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K^'^A •' 


uUMnrut fJi 




O R, 
The Arts of Drawing, Engraving, 
Etching, Limning, Painting, Vcr- 
nifliing, Japanjng, Gilding, d^c. 

In Two Volumns. 


I. The Arts nf^ Drawing Men, Women, Landskips, i&c* 

II. <?/ Engraving, Etching, ^ni Limning. 

III. 0/ Painting, Wafhing, Coloring, Gilding. 

IV. Of the Original, Advancement and Perfeftion jf Point- 

ing, tvich the Various Paintings of the Ancients. 

V. Of the Arts of Beauti fying anflf Perfuming. 
Vf. Of the Arts of Dying and Staining. 

VII. (7/"Alcliymie,rffl(^?/!;? Grand Elixir of Philofophers. 
vni. Of the 112 Chymical Arcana 0/ Peter Faber. 

IX. (?/ Cliiromantical Signatures. 

X. Of Staining <jnrf Painting Glafs, Enamel <J«</Gems. 

XI. (?/ Vernifhing, japaaing, <j/ifl^ Gilding. 

The Ej(rhth Editio?j, 

Enlarged^ with Above Five Hundred confiderable Additions 
thro' the whole IVork/-, nndthe Addition ofalmojifive whole 
Boohs ^ not in any of the former Impreffiotis : Adorned with 
XXV Copper Sculptures, the lili^ never jet Extant i 


Non ^uot^ Jed ^^anks. 

London^ Printed for A. and 7- Churchill, at the B'acJ^StvaT! 
in Paternofter-Roiv. And /. Nichnfm,3t the King%'Arm^ 
in Little-Britain. M DCCI. 

To that 


S^ Godf. Kneller, Kd 


T is Honor, as Qv* 

cero Jap, which 

gives Bei/ig, Life, 

and Perfection to 

Arts and Sciences^ 

audit is That in you which, I hope, 

mil Indulge this Infant Product ion^ 

from MinervaV Stock : If it 

A 2 Ob- 



Epiftle Dedicatory. 

Okains hat jowr Approhation, I 
have my End ^ and therein Jljall 
account viy Endeavors Eortunate, 
and my Self Happy. 

I have made bold to Jhelter it 
under yotir Vroteclion, of which my 
fmnll Confidence makes me believe 
I am not deceived : But of this 
I am certain. That if it perijles 
not by your Difike, it will live 
by your Ejliriuition : It is your 
Countenance of the Work, which 
will be as a Seal to it, and make 
it as a Standart of Truth to fuc 


eedinz Generations. 


As Univerfal Fame acknow- 
ledges you the Chief of your Vro-^ 
fejiioUy and has made you a great 
Judge of things of this Nature ; 
(o I could not have c ho fen out 
a more Vit or Excjui fit e Patron ; 


Epiftle Dedicatory. 

a Man ds excellently Accomplifi-' 
ed to T>et ermine, (is you are ad-^ 
mirahly Skilful to ferforvL 

The Work of it [elf is kit as a 
Dead Body, hat as a Bod) with- 
out a Soul 5 it is your Character 
and 'Name inuji give it Life and 
Spirit j and then with your Ade-- 
mtrry, I am fure it will be Confe- 
crated to Eternity, 

I am wholly unskilld in the 
Arts of Adulat.iony and know 
nothing of 'Flattery : hut this I 
fay, that could I V/ritc as £:c- 
cellentlyi^ as you can Defg'i^ and 
Decipher in Words, as well as you 
can with the Pencil, I would leave 
to all Fofterity, the Great Life 
of the Immortal Kntllcr, 

I will not detain you any long-' 

er ; hut I have this to Ooferve, 

4 3 That 

Epiftle Dedicatory. 

That jou who are the Honor ef 
your Frofejjiony and the Glory tf 
your Art, have by your Excellency 
therein, ohtained a Vrecedency a- 
hove other Men ; and all your 
Verformances are fuch, not to make 
Imitators, but Admirers, amongfi 
whom is, 


Your Faithful, 


Humble Servant, 

William SalmoJL 




I.r ■ ^ i^E Si(hje[i of the enfuing Work^ is the 
Art of Painting •, a Name not only too 
fingular^ hut alfo too Jhort or narrow^ 
to exprcfs whit is here intended there- 
by : For we do not only exprefs that Art^ ( oi it is 
generally received ) but alfo Drawing, JEngraving, 
Etching, Limning, Painting in Oil, Wafhing, Co- 
loring and Dying : All winch being confidered in 
their proper Extent^ infinitely exceed that curtaiPd 
Name <?/ Painting •, which that we might join all in 
one proper and comprehenfive Word^ zve made choice 
of that Greek Compound, POLYGRAPHICE. 

II. To perfwade any one to the Study or Praflice 
of thefe Arts, would be a great holly j fince Igno- 
rance (zohich is alzvays blind) can never be able to 
judge aright : For to him that already under ft ands 
it, the Labour zwuld be ufelcfs and unprofitable ; to 
him which is already delighted therein, it zoould bs 
needlefs andfuperjluous -, and to the Averfe and Ig- 
norant , it zaould be the putting, a Jewel into a. 
Staines Snout : The exquifite Knowledge of whicb^ 
if impofjible ever to be attained or underfiood by f neb 

A 4 fre- 


prejudicatc and cloudy Souls , although it is Suffici- 
ently known to 7?hiny already ^ and its Vfefulnefs or 
apparent as it is Excellent : To enumerate the one^ 
or rehearfe the other^ it is hut to perfvcade the 
World ^ that it is day-light when the Sun is upon 
the Meridian -, or at leaji to inculcate an Ignorance 
of thofe things, which have been manijcftly known^ 
even a long time fince. 

III. The Method of this Work is wholly nevo^ 
't^herein i^e have united and made one^ Juch various 
Suhje^ls iiA' have been the uncertain^ opfcure and te- 
dious Difcourje of a great number of variom and 
large Volumes. What lliall we fay ? Things far a- 

f under ^ we have laid together 5 things uncertain^ 
are here limited and reduced ^ things oh/cure^ we 
have made plain •, things tedioi/s^ we have made 
fhort •, things erroneous^ we have rectified and cor- 
rected •, things hard, we have made facil and ealy ^ 
tJvngs various, we have colle£led •, things (in ap- 
pearance ) Hcterogene, we have made Homogene : 
And in a word, all thefe Arts we have reduced to 
ccrrain Me;ids ;, brought under a certain Method 5 
limited to practical Rides, and made them Perlpicu- 
ous, even to a very mean Vnderjlanding, 

IV. In the Compofure of this Work, ( hefides our 
o^vn Olfervations ) wc have made ufe oj the befi 
Authors now extant, that we could pojfbly procure 
0) get ifito our hands ; wherein our Labour woi not 
jmuU, what in Reading, Comparing, Trarfcribing, 

Ciioofing, Correcting, DTpofing^WRtAiling^i;^';^ 
thing in refpe^t cj Matter, Form and (3rder. The 
which had we any Precedent to have followed, any 
Vddi to have traced, any Example to have imitated, 
any Help to have ccnfulted, or any Subject entire : 
Or otherwife^ had the Number oJ our Authors been 
fmall, their Maxims Truths, their Rules certain, 

t heir 


■ their Meanings not ohfacre^ or f^Wr' Precepts been 
reduced to Method or Order^ we might not only vsiib 
much more Eafe^ Flcafure and Certainty ^ lefs La^ 
hoia\ Trouble and Tains •, greater Verfpcuity^ Tlainr 
nefs and Singularity •, belter Order , Method and 
Language •, but alfo in fhorter time have brought to 
'Perfect ion^ what we here pre/entyou withal. 

V. I/z //?/f Eighth Edition, we ha-be inferted above 
Jive Hundred feveral Additions of fingular Vfe to the 

Matter in hand^ and Jo neceffary to the Work^ that 
7mthout them they anight really be accounted Defe- 
^ €tive. There is the variom Depi^ings of the Anci- 
ents^ according to the Cujioms of feveral Nations.^ 
drawn from the beft^ moft experienced and faithful- 
left Authors^ whether Englifh, Italian or Latin ; tO' 
gether with the Original Advancement and Terfe- 
ition of thefe Arts. 

VI. for the farther Satisfaclion and Plea/ure of 
young Art if s^ zgc have given you a Tra?tJl.ation out 
^/ Latin, oj the One Hundred and Twelve Arcanums 
of Petrus Johannes Faber , a mofi Learned and Fa- 
mous Fhyfician (7/^Montpelier /';? France, and a very 
great Chymift and Alchymift. They have been ear- 
neftly fought for by many higcnious Gentlemen^ but 
by reafon of the Scarcenefs and great Price of the 
Bock^ they were not cafy to be had ^ arid being alfo 
in Latin, not to be under flood by every one zoho had 
a Curiofity that zvay. Kv thefe Rcafons we took the 
T ains ef Tranflating the fame i, and in fo doings for 
the better underflanding of the Matter^ have care- 
fully claufed each Particular^ that the Safe of the 
Author inight the better be apprehended. But truly 
it is our Opinion^ that moft of the ?r^ if not all .^ need 
a Clavis or Key to unlock them^ that their Meaning 
and Intention might be underffood-^ and one Key, it 
is fiid, will unfold them all^ except ii^o of them^ 



vohofe Meaning and Interpretation is according to 
their literal ExpreJJion : The Invefiigation of the 
Key, or finding out thofe two unriddled Arcanums, 
we fhall leave to the Scrutiny of the Induftrioui Stu- 
dent , who may at one time or other per Accideris 
meet with that nnlookt for^ and unthought of which 
is by many fo much defired^ and which peradventwe 
by the fame Hand might have other wife been perpe^ 
rually fought f$r in vain. 




I. ^ J "^ HIS Book having in a few Years 
time fo obtained in the World, as to 
come to an Eighth Imprelhon, above 
Fifteen Thoufand of them having been 
already Sold ^ I was requefted once 
more to give it a Review, not only to mend the 
Faults efcaped in tlie former Impreflions, and to re- 
duce it to fome betttr Order and Method ^ but 
alfo to add to it fuch other new Matter as the 
Nature of tlie Book might require, to fupply it in 
feveral places, where it might be defeaive or 
wanting : To Explicate it in fuch Places and Para- 
graphs which were dubious, and not vulgarly In- 
telligible : And further to Enlarge it with a num- 
ber of New and moft Excellent Secrets, not yet 
in many Mens Hands. 

11. As to the particulars, which are added in tliis 
Impreffon, you have, i. In the firft Book, an 
Appendix containing five whole Ch pters. 2. The 
Sixth Book of Dyi^ig and Staining ivholly new, 
never any thing of that kind being publiflied in 
Print to our knowledge before. It was the Manu- 
fcript of an Experienced Dyer, who had pra£lifed 
tliat Art above Fifty Years, and Dying, lefi: behind 
him his Secret^ of that kind. I challenge nothing 
of it, but the new Methodizing, and fitting it for 
the Prefs. 3. In the Sevcntli Book, befides the 
Additions in the Tenth Chapter, there are added 



Eleven whole Chapters concerning the Fhilofophick 
Tinlfure or EV/a-//-, viz. Chap. XII. XIll. XI\^ 

Which is the certain Work of a True Adept. 

4. In the Ninth Book, the Additions are fcattered 
throughout, ' but they are fo many as will make 
compleatly three q'larters of that whole Book. 

5. The Tenth Book, containing XLIII. Chapters, 
is wholly new, there being exaftly laid down, and 
in a facciu'El and brief Method., all the ways of 
Painting, Coloring and Staining of Glafs,' Cryftal, 
Enamel and Gems, and the way of making Adul- 
terate or Counterleit Precious Stones fo exa8:, that 
an Artift himfelf ihall fcarcely difcei'n the Artificial 
from the True, without bringing thc-m to the Wheel. 
6,. The whole Elcverah Book containmg the Aits 
of Vernilhing, Japanning, and Gilding, reduced into 
a (horter and much better Method, than ever was 
done by any Author before. 7. Befides all which, 
we ha\'c farther Enlarged and Compleated it, with 
above Five Hundred other Additions, Paragraphs, 
and Obfervatioijs, where the order and necellity of 
the Work required it, which are interfperfed thro' 
the other parts of the Work, viz. of the I. II. III. 
IV. and V. Books, in their proper places ^ and are 
either Explicatory or Directive to the matter in 

Hi. In the Seventh Book, are fome Difcourfes of 
Alchpiu\ and the very Procefs it felf, ( as it is be- 
lieved) by which the'Maifers of that Learning, at- 
tained to the Sum uf all their Glory. In the Per- 
feclion thereof, there are Riches, Honor, Health, 
and Long Liie : By -it Artcjim ( a Jew ) lived, as 
is reported, a Thoufand \ cars ^ how true it i:>, I 
will not lay ^ himfelf affirms it : And very Wile 
Men, fuch as ^aracelfus.^ Vontaniis^ and ethers^ fcem 
to give Credit to it. And tliereby ¥hiwmc1^ a t'rc/ich 
Man. originally ll poor Scrivener in Farjs^ left fo 



great Monuments behind him, as muft convince th« 
molt Incredulous, that he knew the Secret, and did 
fuch mighty Works, at his own proper Colts and 
Charges, as the moft Opulent Prince in Europe can 
never do the like. He built Twenty eight Hofpi- 
tals in France^ alfo T^venty Churches and Chappcls> 
and Endowed them all, with large Revenues and 

IV. As to the many Additions to every Impref- 
fion of this Book hitherto, 1 make bold to excufe 
my felf : I confefs it is an abufe, and fuch an one 
which I my felf, who have been a great buyer of 
Books, have often complained of ^ it is indeed an 
Oppreffion upon the Publick, for when a new Edi- 
tion comes forth, with confiderable Additions, the 
former Book is worth little or nothing. The truth 
is, the Copy was formerly in the hands of fiicBi 
Men, who thought much at every Penny they laid 
out, and provided it would but anfwer their ends, 
,and bring them Money, they cared not how meanly 
the Publick was ferved by it. But now it is fallen 
into the hands of more GenerSks Spirited Men, 
who were delirous of having a good Work, and a 
Compleat Thing, and ituck at no Money to bring 
the fome to Perfection : And accordingly, you fee 
to what a Maturity their Gentleman-like Ijifpofiti- 
ons, and Noble Spirits have brought this Book : 
'Tis through them, and their means, you have it 
thus compleat ^ and to them you ought to (hew 
your good Nature, in rendring your Acknowledg- 
ments and Thanks, for that otherwife you muft 
ha\'e been contented to have taken up with the 
few Fragments, wliich the penuriouHiefs of the for- 
mer Bookfellers had aflPorded you. 

V. But to make you amends for this trefpading, 
not fo m.uch upon your Patience, as upon your Pur- 
ics, we oiTer you here the Valuable Additions 
wliich tiiis IrapreifiOn is enriched withal ^ ivhich i 



am very confident, the ingenious Artift would no?- 
be without for ten times all that tlie Book will 
coft him, ( notwitliftanding all the other Editions 
which he has foimerly bought, which are now like 
an old Almanack, out of Date : ) This is enough, 
we hope, to give fome fatisfa8:ion, and flop your 
repining, efpecially when you fliall confider ( by 
comparing this Edition with Ibme of the former ) 
, what Care and Pains I have taken in the Editing 
thereof : This Copy alfo is all Correded from the 
Prefs with my own hand, which I will not promife 
any future Edition (hall be ^ and therefore may be, 
on that account, more Valuable than any that (hall 
be hereafter Printed. And withal I promife. That 
ftom henceforth I will never make any more Alte- 
rations or Additions to this Work. 

From my Houfe ztBiackr William Salmon, 

Fryers Stairs, Lmdm, 
24 OSaber, 1700. 


^Ag. 44. lin. 29. and pag. 45. lin. ^o, for ReSl'tfiedy read Ke- 
fieliii, pag. 774. lin. 30. for Cen(uralf read CmtrnU 




Liber Primus. 

Of Drawing. 

Chap. ^ Page. 

1 /If Polygraphice in General. I 

2 Of the Injlruments of Dramng. 2 

Of WAking Pajiils or Crions. 2, 3> 4, 5 

Of u/ing Paxils or Crions. 6 

Of ujtng Indian Ink. j 

3 Of the Precepts of Dramng in General. 7 

4 Particular ehfervations in Dramng. lO 

5 Of the Imitation of the Life. 15 

6 Of the Imitation of Draughts. I^ 

7 Of Dramng the fMe of a Man. iS 
• 8 Of Dramng the extream Parts. 23 

9 Of Dramng the whole Body. 21 

10 Of Dramng a naked, Body. 22 

11 Of fhadoTPing a naked Body. 24 

12 Of the re ay and manner of Sh adorn ng. 25 

13 Of exprejjing Pajfions in the Face. 26 


16 0/ 

14 Of human Proportion, 
35 Of Drapery. 


Chap. Pag<j; 

16 Of mixed and uncertain Formt. 28 

17 Of Landskip. tg 

18 Of Diapering and Antiijue. ai 
Ip Of taking the true Draught of a Figure. 42 

To take the fhape of a Leaf^ Herb, &c. 42 

To tab the Picture of an Herb from an old Pi- 

El'4re, 43 

20 Of expending or c6ntra[}:in^ a Piciure. 44 

21 Of Perfpeciive in General, 44 

22 0/ f/jf Aciive part of PerfpeSlive. a6 
2'^OfthefubieSitobejieen. aj 

24 Of the general praEtife of PerfpeElive. 4p 


25 0/ the UJes of Perfpeciive. ^i 

26 Of the meafures of human Bodies. 5? 

27 Offome General Obfervations. <± 

28 Of Light, Shadow and Color. ^7 
Sp 0/ the Explication of Terms of Art. 62 

Liber Seamdus* 

Of Engraving, Etching, and Limning. 

I f\P Graving and the Infiruments thereof. 6cf 

^^ 2 Of Polifhing the Copper Plate. 71 

Of holding the Graver. . 71 

Of the vnay and manner oC- Engraving. 72 

^ Of Imitation of Coppies or Prints. 7^ 

6 Of Engraving in Wood called Cutting. 74 

7 Of Etching, and the AiateriaU thereof * 75 
To make the hard f^arnifh. j6 
To make thejoft P^arnifh. 76 
To make the Aqua-fortis. 77 

8 Of uftng the hard J^arnifh. ■^p 
y Of the yray and manner of Etching. 80 


Chap. Page." 

Of Etchmz Landslips. 82 

10 Of ufmg the Aqua-fortis. 84. 

11 Of finlping the Work, 8"^ 

12 Ofn/tng the Joft Farnifh. 86 

13 Of Etching upon the Joft yarniffj. 87 

14 Of uflng the Aqua-fortis and fimfhing the W-.rh.. 8S 
I') Of Limning and the Materials thereof i 90 

16 Of the Gums and their Ufe. 91 

17 Of the feven Colors in General, 9 2 
1% Of Colors in Particular. > 94 

Ohfervations on Reds. 9^ 

Ohfervations on BrofpnL 99 

Ohfervations on Greens. it>iJ. 

Ohfervations on Tsllows. ibid 

Ohfervations on Blems. too 

Ohfervations on Whites. ibid 

Ohfervations on Blacksi ibid 

-f4 glorious color of Eaft-Iiidi.l Cz^^/. } ot 

19 0/ /z?/Vv^ and compound Colors. ibid 

20 Of Colors for Drapery. 1 05 

21 Of Liquid Gold and Silver, 107 

Argentum Muficum- ibid 

Autum Muficum^ . p ^- icS 

22 Of preparing the Color). t^ailUfa .' ic^ 
Mixtures for fhadomng Hi [lories. j i r 
Mixtftres for fhadomng Faces. ibid 
Mixtures for Hair. ibid 

23 0/ f/)# manual Injlruments. 112 

24 Of Preparations for Limning, 1.14 
2^ Of Limning in A^iniature,.. n6 

26 Of Limning Drapery. lip 

27 0/ Limning Landslip. 1 24 

28 Of Light and Shadamy 1 26 

29 Of Colors more particularly. :, ■. \-..y. 1^0 

30 Of making fome Original Color s:^- , 1 

31 Of Limning to the Life in General c i 



71;^ JDf^^ coloring of a Figure. 

To draw rcith Indian Ink. 1 3 5 

^2 Of Limning Landslip parikularly. , J:^9 

33 Of the various forms or degrees of, Coloring,* I I'a 

34 0/ Limning the She, Clo-dsj ,&c. " i f,' 

35 Of Limning Towns, Ceiftlesj R^tini. 


a . 36 Of 


Chap. Pgae 

36 Of Mountains, Hills and the like. J45 

37 Of Trees, Boughs, Cottages, &c. 146 

38 Of Limning naked Figures. 147 
3P Of Limning^ Hair. 145 

40 Of Walls, Chambers and the like. ^ 14^ 

41 Of Marble Pillars, Rocks, &ic. I^o 

42 0/ Coloring Metals. ibid 

43 Of Limning Florvers. 151 

44 Of Radifhes, Turneps, Melons, Cucumhrs. 152 

45 0/ Limning Fruits. 1 55 

46 Of Limning Birds. 1 54 

47 Of Limning Beajis. 1 55 

48 0/ Limning Serpents. 157 
^p Of LimningWaters and Fijh. 158 

Li^^r Tertius. 

Of Painting, Wafhing, Gilding, Colors, ^r. 

I /^^ Painting in General. 1 59 
^^ 2 0/ Painting in Oil and the Materials there- 
of. 161 

3 Of Colors in General and their Jiguifications. 163 

4 O/" fitting colors for Painting. 1 64 

5 O/^ Co/or J- /o/- Velvet. . 165 

6 0/ Colors for Sattins. 1 66 

7 O/" Co/or; /<9r Taffety, Cloth, Leather. 1 67 

8 Of Colors for Garments in General. 168 
p Of Colors for Metals and Precious Stones. j6p 
10 Of Colors for Landskip. 1 70 

II Of Painting the Face. 1 71 

12 Of clean ftng eld Paintings. 1 72 

13 Of a Picture in General. 174 

14 0/ //)^ c/;{)zf(? ofCoppies or Patterns. 1 76 

15 0/ dijpofmg of Pitlures and Primings. ijy 

16 Of 

Oiap. _ ^ Pigc^ 

16 Of Frefcoe, or Painting of Wijlls . 17S 

ly Of Painting Sun dials ^ Tl^hcr-worl, Sici lyp 

How Colors are to he Jet off. 185 

To transfer the drasfght of a Dial upon the Plane:. iSo 

To Gild the Figures of Sun dials. 1S7 

18 Tvafhing Maps, PiEiurcs, Sic. i^p 

ip Of Colors fimple for rcafhin^JUfaps-i S/x. ipi 

To mah Verdigrife according to Glauber. ip'i, , 

■30 Of Colors compound for wa/hing Maps, &c, ip.y 

2i Of mixing Colors and Shadomng. ip6 

22 Of Colors for ivafl:^ing Landskips. ipS^ 

23 Of the PraBice of WafJping. ipp , 
HoTv to lay on your Colors. 200 

^iJ. Ohfervations on Vegetable Colors. 23 2: 

25 Ohfervations on Mineral Colors. 226 

16 Of Metals. [ \\ . 20p' 

2y Of the way and inafiTisr of Gilding. 215 
28 0/ making vploite Colors, and wmt^ning PUijfer Walls. 

2p 0/ Mczzotinto, and taking ojf an old PHm on ivhite 

Paper. 220 

30 Of making various forts of Ink. 221 

Liber QuarUis. 

The Original, Advancement cind Perfedrion 
of the Arc of Painting : E)cemplified m the 
various Paintings ofdie Ancicnrs. 

C\t^ the Original of thefe Arts. 

^-^ 2 Of tbe Proirrefs of thefe Ans. 

3 Of the PerfeEiion ef^the Art of Painimg. . ^16 

4 Of the Ancients de pitying their Ggds,. 4t]iftf-fiof S4t.iirn. 

■■■-.' ■ ' ■ ' 3'3i> 

a 2 5 Ca*^ 


Chap. Page, 

5 Of the Ancients depi^ing Jupiter. , 327 

6 Of tke Ancients depi^iing Mars. 529 

7 Of the Ancients depiUing Phcebus or Sol. 330 

8 Of the Antients depiEling Venus. 332 

p Of the Ancients depi^ing Mc^ccmy- 335 

10 Of the Ancients depicting Diana or Luna. 335 

1 1 Of the Ancients depiBing Janus. 337 

1 2 0/ the Ancients dcpiBing Aurora. 338 

13 Of the Ancients depi^ing Juno. 33P 

14 or the Ancients depiEiing Ops or Tellu?. 340 

15 Of the Ancients depiBingNt[)\.imQ and Sea-gocls. 341 

16 Of the Ancients dcpi^ing Ncmeiis. 343 

17 Of the Ancients dcpitlingVstn. ibid 

1 8 Of the Ancients dcpiEiing Plato. 345 

1 9 Of the Ancients depicting the Vsmcx. 346 

20 Of the Ancients depi^ing Minerva or Pallas. ibid 

21 Of the Aficients depicting Vulcdn, 347 

22 Of the Ancients depiBing Bacchus. 348 

23 Of the Ancients depicting Fortune. 349 

24 Of Virtue, Trmh, Peace , Honor , Fume, Opinion, 352 

25 Of Ni^ht, Sleep, Silence, Pleajure, Fear 353 
"26 Of Pmlofophers, Law-givers, Kings, Qneens^ 355 

27 Of the Painting of the Sybils. 357 

28 Of Arts, Virtues, Pajfions, and minor Gods. 359 

29 Of cxprfjjing the Powers. 362 

Eternity. ibid 

Time. Fate, Fortune. ' 363 

Ecjuality, ViBory, Peace, Providence, Concord, Fame, 

Dcftiny. 364 

::50 Of depicting Virtues and Vices. 365 

31 Of depict in g Rivers. ^6j 

Tiber, Nilus, Tigris. ibid 

Ganges, IikIus, Tliamifis, Ainu-, Po, Daiuibius. 

• 3^S 

AcheJou?, Niger. 369 

-3 2 Of depiBing the Nymphs. ibid 

Napjea, Dryades, Naiade?, llictis, Galatea, Iris. 


Nymph.'c dianx, Aurora. ^71 

3 3 Of depicting the nine A'laje.:. 'ibid 

^^ O'- the foHr Winds. , 372 

^5 Of the Alanths of the Tear- 373 



hiber Suintns, 

Of Beautifying and Perfuming. 

Chap. Page: 

I ^\P Painting the Face and Skin. ^ 375 
^^ ^OfCofmmchwhichhaMifymthofitPaint. 380 

3 OfX^ofmeticks for the Fices of the Skin. 384 

4 Of other admirable Beautifiers, 3°^ 

5 Of cleanfing the Teeth. ^91 

6 Of making a fweet Breath. 35?3 

7 Of beautifying the Hair. ^90 

8 Of Perfuming in General. 3PP 
p Of the Aiatter of which Per fumes are ?nade. . ibid 
10 Of the Oil of Ben. , 400 

II 0/ Svpeet V/aters. 401 
J 2 Of Perfuming Oils and Spirits. 404 
1 ^ Of Perfuming Ejfences. 406 
l^ Of Perfuming Unguents. 408 

1 5 0/ Perfuming Ponders. 409 

16 Of Perfuming Baljams, 4^4 

1 7 0/ Perfuming Tablets. \ 415 

1 8 Of Pomanders for Bracelets. 41 6 
IpOfPerfumingWaJh-balls. 4x9 
^o Of Perfuming Soaps. 421 

21 Of burning and boiling Perfumes. 422 

22 Of Animal and Mineral Perfumes. _ 425 

23 Of ?/jf Adulteration of Musk, Civet, Ambcrgrije, 426 
2\ Of Perfuming Cloth, Skins, Gloves. 428 

* 5 



Liber Sextus, 

Of the Arts of Dying and Staining. 

Chap. Page, 

"^ (\^ ^y'"S ^fh Colors. 431 

^^ 2 Of Dying BUds. 433 

3 Of Dying B I cm. ^ 436 

4 Of Dying Broy.ns. 438 
% Of Dying a CinnamonColor. 44O 

6 Of Dying Clove Colors. . 442. 

7 O" Dying Flejh Colors. ' 443 

8 Of Dying Gnyy RHJfet^ or Lead Colors^ 444 
p Of Dying Greens. 445 

I o O,^ Z); j/z^ H.?/V Co/or/. 449 

I I Of Dying Ahiife Colors. 45Q 

1 2 Of Dying Pink Colors. 453 

1 3 Of Dying a Rofe Color. 453 

14 Of Dying Red Rofe or Carnation Color. 454 
150,^ Dyins^ Red Colors . 455 

1 6 or D).//;ir ^ Re:{ Blufh Color. 45a 

17 0/ 7^;/;.'_^ Scarlet nnd the Bon-dy:. 459. 
1% Of Dying Sand Colors. ^ 461 

19 Of Dying Sn^-^ Colors. ^ " 462, 

20 O/" T^T'wj ^/£'/iff <?«(^ Purple Cehrs. 4^3 

21 Of Dying ycllons and orange Tanny. 465 

22 Of Watering Stf^s., tahngom Spots. /!^6y 

23 O^' T^T^//^ P.?/jfrj P.p-chwent, Leather, d.69 
^■\. Of Dying Wood, HornSj Bowsy 6:c. 472 
123 The Conclufion. 474 


Liber Septimus, 

Of Alchimy, and the Philolbphers Elixir. 

Chap. Page. 

I ir\^ Alchimy in Geneyal. 477 
^^ 2 Of Saturn or Lead. 47p 

3 0/ Jupiter or Tin. 481 

4 Of Mars or Iron. 483 

5 Of S0I or G(?W. 484 

6 Of Venus or Copper. 485 
y Of Mercury or Ofiick-filver. 488 

8 0/ Luna or Silver. 4po 

9 0/ ^^^ Accidents of Metals, ^pi 

10 Of the great Philojophick WorL 505 

I I Of the grand Elixir from an old Hermit. 509 
120/ the Qnalities of the Philofophers Stone. 513 
1 3 0/ the Matter of the Philofophers Stone. 5 1 7 
14-4 continuation of the former DifcoHrfe, 520 

15 Of the Preparation of the Philofophers Stone, 525 

16 Of the PraBick part of the Preparation. 529 

1 7 77)(? former Difcourfe continued. 532 

1 8 0/ the InjirHments of this Work. 536 

19 0/ the Fire j and firfl the Ignis Extcrnus. 5^7 

20 O/" z-/?f Ignis internus. S40 

21 Of the time for doing this Worl. 542 

22 Of a Profitable Particular Work .5^4 


23 Of cert m natural Expmments. S48 

'a 4 Liber 


Liber OBai^HS. 

Faber's Arcanum^s. 

Chap. Page^ 

I nrHE highcji TtnUure of Sol, fixed for Luna. 557 

-*- 2 The way of fixing Lun^. 55^ 

5 77v ivhire fixed Tinttftre for Venus. 5S9 

4 The fixed Oil of Mercury. ibid 

5 The red Cimiaher of Antimony. <}6o 

6 A fixed TinEiure to ProjeB on Venus. S6i 

7^ of Oil of Tartar. ibid 

8 To fix the Oil of S;il-Armoniack. 562 
p A nonderfnl red Tificifire frorn Vitriol. 563 
JO To make the aforejaid Oil of Cold. ^64 

I I To encreafe Gold and Silver. ^65 

12 yi fixed Tintiure for Venus. ibid 

1 3 Tije purgation cf Venus /or the former Tinware. 567 

14 T"" Co'igeal or Harden Mercury. ibid 

15 lT7./i Regukis 0/ Antimony to male Gold, 568 

16 For nsaiiiiig So\. 56^ 

17 For the -nnitening of Copper. 57^ 
V6TheCe?fientaticnofSo\. ibid 
jcj Oil r-f S-Alphur Vive. 571 

20 A TnEhnre for Sol. 272 

21 To extraEi Mercury from Antimony. ibid 

22 An Elixir of the Golden Work. ^ 573 

23 The ex-raflion of the Virgins Mill. S74 

24 For ihe whitening of Copper. 575 

25 A ferret from Antimony and Mercury. ibid 

26 A TiH^are ({ Luna upon Venus. 577 
■ 27 A Tin^Hrc of Sol upon Luna. ibid 

2,3 Another Tncime of Sul upon Luna, 578 

2p A 

The Contents, 

Chap. Page. 

29 A TxnBwe of Sulphur mi Mars^r Luna. 27S 
50 A TinBure from Sulphur Vivey and Argent Vive upon. 

Luna. 580 

1^1 A preparation of Arfenicli to rchiten- Venus. 581 

32 A fixed TrnElure to change Lima, into Sol. 582 

33 Mercury Water. ibid 
54 To Tinge Luna into Sol. 583 

35 Crocus Martis more noble for the former fecret. 5% 

36 Tb r.«^r;? Water into good Wine. 585 

37 To r«r« f/v //^///'/f Oil of the Golden Marchafite into 

Gold. 5S6 

38 The Oil of an Alcali for the former fecret. 587 
3P 71) 77«^e Luna f;?rfl Sol. ibid 

40 To make the Mercury of Antimony. 58S 

41 To extraB Mercury /row Metals. ^89 

42 To tranfmute Antimony into SoL ibid 

43 Mercury of Luna ^«^ wzV/; zV a great Elixir. 5PD 

44 To ?m^(? and fix Ytvms into good Luna. 591 

45 To fix and tinge Luna imogood Sol. 592 

46 To fix Mercury into fine Luna. ibid 

47 To fix Mercury into fine SoL 593 

48 To fix Mercury into fine SoL 594 

49 To /z.v Mercury into fine Luna. ibid 

50 To fix Mercury into true Sol. 595 

51 To »;4/-? f/?f Oils of Sol and Luna. ^96 

52 To fix Luna r«/^o Sol. 597 

53 To extratl Mercury /row So!. ibid 

54 To fix this Mercury into fine Sol. 59S 

55 To fix the Mercury of Luna into Luna. ^gg 

56 To cement Luna into true Sol. ibid 
'^j Toniake AiirMn: Potahile. 600 

58 To w*.tif Argentum Potabile. 601 

59 To tranfmute Luna /«ro Sol. 632 

60 To tranfwHte Venus into Luna. 603 
61^ ^S'z7^'fr A^ine v.yhich will never decay. 604 

62 A Golden Mine to tranfrnnte Luna into Sol. 6:)2 

63 -/^ /-fn^i«^ l-]V(?r, fo r/«^^Luna. 6o=j 

64 To multiply Luna. 606 

65 To tinge Luna wro Sol. 637 

66 To w^^f ?/;(? fr«f Red Oil of Antimony. ibid 

67 To fix Luna. ' 609 

63 A 


Chap. t'iige. 

6S A TinUure ofMars for tinging Luna. 6op 

(5p To rfr/;/if Sol into Mercury, mth Mercliry. ' 6io 

jro To w/«-f f a Golden Adine. 612 

71 To »;ah the afore/aid Mine tinge Luna in Sol. 613 

72 To tranfmute Mercury /«/o SoJ. 614 

73 To rranfmute Mercury and Luna /»w Sol. 615 

74 To f/;7^(? Venus into Luna. 616 

75 To tinge Venus ?;?^o Luna. ibid 

76 To tinge Luna wro Sol. 617 
yj To tinge Luna into Sol. 618 
78 To make a Water of Mercury. dip 
7P To tinge Venus into Luna. 5 20 

80 Another way to make Aq. Mcrcuri;. ibid 

81 Aq. Mercuri), another re Ay. 621 
S2 An Elixir of the Spar Satiirni. ibid 
83 ^« Elixir from Pearl. 625 
34 To make Jmatl Pearls into great Ones. 625 
S5 To make Malleable Glaf?. 627 

86 To make Carbuncles of Cryflal. 62% 

87 To make Trees hear three times a Year. ibid 
^%Tofix Mercury Tuith Salt of Tin. 650 
Sp To Hx Mercury into a white Oil for Iran/mutation into 

Sol ' 6^1 
po To fix Mercury into a i»hite Oil for TranftnHtation into 

Luna. 632 

pi To make a Red TinBure -mth Nitre. 63 5 

p2 To make a White Elixir. 634 

P3 To make a Red Elixir for Sol. 635 

P4 Spirit of Ma.y-derv for the former fecret, 63 5 

P5 The fixing of Arfenick. 6^6 

c6 To refolve Sol into its firfl matter. 6:^y 

• p7 To r^/ake Spiritus Mercurij. 638 

98 Spirit of Lime to dijfolve all things. 63^ 

P9 To tr animate Jupiter into Luna. ibid 
100 A White Elixir to tranjmtae Adetals into Luna. 640 

jci A RedTinn:kre ofMRrsfor Sol. 642 

J 02 -.^« Elixir of Tin for the rehite Work. 643 

IC3 A leffcr Tinware for the white Work. 644 

10 j\.The Phyfical Stone made of Dew. 645 

105 To fix Mercury. 646 

I c^ To Co«^^<frf/ Mercury /«roLun;^, ^47 

107 T« 


Ciiap. Page. 

107 To male the Mercury of Antinion)', 647 

jo8 To convert Lead into Mercury. 64S 

lOp A TinBure of Sol for Jranfmuting Lima. ibid 

,1 10 A Tinciurt of Luna for other Aietnls. 650 

jli A Red Oil of Vi-riolj a Secret. 651 

ii2 A Red TinBure from Arfenick. 6^2 

113 The Conclufion of this Eighth Bool, 653 



hiber Nomts. 


Of Chiromantical Signatures. 

J A Demon[iration jjf Clm-omanticd Signatures. 6'^6 
•^^ 2, Whether right or left Hand tole judged hy. 662 

^ Of the Planetary Mounts. • :, -664 

4 Ceneneral Judgments of the Hand. 6'yo 

^(}f the Line of Life. ,• .• 673 

th Uf the Epatick or Natm-td L4nf. \- 6y'6 

y Of the Cephalica or Head'Line. dSo' 

8 Ciff/?^ MenCil, or Line of Fortune. 6S2 

p^ 0/^?/v Reftri(5la, 0?- Cauda Di'acpnis. 6S5 

10 Or^fr Ohfcrvanons on the H.'.nd-Wrifl. 887 

11 Of the Saturnia, or Line <tf &tiirn/ 6<7'6 
laO/'Linea Solari?, pr Stdmachica. ' 6572 
i^Of the Cingulum, or Girdle 0/" yenus. 695 
14 Of ?^«f Via Ladea, or AMhyWity. 6^5 
i^Of the Mount of SRtum. 6(?j 
10 0/ r^i^ Mount of Jupiter. 600 

17 Qf the Cavea Martis, <««i^ Via Martis. 703 

18 O/" the Aiount of Sol, 4«i^ Via Solis. 707 

19 Of the Aiount of Venus. 710 

20 Of the Aiount of Mercury, 712 
2iQf the Amount of IxmTi. " ■ ji6 



Chap^ Page* 

'22 Of the Menfli, Quadrangle or Table. yiy 

23 Of the Fingers. 720 

2^ Of the Thumb . 721 

25 The Good and Evil Lines , and CharaBers, 723 

26 Certain Chiromantical Aphorijms. 724 

hiber Decimns. 

Of Painting and Coloring, or Staining GUff^ 
Enamel^ and Gtms, 


Of G L A s s. 

i r\F Salts for Glafs Worlf. 7^0 

^^ 2 Of making Frit for Cryjtal. 734- 

5 Of Artificial Cryfal. 737' 
4 Colors for tinging GlaJS and Cryjial in General. 740' 
5- Colors from Lead. 748 

6 Of Colors f row Iron, 755 

7 Of Colors from Copper or BraJS. 758 

S E C T^ II. 
Of G E M s. 

8 Of" Cements, Aiineral Colors, And Gems. 767 
p 0/ Artificial Gems in general. 774 

10 >4 Pafle for a Beryl, or Sky-Color. 778 

1 1 To male a Chalcedony. 778 

1 2 Pa/le for an Oriental Ckryfolite. 783 
15 Of making fair Oriental Diamonds. ibid 


Chap: Page: 

14 PAJiesfor an Oriental Emerald. 787 

1 5 Pafies for an Oriental Granate. yBp 
10 Pajies for an Oriental Jacynth. ^po 

17 Pafles for making Artificial Pearls. frgi 

18 Other various ways of making Artificial Pearls. 794 
Ip Padesfor Oriental Rubies and Carbuncles, 801 

20 Pajies fer an Oriental Saphir. ^4 

21 Pafies for an Oriental Topaz,. 8^5 

22 Pafies for an Oriental Turcois. 807 


Of E N A M E L S. 

23 Of Enametsin General. ibid 

24 The may of Enamelling. So^ 

25 To Enamel on Metals. Si I 

26 Of Painting on Enamel. 815 

27 Of Milk White Enamel. 814 
2B0f Black Enamel. 815 
2p Of fine Blerv and Turcois Enamels^ 810 

30 Of Green Enamels. 8 1 7 

31 0/ Purple Enamels. Si8 
3 2 0/ Rofe colored Enamels. 8 1 9 
^^ Of Red Enamels. 820 
34 0/ TelloTV Enamels. 822 
^^Of making China, to Enamel, Paint and Qild it. 825 


Of Painting Glass. 

36 Of Painting Glafs in General, and of the Colors. 826 

37 Preparations of Vegetable Colors. 830 

38 Preparations of Mineral Colors. 835 
3P Coloring or Staining Glafs from Randdlphe Holme, 

/z«<r Gerard Wane. 841 

40 Some other Colors for Painting Glafs. 842 

41 The vpay of Painting on Glajs. 844 

42 T'2S 


Chap^ Page- 

42 The TMy of Gilding upon Glafs, 4^S 


43 A Dijconrfe of Loohng-Gh.ffcs. 849 

Liher Z^ndecimus. 

Of Varnifhiog, Japanning and Gilding. 

I C)F Injlrtiwents and Utenfils for thofe Worh 854 
^^ 2 Of Materials neccffary for thefe Works* 857 

5 Of and Gum Water. 863 

4 Of waking Varnifhes. S66 

5 Of fome other kinds of F'arnifhes. 871 

6 Of making Japan Varnifhes. 876 

7 Oy making Lackering Varnifhes. 878 
S Of the way and manner of Varnifhing. 880 
(T? Some general Ohjervations in Varnijhing. 881 
loOf Varnifhing Wood withoM Colors. 8S3 

I I Of Dying or Staining Wood, BoneSy Ivory, Ilorns. 885 
ilOf Varnifhing Prints. 887 
1 5 O/" Preparing Woeds for Japanning, 889 
t^ Of JapanningWood ivith Colors, 8^0 

1 jS/^c,^ Japan. ibid 

2 Another Black Japan. 891 
5 Mj/V^ Japan. ^92 

4 ^/(fjy Japan. 893 

5 Common Red Japan. 894 

6 Dffp ^f^ Japan' ibid 

7 P.?/f ^f.i japan. 895 

8 OZ/T/^ Colored Japan. _ ibia 

9 Chejlnm Colored Japan. ' ibid 
.JO //^f/V Lazuli Japan. ^96 



Chapi Page. 

15 of Marhle and Tortoife Shell Ja^an, 8^7 

1 Marhle Jdpan. ibid 

2 Another Marhle Japan^ 8p8 
5 Tortoife Shell Japan. 8pp 

4 Another Tortoife Shell Jaj^fu poo 

5 Another Tortoife SheH Japan, poi 

6 Another Tortoife Shelf Japan. ibid 

16 Of laying Speckles or Stremngs on Japan* ' p02 

17 Of Japanning Metals mthGHntVVatsr. P04 

18 Of Japanning in Gold Siz,e. P05 
ip Of JapAnning mth Gold and Colors. po8 
20 ' 0/ i?;?//f i ^«^ Ewhojfed Worh, p i o 

r^^ F/ry? 1%. ibid 

27?f Second Way. pi 2 

A Third Way. pi 5 

To /ff ofEwhoJl Worh mth Black. pi 4 

To manage Rock Work. pi 5 

21 Of Bantam Work. pi 6 

22 Of taking off' Japan Pattern^. pi 8 

23 Of Gilding in Oil. pip 

24 Of Gilding Wood mth ktirnifht Gold 4nd Silver. p2i 

25 Of Gilding of Metals. P24 

26 Of Gilding and PaintingMczzotmto Prints. p2y 

27 0/ /4)'i»^ Pri^Z-J «p«» C?/^?!?. P30 
To P^iwr Mezzotinto, or Engraved Landskip. p^i 
To Paint a Humane Body. p-^i^ 
To ^aini Drapery. P34 


28. Of making Saalipg -Wax and GUm. p^ 

• The 

The Chara^er^ Explained^ 

gr. A grain. The 20th part of a fcrttpU. 

3/. Half a fcruple. Containing 10 grains, 

3 A fcruple. Containing 20 grains, 

5/. Half a dram. Containing 3 grains, 

3 A dram- Containing 3 fcraples, 

5/. Half an ounce: Containing 4 drams Troy, 

5 An ounce. Containing 8 ^r^srwx 7>«>y, 

M.Halfapound. 0«f4/«%{7''««f^^rr7. 
-^ * ^ s.^ oHnces Averdepit, 

ib A pound. Containing S^i''*''''''^^' , 
*^ 6^16 omces Aver depot z, 

T^ Recipe. Taks or Receive, 

'Jina. Of each a like. viz. alike Weight or Number, 

SSS, Stratum fuper Stratum. Which //, Lay n^onLay, 


Liber Primus. 

o F 




Of Polygraphke in General, 

I. "ta 'polygraphke is an Art (6 much itnirating Nature, aS 
that by proportional Lines, with anl werable Co- 
lours, it teacbeih to reprefent to the Life fand that 
in piano) the Forms of all corporeal things, with 
their refpedive PaiTions. 

This Definition is clear out of the Nature of the Arty {being 
atfi a liberal Art^ as are Arirhmeiick, Geometry, Aftronomy, 
Dialing, Mufick, C^c.) It is [aid to reprefint things in piano, 
to difjtinguijh it from Carving, which is alfi a ^eprefemation of 
tiHtural things with Rotundity and Thicknefs. 

11. It is called, in general, in Greek ]spa(^.nx.ii, in Latin 
PiElura, and in Englilh the Art of Painting. 

IIL It is Sevenfold ftowitj in Drawings Engraving, Etch- 
ings Limning, Painting, Wafhing and Colouring. 

IV. Drawing is that whereby we reprefent the Shape and 
Fcrnj of any cvporeal Swbrtance in rude Lines only. 

V It confifts in Proportion and Paflion, as it bath relation 
I'o motion acd fiiuiiion, in refped of Light and Vificn. K 

B to 

2 Foljigraphices Lib. I. 

to preportioneJ Quantity you add Colour, you will have at length 
the Form and Pcrfcdion of ibc Figure ; fo that wbofoever 
lees it, may be able to (ay, ibis is a Man, that a Peacock^ that 
a Leopard ; and again tb.s is John, tbat Thomas, a ihird ano- 
ther Man, ^c. And by the exad perfoimiug of ib'ie things, 
you may depitfl one Fearful, ano-her Crying and Lamevring^ 
another >^w^r;, another in Love, Sec. and that fo exctllemJy, 
that the Party counterfeited may be thereby eafily known. 

VI. Sanderfjn faith, This admirable Art is the Imitation of 
the Surface of Nature in Colour and Proportion, i. By Ma- 
thematical DamoDir ration. 2. By Chorograpbical Defcrip- 
tion, 3. By Shapes of living Creatures. 4. And by the 
Forms of Vegetable?. Id all which it prefers Likenefs 10 the 
Life, coufcrves it after Death, and this aUogetbcr by the Senfe 
of Seeing. 

VIL The Pr^/fom^w fliews the true length, breadth, or big- 
nefs of any part i'\n known mealuresj in refpedt of the whole, 
»nd how they bear one to another : The Vajjion reprefeuis the 
vifual Quality, in refped of Love or Hatred, Sorrow or Joy. 
Magnanimity or Cowa'dice, Majefty or Humility : Of all 
which things we (hall Tpeak in order. 

VIII. Herein alfo Painting uitfers from Carving ; for t\\t 
Carver s Intent is only co give the relf-lame Quantity to his Fi- 
gure, which his riifiural Pstfern hath, vi:(. equal to the Life 
in Quantity only: VVhri'i-s the Painter, by the help of Colours, 
adds a k:~c! of life to ihc Similitude, and giies not only Q^ati^ 
itty, but a Colourable {{efcviiK'.nce alio. 


Of the Infirumcnls of DrAwmg. 

1. ^He Infltuments of Drawing are Sevenfold, vi:{. Char- 
-■- coals, Feat^prs of a Duck's Wing, Black and Red 

Lead Pencils, Pet,s made of Ravens Quills, Rulers, Compa(- 

ies, and Paftils or Crions. 

II. Charcoals are to be cbofen of Sallow-wood fplit into the 

Form of Pencils, and fliarpned tea point, beirg chiefly known 

hj their PUh la the middle. 


Chap. 2 . The Jvjlrujmnis of Drawing, 5 

Their ufe is to draw lightly the Draught over at firfl, 
that if any thing be drawn amifs^ it may be tvifed out and 

III. The Feathers oiighc to be of a Duck's Wing, ftbough 
others may feive well enoughj with which you may wipeoui 
any Stroke of the Charcoal where it is drawn amifs, kit Va- 
riety of Lines breed Confufion, 

IV. Blacl{ and J^ed Lead Pencils are ro go cv^r your 
Draught the fecond time more exactly, becaufe this will not 
v;ipe out with your Hand when you come 10 draw it over 
with the Pen. 

V. Pens made of Ravens Qaills (but others may ferve; are 
to fini(h the Work : Bat herein you muft be very careful and 
cxacH: i for what is now done amifs there is no altering of. 

VI. The I{ukrs which are of ufe to draw ftralght or per- 
pendicular Lines, Triangles, Squares or Polygons, the which 
you are to ufe in the beginning, till Pradlice and Experience 
may render ibem needlefs, ^ 

VIL CompaJJes made of fine Brafs, with Stee! Points, to 
take in and our> that you may ufe Black or Red Lead at plea- 

Their VCe is fir/} to meafure (by help of a curious Scale of 
e^ual Parts upon the edge of your Bjiler) your Proportions, and 
whether your fVork^ is exaS tvhich is done with the Charcoal. 
Secondly, To draw Circles, Ovals and Arches withal. 

VIII. Pafiils or Crions are made of feveral Colours to 
draw withal upon Coloured Paper or Parchment. Thus, 

Tali^ Plaifier of Paris or Alabafler calcined^ and of the Co" 
lour of which you intend to makf your Paftils withy ana. q. f. 
grind them fir/i a/under, then together^ and with a little Water 
makp them into Pafie i then with your Hands roul them into long 
pieces like Blacky Lead Pencils, then dry them moderately in the 
Air : Being dried, when you ufe them, fcrape them to a point 
like an ordinary Pencil. 

And thus may you make Paflils or Crions of what Co- 
lour you pleafe, fitting them for the Faces of Men or 
iVomen, Landslips, Clouds,. Sunbeams, Buildings, and Sha- 

IX. Another way to make Pafiils or Crions. 

Take Tobaco- pipe Clay, and with a little Water temper 
the fame with wfaatCoIotir you pleafe, making feveral accord- 
ing to the feveral Heights ot Colours you intend j which mix 

B 2 with 

4 Poljigraphkes Lib. I. 

with the faid Tobaco-pipe Clay, fo much as the Clay will 
bear ; work all well together, make or form it into Pajiih or 
CrioNSy and let tbetn dry for ufe. 

X. A Pa/lil or Cr ion for a brown Compleclion. 

Grind on your lione Cerufe, Red Lead, or Vermilion, 
Englifh Oker, ind a lictle Pink ; to this add a proportionable 
quantity of Plailtcr of Paris burnt and finely fifted, or Toba- 
co-pipe Ciay , mix either of tbcra with the faid Colours, and 
then roul them up. Here note, that Cerufe is mixed with 
all the other Colouts alfo. Roul them up upon a Marble 
Stone, and le» them be about the length of a Finger, and 
the thicknefs of a Goofe- Quill. 

XL Tbcle Papii's or Crions being dry, you may fharpen 
them (wben you ufe them) wirh a Pen-knif? to a point, fo 
(harp that you may draw a Hair. The Colour moft difficult 
to work in tl-is kind is Cii'mfon, if you make ufe of Lake, 
tvhicb you may avoid hy making ufe of I{pjfet ; and be fure to 
n-)ix Cerufe wi;b all your other Colours and Shadows whai- 
fotvtr. • 

j^ftsr this manner, with proper Compojjtions, yon may make 
a'S n'lanner 'df bedidtifu! Colours, as Greens for Landskips, and 
Of her Colours, for I{^c!{s, Grrunds, Sk^es, fVai^s, &c. 

XIL j4 Pajlilor Crion for Greens. 

ThcfeCr;Vw are made of Pink and Bice; and Mafticote 
and Small ; and Mafticote and Indico, with which Colours 
you may make them lighter or deeper, as you pleafe ; re- 
membring that where you are ro temper Ibfi or firm Colours, 
as Umber, Ok?r, Indico, G?c you are to take the lefs PUifier 
cf Paris ; but where the Colours are loofe, there bind chem 
ftronger and fafter, by adding more Plaijler cf Paris. 

Xin. ^^nother way to make Pajiils or Crions. 

Take your Colours and grind them very fine upon a Mtr- 
blv% ar-d fife tbern through a fine Tiffany Sieve ; then take a 
piece of Tobaco-pipe Clay, and lay it on your Grinding- 
Stone. and temper it and your Colours together with ftrong 
Ale-V/qrf. Yon muft -be very careful not to make them too 
wet, ;but of an even temper, like moift Clay, to rou! up with 
your Hand upon your Srone : Then take a piece of Paper, 
and dry them in an Oven, after the Bread is taken out ; or 
you may otberwife dry them in a Fire (hovel by degrees till 
they be hard cnourh ; which to know, have a piece of Pa- 
per by you, and try if ihey caft, which if they do, t|iey are 
ppt dry enough j iheh dry them again longer tjli they will not 

■'■■"■ " * c|ai 

Chap. II. The hiflrunients of Drawmg, 5 

ctft i after which uke a Feather, and fome Sallet-Oil, and 
oil ihem lightly over, and lb lay them to dry jgain, nil the 
Oil be drank well into them, whith will make ihem excellenc 
and to work free and ealie. 

XIV. Obferve that ihofe Colovirs which bind bard of them- 
felves, muft be tempered with lefs Tobacco-pipe Clay. More- 
over, TeOow 0)^er burnt, and rouled up into a Paftil or Criori, 
and dried with a moderate Heat ; an'd then being throughly 
dried, and made very warm, and dipp'd idto Lin feed Oil, 
and dried again till the Oil becomes well foaked into it, be- 
comes molt excellenr. This being (hsrpened to a very fine 
point, you may draw admirably withal, and ir will have that 
quality, that wl^it is drawn with ic, although rubbed hard 
with your Finger or Hand, it will not rub off, nor any pare 
of it ftir. And without doubt all the other Colours may be 
made to have the fame Quality. The German Mafters. and 
ihofe of the Loiv-Dutch, made all their Crions wirh that Qua- 
lity not to rub off, but were exireamly neat, brisk, lively, anu 
Clike Oil-painringj very ftrong. 

XV. The way and manner of iifing your Pa/iils or Crions. 

Colour the Paper that you intend to draw on with a Car- 
nation or Flefh-colour, near the Complexion of the Party you 
intend to draw after : Cover the whole Paper with the laid 
Complexion, which is made of Cerufe, Minium, and a littJg 
Yellow Oker ground with a little Gum-Arabick. When you 
prepare thera, make a good number ot various Complexions 
together, it not being worth while to make one at a lime.i 
lay this Ground-colour with a wet Spunge, but lee the Colour 
be fo bound with Gum, that it may not ftir from the Papel" 
by rubbing. This being done, and dry, draw the Ouifcetches 
or firft rough Draught with Coal ; that being as you would 
have it, draw over the fame Lines again more peikAly with 
Red Chalk; then with your feveraJ Paftils or Crions rub in 
your Colours firit, and after, with your Fingers fweeten and 
mix them together, driving and confounding them one into 
another, after the mannpf of Oil-Painters. And becaufe 
many times the Crions will not fiurpen to fo good a Point as 
Black or Red Chalk, you muft be very careful to clofe and 
finilh all your Work at laft with Red and ^lack Chalk, which 
you may Iharpen atpleafure. 

B 3 XVI Ano' 

6 Polygraphkef Lib. I. 

XVI. Another way of Drawing with Paftils or Criota on 
Blue Paper, 

The Ground-colours are to be robbed in firft wicb a Pencil, 
and afterwards with a ttubbed Pencil or your Finger. After 
the fame manner you may work in Parchment exceeding neat- 
ly and fo curioufly, thatac a fmall diiiance they may be taken 
lor Limning. 

XVII. To maJ{e white Paflih or Crions. 

Take Cerufe, or ordinary white Chalk, four Ounces j 
Roach-Allum, two Ounces j grind them together fine, make 
cbem up into a Mafs, burn them in a Crucible, and keep 
them for cife. 

XVIII. To the former add good Copies, Patterns and 
Examples of good Pictures and other Draughts; wiihotic 
which it is almoft impoflible that the young Artilt fiiould ever 
attain to any Perfedion in this Art. 

Thcfe that defire to be ftirnijhed with any excellent Patterns, 
Copies or Prints, may have of all forts, tvhether of. Humane 
Shape y Perfpe^ive, Defign, Lands kips. Fowls, Bea/ls, Infers, 
Plants, Countreys, or any other artificial Figures, exquifitely 
drawuy at very F^eajonable I^tes, where this Book^ is to be 

XIX. Another way to make Paflils or Crions. 

Take Tobaco-pipe Clay, before it is burnt, and grind it 
well with a little weak Gum-water j then add to it Vermili- 
on. Blue Bice, or Tellow Oakfr, or what other Colour you 
pleafe : Let your Gum- Water be very weak, left it bind too 
bard ; make it up into little Rowls, which dry, and fcrape 
each to a Point for ufe, as you need them. 

XX. Another way to do the fame. 

Take a great Chalk-ftone, make deep Furrows in it, two 
or three Inches long, and fo large, that you may lay in each 
a Quill ; then take White Chalk ground very fine, temper \t 
with Oil or Wort, and a little new Milk, and fo make Pap 
thereof; then pour it into the Chalk Furrows, which in a 
fliort time you may take out, and roul them up as you would 
have them ; or otberwife let them lie till they are quite dry, 
«nd then take them out and fcrape them into the Form you 
defire : You may temper Lake, with burnt Alabafler, for a 
Red, and fo for other Colours > bur Colours which bind over" 
liard, mult have a little Water added to thsm in their grind- 

XXI. T. 

Chap. 5. The Precepts of Dratpmg, 7 

XXI. Tt draw with Indian Ink: 

Tbe Out-ftrokes being firtt drawn with Black Lead, fafter 
the Duft of the Charcoal is well bruOid off with a Feather) 
then take a Stick of Indian Ihl^^ of the beft fort, (not that 
which is whitifh and hard within, for that is naught, and will 
not work wellj wet one end of it with Water, or rather with 
your Spittle, which is better, for that h not fo fubjed: to fiok 
into the Paper, which ought to be very good Du(ch Paper 5 
and have ready fix or eight fniall Pencils, of feveral fizes, 
which put en little Sticks two or three inches long, the better 
to hold theiQ. 

XXII. With the one Pencil you isiuft drav7, and with the 
other at the other end of the Stick, you muft, (ii being a lii« 
ile wet with your Spittle) wipe off the hard edge : Begin faiot 
at fii'Itj then (hadow it higher, as you pleafe 3 otberwife, if 
St be too dark at firft, you will be in danger of fpoih'ng your 
Work. The leaft touch of your Pencil on the Indian Ink is 
enough. This manner of Drawing is pleafant and admira- 
ble, and now much in ufe, fetting off the Work very neatly. 
See Lib. 1. Caf.^u Se&. 30. of this Work. 

Of the Precept i^ of Drawing in General. 

1. HE fure to have all the Neceflaries aforefaid in readineftj 
but it will be good ropradife as much as may be with- 
out the help of your Rule and Compaffes : It is your Eye and 
Fancy mult judge without artificial Meafurings. 

II. Then firfl begin with ^lain Geometrical Vigttres, as Lines, 
Atjgles, Triangles, Quadrangles, Polygons, Arches, Circles, 
Ovals, Cones, Cylioders, and ib? like. For thefe are the 
Foundations of all other Proportions. 

III. The Circle helps in all orl^'ular Forms, asintbeSun^' 
Moon, ^c. the Oval in giving uft Proportion to the Face 
And Mouth ■-, the Mouth of a s or Well, the Foot of a 
Glafs, (§c. the Square con'ines tb P.dure you are to copy,^c, 
the Triangle in the half Face i tbe Polygon in Ground-plats, 
Fortifications, and the like 3 Angles and Arcbet in Perfpedive^ 

B 4 ih« 

8 Poljigraphices Lib. 1. 

iht Cone in Spires, Tops of Towers tnd Steeples* the Cjlifr 
der in Columns, Pillars, Pilalkrs, <and their Ornaments. 

IV. Having made your Hand Bt and ready in general Pro- 
portions, then learn to give every Object its due Shade, ac- 
cording to its Convexity or Concavity, and to elevate or de- 
prefs ibc fame, as the Object appears either nearer or farther 
off the Light, the which is indeed the Life of the Work. 

V. Thefecond PraHiceof Drawing confifts in forming Fruits, 
as Apples, Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Grapes, Strawberries, 
PL-afcods, (^c. with their Leaves ; the Imitation of Flowers, 
as Rofes, Tulips, Carnations, C^c. Herbs, as Rofemary, Tyme, 
Hyfop, (^c. Trees, as the Oak, Fir, Afh, Walnut, (^c. 

VI. The third PraHice of Drawing imitates^ i.BeaBs, as 
the Lamb, Elephant, Lion, Bear, Leopard, Dog, Cat, Buck, 
Unicorn, Horfe, (^c. i. Fowls, as the Eagle, Swan, Parrot, 
Partridge, Dove, Raven, (^c. 3. Fi/kes, as the Whale, Her- 
ring, Pike, Carp, Thornback, Lobfter, Crab, (^c. Of which. 
Variety of Prints may be bought at I^eafonable I{ates. 

VII. The fourth Praxis imitates the Body of Man with all 
its Lineaments, the Head, Nofe, Eyes. Ears, Cheeks, Hands, 
Arms, and Shadows, all exactly proportional both to the 
whole) and one to another, as well to (ituation as magni- 

VIII. The fifth Praxa n in Drapery, imitating Cloathing, 
and artificially fetting oS the outward Coveriegs, Habits and 
Ornaments of the Body, as Cloth, Stuff, Silk and Linen, their 
natural and proper Folds; which, although it may feem fome- 
thinghard to do, yet by much Exercife and Imitation of the 
cboiceft Prints will become facile and cade. 

IX. In drawing of all the aforegoing Forms, or whatever 
elfe, you muft be perfeifl, firft, in the exadt Proportions ; fc- 
condly, in the general or outward Lines, before you fall to 
(hadowing or trimming your Work within. 

X. In mixed and uncertain Forms, where Circle and Square 
wili do tjo good fbut only the Idea thereof in your own Fan- 
cy] as in Lions, Horfes, and the like ^ you mufk work by Rea*^ 
fon in your own Judgment, and fo obtain the true Proportion 
by daily Pra(5lice. Thus, 

Having the Shape of the thing in your Mind, firfl drattr it 
rudely tpith your Coal, then mtre exaflly with ynur Lead or Pen- 
cil ; then ferufe it well, and confidcr where you have erred, and 
mend it, according to th^t Idea trhich you carry in ycur Mind. 
This done, view it again, correHtng by degrees the other Parts, 


Chap. 3. The Precepts of Drawing, 9 

even to the lea/i Iota, fo far as your Judgment will inform you i 
and this you may do ttf it h twenty j thirty, forty, or niore Papers, 
of fever al things at once. Having done what you can. confer it 
with fome exceSent Pattern or Print of likf kind, ufing no ^tile 
fir Compafs at aB, but your own ^afony in mending every Faulty 
giving every thing its due place^ and Jufi Proportion ; By this 
means you may reHifie aU your Errors, andjiepan incredible way 
on to Perfe^ion. 

XI. Having then good Patterns and Copies to draw by, 
the young Artilt muft learn to reduce them to other Propor- 
tions, either greater or fmaller, and this by often and a:! any 
Trials (as we Ihall hereafter more particularly teach) this re- 
quires great Judgment j for in a Cut, you (hall find neither 
circumfcribiog Strokes, nor difference between Light and 
Light, or Shadow and Shadow : Therefore ferious Obferva- 
tions are required in the Sight of thofe things, whether con- 
ing forwards or ^oing backwards. 

XIL The drawing after Plaifler-work, done by Skilful 
Mafters, as the Gladiator and Children of Prancifco, the Rape 
of the Sabine Women, the Wraftler, the Venus of Greece, 
Hercules, Hermes^ Anatomical Difledlions, and other Pieces 
of Antiquity, are main and neceffary Introdudions to attain 
a Perfe<flion ia Drawing after the Life. 

Xin. This done, let the young Artifl now begin to exer- 
eife in Drawing after the Life i ((or that is the compleateft, 
beft, and moft perfe<5t Copy, which Nature has fei for Ob- 
fetvationj wherein the Liberty of Imitation is prefented in 
the largeft latitude ; and this muft be attained by much Pra- 
diice abd diligent Exercife, adjoining the Inflru(5tions of a 
good Mafter. 

XIV. In this Pradiice of Drawing let there be a Perfetflion 
attained, before ever there be the leaft Thoughts of Colours or 
Painting ; for that afterwards ail things belonging to Paint- 
ing, will io a Ihori lime be eafily and perfe(Aly underflood. 


10 Polygraphhes Lib. L 


Of Fartknlar OhfcrvatiofTj in the Art of Drawbig, 

I. IN drawing after a Print or P ilure, put it va fuch a Light, 
■*• as that the GJofs of the Colours binder not your Sigbr, fa 
as that the Light and your Eye may equally and obliquely fall 
upon your Piece; wbicb place at fucb adiftance.tbai at open- 
ing of your Eyes you may view it all at once ; the greater 
your Pidlure is, the further off you nauft place it to draw af- 
ter ; the which you malt always be fure to pat right before 
you, a tittle reclining. 

IL Obferve to draw all your Out-lines at firft very faint 
with a Coal, becaufe, if amifs, you may rub tbem out with 
the Feathers of a Duck's Wing, or a bit of Bread, and fo 
inend the Fault the more eafily, which, if you lean hard, and 
draw very black, will be more difficultly rubbed out. Thefe 
Out-lmes muft be drawn true and agreeable to the Pattern, 
before you begin to Ihadow any part of it. The Out-lines 
next the Light draw very fofi and faint ; and having drawn 
one Feature, let it be a Diredlion for you in fome meafure to 
draw another, by obferving with your Eye fand being alfo 
guided by your Reafonj the diftance from that to the next 
Feature, rowing a fmall Mark at the Place with your Coal, 
and then draw it, and fo the next, till the whole Figure is de- 

III, Then obferve the middle of your Pitfture to be co- 
pied, which touch upon your Paper with the point of your 
Coal ; then obferve the moft perfpicuous and uppermoft Fi- 
gures (if more than one.) which touch gently in their pro-" 
per Places : Thus running over the whole Draught, you will 
fee the Skeleton, as it were, of the Work. 

Bta if you go on without thefe Confiderationi, wbereunto your 
Draught tpiB tend or run j when having ended your fVorki you 
ttiU be forced to draw the fame many times over and over again, 
and it may bey every time to as little furpofe • by the tedioufnefs 
of which, your Ingenuity Will be dulled. 

IV. Be fecure of a right and true Draught, though you 
do it flowly ; what you think may be done in two or three 
Hoars, u will be better to beftow two or three Days upon ; 
hy this means (though yoit ad leifurely, yet you will adt 


Chap. 4. T^e Art of Drawing, I j 

prudently, and) you will both fooner and better than can be 
imagined, attain the Peffe<flion of what you delire, 

V. Tfaefe OttC-sketcbcs being made, view them diligeatly, 
whether they anfweryour Pattern apparently ; for the Geftures 
of the Life oughc to (hew themfeives eminently io the firft 
and rudeii: Draughts thereof s without which, be fure your 
Work will be faulty, 

VI. Having liewed ifaefe Sketches, begin to correct ard 
amend them (where you find them atKifs) and gradatim by 
adding or diminilhing a little here and there, as you lee ii 
differ from your Pattern, you will briog it neater and nearer 
to the Life. 

VII. Obferve the diflance of one Mufcle, or Joint, or Limb 
to another, and the fame in all other Accidents of the Figure ; 
their Thicknefs, Bignefs, Length, Breadth, Windings, Turn- 
ings, Shadows, CS»c. Shadow nest to the Light very faintly ; 
and where you fee bold and free Touches, be not fearful in 
exprefling the fame. In drawing a Head by the Life, or o- 
therwife, obferve to place your Features exac5tly right upon 
the Crofs Lines, whether it be a foil Face, or a three quarter 
Face, as you may fee in the Examples. In Forejhorting, there 
make the Crofs Lines to fiy upwards, where they look up- 
wards ; but bending downwards, io a circular manner, where 
the Afpedl is downwards. And having the Out-lines true 
made by a Coal, you rauft then proceed to trace over again 
the fame Lines with a Pen, drawing them more exactly ; and 
by imitating all tbeHsl:hes, with their exad Diitances one 
from another, their crofTings, turnings, and winding, with 
much boldnefs and freedom perfei^ your Def:gn. 

This with a Charcoal you mayeafiiy do, becaufi you may toi^ 
away what is amip. 

VIII. In drawing after Piaifterand Embofled Works, choofe 
a good North-light, which let defcend from above, not dila- 
ting or fcattering it felf too much, by which you may the 
more pteafantly ftiade your Work. 

If theI{pom has a South'light^ fut oiled Paper h/ore the.^irf 
dow I or if you draw by Candle-light, have a Lamp fioaded with 
oiled Paper ; for a Candle will grow lower and lower, which c&ti- 
fes the Shades to change, all which you avoid in a Lamp, 

IX. Then fet your felf down about three tims'S as far 
from the Pattern as the Pattern is high, fo as your Eyes in a 
direct Line may vkw the fame ; then with a Plurrjb line oh' 
ferve what Parts of your Pattern appear to. you, by the 


1 2 Folygraphims Lib. I. 

exieodiog ftreigbc thereof, and how one under another they 
come in Sight, and accordingly make your fundamental 
Sketches, as we have jud before taught. 

X. In drawing the Mufcles of a Humane Body, you muft 
firft have either the Life, or very good Patterns made either 
of Plailter, or diawn in Pi(3:ures, enough of which are to be 
found in Aoatomical fiooks, but chie% the Book of Jacob 
Vander Gracbt, compleaied with many Varieties and Curio- 
iities ; from wheoce the Alterations and Changes, RiHog and 
Falling, Exteniion and Contraction, and other Operations of 
the Mufcles, Arteries, and particular Members, are in Imita- 
tion of the Life excelletuly depided. 

XI. In drawing after a naked Body, all the Mufcles are 
not fo plainly to be exprelfed as in Anatomical Figures ; but 
that fide whofe Parts are moft apparent and Hgoificant in the 
performing of any A<5tion, muft more or lefs appear accord- 
ing to the Force of that Action. 

XII. In young Perfons the Mufcles muft not manifeftly ap- 
pear fo hard, as in elder and full grown Perfons ^ the fame 
obferve in fat Men, and fleOiy, aid fuch as are very delicate 
and beautiful. And in Women you muft fcarcc express any 
St all, becaufe that in the Life they cither appear not at 
all, or very little, unlefs it be particularly in feme force- 
able Adlion ; and then you muft reprefent them but very 
faintly, left you fpoil the fingular Beauty of the Body. The 
like obferve in little Children. 

XIII. In drawing of ihefe Mufcles the Moiion of the whole 
Body is to be coofidered i in the rifing or falling of the Arms, 
the Mufcles of the Breft more or lefs appear ; the Hips the 
]ike, according as ihey bend oatward or inward ; and the 
fame chiefly in the Shoulders, Sides, and Neck, according to 
the feveral Adions of the Body : All which Alterations are 
lifft to be obferved in the Life. 

XIV. The Width and Largenefs of the Picture is alfo to 
be confidered j about the Legs and Garments below it flioutd 
be larger, fliewing it flcnder above, as it were Pyramidal- 
wife, by difcovering one Shoulder, and hiding the other, 
which is fliortned by turning the Bofiy. 

XV. But fometimes the Figure is to be reprefented biggeft 
in the upper Parts, by reprefenting either both the Shoulders, 
or both the Arms, fhewing the one Leg and biding the other, 
or both of them, after one fort, as the Dilcrttipn of the Ar- 
tift Oiall fee meet. 

XVI. N i- 

Chap. 5. The Imitation of the Life. 15 

XVI. Neither ought this to be obferved only ip the whole 
Body, but even in every Part ^ To that in the Legs, when a 
Mufcie is raifed outwards on the ooe fide, that which anfwers 
diredlly on the contrary fide muft be drawn in and hid, for fb 
it appears in the Life. 

XVIL The Proponion of the Figure ought to be multipli- 
ed by degrees in proportion of one to two, three, four, ^c. 
For herein the chief Skill coafilieth ; the Diaoaeier of the 
biggeft Place between the Kaee and the Foot, is double to the 
lealt } and the largelt part of the Thigh triple. 

C H A P. V. 

Of the Imitation of the Life. 

L |N order hereunto it will be neceflary (having fixed a coo- 
~*^ venient Time and Place) to cboofe a good Matter, with 
whom you may fpend two Days in a Week at leaft ; or elfe a 
Society of about half a fcore or a dozen young Men, who 
are experienced to draw after the Life, by the Advice and 
Example of whom, and your own diligent Obfervations and 
Care, you may come sot only to mend one anothers Faults, 
but alfo one anothers Judgments, 

IL Then choofe a well-lhap'd Man, one of large Shoul- 
ders, of a fair Breaft, ftrongly mufcled, full Thighs, long 
LegSj and of a proportionable height, not too tall nor too 
ihort, nor too thick nor too ilender, but a Perfon every ways 
of an admirable Shape. 

IIL Let this Exenaiplar be made to (land in a good Pofture, 
reprefentiug iome noble Action of the Life, letting the Head 
turn it felf to the right fide if the left be Ihadowed j and con- 
trariwife, making the Pans of the apparent Shoulder fome- 
wfaat higher than that which is obfcured ', and the Head, if 
it looks upwardS) leaning no farther backwards than that the 
Eyes may be feen ; and in the turning of it, let it move no 
farther than that the Chin may only approach the Shoulder ; 
making alfo the Hip on that fide the Shoulder is loweft, a Ut- 
ile to ftick cat , and that Arm foremoft, where the Leg is 
iiehind, apd cpRtr;jfiwire, 

IV. The 

14 Polygraphkef Lib. I. 

IV. Th^fame yoa naaft obferve in all four-footed BeaftsJ 
and this generally to make tbe Limbs crofs-wife to cohere to~ 
gether ; and in the turning of it forward, backward, up- 
ward, downward, fideways, ever lo counterballance it by 
tbe Oppofition of other Pans, tbe right Knowledge of which 
is a great Step to tbe Imitation of the Life. 

V. This done, let him, whofe turn it is to begin, firfl: 
sketch on tbe Paper his own Idea's fbeing fixed in a conve- 
nient Place and Light, as in the former ChapterJ wherein you 
muft endeavour to make every part to agree with the whole, 
firft, in Form ; fecondly, in Proportion j thirdly, in Acflion. 
After this begin again, running over your Draught, bring it 
to a Conciulion, as we fliill hereafter teach you. 

VI. Obferving always, that after you have sketch'd your 
whole Figure, that you choofe a Part (which you moft defire 
to finifh) to perfed; the fame, in regard that with the reft 
ftands in a good pofture j the Reafon is, becaufe Time will 
not always eafily permit to finifli or compleat a whole Figure, 
unlefs it be with expert Artifts ; it being much better to per- 
itt\ a part than to leave the whole imperfetit, which as each 
Pradiitiorer arrives and draws nearer to perfcdion, be may 
with (o much tbe more boldnefs, fecurity, and certitude, at- 
tempt the com pleating of the whole. 

VII. You are alfo to confider after what mantier you would 
have your figure to be feen, whether upon even Ground, or 
from alofc ; far accordingly you muft make the poliiion of 
your Exemplar. 

VIII. Let the young Artift alfo, at his Conveniency, fome- 
iimes view the Country, and pradiife upon the drawing of 
Landskips, as much reprefenting Nanire (i. in rheir diliance, 
2. in their mutual pofition, 3. in vifible afpeif^) as po/fible 
may be : By this means he will come to have a general and 
compleat Underftandicg in the Uoiverfal Meafures of all 

IX. In drawing of the Face confider tbe Circumference 
thereof, and whether it be round or long, fat or lean, great 
or fmall, fo that ye be fure in tbe firtt place to take rightly tbe 
dimeniions and bignefs of the Face. In a fat Face you muft 
make the Cheeks to fwell out, and lb make the Face look as 
if it were fquare. If it be neither too fat nor too lean, it 
will be round, for the moft part ; but if it be a lean Face, 
tbe Jaw-bones will ftick out, and the Cheeks fall in, and the 
Face will be loDg.aod thin cr flender. 

^ X. Ob- 

Chap. 5. The Imitation of the I^ife» 1 5 

X. Obferve, when you draw the outmoft Circumference of 
a Face, to take the Head and all with it, oiherwHe you may be 
deceived in drawing the true bjgnefs of a Face j and thea 
you muft judicioufly confider and view all the gentle Master- 
touches, which give the Spirit and Life to a Face, and diico' 
ver the Grace,- Affedioos and Difpoiitions of the Miad, 
wherein lies the £xcellency of the Art, and Glory of the 

XI. A fmiling Countenance is differenced in the corners of 
the Mouth, when they turn up a little: A ilaid and fober 
Countenance in the Eyes, when the upper Eye- lids come fome- 
wbac over the Balls of the Syes. A frowning Countenancs 
in the Forehead, by the bending of the Eye-brows, and fome 
few Wrinkles between the two Eye-brows about the top of 
thf! Nofe. 

XII. A laughing Countenance is from the unfverfal Cous- 
poiition of the whole Face -, fo alfo an angry Countenance, 
which is difcerned by extraordinary frowning. There are 
alfo fome touches about the Eyes and Mouth, which you muft 
diligently obferve, thereby giving a kind of Life and Spirit 
to your Draught. 

XIII. A graceful Poftu re is a mighty thing to be oblerved 
in every Pidlure, that all things be exprels'd with proper 
Adions ; to wit, in their true and natural Motions, accord- 
ing to the Life and Spirit of it. In a Kj»g exprefs Majefiy^ 
by defigning him in fuch a graceful Pofture as may caufe the 
Spe(flators to behold him with Reverence. A Soldier exprefs 
in fuch a Pofture as befpeaks the greateft Courage, Boldnefs, 
iand Valour. Make a Clown in a fordid and clownilh Po- 
iiure. A Servant or Page as one waiting with the utmoft di» 
Jigence. And in all your Draughts make the inward AfFedli- 
ons of the Mind to be lively exprels'd in the outward Adtions, 
Motions, and Geftures of the Body. 

XIV. But to attain to the exquifite Knowledge of thefe 
things you muft diligently obferre the Works of the moft fa- 
mous Mafters, and ftrive to imitate their Examples, who of a 
long time had accuftomed themfelves to draw all Varieties 
of Geftures and Poftures j as the Adions of Wraftlers, fight- 
irg at Cuffs, Stage-players, Fencers, the inticing Allurements 
of Curtizans , riding the Great Horfe, Turnaments , C^<?, 
vyherein the Motions of the Eyes and Hands, and the Car- 
riage of the whole Body, are exadly to be reuarked, if you 
would in your Drawings exprefs any thing to the Life. 


1 6 ^ Polygraphices Lib. I. 

XV. But thit this may appear the more natural, and not 
forced, you muft oblerve in your Draught a kind of Carelef- 
se(s and Loofenefs, cbac the fiady b^ not made ftiif in any 
part, but that every Joint may have irs proper Bendings, that 
the intention of the Figure may not be lame, and the Joints 
as It were ftarch'd, but that every Limb may have its pro- 
per Freenefs and Loofenefs, agreeable with the natural Life 
of the Pidure. 

XVL That every thing may thus naturally accord, yoa 
muft often and diligently alfo obferve the Life. Should you 
draw a Man turning his Head over his Shoulders, you muft 
not turn or wind more than Nature will admit i nor muft 
any other Adtion be forced beyond, or made to come fhort 
of the Limits of Nature, yet it ought to be quickned ro the 
bigheft pitch. As if you were to draw a Man fighting, ei- 
ther ro ftrike, or avoid the Stroke of his Enemy ; in Run- 
ning, Wrattling, Leaping, (£c. be fure you do not fo much 
overdo Nature, as to exprefs a Pofture which cannot be imi- 
tated with his natural Body. 


Of the Jmitation of Draughts. 

L "T He Learner muft, by many and often Trials, get a Ha- 
^ bit of Imitation ; which if it be to be done with the 
Pen, beware of fcratching and making bin and lean Stroaks, 
but rather broad, which you fliall draw from above, down* 
wards ; but according to the Shades, fome of the Hatches 
muft be fharp, fome broad, fome unequal, and fome equal, 

II. Hold your Pen or Pencil fomcw hat long, fand not fo up- 
right as when you write J leeming as though you laid it ftraight 
forward ; and if they be Paftils, accnftom your felf to turn 
them in your Hand j by this means you will prevent their 
becoming fo foon blunt, and they wearing to a point may ferve 
without fcraping the making of a whole Draught. 

III. In fhadowing of your Draught, you muft firft begin 
to do it faintly and fmoothly, and ftraight againft the edges of 
the Light, io that it may lock as if it had been da(h'd wiih a 
Brulh- Pencil i and theu here and there over(hadow it again in 


Chip. 6, The Imitation of Draughts, ij 

the darkeft Shades farther out, and adoro it with Hatchings » 
and where any thing more is required, put the fame in nim- 
bly and clearly by gentle touches, the which will add a great 
Grace unto your Work. 

IV. Doefling (which is a certain blfmeering of the Work) 
is to be done with Crions of Red or Black Chalk, touching 
the Draught eafily all over fmoothly and evenly with the points; 
thereof, and not with Cotton or the like put up into Quills, as 
fome ufe j though that may be done in fome Cafes, as where 
one Work is to be brought into another. 

V. If Copies be taken fcbiefly upon coloured Paper) to 
make it curious and neat, let the edges of the faeightning be 
fmoothed a little fn&t with Cotton, but) with the like colou- 
red Paper routed up to a (harp point at one end, and by this 
means you will take away the (harpnefs and hardnefs of your 
edges, and make them lock fweet and pleafanr. 

VI. In Performance of thefe things a certain kind of Wash- 
ing is fometimes neceffary, performed with Pencils dipp'd in 
fome coloured Liquor, and fo laid upon coloured Paper •, and 
this to be done either through the whole Work, or in a part 
thereof, to wit, in fome principal flat Shades, which may be 
afterwards loofly wrought over with a Pen or Black Chaik, 
the which \^ill look very pleafafltly. 

VII' This Wafliing mutt be fii-ft done very weak aftd faints 
yet fmooth (without fmcoihing of it at the edges, except by 
a new Stroak of ycvir Pericil moiftened with your Tongue ; 
for much fmootbing will fpoil yoUr Workj this lirft Walhing 
being dry, go over again with your Work, yet only thofe 
Parts where there ought to be a darker Shade 5 and after- 
wards again give fome deeper and harder touches without 
fmootbing, the which will very much fet your Work off. 

VIII. Faint Shadows, and Things obfcure, muft be pre^- 
fented as faintly as may be, ehiefiy upon coloured Paper, 
where the heightning helps you ; but beware you go not too 
often over your Shades, left you fpoil them, by making them 
too bard and ill-favoured. 

IX. In Drawing, whether it be after a Draught or ibc 
Life, firft obfervE the thing in general, inrefpe(5lof the cif- 
cumfererit Strokes ; for thenti are they which bound and con- 
tain all the parts of the whole, and wirbout which the parri- 
cular Pans can never be perfecllly diftingaifhed, norreprefenc 
theinfelVes in their Being : This done, then confider in hkc 
ftlinner the Part^, and fuppofjag the parts each to be a vvhbki 

1 8 Volygraphices Lib. I. 

you may come to reprcfeni the parts of parts, and by the fame 
Means to exprefs the whole of any Draught whatfoever. 


Of Dramng the Face of a Man* 

I. IN drawing of the Face you are firft to obfcrve its 
■*■ lion, whether upwards, downwards, forwards, or 

ways ; whether it be long or round, fat or lean, great or lu- 

IB or if it he fat i the Cheeks will feem to fwcll ; if lean, the 
Jaw-hones will fiicl{_out, and the Cheel(s fall in i hut if neither 
too fat nor too lean, it will he for the mrfi part round. 

II. Touch lightly the Features where the Eyes, Mouth, 
Note, and Chin fliould ftand, (having firft drawn the Circle 
or Oval of the FaceJ then make a tlroke down from that 
place of the Forehead which is even with the Chin, coming 
down where you (hould place the middle or tip of the Nofe, 
and middle of ihe Mouth, which ftroak murt be made 
ftraight down in a full right Face, but arched or oval in an 
oblique Face, leaning that way towards which ihe Face doth 
lurn ; then crofs the fhoke about the middle of the Eyes, ci- 
ther with a ftraight Line in a right Face, or with a curved, 
cither upwards or downwards, according to the prefent adii- 
on or pofture of the Face ; then make another anfwerable to 
that, where the end of the Nofe (hould ccme ', and another 
for the Mouth, that it be not made crooked, 

III. This Crofs is difficult to be underfticod in piano ; but 
upon a Face made upon a fclid Body, in form or fhape of an 
Egg, the feveral Variations of the faid Crofs are moft excel- 
lently demonftrated ; and from hence may the Learner un- 
derftand all the Alterations of a Face, and thereby draw it 
ftU manner of ways, as fideways, upwards, downwards, for- 
wards, backwards, C^c, and ihtt only by the motion of the 
faifi cval folid, accordingly as in the following Figures you 
may eafily perceive. 

IV. Then if the Face look upwards towards Heaven, or 
downwards toward^ the Earth, let the Eyes, Nofe, Moutb, 
and Brows look accordingly with it j and now proceed to 
the placing of the F6atuic:«. V. In 

Ciiclp. 7. JDraw'wg the Face of a Man. id 

V. In a juft proportioned Face, the diftances, i. betvveeri 
the top of the Forehead and the Eye-brows j 2. between the 
Eye-brows and the bottom of the Nofe j 3. between the bot- 
tom of the Nofe and the bottom of the Chin are equal. 

Vi. In drawing the utmoft Circumference of a Face, take 
in the Head and all wiih ir, left you be deceived in drawing 
the true bigoefs. 

VII. Then confider all thofe chief Touches which give Life 
to a Face, adding Grace thereto, and fomething diicovefing 
the Difpofiiion of the Mind. 

So the Mouth extended, and the corners a little turnmg upt 
/hews a fmiling Countenance ; the Eye-brotif bending^ and the 
Forehead and top of the Nofe bettveen the Eye-brews wrinkjed^ 
/hews one frorvmng j the tipper Eye lid coming fomething over the 
Ball of the Eye, floews one fiber and Stayed j tinth many other 
touches, which give Life and Spirit to a Face, ^which in good 
Prints, by little and little, and diligent Obfervation jou will 4t, 
laj} find out. 

VIII. The diftances between the Eyes, is the length of one 
Eye in a full Face, but in a three quarter or half Face ic is lef- 
fenedj proportionably j and exacSiy underneath the corners of 
the Eyes place the Noftrils. 

IX. Having given touches where the Eyes, Nofe, MouiEi 
•tnd Cfaitj fliould be placed, begin to draw them more esadl- 

, iy, and fo proceed till the Face be finiflied •, and then make 
liie Hair, Beard, Shadows, and other things about ir. 

X. Be fure to make the Shadows rightly, and ba fuie not 
to make them too dark, where they fliould be faint ; for tbae 

' Can never be made light again, and fo the whole Face is 
toarr'd. * 

7 be Shadofvi are fainter and lighter in a fair Facel than in d 

XI. When you have finilhed the Face, give here and there 
fome hard touches with your Pen where the Shadows are 
darkeft J then come the Ears and Hair, wherein, having 
drawn the Out-line, draw the principal Curls, or Matter- 
ftrokes in the Hair," which will be a Guide to you in the lel« 
fer Curls, whofe Dependance are on them ^ always make the 
Curls to bend exadlly, according to the Pattern, that they 
may lie loofe, or carelefly, and not as if they were ftifF and 
forced ; the Curls being rightly drawn, id the laft place 
i^rike in the loofe Hairs which hang fcatteringly out of the 
Girckf, • . . , 

20 Poljigraphkef Lib. I* 

XII. In forming the Ear, defcribe ab Oval as u were, dnd 

proceediog ligbily, join ftroke to ftroke, in fuch manner as 
jou fee in the Figures j lb tbac the Ear may be entirely for- 
med, without digreffing from the Bounds of Nature or Art. 

XIII. Ltftly , having pradifed a little by Rule , and 
brought your band in j in drawing of any thing, firft ftrike 
the Oui-flrokes, principal Veins and Mufcles lightly, and af- 
terwards fliadow them, ever following exquifiie Patterns and 
Prints, which will both encreafe your Judgment, and bring 
Command to your Hand. 


Of Draroing the Extreme Farts, 

I. IN drawing the Hands, draw not all the Joints, Veins, 

-^ or other things to appear plainly, but only lightly and 
faintly, and iirike out the bignefs of the Hand and the man- 
ner of its turning with faint touches, and not with hard 

If.Then that being done right,part the Fiogers,according to 
the Pattern , with like faint ftrokes ; then mark that place 
where any of the Fingers do Hand out from the others,witb a 
faint Refemblance. 

III. This done, proceed to draw it more perfedly, ma- 
king the bending of the Joints, the Wrifts, and other princi- 
pal things, more ezadly ; and laftly, go over with it again, 
drawing every fmall bending or fwelling of the Fingers.Nails, 
Knuckles and Veins, fo many as do appear. 

VI.Learn by good Prints the juft Proportions of the Hands, 
with their equal diftances, obferving this Rule, that accord- 
ing as it turns one way or another, to (horten proportionally 
as they appear to the Eye. 

For fo much as it turns away from our Eye, fo much it lofet 
in proportion, yea fimetimes a whole Finder, two, or three, or 
more, is loft to our Sight, which you muft accordingly anfwer in 
your Draught. 

V. In drawing of the Feet, the fame Rules which we 
even now enumerated, at the firft and fecond Sedion of ibis 
Chapter, are to be underftood here. 


Chap. 9' Of Drawing the whole Body, 21 


Of Drawing the whole Body, 

I. Tjlrft begin with the Head, and be fure to give it irs juft 
*■ Proportion, anfwerable to what you intend the whole 
Body (hall bej then draw the Shoulders in their exad breadth, 
after them the Trunk of the Body, beginning at the Arm-pits, 
and fo drawing down to the Hips on both fides, obferving 
withal the exadl breadth of the Wafte j laftly, draw the 
Legs, Arms, and Hands, exadly to your Pattern. 

II. But iirft draw with a Coal, and that very lightly and 
faintly, drawing nothing perfed fthat you may the ealier 
mend it if it be amifs) and then afterwards finifh one thing 
after another as cariouQy as you can. 

IIL Let the parallel Sinews, Mufcles, Veins and Joynts, be 
placed oppofite one to another in a ftraigh: line fas Shoulder to 
Shoulder, Hip to Hip, Knee to Knee, Sc.) for which purpofe 
draw iiraight crofs lines to guide you therein ; obferving that 
which way foever the Body turns or bows, ihefe Lines may 
anfwer accordingly. 

IV. Let all perpendicular Joints, and Parts alfo, be placed 
in a right line one under another (as they are in your Pattern) 
for which end, draw a ftraight line (if the Body be ftraightj 
from the Throat thorow the middle of the Breft and Privi- 
ties, to the Feet, to which line draw all ihofe particular Points, 
parallels, that the Body may not appear crooked or awry, 

V. In bowings and bandings of the Body , let the extube- 
ranceof the outward part be juft equal to the compreilion of 
the inward part, making all things of an equal proporiion, 
that as oppofite parts may be equal fas the Arm to the Arm, 
Leg to Leg, ^c.) fo every part may be proportionable to each 
other, fas the Hand not too big for the Arm, nor the Aim 
for the Body, nor the Body fo^ the Legs, ^c.) only with this 
difference, that (as the one part may appear fully to the Eye, 
or the other may turn away either in part or in whole, or be 
leen fide-wayj it be made fo much lefs than the other, by fo 
much as it turns away from the Sight. 

VI. As you obferve a juft proportion in bignefs, fo alfo in 
length, that as every oppofite part may not be too long one 
for another, but according to the propofed magnitude \ An*^^ 

C $ in 

2,2 Volygraphkes Lib. I. 

in this cafe, that if the Body be awry, or any ways bid, tholq 
parts miy fliorten accordingly, to what is out of fight. 

VII. O'oferve the jult diitance of one thing from another, 
for by that means you will be rr.ore exad in your Draught, 
and in fliort time perfedlly itairaie your Pattern or Nature. 

VIII. If you be to draw a labouring Man, you tnuft, 
without any regard of the Seafon, reprefcnt hiai with railed 
jLimbs, and llrong Mufcles fwelling and {tandiijg forth, fweat- 
ing and burning, elpecially in fuch as carry Burt'iens, draw 
great Weights, or ufe veh-'tnent Leaping, Walking, Jetting 
with Weapons, Fencing, and luch-like EKcrcifes. 

IX. Lallly, But to luch as are fleeping, you rauft be care- 
ful to give no fuch kind of Adions in their lying, as will not 
in probability give them leave lo fleep; for being leprefented 
with their Limbs or Bodies .Supported by their own force, and 
not by the help of another thing, it fiiews the Weaknefs anci 
Indifcretion of the Artift. 

C H A P. X. 

Of Dramng a leaked Body. 

|. |N Drawing after the Life, as there are Variety of Faces^ 

-■- fo no certain Rules can be delivered for the fame; yet 
the following Precautious may be ufeful. 

II. Di AW out the Head in an oval, one fourth pan for the " 
Hair, one fourth p*rt for the Forehead and Brows, one fourth 
for the No^e, and the Uft for tht Mouth and Chin. 

in. Having drawn out the Head, meafure out eight times 
the leng'h of the H?ad (the Head making one of the eight 
Parts) and draw a (Vraight Line from the lo^ of the Head to 
?he fole of the Foot. 

IV One Head's length from the Chin is for the Er-aft ; the 
next (ighih part rcacfaeih to the Navel, the fourth part to the 
Pi;v:ries, the fifth part to the middle of the Thigh, the fixth 
part to the lower part of the Knee, the feventh to the fmall 
of the Leg, and the eighth part to the Heel. 

V. The Mufcles you muft obferve to draw exadlly as they 
•re in the Life » the breadth of the Shoulders is about two 
meaforesof the Head} the breadth of the Hips cwo meafures 


Chap. 10. Of Dramffg a Naked Body. 23 
of the Face j the Arms ftretched out are juft the length of 
the whole Figure, the Breafts alfo accounted j but without 
the Breatts they are but fix. 

VI. The Arms hanging ftraight down reach within a Span 
of the Knee j the length of the Hand is the jult length of the 

VII. Obferve firft to draw the Head exadly, and next, 
the Shoulders in their juft breadth j then draw the Trunk of 
ifae Body, and the reft as at the firft Sedion of the oinih 

VIII. Be fure to place the Joints, Sinews, and Mufcles in 
their natural Places, and alfo proportionately, in refpedt of 
Magnitude, Similitude, and Parts, leB: it feem crooked and 

IX. See that every parallel Joint bend moderately, fo as 
to anfwer in Nature its oppofite. 

X. Laftly, It will be extreamly advantageous to draw ve- 
ry much afcer the Life, and after good Prints of Anatomy, 
and Statues and Anatomies made of Plaijier of Pari:, which 
is the only way to arrive at the perfedlion of drawing a na- 
ked Figure well, and without which indeed yon can never 
cxped to be a good Ariift. XI. The Pidure alfo ought to be 
quick, free, and lively ; and if you have many of them in 
one piece, they ought to be fo ordered as that they may not 
feem to be crouded, or to fall oflfenfively, but ordering theta 
gracefully Con the foie ground efpecialiy) fo to manage the 
Whole, that the reft of the Figures decline and leflen pro- 
povtionably and by degrees, both in height, or magnitude and 
ftrengtb, according to their feveral didaoces. 

4 C H A R 

24 Pdljigraphices Lib. L 

C H A P. XI. 

Of Shadowing a leaked Body. 

I. TTHc Shadows of the Neck, in a Child or young Wo- 
-*• paan, are very fine, rare, and hard lo be feen : In ^ 

Man, the Sinews and Veins are exprefled by (hadowiog of ihe 

reft of the Neck, and leaving ihena white : The Shoulder is 

fhadowed underneath ; the Brawn of the Arm muft appear 

full and white, Ihadowed on one fide. 

XL The Veins of the back of the Hand and the Knuckles 

are made with two or three hair-itrokes \vitb a fine touch of 

the Pen. 

III. The Paps of a Man are fliewed by two or three ftrokes 
given underneath, in a Woman with an orbicular Shade, fome- 
wbat deep ^ the Ribs retain no Shadow, except you reprefent 
one lean or ftarved. 

IV. The Belly is made eminent by fliadowing underneath 
the Breft-Bone and the Flank : The Brawa of the Thigh is 
fliadowed by dravifng fmall hair-ilrokes from the Hip to the 
Knee, and crofTed again overthwartly. 

V. The Knee is to be finely (hadovved underneath the 
Joint ; the Shin-Bone appears by fliadowing one half of the 
Leg with a Cngle Shadow. 

VI. The Ankle- Bone appe.irs by fhadowing a little under- 
neath fas in the Koeesj and the Sinews thereof muft feem tp 
take beginning from the midft of the Foot, and to wax big- 
ger as they grow nearer to the Toes. 

VII- Laftly, The Shadows of the Foot muft take place, 
according as Reafoo and Occafion requires j for which fas 
^Ifo in all the former PreceptsJ the having of good Prints 
Will be no fmtll Advantage unco you. 

VJ H A * e 

Chap. I i. The vpay of Shadomng^ 7 5 


The way and manner of Shadowing* 

I. TF it be ft Surface only, it is beft fliadowed by drawing 
•*• Lines either ftraight or oblique, (according as the Super- 
ficies is) through the better half thereof. 

II. If it be in a Body, it is a double Shadow, and is ufed 
when a Superficies begins to forfake your Sight, as in Co- 
lumns and Pillars, where it is double darkned, and reprefen- 
tetii to the Eye, as it were, the Back- fide, leaving that unflia- 
dowed to the Light. 

III. The treble Shadow is made by crofllng over again the 
double Shadowf and is ufed for the inward parts of things^ 
fts in clefts of the Earth, Wells, Caves, the infides of Pots, 
Cups and Di(hes. 

IV. In ftiadowing, let the Shadow always fall one way, 
that is, on the fame fide of the Body, leaving the other to 
the Light. 

So in drawing a Mant if I begin to jfhadotv his I(ight Cheeks 
ImuSiJhadow the I^ghepan of hisNecky Arm^ Side^ Thigh^ 
Leg, &c. 

V. But if the light fide of the Body be darkened by the 
pppofition of fome other Body ftanding between the Light and 
It, it nouit receive a contrary Shadow, according as the Light 
is cbfufcated. 

So if three Pillars Hand together^ t!:4t in the midji mufi re- 
ceive aShadotP on both /ides. 

VL All circular Bodies muft have a circular Shadow (by 
the firft Sedion of this Chapter) according to their form or 
appearance, and the orbicular Shadow of the Objed which 
ctfteth ir. 

VIL Let your Shadow grow fainter and fainter, according 
to the greathefs of the diftance from the opacous Body ftia- 

And the J^a/on isy becaufe all Shadottfs are pyramidal \ in 
which caje, [pace of place prevails with the Light againfi the 

VIIL Where contury Shadows concur, kt the meaneft 
ind oj^ft folid Body be firft ferved 5 and in double and treble 


2 6 Polygrapkices Lib. L 

Shidows, let the firfl: lines be very dry, for fear of blotting, 
before you crofs them. 

IX. All perfecfl Lights receive no Shadow at all ; but be- 
ing manifeft, are only to be made apparent by that Body 
which receives them, who(e Snadow mjult be according to 
rhe efflax of Light i but the colour of the Light ought to 
agree with the medium which receives it, whether it be Air, 
Cryftal, Water, Amber, Glafs, Tranfparent-Wine, or the 

X. Some Artifts have ufe^ a little too much White, yet 
with a certain kind o»' Grace, although their Work has been 
much lighter than the Pitiern in the lighted part of the Body j 
but then withal they make tne Shadow as much too much in 
the obfcure parts, where the Light fell by reflexion to (ei forth 
she decay of Light in the fame pare of the Body, by this 
means tbs Work feems to be much raifed, thereby deceiving 
the Sight, 

Xi. For the Light which comes to the Eye in a pyra^- 
Ujidal form, comes with a blunter and larger angle, and fo 
reprefents the Objed: the more evidently, whence comes a 
wonderful Eminency ; the Caufe ^f which is, for that there is 
much more Shadow than needs ia that part wb^re the Light 
decays moft. 

Xl/. So that the vifual lines failing, that part comes to tlie 
Eye with a more acute Angle, and therefore cannot be feen 
fo perfedly) but feems to fly inwards, and Hand farther. oS. 


Of exprejjing PaJJions in the Countettattce^ 

I. T Ove is expreffed by a clear, fair, and pleafant Counte-^ 
"*-* nance, without clouds, wrinkles, or unpleafant bend* 
ings ; giving the Forehead 2»- ample height and breadth, with 
ma jeftick Grace; a full Eye, wirh a fine Shadow at the bot- 
tom of the £ye-lid, and a little a: the corner ; a proportion- 
able Nofe ,- Noftrils not too wide ; a clear Cheek made by 
'fliadowing of it on one fide ; and a fmiling Mouth made by 
a thin upper Li p> and (hado wing the Mouth-line at thecor-^ 

II. Fc45 

Chap. 1 9' OfVatJionsmtheConntenancc. 27 

II. Fear is expreflcd by making the Eyes look hollow, hea- 
vy and downward^ thin faU'ri Cheeks, clofe Mouth, and ftar- 
ring carelefs Hiic about the Ears. 

III. Envy is beft deciphered by the oaly hangirg of the 
Cheeks, and a pale Countenance ; and fomeiimes by grin- 
ning of the Teeth. 

IV. Let every Paflion be reprefented according to the out- 
ward appearance thereof, as it is in ihofe Perfons in whom ic 
reigns 5 obferving thz Rules at the fixtb Sedjon of the feventh 

V. If you de%n a Perfedicn in this Art, you muft endea- 
vour to chufe out the beft Adlions for every purpofe, in re- 
ftraining the luxurious Fury of Nature by a deliberate Dif- 
cretion which you ought to have in the Idea ; by the benefit 
whereof you will finish your Defign with Delight and Con- 
tentmetst, always expreffing in each Member a certain hid- 
den refemblance of the principal Motions which afFed: the 
Eye and Soul of the Spedlators, and merit the chiefeft Com-^ 

VI. To exprefs a Pa/Iion truly, you ought to give every 
thing and pan its proper Motion, or that which beft befits 
your Intention, which is nothing elfe but the agreement of 
proportion and form to the nature and matter of the Adion 
or Paffion intended, wherein confifts the whole fpirit and life 
of the Art, which by Artifts is fometimes called ihcfury^ fome;- 
times the gracey and fometimes the excellency of Arc : For 
hereby you put an evident difference between the Living and 
the Dead, the Fierce and the Gentle, the ff^ife and the Simple^ 
the Sad and the Merry j and in a word, difcover all the fe- 
veral Paflions and Geftures which Man's Body is able to 

VIL But thefe things are impoilible ever to beexacflly done 
in a Pid:ure, till you have firft carefully beheld the Life, that 
thereby you may come as near the fame as pofTtble may be | 
to which adding Arc withal, you will meet with no Motions 
fo potent which you will not be able artificially to imitate : 
Thefe things will be the more exadlly accomplifbed, if yoa 
be often feeing and continually pradlifing what you have 
feen. By this means yoa will unawares attain to a moft exad: 
habit of doing v^ell, and lively exprefs all Geftures, Adions, 
and Paflions ^bjed to natural Bodies, 

VIII. The 

28 . Polygraph! ees Lib. L 

VIII. The Paflions of the Mind are certain Motions pro- 
ceeding from the Apprehenfion of feme moving or powerful 
Objed ; now this Apprehenfion is threefold, vi:{. Senfitive, 
Hationalt and Intelle^ual. From thefe three there arife three 
principal Paflions in the Mind, vi:(. Pleafures of the Sen/is ; 
Moral Vertues or Vices ; and a Pious, I{eligiom Life^ or Ineli' 
giom and fVick^ed. 

IX. From the particular Paflions or Affedions of the Mind, 
as Love, Hatred, Deftre, Fear^ Joy, Hope, Sorrow^ Defpair, 
Confidence, Boldnejs, Impudence, Conftancy, Fortitude, Ttmo- 
rcufnefs. Valour, Anger, Pleafantnefs, Humility^ Patience, &c. 
there arife fo many kinds of Adions, exadly to imitate 
which, you ought to obferve carefully the motions of the Bo- 
dy, by which they are outwardly exprefled. 

X. And fo accordingly to diftribute and difpofe of them 
in your Pidure , as you have obferved them in Nature ; 
which if you fail in, you pervert the Order of Nature vid of 
Things ; run your felf into Confufioo, and fo lofe the Beauty 
of your Work. 


Of Hamati Proportion. 

I. THe lergth of an upright Body is equal to eight times 
* the length of the Face or Head: The Arm, hanging 
ftraigbt down, reacheth within a Span of the Knee : The 
length of the Hind muft be the length of the Face: The 
Arras extended muft be ihe juft length of the Body. 

Ti^wfotver f faith Vitruvius) tviU proceed in his iVorks with 
Judgment, mujl needs he acquainted with the nature and force 
cf Proportion. For all Dejigns carry with them fo much the more 
Grace and Beauty, by hour much more tngemoujly they are pro- 
portioned : This being well underfiood makes a Man not only an 
excellent Judge of ancient and modern Arties and their fVorkr 
manfhip, but alfo an admirable Inventer and Performer of rare 
and excellent things himfelf. It adds Majefiy and Beauty to 
bis DeJjgnSy and draws his Invention many degrees on to Perft- 

II. Thofe Parrs of the Body near to the Eye muft be made 
greater and longer than thofe farther off, fbecaufe the Eye 


Chap. 14. Of Human Proportioft, 29 

jndgeth fo of themj and according to the diftance from the 
£ye, (o muft you vary from tbat which is otherwife the real 
true proportion of thole. 

It is almofi tmfojfible to do awf thing in the Art of Proper^ 
tion commendabljf, without the Kjiowledge of Ariihmetick and 
Geometry i wherefore the Kjiowledge of thefe Sciences is required 
as a thing mofi necejfary : For how otherwife Jhould any one un- 
derftand the exaH Meafure and Proportion of a Body ? 

III. To makp a Side-way Head. 

You muft firft form an equilateral Triangle, in what pofi- 
lioQ you pleafe, turning the Triangle to noake the Face upon 
one of the three fides, be it which it will, either upwards or 
downwards, higher or lower, dividing that fide into three 
equal parts ; the one to ferve from the lower part of the 
Hair to the lower pan of the Forehead ; the fecond, thence 
to the upper pare of the Noftrils ; the third, to the lower 
part of the Cbin. 

IV. Now having framed thefe three Lines, draw a little 
crooked ftroak with a Coal, Chalk, or Biacklead Fencil,out 
of the right line, which may reach from the top of the Fore- 
bead unto the Eye-brow , from whence draw the flope line, 
bending.ift the end. To make the Nofe 'either long , fliort, 
grofs, or cbin, as you defire it,) let it end at the fecoad di- 
Aance where the Noftrils are to end. 

V. Then fubdivide the remaining third part in the midft, 
where the Month Ihall be placed for the parting of the upper 
and under Lips : Then frame the Chin, having refped to the 
perpendicular Line , that it fall not cue of the middle of the 
Chin, adjoining thereto, the under Chin,down to the Throat- 
pipe or Gullet. 

VL With the other two dividing lines , (the one frofti the 
top of the Forehead downwards, ending in the midft of the 
back part of the Ear ; and the other proceeding upwards 
from the Chin, afcending till it meets with the fuperior de- 
fcending line) guide your felf in defcribing the Ear, taking 
heed that its Circumference ftretch not out too far about the 
upper part of the Forehead. 

Vll Defcribe a great circular which,from the round- 
nefs of the Head, to the nape of the Neck, obferviag the na- 
tural proportion, and form iheoce downwards the reft of the 
Neck. Obfcfve alfo tbiJt the tip of the Ear excseds tiot the 
lower part of the Nofiril. 

\in. To defer ibs the Fofe-right Fact., 


3© Tdlygraphjces Lib. I. 

Form a perfe(5l Oval, v/hich divide in the mid ft with a 
line the longeft way. {vt:^) a perpendicular line, wbicii divide 
into three equal parts, allowing a fourth of one of the three 
parts for the Hiir in the Forehead. So have you the firit 
third part for the Forehead and Hiir, the fecond third part 
for the Nofe, the third part for the Chin. 

IX. In the midit thereof nmft the Mouth be formed , al- 
ways renaembring that the Eyes muit be in one line ; ihe crofs 
lines of the Nofe and Alouth muit always be correfpondcni to 
the crofs line ivbere the Eyjes are placed ; the Eyes t»uft be 
ifie length of one Eyedil-ar.t from another, and their inward 
corners let be exadly perpendicular orcr the out- fide of the 

X. To make the Ears, they muft be much forefliorincd, 
by forefliortning, w:^. for that the Eye doih not lee their ex- 
tended latitude , it mult be abbreviated or drawn in ; and 
the length of the Ear muft he frc m the Eye-brows to the bot- 
tom of the Noftrils ; thendtfcribe the Neck wiih the Hair 
according to their natural fituation. 

Xr. To draiv a Head fore-floor tned. 

To do this with Frets, Grates, Squares, or Geometrical 
Inftruments, breeds only a confufiou of lines, for ii;at this 
Face can fcarcely be meafured by any Rule, unk/s the whole 
Body be framed together: In this caSe therefore make a cir- 
cular Draught Cmuch like that in the forerighc Facej wichtbe 
afpe(5i: upwards or do'vnwards, as in the foreright Head, 
where the tranfvcrfe lines are ilraight, but thcfe are drawn 

XJf. if the Head fiies upwards , the traced flrokes and 
the divifions muft afccnd or rile upwards j but if it looks 
downwards, then they muft ali decline downwards, with tbiJ 
Caution, that the Ears and Eyes fall not out of their due 
points, as ^oh may fee in the Example. 
Xlll In forelhortniwg you mult take things as they appear to 
the Eye. and rot to draw the full proportion of each parr, 
but to fliorten all, according to the rate or reafon which tbey 
are obfnfcatcd. 

XI V.5o tfycu tfould draw a Ship foreright. there can .rppcar but 
tnly her forepart [for the reft hetng hid car.not be expreji :) The 
like of an Horfe looking fuB in my Face, or a Man lyin^ along ; 
I mtiH here of ncccffity f/trefloorten, to exprefs the vtfual proper- 
ty : And in this cafe your Eye and I^ a fin musl be your chxef Guide 
to give the true reajon and meafure of thefe appearances, tphc 
tber in Drawings Limning^ or Painting. XV, 

Chap. 14. Of Buman Proportion, 5 1 

XV, The ufe of tbis forefliortning is to exprefs all manner 
of ai3:ions in Man or Beaft •, to reprefent many things in ft 
little room j to fhew at one view to the Eye and Mind, the 
whole Body of a Temple, with all its Arches and Pillars, 
whe'.her the infide or outfide, as alfo the fundry fides of Ci- 
ties, Caftles and Forts, and fuch-like. 

XVI. In every Cafe you muft make Nature the Pattern of 
all Draughts, fo that nothing be exprefs'd, but what dotti 
agree and accord with Nature ; and that nothing be either 
forced beyond Nature, nor yet any thing to come ihort of 

j^s if in drawirfg the Figure of a Man, be fure you draw nog 
fuch a PoUure as » impoffible for him to imitate tt>itb his nature 
ral Body. 

XVil. Obferve tbis Rule in all Forefliortnings, that you al- 
ways rather imitate the viCbIc proportions of things, than 
their proper and natural proportion by meafure ; for the Eye 
and Underftanding together being direded by the PerfpeSlive 
Art^ ought to be your Guide in Drawing and Painting. 

X.YIIL And therefore in all forefliortnings there mult be a 
proportion obierved,according to the Judgment of the £ye,thac 
what limbs or parts of any thing do appear , may agree ia 
proportion as well as in forelTiortning. 

XlX.If you make a Side-face without any prefcribed Mea- 
fure or Triangle j you ought however to confider in your 
Mind the natural diftances and proportions, and by drawing 
many without a Rule or Limit, you will, eafily do it by the 
Eye, and your Hand will draw all things right by cuftom, 

XX. And thofe firft Strokes or Draughts being taken from 
the Life , and reduced by the Pencil with Colours, you will 
find it very correfpondeni and like, and as exadt as you can 
defire ir. 

XXL The Proportion of aMan of ten Facts. 

From the top of the Head to the Soal of the Fool, is di- 
vided into ten equal parts. The iirit diftance begins at the 
top of the Head, and reaches to the root of the Chin : The 
fecond from thence to theTfaroar-pii; The third thence to 
the parting of the Breafts : The fourth thence to the Navel: 
The fifth thence to the Privities, which is juft the middte of 
the length of the Body ; From thence to the Soal of the Fooe 
are five pans more j whereof two are between the Privities 
and the Mid-knees, and three more to the Soal of the 

32 Polygraphkes Lib. L 

XXII.The firft of the ten parts which Is for the Face, is 
to be divided into three equal parts : The firft beginning at 
the upper pan of the Forehead, and ending upon the upper 
crofs line of the Eye-brows : The fecond diftance reacbeth 
from ihence to the bottom of the Nofe : The third reacheth 
to the bottom of the Chin, which is the firft and uppermoft 
divifion. Now in a foreright Face be fure to place the Eyes 
the length of one Eye diltant from another ■■, and the length 
of one Eye the bottom of the Nofe is to be. 

XXIILTbe breadth of this Body confifts alfo of ten Faces, 
vi:{. between the extremities of both the middle Fingers, 
Dvhen the Arms are extended or fpread abroad ; and it is thus 
divided. The Hand from the end of the middle Finger to 
the Wrift, is the length of a Face, (or one of the tenth parts '.) 
From the Wrift to the Elbow a Face and half : From the El- 
bow to the Shoulder-joint, two Faces : Thence to the Throat- 
pit, one Face : The Hands have the proportion of one Face : 
The Nipples muft be placed at the diftance of a Face and 
half from each other, equal to the diftance between the ^x'ii\ 
and the Elbow. 

XXIV. The compafs of the Head from the Eye-brows to 
the Neck behind is double to the length of the whole Head. 
The compafs of the Waft is the diftance of three Faces to ihe 
diameter thereof, and is all one with the Trunk of the Body. 
The circumference of the Body under the Arm-pits, and the 
fpace between them and the Writts, anfwer in a double pro- 
portion, and is agreeable to half of the Body. 

XXV. The Meafures which are equal between them/elves. 

I . The fpace between the Chin and the Throat-pit is equzl 
to the diameter of the Neck. i. The circumference of the 
Neck is equal to the diftance of the Throat-pit from the Na- 
vel. 3. The diameter of the Waft is equal to the diftance 
between the knob of the Throat and the top of the Head ; 
and that is equal to the length of the Foot. 

XXVI. 4. The fpace between the Eye-lids and theNoftrils 
is equal to that between the Chin and the Throat-bone. 5. 
The fpace from the Nofe to the Chin is equal to that from the 
Throat-bone to theThroat-pit. 6. The diftance from the hol- 
low of the Eye brow, and from the Eye-brow, to the centre 
•of the Eye, isequi! to the prominency of the Noftriis, and thft 
I'pare between the Noftri.'s atid the end of thei7pj-er Lip. 

XXV/f. 7. The diftance between the top of the Nail of tUef , 
Forc-fit)gcr, and the Joint next tbs Palm or Thumb , is equal ■ 

chap. 14. Of Htm/ an J? report? on, gg 

to the diftance between tbe faid Joint and ibe Wrift. 8. The 
greater Joint of the Fore-finger is the height of the 

XIX. 9. The fpsce between that Joint and top of the NaiJ, 
is equal 10 the lengih of the Nofe, trorn the tip to the Arch a- 
bove the eyes,where the forehead and the Nofe is divided. 10. 
The two firit joints of the middle finger, are equal to the 
fpace between the Nofe and the Chin. 

XX. I . The firft Joint of the middle finger wbereoo the nail the diftance between the and No!e the Mouth. 2. The 
fecond joint anfwers to the iirft which is equal to ibe fpace be- 
tween the mouth and the chin. 

XXI. 3. The bigger joyot of the Thum is equalto the length 
of the mouth. 4. The fpace between the top of the Gbio, and 
the dint under the lower lip, is equal to the lefler joint of the 
Thumb. 5. .The leaft joint of each fiqger is double the length 
<Df the Nail. 

XXII. 6. The fpaces between the middle of the Eye-brows, 
and the outward corner of the Eyes, is equal to the fpaces be- 
tween the faid corners and the Ears, 7. The height of the fore- 
bead, the length of the Nofe, and the diftaace of the Nofe 
from the Chin are equal. 

XXIII. 8. The breadth of the Hand is equal to the breadth 
of the Foot. 9, The length of the Foot is equal to the meafare 
roundabout theinltep. 10. Twice the breadth of the band, 
is equal to the length thereof. 

XXIV. I. The arches of the Eye-brows are equal to the 
arch of the upper lip, at the divifion of the mouth, z. The 
breadth of the Nofe is the length of the Eye, and are either of 
themtqual to half the length of the Nofe. 3. TbeNavelisin 
the middle betwetn the Nofe and the Knee* 

XXV. 4. The fpace from the top of the flioulder to the el- 
bow is equal to two Faces.and from them to the wrift one and! 
a half 5. The breadth of the Body at the broadeft part of the 
ihoulders is two faces and half,wfaich is alfo equal to the dift- 
ance between the elbow and the end of the middle finger.d.The 
ijreadih of the body ^t the Privites is equal to two faces. 7, 
The Thighs at the thickeft part near the Priviiies^are ihedift" 
ance of two Faces broad. 

XXVI. 8. The thickeft part of tha Leg is equal to the 
fpace between the top of the Forehead and the end of the Nofe. 
9. The breadth of the back at the Arm-pits is' equal to two 
faces^ and fo are the hips at the buttocks.- 1 0. The leogth of tbe 

D tniddk 

5 4 Polygraphicef Lib. I . ' 

middle finger is equal to the Ipace between its Uft joynt and 
the wrift. 

XXVlI. The froportions of a young man of nine Faces. 

A flender young body of nine heads, is equal to nine times 
the fpace between the top of the head and the end of the chin, 
that being a ninth part of the length of the whole body. And 
cbencc back again to the root of the hair a tenth or eleventh 

XXVIII. But which way foeveryou draw it, this fpace is 
alfo divided into three equal parts, whereof the fivii makes the 
forehead, the fecond the nofe, the third the chin. However, 
in a face for the eleventh parr, is a tufc of hair, which is ufually 
expreft, fo that the forehead becomes lower by a third part, 
which rule the Ancient Grecians always obferved. 

XXIX. The ftoporttons of a man of eight Faces. 

Firft draw a ttraigbt perpendicular line of the length you 
defign the Figure, which divide into eight equal parts \ the 
uppermoft part of which is the length of the head, in which 
it behoves you to be very exatfl, becaufe the whole body muit 
anfwer in proportion to it. 

XXX. That eight part make into an Oval, which divide 
iato four equal fpaces ; the firlt (hall be for the hair, the fecond 
for the forehead, the third for the nofe, the fourth from the 
lower parr of the nofe to the bottom of the chin. But draw- 
ing after the Life, you need not follow this Rule exadlly, for 
nature is extreamly various in her Reprefentations. 

XXXI. Having drawn the head, there remain feven parts 
tnore from the bottom of the chin to the foal of the foot. The 
diftance of the chin to the breafts is the length of the head. The 
third divifion reaches to the fraalleft pare of the wafte. The 
fourth to thfc Privities. The fifth to the middle part of the 
Thigh, The fixth to the middle part of the Knec.The feventh 
lo the fmall of the Leg, The eight to the heel and fole of the 
Foot, In the feveral parts all the other proportions anfwer. 

XXXII. The Proportion of A Body ofjeven Heads,. 

The length from the crown of the Head to the fole of the 
Foot is feven times the length of the heacf : this is a large Head, 
and all the Members and Limbs are anfwerable to it, 7^/;^. 
Strong, Srurdy, and Raifed. Yet the Ancient G'-.«ci4»j painted 
only the Goddefs Vefiawixh this proportion, it being grave and 
Matron-' ike. 

XXXIII. But you may give it to any other Goddefs, 
which has any kind of grave, or folid Refemblance, as alio to 


Chap. 15. Of Drapery. 35 

the more ftaid and Ancient fort of Women, to SihySs, Pro- 
pheteflTes and fuchlike, whom to draw with a flender and deli- 
cate proportion would be a great overfight: As alfo to draw 
« Prophet with the proportions of a young man. 

XXXIV. To make a Child of Six Headsjou muft df^de 
the wh jle length of the Body into fix parts, whereof the Head 
muft be one. To draw a Child of five Heads, you muft divide 
the whole length of the body into five pares, whereof the 
Head muft be one. To figure out a Child of four Heads, you 
muft divide the whole length of the Body into four equal parts, 
whereof the Head muft be one. 


Of Drapery, 

I. TARaw the out-lines of the Garment lightly, and herein 
■*-' be careful, for the whole grace of the pidlure 
lies there ^ then draw the greateft folds firft and ftroke thofe 
into lefler j and be fure they crofs one another. 

II. Sute your garments to the body and make them bend 
with the body, according as it (lands in or out, ftraigbt or 
crooked, or turns one way or another : the ciofer the garment 
fits to the Body, the narrower and fmaller muft the folds be. 

III. All your folds muft confilt of two lines and no more, 
which you may turn with the garment at pleafure j (haddow- 
ing the innermoft deeper, the outermoft moreybt ; and if 
the folds be never fo curioufly contrived,fpare not to fliaddow 
them I'^if they fall inward from the light) with a double or treble 
(hadow, as the occafion requires. 

IV. The greater folds muft be continued through the whole 
garment, the lefler you may break ofFand fhorten as you pleafe. 

V. The fhades of filk and fine linnen are very thick and 
fmal!, which require little folds and a light and rare (hadow, 
commonly but double at raoftjand fo alfo fine Drapery requires 
more and fliarper folds than courfe. 

VI. That part of a garment which fits clofe to the body 
muft not be folded at a! I, but only fweetly fliadedjio reprefenc 
The part of the body which lies under it, 

D% VII. 

5 6 Tolygraphices Lib. I. 

VIL Obferve the motion of the Wind and Air, for driving 
loofe apparel all one way, drAwjog that part of the garment 
firft, which lies higheft and clofeft upon the body, before you 
draw the loofer part thai flies off from the body, leji by dratP- 
inff the loofe fart of tbegarrhentfirfiyoufioeuld be out ^and fo place 
the body crooked or atvry. 

VlU. You ought alio to exaaaine the nature and difpofiripn 
of light, cfpecialiy as it has relation to the Sun, or any bright 
body ; for tbiit colours cannot be fecn but in the light ; and by 
the help thereof they appear with a grace. 

IX. Suppofe Blue be equally difperfed through all the parts 
of a Garment, fo that there is no mere in one parr than in ano- 
ther J yet notwitbftanding when it is illuftrated by any ligbr, 
it caufeih one kind of brightnefs in that part where it iiriketh 
ftrongly ; another kind of lultre where it llrikes more weakly ; 
and another in that part, where it yet (hines Icis. 

X Now to imitate ibis Blue j you muft take your Artifici- 
al Blue colour j and temper it one way to exprefs the na- 
tural B/z/f of iheGsrment : bur another way to exprefs it ia 
the \%hi •• vis^. Ycu rauit nnix To mu:h White with your Blue, 
a||you lind light in that part of the Gain.fnt, where the light 
Itrikes ; more White where it ftrikes with lefs i and ftil! in 
proportion lefs and lefs, till you come to the parts where the 
■ light lliines not. 

XL Where the light ihiaes not but by I^fleBion, ihtte you 
iiall only mix fo much (haddow with your Blue, as fhall be 
enough to exprefs that counterfeit light, loofing it felf as it 
were by degrees ; always providiug that you make your light 
and (hadow to anfwer; 

XII. T^ Folds or Plaits ought to run out every way like 
Branches at Arms from' the body of a Tree j and to be fo 
made that one plait may fo rife from another, as one Branch 
or Bough, or one ftream of Water, comes out from another, in 
fuch fort that there be no part of the Garment, wherein there 
appear not fome of thefe folds. 

XIII. Now thefe motions (hould be moderate, gentle, and 
free, without any interruption, more to be admired for their 
grace and facility, than for afie(9:ed pains and induftry: and 
becaufeall forts of cloths have their feveral motions, as tvellas 
Bodies ; it muft needs bejhat they differ between ihenjfelves, 
according to the things wherein they difagrce. 


Chap. 15- Of Drapery, 37 

XIV. For this caufe, there muft be more light in fine 
Cloifa,as Sarcenet, Linnen, Cambrick, Cyprefs (^c. in which 
the plaits are fmall, raifed up, trembling, and as h Were Iweei- 
ly waviag, ibmewbat puffed up, by extending and iorcading 
ihemfelves like a Sail,where the motion receiveibmorcftrength 
by the Wind,they fall clofe upon the bare skin, as you may fee 
in Womens Garments, upon whom by reafon of their thinnefj, 
they fail clofe upon the parts on that fide where the Wind blow- 
etb, but are blown up on the contrary fide : The fame falls out 
in Mantles, the loofe ends of Girdles and Garters; ail which 
motions mot€ fitly appertain unto the Apparel of Nymphs, 
GoddefleSj ©"c. in refpei5l of their lightnefs and airinels. 

XV. Grofs and dull fhadows are found in ftiff Cloths where 
the Plaits are few and grofs, fo that they are capable but of 
flow motion-, and therefore they fink downwards, aud can 
fcarcely fall clofe to the bare skin, for that their own grofsnefs 
fuftaJQS them ; and thefe motions do mollly appear in cloth 
of Gold, thick Leather, courfe wollen Cloth, (^c, upon which 
ihe air can have little or no force. 

XVI. Moreover the Plaits or folds muft have their mo- 
tions accordingly as they are managed by the wearer, as under 
the arm, and under the knee, by opening and ftretching ovjc 
the arm and leg 3 ever making hard, ftiff, and grofs fold«, with- 
out weaknefs or pliabknefs, in fuch fort, that by their appear- 
ance, the nature and quality of the Garment may be known. 

XVII. But mean motions, which are neither coo grofs, nor 
- too flight, are fuch as appear in the folds of Stuff, and other 

cloths of fine Wool i and thefe may eafily enough be moved 
by the air, or become pliable to a mans limbs ; and fu make 
not only moft fweet and plea'fant folds, but follow the bare 
fiefh very well, becoming moveable and nimble, and falling 
pliably about the loins,or any other parr. 

XVIII. But befides thefe, there are alfo other kinds of mixc 
motions, called turnings and crofllngs, which are proper unto 
Damasks, Taffatacs, Sattins,Cloth of Gold, £5^<r. in which foUs, 
croflling and breaking one another, appear, from the various 
natares, qualities and conditions of the Drapery: but thefe 
things are fo to be performed,that they may not favour of an 
over-affe(ftcd imitation, without grace or order, to the fcand&l 
of the Artift and his defigns. 

£>3 GHAP, 

3^ Polj/graphkes Lib. L 

Of mixed and uncertain Forms, 

I. "pOr the drawing the form of any beaft, begin with your 
•*■ lead or coal at the forehead, drawang downward the 
nofe, mouth, upper and nether chop, ending your line at the 

II. Then viewing it again where you begun, from the fore- 
head,over the head, ears, and neck, continuirg till you have 
given the full compalsof the buttock, then mark out the legs 
and feet. 

III. Viewing it again, touch out the breaft with the emi' 
nency thereof; Laftly, finifli the tail, paws, tongue, teeth.beard, 
and feveral fhadows. 

IV. In drawing Beafts you muft be well acquainted with 
their Hiape and atStion, without which you [hall never per- 
form any thing excellent in that kind : and here if yon draw 
it in an Emblem or the like, you ought to fliew the Landskip 
of tlie Country natural to that beaft. 

V. In Birds begin alfo the draught at ihehead /and beware 
of making it too bigj then bring from under the throat the 
breaft-line down to the legs, there ftay and begin at the pini- 
on to make the wing, which being joined to the back line will 
be prefemly finilhed. 
. VI. The eye, legs and tr^in muft beat laft, letting always 
fin birds as in beafts jtbe fariheft leg befliorteft ; their feathers 
(as the hair in beaftsj muft take their beginning at the bead 
very fmail, and fall in one way backwards in five rankSjgreaf 
er and H?reater to the conclulion. 

VII. Infeds, as flies, bees, wafps, grartioppers, worais,and 
fuch like, are eafie to be drawn and not hard to be laid in Co- 
lours •, in doing thefe, it will at firft be abfolutely neceflary to 
bavfthe living pattern before your eyes. 

VIII. To draw a flower, begin from the bofs tufft or wart 
in the middle ; a« in a Rofe or Marigold, with the yellow 
tufft, which being made, draw lines equally divided, from 
ibence to tfcc greatcft compafs oi extent of your flower. . 

Chap. 1 7* Of Landslip. 39 

IX. You may draw thena either fully open, or in the bud, 
and laden with dew, wet and Worms, and then you may draw 
rudely with the coal or lead the leaves afterwards giving them 
their veins or jaggednefs. 

X. To take the natural and lively (hape of ths leaf of any 
Herb or Tree. 

F/r/?, rahfi the leaf that you would have, and gently hruife tht 
rihj and veins on the back-fide of it : afterwards tvet the fide tfitb 
Hnfeed Oyl, and then prefs it hard upon a piece of clean white 
Paper, andfoyoujhali have theperfeQ figure of thefaid leaf with 
every vein thereof fo exa&ly expreji, as being lively coloured it 
wiUfeem to be truly natural. 


Of Landslip* 

1. ¥ Andskip is that which expreflcth in lines the pcrfed vi- 

*^ fion of the earth, and all things thereupon, placed 
above the Horzion, as Towns, Villages, Caftles, Promontories, 
Mountains, Rocks, Valleys, Ruins, Rivers, Woods, Forefts, 
Chafes, Trees, Houfes and ail other Buildings, both beautiful 
and ruinous. 

II. Firfir, Always exprefs a fair Horizon, fliewing the 
heavens cloudy or clear, more or lefs according to the occafiOD, 
and if you exprefs the Sun, let it be either as rifing or fetting, 
and as it were behind or over fome hill or mountain. 

The Moon and Stars arefeldcm or never depiSled, unlefs it be 
in reprefentation of twi- light ^ becaufe all things arefuppofed to be 
feen by day, 

» III. Secondly, Ifycu exprefs the Sun, make bis light to re- 
fled: upon all the Trees, Hills, Mountains, RockSjOr buildings, 
Ihadiog the contrary fide, after wticb manner alfo Ihadow 
clouds, mifts, and the like, making the Ihadows to fall all obc 

IV. Thirdly, be very careful to augment or leflen every 
thing proporiionabiy to their diftance from the eye, making 
them either bigger or lefler. 

D 4 , V. 

4Q Polygraph} ces Lib. I. 

V. Inexprefllng things at large diftance8,as ten, twenty or 
tfairty miles off ; where the objed is hard to be difcerned, as 
whether it be Tenapic, Caltlc, Houfc or the like, fliew no par- 
ticular figns thereof, or any eojincnt tiiftindlion i but rather as 
weakly, faintly, and confafedly as the eye judgeth of it. 

VI. If Landskips be laid in Colours, the farther you go, 
the more you muft lighten it with a thin and airy blue, to 
make it I'eem as if it were afar off, beginning at fir ft with a 
dark green, fo driving it by degrees into a blue, according to 
the diltance. 

VII. Makeyour Ltndskip to (hoot (ts it were) away, one 
part lower than another, making the neareft hill or place high- 
eft, and thole that are farther off, to flioot away under that, 
that the Landskip may appear to be taken from the top of 
ao bir. 

VIII. Let every thing have its proper motion, as in Trees 
when they are fhaken with the wind, making the fmaller 
boughs yielding j the ftiff;r lefs bending : in Clouds that they 
follow the Winds : in f^verh the general current, and flalhing 
of the Waters againft the boat fides. 

IX. In rhe Sea, the waves and other proper agitations, the 
fowling of the Billows, the tumbling of VefTels up and down ; 
Ships floating, fome dipt, fome half-drown'd, fome flaodirg 
almoft an end, fome hid almoft with the Waves, through the 
uncertainty of the Surges, others endeavouring to live. 

X. In the motion of Waters falling from an high place, bat 
efpecially when they fall upon Rocks or Stones, you mufl: 
make it leaping up into the Air ; and fpriokling all about.And 
laftly, let every thing which moverh, whether effentially or ac- 
cidentally, have its proper reprefcniatiou. 

XI. Let your work imitate the feafon you intend it for. 
As if you intend it for a tpinter fiece^reprefent felling of H^'ood; 

Jliding upon the Ice ; fowling by night ; hunting of Bears or Foxes 
in the Snow ^ making the Trees every wb«rcnak.ed or laden with 
a hoarfroft ■ the Earth hear without greennefs^Flowers or Cattle I 
the Air thickjy JVaterfro:{en,with Carts pajfing over it, and Boys 
upon it, &c. 

XII. Laflly, let every fJte have its proper parerga, adjuncts, 
or adiiional graces, as the Farm-houfe, Wind- mill, Water-mill, 
Woods, Flocks of Sheep, Herds of Cattle, Pilgrims, Ruines of 
Teojples, Caftles and Monuments ; with a thoufandfucb other 
only proper (o particular fubjeds. 

C H A Fg 

Chap. 1 8. Of Diapering and Antique. 41 


Of D/aperiL'g and Afttiqne. 

