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Jl^atbarb tfTollcgr librarg 

Muiiey received from 







It is one of the most pleasing offices of the genealogist to trace the 
descent and to show the alliances of Genius. 

Hunter's South ForhlUrtt voLii p. 297. 




1 t' ^ 

\ ■ 

I I 

■^ f' 

JAN 19 1903 


9uv^ >^ 



" Let any one bethink him how impressive the Bmaliest historical 
fact may become, as contrasted with the grandest fictitious event ; — 
what an incalculable force lies for us in this consideration; — the 
thing which I here hold imaged in my mind did actually occur; was, 
in very truth, an element in the system of the All whereof I too form 
part ; had therefore, and has, through all time, an authentic being ; 
is not a dream, but a reality !" — 0abltlb*8 Sstays^ vol. iii. p. 43. ' 

. / 

P ? E. 


In that section of the interesting and 
valuable tract you have recently given to the world, 
which treats of the maternal ancestry of Pope, you 
suggest the possibility of '^ ascending a generation 
above '^ Lancelot Turner, the uncle of William 
Turner, the Poet's maternal grandfather. 

Having had the good fortune to discover this higher 
step in the genealogy of the Turners, and to obtain 
some additional information respecting several mem- 
bers of the family, I beg to be permitted to commu- 
nicate to you, in this form, the facts which have 
come to my knowledge. 

The descent of the maternal ancestors of the illus- 
trious Poet may be traced to a source whence many 
families among the present aristocracy of Yorkshire 
have originally sprung, — ^the trade or commerce of 
the city of York. 

4? POPE. 

At York, in the reign of King Henry VIII., 
Robert Turner carried on the business of a wax- 
chandler, which, before the Reformation, when this 
commodity in various forms was profusely and con- 
stantly used in the celebration of religious services, 
was a lucrative and important occupation. Had he 
not been a person in good circumstances, and be- 
longing to the higher class of tradesmen, he would 
scarcely have brought up his son to one of the learned 
professions. In the year 1553, "Edward Turner^ 
skryvener,'' son of Robert Turner, wax-chandler, 
being entitled by patrimony to be admitted to the 
city franchise, was duly enrolled upon the register 
of York freemen. 

This Edward Turner was the father of Lancelot 
Turner; and what you have hazarded as a probable 
conjecture with regard to the son,* is quite true as 
regards the father: he was connected with the Council 
of the North ; and there can be no doubt that great 
part of the property he possessed at the time of his 
death had been acquired by the influence and emolu- 

* '* Perhaps as probable a conjecture as is likely to be made is, 
that he was connected with the Oouncil of the North, or a successful 
practitioner in that Court.** — Fope Traot^ p. 29. 

POPE. 5 

ments which arose from his official connection with 
that court. 

We have decisive evidence of his having been 
one of the officials of the Council of the North in a 
circumstance which is recorded upon the minutes of 
the proceedings of the corporation of York. Being 
a freeman of the city, Edward Turner was liable to 
serve municipal offices ; and it may be regarded as a 
proof of the estimation in which he was held by his 
fellow-citizens, that they thought him a proper person 
to sustain the dignity and responsibility of the office 
of sheriff of the city. In October, 1562, he received 
an intimation from the corporate body, that they 
intended to elect him to be one of their sheriffs 
for the ensuing year. When this was made known 
to the Lord President and Council of the North, 
Mr. Secretary Eymis ''went in all haste'' to the 
common hall where the corporation were assem- 
bled, and told them that ''Edward Turner was a 
clerk to the Council, and they must not make him 

The citizens did not deem it expedient to act in 
opposition to the wishes of the Council thus peremp- 
torily expressed. They abandoned their design of 

6 POPE. 

electing Mr. Turner sheriff^ and he was never after- 
wards called upon to bear that or any other office in 
the corporation."^ It was of more importance to him 
to retain the favour of the Council^ than to accept a 
municipal appointment which was attended with no 
profit, and might have interfered with the due dis- 
charge of his official or professional duties. 

The Mr. Secretary Eymis who is here spoken of, 
was Thomas Eymis, Esq., one of the chief func- 
tionaries of the great Court of York for nearly thirty 
years. A gentleman by birth, and, doubtless, a 
lawyer by profession, he was first constituted a mem- 
ber of the Council of the North, and appointed to 
the important office of its secretary, by the commis- 
sion under which the Earl of Shrewsbury was made 
Lord President in the 4th year of King Edward VI. 
After the accession of Queen Elizabeth, under the 
commission which appointed the Earl of Rutland 
Lord President, and under the subsequent commis- 
sions issued in that reign, he continued to hold the 
office of Secretary, and was also Keeper of the 
Queen's Signet. 

From the alarm shown by Mr. Secretary Eymis 

* Another person of the same name was sheriff of York in 1571. 

POPE. • 7 

when he heard that the efficiency of Edward Turner's 
services as derk to the Council was in danger of 
being impaired by his advancement to civic honours, 
it seems probable that the appointment he held was 
that of one of the clerks of the seal^'i^ the duties of 
which would be more immediately under Mr. Eymis's 
superintendence. It is obvious, however, that the 
office, whatever name it bore, was of great respect- 
ability, and placed the holder of it upon a footing of 
firiendly intercourse with numerous persons of family 
and distinction, members of or connected with the 
Council, who at that period constituted the highest 
class of society in York. 

Edward Turner's place of residence was in the 
centre of the city. The house in which he lived and 
died, stood in that part of the parish of Saint Helen 
Stonegate, which was then called Stayngate, but is 
now known as Saint Helen's Square. This and an 
adjoining mansion occupied by Lady Beckwith (the 
widow of Sir Leonard Beckwith, Knight, one of the 
Council of the North), and several other houses 
situate in the adjacent streets, were his property. 

* Among the numeroos officers of whom the court consiated were 
two called Clerks of the Seal.— Tosse's MBB, 

8 POPE. 

Some of them he had most probably inherited from 
his father. 

In the year 1662, when the corporation of York 
contemplated making him sheriff, Edward Turner 
was a married man, and the father of a family. The 
earliest register book of the parish of Saint Helen 
Stonegate, which commences in the year 1568, 
records the baptism of two of his younger children : 
" Lucy Turner, daughter of Edward Turner, gentle- 
man/^ was baptized on the 24th of ^February, 1569, 
and a son, named Edward, on the 12th of August, 
1570. Another son, named Martin, of whom he 
speaks in his will as his youngest son, must have 
been bom a very short time before the death of his 
mother, an event which is thus entered in the same 
register: — ''Mistris Turner, wife of Edward Turner, 
gentleman, buried 13th June, 1571.'^ I have found 
no clue whatever to the discovery of the name of this 
lady, or of any other particulars relating to her. 

A few months after the usual period of mourning 
had passed, the widowed husband took unto himself 
a second wife. On the 22nd of September, 1572, 
"Mr. Edward Turner and Mrs. Jane Fale*' were 
married at the church of the parish of Saint Michael 

POPE. 9 

le Belfrey, in York. Mrs. Jane Fale was the widow 
of Mr. Thomas Fale, who for more than twenty 
years was town-clerk of York, and died in the month 
of March, 1571. 

In the year 1573, Mr. Turner purchased of William 
Wentworth, of Killingwicke, a plot of ground near 
to his own residence, which had been the churchyard 
of the demolished church of Saint Wilfred.* 

Of thirty householders of the parish of Saint 
Helen Stonegate, who, in the year 1574, were 
assessed to the relief of the poor, Edward Turner 
paid the highest rate. The amount, when compared 
with modem experience, seems ridiculously small: 
it wafi no more than fourpence. But this was in 
the very infancy of poor-rates, and, with one or two 
exceptions, the aldermen of the city were the only 
persons who contributed so large a sum as sixpence. 

A few years later, Mr. Turner had to lament the 
loss of his early friend and patron, Mr. Secretary 
Eymis. He died on the 19th of August, 1578; and 

* The mansion in the street now called Lendal (formerly Ald- 
conyngstrete), which was huilt by Dr. Wintringham, an eminent 
physician, in the early part of the last century, and is now appro- 
priated to the ose of the judges at the assizes, stands upon part of 
the ancient churchyard of Saint Wilfred, which in the sixteenth 
century was the property of Edward Turner. 

10 POPE. 

in his last will we find a token^ althongh it be but a 
slight one^ of his regard for the person who had do 
long shared his official labours. 

