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AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 

1911-14. 

UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OP SIR DOUGLAS AAWSON. D.Sc, B.E. 



SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 

SERIES C-ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

VOL. VI. PART 3. 



POLYCH/ETA. 



ru^ f tf "^ ^ 



BY 



W. D. BENHA/A. r\.A. (OxoN.), D.Sc. (Lond.). F.R.S.. F.N. Z.Inst. 



• WITH SIX PLATES AND A MAP. 



PRICE: TWELVE SHILLINGS. 



Printed by William Applceate Gullick. Givirnmi-m PrinlCT. Phlllip-strpet, Sydney.— 1921 



ISSUED JUNE. 1921. 



Series C— REPORTS ALREADY ISSUED. 



Vol, 


Paj 


III 


1. 


HI. 


2. 


IV. 


1. 


IV. 


2. 


IV. 


3. 



Price. 

'• 8. d. 

FISHES. By Mr. Edgab R. Waite, F.L.S., South Australian Museum, Adelaide 8 G 

PTEROBRANCHIA. By Dr. W. G. F.idewood, D.S,;., London 2 

MOLLUSCA :— PELECYPODA AND GASTROPODA. 

By Mr. C. Hedley, F.L.S., Australian Museum, Sydney 8 6 

MOLLUSCA :— CEPHALOPODA By Dr. S. Stillman Berry, Redlands, Cal 3 6 

BRACmOPODA. 

By Dr. J. Allan Thomson, M.A., D.Sc, Dii-ector Dominion Museum, Wellington, N.Z. G 
V. L ARACHXIDA FROM MACQUAPJE ISLAND. 

By 5Ir. W. J. Rainbow, F.E.S., Australian Museum, Svdney 1 
v. 2. BRACHYURA. 

By Miss Maey J. Rathbun; United States National Museum; Washingtonj U.S.A. 1 

V, 3. COPEPODA. By Dr. G. Stewardson Brady, F.R.S 5 6 

V. i. GLADOCERA AND HALOCYPRID^. By Dr. G. Stewardson Brady, F.R.S 2 

^', 6. EUPHAUSIACEA AND MYSIDACEA. 

Dr. W. M. TATTER.SALL, D.Sc, Keeper, University Museum, Manchester I 6 
V. 6. CUMACEA AND PHYLLOCARIDA. 

By Dr. W. T. Calman, D.Sc., Britiali Museum, Natural History 

OSTRACODA. By Mr. Fb'lderick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., National Museum, Melbourne... 
THE INSECTS OF MACQUARIE ISLAND. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

with APPENDICES by P. of. C. T. Bbues, Ph.D., and A. M. Lea, F.E.S 

CALCAREOUS SPONGES. By Prof. A. S. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S., King's College, London 
THE CH^TOGNATHA. By Professor T. Habvey Johnston, M.A., D.Sc, C.M.Z.S., and 

B. Buckland Taylor, F.L.S., Biology Department, University, Brisbane 

MOSSES. By Mr. H. N. Dixon, IiI.A., F.L.S., and Rev. W. Walter Watts 

THE ALGAE OF COMMONWEALTH BAY. By Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., Oxon., B.Sc, Loni. 
THE VASCULAR FLORA OF MACQUARIE ISLAND. 

By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Auckland Museum, N.Z. 6 6 
VIL 4. BACTERIOLOGICAL AND OTHER RESEARCHES. 

By A. L. McLean, B.A., MD., Gh.M. (M.C.) 10 



V. 


7. 


V. 


8. 


VL 


1. 


VI. 


2. 


VII, 


1. 


VU. 


2. 


VII. 


3. 



1 


3 


4 


7 


2 


9 


2 





1 


10 


1 


I) 


3 






AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 

1911-14. 

UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF SIR DOUGLAS DAWSON, D.Sc, BE 



SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 

SERIES C-ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

VOL. VI. FART 3. 



POLYCH/ETA, 



Q. 6" i^ ii-fj 



BY 

W. B. BENHA/A. /A.A. (Oxon.), D.Sc. (Lond.). F.R.S., F.N. Z.Inst. 

WITH SIX PLATES AND A AAP. 



PRICE: TWELVE SHILLINGS. 



Printed by William Applcgate fiuUick, fiovcrnment Printer Phillip-stt«t, Sydney. — tslt. 
' S3892— A 



ERRATA. 

p. 7. — The number of Antarctic species should be 140 instead nf I2F!. 

P. 16, hne '2.i. — " Phyllococe " should read " Phyllodoce." 

P. 19. — In the list of Macquarie Island species, "assirails" in penultimate line should 
read " assimilis." 

P. 25, line 4. — For "a symmetrical" read " an asymmetrical." 

P. 73, line 13 from foot. — Last words " S. clajjaredi" should re.ad "0. claparedi." 

P. 85, line n. — "Introduction, p. 10" should read " p.x." 

P. 122. — I did not see proofs of the plates, and unfortunately the letterings of certain 
figures illustrating the structure of Phyllocoinus, and Amythas have been 
omitted. 

P. li;5. — " Dibraniliiata PhvUconius " should read " Phyjlocomus." 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 

List of species collected 

Polychseta from Commonwealtli Bay 

Gatherings from the various stations 

Summary of results 

Macquarie Island 

Maria Island 

Systematic account 

Family Syllidae ... 

,, Aphroditidfe 

,, Phyllodocidse 

,, Alciopidse 

,, Tomopteridae 

,, Nereidee 

,, Nephthydidae 

,, Amphinomidfe 

,, Eunicidae 

,, Glyceridfe 

,, Sphserodorida} 

,, Ariciidse 

,, Cirratulidae 

,, Terebellidse 

,, Ampharetidse 

,, Capitellidse 

,, Maldanidse 

,, Arenicolidae 

,, Chlorhsemidae 

,, Sabellidae 

,, Serpulidfe 
Bibliography 
Explanation of Plates 

Index 

Plates. 



PAGE. 

5 
8 

10 

12 

15 

19 

19 

20 

20 

31 

51 

58 

61 

65 

68 

69 

70 

74 

74 

77 

81 

82 

97 
105 
105 
108 
108 
109 
112 
114 
117 
124 



POLYCH^TA. 



By W. B. Benham, M.A. (Oxon.), D.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.S., F.N.Z.Inst., Professor of 
Biology, Uixiversity of Otago, New Zealand. 



With Six Plates and a Map. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Polyclia?t fauna of the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic regions is perliaps as well known 
as that of any other region, with the exception, it may be, of that of the North Sea and 
Mediterranean, which has been studied intensively by numerous zoologists for nearly 
a century. 

In defining the extent of the Antarctic region I follow Ehlers, who includes not 
only the shores of the land-mass, but those islands which lie to the south of the outer- 
most limit of the drifting sea-ice; thiis the islands of South Georgia and Bouvet are 
included, while the Falkland, Crozet and Kerguelen Islands Ijelong to the Sub-antarctic 
region. 

The various expeditions to these high southern latitudes have brought back a 
considerable number of worms, many of which, indeed the majority, are confined to 
these two regions. 

During the voyages of the " Eugenie" (1851-1853), of the " Challenger" (1873- 
1876), of the "Gazelle" (1876), and of the "Valdivia" (1898-1899) more or less 
extensive areas of the oceans were explored, but the Sub-antarctic region was visited 
only incidentally. To Kinberg we owe the foundation of om* knowledge of the worms 
of this Notial region since the " Eugenie" visited Kerguelen and the Magellan Strait 
during its voyage. Other species were added by Grube in his report, while the accounts 
of Mcintosh and Ehlers not only extended our knowledge of this region, but for the 
first time contain descriptions of worms from the Antarctic Seas; and these ships 
had been able to explore them to greater depths than had been possible previously. 

Later expeditions, on the other hand, visited the edge of the Antarctic land-mass 
with the express purpose of studying the scientific problems presented by that region 
and these expeditions remained there for many months, so that the naturalists were 
afforded opportunities of making extensive collections of the marine animals living in 
the ice-covered sea. 



6 AUSTEALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Of these Antarctic expeditions, the "Southern Cross" (1898) had its winter 
quarters off Cape Adare in the Ross Sea; the " Discovery " ( 1901-1904), under Captain 
R. F. Scott, R.N., was ]ield fast in the ice for two years in McMurdo Bay, South Victoria 
Land; both these places being to the south of New Zealand. The German South- 
polar expedition on the " Gauss" (1901-1903) wintered off Kaiser Wilhelm II Land 
which lies to the south of Kerguelen ; while the two French expeditions on the 
"Frangais" (1903-1905) and on the " Pourquoi Pas?" (1908-1910) explored the 
lands and islands to the soiith of America, wintering off Petermaim Island.* 

In the terms of Sir Clements Markham's subdivisions of the Antarctic land- 
mass, the two English expeditions explored and wintered in the " Victoria Quadrant"; 
the German in the " Enderby," and the French in the " Weddell Quadrant" (see Waite, 
1916). 

We have consequently collections of Polychseta from the seas extending more 
than half way round the Antarctic land-mass. 

During the voyage of the " Erebus" and " Terror" (1839-1843), under Sir 
James Clarke Ross, R.N., the Antarctic was visited, but no report on Polychseta was 
issued. It is probable that the few isolated descriptions of worms from the 
" Antarctic," published by some of the earlier English Naturalists, such as Baird's 
Eunice antarctica, were collected by that expedition. 

Other expeditions have visited the Antarctic in recent years, but the reports 
on the collections of Polychseta either have not yet been issued, or certain families only 
have received attention. The Belgian expedition (1897-1899) conveyed by the 
" Belgica." has apparently published no report on the group. Of those obtained by 
the Swedish expedition (1901-1903) the family Maldanidae has been dealt with by 
Arwidsson. Of the Polycha?tes gathered by the "Scotia" during the Scottish 
National Expedition (1902-1904) the families Serpulidae and Sabellidse have been 
reported upon by Helen Pixell ; and the Nereidse by L. N. G. Ramsay ; while the 
British Antarctic expedition (1907-1909), under Sir E. Shackleton, has not yet issued 
any report on the group. 

Although these various expeditions collected chiefly from the Antarctic and 
Sub-antarctic regions, yet most of them took any opportunity that was presented of 
gathering animals elsewhere ; but with these we are not concerned. 

In order to compare the results obtained by the " Aurora " with those of 
previous expeditions, it may be convenient to tabulate the number of species collected, 
and the number of new species recorded from the Antarctic seas. 

* The French expeditions obtained Annelids from various localities off the South Shetland group (e.g., ile Deception 

and Admiralty Bay), and from various stations near the islands lying to the north, and, chiefly, to the south of Graham 

Land, « g , Terre Alexandre, Terre Fallic^-re, ile Booth Wandel (where Port Charcot is situated), ile Wiencke (Port 

■'f •^kroy), ile Petermann(at Port Circoncision), ile Anvers (where is Biscoe Bay), &c. It will be sufficient to refer to these 

itiei i. genera! by the terra "South American Antartic," r-tl-sr than repeat every locality when listing distribution. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 
Antarctic Polych^ta. 





Total 


Number 


Ship. 


Number of 
Species. 


of 
New Species. 


Challenger . . . 
Southern Cross 




' 4 

15 


4 
3 


Frangais . . . 
Valdivia ... 






34 
16 


14 
5 


Pourquoi Pas? 
Discovery ... 
Gauss 






34 
36 
83 


13 
11 

20 


Aurora 






47 


6 



I have estimated from these various reports, including the present one, that 
about 128 species of Polychseta are known from the Antarctic seas. 

Of these the families niost abundantly represented are : — ■ 

Terebellidse 

SyUidaj 

Phyllodocidae 
Aphroditida? 
Maldanida; ... 

Serpulidae 

Sabellidae 

Ampharetidaj 

Opheliida^, Ty|)hloscolecidtB, and Chlorhaemidse 

Amphinomidaj and Hesionidse 

Alciopidae and Ariciidse ... 

Nereidae, Eunicidse, Sphaerodoridse, and Spionidae 

Nephthydidse, Tomopteridse 

Glyceridse, Capitellida3, Scalibregmida?, Ammocharidse and Cirratulidse are each 
represented by one species only. 

The winter quarters of the " Am'ora" were in Commonwealth Bay, Adelie Land, 
to the south of Australia; and it was here that most of the collecting was carried out. 
A small party had been left on Macquarie Island in connection with the Meteorological 
and Wireless Station, and during the two years spent here a number of Polychtetes 
and Oligochastes were gathered around the shore. 

A few worms were also obtained by trawling off Maria Island, Tasmania, imder 
the supervision of Professor T. T. Flynn, of the University of Tasmania, who had accom- 
panied the " Aiu'ora" on one of her trips to the Macquaries. 



25 


species 


21 


,, 


18 


,, 


14 


,, 


10 


„ 


10 


!> 


9 


,, 


7 


,, 


6 


each. 


5 


>) 


4 


,, 


3 


,, 


2 


, 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



LIST OF SPECIES COLLECTED. 



PAGE. 



Family Syllidse — 

Syllis dosterohranchia Schmarda 20 

Syllis brachycola Ehlers ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

PionosyUis comosa Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

Trypanosyllis gigantea Mcintosh 23 

Splicer osyllis mcintosJii Ehlers ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Exogone anomcdochoeta sp. nov. ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Autolytus charcoti Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Family Aphi-oditidfe — 

Sub-family Hermioiiiuse — • 

Lcetmonice producta Grube ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

LcEtmonice producta var. bentJmliana Mcintosh ... ... ... 31 

Sub-family Polynoinse — 

Enipo rhombigera Ehlers 32 

HololepideUa flynni sp. nov 33 

Physalidonot'us rugosus Benham ... ... ... ... ... 3.5 

Harmotho? spinosa Kinberg ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Harmothoe tuberosa Ehlers ... ... ... ... ... ... 39 

H. (Eunoa) abyssorum Mcintosh 42 

Eulagisca corrienfis Mcintosh 43 

Hermadion rouchi Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Family Phyllodocidae — 

Sub-family Phyllodocina3 — 

Phyllodoce madeirensis Langerhans ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Eulalia magalhaensis Kinberg ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Eulcdia charcoti Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Pterocirrus mcleani sp. nov. ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Pterocirrus hunteri sp. nov. ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Eteone reyi Gravier ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Sub-family Lopadorhychina? — • 

Pdagobia viguieri Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 

Family Alciopidse — 

Vanmlis antarctica Mcintosh ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Family Tomopteridse — ■ 

Tomopteris carpenteri Quatrefages ... ... ... 61 

T. septentrionalis Quatrefages. ... ... ... ... ... ... 64 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 9 

PAGE. 
Family Nereidse — 

Nereis loxechini Kinberg 65 

Nereis australis Schmarda '^"^ 

Nereis kerguelensis Mcintosh ... ... ... ... ••• ••• 68 

Family Nephthydidse — 

Nephthys macrura Schmarda 68 

Family Amphinomidae— 

Eurythoe complanata Pallas 69 

Family Eunicidse — 

Sub-family Eunicina? — 

Eunice tentaculata Quatrefages 70 

S ub-f amily Lumbriconereinse — 

Lumbriconereis magalhaensis Kinberg 70 

Lumhriccmereis macquariensis sp. nov. 71 

Ophryotrocha daparedi Studer 72 

Family Glyceridsa — 

Glycera capitata Oersted 74 

Family Sphaerodoridse — 

SpJuerodorum spissum sp. nov. ... ... ... ... ... 74 

Family Ariciidse — 

Aricia marginata Ehlers ... ... ... ••. ••• ••• 77 

A. marginata var. nicleani nov. var. ... ... ... ... ••. 78 

Scoloplos maicsoni sp. nov 79 

Family Cirratulidse — 

Cirratulus cirratus Miiller ... ... ... ..• ... ••• 81 

FamUy Terebellidse — 

Sub-family Ampliitritinse — 

Amphitrite kerguelensis Mcintosh ... ... .•• ••• ••• 82 

Terehella ehlersi Gravier 82 

Terebella vayssieri Gravier ... ... ... ... ... .•• 83 

Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg 91 

TMepus setosus Quatrefages 91 

Leoena arenilega Ehlers ... ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• 89 

Leprea streptochceta Ehlers 94 

Scione mirabilis Mcintosh 85 

Sub-family Polycirrinse — 

Polycirrus hamiUoni sp. nov 94 

Ereutho antarctica Willey 95 

*83892— B 



10 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

PAGI 

Family Ampliaretida? — 

PhyUocomus dibranchiata sp. nov. ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Amythas membranifera gen. sp. nov 102 

Family Capitellidfe — 

Isomastus perarmatus Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 105 

Family Maldanidse — • 

Rhodine intermedia Arwidsson 105 

Isocirrus yungi Gravier ... ... ... ... ... ... 106 

Family Arenicolidae- — 

Arenicola assimilis var. affinis Asli worth ... ... ... ... 108 

Family Chlorlisemidaj — 

Fktbelligera ynundata Gravier ... 108 

Family Sabellidse — 

Potamilla antarctica Kinberg 109 

Family Serpulidse^ 

Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis Baird ... ... ... 112 

Spirorbis nordensJcjoldi Fillers 113 



II.— POLYCH^TA FROM COMMONWEALTH BAY. 

I liave been snpplied by Mr. J. G. Hunter, Biologist to the expedition, with the 
following information as to the collection of the worms : — ■ 

" During the greater part of the year 1912 dredgings were carried out in a small 
boat-harbom- close to winter quarters. The depth varied from 2-5 fathoms ; the 
bottom for the most part muddy, and dredgings yielded a considerable number of 
Annulates, which form the chief constituent of the fauna of these shallow waters. 

" Dredging in deejjer water was prevented by the abnormal weather conditions 
that prevailed. In these latitudes the sea generally freezes over during the winter, 
and then by digging channels in the ice a dredge can be lowered. The violence of the 
winds at Adelie Land, however, prevented the sea from freezing, excepting at the 
beginning of September, 1912, when, during a calm lasting for several days, the sea 
froze sufficiently to allow of dredgmg operations. And so, on the 3rd and 4th of that 
month, rich hauls were made in depths from 15-30 fathoms. 

" While the ' Aurora' was anchored in Commonwealth Bay, several dredgings 
were made with a small hand-dredge— (a) on 20th January, 1913, in 15-20 fathoms ; 
(b) on 14th December of the same year, in 45-50 fathoms ; and (c) on 21st of the month, 
in 55-60 fathoms. 



POLYCH^TA-^BENHAM. 11 

" During the summer cruise, Mr. J. G. Hunter, assisted by Mr. H. Hamilton, 
a number of dredgings were taken in deeper waters, the ' Aurora ' lieing specially fitted 
for this purpose." 

In addition, some tow-netting was done in the bay. 

The list of stations and the details of the hauls follow. A total of forty-seven 
species were obtained at these stations, the majority of which, as would be expected, 
are already known : but I have found it necessary to establish two new species of 
Phyllodocids of the ,sub-genus Pterocirrus, namely, E id alia {Pterocirms) hunteri and 
Eulalia {Pterocirrus) mdeani : as well as a new species of Exogone, and of Scdoflos, 
and a new variety of Aricia marginata, in which the arrangement of the spines in 
the anterior segments presents a condition recalling that occurring in A. ohlini Ehlers. 

Further, a new species of the Ampharetid Phyllocomus, hitherto represented 
only by P. crocea C4rube, exhibits a form of gill unique in the family. While a new 
genus in the same family seems needed for a species which possesses an entirely novel 
kind of tentacular apparatus in the form of a folded and introversible membrane in 
place of the usual filamentous tentacles. I have named this worm Aintjthas mem- 
bratiifera. 

The collection is also of interest in that it contains as many as three specimens 
of the rare Nereis loxechini Kinberg, of which only three individuals have hitherto 
been recorded. 

Tomopteris carpenteri Quatrefages, so long umecognised, is also represented, 
and is fully described ; and a northern species, T. septentrionalis Quatrefages, is included 
in the collection. Certain other species hitherto found only outside the Antarctic 
region must now be included in that fauna, namely, Eulmjisca corrientis Mcintosh, 
and Ennoa abyssorum Mcintosh. 

In the total number of species submitted to me, and therefore presumably 
collected l)y the '' Aurora," the present compares favourably with the number 
taken bv previous expeditions, other than the "Gauss," which was an extremely rich 
collection. 

One cannot help being struck with the enormous quantity of some of the species 
living at the sea-bottom in these cold seas. Thus in this collection I find in a single 
haul more than 100 individuals of TJielepus antarcticus ; again, sixty- five individuals 
of Harmothoe spinosa were obtained at one haul; and of Potamilla antarctica as many 
as forty were brought up in the dredge at one spot. 

This abundance of individuals may be due in part to the scarcity of enemies 
and m part to the fact that the conditions, although so apparently severe, must in 
reality be very favourable for theu' existence. 



12 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

GATHERINGS FROM THE VARIOUS STATIONS. 

1. Adelie Land. 

Boat Harbour, Commonwealth Bay, Adelie Land. Lat. 67° South. Long. 142° 36' I^'.ast. 

A. — 2-5 fathoms. Collected by Dr. A. L. McLean: — 
Syllis dosterobrancMa. 
Pionosyllis comosa. 
Sphcerosyllis fncintosJii. 
Exogone anomalochcpta. 
Autolytus clmrcoti. 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuherosa. 
Nephthys macrura. 
Ophryotrocha claparedi. 
Aricia marginata. 
Scoloplos mmvsoni. 
Cirratulus cirratus. 
Terebella elilersi. 
Terebella vayssieri. 
Ereutho antarctica. 
Ismnastus perarmatus. 
Rhodine intermedia. 
Spirorhis nordenskjoldi. 

B.— Boat Harbom', 25-30 fathoms (3rd and 4th September, 1912) ;— 
Harmothoe tuherosa. 
Phyllodoce madeirensis . 
Nephthys macrura. 
Aricia marginata var. mcleani. 
Terebdla ehlersi. 
Thelepus antarcticus. 
Potamilla antarctica. 
Serpula vermicularis var. narconenis. 

C. — Conuuonwealth Bay, 15-20 fathoms (20th January, 1913) :— 
Syllis dosterobrancMa. 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuherosa. 
Terehella elilersi. 
Tftelepus antarcticus. 
Leatna arenileija. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 13 

D. — Commonwealth Bay, 45-50 fathoms (14th December, 1913) : — 
Hyllis closterobranchin. 
Tryanosyllis gigantea. 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuberosa. 
Enifo rhomhigera. 
PhyUodoce madeirensis . 
TerebeUa eMersi. 

E. — Commonwealth Bay, 55-60 fathoms (21st December, 1913) :— 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuberosa. 
Enipo rhomhigera. 
TerebeUa eUersi. 

Summer Cruise, 1913-1914. 

Station 1.— Lat. 66° 50' South. Long. 142° 6' East. Dej^th, 350-400 fathoms. Tem- 
perature, — 1-84° Cent. Bottom, thick ooze. (22nd December, 1913 ) 
Tryp an osyllis gig ant ea . 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuberosa. 
Hermadion rouchi. 
Enipo rhomhigera. 
Pterocirrus mcleani. 
Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis. 

Station 2.— Lat. 66° 55' South. Long. 145° 21' East. Depth, 318 fathoms. Tem- 
perature, — 1-8° Cent. Bottom, ooze." (28th December, 1913.) 
Trypanosyllis gigantea. ' 
Enipo rhomhigera. 
Eulalia cliarcoti. 
Nereis loxechini. 
Glycera capitata. 
Aricia marginata. 
Scione mirabilis. 
Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis . 

Station 3.— Lat. 66° 32' South. Long. 141° 39' East. Depth, 157 fathoms. Tem- 
perature, — 1-62° Cent. Bottom, ooze. (31st December, 1913.) 
Syllis closterobranchia. 
LcBtmonice producta. 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
Harmothoe tuberosa. 
Enipo rlwmbigera. 



14 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Eulalia clmrcoti. 
Nereis loxechini. 
Nephthys macrura. 
Ifocirrus yungi. 
A mp hit rit e kerguel ensis . 
P hylloc omus dib ran c Mat a. 
Potamilla antarctica. 

Stations 4, 5 and 6 yielded no Polychfetes. 

Station 7.— Lat. 65° 42' Sonth. Loiig. 92° 10' East. Depth, 60 fathoms. Tem- 
perature not taken. Bottom, red Algae, and a few small rocks, and various forms 
of animal life; no ooze. (1st January, 1914.) 

Vanadis antarctica. 

Potamilla antarctica. 

Station B.^Lat. 66° 8' South. Long. 94° 17' East. Depth, 120 fathoms. Tem- 
perature not taken. Bottom, small granitic rocks ; no ooze. (27th January, 
1914.) 

Harmothoe spinosa. 

Harmothoe tuberosa. 

Eulagisca corrientis. 

Enipo rJwmbigera. 

Phyllodoce madeirensis . 

Eulalia charcoti. 

Scione mirabilis. 

Potamilla antarctica. 

Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis. 

Station 9.^Lat. 65° 20' South. Long. 95° 27' East. Depth, 240 fathoms. Tem- 
perature, +1-38° Cent. Bottom, granitic pebbles, with small amount of ooze. 
(28th January, 1914.) 

Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis . 

Station 10.— Lat. 65° 6' South. Long. 96° 13' East. Depth, 325 fathoms. Tem- 
perature, — 1-65° Cent. Bottom, ooze. (29th January, 1914.) 
Harmothoe spinosa. 
H. {Eunoa) abyssorum. 
Enipo rhombigera. 
Hermadion rouchi. 
Nereis loxechini. 
Lumbriconereis magalha/^fisis . 
Flabelligera mundata. 
Amythas membranifera. 
Serpula vermicularis var. narconensis. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 15 

Station 11.— Lat. 64° 44' South. Long. 97° 28' East. Depth, 358 fathoms. Tem- 
perature not taken. Bottom, ooze. (31st January, 1914.) 
Laimonice product a. 
Harmothoe (Eunoa) abyssorum. 

Station 12.— Lat. 64° 32' South. Long. 97° 20' East. Depth, 110 fathoms. Tem- 
perature not taken. Bottom, rock. (31st January, 1914.) 
Harmothoe sfinosa. 
H. (Eunoa) abyssorum. 
Hermadion rouchi. 
Enipo rhombigera. 
Eulalia charcoti. 
Pterocirrus hunteri. 
Nephthys macrura. 
Glycera capitata. 
Flabdligera mundata. 
Scione mirabilis. 
Potamilla antarctica. 

Station 13. — Depth, 1,800 fathoms. No worms were taken. 

Surface Tow-netting. 
Boat Harbour. — ^By Dr. A. L. McLean. 
Autolytus cliarcoti (1912). 
Vanadis antarctica (1913). 

On edge of pack-ice. 

Pekujobia viguieri, in 45-100 fathoms. (6th and 10th January, 1914.) 
Tomopteris septentrionalis , in 45-100 fathoms. (6th and 10th January, 1914.) 
Tomopteris carpenteri, iji 30-45 fathoms. (January, 1914.) 

Summary of Kesults. 

It seems unnecessary to give tabular statements of the faunistic relations of 
these Antarctic species, for this has been done by Gravier, and h\ greater elaboration 
by Ehlers in his magnificent and exhaustive report of the German expedition (1913). 

But a summary of the results in regard to each of the families represented in 
this collection may be useful. 

Faniily SYLLID^. 
Twenty-one species of this family have been recorded from the Antarctic region, 
but the present collection contains only five of them. Owing, no doubt, to their small 
size, these worms are likely to be overlooked unless great care be taken in sorting out 
the material. 



16 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Of the six species in the collection, Exogone anomalochceta is new; which with 
Autolytus charcoti and PiornsylUs comosa is limited, so far as is known, to the region. 
The atokous and both sexes in the epitokoiis phases of Autolytus were met with. 
Sfhcprosyllis mcintoshi passes northwards beyond this region to Kerguelen and South 
Georgia. Trypanosyllis gigantea occurs in the Magellan area, and Syllis clostero- 
branchia passes beyond the Sub-antarctic region into the Southern Temperate zone 
to West Africa and to New Zealand. 

Family APHRODITID.E. 

Hitherto twelve species have been noted as occurring in the Antarctic, of which 
five are found in the present collection, and two additional species are to be recorded 
as entering the region. Of these seven species Enipo rhomhigera, Hermadion. rouchi 
and Harmothos tuherosa are confined to the region. H. spinosa, a very common worm 
here, is also met with in the sub-antarctic area. Lretmonice producta is the most 
widely distributed, passing northwards in the Atlantic to the West Coast of Ireland, 
and up through the Pacific to the Japan coast. 

The two additions to the Antarctic fauna are Eunoa abyssorum, which is known 
elsewhere only in deep water to the south east of Australia ; and Eulagisca corrientis 
ranges up the east coast of South America as far as Buenos Ayres. 

Family PHYLLODOCID^. 

This family is represented in the region by sixteen species, three of which occur 
in the " Aurora" gatherings. Of these Eulalia clmrcoti, Eteone regi, and Pelagobia 
viguieri are confined to the Antarctic ; and two new species have to be added to the 
list, namely, Pterocirrus Mclcant, and Pt. hunteri. The fifth is Phyllococe tnadeirensis , 
whose specific name would scarcely lead us to expect it in these waters, yet it has 
already been recorded from Cape Adare as well as from South Georgia and Juan Fer- 
nandez. Fauvel has suggested, in explanation of the wide distribution of this and some 
other species, that it descends in the equatorial regions to great depths, and passing 
southwards reappears in the colder waters at less depths. 

Family ALCIOPID^. 

The only spec'es observed is Vanadis ant sctica, which has a world-wide range 
through the oceans, as one would expect from its pelagic habit. 

Family TOMOPTERID.E. 

The only species which have been collected in Antarctic seas are the two species 
included in the present report, namely, T. carpenteri, the history of which will be 
found detailed in the systematic portion, and T. septentrionalis , which has recently 
been recorded by Gravier from the Weddell Quadrant. 



POLYCH.ETA— BENHAM. 1? 

Family NEREIDiE. 

As in other expeditions, this fanuly was found but sparsely in the Antarctic; 
indeed, until 1908, the only species that had been met with was N. loxecMni, which 
Kinberg had originally described from the Magellan Strait, but which in recent years 
has been recorded from the deep water to the east of Island of St. Paul, and from the 
winter quarters of the " Gauss." But Ehlers found amongst the " Valdivia" worms 
Nereis uncinata from near Bouvet Island. The " Aurora" did not meet with it. 

Family NEPHTHYDID.E. 

In addition to xY. macrura, which is a Sub-antarctic form entering the Antarctic 
region, .V. ahranckiata, has been recorded from the region by Ehlers (1913). 

Family EUNICIDiE. 
The Eunicids scarcely enter the Antarctic, for only two species have ever been 
recorded, both of which are included in the present collection. Lumbricmereis magal- 
h'tcnsis is a typically Siib-antarctic form, and only one specimen was gathered in 
Commonwealth Bay. The small pelagic Ophryotrocha claparedi was however 
extremely abundant in Boat Harbour ; it has already been gatliered elsewhere, 
though recorded under the title of Paractius notialis. 

Family GLYCERIDiE. 
Glycera copifata, originally described from the European seas, is the oiJy member 
of the family that appears to enter the region under consideration. It has been met 
with by each of the expeditions. 

Famay ARICIIDiE. 
Hitherto only three species belonging to the family have been described from 
the Antarctic region. One of these, Aricia marginata, is included in the present col- 
lection. A new species, Scoloplos mawsoni, is necessary for a worm that differs from 
S. kergudensis , which has been recorded by the French Expedition, but which is 
characteristically a Sub-antarctic form. 

Family CIRRATULID^. 

The Cirratulids aro also very rare in the region ; only one species has been 
definitely determined, though Ehlers found certain worn^s which he names generically 
without giving specific names to them. This sole species is the European Cirratulus 
cirratus, hitherto kno\\Ti from the Magellan Strait and elsewhere in the south under 
Ehlers' s title, Prameniafulgida, which Fauvel has shown to be a nomen nudun. 

Family TEREBELLID.E. 
The Antarctic is a favourable habitat for members of the family, as each 
expedition adds one or more to the species already knowai. Of the twenty-four that 
have been recorded the " Aurora" obtained seven off Adelie Land. Of these, three 

♦83892— c 



is AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

appear to be confined to the Antarctic region, namely, Terebella ehlersi, T. vayssieri, 
and Leana arenilega. The others enter the sub-antarctic region at Kerguelen and 
Tierra del Fuego, &c., while the seventh Scione mirahilis (which, as I show, includes 
S. spinifera Ehlers) travels up both coasts of South America into the southern tem- 
perate zone. 

Family AMPHARETID^. 

Six species of this family have been gathered by previous expeditions within 
this area ; the present report contains an account of only two species, both of them 
new, as I have mentioned earlier in the memoir. These are Phyllocomus dihranchiata 
and Amythas (gen. nov.) memhranifera. 

Family CAPITELLID^. 

It has been stated that this family does not enter the Antarctic region, but 
Gravier has recorded one species, Isomastus perarmatus from the Weddell Quadrant, 
and this has also been obtained by the " Aurora." 

Family MALDANID^. 

The Swedish expedition has added materially to our knowledge of the family, 
as it exists in this region so that seven well characterised species and some varieties are 
known, as well as three unspecified forms recorded by Ehlers. The " Aurora" 
gathered two of the species, both of which are confined to this region, namely, Rhodine 
intermedia (hitherto confused with the northern R. loveni) and Isocirms yungi, originally 
discovered at Petermann Island. 

Family CHLORHiEMIDiE. 

Of the six species of Flabelligera reported from the Antarctic only one is included 
in this collection {F. mundata), which is wide-spread round the southern land-mass. 
The only other member of the family that has been mentioned is TropJionia kergudarum 
Grube, as having been obtained by the " Discovery" at winter quarters, but no 
reference to this locality is made in Ehlers in his later works, though it is sub-antarctic 
in its distribution. 

Family SABELLID^E. 

Nine species have been recorded from this region, of which tour are quite small 
and have been obtained only by the " Gauss." The only species collected by the 
" Aiu-ora" is Potamilla antarctica, which occurs in considerable numbers, and some- 
times attains a large size. It also enters the Sub-antarctic region. 

Family SERPULIDiE. 

Two of the ten species known to occur in the Antarctic are contained in this 
collection — 'the widely distributed Serpula vermicularis and Spirorbis nordenskjoldi. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 19 

2. ]\Iacquarie Island. 
This island has not hitherto l)een explored for Polychaeta, but thanks to the 
industry and care of Mr. H. Hamilton during the nearly two years he sojoiuuied here, 
I can put on record fifteen species of which three are new : Luiitbricanereis macquariensis, 
Sflwerodorum spissum and Polycirrus hmniltoni. All the other species are t\'picallv 
sub-antarctic in character, and have been recorded either from the southern outliers of 
New Zealand or from the Kerguelen or Falkland Islands. They were all collected in 
rock pools or under stones or rocks along the shore. 

Syllis d ost erob ran c hi a . 

Syllis brachycola. 

Exogone anoiiialocJiosta. 

Eulalia m ag al haensis . 

Nereis Jc ergu elensis . 

Nereis australis ( = magalhatnsis). 

Lumbriconereis mcujalJuiensis . 

Lwnb ricon ereis m acquariensis . 

Sphoerodorum spissum . 

Cirraiulus cirratus . 

TJielepus setosus. 

Leprea streptoch(Pta. 

Polycirrus hamiltoni. 

Arenicola assimils var. affinis. 

Potamilla antarctica (small forms). 

3. IMaeia Island, Tasmania. 
Five species were obtained in the two trawls put down by Professor Flynn. 
Of these one is new, and belongs to a Polynoid genus, Hololepidella, established by 
Willey for a Ceylon species. Two of the other species obtained have already been 
reported from the neighbourhood ; the remaining couple are widely distributed. 

Hololepidella flynni (fi'om 1,300 fathoms). 

Physfdidonotus rugosus (from 65 fathoms). 

Lcetmonice producta var. benthaliana (from 1,300 fathoms). 

Eunice tentaculata (from 65 fathonrs). 

Eurythoe complanata. 



20 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOINT. 

Family SYLLID^. 

Sub-faudly Syllide^. 

Genus Syllis Savigny. 
Syllis closterof.eanchia Schmarda. 
Schmarda (1861), p. 72. 
Ehlers (1904), p. 19, pi. Ill, figs. 1-4. 
Ehlers (1908), p. 45. 
Benham (1909), p. 237. 

Ehlers (1913), p. 476, pi. XXXI, figs. 1-3 (epitokous phases). 
Augener (1913), p. 200, fig. 23. (I have not seen this.) 
Fauvel (1919), p. 354. 

(Plate 5, figs. 1-2.) 

It is interesting to find this species, originally regarded as a Sub-antarctic form, 
occurring off Adelie Land, though it has already been recorded from Kaiser Wilhelm 
II Land. 

Amongst the material I find epitokous phases as well as the atokous. The 
species seems somewhat variable, judging from the accounts of Ehlers and Fauvel, and 
my own observations, especially in regard to the shape and length of, and the number 
of annuli in, the dorsal cirri. I will here refer only to such differences as I have noted, 
for on the whole the specimens agree with the previous accounts. 

The larger individuals in the present collection, which numbers about a score, 
measure from 20-25 mm. in length, with a width of 1 mm.; they contain from 60-100 
segments. The breadth of the body is fairly uniform throughout, except for a slight 
tapering at each end. There are no markings on the dorsal surface. 