I. T^Iapen'ng, is a tracing or running over your work again 
^^ when you bave, £s it were, quite done, with damask 
branches, and luch like. 

Jt ii ufed to counterfeit cloth of Gold, Silver, Damdi^. Velvety 
CbamUt and the like, tfith what branch and in what faftoion you 
pleafe : it » derived from tht Greek tf^ord Sici.7:^.(c!My iranfeo, ta 
pafs over, and only Jigni fie s a light fajfmg over the {ame again. 

II. If you Diaper upon folds, iet your work be broken off 
accordingly, and taken as it were by the half. 

For reafonfhetveth that the fold covereth fomething which can- 
not befeen by reafon of it, tphich if it tvoi ^rawn out at levgth 
would appear plain. 

III. Let the whole work be homogene ; that is, let the fame 
work be continued tbrougbout the whole garment, felting the 
faireft branch in the moft eminent and perfpicuous place, cau- 
fing ic to run upwards,for elfeyour work would be ridiculous. 

iV. You may either ftiadow the ground and leave your 
work white ; or (hadow your work and leave the ground 
white ; and as you fliall pleafe in this kind, your filling may 
be with fmaf! pricks, which will (hew very fair. 

V. Antique (ab antes) are buttereffes whereon the building 
is ftayed, as alfo the outwardmoft ranges, ufed in fore- fronts 
of houfes, in all manner of Compartments, curious Arcfaite<5l- 
ure. Armors, Jewels, and Columns. 

VI. The form of it is (only for delights fakej a general or ir- 
regular conapofition of men, beafts, birds, fifties and flowers 
and fucb like, without either rule or reafon. 

VII. Laftly, obferve the continuation of one and the fame 
work.through the whole piece, without the leaft change or al- 

As if it be naked Boys, playing, lying, fitttngjor riding upon 
Goats, Eagles, Dolphins and the lik^e ; firings of Pearl, Satyrs, 
Tritons, Apes, Dogs, Oxen, bearing or drawing Fruits, Branches, 
or any wild fancy after your own invention, with a thoufandfuch fl- 
ther idle toys 5 befureyou obferve the continuation. 


42 Velygraphjces Lib. I. 


To take the perfe^ draught of any Figure. 

I. nrAke a flieer of fine Venice Paper, wet it all over with 
-■• linleedoylon one fide thereof, which then wipe off 
as clean as you can ; let the Paper dry, and lay it on any pain- 
ted or printed Pidure, then with a black-lead pen you may 
draw it over wich ea(e : put this oyled paper upon a (heet of 
dean white paper, and with a liiile pointed (tick or feather 
out of a fwallow's wing, draw over ihe ftroaks which you 
drew upon the oyled paper j fo ITiall you have the exadt form 
upon the white pajper, which may be fet out with colours at 
plea fu re. 

//. Or tbttt. The picture being drawn as before in the oyled 
paper, put it upon a flieet of white paper, and prick over the 
drawing with a pen : then take fome Imali coal, powder it 
fine, and wrap it iti a piece of fome fine linncn, and bind it up 
therein loofely, and clap it lightly ail over the pricked line by 
little and little, and afterwards draw it over again once or 
twice, with pen or pencil. 

III. Or thus, Rub a flieet of white paper all over on one 
fide with black-lead, or elfe with vcrmillion mixed with frefli 
butter i lay the coloured fide upon a flieet of white paper, then 
lay the pidure you would copy out upon the other fide of the 
coloured paper, and with a fmall pointed flick or fwallows 
quill, go over all the ftroaks of your pidore, and it will be 
exAit on the white paper. 

IV. Or thuiX^y a piece of Lanthorn born upon the pidlure, 
tV^en draw the ftroaks of your pid:ure with a hard nibbed pen 
upon the horn; and when it is dry, breath upon the born 
twice or thrice, and prefs it bard upon white paper a little 

V. Or thus, Take an oyled flieet (as at the firft Sedion of 
tbi? Chapter) rub one fide of it with lamb-black or lake ; lay 
it upon a flieet of fair paper with the coloured fide downwards, 
and upon it lay the pidure you would copy our, and trace 
it over with a fwallows feather. 


Chap. 19. To take a perfe^ Draught, 4g 

VI. Or thus, Take fine lake mixed with linfeed oyl, and 
draw with it, inftead of Ink, all the ont>ftroaks of any pid- 
ure,aiid other tnaterial parts ; then wee the contrary fide of 
the Pidare and prefs it bard upon a fheet of paper, and it will 
leave behind it all that which you drew over. 

VII. Or thw, Grind Printers black fine, and temper it with 
water, and with a Pen dipt in it, draw over the oat-liaes and 
mafter ftroaks : wet then Tome white paper with a fpunge or 
the like, and prefs it bard thereupon ; and you (hall have the 
ftroaks you drew upon the white paper. 

VIII. Or thus. Lay the print (the back-fide of itj upon a 
clear glafs, or oyled paper, then lay a clean paper upon the 
print; hold it up againft the light, fo will you fee all the 
flroaks which you may draw out, and ihadow alfo if you 

IX. To take thefoape of any Leaf , Herb, or Plant, 

Hold a whole Beaf or Sprig (as of Nettles, Plantane, &c.) 
m the fmoakof Gum Sandrack, Rofin,a Link, or Waz-candle, 
till it is well blackt, which place between the leaves of a (heet 
of white paper.and carefully prefs upon the Leaf with fomc 
fmooth thing ; fo Ihall you have in a moment the print on the 
paper, fefpecially the backfide thereof^with the very Ramifica- 
tions of the Fibres difperfed through it^ This may be of good 
afe in Travelling, when we meet with ftrange Plants. 

X. To take the PiSure of an Herhjfrom an old Pi&ure. 
Take Venice Soap, dip it in water, and rub or moiften 

the old Pidure all over, and very well with \t : then put up- 
on it a piece of white paper, with other paper over ir, and 
rub hard thereupon, or prefs them ftrongly together, and tb« 
old Pidure will come ok exadly upon the white paper. 


44 Poljigraphkes Lib. I. 


To extender contra^ aFitlure keeping the proportion, 

I. 'CNcompa^ your pidure with one greac fquarej which 
"^ divide into as many little ones as you pleale: this done, 
accordiog as you would have your pidure either greater or 
lefs, make another fquare greater or lefs, which divide into as 
many equal fquares which let be drawn with a black-iead 

II. Take your black-lead pen, and draw the pidure by lit- 
tle and little, pafling from fquare unto iquare f by the exam- 
ple of the patternj until you have gone all over with it : ob- 
ferving that in what part of the Iquare the pidure lies, you 
draw the like pare in the fquare anfwerable thereto, till you 
have finiflied the whole. 

III. Then draw it over with a pen, in which fecond draw- 
ing of it you may eafily mend any fault, and Ihadow it at 

IV. Lafily, When it is throughly dry, rub it over with the 
crum ofwbire^bread, and it will takeoff all the black-lead 
ftroaks, fo will your draught remain fair upon the paper. 


Of Perfpe^/ve in general. 

/^nriKH' in Greek, PerfpeSiva in Latin, iht An of feeing 
^'^ in Englilh , is that by which we behold, contemplate, 
and draw the likenefs of all magnitudes, jvift in form and man* 
ner as they appear to the Eye. 

II. The matter to be feen or fpeculated is a magnitude : the 
manneroffpeculation is by radiations of Light, either dired, 
redified or broken. ' 

III. A magnitude is that which hath fortn ; and it is either 
liDeal) fuperiicial.or folidsthat is, either a complication of points, 
a complication of lines, or a complication of fuperficies. 

Chap. 21. Of Perfpe^^we in general. 45 

IV. A line is a complication of points; that is (according 
to Euclid] a length only without either breadth or thickfiefs, 

V. A fuperficies is a complication of lines j that is, a length 
having breadcb without tbicknefs. 

For an the continuation of points makes a line ; fo the couching 
together of lines makes * fuperficies : which k only th» iayirg 
crofs wife, 

VI. A folid is a complication of fuperficies ; that is,t length 
and breadth, having depth or tbicknefs. , 

And indeed it k nothing but the continuation of points upon 4 
fuperficies either perpendicularly or bending. 

VII. The Contemplation of the Objed: reprefenis the 
matter to the mind, in the fame manner as its outward appear-^ 
ance doth to the Eye. 

And from hence comes Judgment where by the Artifi i enabled 
to defer ibe the fame in lines y and delineate it^ according to its 
apparent or vifual proportions. 

VIII. To draw or defcribe the Appearance in lines Is the 
acftive part of this Art, whereby the Idea conceived in the 
mind fby fight and contemplation) is brought to light, 

IX. A radiation is a beam of light, conveighing the like- 
nefs of the thing, to the Eyes, or fight i and the knowledge 
thereof to the mind or underftanding. 

And this radiation « twofold^ either external from, the external 
lights or inteleSlual from its being and power. 

X. Dire& radiations are thofe which confider the direct oc 
(treight beams, which pafs between the eye and the object:, 

AndthisisthefirSt kind of perfpeSive ^ and is many titnei 
(alone) called the Opticks. 

XI. I^eUified Radiations are thofe which confider the re^ 
Hedion of beams, and their (hape upon any polifh'd body,' 
as on a Globe,Cone,Cylinder,Pyramid,or any regular folid. 

And tUk is the fecohd kjnd of Perfpe&ive 9 t^hicb « called the 
Art Catoptrica. 

XII. Broken radiations are thofe which confider the break-] 
ing of beams, as they are to be feen through a glafs or a Cry- 
ftal cut into feveral plains or fuperficies. 

And this » the third and laji kfnd of terffe^ive^hich n catted 
the Artl>\o^ivkz, 


4^ Polygraphiccs Lib. L 


Of the A&rue part of Perfpe&rue, 

I. ^He adive part of Pcrfpedive is either Ichnographicit^ 
-*- Orthographical, or Scenograpbical. 

II. Ichnographia^ is the de(cription of the plain bafe or 
bottom of any body or building. Or the Lines or figure on 
which the Subftance (Unds. 

III. And it is twofold, to wit, either Geometrical or Sceno- 

IV. Ichnographia Getmetrical, is that which gives the fight 
ofthebottomor bafeof any body or building. 

So a Circle is the bafe cf a Column j and a fqaare n the bafi 
cf a PeJefial, and the like y /"z/f */jff Geometrical Ichnography 
M not feen in Sexton, or through a Glafi, unlefs it lies parallel 
to the bafe ; andfo it makes no SeSlion tvith it. 

V. Ichnographia Scenographical is the Appearance of the 
fame bafe in Sedion, or through a Glafs, eretfted upright on 
the fame plain, on which the bafe ftaods. 

And by thk the faid bafe is extended in length but contracted 
in breadth,forfoit appeareth to the eye. 

VI. Orthographia, is the vifion of the forerigbi fide of any 
plain ) to wir, of that plain or fuperficies which lies cqaidiftant 
to a right line, paffing through the outward or convex centers 
of both eyes, continued to a due length. 

Andtherefore Perfpcftive Orthograpbia, is the delineation of 
the apparent fore-right p'lin. 

VII. Scenographia is the defcriptioQ of an oblique plain or 
Other figure, that declines from ihe apparent or foreright plain ; 
that is of that plain which makes Oblique Angels with the faid 
foreright plain, and the two ftrait lines imagined to pal^ thro' 
the two outward connex points of both your Eyes. 

VIII. The Scenographick vifion of any form, body or building 
is, of. that fide tpbich declines froyn, or conftitutes an Angle, ttfitb 
the right line, paffing from the centers of both Eyes aforefaid: 
this Artists calls the return of th* foreright fide. 


Chap. 23- Of the Suhje^sto befeen, 47 
IX. liottf the Difference between the Orrhographick and 
Scenograpbick vifionis this j the Orrhograpbick/b<«»j the fide 
of A hody or building as it is beheld when the plain of the Gla/i 
is placed equidifiant to that fide : but the Scenograpbick yfce»* 
the fide of a body or edifice as it appears through a glafs raijed ob' 
liquely to the faid fide^ or making an angle tberewttb. 


Of the Shhjed^s to be jeen. 

I. 'T'He Baji of afiy tbing is tbe plain, flat, or floor upop 
-■• wbicbany folid body, or objed: is placed, or raffed. 

II. The Altitude or height is tbe perpendicular fpace of 
place , between the bafe and eye, or height of tbe vifual poine 
above tbe bafe. 

III. The Vifual point, is a point in the Horizontal line, 
wherein all tbe beams of tbe ^yes unite. 

EjKiTipli gratia. If you look, on a longftraight Bsver, thefidet 
of which run parallel^ yet by reafon of the di fiance both fides of 
the Kjver (although it be very broad) will feem to incline ^ touch 
and units with eachather in one common Point or Center : and 
fo if you look on a lo?^fi-:'ti^ht brick-wall.the feveral lays of Brick., 
and courfes of Mortar, wiS [at a great diflance) feem to incline 
each tn other in one common Point or Center j this point refle&ed 
on a glafs raifed upright on the bafe, is called the vifual point. 

IV., The Hori:(ontat line is a line proceeding from the cen- 
ter of the Eye to rhe vifual point, parallel to the Horizon 
of tbe Earth. 

And this iSi in men of ordinary height crftature, commonly a" 
bout five foot from the ground or bafe. 

V. The Diftance is tbe fpace on the bafe between the Glafs 
and point in the bafe which lies diretflly under tbe eyes. 

VI. Tbe Seclion is a plain of tranfparem or periucid matter 
(as of Glafs) raifed upright upon tfae plain of the bafe ftaoding 
before you, purallel to a ttraigbi line, pafliog through the con- 
vex centers of both Eyes. 

IVithout the kjtowledge of this Section or'^Glafs it is utterly 
impnffble to underfiand perfpecftive, or l^nst^ what it mzans : Or 
be able to give a reafon far the difference between the Ori:hc<?r2- 
phick 4»<^ Scenograpbick figure, VII. 

4^ Polygraphicej Lib. I^ 

VII. If the Glafs is placed near the vifual pcinr, and far 
from the objedt, the figure which is feen will be very fmall : 
and the rcafoo is, becaufe all rays comprehending the Ortho- 
graphical and Scenographical hgures fihough more remote 
from the cbjcd; tall into the vilu^l ibtir common cen- 

VIII. If the vifual point be more elevated (though at ibe 
fame diftance^ the Scencgrapbick figure or form will appear 
of a much larger magnitude: becaufe the vifual radiations- 
being higher, the various perpendiculars raifed on the Sedtion 
or Giafs, cut them in wider dittances, becaufe more remote 
from the Glafs. 

IX. If the Glafs incline to the vifual point, the Scencgra- 
pbick vifion will be long-wife between the vifual poict and 
the objed. 

And the reafon is, hecanfe the plain of the Glafs heap in more 
of the vifual J^jdiations. 

X. If the Glafs recline from the vifwal point, the Scenngra- 
pbick figure will appear rounder, and begin to refemble the 

XI. But If the Glafs is fixed equidiftani to the bafe,or plaiq 
the objed ftandsupon j the Sccnographick and Onhographick 
refemblance will be one and the lame. 

And ths reafon is, becaiifs the form of the figure is lojlj or not 
tifihle in the SeRion. 

XTI. The Vifual B^aies, are tbofe lines which proceed from 
the vifual point, tbiuijgh the Glafs, to any point higher or 
lower than the phinofthe Horizon, 

XIII. Diagonals, or lines of diftance, are'fucb as are drawn 
from the point of diflance to any other higher or lower than 
the Horizon. 

XIV. Tht OhjeBy is that form, figure, body or edifice 
intended to be cxprefTed in PerfpeSiive proportions. 


Chap. 2 4 . The general praBice of PerJpe&Ive. ^.<^ 

e H A p. XXIV. 

The General Pra&ke of Ferfpe&ive. 

I. y Et every line which in the Objed or Geometrical fig- 
jL. gure is Itraight, perpendicular, or parallel to its bafe, be 
lb alfo io its Scenographick delineation. 

II. Let the lines which in the objed: return at right Angela 
from the fore-right fide, be drawn Scenographicaily from the 
Vifual point. 

III. Let all ftraight lines, which in the objed return from 
the fore-right fide, run In a Scenographick figure into the Ho- 
rizontal line. 

IV. Let the objed you intend to delineate ftaftding OK your 
right hand, be placed alfo on the right band of theviftttl poirttj 
»nd that on the left hand, on the lefc hand on the fame point : 
and that which is juft the middle of it. 

V. Let thofe lines which are (in the cbjed) Equidiftant to' 
the returning line, be drawn in the Scenographick ngure, trdm 
that point found in the Horizon. 

VI. In fetting off the altitude of Columns, Pedeftals and 
the like, meafure the height from the bale-line upwaid in the 
front or forerigbt-fide ; and a vifual ray down, that point ia 
the front fliall limit the altitude of the Column or Pil.'ir, all 
the way behind the fore-right fide or Orthographick appear- 
ance, even to the vifua! point 

This rule you mufl obferve in 4B figures, ds ttreH where there is 
a front or fore'right-Jide, at where there is none. 

VII. In delineating Ovals, Circles, Arches, Crofles, Spirals 
and Crofs-arches, or any other figure, in the roof of any room ; 
firft draw Icbnographically. and fo with perpendiculars, from 
the moft eminent points thereof, carry it up unto the Ceiling, 
from which feveral points carry on the figure. 

VIIL The center in any Scenographick regular figure is 
found by drawHng crofs- lines from oppofite angels: fer cht 
point where ih'b Diagonals crofs is the Center. 

IX. A ground plain of fquares is alike, both above: arid be- 
low the Horizobtal line ; only the fnore it is diftant above or 
beneath the Horizon, the fquares will be fo much the larger ot 

M 3Cs 

JO Polj'graph/aes Lib. I. 

X. In drawing a perfpecflive figure, whertmany lines come 
together, you may for the diredting of your eye, draw the 
Diagonals in red ; the vil'ual lines in black j the PerpendicuUis 
in gieen, or other ditferent coJuur from that which you intend 
the figure fhall be oi. 

XL Having coniidered the height, dillance and pofition 
of the figure, and drawn it accordingly, with tide or angle 
againft the bafcj I aile perpendiculars from the feveral Aogels 
or defigoed Points in the figu^ to the bafe, and transfer the 
length of each perpendicular, from the place where it touches 
ibe bafe, to the bale on the fide oppofite toibe point of diltance, 
fo will the Diametrals drawn to the perpendici-Iars in ihe bale , 
by interfeiftion with the Diagonals drawn to the feveral tranf- 
(erred diftances, give the angels of the figure : and fo lines 
drawn frem point jo point will circumfcribe the Sccnograpbick 

XII. If in Landskip there be any (landing Waters, as Ri- 
vers, Ponds, and the like ; place the Horizontal line level with 
the farthelt fight or appearance of it. 

XIII. If there be any boufes or the like in the pidure, cen- 
fider their pofition, that you may find from what point in the 
Horizontal line to draw the fronts and fides thereof. 

XIV. In defcribing things at t great diliance, obferve the 
pioportion Cboth in msgniRide and diftance; in draught, which 
appears from the objevil to the eye. 

XV. In colouring and (hadowing of every thing, you maft 
do the fame in your Pidure, which you obferve with your 
eye, efpecitlly in obj.;d:s lying nearj but according as the 
diftarce grows greater and greater.ib the colours muft be fain- 
ter and fainter, till at laft they lofe ihemfclves in a darkilh sky 

XVI. Tht Catoptricks are beft feen in a common looking- 
glafs or other polirti'd muter ; where if the glafs be exjdly 
flat, the objed is exadtly like its original j but if the glafs 
be not flat, the refemblante alters from the original, and 
that more or Icfs, according as the glafs differs from an exad 

" XVII. In drawing Catoptrick, figures, the furface of the 
glafs h to be coniidered, upen which you mean ro have the 
reflexion ; for which you mutt make a particular IcJmographi- 
r#/ draught or projection ; which on the glals muft appear 
to be a plain fullof fquares,on which projecflion transfer what 
l?iali be drawn on a plain divided into the lame number of like 


Chap. 24. TbepraC^lfeofPerfiec^ive, 51 

fquarfs where rhough the draught may appear very confufed, 
yet the retiecSion thereof on the jiafs wili be very regular, 
proportional and regularly compoled. 

XVIII. The Dioptric^ or broken beam may be feen in 4 
Tube, through a Crjftal, or Giafs, which hath its furfacecuc 
into many others, whereby the raies of the objedb are broken. 

For to the fat of the Cryfial or Wattr^the raies runftrei^k » 
hut then they brea1\ and ma\e an Angle, the tphicb alfo by the 
refraSed beams K made and continued on the other fide of the 
fame fiat, lijr^j.-. -^ •. :;. 

XIX. When ihefe faces on ft Gryftalare returned towards 
a plain placed diredly before it, they leparate themfelves at a 
good diltance on the plain j becaufe they are all direded to 
various far diftant places of the fame. 

XX. Bat for the affigaing to each of them a place on the 
fame plain, no Geometrick rule is yet invented. 

- A P P E N.D I X. 


0/ tho. Z)fes of Verfpe^ive. 

I. "OErfpeSiive then is a Science, or rather an An which is 
^ abfolutely neceflary toonewhowouIJ Draw well, En« 
grave, Etch) Carve,or Paint, and which men of tho(e profelfions 
ought rot to wane ; yet they are not to be fo wholly tubjedk 
to its precepts, as to enflave thele Arts to its rules. 

IT. You are to ufe it when it pleafingly leads ^ou into ib« 
beauties of your work, and can be aifittant 10 you in your de- 
figo, but when tfaofe things ceafe, you are to. leave it, left it 
leads you to a precipice, or induces you to that which is repug- 
nant to your peculiar Art. 

III. Perfpe(51:ive,cannot of it felf be called a certain r»ile,but 
is to be ufed with judgment, prudence and difcretion for if 
you perfectly underftand it, yet if you pracflife it too regularly, 
tho* you may do fuch things as roiy be within ihe rules 
of your Art, yet your work will be difpleaGng to the 

E 1 IK 

52 Polygra^hkej Lib". I. 

ly. The greateft Paiaters who have made ufe thereof, had 
they rigoroully obferv'd it in their defignatioos, had much 
diminiihed that Gbry which they attained to, aod which liaae 
will give a kind ot Immortality to. 

V. Such as too clofely follow its Precepts, may indeed make 
things more regularly true, but they will be much wanting 
of that harmonious excellency, that exquifiie beauty, and that 
CbarmiDg Sweemefs, which would otherwifc have been found 
in them. 

VI. Architetils and Staiijaries of Ancient times, did not al- 
waies find it to their purpofe;it was not their prudence to trace 
the Geometrical pan ibexadly, as the rales of Pcrfpedive re- 

VII. If you would imitate the Frontifpiece of the Rotunda as 
the rulei of Perfpedlive require, you would wonderfully 
err ; for the Columns which are at the Extremities, have 
more in Diameter than thofe which are in the middle. 

VIII. The Cornilh of the '?ala:{:{o Farnefe, which looks fo 
beautifully if beheld from below, yet being more nerely view- 
ed, is found to want very much of its juft proportion. 

IX. In the PiSar of. Trajan, the higheft figures are much 
greater than thofe which are below ; which by the rules of 
Perfpefiive, (hould be quite contrary : here they increafe ac- 
cording to the meafure of their diftance. 

X. There is a rule which teaches the making of figures in 
that manner, but it is no rule of PerfpeSlive^ iho' it is found 
in fome books of that Art, and it is never to be wade ufe of, 
but when it is for our purpofe : t'/Y when it may eafe the 
f]gbr, and render the Objedt more agreeable to the mind. 

XI. The Farnefian Hercules its Bafe is not on the level, but 
on an eafy declivity on the advanc'd part ; the reafon of 
which is, thaf the feet of the figure may not be hidden from 
the fight, but appear more pleafing to the Eye, 

XII. And this is the true reafon that tbefe Great men have 
fometimcs ftept afide from the Geometrical Rules of Perfpedl- 
ive, not in a S'ight or Contempt of the Art, but for the abfo- 
lute pleafing of the ViCve fenfe. 


Chap. 2 6. Meafftres ofHtmmne Bodies. 5 5 


Meafures of Humane Bodies. 

I. T^He face is that which begins at the bottom of the loweft 
-^ hairs which are upon ttie fore bead, and ends at but- 
torn of the Chin. 

II. Some of the Ancients allowed but feven beads or faces 
to their figures, but the molt of them allowed eight : we for 
the molt part allow Ten faces, vi:{, from the Crown of the 
head to the fole of the foot. 

III. The face is divided into three partf, vi'^. i. The Fore- 
head. 1. The Nofe. 3. The Mouth and Chin. 

IV. From the Crown of the bead to the forehead, is the 
third part of a face : from the Chin to the Pit between the 
Collar bones,are two lengths of a Nofe. 

y. From the Pit between the Collar bones to the bottom of 
the Bieft, is one face: and from the bottom of the breft to 
the Navel is alfo one face. 

VI. From the Navel to the fliare-bone or Genitals, h one 
face: and frotii the Genitals to the upper part of the Knee is 
two faces. 

VII. The Knee it felf contains half a face: and from the 
lower part of the Knee tothe Anckle is two faces. 

VIII. From the Anckle to the Sole of the Foot is half a 
face : The fole of fhe^Foot is the Sixth pan of the figure. 

IX. When a mans Arms are Stretched our, it is from the 
tip of the middle finger of the right hand, to the tip of the 
middle finger of the left band, the jult length of the whole 

X. From the one fide of the Breafts, to the other fide, is 
two faces : the two uppermoft parrs of the Teats, and the 
pit between the Collar bones in a Woman, make an Equila- 
teral Triangle. 

XI. The Hwwcrtfj, or Great bone of the Arm. from the 
Shoulder to the Elbow, is the lengib of two fares : from the 
£nd of tlie Elbow to the root of the little finger, vr^ the 
^hitm aad part of the band is two faces. 

E 3 Xll 

54 Poljgraphkes Lib. I, 

XII. From the Acetabulum of the Stoufder blade, to the 
pit between tbeCoUar-boDes is one face : the band alfo is the 
length of a face. 

XUI. The infide of the Arm, from the place where the 
Mulcte difappears, which makes the Bred, called the Petio- 
ral Mufde, to the middle of the Arm,are four Nofes. 

XlV. From the middle of the Arm> to the bt ginning of the 
hayd'are five Nofes: ihe Thumb, and longeft Toe, are each 
of them a Nofe long. 

Ay. Laftly, as to the breadth of the Limbs, no exacft mea- 
fure can be given ; becaufe the proportions are changeable, 
according to the Qualities or magnitude of the being 
fat or lean ; alfo according to the pofture they are in, and the 
motion of the Mufcles ; all "which every Artiu is to regulite, 
according to bis owp Judgment, and as the occalion may 


General Ohfervathns. 

I, "IN drawing well, you muft endeavor to make your 

•* Ccmpofitions conformable to tfaofe of the Ancients and 
theip Cuftoms, yet having refped alfo to the prefent times. 

J/. Avoid wbatfoever has no relation to your Subject, or 
may be improper to it i things alfo having a lefs relation to it, 
are not to be put into ihe principal places; thofe being re- 
fcrv'd for the minutes of the Principal defign. 

/(/. Jn pidures, neither the face, proportion, age , nor 
Colour, are to be alike in all ; but they are to be as different, 
as are the true and living Objeds. 

IV, Your Subjed ought to be beautiful and noble, furnilhed 
with Delight and Charms elegant and graceful, tl^t it may 
not be faid that the Anift has laboured in Vain ; and fo as it 
may tend t^ Perfedion or Confummayon of Art, fo far as 
relates to tfft defisnation i that it may be as well as excellent, 


Chap. 27. General Obfervations. 55 

able ro iRilruA and enlighien ibe Underlinndiog. 

V. Your invention ought 10 be good, and rfae Poltures of 
your deiign agreeable and harmonious, in rc-fped: ro ligiit,and 
(hadows, which the Colours which are afterwards 10 b added, 
taking from each, what rrtay moft conduce to the beauty of 
your work. 

VI. The principal part of the Pidure ought to app.ear in the 
middle of the Piece under the ftrongert light, thai it may be 
more remarkable than the reft, and not by the 01 her adjacent 
parts behid from our fight ; yet lo as all together may cora- 
pofe but one body.with the Draperie proper tor the Jame. 

VII. All the Members or Pans of the' figure , are to be 
combined'or knit together with a kind of Harmonie, as the 
portions of the fame part are, that an apparent Chalm may not 
be made, which will be difgraceful in your work 

VllL' Where there are heaps of Objeds, th?y ought to be 
diftinguiihed by different poftures and motions, which ought 
not to be alike any more than^beir parts, ncr are they all to 
be on one fide, but fee as much as may be in oppoiition one to 

IX. Among many figures, if fome (hew their f^parts, let 
other fome Ihew their hinder parts, oppoling as 11 were the 
back or buttocks to the belly. 

X. Where alfo many figures are, let nor one fide of the 
piece be void or empty, whilft the other is filled to the bor- 
ders ; but let the parts and matter be fo difpofed, that both 
fides may equally participate of the amplitude of the defign. 

XL Let your piece not coofift of too marvy 6gure8 i for it 
will be impoffibleiodifpofe and introduce them into the work, 
with fuch a may make the whole beaucifal. 

XII. Becaufe many difperfed ObjeAs breed confafion, de- 
tradling from the work that excellency and pleafiognefs, 
which ought to give fatisfadipn to the beholder, 

Xllh But if your work muft confift of many figures, you 
ought to apprehend the whole defigo in your mind togethers 
that when it is performed, it may appear at firft View, as 
the produd of perfect harmony, and natures real work. 

XJV. Such parts as are not eafy to be feen, and are not 
natural, and all fore d adions and motions/ alfo UDComly 
poftures and parts, are wholly to be avoided. 

Xl/'. You mafl: alfo avoid ail out lines, and other lines,' 

which are either equal or Parallel, or conftitute any pointed 

or Geometrical figure, whether Triangles, Squares, Quin- 

E 4 quaogles, 

%6 Polygraphices Lib. I. 

quangles^Hexangles, ^c. which by their exad:nefs,or Teeming 
exadrneis, fpoil ihe natural beauty> and give difpleafure to 
the Eye. 

Xl^. Nor are you lo be loo ftrid:ly tyed up to Nature, 
but foaaetiiues you are to give way to fjigiits of Fancy, aad 
your own Genius, by which many times things are added to 
make the defign much more beautiful. 

Wll. Yet you ought to imitate the Beauties of Nature, 
as all the Ancients have done before us : for which parpofe 
the whole Univerfe is often to be viewed and contemplated 
on, ibat you may be furnilhed wiih great Idea's, wi h which 
your work being adorned, they may be as (u many Charms 
upon the fenfcs and underltaodingofthe Beholders. 

XyiJL If your piece is but one lingle figure, it ought to be 
perfedly finiflicd in all its parts, its drapery fweetly fpread 
over it, the folds large, and following the order and motion of 
ihe parts, that they may be feen as it were underneath by the 
lights and ftiadows appendent, 

XiX. If the parts are too much diftari^ from each other. 
fo as there are void rpaces,you ate there to place fome fold cr 
folds, which are to be deeply fhadowcd.toconftitutea feeming 
joyning (as it vvere of the partsj 

AX The beauty, of Drapery confii^s not in the multitude of 
Folds, nor the beauty of Limbs in the quantity atid rifing of 
the Mufcles, but rather in their natural Order and fimplicity. 

XXL The management of the Drapery is to be taken frotn 
the Quality of the Perfoas i if it is of a Clown or Slave, it 
ought to be ccncife and ftort : if of iViagiftrates, bold and 
ample : if of Ladies, Light, Sweet, and Sofr. 

XXII Folds are fomerimes to be drawn out from hollows 
' aod deep fliadows, to wbich you are to give a Iwellipg, that 

receiving the light, it may as it were extend the rlearnefs to 
thofe places where the body requires it, fo will you avoid ihofe 
bard fhadowings which are ever ungracefal. 

XXIII In laying the Scene of the Pidure, you are to con- 
fider rhe places fuppnfed, the Countrie': where brought forth, 
the manner of their Aclions, with the Ufe and Cuftoms 
belonging to them. 

XXIV. You are to follow the order of nature ; as iti draw- 
ing or painting Clouds, Lightning, Sun fliine, ^c. to place 
ib«m towards the top of the piece, not towards the bottom; 
and contratiwifc in putting WcIIj^ Waters, C^yes, Foiuidi- 

Chap. 28. Of Lights Shadow and Colour, 57 

XXV. The lights and fhadows of round bodies ought to 
be lively and ftrong, but in their turnings they ought to 
loofe themfelves infenfibly , and confufedly, without a 
fudden or abrupt precipitation of the Light all of a ftxdden 
into the (hadow, or the fhadow into the Light. 

XXVL But the Paflage of one into the other ought to 
be eafy, fweet, and imperceptible, that is,they are to change 
gradatim, the Light to flide (as it were) into the Ihadow^and 
the fhadow into the Light. 

XXVn. In tJTc fame manner, asif you would manage a 
lingle head or figure , ) ou muft (in conformity to thefe 
precepts) draw a heap of figures, compofed of feveral parts. 

XXVIIL And where you have feveral heaps of figures 
(which or ght not to exceed three or four,) you muft take 
heed fo to place or feparate them from each other, that they 
may be plainly diftingulfhed by Lights, Shadows, or 

XXIX. And thefe things are fo dexteroufly to be managed,' 
that you may make the Bodies to appear enlightned by the 
Shadows which bound the fight, and permit it not fuddenly 
to go farther j and contrarily, the fhadows may be made 
evident by cnlightning your ground. 

XXX. You ought to draw a round body, in the fame 
manner as we behold it in a Convex Mirror, in which the 
Figures and all other things, are feen to bear out with more 
Life and Strength, than even in nature it felf. 


Of Lights Shadow and Colour, 

J. TT He Drawer,Engraver, and Painter, are all to purfue 
* one and the fame Intention, and to be under one and 
the fame Condud: ; what the Drawer or Engraver, makes 
round with the Crion or Steel Inftrument, the Painter per- 
forms with his Pencil ; cafting behind what is to be made lefs 
vifible, by Diminution, and breaking of his Colours : and 
drawing forwards by the moft lively Colours, and ftrongeft 
Shadows, that which is direClly oppofite to the Sight, as 
teing neareft, or moft to be diftinguilhed. 


5 3 Volygraphices Lib. I. 

II. If folid and dark bodies are placed on light and tran- 
fparent groi nds, as the Sky, Clouds, Warers, i'yc. thofe dark 
bodies, &c. ought to be more rough, and more to be diftin- 
guifhed than thofe with which thcv are encompalfcd j that 
being ftrengthncd by the Lights and Shadows, or Colours, 
they may fubhft and preferve their Solidity upon thofe 
tranfparent grounds. 

HI. In the mean feafon thofe light Grounds, as Sky,Clouds, 
Wate|;s, being clearer and more united, arc to be calt oif 
from the fight, to a farther diftance. 

IV. You muft never in one and the fame Pidlure make 
two equal lights , but a greater and a lelfer : the greater to 
ftrikf: forcibly on the middle, extending its grcatcft clearncis 
on thofe places of the defign ; where the principal Figures 
of it arc, and where the Strength ^f the Action feems to be ; 
diminifiiing it gradually,as it comes nearer and nearer to the 

V. This is evident in Statues fet up on high in publick 
places, their upper parts being more erdightned than the low- 
er ; the which you arc to imitate in the diftribution of 

VI. Strong fhadows on the middle of the Limbs are to 
be avoided ; left the abundance of black which com.pofcs 
thofe Shadows (hou Id fecm to enter into them, and feem to 
cut them : rather place thofe Shadowings round about them, 
thereby to heighten the parts ; making after great Lights, 
great Shadows to fuccccd . 

VII. On this Account Titiiin faid, he knew no better rule 
for dillributions of lights and lliadows, than his Obfcrvations 
drawn from a bunch of Grapes. 

VIIL Pure White, either draws an objedt nearer, or fets 
it off to a farther diiiance : it draws it nearer with black, 
and throws it backwards without it : but pure Black (above 
all other Colours) brings the ObjecV nearer to the Sight. 

IX. The hght (being altered by fome colour) never fails to 
communicate fomething of that Colour, to the bodies on 
which it ftrikcs : and the fame eflFedt is pcrform'd by the 
Medium of the air, thro' which it paffes. 

X. Bodies which arc clofe together receive from, each 
. other by reflexion, that Colour which is oppofite to them : 

•vi:{. the" rcHedl on each other, their own proper Colours. 

XL If a defign is filled with many figures, you muft al- 
ways endeavour a union of Colours,for fear, that being too 
different, Uiey fliould incumber the fight by their confulion, 


Clwp. 2 8. Of Light ^ShadoTP and Colour. 59 

with the great numbers of their Members, feparated by 
certain folds. 

XII. And for this reafon, the Venetians paint their Drape, 
ries v^ ith colours which arc nearly related to each other^and 
fcarceiy diftinguifli them any other way, but by the diminu- 
tion of lights and Ihadovvs. 

XIII. Thofe parts of a Picflure fvhich are placed foremoft 
or neareft to the View, lliould always be more finifhed^than 
thofe which are caft behind ; and ought to be more mani- 
feil than thofe things which arc tranllent and confufed. 

XIV. Things remov'd to a diftance, though they are ma- 
ny, yet ought to be made but one Mafs^ as the leaves on the 
Trees, a flight of birds, Billows in the Sea, G?c. 

XV. Objects v\hich ought to be feparated, let them be 
manifeftly fo,and that by a Imall and pleafmg differencejbut 
fuch as ought to be contiguous, let them not be feparated : 
and v\here two contrary extremities are,letthem never touch 
each other either in Colour or light. 

XVI. The various bodies are everywhere to be of dif- 
ferent Airs and Colours, that thofe which are feated behind, 
may be united together, and thofe which are feated fore- 
molt may be ftrong and lively. 

XVII. In painting a half figure, or a whole one, which 
is to be fet before other figures, you ought to place it near- 
er to the Eye, and next to the light : and if it is robe painted, 
in a great place, and at a diltance from the Eyes, then you 
ought not to be fparing of great lights,the ftrongeft Ihadovvs, 
and the moft lively colours. 

XVIII. But you ought not to put a Meridian light in 
your Pi(fture, becaufe there are no colours, which canrfulH- 
ciently exprefs it ; but rather a weaker light, fuch as is that 
of the morning or evening, whofe whitenels is allayed, and 
the fields are gilded (as it were) by the fun beams -, or that 
which appears after a Ihovver of rain, which the Sun gives 
thro' the breaking of a Cloud. « 

XIX. The parts which are neareft to us, and are moft 
raifed, muft be ftrongly coloured, as it were fparkhng : but 
the parts more remote from the fight, towards the borders, 
more faintly touched. 

XX. The field or ground ought to be free, tranfcient,light, 
and well united with colours, which have a friendly agree- 
ment with each other ; and of fuch a mixture, that there may 
be fomething in it of every colour chat compofes your 


6o Pelygraphices Lib. I, 

vvork : and let the bodies mutually partake of the Colour 
of their ground. 

XXI. Your whole Picture ought tote made of one piece, 
wherein you muft avoid as mucli as you can poflibjyj to 
paint drily. 

XXI I. Your Colours ought to be lively, but not look as 
if they had been rubbed or fprinkled with meal, vi:{. you are 
not to let them look pale. 

XXIII. When you make a Pidlurc by the life, you are 
exadlly to follow nature, working at the fametime on thofc 
pares which are refembling to each other. Ex. gr. the Eyes, 
the Checks, Noftrils, and Lips j fo that you are to touch the 
one, as foon as you ha\e given a ftroke of the Pencil to the 
other, left the interruption, and fpaceof timecaufe you to 
loofe the Idea of thofe parts which nature has produced to 
refemble the other. 

XXIV. Thus by imitating nature, feature for feature, 
with juft and harmonious lights and fhadows, and proper 
colours, you will give to the Pid:ure that Uvelinefs, tliatic 
will fccm asif it were the living hand of Nature. 

XXV. Smooth bodies, fuch as Cryftal, Glafs, Gems, 
poliih'd Metals, Stones,Boncs,\Vood«;, ]z^z:\z, things covered 
with hair (as Skins, the Beard, Head ; ) alio Feathers, Silks 
and Eyes, which are of a watery nature ; and things which 
are liquid as water ; and thofe corpoi-cal Species which arc 
rerieCled by them : and ail what touches them, or is near 
them, Ihould be painted and united on ilmr lower parts, but 
touched above boldly by their proper lights and fha,dows. 

XXVI. Let the parcsofthe Pidlure fomuch harmonize or 
confent together, that all the fhadows may appear as if they 
were but one : Embrace whatever is aflifting to you in your 
defign, but avoid the things which may hurt it. 

XX VII. Do not fo much .is touch with your CrLon,PcnciI, 
or Graver, till you have well confidercd your defign, and 
have fixed your out lines, and till you have prefcnt in your 
mind a perfcdl: I(^e.r of your work. 

XXVIII. By the help of a Looking Glafs, you may b« 
afliftcd in many beauties, which you may obfcrve from Na- 
ture ; as alfo by thofe obje»5ls which you may fee in an E- 
vening, where you have an ample field, or large profped:. 

XXIX. Thofe things which are painted to be feen in litT 
tie or fmall places, muft be very tenderly touched, and well 
united by gradual a'pproaches and colours ; the degrees of 
"which ought to be more different, more unequal, more 


Chap. 28. Of Lights Shadow and Colour, 61 

ftrong and vigorous , as the work is more diftant. 

XXX. If the Picture is to be placed where there is but 
little light, the colours ought to be very clear ; but if it is 
ftrongly enlightned or in the open air, tlie colours ought to 
be very brown. 

XXXI. Large lights are to be painted the moil nicely that 
may be, and you muft endeavour to loofc them infcnfibly, 
in the fhadows which fucceed them, and encompafs them 

XXXII. The Eye is to be fatisfied in the firft place, even 
againft and above all other reafons, which may beget diffi- 
culties in the Art, which in it felf has none ; the compafs and 
defign ought then rather to be in your Eyes and in your mind 
than in your hands. 

XXXIII. Avoid objedts which are full of hollows, which 
fcem broken in pieces, or refradled, which are little, and are 
feparated, or in parcels, things which are rude, uneven, ill 
coloured, and are -difplealing to the Eye ; or which are 
partly coloured, and have an equal force of light and 

XXXIV. You ought alfo to avoid all things which are 
obkene, impudent, cruel, poor and wretched, fantaftical or 
unfeemly ; things which are fliarp and rough to the feeling ; 
and all things which corrupt their natural forms, by {he 
confiiiion of their parts, and are entangled in each other. * 

XXXV. But you are to chufe thofe things which arc 
beautifiil,even in the utmoft degree of Perfection, which have 
fomething of magnanimity or greatnefs in them, and whofc 
Scetches or outlines will be noble, and magnificent ; which 
will be diftinguiihed, pure, and without alteration, clean, 
and united together, compofed of great parts, yet thofe bur 
few in number and diftinguiihed by bold colours, and fuch 
as are related, and are harmonious to each other. 

XXXVI. Tho' nature is to be followed in many things, 
and in moft, yet beginners are not at firft to be too fedulous 
in following nature, left their works feem ftarcht or Stiff, 
but they ought to begin with a certain carelefnefs/rccdom, 
and boldnefs, which will accelerate, all their after endea- 
vours, in order to the attaining the perfe(5tion of their 

XXXVII. In the mean time, they ought to learn propor- 
tions, the connexion of Parts, and fixing the Scetches or 
out lines : they ought often to view and Exatrrine admirable 
Originals, and ail the inkniibiliries and fweetnelTes of the 


62 Polygrnphiccs Lib. I. 

Art which will be attained rather by a skilful Mafter^ than 
by fevcre and only Pracflice. 

XXX VIII. After you have done foine part of 'your work, 
let it lye by yon for fome days or weeks,vvirhout looking on ir, 
and then view it again ; fo by that intermiirion, you may 
chance to difcover your faults^ or the hrrorsor Excellencies 
of your piece, which you may either mend, avoid, or ad- 
vance, according to your skill and difcreticn : it will be in 
vain for you continually to pore over your work, and dull 
your GeiiiuSj in fpight of nature, and your prefent inclina- 


XXXIX. As you walk abroad in the Streets, Fields, and 
Country, obferve how nature plays and is dijjiolcd, and the 
particular Airs, of the various Objedls, their poftures, moti- 
ons, and pailions, and with what unconccrn'd freedom they 
dilplay themfelvcs. 

XL. And whatever you judge worthy to be obferv-ed 
(tho it is but the Image or remembrance of a Country Clown 
leaning with his breft upon his Club or Statf, as he is talking 
unconcernedly with his neighbour -in the ftreet or field) 
•whether it be upon the Earth, or in the Air, in the fire, or 
upon the waters, whilft the Species or lAcns of them ar^- 
frelh with you, record the fame, amd fo replenilh your Ima- 
gination and Judgment. 

XLI. ObjcAs of divers nanires which are aggroup'd or 
combin'd together, are agreeable and pleafant to the fight ; 
as alfo fuch things as are perform'd with freedom and eafe ; 
becaufe they feem to be full of Spirit, and to be animated 
with heat and fire. 

XLII. But thofe things are not to be attained to, till af- 
ter a long exercife and practice, and till they are throughly 
weighed and confidercd in your Judgment and underftand- 
ing ; tis an art to conceal from the beholders, the labour and 
pains you have taken. 

XLIII. If you would prove excellent in vour Myfteiy, 
you muft aim at ready apprehenfion , difcerning Judg- 
ment, Inclinations to learning, a noble heart, fublimc fenlc, 
ifervor of Soul,and a Greatnefs of Mind;to which add, youth, 
diligence, competency of fortune, a skilful Malter, and a 
good alfedtion to the Science, without which, it will be im- 
polfible for you to attain to any Excellency therein or arrive 
to the Honour and Glory of your Predeceffors, who with 
indefatigable labour, pains and Induftry, have brought the 
Art to its perfevitic»n. 

^ CHAP. 

Chap. 2 9. Terms of the Art Rx^kakd, 62 


Terms of Arts Explicated, 

I. j^L: The /I'r of a figure or Pidiure, is taken for Its Loo^ 
or Appeara7?ce, in refpecft to its Mode, Sight, Light, 
Shadowing^ and diipofition of the fame. 

II. Antique. It fignifies the Sculpture, Graving,Archite(5t- 
ure, and Paintings of the Ancients, made in the Times of 
the Ancient Greeks and I{pmar?s, from the rime of Alexander 
the Great ^ to PLocas hnperator, under whom the Goths and 
Vandals ravaged and fpoiied all Italy. See chap. i^. SeSi. 
5. aforegoing. \ 

III. Apdtiide. It is faid to come from the Italian word 
Attitiidbie-, and fignifies the mean or Pofture, and Adlion, 
that any figure is reprefented in, or is capable of. 

IV. Aqua fortis. It is a ftrong water, or Spirit made of 
Vitriol and Nitre, of great Medical and Chymical Ufe ; but 
here of fervicc chiefly for Etching Brafs or Copper plates. 
See the making 'thereof in lih. 2. cap. 7. ScU. 1 8. & 15^^ 

. V. Br/^y7iP(?«a7. It isofufetodeanfethe work, wipe off 
duft, and ftrike colours even, ^c. 

VI. Surn'fJoer. It is an Iron ufed by Engravers,to rub out 
Scratches and Specks, or any thing which may blemifh the 
work ; and to make ftrokes or lines graved too deep, to ap- 
pear fainter and fmaller, by rubbing them over therewith. 

VII. Car too}?. It is a Dcfign made of many fheets of Paper 
paftcd together, in which, the whole Story to be painted in 
Frefco or otherwife, is all of it firft exa(5lly drawn. 

VIII. Colouring. It is one of the Parts of Paintinig,by which 
the Work or Piece receives its Tind:urejComplexion,Lights, 
Shadows, and Beauty. 

IX. Chiaro Scuro. It is twofold in Painting, i. When 
there are onlytwo colours ufed. 2. It is the Artful diipofiti- 
on of Lights and Shadows. 

X. Contouer. The Contouers of a body, are the lines 
which environ it, and conftitute its fuperficies. 

XI. Crions. They are Paftils, or dry pencils, made of ie- 
veral Coloured Pafts, to draw withal upon coloured paper 


6^ Volygraphiccs • Lib. t. 

or parchmcnnt. See their various kinds and ways of making 
in ///'. r . citp. z.fcB. 8. .-!</ 1 5 . 

XII. Cornpajlfes. They are a brafs rnftrument,made com- 
monly with Steel points,to take in and out ; that Jnk,biack, 
or red Lead, may be ul'cd at pleafure : they arc chiefly of 
\ife to meafure a diftancc, or ftrike a Circle, or portion of a 
Circle, where you would be cxacfl. 

XUL Defjgn. It fignifics, i . The juft meafurcs, Proporti- 
ons, Scetchings, and outward forms that a figure or pidl- 
urc (taken from nature) ought to have. i. The whole Com- 
pofition of a piece of Painting • from whcncc,it is commonly 
i\\d.jThere is an excclicyit defign in fuch n Piece. 

XIV. Diflcmpcr. h is the Exadt- mixing of Colours, one 
with another,or with Gum : the difference between that and 
Miniature is, this latter ufes only the point of the Pencil - 
the former ufes the Pencil in its full body. 

A7'^. Drapery. It is ufcd generally for all forts of Clothing, 
with which Figures and Pieces arc adornedjin the Modes and 
Air of its fallings, foldings, and difpofition. 

XFI. Drnxcing. It is the firft Art, and the beginnings or 
firftpart of the Art of Painting, without which, nothing in 
this Myftery could be attained to. 

XVH. Dr.mght. It is the Copy of fonje dcf,gn to be en- 
*gravcd, limacd, or painted. 

XIIIL Erching. It is an artificial way of Engraving up- 
on Brafs or Copper plates, by the help of 5//;7> o/ iV/>?r, or 
Aqua fortis : oi which, fee farther, in the following Book. 

XIX. Eifcl. It is an Jnftrument or Frame made of Wood, 
much like a I adder, with iides flat, and full of holes, to 
put in two pins,to fet your work higher or lower at pleafure, 
for the Enfc of the Awift, whence doubtlels came the Nam.e 
on the back fide ; there is a ftay, by which it may be fet 
more upright or Hoping. See ///'. 3. cap. 2. fcSl 3. 

XX. Figure, h is a general word, but here is taken for 
any Engraved, Drawn, or Painted Objevft : but in painting 
it is moftly taken for Humane Si.->apc and Proportion. 

XXL Frefco. It is a kind of Paintivg, where the Colours 
are applied upon frcfh Mortar, that they may incorporate 
with the Sand and 1 imc. 

XXII. Fefrocn. It is a fingular Ornament of Flower?, and 
fuch like, which are put upon the borders and Decorations 
of large Pieces of engraved works or Paintings. 

XXIII. Grotesk^, or Grotcfco. It is a kind of Painting 
found underground in th.* Ruincsof /<f?;;2.' : b\u with us, it 


Chap. 2^. Terms of Art Explicated. 65 

now fignifies a fort of Painting, which- gives odd or ftrang^ 
figures of Birds, Beafts, Serpcnts,Infedts,Herbs, Leavcs.Flow- 
ers, Fruits, ^c. mixed together and continued in one Orna- 
ment or Border. 

XXIV. is an Art which teaches to transfer any 
figure, piece, ordefign upon Brafs, Copper, Iron, Gold^Silver, 
Stone,orWood,by thehelpof fharp pointed Steel Inftrumcnrs. 

XXV. Graver. An Inftrument to grave wirhal, and it is 
of three lorts, vi:{. Round pointed, Square pointed, and Lo- 
zenge pointed. See lib. %. cap. i.Jeci. 3. following. 

XXVL Gruffo. It is a combination or knot of tigurcs to- 
gether either in the middle or fides of a Piece of Painting. 
Of thefe Gruppo's, Caracbe would not allow above three , 
nor above twelve figures for any piece. 

XXVII. is the Joyning of many figures 
in one Piece, to reprefent any action of the Life, whether 
Trur or Fabulous, accompanied with all its Ornaments of 
Landskip and Perfpe*ftivc. 

'^'XN iW.Ichiographic Xt is a fimple defcription of the plain 
bafe or bottom of any body or building ; Or the Platform in 
lines or figure, upon which the b-dy of a building ftands. 

XXIX. jK^omntlck^ or Cromntick. It is that which the La- 
tins call PiRura, and we in Englilh the Art of Pnintivg^ 
and confifts chiefly in Drawwg^Engr.n'ihg, Etchwg,Limning, 
Colouring, zr\<i faint ivg in Oyl. 

XXX. Lands kjf. It is the defign of expreiling in figures, 
the perfevfl vifion of a Country, and all things placed thereon, 
as the Hori:(on, Towns, ViU ages ^CaJileSy Prcmontoyies^Mountains, 
B^cks, Vaiilej, I{iiivs, I^ivers, Fore/Is, Woods, Clc/'cs, Trees, 
Houfes, and all other ^cc;Wew/j attend ing the fame. 

XXXI. Marnier. It is the habit of a Painter, not only of 
his Hand, but of his mind, viz. his way of Expofing himfelf 
in the three principal Parts of Painting, to wit, Invention, 
Dcfign, and Colouring : It anfwers to Stije in Authors ; for 
a Painter is known by his Manner or Mode, as an Author 
by his Stile ; or a Mans hand by his lV,nting. \, 

XXXII. JVWc/. It the figure of the Defign, which a Pain- 
ter works by ; and it is either according to Nature, or o- 
therwife : but Generally it fignifies tlmt which Architects, 
Carpenters, Joyners, Painters, and Scii'ptcrs, frame or make 
10 guide themfelves by in performing their De/igns. 

XXXIII. Mlnatiire. It is the drawing a Great Figure or 
Piece, in fmall ; as the making the figiu-e of a mans Head, 
which is in a whole fheet of Paper in the bignefs of an inch, 

. f or 


66 Polygrapbices. Lib. II. 

or inch and half, the bringing in of a Church, Palace, Caftle, 
Fort, Field, or Country, into the bignefs of an Inch, two, 
or three : but this is belt performed by the help of Dimhii/h~ 
ing Glajfes ground to an Exadlnefs ; the bcft of which kind 
are made by Mr. John Tarwell, living at the Archimedes and 
three golden ProfpeHs in LtiJgnte ftrcet, London. 

XXXIV. Mc:{:{o-^eltevo. It is where the Figures rife up, 
but not above half of them is feen j die reft being fuppofcd 
within the Marble, Stone, or Wood. 

XXXV. Mc:^:{o-'Iir,ilo. Ii is a Pidhire made half black, or 
with no other Colours but black and white : but now it is 
taken for a new Method of Transferring a defien or pidure 
upon a brafs or Copper plate, by the help of an /ngine or 
Tnftrumcnt made for this pnrpofe, which makes the polifhed 
plate, every ways minutely rough ; upon which, the Dcr\gr\ 
or Figure being drawn with Chalk, and a (harp Stiff, by the 
help of a Burn!jhi)?g iron, the whole dcfign according to its 
lighisand (hadows (burnifliing where you would have the 
light ftrike - and that more or lefs, as you would have the 
light ftronger or fainter, you will have with little labour and 
trouble the i whole piece 'transferred upon the Plate, with an 
admirable deal of Accuracy and Sweetncfs. 

XXXVI. Nudity. It is any naked Figure of Man or "Wo- 
man : but moft commonly of a Woman : when we fay. It 
is a Nudity, we mcanjt is the Figure of n nailed 14'^omnn. 

XXXVII. Optickj. They are the Art of feeing rightly, and 
ccnfift of three parts : i. Optickj, fpeciallyfo called ; are the 
Vili( n or Appearance of any vifiblc Objed:, whether ylnimate 
or Innnirn.ite by Direct RadiationSj or beams of Light ; and 
thcfe arc the E5ircA or Srrcight beams, which pafs between 
the Eye and the Objed;. 2. Cntoptrickj, which are relieved 
Radiations, or Beauty upon any polilhcd body as Globe, 
Prifme,rcgular folid, Looking-Glafs,G?c. 9. Dioptrickj, which 
arc broken Radiations or Beams, as they arc to be feen thro' 
a Glafs or Cryftal, cur into fcveral plains or fuperficics. 

■XXXVIII. Orthographic. It ha. rcdangular Vifion of the 
fore-right lidci^f any plain, or upright building : where if a 
ftraight line paflcs from yor.r Eye to any part of the faid plain 
or building it makes with the laid plain or building four right 
Angles, %'!■{. two upwards and downwards from the faid line, 
and the like two on the right and left hand of the faid line. 

XXXIX. Pn.'let. It is a'flat, thin, fmooth piece of Wood 
(cither Walnut-tree, or Pear-tree) about twelve /nches long, 
and ten inches broad, aimoft Oval, at the narrowcft end of, 


Chap. 29' Termf of Jrt Explicated, 67 

which is made a hole to put in the Thumb of the left hand 
and near to that a circular Notch in the edge thereof, that fo 
you may hold it in your hand : its ufe is to temper }'our 
Colours upon. 

XL. Pajiils. They are made of various coloured Paftcs 
or Clay, and are the fame with Crions. 

XLI. Pencils. They are made either ofblack^cr red, 
(haved to a (harp point,or of hair,and are of feveral bignefles, 
from a Pin, to the bignefs of a Finger, and called by feveral 
Names^as Ducks Qiiill fitch'd, and pointed ; Goofe QriilJ. 
fitch'd and pointed ; Swan's Quill fitch'd and pointed ; 
JeweUing Pencils ; Brulh Pencils j fome in ^Uls ■ fome ia 
Tin Cafes ; and fome in Sticks. 

XLIL Parallel-lines. They are fuch lines^(whethcr ftraigh.t 
or crooked) as are every where equally diflanc from another. 
XLin. Peynngon. It is a Geometrical plain figure of 
five equal Sides -, and five equal Angles. 

XLIV. Polygon. It is a plain Geometrical Figure, confift- 
ing of many Sides and Angles ; at Icaft exceeding four, as a 
Hexagon, Heptagon, Odagon, Nonagon, Decagon, (3c. 

XLV. Perpendicular. R is a falling Line, which falls upon- 
another Line, or a Plain at right Angles on each fide the 
line, and round about the Plain. 

XLVI. Pedeftnl. It is a Square Body, or Foundation up- 
on which a Column is to be placed. 

XLVII. PiLificrs. They are Square Piliars_,which ufually 
ftand behind Columns, to bear up Arches. 

XLVlJI. Print. It is the Impreiiion of an engraved Plate 
of Brafs or Coppcr,or a Cut or Carved piece of Wocd,upon 
Paper, Parchment, Silk, or Linnen Cloth, reprefenting fome 
Piece that it had been graved after. is a figure of 4 equal Sldes,& 4 equal Angles. 
h.piiadrant.Ii is the fourdi or quarter part of a Circle ;'but 
is chiefly taken for a Matbcmatic.: I, or Jnftrumcnt. 
LI. [{eHevo. Jt is properly any EmbofTed ^a///?/^//?^, which 
rifcs from a Flat S«/)f r/iViV^. Jt is laid like wife of Pninti7:g, 
that it has a Great B^iievo, when it is (Irong, and that the fi'- 
gitres appear round, as it vvcre,out of the Piece or Plane. 

LII. I{elievD-Bajfo, or BaJJh-^lievo. It is, when figures are 
little more than Dejigtied, and do rife but very little above 
the Plain: and fuch are thofe Figures of the Ancients, which 
they placed about their Cups and other Vcflcls. 

1777. SeRion.It is a plainof pcrlucid or tranfparent matter 
(as of Clals) raifed upright -^ipon the plain of the Bafe ftand- 

F 2, ing 

68 Polygraph ices Lib. II. 

ing before you, parallel to a ftraight line pafllng thro the 
Convex center of both Eyes. 

Lll^. Scciwgruphic. Jt is the dcfcription of an Oblique up- 
right.inclining, or reclining plain, declining from the Ortho- 
graphick Vifion, or fore-right plain^ w'^. of that plain which 
makes Oh\ic\\\c\A)ig!cs, with the faid fore-right plain^and 
the two ftraight Lines imagined to pafs thro the two out- 
ward convex Points of both your Eyes. 

LV. Si;(c. I. Gold Si:;^e. Take prepared yellow Oker, 
what you pleafc, ^dd to it a little prepared Oil, and grind 
them togcther,till they are fine, even as the Oil it felf Note, 
youmuftputno more Oil to the Oker, than may make it 
of a good ftifnefs to work well ; and to be of fuch a body, 
that the Leaf-Gold being laid on ; it may fettle it felf Smooth 
and Gloif/. Sec //'/^ 9. c<t^. i6./d-?. 33. following, 2. S/:;;c- 
H^.ttcr. Take Glcw, Steep it all Night in Water ; then 
melt it over the fire, to fee that it be neither too ftrong nor too 
weak, and fo let it cool : if it is too ftilf when Cold, put in 
more water ; but if too weak mnre Glue. 

LVI. Stiff. Jt is a needle like /nftrumcntufed to draw thro 
all the outmoft Lines or Circumferences of the Print,Pattern, 
or drawing, you Etch after. 

LVIL Shorming, or Forc-Jhorniing, It is when a Figure 
fcems of a greater quantity than really it is : as if it fliould 
fcem to be three feet long, when it is but one. 

LVIII. Schi:{::^o. /t is die firft Attempt or Dcjign of a Pain- 
ter, exprefling his fancy upon any SnbjeiSt. 'Jliefc Schizzo's 
arc commonly reduced into C.rrtoons in Frcfco Painting : Or 
Coppied and enlarged in Oil painting. 

LIX. Stuccp-JPork. Jtis a Piece made of figures of all forts, 
in a kind of Plaifter, and ufedto adorn a Room.either under 
the Cornipoes^ov round the Ceiling j or in ComparcmenLs or 
Divifions. if it is on the Ceiling it felf,it is commonly called 

LX. Tinto. It is when a thing is done only with One Co- 
lour, and that generally Black. 

LXI. Vnrnip?. It is a thick fort of Liquor made by diflol- 
/ving certain Rofins, or Gums, asthat of Juniper, Benjamin, 
Maftick,01ibanum,Rnfin,Gum-I ack,S:c. in Spirit of Wine, 
nr 1 infeed Oil (according to the ufe you ha\ c for it) for the 
Prcfcrving and Adorning of Timber,Boards,Woodcn-Works, 
&c. or to imitate and reprcfent the natural fon.ns of fe\ cral 
bodies Animate and inanimate, as the fevenil and various 
f reductions of Vegetables, Minerals and Animals, 
£xj)licit liber primus. 


Liber Secundus. 


Shewing the Jnfiruments belonging to 
the Work ; the Matter of the Work, 
the way and manner of performing 
the fame ^ together with all other Re- 
quifices and Ornaments. 


Of Graving, and the In(lrnments thereof. 

1, ^^"^ paving is an Art which teacheth how to transfer 
■ any defign |upcn Copper, Brafs, or Wood, by 

\^^^ help of fliarp pointed and cuitiag Inftruments. 

II. The chicflnftrumentsare four,i. Gravers, x. An Ojl 
ftone, 3. A Cufliion, 4. A Burni(her. 

III. Gravers are of three forts, round pointed, fquare 
poimed.and Lozeuge pointed. 7he round k befi to [cratch with' 
al : the fquare Graver k to make the large ft fir oaks : the Lo^^enge 
K to makf ftroaks more fine and delicate ; bur a Graver of a 
middle p^e betwixt the fquare and Lo:{engs fointed, will make 

F 5 the 

yo Volygraphiccs Lib. II. 

tke ftroaks er hatches /herr with more life and vigour, according 
01 you manage it in worl^ing. 

IV. The Oyl-ftone is lo whet the Gravers upon, which 
mu(t be very Imooih, not too Ibft, nor too bard, and without 
pin holes. 

The ufe is thus : Put a few drop of Oil Olive upon the 
fione, and laying that fide of it, tvhich you intend /hall cut the 
Copper, flat upon thefione,a>het it very fiat and even, and there- 
fore be fure to carry your hind {iedfafi tvith an e^ual ftrength^ 
placing the forefinger firmly, upon the oppofite fide of the Graver. 
Then turn the next fide of your Graver, and whet that in lil^e 
Tn.^nner, that you may have a very fharp edge for an inch or 
more. Lafily, turning uppermoft that edge which you have fo 
whetted, and jetting the end of the Graver ohlifuely upon the 
fione, whet it very flat and fioping in form of a Lo3[enge [with 
an exaH and even hand) making to the edge thereof a fharp 
point. It K imp)fflhle that the work^fhould be with the neatnefs 
and curiqfiry dejjred, if the Graver be not, not only very good, but 
al/o exaBly and carefully whetted. 

V. The CufhioD is a leather bag filled with fine fand, to 
lay the pUreupon, on which you may turn it every way at 

Tou mtifl turn your plate with your left hand., according at the 
Jiroal^j trhicbyoy grave do turn, which muft bt attained with 
diligent care and praSiice. 

VI. The burnifhiog Iron is of ufe to rub out fcratches and 
fpecks or other things which may fault your work in the plate j 
as alfo if any ftroaks be graved too deep or grofs,io make them 
appear lefs and fainter by rubbing them therewith. 

VII To make your Gravers. 

Provide fome crofs-bow fleet, and cauCe it to he beaten out into 
fmall rods, and foftned, then with a q^oodfile you may fioape them 
at pleafure ! when you have done, heat them red hot, and ftraight 
dip It into Soap, and by fo doing it will be very hard : where 
note,that in dipping them into the Soap, if you turn your band 
never fo little awry, the Graver will be crooked. Jf your 
Graver be too hard, tal^e a red- hot Charcoal and lay the end of 
ycur Graver upon it till it begins to wax yellowtfh, and then 
dip it into t.illow (feme fay water} and it tpill be tougher. 

VIII. Have by you a piece of Box or hard wood.that after 
you have fharpned your Graver, by ftriking the point of it 
into tbe faid Box or bard wood, you may take off all the 
rougbnefs tbo'u the points, which was caufed by whetting it 
upon the oyl-ilonc. IX* 

Ghap, 5. Of holding theGraver, 7 1 

IX. Laftly, take a file and touch the edge of the Graver 
therewith) if the file cut it, it is too foft.and will do nogood: 
but if it will not touch it, it is fit for your work. 

If it Jhould break, on the point, it is a /ign it w tempered too 
hard ; tvhich oftentimes after a little ufe by tvhetting tvill come 
into a good condition. 


Of Polifiwg the Copper Plate. 

I, npAke a plate of Brafs or Copper of what bignefs yoa 
-^ pleafe, and of a reafooable tbicknefs, ttking heed that 
it be free from fire-flaws. 

II. Beat it as fmooth as you can with a hatntner, and thea 
rub it as fmooth as you can, with a putnice-ftone void of Gra- 
vel Cleft it fearch it, and focaufe as much labour to get them 
outj and a little water. 

III. Then drop a few drops of oyl Olive upon the plate , 
and burnid) it with your burnilhing Iron ; and then rub it with 
Charcoal made of Beech wood quenched in Urine. 

IV. Laftly, with a roul made of a piece of a black Felt, 
Caftor, or Beaver,dipt in oyl Olive, rub it well for an hour, 
fo Ihall your plate be exadly polilhed. 


Of holding the Graver* 


iT will fae ueceflary to cut off that part of the knob of 
-^ the handle of the Graver which is upon the fame line 
with the edge of the Graver; thereby making that lower 
iide next to the plate flat, that it may be no hindrance in 

II. For ttorkjng upon a large plate.tbat part of the handle (if 
not cut atvay] wiSfo reft upon the Coppery that it will hinder the 
fmooth and even carriage of your hand in making your ifroaks, 
and toiUcaufeyour Graver to run into your Copper deeper than it 
foculddo. This done. F 4 *~ IT* 

72 IPolygritphkes Lib. II. 

III. Place the knob at the end ofifae handle of ihe Graver 
in ibe hollow of yum hand, and having extended your fore- 
finger towards the point of the Graver, laying it a top, or 
oppofiie to (be edge which fliould cut the plate • place your 
thumb on the one fide of the Graver, and your other fingers 
on the other fide, (o as that you may guide the Graver flat 
and parallel with the plate. 

IV. Be wary that your fingers interpofc not between the 
plate and the Graver, for they will hinder you in carrying 
your Graver level with the plate, and caufe your lines to 
be more deep, grofs and rugged, than otherwife they would 


Of the vpay and manmr of Engraving. 

I. OAving a Cuihion filled with Sand about faine 
• inches long and fix broad, and three or four ihick.and 
a plate well poliflied \ lay the plate upon the CuQiion, which 
place upcn a firm Table. 

II. Holding the Graver (as aforefaid) according to Art, in 
making ftraight ftroaks be fure to hold your plate firm upon 
the Culhion, moving your hand, leaning lightly where the 
ftroak ftiould be fine ; and harder where you would have the 
ftreak broader. 

III. But in making circular or crooked ftroaks, held your 
hand and Graver, ftcdfaft, your arm at)d elbow refting up- 
on the Table, and move the plare againft the Graver; for 
oiherwife it is impollible to wake thofe crooked or winding 
ftroaks with that neatnefs and command that you ought 
to do. 

IV. Learn to carry your band with fuch a flight, that you 
may end your llroak as finely as you begin it ; and if you have 
occafion to make one part deeper or blacker than another, 
do irby degrees ; and that you may do it the more exadly, 
obferve that your ftroaks be not too clofe. nor too wide. 

For ynur more exaifl Dbfcrvaiion. prai5ice by fuch prints 
whicharemore loofly fliadowed, lelt by imitating the oaore 
dark, you fljould oot know where to begin or end. 


Chap. $. Ofthe Jmitaimt of Copies or Vr'ints, 72 

V. After yott have graved part of your work, it will be 
needful to fcrape it wiih the fliarp edge of a burnilher or 
other Graver, carrying it along even wiib the plate, (o take 
off the roughnefs of the ftroaks j but in doing it, beware of 
making fcratcbes. 

VI. And that you may the better fee that which is Engra- 
ven, with the piece of Felt or Cattor (at the fourth Se(5tion of 
the fecond Chapter) dipt in oyl rub the places graven. 

VII. Laitly, whatfoelrer appears to be amifs, you may 
rub out with the burniflier, and very exadly polilh it with 
your piece of Felt or Caftor and oyl ; which done, to cleanfe 
the plate you may boil it a little in Wine-vinegar, and rub 
it gently wiihabrulh of fmall Brafs-wire or Hogs briftles. 


Of the Imitation of Copies or Prints. 

1. XJAvirg a piece of Bees wax tyed up in a fine faolland 
•■■ -^ rag, heat the plate over the lire, till it may be hot e- 
Bough to melt the wazj then rub the plate with the wa:e 
lyed up in the rag, till you fee it covered all over with wax, 
(which let be very thin: ) if it be not even, heat it again by 
the fire, and wipe it over gently with a feather. 

II, If you would copy a printed pidure, to have it print 
off the fame way j then clap the print which you would i- 
mitate with the printed fide next to the plate ; and having 
placed it very exadly, rub the backfide of the print with a 
burniftier, or any thing that is bard, fmootb and round,wbich 
will caufe it to ttick to the wax upcn the plate : then take off" 
the print Cbeginning at one cornerj gently and with care, left 
you tear it (which may be caufed alio by purring too miich 
wax upon the plate) srd it will leave upon the wax the per- 
fedt proportion in every part. 

Inhere note, if it be an old ftSture, before ^ou place it upon 
the tPax, is Will be good to tracks it over in every limb iffith a 
black-lead pencil. 

III. But if yeu would have it print the contrary way, take 
the duft of black-lead, and rub the backfide put upon rbe vi'ax- 
cd plate J and with your needle or drawing point, draw all 


74 Poljigraphkes Lib. II. 

tbeouc-linesof thedefign or print, all which you will fiod 
upon the wax. This done. 

IV. Take a long Graver either Lozenge or round (which 
is better) very (harp, and with the point thereof fcraich over 
every particular limb in the om-ilroak i which done, it will 
not be difficult to mark out all the (hadows as you Engrave, 
having the proportion before you. 

V. Laftly, for Copies of Letters^ go over every letter with 
black-lead, or write them with ungum'd Ink, and clap the 
paper over the waxed plate as before. 

See Chap. 9. SeSi. 20. ad 25. following. 


Of Eftgravwg in Woody called Cutting and 

L *l^)At figures that are to be carved or graven in Wood 
-■- tnuft firft be drawn, traced,or pafted upon the wood; 
and afterwards all the other landing of the wood(excfpt the 
figurej muft be cut away with little narrow pointed kaives 
made for that purpofe. 

Tha graving in wood i( far more tedious and difficu/t than 
that in Brafs or Coffer \becaufe you muji cut it, and be careful in 
picking it otit, left you Jhoidd break any fart of the war kj which 
would deface it. 

II. For the kind of the wood let it be |)ard and tough : 
the belt for this purpofe is Beech and Box or Peai-tree ; let it 
be plained inch thick ; which you may have cut into pieces 
according to the bignels of the fifjure you grave. 

III. To draw the figures upon ihe wood. 

Grind white lead very fine, and temper it with fair water ; 
dtp a cloth therein, and rub over one fide of the wood and let it 
dry throughly: This k^epeth the Ink, (if 7°" draw therewith) that 
it run not about, ncr fink and tf you draw with P aft lis, it makes 
the ftroaks appear more plain and bright. 

IV. Having whicd iriC wood as before fif it is a figure yon 
would copy,) black or red the blank (ide ot ihe print or copy, 
and with a little Itick or 1 wallow's quill, trace or draw over 
iht Itroaks of ihc figure^ 


Chap. 7. Of Etching. 75 

V. But if you pafte the figure upon the wood, you muft 
not then white it over (for then the figure will pill off) but 
only fee the wood be well plained : then wipe over the prin- 
ted fide of the figure with Gum-Tragacanth diflblved in fair 
water, and clap it fmooth upon the wood, which let dry 
throughly : then wet it a little all over, and fret off the paper 
gently, till you can fee perfedly every ftroak of the figure: 
dry it again, and fall to cutting or carving it. 


Of Etching, and the Materials thereof 

I. Z^Tcbing is an artificial Engfaving o£ Brafs or Copper 
plates with AquafortK. 

II. The Inftruments of Etching fbefides the plate) are thir- 
teen. I . Hard VarniSo. 2. Soft Farni/h. 3. Prepared Ojl. ^. 
Aquafortis. 5 'Needles. 6. Oyl-fione. 7. Brufis-Pencil. 8. But- 
nijher. 9. A Scraper. lo. Compajfes. 11. h^ler, iz, Stift. 13, 
The Frame and Trough. 

III. Topolijh the Plate. 

Although in Chap. 1 of this Book, we have fufficiently 
taught how to polifli the plate, yet nevertbelels we think it 
convenient to fubjoyn thefe following words. Firft, the plate 
being well planilhed or forged, choole the (mootheit fide to 
poliih I then fix it upon a board a little declining, and rub it 
firm/y and evenly all over with a piece of Grindltone, throw- 
ing water often on it, fb long till there be no dints, flaws, or 
mark* of the hammer. 

IV. Wafh it clean, and with a piece of good Pumice- 
ftone, rub it crofwife to the former, fo long till there be no 
rough ftroaks or marks of the Grindftone. 

V. Wafli it clean agam, and rub it with a fine Hoan and 
water croiWife to the former, till the marks of the Pumice- 
ftone are rubbed out. 

VI. Wafh it agsiin, and with a piece of Charcoal wit.hout 
kno's (being beat red hot and quenched in Urine, the outfide 
being pared off; rub 1 be plare wich water, till all the fmali 
firoakf of the Hoan be vaniihed. 


7<5 Peljigraphiccf Lib. If. 

VII. Laftly ,lf yet there remain any fmall ftroaks or fcratch- 
e5, rub them out with the end of the burnifliing Iron ; but in 
cafe they are very deep, you mult make ule of your Scraper, 
and fcrape them out, and burnifli them afterwards; and thea 
lattlytakea Charcoal prepared as aforefaid, and rub there- 
with, with water, till the plate is glafed, fo fliall the plate be 
fitted for work. 

VIII. To mak,e the hard Varnijh for Etching. 

Take Greek or Burgundy-pitch, Colophonium or Rozin, of 
each five ounces, Nut-OyI four ounces ; melt the Pitch or 
Rozin in an earthen pot upon a gentle tire •, then put in the 
Oyl, and let them boil for the fpace of half an hour : cool it a 
little upon a fofter fire till it appear like a Glewy Syrup ; cool 
it a little more, ftrain it, and being almoft cold, put it into 
a glafed pot for ufe. Being thus made, it will keep at leaft 
twenty years. 

IX. To makethifoft Varnijh for Etching. 

Take Virgin-wax three ounces, Mafticb in drops two oun- 
ces, Afphalcum one ounce: grind the Maftich and Afphaltum 
feverally very fine : then in an earthen pot melt the wax, and 
ftrew in the Mafticb and Afphaltum, ftirring all upon the 
fire til! they be well diflblved and mixed, which will be in 
about half a quarter of an hour i then cooling it a little, 
pour ir into a balbn of fair water (all except the dregs) and 
with your hands wet (before it is cold) form it into rouls. 

X. Or thus, Take Virgin H'^.tx,fonr ounces: Afphaltum, two 
runces r ^niber, Mafiich, of each one ounce : the three laft being 
in fine Ponder, mix it over a gentle fire, that it miy not be 
burnt ; then takjrg it from the fire, put it into a fot of fair tva- 
ter^ and make it up into Balls or I{ouls. and preferve it from the 
dufi ; trhen you ufe it^ take a quantity of it, and bind it up in a 
pieceofTaffaty or Silk., and tife it as hereafter tt*e fhall direct. 

XL Or thus, for a Red Ground. Takf Hed Lead, grind it 
very weS, and temper it with varnifh. 

XIL Or thus, for a White Ground. Take B^fm, two ounces'. 
Wax, one ounce : melt them together, adding Venice Cerufe 
finely nround, ttfo drams. 

XIU. Or thus, for a Black Ground. Take Afphaltum four 
ounces ; Bees TVax, two ounces ; melt them together, being loarm^ 
lay it thinly on With a Lawn ^ag. 

A7K Or thus, for another Red Ground. Take lied Lead 

or Vermillion, grind it very well, then grind it with Linfeed Oyl; 

lay it on very thin. 


Chap. 7. Of Etching. 77 

XV. Or thus, out of a Manufcript. Take Virgin Wax, four 
ounces : Afphaltum, Amber, MafiicJ^, of each two ounces (but if 
cold weather, but one ounce of Majiickj B^Jln, Shootnak^rs Pitchy 
of each an ounce : Common Fami/h, half an ounce : melting 
the TVax in an Earthen Pot, put in the other things by degrees, 
tpbich then well mixed, make it up into Balls or l{nuls, and keep 
itfrdm dufiforufe. 

X(^. Or thus, from Rinebrant. Take Afphaltum burnt, 
lidajiick,. Amber, of each half an ounce : Virgin PVax, an ounce : 
mslt the Wax and mix therewith the former things in Pouder, 
then make it i"to Bal's or ^ouls for tife : M^^ you ufe it, heat not 
the plate too hot, and lay your Blac\ Gtounninery thin, and the 
White Ground upon it. 

XVII. To make the prepared Oyl. 

Take Oyl Olive, make it hot in an earthen pot, and put in- 
to it a fufficient quantity of tried Sheeps Suet ffo much as 
being dropped upon a cold thing, the oyl may be a little 
hardened and firm) boil them together for an hour, till they be 
of a/reddilh colour, left they fliould feparate when you ufe 
them. This mixture is to make the fat more liquid, and not 
cool fo faft, for the fat alone would be no fooner on the pencil, 
but it would grow cold ; and be fure to put in more oyl in 
Winter than in Summer. 

XVllL To make the Aquafortis. ^ 

Take diftilled White-wine Vinegar three pints ; Sal-Armo- 
niack, Bay-falt, of each fix ounces j Verdigreafe four ounces. 
Put all together into a large well giszed earthen pot (that 
they may not boil over) cover the pot clofe, and put it on a 
quick fire, and let it fpeedily boil two or three great walms 
aad no more ; when it is ready to boil, uncover the pot, and 
ftiric fometimes with a ftick, taking heed that it boil not 
over ; having boiled, take it from the fire, and let it cool, 
being clofe covered, and when it is cold, put it into a Glafs bot- 
tle with a Glafs ftopple : If it be too ftrong in Etching, 
weaken it with a glafs or two of the fame Vinegar you made 
it of. 

A7X, There is another fort of Aqua for ta, which is called 
€ommon, which is exhibited in our Pharmacopeia Londinenjit 
(3 Doron. Medicum. But becaufe thofe Books may not be \n 
every mans hand, we will bereinfert it j ic is thus : Take dri- 
ed Vitriol two pound, Silt-perer, one poupd, them and 
diftil by a Retort, in open fire by degrees, 

XX. To tnak? the Utchit^g Needles.. 


yS Polygraph'ices Lib. II. 

Cboofe Needles of feveral fizes fuch as will break without 
bending, and of a fine grain ^ then taxc good round flicks of 
firm wood (not apt to fplitjabouc fix inches loogjand as thick 
as a large Goufequill, at the ends of which fix your Needles, 
fo that they may Itand out of the fticks about a quarter of an 
inch or lotuething more. You ought to have twenty Needles 
at leaft j which you may fix in luch ItickSi as to have a pen- 
cil at ibe other end. 

XXI. I'o wbet thb points of the Needles tvith the Oyl-fione. 
If you would have ihem whetted round, you mult whet 

their points ftioi upon the Oyl-ilone ("not as lowing Needles 
arej turning thetn round whilft you whet them, as Turners 
do. If you wbet them Hoping, firft make them blunt upon 
the Oyl-ttone, then holding them firm and fteady, whet them 
floping upon one fide only, till they come to a flieri and 
roundilh oval. 

XXII. The bru/h pencil is to cleanfe the work, wipe oflf 
duft, and to ttrike the colours even over the ground or var- 
nilh, when laid upon the plate, 

XXIII. The burnijher is a well hardened piece of fteel 
Tome what roundilh at rhe end. Its ufes are what we have 
fpoken at the fixth Se(5lion<of the firft Chapter, and the third 
Sedlion of the fecond Chapter. 

XXIV. The 5cM/>*r is one of the Inftruments fitted for 
clearing the plate of all deep fcratcbes or ftroaks which the 
burnilher will not take away j you are firft to fcrape them out 
with the fcraper, (carrying your hand evenly, that you make 
not more WGrk)aDd then afterwards to butnilTi upon what you 
have fcraped. 

XXV. The CctnpaJJes are chiefly of ufe to meafure a di- 
ftance, or ftrike a Circle, or fome part or portion of a Circle, 
where you defire your work to be cxadt. 

XXVI. The Bjdler is of fervice chiedy, to draw all the 
firaighr hatches or lines of your defign. upon plate j or, to 
mark out dirtances upon a ftraight line. 

XXVjr. The Seift is ufcd to draw through all the ouimoft 
Lines or Circumferences ot ihe Print, Pattern, or Drawing, 
which you Etch after. 

XXVIII. To make the Frame and Trough. 

The Frame is an cn'ire board, about whofe top and fides 
is fattened a ledge two inches broad, to keep the Aqua fortis 
from running rfffrom the fides when you pour it on: the 
lower end of this board muft be placed in the Trough, leaning 


Chap. 8. Of Etching. y^ 

floping againfl: a wall or fome oiher thing, wherein you muft 
fix feveral pegs of wood to reft the pUie upon. 

XXIX. The Trough is made of a firm piece of EJai or 
Oak fet upon four legs, whofe hollow is four inches wide ; 
and fo long as n:iay beft fit your ufe : the hollow muft be 
fomething deeper in the middle, that the water running 
thither may fall through a hole fthere made for that purpofej 
into an earthen pan well Leaded. The infide of tb» board 
and trough muSl be covered over with a thick^oyl colour^ to hinder 
the Aqua iotmfrom eating or rotting the board. 


The way and manner ofujing the Hurd ZJarnip. 

I. O Aving well heat the polilhed plate over a Chafing difli 
^^' of coals, take fome of the firft varnifli with a little 
ftick, and put a dropof it on the top of your finger, with which 
lightly touch the plate at equal diftances, laying on the var- 
nifh equally, and heating the plate again as it grows cold, 
keeping it carefully from duft or filth ; then with the ball of 
your thumb tap it upon the plate j ftill wiping your hand over 
all, to make it more fmootb and equal. 

And here bettare that neither the varnifio be too thicJ^upon 
the flate, nor your handfweaty. 

II. Then take a great lighted candle burning clear, with a 
fliort fnuff, ^placing the corner of the plate againft a wallj bold 
the varniflied fide downward over the candle, as clofe as yoo 
can, fo it touch not the varnifli, guiding the flame all over, till 
it is all pcrfedly black, which you muft keep from duft or 
filth till it is dry. 

III. Over a fire of Charcoals hang the varnilhed plate to 
dry with the varnifh upwards, which will fmoak j when the 
fmoak abates, take away the plate, and with a pointed ftick 
fcratch near the fide thereof, and if the varnifli eafily comes 
off, bang it over the fire again a little, fo long till the varnifii 
will not too eafily come off j then t&ke it from the fire and 
let it cool, 


8o Volygraphkcs Lib. II. 

If the varnifhjhould be too hard, caH cold water on the hack,' 
fide of the plate to cool it, that the heat may not make it too hard 
and brittle. This done, 

IV. Place it upon a low desk, or fome fuch like thing, 
and cover tbar parr wbicb you do not work on, with a flieet 
of fine white paper, and over that a Ihcet of brown paper, on 
wbich may reJt your band, to keep it from the varnifh. 

V. If you ufe a ruler. Jay (omc part of it upon the paper, 
that it may not rub ofFfbe varnuTi ;and have an efpecial care, 
that noduft or filth get in between the paper and the varoini 
for tbac will hurt it. 


The wn.y and manner of Etching. 

I. 1 N making lines or hatches, fome bigger, fome lefler, 
A ftraigbt or crooked, you muft ufe feveral forts of 
Needles, bigger or leffer, as the work requires. 

II. The great lines are made by leaning bard on the 
Needle; its point being (hort and thick, (but a round point 
will not cut the varoilh clear : ) or by making divers lines ; 
or hatches, one very clofe to another, and then by pafllng over 
them again with a thicker needle; or by making them with 
an indifferent large needle, and letting the Aquafortis lie the 
longer thereon. 

The heft 'Needles for thU work, are fiich as are tvhet Jlopirg 
with an oval^ becaufe their fides tt'iS cut that trhich the round 
ttfies will not. 

III. If your lines or hatches ought to be of an equal thick- 
nefs from end to end, lean on the needle with an equal force ; 
leaning lightly where you would have the lines or ftroaks 
tine or finall ; and tnore heavy where you would have the 
lines appear deep or large-, thereby the needle may have 
fome Impreffion in the Copper. 

IV. If your lines or hatches be too fmall, pafs over them 
again with a fhort round point of fuch a bfgnefs as you would 
have the line of, leaning ftrongiy where you would have the 
Ike deep. 


Chap. 9. Of Etching, 81 

V. The manner of holding the needle with oval point* 
(which are tnoft proper to make large and deep itroaksj is 
much like that of a pen, only the flat (ide whetted is ufually 
held towards the thumb : but they may be ufed with the 
face of the oval turned toward the middle finger. 

VI. If you would end with a fine itroak, you ought to da 
that with a very fine needle. 

VII. In ufing the oval points, hold them as upright and 
ilraigbt in your band as you can, firikingyour ilroaks firm- 
ly and freely, for that will add much to their beauty and 

VIII. In Landskips, in places faribeft frona the figbr, 
as alfo nearelt the light, uie a very llender poinr, lean-' 
Ing fo lightly with your hand as to make a fmall faint 

IX. In working be careful to brufli off all the duft which 
you work off with the needles. 

X. But this you ate to obferve, that you be able to copy 
any Drawing or print exadlyjand to draw afrei good heads 
of Plafter, or Figures, according to your own fancy, and 
skilful in fliadowing every thing exadiy according ro art : 
And therefore when you imitate Platter, be fuie to take the 
true out-lines or circumferences, and taking novice bow the 
Hiadow falls, to do it very faint and loft as the defign re- 

XI. Therefore it is convenient that you be able to batch 
with the Pen, exa(5tly after good Prints or Copies, at)d wberi 
you can perfcdiy do that, and draw after Plainer, then 
to imitate the life ; bat before you draw after the life, you 
muft be very exacS: and true in your Out-lines or circumfe- 

XII. Now to take the outmoft lines in any Draw- 
ing or Print, upon the ground of tbe plate, you muft fcrape 
a little white lead upon ihe btck fide of it, then rake 
a feather, and rub it over every where alike, and fhake 
off that which remains loofe. This done, take the print 
and lay it upon tbe Plate, on that fide the ground 
is, and fatten tbe four corners thereof to tbe plate with 
a little fofc Wax: acd rake the Stift^ and drav/ Upon 
the Print all tbe outaioft .'ines or circumferences exadtly ; 
which dotifj take off th*^ pjinrfrom tbe plaic^ and all 
the fame our~(ines and circumferences 5 'a bich you drew opoti 
the print with the Stift,WilI be exa(ftlv found upoa the ground. 

82 Folygraphices Lib. 11 

XIII. Then o'Dfeive exadtly how your original or pattern 
is Ihadowed, and how dote tbe hatches joya, how they are 
laid, and which way the light fails or comes in: and be fu're 
to make the light to tall all one way ; if the light falls fide- 
ways in the Prim j you mult hatch the other fide darkclt, 
which is fartheit from the ligbr, and fo place your lights alto- 
gether on one tide, and not confuledly, part on one tide, and 
part on another. 

XIV. Oblerve how clofe all the harches joyn, how they 
incline, and which way they twift and wind ; which follow 
as exadly as poifibly you can : but before you begin to hatch 
or fliadow, you mult be fure to draw all the outtnolt lines 
with a Needle upon the ground as artificially as you can, 
which fhadow with your Needles of feveral foru according to 
your Original. 

XV. When you are to make a broad ftroak, then break 
off the pointof your Needle, and whet it upon the oyl (tone, 
four fquare till it comes to a point •, if you hatch fine ftrokes 
then you mult ute fine pointed Needles: if middle fized 
ftroices, then break oflF ibe point of a middle iizcd Needle, 
and whci it as aforefaid i and fo in like manner according to 
all the fizes : but lome Artifts, in making a bold or broad- 
itroke, hatch it firlt fine, and fo by degrees make it 

Etching Land-skips. 

XVI. When you etch Land-skips, batch that which li 
nearelt to the eye darkcft, and fo let it loofe or decline its 
(hadows by degrees, making that which is fartheit off 

XVII. The fame thing you muft obferve in etching of 
the sky. For that which is neareft to the eye, muft be dark- 
eft (hadowed, but in general as faint and loft as may be, 
loofing it felf by degrees as is before dired:ed ; and the near- 
er the sky comes to the ground, the more it muft loofe and 
be fainter : when they both meet as it were together, the 
sky muft be quite loft. 

XV/II. When you have hatched it as exadly as you can 
po/Tible with your Needles, after the Print or Drawing, then 
compare them cxatftly together, that you may fupply any dc- 
fecft, or mend what is done amifs. 

XIX. In etching a piece q( Perfjfe8ive after a Draught or 
Print, beware of Peifec'tion at a difiance, and be fure to 
ftadow that which is neareft to the eye, perfefteft and 


Chap. 9. Of Etching, 85 

{Irotigeft, and the farther from the eye, ft muft decline ia 
iengtb, bread tb, and beightfr according to Arc and Proporir 
on ; letting ibe Ihadovvs loofe, and grow fainter and fainter, 
gradatim, till they are nearly loft, 

Ft hing or Engraving of Letters. 

XX. Screw the Copper place Cbeing fit for etching, by 
one of its corners j CO a hand Vice, which hold over a Char- 
coal fire till it be warm: then take a piece of Virgin Wax, 
and rub it all over the plate, until it is coveied every where 

XXI. This done, take a ftifF Ducks-wing feather fr.oc 
riifledj and therewith drive the Wax even and faaootb, every 
where alike, and lo let it ccol. 

XXII. Then write the Letters or Hand, which you intend 
to put upon the plate, on a piece of Paper with ungum'd 
Ink : this psper thus written, lay with the written fide down- 
wards, upon the waxed plate, and faften the four corners 
with a little foft Wax ; the writing being fo jjlaced that the 
lines may run itraight, 

XXIII. Then take a Dogs tooth, and rub the pa- 
per all over with it, not milfiDg any place ; which done 
take off the Paper from the plate, fjp will all the letters 
which you wrote on the papers be left cxadly upun the 

XXIV. Take nowa5'^»/V, anddraw all the letters through 
the Wax upon the plate, and take a linneo rag, or Pencil 
brufli, with which cleanfe the work from the loofe Wax i 
lo will all the letters be drawn upon the Copper. 

XXV. This, if you pour upon it good Aqua fortify will 
be etched : but if you take away all the Wax, you may better 
and more cominendably perform it by Graving, with 
good Gravers well ground, and made fliarp towards the 
points ; then whetted very fmooth and (harp upon a good 


84 Volygraph'jces ^ Lib. II. 


Of ufing the Aqua fortis. 

I.|F there be any ftroaks which you v/ould not have the 
■■• jiqua fortis eat into • or any places where the varnifli is 
rubbed off, meit fome prepared OyJ, and with a pencil,cover 
thofe places pretty thick. 

II. Then take a brufh pencil, or rag, and dip it in the pre- 
pared oyl, and rub the bak-fideof the plate all over, that the 
^(jua fortif mzy noi hurt it, if by chance toy ftiould fall 

///. Before you put ^^tt4 /or^» to the plate, gently warm 
or dry rhe place by a fiie 10 dry up the humidity, which it 
might contraifh by reafon of the Air j and to prevent the 
breaking up the varniih upon the fiift pouring the Jquaform 

ir. Place the plate by the nth. Sedion of the ytb. Chap- 
ter of this Book, and with rhe Aqua fort a in an earthen pot 
pour upon the plate, beginning at the top, To moving your 
band rhac it may run all over the plate, which do for eight 
or ten times: then turn it corner-wife, and pour iht Aqua 
fonu on it that way ten or twelve times ; and then turn it a- 
gain corner- wife theoiberway, pouring on \ht Aqua fortk 
cig'tor ten rime? as before j doing thus feveral times for 
the Ipace of halfa qiarter of an hour or more, according to the 
ftretigihof the waier, and nature of the Copper. 

Icor there mufl be Icfs time allctved to hard and brittle Coffer 
forpnurtr,2^ or> the Aqua fortis, ^«f more to thefnft. . 

V. Bu r you murt have fpecial regard tla caft on the Aquafor- 
tis as occafion iTiall require, and as the work is j calling ic 
on at leveral times, and on feveral places ; where you would 
have it ^ry deep, often ; where lefs deep, fewer times : 
where-light, lefs yet; where lighter, leller yet: and where 
fo light as it can fcarcely be feen, once or twice : wafli it 
with water, and cover it where you would have ic 

Chap. I o. Of tijing the Aquafortis. 85 

VI. Having thus covered your plates as occafion requires 
for the fecond lime, place the pJate on the frame as aforefaid 
and pour on it your AquafortK for a full half hour. 

Vn. Then waflj it with water, and dry it, covering the 
places which require lightnefs or faimnels (that they may 
be proportionable to the deflgnj tfaen^our on the AqttafortK 
for the laft time more orjels according 10 the naiure of 
your work, and the deepnefs that it requires. 

VlII. Ycumay rub off the varnilh or ground, as occafion 
in your work requires with a Charcoal, to fee whether the 
water hath eaten deep enough ; by which you may judge 
of thefpace of time, that you are after to implpy in pouring 
on the Aquafortis, in the works you will have to do, which 
if the ftiadows require much deptb,or ought to be very black, 
the water oughc to be poured on fat the leaft time) for an 
hour or better i yet know,wo certain rule of time can be limited 
for thii. 


Of Fifjrpobig the work, 

J. A LL the former operations being done, wafh the pfate 

^^ with fair warer j and put it wet upon the fire, till 
the mixture be weli melted, and then wipe it very clean on 
both fides with a linnen clotb, till you have cleanfed it of all 
the mixture. 

II. Take Charcoal of Willow, takeoff the rind of ir, and 
putting fair water on the plate, rub it with the Charcoal^ 
as if you were to polifti it, and it will take off the 

Where note, that the Coal muft be (esc from all knots and 
roughnefs, and that no fand or fihb fall upon the plate. 

Ill Take ordinary Aqua fortis, to which add two third 
parts of water, and with fome linnen rags dipped therein 
rub the plate all over, fowili you takeaway its dilcolourirg, 
and recover its former beauiy. 

IV. Then take dry linnen rags, and wipe the plate fo as 
to take off all the aforefaid water, and then holding it a lit- 
tle to the firej put upon it a little Oyl Olive, and with a 

G 3 . piece 

^6 Folygraphkes Vb. If, 

piece of an o!d Beaver rplled up, rub the plate weH all over, 
and laiilVj wipe it well with a dy cloaih. 

V. Iden if any places Dttd touching with the Graver, as 
fometimes it bapptos, cipecully where it is to b^' vi-iy deep 
or black, perfc(5t them vvirh care • which done, the f late is 
ready for the R.olling-Preft. 


T/je way ofnfing the foft Varnifl). 

I. "THe plate being prepared by cleanfing it with a Char- 
■* coal and clean water, walh it well and dry it^ then 
with fine whire Chalk fcraped and a fine rag, rub it well over, 
not touching it with your lingers. 

II. Lay down you plate over a Chafing dilh of fmaJl-coal, 
yet To as the fire may have airi then take the ground or loft 
varniH) (it being tied up in a fine rag) and rub it up and down 
the Copper, fo as it may lufHifrtly cover it, f»;or Korbin 
nor too thick :;' then lake a iliff Ducks feither, and fmoothit 
as well as poilibly you can all one way, and then crols it till 
it lie very well. 

But you muji take heed that the plate be not too hot, for tf it 
lie tiSthe oround fmcak^, the moijtnre will b: dried upland that 
will fpoil the work,, andmake the ground break, or fly up. 

III. Then grind fca^e Cerufe or Whice-iead with Gum- 
water, To th?.t it may be of a convenient rbicknefs to fpread 
on iheCopperj and with a large pencil, or fmall brulh, 
ftrike the plafe crofs over, twice or thrice till it is fmootb ; and 
then with a la: ger brufli fmade of Squirrels lailsj gently fmootb 
rbe white, and then let it lie till it is dry. 

IV. Or you may black the varnifli wiih a candle, as we 
taught at tlvs Second Sedion of the Eighth Cbapier, and then 
if it be cold, warm it over the fire, till the vamifh begin to 
melt, that the fmoak may melt into the ground, fo thai you 
rub it not off with yoar band. 


Chap. 19, Of Fmiflnvgihe Work. S7 


The way ofEtcInng upoft the fcft VarniJI}. 

I. TrHe way of Etching is the fame with that in the hard 
"■- varnifli, only ycu muft be careful nor to hurt your 
varoifli, which you may do by placing on the lides of your 
plate two little boards, and laying crofs over tfaem another 
thin one, fo as ibat it may not touch the plate, on which you 
muft reft your hand wbilft you work. 

M. Then place the plate oa a Dc;sk fif you fo plcafc) for by 
that means the fuperfluous matter will fail away of it felf. 

III. But if you have any defign to transfer upon the plate 
from any Copy or Print, fcrape on the backfidc thereof fome 
red Chalk all over j then go over that, by (crsjing (ovc\t fofc 
Charcoal, till it mingle with the Chalk ; and wi(h a large 
ftiff pencil rub it all over till it be fine and even and fo lay 
down the defiga upon the plate; with a blunt Needle draw 
over the out Itroaks : and oi you work, you need not [cratch hard 
into the Copper, only fo as you may fee the Needle go through the 
farni/h to the Copper. 

IV. Always befurewhen you leave the work, to wrap 
the plate up in Paper, to keep it from hurt, and corrupting in 
the air, which may dry the varnilh : and io Winter time 
wrap the plate up in a piece of Woollen, as well as paper, for 
if the froft get to it, it will caufe the Varnifli to rife from the 
Copper in the eating. 

An inconveniency alfo will accrew, hy letting the Vamifh lio 
too Ung upon the Plate before the work^ is finifoed j for three 
or four months will confttme the moiflure andfofpoil all. 

V. The marking of the defign upon the fofc varnidi, is 
beft done with Black-lead or Chalk, if the ground is white ; 
but with red Chalk, if the ground is black. 

VI. Having Graved what you intend upon the varni(h,take 
feme fair Water, a little warm, and caft it upon the Plate ; 
and then with a foft clean Spunge, rub upon the White-lead 
to moiften it all over ; and then walh the pUte to take away 
the whiting, and dry it. 

G4 VII. 

88 Polygraphices Lib. II. 

VII. Oi Laftly, with Apa forta mixed with fiir water, 
Wifh it all over, and by this means you may take away the 
wbicing , which then wafh with common water and 
dry it J and thus have you the plaie prepared for the 
Aqua forta. 


Of vjmg the Aqua fortis, and finWing the Work. 

I. pUi foft wax frcd or green) round the brims of the 
-* plare^ (being firtt diawn into a loog flender roul or 
firing/' and kt it be raifed above the vatnifh about half a 
BaiUy Corns le; gjh ; fo chat placing ihe plate level, the wa- 
ter being poured upon the plate may by this means be retained. 
But that V ju iTiaf be lu'-e that 'he Aijiia forta fliall not run out, 
you muft take a knif_* and heat it in the fire, and fear the wax 
lound »buut under the plate, very clofe : and be (ure to fatten 
the Wax as near to the edges of the plate, as you can con- 
veniently, Tliis done. 

11, Take fingle or common jitjua forrii fix ounces, com- 
mon water two ounces ; mix them, and pour it gently upon 
the plate, fo that it may cover it fully all over ; (o will the 
ftiorger hatchings he full of bubbles, while the fainter will ap- 
pear clear for a while, not making any fudden operations 
to the riew. 

"Note, to weah^en the Aqua fortis, you may alfo mix it with 
Viie^ar, or a little of that ^qua fortis tvhich hoi been tifed for- 
merly : for if ygur liquor be too fir mg, it tvill make the ipork^very 
hard, &nd flmetimes make the ground to break-up. The deeper 
the Aqaa tortis lies^ the harder it tvill eat. 

III. When you perceive the water to operate a fmalltime, 
pour i-- off inro a glazH carth-n difli, keeping itto ufe with 
forae other , and throw fair water upon the plate, n wa(h a:; 
wav the /Jquafcrtif, then dry the pJatf. 

IV And where ynu would have thsCut to be fainf, tender 
or fwcct, ccvprit vvi;h the prepared Oyl, and then cover the 
plate ag^Jn uiih Aqua fort ii as before, leaving it on for 
eight or tf D minutesor longer : then put off the Aquafortn as 
before, walhing and drying the plate^ and covering with the 


chap. 14. Of Ujtng AqHii Fortk, 89 

prepared Oyl other places which you would not have fo deep 
as the reft. 

V. Laftly, put on the Ai^ua fortis agaiB, for the fpace of 
half an hour Cmore or leljj and then pour it off, wafting the 
plate with fair water as before, 

VI. As you iPou'id have your lines or ftroakjt to he deeper and 
deeper^ fo cover the fweeter or fainter farts by degreef tvith 
the prepared Oyl^ that the Aqua fortis may lie the longer on 
the deep ftr oaks- Then, 

Mil. Take ofFrbe border of wax, and heat the plate, fo 
that the Oyl and varni/h may throughly tnelt ; which wipe 
away well with a iinnen cloth; -then rub the piste over with 
Oyl Oiive,and a piece of an old Beaver roU'd up.wbicb done, 
touch it with the Graver where need is. 

VIII. But if any rbi(»g be (at laft) forgotten; then rub the 
plate aforefiid with cruans of bread, fo well that no filth or 

^oyl remain upon the plate. 

IX. Then heat the Plate upon a Charcoal fire, and fpread 
the foft varrifii with a feail3er upon ic^as before) fo that the 
hatchings may be filled with varniih j black it, and then touch 
it over again, or add what you intend. 

X. Let your hatchings be made by means of the Needles, 
according as the manner of the Work (hall require, being care- 
ful before you put on the Aquaforta, to cover the firlt gra- 
ving on the Plate with the prepared Oyl, (left the varniHi 
Ihould not have covered all over :J then caufe the Acjua fortis 
to eat into the work ; and lal^iy cleanfe the Plate as 

XL Your plate being deanfed, if you perceive that the 
A(lua fcrtif has not eaten as deep in fome places, as it Hiould 
have done,you muft help ibofe defedls with a Graver. 

XII. To know when the Aquafortis has eat deep enough 
after it has layen a quarter or half an hour, poisr oft' the 
Aqua fortis from the Plate into a Glafs, wa/h it with a little 
fair water.and with a knife fcrape offa little bit of the ground, 
where it is hatcht, and may be leaft prejudicial to your 
work ; ahd if you find it not deep enough, cover the bare 
place of your Plate with your prepared Oyl, arid put the Aqt/a 
fortis upon it again, letting it lye till you think it deep 

XIIL Or mix it with fome new Aquafortis, if you think 
what you have ufed to be too weak ; by many Tryals and 
Frsidice, you will at length come to a certainty. 

' XIV. 

90 Poljgraphicef Lib. II. 

XIV. Or you may make ihe Tryal upon a wafte piece of 
Copper rudely hatched j pouring the /ipta fortts both upon 
the Plate, and that at one and the fame time: after a luffici- 
eot fealoD, with a knife take off a little piece of the ground 
from the watte piece of Copper where it is hatched, and if it 
be not deep enough, cover it again with your prepared Oyl, 
and make a new Tryal, and lb proceed on, till you find the 
Aqua fottis ba5 earen dteep enough. 

XV.Obferve to wafli the Plate with a little fair water,before 
you waim it.for o'herwife,ibe >^^«d/orrjj will ftain the Plate. 

XVI. If the ground be broken up in any place, put off 
iht Aqua fortis from the Plate, walh it with fair water, and 
cover it with your prepared Oyl, then pour on the Aqua 
fonts again , thus will you prelerve your Plate fium 
injury. ^ 

XVII. To mtktyom Aqua foreii \vri\k harder or fofter, 
you muft cover tbofe places of your Plate which you would 
have to be faint (after that the Aqua fonts has been once 
poured off your Plate) with your prepared Oyl, which Oyl 
you muftufeby degrees, as you would have your work 
fainter : this in Etchirg L«ndskips yci will find nectffary, tor 
that they muft iole and (taod at a di&.incegraiiatiTn. 

Of Llmmngy atd the Materials thereof, 

I. T Imning is an Art whereby in water Colours, we ftrivs 
*^ lorefemble Nature in every thing to the Life. 

II. The Inftruments and Materials thereof are chiefly thefe 
1. Gum. 1. Colours, 3. Liquid Gold and Silver.^. TheGrind- 
Jlone and Muiler.i "y. Pencils. 6. Tabid to Limn ^in.j. Little 
Glajfes, or Horefmufcle-jheHs. 

III. The Gums are chiefly thefe four, Gum-Arabick' 
Gum-Lake, Gum-Hedera, Gum-Armoniack. 

IV. The principal Colours are thefe feven, ff^hite, Black,^ 
^ed, Green, Yellow, Blue, Brown : out of which are made mixt 
or- compound Colours. 

V. The Liquid Gold and Silver is either -natural or ar- 


Chap, 1 6. Of th& Gums ^and their Ufe, 91 

The natural is that which is produced of the MetaJs them-' 
felves ; the arrilkial is that which is formed of oiher co- 

VI. The Grind^one, MuSer, Pencils, Tables, and Shells^ or 
little Glajfes, are only the rieccflary inttruroents and attend- 
ants^ which belong to the pra-flice of Limning. 

VIL Chufe luch Pencils as are clear and fiiarp pointed* 
rot dividing into parts : of thefe you muft have many in 
a readinels, a feveral Pencil at leail, for every feverai Co- 


Of the Gttms^ and their Z)fe. 

I. "THs chief of all is Gum-Arabick, that which is white, 
-■■ clear and brittle ; the Gum-water of it is made 

Take Gnm-Arahick^y hruife it and tye it up in a fine clean 
linnen cloath, and put it into a convenient quantity of pure 
fpring-water, in a glafs or earthen vejfel ; letting the Gum re- 
main there till it is dijfolved ; tvhicb done, if the water is not 
fl iff enough, fut more Gum into the cloath i but if too flijf, add 
more tvater ; of which Gum- water have two forts by ycu, 
the oneftrong, the other weak 5 of which you may make a 
third at plea fure. 

II. But if you be where Gum-Arabick is not to be got, 
you may inftead of that ufe the prepatatioa of Sbecps leather 
or parchment following: 

Take of thefhreds of white Shsep-Skjns (which are to be had, 
plentifully at Glovers) or elfeof parchments, one pound ; Conduit 
or running water two,^uart3,boil it to a thin gelly, then fir airt 
it whilfi hot through a fine Jirainer, andfo ufe it. 

III. Gum-Lake, it is made of whites of Eggs beaten and 
ftrained a pint, Honey, Gum- Hedera, of each two Drams, 
ftrong wort four fpoonfuls, mix tbem, and ftrain them with 
a piece offpunge till they run like a clear Oyl, which keep 
in a clean veflel rill it grows hard. 

This Gum will dijjolve in water likf Gum-Arabick^ of which 
Giim-'wateris made in like manner j it is a good ordinary varnifh 
for PiSttres. IV. 

92 Polj'grapfjues Lib. 11. 

IV. Gum-Hedcra, or Gum of Ivy ; it is gotten out of 
Ivy ; by cutting with an Axe a great branch thereof; climbing 
upon ao Oik-tree, and bruifing the ends of it with the head 
ot the Axe ; at a Months end, or thereabouts, you may take 
from it a very clear, and pure fine Gum, like Oyl. 

V. It is good to put into Gold-fi:(e and other Colours, for thefe 
three reafons : J. It abates the ill /cent of the /i::(e : i. It tviH 
prevent bubbles in Go!dfi:(e and other Colours ; 3. Laftly^ it 
talics attay\the fat and clamminefs of Colours :befides which it is 
cf ufe in making Pomanders. 

VI. Gum-Amoniacum, It is a Foreign Gum, and ought 
to be bought ftrained. Grind it very fine with juice of Gar- 
lick and a little Gum-Arabick water, To that it may not be 
too (hick, bat that you may write with it what you will. 

VII. l^^hen you ufe it., dratff tohat you will ttith it, and let it 
dry, and when you gild upon it, cut your Gold or Silver to the 
fajhion which you dreto with the fi;(e or gum, then breath upon 
thefj::^e, and lay the Gold upon it gently taken up, which prefs down 
hard with a piece of wool 9 and then let ft weS dry ; bein^ dryed. 
with a fine linnen cloth Jiri^e off the loofe Gold J fo will what 
was drawn be fairly gilded if it were as fine as a hair : it is called 


Of the Scv^n Cobnrs hi Gaiernl. 

I, 'T'HE chief Whites^Tcct thefe, Spodium, Cerufe, White- 
■^ lead, Spamffj-whiie, Egg-ftiells burnt. 
II. This Colour ;s called in G/"fe/i AJt'xo^ of mvx^o, video 
t^-i fee, becaufe hivy.orn'i 'oh J'tAHf^ivMv o.^^f; whitenefs (3$ 
Arifiotle faidj is the object of Latin Albus, from whence 
the Alps had their name, by realon of their continual white- 
nefs with Saow. 

III. Tbe Spanijh- white is thus made. Take fine Chalk 
three ounces^ Alum one ounce, grind them together with fair 
water till it be like papj roul it up into balls, which dry 
ieilnrely : then pui them into the fire till they are red hot ; 
rake them out, and let tbcm cool : it is the be[i white of all, 
togarni/h with, being ground with weak. Gum-water, 


Chap. 17. Of Colours "in General, 92 

IV. The chief Btackt are thefe, Harts-born burnt, Ivory 
burnt, Cherry-ftones burnt, Lamp-black, Charcoal, Sea-coal, 
Verdiier burnt, Mujpny burnt. 

V. Black,^ in Latin Niger, is. fo called from the Greeks word 
r£;cpo?, tohich fignifies dead, hecaufi putrefied and dead things are 
generally of that colour. Lamp-black is theJmoal(, of a Link., 
Torch, or Lamp gathered together. 

VI. The chief i^e^i are ihefe. Carmine, V,ermiIion, Red- 
lead, Indian-lake, native Cinnabar , Red-Oker , Yellow- 
Oker burnt, Indian Red. 

yil. It is called in Latin I{uher th^ rw pow j corticihta 
vel grants mali punici ; from the Rinds or Seeds of Pome- Scaliger faith. 

VIII. The chief Gr^ew are thefe, Green Bice, Green Pink, 
Verdigrife, Verditer, Sapgreen, Pink mixt with Bice. 

IX. This Colour is called in Latin l^iridHs from Fires t in 
Greek ^^<y^V i ^^ori, Grafs or Green Herb, which is of this 

X. The chief K//ott^j are thefe, Orpiment, Mafticct deep 
and light. Saffron, Pink-yenow,dark and light, Oker de Luce, 
Englilh-Oker, Roman-Oker, Gall-flone. 

XI. This Colour is called in Latin Flavus, Luteus, in Greek 
^du'^'iy which is Homer's Epithete for Menelaus, where he calls 
faim fcW'Vf Ms^'SA*©-. 

XIL The chief fl/e«'* are Ultratiiarine, Indico, Smalf, 
Blue Bice. 

XIIL This colour is called in Latin C<erukm , in Greek 
KvdycQ- a livccvQ-y the name of a ftone which yields Ultra- 

XIV. The chief Bretons are Umber, Spanilh-brown, Co- 
lens Earth, Gallftone, rufl of Iron, Mommy. It is called in 
Latin Fufcm, quafi (pa? cnuATcfA , from darkning the Light, 
in Greek tpaxU. 

XV. This is to be noted, that of the aforenamed colours, 
Vermillion, Verdigriefe.Orpiment and fome others are too courfe 
and gritty to he ufed in water Colours -, unlefs they be purified 
and prepared. 

XVL AndTurnfole, Litmofe Hue, Hofe/, Brefil Logtvnod, and 
Saffron, arc more fit for waihing Priws, than curious limning. 


54 Fol)<^raphkcs Lib. IL 


Of Colours in Particularo 

I. f^Brufe, Grind it wirb glair of Eggs, and it will make 
^^ a very good white. It is too yellow for fome purpofes, 
courfeand gritty. 

II. PVbtte-lead, Griod it with a weak water of Gum-lake, 
and let ir itand three or four days, after which if you mix 
with it Rofet and Vermillion, it makes a fair Carnation. 

III. To make that your White-lead (hah neither ruft nor Mat 
(both tvhich are gr'eat fault sin the Art of Limning) before yotJ 
grind it lay it in the Sun tttjo or three days, to exhale that grtajy 
and fait matter that jxyfons and fiarves the colour i fcrafmg 
atvay alfo the outfide that is foul nr dirty, which then grind with 
fair H^ater^ or Lavender^ or F^ofemary water upon a Porpl^yre. 
IVhen it v ground have in a readmcfs a chalky ftone^ tPith fur- 
rows in it. into which furrows put the colour whilji it is wet, and 
fo let it dry in the Sun, and it will be very dean and white. 

IV. Being through diy, let it be wafht in this manner. Tal^e 
cf the former cleanfed Liad a found pit it into a bafon of fpring 
water, jlir it a while together ttll the water rs all very white, 
then let itjiand, and a kindof greajiefcum wtll anfe, which blottf 
off, and pour the white Water, (being /iff red afre/h, and a little 
fettled again) into a clean Bafon, leaving the grojfer body at the 
bottom behind (not fit for our purpofe:) let this water Ji and art 
hour or two, till it is quite fettled. 

> V. Then decant the clear water, and put to the fediment freflj 
ttater,J}ir it as before mentioned, then let it fettle half the time 
itdidat firfl, and pour cjf the white water into another clean 
bafnn., leaving again ibe courfir part behind ; 1st this water Jet tie, 
and decant away the clear water from it: the remaining Lead 
dry, and then put it up into papers for your ufe. Thus reiined 
five or fix limes, it will be moll pure, and bed for ufe. 

Vr. When you have occafion for it, Iprcad a lirtle of ft 
about a fliell with your finger, and temper it with Gum-water. 
Ir be fame manner muft Certije be waflied. Obferve alfo in 
grinding of White, that you grind it not too much, left it prove 
greafy or Oyly, or of a dirty colour. 



Chap, 1 8. Of Colours mVarticluar, 95 

VII. Spanifh-white, It is the beft white of alI,to garnifli wiib, 
ground with Gufn-wacer. 

VIII. Lamp-blacky ground with Gum-water, ic makes a 
good black. 

IX. Vermilion^ Grind it with the glair of an Egg, and in 
the grinding put a little clarified honey, to make its colour 
brigbiand perfedt. Native Cinnabar is better and a brisker 

X. Cinnabar-lake y it makes a deep and beautiful red, otr 
rather purple, atmolt like unto a Red-rofe. Grind it with- 
Gum-lake and Turnfole-waier : if you will have it light, add 
a little Cerufe, zn^ it will make it a bright Crimfon j if to 
Diaper, add only Turnfolc water. 

XL ^ed lead, Grind it with feme Saffron, and ftiff Gum- 
lake ; for the Saffron makes it orient, and of a Marigold 

XII. Tumfole, Lay it in a Sawcer of Vinegar,and fet it over 
a Cbafing-difh of coals ; let it boil,then take it ofi*, and wring 
it into a Ihell, adding a little Gum-Arabick, let it ftand till 
it is diffolved : It is good to ihadow Carnation, and all 

Xnl. Hsfet, Grind it with Brazil-water, and it will make a 
deep purple ; put Cerufe to it, and it will be lighter j grind 
it with-Litmofe, and it will make a fair Violet. 

XIV. Spanijh brown, Grind it with Brazil-water: mingle 
it with Cerufe, and it makes a horfe-fiefh Colour. It w not fa 
brisk and lively as Indian ^d. 

XV. Bo/e-Armoniack., It is a faiac colour j its chief ufe Is, 
id making fize foe burnifh'd gold. 

XVI. Green-bice. Order it as you do Blue bice ; when it is 
moift, and not through dry, you may Diaper upon it with the 
water of deep green. 

XVII. Fer^i^rz/e, Grind it with juyce of Rue, and a little 
weak Gumwacer, and you will have a moft pure green : if 
you will Diaper with it, grind it with Lye of Rue (or elfe the 
decodion thereof) and there will be a hoary green. 

XVIII. Diaper upon Verdigrife green with Sap-green : alfb 
Verdigrife ground with white Tartar.and then tempered witb 
gum-water, gives a moft perfect green. 

XIX. It ii extrcamly courfe unlefs it be purified as I have taught 
in my Doroo, lib. 3. cap. 4. Sed. 13. § a. Being fo prepared 
one ounce (till be ttortb Ten of the Courfe, or that »bich is bought 
in thejhops. It is done withfpirit of Vtnegar, 


96 Polygra^h'ices Lib. IT, 

XX. Ver^iter, grind it with a weak Gum-Arabick water: 
it is tbe fainteft green that is, but is good to lay upon black, 
in any kind ot Drapery. 

XXI. Sap green ; lay it in (harp Vinegar all night ; pur in- 
to It a little Alom to raife its colour, and you will have a 
good green to Diaper upon other greens. It is a fhining but a 
fading colour, ufe green Pink inftead of it i for it has neither of 

thitie faults. 

XXII. Orpment, Arfenicum or Aur i pigment um grind h with 
a itiff water of Gum lake, becauieitis tbe beft colour of it 
felf, it will lie upon no green, for all greens, White and Red- 
lead, and Cerufe ftain it ; Wherefore you muft deepen your 
colours fo that the Orpimept may be higbeft, and fo it may a- 
gree with all Colours. It is of a Venomous property^ and fame of 
it is courfe. 

XXIII. Majiicoty Grind it with afmall quantity of Saffroa 
in gum-water, and never make it lighter than it is : it will en- 
dure to lie upon all colours and metals. 

XXIV. Sfl^row, Steep it in glair : it may be ground with 

XXV. Pink: yeBow, If yoa would have it fad coloured,grind 
it wiTh Saffron ; if light,with Cerfue : mix it with weak gum- 
water, ard (buie it. 

■ XXVI Oker de Luce, grind it with pure Brazil water: 
it makes a paifirg bair colour i and is a natural Ihadow for 
gold. B^man Oker ts the more glowing of all tbe Okcrs. 

XXVII. Vmber, It is a more fad brown colour. Grind it 
with gum-water, or gum-lake ; and tighten it (if you pleafe) 
with a little Cerqfe and l" blade of Satfron 3 to clcanfe it , 
burn it in a Oucib^e, then grind it, and ic will be good, and 
when you temper it in your (hell.ufe a dropor two of Onion- 
water, and it will preferve it from crackling. 

XXVIII. VUramarine, If you would haveir deep, grind 
it wi:h Litmofe-wtter ; but if light, with fine Cerufe and a 
weak G'jm-Arabick water. 

XXIX. In s^rtndin^ ZJltramarine and other colours, let not 
your motion be roofwifr, but grind it gently and flow, be-* 
caufe the fwiftnefs of tbe motion, caufetb the Itones to hear, 
which will caufc your colour to l^arve or loofc fomewhat of 
its Lultre. el'peciallj^ if >i be a colour of ho great body, ti 
Pink, Tndico, (^c. 

XXX. Indico, ,Gr'iad it with water of Gum-ArabIck, as 


Chap. 18. • Of Colours in Farticnlai\ ^y 

XXXI. B'ue-Bice, Grind h wkh clean vvater, as fmzU as 
you can, then put it into a fiiell, and vvarti it rhus : put as 
much water to it as will fiii ap the vtiid or (hc!i, aod iiir it 
well, let it ftand an hour, and thefilcfa arjd dirty water caft 
away j then put in more clean water, do thus four or iive 
times. , .• 

XXXII. At laft put in Gutn-Arabick water fbmewbat 
weak, ibai the Bice may fall to the bor-oin ; pcur ttfi the 
gum-wacer, and pot lacte loit, wafiiit agiln, dry it, ar;dm;s 
it wirh weak guai- water fif you would have it rjle ot the 
fame colourj^ut with a itiff water of (jupaHak^:, if yoii 
would have a mo(t pirfedl: blue J if a light b.'u*, grind it 
with a litile Cerufe i but if a aioft deep blu?, add water of 
Liimole. - — 

XXXIII. SmaU, Grind ir with a little I;:ic Fvofet, andiE 
will make a deep Violk.'c : and by puaiog in % qaantity of 
Cerufe, it will make a light Violet. 

XXXIV. Litrnofe blue^ Griod'it with Cerufe : with too 
much Litmofe it makes a deep Line 5 wicb too much Ce- 
rufe, a light blewr-giind it with the weak water of Gum- 
Arabic k. 

XXXV. Take fi.'is Litmofe^ cnt it in pieces Jay it in weak, tva- 
ter of Gum- lal'^ for twenty four hoursj aniyou fhall have a wa- 
ter of a moil ferfeSt A:{urei with tt'hich crater you may Diaper 
and Damasks upon all otter hluei, to tjiake them fJcew tvore fair 
and beautiful. 

XXXyi: Orcha!, Grind it with unHaVd Lime and Urine^ 
it makes a pure Viokt : by pauirg to more or lels Lime, yea 
may make the Violet light or deep as you plcafe. 

XXXK//. Munsmy byrnt, makes a good black: but other- 
wife it is ill conditioned, bard,and will not flow fiom the pen- 
cil, you cbay Hum ir in a Crucible well lared. 

XXXVni EngHfh Oker, It is a yellow colour, and lies 
even in the(ljell,o! lUeif : it is of great a fe being well ground. . 

XXXlX Ptnk mixed with Bice, It is a good Green, the 
faireft Pmkis beft; well ground and tempered with blue Bice, 
allowing one quantity of Pink, to three of blue Bice. To deep- 
en this colour in Landskip or Drapery, mix with it a little 
Indico finely ground. , 

XL. Indian Lake. It makes a delicate Purple, grind it with 
a little Gum-water, and when it is ground fine, befireyois 
pat it into the Ihell, mix a lirtle |Bouder of white Sugar-candy 
wilt it, which will preferve it from crackling ; thes; may 

H yoo 

98 Pvl)'g)\ihkcs Lib. 11. 

you rpread ii thinly with your linger about the flielf. 

XLI. Indian I^d. It makes a dark Red, becaufe this colour 
is very courfe, you may ufe Z^mber^zrA « little Lake tempered, 
which it as good. 

XLI I. Ivvry black Grind it with a little white Sugar-can- 
dy, It will prcferve it f'loin crackling out of your Ihell: it 
makes a black. 

XLIU. Chenyfione. It is burnt in s. Crucible fas is the fcr- 
mer^ and fo ground. It is good for Drapery, and for a black 
Saiiin. Tetnper it with a little white^lndtan-Lake^ and Indico. 
Heighten it with a lighter mixture, deepen it with Jvory 
black ; this was HilUards way. 

XLlF. Caput mortuitm of Vitriol, Firft grind it well upon a 
Porphyry; then carefully vvifli it, as we have taught you to 
wafli White-lead in C/j<»/'. 18. Set^. 1. aforegoing i after grind 
it with a weak Gum-lake- water : it makes a deep red.or al- 
motta purple color. 

XLV. Ohfervations upon fome of the preceding Colors, and 
fir(t of £{EDS. 

I. Vermillion. It is a mo(k perfetft Scarlet color; it is fo 
fine that it needs no grinding, but may be tempered with 
your Finger with Glair or Gum-water and fo ufed mixt 
with a little yellow Benies, it makes it the lighter and bftgh- 
ter Color, and is then principally u!«;d for Garments. 

XLVJ. 2. i^-ii Le4^, It is the neareft toan Orange Color j 
and mixt with yellow Berries, it makes a perfei5l Orange. It 
is ufed for Buildings and high ways in Landskips, being mixt 
with a little White. It is the only bright Color to ftiadow 
vellow Ga«-ments with, to make rhem Ihcw li!:e changeable 
Taff-tv, rjnd to color -any light Ground in a Piclurc.and feve- 
ral other. ufe?, as you feeoccafion. 

XLVII. 3. Cinr.ahar Lake. You may Hiadow. with it yel- 
low Girments in tlie darkeft places,, as alio Vermillion mixt 
with white only, it makes a Sky Color. With white and red 
Lead, a F!'.'fh CJor i and is an excellent Color ofitfelfto 
colour Garments with. Thts Color is dear, and therefore 
inftond thereof, for ordinary ules, you may ule ^d Ink- thick- 
red upon theFite.which wiillervc very well ; and better 
than L.'^!''\ unlels it b." vrry good. 

XLVIII. ^ I{edJ>:k It is made by boy ling Bra^^il in Pou- 
der in Vinegar mixt wiih Beeradding a little Alum to heighten 
the Color : boyi it tiil ir rafts ftrong on the To-gue, then 
(train it out, add keep it clofe (topt for ufe. If you mix it 


chap. 1 8. Of Colours in Particular, j^- og 

with a Flefh Color, or make a Sky Color thereof, you muil 
not thicken ir. 

XLXIX. OhfervAtions on B^WN Colors. 

I . Spanijh Brown. It is a djrty Brown Color, but of gre^t 
qfe i as alio to (hadow Vertniliion,or iay upon a dark Ground 
behind a Pidure. You may ftiadow yellow Berries with it in 
the darkeft places, when you want Lake or thick I^d Inl{. 
Color not Garments therewith, unlefs it be old Men's Gowns. 

L. 2. Vmber. It is a Hair Color, and the beft and bright" 
eft when it is calcined red hot. But to color any Hare, Horfe, 
Dog,^c. with it, you muft not burn it j but for other ufes ic 
is beft calcined or burnt, as to color Pofts, bodies of Trees, 
Timber-work, or any dark Ground in a Pidure. 

LI. Ufe it not in Garments, anlels in old Men's Gowns, or 
Caps ftanding together, for that they muft not be all of a 
Color. But fordiftindlion and variety fake, you may ufe h 
un burnt in many cafes. 

LII. Obfervations en GI{EEN Colors. 

1. Verdigrife. h is a good Green, but fubjedt to decay t 
being dry upon Paper, it will be of a higher Color than when 
it was firft laid on ; therefore to preferve it from that fault, 
diflblve Sap-Green in if, and it will keep its Color. You may 
make it fine by extracting its TioClure with Spirit of Vinegar, 
and then evaporating to drynefs j an ouBce of that will bt 
worth ten ounces of the other. 

LIU. X, Verditer. It is a light Green, feldom ufed in any 
thing but coloring Land-skips, which feemafar oSi and it 
is good for fuch a purpole, becaufe it is inclining to blew., 

LIV. 3. SapGresn. It is a dark dirty GreenvHever ufed but 
to fliadow other Greens in the darkeft places i or tolayupoa 
fome dark ground behind a Pidure, which ought to 
be of a dark Green : bat you may do without this Color, 
for Indico mixt with yellow Berries make juft fuch another 
Golor. gi 

LV. 4. Copper Green, h is an excellent tranfparent Colof^ 
of a fhiningnacHre, if ihickned in the Sun, or over a gentle Fire. 
It is raoft uled of any Green in wafhiog of Prints or Map$, e- 
fpecially in coloring of Trees, Ground, Grafs, ^c. for it is a 
mofl perfeEi Grafs green. 

LVL Obfervations on rELLOfV Colors. 
I . Saffron, It is a deep Yellow if it ftands long, and is good 
principally to (h«dow yellow Berries with inftead yf Red Leadi 

H 2; b« 

100 Polj'graphkes Lib. II. 

buc is fomewbat a bi igbter iliadow : Red Lead and yellow 
Berries, make juft the like Color. 

LVII. 2. Mafiicote. It is a liglit Yellow, juft like yellow 
Btriies mixt with White : it is tiled ro color a lighr Ground 
in aPidurejand tbrn to Jl-iadow it with rhe Water, r;;^. the 
ihinnclt part of the Color of burnt Umber or red Lead. 

LVUI. 3. TeUc0 Berries It is mnft ufcd in walhing of Map! , 
Pi(5tures, (3c. of all other Colors it is bright and tranfparent, 
fit for all ufes, and fufncient without the ufe of any other 

LIX. Obfirvati^ns on BLEl>F Colors. 

I. BleiP Bice, h is the moft excellent Blew next to Ultra- 
marine, andinay(e?ve inltead thereof, it is too good a Co- 
lor to ufv" upon all ocofions: and for more ordinary 
may ufe Smalt in Itead of cither of them, but it will not "work 
(o well as Bice, when you intend to beflow fome coft and p^ins 
upon a piece, you may ufe Bice ; othcrwi.'^e ycu need u(e no 
other Blew in your Work than BlewVerditer ; with which in 
ordinary Works, you n: ay make a pretty good fhifr, though 
all the other B/fWi be wanting. 

X.A'. 2. Jndico. It is a dark BIew,ard principally ufed tofha- 
daw with upon other Blews. Mixi wiili yellow Berries, it 
makes a dark Grcrn, to ftiadow other Greem* with in the dark- 
eft places. 

LXI. 3. BkwVerditer. It is a very bright plea fant Blew, 
and the eaGeft ro work with in Water: it is fomewhat incli- 
ning fo a GteeR> and the Riewj which isthe molt of all ufed 
mixed with yellow Berries it makes a good Green. 

LXU. Ohfervntinrs on WHITE Colors. 

1. Cerufe. It isthe beft White, next toSpantfli White, and 
better than whirc Lead, if it be good and finely ground, as you 
naay have it ready prepared at the Colour Shops i being only 
tvbite Lead cleaned and made tnore pure. 

LXni. 2. H^hi:e Lend. It will ferv^n place of the for- 
mer, if waftt as before is directed ; either of them will ferve 
the fao'e occafion, and being mixed with another Color 
they trake itlighrei, the which you may vary in proportion 
as you ice occafion, 

LXIV. Ohfervarions onBLACl^Colcrs. 

. I. . Lamf Black or FH^fiteYs B/aci(.Tt is the moft ufedbecaufe 
k is the eafieil to be bad, dnd is j?cod in W-thing. But you 
muft never put Black aroongft other Colors, to make them 
dark, for io they will beccme dirty i neither (h&dow any Co- 

Chap. 19. Of fftlx'i a g Colours. loi 

lor with Black, unlefs it be 5/>4»;7^ Bro/rw, when you would 
color an old Mans Govyn, which ought to be done of a fad 
Color J all other Colors ih'.dowed with Black, look dirtilyj 
not bright, fair or beamiful. 

LXV. 2. Ivory Black; It is the deepeft Black that is; and is 
thus made. Take piecesof /voiy put it intoa Furdacetill 
throughly burned, then take it out, and let it cool i pare off 
the outfide, and take the blackeft in the middle. 

LXVI. A glorious Color of Eaft- India Cakes. 

In uling ot diefe C-kts, you may take one, or a part of one 
of them, and put it into a Horfe-iVlurcle-Sheli, which is very 
dean,addiog a little fair Wiaier i juft enough to wet it all o- 
ver, letting ic lie lo abouc a quarter of ao hour: then fqneez it 
hard againlt the Shell, or wring it out berwea\ your Fingers*, 
and there will come forth an admirable trdnfparent Color, 
which will ferve initead of Lal^e, if your I^d Cake be 

LWlI. Thefe Cakes are commonly counterfeit and good 
for little, but you may know them by cutting a little way in- 
to them : if they be good they are as red within as they 
are without i if naught, they look pale and whitifh within. 


Qfr/tixt kud c&m^ound Colors, 

I. ^A^^U:, It is a wonderful beautiful color, compofed of 
^^ purple and white : ic is made thus. Take Cinnabar-' 

lak? two ounces ; White-lead one ounce, grind them together. See 

the twenty fourth Sedlion following. 

If. Aglafsgray, mingle Cerufe with a little Azure. 

III. ji haycoljr, toiogle V^frmillion with a little Spanilh 
brown and black. , , . 

IV. A deep purple^ It js.vofkdt of Indico, Spanifli-brown 
and white. 

It is called in Latin Var^tem, in Greek, 7n;pyt;j:-.(3-/ro»> 

7r^?$u^.^ a kind of jloeU-fiftj that yields a liquor of that color. 

V. An Ajk-color, or Gray, It is made by mixing White and 
Lamp-black i or v/hite with Sinapex j Indfcoand black make 
an A(h-coIor. 

H3 h 

102 Polygrapbh'es Lib. II. 

It is called in Latin C^Gus, and color Cinereus j in Greeks 

TKctv/Ji and n^t^iiJui. 