During his long tenure of the influential and 
lucrative office of Secretary to the Court at York^ 
Mr. Eymis had accumulated great wealth. He 
appears to have participated largely in the distribu- 
tion by the crown of the ecclesiastical property in 
Yorkshire which was confiscated at the Beformation. 
His estate at Heslington^ near York^ where he built 
for his own residence a stately mansion, consisted 
chiefly of lands which had belonged to the Hospital 
of Saint Leonard and the Priory of Saint Andrew^ 
two of the religious houses at York. He had pos- 
sessed himself of the estates belonging to a collegiate 
' foundation at Lowthorpe in the East Eiding. He 
was lessee under the church of York of the prebend 
of Bngthorpe in the same riding, and owner of the 
manors of Bugthorpe and other adjacent places; and 
he had obtained a grant from the crown of the tithes 
of Clifton, near York, which belonged to the rectory 
of Saint Olave in Marygate. He must have been 
remarkable for the state and splendour of his do- 
mestic establishment, having a house in the Minster 

POPE. 11 

Close at York, and another in the Savoy at London; 
and two country houses, one at Bugthorpe, and the 
other at Heslington,* 

The last will of Mr. Eymis was executed on the 
first day of the year in which he died. In this docu- 
ment the name of Edward Turner occurs twice: 
first, in his disposal of a house and close of land, 
without Monk Bar, York, which he states that he 
had purchased of '^Edward Turner, gentilman'*; 
and secondly, in a bequest of which I must speak 
more at length. The testator gives a life interest 
in nearly the whole of his estates to his wife Eli- 
zabeth; but he does this by means of numer- 
ous separate devises, intailing the various parts of 
his property, after her death, upon his nephews, 
Thomas Eymis, William Eymis, Richard Eymis, 
John Eymis, William Thynne, and Sir John Thynne, 

* In his houses at York and Heslington the rooms were hung 
with costly tapestry, and the huffets lade^ with gold and silver plate. 
He states in his will, that his plate weighed 759 oz. The Heslington 
mansion, a short distance from York, was standing nearly as Mr. 
Eymis left it, until a few years ago, when it was almost wholly 
rebuilt by the late owner, Yarburgh Yarburgh, Esq. The principal 
front still remains without much alteration, and presents an admirable 
example of the sumptuous style of domestic architecture that pre- 
vailed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

12 POPE. 

Knight^^ varying the order of succession^ and intro- 
ducing into some of the limitations the names of 
the younger sons of his nephew. Sir John Thynne, 
and his brother-in-law. Sir Henry Neville, Knight, 
and of two or three other persons, of whom Edward 
Turner is one. 

The tithes of Clifton, which the testator states 
that he held for a term of years by a grant from 
the Queen, he gives, after the death of his wife, to 
five of his nephews for their lives successively ; and 
if they all die before the expiration of such term of 
years, he bequeaths the same tithes to ^^ Edward 
Turner, gentilman, and his assigns, during the 
residue of the years then to come, if he live so 
long;*' and if not, then ''to my friend Robert 
Man, gentilman,'^ in a similar manner, with the 

* The testator was the son of Thomas Eymis, Esq., of Church 
Stretton, in Shropshire, by Joyce or Jocosa, sole daughter and heir 
of Humphrey Gatacre, of Gkttacre, in the same county, esquire of 
the body to Eing Henry YI. The testator's only sister, Margaret 
Eymis, married Thomas Thynne^ Esq., and was the mother of 
William Thynne, and Sir John Thynne, Enight. She appears ulti« 
mately to have become the heir of both her fi^ther aud her brothers, 
and thus to have carried all the wealth of the Eymis*s and Gkttacres 
into the family of Thynne. Erom Sir John Thynne, the nephew 
of Mr. Eymis, who built the magnificent mansion of Longleat, in 
Wiltshire, the Marquesses of Bath are lineally descended. 

POPE. 13 

ultimate bequest to "Henry Pulleyne, my servant/^ 
The "will was proved at York^ on the 20th of March^ 
1578-9, by the testator's widow, Elizabeth Eymis, 
the residuary legatee and sole executor.* 

Mr. Edward Turner did not long survive his 
He died in the month of December, 1580, and was 
buried in the church of the parish of Saint Helen 
Stonegate, of which he had been for many years 
one of the principal inhabitants. A few weeks before 
his death he executed his last will. It is dated the 
27th of November, 1580, and was proved by Lancelot 
Turner, the eldest son and one of the executors, on 
the 31st of January, 1581. Afker the usual pious 
introduction, the testator, who describes himself 
''Edward Turner, of the cittie of Yorke,'* without 
any addition, gives to his wife, Jane, for her life, all 
such lands, &c., as she had already set forth for her 

* On a plain tomb in York Minster was once this epitaph : — 

4- " Here lyeth the body of Thomas Eymis, esquier, one of her 
Majesty's counsell established in the north parties, and secretary 
and keeper of her Highness signett appointed for the said Counsell, 
who married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Sir Edward Nevill, 
Knight, and departed out of this life to the mercy of God the 
xxxth day of August, An. Dom. 1578." — Ehoracwn^ p. 496. 


14 POPE. 

jointure. He then proceeds to make the following 
disposition of his real estate : — 

^' To Lancelot Turner, my son, all my lands 
in possession and reversion, except a tenement 
and garthinge in Stanegate, to him and his heirs 
males ; with remainder to PhiUippe Turner, my son, 
and his heirs males; with remainder to Thomas 
Turner, my son, and his heirs males ; with remainder 
to Martyn Turner, my son, and his heirs males; 
with remainder to my own right heirs/' 

The following bequests show that the testator's 
personalty was of a costly description : — 

"To my son, Lancelot Turner, my dolphyn of gold; 
to my wife, all such gold rings and gold tablets as 
she hath in possession ; to Phillipp Turner, my son, 
my ring hoop of gold ; to Thomas Turner, a ring of 
gold, with a graven death's head in it, weighing about 
40*.; to Martyn Turner, a gold ring, with a death's 
head of stone in it ; to Margaret Willowbie, a roimd 
gold ring of 12*. price, which lieth in my study 
amongst other my rings ; to Elizabeth Martyn, a gold 
ring in a purse, in my far study; to Katherine Turner, 
a ring of an angel weight; to Margaret Willowbie, 
100 marks in consideration of such reckoning as 

POPE, 15 

is between her and me ; to Elizabeth Martin^ £10 
over and beside £6, 13«. 4id. which I owe of the 100 
marks that I promised to her husband for her 
marriage goods; to Katherine Turner^ £30 over 
-and besides her child's portion; to Johan Willowbie, 
40^.^ and to Anne^ Elizabeth^ and Thomas Willowbie^ 
20^. each ; to my wife^ the tithes of com and hay 
at Bishopthorpe during her life ; to Martyn Turner^ 
my youngest son, twenty marks yearly, out of the 
annuity of £20 granted unto me from William 
Chamberlayne, Esq., and Leonard his son,"^ for his 
bringing up at the University, and I conunit him 
to the tuition of my wife, to be ruled and ordered 

* These Chamberlaynes were a younger branch of the ancient 
Oxfordshire fanuly of that name. It appears from the pedigree 
they recorded at the Heralds' visitation in 1584, that the William 
Chamberlayne named in Edward Turner's will was the first who 
settled at Thoralby, in Yorkshire. It is very probable that he, or 
his son Leonard Chamberlayne, was in some way or other con- 
nected with the Council of the North, which might account for the 
eircumstance of their having granted an annuity to Edward Turner. 
Thoralby Hall is in the parish of Bugthorpe, of which Mr. Secretary 
Eymis was the proprietor. Francis Chamberlayne, Esq., the eldest 
son of Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, Knight (as he is styled in the 
pedigree), by his first wife, the daughter of Sir William Middleton, 
Knight, of Stockeld, near Wetherby, was living at Thoralby in 
1684. Sir Leonard's second wife was Elatherine, daughter of Boger 
Cholmeley, Esq., of Brandsby, a sister of Lady Beckwith, the tenant 
of Edward Tomer. 