The prostomium is not quite in agreement with Ehlers' s figure, for in the 
specimens before me it is transversely oval, with the anterior margin produced in the 
middle line to form a rounded lobe, which is about half the width of the base of the 
prostomium. Ehlers shows the margin to be a continuous curve. The difference is 
perhaps due to the state of preservation. 

The number of annuli in the cirri has been shown to vary, and Ehlers (1913) has 
found that in the youngest stages they are not moniliform ; and that the annulation 
increases with age ; but I suggest that the differences observed in various adults may be 
in part due to injury to the tips of the appendages. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 21 

The median prostomial tentacles in the present specimens have 16amiiili; the 
laterals 12 ; the dorsal peristomial cirri present 17-18 ; the ventrals 15 (Ehlers found in 
a specimen from the Chatham Islands as many as 21-23 respectively). 

The dorsal cirri have a spindle-shape outline, which is characteristic for the 
species ; the cirri of the anterior six to eight segments are longer than the rest ; their 
length is greater than the breadth of the body here ; the sixth being the longest ; it 
has 20 annuli. 

The remainder of the dorsal cirri are fairly uniform in length, but not absolutely 
so ; though this seems to me due to inequality in contraction. 

The length of these cirri over tlie greater part of the body is rather less than the 
breadth of the body ; I find 12-13 annuli in most of them. Ehlers gives 8-11, usually 
the latter, and in specimens from the Chatham Islands as many as 21. Fauvel gives 
10-15 for Red Sea specimens. 

I find (fig. 1) that each parapod is supported by 3 or even 4 acicula, which lie 
close to one another above the bundle of chaeta\ The end of each aciculum is dilated 
just below the blunt tip, which is obliquely truncated and projects from the surface, 
(fig. 2). In some individuals, however, there is no dilatation, and the apex is 
symmetrically pointed. 

The pharynx commences in the 4th chaetigerous segment, as is seen in a specimen 
mounted entire in glycerine ; it extends back to the tenth segment, where it enters the 
" stomach" (or " ventriculus " ) which occupies segments 11-18; the intestine at first 
passes forwards from this point, and then bends backwards. It is from the former 
region that the pair of long cylindrical caeca are given off, one of which reaches forwards 
into the 14th, the other only as far as the 15th segment. 

Epitokous Phases. 

A male and a female occur amongst the material gathered at Boat Harboiu: at 
3i fathoms. 

They measure 12 nun. in length, with a width of 1 mm., and contain about 
32 segments. The eyes are large and red. They agree generally with the account 
and figmres given by Ehlers. 

I note, however, that four eyes are present in both sexes, one pair on the dorsal, 
the other pair on the ventral surface. Ehlers figure shows the male to be bUnd. 

The prostomial tentacles of the male are longer than in the female, but are not 
moniliform in either sex. 

The male is entire, and possesses two long moniliform anal cirri, longer than the 
dorsal cirri of that region. In the male the long modified chseta conunence in the 
third chtct'gerous ssgment. in t'le female in the sej'ond. ' ■ • 

Ehlers notes that the spawning time occurs in December and January. These 
were gathered in the former month. 



22 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Localities . — 

Commonwealth Bay, Boat Harbour, 2-4 fathoms. Collected by Dr. A. L. 
McLean. Commonwealth Bay, Station C. 15-20 fathoms ; Station D. 15-50 
fathoms ; Station 3, 157 fathoms. 

Macquarie Island, Rock pools, coll. Mr. Hamilton. 

Distribution. — Cape of Good Hope (Schmarda), Angra Pequena, New Zealand, 
Chatham Islands, Kais?r Wilhelm II Land (Ehlers), Campbell Island, Antipodes 
Islands (Benham), Red Sea (Fauvel*). 

Syllis urachycola Ehlers. 
Ehlers (1897), p. 38, pi. II, figs. 46, 47. 
Gravier (1906), p. 20, pi. II, fig. 17. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 477. 
Fauvel (1916), p. 427. 

(Plate 5, fig. 3.) 

Several of this species were obtained, and I may note the form of the acicula, 
of which two or three occur in each parapod. They may be colourless or brown, but 
have a characteristic extremity. This is a rounded knob quite unlilce those of S. 
closterobranchia (fig. 3). 

The uppermost chfeta, which is capilliform (" Nadel" of Ehlers), does not make 
its appearance till about the 20th foot, and may even be absent from some of the 
posterior feet, though whether they are broken or not developed I cannot say. 

Locality. — 

Macquarie Islands. Scrapings off kelp. 

Distribution. — Magellan, Kerguelen, South Georgia, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land 
(Ehlers), Booth Wandel Island (Gravier), Falldand Islands (Fauvel). 

Genus Pionosyllis Malmgren. 

PiONosYLLis tOMOSA Gravier. 
Gravier (1906), p. 15, pi. II, figs. 12, 13. 
Gravier (1911), p. 49. 
Ehlers ( 1913), p. 473, pi. XXXII, figs. 1-4. 

Several fragments of this Antarctic worm, consisting of the head and some 
20 chsetigerous segments, were obtained. They measure 25 mm. in length and about 
0-5 mm. across. Some are ripe females filled with eggs as far forwards as the 
proventriculus, but they present no epitokous modifications. 

* It may here bo noted that, Fauvel (1917, p. 193) regards the variety of Si/Uis rlostrruhranchia from the Chatham 
{slaiids (Ehlers), a specimen of which he has found on the coast of South Australia, as identical with jS. hyalina Grube, 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 23 

The freedom of the palps is well seen in those in which the pharynx is protruded, 
when they become widely sej^arated, as is shown in Ehlers's figures. 

The eyes are not so large as he figures, and I find that the anterior pair are, as 
usual, larger than the posterior. 

The chaetse of the anterior segments are all alike, but further back the length of 
the appendix differs in the upper and lower members of the bundle, but not I think 
to so great an e.xtent as is indicated by rrravier's figures. 

Locality. — 

Commonwealth Bay. 

Distribution. — Port Charcot, Port Circoncision (Gravier), Kaiser Wilhelm II Land 
(Ehlers). 

Genus Trypanosyllis Claparede. 

Trypanosyllis oigantea Mdi/tosh. 

Syllis gigantea Mcintosh (1885), p. 193, pi. XXX, figs. 1-3; pi. XXXIII, 

fig. 4 ; pi. Xa, fig. 10 ; pi. XXXIV A, fig. 7. 
Trypanosyllis gigantea Ehlers (1897), p. 35. 
Trypanosyllis gigantea Ehlers (1901), p. 85. 
Trypanosyllis gigantea Ehlers ( 1908), p. 65. 
Trypanosyllis gigantea Ehlers (1912), p. 17. 

Trypanosyllis gigantea Ehlers (1913), p. 475, pi. XXXI, figs. 11-16. 
Trypanosyllis gigantea Gravier (1911), p. 52, pi. I, figs. 7, 8. 
Trypanostjllis gigantea Fauvel (1917), p. 200, gives further synonymy. 

This characteristic Antarctic Syllid is evidently very abundant in Commonwealth 
Bay, for there are at least twenty individuals in the collection obtained from five stations 
or perhaps from four, as one of the lots consisting of as many as fourteen specimens is 
accompa^iedby no information as to where they were obtained. 

Some of the specimens attain to a greater size than even those described by 
Mcintosh, which reached only the length of 60 mm. The largest complete individual 
in the present collection measures 130 mm., with a diameter of 5 mm. over the body, 
and 6 mm. across the parapodia. The width of the body is equal to the length of twelve 
segments, which are thus very short. The body is very much depressed, its height 
being only 2 mm. Mcintosh gives a figure of a transverse section through the pharyngeal 
region, where the height of the body is increased by the presence of that organ ; the 
worm is in reality much flatter than that figure would indicate. 

The colour of the preserved specimens is a pale yellow, dorsally and ventrally, 
becoming brownish anteriorly. One individual is orange brown ventrally, with a 
yellowish dorsum, and with brown niarkings along the margins of this surface. 



24 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The tentacles are white; the dorsal cirri are alternately plain white, and white 
ringed with purplish brown. In some specimens these white cirri are more closely 
coiled than the others, and lie close to the body forming a fringe, as it were, along its 
margin. The purple-ringed cirri, however, are more loosely coiled, and they rise above 
the level of the former, over the back of the worm. The two series of cirri are thus 
very readily distinguished. All the cirri, like the tentacles, are moniliform. 

Ehlers (1897) .states that when alive, the colour of the worms from South Georgia 
were " a beautiful orange, with white belly ;" those from Magellan Strait were rosy- 
red, with dark brownish-red cirri ; or pale flesh-colom-ed, with cirri of the same tint; 
or dark brown. The former plan of colouration seems to agree with those from 
Commonwealth Bay. He also notes (1911) that in February and March the species 
develop swimming bristles, so that presumably they become sexually mature at this 
period. 

Localities . — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station D, 45-50 fathoms, 
Station 1 , 350-400 fathoms, 
Station 2, 318 fathoms. 
Station 12, 110 fathoms, 

*Distnhution. — Kerguelen (Mcintosh), South Georgia, Magellan Strait, Juau 
Fernandez, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, South Victoria Land (Ehlers), 
Marguerite Bay, Terre Alexandre (Gravier). 

Sub-family Exogone.^. 
Genus Exogone Oersted. 

EXOGONE ANOMALOCH^TA Sf. nOV. 

(Plate 5, figs. 11-13.) 
Several small worms, measuring about 6 mm. in length, with about 36 segments, 
agree pretty closely with E. heterosetosa Mcintosh, so that it is unnecessary to give a 
detailed account of them. Nevertheless, there are two differences from that species 
which render it necessary to establish a new one. 

The tentacles spring close to the anterior margin of the prostomium, and in this 
respect differs from the above species. (See Ehlers, 1897, pi. Ill, fig. 61.) They are 
unequal in size ; the median is spindle-shaped, shorter than the length of the postomium; 
the laterals are ovate and shorter than the median. 

The peristomium bears a short ovate cirrus, and just above it a nuchal organ, 
such as Gravier figures for E. turqueti (1906, pi. I, fig. 3). The huge palps are longer 
than the prostomium. The anal cirri are spindle-shaped, and equal in length the anal 
segment. 

* If Fauvel is correct in identifying the species with Syllis tieniceformis Haswell, and with T. rkhariii Gravier, the 
further localities must be added — Australia, North and South Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 25 

The parapodia spring from near the anterior boundary of the segments, are short, 
and contain but few chsetaj — about 6 in the anterior and 4 in the posterior feet. 

There are three kinds of chaets- (fig. 13) — (a) the uppermost simple capilliform, 
swollen at the end with a symmetrical but fine point ( this is the " aciculum " of Mcintosh) ; 
{b) the uppermost gomphotrich, which differs from that found in E. lieterosetosa, as will 
be described below ; and (c) some fom- or five smaller gomphotrichs. These have an 
enlarged end to the shaft and articulated deep dowm at one side is the short bidentate 
appendix. They are similar to those in E. lieterosetosa, but have a more swollen cup. 
The lowest chsetae have this somewhat less enlarged than the upper ones, but the 
difference between them is not very marked. 

The uppermost gomphotrich is not " spathulate" at its extremity. It consists 
of a slender shaft, which is much expanded at its extremity to form a large cup, which 
when seen from the side is quadrate. Three of its sides or edges are smooth, and in the 
re-entering angle between two of these the appendix is articulated, the fourth side 
forming the real free end of the shaft is finely but sharply denticulate, and its face is 
striated. The appendix is rather long, curved, and bidentate. 

When seen in the other plane — that is, from the front — ^the swollen end of the 
shaft is oval, and the free tip of the appendix projects beyond. It has somewhat the 
appearance of Ehlers's figure of the chseta of E. lieterosetosa (1897, pi. Ill, fig. 65), if a 
line were di'awn between the pointed tip and the oval portion ; but there are no con- 
centric lines here in the present species. The previous authors, Mcintosh, Ehlers. 
Gravier, have stated that this particular cheeta is " simple" and " spathulate." But 
in a recent paper Fauvel (1919, p. 356) states that it is really a gomphotrich, i.. that it 
bears a long and delicate appendix (" arete") which, being easily broken off, gives the 
appearance of being simple. But, even so, the form of the cha^ta in the worms before me 
differ so much from the figures that I cannot correlate the two, hence the new species. 

It differs from E. clavator Ehlers, in the absence of the cha^tiie with very long 
appendices that occur in the upper part of the bundle, as well as in other characters; 
and from E. turqueti Gravier, also in the form of the chsetie. 

The dorsal cirrus is ovate and shorter than the chsetigerous lobe ; the ventral 
cirrus is longer, pointed, and extends beyond the lobe. 

The pharynx is lined with a dark-brown cuticle and extends through the peris- 
tomium and three following segments to enter the barrel-shaped proventriculus, which 
occupies 2^ segments. This leads into a sub-globular region occupying the rest of the 
7th segment, and then follows the intestine. 
Locality. — 

Commonwealth Bay and Macquarie Island. 

Amongst some material sorted out by Professor Haswell he noted some individuals 
bearing young ones, which he kindly forwarded to me. The young ones are carried ou 
each side of the ventral surface just below the ventral cirri. They form a double series 
of 8 or 9 on each side of the segments 12-20. 

•S3892— D 



26 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Each young one consists of head and 4 chsetigerous segments, followed by one 
segnient with a parapod, but without chsetae, and the anal segment carries a pair of 
long cirri. 

Owing to the position of the mother, I am unable to see the characteristic gom- 
photrich, but as the specimens come from the same locality T have little doubt that it 
is this species. 

Genus Sph^rosyllis Malmgren. 
Sph.erosyllis McIntoshi Ehlers. 
Salvatoria kerguelensis Mcintosh (1885), p. 188, pi. XXX, fig. 4 ; pi. XXXIII, 

fig. 1 ; pi. XV A, figs. 11, 12. 
Sfhcerosyllis mcintoshi Ehlers (1897), p. 46. 
SpJmrosyllis mcintoshi Ehlers (1913), p. 481. 

(Plate 1, figs. 4-6.) 

Ehlers has laready shown that Salvatoria of Mcintosh is in reality a Syllid 
belonging to Malmgren's genus. Mcintosh, although he j^laced the worm amongst the 
Hesionidse, recognised in the course of his account that in several features it approached 
the Syllidse. 

In the present collection I find specimens of this small worm amongst those taken 
in Boat Harbour during the month of .lune, 1912, in 3-4 fathoms of water. 

They are only 3-4 mm. in length with 28-33 segnxents. The tentacles and the 
dorsal cirri have swollen bases and narrowed tips, but are not so short and stumpy as 
in the typical SphcBrosyllis . The rounded prostomium (figs. 4, 5) carries three tentacles, 
two pairs of eyes, and a pair of palps ; the last are fused and project beyond the 
prostomium. Ventrally this region is deeply furrowed in the median line indicating 
the double nature of this organ. Mcintosh, it will be remembered, denied the existence 
of the palps ; but his specimens were soft and ill-preserved. 

He was, I think, in error too in stating that the filamentous tapering extremity of 
tentacle and cirrus is " distinctly segmented," for in my specimens, ^ diich are well 
preserved, there is no indication of this, though there are a few quite irregularly disposed 
constrictions along this region, when the animal is mounted in glycerine. 

I have thought it well to give a careful drawing of the head (fig. 4) as Mcintosh's 
figure, the only one as far as I know that has been published, is misleading. 

The peristomial cirri are short. The following segments carry long parapods, 
each with a single bundle of chsetse, a dorsal cirrus, and a short cylindrical ventral cirrus 
which extends beyond the chsetigerous lobe. 

The chsetigerous lobe is supported by two acicula, each of which is swollen just 
below the point (fig. 6). Below these are 8-10 chsetse, the uppermost of which is 
capilliform, as Mcintosh has noted, while the rest are gomphotrichs of the form shown 
in his figure. 



POLYC'HiETA— BENHAM. 27 

The anal segment carries a pair of cirri similar to the dorsal cirri. 

The extent of the pharynx and the proventriculus (or stomach) agrees with that 
shown in his figure. 

T received some specimens from Dr. Haswell in which eggs were attached to the 
parapods. 

Ehlers has described the epitokous phase. 

Locality. — 

Boat Harbour, Commonwealth Bay, 3-4 fathoms. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen (Mcintosh), South Georgia, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land 
(Ehlers). 

Sub -family Autolyte.i:. 
Genus Autolytus Grube. 
AuTOLYTUs CHARCOT! Gravier. 
Gravier (1906), p. 7, pi. I, figs. 1, 2. 

(Plate 5, figs. 7-10.) 
Of this species, both the atokous and the epitokous phases of both sex are 
represented ; the latter have not hitherto been described. 

Atokous phase. 

Of the seven specimens of the atokous phase in the collection, some were still 
within thin transparent membranous tubes ; of which one measures 30 mm. in length 
and 4 nim. in diameter. The tubes were attached to one another, side by side, forming 
a small mass; and to one was attached a portion of a colony of a Hydrozoon. 

The contained animal is complete and measures 26 mm. in length, with a breadth 
of 3 mm. at about ird of its length, whence it tapers slightly l>oth anteriorly and 
posteriorly ; it contains 70 segments. The body is flattened dorso-ventrally and has 
height of 2 mm. (fig. 7). Another individual, from Boat Harbour, was free from its 
tube ; is 18 mm. in length and 1-5 nun. across the body, which is built up of 68 segments 
or more, the last few being very small. Smaller worms were also present, one of which 
with a length of 6 mm. was stained and mounted entire. It is still within its thin tube 
and came from the same station in Commonwealth Bay as that first mentioned. 

Gravier had only two specimens, one of which was entire, and is smaller than 
some of those before me. 

The worms are pale-brown in colour with a transverse bar of somewhat darker 
tint across each segment, the width of the bars being rather greater than the pale .space 
separating them. As Gravier has noted, this banding is more marked towards the 
middle of the body length. 

The first mentioned worm is full of eggs, though the body is not yet differentiated 
into regions ; there are none of the characteristic long slender bristles that indicate the 
epitokous phase. 



28 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Passing backwards from the prostoniium are two conspicuous white broad ridges, 
the " epaulettes " or " ailerons," which cross over the peristomium and two following 
segments'just 'above the bases of the dorsal cirri and end at the hinder margin of the third 
segment. Each of these structures is grooved along its upper surface, and its inner 
margin is thickened, rounded, and opaque white ; they show well against the pigmented 
surface of the dorsal surface. Though so consj)icuous in the worm viewed by reflected 
light, they are scarcely visible in a stained specimen niounted in Canada balsam. 

The peristomial dorsal cirri are about as long as the prostomial tentacles. The 
ventral cirri of this segment are short. On the next two segments the dorsal cirri are 
longer still, though their exact length is difficult to estimate as they are coiled. 

The dorsal cirri are cylindrical, smooth, and though presenting irregular con- 
strictions here and there, are not truly moniliform; each is marked by a streak of 
brown pigment along its external and internal faces. 

On the ventral surface there is, on each side, a series of segmentally arranged 
great oval glandular pads such as Mcintosh describes for his Autolytus maclearanus. 
I suggest that these glands are responsible for the membranous tube in which the worm 
lives. 

The anterior dorsal cirri are as long as the width of the body, but decreases in 
length posteriorly, so that in the mid-body, their length is about half this width, and 
they become still shorter further back. 

The form of the parapod (fig. 7), and the arrangement of the cluBtte are as Gravier 
has described, though the ventral glandular pad is more definitely constricted off from 
the body on the ventral surface than his figure indicates. The parapod is supported by 
a couple of acicula lying close together side by side ; and carries, besides the bundle of 
compound chsetse, one or two capilliforms ; it is, however, only exceptionally that one 
can detect them owing to their fragility. 

The cup of the " gomphotrich " or compound chaeta (fig. 8), is characteristically 
striated on one side, the appendix is, as usual, short with two unequal teeth, of which the 
distal is slenderer than the other ; the latter presents slight differences according to its 
position in the bundle ; in the lower chaetse it is sharply pointed as is the distal tooth ; 
whereas in the upper ones it is usually bluntly rounded as if subject to wear. The form 
of the appendix does not quite agree with the figure given by Gravier (p. 8, fig. 1), as I 
find that there are no serrations below the teeth. It seems also to be somewhat broader 
in proportion to the length than is shown by that figure. 

The pharynx, which Gravier was unable to study, extends back to the end of the 
7th segment, where it bends forwards on itself, then turns back to enter the " stomach " 
(or proventriculus), which occupies apparently segments 10-14 as seen in a specimen 
that I dissected ; but in a mounted specimen of smaller size, this stomach occupies 
segments 7-10. Whether this difference is due to age or to a disarrangement during 
dissection I cannot say. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 29 

Remarks. — From these suutherii seas, four species of Autolytus have been recorded — • 
A. maclearanns Mcintosh, A. gibber Ehlers, A. simplex Ehlers; in addition to 
Gravier's species. But the last is the only one in which tlie " ailerons " 
are developed, as Ehlers has pointed out (1913). 

Epitokous phases. 
A considerable number, some 3-4 dozen, of male and female epitokous stages were 
collected on the surface at Boat Harbour. They are described by Dr. McLean as being 
"' reddish in coloiu"." In the preserved state some are deep brown, others pale brown, 
and others again almost white ; they all agree in their structure though it may be that 
the darker ones are older than the rest*. 

The brown ones are of deeper tint on the ventral than on the dorsal surface, 
which suggests that the worms swim on their backs at this time. Naturallv they vary 
in length, the majority being from 12-18 mm. In each case I have chosen for description 
one of the largest specimens. 

Sacconereis. 

The majority of the females have lost the ventral egg-sac, though this is still 
present in one that was mounted, where it lies behind the 1.5th cha^tigerous segment. 

A complete large individual, measuring 38 mm. in length with a breadth of 5 mm., 
consists of a " head "' with 14 unmodified segments, plus 40 segments with longer 
parapods, each carrying a bundle of long capilliform notopodial bristles ; this region is 
followed by 30 umnodified posterior segments. 

The head in this phase undergoes little modification ; there are no additional 
prostomial appendages ; but the eyes are enlarged, specially those of the anterior pair 
which have become thrust down to the under surface. 

The ailerons are distinct. 

The dorsal surface of the body is marked by intersegmental bands of yellowish 
brown pigment which encroach more or less on to the surface of the segments. The 
dorsal cirri retain the colouration of the atokous phase, brown with a white line along 
each face. 

Polybostrichus. 

In the male, the prostonuum is white, but the appendages are more or less deeply 
tinted. The tentacles are brown on the anterior or ventral faces, and white dorsally ; 
the frontal tentacles, like the " bifurcated appendages," are deep browm ; the dorsal 
cirri are paler dorsally than ventrally. 

A complete individual, measuring 32 mm. in length, consists of a " head " with 
14 unmodified chaetigerous segments, followed by 45 segments with long capilliform 
bristles, behind which are again some 20 unmodified segments. 



* When placed in water previous to being stained in alum-carmine the pigment is dissolved, and the water becomes 
colonred an orange-brown, 



30 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The transversely extended prostomium (figs. 9-10) bears the usual large eyes, 
arranged as in the Sacconereis. Springing from the upper surface near the hinder 
border is the long median tentacle, which is about 5 mm. in length. The lateral 
tentacles are noticeably larger, being about twice the thickness of the median and of 
greater length. That region of the prostomium from which they arise has apparently 
been pressed backwards and downwards, so that the peristomial cirri appear, in dorsal 
view, to be in front of them. Below the base of these long lateral tentacles is a large 
swollen subspherical mass overhanging the chsetigerous lobe of the second segment. 
It is upon this mass that the lateral tentacles stand. 

From the anterior margin, between the eyes, the club-shaped " frontal tentacles " 
arise, and below them the " bifurcated appendages" (which according to Malaquin 
represent the united palps and lateral-anterior tentacles, a view that Ehlers does not 
accept). I prefer to use the above term so as to avoid any morphological controversy. 
These " bifurcated appendages " consist of a thick basal region which divides into two 
branches, one shorter and thicker and fleshy; the other longer and slenderer. The 
former appears to be a continuation of the Ijasal region (than which it is rather longer), 
and so to constitute the main axis ; the latter branch is borne on the under and outer 
face of the fleshy portion; it is about grd the length of the median tentacles, but as both 
are coiled, it is difficult to give j recise measurements. 

These organs spring from the prostomium below the frontal tentacles at a level 
of a line drawn across between the dorsal and ventral pairs of eyes : their bases touch 
ventrally. Their position on what appears to be the morphological dorsal surface of 
the prostomium seems to negative the view that they are palps unless their origin has 
shifted upwards, as that of the lateral tentacles has shifted downwards. 

Both the basal region of the appendage and the thicker branch are n arked by 
a series of granular rings from which spring hairs, some of which in a mounted specimen 
are curved. Presumably they are sensory hairs. Unfortunately they are invisible in 
Canada balsam mounts, though clearly seen in glycerine preparations. 

The ailerons or epaulettes are present, extending across the bases of the large 
tentacles and, as in the atokous phase, reach to the hinder end of the third segment. 

In some specimens, but not in all, there is a linear white ridge jiassing backwards 
from the prostomium in the middle line over the first six or seven segments. I noticed 
it both in large and small individuals, in dark and in pale ones, while in others it is not 
present. I failed to detect it in the Sacconereis. Although visible in reflected light 
it is not to be seen iji any of the mounted sjjecimens. Has this low linear ridge anything 
to do with the " birnformig Hocker,"" which Ehlers describes and figures for this 
Pterautohjtus (1907, p. 8). This is a small pear-shaped upstanding structure on the 
mid-dorsal line of the 2nd segment. On p. 10, he compares it with certain " occipital 
Hocker " which occur in some other syllids, such as Syllis notocera Ehlers and Autolytus 
gibber Ehlers; in the latter, however, it is merely a broad round-edged lobe overhanging 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 31 

the back of the prostomium. I have failed to find anything like this linear longitudinal 
ridge in any Syllids figured by Ehlers, Gravier, or other authors. 

On the ventral surface, the prostomium is notched on its hinder margin and the 
borders are deeply pigmented. The anterior segments of the body are provided with 
large ventral glandular pads as in the atokous phase ; and in the pale-coloured reddish 
individuals, these are very conspicuous owing to their opaque whiteness. 

Locality of Atokous forms. — 

Boat Harbour, surface 3^ fathoms (three specimens); and Commonwealth 
Bay, 25 fathoms (four). 

Locality of Epitokous phases. — - 

Boat Harbour '' taken in hand-net at the surface," on 8, VII, 12 ; 7, IX, 
12 and 14, IX, 12. 

Distribution. — Port Charcot (Gravier). 

Family APHEODITID^. 

Sub -family Aphrodi tin^ . 

Genus L^tmonice Kinherg, 

L^TMONicE PRODUCTA Gnibe. 

Grube (1877), p. 512. 

Mcintosh (1885), p. 39, pi. VI, figs. 1, 2; pi. IV a, figs. 1-8. 
Ehlers (1908), p. 40. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 438. 
Gravier (1911), p. 80. 
Moore (1903), p. 420; and various other authors. 

Seventeen individuals of tliis handsome annelid were obtained. It has been 
so fully described by Mcintosh that nothing more need be said of it here. 

Localities. — 

Station 3, 157 fathoms (one). 

Station 11, 358 fathoms (one). 

And fifteen specimens without any data. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen (Grube, Mcintosh), Heard Island (IMcIntosh), Kaiser 
Wilhelm II Land (Ehlers), Graham's Land (Gravier), Japan (Moore). 

L. PRODUCTA var. henthaliana Mcintosh. 
Mcintosh ( 1885), p. 45, pi. VIII, figs. 4, 5 ; pi. IV a, fig. 12 ; pi. V a, figs. 1, 2. 
Moore (1903), p. 420. 

A single individual was obtained by Professor Flynn off Maria Island at a 
depth of 1,300 fathoms. 



3^ AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

This is an instance of the wide distribution of animals living at great depths 
for it has been recorded from the Antarctic to the coast of Ja^Dan. 

It has been met with by the " Challenger " at the following jilaces :— Between 
Prince Edward IsL.nd and Kerguelen, at a depth of 1,600 fathoms. Midway between 
Australia and the Antarctic, at 1,950 fathoms. Also in the North Pacific (lat. 35° 41' 
N., long. 157° 42' E.) at 2,300 fathon.s, and (lat. 35° 22' N., long. 169° 63' E.) at a depth 
of 2,900 fathoms. While Moore records the variety from the coast of Japan at 3,774 
fathoms. 

Sub -family Polynoin^. 
Genus Enipo Malmgren. 
Enipo rhombigera Elders. 
47, pi. TV, figs. 1-12. 



Ehlers (1908), 


P- 


47, 


Ehlers (1912), 


P- 


13. 


Ehlers (1913), 


P- 


449, 


Gravier(1911) 


'P- 


81. 



Of this very distinctly patterned species, which is confined to the Antarctic 
region, as many as forty-two specimens were gathered by the " Aurora " from eight 
stations and from one unnamed locality. 

The plan of .colouration is sufficiently described and illustrated by coloured 
figures by Ehlers, and some other variations of pattern are mentioned by Gravie.-. 
I have only to add that in one specimen, which measured 100 mm., the dorsum is very 
darkly coloured. The violet median band, with its rhomboidal outgrowths, is nearly 
continuous on the elytriferous segments ; with a streak of dark brown along the hinder 
half of the segment ; while in the cirriferous segments, where the median band is 
not produced outwards, there are two parallel cross-bars of brown, extending inwards 
from the cirrophore, one in front, the other behind it, nearly meeting the median 
pigmenled band. 

The greatest length of any of my specimens is 100 mni., though others have 
been previously described tliat exceed this. 

The figure of the head given by Ehlers is not quite satisfactory, since the median 
tentaculophore is so drawn as to suggest that it bore the tentacle (which is niissing, 
as it usually is) on its upper surface, which would be a very unusual position in the 
family. As a matter of fact, however, it is the fault of the artist, for I find that the 
tentacle is inserted at the anterior extremity of the tentaculophore as usual. 

Localities . — - 

Commonwealth Bay, Station D, 45-50 fathoms (two). 
Station E, 55-60 fathoms (four). 
Station 1, 350-400 fathoms (nine). 



POLYCH.^TA— BENHAM. 33 

Station 2, 318 fathoms (five). 
Station 3, 157 fathoms (three). 
Station 8, 120 fathoms (ten). 
Station 10, 325 fathoms (two). 
Station 12, 110 fathoms (four). 
Distribution.— 8 o\\1:h Victoria Land, Bouvet Island, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, 
(Ehlers), Graham's Land, Alexander Land (Gravier). 

Genus Hololepidella Willey. 

HOLOLEPIDELLA FLYXXI Sp. HOV. 

(Plate 5, figs. 14-20). 

The species is founded on four slender worms collected oE Maria Island, Tasmania, 
by Professor T. T. Flynn. The pale grey dorsum is covered by white and nearly 
opaque elytra, which occur almost over the entire length of the body. 

The largest individual is about 40 mm. in length and contains 63 segments. 
Its greatest breadth is in the region of segments 5-13, where it measures 4 mm. over 
the body; 5-5 mm. across the parapods ; and 7-5 mm. including the chastse. From 
this point the body begins to taper so that at the 26th segment the breadth is only 
2-5 mm., while at the 40th it is but 2 mm. The length of the parapods does not sensibly 
decrease till quite close to the hinder end. 

The total number of elytra is rather difficult to decide, as the majority have 
fallen away; but by counting the elytrophores I find that there are at least 26 pairs. 
In a small individual, which measures 27 mm., with 61 segments, 18 pairs of elytra 
are in position, the last being on segment 41. but there are elytrophores posterior 
to this. 

I find, as did Willey, that it is by no means easy to distinguish elytrophores 
from cirrophores. from which the cirri have fallen away, both are nearly in the same 
Ime, close to the margin of the body; but by comparing the four specimens and 
especially after the examination of one that was stained and mounted, which 
lacks, however, the last 2-3 segments, one can fairly readily distinguish the two 
stnictures. 

In this species the elytra are arranged as follows :^The first 12 are on the usual 
segments, that is (counting the peristomium as 1st) on the segments 2, 4, 5, 7-21, 23; 
the next sLx elytra appear to be regularly on every third segment — 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41. 
It is hereafter that irregularity creeps in, but in all the four individuals I find 
el}i;ra or elytrophores on the next segment, 42nd ; in two instances they occur on 
the next two segments, that is, on three consecutive segments. Further back they 
are either on alternate segments or with gaps of two or three segments at intervals; 
or on consecutive segments. The arrangement is not symmetrical, so that no general 
statement covers their position ; no formula can be given for these posterior elytra. 

• S3S92— E 



u 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



Willey (1905, p. 251) found a similar irregularity in H. commensalis. I place 
the facts in tabular form for reference : — 







Posterior elytra of right side carried 


bv 


Number of 
Elytron 




the segments in each of the four 
specimens. 






A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


19 


42 




42 


42 


42 


20 


45 




46 


43 


43 


21 


46 




48 


44 


44 


22 


47 




51 




46 


23 


49 








48 


24 


50 








50 


25 


55 








54 


26 


56 








58 


27 


57 











A is the stained and mounted specimen. 

In B, only 22 pairs of elytra were present, the remainder of the f)S 
segments being cirriferous. 

C is soft, and it is impossible to distinguish the elytrophores from the 
cirrophores. 

The elytra, except the first which is circular, are oval with the longer axis oblique 
to that of the body ; and in the better preserved specimens they overlap from side to 
side. The " areola " is near the external margin, the surface is smooth, and there is 
no marginal fringe. 

The prostomium (fig. 14) is colourless, broader than long ; the eyes are large, 
the posterior pair far back, latero-dorsal in position, with a large lens ; the anterior 
pair are lateral, with the lens directed forwards ; these are situated at the broadest 
part of the prostomium, which is rather in front of the the middle of its length. 
The prostomium is produced into distinct " peaks," immediately above the base 
of the lateral tentacles. The tentacles are smooth, tapering to a point ; the median 
is about twice the length of the laterals and longer than the palp. The laterals are 
about I rds the length of the palp. 

The parapods (fig. 15, 16) are short, and distinctly divided Into two nearly 
equal lobes. The notopod, of less height than the neuropod, is like it produced into 
a long and slender aciculum-containing process. The dorsal cirrophore overhangs 
the chsetigerous lobe ; the cirrus is smooth, tapering, very long and easily broken o£E. 

The notopod contains only about 8-10 short yellow straight and stout chaetae 
with extremely fine transverse lines which appear to represent the " pectinated " frills 
of other genera, and these lines in older bristles are often worn away (fig. 20). 



POLYCH^TA-BENHAM. 35 

The ventral chseta; (fig. 17-19) are about twenty-four in number; each is, 
shaped like a spear head, the frilled region is short and marked by many very 
fine closelv-set pectinated frills which take an undulating course across the bristle, 
and are visible along both edges. The chaetse are not all alike, some being more 
slender and having a longer frilled region than others. The frills commence at some 
distance from the tip, which is curved and carries a short sub-apical tooth. 

I have placed this species in Willey's genus, which is defined as follows : — ■ 
" A polynoid; antennae arising at a lower level than the tentaculum impar, segments 
and elvtra numerous." It does not fit into any other genus, though it is remarkable 
that the two species should occur in such wddely separated localities, the type species 
living on the shores of Ceylon. 

Locality.- — 

Of? Maria Island, Tasmania, 1,300 fathoms. 

' Genus Physalidonotus Ehlers. 

Physalidonotus rugosus Benham. 
Benham (1915), p. 182, pi. XXXVIII, figs. 16-22 ; pi. XXXIX, figs. 23-25. 
Two individuals were obtained in the neighbourhood of the spot at which the 
type was taken. 

Locality. — Off Maria Island, Tasmania, 65 fathoms. 
Distribution. — Bass Strait, coast of Victoria. 

Genus Harmothoe Kinberg sensu-lato. 
Harmothoe .'-pinosa Kinberg. 
H. spinosa Kinberg (1855), p. 386. 
H. spinosa Kinberg (1857), p. 21, pi. VI, fig. 31. 
Polynoefidlo Grube (1877), p. 515. 
P. vesiculosa Grube (1877), p. 514. 
Lagisca antarctica Mcintosh (1885), p. 80, pi. XIII, fig. 1 ; pi. XVI, fig. 3 ; 

pi. XVIII, fig. 1 ; pi. VIA, figs. 10-11. 
L. magellanica Mcintosh (1885), p. 82, and the varieties of this species. 
H. spinosa Ehlers (1897), p. 12. 

H. spinosa Willey (1902), p. 264, pi. XLI, figs. 1-4 ; pi. XL! 11, figs. 1, 2, 4-8. 
H. spinosa Ehlers (1908). p. 43. 
H. spinosa Ehlers (1912), p. 10, pi. I, fig. 8. 
H. spinosa Ehlers (1913), p. 438, pL XXVI, figs. 1-12. 
H. spinosa Gravier (1906), p. 33. 

H. spinosa Gravier (1911), p. 88, pi. V, figs. 54-.59 ; pi. VI, figs. 64-69. 
H. spinosa Fauvel (1916), p. 421, pi. VIII, figs. 8-9 (chfefce). 
H. spinosa Fauvel (1917), p. 179, pi. Vf, figs. 47-48 (head). 

