 efVJ /cai '(UXTLV CLTTO /BovKq/uiaTcov' TroXXa 'yajO e^ei Ty 
yeutpyia TrapaTrXtja-iux}, Kal TO. 7rpo$ ra? TroXe/xt/ca? Trpa^eis 
/xaXfcr$' ouroi yeyvjJLvatriJievoL ra? e^ei? /cat -^p^arifjioi ra 
crw/xara /cai Swd/uLevoi 6upav\eiv. ra ^' aXXa TrXrjQrj Travra 12 
cr^e<5oV, e^ ft>y a/ XotTra^ ^nP-OKpariai o-fj/ecrTacrt, TroXXaJ 
(fiav\oTepa TOVTCDV 6 yap /3/o? (pav\o$ 9 Kal ovOev epyov 
JULCT' ajOer/7? coi/ /meTa^eipi^eTai TO TrX^Oo? TO Te TCOI/ /Bavav- 
crcov Kal TO TCOV ayopaicov avOpwTrow Kal TO OIJTIKOV. CTL J 3 
^e ^ta TO Tre^of Trjv ayopav Kal TO a(TTV KvXiecrOai irav TO 
TOLOVTOV yevos w? eiTreiv jOa^ico? KK\r]<rid^i' oi $e yewp- 
yovvT$ Sia TO SiecrTrdpOai KUTOL Trjv y&pav OVT* aTravTwviv 
ouO' 6juLoici)9 SeovTat T^? crvvodov TavTrjs. OTTOV ^e Kal oru/x- 14 

half his land, but the other half must 
be kept clear of all incumbrance. 

Aphytaeans. The inhabitants of 
ApLytis in Pallene. 

10 Tifj-uvTai yap] 'They do not rate 
the whole of the property each owns,' 
small though that whole be, ' but they 
divide it, and rate such a small part of 
it that even the poor can meet the 
demand and pay the amount of their 
rate.' They are consequently free 
from the temptation to encumber the 
rest of their property, and so not liable 
to the great danger of small proprie- 
tors, that of having to sell their land 
to set themselves clear from their 
obligations. Such seems the meaning 
of the passage and the bearing of the 
law in question. We have not know- 
ledge enough to be very confident on 
such points. 

' to bivouac,' and so keep 
the field. The remarks would apply to 
the Samnites. 

12 ov8v tyyov per ' dperTJs] "keine 
der Beschaftigungen," Stahr. ' No 
one of the occupations on which the 
mass is engaged involves any moral 
excellence.' Compare for this strong 
adverse feeling towards the artisan 
and commercial class, I. xm. 13, 
III. v. 

jueTa%et/>fercu] Time. I. 138, 'have 
in their hands,' 'handle.' 

1 3 KV\iea9a.L irepi TTJV ayopdv] ' roll- 
ing,' 'lounging about,' 'circumforanei 
homines.' Compare Acts, xvii. 5, 

ovd' 6/j.otus S^OVTCU] 'Nor do they 
equally with a town population feel the 
want of this meeting.' This stronger 
social tendency of the latter is merely 
noticed as a fact, not dwelt on as an 


IIOAITIK&N ft. (Z.) 


The forma- Q a [ vl T qv ywpav Trjv Oeviv eveiv TOtavTW cocrre T*JV veopav 
tion of the ^ ^ , , ~ , , ^ / 

best kind 7roXf T*j? TToXew? aTrypTrjcrOai, paoiov Kai dt]jULOKpaTiav Troiei- 

of demo- 




* -v ' * ' V ^ > 

i 7ro\iT6iav avayKa{Tai yap TO 

~~ e7T\ TOOV aypcov TroieicrOai ra? aTroiKia?, WCTTC Set, KOLV ayo- 
paio? 0^X09 ?, fJLrj Troieiv ev ralg StffiOKpaTiai? e/c/cX>;cr/a9 

15 avev TOV /cara TTJV ^copav 7r\q6ov$. II co? jmev ovv Set /cara- 

The other t<^ \ r\ -. / \ / / , f 

kinds. 0"/cefa^efv Trjv peATKTTqv Kai irpWTrjv orj/uLOKpanav., etprjTar 

(pavepov oe Kai TTW? TCI? aXXa9* eTro/mevcos y a p ^6? irapeK- 

1319 B /3alviv Kai TO ^eipov aei TrX^o? "^wpi^eiv. rrjv $e re\ev- 

raiav, $ia TO TravTas KOIVCOVCIV, OVTE Tracr^? ecrrf TroXew? 

(fiepeiv, OVTC pa^iov Siajmeveiv jmtj TOI$ VO/JLOL<S Kai TO?? eOecriv 

16 6V (TVyK6llULevr]V' a TTjOO? $6 TO KaOlVTavai TaiiTrjV T>]V StJfJLO- 

KpaTiav, Kai TOV StjfJLov Troieiv ia"xypov eicoOacriv 01 irpoe- 
cTTOJTe? TW TrpocrXafA/Baveiv co? TrXe/crTOf? Kai Troieiv TroXiVa? 
/>t^ fjiovov TOV? e yvrj<Tiov<$ aXXa Kai TOV? v66ov$ Kai TOV? e^ 


17 yap OLKIOV TOVTO TW TOIOVTW ofi/Jito JU,a\\OV. lU)Oa<Tl fJLCV 

a & 5 (f)9elp6iv 
pov TO, 7rXet<rra (rxe56j' Bekker. 

TCLS a\\as 

advantage. In fact it was not so in 
Aristotle's eyes. 

14 TTJV x^P av ""oX^, K.T. X.] 'The 
country which is cultivated is very 
distantfrom, far removedfrom the city.' 
aTrriprriffdai occurs in this sense in 

iroteiadaiTas aTrokicts = aTrotKlfcaQai] 
' to make settlements in the country, 
as it were.' "Emigrer de la ville,'' 
St. HU. 

K&V] ' even if there be large numbers 
of town population, not to allow it to 
meet without the numbers resident in 
the country.' The later Eoman Re- 
public furnishes illustrations of the 
distinction between the town and the 
country population, and its impor- 
tant bearing on several of the political 

15 e7ro ; tte'ws] " Servato ordine." 
' They must deviate from the first and 

best form in a regular, logical order/ 
'with a due regard to logical conse- 
quence.' TrapK(3aiveu> seems equiva- 
lent to 7ra/>e/c/3<<reis yLveaOai. Of 
course the subject changes in the case 
of xupl&iv, which is strictly active. 

rots vbfjiois Kai rots tdeo-iv] 'In the 
laws and habits of the people.' 

The concluding clause of this sec- 
tion must be thrown out of the text, 
as similar ones have been before. 
There is a greater temptation here 
than at the end of Ch. I. to adopt 
Spengel's remedy and Change the past 
into the future tense, keeping the 
main part of the remark. 

1 6 Kat rov 8r)fjiov] Kai is ' both.' 

r(p Tr/JocrXa^i/Sctz/eti'] Comp. Herod. 
V. 66, TT/ootreratp^erat rbv 5^/xo^. 

TroieTv TroXt'ras] Compare on this 
subject III. n. 3, V. vii. 8. 

airav yap, K. T. X.] 'for none of 

VII. (VI.) 4.] nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 




T*]V oyjULOKaTiav TVJV 

ol StijULaywyol KaTaerKevd^etv ourco?, Set JULCVTOI TrpocrXa^- 
fidveiv jut-e^pis av VTrepTeivy TO TrXyOos TCOV yvwpi/ui.u>v Kal 
TU>V /uLea-(Dv 9 Kal TOVTOV /mtj jrepa Trpofialveiv v7rep/3aXXovTe$ 
yap aTCtKTorepav Te TTOIOVCTI Ttjv TroXire/av, KOI TOU? yvw- 
plfjiovg TTjOo? TO ^aXeTTfc)? VTro^eveiv TY\V Srj/moKpaTiav 
VOV<TL jULaXXov, O7reo G"vvJ3t] T^? (TTa<T6(ji)$ a'lTiov 
Trepl Kvprjvriv oKlyov /ULCV yap Trovtjpov TrapopaTai, TroXu oe 

yivojuevov ev 6d)6a\iu.ois juaXXdv <TTIV. GTL $e Kal ra TOL- 


avTa KaraarKevatTiuLaTa ^piion/ 

TOiavTrjv, of? KXef(T^ei/i?9 re 
/xej/o9 av^rjcrai Tr\v Srj/uLOKpariav, Kal Trepl Kvpijvtiv ol TOV 
$r)IJi.ov KaQia-TavTes. (f)v\ai re yap Tpat TroirjTeai TrXe/ou? 
Acat (ppaTpiat, Kal Ta TW^ ioicov tepwv crvvaKTeov ei$ o\iya 
Kal KOLvd) Kal TravTa crocbKTTeov OTTO)? av OTL /xaXf<TTa ava- 
juLi^6u)(TL TrdvTeg aXX^Xof?, al fie crvvriOeiai ^La^ev^Oaxriv at 

f 3f <\\ \ \ \ t ^ 

TTporepov. CTI oe Kai Ta TvpavviKa KaTaarKevaa-fjiaTa orj/u.o- 
TLKCL ooKel TrdvTa, Xeyo) ^' ofoi/ dvap-^la re fiovXcov (ai/riy 5' 
av elr] jme^pi TOV vviu.<pepov(ra) Kal yvvaiKwv Kal r jralowv 9 Kal 

TO YTfV OTTO)? Tf? (3oV\Tai TTapOpOLV. 7TO\V yap <TTai TO 
T// TOiaVTf] 7TO\lTia {3ot]0OVV f]QlOV yap TOt$ 7TO\\Ol? TO 

^rjv ara/cro)? rj TO cr(*)(f)pdvw$. 


tical insti- 


such classes are quite alien to a de- 
mocracy of this kind.' 

17 del [tfrroi, K. T. X.] 'The right 
thing, however, is to associate such 
elements with the existing citizens 
only up to the point at which the people 
become stronger than the upper and 
middle classes combined, and not to ad- 
vance beyond this point.' 

Kvp^rriv] Herod. IV. 159, 162, &c. 

Trovrjpbts] 'in the political sense,' 
the 'canaille.' 'For in small doses 
the mob element is overlooked, if ad- 
mitted largely it forces itself more on 
the eye.' 

1 8 at&ffai] So the Latin 'augere,' 
' to increase the power of. ' 

19 Ta TUV iftiwv iep&v] Break up 'the 
family religious rites,' or 'the religious 

rites peculiar to certain families, 
such, for instance, as the rites pecu- 
liar to the gentes of the Potitii and 
Pinarii at Rome. Or compare the 
case of Isagoras. 

irdvra ffofaaTtov] ' by every possible 
contrivance mingle all classes one with 
the other, and break up all the old as- 
sociations.' It expresses admirably 
the policy of the great revolution 
effected at Athens by Cleisthenes, 
Grote, iv. 173-7. Such a change as 
that in France, in the early part of her 
revolution, when the provincial dis- 
tinctions were abolished, and the de- 
partmental system introduced, is an 
instance of the same policy. 

20 irapopav] 'to connive at.' If 
Book VIII. (V.) really preceded this 


Means of 



318 nOAITIKON H. (Z.) [Lin. 

' EKTTI o epyov TOV vo/moOeTOV Kal TWV jBovXo/ULevcw arvvi- 
, x , , , ^ ^ , 

ffTCLvai TWO. TOiauTtjv 7ro\iTiav of TO KaTa<TT^crai jmeyiarTov 

" ' 5> ^ / ' ~\ ~\ ' <' ' 9* ^~\ ~\ r . \ 

zpyov ovoe /ULOVOV, aAA OTTOO? <ro>(wTCU fJLa\\ov fjiiav yap 

*] ovo t] Tpei? tjjmepa? ov "^oXeTTOv /meivai 7rd\tTvoiuLvov$ 

"2 OTTOXTOVV. OlO Ol, 7Tp} O)V 0(i)p^<TOfJLl> IHTTeQOV, TlVeS O"ft)T^- 

piai Kai (f)6opal T&V 7ro\iTiu)v, CK TOVTCW TreipaorOal KaTOL- 
rrjv acr(f)d\iav 9 ev\aj3ovju.vov$ /ULCV TO. (pOeipovra, 
e TOIOVTOV? VO/ULOV? Kal TOV? aypd<povs Kal TOV? 

1320 yeypajULju.evov$ 01 

Kai jmrj 

/xaXfo-ra ra CTW^OVTO, ra? 
iv TOUT' eivai orj/moTiKOv jmijo oXt- 
TTO\IV OTI fj.d\i(TTa drj/moKpaTeia-Oai 

3 37 oXiyap^eiarOai, aXX' o TrXeiffTOV yjpovov. ol $e vvv $rj- 
fj-aycoyol ^api^oimevoi TO?? o^/J/xot? TroXXa Srj/uLevovan Sta 

Sio Set TTpos TavTa avTiTrpaTTeiv TOV? 
Trj<s TroXiTeia?, vo/moOeTOVVTa? fJLrjSev elvai 

Kal (pepovTcov Trpo? TO KOIVOV, aXX' 
lepov ol IJLGV yap afiiKovvTe? ovfiev %TTOV ev\a/3ei? 
(fyjuuco<TovTai yap o/xo/ft)?), o o^' 0^X09 ?TTOJ^ KaTa^t]< 

4 Tai TCOJ/ KpivojUievcw, Xrj^ca-Oai jmrjOev jmeXXcov. CTI o^e 


one, a reference might have been ex- 
pected here to his remarks on the 
policy of the tyrant. 

V. i Zpyov~\ One of these two 'fyyov 
is superfluous, but the general writing 
of the book is not sufficiently careful 
to warrant us in rejecting either. 
Spengel (p. 39) would reject one. 

2 Trepl &v K. T. X.] Another of the 
passages in favour of the usual order 
of arrangement. It is one which it 
is not possible to get rid of, and, there- 
fore, with Nickes and Spengel, I here 
read dewp-^cofjiev iiffrepov, assuming 
that a change took place to suit the i 
order, which must be reversed when ! 
that order is reversed. It is remarked j 
that there is no mention in any one of ! 
the suspicions places of fjt,eTa(3o\ui>. 

Kal TOI)S aypd<povs Kal TOI)S yeypa/u.- j 

pfrovs] I suspect this very strongly of 
being the addition of some one who 
wished to complete, as he thought, 
the passage. Can the language be 
properly used T Idee 6 at dypd<j>ovs 
v6fji.ovs ? Still I leave the words. 

o? TrepiX-fjif/ovTai /xdXto-ra] ' which 
shall embrace as much as possible 
what tends to the safety of constitu- 
tions. ' 

fj,rj voplfriv] The caution is to the 
same effect as that in Ch. I. X. 

3 TO?S dr]fj.ots] ' their respective peo- 

robs K-rjSofjL^vovs] 'The well-wishers 
to the constitution.' 

(frepbvrwv Trpbs rb Kowbv] This is far 
from easy. Is it best to construe it 
quite literally ' of the property of those 
who are condemned, and who concern 

VII. (VI.) 5.] 



drj/uLevereco? avayicaiov yivecrOai 

^/KGC? 009 o\iyi<TTa$ Set 31 Troieiv, jmeyd- Means of 
, ~ j -. / ^ , , < preserving 

et/cj? ypacpo/mevovs KwXvovra?' ov yap demo- 

aXXa rouf yv&plftaas eicaQcuriv eicrdyeiv, Set _ 
^e /cat Ti 7TO\ireia Travras /xaXfcrra yuey ei/i/of? efi/at 
TroX/ra?, et $e /XT;, /*>/ TO/ *ye w? 7ro\iu.iovs vo^iYeiv 
Kvpiov?. 7rel S* al TeXevTaiai Srj/uioKpaTiai TroXvavQawirol 
TG elari Kal -^aXcTrov WKK\tjfrta^tv ajULicrOov?, TOVTO S* OTTOV 
TTpooroSoi fj.rj Tvyyavovviv ovcrai irdXefjuov TO?? 
(aiTO re yap eicrcfiopas Ka\ 

Kal Stxaernipi&H (pavXcov, a TroXXa? tjSq Sq/uoKpaTias averpe- 
vL-ei/), OTTOf ovv TrpocroSoi /m*] Twyyavovariv ovvai, $ei 
TTOieiv oXi-ya? KK\t]cria$, Kal <$iKa<TTvpia TTO\\WV fj.ev o\i- 
ya$ (T 9jf*epaf. TOVTO yap (pepei yuey Kal 7rpo$ TO fA.r] (>o- 6 
(3ei(r9ai TOV$ 7r\ov<riov$ Tag SaTrdvas, eav ol /xej/ eviropoi fjirj 
\ajuL/3av(*)<Ti oiKacrTiKov, 01 o ' airopoi) (pepei Se Kal TT/OO? 
TO KpivearOai TCIS ^//ca? TroXu /SeXrtoy* ol yap evTropoi TTO\- 
Xa? IJ.GV q/mepas OVK eOeXovviv OLTTO TWV loitov aTreivai, fipayyv 
$e yjpovov e9e\ovcriv. OTTOV ^ eivl Trpoarofioi, /mrj TTOICIV o 7 
vvv 01 3t]ju,aycoyol TTOIOVCTIV TO. yap TrepiovTa ve/movanv. Aa/x- 

a dei Bekker. 

the state ?' The meaning, if so, would 
be, the property of those who are con- 
demned for offences which are offences 
against the state, in whose case, there- 
fore, it would be natural to bring their 
property by fine or confiscation into 
the public treasury. It should, says 
Aristotle, be looked on as sacred to 
the Gods. 

4 det] Have we not here the oppo- 
site error in the text to that pointed 
out, VI. (IV.) xi. 21. There Set had 
crept in for del; here del has been 
substituted for Se?. I venture to re- 
store 5 el. 

ei/qj] ' temere, ' ' without good or 
sufficient grounds,' Rhet. I. i. 2, p. 
1354, 6. 

P.T] roL ye, K. r. X. ] ' at any rate, not 

to look on the government as hostile 
to them;' TOI)S Kvptovs is the object of 

5 TOVTO] sc. TO (JLiffOotyopelv, or rd 
Siodvat /j-iffdov. It does not seem 
to matter which of these two is 

iro\t[JLiov\ 'is adverse to,' or more 
strongly 'involves hostility to the 
upper classes.' 

el<r<f)opai\ ' The property and income- 
tax.' It was a direct tax, in no sense 
a voluntary contribution to meet the 
wants of the state. Compare Smith, 
Diet. Ant. 

6 <f>fyei 7iy>6s] ' tends to.' 

7 Ta.Trept.6vTav[Jiov(T(.v] 'They divide 
the surplus.' 




Means of fidvovcri $e a/ma, Kal 7rd\iv Seovrai TCOV avrwv' 6 
preserving , , , , , Q ,- , , * v 

demo- vo$ yap ecrTi TTit/o? rj TOiavTrj poqueia TOt$ aTropoig. a\\a 

TO Tr\fj6o? M \iav 



CtTTOpOV tj' TOVTO yap a'lTlOV TOV /ULO^OtJpdv ClVai T*]V 

KpaTiav. Te-^vaa-Teov ovv OTTCO? av eviropla yevoiT 

e crv/UL(pepi TOVTO KOL TO?? evTropois, TO, JJLGV cnro TU>V 


T ' 

7rpo(ToS(i)v yivd/meva crvvaOpoiFovTas aOpoa 
TO?? ctTrdpois, jULaXuTTa IAGV el Tf? ovvaTOu TOCTOVTOV aQpoi<C< 
ocrov ei$ yrjSiov KTtjviv, el <$e juiy, 7rpo<$ a<pop/ULtjv ejuiTropias 
1320 B 9 KCU yecopyias. Kal el /mtj Tracri SWOLTOV, aX\a /cara (j)v\a$ 
ri TI imepos eTepov ev juepei iiavef/Liv ev Se TOVTW 7rpo$ ra? 
avayKaiag <rvv6$ov<s TOWS evTrdpovg el<jd)epeiv TOV imia~6ov 9 
d<pi/jt.vovs* TWV /maTalcov \eLTOvpyiwv. TOLOVTOV oe TIVCL 
TpoTrov JfLapviySdvioi 7ro\iTevdjuivoi <pi\ov KCKTtjvTai TOV o^- 
IULOV' del yap Tivag e/cTre/XTroi/re? TOV S^/ULOV TT^OO? Tag Trepioi- 
10 KiSas TTOiovcriv evTrdpovg. aievTCDV ^ ecrrf Kal vovv 


6 rerp^/t^os TT^OS] is like the sieve 
of the Danaidae, see L. and S. 

rbv aKydivCbs SrjfjLOTi^v] 'The demo- 
cratical statesman who is worthy of 
the name.' 