VI. Light Green, It is made of Pink and Smalt j wiib white 
to make it lighter if need require. 

VII. Saffron Color, It is made of Saffron aloDe by infij- 

VIII. Flame Color, Jt is mpde of Vermilion and Orpimcnr, 
mixed deep or light atpleafure: or thus. Take Red-lead 
and mix it with Mafticot, which heighten with white. 

IX. ji Violet color, Indico, V^hiic and Cinnabcr-lake. 
make a good Violet. So alfo Cerufe and Litmofe, of each e- 
qual pans. 

X. Lead color. It is made of White mixed with Indico. 

XI. Scarlet color. It is made of Red-lead, Lake, Vermili- 
on : yet Vermilion in this cafe is not very ufeful. 

XII. To tnak^ Vermilion. 

Take Brimltone in pouder four ounces,mix it with Quick- 
filver a pound, put it into a Crucible well luted, and upon a 
(Charcoal-fire beat it till it is red hot ; then take it off and let 
it cool. You have a berter way to do this in my Pharma- 
copeia Londinenjls lib. 3. cap. 7. Se^. 54. to which I refer 


XIII. To make a bright Crimfon. 

Mix tindure of Brazil with a little Cerufe ground with 
fair water. 

XIV. To make a fad Crimfon. 

Mix theaforefaid light Crimfon with a little Indico ground 
with fair water. 

XV. To make afure Lake. 

Take Urine twenty pound, boil it in a Kettle and fcum 
it with an Iron fcutomer till it comes to fixteen pound ; to 
which add Gum-Lake one pound, Alom fiv2 ounces ; boil all 
till it is well colored, which you may try by dipping therein 
a piece of lionen cloth ; then add Iweet Alom in pouder a 
fufficient quantity, ftrain it and let it ftand : ftrain it again 
through a dry cloth till the liquor be clear : that which re- 
mains in the cloth or bag is the pure Lake. 

XVI. To make a Crimfon-Lake. 

Its ufually made of the floks (horn off from Crimfoncloth 
by a Lye made of Salt-peter, which extrads the colour ; 
which precipitate, edulcorate, and dry in the Sun or a Stove. 

XVII. A fear green. 

^ Take 

Chap* 19. Of mixing Colom-s, 103 

Take white Tartar apd Viidigrifej temper tfaem.wiih ftrong 
White-wine Vinegar, in which a little Gum-Arabick haih 
been difTolved. 

XVIII. A f me Violet. * 

Take a iittle Indico and tiodure of Brazil, grind tbetn 
with a little Ceiuie. 

XIX. A pure Purple Color. 

Take fine brimttone an ounce and an half, Quick-filver, 
Sal-Armoniack, Jupiter, of each one ounce j beat the Brim- 
fione and Sale into pouder, and make an Ama^gama with 
the Qaick-fiiyer andTin,mix all together, v. hi ch put into a 
great glafs goard j make under it an ordiriury fire, and keep 
it in a conftant heat for the fpace of fix hours. ^ • 

XX. To makfi a TeBotff color. , ' 
Take the Yellow chives in white Lillics,ftceptbefiT in gum- 
water, and it wiU make a perfed: Yelio-4/ j'the fame froip $'*(-_ 
fron and Tartar tempered with gum-water. 

XXI. To mahaJ^dCohr. 

Take the roots of the lefTer BurglofSj vi-{. Alkmet-, and heki 
them, and Itrain out the j«yce, and mixt it with Aloni- 

XXII. To make excellent good Greens. 

The Liver of a Lamprey makes an excellent and durable 
graf? green: and yellow laid upon blue will change 'into green j 
lo likewife the jayce of a blue Flower de Luce, mixed with 
gum-water, win be a perfeiit and durable green or blue, ac- 
cording as it is ufed. 

XXIII. To make a Purple color. 

Take the juyce of Bilberrie?, and mix it with Alom and 
Galls, and fo paint with it. 

XXIV. Tomakeaggod Murrv. 

Temper Rofet with a little Rofe water, in which a little 
gum hath been diiro!ved,and it will be good,bui not exceed- 
ing that at the lirft Sedion of this Chapter. 

XXV. To ma^e A:(ureor Blew, 

Mix the Azure with glew-waier, and not with gum- 
water. • t 

XXVI. To make a TeBottf Green or Purple. 

Buck-thorn berries gathered green and fteeped in Alom- 
water yield a good yellow : but being through ripe and black 
they yield a good green i and laftly , ^ being gather- 
ed when they are ready to drop off, which is abowi rhe mid- 

H 4 ^le 

iC4 Volygra'phicss Lib. II. 

die or end of tJvemher, their juice mi xt with Alom-wtter 
yields a ^od Purple coKiiv, 

XXVII. To JHakc a Purple color. ^ 

Take Log-wood, boyi it in Vinegar and Beer, in a gla- 
red earcbcn VtfTel, adding ihi^rcto a little Alum, till you 
tafte ii ro be Itrong oa your Tongue : being fufHcienily 
boileij, fiiain out ihe L'q'jor ibroagh a Cicrtb, and keep kin 
a Glats dofe ftcMpt for ule, 
^ XXl'Jiil Avother P;>rph Color. 

MiK B<eitf Sice and Lni;e together ; or if y.-u want Brc, 
take Bletp Ver titter (bui tb'at is not alrogetfaer lo good : ) mix 
them will together and it i« done. If you want Lake, yoM may 
ini^fid thereof \ik tbic!{ red I»^, which will do as well as 
Lakf in l^'itjhing. 

XXIX.To makf a Flefh Color. 
• Mix • vvirh If bite a little Lake ard Red Lead ; a very 
fmall qu.-\ntity bf each ; you may make it as light or as red 
as yoU pleafe, by putting more or Icis White in it. 7f you 
wodld iave ;i fwa. thy Co'npfcxion, ro diftinguifh a Man's 
Flelh flom a Womans, put a little yellom 04;(er among your 
Fielh Color ; and for your Hiadnvv put a little more Lake.znd 
a fmall quantity oVi'urm'Urftbsr. 
XXX To wake Chad Colm-s. 

You m^y fometimes take Llefp Verdtier ; or Woite (hadow- 
ed with Wietp Verdua : fbtnetimes lighf Muflicdte (hadowed 
Vj' bhtr Verditer :, cr L<«.t(? and White or red I»k,iud Tf^ite 
rnario^ved wi:h bletr Vcrdtter, as aforclaid. 
XXXI. To tnd'C Skf Color. 

Mix iVhite wich light M:j/?/Vore or yellO'.v Berries for ?he 
ioweit and ligbtell places: red Bfk^nm thichned and White, 
for the next degree : Itlap V^ic^ znA fVlnte for a higher de-- 
gree : and /»/?//»fizc? alone for the h'ghcU of all. In-tcad of 
J3/c<?ynu,n3ay u!e Verditer; all which mu'ibe laid on, and fo 
wroughtone into another, tfaac there bt; no ftiarpnefs or kr,- 
fible beginning, in the edge of your "Cdiors, but that they bs 
as it were one drowned in another. 

XXXJL To make Colors of all ktnds cf Metals. 
Take a piece of Cryftal, beatit'byit felf inl an Iron or 
Brafs Mortar, and grind it dry, on a Marble or Porphyry 
"Stone, till rhe PouJerbevery line; then grind it again on 
the iaiTi.; Stone with good Glair of Eggs, and lay it on the 
Work with a Pen or Pencil i being well dryed rub it over 


Chap. 10. Of Colours for Drapery. 105 

wtth Leaf Gold, or any oiher, and it will be of the fame 
Color that ibe Metal is of. 

XXXIII.. If Quick-filvar two ounces be amalgamaied wi;h 
Tin one ounce, then mekedj and after ground on a Painters 
ftone very fmfkll, it will be apouderofa Silver Color. 

C H A P. XX. 

Of Colors for Drapery. 

I. TlOr Tellow Garment!. Take Mafticot deepned wiih 

*■ Brown-Oker and Red-Lead, 

jr. For Scarlet. Take Vf rnailion deepened with Cinnabcr- 
lake, and hcigbtened with toucher, of Mafticot. 

JJI. ForCrimfon. Lay on Lake very thin, and deepen witb 
the fame. 

IV. For Purple. Grind Lake and Smalt together: or takt: 
Blue-bice, gnd mix it with Red and White-Lead. 

V. For an Orient Violet. Grind Litmofe, Blew-Smsit, and 
Cerufe, but io mixture let the Blew have the upper band. 

VI. For Blew. Take Azare deepned with Indy-BIew or 
Lake heightened with white, 

VII. Fcr Mack Velvet. Lay the garment firft over with 
Ivory black, then heighten it with Cfaerryftone blacky and e. 
Jiule white. 

VIII. For blacky Sjttin. Take Cherry-ftone black ; rhe-n 
whice deepned with Cherry-ftone black 3 and then laftlyjlvo- 
ry black. 

IX. For a pure Green. Take Verdlgrife, bruife it, and 
ftcep it in Mufcadtne for twelve hours, then drain it into a 
(hell, to which add a little Sap-green: ( but put no guio 

X. ?or 4 Carnation. Grind Cerufe, well walhed, with 
F.ed-!ead ; or Cerufe and Vermilion. 

XI. For Cloth of Golii; Take brown Oker,and liquid Gold 
water, and heighten upon the fame with foiali Itroaks of 

Xfl. For white Sattin. Take firft fine Cerufe, which deepen 
with Cherry-ftone-black, then heighten again with Cerufe, 
and fine touches where the light falleth. 


io6 Poljrgrapfjhcs Lib. II. 

XIII. For a I{tijfet Sattin. Take Indy-blew and Lake, 
firfttbii.and then deepned w/ub Indy again. 

XIV. For a hair Colour. It is wiaHe ouc of Mafticot, Um- 
ber, Yellow Oker.Cerufe, Oker de luce, and Sea-coal. 

XV. For a Popenjay Green. Take a perfe(5l Green mirgled 
with Mafticot. 

XVI. For changeable Sillf^. Take water of Mafticot and 
Red-lead : which deepen wi-h Sap-green. 

XVIL For a light Blew. Take Blew bice, heightened with 
C?tufe or Spodium, 

XVill. Fortojhaddow t{iiffet. Take Cherry ftone- black and 
white J lay a light Ruffer, t^en (hadow it with white. 

XIX. For a Skje Colour. Take Blew-bice and Venice Cc- 
rufe: but if you would have it dark, take fome blew and 

AX, For a Straw Colonf. Take Mafticot, then white heigh- 
tened with Mafticot, and deepned with Pink. Or thu*, Take 
Red-lead deepned with Lake. 

XXT. For TeSotttfh.Thin Pink deepned with Pink and Green : 
Orpiment burned makes a Marigold colour. 

XXII. For a Peach Colour. Take Brazil water, Log-wood- 
water and Cernle. 

XXIII. For a light Purple. Mingle Cerufe with Logwood 
water : or take Tnrn(ole mingled with a little Lake, Smalt 
and Bice. 

XXIV. For a TTaJmit €olour. Take Red-lead thinly laid.and 
(hadowed with Spanifti brown. 

XXV. For a Fire Colour. Take Mafticot, and deepen it 
with Mafticot for the flame. 

XXVI.. For a Tree. Take Umber and white, wrought 
with'Umber, deepned with black. 

XXVII. For the Leaves. Take Sap-green and green Bice, 
heighten it with Verditer and white. 

XXVIIL For iVater. Take Blew and Wfaiie.deepned with 
blew, and heightned with white. 

XXIX. For "Banks. Take thin Umber, deepned wittf 
Umber and black, 

XXX. For Feathers. Take Lake frizled with Red-lead. 
See Chap. ^6. following. 


Chap. 21. Of Liquid Gold aful Silver. 107 


Of Liquid Gold and Silver, 

I. T Iquid Gold and Silver. 

*-* Take five or (ix \txyp of Gold or Silver, which grind 
(with a ftiff Gum-lake wariifti iod a good quaniiiy of Saltj as 
iinall as you can ; then pat it into a-vial or glazed veflel j add 
(b much fair water as may diflolve the (tifFgum-watcr j then 
let it ftand four hours, that the Gold may fettle: decani the 
water, and put in more, till ilie Gold is cleao waflied : to the 
Gold put mere fair water, a little Sal-Armcniack and com- 
mon Salt, digefting it dole for four days : then put all inro 
a pieceofthm Glovers leather (whofe grain is peeled offj 
and bang it up, fo will the Sal- Armoniack fret away, and the^ 
Gold remain behind, which keep. 

II. Or thus. Grind fine leaf Gold with (irong or thick gum- 
water very fine i and as yon grind add more thick gum-water 
being very fine, wajh it in a great fhell^ as you do Bice, then tem- 
per it tvith a Itttle quantity of Mercury fuhl;mate, and a lit- 
tle dijfolved gum to bind it in the /hell i jhake it-, and fpread 
the Gold about the fides thereof ^that it may be all of one colour 

and finenefs, which vfe tvith fair ftater, as you do other co" 

III. The fame obferve in licjnid Silver ; with this obfrvaticn. 
That if your Silver , by length of time, or humidity of the, air 
become rufiy ; then cover the place asithjuyce of Garlic^ before 
you lay on the Silver, itrhich will pre/erve it. 

IV. fVhenyou ttfe it. temper it with glair of E^gs, andfo ufe 
it with fen or pencil. Glair of Eggs is thus made. Take the 
tphites and beat them with afpoon, tiS that rife all in a foam ; 
then let them ftand all night, and by morning they will be turned 
into clear water ^ which is good glair. 

V. Argentum Mujjcum. 

Take one ounce of Tin, melt it, abd put thereto df Tartar 
and Quickfilver ofeachoneounce^ftir them well together un- 
til they be cold, then beat it in a Mortar^ and grind it on a 
ftonejmix i^ith gum water, write iherewith.and afterwards 
fjolifli it.Sce my Ars Chynirgica. lib, t,Cap.7$.feEi, i.pag.^iS. 


lo8 Polygra^h'ices Lib. If. 

where you have an other way of making it. 

VI. Burnifjed Gold or Stiver. 

Take Gum-lake and diirolve it into a ftiff water ; then 
grind a blade or two of Saffron rherewitb, and you fhall have 
a L\T Gold,: when you have fee ir, being thioughly dry, 
burnirti it with a dogs tooth. Or thus^ having writ with your 
pen or pencil what you pleale, cut the leaf Gold or Silver into 
pieces, according to the draught.whicb take up with a fe^tbcr, 
and lay it upon the drawing, which prefs down with a piece 
of wool jar.d being dry, burnirt* it. 

VII. Gold Armonitick. 

This is nothing but that which we have taught at the 
fifth Secflion of the fixteenth Chapter of this Book. 

Vill. Si\i for burrti/hing Geld. 

Take fine Bole-Armoniack three drams, fine Chalk one 
drarr.Jgrind them as fmall as you can together with fair water, 
three or four times, letting it dry after every time: then take 
glair,and ftrain it as (hort as vvater,witb which grind the Bjle 
and Chalk, adding 2. little Gum-Hedera, and a few blades of 
Saf^Von : grind all as fmall as poffible, and put them into an 
Ox Lorn (1 judge a glafs vefTel betterj and fet it to rot in 
horfe-dung for fix weeks; then take ti up, and let it have 
air, and keep it for ufe. 

IX. Its ufe u for gilding p. ire hment s ^ book^- covers, and lea- 
ther, thus lay thisfi:{e firfl upon the parchments, then with a fea- 
ther lay the Gold or Silver upon it, tirhicb wlxn dry , burmjh it. 

X. To Diitper on Gold or SHvor. . 

You muft Diaper on Gold with Lake and Yellow Qksr , 
but upon Silver with Cerufe. 

XI. Auriim Mufictim. 

Take fine Cryftal, Orpiment, of each one ounce, beat each 
feverally into a fine pouder, then grind tbetn together well 
with glair. 

Hu may tvrjte tttith it, with fen or pencil, and your Utter or 
draught will be of a good Gold color, 

XII. Another way to do the fume. 

Take of the befl Englilh Tin, of the beft Spanilh Quick- 
Glvcr, of each an ounce : make an Amalgama, by putting the 
Crude Mercury to the melted Tin, aodftir;ingit together: 
then pouder them well, and mix them wicb riowers of Sal- 
Armojiiack, flowers of Sulphur, of each an ounce: Calcine 
gently till tbp Sulphur is confumed, fo wil! tW Aurum ftick 
to the upper Cruft or Scoria. 


Chap. 22. Of Preparemg the Colours. 109 

XIII. Jhif poudereii fine., and ground with glair, will with 
Pen or PenciUgive your Figure or Figure a Golden color. See the 
fecond Edition of my Pharmacofceia Bataanaj lib. i. cap, 9. 
fe(fl. 28. § 2. ad. lo. pag. 339. where you have five other fe- 
veral voays of making it. 

Of Preparing the Colors. 

1. /^~ Olors, according to their natures have each a particu- 
^*^ Jar way of preparation : to wit, by grinding, walh- 
iog or fte'eping. 

II. The chief Colors to be ground arethefe ; White-lead, 
Geiufe, Cinnaber-Iake, Oker yellow and brown, Pink, Indi- 
co, Umber , Coleos Earth, Spanilh-brown, Ivory-black, 
Cberry-ftone-black, Lamp-black, Indian-Red, Indian-Lake. 

III. The chief Colors to he tffa/k'd are Red-lead, MaPdcot, 
Green Bice, Cedar Greerr, Ultramarine, Blue Bice , Smait, 
Vera iter. 

IV. The chief Colors to he fieepd, arfi Sap-green, Saffron , 
Turnfole, Stone-Blue, Venice Berries. 

V. To grind Colors. 

Take the Color you would grind, and fcrape off from ic 
all the filth , then lay it upon the ttcne, and with the muller 
bruifeit a little i then put thereto a little fpring water, and 
grind all together very well, jill the color is very fine; which 
done, pour it out into certain hollows or furrows cut in Chalk- 
ftone, and there let it lie till it is dry, which referve in paper 
or glaffes. 

VI. In grinding your Colors, put not too much wafer to 
thenjj upon the flone.f or they ought to be ground fometphat thick^., 
like pulp or pap : and they ought not to he left too moifi, hut thicks 
and clammy. * ' ^ 

VII. "I/" after your Color if dry in th^P^eS, you can ruh, it off 
with your fingers, it tnujl he hstter homnd with Gum ; and if 
there is too much Gum, it tPtH /J:ine, and he apt to. crackjs off 
after it is ufed 
. VIII. To waflo Colors. 
Put the color into a glazed veflel, and put thereto fair wa- 
ter plemifwlly, walh it welf, and decant (after a while) the 


no Polygraphkes Lib. IL 

water; doth:s fix or feven times; at laft put t!ie water fbe^ 
ing ju(t troubled j into another glazed rcflel, leaving the 
dregs ar boitotn : then into thisfccond vefTel put more fair 
water, walhing it as before, tilf the water (being feitledj be 
clear, and the color remain fine at bottom : we have taught 
another way at the twenty fourth Section of the eighteenth 
Chapter of this Book. 

* IX. Before you take the Color out of the VeJJel^fpead it 'Oery 
thin, about the fides thereof, and when it is dry, fame cf it trill 
fall to the hot torn, which keep hy it felf: hut the remainder 
tvhich flicks to the fide of the Bafon, is the befl of all-, which with 
a feather firike off from the [ides of the Vejjel, for it will be finer 
than any flower. 

X. To ft eef Colors. 

Take a quantity thereof, and put it into a (hell, and fill the 
(hell with fair water, ro which add fome fine pouder of 
Alum, toraife the color i let it thus fteep a day and night, 
and you will have a good color. 

XI. Where note. Saffron Reefed in Vinegar gives a good color ; 
and the Vetnce Berries in fair water and a little Alum, or a 
drop or two of qyl of t^itriol makes a fair yellow. 

XII. But feme colors are to be boyled, at Brafil, Logwood, 
Turnfole, Rinds of Wa,Inuts> Woodfoct, &c. thefe when boyled 
are to be k^ept clcfe flopc in GlaJJesj till you have occajion to 
ufe them. 

XIII. To temper the Cclors. 

Take a little of any color, and put it into a clean fhell, 
and add thereto a few drops of gum-water, and with your 
fingers work it about the (hell, then let it dry ; when dry, 
touch it with your fingers, it any color comes off, you muft 
add ftronger gum-water: but being dry, if the color glifter 
or ihine, it is a fign there is too much gum in it, which you 
may remedy by puting in fair water. 

XIV. To help the defeas. 

Some colors, as Lake, Umber, ami others which ars 
hard, willciatk when they are dry ; in this cafe, in tempe- 
ring them add a little white Sugar-candy in very fine pouder, 
which mix withihe color and fair water in the (hell, till the 
Suparcandy is dilfolved. 

XV. Tbefe colors, Umber, Spani(h-brown, Colen Earth, 
Cherry-ftone,ard Ivory-black, are to be burnt before ihcy 
be pround or wafh'd. 

XVI. To hum or cak'xie Colors, 


Chap. 2 2. Of Preparing the Colours. m 

This is done in a crucible, covering the mouth thereof 
with clay, and letting it in a hot lire, tilt you are fure it is . 
red hot through : which done, being cold, wafli or grind it 
as aforeiaid. 

XVII. To prepare /haJotrs for Colors. 

White is (haded with Black, and contrariwife : Yellow 
with Umber and the Okers : Vermillion with Lake : Blue- 
bice with Indie: Black-coal with Rofet, G?<:. c 

XVIII. Ihefeveral temperatures for coloring and (hadotO' 
ing of Hiftories. 

They are twenty in number, t;!;;;. Sea-cole mixt with Lake. 
2. Umber with Mafticot. 3. Yellow Oker burnt with white. 
4. Umber with Ultramarine. 5. Yellow with Umber. 6. 
Uml^r with Lake. 7. Verditer burnt with Red-lead and 
"White. 8. Ultramarine with Lake. 9. Ultramarine with 
Red- lead. 10. Ultramarine with white. 1 1 . lodico with white. 
12. Indiqo and Lake with white. 13. Indico, Pink with 
white. 14. Indico with Oker and white. 15. Indico with 
Mafticot and white. 16. Cherryitone burnt with White 
and Red-lead. 17. Burnt Ivory with Lake. 18. Indicoand 
Pink with the belt Ruft of Iron. 19. Lake and Ruftoflron 
with light Pink. 20. Ruftoflron SLad^LikCj for the deeper 

XIX. The fever al temperatures or mixtures for fhadowing 
Heads after the Life. 

The principle mixtures are twelve in number, vi^^. i. Lake 
with Indian Red. 2. Red-lead with Roman Oker. 3. Indian 
Red with Ultramarine. 4- Indian Red with Pink and Gall- 
ftone. 5, Yellow Oker with Indico. 6. Red-lead with 
Pink and Indico. 7. Red-lead with Roman Oker and Indico. 
8. Red-lead with Pink, Yellow Oker and Lake. 9. Indico, 
Lake and Roman Oker with whiie, 10. Indico. Pink, aad 
Roman Oker with Indian Red. 11. Red-lead with Umber, 
Mafticote, and Pink. 1.2. Pink vjith Roman Oker. 

XX. Ike fever al mixtures for fhadotving hair, 

I . White and Roman Oker for' light hair. 1, White and 
Yellow Oker for lighter haih 3. White with Ruft and Ro- 
man Oker. 4. Light Pink with 5ea-Cole and Yellow Oker. 
5. Dark Pink with Ruft and Roman Oker. 6. Pink with 
the beft Ruft and Gall-ftone. 7. Florence Pink with Lake 
And bnrni Ivory ^ a good fhadoftf for hair and face. 8. White 
with Umber and' Yellow Oker, for light hair. 9. The laft 
mixture with more Umber and Cherry ftone black /or a deeper 


112 Polj'graphices .Lib. JF. 

%air. lo. Yellow Oker with Umber and Cherryftoae-black 
for dark h.iir. \i. The lift mixcarc with Umber and Cherry- 
ftone-black for a darkfr hair. 

XXI. To do thefe things artificially, you may temper the 
natural Colors with your pencil upon your pallat, btiog firft 
placed in order, then wee your pencil in water, and temper 
upon the color you intend to make u(e of firft in your mix- 
tare ; then rub your Pencil in a clean place of your Pallat, 
leaving part of the color upon the place. 

XXII. And in the fame manner take from as many of the 
other as fliail be diredted for fucb and fuch temperatures or 
mixtures. Or thus. Dip your finger in water, and temper 
or mix your colors as you did with your Pencil, placing your 
colors fo mixed upon your pallat in order. 


Of the Ma/7 u ill Inftntnients. 

I. TTH^ manual Inftrumeots are four (by the feconJ ScxTri- 
■"■ on of the fifteenth Chapter of ibis Book) to wit,T(^ 
Grinding- fi one and Mailer, Penrih, Tables to Limn on, and 
fiiellsor little glalTes to hold your colors. 

II. The Grindi7inr-(}one may be of Porphyry, Serpentine or 
Marble, but rarher a Prbble, for that is the beft of all others : 
The MuSer only of Pebble, which keep very cleao. 

Theje may be eafily got of MarbUrs cr Stone-cutters in 

III. Choofe your pencils thus, by their faftnefs in the 
quiils,and their (harp pointi after you have drawn or wetted 
tbem in your mourfa two qr three times j fo that although 
larger, yet their points will comf|o as fmallas a hair, which 
then are go^d ; but if tht y fpread or have any exiravagaot 
hairs they are naught. 

IV. To waPo your pencils. 

After ufing them, rub the ends of them well with Soap, then 
lay them a wfails in warm water to ftccp, then take rbcm out 
and wafhtbem well in orher fair water. 

V. To prepare the Table. 


Chap. 29. The Manual Instruments, iig 

It inuft be made of pure fine pafte-board, fucb as Cards are 
made of (of what tbicknersyou pleafe) very finely Qick'd and 
glazed with a Dogs lootb. Take a piece of this paite-boafd 
of the bigoeft you intend the Pi(5turc, and a piece of the 
fineft and whireft parcbment you can get (virgin parchment^ 
which cut of equal bignefs with the pafte^board j with thin, 
wbire,new made itarcb,patte the parchment to the pafte-board, 
with the outfide of the skin out ward-moft : lay on the 
ftarch very thin and even, being thus pafted let it dry 

VI. Then the grinding ftoae being clean, ky the Card 
thereon wiib the parchment fide downwards, and as bard as 
you can, rub the other fide of the pafte-board with a Boars-, 
tooth fet in a ftick ; then let it be thorow dry, and it will be 
fit to work or Limn any curious thing upon. 

VII. The fheils boldirg or containing your colours, ought 
to be Horfe-mLsfcIe ftiells, which may begot in July ^cm. 
Rivers fides j but the next to thefe are fmail Mufcle (hells, or 
inftead thereof little glafe veflels in the fame form i£ 

VIII. Your Table or Card being thus prepared, you are 
to lay a ground cf flelh color, before yon begin your work, 
and that muft be tempered according to the complexion of 
the face to b^ drawn. 

JX If the complexion be fair. Temper white I{ed lead and 
lake tngether. li' iny bird, fwarihy complexion, Temper mith 
your White and I{ed a little fine Majlicot, or Engli/h Oker. But 
note that your ground ought always to be fairer than the face 
you draw : for it is an eafiy matter to darken a light color, 
bar a diiSculc to lighten a deep one. 

X, Your ground thus prepared, lay it upon your Card, 
whh a Pencil full of color, and rather thin and waterifl), than 
thick and grofs, and with two or three daubs of your great 
Pencil, lay it on in an inftant, the nimbler it is laid on,the*e- 
vener the color will lye. 

XL Cover alfo rather ton much of your Card, than too 
li'tle, with this prime color; fomewbat more of the Card 
with the ground color, than you (hall ufe for the face. 

XII. This done, take a pretty large Fillnr of Ivory or 
Cocus-wood, and before you begin to work, temper certain lit- 
tle heaps of feveral (hadows for the face, wbisb you muft 
mix with your finger, about the Pallar. 


1 14 Polj/grapbicef Lib. II 


Of Prcparathfts for Limnbig, 

I. TJ Ave two (hells or fmall glaffes, in either of which muft 
■*- -^ be pure clean water, the one to wafh the pencils in 
being foul i the other to temper the colors with, when there is 

II. fiefides the pencils you Limn with j a lar^e, clean and 
dry pencil, to cleanle the work from any kind ofdult.ihat may 
fall upon it, which are called FitcD-pencils. 

III. A fharp Pen-knife to take off hairs that may come 
from your pencil, either among the colors or upon the 
works or to take out fpots that may fall upon the Card or 

IV. A paper with a bole cut therein to lay over the Card, 
to keep it from dull and filth, to reft your hand upon, and 
to keep the foil and fweai of your hand from fullyicg the 
parchment, as alfo to try your pencils on before you ufe 

Let the floeUs or fmall glajjis, water, pencils and pen-knife 
lie all on tie right hand. 

V. Have ready a quantity of light Carnation or flelh'co- 
lor temper'd up in a (hell by it felf with a weak gum-water, 
if it be a fair compLxion, mix White and Red-lead together i 
if a brown or fwarthy, add to the former, Mafticot.or Englilh 
Oker, or both, 

VI. But be lure the Po(h color be always lighter than the 
complexion you would Limn ; for by working on it you may 
bring it to its true color. 

VII. In a large Horfe-mufcle (hell place your feveral (ha- 
dows ffor the flelh color) in little places one diftin(5t from 

VIII. In all (badowings have ready fome whiie,and lay a 
good quantity of it by it (elf befides what the (hadows are fyrii 
mixed with. 

IX. For Red for the cheeks and lips, temper Lake and 
Red-lead together : (or blew (hadows (as under the eyes and 
iQ veins] Jcdico or Ultrtmiriae and white. 


Chap, 24. Preparation for Li mtjif^g. 115 

X. For gray faint (hadowj, white,' Englilh Oker, fometiaes 
Malticot: for deep (hacjows. white, Englifh Oker, Umber : 
for dark /hadows. Lake and Pink, which make a good fleihjr 

XI. to make choice of the light. 

Let it be fair and Urge and free fromjhadows of frees or 
Houfes, but aS dear Skie-ltght, and let it be direci from above^ 
and net traf^fverfe ; lef it be Northerly and not Souther Ij;: and 
let the room be clofe and clcAn, and free from the Suh- 

XIL Of the manner of fitting. 

Let your dsik^on which you wor}{_ be fa fitaate, that fitting 
before it^ your left arm may be tottfards the light, that the light 
may Ilril{e /idling upon your wor!{. Let the party that is to he 
Limned^ be in what pofture jhemfehes tffill defign^ but not 4- 
bove two yards off you atmojl.. and level ttithyou. 

XIU. fi^jcrem ohferve their motion, if never fo fmall,for the 
leaji motion, if not recalled, may in /hort time bring on you many 
errors. ' 

XIV. Laflly, the face being fini/hed, let the party fl and (not 
fit) at a farther dtjiance (four or jive yards off) to dram thepoHure 
of his cloths. 

XV. If you defgn to Limn upon Sattin- you m'liil take 
Ifing-g!a(s, and fteep it four and twenty hours in water, thea 
boyi it in fpirir of Wine, untilit be very clammy, which yon 
will perceive by ciping your finger into it : then after your 
out-iines are drawn upon the Satdn, uke an indifferent large 
pencil, and walh it tbid over, as far as your out-lines are, 
which will prevent your colors from finking or flowing. 

XVI. To prevenc your colors from Unking into your 
Card, Paper, or Parchment, you defjgn to Limn on. 

Tal{e ^och-Alum, boy I it infprir.g water, then take a bit of a 
fpunge, and wet the back: fide of your paper, (hut you intend to 
draw on very thin, whilji the Water is hoty be as quick^in Wet- 
ting of it as you can; this fvill prevent the colors finking. 

XVil. Lafl'y, thefe general things are to be obferved^ 

I. That if your colors peel, orbyreafonof the greaiinefff 
of your Parchment, will not lie on, you muft mix with them 
a very little ear Wax^or Civet. and it will help them. i. That 
fie you not above two yards from that you draw by, 3, That 
the perfon you draw, lit iu a higher (eat, than you that draw. 

XVIIL 4. That you draw not any part in the face of a 
Pid:ure, e:gadly at firft j ueuher finift an Eye,Nofe,or Mciitb, 

li * cilf 

Ii6 Pol/'^rifpltices Lib. II. 

till the reft of your work come up, and be wrought together 
with it. 5. That when you have finifhed the Face> lei the 
party ft»nd up, to draw the Drapery by. 

X/X. 6. That blew Bice i( never ufed in a Face. 7. That 
black muft not by any means be ufed : for oiher Ihadows, 
your own obfervation muft diredt you, it being impoflible to 
give a general Rule for the ftiadows in a!i Faces. 


Of the Pra&ke of Liwniug in IsVimiiire , or 
Dramtig of a face in Colors, 

I. ^^0 begin the work- 

-■• Have all things in a readinefs (as before; then on the 
Card lay the prepared color faafwerable to the complexion 
prelected) even and thin, free from hairs and fpots, over ibc 
place where thePidure is to be. 

II. The ground thus laid, begin the work, the party being 
fet, which muft be done at three fittings : at the fit It lltting 
the face is only dead colored, which takes up about two 
hours time. 

HI. At the fecond fitting, go over the work more curi- 
oufly, adding its particular ^ces or deformities, Iweetly 
couching the colors, which wnl take up about five hours 

IV, At the third fitting, finifli the face, in which you muft 
perfect ail that is imperfeti and rough.putting the deep Iha- 
dows in the face,as in the eyes,eye-brows, and ears, which are 
the laft of the work, and not to be done till the hair, curtain, 
cr back fide of the Pidure, and the drapery be wholly finifh- 
ed. 1 

y. The operation or work^at fir§l Jitting. 

The ground for the complexion being laid, draw the out- 
lines of the face, which do with Lake »nd white mingled j 
draw faintly, that if you mifs in proportion or color you may 
alter it. 

VI. This done, add to the former color Red-lead, for 
the cheeks cdq lips ; let ii be but faint (for you cacnot lighten 

Chap. 2 5' The Practice of Lm»hg^S^c. jij 

a deep color) and make the Ihadows in their due places, as 
in the cheek, lips, tip of ihecbio and ears, the eyes and roo^ 
of the hair : Ihadow not with a flat pencil, but by (mall loucfcl- 
es(asin batching) and To go over the face. 

VII. In this dead coloring rather than to be curious,flriFe 
as near as may be to imitate nature. 

VIII. The red fliadows being put in their due places? 
Ihadow with a faint blew, about the corners and balls bf the 
eyes j and with a grayifli blew under the eyes and about the 
temples, heightening the Ibadows as the lighr falls, alio the 
harder Ihadows in the dark fide of the face, under the eye- 
brows, chin and neck. 

IX. Bring all the work to an equality, but add perfedion 
to no particular part at this time j but irtiitate the life in like- 
nefs, roundnef?, boldnefs, pofture, color, and the like. 

X. Laftly, touch at the hair with a fatable color in fuch 
curls, folds and form, as may either agree wiih the life, or 
grace the Pidure : fill the empty places with color, and 
deepen it more ftrongly, than in the deepeft fliadowed be- 

X/. The operation or work, atfecond fitting. 

As before rudely, fo now you muft fweeten thofe varieties 
which Nature affords, with the fame colors and in the fame 
places driving them one into another, yet fo as that no lump 
or fpot of color, or rough edge may appear in the whole 
wo k ; and this muft be done with a pencil fiiarper than that 
which was ufed before. 

XJI. Thisdone,goto thebackfideofthe Pidnre which may 
be Landskip, or a curtain of IWw or red Sactin : if of blew 
temper as much Bice as will cover a Card, and let it be well 
mixed with gum; with a pencil draw ibeour-lincs of the cur- 
tain: as alfo of the wbo'e Pidure ; then with a large pencil 
lay thinly or airily over the whole ground, on which j'ou mean 
to Limn the blew ; and then with a large pencil lay over the 
fame a fubftantial body of color j in doing of which be 
nimble, keeping the color moift, letting no part thereof be 
dry till the whole be covered. 

X/IJ. If the cartain beCrimfon, trace it out vfith/qdian- 
Lakej lay the ground with a thin color i and lay the light 
with a thin and waterifli color, where ^faeyfallj and while 
the ground is yet wet, with a ftrong dark color tempered 
fometbing thick, lay the ftrong and hard fliadows clofe by the 
ether lights. 

'5 XIV 

11 8 P.oUgrAphic^s Lib, II. 

XIV- Then lay the liiwien with f<tini whiie, and ihe dia- 
peiy fiai oi the color you micnd it. 

XV. In ihe lace, ice vvfaai ihadoivs are too light or too 
deep, for the curtain behind, and drapery, and reduce each 
to their due perkvirion , draw the lini:s ot the eye-lids, and 
Ihadow :he entrance into th': ear, dcepnels of the eye-brows, 
and eminent marks in the iace, wi;h a very fiurp pencil. 

XVI. Laftly, go over the hair, coioriug it as it appears 
in the life, catting over the ground fome loale Jocks or hairs, 
which will make the Picture itand as it were ac a diftance 
from the curtain. 

X^ll. Shadow the Unnen with white, black., and a little yehttf 
4nd blew i and deepen your black^^ with Ivory-blacky mixed with 
a little Lak_e and hidtco, ^ 

Xnil. The operation or w or !{_ at third fit ting. 

This third work is wholly fpent in giving (Irong touches 
where you fee caufe, ia rounding fmooihiog and colui icg the 
face, which you better fte todo, now the curtain and dra- 
pery is limned, than before. 

XIX. And now obfcrve wbatfoerer may conduce to the 
perfeilion of your work, asgcfture, Icars or moIe<:,caiis of the 
eyes, windings of the mouth, and the like j and bo fure ne- 
ver to make your decpeit ftadows To deep as they appear 
in the life. 

XX. The ground color for hair ^ and how to heighten ar.d 
deepen it. 

You muft lay on the hair in minirurc, of a Color not fc 
light as the lighteft, nor fo deep as the dcepcft (Tiadow, but in 
a middle proportion between beih, on which you may either 
beighten or deepen at plcifurc, 

XXI. If you lay it on with thelightefi; color, it will require 
t long time to work it down ; and if fo dark as the dceptll, 
you cannot deepen it lower with the fame color. 

XXII. Moreover you muft lay this Ground color, exiream' 
ly even and fmootfa, and the fpeedier you are in doing it, the 

XXIIL In doing of ir, ufe a Goofe-quil-pencil, abd Jet the 
temper thereof not be too thin, becaule the Parchment will 
appear then through the ground, which it ought to cover ; and 
rather than iifliould fo tpP^ar. when tbefirft laid Ground is 
^^Jy ^0 over the i^oat again vvith the fame colors, 


Chap. 2^. Of Tjmning Drapery, ii^ 


Of Limning Drapery. . 

I. A Full and fubftaniial ground being laid all over where 

"^^ you intend the Drapery i as if blew, with Bice 
faaoothly laid, deepen it with Lakeland Indico ; liglitning it 
with a fine faint white, in the extreme light places, the which 
underftand of other colors. 

II. If the body you draw be in Armour, lay liquid Silver 
all over for a ground, which being well dried and burnilhed : 
ftadow it with Silver, Indico, Litmole and Umber, accor- 
ding as the life diredts you. 

HI. For Gold Atmoitr lay liquid Gold as you did the Sil- 
ver, and fliadow upon it with Lake, Englilh Oker, and % 
little Gold, 

IF. Or thus. Take the finefi Jhell Gold, and lay it flat and 
fmooth on the place you intend for Armmr: tvhen it is dry^ hur- 
nifo it all over ttfith afmali fVeefels or Dogs tooth, fet in the end 
of a Pencil ftick^, but fotnething longer. 

V. For thefhadows, temper lak^, I{pman Ok,erj and gall ftone- 
tvith a little Jhell Gold. 

VI. The Heightnings being burnijloed, are to he left bright. 

VII. In the fainter farts of the fhajotps, tife a little Jhell 
Goldi and alfo in the deeped, which mufi be neatly and Jweetly 
wrought into the Gold. 

Fill Alfo take Gall fi one, and tetfiper it with fhell Gold, it 
gives an excellent lujlure to all Gold works. 

IX. In the darkejfi and deepe(iJJoadjws, mix a little black. 
The heightnings are only the firji Gold burni/hed very bright. See 
bow to do Silver Armour at Sed:. 51. following, 

X. For Pearls, your ground muft be Indico and white; 
the fliadows black and pink. To eatpreis the roundoefs and 
lufture of a Pearl, ftiadow it with Indico, Gfaerry-ftone black, 
and Pink. 

XI. Or your Pwr/ may be laid wij,l|a white tnixed v^tb a 
little black, a little Indico and Maftick.but very little io com- 
parifon of the White, fcarcely to the huudredtb part : ibis be- 

I 4 »8 

i:o Tolygr^ph/ces Lib. II. 

being dry, giveihelight of the PearJ with a JictI; Silver, 
fotnewbac more to the light iban the (haJowed fide. 

Xll. Then take a Wbiteallayed with Malticot, and un- 
derneaih the fliadowed fide, give it a cornpalfing Itroke, 
which (hews a reHcdlion, then wiibout that, a Imall fliadow 
of Sea-cole, undermott of ail > buc note, your Silver mult be 
laid round and full. 

XIII. For Diamonds, lay a ground of liquid Silver, and 
deepen it with Cherry- {tone-black and Ivory-black: the 
deeper the (hadow, the fdiier the Diamond. 

XIV. For Babies, lay a Silver ground, which burnifh to 
the b:gnels of a Ruby ; then with pure Turpentine temper'd 
with Indian Lake, from a fmall wire heated in a Candle' 
drop upon the burniftied place, fafliioning it as you picafe 
with year Inftruments, which -let lie a day or two to dry ; 
and if it be too long in drying add to the compofition a litde 
powder of Maftick. 

Xl^. For EmerauUs, or any green ftone, temper Turpen- 
tine wih Verdigrife. and a linle Turmerick root, firft fcra- 
ped, with Vinegar, drying ir, grind it to fine poudcr and 
mix ic. 

l(Vl For Saphires.mvx. or temper Ultramarine with pure 
Turpentine, which lay upon a ground of liquid Silver polilht: 
which mufi be the ground for all thefe ftones. 

To make liquid Gold or Silver : fee the firji SeEiion of the twen • 
ty fi>-fi Chjpter of this Book, 

Xyil. For Scarht, Temper Carmine, and deepen it wirh 
Indian-Lake. Or thus, Temper native Cinnabar and a little 
Red-lead, and fhadow it with Indian-Lake. 

XVIII. For Crimfon, Temper Cinnabar,L«kc and White : 
deepen it with Lake. 

XIX. For Crfr«/j//^t?,Terr per Lake and White, and deepen 
or fliadow it wftb L^ke*. For a Peach Color, Ttmper Car- 
tnibe and a liitle White ; and deepeo or fliadow it with 

XX. For a Violet, Temper fine Dutch- Bice and Lake; 
and deepen it with Indico. For a Purple, Temper Bice and 
Lake, and a liitle White ; and deepen it with Lake aed 

XXI. For an Orange: Temper the beft Red-Lead, and 
a lit'le fine yellow Mafticcte ; (hadow it wiihGall-fkooe and 
Lake. For 'an Orsnm Tgwney: Temper Cwnab-ir, ligbt 


Chap. 16. Of Limmfig Drapery, 121 

Pink, and a little yellow Mafticote ; fliadqw it with Gall- 
ftone and Lake. 

- XXll For a Sea-green : Temper Bice, Pink, and White ; 
and deepen it with Greea Pink. For a f'rench Green : Tem- 
per ligbi Pink one part,witb Dutch bice fix parts j and deepen 
with green Pink. 

irXIlI. For Sky: Temper Ultramarine with a little Whirej 
and deepen with Indico. For Foppnjay : Temper Pink, and 
a litrle Indico ; and deepen it wub Indico. 

XXiV. For Straw : Temper yellow Mafticote with a very 
little Cinnabar ; and deepen it with dark Pink. For a Lyon 
Tawney : Temper Red- lead and iVIafticote, and deepen it 
with Umber. 

XXy. For /}(h colour. Temper Cherry-ftpne and White 5 
and deepen it with Ivory black. For a bright B^d: Temper 
Indian Lake with native Cinnab«r : The Indian Lake is the 
beft of all other Lakes; but ii being very fcarce and dear, 
you may ufe Florence-Lake iaiiead thereof. 

XXVI. For all colors where Dutch-Bice is ufed, be fure 
to make choice of that which is very fine, or elfe you will 
find, that in working, in will lye very rough and uneven,and 
not cover well. 

JCXFII. And be fure that when you temper any of tbefe 
colors for a Complexion or Garment^ you temper it on your 
Pallat or (hell with your finger j and temper them very well 
to mix them altogether, to make a good mixture and not too 

XXVIII. Be fure alfo to preferve all your colors from dud, 
and before you temper either in the (hell or upon your pallat, 
to brufh it off with a large Pencil or Hairs foot, or to blow it 

XXIX In drawing of Cloths, be extream careful in habi- 
ting every one, according to fbe degrees and Functions of the 
peribn defcribed, givirg them alfo their right and proper co- 

XXX For Example, the Virgin Mary is commonly repre- 
fenied in Purple and Azure. J^ohn the Evangelift in Scarier. 
John Baptift in a Hairy Mantle. The reft of the Apoftles in 
Green or-Crimfon. 

XXXI, There are two ways of working Drapery, The firft 
way is that which the haliavs ufe ; which is done with the 
point of a Pencil and hatching it. 


122 Folygraphices Lib. II. 

XXXII. Some places are touched «li over alike,yet fo, as 
when it isfinifhcd, you may perceive the Parchment appear 
in ieveral places, quite ihrougb the work, which is indeed 
too flight a way, and ought net to be called Limnirg, but 

XXXIII. The fecond wayyjhxch is the beft.Fir;^ lay a good 
foil flat ground all over where you defign your Drapery, of 
what color you would have it : this aone, you will find it 
much eafier to work upon ; and you may either heighten or 
deepen it, according as your ingenuity or the Life Ihall di- 
rect you. 

XXXIV. If you would have the Drapery blev^, you may 
take an indifferent large Pencil with Ultramarine, cr inflead 
of that, Dutch-Bice well prepared i let your Pencil be alircjll 
fulJ of either of thefe colors, and therewith lay the color 
even and fraootb, all over the place you intend for Drapery : 
this you may deepen with Lake and Indico. Heighten very 
faintly, and fair in the extream'^ft lights: the like oblerve 
in all other colors of Drapery whatloever. 

XXXV. Crimfon Velvet, Red, Green, and Blew, may 
be heightned with fine Ihell Gold, it gives a m )ft admirable 
ornament in cluth of Gold, efpecully if you mix fome of the 
Gold, with the ground color it felf, which will make it much 
the fairer. Thus great Painters hefghtned :ill their works of 
Archiiedlure and Buildings, efpecially in ftately Rooms and 

XXXVI. Be fure that you draw the out-linc« of the Gar- 
ment very true and faint, becaufe the whole grace of a pid- 
ure confifts much in the ouimoft draught, and more than in 
the curious work within, 

XXXVIL To do this, you muft fute the Garments to 
I be body, and make them, bend and yield with it, and not 
ftraitand tttff where it bendeth. 

XXXVIII. Tn fit the Garments rightly to the body ; ob- 
ferve which pan of the body bends in or cur, that the Gar- 
ments may aofwer to the body upon the kaft turning any 

XXXIX. That the Garment may turn with it, you muft 
cbferve where the body Ihould be, if it were bare, and there 
form the Garments in the right places, making them to bend 
or fit out, according to the Joynts and Limbs, and fometimes 
plainly to appear through the Garments, and efpecially where 
they are driven b^ the wind, or any other aition to lye loofe 


Chilp. 26, Of Limnbjg Drapery, 125 

from the body. In this c^k exprels them lightly, and with a 
kind of traalparency. 

XL. Begin at the upper part of the Garment, and fo draw 
down that part of the Garment (on both fidesj that lies dole 
to the body, before you draw the loofe parts, that fly off from 
the bddy, 

XLI. For if you draw the loofe parts firft, before you have 
finilhed chofe parts which lye clofe to the body or its parts, 
you will be prefenily out] i^nd be apt to draw the body 
awry. • 

XLII. Therefore fome great Artifts draw lightly the naked 
body firft, and put on the Garments afterwards, by which 
means they can better fee to place the Cioathing rightly, and 
to harig even upon the body. 

XLIII. You muft alio draw the greateft folds firft, and fo 
ftrike the greater folds into the lefs ; and be fure that you 
make nor one fold to crofs another, Break alfo fome of the 
folds into lefs ; and make them the narrower, where the Gar- 
ments fit clofer. 

XLIV. Obferve alfo to order your Drapery fo, that the folds 
may fall all one way,efpecially in a ftanding Figure, though, 
it will be otherwife fometimes in a Figure that is drawn fit- 

XLV. For the Garments of a ftanding Figure, are lyable 
to be driven by the Air and therefore muft be placed one 

XLVI. Be fure alfo not to make folds, where the Garment 
ihould fit ftreight and doi^i as the Breafts, Knees, Thighs, (fjc. 
which beat them out, and therefore in fuch places ought al- 
ways to fit plain. 

XLVII. Jojhadow in Ltmen : ufe black, white, a Utile yel- 
low, and lefs blew : the black muft bedeepned with burnt I- 
vory, with which mix a little Lake and Indico, or Litmofe- 
blue. For greater variety of Colours and Mixtures, y^e Chap, 
20. beforegoing. 

XLVIIL As for Sattens and Silks, and all other fliining 
Stuffs, they ought to have certain bright reflections, exceeding 
bright, with fudden light Glances, efpecially where the light 
falls brighteft ^ And fo by how much the Garment falls the 
more inward from the light, by fo, much the Reflexions will be 
the lefs bright. 

XLIX. The like is Teen in Armour, Brafs-Pots and Kettles, 
or any Gliftriog Metalj where you fee a fudden brighinefs in 


124 Pofygr/iphices Lib. IF. 

the middle or Center of the Iigfar, from the Ihiniog quality 
tnd difpoiition of thole things. 

L. Chafed^ EmboJJed or ftointng Armour. The lighter places 
ofit muft befpirklmg, which you may exprefs by raiiing 
the high atid round places, with a Temper of Gall-ibne, and 
Roman Oker, by touching with your pencil full of the Color 
of it, over and over,!n one and the lame place, till the Touches 
be raifed above the other work. 

LI. Then cover over the raifed work, with the fineft (hell 
Gold, (that is made at Anttverp) and burnifh it wi:b a Weefels 
Tooth ; and the like if it be Silver Etnbofled. 

Lll. Silver Armour. Take Ihell Silver, and Iiy it on, as 
you did the Gold fat Scd. 3. abovej and burnifli it alfo when 
it is dry, as you did the Gold. 

LIII. For the Ihadows, temper Lake and Indico, with a 
very little Umber: work all the (hadows down even and 
fmootb, according to what youobletve in the Life. 

LIV. The heightnirgs are to be left fthe Silver being 
brightly burnifhed/ as in the Gold. The thinner part of the 
Ihadou'S, being part of the depth of the ftadows, muft be 
tempered with a little fliell Silver, and Iweetly and neatly 
wrought into the Silver, being laid very flat and even as be- 
fore mentioned. 

LV, Cherryftone burnt, Dark, Pink, and Ruft of Iron, aie 
a very good Ihadow for Emboffed Silver Armour : fo alfo is 
Ivory Black mix: with Dark Pink, 

c H x\ P. xxvir. 

Of Limmttg Laudskip. 

A LL the variable exprejfions of Landskjp are innumerable, 
■^ ■*■ they being as many as there are men and fancies ; the gene- 
ral rules follow. 

I. Always bigin with the Sky, Sun-beams or lighteft parts 
firft ; next the yellowilh beams (which make of Mafticos an4 
while) next the blewnefs of the Sky, (which make of Ultra- 
marine or Smalt only :) for purple Clouds, only mix Lake 
and white. 


Chap. 27. Of Limning Lands kjp. 12* 

II. At firil working, dead Color ali the Piece over, leave 
no part of the ground uncovered, but lay the Colors fmooth 
all over, 

III. Work the Sky downwards, towards the Horizon 
fainter and fainter, as it draws Dearer and nearer the earth, 
except in lempeftuous Skies: the tops of mountains far 
remote, woik fo faint that they may appear as loll ia the 

IV. Let places low, and near the ground be of the color of 
the earth, of a dark yellowilh, or brown, or green- the next 
lighter green ; and fo fucceifively as they lole in difianccj let 
them abate in color. 

V. Make nothiog which you fee at a diftance perfect, by 
expreffing any particular lign which it hath, but exprefs it in 
colors, as weakly and faintly as the eye judgetb of it. 

VI. Always place light againft darknefs and darkaefs ai- 
gainft light , by which means you may extend the profped: 
as a very far off. 

VII. Let all Ihadows loofe their force as they remove from 
the eye 5 always letciog the itrongeft fliadow be neareftband. 

VIII. Laftly, Takelfinglafs infmall pieces half an ounce, 
fair Conduit-water two quarts, boil it till the glafs is diffolvedi, 
which fave for ufe: with which mix fpiritor oyl of Cloves, 
Rofes, Cinnamon or Amljergriefe, and • lay it on acd about 
the Pidure where it is not colored (left it fliould change 
the colors : but upon the colors ufe it without the perfumes) fo 
it will varnidi your Pidures, and give them a glofs, retaining 
the glory of their colors, and take from them any ill fcem 
which they might otherwife retain. 

See the way of tempering Colors for Shadomingt in Chap. It. 
Se^. 13. aforegoing. 

IX. For Trees you muft have a dark Green, which you 
may make by mixing Verditer with P/mA. ^^^ Indico : the 
deepeft (hadows of all in Green, are made with Sap-green and 

X. To preferve your Colors in Limning. 

Take Rolecnary-water double diftilled, or pure Spirit of 
Rofemary, and with a few drops of it, temper your (hell of 
while. However dead and faded it was before,ii will inftant- 
ly become perfcd white. This Water or Spirit binders alfo 
the Bubbles io White and Vmherj which are irgubUfomein 


126 Polygrd^hiccs Lib. II. 


Of Light and Shadow. 

I, r Igbis and /hades fet in their proper places in fuch a juft 
*-* and equal proportion, as Namre dotb give, or the 
life require, give a true Mea of the thing we v^ouid reprefent j 
fo that lis not any color wb»t(ocver,nor any fingle itroak or 
ftroaks which is the caufe thereof, but that excellent Symme- 
try of Light and Shadow, which gives the true refemblance 
of the light. 

11. Jn (hadowing, be careful you fpoil not your work by 
too grofs a darknels, whether it be hard or foft. 

/]/. This Oblervation of light and dsrk is that which cau- 
fetb all things contained in jour work ro come forward or fail 
backward, and makes every thing from the firlt to the laft 
to ftand in their juft places, whereby the diftancc between 
thing and thing feems to go from you or come to you as if it 
were the work of Nature it ielf 

IV. Suppofe it were a plaifter Fig'-^re,take good notice what 
appears forwards and what backwards, or how things fuc- 
cced one anorber ; then confider the caule which makes them 
in appearance eicher to incline or recline, and confider the 
degrees of light and darknefs, and whether they fall forward 
or backward, accordingly in your draught give firft gentle 
touches, and after that heighten by degrees according as the 
example and your own ingenuity (hall diredl. 

V. Thofe parts are to be heighin'd in your work which 
appear higheft in your Pauero; The greatert life which we 
can give on white paper is the paper it felf, all lefTer lights 
muft be faintly (hadowed in proportion to their refpeclive de- 

VI. But on colored paper white Crions and Tobaccopipe- 
cJay areufed for the firft and fecond beighteniogs^putting each 
in their proper places, as more or lefs light is required, which 
is a fingular obfervation in this manner of drawing, 

VII. Then you muft take heed you beigbren not too many 
places, nor heighten any thing more than what is needful, 
Bor too near the datk or fliadows, or any out-line, (except 


Chap. 28 Of Light and Shadow. 127 

where you intend fome refiexiun J left your work (hew bard 
and rougb. 

VIII. In faeigbreniog, or fueb figures «s require great ligfat, 
put the greacelt light in tbe middle, «nd tbe lefler towards 
the edges for the better peripicuity of your work. 
' IX. Laftly, leave fufficieni faint places on tbe gtouod of 
your pa^per between your lights and /hades, that tfaey may 
appear pleafaruly with a fingular plainnefj and fmoothncls. 

X. Refledioti, is to be ufed in delineating, glittering, or 
Ihining bodies, as Glafs, Pear!, Silver, (^c. let the caufeof 
tbe refledlioD, be it more or lefs, be feen in tbe thing it felf, 

XI In plain drawing, lay all your fhades fmooih, whe- 
ther it be in batching or fmutcbing, keeping every thing 
wichin its own bounds, and this is done by not making your 
ftixdes at firft too hard, or putting one (hadow upon ano- 
ther too dark. 

XII Obferve that the greater parts of light and /hadows, 
and the fmall parts intermixt in the fame, may always fo 
correfpond as thereby to make more appearent the greater. 

XIIL In Pidnres, let the higheft light of the whole, Cif 
any darknefs ftand in the middle of it) appear more dark than 
indeed it is : and in working always compare light with light, 
and dark with dark, by which you will find the power of 
eacB, and the genera! ule thereof in all operations. 

XIV. L^t all your lights be placed one way in the whole 
work, whether in tbe Figure, Face, or Garments. 

XV. Ifthe light fall fideways on the Pidhire, you mnft 
make the other fide which is fartfaeft from the light darkeft, 
and let the lights be placed all together on the other fide, 
and not confufedly on both fides, as if it ftood in the midft 
of many lights, for the body cannot be lightoed equally ia 
all places. 

XVI. But. when you exprefs a Dungeon or Prifon with 
a Torch lighted in it, you muft obferve that every thing in 
it, as well as tbe Garments, muft receive their lights from it, 
and therefore muft be fliadowed all on the contrary fide, 
which obferve in all Ihadowings of the fame kind. 

XVil. The true and natural difpofition of light, is that 
which gives the principal grace to a Pit^ure, for that without 
its due light, is clearly another thing. 

XVlII. And although fo, it may be beautiful in its kind, 
fo far as it is wrought ; but if afterwards it fliall be flja- 
dowcd without judgment and Art, fo that the fkadows 


12 8 Polygraph'jcet Lib. IL 

be confufedly placed, where the lights on^i to be; or con- 
trariwife, ibc /i^/jfj where ibc Jhadowi Hiould be; and the 
Concavities and Convexitiet out of their natural fituations, 
the woik will nor only be conUifcd, but wholly if o led. 

XIX Whereas on the contrary having //j^/jf/ rightly difpo' 
fed, it lb mighiily adds to the perftd:ion of the Figure, that 
it makes the Flat or Plane Icenn to be imb.fjj'ed. 

XX. And thus light lightly difpoled, does that in the 
Vainterj work, \sh'\t:ix fubjl ance or matter dots in the Car- 
vers work ; infotnufb ibat ihcy Iftm robe Itnbolfed out- 
wards, fuch is the force of Ito^bt and fhadouf. 

XXI. And herein you will find admirable fcenes and 
forejhortnings, proceeding purely from the true dilpofition of 
the Itght ; without which the Figure would not only be 
impcrfed:, but lole alfo much of its grace ; .dou"^b other- 
wife well proportioned and placed. 

XXII. This light is the caufe or formal reafoft v/bereby 
colored things are ken, whofe Shapes and Images pafs to'rhe 
Phantafy, and efpecially inlighten the eyes in which the Image 
is formed ; which firft paflcth to the Common-fenfe, after- 
wards to the Phantafy, and laltofallto the underftanding ; 
whereby every thing is difcovered to be what indeed 
it is. 

XXIII. In refpedt of this light, three things occurc to 
cur vifive faculty, r;:^. the viliua nines, the colored body.and 
the faculty of feeing, which is in the eye. 

XXIV. The Vifual lines l^gkncd, fwhich are the proper 
fubjedt oi PerfpeBive) come to the eye in a Pyramidal form, 
the ba fe of which Pyramis refteth in the objed: ; and the 
Cone or Angle thereof comes to the eye more blunt or ob- 
tufe, if the faid objed be near ; but more fliarp or acute, if 
it be farther off, whereby it is not (o clearly or eafily difcern- 
ed, as otherwife it would. 

XXV. The colored ObjeFl or Body, comes not to the eye, but 
its vifible fpecies or Ihapes are diffufed through the clearnelis 
of the Air unto the Efe i which fpecies are only certain 
Images like thofe we fee in a Glafs. 

XXVI. And if the colored body ftand near ro this I- 
mage, it comes to our eye in the fame qiunnry and big- 
nefs of the Angel of the Pyramis, which being nhtufe or 
blunt, makes the Image ferm as great as indeed it is, and (o 
difcerned tbe morediltindly. 


chap. Q 8. Of Light and Shadow. 129 

XXVII. But if far off, the vifible fpecfes appears lefSjaccor-' 
diog to tbe proportion of the diftance and acutene.'s of the 
Pyramidal Aagle. 

XXVIII. The faculty of feeing is formed by the Concur- 
rence of the other two things, vit^. the vifual lines, and th<r" 
colored body > which iBformetb tbe eye by reducing it from 
meer Ability into A<ft, and fo performing its operatioos, and 
caufing the thing alfo to be feen more apparently and 

XXIX. From hence it is apparent, thai tbe felf fame body 
cannot be equally ligbrced in all places, i. Becaufe the light 
doth not diredily illuminate any more than that part which is 
dire(^Iy oppoHte to it i tbe other parts which are oblique to 
It are illuftrated more imperfetflly, by reafon of the intercep- 
tion or obliquity of an opake body, through which its beams 
cannot pierce. 

XXX. 2. From the feveral diftances of the eye to tbe 
farts of the fame body j for as the firft part of the body is 
(een and placed neareft the eye, and fo comes to it with z 
tnoreobtufe Angle, fo being more ligbtned, it is alfo feea 
more diltindily, whereas the other parts being farther off, 
come to the eye in a more acute Angle, and being ieffer 
iigbtoed, cannot be fo plainly feen. 

XXXI. If two, three, or four men ftood one behind a- 
nother, all of them equally receiving the light ; yet in refpec^ 
of your eye they do not i and therefore by the former Do- 
(Hirine, you muft paint the fecond which is fartheft off frotxi 
the eye darker, the third darker than that,and the fourth dark- 
eft of all, and fo on if there be more, till the eye can fee no 

XXXII. Tbe reafon is, becaufe the fecond ftaading farther 
off, comes to the eye with a Ieffer Angle ("as aforefaid)wbere« 
by i# cannot be feen fo evidently as the firff, the fame reafon 
is for the third, fourth, fifth, C^e. 

XXXIII. The fame thing is alfo to be under ftood, if the 
vifible fpeCiesofone or many objedls be feen fideways, foe 
according to their diftance and obliquity to the eye, fo yoH 
tnuft (hadow them. 

XXXIV. That part of tbe body muft be made lighteff^ 
which has the light moft oppofite to it: if the lighc be pla- 
ced above tbe head defcending ; then the top of thfe head 
!!^ft &e made lighteft, the ftioulder next li^hteftj itd 

130 Polygraphkes Lib II. 

fo yon muft ftiadow, by lofing the light by degrees. 

XXXV. That part x)t the body which ftands fartbeit out, 
mutt be made lightett, becaule it comes nearelt to the light.-, 
■nd ibe light loies io much ot its brigbtnels, by bow much 
any pan cf the body bcods inward, becauie tbofe pans 
which (tick out, do hinder the Glory and full Brightneis of 
the light from tbofe parts that fall anything more hollow. 

XXXVI Tiierefore, by bow much one part of the body 
fticks cut beyond another, by fo much it muit be made 
lighter than the other, aad c contrario, (o much the darker. 

CHAP. xxrx. 

Of Colors more particularly, 

I. r^K?'' '* * good color, and much in ufe for lliadowj, in 
^-^ Pidures of the life, both for Hair and Drapery : In 
Landskips it is ufed for Rocks and High-ways. 

II. Pink,, the fairett, witb blew, makes the fafteft greens 
for Landskip and Drapery. 

III. Sap-green and green-bice are good in their kiad \ but 
the firft is fo tranfparent and thin, the other of fo courfc 
and grofs body, that in many things they will be ufelcfs, 
efpecially where a beautiful green ('made of Pink and Bice 
mixed with Indicoj is required. 

IV. XJmbir, is a greaiie foul color ; but being calcined 
and grouDd, it works lliarpand neat. 

V. Spanijfh'hrott'n, is exceeding courfe and full of gravel ; 
bsing prepared, it is ufed for a mixture made of Red- 
lead mixt with a little Umber, which makes the ftm« 

VI. Cole/jj sarth or Terra LemnUy h is ufed to clofe up 
the laft and deepefl touches in the (hadows of Pidures of 
the life, and in Landskips ; ufe it when new ground. 

VII. Cherry Hone-blacky, is very good for Drapery and black 
tpparel : mixc with lodicc, it is excellent for Sattin ; it ap- 
pears more beautiful or ihininp if mixed wirh a little white: 
if deepned wiin Ivory-black, in hard reiie(ilion>, and ftrong 
deep toncbeSj it is wondeirful fair. 

Chap. JO. Makifig Original Colors, 131 

VIII. Ivory hlac\^ it ferres for a deep black, but is noceafis 
so work wijbout h be well lempered with Sugai-candy, to 
prevent peeling. 

iX. ^d lead, well wafti'd, is a good color, but Vermilion 
for thofe pieces which require an exquilite rednefs. 

X. Indian- Lake, is the dearelt and moil beautiful of all 
ordinary reds ; k is to be ground as wi-iue-lead, and mixt 
with a litile white Sugar-candy and fair water, till the color 
and Sugar- candy be throughly diflblved, which being dry 
will lie very faft, without danger ^ cracking or peeling. 



Obfirvations of mahlng fome Original Colors* 

I. T" O make white-lead. 

A ptji in o an earthgn pot or Crucible feveral plates of 
fine Lead, cover ihem with White-wine Vinegar, covering 
ihetop of the pot clofe with clay, bury it in a Cellar for (even 
or eight weeks, and you will have good white lead upon 
ihe plates, which wipe off. 

II. To make Verdigrife. 

This is made by hanging plates of Cdpper over the futnes 
of AquafortH, or fpiric of Nitre, or by dipping them in iliC 
fame or in Vinegar. 

III. To make an Emerald Color. 

Take Verdigrife in fine pouder, which temper with var- 
nifli, and lay it upon a ground of liquid Silver barnilhi, and 
you have a fair Eooerald. 

IV. To make a ^uby colour. 

Mix the fame with Florence Lake, and you Ihall have a vf.^^ 
ry fair color. • 

V. To make aSaphire color. 

Thefame, '»«;(. Verdigriiemixt with Ultramarine, makes 
a glorious Saphire. 

VI. To ma\e a Crimfon Velvet. 

Take Turnlble and mix it wirh Tndian-fake fwell ground 
with gum and Sugarcandvj ! y it full, and when ir i' veec 
wipe away the color with a dry pencil, where yoo woald, 

K * - [iaf9 

i}2 Polygrapljices Lib. II. 

have the beigbtning of the Crimfon Velvet appear, and the 
ftrongcr refleiflioDS will be well exprefled. 

V i. To mal^ a Silver blacky. 

Tike fine Silver filings or plates, which dilTolve in fpirir of 
Nitre or W(7«/i/(jm/, and evaporate to drinefs, or precipitate 
cum Oleo Sulphuru or Salt-water, and you (hall have a fnow- 
whice precipitate, which mixt with water makes the beft 
black in the world, to dy all manner of Hair, Horns, Bones, 
Wo'>d, Metals, C^^:. 

VIII. To make a Murry or Ametbyjl. 

It is made of Indian Lake ground with Gum-Arabick wa- 
ter only. 

IX. To maJ(e s B^d or I{iihy for Limning. 

It is made of Indian-Lske (^which breaks of a Scarlet color j 
ground with Gum-water and Sugar-candy. 

X. To mak^ A:{iire blew , or Saphire. 

It is made of Ultramarine of Venice f which is bcftj the 
befl blew Smalt, or blew bice ground with gum-water only : 
you may make good fliadowing blews of Indico, Flory and 
Liimofe, all which need no waftiiog, nor Litmofe no grind- 
ing, but only infufed in a Lixiviuni of Soap-alTies. 

XI. To make a Green or Emerald. 

It is made of Cedar green : in place whereof, take Green- 
Bice to draw with : Pink i« good alfo for Landskips, mix- 
ed with Bice-aOies ^as alfo with Mafiicotand Cerufe. 

XII. To make a TeUowor Tofa:{. 

It is made of Mafticot which is the beft, of which there 
are divers forts, r;;^. deeper and paler: Yellow-Oker alfo 
for want of better may do. Shadow Mafticot with Yellow- 
Oker deepen it with Oker de Luce. 

Xill. To make Vltramarine. 

Take the deepeft colored Lapi La:(uli fbaving few vein* 
of Gold upon it) heat it red-hot in a Crucible clofe covered, 
then qaench it in Urine, Vinegar or Water in a Leaded 
earthen pot, dry it well, then with a pair of pinfers nip off the 
bard, gray, and whiieft pan from it, and grind the remain- 
der with honied water as fine as may be, then diy itforufe. 
The honied water is made of water a quart, boiled with 
honey two fpoonfuU. 


Chap. 51* Limning totfje Life^bcc. 135 


Thefum of the Obfervat/o^j of Limning to 
the life in gcfjci'al. 

I. f ET the Table be prepared very exactly by fhefifib 
*^ rule of the twenty third Chapter of ibis fecond Buck. 

II. Let the ground be of iie(h color, tempering it accord- 
ing to the complexion to be painted. 

11/. If ir be a fair complexion, mix a good quantity of 
Red and Wbiie-Leacf together fomewhat thick. 

IV. If fwartby or brown, mix with the former a litilefine 
Malticot or Englifh Oker, or botb, alwiys* obfervirg that 
your ground be fairer than the complexion painted. 

For faitnefs may be Jhadotted or darkened at fkafurt ; but if 
it ^e fad or darl^, you can never heighten it. ^ for in Limnirg, the 
figure is altoays wrought dotvn to its exail color. 

V. Lay the ground upon the Card or Tablet, with a larger 
pencil than ordinary, fee from fpors, fcrachesof the pencil* 
or duft, and as even as polfible may be ; alro let the coloi be 
rather thin and wateriih than too thi^:k, doing it very quick 
and nimbly with two or three dafnes of the pencil. 

VI. This done, prepare your fhadows in orJer, by tJte 
fcventh rule of the four and twentieth Chapter of this fecond 

Vir. Then draw the out-lines oif the face with Lake and 
white mingled together very fine i fo that if you Ciould mi- 
ftake in your firlt draught, ycu may vi/i h a (trong ftro-.k 
draw it true, the other line by reafon of its faintncfs being 
no hinderance. 

The fe Ikies mufi be truly dratorij fharp, tPith the 
greateft exoHnefs imaginable. 

Vni. Obferve the moft remarkable and deep fhidows 
which keep in memory when you go over them with mo;e 
exadnefs; drawing our alfo (\i you fo pleafe) the (h.pc of 
that part of the body next adjoining to rhe face, x^/y. a little 
beneath the (houlders, with a Itrong ^.nd dv k color, which in 
cafe of miftake in proportion may ta/ily be ahered, 

K 3 ' IX 

X34 Polygraphrces Lib. II. 

IX. The Sirt fiitiog IS to dead color the face ; the fecond 
Cciirg is ihe exact coloring and obfervacion of the feveral 
fhadows, gracei, beauties or dcto:miiics, as they are in Na- 
ture : the tiiird lilting is making ftuooth vvbai was before 
rough an;:! rude j cloathing what was naked, and giving 
ftror.g and deepaing touches to every relpcchve (hidow. 

X. The dead color is thus made. 

Tak« ff the afcrefaid ground (at the third or fourth SeSion 
of this Chapter) and mix tt iriih fine I{ed lead, tempering it ex- 
aEiij/ to a dead color of the cheeh and lips, having a great care, 
that )ou make it Tiot too deep 'j which if light, you may do at 

Xi. The face is firft begun to be coloured in the reds of 
the chfcks and lips, and lomewhat ftrc^ngly in the bottom 
of the chin fifbeardlefsj alio over, undcuj and about the eyes 
with a faint rednefs. 

XII. The tm is moft cotninonly rcddifn,as alio fometimes 
the roots of ;be liair. 

XIII. The ground being walh'd over with this rcddilh or 
dead color, let rbe fhidows be as wcli bold and lirorg as ex- 
acfV Slid curious. 

XIV. j4 good Figure, if hut dt ad colored only ^ and feeming 
near hand very rcugh^ uneven and utipkcfant^yet being boldly and 
firong'y done ahd fJof^otred tt^ill appear very fmooth, delicatiy and 
■ne^f if hut vieived at a diflance frrm the eye. 

XV. Therefore curtojity and neatnffs of Color, is not fo much 
to be regarded J as bold, lofty,, avd jhcng txprefjlng tt'hat is feen 
in the life. 

XVI. The next thing to be done is the ufe of the faini 
blews, about the a)rners arid balls of the eyes and rcmple.*:, 
which you muft^ork out exceeding fweetly, atid faint by 

XVII. Always be fure torrake the bard (hadows fall in 
the dark dde of the face under the nole, chin, and eve-brows, 
as the light falls, with lomewhat ftrong touches. 

XVIII The light (had ows being donear.J finootbed.worfc 
»be hair into fucb forms, curlings, and difpolitions as bcft a- 

/ dorn the piece. 

' XrX. Fii ft drato it with ccloYs. neatly and to the life -, then 
wafhit roughly as the reft ; and-' the next time ftrfeH it : fit' 
Unzuptbe empty f laces witb color ^ and the partings thereof 
tPtib b/etf, ■ 


Chap, 51' Limn'ifigto thcLife^^LC, 135 

XX. And ever remember, when you wou?d have your co- 
lors or (hadows deep, Itrong, aod bold ; that you do tbem by 
degrees, beginning faintly, and then encreafing the fame. 

XXI. Firft, ufe the former colors in the fame places again, 
driving and iweetning tbem into one another, that no pare 
may look uneven, or with an edge, or patch of color, but 
altogether equally mixt and difptrkd, lying foftand Imooib, 
like fmoak or vapours. 

XXII. Secondly, this work being done for an hour or two, 
lay the ground for behind the Pidure cf Blew, or Crimfon, 
like to a Satiin or Velvet Curtain. 

XXIII. If blew, let it be done with Bice well tetupered 
in a (hell : Firft draw the out-linc$ with the fame co!or,with a 
fmall pencil ; then with a tbin and wateri^ blew walh over 
the whole ground with a larger pencil. 

XXIV. Laftly, with thicker color cover the fai^e which 
you before wafli'd, fwiftly, that it dry not before all be co- 
vered, fo will it lie fmooth and even. 

XXV. If Crimfon, work A?ith Indian-lake, in thofe pla- 
ces where the ftrong lights, and high rcfiedlions fall, let the 
light be done with thin and waierift Lskej the deepning 
and ftrong fliadows, ciofe by the light with thicker color : 
this done, the Picture will be much changed ; the beauty of 
theie jRrounds will much darken and deaden it. 

XXVI. Let the apparel with fuitable colors be done only 
flat with heightening or deepning ; and then go over the 
face again, reducing the (hadows to ftnoothnefs and neatnefs 
with a (harp and curiou« pencil : drawing the eyes, the lines of 
the eye-lids; rednefs of the nef'trils ; foadow of the ears : 
deepnefs of the eye- brows, and ibofe other remarkable marks 
of the face. 

XSVJI. So fmeetning the out- lines of the face Chy darkning the 
ground, above from the light fide, and belotv on the dark^fide) 
that when the tporl^is done ^ the ground may ft and as it were at a 
diftance from the face behind i and the face may feem tofiand off 
forttfard from the ground. 

XXVllT. Then go over the h»ir, making it light or deep by 
the life: and in apparel make ibe feveral folds and (hadows, 
and what elfe is to be imitated, as it h in the life it (elf; 
lightning the lines with the pureft white, a little ^leilow a,fd 
fome blew j and deepning wish Ivory black . and bei^-ii- 
ning with black mixed with a little Lake or Indico. 

K 4 xurx 

J ^6 Tolygraphices Lib. II. 

XXIX' This done, aod the pcrfon gone, your work beiug 
yer rough, by your felf polish it, and ftrive to make it fmooth 
and pleafanc, filling up the empty places, and fweetniog the 
fhac'ows, wbicb yet lie uoeven aod hard. 

XXX The apparel, hair, and ground being finilhed, now 
give {tror:g touches for' the rounding of the face ; aod obferve 
wbatfoever may conduce to liknels and rcfcoablance, as 
moles, fmilings, or glancings of the eyes, motion of the 
mouth, ©"c. 

XXXI. For which purpofc,you may find an accifion of dif- 
courfe.or caufe the perlon to be in acf^ioo, and to look merrily 
and chearfully. 

XXXII. Laftly conclude, that the eye gives the life; the 
■ofe the favor ^ the mouth the likeoels ; and the chin the 

XXXIII. In fa?r colored Drapery, if the lightning be done 
with fine fliell Gold it will add a mo(t wonderful lufture, 
and be a Angular ornament to your works i and if this Gold 
be mixt with the very grouncUit ieif, the apparel will appear 
much the fairer. 

XXXIV. The Dead coloring, of a whole figure defigned for 
Htjiorical Limning. 

It is twofold. I. To temper a fic-fli color fomewhat light- 
er than you iuend it to be after it is wrought down by the 
Variety ofjhadotring mixtures, which fleffi color you muft 
temper in a large fliell, becaufe ic requires a quantity ; 
it muft be of a good mixture, neither too thick nor toe 
ihin. ^ - 

XXXV. Then take a feoofe-quil- pencil full of the color, 
and lay it on quick, even, and fmooth.on the place where you 
defign the Figure; if 'you be not very nimble in the laying 
it on, ir will not lye even. 

XXXVI. The other way ' is thus. Inaead of flefh Color, 
make ufe of the beft Lakfi- white, well prepared, aod lay it 
on with the fame fizcd Pencil as before mentioned,and fo you^ 
dead Color is as the Oyl- painters do, which muft be done 
free, rough, and bold eft of all. 

XXXVII. But note. That you draw all the out-lines of 
your figure fnft with a Temperature of Lake andfVhtte, befor^ 
jou Uy the ground Color for the flefli. Alfo, in dead colorings 
Jenve not your Ihadows too dark, harlh; or hardj next to the 
Jigbi, but fains:, even and rjifty. 


Chap. 31. Limning to the Life^ &c. 137 

XXXVIII. This done, mix FUkf-f^hue, and a little Med 
fead, with which touch all the deep places both in Face and 
Body, as your ingenuiiy, or the life fhall direift you. 

XXXIX, This do exiream fainr, beuule if you lay it too 
dark, you cannot heighten ic up again, wiibouc running the 
hazard of fpoiling of it, but if too light, you may deepen it 
by degrees at your pleafure. 

XL. In the face make a deh'cate faintnefs, or faint Red in- 
clining to a Purple, under the Eyes ; then touch the tip? of 
the Ears, with the aforemeniioned mixture, as alio the 
Cheeks, Lips, and the bottom of the Chin, and lo go on to 
the foal of the foot, touching in all the following Mulcks 
and places with this glowing color. 

XLI, Then mix Gal-fions and Pink,, for the general ye Howifo 
glowing JhadowSi and in fome places add to the fortner mix- 
ture or temperature, a little Lake. 

XL/!. Moreover you will perceive in the life, a faint 
blew i(h color in feme parts of the body, which you mayex- 
prefs with a temperature or xnlxxwrc oilndico and lVhite,2.r\d 
(o proceed according to the fubjed: you draw after, whether 
the life or coping after Painting. 

XLIII. All thefe (hadows are to be exprefled after the 
manner of hatching with a Fen, with gentle and faint ftrokes 
walhing it along. 

XLIV. But in this Dead coloring. See that you cover 
your ground-color with the aforefaid Red and other (ha- 

XLV. And be not to© curious in the firit working, bur ra- 
ther make choice of a good, free, and bold following of na- 
ture, than to affed: an extream near, fer, or ftarcht way. 

XLVL Let not the roughnefs of your color difcourageyou, 
for that is to be wrought down and couched by degrees with 
the other fliadows, but not at firft. 

XLVII. Then by degrees fweeten and heighten your flia- 
dows according as the light falls. 

XLVIIL In fome places touch ir with ftrong touches, and 
in tho(e places bring your work up together, to an equal 
roundnefs and firength, not finilhing any part of the figure 
before the other, but vifiting and working all the parts curi- 
ouOy alike, but in a manner at Random. 

XLIX. Then obferve the roundnefs, coloring, and Iha- 
ilowing, or whatever elfe is requifite to the perfe^ion of the 
Work, " ^ 


138 Polygrap/jices Lib. II. 

L Having done with the fainter (hadows, fvveeten and 
work them imo the Red ttill. 

LI. Carefully oblerve all the variety of coloring, and with 
your pencil cuiioufly delineate tl^fe leverai varieties of na- 
ture vibjch you bad I udely traced out before. 

LII. To do this make ufe of the fame color is the fame 
pUces as you did before, working, driviogj and fweetening 
the fame colors one into another 5 that nothing be left in 
your woik wi^b a biilh edge, uneven, or in a lump, but all 
as it were foccet, or driven one into another with the point of 
lomewbat a /harper pencil than you ufe at firft, fo that your 
ihadov.'s may lye dii'perfed, foil, 1 weec, fmooth, and gently 
extended one into a noiber like Air, 

LIU. Lziily, ob.^crve, that Skies, Waters, Trees Plants, 
Flowers, and Giouod, arc all to be dead colored before the 

LlV. How to draw with Indian Ink- 

It is done after the tnanner of WaHiing : Or, inftead of 
the Indian Ir\ you may temper Lamp-blacky, or bread burnt. 
LV. Take your Indian Ink, or Lamp-black ; and temper 
it with fair-water, in a ftiell, or upon your band, your out- 
lines being drawn with Cn!e, or Black-lead, take an indif- 
ferent long (harp pointed pepcil, dip the point into fair water, 
then dip the pencil into Indian Ink, and draw all your out- 
lines very faint. 

LVI. (Note that all the temperature of Indian Ink mud be 
tbin and vvarcrifh, not too black.) 

LVII. Wh<n it is dry, take a little bit of ftale white .bread, 
snd rub out the our-lines which you drew wiih the Cole, (if 
too black} then da/li on ycurfliadows very faintly, and deepen 
ic by degrees, as you (hall think convenient, and finifli it 
with Srifp'es, it being mcft advantageous to any one that (hall 
pradllfc /."mnirg. 

LVill. Beware of taking too much color in your pencil, 
which you may prevent by firft drawing ic through your 

LIX Iq laying on ycur Ihadows, never lay them too deep, 
but deepen 'hem down by degrees •■, for if too deep you can 
sever heighten them again. 


Cba^. 32. limmfig Landsfiip, &c. 139 

\^ r.i .c\ X . -^'^ A A LI . 

Cy" Limning La^ulsl{/p^ more pdrikuUriy, 

I. "T'O i^i^e i^be Tablet for Landskip. 

-*- Take A P^^^ cfVeilam.andfioaveittbi^ttponaFrr,r}-ie^ 
fafiningit with pafte or g'ew and fading it upn a hoard ^ 
theje manner of Tablets are 'altogether ufed in haly for Land- 
ikjp, andHi(iary. 

II. If yon draw & Land'^kip from the life, tske your (Na- 
tion from the riic of ground, or cop of an h\\\, where you 
ihall hive a Urge Horizon, marking yonr Tablet into three 
divifions downwards from f he cop ra the bocvO'i). 

III. Tfatn your face being diredly oppofed to theniidd 
of ihe finitor, keeping yonr bo^iv fised, depicl wba: is diredt- 
Jy before your eyes, upon your Tabitt on your nrdd.'e divifon, turning your htad (not your body) ro the right hand, 
depiA what is there to be feen : adjoining it ro the fortiier. 
In lil^e manner doii^z ty that tvhich is io he fecn on the left 
hand, your Landskip trill be compleated 

IV. M^ke every thing exad.noi or.Iy in refpecfl of diflance, 
propor'ion and color; bnc alfoin refpcft of form, as if there 
be HiSs, Dales, R^'cks, Mountains, CatiraFis, ^uines, Atju^e- 
duSis, Totrns, Cities, Caiiles, Fortificatin^^^, or tpbaffrcver clfff 
may prefent if felf to vietf ; making alvvTiVS a fiir Sky, ro b? 
feen afar off; letting your light always defcend from the 
left hand to the right. 

V. In beginning your work, firft b?gin wirh a large Skye; 
and if there beany fiiining or refiedrion of the Sun, beware 
you mix no Red-lead in the Purple of the Sky, or Cloud-, 
but only with Lake and white : the yellow and whitifh. beams 
of Sol work with MaP.icot and white. 

VI. Then with a frefii or clean pencil finilh the blcv^ifh 
Sky, and Clouds, wirh fma'r only ! at the firft \corkTng, dead 
all the work over, with colors fuirabfe to the Air. grectj 
Meadows, Trees, and Ground, laying thctn fomewhat fmooth, 
not very curioufiy, bur fligbtly and ha^'^ily. 

VII. Make a large Sky, which work down, in rbe Hori- 
zon^ faintly, but fairj and drawing nearer to the Ear:b, lec 

140 Polygraphices Lib. IT. 

the remote Mountains appear fweci and mifty, almoft indi- 
iiioguifliable, joyning with the Qoudsj and as it were loft in 
the Air. 

VIII. The next ground color downwards muft encrcafe 
in iragnitudeot realon, as nearer the eyes, (omewbat blewiflj 
or Sea-green : but drawing towards the firlt ground, let 
them decline into a reddilh or popinjay-green. 

IX. The lafl ground color, nnult be neareft the color of 
the earthi vi:{. a dark yellow , brown and green i with 
which, or fume color eear it, you mult make your firtt 

X. Making them, as they comcoear in diftance, to encreafe 
proportionably in color and magnitude, with gr^at judg- 
ment ; ihe leaves f^uwing and falling one with another, fome 
appar':tit, others lort in lliidow. 

XI. Let your Landskip lie low, and as it were under the 
eye (which is mrMt graceful and natural] with a large and full 
Sky not riling high, and lifting it leif into the icpof the piece, 
as In me have done. 

XII. Be fare to make your ftiadows fall all one way, vi\. 
ro make light agajnft darkncCs, and darkncfs againlt light i 
thereby cxttnding the piofpp(5t, and making it to (htw as a- 
far otFj by loiing its force and vigour, by ibc remotcnefs 
from the eye. * 

XII!. In toucb!r.g ih; Trees, Boughs and Branches, put 
all the dark Ihadovus fiiit, railing the lighter leaves above the 
darker, by adding Mafticct vo rki; dark green, which may be 
made with Bice, Piak, and Iridico. 

XIV. The uppeimoft of all, expreft laft of all, by Wghtly 
louching the exterior edges of fome of the former leaves, wirb 
a little green, Mafticor, and v^hite : ihedaikeit (hadows you 
may ^et off with Sap-green and Indico. 

XV. Trees and their Leaves, Rivers, and Mountains far 
diftant,you muft ftrive to exprefs with a certain real lofcnefs 

XVI. In making Catarads, great falls of Waters, and 
Rocks, you mu(t firit lay a full ground near the color, then 
with allrongerin the dark places, and Hight heightning in 
the ligbr. 

XVI7. Remark all difproportlons, cracks, ruptures and 
various reprefeniations of infinitely differing matters ; the 
manner whereof is abundantly expreft, in almoft every 

Chap. 52. Limm/ig La»dsk]p^ Sec, I41 

Horat. Epod. 16. 

Vos, quibus eft virtus, muliebrem tollite ludlam, 

Errufca praecer 8c volaie liuora. 
Nos maaet Oceanus circumvagus j arva, beata 

PetamTR arva, diviies & infulas : 
Reddit ubi Cererem lellus inarata quotaonis, 

£t imputata fiorec ulqu^ vinea. 4 
Germinet & nunquam fallentis tertnes olivs, 

Sulmque pul!a ficus ornac arboretn. 
nil's iajuiTs veniunc ad muldlra capells; 

Referique tenia grex amicus ubera. 
Nee Vefperiinus circurogemit Urfus cvile j 

Nee iniamefcit altaViperis humus: 
Flurlque felices mirabimur : uc neque largis 

Aquofus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee liccis urantur femida glebis : 

Utrumque rege temperanie Coelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contend iiremige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedetn 
Non hue Sidonii torferunt eornua nautar, 

Laboriofa nee eohors Ulyflei. 
Nulla nocent pecori contagia, bullius aftri 

Gregem xfluofa torret impotentia. 
Jupiter ilia piae feerevit littora genti, ! 

Utinquioavit azretempus aureutn. 

Tou nobler fpritSy hence with womens tears, 

Sail from Etrufcan confines free from fears'. 

The] Ear th-encirc ling Ocean fts invites, 

I{ich JJlands, Fields, Fields bleji with all delights. 

fVhere Lands untiH'd are yearly fruitfulfetn^ 

And the unpruned Vine perpetual green. 

Sill, Oiives by the faithful branch are born, 

And mellow Figgs, there native Trees adorn* , 

There, milchy Goats come freely to the fail, 

I^or do glad flocks with dugs difiended fail. 

The nightly Bear roars not about the fold, 

tior hollow earth doth poifonous Vipers held. 

Add to this happinefs.tbe humid Eafi 

Dsth tm fpitb frequent Jho^ers the FisUs infejf. 


141 Pofjgraphkcs Lib. I!, 

JNor the fat feeds are parcbt in barren land. 
"The prvers above both tempWingtfich ccrmnand. 
A'o Bark came hither tPJth Ar^mn oar, 
JVar landed tvxnt on Colcbis on this fhour: 
Cadrr.viS with filUdjails turned not thtr way, 
'Kor painful troops that tvith Uiyflls fir ay. 
Here amov^/t cattU no contagions are, 
J<lorfce[ ^ocki droughty pofvtr of any fiar. 
Wr^en brafs did on the Golden Age intrude^ 
Jovefor the pious did this place feclude. 


Of the various For/^Js or Degrees of Coloring. 

I. "T Here are fouf various Forms or degrees of coloring, 
■* vi::[ I Of Infants, or Children. Z. Of Virgins^ or fair 
ff^omen. ^, Naked Bodies. 4. Old or aged bodies. 

II. hif ants or young Children are to be painted of a foft 
and deiicaie compli xiun ; the Skin and ears of a ruddy and 
pleafant color, a!mo(i tranlparcnr. 

III. This may be done wirb Wiiire lead, Lake, and a little 
Red lead -, (hadowing it tbio, faint and fofr ; letting the 
Cbeeks, Lips, Chin Fingers, Knees, and Toes, be more rud- 
dy than uihcr parts 3 mik-jog all ibeir Linnen very fine, ibin, 
and transparent, or perfpicuous, with ftrong touches in the 
ihickflt toMs. 

IV. Virgins and fair Women are as curioufly to be exprefs'd 
as the former, but tbeir Mufcles » re to be more apparent, 
their (hspe more prrfedJ j and their ftiadows to be of a whii- 
ifh yellow, blewifli, and in feme places almoft purf le, 

V. But the moll- perfedb and exquifite direction is tlie life, 
^bicb ought rather to be followed than any tbinj^elivered 
by rule. 

VI. Frr thejhadntrs here, mix tfhite tPttb Pink ; and Jndico 
and tthite y and infome places Lake ^ iPith A little Indico and 

VII. As for Tfomens Bodies,' viz. Juch as are naked, they are. 
to be reprefemed foft, round, plump, gentle and tender, and 
ttithou: ma.ny Mufdes. 


Chap. 39* Degrees of Colorwg, i,^^ 

VIII. On the contrary, Mens Bodies are to be reprefented 
firiing^flurdy,^out, and vigorous with the Mufcles exactly pla- 
ced and dravn^ tpbich to do with judgment andVndetfiandino-^ 
<^equires time, Jludj, and knowledge in Anatomy. 

IX. Naked Bodies are to be painted ftrong, lively, and ac- 
curate i exadly matching the refpedfcive pairs of Mufcltsand 
Nerves, fixing each Artery in its due and proper pla«e, gi- 
ving each limb its proper motion form and Situation, with 
its true and natural color ; all which to do well may be the 
ftudy and pradice of altnoft ones whole life. 

X. Old or aged Bodies ought to be eminent for exzfi and 
curious Ihadows, which may be ipade of Pink, Lake, and 
Ivory-black, which made notable ihadows , in appearance 
like the wrinkles and farrows of the face and band in ex- 
cream old age. 

XL Let the eyes be dark, the afpcd melancholy, the hair 
white (or elfe the pate baldj and all the remarks of Antiqui- 
ty or age be very apparent and formidable. 

XII. Pink,ntixtwith Lake and ^d-lead, make an excellenP 
Jhadom for old Mens Boiies: hut for the extreamefl or deepeH 
Jhadowings cither in face or body, mix Lak? and Ivory-black, 
which will make an excellent deep (hadom, and wiS be<very ufe- 
ful in exprejjingof the feveral furrows and wrinkjes in the face 
and hands of people extreamly Aged, with their dark -Ej^-^ <««'' 
melancholy Afpe^s. 

Xin. But notwithftanding all the foregoing rules, the poft- 
ure or form of ftanding, and being, either of the whole body, 
or any of its parts, ought diligently to be obferved, that the 
life may be imitated. 

XIV. In which, it pnfy lies in the breft and judgment of 
the Painter to fet it off with fucb various colors, as may beft 
befit the refpe(5tive complexion and accidental Ihadows of 
each accidental pofition or poflurc; which are fometimes more 
pale, fometitnes more ruddy j fomeciixies taore fainc, fometiines 
more lively. 


144 Poljgraph/ces Lib. II. 


OftheLintniffg of the Skje^ Clouds^ &C. 

1. r OR a beautiful Sky, fitted for fair weather, take Bice 

' tempered with white, laying it in the upper part of 
the Sky, (as you fee cecdj under which you may lay a thia 
or faint purple with a fiEall foh bruih: working the under- 
moft purple into the uppermoft blew ^ but Tots that the blevr 
may itand clear and perftdl. 

I/. Then for the Horizon or near the fame lay a fine thin 
Malticot, which work from below upwards, till it mix with 
the purple, after which you may take a ftronger purple, mi- 
king here and there upon the former parple, as it were ihe 
form of Clouds, as nature requires. 

ill. Upon the Mafticot you may alfo work with Minium 
mixed with Cerufe, to imitate the fiery beams which often 
appear in hot and clear Summer weather, 

iV. To imitate glory, with a great fliining light of a yellow- 
ilh coloror the Sua-beams, you muft take Mafticot or Saf- 
fron raixt with Red-lead, and heightned with Hiell goId,anci 
the like. 

V. A Cloudy Sky is imitated with pate Bice, afterwards 
fhading the Clouds with a mixture of fevertl colors: a fair 
Sky requires clouds of a greater fliade, with purple, 

Vf. The clouds in a rainy Sky, muft be fliaded with lo- 
dico and Lake : in a night Sky, with black and dark blew, 
fmosky, niaking a blaze with purple, Minium and Cerale. 

VII The clouds in a Sun rifing or fetiing maft be done 
tvith Minium^ Cerule and .purple, making underneath the 
clouds frittering>ks, with Minium and Mafticot, or 
Minium and Saffron ; fothat the fcaiiering upwards may ap- 
pear fainfj and below, afar off near the Landskip, fome- 
whar fiery. 

VI}! A fiery Sky, let be made with a pale blew, fmooth- 
ing ir dtnvr vardu whirh afrervA.»rds, you muft mingle with' 
a lironp Red-I^ad mixi wirh CeruTc traking long dimina- 
liveftroaks like the Sun-beams upnnrhe blew Slcy,wiih which; 
let fall fooie purple ftroaksj much like tbs faid beams ; ibttfi 


Chap, 36. Of Mount ams^^c. 145 

fweeteo one into another with a fofi brufli pencil, wet in gum- 
water, not too ftrong. 

IX. Laftly, you may make a fair Sky, by ufing fair Bice 
alone, and tempering it by degrees with more and more 
white , fmoothing one into anoiber, from above down- 
wards, and fhading ic as you Aail fee reafon and nature 


Of the Limnwg of Towns, Caflles^ and Rnlnes, 

I. npHofe Towns, or Cities, which feemai fartheftdi- 
■■- ftance, muft have but little fliadowing or heigbtning, 
and fometimes none at all, tbefe if they appear againft the Sky, 
muft be laid with Bice, and a little purple, and fliaded faint- 
ly with a good blew. 

II. Thofe which lie at a farther diftance, muft be laid 
with Bice and purple as aforefaid, and (haded with light 
blew, and heightned wich white. 

III. Thofe which appear at an ordinary diftance, muft be 
done with Vermilion and purple, and fhaded with a ftrong 
purple (haded wiib white. 

IV. Thofe which are near, muft be done with Vermillion 
and white, and then (haded with a ftroug Vermillion and 
brown Oker, mixt with white. 


Of MoHntains, Mills ^ and the likei 

I. 'THofe Mountains which are next in fight, muft be laid 
■*■ with a fair green, and Ihaded with Sap-green ; fome • 
times with brown Oker, and French Berries, to diftinguiih 
tfeem from fucb as are farther off. 

L £E. 

1^6 'Polygmphices Lib. IL 

II. Sacb as lie farther off, maft be laid with green , blew, 
and Malticot, and be (haded with blew, green^ and Ver- 

III. Such as lie yet farther, muft be laid with fomc ftrong 
blew, white, and Bergh-green, and Ihtded with ftrong 

IV. Such as lie yet farther, muft be laid with ftrong blew 
and white, and (hided with blew only. , 

V. Such as lie yet farther, with Bice and white, aod fta- 
ded with Bice. 

VI. Such as lie farther off, are only laid with white, and 
(haded with a faint Bice. 

VII. Fields being near, muft be done with a (ingular good 
green, the which muft always be fainteft, according as they 
are farther diftant ; heigbtning them with Mafticot, or a 
light green, and Hiadowing with Sap-green, but not too 

VIII. Thofe which lie far, are to be laid with a 
French berry yellow, made of a blew greenifli ; fliaded 
with Oker. 

IX. And in Fields, Hills, a«d Dales f whether near or far 
off) there are many roads, paflages and ways, which muft 
be laid either fainter or ftronger according to their diftance 
and iituation. 


0/ Trees^ Boitghs^ Cottages^ and the like. 

L T* Hofe Trees df divers colors which ftand upofi the forc- 
* ground, muft be laid with divers colors, as with Ver- 
digrife. mixt with other gre^, or wiih Mafticot, and Bergh- 
green mixt. and then fliaded with Sap-green j which you may 
heig-htcn with Mafticot, mixt wirh White-lead. 

II. If they appear yellow, ufe Verdigrife and Mafticot 
mixt.and fhadow with Verdigrife. 

III. If they be of a whitifli color, let them be laid with 
Verdigrife mixt with Wfaitc-lead, and fhade tbem with Ver- 
digrife, mixt with Indico faint i heighten them with Cerufe, 


Chap. 58. Coloring Naked Figures. 147 

thattbey may look of afaint ydlow green; or elfe wica a 
little IndJco and yellow. 

IV. Tbofe which ftand at a great diftance, lay with Indi- 
CO, and white, and Hiadow wicb Icidico, and heigbcen with 
the fame made a little Igbier. 

V. If Trees be very old with mofs upon ihem,give them 
the appearance of green and yellow, which coiri nix with 
Pink, and Bergb-grecn : if they be of a wduilh yellow, do 
rbem with Pink and white mixt with a little green 

VI. Country Cottages lay with light Oker, which order 
according to the newneis or oldnefsof the building. 

Yil. Cottages of Timber, let be laid of the color of Trees 
and Wood-work. 

VIII. Thaicbt Coitagej if new, lay with Pink, Ihadow 
with brown Oker, and heighten with Mafticoc mixt with 
white: but if old, lay them with brown Oker raixt with 
white, and heighten with uic fame. 

IX. Straw colors at a diftance are done with lodico and 
white, mixt fometimes with brown Oker, and fliaded with 


Of the Coloring of Naked Figures. 

I. pOR PVomen and Children, take the beft Flake Wfafte-' 
-*• lead, and a little good Lake, with which if you pleafe 
you may mix a little Vermillion, but take heed that your 
inixture be neither too red or too pale, but exadlly agreeable 
tii the life it felf ; the which in this cafe is the beft di- 

it. This being dry.touch the lips, cheeks, chin, fingers,and 
toes with thin Lake, and then heighten with white mist 
with a little Lake or Vermillion. 

IIL But if you would cover them fomewhat browni(h,mis: 
vj'nb your Carnation, a little brnw^. Oker ; and (hade it 
Ivith Red'Oker, and coal-black with a liule Lake, 

L% IV, 

148 Polygraphkes Lib. II. 

IV. In old Women take White, Vermillion and Brown- 
Oker, and give the luftre where it ought to be with Vermili- 
on mizc with a little Lake. 

V. Shade it wich Red-Okcr and Lake,or with Wood foot, 
or Lamp-black, and heighten with white mixt with a fmall 
quantity of Vermillion. 

VL Dead Children and young Women.paint with Brown- 
Oker, white and feme Veimillioo,and Ihadow the fame with 
the foot of wood. 

VII. Dead old Women color with Brown-Oker mixt with 
a iitde white, which Ihade with a ihin foot of wood firft, 
then with a flronger. 

VIII. Young men paint with Cerufe, Vermillion and Lake, 
making it a little browner than for young Women ; giving 
them lultre wich Vermillion and Lake, ihadowing with Lamp- 
black and Brown-Oker ; and heightning with Cerufe and 

IX. Old Men Limn with Vermillion, Brown-Oker, and 
white J (hade with foot and Lamp-black; heighten with Ver- 
million, Brown-Oker, and white, and give it a luftre with 
Lake or Vermillion. 

X. Dead men color with Brown-Oker, white, and a little 
Vermillion, as your difcretion fliall inform you, and (hade 
with I'oor, or Lamp-black mixt with a little Cerufe, 

XJ. Devils, Satyrs, and the like Limn with brown Okcr, 
mixt with a little white and red, which mixture let be made 
fome part whiter, fome part browner ; and ftroogly (hade it 
with foot, as your own ingenuity may inform you. 


Of the Coloring of Hair. 

L *T'He Hair of Women and Children is colored with 
^ limple Brown-Oker, and heightned with Mafticot : 
The fame in rbe hair of men, only making it fadder or 
1 ghter as the life requires. 

Jl. Hair which isbiatk may be done wich foot, or Lamp- 
black, but it will abide no heightning. 

Cliap. 40. Of Walls ^ Chambers^ 8cc. 1 49 

III. Cbildreas Hair is fometimes laid with brown-Oker 
and White, and heightned with the Came ; and fometimes 
with Alora. 

IV. Sometimes alfo they are done with light-oker, and 
decpned with brown-oker, and heightned with Mafticot 

V-. Old Womens Hair with brown-oker and black, height- 
ned with Brown-oker and white. 

VI. In Gray Hair take more blaek than wbite,and heigh- 
ten with pure white. 


Of Walls^ Chambers^ ani the Uk?, 

I. pOR a brick Wall take Vermillion and wbiie,and (hi" 

■*- dow with Red-oker. 

II. If the ground of the wall is laid with black and white, 
(hade it with a thin black, if with Red-Oker and white, 
ftade it with purple: or with Lake and black, or Red- 
oker fimple. 

Ill If it be laid with black, white, and purple. Ihade it 
with purple and black. 

IK I( the wall belongs to any Chamber or Hall, ha- 
ving Figures or Statues ; fo order and temper your colors, 
with fuch diftind:ion,tfaat the Figures and Wall be not drown- 
ed in each other. 

V. Sandy fore-grounds do thinly with brown-oker, fad or 
light as the life prefents ; (hadow the fame with ihe fame 
brown-oker, and Rocks with Red-oker, according as ihey 
are near to, or far from the fight. 


i$o Folygraphkcs Lib. 11^ 


Of Marble Pillars^ Rockj, and the like, . 

J. \J{ Arhle muft be done with a good and light pencif, after 
' *'*-* a carelefs manner in imiiation of Nature, wherein 
all fucb ftains, colors, veins: and reprefeniations of the faces 
of living things tnult be carefully obferved. 

JI. The like is to be obferved in Recks, of Sandy colors, 
and ragged forms ; which ff feen at a great diftance, muft be 
colored with thin Bice, and then be<ghtRed with purple and 
white, and fliaded with Smalt or a deep blew. 

III. If ibcy feetu near, color them with brown-oker mixt 
with white, which go over again with Vermillion mixt with 
white, after which lay here and there feme Verdigrife mixt 
with fome other green, 

jr. la tbefe works you muft make fpots, ftains and break- 
ings, with hatchings, which (hade with the foot of Wood or 
Lamp-black mixt with a little white. 


Of the Colon ng of Ale tab. 

3. Tu Oit Gold color, take Red-lead, Saffron, and very light 
*• Oker, with which color all manner of Cups, Di(hes 

and the like, which Hiade with foot, and heighten with Ihell 


IT. For Silver, lay a thin white, which fliade with a 

thin blew, mixt with a little black, and heighten wijh (hell 


///, For Tin atid Iron, take white aod Tndico, and fliade ft 

wifb Indico and Bice, acd heighten with vybicc or flieli 



Chap. 4^. Of Coloring Flowers. I5'i 

IV. For Brafsi take thin Pink, fliade it with Tndico oaixc 
with greet), or withalmoft all ladicoj and beigbcen it with 
Oiell Gold. 

V. For Copper J take Red-okerand white, (hade it with 
Red-oker, and heighten with Red-oker and white, heighr- 
ning alfo here and there, where the light falls, with Ihell 


Of the Coloring of Flowers. 

i. *TrH£ Tulip, draw it firft with black-lead upon a white 
^ -*- ground, then fliade it a little fas for a white Flower) 
with thin Jadian Ink, or with green ysHow Ink, or with 
black-lead ground with thick guaa- water. 

II. Then lay on your feveral colors refembling Nature, 
which being dry, fliade wirh a higher color, and then farther 
fliadovv it, according to the nature of the flower. 

III. So that being fioiflied it may be like flame, Red, 
Blew, Lake, Purple, Spotted, or other wife, in ioaitatiori of 
the life. 

IV. The Damask ^pfe, lay with Lake mist with white, 
ihadow with the fame mixt with thin Lake ; and heighten 
with white, 

V. The green leaves, are done with Verdigrife mixt with 
fome French berry green, fliade it with Verdigrife mixt 
with Sap-greeo j the ftalks lay fome what browner with 

VI. I{ed I{pfet do with fine Lake mixt with white, fliade 
it with brown Lake, and heighten it with Lake mixt 
with white. 

ViL PVhiteB^ei w/ar with Flake Lead, fliade it with 
white and black (but the chief fliadows with a Itronger 
black) and heighten with white. 

VIII. The little thrums fwhich (omt erronioufiy call kt6^) 
m the middle of the Rofe, lay with Mafticot, and fliadovy 
^vith Minium, and heighieti with white. 

L 4 Xh 

^ 5 2 Polygraphkes Lib. II. 

JX. The Clove gilUflower is done almoft like the Red- 
rofe: tbefpeckling or fpotcing of it is done vvithLakci thofe 
vvbicb are lighter, with a lighter red upon a pure white ; 
thofe like flames wirh Vermillion and Lake, which (hade 
with a ItroDger Lake j md fpeck the white with Lake and 
Vermillion, to refemble the life. 

X. The green ft alkjt or branches and leaves lay with Bergh- 
green, and fhade with Sap-green. 

XI. The Marigold do with yellow Orpiment and Mini- 
um, fliadowvvith Vermillion and Lake mixi with Minium; 
ard heighten with white and Maftigor. 

XII. Corn-flowers lay wiih blew mixt with Tome white, 
(hftdow with Indico, and (hadow with blew and white. 


Of RadjJJKS^ Turneps., Melons , Cucumbers.^ 
and Cabbage. 

I. Ty Adifhes are done with white, (haded with Lake, and 
•*-^ as it were behind fweetned with purple : and fome- 

times with green from the top downwards. 

ir. The green leaves at top with Verdigrife mixed with 

Sap-green, (haded with Sap-green, and heightned with 


III. T«r«f/»j dr* laid with white, (haded with foot ; ihe 
leaves as the Radi(h leaves. 

IV. Tellow Melons with yellow, (haded with brown-oker, 
the V'f ins with a It ronger brown-oker, and then heightned 
wifh white, 

V. Green Melons with Jodico tnixt with Verdigrife and 
Sap-green, (haded with Sap green and /ndico j and heightned 
▼ritb Mafticoi. 

VI. Gucttmhers, the ends with a thin yellow, the middle 
with green, fweetned the one into the other, and (haded with 
Sap-green ; but the whole fruit with brown-oker, the fpecks 
lay with red and black to the life. 

VII. Cabbage white with very thin yellow, and in fome 
places with very thing rcen foryelIowi(hgrcen)fweeining with 


chap. 4^ • How to CoUr Fruits, 155 

very thin brown-oker mixt witb S*p-green, heighten with 
pure white, 

VIII. Cabbage red, lay with purple, (hade w it Lake, 
and heighten with purple tnixi with white. 


Hoiv to Color Fruits. 

I. f^Herries, witb Vermilion and fome Brazil, (hade with 
^-^ Lake, heighten with Vermillion mixt with white. 

II. Heart Cherries in the middle with Vermillion and 
Lake mixt with white, the Circumference remaining wiiitith, 
here and there fweetning them with Lake, and iaeigbtning 
with white, or mixt with a little Lake. 

III. A Pear with Mafticot, (haded fweetly with brown- 
oker; its blu(h witb Lake not too high, heighten with 

IV. Apples with a thin Mafticoi mixt witb Verdigrife, 
(hade them with brown-oker,and give their biulh with a tbia 
or deep Lake (refembling Nature,) and heighten with white. 

V. If you will bive them very high, mix your white witb 
fome Maftitot, but this muft be according to the condition 
of the Fruit whether ripe or unripe, red, yellow or green, 

VI. Mulberries with a very Uroeg Brazil, and then lay'd 
over with black, fo that between the ft^lks and berries they 
may look a little reddilh according to Nature. 

VII. Strawberries with a white ground, which draw over 
with Vermillion and Lake very thin ; (hade it with fine Lake, 
and heighten witb Mal^icot mixt with Minium ; and then 
with white only fpeck them with Lake, by one fide of which 
put a fmaller fpeck of white. 

VIII. fT^all-nuts with their green on, with Verdigrife 
tnixt with Sap-green, (hade witb Sap-green and a little 

IX. fVaS-nuts without their green, with brown-oker, (ha" 
ded witb foot. 


154 Polygraphices Lib. II. 

X. Bleaf Plumbs with purple, (hadowed with Bice, and 
about (be Italks with a little green, well fweemed i heighten 
with purple and white. 

XI. ^hite Plumbs and P?acbes with thin Mafticot, Ihided 
vith brown-oker j give them a blurti with Lake, and heighten 
them with white. 

XII. I{ed and Blew Grapes with purple, (haded with bleW| 
and beigbtned with white. 

XIII. White Grapes with thin Verdigrife (Ailed alfo 
S/i/jmyfe green) mixt wiib Mafticot, fliadow with thin Verdi- 
grife i and heighten with Maflicot naixt with white. 

Of the Lmnhg of Fowls. 

I. "T He £<»^/f with black and brown-oker, fliadow it with 
-■■ black, ihe feathers heighten with brown-oker mixt 
with white. 

II. The bill and claws lay with Saffron, and fliade it with 
foot or Lamp-black : the eye? with, Vermillion beigbrned with 
Mafticot, or with Saffron flirded or deepned with Vermillion j 
let ibe taloDJ be done with black. 

ni. The Stran with white mixt with a little black, heighten 
it with fine and pure white, (a that its plumes or feathers 
by that beightning may look well : the legs with a black 
color. • 

IV. The bill with Vermillion, fliaded with Lake : the 
eyes yeltovv with a bbck round in the middle ; from which 
falls a blackifli vein, defcending to the bill. 

V. The Gonfe rvitb piore white than black, w:^. a light 
gray, heighten it with a gray white ; the legs with black : 
the bill like the Swan. 

VI. T//e Dmc/;. with a light grey, the head with adtrk 
blew, and dark green neck fweetly eoterwoven, the belly 
with white, the legs with black mixt Tvith a little white, 
(^c. butbefureto imitate the life. 



Chap. 47 Of Limning cf Be aft s. 15" 5" 

VII: The Turk^ey with black tai^i with a little white, frpia 
the back towards the bell/ whiter by degrees, bat the belly 
Ipeck with black, and in like manner the wiags. 

VIII. Let hitn be fliaded with black, the wings with 
Indico, ihaded with ftronger Indico, the bill with black, the 
eyes blew, heightoed with white. » 

IX. He being angry, the naked skin of his neck will be 
blood red, which lay with VernailHon mixt with Lake, 
fliaded with Lake : but otherwife lay ic of a whitilh blew- 

X. The Griffon with Saffron, fliaded with brown-oker or 

XI. The Pheafant with grey, made of white and black,the 
feathers of a white grey,the whole muft be fliaded with black, 
and heightned with pure white ; the eyes like the Fa', on, the 
legs with Pink, and Ihaded with black. 

XII. The Falc0n with brown oker, and black mixt with 
white, and rtiadowed with black, and fprinkled upon its 
breft i heighten it with white, let his talons be black,above 
the eyes lay with Saffron, and fliade with Vermih'on, the 
bill with grey. 

XIII. 7he S f or k.'^iih grey, heightned with white, and the 
corners of his wings ('near one halfj with black, his long bill 
and legs with Vermilion, fliaded with lake. 

XIV. The Owl with Cerufe, black and foot, fliadowed with 
foot, and heightned with yellow-Oker and white, foraetimes 
white alone, the eyes yellow, circled with white, the legs of a 
brown yellow. 

Of Limning of Be aft s. 

I. ^"^eep lay wuh a thin white,fliaded with Indico and fctdi:, 
and heightned yvith yvhite. 
n. Hogs lay with brown-oker, fliaded vvith root,and height- 
ned with Mtfljcot : you may as you fee occafion color the hair 
here and there with ftronger brown-oker ; his eyes vvirh 
"'-'•"■ ■■ "-' Ver- 

1^6 Polygraphices Lib. IL 

Vermilion, which heighten with Mafticot, bis mouth with 
Indico.or white and black, Ihtded with black. 

III. A Bear with brown-oker, red-oker,and black mixti 
Ihadow with foot alone, or inixt with black, and heighten 
with bfown okcr and white. ' 

IV. A Woalf with brown-oker and foor, (hadow with 
more foot. 

V. y? ^ra^^f^W/ with black, white, and brown oker, flia- 
ded with black and foot, or black only j the mouth with black 
and red-oker, fhaded with black and loot heightned with 
red-oker and white. 

VI. Tht E/f/ii^<7M/ (which isof a Moufe grayj with black 
and white mixr with (oor, and (haded with black and foot, 
and heightned with the fame, with a little more white. 

VII. The mfe at th end of his trunl^. inwardly mud be 
laid with Vermilion and Cerufe, fhadowed with black, or 
black mist with Lake : in the fame manner the inner pan of 
the ears, the ey«^s with white tending to a grey, 

VIII. Mice are colored as the Elephant: l{^ts a little 

IX. The "Unicorn with a pure white, ftiaded with black : 
the chaps red, the eye and hoofs with a thin black. 

X. The Hart with brown-oker, (haded on the back with 
foor, which fweerly drive towards the belly, and (hade over 
again with a ftrongfrr foot. 

XL The necl^ nnd belly with wbice, the mouth and ears a lit- 
tle reddilh, the hoof black, the horns with loot, and (haded 
with foot mixt with black. 

XII. Ti[)f H/W with the fame colors as the Hart, but thin- 
ner, and higher, not lo brown. 

XIII. The Coney with black and white, his belly all 
white, Aveeined with black i and heightned with a ftrongef 

^IV. The Hair with brown-oker, bis belly below a little 
wbitiih ■■, (hade it on the back with foot} and heighten on the 
belly with white. 

XV. ApeSy Morikeyt and the like, with Pink and black, 
heightned with Mafticot and white; the face lay with a 
thin black mixt with foot, (haded with black and Pink mixt 
with a little red-oker. 

XVI. Cats if gray and brownifli, or tabby, with Jodico' 
blew and white, heightned with pure white, and (haded with 


Chap. 48. Of Limning Serpents. 157 

Indian-blew and black mixc: in other colors ufe yoar 

XVII. The Afi with black mixi with whire like grey j if the 
Afs be of a mingled brown, black and white mixc with 
btown-oker, (haded with black in the mouth i heighten with 

XVIII. T/6* Lepoard with brown-oker and redoker mixc 
with black, Ihadovv it with foot, the fpois with red-oker and 
black, the mouth with black and white : heighten him with 
light oker. 

JrtX. Horfes, Dogs, Oxen and fuch like,if white,with white 
mist with a little foot, or oker, (haded with a little black and 
white, and heightned with perfe(^ white. 

XX. If 0/4 Cheftnut-brown^ with red-oker and black 
(haded with black and foot, and heightned with red oker and 

XXI. If an Afh-grey^ with black mixt with white, (haded 
with black, and heightned with white.. 

XXII. Jf black, wnh a thin black, (haded with a ftronger 
black, and heightned with black and white. 

XXIII. A bay Horfe with Vermilion and brown-oker ; 
or only with red-chalk, (haded with red-oker, and heightned 
with red-chalk mixt with white. 

XXIV. Iffpotted, by mixture of the aforefaid colors and 
difcreetely putting every one in its proper apartment or 

Of the Limning of Serpents, 

I. '^ He Serpent on the back with Bice, and down- wards 
towards the belly with a pale black, the back fpeck- 
led with black fpecks. 

II. The Adder with red-lead, Vermilion and Saffron, with 
blew in the back, and on ih? btlly below Mafticoi and white, 
fpeckled all over with black fpots 

III. Toe Crocodile with & diik thin green* from the back 
downards to the belly, 


1^8 Polygraphices Xiij. 11. 

IV.Btlow the belly withMafticotjfo that the yellow andgreeo 
may melr, or vanilTi away into one anoiherjfliadovv him with 
Indido and fmalt, and heighten the belly vvich Mafticot and 
Tvhite. • 

V. The mouth before and within redifh, the fcales black, 
ibeclavva ofblackilh green, the nails vvbolly black. 

VI. The Frog with a fair green, fpeckled with blacky 
and towards the belly with green mixt with ~ Mafticot, 
fweetned with green (pockled : the eyes with Saffron, and 
black round them, the back beightned with Saffron. 

CHAP. XtlX, 

Of Lmn'iHg Waters and Fijh. 

I. IT/'Ater at a diftance with white and lodico, fliaded with 
'^^ Indico mixt with Bice, and heighmed with white : 
if near the Horizon much like the Sky. 

II. JVaters near lay with ftronger Indico, heighten and 
(hadow with the fame mixt with Bice : laftly heighten with 
pure white. 

III. iVaters nearer with ftronger Indico, fliaded and height • 
ned as before. 

IV. Waters in fields overgrown, with Pink and the like j 
always imitating Nature. 

V. Fijh in green Waters, with Indico mixt with French' 
berry-yellow, (haded with a thin Indian-blew, and heightned 
with pure white. 

VI. But Fifloes ought alfo to be done according to their Nature 
and Color, for fome are jellote, fame brown, fome fpeckled, fome 
grifled^fime black,S<c. in all which to eonferve in Figure the true 
Idea joa ought to takf dire^ions only by the life, 

ISm. Secunii F J A' IS. 

P OL 2- 




Liber Tertius. 

Of Painting, WaHiing, Coloring, &>€. 

Containing the Defcrifti^n and Z^fe of 
all the chief InJirnmentS' and Materia 
als, and the way and manner of Workc 


Of Fainting in General, 

!. r-« % HE Art of Painting (which is tfce imitatiod of 
I Nature^ confifts in three things, to wit, Defign^ 
■B Proportion, and Color : all which are exprell 
in three foris of Painting, vj:(. Landikip, Hi/icryund Life. 

11. Landikip or Perfpediive, wonderfully refpeds freedom 
and liberty, to draw even what you pleafe. Hijlory refpedls 
proportion and figure : Life refpedis color j in each of which 
there is a neceflary dependency of ^all the other. 

Hi. The work of the Painter is to exprefs the exadl imi- 
tation of natural things; wherein you are to obferve the ex- 
cellencies and beauties of the piecCj but to refufe its 


l6o Poljigraphkes Lib. Ill, 

IV. For a piece of Painting may infome part want Diligenctt 
BoUnefs, Subiilty, Grace, Magnificence^ &c, while it isjuffict- 
ently in other parts excellent ; and there/ore you are not fo much 
toimttaie Ornaments, as to exprefs the inward fowet and 

V. In Imitatidn, always be fure to follow the examples 
aod panerns of the bdi mafters i left evil precedents beget in 
you an evil habir. 

Vi. The force of Imitation refides in the fancy or imagr- 
nation, where we conceive fwhai we have feen^ the form or 
Idea of that, or tbofe things which we would reprefeot in 
lines and colors. 

VII. This Fancy or Imagination is ftrengthoed, by lodging 
therein all variety of vifible rarities; as i. Forms made by 
light and darknefsj fucb as are to be feen in Summer io the 
clouds, near SuQ-letting (which vani/h before they can be imi- 

VIII. 1. Forms made by proximity or diftance of place.fuch 
as are Trees, Woods, BuildiQgs,appeariag perfe(5l being near, 
or confufed in their parts being far off. 

IX. 3. Forms ofdfeams^ofwbich(wbeiher fleeping or wak- 
ing/ the fancy maft be fully polfett. 

X. Where Defjgn is required •, you njuft fancy every cir- 
cumitance of the matter in hand, that in an inflant, with a 
nimble hand, you may depi(5l the fame with livelinefs and 

XI. Slow performance caufes a preturhation in the fancy, cooling 
of the mind, and dejlru^ton cftbat pajjion which Jhotild carry the 
work^ OH : but quickjiefs and diligence brings forth things even 
excellent indeed : Care, I nduStry and Exerctfe are the frops^fup- 
porters and upholders of Art. 

XII. Be lure you dwell not too long upon defigning : alter 
not what is well, left for want of exquifite jadgmeot you 
make it worfe : and if in dcfigning, you want that ability to 
follow ihcquicknefs of fancy, fubmir to a willing negligence; 
a carekfs operation adds fometimes fuch a fingular grace, as 
by too much curiofity would have been totally loft i then by 
reviewing what is dcntf, make a regular connexion of all the 
Idei "s conceived in your mind. 

XIII. With ^;><r//w amend thofe things which others juftly 
find fault with ; the reprehenfions of an Artift are as demoo- 
ftrativc rules of experience •■, and weigh every ones opinion 
for the advancement of Arc. 


Ghap. 2. Of Paitttifig in Oyl, d'c. 16 r 

XIV- Laftiy, be fure your piece be of a gcod DefJgn^hh- 
flory ot Life • that the parts be well dippofed, theCbaraiil- 
ers of Perfons, ^ro^er ; the Form magjiijicene, the color lively, 
and the fpifit bold: that it may appear to be the woik of a 
nimble fancy, ready memory .clear judgment, and large expe- 

CHAR 11. 

Of Fainthg in Ojl, and the Materials thereof. 

I. T)Aioiing in Oyl is nothing but the Work or Art of Lim- 
-■- ningyperformed with colors made up or mixed wiih 

1\. The Materials of Painting arc chiefly Seven, i. The Ea" 
fel. Z. The Pallet. 3. The Streining Frame. 4. The Crimed Cloath. 
3. Pencils. 6. The Stay. 7. Colors. 

III. The Eafe I is a Frame made of wood (much like ^ 
Ladder) with fides flat, find fall of holes, to put in two pins 
to fet your work upon, higher or lower at pleafure i fcmetiing 
broader at bottom than at the top: on the oackfide wheieuf 
is a ftay, by which you may fee t!ie Eajel more, uprigh: v- 

JK The Pallet is a thin piece of Wood, YPf ar-tree qr Wal- 
nut) a foot loDg, and about ten inches broad, almoit like aa 
Egg, at the narroweft end of which is made an hole to put 
in the thumb cf the left hind, near to which is cut a notch, 
that fo you may hold tbe Pallat in your Land, Its ufeis to hold 
and temper the Colors upon. 

V. The Streiving Frame is m&de c( vvood, to wbfch wifh 
nails is faftned the Primed Cloathy which is to be Paiotrd 

Thefe ought to be offtveraiJi:(ss according to the hignefi cf the 
Cloath. ' ' , 

VI. The Primed Clcaih is that which is to be P^iintcd up- 
on; and is thus prepared. • , ., 

Tillies good Canvas ayid frnocth !'■ orer trith a Jlick:P'''^e, fii,e 
it ever with fi'^^e., and a little h6i7cy\ and let it dry ; then tvhite\ 
it over oha mth tthiting andfi:{e mixed .0:!h a little hony^ fa 

l'6x Folygraph'jces Lib. III. 

is the C loath prepared, on which you mxf dratp the PiQure with 
a Coal ; and lajily lay on the Colors. 
' IVberenotCi honey keeps tt from crackjing^ feeling $r breaking 


VII. Pencils are of all bignefTcs, from a pin to the bignefii 
of a finger, called by feveral names, as Duckj-quiB fitched 
Aud pointed ; Goofe-quiS fitched gnd pointed i Swans- quiUfitchtd 
und pointed -y Jewilltng pencils, and hriflle pencils : fome in 
quilis, (omein Tin cafes, and fome in fticks. 

VIII. The Stay or Moljltck,^ is a Brazil ftick (or tbe like) of 
a yatd long j having ac the one end thereof, a little ball of 
Couen, fixed hard in a piece of Leather, of the bignefs of a 
Cheflouc > which when you are at work you mud hold in your 
left hand ; and laying the end which hath the Leather ball 
upon the Cloath or Frame, you may reft your right arm up- 
on it, wbiltt you are at work. 

IX. The Colors are in number feven (utfupr^) to wit. 
White, Black, Red, Green, Yellow, Blew, and Brown, 

Of which fome may he tempered on the Pallet at firji, fomt 
tnufi be ground, and then tempered y and other fome mufi be burnt , 
ground, and lajily tempered. 

X. To make the Size for the Primed doath at the fixth 
Secilionof this Chapter. 

Hake Glew, and boil it weB in fair water j till it be diffolvedy 
snd it is done. 

XI. To make tbe Whiiing for tbe fistb 5edioa of this 

Take of the aforefaid 5;;^f, mix it with whiting grotmd, and 
fo white your boards or cloath (being made fmooth) dry them, 
and white them afecondor third time i lajily, f crape them fmooth, 
anddr^w it over with White- lead tempered with Oyl. 

XII. To keep the Colors from skinning. 

Oyl Colors (if not prefently tifed) Will have a skin grow over 

. tJjem, to prevent which put them into a glafs, and put the glafs 

three or four inches under water Jo wiB they neither skin nor dry. 

XIII. To cleanfe the Grinding-ftone and Pencils. 

If the Gritjdinz [lone be foul, grind Curriers fhavings upon 
itt and then crumbs of bread, fo Will the filth come off: if tbe 
pencils befoul, dip the ends rf them in oyl cf Turpentine, and 
fiuee:{e them htween your fingers, and they will be very clean. 


Chap. J. Colors in General, &c. 163 

Of the Colors in General, and their fignifications, 

I. 'T'He chief Whites kvVtivimg in Oyl are, White-Icid, 

^ Cerufe and Spodium. 

II. The cKiti Blacks are Lamp-black, Sctcoal-black, Ivory- 
black, Charcoal, and JEartb of Colen. 

III. The chief /^f<^j are, VermiUioBjCinnaber Lake, Red- 
lead, Indian Red, Ornocto. 

IV. The chief Greens are, Verdigrife, Terra-vert, Ver- 

V. The chief Tellows are, Pink, Mafticot, Englilh Oker, 
Spruce Oker, Orpiment. 

VI. The chief J5/f/rj are, Blew Bice, Indico, Uliraojarilift 

VIL The chief Browns are Spanift-browo, burnt Spruce 

VIII. Tfaefe Colors, Lamp-black.Verditer, Vcrmih'oD,Bice, 
Smair, Mafticot, Orpiment, Ultramariee, are not to be 
ground at all, but only tempered with oyl upon the Pallet. 

IX. Thefe Colors, Ivory, Cerule, Oker and Umber are 10 
be buret, and then ground with oyl. 

X. All the reft are to be ground upon the Grinding ftone 
wiib Lin feed oyl (except White-lead, j when it is to be uled 
for Linnen, which then is to be ground with oyl of Walna;s, 
for Linfeed oyl will make it turn yellow. 

Andnotpfince we are engaged to treat of colors^ it may neither 
leunnecejfary^ nor unufeful for the young Artift to kflom tbeirnar ' 
tural fgnifjcations; which takf oifollotveth. • 

XL Blew fignifieth truth, faith, and continued zStiStiom ; 
A^ure, Conftancy ; Violet, a religious mind. 

XII. Orange tawny fignifies Pride, alfo integrity j TrftPw;, 
forfaken ; Limmon, jealoufie. 

XIII. Green fignifies hopes : Grafs-greent youtfajyouthfuloefs, 
and rejoycing: Sea-green^ Inconftancy. 

XIV. I^d fingnifies f uftice, Venue and Defence : Flame-, 
color. Beauty and Defire : Matdens-blu/h, Envy, 

Mi XV. 

1^4 Voljgvaphkes Lib. IIL 

XV. TcHcw fignifics Jealoufie: pei fed: yellow, Joy, Ho- 
nour, and greatnels ofSpirir: Gold color. Avarice, 

XVI Flefocolar lignii^cthL^icivioaintfs ; Carnation, Cra.(ty 
Sub;i'ty and Deceit: Purple, Fotiiwde ind Strength. 

XVII. JVilloai Color (jgnifieih forfaken : Popingjay-green, 
Wanionne's : Peach colory Love. 

XVIH- ^H/Vtf fjgnitieth Death: Mtik^irbtte, Jnnocency, 
Purity, Truth, JnU'griiy : Blacl^, Wildom, Sobriety, and 

XlX. Siratp cdor Ggn'iBcthVknxy : I^iji of Iron, Witbered- 
nefs ; £>-.-77/Kff Religion and holioers. 
. XX. The W'-itC; Black,. I((d, and Green, are colors held/acred 
in the Church c/Romt : VFhite is worn in the FelUvals of 
ViVg'ns,Sainrs, Confellbrsand Angels, to ftiow their Inoocency : 
I{ed in the Sokmnities of the Apoftles and Martyrs of Je- 
fus: B/^cJ!^ in Lent and other Fa iHng days: Green is worn 
between the F.pifhar.y and SeptuageJJima : and between Pc«- 
tecoil and advent. 

CHAP. iY. 
Of the fittirjg of Colors for Paint iffg 

I. r TPon the Pallet difpofe the feveral colors, at a conveni- 
*''* cnt diitance, that they may not intermix : firft lay 
onthe Vet mi lion, then the Lake, then the burnt Oker, then 
the /ndian Red, Pink, Umber, Black and Smalt* each in their 
order, snd lay the White next lo your thumb, becaufc it is ofc- 
nefl ufed, for with it all the (liadows areto be Jigbtncd,- md 
next the Whirea ftiff fort of Lake i ibws is the Pallet fur- 
fflflu'd with fir pie colors for n face. 

N et to temper them for jhadotving various compkxioKS do 

II. For .1 fair complexion. 

T^h Pf'^hite one dram, l^ermiUim, Lake, of each ttvo dram.r^ 
temper fhe*n, end Ijy them a fide for the deepc/l Carnation of the 
f.scr • t.-i part of the afortfaid mixture put a little more trhite^fcr 
la I jr^bt Carnal if.T! ; and to pa>t rf that put rn ore rrhitt (ufhich 
ttrr,pa on the Pal! i'O for the light el} color fthefac^. 


•Chap. 5^. Coicrs for Velvet, r^5 

III. The faioifliadows for the fair Complexion. 

Tal^ Smalt ^ and a little white, for th eyes ; to part of that 
add a. little Ptnli and tamper by it feif for faint greenifto jhadi-irs 
tn the face. 

IV. The deep fiadows for the fame, 

Takf Cinnaber Lake Pink^and blacJ^of each,a f'^^cierit tjua-itity, 
tphich temper together'-,Jf the Jhadotrs ought to be redder than tnhat 
ts temperedy add more Lakfi iifyellott'tr, add more Pink, i if lte;P' 
er or grayer ^add more blacl^: thus (hall ibe_ PaUet he fiaedtnth 

V. For « brown or fwarthy complexion. 

The Jingle colors being laid on the Pallet at bt/ore, and_ i.'mpe- 
red : to the U'hite, Lake and Vermilion, put a little burnt Ol^^r 
for a TatOvy ; and for heigh tnimi^ add fome Tellow O'^er^ [» mtiuh 
as may juji chani^e the colors. The faint and deei] fh.idoips are 
the fame as at r/je third and founfaSe(ilion of this Chapter. ' 

VI. For a Tawny compipxOn. ' ~ 

The colors are the fame iptth the former, but the f.T^idou's are 
different ; -trhich nttijl be made of burnt Oker and ^'m/'^r, 
(a'hich tvtll fit well:) if thefhadotps be not yelloiv enough, add- a 
little Pint{ to it. 

VII. For a black complexion. 

The dar\ fhadotvs are the fame tvith the former i but f.r 
heightning take IVhite, Black, Lak'-, and burnt Oker ; in tem- 
pert*ig of which put in the white by degrees, till you come to 
the light ejl of all. M-'hers note that the finglc colors at firfi laid 
upon the Pallet and ternpccd ferve for foadoms for ail com- 
plexions ; and that all deepmn^s ought to be with black, Lal^ 
and Pink, tempered together. 

e H A p. V. 

Of Colcrs for f^tlvet. 

I. pOR black.Vchet.Tsiks. Lampblack and Verdig rife for 
the firit ground ; that b^iilg dry.iakc /voiy biaik.snii 
Verdigrifcrhadow it with White-lead mixt w\^h L feoi p-bla<.k., 
J/- For G WW. Take Lamp-black and Whi'^e-iead, a^d wjrK 
it like a RuOet Velvet, and ler^it dry -, ttien draw it o^ei wub 
Verdig rile tempered with a iir;fe Pir,k. 

Ms L[> 

l66 Polygra^hices Lib. III. 

HI. For SeA-green. Take only Kerdigrife, and lay it over 
Ruireiilf n Grafs-green^ put a little Malticoi to it; (hadow 
tbele greens wub Rulfei, which lay according to the deepneft 
of the greet). 