(Plate fig. 21.) 



36 AUSTRALASIAN AMTAECTIC EXPEDITION. 

Ehlers gives some coloured pictures of this common Antarctic Polynoid, in his 
account of the National Antarctic Expedition, and of its varieties, in the report of the 
German South Polar Expedition, above referred to. 

In the " Challenger " report, Mcintosh figures the head and the chsetaj of 
the species and varieties as distinguished by him ; and Wdley represents the general 
appearance of the aninial and the characteristic tubercles on the elytra. 

For a fidl list of the synonmy and literature consult P]hlers (1913). 

The species is evidently extremely abiindant in Commonwealth Bay, as 169 
individuals are included in the collection, obtained from depths varying from 2 to 400 
fathoms, and it probably lives along the shore also, as Ehlers has noted its abundance 
along shore at all seasons of the year at Kaiser Wilhelm II. Land. 

It is, as is well known, extraordinarily variable in colouration, and Ehlers has 
figured several of the more usual tvpes. 

I find large as well as small individuals in which the elytra are colourless, so 
that the worm has a greyish appearance, though the more typical colour is some tone 
of brown, usually a chestnut, with or without a purplish tinge. 

In some the elytra are uniformly tinted; in others the pigment is in definite 
patches, which are either small and scattered irregularly over the surface, or arranged 
in definite lines parallel to the long axis of the worm ; in still others the patches are 
so closely crowded together that they produce a nearly uniform darker tone. 

In most cases the " areola," that is the area above the attachment of the elytron 
to its elytropore, is without pigment. In some individuals a reddish-purple spot or 
even a violet spot lies behind this areola ; or, again, this is reinforced by an additional 
purple splash near the posterior external border ; this spot may occur both in pale and 
in darkly pigmented elytra. 

The upper surface of the elytra is often iridescent, and so adds to the beauty of 
the worm, giving as it does a bluish tinge to the brown in certain parts of the elytron, 
according to the angle at which light is reflected from it. 

Further, the body wall is pigmented in various ways, and in various tints inde- 
pendently of the colour of the elytra. In some specimens the dorsum is almost without 
pigment, but it is usually crossed by narrow bars of brown or olive, which are confined 
to the median region of the back. Very frequently there is a tesselated, or chess-board 
pattern of brown or of olive-green, or of both colours combined, giving a beautiful 
eflect (fig. 21). In such cases the pigment is in the form of quadrate patches on each 
side of the middle line on alternate segments, the median line being white ; and in the 
intervening segments, the sides are pale and transverse bars of pigment cross the 
middle line. 

But the most remarkable variant is found in the largest individuals, where the 
entire dorsum is a uniform steel-blue or indigo-blue, or purple (as in Ehlers's fig. 1, 1913), 
with the bases of the parapods white or pale pinkj or of a rather deeper lilac colour. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 37 

In one case the belly is nearly as deeply pigmented blue as the dorsum; but 
this is very exceptional, as the ventral surface is generally without pigm.ent. 

There seems to be no very definite correlation between the colom-ation and the 
depth at which the worms were found, for in sorting out the specimens from the jars 
in which they reached me, I rather naturally separated out those in which the colours 
were strikingly dift'erent, under the impression that I had to deal with distinct species. 
Thus, in one lot from 25 fathoms, I find fom- different plans of colouration or, as I sup- 
posed, four different species. 

Nevertheless, after talnilating the worms under their colours and their depths, 
it seems tha<' there is a rough correlation between them. Thus, in shallow water, 
from the shore line down to 60 fathoms, the general tone of colour of the elytra is darker 
and variegated in brown, while the dorsum is without pigment, or has pale trans- 
verse lines of brown. The elytra, too, are more firmly attached to the elytrophores 
than in other cases. 

But in those worms that come from greater depths, say, 110-400 fathoms, the 
elytra are paler and more uniformly coloured, and may even be colourless and trans- 
lucent; and they are readily deciduous. On the other hand, the dorsum is now 
pigmented more deeply or more extensively, and it is from these depths that the 
handsome dark blue and violet worms were obtained. But this applies only to the 
larger specimens. 

The smaller worms are apparently less afiected by depth ; or it may be that 
the change in the amount of pigment is a measure of age, for in a general way the smaller 
individuals are deeply colouretl, while the larger ones, above 60 mm. in length, have 
pale or colom'less elytra, with a more deeply pigmented dorsum. The smaller worms, 
from 10-30 nun. are generally found in less deep water than those from 40-90 mm. 

The texture and ornamentation also of the elytra present considerable range of 
variation, for in some the surface appears under a lens to be smooth, whereas in the 
more typical forms there is a row of pale conical tubercles along the posterior border, 
as shown in Willey's figm-e 2, pi. XLI. These are usually better developed on the 
elytra from the hinder region of the body, while the more anterior ones may be without 
them. Again the entire surface may be covered with small cones, visible under a lens, 
and giving them a rough appearance to the naked eye. The marginal fringe may be 
present or absent. 

The prostomium is usually white, whether the dorsum of the body is pigmented 
or not, but in one case at least, it is marked transversely by a narrow band of brownish 
pigment (as in var. lagiscoides, as figured by Gravier (1911), pi. VI, fig. 64). The 
peristomial cirri, anal cirri, and dorsal cirri are browmish. 

In spite of these variations in colour there are two features in the distribiition 
of pigment that appear to be constant, namely :— (1) the dark greyish-blue tint on the 



38 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

upper lip of the mouth, and especially along its median line, on the ridge which extends 
upwards to the anterior margin of the prostomium ; and (2) the elongated lips of th? 
notopodial and neuropodial lobes are coloured dark brown or pm-plish brown. 

These two features I found very useful in distinguishing readily the species from 
H. tuberosa. 

As to the chsetee. The latest drawings are those of Fauvel (1916, pi. VIII, figs. 
8, 9). He shows the dorsal cha-ta as having a row of stout spines along one edge, 
each spine being apparently the enlarged marginal tooth of one of the pectinated frills. 
My own observations do not bear out this interpretation ; the frills certainly project 
a good deal beyond the edge, and the appearance produced is of rather stout spines, 
but I interpret this as being due merely to the fact that two or more of the pectinations 
are here seen one over the other, producing indistinct thickening of the frill. I do not 
find definite spines here, nor do other authors. 

In the ventral chsetse, however, there are in the distal frills definite spines which 
are shown by Willey (pi. XLIII, fig. 2). 

In this paper ( 1902) Willey distinguishes " three principal allotypic modifi- 
cations " of the species, one of which he retains as a distinct species, and refers it to 
Mcintosh's Lagisca crossetensis. The other two are described as varieties of H. spinosa, 
namely, " var. typica " and " vav. fullo,'' with a sub-variety '' lagiscoideo." The two 
latter varieties are characterised by, among other things, the presence of long conical 
tubercles or spines on the elytra; the last variety by the fact that the himbuost seg- 
ments are not cervered by the elytra. 

Gravier (1911) describes in detail examples of the two varieties, " fi/pica " and 
" lagiscoides," and mentions that the latter has the elytra more deeply pigmented than 
the former. 

I have, as already noted, a very large series of the species— but I have failed to 
find any in which the hinder segments are thus exposed. It is true that I have not 
been able to give the time to sorting out of this series into groups or varieties, and the 
range of variation in several characters is very considerable, as Ehlers has shown, yet 
both in large and small specimens, in those with dull and in those with bright colouration 
the elytra cover the whole body. It must, however, be noted that in many cases the 
elytra had fallen away ; but I find, as Gravier did, that none of those examined with 
this purpose possess as many as forty segments, the number given by Willey for this 
particular individual. Is it possible that he had under observation some other 
species ? 

Localities. — 

Boat Harbour — 

2-4 fathoms, coll. by Dr. A. ].. McLean (fourteen). 
3| fathoms, coll. by Dr. A. L. McLean (twenty-one). 
4^ fathoms, coll. by Dr. A. L. McLean (three). 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 39 

Commonwealth Bay — 

Station B, 25 fathoms (sixty-five). 
Station C, 15-20 fathoms (fom'teeu). 
Station D, 45-50 fathoms (twelve). 
Station E, 55-60 fathoms (eleven). 
Station 1, 340-400 fathoms (nine). 
Station 3, 157 fathoms (one). 
Station 8, 120 fathoms (five). 
Station 10, 325 fathoms (two). 
Station 12, 110 fathoms (twelve). 

Distnbutian.—Mage\\a,n Strait {Kinhevg, CTiube, Mcintosh), Marion Island, Prince 
Edward Island (Mcintosh), Cape Adare (Willey), Coulman Island, Kaiser 
Wilhelm II Land (Ehlers), Graham's Land (Gravier), Falkland Islands, 
St. Vincent Gulf and Spencer Gulf, South Australia (Fauvel).* 

One of the specimens from Station C has a parasitic Copepod attached between 
two of the parpaodia, as figured by Willey (pi. XLl, fig. 4). 

Harmothoe tuberosa Elders. 

Harmothor spinosa, variety Ehlers (1908), p. 43. 

Harmothoe tuberosa EUevs (1912), p. 11, pi. I, figs. 1-7. 

(Plate 6, figs. 22-29.) 

The account given by Ehlers, apart from one or two details, is adequate. The 
coloured figure represents a much redder tint than is exhibited by any in the present 
collection, where the worms are grayer, sometimes paler, sometimes darker, sometimes 
with a purplish tone, sometimes bluish, and usually with a metallic lustre. 

It does not appear to attain the dimensions oiH .spinosa, for the largest individual 
measures only 50 mm., with a diameter over the elytra of 15 mm. The body itself, 
measured on the ventral surface at segments 7-18, is 7 mm. across : thence it tapers 
gradually, so that at the 26th segment its breadth is 5 mm. 

The species is apparently much rarer than H. spinosa, for thougJi it occurred 
in eight hauls, which yielded twenty-six individuals, and except at a depth of 25 fathoms 
(Station B), only one or two were obtained in a haul. It is apparently commoner at 
the less depths, for at this Station B as many as fifteen specimens were brought up 
by the dredge. 



'■ Fauvel mentions a specimen as occurring aa a commensal in a tube of Thelepus ip. 



40 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

It occurs in each case in company with H. spinosa, but in much less numbers. 
For example, whereas at 15-20 fathoms fourteen specimens oiH. spinosa were obtained, 
there was only one of H. tuberosa ; at 25 fathoms, in contrast with sixty-five specimens 
of the former, there were only fifteen of the latter. Although Ehlers originally 
regarded it as a variety of H. spinosa, since it seems nearly always to occur in 
association with it, yet in his later work he pointed out that it is a very distinct species. 

There are one or two features which readily serve to distinguish it at sight from 
H. spinosa: (1) The dorsal chgetge, instead of projecting outwards, have a radiating 
arrangement, as is shown by Ehlers's figure ; (2) The absence of pigmentation of the 
upper lip and of the ends of the parapodial lobes (" acicular processes ") which is practi- 
cally universal in H. spinosa. 

The dorsal surface of the body is free from pigment, so far as my observations 
go, but the lateral longitudinal ridges along the ventral surface are crossed by bars 
of brown, and the posterior feet may be pigmented on their lower faces. The ventral 
surface thus appears dark. 

Ehlers has directed attention to the peculiar transverse " pads " which occupy 
the median line of the dorsal surface in each segment, and the " cushions " on the 
cirriferous segments in line with the elytrophores, the cirrophores being situated far out 
on the bases of the parapodia. Both these structures occur also in the genus 
Physalidonotus, which Ehlers founded for a Branchiate Polynoid from New Zealand, 
in which the head, however, is " lepidonoton." Having had several species of this genus 
under examination recently, it occurred to nae that possibly there might be gills here 
also, but on investigation I find tluit they are absent. 

The dorsal chpetse are " bearded " in the same sort of way as are those of 
Physalidonotus. It is evident that Ehlers had before hina and has figured a much-worn 
chseta, and that he failed to recognise the true nature of this " bearding," for he 
writes, " ich mag nicht entscheiden, ob diese Faden durch Aufsplitterung des 
Borstenendes entstanden oder epiphytische Bildungen sind." 

To me neither of these explanations of the appearance presented by the chsetse is 
the correct one. These long " Faden " are similar to those originally figured by Moore 
(1903) for certain species, which he named Lepidonotus brancJdferus and L.chitoniformis 
(pp. 405, 409, pi. XXIII, figs. 7 and 10), which really belong to the genus Physalidonotus. 
More recently I have figured the chtetse for P. rugosus and P. paucibranchiatus (Benham 
1915, pL XXIX). 

A more detailed account of the dorsal chsetse oiH . tuberosa is, therefore, desirable. 
In a perfect unworn chseta the tip is smooth and rather bluntly pointed. Below this 
smooth region there come three or four pectinated frills* which are produced into long 

* Tills term was used by A. G. Bourne in liis account of the chsetse of Lep. claim. (Trans. Linn. Soc. London., vol. ii, 
1S83.) 



POLYCH.^TA— BEXHAM. 4l 

delicate hairs, extending beyond the tip. surrounding it and more or less concealing it. 
Similar but less developed frills follow and occur along the greater part of the chsetse 
(fig. 22). 

When .studied under a higher power the ch;eta appears to be triangular or possibly 
quadrangular in section (figs. 23, 24). Along two edges are ranged two series of spines 
or teeth, which decrease in size as they are traced downiwards proximally. Each pair 
of teeth is connected across the " front " of the chaeta by a finely-striated membrane 
or pectinated frill, the margin of which is comblike, as if it were made up of many very 
delicate chitinous hairs closely set side by side. In the more distal of these combs the 
hairs gradually increase in length, and beco ne flexible until the long hairs that form 
the " beard " are produced. Similar but less developed frills extend outwards beyond 
the teeth, down the " sides "' of the cheetse, but in the proximal portion this lateral frill 
is replaced by a series of minute conical teeth (fig. 24). The sphies or teeth are evidently 
merely specialisations of the comb-teeth. 

The shorter upper chfeta? of the bundle have simple frills, but as the cha?ta! get 
longer the fo\u' or five of the distal frills become produced into the long hairs. There 
is quite a gradual transition between the cha-ta? with simple frills and those with well- 
developed '' beards."' 

These " Ijeards," as Ehlers notes, entangle mud and debris, so that it is not 
always possible to obtain a good view of the apex and to make out the real structure, 
but in some of my mounts, both in Canada balsam and glycerine jelly, the apices are 
fortunately free of mud and the structure is quite apparent. 

The ventral cha'ta?, too, are worthy of closer description than Ehlers has given 
them. They are c_[uite different from those of H . spinosa, as he has sho\\m. 

Each presents two parallel series of short stout teeth or .spines along the concave 
edge, four or five in a series in the case of the longer chaeta?, but reduced to three in the 
smaller ones (figs. 25-27). The more distal spines in each series are simple and tooth- 
like, but lower dowm each is seen to be surrounded at its l)ase by a pectinated frill, or, 
^ower. still, to be replaced by a frill whose edge, under a low power, has the appearance 
of a tooth (fig. 27). These upper frills have quite a limited extent, but below them 
come foirr to six closely-set small frills of very short pectinations which run right across 
the chaeta from side to side. 

The elytra on two of the individuals studied present marked variation from the 
tj'pical structure. In addition to the characteristic sub-marginal papillas, the elytra bear 
conical and vesicular tubercles of brown coloiu*. On the anterior el}i;ra they are compara- 
tively small, lying on the uncovered posterior region of the scale, but on the more pos- 
teriorly situated elytra the tubercles become more conspicuous. They are here larger, 
though less numerous, till, on the last six or seven, they are truly enormous vesicles (fig. 
28). Whereas the tenth eUiiron carries some half dozen of these vesicles, the fom-teenth 
bears but one (fig. 29). These vesicles appear to be much enlarged and dilated tubercles 
derived from the ordinary eohinulate tubercles characteristic of the species. 



42 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Just as there is a variety of H . spinosa {Lagisca antarctica or L. vesiculosa), so 
here we have a variety of H. tuberosa, differentiated by the great size of the tubercles ; 
but here they are conical, rather than spherical, and recall those figured by Kinberg 
for H. patagonica (1857, pi. V, fig. 22 H). 

Localities . — 

Boat Harbour-, winter quarters, Station A, 3| fathoms (one individual). 

Station B, 25 fathoms (fifteen). 

Station C, Commonwealth Bay, 15-20 fathoms (one). 

Station D, 45-50 fathoms (one). 

Station E, 55-60 fathoms (two). 

Station 1, 350-400 fathoms (one). 

Station 3, 157 fathoms (one). 

Station 8, 120 fathoms (two). 

Distribution . — S. Victoria Land: Bouvet Island (Elilers). 

Harmothoe abyssorum Mcintosh. 

Eunoa abyssorum Mcintosh (1885), p. 73, pi. XI A, figs. 14-16. 

(Plate 6, figs. 30-35.) 

Three specimens of this species were ol)tained, and as tlie type was dried up, so 
that Mcintosh was unable to say nxuch about its anatomy, an opportunity occurs of 
adding to that brief account. 

The largest of them is 29 mm. long, with 35 segments, but is imperfect. It is 
broadest at about segments 7-12, thence tapering. Here it measures 5 mm. across 
the body, 10 mm. over the parapods, and 12.5 mm., including the chsetse. At segment 
20 these numbers are 3 mm., 6 mm., and 9 mm. respectively, so it is clear that only 
a few segments are missing. 

Tlie ventral surface of the body is purplish, darker posteriorly, and the pigment 
extends on to the feet, where, however, it becomes fainter. The dorsum is devoid of 
pigment. 

There iie fifteen pairs of elytra, whicli are present on one of the smaller 
individuals. ;hey are colourless, translucent, and rather thick, but towards the 
external marg.n they become slightly yellowish and opaque. They are smooth not 
only to the naked eye, but even microscopically, except that over the outer area there 
are numerous minute, rounded refringent tul^ercles, which seem to be the cause of the 
yellowness here (fig. 33). 

The proston^ium (fig. 30) is l)road, with well-developed peaks on the outer side 
of the bases of the lateral tentacles; both pairs of eyes are on the dorsal surface, and 
lie behind the middle of its length. The two eves of one side are thus close together, 



POLYCH.^TA— BENHAM. 43 

being separated from one another by aliout the diameter of an eye. They are hirge, 
and herein there seems to be a difference from the type, of whicli Mcintosh says tliat 
it " appears devoid of eyes." 

The median tentacle is absent from Itoth sj^ecimens. The hxterals spring from 
below it (fig. 31), and are directed parallel with it, not divergently as in some species. 
They are tapering without any siibterminal swelling : they bear a few microscopic 
hairs. In length they are short, being not quite twice the length of the prostomium. 
The palps are long, smooth, and of a greyish-brown colour. 

The parapods are bilobed ( tig. 32). The notopod has a long acicular process whicli 
is more slender than that of the ueurojiod. The anterior feet are longer than the posterior. 
The cheetse are pale yellow or, as Mcintosh terms them, " straw-coloured."' The dorsal 
cheetae are more numerous than the ventral, being 15-20 in number. They form an 
upwardly directed tuft of shorter, stout aiwl straight bristles, and a few in the lower part 
of the bundle are longer and directed outwards. The pectinated frills (fig. 34) nearly 
surroimd the axis. At any rate, they extend across it over the greater part of this 
region ; the distal portion of the bristle is smooth and rather sharply pointed. 

The ventral cha^tse are few in number, from 5-8, usually 6. They appear to be 
in a single vertical series, decreasing in length from above downwards. They are rather 
stouter than the largest of lower ones in the notopod. but they are a good deal longer. 

Tlie frilled region (tig. 35) is rather short, and is somewhat enlarged. The frills 
are few, some 12-14, and delicate ; the distal frills are not continuous, but each is 
represented by two or three isolated groups of pectinations, and lower down these extend 
till they meet and form a contirmous frill of fine short, hair-like processes, which takes 
an irregular course across the bristle and reaches the convex border or "'back." The 
smooth apex is curved, and there is no sign of a sub-apical tooth. 

The form of the cha'ta' agrees with the figures given by Mcintosh, though I have 
added some little details. 

Localities. — 

Station 10, 325 fathoms (two). 

Station 11, 358 fathoms (one). 
Distribution. — South of Australia, Lat. 42" 43' South, Long. 134^ 10' East, 1,(300 

fathoms. 

Genus Eulagisca Mcintosh. 

EULAGISCA CORRIENTIS Mclntosk. 

Mcintosh (1885), p. 91, pi. XIII, fig. 4 ; pi. V!I a, figs. 3, 4. 
(Plates 6 and 7, figs. 36-42.) 
The larger of the two specimens of this rare worm is 83 mm. in length, with a 
diameter of 11 mm. over the body, and 23 mm. over the parapods. It contains 37 
segments. The smaller consists of 33 segments, is only 20 mm. by 3 mm. over the body 
and 8 mm. including the parapods, which are relatively long. 



44 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Judging from McTiitosir.s remarks, a >stnu-tiire that seems characteristic is a sub- 
tentacular frontal cone, which he refers to as a " sulj-tentacular cirrus " though this 
term does not seem altogether applicable to such a short conical process. This " frontal 
cone " is situated between the bases of the palps immediately below the median tentacle 
(fig. 37). It is quite distinct and separate from the ridge which forms part of the upper 
lip, and appears to spring from the underside of the prostomium itself. When the 
median tentacle is absent, as it is in one of the two individuals, this frontal cone is seen 
projecting beyond the tentaculophore (fig. 36). It is white with a brown base. 
Mcintosh refers to this " reinarkable " organ as bei]Tg " unicpie " (p. 93), and in this 
place does not refer to any other species except some of the AcoetinsB as presenting 
anything like it. Nevertheless on p. 112, in the course of his account of Polynoe platy- 
cirrus he does mention that a small cylindrical boss occurs in the same position. I have 
examined a specimen of this species and can confirm this statement, but it has a spherical 
shape and is by no means so noticeable as in Eidagisca. The use of the word " unique " 
seems to suggest that it is one of the generic characters of Eulagisca, especially as he 
gives no diagnosis of this or any of the new genera and sub-genera he had occasion to 
establish. I do not recall meeting with any reference to such a structure in more recent 
works dealing with the Polynoids ; yet it is a &tiucture that is so definite that it may have 
a wider range and be of value in differentiating some of the species of that puzzling group. 

The ventral surface of the worm is colourless, the ch^tse are pale brown. The 
dorsum is marked with very-pale chestnut brown in the median anterior region, and 
darker on the peristomium. At about Jrd of the body length, this continuous band of 
pigment breaks up into a series of irregular j)atches which get fainter and smaller till 
about the last quarter, when they die out. 

The prostomium is colouiless, though in one specimen it has a crescentic mark 
of dark brown across each half, which is lacking in the other specimen. There is a 
small patch of dark-brown on the upper surface of each of the crrriferous segments just 
within the cirrophore, and in the elytriferous segments a corresponding patch. The 
dorsal cirri have a ring of very pale brown below the sid)terminal swelling. The anus 
is surrounded by a dark-brown area. 

The prostomium is broader than long, has no peaks, and the three tentacles arise 
in one plane ; the anterior region of each half is continued into the tentaculophore, 
though in the smaller individual, which is less well-preserved than the larger, each half 
of the prostomium appears to be produced into an internally directed peak ; but this is 
due to the oblique line sej^arating it from the lateral tentaculophore. 

The eyes are relatively large, and each is provided with a lens ; the anterior are 
situated laterally about half-way along the prostomial lobe at its broadest part ; the 
posterior eyes are dorsal, about half-way between the anterior eye and the hinder 
margin, though they appear further back in the less well-preserved individual. The 
hinder mar<.';m of the prostomium is over-hung by a forward continuation of the peris- 
tomium. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 45 

In the smaller individual all the prostomial appendages are present, but they 
are absent in the larger. The median tentacle is about twice the length of the laterals; 
they are colourless, even translucent, with an opaqiie white sub-terminal swelling. The 
tentacidophores are dark-brown, as also are the peristomial cirrophores. The palps 
are very long, twice the length of the median tentacle : while the peristomial cirri are 
as long as, or even longer than, the median tentacle. 

Although these appendages appear smooth to the naked eye, they are in reality 
ciliate. Mcintosh states that the cilia are numerous in his specimens, but I find them 
comparatively few and far apart. 

The parapods (fig. 39) are not very prominent, the notopod smaller than the 
neuropod, and each has a long narrow acicular process, that of the neuropod reaching 
further outwards, but actually the two are of equal length. 

The aciculum is colom'less, very delicate, and produced into a fine point which 
projects beyond the tip of the process in which it lies. The dorsal cheetaj (fig. 40) are 
8-10 in number, stouter than the ventrals, the upper ones curved, the lower straight. 
The apex is short and sharply pointed, being slightly concave on one side. The whole 
chaeta is crossed by pectinated frills which only extend for about half-way across the 
axis. 

The ventral chsetse (figs. 41-42) are long, very fine, and somewhat flexible; they 
have a very long frilled region consisting of about 30-40 frills, and a comparatively 
long delicate and simple apex. The upper ventrals are nearly straight ; the apex long 
and very fine ; the rest have a curved apex rather hooked, but there is no sign of a sub- 
terminal tooth. 

I note an opacity near the apex of the dorsal cluBtas to which Mcintosh refers. 
The ventrals differ from his figure in the much greater length of the point. 

The elytra are 15 pairs, though most of them are lacking in the specimens. The 
two anterior elytra on each side are thin and splashed with dark sienna broAvn ; the 
first one is sub-circular, the second oval (fig. 38). This has a nearly central " areola " 
with a patch of brown pigment on its outer edge ; there are three large, broad, round- 
tipped conical tuliercles near the external margin, and springing from the surface of the 
scale between them, but nearer to the margin, are a few long, fine, cylindi'ical hair-like 
papill;?. The concealed portion of the elytron bears numerous small, rounded, low, 
and highly refringent tubercles, on'}' visible under a high magnification. There is no 
fringe. 

Locality. — 

Station 8, 120 fathouLS (one). 
No data (the larger of the two). 

Distribution. — Between Kerguelen and Heard Islands ; also Buenos Ayres 
(Mcintosh). 



46 AUSTRALASIAN ANTAECTIC EXPEDITION. 

Remarks. — The " Challenger " obtained only two specimens, one complete and one 
incomplete and it has not been recorded since. The name Eulagisca seems 
to me to be unfortunate, as the head is so entirely different from that charac- 
teristic for the genus Lagisca. Mcintosh ^vrites : " The bristles are allied 
to those of Lagisca, while the eyes, scales, ventral papillae diverge. The 
subtentacular cirrus is unique and is akin to the proboscidian process of 
Accetidse." 

Genus Hermadion Kinberg. 

Hermadion rouchi Gravier. 

Gravier (1911), p. 82, pi. Ill, figs. 33, 34; pi. IV, figs. 45-51; pi. VII, 
fig. 74. 

Harmothoc crosetensis Ehlers (1913), p. 442, pi. XXVII, figs. 1-4 (nee Lagisca croseten- 
sis Mcintosh).* 

(Plate 7, figs. 43-47.) 

Of the ten specimens which I attribute to the species, two, measuring 18 mm. 
with 27 segments, and 22 mm. with 38, are closely similar to Ehlers coloured figure 
(fig. 1) of the worm to which he applies the name " Harmoth'je crosetensis McI." That 
is, the elytra are alternately darker and very pale — in the case of his specimens, gray 
in colour, in muie, olive-green or olive-brown in the two individuals respectively. The 
dorsal cha3ta3 are golden, long, and overarch the dorsum and even inter-digitate with 
those of the other side. In these and practically all other details of structure my 
specimens agree with the account given by Ehlers. But these features — especially 
the great length and the position of the dorsal cheetse — do not agree with the description 
and figures of Lagisca crosetensis given by IMcIntosh, whose figure of the entire worm 
shows, on the contrary, quite short chajtas, not overarching the dorsum in the slightest 
degree. 

Moreover, Ehlers states that the ventral chtetae are not l)identate which is a 
characteristically developed feature of L. crosetensis ; indeed the only feature in which 
the worm agrees with that of Mcintosh is that the elytra bear sharply-conical tubercles. 

At first I was content to accept the identification by the most experienced 
European student of exotic Annelids, till I came to examine another lot of worms of 
larger size than the two above mentioned ; these are without pigment and agree in all 
essential features with Gravier's account of Hermadim, rouchi. 

I then returned to these smaller specimens of what I had thought were Harmothoe 
crosetensis, and after a careful comparison of organ with organ of the two lots, I found 
that they presented such a close agreement as to amount to identity, so that I came to 
the conclusion that the smaller coloured individuals are the young of Hermadion rouchi. 

* Whether the species briefly described by Willey ( 1902, p. 266) belongs to Mcintosh's species or to Gravier's I am 
unable to decide, but the sketch (pi. xliii, fig. 3) of the tip of the ventral chseta incUnes me to think that he had H. rouchi 
before him, as it differs from the figure given by Mcintosh for his species and seems to have stout spines on the first frill ; 
but the figure is rather indistinct in this respect. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 4? 

In order to establish tlie above conclusion, I will give the measurements of the 
worms. 

A. — The small worms, with coloured elytra. — - 

(1) Nearly complete, with green elytra ; IS mm. in length, with 28 segments; 
width at the 7- 12th segment is 4 mm. over the body, measured ventralUy; 
6 mm. over the neuropod, and 9 mm. over the chsetse. The dorsum is 
marked with dark-green narrow transverse bars at the sides and with a 
thin green line on each segment, crossing from side to side. No informa- 
tion as to the locality. 

(2) Is similarly coloui'ed, though with l)ro\\m ; the posterior end, after the 

28th segment, is regenerated, with 9-10 minute segments. The length 
is 22 mm. for these 38 segments. This individual is rather soft ; the 
dorsal chaetae do not meet their fellows, though they overarch the back. 
(Station 12.) 

B. — Uncoloured individuals, i.e., the elytra are without pigment. — 

(3) Length, 23-5 mm. with 39 segments ; width 7 mm. over neuropods. (From 

Station 10.) 

(4) About the same size, though imperfect. Quite similar to number 3. 

No data as to locality. 

The remainder were taken together at Station 1. — 

(5) 28 nim. with 41 segments with 7 segments exposed behind the elytra. 

(6) 32 mm. for 42 segments. 

(7) 40 mm. with 44 segments. 

(8) 51 mm. with 45 segments, last 10 segments uncovered. 

(9) Imperfect, but intermediate in size. 

(10) The largest is 81 mm. with 46 segments, of which the last 13 are uncovered. 

We have here a gradual uicrease in length with segments added at the hinder 
end ; and there seems no doubt that, since all agree in their structural details, we are 
dealing with a single species at different ages. Variation in colour now is so well known, 
as for instance in H. spiuosa, that little reliance can be given or placed on that as a 
specific character. 

I may add that the largest of the three specimens contained in the French collec- 
tion measured only 42 mm. with 42 segments, while the two smaller ones were about 
24 mm. in length. Gravier states that in his specimens the dorsum is unpigmcV'-ed, 
but in each segment there are two narrow cross-bars of dark violet ; he also notes that 
pigmentation is less marked in the larger than in the two others. 

It will be well to give in some detail some facts about the specimens from Common- 
wealth Bav. 



48 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The largest individual is 81 mm. long ; the width of the body measured ventrally 
in the region of segments 12-18, is 12 mm. ; it is 19 mm. over the neuropods ; and 
28 mm. including the ventral chtetae. The number of segments is 46. The elytra are 
uncoloured ; the dorsal body wall is without pigment, l)eing flesh-coloured, except for a 
band of pale violet on the tentacles and cirri below the subterminal swelling, and a 
small violet or brownish patch on the anterior face of the dorsal cirrophores. 

In the smaller coloured specimens, the tips of the acicular processes are also 
violet. 

The species has, as Gravier remarks, a quite characteristic appearance, owing to 
the very long, straight dorsal chsetae of beautiful golden colour which radiate in all 
directions from the upper surface of the large notopods, some of which overarch the 
elytra. 

The anterior elytra, as well as those at the posterior end of the series, overlap 
right and left, but in the middle region of the body, they leave the dorsum exposed, while 
some dozen segments lie behind the last elytra. 

The account given by Gravier fits the present specimens so completely that it is 
only necessary to note one point in which they appear to differ from those described by 
him. 

Of the dorsal cha?t8e, Gravier states that the majority exhibit no ornamentation, 
though some of the lower ones of a bundle are traversed by a few cross-markings, and 
present indications of marginal denticulations (see his pi. IV, fig. 48). 

Elders, in his figure (pi. XXVII, fig. 4) shows a series of pectinated frills 
crossing the chsetse from side to side. I agree with him, though his figure shows 
them rather too widely separated from one another and is so drawn as to imply that 
they have a spii'al course. 

I find that in the younger individuals there is a fairly long smooth apex with a 
blunt point (figs. 43, 44, 45), which in some of the older specimens, especially in the 
chajtse in the uppermost part of the bundle, is frequently worn away, so that there is no 
smooth region and the tip is almost truncated. Below this smooth region there follows 
a series of about 30 closely set transverse pectinated frills which nearly encircle the 
chseta ; each consists of minute teeth, and the frilled region occupies about half the 
length of the exposed portion of the chseta, or even more in the shorter bristles of the 
lower part of the bundle. 

While speaking of these dorsal chtette, I may refer to a point on which I must 
differ from Ehlers. In those smaller individuals which so closely resemble the specimens 
described by him as H. crosetensis in all other respects, I find none of the long slender 
hair-like bristles which he describes and figures as occurring in some of his specimens. 
On p. 443, he describes the notopod as bearing in addition to and intermingling with the 
stout yellow chsetae " sehr langen und haar-feinen Borsten," which project over the 



POLYCH.^TA-BENHAM. 49 

dorsum and may even interdigitate with those of tlie opposite side (pi. XXYII, fig. 3). 
He says further (p. 444) that although tliey are not present in all individuals, he has 
found them in both small and large specimens, and he suggests that their presence may 
bear some relation to sexual maturity. I have examined several parapods taken from 
both large and small specimens with the especial object of finding these fine capillary 
bristles. Occasionally some of the eha^tte may be seen edgewise and so appear thinner 
than when seen on the flat surface, and frills are then seen to project from both edges 
giving an appearance somewhat like Ehlers's figure. But I do not find such dift'erence 
in length as he found. Gravier does not mention their occurrence in his specimens, 
and on the presumption that we are dealing with the same species, this is the only 
feature in which ours really differ from those examined by Ehlers. I may add that 
Mcintosh does not mention such bristles in his account of L. crosetensis. 

So far, then, as the present specimens are concerned, all the dorsal chsetae are 
alike in structure, though they differ in length ; those in the lower part of the bundle 
being about half the length of those in the upper part. 

The same difference in size exists amongst the ventral chtetse. The ventral 
chsetse (figs. 46, 47) which in L. crosetensis, Mcintosh states are " not furnished with 
long spines, and have a distinct sub-apical tooth;" have in the present case, as Gravier 
has figured (pi. IV, fig. 49) certain pronounced spines or teeth amongst the upper frills, 
which are absent in the lower frills. In some chsetse two such spines occur on one side 
and one on the other; in other cases, two on each side. The frilled region is long, 
consisting of about 20 frills which are discontinuous in the distal region, but become 
continuous over the greater part. Ehlers says little about the ventral chaetaj, except 
to state that the apex is simple. Why then should he refer it to the species L. crose- 
tensis I 

However, in Hermadion rmichi, although most of the ventrals have a simple apex, 
with no sign of a sub-apical tooth, there is occasionally a sub-apical " step,"' which seems 
to indicate a tooth that has been worn away. And Gravier states that in some of his 
specimens he found a tooth. 

More than one zoologist has in recent years commented upon the difficulty of 
distinguishing between the two genera, Lagisca Malmgren and Hermadion Kinberg, as 
well as upon the question of the distinction between them and the genus Harmotho:' 
Kinberg. Most WTiters accept the last genus in an extended sense as including several 
of Malmgren's sub-genera, though Professor Mcintosh still retains most of the latter; 
and in his splendid monograph of the British Annelids, published by the Ray Society, 
these names are even used as generic. 

I need not discuss this matter further as Baron de St. Joseph (1888, p. 150) has 
given the history of these names. It was Willey (1902), I believe, who first drew 
attention to the resemblance between Lcujisca and Hermadion. And Fauvel (1916) 
has recently summarised the main points in the controversy raised by him and also 
discussed by Gravier (1911). Fauvel concludes (p. 426) that Hermadion is distinguish- 



50 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

able from Lagisca by the absence of the prostomial frontal lobes or " peaks ;" the dorsal 
chaeta? are generally smooth or very feebly striated ; the ventrals unidentate in even in 
the young. Therefore, he believes that to unite the two genera would be premature. 

But is the statement of differences altogether correct ? For Ehlers describes the 
presence of these " peaks " to two species, Hermadion amhiguum and H . molluscum 
(1897, p. 16); they are present in H. rouchi. It is true that these peaks are absent in 
the type species, H. magalhaensis Kinberg, as well as in his H . lomjicirratum and in 
H. kergudensis Mcintosh (1885), which according to Fauvel are synonymous. On the 
other hand, although typically present in Lagisca, they may jje absent (see L. jeffreysii 
Mcintosh, for instance). It seems as if there ought to be a great deal of shifting of these 
species from one genus to the other, if we accept Fauvel's dictum. 