' Systematic measures 
must be adopted to secure a perma- 
nent prosperity, as this is no less for 
the interest of the rich/ &c. J. B. 
Say, Catechisme ff Economic Politique, 
p. 295. 

yrjdlov Krr\Giv\ ' The acquisition of 
a small plot of land,' the seven 
jugera, for instance, of the Roman 

[iiroplai\ Some of the MSS. read 
e^7rop/as, and certainly t/u-Tropias is 
scarcely in accordance with his theory 
in favour of agriculture, and so alien to 
all trade. Either in itself is very good 
sense, but I rather lean to the reading 
eviroptas. On the other hand, Stahr 

and St. Hilaire both translate the 
reading Bekker retains. 

9 Karh (f>v\ds, K. r. X.] ' by tribes or 
some other division dealing it to them 
in turns.' 

tv roi/ry] 'meanwhile/ that is, till 
on this system you have gone through 
the whole of the poor, and all have 
been admitted to a share in the distri- 

rbv fJUffdSv] 'The pay' required to 
enable the poor to attend these indis- 
pensable meetings. 

d0ei/A^oi;s] So I read with Schneider 
and Coray for Bekker's d0teyu^oi;s. 
Compare III. v. 3. 

Trpbs rds Tre/not/uSas] 'To the de- 
pendent towns in the neighbourhood.' 
The expression throws light on the 
parallel passage, tirl rds Tr6\ei$, II. 
xi. 16. 

10 -xfLpUvTiav] For the word in this 
sense, compare VI. (IV.) xm. 9. 

VII. (VI.) 6.] nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 


yvcopi/uLuiv Koi $ia\a/ui/3dvovTag Tovg aTropovg cupop/mag 
] SiSovTag Tpeireiv e?r' epyavlag. KaXwg <T e^ei JULI- 
Oai Kal TO. TapavTivwv' CKGIVOL yap Kotva TroiovvTeg TO. 
Tolg airopoig 7ri Trjv xprjonv evvovv Trapa(TKevd^ov(Ti 
TO 7r\rj6og. CTI Se Tag ctp^ag Trdvag eTToltjarav 
Tag j(x,ei> aipeTag Tag oe K\rjpwTag 9 Tag ju.ev K\rjpa)Tag 

* "iva 

Means of 






aVT*]<$ fJLp- 

TOVS jJLev K\t]pa)Tovg TOV$ S* aipeTovg. TLws MCJ/ ovv 
6i Tag Srj/moKpaTiag KaTacrKevd^eiv, e'ipjjTai. 

2^e^o^ $e Kal Trepl Tag oXiyapylag irwg Set, (pavepov 
CK TOVTWV. CK Tcov evavTicov yap Set crvvdyeiv 
oXiyap-fciav Trpog Tr\v evavTiav firj/moKpaTiav avaXoy 
^V juiev evKpaTOV fJia\L(TTa TCOV oXiyapvLcov Kai 

(TTLV rj arvveyyvg Ty KaXovjULGvy TroXiTeia, y $ei TCL 
Tiju.giu.aTa Staipeiv, TO. p-ev eXarrfa) ra ^ 




Their for- 
and pre- 


imev cc(^>' wv TWV avayKaicov jULeOe^ovcriv ap-^aj 
8* acft* &v TWV KvpiWTepwv TO) re /CToyzei/y TO 
ju.T")(tv efcetvai Trjg TroXtre/gg, TOCTOVTOV eiarayojuLevov TOV 
7r\tj6og <$ia TOV Ti/u.qju.aTog 9 /meO* ov KpeiTTOveg etrov- 

KaC] 'also.' The same conjunction 
seems required before d^o/a^cas Si- 

Sia\afji.j3dvovTas] ' taking them a- 
mongst them as individuals.' It is 
opposed to ffvva0polovTo.s d0p6a xpty 
Stave fj,eiv, ib. 8. Compare II. X. 14, 
and note. 

TapavTlvuv] Grote v. 320. Miiller, 
Dorians II. g, 185. I cannot see that 
on either point Miiller's statements 
are justified, that either rot /cn^uara 
means public property, or that Strrds 
involves the doubling of the magistra- 

Koiva eirl TT]V xprfffLv'] ' Common for 
their use.' I consider the meaning to 
be that expressed II. V. 6 8, and 
again IV. (VII.) x. 9. The policy is 
that said to have been adopted by 

A. P. 

ii Sirrds] 'twofold/ 'constructed 
on two principles.' 

&rri 5, K.T. X.] 'The result may be 
secured by a division in each office 
itself,' see VIII. (V.) v. i, for pepl- 

VI. i IK rQ/v tvavrluv ydp, K. r, X.] 
' For you must draw your conclusions 
from the contrary premises, and con- 
sider each oligarchy with reference to 
the particular democracy to which it 
is opposed.' 

2 rj] ' and in this.' 

tiiaipeiv ret. rt/^^ara here is simply 
'to distinguish,' 'make two classes of 
valuations.' Compare Ch. III. I., 
where SieXeiv rd Ti^fjLara is used ap- 
parently in quite a different sense. 

lffayo/j-^vov TOV 5?)ywou, 
' The people being introduced, 





Their for- 

del fie Set TrapaXaimfidveiv CK TOU 

TOV$ KOIVWVOVS. 6jULOl(*)$ $ Kal 

eiriTeivovTas $ei 



Ka TvpavviKUtTaTy TCOV oiyap-^iooVy oarta Trep -^eipffT^ TO- 
<rovT(p <$ei TrXe/o^o? <pv\aKr]$. uxnrep yap ra yuei/ crco/xara 
cu oiaKeifJieva TTjOo? vyieiav Kai TrXota Ta TT/OO? vavTi\iav 
TO19 7r\<jt)T%pariv CTTioe^eTat 7r\eiov$ ajm-apria? 
jmrj (fiOeipecrOai ^t' ai/ra?, ra ^e vovepws e^oi/ra TCOV 
l TO, TU>V TT\OIO)V eK\e\v/u.eva Kal 7r\(*)Trjp(jov 
<pav\u>v ovSe ra? juiKpas SvvaTai (pepeiv a/map- 
T/a?, OUTW Kal TWV 7rd\iTitov at -^etpicrTai TrXe/crr^? fieovrai 
1321 5 <pv\aK*]$. ra? fj.ev ovv ^^/xo/CjOar/a? oXco? rj 7ro\vav0pa)7ria 
orco^ei" TOVTO yap avTiKeirai irpos TO SiKaiov TO icara 




e TeTTapa juiev CCTTI jmeprj /zaXfcrra TOV 
yecopyiKov /3dvava-ov ayopaiov OrjTiKOv, TeTTapa Se ret 

O? 7r6\fJLOV 9 \iTr7rtKOV \OTT\IT IKOV\-^SI\OV vavTiKOV 9 
\ QIQ ^ , ' ^ < , , ^ 

/xej/ (Tvimpept]K Ttjv ywpav eivai iTTTraa-ijuLov, evTavua 

ev(f)v(Jo$ c^et KaTa&Kevd^eiv Trjv oXiyap^iav laryypd 


by means of the standard of qualifica- 
tion required, only in such number 
as that, with the number introduced, 
the whole body of active citizens may 
be stronger than the body of those ex- 
cluded from the government.' 

3 ^Trirelvovras piKphv] ' slightly 
tightening it.' 


This is the construction Victorius 
adopts, " bene instructse nautis," 
'well-manned.' It might be e?rt5^- 
^ercu rots irKwrrfpcnv, ' admit in their 
crew,' ' allow their crew.' The first 
translation has in its favour the sub- 
sequent expression, TrXwrTj/ocoj/ 

<f>v\a.Krjs Tr\et(m)s] ' greatest precau- 
tions. ' 

5 avTiKeirat] 'meets and controls/ 
'balances.' The large numbers con- 
stitute a claim to power which is seen 
to be in some degree a valid one, and 
tends to quiet the oligarchical objec- 

eura^as] 'Eight conduct in the 
oligarchs.' Stahr is right, I think, in 


this definite sense to the 

VII. I x&pav iTTTrctcrtyU.oi'] ' fit for 
the action of cavalry/ compare Herod. 
V. 63, iTrirda'tfj.ov iroirjffavTes rbv 

ei;0uws e^et] 'it is naturally easy.' 

VII. (VI.) 7.] IIOAITIK&N H. (Z.) 


yap <TWT>ipia TO? OIKOVCTI ia TavTtis ecrr .. 

< *, < , , S ' ' ' ' \i kin ? sof 

at O ITTTTOTpOCpiai T(*)V /ULaKOd? OV<Tia<} KKTyj/JLGVWV eiOTLVjA military 

' < A ' * ' '-v t ^ ^ * > force. 

oTTAiTqv, T*]v e^ojuievrjv o\iyapxiav TO yap OTT\I- 

TIKOV TWV eVTTOpCDV (TT\ fJ.OL\\OV $] TU)V CLTTOptoV^ \Jl $6 \^tX^ 2 

SuvajuLis Kal vavTiKrj SrjjULOK panic*] 7rafjL7rai^\ ~Nvv ju.ev ovv 

O7TOU TOIOVTOV 7TO\V 7T\t]6o<? <TTiV 9 OT&V 

Kig aywvL^ovTai ^eipw Set <$e 7rpo$ TOVTO 

TU>V 7TO\ejULlK(*)V \a{JL/3dviV OTTpaTrjyWV, O O- 


TWJ/ -^stXutv. Tavry ^' eTriKparovo-iv ev Talg SiacrTaa-ecriv 3 
01 orj^oL TWV evTTopw ^riXol yap ovre$ TT^OO? itfJntniv Kal 
yv aycDvi^ovrai paia)$. TO yuei/ ovv e/c TOVTODV Ka9- 



oei oe oiyprjij.evr]<s r^? fj\iKia? 9 Kal TWV /u,ev OVTU>V Trpecr/Bv- 
Tepcov TCOV $e vecov, GTI JULCV ovTas veovs rou? avTu>v viei? 
Oai ra? Kov<pa<s Kal ra? -v^fXa? epyacrias, eKKCKpi- 
e CK TraiScov a^X^ra? eivai avTOV$ TWV epycov. Trjv 4 
de fj.Taoo<TLv yivevOai TW TrXyOei TOV TroXfreJyaaro? 

roZs oiKovai] sc. x^P av 

at linroTpo<t>iai] Compare VI. (IV.) 
III. 2, 3. 

oirXirrji'] I should make this an ad- 
jective in sense quite as much as 
'nnrd(7ifj.ov, 'fit for regular infantry.' 
Compare the adjectival use of the word 
"EXX^. L. and S. 

2 TOIOVTOV] sc. \pi\bv Kal vav- 

STO.V 8ta.(TT&<rt, K, r. X. ] ' When the 
two parties quarrel and range them- 
selves one against the other, it not un- 
frequently happens that the oligarchs 
get the worst in the struggle.' The 
cavalry and heavy armed are not found 
a match for the lighter forces. In the 
street fighting of antiquity, the ad- 
vantage lay with the less disciplined 
but more available forces. The expe- 
rience of the last few years since 1848 
has shown that this is no longer so ; 
the artillery makes the struggle of the 

people with the soldiery a hopeless 
one, granting, of course, any propor- 
tion between the two forces. The re- 
duction of an insurgent population is 
as mere a question of calculation as 
that of an ordinary fortress. 

3 TotfrWJ'] SC. T&V S-^fJid)!'. 

SirjprifjLfrijs'] 'resting on the distinc- 
tion of age that exists.' 

2rt //,&>, K. r. X.] ' whilst their 
sons are yet young, to have them 

^KKeKptftfrovs 8 K TraiSwj'] " Sobald 
sie aus dem Knabenalter getreten 
sind," Stahr. The St answering to 
the fib in $TI /ut,fr vtovs SvTas seems to 
determine that these words apply to 
the sons. But allowing this, it is 
not easy to fix their meaning. 

4 rty'] The previous re- 
marks have been directed to the means 
of securing in case of quarrels the 
power to the oligarchy. The re- 




Precau- KaOcnrep e'lprjrai TrpoTepov, TO?? TO T//u>7/xa 
tions tend- /\ t c\ a i * / / ^ ~ o ' 

ing to the KaOaTrep Orjpaiois, a7roa"OfJiVOi? -^povov nva r&v pavav- 

S offgar- f ^^ epywv, n KaOd-TTcp ev M.a<rcra\ia 9 Kpiviv TTOIOV/JLCVOVS 

chies. T v a^iwv TO>I/ ei/ TO? TToXiTev/jLan Kal TCOV e^coOev. en $e 

& Kal TGU9 ap^ai? Tal<s KvpicoTarais, a? <$ei TOU? ev Ty TroXiTeia 

Kareyeiv, <$ei Trpoa-KeicrOai \eirov pylas, tV e/cooi/ o 0^09 /x^ 

jULT-^r] KOL (TvyyvwiuLrjv e^ TO?9 ap-^ovcnv co<s jULio-Oov TTQ\VV 

6 SiSovcri T^9 ctpx^' ap/ULOTrei $e Ovcrias TC eicriovTas TTOI- 
cicrOai /meyaXoTTpeTrei^ Kal KaTa<TKeva(eiv TL TCOV KOIVWV, r iva 

irepl Tct9 eo"Tiaa"ei9 {JieTeywv o 0*7/0109 
TO. jmev avaO^jmacri TO, Se 
yv 7ro\iTeiav 

7 TO?9 'yva)|0/yaof9 elvai jm.vrjfj.eia T^9 Sa7rdvt]$. aXXa TOVTO 
vvv ol Trepl T9 oXiyap'^ias ov 7roiov<riv 9 a\\a TOvvavTiov 
TO. Xrjfji/jiaTa yap fyrovcriv ov% rjrTov y T*}V 

a<T[jLevo9 opa 

mainder of the chapter touches on the 
question of preserving the oligarchical 
constitution by milder means, without 
coming to any open rupture. The 
first of these is the admission of fresh 
members into the government. This 
may be done in three ways : either the 
acquisition of a certain property may 
secure it, or the abstinence during a 
given period from all disqualifying 
occupations; or, thirdly, it may be 
done by a selection made by the 
governing body from the rest. 

7rp6Tepov] Ch. VI. II. 

077j3afots] III. V. 7. 56ca trwv is the 

Grote ill. 532. 

must here mean 
not the 'government, 'but those 'within 
the pale of citizenship,' the TroXirat 
hitherto excluded from the govern- 
ment. T&V Qudev would mean pro- 
bably any body of resident foreigners. 
Or in the absence of any details, can 
the words v rep 7ro\trei///,ari keep their 
natural meaning, and the Kplaw TTOLOV- 
ptvovs imply a revision of the whole 

body, such as that of the Eoman cen- 
sors, admitting new members on the 
ground of their worthiness, excluding 
others hitherto members for the re- 
verse ? 

5 As Set roi>s ev rfj iroXiTelg, /car^x^f] 
'Which members of the governing 
body must hold.' This seems the 
meaning of TroXtre^ here, the body of 
really active citizens, the governing 
body in the largest sense, as distinct 
from the executive magistrates. 

/car^xetv] ' obtinere,' 'hold, 'perhaps 
even more, ' hold firmly.' 

XeiToup7^aj] The munera aedilitia at 
Rome are an instance of this. 

6 KaraaKevd^eiv TL T&V K0ivdv\ "con- 
struire quelques monuments publics," 
St. Hil. KaTCKrKevdfeiv has the sense 
of some permanent construction, not 
sacrifices or games, but temples or 
aqueducts, for instance. 

7 ra \-r)/n/Jia.Ta, K.r.X.] On this com. 
pare his language, 01) 70^0 2<rTLv a/*a 
%/)77yU,aT^e(T#at e/c T&V KOLV&V Kal TI- 
/j.aff8ai, Etli. viil. xvi. 3. p. 1163, b. 8. 

VII. (VI.) 8.] nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 


? if 


Xeyeiv raura? elvai firj/moKpaTia? juiKpas. Ila)? /zei/ 1321 B 
ovv xprj Ka6i<TTavai ra? (^ao/c^oaT/a? /ecu ra? 6\iyap^la^ 9 

$l(*)pl(r6a) TOV TpOTTOV TOVTOV. 

'A/co'Xoi/$oi> $e Toes eiprj/mevois ecrrt TO Stypija-Oai /caXw? 8 

> \ \ > r r \ i \ i /\ r Magis- 

TGL Trepc ret? ap^a<s 9 TTOCTCU Kai Tiveg Kai TLVWV,, Kauajrep trades 
eipt]Tai Kai TrpoTepov TU>V jmev yao avayicautiv aoyJMV X^i ^ 
aSvvarov elvai TroXfv, TWV <^e TT^OO? evra^lav KOL KOV/JLOV 
a^vvarov oiKei<r6ai /caXco?. en ^ avayKalov ev fj.ev TGU? 2 
ig eXarrof? efi/at ra? ap^as, ev $e TGLI$ /u.eya\ai$ 

wcTTrep Tvyyavei TrpoTepov eiprjjULevov Trota? oi)j^ 
ap/JLOTTei (rvvdyeiv KOL 7roia$ xwpl^ew, Set /mr] \avQaveiv. 
Tlpwrov fj.ev ovv 7rijULe\eia rtav avayKaiwv rj Trepl TV\V ayo- 3 
pav, c(j)' y Set TLVO, ap%t]v eTvai TY\V e(pop)a-av irepl re ra 

a KOL TIJV evKocrfJLLav a-^e^ov yap avayKatov Tra- 

/ A \\/\ N 5>^ ~\~ ^^ 

TOLl<$ 7TO\<Tl TOL JU,V WVeKTUCll TO, 06 7T(j()\eiV 7T/OO? T*]V 

a\\t]\oi)v avayKaiav yjpeiav, KCU TOUT' ecrTiv viroyviorarov 
TTjOO? avTapKeiav, $C yv SOKOVCTIV a? (JLLOLV 7ro\tTiav 

fJiiKpds] ' close demo- 
cracies.' They combine all the faults 
of both. 

At the end of this chapter, some 
editors think that in the existing 
work there is a gap. Nickes quotes 
Conring, Schneider, Schlosser, Coray. 
There is no need of supposing any- 
thing lost at this particular place. 
Others, with more reason, think that 
there is a gap at the end of the next 
chapter, that the book, in fact, has 
been curtailed. Spengel quoted by 
Nickes 125, note i. In pp. 126, 127, 
Nickes seems uncertain as to a larger 

VIII. i a.K6\ovOov 5<T] Compare 
I. I. &fj.a 8 ?repl ticelvuv el' rt 
\onr6i>, with which this passage con- 

TiVcui'] On what does this depend ? 
It is simplest, looking at VI. (IV.) 
XV. i, to supply mjpiai. ir6<rai re apx a <-> 

i crvvdyeiv] ' to combine.' 

Xupifcw] ' to keep distinct. ' 

3 Trp&Tov] irp^Ttj, as Coray sug- 
gests, would, I think, be an improve- 

T7]v e<pop&<rav] ' whose province it is 
to watch over the transactions that 
take place, and also to see that order 
be kept.' 

cr%e6'] This reluctant admission of 
the necessity of exchange, in the shape 
of sales and purchases, which are ex- 
changes through the medium of money, 
is very curious. 

foroyiuoraroz'] "the readiest means," 
Liddell and Scott, "das unmittelbar 
nachste," Stahr. 