16 POPE. 

by her^ who I trust will be bis good mother^ and see 
all bis tbings ordered for bis most benefit; to my 
son^ Lancelot^ my years in tbe titbe of Sraken-on- 
tbe-Wold, by graiat from tbe Queen^s Majesty; to 
Tbomas Turner^ tbe tenement and gartbing in 
Stanegate; to my son, Pbilip Turner, my years in 
my lands in Clifton which I have by grant from 
tbe Queen, and my rigbt in tbe Howe close witbout 
Walmgate Bar; to my well-beloved cousin, Mr. 
Henry Maye, tbe moiety of my leasehold lands in 
Kexbie township, for that he in truth did disburse 
the one half of tbe money for tbe obtaining of tbe 
leases — the other moiety I give to my children, 
Edward, Martyn, and Katberine Turner; to my 
daughter, Margaret Willowbie, my years in a close 
in Scoreby, paying out of it to my sister, Alice Hall, 
widow, 40*. yearly ; to Lancelot Martin, my son-in- 
law, a gold ring of tbe value of 40*. I wiU that all 
the 'waynescott, sealings, portalles, binkes, cundetts 
for conveying of water,' &c. in my now dwelling- 
house, and within tbe bouse of tbe Lady Seckwith, 
be heirlooms. To my wife, a stoke of com which I 
estimate to be twenty quarters of barley ; £30 from 
one Hunter, for tbe fine or gressam of a tenement 

POPE. 17 

and lands of my said wife in Tockwith ; and a grey 
ambling nag which she useth to ride upon, and 
calleth her own nag, which I esteem at the value of 
£4a. To the right worshipful and my singular good 
mistress, Mrs. Eymis,* one old ryal ; to my good 

* Few persons who have visited our noble Minster will have 
failed to notice, affixed to the south side of one of the massiye piers 
which support the central tower, a monumental brass engraved with 
the portraiture of a prim old lady in the starched ruff and pinched^ 
up coif of the days of Queen Elizabeth. The inscription beneath it 
informs us that this is the effigy of Elizabeth Eymis, widow, late 
the wife of Thomas Eymis, Esq., deceased, who was one of the 
gentlewomen of the Queen's privy chamber, and daughter of Sir 
Edward Nevill, £night, one of the privy chamber to King Henry the 
Eiglith. Mrs. Eymis, ''the singular good mistress" of Edward 
Turner, did not long survive him. In her last will, which is dated 
the 31st of January, 1584-5, she desired, if she died at York or 
Heslington, to be buried in the Minster of Tork, nigh her late hus- 
band ; and she ordered her executors to provide a stone of marble to 
be set upon a platt, with superscription of her descent, and also the 
arms of her late husband and her own, graven thereupon. Had her 
injunctions been implicitly obeyed by her executors, her monument 
would have shared the £Ate of that of her husband, and of number- 
less others which have long since disappeared from the nave and 
aisles of York Minster. Her epitaph, being written in brass instead 
of marble, has escaped the wear and tear of nearly three centuries. It 
is not irrelevant to my subject to introduce here a few of the bequests 
contained in her wilL To " my good Lord of Huntingdon" she gives 
**one portingue of gonld"; to "my good ladie his wife," her best silver 
tankard, double gilt ; to her brother, Sir Henry Nevill, Knight, she 
gives her great goblet of silver with a cover, and to her brother, 
Edward Nevill, Esq., her <' jewell of gould with the unicome home 

18 POPE. 

friend Mr. Thomas Sandes^ my cousin Henry Maye^ 
and his wife^ an old angel each; to my cousin 
Thomas Jackson, and my niece Jane Crosethwaite, 
each a French crown ; to each of the children of my 
late brother-in-law, John Hall, 6s,} to Edmund 
Fale and his wife, 69. each; to Mrs. Maltus, an 
English crown ; to Mrs. Wood, of Kilnwick, a gold 

In the same, maid lieke a shippe, and a gilt canne of svlyer**; to her 
sister '^Frogmorton, my best tuftafitie gowne"; to her very good 
friend, Mr. FaUer, " a tankard of silyer, parcel gilt " ; to Alice Hall, 
*< ojie morning gown" and 20^. ; and to her god-danghter, Elizabeth 
Barley, one silver spoon. The residuary l^atees and executors are 
Bobert Man, and Francis Neyill, the son of Edward Nevill. 
Witnesses — ^William Fayler, Anne Fayler, Thomas Wanton, Alice 
Barley, John Stevenson, Eatherine Blenkame. We have here one 
or two facts showing the intimacy that subsisted between the 
families of Edward Turner and Mrs. Eymis. Alice Hall, one of her 
legatees, was the widowed sister of Edward Turner ; Bobert Man, 
her executor, was one of the supervisors of Edward Turner's will ; 
Eatherine Blenkame, one of the witnesses of Mrs. Eymis's will, was 
a daughter of Edward Turner ; John Stevenson, another witness, 
was most probably the person of that name who married Margaret 
Willowbie, another daughter of Edward Turner. 

Mrs. Eymis had reason to be proud of her descent. Her father, 
Sir Edward NeviU, a younger brother of Qeorge Nevill, Lord Aber- 
gavenny, was a distinguished ornament of the court of Henry Till, 
in its palmiest days. He was one of " the noble troop of strangers" 
who formed the royal masquing party when the Eing visited Wolsey, 
and first saw Anne Boleyn. A few years after that event, he in- 
curred the displeasure of the suspicious Henry, and was brought to 
the scaffold upon a charge of being implicated in. the pretended 
conspiracy of Cardinal Pole and his brothers. 

POPE. 19 

nng, or two old angels ; to Agnes Walker^ of Saint 
Nicholas^ Ss. M. The residue to my wife^ and 
Lancelot Turner^ Mai^aret Willowbie^ and Elizabeth 
Martin^ my children^ whom I make executors; my 
very good Mend^ Mr. Thomas Wood of Kilnwicke,* 

* A monumental brass to the memory of the testator's "very 
good friend, Mr. Thomas Wood," is still preserved in the church 
of KQnwick Percy, near Fooklington, in the East Biding of York- 
shire, where he was buried in the month of October, 1684. The 
inscription has not, I beUeve, been printed : — 

'* Thomas Wood G^tilman, who in war&re hath be. 
He fought in Scotland, in Boyall armyes thre, 
Lyeth now buried, in this grave hereunder. 
Of BnUoign when it was English, Clerk comptroller ; 
Of the Ward Court, sixe and twenty yeres together 
Depute Beceyyor ; of Yorkshire once eschetor ; 
Clerke of the Statut, in London noble cytye ; 
Collector of Selby, with tenne pound yerely ffe. 
For thought wordes or deeds which to God or man were yll. 
Of bothe he askt forgyreness with glad hart and will. 
He baylt th'owse hereby, and this churohe brought in good case : 
Qod grant his wyfe and sonnes to passe a godly race. — Amen." 

In the seventeenth century, Mary Wood, the grand-daughter of 
this Thomas Wood, and the niece and heiress of his eldest son, 
Barney Wood, married Sir Edmund Anderson, Baronet, and car- 
ried the estate of Kilnwick Percy into that family, by whom it 
was long enjoyed. 

Eilnwick Percy is now the beautiful seat and domain of Admiral 
the Honourable Arthur Buncombe, M.P. The Bev. M. A. Lawton, 
vicar of Eilnwick Percy, has obligingly favoured me with a copy of 
the above inscription. 

20 POPE. 

Robert Man, Thomas Blenkhame, John Stephensop, 
and Thomas Smithson, supervisors/^ 

It does not appear that the testator's wife, who 
survived him, had borne him any children. By the 
aid of his will the issue of his previous marriage may 
be placed in the following order : — 

1. Lancelot, the eldest son. For copious informa- 

tion respecting him, we are indebted to your 

2. Philip, the grandfather of Edith Pope. 

3. Thomas. In the year 1580, ^^ Thomas Turner, 

goldsmith, son of Edward Turner, gentleman,'' 
was admitted to the city franchise. 

4. Margaret, married, in her father's lifetime, to 

a person of the name of Willowbie. After his 
death she married John Stephenson,* one of 
the supervisors of her father's will. 

* John Stephenson was the owner of a " capital messuage" in 
Coney-street, York, which was occupied by himself and Balph 
Bokeby, Esq., one of the secretaries of the Council of the North, and 
which was at one time distinguished by the sign of the Bear, and 
aflterwards of the Golden Lion. In 1614, Margaret Stephenson 
and her son, John Stephenson (the nephew to whom Lancelot Turner 
bequeathed all his books, except his song-books), sold the messuage 
to Thomas Slaye, who established there an hotel which he called the 
George Inn, a name it retains to this day. 