As to the dorsal chaette, it appears that in young stages of H . rouchi, at any rate, 
as well as in other species, the dorsal chajtse do have striations, that is fine pectinated 
frills or combs, whereas in the older chaetse, the longer ones, they are less distinctly 
marked. It may be that this is due to wearing away of the frills owing to use. And a 
similar explanation may perhaps be given of the absence of a sub-apical tooth in the 
ventral chsetae. For although this is generally absent, yet it does occur in the shorter 
younger chsetse, or in others its place is taken by a " step," in this position. 

It appears then that the distinctions between the two genera Lagisca and Herma- 
dion do not exist. They are identical. 

A further question has been raised as to whether or not there is any real distinction 
between the genera Hermadion and Har,i oth ic. If we review the various oligomeric 
forms, it appears that Harmothoe has its dorsum entirely covered by the elytra ; that 
none of the posterior segments remain uncovered, or at most only two or three. Whereas 
in Hermadion, several, up to a dozen or more, are exposed in large forms. It is true 
that Willey has ascribed to Harmothoe sfinosa an individual which he regards as a 
variety and calls " lagiscoides ," partly because of the conical tubercles on the elytra, 
and this one individual has 6 naked segments at the hinder end. But more information 
Is needed to convince me that the individual is a variety of Harmotho? spinosa. 

Yet, because of this variety, Willey proposed an addition to the generic diagnosis 

of Harmoth e, which would eliminate the only remaining constant difference between 

it and Hermadion, and so comes to the conclusion that all thi'ee genera are synonymous. 

For the present, I am of opinion that it would be well to retain the distinction 

between Harmothoe and Hermadion. 

Localities . — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 1, 350-400 fathoms (six, colourless). 

Station 10, 325 fathoms (one juvenile, colom-less). 

Station 12, 110 fathoms (one juvenile, coloured). 

No data (one coloured and one uncoloured, juvenile). 
Distribution. — Marguerite Bay, ile Adelaide (Clravier), Kaiser Wilhelm II Land 

(Ehlers). 



POLYGHiETA— BENHAM. 5C 

Family PHYLLODOCIDiE. 
Sub-family Phyllodocin^. 
Genus Phyllodoce Savigny. 
Phyllodoce madeirensis Langerhans. 
Langerhans (1880), p. 307, pi. XVII, fig. 44. 
Willey (1902), p. 270, pi. XLII, fig. 5 ; pi. XLIV, fig. 7. 
Elilers(1897), p. 2.3. 
EMers(1901), p. 72. 
Ehlers(1913), p. 453. 

Four individuals of this widely distributed species were obtained in dredgings 
in 25-120 fathoms. These are larger than the type, which only reached a length of 
70 mm., with 105 segments, and than those described from the Antarctic by Willey. 
The present specimens attain a length of 190 mm., with nearly 300 segments. The 
greatest width of the body is 2-5 mm. to 3 mm., and over the parapods 6 mm., and does 
not vary much throughout the length. 

The colom-, which Langerhans found to be green in life, is in the preserved worms 
in some cases pale brown, with the dorsal cirri rather darker ; in other individuals pale 
grey, which owing to ii-idescence appears silvery, with pink cii-ri— a pale but decided 
pink. This one is mature, and contains eggs. 

The tentacular cii-ri are arranged, as Willey has described, and as Ehlers has con- 
firmed ; the longest reaches to the 10th or 12th segment, the second ventral is about 
half this length. Although Langerhans wrongly allocates these cirri in his text, yet 
his figm-e seems to show their distribution quite clearly, and is more informative than 
Willey's figure. 

The pharyngeal papillae have the characteristic arrangement, which is very 
evident in one of om- specimens, in which the pharynx is everted. 

Localities. — 

Station B, 25 fathoms. 

Station D, 45-50 fathoms. Distended with eggs. 

Station 8, 120 fathoms. 

Distribution.— MaQleh-a. (Langerhans), Juan Fernandez, South Georgia, Kaiser 
Wilhelm II Land (Ehlers), Cape Adare (Willey). 

Remarks. — This is rather a remarkable range, and the much larger dimensions of 
these Antarctic specimens raises the question as to the specific identity, which 
is mainly upheld by the characteristic arrangement of the pharyngeal papillte. 
Another species, P. medipapiUata, described by Moore (1909, p. 237), also has 
the median row of 4 or 5 papilla, with six lateral rows on each side, containing 
9 in the ventral and 12 in the dorsal rows. This occurs on the coast of Cali- 
fornia. 



52: AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Genus Eulalia Savigny. 

EuLALiA CHARCOTi Gmvier. 

Gravier (1911), p. 57, pi. I, figs. lJr-16 ; pi. II, figs. 17, 18. 

Eulalia charcoti lives in comparatively deep water, our specimens coming from 
depths of 110-318 fathoms, and Gravier's from 210 fathoms (approx.). 

The preserved specimens have a dark greenish-blue body with brownish-green 
cirri ; the body is highly iridescent, and in one individual the effect produced is a bronzy 
green colour. 

Two of them have a dark blue band along the middle third of the dorsum, with 
a green iridescence ; the lateral thirds being russet brown, and the cirri olive green. 
The whole effect is very beautiful. Gravier states that in life the worm is " emerald 
green with blue iridescence." There is but little to add to his account. 

The longest of our specimens measures 150 mm. by 6 mm. across the body, 
which is larger than Gravier's largest. The longest of the tentacular cirri, belonging 
to the second segment, is 8 mm., and reaches to the 23rd segment, the next one is only 
5 mm. long, and reaches to the 15th ; the others are about half the length of the latter. 
These measurements are taken from a specimen 95 mm. long, with a diameter of body 
5 mm. 

The pharynx is everted in one individual, and shows the characteristic arrange- 
ment of the papilla^, unusual in the genus, namely, six longitudinal rows of curved 
brown-edged papillae, united basally by a broad continuous band of smaller rounded 
ones, and distally by a girdle of similar papillae There are about 50 small close-set 
papillae at the entrance — an unusually large number. 

Localities . — 

Station 2, 318 fathoms (one). 
Station 3, 157 fathoms (one). 
Station 8, 120 fathoms (four). 
Station 12, 110 fathoms (one). 

Distribution. — Admiralty Bay, South Shetlands, in 420 metres (approx. 210 fathoms), 
(Gravier). 

Sub-gemis pterocirrus Claparede. 
EuLALiA (Pterocirrus ) magalhaensis Kinberg. 
Kinberg (1865), p. 241. 
Ehlers (1901), p. 73, pi. VIII, figs. 1-8. 
Gravier (1906), p. 25. 
Ehlers (1912), p. 13. 
Gravier (1911), p. 56, pi. I, figs. 12, 13. 
Fauvel (1919), p. 364 (gives several synonyms). 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 53 

An inijierfect individual, consisting of the anterior end of about 65 segments, 
appears to belong to this species. It measures 20 nun. in length and 2-5 mm. in 
width. 

Most of the cii'ri are broken ; the colour is yellowish brown, with dark greenish- 
blue patches, more or less extensive, irregular in shape and size, arranged along the 
dorsum ; they may be due to post-mortem changes. 

Of the tentacular cii'ri only one, on the left side, and two on the right, remain. 
But the general agreement of the head, the parapod and the chsette, with the account 
given by Ehlers, inclines me to phu'e the worm in this well-known Sub-antarctic species. 

Locality . — 

Macquarie Island, rock pool. 

Distribution (In the Antarctic and Sub-antarctic regions). — Magellan region (Kin- 
berg), Fuegia, Chilian coast, Kerguelen, Kaiser Wilhelm 11 Land, Coulman 
Island (Ehlers). Biscoe Bay, Petermann (Gravier). 

EULALIA (PtEROCIRRUS) HUNTER!*, Sf. ilO'V. 

(Plate 7, figs. 48-52.) 

The single individual is complete ; it measures 165 mm. in length, by 2-25 mm. 
over the body, and 6-5 mm. over the dorsal cirri, which are directed outwards. Anter- 
iorly the diameter of the body is but 1 mm.; the greatest breadth is about 20 mm. 
from this end, and is retained for rather more than one-half the total length, whence 
the body tapers gradually. This breadth of body is equal to 4j segments. 

The colour of the body is flesh-pink, with a pair of very dark blue, nearly black, 
irregularly quadrate spots on each segment about midway between the mid-dorsal 
line and the lateral margin (fig. 48). These spots commence at the 9th segment. In 
the hinder quarter of the worm they extend niedially till they meet, so that these 
segments are crossed by a series of dark bands. 

The dorsal and ventral cirri are yellowish : the ventral surface is of the same 
colour as the ground tint of the dorsum. , 

The body is convex dorsally, flat ventrally; the parapods are short, and the 
dorsal cirrophore is close to the body. The dorsal cirri are of considerable size, nearly 
as long as the body breadth, and are not relatively shorter on the anterior segments. 

The prostomium is coloiu-less, its breadth is rather greater than the length 
(fig. 49), and a slight notch on the posterior border, and also at the level of the insertion 
of the tentacles, gives it a trefoil shape. 



* I take this npportunity of associating with this handsome annelid the name of Mr. J. G. Hunter, the able biolopst 
of the Expedition. 



54 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The eyes are brown : the median tentacle springs from the dorsal surface in front 
of the level of the eyes ; it is more slender than the anterior tentacles, and about as long 
as the length of the prostomium. The two pairs of anterior tentacles have the usual 
position and shape, and are shorter than the median. 

The first segment is distinct dorsally, behind the prostomium, and is of the same 
width. It bears on each side one comparatively short tentacular cirrus, which has 
the same form as the tentacles, but is stouter. The second segment carries two 
tentacular cirri on each side, the dorsal of which is sub-cylindrical and long, while the 
ventral is shorter, wide and distinctly foliaceous, produced into a short filamentous 
point. It is longer than the normal dorsal cirrus, to which, however, it bears a 
resemblance. 

The third segment bears a long sub-cylincbical dorsal tentacular cirrus, longer 
than that of the preceding segment ; below it is the chsetigerous lobe and a small 
foliaceous ventral cirrus. 

These long tentacular cirri are not, in reality, cuTular in section, but more or 
less compressed. The longest of them reaches to the 15th segment ; it is 2-25 mm. 
in length. It may be noticed that these anterior segments are shorter than those that 
follow, the increase in length being gradual. 

The parapods (fig. 50) are short, with the anterior lip longer than the posterior. 
The foliaceous dorsal cirrus is broad, as wide as its length, with an asymmetrically 
situated apex ; the cirrophore is close to the body wall. The ventral cirrus is oval, 
not pointed, about as long as the cha^igerous lobe. 

The chteta' (fig. 51). The shaft is a great deal wider than the appendix, and of 
a much higher degree of refringeucy, so that at the junction between the two there is a 
very niarked transition when viewed under the microscope. The articular cup is 
strongly " heterogomph" and, as usual in the family, is very narrow ; one lip is very 
short, the other is produced into a long curved claw-like structure, both are smooth, 
and present no striations. The appendix is relatively short ; its proximal end is 
narrow, but soon acquires its full breadth, and then rather rapidly dwindles, to be 
prolonged into a very fine distal portion. It is very thin even in the lower portion, 
and is obliquely striated along its whole length ; and its concave edge is faintly but 
distinctly denticulate. 

The pharynx was exposed by dissection ; the buccal region extends through 
25 segments, and the pharynx occupies nine more, t.c, its hinder end reaches to the 42nd. 
At its entrance are 16 small conical papilla?. The buccal cavity is lined uniformly 
with closely set, round-topped, nearly cylincbical papilla?, slightly narrower at the base 
than at the apex, and about 3 times as high as broad (fig. 52). They are practically 
of uniform size and shape throughout. In the everted condition the pharynx, there- 
fore, would be said to be covered with these papillae. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 55 

Locality. — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 12, 110 fatlion^s. 

Remarks. — It agrees with Eulalia m(ujalha:nsis Kinberg, in the form of the head 
and in the position of the median tentacle ; but differs from it in the arrange- 
ment and length of the tentacular cirri, in the shape of the dorsal cirri and 
of the parapods, and especially in the form of the chf)eta\ The marked 
ungulation of the articular cup recalls that figured by Ehlers (1904, pi. II, 
fig. 9), for E. micfOfhjUa Schmarda, from New Zealand, in which, however, 
it is much less pronounced, and which differs in other respects of course. 

Eulalia (Pterocirrus) mcleani,* sf. nov. 

(Plate 7, tigs. 52-57.) 

Two specimens in the collection appear to be new. The one studied in detail 
measures 45 mm. in length, with 115 segments. The breadth of the body, which is 
equal to the length of six segments, is 2-25 mm., and over the parapods 4 mm. The 
peristomium is 1-5 mm. across, and the body gradually widens till at about one-cpiarter 
of the body length it attains 2-25 mm. in width ; this is retained for about another 
quarter, when the body commences to taper. 

In the second individual the pharyixx is everted, and the body is a good deal 
contracted anteriorly; this contains 120 segments with a small regenerated region. 
Its length is 32 mm., its greatest width 4-25 mm. 

The colour of the body is a uniform pale brown with a dull greenish-yellow cii-ri, 
which when pressed back over the body reach nearly to the middle line. Those of the 
anterior segments are not much smaller than the rest, which are practically uniform in 
size. 

The prostomium (fig. 53) is broader than long, trefoil shaped with a slight notch 
posteriorly. The eyes are large, and separated from one another by a space rather 
greater than their diameter. The median tentacle arises far back, between the eyes, 
and is thus close to the hinder margin ; it is a good deal longer than the prostomium. 
The lateral tentacles arise in the usual position ; they have the shape of a long cone, 
constricted at the base with the apex produced to a point. 

The tentacles and cirri are quite pale, and possibly are yellowish in life. 

The first and second segments are distinct dorsally; the longest tentacular cirrus 
reaches to the 14th segment, the other three are about half this length. The three upper 
cirri are circular in section, but the ventral cirrus of the second segment is flattened 
from in front backwards, higher than it is thick, so as to be foliaceous. Its apex is 
produced into a longish filament. 



quarters. 



I wish to associate with this animal the name of Dr. A. L.McLean, who did such useful service in collecting at winter 



56 australasjan antarctic expedition. 

The parapods (fig. 54) are very short and rather high, the foliaceous dorsal 
cirrus is long and narrow ; its length is more than twice its width ; its apex is 
symmetrically pointed, its base is short and springs from the chsetigerous lobe close to 
the body. The ventral cirrus is comparatively large and of similar shape, longer than 
the chaetigerous lobe. 

The chastse (figs. 55, 56) are comparatively few in number; the lip of the 
articular cup is finely serrated on one side, smooth on the other; and the two lips are 
approximately of equal height ; the appendix is long, narrow, straight, flexible and 
tapers gradually to a fine point ; its edge is finely serrated. 

The pharyngeal apparatus was everted in the larger of the two specimens, though 
the buccal membrane or pharyngeal sheath is ruptured at its base. The length of the 
pharynx is 15 mm., with a diameter of 3 mm. at its anterior end. The aperture is 
surrounded by 24 rather large papilla?, set as usual at the ends of ridges leading into 
the interior. The buccal membrane is uniformly covered with closely-set unequal, 
flattened, club-shaped papillae, giving it a velvety appearance (fig. 57). They are 
much smaller than those of the preceding species. 

From a study of the other specimen it appears that the intestine commences at 
about the 34th segment, so that the buccal and pharyngeal regions together nuist be 
10 mm. in length. 

Localiti/. — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 1, 350-400 fathoms. 

Remarks. — I suspected that this worm was E. magalhaensis , the only specimen of 
the genus hitherto recorded from these latitudes, but from it the present worm 
differs in the larger eyes, in the position of the median tentacle : in the much 
greater length of the tentacular cirri ; in the form of the appendix, and 
in the character of the articular cup ; and in the number and shape of the 
pharyngeal papilhie. 

Genus Eteone Savigny. 
Eteone reyi Gravier. 
Gravier (1906), p. 26, pi. HI, figs. 24-26; (1911), p. (iO. 
Ehlers(1913), p. 457. 

A single individual of this small Phyllococid was found on a slide on which I 
had mounted some Syllids collected in Commonwealth Bay. 

It is but 5 mm. long, and consists of head, 26 cha?tigerous segments and the 
anal segment. 

I find that the prostomium differs from Gravier's figure in that it is produced 
forwards as a narrower plate than the basal oculiferous region. This I take it is 
what Ehlers means when he says that his specimen has a " spatelartig " prostomium. 



POLYrHiETA-BENHAM. 57 

The absence of any dorsal cirrus above the first chsetigerous lobe serves to 
differentiate the species. 

The dorsal cirri along the middle and hinder portions of the body are coloured 
reddish brown by little spots of pigment, and similar though smaller spots occur in 
groups along the back. 

Locality. — 

Commonwealth Bay. No data. 

Distribution. — Port Charcot (Gravier), Kaiser Wilhelm TI Land (Ehlers). 



Sub -family Lopadorh ynchin^ . 

Genus Pelagobia Greef. 
Pelagobia viguieri Gravier. 
Gravier (1911), p. 62, pi. II. figs. 22-25. 

(Plate 7, figs. 58-60.) 

Numerous individuals of this small pelagic worm were obtained in tow-netting 
in January, 1914, in depths from 45 to 100 fathoms, when the water was far below 
freezing point. One vial is marked " Temp.— 0.5'' C"; another " Partly ice." Mixed 
with them was Tomopteris septentyionalts . 

The length varies from 5-12 mm.; the head is followed by 21-25 segments, 
the larger ones being sexually mature, containing eggs or sperm niorute. 

Gravier's account, founded on only tliree specimens, agrees precisely witli the 
present worms, but for one apparent omission. He has overlooked the existence in 
the long metastomial cirri of a chitinous supporting axis. 

He correctly describes the fii-st segment, which innnediately follows the " head," 
as possessing on each side a very long dorsal and ventral cirrus, separated by a smal' 
bundle of compound chajtse, such as occur throughout the worm. Each cirrus presents 
a swollen base, and has a much thickened cuticle on its posterior face (figs. 59-60). 
This cm-us is traversed nearly throughout its length by a delicate chitinous aciculum 
or thread of chitin. It starts at the apex of the ciiTus, and just before the swelling is 
reached it tapers to a very fine point. 

This axial support is so evident in specimens mounted in glycerine, as well as in 
balsam, that it is astonishing that no mention of it is made by Gravier. 

Locality. — 

Commoiiwealth Bay, 45 faths., 50 faths., 100 faths. 

Distribution. ~Lat. 69° 15' South : long. 108° 5' West, at a depth of 950 metres. 

•83892— H 



o8 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Remarks. — Gravier points out certain differences that exist between his species 
and P. longicinata Greef. Unfortunately I have not access to Greef's paper, 
as the vohune is missing from my series of the Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool. And, 
although the species has been recorded from most of the Antarctic expeditions 
no details or figures are published that eual)le me to judge of Gravier 's 
statements in this respect. 

The only figure relating to tlie species, wliich is available to me, is that 
given by Southern (1909, pi. I, fig. 1) of the chteta; and his statement on 
p. 2, that the appendix of all the chaetse has " on the posterior side a delicate 
wing-like expaiLsion." This is certainly not present in the species before me, 
and, moreover, the length of the appendix is longer and slenderer than it is 
in that figure, and is in entire agreement with Gravier's figure. 

Family ALCIOPIDJ*:. 
Genus Vanadis Greef. 

VaNADIS ANTARCTICA Mclntosjl. 

Alciopa antarctk.a, Mcintosh (1885), p. 175, pi. XXVIII; figs. 2-4; pi. XXXII, 
fig 12. 

Vanadis antarctica, Apstein (1890. p 543 (not seen). 

V. antarctica, Willey (1902), p. 271, pi. XLFV', fig. 8: pi. XLVI, figs. 1, 2. 

?Alciofa antarctica, Gravier (1911), p. 65, pi. II, fig. 26; pi. Ill, fig. 28, 29; 
pi. IV, fig. 38. 

y. antarctica, Ehlers (1913), p. 466. 

(Plate 8, figs. 61-63.) 

My excuse for describing once again this Antarctic species is that Gravier has 
thrown doubts on its generic position, and that the previous accounts are imperfect 
in some respects. 

The material obtained consists of two specimens, a male and a female, which 
were captured on the surface of the sea by Dr. A. L. McLean; and some smaller individuals 
from 45 fathoms. 

Dr. McLean notes that they are " transparent, mottled with brown." The 
female is entii-e, measures 135 mm. in length, its greatest breadth is 5 mm., at about 
mid-body. There are 93 segments, followed by a short regenerated region, 4 mm. in 
length, of very small segments. 

The prostomium is 3 mm. across, and the anterior part of the body is very 
narrow, only 1-75 mm., the head and this narrow region, or " neck," occupy a length of 
11 mm. 



POLYCHiETA-^BENHAM. 59 

The dorsal surface of the head and neck is pale brown; the rest of the body is of 
the same tint, with darker brown markings at the base of each parapod, both above and 
below; at irregular intervals along the body this deeper tint extends further over the 
surface, both dorsally and ventrally, forming larger and smaller areas, which nearly 
meet on the dorsal surface. 

The male is imperfect, consisting of head and 56 segments, with a length of 
65 mm. As Gravier has pointed out, the glands below the parapods are much better 
developed than in the female, and I note a series of segmental white marks along the 
median ventral line which are better developed in the hinder part of the fragment than 
anteriorly. These are not present in the female. 

The anatomy of the worm agrees both with the account given by WUley and 
the more complete one by Gravier, except that the latter states that the colour of the 
specimens gathered by the French expedition, when alive was " vert jaunatre," and 
that the spots were " vert epinard fonce." 

There is, however, one impoi-tant difference l^etween these two accounts. WUley 
found, contrary to Mcintosh's statement, that the bristles are " articulated," though 
he found it difficult to detect the articulations, till the bunch of chaetae was " sp ead 
out." Gravier, on the other hand, insists that they are " entu'e," and consequently 
expresses doubts as to the identity of Willey's specimens with that described by 
Mcintosh aird by himself. He enumerates three points of difference — namely, (1) in 
regard to the chaetse; (2) in regard to the absence in Willey's account of any description 
of the dorsal surface of the head; and (3), in regard to the papillae at the entrance to the 
pharynx. 

I will offer remarks on each of these points, and hope to clear up the doubts 
expressed by him. 

(1) For some time 1 was unable to detect any articulation in the chaetac. I 
followed Willey's advice to " spread them out," but failed at first to see any sign of 
jomting, even under high power. But chancing to shift the mirror of the microscope 
so that the light was no longer fully reflected, I noted an extremely faint and very 
oblique line crossing the very delicate and transparent bristles. This " jointing " is so 
unlike what one would expect from Willey's figure, the reproduction of which is coarse; 
it is so unlike the articulation that occurs, for instance, in Halodora, that it is easily 
overlooked. When viewed from the side the articulation, if one may call it so, has the 
appearance of a very oblique interruption hi the chaetal substance, which does net 
seem to reach the edges in all cases; but most of the appendices have the appearance 
of being " spliced " to the shaft, that is, it and the shaft are obliquely cut across 
(tig. 62). Occasionally, one finds a chaeta lying in a different plane, and the splicing 
appears to be more perfect and definite, where the distal appendix has its base sliced 
oft' on both sides to a point, and tliis fits into a Y-shaped cut at the end of the shaft 
(fig. 63). 



60 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Having once recognised the position of the articulations, one can see a bending 
of the bristles, forming an open angle, which might be taken for a mere " bend " till 
the existence of the articulation was ascertained. 

Even when I had satisfied myself of their existence, I found it very difficult to 
detect these articulations in specimens mounted in glycerine jelly, even by the use of 
a high power, but it is easy to see them in fresh glycerine. I re-examined specimens 
mounted in glycerine, twelve months later, and saw the articulations quite clearly in 
every chaeta. 

The lengt.h of the appendix is small, compared with the total length of the bristle. 
I had some difficulty in estimating what its length is, since the bristle is so long that it 
will not lie wholly in the field with an objective 3 and ocular 3 of Leitz, and a lower 
magnification is useless. By a fortunate chance a small air Inibble occurred in the 
preparation about half way along one of the bristles, so that by making two camera 
drawings I was al)le to get practically the entii-e bristle, and was thus able to measure it. 
The total length is represented in the drawing by 570 mm., and the appendix by 10 mm. 
approximately, for its tip is so fine that under this magnification it is invisible. Roughly, 
one may say that the length of the appendix is about -^^ of that of the total (fig. 61). 
It may be noted that Mcintosh says that " none of the extremely attenuate tips are 
complete." So that there is no real contradiction between his account and that of 
Willey. It is probable that all the appendices had dropped off or been broken off in 
the specimen, as is the case in many of the chaetse in those before us. 

(2) The second point is explained, I think, by the fact that Mcintosh had repre- 
sented in his figure the head from the dorsal aspect, and Willey drew attention to the 
structure of the ventral aspect, in order to complete the description of the species, 
as Mcintosh had not given an accurate figure of this surface. 

(3) The third point is, I believe, due to an error in observation by Gravier 
himself. Willey states that in the everted pharynx the entrance is surrounded by 
twelve soft conical papillse. In the specimen described by Ciravier the pharynx was 
not everted; he states that it extends backwards as far as the 20th segment, where 
it is bent upon itself. He goes on to say (p. 68) : " Le bord de I'orifice posterieur est 
fronc6, mais ne presente pas ni papille definie, ni prolongements digitiformes." 

He omits to mention the buccal region. Now, of course, the papilla? being at 
the entrance of the pharynx from the buccal region must be looked for, not at the 
posterior extremity, but at the anterior extremity of the pharynx when at rest inside 
thQ body. 

I dissected the male individual and find that the buccal region is very short, 
extending to about the 5th or 6th segment, including the peristomium; then follow the 
long " trompe tres musculeuse," which reaches to the 20th segment; then it bends 
upon itself and reaches forward to the 15th segment, where it enters the thin- walled 
intestine. On slitting open this apparatus I find at the anterior extremity of the 
pharynx or " trompe " the series of papillae described and figured by Willey. 



POLYCHiETA--BENHAM. 61 

The weight of evidence, then, appears to be against Gravier's contention that 
this species belongs to the genus Alciopa. Mcintosh had already noted the " short 
filiform cirrus at the end of the foot." Gravier himself recognises that it " approaches 
the genus Var.adis " on this account, and points out that only in the absence of the 
prehensile organ at the entrance to the pharynx and in the form of the chaetee does it 
differ therefrom. As he himself considers the form of the chaeta as the " dominating " 
character of distinction, Apstein's contention and Willey's support of it are surely 
justified, aiad the only possibility left is that Gravier is dealing with a different species 
from those obtained by the " Challenger," the " Southern Cross," and the " Aurora," 
which, I think, is not probable. 

Locality ■ — 

Commonwealth Bay, surface, and at 45 faths. 

Distribution. — Antarctic Ocean, practically circumpolar (Mcintosh, Ehlers, Gravier, 
Willey); Atlantic Ocean, near Ascension (Ehlers); North Pacific and Indian 
Oceans (Apstein). 

Family TOMOPTERID^. 

Genus Tomopteris EscJwholtz. 

Hub-genus Tomopteris Rosa. 

Tomopteris carpenteri Quatrefages. 

Qua^refages (1865), vol. ii. p. 227, pi. XX, figs.l, 2. 

? T. carpenteri, Mcintosh ( 1885), p. 531. 

(Plate 8', figs. 64-66.) 

A very w^ell-preserved, complete individual was obtained in the tow-net by 
Dr. McLean in 45 fathoms of water among the pack ice ; and fom- others, less well 
preserved, came from 50 fathoms, during January, 1914. 

The description applies to the first-named specimen. It is 55 mm. in length, 
with a maximum diameter of 13 mm. over the parapods in the mid-body. It is 7 mm. 
across the first pair. The total width gradually increases till the middle of the body, 
then decreases to the hinder end. The body itself measures 4 mm. across, at about the 
middle, but is only 2-25 mm. at the neck, in front of the first parapod. There are 33 
pairs of parapods, the last 2 or 3 being very small. The same number occurs in a less 
well-preserved specimen, which is only 35 mm. in length by 8 mm. over the feet. 

The anterior parapods are short. They gradually increase in length up to the 
6th, and this maximuni length is retained till about the 14th, when they decrease. 

The worm is opaque in the preserved state (in formaline). The colour is pale 
brown with a darker band along the mid-dorsal and mid-ventral lines. In the shorter 
specimen there are two areas of deep brown across the ventral surface of the body and 



62 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

parapods, extending over the anterior third and over the hinder third of the body. 
Whether these are post-mortem or not I cannot say. The head and posterior end as 
well as the middle third are quite pale. 

There is no trace of a " tail." 

The prostonrial corniia (fig. 64) are carried on a very short, wide base. The 
anterior margin has no median notch, and the frilled membrane is continuous from side 
to side. The extremities of the cornua are gently curved backwards, and reach to the 
outer ends of the enlarged bases of the long cirri. 

The cdiated epaulettes are very distuict, narrow, slightly curved, with the 
convexity mediad. They commence at the anterior margin and reach about halfway 
along the dorsal surface of the head, terminating in a depression of its surface. In a 
less well-preserved specimen the epaulettes assume a more or less triangular form, with 
the base external and one angle mediad, that of the left side especially resembles Quatre- 
fages' figure (pi. XX, fig. 1). 

The dorsal surface of the prostomium — ^that is, the middle region of the " head " — 
is convex, and rather browner than the neighbouring region of the body; it is bounded 
laterally by a pair of deep, longitudinal depressions, which separate it from the cirrus 
bases on either side. 

No eyes are visible in this individual; but they are present in the smallest 
specimen, which was stained and mounted in balsam. 

There is no sign of the " first cirrus " which occurs in some species. 

The " second cirrus "' is at least 18 mm. in length, and reaches to at least the 
15th segment. It is very delicate, breaks easily on being manipulated. The cellular 
envelope is missing in the distal portion, and the protruding, very transparent chitinous 
axis is difficult to trace under a dissecting microscope. It is thus difficult to state 
exactly the length of this cirrus. But in the larger of the less well-preserved specimens 
the cuTus is seen to extend to the hinder end of the body; so that this may, I think 
be regarded as its normal length. The base of the cirrus is nearly hemispherical, with 
a somewhat pointed apex externally, whence the cirrus arises. The longitudinal 
diameter of the base is about equal to its transverse, and this is greater than the 
width of the prostomium. The diameter of the " head " across the cirrus bases is 5-5 
mm. 

Between the base of the cirrus and the first pair of parapods the gap is longer 
than that separating the subsequent feet. The length of this gap or '' neck '" is equal 
to the diameter of the body at this point. 

The distance separating the successive parapods is about half the Ijasal length, 
but in the poorly-preserved specimen the feet are closer together. 

At their greatest development the length of a parapod is greater than the width 
of the body, but at either end of the series this difference decreases, 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 63 

The dorsal ramus of tlie foot (fig. 66) is rather shorter than the ventral, and the 
two diverge at an angle which approaches 90°. Indeed, in less well-preserved specimens, 
this angle is a right angle. The end of each ranius is bluntly pointed and appears brown, 
especially in those cases in which the membrane has been torn away. The " pinnal 
membrane " is characteristically developed, and resembles that of T. nisseni Kosa. 
On the dorsal surface it conmiences on the base of the foot, some distance proximad of 
the bifurcation ; its line of origin is undulating, as also is its margin. The membrane 
continues round the apex, and only ceases at the angle formed by the two rami. The 
arrangement of the ventral pinnal membrane is similar, but it is more extensive. It 
bears two " pinnal glands,'" which are termed by Rosa the ^' hyaline " and the 
" chromophil " glands.* There is no " rosette.'" The species, therefore, belongs to 
Rosa's sub-genus Tamapteris. 

The " hyaline " gland is capped by a dark orange or red brown mass of pigment, 
and is situated just dorsal of the apex of the ventral ramus. It makes its first 
appearance on the 3rd foot. 

The " chromophil " gland (the "' cupule " of Quatrefages) appears as a rounded 
glandular thickening, differing in texture, as in its pale bufi colour, from the surroundil^g 
transparent membrane. These glands commence on the 5th foot, and are recognisable 
as far back as the 20th, beyond which I am unable to detect them. 

The two larger specimens are males, and the young testis is situated in the dorsal 
lobe of the foot, along the roof of its cavity. 
Locality . — 

Commonwealth Bay. Pack ice. 

Distribution. — Antarctic Ocean, lat. 60° 3' South, long. 0° 60' (Quat.). Between 
Kerguelen and Macdonald Islands (Mcintosh). 

Remarks. — This species formed the basis of Quatrefages' account of the genus 
in his " Histoire Naturelle des Anneles," and his account has been repeated, 
though recast, by Rosa (1908, p. 312) in his useful monograph of the genus. 
Quatrefages' specimen had been collected during the voyage to the South 
Polar Regions of the Zdee (1837-1840), though it is not mentioned in the 
reports of that voyage. The specimen was imperfect, lacking the hinder end 
and the long cirri. It is described as being opaque and " maroon coloured " 
(which agrees probably with the present specimens). Owing to the imper- 
fections of the type, I have deemed it worth while to enter pretty fully into 
detail, for the species has not been examined or reported upon since 1865. 
Quatrefages, in his figure of the " head " (pi. XX, fig. 1) shows the epaulettes 
as triangular, and, as I have mentioned, it is so when the animal is ill preserved. 
The foot (Quat., fig. 2) is possibly somewhat distorted, as the angle made by 
the two rami is greater than it is in well-preserved material. Here, again, I 

♦Though the gland takes hsematoxylin very strongly, it is not noticeably affected by alum carmine, which I used. 



64 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

find that ill-preserved specimens are more nearly like Quatrefages' figure. 
In short, the present specimens agree precisely with his account of the species, 
whether under the description of the genus (p. 219) or of the species (p. 227). 

There is, I think, strong justification for Mcintosh ascribing to this 
species those specimens that occurred in considerable numbers in the neighbour- 
hood of Kerguelen. It is true he gives no details whatever, and Rosa has 
suggested that perhaps he had T. eschcholtzi Quat., l)efore him. This occurs 
near the Cape of Good Hope, and the suggestion was, no doubt, warranted. 
But in view of the fact that T. carpenten was originally found in the neighbour- 
hood of Bouvet Island and now at almost the exact opposite quarter of the 
Antarctic seas there is no geographical ground for refusing to accept Mcintosh's 
identification. 

ToMOPTERLS SEPTENTRioNALis Quatrefoges. 
Quatrefages (1865), vol. ii, p. 229. 
Rosa (1908), p. 297, pi. XII, fig. 17. 
T. {J olmstonella) seftentrionalis , Gravier (1911), p. 72 (full list of references). 

About a dozen specimens of this bi-polar species were gathered by tow- netting 
diuing January, 1914, at depths from 45-100 fathoms. They vary in length from 
5-15 mm. 

Gravier has already pointed out that in his specimens the length of the peristomial 
cirri exceeds that given by Rosa, who stat&s that they are about | the body length. It 
appears possible that this varies with age, for I find that in one that is 8 nun. in length 
the cirri are longer than the body. The specimen was mounted, and the cirri fortunately 
lay directed backwards. In one of 15 mm. they are at least 10 mm. long, and have 
every appearance of having been broken. Southern gives the length as from " one- 
half to four-fifths " of the body length (1911, p. 21). 

As previous observers have stated, the hyaline glands are difficult of detection in 
all the segments in which they occur. I find them in the first three parapods distinctly 
and in at least 12 of the subsequent parapods, though they are not readily visible ir 
all the feet of every specimen. 

The eyes are brown, rather far apart, and situated far forwards, just in front ) 
the bases of the cirri. 

Surely it is by a lapsus calami that Gravier places this species in the sub-genus 
J olmstonella, for it has, according to the observations of Apstein, Rosa, and myself, 
neither rosette nor first cirrus nor tail; and Rosa himself places it in the sub-genus 
Tomofteris on this account. 
Localities .— 

Commonwealth Bay, 45 fathoms, 50 fathoms, 100 fathoms. 
Distribution. — ^North Atlantic; Baltic; North Sea: S.W. Coast of Ireland 
(Southern); Pacific (Apstein); lat. 69° 15' south, long. 105° 5' west (Gravier). 



rOLYCHi^lTA— BENHAM. 6^ 

Family 'i^^nVABM. 

Genus Nekeis Cuvier. 
Nereis loxechini Kinherg. 
Nicon loxechini, Kinberg ( 1865), No. 2, p. 178. 
Nereis loxechini, Ehlers (1908), p. 73. 
Nereis loxechini, Ehlers (1913), p. 497. 

(Plate 8, figs. 67-75.) 

' This is evidently a rare worm, and the only species of Ner^ is ( other than N. uncinata 
Ehlers) recorded from the Antarctic region. Up till 1908 it had not been met with 
since Kinberg's record of it at Magellan Strait. In that year Ehlers pnblished a brief 
description of a small individual obtained from St. Paul's Island; the only one 
collected by the expedition. In his later memoir he records a larger specimen, 
measuring 77 mm. by 6 mm. across the body, and containing 86 segnaents, from 
Kaiser Wilhelm II Land. It was noted as being " red-brown in colour " when alive. 
He, however, added no new facts about the species. 