Si' T^V doKovo-w] ' And it is this, this 
satisfying of the primary wants of our 
nature, that is thought to have been 
the origin of the union in a state.' 
This translation throws the relative 
back for its antecedent not upon 








e7ri/me\ia TavTrjg e^o/uLevtj Kal crvveyyvs r\ 
TCOV Trepl TO aarTV StjiuofTicov Kal toi&v, OTTCOS evKO&fJiia 77, Kal 

t ~ t '? ' \ f ft *s f \ $ r 

TOJV TTLTTTOVTCOV oiKooofJLrj/uLaTCOv Kai oocov (rcoTtjpia /ecu oiop- 
0(*)<Ti$ 9 Kai TWV opLcov TCOV TT/oo? aXX^Xof?, OTTft)? a; 
e^wanv, Kai ocra TOVTOI? aXXa T^? eTrijueXeias 


$e jULopia TrXelw TOV apiOjmov,, wv eTepov? e(p* eTepa 
OpWTTOTepai? TroXeariVy olov TCL- 
KOI Kprjvwv eTrijULcXqTas Kal XifJLevtw (pvXaKag. 
6"AXXw o ? avayKaia TC Kal Tra/oaTrXmr/a TavTn' Trepl TWV 

* I t I 

avTtov IJ.GV yap 9 aXXa Trepl TJJV -^wpav CCTTL KOI TO, Trepl TO, 
e^co TOV a<7Teo$" KaXovcri oe TOf? a/ovo^Ta? TOVTOVS ol JULCV 
aypov6/jiov$ ol <T vXcopov?. AvTai fJLev ovv eTTLfJLeXeiai etVi 
TOVTCDV Tpeis 9 aXXrj ^' ap-^rj trpos *]v al TrpoaroSoi TCOV KOLVCOV 
ava<pepovTai 9 Trap 9 oov (pvXaTTovTcov /uLepi^ovTai Trpos e/ 
oioiKyariv KaXovoTL o' aTTOoe/cra? TOVTOVS Kal 
t 'Ere^oa ^' />X^ 7r /^S' yv avaypd(j)e(T6aL Set TO. re 'ISia 
/BoXata KOI ra? Kpicreis e/c TWV OLKavTripiw irapa oe 

avTois TOVTOIS Kal ra? ypacbas TCOV SLKCOV yivecrQaL Set Kal 
IT * 

ra? ei<raycoyd$. evia^ov JULCV ovv /ULpilov(rL Kal TavTyv ei$ 

avrdpKeia, which is the object of the 
social union, but on the more distant 
XP f l a ) which, 5o/cet, 'is thought to be 
so by some. ' 

4 8r]fji,o(rlwv Kal ISluv] need not be 
limited as Stahr's translation, "Ge- 
baude," limits it, but generally 'public 
and private property. ' 

STTWS aveyKXiriTus fywviv] 'That there 
may be no opening for mutual com- 

TOI/TOIS] depends on b^oLOTpoira. 

5 &v ertyovs, K. r. X.] For the 
amount of business renders desirable, 
and the number of citizens admits of, 
the application of the principle of 
division of labour. 

6 &ypov6/j,ovs] The agrimensores of 

tiXupotis] commissioners of woods 
and forests. 

Trap' &v (t>v\aTTbvTUv~\ 'Who keep 
them, and from whose hands the dis- 
tribution is made for the wants of each 

'department/ 'branch of 

7 avaypd(j>e<r8ai] 'registered.' 

ras Kp[<ret,s rds K T 
' The decisions of the courts of jus- 

ras eiffaywyds] "opening of the 
pleadings," L. and S. 

VII. (VI.) 8.] 



Kal 7ri<TTaTai Kal iJ.vrjfJ.oveg KOLI TOVTOL<S aXXa Magis- 

/ If ' V jv / i / trades. 

(rvveyyvf. Mera oe ravr^v e%oju,evij /mev avay- 

<$e (r-e 


ov Ka -^aeirwraTrj TCOJ/ apywv ecrrv rj 
Tft>y KaTaoiKacrOevTCOv /ecu Tft>y TrpOTiOe- 
Kara ra? eyypa(pa? KOI ire pi rd? c^uXa/ca? raw <rfc>- 1322 
. ^aXeTrrj jmev ovv ecrr* &a TO 7ro\\rjv ^X eiV ' 
9 oocrre OTTOU /x^ /xe-yaXa ecrrt KepSaiveiv, oi/r' a 


Kara TOV? vo/J.ov$' avajKala S' <TTIV, OTL ov$ev o(pe\os 
/mev ^//ca? TrejOf TWV $LKaiwv 9 raJra? ^e yu^ Xa/x/3a- 
re'Xos 1 , wVr' ei /x^/ jiyvofjiVv KOIVWVCIV aSvvarov dXXy- 
Xot?, /cat Troa^eo)!' /u>7 yiyvojUievoov. oio (3e\Tiov /uy /miav I0 
eft/at TOLVTrjv TY\V ctp^jV) aXX' aXXou? e^ aXXeov oiKacrT^picov. 
Kal Trepl ra? 7rpoOea-ei$ TWV avaye^pa/uL/mevcov wcraura)? Trei- 
pacrOai fiiaipeiv. GTL ^ evict TrpaTTea-Oai Kal ra? 

This use of the word is 
not its usual one. The name is most 
familiar as applied to the deputies to 
the Amphictyonic council. Nor does 
it here mean magistrates such as those 
mentioned by Smith, Diet. Ant. 
" Recorders," "notaries." Such seems 
the meaning here, as also of fj,vrifj,oves, 
L. and S. 

<?7rto-TaTcu] Of the two common 
senses again of this word, neither suits 
this passage, oomp. Smith, Diet. Ant. 
Its sense must be analogous to that 
assigned in the last note to iwr\- 

8 rQ>v irpoTide^vuv Kara rots eyypa- 
" mit eintreibung der verhangten 
Strafgelder," says Stahr, "with the 
collection of the fines imposed." But 
this is not a close rendering of the 
words. I take irpoTide^fruv as passive 
and masculine, ' proscriptorum' in its 
primary sense, and with Stahr I make 
it depend on 7rpdets. 'With the 
levying of the penalties from those 
whose names are 'posted up in ac- 
cordance with the registers' of the con- 

demnations.' So I render the pas- 

9 x lv aTr^x^etav] 'involves much 
odium,' or 'has great odium attached 
to it.' 

\a^aveLV r Aos] ' be executed, put 
in force;' similar expressions are 

10 Ai6] Because of the unpopularity 
that attaches to the office. 

T<XS irpo6<Teis T&V ^vayeypafj^^vuv] 
Trp60cri$ is 'the proscription,' 'the 
posting up ' of those registered or re- 
corded. So in substance the expres- 
sion is equivalent to the one noticed, 
8, T&V 7rpoTi6e[j,fr(i)V /carol rds y- 
ypa<pds. And so Stahr takes it. 

rt 5' 2via] The Greek of this passage 
is very hard. What is the meaning of 
the KaL before ray dpxas? Again, 
what is the sense of rCiv vtwv, rds v^as, 
T&V eveffT&Tuvl. I do not see that 
Stahr translates the KciT, and the sense 
he attaches to the vtuv, vtas, "fresh 
cases, fresh magistracies," is, I should 
think, open to question. At the same 
time, I do not see what better solution 





TC aAAa? Kai Tag TWV vzwv /maXXov Tag veag, Kai Tag 
eve<TT(0T(iov eTepag KaTauiKacracrrjg eTepav eivai T*]V TrpaT- 
olov acrTvvojULOvg Tag Trapa TWV ayopavoucw, Tag 
u <$e Trapa TOVTCOV eTepovg. 6Va> yap av eXaTTCov aTre-^Qeia 
evy Toig TrpaTToju-evoig, TOCTOVTM jmaXXov \rj^rovTai Te\og al 
Trpa^eig' TO fjiev ovv Tovg avTOvg eivai Tovg KaTaoiKacravTag 
Kai TrpaTTOjmevovg aTre^Oeiav eyei oiTr\rjv, TO fie Trepl Trdv- 
TCOV Tovg avTOvg TroXejULiovg TTOKTIV. TroXXaYou o< 
Kai rj (pvXaTTOvcra Trpog Tt]v TrpaTTOjULevrjv, oiov \ 

12 C^]* T v <evGeKCL KaXovfJievfjov. $10 /3e\Tiov Kai TavTrjv 
(Jay, Kai TI crocpHTjULa *(*jTelv KOI Trepl TavTyv. avayKaia 
/mev yap CVTIV ov-% %TTOV Trjg eipt]fji,evt]g 9 (TVft/Balvei Se Tovg 
IULCV eTTieiKeig (fievyeiv jmaXicrTa TavTrjv Trjv apxyv, Toug $e 
IJ.o")(Qr]povg OVK a(r(pa\eg TTOICIV Kvpiovg' avTol yap oeovTai 

13 (pv\aK*jg fjiaXXov rj <j)v\aTTeiv a\Xovg SvvavTai. $10 o*ei /urj 
/ULiav aTTOTTayiu,evr]v ap-^v eivai Trpog avTOig 9 /u.rjo'e crui/e^o)? 
TIJV avTqv, aXXa TCOV re vewv, OTTOV Tig ecpyficov rj (ppovpcov 

a Bekker's text has not this y. b r6 Bekker. 

to offer. No satisfactory rendering 
presents itself. 

T&V ^e<rrc6rwj'] ' the actually 
existing cases; " herkommhehen/' 

ras irap^L T&V &yopai>6/ji,(i}j'] 'Those 
which come from.' 

1 1 vfj TOLS irpa.TTOfjitvoii\ ' at- 
taches to those who execute the sen- 

TToXe/Alovs Tracriv] { Makes them ene- 
mies to all/ places them that is, in a 
hostile relation to all. There is no 
regular construction of the accusative. 
Some verb must be supplied from 
x> 'involves their being.' 

r&v frdeKa Kcihovptvuv] Coray reads 
i] before this genitive, and Stahr also 
inserts the article, though in brackets. 
It is required by the sense, and I have 
followed Stahr in inserting it. On 
the functions of ' the Eleven,' compare 
Hermann ; Pol. Ant. 139. This pas- 

sage seems to limit their functions. 
Ta6rr]v'\ sc. TTJV <f>v\dTTOv<rav. 

12 n <r6<j>iff(Ji,a] The definite article, 
which is the general reading, I can 
make nothing of. I have by a slight 
change introduced the indefinite pro- 
noun. Compare for the language in 
justification of the change, II. v. 29. 
eav pir) TI (To<j>lwvTo.i. What is the 
device, rb (r6<j>t<rfJi,a, which is alluded 
to, if the article is kept? " Des 
moyens adroits," St. Hil., and " Das 
passende auskunftsmittel/' Stahr. 

1 3 Trpbs ai/rots] ' for these objects, ' 
"fur diese Geschafte," Stahr; but 
the expression is irregular altogether. 
Can it be ' Therefore there must not 
be one definite magistracy set apart 
in addition to them (rots poxOypo'is), 
sc. the bad whom alone you can ex- 
pect to find ready to act as jailers, 

dXXd T&V re vtuv] ' But,' he goes on 

VII. (VI.) 8.] 



ecrrt roTt?, /cat TU)V apvoov Set Kara juLepri TroietcrOai TWV CTTI- 






ovv ra? 


eicrl* 14 

raVac Oereov elvai Tr^ocora?, /xera $e raura? ra? avayKalas 
]ULV ovOev ?TToy, ev G"xfitJ.aTi Se ftei^ovt rerayjULevas' Kal yap 
ejuLTreipias Kal TricrTecos ieovrat TroXX^?. Toiavrai 
at re Trepi TY\V <pv\aKr]v Tt]<s TToXswf, /cat ocrat 
7Tpo$ ra? TToXe/xt/ca? ^>/a?. <^6t ^e /cat ei/ eiprjvrj /cat 
JroXe'yHW 7TfXft)t/ re /cat ret^wi/ <pv\aKtjg o/xouo; e 
civai, /cat e^eracrea)? /cat cri'^Ta^eft)? TWJ/ 7ro\iTo>v. evOa 
ovv eTTt Tracrt ToJrot? />X a ^ *^*WW etVtV, ei/Oa $' eXarrou?, 
ooi/ ei/ rat? fJLiKpats TroXecrt /xta TrejOt Trai/rco^. KaXovcri $e I 5 

/cat TroXe/uLap^ovs rou? rotourou?. ert ^e /caV 1322 B 
rj \^tXot >? ro^orat ?f VCLVTIKOV, /cat eTrt 
tWoTe KaOlcrravTai ap%ai 9 at Ka\ovvrai 
/cat iTTTrap^fai /cat Taiap%iai, Kal Kara /mepo? $e at UTTO 

Tpitjpap^iai Kal Xo^ayiai /cat (pvXap^iai Kal ocra 

fJiOpia' TO <$e TTCLV ev rt TOUTCOV ecrrti/ 



TTOV TOVTOV. 'E7ret (5e eVtat TO)i/ a'Mi', el Kal 

TroXXa rcoi^ KOIVWV, avayKatov erepav etvai ry 
a eTevBekker. 

to say, * both of the young there must 
be some, and the regular magistrates 
must take in turns this duty.' 
in order of time.' 

( Speciosi magis ministerii, ' ' holding a 
higher position, ' ' of more importance 
in the scale. ' 

14 e/0-/] erei/ [civ] is Stahr's reading. 
I do not see why eur should not at 
once be substituted for etev, which 
cannot be construed. 

is to be taken with tv 

' reviewing.' 
15 KO.T& /j.epos'] ' in detail.' 
(IV.) i. i. /card /j.6piot>. 


VTT& raiJrasf] Efh. I. i. 4, p. 1094. 10, 
8<rai 5' dvlv VTT& /j,lav TWO. 5vva/MV, 
K. r. X. 

0u\apx^0 Compare Smith, Diet. 
Ant., art. Pbylarchi. 

%v rt TOIJTUV tcrlv euJos] Again com- 
pare VI. (IV.) I. i, wepl yfros ev TI 

1 6 StaxeiptToi'O'i] 'have pass through 
their hands.' 

irpo<revdvi>ov(rav~] 'and besides bring 
to an account/ L. and S. Compare 
Smith, Diet. Ant., art. Euthyne, p. 


diaxctptfrvffav] I should give this 

verb here a slightly different sense 
from the one above, and its more usual 
sense of 'managing.' 




Magis- \r)\lsoju.evt]v XoyicrjULov Kal TrpocrevOvvova-av, avT^v ju.t)0ev Sta- 
tracies. ' ,, ^ ' , , f 
X, L P l { ovarav eTepov Ka\ovcri oe TOVTOVS 01 jmev evuvvovs, OL 

jj- $e XoyivTas, 01 <$e e^eracrra?, 01 $e crvvrjydpovs. Tlapa 
Tracra? o^e Tairra? ra? ap^a? ^ /uaXfcrra Kvpia TrdvTcw ecrriv 
.r] yap avTt] TroXXa/a? e^ei TO reXo? Kal T^V ior<popdv 9 
TTpOKaOrjTai TOV 7rXrj6ov$ 9 OTTOV Kvpid$ evriv o ^yao?* Set yap 
eivai TO (rvvayov TO KVOIQV T^? 7roXiT6/a?. KaXeiTcti oe evQa 
juiev 7rpo/3ov\ot $ia TO TrpofiovXeveiv, OTTOV <)e 7r\q0fit ecrrf, 

18 /3oV\r) JULO,\\OV. Ai fJLV OVV 7TO\lTLKal TWV O.p"^COV O")^OV 

TocravTai Tive<s elariv, aXXo & eloos 7ri]ULe\eia<} rj irepi rot's 1 
6eov$ 9 oiov lepeig re /cat eTTL/meXrjTal TCOV Trepl ra lepa TOV 
(Tw^ea-Sai re ra vTrdp^ovTa Kal avopOovcrOai ra TT/Trro^ra 
TCOV oiKodojUirj/uLdTCOv Kal T&V aX\oov ocra rera/crai irpos Tov<f 

19 Oeov$. crv/uL/3aii>i Se Trjv eTripeXeiav TavTqv evia^ov JJLGV 
elvai. fjiiav, oiov ev Talg fJUKpalg -TroXecrfi/, evia-^ov Se TroXXa? 
Kal Ke-^Mpiorjmevag r^? lepaxTvvrjs, oiov lepO7roiov$ Kal vao(pv- 

ao XaKas Kal Ta/mias TCOV iepwv xptHULaTcw. %oju.evr] $e TavTys 
rj irpog ra? Qv<rla$ cKpwpiar/uLevr] ra9 KOtvas Trao-a?, ocra? IAIJ 
Tol<s lepevariv aTroolSuxriv 6 vojmos, aXX' aTro r?? Koivtjs ecrr/aj 

Not the common sense 
of the word. The common sense is 
'advocates/ and I can only refer to 
the Diet. Ant. p. 1086, b, where 
the conjectures on the subject are 

17 rb rAos Kal rty efaQopdv'] "La 
fixation et la rentre"e des imp6ts," 
St. Hilaire's translation, is not in har- 
mony with the passage, if conceivably 
justifiable on other grounds, which I 
should doubt. Stahr gives a better 
sense, " der Ausgang derDinge gleich- 
wie der Vortrag derselben ruht," 
' have in their hands the final ratifica- 
tion as well as the primary introduc- 
tion of any measure.' Thus I give 
TT)v ela-<f>opdv its literal signification, 
' the bringing in.' tyopelav, the 
reading of one MS., has been adopted 
by several, but is not necessary, and 

the context is in favour of the usual 
reading retained by Bekker. 

8fi y&p elvat rb ffvvdyov~\ ' There 
must exist the body which can call 
together the sovereign body,' and this 
body, rb <rvvdyov, will have in its 
hands the introduction of the measures 
to be discussed, 

8irov 8t ir\7J06s ten] Where the 
government is a popular one. See 
below, 24. 

19 TTJS lepwa^vfjs] 'from the priestly 
function itself.' 

20 airb TTJS Koivrjs, K. T. X.] " deren 
Besorgung von dem gemeinschaft- 
lichen heiligen Staatsheerde ausgeht." 
Stahr; 'all those sacrifices which de- 
rive their claim to attention from their 
connexion with the public or state 

VII. (VI.) 8.] IIOAITIK&N H. (Z.) 


Tt]V Tt]ULqV KO\OV(Tt (T Ol fJLV ap")(OVTa<S TOVTOV?, OL 

^ o -\ " < ?< ' A * ? 

oe pacriMis, 01 oe TrpVTaveis. At //tei/ owi/ avayKaiai ewi- 

fJL\lU el<Tl TTCpl TOVTCOV, O)? CLTTelv <TVyK(ha\ai(*)a'a/UiVOV$ 9 

Trepi re TO. Sai/movia Kal TO. Tro\eju.iKa Kal Trepl rct9 Trpoa-o- 
oof? Kal Trepi TO. avaXKTKOfjLeva, Kal Trepl ayopav Kal Trepl TO 
acrrv Kal Xt/ifVa? /ecu r^ ywpav, en ra Tre^oi ra 
Kal (rvva\\a<y /maTcav avaypatya? Kal 7rpd]~i$ Kal 
Kal eTTiXoyio-juiovs re Kal e^eracra?, KOI Trpos evOvvas 

Kal reXo? a* Trepl TO jSovXevofJLevov elari TU>V KOI- 
$e Taig a"%o\a<TTiKWTepai$ Kal /maX\ov evrjiJiepov- 22 
(rai<s Tro\<Tiv 9 eri $e (ppovTi^oiHTais eJ/cocr/x/a?, yvvaiKovojULa, 
vofJ.o(f)v\aKia 9 TraiSovo/mla, yvjULvacriap^La, Trpo$ Se TOVTOig 1323 
Trepl aywvas TrijULe\eia yvp-viKovg Kal Afoi/ucrta/coJ?, icav e'l 
Tivag eTepag crv/uL/3alvei roiavras yivecrOai Oewpia?. TOVTCOV 2 3 
o' evicLL cbavepws el<riv ov or]/u,oTiKai TCOV ao^wi/, oiov yvvai- 
Kovofiia Kal Traifiovoimia' TO?? yap cnropois avayKrj 
Kal yvvat^l Kal Traicrlv wonrcp aKo\ov9oi$ $ia Trjv a 
Tpiwy o ovvwv apyjdv KaO* a? aipovvTal Tive$ ao^a? Ta? 24 
, voimo<pv\dK(0v Trpo/3ov\(jov /^ouA*??, ol /mev vo/mo<pv- 


At Athens we have the 
ei5s combining the two 
terms. On the general question, 
comp. Hermann, Pol. Ant. 56, and 
note n, where the authorities are 
given: also above, III. xiv. 13. 