JV. Por B^ed. Take Fermilion, and ftiadow it with Spanifli- 
brown ; and where yoa would have it darkeft, (hadow with 
Seacoal- black and Spanilh brown with the aforefaid colors, 
dry it, and then glofs it over with Lake. 

V. ForCrimfonor Carnation. Take rermilion, lo which 
tdd White-lead at pleafure. 

V[. For Bktp. Take Smalt tempered alone. 

VII. For TeHow. Take Malticot and yellow Oker, and 
where you would have it darkelt, (hadow it with Umber. 

VIII. ForTawny. Take Spanifh-bio^vn, White-lead, and 
Lamp-black, with a little Ferdigriie, lolbadow where need is ; 
when dry, glofs it over with Lake and a lictle Red- 

IX. For hair color. Take Umber ground alone j and where 
it fliould be brigbteft, mix form White-lead about the 
folds, lighten or darken with Wbice-lead and Umber. 

X« For y^yfc-co/or. Take Charcoal, black and White-lead; 
lighten with White-lead : a color Itkf to a dark^ ^Jfef «"'^ ^» 
an Afh-coler. 

XI. For Purple. Take Smalt and Lake, of each alike, tem- 
per them (light or deep as you pleafej with white-lead. 

XII. Lafily note, thatin painting f'clvet you muft aC firft 
work it fomewhac fad, and theD give it a fudden brigbtnefs. 

CHAP. vr. 

Of Colors for Sattins. 

L COR Blacky Take Lamp-black ground with Oyl, and tem- 
^ pered with white-lead ; and where you would have it 

fliine moft, mix Lake with the white-lead. 

II. For Green. Take Kerdigrife ground alone and mixed 

wirh white-lead ; adding Pink where you would have it 

brighteft : to the deepeft (hadows add more Terdigrife. 

HI. For TeSf.tP. Take Mafticot, yellow Oker and Umber 

fgroood each by themfeives) where ic Ihoald be brighteft ufe 


Chap. 7* Colors for Taffaty, &c. \6j 

Mafticot alone ; where a light fliadow, ufe Oker, where dark- 
eft ufe Umber. 

/v. For Purple. Take Smalt alone , and where it fliould be 
brighteft u(e whiie-lead. 

V. ForI{ed. Take Spanilh- brown (ground alone) mix it 
with Fermilion, and where it Ihould be brighcelt mix white- 
lead with the Kermilion. 

VI. For White. Take White-lead (ground alone) and 
Xvory-black, which temper light or dark. 

Vir. For Bletf. Temper Smalt and White-lead; where 
it fliould be faddeft, uie Smalt ; where lighieft, White- 

VIII. For Orange Color. Take Red-lead and Lakes ; where 
brighteft. Red-lead, where faddeft. Lake. 

IX. For Hair Color. Temper Umber and White-lead ; 
where it fliould be brighteft, puc more Whire-lead,and where 
the greateft fliadow, ufe Seacoal-biack mixed with Umber. 


Of Colors for Taffaty , C loath and Leather. 

\, *'rjiffaties are Painted much as Sattin, thus : Take fuch 
-*• colors as are fit for the purpofe, and lay them one bj 
aooiher upon the work, and fliadow them with others. 

II. Clotb is the fame work with Sattin, fa?e, you muft nor 
gire to Cloth fo fudden a fliining glofs. * 

III. Cloth of Gold is made of brown Oker and liquid. 
Gold •, water and heighten upon the fame with fmall gold 

IV. For Buff, mix yellow Oker and White-lead •, and 
where it fliould be daik by degrees, mix it with a little Um- 
ber; whan you have done, fize it over with Umber and Sea- 

V. For TeSottf Leather, take Mafticot and yellow Oker, flȣ- 
dowit withUaaber. 

VI. For black Leather, take Lamp-black, and fljadow it 
with White-lead. 

VII. For white Leather, lake White-lead, and fliadow it 
with Jvory-black. 

M 4 CHAP, 

t63 PoIjgr.?phkes Lib. Ill, 

CHAP. vur. 

0/ Colors for Garments in general. 

I. Y'OK Back, Ler ihe dead color be Lampblack and Ver- 

-^ digrife : being dry, go over with Ivory-black and 
Verdigrilc jbuc before ibe fecond goiog over, heighten ii with 

if. For huiir Color. Take Uaiber and White for [he 
j^rfunds; Umber and black f^r the deeper Ihadows; Umber 
god Eng! fh Okcr for ;he meaner Ihadowi i while and Eng- 
hih Oktr for the hcjghtning. 

iJi. F.r bietp. Take /ndico and White: firft lay chc 
White, th:n the Indico and White mixed i then deepen it witb 
J'.di.o, and when dry, glaze it with UUiamarioe which will 
never (^de. 

Smalt wiH turn black.., and Bice will turi} green, 
. IV. Por FUrple. Take Smalt tempered wiih Lake and 
White-lead i then heighten with White-lead. 

V. For a fad R^d. Take Indian Red heightned with 

VJ. For a light I{ed. Take Vermilion, glaze it over with 
Lake, and heighten it with White. 

VII, For a Scarlet, Take Fermilion and deepen it with 
Lake, or Indian- Red. 

VI [1. For Grsen. Take Bice and Pink, heighten it with 
MaOicot, and deepen with Indico and Pink. 

IX. Foryel'oi:^. Take Mafticot, yellow Oker, Umber ; lay 
Mslticoc and white in thu* lighted places j Oker and White 
in rhe mean places, and Umber in the darkelt, glaze it with 

X. For Orange Color. Lay the lighteft parts with Red- 
icid and white, the mean parts wich Red-lead alone ; the 
deeper pans wiib Lake, and if need is, heighten it with white. 

Xf. For a fad Green. M'X Indico with Pink : Y or a light 
Green mix Pink and Malticot j for a Grafs-green qaix Ferdi- 


chap. 9. Colors for, Metals, ^c. i^g 

XII. Remember always to lay yellows, blews, reds and 
greens, upon a wbiie ground, for tbac orjly giveth chem lik. 


> Colors for Metals and precious Stones, 

1. TyO^lron. Take Lamp-black and Wfaite-Iead ; if you 

* would have ic ruUy, take Seacoal- black, and mix- it 
with a httle white. 

\L For Silver. Take Charcoal-black and White-lead ; 
v.'bere you wcuid have it darkeit, ufe n-iore Charcoal •, work, 
Silver foo^pwhtt ruitilh, and give it afudden glofs with White- 
lead only. r 

Jll. YqtGoII TakeLike, Umber, Red-lead, JViafticot; 
lijiy the ground with Red-lead, and a litrle dry Pink : where 
you would have it darkelc , fiiadow it mo(t with Umber, 
where ligbteft with Mafticor. 

Note, in griming I^d-Iead for the Goldfi:{e, put in a little 
Verdigrife to make it dryfopmr. 

IV. ¥ or Pearls, Temper Charcoal-black with white-lead, 
till it be a perfed: ruiTet ; then make the Pearl with it, and 
give it a fpeck of White-lead only JO make it Oiine. ' 

IVherenote^ that Cerufe tempered with Oyl cf white Poppy » 
exceUent to heighten up Pearls. 

V. Fo^ precious Stones. For Rubies, {^"c. lay their counter- 
feit grounds with transparent colors , a'ndLake, Verdigrife and 
Verditer give them a, fliining color. 


1 70 Folygraphices Lib; III. 

i ,....■ . ■ " I.- . 

C H A P. X. 

Of Colors for Land ski p. 

I. pOJ^ alii^ht Green, ufe Pink and Mtfticot befgfained* 
^ witb white : for a fad GrMnJndico and Pink faeigbcned 
with Malticot. 

II. For fame Trees ^ take Lake, Umber and White, /or other i 
Charcoal and .vbite for others Umber, black and white, with 
fome green ; and lometimes Lake or Vermilion, with other 

III. For PVuoJ lake Lake, Umber and white,, mixing 
fometimes a little green witbal. • 

IV. For Fire, lay Red-lead and Vermilion tempered toge- 
ther where it isreddelt : where it is blew, lay oyl, Smalt, and 
white-lead : where it is yellow, take JVlafticot, and wcrk it o- 
yer in certain pTaces ; where you would have it (hine mo(t 
with Vermilion. 

V. For an A:{ure Sf^ie, which feems a fir off, take Oyl , 
Smalt, or Bice, and temper them with Linfeed-oyl. But grind 
them not: for Smalt or Bice utterly loje their color in grind 

VI. For a I{ed Skie, take Lake and white ; and for Sun- 
beams, or yellow clouds aC Sua-rifiog or fetting, take Mafli- 
cot and white. 

Vll For ,a Night Sl^ie^ or clouds in a ftorm, take Indico 
deepned with black, and heigbtned witb white. 

Fill. For JVood Colors, they are compounded either of 
Umber and white, Charcoal and white, Seacoal and white^ 
Umber black and white ; or with fome green added : to 
which you may adjoin fometimes, as in barks of Trees, a lit- 
tle Lake or Feruiillion. 

IX. Lastly for the fraFlical performing of the 0ork^ have 
recourfe totbe rules delivered in chap, i f, lih. I. and chap. 


Chap. II, Painting of the Face, 171 


Of the Painting of the Face, 

I. pjAve your necefTary pencils in readinefs, as two pendia 
*• ■*< ducks quill fitcbed j and two ducks quill pointed ; 
iwo Goofe quill fitched, and two pointed : two briftles both 
alike ; one Swans quill fitcbed, and one pointed ; one lar- 
ger pencil in a Tin cafe fitched -, and a briftle of tbe fame 
Bignefj, every one having a ftick of about nine inches long 
put into the quill tbereofj tbe farther end of which ftick mutt 
be cut to a point. 

- II. Have the pencils in a readinefs in your left hand, with 
the pallet upon your tbutub.prepared with fit colors, and your 
moljiic^ to reft upon j you muit work according to the di- 
redtions following. 

III. Tbe clotb being prinaed, and ftrained upon the Frame,' 
take a knife, and with the edge thereof fcrape over the 
cloth, left knots or tbe like fliould trouble it. 

IV. Then fet the Frame and Cloth upon the Eajel, at a 
convenient beighth, that fitting on a Itool (even with the 
party you drawj you may ffave the face of the Pidure equal, 
or fometbing higher than your own : fet tbe Eafel to the light 
(as in Limning we ha ve taught) letting it come in upon your 
left hand, cafting tbe light towards tbe right. 

V. Let the Perfon to be drawn, fit before you in tbe poft- 
ure be intends to be painted in, about two yards diitant 
from you. 

VI. Then with a piece of painted chalk draw the propor- 
tion of the face upon the clbtb, with tbe place of the eyes, 
tioCey mouth, ears, hair, an^d other poftures. 

Here ^ no difficulty in t hi, if you mi fi much , tbe colors (fill 
hrinji all to right again. 

VII. Then take a pencil. Swans quill pointed, and begin 
to paint fome of the iigbteft parts of the face with the 
lighteft color, (as the beigbtning of tbe forehead, nofe, cheek- 
bone of the lighteft fide :J tbe mean parts next (as tbe cheek- 
bone of the dark'lide, cbia, and over the upper lip: 


iV^ Folygraphkcs Lib. \\\. 

proceeding, gradually lill you come to the redde(t parts of 


Vllr. L«y faint grecnilh fliadows in convenient places, and 
where it is neceirary to foften barlhtr fliadows, but take heed 
ot puttiug green where red ftiuul J b^\* 

iX. The fiint- or light pans thus done, take one of the 
Goole quill poihted, or Djcks quill fitcbed, and begin at the 
eyes to ihadow wish Lake, guing uvcr the nofc, mouth, 
cojnpafsofthe car, (3c. before you lay on any color, wiping 
it lightly over with a lin.ntn rag to prevent ihs overcoming 
of the other colors. 

X. The colors both light and dark being put in, take a great 
iitch pencil • and i'weeten the colors therewith, by going over 
the Ihadows with a clean fufc pencil, which being well hand- 
led, vvil! drive and intermix cbe colors one into another, that 
they will look as if they were all laid on at once, and not 
at divers times. 

Wi:ere note, that the bigger pencils you ufe, the ftveeter and 
hsttsr your worl{^tt*itl lie. 

XL At the [econd fittings begin again wi:h clean pSncrls, of 
foch bignefs as the work requires, and obferve well the 
perfon, and fee what defe^fls you find in your work at firft 
(itting, and amend them : then bcigbreo or deepen liie flia- 
dows as occafion requires. 

XII. Ld/?/)- take a Goofe quill bfiftle, and put in the bair 
about the face (if iliere muft be any) and rub in the greater 
hair, with the greater briitle, heightning it up wi;h the Goofe 
quill penci!. 


Of the cleatijjffg of any old hainthg. 

I.. Tj^Ake good wood- afhes, and fearce tbem, or elfe-fbjme 
*- S.tiaft or powder-blew, and with a Spunge and faif 
water geatly walh the Pidlure you would cicanl'e ftaking great 
caicol 'he (hidow?) which doqe, dry it very wclJ with a . 


Chap. 13- thedeanfir.g^cfan^^ildTainthg. 175 

II. Then vatnifh it over again with fomegood varnilh.bu 
fuch as may be waftied off again with water if need be. 

We fodfl hereafter fhew the way of making varnijhes of feve- 
ral forts, meanfeafcn this folktttng may jtrve. 

III. Take either common Varnifli fmade with Gum fan- 
drackdiflblved in Linfccd-oyl by boiling^ or glair of£ggs,and 
with your pencil go over the Picture once, tviice, or more 
therewith as need requires. 

IV. // your painting be Wainfcotting, or any other Joy-^ 
nery or Carpentry Work, you may take the Wood- 
aflies (at Secil. i.) and mixing them lomewhat thick with 
"Water, rub them over the Painting, with a ftiffBriftle Biufli, 
as a Shoo Brufli, and '\o IcOur, wafh and dry ir, as aforefaid, 
and rhen varnifli it with common Varnirti. 

V. But if the Painting be more curious, as Figures of Men, 
Beafts, Landskips, Flowers, Fruits, t3c. then take Smalt only, 
and with a Sponge wet in Water.cleanfe it asabovefaid genjy, 
which wafh after with fair Water, then dry and varnifii it, lb 
will the luftre and glory of your Painting be much reco- 

VI. This cleanfing of Paintings, ought not to be pra(5ii- 
fed but feldom (w;^. when it is very much foyled) becaufe of- 
ten and too frequent cleanfings in this kind, will by degrees 
wear off" part of the Colours : And therefore endeavour .to 
preferve their firft Beauty, by keeping them from fmoak, 
duft, flys, ^c. 

VII. All Pidures Cchiefly tbofe performed with mixtures of 
white Lead; are apt to grow tawny, to tarnifh or grow ruiiy, 
as may befeeninall old pieces: To prevent this, czpofe 
them to the hot Sun three or four days in May or '^ur.e : i'o 
will the ill Colour be much drawn offhand the painting appear 
more frelhand beautifnf : this dcing yearly, you will wonder; 
fully preferve them. 


174 Tolygraghices Lib. I If. 


Of a Figure in general, 

I. IN every Pidure there are always four principal confi- 
-•^ derations : to wii, i. Invention, x. Prof onion. 3. Color', 
and 4. Life. 

II. Invention muft be free, and flow from a general know- 
ledge of Aniiquiies, Hiiiory, Poetical Fidions, Geometrical 
conclufions, and Optical confiderations, according to its Situ* 
ttion or Afpedl, either near or far oflf. 

III. And ibis Invention muft exprefs proper and fit things, 
agreeing to the Circumftances of Time, Place, Mattery and 
Per/on i and having refpedt to the modes of habits belongisg 
10 the Country or People whether Antient or Modern. 

IV. Proportion, Analogy, or Symmetry Cwhich you pleafe) is 
that which limits each pare ta its proper bignefi, in reip ed: 
to the whole. 

iVhatfoever differs from this recedes from beauty, and may 
he called Deformity. 

V. This Proportion is called by Artifts the defigniog lines i 
which are firft drawn before the whole is painted. 

VI. Thefe proportions or lineal defigns, draughts, and fcetches, 
may be called PtStme, which being tPeB done, flaem not only the 
foape, but alfo the intent. 

VII. In lines only, ipe may drattf the proportion of a Blacky 
Moor, andfuch as fkall he Itkf html Nouf this skill proceeds from 
the very higheji principles of Art. 

VIII. Color is that which makes the Pidure referable what 
we define to imitate j by mixing of various colors together. 

I^- In making any thing apparentticisnecelfary to exprefs 
its oppofire or contrary. 

X. So light and fhadotvs forteard, fet forth Paintings out- 
wards, as if you might take hold of them with your hand: black' 
nefs makes things Jeem farther off, and is ufed in things hol- 
lofp, as Caves, PVells, Sec. the more deep the more black: 

XI. Brigbtoefs exceeds and is as light fparklirg m iplecdor. 


Chap. 13. A Figure ijf general, 175* 

It M ufed in the Glory of Angel: j twinkjing of Gems, Ar- 
9noryy Gold and Siher vejjils, fires and flames. 

XII. In Ptioting of a m&a, grace eacb limb with its pro- 
per and lively color ; the black make fincerely black j the 
white pure, with rednefs intermizt. 

XIIJ. But to paint purely the exquifite beauty of a wo- 
man,is never to be well done fexcept it be by a very ingenious 
Artift indeed j her rare complexion being fcarcely poflible to. 
be imitated with colors : There it none really kjiows the exaii 
mixture for fuch a Countenance. 

XIaT. Life or Motion is that from whence action or pafHon 
doth refult, which in colored Pi\5lares is feen with a lively 
force of Gefture and fpirit. 

XV. Ta Jo flj^ if fi necejjary that the Artijh be wei acquainted 
with the nature, manners, and behaviour of men and momen, 
m in anger, fadnefs^ joy, earneftnefs, idlenefs^ love, envy ^ fear, 
hope, defpair, &c. Every difturbance of the mind alters thf 
Countenance into feveral pojiures. 

XVI. The head caft down flicws humility ; caft back.arro- 
gancy or fcorn ; hanging on the neck, languilhing; fiififand 
fturdy, morofity of mind. 

XVir. The various poftnres of the bead fliew the paffioos j 
the Countenance the fame ; the eyes the like ; and in a word, 
all the other pans of the body contribute fotuetbiog to the 
cxpreflion of the ftid paffions of the mind, as is eatiiy to be 
obferved in the life. 

In excellent pieces youmay at a view read tht mind of the Af 
tifi in the formality of the Story. 

XVIII. Laftly, Be always fure firft to conceive that in 
your thoughts, which you would exprefs in your work ; 
that your endeavours being affifted by ao iniellecftual energy, 
or power of operation, may at length render your produi^i- 
OBS perfe(^. 


1-^ Pdygraphkes Lib. Ill' 


Of the Choke of Copies^ or Pattern. 

I. TJE that chufeth a Pattern, ought to fee i. that it be 

-tA well defigned * 2. that it be well covered. 

If. lo the well defigning, be fure that it be true in every 
pan ;and that the proportion of ibe figure be juft andcor- 
relpond to the life. 

HI. Il the Pitftiire be a fidllon, fee that it be done boldly, 
rot only to exceed the work (but alfo the poffibiliry) of na- 
itsre, as in Centaures. Satyrs^ Syrens, Flying-horfes, Sea-horfes, 
TtitoriJ, Kereides^ See. 

Alexander ah Alexandrio j'^/V^,f^4^ Theodore Gaza caught 
one of thcfe Nereide«^>2 Greece, and that in Zealand, another 
tras taught tnfpin : thefe Tritons and Noreides are thefe tvhich 
are called Mare-maids, the Male and the Female. 

IV. Natural figures (hew property. and are required to sgree 
with the life : forced ligures exprefs novelty, and are ro be 
beautified by exorbicincies according to the fancy of the 
Painter wirhou": limitation: novelty caufes admiration, and 
»drnirat!on curioliiy, a kind of delight and fatisfadicn to 
the mmd. 

Thefe things are not the produHs of fiupid brains, nor are 
fhey com. lined ttrithin the ferimetreof clouded and dull Concep- 

V. In the weM colf-rinp, know that in obfcurity or dark- 
nefs there is a kind of dcepne'? ; the light being fwcctly 
deceived ^r^<^if;»7J in breaking the Colors, by infenfible change 
from the more high ro the more dull. 

J« the I{ain-koiP t'^rs mixture it perfeEl ; the T>ariety of Co- 
lors are throughly difpers d {like Sterns m the Sunbeams) am/r.g 
one create its juj} appearance. 

VI. See rbat tne fwellings of the work agree to th? ex- 
ili^ne Is of nature, ?rd as the parts rbcreof rrquire, without 
iharpnels in oat-liney, or ilatneis within the body rf the piece; 
.';s .lib that each hollownefs exadly correfrond :i. due pro" 
pciions. • % 


Ghap. If. The Difpojing of Figures Jkc. 177 

VII. Laftly, View precifely the pa(Jions, as Joy, Sorrow ^ 
LovCj Hatred^ Fear, Hape^ 8cc. and fee that they correfpond 
with their proper polturesi for a touch of the pencil may 
firaugely alter a palTion to its ju(t oppgfite or contrary, as 
from Mirth to Mourning, ^c. 


Of the Difpofing of Figures and Faint ings. 


• A ^M^^ works, or Grotefce, may become a wall, the 
•^ borders and freezes of other works j but if there be 
any draughts in figures of men and women to the life upon 
the wall, they will be beft of black and white, or of one color 
beigbtned : if they be naked, let them be as large as the 
place will aiJbrd: if of Marbles, Columns, Aqujeduds, Ar- 
ches, Ruines, Catarads, lec them be bold, high, and of large 

II. Let the beft pieces be placed to be feen with fingle 
lights, for fo the (hadows fall natural, being always fitted to 
anfwer one light; and the more under or below the light the 
better, efpecially in mens faces, and large pieces. 

III. Let the Porch or entrance into the houfe, be fet out 
with K^uflicl^ figures, and thing rural. 

IV. Let the HaS be adorned with Shepherds, Peafants, 
Milk-maids, Neat-herds, Flocks of Sheep and the like,in their 
refpe«5live places and proper attendants i as alfo Fowls, Fifli, 
and the like. 

V. Let the Stair-cafe be fet off with fome admirable mo- 
nument or building, either new or ruinous, to be feen and ob- 
ferved at a view pa/Iiog up : and let the Ceiling over the top- 
ftair be put with figures forefhortned looking downwards out 
of Clouds, with Garlands and Cornucopia's. 

VI. Let Landskjp. Hunting, Filhing, Fowling, Hiftories 
and Antiquities be put in the Great Chamber. 

VII. In the Dining-room let be placed the Pictures of the 
King and Queen j or their Coat of Arms;forbearing to put any 
other Pi(5lures of the life, as not being worthy to be their 
coEnpanion? j unlefs at the lower end, two or three of the chi^f 

N Nobility, 

178 T: ::ts Lib. III. 

KoUby. asatie Royal Perfom : for wut 

koccf T. : - -■ - " t the oeareft blood. 

VHl Chamikrrs, pal otbcr 

dri : e or i'pecaal 

IX. iid o^rry PtiooBgs, 

5?-? •; ^, ..«.—:.>* lie UkCjbaiiorbcar- 

Qaut.: wt&,aadcxiercifeikdrlBBfes9 

XI - -aii^i.pwCaftlc^Chwcb- 

es or UKTkC C&ir r :rs. pot Boicage, aadwSd 

wr ' :- - -^ Tawtikipt, for tbqr 


a~ z^cft pnvscc 

R b«anty) 

tbtm : -.e. 

r: ; :t» ; becasle 

Tf, cr- 

:_j^ . . . ^ r chu 

thojc attbf 

CHAP. xvr. 

QfFrefcoe, »r PaiKtirg cf iTjl/s. 

T. TN PjuziQcg apQB WaUs, to make k eodare ike weatfaer, 
. '^ jammaAgpHiyam[cakaawiAlJmewmBt,MSL, at 
^F^, wjxim fize color m poo. 

IL Tbe pmfeeor piaifter Baft be BMde cf «cB waA*d line, 
mixt vvitb 6ae ponder of oU nUift Axaes : tbe Line moft 
beibofcea«aii'd,di«UitsSBkii«fa*nd«iiaBd aU yaw 
work mft be done ia dear sad dxy weaibcr. 

m. To nakc tbe work eDdsre,i)nkeiKacfaewal t— |w 
of fataided aik, aboai fve «r it bdn ifanW, aai 

• bf 

chap. i6. fating Sun- Dials, &cc. 179 

by this means you may preferve the plaifter from peeling. 

IV. Then with this pafte, plaifter ibe w*ll, a pretty thick- 
nefs, letting it dry : being dry, plailter it over again about 
the thicknefs of half a Barky corn, very fine and fraooth,ihen 
your colors being ready prepared work this lalt piaiftring o- 
ver, whileft it is wet, lo will your Painting unire and joya 
faft to the plaifter, and dry together as a pertedl compoft. 

V. In painting be nimble and free, let your work be bold 
and ftrong, but be fure to be f xa(fl, for there can be no Al- 
teration after the firlt Painting, and theiefore heighten your 
Paint enough at firti, you may deepen at pleafure. 

VI. All Earthy Colors are the Oker, Spanifh White, 
Spanifh brown, Terraeveri, and the like : mineral Colors are 

VII. Let your pencils and brufhes be long and fofi, other- 
wife your work will not be fmooth. 

VIII. Let your Colors beful', and flow freely from the 
Pencil or Brufb, and let your defign be perfedl at firft, for ia 
this, there is no after alteration to be made. 



of Painting Sun Dials, Timler-work, (SiC. 

J. IP the Dial be not drawn upon the Wall it felf ; you 
* mufl have a Dial Plain, which you may make of the 
firmeft and clearefl Oak, and throughly dry, fo as that it may 
be free from (hrinking. 

//. Cut your Board to fuch a length, as you intend the 
length of the Dial to be of, and fo many of them, as may make 
up the defigned breadth ^ joynt and plain them on both (ides, 
then fet them to dry ffor though they have lain in a Houfe ne- 
ver fo long, and are never fo dry, yet being thus (hot and 
plained, they will fliriok afterwards beyond belief.) 

lU When they are dry enough, and will Ihrink no more, 
fhote them again with good Joyots, which fatten together io 
the glewing with Pins or Pegs, as Coopers do the bottoms of 
their Tubs. 

N2 jr. 

r8o Poly^raphices C? Lib. III. 

IV. Being tbas glewcd and dryed, let ii be well plained, 
and iryed every way, that it may be borh fmootb and true : 
let tbe edges be (hoc true, and all of a ibicknefs, that they may 
fit into the Rabccsof tbe Moulding, put round it, juit as a 
Pannci of Waioicot dotb in its Franne. 

V. This wili give tbe Board liberty to fliriok and fwell 
witbout rending, wfaereas mouldings, nailed round tbe edges, 
as the vulgar way is, dotb To reftrain tbe motion of tbe 
AVocd, tbat it cannot (hrink witbout tearing- but made tbis 
way, tbey will lalt a long time, witbout eiiber parting in ibe 
Joyots, or fplitting in the Wood. 

VI. The colors cbiefiy made ufe of in painting Dials are 
I. Cerufe, i. white-lead ; 3. Ltmp-Black, 4. Cbar cole or 
Sea-cole, 5. Spanirti-brown, 6. Red-lead, 7, Vermillion, 8, 
Cinnabar Lake, 9. Smalt, lo. Blew Bice, it. Blew Verdi- 
ter, iz. Indico, 13. Umber, 14. Verdigrife, 15. yellow Oak- 
er, i6. yellow Pink. 

VII. But for a Plain Sun-dial, tbefe four Colors will ferve, 
'vi:{. 1 . Spamjh-browriy for tbe priming Color, 2. Vermillion t 
for drawing the Lines, 3. Lamp-black., for drawing tbe Figures, 
4. white Lead, for ihe laft Color to be laid upon tbe 

VIII. But if you will bare your Dial more rich, you m«(i 
have, I. Leaf-Gold (or gilding, z. Gold Sj:{ey to make tbe Fig- 
ures to lay Gold on, ^. Smalt or Blew Bice for tbe Margin 
and innrr Table. 

IX. And for curiofity fake, you may ufe fuch other Colors, 
as your faocy fliall direct you to be molt fuitable to 'the 

X. To fhefe. things add Linfeed Ojl, to temper your Colors 
with : and 07/0/ Turpentine, to mix a little of ft with your 
Colors, 10 make them d/y tbe more fpecdily. 

XI. Cerufe and ti^hite Lead, are eafie to be ground fine: 
and the only white Colors ufed in Painting in Oyl : tbele 
«'e the laft Colors 10 be laid on the plains of 

KIT. And with them Ports, Pails, Paliradocs,Gate?, Doors, 
Windows, Wainfcotting, ^c. are often colored both for beau- 
ty and prefervation, they relifting the Weather well. 

Xlll. Tbey dry well, but to make them dry more fpecdily, 
fome in tempering put Oyl of Tutpentine to ibemi but 
ihtn without doors tbey telift not the Wc&iber fo well. 


Cbap. 17. 'Paint if}g Sun- Dial Sy^c, igj 

XIV. Lamp Blacks is a fair Color, and may be tempe- 
red with Linleed Oyl : But it muft be firtt barnt,iben ground, 
afterwards tempered with the Oyl. 

XV. A Utile of this with much fVI?ite, xmkes an ajhcolor; 
and according to the proportion of either, it gives feveral de- 
lightful varieties. 

XVL Charco/gy is a good Black for ordinary ufes, but it 
muft have good labor in grinding to make it fine ; it dries 

XVII. Spanijh Brown, the beft is of a deep bright color 
and free froro Stones ; it grinds well with pains, and is the 
only color ulcd in /»"iWm^ all manner of Timber- work. 

XVIII. I. Becaufe it is cheap : z. Becaufe it drys kindly, 
yet gives the Oyl Tufficient time to pierce into the Wood. 3. 
Becaufe it freely receives all other Colors which are laid up- 
on it. 

XIX. This of It felf is a perfed: horfe-Flefh color, and a 
natural fliadow for Vermilion : being mixt with white, it 
gives fundry varieties, according to the various proporti- 

XX. I^ed-Lend, it is not to be ground very fine on a Stone, 
but you may make it fine by washing : ic is a great dryer 
and binder, for which caufe it is mixed with fome other Co- 
lors, to make them dry fpeedily : and it notably refifts the 
weather, as well as any Color whatfoever. 

XXI. Vermillion, It is a rich Color, and of a good body, 
if it be fine ground, otherwife it is as bad a Color as any : 
but being ground as foft as Oyl, no Color works better. You 
had beft to buy it in the Stone, left it be fophifticaied with 
red Lead. 

XXII. It is a perfe(9: Scarlet, and mix with white,it gives 
a Carnation, in divers varieties, according to the proportiooj. 
Its fliadow is Spanilh Brown. With this we comaaonly draw 
the Hour Lin^s on Sundials. 

XXIII. Cinnabar Lakfl, it is a rich Crimfon color, and k 
to be ground very fine. Mixt with Bice it make a purple of 
divers varieties, according to the proportions. 

XXIV. Mixt with White, it makes a Crimfon Carnation 
in divers Varieties, which White abd I{ed-Lead, a flefli cor 

XXV. It IS ufed in Ornaments of Dials, and in feveral 
Flowcts. A Margin of a Dial with Gold Figures, is beautiful, 

N s xxn, 

i82 Volygraghkes Lib. Til. 

XXVI. Smalti ii is * delicate Blew at a difttnce, if ftrew- 
ed on: if you will work it in Oyl, it mufi be made fine 
with walhirg, andmixi wi'h wbite-Lead, but even ihcn it 
work*; not well, but in time will be apt to turn Black. 

XXVII. The beft way therefore is to llrew it on, and then 
tbeie is Icarcely a more glorious Blew: ir is a good color 
for tbe Marginof a Dial, if it be figured with Gold, as alfo 
for other purpofes. If yon buy it to work in 0)1, tbe fineft 
is befi which they call Oyl Smalt. 

XXVI II. Blew Bice, it is a pa!e color, and fine enough 
for almoit any ufe, and works well, though a little fandy. 
It is ufed for a Margin ground in Dials, to gild Figures in 
fmall Plains, that are near the Eve. 

XXIX Mixt with Pin}{, it makes a Green : with Lal^ a 
VuYple : with white a light Blew -^ and in each feveral varie- 
ties according to the proportion?. 

XXX. Blew Verditer^ It is fandy, apt to change and turn 
greenirh. It may ferve in Dial Painting where Bice and Smalt 
are wanting, but not lo good as either o^ them. Mixed with 
yellows, it makes a good green : with Whites or Yellows, or 
both, many other varieties. 

XXXI Ifiilico, h is a very dark Blew, and feldom ufed 
without a mixture of White, unlefs to (hadow with. It grinds 
fine, works well, and is much ufed in common Painting for 
|He laft colors of Poli', Pales, Rails, Pallifadoes, Doors, 
Windows, or any other Timber work, for that it refitts the 
weather well. 

XXXII. Itisilear, and therefore many Painters ufe Blew- 
Ballsy wbKh arralraoft like it, hut wt fo good a color either 

for beauty or lalling, mixt with Wbite,it makes a Lead-Color: 
and it is excellent to marble IVloite withal or to ftia' 
dow it. 

XXXIII. VnAer. It is a perfect hair color, it may be 
ground very fine with much labor, and dryes and binds ex- 
ceedingly, aod rherefore very well refills weather. 

XXXIV. It is much ufed in Painting for the many vari- 
eties it gives. Calcin'd in a Crucible, it is the natural (ha- 
dow for Gold, and fome other colors. 

XXXV. Verdigrife i It i$ a perfed Willow GrecD, and 
therefore for fome ufes muft be corrected with yel- 
lows. 'Tis very foul, and tberefoie ought to be cleanfed 



Chap. 17. PaintiftgSun-Dials.dic. 183 

XXXVI. Grind it fine, and put to it eight times itt ttf eight 
t>f fpirit of Vinegar j digeft till the Vinegar is tinged very Green ' 
then decant the color, ca^ away the Faces, and evaporate the Vi- 
negar in a brafs Vefica, fo have you a glorious Verdigrife at the 
bottom, of which one ounce » ttforth ten of the former. 

XXXVII. It drys fpeedily : mixt with Ptnk yellow, it 
makes a pure lively grafs Green : with White, many varieties 
of light Greens, ^c, 

XXXVIII. Ifellow Oker. It is either Et^glifli or Foreign. 
The one is of a Wheat Itraw Color, the other fomewhat deep- 
er, with much labour it may be ground very fine. It is much 
ufed in vulgar Painting, and to make Gold (ize vi'itha.l. 

XXXIX. Teltow Pink. It is a yellow inclining to Gretr), 
and grinds well. It is a good color for fome ufes, but chiefly 
to mix withorher colors, to make Green wiihal. 

XL. The aforegoing Colors are now to be either Burnt, 
Ground, or H^ajht^ as they feverally require, and as we have 
taught in C/j<i;>. 22. aforegoiogof this Book : this done you 
are to grind thenj with Oyl, thus. , 

XLI. Take about two fpocnfuls of the color yotl intend 
to Grind, and pur to ii a little Liofeed Oyl, fbut fee yoa 
put not too much) mix tbem together, and grind them well 
upon your (tone with a Muller: add Oyl by degrees, till ii 
comes to the tbicknefsof an Oynimeni, for fo it grinds much 
better than when it is fo thin as to run about the ftone. 

XLII. Oftentimes as you grind, bring the matter together 
with a piece of Lanthorn horn, and as much as may be keep 
it together in the middle of the ftone, till it is ground fine 
enoughs then take it off, and put more cPor upon the ftone, 
grinding as before, which work continue till you have Color 
enough to ferve your occafion. 

XLIII. This done, if you grind other colors after it,cleanfe 
the ftone firft by grinding Sand and Water upon it,then walh- 
iog it, and drying ic 

XHV, The Colors thus ground wij] be too thick for ufe, 
without adding more Oyl : therefore when you ufe them 
fwheiher fimple or compoiinded, as your occafion requires) 
you muft r^dd more Oyl ro them, till they be fo thin as to run 
free with the Pencil, 

XLV. Yet not to let the ground on which they are laid, to 
be feen through them, or to run about when it is laid on ; 
for fo, you muft be forced to go over it the oftnej*, before your 
work will be fubftantial. 


184 Polygraphices lib. III. 

XLVI. Whereas, if your Color be as ftiff as it can well 
be wroughr, your work will be done with more fpeed ; and 
once doing will be more fubftaniial, than three times with 
the thin Color. 

XLVIi. This is the cheat of common Painters who do 
work by ibe yard, at a certain price; they do it with fuch 
thin Color that all ibeir three times doing Gver,is not lofub- 
ftjniial as one time would be, if the Color bad been of a thick 
and ftroiig body. 

XLVi II. And three times coloring w ith fuch a thick and 
well bodied Color will Utt ten times as long, as that which is 
wrought thus flightly by common Painters. 

XLIX. Oblcrve alfo, that if the Color to be mixt,be your 
priming Colorj viz. thefirft color you lay on, it ought to be 
made iomuch the thinner, that it may have Oyl enough to 
pierce into the Wood, which is much for its durability ^ but 
after yourfifft Color is laid on, let your next be thicker, as 
before is taught. 

L But if your Color to be mixt be for the drawing of 
Hour-lines, or making the Figures in a Sun-dial, then let it be 
tempered as {tiff as is pcffible to ule it.tbai ir may not prefent- 
!y decry, but may be capabfe by the quantity laid on, to laft 
as lonp any color on the Dial. 

LI. To which puvpofe, its being wrought in Fat Oyl will 
much conduce :tow this fat or thick Oyl is made, we now 
come to teach. 

LII. flofp to make the [aid fat or thick, Oyl. Take Linfeed 
Oyl what you pleafe, put to it a fufficient quantity of Red- 
Lead fthe more, tJM| better) fo as it binders not the boyliag.* 
This Red-Lead j'^dds a drying quality to the Oyl: 
Let them boyi gently, over a Charcole fire without flame, 
till it is boyled enough, which you may know by taking a lit- 
tle of it out and cooling of it; if it roaps like thin Treacle, 
or a Syrup, it is enough. 

LTII. Then with a lighted paper fet it on fire that it may 
take away much of its greaGnefs, let it burn a minute or two, 
more or lefsasyour Oyl is in quantity: then extinguifli it, 
by covering h clofe over with a Cloth, and letting it cool 
and fettle, decant the clear Oyl, and keep it in a bladder 
for ufe. 

LIV. To make the GolJ fi:(^r. Take Tellottf Oker, grind it 
on a ftone with water, till it be very fine, and lay it on 
a chalk 5tone to dry, 


Chap. 17. Painting Sun- Dials ^ &c. 1 8 5: 

LV. Or thus. Firft grind it fine as tforefaid, ihenwafliit , 
(by Sed:. 6. Chap. ii. of this Book) and thereby feparate 
the pure fine part of the Color, which dry as the 
former. ", . 

LVf. Take of this prepared, what you plea fe, add 
to it a little of the former prepared Oyl, and grind them 
together as you do other oyl Colors ; this work will be labo- 
rious, for it muft be ground very fine, even as the Oyl it 
felf ; and the finer it is, the greater luller will your Gold 
carry that is laid on it. 

LVII. Where note, that you put fo much of the prepared 
Oyl to the Oker, that it may be of a good ftifl'nefsto work 
well, and of fuchafit body, that after ilislaidon, it may 
fettle it felf fmooth and glofly, but not fo weak as to run. See 
Chap, 21. Sen. 5. 

LVIU, Horn Colors are to be fet off, I. Bletts fet ofFbeft with 
Telloiff and iVbites: indiflferently mih Black^i znd I{eds ; not 
at all with Greens, Purples , or Browns. 

LIX. a. Greewj fet off beft wiih VVbitet-^nd Yellows: not 
at all WnhBlacks, Blews^ creeds. 

LX. 3. Reds fet off beft with Whites and Yellows, indif- 
ferently with Blews and Blacks. 

LXI. 4. Tellows fet off beft with Blacks, Blews, and B^ds , 
indifferently with Greens, Purples, and Whites.. 

LXII. 5. Pf/j>>« and B/^c^f fet off well with any Color, 
becaufe they fo much differ from all others. 

LXIIl. The manner of Painting Sun-dials. Having the 
draught of your Dial on paper, your Plain or Board fitted.and 
your Colors prepared, proceed thus. •■ 

LXIV. Take Spanifh Brown well ground, mixed, and 
fomewhat thin, and with a large ,Briftle Bru(h, color there- 
with your Plain all over, on every fide, fo that no part be 
left undone. 

LXV. This is called the Priming of your Dial. When it 
is dry, do it over again wiih more of fhe fame Color, tempe- 
red fomewhat thicker, which when dry alfo. 

LXVI. You may do it over again a third time, with the 
fame color, fo will your work be the ftrdnger, and laft 

LXVII. When this laft time of coloring your Plain is dry; 
then go over it with White-Lead Color ; which when dry, go 
pyer it again three or four times facceffively after each dry- 

iB<5 Folygrapbices Lib. III. 

ing: fo win the face ot your Plain be defended a- 
ginli the fury aod violence of cbe weather for many 

LXVIII. Totramferr the Draught of your Dial upon the 

Plain. The Ult Colonng being dry, draw on the Plain Cwiih 

. a black Lead Pencil j a Horizontal Line, fo far from the up- 

permoft edge of your Dial, as your Reafon (hall think fit, or 

beft convenes with the Plain. 

LXIX. Then fet out the margin of the Dial, with fundry 
Lines for bouis, half hours and quarters: after, take the 
Draught, and place it on the Horizontal Line, obferving to 
place the Center, according as the Situation of your Plain re- 

LXX. If the Dial be a direct South Dial, let the Center be 
exadily in the middle of your Plain ; if your Dial declines 
Eaftwards or Weftvvards, place the Center of the Draught, 
between the Center of the Plain, and the Ealtern or Wefteru 
fide rhpffof. 

LXXI. li it declines but little, place the Center of the 
Draught, but a little from the Center of the Plain ; if it de- 
clines much, place the Center of the Draught the more out of 
the Center of the Plain. 

LXXII. For by thus doing you gain a greater diftance 
forihofe Hour-lines, which in declining plains fall neafer to- 
gether on one fide than they are on the other. 

LXXIII And you ought to do it in all declining Plains, 
except they decline far, as between eighty and ninety de- 
grees, for then they are beft to be drawn without 
gain the more diftance for the Hour-lines. 

LXXIV. The Draught being thus placed on the Plain, and 
faftned with Pins or Tacks; transfer it upon the Plain, by lay- 
ing the Ruler over every hour, half hour, and quarter 

LXXV. And where the Ruler fliall interfe(5l theboHndary 
lines in the Margin, there make marks, by drawing lines 
with a Black Lead Pencil of fuch length as each divifion 
requires, drawing the boar and half hour lines quite through 
the Margin, for the guiding you in the right placing the Fig- 

LXXVl. Then draw the Suh-flile Line, as it lies in the 
Draught, that it may guide you in right placing the Stile of 
your Dial. 


Chap. 17. Tainthg Sun- Dials, &c. 187 

LXXVn. This done, take the Draught off, and with Ver' 
million well ground and prepared, draw (be boundary lines, aS 
al(b the hours, half hours, and quarters. 

LXXVlll. Lei the color be as thick and ftiffasyou can 
work it, lo as to draw a clear and fmooth Line ; the Lines 
being drawn, then with Ltmp-Black delineate the Fig- 

LXXIX. And io the Margin at the top of the Plain, you 
may put the date of the year, or fome proper Motto. 

LXXX. La ftly fix in, the Stile of your Dial, and paint it 
in like manner as you did the Dial before : thus is your Di- 
al compleated. 

J.XXXL To gild the Figures of Sun-diah. Draw the Figures 
or Letters you defire to have gilt with the Gold fize (at Secfl. 
53. above^ which let dry fo long, till that by touching it 
with the end of your finger, it will ftick a little, yet not 
come off. 

LXXXII. Then take leaf Gold, lay it upon your gild- 
ing Cufliion, and with a very fliarp and fmooth-edged 
knife, cut the Gold into fucb pieces as may bed befit your 

LXXXlW. Then with a flat ftick lin'd with Cloth, take 
up your cut pieces of Gold, and transfer it to your fize, upon 
which clap it down, and your Gold will leave your lin'd ftick, 
and cleave to the fi2e,;,\f bich then prefs down with Cotton, 
or a Hares foot. 

LXXXLV. Thus do till all your fize is covered with Gold: 
and when it is perfectly dryed, with your Hares foot, brulh 
off all the loofe Gold, and the gilding will remain fair 
and beautiful. 

LXXXV. Then if you pleafe, Diaper on your plain 
with thin Vmber, whatfoever fhall be fuitable to your 

LXXXVh How to lay on your Smalt. '^\ien yon defjgn to 
make the Margin of your Dial Blew, you muft do it thus. 
After the figures are gilt, take white Lead, flifly tempered 
v;ith fat Oyl fatSed:. 5r. above) and therewith cover over 
your whole Margin : and then with a fmall fine fearfe fifton 
your Smalt. 

LXXXVIL Or otherwife with a Goofe quill Feather, co- 
ver your Margin over with it, and with a piece of Cotton 
dab it down clcfe.thai it may ftick faft to the ground laid un- 
der it. 

• Lxxxmi. 


i8g Pclygraphices Lib. III. 

LXXXniI. When it is all throughly dry.wipe off the loofe 
color wiib a Feather, and blow the remaiDder off with a pair 
of Bellows ; lo is your work finifhed: the iquare of the Dial 
may alfo be colored Blew fif you fo pleafe) after the fame 

LXXXIX. To Paint PVainfcot^ Doors, JVindotts^ Pojls, I(ails, 
Pails, Gates, and other Timber tfiork. This differs not much 
from the former method of Painting Sun-dials ; you may 
proceed thus. Prime (the thing to be painted; firft with 
Spanijh Brotpn, as you did your Dial Plain, two or three 

XC. Then ake iVhite Lead we\lKmpsred,or Vmber and 
finite or B/erp Bafls, or Indico and Pf^iutf^ or any other 
Color you intend your work fliall be done with j and that 
Color fwhai ever it bej let it bcliidover your former 
Priming, four or five times focceliively after each Dry- 
ing : for the ofiner it is gone over, the longer it will 

XCI. You may do it with variety of Colors, or Marble 
it as you pleafe, fo fliall your work be finilhed according 
10 yourdefire. 

XCII. But here note , that Wainfcotting, and other 
Paintings within Doors, need not be done above twice over, 
with the laft Color ; 'tis only that Painting which is ex- 
pofed to the Air and Weather, that requires lo many times 
running over it. 

XCIII. And indeed, if it be not- well and often 
done, it will not lift long, or be of any conliderable 


Chap. 1 8. IVa/hhg Maps y Figures, dec. 189. 


Of Wajhing Maps, TiBures, &c. 

/. r> Y Walhiog we have intend nothing elfe, but eiihej- to 
■*-' fet out Maps.or Printed Pidures in proper Colors. 

II, The Inftrunaenis and Materials of Walhing are chiefly 
thefe few, z;/;^. i. Alum Heater, z. S;;^e(jr Gum-water^ ^.li- 
quid Gold, 4. Pencils. 5. Colors, 

III, To make Alum-Heater. Take Alum eight ounces : fair 
water, a quart : boil them till the Alun:i is difToIved. 

IV, Or thus. Take fpring or Well- Water a Gallon, Rocb 
Alum a pound, pouder and diflblvs it in Water by boil- 
ing : filter it thro brown paper, and keep it for ufe. 

V- With this water if you wet your Paper, before you 
lay on your Colors, it will keep them from finking in, and 
withal add a Luttre and beamy to the Colors laid on. 

VI. But this you ipuft note, that if your Paper is not good, 
you muft walh it over four or five times,, which may be done 
with a large Brufh Pencil. 

VII. h is alio to be noted, that .4/wot raifes ftaining Co* 
lors, and preferves them from fading, 

VIII. To make Sis[e. Take Glew, and fteep it all night ia 
Water, then melt it over the fire, to fee that ic be neither too 
ftrong, nor too weak : then let a little of ir cool : if ic is too 
ftifF when it is cold, put more water to it: but if too weak, 
put more Glew, and ufe it, Luke-warm. 

IX. To rnake Gum-water. 

Take pure fpring water a Qyari : pm ic into aJar-GIafsj 
and hang therein a fafficient quantity of pure white and clear 
Gum-Arabick, bruifed and lyed Ijp in a rag : let it hang till 
the Gum is all diffolved. 

X. Then put your fingers into the water, and if you find 
them to ftick together as if they were slewed, your water is 
too U iff, or full' of the Gum, which you muft remedy by 
puttiqg thereto more fjjr water j and if you find it coo weak, 
you may help it by adding more Gum. 


190 Pc/jgraphices Lib. III. 

XL With this water, or the fortner fize, moft colors are to 
be lempered, and with lo much of the (aid Gam-water^which 
being louche when dry, the color will not come off. where 
note, that if the color glifter, there is too much Gum in it. 

XII. Liquid Gold, h is exadly made by the firft Sedion 
of the 2 1 Chapter of the fecond Book. 

XIII. Pencils are to be of all forts both fiich'd and poititcd, 
as alfo a large peocil bruITi to palle Maps upon Cloth i ano- 
ther to wet the' paper with Alom water j a third to it arch 
the face of the Pi(Sture withal before it be colored: and a 
fourth to varnilh withal. 

XIV. The colors are the fame with ihofe which we men- 
tioned in Chap. 17, lib.^. to which add, i. Of Black^Vnu- 
lers black. Fr4«;(j/or^ black, i. O/Jf^eJ, Vermilion, Rolfet. 3. 
Of Blear, Verditure, Liimofc, Flory. 4. Of 2c//o/»,Cambogia, 
Yellow-berries,Orpiment. •y.Of l{ed 6raztl,Logwood (ground/ 
and Turnfole, Cochenele, Madder. 

XV. But for the realon, that all thofe colors are not of ufe 
for ftainitig or wafliing of Maps, PiAures, Globes, (^c. 
Artifts have fele(5led out the moft proper which are as 

XVI. I. I^ed, Brafil, Turnfole, Indian Lake, Cochenele, 
Indian Cakes, RoflTet, Cinnabar, Vermillion, Red-lead. 

XVII. 2. Tetlowj, Aloes, Cambogia, Yellow-berries, Saf- 
fron,. Mafticot, Orpimeni, 

XVIII. 3. Blews, Litmofe, Logwood, Indico, Verditer, 
Blew Bice, Smalt, Ultramarine. 

XIX. 4. Greens, Verdigrife, Sap-green, Verditer, Green 

XX. 5. >f^x>«, Flake White, Spaoifli White. 

XXL 6. Brownsi Wood-foot, Rinds of Green Walnuts, 
Walnut-tree Leaves, Spanilh Brown, Umber, iron Ruft. 

XXII. 7. BUckj, common Jnk, Printers Black, Lamp' 
black. Ivory Black, Hartshorn Black. 

XXIII. Of thefe Colors, i. Some are to he burnt, isSptimOi 
Brown, Umber, Printers B'ack, Lamp-black, Ivory Black, 
Hartshorn Black, which are afterwards to be pround. 

XXW. 2. Seme are to he ground ^i Vermili'in, Cinnabar, 
Indian Lake, Indico, White-lead, Spanilh White, Ma- 

XXV. "i. Some are tohe tvajhed, as, RofTei, Red-lead, Bice, 
Verditer, Orpimcnt, Spaoilh Brown, 


Chap. I f. Colors fimple for Wajhing. i^i. 

XXVI. 4. Some are to be fteefed, as, Aloes, CambogJa, 
Yellow-berries, Sap-green, Verdigrife, Indian Cakes, Saffron, 
Wood- foot. 

XXVII. 5. Some are to be boyled, as, Brazil, Logwood, 
Turnfole, Green Walnut Rinds, Wood-foor. Hotp thefe Ope- 
rations are to be performed we have taught at large in lib. 2, 
cap. 22. to which I refer you. 


Of Colors fimple for Wafijing of Maps.&c. 

I. A Xow, Let it be diflblved in a weak Gum-water ; it 
^■^ makes a deep or lad kind of Yellow Color, accord- 
ing to ibe goodnefs of the Aloes. 

IL Bra:(il. To i^t ground Brazil put fonall Beer and 
Vinegar, of eacb a iuff^nt quantity, let it boyl gently a good 
while, then put ^ herein Aluoi in pouder to heighten the color, 
and fome Gum-Arab^cic to bind it ; boyl it till it lafte firong 
on the tongue, and make a good red, Pink color, or light Vi- 

III. Logwood. Ground Logwood boiled as Brazil, makes a 
very fair traofparent Violet or Purple Color. 

IV. Qochenele. Steeped as Brazil was boiled, makes a fair 
tranfparent purple : as tfaus^ take Cocbenele, and put it into 
cbe ftrongeft Sope-Iees to fteep, aiid it will be a fair purple, 
which you may lighten or deepen at pleafure. Infufed ia 
ftrong Vinegar, it makes a tranfparent purple. 

V. Madder. Take madder four drachms, ground Brazil 
one ounce, Rain-water a quart ; boil away a third part ; 
then add Alom half an ounce boil it to a pint j then Gum- 
Arabick one ounce, which boil till it is diflblved, cool it ftirring 
it often, and ftrain it for ufe. It is a good Scarlet die for Lea- 
ther. ^ 

VI. Verdigrife. Take Verdigrife ground finely one ounce, 
put rn it a good quantity of common varnifh, and fo much 
oy! of Turpentine, as will make it thin enough 10 work 
wiibal j it is a good green. 


1 91 Polygraphices Lib. III. 

Vil. Fine Verdigrife, difiblved in Rheoifli wine or Vi- 
negar, makes a tranfpareut Green iacliaing to blew. 

VIII. Ground with juice of Rue aud Gam-water, it is a 
pure Green: wichouc the juice, it makes a glorious eiuerald, 
mixt with Cryftals of Tartar in white-wine Vinegar, in 
wbicb Gum-Arabick has been difiblved, makes a pure 

IX. And Verdigrife, Alum, of each one drachm. 
Logwood three drachms, boiled in Vinegar, make a good 

X Gamhogia. Diffoive it in fair fpring water, iind it w^I 
make a beautiful and tranfparent yellow : if you would have 
it ftrotiger, dilfolve fome Alum therein : it is good for Silk, 
Linnen, white Leather, Parchment, Vellom, Paper, Quills, 
&c. This color delights in no mixtures. 

Xl. To make Verdigrife according to Glauber. 

This color is made with Venus in Vinegar in earthen pots 
fet into hot horfe dung : but if you diflblve your Venus with 
fpirit of Nitre, and precipitate with a lye made of Salt of 
Tartar, edulcorating and drying the Venus will yield an ex- 
cellent Verdigrife, which will not corrode other colors as the 
common Verdigrife doth. 

X/T. To make Cerufe according to Glauber. It is made 
with Saturn and Vinegar in an Earthen pot fct in borfe- 
dung : butif you dilfolve your Saturn with Spirit of Nitre, 
and precipitate with Salt water, you will have a Cerufe 
whiter and purer than the ordinary, and much better whe- 
ther for Painting or Chyrurgery. 

XIIL Tehw Fu^ick_-berry. Boil it in water or fteep it 
in AInm water, it makes a good and tranfparent yellow for 
ihe fame purpofe. 

XIK Turnfole. Put it into a fliarp Vinegar over a gen- 
tle fire till the Vincg«r boil, and is colored ; then take 
out the Turn(oIe and fqueeze it into the Vinegar, in which 
diflblve a little Gum-Arabick ; it fliadows very well on a 
Carnation or yellow. 

AT. Lttntofe, Cnt it into fmall pieces, and fteep it a day 
or two in weak Gum-Lake water, and you wiil have a pure 
tranfparent blew water to walh with. 

XVI. FhryBletp. Grind it with gltir of Epgs, if then you 
add a little Roflet it makes a light Violet blew ; mix- 
ed with White and Red-leaJ, it makes a Crane feather 


Ghap. 19. Colors fimple for WallMng. i^_^ 

XVII. Saffron. Steeped in Vinegar and mixed wiib gum- 
water is a good yellow. In White wine or Sack, it makes 
alfo a good yellow j but more glorious if mixc wirh equal 
parts of Cocbenele : you may alio Iteep icin glairof £ggs, 
or grind it with Vermilion. 

XVIII. Indian Lal^e. Ground with Gum-Arabick waier, 
makes a glorious Murry i in grinding it, add a little Sugar- 
candy: feme fay it makes a deep Pink or Bloom color. 

XIX. Vermillion. Being ground with glair of Eggs and 
Honey or Gum-water,it makes a deep Red, or Scarlet color. 

XX. I^d-leaJ. Grind it v; it b a ftiff Gum-lake water ; if 
you add Saffron, it makes it Orienr, and of a Mangold 
color: of it felfii is between Red and an Orange color. 

XXI. I{pJJet Walhed and tempered with Gum-water, dif- 
fers not much in color from Indian Lake j but it will foon 
fade and grow lighter i but bdng tempered with Brafil-water, 

» twill be more deep. 

XXU. hidiarrC,ik''s. Ufe them as ye do Turnfole fat SeEt. 
\o. above) they make agoodiranfpareni Red color: into the 
liquor put fame Gum to bind ir. 

XXill. Mafiicote. Ground and tempered with Gum-water, 
makes a good yellow, but not tranfparent. 

XXIY. Orpiment. Walhed and colored with Gum-water, 
makes an Orient or Gold color : there are feveral degrees of 
it, fome more red, others more yellow. 

XXV. VerJiter. WaHied and tempered with Gum-water, 
is a good blew, but not tranfparent, or inclining to a 

XXVL Jndico, Ground afid tempered with Gum-water, 
makes a deep blew, and is iii to Ihadow all other blews. 

XXVII. Bleip Bice. Waflied and tempered with Gum- 
water, it is an excellent blew : there are ieveral forts of ir, 
fbme lighter, fome faddcr. 

XXVIII. Bletff Bice, Verditure, and fmah, ground (Ingly 
witbGnm-waier for together) make a good blew. 

XXIX. Smalt. Ground with a little fine Roflet, makes a 
deep Violet, 

XXX. Vltramarine, If you would have it deep, grind 
it with Litmofe water j it is the beft and dcareft of all 

XXXI. Sap-green. Steep it in Iharp Vinegar all night, to 
which add a little Alum to raife its color. In Alum water it 
fiaakes a good green to Hiadow with. 

O xxxit; 

194 Polygraphkes Lib. TIL 

XXXll. Green Bice. Wafhed and tempered with Gum- 
water, makes a good, but no iranfparent Green. 

XXKIH Lamp' blacky or Printers 'blacl{^ Burnt, ground 
and tempered with Gum-water, make a good black. 

XXXIV. Ivory black. Burnt, ground and tempered with, 
Gum-water, as tbe former makes alio a good black. 

XXXV. FUkf-Lead. Ground and tempered with Gum- 
water, IS an excellent white. 

XXXJ^L Spanijh IVhite. Ground and tempered io like 
manner with Gum-wacer, makes the beft of all whites. 

XXXVIL Spanifh Brown. BurtJt , ground, and tem- 
percckwith Gum- water, makes t Redilh brown, or Liver 

XXXVni Vmber. Burnt and ground, and tempered with 
Gam-water, makes a good haw color i and is very good to 
fliadow with upon Gold. 

XXXlX. Green of fVallnufs. Boiled in water and drain- 
ed, and Gum-Arabick difTolved in tbe liquor to bind 
it, makes an excellent color to exprefs High-ways, 
Lanes, (^c. 

XL, fVood Soot, Prepared in all refpeds as the for- 
mer, ferves to the fame intentionsi and is much the better 

XLI. Native Cinnabar. Grind it as Red Lead, it is a 
glorious Red color ; much exceeding the Artificial* 


Of CompounJeJ Colors for Wafhifig of Maps, ^c. 

L f^^^nge Color. Red-lead and Yellow berries make a 
^^ good Orange color : thus, take Arnotio half an ounce. 
Pet afhes one Drachm, water one pound, boil it half away, 
then (Ira in it, and ule it hot. 

It H good for yVhite Leather, Vaper^-Vellom, ^illsy Parch- 
ment, ikc. 

II. Green. Take diftilled vinegar, filings of Copper, 
digeft till the vinegar is blew, which let ftand in the Sun or a 
flow lire till it is thick enough, and it will be a good greea. 


Cljaf). 20. Compouncled Colors y^Q, t^§ 

Hi. Or thus, Takf Cedar-green (which is befi tf all) or in 
fiead therof green Biee, fteep it in Vinegary and Brain it; tbe"^ 
grind it well with fair water, and put to it 4 little bonejf, antt. 
dry it well; whenjou ufi it, mix it with Gum-water. 

IV. To make fine Indieo. 

Take the blofToms of Wotde three ouncesj Amylutn one 
onncei grind them with Urine and ilrong Vinegar, of 
which make a Cake, then dry it in ibe Son, and fe keep it 
for ufe. 

V. A Blew to wajh upon paper. 

Take of the bed Azure an ounce, Kermes two ounces^ mvt 
thetn, which temper with clear Gual-water, and it will be a 
glorious color. 

VI. To make a Venice Blew. 

Take quick Lime, make ic into a pafte with firong Vfne^ 
gar, half an hour after put thereto more Vinegar to foften it t 
then add Indieo in fine pouder one ounce, mix ihem^ and di-> 
geft it in horfe-dung for thirty or forty days. 

VII. Another excellent Blew. 

Mix tine white Chalk with juice of JEIder-berries fuU 
ripe, to which put a little Alum-water. 

VIII. Tomak^blew Smalt. 

Take fluxible fand, Sal-Nitre and Cobalt, tatx thetti to<: 

IX. A lively Yellow. 

DifTolve Orpiment in gum-water, to ^^ichpuc a little 
ground Vermilion ; grind them together and you diall have < 
very lively color. 

X. A light Green. Take j'uyce of Rue, Verdi grife, and 
Saffron, grind theqi well together and ufe them with gum* 

XI. Or thus, Take Sap-green, Flower-de-luce, or Tattmy greenl 
which fleep in water : Verditure and Cerufe mixt mith a littk 
Copper green, make a good light color, / 

Xn. Blew. Ultramarine, felew-Bice, Smalt, and VerdiiureJ 
grouQd ficgly with gum- water, or together make a good 
blew. . ^ 

XIII. Brown. Cerufe, Red-lead, EnglilbOker, and Vis&l 
make a good brown, 

XIV. Spanifh-brottm. To color any Horfe, Dog, or the 
like, you inuft not calcine it ; fyet not . calcined it is a dirty 
color^ : but tefliadow Vermilion or lay upon any dark ground^ 
behind a pi(lliire, to Ihade birries in thedarkeft places, or to 

Oa colQff 

19^ Polygraphkes Lib. III. 

Color wooden pofts, wainfcot, bodies of Trees and tbp like, 
it is very good (biing buratj 

XV. Flejh Color. Mix white, Indian Lake, and Red-lead 
Caccoiding as you would have it light or decpj and ro 
diftinguilh a mans ilefh from a womaD5, miegle with ica litde 

XVI. Colors of Stones. Verdigrife with Varni'fli makes aa 
Emerald : with Florence Ltktz Ruby j with Ultramarine 
« Sapbire. 

XVH. A never fadingGreen. 

Take juice of tiowers of Flower-de-luce, put ft into Gum- 
water and dirjr k in the Sun. 

CHAP. xxr. 

Of mixing Colors and Sha^owhg. 
" ' >■ 
I, iN mixing be careful not lo make the color too fad, nor 
■■- take the pencils out of one color and put them into a- 

II. In mixing colors, ftir them well about the water fe- 
Tcrally till they are well mixed 5 then put them together, 
tiSiking the color fadder or lighter at pleafure. 

III. Gr^^n. is fliadowed with Indico and yellow-ber- 

'^'tV. Blew is fhadowed with Indico, Litmofe and Flory, 
or any ot them being fleeped in Lees of Sope-afhes, and 
uf^d with gum water. 

' V, Garments are fhadowed with their own proper co- 
lors r or you may mingle the color with white f for the light^ 
ar^d (hadow it ufitb the fame calor unmiogled : or you may 
take the ihinneft ofthc color for the light, and fliadow with 
the thickeft or bottom of the fame. 

VI. Sap-^reen is only ufed to fliadow other greens with, 
and not to belaid for a ground in any Garment. 

■ VIL Lake ought not to be fliaded with any color, for it 
IS a dark red ; but for variety you may fliadow it with Bice, 
or blew Verditnre, which will make it like changeable 



Cliap. z I . Colors for Landskip, &c. 197 

VII/. The fliadow for Telhw-Berriei is Umber j but for 
beauties fake with Red-Lead, and the darkeft touches with 
Spanifh-browo i and for variety with Copper-green, blw^ 
Bice or Verditure, j 

IX, White feisoff hUws and hlacki very well : H{d fets 
off well with yelloitf : Tellows with redt, fad blews, hrotens, 
greens, and purples. 

X. Blem (a off well yN'nhyellows, reds, whites, hrcwns, and 
hlacl^s : and Greens fet off well with purples, »nd r*i/. 

XI. Morc' efpecially, all light colors are fhtdowed with 
colors of the fame nature, buc more fad ; as for Example : 
Vermilion is fhadowed with Lake or Spanilh brow. Verditer 
and Bice are Hudowed with Indico. 

XII, Gamboge and ye llottf berries tvt fliadowed with XJiXi" 
ber, with Red-lead or Vermilion. 

XIU. I{ed-Lead is (hadowed with Lake or Spanilh brown 
Mafiicote, is fhadowed with Red Orpiment. 

XIV. Spani/Jj brown is fliadowed with burnt Umber, with 

XV. Vmber is fliadowed with Umber burnt, I{pjfet t3 
Brafil are fliadowed with Spanifli brown mixed with brafil- 

XVI. Verdigrife is fliadowed with Indico mixed with 
yellow berry water. 

XVI/. Wood Soot and WaUnut-fhellt are fliadowed with 

XVIII. From the various mixtures of the foremention'd 
Colors, infinite varieties almoft may arife, even wbatfoever 
one pleafes. 

XIX. But for our purpofe of wafliing Maps,Glohes PiSureJ^ 
Landslips, &c. the moft tranfparent colors are principal ; of 
which tbefe are chief, vi:(. Brafil, Logwood, Indian cakes, 
Tarnfole, Cambogia, Saffron, yeilotv berries, Litmrfe, Sap-green^ 
Verdigrife, Wood Soot, green Walnut Jhells : of ihefe you may 
by mixture make feveral compounds, as. 

XX. Jl Compound Green. Mix verdigrife water with 
yellow-berry-water: it will be tranfparent, and you may 
Hiake it deeper or lighter according to the proportioa that 
you take of either. 

XXJ. 4 Compound blettf color. Mix Litmofe warer with 
yellew-berry water, and you will have a triofpareot fad blew, 
which yoa may heighten or deepen as the former at plea- 

O s XXlh 

ip8 Pclygraphices Lib. III. 

XXU. A Compound Orange Color. It is made by asixing 
Brafil vratcr with yellow-berry water of a tranfpareni color, 
infinite other Varieties you may find out by pradice, much 
better than to learn tbetn by many words. See other dil- 
Courfes of this work. 

CHAP. xxir. 

Of Colors for rvafiiftg Landskips, 

I. /^Reen mixed with white, Pink, Bice, Mafticot, Smalr, 

^"^ Jndico, or Cerufe ; or blew Yerditure mixt with a 
few yellow berries makes a good gfeea for Landskips, 

11. For the faddeil btlls ufe Umber burnt : for the Ughteji 
places, put yellow to the burnt Umber : for other bills 
lay Copper green thickned or the fire , or ia the 

J/7. For the bexthiSs farther ojf mix yellow berries with 
Copper green: let the fourth part be done with green 
Verdit»re; and the furthefi and fainteji places with blew- 
Bice, or blew Verdiiure mingled wiih white, and fliadow- 
td with blew Verdiiure, in the (hadows indifferent 

l\t Let the high-ways be done with red and white 
Lead, and for variety Yellow-oker ; (hadow it with burnt 
Umber, which you may ufe for fandy Rocks and 

V. Bfcks may be done with feveral colors, in fome places 
black and white, in other places red an^ white, aad 
in others blew and white, and the like, as you fee con- 

VI. Ihe i^ater taxi^ be black Verdiiure and white, flia- 
dowed with green and blew Verditure, when iht banks call 
a green (hadow upon the water, and the water is dark fha- 
dowed, then (hade it with iadico, green thickned, and blew 

VIL Color huildimgs with as much variety of pleafant co- 
lors at may be itsaginable, yet Ie( feafoa be your cnle ia 
mixing yovr colon. 


Chap. 23. The TiSiureofWafhing^ &c. ipp 
VlU, You may fometimes ule white and black for the 
Wall, Conduits or other things : for Bricli^-boufis and the like, 
S^d- lead and white. 

IX. If many houfes ftand together, fet them off with va- 
riety of colors, as Umber lod while j Lake and white j 
Red*lead and white, and the like. 

X. Laftly, for the SIqc, ufe Mafticot or yellow-berries, 
and white for the lo^efi and li^htefi places ; red RofTet and 
white for the next degree ■■, blew Bice and white for the other i 
blew Bice, or blew Verditurc for the bigfjeft. 

XL Thefe degrees and colors mufl btfo tvrought together ^that 
the edge of each color may not receive any Jharfnefs j that K,fo 
as that you cannot perceive where you began to lay them, being 
fo drotvned one into another. 

CHAP. xxni. 

Of the Pra^ke of Wafhing, 

I. VY/Itb the Alum ttfater wet overih« pidures to beco- 
^^ lored, for that keeps the colors from finking into the 
paper, and will add a luilre uQto them, make them fiiew fair- 
§r, and keep thetn from fading. 

II. Then let the paper dry of it felf fbeing walhed with 
Alum-ttjater) before you lay on the colors 7- or before you wet 
it again, for fome paper will need wetting four or five 

III. The waHiing of the paper with the Alum-water muft 
be done wkb a large pencil bruHi, fucb as we have advifed 
to at the iixtb Sedion of the nioeteenth Chapter of this 

IV. But if you inteod to varnilh your Pictures after you 
lave colored them> infteadof wafliitig them with Alum' 
water, firft fize them with new £ze made of good white 
ftard), with a very fine brulh; and this you mud be Aire 
to do all over, for elfe the varnifh will fink through^ 

V. Having thus prepared your work, go to laying on your 
colors according to the former direi^ions, fuitiog tbem^asnear 
as may bie, to^ie Hlb of every thing, 

Q 4 W. 

*oo Telygrapmcej Lib. II f 

Vi. But before you lay on your Colors, yon mutt know 
how 10 cemper them ; which you may do in this man- 

F//, r. Such colors as are ground trith fair water: take a 
fmall Quantity of them, put it into a Florfe Mufcle-Jhell, fntttng 
thereto fome Gum-water , and the Color in a little time will be 
foftned : then with your finger being very clean bruife the Co- 
hr againfi the fhell till you find no kjiot undiffohed : after with 
a clean pencil fir oak^down the color to tfx bottom of the fhell, 
and it is fit for ufe ', if it be too thicl{, add more gum water 
to it. 

VIIL 1. Such colors as are wafhed you muft temper 
in a fhell with Gum-water in the fame manner as the 

IX. 3. Such Colors as are fieeped, the liquor only of them 
is to he ufed Without any other preparation. 

X. The Pidure being painted, you may with fize (as at 
the fourth Scdtion of the nineteenth Chapter of this Book) 
pafte your Maps or Pidures upon cloth, thus : wet the flieet 
of cloth therein, wring it out, and ftraio it upon a Frame, or 
nail it upon a wall or board, and fo pafte your Maps or Pi(fl- 
ures thereon. 

XI. Laftly, if the Picflure be to be varniHied, having thus 
fixed it into its proper Frame, then varnifli it with a proper 
varnilh fby the following rules) and the work will be fully fi- 

How to lay on your Colors. 

XII. Firft, provide your felfof pencils of feveral fizes, and 
if you will be curious, you ought to have a great and a 
fmall to each refpecSiive color : if nor you muft always have 
by you a difli of fair Water, in which you muft wafh and 
cleanfc your pencil, wiping it with a clean linnen cloth, be- 
fore you put it into another Color. 

XIII. For your pencils, chufe thofe that are good, thus : 
fee that they be fulleft next to the quill, defcending or 
lefTening into a fmall room and fliarp point, which you 
may fee by putting the hair into your mouth, and drawing 
it through your lips once or twice ; thee you will fee what 
ic is, and if you find any extravagant hairs, £nge them off 
by a Candles fjame. 

XIV. Beitjg thus provided with G)lors and pencils ; if 
you defign to lay any color about the edges of any Map, 
Firt, Piece, or divifion of CrcuDd, in a PUt > as fuppofe 


Chap. 23. The Vra^ke of fVaJhhg, &c. aoi 

you would indDfe a particular Field or Clofe in a Manner 
with yellow. 

XV. With your pencil take Camboge or yellow-berry 
water a very Imall quantity, and on the iafide of the bJack- 
leadline, draw the Color along of an equal breadth (as near 
as you can) from the line, broader or narrower as yeur 
field is in bignefs ; not daubing the field or clofe all over 
with the Color, which would he put an abufe to your 
Map or Plat. 

XVI. Then having gone round the Clofe or Field in this 
manner, with your Color, wet your Pencil in your mouth, or 
have by you a fmall quantity of water to dip it in, and ftrike 
along the infide of the colored line, bringing it more down 
towards the center of the field. 

XVII. And this will fweeten your Color, and make it 
(hew as if it loft it felf by degrees, to the very color of your 
paper or parchment. This cocrfe is to be taken not only for 
yellows, but for all other colors. 

XVIII. Laftly, with a pen fif you cannot do it handfomly 
with a pencil,) take fome of the color which fhadows the 
color you have already ufed about the field, and go 
over your black-lead line only, fo (ball your field be fi- 

XIX. Lajlljf, after the fame manner yoa may adorn all 
the fields ia your Plat or Map, of divers colors obferviog 
this, that you color not two fields ad joyning one to another 
both of the fame color, but of different- 

XX. And therefore it behoves you to know what colors do 
fet off one another beft ; and as oear as you can, to lay 
Clofes or Fields, adjoyning one to another, of two fuch co- 
lors, that one fliadow may fervebotb. 


lOr Poljigraphiccs hib. III. 


Experimental Ohfervations on Vegetalle Cohrs. 

I. A ftrong Infufion of Galls filircd, mixed with a ftKong 
•• and clear loiuiion of Vicriol, makes a mixture as black 
a' i»i^: which with a little itrong Oil of Vitriol is made 
Tranfparent again : after which, by the affuGon of a little 
quatiiity of a Itrong Solution of Salt of Tartar, it regaiss its 
black color again. Thefirji black, (alt ho pale tn writing yet)bting 
dry J appears to be good Ink^ 

II. Adecodion of dried red Rofes in fair water, mixed 
with a filtrated folution of blew Vitriol, makes a black color; 
this mixed with a lutl'* Aejuafortis, turns it from a black, to 
X deep Red : which by afFufion of a little Spirit of U- 
rine, may be reduced Itraight to a thick and black 

III. Telloto Wax is whitned by diflblving it over the fire 
in Spirit of Wine, letting it boil ^ little, and then exhaling 
the Spirit ^ or elfe whilft it is hot, f(?J^ating it by filtra- 

IV. Fair water mixed with a blood red Tin^S^ure ofJ5e»- 
jamin drawn with fpirit of Wioe, immediately makes it oi a 
milk white color. 

V. Blacknefs may be taken away with oyl of Vitriol ; 
fo black pieces of Silk or Hair I have lurn'd lo a kind of 

VI. A handful of Lignum Nepbriticum rafped, infufed in 
four pound of fpring water, yields between the light and tka 
eye an almoft golden color Cunlets the infufion be too (Iroag) 
bur with the eye between the light and if (in a clear vial) a 
lovely blew as indeed it is : this with fpirit of Vinegar 
may be made to varniHi (^i\\ keeping its goldeti color) 
anii after with oyl of Tartar per deliquium may be leftpred 

VII. Cloih died with blew and Woad, is by the yeUow 
decodion oiLuteola died into a greea. 


Chap. 24 Of Vegetable Colors, a 03 

Vin. Syrup of Violets mixed with a bigb folption ofGoId 
in /l^ua regia, produces a reddiih mixture ; and with a high 
folution of filings of Copper in fpirii of Urine, a lovely fair 

/X. Syrup of Violets mixt with a little juyce of Lemoaj> 
fpirii of Salt, Tmegar, or the like acid Salt, will be immedi- 
ately red ; but mixt with oyl of Tartar, or a folution of pot- 
allies it will in a paomenc be perfe(5t green : the like in juice 
pf blew-bottles. 

X. A good quantity of oyl of Tartar, put Into a ftrong 
folution of Verdigrife, gives a delightful blew, which may 
be varioufly changed by adding fpirii of Urine, or Hartf- 

XI. AJtboijgb red Rofes hueg over the fume of Sulphur 
lofe all their rednels, and become white, yet oyl of Sulphur 
(which is nothing but the fumes condenfed)doth wonderfully 
heighten the tindure of the fame. 

XII. Cochenele will have its color far more heightoed 
by fpirit of Urine than by redlified fpirit of Wine : and one 
grain of Cochenele in a good quantity of fpirit of Urine,beiDg 
put into one hundred twenty fix ounces of water, tinged it 
falthough but faintly :) which amounts to above one hundred 
twenty five thoufand times its own weight. 

XIII. Twenty grains of Cbochenele heiog mixed with an 
ounce of Saccharuth Saturni, makes a molt glorious purple 
color : and fo accordingly as the quantity is either diminilhed 
or encreafed, fo the purple color Iball be either lighter or 

Xiy. A few grains of Cochenelt being mixed with the 
Lixivium of Quick-lime in a due proportion, makes a fa- 
fling purple color, of the greateft glory imaginable in the 

XV. The juice of privet berries with fpirit of Salt, is 
turned into a lovely red : but with a ftrong folution of pot- 
afhes into a delightful green. 

XVI. Upon things red by nature, as Syrup of Clove- 
gilliflowers, juice of Buckthorn berries, infufion of Red Rofes,' 
Brazil, &c. Spirit of Salt makes no confiderable change, but 
rather a lighter red : but other falts turn them into a greenifli i 
^fpecially juice of buckthorn berries. 

XVII. Juice of Jafmin and fnow drops, by a ftrong alcali- 
t{ate folution, was (although of no color) turned into a deep 
sreeniA yellow. 


104 PoljgrapJukes Lib. III. 

XVIII. Buckthorn Berries being gathered green and dried 
are cal'ed Sap-berries, which being infufed in Alum-water 
gives a ftir yellow {which is ufed by Boolchinders for the edges 
of their Books, and to color Leather alfo : ) being gathered 
whenihey are black, they »re alkd Sap-green, and make a 
green color being put into aBrafsor Copper veffel for three 
or four days j or a little heated upon the fire, and mixed with 

. Alum in pouder, and prefled forth i fo put into bladders, 
banging it up till it is dry : and being gathered about the 
end of November, (when they are ready to drop) they yield 
a purplifli color. 

XIX. Tindlure o( Ccchenele, diluted never fo much with 
fair water, will never yield a yellow color : a fingle drop of 
a deep folution in fpirii of Ufine, diluted in an ounce of fair 
water, makes a fair Pink, OFCaroation, 

XX. Oyl or fpirit of Turpentine, digefted with pure white 
Sugar of lead, yields in a fliort time a high red tindure, which 
Chymxiis all BalfamutnSaturni. 

XXl Spirit of Salt dropt into a ftrong infufion of Cochc 
releor juice of black cherries, makes immediately a fair red: 
but dropt into the infufion of Brazil, a kind of yellow : I'o 
the filtrated lindure of Balaujiins mixed with good fpirit of 
Urine, or the like, turns of a darkifli green; but with fpirit of 
Salt, a high rednefs, like rich Claret wine ; which glorious 
color may in a moment be deftroyed, and turned into a dir- 
ty green, by fpirit of Urine. 

XXII. A high iafufion of Lignum Nephriticum, mixed with 
fpirit jof Urine gives fo deep a blew, as to make the liquor 
cpaceus : which after a day or two vaniftes* and leave the li- 
quor of a bright amber color. 

Where note that infiead of Spirit of Vr ins you may ufeoyl of 
Tartar^ or a flrongjolution ofpot-afhes. 

XXIIT. Infufion of Log-wood in fair water (mixt. with 
fpirit of Sal-Armoniackj ftraight turns into a deep, rich, lovely 
purple ; two or three drops to a fpoonful is enough, left the 
color be fo deep, as to be opacous. 

XXIV. Spirit oi Sal-Armoniack^'il^ turn fyr up of Violets 
to a lovely green. 

XXV. Infufion of Litmofe in fair water gives in a clear 
glafs a purple color: but by addition of fpirit of Salt, it will 
be wholly changed into u glorious yellow* 


Chap. ^4. Of VegetahU Cohrs, 105 

XXVI. The Infufions and jaices of fever*! plants will be 
much alcered by a folution of Lead in fpirit of Vinegar : it 
will turn infunon of red Rofe leaves into a fad green. 

XXVII. So Tindure of red Rofes in fair water, would be 
turned into a thick green, with the folution of Minium in fpi- 
rit of Vinegar ; and then with the addition of oyl of Vitriol 
the refolved Lead would precipitate white, leaving the liquor 
of a clear, high red color again. 

XXVIII. We have not yet found, that to ezbibie ftrong 
variety of colors, there need be imployed any more than iJhefe 
five. White, Black, Red, Blew, Yellow : for thefe being 
varioufly compounded and decompounded^ exhibit a variety and 
number of colors i fuch as thofe who are grangers to painting 
can hardly imagine. 

XXIX. So Black and fVbite varidufly taixed, make a 
vaft cotnpany of light and deep Grays : Blew and YeBm, 
many Greens ; I{ed and Tel^otty Orange-tawniesi I{ed utid 
PJ-'hite Carnations: ^ed and Blem, Purples^ &c. producing 
many colors for which we want names. 

XXX. Acid falts deftroy a blew color: Salphureous, Uri- 
nous or fixed reftore it, 

XXXI. Acid and Akala^ate falts with many bodies 
that abound with Sulphureous or oyly pans will produce a red, 
as is manifeft in the Tincfture of Sulphur, made with Lixi- 
yiums of Calcined Tartar or pot-aflies. 

XXXII. Lafilyit maybe tPorth trial (finct it hath fucceeded 
infome experiments) fo to take away the color of a Liquor, as 
that it may be'colorlefs ; which in what we have tryed, was 
tbiis: fir ft by putting into the Tindure, Liquor, or Juice, a 
quantity of the folution of pot-aflies or oyl of Tartar per deli- 
quium^ and then affufing a good or ftrong folutionof Alum, 
which in our obfervations precipitated the tinging matter, or 
gathered it into one body (like as it were cnrdsj and fo left 
the Liquor tranfpartnt md clear as £ryfiaU 


^^^ Toiygraghices Lib, III, 


Experimental Ohfervations of Minerdl" 


' VhlimAte Aii^oUtdi in fair wateri and mixed with a hV 
tie fpirit of Urine, makes a milk white mixture in a 
motneni: which by addition of AquA fortis^ immediately a- 
gain becomes tranfparent. 

II. If Sublimate two ounces, and Tin-glafs one ounce be 
fublimed together, you will have a (ubiimatc not inferior to 
the beft Orient Pearls in the world. 

III. Silver diflblved in Aquafortn and evaporated to dry; 
nefs, and fair water poured two or three tinaes thereon, and 
evaporated, till the calx\% dry, leai'esii of a Snow white- 
nefs : which rubbed upon the skin, (wetted with fpittle, wa- 
ter or the like) produces a deep blacknefs.not to be obliterated 
in Tome days. ■ 

PVith this, Ivory, Hair and Horns m^y he dyed in fair water 
of a lafting blacl{, 

iV. Coral diflblved by oyl of Vitriol, Sulphur, or fpirit of 
vinegar, and precipitated by oylof Tartar yields a Snow 
wbiteBefs. The fame of Crude Lead and Quickfilver diflbl- 
ved in Aquafortw: So butter of Antimony redbified by bare 
aflPuGonin much fair water, will (though UniSkious^be pre- 
cipitated into that Snow white pouder which (being wafhed 
from its corrofive SaltsJ is called Mfrcttriw Vite : the like of 
which may be made without the addition of any Mercury 
at all. 

V Mercury Sublimate and precipitate yield (with the fpirit 
of Uiine, H«ri«horn, or the like) 4 tvhite frecifitate : hwx 
with the folution of Poi -allies or other Uxtviate Salts an 
Orange Tatvny. And if on a filtrated folution of Vitriol.yotf 
f>ut the folution of a fixed fait ; there will fubfide a copi- 
ous lubftance far from whitencfj, which Chymifts call the 
Sulphur of Vitriol. 

chap. 1^: Of Mineral Colors, 207 

VI. If Copper two ounces be mixt with Tin one ounce, 
the reddiihnels will vaoilh : and if Arfenick fcalcined with 
Nitre) in a jult proportion be naixed with melted Copper, ii 
will be blanched both within and without. 

VII. Fine pouders of blew Bice, and yellow Orpiment 
nightly mixed, give a good green : and a high yellow foluti- 
on of a good Gold in ^^«<2 i^^j^Mj mixed with aduequan- 
lily of a deep blew foluiion of crude Copper in ftrong Spirit 
of Urine, produces a transparent green : And To blew and yel- 
low Enamel fuf d together in the tiame of aLamp,being Itrong- 
hy blowed on wiihout cealing, produces at length a green 

VIII. An urinous fait, largely put into the diflblution of 
blew Vitriol in fair water, turn'd the liquor and corpufcules 
(which reGded) into a yellowifli color like yellow Oker. 

IX. Verdigrile ground with Sal'Armoniacl{, and the 
like fdigeited for a while in a dunghilj makes a glorious 

X. The true glafs of Antimony exiracfled with acid fpirits 
(with or without Wine) yields a red tinClure. 

XI. Balfaoa of Sulphur Cof a deep red in the glafs) (haked 
about, or dropt on paper gives a yellow ftain. 

Xli' If Brimftone and Sal-Armoniack. in pouder, of each 
five ounces, be mixed with quick-lime in pouder fix ounces, 
and diftilled in a Retort in fand by degrees ; you will have 
a volatile fpirit of Sulphur of excellent rednefs, though none 
of the ingredients be fo. 

So alfo oyl of Annifeeds mixed with oyi of Vitriol^ gives in a 
trice A blood red Color, whieb/oon decays. 

XIII. Fine Silver diflblved in Aqua fortn, and precipitated 
with fpirit of Salt; upon the firft decanting the liquor, the re- 
maining matter will be purely white : but lying uncovered, 
what is fubjed; to the athbient Air will iofe its white- 

XIV. Sublimate diflblved in a quantity of water and fil- 
tred, till it is as clear as Cryftal, mixed Cin a Venice glafs) 
with good oyl of Tartar fer </«/f^«/«w filtred,(three or four 
drops to a fpoonfulj yields an opacous liquor or a deep O- 
range color j after which if four or five drops of oyl of Vitri- 
ol be dropt in, and the glafs ftraightway be ftrongly fliaked, 
the whole liquor will fto admiration) be colorlefs without 
fediment. And if the filtred foluiion oifublimed Sal-Armoni- 

2o8 Polygraph ices Lib. Ill 

niack, and Sublimate of each alike be mixt whh the foluricn 
of an Alcalt, ic will be white. 

XV. Spirit ot Sal-Armoniack^ makes the folution of Ver- 
digrife an excellent A:{tire-y but it makes the lolution of 
Sublimate yield a white precipitate. 

XVI. So the lolution of tilings of Copper in fpii\ o 
Urine fmade by fermentationj gives a lovely A:{ure color 
which withoyl of Vitriol (a few drops to a fp)onfulJ is de- 
prived in a trice of the lame, and makes it like fair water. 
And fo a folution of Vcrdigrile in fair water, mixed with 
Itrong fpirit of Salt, or depblegmated. Aqtiaforttf, makes the 
greennels almoft totally to dilappear. 

XVII. Q^aick-filver mixed with three or four times its 
weight of good oyl of Vittic!, and the oyl drawn off in 
fand, through a glafs retort, leaves a Snow white precipitate ^ 
which by affufion of fair water, becomes one of the lovelieit 
light yellows in the world, and a durable color. 

XVIII. Tin calcined ferfe by fire, affords a very white 
calx called Putty : Lead, a red pouder called Minium : 
Copper a dark or greyilh pouder: Iron a dirty yellowifli 
color, called Crocus Mart is : and Mercury a red pou- 

XIX. Gold dilTulved in Aqua re^ia Ennobles the Menftru- 
iim with its own color: Silver Coyn diflblved in Aqua fortn 
yields a tind^ure like that of Copper ; but fine Silver a kind 
of faint blewifbnefs : Copper dilfolved in Ipiric of Sugar 
(drawn off in a glafs Retort j or in oyl or fpirit of Turpentine, 
affords a green tindlure; but in Aquafortis, a blew. 

XX. Vermillion is made of Mercury and Brimftons fubli- 
med together in a due proportion. 

XXI. Glafs may have given to it a lovely golden color 
with Quick-filver; but it is now colored yellow generally 
wirh calx of Silver: yet Iheil-Silver, (fuch as is u(ed with 
pen or pencilj mixed with a convenient proportion of poii- 
dered glafs in three or four hours fu^on, gave a lovely Sap- 
phirine blew. 

XXII. Glafs is tinged green (by the Glafs-menj with xhz 
Calx of Venus : which Calx mixed with an hundred times 
its weight of fair glafs gave in fufion a blew colored 

XXIII. P«.'/^ (which is Tin calcined] as it is white of it 
felf fo it turns the' purer fort of glafs metal into a white mafs, 
which when opacous enough, (erves icst H v)hJt6 Enamel. 


Chap. %6. Of Mstalu zop 

XXIV. This white Amel is as it were the Bafis of alltborc 
line Concretes, that Gold-fmiths, and leveral Artificers ufc, 
in the curious Art of Enameling i for this white and fufibic 
fubftance, will receiye into it lejf, without fpoiling them, the 
colors of divers other Mineral fubitances, which like it, will 
endure the fire. 

XXV. Glafs is tinged blew with the dark mineral called 
^affora : and with Manganefs or MagnejiM in a certain pro- 
portiot), Glafs may be tioged of a tied Color > and alfo ef 
a Purplilh or Murry: and with a greater quaDtity, into that 
deep color, which pafifes for black. 

XXVI. YcMow Orpiment fublitiMd with fea- fait, yields a, 
white and Cryftalline Arfenick : Arfenick^cdiontA with pure 
Nitre being duly added to Venm in the fufion,gives it a White- 
nefs both within and without. 

XXVII. So La^ii CaUminarfs turns Venns or Copper, into 

, XXVIII. And ^ink^ duly mixed with Venus when it is i« 
fufion, gives it the nobleit golden Color, that was ever feen 
in the belt Gold, but it will not endure various meltings^ 

XXIX. Copper difTolved in Aqua-fortk will imbue fc- 
vcral bodies of the Color of the foluiion. 

XXX. Gold diffolved in Ai^ua ^ffia will (tho not com-' 
monly known j dye Horns, Ivory, ana other Bones of a du^ 
rable Purple Color. 

XXXI. Laftly, Cryftals of Silver made with Aquafort» 
(tho they appear White) will prefeniiy dye the Skin, Nails, 
Hair,Horns,and Bones, with a Blacliuoi to be walhed off. 


Of Metals, ' ' • ^ 

I. *^0 harden Qiiickr/ilvet. . , 

"*■ Calt your Lead feparated from its drofs into a vsSd, 
and whenic begins to cool, tbruft ia the point of a (tick, which 
take out again and caft in the Argent Vive, and it will con; 
geai : then beat it in a mortar, and do fo often ; when it U 
hardj melt it often and put ic into fair water, doing it fo 

P long 

zio Polygraphices Lib. III. 

leng till it is bard enough, then being al! in a piece, boyl it in 
Liofeed oyl, the (paceoi (ix hours, and it will become Mal- 
leable, and may be hammered. 

II. To ttnge Q^iicl{-filver of the ctlor of Gold. 

Break it into foiall pieces fbeing hardncd) which put into 
A Crucible, •*. uh the pouder ot Cadmia.Jiratumjuperflratum^ 
mixed wiih Pomtgranate peels, Turmerick fbeaten fine) and 
Railons, cover the Crucible and lute ii well, dry it well ; 
and then fet it on a fire for fix or fcven hours, that it may 
be red-hot j then blow it with bellows till it run, which then 
let cool wbilit covered with coals> and ic will have the color 
of gold. 

III. To fix "Quiclc/ilver hef»g hardned. 

This is done with fine pouder of Cryftal glafs, laid with 
the Metal ftratum fuper (Iratum in a Crucible covered and 
luted J heating ic all over red-hot, and then melting of it. 

IV. To ma\e ^iick^filver malleable. 

Firit harden ir by the firit 5edion, then break the Metal 
into fmall pieces, and boil it a quarter of an hour in fharp vi- 
negar : iheo add a I'mle Sal- Armomacl{, and digeft all toge- 
ther for ten or twelve days ; then boil all together in a luted 
Crucible, till it is red-hot, and by degrees crackt, Laftly, 
hang the Mercury in a pot with Britnltonc at boitona : co- 
ver it, lute it and fer it itiro the fire, that ir msy grow hot 
by degrees, and receive the fume of the Sulphur ; do tfaos for 
a month once a day, and the Mercury will run and be 

V. Another way of tinging Mercury. 

Take purified Mercury one ounce, Sulphur two ounces, A- 
^uafortfs three ounces, let ihem all ftand till the water grow 
dear ; dittil this with iis fcdiment, and at bottom of the 
Limbeck you Ihall find the Mercury hard, andofaocxad: 

VI. To color and /often Gnld. 

Diflblve Verdigrifein vinegar, and drain it through a felt, 
then congeal, and when it begins to wax thick, put to it , 
feme S^I-Armoniick and let it harden a good while, then 
melt gold with ir, and it will heighten the color and make 
it fotc. 

VII. To make Gold and Silver fofter. 

Take Mercury Sublimate, Sal Armnniack, of each alike ; 
liwuder ih-m melt the gold, and put to n a little of this pou- 
ier, and it will be foft. 


Chap. i6. Of Metals. 'an 

VIII. Another wAy to do the fame. 

Take VitrioJ, Verdet, Sal-Ai mouiack, burnt Brafs, of each 
half an ounce, mix them with Aqua fortis^ Itt it fo repofc 
in the heat two days, then ]et it harden, do thus three times 
with Aqua for'tis, and let it dry, make it into pouder. tti one 
drachm put one ounce of gold three iiines> and it will be 
fof ter. ^ 

IX. Amber aiay to do the farm in Silver. 

Take 5'alc-peier, Tartar, Salt, Verdet, boil all together, 
till the water is confumed, then put to it Urine, and let it 
fo confume, and you (hall have an oyJ, which put into mcl" 
ted silver will do the fame. ^ 

Or thus, T<«4e as matx^ wedges as jou have mleted, pit them 
one night into a crucible in a furnace^ but fo as they melt not^and 
they will be fcft and fair. 

Or thus , Take honey , oyl^ of each ali^e, in whieh 
quench the Gold or Silver three or four timeSy and it will b§ 
fof ter, • 

Or thus, "Take Mafiick,. Frankincenfe, Myrrh, Borax, Ver- 
nix^ of each a like in pouder. 

Or thus, Quench the Gold or Silver in water of Sal-Armonii 
Hckr ^nd it Will be fof t. 
' X. To tinge Silver of a Gold color. 

Take fine Gold, fine Silver, good Brafs, and Brafs of 
Copper calcined with Sulphur-vive, of each alike, melt 
^hesn down togeiher,snd it (hall appear to be gold of eighteen 
carets fine. 

XI. Another way to tinge Silver. 

Take Quick-lUver, purged three ounces, Ieaf-g6ld one 
ounce, mix them and put them into a glafs Retort well lu- 
lled, put it on the fire till it grow hot j then lake it off and 
add to it Quick-filver purged two ounces, Sal- Armoniack, one 
ounce, Sal Ellebrot hiK itx ounce, Borax two drachms, then 
feal up the glals hermetically, and put it into a continual fire 
for three days; then take itoqt, let it cool, open the Retort, 
take cut the matter, and pouder it very fine; of which 
pouder mix one ounce with filver five ounces, and it will 
linge ic into a good gold color. 

Note, Sal Ellebrot is thus made. Tal{e pure common Salt, 
$al Gem, Sal Alcali in pouder^ of each one ounce, juice of Mints 
four ounces, ffrtng water four founds mtti^le them, and evapo- 
rati.^ And ^ickrjilver is purged by wajhivg it in /harp Vi- 

P % negar 

2, IX Folygraphices Lib. III. 

f^ffl^ar three or four times andftraining it thro Shamou Leather j or 
h ftiblirHing it, tohtck is better. 

XII. To brirg Silver into a Calx. 

This is done by amalgamaiing of it with Quick-filver, 
and then fubliming of it j or by diflblviog it in Aquafortisy 
and precipitating it with the folmion of Salt, in fair water, 
^U)d then wafliing it with warm water often jo free it from 
the falts : or elfc by mingling the lih'ngs with fublimcd 
Mercury, and in a Retort caufing the Mercury to afcend, 
which will leave at bottom the Calx of Silver, tit for Jew- 
els, (3 c. 

XIII. To blanch Silver. 

Take Sat-/1rtnmiacl{_^ i{och-Alum, Alum Pulmofum, Sal Gem, 
Argol, B^manVitrtoL of each ahkf i poiider and mix thetD,and 
dilfolve them in fair water, in which boil the Silver fo long, 
till von fee it wonderful white. 

XIV. To color Silver of a Gold color. 

Take Silt-peter two pouid , Roch-Alum five pound, 
mingle, and diltil them, keeping the water for ufe. When 
you ufe it, melt the Silver, and quench it in the faid water. 

XV. To tinge Brafs of a Gold color. 

DifTolve burnt Brafs in /^.;«<i/or/» (made of Vitriol, Salt- 
peter, Alum, Vcrdigrife and Vermilionj and then reduce it 
again, and it will be much of a gyld color. 

XVI. To make Brafs through tvbite. 

Heat Brafs red-hot, and quench it in water diftilled from 
Sal-Artnoniack, and Egg-fhells ground together, and it will 
be rtry white. 

X VII. To make Brafs tt'hite othertfife. 

Take Egg-fliells and calcine them in a Crucible, and lem* 
per thein with the whites of Eggs, let it ftand fo three weeks i 
heat rf-e Brafs rcd-bot, and put this upon it. 

XV 1 11. To make Brafs. 

T«ke Copper three pounds, Lapi Calaminar« one pound 
in pouder, melt theoj together the fpace of an hour, then 
put it out. 

XI X The tray to color Brafs tphite. 

Diifolvc a penny weight of Silver in' Aqua fort is, putting 
it to the fire in a vefiei, till the Silver turn to water \ to 
which add as much pouder of white Tartar as may drink 
up all the wat^r. make it into balls, with which rub anj 
Brafs and it will be wbitf as Silver. 

XX. To tinge Copper cf a Gold color. 


Cliap. z6. Of Metaii. 213 

Take Copper, Lapi Calamiruris, of each four drachms* 
Tucty two drachms : heat ihe Copper red-bot twice, quench- 
ing it in pi(s : doing the like by the Lapis and Tuiry : lake of 
the diffolved Copper half ar^ ounce, adding to it Honey ona 
ounce, boil them till the Honey look black and is diythac 
it may be poudered, which then beat with the Lapri^nd Tat- 
ty : boil ihcoa again, till the Copper is melted, and ic is 

XXI. Another way to make Copper of a Gold color. 

^ Take the Gall of a Goat, Arlenick, of each a fufficieni 
quantity, and diftil them > then the Copper being bright 
being waflied in this water, vvill turn inta the color of 

XXII. Another way to do the fame. 

Melt Copper,to which put a little ^/n;^ in filings, and the 
Copper will hare a glorious golden color, 

XXIII. To ma\e Copper of a white color.- 

Take Sublimate, Sal-Armoniack, of each alike j boil 
them in Vinegar, in which quench the Copper being made 
red-hot i and it will be like Silver. 

XXIV. Another way to whiten Copper. 

Heat it red-hot divers times, and quench it in oyl of Tar- 
tar per deliquium, and it will be white. 

XXV. Another way to whiten Copper. 

Take Arfenick three ounces, Mercury Sublimate two oun- 
ces, Azure one ounce, mix them with good and pure greafe 
like an ointment, with which anoint any Copper veflTeljthen 
put that vefTel into another, and fet it into a digeftivi^kfaeac 
for two months, after which cleanfe it with ^ brulh a^jwa- 
ter, and It is done. 

XXVI. Another may to whiten Copper. 

Take Arfenick calcined with Saic-peter, and Mercury 
Sublimate, which ca(t upon melted Copper, and it will be 
white like Silver. 

XXVli. Jofoften Copper. 

Melt burnt Brafs with Borax in a Crucible, quench it in 
Linfeed-Oyi, and then beat it gently on an Anvil- boil ita- 
gain, and quench it in oyl as before, ' doing thus five or fix 
times, till it is (oft en£.ugh ; and this will neatly unite with 
Gold, of which you may put in more by half than yoq can 
of other Brafs. 

XXVlU. To tinge Iron with a Gold color. 

P3 Lay 

^I4 Polygr.ijfhices Lib. III. 

J-ay in a Crucible plates of Iron and Brimftone ftrgtum 
fuper jii atum, cover and Jute it well, and calcine in a furnace, 
ibtn take them out and tbey ui!l be brittle : put them into 
a poi with a large tnoutb, and put in fharp diililicd vinegar, 
digesting till they wax red over a gentle beat: iben decant 
rbe vinegar, and add new, thus doing till all the Iroh be 
dilfolved J evaporate the inoiliure in a glals Retort or Vefica, 
and talt the remaining poader on Silver, or other white 
Metal, and it will look like Gold. , 

XXIX To make Iron or Silver of a Brafs color. * 
Take Flowers of Brafs, Vitriol, 5(i/--/frOTot2/<jc/(r, of each a- 

like in nne puuder j boil it half an hour in Itrong vinegar, 
take it horn the fire, and pur in Iron or Silver, covering the 
velld till it be cold, and the Metal will be like to Brafs, and 
fit to be gilded : or rub polidied Iron with Aqua fortii in 
wbiv^b fi.i. gs uf Brafs are diUblvcd. 

XXX To (tnge Iron into a Biofs color. 

Melt the Iron in a Crucible, catling upon it Sulphur vive, 
then catt it into fmall rods, and beat it into pieces (for it 
is very brittlej then in Aquafortis dilTolve it, and evapo- 
rate the tnenjiruum, reducing the pouder by a ftrong fire in- 
to a body again, and it will be good Brafs. 

XXXI. To whiten Iron. 

Firit purge it, by heating it red-hot. and quenching it in a 
water made of Lye and Vinegar, boil'd with Salt and A- 
lutn, doing this fo often till it is foaiewhat whitened. The 
fragmenss ofthe Iron beat in a mortar till the Silt is quite 
chaidB} and no blacknels is left in the Liquor of it, and till 
the Iron is cleanA-d from its drofs: then Amalgamate Lead 
and Quick-fllver together, and reduce them into a pouder : 
lay th. prepared plates of Iron and this poudery?r4/«F7» fnper 
Jiratum, in a Ctucible, cover it,and lute it all over very fhong- 
ly, that the leaft fume may nor come forth, and put it into 
the fire for a day ; at lengeb encreafe the fire, lb as it may 
melt the Iron f which will quickly bej and repeat this woik 
till it is white enough: It is whitened alfo by melting with 
Lead the Marcbafit or fire-ftone and Arfenick. If you mix a 
little Silver(wirb which it willingly unites) with it, it gives a 
wonderful vv bite nefs, fcarcely ever CO be changed anymore, 
by vpy art whatfoever. 

XXXll To kfsp Iron from Hiiftinr, 

Rub it ever with viocgtrmivr with Cerafe; cr with the 


Chap. 17. The wanner of GiU'tng. my 

marrow of a Hart j if it be rufty, oyl of Tartar fer dJi^mum 
will preCently take it away and cleanfe it. 

XXXIII. To cleanfe Brafs. 

Take jl^ua foftis aod water of each alike, (hake tbem 
together, ar.d with a wollen rag dipt therein rub it over i 
then prefensly rub u with an oyly cloth i Laftiy, with a dry 
WolJen dochdiptin pouder of La fk Calaminari:, it will be 
clear ap(j b'igbt as when new. 

XXXIV To fif ten Iron. 

Tiiie Alum, Sal-Armoniack, Tartar, of eaclc alike, pui: 
them into good Vinegar, and fee them on the fire, heat the 
Iron, and quench it therein : or quench it four or five times 
in oyl, in which melted Lead hath been ptst fix or fcven 

The ways and manner */ Gilding. 

I. *^0 lay Gold on any thing. 

-■- Take Red-lead ground fine, temper it with Linfeed- 
oyl : write with it, and lay Leaf-gold on ir, let it dry, and 
polifli it. 

IL To lax Gold on Glafs. ^ 

Take Chalk and Red-lead, of each alike, griniJ tbcm to- 
gether, and temper them with Linfeed-oy I : lay it on, ao4 
when it is almott dry, lay Leaf gold on it ; let it dry, then 
polift) it. 

IIL To gild Iron with a water. 

Take fpring water three pound, Roch-Aium three ounces, 
Roman Vitrioi,Orpimcnt,of Earth one ounce, Verdigrife twen- 
ty four grains, Sal-gem three ounces, boil all together, and 
when it begins to boil, put in Tartar aod Bay-falt, of each 
half an ounce ^ continue the boiling a good while, then take 
it from the fire, ttrike the Iron o\tt therewith, dry it againft 
the fire, and burnifliic. 

IV. To layGoldon Iron or other Metals. 

Take liquid Varnilh one pound, Linfeed Oyl and Tur- 
F i pentine 

^l6 Polygraphices Lib. \\\. 

peminc, of each one ounce ; mix ibcm well together: ftrike 
this over any Metal, and afterwards lay on the Gold or Sil- 
V-er, and when it is dry polilh it, 

V. To Gild Stiver or Brafs with Gold water. 

Take Qaick-filver iwo ounces, put ii on the fire in a Cru- 
cible, and when it begins to ftnoak, put into it an Angel of 
fine Gold; then take it off immediately, for the Gold will 
be prefently difToIved : then if it be too tbin, ftrain a part 
of the Quick-filver from it, through a piece ef Faftian : 
this done, rub the Gold andQuick-filrer upon Brafs or Silver, 
and it will cleave unto it, then put the faid Brafs or Silver 
upon quick coals till it begin to fmoak, then take it from the 
fire, and fcraich it with a hair brulh ; this do fo long till all 
the Mercury is rubbed as clean off as may be, and the Gold 
appear of a faint yellow: which color heighten with Sal- 
Armoniack, Bole and Verdigrife ground together and tem- 
pered with water. 

iVhere note, that before you gild your Metal, you mufi boil 
it trith Tartar in Beer or abater J then fcratch tt with a brafs 
trirc briifh. 

VI. Another tt>ater to gild Iron, Steel, f^nives, Stfordr, and 
Armour with. 

Take Fire-flone in pouder, put it into a ftrong red Wine- 
vinegar for twenty four hours, boil it in a glazed pet , ad- 
ding oQore Vinegar as it evaporates, or boils away: into 
this water dip your Iron, Steel, (^c. and it will be black; 
dry ir, then polifh it, and you will have a gold color under- 

VII. • Another way to gild Iron with. 

Take Salt-peter, Roch-alum burnt, of each half an ounce, 
Sal-Armoniack an ounce, all being in fine pouder, boil with 
ftrong Vinegar in a Copper Vf ITel ; -with which wet the 
Iron, ^c. then lay on Leaf-gold. 

VIII. Another way to gild Iron tvith. 

Take Roch-Alum, and grind it with boys Urine, till it 
ii well diffolved, with which anoint the Iron, heat it red- 
bot in a lireof wood coals, and it will be like Gold. 

IX. Togild Bookj. 

Take Bole-Armoniack four peny weight, Sugar-candy one 
pcny weight, mix and grind them with glair of Eggs, tbenoa 
a bound Book, (while in the prcfs, after it hath been fmear- 
ed with glair of Eggs, and is dryedj fmear the faid compofi- 
eioB, let it dry, then rub it well ^ad polifh it : then with fair 


Gbap. 2 7' The manner of GiUhg. ziy 

water wet ibe edges of the Book, and fuddcnly lay on the 
gold, prefling it dawn with Cotton gently, this done, let it 
dry, and t^hen polifli it exactly vyich a tooth. 

X Anotbsr way of gilding Iron. 

Take water three pound, Alum two ounces, Sal-gem three 
oujnces, Roman Vitriol, Orpiment of each one ounce, fios 
yEris ttveciy four grains j boil all with Tartar and 5ait as at 
the third Setftioo. 

XL To makfi Iron of the color of Gold. 

Take Linfeed-oyl three ounces, Tartar two ounces, yolks 
of Eggs boiled hard and beaten two ounces, Aloes half an 
ounce, Saffron five grains, Turmerick two grains : boil 
all in an Earthen veifel, and with the oyl anoint Iron, and it 
will look like Gold. If there be not Liv{eed-oyl enough, you may 
fut in more. 

XII. A Golden liquor to color Iron, iVood^ Glafs, or Bones 

Take a new laid Egg, through a hole at one end take out 
the white, and fill up the Egg with Quick-filver two parts, 
Sal-Armoniack iinely poudered one part ; mix them ail toge- 
ther with a Wire or little ftick : Itop the hole with melted 
wax, over which put an half Egg-fhell: digeft in horfe- 
dung for a month, and it will be a line golden colored Li- 

X//J. To gild Silk. andLinnen. 

Take Glew made of Parchment, lay it on the Linn«n^ or 
Silk, C^c. gently, that it may not fink : then take Cerufe, 
Bole and Verdigrife, of each alike, mix and grind them up- 
on a ftoae : then in a glazed veflll mix it with varniih, 
which let firaper overafmall fire, then keep itforule, 

^/K Another of a pure Cold color. 

Take juice of frefli Saffron, or ('for want of it/ Saffron 
ground, the beft clear Orpiment of each alike : grind them 
with Goats gall or gall of a Pike (which is betierj digeft 
twenty eight days in horfe-dung, and it is done. 

XK To gild on Wood or Stone. 

Take Bole-Armoniack, oyl of Ben,of each a fufficieni quan- 
tity ; beat and grind them together : with this fmear the 
wood or ftone, and when it is almoft dry, lay on the Leaf- 
gold, let it dry, then polilh it. 

Xl^I. To gild ttith Leaf 'gold. 

Take leaves of gold, and grind them with a few drops of 


ai8 Folygraphkes Lib. Til. 

boney, to which add a litile gum- water, and it will be cx- 
Celleof to write or pajnt wuh. 

IVll. To gild Iron or Steel. 

Take Tartar one ounce, Vermilion three ounces, Bole- 
Armoniack, /i^ua-vitte of each two ounces, grind ibem to- 
gether wirb Linietd oyl, and put thereto Lapts CaUminarii 
the quantity ot a haile-nut j and grind iherewuh in the end 
a few drops of varniJh ; take it off the Hone, Itrain it 
thro' a Lionen Cloth, ("for it muft be as thick as botiy) then 
ftrike it over Iron, or Steel, and let it dry.- fo lay on your 
Silver or Gold, and burnifli it. 

XVIH To color Tin or Copper, ef a Gold color. 

Take Linteed Oil,(et it on tiae fire,Scuin it ; and put in Am- 
ber, Aloes, Hepatick, of each a like ; ftir them well together 
till it grows thick ; take it off, cover it dole j and let it in 
the Earth three days : when you ufe it, ftrike the Metal 
all over with it, witha Peacil, let it dry, and it will be of a 
Golden color. 

XIX. To Silver any Meial. 

Take ftrong Aqua-f^tis in which diffblve fine Silver, to 
which put fo much Tartar ir fire ponder as will make it 
imoPafte: with which rub any Metsl, and it will look like 
fine Silver. 

XX. To gild.fff as itjhall rat out with anylVater. 
TakeOker cilcin^d, iriri^'cc ftone, of each alike, Tartar a 

little : beat them with Lir^u 4 Oil and five or fix drops of 
VarniHi j ftrain all thro a linnen cloth, and with this Liquor 
you m«y imitate Gilding. 

XXI. To gild Paper. 

Grind Bole Armoniack with Rain-water, and give one lay- 
ing of it : be'n^jdry, take Glair of Eggs, and add to it a lit- 
tle Sugar Can.-iy and Gum-water, which lay over the former, 
and upon this, (when in a fit drynefs) lay your Leaf Silver, or 
Leaf Gold. 


,lChap. 2-8. Of wakhg White Colors f^c. ti^ 

CHAP, xxvnr. 

Of making White Colors , and Whitening Plai' 
Jler Walls. 

I. A fine H^hitefor Water Colors. 

^Tak? filings of fine Silver,o^ Leaf-Silver, which difTolve 
in A^ua-f or tis or Sp. MfJ-z.evaporate the Aqua fortis^xiW it looks 
like Cryftals in the bottom of the Glafs : the other part of 
the Aqua fortn decant, and waih the Silver in fair common 
water, fiveor fix tio3es,iill it is freed from the Aquafortis, ■which 
yoa may know by taltingj then dry ic for ufe. It maft be ufed 
with Gum water, with a little water of Sugar- candy. 

II. An Incomparable fine white Lead. 

Take choice white Lead in Flakes, ^rind it well upon a 
Porphyry with Vinegar, and it will turn BlackiHi ; thentaka 
a pot full of Watcrjin which walh your White Lead very welF, 
let it fettle, and pour off the Water : grind it again with Vi- 
negar, and walh it in like manner again j repeat this work 
pnce or twice more, a|;;i^ you will have an Excellent White,as 
well for Water colori, as Painting in OyJ. 

III. To tvhite tsajlo plaiftcr Walls. 

I. The wall is to be very well Plaiftered, with very fine 
Plaifter and well layed, which being throughly dry, it is to 
be whitened with Lime Mi!k very clear as follows. 2. Before 
you lay on the Lime Milk.thc Wall h to be very well wetted 
with water i for in this confifts the fecret, chat the Wfaitning 
may not dry too fall, but rather very flowly, for fo by drying 
Leifurt-ly, the Lime will have time to fatten, fo as it will nei- 
the whiten your Hands nor your Cloths. 3. If it is an old wall 
andt here is any dirt on ir, or if it is free-ftone and it is dirty, 
it ought M be fcraped pfF. 4. Lime Miik is made uf Lime 
which baleen a long time flaked with a fuiScient quantity 
of Water, ftirring it till it makes a white Froth; the water is 
to be decanted after fome days time,and the Lime dryed,and 
then it is to be made into Lime Milk, Ibme fay with New 
Milk, but it is certain, that skimed Milk will dojtfae Cream or 
Oily parts being taken off. 5. The Wall ought to be walht 
over three or four timeSj and then the lall doing of it, ought 


iao J^olygraphicej Lib. Ilf. 

10 be with Milk of nnflack'c Lime, that the white may be the 

IV. Another may to da the fame. 

The Wall being fitted and prepared as aforefaid, the Lime 
Milk may be made either olwellflaked Lime, or rather of 
Whiting i which done the firft time the W«I| is waQit over, 
the Lime Milk ought to be ihin,ihenext time fomewhat thick- 
er : the third time Itill thicker, putting in lels of the Milk as 
yott think fit ; and the fourth time ihickeft of all, To wili vour 
Wall be purely White. ^ 


Of Mezo-tinto : and the taking off^ an old Print 
on White Paper. 

L 'TTAke a well poliflied Copper plate, which make all 
■■■ over rough one way, with an engine particularJyde- 
Ijgned for this purpofe ; then crofs it over with the Engine a- 
gain i and if you fee occafion, crors it over again the third 
lime, till it be made all over rough alike, t'i:^. fo as if it 
were to be printed it would print black all over. 

II. This done,take Cbarcole, black Chalk or black Lead^to 
rub over the plate, and draw your defigtis with wbtte Chalk 
upon the fame, then take a fharp Stiff, and trace out the out- 
lines of the dcfign which you drew with the white Chalk. 

IIL Where you would have the light ftrike ftrongeft, 
rake a burnilhcr, and burniHi that part oftbe Plate, as clean 
and fmooth as it was when it was firft polifhed. 

IV. Where you would have the light fainter ; there you 
mufl not poliih it fo much : and after this manner you 
muft either increafe or decreafe the light in your defign, 
making it either fainter, or ftronger, as the necelTity of 
your work fhall require. 

V. The fliape or form of the Engin or Inftrum^ is va- 
rious and manifold, according to the fancy of the Amfl ; thofe 
that defire them, may have them of feveral perfons in 
London, who profefs and pradlife the Arts of Drawing, 
Etching, and Engraving. 

VI- To take an old Print off, on a piece of ttbite Paper, and 
not fpoil the Print. Take Linfeed Oyl and fmear it all o- 
ver the Print with a clean cloth. 


Chap. 50. Of makhg Ink. 221 

VII. Take a clean piece of Paper, lay it over the former 
Print j lay them both upon a pollifti'd Copper Plate, «od 
pafs them thro' the Rouiing Prefs ; fo will the white 
Paper receive the Reverfe ot the Print, or the Print back- 

VIII. But to take the Oil out of the Print, you muft 
wafli it with Oil of Spike or Turpentine : thee being dryed 
by or over the Fire, the Linfeed Oyl, with the Oyl of 
Spike will evaporate, and leave the Print as fair as it was 
at firft. 

G H A P. XXX. 

Of making various forts ef Ink, 

I. "TO mal^egood hlack^writ ing Ink^. 

^ Take ponderous galls three ounces in polder, rain- 
water three pound, infufe them ja the Sun, or in a gentle 
heat two days: then take Roman Vitriol well colored Ccom- 
mon may do betier)and poudered, ihree Ounce: which put 
therein, and fet all in the Sun for two days more^ fhake all 
together, to which add of [good Gum-Arabick an ounce. 

II. To makf red writing Ink. 

Take Rafpings of Brazil obe once, white lead, Atom, 
of each two drachms, grind and mingle them, infufe them 
in Urine one pound, with gum-Arabick two fcruples, or 
a drachm at moft. 

III. Another way to makfi red Ink. 

Take Wine-vinegar two pound, Rafpings ofBrafil two 
ounces, Alom half an ounce, infufe all ten days ^ then gently 
boil, to which add gum Arabick five drachms, diiTolve the 
Gum, ftrain, and keep it for ufe. Note, two drachms of the 
Gum in fome cafes may be enough; 

IV. To make green Ink fo «'''»^^ With. 

Make fine Verdigrife into pafte with ftrong Vinegar, and 
infufion of green galls, in which a little Gum-Arabick 
bath been dilfolved, let it dry and when you would 
write with it, temper it with infufion of green Galls afore- 

V Anether way to maksgrun Ink to write witl^ 

' ' Dififolve 

112. Votygr /aphides Lib. III. 

Diflblvc Vcrdigrife in Vinegar, then ftrain it, and grind 
it with a little Honcy,and mucilage of Gum Tragtcamh, up- 
on a porphyry (ione. 

VI. ' To make another ^reen hiJ^ to write with. 

Boil Verdigrije wiib Argpl m fair water; and then 
diffolve' in it a liitic ' Gum-Arabick^ , add it will be 

Vll. ' To make blew Itik to ttfrite tfith. 

Grind Indico with H<mey mixed with glair of Eggs or 
glew'waterj made ©f Ifing-glals dilfolved in water, and ' 

VIII. To make red'ttfriring'Jvk.of VermiUdn. 

Grind Vermilion well upon a porpliyry ftone, wirh com- 
mon water ; dry it and put it into a glafs which put 
Urine, (hake all together, let it feiile> then pour off the U- 
rine ; and patting on more.Uritje, repeat this work eight 
or ten times, fo will the Vermilion be well cleanfed ^ to 
which pur glair of Eggs to'fwim on it above a fingers breadth, 
ftii* .chert* together, aod' fettling abilradt the glair ; then put 
on 'OipfeiKgUic of Egi(?s, repeating the famfe work eight or 
tea.titr<^a$l(b,to takeawiy the fcent of the Urine: laftlyv 
mix iij w/ith frefti glair,' ind keep it in a glafs-vefTcl clofe 
fixJp'd;iBfttrJ^;^f*. Wh«n ^vi ufe ir, mix it A/»hb water 0*^ 
vinegar. :*' i • i-' ''•"'>-' 1 • •. 

IX. To make Printers black. Jh^. 

TliJis is made by mirfglln^Lamf'-^Iack with liquid Var- 
iMfti,'<»r^Wnfeed Oyl[and biiiliiig it a little,wb!ch you may make 
k^hjckltt pteaftire. Ybii maft make it natoifterjn Winter,th»n; 
in Summer ; and note that the thicker Ink-tnakes the fairer 
letter. .'«! V»^< i>;.w 0^ yv-x\ (i-iu -v. * 

If ' it*1ji "kto thick, you itieift put in liiore Linr^cd oil^'or 
oil of'Wilnuis, fo may you make it thicker of 'ibinaer at 

X. To make red Printing Tnk 

Grind Vermilion very well with the aforefaid liquid Var-* 
nifli or Linfeed oyl. 

KV. T6'tnake green Printing Ink. 

Grind' Spanilh greeri with the faid VarniHi or LinfeetJ 
oyl as aforeiaid : And afrer the fame manner, may you make 
Printers Bieiv , by grinding A:{tirt with the faid Liofeed 

Chap. 3 c. 0/' n^aking Ink. ii j 

XII. To make white Ink. ^o ^^^te upon blac^ Paper. 
Diirolve Tin Glafs or Spelter in AquafortKy made of N»- 

tre and ^/«f» : piecipitaie with Oyl ot Tartar i edulcorate 
perfectly with fair water, and dry it in a glafs Ba(bn : 
this poudcr mix with Gum water, and it will bf a White, 
with which you may write upon Biack paper : and with 
pure tphite Flowers of Antimony you may do the fanoe. 

XIII. To make China Ink^ I 

Take Lamp-bJack puritied eight Ounces : Indicb, two 
Ounces: Ivory black one Ounce : Peach ftone bbck' half 
an Ounce : beat all together and make a MaA: make all 
into a body with water, in which a very little Gum Ara- 
bick has beet\ diflblred: and fo form them into long fquare 
Rods, or Tables. 

XIV. To make hlac^. tvriting Ink,. 

Take Rain-water three pints : Nut Galls broken into 
little bits, three Ounces: digeft in a Sand heat for a Week : 
Then take Vitriol or Copperas two Ounces, and diflblve it ia 
Rain- Water a pint, by gentle boiling ; adding in the DifTo- 
Imion, a little Gum-Arabick; being diffolved, mix it with 
the Water and Galls; digeft a Week in a faod heat^ and 
keep the Clear for uie. 

XV. A blacky Ink, which Vanijhes in twenty four hourt 

Boil or Digeft Nut Galls ia grofs pouder in Aiqua fortiJ : 
add to them Vitriol or Copperas^ and a little Sal-Armoniackj 
and it is done : what is written with this will Vanifh in 
twenty four bouts. 

XVI. To make Indian Ink. 

Take Horfe Beans, burn, ih^ ^ill they are perfectly 
black, grind it to a fubtile pou.(J?r, and with a weak Gum- 
Arabick water, make it into a Fade, which form into long 
fquare Reds. 

XVII. To make another hlackt^^ifiig J"k; / 
Take White Wine two quarts : Logwood ground on/ 

pound: or fliavings of ic : boil till a quart isconfum^: 
ftrain the Liqtior from the Wood, and put into it ?vut* 
Galls bruifedjEigbt Ounces : Pocnegrante Peels four 0^ces: 
mix and digeft in a Sand heat for a Week, (baking^t four 
or five times a day : then add to it Roman Vitriol pr green 
Copperas four Ounces : digeft two days more 3 afi^ which 

y add 

214 Polygrapiiices Lib. IH. 

add Gum Arabick four ounces : digeft twenty four hoursi 
and Itrain all out into another VcfTel, tnd keep the Ink for 
ufe Nore.tbat ihefe faeces will fcrve again for the fame quanti- 
ty of Liquor, or Logwood Infufion. z. That ibe Pomegra- 
nate jfecis are put in to make the Ink rt)ine. 3. That Rain- 
water feems to be better Jor this purpofe than White Wine. 4. 
That probably the quantity oftbe Gurn-Arabick is too mach. 

XVIII. Another very good black, writing lnl{. 

Take Thames or Rain Water a Gallon, Nut-Galls crackt 
only into fmall bits one pound : Copperas four Ounces: In- 
fufe all in a Gentle Sand beat, for fix Weeks, fhaking the 
bottle four or five times every day : then dilfolvein it Gum- 
Arabick eight Ounces, (1 fear the Gum is too ttftich, and will 
make the Ink too thick:) and let it Itand upon the f^cesfor 
ufe. ^ 

XIX. Another hlac\ tvriting Ink.- 

Take Rain Water a Gallon : Nut-Galls only Crackt into 
bits a pound i Copperas eight Ounces : Alum eight Ounces : 
lofufe all in a Gentle Sind beat for a Month : add Gum-A- 
rabick eight Ounces : which diHulve in it, and keep the mix- 
ture for ufe. 

XX. Another tvriting In^. 

Take ftrong ftale Beer a Gallon, (or White or Red-Wine 
ihe fame quantity 5) Old Nails fix or eight pounds • digeit in 
a Cold place for eight ten or twt Ivc Months : then decant 
of the clear Tihdture. Take Catechu in fine pouder fixcuncesi 
common Brandy a pint ; mix and in afand heat make a llrong 
Tindlure which decant ; mix this with the former Tiovilure of 
and it becomes a black Ink. 

XXL Another very excellent black, tvriting Ink- 
Take Mr. Toww^j Water zt IJIingten, or Water in which a 
large quantity of old Nails has lain for a Year or two.a Gallon, 
Nut-Galls broken into little bits a pound ; Common Vitriol, 
or Copperas four Ounces ; lofufe all together for a Month, 
Ivrring or (baking the VeDTei very well five or fix times every 
day then add Gum-Arabick cut into bits two Ounces: 
difTcf-vc and keep it continually ftirring once or twice eve- 
ry day Note, when you ufe it, you may put in a little white 
Sugar Candy, and difiblveit, fa will your writing fhine ; but 
you ou£Jbt not to put it in but as you have occafion 10 ufe it,, 
for after three or four days, it fpoHsihi Ink. 

Ex f licit Liter 'j'ert*0 



Liber du a r x u s. 

Containing the Original^ Advancement 
and FerfeBion of the Art of Painting : 
Particularly exemplified in the ^various 
Paintings of the Ancients, 

/ .^ _ 


Of the Original of thefe Arts. 


I. ^ I ^ H E Original of the Art of Painting mas t^ 

hn from the Forms of things Tchich do ap- 
■pear ; exprejjing the fume (as Ifidorus Pelu* 
fiota faith) with proper ColourSj imitating 
the Life, either hollow or frtelling, dark or 
light, hard or fofty rough or fmooth, new or old. 

Of fuch things (amongft Vegetables) Flowers yield the 
greateft variety : of Animals, Man : of things^ Inanir 
mate, Landskips, C>"(r. For this matter of Imitation was 
prefented in the chief things only, for who i"hould learn 
to imitate all things in NJature ? the greater being at- 
tained, the lelTer will follow of themfelves ; if any Inall 
attempt fo great a burthen, two inconveniences, faith 
Sli'.intilian, will neceflarily follow, to wit, Always to fay 
too much) and yet never to fay all. 

II. And this Imitation of things feen rdth the Eysy rtoi 
much helped hy the Idea's of things conceived in the mind, 
frcm the cgminual mQtion o/" tht Imasrination, 

^ Al Whore-: 

joa Polygrafhtces Lib. IV. 

Wherefore as Q^iintU'mn faith f///'. lo. cap. 3. of his 
Inltitutions of Oratory) " We fliall do ^vell to accu- 
" ftome our minds to luch a ftedfafl conft.incy of concei- 
*' ving, as to overcome all odier Impediments by the 
** earneftnefs of our Intention , for if \it do altogether 
"bend this Intention upon things conceived, our mind 
." need never take notice of any thing which the Eye lees, 
"**'orthe Ear hears. And therefore thofe wliich would 
profit much, muft take caie and pains to furnilli their 
minds with all forts of ufcfiil Images and Idea's. 
" This treafury of the mind (faith Cajfiodnrtis cap. 1 2. de 
** Anima.) is not over-loaden in halte ; if it be once flir- 
** nidied, the Artift fhall find upon any fuddcn occafioii, 
*' all things neceflary, ready at hand ; whereas thofe 
" which are unprovided iliali be to fcek. It is like to 
the Analytical Furniuue in y^igchra, without the know- 
ledge of which , no notable thing can be performed. 
Now although the Imagination may be cafily_ moved, 
j"et this fame excellency is not attained in an inftant ; 
And without the ability oT exjprefling of the conceived 
Images, all the exercife of the farcy is worth nothing. 

III. Thefe Forms and Ideas nere not fingly confidered^ 
hut compile at ely. 

For whereas Nature fcarcely ever reprefents any one 
thing perfedl in beauty, (in all its parts) lell it lliould be 
laid, that llie had nothing more to diihibute to others : 
ib Artifls of old chofe out many Patterns, which were 
abfoiutely peifcit in fome of their parts, that by dcfign- 
ing each part after that Pattern, which ^vas perfect 
therein, they might at la(l prefent fmiediiiig perfeA in 
the whole. And fow'hen Zenxis intended an exquifite 
Pattern of a bcautitiil Woman, he fought not for this 
pericdion in one particular body, but chofe five of the 
TOott well favoured Virgins, that lie might find in theni 
that perfect beauty, which (as Lucian iaith) muft of ne- 
ceflity be but one. And Adaximns Tyrhu Iaith, you 
fhall not find in haft a body io accmaiely exacl, as to 
compare it with the beauty of a Statue. And Prcclus 
tilth, if you take a Man brought tbrth by Nature, and 
another made by Art of Car\dng, that by Nature Ilia 11 
aot feem the flatelier, becaufe Art doth many things 
more exactly : to which Ovid affents, w^hen that lie faith, 
that Pjgmatm did Carv« the Snew-white loaage of Ivo- 

Chap. I . The Original of theft Arts, :jo 5 

I}-, ivith fuch a happy dexterity, that it was altogether 
impoffible that fuch a Woman iliould be Bom. 

IV". T'rom tkh r.ranner of h^itaikn did arife the Skill of 
Defigning^; from v^hence [prang the Artsof Painting^Liwri- 
jngy Wapyins;, Cuflingy and allothcrs of tknt kind. 

"Thel'e Arts in their infancy, were f.> mean, that tlie 
firft Artift was forced (:is'zy£lianm fmh lib. 10. cap. 10. 
of his Hiihry)m Painting to write, This is an Ox, this 
a Horfe, this a Dog : but as Tully faith, (in lihro de dark 
oratorihm) there is nothing bodi invented and finifhed at 
a time. And AmDhita in lihro fecundo adverfm Gentes 
*^ faith, " The Arts rue not together with our minds, 
*' brought forth out oithe heavenly places j but are all 
*' found out here on Earth, and in procefs of time, foft- 
" ned, forgeJ, and beautified, by a continual meditati- 
*' on : our poor and needy Life, perceiving fome cafual 
*' things to lall out profperoufly, whileft it doth imitate, 
*' attempt, try, flip, reform, and change, hath out of 
" the fame afllduous reprehenfion made up iojne fmall 
'' pieces of Arts, the which it hath aftenvaris by ftudy 
" brought to fome perfe6lion. ' • 

V. The Perfons'who were the fir ji Inventers of thefe Arts 
arefcarcely inorfn, C^ecanfe daily nevp Inventions tvere ad- 
ded) hit thofe famom Perjons nho either jirove to bring them 
to perfeHion, or add to what was already invented, or other- 
"wife were famous in any one particular thing, Hijiory has in- 
part inforr^ed tts of. 

The famous Paujias was the firft that attempted to 
bring the Art of Painting to perfedlion. Apelks was the 
firfl that undertook the expreffrng of invifible things, as 
Thunder, Lightning, and the like; the which confidera- 
tion of thefe ahnoft Impoflibilities, made TheophylaBm 
Simocatm fin Epift. 37.) fay, that Painters undertake to 
exprefs fuch things, as Nature is not able to do : and the 
fame Apelks had a certain Invention and Grace, proper 
to himfelf alone, to wlrich never any other Artificer ever 
attained. And although Zeuxls, Apelles, Aglaophon, did 
none of them feem to lack any thing of Art, yet they dif- 
feredvery much, and had each of them fome peculiar Ex- 
cellency, of which neitlier of tlie other two could boaft. 
Here is but one Art of Calling, in which Myron, Poly- 
cletm, Lyftppm have been excellent, yet did one very 
much differ from another ,* Zenxis did furpafs all other 

Aa 2 Am- 

^04 Polygraphices Lib. IV. 

Artizans in Painting Womcns Bodies ; Lyfippiu is molt 
excellent in fine and fubtile Workmanfliip : Polycletm 
made excellent Statues upon oqe Leg ; Samim did excel 
in conceiving of Vifions and Phantafics : Dionyfi-^ in 
Painting of Men only: Polignotm moft rarely exprclTcd 
the Affections and Pafllons "of Men: y^ntimochm m-ddc 
noble Women : NiciM excellent in Painting of Women, 
but moll excellent in four-footed Creatures, chiefly Dogs : 
Calami^ made Chariots, with two or four Horles ; the 
Horfes were fo excellent and exaft, that there was no 
place left for Emulation : Euphranor, the firit and moft 
excellent in expreffing the dignity, and marks of Heroi- 
cal Perlbns j ^rejiodemm Painted Wreftlcrs : Serapion- 
tvas moit excellent in Scenes : Pyrckiu (infcriour in the 
Art of Painting to none) Painted nothing but Coblers 
and Barbers: Ludio the firil and moll excellent in Paint- 
ing Landskips : yiUpolhdorm, ylfclepiodonts Androhnlm, 
AleviiSj were the only Painters of Philofophers, &c. 