As no figures have been published (unless they are contained in Theel's new- 
edition of Kinberg's work, which I have not been able to consult), it seems desirable to 
add another and more detailed illustrated account of the species. 

Three specimens were gathered by the " Aurora," in depths from 157 to 325 
fathoms; all are more or less imperfect. The most nearly complete individual has a 
length of 60 mm. and a breadth of 6 mm. over the parapods, and 5 mm. over the body 
anteriorly; thence it tapers, so that at about the middle of the body these measure- 
meiits are 4 and 3 mm. respectively. 

This worm consists of 132 segments, and only lacks a few of tlie hindmost. Another 
fragment represents a larger individual; it consists of the head and 45 segments, and 
measures 40 mm., with a breadth of 5 mm. over the body, and 7 mm. across the feet. 

Tlie thii'd specimen is rather soft; it is 26 mm. by 3 mm. over the body, and 
4 nim. over the feet. The hinder end of the fragment, whose segments I did not count, 
is r25 mm. across the body. 

The dorsal surface is brown, more deeply tinted over the middle area, with a pale 
line across the anterior margin of each segment; the lateral areas are almost white ; the 
parapods are brown, with two glandular masses of greyish-brown at their bases. The 
tips of the ligules are similarly tinted. 

The prostomium (fig. 67) is broader than long; the posterior ocuhferous region 
is rather abruptly marked ofi from the narrower tentacular region in the well preserved 
specimen, but not so much in the less well preserved (fig. 68). The eyes are large, each 
with a well developed lens; the posterior eye is oval rather than circular, with the long 



66 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

axis slightly oblique to a transverse line; they face upwards and backwards. The 
anterior pair, of which only the upper half is visible from above in this specimen, faces 
forwards and outwards. The posterior pair is close to the hinder margin, the anterior 
separated from them by about the diameter of an eye. 

The tentacles are about half the length of the prostomium in one case ; nearly 
equal to it in the less well preserved specimen. The palps are broad and short, with a 
nearly spherical appendage, and do not reach further forwards than the tips of the 
tentacles, or only slightly further. 

Of the peristomial cirri, the longest, i.e.. the anterior dorsal, reaches back to the 
7th or 9th segment, and is from 8 to 10 mm. in length; the next, a ntero- ventral, is about 
half this length, and the other two are successively shorter, the shortest being of the 
same length as the prostomium pluti its tentacles. 

The peristomium is rather longer than the first chaetigerous segment and about 
equal to the second; it has a straight anterior margin. 

The parapods are relatively short : aiid present a peculiarity that I do not 
remember seeing noted in other species. The posterior lip of the neuropod is produced 
outwards into an ovate process, very distinctly constricted at its base, and though 
normally du-ected outwards, is sometimes displaced backwards. It occupies the position 
of one of the folia 'cous outgrowths characteristic of the Heteronereid stage of some 
species (fig. 69). 

In the anterior feet, up to about the 22nd, the upper ligule is bluntly pointed, 
no longer than the dorsal lip or " middle ligule." The lip of the ventral lobe is bluntly 
rounded and carries, as I have mentioned, the curious appendage on its posterior face. 
The ventral ligule is rounded and shorter and broader than the ventral lip, and this 
seems to be a specific character (fig. 70). 

Posteriorly, at or about the 34th foot (fig. 71), the upper ligule becomes rather 
more pointed, as does also the middle ligule; the ventral ligule remains broadly rounded, 
and is even larger than anteriorly. 

In the still more posterior feet (fig. 72) this ventral ligule is still more noticeable 
as a large rounded lol)e, larger than any of the other lobes. 

The cliaefcB are arranged as follow in the anterior feet : — 
Dorsal bundle. — About 12-15 spinigerous homogomphs, with long slender appendix. 

Ventral bundle. — (a) Supra-acicular group : 6-8 spinigerous homogomphs, as 
above, together with 3-4 stout-shafted, brown, falcigerous heterogomphs with 
a shorter appendix.* (b) Sul)-acicular group : A few spiniger homogomphs and 
16-18 heterogomph falcigers with slender colourles shaft. 

* The appendix is short only as con^pared with that of the homogomphs ; it is longer than the usual short falciger. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 67 

The broMTi, stout heterogomphs are absent in the anterior feet of the specimen 
from 157 fathoms. Is it a sexua) mark ? 

In the 20th and subsequent feet the number of these stout bristles is reduced 
to two. 

The appendix of the heterogomphs (figs. 73, 74) is knife-blade like, with long 
fine hairs along its edge. The tip is hooked, and from the end an oblique line indicates 
the margin of the " guard." 

The pharynx is pecuhar in having no paragnaths, either in the oral or in the 
maxillary divisions. The jaw (fig. 76) has sixteen rounded teeth, of which the five 
distals are concealed by the brown edge of the jaw, as it lies on its side. 

Locality . — 

Commonwealth Bay. Station 2, 318 fathoms (one); Station 3, 157 fathoms 
(one); Station 10, 325 fathoms (one). 

Distribution. — York Bay, Magellan Strait (Kinberg) : East of St. Paul Island, 
367-3 fathoms ; K. Wilhelm-II Land, 210 fathon-is (Ehlers).* 

Nereis australis Schmarda. 
Helen/nereis australis Schmarda (1861), p. 101, pi. XXXI, fig. 242. 
Platynereis magalhaenis Kinberg (1865), Xo. 2, p. 177. 
Nereis Australis Eenham (1909), p. 238, pi. IX, fig. 1. 

For a full synonymy and literature see Benham (1909, p. 238) and Fauvel (1916, 
p. 484). The latter zoologist does not take the view put forward by myself that 
Schmarda's species is synonymous with Kinberg's. I have gone into this matter pretty 
fully in the alcove-mentioned article and I am still of opinion there expressed, although 
Ehlers does not seem to have noticed the discussion, and has expressed no opinion as 
to it in any of his recent works. 

Specimens of the worm were collected at various spots on the Macquarie Island 
by Mr. H. Hamilton, to the number of sixty or more. He found it in rock pools, &c.; 
it appears, therefore, to be a littoral species. Some of the sjiecimens are filled with 
reproductive cells, either male or female; but they exhibit no heteronereid changes. 

One male, preserved in formalin, has pale orange-brown colour, brighter 
anteriorly, with grey feet. 

One specimen, at least, is still within its tube composed of black sand particles 
and small stones. Gravier has described such a sandy tube for N. inagalhaensis. 

A small individual, measuring 12 mm. in length, has paragnaths only in 
compartments IV next the ;;aws ; the rest of the buccal surface is bare. 



*I have used Bell's estimate that one fathom is equal to 1-829 metres, as given in the "Discovery" Report: 
footnote, p. 4. 



6g AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Locality. — 

Macquarie Island (North End, Garden Bay, and West Coast). 

Distribution . — Kerguelen, St. Paul, Magellan Region, Fuegia, Chili ( Ehlers) ; Marion 
Island, Falkland Islands, Fernando Noronha (Mcintosh); New Zealand and 
its subantarctic outliers (Benham); Puerto Madryn (Gravier); Table Bay, 
South Africa (Ramsay). 

Nereis kerguelensjs Mcintosh. 
Mcintosh (1885), p. 225, pi. XXXV, figs. 10-12; pi. XV J A, figs. 17, 18. 
Ehlers (1897), p. 65, pi. IV, figs. 81-93. 
Gravier (1906), p. 29. 
EUers (1907), p. 11. 
Gravier (1911), p. 76. 
Ehlers(1913), p. 495. 
Ramsay (1914), p. 42. 

Fauvel(1916), p. 433, with full bibliography. 
Fauvel(1917), p. 203. 

The present collection contained only two small specimens, in each of which the 
pharynx is protruded, allowing the characteristic arrangement of the paragnaths to be 
readily seen. 

The species occurred with ]Si . australis in rock pools, at low water. 

Locality . — 

Macquarie Island. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen (Mcintosh, Ehlers); S. Georgia (Ehlers); S. Orkneys 
(Ramsay); Falkland Islands (Fauvel); Tasmania (Benham); New Zealand 
(Ehlers); S. Australia (Fauvel); Canary Islands, Mediterranean ( Marenzeller) ; 
He Booth Wandel, Petermann, Port Lockroy, Biscoe Bay, Admh-alty Bay 
(Gravier). 

Family NEPHTHYDIDiE. 

Genus Nephthys Cuvier. 

Nephthys macrura Schmarda. 

Schmarda(1861), p. 91. 

N. Virginia Kinberg* (1865), p. 239 ; Ehlers (1897), p. 19, pi. I, figs. 9-12. 
N. trissofhjllus , Grube (1877), p. 533; Mcintosh (1885), p. 159, pi. XXVL 
figs. 1-5; pi. XXVII, figs. 1,4; pi. XXX, fig. 8; pi. XlV A, figs. 9-11. 

'Kinberg writes " virginis " iu his original account; Ehlers " virgini." 



I'OLYCH^TA— BENHAM. C9 

N. macrura Elilers (1904), p. 14. 
N. macrura Elilers ( 1908), p. 57; ( 1913), p. 451. 
N. macrura CTiavier (1911), p. 98. 
xY. macrura Benham (1915), p. 203, pi. XL, fig. 57. 

N. macrtira Fauvel (1916), p. 436, pi. YIII, figs. 1-3 (and adds IS! . pra^hofa 
Kinberg as a synonym). 

In 1897 Elilers, from a study of the original S2:>eciniens, showed that (! rube's 
species is identical with that of Kinberg ; and in his account of the New Zealand Annelids 
( 1904) he further established, from an examination of the types, that Kinberg's species 
is synonymous Avith Schmarda's. He gave an extended and illustrated account of the 
species, which is widely spread over the subantarctic area. It is evidently very common, 
for the " Aurora " naturalists gathered some seventy specimens, varying in length 
from 14 mm. up to 125 mm., the latter \nth a diameter of 12 mm. over the parapods. 

The worms are labelled as being " flesh coloiu:ed " in life as I know from 
observation of our local specimens. In spirit, however, the dorsal surface becomes 
a pale brown and the parapods usually white. 

The habitat extends from the shore-line, where 't seems to be most abundant, to a 
depth of at least 157 fathoms, where it seems to attain its greatest size. 
Localities . — 

Boat Harbour — Shore : 2-4 fathoms ; 25 fathoms. 
Station 3, 157 fathoms. 
Station 12, 110 fathoms. 

Distribution. — South Chili (Schmarda); Magellan Strait (Kinberg) ; Kerguelen 
(Grube, Mcintosh, Elilers) ; Heard Island (Mcintosh) ; Bouvet Island, New 
Zealand ( Ehlers) ; Bass Strait (Beiiham); South Shetlands(Gravier); Falkland 
Islands (Fauvel). 

Family AMPHINOMID.^. 
Genus Eurythoe Kinberg. 

EURYTHOE COMPLANATA Pallas. 

E. pacifica Kinberg— Mcintosh (1885), p. 27, pi. II, figs. 3, 4; pi. Ill, fig. 2; 

pi. II A, fig. 13; pi. Ill A, figs. 5-9. 
E. complanata Ehlers (1908), p. 38. 

Ehlers* has shown that these two, as well as E. alcyonia Savigny, are identical, 
and discusses the history of the species. Fauvel ( 1919, p. 348) gives a list of the literature. 

From the neighbourhood of Tasmania a young specimen was obtained measuring 
1 1 mm. for 35 segments. 

The distribution of the species is very wide, iis it seems to occur in all seas and 
oceans. 

* Ehlers, " Zur Konntniss d. Ostafrikanischcn Borstciuviirmer "' in Naclir. d. K. Gescll : d. Wiss. Gottineen. ISO", 
Heft. 2, \i. 2. " 



70 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Family EUNICIDiE. 
Sub -family Eunicin^. 
Genus Eunice Cuvier.* 
Eunice tentaculata Quatrefages. 
Quatrefages (1865), vol. I, p. 317. 
E. pycnobranchiata Mcintosh (1885), p. 294, pi. XXXIX, figs. 13-15 ; 

pi. XXI A, figs, 4, 5. 
E. pycnohmnchiata Benliam (1915), p. 213, pi. XLI, figs. 79, 80. 

Fauvel (1917, p. 209) has pointed out the resemblances in structure of these 
two species, and shows that they are identical. For other synonyms consult his 
article. 

A single specimen of this Australasian worm was obtained by Professor Flynn 
(12th December, 1912). 

Locality. — 

Off Maria Island, Tasmania. 

Distribution . — 

Bass Strait (Mcintosh, Benham), New Zealand (Benham), vSouth Australia 
(Fauvel). 

Sub -family Lumbriconerein.^ . 
Genus Lumbriconereis Blainville. 
LuMBRicoNEREis MAGALHAENSis Kinberg. 
Kinberg (1864), p. 568. 
L. magalhaensis Grube (1877), p. 531. 
L. kerguelensis Grube (1878), p. 14 (separate copy). 
L. kerguelensis Gr., Mcintosh (1885), p. 246, pi. XXXVI. figs. 16, 17; pi. 

XVII A, fig. 18; pi. XVIII A, figs. 2-4. 
L. nuujalJiatnsis Ehlers (1897), p. 74. 
Ehlers (1901), p. 136. 
Gravier (1906), p. 30. 
Ehlers (1908), p. 99. 

Gravier (1911), p. 78, pi. Ill, figs. 35, 36. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 499. 

The specimens before me agree almost exactly with Mcintosh's account of 
L. kerguelensis Gr. Grube had tentatively assigned it to Kinberg's species, and Ehlers 
in 1897, having had the opportunity of examining both the types, found that they are 
identical. 

* Leiper ( 1908) lias enumerated a series of names of annelid genera which are already " occupied " ; amongst others 
is Eunice. But it is so well established amongst Zoologists, while the insect to which it was originally applied is unknown 
to most of us, that no useful purpose would be served by discarding the name as now usually employed. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 71 

The existence of aji independent flange below tlie pseudo-articulation of the 
hooded hooks in the anterior feet seen^ to be a characteristic feature of the species, 
and in some of the lower cha^tae is a similar, but less developed flange on the convex 
side of the shaft. 

There is, however, one point in which my specimens differ from the account 
given by Mcintosh. I do not find, in the posterior feet, hooded hooks like that figured 
by him on pi. XVII a. fig. 18 ; they resemble, on the other hand, that which he 
attributes to L. japonica, and figures on pi. XVIII a. fig. 1. Has an error crept 
into the explanation of the plates ? 

The buccal segment agrees with that figured by Gravier (pi. Ill, fig. 35), as 
representing the adult condition of the species. 

The specimens in this collection number four ; one is imperfect and measures 
80 mm. by 3 mm. This came from a depth of 325 fathoms. Of the other three from 
the Macquarie Island, one is niature and filled with eggs, rendering the body yellowish 
in colour ; it coiisists of 133 segments, and measures 65 mm. by 2 mm. The remaining 
two are more slender, dark purplish-brown (in formalin), with a green iridescence. 

Localities. — 

Commonwealth Bay, Sfcxtion 10, 325 fathoms (one). 
Maccjuarie Island, shore (three). 

Distribution .—Kerguelen (Kinberg, Grube, Mcintosh); Magellan Strait (Kinberg, 
Ehlers), Fuegia, South Georgia, Falkland Islands, Bouvet Island, K. Wilhelm- 
II Land (Fillers); He Booth Wandel, Port Charcot, Petermann, Admiralty 
Bay, South Shetlands (Gravier). • 

LUMBRICONEREIS MACQUARIEXSIS, Sp. HOV. 

(Plate 8, figs. 7&-81.) 

This anterior fragment of a small Lumliriconereid consists of a head and 56 
segments, and measures 25 mm. by 1-25 mm. 

It is greyish in colour, non-iridescent. The specimen is not well preserved, 
and is rather soft. 

The prostomium is dark ])luish grey, nearly hemispherical, with a median ventral 
furrow (fig. 76). The peristomium is interrupted by a buccal process of the second 
segment, and this process is grooved in the middle line ; furrows also exist, cutting 
into the edge of the lateral portions of the peristomium. Its appearance, in short, is 
like that figured by Gravier for the young of L. magdhamsis, and also like Ehlers' figure 
for L. spliarocephala. 

Were it not for further details, I should have referred it to the former species. 



7^ AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The parapods are very short, even anteriorly (fig. 77), with a rounded posterior 
Up, which does not project much beyond the anterior lip ; the length of which scarcely 
exceeds its height. Posteriorly the feet are even shorter (fig. 78). Each is supported 
by a single uncoloured aciculum ; the chsetse are very few ; of the capilliforms 
(fig. 81) I see only one in the 8th foot ; there are no roots embedded in the foot, so 
that it is not a question of breakage and loss. In the 25th foot there are none. 

The hooded hooks are also few ; in the 8tli only one is present ; in the 25th 
there are four; and at about the 45th three only. 

These hooded hooks are, for the most part, without any articulation (fig. 80) ; 
the hood is strongly striated, and at its proximal region its edge is denticulated, some 
five or six distinct teeth being recognisable, at any rate in the 25th foot. 

In the various preparations of feet from different parts of the worm I met with 
only one articulated hook ; it presents below the articulation a " ventral " independent 
flange (fig. 79), like that in L. magalhaensis . 

The upper jaws recall those of L. magalhaensis, but the lower jaw plates are white, 
and resemble those of L. spha"rocephala. 

In the brevity of the feet it bears a resemblance to L. brevicirris Ehlers, and in this 
species, too, there are no articulated hooks, but the form of the hooks is very 
different, and the species differs from the present in other ways. 

From L. sphcerocephala Schnmrda, of which I have studied local examples, the 
present species differs in having very much shorter feet ; in the early cessation of the 
capilliforms ; in the lack of articulation in the hooks ; in having a single colom-less 
aciculum instead of three, of which one or more is dark brown ; and in the structure 
of the upper jaw plates. 

Locality . — 

Macquarie Island. 

Genus Ophryotrocha claparede and Metschnikoff. 
Ophryotrocha claparedi Studer. 
Studer (1878), p. 119, pi. V, fig. 11. 

Paractius notialis Ehlers (1908), p. 101, pi. XIV, figs. 1-6. 
Paractius notialis Ehlers (1913), p. 500. 

A very large number of specimens of this minute worm, which measures about 
2-3 mm., were collected by Dr. A. L, McLean in Boat Harbour. He notes that when 
alive they are " pale, with dark patches dorsally." There is no pigment in the 
preserved worms, and it may be that he saw the black jaws through the transparent 
wall. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 7^ 

These worms agree with the account given by Ehlers of his species, which was 
founded on a single specimeii. In his later niemoii-, however, he had a good number 
of individuals at his disposal, and he notes certain variations presented by them, such 
as the presence or absence of eyes, details in the form of the jaw apparatus, &c. 

The species differs from the northern O. pueriUs Claparede and Metschnikoff, in 
the absence ot the ventral tentacles on the prostomium. and in the absence of the 
median anal cirrus, as well as in other details. 

As long ago as 1888 I)e St. Joseph (p. 240), in describing the species Parcwtius 
mutabilis, raised the question as to whether Ophryotrocki puerilis, Staurocephalus 
minimus Langerhans, and S. siberti Mcintosh, should not be ranged under the generic 
name ParacUus Levinsen ; though it would have more in accordance with the usual 
practice to include the latter under the earlier title. In 1895 (p. 210) he returns 
to the question, and records his belief that Claparede's species is distinct from 
P. mutahilis. 

Later, Bonnier (1893), in discussing Studer's species, notes that his account is 
'• malheureusement insuffisant" owing to the fact that the material had been lost after 
the preliminary account had been drawn, up. Bonnier suggests that it is probably a 
synonym of 0. puerilis. He then considers the validity of Levinsen's genus, and 
concludes that it and the abovenamed species of Staurocephalus are all referable to the 
genus Ophrijotrochi. In that work will be found a complete bibliography up to that 
date. 

In the same year Korschelt went into the question, chiefly in reference to the 
jaws in the Mediterranean species, and arrived at a similar conclusion. 

Ehlers ( 1908) makes no reference to this discussion, but does so in his later memoir-, 
and seems to agree with the conclusions arrived at by Bonnier. Although he retains 
the title Paractius notialis at the head of his account of the worm, he discards it at the 
end ; for he writes "nach dem alien halte ich es fiir wahrscheinlich, dass *S. claparedi 
und P. notialis identisch sind,' ' and in all probability are to be assigned to the species 
0. puerilis, which would thus be a highly variable cosmopolitan species. 

The only point that remains for solution is the question as to whether Studer's 
antarctic species is or is not identical with the northern form. 

With the abundant material in my possession, I hoped to look into the question 
more thoroughly, but this Report has already been delayed by the calls on my time 
for University work, that this matter must for the present remain open. I hope, 
however, to look into it later, especially to see whether the jaw apparatus presents any 
constant differences from that of 0. puerilis. 

Locality.— 

Boat^Harbour. 

Distribution.— Keignehn (Studer, Ehlers), K. Wilhelm-II Land (Ehlers). 

»83892— K 



?4 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Family GLYCERID^. 
Genus Glycera Savigny. 
Ctlycera capitata Oersted. 
Oersted (1843), p. 44, pi. VII, figs. 87, 88, 90-94, 99. 
Ehlers (1865-1868), Die Borstenwiirmer, p. 648, pi. XXIII, figs. 47, 48. 
Mcintosh (1885), p. 343. 

G. kergudensis Mcintosh (1885), p. 344, pi. XXXV A, figs. 3-4. 
G. capitata Ehlers (1897), p. 80. 

G. capitata Arwidsson (1898), p. 7, pi. I, figs. 1-6. ])I. IV, fig. 54. 
G. capitata Ehlers (1901), p. 154 (with synonymy). 
Ehlers ( 1908), p. 105. 
Moore (1911), p. 299. 

Izuka (1912), p. 249, pi. XXIII, figs. 11-13. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 503. 
Treadwell (1914), p. 198. 

This species is represented in the collection by only two indviduals, both about 
the same size. The one more carefully studied is imperfect posteriorly, containing 62 
segments, measuring 25 mm. in length, with a maximum diameter of 4 mm. some 
little distance behind the anterior end ; it gradually decreases both forwards to 2 mm. 
at the buccal segment, and backwards, so that the hinder end of the fragment is 1 mm. 
It appears, therefore, that only a few segments are missing. 

Localities. — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 2, 318 fathonis. 
Station 12, 110 fathoms. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen( Mcintosh) ; Falkland Islands, Magellan Strait, Patagonian 
coast, Bouvet Island, K. Wilhelm-II Land (Ehlers) ; Azores, Portuguese 
coast (Mcintosh) ; North Atlantic (Oersted); N. Pacific, Calif ornian coast 
(Moore) ; Alaskan coast (Treadwell) ; Sakhalin Island, Japan (Izuka). 

Family SPHiERODORIDiE. 

Genus Sph.erodorum Levinsen (nee Oersted). 

Sph^rodorum SPIS.SUM sf. nov.* 

(Plate 9, figs. 82-89.) 

Amongst some material, containing chiefly Syllids, which Dr. Haswell found 
in sorting out specimens from the Macquarie Island and winch he kindly forwarded 
to me, I find two individuals of this minute worm. 

* apissus — -crowded, close together; as of ae4t3— here, has refereace to the integumental papillee. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 75 

One of these had been cleared and mounted in balsam — it measures 4.7 mm., and 
consists of " head " and 26 chsetigerous segments. It had apparently been fixed in 
osmic acid, for many of the granules in the body wall and in the inteiiur of the body 
are blackened (fig. 82). 

The other, when it reached me in alcohol, was flattened as if it. had been studied 
under a cover slip : this I stained in alum carmine— its length is 3-5 mm. It is rather 
difficult to be sure of the number of chsetal bundles, for it is flattened asymmetrically, 
lying on one side with the ventral surface upwards, one series of parapods (of the left 
side) being along one edge for about half the length, the rest below the margin, the other 
series lying along the middle of the preparation— they are not easy to see except under a 
high power. 

I believe, however, that there are 25 or 26 pairs ol parapods. The body is not other- 
wise segmented ; there are no external furrows, and internally there are several large ova 
which are without that regular arrangement they would have were any septa present. 

The ventral surface is fl at, the dorsal much arched. As the animal lies the distance 
from one set of parapods to that on the other side is about three times the width of the 
ventral surface. 

The whole surface of the animal is densely covered with crowded pap illso (hence 
the specific nan e). These are well seen in profile along the edge, and each is a mass of 
cellular substance enclosed in a continuat'':'n of the cuticle of the body. Over the 
body the cuticle is unusually thick, but it becomes rather thinner as it rises up to form 
the wall of the papilla. Within are a few nuclei stained greenish-brown (in the osmic) 
and some pale carmine-stained protoplasm and threads. At the base the cuticle is 
pierced by a small aperture allowing a continuity between the contents and the substance 
of the body wall (fig. 87). 

The two ends of the animal are very similar : the anterior end does not present 
any dift'erentiated prostomium ; no lobe is marked oft" from the first body segment. 
At a little distance from the end is a pair of eyes ; at least, so I interpret the structures. 
In the unst lined cleared specimen there is a pair of sharply-defined oval vesicles 
surrounded by a firm membrane, pale brownish in colour, but without visible contents 
(fig. 83). In the stained specimen black pigment spots occupy a corresponding position. 

I cannot detect any tentacles, although 1 examined both specimens under high 
power. There are no processes, other than the papilla?, visible in these flattened 
specimens, and none of them are longer than their neighbours. The anterior end, like 
the rest of the body, is densely covered w'th these papillae. 

There is no distinct peristomium; the first bundle of bristles lies about midway 
between the eye^ and the entrance to the pharynx, which must be a short distance 
behind the mouth, whose position I am unable to determine. The structure of the head 
is, in fact, just as Ehlers has described it for S. parvum, except that in that specieg 
he finds distinct tentacles. 



76 AUSTRALASIAN ANTAECTIC EXPEDITION. 

At the hinder end, too, I was unsuccessful in detecting anal cirri — it is merely 
covered with the papillfe (iig. 84). 

On the body generally, so far as it is possible to make out in the flattened 
condition, the papilla^ have the following arrangement : - On the ventral surface there 
are about five longitudinal rows of papilla?, somewhat smaller than those that cover 
the dorsal surface. Many of them are tinged with black, as if a secretion had been 
affected by the osmic acid. 

Between the successive parapods are two papilla^ in a longitudinal row. Above 
them the papilla? seem to be arranged roughly in 12-15 rows, judging from the number 
on the exposed portion of the body — I admit there is room for error here. I have figured 
a short jDortion of the body wall at about the middle of the animal (fig. 85). Along the 
dorso-lateral edge the papillae are seen lying close together in a row ; there are no definite 
" small " and " large " papillae, though they are not all quite of the same size (fig. 86). 
At any rate the definite alternation, such as occurs in S. farvum (Ehlers (1913), p. 504) 
and S. mmutum (Webster and Benedict) does not exist here. 

From the edge I can trace transverse rows to the parapods, some three or four 
papillae in each row ; these rows are alternately in line with and between the parapods, 
and are at about equal distance apart ; those in the parapodial or mid-segmental row 
are perhaps a little larger than the others, but the difference is not at all well marked 
Also, those in any row that lie nearer to the parapods are slightly smaller than those 
more dorsally placed. The successive rows tend to alternate with one another in 
position, though this does not seem absolutely constant, while here and there amongst 
the others, are a few distinctly smaller papilla\ 

The parapods are rather narrow, truncated cones, carrying one, or occasionally 
two, of the smaller papilhT on the dorsal surface near the base (fig. 86). One of the 
lips, the anterior I think, is produced into a rounded process, not unlUve a papilla, 
but its contents are not cut off by cuticle from the underlying material. 

I cannot see any cirri. Each parapod is supported by a single colourless aciculum, 
the apex of which just reaches the surface, and carries about six long colourless jointed 
chsetee, the appendix of which is very thin, scarcely hooked terminally, with a thin blade 
in which I can detect no striations (in Canada balsam). The appendix is not unlike 
that figured for *S'. farvum, but is rather shorter (fig. 89). 

In the iinstained specimen the pharynx is visible, its chitinous lining being 
outlined by black. It is wrapped round by a coat of muscle, increasing from each end 
to a considerable thickness in the middle. It occupies the second and third chgetigerous 
segments, i.e., its entrance is behind the first bundle, its hinder end a little in front of 
the fourth bundle of chsetse (fig. 83). 

Around its entrance are some glands, deeply tinted black. The apparatus 
resembles a " pharynx," such as occurs in various families, rather than a " proventriculus" 
or " stomach " of the Syllidse, 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 77 

I cannot trace any other organs. 

Tlie species is manifestly different from S. parvum Ehlers, in which the papilla? 
are fewer, are definitely spaced segmentally in alternating rings of larger and smaller 
sizes. It differs from *S'. minutum Webster and Benedict, which is densely clothed in 
papilla^, but they are of two distinct sizes ( larger in the parapodial levels, and two or more 
irregular rows of smaller ones between) ; (see Southern*). Both these species also have 
definite tentacles. It may be that in specimens of the new species that have not been 
flattened they may also be found. However, the parapods and the chfetse are 
dissimilar. 

FamUy ARICIIDiE. 
Genus AiiiciA Savigny. 
Aricia marginata Elders. 
Ehlers (1897), p. 95, pi. VI, figs. 1.50-156. 
Willey ( 1902), p. 275, pi. XLV, fig. 4 (spine). 
Ehlers(1908), p. 116. 
Ehlers (1912), p. 23. 
Nainereis marginata Fauvel (1916), p. 445, pi. VIII, figs. 26-33 (juvenile form). 

This species is characterised by the triserial arrangement of the spines in the 
anterior 13 or 14 neuropods ; by the absence of any fringe or papilhc in their neighbour- 
hood ; and by the gills commencing on the sixth chsetigerous segment. 

The worms before me lack the black lines in the intersegmental furrows and 
along the margins of the gills, from which the specific name was derived, but it seems 
now to be recognised that these markings were due to adventitious particles. 

Those from the shallower waters of Boat Harbom- are white, are coiled, and have a 
length of about 26 mm. Some of these contain eggs, so that they are not juveniles. 

One anterior fragment from 318 fathoms is of stouter build and of a pale brown 
colour, with an ii'idescent skin. It measures 20 mm., by 3 mm. across the body and 
2 mm. in height. It consists of a head and only 47 segments. 

The uncini have the form figured by Willey, with a spoon-shaped hollow near the 
end, below which are transverse ridges. 

Localities. — 

Boat Harbour, 2-4 fathoms. 
Commonwealth Bay, Station 2, 318 fathoms. 

Distrihition. -^8 outh Georgia, Kerguelen, K. Wilhelm-II Land (Ehlers) ; Cape 
Adare (WUley) ; Roy Cove, Falkland Islands (Fauvel). 



■ Southern, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 1914, p. 90. 



78 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

A. MARGINATA var. HOV. MCLEANI. 

(Plate 8, fig. 90.) 
This variety differs from tlie species iji having in some of the anterior neuropods 
an additional partial row of 3, 4, 5, or 6 black spines, starting from below and extending 
upwards behind the third row. In this respect it recalls the arrangement seen in 
A. olilini Ehlers(1901), which, however, possesses 10-20 of these spine-bearing segments 
in place of 13 or 14 in ^. marginata. 

It is true that Ehlers (1913, p. 521), in referring to a form of Aricia from the 
Falklands Islands differing from /I. marginata in having 17 such segments, expresses the 
opinion that differences in the number of anterior segments, as well as of gill-less segments, 
are not of importance in differentiating species in the genus. If this is the case, it is possible 
that A . oMini is synonymous with A . marginata, which agrees in most features with it, 
though, according to Ehlers, the position of the gill in relation to the parapod is different, 
for in A. oMini it is closer to the dorsal cirrus, or " lip," than in the other species; and 
the form of the hinder parapods apparently present certain differences, though the 
figures given by Gravier (1911, pi. VI, figs. 72-73) for A. oMini are quite different from 
those given by Ehlers. 

For the present it seems better to regard the two species as distinct, though it is 
clear that they are closely allied, and this new variety emphasises this alliance. 

The additional row of spines does not exist on all the neuropods: usually they 
commence on the 3rd or 4th, and continue to the end of the series. In some cases the 
third normal row is imperfect at its lower end, but not always, even in the same individual. 

The gill commences on the 6th cha?tigerous segment, though in one individual it is 
on the 7th, but variation in this respect is already known; and I note, for instance, that 
in one specimen of A. marginata the gill is present on the 5th on one side, and on the 6th 
on the other. 

Some of the specimens are white, others are very pale brown. 

The general dimensions and other external features are similar to those in the 
species. 

Locality. — 

Commonwealth Bay, 25 fathoms (several). 

Genus Scoloplos Oersted. 

SCOLOPLOS MAWSONI sp. HOV. 

S. kergudensis Gravier (nee Mcintosh) (1911), p. 108, pi. V, figs. 60-63. 

(Plate 8, figs. 91-94.) 

A vast number of individuals of this small species was collected at Boat Harbour 
at depths of '2-4^ fathoms. In one bottle there are scores, if not hundreds of specimens. 



rOLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 7& 

They are stated to be " red in life," but in the preserved condition, of course, this blood 
colour is absent; they are almost white, with the anterior end grey. The dimensions 
are remarkably uniform, and though most of them are curved, the length of the straight 
ones is 25 mm., with a breadth of 2-5 mm. at a short distance from the anterior end, 
whence the body tapers slowh' backwards. The hinder end is usually imperfect, and 
many seem to have this region more or less regenerated. 

The worm contains from 60-109 segments, the last ten or a dozen of which are 
very small. Many are sexually mature. 

The dorsal surface is flat, the ventral very convex. The prostomium is a short 
truncated cone ; in many cases quite blunt, in others roundly pointed. It is divided 
from the large peristomium by a furrow, at the anterior margin of which is a pit on each 
side, and immediately in front of this is a pigment spot. On the ventral surface of 
this region the large lateral lips are prominent, with a median lip between them. 

The anterior eleven segments bear only the low parapods, with lips and bundles 
of chaetse. The chsetae are colourless, long, extremely fine capilliforms, with a saw- 
like edge on one side, which is composed of blunt, rounded teeth; the stri* between 
which do not reach right across the blade. 

The dorsal and ventral chfetai are alike, lioth in the anterior segments and in tlie 
posterior. I find no " forked " bristles, nor " acicula," such as Fauvel describes for 
his specimens of *S'. kerguelensis{\9\Q), -p. 443, pi. VIII, figs. 23-24. Each bundle of 
ch^tiB issues in front of a more or less pronounced cirrus, or " lip." The lip of the 
dorsal bundle is conical in form, that of the ventral is lower and of greater vertical 
height. In the anterior 12-14 segments the chsetse project laterally, but further back 
the parapods gradually rise wp the sides of the body, so that the cha^tos become directed 
upwards. Each segment behind the 14th is triannulate, the middle annulus being 
much the larger of the three. 

The gills commence on the 12th segment, and extend almost to the end of the 
worm, except apparently on the last 10 segments or so, which are very small, and 
have no outgrowi;hs of any sort. The gills are sub-cylindrical, somewhat flattened on 
their antero-posterior faces, which increase in length towards the hinder end of the worm 
till they are nearly as long as the body height. 

In this gUled region the ventral smface of each segment is traversed by a glandular 
ridge, which commences below the parapod, where it wddens out to form a triangular 
area with the Ijase upwards; in the anterior segments of the branchial region, this 
dwindles to a small papDla and dies out. 

The position of the gills is remarkably constant : thus m 31 individuals of approxi- 
matel}' equal size, taken at random, from various vials representing different hauls, 
I find that in. 17 ot them the gills commence on the 12th segment on both sides; 



80 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

m 7 others they are present on the 1 2th on one side, and on the 1 1th on the other. Six of 
them have quite small gills on the 11th segment on both sides. One has a gill on 11th 
on one side, and on the 13th segment on the other. 

Some of the above worms are sexually mature. But in souxe that are quite 
young, measuring only 5 mm.. I find likewise that in some individuals the gills com- 
mence on the 12th on both sides, in others on the 11th, in others again on 11th and 12th. 
In one specimen of still smaller dimensions there is a very small gill on the 10th 
segment. 

We may, therefore, I think, regard the position of the first eill as being on the 
12th segment as a specific character. 

The anus is surrounded by a thiclcened smooth ring, slightly notched dorsally 
and ventrally; I see no distinct anal cirri in any of the many specimens examined. 
Localities . - - 

Boat Harboiu-, Conmionwealth Bay (collected by Dr. A. L. McLean), 2-4| 
fathoms. 

Distribution.— tiear Port Lockroy (Gravier). 

Remarks.— This worm agrees well with that described by Gravier under the name 
of S. kergudensis Mcintosh. At the same time he points out several features 
m which his worms differ from ^he account given by Mcintosh, and he states 
" that it is \vith doubt that I identify with that species the seven small 
Ariciens obtained from the Roosen Chamiel, Port Lockroy." The shape of 
the dorsal and ventral " cirri" (or lips, as I prefer to term them) differs, 
as also does the shape of the gills, which Mcintosh figmes as filiform. It may 
be noted that Mcintosh's account and figures are not in absolute agreement 
as to the position of the gills. Gravier, following Ehlers, suggests that *S'. 
kergudensis may be the young of ,S'. armiger. His specimens, which were 
but seven in number, were of small size, about 17 mm., and badly preserved, 
whereas mine are quite well preserved, and many are sexually mature. And 
smce the gills commence almost constantly on the 12th segment, whereas 
those in *S'. armiger begin on the 15th-18th, and rarely as far forward as the 
10th, it is evident that this surmise is incorrect, at any rate for the species 
studied by me, and, as I have stated, these agree quite well with those 
described by Gravier. 