21 ^TrtXoyioyiotfs] not, I think, as 
L. and S. give it, a " reckoning over, 
calculation," but in a more technical 
sense, ' a review of the accounts by the 
Xoyicrral, as tj-erdcreis is a review by 
the officers called ^^eracrraf, 16. 

TUV KOIV&V] Should Trepl be supplied, 
or does the genitive depend on the 
relative ? Stahr takes it in the first 
way, and perhaps that is the safer, 
though in any way it is awkward. 

22 crxoAacm/cojr^pas] Compare V. 
(VIII.) vi. n, ffxo\aaTiKUTpoi yap 
yiyv6fji.evoi 5ia rots eviropias. 

vofjio<t>v\aKla] Compare Smith, Diet. 
Ant. The position of the word here 
prevents its being applied to any very 
high magistracy, such as those men- 
tioned in the article as existing in other 
states of Greece. 

23 5t<i T7)i> a8ov\lav] 'from their not 
having any slaves.' 

24 Ko.6' &s alpovvTciC] This passage 
is not easy, and I do not feel sure 
of more than the general meaning. 
' There are three forms of magistracy, 
which are adopted when the supreme 
magistrates are being chosen, these 
three are, &c., and of them the first 
is, &c.' So I translate it. The dis- 
tinction between 7rp6/5ou\ot and the 
/3otfAi7 is sufficiently familiar to all 
readers of Greek history. 

Whether any other points relating 



332 nOAITIKQN H. (Z.) 

Aa/ce? apHTTOKpaTiKov, o\iyapyj.Kov 5' ol 7rp6f3ov\oi, 
$e SrjfiOTiKOV. Tlepl jmev ovv TWV ap-^cov, cog ev TVTTO), i 
etpqrat Trepl Traarcov. 

to the j8ou\eurt/c6f and 5iAcao-rt/c6' were 
treated of here, we cannot say. At 
any rate, the book is short, and the 

two subjects mentioned as much 
wanted an additional discussion as the 
one he has discussed. 


IN the summary of Book VI. (IV.) I have given the position of 
this book in reference to the general subject. It was there 
stated, that the delicate problem of Greek practical statesmanship, 
was to balance two antagonist parties in each state ; or if not to 
balance them, if that was given up as impossible, then, as neither 
the one party nor the other could be wholly got rid of, the problem 
was to assign their mutual relations, to temper the necessary 
superiority of the one, to relieve the necessary inferiority of the other ; 
to remove in the former case whatever there was of insulting for 
the governed, to remove in the latter case, as far as possible, all 
causes of irritation against the governor. But a statement such as 
this implies constant difficulty and even danger. The governors 
were not easy to restrain. Their power was in most cases the 
result of a contest ; there had been a victory and a triumph ; and 
the sense of this acted upon both parties, humbling the inferior, 
raising an insolent temper in the superior. Or it might be that 
without any actual contest the power of the ruling party was the 
expression of a state of things which was past. Side by side with 
the party which had hitherto been dominant, had grown up another, 
and its strength had become such that it was no longer willing to 
acquiesce as before in its political inferiority. The inequality of an 
earlier stage, which had been just, had ceased to be so ; and the 
desire for greater political equality was a just and a growing one. 
But a dominant political party is slow to recognise an alteration in 
the state of things fatal to its own exclusive supremacy. The 
justice of a desire is no justification in its eyes. Kay y TTUVV xaXeTrov 
r Trepi O.VTWV, op<*) pqov rvytiv ?*/ (TVfj,7re~i<rai TOVQ 
eovEKTeiv' ctet yap Zqrovai TO 'iaov KCU TO SfacuoV ol r/Yrove, 
01 Se KpaTovvTtQ ov&v (f)povTiovcriv. " Persuasion is the resource of 
the feeble, and the feeble can seldom persuade." The party in 
power yields only to pressure, and its concessions are valueless as 
conciliations. They are wrung from its weakness, and given with 
reluctance. They are stimulants to the growing strength of its 


opponents. So it is a constant effort on the one side to repress, on 
the other to advance. This was the state of Greece in Aristotle's 
time, and had been so during the whole period of its history. It 
was the state of orao-tc, permanent, and with the combinations 
then available, irremoveable. Of course such a state must, as I said 
before, lead to greater vicissitudes, to periods of crisis, to revolu- 
tions, to nETa(3o\ai. It is these two subjects that form the subject 
of the analysis in this Vlllth book. It is the pathology, if I may 
use the expression, of Greek society. Aristotle begins with the 
most general expression of the one great permanent cause of the 
diseased state of society, the sense of inequality Travrayov c)ta TO 
CLVHTOV f) orao-tc. And the inequality might be either in property or 
political privileges, it might be more social or more political. And 
it might be with a view to secure a greater equality on these points 
for themselves, to aid others in attaining it, or to prevent others from 
gaining a superiority, that the parties were formed. 

This, the one great permanent cause, would not lead to violent 
outbreaks without certain minor conditions or occasions. These 
are enumerated by Aristotle (Ch. II.), and explained and illus- 
trated (III. IV.). This enumeration, this analysis is quite 
general. In the Vth chapter he takes the case of democracy 
and applies his previous remarks to it. In the Vlth he treats 
similarly of oligarchy. In the Yllth of aristocracy. In all 
three alike it is the causes of destruction that he deals with, why 
they do not maintain themselves, whether the cause be internal 
or external. 

In the two next chapters VIII. IX. he addresses himself to the 
question how they may avoid the dangers that threaten them, how 
they may succeed in maintaining themselves. As a general rule 
this will be clear from our previous analysis of the dangers. In 
detail the precepts are to avoid all violation of the law ; to keep a 
watchful eye over slight innovations ; to exercise a prudent fore- 
thought in reference to the gradually altering relations of the 
parties in the state, to the gradual changes in the value of pro- 
perty ; to remove the temptations which great pecuniary advantages 
attached to office hold out ; to check all disorder of the finances. Such 
are some of the principal precautions. But this is the negative side of 
the question. More positive safeguards exist. These will be found 
to be two main ones : the securing governors qualified for their post, 
and, secondly, the all-important but generally neglected point, the 
educating the citizens in harmony with the institutions under which 
they live. 

VIII. (V.)] SUMMAEY. 335 

Passing from the free governments, the constitutions of Greece, 
he turns to monarchy, and of course in this case it will be the cor- 
rupter forms of monarchy that will necessarily attract his attention. 
For monarchy in its highest form is, we have seen, identified with 
the ideal government, and the elements of disturbance should be, 
by hypothesis, alien to such a government. It should be clear 
from permanent dissensions, as from violent changes, from ardffig 
and fjLeTaj3o\i]. But the monarchical power of the semi-civilised 
monarchies existing in the neighbouring nations, Thracian, Mace- 
donian, Epirotic, or Persian, and the monarchical power in the hands, 
either of Persian satraps or of Greek tyrants was liable to attacks, 
the latter form especially. All the citizens whom it had deprived 
of their political privileges were its sworn enemies. It was, by its 
definition, a monarchy exercised entirely in the interest of one man, 
against the will of all the others. Occasion only could be wanting 
for its overthrow. The earlier despots of Greece had been but 
shortlived, yet their power had rested on a much more solid basis, 
had more represented a real need of their respective states. The 
later ones were a much more violent shock to the feelings of their 
times, and were as being so of all governments the most shortlived. 
Ch. X. is a long enumeration of the dangers and changes in monar- 
chical governments. Ch. XI. is an enumeration of the methods of 
preserving the monarchy, whether tyrannical or not. Ch. XII. is 
a short statement of the comparative duration of governments. 
Ch. XIII. contains a discussion of the sequence observed in the 
changes, together with a criticism on the order of succession as laid 
down in the Republic of Plato. 

With this, somewhat abruptly, his book, as we have it at present? 
terminates. But the abruptness is in the form merely, for the sub- 
ject of this concluding book has been adequately worked out. We 
cannot, that is, as in other parts of his work, lay our hands on any 
point in the question of the internal dissensions and revolutions of 
Greek states, which, on his own showing, he ought to have treated 
and has not. And more than this, we cannot, I think, find any 
point which in theory we might require to complete his statements. 
That many points are hastily touched, as, for instance, the matter 
discussed in the last chapter, will not surprise any one familiar 
with the method of Aristotle's writings. For with him the 
completeness of thought is always so much more an object 
than the completeness of expression. And we scarcely ever find 
evidences of labour bestowed on the mere dressing up of the 
subject. We are never suffered to forget his language in Eth. 


I. 7. i., p. 1098. 20 : TTptyeypa(f)d(i) p.EV ovv Ta.ya.Qov ravrr;* del 
yap to-we VTTOTWjruHTai irp&rov, ei& vcrrepov avaypa^ai. dete 3' av 
TTCLVTOQ elvai Trpoayayelv KO.I Siapdpuxrai TO. KaX&g e^orra Ty trfpt- 
ypa<f>rj, KO.I 6 "^povog r&v TOiovrw evperriQ r/ (rvvepyoe ayaQoQ etvai. 
odev KCLI r&v rtyvtiv yeyovaaiv al' iravroQ yap 
TO e 

nOAITIKilN O. (E.) 

nEPI /ULev ovv Tu>v aXXcav wv 7rpoei\6]ULeOa vvefiov eipriTai Tne object 
% > , ^ ^^ , ~ ofthe 

7Tpl TTaVTCOV K TLVWV 06 /J,Tapa\\OV(TlV CLl 7TO\lTetCU book. 

Kai Troa-cov Kal TTOIGOV, Kal Tives e/ca(7T^9 TroXfre/a? (pOopal, ~ 

Kal K TTOtCOV 6*9 TTO/Ot? /XaXfCTTOC /ULeOlCTTaVTai, GTl $6 <T(jOTtJ- 

plai Tive<$ Kal Koivy Kal xwpls e/cacrr??? etV/i/, fft"! o^e o\a T'LVWV 
av ]ua\t<TTa CTWOITO TWV 7ro\iTicov 

OTI TroXXal yeyevqvTai TroXireiat Travrtov /mev o 
TO StKatov Kal TO /car' avaXoyiav 'LVOV, TOVTOV 

VIII. i. i. On the order of this 
book from the nature of the case see 
Spengel, pp. 35, 36. It is there re- 
marked that Aristotle's treatment of 
the <f>0opai first and then the cruTyptai, 
of the causes of destruction before the 
means of conservation, points to the 
preceding construction in VI. VII. 
(IV. VI.). 

Trepl [i.ev } K. r. X.] Any difficulty 
which may be felt as to the change or 
rejection of certain passages in the 
preceding books, favourable to the 
existing order, could only be exchanged 
for a new one if they were retained un- 
altered, when we come on such a 
passage as these opening words. In 
their obvious natural meaning they 
are the opening words of the conclu- 
sion of a work. The design has been 
carried out in all points but one, that 
one shall now receive full attention. 

Ac rivuv 8] This is done in Chaps. 
I. -IV. We must remark that his 
language is iroKireiai, and that the 
earlier chapters are limited to these 
TroXtreicu and do not touch on fiovap- 
X<- a ) which was not to him a 7roAtrea. 
TToAtretas] ,V. VII. 

A. P. 

rives] VIII. IX. 

TI 5 5toi rtvuv] This apparent re- 
petition finds a defender in Stahr. I 
cannot see any such difference in 
meaning as to make it desirable to 
retain both. There is a difference 
easily seen between QOopai and fj,e6L- 
OTCIVTCU, but none such here between 
ffUTTjplat and crc6btro. I have there- 
fore, as in other passages, enclosed the 
words in brackets. 

2 VTTO\aj3Li'T ; r]vapx'riv] "vondemfru- 
her ausgesprochenem Satze ausgehen/' 
Stahr, ' assume as our starting point. ' 

rb diKaiov Kat] Spengel, p. 38, 
note 34, wishes to read eivai for 
Kal, and I think the sense much 
better. Stahr retains Kai. The 
change into elvai is, I believe, coun- 
tenanced by 13 rightly viewed. 
What people agree in is the general 
statement that justice consists in 
what is equal in proportion to the 
claim of the parties. Democrat and 
oligarch go so far together, but then 
they differ immediately as to this 
claim. If the reading of Bekker is 
kept, Aristotle means to say that all 
allow justice to be the right thing 


0. (E.) 


The object 
of the 

vovTMV 9 


eiptjTai Kai 

7TpOTpOV. i 


fj.ev yap eye- 
a7r\)$ L<TOV<S elvou, 
(OTI yap eXevOepoi TTOLVTCS o/Ww?, aTrXeo? 'tcrot elvai vojui- 
fyvcriv}, oXiyap-^ia <^e e/c TOV avierovs ev TL oyra? oXco? elvat 
avicrovs vTroXajm/Bdveiv (/car* ova-lav yap avterot bvTes aTrXa)? 
avicroi v7ro\ajUL/3dvov(nv elvai). efra ol fJ-ev a>? 'Icroi oi/re? 


fJLTe^eiv 9 o 






aviaoi OVTC<S 
e^owi ju.ev 

TY\V aiTiai> 9 OTav 




' ^ 




7r\OVKTlV ^r]TOV<TlV TO 

ovv TL Trairai SiKaiov, 

KaTtt Tr\V 

T>79 TToXfTe/Q?, 

^/catorara ju.ev av crTaarid^oiev, fJKHTTa 
1301 B TrpcLTTOVcrLV ol K.o.T^ apcTtjv <$ia(pepovT$' ju.d^HTTa yap 
7 ev\oyov avlcrovs aTrXco? elvai TOVTOVS /ULOVOV. 
Of icara yevos 

Trjv ctvicrQTt]Ta TavTtjv evyevets yap etvai SOKOVCTIV ot? vTrdp- 
^CL irpoyovwv apeTij Kal TrXouro?. 'Ap^al jmev ovv a>? elirelv 
avTai Kal Tryyal TOJV (TTacrecov eianv, 66ev arTa(na^ov<Ttv. 
Kal al yucera/5oXa yiyvovTac dittos' oTe /u.ev yap irpos 

OVK a^iovcri TWV 'icrcov avrovg 

and what is equal proportionately, 
but fail in attaining justice, in rea- 
lising this their idea of what is equal 
and just. Their agreement goes no 
further than their language, as soon 
as they come to action, they are at 
issue as to the practical application of 
the language in which they agree. 
This leaves a definite and good sense 
for Bekker's text, which I have there- 
fore not altered. 

3 /car' ovalav^ ( in property.' 

4 TrdvTwv T&V ifcrajv] ' equality in all 
things. ' 

ir\oi>KTeit> fyTov<ru>] So Eth, v. 2. 

IO, TI, p. H29, b 9, 5oKt 7T\OV^KT'r)S 

elvai. &rn 8' &VCCTOS' TOVTO y&p Trepi- 
%!, Kal KOivbv, ' l denn wer mehr sei, 
miisse auch mehr haben," Stahr. The 
ydp I take to be inserted simply as a 

justification of his use of 7r\eovfKTe?v. 

5 i]fj,apT^^vaL 8' aTrXws] Spengel 
in the passage quoted above would 
read here ^uapr^Kinai 8 TOV a?rXu)s, 
but the reading in the text seems to 
be quite defensible. 

/caroi T'rjv virb\'ri\l/i.v~\ ( according to 
the view which they respectively en- 
tertain. ' 

6 irdvruv 8^] For all this language 
compare III. xn. 1 3. 

7 eiryems] Compare VI. (IV.) VIII. 
9. &pxaios TT\OVTOS Kal dperi?. 

odev vTaffidfrvffiv'] not in the sense 
of o6ev 7) Kivrjais, but 08 ^Ve/co, Eth. 
VI. 2. 4 2 , p. 1139, 31- 

8 Aib Kal al yuera/3oAa, K. T. X. ] 
Kal al [AeTa[3o\al, the revolutions, 
the changes of the government, as 
well as the dissensions whilst the 

VIII. (V.) 1.] nOAITIKON 9. (E.) 


Tip TToXiTetav, OTTO)? K Trjg KaOevTrjKvlas aXXyv yaeracm/- The two 

<? ^ r i-\ ' "K $ ' '>* forms of 

crcocrf v, oiov K or)/u.OKpaTia$ o\iyap"^tav rj orjjULOKpaTiav e revolution. 

o\iyapyia<$, rj 7ro\iTiav Kal apicrTOKpariav CK TOVTCOV, *] 
rctJra? e CKCIVCOV' ore <T ov irpos T*JV KaOeo-TrjKvtav iroXi- 
Telav, aXXa Tip ftetf KaTacrTacnv irpoaipovvTai Trjv avTyv, 
oC avTu>v (T elvaL fiovXovTai TavTtjv, oiov Trjv oXtyap-^iav 
rj Trjv fjiovap^iav. CTL Trepl TOV JULO\\OV teal ?JTTOV 9 oiov rj ^ 
oXiyapyiav ovcrav els TO /u.a\\ov oXiyap^eiarOai y ei$ TO 
rJTTOv, rj <$t][jLOKpaTiav ovcrav els TO imaXXov St]fjLOKpaTi<rOai 

VJ L<S TO r\TTOV OJULOIGD? ^6 Kdl 7Tf TCOV \017TU)V TTO\lTeiU>V 9 t] 

fVa eiriTaQuxTLV tj ave6(Jo(riv. CTI TTjOO? TO ]u.epo$ TL Kivfjcrai 10 
Trjs TroXfTe/a?, oToj^ ap-^fjv TIVCL /caraiTT^crat rj aveXeiv, 
oxTirep ev Aa/ceoa/yCtoi// (baari Avcravopov Tive$ GTri^eiprjarai 
KaToXvarai Tr]v fiacrtXeiav KCU Tlavtraviav TOV j3a<ri\ea TVJV 
e<popeiav. Kal ev ^TTi^dfjiVM $e /xere^aXei/ ^ TroXtreia 

government remains unchanged; this 
last is <rrci<ris. The connexion which 
Si6 is meant to indicate is not so 
clear. It seems to be this : inequality 
is the great cause of dissension, and 
dissension leads to revolution. The 
inequality to be remedied exists either 
with reference to the two parties which 
divide the state, the many and the 
wealthy, or with reference to the 
members of those parties within them- 
selves, or more specifically of that one 
which is in actual possession of the 
government. If, then, the inequality 
may be of two kinds, the dissension 
may also be of two kinds, and if the 
dissension is of two kinds, the revolu- 
tion to which it leads may also assume 
one of two forms. I do not see any other 
way, though not satisfied with this. 

6r p.kv ydp, K. T. X. ] ' At one time 
it assumes the form of an attack on 
the existing constitution.' It is a 
question of the form of government. 

TToiXtTetav Kal apLaroKpariav] Com- 
pare II. xi. 5, and VI. (IV.) Ch. vn. 


Sc' avruv] It is a personal question. 
They accept the constitution, they 
wish it to be placed in their own 
hands to administer. 

9 2ri] It is a question of degree. 
Victorius looks on the two cases in- 
dicated by rt in 9, 10 as varieties of 
the second form of revolution, 6're 5* 
ov ?r/)6s, K. T. X., and finds in this view 
the justification of the Si^ws ylyvovrai 
al fj.Taf3o\al. I rather look on them 
as proceeding from his careful atten- 
tion to all distinctions, his wish to ex- 
haust the cases. They are simply sub- 

10 ju^pos rt] ' Some one part.' 
&<rirep tv ActKeSafyioj'i] Mr. Grote, 

IX. 330, considers that Lysander's 
object was to make the kingly office 
elective, not hereditary ; to introduce 
something very similar to the method 
adopted at Carthage, II. II. 4. 

TLavvaviav] On this see Grote, II. 
464, 467, V. 362. 

'ETriScfyij'y] Of Epidamnus, we have 
had notices, II. vii. -23, III. xvi. i. 



nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 


KCITO. juiopiov' UVT\ yup TWV (bvXapywv {3ov\tj 
jj ei? Se Tyv 'HAta/ai/ eTravayKes eariv GTL TWV ev ra> 
Inequahty Te ^ arL fiaSll^eiv Tee? ap^as, OTav 7ri-^st)(pifyTai apyjj Tig. 

of political o\iyap"YiKov o~e Kal 6 apYdov 6 eT? rjv ev Trj TToXire/a ravrrj' 
disturb- x * x v I, f , ', ' , , 

ance. Travrayov yap oia TO avicrov rj o-racrf?* ov fj.r)v TOI? avi<roi<s 

avaXoyov atSiOf yap /3aeri\eia awcro?, eav y ev 

12 "crow oXco? yap TO 'tcrov fyrovvTef o-Taa-ia^ovcriv. GCTTI $e 

SlTTOV TO '1<TOV' TO JULGV yap aplOjULtp TO 06 /CT* a^iaV <TTIV. 