VI. Another Reafon of the Invention hereof, na^ from the 
TKOving of the P^iffions. 

For as Simonides faith, (comparing Painting with Voz- 
fy) Pi6bare is a filei it Pocfy , and Poefy is a fpeaking 
Picture: Upon the occafion of thefe words, Phtaroh 
laith, The thi,igs reprcfemed by Painters, as 'if they me^-e as 
yet doing, are propounded by Orators as done already : Paint- 
ers e.xprejs in Colours and Lines, what Poets do in Words ; 
the one doth that ixith the Pencil, which the other doth iviih 
the^ Pen. When Latinia Pacattts had made a full Dc- 
fcription of the miferablc end of the wicked Aiaximics, 
he calls upon all the Painters to alTill him : Bring hither, 
bring hither you pious Poets, (faith lic) the whole care 
and fludy of your tedious nights : ye Artificers alfo, de- 
Ibife the vulgar Argument of ancient Fables ; thefe, thclc 
things deiervc better to be drawn by yourcunning Hands : 
•Jet the Market-places and Temples be filled with llich 
Speiladcs , work them out in Ivory j let tliem live in 
ColoiuT^ ; let them Itand in Brals ; let them exceed the 
price of precious Stones. It doth concern the lecurity of 
all Ages, that fuch things might be fecn to have been 
done, if by chance, any one filled with wicked defircs, 
might drink in Innocency by his Eyes, when he lliali 
fee the (horrid and deplorable) Monuments of thefe our 
tirnes. And Gregorj Nyffen, upon the Sacriiicuig of Ifaac 


Chap. 1 . 7 he Original ofthefe Arts, ^05 

laith, / often faw in a Picture the Image of this FaBj upon 
which I could not look mthout Tears i Jo lively did Art pKt: 
the Hi/fory before my Eyes. 

VII. The Egyptians wr^ thefirfi Invent ers of Painting : 
The Greeks brought it fof^t of its rtidenefsj to proportion : 
The Romans adorned it with Colours : The Germans (fol- 
lowing them J made their rvorh more durable by Painting in 
Oil : of whom ^^^Engliihj Dutch, Italian and French ar$ 
become Imitators. 

It is reported, that the Grecians were the firft Painters,' 
and that their Colours were (in the infancy thereof^ on- 
ly White and Black : but it appears more with reafon 
and truth, that the Invention thereof fhould be afcribed 
to the Egyptians, who (before the Invention of Letters) 
figniiied their conceptions by Hieroglyphicls of Figures, 
Cjrphers, Charaders and Pidlures of divers things, as 
Birdsy Beajisy Infers, FiJJpes, Trees, Plants, and the like, 
which by Tradition they transfer'd to their Children 5 fo 
.they made the Falcon to fjgniiie Diligence, Strength and 
Swiftnefs : the Bee a King ; its Honey, Mildnefs ;^ its Sting, 
Juftice : a Serpent, (tail in mouth) the Revolution of the 
Year : the Eagle, Envy : the Earth, a labouring Beaft : 
a Hare, Hearmg, &c. Now, our bare learning to imi- 
tate, is not enough 5 it is requifite, that fince we are not 
firft in Invention, we fhould ftudy rather to outgo than 
to follow. If it were unlawful (faith Quintilian) to add 
any thing to things invented, or to find out better things, oar 
continual lahoftr would be good for nothing ; for it is certain 
that Phydias and Apelles have brought many things to lights 
"which their Predeceffors ^new nothing of. Apdtes did ali 
things with compleatnefs : Z euxis ^mth. aninelHmable 
grace: 7?r'9/o^(f«fj with an indefatigable diligence : 77- 
manthes with a great deal Oi fubtilty and curiofity : Ni- 
cophanes with a irately magnL'icence. Now, to attain 
tothefekind of Excellencies, it is necefTaryto havere- 
courfe to variety of great Matters, that fomething out of 
the one, and fomething out of the other, may be as fo 
many Ornaments to adorn our Works ; and as fo many 
lieps to lead us on to the door of perfection. 

VIII. Abopit the time of Philip King of Macedon, /■/[»«■ 
.Art began to flourijh : growing into great ejlimation in the 
days of Alexander and his Succeffors : from thence through 
all the feries of time even to this day, it hath received by dc- 

A a 3 ^ gj-e^Sg 

3o6 TolygYAphices Lib. IV. 

greeSy fuch rtonderf'Al advanccryients that it may he notvfaU, 
ii is arrived at perfeShion. 

For without doubt there is a perfection of Art to be 
attained, and it is as poffible that I, or thou, or he, may 
as well attain it, as any body elie, if v;e rcfolve to Itrive, 
and take pains, Avithout fainting, or fear of dcfpair. 
And fince the Art of Painting is (as Socrates faith)* the 
refembJance of vifible thingc, the Artift ought to beware 
tliat he abufes not the liberty of his Imagination, in the 
Shapes of monftrous and prodigious Images of things not 
known in Nature ; but as a tme lover of Art, prefer a 
plain and honeft ^vork, (agreeing -with Nature) before ^- 
aiy phantaftical and conceited Device ^vhatfoever. 

IX. Lafily, That from Time, Form, Ma.^nitude, Num- 
ber, Proportion, Colour, Motion, Reft, Situation, Simi- 
litude, Diilance, Imagination ^wr/ Light, inajmgleand 
complicate confUeration, this Art hath its ejfcnce or hei)7gy 
^indat la,} had by the help of inditjiriom .md unwearied Afindsy 
its Original Production and A^anifefiation. 

Light is that only thing, without which all thofe o- 
ther things from which this* Art Iprings, -would be ufe- 
•^^ leis ; -without which the Art it lelf cannot be. " It is 
*^ .(as Sander/on £iith) the Heavens Oft-lpring, the eldeft 
" Da.ughter _ of God, fiat hx, the iir/l days Creation : it 
*^ twijikles in a Star, blazes in a Comet ; dawns in a 
*^" ^tv:dy diffembks in a Glow-worm ; contradb it fclf 
*' in a Spark, rages in a Fhme, is pale in a Candle, and 
** dyes jn a Coal. By it the Si^ht hath being, and the 
" Imagination life, which comprehends the Univeifility 
"of ail things without fpace of place: the whole Hea- 
*' vens in their vaft andflill c^rtent, enter at oncethiough 
** the Apple of the Eye, Avithout any itraitnels o'( paf- 
*^ lagc ; the Sight is a Senfe, -which comprehends that 
*' which no other Senfe is capable of; it judgcth and di- 
*' ftingullieth between two contraries in an inftant, it 
*' confidcrs the excel lena^ and beauty t-f every Object; 
*''the Ipangled Canopy of Heaven by night, the wan- 
** deling Clouds by day, the Avondsrful Form of the 
*' Rain-now, the glorious matiitine appcMrancc of Pb(£' 
** bus-, the meridional Exaltation, the golden Rays which . 
*'' flirround him, the' mutability of his Siradows,' his vef- 
***pettinc Setting ; the loftry tops of Mouiitaii,;^, unacccf- 
i' (ibie and ridgy Rocks, profound Valleys, large Plains, 

'< which 

Chap. 2I Farther Vrogrefs ofthefe Arts, ^07 

" which feem to meet Heaven, green Tree?, and pica- 
" fant Groves, delightful Hills, fweet and flowery Mea- 
*^ dows, pleafant Streams, fpringing Fountains, flowing 
" Rivers, ftately Cities, famous Towers, large Bridges, 
" magnificent Buildings, fruitful Orchards andGardens, 
" iliapes of living Creatures, from the Elephant to the 
" Ant, from the Eagle to the Wren, and from the Whale 
" to the Shrimp, the wonderful forms of Infers, the 
" marching of Armies, the befieging and fbrming of 
•^■^ Garifons, the Ipfolencies of rude People, and flight 
" of the DidrefTed, the delblation^ and depopulation of 
'^ Kuigdoms and Countries, the failing of Ships, terrible 
" Sea-fights, great beauty of Colours, together Avith thou- 
" fands of other things, all w^hich itdigefts, and niar- 
" llials in ample Order, that when occaiion may be, it 
" may exert its {tore, for the benefit, advantage, advance- 
** ment, and perfection of Art, 


Of the farther Progrefs of thefe Arts. 

I. A S God Almghty (i^ho is the Author of all WifdomJ 
•^ ivoi the firjt Injiitutor hereof, fo alfo rvas he the Pro- 
mfihator, by whom thefe Arts have made Progrejfion in the 

Certainly, faith Philojlratus, Pi6ture is an Invention 
of the Gods, as well for the painted Faces of the Mea- 
dow^s adorned with Flowers, according to the f everal Sea- 
fons of the year ; as for thofe things which appear in 
the Sky. What wonderful Eloquence is this 1 that in 
lb few words, this Philofopher Ihould clear fo great a 
Poirit. ButAvhat faith Gregorius Nyffenus ? Man, faith 
he, is an Earthen Statue : and Snidas in Oratione prima 
de Beatitudinihm, fpeaking of ^^<?w, faith, This was the 
firit Statue, the Image framed by God, after which all 
the Art of Carving uled by Men received directions : Lot'^ 
Wife was another, turned into a durable Pillar of Salt, 
of whom Prudemim (in Harmartigenia) faith, fhe waxed 
ftift^ being changed into a more brittle fubltance, fhe 

A a 4 iiand?;li 

^o8 Tolygraphiees Lib. IV. 

ftandeth Metamorphofed into Stone, apt to be melted, 
keeping her old pofture in that Salt-rtone Image ; her 
Comlmefs, her Ornaments, her Forehead, her Eyes, her 
Hair, her Face alfo ("looking backward) with her Chin 
gently turned, do retain the unchangeable Monuments 
of her antient Offence ; and though ihe melteth away 
continually in Salt Sweat : yet doth the compleatnefs of 
her Shape luffer no lofs by that fluidity ; whole droves of 
Beafts cannot impair that favoury Stone fo much, but 
ftiU tliere is Liquor enough to lick, by which perpetual 
lofs, the wafted Skin is ev'^er renewed.. To thefc let us 
add the Pattern of the Tabernacle flie wed unto Mojes up- 
on Mount Sinai : the Braz^en. Serpent made by the exprefs 
command of God : The Pattern of the Temple (which Da- 
vid gave unto Solowon) after the foun w^hich God made 
with his own Hand: Ez,ekiers Portraidl of Jf r«/rf/fw, 
with its formal Sie?;e upon a iile, by exprefs command 
froni God alio : The Braz^en S.atuc of our Lord Jefi^^ 
Chrifi ereded by the Woman healed of the bloody llfue, 
as is mentioned by Photinsy and A^erim Bifhop di Ama- 
fa, and other Ecckfiaftick Writers. 

II. By virtue of this Divine Hand it maSy that many Ar^ 
tifis of old attained to a certain kind of perfc6lion in thefe 

We will only refer the proof of this to the Examples 
in the 3 1 of Exodru, of Beznlecl and Aholiab ; of whom 
God hirafelf witnefTeth, that he called them by Name, 
to make the Tabernacle ; and filled them with his Spirit, 
mot only to dcvife airious Works in Gold, in Silver, in 
Brajsy and in Silk -, but alfo gave them SJcill to teach o- 
thcrs the fame. 

in. Nature alfo hath not been idle, but hath aUed a Ma- 
(ier-piece herein. 

Topafs by the glory of Flowers, the excellent comli- 
•iiefs of Beafts, (as in the fpot? o{ Lcopardfy tails of Pe.i- 
cocis, and the like) IwillonJy rem.irk the iame of a 
Gem, which P) rrh.'iJ (\\'ho made VV;u* with the Romans) 
had, of w^hich Pliny in lib. 34. cap. i. of his natural Hi- 
itory, reports, tiiat it being an Agath, had tl.c nine Afkjes, 
and Apollo holding of a Lute depidtcd therein j the fpots 
jiot by Art, but by Nature, being fo ipread over tlie 
' ' Stone, 

Chap. 2. Farther ^rogrefs ofthefe Arts, 505 

Stone, that each Mufe had her peculiar mark. See G^f-^ 
fere I J cap 5. 

IV. The care of Parents in the Education of their ChiU 
dren, rvas another reafon of the progrefs hereof. 

The Grecians y faith Arijiotle in cap. 3. lih. 8. of his Po- 
liticks, did teach their Children the Art of Painting : and 
Plutarch faith, that Patdm <t/£jnilipu had Sculptors and 
Painters amongft the Matters of his Children, as well as 
Philofophers and Rhetoricians ; 2Lnd Pliny faith, that by 
the Authority of Pamphili^, this Art hath been ranked 
among the liberal Sciences, and that only Free-born 
Children fhould learn it. And Galen enumerating fe- 
veral Arts, as Phyfich, Rhetorick, Muficky Geometry, Arith^ 
metici, Logich, Grammar, and knovpledge of Larv ; add 
unto thefe, faith he, Carving 3.nd Painting. And as the 
Grecians were the firft, tliat taught their Children thefe 
Arts, fo alfo they provided betimes for them choice Ma- 

V. Thefe Majiers hy their careftilnefs and vigilancy, not 
deceiving thofe that put their truji in then?, became main Pil- 
lars of thefe Arts, and propagated them to Pojlerity • Tvhicb 
hy the addition of conftderahle Gifts and Rewards had an ha* 
nourahle Efieem in the World. 

Their care was manifeft in laying down folid Princi- 
ples of Art • of which ^uintilian in cap. 2. lib. 12. of his 
Inttitutions of Oratory, faith, though Virtue may bor- 
row fome fonvard fits of Nature, yet {"he muil attain to 
perfeftion by Dodrine. Their vigilancy was feen in 
watching, to apprehend their Scholars Capacities, that 
they might fuit themfelves accordingly ; as in Tally's In- 
ftance of Ifocrates, a fmgular good Teacher, who was 
wont to apply the Spur to Eploorm, but the Bridle to 
Theopomppu', and their Reward was eminent, as Pliny 
noted in Pamphilns his School, out of which Apelles and 
many other excellent Painters came, who Uught no bo- 
dy under a Talent, (which is about 175 Pounds Ster- 
ling) thereby the better to maintain the Authority of 

VI. Their PraRice exactly agreed with their Precepts, 

As with Seneca, that Labour is not lott, whofe Expe- 
riments agree with Precepts^ fo wiih (iHintilian thofb 


|l6 Votygraphices Lib. IV, 

Examples may ffand for Teftimonies : andit w^ the 
Pra6Hce of Painters of old, as Galen witnefTeth concer- 
ning Po/jf/fwr, who hath not only let down in Writing 
the accurate Precepts of Art ; but alio that he made a 
Statue according to the Rules of Art contained in thofe 

Vn. Thefe Precepts rvhich they Ui^ght their Scholar Sj they 
delivered in Writing, that they might ever accompany them 
Tpherejoever they ruent. 

Atxlles gave the Precepts of this Art to his Difcipic 
Terjeta in Writing, as Polycletm did to his : befides in- 
anumcrable others now in being, too tedious here to re- 
cite. The like did thefe following, AA<zm, MyUnAUiy 
AlcetOi'y Alexis the Poet, Anafimenes, Antigonm.^ Ari- 
Ephefins, Duris, Eupherion, Euphranor, IjihrninSy Hegefander 
DelphiaiSy Hippias Eleies, Hypjtcraies, Iambi icHs, J aba Rex 
Mauritania?, Malchus, Biz.a.'jti!is, Melantlmsy vUfendtch- 
Wfis, Menetor^ Pamphihsy Polemon, Porphyria f^ Praxite- 
lesy Protogenes ; Theophanes, Xenocrate<y and many others, 
the chief of whofe Works are now loll. 

VIIT. As Arts came novp into Eftimation, Jo at length 
haves were ejlahlifhedfor their prefervation ; and Punijhments 
for their Prevarication. 

The begiruiingof tiiefc Laws was firftat Argos, Ephe- 
fftSy Thebes a.nd Athensy as alfo in Egypty where a Work- 
man (faith Diodoru! Sicul.'tsJ is feartully puniihcd, if he 
undertake any Charge in the Commonwealth, or meddle 
with any Trade but his own : the which Lav/, iaitli 
HerodottiSy'thQ Lacedamonians did alfo approve of. By 
means of which Laws it was, that the Artilts, of thofe 
Nations attained to fuch a perfedUon of Art, as welliall 
hereafter relate. 

IX. The fervent defire and love of EmMlatioa to excel o- 
thers ; thd commouiahle Simplicity of Art ; together mth the 
content and famfaHion of doing jo^rj'.hiH-^ -velly gave a large 
p'Ogrefs towards the advante of Ar 

It was nobly faid ot Scipio A^n .ori-, uiat every mag- 
nanimous .Spirit compares himlcU, not only with them 
that are now alive ; but alfo with the famous Men of all 
Ages; Avhcreby it appears, that great Wits are always 
by the Sting of £muIatioii, driven forwards to great 
^latter5 j but he iliat bv tc j much love of his own Work'^, 


Chap. 2. Further Froprefs ofthefe Jrff, '^i i 

compare himfelf with no body, muft needs attribute 
niiicii to his own Conceits. Doft thou defire the glory ot" 
S-.viftnefs, faith Martial^ 0» E-pi^r. 36. lib. 12.) ftriveto 
out-go the Tygcr., and the light Ofirich ; it is no glory at 
all to out-mn AJfes. This Emiilanon is the force of great 
Wits, whereby our Imitation is provoked fometimes by 
Em'^^, and fcmetimes by Admiration, whereby it falls 
out, that the thing we earnertly feek after, is fbon 
brought to fome height of perfedion ; which perfe6lion 
confiftsin exa6l Imitation, according to the Simplicity 
of Art, and not in gaudy Appearances, which adorns 
the Shadows much more than ever Nature adorned the 
Subitance. This Imitation of the Life gave the Ani2:./in. 
Fame J which "Fame quickened his afpiring Thoughts, 
adding more Fuel to the Flames, till flich time as he 
brought fortli a moft abfblute Work, whereby he con- 
ceived a joy, content and fatisfadion, as durable as the 
Work it lelf, upon which he now conceived himfelf a 
happy Man, and through a jv& affiance of his Virtues, 
kno^vs himfelf to be lifted up above the reach of Envy, 
where he ftands fecure of his Fame, enjoying in this Life 
(as if he were now Confecrated unto Eternit}'^) the Ve- 
neration that is like to foUo^v him after his Death ; thus 
an hondl Emulation a.nd Confidence, bringing forth Works 
of general Applaufe, procureth unto its Author an ever- 
la/ling Glory. Now, what a comfortable thing is this, 
tohave a fore-feeling of what we lliall aftenvards at- 
tain to ! 

X. Another reafon of the Augmentation of tkefe Arls, 
rCiOi the manifold ujes thereof among Men, either for good or 
evil Purpofes. 

As in natural Sciences, where words come Iliort, a 
little PidUire giveth us the knowledge of Beafts, Birds, 
Fillies, and other Forms, as well Inanimate as Animate : 
In the TaHich, how fnould a General know how to fet 
his Men in array, unlefs he try the cafe by Deiign or 
Delineation ? fo in Architctlure to pourtray Platforms 
after any fafhion, and to work out ti]e Patterns of high 
and mighty Buildings in a little Wax, keeping in fo 
Imall an Exam.ple, the exact proportion of the greater 
Stru6tare : in Geometry the exadlnefs of Lines, Angles,, 
Surfaces and Solids : in Botanclogia the" exa6f ihapes of 
Herbs, Plants and Trees : in Zoohgia the lliapes of all 


'5 1 a Polygraph ices ' Lib. IV. 

Jiving Creatures : in ^nthropok^ja, the cxaft Defcripti- 
cn ot all the parts of Man's BolIv inward and outward : 
in Chyntia, tlie forms of all Ch^'inicMl Vellels and Opc- 
fations : in the Lives of Ill'iflyioHS ylicn and Princes, to 
cxprefs their Forms arid Shapes to tb.e Life, that Age 
might not prevail againft them, dcferving thereby (as 
Varro faith) the Envy of the Gods themfelves : in Geo- 
graphy j to defcribe in fmall Mips Kingdoms, Countries, 
and Cities, yea, the Vv- hole World ; in Policy, RsMichal 
in faving her Husband David, P:olor,:<cHs in the Image of 
Alexander, which he ^villingly let Perdicca^ catch from 
liim, fuppofing it to have been the Body it felf, thereby 
avoiding much Blood- fhed ; Cyrus his wooden Perfians in 
the Siege of 5Vrr^;>, by wdiich the Towns-men being fright- 
ed, yielded the City : Efaminondas at Thebes, by the 
Image of PalLts did Wonders : Amafis King o£ Egypt, his 
golden Image made of the Bafin, in which his Feet ufed 
to be Wafhed, which the Egyptians religioufly Woriliip- 
ped, whereby he brought them to aft'ecl him, being now 
a King, who was of an ignoble and bafe Parentage ; the 
wooden Elephants of Perfens, King of A'facedonia, with 
which he wonted his Horfes, that they might not be 
frighted in time of Battel. _ The Ornaments of Temples, 
Market-places and Galleries, places both publick and 
private. Jniim Ca:fa/i Image m Wax, hideous to look 
to, for 23 gaping Wounds he received, did mightily ftir 
iip the Ronuns to revenge his Death. Worthy Men, 
which had defended well ofthe World, had their Memo- 
ries conferved with their Images j by ^vhich all thofe 
tftat afpire to Goodnefs, and to follow their fkps, are 
likewife filled with Hope. The Athenians have ere61ed 
untQ zy^fcp a moll goodly Statue, l^ith Pbxdrns, and 
have fet a contcm.ptible Slave upon an everlalling Bafe, 
that all wight iindcrjliind, horv the nay -of Honour lieth open 
to everyone, and that Glory likervife doth not fo TKuch follow 
the Condition of our Birth as the F'irtnes of our Life. Bero- 
y»j excelled in. A firolngy, wherefore the Athenians, for his 
Divine PrognofHcations, creeled him a Statue with a 
golden Tongue, fet up in their publick Sclioo!^, as Pliny 
laith, l:h. 7. cap. 37. Publick Libraries were fiirniihed alio 
with Golden, Silver, and Brafs Images of llicli, whofc 
Immortal Souls did fpcak in thofe places- The Provoca- 
tions of Vices have alfo augmented the Art j it hath Ixca 


Chap* 2> farther Frogrejs ofthefe Arts, 5 1 j 

pleafing to Engrave wanton Lutts upon their Cups; and 
to drink in Riba^ldry and Abominations, as Pliny faith in 
tlie Proem of his 33. Book. 

XI. 773^ ufe therefore of thefe Art j extending itfelffo Hnt- 
verfally to all Intents hoiJo in War and Peace, it came to pafs 
that Artificers were honoured by all forts of Aden, which them- 
felves perceiving, did fiill endeavour to encreafe thi-s enjoyed 
favour, by a daily advance of their Skill. 

By Kings they ^vere Honoured ; for Demetrius, whileft 
at the Siege or Rhodes, came to Proto^jnes, leaving the 
hope of his ViL;l:oi7 to behold an Artificer. Alexander 
the Great came alio to Apelks his Shop, often accompa- 
nied with many Prince?. It was his will that none but 
Polycle:m 'alone lliould Call his Statue in Braf?, that none 
hut Apelles alone ihoa Id Paint him in Colours, that none 
but Pyrgoteles alone Ihould Eng-rave him. The Effimati- 
on of the Artifts were alio underitood from the Efteerr? 
and high Rates their Works were prized at : a Pi6lure of 
Bftlarchus, a Painter, was valued at its weight in Gokl 
by Candaiiles King of Lydia : Ariflides was fo fingular in 
his Art, that it is reported of Kirig Attains, that he gave 
an hundred Talents (which is about 17500 Pounds Ster- 
ling) for one of his Pictures. As much had Polycletus for 
one of his. Apelks had for Painting the Pi6lure of Alex- 
ander the Great 3500 Pounds, given him in Golden Coin. 
Cctfar paid to Timoma'chus So Talents (about 14000 
Pounds Sterling) for the PicUires of Ajax and Medea, 
Many more Examples we might produce, but thefe may 
fufiice ; at length no Price w^as thought equal to their 
worth : fo Nicias, rather than he would Sell his Pi6lure, 
called A^fn-z^ to King Attalus, who proffered him 60 Ta- 
lents, (worth near 1 1000 Pounds Sterling) beftowed it as 
a Prefent upon his Country. 

XII. Art meeting Tvith fuch Succeffes, created a boldneji 
in Artificers, to attempt even the greatefi Matters. 

The great Coloffes of the Antients may ferve here for an 
Example ; Zeuxes, above all the rert, hath been admi- 
red for his Boldnels : Enphranor alfo excelled Parrhafta^ 
in this kind, in that the Thefeus of the ■ one fo infinitely 
excelled ihcThefeus of the other. So great an Excellency 
of Spirit arofe in the old Artificers, as not to be daunted 
by the Authority of thofe, who were like to cenflue their 
JVorks : it was a great mark they aimed at, to avoid a 


^14 Pol)graphices Lib. IV. 

prepofterous Sha mc or Fear. And this they accompli.ilied 
by takinn, care, not only to pvc them content, who muft 
of neccfTity be contented with the Work, but a lib thar 
they mi,^ht feem admuable unto them, which may judge 
freely without controul. So they heeded to do well in 
the Opinion of accurate and judjcious Speilators, rather 
than to do tliat which liked themlelves. And therefore 
whatfoever is dedicated unto Pofkrit^^, and to remain as 
an Example for others, had need be well done,Neat,Po- 
lilTied, and made according; to tlie true Rule and Law of 
Art, foraiinuch as it is likely to come into the hands of 
skilful Artificers, judicious Cenfurers, and flich as make 
a narrow fcrutiny into every def.dl:. But as it is ijnpofTi- 
ble to attain to an Excellency, or height of any thing 
ivithout a beginning, fo do the firit things in going on 
cf the Work, feem to be the lead : the height of Arts, as 
of Trees, delighteth us veiy much, fo do not the Roots ^ 
•yet can tliere be no height without the Roots. And 
therefore we lliall find, that a frequent and continual 
Excrcife, as it is moft laborious, lb it is moil profitable ; 
leeing Nature doth begin, hope of Profit doth advance, and 
Exercife doth accowplifh the thing j ought after. In luin, 
by doing quickly, we fliall never learn to do wcllj but 
by doing Vv-cll, it is very likely we may learn to do quick- 
ly. To this Ipeedy and well doing there belongeth three 
things, i;/-^. To add, to dctratt, and to change. To add 
or detmcl, recjuireth Icfs Labour and Judgment ; but to 
clcprefs thofc things that fwell, to railc thole things that 
link, to tye clofe thole things Avhich arc fcattered, to di- 
gcft things that ai'e without order, tocompofe things that 
are different, to reftrain things thatare inlolent, requireth 
double pains: for thole things maybecoiidcmncd,^vhich 
once did pleafc, to make ^vay for Inventions not yet 
thought of. Now without doubt, the beft Avay for E- 
inendation, is to lay by tlie Defign for a time, till it 
leem unto us as new, or anothers Invcnton j Ml otu' own, 
iike newBirtlis, pleafc us toonnuch. 

XIII. Laftly, That Txhich gave the greaiejl, and as it tv en , 
the lajijlep totrards the augmentation of Art, rtas that free ii- 
lerty tvhich Artiz,ans ^avc every one, tocenfttre^ to find fault 
Tyith their Works, ana to wark their Defers. 

It was the Opinion of Seneca, tliat many would have 
attained unto WiBom, if they lud not conceived them- 


Chap. 2. Farther Frogrefs ofthefe Arts, i i ^ 

felves to be Wife already. When Phydm made Jupiter 
for the Eleans, and (liewed it, he flood behind the Door 
Jiftnin^ what was commended, and what difcommend- 
ed in his Work ; one found fault with the grofnefs of his 
Nofe, another with the length of his Face, a third had 
Ibmething elfe to fay : now, when all the Spedators were 
gone, he retired himfelf again to mend the Work, ac- 
cording to what was liked of the greater part ; for he did 
not think the Advice of fiich a Multitude to be a fmall 
matter, judging that fo many faw many tilings better 
than he alone, though he could not but remember him- 
felf to be Phydias. But yet Artificers did not from hence 
admit their Judgments generally in every tiling, but they 
followed their Dircclions only in fuch thi?igs as did belong 
to their Proffjfion. ' t^swhen ^|7v"//w made a Work, he ex- 
pofed it in a place where all that palled by might fee it 5 
hiding himfelf in tlie mean time behind the Pidure, to 
hear what faults were marked in his Works, preferring 
the common People before his own Judgment. And he 
is reported to have in ended his Work, upon the Cenfnre of 
a Shoo-maler, who blaming him for having made fewer 
Latchets in tlie infide of one of the Pantoffles, than of 
the other; the Shoo-maker finding the Work tlie next day 
mended according to his Advice, grew proud, and began 
to find fault with the Leg alfo ; whereupon Apelles could 
not contain him.felf any longer, but looking forth from 
behind the PiihirCjfaid, Nejutor ultra crepidam, he bid the 
Shoo-maker not go beyond his Lail: ; from whence at laft 
came that Proverb. He is the befl Man that can advife 
himfelf what is fit to be done ; and he is next in goodne% 
that is content to receive good Advice : but he that can 
neither advife himfelf, nor will be dire^^d by tlje Advice 
of others, is of a very ill Nature, 


5i6 Toljgraphites* Lib. IV. 


Of the Corffummntion or VerfeEiion of the \^rt 1 
of l^Ainting» ^ 

t. AS Invention gave reay to the advancement of Art, fo 
■^^ the advancement of the fame made way for its Per^ 


The Invention arofe from the appearance of things na- 
tural, conceived in Ideas, as we have abundantly figni- 
iicd Qn the firjl Chapter of this Book) the Advance from the 
bringing of thofe Ideas to hght through practice Ch Chap. 
-2..) iVom whence arofe things very excellent for Greatnrfs, 
very good for their /IfefnlneJ?, choice for their Novelty, and 
fm^iilar for their kinds. 

II. Eafe of Invention, plenty of Alatter, and neatnep of 
Work, vpere fieps by v^hich Art vcoi Conftmr/iaied. For eaje 
of Invention gave Encouragement, plenty of Afatter gave 
Formation, and Neatneji gave Delight -, all which fb con- 
Ipired together, to put fo much of Emulation into the 
Artificer, to undertake or endeavour to do thofe things, 
which in their kmd might never after be exceeded : this 
indeed was their aim of" old, which although the Anti- 
ents of this Art could never attain unto, yet did they 
make fucli way, that fome of their Followers have done 
thofe things, -which never any after them could ever 
iTiend, northemlclvcs Icarcely come near. Eafie Inven- 
tion fprings out of a great and well rooted fulnets ofLearn- 
ing ; by being converfant in all forts of Studies, having 
familiarity witii Antiquities ; the knowledge of innume- 
rable Hiitorical and Poetical Narrations, together with a 
through Acquaintance with all fuch Motions and Idea's 
of the Mind, as are natui"ally incident unto Men : for the 
whole force of this Art doth principally conlilt in thefe 
things, liothing bearing a greater iway in the manifold 
Varieties of Painting. 

III. It Tvas the Opinion of Pamphilus (the Ma(ier of 
ApcUcs) that TvjthoHt the knowledge of Aritbmetici, Geome^ 
try, and the Opticks, this Art cokld not be brought to Per' 


Chap.^. TheVerfe^ionofVdnttng, 517 

The Examples of Phidioi and Akamenes is pertinently 
brought here : Tht Athenians intending to fet up the Image 
of Minerva upon a high Pillar , employed thofe two 
Workmen, purpofmg to chufe the better of the tvvo ; Al- 
camenes (having no Skill in Geometry nor the OptichJ 
made her vv^onderful Fair to the Eye of them that faw her 
near. Phidia^s contrariwile (being Skilftil in all Arts, 
chiefly the OpticbJ confidering that the whole Shape 
would change according to the height of the place, made 
lier Lips wide open, lierNofe fomewhat out of order, and 
all the reft accordingly, by a kind of Refupination : the 
tvvo Images being brought to view, Phidias was in great 
danger to have been Stoned by the Multitude, until at 
length the Statues were fet up ; where the fweet and ex- 
cellent ftroaks of Alcameaes were drowned, and the dif^ 
figured diftorted hard-favourednefs of Phidias liis Work 
vanillied (and all this by the height of the place by 
which means Alcamenes was Laughed at, and Phidias 
much more Efteemed. Of like perfedion is Amidius his 
Miriervfi j the Image of JyMo in the Temple of the Syrian. 
Goddefs j the Head of Diana exalted at Chios^ made by 
Bapahfs and Anthermus, Hercules in the Temple of An- 
toniaj &c. An Artificer , faith Philo\iratus in Prmmia 
Iconum, mull undcrftand the Nature of a Man through- 
ly, toexprefsall his Manners, Guile, Behaviour, &c. he 
muftdifcern the force in the Conltitution of his Cheeks, 
in the turning of his Eyes, in the cafting of his Eye-brows ; 
in lliort, he muft obferve all things which may help the 
Judgment -, and whofoever is thus fiirnillied, willdoubt- 
iefs excel and bring things to perfedlion ; he then may 
ealily Paint a Mad-man, an Angry-man, a Penfive-man, 
a Joyful-man, an Earneft-man, a Lover, &c. in a word, 
the perfection of whatfoever may poflibly be conceived 
in the Mind. 

IV. Continual ohfervation of exqtdfite Pieces, Cf^hether Ar^ 
tificial or Natural J nimble Conceptions, and Tr.anqmlity of 
A^ind, are great means to bring Art to PerfeElion. 

The Works of the Antients could never have be-en €0 
exquifite in theExprefEon of PaffionSjbut by thefe means- 
How perfeftly did Zenxis Paint the modeft and chafte 
Behaviour of Penelop: ; Timomackis the raging mad Fit o£ 
Ajax ; Sil anion the Frowardnefs of Apollodorus 5 Protoge-' 
na the deep Penfivenefs of Philifcus 5 Praxiteles the Re- 

Bb joycings 

1 1 8 Folygrdphkes Lib. IV. 

joycings o^Phrpe ; Parrhafins a Boy running in Armour ; 
SiTi^ArijiUes \i)& Anapa'Aomenos Dying for Love of his 
Brother? Bodws\iii Image o£ Hercules, is of the fame na- 
ture : Themijiius fhews us the true Image of feigned 
Fricndlliip ; A^ellhis a moft lively Image of Juftice ; A- 
fslks an admirable Picture of Slander ; thoufands of Ex- 
amples more mi^^ht be drawn out of antient Authors, to 
approve thefe things, if thcfe may be thought not fuffi- 

V. This Perfection alfo lyeth in the trnth of the matter, the 
occafnn thereof, ani Difcretion to ufe it. 

The moft antient and famous Painters did make mucb 
account of Truth, and had rather lofe the neatneft and 
glory of their Pieces, than to endanger the truth of their 
Story ; which indeed is the great Commendation of a 
Picture, for as much as Lucian faith, That nothing can 
be profitable but what proceeds from Truth. Occafion 
alfo is a great matter ', the Pi6lure of Bacchus may here 
lerve for an excellent Exaiif^le, whofe Paflion ot Love 
w-as fo clearly expreffed therein ; carting afide his brave 
Apparel, Fiowcr>, Leaves, Grapes, &c. Now, fn rcprc- 
fenting things truly according to the occafion, Difcretion 
ou"ht to be your Guide; for as in Tragedies, fo alfo in 
Pi'Jtures all things ought not to be rcprefcntcd -, let not 
A'Icde.i (faith Horace in lihro de Arte) Murder her own 
Children in the prefcncc of all the People ; let not the 
wicked Atrciis Boil Humane FlelTi openly; there are 
doubt lefs many things, which had belter be left out, 
though with iomt lofs of the Story, than with the lofs of 
MoicRy^ wanton, unlawful and filthy Lufts, (though 
they may gain the vain title of Wit) yet ihcy diminifli 
not oi:ly the F.ftunation otthe Work-man, but alio the 
Er;cellcncy of tht Woil', debannig it of perfcdlion. Pre- 
cepts help Art nmch, in propounding unio us the right 
way; but where they fail, our Wits muft iiipply, by 
warily confidering wliat is decent and convenient ; for 
tliis Art requireth ftudious Endeavours; adiduous Exer- 
citations, great Experience, deep \Viidom, ready Coun- 
iel, Veracity of Mindj diligent Obfervations, and great 

VI. To the former add MagnificincSj rfhich gives Anthoi 
rity f fl things fxaUfnt,^ 


Chap. j[. The PerfeSfionofPainthg. ^ig| 

Great minded Men are mofl of all given to entertain 
ilately Conceits ; therefore an Artiz^an ought to be of a 
magnanimous Nature ; if not, yet that at leaft he ought 
With a determined Refolution to aim at magnificent 
things. So it feems, that Nature did difppfe Nicopkanes 
to a high ftrain of Invention; (X^xth. Pliny, lib, 
35. cap. 10.) was gallant and neat, fo that he did Paint 
Antiquities for Eternity^ whereby he was commended fon 
the magnificence of his Work, and gravity of his Art. 
Such Artificers therefore as do bring any thing to perfe6ti- 
on, muit be of an exceeding great Spirit, and entertaiii 
upon every occafion great Thoughts and lofty Imaginati- 
ons ; by this means they fhall gain an cverlalting Fame ; 
but this is impoiTible (faith Longinus) for any -^vho bufie 
the Thoughts and Studies of their Life about vile andfla- 
viili Matters, to bring forth any thing which might de- 
lerve the admiration of fucceding Ages. If any Aniz^an^ . 
be not naturally of fo great a Spirit, let him help Iiimfel£ 
by the reading ot Hiffory and Poefie. Hiltory cannot but 
mlpire a magnanimous Spirit, when fhe reprefents to us 
lo m.any rare Exploits, and the Examples of fo many 
great, noble and valiant Souls, who throughout all Ages,' 
in the midlt of mo(i eminent Dangers, have demonftra- 
ted their Virtues and Spirits not only to thofe prefent, but 
all fuccceding times. Poefie alfo being of a haughty and 
lofty Stile, doth much enlarge the Mind, and from thence 
many excellent things are brought : the much admired 
Elem Jfipiter which Phidias made, hinlfelf confelfed ta 
be formed after the Image of Jupiter defcribed in Homer » 
From the fame Poet did Apelles Paint the Image o^Di^na 
among the Sacrificing Virgins. It is not the prefent Age, 
but the Sacred Memory of all Polterity, which gives un- 
to us a weighty and durable Crown of Glory. 

VII. Exacl Analogy or Proportion, not only advanced 
Art, h-it aljo hronghtit a degree nearer Perfe^ion. 

Philoftrattis calls it Symmetric^ fome Analogy, others 
Harmony ; this is the Appellation of the Greeks -, what 
the Latins called it fcarcely appears, (as Pliny faith //&.' 
^4. cap. 8.) yet words equivalent in power thereto are 
tbund, as Congruens, Equality ; and Tully (lihro primo ds 
OJJiciisJ calls it Agreement and apt Compofition, Vitriviufy 
Commodulation ', Agellius calls it a natural Competence ^ 
P^intilian approves the word Proportion i by which, faith 

B b 2 Phtarc^hf 

520 Poifgraphkes Lib. IV. 

Pint arch, beautiful things are perfeded: it is one ofthofe 
things which the moft High ufcd in the Fabrication of the 
World, (Wifd. 1 1 . 20.) He h^th difpofed all things in mca- 
ftire, and mimher, and veeight. The firft giver ot Symme- 
trie or Analogy was Parrhafius ; Pdlycletus was a diligent 
Obfer/er thereof; Afclepiodorm, an exaft Pra6lifer there- 
of, whofe Admirer was Apelles, who efteemed it to pro- 
ceed out offome Perfc6tions in an Artificer furpaffing in 
Art, and which is moft apparent in naked and undif- 
guifed Bodie?. Strabo faith, that Phidias cxa6tly obfcr- 
ved this proportion in the Image Oi Jupiter Olympicus fit- 
ting. The fame Phidias, as Ltician reports, could exa6lly 
tell upon the firft fight of a Lions Claw, how big a Lion 
he was to make in proportion to the fame Claw. Lineal 
Pi6ture is the Foundation of all Imitation, which if it 
be done after the tme Rules of Proportion, will lively re- 
prefent the thing delineated : this is a Perfe6lion in kind, 
w-bich vet cannot be compared to the perfe6lion of a co- 
loured t^iilure. 

VIII. Thii point of Perfection rvas farther advanced by the 
exqfii/i.'enej? of Colof^ring. 

The perfe^ion of Colouring arifcth from a certain right 
underftanding of each Colour fevcrall}', without which it 
is impr-fhble to mix any thing rightly, as Hern:ogenes faith. 
The Greds (as Porpkyrins) call this mixtion of Colours, 
CorrHp'.ion, "which n^")!!! Phi! arch alfo ufcd, when he faid, 
that Ap-/lodvr'/.s (who firft found out thcCorniption, or 
way oi'Shado'.ving in Colours) was an Athenian. Lnei- 
f.n calls it G.'^f-^fion, where he faith, that by the. Art of 
Pointing, Ima,?cs Avere made by a moderate confufion of 
• Colour?, asWiiite, Blac!:, Yellow, Red, C>"f. by which, 
as Philcfiy-atf-y^ laithin Prrxtmin IconatK, we know how to 
imitate tiie Diverlities of looks in a Mad-man, in a (ad 
orchecrfulCoume-.iance .- the colour of the hve,as brown, 
gray or black: of the Hair, as golden, nrldy, brighter 
flaxen • of the Cfoaths, as Cloth, Leather, or Armour - 
of Places, as Chamberf, Houfes, Forcll-s, Mountains, 
Rivers, Fountains, &c. this is done by the accurate mix- 
tion, due Application, and convenient Shadowing,- as 
Lucian laith in Zeaxide; through the Obfenation ot 
light, fliadow, obfcurit\- and brightnefs, 3.s Plutarch \\'i\i 
have it. For tliis caufc, faith Johannes GramnjaticHs, is a 
white or golden Pi6iure made upon a black ground. Light 


Chap. J. Ihe Perfe^ioft of V Aiming, it\ 

is altogether neceflary, feeing there can be no fliade with- 
out it : Light and Shadow cannot fubfitt afundcr, be- 
caufe by the one the other is apparent, for thofc things 
ivhich are enlightned feem to flick out more, and to 
meet the Eyes of the Beholder ; thofe which are iliaded to 
be depreflfed. This fame of Light and Shadow, Nicias 
the Athenian did moft accurately obferve ; as ■a.KoZeHxisy 
PolyinotHS and Euphranor, as Philoflratus faith in lihro fe~ 
cundo de vita Apollonii, cap. g. Apellcs Painted Alexan- 
der as if he held Lightning in his Hand ; Philoftrattis ob- 
fervedthe fame in the Pidiure of an Ivory Venus, fo that 
one would think it an eafic matter to take hold of her ; 
PaHJi.ti arrived to fuch an excellency in this, as Scarcely 
any after could attain unto, as in the Painted Ox, faith 
Pliny y which he made inimitable. Obfcurity or Darkneis 
is only the duskinefs of a deeper Shadow, as Brightnefs is 
the Exaltation of Light: if White and Black be put up- 
on the f une Supeificie?, the White Avillfeem neareft, the 
Black farther off: this being known to make a thing 
feem holbw, as a Ditch, Cave, Ciftern, Well, &c. it 
is coloured with Black or Brown 5 and fomuch the black- 
er, fo much the deeper it feems ; extream Black reprefent- 
ing a bottomlefs depth ; but to make it rife, as the Breafts 
of a Maid, a ftretched-out Rand, &c. there is laid round, 
or on each fide, fo much black or brown, as may make the 
parts feem to ftick out, by reafon of the adjacent hollow- 
nefs ; brightnefs is fometimes ufed for necelfity, but ge- 
nerally for Ornament, (as in thePi6lures of Angels, Gems, 
Armour, Flame, Flowers, Gold, and the like) the which 
IS made always ^vith a mixture of light ; which mixtion 
Painters call Harmoge, but is nothing elfe fave an undi- 
fcernable piece of Art, by which the Artiz^an ftealin^ly 
pafleth from one colour into another, with an infenfible 
diftinilion -, this Harmoge is moft perfect in the Rainbow, 
xvhich containing evident variety of Colours, yet leaves 
them fo indiftinguilliable, as that we can neither fee 
where they begin, nor yet where they end, as Boethius ob- 
ferves in lihri qainti de arte mujica capite quarto. The laft 
and chief perfedion of Colouring lieth in the out-lines or 
extremities of the Work, being cut oft' with fuch a won- 
derful fubtilty and fweetnefs, as to prefent unto us things 
■we do not fee, but that we rfiould believe that behind the 
Piitures, there is fomething more to be feeoj than can 

B b 3 eaJil? 

^22 Folygraphices Lib. IV. 

eafily be difccrncd ; thereby fetting forth, as it were, thofe 
things which are really concealed, this was Perrhajius his 
chict glor^r ; but herein ^pelles exceeded all others what- 
soever, as Pctronuisin Satyrico feems to affirm. 

IX. Aciion and, Vajfiori id next to he confidered, in which 
confi/fs Life and Motion . 

There is not any thing that can add a more lively grace 
to the Work, than the extream likenefs of Motion, pro- 
ceeding from the inward A6lionor PafTion of the Mind. 
It is therefore a great point of Art, which leads unto Per- 
fection, the which Ave are to learn by cafting our Eyes 
aipon Nature, and tracing her Iteps. Confider all the 
Gelhires of the Body, as the Head, by which is expreiTed 
the Affedions of the Mind. The cafting down of the 
Head, fhewethdejeftion of Mind ; being caft back, Arro- 
gance ,- hanging?, on either fide, languifhing; being ftiff or 
iiurdy, chur'lillnnefs : by it we grant, refiife, affirm, threa- 
ten j or pafTively, or balliful, doubtftjl, fallen, envious, &c. 
by the motions of the Countenance appears Sorrow, Joy, 
love. Hatred, Courtefie, Courage, Deje6tion, &c. by the 
motions of the Countenance, are exprett the Qualities of 
the Mind, as Modefty and Shamefacednefs, or Boldnefs 
and Impudence : but of all the parts of the Countenance, 
athe Eyes are moft powerful, for they, whether we move 
or move not, iTiew forth our Joy or Sorrow; this is excel- 
lently expreft by the Prophet, in Lcni. 3. 48. tlD^D JI^D 
:'JDy TO, 1311^ hf UlJ^lin fi'd^e majim terrfldgnenijgnd 
fheber bat gnan:mi, which TremelliHs renders, Rivis aquarnm 
^erftuit ocuIhs fTjeus, propter contri. ionern filia populi mei : and 
again HDID ^*4'^ *1 niJH U[J^ griem nigger ah velo tidmah, 
a. e. oculns mem deflmt nee defijtit . For the fame purpofe it 
is that Nature hath furnillied them with Tears ', but their 
Motion doth more cfpecially exprefs the Intention, as 
Meeknefs, Pride, Spitefulnels, and the like; all which 
are to be imitated, according as the Natureof the Adion 
lliall require, as flaring, clofed, dull, wanton, glancing, 
asking or promifing fomething. The Eyc-broAvs alfo have 
rfome adlions, £ox they chiefly command the Fore-head 
by contrafting, dilating, raifmg and dcpreuing it ; wrink- 
led Brows ITiew Sadnefs and Anger ; Difplayed, Cheer- 
fulnefs \ Hanging, Shame ; Elation, Confent ; Deprct- 
fion, Diffent, &c. The Lips fliew Mockmg, Scorning, 
Loathing, &c. The Arm gently caft forth, is graceful in 


Chap. ^ . The FerfeSiion of Pamhg. 321 

familiar Speech ; but the Arm fpread forth towards one 
Ude, llicws one fpeaking of feme notable Matter ; with- 
out the motion of the Hands all motion is maimed ; the 
Hands, as it were, call, difmip, threaten, reqzefl, abhor, 
fear, asi, demand, promife, deny, douht, confep, repent, 
numher, measure, rejoyce, encourage, hefeech, hinder, reprozfe, 
(tdmire, relate, commend, &c. In admiration we hold the 
Hand up, bent fomewhat backward, with all the Fin- 
gers doled: in relating we join the top of the Fore-finger 
to the Thumb-nail : in promifmg we move it foftiy : in 
exhorting or commending, more quick : in penitence and 
anger, we lay our clofed Hand to the Brefi: we clofe 
the Fingers ends, and Jay them to our Mouth when we 
confider, &c. It is not yet enough that the Pi6lure or I- 
mage refembles the proportion and colour of the Life, im- 
lefs it hkewife refembles it in the elerneanour of the whole 
Body ; therefore CalMratus calls tliis Art, the Art of Coun- 
terfeiting Manners. Ulyjfes is evidently, faith Philcfiratfix, 
difcerned by his Aufterity and Vigilancy ; Menelans by 
his gentle mildnefs j Agamemnon hy a kind of Divine 
Majefty^ AjaxTelamonmshy bis gnmlook; Locrus hy his 
readinefs and forwardnels. The beft Artifts ever change 
their Hands, in expreffing of Gods, Kings, Priefts, Sena- 
tors, Orators, Muficians, Lavnyers, &c. Zenxis Painted 
the Modefty of Pf«f/o/'f : Echion made a new Married but 
Shamefaced Woman : Ariftides Painted a running Cha- 
riot drawn with four Horfcs : Antiphilus made a Boy 
blowing the Fire ; Philoxenns Eretrias depi6ted the Pi6hire 
of Wantonnefs: Parrhajiy.s made the Hoplitides ox Pi- 
<iv:ures of two Armed Men, as may be feen in Pliny lib. 3 5. 
cap.^, 10, and 11. Boethim made a Babe ftrangling a. 
Goole : Praxiteles made a weeping Woman, and a re- 
joycing Whore: Euphranordtew the Picture of P^m as a 
Judge, a Wooer and a Soldier : fee Pliny lib.^/\, cap. 8. 
where you may have many other Examples. It is worth 
our pains to fee in Callijtratus thefe Defcriptions at large, 
whereby we may fee it is a lingular perfetlion.of Art. 

X. The lafi fiep cf PerfeBion is the right ordering and dij- 
po/ing of things. 

This Order orDifpofitionmuftbe obferved as well in a 
Pi6lure confifting of one Figure, as in a Pi6ture of many 
Figures. The Nature of Man, faith Xenophon in Oecono- 
micoj cannot name any thing fo ufefiil and fair, as Or- 

B b 4 der 5 

5 24 Polygrdfhtces Lib. IV. 

der j aconfufed piece of Work cannot dererve admirati- 
on ; thofe things only affedi: us, wherein every part is not 
only perfed in it felf, but alfo well difpofed by a natu- 
ral Connexion. It is not enough in a Building to bring 
Hair, Lime, Sand, Wood, Stone?, and other Materials, 
unlefswe take care that all this confufed Stuff be orderly 
difpofed to the In-tent. Nature it felf feems to be iiphol- 
den by Order, and fo are all things elfe which are fubju- 
gated to the fame Law. Now, the way to attain to this 
true order of Difpofirion, is, Ftrjl, To conceive the //i?<^ of 
the Hiftory in the Imagination, that the prefence of the 
things in the mind may fuggeft the order ot" difpofing each 
thing in its proper place, yet with that fubtility, that the 
ivhole may reprefent one entire Body. Secondly^ That the 
frame of the whole Stru6b.irc of this Difpofition may be 
analogous to the things thcmfelves ; fo that we may at 
once reprefent things which are already done, things 
vi'^hich are doing, and things which are yet to be done ; 
perfeding, as Thiloftratus faith, in every one of thefe 
things, what is moft proper, as if we were bulled about 
one only thing. Thirdly, An Hiitorical Pickire mult re- 
prefent the feries of the Hiftory, which although the Pi- 
<5ture be filent, yet that the Connexion might (as it were) 
Ipcak, putting the principal Figures in the principal 
places. Fourthly, The parts mult be conneded, eafily 
rolling on, gently flowing or following one another, hand 
inha"nd, feeming both to hold and be upheld, free from 
all abruption, well grounded, finely framed, andltrong- 
ly tyed up together ; that the whole may be dclightfomc 
for its Equality, grave for its Simplicity, and graceftil 
for its imivcrlal Analogical Compofurc. Fifthly, That 
moft excellent pieces (if the Hiibry will fjffer it) be llia- 
dowed about with aide Thickets, and craggy Rocks, that 
by the horrid nefs of fuch things, there may accrcw a 
inore excellent grace to the principal j T/nft as DifcorcU 
in Mufick make fomctimes Concords) from whence re- 
fults a fmgular Delight. Sixthly, That to theic tlnngs be 
added Perfpimity ; which, as Lacian faith, tlirough the 
mutiLal Connexion of things, will make the Avholc com- 
pleat and perfed. Seventhly, and Uflly, That the dilpo- 
fition of the proportion be obfeiTed, in the due diftancc 
of each Figure, and thcpofition of their parts, oF %vhich 
we have f aid Something, SeBionfevcnthybwx. in general 
•-■' - ?//.;■; 

Chap. 3 . The VerfeBion of P^'^^/^jj^; ^^ i 

Vliny (lih. ^'y-cap. lo.) faith, that in this gt^-^ral clilpu-i 
fition of proportional dittances, we have no KuUg . q^j. 
Eye mu{t teach us what to do ; to which Hiiintilian ^f, 
fents, -tvhere he faith, that thefe things admit no othei 
Judgment, but the Judgment of our Eyes. ' 

XI. Lartly, For the abfohte Confy:mmation or PerfeBiori 
of the Art, Excellency of Invention, Proportion, Colour, Lifs 
And Difpafition, mufl univerfally concur, ^nd confpire, tct 
hring forth that comely graceful nej?, t^hlch is the very Lifs 
i>.nd Soul of the Work^ the entire and joint Summ of all Per" 

It is not enough, that a Pi6lure is excellent in one or 
more of the aforefaid Perfe6lions, but the Confummati- 
on is, that they all concur ; for if but one be wanting,, 
the whole Work is defeftive. A good Invention affe(xs 
the Mind ; true Proportion draws the Eyes ; lively Moti- 
on moves the Soul; exquifite Colours beguile the Phanta- 
fie^ and an orderly Difpofition wonderfully charms all 
the Senfes ; if all thefe unite and center in one piece, 
liow great an Excellence and Perfedlion will appear? 
What a comely Grace ? this Grace it is, which in beautiful 
Bodies is the Life of Beauty, and without which, its 
greateft Accomplilliments cannot pleafe the Beholder. 
For it is not fo m.uch the perfedion of Invention, Propor- 
tion, Colours, Motion and Difpofition apart, which af^ 
feet the Senfes, but all thofe Pcrfe6lions abfolutely united, 
which brings forth that comely Grace, and higheft Perfe- 
6lion, which Art aims at, and the Artizan firives after. 
This Grace proceeds not from any Rules of Art, but from 
the excellent Spirit of the Artificer; it is eafier attained 
by Oblerv^ation and a good Judgment, than learned by- 
Precepts, as Huintilian in his Inttitutions, lib. ii, cap. i. 
learnedly obferves. And this Grace is molt graceful when 
it flows with Facility, out of a free Spirit, and is not for- 
ced or ftrained out with Labour and Toil, which quite 
ipoils and kills the life of the Work: Now, this Facility 
Springs from Learning, Study and Excrcitation. Art and 
Nature mufl concur to the Conftitution , of this Grace j 
Art rauft be applied difcreetly to thofe things which we 
naturally affedl, and not to things which we loath -, left 
we mifs of that Glory which we feek after. 


5'-^^ //^ Polygrnphices Lib. IV. 


floivtfje Afitknts Depicted their Gods i andfrfi 
of Saturn- 

TJITf htre \nteni to comprehend the various rcays of the 
I ' » Antisnts in DcpiFting their Idols, according to the Gi" 
jloms of thofe feveral Nations, where they ivere Adored and 
IVorPnppedy and that from the mofi antient, chiefeli and beji 
'approved Authors now extant. 

I. The 2.ntknt Romans Rgmcd Saturn like an old Man,' 
tvith a Scythe or Hook in his Hand, by fome fignifying 
Time, as his name C/'/'o«oj_ alio intimates. 

II. They alfo figured him in the ihape of a very Aged 
Man, as one who began with t lie beginning of the World, 
holding in his Hand a Child, which by piecemeals he 
feems greedily to devouro 

By this is fignified the Revenge he tool: for heing expulfed 
Heaven by his own Children, of which thofe which efcaped his 
Fury, were only four, Jupiter, Juno, Pluto and Neptime, 
ly which is jhadowed forth the four Ehnents, Fii'e, Air, Earth 
and Water, which are not perijhahle hy the all-cutting Sickle 
of devouring Time. 

III. Martianus Capella Depi6ls him an old Man, hold- 
ing in his Right Hand a Serpent, with the end of its Tail 
in its Mouth, turnmg round with a very flow pace, his 
Temples girt with a green Wreath, and the Hair of his 
Head and Beard milk white. 

The Wreath on his Head fJpews the Spring-time, his fnowy 
Hair and Beard the approach of churl i(h Winter; the flow ne^ 
cf the Serpents motion, the fuggifh Revolution of that Planet. 

IV. Afacrohius defcribes him Avith a Lions-head, a 
Dogs-head, and a Wolfs-head. 

By the Lions-head is fignifed the time pre fent, (which is al- 
ways flrongefi, for that, which is, r/jiji needs he more porverful 
than that which is not J hy the Dogs-head, the time to come, 
(which always fawns on us, and by whofe alluring Delights 
Tve are drawn on to vain and uncertain hopes J^and hy the Wolfs- 
head, time pall, (which greedily devourcth whatfosver itfirids^ 
leaving no memory thereof behind.) 

V. Macrd' 

Chap. ^. Of Defimng Jupiter. 527 

V. Macnhitis alfo faith, that among the reft of his 
Deicriptions, his Feet are tye^ together with thi-cads of 
Wooll. _ %. 

By which is Jhewedy that God does nothing in hajie, nor 
Jpeedily cafiigates the Iniquities of Man, hit proceeds foivly 
and unmllin^lyy to give them time and leifare to amend. 

VI. EufehiHs faith, that ^/?^r^^ (the Daughter ofC(r- 
lum. Wife and Sifter of Saturn) did place alfo upon his 
Head two Wing^s, demonflrating by the one, the excel- 
lency and perfedtion of the Mind -, by the other, the force 
of Senfe and Underftanding. 

The Platonich underjiand by Saturn the Mind, and its 
inroard Contemplation of things Ccele/lial, and therefore called 
the time in t^hich he lived, the Golden Age, it being refute 
mth Qnietnefsy Concord, and true Content. 


Horv the Antknts Defined Jupiter. 

'i^C\Rpheus defcribes him with golden Locks, having en 
^^ his Temples peeping forth two golden Horns, his 
Eyes fliining, his Breft large and fail-, having on his 
Shoulders Wings. 

By the golden Loch is fignifed the Firmament, and its 

florioHs Army of Trahcent Stars : by his two Horns, the 
iaft and Weft : by his Eyes, the Sun and Moon : hy his 
Brsfi, the fpacious Ambtdation of the Air ^ and by his 
Wings, the Fiery of the Winds. 

II. Porphyrins and Snidas Depidled the Image of J^-yi- 
ter fitting upon a firm and immoveable Seat -, the upper 
parts naked and uncloathed, the lower parts covered and 
irivefted ; in his Left Hand a Scepter ; in his Right Hand 
a great Eagle, joined with the Figure of ViVvoria. 

This Image -was ercB:ed in Pirsus, a jlately and magnif- 
cent Gate of Athens ; by the Seat is ftoewed the Permanency of 
God's Porter: the naked parts fhevp that the Compajfion of the 
Diz>ine Porper is alw^ays manifeji to thofe of an tmderfianding 
Spirit : the lower parts covered, fhevn that -while we wallow 
in the WQrld, and a^s it were rock'd ajleep with the illicebrous 


|2S Polygyaphices Lib. IV. 

'Blandijhmfnts thereof, that the Divine Knovcledge is hid and 
oh/cured from m : by the Scepter is fignified his Rale over all 
things .♦ Eagle and Vi6loria hoTv alLM)ings fiand in VaffaUge 
And Suhjection to the all-sommandin^ Povper. 

III. Martianas Depiclares him with a regal Crown, a- 
dorned with moft precious and glittering Stones ; over his 
Shoulder?, a thin Vail (made by Palloi own Hands) all 
white, in which is inferted divers Imall pieces ofGlalsre- 
prefenting the moft refplendent Stars ; in his Right Hand 
he holdeth two Balls, the one all of Gold, the other half 
Gold half Silver ; in the other Hand an Ivory Harp with 
nine Strings, fitting on a Foot-cloth, wrought with Itrangt 
Works, and Peacocks Fea±ers ; and near his Side lieth a 
Tridental Gold Em-bofTed Mafs. 

IV. Plutarch faith, that in Crete^ he had wholly Hu- 
mane Shape and Proportion, but without Ears. 

By that Tvas (ignified, that Sy.periours and Judges ought 
«of to he carried avpay by Prejudice nor Perfrvafion^ but (iand 
firm, fledfafl and upright to all mithout Partiality. 

V. Contrariwife the Lacedemonians framed his Pi6lure 
v/ith four Ears. 

By that they fignified, that God heareth and underjiandeth all 
things j and that Princes and Judges ought to hear all In- 
formations, before they deliver definitive Sentence or Judg- 

VI. Paufanioi faith, that in the Temple o'i Aiinerva 
(amon^ the Argives) the Statue of Jupiter was made -with 
tlireeEyes; two of them in their right places j the other 
in the middle of his Fore-head. 

By Tsfhich is fignified his three Kingdoms ; the one Heaven, 
tfje other Earth, the la/} Sea. 

VII. With the Eleans (a People o^ Grece) the Statue 
cfjove was compa6led of Gold and Ivory, empaled with 
a Coronet of Olive Leaves; in his Right Hand the Iitiage 
o^l^i^oria; in his Left a Scepter, on the top of which 
was mounted the Portrai(5h.;re of an Eagle, upon a Seat 
of Gold, enchafed with the forms of many unknown 
Birds and Fifhes, upheld and fupported by four Images 
of ViEloria. 

VIII. In Caria (a Place of the kffcr A/iaJ the StaUie 
cff Jupiter was made holding in one of his Hands a Pole^, 


Chap. 6. OfDepI^hgM2iTs, ^29 

The reajon of this was, as ¥lut3.XQh. faith from Hercules, 
who overthromng Hippolyta the Amazonian ^ueen^ took it 
from her y and ^ave it to Omphale/);V Wife, ^Lydian. The 
"Platonilk underfiand hy Jupiter, the Soul of the World ; and 
that Divine Spirit, through whofe Almighty every 
thing receives its Being and Prefervation. 

IX. He is alfo Painted with long curled black Hair in 
a purple Robe, trimmed with Gold, and fitting on a 
golden Throne, with bright yellow Clouds difperied a- 
bout him. 


How the Antients DepiS^ed Mars. 

ISKXAcrohim faith, that the Pi6lures of M^trs were a- 
^^ domed and beautified with the Sun-beams, in as 
lively a manner as could be devifed ; with an Aipedl fierce, 
terrible, and wrathfiil, hollow red Eyes, quick in their 
motion. Face all hairy, with long ciuied Locks on his 
Head, depending even to his Shoulders, of a coal black 
colour, landing with a Spear in tlie one Hand, and a 
Whip in the other. 

II. He is alfo fometimes Depicted on Horfeback, and 
fometimes in a Chariot, drawn with Horfes called Fear 
and Horror : fbme fay the Chariot was drawn with t'.vo 
Men, which were called Fury and Violence. 

III. Statins faith he wore on his Head a Helmet mod 
bright and lliining, fo fiery as it fcemcd there iffued flalli- 
es of Lightning 3 a Brett-plate of Gold, infculp'd with 
fierce and ugly Monftersj his Shield depainted all over 
vv'ith Blood, enchafed with defonned Beafe, with a Spear 
and Whip in his Hands, drawn in a Chariot with two 
Horfes, Fury and Violence , driven with two churliili 
CoacI>men, Wrath and Befiriiction, 

IV. Ifidorm faith, that the Pidlure of Mars was de- 
painted with a naked Breft. 

By Tvhich is fignified, that Men ought not to he timorous in 
War, hut valiantly and Uldly expofe themfelves to Haz,ards 
md Dangers. 

V. Statins 

5 ^ o Polygrafhkes Lib. IV. 

V. Scmta. faith, that die Houfe of Man was Built in 
an obfcure corner of 77;r<?£r/V?, made of rutty, black Iron j 
the Porters which kept the Gates, were Horror and Mad- 
nef; within the Houfe inhabited Fury, Wrath, Impiety, 
Fear, Tre.'ifon and Violence, whofe Governefs Avas Dij- 
cord, featcd in a regal Throne, holding in one Hand a 
bright Sword, and in the other a Bafm full of Humane 

VI. Ariofio, defcribing the Court of J/^rj, faith, that 
in every part and corner of the fame were heard moft 
Grange Echoes, fearful Shrieks, Threatnings, and difmal 
Cryes; in the midft of this Palace was the Image of 
Virtue, looking fad and penfive, full of Sorrow, Dilcon- 
tcnt and Melancholy, leaning her Head on her Arm : 
kird by her -was feated in a Chair, Fnry in Triumph : 
not far from her fate Death, with a bloody ttern Coun- 
tenance, orfering upon an Altar in Mens Skulls Humane 
Blood, Confecrated with Coals of Fire, fetched from ma- 
r.y Cities and Towns, burnt and ruinated by the Tyran- 
ny of War. 


Hoiv the Antknts Depcied Phoebus or Sol. 


MAcrohi.ts faith,that in ^Ifyria was found the Statue 
0^ Apollo, Phcshus or Sol, the Father of<^'fcs^U- 
jfim, in the form o:"a young Man, and Beardlefs, Polilh-- 
cd with Gold, who llretclnng out his Arms, held in his 
Ri£;ht Hand a Coach-man's Whip ; and in his Left a 
Thunderbolt, with fonie Ears of Corn. 

The Tyrant of Syracufe, Dionyfius, with fury pulled of 
the Beard from the Figure 0/ jtfculapius, faying it rvas very 
Incongriiotu that the Father JhouU be Beardlef?, and the Son 
have one fo exceeding long. 

IT. Eiifehius faith, that in Egypt the Image of Sol was 
fet in a Ship, carried up, and fupported by a Crocodil: 
and that they (before Letters were inventecl) framed the 
fhape of the Sun, by a Scepter, in the top of which was 
dcxreroufly Engraven an Eye, ' 


ehap. 7. Of Depi "iing Phoebus or Sol. ^ 5 ^: 

The Scepter /tgnified Gavernwem : the Eye, the Fomr> 
rehich over fees and beholds all things. 

III. The Lacedemonians Depi6led Apollo with four 
Ears, and as many Hands. 

By which ivas /tgnified the Judgment and Prudence of pod^ 
leing fmft md ready to hear, hfit flow to fpeai, and from 
thence grew that Proverb among the Grecians. 

IV. Herodotus tz'goittth, that th^ Phoenicians had the 
Statue of the Sun made in black Stone, large and fpaci- 
ous at bottom, but inarp and narrow at top, which they 
boafted to have had from Heaven. 

V. LaBantms faith, that in Perfia, Phoebus or Apollo 
was their chiefeft God, and was thus defcribed • he had 
the Head of a Lion habited according to the Perfian Cu- 
ftom, wearing on his Head fuch Ornaments as the Wo-; 
menof jPfr/^ufed, holding by main force a white CoWj 
by the Horns. 

The Head of the Lion ^yeweth the Suns Dominion in the 
Sign Leo J the Cow pews the Moon, Twhofe Exaltation is 
Taurus j and his force Me holding, the Moons Eclipfe, which 
fhe cannot avoid. 

VI. Paufanias tdkihy that in Patra, a. City of Achaiay 
a metalline Statue of Apollow^s found in the proportion 

VIL. Lucianus faith, that the Ajfyrians fhaped hirri 
with a long Beard, (iLewing his perfe6tion ^ upon his 
Brett a Shield ; in his Right Hand a Spear, in the top 
of which v/as ViBoria ; in his Left Hand Anthos, or the 
Sun Flower : this Body was covered with a Veiiment, 
upon -which was painted the Head ofMedufa, from which 
dangled downwards many fwarms of Snakes ; on the 
one fide of him Eagles flying, on the other fide a lively 

VIII. ThQ Egyptians compofed the Statue of the Sun ia 
the fhape of a Man, with his Head half Shaven. 

By the Head half Shaven, is fignified, that though his 
Beamy or Shining tnay be clouded for a time, yet that he will 
return and beautifie the fame with his prifiin BrightneJS; as 
the growing of the Hairs (which fignipe his Beams J to their, 
fulfextent and perfe^ion a^ain, may denote. 

IX. Martianus thus defcribes him j upon his Head 
(faith he) he wears a Rwal and Gorgeous Crown, in- 
chafed with multitudes of precious Gems \ three of which 


35^ PoljgrAphiees. Lib. IV* 

beautifie his Fore-head; (ix his Temples ; and three other 
thehindermoft part of the Crown : his Hair hanging down 
in trefTes, looks like refined Gold, and his Countenance 
wholly like Flame : his Veftment is thin, fubtil, and 
wrought with fine Purple and Gold ; in liis Right Hand 
he holds a bright Shield, and in his Left a flaming Fire- 
brand : on his Feet he hath two Wings, befet with fiery 

X. Eujehim wniQth, that in Elephantinopolis (a City 
in Egypt) the Image oi Apollo w^as framed to the due like- 
nefs of a Man throughout the Body, fave only, that he 
had the Head of a Ram, with young and fmall Horns, 
and his Afpe6l of a Cerulean and blcwifh Green, not un- 
like to that of the Sea. 

The Head of the Ram fignifies the Sum Exaltation in the 
Sign Aries ; and the young Horns the change or nerv of the 
Moon, made by her Conjun^ion mth the Sun, in rvhich /he 
iooks blemfJy. 

XI. He is alfo Drawn with long curled golden Hair, 
Crowned with a Lawrel, in a purple Robe, a filver Bow 
in his Hand, fitting on a Throne of Emeralds. 

There might yopt fee mth greatcfl Skill intexed. 
The Poriraittare of Phoebus lively dravon ; 
And his fair Sifiers Shape thereto annexed, 
Whofe fhining parts jeem'd fhadorv'd ore mth Lawn', 
Arid though mth equal Art both were explaind. 
And Workme)is care gave each of them their d;tc, 
Tct to the view great difference retrain d. 
In Habit ^ Shape, Afpecl, and in their Hue. 
For one of them muji give the day his light : 
And th' other reign Commandref of the night. 

CHAP. viir. 

How the Affcients Depicted Venus. 

I. TTT E R Statue is framed in the fhape of a moft beau- 

•'--*• tifiil and young Woman, itinding upright in a 

?juge Shell of Fiih, drawn by two other moit ugly and 

ftrange Fillies, as Ovul at large noteth. II. Z'^^- 

Chap .9. 6f Depicti/igMcTcuxy, 533 

II. Patifanm faith ilie is drawn in a Coach, through 
the airy paiTages, -^vithtwo white Doves, (a.s Apnlems 2lI- 
fo affirmeth) which are called the Birds of Venns. 

III. Horace 3.nd firgil affirm, that the Chariot of r>- 
nus is drawn by t'vvo white Swans, of Avhich Statim alfo 
iTiaketh mention, w^ho faith that thofe Birds are moft 
mild, innocent, and harmkfs, and therefof^ given unto 
Venui, _ ■"■ 

IV. Praxiteles an excellent Engraver in the liland of 
Gnidos, made her Image Naked, and wathout Cloths, as 
alfo did the Grecians. 

By Tvhich was fignified, that all LuxurioPM and. Licentious 
People mere,, hy their inordinate Lufls, like Beafis, depri-ned of 
Serife, and left, as it tvere. Naked, and defpoiled of Reafon, and. 
Underflanding ; and oftentimes alfo firipped thereby of their 
Riches, Goods, and Eflates. 

V. LaUantim faith, that the Lacedemonians framed and 
compofed the Image di Venus all Armed like a Warrior, 
holding in oiie hand a Spear, in the other a Shield or 

And this reas hy reafon of a certain ViBory which the Wo^ 
wen of that Place got over their Enemies, the People o/Mef- 
fenia, which fnccefs ihey fuppofed to have proceeded from the 
Poveer and Affifance of Venus, as infpiring thsfe Womens 
Hearts with Courage, Stout nefs and Refolation. 

VI. She is alfo depi6led with Yellow Hair, attired with 
Black J a Scarlet, or elfe Dun-coloured Robe. 


Horv the Ancients depi^ed Mercury. 

I. "Tp H E Ancients defcribed him in the fhape of a 
-■• » Young Man without a Beard, with two fmall 
Wings fixed behind his Shoulders and Ears, his Body al- 
moft all Naked, fave that from his Shoulders depended 
a thin Veil, which Avinded and compared about all his 
Body ', in his Right Hand he held a Golden Purfe, and 
in his Left a Caducens, or Snaky Staff, to wit, a {lender 
\Vhite Wand, ab^ut which two Serpents do annodate 

C c and 

5 54 Polygraphkes Lib. IV. 

and entwinerthemfelves, whofe Heads meet together juft 
at the top, as their Tails do at the lower end. 

This rcjemhlc.nce wa.^ called Concordia or Signum Pacis ; 
upon which it came to pafs, that Amhajfah'ArSj and great 
Men in matters of St ale ^ carried always in their hand Jnch 
a hie Staff", and were called Cadiiceators. 

II. Aptilems ymttxh that A^ercury was a very youth, 
having very l"hort Hair on his Head, of an Amber Co- 
lour, and Curled, paving for a Vertment only a liibtil 
and thin Veil made of purple Silk. 

III. Martianm Capella defcribes him young, yet of a 
ftrong and well compofed Bodj'-, with certain young 
Hairs, of ayellowini colour sprouting out of his Chin. 

IV". Patifanias faith, that in a Province of Corinth, he 
was dcpidicd like a young Man carrying a Ram upon his 
Shoulders : And that a Statue ( brought from Arcadi.i 
unto Rome ) cre6led in the Temple of Jupiter Olympicus, 
had on its Head a Helmet of Engraven Steel • and over 
his Shoulder, a Coat, who held under his Arm the Image 
of a Ram. 

V. Among fome of the Egyptians his Image was fra- 
med with a I^cad Jike a Dog's, holding in his Right Hand 
a Cadticem, or Snaky Wand ; iliaking with his Left a 
green Bough o'i Palm. 

By the Head of the Do^ was underftood fuhtihy andcraf- 
ttnefs C no Bcaji bein^ Jofubtil as a Dog ; J by the Sn^ky 
Wand, the power. of Wifdom and Eloquence in prodncing of 
Peace, Jimrnificd by the (nreen Palm. 

VI. B\- fome he was depicted in the Similitude of a 
very aged Man, his Head almoll bald, lave that on the 
fides there remained lome few Hairs, lliort and curled ; 
his Looks grim, fevere and fovvre ; his Complexion of a 
tawny, ancient hue ; his upper Garment, of a Lions 
skin; in his Right Hand a huge Poll-ax, in his Left 
Hand an Iron Bow 3 at his Back hanging a Quiver of 
Stecl-hcadcd Arrows ; to the end of his Tongue were 
faftned many fmall chains o^ Gold, at whole ends were 
tied multitudes of all forts of Men, which he fecmed to 
draw unto him ', looking always backward, to behold 
the innumerable Troops of People following him. 

By th:s defcription is Jignified the All-pow^rftd and Attra-* 
^ive Virttte of EloaMnce ; which by his Age is underfiood :q 
h( found only in Otd^ Wifcj and ExperioKtd Mm^ oa being 


chap. 10. Of DepEiing Diana or Luna 3 j ^ 

in thim more mature and ferfett, than in thofe of younger 
Tears^ of which Homer /peaks at large in his Commendation 
and Praife o/Neitor : from mhcfe Mouth C faith he J plen- 
tifully rolled forth .wojl pleajant and dnlcid Streams ', rphofe 
Pen difiilled Cryflalline drops of delicious Srxeetnefs j rahofe 
Wor^s and Fruits fo compleatly adorned with Golden Sen- 
fences y aJfnvJgeth the malice of Time, and mitigateth and al- 
layeth the fpight of Forgetfdnefs, that his Perpetuity is In-* 
graven in the Brafs-leavd Books of Eternal 2\demory^ never 
, to he Blotted out. ' 

VII. He is alfo drawn with long curled yellow Hair, 
in a Coat of flame colour, and with a Mantle purely 
white, triimned with Gold and Silver ; his Beaver white, 
with white Feathers, his Shoes Golden, his Rod Silver. 


Hojv the Ancients depi^ed Diana or Luna.' 


T\Iana, Cynthia, Lucina or Ltina, was, according to 
*-^ Propertitis, depicted in the likenefs of a young 
Beautiful Virgin ; having on either fide of her forehead 
t^vo fmall glirtering horns, newly putting forth, drawn 
through the Air in a Purple Coloured Coach, b^ two 
fwift paced Horfes, the one of a Sad Colour, the other of 
a White. 

Thefe tm differing Horfes, Boccslcc faith, Jherv that Jhe 
hath power both in the Day and Night. 

II. Claudianus faith, that her Chariot is drawn by two 
White Bullocks, ( which Image the Egyptians worfhipped 
with great zeal and reverence) having one of their flanks 
befpotted with divers Stars, and on their heads two fuch 
fharp horns as the Moon hath in her chiefeft Wane. 

III. OVfro defcribes her Statue ( which he brought out 
of a Temple in CiliciaJ of a wonderful height, and large 
dimenfion, the whole Body covered with a large thin 
Veil, of a youthful Afpe<ft, holding in her right hand a 
lively burning Torch, and in her left an Ivory Bow, 
with a Qjiiver of Silver-headed Arrows Iianging at het 

C c 2 IV, The 

^l6 Polj>graphices Lib. IV. 

IV. The Poets (who call her the Goddefs of Hunting, 
and Imperial Govcrnefs of Woods and Groves ) defcribe 
her in the habit of a young Nymph, Avith her Bow ready 
bent in her hand, and a Quiver of Arrows hanging by 
her left fide ; a fwift paced Grey-hound fall tyed to her 
right fide, with a Collar about his Neck ; and after her 
followed Troops o^ Sylvan J^irginsy w^hich are Chart, and 
are called the Nymphs of Diana. 

V. Thefe Virgins and Votrcfies of the Goddefs, are 
thus, defcribed. 

Scarce mounted Sol upon his glorious Car, 
When o're the lofty Hills, and lowly Plain^ 
Running yon might perceive afar 
-A Troop of Amaz,ons to poji amain : 
But nhen they nearer came unto yo>ir vieiv, 
Tou might difcern Diana and her Crerv. 
A carelejs Crejv of lively Nymphs, dcjpifmg 
The joyous Pleafures and Delights of Love ; 
Wafiing their Days in Rural Sports dcvifing : 
which knovc no other, nor mil other prove. 
Wing'd nith defire to overtake the chafe, 
Affay they jiung rfith unrcjilied pace. 
Their Necks and purple Veined Arms arc hare. 
And from their Ivory Shoulders to their Knee, 
A Silken Vej}v:ent o're their Skin they ware, 
Through nhich a piercing Eye might chance to fee. 
Cloje to their Bodies is the Jamc engiried, 
Bedeck'd faith plcafin^ fion-ers there injertcd. 
Each in her Hand a Silver Bow doth hold, 
IVith -u ell- ft or d Quivers hanging at- their Backs :' 
Whofe Arroixs being /pent they may be bold 
To borrow irecly of each others Packs. 

Thns are thefe nimble skipping Nymphs diflday'd, 
77m do attend that Goddefs, Qneen and Aia'id. 

VI. In Arcadia, faith Paufanias, was a Statue of Diana, 
covered over with the skin ot a Hind, and from her llioul- 
ders hung a Quiver of Arrows ; in one Hand a burning 
Lamp, the other leaning upon the Heads of two Ser- 
pents, and before her Feet a Hound. 

VII. The Egyptians worlhipped her under the name 
of IJis f and dcpi(5tured her covered with a Black and 


Chap. II. Of DeftCiing Janus. 957 

Sable Veftment, in token that (lie her felf giveth no 
light ; holding in one hand a Cymbal, in the other an 
Earthen Vefi'el of Water, upon which, as Servim laith, 
many thought her to be the Genius of Egypt. 

By the Cymbal is Jhewed the murmurings and roarings of 
Nilus, If hen it overflows Egypt ; and by the other veJJeJ the 
nature of the Conntry, which is moijf and fnll of Lakes, Pools 
and Rivers. 

VIII. She is alfo depided with Yellow Hair, a Grafs 
Green Mantle, trimmed with Silver ; Buskins Silver ; 
Bow Golden, Qiiiver of various Colours. 

IX. Nymphte Diana in White Linnen to denote their 
Virginity, and their Garments girt about them, their 
Arms and Shoulders naked, Bows in their Hands, and 
Arrows by their Sides. 


Hotp the Ancients depi^ed Janus, 

I. TAnas is depicted with two Faces ; in. the one of his 
J Hands is a long Rod or Wand ; in the other a 


The two Faces of]a.nusJtgnifie time ; the one being wither- 
ed and hoary, fJyews time paji, the other Tottthful and Beard- 
lefs, time to come. 

II. Pliny laith that Numa, King of the Romans, caufed 
the Statue of Janus to be hewed out in inch fort, that the 
Fingers of his' Hands appeared to be thiee hundi'ed fixty 
five, to lliew that he was God of the Year, whereupon 
they called the firft Month in the Year Januarius, from 
Janus their God. 

Under the Feet of Janus are oftentimes placed twelve Al- 
tars, fhemng thereby the A4onths of the Tear, or Signs of the 
Zodiacl, thro" which Sol males his Revolution. 

III. The Phcemcians, as Cicero and A^acrobius report, 
framed his Image in the form of a Serpent, holding hec 
Tail in her Mouth, and continually turning round. 

IV. Some depidied Janus with four Faces, ( as were 
thofe Statues wjnich were found in divers places oiTuf- 
£/inj/, Cc 3 By 

3 J » Polygyaphices Lib. IV. 

By the four Faces nere fignified the fonr Seajons of the Tear y 
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter : which fome think 
to he Venus, Ceres, Bacchus and Vulcan ; and fometimes 
the Winds ^rvith Mollis, their Cowr^j and r. 

CHAP. xir. 

How the Ancknts depi^ed Aurora, 

I. TjOmer defcribes her like a young Virgin, having her 
•*^ Hair dil"hevelled, and hanging loofe about her 
{houlders, being oFthe colour of the purefi Gold, fitting 
in a Golden Chair, with all her Veftments of that hue 
and colour. 

II. ^irgil faith, that upon the inftant time of the Sa- 
ble Nights departiire, llie coineth with one of her hands 
full of Rofes, Gilliflowers and Lillies, taken out ofa Bas- 
ket which fhe carries in the other hand, which fhe be- 
fpiinkles on the Marble Pavement of the lower Heavens, 
adorning the Sun with unfpeakablc Beauty. 

III. Others defcribe her, holding in one hand a fla- 
jning Torch, and drawn in a Gorgeous and Star-befpot- 
ted Chariot, by winged Pegtufus j whidi favour fhe ob- 
tained of Jnpiter by many importunate rcqucits, pre- 
fently after thedownfal of Bellerophon. 

IV. She is as it were the Herald and Meffenger oi' Pha- 
Iffs, who receives her being from the Virtue of his Beams ; 
and is no other but that Rubicund and Vermillion blulh 
in Heaven, which Sol's firit appearance workcth in the 
Orient, and from thence defccnding, beautifies our Hcmi- 
Jphere with fiich a rcfplendency. 

V. She is alfo depicted m a purple Robe, in a blue 
Mantle fring'd with Silver. , 


Chap. I g . Of BepBing Juno. 3 \ 9 


Hov9 the Ancients delisted Juno. 

I. CHE was fet forth by the Ancients like a middle 
^ aged Woman holding in one hand a Silver Veffel, 
in the other a lliarp Spear ; and Homer faith fhe was 
drawn in a Chariot gliftering with Precious Stones ; 
whofe Wheels were Ebony, and their Nails fine Silver, 
mounted upon a Silver Seat ; and drawn with Horfes, 
which were faftned with Chains of Gold. 

IL She is oftentimes depided with a Scepter in her 
hand, to fliew that fhe hath the beftowing of Govern- 
ments, Authorities and Kingdoms. 

III. Martianm depi6ls her ( fitting in a Chair under 
Jupiter ) with a thin Veil over her Head, with a Coro- 
net upon it, inchafed and adorned with many Precious 
Jewels \ her inward Veftment fine and glittering, over 
which depended a Mantle of a fad darkifh colour, yet 
with a fecret iLining Beauty ; her Shoes of an obfcure 
and fable colour r, in her right Hand a Thunderbolt ^ and 
in her other a loud noifed Cymbal. 

IV. Paufanioi faith that in a Temple in Corinth, her 
Statue ( made of Gold and Ivory ) was adorned with a 
glorious Crown, on which was infculped the Pictures of 
the Graces j with a Pomegranate in the one hand, and a 
Scepter(on the top of ^vhich was a Cuckow) in the other : 
for that Jupiter, when he was firft enamoured of Jttno, 
transformed himfelf into that Bird. 

Torching this Story ( and others of like kind ) Paufanias 
faith, that althongh he did not believe fuch things to he true, 
nor any others, which are fo written of the Gods -, yet, faith 
he, they are not altogether to be reje^ed, in that there were 
nofpich things, as reported, bm that they were impleated and, 
filled with Myjieries, and carried in themfelves an inward 
meaning, and fecret underfiandin^, the which no doubt fome 
might by their writings have unfhado^ed, if the Tyranny of 
fore-paffed times had not deflroyed and obliterated the fame. 

V. TertHUian writeth, that in Argos, a City in Greece, 
the Statue of Juno was covered all over with the boughs 

Cc4 ~ ' of 

54© Polygrdfhtces Lib. IV. 

of a Vine, and underneath her Feet lay the skin of a 
Lion, which difcovered the hatred and difdain llie bare 
towards Bacchm and Hercules, to whohi ( as the Poets 
fay) {"he was Step-mother. 

VT. Some have Painted her a middle aged Woman, 
holding in one Hand a Poppey-flower, or Head : with a 
Yoke, or pair of Fetters lying at her Feet. 

By the Tohe vfM meant the Band of A^farria^e, which tyeth 
Alan, and Wife together : And by the Poppey, fruit fnlnejs, or 
the innumerable ijjfue of Children, nhich are brotight forth 
into the Worl I C flgnified by the roundnefs of the Poppey heady 
and its nnmberlefs Seeds therein contained. J From hence ma- 
ny fuppole her to be the Goddjfs of Marriage, 

VII. She is alfo Painted wnth Black Hair and Eyes, 
adorned wnth a Sky-coloured Mantle, or Pied j wrought 
•with Gold and Peacocks Eyes, like the Orient Circles in 
the Peacocks Train. 


How the Ancients depi^ied. Ops nndTtWrn, 

I. \A Artiantis faith, that Ops ( the Wife o^ Saturn ) is 
an Old Woman, of great bignefs, continually 
bringing forth Children, with "whom llie is encompaffed 
and fet round, going in a Green Veftment, with a Veil 
over her Body, Ipotted Avith divers cokairs, wrought with 
infinite curious knots, and fet with all forts of Gems and 

II. Farro ( out of Boccace ) thus detcribes her : She is 
Crowned ( faith he) with a Crown infculpt with Ca- 
illes and Towers ; her Apparel Green, ovcrlhacicd with 
Boughs ; in the one hand a Scepter, in the other a Ball 
orGbbc • "and near to hiv a Ch:uiot of four Wheels, 
drawn by four Lions. 

By the Cro-An is ftgnifcd the IIMtations cf the Earth ; by 
the Greennf's :ind Bo'.tghs, the Increafe thereof ; by the Scep- 
ter, the KwgdotT/s and Govenr-Kcnts of the Wolhi; by the 
Fall, the rojmdnejs thereof : by rhe Chariot, the continual 
Amotion, Change and Alteration of Things- : by the Lions, the 
: ■ ^ ' ' WI-!o>n 

Chap. 15. Of DepiBing Neptune. 541 

Wifdom and Strength of Mankind, by rshich things tire car- 
ried on and managed. 

III. Ifidorm faith, that this Goddefs was Painted hold- 
ing a Key in one of her hands : which fhews, that in the 
\Vinter the Bowels of the Earth are Locked up by reafon 
of cold ; which at the approach of Spring and Summer 
are unlocked again. 

IV. She was I'ometimes depifted in the form of an 
Ancient Woman, having her Head Circumcindl with 
Ears of Corn, holding in her hand a Poppey-head ; drawn 
in a Chariot (as Orpheta faith ) with two fierce and un- 
tamed Dragons. 

V. The Earth is alfo called Ceres, which many hare 
depi6led with Torches, Lights and Fire-brands in her 
Hands ; as Praxiteles in a Temple, feated upon a Pro- 
montory of Attica. 

VI. She is alfo Pi6lured in a long Green Mantle. 


Horv the Ancients depicted Neptune, and the Sea 

I. 'VT£pm«f among the Ancients is depainted with Ic- 
-^^ veral Countenances, fometimes with Mild and. 
Pleafant Looks, ibmetimes with Lowring and Sad, and 
at other times with a Mad, Furious and Angry Afpecl 5 
Naked, holding in his Hand a Silver Trident or forked 
Mace, (landing upright in the Concavity of a great Sea 
Shell, forcibly drawn by two Monttrous Horfes, which 
from the middle downwards have the proportion and 
lliape of Fillies, as Static fiith. 

• That variety of AfpeEts (according to Virgil and Ho- 
mer ) is given him from the Sea, in that it at Jundry times 
Jhen-eth it felf fo : And the Trident, the three Gulfs of the 
Alediterranean Sea. 

II. Som.etimes he is depainted with a thin Veil hang- 
ing over one oi his Shoulders, of a Cerulean or Blewilh 

III. Lmanns i^ttQth him down with marvellous Ion? 


542 Poly^raphices Lib. IV. 

Hair hanging down over his Shouders, of a very Sad and 
Darkifli Coloui- 

Tet SzxvwxsKini others affirnf, that nil the Gods of the Se.i 
ttere for the nicjl part in the fhaps of Old Men with White 
and Hoary Hairs, proceeding from the Froth or Spnme of the 

IV. Plato defcribes him in a fi.imptuous Chariot, hold- 
ing in one hand the Reins of a Bridle : in the other a 
Whip, drawn by Sea-Horfes Galloping. 

V. Adartianas defcribes him of a Greenifh Complexi- 
on, wearing a White Crown : figniiying thereby the 
Spume and Froth of the Sea. 

VI. GlaucHs ( another Sea God ) faith Philojiratus, hath 
a long white Beard and Hair, foft and dropping about 
his Shoulders, his Eyes green and gliftering ; his Brows 
fiill of wrinkle?, and green fpots ; his Brefl: all over- 
grown with greenifh Sea-weed, or Mofs, his Belly, and 
from thence downwards, Fil"h-like, full of Fins and Scales. 

VII. Galatea ( a Se;a Goddefs ) is defcribed ( by the 
faid Philolirattis ) to be drawn in a ftrange framed Cha- 
itot, by tAvo mighty Dolphins, which were guided by 
two Silver Reins held in the hands of old Tritons daugh- 
ters ; over her head, a Canopy made of Purple, Silk, and 
Silver, with her Hair hanging careleQy over her Shoul- 
ders. See her defcribed oi a JMymph^ Chap. 32. Se^l.y. 

VIII. Oceanus, ( the Father of all the Sea Gods ) faith 
Thales Milffiiu, is depainted, drawn on a glorious Cha- 
riot, accompanied and attended with a mighty company 
cf Nymphs ; with tlie Face of an Old Man, and a long 
white Beard. 

IX. <t/£oliis is depainted with f^voln blub Cheeks, like 
one tJKit with main force fliives to blow a blaft ; two 
final I Wings upon his Shoulders, and a fiery high Coun- 

He is called the God and Ruler of the Winds, whofe dejcri- 
fticns are in Chap. 34. of this Book. 

X. Thetis ( another Sea Goddef ) is dcpidled by the 
fixth Sedion of the t^vo and tliiitieth Chapter ol this 

XL Neptune is alfo dcpi6led with long hoary Hair, in a 
Blue or Sea-green Mantle trimmed with Silver, riding in 
a Blue Chariot, or on a Dolphin of Brown Black Colour, 
With a Silver Trident in liis liand. 


Chap. 1 6. Of Defining Nemefis. 545 

CHAP. xvr. 

How the Ancients dep0ed Nemefis. 

I. C H E was by Macrohius defcribed with Wings Ofi 
_ her Shoulders ; hard by her fide the Rudder of a 
Ship, iTie her lelf ftanding upright upon a round Wheel ; 
holding in her Right Hand a Golden Ball, in the other 
a Whip. 

II. She is often depided, holding a Bridle of an Horfe 
in one hand, and in the other a Staff. 

III. Chryfippm ( as Aulns Ge'lllm faith ) defcribes her 
like a young Virgin, beautiful and modeft, with an Eye 
prying round about her, for which caufe the Ancients 
called her the all difcerning Lady. 

Th'u Nemefis, as Paufanias and, Ammianus Marcel- 
linusy^^, ^904 held to he the GoMejl of PHnijJmiems^ tvho ca- 
ftigates the offences ofAfalefa^ors, mith Pains and Torments 
according to their Sins and Demerits • and Rewarding the 
VertHom mth Honour and Dignities : She was the Daughter 
of Jufiitia C i^ho dwells and inhabits very fecretly within the 
HoPife of Eternity J recording the offences of the wicked J and 
a mofi fever e and cruel pimifher of arrogancy and vain-glory. 
Macrobius faith, that this Nemefis was adored among the 
Egyptians (hy them called alfo Rhamnufia ) as the reven- 
ger and chief Enemy of Pride, Infolency, and Haughtinefs ; 
and that fhe had eretl and dedicated unto her; a mofi [lately 
and magni^ck Statue of Marble. 


How the Ancients deputed Pan. 

l.'OAN (the God of Flocks and Sheep) is from the 
■*■ middle upwards in proportion like a Man, with 
his Face ruddy and fanguine, being very hairy -, his Skin 
and Breft covered with the Skin of a fpotted Dos or Leo- 
nard i 

^44 Folygraphicts Lib. I V. 

pard ; in the one hand q Shepherds Hook, in the other a 
Whiftle : from the middle downwards the perfect lliape 
of a Goat, in Thighs, Legs and Feet. 

II. jf(ij}inc fiiith, that Pan's Stauie was made in a Tem- 
ple in Rome, near the HiU Palatine^ appearing to the view 
all Naked, laving that it was flightly enlliadowed and 
covered with a Goats Skin. 

Thereby is fignifieA that ( as it vpoi reputed in thofe Days J 
Pan kept his habitation a?r,(mg Hills, Woods and Groves, rtho 
vpas indeed mcfi of any Adored and Worfhipped by Shepherds, as 
he that had the peculiar Care and Government of their Flocks. 

III. Goat-ear d Va.n, his [wall tipt nem grown horns 
Advance then; [elves, about rfhofe cither fide 

A fioyf'ry Garland twines, and there adorns 
His curled Temples rtith a wonA'roin Pride. 
His Face is of a hiirh and reddi'h blufh. 
From nhich hangs donn a ft iff roiigh Beard or buJJ?^ 
And for his Bodies ve(lnre he doth wear 
The fine/} skin of the mcj} J potted Doe, 
That ever any in thofe Woods did bear. 
Which from his Sho'dder loofe hangs to his Toe. 
And when he r^alks, he carries in his hand 
A Sl^cpherds Hooky made of a knotlefs Wand. 

ServiHs £iith, by the horns is fignificd either the Beams 
of the Sun, or New of the Moon, at what time llie is 
Horned : his red Face fignifies the Element of Fire : his 
long Beard, the Air : Ids Ipotted Garment, the Starry 
Firmament : his Shepherds Hook, the Rule and Govern- 
ment of Nature. 

I v. After the form of Pan were the 'Fams, SylvanSy 
Satyrs and Fairies fet forth, having little Jliort horns grow- 
irj|i on their heads, with linall ears and lliort tails. 

Thcfe are held among fome people in very great rez^ard and 
chfervance, being o'^a wonderful f peed in running. Plutarch 
vritethj that there nxs one of thefe bro-Aght and prefented for 
4 rare zift unto S)[[a., as he returned from the Wars againfi 

V. Pla'to underftandeth by Pan, Rcafon and Know- 
ledge ; which is twofold ; the one of ,1 Man, the other of 
a Beaft ; by the upper pait of Pan, he iignifics Truth, ac- 
companied with Keafon, which being Divine, lifteth Man 


Chap. 18. Of Dtf'iBing Pluto- ^4 5 

up towards Heaven : by the lower parts of him is ugni- 
fied the Fallenels, BeafUinefs and Rudenefsof thofe, who 
living herein the World, are only delighted with the 
Pleaiiires and Foolilli Vanities thereof. 


How the Ancknts de^iSied Pluto, 

I. \/lArtianm faith, that Pluto fitteth ( in the lower Re- 
^^^ gion ) Majefiically in a Chair, holding in one of 
his Hands a black Imperial Scepter, and on his Head a 
ilately Crown ; at whofe Left Hand fitteth his WifePro- 
Jerpina, attended with many Furies, and Evil Spirits, and 
at whofe Feet lieth chained the Dog Cerherm, 

II. The Ancients alfo hav^e painted him in a Chariot, 
drawn with four iurious black Horfes, from whofe 
fiery Noftrils proceedeth thick and ill-favoured Smoak, as 
Claudianus faith. 

III. Some lay, that his Head is encircled with a Gar- 
land o^Cyprefs leaves ; others with Narcijfm leaves. 

The firfi p:>ew Sadnefs and Horrour, afed in Burials, and 
ahom the Dead : the other more grateful, and are ujed in 
memory of the untimely Death of that Touth. 

' IV. Charon C Pluto's Ferriman, w^hich carries Souls over 
the three Rivers of Hell, Acheron, Cocytm, and Styx J is 
defcribed old, yet exceeding ihong, with a black Mantle 
hanging loolely over his Shoulders, as Boccace and Servius 

By Charon f; under jiood time ; and whereas he is fuppofed 
to have the tranfportation of Souls from the one fide of thofe 
Rivers to the other ^ thereby is jlgnified, that time,Jofoon asji't 
are born and brought forth into the World, doth carry us along 
ly little and little unto our deaths ; and Jo fetteth us over thoje 
Rivers, mhofe names, by interpretation, fignifie Sorrovpfulnsjs^ 
for that vpepajs this Life rpith Adifery and Adverfity. 

V. He is alfo depiaed with long'^urls^t black Hair ] in 
a Robe of Cloth of Geld, 


54<5 Folygrafhices Lib. IV. 


UoTiV the Ancients Depi^ed the Parcae, or Siflers, 

I. 'T^ H E Sirters, ivhich are called Parcdj are faid to at- 
-■- tend upon Pluto, which are three, and are called 
ClothOf Lache/is and Atropos. 

II. Clotho takes the charge of the Births and Nativi- 
ties of Mortals : Lache/is of all the rell of their Life ; and 
Atropos of their Death, or Departure out of this World. 

III. They arc all three depicted fitting on a row, very 
bufily employed in their leveral Offices ; the youngelt 
Sifter drawing out of a Diltaff a reafonable big Thread : 
the lecond winding it about a Wheel, and turning the 
lame, till it becomes little and flender : the eldeft (which 
is Aged and Decrepit) ttood ready with her Knife, when 
it lliould be Spun, to cut it off. 

IV. And they are defcribed to be inverted with white 
Veils, and little Coronets on their Heads, wreathed a- 
bout with Garlands made of Flowers of NarcijJHi. 


How the Ancients Depi^ed Minerva, or Pallas. 

1. \Alnerva, (as taken for Bcllona) as Licophrones faith, 
^^ was depided with a flaming Fire-brand in her 
Hand by the Ancients- 

II. Molt Writers have defcribed Minerva in the fhape 
of a young Woman, o^ a lively and.frci"h Countenance, 
yet of an angry look, fix'd Itcdfaft Eye, of a blcwilh green 
colour, complcatly armed at all Weapons, with a long 
Spear in the on9 Hand, and in the other a Cryftal Shield, 
or Target : upon her Helmet a Garland of Olive Branch- 
es, and two Children, Fear and Horror by her fide, with 
naked Knives in their Hands, fveming to tlireatcn one 

III. Pati- 

Chap. 21. Of Dep^ing Vulcan. 547 

III. PaHJanlu faith, that in Greece the Statue oi Mi- 
nerva was made with 2.n Helmet, on the top of which 
was the Shape of a Sfhynx; and on the fides thereof two 
Can'^ed Grifjins. ' , 

IV. Phidias making her Statue in Greece, placed on 
the top of her Hehnet the form of a Cock. 

V. She was alfo painted in Greece, fitting on a Stool, 
and drawing forth little fmali Threads from a Diftaff ; 
for that the Ancients fuppofed her to be the Inventreis 
of Spinning, and the like. 

VI. Lajily, She is depidled with a blew Mantle Em- 
broidered with Silver: and is called the Goddefs of 


How the Ancients Depi^ed Vulcan. 

I. 'VT^lcan is depifted ftanding, working and hammer- , 

y ing in a Smiths Forge, on the Hill (L/Etna, fra- 
ming Thunderbols for J«/7iffr,and fafhioning Arrows 'for 
the God of Love. The Opinions rvhich the Ancients had of 
Vulcan vpere varioti^, in nhich refpeU he iajhaped Jome times 
in one form^ fome times in another- 

' II. Some make him Lame of one Leg, of a very black 
and fwarthy Complexion, as it were all fmxoaky ; of a 
general ill iLaped proportion in all his Lineaments ; and 
becaufe that he is the Husband of Venus , often depidlure 
her with him. 

III. Alexander Neapolitanu5Xt\2ittthj that in one place 
o^ Egypt was ereded the Statue c£ Vulcan, which held in 
one of its Hands the true and lively Proportion of a Mole, 
and in his other Hand a Thunderbolt. 

The Mole mas fo placed, hecatife they thought he fsnt nn- 
fpeakahle numhers of Moles among them, as a Plague to them^ 
Tvhich did eat, gnaw and dejiroy every thing -which tsm * 

IV. . He is alfo paiijted Lame ija a Scarlet Robe. 


J48 Polygraphiees. Lib. IV. 

CHAP. xxir. 

How the Ancients Depicted Bacchus. 

J.T^Hilofrratiti faith, that his Statue was framed in the 
-*- likenefs of a young Man without a Beard, of a cor- 
pulent and grofs Body, his Face of an high colour and 
big; about his Head a Garland of Ivy Leaves; upon his 
Temples two fmall Horns; and dole by his Side a cer- 
tain Bea(t, called a Leopard or Panther. 

This Defcription is dn^^rtn from the nature of Win*, ((*[ 
Tfhichj oi the Poets feign, Bacchus is the God) vehofc Inven- 
ter and Finder ottt rvai certainly Noah, vchich not only Mofes, 
hut alfo Jolephus rt«r/ Ladlantius Ipecially affirm ; veherefore 
fame fuppofe him to be this God Bacchus. 

II. Clandianus faith, that his Image or Statue is mad\s 
all naked ; thereby iTiewing the Nakednefs orthofe which 
abufe thcmfelves with Wine, by which they reveal and 
open thofe things which ought to be concealed and kept 

III. Diodornf Siculm faith, that B^dms among the 
Grecians was depid^cd in two fcveral forms, the one of a 
very aged Man, with a long Beard, (lift" and thick, the 
other of youthtul year?, of a pleaiant and amorous Af- 

By fhe firjl is flxned the (ffe^Ts of the intemperate life of 
Wine, rdoich overcQ-mci Natsire, and brings with it old Age : 
hy the other, hoiv it Cherijlxs and Revives the Heart, ttfcd 

IV. Aiacrohisis f lith, that Bacchus Avas framed fome- 
times in the likenefs ot a young Child, Ibmetimcs of a 
Youth, Ibmetimes of a Man ; and lometimes in the like- 
nefs of decrepit old Age. 

By theje was fignified the four Seafons of the Year, the Vine 
"being dedicated to Sol, in whom they all exijl. 

V. This Piflure was made m the likenefs of a Br.ll, 
among the Cyrenians, (a People Inhabiting the farther 
part of Perfu.J 

The reafon hereof yeas, becaufe Profeypina (^r/;^ Danghter 
cf love") iroHzht him forth in that form, 

^ WhPhik^ 

Chap.2.j. Of Dep/c^wg fortune. 549 

VI. Philojhatus Ikith, that Bacchus was oftentimes 
drawn cloathed in Womens Garments, and in a long 
purple Robe ; wearing upon his Head a Coronet of Rofes, 
with Companions and Followers, all of them in like 
loofe and wanton Garments, falliioning themfelves fome 
like Rural Nymphs^ as the Dryadcs, Oreades, &"c. fome 
like Sea Nymphs, as the Nereides^ Syrens., &c. Ibme like 
Satyres, Fauns and Sylvans, &c. 

The Womens Garments Jhere, that Wine males a Man 
Taint, Feeble and Unconjiant, like to a Woman. 

VII. Paufanias faith, that among the Eleans, the Pi- 
6lure of Bacchus was made with a long Beard, and 
cloathed with a long Gown hanging to the Feet ; in one 
Hand a fharp Hook, and in the other a Bowl of Wine, 
and round about him many Vine-trees and other fruitful 

VIII. The Statue of Bacchus alfo Avas fometimes fet 
forth and adorned with Coronets made of Fig-tree Leaves, 
in Memory of a Nymph (as fome fay) called Pfyche,-w\n.Qh. 
was by the Gods Metamorphofed into that Plant. 

In like manner the Nymph Staphilis (on whom Bacchus 
rtas alfo Enamoured) mas Transformed into the P^ine, from 
Tuhence it is that thofe Plants are fo exceeding grateful and 
pleafant unto this God. 

IX. He is painted alfo with iliort brown curled Hair, 
with a Leopards Skin, or in a green Mantle, a tawny 
Face, with a Wreath of Vine Branches. 


Horp the Ancients Depi^ed Fortune. 

I. T^Ortune was depided by fome -^vith two Faces, one 
^ white and well-favoured; the other black and- 

And this was, hecaitfe it was held, that there were two For- 
tunes, the one good, from whom came Riches, Happineji, 
Quiet, Content and Pleafure : the other had, from whom came 
Wars, AffliEiions, Crops, Vifafiers, CdamitieSj and all o- 
therMiJeries rphatfoevtr' 

P4 H. The 

^S'o Polygraphkes -Lib. IV. 

II. The Thehcam wmi'Xq. her in the Hiapeof a Woman ; 
in one of her Hands a young Child, to wii, Plmo or 

• So thr.r in the H.inds of Fortune, they put the difpofing of 
We.^l hy Hosv^ur, Glory ^ and dl Hiippmcjfes. 

III. Ad,irilnnm dclcribes her a youno; Woman, al- 
wa5's moving; covered with a Garment of the thinned 
Silk; her ftcps uncertain, never refting long in a place; 
carrying in hcrlpacious Lap the univerfaf fulnels ot" the 
Trcafurce, rs.iches, Honour and Glory of this World ,- 
which in lia{}:y nianner (with her Hand)"llie offers; which 
Qfler, if not infbntly received, m-rs utterly loll; in her 
Right Hand a white Wand, with which ilie finitcs iiich 
as Offend her, flight her Kindnefs, or are not nimble 
enough to receive them. An old Poet thus fung : 

Oh cruel Fortune, S.epdame to all Joys, 
That difmhcrit'li m frofv fneet Content, 
PhmginF^ onr Hopes ih troubled Seas annoys j 
D'pnvw2^ f!\ of that rvlrch Nature lent! 
When will thy proud ipfdting HmnoHr ceafe, 
T' alfwnge tl?e Sorrows of an only one? 
Thai free from care, its Soul may live, in peace, 
j^nd not be Adetan'orphos'd into Sione. 
But nhy entreat I thy un (table Heart, 
Kr.oning thy gre^te]} Phafure, thy Delight 
Cunfifts in aggravating Agonal s jhtart 
Poijond niih Woes, by l^enoM of thy Spi^ht f 
'Tis what thou nih, wufl Hand, tlyerefl wufl falL 
All Hsn-ane things pay Tribute to thy A-^igh: : 
And this mu^ i'ij'c, 7vhen pUafcrh'thec to call. 
The Oiloer Perifh in a noeful Plight. 
And this is it, that chokes true Virttus Breath., 
Aiahng it Die, th'oUgh fhe ImK/nrtal be: 
Friiitleji it mahs it ', fubjeci: unto Death, 
To fatal Darkncft^ where no Eye can fee. 
Oh come yon mounded Souls, conjoin mth n;e j 
In fome adnr^ibraie Thicket let us dwell. 
Some place n-hich yet the Heavens ne'r did fee, 
There let ns bttild Jome defpicable Cell. 

Strength, Beauty perifh : Honours fy an'ay : 
And T^iih Efrates, Friends vanijh and decay. 

IV. In 

chap. 2 J. Of DefiBing Fortune* 351 

IV. In a Temple in Greece^ Fortune Avas made in tlie 
form of a grave Matron, clothed in a Garment agreeable 
to fuch Years, whoie coimrenance leenied very lad ,• be- 
fore her was placed the Image of a young Virgin of a 
beauteous and pleafant Alpe6t, holding out her hand to 
another j behind thele, the Image of a young Child, lean- 
ing with one of of its Arms upon the Matron. 

The Adatron is that Forttme, nhich is already paji ; the 
young P^iigin, that ivhich now is j and the youngChild beyond 
them bothy is that which is to come. 

V. Qitintm Cnrtins laith, that among the people of 
Scythia, Fortune was depicf ed in the form of a Woman 
without feet, having round about her at her right hand 
a number of little Wings. 

VI. Alexander Neapoliianm relateth, that in Greece, 
her Image was made Avhoily of Glafs ; to fhew that her 
favours are brittle, and lubjcil to fudden decays. 

VII. Cehcs the Philofopher refembled Fortune unto a 
Comedy, in which many Aclors appear ofter, a^ Kings 
and great Monarchs ; and prefently after become poor 
Filliermen, Slaves, Bond-men, and die like. 

VIII. Socrates compared her to a Theatre, or Com- 
mon Meeting Place, where without all Order or Obfer- 
vance Men take their Places and Seats, without reipe6t 
to the Dignity of any. 

Hereby is fheived^that [he C withoftt refpeB of birth, -worth, 
merit or jiate,) blindly, unadvifedy, and mthout any order or 
reafon, bejhrvs felicities, riches and fa'TJOurs. 

IX. In Egira, 3. City of Achaia,, Forttme W2is drayvn 
in the iliape of a Beautiflil Woman, who held in one of 
her hands a Cornucopia ; in the other, the Boy Cupid, 

By Tvhich is jignified C ^ Paufanias jaith ) that Beauty 
rc'ithout Riches avails nothing j and indeed I may jay he is 
douhly fortunate, mho in his Love enjoys the fruition of both 
Beauy and Riches : bat he is happy in the Superlative Degree, 
v^tjo, with the other tmo. meets vpith Virtue and Love aljo. 

X. Giraldpu faith, that Fortune was %vith fome depi- 
cted riding on a Horfe galloping 3 with vsrhich fwiftnels 
ihe feems to pafs invifible, after whom followeth Defli-^ 
ny with great wrath and fury, holding in her hand aa 
Iron Bow, and aiming to ftrike Fortune at the heart. 

By her jviift galkping, is fignified her mutability. See Se^c, 4. 
CI^p. 2§, vphersfhe i7tahnfor one of the Porvers. 

Dd2 CHAP. 

^52 Folygrafhices Lib. IV. 


How Vertue, Truth, Peace, Honour, Fame and 
Opinion, were depi^ed, 

I. XTErtfie in Greece was made in the form of a Pilgrim^ 
^ like a grave and aultere Woman ; fitting alone 
upon a four Iquared Stone, MelanchoUy, and leaning 
her Head upon her Knees. 

Being A Pi I grimy fhews Jl^e hath no refiing pi ace, fecure 
abode, or certain habitation upon the Earth : the form of her 
fitting, fhevps her life to be full of troubles, dangers, croffes. 
And mijeries, See Se6l. i. Chap. 30. of thts Book. 

Hsc angiifta via horrendis fcatet undique monftris, 
Et vita innumeris eit interclufa periclis. 
Sed tamen incolumes hac virtus ducit ahunnos, 
Extrema ut vitent, ne pes hinc inde vacillet. 
Proclamat longe fpes, hic limt digna laboris 
PrtEmia, & excipient mordaces gaudia curas. 
Pax, fiiiecra quies nullo temeranda dolore, 
Lstitia hic, habitant Ion gum, fine fine, per scnim*. 

Fierce Aionflcrs do this narrow paffage bonnd, 
yind deadly dangers it encompaji round. 
Tet VertHc doth her FoHon-ers fafely guide, 
Lefi they Jhould go afiray on cither fide. 
And Hope proclaims afar ; lo here you P^all 
Hime Joy for Sorrovo ; Honey for your Gall. 
Here Peace and Joyful Reft for ever dwelL 
Which neither Crufs nor time fl^all ever quell. 

II. Truth, faith Hippocrates, was framed in the fimiii- 
tude arid likenefs of a BeautifiU Woman, attired with 
Gravity and Modefty : Philofiratmid^wh that {[\q. remain- 
cth in the Cave o\Amphiarus, clothed all in white Gar- 
ments of a Beautiiiil hue : Lucianns faith, that her Sta- 
tue was made in the form of a young Woman, habi- 
ted in rags, and bale attire, with a Superfcription over 
her Hud, how {be was vtp^onged and ahtfed by Fortune. 

III. Peace, 


Chap. 25. Of kftding Silence y Sleep fi^c : ^55 

III. Peacey faith Arifiophanes^ was framed in the ihape 
of a young Woman, holding between her Arms the In- 
fant Plmoy tlie God of Riches, and Ruler of the lower 

Shs is alfo called Concordia, and is afpecial friend to the 
Goddefs Ceres, from nvhom comes the encreafe of Frmts, Corny 
and othernntriments . ^f^Chap. 28. Se6l.4. 

IV. Hononr is depicted with two Wings on its Shoul- 
ders ; which, as Alciams faith, was made in the form of 
a little Child, clothed in a purple Garment, having a 
Coronet or Wreath of Laurel about his Head -, holdmg 
hand in hand the God Cnjiid, who leads the Child to 
the Goddefs Venue y which is depainted right over againft 

V. Fame is Painted like a Lady, with great Wings,!' 
and feeming to proffer a flight, and to mount from the 
Earthy and rove abroad : having her Face full of Eyes ; 
and all over her Garments an infinite number of Ears 
and Tongues. See the XXI. Se^ion of the twenty ninth 
Chapter of this BooL 

VI. Opinion, faith Hippocrates, refembles a young Wo- 
man, not altogether fo fair and lovely as Truth, yet not 
deformed, or ill proportioned ; being rather impudent 
than modeftly bold in her demeanour, with her hand 
ftretched forth to take whatfoever is offered and prefien- 
ted to her. 


How Night, Sleep, Silence, Pleafure and Fear^ 
mre depicted, 

!• "^^/j^ ( the Mother of Sleep and Death ) was depi- 
"^^ ded by the Ancients in form of an old Woman, 
having two great Wings growing on her fhoulders, alt 
coal black, and fpread abroad, as if Ihe feemed to offer 
a flight ; and that ihe is cbrawn in a Chariot, whoic 
Wheels are made of Ebony : having a fad Countenance, 
and an upper Garment oi a deep black, fpotted all ovef 
with Silver ipots like Stars, as Boccm ikith ^ 

Dd 3 She 


J 54 Folygraphices Lib. IV. 

She is alfo dep'iBed like an old Wowm in a black Alamle, 
f potted mth Stars of GoU. 

II. Sleep, ( the Brother of Death) faith Hefioiy was Pain- 
ted of a moft fowre, Icnvringandfid Afpcd; a^ed, and 
holding in her left hand a young Child, very beautiful ; 
aixi in her right, another Child, of a mod fwartliy, black 
and dull Complexion, with Legs and Anns very crooked. 
Philojirattis in a Tablet ( ivhich he made for Ar^whiarm) 
makes her like an aged Woman, flothful and lluggilli, 
clotheii with feveral Ciaiments, the imder black, the up- 
per white, holding in on€ of her hands, a Horn, pouring 
forth Seed. 

By th Garment is fignified Nisrht and Day ; hy the Seedy 
Ref}[ Eai^and Q;iiet. 

III. Harpocrates ( thcGodoi Silence ) called in Grcel; 
Sigtrleor-, was made, as Martia/im and yiptileim fay, in 
likenei. of a young ChiKi, who cloie to his Lips l^eld 
oue of his Fingers, as a fign of Secrecy. Some pourtrAict 
him -without any Pace at all ; all covered with the ?kin 
oi a Wolf, painted full of Eyes and Ears: 

Shemng it to be good to See and Hear much, but to [peak 

IV. Voh4pti4 or Pleafure, was depainted a Lady, ha- 
ving a pale and lean Countenance, fitting in a Ponti- 
fical and Maieftick Chair, Embroidered and EmbolTed 
with Stars of Gold, Treading and Trampling upon 

V. Fear, faith Paufanitu, -^vfts fliaped in feveral forms 
by the Ancients 5 fometimcs with the Head of a Lion 
among the Grecians ( as on the Shield of Agamemnon : J 
and fometimes with the deformed Face and Body of a 

77;f Corinthians dedicated this PiElure fo made Mnio the 
Sons cf Medea j which mere fain for bringing J:tch fatal 
gifts to the Daughter of old Crcon, whereby f>e, and all 
thai; Regal Family perijhed, and were for ever Extin^. 

CH A P. 

Chap.26. Afitcknts depii^.Wifenten^^c. 5155 


How the Ancients depiCied fever alWifemen^ Fhi- 
lojophers, LarvgiverSj Emperonrsy KJngs and 

I. Qldonitis Apoll'mmus in the ninth Epiille of his ninth 
^ Book, faith, that the Philofopher Zettfi^^itf-is was 
Painted with a crooked Neck : Arams with a Neck 
bowed downwards : Zcno with a wrinkled Forehead. 

II. ■ Epicurus was painted with a fmooth skin : Dio- 

fenes with a hairy rough Beard : Socrates with whitilli 
fi^ht Hair. 

III. Arijhtle was paintel with a ftretched out Arm ; 
.Zf^^o^r.^^^ with a Leg fomewhat gathered up : Hemcli- 
tHs, his Eyes lliut with crving. 

IV. DemocritHs with his Lips open, as Laughing; Chry- 
ftppus with his Fingers clofe prelfed together, for num- 
bering : Epiclid with his Fingers put afundcr, for the fpace 
of meafurcs. 

v. In fbme ancient Bibles, and many Piilures yX/c)' 
fes is deicribed with horns. 

" The ground of this abfurdity was a mirtake of the 
" HehrCiV Text, in that of Alofes defcending from the 
"Mount, upon the nearnefs of the words, \^p Keren^ 
" CornMy an horn, and pp Karan, Lmcco, to ihine. The 
*' vulgar Tranflation ( oi Exodus -^i^. 29. 35. ) agrees with 
*' the tormer, to wit 5 Jgnorahat qubd cornuta e/fet fades 
" ej:is. Qsii videhant faciem Mofjs e([c comrnkm. The 
*' Tranflation of Paulas Fagiiis is otherwife, vl<>. Mofes 
** nefciebat qabd mulms ejfct fplendor gloria vahjts ejns. Ec 
'^ viAernnt plii Ifrael, cjmd nitdta ejfet claritas gloria faciei 
*' Molis. TremeVms and Junius have it thus, Ut ignoraret 
*' Mofche fplendidam ejfe faEtam cutem faciei fpta. Quod 
*^fplendida faBa effet cutis faciei Mofchis : agreeing with 
'* the Septuagint, AJi%dtseu » ^o-^n t* x?*5«^7®" tb -s-^irotri^, 
'* glorificatus efi afpetim cutis feu colons faciei. 

VI. But Mojes is generally depi(5ted with bright Hair, 
a very beautiful Vifage, with radiant Scintillations about 
his Head, in form of HoarinelSj which in Painting is 
called Glory. Dd 4 YIL^Mv« 

^$6 Polygraphlces Lib. IV. 

VIT. Alex.inder the (jreat, "vvith brown Hair, and a 
ruddy Complexion, riding upon his Horfe ; but by fome 
riding upon an Elq:>hant. 

The re (if on of thfs t6 hard to he difcerned j for at much m 
J find not in Hijiory^ that ever he ufed that beafi in hi^ Ar- 
mies^ much lejs in his own Pcrfon : except it were for that 
remarkable haitel which he foa^ht rcith Porus Kinz of India, 
7f herein re ere n^any Elephants: In rvhich himjetf C ^ti Cur- 
tius, Arianus and Plutarch relate ) tpo^ on Horfeback, the 
name of which Beafi yet lives^ and is famous in Hifiory to 
this di'^ 

VIlT. Numa Pompilitis -with white Hair Crowned with 
a Silver Bend or Diadem • his Robe Crimfon, trimmed 
•with Gold; his Mantle Yellow, trimmed with Silver 3 
his Buskins Watchet and Silver. 

IX. ey£ncas the Trojan Prince in a Purple Mantle 
trimmed with Ciold. 

X. David (the King oflfraelj with Brown Hair, a 
ruddy Complexion, and a long Beard. 

XI. Elizabeth Queen of England, pale Faced, light 
bro\vn Hair, and gray Ey'd. 

'XII. Dido Queen of Carthage in a Purple or Scarlet 
Mantle, her Under-garments Purple ; a Golden Qui- 
ver ; Hair Yellow, tyed up with Spangles and Knots of 

XIII. GuJiavHs Adolphw King oi Sweden with Yellow 

XIV. Adahomet the Turh great Prophet in Garments 
all of Green. 

XV. German Emperours in a Violet-coloured Robe, 
Watchet, or Light-coloured. 

XVI. Roman Ewperonrs, with Yellow Carrufliers Em- 
broidered with Silver ; the Labels of their Sleeves, and 
fliort Bafes of Watchet ; the under Sleeves, and long 
Stockings White ; a Laurel Wreath, with a Silver Jewel 
before : and Rays of Gold ifliim^ from the Wreath. 

XVil. Pyi.ha"or/is in White Garments with a Crown 

XVIII. Empedoclesy in Violet, Murry, or Purple, and 
fogeiurally the rell 01 thcGrccian Philofophers. 

XIX. Erajmiu Roterdamusy Ycilow Hair'd, gray Ej^'d, 
and fomewhct Pale. 

XX. The 

Chap. 27. Pahting of the Sibyls, ^^j 

XX. The Virgin Mary is commonly reprefented in 
Purple and Azure : John the Evangelifi in Scarlet : John. 
Baptifi in a Hairy Mantle : The refi of the Apojiles, in 
Green or Crimion, 


The Fainthg of the Sibyls, 

T, Qlbylla Agrippina, a Woman in Years, in a Rofeal 
*^ Garment. She is by divers Authors called ^A-]^yt)- 
tica. Said as writes, that llie Prophefied m'^y£gjpt in the 
days of Pharaoh : She Prophefied thus, That hands Jhptild 
he laid on the invifible Word, his Beamy fhall not appear, hin 
Mothers Womb JJpoil encloje him, and He C '^ho is Eternal 
Joy) jhall Weep. 

II. Sibylla Libyca, an Elderly V/oman, Crowned with 
a Garland of Flowers, in Purple Garment?. She was 
Born in Libia, (otherwife called Elijfa J and lived in the 
time of Euripides : Ldian'ti:? qivss her the fecond place 
among the Sibyls for her admiiable Predictions, viz.. The 
time dravcs on, and is not far off, vphen the God of Light fhall 
he environed with the radient bfiir-KS of the San. 

III. Sibylla Delphica, with a Black Garment, a young 
Woman with a Horn in her Hand. She was fo called, 
becaufe iht was Born at Delphos. She lived before the 
Siege of Troy, and foretold the manner of that War : 
and Prophefied of Cliriit thus ; Know him for thy Lord, 
ycho it the Son of God ; a Pcophet fhall be Born of a pure Vir" 
gin rtithout the Seed of Man. 

IV. Sibylla Phrygia, in red Garment?, having an old 
Saturnian hard favoured Face. She is fuppofed by many 
to be Cajfandra, and Prophefied very Divinely of the day 
<0i Judgment. A Trumpet ( laid ilie ) from Heaven fhall 
give a very terrible and dreadful found j all Kings fhall 
(land before the Judgment Seat of God, who will at once Judge 
both Jufi and Unjufi. 

V. Sibylla Herophila, a young Woman, very fair, in a 
Purple Garment, and Head covered with a Vail of 
J-awn. She was alfo called Erithrea, who (^SLsApollo" 


15^ Polyoraphkes Lib. IV. 

inrus Erirhretif fzyz ) was a Citizen of Erhhrea in lonui j 
{he Piophelied to the Greeks^ that they lliould overcome 
Troy : and alio of Ch^-ift, That the Earth Jhall fweat as a 
token of Judgment ; a Kingjhnll come from Heaven, vehofe 
Kingdom fhall he Everlafting. 

V i. .Sihylli Europe a, a comely young Woman, having a 
high, red-coloured Face, ri fine Vail on her Head, and 
clad in a Garment of Gold work. It is faid, that Hie 
was Born in JerafaUfn, but the place of her Birth is not 
certainly known : She Prophefied thus ; The Almighty 
fhall coj}?e accompanied' n'iih his Legions of Angels, he jhall 
realk over the Hills and Cloud::, he jhall live Poorly, and in. 
Silence jhall he bear rule. 

VII. Sibylla Perfica, with a White Vail, and a Golden 
Garment 'thz lived in the CXX. Olympiade, and was 
Born in a Town called Noe, by the Red Sea : She Pro- 
phefied thus : O Eca. h, thou fhah be trodden under foot ; 
the Son of God Jhall be Born into the Vyorld, and he Jhall 
bring to Man Salvation : the Invifible Word Jhall he made 

VIII. Sybilla Samia, a middle aged Wonmn, clothed 
in Willow w^eedsj having a Pahu m her hand. She w^as 
Bom at Fhiton in the Itle of Samos in the <t/£gean Sea, 
near Thrace : OJfiodorm fays, flie Prophefied 66%. Years 
before the Birth of Chrirt, and yet Prophefied as though 
flie had lived in his days ; vi-c. O ill advifed and indif- 
creet People of Judca, wAo did not turn to the Lord yoptr God : 
yoid' have not truly known hir/r, bat baye Crowned him mth 
Thorns ; and given him Gall to drink. 

IX. Sibylla Hellefpqntica, a young Woman in green 
Garments, with a round, lovely, frclli coloured Face • 
hokLfiig in her Left Hand a Book ; and in her Right Hand 
a Pen. She was Born in the Territories of Troy, in a 
place called A'farmifjia, near the Town ofGergitha : He- 
raclides Pontictts fays, thatllie lived in the Days of Solon, 
and Reign of Cyras, about the LX. Olympiade : She Bro- 
phefied thus ; Be evr/rforted, O Nations, call upon yonr 
God, yonr Iniquities fhall be forgiven, and yoa fhall find Mer- 
cy at the hands of th Lord. 

X. Sihylla Tibtmina, an old Woman in Purple Gar- 
ments, of a hard Vilagc, holding in her Apron the Books 
of the Sibyls. She was Born in Italy, in a Town near 
Rome, upon the Banks of the Tybt^r, from whence Ihe 


Chap. 2$. Fainting Arts ^Virtues ^kc. J59 

took her name: She Prophefied, viz,. A Branch ^941 hui 
from a fvpeet Root, a Flower floall fpring from theuce, ani 
the Spirit of the Lord [hall rcji upon it. 

XI. Epiroticay called alfo Cmmieria ; fhe is Painted 
like an old Woman in a Grotto, with a hard favoured 
Face, and in purple or dark coloured Cloths. She was 
faid to be Born near the Bofphorm -, but otjiers lay in 
Cimmeria, a Town of Campania in Italy : She Prophefied 
a while after the dettru6lion oiTroy, thus ; That a F'irgin 
P^ould bring forth a Son, roithom the help of a A^ an, an A 
noHrifh him with the milk of her Breafis. 

Xil. Cumana -, fhe is Painted like a grave Matron^ 
with a Veil, and in blue coloured Robes, hiding her feet. 
She was Born in Cuma, a Town of Campania, in Italy, and 
lived in the LV. Olympiade, in the time of Numa Pom- 
pilius, and Tarquinns Superhus : She Prophefied thus ', Af- 
ter three Days ( fays llie ) he Jhall triumph ever Death, re- 
turn to the Light, and be the firfi rtho jhall give Evidence 
to the RefpirreEiion, thereby ' to jirengthen the Faithful in the 
Hope of Eternal Life. 

XIII . Thefe Sibyls for their Prophecies of Chri/} are in high 
eficem : they are Ten in number, aj: Varro faith ; yet others 
wake Ti^elve, of which we are not fatisfied ; Boyfardus ifi 
his Treatife of Divination, befides thefe Ten, addeth Two o- 
thers, Epirotica and Cumana. 

XIV. Some, as Martianus, will have but Two ; Pliny 
and Solinus, but Three ; jElian Four ; and Salmafius but 
the flrji Seven. They are generally defer ibed as young Wo* 
men, yet fome were old, as fhe that fold the Books unto 
Tarquin, from whence we conclude the Licentia pidtoria is 
very large. 


The Painting of Arts ^ VertueSy PaJ^onSy and 
Minor Gods, 

J. A Rithmeticl is painted in cloth of Gold : Geometry 

•^ fallow feced, a green J4antle fringed with Silver, 

and a Silver wand in her right hand ; AJironomy with a 


l6o Polygraphices Lib. IV. 

Silver Crefcent on her Fore-head, an Azure Mantle, a 
VV.itchet Scarf, with Gold Stars. 

II. Faith is painted in -white Garments, with a Cup 
of Gold : Hope in blue, with a Silver Anchor : Charity in 
yellow Robes ; on her head a tyre of Gold with precious 
Stones ; her Chair Ivory. 

HI. Religion in a Silver Vail, with aGarment or Man- 
tle of white : Jii(lice in a white Robe, and a white Man- 
tle ; with a Coronet ot Silver, and white Buskins : Inno- 
cency in white. 

IV. Concord in a Sky-coloured Robe, and a Yellow 
Mantle ; Peace in White, Icattered with Stars, or a carna- 
tion Mantle frine;ed with Gold, a Vail of Silver, Green 
Buskin?, and a Palm in her hand in black ; UnMiimity 
in a blue Robe, Mantle and Buskins j with a cliaplet of 
klue Lillies. 

V. Wifdom in a white Robe, blue Mantle, feedcd with 
Stars : Larr in purple Robes, fecded with Golden Stars ; 
a Mantle of Carnation fringed with Gold ; purple and 
yellow Buskins : Govsrnmenv in Armour. 

VI. Watchfulnef in a yellow Robe ; a fable Mantle 
fiinged with Silver, and feeded Avith waking Eyes ; a 
chaplet of Turnfole ; in her Right Hand a Lamp ; in her 
Left, a BtU : Confidence in a parti-colourcd garment : 
Modefly in blue. 

VII. Etrrnity in blue, feeded with Golden Stars ; the 
Soul in wliite Garment?, branched with Gold and Pearl; 
and Crowned with a Garland of Roles ; Felicity in pur- 
ple trimmed with Silver. 

VIII. Love in Crimfon fringed with Gold, a flame- 
colourcd Mantle, a chaplet of red and white Rofes : Ne- 
utral ^jfeciion, in Citron colour ; Envyy'm a difcolourcd 
Garment full of Eyes. 

IX. Joy, in a green Robe, and a Mmtle of divers co- 
lours, embroidered with Flowers ; a Garland of Myrtle ; 
in her Right Hand a CryRal Cruife, in her Left a Golden 
Cup : Pleajure in light Garments, trimmed with Silver 
and Gold r Laughter in feveral colours. 

X. Wii, in a aifcolourcd Mantle : Jollity, in flame co- 
lour : Fcifiime in purple trimmed with Gold. 

XI. Opinion in black Velvet, black Cap, with a white 
fall : Imptdence^ in a party-colourcd garment ; Audofityy 
in bluilL colour. 

XII. /fo-. 

Chap. 28. Painting Arts yVertues^ he, i6i 

XII. Honour J in a purple Robe, wrought with Gold : 
Liberty y in white : Safety, in Carnation. 

XIII. Cupid was painted ( by Zeaxis ) in a green Robe : 
Hymen in long yellow hair, in a Purple or Saffron co- 
loured Mantle : Ti-iton ( Nepttmes Trumpeter ) with a 
blue Skin, in a purple Mantle. 

XIV. Urania, in a Mantle of azure, filled with Lamps : 
'j4(irea the Goddefs of Juftice, in a Crimfon Mantle, trim- 
med with Silver : Graces all alike, as Sifters, in Silver 

XV. Telhsj the Goddefs of the Earth in a green Man- 
tle : Ceres, with yellow hair, and a firaw-coloured Man- 
tle trimmed with Silver : V'efia, daughter of Saturn^ in 
white Garments filled with flames. 

XVI. Flora in a black Mantle, of divers colours : Profer^ 
pine in a black Mantle trimmed with Gold flames : Echo, 
( theGoddefs of the Air, and Daughter of Speech, the en- 
tirely beloved of Pan J is an invifible Goddefs. 

XVII. Aufonm G alius reporteth that llie hath often- 
times diffwaded, and reprehended fuch, who would un- 
dertake to depaint her, and repeats the fame in an Epi- 
gram, whofe fence in Englijh is this : 

Sm-ceafe tlyoa medlin^ Artiji thy endeavour. 

Who for thy skill hafi reapt ftich long livdfame : 
Strive not to paint my Body, Shape, for nevrr 

Did any humane Eyes behold the fame. 
In concave Caverns of the Earth I dwell, 
• Daughter o'th' Air, and of each tailing Voice y 
In Woods and hollovp Dales I build my Cell, 

Joying to re-report the leafi heard noife. 
To grief oppreji, and Men difcon folate, 

That tell each Grove their Souls vexation^ 
Their dying Agonies I aggravate, 
By their dole accents iteration. 

ylnd he that will defcribe my form aright^ 
Mufi fhape iiformlejs jound^ or airyfprite. 


^62 Pol/gra^jtces Lib. IV. 


7o exprefs the Porverf. 

I. TiTemty, It Is expr-cfTed iti the form of a fair Lady, 
^-^ having three heads, fignifying Time paft, preient, 
and to come ; in her left hand a Circle, pointing with 
the Forefinger of her right hand up to Heaven : the Circle 
iignifies llie hath neither beginning nor end. 

II. In the Mediils of Trajan, (he vpos fgured >-?.'/, fitting 
upon a Sphear,Tfhh the Stin in one Hand, and the Aioonin 
the other : ( by her fitting is figniiied perpetual conrtan- 
cy. ) 

III. In the Aiedah of Fauttma,/^." is drawn mihaVeilj 
and in her right hand the Globe of the World. 

IV. Boccace, mriting of the Progeny of the Gods, faith ^ that 
the Anciems derived it from Demogorgon, as the principAl 
anifirji oftherff rdl^who inhabited in tlye A'fiddle or Center of the 
Earth, encircled round about, and circumvefted with a 
dark and obtiifcate Cloud, breathing from his mouth a 
certain liquid humidity. 