POPE. 21 

5. Elizabeth^ married to Lancelot Martin at the 

Church of Saint Helen Stonegate^ on the 17th 
of July^ 1580. Thomas Martin^ the London 
apprentice, to whom Lancelot Turner gives a 
legacy of £200, was their son. It appears from 
the will of Lancelot Turner, that she was after- 
wards the wife of a person named Hustler. 

6. Katharine, a minor at the time of her father^s 

death. She afterwards married Thomas Blenk- 
ame, another of the supervisors of his will. 

7. Lucy, baptized 24th of February, 1569. As she 

is not named in her father's will, she most 
probably died young. 

8. Edward, baptized 12th of August, 1570. 

9. Martin, the youngest child, about nine years old 

when his father died. 

Mrs. Jane Turner lived several years after she 
became the widow of Edward Turner. Her last will 
is dated the 11th of December, 1588. The bequests 
it contains, are very numerous, and I will mention 
only such of them as seem to be pertinent to our 
present inquiry. 

" To my god-daughter, Jane Newton, the wife of 

22 POPE. 

Mfles Newton,* gentleman, one angel/' Jane Newton 
was one of the daughters of Ambrose Beekwith of 
Stillingfleet, the brother of Sir Leonard Beekwith, 
whose widow. Lady Beekwith, was the neighbour 
and tenant of Edward Turner. You have shown us 
that Thomasine Newton, Edith Pope's mother, was 
the grand-daughter of Miles Newton and Jane 

''To my son-in-law, Martin Turner,'' 5*., and a 
tablet of gold which was his father's. " To Phillip 
Turner and Edward Turner, my sons-in-law," 20*. 
each. '' To my daughters-in-law, Elizabeth Martin, 
wife of Lancelot Martin, and Katherine Blenkarne, 
wife of Thomas Blenkarne," gold rings. '' To John 
Stephenson, my son-in-law, and Margaret Stephen- 
son, my daughter-in-law," small legacies ; and " to 
my sister, Alice Hall, an angel and my black gown 
furred with cunny." 

Among the other legatees are the following 

* Miles Newton was the name of the town-clerk of York who 
died in 1550, and was succeeded in that office by Thomas Fale, the 
first husband of the testatrix. He was very probably the same 
person who is named in the Newton pedigree of 1585 as the 
grandfather of the Miles Newton who married Jane Beekwith. 

t Pope Tracts p. 82. 

POPE. 28 

persons of distinction, then resident in York and 
the neighbourhood : — 

Mr. Henry Slingsby, afterwards Sir Henry Slings- 
by, Eoiight, Vice-President of the Council of the 
North ; and Mrs. Frances Slingsby his wife, daagh« 
ter of William Vavasour of Weston, Esq., by Eliza- 
beth, sister and coheir of Roger Beckwith, Esq., 
eldest son and heir of Sir Leonard Beckwith. 

Mrs. Jane Wood, widow of Thomas Wood of 
Kilnwick Percy gentleman (of whom I have pre- 
viously spoken), and Mr. Barney Wood, their son. 

Mrs. Hilliard, wife of William Hilliard, Esq., 
Recorder of York, afterwards Sir Wm. Hilliard, Knt. 

Mr. John Jenkins (whose son was afterwards Sir 
Henry Jenkins, Knight), and his wife, and Margaret, 
their daughter. 

Mrs. Darley, the wife of Mr. John Darley of 

* Mr. John Darley, of York, and of Eilnhurst in the West 
Biding, was a younger son of William Darley, Esq., of Bulter- 
crambe, near York. His wife was Alice, daughter of Christopher 
Mountfort, Esq., of Eilnhurst. Mr. John Darley bought the manor 
of Eilnhurst of his wife*s brother, Lancelot Mountfort, Esq. Vide 
Hunter^s South Yorkshire^ voL ii. p. 49. Mr. Darley's town 
residence was in Coney-street, and it is very probable that he was 
officially connected with the Council of the North. His daughter. 

24 POPE. 

Lady Seckwith^ and her son-in-law and daughter^ 
Mr. George Harvie,* and Mrs. Frances, his wife. 

The testatrix appointed John Darley and William 
Allen,t draper, executors, and Mr. William Bushell 
and Mr. William Hilliard, supervisors of her will, 
which was proved at York on the 30th November, 
1589. She was buried on the 9th of September 
preceding, in the church of Saint Michael le Belfrey; 
it being her testamentary wish to be interred near 
to her first husband. 

I now pass to the third generation of the Turners ; 
and I will speak first of Philip Turner, who was 
the second son of Edward Turner, and the direct 
ancestor of the great Poet. 

In the year 1586, Philip Turner was admitted 
to the franchise of the city of York, as the son 
of Edward Turner, gentleman. In the register of 

Elizabeth, the god-daughter of Mrs. Eymis, married, for her second 
and third husbands, Sir Edmund Sheffield and Sir William Sheffield, 
sons of the Earl of Mulgrave, who was made Lord President of the 
North upon the accession of James I. 

* G«orge Hervey of Merks in the county of Essex, Esq., married 
Frances, one of the daughters of Sir Leonard Beckwith.* 

t William Allen married Jane Beckwith, sister of Sir Leonard 
Beokwith. He was an alderman of Tork, and Lord Mayor in 

POPE. 25 

freemen lie is called a merchant^ implying that be 
was a member of the chartered company of Mer- 
chant Adventurers, which was then constituted of 
the highest class of York citizens. 

On the 18th of January, 1590, at the church of 
Saint Helen Stonegate, " Phillippe Turner and 
Edeth Gylminge was maryed/^ This lady was the 
mother of WiUiam Turner, in remembrance of whom 
he gave to his daughter Edith her pretty Saxon 
christian-name, and it cannot be uninteresting to 
inquire a little about the family to which she be- 
longed. The name of Gylminge is of rare occur- 
rence in our local annals. In Mr. Drake's volume it 
appears only once ; but I believe that the " William 
Gylmyn^' whom the historian* places at the head 
of a list of the freeholders of York who were present 
at the election of two representatives in Parliament 
on Oct. 28, 1584, was the father of Edith Gylminge 
who married Philip Turner, as he unquestionably 
was of Christian Gylminge, who, at the same parish 
church, on April 9, 1599, became the first wife of 
George Bllis, Esq., afterwards Sir Geoi^e Ellis, 
Knight, a member of the Council of the North. 

* Eboracum, p. 358. 


26 POPE. 

William Gylminge was a vintner^ — in modem 
phrase, a wine-merchant. In the sixteenth centmry 
the vintners were among the most opnlent of the York 
tradesmen, no person being permitted to sell wine 
without haying an annual license firom the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen. In the year 1583, William 
Gylminge was one of the eleven persons to whom 
this privilege was exclusively granted. Henry 
Maye, whom Edward Turner names in his will as his 
cousin, and who was an alderman, fmd lord mayor in 
1586, was another of these eleven vintners. 

William Gylminge died in the year 1591. In his 
will, dated Jan. 38, 1590-1, he mentions his son 
James, and his daughters Joan and Christian. The 
name of his daughter Edith does not appear; and I 
can only account for the omission, by supposing that 
fihe had received her child's portion twelve months 
before, when she became the wife of Philip Turner. 
Ro))crt Gylminge, a merchant and goldsmith at 
Vork, was the brother of William Gylminge. He 
died in the year 1580; and from his will* it may be 


• Tho will of Robert Gjlminge is dated April 20, 1671. " I be- 
quoftth my soulo to JLImightie God and to all the celestial company 
of IleATPU.*' lie makes his wife, Nicholas his son, Mary, Agnes, 

FOPE. 27 

inferred that he was ^igaged in large commercial 
transactions^ as he gives to his mfe and children 
all his goods ''on this side the sea, or beyond the 

Soon after the marriage of Philip Turner to Edith 
Gylminge^ I find him living in the parish of AU 
Saints Pavement in York^ a part of the city 
which was then inhabited by many of its princi- 
pal merdiants. In this parish he continued to 
reside several years, and became the father of a 
numerous £eimily« The baptismal register contains 
these entries : — 

1592, Oct. 8. — Lancelot, son of Philip Turner. 

1593, Nov. 8. — ^Frances, daughter of Philip Turner. 