Mr. Grote, in. 542, remarks on 
them, that they are so brief as to con- 
vey little knowledge. There is a 
notice later Ch. IV. 7. 

Kara (Ji6pioj>~\ 'by a change in one 
part. ' 

1 1 eis 5 T7)t> '~EL\i.alav, K. T. X. ] As 
in so many other passages, what we 
want here for the interpretation is a 
greater knowledge of facts. The mere 
Greek tells us nothing. Compare for 
the expression roi)s ei's rb iroXtrevfjia 
padlfrvTas, VI. (IV.) VI. 9. 'It is 
compulsory that, of those who are 
within the limits of the governing 
body, the magistrates should go to 
the Heliaea,' the "occasional public 
assembly " mentioned by Mr. Grote 
in the passage above quoted. 

eiri^rj^L^Tat} Is this active or pas- 
sive in sense ? " Appointed by vote." 
L. and S. quoting this passage. 

&PXWV 6 efs] " still retaining the 
original single-headed archon. " Com- 
pare III. xvi. i. 

iravraxov ydp, K. T. X.] There are 
few harder passages than this in the 
Politics. For the connection, I 
should consider all since aTacrid'ov<ru>, 
7, as a parenthesis, and connect 
iravraxov yap immediately with that 
section. These are the sources of 
dissension, ' for in all cases alike it is 
from inequality that dissension pro- 

ov /arjv TOIS cm'crots virdp'x.ei avd\oyov~\ 
Of course I do not mean to say that 

there will be dissension if citizens un- 
equal in position have their rights 
proportioned to that inequality. In 
one sense it is true this case pre- 
sents an inequality, but it is an in- 
equality which is really just. There 
is no violation of proportion. So I 
would paraphrase the passage, agree- 
ing with Stahr in the sense I attach to 
it, but allowing that it is simply con- 
jectural. The only other way I can 
suggest is : in all cases alike where 
there is dissension, inequality is the 
cause of that dissension, but it is not 
in all cases that inequality produces 
dissension ; people may be unequal 
and yet not quarrel, for though un- 
equal, in the distribution of political 
power or privileges, a proportionate 
equality may be preserved. The cases 
in which inequality results in dissen- 
sion are, then, those where over and 
above the inequality, there is in the 
distribution above mentioned, a viola- 
tion of this proportionate equality. 
This second paraphrase supplies 
more, but does not change the sense of 
the words ov ^v so much as the other. 
And the general basis of the two is 
pretty much the same. I suspect the 
passage of being altogether disturbed. 
The dt'Sios pacriXeta seems to refer 
especially to the cases of Sparta and 
Epidamnus. If it does it would seem 
more appropriate before the general re- 
mark Travraxov ydp. 

12 rb [j,ev ydp dpi^y, /c.r.X.J Eth. 

VIII. (V.) 1.] IIOAITIKON 0. (E.) 


Xeyo) e apiOimw /mev TO TrXrjOei 5y jueyeOei TCLVTO Kat ivov, 
/car' a^Lav Se TO TU> \6yu) 9 olov VTrepe-^ei /car' apiOjmov fj.ev 


Tapa Tolv dvoiv Kal raura TOV ei/oV "KTOV yap juepos TO. ovo 
TWV TeTTapwv Kal TO ev Twv Svoiv afJL(f)ci) yap q/mla-r]. OJULO- 
\oyovvTes $e TO ctTrXa)? elval SiKaiov TO /car' a^iav, $ia<pe- 
povTai, KaOdirep eXe 
oXa>? 'l<roi 


avi<Toi TrdvTcw aviaraov 

irpOTpov 9 o ime 

elvai, ol 

ort, eav /cara TL 
OT1 9 eav /cara TL 



$vo yivovTai 7ro\iTiai 9 dy/mos Kal o\Lyap-^ia- evyeveia yap 
Kal apTr] ev dX/yof?, TavTa ^ ev TrXelooriv evyevelg yap 
Kal ayaOol ovfiajmov e/caroV, aTropoi $e TroXXol 
TO ^e a7rXa)9 TrdvTy KaO' eKaTepav 


the ground 

of political 



Idea of 



V. x. 4, p. 1134, 27, eXevdtpuv 
tauv, tf KO.T dvaXoytav $) /car' 
The two passages compared show, 
as does also 1 3 compared with 2 in 
this chapter, that /car' dvd\o"ylav is 
equivalent to /car' aiav. Numerical 
is opposed to proportionate equality. 

13 6/j,o\oyovvTS 5^, K. r. X.] The 
text as I have given it differs from 
Bekker's in its view of the article r6 
before aTrXws, and in its stopping 
Bekker places a comma after Skatov. 
' Whilst agreeing in the statement,' 
such I make the force of r6, 'that 
abstractedly justice consists in the 
observance of the fair claim of all 
parties, they differ, as was said before, 
in this that the one, &c.' See above 
in 2. 

14 8ib Kal fjidXicrTa] Again the 
connection, as in 8, is not quite 
clear. The claims of various parties 
are the cause of difference. These 
claims may be either that of superior 
numbers, or superior wealth, or su- 
perior birth, or superior goodness. 
But practically it is the first two that 
are important. Superiority of birth 
and goodness is found in so few as 
not to make their claim a cause of 

disturbance. Add to this that superi- 
ority in goodness is generally accom- 
panied by the indisposition to assert 
the claim which it gives. The two 
remaining claims, that of numbers 
and wealth, are the bases respectively 
of the two common forms of govern- 
ment, democracy, and oligarchy, and 
these two claims are really the only 
ones that in common political life are 
found to be the ground of political 
dissensions. Hence, also, to speak 
generally, there are two, and only 
two constitutions. 

raura 8' ev Tr\elo(ri.v] The elements 
of these, 5^/^os Kal oXiyapxta. 

d-n-opoi] Some MSS. read ftfiropoi. 
Stahr conjectures that the text originally 
included both. It would be better if it 
did. eijTropol 8 Kal diropoi Tro\\ol 
iroXXaxov. But it may stand as it is ; 
either involves the other. Compare 
VI. (IV.) iv. 18, 19. The existence 
of a large class of poor renders their 
claim inevitable, their objection to the 
rule of the rich inevitable, if they are 
subject ; the objection of the rich in- 
evitable if the poor are dominant. 

Kad' eKartpav l(rbTf)Ta~] 'according 
to either of the two equalities.' 




Idea of 

d>av\ov. (pavepov (T e/c TOV (rvfji/BalvovTOS' ovSejmia yap 
, , ' , , , ' 


aovvaTOV OLTTO TOV TrpcoTOV KO.L TOV ev o,p")(jt ruua.pTrjju.evov ju.rj 
CLTravTav ei$ TO re'Xo? KOLKOV TI. Sio Sec TO. jmev api9ju.r]TiKfj 
, TO. $e Trj /car' a^lav. OJULW? $e acr(pa\e- 


crTepa Kal acrracr/acTTO? /xaXXoj/ rj SqjULOKpaTia T^? oXiyap- 
ev jmev yap raF? 6\Lyap^tat^ eyyivovTai $vo, rj re 
aXX^Xou? CTTao-ig Kal CTI rj 7rpo<s TOV ^rjfjiovy ev $e raf? 
Trpo? Trjv oXiyapyiav JULOVOV avTw $e TTjOo? 

CIVTOV, o TI Kal afyov eiTreiv, OVK eyyiyverai rw 

CTI <$e rj e/c TCOV /mea-cov TroXiTela eyyvTepa) TOV 
rj rj TU)V oXiywv, rJTrep ecrTW acnpaXearTaTtj TWV TOIOV- 


'ETrei fie (TKOTTOvjmev e/c Ttvwv at re crracref? yiyvovTai 
i at ju.Ta/3o\al Trepl ra? TroXfre/a?, \r]7TTeov KaOoXov 
ra? aas Kal ra9 aiTtaf avTwv. ei<rl 



K TOV ffv^a.LvovToi\ 'from that 
which is habitually the result.' 

15 (AT] airavrav'] ' There should not 
result in the end.' 

roi fdv api0/j,t)Tiicfi, /c.T.X.] The prin" 
ciple of absolute or numerical equality 
ought to be mixed with the principle 
of proportionate equality, according, 
that is, to personal worth. Lewis on 
Opinion, 273. 

6fjui)s 5^] This refers to the ofi^e^La. 
y&p fj,6vifjios. Still, though no such 
form is permanent, there is more 
safety and less liability to quarrels in 
democracy than in oligarchy. 

3/C4WS 5 a.(T(j>a.\e(TT^pa\ Instances are 
not difficult to find, if we wish to 
verify the truth of Aristotle's re- 
mark. It deserves attention in itself, 
and from the contrast it offers to the 
general estimate of these forms of 
government, which the influence of 
political sympathies has made popular 

in England, not less in contempt of 
historical evidence, than of this, the 
deliberate judgment of the greatest 
political writer of his own or of any 
age. The simplest instance in Greek 
political experience would be that of 
the Thirty Tyrants at Athens, whose 
internal dissensions we have an oppor- 
tunity of studying. 

1 6 6 TI Kal d^iov eiTretV] This expres- 
sion occurred II. XI. 2. 

?77re/>] 'and this,' rj T&V fdvwv, 'it 
is that is the most secure.' 

T&V TOIOTUTUV TroXtreicDj'] 'of such 
forms of government as we are now 
discussing,' the actual and imperfect 

II. i Ka66\ov'] as opposed to Ch. 
V. i, Kad' 'eKdffTov eWos fMeplfrvras. 
So that Chaps. II., III., IV. form 
one division of the book. 

5^] I prefer this reading of one MS. 
to Bekker's reading, S-fj. 

VIII. (Y.) 2.] 

9. (E.) 


ft)? eiTreiv Tpeis TOV aptO/mov, a? OIOQKTTCOV KaO' aura? TVTTC*) 
irpwTOV. Set yap Xa/Beiv TTW? re e^oyre? crra(nd^ov<Ti Kal 


Kal TWV 7rpo$ aXX^Xou? (TTaarewv. Toy /mev ovv 
TTCO? 7rpo<? Trjv fjLTa/3oXr]v atTiav KaOoXov JULOL- 
j Tvy^avojuiev ciprjKoreg. 01 jmev 

yap l<r&nfTO9 e(pie/u.evot (TTaa-id^overiv, av VO^'I^XKTIV eXarrov 
eyew oVre? 'icroi TO?? TrXeoveKTOva-iv, ot $e T^? avicroTt]Tos 
K.U.L T?? vTrepo"^^) av VTroXajuL/Bdvwcriv o^re? aviaroi jmt] 7r\eov 
aXX' 'l(rov rj eXarroi/. TOVTCOV o^' eo-ri iu.ev opeyea-Oai 

<TTl 06 /CCU dot/Cft)?* eXa 

The causes 
and occa- 
sions of 
ance gene- 

Xfcrra OGTGOV Trepl rj<s 



dot/Cft)?* eXaTTOU? T6 'yet/0 Ol^TC? OTTft)? 

Kal 'Icrot OVT$ OTTO)? /xe/^o 
e'lprjTai. TLepl &v 



avrwv rj 

airlai Kal 

<Tld!( > OV<TlV, (TT\ Kp$O9 K 

yap aTi/uiiav (pevyovTes Kal 

) <JTa<ria^ov<jiv ev ral<s TTO\<JLV. At 
rwv Kivn<Ttov 9 oSev avTol re StaTtfevrtti TOV elprj/uLevov 
Kai Trepi TCOV Xe^OevTccv., GCTTL jmev 009 TOV apiOjmov 
a Tvy^dvovcriv ovcrai, CCTTI ^ ft)? 7rXe/ou?. coi/ vo /u.ev 

(TTl TaVTO, TOt? lpt]jU.VOl$, CtXX' OU^ ft)(7aJra)?* ^iCt Kp$O$ 

Kd0' aurcis] ' by themselves, ' without 
any explanation attached, clear from 
any admixture of matter, the matter 
in this case being the instances from 

TrcDs re ?x oj/ras ] ' The state of 
feeling in which men are led into 
political quarrels, the objects for 
which, and thirdly, what are the 
causes and beginnings, the whole an- 
tecedent circumstances and the parti- 
cular one which may be the occasion.' 
Such seems in the fullest extent to be 
the meaning of d/o^at. Of course, 
when I say the whole antecedent cir- 
cumstances, I except the two speci- 
fied previously, the state of feeling 
and the objects aimed at, which might 
be thought to constitute two of 

i %x eiv 7rwy ] ' being affected in one 
manner or another.' 

rots TT\eoveKTOvffLv~\ simply ' to 
those who have advantages over 

3 Adrrous] 'unfairly depressed.' 
foot ftvres #7rws yu.e/bvs] ' really equal, 

they strive to raise themselves above 
their fair position.' This interpreta- 
tion seems required by the yap. 

4 &6ev] Compare Efk. VI. ii. 4, p. 
1139. 31, dpx*] irpoalpeffis, Sdep -rj 
Kli>'fj<Tis d\X' oi>x oS ZveKa. So here it is 
not the object aimed at, that is given 
just before, irepl &v, that is meant 
by a.pxa.1, but the more immediate im- 
pulses that set people in motion. 

5 5ia KtpSos] Compare note on I. 
7. It is not with any view to secure 
gain for themselves, but from a sense 

The causes yap Kai oia Tijmqv Tra 
and occa- ' 
sions of KTtjtrcovTai cr (pier iv 

disturb- r / e ** * 






344 nOATTIKON 0. (E.) [LiB. 

po^vvovTai TTpog aXXtjXovg 

r' >r / 

uxTTrep eiprjTai TrpOTepov, 
3e gene- ** ' *-p"- r *' 3 v^~ '3 /"- 

rnllv ' " ^ * <*/O ^ r -i'/O ^ * f ' 

>' Tag TOVTOiv. Ti oia vppiv, oia (popov., oia wirepoyjjv., 
1302 B 6 KaTa<ppovt]criv, $ia aufyariv T*]V Trapa TO ava\oyov. 
aXXov TpOTrov oV epiOeiaV) <$S oXiytoptav, $ia 

3 avoimoiOT^Ta. TOVTCOV $e vfipig /mev Kal KepSos Tiva 
Explana- / \^v / / '*/oV' 

tion ^of the vwQ-fJ-i v Kai 7rw<s aiTia 9 cr^eoov <TTI (pavepov vppiCovTcov 

c ^ 8e f \ n " yap TMV ev Tai$ ap-^aig Kal 7rXeoveKTOvvT(*)v <jTa(Tia(ov(Ti 
Kal TTpos aXX^Xou? Kal Trpos Tag iroXiTeiag Tag SiSovcrag TV\V 
e^ov(Tiav rj o^e TrXeove^ia ylveTai ore JULCV CLTTO TWV toYooy, ore 

2 oe aTTO TCOV KOIVWV. A^Xot' oe Kal q TIJUL^., KOI T'L ovvaTai 
KOI Trcog aiTia crrao-ea)?' Kal yap avTol aTijuLa^ojULevoi Kal 
aXXovg opwvTeg rmcoueVou? (TTaviaCovariv rai/ra o^e aoY/ceo? 

/ o 

JULGV yiveTai, OTav irapa T*]V a^iav t] TijutcovTai Tiveg rj aTi- 

'9^ ^' t rf ^^^^'/ A'* * 

3 u.a(a)VTai, oiKaicog oe. OTav /caret TWV ariav. lAi virepoynv 

** ' O ^ 9 ** 

o"e, OTav Tig n TV\ Swa/mei u.ei^cov 9 r] elg rj TrXetovg, rj /cara 

* ' o 

TroXiv Kal Ttjv fivvajuuv TOV TroXiTevjULaTog' yivearOai yap 
)9ev K TaJv TOIOVTCOV jULovap^ia ?} SvvacrTeia. $10 evia- 
v eicoOa<Tiv 6<TTpaKieiv 9 olov ev ' Apyei Kai 

of discontent with the existing arrange- 
ments. They wish to remedy an in- 
justice which they see. 

ertpovs bp&VTti\ ' because they see 

6 epidelav] For the explanation of 
this term we must look to what Ari- 
stotle says below, in. 9, 5tct rets 
epidetas, 8n -fipovvro TOI>S tpidevo/Jitvovs. 
Compare De Wette, ffandbuch zum 
neuen Testament, Rom. ii. 9, where he 
speaks of the senses of the word in the 
various passages in which it occurs 
in St. Paul's Epistles, and of the sense 
of ' party- spirit' which since Ari- 
stotle had been its usual one; and 
this is the sense in which Liddell and 
Scott take the word. 

III. I -jrpbs ras TroXtret'as] 'against 
the constitutions which afford them 

&ir6 T&V I5i d}v~\ ' from private pro- 
perty, ' ' at the expense of indivi- 

2 &\\ov$ o/jcDj/res] Comp. Niebuhr, 
Rom. Hist. ii. 602, on the character 
of M. Manlius, and the feelings with 
which he beheld the honours heaped 
on Camillus. 

3 -J) Kara TT\V Tr6\iv, K. r. X.] ' More 
powerful than is consistent either with 
the state of which he is a member, or 
with the power vested in its govern- 
ment. ' 

ev "Apyec] For this see Grote iv. 
216. For ostracism generally, above, 
III. xin. 

VIII. (V.) 3.] nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 


/BeXriov e apY>79 opav OTTO)? fj.rj eveuovrai TOGTOVTOV Explana- 

/ , a *~_a- * A * ^ tion of the 

, rj ea<ravTa<s yevecruai lacruai VCTTCQOV. Am oe causes in- 

i //o 'y ?/ '? ' ^ 5 1 ' ^ W'N dicated. 

(popov (TTaaria^ova-iv 01 T' qotKijKOT$ 9 oeoiore? /uu? ocovi _ _ 

^ Kal ol imeXXovres aSiKeicrOai., /3ovXo/u,evoi (pOdarai Trplv 4 
aStKtjQrjvat, &rrep ev f Poo\*> crvveo-rrjarav ol yvwpijmoi eirl 
TOV otjfJLov oia Ta? eTrKpepojuieva^ o//ca?. Aia KaTCKppovrjtriv 5 
KOL eTriTiOevrai, olov ev re raf? oXiyap- 



OTCLV xXe/OVS wcrfv o* /x^f /xere^o^re? 

^o o'lovrai elvai), Kal ev rat? 
euTTopot KaTa(bpovr](TavT$ T>y? axa^/a? icai avapYtaf, olov 
Kal ev G/J|8a:? /xera T^ ev Oivo(pvToi<? JULOL-^V Aca/cw? TTO- 
\iTevoju.ev(0v rj $9jfjtOKpaTta SiecpOapr], Kal % Me-yapecov ^t" 
araQav Kal avap^iav riTTrjOevrcov, Kal ev ^vpaKoixraig Trpo 
T>;? FeXwi/o? TUpayviSoSj Kal ev 'Poiy o ^/xo? TTjOo r>7? 

/ TU H '%*> < \x 

67ravaa"Tacr6ft)?. 1 ivovTai oe /caf ot autya'iv Tt]v irapa TO 6 
avaXoyov /mera/BoXal TWV TroXiTeiwv. wcnrep yap 
K imepcov crvyKeiTai Kal Set av^ave&Oai avaXoyov, f lva 
el oe /my, (bOeipeTai, OTOLV 6 /mev TOi/9 

4 T65v] Compare Ch. Y. 2. Nieb. 
6cr aZ^e Gesch., Vol. iv. "There 
followed a time of internal dissension, 
with regard to which the accounts 
that remain are obscure." I translate 
from the German. 

5ta rds tiri<j>epofj.tvas St'/cos] 'on ac- 
count of the suits with which they 
were threatened. ' The Corcyrean 
Sedition (Thuc. in. 70) is a case in 

5 ir\dovs ol fjiJr] fj,T^x ot ' T ^] Compare 
in Xenoph. Hell. II. 3, 38, et sqq., 
the argument of Theramenes as to the 
dangerous policy adopted by Critias 
and the extreme party. 

ev 07j/3cus] Grote, v. 466, Thuc. I. 
113, we have the fact of the change 
in Bceotia given us as the result of the 
battle of Coronea. The internal causes 
are not given. 