Bat however iv^at Eternity w, the name doth clearly dif- 
cover, containing in it/elf all Worlds and Ages, and not limi- 
ted, or meaJHred by myjpace of time. 

V. Claudius ^fj^^/kj' tt by a Serpent that encompaffah roswd 
Toith her Body, the Cave or Den m herein it licth, fo as makinz 
aGrcle, fhe holds in her moHth the end of her tail, which with 
the ytgyplians was the Emblem of ayear. 

All in a Circle thus fh; fits involved, 
Whoje firm tenacity is ne'r dijjolv'd : 
She lends f:/rth times, and thefN rccals again, 
Ages to come, and pafijhedoth retain. 

VI. Bfit according to Boccace, as Eternity hath an ahfolttte 
command over all times, Jo jhe lives far hence in jome remote 
and :i/iknmn Vale, where humane fieps never approached, but 
u even :n,fo!4nd out of the Grlefiial inhabitants, thofc happy 
Smilsy who (land b/fore the prejence of the greatefi, that only 
incrrs all things. 

VII. Tme. 

Chap. 29- lo exprefs the Powers: ^61 

VII. Time, It is drawn flanding upon an old Ruine 
winged, and with Iron Teeth. Or thm. An old rnan in 
a garment of Stars ; upon his head aGirland oFRofes, 
Ears of Corn, and dry Sticks, ftanding w^m the Zodiack, 
with a Looking-GIals in his Hand • two Children at h^ 
Feet, the one Fat the other Lean, writing both in one 
Book ; upon the Head of one the Sun, upon the other the 
Moon. Or tkm, An eld Man, Bald behind, Winged,^ 
with a Scithe and an Hour-Glai's, having a lock of Hair 
On his Forehead. 

VIII. FatCy a Man in a fair, long, flajren Robe, Iook= 
ing upwards to two bright Stars encompaifcd with thick 
clouds, fi'om whence hangs a Golden Chain. 

IX. FortwiCj a Naked Lady, having an Enfign or Veil 
overlliadowing her, (landing upon a Globe or Ball, 

La.6h.ntKi?, faith th^nt Fortune is a'yain, idle and, fsnje" 
hfs fi.^me, fhemng forth Aians ive.^hiejs in attributing any 
thinf thereto : -which Marcus Tuiluis confirmsth, fvkere he 
faith. That this natKe of Forttme, was firjl brought in ta 
cover the ignorance of Man. Alexander Neapolitaniis 
faith, that in Pr^neile, in a Temple, [he was depi^ed in the 
Jhape and form of two Sifiers, both conjoined in one and the 
fame Statue. 

X. Paufanias /^/tV/;, That her moji ancient Statue roas that 
TPphich Bupalus made in Greece inP^ape of a Woman, upon ivhofe 
Head was a ropmd Ball, and in one of her Hands a Oornuco- 
pidjhe is called the blind GoddeJ^, and partial Lady, by reafon 
of the befiowing of her nnconjiant and mztable Favours. 

Imperious Ruler of the Worlds defigns, 
Lady of Solace, Pleaiure and of Pains : 
Like Tennis Balls thou beat'lt us to and fi:o, 
From Favours to Difgi" ace, from Joy to Woe ; 
From Wars to Peace, from Rule to be commanded i 
But with unconftancy thou now art branded. 

XL Macrobius faitb fhe, nasfet forth with \¥ings on her 
Shoulders, (to jhewthat poe was always atHand among Aden J 
had by her fide the Rudder of a Ship ( to poew that fhe doth 
Rule and Command ) her felf placed upon a Wheel, holding 
in her Right Hand a Oolden Sail;, ana in the other a Whip j 
fkmng mere th: f?mled , Wcalti) and Honof»'; md where Jhs 
frowned J Crops and Mifcrylhonld fQlkw. 

ft In 

^^4 Polygraph tees. Lib. IV. 

XII- In ^gypt Fortune rtas depiH-ed lih a Lady turning a 
^eat Glajs Wheel ^on whoje Top rvere f^nny Men. playing^ others 
clirnhing up ; and others having attained it, precipitating them- 
felves, and falling domi hack again. 

XIII. Equality, A Lady lighting tvvo Torches at once. 

XIV. Vichory, is expreffed by a Lady clad all in Gold, 
in one Hand a Helmet, in the other a Pomegranate : By 
the Helmet is meant Force, by the Pomegranate unity of Wit 
and Counfel. 

XV. Auguflus drevo her mth Wings ready to fly, /landing 
hpon A Globe, with a Garland of Bays in one hand, in the other 
A Coronet of the Emperor, voith thefe Wor^j,Imperator Cacfar. 

XVI. In the Medals c/Octivius, fhe is drawn mth Wings, 
(landing on a Baje, in one Hand a Palm, in the other a Crovpn. 
of Golf. 

XVII- Peace, is drawn like a Lady, holding in her right 
Hand a Wand or Rod downwards towards the Earth, 
over a hideous Serpent ot fundry colours ; and with her 
other Hand covering her Face with a Veil, as loth to be- 
hold Strife or War. 

XVIII. Trajan gave a Lady, in her Right Hand an Olive 
branch, in her Left u Cornucopia. In the Medals of Titus, a 
Lady having in one Hand an Olive Branch, the other lending a 
Lamb and a Wolf coupled by the Necks in oneToke. TheOiivs 
TPas iilways the Emblem of Peace. 

XIX Providence, A Lady lifting up both her Hands 
to Heaven, with thefe Words, Providentia Deornm. Or 
thus, A Lady in a Robe, ni her Right Hand a Scepter, in 
her Left a Cornucopia, "with a Globe at her Feet. 

XX. Concvd, A Lady fitting, in her Right Hand a 
Charger for Sacrifice, in her Lett a Cornucopia, with the 
Word Concordia. Or thus, A fair Virgin, holding in one 
Hand a Pomegranate ; in the other a Mirtlc Bunch. 

The nature of theje Trees are Juch, thai if planted, though a. 
good [pace one from another, they mil meet, and mth twining 
embrace one another. 

XXI. Fame^ A Lady clad in a thin and light Garment, 
open to the middle Thigh, that ihe might run the falter j 
two exceeding large Wings -, Garments embroidered with 
Eyes and Ears, and blowing ot a Trumpet. 

XXII. Defliny, A Lady, who with great fury, and ex- 
cealing celerity holds in her Hand an Iron Bow rea- 
dy bent, aiming to ilrike Fortune even at the very 
Heart. Deltiny 

Chap. JO. Of Vertues And Vices, 365 

Deftiny ani Fortune can never ap-ee ; and therefore as 
Fortune flics from Deftiny, fo Deftiny parfaes Fortune j 
for where Deftiny Jets focty there Fortune is, as it vpercy 
Inchantei and Conjnredy as having no Power, Efficacy or 



Of Vertues a^ictFices; 

I. yrr^rtue is reprefented by Hercdes, naked, with his 
^ Lyons Skin, and knotted Club, performing fome 
one of his Labours ; as offering to ftrike a Dragon keep- 
ing an Apple-tree : or holding in his Hand three Golden 

Hercules is nothing elfe hut Vertue, his name in the Greek 
Tongue is 'H^js^ajJ? , qmf% r\^<; KMof, Junonis gloria : vel 
qnia K?.mei tk? ti^eoai celebrat aut commemorat Heroas, 
Tvhich is the property ofp^ertue : he is drawn naked to demon- 
fir ate her fimplicity : by the Dragon is fet forth all manner 
of yices : hy the Lions skin, magnanimity and greatnefs : by 
his Oaken Club, Reafon and Policy : by its knottinefs, the 
difficulty, pains and labour infeeking after Vertm : by the 
three Golden yuppies, the three Heroical Vertues, Afoderation, 
Content and Labonr. 

II. Piety is drawn like a Lady, with a fober counte- 
nance ; in her Right Hand llieholdeth a Sword ftretched 
over an Altar ; in her Left Hand a Stork -, and by her fide 
is placed an Elephant and a Child. 

The Stork isfo called of raf>H, the reciprocal or mutual 
Io7je of Parent and Child, of which this Bird was ever a» 
Emblem, for the love and care fhe hath of her Parents h' 
ing old. The Elephant feems to Worfhip towards the rifing of 
the Sun, 

III. Hope is drawn like a beautiflil Child in a long 
Robe hanging loofe, ftanding upon Tip-toes, and a Tre- 
foil, or Three-leav'd Grafs in its Right Hand, in its Left 
an Anchor. 

The loofe Veflment {hews, fhe never pimheth or UndsTruth, 

^mding Qn Tip-tQjs fhms fhe always flandeth dangeronfly } 

' E^ fhe 

^66 Pofygraphices Lib. IV. 

thi branch of Trefoil [hews Knowledge , (the ground ofFaichJ 
^aith (the ground of Hope, ) a>td Hope it felf. 

IV. Mercy^ a Lady fitting upon a Lion, holding in 
one hand a Spear, in the other an Arrow j which llie 
feemeth to caft away. 

In the Medals of Vitellius/^f fits with a branch of Bays 
in her hand, and a Staff lying by her. ^ , 

V. Jujiice^ a fair young Virgin, drawing after her, with 
her Left Hand, a black, hard, ill favoured Woman, ha- 
ling her by main force, and flriking her over the Face in 
a Kverc manner. 

The young Virgin was Juftice, the other Injuria : fhe is 
drawn young, and a Virgin, tojhevp, that Judges and Admi- 
nijirators ojLavf ought to he incorrupt and free from. Bribes, 
Partiality or Flattery, but Jufl, Confiant and Sincere. 

VL Felicity, a Lady fitting in an Imperial Throne, in 
the one hand fhe holdeth a Caducens or Rod, in the other 
hand a Cnmacopia. 

VII. Fruit fulnefi, a Lady fitting upon a Bed, and two 
ittle Infants hanging about her Neck. 

VIII. Dijfimulaiion, a Lady wearing a Vizard of t^vo 
Faces, in a long Robe of ciiangeablc colour ; and in her 
right ha,nd a Magpye. 

IX. Security, a Lady leaning againft a Pillar, before 
a^ Altar, with a Scepter in her hand. 

X. Calurmiia, a be<, rich and youngWoman, ap- 
proaching towards a Judge, gorgeous in her habit, Avith an 
aii^iy, (rorniiii and difcontented look, and red and fiery 
Eyes^j ihe liolds in her left hand a flaming Torch : and with 
her fight 1 he by force dra^vs a young Man by the hair of the 

XI. Envy, a wonderful lean old Man, with a pale and 
ttiea^e face, in whofe withered cheeks Age hath wrought 
deep furrows and wrinkles. 

Xil. Penitence, a Women in vile, ragged and bafe At- 
tilCj infinitely deploring her being ; and bemoaning her 
lelf in paffionate fits above all meafurc, continually 

e H A P. 

chap. 5 1. Of Rivers, ^S') 


Of Rivers, 

I. TJ Erein you ought to obfeire the AdfutKfts and Pro- 
^■^ perties of the fame ; which confifts in fome no- 
table Accident done near them ; fome famous City, 
Trees, Fruits, or Reeds fituate upon their Banks ; fome 
Filh only proper to their ftreams j or recourfe of Ship- 
ping from all Parts of the World. 

II. Therefore you had befl place the City upon their 
Heads j their Fruits in a Cornucopia ; Reeds, Flowers and 
Branches of Trees in their Garlands, and the like. 

III. The River Tiber. It is expreffed ( in the Vatican 
at Rome) in a goodly Statue of Marble lying along ( for 
fo you muft draw them ) holding under his Right Arm 
a She Wolf, with two little Infants flicking at her Teats, 
leaning upon an Urn or Pitcher, out of which iffueth its 
ftream : In his Left a Cornucopia of delicate Fruits, with 
a grave Countenance and long_ Beard ; a Garland of 
Flowers upon his Head j and relting liis Right Leg upon 
an Oar. 

IV. The River Nilus. It is feen ( in the Vatican J cut 
out in white Marble, with a Garland of fiindry Fruits 
and Flowers^ leaning with his Left Arm upon a Sphynx j 
from under his Body ilTueth its flream : In his Left Arm 
a CornHcopia fiill of Fruits and Flowers on one lide, with 
Sixteen little Children, fmiUng and pointing to the 

The Sphynx tpos fometimes a Monjier which remained hy 
Nilus : the Crocodile km t» ka^kov S'eiXtS.vt from his ha" 
tred of Saffron ; the moji famoiss Monjier of Egypt ; The 
jixteen Children, the Jixteen Cubits of height, the uttermoji of 
thefiomng of Nilus : their fmiling looks, the profit of it, 
Tvhkh glads the hearts of the Sun-burnt Inhabitants. 

V. The River Tigrts- It M^as drawn like an old Man 
( as tlie reft) and by his fide a Tiger. 

This Beafi vpos given a» well for its Jkr<:e firMms, as far thff 
!}ors 9f Tigers which ars there. 

Ee 2 YLThe 

J 6 8 Pofygraphices t ib. I V. 

VI. The River Ganges. It bears the fhape of a rude 
and barbarous Savage, with bended brows, of a fierce 
and cruel Countenance, crowned with a Palm, having, 
as other floods, his Pitcher, and by his fides a Rhino- 

This River runneth through India, an^ hath its head from 
fi, Fountain in Paradife. 

VII. The River Indus. It is drawn with a grave and 
jovial Afped, with a Garland of its Cquntrey Flow- 
ers, by its fide a Camel ( from ;:t*/'^* ) i^ 's rcprefen- 
ted pleafantly, grave, as an Emblem of the Indian 

This is the grcatejl River in the World, receiving into its 
Chanel threefcore other great and famous Rivers^ and above an 
hundred Icffer. 

VIII. The River Thamifis. In the Houfe of an Ho- 
Tiourabk Friend, I faw the Thames thus drawn : A 
Captain or Soldier lying along, holding in his Right 
Hand a S^vord, and under his Arm tlie Auguft ToAver : 
in the other a Cornucopia of all fragrancie?, with a Gol- 
den Chain which held four Crowns ; and with this he 
encompaffed the ftrcams, from under which bending 
of his Left Arm .they feemed to flow : his temples were 
adorned v/ith Bays, the River was empaled on one fide 
uith Anchors, and on the other flood Ctfar?^ Augulia. 

IX. The River j^mus. It is a famous River in Italy, 
drawn like an old Man leaning upon his Pitcher, pour- 
ing out Avater : upon liis Head a Garland of Beech, by 
hisri.^ht fide a Lyon, holding forth in his di.xter Paw a 
red Lilly or Flower-de-luce, the ancient Arms of the 
chief City of T^A^cany. 

By I he Garland of Beech is Jet forih the ^reat abundance 
of Beech Trees growing about Faflerona m the Appennines, 
jfhere Arnus I.aih his head. 

X. The River Po or P.tdus. It is depicted with an Ox's 
face, having a Garland of Reeds or Poplar on his Head. 

It is fo called from the Sijler of Phaeton, :vhom the Poets 
feign dejlroyed with Lightning, and drowned here : the head 
of the Ox J is from its horrid noife and roaring, vthoje crooked 
Vanks rcfcmble the horns thereof ; by the fides ^hereof grorvs 
much Reed, and many Poplars. 

XI. The River I><?««y/w. In an ancient Medal of the 
Emperoi-ir Trajan, it is depi<^ed with its heads covered 
w'X^^ a Veil. It 

Chap. J2. Of NytH^hsi 559 

L is fo drami, hecauje its Head or firft Spring is uninoi^n, 
Aulonius fahhy 

Danubius periit capiut occiiltatus in ore.' 

XII. The River AcheJons. Ovid defcribes it with a 
Garland of Reeds, Willow, and thelike : having two 
Urns or Earthen Pitchers, the one empty, the other caft- 
ing out water ; and upon its head two horns, the one 
whole, the other broken. 

This River, as it is the mofi famous of all Greece, Jo it di- 
vides Mto\i2Lfrom Arcadia, and then falls into the Sea. This 
is fetched from the Fable of Hercules, who comhated him in. 
the likenefs of a Bully and. broke one of his horns for Deia- 
nim's fakey there turning both its flr earns into one, vphere^ 
upon one of the Urns is empty. 

XIII. The River Niger. It is drawn like a Black-Moor, 
with Glory, or a Coronet of Sun-beams falling upon his 
Urn, having by its fide a Lion. 

By the Sun-beams and Black, is /hewed the Clime, lying 
under the Torrid Zone, whofe inhabitants are Blacks or 
Moors ; the Lyon is that which the Comtreys Mauritania and 
Barbary breed, being the fiercefi in the World. 


of Nymphs, 

I. "VT T 'M $ H Nympha, a Bride Cf^om vilv and dcufi^cu 
"^^ as it were a f re fly or new Creature : or as fome will 
have it, Nympha qiuafi Lympha, by changing L. into N. 
after the Dorick dialect : J it is nothing elle but an Alle- 
gory, from the Vegetative Humidity, which gives life to 
Trees, Herbs, Plants and Flowers, by which they grow 
and increafe. 

IL They are feigned to be the Daughters of the Ocean,' 
the Mother of Floods, the Nurfes of Bacchusy and Goddef- 
fes of Fields, who have the protedion and charge of 
Mountains, Herbs, Woods, Meadows, Rivers, Trees, and 
generally of the whole Life of Man, 

E e 3 IIL Firfi^ 

570 Polygnphices Lib. IV. 

III. Firjl^ Napxa,, Nymphs of the Mountains. 

Let them be drawn of a fweet and gracious Afpc6l, in 
green Mantles, girded about in the middle ; and upon 
their heads Garlands of Honeyfuckles, _Wild-rofes, Tyme, 
and the like ; their a6Vions, dancing in a Ring, making 
Garlands, or gathering Flowers. 

They are fo called from NctTic? the Top of an Hill, or Wflody 

IV. Secondly^ Dryadcs, Nymphs of the Woods. 

Draw thefe Icfs fair than the former, of a brown or 
tawny Complexion, hair thick like Nfofs, and their Attire 
of a dark green. 

They are fo called from Aft;< an Oai, having their hegin^ 
nin^ vpith Trees, and dying again -with them. 

V. Thirdly, Naiades, Nymphs of the floods. 

Draw them beautiful, with Arms and Legs naked, 
their Hair clear as Crythl ; upon their Heads Garlands 
of Water-creffes, with red leaves : their adlions pouring 
out water. 

They are fo called from Ni*> to fion-, or babble, as tvater 

VI. Thetis, a Lady of a brown Complexion, her Hair 
fcattered about her Shoulders, crowned with a Coro- 
net of Periwinkle and Efcallop fhells, in a Mantle of 
Sea-green, with Chains and Bracelets of Amber about 
her Neck and Arms, and a branch of red Coral in her 

VII. Galatea, a molt beautiflil young Virgin, her Hair 
carclefly falling about her Shoulders like Silver threads, 
and at each Ear a fair Pearl ; with a double ftring of 
theni ( fometimes ) about her Neck and Left Arm; 
a Mantle of pure thin and fine white, waving, as it 
were, by the gentle breathing of the Air, viewing in her 
liand a fpunge made of Sca-fioth : She is fo called from 
>aAtf, lac, milk. 

VIII. Iris, a Nymph with large wings, extended like 
to a Semicircle, the Plumes fet m rows of divers colours, 
as yellow, green, red, blue or purple j her Riir hanging 
before her Eyes, her Breafts like Clouds, drops of Water 
falling from her Body, and in her hand Iris, or the Flower- 

Virgil makes her the Mcffenger of Juno ( where fhe is 
taken for the Air ) when he iaith, Irin de Cdo mifit Sa- 
tnrnia Juno. *X. 


Chap. J J. Of the nine Mufes. 571 

IX. Nymphdi Diana ; Let them be clQathcd in white 
Linnen to denote their Virginity, and their Garments 
^irt about them 5 their Arms and Shoulders naked j Bows 
m their hands, and Arrows by their fides. 

X. Aurora, the Morning. A young Virgin with car- 
nation Wings, and a yellow Mantle ; in her Fore-head 
a Star, and Golden Sun-beams from the Crown of her 
Head, riding upon Pegajm, with a vial of Dew in one 
hand, and various Flowers in the other, which fhe fcat- 
tereth upon the Earth. 


Of the Nine Mufts, 

I. r^Lio, She is drawn with a Coronet of Bays ; in lier 
y^ right hand a Trumpet, in her left a Book, upon 
which may be written Hiftoria j her names is from Praife 
or Glory. 

II. Euterpe, Is crowned with a Garland of Flowers, 
holding in each hand fundry Wind-inftruments ,• her 
name is from giving delight. 

III. Thalia. Draw her with a fmiling look, and up- 
on her Temples a Coronet of Ivy, a Mantle of Carnation 
embroidered with Silver' twift, and Gold fpangles, and in 
her left hand a Vizard -, her Ivy (hews {he is Miftrefs of 
Comical Poefie. 

IV. Melpomene. Draw her like a Virago, with a ma- 
jefteck and grave Countenance, adorn her head with 
Pearfe, Diamonds and Rubies ; holding in her left hand 
Scepters with Crowns upon them, other Crowns and 
Scepters lying at her feet : and in her right hand a naked 
Poniard, in a Mantle of changeable Criinfon. Her gra- 
vity befits Tragick Poefie. 

V. Polyphywnia. Draw her a6Hng a Speech with her 
Fore-finger, all in white, her Hair hanging loofe about 
her Shoulders, of an Orient Yellow, upon her Head a Gar- 
land of the choiceft Jewels intermixt with Flowers, and 
in her left hand a Book, upon which let be written Stta- 
dere j her name imports Memory to whom the Rhetori- 
cian is beholden, 

Ee4 VhErato: 

-^ji Polygraphkes Lib. IV^ 

VI. ErAto. She hath her name from ''E.f«<, Amor^Love: 
draw her Avith a fwcct and comely Vifage, her Temples 
girt with Myrtles and Rofe?, bearing an Heart with an 
Ivory Key ; by her fide CufU, winged, \vith a lighted 
Torch ; at his Back, his Bow and Quivers. 

VII. Terpftcore j a cheerful Vifage, playing upon fome 
Inrtrument ; upon her head a Coronet of Feathers of 
fundry Colours, but chiefly green ; in token of the Vi- 
<5lory which the Mules got over the Syrens, &c. by fmg- 

VIII. Urania. A beatiful Lady in an Azure Robe; 
upon her Head a Coronet of bright Stars ; in her ri^ht 
hand the Celcftial Globe, and in her left the Terrelhrial. 
Her name imports as much as Heavenly j Urania C<eli 
niotiis JcrMtatur & Ajlra. 

IX. Ciiiiope. Upon her Head draw a Coronet of Gold ; 
upon her kft Arm Gnrlands of Bays in llore, for the re- 
ivard of Poets ; and m her right Hand three Books, up- 
on which write Homerm^ Virgilim^ Ovidins. 

The Alufcs had their names ^ as Eufebius faith ^ yiufj, -n 
IJXHVy Vfhich is to infirnctf becanfe they teach the moji honejl 
and laudable difciplines. 


Of the four Winds. 

I. X^Ums, the Eafl-Avind. Draw a Youth with puffed 
•*-' and blown Cheeks ( as all the other Winds mult 
be ) Wings upon her Shoulders, his Body like a Tawny- 
Moor, upon his Head a Red Sun. 

II. Zephyrusy the Weft-wind. Draw a Youth a\ ith a 
jnerry look, holding in his Hand a Swan, with Wings 
difplay'd as about to fing, on his Head a Garland of all 
forts of Flowers. 

'71s called Zeph^'^rus qiiafi (mv tpiquv^ Winging life, be- 
caufe it cherijhcth and quickneth 

III. Boreas^ the North-wind. Draw it like an old 
Man, with a horrid, tenlblc /ook ; his Hair and Beard 
Coyered_ with Snow, or the hoar Froll j with the Feet and 
Tail of a Serpent. 

IV. An^ 

Chap. 5 5 . Of the Momhs of the Tear, ^71 

IV. Aiijiery the South-wind, is drawn with Head and 
Wings wet, a Pot or Urn pouring forth Water, with 
which defcend Frogs, Grafhoppers, and the like Crea- 
tures, which are bred by moifture. 


Of the Months of the Tear, 

I. "TAnmry muft be drawn all in white, like Scow or 
jj hoar Froft, blowing his Fingers ; in his left Arm a 
Billet, and Aquarim (landing by his fide. 

II. February is drawn in a dark sky colour, carrying m 
his right hand Pifcesy or Fifhes. 

ill, March is drawn tawny with a fierce look, a Hel- 
met upon his Head, leaning upon a Spade : in his right 
hand Aries ; in his left Almond Blollbms and Scions ; 
and upon his Arm a Basket of Garden-Seeds. 

IV. Aprilh drawn like a young Man in green, with 
a Garland of Myrtle and Hawthorn-buds, winged • iii 
the one hand Primrofes and Violets j in the other Tat-rta:. 

V. May is drawn with a fw^eet and lovely Afpecl, in 
a Robe of white and green, embroidered with Daifadills, 
Haw- thorn and Blue-bottles ; on his Head a Garland 
of white and red Damask Rofes ; in the one HaniJ 
a Lute ', upon the Fore-finger of tloe other a NightingaL 

VI. June is drawn in a Mantle of dark grafs-green j 
upon his Head a Coronet of Bents, King-cobs, and Mai- 
den-hair ; in his left hand an Angle 5 in his right Cancer ; 
and upon his Arm- a Basket of Summer Fruits. 

VII. July is drawn in a Jacket of a light yellow, 
eating Cherries, with his Face and Bofom Sun-burnt, 
on his Head a Garland of Centaury and Time, on his 
Shoulder a Sithe ; wdth a Bottle at his Girdle, carrying a 

VIII. Augufi is like a young Man of a fierce loolc, in 
a flame-Goloured Robe ; upon his Head a Garland o£ 
^■^Vheat ; upon his Arm a Basket of Summer fruits -, at his 
Belt a Sickle, bearing a Virgin, 

IX. Scpteni" 

574 Volygraphices Lib. IV. 

IX. September is drawn in a purple Robe, with a cheer- 
ful look, and on his Head a Coronet of white and pur- 
ple Grapes ; in his left hand a handful of Oats, with a 
C&rmcopia of Pomegranates, and other Summer Fruits ; 
and in his right hand a Ballancc. 

X. OSioher is drawn in a Garment of the colour of de- 
caying flowers and leaves ; upon his head a Garland of 
Oak-leaves with tlie Acorns ; in his right hand a Scor- 
pion } in his left, a Basket of Services, Medlars and Chelt- 

XI. Novemhr in a Robe of changeable green and 
black ; upon his Head, a Garland of Olives, witli the 
Fruit ; in his right hand Sagitarius j and in his left bun- 
ches of Parfnips and Turneps. 

XII. December is drawn with a horrid AfpeiSl, clad in 
an Irifh Rug, or courfe Freeze girt about him : upon his 
Head three or four Night-Caps, and over them a Turlipj 
Turbant j his Nofe red. Beard hung with Iceikles ; at 
his Back a bundle of Holly and Ivy, holding in Furred 
Mittens a Goat. 

Where note, it mil be good to give every Aionth its proper 
and natural Landskip ; not making Blojfoms and Fruits upon 
Trees in December j nor a barren face of the Earth and 
Trees in June. 

Explicit Liber ^tartns. 



Liber q.u i n t u a 

An Idea of the Arts ^/Beautify- 
ing ^/^i Perfuming. 


of Painting of the IE ace and Skin, 

^' ^ I "^ ^^^ ^'^■y^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ¥" ^(^orning of the Face 

■ and Skin ; the firfi is by Painting : thefe- 

■ cond is, by application of excellent Cofme^ 
M ticks, which give a very natural, ahfolute and, 

I ajiing Beauty. 

II. The firfl way, which is that of Painting, is the 
fLibjc6t matter of this Chapter. Some may wonder that 
xve fhould meddle with fuch a Subjedl: as this, in this 
place J but let fuch know, the Painting of a deformed 
Face, and the licking over of an old, withered, wrinkled 
and weather-beaten Skin, are as j)roper appendices to 3. 
Painter, as the redtification of his Errors in a piece of 
Canvafe ; Nor is there any reafon, but that the Artilt 
fliould (hew his care in the one, as well as to exprefs his 
skill in the other, fmce a fmglc deformity in the Body, be- 
gets a complication of tniferies in the Mind, and a unity of 
DefeEisy a multiplication of Evils. 

III. And though fome think that natural Deformi- 
ty brings with it a torrent of Dejedtions, yet let fuch 


^j6 Folygraphices Lib. V. 

linderrtand, that when time lliall have made its full re- 
%"oIurion, thcmfelves may be the produ6l of fuch a Con- 
ception : But we confefs it fecks darknefs, and only fol- 
laces it felf in obfcurity, and dusky foiitudes. 

IV. For fuch whofe Bodies have part the ilamp with 
Ibme faults, and have miffed the imprefTions or reflexi- 
ons of Beauty, which might make them deleilable in 
himiane Society', ever make choice of darknefs as their chief 

V. Deformity isaDifeafe efteemed the moft pernicious, 
and its iffue is a matter of dangerous confequence, chief- 
ly oLfirH^ions to Ladies Preferment. Now to prev-ent this 
danger, to take away thefe obftru6Hons, and to deliver 
you from the embraces of fo hideous a Monlter, thefe Cof- 
meticks we have offered upon the Ah or of your defeats j 
protefting that the ufe of thefe Beautifiers, will make 
your ru^j Skiny and ill-looked Faces, to out-lTiine, with a 
radiant luftre, the mod fplendid of all the Nymphs of 

VI. Though you may look fo much like the Image of 
Death, as that your Skins might be taken for yo^f Win- 
ding-llieets, 3'et by our directions you may attani fuch 
a rofie color, and fuch a lively cheerfulnefs, as lliall 
not only make you look like natures w^orkmanfliip, but 
alfo put admiration into the beholder?. 

VII. Thus we teach you, lippid Mortals, to retrace the 
l^eps of youthfulncfs, and to transform the wrinkled 
Hide of Hectiha, into the tender skin of the greateit of 
Beauties j which then you ^vill dull by the advance of 
your Features, and make all conceited lliadows of glo- 
ry, to vanilh in your prefence. When once your Arti- 
ficial heat fhall appear, others lliall feem pale wiih En- 
vy for your perfedtions; and their riatural mddinefs fhall 
only ferve them to hluflj, to fee their features clouded by 
your fplendor. 

VIII. By this means your fparkling Glories lliall fire 
PUtonick Lovers, fo that none, though as cold as Saturn,, 
fliall be able to refiit your adluatin^ flames, but ihall 
force the (touteli: l;eart, to be a Sacrifice to love. If any 
remain unfcorched, it mufl be only thofe leaden hearted 
Cowards, who <ki^z wot approach yom ^^■cunzi, for fear of 
melting ; or thuic undelerving Soldiers of Venru (of a 
frigid Conltitution ) who dare not fo much as look up- 


Chap. I . OfFaintiftg the Face.^ 8fC. ^77 

on your youthful fire, for fear of being burnt to allies. 
But it may chance that fome one or other, may con- 
demn your hearts for evilj becauie you itrive to make 
your faces good, and may like your in-fde the jforfe, be- 
caufe your omfde may look fo well. 

IX." Avoid not company for want.of Beauty, when 
Art aflfords an innocent liipply, but with confidence crucijfie 
that evil Confcience, which forbids the ufe of a little 
Oil to make a cheerful Countenance, and the drinking 
of a little Wine to make a merry Heart. Borrow our 
Artificial Beautifiers, and hzcomefplendid, that you may 
be fit to be gathered by the hand of fome Metamorpho- 
fed Hero 5 kit in the Garden of Deformities, growing 
green with jicinefs, you Ihould be taken for Thijiles, and 
fo cropp'd by AJfes, 

X. To clean] e the Face and Slin. 

Before any thing be ufed to PairSi, or make the Skin 
beautiful, it muft 'be made* very clean thus : firft wafii 
with warm Water, and fvveet Icented Wafh-balls very 
well ; then rub the Face with a cloth, ^nd wafli well 
with water in wliich Wheat-bran is boiled j fo is the 
Skin prepared. 

XI. Or thus : Take StMimate two drams in fine pou- 
der, glair of fix Eggs, boil them in a glafs xt&\, till they 
grow thick, then prefs out the water, with which wafn 
the Skin. 

XII. To male a white Fhchs or Paint. 

Take Talck and pouder it, by beating of it in a hot 
Mortar, to the pouder of Talck add diftilled Vinegar, 
boil it at a gentle fire in a wide glafs, let the fat froth 
that fwims at tup, be taken off with a fpoon ; then 
evaporate the Vinegar, and mix the remaining Cream 
with flegm of common Salt, or a little Pomatum, y/ith 
which wafh or anoint the Face, and it will beautifie it 

XIII. Another very excellent. 

Take crude Talck in pouder one ounce, Oil of Cam- 
phire two ounces, digelt till the Oil is white j it is a no- 
ble Fucus for Ladies Faces. 

XIV. To make the aforefaid Oil of Camphire. 

Take Camphire four ounces, Bole twelve ounces, make 
them into Balls,, and diy them in the Sun, then diffil 
them ill Sand in a glafs Retort, into a Receiver that hath 


378 Folygrafhices Lih^W. 

dilHlkd Rain water therein ; firft there will come forth 
a white matter, which melts in the Alcmbick, and falls 
into the Receiver, then a clearer water ; and at lall 
with a flronger fire, the Oil we fpeak of. iweet fcen- 
ted, which rectified with Spirit of Wine will be yellow 
as Gold. 

XV. Another excellent Fmus made cf Pearl. 

DifTolve Pearl in diiHUed Vinegar ; precipitate with 
OW o^ Sulphur per Cawpanam ; then Iweeten and digsli 
with Spirit of Wine ; abitrail: the Spirit, and you have a 
magifterial Fhchs will melt like Butter. 

'XVI. To make the heji Fhchs or Paint as yet Inorvn. 

Tiike P^enetian Taick, cleave it into fliccs, digcft it in the 
heat of the Sun, or of aHorfe-diinghill for a Month, with 
didilled Vinegar, made of Spanijh Wine, adding every 
Day new diliil led Vinegar to the former, till the Vinegar 
be mucilaginous ; wnich then diftil by a luted Retort 
and a large Receiver, with a naked fire. Firfl there comes 
forth the Vinegar ; then a white Oil, which fcparate. 
After you have cleanfed the Skin hy the fecond SedHon, 
then firft waih with the Vinegar, after anoint with the 
Oil : if the Face be firil well waili'd from all impurity, 
this one anointing may hold for a Month without fading. 
This Cofmetick, if rightly prepared , is worth about five pound 
an ounce. 

XVII. An excellent Fy.cus made of Bulls gall. 
Take Bulls galls dried in the Sun, whofe tindture extract 

with Spirit of Wine, witli which befmear the Face ( be- 
ing cleanfed by the tenth Section ) leaving it on tor three 
or four Days, without going abroad, or expofing the Skin 
to the Air ; at the end of the time cleanle the Face again 
by the faid tenth Section : lo almoit to a miracle, the skin 
of the Face and Neckisrendrcd molt grateriiUy wliire, foft, 
delicate and amiable. This is the Spantjh Fucus which 
feveral Ladies now ufe. 

XVIII. To make an excellent Red Fucus. 

Make a deco6tion of red Sanders in double diftilled 
Vinegar, adding a little Alum, with a few grains oFMusk, 
Amber-grife, or of fbme fweet Spices, and you will liavc 
a pcrfedt red Fucus for the Face. 

XIX. Another very excellent. 

Take iuicc of Clove-gilliflowers, with which mix a littlf 
juice of Limons : with tliis Paint your Face, and you fhall 
have a pieafmg red colour. XX. Ta 

Chap. I. Of P aim wg the Face, Sec: gy^ 

XX. To do the fame another r^ay. 

Make a ftrong infiiilon of Glove-gilliflowers in rectified 
Spirit of Wine, adding a few drops of Oil of Vitriol, or 
inftead thereof, a little Alum, and the Juiceof a Citron ot 
Limon j fo (hall you have an excellent colour to liautiiie 
the Face with. 

XXI. A Fucm or Paint not eafie to he difcovered. 
Take feeds of Cardamoms, or grains of Paradife 

Cubebs, Cloves, anv^. rafpings of Brazil, which infiife 
in re6liiied Spirit of Wine for ten Days, over a gentle 
heat ', then leparate the Spirit : this is fo perfe6l a Fu- 
cus, that it may deceive any Man, for this clear wa- 
ter gives a frefii, red and lovely colour, which will laft 
long. ^ 

XXII. A Fucus or Cofmeticl of River Crabs. 

Take of the flelli which remains in the extremities of 
the great claws of River Crabs ( being boiled ) a fufli- 
cient quantity, which dry gently, and then extrad a 
deep tin6ture with re6lined Spirit of Wine ; evaporate 
parjrpf the Menjiruum^ till the tindlure have a good thick- 
nef^Sr body ; %vith which ( the skiri being cleanfed ) a- 
noint the cheeks firft, applying over it fome other albify- 
ing Cofmetick. 

XXIII. Spanijh Wooll, yeherewith Women Paint their 
Faces red. 

Boil Iliearin^s of Scarlet in water of Quick-lime half 
an hour, of which take two pound ; to which put Brazil 
two ounces, ( rafped ) Roch Alom, Verdigrile, of each 
one ounce, Gum-Arabick two drams, boil all for half an 
hour, which keep for ufe. 

XXIV. To do the fame another way. 

, Take Spirit of Wine one pound, Cochenele half an 
ounce, ralped Brazil one ounce, Gum-Anunoniack thrte 
drachms, mix and dige(t till the Gum is diffolved ; then 
boil it gently, and ftrain it for ufe, into which you m^y, 
put old Linnen Rags, or S^mjh WopU atpleaiwK, 


^Sc Pol) graph tees. Lib. V. 


Of Cofmeticks which Beautifie without any thing 
of Faint, 

LAN excellent Cofmeticl or Liquor of Talcl. 

■^^ Take pouder of Talck (made by rubbing it with 
Pumice ftones j oi: beating it in a very hot Mortar ; or 
filing it with a Goldfmiths fmoothing file) eight oun- 
ces, Salis Tartari fixtecn ounces, calcine it twelve hours 
in a wind Furnace, and let it in a Cellai-, feparating 
that which melts, from that which doth rrot ; then cal- 
cine this dry Calx added to four times its weight of Sal- 
nitre, with a llrong fire, fo the Talck will be melted into 
a clear white mafs, which being fet in a Cellar will turn 
to a clammy liquor. 

This rponderfdly whitcr.s and hemtifies the Skin, an(U^l»s 
an>/iyfpots and freckles from the Face : li^-t yonmul} norHavc 
the liqmr long on, but rvafh it off with dccoclion of Wheat Br any 
that it corrode not the Skin. 

II. To make the S^in foft and fmooth. 

The Face being very clean, by the tenth Sedion of the 
firrt Chapter, w^alh it very well with a Lixivium of Salt 
of T.irlar, and after tliat anoint it Avith Pomatum ; or 
which is better, Oil of fivcct Almonds, doing this every 
Night going to Bed. The Pomamm we have taught the 
way to make in our Pharmac:>pceiaj lib. 5. cap. 4. Sefl. 22, 

& 2<,. 

III. A Water to cleanfe the Face from Scurf and Jl'for- 

Take diftilled Rain Water fi^ ounces, Juice of Liinons 
twelve ounces, mix them, andwaih Avith it Morning and 
Evening, anointing after it at Night going to Bed with 
the Oil or Pomatum aforeikid. 

IV. An Unguent rvhich brings the Skin to an exquiflte 
he amy. 

Take of our Pomatum one ounce, Salt of Tartar one 
drachm, Musk twenty grains, mix them well, and ( the 
Face or Skin being very clean ) anoint Morning and E- 

V, A 

C hap. 2 . Of Pamtwg theFace^ 8^c. 381 

V. A n.'onii£rf%l Cof.yjjtikk cf great }^orth. 

Take white Tartar twenty ounces, Taick, Salt, of eat '1 
ten ounces, calcine them in a Potters Furnace verywdi ^ 
tlien grinding; the matter upon a Marble, put it into 
Hippocrates his Sleeve, and let it in a Cellar, or other 
moift place for twenty or thirty days, and there wiU 
drop from it a precious Oil ; which being rubbed upou 
the Skin loftly with a Linnen Cloth ( the Skin being duly 
rkanfed firlt ) takes away all kind of fpots, and makes it 
loft and delicate. 

VI. A cheap J yet excellent Cofineticl. 

Take Alum in fine ponder, and iLake it with Whites 
of new laid Eggs, being a little heated, till fuch time as 
they grow thick to an Ointment, with which anoint the 
i':Ke Morning and Evening three or four days 3 and it 
will take away l]30ts and wrinkles, and make the Skin 
grow clear and £iir. 

VII. An excellent Mercurial Cofwetich prevalent again^ 
mnl} deforrh'ities cf the Skin. 

Take Mercury purified from all blacknefs half a pound. 
Mercury Suhlimate in pouder as much, mix them in a 
Stone or Marble Mortar ; put them into an Alembick o£ 
a firait Orifice, put on dilHlled Vinegar, till all De co- 
A-ercd three or four fingers, letting it ttand four days, dai- 
ly ilirring the lame at certain times, then it extracts a 
Ttvhitiiii Pouder ; the whitilli Vinegar by inclination fe- 
parate, rejecting it, and put on other Vinegar : the pou- 
der at bottom keep fo for fome days : which labotir y '..i 
muit io often reiterate, till you have abundance of that 
while pouder, which dry, and keep for ufe : anoint widi 
it", by mixing with it a little dilfiUed Rain Water, and it 
wall take away all blemillies of the Skin, as alfo Tetters. 
Life it not too often, and beware you touch neither Eyes 
rior Teeth with it. 

VIII. Another of great ejiimation. 

Take Mercury SHhlimate., Saccharum Saturni, of each two 
drachms. Role Water, Juice of Limons,of each two oun« 
ces, mix them like to an Ointment, with which anoint 
gently at Night, and the next MotningWith. the Pomatum 

IX. To male a kind of Lac Virginis, an excellent Cof- 

Take dittillcd Rain Water a quart, SdccharHm Saturn i 
F f cryffal- 

382 Polygrdphices Lib. V. 

crylbiUized one ounce, miK them, and then walli uith 
the^water, being I'ettled : the fine white Ponder at bot- 
tom, is alfo an excellent Fucus or Paint, which may be 
laid upon the Skin, if very clean : note, ibmc ufc Vine- 
gar inltead of Rain Water. 

X. To make Oleum Tartari ^er deliquiftm. 

Take Salt of Tartar, which put into a bag, with a 
corner, in" a moift Cellar, and the Oil will diftil there- 
from in drops : with this Oil you may mix a little fair 
water, and wafti your Face at Night going to Bed ; and' 
the next Morning, the Face being very clean, you may 
wafli with the aforefaid Lac Virginis 5 thus continuing 
for fome days, you may create an exquifite and lalting 

XI. A compound Cofmetick ejieemsd by fame of great 

Take of the aforefaid Lac Firginls one ounce. Oil of 
Tartar, aforefaid, half an ounce, mix them, with which 
wafh Morning and Night for about a Week, or more, as 
you fhail fee occafion ; then anoint with the following 

XII. To r,iake the Cofmetick Ointment^ aforefaid. 
Take Musk three drachms, Ambergrife two drachms. 

Civet one drachm, grind them upon a Porphyre or Mar- 
ble Stone, with Oil of Ben, and RhoJium, of each three 
ounce?, with which anoint, as aforefaid : note, lome in- 
ftead of the Oil of Ben, vie Oil of iivect Almonds. 

XIII. A Vegetable Cof7netkk. 

Befmcar your Face or Skin at Night going to Bed, with 
the juice of Wake Robin ; it is excellent. 

XIV. Ah incomparahle Cojmetick of Pearl. 
Diill^lvc Pearls in Juice of Limons or Diliilled Vine- 
gar, which dig,eft in 'Horfe-dung, till they lend forth a 
dear Oil, which will fwim on the top : thii is one of 
the mort excellent Cofmciicks- or Bcautiriers in the 
World ; This Oil-, if mil prepared y is richly rt^orth fcven pound 
an ounce, 

XV. A Cofmetick Ointment of great worth. 

Take or' our Pomatumj aforefaid, {m oiAccs, Saccljarum 
Satfirni two ounces, mix them, and anoint Morning and 

XVI. Another very good for the Skin. 

Mix Sacchmtm SAttfrni one drachm, in Vinegar half an 


chap. 2. Of^aintifJg the Face, Sec: jSj 

ounce, which mingle with the glair o: Eggs, and anoint 
with it. 

XVII. A Cofweticl wonderful to make c. pkajtng rnddy 
Complexion . 

Take Oil of Tartar four ounces, Alum, Sal Gem, of 
each one ounce, Borax, Camphire, of each half an ounce, 
beat them well together, to which adi of Briony water ■ 
a Pint, diilil them in Balneo, and you will have yout 

XVIII. Another for the fame. 

Take Madder, Myrrh, Saifron, Frankincenfe, of eacfi 
alike, bruife and iteep all in White Wine, with which 
anoint the Face going to Bed, and in the Morning wafh. 
it off, and the Skin will have a gallant pleafmg biufh. 

. XIX. To make the Cofmetick of Aiyrrh very excellent. 

Boil Eggs till they are hard, flit them and take out the 
yolks, fin them up with poudred Myrrh, clofe them toge- 
ther, and lay them in a moitt Cellar, and the Myrrh will 
dilTolve into Oil. 

XX. Ti m.ike a very good Wajh to whiten the Sknij and 
give a good Corripicxion. 

Take Limons, Hens Eggs boiled, of each ttvelve oun- 
ces, Turpentine eight ounces, diriil all in Balneo Marine, 
with which wajfh : when you wafh, you may drop into 
it a drop, two or three of Oil of Oranges or Cinnamon, 
for fragrancy lake. 

XXI. A Cofmetick to wake a rough Skin fmooth. 

Take fweet Almonds blanched four pound, moiflen 
them with Spirit of Wine and Rofe Water mixt toge- 
ther, of each two ounces, beat them together, and fry 
them ; and when they begin to Imoak, put them into 
a Bag, and prels them ( in a Prefs made for that pur- 
pole) and there will come forth a very clear Oil ^ 
which put into Rain Water, and beat it till it is exceed- 
ins; white. 

Ff2 CHAP. 

J 84 Polj/graphices Lib. V. 


Of Cofmetkksy rvhicb remedy the various Vices 
of the Skin, 

I. 'T'O tah avpay Sun-hHrnings. 

-■• To the gliir of ten Eggs put to it Sugar-candy one 
ounce, and anoint with it going to Bed : or anoint with 
the ]uice of Sow-bread at Night going to Bed • and in 
the Morning with Oil Ompkacine. The like cfteds hath 
our Lac Firginis, at the ninth Se6lion of the fecond 
Chapter, as'allo Oleum Tartar i, and other things of Hke 

II. To tah away Rehiefs and Pimples. 
Firlt prepare the Skin by batliing it often with the 
decodtion of Wheat-bran, and applying Pultifes of 
Bread, Milk and Oil thereto : when the Skin is thus 
fupplcd and rariHcd, you may cure them either hy our 
Liquor of Talck, at the firft Section of the fecond Chap- 
ter, or Mercurial Cofmetick at the fcventh Se6tion of the 
lecond Ciiapter, or our Lac Fin^^inis and Oil oi Tartar at 
the ninth and tentJ] Section of tiic fecond Chapter, or by 
often walliing with juice of Limons. 
•III. To take aivay Freckles. 

Take juice of Limons,. put it into a Glafs-bottle, to 
vvhicii put fine Sugar, and Borax m poudcr, digett it 
eight days in Sand, tlicn ufe it ; or mix Sal with 
VVhitesof Eggs, and apply it ; or often ufe our com- 
i30und Colinctick at the eleventh Seition of the fecond 
Chapter, or Oil of Tartar alone, for fome Weeks ; but 
if all fail, you muft have rccourlc to our Liquor of Talck 
at the fird Scdion of the fecond Chapter, or Mercurial 
Cofmetick at the Icventh Scdion of the fiid lecond 

IV. To take away ff^ots from the Face or Skin. 

This is done by anointing Avith Oil of Tartar for ten 

days ; and after all that to walli it with a Lixhmnt of 

Qukk-lime in which Sal-armoniack liath been diffolved 

.^r a I0112 time : or you may ule the Cofmetick at the 

tliird Se3tion of the fecond Chapter camphorated. 

^ V. T9 

Cha p. ^ . Of remedying Vices of the Skin, 3 S 5 

V. To cleanje a fcurfy Skin. 

It the Creature be fat, foment firft with a Lixivium of 
Salt of Tartar ; biit if lean, make a Fomentation of Bor- 
rage, Buglofs, and Mallow leaves, which ufe for fome 
days : this being done, Bathe the place where the fcurf 
is, with Splritm Nicot'un.t made by fermentation, which 
being dried in, anoint firfl with Oil of Tartar, then with 
Oil of Almonds ; repeating the three lad works fo often 
till the fcurf goes away. 

If all thefe fail, yon mufl have rccourfe to our Liqmr of 
Talckj or Adercurial Cofmetklz ; or thofe at theffth and eighth 
Se^iion of the fecond Chapter, which without doubt mil perform 
your defire. 

VI. To free the Skin from Tetters and Ring-worms. 
Diffolve Sublimate one ounce in a Glafsof RedWinc 

by boiling, with w^hich wafh the place Morning and 
Evening, letting it dry of it felt, for three or four days 
together, and it will certainly cure : if they be not in- 
veterate, our Liquor of Talck at the lirtt Section of the fe- 
cond Chapter, or Mercurial Cofmetick may fufficient- 
ly do ; or you may anoint with this ointment. Take 
Sal' Tar tar i two drachms, burnt Alum three drachms, 
poudcr and incorporate with Whites of Eggs : . Or this. 
Take Sulphur vive three drachms , Camphire on^ 
drachm, Hogs-greafe two ounces, m\% and make an 

VII. To tah away Wrinkles from the Skin. 

Take Oil of Almonds, lees of Oil Olive, and make 
them into an Ointment with Wax, pouder of Camphire 
and Maftich, with which anoint. Oil of Myrrh to a- 
iioirit with, is eminent in this cale : or walli with a de- 
codtion of Briony roots, and Figs, of each alike : or dif^ 
foive Gum Tragacant in Lac Virginis, and walh with 
that. Excellent good is a rtrong decodlion of Pomegra- 
nate Peels in White Wine, to walh often with. 
VIII. _ To take away Warts. 

The Juice of the greater Spurge with Salt, anointed, 
takes them away, fo alfo a continual walliing with a 
Lixivium of Quick-lime and Salt of Tartar. The Juice 
of Verrucma performs the lame. A Plailter of Cantha- 
rides, with a defenfative, is very good in this cafe : fo 
alfo this following Wafh ; Take Saccharum Saturni three 
ounces, Sd-armoniack one ounce, Vitriol common fix 
F f 3 drachmsj 

^S6 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

drachms, Quick-lime ei^ht ounces, boil all in water four 
pound, to the confumption of the half, with which often 
bath the Warts, and then walh with our Mercurial wa- 
ter. Black So.'p hath often been found very good j but 
efpecially a Flaifhr of Turpentine. 

IX. To heal Chaps in the Skin. 

Our Tomatmi in this cafe is moft excellent : yet thii> 
following is commendable. Take Capons ^reafe mixed 
well with Camphire, and anoint with Oil ot Turpentine 
two drachms, mixed with \Jn7uentHm Populeon two oun- 
ces. So alio Oil of Rofes mixed with Sheep Suet and 
Wax to an Ointment. 

X. To heal Burnings and Scoldings. 

Excellent good is the Vngiicntum Bithrum in our 
Synopfts A'fedicinte, both to draw out the fire, and to 
heal. To draw out the foe alfo, glair of Eggs mix- 
ed with Role Water, is very prevalent : lo alfo is 
Salt, raw Onions, Soap, Yeft, Oil of Tartar, and the like. 
To hinder the rifing ottheBlifterSjHens dung three oun- 
ces, mixed with Hogs greafc four ounces, and Salt of 
Tartar one ounce is very good 5 fo alfo a Cataplafm 
of Honey and Caims of Bread ; but bcil: of all a plai- 
ner of lirained Opiums with Oil and Wax, which per- 
forms all the intentions to admiration. If the Blifter 
break, it may be prefently skinned by anointing with 
Oil of Eggs, and waOiing often with Lac F'irginis, Itrew- 
ing upon tlie lore, ppuder of Bole, Tutty, Cerufe, or the 

XI. To title away Scars and Maris of the Swall Pox* 
Take of Oil ot Tartar one ounce and half, Cerufe dif- 

folvedin Oil of Roles one ounce, Borax and Sd Gem oi 
each one drachm, mix and make an Ointment, with 
whicli anoint. Oil of Tartar alone performs this work 
well : lo Salt of Tartar, mixed with poudcr of Myrrh and 
Oil of Roles. But Emplaft. EpiJ'pai?icum is infallible and 

XII. To heauti§e the Hands. 

To make them ibit, often anoint with tl;e Oil of ^1- 
jnonds or our Vowaium at Night going to BeJ, waOiing 
them ihc next Morning widi dccocVion of Whcat-bian : 
after a wiiile waii them with Salt of Tartar, dilToIved 
in fair water, perfumed with Oil of Cloves, Oranges, 
Rliodmi'i .-.r Ci (..ivron. o, rliif, Ti':f T'niirc Soap dil- 


Chap. ^ . Of remedying Vices of the Skin, ^8 1 

folved in Juice of Limons one pound, Virgin-honey four 
ounces, Sublimate, Orrice root, Sugar, Salt of Tartar, A- 
lum, Borax, of each one ounce, Balfam of Peru, two 
drachms, Oil of Cloves one drachm. Oil of Rhodium and 
Cinnamon of each half a drachm, make a mixture. to 
wafli the hands withal : Or this, take pouder di Venice 
Soap one pound, Orrice Root eight ounces, Amylum fix 
ounces, mix them and make an Ointment with UqnU 
Storax and Oil of Benjamin a fufficient quantity ,• it 
wonderfiilly whitens, fmooths and foftens the hands. To 
anoint alfo with Bulls Gall is very good. 

XIII. To help hands which arefwoln, and look red or blfte 
Tviih cold. 

What we even now faid ( in the latt Section ) may be 
faid again here : to -which' we add, that a long bathing 
bf them in a lather of Caftle Soap, is very good : 
or if a repercuflive Plaifter be applied made of Bar- 
Icy meal, Saccharum Satirml, and Oil of Myrtles ; 
vv^alliing ( after the coming off of the Cataplafm ) with 
Juice of Limons or White-wine Vinegar*: a Plainer of 
Turpentine mixed with Salt is good. Often to anoint 
the hands with Oil of Rofes, Almonds, or Pomatum at 
Night, and the next Morning with the Lac Virginls pre- 
vails much. Oil of Annifeeds, Caraways and Fennel 
prepared Chymically, as alio Cloves and Oranges, mix- 
ed -with Oil of Almonds, and often ufed, are eminent 
above all other things. 

XIV. To wale the Skin f oft, fmooth and white, take ajt>ay 
Pimples, Morphew, Scurfy &c. 

Bath the places affeded, well. Morning and Night, 
with Powers of Rofcnrary, Amhcr or Limons, and you will 
have your defure in fome lliort time with advantage. 
Thefe things arc beyond all iiitherto named« 

iF f 4 C H A E 

'588 Polygraphlces Lib. V. 


Other AdmirAble Bcauf/fiers, 

I. *TpO remedy the evil cnlottr of the Green Sichnejs. 

*■ Take Crocus Mirtis aperitive, Harts horn cal- 
cined in fine ponder, ot each an ounce ; double refined 
Sugar two ounces : mix them. Dole two drams Morn- 
ins; and Evening, wafhing it down with a Glals ot White 

n. For Sore nnd Bleared Eyes, or a [harp humor in thcw. 

Take Damak Rofe Water a Pint, Sricchamm S.iturni 
a dram ; mix anddiflolve : drop it 3, 4, 5, or 6 times a 
day into the Sore, Rhcumntick or Inflamed Eye. 
III. For Sore and WtCfiin^ Eyes. 

Take fair water three Quarts ; and being boiling hot, 
put into it fine Bole one ounce, w^hitc Vitriol fix drams, 
Camphire one dram ; digeft upon the faeces a Week, and 
decant the clear for ule It cures Sore Jiunning Eyes, 
tilllorts of Ulcers, Tetters, Ring-worms, Scabs, C^r. be- 
ing in' thefe larter cafes ufed twice a day, half an hour 
tit a time, as ho: as the Patient can endure it. 

IV. To remove rhe filrhy colour of the Tellnw Jaundice. 
Give the part}' Morning and Evening a brge fpoonful 

of the black Tindture of Iron, ( made by putting old 
Nails into White Wine, anddigcfting them together fur 
fome Months, lliaking the Bottle once a day ) this clear 
Mack Tinclure you may give in White Wine or Ale, as 
the Patient likes beft. Ir cures alfo the Grcen-fickncfs, 
and provokes the terms in \'\'omen. 

V. For Fir^pleSy and other Deformities of the Face and 

Take Damask Rofe-water a Gallon : Salt Peter in fine 
ponder half.a pound ; mix and diifolve over a gentle 
heat, and keep it for ufc. Wafn often the Face and Skin 
therewidi, it admirably clears it from almofi- all Dcfor- 

• VI, Another fcr the fame. 

T;ike Dama.-k Rofe-water a Gallon, Oil of Sulphur an 
Ounce ; mix and let the Patient walh th;.rewith Morn- 

Chap.4» Other Admirable Bemi fey Si 389 

jng and Evening. If it is too fharp, you may put in 
'more Rofe-water : it is good againlt Pimples, Tetters 
Ring-worms, Scurf, Morphew, Leprofie, Freckles, &c. 

VII. Another mixture excellent againfi rednefs of the 
Face and Pimples. 

Take fair water two Quarts, White Wine Vinegar a 
Gallon, Lime Juice a Qiiart, Spirit of Wine or Brandy 
three Pinf^^, mix them ; walli herewith two or three times 
a day. 

VIII. A Cofmetich again/} Freckles. 

Take Flower of Sulphur, Salt Peter, of each two oun- 
ces j Juice of Limons a pint and half ; Brandy, fair Wa- 
ter, of each a Pint; mix", digeft in Sand for 14 days, 
and keep the Water upon the Faeces : wa(h with it 
twice a day, and Jet Cloths wet therein dry upon the 

IX. Another againft Pimples, Scurf, JUforpherv, Scabs, 
Freckles, &c. 

Take fair Water a Gallon ; Spirit of Wine two Quarts ; 
Oil of Salt four or five ounces : mix them, and ^valli 
therewith twice a day. 

X. Another Cofmetick. 

Take Corroftve Sublimate made into fine pouder ( be- 
tween pieces of ftrong Paper and Leather, and beaten 
Tvith a Hammer, that its Atomes may not fly into 5X)ur 
Mouth, Noftrils, and Eyes : ) one ounce ; put it into 
boiling Water a Gallon ; when it is diifolved put to it 
three Gallons of Damask Rofe-water, and keep it for 
life. With this W' ater touch or wafh Scabs, Pimples, 
King-worms, Tetters, Scurf, Morphew, Freckles, Len- 
tils, &c. twice or thrice a day, and it will cure. 

XI. Another Cofmetick. 

Take Crumbs of Wheat Bread hot out of the Oven 
four pounds ; glair of Whites of Eggs N® xvii;. Goats 
Milk two Gallons ; Shells of Eggs N'^ xviij. burnt white j 
mix, and diftil off the Water in a Glais Alembick, with 
a gentle fire. It is good againrt fpots and rednefs of the 

XII. Another excellent Cofmetick. 

Take Ox Galls N° vj. Roch Alum, Nitre, of each two 
ounces j Flowers of Sulphur one ounce ; Borax, Gam- 
phire, of each half an ounce -, the grols ingredients be- 
ing in fine pouder, mix them with the Galls, and Ihake 


g^ Poljoraphices ' Lib. V. 

them together for a quarter of an hour, tvtrj day for a 
fortnight ; then let all fettle, decant the clear, and fil- 
ter through brown Paper, and keep it for ufe. It is an 
excellent Beautlficr. 

XIII. A Cenr-Cloth to lay over the Face all Night, to mah 
it foft and fmooth. 

Take white Bees Wax four ounces, SheepsSuet, Spernja 
Cstiy of each two ounces ; Oil of Ben, Camphirc, of each 
cne ounce ; melt all together, and fprcad it thin upon 
Cloth, and fo apply it over the Face every Night. 

XIV. To dcarije the Hands and Face, and make the?i; 
Jphite^fo^tj and fmooth. 

Take Water two or three Gallons ; Calves Feet a 
liifficient quantity ; boil all together, and make a good 
firong Gclly ; ftrain boiling hot through a double FLin- 
nel bag : add to it half the Qinntiiv of the Juice of Li- 
mon?, filtred through brown Paper, boil to a confidence, 
and keep it for ufe : -walli Morning and Evening the 
Hands and Face with this Geily, and it will make an 
txcellent Skin. 

XV. A Wajh for a Tannd Face. 

Take Wheat Bran a quarter of a Peck : WHnte Wine 
Vinegar three ■ Quarts ; infule warm for one Night : 
then add twenty Egg^? beaten all together, lliells and all j 
mix, and diitil m a Glafs Balnea to dr^'uefs : fb will you 
fcave a Water, which will add an admirable Beauty to 
tl]e Face. 

XVI. Another excellent Water for a Tannd and Sun- 
lurnt Skin. 

Take Barley Water, the fccond water made of hull'd 
Barley, and filtred r'lrough brown Paper, a Gallon ; Tin- 
cture of Balfam of Peru four ounces j miK thcin together, 
and keep it for ufe. It is fiid to clear the Skin, make 
the Flelli plump, and take away wrinkles, if long ufed, 
and preferves Youth and Beauty : your Face ought al- 
ways to be wafli'd very clean bctore vou ule it. 

XVH. To CfirePiiji't}es,Pm.pleSj Ruhufh Inching, Ring- 
Tforr,:s, Tetter s^ Scurf, A/orpl:e;v, and oiher like Defornsities 
cf the Face and Skin. 

Take choice White Wine Vinegar, a Gallon : Juice 
of Lumons filtred tlirough brown Paper, a Quart: BraA- 
dy a Pint : mix them and keep it for ufe. Sprinkle this 
jfcjuKturc upon a Chafing-du^i of Coals, and receive the 


Chap. 5. Ofclea?2fmg the Teeth. ^91 

Fumes of it upon your Face, Hands, Arms, or other parts 
afFc6ted, three or four times a day -, and continuing this 
courfe tor fbme few days, it will effediially cure thofe 
difeafes aforenamed. 

XVni._ ^«^ excellent Pomatum for the Face, Lips,8cc. 

Take Oil of Ben fixteeri ounces ,• choice tryed Mutton 
Suet, or Lamb Suet, four ounces ; melt them together ; 
and colour it of a reddiOi bluOi, by putting into it M- 
kanet Roots : with this you may anoint as you fee occa- 
fion. It wliitens ajid foftens' the Skin, being often 


Of clears fmg the Teeth, 

I. "Tp O cleanfe Teeth r^hich ere furred over. 

•*- Rub them every Mornins;, and every time after 
catmg with Crernor Tartcri in fine pouder ^ and then 
walli them with this mixture. Take fair watcrj a Oucrt ; 
White WtneF'jnegar, a Pint^ Juice of Limons, halfaPint ; 
White Port Wine, a Pint and half ; Brandy, half a Pint ; 
mix thenj, to make a walli for the Teeth. 

II. Another excellent Wafh for thcjap^e. 

Take redified Spirit of Wine a Pint ; Oil of Sulphur 
an ounce ; mix them : this makes them purely ckan ; 
liril wafli or rub them with this, and then afterwards 
w^afh them with fair warm water. 

III. To Tyhiten hlack Teeth. 

Take Sjrup of Rofes fixteen ounces ; Damask Rofe- 
water twenty ounces ; Spirit of Sulphur, or Vitriol, four 
pounds ; mix tliem. Firil rub your Teeth with a cloth 
dipt in this Liquor, then wafh your Mouth in Damask 

ly. yi Pouder to cleanfe the Teeth rphenftirrd. , 

Take Red or White Coral, which beat to Pouder and 
levigate upon a Porphyre, with Damask Rofe-water ; 
dry it, and keep it for ule : Avith this rub the Teeth twice 
a day. Some ufe pouder of Bricks, which if fine, is good, 
being mixt with a little ' Honey. After rubbing th« 


^92 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

Teeth ivith thefe Poudcrs, walli them with fair water, or 

V. Another for the fame. 

Take Allic- oi^ Rolcmary-branche?, a pound ; Rofe 
Vinc|vir q. s. digLft^xxiv.hours, then dry it, and keep the 
poud-.r to rub your Teeth Avith. 

VI. Another for the fanie. 

Take levigated Poudcr of Crabs Eyes and Claws, and 
of red Coral, Ponder of burnt Harts-horn, ana four oun- 
ces ; Salt of Wormwood one ounce: mix them, aiid make 
a Pouder. 

VII. Another Ponder for the Teeth. 

Take Puinice-lbne in' fine Pouder, Coral levigated, 
Brick-durt, of each a pound ; Catechu twelve ounce=; ; 
Orrice Root, c'2,lit ounces : mix and make a Pouder to 
rub the Teeth with, Morning and Evening : wafhing 
them after wardb with a mixture oi c> jual parts of Damask 
Rofe-water, fair water, and White Wine Vinegar. 

VIII. To V(hiten black Teeth. 

Take Roic-water a Gallon ; Oil of Sulphwr four oun- 
ces ; mix them. Tye a Rag to the end of a ftick, dip it 
in the former water, and Icowrc the Teeth therewith ; 
this do Icveral times, Morning, Noon and Night, till the 
blackncfs is gone j then rub tlicm with Oil Ben, perfu- 
med with a few drops of Oil of Cinnamon. 

IX. To l.iftcn loofe Teeth. 

Firll rub the Teeth with this- Pouder. Take Catechu, 
Roch-Alnm, of each alike quanthy in fine Ponder^ mix them^ 
and rub the Teeth mth the fame. Then waih with this : 
J^ Damask Rofc-water a Quart, ifrong Tinthnre of Catech:^ 
fx ounce:, mix them : and after that Avalli them with the 
beft Red Wine, Morning, Noon and Night : and every 
Night going to Bed lay fre("h or green Scur\'-y-grals be- 
tween the Cheeks, Lips and Teeth all Night. 

X. To Cure Teeth Vyhich are Rotting. 

Take Harts-horn calcined and levigated, magifhry of 
Coral, of each four ounces; Qrricc in poudcr fix ounces; 
Oil of Rhodium a dram : mix them for a Dentifrice to 
rub the Teeth withal. It will keep them white and 

XI. Another for the fame. 

Take Harts horn calcin'd and levigated. Salt of Tartar 
fulphuratcd, of each eight ounces ; mix them for a Den- 
tifrice, 't»s exocilent. XII, A 

Chap. 6. Of making a Jtveet Breath. 595 

XII. ^ Liqmr t(k cleanfe them. 

If you do but touch them twice or thrice a day vv ith 
my SpiritHs Apsriens, it will in a little time make them 
as white as it is pollible for them to be ; after ufmg of 
which each time, you may walli your Mouth with fair 

XIII. Where the Teeth are P^otten and. Hollon\ 
Make httle Pellets of fJrained Opium, and Myrrh^ 

with a few drops of Oil of Caraways, and put them 
into the hollow Teeth ; repeating it as oft as need re- 

XIV. To help or eafe the Pain of the Teeth. 

- If the Teeth are hollow, fill the hollo wnefs with fome 
of the former Pellets : Or make fmall Pellets of our Lm- 
cianum^ and a little Lint, and ufe them as the former ; 
but if they be not hollow, lay long Rolls of our Laada- 
nnm made up v,4th Lint, all Night between the Cheek 
and Teeth, or Gums, repeating, the application two or 
three times in the Night, and if the Pain is vehement, 
take alfo inwardly two or tlirce (3rains of the fame Lan- 
dannm. , 

XV. 71? Help or Cure the StinUng of the Teeth. 

If they ftink much, often walh then with Damask 
Rofe-water, a little lliarpned with Oil of Sulphur ; or 
with Brandy, a little lliarpned with Oil of Vitriol ; or 
with Spring Water, lliarpned with choice Juice of Li- 
mons I or with Tincture of Cinnamon made in common 
Brandy j and you muli: be always fiire to ^valli them 
ivith lome of the former things ; or with fair water mixt 
with White Wine, or White Wine Vinegar, after Eat^ 
ing : and this is daily to be continued till the Cure is 
abfolutely compleated. 


Of mahmg a Srveet Breath. 

I. A Stinking Breath comes from one of thcfe four caw- 

^^ les, vU. from rotten and defeilive Teeth ; putri- 

fied Lungs ; or Ob^rudion of the Stomach j or a Diftem- 

per of the Head. 11. To 

394 Poljgraf bices Lib. V 

II. To Cure it when it proceeds frofn Rotten Teethyf>ic. 

This is to be' cured by the directions given in the for- 
mer Chapter, of which we h:ivc ipoken largely enough, 
lb that no more need be laid in tliis place. 

III. To rer/;edy a jf inking Breath, nhen it proceeds from 
futrified Lungs. 

Outw^ardly anoint the Breft and Stomach with Juice 
of Tobacco, boiled to a thicknefs, mixt with an equal 
quantity of Oil of Amber. In^vardly give Balfam of 
Sulphur Morning and Evening, and in all that the Pa- 
tient drinks in the day t'mc, lomeDropSyW<-. 20, 30, or 
40 Drops at a time or our Spirit tu Aperiens. 

\Y. Some other Ren:edies for the fame purpofe. 

Give inwardly the Anifated Balfam of Sulphur, Mot- 
nlng and t\ening 15, or 20, or 25 Drops, made into a 
Bolus w^ith double refined Sugar ; at Ten in the Morn- 
ing, and Three in the Afternoon, give half a dram o^Be- 
z,oar Minerale, or Antimonmni Di.^.phoreticMm, or as much 
of Antihe^iciim Poterijy or a Scruple of Arcanum Jovis^ 
made up into a Bolus with Syrup of Green Ginger. Let 
him alto now and then eat a Race oi Green Ginger, and 
drink after it a Glals of good Re I Florence Wine. Thefe 
things being taken for leveral Days, or Weeks, at laft 
conlummate the Cure -with this : In the Morning, and 
at four Afternoon, let him take this Bolus : TAe Catechu 
in fine ponder, NH'.n;egs in poudcr, Bez,oar mincralj of each 
/in ounce ; Oil of Cinna'/Kon x:<:. dr'tps : choice Honey enough 
to make it into an ElcEiuary ; Dofc as much as a Chefnut 
at a time : and at Night let him take this. Va Venice 
Turpentine two ounces , Catechu in fine ponder q- s. mix 
md make Pills : Dole, a dram every Night at Bed 

V. A Siinhng Breath from Vijlcmpcr of the Stomach. 

This is cured ty opening and cleanling the Stomach : 
firlt Vomit with Vmum Benedtcium one ounce, or more, 
as Itrength requires, which may be repeated two or three 
times : or you may Vomit in like manner with Tartar 
Emetic k, or fome other Antimonial Vomit, or with P^i- 
negar or Wine, or Oxymel of Sipils : this done, you may 
purge the Bowels with our Farrtiiy Pills four or five times, 
and after that, every Morning tailing the Patient may 
take a Scruple o[ Pil.Rujfi, or three drams of Elixir Pro- 
^rietatis for ten or twelve times, cither aery day, or" eve- 

Chap. 6. of making a fweet Breath, ^^5 

ry other day, in the Morning farting, drinking after it 
fome warm Broth or PolTet-drink. 

VL A Stinking Breath' from Dijhmper of_ the Head, 

You are to confider the Caufe of the Diftemper, whe- 
ther it is from Apoftems, the Pox, Leprofie, Elephantia- 
fis, &c. and then to purfue the Method uled in the Cure 
of thofe Difeafes ; for fo the Cauie being taken away^ 
the Effeds will foon ceafe. Yet neverthelefs, if the Pa- 
tient will be pleafed to take fome few Dofes of the Pi- 
luLi Lunares every other Night at Bed time, or every third, 
or fourth Night, he will find a Satisfadion beyond ail 

VIL A Stinking Breath from Ulcers of the Nofe, ThroAt, 
or Mouth, 

This cannot be cured but by curing of thofe Ulcers : 
if they be not inveterate and Ikibborn, they may be cured 
with this Walh : Take Aqua Regnlata two ounces : Tin- 
Bure of Catechu one ounce : Honey, enough tofppeeten mithkl: 
with this gargle or wafli the Throat, Mouth or Nole, 
three or four times a day : if this will not do, you muft 
ufe the Water of the Griffen, which feldom lails, though 
the Ulcers be never fo rebellious : but if all thefe things 
f'lil, you mud make ufe of this. Take Damask Rofe-water 
fvc oannces : Pomrs of Mercury tvoo Arams j mix them * 
and therewith gargle or walh the Parts affeiled three or 
four times a day, this will not fail. 

VIII. To re^ifie the Breath when it fmells of any thing 
that is eaten. 

Chew Coriander Seeds or Zedoary in the Mouth, or Ja-' 
maica Pepper, drinking a draught of Wine after it : or you 
may chew the Perfumed Grains of Catechu, which wilt 
give the Breath an incomparable Odour, beyond moii 
other things. 

C H A^ K 

^^6 Poljgraphiees. Lib. V. 

Of Beautifyiffg the Hair, 

I. T^O dye the Hair black. 

J- This is done with the Calx of Lmia ( made by 
Spirit of Nitre) mixed with fair water, and the Han 
walhed therewith, with a Spungc : it is the moft excel- 
lent thing of kind that is yet known. 

II. To keer> the Hair from falling off. 

Take Myrtle-berries, Galls^Emblick MjTobalans, of 
each alike, boil them in Oil T)mphacine, with which 
anoint ; it is an excellent Medicine, yet as old as Ga- 

III. To remedy Baldnefs. 

This is a hard thing to cure, yet the following things 
are very good. Rub the Head or bald places every Mor- 
ning very hard with a coarle Cloth, till it be red, anoin- 
ting immediately after Avith Bears greafe : when ten or 
fifteen days are paft, rub every Morning and Evening 
%vith a bruifed Onion, till the bald places be red, then 
anoint with Honey well mixed with Muftard-leed, ap- 
plying over all a Plaliter of Labdan'/.m mixed with Mice- 
dung, and Pouder of Bees : do this for thirty days. If 
all the former fail, bath with a decodtion of Bur-dock 
roots, n^dc with jl Lixivuim ( of Salt of Tartar) two 
parts, and Muskadcl one part 5 immediately applying 
this lilnguent : take Thaffi 01 Turbith one dram (in 
pouder ) Bears-greale one ounce, mis them, which ule 
for fixty days ; if this make not the Hair come, the de- 
fcd is incurable. 

IV. To take aw/'.y Hair from places mhere it f}?oiild not 

Take Quick-lime four ounce?, A-^ripi^nientum one 
ounce and a half, Sulphur vive. Nitre, ot each half an 
Giiwzc^ Lixivium of Salt of Tartar a quart, mix and boil 
all 10 long in a glazed earthen pot, till puituig a quill 
therein, all the feathers peel off, and it is done. Firlt 
foment the place with warm water a little before you 
ufe the aforelaid Medicine ; a quarter of an hour after 


Chap. 7. Of making the Hair grorv: ^gj 

wafh v/ithvery hot water ; then anoint with the afore- 
faid Unguentj and in a quarter of an hour it will do the 
work, when the hairs ai*e fain avvray, remember to anoint 
with Oil of Rofes ; now to keep them from ever grow- 
ing again, anoint for fome da^^s with an Ointment 
made of the Juice of Henbane and Nightihade, Opium 
and Hogs-greafe. 

V. To wake the Hiiir curl. 

Walli the hair very well with a Lixivhim of Quick- 
lime, then dry it very well, that done, anoint it with Oil 
of Myrtles, or Oil Omphacinej and pouder it well with 
Sweet Pouder, putting it up every Night under a Cap : 
if the party be naturally of a cold and moift Conititution, 
the waflning, anointing and pondering muft be perpe- 
tually ufed once or twice a Week during Life, the Hair 
being put up every Night. 

VI. To mah Hair lank and jif.g that cp.rls too much. 
Anoint the Hair throughly twice or thrice a Week with 

Oilof Lillies, Rofes, or Marlli-mallows, combing it after 
it very well. 

VII. To m^le the Hair grow long and/oft. 

Diiiil Hogs-greafe or Oil Olive in an Alembick, with 
the Oil that comes there -from anoint the Hair, and it will 
make it gro^v Jong and foft : ufe it often. 

VIII. To preferve the Hair from fplitting at the ends. 
Anoint the ends thereof, with Oil Omphacine, or Oil 

of Myrtles, they are eminent in this cafe to preierve the 
Mair from fplitting ; fb alfo an Ointment made of Ho- 
ney, Bees-wax and Oil Omphacine, or Bears-greafe. 

IX. To maie White Hair of a Brown colour. 

Take Aqua fortis three ounces : filings of Siver two 
penny weight, or value of Six pence, digefl in a boiling 
Balneoj till the Silver is perfedlly diffolved, then mix with 
it a little Strong Water -, with which wafh White Hair, 
and it will make it of a Brown Bay color. 

X. To male the Hair grow -well and thick. 

Make a flrong decoilion of Tops of Hemp in Wine,"' 
and therewith wafh the Head and Hair Morning and 
Evening for three Weeks or a Month. 

XI._ To make a Tellow Head of Hair Black. 
Anoint the Teeth of a Comb with Oil of Tartar per 
deliamum, and dip a Sponge in it, and do the Comb 
with itj and Comb the Head in the Sun ( it being firlt 

G g waihed 

^98 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

vvalTicd clean with fair warm' Avater ) do this for a qaar- 
ter ot "an hour togrther, often anointing; the Comb with 
the Oily Sponge, and repeat it thrice a day for leven (.lays, 
lo will the Hair become Black, afterwards you may an- 
oint it with Oil of Rhodim7. 

XII. A Water to colour the Hair hlacl. 

Take Aqua fortis three ounces ; fine Silver in Leaves 
one ounce : put them in a GlafsMatrefs, and over a gen- 
tle fire diffolve the Silver t then add Damask Rofe-water 
half a Pint, boil a quarter of an hour ; after add the 
Jirice of two large Citrons ; boil again another quarter 
of an hour, and'keep it for ufe, in a Bottle clofe ftopt. 
When you ufe it, take four Spoonfuls thereof, and add 
as much juice of Citrons ; warm them, and waili the 
Hair therewith, with a bit of Sponge, taking heed that 
you touch not your Skin, or any of your Linen, becaufe 
It will rot it ; the Hair being wafht, let it dry on. 

XIII. To ir.ah the Hair prow long. 

Malce a Lye of the Aihcs of Maidenhair, Southern- 
wood, Mullein, Hemp tops, and Cane Roots, diffolve in 
every quart of Lye half an ounce of Myrrh, and add to 
it an equal qiuantitv of White Wnie ; with this walh 
the Hcr>d Morning and Evening for twenty days. 

XIV. To n-iike the Hair gruw in bald places. 

Firlt wafli tl.c places atfcCted very well, for almoft a 
quartcr-of an hour, with a Deco6tion of Wheat Bran ; 
then for a quarter of an hour, or longer, rub the faid af- 
fected places with a large Itrong Onion cut in halves : 
do this fu' almolt half an hour ; and afterwards anoint 
tlje parts with this Ointment. Take Bcars-grcalis a 
pound ; Juice of MoUy^o; of Onions, eight ounces : pou- 
f/cr of Moufe-dung fix ounces,: Oil of Tarter per deiiqHi:mi 
one ounce ; mi^ them, and anoint, therewith : Let all 
this work be done two or three times a day, and conti- 
nued for a Month compleat ; if the defomuty is not un- 
ciuiiWe, this.wiil p^rfoxio the \\oik> 

C H A P. 

chap. B, 9. 0/ Ter fuming in General, j^i^ 

Of the Art of Perfuming in General, 

1. TN this Art two things are to jbe confidered, viz. 

-*- I. The way and manner of making of PerRimesJ 

2. Tiie way and manner of Perfuming. 

II. The Perfume it felfis confjdered, i. In relpe6l of 
its form. 2. In relpedf of itsCompofition. 

III. The Form of the PcrFume is either Water, Oil, Ef- 
lence,Unguent,Pouder, or Tablets. 

IV. The Making and Compofition is taken from the 
Form and Matter. 

V. The Matter is either Vegetable, Animal or Mi- 
neral. . -^ ■ : , , 

VI. The way of Perfuming is according to the Matter 
to beperfiimed. 

VII. The matter to be Perfumed is either Natural, as 
Hairs, Skins, Cloths, Air, cr^. or Artificial, as Pomanders, 
Pouders, Walli-balls, Soaps, Candles, and other tilings of 
like nature. 

C H A P. IX. 

Of the Matter of which Perfumes are made, 

I, ^HE ground o£ Vegetable Perfumes, is taken from 
-*- Flovpers, Seeds, Herhs, Roots, Woods, Barks, and 


11. The chief FW^n- for this ufe, are of Clove-gilli'^ 

flowers, Rofes, Jafemin, Lavender, Oranges and Saffron. • 
HI. The chief Seeds or Fruits are Nutmegs, Cloves, Ca,--' 
rawaySjGrains, Seeds oi Geranium Mofchatptm, Musk-feeds, 
and the Nut Ben, which Oil is only ufed as a Vehicle. ^ 
! IV. T^he chief Herhs are Geranium AhfchntHm, Bafil;^ 
Sweet Marjoram, Savory, Time, Angelica, Rpfemary, L^- 
nnderj HyiTop, iweetTrefoil, Mint, and B^y-treeleaves. ~ 
G§ 2 Y- The 

400 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

y. The chief Roots are of Calamus Aromatku;, Ginger, 
China.,Caryoph)!Uta, Indian Spickruird, and fwect Orricc, 
or Iris. 

VI. The cWiQ^ Woods are of yellow Sanders, Xylo-hal- 
fanmmy Lignum, Aloes, RkodiMn;, Sajfafras and Cedar. 

VII. The Barks and Peels are of Cinnamon, Mace, 
Granges, Limons and Citrons. 

VIII. The chief Gums are Frankinccnfe , Olibanum, 
Labdanum, liquid Styrax, Balfamiim l^ermyj, Amber-grife, 
Styrax Calamita, Benjamin, Amber, Camphirc. 

IX. The chief matters of Perfumes taken from Ani- 
mals, are Musk, Civet, Cow-dung, and other Turds. 

X. O^ Minerals there are tvvo only, which yield a Per- 
fume, and they are Antimony and Sulphur. 

chap: X. 

of the Oil of Ben. 


TH E little Nut which the ArMans call Ben, is the 
lame \vhi'ch the Lajins call Nux Vnguentari.i ; 
and the Greeks y Balanta Afy-epfua ; out of which is taken 
an Oil, of great ulc in the Art of Perfuming. 

II. 71? make iheOil of Ben. Blanch the Nut5, and beat 
them very carefully in a Mortar, and fprinkic them with 
Wine, put them into an Karthen or Iron Pan, and heat 
them hot, then put them into a Linncn Cloth, anil 
prefs them 'in an Almond Prcfs, this work repeat, till 
all the Oil is extraded, fo have you Oil of Bin by cx- 

III. In like manner you may exprefs the Oil out of 
Citron Seeds, incomparable for this purpofc, to extract 
the fcent out of Musk,Civct, Amber, and the like, becauie 
it will not quickly grow rank, yet Oil of the Nut B^n is 
much better. i 

IV. Tills Oil of Ben hath two properties ; the pne is, 
that having no fcent or odour of it fell, it alters, chanr!,cs 
Or diminilhes not the fcent of any Perfume put into it : 
the otlier is, that it is of a long continuance, fo that it 


Chap. IT. Of Sweet Waters, 401 

fcarcely ever changeth, grows rank, cormpts, or putrifies, 
as other Oils do. 

V. To make a Perfume thereof, put the Musk, Am- 
bes^ &c. in fine pouder, thereinto, which keep in a Glafs 
Bottle very clofe ftopt for a Month, or more, then ufe it. 

VI. Or thiu, Blanch your Nuts, and bmife them, 
( Hade Nuts may do, tho' not fc good ) and lay them be- 
tween two rows of Flowers, fuppofe Rofes, Jafemin, &c. 
or other Perfumes ; when the -Flowers have loft their 
fcent and fade, remove them, adding frefii ones ; which 
repeat fo long as Flowers are in fealon ; then fqueez out 
the Oil, and it will be moft odoriferous. 

VII. Laltly, by this laft you may draw a fweet fcent 
out of thofe Flowers, out 6f which you cannot diftil any 
f^veet water. 


Of Sweet Waters, 

I. "-v. HE firfi Sweet Water. 

-*- Take Cloves in pouder an ounce, yellow San- 
ders, Cdlamm Aromaticpts of each half an ounce, Aqua Ro- ' 
farampdwafcenarum fifteen pound, digeft four days, then 
diftil in an Alembick ; to this new diftilled water put 
in pouder Cloves, Cinnamon, Benjamin, Storax Calami- 
fa, of each half an ounce, diftil again in Balneo ; laftly put 
the water into a glafs bottle with Musk and Ambergrife, 
of each ten grains, keep it^clofe ftopt for ufe. 

II. The jecond Sweet Water. 

Take Damask Rofes exungulated three pound. Flowers 
of Lavender and Spike, of each four ounces, Clove-gilli- 
flowers, and Flowers of Jafemin, of each two pound. 
Orange-flowers one pound. Citron peels four ounces. 
Cloves one ounce, CinnamonjiromA-, 
Nutmegs, of each half an ounce, all in pouder, Aqua 
Rofarnm fix pound, digeft ten days, then diftil in Balneo : 
to the diftilled water add of Musk and Ambergrife of each 
thirty grains. 

g 3 m,^ 

402 Folj^raifhices Lib. V. 

in. The thitil Sneet Water. 

Take Rofes, Clove-gilliflower?, of each one pound, 
Flowers of Rofeman-, Lavender, Jafcmiriy Marjoram, Sa- 
vory, Tirne, of each three oun^e?, dry Citron peel=, one 
ounce. Cinnamon, Beniamin, Stor^.x Caiimita^ of each 
half an ounce. Nutmegs, Mace, of each one dram ; bruifs 
the Herbs and Spices well, digert in the Sun nvo days, 
then difBl in B^Jnfo : to the diftilled water add Musk in 
ponder one fcruple. 

IV. The founh Sifeet Water. 

Take Cloves, Cinnamon, of each one dram, Mace, 
Grains, Musk, Ambergrile, Citron peel?, of each hall' a 
dram, Benjamin, Storax- Calamita^ of each one I'aruple, 
Aquy. Rofar'Am twelve pound, digeft fifteen days, then di- 
ftil in B.^.lneo. 

V. The fifth Street Wetter. 

Take Rofemar^-flower --ater, Orange-flower water of 
each five pound, Ambergi ife one fcruple, digeft ten daj"?, 
then difHl in Balneo, or keep it without dilHlling. 

VI. The ftxth SrrmW.tter. 

Take Rofes two pound, Macalcb, half a cbam, Am- 
bergrile ten grams, bruile what is to be bruifed, digeft in 
Sand three days, then diftil in Balnen. 
"VTI. The Jn-enth Siree: Water. 

Take green peels of Oranges and Citrons, of each four 
ounces. Cloves half a dram. Flower? of Spike fix ounces, 
^qy.:i Rfifarum Bamajcenaram fix pound, digeft ten dapj 
then diliil in Balneo. 

VIII. The eighth Svteet Water. 

Take ofthe\\'aterof the fifth Sedion fix pound. Musk 
ten grains, m.k and digeft them for ufe. 
iX. Tl:e ninth Sneet Wetter. 

Take ^cjtf.x Rofar'^n:, Aty.ix F^rrffm de Jafcmin^ of each 
four pound, Musk one fcruple, digeft tendays, then diltii 
in "Sand. 

X.'The tenth Svreet W^^ter. , 

Take Damask-rofcs, Miisk-rofes, Orange-fiower^, of 
each foLU' pound, Cloves ^.vo oimces, Nutmegs one ounce, 
diftil in an Alembick, in the nofe of which hang Musk 
three Icruples, Amber t^vo fcruples, Civet one fcruple, 
tyed up in a rag dipt in bran, and the White of an Egg 

XI. nf 

Chap. II. . Of Sweet Wdten. 4© 5 

XI. The eleventh Sweet Water, calhd Aqua Nanla, or 

Take Aqua Rofaritm four pound, Orange-fiosver wa- 
ter nvo pound, waters of fwect Tiefoil, Lavender, Sweet 
Marjoram, cf each eight ounces, Benjamin two ounces, 
Storax one ounce, Labdanum half an ounce, Mace, Cloves, 
Cinnamon, Zanders, Lignum Aloes, of each one ounce, 
Spicknard one ounce ^ all being grofly beaten, digeft a 
Month, tliin in a glafs retort diftii in B,iln:o. 

XII. The tTvelfth Sireet Water, called Aqua Mofchata. 
Take Spirit of Wine redlified to the higheft two pound, 

Musk three fcruples, Ambergrife two fcruples, Civet one 
fcruple, digeft in the Sim t^venty days clofe ftopt in a 
grals vt^d; a drop of this water put into any otlier li- 
quor, will ver^- well perfiime it. 

So may yoy. extract the /cent out offaeet Floners, irirh this 
difference, that they lie hnt a little nhile, becauje iheir earihy 
fnhjlance rcill mah the fpirit ill-favoured. 

XIII. The thirteenth Sireet Water. 

Take a quart of Orange-flower water, and as much ' 
Damask Rofe-^vater : add thereto Musk- willow feeds, 
grofly bruifed, four ounces, Benjamin two ounces, St^'rax 
one ounce, Labdanum fix drams. Lavender flowers two 
pugils, musked Cranesbill three pugils, Sweet Marjoram 
as much, Calampu Aromatic m a dram, diftii all in a glafs 
Stillatory in Balnea, the Joints being well clofed that no 
vapor get out. 

XIV. The fourteenth S^eet Water. ., 

Take Beniamin, Stoi2.%Calamita, of each tvvo ounces; 
Cloves, Winter Cmnamon in pouder, of each gee ounce j 
Orange peels, Limon peels, ( the yellow ) of each half an 
ounce ; Musk feeds an ounce and half ; Spirit of Wine 
a quart : digeft twenty days, fhaking it €\-ery day : then 
decant the clear, and add idusk, Ambergrife m fine pou- 
der, ana five grains ; mix them well, and keep them to- 
gether for ufe. 

XV. The Queens Perfumed Water. 

Take Dam.asK Rofe-water a gallon, Orange-flower- 
water two quarts j Sweet Marjoram water, Angelica 
water, of each a quart ; Winter Cirmamon, yellow of 
Orange and Limon peels, Jamaica Pepper, of each two 
ounces ; Cloves, Cinnamon^ Nutmegs, of each half an 
ounce j yellow Sanders, Saflafras, Rhodium, of each one 
Gg 4 ounce; 

404 Tolygrdphices ' Lib. V. 

ouiKC ; Benjamin eight ounces : All the ingredients be- 
ing in fine pouder, put them to the waters in a glals bot- 
tle, adding Spirit ot Wine a qtiart ; digelt in a gentle 
Sand hear for a Month, tlicn decant the clear water, and 
add to it, if you lo plcafc, Musk in fine pouder a fcruple, 
Ambergrife ten grains, tied up in a Nodule, which let 
lye in the liquor fo Jong as it Jafts. 

XVI. Another excellent Perfumed W/tter. 

Take Damask Rofe-water a Gallon, Spirit ^f Wine a 
quart ; Benjamin, i'.'^r^A- Calami: a, yellow Sanders, Mu?k 
leeds, of each fourteen oimccs ; SafTafras, Winter Cinna- 
mon, of each two ounces : Orrice Root three ounces ; 
Cloves, Nutmegs, Cajjia Ligna, Wood of Aloes, yellow of 
Limon and Orange peels, of each half an ounce : Musk 
in fine pouder a fcruple, mixt with double refined Sugar 
half an ounce ; the ingredients being each a part made 
into fine pouder, mix akogether, and digeft in a gentle 
Sand heat for fourt)' days ; and keep the Water for 

XVII. An excellent Perfumed and Colored Water. 
Take DamasJc Rofe leaves frefli gathered, Clove-gilli-- 

flowers, Violets, or any other Sweet and Aromatick 
Flower, put them into an Alembick, and aftufe thereon 
a fufficient quantity of fair water impregnated with Spi- 
rits of Salt, C an ounce of Spirit to a pint of Water : ) fill 
the Alembick fiill of the Flowers, and this impregnated 
water: digeft xxiv. hours till you lee your water is well 
colored ; then decant the clear liquor, i^o will it have the 
color and fmell of the Roles, or other Flowers, as if they 
were frelh gathered. 


Of Perfuming Oils and Spirits. 

I. 'Tp O njohe Perfuming Oils by Jnfitfion. 

■ •*• This is taught fiilly at the hftli Section of the 

tenth Chapter aforegoing. 

II. To wrike Oleum ^mperiale. 
Take Ambergrife four dram?, Storax Cahmita eight 
• - ounces, 

Chap. 12. f Perfuming Oils^^c, 40^ 

ounces, Rofc-water, Oh am Rofatum, of each two pound. 
Oil ot Cinnamon and Cloves, of each half a dram, put 
all into a glafs, and digeft in Hoife-dung twenty days : 
this done, gently boil all for a quarter of an hour, which 
then let cool ; with a fpoon take off tlie Oil which fwims 
a top, to ^vhich put of Musk and Civet, of each two 
drams, digeft all in a gentle heat for twenty days, and 
keep it for ufe. Where note the Amber and Storax at 
bottom will ferve to make Sweet Balls of, to Jay among 
Cloths, or Beads to carry in ones hands j or for. a Per- 
fume to biu-n. 

III. To make Oil ,of Cinnamon. 

Digeft Cinnamon grofly bruifed in fpirit of Wine, 
fharpned with Oil of Salt, in a glafs veflel, with a blind 
head clofely luted, in a gentle heat for ten days, then di- 
liii in an Alembick, as we have more at large taught in 
om PharJKAsop. Lend. lib.d^. cap.^.Jecl.i2. it is a wonderfiil 
Perfume, the moft fragrant and pleafant of all Oils, as 
wtH m tafte as fmell : the ufe of it will certiinly take 
away a flinking Breath. 

IV". To make Oil of Rofes, called adeps Rofarum. 

Take Damask Rofcs, pickle iheni with Bay Salt, and 
after three Months, with a large quantity of water diftil 
in afties with a gentle fire, fo have you Oil, and Spirit, 
or water, which keep for other diltillations. Wickerm 
hath it thus, 

Rofarum folia in umbra aliquandift ajfervara in matula, 
"vitrea magna ponuntur, chjh^ fi[ fundus latftSy C^ ad dimi- 
dinm vas impfetur : inde affiinditur ipfis Rojarnm foliis tan- 
turn aqm rojaceA [tillatitiA, qaantmn jatis fuerit, m optimi 
made ant : appof:6que pileo viirco caico, jiipaiifque optimi rl' 
mis cera gummiata^ quindecim dlehts equinofimomacerantur : 
Jic tamen, ut matato, ami frigejcere c(Ppr,it, fi;.vo, calor aqua- 
lis fervetur. AppofiiO mox matula rojfrato pilco, igne mode- 
rat o cinerum, aqua omnis elicittir : qua ntrjiis in eadem 
matula, optime prius a fxcihm mnndain ahhtaque ponitur, 
fT calemis aqua balneo lentijfwio igne elicittir, dim tota in. 
I'as rccipiens aheat. Nam in fundo matuJa, remanehit oleum 
rofarum, colore ruhrum, perjpicuum, & Afojchi odore fua-_ 
viter fragrans. 

This IS the greateft of all vegetable Perfumes, and of 
an ineftimable value. See the Left way of making it in 
ray Pharm. Bateana, lib. i. cap. 2.fs^. 6p. 7, 8, & 9. 

y. To 

4e6 ToljgtAphkes Lib. V. 

V. To muh Oil 0/ CAUr^r^a j4r0f>:aticni. 

It is made as Oil of Cinnamon : it is a very great Per- 
fume, helps a Stinking Breath, Vomiting, weak Memo- 
ry, &c. 

VI. To r^: ah Oil of Rhodium. 

It is made as Oil of Cinnamon : is a very excellent 
Pcrfiime, good for the Head, Breath, and the Senfes. 

VII. To make. Oil rif Indutn Spicknard. 

By inftifion it is inade by the firit Section ; by diftilla- 
tion, as Oil of Cinnamon. It is an eminent Perfiime. 

VIII. To make Oil of Benjamin. 

Take Benjamin fix ounces in pouder, which diflblve 
in Oil of Tartar, and Aqtij. Rojjrum, of each one pound, 
which diliil with a dole pipe in an Akmbick. So is 
made Oil ol S:orax and Lahdanum. 

IX. To n:ake Oil of St'jr.zx compound. 

Take Oil of Ben, or iiveet Almond?, one pound ; Sto- 
rax grofly beaten four ounces ; Benjamin, Cloves, of 
each two otmces, digefl: (till the Gums are melted) over 
hot Coals ; then prefs out the Oil diligently. 

X. To n.ake Spirit of Amher^^rife. 

Take of the bell revitiiied Spuit of Wine, a pint j Oil 
of Salt half an ounce, Ambergrife, Musk ( both in fine 
poudcr ) of each two drams, ical up the glafs hermetical- 
ly, and digett in a very gentle heat, till the Tincture is 
fully drawn out ; three cr four drops of tl^s Spirit will 
Permme a pint of any Li(]uor richly ._ Or you miay put a 
drop or two round the brmisof a drinking-glafs ; hair a 
Ipoontiil of it mixt with a fit Vehicle, is a rich Cordial. 

Of Perfuming Efftnces. 

J. "T* HE ir.iy to extract EJfences is fome7t>hat difficnhy 
-*- viz. by DijIilUtion, CakinMionj Dige'iion or Men- 


II. If by a Menj^m^fij ufe not a watry One for a wa- 

try Eifence ; nor an oily one for an oily EiTence • be- 

caule being of like naaires, they are not eaOly fcparated ; 


Chap. 1 5 . Of ftr fuming Ejfe^jces* 407 

^it on the contiaiy,chufean oily A'fenftrmnz foraAvatry 
EfTence, and a watry Aienjtruum for an oily ElTence. 

III. IF the ElTence of any Metal be to be extraded by 
a Corro[we A<[enjlr;mM, after the work is done, feparate 
the Salts from the Waters, and uie only thofe Salts which 
will be eafily taken out again ; Fhriol and Alom are ve- 
r^' difficult to be feparated by reafon of their earthy fub- 

IV .- To extraB: the E [fence oyj ofA^Iusl, Amhergrife, Civet, 
and other Spices or Aromaticks. 

Mix the Perfume with Oil of Ben, which in a glafs 
bottle fet in the Sun or Sand for ten days, then itram it 
£'om the dregs, and the ElTence will be imbibed in the 
Oil. Then take Spirit of Wine, and diftilled fountain 
water, which mix with the faid Oil, and digeft for fix 
days, then didil in Sand ; fo will the ElTence and water 
alcend, (the Oil remaining; at bottom without any fcent) 
that effence and water diiUl in BJneo in a glafs veffel, 
till the water be come off, and leave the ElTence in the 
bottom in the form of Oi!. 

V. Another way to do the fame. 

Infiife the matter in Spirit of Wine a fufficient quan- 
tity, mixt with a tenth part of Oil of Salt, or Sulphur, di- 
gelt for ten days, then dilHlin Sand, as long as any water 
will come over ( but have a care of burning ) which di- 
ftilled Liquor draw off in Balneo,^xith. a very gentle heat, 
and the quintelTence will be left in die bottom, of a liquid 

Vl. To extraB the Effence om cf Herbs /md Florvcrs, as of 
Sweet Marjoram, Ba/il, Orange-flo'iverSj Jafeminy &c. 

Eruife the matter, and put it into a glafs velTel to fer- 
ment in Horie-dung for a Month, then difliil in Bnlneo : 
fet it in dung for a week again, and diilil in Balneo a- 
gain ; which reiterate fo long as it will yield any liquor ; 
put the diftilled matter upon the Capm mort'dum, diitil- 
ling thus for fix days ; draw off the water in Balneo ; and 
the ElTence remaining exprefs in a prels : which being a 
week fermented in dungy will yield the perfect fcent, co- 
lour and vertucs of the matter defired. 

VII. To extraB the Effence out of Salts. 

Calcine the Salt, and grind it very fmall, then lay it 
upon a Marble in a moift Cellar, fetting under it a pan 
to receive' the dilTolution -, therein let it ferment for a 


'4o8 ' Tolygyaphices Lib. V. 

Month, tfien with a gentle fire diililin Biilnfo : caflaway 
the infjpid water, which comes from it j and let tliat 
which rcmams in the bottom, to ferment another Month, 
then diftilout the infipid water, as before ; repeating this 
work fo long as any infipid water may be dxawn : then 
evaporate a^vay all the moilture, and what remains is 
the qirintefTence of Salt. ' 

Where Note, i . That thefe Saline qHintejfcnces as they may 
te ufedy mil draw forth the perfect and compleat ejfence of any 
vegetable rchatfoever. 2. That the ejfence of Salts thus drairn, 
TfUl Scarcely come to trvo ounces in a pound. 

VIII. Ejfence of Cinnamon. 

Take Oil of Nutmegs, by expreffion, eight ounces : Oil 
of Cinnamon four ounce? ; mix perfedly, and keep it for 

IX. yi Liquid Ejfence of Cinnamon . 

Take Chymical Oil of Nutmeg? Uirct ouncet : Oil of 
Cloves one ounce ; Oil of Cinnamon eight ounces : mix, 
digert ten day?, and keep it for ufe. 

0/ Perfuming Unguents, 

h*T*0 waie Unguentum Pomatum, or Ointrnent ofAp- 

■* pies. 

Take Calves Suet three pound, Oil of Ben one pound, 
SheepsSuict nine ounces, bmifed Cknesone dram, Aqua 
Rofarnm two ounces. Pom waters pared and fliced one 
pound, boil all to the Conlumption of the Rofe-w.itcr ; 
then rtrain without prclTmg, to every pound of which add 
Oil oi' Rhodium and Cinnamon, of each thirty drops. 
II. To make a compound Pomatum. 

Take of the.Pomatum aforefaid, (without the Oils) 
four pound, Spicknard, Cloves, of each two ounces ; Cin-- 
fiamon, Storax, Ben;amin, of each one ounce, ( the Spices 
and Gums bruifcd and tyed up in a thin rag) Rofe-wa- 
tcr eight ounces ; bcil to the Confumption of the Rofe- 
water, then .add white wax eight ounces, which mix 
well by melting, Itrain it again, being hot j and when 

Chap. 15. Of Fer fuming Fouders. 409 

it is almolt cold, mix therewith Oil of Musk ( made by the 
firft Section of the twelfth Chapter ) then put it out, and 
keep it for ufe. 

III. Another excellent Ointment. 

Take Calves Suet, one pound, Oil of Ben fix ounces, 
Sacchartim Satarni two ounces, mix them well by gently 
melting them , to which add Oils of Musk and Amoergrife, 
of each half an ounce, let them all cool, and beat th« 
Unguent well in a Mortar, and keep it for ufe, 

IV. To make Unguent nm Adofchatum. 

Take Lambs Suet one pound, Oil of Ben fix ounces, Am- 
bergrile, Molcb, of each one dram and a half, ( ground 
with Oil of Jalemin upon a Marble ) adeps Rofarum half 
an ounce, ( ground with Civet one dram) mix ail together 
into an Ointment, which keep for ufe. 
V. A good Fomatuni. 

Take Sheeps Suet two pounds ^ Oil of Ben one pound : 
mix them over a gentle heat j add to them Oil of Tar- 
tar per deliquhim one ounce : when well mixt, caft all 
into warm ivarcr, ilir them well together ; then let it 
ftand and cool : then gather the fat lubltance from the 
top of the water, and mix with it Chymical Oil of Oran- 
ges, and of Limons, of each half an ounce, and keep it in 
a pot clofe covered for ufe. 

Note, Hogs Lard is not to he ufed in theje Compofitionf, 
lecanje it quickly grows rank, and jiinks. 

Of Fer fuming Fouders. 

I. "Tp O make Pouder of Ox dung. 

-■- Take red Ox dung in the Month of May and dry 
it well, make it into an impalpable Pouder by grind- 
ing : it is an excellent Perfume without any other ad- 
dition ; yet if you add to one pound of the former, Musk, 
and Ambergrile, of each one dram, it will be beyond 

II. To make Cyprian Pouder. 

Gather Musk-mofs of the Oak in Bscemlery Jamury 
or Fehruary, wafh it very clean in Rofe-water, then dry 


'41 o Pofygraphices Lib. V. 

it, (kep It in Rofe- water ibr two days, then dry it again, 
whidi do olten times ; then bring it into fine ponder and 
learce it ; Ol which take one pound, Musk one ounce, 
Ambcrgrile halt an ounce, Civet two drams, yellow San- 
ders in pouder two ouncts, mix all avcU together in a 
Marble mortar. 

III. Another rcay to mnle the f^me. 

Take of the aforefaid Pouder ot'Oak-mofs one pound, 
Beniamin, Storax, of each two ounces in line Poudtr ; 
Musk, Ambergrilc and Civet, of each three drams, mix 
them well in a mortar. 

IV. A Sweet Damash Pouier to lay among Cloaths. 
Take Damafk-role leaves dyed one pound, Musk halt 

a dram, Orricc root, fweet Marjoram, yellow Sanders, 
Wood of Aloes, Saffafras, of each three ounces j mix 
them, and put them in a bag. 

V. Anoibcr for the j.:me^ or to v:.exr ^ihout one. 

Take Rofe leaves- dryed one pound. Cloves in ponder 
half an ounce, Spicknard two dram, Storax, Cinnamon, 
of each three dran-is, Mui^k half .a dram, mix ihem, and 
put them into bags for ulc. 

VT. Pofider of Sivcet OrricCy the firji tray. 

Take Florentine On ice-root in Ponder one pound, Ben- 
jamin, Cloves, of each four ounces in ponder, mix them. 
VII. Po'jdcr of Floreruine Orricc y the jecond nay. 

Take or" Orrice-root fix ourices, Rofe leaves in ponder 
four ounces, Marjoram, Cloves, Storax in pouder, of each 
one ounce, Benjamin, yellow^ Sanders, ol' each half an 
ounce, Xylo aloe;^ four bunces,Musk one dram,Cyprus iialf 
a dram, mix them j being groily poudcicd, put them in- 
to bags to lay ainongil linrien : but being line, they will 
ferve for other ufe, as we lliall iLew. 

VIII. Pofider of Orrke-rootSythe third w^, e.vcellent for 
linnen in h^gs. 

Take roots of Orriee, Damask Rofes, of each one pound. 
Sweet Marjoram twelve ounces, flowers of Rofemary,aiid 
Rowan Camomil, leaves of Time, Gerauinm AIojchatHm^ Sa- 
vory,* of each fqur ounces, Cyprus roots, Benjamm, Xylo- 
aloes, yellow Sanders, L/^««w Rhodnm, Citron peel, 6". o- 
rax, Z..'W^,-2»»?, Cloves, Cinnamon, of each one ounce; 
Musk two dramsyCivet one dram arid a half, Aiiibergrile 
one drain, pouder and mix them for bags. This compo- 
fition will rctainits'ftrength near twenty years. 

IX. Po'.t' 

Chap. 1$. Of perfuming Pouder Si 411 

IX. Ponder of Orrice^ the fourth way. 

Take Orrice roots in ponder one pound, Calamus Aro- 
nimcm, Cloves, drj^d Rofe leaves, Coriander feed, Gc" 
ranium Mof chat urn, of each three ounces, Lignum Aloes y 
Marjoram, Orange peels, of each one ounce, Storax one 
ounce and a half, Lahdanum half an ounce. Lavender, 
Spicknard, of each four ounces, pouder all, and mix 
them, to which add Musk, Ambergrife, of each tivo 

X- Pulvls Calami AroMAt'id compojltm. 

Take Calamm ArornMicm^ yellow Sanders, of each 
one ounce ; Marjoram, G:ranium Mofchatum, of each one 
ounce ; Rofe leaves, Violets, of each two drams, Nut- 
megs, Cloves, of each one dram -, Musk half a dram, make 
all into pouder, wliich put in bags for Linnert. 

XI. Another of the fame. 

Take Calanjus Aroriiatici-iS) Florentine Orrice toots, of 
each two ounces, Violet llowers dr}"ed one 'ounce, 
round Cyprus roots two drams ; adep Roj^uHm one 
dram and a half, reduce all into a very fine pouder: 
it is excellent to lay among Linnen, or to ftrew in the 

XII. An excellent perfuming Pouder for the Hair. 
Take Orrice roots in fine pouder one ounce and a hali^ 

Benjamin, Storax, Cloves, Musk, of each two drams ; be- 
ing all in fine Pouder, mix them for a Perfume for Hair 
Pouder. Take of this Perfume one dram, Rice-flower 
impalpable one pound, mix them for a pouder for the 
Hair. Note, fome ufe white Starch, flour ot French Beans, 
and the like. 

XIII. A Siveet Por>>dcr for a Silk Bag. 

Take Benjamin, Storax Calamita, Cloves, Lignum Aloes, 
of each two ounces ; yellow Sanders three ounces, Flo- 
rentine Orrice Hyi ounces, Musk half a dram, mingle 

XIV. Another for the fame. 

Take Florentine Orrice, Spicknard, Sweet Marjoram 
dried. Geranium Mofchatum, of each four ounces ; Da- 
mask Rofes, Cyprels, Lavender Flowers, of each three 
ounces ; Benjamin, Lignum Rhodiumj of each an ounce, 
mix them. 

XV. A Damask Pouder for the like intention. 

Jake Damask Rofes, yellow Sanders, Lignum Aloes, 


412 Polygraph iees. Lib. V. 

of each four ounces ; Benjamin, Spirknard, Cyprefs, of 
each two ounces, mingle them together. 

XVI. Another for the fame pfirpofe. 

Take Damask Rofe leaves a handful, cut off the white?, 
put them in a glafs, and put to them Musk hah"' a fcru- 
p!e, Ambergriie Gx grains, Civet four grains, fiop ti:C 
glafs dole, and fet it in the Sun till the leaves be through- 
1}^ drv. 

XVIT. A Pouderfor a Sjveet Bag. 

Take Orrice, Cyprcfs, white Sanders, Lavender, Da- 
mask Rofes, of each four ounces ; Calamm, Storax Calr.- 
mit/t, Benjamin, Sweet Bafil, Sweet Marjoram, Geraninm 
yi/q/oW«w, of each two ounces ; Cloves, Rofemary flow- 
ers, of each one ounce, mix them. 

XVIII. Damask Poider for a Srveet Bag. 

Take Damask Rof^s four ounces and a half ; Mario- 
ram, Orrice, of each four ounces ; Gcraninm A'fojch.iiHm 
three ounces ; Lahdanm?? two ounces and a half, Lignur/i 
Aloes, white Sanders, Cloves, Cyprefs, Benjamin, GiU- 
mns, of each two ounces j Musk, Oil of Savin, of each one 
dram, mingle them. 

XIX. White Damask Ponder very €ne for Hair. 

Take Orrice in ponder, white Starch, of each eight 
ounces ; fine Musk a icmplc, mix it firft with a little, 
then with more, and laltly with the whole by degrees, 
the longer it i? kept the. better. 

XX. Another Damask Po:*dsr in Grofi. 

Take Damak Rofcs two ounces and a half ; Cr- 
lamas, Orrice, Cyprcfs, Geranium Aiofchatnm, Laven- 
der flowers, Iweet Marjoram, Labdanum, of each tno 
ounces ; Benjamin, S.orax Calamita, of each an ounce and 
half J NigelU Romana one ounce ; Musk a dram, mingle 

XXI. Another Damask Ponder. 

Take Orrice four ounces 5 Cloves two ouncc<^ ; L.-rA- 
dany.m, Cyprefs, Benjamin, of each one ounce ; Calamus, 
St or ax Cat am it a J of each half an ounce ; Civet,. Musk, of 
each ten grains, mix thein. 

XXII. Another Street Pea kr. 

Take Orrice fix ounces ; Cloves four ounces ; yellow- 
Sanders, ^'^or^tAr Calamita, ana t\vo ounces, Labdannm one 
ounce, Musk a fcruple, make a Poudcr. 

XXIII. y^'t 

Chap. 1$. Of Ferfuming Ponders. 415 

XXIII. An excellent Siveet Bag. 

Take Florentine Oirice three pounds, Cdamm Arom.i- 
ticMs, Lignum Rhoiium^ of each one pound ; yellow San- 
dets ten ounces, Benjamin in grofs pouder eight ounces. 
Cinnamon in pouder four ounces, Cloves in pouder two 
ounces, mix them for a bag. 

XXIV. Another Pouder for Sweet Bags. 

Take Damask Rofes four pounds, lliavings or ralpings 
q£ Ligmm Rhoditim three pounds, Florentine Orris in 
pouder two pounds ; yellow Sanders, Qdampu Aroyyiati- 
cHs^ Galingal, Cinnamon, Cloves, yellow of Citron, Li- 
mon, and Orange peels, ana four ounces j Benjamin, 
Styrax Calamity, ana two ounces ; beat all in a Mortar 
to a fine pouder, and fift it thro' a hair Sieve, &c. 

XXV. A Cylrrcfs Ponder. 

Take Musk-mois four pounds, tteep it in Damask 
Role-water two quarts, mixt with Powers of Rhodium^ 
Sweet M:ir;oram, and of Savin, ot each lour ounces ; af- 
ter it has lain xlviii. hours, take it out and dry i.t - \i\~ 
fufe it again for as long a time, take it out and drv 7?-^ 
and repeat this to the fourth time, then reduce it Vc :\ 
line pouder J to which add yellow Sanders in p' 
eight ounces, Musk in pouder four drams; Ambergiiif. 
two drams : Civet a dram : mix them all well to-,etii -r 
in a Marble Mortar. 

XXVI. A Perfuming Ponder- 

Take Musk-feed eight ounces, Musk four ounce?. Am- 
bergrife two ounces. Cloves two ouiices, Virginia Sna'<- - 
root one ounce ; make each apart into fine pouder, th. ... 
mix them, and add thereto Civet half an ounce ; mix 
them well in a Stone Mortar, and keep it for ufe. With 
this you iTiay Perfume Hair Pouder, Sweet Bags, ar4 
other like things. 

XXVII. To male Grounds for White Pouder. 

Take Cuttle-bone in fine pouder twelve pounds, while 
Starch eight pounds, Orrice pouder, fine bone Allies, of 
each one pound j each being in fine pouder, mix them 
together, and pafs them through a fine hair Sieve. 

XXVIII. Another for the fame. 

Take pure white Starch, Rice, each in fine pouder, of 
each tu^elve pounds ; Florentine Orrice in fine pouder 
three pound : mix them. 

H h XXIX. A 

4x4 Pofygraphices Lib.V. 

XXIX. A Ground for Grey Ponder. 
Take what remains at Sccl. 27. above, which beat a- 
gdin, and add to every pound thereof, Avhitc Starch ciglit 
ounces, yellow Oaker two ounces, Charcole a fmall 
quantit^^, all being in fine pouder, pafs it through a hair 
Sieve, and keep it for ufe 3 and to be perfumed as you 
lliall fee fit. 

XXX. Another Brown Pouder. 

Take Rotten Wood, beat it to a fmall pouder, and 
pais it through a hair Sieve, and then perfume it. 

XXXI. A Perfume for ordinAry Ponder. 

Take Florentine Orrice in fine pouder two pounds ; 
Damask Roles in fine pouder, Musk-f^ed^ in pouder, of 
each one pound ; Benjamin four ounces, yellow Sanders 
in pouder three ounces, Storax two ounces. Citron peels 
in pouder one ounce, Cloves in pouder half an ounce 5 
mix them : this will ferve for forty pounds of white 
Starch in fine pouder, being mixt together, by pafTing 
them through a hair Sieve. 

XXXII. An excellent Amher Pouder. • 

Take Rotten Wood,Bean-flower, of each eight ounces ; 
yellow Sanders, Ligrium Rhodium, of each four ounces; 
Cyprefs Wood, Saffafras, of each three ounces, Benjamin 
two ounces j Storax Calamita one ounce, CaUmtu Aro- 
Tfi^jicffi half an ounce ; make each apart into fine pou- 
der, and mix them. Then take Machaleb, or Musk-leeds 
in pouder two ounces, Musk ten grains, Ambergrile lix 
grains, both in pouder ; mix thefe three things together, 
and then put them to due former mixture, and keep it 
in a glafs dole ibpt for ufe. 


OfFerfunung Balfams, 

I. "^r^Aturd Balfams perfumed. 

^^ Take Baljamum verum one ounce. Musk, Am- 
bergrifc. Civet, of each two fcruplcs ; mix them for a 
Perfume : it is the molt fragrant and durable of all Per- 


Chap. 1 7. Of 7er fuming Tablets, ^i 5 

II. An odoriferous compotind ^ 

Take of the aforefaid Balfam periiuTied one cui:ce. 
Oils oi^ Rhodium and Cinnamon, oi each two drams, raix 
them : this is an incomparable Perfume, and better 
than the other for fuch as are not affected fo m,uch with 

III. Balfamum Aiofchatum. 

Take Oil of Musk one dram, Oil of Cinnamon half a 
fcmple. Virgin Wax one dram and a half, melt the VVax, 
and miK them according to Art. 

IV. Another very good. 

Take Cloves, Cinnamon, Lavender, Nutmegs, of each 
two drams, Oils of Cloves and Rhodii^^r/?^ of each half a 
dram, Wax three drams, Musk and Ambergrife, of each 
ten grains, mix them into a Balfam. 

V. Another very excellent for thojc thAt love not the f cent 
of MtMky and the like. 

Take Oil oi Geranium Mofckatnmy ( made as adeps Ro-' 
jarmt by the fourth Sedion of the twelftli Chapter ; adeps 
Rofarum, Oil of Cinnamon, of each one (.iram, Virgiu 
was fix drams, melt the Wax,, and mix the Oils for a 

Of Ferftimmg TabktSo 

I. 1^ mdh red Admlardines or TaHets, 

•*• Diflblve Gum Tragacanth in Rofe-water, fo thaj: 
it may be as thick as Gelly : which make into pai-'-c with 
the following compofition. Take Amyhim one pound, 
rnie Sugar half a pound, Cochenele two ounces, Musk 
three drams, all being in fine pouder, t?\k them, and 
make Tablets with the aforefaid Mucilage of / ragacanthy 
Iquare, long, round, or of what form you pleafe, which 
dry in an Oven , out of which Bre^-d hath besa late- 
ly drawn ; but be fure you dry them till they be as hard 
as horns. 

II. Another fort of Red Tablets . 
Take gf the jiiTpKlgid comppfiuon o|ie.'P9Uj:^d, Clpv^^, 
Hh 3 Cinnamon, 

4i6 Polygraph fees Lib. V. 

Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Ginger, of each t%vo ounces, Co- 
chenele one ounce, all being in fine ponder, make into 
Tablets, >vith the aforeikid Mucibge, and dry as afore- 

in. To make Telloiv TMets. 

Take Amylum one pound, fine Sugar half a pound, 
yellow Sanders four ounces , Saffron two ounces, _( or 
you may dip the Amyhm in ftrong tin6lure of Satfron, 
and then d^vj it again ) Musk four drams, all being in fine 
pouder, make the Mais into Tablets, w'wh the aforefaiil 
Mucilage, adding Oil of Cinnamon in drops two tUams, 
diy them carefully in the lliade. 

TV. Another fort ofl^ellow Tablets. 

Take Amyhm died with tinclure of Saffron one pound, 
Sugar half a pound. Saffron two ounces. Nutmegs, Cin- 
namon, Ginger, of each one ounce ; Carraways half an 
ounce. Musk three drams, Ambergrile one dram, all in 
fine pouder make into Tablets, as aforefaid, adding Oil 
of Cinnamon two drams ; which dry in the lliade, till 
they be as hard as horn. 

V. To wake Adufcardines or Tablets of any other colour. 

You mufl: make them after the lame manner, only ad- 
ding the colour you do intend ; and in this cafe we think 
'that it is better that the Amyhm be dipt in the tincture, 
and dried firft before you ufe it. Where note, that thele 
Tablets, when ufed, are to be held in the mouth, in which 
they will dilfolve, thereby cheerins; the Heart, reviving 
the Senfes, comforting the Spirits, ftrengthening Nature, 
icftoring the Body, and indeed nobly perruniing the 
Breath. For them that do not love Musk, you may make 
ifiem without, ufing inftead thereof, fomuch the more Oil 
of Rofcs or Cinnamon. 

CHAP, xviir. 

of makff/g Pomanders for Bracelets. 

I. 'np//£ fir/} fort. Take Orrice pouder, Cloves, Mace, 
-■- Cinnamon, of each lialf an ounce ; yellow San- 
ders, Styrax, Iweet AJf^j of each two drawj j Ambergrile, 


Chap. 1 8. Of Pomanders for Bracelets. 417 

Musk, of each one dram ; Balfam of Peru, Oil o£ Rho- 
diuwj of each one fcriiple -, Civet two drains, all being 
in fine pouder ( except the Balfam and Oil ) mix toge- 
ther, and make into pafte with Mucilage aforefaid, of 
which form Beads, drying them in the fliade for ufe, 

II. The fecond Jon. Take S-crnx, Lahdanwr!, of each 
one dram and a half ; Ben;amin one dram. Cloves, 
Mace, Spicknard, Geranium Mojchatumy of each tea 
grains 5 Musk, Ambergrifc, of each fix grains ^ with 
Mucilage make a Pomander for Bracelet^. 

III. The third fort. Take Damask Kofe leaves extin- 
gulated two ounces, beat them impalpable : Musk, Am- 
bergrife, of each two fcruplcs. Civet one fcruple, Z.r/- 
danum one dram with Mucilage of Gum Tr.igacmtfj, in 
Rofe-water aforefaid, make a Pomander for Bracelets. 

W. The fourth fort. Take Storax, Benjamin, of each 
an ounce and half, Musk two drams. Oil of Cinnamon 
one dram., with Mucilage aforefaid make a palte of Pa- 
mandcr, very excellent. 

V. The fifth fort. Take Spicknard an ounce, f\veet 
Marjoram, Geranium Mofchatum, of each half an ounce 5 
Orrice, Cloves, of each two drams, Calamm, Lignum 
Rhodium., Lignum Aloes, of each a dram ; Cyprefs, cen- 
jamin, Cinnamon, white Sanders, of each a fcruple ; 
Lahdanum, S^yrax Calamity, and Liquida, of each half a 
Icruple ; -with Mucilage of Gum Tragacanth in Rofe-wa- 
ter make a paRe for Pomanders. 

VI. The fixth fort. Take Storax Calamita two ounces, 
Bafii three ounces. Cloves an ounce and half, Benjamin, 
Marjoram, Storax liquid, of each one ounce ; Calamm, 
Cyprefs, Lahdanum, of each half an ounce ; Musk a fcru- 
ple, Ambergrife twelve grains. Civet {^iyl grains, with 
MuciJage of Gum Tragacanth in Rofe-water make Po- 

VII. The feventh fort . Take Labdanum an ounce, Sto- 
rax, Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, of each three drams, Am- 
bergrife, Musk, of each a dram and a half. Virgin 
Wax an ounce, mixt with Sweet or Chymical Oil of 
Bays half an ounce, dilTolve, mix and work them weli 

VIII. The eighth -n'ay. Take Labdanum fix ounceS;, 
Wax two ounces, Camphire, Calamus, Myrrh, yellow 
Sanders, Wood of Aloes, Olibanumj Mafticli, of each 

H h 3 two 

41 8 Folygraphieti Lib.V. 

two drAins ; Cinnamon, Cloves, Zedoary, Storax, Cala- 
mint, of each a dram And a half • Musk, Ambergrife, of 
each a fcmple ; put them into a Mortar, and with a lit- 
tle MaliP.fey, make i mafs for Pcnanders. 

IX. The^ 7jh:'h 0t. Make Gum Tra^acanth half a 
pound into a Mucilage with Damask RoK-water Muski- 
fied, to which add Storax CaL'^mua nine ounces, Nut-- 
megs four ounces, Lah^anum three ounces, Cinnamon, 
Cloves, Camphire, liquid Storax, natural Balfam, of each 
one ounce : put the Lahdanum into the Mortar, with a 
little Oil of *^^pike, and then the other things, which 
beat into a pafte, with pouder of black fallow Char- 

X. The tenth fort. Take ftrong Mucilage of Gum Tra- 
gaciinth, in Rofewater, which make into pafte with Musk 
and Ambergrife in fine pouder, of each a like quantity ; 
then anointing your palm arjd fingers with Oil ofMu^k, 
or fome other Iweet Oil, as of Lavender, or the like, form 
them into round little Balls or Beads, which put upon 
a firing, and dry them between two papers ; being dry- 
cd, keep them clofe from the Aii', till you have occafiou 
to ufe them. 

XI. The eleventh fort. Take Cloves four ounces, pou- 
der of Contrnyerva^ Virginia Snake root, of each three 
CUncee ; Winter Cinnamon two ounces. Liquid Storax 
one ounce, Mucilage of Giuii Trdgacanth a fufficient 
quantity ; make them into a pafte by beating in a mor- 
tar ; and your hands being anointed with Oil of Ben, 
mixt with equal quantities of Oil of Rhodium, or Oran- 
ges, orLimons ; form them into round little Beads, which 
put upon a Silver Wire, and dry them. 

XIL P^iftili of Rojes. Take Damask Rofes half blown 
cut off* fiom the whites, Ben;amin in pouder, of each 
four ounces j Musk in fine pouder, Ambergril'e in fine 
pouder, ann^v^ grains : beat all together in a mortar to a 
pafte ; then add Oil of Oranges or Limons, or of Savin, 
one dram : mix well and make a Paflc, &c. 

XTII. Another more rich. Take Benjamin in fine pon- 
der four ounces, Cloves in pouder, Storax liquid, of eacli 
two ounces ; Lignum Aloes in fine pcudcr one ounce : 
Musk, Ambcrgrili;, of each one dram in fine pouder i 
beat all in a mortir to a pafte, adding more Storax as 
you lee occailon : and fo make it up iuioBcad?. 


Chap. 19. Of Smtt Waters. 4 1 9 

CHAP. XlXi^ 
Of Ferfum'wg m/b-Balls. 

I- 'T^O male Barhers Wafh-Balls. 

^ Take puriiied Venetian Soap fix ounces, Macaleb 
four ounces, Ireos, Amyh'm^ of each fcven ounces ; Cloves 
two oinices, LahAanwn^ Annifesds, of each one ounce ; 
Nutmegs, Marjoram, Cyprefs pouder,. Geranmn Mojcha- 
tuTHy Camphire, of each half an ounce, Storax luyucia half 
a dram. Musk ten grains, all being in fine pouder, with 
a little fine Sugar, beat all in a mortar, and make them 
up into Walli-balls. 

II. To do the fame another way. 

Take of the faid Soap two pound, juice of Macaleb two 
ounces. Cloves, Orrice, of each three ounces, Lahdanptm 
two ounces, Storax one ounce, all being in fine pouder, 
mix with the Soap, of wliich make Balls, drying them in 
the ibadow. 

III. To male Balls of white Soap. 

Take of white Soap five pound, Orrice four ounces, 
Amyltim^ white Sanders, of each three Qxmzz^Storax one 
ounce, all in pouder, fteep in Musk-water, of which make 
palk for waili-balls. 

IV. Another jort very good. 

Take of white Soap four pound, Orrice fix oimces, 
Macaleb three ounces. Cloves two ounces, all iii pouder ; 
mix with the Soap afittlc Oil of Spike, Rhodhtm, or the 
like, of which make Balls. 

V. Another way to make them of Goats Fat. 

Make a ilrong Lixivium ofPot-aibcs, as that a new laid 
Egg will fwim thereupon, which boil with Citron peels: 
take of this Lye twenty pound. Goats Fat two pound, 
boil it for an hour, then iirain it thi-ough a linnen cloth 
into broad Platters of fair water, expofing it to the Sun, 
mix it often every day till it begins to grow hard, of 
which you may form Balls, wliich you may Perfume with 
Musk half a dram, Civet one fcmplc, Oil of Cinnamon 
ten drops. 

H ii 4 yi. To 

^20 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

VI. To mah covimon IVafJj-Balls, the hcfl of that kind. 

Take Veiiice or Caftk Soap iliccd very thin, four 
pounds, Spirit of Wine half a pint, beat all together ; 
then add Chymical Oil oFSalfafra5,or Limons,an ounce 
or more ; and beat again very well : Lartly, add white 
Starch made into a Pafie with water, by boiling a futii- 
ciei]t quantity to make all into an even and fniooth 
Mai^, which form into Balls of four ounces a piece, with 
pouder of w^hite Starch, dry them and keep them for 

VII. To male the />(/? Bolonia W.tfJj-BaHs. 

Take Genoa '^oap, white and pure, fliced thin, eight 
pounds • iindackcd Lime two pounds ; ^qua P^ita a 
quart : beat them well together in a Mortar, and Jet 
them lie torcthcr for 48 hours i then fpread it abrcad, 
and lay it a drying : being dry, be;it it in a Mortar, and 
add to it A4acaleh, or Musk-leeds in fine pouder, yellow 
Saiider? in fine pouder, Orricc-root aUb in pouder, of 
each eight ounces : mix, and beat them up ir;to a Parte 
with Wl.ites of Eggs q. s. and two pounds of GumTr.t- 
gacanth uifTolved in Damask Role-water, and lo make 
the Mais up into Wafli Balls. 

VIII. Another fort of Wafl^-Batts. 

Take Genoa Soap fliced thin twenty pounds, Aqua Fit<s 
two qu.irts ; mix, and dilTolve over a lire : the Soap be- 
ing melted, add thereto white Starch in fine pouder five 
pounds : Orrice pouder four pounds : whites of Eggs 
N°. twenty .• Mucilage of Gum Trag.tcanth ^. s. mix, 
p.nd make a Pafte : to which add Benjamin eight oun- 
ces : Stor^x, yellow Sanders, of each fix ounces ; Cloves, 
"Winters Cinnamon, SafTafras, of each four ounces : Nut- 
megs two ounces ; Musk-feeds ten ounces ; each made 
apart into fine pouder : beat all up into a Mafs, and 
make Walli-Balls of what bignefs you pleafe. 
TX. A very good fort of W.tfh-Balls. 
' Take Genoa Soap thin lliced ten pounds ; Aqua Vit£ 
a quart ; mix, and melt them over a gentle fire, evapo- 
rating away part of the Aqu^i Vita : then add Ornce in 
fine pouder two pounds : and wdth Mucilage of Gum 
Tragacanth q. s. beat it into a Pafte, of which form Wal)i 
Balls J dry them, and keep them for ufe. 


Chap. 20, OfPerfum'wg Soaps, 4x1 


Of Perfuming Soaps* 

I. *irO purifie Venetian Soap. 

^ Cut it fmall, to which pat fomc Rofc-water, or 
ether Perfuming water, boil them a while, then {hain 
it, and it will be fweet and good, then take off the Soap 
whidi fwims a top with a Ipoon, and lay it upon a Tyie, 
and it will prefcntly be dry • being white, free from filth 
and unduofity. 

II. Another ivay to do the fame. 

Grate the Soap, and dry it in the Sun, or an Oven, 
ponder and fearce it, then moilien it with foaie fiveet 
water, or Oil of Spilce, which'dry again ( in the l]iado\y ) 
and keep it for ufe. 

III. To male rohite nimleA, Soap. 

Take white Soap purified as aforefaid three pound. 
Milk of Macalcb one ounce, Musk, Civet, of each ten 
grains ; mix them, and iiiakc all into thick cakes or 

IV. Another hnd of fweet Soap. 

Take of the cldeft P^enice Soap, which fcrapc and dry 
three days in tlie Sun ( purifymg it as aforefaid ) two 
pound, Orrice, ylmyhiw, of each iix ounces ; Storax li- 
■qiiida two ounces • mix them whilil hot : which put in- 
to Pans to form Cakes. 

V. 'To male f oft Soap of Naples.^ 

Take of Z./A-i^??/?;^ of Pot-ailies ( lb fh:6ng as to bear an 
Egg ) fixteen pound, Deers Suet two pound, fet them 
upon the fire to fmimer 5 put all into a glazed VelTel with 
a large bottom, fet it in the Sun for a while, ftirrincr it 
five or fix times a day with a ilick, till it wax hard like 
Pafte. Then take this Pa(te, to which put masked Roic- 
water ^. s. keep it eight cUiys in the Sun, ftirring it ;ir 
aforefaid, \o long as it may neither be too hard nor too 
loft ; then put it up in Boxes or Pots. 

VI. To make the fame Soap masked. 

Put to the laid Soap, Rofe-water two pound, fine Musk 
in ponder half a dram, then mix the i^id water as before. 

422 Polygraphices Lib. V. 

VII. Another exqttifite Soap. 

Take of the aforelakl Lixivium, or Oil of Tartar pfr 
deliquium twelve pound. Oil Olive three pound, mix them, 
Amylnm two pound, Gum Arabick one ounce in poudcr, 
glair of Eg2s two ounces, put all together, and rfir con- 
tinually ibr four hours time, then let it ftand the fpace 
of a day, and it is done. You may perRuue it as before 3 
this makes the Hair fair. 

VIII. Another exceeding the former. 

Take CroAvn Soap, Vine-a{hes, of each one pound ; 
inake it into Cakes with pouder of Roch Alum and 
Tartar, of each alike, which you may perfume at plea- 

TX. To get the Juice or Milk of Aiacaleh. 

Take the fwcet and odoriferous grains of Afacahb, 
which beat in a mortar ( with Role- water, or fome per- 
fiiming w^ater) till it becomes like pap, then prefs out 
the Juice or Milk ; w^i.iich ufe within two or tliree days 
Mi it fpoil. 


Of burning and boiling Perfumes, 

I. *TrO mah Pcrftmed Lights. 

-■- Take Olibanum"two ounces ; Camphire one 
ounce ; beat them into pouder ; of which make, with 
Wax, balls or rouls, which put into a glals Lamp with 
Kofe-^vater, and lighted with a Candle, will give a fair 
light, and a very good fcent. 