Recently, Fauvel (1916) has given a more detailed account of S. ker- 
gudensis, and finds some differences from that of the previous authors. But 
it is clearly different from the present worm, in that the gills appear on the 
18th- 20th segment; he finds also certain peculiar chtette— forked, pectinate 
bristles— conunencing on the 10th or 9th segment; these, as I have men- 
tioned, are not present, while on the 10th or Uth segment are one or two 
acicula, which are likewise absent from these worms. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 81 

Again, the ventral '' ciiTUS " in the posterior feet, cominenciiig on the 
10th, undergoes reduction till it is a short obtuse " niaraelon," which is not 
true for S. mmcsoni, where it does not begm to become smaUer till at or about 
the 50th segment. 

It seems, then, evident that there are two species of Scoloplos in these 
southern waters. That of Mcintosh, Ehlers, and Fauvel on the one hand, and 
the present species and that described by Gravier on the other. It remains 
to be seen to which of these sliould be ascribed those recorded by Willey 
(1902) under the title of Mcintosh's species. 

Family CIRRATULIDiE. 

Genus Cirratulus Lamarck. 
ClREATULUS CIRRATUS 0. F. Mtiller. 
Miiller (1776), p. 214 (not seen.) 
C. cirratm Malmgren (1867), p. 95. 
P romenia jucunda Kinberg (1865), p. 254. 
Pmmemafulgida Ehlers (1897). p. 114. pi. VII, figs. 174-176. 
Cirratulus cirratus Fauve! (1916), p. 447 (where list of synonyms and biblio- 
graphy will be found). 

Fauvel compared specimens from Falkland Islands, which agree in every feature 
Avith Ehlers' Promenia fulgida, with the northern form, and was unable to detect any 
constant differences between them. He therefore arrives at the conclusion tabulated 
above. 

Members of the family are evidently rare in these southern seas, for Gravier 
reports on only one Cirratulus sensu lato (1911), while Ehlers (1913) gives but little 
information about the few that were collected by the German expedition, leaving 
most of the fragments unnamed. 

The present collection includes a number of specimens from the Boat Harbour, 
and others from the Macquarie Island, some five or six in each gathering. 

Although well known from the Sub-antarctic region, all round the Pole, this is 
the first time that it has been recorded from the Antarctic Sea. 

Localities.- — 

Boat Harbour, Commonwealth Bay, 2-4 fathoms. 

Macquarie Island (low water under stones and in rock pools); collected liy 
IVIi". Hamilton. 

Distribution. — South Georgia, Kerguelen, Magellan Strait, Fuegia, Falkland Islands; 

and also Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, 
*§3892— L 



82 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Family TEREBELLID^E. 

Suh -Family Amphitritin.^ . 

Genus Amphitrite 0. F. Miiller, 

Amphitrite kerouelensis MelntosJi. 

Mcintosh (1876), p. 321. 

Grube (1877), p. 546. 

Mcintosh (1885), p. 443, pi. XLVIH, fig. 7; pi. XLIX, fig. 1. 

Ehlers(1897), p. 130; (1901) p. 208; (1908) p. 145: (1913) p. 556. 

Gravie.r (1911), p. 129, ph XII, fig. 166 (tube). 

Five specimens of tliis large species were oljtained at a depth of 157 fathoms, 
but none are complete. The largest measures 140 mm. for 75 segnients, with a diameter 
of 10 mm. at about the 8tli segment. The tube is thick- walled, and consists apparently 
of fine grey mud ; of which a portion measures 40 mm. long, and has a thickness of 5 mm. 
The mud contains very varied forms of diatoms, both long-shelled and circular; 
fragments of sponge spicules and a few radiolarian tests. It agrees with Gravier's 
figure, which he attributes " probably " to this species. 

Locality. — ■ 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 3, 157 fathoms. 

Distribution. —Kevgnelen (Mcintosh, Grube), Petermann, andS. Shetlands (Gravier), 
Fuegia and Bouvet Island (Ehlers). 

Genus Terebella (Linnwus) Malmgren. 

Terebella ehlersi Gravier. 

Gravier (1906), p. 47, pi. V, figs. 45, 46. 
Gravier (1911), p. 130. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 556. 

In the previous expeditions only one or two individuals of this Antarctic species 
seem to have been obtained, but during the visit of the " Aurora " to Commonwealth 
Bay, as many as fifty specin^ens were procured. It is then evidently fairly abvmdant 
in that area, though not nearly so common as some other species of Terebellids. In 
some instances the label includes a note as to colour, which is " bright red." The 
worm lives in depths of from 2-6 fathoms, though it seems to be commoner at about 
25 fathoms, and less common at greater depths. 

There is a slight discrepancy in the account given by the two authors as to the 
nature of the tube. I find that the membranous basis is covered with material which 
varies with the nature of the bottom ; in some it consists of rather fine sand grains, 
interspersed with fragments of brown algae, as described by Gravier. Other tubes 



POLYCH.«TA— BENHAM. 83 

consist of extremely line grains of grey sand, looking like mud grains. Such tubes 
have thicker walls than those with coarser grains ; and it is such a tube that Ehlers 
describes. In both kinds I find ech'nid spines, and sponge spicules so embedded as to 
produce a smooth external surface. 

One such tube measures 90 mm. long, with a diameter of 15 mm. at its upper 
end, and its wall is 3 mm. in thickness. 

Most of the worms measure from 50-70 nun., with an anterior width of 7 mm. 
some are larger than this, and one is 90 mm. long. Gravier, however, gives 100 mm. 
as the length of a specimen Avith 86 segments. 

The number of notopodial bundles varies from 40, 43, 45 and 49 in those 
examined. Gravier gives 54 and Ehlers 48. 

The number of ventral gland shields is 14, 15 and 16, in niy specimens. Gravier 
found 14. 

There is no need to add anything to Gravier's account. 

Localities. — ■ 

Boat Harbour — Among rhizoids of floating brown Alga^ (Dr. McLean). 
Boat Harbour, 2-4 fathoms. Station B, 25 fathoms. 

Commonwealth Bay — 

Station C, 15-20 fathoms. 
Station D, 45-50 fathoms. 
Station E, 55-60 fathoms. 

Distribution. — South American Antarctic (Gravier), Kai:^er Wilhelmll Land (Ehlers). 

Terebella vayssieri Gravier. 

Phyzelia vayssieri Gravier (1911), p. 130, pi. X, figs. 121-123; pi. XL figs 
134, 135. 

The tube of this species, of which several were gathered, consists of variously 
coloured sand grains, loosely and irregularly arranged to form a thick wall not unlike 
that of some tubes of T. eUersi. 

The worms attain a length of 40 mm., with a diameter of 6 mm. anteriorly, at 
about the 8th segment ; the body begins to contract at about the 15th segment to 
4 mm., which diameter is retained for some distance, and then it begins to taper. 

There is one point upon which I lay stress in identifying the worm, and that is 
the form of the uncinus in the anterior segments ; the great length of the basal process 
which starts below the teeth of the uncinus, seems to be characteristic, 



84 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

There are indeed one or two points in which my specimens seem, to differ from 
Gravier's account, which may be due to differences in the state of preservation or of 
^ge. Thus, he states that he could detect no eyes. In most of the present worms 
the^e are distinctly present as a series of minute black dots, in two to four rows on each 
side : this oculiferous area occupies about half the height of the prostomium on each 
side. In some of my specimens, however, they are absent. And it has been noted 
by Ehlers and other authors that in some species of Terebellids eyespots are sometimes 
present, sometimes absent. 

I think that Gravier must luive overlooked the fact that the ventral surface of 
2nd and 3rd segments coalesce, though they are distinct laterally and dorsally, and 
laterally the 2nd segment is very much compressed, and therefore quite short. Hp 
states that the " flap " is borne by the 2nd segment. I find it distinctly on the 
next. Also the first gill is said to be on the first segment, instead of, as I find it, on 
*he 2nd. 

Again, Gravier writes that "there is only one row of uncii\i." This is true for the 
anterior and posterior segment-;, Init from about the 10th to the end of the thorax, 
that is to segment 18, I find that there are two series of uucini close together and facing 
alternately fore and aft, interdigitating with each other, ^o that they simidate a single 
row till examined under a microscope. 

The bristles of the 1st notopod have simple points, with a narrow flange on both 
sides, which is not striated. But the bristles of the later segments are stouter, with a 
narrow flange on one side and a broader one on the other, each faintly striated. 

Apart from these slight discrepancies I think there is no doubt that the worms 
before me are identical with those described by my French colleague. 

Locality . — 

Boat Harbour, 31-4 fathoms. 

Distribution. — Off Terre Alexandre and Port Cironcision (ile Petermann). 

Remarks. — Both Ehlers and Gravier, in discussing the allied form T. (Phyzelia) 
fasciata Grube, show how difficult it is to define the genera and sub-genera 
of this family; they give up in despair the attempt to set things right for 
these exotic species, although Te St. Joseph has arrived at some apparently 
satisfactory conclusions with regard to the European species. 

In dealing with this species Gravier expresses himself as being unable 
to decide whether it should come into the genus Polijmnia Mlmgrn, or Nicolea 
or Scione, and yet finally he places it in Phyzelia, which has received different 
limitations by various authors. Under the circumstances it may be as well 
left in the genus Terebella lato sensu. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 85 

Genus Scione Malmgren.* 

SCIOXK MIRABILIS Mclntosk. 

Pista mirahiUs Mclntosli (1885), p. 4.)4, pi. L[, figs. 1, 2; pi. XXVII a, 

fig. 34. 
An imuamed tube, Mcintosh (1885), Introduction, p. 10, pi. XLiX, figs. 8, 9. 
Scione spinifera Ehlers (1908), p. 15"2. pi. XX, figs. 10-14. 
Scione sfinifem Gravier (1911), p. 134, pi. XII, fig. 156 (tube). 
Scione spinifera Ehlers ( 1913), p. 561, pi. XLTV, fig. 7 (tube). 
Scione mirabilis Ehlers (1913), p. 562. 

(Plate 9, figs. 97-100.) 

The material consists of seven individuals, two of which were still within their 
tubes, the rest having been removed therefrom before preservation. 

The tube is nearly straight with the upper free end bent downwards as figured by 
previous authors. One tube measures 150 mm. along the curve, the other attains a 
length of 240 mm. ; the lower end is lacking in both, but a greater portion is absent from 
the longer one. The tube has a cylmdrical lumen. 5 mni. in diameter ; the external 
surface is raised into four longitudinal ridges which bear the characteristic long spine-like 
processes ; these are from 10-12 mm. in lei"igth in the upper region and decrease graduallv 
towards the lower end to 1 mm., while in the lowest quarter they are absent. 

In the upper part, for a distance of about 10-20 mm., the ridges die out and the 
spines depart horn their regular linear arrangement, becoming scattered over the surface. 
This region is of looser texture than the lower part, there being less mud adhering to the 
basal membrane, and consequently, too, the wall is translucent. 

Embedded in the mud wall are bundles of sponge spicules, such as Mcintosh 
describes for Pista {Scione) mirabilis ; they are disposed circiUarly and closely parallel 
to one another. They are present also in the " spines," where they are disposed length- 
wise. On the surface of the tube waU and on the spines are various colonies of Polyzoa, 
Hydrozoa, and a portion of what seems to be Rhahdopleura, which is unfortunatelv 
poorly preserved and the polypides are either absent or indistinct. 

The complete worm removed from the smaller of the two tubes has a body length 
of 50 mm. for 92 segments ; its breadth anteriorly is 4 mm. thence tapering to the hinder 
end. Most of the tentacles are lacking, and the few that remain are broken. 

The largest specimen in the collection had already been removed from its tube 
before preservation ; it is about 70 mm. in body length, to which 20 mm. is to be added 
for the length of the tentacles ; its diameter is 7 mm., and the body contains about 90 
segments. This specimen is twdsted in the abdominal region and is somewhat soft 
further forwards, so that these dimensions are not absolutely correct. These specimens 
are smaller than the individual of S. spinifera measured by Ehlers. 

* Scione 13 another re ccupied name, according to Leiper. , - 



86 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The anatomy agrees with the account of S. s-pinifera given by Ehlers ; but as his 
drawings of the animal are not very clear in certain points, I add a couple of somewhat 
diagrammatically constructed figures in order to show the morphological relations of the 
" lateral flaps," &c. (figs. 97, 98). 

In 1913 Ehlers hesitatingly suggested that possibly the two sjiecies, *S'. spinifera 
Ehlers and Scione {Pista) mirabilis Mcintosh, are identical, for in wi'iting of the specimen 
of 8. mirabilis from Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, he remarks (p. 562) : — ■ 

" Nicht vollig gehobene Zweifel bestehen dariiber, ob die Wiirmer nicht 
identisch mit der von mir im vorstehenden erwahnten ;S'. spinifera Ehl. sind." 

He then goes on to discuss the few differences which are, as he terms them, 
" insignificant," and I may add comments on the four points to which he pays 
attention. 

(1) " The differences in the structure of the tube may be due to differences 
in the nature of the sea-bottom, and other conditions of the habitat." 

The characteristic feature of the tube both of S. spinifeia and S. mirabilis is the 
presence of long, slender, flexible processes or " spines " which project from its surface 
and may be longer than the diameter of the tube. 

In Mcintosh's species the tube is cylindrical and the spines appear to be scattered 
all over the surface without any regular arrangement, but in the original account of 
S. spinifera Ehlers states that they are arranged in longitudinal rows. The tube figured 
by Gravier (pi. XII, fig. 156) as S. spinifera is likewise cylindrical with processes 
irregularly disposed. But more usually in those worms attributed to Ehlers's species 
they arise from definite ridges which extend almost throughout the length of the tube' 
and these ridges give it a very characteristic appearance, which was first figured by 
Mcintosh (though without a name) and later by Ehlers under the title S. spinifera. He 
and Mcintosh found three such ridges, but in the present collection each of the two 
tubes which I received has foirr ridges. I find that at about the region at which the tube 
curves over at its upper end these ridges die out and the spines lose their linear arrange- 
ment and extend u-regularly over the surface. Ehlers (1913) notes, too, that the ridges 
die out at the lower end in his species, though this is not the case with those before me. 

The material of wliich the tube is composed is a thin leathery meml^rane with 
fine particles of nuid worked up \\'ith the secretion. These mud grains are arranged in a 
very regular fashion, as described and figured by Mcintosh for his unnamed tube ; they 
are disposed in narrow circles round the circumference, each circle overlapping the next 
below. In S. mirabilis Mcintosh observed sponge spicules embedded in the mud, 
closely arranged parallel to one another, around the tube ; and similar spicules contribute 
to the support of the processes or spines where they are arranged lengthwise. These 
spicules were also found by Ehlers in his specimen of 8. mirabilis (1913), but he did not 
find them in the tube of 8. spinifera. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 87 

In tlie two tubes, however, from Commonwealth Bay, which agree in externals 
\\'ith the latter species, these sponge spicules are present, and their arrangement agrees 
precisely with that described by Mcintosh. There is thus a parallel series of form and 
of detail in structure in the tubes of the two " species." 

Ehlers, when comparing the two " species," points out that he had no information 
as to whether his specimen of S. mirahilis was obtained in the same haul as his .S'. spinifera, 
i.e., whether they occurred close together, though they came from the same locality; 
nor had he any information as to the nature of the sea-bottom which would explain the 
difference observable in the structure of the tubes. 

But Mcintosh found that the base of some of the tuljes of S. mimbilis were em- 
bedded in sponges, which would account partly for the small proportion of mud in his 
tube-wall and wholly for the presence of sponge spicules. 

A comparison of the sea-bottom at the localities at which the various specimens of 
S. spinifera have been obtained does not give sufficient information, I think, to account 
for the presence or absence of the spicules. 

The " Challenger " *S'. mirahilis were got on a bottom of " greensand,"' the 
" Valdivia " >S'. spinifera from bottoms of "blue mud," of "volcanic sand" and of 
" mud," and Ehlers states that the tubes were covered with black and grey mud. The 
" Challenger " S. spinifera tubes were obtained from " blue mud." 

In this recent expedition the tubes came from a bottom of " granitic rock, 
no ooze. ' Xo mention is made as to whether sponges were found at this station, 
though it is quite possible that this was the case. If so, that would account for the 
spicules in the wall of the tubes. Gravier does not mention whether he examined 
the tubes for spicules, presumalily he did not, since they are not mentioned in the 
original account of that species. 

(2) " The stem of the gill in S. mirahilis in Mcintosh's ligm-e is longer than in 
S. spinifera.'' 

But in the specimens from Commonwealth Bay which had been removed from 
the tube before being preserved, I find that the stem is very short, broad and \\Tinkled 
(fig. 97), and gives off two approximately equal branches ; it is almost exactly like 
Ehlers' figure of S. spinifera. On the other hand, in a specimen which I extracted 
from its tube, within which it had lieeu preserved, the gills are bent backward ; the stem 
is long (fig. 98), as figured by Mcintosh for his species. The difference, then, between 
the length of the stem of the gill, as observed by the previous authors, seems to be a 
matter of greater or less contraction. 

In the latter individual its position, flattened against the body and fully extended, 
allows a careful study of its structure to be made. The stem divides into two unequal 
branches, one of which seen^s to be a continuation of the stem, the other external to it; 
each gives off other branches of varying lengths, which bear the terminal filaments. 
Figure 98 is a careful drawing of the extended gill. 



88 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

There is one point on which Ehlers makes no comment, and that is the fact that 
Mcintosh states that the stem divides into three and that each of these splits into several 
branches, whereas in S. spinifera, as figm-ed in 1908, tliere are only two main branches. 
Perhaps it is a matter of small importance, but it may as well be referred to here. In 
one of my specimens one of the two branches divides again soon after its origin, giving 
the impression of three divisions. Mcintosh's figure shows at least five branches, which 
I think is an error on the part of the artist. 

(3) " Judging from Mcintosh's figure of the animal, a segment appears to be 
intercalated between the two segments which bear the lateral ' flaps ' or lobes, and 
his account is difficult to correlate mth the figure." 

Ehlers, in describing his specimen of S. tnirabilis, finds no such intercalated 
segment; the gill is on the 2nd segment, the lateral lobes on the 3rd and 4th as in 
S. spinifera; the shape of the first flap is similar in the two forms, and is larger than the 
second flap. 

I have introduced a figm'e showing more diagrammatically than does Ehlers's 
figvu:es the real arrangement of these segments. I have little doubt that Mcintosh's 
figure is misleading. 

(4) Ehlers has noted certain differences in the form of the uncinus as 
described and figured by Mcintosh for S. mirabilis, and those he himself describes 
for S. spinifera, in regard to the smaller denticles above the large fang. Mcintosh 

. describes three denticles, but his figure (pi. XXVII A, fig. 34) shows at least foiu" 
and perhaps a minute fifth. Ehlers in his specimen of S. mirabilis finds a single 
tooth between the fang and the cap of small denticles, so that the uncinus appears 
to be three-toothed when seen from the side. In ;S'. spinifera, according to 
Ehlers, this intermediate tooth is absent. 

In the specimens from Commonwealth Bay, I find a difference from l)oth these 
accounts, or rather from all three, for instead of there being only one intermediate tooth 
I find three rows of small teeth, of 2, 3 and 4. or sometimes of 3, 4 and 4 respectively, 
between the fang and the cap of minute denticles (fig. 100). In a side view (fig. 99) the 
uncinus is more like the figure of one of " the anterior hooks " given l)y Mcintosh than to 
the figure illustrating Ehlers's account. 

Some further points of comparison may be made. 

The dimensions of the worms have perhaps little value in deciding their identity, 
yet they may be included in this analysis. Ehlers's type of »S'. spinifera was imperfect ; 
but in 1913 he gives the dimensions of a complete individual. 





Body 


Di 


amotor. 


Nuiiibcr of 




length. 






segments. 


Ehlers 


105 




6 


134 


Gravier 


75 




. — 


91 


" Aurora " 


70 




7 


90 


S. mirabilis Mcintosh 


58 




2- 


— 



POLYCHiETA--BENHAM. 89 

Dimensions of tubes — S. mirahilis, Mcintosh, 1 ;"0-l fiO mm. by 4 mm. ; F>. spinifera, 
Thiers, Gravier and myself, 150-240 mm. by 5 mm. 

Geographically and bathymetrically, the two " species " overlap. Both were 
obtained from Kaiser Wilhelm TI Land ; and 8. spinifera extends up the west coast of 
South America to Valparaiso (Mcintosh), while 8. mirahilis occurs up the east coast as 
far North as Rio de la Plata (Mcintosh). 

The depth at which the two forms have been obtained varies from 110 fathoms 
(" Aurora ") to :i534-7 fathonis (" Valdivia "). These have the " spinifera " form of 
tube, while the 8. mirahilis form comes from 212 fathoms (Elilers) to 600 fathoms 
(Mcintosh). 

It is then evident that Ehlers was fully justified in liLs expression of doubt as to 
the distinctness of the two species, and it must of course retain the name bestowed upon 
it by Mcintosh. 

Locality . — 

Commonwealth Bay — 

Station 2,318 fathoms (two). 

,, 8,120 fathoms (four, the one studied is a male). 
,, 12,110 fathoms (a female distended with eggs). 

Distribution. — Off Valparaiso, off Eio de la Plata (Mcintosh), south of Bouvet 
Island, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land ( Ehlers) , Graham's Land ( Gravier). 

Genus le.bna Malmgren. 

Le.ena arenilega Elders. 

Ehlers (1913), p. 504, pi. XLIV, figs. 8-13. 

(Plate 9, figs. 95, 96.) 

Two specimens only were obtained during this expedition, which is in contrast 
witli the abundance of the worm off Kaiser Wilhelm TI Land. 

The present specimens show some apparent differences in the structure of th 
" head " from that described by Ehlers, but whether these are due to differences of 
preservation, or of interpretation, or of state of development, or are specific, it is difficult 
to decide when so few iiidividuals are available. But since the worms agree in all 
essential features with his account I attribute them to his species, but add figures to 
illustrate the apparent discrepancies. 

The tube is long and narrow, measuring 100 nim. in length by 3 mm. in width. 
It is built up of a single layer of transparent, colom'less sand-grains with a slight admixture 
of otlier material, such as sponge spicules : the outer surface is rough, and the grains 
seem very loosely adherent. It is more or less undulating, as if it had been coiled amongst 
other objects. 



90 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The contained worm measures only 40 mm., exclusive of the tentacles, which add 
another 10-12 mm. to the length. It is nearly cylindrical, tapering only slightly 
posteriorly. 

The body contains about 70 segments ; the intersegmental grooves, however, are 
very indistinct posteriorly, so that there may be more. 

The tentacular platform (fig. 95) is low, and the post-tentacular region bears an 
irregularly double row of eye spots laterally, but this becomes a single row across the 
dorsum ; the right and left rows are continuous, whereas Ehlers found a short dorsal 
gap separating the two groups. 

The first segment is very short on the dorsal surface, but becomes swollen and 
enlarged laterally (figs. 95, 96), projecting forward here. This glandular thickening 
extends almost to the mid-line on the ventral surface, but the right and left lobes become 
narrower as they approach one another and terminate in rounded lobes, separated by a 
very narrow, short, non-glandular area. 

It is here that I find a difference from Ehlers' account. He represents a large 
oval, forwardly-directed " flap " of much greater extent, and this, instead of tapering 
off towards the mid-ventral line, is here almost as long as it is higher up the sides, and 
the two lobes overlap. 

The second segment is likewise short on the dorsal surface, but is swollen so as to 
form a transverse ridge, which crosses the dorsum and extends down each side as far as 
the margin of the first gland shield. It is quite a definite structure ; but in Ehlers' 
figure it seems to be confluent with the flap of the first segmeiit. Possibly these structures 
are not at their full development in the specimens before me. 

The first notopod is borne on the third segment, and the uncini commence on the 
fourth. On each of the segments 5, 6, and 7 there is, above the notopod, near the hinder 
margin of the segment, a low but distinct nephridial papilla. 

There are 16-17 bundles of bristles, but there are only ten well-developed 
notopodial outgrowths. 

The uncinigerous neuropods are short throughout the worm, and lateral in 
position. Anteriorly, as in the 15th segment, there are 19 uncini, but further back th.e 
number is reduced to 6 or 7. The uncini agree pi-ecisely with the description given by 
Ehlers, and differ from those of L. abranchiata Malmgren and from L. wanddensis Gravier. 

The ventral gland shields number 1 1 , and are quadrate in form, except the first 
four, which are narrower transverse glandular bands. 

Locality.— 

Commonwealth Bay, 15 fathoms (with T. ehlersi and Th. antarcticus). 

Distribution. — Kaiser Wilhelm II Land. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 91 

Genus Thelepus Leuckart. 
Thelepus setosus Quatrefage^. 
Phenacia setosa Quatrefages (1865), vol. II, p. 376. 
Neottis spectabilis Verrill (1875). 
Neottis antarctica Mcintosh (1876), p. 321; (1879), p. 261, pi. XV, figs. 14, 15; 

(1885), p. 472, pi. LII, fig. 1. 
TJidepus mdntoshi Grube (1877), p. 544. 
Tlielefus spectabilis Ehlers (1897), p. 133, and his later works. 
Tlielepus spectahiUs Gravier (1906), p. 53. 
Thelepus setosus Fauvel ( 1916), p. 466 (for full list of synonyms). 

This Terebellid, which, as vaW be seen, has already been described from the 
subantarctic under a variety of names, has now been identified by Fauvel with the 
European species. He had under his eyes specimens from the Falkland Islands and 
examples from the Straits of Dover, and arrives at the conclusion — "le Thelepus 
spectabilis de I'hemisphere sud ne pent etre en rien differencie du TMepus setosus de 
la Manche." 

I can now add another locality, extending its range to Macquarie Island. Some 
of these, which were well preserved, were from Garden Bay, others from the North End ; 
some were found attached to rocks below low water, others were from sand under stones 
at low water. 

Distribution. — Strait of Dover, coast of Ireland: Kerguelen (Grube, Mcintosh); 
Bouvet Island, Marion Island (Mcintosh); Fuegia, South Chili (Ehlers); 
Port Charcot, He Booth Wandel (Gravier): Falkland Islands (Pratt, Fauvel); 
S.W. Australia (Fauvel (1917), p. 268). 

Thelepus antarcticus Kinberg. 
Kinberg(1866), p. 345. 
Willey (1902), p. 278, pi. XLV, fig. 6. 
Ehlers (1901), p. 210 (repeats Kinberg's record). 

The brief diagnosis given by Kinberg is scarcely sufficient to enable one to 
visualise the species, but the few facts he does give agree with those exhibited by the 
specimens in this collection, and I have no doubt that they belong to that species which 
has hitherto been recorded, since 1866, only by Willey. 

In view of the enormous numbers that were obtained by the expedition (in one 
jar there are more than one hundred individuals), it is very remarkable that none of the 
recent expeditions to the Southern seas has met with it. ;' 



92 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

It is very similar to the .Northern TMepus cincinnatus Fabricius, as Willey has 
pointed out, with which indeed he suggested that it is conspecific. But there appear 
to be a few differences from that Northern form, which has recently been described at 
length by Mcintosh ( 1915, p. 26). 

Under the circumstances, it seems worth while to give the essential facts about 
the worm. 

The animal grows to a large size, frequently attaining a body length of 140 mm. 
or even more (in one specimen it reaches 190 mm.). To this length of body must be 
added that of the tentacles, which measure some 30-40 mm., though of course they are 
much coiled and contracted, so that in life they nuist exceed tliis measurement. 

The mimber of segments is 90-100 ; the diameter of the worm first mentioned is 
7-5 mm. 

The sides of the body are thick, rough, brownish, and very glandular ; and this 
is continuous with the large ventral gland shields. 

The cephalic collar or platform which bears the tentacles, carries num.erous 
eye-spots over its entire extent. 

There are two bunches of gill filaments on each side of segments 2 and 3, which 
latter is also the first chaetigerous segment. Each bunch consists of a single transverse 
row of simple unbranched filaments— about 15 in a row on each side in the first gill — 
leaving a small gap in the median dorsal line equal to aboiit the width of three filaments. 
The anterior gill extends downwards to below the level of the notopod. The second gill 
is smaller, and consists of some twelve filaments, and the dorsal gap is slightly wider. 

In twenty-five individuals, taken at random out of a jar containing more than one 
hundred, every one had two pairs of gills. Not one of all those examined showed any 
variation in this respect, which seems to justify the use of the genus Thele/pus for two- 
gilled forms, or at any rate to refute the idea that variation in this matter commonly 
occurs in a species. 

The first notopod occiirs on the thii'd segment and is rejjeated on every segment 
throughout the worm, though in the hinder ones the number of chsetae becomes much 
fewer (in T. cincinnatus, Mcintosh states that the notopod is absent in the last forty 
segments). The first neuropod lies in the 5th segment. It is of considerable extent, 
reaching down to the margin of the gland shield. But after the 10th segment it begins 
to dwindle in height and at the same time to project outwards, so that by the 20th 
segment the neuropod has quite a short vertical extent not more than twice that of 
the notopod, and so remains throughout the greater part of the animal, as oar-lilce 
appendages. 

The margin of the anterior neuropods is darkly pigmented. The cluiet* of the 
first notopod and of those that follow are of two kinds, as in T. setosus. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 93 

The imciui are uiiiserial, small, closely-set, and numerous, there being at least sixty 
in one of the posterior lobes. When seen from the side the uncinus presents two teeth 
above the great fang, one large and one small, as IMcIntosh (1915, p. 29) states for 
T. cincinnatus, there is but a " single tooth," " though occasionally a minute third 
tooth is visible." I find that when viewed from above the fang is crowned by a ro-vr 
of three teeth usually of approximately equal size, and a single minute tooth placed 
eccentrically outside this series ; sometimes two of these minute teeth occur. 

The gland shields number 10-13, they are not at all distinctly defined, being 
rough and traversed by furrows. In T. cincinnatus Mcintosh gives 30 shields. I 
looked carefully into this, and found not more than 13 in any specimen. 

The tube, as usual, is membranous, covered with sand-grains of very varied sizes ; 
in some cases they are so coarse as to deserve the name '' pebbles," so that the outer 
surface is extremely rough and uneven ; in others, the grains are finer and more uniform 
in size and the surface much snroother. I\Iixed with the sand-grains are fragments of 
Ijrown or green algee, and occasionally jiortions of Echinid tests. 

Localities. — 

Boat Harbour, 25-30 fathoms. 

Commonwealth Bay, Station C, 15-20 fathoms (very abundant ; bottom rock, 
with small amount of brown alga?). 

Distribution. — York Bay,'Bucket Island, Magellan Strait (Kinberg) : Cape Adare, 
S . Victoria Land ( Willey). 

"^ Remarks. — According to I'e St. Joseph, " Thelepus " may have one, two, or three 
pairs of gills. Mcintosh says of " Neottis " that it differs from Thelepus in 
having three gills, whereas Malmgren's diagnosis defines Thdepus as having 
two pairs only. Willey, and I agree with hinr, points out the confusion that 
ensues from the wider use of the word ; but modern \\Titers continue to use it 
in this extended sense. It is evident that this large common antarctic form is 
common off Adelie Land, and differs from T. setosus. 

Fauvel has identified T. spectabilis with T. setosus Quatrefages, and in a 
later paper ( 1917, p. 269), accepting Willey's suggestion that Ivinberg's species 
is conspecific with the Northern T. cincinnatus, goes even further, and, relying 
on the possibility that in the same species the gills may vary from two to three 
pairs, puts forward the view that the latter may be identical with T. setosus : 
" Mais ceci n'est encore qu'une simple hypothese." 

The fact that in dozens of this Southern form, whether it lie T. cincinnatus 
or not, there is no sign of any such variation shows that this " hypothese " is 
still unproven, and that for the present the two species, T. setosus and 
T. antarcticus (or T. cincinnatus), are distinct. 



94 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Genus LEPREA Mdmgren. 
Leprea streptochaeta Ehlers. 
Ehlers(1897),p. 130,pl. VIII, figs. 203-205. 
Ehlers (1913), p. 560. 
Fauvel(1916), p. 465. 

A single individual of this species was received from Macquarie Island, where it 
lives in rock pools. 

It was still invested in its sandy tube, and the animal, which is somewhat coiled, 
as both Ehlers and Fauvel found to be the case, measures about 45 mm. with an anterior 
breadth of 3 mm., tapering posteriorly. 

I have nothing to add to the full accounts already published. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen, Falkland Islands, Uschuaia. 

Genus Polycirrus Gruhe. 

POLYCIRRUS HAMILTON I S'p. nOV. 

' (Plate 9, figs. 101-106.) 

A number of well-preserved worms, enclosed in tubes of dark sand-grains, were 
found by Mr. Hamilton attached to rocks at low water on the Macquarie Island. 
They are described as being " pink in colour." 

The worms are for the most part a good deal twisted, some are broken, but 
amongst them a few that are complete. 

A complete specimen measures from 25-35 mm. in length, with a breadth of 
2 mm. One mature female, filled with eggs, has a length of 25 mm. and contains 55 
segments ; another of 35 mm. has 50 segments. 

The numerous tentacles are of considerable length. 

There are 30-34 bristle-bearing segments, which commence on the 2nd. The 
uncinigerous neuropods commence in one case on the 7th, in another on the 11th 
chsetigerous segment. 

There are 13 paii's of gland shields preceded by a median shield on the first or 
peristomial segment (fig. 101). This gland is pentagonal in shape with its lateral 
angles somewhat rounded ; ^t is crossed by a curved shallow furrow from side to side. 
Then follow the series of paired glands separated by a narrow but deep groove mesially. 
The first of these, which lies on the first chsetigerous segment, is subtriangular, with 
its anterior side fitting against the latero-posterior border of the pentagonal gland and 
its apex directed mesially. The remainder are more or less quadrate. These are 
followed by three widely separated pairs of smaller size. 



tOLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 95 

Below each of the first eight notopods is a small nephridial papilla, lying just 
outside the gland shields. 

The notopods commence on the second segment and are repeated along the 
greater part of the worm, i.e., for 30-34 segments ; they are rather prominent, with 
the posterior lip produced beyond the anterior (fig. 102). The chatse are of two 
kinds — (a) those of the usual type with an synimetrical apex, a flange on one side, 
the sloping margin being finely striated (tig. 1()3) ; and (6) more slender, symmetrical 
and without a flange, but with very fine denticulations along each edge (fig. 104). 
There are about ten of each kind in the anterior notopods, but posteriorly the number 
of each becomes fewer, and the slender form (b) may be absent. 

The neuropods commence below the 12th or 13th iiotopod ; the uneini are 
uniserial; each has a short manubrium or base, and bears two teeth (fig. 105) \\dth 
a thin curved undivided hood above them (fig. 106). Behind the teeth there is a small 
projection from the base as usual, but I cannot, in spite of careful search, detect any 
knob springing from the base in front of the teeth, such as Gravier figures for P. insignis ; 
not even so much of a hump as Mcintosh figures for Ereutho kerguelensis . 

Locality . — 

Macquarie Island, Garden Bay. 

Remarks. — -This worm does not agree with any that have been described from the 
Antarctic or Subantarctic seas. It bears some resemblance to P. insignis 
Gravier ( 1906, p. 54), in which, however, the first notopod is on the foiu'th 
segment and there are 11 notopods only, >o that it should be placed in the 
genus Ereutho, ii we follow Malmgren ; but Gravier accepts De St. Joseph's 
views on this matter. 

Genus Ereutho Malmgren. 
Ereutho Antarctica Willey. 
Willey (1902), p. 281, pi. XLII, fig. 6; pi. XLVI, fig. 6. 
Polycirrus kerguelensis Mcintosh (1885), p. 475, pi. XXVIII a, fig. 22. 
Polycirrus kerguelensis Gravier (1911), p. 141, pi. XI, fig. 136. 
nee. Ereutho kerguelensis Ehlers (1913), p. 365. 

In the " Challenger " Report Mcintosh describes two species of Polycirrids from 
Kerguelen, namely Ereutho kerguelensis (p. 474), and on the next page, Polycirrus 
kerguelensis. The latter was an ill-preserved fragment, and no details about its 
structure are given except that the uncinus is characterised by a very long manubrium, 
and bears two stout short teeth. 

Willey, in his report on the " Southern Cross " annelids gives a brief account 
of a Polycu'rid from S. Victoria Land which exhibits precisely similar uneini, but the 



d6 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

worm has but 11 chaetigerous segments bearing notopodial cha?t8e, followed bv tlie 
uneinigerous segments ; and therefore falls into Malmgren's genus Ereutho. He 
named it Ereutho antarclica. 

Consequently, if reliance be jilaced wholly on the form of the uncinus, Wiiich 
certainly is quite peculiar, Mcintosh's Polycirrus kerguelensis is in all probability this 
Ereutho ; but he had already given the specific name " kerguelensis " to' an Ereutho 
which has quite a different form of uncinus. Hence a new specific name is needed, 
and we must adopt Willey's name " antarctica." 