1594, Feb. 26.— Martha, daughter of Philip Turner. 
1796, April 14. — Katherine, daughter of Philip 


1597, June 7. — William, son of Philip Turner. 

1598, Oct. 9.— Philip, son of Philip Turner. 
1608, Dec, 4. — John, son of Philip Turner. 

Meriall, and Jane, his daughters, his executors ; and his brother 
WUliam Gyhninge, and William Alleyne, draper, supervisors. Proved 
June 25, 1580. 

28 POPE. 

In^he spring of 1604^ that dreadful scourge, the 
" Pestilence of the Plague/' which, in the preceding 
year, had almost desolated the metropolis, made its 
appearance at York, and continued to rage with 
unabated violence in every part of the city for several 
months.* Edith, the wife of Philip Turner, and 
three of his children, were victims of this fatal visi- 
tation. The mother died first : the register of All 
Saints Pavement records her burial on Julv 9, 
1604. The death of her daughters, Martha and 
Katherine, quickly followed. Both were buried on 
the 23rd of the same month. John, her infant son, 
did not Ions survive his mother ; he was buried on 
the 19th of December. 

After this period I have not met with the slightest 
trace of Philip Turner, or of any of his surviving 
children, except William, who, we now discover, was 
not his first-bom son. From the christian-name 
given to Philip's eldest boy, it is pretty certain that 
he was the godson of his uncle Lancelot, aad had he 
lived to the age of maturity would have been pre- 

* Mr. Drake states, that in the year 1604, the number of persons 
vfho died of the plague in York, was 8512. Sboracum^ p. 121. The 
parish of All Saints Pavement lost more than one-third of its 

POPE. 29 

ferred to his younger brother. We must coltclude^ 
therefore^ that his early death made way for William 
to become the oldest surviving son of his father^ and 
the heir presumptive of his uncle, who, as we learn 
fi^m your pages * having no chUdren of his own, 
ultimately by his wiU established this nephew in the 
possession of the bulk of his fortune. 

It was but a short time previous to the occurrence 
of the calamity which deprived PhiUp Turner of his 
wife and three of his children, that Lancelot Turner 
became the owner of Towthorpe. 

An acute critic,t who has taken great interest in 
all matters connected with the genealogy of Pope, 
suggests, as ''more than probable, that Lancelot 
Turner himself acquired the property which enabled 
him to make the purchase of the manor of Tow- 
thorpe.^' But the fact seems to be, that he had 
obtained the means of making that purchase by con- 
verting into money part of the property bequeathed 
to him by his father, in the sale of which he had 
prevailed upon his brother Philip to join. Prior to 

* Pope T^act, p. 81. 

t See AtheiuBum, Nov. 21, 1857. 

30 POPE. 

the year 1602,* they had sold to Robert Watterhouse, 

Esq., the ancient churchyard of Saint Wilfred, and 

the buildings that stood upon it; and in January, 

1604, " Lancelot Turner and Philip Turner of York 

gentlemen, sons of Edward Turner late of York 

gentleman, deceased,^^ conveyed to John Smith and 

John Sharpe, two York tradesmen, all the remaining 

property which had belonged to their father, situate 

in the parish of Saint Helen Stonegate, consisting 

of nine dwelling-houses which stood in the several 


streets of Stanegate, Ald-Conyng-strete, Blake-street, 

and Davygate. 

About this time Lancelot Turner was making 

purchases of copyhold cottages and land at Tow- 

thorpe; and from his having sold his paternal 

property in York, to enable him to become the lord 

of the manor of Towthorpe, and from his manifest 

desire to enlarge the borders of his domain there, 

it might be reasonably inferred that he had some 

ancestral attachment to that place. There can be no 

doubt that a family of the same name, who were 

* In his will dated 8th Deo. 1595, Thomas Buskell of York, 
Esquire, speaks of his '* house wherein I do now dwell, which I pur- 
chased of Lancelot Turner of York gentleman.*' 

POPE. 31 

small landed proprietors, had long been settled there. 
The baptism of John, son of the Robert Turner, of 
Towthorpe, of whose will you give some account,"'^ is 
entered in the parochial register of Huntington, on 
Jan. 11, 1600-1. Robert, the testator, was buried at 
Huntington on Sept. 30, 1628. In April, 1642, 
Richard Turner, doubtless the son and executor of 
Robert, surrendered copyhold land at Strensall, the 
manor to which Towthorpe is appendant, to William 
Turner, doubtless his son, and the grandchild to 
whom Robert bequeaths " the little brown whie.'^ 

Nothing can be more probable than that Robert 
of York, the father of Edward and the grandfather 
of Lancelot, sprang from this respectable if not 
opulent family of Turner of Towthorpe, and, accord- 
ing to a practice very common in those days, had 
been transplanted from the country to be brought up 
to a trade in the town. 

I have now to bring to your notice a remarkable 
circumstance which occurred in the earlier part of 
the life of Lancelot Turner. 

You need not be reminded of the bitter persecution 
of Nonconformists that prevailed in the northern 

* Pope T^raet, p. 28. 

82 POPS. 

counties whilst the Court of York was under the 
presidency of the Earl of Huntingdon; and the 
strict watchfulness which the civil authorities were 
specially required by the Government to exercise over 
all persons suspected of any attachment to Popery. 
At the commencement of the year 1594^ the magi- 
strates of York were called upon by the Lord President 
and Council of the Norths acting in obedience to 
instructions received from the Privy Council, to make 
diligent inquiry as to the number of gentlemen 
resident within their jurisdiction who were sending, 
or had sent, their children abroad under colour of 
learning languages. In the answer which the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen returned to the communication 
from the Lord President, they certij&ed that Martin 
Turner, son of Edward Turner of York gentleman 
deceased, went over the seas about three years before 
— that he was then at Venice at the University, and 
learning of languages there — and that he was relieved 
and maintained by one Lancelot Turner of York 
gentleman, his brother.H^ 

The curious facts thus disclosed appear to me to 
admit of only one explanation. We discover that in 

• Corporation Archives. 

POPE. 33 

the year 1591, about twelve months after the death 
of Mrs. Jane Turner, his father's widow, Lancelot 
Turner took the extraordinary step of sending his 
brother, a youth of nineteen, into Italy. We have 
seen the desire of the father, as shown by the testa- 
mentary provision he made for his son Martin, whom 
he probably designed for one of the liberal professions, 
that this his youngest boy should be brought up at 
the university. His solemn injunction to his widow, 
that she should be " a good mother to the boy and 
see all things ordered for his most benefit,^' was, no 
doubt, piously fulfilled. We cannot imagine, that 
when Edward Turner, an officer of the Council of the 
North, spoke of the university, he had the most 
remote idea of his son being brought up at a Popish 
college. Yet we find that Lancelot Turner, the 
moment he became the youth's natural guardian, 
sent him abroad, and placed him at the University 
of Venice, which was then notorious for being the 
very centre and hotbed of Jesuitism,* 

* It appears that during the latter part of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, manj of the Boman Catholics of York and the neighbour- 
hood chose the city of Yenioe for their place of refuge^ In the year 
1581, a person named Bichard Collinge or Cowling, and his brother 
Thomas, the sons of Balph Cowling, a York tradesman, who was a 

84 POPE. 

The conclusion seems inevitable, that Lancelot 
Tomer was himself a Roman Catholic, and adopted 

Popish recusant, were sent orer sea, and ultimately Bichard Collinge 
found his way into Italy. Several years afterwards he returned to 
this country, and, apparently whilst he was visiting his friends and 
relatives in Yorkshire, corresponded with a person abroad, whom he 
addresses thus : — Al MoUo Magnifieo Signori il Bignore QiuUo 
PiocioUy a Venezia. One of his letters to this person, supposed to 
have been writt-en in the year 1599, which was intercepted by the 
Government of BUzabeth, and is now preserved in the State-Paper 
Office, contains the names of several persons connected with York 
and Yorkshire. The most remarkable passage relates to the arch- 
conspirator G-uye Fawkes, who must have been sojourning at Venice 
at that time. " I entreat your favour and friendship for my cousin- 
germane Mr. G-uydo Fawkes^ who serveth Sir William, as I under- 
stand he is in great want, and your worde in his behalfe may stande 

him in greato steede. he hath lefte a prettie livinge here 

in this countrie, which his mother, being married to an unthrifty 
husband, since his departure I think hath wasted awaye, yet she 
and the rest of our friendes are in good health." 