Me7<xp&t>i/] Grote in. 59, 60. No 
dates or details. Thuc. I. 103, we 

have the alliance of Megara with 
Athens, and in 114, the withdrawal 
of Megara from that alliance. And 
from the context it is not improbable 
that it is to these facts that Aristotle's 
remarks apply. 

'LvpaKotiea.Ls] Grote, V. 286, note. 
It is there suggested that Aristotle's 
memory may have proved treacherous, 
and that Gelo's name has been substi- 
tuted for that of Dionysius. 

irpb T?}? ^Travao-TcCcrews] ' previous to 
the rising of the oligarchical party 
against them,' the fact given above 
in the words <rvv{<rTr]crav oi yvupiftot 
Girl rbv dij/Jt,ov. 

6 T7)v Trapd, K.T.X.] Not all increase, 
but ' that increase which is dispro- 
portionate/ the unequal growth of the 
parts of the state, or the growth of 
one whilst the others remained sta- 


nOAITIKQN 9. (E.) 


tion of the 


pwv 7Ttj-)(U)v $ TO (T aXXo o-co/ma Svoiv cnriOaiuiaiv, CVIOTG 
<$e Kav ei$ a\\ov ^coov ju-eTafiaXXoi /uLOp(p^v 9 el /mrj JULOVOV 
/eaTCt TO TTOCTOV dXXa KO.I /ectTa TO TTOIOV avf^avoiTO Trapa 
TO avaXoyov, OVTCD Kal iroXis ervyKeiTai e/e /mepcov, wv 
TroXXa/et? XavOavet TI av^avojuLevov, olov TO TCOV aTropcov 

ev TCI?? $r)ju.oKpa.Tiai$ Kal TroXiTeiais. 
evioTe TOVTO Kal <$ia Tuva?, olov ev TapavTi 

KOI a7ro\oju.ev(jt)v TroXXwi' yvwpijuitov VTTO TWV ' 

v<TTpov TWV M^c^i/ea)j/ Srj/uLOKpaTia eyeveTO e/c 
TroXf T6/a?, /ectf ei/ ' Apyei TCOV ev T?J efioojmy a7ro\o/mei'wv VTTO 
KXeo/xeVou? TO Aa/ewi/o? qvayKaa-Orjcrav 

TtJ^ct?, /ea ei/ 


pi/moL eXctTTOf? &yevovTO $ta TO e/e KaTaXoyov crTpaTevecrOai 
y?ro TOJ/ A.O.KWVIKOV TroXefjiOV. <fVflpUVt oe TOVTO /ecu eV 
rjTTOV $e* TrXeiovwv yap TCOV atropcov 

7 Siot ri5x a s] 'some sudden accidents.' 

TdpavTi] Herod. VI. 83, vn. 170; 
Grote, in. 519, V. 320, and note. 
Mr. Grote remarks justly, " that the 
expression gives reason to suppose 
that even before this event the con- 
stitution had been popular." 

"Apyei] Herod, vi. 78-82, Hermann, 
Pol. Ant. 33. 

e/356/ATj] The origin and meaning of 
this name was, says Stahr, unknown 
even to the later Greeks. 

trepiolKUv] The language of Hero- 
dotus is, "Apyos dvSpujv exypdOil OVTU 
ware ol 8ov\oi avrtuv ^arx ov Travra TO, 
Trp^y/aara &pxovrts re Kal ditirovres. 
The Argive Perioeci, Hermann, Pol. 
Ant. 19, conjectures, were called 

&TwxpvvTit)v Tef^] Does this refer to 
their losses at Tanagra, Coronea, and 
similar battles, taking, that is, a range 
of about thirty years, as expressed by 
the phrase virb rov AcutMttjr&p' 7r6Ae / u<w. 

e/c KaraXbyov] ' from the register of 
Athenian citizens.' Incidentally it 
illustrates our historical accounts and 

the language of Demosthenes for the 
period of Aristotle's own experience. 
Compare on this the first Philippic. 
Mercenaries had entirely superseded 
the native Athenian forces. 

8 airbpwv] This word is doubtful. 
Several MSS. read evirbpuv, and some 
editions. In a note on Ch. I. 14, I 
have stated why I think one of these 
words may do duty for both. But it 
is not for that reason that I would 
here keep atrbpwv. It is, I believe, 
the word which gives the best sense. 
An increase in the number of wealthy 
would have a tendency to mitigate 
any oligarchy, and transpose it into a 
roXtreta. At any rate, where the 
wealth is diffused, the oligarchy is in 
its mildest form. At worst, the ten- 
dency in a democracy of a large in- 
crease of the holders of wealth, would 
be to temper the evils to which a de- 
mocracy is liable, and, by making it 
a good mixture, make it a TroXire/a. 
But an increase in the number of the 
poor would be a sound ground for in- 
ferring that wealth was becoming 

VIII. (V.) 3.] nOAITIKQN 0. (E.) 


rj TWV ovcriwv avt-avo/nevcw /mcTaSaXXovcriv eis 


KO.I ovva<TTeias. MeTa/3aXXofcrt o al 7ro\iTtai 

\ if i / r ' /i ' ' TIT r / ' f 

Kai avev crTacreo)? oia TC TU? epiueias, uxTTrep ev fipaia (e 
aipeTwv yap $ia TOVTO eTroiqcrav /cX^jOcora?, ori fipovvro rovs 
epiOevojULevov^, Kal Si oXiycoplav, orav eaa-wuiv eis ra? ap-^a^ 
ra? /cfjO/a? Trapievai rou? /x^ Trjs TroXtre/a? (pi\ov$ 9 warirep 
ev 'Qpew KCLTeXvOr] tj oXiyap^ia TU>V ap-^ovTOov yevo/mevov 
'H|Oa/cXeo^tO|Oou, o? e^ oXiyapyiag TroXireiav Kal ^{JLOKpariav 
KaTeo-Kevacrev. J/ Er: $ia TO Trapa /miKpov \eyw $e Trapa 
juLiKpov, OTI 7roXXa:(9 \av6dvei /uLcyaXrj yivojmevt] /ULTa{Ba(ri$ 


Kia jmiKpov rjv TO T//>c;/jta, re'Xo? S* ovOevos 
r] ju.tj6ev $t.a<pepov TOV jULtjOev TO jmiKpov. 

\ \ . \ 9 ft ^ ff * / ft ^ PH 

/cat TO /w^ o/uio(pv\ov 9 eco? aj/ crv^Trvevcrt]' wcnrep yup ovo e/c 

tion of the 
causes in- 



e n 

o ocroi 

more concentrated in a few hands, 
that the distinction between rich and 
poor, as classes, was not becoming 
effaced, but growing sharper; that the 
middle class was disappearing, and 
the two extremes taking up a position 
of more marked opposition to one 
another. Such a condition of things 
would lead to an oligarchy, and gra- 
dually to its closest and narrowest 
form (5vva<TTelav). 

rQ>v OIHTLUV ava.voiJiv(i)v~\ The in- 
crease of the poor, or the increase of 
the standard of wealth in the case of 
the wealthy, are but two sides of the 
same condition of things. As the 
poor grow poorer, the rich grow 
richer. Their numbers do not in- 
crease, but the wealth gets enormous 
in the hands of the few who share it. 
Compare Arnold, Rom. Hist. Vol. I. 
p. 141. 

9 Kal &vev orcurews] ' even without 
any open rupture.' 

In Arcadia. 
' They were in the habit of 

choosing the members of the same 

rds KvpLa<i\ 'the supreme/ those in 
which the government really lay. 

'fi/>e$] Founded in the place of 
Histisea, in the time of Pericles. 
Grote, vi. 469, Niebuhr, uber alte 
Oesch. Vol. IV. 1 79. The object was 
to keep Eubosa under control. Of Hera- 
cleodorus nothing is known. 

10 TUV vofj.lfj,wv\ of the ' institu- 
tions. ' 

irapop&ai] This word occurs III. 

'A/A/3/>a/f/$t] This town was a colony 
of Corinth, and later the capital of 
Pyrrhus, but is little known so far as 
its internal history is concerned. 

gyyiov] 'quite close.' 

11 ws av ffvjjLirvevffri] 'until tlie 
alien element shall have become 
amalgamated with the other, ' ' coa- 

Tvxbvri xpt> v v] Compare VII. (VI.) 
v. i. 

expresses nothing more 


nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 


tion of the 
causes in- 



o l TrXeicrroi ecrrotcr/ao-ai/, olov TpOtfyviOtg 'AyatoJ 

_, ^ A < ' ' *-' 

Krjcrav 2*vpapiV 9 eira TrAaof? 01 J\yaioi yevo/mevoi e^e 

\ rp y > <//* % a //o ~ 

TGI/? 1 poifyviovs" ouev TO a-yo? crvveprj TOI$ 

Kcu ey Oof/o/ot? iv(3apiTai TO?? (rvvoiKricraariv' 
yap a^iovvTes ft)? <T(pTepa$ r^? yuipas e^eVecrof /cotf 
o/ GTTOIKOI 7ri/3ov\vovTes <p(*)paOevT$ e^e 

KaJ ' 


ecTrecrov KCU CLVTOI. 



TTOVTW eTToiKov? e7rayayofjLvoL earTCKTicKrav, Ka 

1303 B /xera ra rvpavviKa TOV$ ^evovs KOL TOV$ /uLicrOo(p6pov$ 7roXira9 
ecrracr/acrai/ /caf et? yua^i/ ?X0ot/, /ecu 'Aya^)f- 
$e]~d/uLevoi XaXfciSecov CLTTOIKOVS e^eTrecrov VTTO TOV- 

* 7T\l(7TOL GLVTWV. 2ra(T<a^Of C7t $' 

ot TroXXof ft>9 aoiKovjmcvoi) OTI ov 

than the fact that the new settlers 
join with the old. 

E7rotaoys] means here 'a fresh band of 
immigrants from the mother country.' 

T/ooifr/i'fots] For this see Grote, in. 
499. Niebuhr, uber alte Geschichte, 
III. 218. The foundation of Sybaris 
was probably a result of the Dorian 
conquest of Peloponnesus. 

12 Qovpiois] Thurii was founded on 
the site of Sybaris. The old inhabit- 
ants looked on the land as their own ; 
they could not forget their old posi- 
tion, Grote vi. 17. 

Bvfai>TtoLs~] A second colony was 
sent from Megara in the year B.C. 
628. For its internal changes, see 
Smith, Geogr. Diet. 659, b, Grote, 
ix. 508. Antissa, one of the Lesbian 

Zcry/cXcuot] Compare Herod. VI. 23, 
Mr. Grote, V. 284, note, considers 
this brief notice in Aristotle not to be 
set against the perspicuous narrative 
of Herodotus. 


Apollonia was so common a name, 
that it was necessary to add some dis- 
tinctive epithet. This one was a Mi- 
lesian colony, and of no historical im- 

2vpaKot<riot] Grote, V. 314. "The 
whole body of new citizens were de- 
clared ineligible to magistracy or 
honour." Mr. Grote considers the 
instance badly chosen. See his note. 

Cetera roi TvpavviKa] ' ' after the Ge- 
lonian dynasty." The results of this 
quarrel and battle are not known. The 
new citizens were defeated, and "pro- 
bably" expelled. 

'AyU0t7roXiTcu] Niebuhr ub. a. Gesch. 
IV. 234, "To protect themselves 
against the Edonians, the Athenian 
colonists invited in as fellow- citizens, 
the Chalcidians. These became the 
majority," and hence Amphipolis 
joined Sparta. See Thuc. iv. 103, 
Grote, vi. 555. 

O.VTUV] Is this to be taken with vtrb 
TOIJTUV, 'by these very men,' "selbst 
von diesen," or is it not better to take 

VIII. (V.) 3.] nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 


lOajrep etjo^rat irpOTepov, tVot oi/re?, ev o 
/uo/CjOartat9 ot yvwpifjioi., ort /xere^oucrt TCOV t'craw oik tVot 
bvTe$. ^TafTLaCovjL oe evtoTe at TroXet? /cat ota TOU? TO- 
, oral/ /x>7 ev(pvcog eyy r\ ^P a 7rpo$ TO fj.tav elvai TroXtv, 
:ej/at? ot e?rt XuT^oa) TTjOO? rot'9 ev i^cra), /cat 
/cat IXoTte??* /cat '-A.$^y77<Ttv ouv o/xotco? etVtV, 
aXXa /xaXXov orumoTiKol ol TOV TLetpata OIKOVVTCS TU>V TO 
yup ev TOI$ TroXe/xot? at ota/3tea"et? TCOI/ oVe- 
, /cat Tft)i/ Travv crjUiiKpciov, otacrTrcocrt Ta? d)aXa / yya9, 

olov ev 


Locality a 

apeTrj KOL imo^0r]pla 9 efra TrXoi'TO? /ecu Trevia, 
Tepa Tepa$ iu.a\\ov wv juila /cat >i etpt}fJLVtj 



CCTTLV. TiyvovTai IJLGV ovv at crTacreig ov trepl /miKpcov aXX' 4 
* ff/f ^^^ /^ 

e/c fjiiKpcov, (TTaana^ovcrt oe Trept p.eya\ 

at /mucpa a-^yovcriv, oral/ ev TOI<S Kvpois 

^ \ \ Distinction 

^aXto-ra de /cat betw een 
the occa- 
sion and 
the object. 


it as dependent on TrXeta-roi, 'The 
greater number of them ?' 

15 Kal 8i& TOI)S T67rous] 'even from 
mere local causes, from difference of 
place. ' 

^77 efl^uws ?XT?] ' is not naturally 

ol eirl Xi5rp^] Smith, Geogr. Diet. 
art. Clazomense, p. 632. 

KoXo^civioi] Grote, in. 245. "So 
difficult was it in the Greek mind to 
keep up a permanent feeling of poli- 
tical amalgamation beyond the circle 
of the town walls." Add vi. 326. 

Nortels] Time. in. 34. 

oi>x biotas, K. T. X. ] The statement 
is familiar to all readers of Athenian 
history. The opposition is prominent 
in the policy of Themistocles. 

1 6 TroLeiv Siacrrao'tj'] 'Any difference 
whatever seems to have a tendency to 
produce opposition.' 

5i<crTa(rir] This is even more active. 
' It is the greatest cause of division, 
of opposition/ 

Kal OVTCJ Sri] and so on in order, one 
is more efficacious than another. 


" la cause 


5icL rotis 


IV. i After enumerating the 
causes, and making clear by examples 
what he means by each, he remarks 
generally with regard to political dis- 
turbances, that there is a wide distinc- 
tion between their causes and occa- 
sions, or the real and the apparent 
causes. The occasions, the beginnings, 
to superficial observers the causes of a 
revolution, may often be extremely 
trivial, the real causes are not so. The 
immediate impulse may be something 
small or accidental, the real object 
aimed at of the highest importance-. 
Aristotle's remark is one which should 
never be lost sight of in the study of 

Kal at /uuKpai] ' even where the cause 
is really slight.' 




Distinction crvveStj Kal ev lvpaKov(Tai$ ev TO?? apvaiois Ypovois' ucre- 
between ^ f ' f , f ' , 

the occa- paXe yap rj 7ro\iTeia e/c oi/o veavia-Kwv crTacriacravTWv^ ev 
sion and ~?~j/ \ \ / /" ' ^ 

the object. Tai ? a pX ai ? ovTtov, Trepi epwTiKyv aiTiav. uaTepov yap 

~ a.TTOo'rjju.ovvTo? eTalpog wv TI$ TOV epu)jU.evov avTOv vTreTroirj- 
craro, iraXiv <T e/cea/o? TOVTW ^aXeTr^a? TY\V yvvaiKa avTou 
aveTreiarev a)? avrov e\6eiv oQev Trpoa-XajUL/SdvovTes TOV$ ev 

3 TO) TroXiTei'iuLaTi oie<TTacriacrav Tra^Ta?. oiOTrep a 
v\a/3ei(rOai $ei TWV TOLOVTWV, Ka\ SiaXveiv ra? TU>V 
vuiv Kal ^vvajjLevwv crracm?* ev apyfi yap ylyverai TO 
Trjjjia^ r] fr ap-^rj \eyeTai TUJLLUV eivai iravros, wcrre Kal TO 
ev avTrj /unKpov ajmapTrj/uLa avd\oyov <TTI irpog ra ev rof? 

4 aXXof? /mepecriv. oXft>? $e at TU>V yvu>pi/u.(*)v 
Instances ^ , ~ ^ ^ e ,~ ,. ^ , t - 

of political A.afejy Troiovari Kai T*]V o\rjv 7ro\iv 9 oiov ev 

^ ^1\T^'^ / '^ - \JL'^ \/^ ** 

Ta M^OC, Ofo aoe\(pw>v Trepi Trj$ TCOV 

OevTCov 6 JULCV yap airopooTepos, u>$ OVK a7ro(paivovTO$ 
OaTepov T*jv ovcriav ovSe TOV Qrjcravpov ov evpev 6 TraTyp, 
TrpovrjyeTO TOV$ ^/xoTf/cou?, o S* eTepos e-^cov ova-lav 7ro\\rjv 

5 TOf? ev7ropov<s. Kal ev AeXd)o?9 GK /ciyoe/a? yevofj.evt] ^ta- 
J304 <popa$ apxy Tracrwv eyeveTO TWV crTaa-ewv TCOV vcrTepov 6 

jmev yap oiwvKrafJievos TL a-vjuLTrTcojULa, wg rf\Qev eirl Trjv vvjULcfryv,, 
ov \apa)v a7r*]\QeV) ol o a>9 vjSpicrOevTes evefia\ov TWV lepcav 


, , Q 

ia (rvveprj 

Kal h Sivpaicoijffais] The conjunc- 
tion has no meaning, as far as I can see. 

tv rots Apxalois xpij'ots] I can find 
nothing to throw light on this state- 

2 uTreToi^o-aro] 'gained by under- 
hand tricks/ Demosth. 365. 

is the same as the &TTO- 

80ev irpoaKaiJLpAvovTes] 'From this 
beginning they proceeded to associate 
with themselves the members of the 
government, until they ranged them 
entirely in two factions.' 

3 & <ra y*P\ Eth. i. 7. 21. p. 
1098. b. 7. 

r6 tv avT'fj, K. r. X. ] ' is propor- 
tionally more important than a fault 
in any other.' 

4 <rvva.Tro\a{>eiv] Stahr quotes not 
inaptly from Hesiod, TroAXd/a Kal 
v/j.ira<ra 7r6Xts KaKOv avdpos eiravpei. 

'Ecrrta^J see note on III. 9. 