Gravier (1911) describes, under the title "Polycirrus kerguelensis Mclnt.," a 
worm which has 11 chietigerous and 25 uneinigerous segments, whose uncini agree 
precisely with the figures of Mcintosh and Willey, and he remarks (p. 143) that it is 
e ctremely probable that it is identical with Willey's spgcies. 

Later, Ehlers (1913), under the title " Ereutho kerguelensis Mcintosh " (which he 
regards as synonymous with Willey's E. antarctica), describes a worm wth uncini 
agreeing with that figured for Ereutho kerguelensis (not Polycirris kerguelensis) of 
Mcintosh, but differing from that figured by Willey for his species. 

Ehlers states that the only difference between the two is that Mcintosh records 
13 chaetigerous segments, while Willey gives the number as 11. Ehlers himself finds 
both 11 and 12 ; and as the number of notopodial segments is variable, he concludes 
tliat the two species are identical. But this leaves aside altogether the marked 
difference between the uncini in the two cases. 

Ehlers refers to the conspicuous anterior lip of the anterior notopods produced 
into a " papilliform process " (Mcintosh), but neither author figures it. I do not see 
any such striking feature in the present worms ; the lips are nearly of a size. 

The present collection contains specimens of this species, without their tubes. 
The wornis are for the most part coiled, and measure about 12-15 mm. with a diameter 
of 3 mm. anteriorly. 

There are 11 segments bearing notopods with capillary chaeta?, followed by 
25-30 segments carrying short projecting uneinigerous neuropods. The first notopod 
is on the thii'd segment above the first pair of ventral gland shields. 

A mounted piece of the thoracic pre-uncinigerous region shows none of the 
peculiar hooks below the capilliform chc-etse such as Ehlers describes in his Ereutho 
kerguelensis . 

The present worms agree geiierally with the account given by (Iravier. 

Locality. — 

Boat Harbom", 3i fathoms. 

Distribution. — Kerguelen (Mcintosh), South Victoria Land (Willey) Petermann, 
' and South Shetlands (Gravier). 



POLYCH^TA—BENHAM. 9/ 

Family A:\rPHARETIDyE. 

Genus Phyllocomus Gruhe* 

PhyllocomUvS dibranchiata sp. )tov. 

(Plate 10, figs. 107-123.) 

A worm whicli was dredged from a depth of 157 fathoms, seems to form the 
type of a new species of this rare genus. 

It is distinctly differentiated into thorax and abdomen, the fornier bearing both 
notopodial cha?ta3 and incinigei ous neuiopods, the latter presenting only the 
neufopods, whi di project la*:erally like wings or oars. 

The specimen (fig. 107) is yery well preserved, and appears to be strongly 
contracted anteriorly ; it is a pale yellowish colour, while the parapods and glands are 
pale brownish and the ventral surface of the al)domen rather darker. 

It is fortunately com])lete, though the hinder end appears to be regenerated, as 
no uncini can be detected on the last ten segments. 

Its total length is 45 mm., with a width of 11 mm. anteriorly and a height of 
8 mm. The body tapers backwards slowly, so that at the commencement of the 
abdomen it nreasures 6 mm. in width. 

The worm contains 60 segments, with head and anal funnel, which is surrounded 
by a number of short cirri (fig. 115). There are 15 notopods with long pale yellow 
chsetae; 14 of these thoracic segments are glandular across the whole ventral surface, 
though distinct gland shields are not evident. The anterior glands spread from the 
neurojiods of one side to those of the other, which are here separated by a space of 
8 mm. The last three or four are traversed Ijy a definite furrow in the middle line. 
There are indications of two additional glands behind these. 

The head (figs. 108, 109) is very obliquely truncated, so that its anterior face is 
nearly vertical; the jJi'ostomium has the form of a sub-circular plate sloping downwards 
from the dorsal surface of the l)ody, nearly at right angles to the body axis; the lower 
extremity of this plate is free, and its edge is thin. This prostomial plate is of firm 
consistency, almost chitinoid; it is tinted in the middle with reddish browai pigment, 
is slightly convex from side to side in its middle, and slightly concave from its front 
backwards, so that its free rounded edge projects horizontally. 

On each side, between the prostomial plate and the curved peristomial ridge, is 
a narrow elongated dejaression from whicli a slight papilliform elevation rises. Grube 
suggests that this is a secretory organ; perhaps, however, it represents the ciliated 

*" Phyllocomus " looks like a masculine word and appears to refer to the " foliaceous " form of the gill ; but Grube 
uses the feminine "crocea" for the species. I therefore consulted my Classical colleague, Professor Adams, who informs 
me that there is a rare Greek word " komos " meaning a " bundle or sheaf," which is feminine : presumably Grube used 
this rare word. 

•83892— N 



08 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

nuchal organ of many Polychaeta. Just anterior to this, but only visible from the 
ventral surface, is a little patch of pigment a short distance from the anterior margin 
of the prostomial plate; this probably represents an eye-spot (fig. 113). 

The prostomial j^late is continuous dorsally and laterally with a curved semi- 
circular ridge, from which it is separated by a shallow furrow, but this ridge is also 
continued downwards across the ventral surface to form the lower lip, which is closely 
pressed against the upper lip formed by the prostomial plate, the anterior edge of which 
it does not reach (fig. 10 J). 

Whether one is to regard this curved ridge as the hinder region of the prostomium, 
Such as is described for several Ampharetids, or as the peristomium, seems uncertain; 
but from its relations I take the latter view. 

The ventral region of this peristomium is produced forwards in the middle line, 
so that a median and two lateral regions of the lower lip are distinctly marked off from 
one another (fig. 113); the median lobe has a straight transverse edge which is abruptly 
limited on each side by a nearly longitudinal margin, that turns sharply outwards to 
form the anterior edge of the lateral region of the lip. When the animal is seen from 
above, this lower lip is invisible, since it is overhung by the prostomial plate, and 
even when viewed from below, its base is partly concealed by the forward extension of 
the ventral surface of the following segment. 

The branchiferous segment, the second of the body, is very much compressed 
on its dorsal portion, so as to form an upstanding fold; its ventral portion is thick and 
glandular and conceals in great part the lower lip. 

On the dorsal surface this segment is rather longer than the peristomium, and 
carries a pair of admedian, upstanding gills of unusual form and structure ( fig. 109). 
Each gill is 4 mm. in height, i.e., about half the height of the body at this point; it 
consists of a rather thick axis, which bears along its whole length four undulating 
tough membranes, two on the external and two along its internal or medial surface. 
The membranes are broad below and taper distally so that the form of each gill may 
be described as quadiifoliaceous and lanceolate, in Grube's terms. 

The two gills are connected at their bases by a low transverse membraneous 
ridge (perhaps exaggerated by the contraction of the body), which is continued outwards 
and downwards almost to the level of the notopods of the foUowmg segments. 

Passing backwards and outwards from this ridge, commencing behind each 
gill, is a deep channel, bounded by a couple of narrow walls which, about midway 
in their course towards the base of the thii'd notopod, unite above the channel and 
convert it into a tunnel. This tunnel appears to end blindly (fig. 110). 

Two quite similar but successively shorter structures pass from the branchiferous 
ridge towards the second and first notopod, above which they respectively terminate. 



POLYCHiETA— BEXHAM. 99 

These structures appear to be the " areolae " of Grube's account of Phyllocomus 
crocea (1877, p. 543), and the relative disposition of them seenis to correspond to 
the three structures figured by Mcintosh (1885), pi. XLVll, fig. 11), which he 
interprets as the bases of lost " gills." 

These three pairs of channels and tunnels appear to be unique, and T regret that, 
having only a single specimen of the worm, I am unable to examine them by sections. 
I have no suggestion to make as to their purpose. The worm is well preserved, and 
there is no evidence of rupture here, no suggestion that any structure, such as a gill, 
has been broken away ; the margins of the channels are rounded and smooth, and appear 
quite natural. At any rate, under the highest power of a dissecting microscope I can 
see no sign of any interruption in the continuity of the surface. 

The tentacles, as is usually the case in the family, are invaginated into the 
buccal cavity. They were exposed by slitting up the side of the body along a bne 
corresponding to the junction of the lower lip with the peristunium (fig. 11.3). Tien 
numerous filamentous tentacles are seen directed backwards along the roof of a cavity, 
which I suppose is the buccal cavity; they are borne by a rounded ridge, which extends 
across the base of the prostomium, curving forwards on each side till nearly in the line 
of the lateral margin of the lower lip (fig. 116). 

Within the lower lip, along its base, is a second rounded ridge which connects 
right and left ^\•ith the tentacular ridge; it is apparently a sphincter muscle, and may 
be exaggerated by the contracted .vtate of the worm. 

The tentacles are 10 mm. in length and are united to one another for a distance 
of about 3 mm. from their origin, where they are only indicated by lines separated bv 
shallow furrows. The proximal portion of the tentacles is surrounded by a thin 
membranous flap, 1 mm. in height, springing from the tentacular ridge; and when 
the tentacles are lifted up a line of brown-red pigment-dots is seen close to its free 
margin on its tentacular surface; fiirther, a second line of darker spots lies along its 
base, close to the roots of the tentacles (fig. 117). 

The body.— The dorsal surface is smooth, annulate and without inter-segmental 
furrows, but the segments are distinct enough laterally and ventrally ; the body is 
very strongly arched, so that the notopods are directed upwards ; the third segment, 
like the next two, is nuich narrower than the following, though whether this is again 
due to the strong contraction of the worm seems doubtful, in light of the statement Ijv 
Grube that in his species these three segments are shorter than the rest. 

The third segment carries the first notopod. which is smaller than the following, 
and bears only a few cha4a?. The next two notopods are likewise small, but the number 
of chajta? increases : the maximum is attained at about the sixth or seventh, and this 
is retained until the fourteenth. 

The bristles are long, stout and of a golden-yellow colour : they are arranged in 
a smgle vertical series with longer ones above and successively smaller ones below. 



100 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Microscopical study of them, under varyiiig conditions and from different 
aspects, reveals a new type of bristle ; new not only to this family but, as I think, new 
to the class. 

Some time previously I had made a drawing of one of the chaeta? from a group 
separated out and freshly mounted in glycerine; it was symmetrical, finely pointed 
with a narrow flange on each side, and very similar to that figured by Favivel (1897) 
for Amfharete grubei (pi. XVIT, fig. 24.) But amongst them T found others in which 
the bristle is curved and has only one rather broader flange. I supposed therefore 
that there were two kinds of chaetse in the bundle. 

Some months later, when preparing this account for piil)lication, 1 had occasion 
to refer to my preparations, one of which was in Canada Balsam. I was surprised to 
see that all the cheetee are alike, curved, with a single flange. Wishing to ascertain how 
I could have been deceived in my earlier examination, I cut off a fresh parapod, sep- 
arated out the cheetse and made a new mount in glycerine. 

Again I saw in most of the cha'tse two narrow flanges. I then pressed the cover- 
slip so that the chseta^ might be flattened out a little ; now all of them had a single 
flange. I then lifted the coverslip, turned the cha>tae about and re-examined them. 
Again I saw several with the two flanges. 

A careful study under a high power informed me that the chteta really has three 
flanges, two narrow ones lying in one plane, symmetrically arranged, and a third broader 
one in a plane at right angles to them ; and in this position the chseta is curved. 
Having made this discovery, it was easy to detect the three flanges in some of the 
chaetfe, and I have drawn one of them (fig'. 118-120). 

To what extent this observation may vshed light on discrepancies in the accounts 
of ch»ta? in some families, e.g., the Terebellidte, I cannot say. It is evident that a 
renewed study of the bristles in certain families is desirable. 

The ventral surface of the thorax is nearly flat, and traversed by a wide shallow 
median furrow, which increases in depth posteriorly, and after the last gland shield 
becomes very deep but narrower; the margin of the furrow is formed by the rounded 
muscular ridge on each side. 

The uncinigerous neuropods commence below the 4th notopod. Those on the 
anterior segments of the thorax are vertical ridges, limited to the sides of the body, 
and originating near the hinder boundary of the segments; their edges rise only slightly 
above the surface. In the hinder segments each neuropod becomes more prominent, 
thick and fleshy, whfle in the abdomen they are narrower and become flap-like (fig. 
114). The neuropod is now a quadrangular flap directed backwards and outwards; 
its free edge carries the uncini. On its upper surface near the body wall is a small 
rounded papilliform upgro^\'th (which is, perhaps, a dorsal cirrus). By the 12th 
abdominal the neuropods are already much longer and project still further; the dorsal 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 101 

" cirrus " has increased in size, and has become sub-cylindrical ; the distal upper 
angle of the foot becomes produced into a distal cirriform process ( I the "' lip "' of the 
chaetophore), in addition to the dorsal " cirrus" (fig. 121). 

The neuropods decrease in size posteriorly, and the inferior angle becomes more 
marked. 

The general form of the neuropod is similar to that occurring in other Ampharetids, 
but the presence of both the proximal " papilla " and the distal " supra-uncinal 
process " seems unusual. The proximal papilla, which I have termed " cirrus," is 
usually regarded as equivalent to a vestigial notopod: and the distal process to the 
dorsal cirrus (cf. Fauvel (1897), P]hlers (1887) p. 220). 

The uncinus has five teeth in a single series, and a small prominence between the 
smallest of these and the rounded upcurved extremity of the plate (figs. 122. 123) ; 
it is quite similar to that figured for P. crocea by Mcintosh ( 1885), pi. xxvi a, tig. 25). 

The structure of the gill (figs. Ill, 11 2\ Although the condition of preservation 
is not sufficiently good to allow a thorough study of the gill to be made, the 
examination of a short series of transverse sections enables me to give an account of 
its more striking features. 

The gill axis is traversed by a canal, whose wall is composed cliiefly of muscle. 
Externally there is a layer of tall columnar cells bearing a thick cuticle; within this 
is a thin circular coat of muscle, which envelopes a thicker coat of longitudinally 
arranged muscle fibres. This does not seem to be limited very definitely internally, 
for there is a layer of loose connective tissue, in which are scattered irregularly a number 
of small round nuclei. At places in the series of sections I believe that I can detect 
the remains of a thin membrane forming the lining of the axial cavity; but the tissue 
is here broken and imperfectly preserved, and it may even be that the canal is an 
artifact, and that the axis is occupied by a core of loose connective tissue. 

Rumaing along the wall of the axis at two opposite points is a blood vessel, lying 
apparently in the longitudinal muscle coat, but in places it projects into the cavity. 

The folia or gill membranes are, of course, cut transversely; the central part 
consists of comiective tissue, enveloped in tlie epidermis. I can see no cilia, though 
perhaps this is due to the state of preservation. A series of blood vessels is cut across, 
lying close to one another along each side, underneath the epidermis. They give to 
the section a very characteristic appearance, and seem to l^e connected across the 
folium; but I was unable to trace out precisely how or where they communicate with 
the axial blood vessels. 

Locality, — 

Commonwealth Bay, Station 3, 157 fathoms. 

Remarks.— That the genus PhyUocomus is rare is evident from the fact that 
although it was established by Grube as long ago as 1877 for the species 



102 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

P. crocea, it has only been recorded since that date in the " Challenger " 
report. Grube's material appears to have been but a single specimen, which 
was obtained between Heard Island and the Crozets. That collected by the 
" Challenger " came from Kerguelen. 

I regard the present as a different species since Grube describes two 
pairs of gills in some detail, and he makes no mention of the four membranes 
springing from the axis; he describes the gill as foUaceous " quasi lanceolati." 
Mcintosh gives a brief account of a mutilated anterior end of a worm which 
he ascribes to Grube's species. His figure (pi. XLVII, fig. 11), agrees in 
general form quite closely with the worm herein described, but is without 
any gills. In the text he writes (p. 427), " the next segment bears dorsally 
the marks of four branchial processes on each side." 

His figure shows three paii's of pit-lilce structures, which are no doubt 
the " channels " that I describe above, and which I suppose Grube refers to 
as " areolfe." Mcintosh seems, however, to interpret them as the base, of 
gills. They have the same relation to one another and the same position on 
the segments as I have described. It may be very likely that he had before 
him the present species. 

As both these accounts are brief, and as only one figure of this 
interesting genus has been published, it has seemed to me worth while to give 
rather a detailed description of the worm. 



Genus Amythas, gen. nov.* 

Amythas membranifera, sp. nov. 

(Plate 10, figs. 124-132.) 

A single individual of this remarkable worm was obtained from a depth of 325 
fathoms in Commonwealth Bay. 

It is imperfect posteriorly, lacking, however, only a few segments, and consists 
of a head and thirty segments, measuring 60 mm. in length, with an anterior diameter of 
12 mm., which diameter decreases posteriorly till at the end of the fragment it is only 
5 mm. The anterior region is a good deal contracted, and the animal was ruptured 
about half-way along its length, and broke into two pieces on being handled. 

As in other genera, the body is divisible into two regions, thoracic and abdominal : 
the former is indicated by the seventeen pairs of notopods with capilliform chaetae, which 
are absent in the abdomen. The thoracic region appears to be strongly contracted, so 
that probably the dimensions of the worm just given are not quite correct. The whole 

♦ The name is formed by transferring the initial " S " of Samytha to the end. ' 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 103 

dorsal surface is very convex, and the segmentation is obscured by numerous closely 
set annulations. The ventral surface of the thorax is highly glandular, but no definite 
" gland shields " are delimited, as the glandular modification of the integument extends 
across the ventral surface from right to left unicinigerous nueropods: l:)ut on the last 
three segments the outlines of the glands are evident. 

In the abdomen the ventral surface is deeply concave, crossed, however, by 
segmental rounded, transverse ridges. 

The prostomium (figs, 124, 12.5) consists of two portions, viz — (a) an anterior 
freelv projecting flap overhanging the mouth: and (b) a posterior thickened transverse 
fold, which is almost entirely hidden by the basal portion of the second or branchi- 
ferous segment. 

The prostomial flap, or upper lip, is slightly trilobed, the middle lobe being more 
prominent than the later regions, from which it is marked of! by a slight notch on each 
side. The middle lobe is inclined forwards and upwards, and has a somewhat thickened 
free edge. On raising the prostomial flap, or on looking into the mouth from in front 
(fig. 127), the base of the prostomium is seen to be continuous, with a transverse lobu- 
lated structure, or "' supra-oral arch,"' which is separated from it by a furrow. The 
right and left extremities of this arch touch the upper part of the lower lip on either 
side ; the median portion of it is smooth, and traversed by a number of fine furrows 
radiatuig from its base forwards towards its edge; the lateral portions are thick and 
swollen. 

The buccal segment or per'stomium is represented dorsally by a rounded trans- 
verse ridge, overlapped and concealed by the branchiferous segment, Ventrally, 
however, it is produced forwards to form a great lower lip, which is separated from the 
lateral region of the prostomial flap by a deep, horizontal cleft on each side, and it is 
evidently very mobile (fig. 126). 

Between the upper and lower lips there projects a folded membrane (fig. 127), 
which occupies the entii'e oral cavity. At first I supposed this to be a part of the gut 
everted, but found on dissection that it has the following relations, from which it is 
clear that it represents the series of tentacles of other Ampharetids. The free edge of 
this ■' tentacular membrane " is thickened in the median region, but becomes thinner 
towards each side. It is folded much in the way that a partially closed fan is folded, 
but the folds are few and irregular. It arises from the under surface and posterior 
margin of the " supra-oral arch '" above mentioned (fig. 12S), which is thus seen to 
correspond to the tentacle-beariiag ridge of other genera. The line of orighi of the 
tentacles is at about the level of the junction of the arch with the prostomjal flap. At 
this poiiat — as was seen by slitting open the body wall — the buccal cavity (or oesop- 
hagus ?) con^mences ; this Ls a tube with a thick, muscular wall, whose inner surface is 
thro\\Ti into a number of ruga?. Its floor is produced forwards to form an internal lip^ 
such as that figured by Fauvel (1897) for AmpJiarete <jrubei. 



104 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

This tentacular membrane, then, has the same topographical relations as the 
bundle of filamentous tentacles in other genera of the family, audit is unfortunate that, 
having only this single individual, I am unable to study its structure as fully as it 
deserves. 

Following the peristomium is the branchiferous segment (fig-.. 12 t, 125, 126). Its 
dorsal surface is raised up as a transverse fold, which overhangs the peristomium and 
the posterior portion of the prostomium. It is continued downwards as an ordinary 
segment, but is without chfetse. This segment carries three pairs of gills, which arise 
in a transverse luie; they are long, simple, sub-cylindrical, and grooved along the 
posterior margin. The base is more or less expanded, and each terminates on a bluntly 
rounded extremity. Of the six gills, however, only two remain entire : on the right 
side the most dorsal, which is 15 nun. long, and on the left side the middle gill, 
which is 10 mm. long ; the other four are represented by more or less of their basal 
region. 

The two most dorsal gills are close together near the middle line; the base of 
each is produced outwards as a rounded ridge, passing obliquely outwards across the 
dorsum to end at the base of the second notopod. The second gill is immediately external 
to the first, and the third lies just above and in front of the first notopod. 

There are seventeen pairs of notopods, rather prominent lobes, carrying very long, 
stout, brown bristles ; the first notopod is on the third segment, which is much com- 
pressed between its neighbours (this is perhaps due in part to the contraction of the 
body) ; it is smaller than the rest, and carries fewer and shorter bristles ; the second is 
longer, the following increase in size, and the full development of the foot is attained at 
the sixth or seventh. 

The bristles, of which there is a considerable mimber in each notopod, arranged 
in a double or triple vertical series, are brownish in colour ; each is long, thick at the 
base, slightly curved, and produced into a very fine point ; there is single flange on the 
convex border.* 

The uncinigerous neuropods commence below the fourth notopod on the sixth 
body segment ; they are definite, wing-like, mobile organs, increasing in prominence pos- 
teriorly. In the thorax the neuropod has a long, vertical, uncinigerous margin, 
equalling in height that of the organ itself, but in the abdomen the neuropod is very 
convex superiorly, and has a short uncinigerous margin directed somewhat downwards 
(fig. 129). 

The uncini are unlserial throughout the body, and number about eighty in 
the anterior feet. 

The uncinus (figs. 13o, 1.31) has two rows of four nearly equal teeth, springing 
from a short, broad base, which is produced into a rounded lobe beyond the fourth 

♦Treated as I treated tlie chsetie of Phyllocomus I find that the two lateral flanges are not present. 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 105 

tooth, whicli is slightly smaller than the others; the liase has also a small lobe on its 
lower edge below the first tooth. The nncini are simih^r throughout, but on the 
thorax are larger than on the abdomen. 
Locality. — 

Connnonwealth Bay, Station 10, 325 fathoms. 
Remarks. — The worni agrees fairly well witli Malmgren's diagnosis of Sanu/tha, 
from which it differs in three noticeable features — (1) the form of the j^ros- 
tomium ; ( 2) the presence of a folded menibrane in place of filamentous 
tentacles ; and (3) the form of the uncinus. It bears no resenil^lance to the 
only Icnown Antarctic Ampharetid Samytha (?) specidatrix Ehlers (1913, 
p. 554). Consequently, a new genus is necessary, which may be defined as 
follows: — " Ainpharetids with a trilobed prostominal flap; tentacles repre- 
sented by an invaginable membrane; three pairs of cylindrical gills on the 
second segnaent ; seventeen pairs of notopods ; uncinus with four paired 
sub-equal teeth on a broad base. 

Family CAPITELLID^E. 
Genus Isomastus Gravier. 
IsoMASTUs PERAEMATUS Gmvier. 
Gravier (1911), p. 113, pi. VIIT, figs. 88-93; pi. IX, figs. 94-108. 
Four specimens of this, the only Capifellid known from the antarctic, were 
gathered, aniongst which a well preserved male measures 42 mm. in length by 2 mm. in 
diameter anteriorly ; it contains fifty-two segments following the head. There is also 
a female in the collection. 

Locality. — 

Boat Harbour, Commoixwealth Bay, 3| fathoms (muddy bottom). 
Distribution. — Admiralty Bay, South Shetlaiids, Petermann (Gravier). 

Family MALDANID^. 
Genus Ehodine Malmgren. 
Rhodine intermedia Arividsson. 
Ardwidsson(1911), p. 11, pi. I, figs. .5-11; ph II, figs. 39-41. 
R. loveni Willey (1902), p. 276, pi. XLVI, figs. 3-5. 
R. antarctica Gravier (1906), p. 39, pi. IV, figs. 33-37. 

R. loveni Gravier (1911), p. 125, pi. IX, figs. 110-112; pi. X, fig. 114; pi. XI, 
fig. 133. 

A single imperfect specimen, consisting of the head, followed by tliirteen 
chfetigerous segments, and another portion consisting of six posterior segments, measure 
iir all 35 mm. by 1 mm. in diameter. 



106 AUSTRALASIAN ANTAECTIC EXPEDITION. 

Previous authors have noted the readiness with VN^hich the hinder segments break 
away, owing to the extremely slender connections between them, so that the true 
dimensions of tlie species is unknown. 

It is almost colourless, except that in front of the chtEta3 of each of the segments 
4-10 is a pinkish area occupying more than half the length of the segment. This is the 
" anterior glandular band " of Arwidsson, with which the indistinct "posterior band " 
is continuous. There is no need for me to add anything to Arwidsson's exhaustive 
study of the species. 

Locality, — 

Commonwealth Bay, Boat Harbour, 3i fathoms. 

Distribution.— Ca-pe Adare, Victoria Laiid (Willey); Port Charcot and Petermann 
( Grav ier) ; S outh Georgia ( Arwi dsson) . 

Remarls. — It is thus circumpolar. 



Genus isocirrus Arividsson. 

IsociRRUs YUNGi Gvavier. 

Gravier(1911),p. 122, pi. IX., fig. 109; pL X, figs. 115-120. 

Gravier's type specimens were two fragments, of which one was an anterior 
portion and the other a short piece of the hinder end. They are a good deal smaller 
than the specimens collected by the " Aurora," and the tube in which the am'mal lived 
was not collected or reported upon. 

Eleven individuals of the species, mostly imperfect, were obtained at a depth of 
157 fathoms. In most of them the body is encircled by a portion of the nnid-tube, 
which has a very thick wall; thus a worm measuring 7 mm. in dianaeter fills the lumen 
of a tube whose external diameter is 11 mm., so that its thickness is 2 mm. 

A complete individual studied is 110 mm. in length with a breadth of 5 mm. 
anteriorly. Another one, lackiixg only the anal funnel and a portion of the long preanal 
segment, attains a length of 135. mm. with a breadth of 7 mm.: but judging from some 
of the fragments still within their tubes, the species may reach even a greater size than 
this. 

The colour is almost uniform pale brown, except that in one or two cases the 
5th and 6th segments are darker than the rest; the glajidular band at the commencement 
of the segments is nearly white. 

The complete individual first mentioned above consists of the " head," followed 
by nineteen elongated chaetigerous segments and a long preanal segment ; this bears six 
glandular half-rings, corresponding in position to the uncinal glands to be described 



POLYGHiETA— BENHAM. 107 

below, and so probably represents six segments; of these glands the three anterior 
extend fnrtlier round the body than do the other three. The body terminates as usual 
in an anal funnel. 

The uncini eonunence on the 5th segment, and the neuropods of the last seven 
segments are very prominent. 

In the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments there are one or two short, stout, bluntly- 
pointed spines below the small bundle of capillif orm chaetae : Gravier in speaking of these 
says that there is " une rang e de crochets ventraux "; if by this he means a vertical 
row of hooks the statement does i\ot apply to these specimens. 

The " head," i.e., the prostomium and peristomium, is equal in leiigth to the 2nd 
segment ; each of the next five segments is approximately equal to this; but each 
of the following six is a good deal longer. But it depends on the state of preservation, 
for in some extended worms this difference between the first five and the next six is 
hardly noticeable. The chaata? in this genus are inserted near the anterior boundary of 
the segment; in the first five, at about one-third ; in the following six or more, at 
about one-fourth the length of the segment. 

There is a glandular band surrounding the prech«tal region of each segment, 
this is interrupted on each side by a deep, narrow, horizontal furrow. This glandular 
band forms, in some individuals, a feeble collar, but in extended specimens the overlap 
is not apparent. At the segment on which the true hooks appear, namely, the 5th, 
there is also a post-cha>tal gland ; at first this is narrow, but as the series of uncini becomes 
longer this gland increases in width as well as in length. By the 8th segment the pre- 
chaetal band is differentiated into a narrow dorsal and a wider ventral portion; and the 
ventral gland, which now appears as a large oval patch, overlaps the previous segment 
more distinctly. By the 10th the dorsal gland has become considerably reduced, and 
on the 11th has disappeared, so that posteriorly only the ventral or uncinal gland 
persists; this enlarges in the segment further back, till in the 17th, for instance, it covers 
half its length. 

I have given these details as Gravier says nothing al)0ut them; the arrangement 
is entirely in agreement with the general character of the glands described by Arwidsson 
for the genus. 

Gravier's account of the prostomium, or cephalic plate, needs no additioix, though 
his figure is somewhat diagrammatic. The dorsal transverse portion of the membrane 
that surrounds the plate is crenated. He states that there is a dozen low rounded lobes, 
but T find that the number and form is variable. Sometimes they are uniform in size, 
bhougli in some individuals they may be larger than in others; in the former case I 
counted 18 lobes, in the latter as many as 25. In other individuals, the smaller and 
larger lobes are irregularly alternating. 

The anal funnel, as the generic name implies, is surrounded by uniform digitations, 
of which I count as many as 36. 



108 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC: EXPEDITION. 

A figiire of the capilliform chseta? is given by Gravier; l)ut liis interpretation of 
the hool< is not qnite in agreement with what I see. The large fang is surmonnted by 
four others of much smaller size; and there are some laterally situated small teeth at 
the base of the large fang. Further, the bay between the fang and the bundle of threads 
is deeper and roughly semicircular in outline. 

It may be that these small differences depend on the segment or region of the 
worm from which the uncinus is taken. 

Locality. — 

Station 3, 157 fathoms. 

Distribution . — ^Petermann. 

Family ARENICOLIDiE. 

Genus Arenicola Cuvier. 
Arenicola assimilis, var. apfinis Ashworth. 

Ashworth (1903), p. 760, pis. XXXVI, XXXVII. 

Ashworth (1912), p. 123, pi. VII, fig. 16 ; pi. X, fig. 29 ; pi. XIII, fig. 45; pi. 

XIV, fig. 50 (a full bibliography herein). 
Fauvel (1916), p. 455. 
Twenty specimens, carefully preserved in fornialine, were collected by Mr. 
Hamilton at Macquarie Island, where they are common, embedded in sand and broken 
shells, between rocks, two inches below the surface at low tide. 

They vary in length from 40-140 mm. The colour in life is stated to be for most 
of them " pale green with red gills." These have turned brown in the preservative; 
others were " dark green " in life, and have become almost black. 

Locality. — 

Garden Bay, Macquarie Island. 
Distribution . — New Zealand, Magellan Strait ( Ehlers) ; Falkland Islands ( Ashworth, 

Fauvel); North Tasmania, Table Bay, S. Africa (Ashworth); Campbell 

Islands (Benham). 

Family CHLORHiEMID^. 
Genus Flabelligera Sars. 
Flabelligera mundata Gravier. 
Gravier (1906), p. 37, pi. IV, figs. 31, 32. 
Gravier (1911), p. 110, pL VIII, fig. 87. 
Ehlers(1912), p. 25. 

Ehlers ( 1913), p. 535, pi. XLI, figs. 1-12. 
Of the three specimens in the collection, the largest measures 93 mm. in length; 
ts greatest breadth is 18 mm., its height 10 mm. It is thus larger than that described 
by Ehlers. 



POLYCH.ETA— BENHAM. 109 

The 26 bundles of capillifonn clia^ta- project for 16-25 mm. beyond the transhicent, 
firm, jelly-Uke investment of the body, which is here greyish, not yellowish-brown as 
described by the previous authors. The cha?t0e, which are covered with nuid, are 
accompanied by long-stalked clavate papillae. 

Localities . — 

Station 10, 325 fathoms (one). 
Station 12, 110 fathoms (two) 

Distribution. — Port Charcot, South Shetlauds (Gravier); Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, 
South Victoria Land (Ehlers). 



Family SABELLIDyE. 
PoTAMiLLA Malmgren. 
PoTAMiLLA ANTARCTICA Kinherg. 
Laonome antarctica Kinberg (1866), p. 354. 
Lamome antarctica Elders {1897), -p. 135 ; (1901), p. 216. 
Potamilla antarctica Gravier ( 1906), p. 59, text-figs. 38-43. 
Potamilla antarctica Gravier (1911), p. 144, pi. XI, figs. 137-141. 
Potamilla antarctica Ehlers (1913), p. 575. 
Potamilla antarctica Fauvel ( 1916), p. 474, pi. VIII, figs. 4-7. 

Of this species, so widely and aliundantly distributed through the antarctic seas, 
a large number were forwarded to me. They may be grouped for convenience of reference 
into two lots; partly from their geographical range, and partly from the size of the 
individuals. 

Group A consists of small individuals from 25-40 mm. in length, exclusive of the 
gUls. These occur on the shores of Macquarie Island. They agree in dimensions, as 
well as in external features, with the worms described by Ehlers, Gravier,* and Fauvel, 
which has hitherto been regarded as the typical condition of the species. 

Group B contains much larger worms, attaining lengths ranging from 72 nun. up 
to 230 mm., exclusive of the gills. These come from Commonwealth Bay, at various 
depths; and the larger ones exceed in size the largest specimen, of which the dimensions 
have hitherto been recorded, namely, that mentioned by Ehlers as being 170 mm. in 
length, obtained from South Victoria Land. 

From their much greater dimensions I expected that these would prove to belong 
to a different species, but after examining them from every anatomical point of view, 
I came to the conclusion that there are no features that distinguish them from the more 
typical specimens under Group A, other than their size. 

* Gravier describes tlie species as if it were new, affixing his owu name after it, 



110 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

We must therefore regard them as ohler. perliaps imich ohler, stages of 
development than the smaller ones. 

I will deal with the two groups separately. 

Group A. — The Ma-cquarie Island Form. 

Masses of densely aggregated, small, brown, horny tubes set side by side 
horizontally, with the free ends curving away from the main axis, were obtained from 
rock scrapings, and from the under-side of stones at low water, at the North end of the 
Island. The free end of the tube is thinner and has sand grains adherent to it. 

The contained worm, removed from one such tube, has a total length of 35 mm., 
of which the gill-plume occupies about 5.6 mm.; the body is 2.5 mm. in width, and 
contains 65 segments. 

The gills are speckled with red-brown dots and splashes, closely set along the inner 
side of the filaments, the shaft being unpigmented. The filaments are loose and curl 
outwards; I find 15-20 filaments on each side. There is no inter- filamentary membrane. 

Eggs were attached to the gills, as has been stated by other writers. The thorax 
in these small forms contains usually 8 segments; though sometimes only 7. 

Group B. — Commonwealth Bay Forms. 

Of these I have seventy-two specimens, some still within their tubes, others 
have been removed therefrom before preservation. 

The tubes are of tough parchment-like material of a yellow-brown colour; but 
those from greater depths, 110-120 fathoms, are more darkly coloured, and are rather 
olive-brown. 

The longest tube measured came from 25 fathoms; it attains a length of 400 mm. 
with a diameter of 8 mm.; the surface is smooth, the upper end thinner, flexible, and 
paler in tint. It has some sand grains adherent to it. 

Another tube from the same haul is much paler in tii^t, and much slenderer than 
the majority; measures 90 mm. by 1.5 mm. 

Still another tube is 270 mm. long, and contains a worm nreasuring 226 mm. 
inclusive of the gills, which account for 44 mm. 

A worm of 150 mm. exclusive of the gills, which are 40 mm. long, contains 190 
segments. Its breadth at the collar is 6 mm.; its greatest breadth is 8 mm., and the 
height of the body 5 mm. 

I measured a nunaber of these worms from various depths in order to see whether 
there was any correlation between size and depth, Imt I find none. 



POLYCHiETA-BENHAM. Ill 

The thoracic region jiresents a much wider range of variation as to the uu mber 
of component segments than do those in Group A. Of those examined I find the following 
numbers : — • 

Six have 8 segments. 

One has 9. 

Thi-ee have 10. 

Three have 11. 

Five have 12. 

Three have 12 on the right side and 13 on left. 

One has 14. 

Two have 15, 

One has 14 on the right side and 10 on the left. 

There is no apparent relation between the length of body and that of thorax, for 
in three worms measuring 170 mm. two have 8 thoracic segments, and one has 12. 

Eight segments occur, also, in a worm 135 mm. long: 11 segments occur in a 
worm 195 mm., while another of the same length has 14 segments. 

In two smaller worms of this group, measuring 72 and 85 mm., I find that the 
thorax contains only 8 segments. It seems, then, in a very general way that the manlier 
of thoracic segments increases with the size, that is the age, of the individual. 

The gills contain a much larger number of filaments than in the typical form of 
the species. Thus, there are thirty to forty filaments on each side; but in a worni 
170 mm. long, I find only twen'^y-one filaments. 