The writer's relationship to Fawkes was most probably through 
the Harringtons, of whom he also speaks: — *' Let him teU my cousin 
Martin Harrington that I was at his brother Henry's house at the 
Mounte, but he was not then at home ; he and his wife were all well, 
and have many pretty children." By '' the Mounto " is meant Mount 
St. John, near Thirsk, where a branch of the family of Harrington 
was then resident, one of whom, "William Harrington, a seminary 
priest, was executed at Tybom, Feb. 18, 1594. ChaUmer^ part L 
p. 304. Mrs. Ellin Fawkes, the grandmother of G-uye, was a 
Harrington. By her will in 1570, she bequeaths a gold ring to 
William Harrington, her brother Martin's son. Collinge names 
several other persons then at Yenioe to whom he is commissioned 
by their relatives in England to send messages ; some of whom, one 
oannot doubt, had emigrated from that part of the kingdom to which 

POPE. 35 

the most e£Pectaal method of having his brother 
Martin educated and established in the same faith. 

Nevertheless^ ife have some evidence that at a 
later period he outwardly conformed to the religion 
of the State. One of the important facts you have 

he himself belonged. He makes special mention of D. Worthington, 
*' whose brother hath sent a letter unto him;" and of D. Kellison, 
who he wishes to know that "his brother Valentine is in good 
health." Dr. Worthington, one of the translators of theDouay Bible, 
and Dr. Kellison, were sucoessiTely presidents of the English 
College at Donay. The letter, which is without date, is subscribed 
'* Yours in Christe, Bicharde Collinge." I am indebted t-o my 
friend Mr. John Bruce, y.P.S.A., for acquainting me with the exist- 
ence of this document, which Mr. Lemon, of the State-Paper Office, 
very obligingly allowed me to peruse. 

Guye Fawkes was not the only native of York who was implicated 
in the Gunpowder Plot. Edward Oldcome the Jesuit, who assumed 
the name of Hall, and was the companion of Father Gamett at 
Hendlip and in the Tower, was the son of John Oldcome, a brick- 
layer at York. He was sent abroad about the year 1584, and was first 
placed at the College of Douay whilst it was stationed at Bheims. He 
was afterwards at Eome, where the General of the Jesuits admitted 
him into their society. Chaloner, part ii. p. 485. He was executed 
at Worcester, April 7, 1606, as a partaker in the Gunpowder Plot 
conspiracy. Jardine, p. 210. A name in Collinge's letter, partly 
obliterated, seems meant for Oldcome, and renders it probable that 
he was then one of the English residents at Venice. 

We may be sure that when Lancelot Turner despatched his 
youthful brother to Venice, he knew that he was not consigning him 
idiolly into the hands of strangers. 

Li the list of the Bomish Priests and Jesuits resident in and about 
London in 1624, the name of Turner occurs once. — Mobgan's 
Pkcmix BrUannicu9f p. 487. 

36 POPE. 

brought to light concemmg him is, that the royal 
grant of Towthorpe was made to him just before the 
Queen^s death. Had he then been in avowed Roman 
Catholic, or even suspected of recusancy, he would 
scarcely have obtained such a grant from the Govern- 
ment of Elizabeth. The documents you refer to, 
showing his residence at York after the accession of 
James I., testify that he then stood well with the 
municipal authorities. I may add, by way of corro- 
boration, that in January, 1612, when the royal 
treasury was empty, and the Ministers of James 
resorted to the expedient of raising money for the 
necessities of the State, by sending privy seals into 
the country, Lancelot Turner was one of " twenty 
able commoners '^ of York, whom the Lord President 
and the Lord Mayor, upon private conference, se- 
lected as persons of sufficient ability to lend money 
to the Crown upon that security. 

The touching incident recorded. in the nuncupa- 
tive codicil made by Lancelot Turner in his dying 
moments,^ shows the close personal friendship which 

* " On Monday next after Twelfth Day, 1620, he reroked nun- 
cupatiyely the gift of the dock to Sir William Alford, saying, *he 
forgets his old friends,* and gires it to his nephew, William Tomer. 
To this were witnesses, Thomasine Newton, Henry Dent, and Alice 

POPE. 37 

must have subsisted between him and Sir William 
Alford; and this gives plausibility to a conjecture^ 
that their families were connected by some tie of 
relationship: possibly the first wife of Edward 
Turner was an Alford. The christian name of 
Lancelot^ which Edward Turner bestowed upon his 
eldest son, and which was afterwards given to his 
eldest grandson, had been a favourite name with the 
Alfords. The first occupier of Meaux Abbey, after 
the dissolution of monasteries, was Lancelot Alford, 
Esq., who died in 1562, and was succeeded by his 
nephew. Sir Lancelot Alford, who obtained a grant of 
the site of the monastery in 1586, and was knighted 
by King James I., at York, in 1608.* He was the 
father of Sir William Alford, Lancelot Turner's 
Mend. But another and perhaps the more probable 
conjecture is, that the intimacy between these two 
persons had arisen from a community of feeling 
upon the all-important subject of religious faith; for 
there can be little doubt that Sir William Alford 
was a Roman Catholic. 


AtkinBon, who depose that William Turner reminded him that there 
had heen much kindness between him and Sir William. This was a 
few days before his death." — Pop9 Traci^ p. 80. 
* CoUeotanea Top, et Qen,^ roL iv. p. 178. 


38 POPE. 

In a petition presented by the House of Commons 
to King Charles the Firsts in the year 1626^ nu- 
merous persons are named^ holding places of trost 
and authority, whom the petitioners accuse of being 
either Popish recusants, or justly suspected of being 
such. They do not scruple to charge the Lord 
President of the North himself* with being ill 
a£Pected in religion; and, among other instances, 
they allege — first, that in the preceding year, the 
Lord President being certified of divers Spanish 
ships-of-war upon the coast of Scarborough,, his 
lordship went thither, and took with him the Lord 
Dunbar, Sir Thomas Metham, and Sir William 
Alford, and lay at the house of Lord Eare,t whom 
he knew to be a convict recusant, and did, notwith- 
standing, refuse to disarm him, although he had 
received letters firom the Privy Council to that effect ; 
and secondly, that he gave order to Lord Dunbar, 
Sir Thomas Metham, and Sir William Alford, to 
view the forts and munition at Kingston-upon-Hull, 
who made one Kerton, a convict recusant^ and 
suspected to be a priest, their derk in that serviccj 

• Emanael Lord Sorope, afterwards Earl of Sunderland. 

t At Malton. 

j Pari EUt voL viL p. 286. 

POPE. 39 

It is well known that Lord Dunbar and Sir 
Thomas Metham were Roman Catholics. Had Sir 
William Alford not been of the same religious 
persuasion^ he would scarcely have acted as their 
colleague on these occasions. 

The estrangement of which Lancelot Turner com- 
plained^ when he revoked his gift of the clock to his 
''good and worthy fnend," may possibly have been 
occasioned by Sir William^s dislike of that outward 
conformity to Protestantism^ which Lancelot had 
found it convenient to assume in his latter days. 

Like other coimtry gentlemen^ Lancelot Turner 
had a town-house for his occasional residence, as 
well as his manor-house of Towthorpe. You show 
us that in December, 1619, when he executed his 
last will he is described of Towthorpe ; but you think 
that the codicil, which is dated a few days before his 
death, was probably made at York.* There is no 
doubt that in his last illness he was residing in 
Gt>odramgate, in the house which his nephew after- 
wards occupied. Part of the street called Goodram- 
gate is in the parish of Saint John del Pike, which 
was then, as it is now, imited to the parish of the 

• Pope Xhict, p. 81. 

40 POPE. 

Holy Trinity Goodramgate ; and I find in the 
register-book of the united parishes^ an entry of the 
burial of " Mr. Lancelot Turner'' on Jan. 16, 1620. 

Upon the death of his uncle, William Turner 
made Towthorpe* his principal perhaps his only place 
of abode, and exactly two years after that event, 

* At a court held by the lords of the manor of Strensall, in April, 
1622, William Turner was called as a copyholder of Towthorpe ; 
and again in April, 1624. 