II. AnotfKr fur a Ltmip. 

Take fwcet Oil Olive one pound, Benjamin, Siordx 
in pouder one ounce, Musk, Ambergrilc, of each one Icni- 
ple, mix all with the Oil, which put in a Lamp to bmn : 
and the Oil will yield a fragrant odour. 

III. To mnke pcrf/imed Candles. 

Take L^Many.m^ Myrrh, Xylo-alocs, Styrax CtiLn.nit/ty 
of each one ounce and a half: Willow Charcole one 
ounce, Ambergrife, Mu?k, of each ten grains ; make 
them into Paftc with Mucilage of Gum Tr.'z^tcanth in 

•^ Roic- 

Chap. II. Of boiling Perfumes, 425 

Rofe-water, which form into roiils like Candles, and dry 
for ufe. 

IV. A Perfume to fmoal and Ivirn. 

Take LabiUnum two ounces, St^^rax one ounce, Ben- 
jamin, Cloves, Mace, of each half an ounce ; Musk, 
Civet, of each ten grains, all in line pouder ; make up 
into Cakes with Mucilage of Gum Tragacanth in Rofe- 
xvater ; which drj'", and keep among your Cloths ; which 
when occafion requires, you may burn in a chafing-dilh 
of coals. 

V. Another fmoahng Perfttme to hnrn. 

Take Labdanur/} two drams, Stor.ix one dram, Benja- 
min, Frankincenfe, white Am.ber, Xylo-aloes, of each 
two fcruples,Ambergrile,Musk, of each five grains, make 
all into Cakes as aforcfaid. 

VI. Another very excellent. 

Take Stor^^x^ Benjamin, of each one ounce ; Wood of 
Aloes half an ounce, Ambergrile, Musk, Civet, Baliam 
of Peru., Oil of Rhodmn;, of each two icmples ; Ivory 
burnt black a lufficient quantity j pouder what is to be 
poudered, and mix all together ; which make into a 
Paile, with the Ivory black and the Mucilage alorelaid ; 
make little Cakes and dry them, which keep in glalfes 
clofe ftopt for ufe, 

VII. Another very good, hm'of lefs co(l. 

Take OUhanum one pound, Styrax CaUrmta and Li" 
quidfiy of each eight ounces ; Labdannm fix ounces. Wil- 
low Charcole a fuflkient quantity ; \yith Mucilage of 
Tragacmth make a Parte as atbrelaid. 

V III. Afvpeet Perfume to burn. 

Take Storax Calamita, Benjamin, of each an ounce: 
Labdanum fix drams ; Musk five grains : put them into 
a mortar heat fo hot, that by beating with a little Pcrtle, 
they may v^rork together like Wax, u'-hich make into lit- 
tle Cakes or Balls, and keep their, for ule. 
IX. A burning Perfnme for a Chamber. 

Take Benjamin, Mattich, of each an ounce : Storax 
Calamita, Gum Anime, Amber, of each half an ounce: 
Time, Sweet Marjoram, Lignum Aloes, yellow San- 
ders, of each two drams : all being in pouder, with Gum 
'Tragacanth diffolved in Rofe-water, make a Mafs for 
Cakes or Balls. 

X. Anr 

'424 Pofygraphhes Lib. V. 

X. yt not her for the fame. 

Diilolve GumTra^acanth in Damask Rofe-water, and 
make it into a Pafte with Lahdmujn, Styrax CaUmitaj 
Benjamin, Amber, of each two drams ; Lignum Aloes^ 
Lignum Rhodinnf, o': each two ounce?. : all being in poii- 
der ; mix, and make Cakes. 

XI. Another for the like intention. 

Take Benjamin, S'yrax Caiamta, Amber, all in pou- 
dcr, of each half" an ounce ; Lignum Aloes^ yellow San- 
ders, of each fix drams in ponder : make them into Paltc 
with Gum Tragacanth diilolved in Rofe-watcr j which 
form into Cakes, and dry them for ufe. 

XII. A Perfume called Amhcr Taile. 

Take Styrax Calamita tvvo oftnces : Florentine Orrice, 
Amber, ana an ounce and half : Nutmegs an ounce : 
Musk a fcruple : being in pouder, make a Paf le with 
Gum Tragacamh dilTolved in Rofe-water. 

XIII. A boiling Perftime. ■ 

Fill \ Silver or Earthen pan with Damask Rofe-wa- 
ter, adding Cloves ■well bruifed half an^ ounce : Bay- 
leaves two drams : put them over the fire, and as .it 
walles, fill up with frelli Rofe-water. 

XIV. King Henry his Prrfuwe. 

Take Damask Rofc-watcr a pint ; Cloves bruifed, 
yellow of Linions, of each half an ounce ; Musk ten 
grains ; boil all in a perfuming pan, with tvvo drams of 
white Sugar. 

XV. King Edward hif Perfume, 

Take Damask Rofe-ivater a pint ; Ambergrife a fcrur- 
plc, Civer ten grams ; mix in a perfuming pan, fctting 
It over loft Emben^. 

XVI. The French Queens Perfume. 

Firlt burn chips of Cyprefs in the Chamber a pretty 
while, tlie Doors and Windows being fhut. Then lake 
Damask Rofe-water a pint : white Sugar Candy ai) 
ounce : put them into a perfuming pan, and let them 
boil fofily on Embers. 

XVII. Caffolets^ or perfumed Cakes to burn. 

Take Benjamin in hne pouder fixteen ounces : Storax 
JicjHida eight ounces : Gum Guajaci, Maltick, each in finq 
pouder fix ounces : Lahdanum, Calamus AromanaUj yel- 
low Sanders, Xylo-aloe?, Saflafras, all in fine poudfr, of 
each tliree ounces ; Cloves, Nutmegs in pouder, of each 


Chap. 22. Of Ammal Perfumes^ 425 

One ounce ; mix all together, and with Mucilage of Gam 
Tragacanth beat all into a Mafs, which form into little 
Cakes, and dry them for ufe. 

XVIII. Other Pafiiles, or perfumed Caies to ham. 
Take Benjamin in fine ponder, Storax Calarnita and 

Licffiida, of each a pound : Frankincerife, Roiin, Maftich, 
Olibanum, Gum Anime, Gum Lac, of each eight ounces: 
yellow Sanders, Xylo-aloes, Winters Cinnamon, of eacti 
fix ounces : Musk one ounce : all being in fine pou;ler, 
mix, and with Mucilage of Gum Tragacanth a fufficient 
quantity : make a Mafs, which form into Cakes and 

XIX. Another hnrni/i^ Perfume. 

Take Gum of Peru and 7o/«, of each a pound : Ben- 
jamin ni pouder four pounds : yellow Sanders in pon- 
der, enough to make it into a Pafte. 

0/ Ammd and Mineral Perfumes, 

I. np/ff Animal Perfume of Paracelfus. 

-*■ Take Cow-dung in the Month of May or Jane-, 
and diftilitin Balneo ; and the water thereof will be an 
excellent Pcrfiime, and have the fcent of Ambergrife. 

II. Lard, Adaskified^ a great Perftime. 

Take Hogs Lard very pure one dram. Musk, Civet, of 
each half a dram, mix them well for Boxes. 

III. The Adineral Perfume of Antimony. 

DifTolve Antimony in Oil of Flints, Cryftal or Sand : 
coagulate the folution mto a red mafs, put thereon Spi- 
rit of Urine, and digeft till the Spirit is tinged ; pour it 
off, and put on more, till the Tindhire is extra6ted ; put 
all the Tin<5kires together, and evaporate the Spirit of 
Urine in Balneo ; and there will remain a blood-red li- 
quor at bottom ; upon which put Spirit of Wine, and 
you iTiall extract a very pureTin6lure fmelling like Gar- 
lick : digeft it a Month, and it will fmell like Balm 5 
digeft it a while bnger, and it will fmeli like Musk, at 


426 Volygra^hkes Lib. V. 

Befidcs being ^ Periume, it is an excellent fudorifick-, 
and cures the Plague, Fevers, Ltus f^en€rea^8>zc. 

IV. Afccr the fame manner yon m.iy make ^is fubflantial 
a "Perfume of Sulphnr or Brimjione. The making of the Oil 
cf Flint Sy i\e have taught at the [even and fiftieth Seel ion of 
zhe nine and. tmmieth Chapter of the third Book. 


Of the Adulteration of Musky Civet and Amhtr- 


T reafon that thefe choice Perfumes are often adulterated 
or counterfeited, we /hall do our endeavour to dijcover 
the Cheat, le(l any being deceived therchy^ jhouldfujfer lofi. 

I. Mmk is often adulterated by mixing Nutmegs, Mace, 
Cinnamon, Cloves, Spicknard, of each alike in a fine or 
impalpable pouder, with warm blood of Pidgeons, and 
then dried in the Sun, then beaten again, and moiltcn- 
ed with Musk-water, drying and repeating the fame 
work eight or ten times ; adding at la(t a quarter part 
of pure Musk by moifbiing and mixing with Musk-wa- 
tcr ; then dividing the Mais into feveral pans, and roul - 
ino them into the hair of a Goat, Avhich grows under his 

II. Others adulterate it thus : By filling the Musk-cods 
%vith Goats blood, and a little toailed Bread, mixed with 
a quarter part of Musk well beaten together. The cheat 
is difcerned by the brightness of the Goats blood. 

III. Or thusy TdkeSiorax, Lahdanum-, poudcr of Xylo- 
aloes, of each four ounces ; Musk and Civer, of each half 
an oimce, mix all together with Damask Role-water. The 
cheat is dilcerned by its eafie diifolving in water, and its 
different colour and fccnt. 

IV. Or thus, Take Go:its blood, pouder of Angelica 
roots, Musk, of each alike, make a mixture. 

V. To adulterate Civet : Mix with it the Gall ofa^iOx, 
and Siorax iKiueficd and walhed : or you may adulte- 
rate it by the ;'ddition of Honevof Gr;.". 

VI. Tc 

Chap. 2 3- OfMulieratwgMuik^kc. 42^ 

VI. To re[iore the loji [cent to Mml^ or Amhergrife. 
This is done, by hanging it fometime in a Jakes or 

HoLife of Office : For by thele ill fcents its innate vertue 
and odour is excited and revived. 

VII. Another vpAy to c.duUerate Civet. 

Take pure Pulp of Raifins of the Sun eight ounces : 
Musk in fine pouder one. ounce : mix them well together, 
and add Civet eighteen ounces : mix again, and dige^ 
in a Bolt head in a Sand heat for tAventy days j then be- 
ing cold, take it forth, rtir and mix it well together, and 
keep it in a Jar glafs clofe covered with Bladdei;s. 

VIII. Another rvay to do the fame. 

Take Uqnid Storax-, Honey, Ox Gall, fine pulp of Figs^ 
of each two ounces and half : Musk in fine pouder one 
ounce : choice Civet twenty ounces : mix them well in 
a Mortar, put them into a Bolt head, and digeft twenty 
days, aforefaid, &c. 

IX. Tb Adulterate Amhergrife. 

Va. Ben Nuts three ounces, beat them in a perfe6lPuIp : 
to which add SperrKO. Ceti three ounces ; beat them alio 
well together ; then add Benjamin in fine pouder, Flo- 
rentine Orrice in fine pouder, white Starch, of each fevea 
oimces : Bitumen in fine pouder one ounce : Musk in 
fide pouder half an ounce : Ambergrife in fine pouder 
fix ounces : mix them all together, and with Mucilage 
of Gum Tragacanth make a Mais or Paile, which work 
ivell togetlier wdth your hands. 

X. Another adulteration of Amhergrife. 

Take of the former compofition ten ounces, Amber- 
grife in fine pouder twelve ounces : Spirit of Damask Ro- 
les a fufficient quantity : beat them together in a Mor- 
tar till they are well iiiixt j and keep the Mafs to make 
Perfiiines with. 


428 FoljgraphUes. Lib. V. 

Of Verfuming Cloth^ SkinSy Gloves^ 8^C. 

I. "T^ O Perfume Shins or Gloves, 

^ Put a little Civet tliereon here and there, (if 
Gloves, along the Ibams ) then walli in Rofc or Masked 
Avater four or five times, or fo long as that they favour 
110 more of the Leather, prelfing them hard every time j 
tlien Jay them in a platter, covered with the faid water, 
mixed with poudcr of Cyprefs a day or two ; take them 
out, prefs them, and dry thcni in the ("hadow : beins; 
half dry, befmear them a little with Civet mixt with 
Oil of Jafemin or Ben, on the inward fide chafing them 
with your hands before a fire, till you think that the Ci- 
vet hath pierced or gone through the Leather j leaving 
them fo a day or more j then rub with a Cloth, that the 
Gloves or Leather may grow foft ; leaving them lb till 
they arc almoft dry, being drawn and ftretchcd out ; 
then hold them over fome burning Perfume to dry, and 
wetting them again with Musk-water, do thus twenty 
times : lattly, take Musk and Ambcrgrifc a fufficient 
quantitv, which mix with Oil of Jafemin, Benjamin or 
Ben, difiblve at the fire with a little ^erfiimed water, 
with which ( with a Pencil ) (Irike the Gloves or Leatlier 
over on the outfide ; befmearing the feams with Civet ; 
laftly lay them for fix or eight da^'s between two Mat- 
trefles, fo will the Skins or Gloves be excellently per- 

IL Another rvay very excellent. 

Take three pints of Wine, Shceps Suet or Fat one 
pound, boil them together in a VeiTel clofe covered, this 
done, wafli the Greafe fix or feven times w^ell with fair 
tvater, then boil it again in White Wine and Rofe-wa- 
ter, of each one pound and a half, with a fmall fire, till 
the half bs confumed : then take the faid greafe, to which 
put pulp of Iweet Navews, roafted, half a pound ; boil 
all in Rofe-water half an hour ; then ftrain it, and beat 
it in a Mortar, with ^ Ijtilc Oil of Jafemin and Musk, 


Chap. 24, Of Perfuming Q loves] 429 

with which befmear your Gloves ( after due wafhing, as 
aforefaid ) rubbing it well in by the fire. 
III. Another rpay for Gloves. 
Waih new Cprduban Gloves, wafh them well three 
or four days ( once a day ) in good Muskified White- 
Wine, prefling and fmoothing them well • laflly, walli 
them in musked water, letting them lye therein for a 
day, then dry them with care. This done, iteep Mmk, 
Amber, Bafl, of each one dram in a quart of fweet wa- 
ter, in which difTolve Gum Tragacanth three drams, boil 
all gently together, and in the boiling add Civet one 
fcruple, with which befmear the Gloves, rubbing and 
chafing it in, then drying them according to Art. 

IV. Or thui- : Firit walli the Gloves or Skins in White- 
Wine, then dry them in the (hade ; then wafb them in 
fweet watet, mixed with Oil of Cloves and Labdannrnj 
of each alike : laltly, take Musk, Civet, Ambergrife, or 
each the quantity of fix grains, Oil of Musk half adrapi, 
mucilage of Gum Tragj?.canth fifteen trains : mix them 
well together in a Mortar, which chafe into the'waih'd 
Glov^es before the fire. 

V. Or thus. Take Damask Rofc-water muskified, q. s. 
put it into a Pewter or Earthen difh, and lay the Gloves 
in it one night and day, with a little turning now and 
then, and that they may be throughly wet ; then 
take them out, and dry them carefully : Take Cloves an 
ounce and half, in fine pouder ; mix it with the fame 
water, and lay it upon the Gloves, wetting them through- 
ly, and dry them as before : Take Oil ot Ben, ox of Al- 
monds an ounce j Musk half a dram; Ambergrife a fcru- 
ple : grind all well together upon a ftone, with a few 
drops of the former water, with which anoint the feams, 
and chafe it into the Leather, laying many pairs one 

• upon another for fome time, till they are throughly foak- 
cd, and then keep them carefully from the Air. 

VI. Or thm. Take Oil of fweet Almonds, 6r of Ben, 
which is better, two ounces : Musk two drams : Amber- 
grife half a dram : Oil of Cloves Chymical, a dram and 
half: Grind all well together upon a Porphyre (the 
Musk and Amber being firft in fine pouder ; ) then digeft 
tw^o Months, and keep it for ufe : Take Damask Rofc- 
water muslofied, and wet your Gloves therewith very 
well upon a bo«iid, then dry ^emj da this three or four 

I i times. 

4^0 Volygraphices Lib. V. 

tiiries,and at laft anoint them with the former, with this 
Oyl, you may anoint your hands, it will not only per- 
fume them, out alfo make them foft and fmooth. 

VIT. Or thii. Take Oyl of Cloves two ounces : Sty- 
rax O.lamitn^ one ounce : Benjamin half an ounce, Cin- 
namon three drams : Musk half a dram : Ambergrife a 
fcruplc : fwect Marjoram, Time, of each fiftteen grains : 
mix and grind them on a Porphyre, to be ufed as the 
former Oyl, after wafhing of the Gloves in Damask 

VIII. Or thm. Take Musk two drains : Ambergrife 
one dram : Civet twelve grains ; mix them together well : 
then add Gum Trag^.cmth diffolved in Damak Rofe-wa- • 
ter muskified ; grind all upon a (tone till they are very 
fine, and fully mixed ; then Jay it upon your Gloves 
with a Brull), being firl-t wafht in this following water. 
Take Lye of rcood-afhes a tint and half : the yellow of a do- 
z,en Oranges : Brajll and yellow Sanders in ponder .^ of each 
An ounces \ Alum a fmall quantity : boil to the Conjumpti^ 
en of a third part ; firain, and with a clean cloth or hrufh 
"jfafh oz'cr your Gloves ( being firjl Tv/ijht in rain water from 
their Alum and Ezgs ) to colour them, fonr times j then be' . 
in^dry, ^ply to them the former Oyl. 

jX. Of ihu. Take Musk a dram : Ambergrife half a 
dram, Civet fix grains, grind them on a rtone with Oy^I 
ofLijnonS; or with equal parts of Oyl of Liinons, Saiu- 
fras and Rhodium ; with which your Gloves ( being 
waiht as in the former Sc(^ion ) are to be perfumed by 
anointing them witii a fitiall brufh. 

X. Cloths, Linneny or Woollen, Coffers, Trttnh, and the 
like, are beft perfumed ( with little coft ) with the fmokc 
of burning Perfumes, after which you iriay Iprinkle them 
often with Damask Role-water muskified, and anoint 
1 he Corners and Clofurcs of the boards with lb;ne of tlic 
former Oyls. •• •■ 




Liber Sextus- 

The Art of Dying and Staining. 

Of T)yin^S^^ Colour Si 

\:: .-■ 

I. "T"* O i^t an Afh-0)hnr.^ 

^ ' Take Water a fufficient quantity : Nut Galfs' 
bruifed fmall eight ounces : Madder two ounces : put all 
into the VcfTeljand let them boil : then enter twenty yards 
of Broad Cloth, and handle it, letting it boil two hours: 
then cool it, and pilt in Copperas t^vo ounces, and enter 
your Cloth again, and handle it ; and let it boil a (quarter 
of an h,our longer, and cool it. If you would harp it lad- 
der, you muft put in more Copperas. Note, 7^4t Ha nd- 
ling of it, /ignites to RohI it on the Roller, Oi it Is hoilinF, 
find to let it all in again^ to hinder its Spotting, and to ma^e 
it take colour equally. And Cooling it, fignifies to take it 
tip and Air it. 

II. Another AJh-Colour. 

Take Nut-galls bruifed fix ounces : red Tartar bruifed 
four ounces ; let them boil well one hour and half in 
the Liquor j then enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, 
and handle it well, aad cool it : after which put in 

li 2 " ~ two 

432 ♦ Polj/graphices Lib. VI. 

two ounces of Copperas, and fadden it with Copperas 
as you pleafe. 

III. To dye the be(i Ajh-ColoHr. 

Take fair Water a fufficicnt quantity : red Tartar four 
ounces ; Nut Galls thr-c ounces; bruife them fmall, 
and enter your twenty yards of Cloth, and boil an hour 
and half : then cool, and fadden as you think fit^ 

IV. Another vpay to dye an Ajh-Colottr. 

Take Water a fufficient quantity, which put into the 
Copper ; to wluch put Nut Galls bruifed fmall fix oun- 
ces : kt the Copper boil, and enter your Cloth, and boil 
an hour and half, and fo cool your Cloth : Then put in 
of red Tartar four ounces, which difiblve : put in yoiu: 
Cloth again, and boil half an hour ; and fo take it forth, 
cool and air it : Laftly, put in Copperas half an ounce, 
and let it melt ; enter your Cloth again, and fadden it 
as you pleafe. This will Dye three pounds weight. 

V. Another Afh-Coloar. 

Take Water a fufficient quantity ; Galls bruifed fmall 
fix ounces ; put all into a Cauldron, and let them boil : 
then enter your Cloth the fpace of an hour and half : 
then put in of red Tartar five ounces, (the Cloth being 
firft taken out ) which dilTolve, and put in the Cloth a- 
gain, and let it boil half an hour. Take the Cloth out 
again, and put in Copperas, White Vitriol, of each half 
an ounce , dilTolve, enter your Cloth again, and it will 
be a good Colour, for to Dye three or four pounds 

VI. Another kind of AJh-ColoHr. 

Take Water a fufficient quantity, and add to it Nut- 
Galls beaten fmall four ounces : Cochenclc half an 
ounce ; boil them together, and enter your Cloth, and 
boil an hour and half, and fo cool your Cloth : then 
put iji Copperas four ounces, and enter the Cloth, and 
ladden : toiswill dye twelve pounds of Yarn or Cloth. 


Chap.2. Of Dying BUch. 45J 

CHAP. n. ; 
Of Dying Blacks, 

I. 'Tp O Dye a Black Colour. 

-■- Take Water ^. \f- Alder-bark, or Alder-tops fix 
handfuls, more or lefs, made fmall ; put them into your 
Copper, and boil them an hour with a rery good fire : 
then take them forth, and put in Nut-galls bruiled fmall 
two pouncfs : Sumach one pound : Logwood four oun- 
ces ; and let them boil : then enter your twenty yards o£ 
Cloth, and handle it ; and boil four hours : take it out 
and cool it ; then put in of Copperas one pound ; beiVig 
melted, enter your Cloth again, and handle it : boil it 
an hour, and cool it again : put in Chamber-lye eigte 
quarts, enter your Cloth again, boil it half an hour, then 
cool, and wafh it well. 

II. To Dye a Black upon a Blue. 

Take Water q. s. or thirty fix quarts ; Nut-galls bea- 
ten fmall nine ounces: Wool!, Woollen Yarn, or Wool- 
len Cloth or Flannel, the weight of three pounds ; boil 
them for four hours : after Avhich take the Matter forth 
and air it ; then add to the Liquor green Copperas eigh- 
teen ounces j and if there is not Liquor enough, put in 
more Water, fo much as to cover the Cloth, ere and let 
it boil tivo hours, handling it always. Then take it out 
and Air it ; put it in again, and Air it ; and put it in 
again, till it is black enough : After which cool and walli 
it. Note, if you put in fome Sumach with tlie Galls, it 
will make a better Black. 

III. Another Black Dye. 

Take fair Water q. s. Nut-galls bmifed fmall a pound, 
Sumadi half a pound ; Alder-bark, Oak-bark, of each 
four ounces : make them boil, and \vhen it begins to 
boil, put in a little cold water, that it may break the 
boiling ; flir all together, and put in your Cloth, letting 
it boil three hours ^ after which take it out, and put m 
more frelli water, and make it boil, adding to it Cop- 
peras one pound : being dilfolved, put in your Cloth, 
and boil it two hours : then take it out again, and put 

113 in 

4H Polygraphices Lib. VL 

in more Copperas cf. s. and Log-wood ground half 3. 
pound: make itboi], and put in your Cloth again, and 
let it boil an hour. This "vvill Dye five yards of Broad 
Cloth, or ten yards of Cloth, three quarters wide. 

IV. Another Bl^ck Dye. 

Take Water q! s. Log-wood ground, Sumach, of each 
a pound : Nut-galls bruifed linall two pounds : boil 
them together for an hour, and fo enter your Wool, 
Cloth, Flannel, Yarn, &c. boil again an hour, and take 
it out, cool and air it ; then put in Copperas three 
pounds, let it melt, and put in the "Wooll, Cloth, &c. 
again, and boil near an hour, take it out and walli it. 
This will Dye twenty pounds weight of any^bf the for- 
mer things. 

V. Another to Dye tnenty Tards of Broad Clothy Szc. 
Take Water q. s. Sumach five handfuls j Logwood 

s^found two handfuls, Alder-bark bruifed fmall two 
liandfuls, boil them all together ; then put in your Cloth, 
and boil tliree hours : take it out, cool and Air it, and 
. make it Black, with a fufficient quantit}^ of Copperas. 

VI. Another Black Colour for twenty Tards of Btoad 

. Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall two pounds, 
Aldcr-bark a pound and half. Madder one pound. Su- 
mach half a pound ; mix all together in the Caklron • 
when it boils, put in the Cloth, and let it boil three 
ihours, after which take it out, and let it cool : then put 
in Copperas half a pound, and when it boils put in your 
Cloth again, and boil an hour ; and handle it, and boil 
an hour, and take it out and cool it : after which put 
ill more Copperas, and fome Urine, then put in your 
Cloth again, and boil till it is Black enough. 

VII. Another Black Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall a ix)und ; 
Logwood ground, Sumach, of each half a poimd : Alder- 
bark four ounces ; boil, and enter your Cloth ; then cool 
and Air it, and with Copperas, a' pound and Imlf, dar- 
ken the colour, as you delire it. This is enough for four- 
teen pounds of Wool, Yarn, Flannel or Clotli. 

VIII. To mde a firm Black Dye. 

Firit Wadd it with the Blue (in Chap. ^.^SeCt. 8. fol- 
lowing) then take Water thirty quarts ; Galls bruifed 
fmall one pound ; Vitriol three pounds : firli boil^ the 


Chap. 2. Of Dying BUch. ' 4^5 

Oalls and Water with the Stuff or Cloth two hours : 
then put in the Copperas at a cooler heat for one hour : 
after which take out the Cloth or Stuff, and cool it, and 
put it in, boiUng it for anotlier hour : laftly, take ir out 
again, cool it, and put it in once more. 

IX. To recover the colour of Black Cloth, when decayed. 

Take Fig-tree kaves, boil them well in Water, wafh 
your Cloth in it, dry it in the Sun, and it will be a much 
fairer Black. 

X. To mah Lamp-bUci hetter. 

Make a Fire-fhovel red hot, and lay the Color upon 
it, and- when it has done fmoaking, it is enough. It may 
be ufed with Gum-water, and ought not to be ground 
when uftd with Oil. 

XI. A finer Lamp-blacl: than vrhat is uftially fold. 

It is made with Lamps of Oil, laying Something clofe 
over to receive the Smoak. 

XII. A Black from Skeeps-feet. ^ 

Take Sheeps-feet bones q. s. calcine them in an Oven^ 
or in a Crucible in a Furnace, and quench them in a wet 
Cloth : you muil grind them in Water before you add 
any Gum. This Black will mix with Lake and Umber 
for Carnation in Min iature or Water Pamting. 

XIII. To Dye Martins Skins, with long Hair, of a very 
good Black, fvhich never fades. 

Take Water q. s. new Nut-galls two pounds, Beef 
Marrow two ounces : boil them in an Earthen Pot clofe 
covered, often ftirruig it, lelt the Galls burn, and boil 
till it makes no noife when you (iir it, then beat it, and 
ilrain out : Take of this liquor two pounds : Copperas 
twelve ounces ; Roch Alum twelve ounces : Litharge 
eight ounces : Verdigrife, Sumach, Sal_ Armoniack, of 
each four ounces : each being beaten by it fdf, mix, and 
boil them together, and keep the Liquor to Dye with. 
Note, Before you apply the Liquor, you muil wafii the 
Skins two or three tunes in very pure clear Lime water; 
and when you apply the Dye, you mutt do it with a Pen- 
cil againft the gram of the Hair, and afterwards the other 
•way alfo. Thefe okms, when dry, differ little or nothmg 
from Sables. The Verdigrife fome leave outj but it doss 

iiO hurt to the Liquor. 

I i 4 CHAP. 

^^6 PolygrAfhices Lib. VI. 


Of Dying Blues, 1 

I. 'T' O Bye a Blue or Sky Colour. 

-■- Take Urine cj.s. Jndico four ounces, beat it fmall , 
and diilblve it in the Urine in a gentle heat, clofe cover- 
ed : then try its ftrength with a little piece of Wool or 
Flannel : if it does not dye well, let it (land longer, un- 
til its colour is good. It will be gjeenilh at firft, and 
afterwards it will turn Blue : put in a Pint cf Yeft into 
your Liquor before you put in your Wool, Yarn, Flan- 
nel, &c. and it will make it Dye the better : the Icfs In^ 
dico you put into the Liquor, the better Sky-cobur it will 
be, provided it be not too little. 
IL ^n excellent Blue Colour. 
Take (iile Urine q. s. Rock Jnclico, in fmall pouder, 
four ounces ; let them ftand and ibak in a good heat till 
the Indico is diffolved, add to it a pint of flacked Lime, 
and a pint of new Ycil : mix well together, and let all 
ftand a quarter of an hour very hot, then ftir it : And 
enter t^venty yards of Broad Cloth, and handle it over 
and over, tor the fpace of half an hour : then cover it up 
for twelve hours, and then take it forth and wafli it. If 
it is not deep enough, heat the Fat, and put it in again. 

III. Another Blue Colour. 

Take boiling Water q. s. put into it Pot-Afhes : Indi- 
CO a pound ^ Madder two ounces ; Wheat Bran four 
pints': mix all together, and cover it the Ipace of twelve 
Lours : then open it, and put in one pint of Woad, ftir 
it about very well, and cover it up tor an hour ; after 
which open and ftir it about, fcum it, and then put in 
your W\iol, Yarn, Flannel or Cloth. This will Dye a- 
bout fourty pound weight. 

IV. To Dye another Blue Colour. 

Take Urine q. s. make it very hot ; put into it Indico 
m fine pouder lour ounces ; Madder half as much as of 
Indico : ground Malt as much as of the Madder, and a 
little Yeft ^ Pot- Aihes nvo ounces j cover it up, and let 
' ■ ' ' ' it 

Ghap; ^ Of Dying Blues. 4^7 

it Itand in the warmth of the Fire, and try when it co- 
lours well ; then wet your Cloth in warm Water, and 
keep the Fat warm, and work your Cloth in it, till it is 
a good Blue ; obferving to ftir it often that it may not 
fpOt : keep it thus working till you think the Dye is deep 

V. To Bye another Blue Colour. 

Take EbuUis or Dwarf Elder-berries ripe and well 
dried ; fteep them in Vinegar twelve hours, then with 
your hands rub them, and ftrain them through a linnen 
Cloth, putting thereto fome bruifed Verdeter and Alum... 
Where note. That if you would have the Blue to be clear, 
you mutt put the more Verdeter to it. 

VI. Another excellent Blue Dye. 

Take Tincture of Brafil q. s. Vinegar three ounces ; 
Copper fcales one ounce : Salt one dram : mix all in a 
Copper VefTel, in which put the Matter to be Dyed. 

VII. Another (Ingnlar Blue Dye. 

Take calcin'd Tartar three pugils, unflaked Lime one 
pugil ; water q. s. make a Lixivium, and filter it : to 
twelve or fifteen quarts of this Lixivinm, put Flanders 
Blue one pound, and mix them well. Set it to the Fire, 
till you can fcarcely endure your hand in it, then firlt 
boil, ( what you would Dye ) in Alum Water, then 
take it out, and dry it 5 aftenvards dip it in hot Lye 
twice or thrice, and put it into the Dye again. 

VIII. To make ajuhjiantial Blue Dye. 

Take Water a Gallon, more or lefs ; Woad one pound ; 
infufe in a fcalding, or almoil: a boiling heat for nventy 
four hours : then put into it Wool, Cotton, Stuffs, Flan- 
nels, or Cloth of a White colour. 

IX. Another good Bhe. 

Take Urine q. s. heat it in the Caldron, and diiTolve 
therein Indico eight ounces 5 then put it into the Fat, 
and add Madder one ounce, and a little ground Mault ; 
let it ib.nd a while ; then enter twenty yards of Cloth, 
working it till it is deep enough. 

X. Another fair Blue. 

Take Sal Armoniack, Quick-lime, of each a pound : 
Verdeter two or three ounces j put all into a Vial, and 
let it in a Horfe Dunghill for fourty Days. 

XI. Another fair Blue Colour. 

Take Turnfole, infufe it all Night in Urine j the Day 


43S Poiygraphices Lib. VI. 

following grind and mix it with a little Quick-lime, ac- 
cording as you intend the colour : if you would have it 
a little (liining, add to it a little Gum Arabick. 
XII . To By: Barley Straw, &c. of a Blue Colour. 
Take a Lixivium of Pot-Alhes q. s. Litmos, or Log- 
wootl ground, a pound : make a Deco6lion ; then put 
in your Straw-, and boil, and it will be Blue. 

Of Dying Browns. 

J. "TpO Dye a :^ood Brown Colour. 
-*- Take Water a. s. 

q. s. put It into your Copper or 
Cauldron, and put thereto Redwood ground. Nut-galls 
bruiicd fmall, cf each twenty ounces : boil them toge- 
ther, and enter your Cloth (twenty yards of Broad Cloth) 
and let it boil two hours and a half, cooling it always 
with a Cooler, for fear of Ipotting, after which, take it 
up and Air it ; then put in Copperas fixtecn ounces ; 
and enter your Cloth again when it is near boiling, and 
handle it, letting it boil half an iiour, and fo cool it. If 
you would have it ladder, put in more Copperas. 

II. To Dye a Sad Bro)vn. 

Firlt infuie tlie matter to be Dyed in a fti-ong Tin- 
<5lure of H(fr;?;o^.? (."/■.<•, then in a bag putSaftron and Allies, 
(iratHn: Juper fira'.Hw, upon which put Water two parts, 
mixed with Vinegar one part : ih'ain out tlie Water 
and Vinegar, being throughly hot, fifteen or fixteen 
times : in this Lixiviate Tincture of Saffron put your 
fpnner matter to be Dyed, letting it lye a Night, then 
take it out, and without wringing hang it up to dry: 
tliis work repeat the fecond and third time?. 

III. To Dye a Brorvn Tawney, or Iron Rnjl Cclostr.^ 
Make a ftrong Decodion of Walnut-tree leaves in fair 

Water : then put in the Matter you would Dye, and 
boil it fome hours with the Leaves in the laid Liquor : 
and when it comes out, it Avill be txaclly of tlic colour 
you defire. 

IV. To 

Chap. 4' Of Dying Brmm. 4^9 

IV. To mdke the Colour called a London Brown. 

Firft make your Cloth ( twenty yards of Broad Cloth) 
of a bright Blue : then take ihle clear Liquor made of 
Wheat Bran q. s. Logwood ground four ounces : Alum 
two pounds and half: mix and boil your GJcth two 
hours and half, and fo cool : after which take freOi Li- 
quors made of Wheat Bran and clear, to which put Mad- 
der two pounds and half, and handle it, with a quick: 
fire, to a boiling, then cool ; after which take clear 
water q.s. Logwood ground eight ounces : Braiil ground 
four ounces, let them boil well, adding fome Urine ; 
then enter your Cloth, and handle it, and let it boil a 
quarter of an hour, cool, and walli it well. 

V. Another Broivn Qlour. 

Take Water as much as may cover twenty eight 
pounds of Wool, Yarn, Flannel, or Cloth, put it into a 
Cauldron or Copper, to which put Nut-galls bruifed 
fmall two pounds : Redwood ground eight ounces, and 
put in the matter to be Dyed : boil all together three 
hours, and take the Cloth out, and Air it : then put in- 
to the lame Liquor Copperas four pounds, melt it, and 
enter 3^our Cloth again, and boil it, to deepen the co- 
lour as you pleafe. 

VL Another London -Frw;;. 

Take Water q-s. Nut-galh bruifed fmall Ostecn oun- 
ces, Redwood ground, Madder, Fuftick, of each eight 
ounces j boil all together an hour ; then put in your 
Cloth, &c. and let it boil an houralfo; after which 
take It out, and let it cool : then put in Copperas two 
pounds, and when melted, put in your Cloth again, and 
ladden it : this will Dye twenty pounds weight. 
Vn. Another kind of Brown. 

Take Water q. s. and put into it Nut-galls bruifed 
fmall one pound : Redwood ground two pounds and 
half: boil tvvo hours: enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, 
and fadden as you pleafe. 

VIIL Another London Brown. 

Take Water q. s. Redwood ground twenty- four ounces : 
entertwenty yards of Broad Cloth : boil all together one 
hour ; take it forth, and cool it ; and put into the Li- 
quor W^ood-ioot q. s. and let the Copper boil till the 
Soot is diffolved ; then put in your Cloth, and boil 
an hour j take out the Cloth and cool it : put in Cop- 

'i^o Tofygrdphiees Lib. VI. 

peras q. si put in your Cloth again, and fadden as is 

IX. Another Brorvn Colour. 

Take water q. s. Madder two pounds : Nut-galls 
bruifed fmatt twenty four ounces : Fuftick twelve 
ounces: put all into the Cauldron together, and let 
them boil -, then enter fifty pounds weight of Wool, 
Yarn, Flannel, or Cloth, and boil two hours and half : 
then cool it, and put in Copperas two pounds, and boil 
to a juit fadnefs. 

X. To Dye Bttrley-jtrMVP^ 8zc. Broron. 

Take of Lixivinm q. s. Indian wood grortnd, green 
(hells of Walnuts, ana eight ounces : ftecp the Straw 
four or five days in a gentle heat, and then take them 

XI. To Bye or Stain Wood of a Walnut-tree Brown. 
Take the green {hells of Walnuts, dry them in the 

Sun, then boil them in Oil of Nuts j and with this Oil 
rub your Wood. 

Of Dying a Cinnamon Colour, 

I. *TpO Dye a Cinnamon Colour. 

•*- Take Water q. s. emit Madder a pound and 
half ; Nut-galls a pound ; Fuftick a pound ; Red- 
wood two ounces ; boil all in your Cauldron ; after 
enter your txventy yards of Cloth, and handle it, boil- 
ing it ftrongly for two hours -, cool it, and put into the 
Liquor, Copperas four ounces, enter your Cloth again, 
boil and handle it • boil a quarter of an hour and cool j 
and put in Copperas two ounces more : enter your Cloth 
again, and handle it, and let it boil a qiuuter of an 
hour, then cool, and it "will be a good Cinnamon co- 
lour : the lefs Copperas the lighter it will be ; the more 
Copperas the deeper. 

II. Another Cinnamon Colour. 
Take Water q. s. dry rotten Oak half a Bullicl, Mad- 
der two pounds 'j boil them well, and enter twenty 


Chap. ^ i Of Dying Cinnamon Colours: 441 

yards of Cloth ; which handle well, and boil three 
hours, ftill handling it : take it out of the Cauldron and 
Air it j and if need be add a little more water to the 
Dye, and put in Copperas twenty four ounces : enter 
your Cloth again, take it out and cool it ,• and if it is 
not fad enough put it in again with more Copperas. 

III. Another Cinnamon Colonr. 

Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall four pounds ; 
Fuftick, Red-wood ground, of each a pound 5 boil 
theni all together : then enter your Cloth, and handle it 
well, for fear of fpotting, and boil it two hours, and 
cool it : then put in to ladden it Copperas two pounds. 
This will Dye 48 or 50 pounds of Wool, Yarn, Flannel, 
Bays, Cloth, &c. 

IV. Another Cinnamon Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Madder two pounds : Redwood 
ground a pound ; boil them together for an hour : then 
enter 40 pounds of Wool, Yarn, Cloth, &c. and boil 
again an hour : take it up and Air it, and put in Cop- 
peras three pounds ; which when melted, put in the 
Cloth again, and make it boil, &c, 

V. Another Cinnamon Colour. 

Take Water q. s. cruft Madder three pounds ; Nut- 
galls bruifed fmall, Fuftick, Redwood ground, of each a 
pound: rotten Oak-wood, Tanners-bark, of each half a 
pound ; boil all together : then enter t\venty yards of 
Cloth, and boil an hour and half, afterjwhich cool, and 
fadden with Copperas eight ounces j and if that deepens 
it not enough put in more. 

VI. Another Cinnamon Colour. 

Take Water q.s. Nut-galls, Madder, of each a pound: 
Fuftick twenty four ounces ; Redwood ground fix oun- 
ces : boil, ana enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, cool, 
and fadden with Copperas four ounces, &c. 


44a Folygra^hices ^ib. VI. 

Of Dpng Clove Colours. 

I. *irO Bye an excellent Clove Colour. 

■■- Take Water q. s. Fu(tick twenty four ounces : 
cruft Madder, Nut-galls, of each a pound : Red-wood 
ground tour ounces ; boil and enter twenty yards of 
Broad Cloth: boil two hours with a iltong heat, hand ling 
it : then put in Copperas half a pound, Oak Ihavings 
four ounces ; enter your Cloth again, handle it w^eli ; 
boil half an hour, ancl fo cool it ; it' you would have the 
colour ladder, put in more Copperas. 

II. Another Clove Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Joyners Oak-lhavings four pounds: 
Madder two pounds : Red-wood, Walnut-tree Leaves, 
of each four ounces ; boil them well : and enter t^venty 
yards of Cloth, which handle well and boil three hours, 
ftill handhng it : take it out, and Air it ; adding if 
need requires a little noore water : then take Copperas 
tliirty ounces ; enter your Cloth again, take it cut and 
cool It 'j and fadden it ( if need requires ) "ivitii more 

III. Another Clove Colour^ 

Take Water q. s. Nut-galls, Red- wood ground, of 
each a pound : Fuilick, Madder, of each eight ounces: 
Sumach four ounces ; boil all thcfe together tor an hour ^ 
then enter your Cloth, &c. and boil aa hour ; take it 
out, and put in Copperas two pounds ; being melted, 
put in your Cloth again, and let it boil; This will Dye 
twenty pounds weight of Wool, Yarn, Cloth, &c. 

IV. Another Clove Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Sumach fix: handfuls ,• FufHck three 
handfiils : Red-wood 2,round one handfuL boil all thefe 
two hours and half with t^venty yards or Broad Cloth, 
then cool, and fadden with Copperas as you lee fit. 

V. Another Clove Colour. 

cjTakp Water q. s. Nut-galls two pounds : Madder two 
pounds: Fultick a pound and half; boil all together; 
tool with a little Water, and then enter 48 or 50 pounds 


Chap. 7' Of Dying Fkjb Colours, 445 

of Wool, Yarn, Cloth, &c. handle your Cloth, and boil 
two hours and half, then cool, and ladden with Cop- 
peras two pounds four ounces. 
VI. A Liver Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Nut-plls bruifcd fitiall, Red- wood 
ground, of each one pound ; Sumach eight oqnces : Mad- 
der four ounces : Fuftick two ounces : boil all together, 
and enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth : boil half an 
hour and cool ; adding nipre Copperas if yow would 
have it fadder. 

Of Dying Flejh Colours, 

I. 'T'O Dye ttn Incarnate or Flefh-colour in Grain. 

■*• Take ttale Liquor made with fair Water and 
Wheat Bran, or fowre Tap-wort, being very clear ^. s. 
Alumbruifed two pounds and half : red Tartar bruifed 
foiall one pound : boil all together, and enter twenty 
yards of Broad Stuff: boil and handle it well for three 
hours, after which cool your Cloth and waili it -^vell • 
then take freflh Bran Liquor, ( made of a Peck of Bran ) 
tlie clear Liquor q. s. Grains of Cherraes four ounces_, 
dryed iipon a Pewter Difh before the fire, and made in- 
to a fine pouder : red Argolin pouder fourouiices : mijc, 
thefe three things together, and make them boil -, enter 
ypur Cloth, and handle it, boiling it three quarters of 
an hour ftrongly, and keeping the Cloth un^er the Li- 
quor ; then cool and wafh It well . 

II. Another InfarnateColonr in Grmn. 
Take fmall Beer q. s. Alum twenty ounces : r^d Tar- 
tar ei§ht ounces': melt or diflblve, and enter twenty 
yards of Stuffy Cloth, d^c. and boil it two hours ana 
a half, then cool it, and let it lye in the Water^ twenty 
four hours, : after which walh it well. Take fair Wa- 
ter, fmall Beer, of each equal parts q. s. Grains in fine 
pouder an ounce j infufe them all night, putting in al- 
io a little Wheat Flower, about an ounqc , tl:ien make 
it ready to boil; aod CQtec the Cloth. 

444 Poljfgraphiees, Lib. VL 

III. Another Incarnate or Fle^y Coloftr. 

Firft boil your Cloth very well in a good Alum wa- 
ter, take it out, hang it up dropping, and let it dr}^ 
Take clear Bran liquor q. s. Cochenele in fine poudcr one 
ounce, Tartar half an ounce j mix, and make almoft a 
boiling heat, letting it take as little Air as may be, then 
enter your Cloth, and handle it as quick over as may 
be, for about^ half an hour j after which take it out, 
wafh it well in cold water, and hang it up to dry. 

IV. Another Incarnate or Flefh-colonr^ called fi Rafp-her- 
ry red. 

Take Water, or rather Bran Liquor q. s. Alum three 
pounds ; boil for three hours j then add Madder four 
pounds, Brafil ground four ounces, Alum one ounce, 
trefh Bran Liquor q. s. boil ; and then enter twenty 
yards of Chamlet fluff, but riot boiling j keep it in two 
hours, take it out and walli it well. 

CHAP. viir. 

of Dying Grey^ R^Jf^^} ^^ ^^^^ Colour. 

I. A Silver Grey Colonr. 

■^ Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall two 
ounces : Tartar bruifed three ounces ; boil them : enter 
twenty yards of Stuff, Cloth, &c. handle it, and boil an 
hour and half, and cool it : then put in Copperas an 
ounce J enter your Cloth again at a boiling heat, han- 
dle it, and boil a quarter of an hour, and fo cool. If 
you would liave it ladder, put in more Copperas. 
II. To Dye a Light-grey Colour. 

Take Water q. s. bfut-galls bruifed fmall four oun- 
ces : white Tartar bruifed iinall four ounces ; make them 
boil : then enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, and han- 
dle it, boiling an hour and half : cool your Cloth, and 
put in Copperas an ounce and half ; enter your Cloth 
again, and handle it ; boil a quarter of an hour, and 
cool it : if you would have it ladder, adil more Ccp- 


Chap. 9. Of Dying Gnens, 44^ 

III. To Dye a Lead Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall one pound, 
Madder half a pound ; make thein boil ; enter twenty- 
yards of Broad cloth, boil an hour, take it out and cool 
It : then add to the Liquor Copperas four ounces ; boil, 
and put in your cloth again, and handle it a quarter of 
an hour ; after which take it forth and wafh it. 

IV. To Dye another Lead Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Nut-galls bruifed fmall a pound : 
Red-wood ground two ounces : boil all together ; enter 
twenty yards of Broad cloth, and handle it, and boil an 
hour and half: take up your cloth and cool it : after 
which put in Copperas eight ounces ; enter your Cloth 
again, at a boiling heat, and handle it, and let it boil 
half an hour, and cool it : if you would have it fadder, 
ufe more Copperas. Note, That quantity which Dyes 
tAventy yards of Broad cloth will dye forty yards of 

V. To male a fair Rnffet jColour. 

Take Water q. s. Brafll ground one ounce : boil it an 
hour: Grains in pouder half an ounce ^ boil and enter 
your Wool, Yarn, Cloth, ore. boil an hour, cool, and 
add Copperas four ounces : enter your Matter again, boil, 
cool, &c. 

VI. Another Rnjfet Colour. 

Take Water q. s. Brafil in pouder. Red-wood, of each 
half a pound : Nut-galls two ounces ; Copperas four 
ounces : mix, boil an hour, enter the Matter you would 
Dye, and let it lye twenty four hours. 

C H A P. IX. 
Of Dying Greens. 

I. ^T'O Dye an Olive Green. 

-*• Take clear Bran liquors, but ftale q. s. Alum, 
three pounds ; Logwood ground one pound, boil and 
enter twenty yards of Broad cloth, boil two hours and 
half ; cool and waili it well. Take clear water q. s. 
Nedder ( comnjonly called Linge ) Heath Strawel, or 
K k Fuftick, 

446 Polygraphices Lib. VI. 

rulHck, fo much as may make twenty yards of Broad 
cloth Gieen. Then take clear water ij.s. Furtickapound, 
(Jm(t Madder, Nut-galls, Sumach, of each four ounces ; 
boil, and enter your clotli, and handle it well : boil it 
an hour and half, and lb cool : add Copperas four oun- 
cef;, and enter your cloth again, boil half an hour j if 
you would have it fadder, put in more Copperas. 

II. To Dye a Poping jay Green. 

Take Water q. s. Alum two pounds : Logwood 
cround eight ounces : boil and enter twenty yards of 
Broad cloth ; boil three hours, and make it a bright yel- 
Io>v ; then draw it through a cold Fat, and then waih 

III. To Dye a good Sen-green. 

Firft make it a fad Blue, then take Water (}. ;. Alum 
two pounds : Logwood four ounces : boil and enter your 
cloth, boil three hours ; then waili it, and make it a bright 
YcJloAv : after w^iich draw it through a cold Eat, and 
then v/ail\ it again. 

IV. To Dye a Grah Green. 

Firtt make it a fact Blue : then take Alum two pounds, 
boil, and enter your cloth, and boil three hours, and 
wadi it ; then dip it into a good Yellow Dye. 

V. To Dye a French Green. 

Take clear ftale Bran Liquor q. s. Alum two poimds 
and a half, boil ; enter twenty yards of fad Blue Broad 
cioth, boil it two houVs and a half, and walli it well. 
Take fair Water y. j. Heath Strawcl, or Fuftick, a fuffi- 
'■-'•cnt quantity ; boil well, and put in your cloth, and 
handle it well : then take twenty ounces of Logwood 
?,rcund, and put into the Dye, alfo Copperas four oun- 
ces (wliich binds the colour) and if you pleafe, you 
may new draw the cloth through a Blue Fat, and han- 
dle it, lb will it be finillit. 

VI. To Dye a i^crdigrife Green. 

Take Water (j. s. make it as hot as you can endure 
your hand in it ; to which put Verdigrife^ two ounces 
in fine ponder : enter twenty yards of Muff, and handle 
it well v/ith your hands : let it lye in the Liquor all 
Night, ftii-ring it Ibmetimcs ; and then let it lye till it 
IS deep enough. 

VII. To Dye a Popingjay Green. 

Take clear ftale man liquor, or fowre Tap-wort q. r. 


chap. 9. Of Dying Greens, ^47 

Alum three pounds,^ boil, and enter twenty yards of 
Broad cloth, and boil three hours ; cool your cloth and 
walli it well. Take fair water </. s. Nedder (called alfo 
Linge) or Heath Strawel, a good quantity, boil it well, 
and take it out j then enter your cloth, and boil it well, 
making it a bright yellow : heat your Blue Fat, and put 
.in Iniico bruifed fmall four ounces : Madder three oun- 
ces : ground Malt two quarts ; nevy Ye ft a quart : mix 
thefe things w^ell together, keep them as hot as you can, 
^ndletit Itand, till it will- ftrike Blue : then enter your 
cloth, and handle it well (to avoid fpotting) till it is 
done, and fo walli it. 

VIII. To Dye another French Green. 

Firil make your cloth a good Blue : and take the fame 
clear Bran Liquor you take for your other Greens a. s. 
Alum three pounds : Logwood ground four ounces ; boil 
well, enter twenty yards of Broad cloth j boil two hours 
and half J after take it out, cool it, and walli it well. 
Take fair water ([.s. good Hedder, or Heath Strawell, fo 
fo much as to make your cloth a good Green. Take fair 
water q. s. Logwood ground a pound, let them boil, and 
,add a little Urine : enter your cloth, boil a quarter of 
an hour, and handle it, and fo cool it. If you would 
'have it a fad colour, enter it again, cool, and walli it. 

IX. To Dye a Forrejl Green. 

Firit make your clotli a good Blue. Take clear dale 
Bran Liquor q.s. Alum three pounds : Logwood ground 
five ounces : let them boil, and enter twenty yards of 
Broad doth, handle it, and boil two hours and a half: 
rake it out, cool and wajfh it w^ell. Take fairw^ater q. s. 
and good Hedder, enough to make your cloth a good 
Green -, boil it well, then enter your cloth, and boil it 
a convenient time. Take fair water q. s. Logwood 
ground twenty ounces boil them a quarter of an hour, 
cool a little, and then enter your cloth and handle it 
well, letting it boil a quarter of an hour longer, after 
wliich cool your cloth, and waQi it well. 
'K. To Dye aGraJ^Grecn. 

Firft make your cloth a bright Blue. Then take clear 
iiale Bran Liquor or fowie Tap-wort q. s. Alum three 
pounds j let them boil, and enter twenty yards of Broad 
cloth, handle it, and bpil it with a ftrong fire for two 
Jsours , cool it, and %valh it well. Take fair water q.j. 
Kk 2 Hedder 

44^ Polygraphices Lib. VL 

Hedder or Heath-Stiawel, what you think fit : boil well 
for an hour ; take forth the Hedder, and enter ^'our 
cloth, handle it %vell, and kt it boil a quarter of an 
hour ; then cool, and put in a little Urine ; enter your 
cloth apiain, boil a quarter of an hour, cool, and walh it 
%vell. Note, That the different or variom colours of Greens 
^irije from thi firji Blue being lighter or f adder ', or from the 
Tell ore being a deep or light colour. 

XI. u4 very good Green colour. 

Take Sap-green, bruife it, put water to it, then add a 
little Alum, mix and infufe for two or three days. 

XII. To make a very good Dye. 

V'ni\ Dye the Cloth or Stuff Yellow, as we dire6t in 
Cl.'^p.ij. SeB. 6. following, then put it into the Blue Dye 
defcnbcd mChap. 3. Sech. §. albregoing. 

XIII. To male a dark Green colour. 

Firlt Dye yoin: Wool, Yarn, Stuff or Cloth, of a Blue 
colour, as we direcl in Chap. 3. SeB. 8. aforegoing : then 
put it into the yellow Dye in Chap. 17. SeEl.6. follow- 
ing ; and it will be of a dark Green colour. 

XIV. To Dye a Poppingjay Green coiour. 

Make a weak Lixivium of Pot-alTies, (lich as the Coun- 
try People Avafh their Clothes with : put into it Inctico, 
a fufficient quantity : then put in your things to be 
Dyed ( being firfi Dyed Yellow ) and let it boil, the lon- 
ger the better ; lo will the colour be good. 

XV. A very fair Green for Adinintnre. 

Grind Verdigriie with Vinegar, and a little Tartar ; 
and then add a little Quick-lime, and Sap-green : grind 
all well together, and keep it in OieJl : if it grows hard, 
make it foft with ^'in£gar. 

XVI. To ?/iah n very f.iir Green. 

Take Verdigriie, Tartar, Vinegar, of each ^. s. boil them 
all tc!;ether, and it is done. 

XVII. Another Green for Limning. 

Take Buckthorn-berries gathered the latter end of An- 
Puff, when ripe : I'eat them, and boil them eight or ten 
nours very gently ; then add water to make it thinner, 
Ih'ain through a cloth, as hard as you can, and add to 
the Liquor Alum in pouder </. s. fome add Vinegar, but 
then it i^ longer a drying, and will be ruddy. You mult 
keep it in a bladder in the Ihadc, or Chimney corner, 
and it wUl keep well. 

XVIII. rp 

Chap. lo. Of Dymg Hair Colours, 449 

XVIII. To make Sirmv Green. 

Boil it in water with Litmos^ or Logwood, and then 
it will be Blue : and then boil them in a Lixivium of 
Pot-alhes, and Yellow Barbery-bark, and they will be 

XIX. To make a Beautiful Hqnid Green. 

Take Verdigrife one pound ; white Tartar in pouder 
eight ounces : Wine Vinegar a quart : mix all, infufe 
for one night, and then boil till half is confumcd ; 
and filter whilit hot. When you ufe _ it, mix Gum Am- 
moniack and Safiron to rtiften it : it will giaze over 
Buckthornberry Greens. If you mix it with the Juice of , 
thofe Berries, and Azure; it- will iuake feveral Ibrts of 

XX. To make Green Balls. 

Take Buckthorn-berries a pound : beat and boil them 
Jn ten pints of water till half is confumed: ftrain all 
through a cloth, and put into the liquor as much Cerule 
in fine pouder as will make it into a Parte : which form 
into little Balls, and dry upon Tiles : when dry, ftiffen 
them with dilfolved Gum : they will be the better j if 
you mix with them fome water q^ Gum Ammoniiu:}.. 

C H A p. X. 

Of Dying Hmr Colours, 

I. 'T^O Dye a Hair Colour. 

* Take Water q. s. Alum three pounds, with 
which, Alum twenty yards of Broad cloth : and after 
which make it of a bright Yellow with Furtick. Take 
Water 7. s. Nut-galls in pouder two pounds : Madder 
in pouder four ounces, let it boil an hour ; then take it 
forth and cool it, afcer which put in Copperas eight 
©imces ; and making it boil, put in your doth, and han- 
dle it well, about a quarter of an hour, then take it forth 
and cool it. If it is not lad enough,^ put it in agaia; 
for the oftner you take it out and put it in, the fadder it 
will be. 

K k 5 II. An*- 

'4$o Polygraphtces Lib. Vr, ' 

II. Another Hair Colour. 

_ TaJ^e Water (j.s. Alum three pounds : enter twenty 
3'ards of Broad cloth, and boil it three hours: take it out, 
and wafli it well, and make it a bright Yellow. Take 
Nut-galls eight ounces ; Madder four ounces made 
fmall 5 put them in 3'our Cauldron, and let them boil : 
enter your cloth and handle it well, and boil one hour : 
then take it out and cool it : add to the former things 
Copperas eight ounces ; let it boil, put in your cloth a- 
gain, handle it j and repeat this work till it is fad e- 

III. ^ Hair or Cloth colour. 

Take Water q. s. Cruft Madder, Nut-galls, Sumach, 
Red-wood ground, of each a pound : boil, enter twenty 
3^ards of Broad cloth, boil an hour, and faddcn with 
Copperas fix ounces. 

IV. Another Hair colour. 

Take Water 7. s. Fuftick one pound : Nut-galls eight 
ounces ; Madder four ounces j Red-wood two ounces ; 
make them boil : enter twenty yards of Stuff, &c. and 
boil two hours : cool your cloth, and put in Copperas 
four ounces : enter your cloth again, handle it, and boil 
a quarter of an hour, then cool, and put in more Cop- 
peras, if you would have it fadder. 
V . Another Hair colour. 

Take Water q. s. Fuftick eight ounces : Nut-galls 
bruifed fmall fix ounces , Red-wood ground four oun- 
ces ; make them boil j then enter your cloth, &c. and 
boil two hours and half : afterwards cool and fadden 
with Copperas eight ounces. This will ferve for twelve 
poupds of Wool/ Yarn, Cloth, &c. 


Of Dying Moufe Colours. 

1. ^O male a light Moufe ^ Lead, or Sever Grey colour. 

-*■ Wet your Stuff, Cloth, &c. well in water, then 
take Water q. s. Nut-galls beaten fmall two pounds ; 
boil a little, enter your cloth, and IHr it well up : put 


Chap. II. Of Dying MoufQ Colours', 451. 

in Red-wood ground \. s. according as you would have 
its lightnefs or ladnels ; making it fadder with more 
Galls, and a gentle heat : if you would have it fadder 
yet, tiien put in a littk Wood-Soot, but then it will 
become a Brown : boil, and then cool; and lafUy fadden 
with Copperas. 

II. "To mah a Afonfe, or light A<foJ^ cnlour. 

Take Water q. s. FuiHck a pound and half : Sumach 
one pound : Nut-galls eight ounces : crull Madder four 
ounces : let them boil, and then enter your cloth ( twen- 
ty yards of Broad cloth) and boil two hours, and han- 
dle it well ; after which cool, and add Copperas one 
pound, enter your cloth again, handle it, and boil half 
an hour ; then cool : put in Urine q. s. enter your cloth 
again, boil a quarter of an hour, and fadden as you 

III. To Bye a Moufe colour out of a White. 

Take Water q. s. FulHck three pounds ; Nut-galls one 
pound: boil, enter twenty yards of Broad cloth, boil 
two hours ; handle it well and cool ; afterwards add 
Copperas a pound ,• enter your cloth again, boil almoft 
an hour, and let it boil well in the faddcning, and fb 
take it out, and cool it ; add then more Coppera?, and 
put in your cloth again, till you think it iad enough ; 
if you would hare it a bright Moule colour, put in iomc 
crult Madder. But if you would have it a Green Moule, 
put no Madder in, but cool it often, ib will it fadden 
the better. 

IV. To Dye a Aloufe colour hl'jed. 

Take Water q. s. Alum two pounds and half : enter 
twenty yards of Broad cloth, boil two hours, and take it 
forth, and cool it, walliing it well. Take fair Water q. s. 
Heath orFuitick, a luflficient quantity ; enter your cloth, 
and make it Yellow, as you do your Greens : then take 
Nut-galls in fmall pouder half a pound, and put tliem 
into the faid Liquor, enter your cloth, and let jt bod m\ 
hour j take it out and cool it j after add Copperas half 
a pound -, make it boil, and enter your cloth again : boil 
an hour, cool it 3 and add more Copperas, as you would 
have it in fadnefs : cool often, and it will f idden the 
better, and the lels Copperas will ferve. 

V. Another Aiouje colour. 

Take Watery. /. Nut-galls beaten fmall a pound: 

K K 4 Madder 

4$ 2 Polj/graphices Lib. VI. 

Madder a pound : Fuftick trvvo ounces : boil an hour j 
enter twenty yards of Camlet, boil again an hour ; take 
it oat and cool ; add Copperas three ounces, and fad- 
den, &c. 

VI. Another Adoufe, or light Tree-Afof colour. 
Take Water 7. s. FufHch a pound and half, Sumach a 
pound : Nut-galls half a pound : cruit Madder four oun- 
ces : boil them, and enter twenty yards of Broad cloth : 
boil two hours and cool : then put in Copperas a pound : 
enter ^^our Cloth again, and boil an hour, and cool : 
add Urine 7. s. enter your cloth again, and boil till it 
is fad enough : the fadder you would have it, the more 
Copperas put in. 


Of Dying Fink Colours, 

I. 'TpO Bye a Pinl Colour in Grain. 

"*• Take clear itile Wheat-bran liquor 7. s. Alum 
two pounds and a half : Red Tartar one pound, melt 
them, and enter twenty yards of Stuff, or fine Flannel ; 
boil three hours, and cool, and wafh. Take frefh clear 
Liquor of Wheat-bran, Red Tartar, Grains, both m fine 
pouder, and of each three ounces ; mix, boil, and enter 
your cloth, handle it well, and boil tliree quarters of an 
hour, cool, and walli your cloth well. 

II. Another Pink Colour. 

Take Wheat-bran liquor 7. s. Alum eight ounces ; 
boil and Alum your cloth two hours : after -winch take 
it cut, and wain it- clean, casing away that Liquor. 
Take fair water 7. /. Cochenele in pouder one ounce : 
Grains ofChermes half an ounce : Aqua fortis 11. drams : 
make them luke-warm,and put in your cloth, and let it 
ftay in, till it is ready to boil ; then take it out ; This 
will ccjour feven pounds weight. 

III. 7~a Dye a Fink colottr in Grain. 

Take Wheat-bran Liquor 7. s. Alum fix ounce?, dif- 
folvcd in fmall Beer, mix, boil, and enter your clotii, 
boil an hour, take it out, and cool it : add Wliite Tartar 


Chap. I J. Of Dying Roje Colours, 45 jv 

in pouder two ounces ; Cochenele in fine ponder half 
an ounce ; enter your Cloth, Stuff, &c. and boil an 
hour and half : it will dye three ^^ards of broad Flannel ; 
the more you wafh it, the brighter it will be ; but let it 
not hang in the fhadow whiltt it is wet. 
IV. An Ohfervation rs^orihy of Note. 
It is to be Noted, That Pini Co lour i, and all Colours 
Dyed in Grainy are not to be Dyed in Iron or Copper Veffels^ 
hut in Pewter J or rather Tin F'ejfels, becaufe thefe attroEl or 
draw forth the Colour ^ and fix it, making it unchangeable : 
Nor are you to ufe Iron Waters, or Waters Springing from 
Iron, or yitriolick Mines, &c. 

Of Dying a Rofe Colour, 

I. •-j"' O Dye a Rofe-Cdour. 

-*- Take Liquor q. s. Alum two j)ounds, Madder 
eight ounces : let them boil ; then put in forty eight or 
fifty pounds of Wool, Yarn, Stuff, Cloth, &c. and boil 
two hours 3 after which take it out and walh it clean. 
Take fair water, cj. s. BraGl ground two pounds, mix : 
when it begins to boil, put in your Wool, Yarn Stuft^ 
Cloth, &c. and boil till it is well coloured. 

II. Another Rofc-Colour, 

Take the fame Liquor which you ufe for Reds, q. s. 
being very clear. Alum three pounds : enter twenty 
yards of Broad Cloth, boil three hours, cool and warn 
%vell. Then take frelli clear Wheat-bran Liquor, Mad- 
der two pounds and a half : enter your Cloth at a good 
heat J handle it to a boiling heat, and cool, and wafh 
well: then add Brafil ground one pound and a half; 
let it boil half an hour, after which put in Ibme ftale 
Urine; enter your Cloth again, boil half an hour, cool, 
and wafh it well, 

III. Anothrr Rofe-Cclour. 

Take Liquor q. s. Alum two pounds, ^'Iadder twelve 
ounces ; enter fifty pounds of Woo!, Yarn, or Cloth ; 
boil two hours, cool, and waih well. Then take freili 


4^54 Polygraphices Lib. VL 

clear Liquor q. s. Biafil ground three pounds j boil half 
an hour : enter your Wool, Yarn, Cloth, &c. and put- 
ting in Urine q. s. boil iialf an hour more, cool, and 
ivail:! it, &c. 

IV. An Ohjervation. 
It is to be noted. That frefli clear Liquor, is that which 
is newly made with Wheat Bran, and Fair Water ; 
the Bran being afterwards Itraincd forth ; and this is 
that Liquor which all the Ingredients are intended to 
be boiled in. 

of Dying Red-Rofe^ or Carnation Colours^ 

I.nrO Dye a Red-Rofe, Blood-Red, or Carnation Colour. 

-■- Take Liquor of Wheat Bran, q. s. Alum three 
pounds, Tartar two ounces : boil, enter twenty yards of 
Broad Cloth, boil three hours, cool, and walh it. Take 
frelh clear Bran Liquor q. s. Madder four pounds, boil, 
and faddcn according to Art. 

II. Another Red-Rofe, or Carnation Colour. 

Take Wheat Bran Liquor, q. s. Alum two pounds, 
Tartar tAvo ounces ; boil and enter twenty yards ot Cam- 
let, and boil three hours j after which take it out and 
walh it very well ; then add Madder a pound, enter 
and boil it again, cool and wafli it : after which, take 
clear Li(}uor q. s. Cochenele in fine pouder two ounces, 
Tartar two ounces, enter your Camlet, boil and finiih. 

III. To Dye Crimjon in Grain. 

Fir(t boil the Yarn, Stiift",d'<:. in the Red ( in chap. 15. 
JeB. 8. following) then finilli it ui a ilrong Tindure of 
Cochenele, macle in part ^vater part wine, or in Wheat 
Bran Liquor : Where note, That the VelTels in \vhich 
the Materials are to be boiled, mult be lined with Tin, 
othcrwife the Colour will be defective. The fame ob- 
leu'c in dying of Silks (in each colour ) with this cauti- 
on, * nat you give them a much milder heat, and a longer 


IV. Ano- 

Chap. 15. of Dying Red Colours: ^^ 

TV". Another Carnation Colonr. 

Take Running water four Gallons, Pot AOies two 
pounds : mix and digeft 48 hours : this done, divide the 
Liquor, half into one pot, and half into another pot :' let 
the firft pot Itand in the hot Embers, up to the top, or 
in a Furnace ; and the other by a fire, to keep warm, 
and to fill up the firil: as it boils away. Into the firft 
put Red Brijca, or Sj^anifl} Flocks, or Wool, two pounds. 
Jetting it boil till it is thick -, adding Akmi, and a little 
Gum Arabick, of each the quantity of a "Walnut : dimi- 
nilh the heat, and let it be onlylcalding hot; then put 
in the matter you would Dye, letting it lye 24 hours in 
the Liquor. 

V. An excellent Ohfervaticn. 

The Bow Dyers kno^v that the foUition of Jupiter, 
( which is dilfolved Tin ) being put into a Kettle", to the 
Alum and Tartar, makes the Cloth, &c. attract the 
colour into it, fo that none of the Cochenele is left, but 
is all drawn out of the Water into the Cloth. 

VI. Another Ohfervation. 

The Spirit of Nitre being ufed with Alum and Tarter, 
in the firft boiling, makes a firm Ground, fo that they 
fhall not fpot nor lofe their color by the Sun, Fire, Air, 
Vinegar, Wine, Urine, or Salt water, &c. 

Of Dywg Red Colours, 

|. 'T^O Dye the hefi Red Colour. 

■*• Take clear ifelc Wheat Bran Liquor, or fowre 
Tap-wort q. s. Alum bruifed three pounds, put all into 
your Copper, enter your twenty yards of Broad Cloth, 
and handle it ; boil three hours, cool, and walh it well: 
Take frefh Wheat Bran Liquor ^. s. Madder five pounds ; 
enter your Cloth at a good heat, han41e it to a boiling 
heat, cool it, and walli it well. ^ Take frelli Wheat Bran 
Liquor q. s. let it boil, and put in Urine a Gallon -, en- 
ter your Cloth, boil half an hour, cool it, and walh it, 
,and it is done. 


45^ * Polygraphices Lib. VI. 

Note., Urine is not much ufed now, and fome do not 
walh the Cloth oiH: of the Alum. 

II. Another Red Dye. 

Take clear fair water q. s. Alum three pounds : boH 
and enter t^venty yards of Broad Cloth ; boil it two 
hours and IialF, take it out and Rans; it, and hang it up 
a little while to let the water drop from it. Take clear 
Bran Liquor q. s. Madder four pounds ( fteeped firil an 
hour in Small Beer) bring it almoft to a fcaldin^ heat, 
and enter your Cloth, and handle it Aviftly for the 
fpace of half an hour ; take your Cloth out, and put it 
into Uiine, after which wafli it well, and it is done. 

III. Another very good Red Dye. 

Take Water q. s. and three ounces of Alum to every 
pound of Wool, Yarn, or Cloth ; boil the Wool, but 
put it not in till the Alum is melted : boil three hour?, 
take it out, and walli it well in cold water, and calt 
away the Licjuor. Take frelli clear Bran Liquor, or 
Small Beer unboiled, add to it five ounces of Madder to 
every pound of Wool, Yarn, Cloth, 6~f. put in the Mad- 
der when the Liquor begins to be warm, break the Mad- 
der well with your hands, wlien in the Liquor ; and 
when it is near boiling, enter your Cloth, CT'c. and han- 
dle it well, boiling it half an hour, or till it is well co- 
loured : then put in three quarts of Urine, give two or 
three boil?, and fo take out your Cloth, &c. 

IV. Another Red Colour. 

Take Liquor q. s. Alum three pounds : Tartar one 
pound, boil and enter twenty pounds of Wool, Yarn, 
or Cloth J boil two hours, take it out, wafli it clean, 
cafi away the Liquor, and put in clear fair water, and 
Madder four pounds : when it boils, enter your Cloth, 
&c. again, and handle it, till it is enough. 

V. Another Red Colour or Dye. 

Take Water thirty quarts. Alum two pounds and a 
half: and therein boil thirty pounds of VVool, Yarn, or 
Cloth, and take it out. Take fair Water ten Gallons, 
Madder five fhillings worth, let it Ifand twelve hour?, 
boil and enter your Wool, Yarn, Cloth, &c. boil quick- 
ly, and then take it out, and put it into Itrong Urine 
lor one hour, then take it out and walli it. 

VI. Another Red Colour ^ or Dye. 

Take fowre Bran Liquor q.s. Alum two pounds and a 


Chap. i^. Of t>y\ng Red Colours, 457 

half, Tartar two ounces : enter twenty yards ofBroa 
Cloth, and boil three hours, and take it out. Take frelli 
Bran Liquor q. s. Madder four pounds : boil, handle, 
and finilli it. 

VII. Another Red Dye. 

Take ftale Wheat Bran Liquor, fix days old, or fowre 
Tap- wort q. s. Alum three pounds : enter twenty yards 
of Broad Cloth, boil three hours, cool and walhi. Take 
frefb and clear Bran Liquor q. s. Madder four pounds, 
fteeped in the fame Liquor : enter your Cloth at a good 
heat, and handle it to a boiling ; take it out, cool, and 
waili it well. 

VIII. A good Red Dye. 

Take Rain-water, q. s. Brafil in pouder, fine Vermil- 
lion, of each an ounce : Alum one dram. : boil them 
till half is confumed. 

IX. Another excellent good Red Dye. 

Take Lixivium of unflak'd Lime five Gallons, Brafil 
ground two pounds and a half ; boil to the half : then 
put to it Alum twenty ounces : keep it warm, but not 
to boil : Then what you would Dve in this Liquor, dip 
firrt into a Lye made of Afhes of Tartar, letting it dry, 
then dip it into the Dye. 

X. Another very good Red Colour, or Dye. 

What you would Dye, firtt boil in Alum Water ; 
then dip it into the following Liquor. Take Water q. s. 
Roffct one pound, Gum Arabick a little, boil a quarter 
of an hour, and then ftrain it for ufe. 

XI. To make a pure clear Red Dye. 

Take Wheat Bran Liquor thirty quarts, or q. s. Bjrafil 
in pouder four pounds : Alum in pouder two pounds : 
Tartar one pound : mix, and diifolve, and make a Tm- 
6lure : enter your Stuff, or Cloth : boil for two hours: 
take it out, and boil it again in frefh Bran Liquor thirty 
quarts ( adding madder three pomids ) and perfect the 
Color with a moderate heat without boiling. 

XII. Another good Red Dye. 

Boil the things you would Dye firft in Alum Water, then 
take them out, and boil them in Water, with Brazil in 
fine pouder : let it boil till the Icum arifes, then put in 
the things to be Dyed, and let them boil till the Water 
looks of an Orange Tawny ^ carting in then alfo a hand- 
ful of Bay Salt, 


458 PolygrA^hices Lib. VI. 

XIII. To colour Barley Srra.vci^ 8cc. Rel. 

Boil s^round Brafil in a Lixivinm of Pot-adies, and in 
that boU your Straw. 

XIV. A Red Tigment ivhichfh.ill not grow Black. 
Take pure fine Vermillion, grind it with Water of 

Cnm AmmoniacHrrty with the addition of a little Saffron. 

XV. To Dye a good Red. 

Jake Ibfc clear Wheat Bran Liquor (j. s. Alum three 
pounds : enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, handle it, 
and boil three hours : take it out, cool it, and walh it 
well. Take frclli Bran Liquor q. s. Madder fix pounds : 
enter your Cloth at a boiling heat, and handle it, till it 
is as deep as you would have it j and if you pleafc finiili 
it with Brafil. 

XVL To mah Red Paper. 

Take Bartard Saffron, or Safflower, eight ounces; put 
it into a Linnen Bag, and wafli it by a River fide, till 
it fcarcely gives any colour : then put the remainder in- 
to a Balbn, fprinkhng it with the poudcr of Glafs-wort, 
( or rather with Soda) one ounce ; fo put it into a little 
Pail of Blood-warm Vv'ater, always ftirring it • after 
which lirain it, and add a little Juice of Liraons, to make 
it give a Red Color. The Paper ought to be fine, an^ 
dipt into the Bafon. 


Of Dying a Red Blufh Colore 

LnrODr a Red BlaP^-Color. 

^ Take Italc clear Wheat Bran Liquor fix days 
old, q. s. Alum three pounds and a half : Red Tartar 
half a pound : melt them, and enter twenty yards of 
Broad Cloth j handle, and let it boil tliree houi;s j take 
It out, andwalliit well (butlbmcwalh it not.) Take 
frelli Liquor q. s. of the befl Madder three pounds, enter 
your Cloth, and handle to a boiling heat ; cool, ami 
Avafh again. Laitly, take frelh clear Bran Water^ q.,s. 
let it boil, enter your Cloth, and let it boil a quarter of 
an hour : t:ool, and wain it well again. 


Chap. 17- Of Dying ScarktSy^Q. 4^^ 

II. A Red Bltfjh-Colour in Grain. 

Take ftale fowre clear Bran Liquor q. s. Alum three 
pounds and a half : Red Tartar half a pound : enter 
twenty ^^ards of Broad Cloth, boil three hours, cool, and 
walli. Take frelli clear Bran Liquor (j. s. beit Madder 
three pounds : enter and boil again. Take freili Bran 
Liquor q. s. Grains in fine pouder four ounces : Red 
Tartar three ounces : enter your Cloth, and boil an 
hour or more, keeping your Cloth well under the Li- 
quor: then cool and wafh. 

III. Another BhJJp Color in Grain. 

Take clear Itale or fowre Wheat Bran Liguor, q. s. 
Alum three pounds and a half : Red Tartar eight oun- 
ces : melt them, and enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, 
boil three hours, handle it %vell, take it out, cool and 
wa(}i. Take frelli Bran Liquor, q. s. enter your Cloth, 
and handle it, letting it boil a quarter of an hour, cool, 
and walli. Take more frefli Bran Liquor, q. s. make it 
boil, and add thereto Grains in pouder tw^o ounces: 
Red Tartar an ounce and half ; Jet them boil, enter 
your Cloth, handle it, and let it boil three quarters of 
an hour, then cool, and walli it well. 

IV. To make a Spanifh Carnation Colour. 

Take Baftard Saffron, or Safflower, walli it well, dry 
it, and beat it ; and to a pound of it, being beaten, add 
Calcined Tartar four ounces : grind all together, and 
put it into a double courfe Linneu Bag j and affufc 
upon it a quarter of a pint of Limon Juice blood warm ; 
put this into a fufficient quantity of fair water, and 
then put in the things you would Dye. But the Stuff-^ 
or Cloth you would Dye, is firft to be boiled in Alum 

Of Dying Scar let y and the Bow Dye* 

I. ^0 Dye a Scarlet Color in Grain. 

■*• Take liale clear Wheat Bran Liquor q. s. Alum 
three pounds : enter your twenty yards of Broad Cloth, 


460 Polygraphises. Lib. VI, 

and boil three hours, cool and wafli it : Take fair wa- 
ter q. s. Ncdder or Strawel a fit quantity, Jet them boil 
well, cool with a little water, enter your Cloth, and 
make a bright yellow ; cool and walh it again. Take 
frelli Wheat Bran Liquor q. s. Madder four pounds : 
enter your Cloth at a good heat, handle it to a boiling, 
cool and walli it well. Take more frefh Bran Liquor 
q. s. Cochenele in fine pouder five ounces : Tartar three 
ounces : enter your Cloth, and boil an hour or more, 
keeping it under the Liquor, then cool and wafh. 

IL To Dye a Bajiard Scarlet color. 
Take (tale Bran Liquor twelve days old, q. s. Alum 
three pounds and a half ; Red Tartar one pound ; dif- 
Iblve, enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, boil four 
hours, and handle it well, cool it, and let it lye in the 
Alum watc?r twenty tour hours, and walh it in fair wa- 
ter ( but lome do not. ) Take frelli Bran Liquor q. s. bed 
Madder one pound : enter your Cloth at a good heat, 
handle it well to a boiling, keeping but a flow fire : cool 
and waili well. Laftly, take frelli Bran Liquor q. s. 
enter your Cloth again, boil half an hour, cool it, and 
'wafli it well. 

in. Another Scarlet Coloftr in Grfiin, from a White 

Take fair water, clear Bran Liquor, of each equal 
parts, q. s. Alum nine pounds and a half : Tartar five 
pounds and a half, melt tliem : then enter thirty pounds 
weight of Wool, Yarn, Flannel or Cloth : boil four 
hours,'take it out, and let it cool, and Avalli it well in 
fair cold water. Then take Grains ( commonly called 
Cochenele ) fifteen ounces, in fine pouder : Tartar fifteen 
ounces : frelli Bran Liquor q. s. mix them, enter your 
Cloth, &c. handle it to a good heat, and your Cloth 
being White, it will be of a good Scarlet Colour j let it 
boil two hours, handle it well, take it out, and wafti 

IV". To perform the Bow Dye. 
Take double Aqm fortis ten ounces, ( fome fay Gxteen 
ounces ) Filing,s of Pewter twenty ounces : Filings of 
Silver, or leaf Silver two ounces : put in the Pewter into 
the Aqna fortis to dilfolve, and after that the Silver, dif- 
folving over a gentle heat : Then take Cochenele in fine 
pouder i Crtaai of Tarter in fine pouder five ouncc^ 

* mix 

Chap. I S. Of Dying Sand Colours. 461 

mix them with the former things, and add to them 
White Starch forty Spoonfuls, dilTolving and mixing. 
Now take the Liquor you intend to Dye with, and put 
in a proportional quantity of the former mixture, ( but 
in a Brafs Veffel lined with Pewter or Tin ) boil a quar- 
ter of an hour, and it is done, &c. See C^^p. 14. Se^. 5. 

0/ Dyiftg Sand Colours. 

I. ^O Dye d Smd Colour. 

J- Take water q. s. Nut-galls in pouder one pound, 
Madder fix ounce^ Fuftick four ounces : let them boil, 
and enter your Cloth (twenty yards of Broad Cloth) let it 
boil two hours, and handle it, and fo cool it : add Cop- 
peras four ounces ; enter your Cloth at a boiling heat, 
let it boil a quarter of an hour, and handle it, and fo 
cool it again. If you will have it fadder, put in more 
Copperas, enter your Cloth again, and boil another quar- 
ter of an hour, cool and -vafh. 

II. Another Sand C 

Take water q. s. Red-wuo.: ground two pounds and 
a half. Sumach one pound : enter your Cloth, boil two 
hour- . .id cool. Add Copperas two pounds, eater yo-ir 
Cloth again, and fadden as you tliink fit, &c. 

III. Another Sand- Colour. 

Take water q. s. Nut-galls a pound in pouder, boil 
them a little : then add Red-wood ground q. s. viz.. ac- 
cording as you Avould have the Sand Colour, Light or 
Dark : enter your Cloth, boil an hour, and handle it : 
if you would have it Darker, add a little Wood-loot : 
enter your Cloth, and boil pretty well, and cool ; after 
fadden as you pleafe with Copperas. 

IV. Another Sand Colour. 

Take water q. s. Nut-galls in pouder one pound : 
Madder fix ounces : Fuifick four ounces : Red-wood 
ground three ounces : Brafil ground two ounces : boil, 
enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, boil two hours, and 

* Li cool: 

4^2 Polygrsphices Lib. VI. 

cool : add Copperas three ounces : enter your Cloth 
again at a boiling heat, handle it, and boil a quarter of 
an hour, and fo cool. If you would have it ladder, you 
mult put in more Copperas. 

Of Dying Snuff Colours. 


npO • Dye a. Sntfjf or Chefnnt Colofir. 

-■- Take water q.s. Nut-galls in pouder one pound. 
Madder four ounces and a half, Red-woal ground one 
pound, Fultick four ounces : make them boil, and enter 
twenty yards of Broad Cloth ; handle it, and boil two 
hours, and cool: add Copperas fouf ounces, enter the 
Cloth, and handle it, and boil it a quarter of an hour, 
and cool it ; if you would have it f adder, ufe the more 

II. Another Snuff Colour. 

Take clear ftak Bran Liquor, 7. s. Alum three pounds : 
enter twenty yards of Broad Cloth, boil tluxe hours, 
cool and wal"h it. Take f ' 'er 7. j. Nedder or Stra- 
well a fufficicnt quantit<f, tc--. vvcll, cool with a little 
water, enter your Cloth, and make a bright yellow, cool 
and waili again. Take frcdi Bran Liquor 7. s, Ktiul^r 
four pounds. Galls eight ounces : enter your Cloth at 
a good heat, har.dle it to a boiling, cool and walli it. 
Take new frelli Liquor q.s. Coppera?, Sumach, of each 
half a pound, enter your Cloth, and boil for an hour, 
cool and walh. 

Wl. Another Snuff Colour. 

Take water q. s. Fuftick two pounds : Nut-galls 
in poudtr one pound : Madder, Red-wood ground, 
oF each lialf a pound : mix, and let them boil : enter 
your twenty yards of Broad Cloth, and boil two hoars 
and a half, take out your Cloth and cool it : a».U.l Cop- 
j'eras four ounces, let it boil, eater your CloLli,and lad- 
«.leu as ypu fee lit. 

IV. An Ohjtrvation. 

In making a light Snuff Color, you muit put in the 

Ids Of DjUgViMykc. Colours, m 

lefs Copperas : if you would have it^ to Jook Greeniilj^ 

you m'uft ufe the more FuiHck.;_fcut,ifvou woultihave 

It look the more He'd, uFe the ir^re'Eed-Wood,) 'nsriT 

V. Another Smiff Colour. ^ --i •>' nr rbod 

Take water q. s. Logwood gl^pupH^oe pound ; Fu^- 
ftick, Sumach, of eacH two oUnqes'; mix,; and make the 
Lead boil lirongly, enter your Cloth, j^Qq jboil :a fluar*- 
ter of an hour, and fo cool : add Copperas eight di^hces, 
and fo iadden as you fee occaiiom.// _.;; ;i ;. ,_ ,.1^1 
VL Another Snujf Colour. : scam mi- i -' ■' .^ jiCVf 

Take Water ^./. Red-woodw^oij^^ two J)otinds': 
Brafil giound one pound : Sumach [one pound, Nut- 
galls bruifed fmall two ounces : bdil,; enter your Cloth; 
boil two hours : then add CopperajS^vi pound and hall^ 
enter your Cloth again, and iadden a? f^oxt. fee fidj il. i 

.\'ll. Another Snt^ Colour. " • ^ • "7 

Take Watery. /. Fuftick two pounds, Madder or^ 
pound. Red-wood ground half ^3>'^!?'^ • ^^t them, boil 
and then enter twenty' yards of Broacl' Cloth, liandle i.t> 
and let it boil two hours, andi cool it : add Copperas 
four ounces, which is enough for the lighter Color ,• then 
cnter^ your Cloth, handle it, boil half an hour, andtheii 
take it out and ^opi it • •! . 

jjiii. ijuj ; ^iJk.ti 

CHAR XXI 3t '^2!^^ 

Of Dying Violet and. Vurfk Colours, ,;;.;j 


I. 'TpO make a Purple Colour, or Dye. ; 

-*- Take Water q. s. Alum twenty .oupces : Mad- 
der five ounces: boil, enter twenty yards of Stut^'j ah A 
boil two hours and half, take it out, and walli it well. 
Walli the Lead, and then put in clean Water q.s. Log- 
wood ground two pounds, boil it a while, and enter 
your Cloth, handle it well, and take it out, and coolit : 
enter it again, and put it in and out, till the Colour is 
flrong enough. 

IL To make a Violet Colour in Grain, out of a fad Blue. 

Take fair Water, clear Bran Liquor, of each equal 

partSj^ qi sy Alum nine pounds and a half : Tartar five 

LI 2 pounds 

4^4 Tolygrafhms Lib. VI. 

pbutids and a half ; melt them, and enter thirty pounds 
wei^t of Wool, Yarn, Stuff, Cloth, &c. of a fad Blue 
color J boil four hours, cool, and waQi it in cold water. 
Then takie frelli Bran Liquor q. s. Cochenele, Tartar, 
both in fine pouder, of each fifteen ounces : mix, enter 
your Cloth, handle it to a good heat, boil two hours, 
•handle it welij take it out, and walli it, and it will be 
€>£a,pure Viokt or Purple color. 
(•:.:y\\\.. Another Turple Color., mthoat Bluing. 

Take clear ftale Wheat Bran Liquor, or fowre Tap- 
wort q. s. Alum three pounds : enter twenty yards of 
Broad Cloth, boil three hours, cool, and waih well. 
Take freih Bran Liquor, q. s. Madder twenty ounces j 
£titer your Cloth, boil with a quick fire, cool, and wafli. 
Take clear, or fair water, q. s. LogAv-oocl ground twenty 
four ounces, boil half an hour, and put in fome Urine, 
then enter your Cloth, handle it, and boil half an hour, 
take it out and cool it : add Nut-galls bmifed two oun- 
ces, and enter yc^j^'Cloth again, handle it, and boil 
half an hour, cool arnd' walli ir.-'. .- 
em'iy,. Another f^joht or P'yirph Color'i. 
•;tTake clear Ifeile Bran Liquor q.f-. Alum three pounds: 
enter twenty -^af4s of Broad Cloth, and boil two hours 
and half J cool and walh well. Take fielh Liquor q. s: 
Madder t^vent}' ounces : enter your Cloth, and boil with 
a t}ui€k-fiic, <:.©oi,-and wafli wrcH;— Trik^ friir Water q-. t.~ 
Logwood ground ci^ht ounces : Braril|,round two ouii- 
ces : let them boU"^4"arter of aiifioup] enter your Cloth 
at a boiling heat, handle it, and boil a quarter of an 
' hoiu', take^ it puf, .a^(| cool it : add Urine q. j. enter your 
Cloth again,' boif a^quarter of an hour, then cboi and 
Vv'alli it well. - , - 

V. A p-eorl P^iolei- or Purple Color. . /- r 

■/iTifteW^-iWftoftir gallons: Myrtle berries eightpouTids ; 
AJuin one oun^J'calcin'd Bralsone ounce : mix them 
ift aBrafsKetEle-GrVdrel, boilhalf ^ hoiir, an,d (tain 

1j VL To male /another pleafifnt Vhlct ar P:rrph Dye. 

. Viril Dye it Blue by Chap. :?. Secl-:S. of this Book;' 
then boil it in the former Red at f/.'^p. 15. Scfi.ii. 
aforegoing; laftly, finilh it with a Decoction of Bra- 
fiL--.'4?i \ 

VIL Ar.G- 

Chap. 21. Of Dying Teltom^ &c. 4^5 ''^ 

Yll. Another Pwple Color. _ r^/.- 

Take Orchal, mix it with half Urine, and let it boil^^ 
till it is of a Dark color : then put in the Matter ypi^., 
would Dye, letting it lye 24 hours or more. '^ ' - 

VIII. An Excellent Violet Color. 
Take calcin'd Tartar, Turnfole, of each a pound, - 
beat them, and tye them up in a Linen Cloth, and fteep • 
them 24 hours in Water ; and then put in the Matter 
which you would have to be of a Violet Color. 


Of Dying Tellows^ and Orange Tawny. 

I. 'T'O Dye a Tellow Colour. 

-*- Take Water q. s. Alum one pound : enter ygur 
Yarn, Cloth, &c. boil two hours, and take it out, a^i^^ 
walli it clean. Take frelh fair Water q. s. Fuitick ,tw.p\ 
pounds ; let it boil, and enter your Cloth, boil it aii^ 
hour, and take it out : this will Dye twenty pounds 

II. To Dye an Orange Tajvney. 

Let youi- Wool, Yarn, Flannel, Stuff, or Cloth, d:-<r. 
be firil: Dyed into a Red color : and then being Red, let 
it be dyed into a Yellow color. 

III. Another svay to Dye an Orange Tarvney. 

Take ftale Wheat Bran Liquor q. s. Alum three 
pounds : enter twenty yards of Broad Clodi, handle and 
boil three hours : take it out, cool, and wafli it well.. 
Take fair Water, and good Linge or Hedder, which, 
grows in Morafle?, Moors, or Swamj's ; boil it a good 
while, and take forth the Hedder, and coyl with a little 
cold Water ^ then enter your Cloth, and make it a good 
Yellowy take it up and Air it. Take frelh Bran li- 
quor q. s. Madder two pounds, enter y^ur Cloth, and. 
boil it with a quick fire : then take it out, cool it, and 
walTi it well. Oblerve,you may make it a good Yellon' 
with Furtick, and then afterwards perfect it with Mad- 

LU IV. To 

4^6 . Fph^^^Pihh^ l-ib. VI. 

^ IV. To male anhther Telloyp Color. 

Take Buc)cthorn-bfri;ie<i- gathered about the beginning 
oFy^»^y7?jbmile them, and add a little Alum in fine 
poudcr • mix, and keep ^ll ijn a Brr^fe Veffel. 

V. Another good Tellon- 

Make a ftrong TindHve of Saffron in White Wine 
Vinegar, and ^AA thereto a fufltcient quantity of Alum 
in pouder. 

VI. To make another excellent Tellorv Dye. 

Take pure clear Wheat Bran Liguor thirty quarts : 
Alum three pounds : enter your Stuff or Cloth, boil for 
two hours : after which take Wold, Weld, oi- Dyers 
Weed two pounds, and boil it till you fee the colour 

VII. Another good Tellorv Dye or Color. 

Take Running Water, and JVlalt-wort, of each a like 
quantity ; in which dilfolve a iufhcient quantity ofA- 
lum, by boiling. Into this Liquor put whatlbever you 
would have Dyed Yellow, and let it boil a good while : 
then take it out, and put it into a itrong decocHon of 
Wold, Weld, or Dyers Weed, made with Chalk Wa- 
ter, and (laying weight upon it ) let it boil an hour or 

VIII. To Dye c.n Orange-TAxney Color. 

Make a weak Lixivium of Pot-Allies, or fuch Buck- 
Afhes, as Women waih their Cloths withal : put into 
it. Wood-Soot, a fufficicnt quantity ; and black Cork : 
boil a while, then put in the Matter you would Dye, 
( being firll Dyed Yellow) and Jet it boil a Httle, cait- 
ing in whilrt it boils, a handful of Bay Salt. 

IX. To Dye Barley Straw , &c. of a Tcllovp Color. 
Take a Lixivium of Pot-Afhes q. s. Yellow Bark of 

the Barbery Tree a pound : make a decodlion, and in 
this boil your StraAv, &c. 

X. To Dye a Telloiv (;olor. 

Take Alum Water 7. /. inner Bark of a Plum Tree, a 
pound; or as much Sumach; make a Decoftion, and 
boil what you think fit in it, and it will be of a fiir 

XI. To maie a Teiloiv. 

Take Orpimeht 7. J. grind it with Water, then put it 
in littie parcels upon Paper to dry, and then you may 
ufe it as a pit;mcnt. 

Chap. 22. Of uking out SfaiSy 8cc. 467 

XII. To make an Orange Color. ^ a 

Take Vermillion, grind it with a little Saffron, and. 
then mix with it a little Red Lead. 


Of Watering Stuffs^ and taking out Spots, 

l.TjOWto water Stuffs, &C. 

-ti. Take Water, q. s. Gum Tragacanth one ounce : 
mi,x and dilTolve, and make a thin clear Water : then 
take ten yards of Stuft", and wet i^ with the laid Water 
all over, and put it into a Prefs : let it lye a pretty 
while, and turn it twice : after which, you mull fcruc 
the Prefs very hard, and fo let it ftand until it be 

II. An Ohfervation. 

The Gum-water ought to be pure thin and clear, o- 
thenvife the folds of the Stuff will (tick together : it is 
alfo to be done very hot, eife it will not penetrate ; and 
the Stuff, &c. is to be throughly wet therewith, )'-et not 
too wet. 

III. To tale out Spots. 

Walli them with Oil of Tartar per deliquuim, two or 
three times, and they will vaniOi ; then walli with Soap- 
fudds, and laitly with fair warm Water. 

IV. To take oHt Ink Spots. 

Wafh them three or four times with Juice of Limons, 
or with ikong White-Wine Vinegar, and it will do j 
after walli them with Genoa Soap, and lalHy with tair 
warm Water. 

V. To take out Spots of Turpentine y or Pitch. 

Firit rub them well with Hogs-Lard, or old thick Oil, 
and repeat this two or tliree times ; then Soap .theni, 
and walh with warm Water. Spirit of Wine is alio 
good in this cafe. 

VI. To take oat Spots of Greafe. 

Rub them very wtU two or three times vAth Oil of 
Turpentine, and they will vanilli away to a wotider : 
laftly wal)i aaain with Reclified Spirit of Wine. 

LI 4 VII. n 

4^S Polygrdphices Lib. VI 

VII. To tah out Spots of Oil or Greafej out of White or' 
Tied Silk. 

Take ^t^ua Vit£, and rub the Spots well with it : theii 
take Glair of new-laid Eggs, and rub the Spots well 
therewith, and let it dry in the Sun ; after which waQi 
it with clean water, and prefs it well. 

VIII . A Ponder to tnh out Spots. 

Take Bone-Afhes of Sheeps Legs calcin'd White, make 
them into fubtil pouder ; which lay warm upon the 
Spot or Stain, till it begins to change color ; then remove 
it, and lay on more, and contmue it till the Spot is gone". 

IX. Another for the fame. 

Take White or Wheaten Bread juft drawn out of the 
Oven ; lay one piece of it above, and another under- 
neath the Silk, and it will draw out the Oil or Greafe. 

X. Another for the fame. 

Take Honey and mix with it Glair of Eggs, and Sd 
Armoniack, and lay them on the Spot for fome time, 
and Walli it with fair Wat?r. , ' 

XI. To take Spots of Ink out of Silk. 

Take Itrong White Wine Vinegar, hot Afhcs, rub them 
well upon the Spots, and walli afterwards with Soap 
and Water, and the work will be done. 

XII. To take Spots of Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, &c. ottt of 

Take common Oil, or Hogs Lard, rub it well upon and 
into the Spots, Letting it lye for 24 or 48 hours, then 
rub it well with your hands, and wring it, after which 
walh it clean with Soap and water. 

XIII. To take out Stains. 

Take Soap a pound : Fullers Earth eight ounces ; un- 
flakcd Lime two ounces : mix all in fair water, and af- 
ter a while lay it upon the ftains. 

XIV. Another tray. 

Mix white Starch and Water together, making it into 
a Palle ; with this cover the Stains as thick as a Sliilling 
or Half Crown, and leave it on till next day ; then rub 
it oft as you do dry dirt ; and the Stains will be vanilhed. 

XV. To t^tke a!' Spots of Ink out of Linnen or Woollen. 

Squeez Juice of Luiions upon the Stain, which rub in 
very well, and being dry, repeat this three or four times ; 
and then waih it with fair Water, and the Ink or Iron 
molds will be vani/licd, 

C H A P. 

Chap. 2 J i Of D/mg Pafer^ &c» 469 

Dymg of Paper, Parchment^ and Leathery &c. 

I. 'TT'O male Paper tvaved lile Aiarhle. 

•*- Take divers Oiled colours, put them feverally in 
drops upon water, and IHr the water lightly ; then wet 
the Paper ( being of fome thicknefs ) with it, and it will 
be wavpd like Marble ; dry it in the Sun. 

II. To rcrite golden Letters on Paper or Parchment. 

This maybe done by the ninth, thirteenth and fixteenth 
Seiflions of the twenty feventh Chapter of the third 
Book : or write with Vermilion ground with Gum Ar- 
moniack, ground with glair of Eggs, and it will be like 

IIL To tale out hlotSj or male hlacl Letters vanijh in 
Paper or Parchment. 

This may be done with Alum-water j or with Aqua 
forti-s mixed with common water. 

IV. To male Silver Letters in Paper or Parchment. 
Take Tin one ounce, Quick-filver two ounces, mix and 

melt them, and grind them with Gun> water. 

V. To yprite rcith Green Ink. 

Take Verdigrife, Litharge, Quick-filver, of each a fuf^ 
ficient quantity, grind and mingle them with Urine, and 
it will be a glorious green, like an Emerald, to write or 
paint with. 

Or th.m^ Grind Juice of Rue aod" Verdigrife with a lit- 
tle Saffron together ; and Avhen you would write with it, 
mix it with Gum-water. Or thm^ Dilfolve Verdigrife in 
Vinegar, ftiain it ; then grind it with common water, 
and a little Hony, dry it j then grind it again with Gum 
water, and it is done. 

Vi. To write on Paper or Parchment rciih Bine Inl. 

Grind Blue with Honey, then temper it with glair of 
Eggs, or Gum-water made of lling-glafs. 
Y\l. To dye Skins Blue. 

Take Berries of Elden, or Drawf-elder, firfl boil them, 
then fmear andwalli the Skins therewith, and wring 
them forth : then boil the Berries as before, in the diffo- 


470 Polygraphicfs Lib. VI. 

lution of Alum-watcr, and wet the Skins in the fame 
water once or tA\-icc, dry them, and they will be very 

VIII. To dye Shins into a Reddijh Colour. 

Firft wafti the Skin in water, and wring it well : then 
wet it with the folution of Tartar and Bay-falt in fair 
water, and wyn? it again : to the former diffolution add 
Arties of Crab-rtv.'!?, and rub the Skin very well there- 
with, then walli with common w^ater, and wring them 
out : then Avalh them with tindhirc of Madder, m the 
folution of Tartar, Alum, and the aforefaid Allies ; and 
after ( if not red enough) with the tincture of Brafil. 

IX. Another rcay to dye them Red. 

Walli the Skins, and lay them in galls for t^vo hours, 
wrin| them out, and dip them into a colour made with 
Ligup-HTK^ Alum and Verdigrife in water. Laftly, twice 
dye them with Brafil boiled with Lye. 

X. Another n:ay to dye them Blue. 

Take the bed Indico, and ileep' it in Urine a day, 
then boil it with Alum, and it will be good. Or, temper 
the Indico with Red Wine, and w^aln the Skins there- 

XI. Ti dye Shins purple. 

Tal.e Roch-alum, diftolve it in warm water, wet the 
Skins therewith, drying them again ; then take rafped 
Brazil, boil it in water well, then let it cool j do thus 
thrice : tliis done, nib the dye over the Skins with your 
hand,, which being dry polilli. 

XII. To dye Skins of a fad green. 

Take the filings of Iron and Sal-Armoniack, of eacli 
alike, Itccp them in Urine till they be foft, with which 
befmear the Skin, being llretched out, drying it in the 
lliade, the colour will penetrate and be green on both 

XIII. To dye Shins of a piiVe Shie Cobur. 

For each Skin take Indico an ounce, put it into boiling 
water, let it (land one night, then warm it a little, and 
witji a brulli-pencil befmear the Skin twice over. 

WV . To dye Shins of a pure TeHors:. 

Take fine Aloes one ounce, Linfced Oil two pound, 
diilolve or melt them, then ilrain it ; bcfmearing the Skins 
therewith j being drj^, varniili them over. 

XV. To 

Chap. 2f . OfDywgTarchfnent,2>:c, ^jt, 

XV. To dye Skins Green. 
Take Sap-green, Alum-water, of each a fufficient quan- 
tity ; mix and boil them a little : if yoiv would have the 
colour darker, add a little Indico. 
XVh To dye Skins TelloTV. 
Infufe Woad in VinegJ^r, in which boil a little Alum ; 
Or thus, having dyed them Green by the fifteenth Sedi- 
on, dip them in deco(5lion of Privet-t5erries, and Sai&on, 
and Alum-water. 

XVII. To dye them of an Orange Colour. 

Boil Fuftick-berries in Alum-water : but for a deep 
Orange, ufe Turmerick-root. 

XVIII. A liquor to gild Skins, Afetals, or GLrf. 
Take Linfeed Oil three pound, boil it in a glazed VcC- 

fel till it burns a Feather being put into it, then put to 
it Pitch, Rofm, dry Varnilli, or Gum-Sandrach, of each 
eight ounces, Aloes Hepatica four ounces ; put all in 
ponder into the Oil, and Ihr them with a {tick, the fire 
being a little encreafed : if the liquor is too clear or 
bright, you may add an ounce or two more of AlocsSoc- 
catrine, and diminilfi the VarniiL, io the liquor will be 
darker, and more like Gold. Being boiled, take it, and 
Itrain it, and keep it in a Glafs for ufe : Avhich uie with 
a Pencil. 

Other jiaining Colours. 

XIX. To make a fine Blue Jtaining vra*cr. 

Make a weak Lixivium of Pot-a(lnes, or take Lime- 
water, put into it a fu'ficient quantity of Florcy, and 
difiblve therein a little Alum, ^i.nd (Hr it well over the 
fire ; then take it o^\ and call: therein Wool Allies, fo 
will you have a fine Blue. 

XX. A weaker Blue jiaining^ n>atcr. 

Take water a fi^cient quantity, dilToIve therein a iii^ 
ficient quantity of Florey blue, and a little Alum 3 fo 
will it be of a fainter colour than the former. 

XXI. A jiaining Blue water, weaker than the latter. 
Take pure Well-water a quart : two ilielbtiill of Flo- 
rey blue J mix them well together, and lay them on thin ; 
This is the faintett of all the three. 

XXII. A deep green ftaining water. 

Take Juice of the greened: Worts half a pint, luain it 
through a Cloth ; and dilTolve therein a lutiicient qiLiri- 
tity of purified Verdigrife : mix them well together, and 


472 PolygraphiceV, Lib. VI. 

it will be a ^ood colour. How to purifie Verdigrife fee in 
my Doron, lib. 3. cap. 6. Sed. 13. §.2. being Jo prepared, 
one ounce mil he rtorth ten of that unprepared. 

XXIII. Another green finning Colour. 

Firft ftain the Leather, Parchment, or Paper with a 
Blue, and let it dry : then lay thereon a yellow ftaining 
colour, lb %vill the green be much the better. 

XXIV. To maie a light fiaining green colour. 

Take a pint of Wort made of Malt : and mix there- 
with a fhell full of Florey, ftirring them well together ; 
firft ftain with this, then upon this ftaining, lay yellow, 
till it grows green : the more of your yellow ftaining li- 
quor you lay on, the better will your green be. 

Dyi;jg of JV^odj Horns dnd Bones, &c, 

I.'X'O dye Elder ^ Box, A'fulherry-treey Pear-tree, Nu> 
tree of the colour of Ebony. 
Steep the Wood in Alum- water three or four days, then 
boil It in common Oil, with a little Roman Vitriol and 

Where note, the longer you boil the Wood, the blacker it mil' 
he, but too long rKt^kes it brittle. 
II. To dye Bones green. 

Boil the Bones in Alum-water, then take them out, 
dry them and fcrape them, then boil them in Lime-wa- 
ter with a little Verdigrile. 

in. To dye Wood like Ebony, according to Glauber. 
Diltil an A.juafortis of Salt-peter and Vitriol, and 
^therew ith befmear the Wood, as oft as you fee occalion. 

IV. To rfiake Hdrns black. 

Vitriol diifolved in Vinegar, and Spirit of Wine will 
iTiakc Horns black : fo the Snow-white Calx of Silver in 
tair water. 

V. To make Bones -^yhite. 

They are ftra!:H,cly made white by boiling with water 
and Lime ; cominiully (cumming of it. 

VI. To dye Bones green. 

T.ike white Wine Vinegar a quart, filings of Copper, 


Chap. 24. Of Dying Wood^ Horm^ &c. 47 j 

Verdigrife, of each three ounces ; Rue bruifed an hand- 
ftil ; mix them, and put the Bones therein for fifteen 

VII. To dye Woodf HornSy or Bones red. 

Firft boil them in Alum-water, then put them into 
tin(^re of Brazil in Aluin-water for two or three Weeks : 
or into tin6lure of Brazil in Milk. 

VIII. To dye them Blue. 

Having firft boiled them in Alum-w^ater, then put 
them into thedilTolutionof Indico in Urine. 

IX. To dye them green Hie Emeralds. 

Take Aquafortis^ and put as much filings of Copper 
into it, as it will dilTolve ; then put the Wood, Horns, or 
Bones therein for a Night. 

X. To dye Brijlks and Feathers. 

Boil them in Alum-warer, and after, while they are 
warm, put them into tin6kire of ^affton, if you would 
have them yellow : or Juice of Elder-berries, if blue: or 
in tincture of Verdigrife, if green. 

XI. To dye an Az^ure Colour. 

Take Roch-alum, filings of Brafs, of each two ounces ; 
Fiili-glew half an ounce, Vinegar, or fair water a piut, 
boil it to the confumption of the half. 

All. To J(if ten Ivory and Bones. 
^ ^ Lay them t^velve hour? in Aqua fortus, then three da)^ 
in the Juice of Beets, and they will be tender, and you 
may make of them what you will : To harden them again^ 
Jay them in strong White Wine Vinegar. 

XIII. To make Horns f oft. 

_ Take Urine a Month old, Qiiick-lime one pound^ cal- 
cined Tartar half a pound, Tartar cmde, Salt, of each 
four ounces ; mix and boil all together, then Ihain it 
twice or thrice, in which put the horns for eight daye, 
and they will be foft. 

XIV. Another rvay to make them foft. 

Take allies, of which glafs is made, Q.uick-lime, of 
each a pound ; water a fufficient quantity, boil them tijl^ 
one third part is confumed, then put a teathef into it, if 
the feather peel, it is fodden enough, if not, boil it lon- 
ger, then clarifie it, and put ic out, into which pur ii- 
Imgs of Horn for t^vodaysj anoint 3^our hand with Oil, 
and work the Horns as it were Palte, thexi make it into 
what falliion you pleafe. -* 

XV. A no- 

4)4 Polygra^hkes lib. VI. 

XV. Another fpay tofoffi Boms'. 

Take Juice of Marubiun. Alexanders, Yarrotv, Ce- 
landine and Radilli roots, with ftrong Vinegar, mix them, 
into which put Horns, and digell ieven days in Hofls- 
dung, then work them as before. 

XVI. To c^fl Horns in a moHld., lih as Lead. 

Make a Lixivium of calcined Tartar and Quick-lime, 
into which put filings or Icrapings of Horn, boil them 
well together, and they will be as it were Pap, tinge it 
of the colour you w^ould have it, and then you may call 
it in a mould, -and make thereof' what falliioned things 
you pleale. 

XVII. To wc.h Ivory white. 

If Ivory be yellow, fpotted or colotired, lay it in Quick- 
lime, pour a little water over it, letting it lye twenty 
four hours, and it wall be fair and white. 
XVIII. To dye Bmes black. 

Take Lythargc, Quick-lime, ana t\vo pounds : Water 
j^. s. mix, and put in your Bones, and Itir with a Hick 
till they boil apace : then take it off the fire, and ftir 
till all is cold, and the Bones will be very black. 



I. TTO enumerate all the great variety of Dyes or Co- 
-*■ lours, or olfer at an .Ellay to reduce them to a 
certain method, as jt is a labour needlels, lo it is as alto- 
gether impoflible, there being infinite Colours to be pro- 
cluced, for which ( as yet ) we have no certain, known, 
er re.d name. 

II. And out of what wc have already enumerated in 
this Book, ihe ingenious (ifthey pleale j ilia 11 find (by 
little Pradice and Experience ) fuch great variety to be 
apparent, tl at lliould we exprefs the number though 
but in a very low or mean dcgie:, we could not but be 
cxpofed in cenlure to an Hyperbole, even of the higheft. 

III. Every of the foregoing Colours, will alone, or 
fingly, produce a great number of others, thc'firfl more 


Chap. 2$. Ihe Conclufton. 47^ 

deep or high ; the latter, all of them paler than each o- 

IV. And according to the variety of Colours the Mat- 
ter is of, before it is put into the Dye, fiich new variety 
alfo lliall you have again when it comes out j not ac- 
cording to what the Colour naturally gives, but another 
clean contrary to what you ( although an Artift) may 

V. For if Grange Colcfurs be dipt into Dyes not na" 
tural to them, they produce a forced colour of a new 
texture, fuch as cannot poflibly be preconceived by the 
mind of Man, although long and continued experience 
might much help in that cafe. 

VI. And if iiich variety may be produced by any one 
of thofe fmgle Colours j what number in reafon might 
be the ultimate of any two or three or more of them, be- 
ing complicate or compounded ? 

VII. Now if fuch great nmnbers or varieties may be 
produced, i. By any one fingle Colour. 2. By being 
complicate ; how fhould we ( without a certain and de- 
terminate limitation, by denomination, or name ) ever 
order fuch confufed, unkown, various, and undeterrai- 
nate Species of things, in any pleafant intelligible me- 
thod ? 

VIII. Since therefore that the matter ( as yet ) appears 
not only hard, bat alio impofhble ; we Ihall commend 
what we have done to the ingenuity of the induiirious : 
and defire that favour from the Experienced, with love 
to corredl: our Errors ; which a6l of kindneis will not 
only be a fliture Obhgation to the Author, but alfo en- 
force Potterit}- to acknowledge the fame. . 

Explicit Liber Sextns, 

' 477 


Liber Septimus. 

0/ A L C H Y M I E: Wherein is treat- 
ed of the true Fhilofophers TinSiurej 
and Procefs of the fame. 


Of Alchymie m General. 

I. K LC H Y M I E IS 2in Amhicl word, and figni- 
aA fies the Tranfmutation of Metals, Semi-Me- 
-^ tals and Minerals. 

II. It is then chiefly concerned with the Mineral King- 
dom, which confilb of Metals, Semi-Metals, Salts, and 

III. The Metals are in Number Seven, vi-c. Saturn, 
Jupiter y Mars, Sol, Venm, Mercury, and Luna. ; called 
by the Vulgar, L€ad,Tin,Iron, Gold, Copper, QHtck-Jiher, 
and Silver. 

IV. The Semi-Metals are, Antimony, Cinnabar „ Tin- 
gUfs, and Zink. 

V. The Salts are chiefly, Vitriol, Sulphur, Arfenici^y 
Alum, Nitre, Borax, and Salt. 

VI. The chief Stones are, Lapis Calaminaris, Tutia'y 
hamuli, and Lime-ftone. 

VII. Now out of thefe the Alchymiji defigns one of 
three things : to wit, i . Either the Counterfeiting of the 
fine Metals. 2. Or the Separation of fine Metals out of 
the bale : or, 3. Tht Generation of the fine Metals out of 
the bafe, by Tranfmutation. 

Mm Vnr.The 

47? Pofygraphfcet Lib. VII. 

VIIl. The Counterfeiting of the fine Metals is done by 
giving the Color and Body of a fine Metal to that which 
IS bate ; as the tinging of Lead into a Gold color ; the 
whiting of Copper ; the reduction of Mercury or Quick' 

' IX. The Separation of fine Metals out of bafe, is done 
by attrading of the Particles or Atoms of the fine ( con- 
tained in that bafer) into one heap or mals, that they 
might not be carried away by the wings of the Volatile 
or bafer Metal. 

X. Thtu it appearSy there is a large puantity of Goldy in 
Lead, Tin^ Copper and Silver : and much Silver in Tin^ Cop- 
per, and Iron : the proof of this is manifeji by the parting Say 
C as they call it) to wifj the Teji by Strong Waters ; by which 
you may find that one' pound of Lead rvitl yield near three or 
four- penny weight of Silvac, and one ofGAd. 

XI. One pound of Tin mil yield fomething above an 
ounce of Silver ; and ahtfut tvpo penny weight of. Gold, or 
more ; one pound of Silver mil yield about one ounce of 
Gold ; and Copper about a quarter of the fame quantity, or 

7K0re,%iC ..: J '.',-. ^ . . . y.^: 

XII. But this is according to the goodnefs of the Metals, 
and the skill of the Undertaker ; for by this re ay of Separation^ 
Tvhat is gotten will never pay the Co?, it remains there fo-e, that 
Tve fearrh out fome way more profitable, the which in the fol- 
lowing Lines, to the' true Sous of Art, we (hall f lit h fully pre- 
fent according to the bcfi of our knowledge : But we are 
bound to be a little the more obfcure, for the fakes of fome 
ingratcfiil Men, by whom we know our jufi meaning will be 
traduced ; OHr skill in Art abufed ; and our perfon fought to 
be rent and dejlroyed, jhould we but adventure to be fo open^ 
as to give them the clear knowledge thereof. Let others fcarch 
^ ve have done, it is Jome fatisfa^ion, that the matter here 
fought, is really in rerum natura ; the which joined to the 
certainty of anothers attaining thereof, may give life to fu- 
ture hopes, which as the purcurfer of better tki»gs, may point 
at the great work it j elf. . ■ '- 

XIII. The Matter of Tranfmutation is done by that 
great Pouder, Ttn^'ure, Elixir, or Stone of the Philofo- 
phers, which, according to the Opinion of Paraceljp^; 
and others the moi\ Icained , we ihall fignifie in few 

XIV. By 

chap. ?. 0/Saturn, or Lead, 47^ 

Xiy. ^f^isTtn^iire or £/;>/>, according to thejuda;- 
in^m of the Ancients the whole Body of any Metal 
'' *■ ' fcpa;at6d from its impurity ) is changed mto fine 


Of Saturn, or Lead. 

I. Q^turn is a cold, grofs, dull and heavy Body, re- 

^ piete with much Impurity, yet full of a Golden 
^etcury.^ « 

'II. ijt is tinged irito a pure Golden Color by calcina- 
tion thereof witti Antimony, and imbibing the Calx 
thereof with the Spiru of Kenw^ Lapis Calnminnri^, Tmui^ 
and Zink^ feverally prepared, and mixt ana^ and then 
jredUjCe^, adjoynin^ to every ounce of Xead in Calx, a peii-r 
ny weight of the Golden Sulphur of Venm. \ 

III.' Its Lunar property is extracted, by a fimple calci- 
iiation with ^rfenick a.n6. Nitre, ana, and imbibition of 
the faid Calx for about feven days in the Oil of Salt. 

IV. Or thm. Take of our Seed or Salt of Li^na one 

ounce, of the Salt diVemM one ounce and a half • of the 

crude body of Saturn one ounce, mix, and melt theiii • 

then feparate, and you ihall iiave the Satarnian Luna, 

, with confiderable advantage. 

' • V. Take Lead beaten into thin Plates ; and let them 
be put into a Glafs Vefl'el, together with common Sale 
and Mercury : Let it be well doled together, and digeli- 
ed in the Earth or Horfe-dung, for ten whole Months j 
^nd it will be coil verted into Quick-filver. 
.VI. Take Lead purified a pound, Sd Armoniack two 
ounces in pouder, Sal Nitre in pouder one ounce, Sal 
£/f/>ro/- bruiled, half an ounce : Put ail into a Cmcibl? 
on a violent hot fire, for two whole hours ; then take it 
out, and it will be prepared for the Silver work. 
_ yil. Or tkm. Get an earthen Pot, whofe bottom is 
full of hole?, put it into another Pot, and let it be co- 
v-ered in a fmall Pit : dig up the Earth thereon on every 
(i\t, and tread it down with your Foot ; Fill the upper 

M m 2 void 

4^0 Polygrdfhsces Lib. VII. 

void place with unflaked Lime, to the middle : then 
take Lead cut into tliin little bits, and lay it upon the 
Lime ; and over the Lead more Quicklime ; put upon 
it boil'd Llrine, cover the Pot arid lute it well j make a 
great fire on every fide, heaping it up even over the top, 
and -continue it io for a day ; fo fhall a purified Lead 
f:ill through the Lime and Holes into the lower VeiTel, 
which will be prepared for Tranfmutation. 

VIIL Or Lead may be thus purified. Melt your Lead 
often, and cait it into the Hiarpell Vinegar : Melt it a- 
gain, and caft it into Juice of Cellandine : then into 
Salt-water : then into Vinegar, in which Sd Armoniack 
his been dilTolved. And laitly, let it be poured out into 
the Cupel, and fo it will be very well purified. 

IX. Take jpring-water. Vitriol, of each a pound ; 
ir,i\; them together : filter through brown Paper, and 
dilbl the Water off in a Glafs Alembick, which keep 
in a Glafs for ufe. Take Quickfilver an ounce : put it 
into a Ciiicible over the fire ; and when it begins to be 
hot, add purifi^rd Leaf Gold an ounce j and fo remove 
it from the fire : then take of your purified Lead one 
p(iund ; amalgainate it with the aforefaid mixture of 
Quickfilver and Gold, over a gentle fire, ftirring it with 
an lioii Kod : being well mixed, piut thereto an ounce 
of- the former Vitriol Water, ftir, digeft a Month, eva- 
porate, and you have a Medicine in order to Tranfmu- 

X. The Preparation of Saturn. Set it in a Furnace of 
Calcination, (lirring it while in Flux, as you do Jupiter, 
till it be converted into Allies : fift this, and fct it again 
in a Fire of Calcination, till its fugitive and inflamabic 
fubflance is gone : then take this red Calx, ijnbibe and 
jirind often with common Salt clcanfed. Vitriol puri- 
fied and fliarp Vinegar : this matter often imbibe, dry 
and grind, till all its nnclcannefs be wholly removed ; 
this done, add Glafs ground to pouder, mix them well 
together, and make thtm How in a Crucible. Calcine it 
again with pure Sal ArmcniacJ;, -And moil fubtilly grind 
and dilfolve it into a clear Water upon a Porphyry Stone 
in the open Air, in a cold and moid place ; augment- 
ing the Salt, if need be. This is the Preparation of the 
Ferment of Lead for the Red Elixir. 


Chap. ^ Of Jupiter, or Tin. 481 

c H A P. m. 

Of Jupiter, or lift, 

I. Tl7j5/Vfr is much a more noble body than Saturn, and 
3 ( as we laid before ) abounds much more with a 
Solar and Lunar Mercury. 

II. It is reduced into the Imitation of Silver by often 
melting of it. and quenching of it in the Spirit of Arfe- 
nick J or by Calcination of it with Lime ( three ounces 
to a pound of Jupiter granulated ) and then by often 
cxtinguifhing the fame in the fpirit of Arjenick afore- 

III. The Luna is extracted out of it thus : Let Jupiter 
be married to our Luna of the fame ftature, by the Pried 
Mercury, after which let them drink their fill of the Mi- 
neral fpirit of the Grape ; then put them to Bed in the 
exaltation of Luna, and houfe of Venus, and the next 
morning let them drink very well of the fmitmll Wine 
of the Daughterof L»«^ J this bein^^ done, you will find 
Luna like a Bride coming forth out ol the Marriage Cham- 
ber ; but with the Wings of an Eagle, which Wings you 
muft clip by the means of Mars, elfe you will lofe 
her : Thus, take of the Seed of Mars, and the eldeft Son 
of old Saturn, ana, make them contend with Tellus, for 
three whole days and nights, till they conjoin and be- 
get a Son, white as Luna, and fixt as Sol. This Son 
will by force take Jupiter % Wife from him, and being 
fmitful caufe her to bring forth a plentitul and profitable 

IV. Or this. Kill Jupiter ( in conjunclion with Luna) 
by_ the fire of Tellm, then revive the dead Body ( after 
it is impregnated with the A^ineral fpirit of the Grape) 
by the help o£Sat{irn,3.nd you have a numerous oft-fprnig 
of Luna. 

V. Or thus : Marry Jupiter to Luna ; then marry him 
to her daughter, and join thefe IlTues together, and they 
will fympathetically attradl: and join all the Seed of Z^- 
na into one family or lump. 

M m 5 VI. Or 

4§|> Poiygraphicer Lib. VII. 

VI. Or thtu : Which is both the bcft and cafieft way. 
Take Jupiter and melt him, then quench him ten times 
in xht Spirit o^ Tenus , till he is reduced very fmall and 
Jow : this done, join . him with the Daughter of Luna 
calcined with Tellti),2Ln^ the work is over. This U very 
profitable, and the wojl uJef'A of all, bm by reafon of the un- 
vcdrthinefs of this generAcion, it cannot admit of any expli- 

VII. The Gold, is thus Extra6kd : marry Jupiter ter 
Vemis, and their oft-fprmg to Sd by the means of Pricft 
Mirciiry : put them to Bed ( in the life of Phcebm J for 
three whole days and nights, afterwards make them 
dnmk with the Ipirit of the Daughter of Fenm, then 
make a perfc6l conjun6lion with the eldeft Son of.S'^f- 
tur^i, and you fliall have what you fought. 

VIII. Or thus: Calcine J Hpiter granulated one pound, 
with Qiiick'lime four ounces, mix all with die Calx of 
Venui and Luna ana ; calcine again for three days, im- 
bibe in the fpirit of Fenm ( that is, the fixed Oil) for 
feven day?, then reduce to a regulfu with Saturn, and 
afterwards feparate with Antimony. 

IX. The preparation of Jupiter. Mt\t Jupiter, and con- 
tinually {lir it with an Iron Rake, till it is brought to 
Allies. Thefe Allies fift, calcine them again, adding 
fire not exceeding the Fire of it? funon,and ftir it often, 
calcining it for 24 hours, till all its fuperfluous humidi- 
ty be wafted : then well walli it wath purified common 
Salt and Alum 5 and moft Ibarp Vinegar, and dry it ; 
g^rind again, and walTi and dry, doing thus fo often, 
till by the acuity of the Salts, Alum and Vinegar, its 
whole humidity, blacknefs, and filth is done away and 
confumed. Add to it Glafs in ponder, mix, and with 
a fufficient fire make it flow in a Crucible, having a hole 
in its bottom, let within another, and the pure clean 
body will delcend -, the whole Earthlv feculent fubftance 
remaining above with the Salts ana Glafs : for in that 
Body reduced and defcended is an equal and perfcdl: 
proportien of pure Argent Vive, and white Sulphur not 
burning ; becauie fire and the Corrofive?, have divided 
the whole humidity, and fugitive inflainable, conupt, 
and black flibftance : and through that delcenfory th?. 
whole feculent fubilance is compleatly fcparated. Ar- 
terwards calcine this pure reduced Bgdy again, ^vnh 


Chap. 4' 0/ Mais, oy Iron, 4^^ 

pure and clean Sal Arntoniad, until it be in weight 
nearly equal ; being well and perfedtiy calcined, grind 
the whole well upon a Porphyry Stone, and put it in 
the open Air in a cold and humid place, or in a Glafs 
Veffel in Horfe-dung until the whole be diffolved, aug- 
menting the Salt, if need be. This water is the ferment 
o£ Jupiter, for the White Elixir'. 


Of Mars, or Iron 

I. W-^^^ is yet a more noble body, but harder and 
^^ more replete with /rem or filth, yet full of a So- 
lar and Lunar Mercury. 

II. It is converted into Copper by the Oil or Spirit of 
Vemu : into Brafs by the means of Lapis Calaminaris, 
and made to imitate Silver by impregnating its Calx in 
the burnmg Spirit ofArfenick. 

III. It has much Silver and Gold in it, But they are 
extraCled with great difficulty ; thus, firft melt the body 
with an equal quantity of Tin, Lead and Copper ; this 
done, granulate it, and imbibe the body with Oil of 
Venus very itrong, then calcine it with the butter ofArfc- 
nick ( if you extrail its Silver, ) or Antimony ( if its Gold ) 
imbibe this Calx over a gentle heat in the ftrongeft Oil 
of Flints, or Sand for ten days : tiicn reduce it. 

IV. Mars is whitened by the rales which we have 
delivered in Lib. 3. cap. 26. Se5h. 31. and made of a Gol- 
den Coloir by Se6l. 28. of the fame Chapter. 

V. The preparation of. Mars. Let it be calcined as f^e- 
ntu with common Salt cleanfed, and let it be wafhed 
with pure Vinegar ; bemg wafl^ed, dry it in the Sun, 
arid when dryed, grind and imbibe it with new Salt and 
Vinegar, and then put it into the fame Furnace, as Vve 
fhall hereafter fay diVcnm^ for three da^'s: this calcina- 
tion dilTolve into a clear water, which is the -vvatcr of 
the fixed Sulphur, wondciiu!iy augmenting the Colour 
of the Elixir. 

M m 4 VI. Anc 

4^4 Polygrdphicis Lib. VIT. 

VI. Another preparation of Mars. Grind one pound 
of the filings thereof, with half a pound of Arjenicl 
fublimed. Imbibe the mixture with the Water of Salt' 
peter and Sal-Alcali, reiterating this Imbibition thrice : 
then make it flow with a violent Fire, and you will 
have jour Iron White ; Repeat this work till it flow 
liifficienth'^, with peculiar dealbation. 

VII. Take of the Calx of Mars made into a Parte 
xnxh Mercury \). pounds: o£ P^enm iv. pounds: o( Sa- 
turn iv. pounds : mix thefe without Ferment, and boil 
the mixuire for feven days, and you will find the whole 
dry. Fix it rnd put it (together with half its weight of 
Litharge beaten into Pouder) into a reducing Furnace, 
and you will find a body of great profit. 


Of Sol, or Gold. 

I. COL is the pureft of all Metals, and the very perfefti- 
^ on of the Mineral Kingdom, at the wlwch, all our 
pains, labours and endeavours aim. 

II. This Gold of it felf is dead and without force or 
power, but being quickned, and enlivened, it has an in- 
ward feminating or germinating property, which being 
raifed and brought forth by its innate life ( till now lockt 
lip) can dilate it felf C having a fitting Womb to receive it J 
into ten thoufand times its own quantity ; and thereby 
tranfmiue or change the Mercurial property (which is in- 
deed immature Gold) of all Metals into its own nature 
and kind. 

III. This imntatme Gold in the bodies of all Metals 
would have come to perfe6tion oF its own accord, had it 
been ennobled with a fufhcient fulphur, lite and heat, 
to have caufed fuch a natural fermentation and excretion of 
the abounding filth anddrofs, in which the fo fmall par- 
ticles and Atoms of the Seminal Golden property was 
latent, or buried. 

IV. The quickning of the inward life of this Metal is 
folcly done by the help of the Seed of Metals, to wit, 


Chap. 6. 0/ Venus, or Copper. 4$ 5 

Mercury, but^ how or after what manner we fhall mor^ 
plainly (hew in Cha^. 12. following 

V. Sol is thus prepared. Take Sol beaten into thin 
Plates, or rather Leaf Gold, and with them and Com- 
mon Salt prepared, make Lay upon Lay in a VeiTel of 
Calcination, which fet into a Furnace and calcine well 
for three days,untillthe whole be fubtilly calcined ; then 
take it out, grind it well, wafli it with Vinegar, and 
dry it in the Sun, afterwards grind it well with half its 
weight of Sal-Armoniack, cleanfed from its common or 
Sea-Salt; fet it to be diiTolved, untill the whole (by the 
benefit of the Salt) be diiTolved into a mofi clear wa- 
ter : this is the precious Ferment for the Red Elixir, and 
the tme body made Spiritual. 

VI. Take Gold diifolve it in its own water, and de- 
C06I and prepare it, by boiling it away to a third part ; 
then expofe it to the Air,and let it in Balneo or in Dun^ 
for certain days ; then will it be the Oil of Gold ; lo 
will the Ferment of Sol be perfect for the Red, which 
keep forufe. 

Of Venus, or Copper. 

I. ^EtiHS is the fineft of the bafe Metals, and contains 
' more of a Golden Sulphur than them all. 

II. She is Whitened, and made like unto Silverj by 
calcining it with Butter of the Daughter of Luna, and 
Sah of Tartar, and tiien reduced by Saturn, and being 
often melted and extinguilhed in the faid Butter. 

III. Or thus. To the afore reduced Kfw/if^, being melted 
add (for an ounce of Venm^ two penny weight of our 
fixed Mercury. 

IV. She is made of a Golden colour by often changing 
the calx (calcined with the Son of Sattsrn) in the SpiiiL 
of Antimony, Zink, Lapis Calaminarls, and Laprs Tutia : 
then reduced by being melted with a lliliicient qiuuiitv' 
of Lapis Tutia, and ten or twelve times malted, ani 
quenched in the aforefaid Spirit. 

VI. Her 

4S5 Tolygraphiea Lib. Vlf. 

V. Her Silver is extracted as tliat of Tm by the Third 
SeEi. of Chap. 3. Or thwy calcine her with Butter of the 
Daughter of Luna , to which calx adjoin the calx of 
Lma and^ and reduce with Saturn. 

VI. Her Gold is extracfled thus : Calcine her with the 
Son of Saturn : then calcine Lima with the fame alfo r 
put both thefe calxes together and calcine for three days 
with the Son of Saturn inixt with Tellm ; to which aad 
the Calx of Sol calcined with the fame Son of Saturn , 
j4nai put all together and calcine them for twenty four 
hours, reduce them with Antimony j keep them all in a 
melting heat for three days, then take it forth,and quench 
it being melted ten or twelve times in the tinging and 
fixing Spirit of Lapis Calaminarisy Antimony and Zink, 

This is very proftahic, and not difficult to perform ; it way 
he done alfo (at before J rtithom ealcination. 

VII. yenus is made of a Silver colour thue. Take 
Merairy fublimate,and a proportionable quantity of phi- 
loio^Yiick Sal-Armoniack; add Vinegar, and let them boil 
together: in this quench Auricalcam or Copper (being heat 
red hot) and it will become white like Silver. 

VIII. She is made of a Gold colour thus. Take Cop- 
per, Lapis Calami/iarisy ot each halt an ounce ; Lapis 
Tutia I}, drachms: let the Copper be firft heat red hot and 
cxtinguillied 2 or 3 times in Urine : do the like with 
the Lapis Calimanans and Tu:ia : To the Copper thus pre- 
pared add Honey half an ounce, boil them together till 
the Honey becomes black and dry : which take and beat 
with the Lapis Calimanaris and the Tutia^ then mix all 
together by melting, and you have your dcfire. 

IX. She is whitened thus. With purified and reduced 
Litharge mix fuMmied Arfenick ; and cait it upon Copper 
in fufion ; it whitens it veiy well. 

X. Or thu^. Mix Silver and Copper together ; and 
upon that mixture call the Whitening medicine. For the 
Silver is a greater friend to Arjenick, than any other 
Metal ; it alio takes away fradVion from it, 

XI. Or thtts. Upon a mixture of f^enus and Dora 
melted caft pieces of iliblimed Arfenick^ and Afcnnry : 
They arc better in pieces than Pouder, bccaufe the Pon- 
der coniumes and vanillies Iboncr, or before it can do its 

XII. Take 

CAdp. 6, 0/Vcnus, or Copper. 487 

Xn. Take Mercury precipitate, and Copper ca.\cincdy 
diflblye each a part in diflblving Water and mix the dif- 
folutions together j. coagulate , and put the whitening 
Medicine on it, and it will be exactly like Silver. 

XIII. Or thus. Take Mercury precipitate, and Li- 
tharge, diiToh'E each a part : joyn thefe folutions in one : 
then take the Calx of the Body you intend to whiten, 
difTolve it: ;oyn all thefe together ^ coagulate, and re- 
duce with Borax. 

. XIV. Or thai. Take Qaici-fflver, fliblime it fo often 
from precipitate Merctay ^ till it be fixed in it, and 
fprouts forth, put this upon melted Copper , and it will be 
very wliite. 