The pigmentation of the gills is liable to much variation also. In some they are 
uniform in tint, or rather uiicoloured; in others there are the usual irregularly arranged 
splashes of red-brown along their length. In one case I noted that some of the dorsal 
filaments are without pigment, though most of them have a band of brown extending 
from the tip to about quarter the length ; or even further down in the more ventral 
filaments. A few of them have in addit'on a short transverse band about half-way 
down. 

In another individual there are three fairly regularly disposed patches at quarter, 
half, and three-quarter of the length from the base upwards, while the apex is, as usual, 
imcoloured. 

Others, again, have more numerous distinct bands up to eight in numl)er. One of 
the smaller specimens has purplish pigment arranged in irregular dots at wide intervals 
apart along the filaments. 

Probably, had one only a few of these larger worms before one, a new species 
would have been warranted, but I prefer to leave these in the present species. 



112 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Localities. — 

Maequaiie Island. 

Commonwealth Bay, Boat Harbour — 
Station B, 25 fathoms (forty). 
Station 3, 157 fathoms (three). 
Station 7, 60 fathoms (eight). 
Station 8, 120 fathoms (nine). 
Station 12, 110 fathoms (seven). 

DistrihuHon.- — Magellan Strait (Kinl)erg); Fuegia, Uschuaia, South Georgia, Kaiser 
Wilhelm II Land, Kerguelen, South Victoria Land ( Ehlers) ; He Booth Wandel 
(Gravier); Falklands Islands (Fauvel). 

Remarks. — It is more than probable that the wornr referred to as Sabella ceratodaula 
Schmarda by Miss E. Pratt (1900) as occuring at the Falklands is this sjjecies. 



Family SERPULID^. 

Genus Serpula Linnaeus, s.st. Philippi. 

Serpula vermicularis, var. narconensis Baird. 

S. narconensis Baird (1864), Proc. Linn. Soe., London, vol. viii, p. 21, pi. II, 

figs. 7, 8 (operculum). 
^S. narconensis Mcintosh (1885), p. 516, pi. LIV, fig. 5; pi. LV, %. 1; 

pi. XXXI A, fig. 23. 
*S'. narconensis var. magellanica, Mcintosh (1885), p. 518, pi. LV, fig. 2; pi. 

XXXI a, figs. 24, 25. 
*S'. fatagcmica Grube (1877), p. 550. 
S. vermicularis Ehlers (1897), p. 140 ; (1901), p. 219. 
S. vermicularis var. narconensis Ehlers (1912), p. 31 ; (1913), p. 581. 
S. vermicularis Gravier (1906), p. 62; (1911), p. 147, pi. XII, figs. 170-174. 

Baird established his species on a single specimen obtained dming the Ross 
Antarctic Expedition; it was without a tube, and was characterised by its operculum. 
Mcintosh (1870, p. 322) compared it with a specimen collected by the Venus Transit 
Expedition to Kerguelen, which, although it lacked the operculum, was in its tube. 
He satisfied himself that the two are identical. 

In 1897 Ehlers placed Baird's species as a synonym for S. vermicularis, and 
suggested that Mcintosh's var. margellanica should be included. But in 1912 Ehlers 
makes it a distinct variety, the tubes of which, he showed, are linked on with the type 
by a number of intermediate forms, in some of which even the everted lip, upon the 
possession of which Baird founded his species, was lacking. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. US 

Several of these characteristic tubes, some containing the animal, were obtained 
during the exjjedition of the " Aurora." 

The narrow, white calcareous tubes have a diameter of 2-75 mm., and the 
thickened everted lip is 4-5 mm. across. Along the course of the tube are similar 
thickened lips at intervals, indicating periods of cessation of gro\\i;h. The tubes are 
more or less undulating, or may be coiled, where they are attached to some object, 
such as a stone or shell. 

Localities. — 

Boat Harbour, Station B, 25 fathoms. 
Commonwealth Bay — 

Station 1, 354 fathoms. 

Station 2, 318 fathoms. 

Station 3, 120 fathoms. 

Station 9, 240 fathoms. 

Station 10, 325 fathoms. 

Distribution. — " He Narcon in the Antarctic Ocean" (Baird), Kerguelen (Grube), 
Marion Island, Heard Island (Mcintosh), Magellan Strait (Mcintosh, Ehlers), 
Admiralty Sound, S. Victoria Land, K. Wilhelm II Land (Ehlers), South 
American Antarctic (Gravier). 

Genus spirorbis Daudin. 
Spirorbis nordenskjoldi Eh'ers. 
Ehlers (1901), p. 223. 
Ehlers (1908), p. 165. 
Gravier (1911), p. 153, pL XI, figs. 153, 154. 

Gravier has pointed out that it is difficult to be certain as to the identification 
of this species, as Ehlers has given no figure of it. Hence it is with some hesitation 
that I attribute our specimens to this species; they agree with the accounts referred 
to above and with Gravier's figures. 

Localities,— 

Boat Harbour, 3-4 fathoms. 

Coimnonwealth Bay, Station D, 45-50 fathoms. 

Distribution. — Punta Delgada, Bouvet Island (Ehlers), Petermann (Gravier). 



•83892— P 



lU AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIG EXPEDITION. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Apstein (1890).— Zool. Jahresber, Abth. f. Syst., vol. v. (Not seen.) 

Arwidsson (18f8).— Stud. iib. die Fam. Glyceridte und Goniadida-. Bergen.s Mu.seums 
Aaiiog, XI. 

„ (1906). — Studien uber die skandinavischeu und arktischen Maldaniden. 

Upsala. 

„ (1911).— Die Maklanideu. Wiss. Ergebn. d. Scliwedischen Sudpokr 

Expedition, 1901-1903, vol vi, lief 6. 
Af-HWORTH (1903).—" The Anatomy of Arenicola assimHis and of a New Variety of the 
Species," Quart. Journ., Micro. Sci., vol. xlvi. 
„ (1912). — Catalogue of the Ch;ietopods in the British Museum, Part I. 

Arenicolid*. 
AuGENER (1913. 191J).— Die Fauna Siidwest Australiens. Ed. iv, Polycha?ta errant':a, 

1913. Bd. V, PoIych8e:;a sedentaria, 1914. 
Benham (1909). — Report on the Polychseta of the Subantaretic Islands of New 
Zealand. Christehurch. 
„ (1915). --Report on the Poly clntta . (Biol. Results of the Fishing Experiments 
carried on by the F.I.S. " Endeavour," 1909-1914, vol. iii). 
Sydney. 

„ (1916). — Report on the Polycha'ta. (Biol. Results of the Fishing Experiments 
carried on by the F.I.S. " Endeavour," 1909-1914, Part II, 
vol. iv). Sydney. 

Bonnier (1893).— Bull. Sci. de la France ct de la Belgique, vol. xxv. 

Claparede and Metschnikoff (1869). — Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool.. vol. xiv. (Not seen.) 

Cuvier (1817).— La Regne Animal. Edit. 2, tome ii. 

Ehlers (1897). — Hamburger magalhaenische Sammel-Reise. PoIycha?ten. 

,, (1901). — Die Polycha^ten der Magell. u. Chilen. Strandes. 

,, (1904).— Neuseeland Anneliden. Nach. d. K. Ges. d. Wiss. Anst., aus Gottingen, 

Bd. iii. 
,, (1907). — Neuseeland Anneliden. Nach. d. K. Ges. d. Wiss. Anst., aus Gottingen, 

Part ii, Bd. v. 
,, (1908). — Die Bodensassigen Anneliden aus dem Sanunl. d. deutsch. Tiefsee 

Expedition (Valdivia) 1898-1899. Jena. 
,, (1912). — National Antarctic Expedition. Polycha^ta. 
,, (1913). — Die Polycha-ten Sammlungen d. deutsch. Sud-Polar Expedition, 

1901-1903, Bd. xiii, Zoologie. Berlin. 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 115 

Fauvel (1897).— Reclierches sur les Ampliai\''tiens. Bull. Sci. de la France et de la 
Belgique, vol. xxx. 

(1916). — Anuelides polyclietes des iles Falkland. Arch. d. Zool. Exper., vol. Iv. 

„ (1917). — Annelides polyclietes de I'Australe meridionale. Arch. d. Zool. Exper., 
vol. Ivi. 

■„ (1919). — Annel. polych. de Madagascar. Arch. d. Zool. Exper., vol. Iviii. 

Gravier (1906). — Annelides Polychetes. Expedition antarctique t'ranfaise (1903- 
1905). " 

„ (1911). — Annelides Polychetes. Deuxieme expedition antarctique fran9aise 
(1908-1910). 

Grube (1877).— Anneliden Ausbeute S.M.S. Gazelle. Monatsber. d. K. Akad. Wiss. 
Berlin. 

„ (1878). — Die Earn. Eunicea : 2nd Ablh. Lumbriconereidea. Jahresber. d. 
Schles. Gesell. f. Vaterl. Kultur. 

KiNBERG (1857). — Annulata. Kgl. Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa, 1851-1853. 

„ (1864-1866). — Annulata nova, Ofversigt af K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Forhandl. 

KoEscHELT (1893). — " Uber Opluyotrocha puerilis." Zeit. f. Wiss. Zool., vol. Ivii. 

Langerhans (1880). — Die Wurnifauna Madeii'as. Zeit. f. AViss. Zool., vol. xxxiii. 

Leiper (1908). — List of generic names of polychaet worms that have been preoccupied, 
etc. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 8.), vol. ii, p. -468. 

Malmgren (1865-1867). — Nordiska Hafs-annulater. 

McIntosh (1876). -New Species of Annelida from Kerguelen Island. Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (ser. 4), vol. xvii. 

„ (1879).— Zoology of Kerguelen. Transit of Venus Expedition, 1874-75. 

Phil. Trans., vol. clxviii. 

„ (1885). — Annelida Polychseta. Reports of " Challenger "" Expedition, vol. xii. 

(1915).— Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 8), vol. xv. 

Moore (1903). — •Polychsta from the Cotihtal Slope of Japan and from Kanichatka. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

„ (1909). — Polychsetous Annelids from iNIonterey Bay, and San Diego, California. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

„ (1911).— The PoIych»tous Annelids diedged by the U.S.S. " Albatross," oft" the 
Coast of S. California in 1S04. TIT. Euphrosynidae to 
Goniadidai. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
MuLLER (1776). — Zoologica Danica Prodromus. (Not seen.) 
Oersted (1843).^Gronland. Amudata Dorsibranchiata. (Not seen.) 



116. AUSTRALASIAN AISITAECTIC EXPEDITION. 

PiXELL (1913).- — Polychata of the fani. Serpulidse and Sabellidse coll. by the Scottish 
National Antarctic Exped. Trans. Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, 
vol. xlix. 

Pratt (1900). — A collection of Polychata from the Falkland Islands. Mem. 
Manchester Phil, Soc, vol. 45. 

QuATREFAGES (1865). — Histoire naturelle des Anneles. 

Ramsay (1914). — Polychaeta of the fam. Nereidse, coll. by the Scottish National 
Antarctic Exped. Trans. Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, vol. 1. 

Rosa (1908).^ — Raccolte Planctoniehe, vol. v. Tomopteridi. 

Saint Joseph, De (1888). — Annel. polych. des cotes de Dinard. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), 
ser. 7, vol. v. 

(1895).— Loc. cit. (ser. 7\ vol. xx. 

ScHMARDA (1861). — Neue Wirbellose Thiere, vol. I, part ii. 

Southern (1909). — "Pelagic Phyllodocidse." Fisheries, Ireland, Scient. Investiga- 
tions, 1908, iii. 

,, (1911). — The Alciopinse, Tomopteridse, etc., loc. cit., 1910, iii. 

Studer (1878). — Arch. f. naturgesch, vol. xliv. (Not seen.) 

Tkeadwell (1914). — Polychfetous Annelids of the Pacific CL)a^t, &c. Univ. of 
Cahforn'a Publications. Zoology, vol. xiii. 

Waite (1916). — Australasian Antarctic Exped., 1911-1914, Scient. Reports, Fishes. 

Willey (1902). — Report on the coll. Natural History, "Southern Cross" expedition. 
Polychaeta. 

„ (1905). — Ceylon Pearl Fishery Report (Royal Soc) " On the Polychaeta."- 



POLYCH/ETA— BENHAM. 117 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate 5. 

Syllis closterdbranchia (figs. 1-2). 
Fig. I. A parapod, anterior face ( x 45). 
2. The ends of two acicula. 

S. brcwhycola (fig. 3). 
Fig. 3. Tip of aciculiim. 

SphiBwsyUis mcintosM (figs. 4-6). 

Fig. 4. Anterior end, dorsal view ( X 45). Camera outline from a specimen mounted 
in glycerine. 

5. Ventral view of the same ( X 45). 

6. The tips of acicula. 

Aufolytus cJmrcoti (figs. 7-10). 
Fig. 7. A transverse section of the body, atokous stage, in front of the middle (camera 
X 30). The dorsal cirri present a series of glands along the upper part of the 
outer surface; the great ventral glandular pad is distinctly marked ofi from 
the body. 

8. A cheeta from the upper part of a bundle ( x 720). 

9. The " head " of Polybostrichus, ventral view (camera X 20), sho-nang the 
relative lengths of the appendages and the ventral swellings below the great 
lateral tentacles. 

10. The " head " of Polybostrichus, dorsal \dew ( x 30), sho\ving the epaulettes 
of the species ; some of the appendages cut short. 

Exogone anmnalocJia'ta (figs. 11-13). 
Fig. 11. Anterior end, camera outline (x 90) : the nuchal organ is seen on the left side. 

12. Hind end (x 90). 

13. The three forms of chsetfe in the dorsal bundle (enlarged : (a) Tip of the 
capillif orm ; ( h) end of the uppermost gomphotrich, side and f i out views ; 
(c) one of the remainder of the bundle, both aspects. 

Hololepidella flynni (figs. 14-20). 
Fig. 14. Dorsal view of the head ( X 10); the palp and peristomial cirri of the right 
side are omitted. On the left side the first elytrophore is indicated. 
15. A parapod of a cirriferous segment, posterior face (camera X 15). 



118 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Fig. 16. A parapod from an elytriferous segment anterior face ( x 15). 

17. One of the ventral clisetge ( X 90). 

18. A ventral chaeta from about the middle of the Imndle (x 90). 

19. The apex of a ventral tha'ta ( X 260). The pectinated frills are very delicate 
and have an irregnlar course. 

20. The apex of a dorsal chsta ( x 250). 

Plate 6. 
Harmothoe sfinosa (fig. 21). 
Fig. 21. Dorsal view of a portion of a specimen, showing a " chess-board " pattern. 
The parallel lines represent olive; the groups of dots, brown; where these are 
closer together, a dark brown. (Fnlarged.) 

Harniofhoe tuherosa (figs. 22-29). 
Fig. 22. Tip of a dorsal chfeta ( X 360), showing the characteristic " bearded " nature 
of the upper frills, as seen in an unworn chjeta. The hairs really lie more 
closely alongside the axis, but are here represented as outspread so as better 
to show their relations. The hairs from the lower bundles in the figure have 
Ijeen omitted from the near surface. The apparent " spines " are the edges 
of the frills composed of the bases of several hairs superposed. 

23. Side view of the apex of a dorsal chseta from which the " hairs " have been 
worn away ( X 360). The aspect as seen in Canada balsam mounts is likely 
to be misleading, as owing to the transparency of the frills in front of the 
axis, the structure is scarcely visible ; but in glycerine mounts it is more 
readily interpreted; the apparent spines along the edge are then seen to be 
the frills bending round the bristle, and are tlius a measure of the height and 
thickness of these frills. 

24. Portion of the shaft of the same dorsal chseta, immediately below the apex 
shown in fig. 23 ( X 360). This shows the angular character of the shaft 
and the difference in the nature of the frills on face and side. The 
uppermost frills are confined to the front face, the lateral frills commence 
some distance from the apex. 

25. A ventral chseta from about the middle of the bundle ( x 35). 

26. A ventral chseta from upper part of the bundle, the frilled region from the 
side, showing the spines in the upper frills ( X 360). 

27. The same from the front face ( X 360), showing two rows of spines one on each 
side. 

28. Three posterior elytra of an individual with abnormally developed conical 
tubercles ( x 6). 

29. The last elytroii of the same (X 10). 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 119 

Harmothoe abi/ssomm (figs. 30-35). 

Fig. 30. View of the head (X 10). 

31. Front view of the prostomium, showing the tips of the " peaks " and the 
relative position of insertion of the median and lateral tentacles. 

32. A cirriferous parapod (camera, x 10). 

33. A tubercle of an elytron, side and top views (enlarged). 

34. A dorsal chseta ( x 90). 

35. A ventral chfeta ( X 90). 

Eulagisca corrientis (figs. 36-38). 
Fig. 36. The head dorsal view (X 5). The tentacles are broken off, the palps are 
represented as having l)een cnt away to a greater or less amount, and the sub- 
tentacular frontal cone (/.c.) is seen below and projecting beyond the tenta- 
culophore. The peristomial parapod is produced hitoa fine point (l) between 
the dorsal and ventral cirri. 

37. View of the head from in front ( x 5), showing the position of the frontal cone. 
The three tentacles are seen to lie in the same plane. The peristomium is 
foreshortened, and only the apex of the lobe (J) and insertion of the two cirri 
are indicated; {1} elytrophore of second segment. 

38. The second elytron ( x 10). 

Plate 7. 
Eulaijisca corrientis (figs. 39-42). 
Fig. 39. The eleventh parapod, anterior face (x 2h). 

40. One of the upper dorsal chaetse ( X 45). 

41. A ventral cha^ta from the middle of the bundle ( x 45). 

42. A ventral chaeta from the lower part of the bundle (X 45). 

Hermaaion roucJd (figs. 43-47.) 
Fig. 43. One of the most dorsal cheetse from a large individual ( x 45). 

44. The apex of one of the smaller dorsal ehaetae from the upper part of a bundle, 
from one of the smaller individuals ( X 250). 

45. The apex of one of the largest dorsal chsetae, much worn ( X 250). 

46. One of the uppermost chsetae of a ventral bundle of a large individual ( x 45). 

47. One of the low^ermost ventral cha?ta^ of a large individual ( x 45). 

Eulalia Imnteri (figs. 48-52). 
Fig. 48. Anterior end of the worm ( X 9). 

49. The head (x 27). Only the appendages of the right side are completed. 

50. A parapod, anterior face (camera, x 20). 

51. A clia'ta ( X 250) : the appendix is not necessarily curved. The outline is too 
heavily drawor ; it is in the object extremely fine. Note the peculiar articulation. 

.32. A gioup of pLaiyiigtal papilla? (X 3,3) : tlu'ce are shown from above. 



120 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Eulalia mcleani (figs. 53-57). 
Fig. 53. Anterior end (enlarged). 

54. A parapod ( X 20). 

55. A chseta ( X 500), side view. The appendix is not necessarily curved. 

56. The articulation of appendix ( X 500). 

57. Pharyngeal papillte ( x 70); the two broader ones are seen in a plane different 
from the rest. A top view of one is shown. 

Pelatjohia viguieri (figs. 59, 60). 
Pig. 58. (There is no drawing conesponding to this number.) 

59. The peristomial cirrus ( x 90) showing the axial chitinous support. 

60. A portion of the cirrus near the base ( x 720), showing the tapering proximal 
termination of the axial supports, and the thickened cuticle on the posterior 
face of the cirrus. 

Plate 8. 

Vanadis antarctica (figs. 61-63). 
Fig. 61. A complete chseta (camera, x 30). It was drawn in two parts, a small bubble 
of air lay about half-way along, which enabled me to join the two sketches 
accurately together. 

62. Two aspects of the articulation at difierent foci ( x 360). 

63. Another form of articulation less commonly met with ( X 360). 

Tomopteris carpenteri (figs. 64-66). 
Fig. 64. Head and first segment ( X 10). The cirrus is cut short; its supporting chaeta 
is shown as projecting a short distance beyond the cut end. 

65. The head of a soft specimen (X 10), showing the epaulette of the left side 
triangular, as is figured by Quatrefages for the species. 

66. A parapod ( x 10). 

Nereis loxechini (figs. 67-75). 
Fig. 67. Head of a well-preserved specimen ( x 10). 

68. Head of soft specimen ( x 5). 

69. A parapod of 20tli segment, ventral view ( x 10), {a) anterior face, (p) process 
of the posterior lip. 

70. The 8th parapod in outline ; anterior face ( X 20). 

71. The 34th parapod in outline; posterior face (x 20). 

72. The 80th parapod in outline ; posterior face ( X 20). 

73. One of the stout brown heterogomph falcigers, from the supra-acicular 
bundle ( x 250). 

74. Heterogomph falciger, from the sub-acicular bundle ( X 250). 



POLYCHiETA— BENHAM. 121 

Lumbriconereis macquariensis (figs. 76-81). 
Fig. 76. Head, ventral view (enlarged). 

77. The 8tli parapod (camera, X 90). 

78. A posterior parapod ( x 90). 

79. The only articulated hook which was found (X 360) ; it occurred in an anterior 
parapod. 

80. The usiial form of hook, taken from the 25th parapod ( x 360), as seen from 
the side and from in front, showing the denticulated lower poition of the 
hood. 

81. A capilliform chosta from 8th foot ( X 250). 

H'pluerodorum spissum (figs. 82-84). 
Fig. 82. Entii'e animal drawn from the unstained cleared specimen (camera, x 20). 

83. Anterior end of the same ( x 70) camera outline. The prepharyngeal region 
is shown in surface view, except the eye vesicles (?), but the pharynx is at 
a deeper level ; the dark patches in front of it are glands; the bundles of 
chsetse lie really below the rest, on the ventral surface. 

84. The posterior end ( X 70), surface view. 

Plate 9. 

Sphcerodoram sjiissiim (figs. 85-89). 

Fio;. 85. Portion of the surface of the stained specimen ( X 35), showing the ventral 

surface and a portion of the animal's right side. The outline is drawn under 

the camera, but details are fiUed in from various parts of the surface. 

86. A portion of the margin of the same preparation ( x 45), showing the absence 
of any definite alternation in size of the papilla?. 

87. A papilla (magnified; freehand). 

88. A parapod (magnified; freehand), seen from below. Note the thickness of 
the cuticle. 

89. A chseta (magnified; freehand). 

Aricia marginata var. tndeani (fig. 90). 
Fig. 90. One of the anterior neuropods wath the additional series of spines behind and 
below the third row. 

Scolaplos manrsoni (figs. 91-94). 
Fig. 91. The parapod from the 7th segment ( x 45). 

92. Parapod fi-om the 24th ( X 45). 

93. From the 32nd ( X 45). 

94. From the 53rd segment ( x 45). 

•83892— Q 



122 AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Lecena arenilega (figs. 95, 96). 

Fig. 95. Anterior eiid from above (enlarged); most of the tentacles are omitted; a 
few are shown cut short. 
96. Anterior end from below. 

Scione mirabilis (figs. 97-100). 
Fig. 97. Anterior end, from the side (enlarged), showing the contracted gill, as described 
for S. spinifera. 

98. Aiiterior end of another specimen (a female) with gill extended, as in Mcintosh's 
figure. This was removed from its tube in which it had been preserved. 

99. Uncinus from a posterior segment (X 360). 

100. Uncinus viewed from above : (a) one of the upper ones; (6) one of the lower 
ones. 

Polycirrus Immiltoni (figs. 101-106). 

Fig. 101. Ventral view of anterior end. Note the nephi'idial papillse below the notopods. 

102. The 13th parapod, with contained eggs ( x 90). 

103. Notopodial capUliform cha^ta, with unsymmetrical flange ( X 720). 

104. Notopodial capilliform cheeta, the slender denticulated form ( X 720). 

105. Uncinus (x 720). 

106. Uncinus from above (freehand) to show the "hood" above the teeth. 

Plate 10. 
PkyUocomus dihranchiata (figs. 107-123). 
Fig. 107. Entu-e worm in outline ; natural size. 

108. The anterior end from in front (enlarged) — hr., branchiferous segment ; pe., 
peristomium ; pr., prostomial plate ; x., nuchal organ. 

109. Anterior end from the right side. Letters as above. 

110. Ajiterior end, dorsal view of left side— gr., insertion of gill. 

111. Transverse section of gill, showing axis and the four lamellse. 

112. Transverse section of a gill-folium (x 45). The blood-vessels cut through are 
indicated by the rows of black ovals. 

1 13. Anterior end ventral view — /. , group of pigment spots ; 3. , the first cha^tigerous 
segment. Other letters as above. 

114. Dorsal view of the junction of thorax {th.), and abdomen [ah. 1) ( X 8). 

115. Posterior end, side view ( X 5). 

116. The tentacles displayed within the- buccal cavity by slitting the body wall 
along the dotted lines shown in fig. 113— w., the membrane surrounding the 
base of the tentacles. 

117. A portion of the peritentacular membrane with the tentacles turned forwards, 
showing the proximal and distal rows of pigment spots^ 



POLYCH^TA—BENHAM. 123 

Fig. 118. A dorsal cliaeta viewed in the plane with two flanges (x 45). 

119. A dorsal chseta viewed in the plane at right angles to the above ; it is now 
curved, and has one broader flange ( X 45). 

120. A portion of a dorsal chseta lying on its two-flanged side, with the third flange 
projecting iipwards ( X 720). 

121. The tenth abdominal neuropod (x 20), — d., distal process ; p., proximal 
papifla. 

122. Neuropodial uncinus ( x 360). 

123. The same viewed from above. 

Amyihas membranifera (figs. 124-132). 
Fig. 124. Anterior end dorsal view (natural size). The missing gills are indicated by 
the dotted lines. 

125. Anterior end (enlarged) — g., the anterior gill of right side; g. 2, g. 3, the 
gills, or their bases, of the second and third pairs ; hr., branchiferous segment ; 
fr., prostomium. 

126. Side view of anterior region ( X 2) — fe.. peristominm ; other letters as above. 

127. Anterior end, seen from in front (X 3), with the tentacular membrane [t.m.) 
pressed downwards—/., lateral region of the lower lip (peristominm) ; pr., 
prostomium ; s.o., supra-oral arch. 

128. View from below of the anterior end. dissected from the left side, and the floor 
pressed down- ;//., ventral gland shields ; I. a., lateral region of the supraoral 
arch ; /./., inner lower lip or sphincter ; nrp., neurojjods ; pe., peristominm ; 
t.m., tentacular membrane. 

129. Side view of the abdominal segments. 

130. Thoracic uncinus ( x 360). 

131. Abdominal unchnis ( x 360). 

132. Abdominal uncinus, viewed from above ( X 360). 



124 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTABCTIC EXrEDlTION. 



NJ)EX. 



ahyssorum Haemothoe... 

ahyssorum Eunoa 

affinis Arenicola assimilis 

Alciopa 

alcyonia Eurythoe 
ambiguum Hermadion... 

Ampharete 

Amphitrite 

Amythas 

anonialocha-ta Exogone 
antarctica Alciopa 
antarciica Ereutho 
antarctica Lagisca 
fltitarctica Laonome 
antarctica Neottis 
antarctica Potamilla ... 
antarctica Rhodine 
antarctica Vanadis 
antarcticus Thelepus ... 

Arenicola 

arenilega Le.^na.. 

Aricia 

armiger Scoloplos 
assimilis Arenicola ... 
australis Nereis 
AUTOLYTUS 



benthaliana L^tmonice producia 
brachycola Syllis 
branchiferus Lepidonotus 
brevicirris Lumbriconereis 

capitata Glycera 
carpenteri Tomopteris... 
charcoti Autolytus 
charcoti Eulalia 
chitoniformis Lepidonotus 
cincinnatus Thelepus ... 



page. 

42 

42 
108 

58 

69 

50 
103 

82 
102 

24 

58 

95 

35 
109 

91 
109 
105 

58 

91 
108 

89 

77 

80 
108 

67 

27 

31 

22 
40 

72 

74 
61 
27 
52 
40 
92 



POLYCH^TA— BENHAM. 125 



commensalis Hololepidella 



Eunice 



EUKYTHOE 
ExOGONE... 



Flabelligera 



Jiamiltoni Polycirrus 



PAGE. 

81 
81 



ClERATULUS 

cirratus Cirratulus 

claparedi Ophryotrocha 72 

clavafor Exogone ... 25 

closterohranckia Syllis... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . 20 



34 



comosa PiONOSYLLis ... 22 

complanata Eurythoe 69 

corrientis Eulagisca 43 

crocea Phyllocomus yg 

crosetcnsis Lagisca 4g 

dihranchiafa Phyllcomus ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 97 

chlersi Terebella g2 

Enipo 32 

Ereutho... 95 

eschchollzi Tomopteris g4 

Eteone ... ... ... ... ... . 5g 

Eulagisca 43 

Eulalia ... 52 



70 



Eunoa 42 



69 
24 



108 



flynni Hololepidella 33 

fulgida Promenia gj 

fullo Harmothoe spinosa ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 

fullo POLYNOE 35 

gibber Autolytus 3q 

gigantea Trypanosy"llis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Glycera 74 



94 



Harmothoe ... ... 3,5 

Heemadion ... ... ' 4g 

Heieronereis ... ... ... ... ... ... ' ... ' ... ... ... 57 

heterosetosa Exogone ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Hololepidella . 33 

hunteri Eulalia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... _ 53 

insignis Polycirrus ... ... ■ 9^, 

intermedia Rhodine ... jq^ 

ISOCIRRUS ... ■ ... • •... • ... IQQ 



JsOMASTtJS 



105 



12(5 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



japonica Lumbeiconereis 
Jeffrey sii Laoisca 
jucunda Promenia 

Tcerguelensis Amphitrite 
kerguelensis Ereutho ... 
Tcerguelensis Glycera ... 
kerguelensis Hermadion 
kerguelensis Lumbriconereis. 
kerguelensis Nereis 
kerguelensis Polycirrus 
kerguelensis Salvatoria 
kerguelensis Scoloplos... 

L^ETMONIfE 

Lagisca 

lagiscoides, Harmothoe spinosa 

Laonome 

Le^na 

Leprea 

lonfjicirrata Pelagobia 
longicirratiim Hermadio 
loveni Rhodine... 
loxechini Nereis 
Lumbriconereis 

maclearanus Autolytus 
macquariensis Lumbriconereis 
macrura Nephthys 
madeirensis Phyllodoce 
magalhcmisis Eulalia ... 
magaUxFnsis Hermadion 
magalhmnsis Lumbriconereis 
magalhcpnsis Platynereis 
magellanica Lagisca ... 
magellanica Serpula ... 
marginata Aricia 
mawsoni Scoloplos 
mcintoshi Sph^rosyllis 
mcintoshi Thelepus ... 
mcleani Aricia marginata 
mcleani Eulalia 
medipapillata Phyllodoce . 
memhranifera Amythas 
microphylla Eulalia ... 
minimus Staurocephalus 
minntuin Sph^erodorum 
miraiilis Scione 



PAGE. 
71 

50 
81 

82 
95 
74 
50 
70 
68 
95 
26 
78 

31 

38 

37 
109 

89 

94 

58 

50 
105 

65 

70 

29 

71 

68 

51 

52 

50 

70 

67 

35 
112 

77 

78 

26 

91 

78 

55 

51 
102 

55 

73 

75 



POLYGH^TA— BENHAM. 



127 



molluscuni Hermadion.. 
mundala Flabelligeea 
mutahiUtt Paractius 

Nainereis 
narconensis Serpula 
Neottis spectabilis 
Nephthys 

Nereis 

Nicolea 

nordenskjoldi iSpirorbi 
notialis Paractius 
notocera Syllis ... 

ohlini Akicia 
Ophroyotrocha 

pacifica Eurythoe 

Paractius 

parvum Sph.i;rodorum 

patagonica Harmothoe 

paiicibranchiatus Physalidonotus 

Pelagobia 

perarmatus Isomastus 

Phenacia 

Phyllocomus ... 

Phyllodoce 

Physalidonotus 

Phyzelia 

PlONOSYLLlS 

Platynekeis ... 

Polybostrichus 

Polycirrus 

polymnia 

potamilla 

producta L.^stmonice 

Promenia 

Pterautolytus... 

Pterocirrus 

puerilis Ophryotrocha 

pycnohranchiala Eunice 

reyi Eteone 
rhombigera Enipo 

Rhodine 

richardi Trypanosyllis 
rouchi Hermadion 
rugosus Physalidonotus 



page, 

50 
108 

73 

77 
112 

91 

68 

65 

84 
113 

72 

30 

78 
72 

69 

72 

75 

42 

40 

57 
105 

91 

97 

51 

35 

83 

22 

67 

29 

94 

84 
109 

31 

81 

30 

52 

73 

70 

56 
32 
105 
2* 
40 
35 



12S AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION?. 

PAGE. 

Sacconereis ... 29 

Salvatoria ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Samytha, speculalrix 105 

SCIONE ... ... 85 

SCOLOPLOS ... ... ... ... ... 78 

septentrionaUs Tomopteris ... 64 

Serpula 112 

setosa Phenacia 91 

setosus Thelepus 91 

siberti Staurocephalus ... ... ... ... ... 73 

simplex Autolytus ... ... ... ... 29 

spectdbilis Neottis ... ... ... ... 91 

spectabilis Thelepus ... , ... 91 

speculatrix Samytha ... ... 105 

sphcerocephala Lumbriconereis ... ... 72 

Sph^rodorum 74 

SPHyEROSY'LLIS 26 

spinifera Scione ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

spinosa Harmothoe ... ... 35 

spissum Sph.erodorum ... 74 

Spirorbis 113 

Staurocephalus ... 73 

streptochwta Leprea ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94 

Syllis 20 

l(tni(tformis Syllis 24 

tentaculata Eunice 70 

Terebella 82 

Thelepus 91 

Tomopteris 61 

trissophyllus Nephthys ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 68 

Trypanosyllis .. 23 

tuherosa Harmothoe ... ... 39 

turqueti Exogone 24 

typica Harmothoe spinosa 38 

uncinata Nereis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Vanadis ... 58 

vayssieri Terebella ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 83 

vermicularis Serpula 112 

vesicuhsa Lagisca ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

viguieri Pelagobia ... ... ... 57 

virginis Nephthys ... ... ... ... ... 68 

yungi Isocirrus 106 

[6 Platea ; 1 iMap.] 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C. VOL. VI PLATE 5, 




AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C VOL VI. PLATE b. 




AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C. VOL. VI. PLATE 7. 




AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C. VOL. VI. 




AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C- VOL. VI. PLATE 9 




105 



AUSTRALASIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



SERIES C. VOL. VI. PLATE 10. 




\ hVkOAOAa- :ah 



BATHYMETRIC MAP 

OF THE ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEANS 



COMPILED BY 

J.A.THOMSON 

1917 




^i, 11 .1 T R A L 1 A:' 






\ I Q-IOOO fathoms 

1 I 1000-2000 .. 

I J 2000 



Series C. -REPORTS IN COURSE OF PREPARATION. 



FORAMINIFERA 

HYDROZOA... 

ACTINOZOA ... 

TREMATODES 

CESTODES ... 

NEMATODES (FREE) 

ROTIFERA AND TARDIGRADA 

POLYZOA ... 

ECfflNOIDEA 

ASTEROIDEA AND OPHIUROIDEA ... 

CRINOIDEA AND HOLOTHUROroEA 

ANNULATA (EXCEPT LEECHES) ... 



LEECHES 

CRUSTACEA AMPHIPODA AND C. ISOPODA 

CRUSTACEA MACRURA AND G. CIRRIPEDA 
MALLOPHAGA 

TICKS 

PYCNOGOXIDA 

TUNICATES 

BIRDS 



JIAMilALS 



ZOOLOGY. 

Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., National Museum, MelbouTDe, 

Mi. E. a. Bp.iggs, B.Sc, Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, F.R.S.j University, Aberdeen. 

Dr. S. J. Johnston, University, Sydney. 

Dr. T. Habvey Johnston, University, Brisbane. 

Dr. N. A. Cobb, Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, U.S.A. 

Mr. J. Shephajrd, Melbourne. 

Miss L. R. Thornelet, Ambleside, England. 

Prof. R. KoBHLEE, Universite, Lyon, France. 

Prof. R. KoEHLEE, Universite, Lyon, France. 

Prof. M. Vaney, Universite, Lyonj France. 

Prof. W. B. Benham, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., University of Otago, 

Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Chas. Badham. B.Sc.i M.B., University of Sydney. 
Prof. C. Chilton, M.A.^ D.Sc, F.L.S.5 Canterbury CollegCj Cbrist- 

church. New Zealand. 
Mies F. Bage, M.Sc.j F.L.S.j Universityj Brisbane. 
Dr. T. Habvey Johnston^ University, Brisbane, and Mr. L. 

Habeison, B.Sc., Sydney. 
Mr. L. Habkison, B.Sc.; Sydney. 

Prof. T. T. Flynn, B.Sc., University of Tasmania, Hobart. 
Prof. W. A. Heedman, F.R.S., University, Liverpool, England. 
Mr. H. Hamilton, Dominion Museum, Wellington, N.Z., and 

Mr. R. Basset Hull, Sydney. 
Mr. H. Hamilton, Dominion Museum, Wellington, N.Z. 



BOTANY. 

PHYTOPLANKTON AND FRESH- WATER Mr. A. Manx, National Museum, Washington. 

ALGAE. 
LICHENS AND FUNGI Mr. E. Cheel, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 



6 : i ' 

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