Towthorpe is an insignificant and very secluded village, about 
four miles north of York, a little off the high road from thence to 
Sheriff-Hutton. Nothing is now left of the old manor-house ; but 
near to the spot where it may be supposed to have stood, a not 
uninteresting object still remains, to carry the mind back to the days 
when Lancelot Turner and his nephew William were the proprie- 
tors. This is a sort of pleasance upon a small scale — a quadran- 
gular plot of ground, about fifty yards square, surrounded by a 
rather broad moat, and thickly planted with fruit-trees arranged 
with some approach to symmetry — two or three of the outer rows 
being nut or filbert trees, the rest apple, pear, and plum. The nut- 
trees are obviously of great age, their stems being strangely con- 
torted, and having attained a thickness seldom seen in this part of 
the country. The other trees have a less aged appearance; and 
probably a temple or summer-house may have formerly been placed 
upon the centre of the little island. A building of this kind, with 
its accompanying moat, was a favourite ornament in the quaint 
pleasure-grounds of the Elizabethan mansion. The moat would 
doubtless form a useful piscaria, especially valuable to persons to 
whom fish was, at certain seasons, an indispensable article of diet. 
At present, instead of seeing carp and tench, as in former days, 
quietly gliding through its waters, on approaching the island our 

POPE. 41 

viz.j on Jan. 14^ 1621 -2^ his marriage to Thomasine 
Newton was solemnized at the little church of the 
parish of Huntington^ in which the township of 
Towthorpe is situate. The extreme youth of the 
lady was most probably the cause of the postpone- 
ment of the marriage (which, as you observe, had 
evidently been contemplated by the imcle) imtil the 
expiration of two years after his death. At that time 
she could not have been more than fifteen years old. 
Her father, Christopher Newton, was not of age in 
1604, when his father. Miles Newton, died ;* and it 
is pretty certain that he was not then married. 
In what creed either of the parents of Edith Pope 

ears were greeted with the harsh croaking of ixmnmerable frogs and 
toads, the sole inhabitants of the moat. 

Whilst viewing this now solitary memorial of the past, it was 
impossible to avoid giving a little license to the imagination, and 
peopling the tiny pleasanoe with the forms of William Turner and 
Thomasine Newton in the happy hoars of their courtship and early 
married life, which were spent at Towthorpe, — she musing over one 
of the song'books of their uncle Lancelot, which were so significantly 
reserved by his will for her especial use. 

What a contrast is the dull and uninteresting and most unpic- 
turesque plain of the ancient forest of Ghltres, in which the country- 
house of Edith Pope's parents stood, to the glorious vale of the 
Thames, where her illustrious son solaced himself with his trim 
garden, his grotto, and his quincunx ! 

* Miles Newton, of Thorpe, in tlie county of York, gentleman. 

42 ^OPB. 

was educated^ we have no means of ascertaining^ but 
we may reasonably suppose that their religious faith 
would take its colour &om that which was professed 
by him of whom they were the adopted children. 
If the Roman Catholic tendency were less manifest 
in them^ we see it abundantly developed in their 
numerous offsprings of whom a considerable pro- 
portion, we are told, were avowedly members of the 
ancient church. 

The origin of that particular regard which 
Lancelot Turner had for Thomasine Newton remains 
inexplicable. His having ^^ho:usehold stuff at Eil- 

made his will on May 18, 1604. He desires to be buried in the 
church of Bippon. He gives to his eldest son Bichard the bed- 
stead which was his grand&ther Thomas Collinses. To his son 
Christopher, a bedstead which was his (the testator^s) father's. He 
names his wife, Jane Newton ; his son, Henry, and his daughters, 
Katherine, Johanna, Bebecca (to whom he gives the better of the 
cushions which was her grandmother Beckwith's), Dorothy, and 
Elizabeth. He makes his children, Bichard Newton and Christopher 
Newton, executors ; and his brother Leonard Beckwith, and George 
Mallory, supervisors. Proved at York, by Bichard Newton only, 
April 8, 1605. 

Bichard was the testator's son by his first wife, Eleanor, daughter 
of Thomas Collins. Christopher and Henry were the sons of his 
second wife, Jane Beckwith. According to the pedigree of the 
Newtons, recorded at the visitation of 1585, the grandmother of 
Miles Newton, was one of the distinguished family of Boos, of 

POPE. 48 

bum," which he bequeathed to her by his will, 
would indicate that he had occasionally resided at 
the house of her parents at that place. The will of 
either of them might have thrown some light upon 
these points ; but such documents, if they exist, have 
hitherto eluded our researches. 

About thirteen months niter the marriage of 
William Turner and Thomasine Newton, their first 
child was bom. "Christian Turner,* daughter of 
William Turner of Towthorpe gentleman," was 
baptized at Huntington on Feb. 19, 1622-23. The 
second child was a son. On March 30, 1624, 
"George Turner, son of William Turner of Tow- 
thorpe gentleman," was baptized at Huntington. 
This was doubtless one of the youths whose "gentle 
blood was shed in honour's cause." About two 
years afterwards, the second daughter was bom — 
Alice, of whom you speak as the wife of Richard 
Mawhood,t was baptized at Huntington on the 
23rd of March, 1625-6. After this time the pa- 

* Afterwards the wife of Samuel Cooper. Tour Bupposition that 
she was one of the elder daughters, is thus shown to be correct. — 
Pope Tract, p. 40. 

t Pope Tract, p. 42. 

44 POPE. 

rochial register of Huntington ceases to yield any 
information relating to William Turner or his 

In the same year in which he was married^ 
William Turner made a purchase^ with what specific 
object it is now in vain to inquire^ of a house in 
Stonegate^ York. In the deed (dated Nov. 5, 1622) 
by which the property was conveyed to him he is 
described "William Turner of Towthropp in the 
county of York gentleman/^ Whatever may have 
been his motive for purchasing a house in York^ he 
did not long retain the ownership of it. By a deed 
dated June 5, 1626, " William Turner of Towthropp 
gentleman, and Thomasine his wife/^ transferred all 
their interest in the property to William Scott of 
York merchant, and John Lasinbye of Huntington 
yeoman. It may be surmised that Scott and Lasinbye 
were not purchasers, but merely trustees for effecting 
some charitable or other purpose not strictly legal, 
which had soon afterwards been brought into litiga- 
tion or dispute. On June 3, 1630, William Turner, 
who was then at York, joined with William Scott 
and John Lasinbye in an absolute conveyance of the 
property to Robert Hemsworth and Thomas Hoyle, 

POPE. 45 

aldermen^ and several other persons^ also members 
of the corporation of York. This conveyance is 
stated to have been made in performance of a decree 
of the Court of Chancery, dated Feb. 20 preceding, 
in accordance with an act of Parliament passed in 
the 43rd year of Queen Elizabeth, intituled " An Act 
to redress the Misemployment of Lands and Tene- 
ments theretofore given to Charitable Uses." Of this 
transaction I will not venture to offer any further 

A chasm of ten years now occurs in my chro- 
nology. I do not again meet with the name of 
William Turner until the year 1640, when he was 
once more a resident in York, most probably 
occupying the same house in Goodramgate in which 
his uncle Lancelot lived and died. The register of 
the united parishes of Saint John del Pike and 
Holy Trinity Goodramgate, contains entries of the 
baptism of " Judith, the daughter of Mr. William 
Turner," on July 16, 1640, and of the burial of 
the same child on Aug. 3 in the same year. The 
removal of the family from York must have taken 
place soon afterwards. For an account of the 
circumstances attending their residence in the 

46 POPE. 

West Ridings I need only refer to your valuable 

I am unable to give any assistance towards dis- 
peUing the obscurity in which that period of the 
history of William Turner is involved, that extends 
firom the month of June, 1626^ when he is described 
''of Towthrope/' until the birth of his daughter 
Judith at York in the summer of 1640. It is clear 
that he was at York in June^ 1680 ; but I have met 
with nothing to show where he passed the preceding 
four years or the following ten years. During these 
fourteen years his wife presented him with two sons 
and seven daughters; but I have failed to discover 
the entry of the baptism of any of these children, 
either at York or at Huntington. 

Neither have I succeeded in my attempts to 
ascertain at what time, or under what circumstances, 
William Turner disposed of the manor of Towthorpe. 
John George Smyth, Esq. of Heath, near Wake- 
field, M.P. for the city of York, is the present owner 
of the estate, which was purchased, in the early part 
of the last century, by one of his ancestors, from Sir 
Charles Dalston, Bart., to whom it had descended 

* Pop« ISracty pp. 34, 35. 