OVK d'jro<patvovTOs'] 'on the ground 
that he did not produce fully, set 
clearly forth.' 

roi)s 577/uort/cotfs] ' The democratical 

5 K Krjdelas] ' on a marriage ques- 

T&V vcrrepov] ' which followed at a 
later period.' 

ol<t}vi<Td/uev6s TI (ri^wTTTto/ua] 'having 
taken some chance occurrence as an 
unfavourable omen.' The expression, 
neutral in itself, is by usage limited 
as in the translation. 

vtj3a\ov, K. T. X.] 'put in some 

VIII. (V.) 4.] nOAJTIKQN 6. (E.) 



r i 

e-yei/ero a 

ev w 

Mj/a- 7 

OVOVTOS, KaTreiTa 009 lepocrvXov aTreKTeivav. Kal 

e e^ 7riK\rjp(ji)v crrao-eo)? yevofJLevrjs iroXXwv 
-N \ " ^ ' ~ 

KaKWV Kal Tov ^oXe^ov TOV 

e\aj3e T?)V TroXiv avTcov Tijmofbavovs 
evirdpwv TLVO<S KaToXiTrdvTOs Svo OvyctTepas, 6 
Kal ov \a/3a)v roi$ vtecriv avrov A6^av$po$ Jjp^e 
crea)? Kal rou? 'A9ijvalov$ Trapcoj'vve, irpo^evos wv r 
Acaf ev i&uiKevcriv e^ 7TiK\^pov (TTacreft)? 'yei/o/xeV*?? 
creav TOV Mj/;orft>yo9 Trare^oa /cai Eu0u/CjOar7 TOV ^O 
*l (TTa<TL<s avrrj ap-^t] TOV lepov TroXe/xou KaTearTr) TO?? ^a)- 
KV<TIV. fJLTe/3a\ oe Kai v 'j^TrioajULva) YI TroXiTeia eK ya- 
\nroiJ.vri(TTV<Ta[jLcvo<s yap rt? OvyaTepa, cog 3tjfMQ)<TCV 
o TOV v7ro]u,vr](TTev6evTo$ TraTrjp yev6/jievo<s TU>V ap^ov- 
aTepos <TVjUL7rape\a/3e TOU? e/cro? Tri<$ TroXtre/a? 0)9 eTrtj- 
peacrOeis. fJLTa/3a\\ov<Ti e Kal aV oXtyapyiav Kal ei$ ofjfJLOv 
Kal et9 TroXtTeiav e/c TOV vooKifJLtj(Tai TL \\ av^rjOrjvai 77 apveiov 
rj fjiopiov r^9 7ro'Xeft>9, otoj/ ?5 ei/ ^Apeia) Trdyw /BovXt] evSoKi- 
ev Tol? MrjoiKoi? efio^e crvvTOVMTepav 7roirj(rai T*\V 
Kat 7ra\iv o vavTiKO$ 0^X09 yevofJLevo? 


of the sacred property when he was 

6 JnlLTv\^vtjv] For the Mitylenian 
revolt see Time. III. 2, and foil. On 
this passage Mr. Grote (vi. 299) 
remarks that the fact may be true, 
but the conception of it as a cause is 
incorrect. Yet I cannot see why 
Aristotle's account may not be con- 
sistent with that of Thucydides, if we 
throw back the transaction Aristotle 
gives some few years earlier than the 

55pe 7-175 <rrd<rews] 'began the dis- 
sension,' and when the quarrel had 
broken out, then, as Thucydides 
says, iS<? Kara <rTd<riv ^T/^UTTJS 676- 

7 ^wfceOo-tv] Bp. Thirlwall, VI. 263, 
275, remarks that of the sacred or 
Phocian war, the main causes are 

more clear than the immediate occa- 

rbv ' Qvo/mdpxov] sc. 7rarpa. 

vTrofji.v^aTv(rdfj,vos'] ' having be- 
trothed underhand or beforehand.' 
This latter meaning suits the context 

tfyfjiiuo-ev] 'fined him.' 

8 T) fr'Apeiy irdyy] Grote V. 148. 

(rvvTovwrepav TroiTJffai] ' to have 
strained tighter the constitution,' 
given greater vigour and intensity to 
its an ti-democratical element, Comp. 
VI. (IV.) m. 8. 

6 vavTLKbs #xXos] Grote V. 369, 483. 
" Here, then, were two forces, not 
only distinct, but opposite and con- 
flicting, both put into increased action 
at the same time." 


nOAITIKQN 0. (E.) 



of political 


^epl SaXa/xa'a viKtjs Kal <$ia Tavrrjg Trj<j qyflOvla$ Sia Ttjv 

' , , J , , , , 

Kara uaACLTTav ovvafj.iv TY\V orjfj.oKpaTtav lo-yypOTepav CTTOL- 

rjorev. Kal ev "A.pyei ol yvplfJLOi ev$oKi/ULqaravTe$ Trepl Trjv 
ev MavTivela ftayvp Trjv irpog A.aKe$aiju.oviov$ e 
KaTaXveiv TOV $>jju.ov 9 Kal ev ^ZvpaKov(rai$ 6 
yevo/mevog Ttjs viKtft TOU 7ro\ejmov TOV TT^OO? 'A^i/a/ou? e/c 
TToXfre/a? V ^tj/ULOKpariav /^ere/3aXej/, /cat ej^ XaX/c/^i ^o^oi/ 
TOI> Tvpavvov JULCTO. Ta)v yvcopLjUicov 6 <^7yUO9 aj^eXci)!/ eu0L9 
e'l-^ero r?? 7roXfreia9, /caf ej^ 'AjULfipaicia iraXiv tDoravTO)? 
Tleptavfipov arvvK/3a\(iw ro?9 eTTiOeimevois 6 ^^09 Toy ru- 
pavvov el 9 eaurov Trepieo-Trjcre T^V TrdXiTeiav. Kal 0X0)9 <^ 
^et TOWTO /u^ Xai/^a^eti/, a>9 o $wdfJi<w a'tnoi yevofj&vot, KOI 
Kal ap^ai Kai (bv\al KOI 0X0)9 /mepos Kai OTTOLOVOVV 
errao'ii' KIVOVG-IV y yap ol TOVTOI? (j)6ovovvTe$ TI- 

ov OeXova-i jmeveiv eTrl TU>V 

> ouroi 




1304 B 

Ka \ Q TOLV TavavTia eivai SoKOvvra pep*] r^9 7roXea)9 iVa; 

ctXX?}Xof9? oto^ o TrXovcrioi Kal 6 ^^09? imearov ^' $ /uuKpov rj 
/mtjOev TrdjULTrav dv yap TTO\V vwepe^r] oirorepovovv TWV /mepoov 
7T|009 TO (pavepws KpetTTOV, TO \OITTOV ov Oe\ei Kivfivveveiv. 
oio Kal 01 /COCT' apeTtjv oia(bepovT$ ov TTOIOVCTI <TTacriv 0)9 
ctTretv 6\iyoi yap yiyvovTai Trpos 7ro\\ov$. KaOo'Xou /mev 
ovv Trepl 7rd<ra$ Tag iroXiTeias a! ap^al Kal aiTiai TWV <JTOL- 

6id raiJrijs] 'and by this victory 
been the founder of the supremacy of 
Athens.' TTJS Tfyeyuoj'i'as depends on 

9 fr'A-pyei] Grote, vn. 124. 

2fpa/coi/(rats] Grote, x. 539. 

XaXxi'Si] For the early greatness of 
Chalcis, see Niebuhr ii. a. Gesch. iv. 
177, Grote, in. 220. 

e?xero r^s TroXtretas] ' grasped the 
government.' The government of 
Chalcis was oligarchical very early; a 
tyranny was the natural result of 
this; but of Phoxus I can find no- 

] occurs again Ch. x. 16. 
Grote (in. 538) considers this Pe- 
riander as probably related to the 
Corinthian tyrant. 

10 Kal 6\<i)s $-/]] ( It follows, then, 
as a general rule from these particular 
instances. ' 

ardent Kivov<nv\ ' are a cause oi 
disturbance,' either direct or indi- 

1 1 t<rdri] ( be just balanced. ' 

irpbs TO (fiavepus /cpelrroj'] ' on the side 
of an evident superiority of strength. ' 

12 Kd06Xou fJikv oiV] returns on 
II. I. 

VIII. (V.) 4.] nOAITIKQN 9. (E.) 



5^ * -\ i < ' < ^^/o' f ^ c>\ ^ > i t s^/- effecting 

oe Tag 7ro/\iTeiag ore jmev oia ptag ore oe 01 aTraTrjg, oia piag thechange. 

yaej/ r] evOug e ap-yrjg rj verTepov avayKafovTeg. KOL yap n 

> t 9 * A . * \ ^ , \ - r / 3 

r ore fjiev yap e^aTraT^cravTeg TO TrpwTov CKOV- 
rjv 7ro\iTiav 9 elO* vtTTepov /3la /cctre- 
aKovTcov, olov ejrl TCOV TeTpaKOiriwv TOV Srjjmov e^Trct- 
(pacrKOVTeg TOV {3acri\ea v/o^/xara Trape^eiv Trpog TOV 
TOV Trpog AaKefiaijULovlovg, -^revardjuLevot Se KaTeyeiv 
Tt]v 7ro\iTtav ore ^e e^ ap-^g re Tre/craz/re? KOL 
va-Tepov iraXiv TrcKrOevTCDV CKOVTCDV apvovtriv avTwv. '\wg 

1 I /\f 

ovv Trepi Traarag Tag TroXiTeiag e'/c TWV eiprjjmevcov arvju./3e- 
e ytyvecrOat Tag /xera/SoAa?. 


Kii>ov<ri 5^] He has stated generally 
the causes and beginnings of disturb- 
ance and revolution. He adds a few 
remarks on the modes in which they 
are effected ; they are the two simple 
and permanent ones of force and 
fraud. The first may be applied at 
once, or had recourse to later, when 
the other is seen through. 

1 3 i) airdrr) Strr^] The second form 
of airdrri hardly comes under our ideas 
of deceit. It is ' persuasion ' rather. 

eirl TUV TTpa.KO(rl(i)v] Grote VIII. 35, 
Thuc. VIII. 53, 54, 6 5^os rb Trpurov 

fJiV OJ, K. T. \. 

KaT^x fiV ] 'keep it firm in their 
hands, and that against the will of 
the people awake to the deceit prac- 
tised on them.' 

&pxi)s, K.T.\.] If Aristotle 
really means this to be a form of de- 
ceit, it then is that worst form by 
which a people deceived at first is so 
trained and governed as to acquiesce 
in the result. For a nation, like an 
individual, may be blinded and de- 
moralised, and ultimately accept, and 
even glory in a state which at another 
time it would reject as evil. The 

A. P. 

rulers under whom such demoralisation 
takes place may point with compla- 
cency to the result, which, properly 
viewed, is their strongest condemna- 

That he degraded, rather than im- 
proved, the character of his country- 
men, has been justly selected by Ar- 
nold as the crowning point in the in- 
famy of the elder Dionysius, that 
which in the highest degree justifies 
the brand of tyrant. But such a sen- 
tence is not to be reserved solely for 
the Greek ruler, it has been justly 
deserved by many governments of 
more recent times. It is, if we 
rightly consider them, that which con- 
stitutes in our own country's history 
the peculiar disgrace of the miserable 
Stuart kings. It is the stigma which 
rests on the later Bourbons in France 
before the revolution; in Spain and 
Naples in the present time. It is a 
point for other governments to con- 
sider, our own not excepted, whether 
their acceptance by the nation they 
govern is the result of a sound judg- 
ment or of the acquiescence which is 
the offspring of a low state of public 



nOAITIKON 0. (E.) 


Revolu- KaO' Ka<TTOV & eT^o? TroXtre/a? CK TOVTWV 

tions in ^ n , ^ ~ r\ ~ \ * * ? ^ > 

democra- T<* crvjuLpaivovTa oei uetopeiv. J\L /u,ev ovv orj/moKpartai 

ies> /moXiarra yuera/^aXXovcrt Sia T*]V TWV Sq/maycoycov acreXyeiav 

5 ra HJLCV yap i$ia WKcxpavTovvTeg rot'? ra? overlap eyovras 

crvcTTpeipovcriv avTOvg (crvvayeL yap Kal TOV$ e^/crrou? o 

i KOIVOS <po/3o$), TO. $e KOivy TO 7r\fj6o$ 7rdyovT$. Kal 

TOVTO 7rl TroXXwi^ a.v TI$ 'i$ot yiyv6]u.evov oi/Vft)?. KOI yap 

ev Kw YI Srj/uLOKparla /xere/3aXe Trovqpwv 

^rj^aywywv (ol yap yvcbpi/moi <Tvve&Tri<Tav) Kal ev ' 

/uLHr9o(j)opav re yap ol Srj/maywyol eiropt^ov, KOL KU>\VOV 

aTro$L$6vai TO. 6(pi\6/ut.eva TO?? Tpiypdpxoig' ol Se Sia ra? 

3 eTTKpepojULevag SiKas ^ayKacrOrjcrav crucrrct^Te? KaraXvarai 
TOV SrjfAov. KareXvOrj $e KOI ev 'H^oa/cXe/a o Sfj/mos /xera 
TOV aTroiKHTfJiov evOvg Sia row? StjjUiaycoyovg' aSiKov/mevoi yap 

4 UTT' avrcov ol yvwpijmoi e^GTrnrTov, eVetra aOpoicrOevTes ol 

S Kal KaTe\66vT? KaT\v(rav rov Stj/uLov. irapa- 
e Kal % ev M.eydpoi$ KaTeXvOtj orj^oKpaTia- ol 
yap orj.a(f)oL 9 f lva 

CHAP. V. I Ka0 ZKCHTTOV 8' eTSos] 
'We must now take each form of 
government, and see what happens, 
availing ourselves of the principles laid 
down above, and dividing them so as 
to suit the particular case.' 

jue/^fovTas] Demosth. 1297. 21, /caret 
fjitpos, the exact opposite to ita06\ov, 
would be nearly equivalent to pepl- 

rc\ ffv/j.palvoj'Ta'] " das in ihnen 
wirklich vorkommende," Stahr. 

do-tXyeiav] ( intemperate conduct,' 
' importunitas, ' or 'libido.' 
( as individuals.' 

<rv(TTpt<f>ov<ru>'] ' They force them to 

Koivrj] 'on them as a body,' " ihnen 
alien," Stahr. 

2 K$] The internal history does 
not seem to be known. 

T68 V ] See Ch. III. 4 . 

fju<T0o(f)opdt>] pay for the people as 
members of the ecclesia or the courts 
of justice. Compare Thuc. vm. 67, 
^-fjT [uo-Bo^opdv, the proposal of the 
oligarchical conspirators, that no civil 
functions hereafter should be salaried. 
Grote, vm. 41, and foil. 

tiropifov'] ' wished to furnish.' 
rots Tpirjpdpxois~] These would be 
from the wealthier classes. 

3 'H/aa/cXe/p] Of the numerous towns 
of this name, the one on the Pontus 
Euxinus seems the one here meant. 
Nieb. ii. a, Gesch., iv. 252. Smith. 
Geogr. Diet. 

&TroiKi<Tfj.6i>] ( soon after the founda- 
tion of the colony.' So Stahr trans- 
lates it. The result of these dissen- 
sions was a permanent tyranny; but 
this does not appear from Aristotle. 

4 Me7cpots] Compare in. 5 and 
VI. (IV.) xv. 15. The three allu- 
sions seem to refer to the same events. 

VIII. (V.) 5.] nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 

(pevyovTar ol oe KaTiovTeg eviKrjcrav 


TOV<S Revolu- 

\ $* tions in 

rov orj/mov democra- 
KOU KaTea-Trjvav Tt]v oXiyapxlav. arvvefirj <$e TCLVTOV Kal 
Trepl Kvfj.r)v ewl r^? Sq/moKpaTias rjv KaTeXv&e Opaa-vjuLa^og. 1305 
ov <$e Kal eirl TU>V a\\a)v av Tig 'ISoi Oecopwv rd? /xera- 5 

/3oXa? TOVTOV e-^ov(ra<s TOV Tpoirov. ore 

Tai, aSiKovvres TOV? yvwpLfjLovs (rvvicrTaa-iv, 

'5 1 ' $ \ / 

avaoa(TTOV$ TroiovvTes i] Tag Trpocrooov? 


ore <e aaoi/re?, v e%tQ<rt tjiuLeveiv TO. 
TWV 7rXof(7/ft)v. eirl $e TU>V apxaiwV) ore yevoiTo 5 
6 auro? Stijmaycoyos Kal crTpaTyyo?, els TvpavviSa /nere- 
/3a\\ov (T^e^ov yap 01 TT\I<TTOI TUIV ap^alcov Tvpdvvcov CK 
Sqjuaycoywv yeydvacriv. a'lTiov tie TOV Tore />tei/ ylyvevOai 7 
vvv fie fj.q, OTI TOTC jmev ol SrjfjLaywyol rjarav CK TUIV orTpa- 
(ov yap TTCO Setvol rjcrav \eyeiv), vvv $e 
)vj~r]/u.ev*]9 ol Svvafjievoi \eyeiv Sr]ju.ay(*)yov(Ti 
Si* aTreipiav Se TWV TroXeiJiiKwv OVK eTTiTiOevTai, TrXrjv el 
TTOV /3pa-^y TI yeyove TOIOVTOV. eyiyvovTO oe Tvpavvioeg 8 

e Campanian city of that 
name, partly of Chalcidian origin, 
partly of ^Eolian, was early powerful. 
The decline of its power is attributed 
by Mr. Grote, in. 473, first to the 
growth of hostile powers in the in- 
terior, the Tuscans and Samnites, next 
to violent intestine dissensions and a 
destructive despotism. The particular 
fact in the text is obscure. 

5 dvaddffTovs] Compare the expres- 
sion, eirl 7175 dvadafffj,(^. 

rds 7rpo(r68ovs] ' Their incomes. ' 
TCUS \eiTovpyiais] 'by the various 

public offices which they have to 

serve at their own expense.' 

6 6re ytvoiTo 6 avros] 'Whenever 
the same man happened to be. Nor 
was this a rare case.' Such seems the 
force of the optative. 

TUIV a.p-)(jo.L<j3v rvpavvuv] For some 
considerable period of Greek experi- 

ence, despots or tyrants were un- 
known in Greece proper. Prior to 
that period, they looked back on an 
age of despots or tyrants, and their 
actual experience of later, more Aris- 
totelian times, had revived their dis- 
like of this form of government, though 
in many essential features the spirit 
was changed, and changed for the 
worse. The word tyrant in its full 
sense is only applicable as a general 
rule to the later rulers who bore that 
name. On this distinction between 
the earlier and later tyrants, see 
Niebuhr, u. a. Gesch., I. 328. 

7 On this separation of civil and 
military powers, compare Heeren's 
Political History of Greece. 

oik iTTiTldevrai] 'They do not at- 
tempt to seize power,' as a general 
rule, that is ; there may be some few 
instances of their doing so. 

23 2 


riOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 



tions in 



TrpOTCpov fjLa\\ov t] vvv Kal Sio. TO fJieyaXas apx.<*$ ey^eipl- 

v x f , > -\/t -^ r > ~ r ~\ \ ~ 

e<rc7cu THTiv, WdTrep ev IV-hX^TO) e/c Tv/9 Trpvraveias' TTO\\(JOV 

\ ? \ '-\ / < / *'.?' 5 1 ^ ^ ^ 

yap tjv KCLI iJie<ya\(jov Kvpiog o Trpvravis. eri oe oia TO jmrj 

imeyaXa? etvai TOTC ret? -TroXeiy, aXX' eirl TU>V aypcov OIKCIV 
TOV 8t]fJ,ov airy(p\ov oirct irpos TO?? epyoi$ 9 ol TrpocrTaTat 
, ore 7roXe/if/col yevoivTO, Tvpavvtoi eireTiOevTO. 



iravTes Se TOVTO efipwv VTTO TOV Srjfiov TTIO-TCV OeVre?, ^ 
7r/crTf9 ?^ ^ aTre^Oeia rj TTJOO? rou? TrXoucr/ou?, otoi/ ' 
T6 TLeitTicTTpaTOS crracrtacra? TTjOO? roi/? 

TCOJ/ evTropwv TO. 
Trapa TOV Trora/xoi^ eTnve/novTa 

Aa(f)VaiOV KCU TWV 7T\OV(TIC0V ij^lCoOt] T^? TVpdV- 

7ri<TTev6el$ a>9 ^/moTtKog cov. 
r^9 TrctTplas 


aipeTCLi fj.ev cu 





* i f\ "\ * 

,tj yive<Tuai r\ TOV 

KOL TCOV vojULdov. 


TOV r] 

8 y%eip/fe<r0cu] 'being placed in 
the hands of. ' 

K r?7S Trpvravelas] ( was the result 
of the Prytaneia.' This abuse of the 
executive power has been in all periods 
common. The latest and most noto- 
rious instance is that of Louis Na- 

&ri 5^] The Greek of this passage is 
easy, but I do not feel clear as to the 
meaning. Was it that the absence of 
the people, their supporters, made it 
in the first place easier to seize a 
despotic power, as in consequence there 
was removed the check that the pre- 
sence of that people would have placed 
on them, and next, that the same 
absence made such a power more an 
object of their desire, as they were not 
safe without it. The force of this 
latter consideration may be seen from 
the case of the Gracchi, who fell by 

the necessary absence of then- sup- 
porters. Niebuhr, Led. Rom. Hist., 
n. p. 334, Lect. 27. 

9 Hei<rtcrTpa.Tos] Grote, m. 206. 
Qeayfrys] Grote, III. 59. 

Xa)8t6j', K. r. X. ] ' Having caught 
them turning them out to graze on 
the river side.' For eirivfaovTas, 
compare Demosth. 1274. 