XV. Or thfis. Diflblve I^^fA'/zffr and Litharge in a 
proper diiToIving Water : joyn thefe folutions together 5 
and by thefe the fubftance ot Copper will be whitened. 

XVI. Or thus. It is alfo whitened with lublimed 
Arfenkh : Take Calx of Copper , mix it with fiiblimed 
Arjenkk. Reiterate the Sublimation, and continue it 
till the Arfenick flay with it : this will be the more eafie 
and firm if a quarter part of the Calx of Silver be added 
to the faid Calx of Copprr. 

XVII. Orthns. Put the i\Muxitdi Arfenicl to the Sil- 
ver ; and then the whole upon the Copper, and it will 
be excellently whitened: Or mix Litharge, or Calx of 
Lead diifolved with Silver, put tliis upon Arfenick ; and 
laflly caft all this mixture on the Copper Body and it will 
be very white. 

XVIII. To Prepare Copper. Cement very thin Plates 
of f^enas with Common Sale well cleanied in a Cruci- 
ble, covered and well luted, for 24 hours : this cementa - 
tion repeat (fcraping oif wiiat is caianed) till all the 
Plates are confumed. Grind this Calx to a moft fubtil 
Pouder and walli it with Vinegar, till ir comes from it 
colourlefs : imbibe it again with Salt and Vinegar,giind, 
and calcine in an open Veifcl for 3 days; takeicoui, 
grind, and waih well with Vinegar, dry. and add haii 
Its weight in Sal- Armouiack, grind till \i is imp:ilpabif> 
and expofe it to the Air to be diifolved, adding Itill frelh 
Sal-Armoniack if need ihall be, till the v.-hole be maoc 
Water. Tliis is the Water of the fixed Sulphur of f'^i- 



488 Pol/^rdphieef. Lib. VU. 

CHAP. vn. 

Of Mercury or Quickfllver. 

I. 'XM^'^o is the Roct of" Metals, and pureimma- 

aVI turatc G:ild. 

n. By this the Body of Sol is opened thus : make an 
Amalgaina of Sol and Alercury fo long till the Mercury 
will f^valbw up no more : leparate and you fliall find 
your Gold likeEanh newlv broken up: tins Gdd being 
put into the iWeetOil o: Salt becomes more perfectly 
dilTolred, which being dialled till it comes ever the 
Hslm will anfxver your intenton : but there is a more 
noble and excellent way of opening of the Body of Gold 
which here v»-e may not declare, yet in its due and con- 
venient place l"hall be mankeft, and that is only by the 
help of a perfect fweet, or rather infipid THen.incPft. 

III. To mak.! oar -xhitt Mtrasj ; This is only done by 
a fimple dilTolution in the aforeiaid 'in(%^'xd nan tr-Aum. 

By this white Aia-y^ ; is Coppa- made of a durable 
white, after a thouland meltings. 

IV. To n-iki onr nd Mtrcitry ; This is done by a dif- 
folution of the Spirit of Tdlus, and then tinged by the 
Mineral Spirit cf the Grape : and laftly ^xtd h :ht gran, 
Sriri: 3-' Venus. Tl)is Ttill ^rr-titly unite rritb Gold, never 
more to be feparated by all the Art of Man. 

V. Take Q^.ck-jiher 2 or 3 times purified with Sal- 
Armoniack and Urine ; put it into a Crucible over a tem- 
perate Fjre J %vhen it waxes hot, put prepared Jupiter 
thereon as much, and augment the Fire by degree?, 
till the Flame grows blew : make the Fire then ftronger, 
and blow a little : when you fee it begins to give ever 
fnioaking, take it trom the Fire, and you will find your 
Silver a'>nfiierably Augmented. 

VI. Take Sulphur of Ven'^.-^ pure, red, and fixed, 
but mel: n^ like Wax: cart it upon purified Aferr^y 
m a iult proportion, and in a fit heat j and the Aiercury 
will become good Gold. 

VII. r# 

Chap. 7. O/'Mercury, w Quickfilver. 489 

VII. To harden Qmck-filver. It is done with the fiimes 
of either Saturn oijttpner. Melt Jftpttr, and when it 
begins to be cold, make holes in it, and put youi QHtck- 
filver therein, and it will be hardned j which being re- 
peated often, will be the more firm. 

VIII. Take Mercury and Salt-Peter, ana ; beat them 
into dufl, put them mto a Glafs well Luted, over a 
gentle Fire for 2 hours : augment the Fire, till the 
Imoaking ceafes; after the fmoak comes a Flame, out 
of the neck of the Glafs, and the Mercurial Sulphur re- 
mains in the bottom, as it were white and fixed. Take 
it out, and add to it an equal quantity of Sal-Armoni- 
ack J beat them to a P9uder and mix them well ; fub- 
lime, firft in moderate Fire j then in aftronger ; fo con- 
tinuing for 4 hours : take this fublimate, and fublime 
it again with its /^^cf; 6 times, fowill the Sulphur remain 
in the bottom of the Veffel: take it, beat it to Pouder, 
and on a Marble, let it refolve to an Oil : This is Sul- 
phur of Aiercury for Tranfmutation. 

IX. Take purified Quick-fiver ij. ounces; Leaf-fihsr 
j. ounce : make an Anialgama, and let it lUnd 7 days, 
then fublime therefrom the Silver, walh it in Water 
clean, and dry it. Take this Calx of Silver and^'" "">lre 
it in Aipa fords ^ and evaporate to drynefs ; mir 'ry 
Calx with Borax, and melt it into a Mafs ; of 
this Silver and mix it with the like weight of ime Gold 
and you have a prepared Body to be tinged of a Gold 
colour : Make of this an Amalgama with ten times its 
weight of purified Quick- filver : Abitrail the Silver, and 
you have a porous Body, fit to receive the tinging Me- 

X. The Ferment of Ferments. It is made for the white 
after this manner. Take Ferment of Lma with its Oil 
(at Chap. 8. Se[i. 6. and j.J add to it twice as much 
Arfenick, lublimed and diifolved in its proper Water ; 
then to both thefe add Mercury, diiToh'-ed as much as the 
Arfenick : Mix the Waters and fet them over a Fire for 
one day to be incorporated : then draw off the Water by 
an Alcmbick , and Cohobate it 15 times; fo inceratintr, 
it will be fluid as fufible Wax. Add as much melted 
Wax, commix, and proje6t upon J/^rf«ry walhed, as 
you defile. v'^" 

XI. Thi 

4 Jo Polygrdfhices Lib. VII. 

XI. The Ferment of Ferments for the Red. Diflblve Sol 
in its own water ; ^add to it Sulphur, diflblye it in the 
lame water 2 parts: Mercury diliblvcH 3 parts: let all 
be truly diffolyed into a moft clear water, which being 
mixt boil for one day, that they may be Fermented, draw 
d^i cohobate the water 1 5 times : Incerate wi^h yellow 
Virgins Wax, with half its weight of Oil of Blood or 
Oil of Eggs : then projedl upon Crude Mervny, and you 
lliall have your defire. 

O/Luna. or Silver. 

I. T XJnd is the meaneft of the fine or pure Metals, ^n(J 

•*-' (^as it were) vnhite Gold. 

But Luna differs from Gold, more tlian in the coloiu: 
onlyj vU. in Weiglit too, and that very (;opfidera- 
bly. " 

II. She is tinged of a Golden colour by our red Mercf^ 
ry (c^' 41 'd per je for 2S days in a Pelican or other con- 
veriient \'eirel, till fuch time as the faid Mercury will 
endure the llrongett Fire) the yellow colour this Mercury 
gives is fixtd. 

III . Her Gold is exadily extrafted by the method deliver- 
ed in Ch'ap. 6. ScEi. 6. 

Or thus. Take Sol, Luna., J^enus^ of each a likequan- 
ty ; melt them together, and keep them in fufion for 7 
euiys: then take them forth, and by the Refiners Art 
leparate the Gold ; you will find your Gold (if you 
have been careful in the Operation) to be augmented 
nearly an fixteenth part. ., '' . 

IV. Or thus. Calcine her with the Son* of S^tttfm^ to 
which add our red Mercury ^ ana. put all into Oil of 
Salt tor ten or twelve days; heat it red hot, and ex- 
tinguiGi in Oil of Flints or Sand ten times ; to this 
Caixaddof ^nt Lapis Tutia, ana. reduce all and feparate 
with Antimony. 

V. Take Sal-Armoniack ij. pound ; purified fiom 
2ts Common or Sea Salt: pure Vermilion i. pouml: 
Grind them again togetliei and fublime 6 or 7 times : 


Chap. 9. OfMetds. 4(^1 

then lay the Vermilion on a Marble ftone to diflblvf. 
into Water, which keep for your Work. Take pieces of 
ficefli Vermilion iij. ounces wet it in the former water, 
and afterwards in the Glair of Eggs : and roul it in tlw 
filings of fine Silver \). ounces, fo often till it has take« 
up all the ij. ounces of Silver. Put thefe in a firm Iron 
Pot, which may be clofed with a ttrong Screw : put it 
into a Furnace, give Fire by degrees, and incrcafc it 
gradatim to the higheft degree, continuing it fo for a 
Philofophical Month, and you will have a Medicine for 
Tranfmutation of Copper into Silver, which being try'd 
upon the Teft with Lead, will prove good at all 

_ VI. The Preparation of Luna. Lnna or Silver is fiib- 
tilized , or attenuated, and reduced in manner as is 
above faid of Sol. Therefore in all and every part of 
this Work, do the fame in its Subtilization, as you did 
with the Gold : And this water of Luna is the Ferment 
for the white Elixir. 

VII. DifTolve Lma in its own Corrofive water, which 
water boil away to a third part ; then expofe it to the 
Air, or fet it in Balneo, or in Dung for certain days ; 
fo liave you Oil of Lma, and the Ferment for the white 

C H A P. IX. 

Of the Accidents of Meuls, 

I. T^ O make Iron of a Gold colour. 

^ Take Alum of Melancy in Pouder, Sea- Water ) 
mix them : then heat the Iron red-hot, and quench it in 
the fame. 

II. To make. Iron of a Silver cohnr. 

Take Pouder of Sal-Armoniack, unflack*d-Lime, mix 
and put them into cold water, then heat the />o« red-hot, 
quench it therein, and it will be as white as Silver. 

III. To [often Steel to ^rave upon. 

This is done with a Lixivium of Oak-alhes and un- 
flak'd-Lim.e,,l?y caliipgthei'f^/ijico itj ajiid letting i| 


492 Pofygraphfcef Lib. VII. 

remain there fourteen days. Or thus, Take the Gall of 
an Ox, Man's Urine, Verjuice, and juice of Nettles, of 
each alike, mix them ; then quench 5fff/ red-hot there- 
in four or live times together, and it will become very 

IV. To harden Iron or Steel. 

Quench it fix or feven times in Hogs blood mixed with 
Goofe-greafe, at each time drying it at the fire before 
you dip it again, and it will become very hard and not 

V. To folder on Iron. 

Set the Joynts of Iron as clofe as you can, lay them in 
a glowing Fire, and take of Venice-G\2Lk in Pouder, and 
the Iron being red-hot, call the Pouder thereon, and it 
will folder it felf 

VI. To connterfeit Silver. 

Take Ci^^ftal Arfcnick vii; ounces, Tartar vj. ounces, 
Salt-Peter ij. ounces, Glafsj.ounce and an half, lubli- 
mate half an ounce: make them feverally into fine 
Pouder and mix them : then take iij\ Pound of Copper in 
thin Plates, which put into a Crucible (with the former 
Pouder firamm Jnper jfratuw) to calcine, covering it and 
luting it fbongly, let it ftand in the Furnace for about 
eight or ten hours : then take it out, and (being cold) 
Ireak the pot, and take out all the Matter, and melt it 
wiih a violent Fire, carting it into fome Mold. Then 
take Purged Brafs i|. pound, of the former metal j. 
pound ,• melt them together, cafting in now and then, 
ibme of the aforefaid Pouder, after which add half as 
much of fine Silver melting them together, and you 
have that wliich is defired ; Laflly^ To make it as white 
as Silver, boil it in Tartar. 

VII. Another way to counterfeit Silver. 

Take purified Tin viii. ounces, Quick-Silver half an 
ounce, and when it begins to rife in the firfl heat, take 
Ponder of Canthandes, and calt into it, with a lock of 
Hair, that it may burn in it; being melted put into it 
the Pouder atbrelaid, then take itfuddenly from the fire, 
and let it cool, 

VIII. To p«/r^f Brafs. 

It is clcanfetror purged, by carting into it when it is 
mcltetl, broken Glais, Tartar, Sal-armoniack and Salt- 
peter, each of them by turns, by little and little. 

IX. T9 

Chap. 9. Of Metals, 495 

IX. To tinge Lead of a Gold colour. 

Take purged Lead one pound, Sd-Armoniacly in pou- 
der, oae ounce, Salt-peter half an ounce, Sal Elebrot two 
drams ; put all irito a Crucible for two days, then add to 
it Sulphur of Sol, and it will be throughly tinged. 

X. To purge Lead. 

Melt it at the fire, then quench it in the fharpett Vine- 
gar ; melt it again and quench it in the Juice of Celan- 
dine ; melt it again, and quench it in Salt-water : then 
in Vinegar mixed with Sal Armoniack : and laitly 
melt it and put it into Ailies,and it will be well cleaii- 

XI. To Make Lead of a Golden colour. 

Put Qiiick-filver one ounce into a Crucible, fet it 
over the fire till it is hot, then add to it of the beft leaf- 
gold one ounce, and tnke it from the nre, and mingle it 
with purified Lead melted one pound ^ mingle all well 
together with an Iron Rod, to which put of the filtrated 
lolution of Vitriol of Sol in fair water one ounce ; then 
let it cool, and it will be of a Gold colour. Diifolve tr.e 
Vitriol in its equal weight of water. 

XII. To take aiy,ay the ringing and fcftnefs of Tin. 
Melt the Tin, and cad in fome Qiiick-filver, remove 

it from the fire, and put it into a Glals Retort, with a 
large round Belly, and a very long Neck ^ heat it red 
hot in the fire, till the Mercury fublimes, and the Tin 
remains at bottom 3 do thus three or four times. The • 
fame may be done by calcining of ,it three or four 
times, by which means it will looner be re.i-hot than 

XIII. To take away the foftnefs, and creaking noife of 

This is done by granulating of it often, and then re- 
ducing it again, and quenching it often in Vinegar and 
a Lixivium of Salt of Tartar. The creaking noiie is ta- 
ken away by melting it feven or eight feveral times, and 
quenching it in Boys Urine, or elfe Oyl of Walnuts. 

XIV. To take aw.ay the deaf found of Tin. 

Tliis is done by dilfolving it in Aquafortis over a gen- 
tle fire, till the water tiy away ; doing thus fo long till ic 
is all turned to a Calx -, 'which mixed with Calx of" Silver, 
and reduced, performs the work. 

N n XV. To 

494 Polygraphices Lib. VII. 

XV. To r»ah that Tin crack not. 

Take Salt, Hony, of each alike, and mijS them : melt 
'your Tin, and put it twelve or more times into it, then 
ftrain out the Tin, and it will purge and leave crack- 
ing ; put it into a Crucible, which jute, and calcine it 
four and twenty hours, and it will be like Calx of 

XVI. To tale arvay the hrhtlenefs of any Metal. 

Firft calcine it and put it under dung, then do thus ; 
when it is red-hot at the fire, or melted, quench it often 
in Aqua vit<e often diftilled ; or ufe about thcin Rofin 
or Turpentine, or the Oyl of it, or Wax, Suet, Euphor- 
bium, Myrrh, Artificial Borax : for if a Metal be not 
malleable, unduous bodies will oftentimes make them 
fotter ; if all thefe, or fome of thefe be made up with 
iome moidure into little Cakes : and when the Metal 
yields to the fire, by blowing with the Bellows, we caft 
m fome of them, and make them thick like mud, or clear, 
then fet the Metal to the fire, that it may be red-hot in 
burning coals, take it forth and quench it in them, 
and fo let it remain half an hour to drink in. Or anoint 
the Metal with Dogs greafe, and melt it with it, for that 
will take away much of the brittlenefs of it, and make 
it fb that it may be hammered and wrought. 

XVII. To colour Metal like Gold. _ 

Take Sal Arr^ioniach, White Vitriol, Stone-falt, Ver- 
digrife, of each alike, in fine pouder j lay it upon the 
Metal, then put it into the fire for an hour, take it out 
and quench it in Urine, and the Metal will have the co- 
Jour of Gold. 

XVIII. To nmh a kind of Counterfeited Silver of Tin. 
This is done by mingling Silver with Tin melted with 

Qiiick-filver, continuing it long in the fire, then being 
brittle, it is made tough, by keeping it in a gentle 
fire, or under hot Embers ( in a Crucible ) for about twen- 
ty four hours. 

XIX. To foder upon Silver, Brafs^or Iron. 

Take Silver five peny neight, B rap four peny reeight, melt 
them together for Jo ft Soder, which runs fooneji. 

Take^Silver five Peny vceight. Copper three peny weighty melt 
them together for hard Soder. 

Beat" the Soder thin, and lay it over the place to be 
Sodered, wliich muft be firit fitted, and bound together 



Chap. 9. Of Metals. 49 ^ 

with Wire as occafion requires : then take Borax in pou- 
der, and temper it like pap, and lay it upon the Soder, 
letting it dry, then coyer it with quick coals and blow, 
and it will run immediately ^ take it prefently out of the 
fire, and it is done. 

Note, I. If a thin^ is to he Sodered in two pUces, (which 
cannot he well done at one time J yon nmfi firfi Soder with the 
hard Soder y and then with the foft ; for if it he frff done 
with the foft, it will nnfoder again he fore the other he So- 
dered. 2. That if yon would not have your Soder run ahottt 
the piece to he Sodered, ruh thofe places over rpith Chalk, 

XX. To male the Silver Tree of the Philofophers. 
Take Aqua fortis four ounces, fine Silver one ounce,. 

which diffolve in it : then take Ai^ua fortis two ounces, 
in which difiblve Quick-fiiver : mix thefc two Liquors 
together in a clear glafs, with a pint of pure water ; {iop 
the glafs clofe, and after a day, you ihall fee a Tree u> 
grow by little and little, which is wonderful and plea- 
lant to behold. 

XXI. To make the Golden Tree of the Philofophers. 
Take Oyl of Sand or Flints, Oyl of Tartar per deli-' 

quiu'/Tiy of each alike, mix them well together ,• then dif- 
lolve Sd in Aqua Regis, and evaporate the Menftrmrn, 
dry the Calx by the hre, but make it not too hot ( for 
then it will lole its growing quality ) break it into little 
bits ( not into pouder) which bits put into the aforeiaid 
Liquor, a fingers breadth one from another in a very clear 
glafs, keep the Liquor from the Air, and let the Calx 
fiand {till, and the bits of Calx Vvill prdently begin to 
grow : firil fwell \ then put forth one or two iiems j then 
divers branches and twigs, lo exadlly, as you cannot but 
wonder to fee. 

Where note, That this growing is not imaginary hut real. 

XXII. To make the Steel Tree of the Philofophers. 
Dilfolve Steel in redlified Spirit or Oyl of Salt, fo Triall 

you have a green andfweet iolation, fmelling like Brim- 
Kone ; filter it, and abllraft all the moifture with a gen- 
tle heat, and there will dittil over a Liquor as fweet as 
rain water, ( for Steel by reafon of its drynefs detains the 
Corrofivenefsof the Spirit of Salt whidi remaineth in 
the bottom, like a blood-red mafs, and it is as hot on the 
tongue as fire;) diflblve this blood-red mafs in Oyl of 

N n 2 Flints 

49^ Pol^graphices Lib. VII. 

Flints or Sand, and you fhall fee it grow up in two or 
three hours like a Tree with ftem and branches. 

IfyoH prove this Tree at the Tej}, it mil yield zood Goldy 
vhich it dravaeth from the Oyl of Sand or Flints', thefaidOyl 
leing ffill of a pnre Golden Snlphnr. 

XXIII. To mah Oyl of Flints or Sand. 

Take of moft pure Salt of Tartar in fine pouder twen- 
ty ounces, fmall Sand, Flints, Pebbles, orCryftals in fine 
pouder five ounces, mix them ,• put as much of this as 
Avill fill an Egg-lThell into a Crucible, fet it in a Furnace, 
and make it red-hot, and prefently there will come over 
a thick and white Spirit; take out the Crucible whilft it 
is hot, and that which is in it, like tranfparent glafs, 
keep from the Air ; after beat it to pouder, and lay it in 
a moill: place, and it will diflblve into a thick, fat Oyl, 
which is the Oyl of Flints, Sand, Pebbles or Cryftals. 
This Oyl precipitateth Metals^ and mahs the Calx there more 
heavy than Oyl of Tartar doth ; it is of a Golden Nature, and 
extra^is, Colours from all Minerals ; it is fixed in all fires, 
r/jdketh fine Cry/fals, and Borax, and matnrateth imperfe^ 
Metals into Gold. 

XXIV. To melt Afetals quickly. 

Take a Crucible, and make in it a lay or courfe of the 
pouder of any Metal, then lay upon it a lay of Sulphur, 
Salt-peter, and Saw- dull:, of each alike mixed togetlier, 
put a coal of fire to it, and the Metal will immediately 
be in a mafs. 

XXV. He that fhall obferve the work and reafon of 
the Silver, Golden and Steel Trees, may in like manner 
proiuce the like out of the Calx of other Metals. 

XXVI. To whiten Silver, 6irc. 

Silver Vcffcis or Inltrumcnts boiled with Salt, Alum, 
and Tartar, gives them that whitencfs and clcarncls, 
which they would Icarcely be brought to by Brulhing, 
Puuiice-ftone, or Putty : old fuUied pieces may be bro'jglit 
in a trice to the like fairnefs, by the help of warm^i.y;w- 

XXVII. To Blanch Venus. 

T'AkQ u^rfenick eight ounces : Sal-nitre, white Tartar, 
of each two ounces, Borax one ounce : being in fine pou- 
der. Cement rcnni therewith, by laying thm plates, lay 
upon lay, after 48 hours, of a Cementing heat ( the Cru- 
cible being Itrong, well ftopt, or covered and luted 

ilrongly ) 

Chap. 9. Of Metals, 497 

flrongly ) encreafe the fire, and caufe it to melt all down 

XXVIII. Another way to do the fame. 

Sublime rafped or granulated 'Jupiter with Nitre into 
flowers, of which take one ounce : Mercury fublimate as 
much ; diffolve each in Aqua fortis : mix the folutions, 
and evaporate, or draw off to drynefs. One ounce of 
this pouder will blanch four or five ounces of Venm^ 
without ever Tarnifliing. 

XXIX. Another rriay to do the fame. 

I. Take White Wine Vinegar, itrong Lye made of 
Wood Afiies, fo ftrong as to bear an Egg, of each four 
pounds : Sulphur, Hogs-blood, of each one pound i pou- 
der the Sulphur, mix altogether, and digcft in an Earthen 
pot clofe covered for eight days, then drain it. 2. Take 
f^entio eight pounds : melt it and quench it in the afore- 
faid Lye : melt it again, and quench again ; this do for 
four times, fo will ihtVenm be in raeafure prepare J. 
3. Take white Arfenid, Sheeps-iuet tried, of each a 
pound : white Lead four ounces : boil all together in a 
Kettle, continually (Hrring them, till they boil to a pou- 
der, which keep for ule. 4. Take the atore. prepared 
Venus^ melt it now a fifth time, to which put of your 
prepared pouder of Arfenid, a little and a little at a 
time, by eiegrees, ( the F&nm being firft melted ) (iiiring 
it wnth a wooden (tick, till it is dillblved in the Metal, 
then catt it into a clofe Ingot. The former rou.ler will 
ferve for eight pounds of F<f«/*f. 

XXX. Another way to do the fame. 

I. Take Arfenick fubliuied two ounces : common Salt 
two ounces : lublime them together three times, then is 
it fixed. 2. Take fine Lma in Fihngs or Leaves, half an 
ounce : .Mercury fublimate a fiiificient quantity, grnid 
well upon a Marble tfone ; to which add the former pre- 
pared Arfenick, with forae fixed Sal Armonkck . 3 . Grind 
them well together with Wine Vinegar dialled, in 
which fome Borax has been diffolved, then ft them dry : 
being dryed wet them again, ^vith tiie faid Vinegar, and 
dry again upon a foft fire : do fo five times; 4. Take 
fine Luna one ounce : and as much of the aforefud Me- 
dicine, /^^//^jtj prepared eight ounces : mix and melt them 
together : it will be in appearance next to perfedl. 

N n 3 XXXI. n 

49^ Polygraphices Lib.VH. 

XXXI. To fix ^al Armoniack for this WorJc. 

I . Take Sd Armoniach fublimed to a perfe6l whitc- 
mefs, put it into aGJafs Alembick with Head and Re- 
ceiver, catting upon the Sal Armoniack fome good diiHl- 
led Vinegar, to overtop it a hand breadth, diftil upon 
a foft hre. 2. Then put upon it more frelTi Vinegar, 
and dittil again : this repeat, till the Sal ArmonUck re- 
inains in the bottom ; after which let the fire go out of 
it felf, and keep the Oyl clofe ilopt for ufe. 3. If yoii 
take Mercury two ounces, and make it hot in the hre : 
then drop on it three drops of this Oyl ; the Mercury will 
be congealed into a pure Metal : of this, one part will 
make ten parts of Venm^ as fair as Silver : the ten parts 
of Venui being hrlt melted, and the Mercnry one part be- 
ing cad upon it. 

XXXII. To fix Arfenicl. 

Take a ftrong Lye of Allies and Quick-lime, filter it ; 
in which diffolve Arfenick : then evaporate the humidi- 
ty by boiling, and the Arfenick will be prepared and 

XXXIII. To whiten Copper or Brafs faperf daily, as 
Txhite as Silver. 

Take Sal Armoniack, Alum, Nitre, of each alike quan- 
tity : put to it a little of the filings of Silver refined, or 
, leaf Silver: mix them Avell together j and put it into 
the fire, till it be red-hot in a Crucible, and till it has 
done fmoaking. Then moiften this ponder with Ipittle, 
and nib youx Copper or Brals therewith, and it will be 
white. ' 

XXXIV. To Silver Copper, and Bra]?. 

1. Cleanfe the Metal with Aqi^a fortis, by lightly 
wa!"hing it therewith, and immediately throwing it into 
fair water, or by heating it red-hot, and fcouring it with 
Salt and Tartar, and fiir water, with a iinall wire briiili. 

2. DifTohe ibme fine Silver in Aqua fortis in a broad 
bottomed Vcffel ofGlafs, or Glafed Earth, then over a 
Chafing-difli of Coals evaporate away the Aqua fortis. 

3. On the remaining dry Calx put water five or fix times 
its (]uantiiy, or as much as will be needful perfeitly to 
diffolve it ; this water with the like heat evaporate : on 
which put more frefii water and evaporate again ; and 
if need be, the third time ; making the fire towards the 
latter end fo llrong, as to leave the Calx perfectly dry, 


Chap. 9.^ Of Metals. 499 

which if^^our Silver be good, will be of a good white. 
4. Take of this Calx, common Salt, Cryftals of Tartar, 
of each alike in quantity or bulk, not weight : mix all 
well ; then put phe Metal into fair water, and take of 
the aforefaid pouder with your wet fingers, and rub it 
well on, till you find every little cavity of the Metal fuf- 
ficiently filvered over. 5. If you would have it richly 
done, you mud rub in more of the pouder 5 and lallly, 
walTi the filvered Metal in fair water, and rub it hard 
with a dry cloth, that it may look fmooth and bright. 
6. This, though done without Quick-filver, may laft 
fome years, and when the Silver begins to wear oft, may 
as eafily be renewed. 

XXXV. To Gild Iron and Steel. 

I . You muft make your Iron or Steel have the colour 
of Brafs thus: polilli the Iron or Steel, then rub it with 
^qnafonis, in which fifings of Brais have been diffol- 
ved : the fame underhand of Sih-er. 2. An Amd?ama 
of Gold and Mercury with which Gilders gild Silver, 
Brafs and Copper, will not gild Iron or Steel : but thus 
it may be done ; Coat the Iron or Steel with Copper by 
diffolving very good Vitriol of Copper in warm water, 
till the Liquor be fatiated with the Vitriol ; then Im- 
merfe feveral times in the folution the Iron or Steel, fiiil: 
Icoured till it be bright, and fuft'ering it to dry each 
time of its felf j for by this immerfion, being repeated 
often enough, there will precipitate upon the Iron, e- 
nough of the cuperous particles to fill the fuperficial 
pores of the Iron. 3. By this fafe and eafie way, ha- 
ving overlaid the Iron with Copper, you may gild it as 
Copper, either by the aforefaid Arndgama^ or by the for- 
mer Section of this Chapter. 

XXXVI. To prove the goodnels of Sublimate. 

I. Caft it on the Coals, and if it is good, it jvill burn 
with a Blue flame j but if it make any otlier colour, it 
is naught, and has Arienick in it. 2. Or thm. Take the 
Sublimate, and drop thereon a few drops of Oleum Tar- 
tari per deliquipim : if it turns the Sublinuite of a deep. 
Yellow, Reddilli, or Oninge-tawne}', it is good ^ but if* 
not, or it be Black, there is Arfenick in it. 

XXXVII. Another vray to fix S.d Armoniack. 
Grind it very well, put it in a CofHn of Paper, which 

put in a pot full of Qidck- liine in fine pouder, that the 

N n 4 paper 

500 Polygraphkes Lib. VII. 

paper may be in the midlt ot the Lime : then cover the 
pot well, and lute it dole, and put it in a Potters fur- 
nace, and it will be fixed. 

XXXVIII. To niAke nn Oyi which z'lves the Colonr of 
Gold. \ ^ / 

Make a ftrong Lve -^vith Lime and Tartar calcined 
with Alcali : in it dilTolve Sulphur in ponder, and Saf- 
fron of Aiars ; then put it into the fire, and make it boil 
till it waxes red : after put all into a Glals Bottle or A- 
lembick, with a Receiver : dilfil and take the water ; 
this water cohobate twelve times, or imtil you lee a 
whitenefs go forih of the Alembick. The lign being 
come, all that which remains in the bottom, is a fixtOil, 
that which does give the tme Colour of Gold, to whatfo- 
ever is put iiito it, and is an excellent Secret in other 
Chymical ^^'orks. 

XXXIX. ^nOilofGoU. 

I. Take Sulphur Vive, Nitre, of each a like quantity ; 
difti!,and it will be white and fixed. 2. After the flame 
fublime this fixed Sulphur three times Avith equal weight 
of Sal Armoniack, which rcfolve again per deliqaium. 
5. Take a fuflicient quantity of this diflblvcd Liquor, 
and it upon a Golden Duckate in flux, and it will 
become an Oil. 4. Tliis Oil becoming cold will con- 
geal, and one part tlicieof Tranlmutes fifty Parts of 

XL. To jral.e Uvinp;^ Silver cr Gold. 
I. Take of the Red Lvon ( /. e. Red native Cinnabar) 
twelve parts, pulverile it well ; then grind it with one 
part of Calx of fine Silver, or purified Gold. 2. Put all 
into a fmall bolt-head, fet it in warm Sand to the neck ; 
luting the neck of the Glals very well. 3. Give the fiiit 
degree of tire for a Week: the next Week, the Ibcond 
degree : then the third degree ; and the fourth degree, the 
fourth and lafl: Week, to'^a hiffnig degree ; that is, if you 
let a drop of water fall upon the Saiul, it will hifs; 
4. Then let the fire go out, and cut the Glafs wiih a 
King : take the Cryitilline matter, ( like a Ring near 
the neck of the GLffs ) pulverife and grind it with its 
weight ct the Calx ot Sol or Luna aforelaid. 5. P;ils 
the atbrenxntioncd four degrees in eight liours to a hii- 
fmg ; open thcGlafsas before, and take iheitarry Crown, 
wluch is the living Silver, which augment by digelHon, 


Chap. 9* Of Meuh, 501 

with a twelfth part of Luna or Sol at a time, as often 
as you pleafe, or till you have a fufficient quantity of 
living Luna or Sol. 6. Take a fmall quantity of this 
living Sol or Luna, and digett it in Alhes, until it chan- 
ges towards a white or red Earth. 7. Then take this 
white or red Earth, which Ama!gama,with living Silver 
and Calx : digeft again in a Glafs Hermetically fealed, 
till it come to perfedt whitenefs or rednefs. 
XLT. To whiten Copper. or Iron. _ 

Take Calx of Silver, grind it with two parts of Cal- 
cined precipitate Arfenick, and one part of white pre- 
cipitate Mercury, imbibe them with water made of Sal- 
Nitre, Sal-Armoniack and Litharge, of each equal parts ; 
do this, till they have drunk up their weight of the wa- 
ter ; put one part hereof on four parts of prepared Cop- 
per, or Iron. 

XLIL Another tvay to do the fame. 

Take calcined Silver, Tin calcined and diil(-)lved, of 
each a like quantity : mix, dry, and cover it with twice 
as much lublimed Arfenick^ 

XLIIL Another way to do the fame. 
• Take calcined Silver, Arfenick, Sulphur diblimed and 
ground, Sal-Armoniack, of each a like quantity : mix, 
and fublime all thrice ; caft one part upon fix parts of 
prepared Iron or Copper. 

XLIV. A good Dealbation of Venu<. 

Take Realgar one ounce : Argent Vive lublimed three, 
ounces and a half: Tartar calcined an ounce : grind aijd 
incorporate, and put them into a Vial with a NoX 
twelve Inches long, and its Orifice io wide as tAvo fin- 
gers may enter ; lute it, and lee it over a fire covered 
with a cloth. Fiifl: make a gentle Sre lO-: a quarter of 
an hour ; afterwards augment the fire underneath, and 
round about, till the Furnace be very hot and red : 
When all is cold, break the Velfel, an 1 take out the 
Metalline matter. This may eafily be brought to per- 

XLV. Another for the fame pHrpofe. 

Upon Tutia fublime one part of Mercury fublimate 
and two parts of Arfenick fi.iblimej, until it fliall have 
ingrefs. This clearly and very fpeciouily whitens Ve- 


502 Polfgraphiefs Lib. Vlf. 

'KLVX. Another for tide fame. 
Imbibe three parts of Mercury fublimed, and two 
parts of Arfenick fublimed with three parts Litharge dif- 
folved : to thele eight add other eight parts of Arfenick 
fublimed : grind them together, and flux them with Oil of 
Tartar, fo may you ( with it ) whiten prepared Venus at 

XLVII. Another for the fame. 
Grind Metalline Arfenick with as much CaljC of Luna, 
and imbibe the mixture with water of Sal-Armoniack ; 
dry and grind : afterwards diffolve Salt of Tartar in wa- 
ter of Salt-petre ; with wliich Oil imbibe the Medicine, 
and dry it. Repeat this thrice, incerating and drying. 
This is an admirable thing. 

XLVIIL Another for the fame) 
Imbibe Jupiter calqined, wallied and dryed, fo ofteri 
with Metalline Arfenick, with half as much fublimed 
Mercury, till it flows and enters Venus 3 for it whitens 
the fame (iffi;:ft prepared) glorioufly. 

XLIX. Another for the fame. . 
Upon Tutia, one part fublimed, dilTolved, and coagu- 
lated, fublime white Arfenick three parts ; reiterate the 
fublimation upon it four times, that it may have in- 
grefs. With them adjoin half as much ( as the whole 
is ) of fublimate Mercury, grinding and incerating four 
times with water of Sal' Armoniack, Nitre and Tartar, 
of each alike. With this when Coagulated, Cement 
prepared plates of Venus, and melt, and you will have 
a very beautiful Metal. 

L. Another for the fame parpofe. 
Grind Venus calcined and incerated, to which add 
Arfenick fublimed, and half a part of Mercury fubli- 
med ; with which being well ground and mixed, add a 
little water of Sal-Armoniack , and incerating upon a 
Marble : dry and fublime ; revert the fublimate upon 
the faeces, again imbibing ; do fo three times : the fourth 
time imbibeVith the water of Nitre, and fublime what 
can be fublimed: reiterate this work, till it remains fluid 
in the bottom. This upon Copper will make a glorious 


Chap. 10. Of the Fhllofophfck Worh 50J 

^ C H A P. X. 

Ofthefecret Uermetick My fiery ^ or great Phi" 
lo/ophfck fVork^ 

117 E cannot he fo vain as to pretend to the World that wg 
^^ have attained the InoTmledge of this great Secret, much 
lefsfo to be the Afafier thereof, as to he the injiruElor of other 
Men : hm this vie can Jay, ne have converfi mth mofi Au- 
thors that have wrote thereof 5 vpe have with a great deal 
of diligence and findy compared their Sayings one mch ano- 
ther ; and vpe have hy a long and continued Exercife and 
Pra^ice in the Mineral vpork, found out not only the natures 
of Metals, and in v^hat degree of purity they Hand in one to 
another -, hm we have alfo found ont i^any excellent SecretSy 
of real worth and Value, hy which, although we cannot pro- 
fejS a knowledge of the great work it Jclf, yet we thereby fee 
not only a pojjd^ility, hut alfo a probability thereof in nature 
C to that man whom it fhallfo far pleafe God to enlighten } 
and therefore judge we may in fome meafure the better un- 
dertake to difcourfe thefayin^s of thofe Worthies, who having 
attained this Myflery, thought good in Cloudy and Myfieriom 
terms to puhlifh the fame to the World, that none hut the truly 
worthy Sens of Art might be partakers of the fame. 

In the following lines then, we /hall tell you what has been, 
told us, and what we do conceive thereof, hy the comparing of 
the Sayings of the mofl excellent Men together, fuch as were 
Eafii, Paracelflis, Lullkis, Ripley, Bacon, ^;?i others -, and 
this in fo concife a manner, that the Opinions and Judgments 
of all thofe Men ( though far af under in words ) may center 
not only in truth it felf, hut alfo in the narrow compafs of 
the following SeElions ; the which that we might fo perform, we 
expreji our conceptions of their fenfe in a language confonant 

I. The Seed of Gold is Icdged in all Metals. 
This is apparent from then- generation, whofe origina- 
tion is Mercury, which is indeed immatiirate Gold ; and 
io remains immaairate in the bafer Metals till a ripen- 
ing Sitlphur, and a meliorating Spirit quickens that Se- 

504 Pol/grdphiees^ Lib. VIL 

minal property lodged in the Womb of impurity. But 
Avherc that Sulphttr and Spirit is to be found, has hitherto 
been kept as a feaet among the true PhiJofophers : If I 
may beg the pardon of thofe Sons of Art, I would fpeak 
once for all : but fince the Seal of the Philofophick Silence 
puts a bar to my plainnefs, I mutt tell you they are to 
be found only in the Philofophers Sol and Luna ; which 
are extra6led out of their Earthly Stars, by the folc power 
oF the Philofophick Aiercury^ and the Spirit of Mercury, 
as Bafd Valentine lias truly faid. 

II. This Seed of Gold may he qnicTtned or made to live. 

This is done through the death of the firtt matter, and 
difpofition of the fecond to a refufcitation or refurre(^i- 
on of that innate, energetical, and feminal life, and that 
only by the power of the Solar and Lunar Sulphur uni- 
tai, through the dilTolving Philofophick Mercury : the In- 
fant then fcems to be born ; and fo requires noii- 
rilliment ; and therefore you mutt feed it with the Spirit 
tf Mercury, that it may grow and encreafe ; but you 
\\\\x[\ give it in jutt weight and meafure, leit you fuftb- 
catc it, and fo dcltroy the hopeful proiuclion. 

111. This Semen being quickned, dilates it felf into other 
BDdiss, and tranfmutes them into its oryn property. 

That is, jutt as the Seminal life of Vegetables tranf- 
mutcs or changes tliat fuccus or humidity of tlie Earth, 
proper to thernfelves into their own forms and natures ; 
and lb of a little Seed th.ere becomes a great Tree : fo 
that as the Earth is the Womb out of which fo fmall a 
Seed becomes a great Tree, by the tranfmutlng property of 
the innate Seminal Yilc in the Seed : fo all the bafe Me- 
tals are the Womb unto that feminal purity ; in whic!i 
Womb, if the Seed be difpofed ri^hti}-, there will be as 
ceitain a generation and encreale ; and the purity of 
the bafe Metals will be tranfmuted into tliat feminal 
property to a vail: augmentation. But this growth and 
cncrcc'.le mutt be made by the nutriment which is given 
to it, c/.'-c. the Spiri: of Mercury : and this feminal purity 
is tlie proper Off-fpring of 5'o/ and Luna, produce.! thro 
the Power of our .Philofophick Mercury ^ without which 
rothin§ can be done : for that is it, which makes alive 
and quickens the Dead Bodies of Sol and Luna, and re- 
vives their latent Spirit, making them to encreale an 
Hundred thoufand told. 

IV. Tku 

Chap. lo. OftheFhilofophkk Work. ^05 

IV. That this may he rightly done, the hdies of the hafc 
Aletals mtijl he opened and prepared. 

That is, they muft be brought into a mortification, 
that that ttrong band which has hitherto chained the fe~ 
minal life, may be broken, and fo^ the energetici virttte 
may be fet at liberty : this is preformed by the flying 
Dragon who devours all that he comes near : this being 
done, the femen muft be caft into this mortified Body 
( impregnated with the fpirit of Mercury ) that it may 
there generate, tranfmute and fix. It is manifeft then 
that the tranfmuting fubftance is not taken out of the 
Bodies of the bafer Metals, but extra6led out of the molt 
pure and perfe6l ; nor can imperfedl Bodies be made 
better by things worfe tlmn themfelves, but only by 
things better. And therefore the more imperfed, being 
opened and prepared according to Art, they are made 
fit to receive the Vital or Living Seed of the more per- 

V. This may he done in any of the hafe Metals : hm they 
C I He the Earth J yield an encreafe according to their degrees 
in pHrity • fo that more of the Body of a pure Metal is tninj- 
mtitedy than of an impure. 

As barren Earth cannot yield fo great an increale as 
a fertil foil ; fo neither can a bafe Metal yield fb great 
an augmentation as a more fine. The bafer Metals 
yield an increafe according to the quantity of the A4er- 
cury which they contain, and that is the fubftance which 
is tranfmuted ,• all the other fubftances are Heterogenous 
and prove Drofs, which by the fermentative power of 
our Solar and Lunar Sulphur, are feparated and cafl of}^ 
( almoft refembling that of Yeft in Wort : ) and as the 
SuccHs of the Earth yield an encreafe, and makes th^ 
Seed call into the Earth to grow j fo the immature Mer- 
cury in the bafer Metals feeds our Solar and Lunar Secds^ 
and makes them to grow and encreafe ; which by the 
Plajiick poyver of this Seed or Sulphur, is tranfmuted into 
its own principle, and made to be the fineft Gold : but 
this increale is according to the goodnels of the Kleial ; 
thofe which are pureft, and contain moft Mercury, yield 
the greateft quantity in Tr an [mutation. 

VI. The Bodies of the hajcr Metals heing fitted:, the Semen 
muft he c^ji into the fame to generate. 

That is, there is to be a Conjunction of the Simen or 


%o6 Pofygraphices Lib. VIT. 

true Golden EJfence, with the prepared body to be tranf- 
muted : now you mult be careful you ufe not the fim- 
ple body of Sol for this Semen, for then you will be de- 
ceived J the matter in which the Generative Spirit is 
lodged is another thing : if you bury a whole Tree or 
Plant in the Earth, that will not generate, and bring 
forth another Tree, but perilh and rot, the feminal or 
generative vcrtue and life is clog'd and loaded, and is fo 
ineffecHve ; but if you bury the Seed of the fame Tree, 
you may have another, or more, according to the quan- 
tity of Seed fown ; the lame you muft underttand in the 
t;encration of Metals, and of the Golden work ; it is not 
Gold which will generate Gold, but the Seed oi' Gold. 
But how this Seme/i is to be obtained, is alfo a fmgular 
work ; for the Body o^Sol it fclf mult be opened by the 
lielp of our Philojophick Mercury, which the Philofo- 
phers fay is a dry water, which will not wet the hands ; 
after which, it mult be purified and calcined, and 
brought to perfedtion by digeition ; and nourillied as 
the Child in the Womb, by the Spirit of the fame Mer- 
cury : And how this Mercury is obtained is another 
thing : It is compofed of the highell and molt volatile 
Spirit, extra6led from the Juice ot the Mineral Grape, 
conjoyned to the molt fix'd and permanent principle of 
the Vegetable Grape, whofe Elfence is the Root, and Ori- 
ginal of the Produdlion of all Mineral, Vegetable and 
Animal Subrtances. 

Vll. This Semen mu(i he Volatile. 
Otherwife it cannot tranfme, for nothing but a Vola- 
tile Spirit or Elfence can dilate and fpread it felf : a 
fxed matter cannot operate at all, for all fixed things 
are dead, and their life remains in a central Ifate, not 
fit for codlion. This is evident in the Volatile Salts of 
Vinegar and ddck-liwe, which furpafs the Art of Man 
to attain fimple ; but if you mix a Lixivium of Quick- 
lime with Vinegar, you may have a large quantity of 
Salt, and that fixed, which was before unattainable. 
Thus you fee out of two Volatile.t\\n\p,, a third ablblute- 
ly fixed is produced ; and this is thie condition of this 

great work 

VIII. It mu'^ he of an unchangeable blood red colour. 
Odierwife it could not tinge ; for were it only yellow, 
it would create only a taintiih kind of green : but this 


Chap. 10. OfthePhflofophkktVork, 507 

our Philofophick Tindture generates Gold of the highett 
and pureft nature, and having the deepeft yellow. The 
whole Body of Sol it fe!f is all pure TinBure : only it is 
bound up, and fixed with Bolts and Bars, as it were - 
and this fixt property is that which makes it appear on- 
ly of a faint yellow : its perfed, intire, and moiifuhlimg 
Redneji is lliut up, fo as you cannot fee or behold it. 
But when thefe Bolts and Bars are broken, and the Doos 
fet open ( where this vaft Treafure lies ) by the invin- 
cible power of our Philofophick Mereftry, and its fublime 
Spirit : Then you may come to fee the King in his Tri- 
umphs, and behold that never-fading Glory, or Mafi- 
fterial Tincture ; which is able to magnifie it felf an 
hundred thouf and fold. 

IX. This Semen is mad^ VoUtiU hy the deJlruElion of its 
external form. 

That is, nature mnft be brought to a6lion, that the 
inadlive body may let fall its Semen, out of which the 
Golden Tree of the Pbilolophers is produced. The body 
of So/ mud be broken into Atoms Philofophically, and 
opened ; that is, the fixity of its external body muft be 
removed, which can only be done by the help of our Phi- 
lofophick Mercury, and the mighty Spirit of the fame, which 
penetrate into the moft inward receifes of its fiibiiance, 
where the highelt and richefl: Treafure is lodged. That 
therefore being removed which makes it fixed, it then 
naturally ( as it were ) becomes Volatile ; and grows in- 
to a Tree of almod an immenfe magnitude, in which 
the wonders of Nature are contained. 

X. This Strntn is made hlood-red hy impregnating of it 
mrh thefpirit of Mercury. 

It is neceflary that there be a common band to con- 
join the bodies, which are to be united : as the bodies 
of the bafe Metals, which are the Womb for this Seed, 
are to be mortified ; fo muft that body be, out of which 
you extradl the Semen : and as that mortified and prepa- 
red body is to be impregnated with the Spirit of Mercury, 
io muft this Semen, that there may be as well a fympa- 
thy and likenefs in Nature, as an unity in Body. But 
it is to be noted that the Spirit of Mercury does not give 
the 2,reat Rednefsto this Solar Sulphur : No, that is a 
Radical Quafity innate in Sol himfelf : all that this 
mighty Spirit does, is the turning the infide outwards, 


^o8 Polygraphices Lib. VII. 

that the internal Quality and Principle may be made 
obvious to the Eye, and lo upon occafion, be brought in 
to Ad, which otlierwife would lye Dead and Dormant 
for ever. 

XI. The matter out of rohich this Semen is to he extraEled 
is purely Sol. 

We mean {imply, and without Metaphor, Gold ', for 
if there be an innate life, power and virtue, in the bafc 
Metals, why not in this ? If Mercury, Lead, Iron, Cop- 
per and Silver, contain the Seminal life of Gold, why 
fhould Gold be excluded, which is the thing it felf? 
Theie Metals do each of them contain a fmall quantity 
oi Mercery, but it is immature j but they are all want- 
ing in the Solar Sulphur j having a Sulphur of their own, 
which is corrupting, and can by no Art whatfoever be 
tranlmuted into aSo/;?r Nature, each being in their Root 
of a diftering ipfdc'j'. And of them all Luna contains 
the greatclt quantity of Mercury, which is very pure, 
and brought by Nature nearly to perfedion, vi^. to 
Fixity : it only wants its pores to be repleat or filled up 
with a Solar Sulphur, for by that alone, the compleat 
Weight, abfblute Fixity, and perfed Tincture would be 
given to it, Tvhereby it would be brought into the Solar 
Stock, unalterable in Nature and Quality for ever. 

XII. The Semen t/ei/i^ ca(i into the body prepared for it, 
is there to be digcfied, tilt both be terfeBly united, vrhoje ftw 
fie conjun^ion "is the produd: of the Golden Kingdom. 

This digeftion is perfected only by the force of an ex- 
ternal fire, conjoined with the inward Seminal life. This 
is ProjeElion, which is indeed by the force of a Culinary 
fire ; but it is to be regulated according to the proper 
degrees of Nature: when this Royal Tmclure is put upon 
any bafe or inferiour Metal, It melts like Butter, fpreads 
over the Surface thereof , finks into it, fills its pores, contracts 
its Mercury into one globular body, as it nere, and tinges 
it throughly ; whereby all its/com, filth, impurities, and 
defilements are feparatcd, the pure Solar Reguln-s tailing 
intirely to the bottom. 

XIII. The lafi thing to be confiiered is the multiplication 
of your TinHure ; for if that is wanting, your quantity nould 
be vpafied, and fo your vtork ivould come to an end : this is 
performed by addition of m,ore of the pure Solar Body, to the 
already perfected TinUure* 


Chap. II. Ofthe PhilofophickWork, 509 

For the true traniinuting Property is in the Tin&jre, 
and Sol it felf ftands in need of this Tranfmtitation -, be- 
caufe the Matter which tranfmutes, mutt be an hundred 
thoufand times finer, more pure, and more exalted than 
the moft fine Gold -, for if it was not much higher and 
finer than Gold, it could never tranfinute other Metals 
into Gold, but only be as Gold, and be able to do no 
more than Gold can ; and fo, by mixtion with other in- 
feriour Metals, would it felf become much worfe than it 
was before, according to the quantity of the Alloy which 
is mixed with it, and would only make a bafe Mixture, 
not a Tranfmutation. Therefore, that you may mMlti- 
ply your TinEiure, you muft add to it ten parts of pure 
fine Sol J and nouriih it with the SpiricHs Mercarij, in 
proportion to what it can receive, digeiting in a gentle 
Fire, till fuch time as you fee the figns of perfe6li6n ap- 
pear ; and by this means you may continue and aug- 
ment your Tindture, ai infinitum^ even for ever. 


J Frocefs of the fat d Grand Elixir, from an Old 

I- 'npAkc Mineral Quicl-fdver iijv pound, viz,, made 
-*- neither of LeMnoi Tin, arid caufe an Earthen 
Pot to be made, well burn'd the firft time, glaze it all 
over, except the bottom, the which anoint with Hogs 
Ld/d, and it will not glaze. 

II. This is done, that the Earth of the QHicl-fdver 
may fink into the bottom of the Pot, which it would 
not do being glaz'd, nor become Earth again : This Pot 
mutt be made a good foot long, ofthe falfiion of an Uri- 
nal, with a Pipe in the midtt of it. 

III. The Furnace muft be made on purpofe, that the 
Pot may go m clofe to the fides of the Mouth of the Fur- 
nace. Set on the Pot a good great Cap or Head, with 
its Receiver, without luting of it. 

IV. Give it a good. Fire of Coals, till the Pot is all 
on fire and very redj then take the Fire out quickly, 

O o and 

^ 10 of the PffHofophfck fVorh Lib. VII. 

and put in the Quick-fihcr at the Pipe, and, with as 
much h.idc as you can, Itop it clofc with Lute. 

V. Then will the Qnick-fiher, by the heat and force 
it finds, both break and work 5 a part thereof you (hall 
fee in the Water, as it Were a few drops; and a part 
will Rick to the bottom of the Pot in black Earth, and lb 
let the Pot cool within the Furnace, as it is; then open 
it, and you Ihall find the Qtikk-fiher in it all black, 
which you muit take out and wain very clean, and the 
Pot alfo. 

VI. As for the Water wh'iA does dittil out of it, put 
it afide, or caft it away ; for it is nothing w^orth, becaufc 
it is all Flegm. Set the Pot into the Furnace again, and 
jmake it red-hot ; put in the Qjiick-ftlver, lute well the 
Pipe, and do as you did the firtt time; and do this fo 
often, until the Mercury becomes no more black, which 
will be in ten or eleven times. 

VJI. Then take it out, and you fhall find the Merce- 
ry to be without FJegm, but joined with Earth, of which 
two Qualities it murt be freed, being Enemies to Na- 
ture : Thus the Qmck-Jilver \xi\\ remain pure, in colour 
Celeftial, like tcw^zlire, %hich ]'6u'rhay know by this 
fjgn, vii.. Take a piece o( Iron, heat it hot, and quench 
it in this Mercnry, rand it will become foft and wliitc 

VIII. Then put the Aiercwy into a Retort of Glafs, 
between two Cups, fo that it touches neither bottom 
ihor fides of thecCups, and make a good Fire under it, 
and lay Embers on ^hetop, the better to keep the heat of 
the Fire; and in 40 hours the Mercury will diitil into a 
flimy Water, hanging together, that it will neither wet 
your Hands, nor any kind of thing but Metal only. 

IX. This is the true AquA Vits. of the Pliiiofophers ; 
the true Spirit lo many have fought for ; and which has 
been dcfired of all Wife Men, which is called the £/- 
jen.ce^ Q^lnteffencej PoirerSy Spirit, Snbjhncfy Water and 
Afixii'.re of Merctiry, and by many other the like Names, 
without lirange things, and without offence to any 

X. Save well this precious Liquor or Water, obfcured 
by all Philofophers, for without it you can do no good 
or pcrfecl Work ; let all other things go, and keep this 
only J for any one that lees this Wafer, if he has any 


Ch Jip. J I . Of the Philofophfck IVorki 5 f / 

Pra(^tice and Knowledge, will hold to it, for it is preci- 
ous axid worth a Treajti4re. 

XI. Now retteth to make the Souly which is the per- 
ie^^on of the Red, without wliich you can make neither 
Sol nor Lma, which iliall be pure and perfeft : With 
this Spirit you ma^r make things apparent and fair; yea, 
XiXoi\ true and p^iedl ; AH Pliilofophers affirm, that the 
Soul'is the Subfence, which fultaineth and preferves the 
Body^ making it pertecl as long as it is in it. 

XII. Oux Body then muft have a So%l, other wife it 
would t^either move nor work ; for which reafon you 
mull coiifider and underhand, that all Metals are com- 
pounded of Mercury and Snlphnr, Matter and Form : 
AdercMry is the Matter, and Sulphur is the Form. Ac- 
cordir^p to the purenefs q^ Mercury and Sulphur, fuch is 
the IqB^ience they affume. 

XUI. Thus Sol is ingendred of moft pure fine Mercury y 
and a pure red Sulphur, by the Influence of the Sun ; 
and Luna is made of a pure fine Mercury, and a pure 
white Sulphur, by the Influence of the Moon. 

XIV. Hence it is that Luna is more pure than the 0- 
ther Metals, which have need of cleanfing ; being 
cleanfed, they need but only the pure Sulphur, with the 
help of SqI and Luna. Sulphur is the Form of Sol and 
.Lana, and the other Metals ; their other parts are grofs 
Matters 0^ Sulphur and Mercury. 

XV. Husband-men know many times more than we 
do : They, when they Reap their Corn growing on the 
Earth, they gather it with the Straiv and Ears. The 
Straw and Ears are the Matter, but the Corn or Grain is 
the Form or Soul. 

,XVI. But when they Sow their Corn, then they Sow 
not the Matter, which is the Straw and Chaff, but the 
^oul or Form, which is the Corn. So, if we will Reap 
Sol or Luna, we muft ufe their Form or Soul, and not 
tlie. Matter. 

XVII. The Form or Soul is made by God's help, after 
this manner. You muft make a good Sublimate, that 
is ieven times fublimed ; the lalt time of the feven you 
. muft fublime it with Cinnabar without f'^itriol, and it 
will be a certain Qumtejfence of the Sulphur of tliat ^n- 

Oo 2 XVIII. When 

5 X 2 of the PhUofophers Stone, Lib. VII . 

XVIII. When this isdone,take of the fineft 5*0/ j. ounce* 
or of the fine{tL««^as much; file it very fine ; or elfe 
take leaf Gold or Silver; then take of the aforefaid Sub- 
limate iiij. ounces; fublime them together for the fpace 
of fixtcen hours ; then let it cool again, and mix them all 
together, and fublime again ; do this four times. 

XIX. And the fourth time it will have a certain 
Rundle, like unto the Matter of the white Rofe, tranf- 
parent and moil clear as any orient Pearl, weighing a- 
bout V. ounces. The Sublimate will flick to the brims 
and fides of the Velfel ; and in the bottom it will be 
like good black Pitch, which is the Corruption of Sd 
and Lnna. 

XX. Take the Rundle aforefaid, and diflblve it in 
mott ftrong diflilled Vinegar (i./. Spirit) two or three 
times, by putting it into an Urinal, and fetting it in 
B. M. for the fpace of three days, every time pouring it 
into new Vinegar, ( i. e. Spirit ) as at the firft, till it be 
quite difTolved; then diflii it by a Filter, and favc that 
which remains in the Pot, for it is good to whiten 

XXI. That which palTed the Filter with the Vinegar, 
fet upon hot Allies, and evaporate the Moilture and Spi- 
rit of Vinegar with a fi^ft Fire, and fet it in the Sun, 
and it wiirbecome moft white, like unto white Starch ; 
or red, work wiih Si)l^ which is the Form^ Sod or 
Smphtir of Lun A a.nd Sol, and will weigh a quarter of an 
ounce, rather more than Itfs ; fave that well. 

XXII. Take ni the name of God, an Urinal half a 
foot high ; and take of the firm Body v. ounces ; of the 
SomI o\:'Su!ph>ir of Sol or L<:fna, a quarter of an ounce; 
and of the Spirit iv. ounces ; put all of them into the U- 
rinal, and put on its Head or Cover, with a Receiver 
well clofed or luted. 

XXIII. Dirtil the Water from it with a molt foft Fire, 
:jnd there will come off the firft time ylmoft iii. ounces : 
Put the Vv^iter on again, without moving the Urinal, 
and diftil it again, until no more Liquor will diftil ; 
which do fix or fevcn times, and then every thing will 
be firm. Then fet the fame Urinal in Horle-dung itven 
days, and by the virtue and fubtlcty of the heat, it will 
be converted into Water. 

XXIV. Diftil 

Chap. 12. Of thePhilofophersStojie. 41 1 

XXIV. Diftilor filter this Water with ftripes or Qireds 
of Woollen Cloth j a grofs part will remain in the bot- 
tom, which is nothing worth ; all that which is pafTed 
through the Filter congeal, which will be about iv. or 
V. ounces ; and fave it. When you have congealed it 
three times, melt x. ounces of moft fine SolotLma, and 
when it is red hot, put upon it iv. ounces (fome fay xiij. 
ounces) of this Medicine, and it will be all true and 
good Medicine. 

XXV. Likewife melt Borax and W.ix, ana j. ounce, 
to which put of the former Medicine j. ounce -, put all 
thefe upon Mercury^ or any other Metal, iij. pound, and 
it will be moft fine Sol or Luna^ to all Judgments and 
AlTays. Thus have I ended this Proccfs, in vvhich, if 
you have any Pradice or Judgment, and know how to 
follow the Work, you may nnil'h or compleat it ia 
forty days. 

This Procefs is under a Vail, yet there is indeed mucH 
to be learnt out of it. 


Of the Smlities of the Philofophers Stone. 

I. f\^ what Qualities the Philofophers Stone confifb, 
^^ I hold it neceifary to make a ihort and true In- 
formation, though one or more may know it aheady ; 
however, the Coniequence is this : If this thing be right- 
ly and plainly underftood, then one finds himfelf near 
the Scope, and can eafily judge, whether the Matter 
handled, and the imagined Subje6l contain all the nc~ 
cellary Requifites, you will not then go to work after an 
unskilful manner, and commit it to Succels. 

II. He that hath not the following Properties together 
in one _Mafs or Centre, or only gueifcth that they are 
there, is truly far from the mark, and Shooteth at the 
white, ^ whicti he doth not fee, and will have the lels 
hope of it. 

III. Therefore let none dream, that he hath accom- 
j)lilli5;d the Art, or that he can compafs the Stone in a 

O o 3 Ihort 

^14 OftheVhiloJophersStotti, Lib. V If. 

Ihort time, or any particular, whilft yet he doth not 
know, what Qiuatities or Properties the Stone or the 
particular Tin<^ure muft have ; if he knoweth neither the 
beginning nor middle, how can the end then be known 
to him ? 

IV. Thofe could beft teftify of it, who hate fcen a 
Tindure with their Eyes, and have felt it with their 
Hands ; and do know that this noble Pearl is not .a vain 
and foolilb work, as many ignorant Perfons fuppofe. 

V. It is fuch a work, which tranfmuteth really all 
inferior Metals into pure or fine Gold, or Silver, it fud- 
denly penetrates all the parts of Mans Body, and refto- 
reth the defects of Nature, and bring? Health again, in 
fuch manner, that Man may rather be amazed at, than 
only admire it. 

VI. And hereby it is manifeftly feen in the tranfmu- 
tation of Metals, how the Tincture is a tranfcendent fixed 
J>ibihi/?ce, -which can far lefs be deftroyed by any Element, 
than Gold, but the Tinclure in it felt is the tranfcendent- 
ly pcr.ed: Eflence of Gold; nor is there any thing com- 
parable to this precious Jewel, in refpedt of the ingrefs 
into other Metals. 

VII. And though many fluid things are in Vegetables, 
as Wax and Oyl ; in the Minerals, Sal Tart art, Sal E- 
lebro;, Mercuric SublimatUi ; in the Metalline Bodies, 
Tiiui, Lead, Wifmuth, Antimonia, Zinick, and the 
]ike ; yet all thefe are not comparable to this not in the 
leart degree. 

VIII. A likenefs, fimile, or example, may be given 
thus: if you melt one pound of Lead, and put into it 
one dram of Gold or Silver, the Lead receivctn that Bo.iy 
io, that afterwiud in the leafl quantity of that Lead, 
this dram of Gold or Silver can be found effimated in 
tl";e proof. 

IX. Now if this can be done io fuddcnly and eafily 
in a mean or bafe Metal, what wonder is it, if the eter- 
nally fixt and fluid Medicine fhould do the like? On the 
other fide, let Men open their Eyes, and fee, whither the 
Salts, Tartar and Mercury, or the mentior.ei Mnierals, 
penetrate fo, and mingle with the Body s radically. 

X. Though all the requifites be in this Tincture, yet it 
it Avanted only the ingrefs, then lurely all hopes would 
be lolt : Therefore thole deal fooliilily, wliich intend to 


Chap. 12. Of th^ 'Bhilofo^hrs Stont, 515 

cpagij^ite the Spirit of Vitriol, Tcn;^, &c. with all forts 
of Salts to a fixt Mafs. 

XI. And though a fixation llioukl appear to thein, yet 
it would not be equal to one atome, in comparKon of 
our Salamander, and they will Hill want the mod ne- 
celTary thing, namely the ingrels. 

XII. Though other things, as Wax arid Butter, be fluid, 
yet their fluidnefs is not comparable with the fluidnefs of 
Metals, the one mingleth not with the other, but IWims 
on the top, burns away, evaporateth, and tumeth to 

XIII. If none could meet with fiich Dire6lions or In- 
(Irudions in the Writings and Books of the truly Learned 
in this Art, out of what Kingdom the true and only Me- 
dicine ihould be made, or taken, yet he may perceive it 
out of this Difcourfe : but the Books of all Philolophers 
are full and clear to the fingle Eye, which inform, that 
like muft be affociated or ioyned unto its like. 

XIV. Again, this noble Pearl mull: have a liiltiili 
penetrating nature, and be endued with all the Ihengths 
ot the four Elements. 

XV. If it lliall diffolve in any Liquor, and in a mo- 
ment divide it felf in the Human Bo ly into all the Ar- 
teries and Blood, then it muft not be likened unto any 
thing in the World, but only unto Salt or Sugar. 

XVI. Our S.'ibjetlHm mult be colder than Ice, and yet 
hotter than Fire, becaufe it muft temper the extream 
hotBodysof J^^?.f and yenns^ and tranlmutc them into 
the molt like proportioned fabltance 01 Gold ; and a£;ain, 
it muft heat the molt cold Bodys oF Lead and of Silver, 
io as that they may never return to their former fiitc a- 
gain. / 

XVII. Now, though this may feem incredible tomoft, 
tliat in one only fiibitance all the quaUties of the Ele- 
ments lliould meet togechir, and be joyned together in 
one tye or covenatit : yet it is not ftrar.gc to thole, who 
fee how their matter or iubltance containeth all things : 
and how it is a V/atcr asid yet no Water, how the Earth 
fr^immeth on the Water j how the Earth is Water and no 

XVIII. And alfo, how the Air is our Mafia, and how 
our Earth is a mcer Fire, according to Hermes his laying, 

O 4 whsn 

i; 1 6 Of the Philojophick Work. Lib. VII. 

when he faith, the Wind or the Air doth carry it in its 

XIX. Laftly, in this our moft noble Bird or Phsnixy 
there arc all the Heavenly and Earthly Vertues or 
Strengths, becauie it is generated out of the moft Volatile 
and the molt fixed fubftance. 

XX . Heaven is the Father, and the Earth is the Mother, 
ivhich are revealed, when Heaven joyneth with the Earth, 
and our Solar and Lunar Child is Born. 

XXI. But many will fay to this, as unlikely as Hea- 
ven can be brought to the Earth, fo unlikely is this Phi- 
lofophcrs Stone to be had : As the one is impofllble, fo is 
the other a Deceit and Lye. 

XXII. But to anfwer this in fhort : we have no need 
of the vifible Heaven and Earth, but of their Powers. 
For as the Moon worketh on Man, Beafts and Vegeta- 
ble?, by her Power, and is not prefent or near them : fo 
is it here alfo. 

XXIII. The Moft High hath replcnilhed our Heaven 
with all Heavenly Powers, and our Earth with all Earth- 
ly Powers, io that no more need be faid hereof. Yet wc 
lliall fpeak further of this matter in the profecution of 
our Dilcourfe : though now we let 'it reft, lliewing by 
this little in few word?, the Properties of the true Philo- 
fophick Stone of the Ancients. 

XXIV. Others fee whither their Operations be uni- 
form G-r no, and whither their Principles be fo too ; that 
they be not impure or unfenriceable to the work they de- 
fign them for, which requires the higheft homogenity and 

XXV. He that taketh exa6l heed to himfelf here, and 
pondereth all well which we Ihall Difcourle, he may 
judge firmly and truly of any Procefs which he hears, 
whether it be true or not,' and whether the dcfircd and 
hoped for end may be obtained or no. 


Chap. 1 J. Of the Fhtlofofhers Stone, ^i 7 

Of the matter of the Fhilofo^hers Stone. 

I. CEcondly, what is the matter of the Stone ? Here you 
*^ may remember, what innumerable opinions there 
are concerning this one point. Some think becaufe this 
Medicine is Univ^erfal, therefore it is and it mutt be found 
every where, and can be made out of every thing, elfc 
tlie name cannot be proper for it. 

II. Another defends the contrary: This they do becaulc 
they have not the knowledge of the matter, and this is 
one of the greatett Errors ; For if Men fail or err in this 
point, then furely they err in all the rett. 

III. It is remarkable, and I tettify it upon my Con- 
fcience, as often as I have difcourfei with feveral Men, 
tho' profoundly Learned, yet I heard them talk of this 
point varioufly and the clean contrary way, and I could 
never perceive of any, tha.t they were within the pale of 

IV. Every one imagined to himfelf a matter, which 
he defended afterward in the beft manner ; at latt I heard 
lo much, efpecially of the moft skilful in this noble 
work, that nothing can be reported from their Opinions : 
muchlefs, becaufe it is Univerial, they thought no one 
thing could be preferred before the other. 

V. Here lyeth the caufe of the great difficulty in at- 
taining unto this high Secret, as alio by reafon of Mans 
unthankfulnefs and evil concupifcence, the one con- 
founding the other, as it was at the Building of the Tow- 
er 0^ Babel y where the one hindreth the pLirpofe and in- 
tention of the other ; fo that the Mytteries of this Science 
cannot be revealed unto them. 

VI. Greatly w^as this point darkned, but may eafily 
be refolved, yet hardly believed : the uiott are of opinion, 
he that nameth the matter by nauic, iu this work, is 
the greatett Seducer ; yet Theophrafics and others did no;: 
ftick to nominate the Matter or Subjcd to be the Minera 
Solis, Lun^ et Saturai. 

» yiL Though 

5 1 8^ Ofphe Phtlofiphen Sfont. |,ib, VIL 

VII. Though they ufed herein no ambiguitie, yet io 
many judgments were given upon their Writings, that 
all believed, th^iTheophrajiw and Bcfdiiu had never the 
true Univerfal Tindhire. 

VIII. But fuch Calumniators were never in the Phi- 
lofophical School, nor underftandany thing of their My<» 
fterious Writings, which is the reafon why they cannot 
imagine how the one is three, three five, and five one ; 
or how two are four, and four are two. 

IX. Nor will they grant that this Secretum is the work 
of Women, and Childrens Play j nor that the Poor may 
attain unto it as well as the Rich. 

X. It would be prejudicial to their deep Intelle6l, if a 
poor iimplc Creature fhould indeed ("hew the work done 
with the Hand, before them ; whereas they think not 
tliat God diltributeth his Gifts wonderfully, even as it 
pleafes him. 

XI. In brief, he that will undertake to open the Gate 
ofMyfteries, with the naked Intelleft, without the illu- 
mination of Gods Holy Spirit, and without an induflri- 
ous, careful working, willabfolutely mifs of his end. 

XII. And here all Underltandingand Reafon is de- 
fedive, and there is none but mull itand amazed, that 
God lliould hive ibut up, lockt in, and hid fo deep, 
this mofl noble Jewel next to the Soul, and that in lb 
mean a Subjcif, difeftcemed by all Men. 

XI II. Therefore avoid or meddle not with any Vege- 
tables, nor yet witli Minerals, fo may you find that to 
be true, which Theophrajfn^ faid, that there is found in 
mam' places in Europe^ one Mineral in the Bowels of 
the Earth, which in theoutfide is marked with the figure 
of the Addcrocofme, and is in the beginning ^jirnm Sphe- 
re Solis, or the Tree of Goldy or its Root ; which breaketh 
or groweth nigh unto the Gold Oar. 

XIV. This carrieLh its Seed in abundance about it, 
and is Saturnine^ bcciule it cometh from the Heart of 
Saturn, and mav well be called Sencx, which the mo(i 
Ancient and molt Judicious Philolophers, call ihe Father 
of SAtnrn 5 and have marked it with tliegreateltand moii 
wonderful Sign, viz.. , 

XV. They gave it a round circle, which containeth all 
things, and a direct upright line, and a Diameter coin- 
ing out of the Center, and then vi'itn a Crofs, which 


Chip* 1 5. Ofthf Fhilofofhers Stom, 519 

fheweth very Great and Mylierious things, as it is fcen 
in this annexed Figure. $ 

XVI. The Greateft Potentates and Monarchs have ufed 
this Sign, as a means of their Felicity and Dominion. 
For this caiife, ThtophrafluscsAhit Signutn Majoris Mnn-' 
4i, and Baftlius calls it the round Ball of the Goddefs For" 
fmey in which Gold, Life, and the Refurredion dwel- 
leth, bringing the Salvation of Truth to the Man of God, 
and is indeed all in all ; the which every Philofbpher 
may take into further confideration. 

XVII. But I teftify, that this Sign is at once, the Ma- 
giftery, beginning, middle and end of the whole Work : 
and through it, is it difcovercd and publillied ; and it 
is that in which all, what Men fcek for, and dcfirc to 
know, is typified and contained. 

XVIII. NoAv left any be yet fcnipulous, that I keep 
Men ftill in darknefs, and my declaration is not fuffici- 
ent,- and that feeing the work is Univerfal, there are of 
ncceffity more parfs belonging to it : for this caiife, I di- 
re6l both the one and the other to Philofophers and their 

XIX. And chiefly to FUmellm, who holds theSubjedl 
to be not only one matter, but fneweth alio, what may 
be drawn from it, when he faith ; \Jnnm habetur in hoc 
Aitmdo Afetalln?n, in quo MercmtPi'S mjier feti £qtia hcecno- 
fira ahunde reperitnr. _ Tabul. paradifi, Know ye, that 
there is but one thing in all the World, out of which our 
Art is made. 

XX. Scndivogii'i-Sy in Tra^. de trihm Principiis : There 
is but one matter in the whole World, through which, 
and out of which, the Philofophers Stone can be made. 

XXI. Though he nominateth two things, as S'/Aphnr 
and Mercviry^ yet know, that nvo things may be but one, 
as when I lay, Spirit and Boly is but one, it is rightly 
faid \ for the Body was a Spirit at iirii:, and by the Ar^ 
chem was coagulated into a Body. 

XXII. Therefore Phiiofophersdefire but one m.atter of 
X)ne Subftance, Avhen they lay, our Body and our Spirit, 
our Father and our Mother. 

XXI II. And as Husband and Wife are one Body, one 
Fleih and Blood, arid from one Seed, yet unlike to the 
Eye and Generation, and yet are but one ; io is the Spi- 

^20 Of thePhilofophers ^tone, Lib.VIL 

rit and the Body one, though they be not like one to a- 
nother in the outfide. 

XXIV. Hence it follows, that the firft beginning of 
this magiitery, is of one bein^ out of two Subitances, 
of a fix and unfix J that the one is the Seed, and the other 
is the Womb, the one is the red fixed Man, and the o- 
ther the white Woman j the one is the Mercury, the o- 
ther is the Sulphur. 

XXV. And to make it clearer, under the Name of 
the Flying Eagle j all that muft be underitood, which 
Philolophers have called their Aqua Sicca, Mercnrie, 
Fnnie, Acetum Acerrmum, Aqua AiercHrialis, Spiritpu 
Mercurii, Mare ficcum, Avis Hermetii, &c. thereby to 
fleceive the Ignorants. 

XXVI. But to inform the Underttanding, this Vola- 
tile Spirit is of a noble quality, all in all, and deferves 
to be called Spiritm Univerfalts Mandi j but among the 
Fix, there remained only the name of Corpus Solis, be- 
caufc it is adorned with the moil equal proportion of all 
the Elemental Powers and the Itrongeft Strength, and 
containeth perfeilly as in a Center, the property of 
all things. 


ji continuation of the former Difconrfe, 

I. C\^ this one Body many things may be faid, becaulc 
^^ itpreienteth it lelfalfo, fo that one, (unlefshe 
be fenfelels and ftupid) mufl: admire it as a noble and 
principal Agent, and a great work of Gotl. 

II. Befides the Carpus Solis, it is endued with fuch 
fixity, that it is only for it felf firm, and keeps io; and 
it is known by experience, it cannot communicate the 
Jeafi: of its fixednels to its Brethren. 

III. BcHdes it is known, what tliofc have effected, 
%vhich divulged fo many Defcriptions how the Anmm 
Potahile lliould be made ,• and to lay nothing, how that 
Philofophcrs have quite rejeiled connnon Gold. My in- 
t.cntion is this, to make known, firit, wliat kind of Gold 


Chap. 14. Of the Fhihf others Stoned 521 

is meant, and afterward to diftinguifli, what the Gold is 
in it felf and its Matrix, then the faid Qucftions will 
cafily be anfwered, and a new regeneration be granted. 

IV. I havefpoken afore of twoSubitances in one be- 
ing in one only matter, and imparted the fame faithful- 
ly, the one I called Saturnine, or after our Language, 
Lead Oar, Lead Glafs, Minera Philofophka Satttrnij or 
magnejia Plumhea. 

V. The one is as the other, yet the one is more nigh, 
more excellent, then the other, very fiibtil, penetrating, 
fluid, volatile, poyfonous, metallin, animal, mineral 
and vegetable, the principle of all things j out of which 
are generated Gold and every Metal. 

VI. It is a Fume, and a Medicament of all Medica- 
ments, like Sealing Wax, whatever you print it upon, 
you may have that print again. 

VII. This is the true Principle of the one Afercftrius 
CatholicHs Miner aW-, and Genitor oi Sol, and the Mother 
or Womb of the Gold in tlie ftrength unremoved, on 
which Nature wrought little, becaulc the little Grain of 
the Fix'd is yet very fmall in it. 

VIII. This is the Minera, which is cfteemed for the 
higheft and greateft Secret, becaufe it hath the qualities 
of all things, and can be turned into Water, Fire, Air 
and Earth ; yea, the Effences of all Elements are toge- 
ther in it. 

IX. But as the Seed of Gold is fo high and great, fo is 
the Matrix much higher ; for without that the Gold could 
not be regenerated, renewed, opened and fhut again -, 
and made perfect after a tranfcendent way, as Bafilim 
attelteth, vi^. 

X. That it is impoffible to make Gold without this 
Potable Spirit, much lefs can be prepared the Sulphur 
of Sol with any Corrofive : for this Water excels in its 
ftrength, as well the great Ocean, becaufe the EfTence 
of the Water is in it, as alfo'the Fire, in which is the 
greatcll and ftrongeit Fire, and is fitly enough compared 
with Cerberus. 

XI . He faith further, that this Spirit is a fupernatural, 
volatile Fire, Spirit ; for which caufe, it was called the 
Sulphureous livm^ Water, which muft exalt the Body of 
Sol into a Medicine, fo as to get a tranfcendent power 
tor to tinge his Fellows. 

XII. And 

52^ Ofth Fhilofo^ers Stem, Lib. VH, 

' IXHrAnd that never any, either univarfai oi parti- 
cular TiiKStiire, nor other Univerfal Medicines' can be 
obtained, without this Sulphureous, Spiritual Being, oj: 
SpiritHS A4ercMHi. 

Xm. For no Natural, Heavenly or Eartljly Fire can 
bum the Body c£ Sol, without tl>is SuilphurcouE, Living 
File of ours, there isjio Aiiio fubtiJ and pure, which 
can carry our Body in its Belly, as this Air c*n. 

XIV. Not any Earth fo qualified, out of wbich this 
Lyon may be generated, as ours, becaufe it is with the 
Gold, in refpeit of its principle, uniform, and of one 
being.; of which more Inall be fpoken hereafter in the 

5CV. The matter of the SoJar Body, which is as the 
Fixt is .of a very equal affinity with the Volatile : For the 
fix'd Blood with the Red. Lyon is drawn from the unfix 'd 
Blood of the Green Lyon. BeGdes or without this, Uith 
BafiiiuSy it is impofTible to obtain a new Generation. 

XVL Thele two Subftances muft be, and can be re- 
duced again into one, by the help of Vulcan, fo that 
they never can be feparated again ; and herein Jyeth tlxe 
greateft and higheft Mattalhip and Science. 

XVIL Many liave tormented the Gold very ill, ma- 
king ufe of a Men{hruiun which was not right, and was 
incongruous, neither did they ufe the legitimate Matrix ; 
hence it was impofl'ible for them to loqfen or break its 
faft, firm Bands, and to bring it to its firit Being. 

XVIIL Many Jiave brought the Spirit oi Salt, Urine, 
Wine, Sal Armoninck, yhriol, ros r^AJalis, and the like, 
to make it a calcined Body,or thoiight to open them with 
common Mercury, but they miifed it -, though they knew, 
Unsit Am- itm is the Leader, Pnnceps and Moderator omni- 
um lumnum, et corpcmm rtliqiiorum ; and that its pre- 
paration mui-t be bit with a true diifolution, cUe no Tni- 
cture can be obtained. 

XIX. Yet they were ttill kept ignorant of the noble 
.Alenfirmm ; ib tliat they begot inikad of Legitunate 
Children, meerly Baitards. 

.XX. But if they had known the Prima Materia, viz- 
the one matter ot" Gold, they would not liave miifai of 
the only dilfolving water, as'thefirlt matter of the Gold- 
-He that doth notknon^ this, can never attain to any true 
preparation of Gold, or of the Philofophick Tinii^ure ; 


Chap. 14. Of the Fhihfofhirs Stof2e] ^^ 

but it is like to a hidden Treafure kept under Lock and 
Key, he that hath not the Key, mutt let the Treafint 

XXI. I muft needs confefs, that I my felf have quite 
defpaired of fuch a dry Menftrmm,^ but by the Grace of 
God I ^ot an illumination, to dilcern the meaning of 
the Philofophers dark Sayings, having confidercd that 
which Bajilim taught, Saying. 

XXII. If thou canft not find thy Menjirmm, do not 
defpair therefore, but call in to thy help the Power and 
Virtue oi Sutttrn, he will not leave thee unrefolved, but 
he will put an Offering into thy Hand, of a high glitter- 
ing Minera, which is grown out of the firit matter of all 

XXIII. If I had not committed io many Errors in 
Chymick Proceffes, and wrought in vain, I had not yet 
attained thereunto : for it is not a fmall matter to get the 
true Bird oi Hermes truly and ferviceably out of th& One 

XXIV. Therefore that obje6lion is to no purpofe, that 
tnany wrought in vain upon Gold, wliich muii: be impu- 
ted to their ignorance, and not to the.poffibiUty. 

XXV. But that there Ibould be no more ftrength and 
vertue in Gold, than it flieweth in its fubftance, and 
that it could impart nothing to its Brethren in its fub- 
ftance of his precious Blood, is not to be beUeved ,• for 
otherv^^fe the Regeneration, Multiplication, yea, and 
the Tranfmutiition alfo it felf would have been un- 

XXVI. But as this cannot be denied, fo is it pofTible 
to prove, that Gold is the true Seed of our Tin6ture. 

XXVII. If any {"hall deny this, I could wilb to fee 
him, that could defend and demonftrate a more congru- 
ous and fitter matter. 

XXVIII. Is it not palpably feen, how grofly thofe did 
err, which fought for this moft fixed Being out of an o- 
ther Kingdom, and preferred the lame before this noble 
Body ? Such could reap nothmg but Shame and Difgrace, 
who took in hand fuch mean and corruptible po3':fonous 
things, fir differing and far diflant from the pure, in- 
corruptible and permanent Nature of Gold. 

XXIX. They ihould have confidered the Philofophers 
Sayings, as Smdivogim in 7, Tra^. Thangh thoft hadjr the 

5«4 Of the Philofophers Stone, Lib. VIL 

firft matter of Metals ^ according to the judgment ir faying 
of Ph ilofophers, yet rrere it impojfible for thee to multiply the 
fame central Salt without Gold* 

XXX. Item thefe Verfes. 

Taie pure Gold refind, 
ExtraEl its Soul or Mind. 
Corrode not, but dijfolve. 
Its Tinclure you involve. 
Its hands of (ircngth untye. 
And make the Dead to Dye. 
Its Body thus dejlroyd. 
Life comes to he enjoy d. 
JStU through our hidden Fire, 
Obtained is your defire. 

XXXI. And if Baftlnu had known another Ferment, 
he would not have bid thee in his firft Key to make the 
Purple Cloathing out of Gold, but perhaps .out of Mars 
or Venus. For if you Avill meliorate the Fruits of the 
Tree of Gold or Silver to this inoculating, there muft 
not be taken any other twigg, but a Solar or a Lunar 

XXXII. Gold alone 'tis true, as alfo'all the Metals, 
are in themielves dead, fo that it Icems as if the Philo- 
fophers had reiedled it, and recommended the Philofo- 
phical one j but a faithful Follower mult fee here, with 
open Eyes, and learn to undeiftand, that indeed com- 
mon Gold is dead, and fo long it, is to be rejeded, and 
and is unierviceable. 

XXXIII. But when it fliall be radically diffolved with 
the Philofophical Spirit, or Spiritual Gold, and reduced 
to its Prima Materia^ and then raifcd with its Amma 
glorified and tranfcendently perftBed ; then it may be feen 
whither it will iliew it fclf dead or living. 

XXXIV. In the mean time let none feek for any o- 
ther Ferment bcfides this, to the end, that the truth of 
that Saying may Itand firm, what is lowed will be reap- 
ed again; and that there is not found in all the World 
a more fixed Sulphur, (Namely, unto Fermentation^ 
than tlRri. i^ in the Bodies of Sol and Luna 


Ghap. I> OfthePhilofopbfik Work. J25 

G H A P. XV. 

Of ibt freftttition of the PbUofophtrs Stone, 

1* /^ Oncerning the Preparation, I will takeaway front 
v^ the Reader really all his doubts, and not talk by 
hcar-fay, as others have done: but I will make known 
boldly, not Opinions, but an experimental Knowledge, 
having put my Hands to the Work. 

IT. r did hope, that I fhould be joyflilly recompenfed 
for my pains, to the end, that my Fellow Searchers in 
Nature fliould cftedhially reap comfort thereby; and 
feerein I was not deceived : but yet at firft this noble 
Work was cut off and brought to nought ; fo that there 
was no more left to me, but only a dark or clouded Di- 
redion, and a Draught or Ocular demonttration. 

III. But purfuingNature in her own way, I fay and 
mean by this way, I had caufc to expert a far grcatv^f 
and abounding reward, then I could have from my So- 
phifticated Labours j and accordingly it fell out fota 

IV. For although the true dcfired Fixity was not y«t 
at hand, yet fome feleft pieces in the Proje6lion {"hewed 
an eminent pofTibility, befides what I had taken notice 
of at.thediffolution of Bodies in the changing of Coiors. 

V. Therefore will I communicate now the praclick 
part feithfully, and more largely or plainly, -than evesr 
a-ny hatli done before me; and will omit nothing of thg 
Manuals which- Philofophers, as is apparent, pafs by 
in filence. 

VI. As you find in BernhardfU, where he faith ; that 
he knew many which knew the matter of the Secret, but 
they knew not the manner of the Preparation. 

VII. Therefore let every one take heed and have a cars, 
that he be not feduced by Sophifters, much leis kt hiiu 
fix any thought on forcible Fires, Aqua Fortis, or othef 
firange things, as to make his beginning thereby to this 
Miftery ; for all fiich things will be in vain, 

VIII. Let him foft be acquainted with the right iTsat- 
ter, and confjder the beginning, then he will know how 

P p w? 

526 FolygrAphieesl Lib. VII. 

to proceed, and learn experimentally how he muft finiOi 
the Work. 

IX. The fame known and noininatcd matter is found 
in many places : and it is well faid of it ; that it, or the 
Stone, which is flung at the Cow, is more worth than 
tht CGn% 

X. In the fame is the true only Phllofophers Mercury, 
in form of a mofl: fair, moft pure and white Pouder, 
which is called the white Dove, and the Doves of Diana, 
An'ima Samrniy and tlie Prima Afateria Aietallorum^ 
which is drawn from the Secunda, of an excellent vola- 
tile, penetrating Subitance. 

XI. So that according to its quality, it foaks in as 
Oil into every Metalline Body, and tmges them in a 
moment into a white Body, as Theophrajlm faith in Li- 
Iro Vexat : My Sjm-it is that Water which Joftntth and open- 
eth all the congealed Bodies of my Brethren. 

XII. In Medicine it is the greatert centrated Purge, 
and the Poylbn of the Dragon : if but the 100 part of 
a Grain be taken, it giveth many Stooles,to admiration. 

XIII. This white jLilly is not unfitly called the dry 
Corporeal Water, becaufe it mingleth with Metals, as 
Water mingleth with Water ; it is alfo the great Salt 
Sea, ffom -whence Metals have their beginning. 

XIV. It can be turned alfo into a right natural wet 
clear Water, like Cryfiial: it is the molt bitter matter^ 
and can be made to be the fwceteft : and it is the Spirit, 
which is found dilperfcd every where, and in every 

XV. About this Preparation many -went to work, but 
could not hit the trwe w^ay : they had the knowledge of 
this Mineral, but .they were amazed at the wonderful 
Operation, and at the appearance of the great variety 
of Colours therein ; fo that they ceafcd to confider fur- 
ther of the other Miracles. . ";>1 ■ ■• 

XVI. Many a judicious Man which followed thtf Let- 
ter, hath given over there, where he lliould have begun ; 
many a one came fo nigh to it, that he had the Lilly in 
his Hand, knew in Ibme meaiure its Virtue, and yet they 
dclpaired, as not conceiving and believing the great 
things which it could pertorm. 

XVII. This noble white Flower is that which they put 
many Names to, and is obtained by Art, x/;*. the icpa- 


C hap. 15. Of the Philofophers Stone. ^27 

ration of the pure from the impure ; but it befools them 
all, becaufe they knowing that the Kings Bathlliouidbc 
pure, were mightily offended at the mean form of the 
Subie6i, and could not comprehend that the Pearl was 
vailed or hidden, which lyes in it, under flich a poor 
gray Coat, and with the rankeft Poyfon. 

XVIII. And becaufe they would be more wife than 
the Creator himfelf, therefore they invented a multitude 
c£ A'lenfirmms, thereby to perform the faid Separation, 
and to get the true Philofophical Mercury, which Zc.eha.- 
rius calls Flos Soils ; and Ridley and others call it, the 
Sperme or the QHintejfence of our ftinking Earth, 

XIX. But their intention being a m^eer invented work, 
fo there came nothing of it: for to our matter no ftrange 
thing muft come: which if any fuch Meterogenity is put 
to it, then is it impure and unieiviceable. 

XX. In it felf it hath no fuperfluity, but it is altoge- 
ther like unto a common A4erc'/.ryj to be driven up in a 
Fume, wliich is the life of Metals : and when this loofeth 
the leaftintheFire, it is impofllble to open and to bring 
the Gold therewith into its Prmn Materia, as the Turbo, 
witnefleth ' ^ 

XXI. Therefore there is required this Minera at the 
begiriijng, without the addition of any Itrange thing at 
all, for the diflblution or Icparation, but only by and 
of its felt ; out of which, afterward Avith the help o^iTd- 
can is brought forth its hot Baliam_, that it is in form 
palpable and impalpable, and yet is it prcfented vifibly 5 
fb that nothing more can he required of it. 

XXII. For which caufe, Philoibphers cry. Our Stom 
dorh ffihlime ml dijfdve its felf, and doth all it felf. They 
fay, "that after the ConjunCliOn it is a moff eafie Wcrkj, 
a V/omans Work, and Childreus Play. 

XXIII. And'ib they reject altogether thofe, that iifi 
great Subtilties and divers hlements, and would get ne'.^r 
Principles : whereas Nature aforehand hath put the mat- 
ter into the Hand of the Son of Wifdcm, in which is to 
be found the pure Subftance, or as I m.ay fay, the Fote- 
/i:;tes or Qitintcffsnce of ths Elements, and the three pute 

XXIV. And on tlie ether fide, among tlie Sophiilers 
t^'ierc arifeth a great doubt, what Nature intended to 
f'laks of her ilippofedPiindp^-^s? 5tis sw Errcr^ if Ha- 

"P p 2 twr^l 

528 Pofygraphices, Lib. VII. 

tures be not diftinguiilied and kept in order ; whereas 
God for orders lake puts every thing into its own place, 
where it lliould ftand. 

XXV. Therefore how miferable a thing is it, when an 
old wife Fool with his opinion banifheth as it were, by 
his fubtilties, the Truth and real Science out of or from 
Natures poifibilitv ; and on the other fide leadeth them 
on impolllble, difficult BufinefTes which he doth not un- 
derftand, neither hath he any ground for it. 

XXVI. Many boafl:, that they have the Philofophical 
Luna and So/, and cannot defend or prove in fadl, what 
they in words maintain, neither indeed with the Philo- 
fophers Sayings, becaufe according to the meaning of 
Rojariusj there is no Sulphur to be found under the Sun, 
which i? like to the Sulphur of Sol and Lunay 

XXVII. Underftand here the Fixity of it ; therefore 
none can call his Sulphur or Mercury in defed o^ Fixity ^ 
a Sulphur or Mercury of Sol or Luna Ewbryonaied, much 
lels elemcntated, but he mult be doubtRil iHll, whither 
it be not ^nArfenicalFumcox a. Real^rijh Sulphur, which 
IS far off from our red and white Ferment. 

XXVIII. And it is lufficiently feen now adays, that 
many cry up for an Aurum potabile, the EfTences of Li- 
tharge, of Copper, Iron, Tartar, &c. and often a na- 
turally fallen Rain water Afenflruum, which ftood on a 
Gold Calx, which was not extraited, and become red of 
its Iclr', by vertue of putrefadlion ; thefe they fell for a 
great price to People, tho' a notorious and grand Deceit, 
and containing no kind of fixed Solar or Lunar Sulphur 

XXIX. But it is far other\vife with our Pradica: and 
though our Subjed of the Mineral Stone containeth the 
true Philofophical Adercury and S.'dphur, fo that by its 
Iclt, ffue :i.U addinone vel diminutione, fucha perfect Uni- 
vciial Medicine can be made of it ; yet the Univerfale 
Gc.'icraViJJhrjHm is far higher, which is proved thus. 

XXX. B'jcaufe this Lmpii A'fineraUs doth not touch any 
Mcials yer, unlef^ it be iirit Fermewtcd : therefore Philo- 
fophers bid us, to carry this Medicine upon Gold and 
Sliver, that the Spirituality may be confirmed thereby, 
and the Uis,rets may be compaiicd or obtained. 

XXXI. Now if the Fixity and Ingrefs lliall be taken 
fiom two fixe.l forts of Metals, what think you can hin- 

Chap. x6. Of theVhilofophers Stom, 529 

dcr, if I fliould prcfently mingle therewith the Calxes 
of both Bodies ? 

XXXII. I tell thee of a truth, that this was the very 
fhort way of the Ancients, of which Theophr^jipu wioto. 
fo much, in which many before me have gone, and I 
my .felf have walked in. 


Of the PraSiick part of the Preparation. 

I. T fhall now faithfully reveal and i"hew the Pra6llca 
•*• how firft may be had our Matrix ^ Adercnri^u dn- 
plicatui, and our Regina, or Aqua jlcca. Let every one 
obferve carefully the Dodrine of Philofophers, and fee 
how we bring wholly and alone the Eletlmm unto per- 
fedion, M^hich containeth the Philofophical Mercmy and 
Stilphnr, to the end that the right Lap^ Mineralis be 
made out of it. 

II. But becaufe we intend to operate upon, or for the 
general work or Univerfal Tin^ure, you mufl know, that 
you are not to take the Body, but the cleareil:, pureit 
Effence of our Subje6l, to make therewith our Ferment 
foft, and tranfcendently or plufcjuam perfeil, for to get 
the Arcanum Arcamrum ; in w^hich lyes hid the greateft 
Myfteries, which the Philofophers kept moft fccret. 

III. However its Preparation is intimated by them 
thus, when they lay : fac Meramum per Mcrcurinm^ per 
Aquam Mercurialer/iy which are Golden Words, and 
impolTible for Ignorants to believe. 

IV. Viz.. That itfhould be Mercwins d-Aplicatns ojcSab- 
limatus : however this Preparation cannot be had ^vithout 
addition, neither muft that which came to it in the Pre- 
paration, ftay with it, as Theophr.ipis faith, in Tiucl^ira 

V. He that will follow the footfteps of Truth, let him 
feek after the nearer matter, ' which in tlie Druggilts Shops 
may be had for a fmall price, and m many places it 
may be had for nothing. 

Pp 3 VI. TijlA 

5^0 Tolygrnfhkes. Lib.VR^ 

VI. This muFcbe mingled with two parts of the mod 
bitter Water, which ir the orpanded Fagle, or the glow- 
ing Coal, which the Court-Milbcls, orControler/of an 
Hundred Years old, in the white ii-iiidlc, giveth forth ^ 
and it va\\[\ itand f:r a time in the Cellar. 

VII. Then our Green Lyon is Iben with admiration, 
and that is made manif;!!:, which in many places is found 
in Mines; and out of which Metals grow, which is the 
lij.'ht Salt or Vitriol, of which ^^/'ff/jf/'^ faith : F'i^rioUm 
jc'A Sal ejj medianj CT" fn'jopritwi Sewen gentrandi omnia Me- 
tf.!u, ti?.nq;ta'm principi'im reTT^orijJimum omnium Aietallornm. 

VIII. When this diifoJution is dor.e, then is it brought 
h\ Diftillation on tlie top of theOlympick Mount, where 
ou! white Dove delireth to rert, being eagerly purfucd by 
the Fagle, to n^ike a Prey of her. 

IX. But it is io beaten off by the Rainy Weather, tliat 
our Dove bv tlie help of tlie Red L^'on, becomes io pure 
as pulveriled Pearl, or Diamond Pouder ; a Poyfon of 
Poyion, and the tme Spirit of Saturn, and of Arfeniclc. 

X. This is afterward our White Lilly ^ or Spirit us Ader- 
enriiy Aqua. BeneAltia^ wdiich Philofophers called a Cry- 
ftalhnc Air, coagulated by Nature, ^►i/j/w very plainly 
calls it AlHK-im phmojum ; but Salomon calls it the bright 
glittering Lace. 

XI. If this work be rightly performed, you have then 
found the firfl Key which opens into the Virgins Caftle : 
and there to wait for a further fuccefs, and to be kept 
from erring in the Fermentation, that all may be brought 
to the wifhed end. 

XII. But tliisonc thing muft be well confidered, how 
the Ferjremu.r or Semen yiultbe prepared, that the Pin- 
guedo Terra n jirA may the better work into, and be quick- 
ly di/Tolved. 

XIII. Ar.d becaufe mention is made of Gold belong" 
ing thereto, it is requifite, that the fame be well broken 
and iubtiltzed by BalHi'.fs his Femer Bath. ' 

XIV. Othcnrife, if it be dilfolved by the common 
A qua Fonts, and the prajcipitated Gold by Salt of Tar- 
tar be taken, th?n the Spirits of Viitriol are prxcipitated 
alfo with the lame ; fo that of one dram of Gold two 
are gotten often ; neither can thefe Spirits be edulcora- 
te.!, aiul arc vcit obftrucHve. 

XV. With 

Chap. 1 6. Ofthe'PhilofofhickWorki 531 

XV. With the Silver it is done thus ; it is diiTolved in 
TLTiAqmFortisy prsecipitated in a Copper Pan, then the 
Calx is to be very well edulcorated^ and refen^ed for ufe. 

XVI. But for more fecurity, left you iliould be hin- 
dered, by reafon of the cdlhroGvc Spirits, it is more fafc, 
that folia Solis & LunA be taken inftead of the diiTolved 
Goli and Silver to proceed in the Work, then will you 
be free from any fear or danger. 

XVII. And the truth of thefe old Verfes fiands firm. 

If thou the Gem mthin vpouUfi gety 
The Key muft to the Loci he fit. 
When Head and Tail are joynd in one. 
The mighty Work's perform'd and done. 

XVIII. Where for a further inftrudion I fay, that by 
means of Sendivogius and others, I went mightily aftray, 
when they faid : the one is the Matrix, the other is the 
Seed of the Man, and the third the Seed of the Woman. 

XIX. Others take the Red Servant and the White 
Woman : Others put the Volatile to the Fixt, coagulate 
after the ancient way, then fay they you have the Tin- 
6lure of Philofophers. 

XX. Theophrajius faith, take the red Blood of the Ly- 
on, and the Gluten AquiU, &c. After a long confidera- 
tion, and for experience fake, I took in hand two Works 

XXI. I mingled in a due proportion, the Ferwentum 
Solis & Luna, as the perfect Seed of the Man, and of the 
Woman, with the Matrix. 

XXII. After that I joyned the Frrmentum Solis, as the 
Seed of the Man, with the Philofophical Earth, as its 
Matrix or the White Woman. 

XXIII. Thirdly I joyned the Mercury with the white 
Ferment or Calx Lun<ey and put all under the Hand of 
Vulcan, expecting the poflibility on both fides ; biit at 
the alteration of the Fire, I found but one effe6l. 

XXIV. Hence every one may be affured, that he can- 
not be damnified, which way foever he taketh, except 
in Harveft time ; wherein the Fruits will appear corref- 
pondent to the Seed of each. 

XXV. This Conjun6lion, though it looks but mean, 
yet you muft not tranfgrefs in the quantity or weight, 

Pp 4 lor 

^^2 Pol^grsphkes. Lib. Vn. 

tor if therein an Error lliould be committed, it wojild b^ 
an Univerfal Error thro' the whole Work ; for which 
caiife, it is neceffary to take the Advice of truly Philoljb- 
phick Authors. 

XXyi. For my part I followed Senihogitu, and he 
may iafely be followed. For he faith TV^t^. 9 if the Gold 
be mingled with it eleven times : Scil. 11 parts, then is 
it weak, almoft unto Death, theChalybs conceives, and 
Bears a Son, who is more glorious than his Father. 
XXVII. If afterw^ard the Seed of the new born Son is 

put agr^in into its Matrix^ then he cleanfeth the lame, 

and niaketh it a thoufand times fitter to bring forth the 

inofl: glorious Fruit. 
XXVIIL He that flrikcsthis in the Wind, and flight- 

eth it, cannot make a mixture, nor attain to any dmo- 

lution or perfe6lion. 

XXIX . But when the Conjun6lion is done in the afore- 
faid manner, the Compound, (which however comes 
from one) is fet into a convenient Digeftion, and is con- 
tinued for a Month. 

XXX. And then isitfeen afterwards, how thePhilo* 
fophers Mercury worketh on the Body, and the putrcfa- 
chon enfueth ; the whole matter turning into a blaci^ 
colour, like Ink. 

XXXI. And thePhilofophersdarknefscometh to light, 
io that the Calcination and Solution of the wife Maliers 
is performed at once therein. 

XXXII. And the Pores of our Body are thus opened, 
that through the help of the Volatile Body or Servant, 
the Fixt may be made Volatile alfo, and the Parents 
may feed on the Child, and keep united infeparaUy. 


The former Dijcourfe eontiftued. 

I. "T^He Philofophers Sublimation muft not be tak«n 
-"- tor a thmg that is driven on high, as the Sophifters 
fay : but the clofe and compadt Body muft rightly b? 
©pened and lubtilized, and tlie impure feparated from 
th^ pure. 

II. Nor 

(Jhap. 1 7 . Oftk Phih/ophers Stone, 5^5 

II. Nor that Sal Armonjack mutt be added to k, as 
Chymitts ufually do, and fo mingled together; and 
though Sendivogm maketh mention of ftale Urine, yet 
he meaneth Sal Armoniack, when he fet forth ourpene- 
^ting Mercury by fuch a Sal Armoniack. 

IIJ. For as Sal Ai-moniack pjenetrateth, and brings 
the leaft Metal into Corruption, fo doth our Sal Armoni- 
ack with the moft fixed Body : for itcorrodeth, diflblveth 
and corrupteth the fame, caufmg another form, and a 
new Generation to come forth. 

IV. Corruptio enim unias eji Generatio alterhu ; and this 
is performed by the help of a due gentle Fire, and by 
the Mercurial Fume or Mineral Water, which is the true 
Fontina Bernhardt ; that after the finifhing of the fame 
degree the Ferment is not to be found again, though the 
Fondna were drawn dry. 

V. Now if this degree be iiiccefsfully finifhed, as it 
may commodioufly be done in a Month or four Weeks, 
thereupon followeth the Coagulation, which hath coagu- 
lated and dryed up many Mens Brains, infomuch, that 
they lott thereby all their Underf-landing. 

VI. Becaufe they imagined, that a wet Spirit belong- 
ed to this Solution, and tliat they faw and concluded, 
that the Solution or Menlhuum is of greateft concern- 
ment; whereupon they ftrove to ufe a multitude of 
means for the Solution, as their Writings and Books of 
Proceifes fufficiently fliew. 

VII. Falling into fuch Errors, at latt they knew not 
bow to bring the diffolved Bodies to any coagulation ; 
and before they could compafs it, their Glalfes broke in 

VIII. Yet fbme of them brought it to a confidence 
by pellicanizing, frequent Cohobations and Circulati- 
ons ; but the Mafs they obtained, was to no purpofe, 
and worth nothing to their Intention ; becaufe the re- 
quifites mentioned above, were not found therein. 

IX. Our true Coagulation is performed in this man- 
,ner, the Spirit mutt fix and coagulate it felt with the 

Calxes of its kind. For Coagulation and Fixation is 


X. And our Spirit is not a common Water, but a 
JTioft Volatile Spirit and Hermaphrodite, becaulip it trajii- 
eends all oth^r diffolving Waters, opening radically the 


5?4 'Polygrafhicts. Lib. VD- 

Silver as ^rell as the GoLl, which could not be done by 
any other Spijit or ^^^lte^. 

XI. Hence it isrcquiiltc thit it be brought to a fuper- 
fist Subllancc, and if it ^vere not a Metalline, dry Spi- 
rit, fuch a Coagulation could ne^^cr cnfue ; tor no com- 
mon Water or Spiiit can be mixed with Mctab, as to 
make it inkparablc. 

XII. In this degree the Fii-e mud be fo encrcafed and 
continued, till the black loole its Telf", and turn white, 
where the Fume allayeth, and lb unitctli, tint it cin 
no more be ieparated \ and this is performed mcerly by 

XIII. For as tlic Volatile was at the firft tlie Agent, 
and by its fubtileft Spirits diilblres the Body, and 
ges it into a Spirit ; fo is it now in the other file. 

Xn^ The Body becomes now the Agent, and ler? 
forth his hot fiery Namre, binds the Spirit, and r:^:\:i 
It generate in ma^'.im plus qnam I'n-'MUm^ but this rCv:} • - 
rceh time; and this Labour can iurdly be fiuilhci in 
a Ycir. 

Xy. But there are required fomc Months to the true 
Calcination of our ey£^, where the degrees of Fire mul^ 
rife. For Fhilofophers-fay, Ccff'bwitc &s no/rrum cnm igne 

XVI. Therefore tbis burning mull continue for a time, 
if you intend to get the Phiiuxj fo that the Ma^a look 
not s;recn .as a Smaragd^ but be dianged into the colour 
of a Ked Ruby. 

XVII. Yet, before this tliere prececds the colour of a 
Peach Bloilom, for a fign that the Work goeth right. 

XVIII. The Work being brought thus Var, thou ihalt 
fee, how eafily die Terra Altrrua may be feparatcd from 
it, for to get the EJfence of all EJ^ences ; and thou mayrt 
hare the Stone in ferwa ficca & liq%Ua, wliich is one 
\\>rk, and yet fooleth many. 

XIX. For when oui" Body hath been firft in tlie filrifh 
Waters, they mult be the lame at lalt, for the true Uni- 
venal Tnic^uie mult infillibly luve fuch qualities, if fo, 
be it Ihall be ler\iccable to its Brethren, as lus been 
laid, yi^.. to the inferior Metals ; and Cure Mans In- 

XX. For .as in Hirreft time, the Husbandman gathers 
Ins Sowed Corn with great cnaeal'e, fo here there is feeu 


Chap. 17- Of the Thilcf of hers Stone. 5^5 

alfo a great augmentation; lo that it rcioyces and rc- 
frcfhcs the Poficiror, and requites all his pains in quanti- 
tate &qualitaie. 

XXI. Nou-, that all thing? may be compleat in this 
Work, and that I may not be blamed lor any conceal- 
ment, I will fufficiently innm6l you, how the laid Se- 
paration muft be made, and hc.\v the Central Salt after 
Calcination and Fixation, mufl be cxtradcd. 

XXII. Though the Philolbphers, by rcafon of fomc 
Ignorant?, and unexperienced Peribns in the Work, were 
filcntand myfkriou?, yet they made tl-c erd clear and 
manife(t ; and they conicll plainly, that the final Soluti- 
on was in the Wine VclTcl, viz.. tnat by the Spirit, which 
lyeth |-:'d therein, thi? faltilb Extraction can be had. 

XXIII. For fay they, as a Glaf?, jRlIed with common 
W^ine, doth not run ovcrir any Gold be laid in it, but 
keepeth together, and as the Magnet draweth Iron, fo 
doth the Spirit of Wine and the Elfcnce of Gold, far 
more abundantly; fo that thereby a full reftitution of 
Mans weak Body may etifuc. 

XXIV. So that Philolophcrs by the help of their Work, 
may take fomething out oi it, for to hold out the better, 
that the Operator may in the interim have folnewhat to 
live upon. 

XXV. And they bid Men to reduce it to a particular 
Worky (wliich is underltood thus, th;^t Silvr can be 
tranfmutcd into GoldJ of which more Ihall be fpokcn 
in the Chapter of particulars, to which place 1 refcive it. 

XXVI. Every one may cafily gucfs by that, which 
hath been laid, of what the Lapis mult be compotcd, if 
^t the half lime, a Booty may be taken out horn thence. 

XXVII. I lliould Ipeak alio of the augmentation, but 
Jiot having perfeded the Work fo far, to the great and 
Univerial latisfaction, I leave it now here with this 
Preparation, and fo far as my experience has truly 
taught me. 

XXVIII. Not doubting, but when you have come 
thus far in the true way, and that it is fully known ta 
you, that the augmentation may prolperouily fuccced or 
?n(ue, which, as I conceive, cannot be performed byany 
other means but tlirougli its Principles; and thus 1 leave 
;liis Dil'courfc of Preparation. 


^1$ Foljigraphices. Lib. VII. 

Of the Inftruments ft for this Work, 

I. /^F the neceflary Inttruments I have this to fay; 
^^ our Stone, fay Philofophers, is one matter, and 
requires one VeiTel, and one Furnace : hence it may be 
gathered, that indeed it mutt be no otherwife. 

II. I my felf hadno need of SubUming, Calcining or 
Reverberating Furnaces, Athanors or dull Henrys, or o- 
ther leveral Furnaces ; there is no need of Artificial Vcf- 
fcls, efpecially to thofe that have the truth. 

III. OneGlafs, aVelTelof Glafs orClay, in the form 
of a round Chamber or Egg, is enough at the beginning. 

IV. It is true indeed, that thofe which walk in this 
way in an other form, invent other Veifels and Furna- 
ces, becaufe their intention is itrange j therefore they 
muft have ttrange Inltrument-s alfo. 

V. But they may be asked, if Spirit hs Mercurii, ViEiri- 
cliy Solisj Roris Afaialis, Sulphfirisj Salis Armoniaciy &c. 
have been the MenflrHo. PhilofophorHm ; pray what In- 
ftruments had the Ancients} in whofe time there were no 
Glajfes in ufe ? And what ufed they for their Coagula- 
tion of corrofive Spirits ? 

VI. I am of opinion, that their Earthen Pots, would 
have attracted far fooner, as they truly thought, and 
fuddenly coagulated fuch Spirits. 

VH. But by this confideration every one may guefs, 
that their Aqua Solvens whi} needs have been a dry Water or 
Spirit) for ethervfife it hadheen impoffihle, that the [aid An- 
cient s^ by reafon of the vant cf GUjfes or firm In/hnmentSy 
could have coagulated the [aid Spirits. 

VIII. And all the Philofophers had grofly err'd, that 
ever made mention of a ^r> AienjirHHWy if there had been 
at hand another Diffolution. 

IX. Now, though fbmething may be obiedled againtt 
this, yet I do hold, that I may build further upon my 
Experience and the futhfiil Writings of Philofophers, 
than upon any Mans imagination. 

X. Befidc?, 

Chap. i8. Of the Fhtlofof hers Stone. 557 

X. Befides, the faid Ancieat truePhilofophers had not 
fo great Expences to build luch fair Artificial Furnaces 
and ftately Laboratories, as they do now a days, kit 
made ufe of a fmall Furnace in a quiet place, and at- 
tended the fame. 

XI. The variety of feveral Furnaces intimates the va- 
riety of Labourp, and diverfity of Matters, when other- 
wife all the Writings concord with one Saying ; that 
the Being of our Art doth not confift in varieties of Mat- 
ters, as //<?rw<?j- plainly fpeaks of it. 

XII. Therefore let Novices not trouble themfelves with 
many Furnaces and Laboratories, one fmall Furnace is 
enough to exert and demonftrate all the degrees therein. 

XIII. Let it be fetin a place, where you fear not any 
danger of Fire, left mifchief lliould enfue, and fpoil or 
deftroy all your Work. 

XIV. And into this Furnace let him fit a Capell or 
Pann, and fill the fame with Sand or Aibes, and fet his 
Glafs therein, and not take it out, unleis he fee the 
whole Mafs look of a Blood red Colour. 

XV. When that Colour appears, it is the fign of Har- 
vcft, which is nigh at hand. Let this fnjpce CQncemiitv 
the Infirwnents and Furnaces. 


Of the requijite Fire: and frft of the Ignis 

1. 1 N the next place there followeth the Fire, hoAv tliat 
-*• murt be governed , fo that this moR noble Miirery 


- i'y 

may be elaborated, and brought forth j which is a molt 
neceflary point for Novices to know, kit they fall into 
hurtful Errors. 

II. For it is known, that Authors have concealed their 
Fire, which is the chiefell and greatett ma-rier of the 
Operation herein, and intended to terrifie and keep orf 
the limple bnes by their dark Sayings. ^^ 

III. I grant, whaty^r/-."/?^; iaithmthe Book of rr^A, 
that our Fire is for to expand the natural Ekin^ntal Fire, 

5^8 PolygrAphices. Lib. VIL 

which Rirs up and maketh the other Heavenly and Ter- 
reftial Fire to work, which is hid in the matter. 

IV. And this, when he laith : pm: our Gold ami Silver 
in o-4r Fire^ then it t'Arns to a dry Liquor. 

V. And becaiife here are named two Fires, let every 
one oblen'e, that the common Fire is too weak, to burn 
our Phcenix, if the other- Fire, which is hid in ths matter, 
(miohtilykept fecret,with ftrangeNames)did not the beft. 

VI. Hence the Ancients faid; not Balneum Marine, 
j4[hes^ Sandsy &c. fed ignis calcis vivXy five cdor Sutphn- 
ris vet Mermrii no/frij &c. is t\:i true Fire. 

VH. And it is true, that of thefe two Fires the one 
without the other can do nothing : and if the Operation 
of both fliall enliie, then the natural Fire muli kindle 
the other, and make it work. 

VIII. And the cold mull not be taken for the warm, 
nor the warm for the cold, much lefs the external muft 
not exceed with a great force the internal; for then all 
your doing will prove a labour in vain, and drive the 
Volatile from the Fixed. 

IX. Or, caufe our Malf^i, being very fluid, to be 
brought mto a Flux or Running ; as it happened to mc 
la-eral times, that my whole Work was fpoiled thereby. 

X. But the Fire, as Bcmhardus faith, mult be an equal 
digefting, conttant Fire, not too forcible nor too hot. 

XI. In the firll degree, you muft not make haft "with 
the Solution, for if the Body be not rightly dilTolved, 
there cannot follow any firm Fixation of the Volatile. 

XII. After the Solution, it is requifite, that.the fecond 
degree be exerted or obfeived, where the whole M.-iffa is 
turned to a white Diamond-like Poudcr; but before 
that, there appear feveral fair Colours in the Glafs, as 
well as in the matter. 

XIII. When this is done, and the Albedo changeth, 
ib that it turns to the appearance of a P<?rf<r/)fn/o.'<rW')/ow, 
then make the Fire nut too ftrong, left you fpoil thq 

XIV. For Philofophers attcftcd fo, and have declared 
it fo, when they laid ; Combarite as nojinsm cam igne for' 

XV. Then the whole Operation obtaineth the end, 
when the whole Subftance is turned into a deep red co- 
Jour, like unto a iluby, or like to Bloody and in 


C bap. 19' Of thtVhilofofhtrs Stem, 5^^ 

or on a glowing plate, Iheweth its fclf like an OH witlt- 
out a Fuine, of a fweet Tafte, and diifolveth like Salt 
in any Liquor. 

XVI. Then is the Body Calcined, and the Spirit rights 
ly united and fixed. 

XVII. It might be asked, becaufe I faid above, that 
the Mafs is very Volatile, and melteth into one Liunj> 
in a ftrong Fire, and cauleth damage ; how one might 
be fo cautious, as fp^cially to oblerve it, feeing that" in 
the fourth degree the ftrongett Fire mult be uled } 

XVIII. Here obferve, that the Matter or the 6p?rit, 
at the beginning, hath not endured yet a irae unitnii^ 
with the Body, but through the force of Fire may eafily 
be feparated from it in the Flux, Melting, or Sublima- 

XIX. But after the DilTolution our Spirit is coagulated, 
and hath no more any fuch fiuidnel?, and is no more 
feparable, two are become one j fo tliat no Element can 
feparate them. 

XX. It may be objedled, doit not thou contmditft thy 
felf .^ inuft not thy perfe^a Maffa, or Laps Philofophkus, 
be fluid, like Wax or <Oil? Why doft thou lay, that af- 
ter the Solution and Coagulation, there is no more any 
liich fiuidnefs or damage to be feared ? Perhaps thy Me- 
dicine will be an unworthy matter, as others, a iturdy' 
unpenetrating Ponder ? 

XXI. Note here again, that after the finiiliing of our 
Work, there is then required the greateit and molt fecrec 

XXII. For when our Body is duly Calcined with the 
Philofophers Afercury^ or is diifolved with the often m.en- 
tioned ^qua Sicca, and coagulated; then at lait t!;erq 
happeneth a Separation. • • "w- 

XXIII. So that the Terra .,!^or;?/^ feparateth from the 
Eifence of Sol, and muft be ieparated, as Sendivogim 
faith in A^ercurio: T^hsnip is hnrnt, then is ic put 
in the Water, ^.nd is digcfied; .afier it is digefted, is it given 
to Sick Bodies', for the whkhj-l'hti'vd /ilready npmnated the 
Spirit of Wine. . '■ '■ \r/r /■.■ : ■ ;^. ■ 

XXIV. For this Terra Mortua, as an unworthy tiring, 
containetha great, ifardinefs Or hardnefs, which hinders 
liie flux or^,t]uiLdnefs of qht hjjence. - - • ■• •■«■ - - ■ 

XXV. But 

540 Folygrdphkes. Lib. VIL 

XXV. But after the Separation^ we have tht true in^* 
comburtible Oil, the Aftral Salt of Philofophcrs, theend^ 
which is Hke to the bcgiiumig, the moft worthy fix>uv 
the moft unworth^^ 

. XXVI. And in brief, after this final Sepiaration, thoii 
haft thy Medicine in forma Sicca & Liqmia ; the true Trea- 
fure of all Riches, the greateft Miftery, which lay fecreC 
and hid in Nature, the true Afylnm defertornnrPauperttmj 
and the right taie infallible augmentHm ; yea, fijch al 
Treafure, of which I fpeak, tliat thou mayft cry, VIC-' 

XXVII. For this Salt hath the vidory of ail things, 
over all the Volatile Spirits of Mctah, and, to coagMate' 

Of the Ignis Internuf* 

I. *T^O fay fomething of the Myfterious Fire of our mat- 
-*• ter, I muft confefs the truth, that I muft agree 
and confent with the true and faithful Philofophers, andj 
fay, that our dry Water is nothing elfe, but a Sulphu- 
reous Living Fire. 

II. But it is not the common Sulphur, which Calci-. 
iieth Metals, burneth and deftroyeth them; but it is a.* 
SulphfireoHs Water, which bringeth Metals into a Melt- 

III. And of this Geher faith,^»j Sulphur contMifcerey & 
Corporthns Amicari noverit, inveniet Arcannm de fecretis 
ISiattirdi maximum. 

IV. This Sulphureous Living Water, is one of the 
greateft Fires, which hath power to mingle with our 

V. And it is the true EfTcnce of the Elemental, Hea-f 
venly and Earthly Fire, which tvpifieth the Fire of the 
Laft Judgment, whereby the Elements themfelvcs are 
dilTolved; and HkiII bring forth new Elements, as it 
were the Elfences of the former. 

VL But 

Ch ap. 2 o. Of the Phitofophick Workp 541 
VI. But becaufethis Eir exceeds, or goethbeyond the 
common reafon, it is counted an ImpofHbiiity, and Ab- 
fuidity ; and none takes pains to underfimd tbefe plain 
Sayings of the Philofophers. 

. Vil. Much lefs do tliey underfbnd the profound Al- 
legorical Doctrines of the true Sons of "VViidoin, who 
wholly concealed their Fire. 

VIII. And it is iuR, it lliould be concealed, and kept 
fecret, that it may be efleemed as a folly or fondncfs to 
the Self-defigning and wicked World. 

IX. Many undertook to elucidate this point, but they 
have not meliorated the Spagyrical Republickj but only 
deteriorated it. 

X. They invented a Itupendious multitude of Firesj 
of Candles, Lamps, and the like: they adviled the ufe 
of Steel Glaffes, ofHorfe Dung and Hogs Dung, imbi- 
bed with Urine, oi* Aqua Vitat : at lall: they iiiYented, 
the continual lliaking and ftirring, that they inight ftir 
up our Fire, and to be the caufe of the Solution. 

XI. But Bernhardtis counted all this meer Foppery, 
and rejeded them ; though many did iraagiue,. that ^ 
diverfity of Fires was requifite. ■_ 

XII. For, as perchance a Philofbpher may have pb? 
tained the end fuccefsfuUy, for which realon he has rt^ 
je6led all other ways, and walks only after his owri 
way: fo, becaufe out of any thing in the VVvorld this 
our Medicine may be prepared, therefore of necetTity irt 
thofe cafes there are required alfo fevefal Furnaces, lu- 
(h-uments and degrees of Fire. 

XIII. Every Mailer, who knows beft the qiialitics of 
his Work, knows how to order the Regiment of Fire as 

XIV. But it needs no exaft Art or Goverrmcnt, bs- 
caufe Children and Women fportingly can perform it. 

XV. The Fire, (viz.. the natural) is ail the Art, where- 
by Nature or the W^ork is accompliflied, the other In- 
grediences are mean, as Bernkardu.: iixixh*. mreriirkmid- 
tiUidine Ars ncjira non co,^fi}it : ell enbn Res pina^ Medici- 
na una, Lapis unus, in quo totm^. A-Ia^iileri^m conjiilit, cni 
7',on addiwHS rem extranearyi nifi q'iod in ejus prctparatiofie 
Jiipf?flfia rermvemus. Nam per cnni-^ et hi ea fimt omni4 
Artinecejfaria. He that teacheth other'.v'fe, is a Sophi- 
ftcr; and. only ufes the Baliances of Deceit. 

Q.q XVI.Befide?, 

542 . Polygrafhicts. Lib. VII. 

XVI. Befides, if every Philofophcr, in time of Bern- 
hardt^s, made his Stone out of a fingular matter, no 
knowledge could be had concerning it fo foon, and fo 
eafily ; but only by this means, their ivords and deeds 
agreeing, it produced a Knowledge and FriendOiip one 
^mong another ; and Avithout this it would have been as 
a concealed Trcafure to this day. 

XVII. But their agreeing and Harmonious Difcourfe, 
in the Fundamentals of Truth, drew them together, that 
they could judge, whether this or that, or the other Man, 
ran the race of TTruth, or faw into the depth of the Miltery 
they Ibiight after. 


Of the time for ptrforming this Work. 

I. T Aftly, and in the fixth place, of the time, which is 
•^^ required for the preparation of this great Work, 
we come now to Treat. Authors arc in feveral opinions, 
fome fpeaking of eight, three, two and one Year,* thefe 
lincqual judgments concerning the time, may make a 
Man doubtful, and ready to err j yea, and after a due 
pondering, to fall into Error. 

II. But I hold it with Bernhardus and Sgndivoginsj that 
our Stone, as my own great experience affures me, I fay 
that it may very well be finillied in a Years time. 

III. For in one Month the putrefadion is performed ; 
m the fccond Month the Dillolution, Calcination and 
sublimation, all which is but one ; in the third Month 
appcareth in the Mafia, canda pavonis, and the Rainbow j 
in the fourth Month the Agent and Patient j aiid the 
white Colour alfo appears. 

IV. This white Colour lafteth two Months ; and if 
you do not keep the true and due degree of Fire, it hold- 
tth yet longer. 

V. After the ending of the whitenefs, nothing can be 
amils in the Fire, yet fo long it murt be continued, till 
the Medicine gettcth the true pUJqmm perfeElion , and is 


Chap. 21. Of the Philofof hick Work. 54$ 

of a tranfparent, Ruby like Colour; which at laft th\~ 
loweth infallibly. 

VI. But why they differ fo much in the time, I think 
the reafon thereof to be this, becaufe at the firfl in the 
Solution, their degree of Fire Was too gentle, anl their 
Work went flow unto blacknefs ; or dit that feme hai 
invented to themfelves fuch a long time, and then" pio- 
pofed matter could no fooner be coagulated. 

VII. I alfo believe, that fometimes, many Years are 
rtqyivctdiunlo Coagulation, 2ind.plufqHam perfetlion, of the 
Spirit of Kiiwo/, Terra, Roris, Satis, &c. and no willied 
efte6l foUoweth. 

VIII. Thefe differing times doth not take away the 
pofTibility of this great Work ; and the iliortcr time is 
tiotto be flighted or rereded, as untrue or falfe. 

IX. Laftly, none ought to imagine, as if this my Tin- 
6lure at its firft beginning lliould tinge prefently One 
Hundred Thoufand parts, and bring in great Riches ; no, 
this cannot be done, becaufe it is yet in its Infancy', or 
"the firft degree. 

X. But it mufl be brought to fuch redundancy, fuper- 
fiuity, or mighty fmitfulnefs, through the long continued 
and manifold Imbibings. 

XI. But if one hath gotten to a deep Ruhcio in this 
Work, he may be fully allured, that his Labour will 
•ftot go unrewarded; and that it ^vill not be in vain, or 
without effed. 

XII. This Tincture is fufficient in the Medicinal UfCj 
and has no need of augmentation ; but it is eafie 10 ex- 
traft the white fixed Salt out of the caldn'd Work ; and 
iiiay be ufed to all Difeafes, to cure them, and rellore 
the Body unto perfe6t Health. 

XIII. And thus have we Hniilied this Difcourfe in few 
and true Words, and Dedicated it to the Life of the fm- 
cere and indefatigable Searchers out of iraili. 

dq ^ CHAP. X}(it 

5 44 Polygraphias. Lib. VII. 


Of a frofitable particular Work, 

I. y^Aily Experience teftifics, that among many thou- 

*~^ land Pruceifc, yea, among Cart Loads ot them, 
the'c is not one which is true: by reafon whereof this 
noble ArtisiTighted, defpifed, andfet at nought. 
' il. Andbecauleby t'lele many talfe ProcelTes, Man- 
kiiid has been deluded, therefore it Avas alfo thought, 
that ihcic was no fuch thing as the Philofophers Stone, or 
'iniCtuK; and that the Univerlal TinClurc could never 
be brought to perteclion, or to perform the Tranlmuta- 
liisi of Metals. 

HI. To which we Anfwer, That there is infallibly 
fucii a ihing as the true Univerlal Ti:n6lure; and befides 
tLic, that there are certain profitable infallible particu- 
lar,-, which are pra6t cable without great difficulty. 

IV. In the Operation of the whole Work, the matter 
mull be found on the one part, as well as on tlie other j 
file the Writin^^? of the Pluloiophers, w^ill be found no- 
thing but fallhoods. 

\^. But as the Phi lofophick Stone or Tin6lure hasits 
peculiar and manifold requifites j ib alfo have the parti- 
cul.:rsthe lame rcciuifites. 

VI. Now, that you may avoid tlie falfc ProcefTes, and 
have a fure foundatioii to bailcl upon, as to particulars, 
lo as to make them profitable, and not fail neither in 
beginning, continuation, nor end, I ihall lay down the 
ioUowing Philojophick r'i.-riiy for a Rule, z/i^. 

VII. To:i muji unite Sol and Lnnn fo firmly and ahjolutelyy 
that thy may he for ever infeparable ;• If you know not hovv 
to do this, you knownotliing truly in our Art. 

VIII. Here lies the Root and Foundation, yea, the 
profound Milkry of all particulars, the which my expe- 
rience has demohlTiatcd to me in manifold and various 

IX. Undcrftand tli-^ thing rightly, and lay hold of 
Diligence, lb will the Vail oi' Ignorance be taken from 


Chap. 22. Of the Philofnphers Stone, 545 

your Eyes ; for all Proceiles which center not in this f^s- 
rity are vain and falfe. 

X. Now, that you may have no caufe tocomp!:iin of 
the brevity of the afore didnrsd Pkilofophick F'crl'y^ heir 
fart-her what the Ancients and Great Men in this Art 
fay. . 

XI. You muft fo join or mi^ Gili and Silver, aiat 
they may, (notwithttanding any means svhatlbever; be 
infeparable. This is Ipokcn of a particular Work. 

XII. What think you, if I fliould fo perfectly unite 
thefe two Bodies, what would this Union cojiie to? I 
give the Searcher after Truth leave to judge. 

XIII. But truly I tell thee, that this united Sol and 
Lnna^ thus perfectly done, can ne -er be feparated, no: 
neither by Aqua Forns, the QHari, O.mem^ nor And^ 

XIV. And when they are thus united, it is a very 
great and profitable particular: for here Lum^ by the 
virtue and power of ^'y/, is totally fixed, graduated, and 
made ponderous. 

XV. This is the particular which the Ancients (learn- 
ed in this Art) bid you to underltmd ; that you may be 
able to proceed on, and to purfuc, to the finilliing of the 
great Work. 

XVI. Here Lnna, rides on a Chariot of four Wheels, 
like Sol^ viz. Color, Fixity, A/LilLhVny and Pondcr-fi:y : 
Here llie borrows Six Meafures of the Sun, and as a 
Queen, wears the Kings Crown: here the Frigiiity is 
conquered by the Calidity ; and the White Woman be- 
comes the Red Man. 

XVII. And here the tfue Filiids Hcrmetis may fee, that 
the Doctrine of the true Philofophers differs much, from 
the jugling Procelfes of Deceivers, for that our p.-^rnc:fUr.r 
have thdr Ojf~jpring from the Root of the tnie UrAverfal 
SnbieEi. ^ ^ 

XVIII. And it is tlie greatefl of Truths, that the Con- 
junBion and Union of the Boiies of Sul a>iJ lyma is -he real 
beginning of our triie Medicine-, Elixir or 'Tihclure. 

XIX. Among the vulgar Proceff-S, there is nothing 
but fillhooi arid deceit, wherein the Lnna is iitvtv ii«e i, 
but is wanting of pond'^rofiiiy, and black; h iviug i)'2-;n 
oulr walhed^ and hxe I (as they ciU itj wit'i J/iic, a:id 

0-4 3 . gV.iduaLs^l, 

^/\6 Poiy^yaphicef. Lib. Vir. 

or.idi'atcd, with the Sulphurs of Af an zn^VenHs, and 
made p Miderous with Sainrn. 

XX. O tnoliiliners! O blindnefs of Mind! can com- 
ino;i S;ilr be the Soap of the Philofophers ? can the Vo- 
latile Sulphurs of A'fars a.nd f^enHs be ever made the Red 
f.xe-^ Ef^gle, or the Ked fixed Sulphur of Sol i 

XXI. Can common Satnrn^ ox its f^itramy ever become 
«iur ponderous Ruby Star, or our fixed Salamander ever 
livipp in the Fire? 

XXII. Have not the Philofophers faid, that whatfo- 
cver is to be meliorated, or made better, it muft be thro* 
a better thing than it felf, and not thro' a Avorfe, as is 
daily 'ih'!'. nradice of Sophifters, 

XXriI. How do they Rand with their fixing Pouders, 
and their ingrefs Pouder?, melting like Butter in the Sun ? 
whfiiT: t'icy want the true knowledge, how to diflinguiili 
bcnvcen that %vhich is fixed and that which is not fixed. 

•XXIV. If they underrtood in wliat degree of fixation 
S'.il and Lma are graduated, and of what Quality their 
Specie's 2irCy in Melting, Calcining, DifTolving, Cement- 
ing, Graduating, and the like ; they would be alliamed 
to i;o about the making of Gold with Drofs or Turds. 
V XKV. Bui as to the clearing up of thefe particular 
Work?, I refer vou to my former Difcourfe de preparatione 
Lapidisjifrom Chap. 1 2. to this prefent Chapter ; from 
w\hence you muii get the Kev, which muft open, and 
Jet vou iiito the iecret Miftery even of thefe particulars. 

XX\''I. Ey which you will kno\v how to take forne- 
thing out of the United Bodies of Sol and Luna, -^nd bow 
to r-diice the fame: if you proceed other wife, you will 
foolijlhly fall into Error, which may lead you {'tu pro- 
bable) into the Paths of too late Repentance. 

XXVn. He that has once truly obtained this -^ug- 
f^?c-zhi^;, is aifured that he has met with the '/nfallible 
Verily, with an incorruptible Tincture, yea,, with an 
inii:,!te Treafurej and needs the help of no otfier In- 

XXyjTI. This Augmentation in the particular and 
iTTKveri'al way is to be kept in the profundity of thePhi- 
Jofop'-.ick Silence; and Avhen Difccxirlcd of, to be done 
on?y in Parables, Kiddles, and Simil!tudf^*s, and as it 
^v^ic at a diH;ince, tiiat Profane and Vik Pcrlons may 
L». ktpL" horn the knowledge thereof. 

XXIX. The 

Cha.p.22. Of the Philofophers Stone, 547 

XXIX. The PoiTeflbr of this Treafure has no occafion 
to run to Kings, Princes, Lords, Nobles, or Great Men : 
they that do To, have none oF the Secret, but defire to 
try ConcluGons at other Mens Charges. 

XXX. The true PoiTelTor fecks not after fiich Friend- 
fliips, or Earthly Glories \ he is content with his Modi- 
cum, or Little, and has enough, even the whole World 
in his Philofophers Egg, which he can carry about him 
wherefoever he goes. 

XXXL Befides, he may confider, that between a 
Prince and himfelf, no endeared, no faithful or conftant 
Friendiliip is to be found : and fo lays Smdivogim : as 
often (fays he) as I went about to communicate ar.y 
thing to Princes and Lords, I always met with deceit 
and vexation. 

XXXIL But to the matter in hand : Endeavour mfely 
to prepare the Philofophick SubjeSl ; keep the