POPE. 47 

from his grandfather^ Sir William Dalston^ the first 

baronet of that name. The Dalstons were a Com- 

berland family, and Sir William had most probably 

acquired the Towthorpe estate by his marriage with 

Anne Bolles^ the eldest daughter and coheir of that 

singular person^ Lady Bolles of Heath Hall^ the 

Baronete88, whose curious history is narrated in 

your interesting ''Antiquarian Notices of Lupset, 

the Heathy and Sharlston/' 

You state that William Turner was living in the 

parish of Saint John del Pike at the time of the 
Heralds^ Visitation in 1665^ and was one of the 

persons whom they summoned to appear.* The 

yisits of the heralds at York took place in the 

months of August and September in that year; 

and perhaps you would not have imputed blame to 

him for having neglected that opportunity of record- 

ing his genealogy^ had you been aware that he was 

then in his last illness^ awaiting a more solemn 

summons. He died within a month after the date 

of his will^ and was buried in the church of the 

Holy Trinity Gt)odramgate^ on Oct. 3, 1665. Had 

the heralds made their visitation at York a few 

• Pope 2Vao^, p. 26. 

48 POPE. 

months sooner^ we should doubtless hare possessed 
their testimony, that the Turners were entitled to 
take rank among the gentry of York. But it will 
now, perhaps, be admitted that no such testimony 
is requisite. 

It has been shown by unimpeachable evidence 
that Edward Turner, the great-grandfather of Edith 
Pope, was the son of a substantial citizen of York, who 
flourished in the reign of King Henry VII. ; that, 
having advanced a step higher in the social scale, he 
maintained during great part of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth the rank of a gentleman, and associated 
upon a footing of equality with the best of the 
inhabitants of a city which was then '^ the glory of 
the North ^^; that, in addition to the property he 
inherited in the city, he acquired lands of consider- 
able value in the county, and these he transmitted 
to his descendants; that his eldest son, Lancelot 
Turner, by means of his paternal fortune, was ena- 
bled, at the commencement of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, to purchase the manor and estate of Towthorpe, 
and thus attain the stattis of a country gentleman ; 
and in that position, dying childless, was succeeded 
by his nephew, William Turner, who " made choice 

POPE. 49 


of, to be the mother of his chfldren/'* of whom 
Edith Pope was one, a lady who was not only herself 
of good family, but was (as you have remarked f) 
allied with several of the higher Yorkshire gentry. 

That genealogical critic must indeed be fastidious, 
who would deny the Poet's right to assert that his 
mother was o{ gentle blood and of an ancient family. 

The baptismal register of William Turner, by 
which his birth is placed only two or three years 
earlier than the date you have conjecturally ass^ed 
for that event, shows that he was in his sixty-ninth 
year when he died. His wife survived him nearly 
sixteen years. " Mrs. Turner, widow,'' was buried 
in the church of the Holy Trinity Goodramgate, 
on Sept. 11, 1681. Administration of the goods of 
"Thomasine Turner of York," who died intestate, was 
granted by the archbishop's court to her daughter 
Mary Turner, spinster, on Dec. 2, 1681. Prom the 
circumstance of Mary being the sole administratrix 
it may be inferred that the only surviving son, 
William Turner, was then absent from York, and 
that Mary was the oldest of the unmarried daughters 

• Vide Pope*s Letter to a Noble Lord. f Pope Tract, p. 82. 

50 POPE. 

who had remained at home.* But there is no reason 
to suppose that she had remained there alone. We 

* The two daughters who became MrB.'Maoe and Mrs. Tomlinson, 
most probably formed their matrimonial engagements at York during 
their mother's widowhood. These are the names of highly respectable 
York families. The Tomlinsons belonged to the trade aristocracy 
of the city. The Bey. Henry Mace was sub-chanter of York Minster 
from 1661 to 1680 ; Thomas Mace, the author of that curious book, 
MusieVa M<mument, published in 1676, was his brother. There 
cannot be any reasonable doubt that the clergyman named Mace, who 
married one of the daughters of William Turner, either Martha or 
Margaret, was the Bev. Charles Mace, one of the sons of Henry 
Mace, the sub-chanter, who had himself a son baptized by the name 
of Chflrles, at the collegiate chapel of the sub-chanter and vicars 
choral, near Goodramgate, in York, on Oct. 29, 1682. Christiana 
Cooper, in her will made in 1693, mentions her nephew Charles 
Mace, although she does not give us the christian-name of his 
mother. AthetkBum^ July 18, 1867. Of the death of the Bcy. Charles 
Mace the f&ther, Thomas Q«nt, the old York printer, in his HUtory 
ofHull^ tells an affecting story. It was, he says, about the year 1711, 
when the Bev. Charles Mace, Sen., departed this life. " He died in 
the pulpit ; for as he was preaching in York Castle to the condemned 
prisoners who were to be executed the day following, one of them 
was so hardened as openly to interrupt and even defy him in that 
part of his discourse that hinted at his crime. Which unparalleled 
audacity so deeply pierced the tender minister to the heart (whose 
melting oratory was pathetiqaUy employed in moving the unhappy 
wretches to repent of their crying sins, whereby to obtain divine 
mercy), that he instantly fieiinted away, dropped down, and departed 
this life, to the great sorrow of all those persons who were witnesses 
of his holy life and innocent conversation.'* Annales Eegioduni 
HulUni, by Thomas Ghent ; 1735, p. 194. Charles Mace, the son, 
was also a clergyman, and was chosen vicar of the Holy Trinity 
Church at Hull, Dec. 3, 1716. 

POPE. 51 

may presume that Edith was one of her companions, 
and took part in administering to the comforts of 
their mother's last hours — in assisting to '^ rock the 
cradle of reposing age/' 

Assuming it to have been soon after the Restora- 
tion that William Turner returned to York, his 
daughter Edith was then just entering into woman- 
hood^ so that for nearly twenty years of the bloom 
of her life she was domesticated with her family 
within the walls of our venerable city. Their residence 
stood under the very shadow of the towers of our 
cathedral, the parish of Saint John del Pike being 
usually regarded as forming part of the Minster- 
close. The neighbourhood in which they lived was 
crowded with the stately mansions of the dignitaries 
of the church, the higher officers of the ecclesiasti- 
cal courts, and many of the wealthy families of the 
county. We" cannot doubt that the Turners moved 
in the best society of which the city could at that 
period boast ; not so brilliant and dignified as when 
it shone with the splendour of the vice-regal court 
of the Lords Presidents of the North; but still 
aristocratic, refined, and intellectual, — a society in 
which Edith Turner might receive that training 

52 POPS. 

which fitted her to hold converse in after-life with 
Bolingbroke^ and Congreve^ and Swift. 

When, upon the death of Mrs. Turner, the 
daughters who had remained under the maternal 
roof at York had to seek a home with their married 
sisters in other parts of the kingdom, it was Edith's 
lot to remove to London, where she became the wife 
of Alexander Pope, and the mother of the Poet, 
whose name you justly designate " one of the greatest 
among Englishmen.^' 

It now only remains for me to oflFer to you my 
cordial thanks for the valuable information and sug- 
gestions vrith which you have favoured me in the 
progress of my investigation ; and to assure you that 
I shall feel highly gratified if the additional facts I 
have brought to light satisfactorily blend with or 
prove to be in any measure illustrative of those con- 
tained in your more important narrative. 

I must not conclude without gratefully acknow- 
ledging the kindness of my York friends,* who have, 

'* The Rev. Canon Hey, vicar of St. Helen Stonegate; the Rev. 
Thomas Myers, vicar of Holy Trinity Goodi»amgate j the Rev. B. E. 

POPE. 53 

with the utmost readiness and liberality, given me 
free access to the records and documents which form 
many of my authorities. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

with much respect, 

most faithfully yours, 


Tub Mount, Yobk, 
April, 1858. 

Metcalfe, vicar of Huntington ; the Bev. James Baine, Jun., M.A.; 
William Hudson, Esq., and Joseph Buckle, Esq., Begistrars of the 
Court of Prohate at York ; William Bichardson, Esq., Lord of the 
Manor of Strensall; and Henry Bichardson, Esq., my worthy 
successor in the office of Town Clerk of York. 

London : 


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