10 Atovtfcrios] Grote, x. 539, 608. 
Trarplas S-rjfjLOKparia^ I am inclined 

to read fJLerpias. If irarplas be kept, 
it must have somewhat of the same 
meaning, "from the old, constitu- 
tional, moderate form of democracy, 
such as our wiser fathers enjoyed. ' ' See 
note on II. xn. 4. 

<r7Toi'5apxi<j'Tes] 'ambitious of office,' 
Aristoph. Ach. 595. 

11 r&s 0uXcis] 'The people,' that 
is, 'in divisions, and not collect- 

VIII. (Y.) 6.] IIOAITIKON 0. (E.) 


ytvetrOat YJTTOV TO ra? <pv\a$ (pepeiv TOV$ ap^ovTas, a\\a 

\ f \ b~> m** - \ ' * Q ~ 

p.*] TravTa TOV d*]fj.ov. 1 cov JULCV ovv dtj/moKpaTicov at 

/O-\\/ /* ^^^^ ' ^ 

^Tapo\at yiyvovTai Tracrai a-^eoov oia TOLVTOLS ra? 

A* o oXiyap-^iai iu.eTa/3d\\ov<Ti Sia $vo /u.d\i(rTa 

' * j ' ' </ \ * v i c\ 'v \ 

TjOOTTOv? Toys' (pavep(*)TaTov$, \jva fj.ev eav aoiKuxri TO 

7r\tj6o$' Tra? -yajO iKavo? yiverai Trpoo-TaTrj^, /x 
6Vai/ e^ auT^? crv/uL/Sy T^? o\Lyap-^ia9 yivecrOai TOV fi 
KaOaTrep ev Na^co AvySafJiis, 09 /cat eTvpdvvrjarev vorTepov 
TCOV Na^fW. j '; e^ei <^e /ecu ?/ e^ avTaJv^ ap^rj crTcto-ea)? 2 1305 B 
$ia<popds. oTe /xev -yctjO e^ auTcoi/ TWJ^ evTropcov, ov TCOV 
OVTWV & ev Ta?? dp-%ais, ylyveTai /caTaXucrt?, OTGLV oXiyot, 
crcpddpa UKTLV ol ev TaF? Tijuais, olov ev Macro-aA/a Kal ev 
a dXXwj/ Bekker. 

tions in 

tiong in 


robs &pxovra.i\ "wahlen," 
Stahr, ' create the requisite magis- 
trates/ ' provide them.' The smaller 
bodies are more amenable to local and 
traditional influences. 

VI. i Nc(y] Niebuhr, u. a. Gesck. 
IV. 189. Grote, IV. 143. 

i 2%ei 5^] Is it here that we find 
the second form of revolution or de- 
struction of an oligarchy ? Does %ei 
Se answer to 2va ^v ? One cause of 
revolution lies in their misconduct to- 
wards the people they govern. So far 
is clear. The other is internal, from 
within the body itself of the oligarchy. 
But this second form is not simple, it 
admits of different cases, which he 
proceeds to enumerate. If we do not 
adopt this interpretation, it is not easy 
to find the second form, the dXXos 
rpovros answering to the first clearly 
marked one. Schneider finds the an- 
swer to %va [j,tv in ftctXto-ra 5^, and 
Schneider's view is very defensible. 
The one plain cause of the overthrow 
of the oligarchy is their injuring the 
people. Such injury rouses the parties 
injured, and leads to the overthrow in 

any case. A second cause is in the 
existence of dissensions within the oli- 
garchical body itself, whether there 
be or be not misgovernment of the 
many. But grant that these two 
coincide, and that simultaneously with 
the sense of injustice prevailing in 
the great body, there is some powerful 
leader ready to their hands amongst 
the oligarchs, then the overthrow is 
more certain and easy. This view 
runs the two causes into one another, 
and is not inconsistent with Aris- 
totle's very concise method of state- 

aurwj'] I prefer this reading to 
the one Bekker retains, &\\wv. 
He mentions another, avruv, but 
I follow Nickes in substituting 
O.VT&V. ' When the origin of the dis- 
turbance is from within their own 
body, viz., the oligarchs and this 
is not a rare case it takes different 
forms.' So I would translate the Kal 
i] & OLVT&V. 

v TGUS d/3%ats] = ev rats rt^ia?s. The 
two words are here evidently used 


nOAITIKQN 6. (E.) 


Eevolu- >f I<TTpw Kal ev 'H^oa/cXe/a /cat ev aXXat9 TroXecrt 

tions in v ^ / ~ * ~ f </ \ n 

oligar- Oi T a / M*? ju-erexovres TU>V apywv eKivovv, eoo? p,ere\apov ot 

/-)/ / / 5 ft -v I ^ (/ fl < / 

caiebt TrpecrpvTepoi TrpoTepov TCOV aoeA(pa>i', vcrrepov o 01 vecoTepoi 

3 traXiv ov yap ap^ova-iv eviayov jmev a/xa TrctTyp re /cat 
wo?, eviayov <$e 6 7rpe(r/3vTepo$ Kal 6 vewrepos aSeXcpd?. 
KOL evOa JULCV TroXiTiKWTepa eyeveTO rj oXtyap-^ia, ev "IcrTpw 
3' tj SfjfJLOi' a7rere\evTt](TV 9 ev 'H^oa/cXe/a & ej~ eXarrovcov 

4 e* ? e^a/cocr/of? yXOev. /mere/BoXe <5e /cat ei^ K^/^w tj dXt- 
yap^ia a-TacriacravTUtv TWV yvcopiimwv avroov irpog aurof? 
<^m TO oXiyovs /xere^eti/ /cat KaOaTrep e'tprjrcu, el Trarrjp, 
vlov jULtj juLere^eiv, ju.t]<$' el TrXe/of? a<$e\(f)oi 9 aXX' rj TOV 
TTpeG-fivTOLTOv e7ri\a(3ojuievo$ yap o-racria^ovTWV o Sfjimo$ 9 
Kal \a/3wv TTpoarTaTrjv CK TW>V yvcopi/mcov, eTriOeimevos Kpa- 

5 rrja-ev acrOeves yap TO crTacrid^ov. Kal ev ^pvOpal^ <^e 
eTrl r^? rS)v Bao-iXt^wi/ oXiyapxia? ev rof? ap^alon; X) o/ ~ 

Kaiimp /caXco? eTrifJieXoiuLevcov TCOV ev rfj TroXfreta, o/xw? 
TO UTT' oXiywv ap^etrOat ayavaKTwv 6 ^?/xo? /xere/5aXe 
TToXiTeiav. KivovvTai <5' at 6\iyap-^iai e avTwv /cat 
<^ta (bi\oveiKiav Sq/maycoyovvTCov. % firj/maywyia $e $ITTV, 
rj fj.ev ev avTois rot 9 dX/*yot9 (e-yytVerat aO fituawos KOLV 

2 "larpy] Istros on the Borysthenes 
is, historically, extremely obscure. 

3 Mvovv] 'kept agitating.' 

tv0a iUv] 'At Marseilles.' Niebuhr 
il. a. Gesch., TV., 639, speaks of its 
* 'reputation for good order. " Grote, ill. 
532, and note. ''The senate was 
originally a body completely close, 
which gave rise to discontent on the 
part of the wealthy men not included 
in it : a mitigation took place by admit- 
ting into it, occasionally, men selected 
from the latter." 

d7reTeXei;T?7<rei'] ' finally ended. ' 

4 K>i5y] its internal history un- 

d\X' r) rbv irpefffivraTov] 'but only 
the eldest.' 

5 'Epv6pai$] but little known, Grote, 
in. 243, note 2. 

r&v ev rfj TroXire^] is the subject to 
irifj,\<>}i>, 'although those in the 
government exercised their 


'from personal rivalrv. 

6 ol irepl ~XapiK\ta] This allusion to 
Charicles, for we may limit the ex- 
pression to him, is endorsed in Biogr. 
Diet., art. Charicles. In the passage 
there quoted from Lysias, contr. 
Eratosth. p. 125, the expression 
Xa/H/cAet Kal Kpiriq. Kal rfj ^Keivuv 
eraipeia supports Aristotle's remark, 
and after the death of Critias, he is 
considered by Mr. Grote as the leader 
of the more violent party, vin. 370. 

VIII. (Y.) 6.] nOAITIK&N 0. (E.) 


Travv 6\iyoi cocriv, olov ev rote TpiaKOVTa 'A0rivt](7iv ol Trepl Revolu- 

V ' * * ' * - tions in 

Xa^ot/cXea lo-^ycrav TOV? TpiaKOVTa oq/uLaycoyovvTes, /cat oligar- 

/ >/K/ >?\ / \ chies. 
ei/ rot? reTjOa/cocrtot? ot Tre^ot ^Ppvvi^ov TOV avTOV Tpoirov), 

tj OTav TOV o%\ov dtj/maycoywcriv ol ev T*J 6\iyap"^la OVTCS, 
olov ev Aa|0tcrcr^ ot TroXtroc^JXa/ce? Sia TO aipeicrOai avTOVs 
TOV o^Xov eSrj/uiayccyovv Kal ev oVat? oXiyap^iatg ov% 
OVTOI alpovvTai ra? ap^a? ej~ wv ol ap-^ovTe? ei<riv 9 aXX' at 
ju.ev ap^al CK TijULrjimaTdov jmeyaXcov eicriv rj CTaipuxiv, aipovv- 

5 1 ' ff "\~ '' * .? ~ " ''A/D'^ f O 

rat o ot OTrAtrat r\ o o^/xo?, OTre^o ev Apvow crvvepaivev. 
Kal OTTOV TO. ^iKaiTT^pia /u.r] CK TOV TroXiTevjmaTOs ea-Tiv 7 
orjfjLaywyovvTe's yap 7rpo$ Ta? /cot'cret? ju.eTa(3a\\ovori T*]V 
TroXtretai/, oirep Kal ev 'HpaK\eia eyeveTO Trj ev TW IIoVTW. 
ZTI n OTav evioi ei? e\aTTOv$ eX/cwcrt Trjv o\iyap-^iav ol 
yap TO "KTOV fyTovvTes avayKa^ovTai /3oti6ov eTrayayevOai 
TOV drjfjiov. ylyvovTai $e /xera/3oXat r^9 oXiyap^ias Kal 8 
OTav avaXcocrcocn ra t'^ta < Cu>vTe$ acreXyws* Kal yap ot TOIOV- 

O * ' I 

rot KaivoTO/meiv ^roi/crt, /cat rj TVpavviSi CTriTiOevTai airrot 1306 
r) KaTacrKevd^ova-iv eTepov, wcnrep 'iTTTrapivo? Atovvariov ev 
SfjOa/coJcrat?. /cat ev 'A/u.(pi7ro\i 9 ^ ovo/ma tjv KXeoVt- 
roi'9 CTTOIKOVS Tov$ XaX/ctoVow Ijyaye, Kal 

ol Trepi Qptivwov] Mr. Grote, VIII. 
85, takes this expression as singular 
'Phrynichus.' As in the last case, 
we should from Xenophon have con- 
sidered Critias as the more prominent 
member of the Thirty, so, from 
Thucydides, Antiphon would here have 
taken the place of Phrynichus, yet 
the assassination of this latter seems 
to show that, in the common opinion, 
the leadership assigned him by Aris- 
totle was correctly assigned him. 

Aapla -<rr[\ Herm. Pol. Ant. 178. 
Compare also m. i, -2, a passage 
which bears witness to internal dis- 

Tro\iTo<t>v\aKes~\ The word occurs 
again n. 8, g, as one of the forms of 
superior magistrates. 

'AjSi/Sy] Little else known of Abydos' 

internal history. It was a colony of 
Miletus, Herm. Pol. Ant. 78. 

7 /trj e/c TOV TroXiTei^waros] ' are not 
formed of members of the govern- 
ment. ' 

7r/)6s TO,? Kpl<reis~\ 'with a view to in- 
fluence decisions.' 

8 a<re\yws] 'dissolutely,' Ch. V. i. 
This is the great point urged in Plato, 
Repub. Viii., and almost the only one 
dwelt on. 

' Iirirapivos] Grote X. 599, XI. 69, 
76. Arnold, Rome, Vol. i. Ch. 21. 
He was father of Dion. It appears 
that he completely re-established his 

'A[j.<t>ur6\ei] Ch. III. 4, where those 
whom he here calls tiroiicovs, are 
called AirolKovs. Cleotimus not known. 


nOAITIK&N 0. (E.) 


Revolu- SiecrTacriaa-ev avTOV$ Trpos TOW? eviropovs. /ecu ev 
tions in ^ ^- \ \ -*r r ry i 

oligar- i"n v vrpaQv Tr\v Trpog XaprjTa Trpa^as ei^e^eiprja- 

-v <> < V * H ^ ' ' ' ff t ^ 

\eiv TY\V 7ro\iTiav oia TOtavTtjv aiTiav. OTC /mev ovv 


avrovg crTacrid^ovcriv rj OVTOI y 01 irpos TOVTOVS 

, oirep ev 'A7roXXtoi//a vvvefiri Ty ev rw IXoVra). 

TO oimovoovcra oe o\iyap^ia OVK evoia(p9opos ej* auT^?. o~tj- 
fj.eiov $e Y] ev ^aocraXft) TroXiTeia.' eiceivoi yap o\iyoi OVTCS 
TroXXco]/ Kvpioi ei<ri fiio, TO ^ptjcrOaL crcfiicriv avrois KaXcog. 
KaTaXvovrai $e /ecu orav ev rfj oXiyap^ia erepav 6\iyap- 

TI "XIOLV ejULTTOiuxriv. TOVTO ^ ea-rlv orav TOV TTOLVTOS TroXiTev- 
yotaro? oXiyov OVTOS TCOV /meyicrTCOv ap^cov ju.t] /m.eTe^coa'iv 01 
oXlyoi TrdvTes, oTrep ev "HXf^i (rvve/3rj TTOTC' r^9 TroXfre/a? 
yap (V oXlycov ovcrrjs TWV yepovrcov o\lyoi TrdfjiTrav eyivovro 


evai evevrjKOvra ovra$ 9 
eivai KOL 6ju.olav ry TCOV ev 

cpea-iv vva- 

9 A-iyivr] rty irpa^Lv] I can find no 
allusion to this apparently well known 

Ti Kweiv] 'to effect some political 
change. ' 

irpbs avTofc"] "unter sich," Stahr, 
referring it and oSrot to the same 
people. Yet the Greek hardly war- 
rants this, however much the sense 
may require it. 

oCrot] "The thieves." 

ATroXAwj'/p] See above, in. 13. 

10 b^ovoovffa. 5^, K. r. X.] 'An oli- 
garchy if it do but avoid dissension, and 
act in concert, is not easily destroyed 
by any fault of its own.' Such is the 
view Stahr takes of the passage, 
"wird nicht leicht durch ihre eigene 
Schuld zu Grunde gerichtet." There 
is much in the context to favour this 
view. There is another admissible, I 
think, 'is not easily destroyed from 
without, by external causes.' The 
passage illustrates the chapter on 

EtJi. IX. 6, p. 1167, b. i, 
where he calls it TTO\LTI.K^ <f>t\ia. 
In both views the great point 
for our oligarchical government is to 
secure internal union, where the two 
separate is in this. In Stahr' s it will, if 
united, bear up against the evil effects 
of its own faults ; in the other view it 
will be proof against dangers from 

ii *HXt5i] ThepoliticalhistoryofElis 
is not well known. Whilst connected 
with Sparta, its government would, of 
course, be oligarchical. Later we 
hear of factions as in the other 
Greek states. 

(JXfycu Trd/j,Trav, K. r. X.] ' Very few 
were admitted into the gerusia be- 
cause the members were life mem- 
bers, and only ninety in number, and 
those few were chosen only from 
certain families, and in a manner 
similar to that of the Gerontes at 
Lacedaemon,' Miiller, Dorians, n. 100. 

VIII. (V.) 6.] nOAITIKQN 0. (E.) 


yiyverai $e fjLTa/3o\rj TU>V o\iyapyj.>v & Kal ev TroAe/xy Kal ev Revolu- 

> t i \ ^ i \ \ \\n^ , , tions in 

eiprjvy, ev /mev TroAe/xo) dm Ttjv Trpog rov orj/jiov aTTKTTiav crrpa- oligar- 

' ' ^ ' '"*' /"V / ^ ^ A ' t 

Tfcorat? afa-y/ca^o/xeycoj/ %prjcruai (a> -ya^o ai/ ey^eipia-cocriVy 
OVTOS TroAAa/a? yiyverai Tvpavvos, ci)(nrep ev KopivOa) TIJULO- 
<f)dvt)S' av <5e TrAe/ou?, ourot ai^ror? TrepnroiovvTai 
ore <^e rayra ^e^ore? juera^oaca TO) 7r\y6ei T^ 




. ev $e rfj el privy Sia 13 
aAA^Aou? ey^eip[^ov(TL TJJV 
ap-^ovri /xea-f^/w, 09 evioTe yiverai 
a/m<poTep(jov, ojrep (rvvefir] ev Aa^o/crcri; e?rf r^? reoy ' 

'A/O'^ * ^ ' 





wv qv 

rj 'I<pid$ov. yivovTOLL $e (rracref? Kal e/c TOV 14 
i eTepovs v^ eTepwv TWV ev Ty 

avrcov Ka KaTaarTaori 

d^eorOai Kara ya^ovg y /ca?, ooi^ e/c 
fjiev cuTias at ciptj/mevai irpoTepov, Kal rrjv ev 
^' o\iyap-%lav Tt]v TWV 

i> Bekker. 

12 6\iyapxi&i'~\ I see no objection to 
adopting with Stahr this change for 
Bekker's 6\iyapxiKu>v. Not that in 
the other case there is any difficulty. 
It is so easy to supply iroXiTeiuv. 

o-T/jaTiwTcus] 'Mercenaries,' 'pro- 
fessional soldiers,' such as those 
maintained by the Spartan govern- 
ment at Athens, under the Thirty. 

$ yap &v, K. T. X.] ' He in whose 
hand they place the command. ' Com- 
pare Grote, xi. 194. 

TVo^dj'T/s] The brother of Timo- 
leon, commanded the Corinthian 
troops in the war against Argos. He 
''stood forth as despot, taking the 
whole government into his own 

13 /iteo-iSiy] 'An arbiter between 
the two factions.' ' ' From experience, 
as we must presume, of the par- 
tiality which their domestic factions 
carried into the administration of 
justice, it became a general practice 

to elect, by the name of podesta, a 
citizen of some neighbouring state as 
their general, their criminal judge and 
preserver of the peace." Hallam, 
Middle Ages, i. 395, 6. 

T&V irepl Zi/toi/] unknown really, as 
the doubts on the name seem to show. 

'I<j>iddov] Grote x. 521, note, with 
the conjecture there given. 

14 7reptco#et(70cu] passive, 'repul- 
sam ferre.' 

avrwv] Coray suggests &VTWV, and 
the proposal is attractive, as avrwv 
seems not at all wanted. Stahr re- 
tains O.VT&V. ' Themselves also 
of the oligarchy.' 

AraTctcrTacriafccrflcu] ' being borne 
down by party. ' 

'Eperplg,~] Like its neighbour and 
rival Chalcis, Eretria in the period of 
its prosperity was oligarchical. Com- 
pare Ch. IV. 9, and the references there 
given for Chalcis. Diagoras is un- 


nOAITIKQN 9. (E.) 


tions in 


1306 B 



TO ayav 




KaTeXvcrev dSiKrjOels Tre/ot ya/mov. e/c oe oiKaa"T?]piov KD'I- 
crefc)? *} ev 'H^oa/cXeta orracrt? eyevero Kal ev G^a/?, eV' 
atVta /xot^eta? oWa/co? /xey o-racrtwrt/cws' o^e Trotrjarajmevcov Tyv 
KoXacriv TCOV /mev ev 'Hpa/cXeta /car' Ei^oimWo?, TCOJ^ ^' eV 
Qrj(3ai9 /caT* 'A/o^toi'* e<pi\oveiKr]a'av yap avTOV$ ot e^Opoi 
ev dyopa ev TW Kvdxtivt. TroXXat oe /cat ota